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Full text of "Encyclopaedia Britannica Dict.A.S.L.G.I.11thEd.Chisholm.1910-1911-1922.33vols."

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THE READER'S GUIDE 

TO THE 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA 



A HANDBOOK CONTAINING SIXTY-SIX COURSES 
OF SYSTEMATIC STUDY OR OCCASIONAL READING 



THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA COMPANY, Limited 

London 

THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA COMPANY 

New York 



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Copyright in the United States of America, 1013; 

by 

The Encyclopaedia Britannica Company 



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299355 

Jflll 14 1926 

AE 

tN3 INTRODUCTION 

A 

In your ordinary use of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, you give 
your attention to the one article that will answer the one question 
you have in your mind. The aim of this Guide is to enable you to 
use the Britannica for an altogether different purpose, namely, for 
systematic study or occasional reading on any subject. 

The volumes of the Encyclopaedia Britannica contain forty-four 
million words — as much matter as 440 books of the ordinary octavo size. 
And the subjects treated — in other words/the whole sum of human knowl- 
edge — may be divided into 289 separate classes, each one completely 
covering the field of some one art, science, industry or other depart- 
ment of knowledge. By the mere use of scissors and paste the alpha- 
betical arrangement of the articles could be done away with, and the 
Britannica could be reshaped into 289 different books containing, on 
the average, about half as much again as an ordinary octavo volume. 
It would misrepresent the Britannica to say that you would then have 
289 text-books, because there is an essential difference in tone and pur- 
pose. A text-book is really a book intended to be used under the 
direction and with the assistance of a teacher, who explains it and 
comments upon it. The Britannica, on the other hand, owes the posi- 
tion it has enjoyed since the first edition appeared in 1768 to the fact 
that it has succeeded, as no other book has succeeded, in teaching 
without the interposition of a teacher. 

It is not, of course, claimed that the idea of reading certain groups 
of Britannica articles in the order in which they will combine them- 
selves into complete books is a novel invention. Thousands of men 
owe the greater part of their educational equipment to a previous 
edition of the Britannica. And not only did they lay out their own 
courses of reading without the aid of such a Guide as this, but the 
material at their disposal was by no means so complete as is the nth 
Edition. Every edition of the Britannica before this one, and every 
other book of comparable size previously published, appeared volume 
by volume. In the case of the last complete edition before the present, 
no less than 14 years elapsed between the publication of the first 
volume and the last. It is obvious that when editors have to deal with 
one volume at a time, and are unable to deal with the work as a 
whole, there cannot be that exact fitting of the edges of one article 
to the edges of another which is so conspicuously a merit of the nth 



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Edition. All the articles in this edition were completed before a 
single volume was printed, and the work stood, at one stage of its 
preparation, in precisely the form which, as has already been said, 
might be given to it by merely rearranging the articles according to 
their subjects. 

In this Guide, the principal articles dealing with the subject of 
each chapter are named in the order in which you may most profit- 
ably study them, and the summaries of the larger articles afford such 
a preliminary survey as may assist you in making your choice among 
the courses. Besides, where it seems necessary, there is added to the 
chapter a fairly complete list of all articles in the Britannica on the 
subject, so that the reader may make his study exhaustive. 

A brief review of the six parts into which the Guide is divided will 
show the general features of its plan, of which a more detailed analysis 
is given in the Table of Contents. 

Part I contains 30 chapters, each designed for readers engaged in, 
or preparing for, some specific occupation. To the beginner, who still 
has everything to learn, the advantages derived from such a course of 
study may well be so great as to make the difference between success 
and failure in life, and to those who have already overcome the first 
difficulties, to whom the only question is how marked a success awaits 
them, the Britannica can render invaluable service of another kind. 
No amount of technical training and of actual experience will lead a 
man of sound judgment to believe that he alone knows everything 
that all his competitors put together know; or that his knowledge and 
theirs is all that ever will be known. The 1500 contributors in 21 
different countries who wrote the articles in the Britannica include the 
men who have made the latest advances in every department of knowl- 
edge, and who can forecast most authoritatively the results to be ex- 
pected from the new methods which are now being experimentally 
applied in every field of activity. The experienced merchant, manu- 
facturer, or engineer, or the man who is already firmly established in 
any other profession or business, will naturally find in some of the 
articles facts and figures which are not new to him, but he can profit 
by the opportunity to review, confirm, reconsider and ' 'brush up" his 
previous knowledge. 

Part 2 contains 30 chapters, each devoted to a course of systematic 
study designed to supplement, or to take the place of, some part of 
the usual school and college curriculum. The educational articles in 
the Britannica are the work of 704 professors in 146 universities and 



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colleges in 21 different countries. No institution of learning in the 
world has a faculty so numerous, so authoritative, or so highly special- 
ized- Nor has any system of home study ever been devised by which 
the student is brought into contact with teachers so trustworthy and 
so stimulating. The fascination of first-hand knowledge and the 
pleasure of studying pages intended not for reluctant drudges sub- 
mitting themselves to a routine, but for students eager to make rapid 
progress, are factors in the educational value of the Britannica that 
cannot be overestimated, and the elasticity with which any selected 
course of study can be enlarged and varied is in full accordance with 
the modern theories of higher education. 

Part 3 is devoted to the interests of children. The first of its chap- 
ters describes Britannica articles of the utmost practical value to 
parents, dealing with the care of children's health, with their mental 
and bodily training, and with the intelligent direction of their pas- 
times. The second chapter indicates varied readings in the Britannica 
for children themselves, showing how their work at school can be made 
more interesting and profitable to them by entertaining reading on 
subjects allied to those included in their studies. The third chapter 
in this Part gives a number of specific questions such as children are 
prone to ask, as well as questions which may be put to them in order 
to guide their natural inquisitiveness to good purpose. The references 
to pages in the Britannica show where these questions are clearly and 
instructively answered. 

Part 4 suggests readings on questions of the day which relate to 
American citizenship and to current politics. A study of the articles 
indicated in this section of the Guide will aid the reader not only to 
form sound opinions for himself, but also to exercise in private or 
public life the influence for good which arises from a clear view of the 
arguments on both sides of controverted questions. It is no exaggera- 
tion to say that the Britannica is the only existing work in which such 
subjects as tariffs, trusts, immigration, labour and the relation between 
legislative and judiciary powers are treated without partisan bias and 
with adequate fulness. 

Part 5, especially for women, deals with their legal and political 
status in various parts of the world, their achievements in scholarship, 
art and science, as well as with home-making, domestic science and 
kindred subjects. The important part which women, both among the 
contributors and on the editorial staff of the Britannica, took in the 
preparation of the work sufficiently indicates that the editor-in-chief 
made ample provision for the subjects peculiarly within their sphere. 



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Part 6 is an analysis of the many departments of the Britannica 
which relate to recreation and vacations, travel at home and abroad, 
photography, motoring, outdoor and indoor games and other forms of 
relaxation and of exercise. The extent to which the work can be used 
in planning motoring tours, and the superiority, in such a connection, 
of its articles to the scant information found in ordinary guide books, 
are shown in the extracts, included in this Part 6, relating to a trip 
from New York through the Berkshire Hills to the White Mountains. 

It will be seen from this brief survey of the field covered by the 
Guide that provision has been made for every purpose which can dic- 
tate the choice of a course of reading. But as you proceed to examine 
its contents for yourself, you should remember that the lists it gives 
name only a fraction of the articles in the Britannica, and that for a 
fuller summary of the work as a whole you should turn to the Table 
on pp. 881-947 of Vol. 29. 

Finally, the form in which this Guide is printed may call for a 
word of justification. It is inevitable that chapters of an analytical 
character, bespattered with references to the numbers of volumes and 
of pages, and terminating with lists of the titles of articles, should bear 
a certain air of formality. There is no danger that the possessor of the 
Britannica, familiar with the fascination of its pages and the beauty 
of the illustrations which enhance their charm would permit his im- 
pression of the work itself to be affected by the bleak appearance of 
the Guide. But he may feel that because a list has a forbidding aspect 
the pleasure he has derived from browsing at will in the Britannica 
would give place to a sense of constraint if he rigidly pursued a course 
of reading. It may easily be shown that such a fear would be ground- 
less, for the Britannica articles are all the better reading when one 
carries forward the interest which one of them has excited to others 
of related attraction. But to anyone who is firmly determined that 
he shall not be persuaded to read systematically, the Guide will none 
the less be useful, for he may flit from one chapter to another, selecting 
here and there an article merely because the account which is given 
of it pleases him. Or, better yet, he may find, in one portion only of 
a selected course, a series of only three or four articles which will, in 
combination, make the best of occasional reading. 

THE EDITORS. 



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Table of Contents 



Part I 

Courses of Reading Especially Useful to Those 

Engaged in Certain Occupations, or 

Preparing for Them 

Pafte 

Chapter 1. For Farmers 3 

2. For Stock-Raisers 10 

3. For Dairy Farmers 14 

4. For Merchants and Manufacturers, 
General and Introductory 19 

5. Textiles 21 

6. Machinery 28 

7. Metals, Hardware, Glass and China 33 

8. Furniture 39 

9. Leather and Leather Goods 44 

10. Jewelry, Clocks and Watches 48 

11. Electrical Machinery and Supplies 55 

12. Chemicals and Drugs 58 

13. Food Products 63 

14- For Insurance Men 69 

15- For Architects 71 

16. For Builders and Contractors 79 

17. For Decorators and Designers 83 

18. For Railroad Men 90 

19. For Marine Transportation Men 94 

20. For Engineers 100 

21. For Printers, Binders, Paper-makers and All who Love 
Books 109 

22. For Journalists and Authors 117 

23. For Teachers 122 

24. For Ministers 127 

25. For Physicians, Surgeons and Dentists 135 

26. For Lawyers 143 

27. For Bankers and Financiers 151 

28. For Civil Service Men 156 

29. For Army Officers 158 

30. For Naval Officers. ,.".... 168 



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Part II 

Courses of Educational Reading to Supplement or 
Take the Place of School or University Studies 

Chapter 31. Music 175 

32. The Fine Arts, Introductory and General 187 

33. Painting, Drawing, Etc 189 

34. Sculpture 198 

35. Language and Writing 207 

36. Literature, Introductory and General 214 

37. American 218 

38. English 224 

39. German 230 

40. Greek 234 

41. Bible Study 237 

42. History, Introductory and General 246 

43. American 248 

44. Canadian 270 

45. English, Scotch and Irish 272 

46. French 278 

47. The Far East: India, China, Japan 281 

48. Economics and Social Science 288 

49. Health and Disease 294 

50. Geography and Exploration 300 

51. Anthropology and Ethnology 306 

52. Mathematics 316 

53. Astronomy 322 

54. Physics 329 

55. Chemistry 334 

56. Geology 338 

57. Biology, General and Introductory 344 

58. Botany 347 

59. Zoology 353 

60. Philosophy and Psychology 361 



PART III 

Devoted to the Interests of Children 



Chapter 61. Readings for Parents 371 

" 62. Readings for School Children 379 

" 63. Questions Children sometimes ask, and Some Ques- 
tions to ask Children 387 

vt 



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Part IV 
Readings on Questions of the Day 

Chapter 64 393 

Education, Training of Defectives, Psychology 

Grime, Juvenile Courts, Alcoholism 

Heredity and Eugenics 

Wages and Labour, Labour Organization 

Immigration, The Negro Problem 

Trusts, Finance, Tariff, Banking, Insurance 

Socialism and its Tendencies 

Initiative, Referendum and Recall, Government by Commission 

Suffrage and the Suffrage Question 

International Relations, Peace Arbitration 

The Greater United States 

Part V 
For Women 

Chapter 65 411 

The many subjects on which Women contributed to the Bri tannics 

Accomplishments of Women in Scholarship, Art and Science 

Women's Legal Position in the United States and elsewhere 

Their Disabilities in Great Britain 

Home-making, Domestic Science, the Table 

Food Preservation and Food Values 

Costume and Ornament 

Women famous in History and Literature, and on the Stage 

Part VI 

Readings for Recreation and Vacation 



Chapter 66 

Motoring, a Specimen Trip: New York to the White Mountains 

Photography 

Out-door Games and Athletic Sports 

Hunting, Fishing and Taxidermy 

Sailing, Canoeing and Boating 

Mountaineering and Winter Sports 

Driving, Riding, Polo and Horse-racing 

Gardening and Plants 

In-door Games and Pastimes, Bridge, Needlework 

Dancing, the Stage 

Travel at Home and Abroad 



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Part I 



Courses of Reading Especially 

Useful to Those Engaged In 

Certain Occupations or 

Preparing for Them 



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"N 



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CHAPTER I 
FOR FARMERS 



SEE ALSO CHAPTER II, FOR STOCK-RAISERS, CHAPTER III, FOR DAIRY FARMERS 



EVERY farmer in the United 
States knows that farming is 
today an industry which calls for 
study of the world's agricultural pro- 
ducts, processes, and markets as well as 
for scientific knowledge of soils, crops, 
and animals. Fifty years ago the farmer 
sold for consumption in his immediate 
neighborhood the small surplus of his 
crops that was not needed for his own 
household and live stock. Today he 
competes, in all the world's great mar- 
kets, with all the world's farmers, and 
is the chief among American exporters. 
The Russian wheat fields and the Argen- 
tine cattle ranches are really nearer to 
him than a farm in the next township was 
to his grandfather. He lives better, does 
more for his children and pays higher 
wages than do farmers in other parts of 
the world, and yet he can successfully 
compete with them, because, as the 
article on Agriculture in the Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica says, in speaking of the 
United States, "there is no other con- 
siderable country where as much mental 
activity and alertness has been applied 
to the cultivation of the soil as to trade 
and manufactures." American farmers 
"have been the same kind of men, out 
of precisely the same houses, generally 
with the same training, as those who 
filled the learned professions or who 
were engaged in manufacturing or com- 
mercial pursuits"; and their competitors 
abroad have been, for the most part, 
ignorant peasants. The course of read- 
ing indicated here is designed for wide- 
awake farmers who intend to be large 



farmers — by whom the latest informa- 
tion and the broadest outlook are recog- 
nized as essential to their calling. If 
you think the articles named here cover a 
great deal of ground, remember that the 
Massachusetts Agricultural College pro- 
vides no less than sixty-four distinct courses 
of instruction, and that the subjects included 
in all the sixty -four are treated in the Bri- 
tannica. 

GETTING "GROUNDWORK" 
KNOWLEDGE 

You may think, as you look at the 
titles of articles mentioned in these 
pages, that there are some which you 
need not read because you have already 
read bulletins of the United States De- 
partment of Agriculture or of your State 
Experiment Station. These official pub- 
lications are most valuable, but natu- 
rally, they do not attempt to cover the 
whole range of agricultural subjects as 
the Britannica does — they are not in- 
tended for that purpose. Their arrange- 
ment and the way in which they are 
issued shows that they are designed to 
meet only certain special needs, not to 
give a general view of all the branches of 
farming. One subject may for example 
be discussed in three different bulletins, 
published in three different years, and the 
first may be out of print before the third 
appears. In the Britannica you get infor- 
mation that forms the very foundation of 
a thorough knowledge of farming and 
that also extends over the widest field. Of 
course it would be absurd to say that 
merely reading these articles will make 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



any man a successful farmer as to say 
that a medical student who works hard 
at his books will always develop the 
tact and the sound judgment that a 
doctor needs. But unless the medical 
student has studied those text books he 
will never make a successful doctor; and 
similarly the information in the Britan- 
nica will give the farmer new advantages, 
no matter how much practical experience 
and special training he has had. 

There are in the Encyclopaedia Britan- 
nica 1,186 articles dealing with animal 
and vegetable life; and among the 11,341 
geographical articles 
Scope of the a great many give 
Articles important informa- 

tion about the pro- 
duction, distribution and consumption of 
farm products. Those upon continents, 
countries, states and provinces describe 
the local crops and any local methods of 
farming that are of special interest. 
There are some 600 articles on individual 
plants, of which a list will be found on 
pp. 889 and 890 of Vol. 29 (the index 
volume). If any one of these thousands 
of articles were not in the Britannica, 
it would not be quite so valuable as 
it is to you, for you may, any day, want 
to find out about any plant that grows, 
or about farming in any part of the world. 
A professor in an agricultural college 
would of course be glad to study the 
whole series. But in this Course of 
Reading only the articles which are 
of most immediate use to all practical 
farmers are mentioned, and the contents 
of each of these is described, so that you 
can omit any article that goes into details 
which you think you do not want. If 
you do skip any of them, it will, how- 
ever, be a good plan to mark their titles 
in this list, for you may like to come back 
to them later when you realize how prac- 
tical and understandable all the Britan- 
nica articles are — even those with dull- 
sounding names. 

Of course you will begin by reading 
the article Agriculture (Vol. l,p. S38), 



by Dr. Fream and Roland Truslove, 
which is the key to the whole subject. 
And remember that this chapter of the 
Readers' Guide mentions only those sub- 
jects that are treated more ftdly in other 
parts of the Britannica than in that article, 
so that the chapter does not attempt to 
tell the whole story. 

The first thing a farmer has to deal 
with is the ground from which his crops 
are to come. The whole surface of the 

earth was originally hard 
Soil and rock. The article on 

Subsoil Petrology, the science 

of rocks (Vol. 21, p. 
323), by J. S. Flett, and the second 
part (Vol. 11, p. 659) of the article 
Geology, by Sir Archibald Geikie, deal 
with the "weathering" of rock, which 
has in great part broken it down 
into the small particles of stone that, 
mixed with decayed roots and plants, 
form the soil or subsoil. It may seem 
that it is going very far back into the 
origin of things for a farmer to read about 
the sources from which soil comes, but 
the nature of the mineral substances in 
it has a great deal to do with its power 
to nourish plants, and you cannot know 
too much about the material on which 
your principal work is done. The article 
which should next be read, Soil (Vol. 25, 
p. 345), continues the story of these 
particles of rock and shows how sand 
and clay must be combined with decay- 
ing vegetable or animal matter in order 
to make the best soil. This mixture is 
in turn "weathered" by air, heat, frost, 
and moisture; and not only the size of 
the grains in which it lies, but also their 
shape — which makes them pack more 
or less tightly — affect the pores, or 
spaces between the grains, through which 
the roots of the plants must push their 
way, and through which air and water 
must reach these roots. The article 
Earthworm (Vol. 8, p. 825) describes 
the useful part that worms play in 
stirring the mixture, while the natural 
and artificial fertilizers, which supply 



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FOR FARMERS 



whatever ingredients the soil lacks, are 
discussed in the article Manures and 
Manuring (Vol. 17, p. 610). An im- 
portant part of this article deals with the 
best methods of keeping farm yard man- 
ure in such a way that it does not lose its 
value 1 before it is spread over the fields, 
and with the use, in this connection, of 
the liquid-manure tank. The microbes 
in the soil render the farmer an enormous 
service by changing crude nitrogen, 
which plants cannot digest, into the 
forms in which it is indispensable to 
them, and this process is described in the 
article Bacteriology (Vol. 3, p. 164), 
by Professor Marshall Ward, Professor 
Blackman, and Professor Muir. 

The action of light, the supply of 
which is just as necessary in causing 
growth as the warmth the sun gives, and 

the action of water 
Sunlight and and of heat and 

Shade, Heat and cold, are explained in 
Cold, Water the section "Physi- 

Enough— and ology" (Vol. 31, p. 
Not too Much 745) of the article 

on Plants. The 
proper method of working each farm, 
with a view to using these four in 
the right proportions, is influenced by 
the latitude in which it lies, its height 
above sea level, the protection that 
mountains give it, the slope at which 
the fields face the sun or turn away 
from it, the rain-fall, the relative damp- 
ness or dryness of the air when it is 
not raining, and the moisture of the 
soil. Every one of these subjects is 
vital to the farmer, and the Britannica 
brings to its readers the latest informa- 
tion regarding them in articles written 
by the leaders of progress. You will 
find the latest scientific guidance, in the 
most practical shape, in the articles 
Climate (Vol. 6, p. 509), by Professor 
R. de C. Ward, of Harvard, Meteorol- 
ogy (Vol. 18, p. 264), by Professor 
Cleveland Abbe, of the United States 
Weather Bureau, and Acclimatization 
(Vol. 1, p. 114). The distribution of 



heat in the soil is described in the article 
Conduction op Heat (Vol. 6, p. 893), 
where the diagram showing variations of 
temperature at different depths in the 
soil should be carefully studied. 

The brackish water that troubles 
farmers near tidal creeks, the alkali 
water that often occurs West of the 
Mississippi, and the 
Drainage and stagnant water that 
Irrigation never does the farm 

any good, are all as 
bad in their way as the river-floods or 
the merely sodden soil in which nothing 
will grow but coarse grass that is always 
unsafe pasturage. Drains and embank- 
ments need very careful planning, and 
sound information will be found in the 
articles Drainage of Land (Vol. 8, 
p. 471), Reclamation of Land (Vol. 
22, p. 954), and River Engineering 
(Vol. 23, p. 374), the latter by Pro- 
fessor L. F. Vernon H. Harcourt, the 
leading authority on such subjects the 
world over. 

The saving of water and the method 
of bringing it to the farm and distributing 
it over the fields are authoritatively 
discussed in the articles Irrigation 
(Vol. 14, p. 841), Water Supply (Vol. 
28, p. 387), by G. F. Deacon, Windmill 
(Vol. 28, p. 710), Pump (Vol. 22, p. 645), 
and in the section headed "Utility of 
Forests" (Vol. 10, p. 646) of the article 
Forests and Forestry, by Gifford 
Pinchot, formerly U. S. Chief Forester. 
The other parts of this article, deal- 
ing with the timber industry, are of 
course important to farmers whose land 
includes any lumber. Water Rights 
(Vol. 28, p. 385) explains the laws which 
regulate the taking of water from streams 
and lakes, and the article Lake (Vol. 
16, p. 86) is also of interest in connection 
with irrigation. 

When the farmer, who has to be 
everything by turns, has been an engi- 
neer long enough to get the water off his 
farm or on his farm — and perhaps he 
lias ti do both in different parts of the 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



same farm — he must next take on the 
builder's job. He will be reminded of a 
good many precautions and economies 

that are often over- 
Farm Buildings looked, and may 
and Fences find, too, some hints 

that are quite new 
to him, in the excellent series of articles, 
all by experts in the building trade: Farm 
Buildings (Vol. 10, p. 180), Building 
(Vol. 4, p. 762), Foundations (Vol. 10, 
p. 738), Brickwork (Vol. 4, p. 521), 
Stone (Vol. 25, p. 958), Masonry (Vol. 
17, p. 841), Timber (Vol. 26, p. 978), 
Carpentry (Vol. 5, p. 386), and Roofs 
(Vol. 23, p. 697). The use of concrete 
for buildings, tanks, irrigation works, 
etc., has proved so successful, and is so 
rapidly increasing, that you will be 
especially interested by the article Con- 
crete (Vol. 6, p. 835). Barbed Wire 
(Vol. 3, p. 384), in which the meshed 
field fencing, of late increasing in favor, 
is also dealt with, is another practical 
article. 

Advertisers no doubt supply you with 
more literature about farm machinery 
than you find time to read, but that 

makes it all the more 
Agricultural essential to get sound 

Machines information that has 

no trade bias. The 
Britannica goes into the principles of con- 
struction and helps you to see the good 
and bad points in the new models you 
are constantly offered. You can learn a 
great deal from the articles Plough (Vol. 
81, p. 850), Harrow (Vol. 13, p. 27), 
Cultivator (Vol. 7, p. 618), Hoe (Vol. 
13, p. 559), and the sections on machines 
in the articles Hay (Vol. 13, p. 106), 
Reaping (Vol. 22, p. 944), Sowing (Vol. 
£5, p. 523) and Thrashing (Vol. 26, 
p. 887). Oil Engine (Vol. 20, p. 35), 
Water Motors (Vol. 28, p. 382) and 
Traction (Vol. 27, p. 118) are also of 
importance 

Farm horses and the other live-stock 
required in general farming fall under 
Chapter II of this Guide, 



You cannot read the articles already 
mentioned, and consider all that has to 
be done in merely getting a farm ready 
to be worked, without 
Farm realizing how grossly 

Finance unfair it is that the 

American farmer should 
be hampered, as he is, by the want 
of proper banking facilities when he 
is making a start. And after he has 
bought and prepared his land and 
equipped and stocked his farm he needs, 
each year, money to finance his crops. 
For any loan used in the purchase of land 
and in permanent improvements such as 
buildings, drainage, irrigation, a mort- 
gage is the natural security; but the 
short-term farm mortgages — five years 
at most — customary in the United States, 
do not give the farmer as much time as 
he needs for repayment, no matter how 
successful he may be. The average 
farm offers quite as good a certainty of 
continued earning power as does the 
average railroad, and farm mortgages 
should be — in fairness — regarded not as 
opportunities for short loans, but as 
sound standing investments, just as 
suitable as railroad bonds for conserva- 
tive investors. The farmer's position is 
even worse when he needs a short loan 
that he will be able to repay as soon as 
his crops have been sold, for he is then 
expected either to give a mortgage as 
security or to pay exorbitant interest. 

Notwithstanding the prosperous con- 
ditions of farming in the United States, 
the country as a whole produces only 
half as much grain for every acre of farm 
land as is produced in Europe, and the 
only reason is that most of our farmers 
lack the capital needed in order to get 
the fullest yield from their land. In the 
chief European countries, the system of 
banking facilities for farmers, described 
in the article Co-operation (Vol. 7, 
p. 86), by Aneurin Williams, shows 
what can be done, and sooner or later 
will be done, in the United States. This 
article fully describes the admirable 



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Raiffeisen banks in Germany, which are 
based upon the idea that a society of 
farmers (restricted to the neighborhood, 
so that each member's honesty and capa- 
bility are known to the other members) 
make themselves jointly responsible for 
loans to the members. A promissory 
note is the only security required. The 
French, Italian, Austrian, and other 
systems are also discussed in the Britan- 
nica, but the German plan is that which 
offers the best example to America. 

This course of reading has now covered 
the conditions and the material required 
for farming, and it is time to get down 

to something that 
Plants and grows. In the old 

Crops books everything 

about the life of a 
plant was treated as a part of the science 
of botany, and if you remember the 
botany you were taught at school, you 
remember a string of long names and 
very little else. There is of course an 
article on botany in the Britannica, but 
it deals chiefly with the history of 
botanical science, and the life of the plant 
is treated under another heading, and 
in a novel, interesting, and practical way. 
The article Plants (Vol. 21, p. 728) is 
indeed one of the most important and 
unusual in the Encyclopaedia, giving the 
results of recent investigation which you 
could not find in any other book. It is 
written by eight contributors, all men 
who have done a great deal of original 
work. The section on classes of plants 
is by Dr. Rendle, that on the anatomy of 
plants by A. G. Tansley, that on the 
healthy life of plants by Professor J. 
Reynolds Green, that on their diseases 
by Professor H. Marshall Ward, that on 
the relation between plants and their sur- 
roundings by Dr. C. £. Moss, that on 
plant cells by Harold Wager, that on the 
forms and organs of plants by Professor 
S. H. Vines, and that on the distribution 
of plants in various parts of the world by 
Sir. W. Thiselton-Dyer. Special ac- 
counts of the chief parts of the plant are 



given in the articles Leaf (Vol. 16, p. 
322), Stem (Vol. 25, p. 875), and Root 
(Vol. 23, p. 712). The success of artifi- 
cial fertilization or impregnation is ex- 
plained (Vol. 13, p. 744) in the article 
Horticulture. 

Apart from the diseases described in 
the section, already mentioned, of the 
article Plants, the greatest danger to 
which crops are exposed is that of insect 
pests, and the special article Economic 
Entomology, dealing with them (Vol. 8, 
p. 896), gives a full account of each of 
the remedies that have proved useful. 
The cotton boll weevil is the subject of 
a most interesting section of the article 
Cotton (Vol. 7, p. 261). Separate 
articles are devoted to individual pests, 
such as Locust (Vol. 16, p. 857), and 
— turning to a larger enemy — Rabbit 
(Vol. 22, p. 767). There is no bird that 
troubles the farmer, or helps him by 
killing insects, upon which there is not 
an article, for more than 200 distinct 
bird articles are listed under the heading 
"Birds" on p. 891 of Vol. 29 (the index 
volume), in addition to the information 
in the article Bird (Vol. 3, p. 959), and 
the article on families of birds (Vol. 20, 
p. 299). 

The crops of all climates are treated in 
general in the article Agriculture, and 
in particular under their individual 
names, all of which are so familiar, and 
indeed so fully listed on p. 889 of Vol. 29 
(the index volume), that they need not 
be repeated here. Naturally you will 
include in this course of reading the 
crops with which you are personally 
concerned, and in any case you ought to 
read Grass and Grassland (Vol. 12, 
p. 867), and Grasses (Vol. 12, p. 869). 

The article Wheat (Vol. 28, p. 576) 
deals with one of the chief products of 
"the greatest cereal producing region of 
the world." It begins 
Wheat the story of a wheat 

crop with the burning of 
the old straw of the previous year, 
then takes up ploughing, harrowing, 



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seeding, thrashing, labor in connection 
with all these operations, and trans- 
portation and marketing. At this 
point, the article Flour and Flour 
Manufacture (Vol. 10, p. 548), by 
G. F. Zimmer, takes up the later 
history of wheat. It may surprise you 
to learn from the Britannica that wheat 
first found its way to America through a 
few grains being accidentally mixed with 



some rice. Barley (Vol. 3, p. 405) is an 
interesting article on the grain that is the 
oldest cereal food of the human race, and 
that is also remarkable for its power to 
grow over a greater range of latitude 
than any other grain. Cotton (Vol. 7, 
p. 256), by Professor Chapman, is an 
article of which the vast importance 
may be judged by the following table 
taken from page 261 : 



PRODUCTS FROM A TON OF COTTON SEED 



Cotto n seed. 2000 pound* 



Meats, 1090 pounds 



Cake, 800 pounds 
Meal 



(reeding stuff Fertilizer! 



Crude Oil, 390 1 
Summer 



ae UU. ¥W dpi 

Yellow Is 

(Winter I Cotton seed 
yellow I stearin) 



>unds 

Soap stock 
Soaps 



Cattolene (with beef stearin, cooking oil) 



Salad oil 



Summer white 



Miners' oil 



Soap 



Lin tiers, 83 pounds I 

Hulls, 888 pounda 



Fibre 



(High-grade paper 



(Fuel2_ 



Bran 
(Cattle food) 



Ashes 
Fertilizer 



ICattle'fooJ) 
with the meal 



These .together, 
a very valuable 



Every one of the other cereal and 
general crops produced in any part of the 
world is treated in the Britannica with 
the same fullness of information and with 
the same practical detail which character- 
izes these articles on wheat, barley and 
cotton. 

Some of the principal articles on the 
routine of farming such as sowing, reap- 
ing, and the like, have already been men- 
tioned in connection with agricultural 
machinery. The articles on individual 
countries contain sections on the crops 
of each of them, and you will find 
Canada (Vol. 5, p. 152), and Germany 



(Vol. 11, p. 810), of special interest. 
The special features of tropical farming 
are described in the articles on tropical 
crops. 

The article Fruit and Flower Farm- 
ing (Vol. 11, p. 260) covers fruit culture 
in general, and, in the section of it which 
deals with the United 
States (Vol. 11, p. 
268), the American 
fruit crops. This 
the wonderful de- 
velopment of the fruit industry since 
cold transportation and cold storage 
enabled consumers in every part of the 



Fruit and 
Flower Growing 

section describes 



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FOR FARMERS 



countay, and in Europe as well, to pur- 
chase fruit grown in whatever state most 
advantageously produces any one va- 
riety. You should select, from the 
twenty separate articles on individual 
fruits, not only those on the varieties 
which you are already growing, but 
those on any others that are possible in 
the part of the country where your land 
lies. The section on fruit in the article 
on Horticulture (Vol. 13, p. 775) is 
devoted to growing on a smaller scale, 
in gardens. It contains (Vol. IS, p. 
780) a practical calendar to show each 
month's work. 

Flower culture is the subject of special 
sections in both the articles above named 
and there is a descriptive list (Vol. 13, 
p. 766) of more than three hundred hardy 
annuals, biennials, and perennials, full 
of practical information. The calendar 
already mentioned indicates the dates 
for indoor and outdoor operations. From 
the many articles on individual flower 
plants listed at the end of Part S of this 
chapter you can make your own choice. 

Poultry and their rearing are dealt 
with in the articles Poultry and Poul- 
try Farming (Vol. 22, p. 213), Fowl 
(Vol. 10, p. 760), 
Poultry and Turkey (Vol. 27, 

Bees p. 467), Guinea 

Fowl (Vol. 12, p. 
697), Duck (Vol. 8, p. 630), Goose (Vol. 
12, p. 241), and Incubation and Incu- 
bators (Vol 14, p. 359). Bee-keeping and 
the honey industry are treated in the arti- 
cles Bee (Vol. 3, p. 625) and Honey (Vol. 
IS, p. 653). Truck farming is treated in 
the section dealing with vegetables 
(Vol. 13, p. 776), of the article Horti- 
culture. Apart from the law as to 
water rights already mentioned the legal 
doctrine most particularly affecting farm- 
ers is that of Emblements (Vol. 9, 
p. 308) . Grain Trade (Vol. 12, p. 322) , 
and Granaries (Vol. 12, p. 336), the 
latter describing the latest type of grain 
elevators, are articles of great interest to 
farmers who specialize in cereal crops. 



The new system of purchase of grain 
by the government, which is working 
admirably in Western Canada, protects 
the farmer against the speculators who 
buy standing crops for less than a fair 
price, and it is to be hoped that some 
similar plan may be adopted in the 
United States. 

Economics (Vol. 8, p. 899), by Pro- 
fessor Hewins, Co-operation (Vol. 7, 
p. 82), and Tariff (Vol. 26, p. 422), 
deal with topics related to the marketing 
of all agricultural products. The arti- 
cles on learned societies have an extensive 
section (Vol. 25, p. 317) on the agricul- 
tural societies of all countries. 

Agricultural history is, naturally, based 
upon the history of vegetable life, and 
the fossil plants described in the article 
Paleobotany (Vol. 
The History 20, p. 524), long as 

of Farming their a ppear ance pre- 

ceded that of man, 
greatly affected the nature of the earth's 
crust which he was to occupy. 

The earliest of all known writings, the 
Code of Khammurabi, described in the 
article on Babylonian Law, shows (Vol. 3, 
p. 117) that agriculture was the subject 
of careful legislation under the oldest 
government of which a contemporary 
record has survived; and the provisions 
as to the working of land on the "me- 
tayer" system, under which the land- 
owner received from the landholder a 
share of the crops, and as to irrigation, 
are most explicit and practical. Ancient 
Egyptian implements of agriculture are 
fully described (Vol. 9, p. 69) in the 
article Egypt, and pictures of them 
appear on page 72 of the same volume. 
If the ancient history of farming inter- 
ests you, it is only necessary for you to 
turn to the heading "Agriculture/* in 
the Index (Vol. 29), where you will find 
references to a number of other articles 
on the early civilizations. 

From these articles, as from the his- 
torical section of the guiding article 
Agriculture, and the passages relating 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



to agriculture in many of the 6,292 arti- 
cles on the histories of races and coun- 
tries, the reader may learn that agricul- 
ture has been the key to all history. The 
earliest migrations of the human race, as 
definitely as the comparatively recent 
development of America, Australasia and 
the interior of Africa, were based upon 
an agricultural impetus. And his read- 
ing upon other subjects in the Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica will often remind him 
that the wool and cotton and linen and 
leather that we wear, the carpets and 
blankets and sheets in our houses, all 
originated in farming of one kind or an- 
other; while every food that nourishes us, 
save fish and game, is directly an agri- 
cultural product. All the bustle of the 
great cities, all the wheels that turn in 
the mills, all the intricate mechanism of 
industry and commerce, all the world's 
work and thought and happiness, de- 
pend upon the mysterious and inimitable 
processes by which the brown soil yields 
green growth. For all the progress 
science has made, we are no nearer to 
replacing these processes by any short 
cut of chemistry than were the first farm- 
ers whose husbandry is recorded in his- 
tory. If all the little roots ceased for 
one year to do their work in the dark, the 



human race would hopelessly starve to 
death. 

The alphabetical list of articles at the 
end of Chapter III of this Guide will 
make it easy for you to add to this course 
of reading, choosing for yourself the line 
that will be most attractive to you. In 
making your choice, do not forget that 
plant-life is a subject you cannot study 
too closely. No matter what crop you 
make your specialty, you have to educate 
the plants that produce it to do their 
work, just as carefully as a teacher 
trains children. Another fact to keep in 
mind is that just as a doctor is dealing 
with organs in the human body which he 
cannot see, so you are particularly con- 
cerned with the roots down in the soil, and 
the more you know about the way they 
eat and drink, the better for your farm. 

The names of many of the writers of 
these articles are given in the table of the 
1,500 Contributors to the Britannica, 
beginning at page 949 of Vol. 29 (the 
index volume); a glance will show you 
what authoritative positions they occupy 
and how thoroughly they command your 
confidence. 

[See list of articles on subjects connected 
with farming, at the end of Chapter III of 
this Guide.] 



CHAPTER II 
FOR STOCK-RAISERS 



STOCK-RAISING in the United 
States was, until quite recent 
years, under the evil influence of 
the careless methods which had been 
handed down from the old days of the 
range-cattle industry. Chicago men still 
tell the story of the Chicago banker, 
afterwards Secretary of the Treasury, 
who declared, in reply to a request for a 
loan on the security of range-cattle, that 
he "would as soon lend money on a 
shoal of mackerel in the Atlantic Ocean." 



The vague possession and the vague 
methods of breeding and marketing 
which suggested this comparison did not 
form the habits of close observation and 
incessant care which became necessary 
when land and food began to cost money. 
The lesson has been learned, and the 
present conditions of the industry are 
infinitely better for the country at large. 
It has been proved that fattening as well 
as breeding can be successfully under- 
taken in almost every part of the United 



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11 



States. Even in the North West, the 
tendency today is to turn from exclusive 
grain growing to a combination of crop- 
ping and feeding. Cattle, and also work 
horses of the right type, for which the 
demand is always greater than the sup- 
ply, are yielding fair profits on many of 
the New England farms which had been 
neglected for years. 

One of the most encouraging features 
of the present situation is that the 
broader distribution of the livestock 
industry encourages 
Staying on farm-bred boys to 

the Land remain at home. It 

has long been a 
popular belief that the attraction of the 
cities lies largely in the facilities for 
amusement which they offer; but the best 
class of young men who have left the 
farms have done so because they did not 
believe that plowing and sowing and 
reaping gave enough scope for their in- 
telligence and their initiative. When 
stock-raising is combined with tillage, 
there is not only a greater interest in 
farm life and a greater chance to make 
general knowledge effective, but there 
are also better opportunities for a young 
man to make a small venture of his own 
while he is still a farm hand. It is cer- 
tainly true that stock-raising needs the 
young man who is determined to know 
something about everything and all there 
is to know about one thing. To him the 
articles in the Britannica which are indi- 
cated in this chapter should be of the 
greatest value, for they cover a broad 
range, and they are written by specialists 
of the highest authority. They do not 
profess to teach what can only be learnt 
in the course of practical experience, but 
they will make each day's work more 
interesting and more effective. 

You cannot do better than to begin 
your reading with the article (Vol. 4, 
p. 337) on the family of animals to 
which cattle belong, a family so varied 
that it includes so small a creature as 
the hare, and so large a one as the 



rhinoceros. The article 
Cattle Cattle (Vol. 5, p. 359), 

by Professor Wallace and 
Dr. Fream, begins by reminding you 
that the idea of cattle owning has always 
been so closely associated with the idea 
of wealth that the two words "capital" 
and V cattle" have the same root, and 
that our word "pecuniary" is taken 
from the Latin term for cattle. This 
article, illustrated with photographs of 
the best specimens of bulls and cows of 
different breeds, deals with Shorthorns, 
Herefords, Devons, Holsteins, Dutch 
Belteds, Sussexes, Longhorns, Aberdeen- 
Angus, Red Polleds, Galloways, High- 
lands, Kerry's, Dexters, Jerseys and 
Guernseys, and has a section on the 
rearing of calves. Ox (Vol. 20, p. 398) 
is chiefly about the origin of domestic 
cattle. Agriculture (Vol. 1, p. S88) 
contains information of a more general 
kind as to practical stock-raising. The 
best methods of mating are described 
fully in Breeds and Breeding (Vol. 4, 
p. 487), Variation and Selection 
(Vol. 27, p. 906), and Heredity (Vol. 
13, p. 350), by Dr. Chalmers Mitchell. 
Mendelism (Vol. 18, p. 115) will tell you 
all about the theory which is nowadays 
the great subject of discussion among ex- 
perts in breeding. Embryology (Vol. 
9, p. 314), by Dr. Hans Driesch, and 
Reproduction (Vol. 23, p. 116), by Pro- 
fessor Vines, contain the results of the 
latest investigations, and the article Sex 
(Vol. 24, p. 747) describes the recent ex- 
periments undertaken with the hope that 
breeders may at some future time be 
enabled to vary at will the proportion of 
males and females. Telegony (Vol. 
£6, p. 509) gives you the evidence for and 
against the belief that offspring are in- 
fluenced by a previous mate of the dam. 
Food Preservation (Vol. 10, p. 612) 
and Refrigerating (Vol. 23, p. 30) 
cover the cold shipping and cold storage 
of beef. Leather (Vol. 16, p. 330), by 
Dr. J. G. Parker, one of the foremost; 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



technical experts on this subject, follows 
hides through the market to their final 
distribution and industrial uses. 

Notwithstanding the harm that trolley 
cars and automobiles and mechanically 
propelled agricultural' machines have 
done to important 
Horses and branches of the horse 

Mules business, and not- 

withstanding the 
competition which American exporters 
find in Europe from the Argentine 
ranches, there is still an active market 
for farm horses and for stock suited to 
trucking and light delivery work in cities. 
You no doubt find, in -whatever part of 
the United States your interests lie, that 
you need to watch the market very 
closely, and that you must always be 
ready to change your plans at short 
notice. But it is to the quick-witted 
man who is always prepared to vary his 
methods that the Britannica offers the 
greatest practical services. The article 
on the horse family in general (Vol. 9, 
p. 720) is very interesting, but you will 
give more time to the elaborate article 
Horse (Vol. 13, p. 712), by Richard 
Lyddeker, E. D. Brickwood, Sir William 
Flower, and Professor Wallace. The il- 
lustrations are unusually valuable, for 
instead of following the usual custom of 
making all the photographs the same 
size, the Editors of the Britannica showed 
good sense and originality by making 
each one to scale. The breeds are sepa- 
rately described, and the sections on 
feeding and breaking are full of useful 
hints. The history of the thoroughbred 
strain is carefully traced, the pedigree of 
one famous type being shown in a table 
naming more than one hundred ances- 
tors. The article Horse-Racing (Vol. 
13, p. 726), by Alfred Watson, shows how 
the sport has influenced breeding, and 
the description of American trotting goes 
back to the day when "Boston Blue," 
in 1818, trotted a mile in three minutes, 
"a feat deemed impossible" at that 
period! The English race meetings, in 



which American owners and jockeys now 
play so conspicuous a part, are described 
in special sections, as well as the training 
at Newmarket. Riding (Vol. 23, p. 317), 
and Driving (Vol. 8, p. 585), are by 
practical experts, and Traction (Vol. 
27, p. 118) contains an interesting table 
analyzing the draft power of the horse. 
The section on Arab horses in the article 
Arabia (Vol. £, p. 261) should be read, 
for it adds to the information, in the 
articles already named, on the breed that 
has influenced every variety of horse. 
Mule (Vol. 18, p. 959) will tell you 
about the varieties not only in the 
United States and Mexico, but also in 
France, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Asia 
Minor, Syria, Egypt, Algeria and North 
China. The section on Hybrids (Vol. 
13, p. 713) of the article Horse deals 
with all the attempts that have been 
made to get a perfect type of mule by 
introducing various strains of blood. 

Sheep (Vol. £4, p. 817) contains 
separate descriptions of the 28 best 
breeds, discussing their values both for 
wool and for the 
Sheep and the meat trade. Breed- 
Wool Market ing, feeding, dipping 
4 and lambing are fully 

treated. Sheepdogs and other breeds 
useful to the stock-raiser fall under the 
article Dog (Vol. 8, p. 374). Wool 
(Vol. £8, p. 805), by Professor Aldred 
Barker, is -an article in which you will at 
once be impressed by the splendid thor- 
oughness that is characteristic of the 
Britannica. It goes to the very founda- 
tion of the subject by giving you micro- 
scopic photographs, on a scale of 320 to 
1, of each of the six great varieties of 
wool, and explaining the structure of the 
fibres. The article Fibres (Vol. 10, p. 
309) will enable you to compare another 
microscopic photograph of wool fibre 
with similar pictures of silk, flax, cotton, 
jute, and other textile materials. The 
article wool deals next with wool-yolk 
and wool-fat, and then goes on to 
show why greasy wool is better than 



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wool washed before shearing. Wool 
classing and sorting are next described, 
and then scouring. From this point the 
treatment of wool hardly comes within 
the jurisdiction of the sheep-man, al- 
though he cannot know too much about 
the qualities of the yarns obtained from 
different kinds of wool. It is interesting 
to note in this article that the first fulling 
mill in America was built at Rowley, 
Mass., in 1643, only thirty-four years 
after the first sheep was brought to 
America, and only twenty-three years 
after the Pilgrims landed on Plymouth 
Rock. 

The article Swine (Vol. 26, p. 236) 
deals with the swine family in general, 
and the article Pig (Vol. 21, p. 594), con- 
taining a fine full- 
Pigs and page plate, gives a 
Pork detailed account of 
the breeds most prof- 
itable on the farm, including the Poland- 
China, the Berkshire, the Duroc, and 
the Chester White. Eleven breeds in 
all are particularized. The breeding and 
fattening of hogs, although it is now 
successfully followed as a distinct branch 
of the live-stock industry, must always 
remain in great part a mere branch of 
general farming; for the pig's power of 
thriving on many kinds of food, enables 
the farmer to utilize produce that can- 
not advantageously be shipped, and to 
keep his pigs following his cattle over 
the fields. Much information will be 
found all through the article Agricul- 
ture (Vol. 1, p. 388). Trichinosis 
(Vol. 27, p. 266) deals with a disease that 
has sometimes seriously affected the pork 
market, and been made the excuse, too, 
for some very harsh restrictions on 
American exportation. 

You will find in the Britannica (Vol. 
28, p. 6) a very full and clear account of 
the diseases of all domestic animals, by 
Dr. Fleming and Professor McQueen, 
with special sections on the maladies of 
the horse, of cattle, of sheep, and of 
pigs, and on the parasites that infest 



fhem. Tubercu- 
Diseases and losis (Vol. 27, p. 

Parasites of 354) calls for special 

Live-stock study, for it is a 

"disease of civili- 
zation" almost unknown among wild 
animals in their natural state and 
among the uncivilized races of man- 
kind. The connection between the dis- 
ease in cattle and its spread among 
human beings is fully explained in this 
article. Pleuro Pneumonia (Vol. 21, 
p. 838) deals with the lung disease from 
which cattle are the only sufferers, 
Rinderpest (Vol. 23, p. 348), with the 
infectious fever which affects both cattle 
and sheep, and Anthrax (Vol. 2, p. 106), 
with the terribly infectious carbuncles 
communicated from cattle and sheep to 
man by the microbes carried in wool and 
hides. Glanders (Vol. 12, p. 76) de- 
scribes the form in which this disease of 
horses and mules afflicts human beings, 
the symptoms and course of which, in 
the animals themselves, fall under the 
subject of horse diseases (Vol. 28, p. 8). 
The microbe by which this disease is 
carried is shown in the plate facing one 
of the pages (Vol. 20, p. 770) of the 
article Parasitic Diseases. Foot and 
Mouth Disease (Vol. 10, p. 617) 
afflicts cattle, sheep, and pigs, and 
occasionally human beings. 

Among the articles on continents and 
countries which contain special informa- 
tion on stock-raising, you should not miss 
the interesting general review of the 
European live-stock industry in the 
article Europe (Vol. 9, p. 914), the 
section on live-stock in Canada (Vol. 5, 
p. 153), that in Argentina (Vol. 2, p. 
465), in Australia (Vol. 2, p. 950), 
and in New Zealand (Vol. 19, p. 627) 
The history of stock-raising is fully 
treated at the beginning of the article 
Agriculture (Vol. 1, p. 388). 

When you have read the articles men- 
tioned in the three parts of this chapter 
on Farming, do not turn away with the 
idea that you have got from the 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



'Britannica all that 
How to it can give you to 

"Even Up" help you in your 

business. Remem- 
ber that you have to judge men, as 
well as live-stock, in order to succeed, 
and that general knowledge is of the 
greatest use in doing that. The one 
sure sign of the kind of man you cannot 
rely upon is that he talks confidently 
about subjects of which he really knows 
little, and the more you yourself know, 
the more readily you can detect the pre- 
tentious people who might make you 
think too well of them. 

If you turn over the pages of this 
guide, and ask yourself, as you glance at 
the chapters, in what departments of 
general knowledge you are weakest, you 
will see what courses of reading will do 
most to make you an "evened up" man, 



without any weak threads in your intel- 
lectual texture. And, whatever you 
read, do not forget that the Britannica 
is a book of reference as well as for read- 
ing: that you are debasing your mind 
every time you leave unanswered any 
question that comes up in the course of 
the day's work or talk, or while you are 
reading your newspaper. A vigorous 
mind wants an answer whenever it be- 
comes conscious of a question or of a 
doubt, and if you fail to feed it with the 
information it asks for, it loses health. 
Now that you have the Britannica, the 
food is in the store-room, do not leave 
it there! 

[See list of articles on subjects con- 
nected with stock-raising and other branches 
of farming, at the end of Chapter III of 
this Guide.] 



CHAPTER III 
FOR DAIRY FARMERS 

SEE ALSO CHAPTER I, FOR FARMERS, AND CHAPTER II, FOR STOCK-RAISERS 



THE admirable set of rules for 
dairy farmers issued by the 
United States Department of 
Agriculture begins by telling you to 
"read current literature and keep 
posted on new ideas." And you can 
easily see that the information on 
dairy-farming and the many subjects 
connected with it, supplied by the Britan- 
nica, must cover a much broader field of 
new ideas than can be included in any 
periodical or dairying manual. The 
branches of science in which the greatest 
advance has been made since the begin- 
ning of the present century happen to be 
those that have most to do with dairy- 
ing; and the industry itself has been 
completely revolutionized since the days 
when cities got their milk from ram- 
shackle cow-sheds in their suburbs, and 



when butter-making was regarded as 
one of the "chores" to be done at odd 
times. 

The key article in the Britannica, 
Dairy and Dairy Farming (Vol. 7, 
p. 737), deals with the best milking 
breeds, the installation, equipment, and 
management of a dairy farm, the values 
of various kinds of pasturage and fodder; 
with the milk trade, with butter-making 
and cheese-making, with condensed milk, 
skim milk, and milk powder and with 
the organization and operation of cream- 
eries, cheeseries, and dairy factories in 
general. Such subjects as soil, grass, 
hay and other fodder crops fall under 
Part I of this chapter, and the articles 
dealing with the breeding and rearing 
of dairy cattle are mentioned in Part 
II, "For Stock-Raisers." 



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FOR DAIRY FARMERS 



15 



Cattle diseases in general are also 
covered by the course of reading sug- 
gested in Part II; but the dairy farmer 
has a special inter- 
Dairy-Herd est in contagious 
Diseases mammitis, milk 
fever, contagious 
abortion, and cowpox, all of which are 
described (Vol. 28, p. 10) in the article 
on Veterinary Science. You cannot 
study too carefully the article onTuBER- 
cuLOSis (Vol. 87, p. 354), for this terrible 
infection is not only a standing danger 
to your herd, but also affects the trans- 
portation and marketing of milk. Dr. 
Hennessy, who wrote the article, is an 
expert of the first rank and, like most 
other great authorities, is not inclined to 
encourage the popular exaggeration of 
the dangers for which newspaper "sensa- 
tions" are responsible.* 

You get to the very foundation of the 
supply of milk in Professor Parson's and 
Dr. Edmund Owen's article Mammary 
Gland (Vol. 17, p. 
Milk and the 528), in which the 
Milk Market comparative anato- 

my of the milk yield- 
ing organ is fully treated. The article 
Milk (Vol. 18, p. 451) discusses the 
chemistry of many kinds of milk and the 
diseases carried by milk, and deals with 
the gravest problems of the industry : the 
difficulty of sterilizing milk, so that 
tuberculosis and typhoid cannot be 
carried by it, and the difficulty of steriliz- 
ing cream, so that butter may be quite 
safe, without making the milk less nu- 
tritious and the butter less delicate in 
flavor. The article Bacteriology (Vol. 
3, p. 156), by Professor H. Marshall 
Ward and Professor Blackman, goes to 
the root of this whole question of in- 
fection. Milk is, on the other hand, 
used to convey into the human system 
the "friendly microbes," and the use of 
soured milk and cheese for this purpose 
is explained in the articles Therapeutics 
(Vol. 86, p. 800) and Longevity (Vol. 
16, p. 077), which deal with Metch- 



nikofTs system of treatment. Pepsin 
(Vol. 81, p. 130) describes the process 
by which milk is rendered more digesti- 
ble, and Infancy (Vol. 14, p. 513) 
deals with the preparation of milk to be 
sold for the use of young children. There 
is so general a demand for prepared milk 
which is from every point of view whole- 
some that you will find it worth while to 
read, in this connection, Food (Vol. 10, 
p. 611), Nutrition (Vol. 10, p. 080) and 
Dietetics (Vol. 8, p. 814). 

Butter (Vol. 4, p. 880,) and Cheese 
(Vol. 6, p; 88) are brief articles which 
you should not overlook, although they 
refer you to the key 
Products and article on dairying 
Marketing for details; and Oils 

contains (Vol. 80, 
p. 47) an interesting analytical table in 
which butter is compared with other 
animal fats. Food Preservation (Vol. 
10, p. 618) deals with the cold storage of 
butter, cheese, condensed milk and milk 
powder; and Refrigerating (Vol. 83, 
p. 30) with the processes and machinery 
employed. Koumiss (Vol. 15, p. 080) 
describes the milk-wine or milk-brandy 
prepared by fermenting mare's milk, and 
the similar product " kerif " made from 
cow's milk. Although the special de- 
velopments of dairying in various parts 
of the world are discussed in the article 
Dairy and Dairy-Farming, the articles 
on individual countries also contain 
information of value. The section on 
dairying (Vol. 5, p. 154) in the article 
Canada, and the account of co-operative 
dairying (Vol. 7, p. 87) in Denmark 
should not be overlooked. 

In reading these articles in Britannica, 
and thinking of the present conditions of 
this great business, you will be reminded 
that dairying is an industry of peculiar 
importance to the whole people of the 
United States, not only because of the 
money made out of it, and not only 
because it gives hundreds of thousands of 
men employment on the land instead of 
in crowded cities, but also because it 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



promises to develop the co-operative 
action which harmonizes with the best 
ideals of democracy. The co-operative 
plants which are beginning to be estab- 
lished by dairy farmers are the only 
institutions our modern civilization has 
created in which you find the neigh-, 
borly spirit that the first American 
settlers showed in the days when they 
joined to defend themselves against the 
Indians. At political meetings, in ma- 
chine shops and cotton mills and shoe 
factories, you hear unhappy talk about 
the relations of capital and labor, about 
strikes and trusts, about the man on 
top and the man underneath. But where 
the farmer's wagons clatter up to the 



separator platform, there is combination 
in the best sense of the word. The 
Britannica article on co-operation says 
that the word "in its widest usage, 
means the creed that life may best be 
ordered not by the competition of in- 
dividuals, where each seeks the interest of 
himself and his family, but by mutual 
help, by each individual consciously 
striving for the good of the social body 
of which he forms part, and the social 
body in return caring for each individual; 
*each for all, and all for each 9 is its 
accepted motto. Thus it proposes to 
replace among rational and moral things 
the struggle for existence by voluntary 
combination for life" 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OP ARTICLES IN THE BRITANNICA ON SUBJECTS CON- 
NECTED WITH FARMING, STOCK-RAISING AND DAIRYING 

(The more important articles have already been mentioned in the preceding pages, but the following list 
includes many others in which valuable information will be found.) 



Aal 

Aaron's Rod 

Abaca 

Abutilon 

Acacia 

Acanthus 

Acaulescent 

Acerose 

Achimenes 

Acinus 

Acorn 

Acorus Calamus 

Acotyledones 

Acrogenae 

Adonis 

African Lily 

Agave 

Agrimony 

Ail an thus 

A lburnum 

Alder 

A leu rites 

Alexanders 

Algae 

Alburn or Almug 

Ahsmaceaea 

Allamanda 

Alliaria Officinalis 

Allium 

Almond 

Aloe 

Amadou 

Amanita 

Amaranth 



Amaryllis 

Amentiferss 

Ammoniacum 

Ampelopsis 

Anatto 

Anemone 

Angelica 

Angiosperms 

Annulate 

Anime 

Anise 

Antirrhinum 

Apiculture 

Apple 

Apricot 

Araucaria 

Arbor Day 

Arbor Vitae 

Arboretum 

Arboriculture 

Archil 

Aristolochia 

Aroideae 

Arrowroot 

Artichoke 

Ascus 

Ash 

Asparagus 

Aspen 

Ashpodel 

Aspidistra 

Aster 

Aubergine 

Aucuba 



Auricula 

Autogamy 

Auxanometer 

Averruncator 

Avocado Pear 

Axiie or Axial 

Azalea 

Bael Fruit 

Balm 

Bamboo 

Banana 

Baneberry 

Banksia 

Baobab 

Barberry 

Barley 

Bdellium 

Bean 

Bee 

Beech 

Beet 

Begonia 

Benzoin 

Betel-nut 

Bilberry 

Birch 

Bird's Eye 

Blackberry 

Bladder-wor* 

Boletus 

Boll 

Borage 

Boraginaceae 

Botryis 



Bottle-brush plants 
Bouvardia 
Boxwood 
Bracket-fungi 
Bramble 
Bran 

Brazil Nuts 
Brazil Wood 
Bread-fruit 
Breed and Breed- 
ing 
Bromeliaceae 
Brooklime 
Broom 
Broom-rape 
Bryophyta 
Buchu 
Buck-bean 
Buckthorn 
Buckwheat 
Bulrush 
Bur, or Burr 
Burnet 
Buttercup 
Butter-nut 
Butterwort 
Cabbage 
Cactus 
Caducous 
Caespitose 
Calabash 
Calabash Tree 
Calceolaria 
Calf 



Camellia 

Campanula 

Candytuft 

Cane 

Cannon-ball Tree 

Capers 

Capri foliacess 

Capsule 

Caraway 

Cardamon 

Cardoon 

Carnation 

Carrageen 

Carrot 

Caryophyllaceae 

Cashew Nut 

Cassava 

Cassia 

Casuarina 

Catalpa 

Cataphyll 

Catha 

Cattle 

Cayenne Pepper 

Ceanothus 

Cecropia 

Cedar • 

Celandine 

Celery 

Centaurea 

Centaury 

Chanterelle 

Chenopodium 

Cherry 



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Chestnut 

Chicory 

Chive 

Chlorosis 

Chrysanthemum 

Churn 

Cicely 

Cimicifuga 

Cinchona 

Cineraria 

Cinnamon 

Citron 

Cleavers 

Clematis 

Climbing Fern 

Cloudberry 

Clover 

Cloves 

Cocoa, or Cuca 

Cocculus Indicus 

Cock's-comb 

Cocoa 

Coco de Mer 

Coco-nut Palm 

Codiaeum 

Coffee 

Colchicum 

Coleus 

Colleter 

Colocynth 

Colt's-foot 

Columbine 

Compass plant 

Composite 

Convolvulaceae 

Copaiba 

Copal 

Coppice 

Coriander 

Cork 

Corn 

Corn - salad or 

Lamb's Lettuce 
Correa 
Cotoneaster 
Cotton 
Cow-tree 
Cranberry 
Crassulaceae 
Crazy Weed 
Cress 
Crinum 
Crocus 
Crowberry 
Cruciferae 
Cryptomeria 
Cucumber 
Cucurbitaceae 
Cumin or Cummin 
Cupulliferae 
Cultivator 
Currant 
Custard Apple 
Cyclamen 
Cyperaceae 
Cypress 
Cystolith 
Daffodil 



Dairy & Dairy 
Farming 

Dahlia 

Daisy 

Dame's Violet 

Dammar 

Dandelion 

Daphne 

Darlingtonia 

Date Palm 

Deciduous 

Dewberry 

Diatomaceae 

Dicotyledons 

Dictyogens 

Dividivi 

Dock 

Dodder 

Dogwood 

Dracaena 

Dragons Blood 

Drainage 

Dropwort 

Duck 

Duckweed 

Dulse 

Duramen 

Durian 

Durra 

Earth-nut 

Earth-star 

Ebony 

Economic Ento- 
mology 

Edelweiss 

Eglantine 

Elder 

Elecampine 

Elephant's foot 

Elm 

Endive 

Ensilage 

Entada 

Ericaceae 

Espalier 

Esparto 

Eucharis 

Eunonymus 

Euphorbia 

Euphorbiaceae 

Evergreen 

Everlasting 

Fairy Ring 

Fallow 

Farm 

Farm Buildings 

Fennel 

Fenugreek 

Fern 

Fig 

Filmy Ferns 

Finger-and-toe 

Fir 

Flail 

Flax 

Flower 

Fool's Parsley 

Forage 



Forests & For- 
estry 

Forget-me-not 

Fork 

Foxglove 

Freesia 

Fritillary 

Frog-bit 

Fruit 

Fruit & Flower 
Farming 

Fuchsia 

Fumitory 

Fungi 

Funkia . 

Furze 

Fustic 

Gale 

Galls 

Gardenia 

Garlic 

Genista. 

Gentian 

Gentianaceae 

Geoponici 

Geraniaceae 

Geranium 

Geum 

Gillyflower 

Ginger 

Gladiolus 

Glasswort 

Glaucous 

Gloriosa 

Gloxinia 

Goat 

Golden Rod 

Goose 

Gooseberry 

Goose Grass 

Gorse 

Gourd 

Graft 

Grains of Paradise 

Gram or Chick-pea 

Granadilla 

Grass and Grass- 
land 

Grass of Parnassus 

Grasses 

Greenheart 

Ground Nut 

Groundsel 

Guano 

Guava 

Guelder Rose 

Gulfweed 

Gum 

Gumbo 

Gutta Percha 

Gymnos perms 

Hacienda 

Hackberry 

Harebell 

Harrow 

Hawthorn 

Hay 

Hotel 



Heath 

Hedges and Fences 

Heifer 

Heliotrope 

Hellebore 

Hemlock 

Hemp 

Hen 

Henbane 

Henna 

Herb 

Herbarium 

Hickory 

Hippeastrum 

Hoe 

Holly 

Hollyhock 

Honey 

Honey Locust 

Honeysuckle 

Hop 

Horehound 

Hornbeam 

Horse 

Horseradish 

Horsetail 

Horticulture 

Houseleek 

Huckleberry 

Humus 

Huon Pine 

Hyacinth 

Hydrangea 

Hydrocharideee 

Hyssop 

Ice-plant 

Iceland Moss 

Idioblast 

Immortelle 

Impatiens 

India Hemp 

Indian Corn 

Insectivorous 

Plants 
Iridaceae 
Iris 

Irish Moss 
Iron-wood 
Ivy 

Jarrah Wood 
Jasmine 
Jew's Ears 
Job's Tears 
Judas Tree 
Jujube 
Juncaceae 
Juniper 
Jute 

Kaffir Bread 
Kauri Pine 
Kerguelen's Land 

Cabbage 
Kumquat 
Labiate 
Labrador Tea 
Laburnum 
Lac 
Lace-bark Tree 



Lancewood 

Larch 

Larkspur 

Lattice Leaf Plant 

Laurel 

Laurustinue 

Lavender 

Leaf 

Leek 

Leguminosae 

Lemon 

Lentil 

'Lettuce 

Lichens 

Lilac or Pipe Tree 

Liliacae 

Lily 

Lime or Linden 

Liquidambar 

Litchi 

Lobelia 

Loco-weeds 

Locust 

Loosestrife 

Loquat 

Lotus 

Lucerne 

Lupine 

Lycopodium 

Madaer 

Magnolia 

Mahogany 

Maidenhair 

Maize 

Mallow 

Malvaceae 

Mammee Apple 

Mandrake 

Mangel-wursel 

Mango 

Mangos teen 

Mangrove 

Manila Hemp 

Manna 

Manures 

Maple 

Marcescent 

Mare's-tail 

Marguerite 

Marigold 

Marjoram 

Mastic 

Mate 

Mattock 

Medlar 

Melon 

Meristem 

Mesquite 

Merino 

Mignonette 

Mildew 

Milkwort 

Millet 

Mimosa 

Mimulus 

Mint 

Mistletoe 

Moly 



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BRITANNIGA READINGS AND STUDIES 



Momordica 

Moonseed 

Moon-wort 

Moracess 

M o r e t o n Bay 
Chestnut , 

Mucuna 

Mulberry 

Mushroom 

Mustard 

Myrobalans 

Myrrh 

Myrtle 

Narcissus 

Nard 

Nasturtium 

Nettie 

Nettle Tree 

New England 
Flax 

Nightshade 

Nut 

Nutmeg 

Oak 

Oat 

Okra 

Oleander 

Oleaster 

Olive 

Onagracess 

Onion 

Orach or Mountain 
Spinach 

Orange 

Orchard 

Orchids 

Orris-Root 

Osier 

Ox 

Oxalis 

Paeony 

Palm 

Palmetto 

Pansy or Hearts- 
ease 

Papyrus 

Paraguay Tea 

Parsley 

Parsnip 

Passionflower 

Pea 

Peach 

Pear 



Pellitory 

Pennyroyal 

Pentstemon 

Pepper 

Peppermint 

Pepper Tree 

Persimmon 

Petunia 

Phlox 

Phormium 

Pig 

Pimento 

Pine 

Pine-apple 

Pin-eyed 

Pink 

Pistachio Nut 

Pistil 

Pitcher Plants 

Plane 

Plantain 

Plough and 

Ploughing 
Plum 
Poinsettia 
Pokeberry 
Pollination 
Polyanthus 
Polygonaceae 
Polypodium 
Pomegranate 
Pondweed 
Poplar 
Poppy 
Potato 
Potentilla 
Poultry & Poultry 

Farming 
Primrose 
Primulacea? 
Privet 

Pteridophyta 
Puff-ball 
Pumpkin 
Purslane 
Pyrethrum 
Quince 
Radish 
Ram 
Ramie 
Ramsons 
Ranch 
Ranunculas 



Ranunculacee 

Rape 

Raspberry 

H ng 

Rhododendron 

Rice 

Richardia 

Robinia 

Rocambole 

Roller 

Root 

Rosacea? 

Rose 

Rosemary 

Rosewood 

Rosin or Colophony 

Royal Fern 

Rubracee 

Rubber 

Ruderal 

Rue 

Rush 

Rye 

Sabicu Wood 

Safflower 

Saffron 

Sago 

Sainfoin 

St John's Wort 

Salsafy or Salsify 

Salvia 

Sap 

Sapan Wood 

Sarcocarp 

Sarmentose 

Sarracenia 

Satin Wood 

Saxifrage 

Saxifragaceae 

Scammony 

Scion 

Scorzonera 

Screw-pine 

Scrophulariacese 

Scythe 

Sea-kale 

Seawrack 

Sedum 

Secund 

Seed 

Sequoia 

Service Tree 



Sesame 

Shaddock 

Shallot 

Sheep 

Sisal Hemp 

Skirret 

Snake-root 

Snapdragon 

Snowdrop 

Soap-bark 

SoU 

Solanaceae 

Sorghum 

Sorrel 

Sowing 

Spade 

Spanish Broom 

Spanish Grass 

Spikenard 

Spinach 

Spruce 

Stem 

Stink-wood 

Strawberry 

Strophanthus 

Sudd 

Sumach 

Sundew 

Sunflower 

Sunn 

Sweet Gum 

Sweet Potato 

Sweet-sop 

Swine 

Switch-plants 

Synanthry 

Tallow Tree 

Tamarind 

Tamarisk 

Tea 

Teak 

Teasel 

Terebinth 

Thistle 

Thorn 

Thrashing 

Thrum-eyed 

Thyme 

Tiger-flower 

Toad-stool 

Tobacco 



Tomato 

Tonqua Bean 

Toothwart 

Topiary 

Traveller's Tree 

Tree 

Tree-fern 

Trowel 

Truffle 

Tuberose 

Tulip 

Tulip Tree 

Tumble-weed 

Turkey 

Turmeric 

Turnip 

Turnsole 

Umbellifer* 

Urticaceae 

Vanilla 

Vegetable 

Vegetable Marrow 

Venus's Fly Trap 

Venus's Looking 

Glass 
Veratrum 
Verbena 
Vetch 
Vine 
Violet 
Walnut 
Water-lily 
Water-thyme 
Wax-tree 
Wheat 
Whin 

Whortleberry 
Willow 
Willow-herb 
Wintergreen 
WinterVbark 
Witch Brooms 
Witch Hazel 
Woad 
Wormwood 
Yam 
Yew 
Yucca 
Zinnia 



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CHAPTER IV 

FOR MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS: 
GENERAL AND INTRODUCTORY 



THE article on Technical Educa- 
tion in the new (Eleventh) Edi- 
tion of the Encyclopaedia Britan- 
nica (Vol. 26, p. 

T^Utt^i 487 )' written by 

Technical phili Magnus , ne 

Education for of & ^ edu . 

MMiufacturer ^^ authorit ; es 

and Merchant in ihe world$ says 

that: 

"The widespread appreciation of 
the advantages of the higher educa- 
tion among all classes of the Ameri- 
can people, and the general recogni- 
tion among manufacturers, engineers 
and employers of labour, of the value 
to them in their own work, of the 
services of college-trained men, has 
largely helped to increase the number 
of students in attendance at the uni- 
versities and technical institutions." 

A still broader truth is that the men 
who have learned to think clearly, by 
whatever study or reading they may 
have developed that power, possess the 
greatest of all advantages. As the 
Britannica article on Education indi- 
cates, the true value of education (not 
simply school education, but all educa- 
tion) lies as much in the influence which 
intelligently directed study exerts upon 
the mind as in the immediate usefulness 
of the information acquired, and the 
articles in the Britannica not only supply 
the most recent and authoritative infor- 
mation, but are so logically arranged, 
one dove-tailing into another, that they 
jive the reader precisely that orderly 



view of knowledge which is the founda- 
tion of all mental training. 

Since all of the series of chapters 
which immediately follow and which are 
intended for merchants and manufac- 
turers, deal with commerce and manu- 
factures, it will be for the reader's con- 
venience to begin by dealing with those 
two subjects in general. But certain 
branches of industrial and manufactur- 
ing knowledge are dealt with in special 
chapters. The articles on banking and 
finance are described fully in this 
Guide in the chapter For Bankers and 
Financiers, those on insurance in the 
chapter For Insurance Men, and those 
on law in the chapter For Lawyers. 
Three of the legal articles should, how- 
ever, be mentioned here, as they are 
on especially important subjects: Sale 
op Goods (Vol. 24, p. 63), Company 
(Vol. 6, p. 795), which deals with the 
laws in various countries regulating 
corporations, and Employers' Liability 
(Vol. 9, p. 356), on this topic so im- 
portant in modern industrial law and in 
the relations between capital and labour. 
The broad questions of commercial 
and industrial policy are discussed in 
Economics (Vol. 8, p. 899), by Prof. 
He wins; Commerce (Vol. 6, p. 766); 
Trusts (Vol. 27, p. 
Practical 334) ; Monopoly 

Economics for (Vol. 18, p. 733), 
Practical Men and Trade Organi- 
zation (Vol. 27, p. 
335), which describes commercial asso- 
ciations in the United States, the work 
of the consular service, and the organi- 
zations in Germany, France, Great 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



Britain and other countries. Book- 
keeping (Vol. 4, p. £25), with its 
up-to-date account of modern account- 
ing methods, card ledgers and loose 
leaf • systems; Advertisement (Vol. 
1, p. 235), and Mercantile Agencies 
(Vol. 18, p. 148) may be named as 
specimens of the many practical articles 
on business methods which need not 
all be enumerated here. 

Much of what you read and hear 
about the tariff systems of the United 
States and various other countries and 

about their influ- 
Imports and ence upon trade is so 

Exports vague and confusing 

that you will be 
delighted with the group of clear, 
common-sense articles in the Britannica. 
Tariff (Vol. 26, p. 422) is by one of the 
most famous American economists, Prof. 
Taussig of Harvard, and is a very full 
and fair discussion of the points in con- 
troversy. Protection (Vol. 22, p. 464) 
is by Prof. James of the University of 
Illinois, and Free Trade (Vol. 11, p. 89) 
by William Cunningham. You should 
read with care Customs Duties (Vol. 
7, p. 669); Free Ports (Vol. 11, p. 88), 
and Bounty (Vol. 4, p. 324). Balance 
of Trade (Vol. 3, p. 235) and Taxation 
(Vol. 26, p. 458) are both by Sir Robert 
Giffen. Exchange (Vol. 10, p. 50), by 

E. M. Harvey, a partner in one of the 
largest firms of bullion brokers in the 
world, deals with the movement of 
gold. Commercial Treaties (Vol. 
6, p. 771) is by Sir C M. Kennedy. 
Freights are discussed in Affreight- 
ment (Vol. 1, p. 302) by Sir Joseph 
Walton. Lien (Vol. 16, p. 594), with its 
section on "Stoppage in transitu," is by 

F. W. Raikes; Salvage (Vol. 24, p. 97), 
by T. G. Carver, and Blockade (Vol. 
4, p. 72), by Sir Thomas Barclay, the 
great international lawyer in Paris. 
Marine insurance, indemnity, Lloyds, 
and other insurance subjects fall 
under the chapter of this Guide 
For Insurance Men to which you 



should refer. Cargo-carrying and mer- 
chant shipping are further covered by 
Shipping (Vol. 24, p. 983). This article 
is by Douglas Owen, honorary secretary 
and treasurer of the Society of National 
Research, and author of Ports and 
Docks; it contains information about 
the great freight carrying lines of the 
world that can be found in no other 
book. Railroad freighting is covered 
by the article Railways (Vol. 22, p. 
819), in which there is a special 
section (p. 854b) on the new models of 
American freight cars. 

In the article United States, which 
contains more matter than a whole book 
of ordinary size and more information 
than a dozen ordi- 
Manufacturing nary books, the sec- 
and Consuming tions (Vol. 27, p. 
Nations 639) on manufac- 

tures and on foreign 
and domestic commerce, are by F. S. 
Philbrick, Ph.D. The internal com- 
merce of the United States, as this article 
states , is in itself greater than the total 
international commerce of the world, and 
is so far from exhausting the country's 
power of production and consumption, 
that even when coastwise traffic is dis- 
regarded, New York is the most active 
port in the world. A section (Vol. 
9, p. 916) of the article Europe deals 
with European commerce in general. 
The articles on the great manufacturing 
towns of Europe contain much in- 
formation as to industries. Great 
Britain's industries are dealt with 
in the article United Kingdom (Vol. 
27, p. 691). The industries of England 
alone are separately treated in a section 
(Vol. 9, p. 426) of the article England. 
Germany's industries are the subject of 
sections (Vol. 11, p. 811) of the article 
Germany; and it is interesting to note 
that although Germany has outranked 
France in cotton manufactures since 
Miilhausen, Colmar and other impor- 
tant milling centres of Alsace be- 
came German, France has retorted by 



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FOR MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS 



21 



overtaking and passing Germany in the 
production of linen. The sections (Vol. 
10, p. 785) on foreign commerce in the 
article France show her position as in 
the main a self-supporting country, 
though only a fourth of the cargoes 
loaded and discharged in French 
ports are carried under the French 
flag. It would be a waste of space 
to enumerate here the articles on 
Belgium, Switzerland, Italy and other 
countries, which you will consult in 
relation to those of their exports 
in which you are especially interested; 
but you should not overlook the article 
on Japan. The Britannica has done 
commerce a great service in giving to the 
world at last a good account of this 
extraordinary country. 

The body of the article Japan (Vol. 
15, p. 156) is by Capt. Brinkley, long 
editor of the Japan Mail, whose 
opportunities of seeing Japanese life 
from the inside have been greater 
than those of any other foreign ob- 
server. Baron Dairoku Kikuchi, Pres- 
ident of the Imperial University of 
Kyoto, a statesman of great experience 
and authority, contributes to the article 
a section (Vol. 15, p. 273) dealing with 
Japan's international position. His re- 
marks upon the commercial morality of 
the Japanese are so ingenuous and so 
candid that an extract from them cannot 
be omitted: 

Now when foreign trade was first opened, 
it was naturally not firms with long-established 
credit and methods that first ventured upon the 
new field of business — some few that did failed 
owing to their want of experience — it was rather 
enterprising and adventurous spirits with little 
capital or credit who eagerly flocked to the 



newly opened ports to try their fortune. It was 
not to be expected that all or most of those 
should be very scrupulous in their dealings with 
the foreigners; the majority of those adventurers 
failed, while a few of the abler men, generally 
those who believed in and practised honesty as 
the best policy, succeeded and came to occupy an 
honourable position as business men. . . . Com- 
merce and trade are now regarded as highly 
honourable professions, merchants and business 
men occupy the highest social positions, several 
of them having been lately raised to the peerage, 
and are as honourable a set of men as can be met 
anywhere. It is, however, to be regretted that 
in introducing Western business methods, it has 
not been quite possible to exclude some of their 
evils, such as promotion of swindling companies, 
tampering with members of legislature, and so 
forth. 

The account (Vol. 15, p. 201) by Capt. 
Brinkley of the curious system of cre- 
ating branches of Japanese business 
houses is another part of this article 
which should not be overlooked. 

The proportion of labour cost to the 
total cost of production is in most 
industries so great that you cannot study 

too carefully every 
Mill aspect of the labour 

Labour question. The chief 

articles are Labour 
Legislation (Vol. 16, p. 7), jointly writ- 
ten by the late Dr. Carroll D. Wright, 
the great American authority on the 
subject, and Miss A. M. Anderson, 
Principal Lady Inspector of Factories to 
the British government; Trades Union 
(Vol. 27, p. 140) ; Strikes and Lockouts 
(Vol. 25, p. 1024); Wages (Vol. 28, p. 
229), by Prof. J. S. Nicholson; Profit 
Sharing (Vol. 22, p. 423), by Aneurin 
Williams and Apprenticeship (Vol. 2, 
p. 228), by J. S. Ballin. The article 
Employers' Liability (Vol. 9, p. 356), 
has already been mentioned. 



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CHAPTER V 

FOR MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS 
OF TEXTILES 



THE Course of Reading outlined 
in this chapter will help anyone 
who has to do with the making 
or with the buying and selling of 
textiles, in three ways, at least, each 
of the greatest importance to him — and 
possibly in many more. Taking up 
these three. — In the first place, it will 
teach him many facts about manu- 
facturing and merchandizing in general, 
and about dry goods in particular, 
that he could learn nowhere else, 
because the scope of the Britannica 
is broader than that of any other 
book — or, for that matter, than the 
scope of any collegiate course can 
well be. In the second place, the 
number of distinguished men who 
have devoted their exclusive attention 
to the subjects upon which they write, 
find have given to the Britannica the 
results of their re- 
Practical Men search and of their 
Among the experience as practi- 

Contributors cal experts — in many 
cases, indeed, as suc- 
cessful business men — is far greater than 
the number of men who form the faculty 
of any university in the world. The 
fifteen hundred contributors in fact in- 
clude no less than 704 connected with the 
staffs of 151 different universities, tech- 
nological and commercial institutes and 
colleges in twenty countries. The reader 
thus gets the benefit of contact with 
the thought of many, of varied, and al- 
ways of authoritative, personalities. In 
the third place, the textile trade is 
peculiarly an international trade, the 



raw materials often traveling from one 
end of the world to the other before 
manufacture, and making as long a 
journey in the finished form, before they 
reach the consumer, and the inter- 
national character of the Britannica 
gives equal weight to the articles which 
deal with the textiles and with the 
markets of all countries — a statement 
which it would certainly not be safe to 
make about any other book. 

The article Fibers (Vol. 10, p. 309), by 
C. F. Cross, whose name has been much 
before the public in connection with the 
recent scientific in- 
Textile vestigation of the 
_,.. - subject, compares 
Fibres and the fibres yielded by 
their Treatment aU the % egetable 

and animal sub- 
stances used in textiles. The 18 
microscopic photographs on the full 
page plates (facing pp. 310 and 
311) and the table of vegetable 
fibres (p. 311) should be carefully 
studied. Cellulose (Vol. 5, p. 606) 
deals with the "body" of cotton, 
flax, hemp and jute fibres. Carding 
(Vol. 5, p. 324) deals with the brushing 
and combing of fibres. Spinning (Vol. 
25, p. 685) covers both cotton and 
linen, and it is curious to note from 
this article that in preparing yarns for 
the exquisite Dacca muslins one pound 
of cotton has been spun into a thread 
252 miles long; while the article Dacca 
says that a piece 15 feet by 8 was once 
woven that weighed only 900 grains. 
Yarn (Vol. 28, p. 906) deals with cotton, 



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23 



woollen and silk yarns. Weaving (Vol. 
28, p. 440), by Prof. T. W. Fox, author 
of . Mechanics of Weaving, and Alan 
Cole, is the first article you should read 
in a group dealing with processes applied 
to more than one material. The first 
section is on the various combinations of 
warp and weft, and contains 23 illus- 
trations showing the chief weaving 
"schemes." A section on weaving ma- 
chinery follows, and then one on weaving 
as an art, illustrated with a number of 
reproductions of famous specimens of 
hand-loom work. The whole article is 
full of practical every-day information 
of the kind the merchant and manu- 
facturer wants to know. Bleaching 
(Vol. 4, p. 49) describes the chemical pro- 
cesses which have expedited the bleach- 
ing of cotton, wool, linen and silk, which 
it used to take all summer to complete. 
Dyeing (Vol. 8, p. 744), by Prof. 
Hummel, author of The Dyeing of 
Textile Fabrics, and Prof. Knecht, 
author of A Manual of Dyeing, is 
another of the thorough articles which 
entitle the Britannica to rank as a great 
original work on textiles. Every dye is 
separately treated, and the latest models 
of dyeing machinery are carefully de- 
scribed. Finishing (Vol. 10, p. 378) 
deals with the processes used for cotton, 
woollens, worsteds, pile fabrics, silks and 
yarns. Textile-Printing (Vol. 26, p. 
694) is by Prof. Knecht and Alan Cole, 
author of Ornament in European Silks, 
and not only describes all the styles of 
printing, but gives sixty recipes for 
various shades of colour. The full page 
plates reproduce fine specimens of early 
printing. The art of textile-printing " is 
very ancient, probably originating in the 
East. It has been practised in China 
and India from time immemorial, and the 
Chinese, at least, are known to have 
made use of engraved wood-blocks many 
centuries before any kind of printing was 
known in Europe." 

The elaborate article Cotton (Vol. 
7, p. 256) begins by discussing the pe- 



culiar twist of the hairs on the cotton 
seed which by facili- 
Cotton and tating spinning gives 

Cotton Fabrics cotton its predomi- 
nant position as a 
textile material. The section on culti- 
vation, by W. G. Freeman, deals with 
the soils, bedding, planting, hoeing and 
picking, then with ginning and baling. 
A section on diseases and pests of the 
cotton plant follows, then a discussion 
of the improvement of yield by seed 
selection. The section on marketing and 
supply is by Prof. Chapman, and his 
practical study of "futures," "options," 
and "straddles" shows how greatly the 
movement of prices is affected by specu- 
lation and often by artificial manipula- 
tion. 

Cotton Manufacturing (Vol. 7, p. 
281) describes the industry in England, 
that of the United States, with a special 
section on the recent developments in 
the two Carolinas, Georgia and Alabama, 
and also the mills in Germany, France, 
Russia, Switzerland, Italy and in other 
countries, including India, China and 
Japan. It is interesting to note (p. 293) 
that "Americans were making vast 
strides in industrial efficiency even be- 
fore the period when American theories 
and American enterprise were monopo- 
lizing in a wonderful degree the attention 
of the business world" abroad. As far 
back as 1875 progress in the United 
States was so rapid that the production 
for each operative had increased during 
the ten years 1865-75,by 100%in Massa- 
chusetts as against only 23% in England. 
One explanation of American success is 
that the American employer "tries to 
save in labour but not in wages, if a 
generalization may be ventured. The 
good workman gets high pay, but he is 
kept at tasks requiring his powers and 
is not suffered to waste his time doing 
the work of unskilled or boy labour." 

Cotton Spinning Machinery (Vol. 
7, p. 301) describes all the machines in 
great detail and contains a number of 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



full-page plates and other illustrations. 
Mercerizing (Vol. 18, p. 150) is another 
important article. 

Wool, Worsted and Woollen Manu- 
factures (Vol. 28, p. 805) is by Prof. 
Aldred F. Barker. The development in 
wool production of 
Wool, Linen various countries is 

and Silk first described and 

then the wool fibre 
is studied and microscopic photographs 
reproduced to show the structure of 
different varieties. A diagram of a 
fleece shows the qualities obtained from 
various parts of the animal, ranging from 
the shoulders, where the finest is found, 
to the hind quarters. Lamb, hogg and 
wether wools are compared and the 
article discusses shearing, classing, sort- 
ing, scouring, drying, teasing, burring, 
mule spinning, combing, drawing and 
spinning. The centres of the industry 
are then compared, with details as to the 
special products of each. The article 
contains illustrations of a number of 
machines. Articles dealing with certain 
sources of wool or of the wool-like hair 
used in textiles, and with the finished 
products, are: Alpaca (Vol. 1, p. 721), 
the history of its manufacture being " one 
of the romances of commerce;" Mohair 
(Vol. 18, p. 647), which deals with the 
hair of the Angora goat, familiar from 
discussions of the Underwood Tariff bill, 
and dealing with its weaving and the 
imitations of the cloth; Llama (Vol. 
16, p. 827); and the articles Guanaco 
(Vol. 12, p. 649) and Vicugna (Vol. 28, 
p. 47), on the two wild animals from 
whose hair high priced materials, extra- 
ordinarily warm and light, are woven. 

Flax (Vol. 10, p. 484) describes the 
cultivation of the crops which are har- 
vested by being "pulled," roots and all, 
instead of being cut, the process of separ- 
ating the capsules from the branches, and 
the subsequent stages of preparation. 
Linen and Linen Manufactures (Vol. 
16, p. 724), by Thomas Woodhouse, takes 
up the story where the flax fibre is ready 



for market and carries it to the point 
where the yarn is delivered for weaving. 
The winding, warping, dressing and 
beaming, and the looms employed, are 
virtually the same processes and ma- 
chines that are used for cotton. The 
article states that the finest linen threads 
used for lace are produced by Belgian 
hand spinners who can only get the 
desired results by working in damp cel- 
lars, the spinner being guided by touch 
alone, as the filament is too fine for him 
to see. This thread is said to have been 
sold for as much as $72 an ounce. 

Jute (Vol. 15, p. 603) deals with the 
vegetable fibre which ranks, in its in- 
dustrial importance, next after cotton 
and flax and with the processes employed 
in its manufacture. 

Silk (Vol. 25, p. 96) contains illustra- 
tions of cocoons and worms, microsco- 
pic photographs of fibre, and pictures 
of the moths which produce wild silk. 
The section on the fibre and its pro- 
duction and preparation is by Frank 
Warner, president of the Silk Associa- 
tion of Great Britain and Ireland; and 
that on the silk trade by Arthur Mellor, 
a well known manufacturer of Maccles- 
field, the great British center. The de- 
gree of fineness to which silk thread can 
be spun is stated (Vol. 28, p. 906) to 
be such that 450,000 yards of thread 
have been produced from one pound of 
silk, and this is slightly in excess of 
the fineness of the Dacca cotton thread 
already mentioned as producing 252 
miles for a pound. But at Cambrai the 
lace maker's linen thread already des- 
cribed has been made as fine as 272 
miles to the pound, and the drawing of 
platinum wire to the fifty-thousandth 
part of an inch in thickness (Vol. 28, p. 
738) seems hardly more wonderful than 
this. Spider silk is as valuable as the 
best qualities of the silk-worm product, 
but spiders are such fierce cannibals that 
it is necessary to keep each one in a 
separate cage, and the cost of doing 
this has prevented the fibre from being 



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25 



generally used (Vol. 25, p. 664). Arti- 
ficial or "viscose" silk is described in 
the article Cellulose (Vol. 5, p. 609), 
and is a textile of which the importance 
is rapidly increasing. 

Felting is an even older textile process 
than weaving, just as weaving, which no 
doubt originated in basket making (Vol. 
3, p. 481) is older than spinning. The 
article Felt (Vol. 10, p. 245) deals with 
asphalted felts used for roofing as well 
as with the hat felts; and the article Hat 
(Vol. 13, p. 60) gives further details as to 
both woollen and fur felts and describes 
the machinery for hatmaking, which 
originated in the United States. 

Save that gold, silver and other metals 
are occasionally used in cloth or gauze, 
Asbestos (Vol. 2, p. 714) is the only 
mineral employed in textiles, and its 
value for jacketing steam pipes and 
boilers and for insulating fabrics and fire- 
proofing gives it great importance. 
Ramie (Vol. 22, p. 875) is not so 
largely used in textiles, but experiments 
in the production of better fibre are 
being made. 

Shoddy (Vol. 24, p. 992) is an article 
which shows how unfair it is to treat the 
re-manufacture of "devilled" fabric as 
an illegitimate if not absolutely fraudu- 
lent branch of the textile industry, for 
really serviceable cloths are woven from 
it, and masses of poor people who would 
otherwise be in rags are thus comfortably 
clad. " Mungo," another re-manu- 
factured cloth, is described (Vol. 28, p. 
'906) in the article Yarn. Pineapple 
fibre is described (Vol. 10, p. 311) as of 
exceptional fineness and is used in yarn 
cloths of the best quality. The article 
Pine-apple (Vol. 21, p. 625) describes 
its culture. Sisal Hemp (Vol. 25, p. 
158) is used in bagging as well as cord- 
age, and the same is true of Phormium 
(Vol. 21, p. 471), sometimes called New 
Zealand flax. Paper pulp yields a yarn 
which is used in some cheap fabrics as 
described (Vol. 5, p. 609) in the article 
Cellulose already mentioned. 



The many varieties of woven cloths 
are described in the articles already men- 
tioned in the manufacture of cotton, 
linen, wool, and silk, 
Textile and in articles on 

Merchandise special fabrics. Hos- 

iery (Vol. 13, p. 
788) covers the textiles that are produced 
by knitting or looping, and gives an 
account, with illustrations, of the ma- 
chinery employed. Net (Vol. 19, p. 
412) covers the textiles of which the 
mesh is knotted. 

Lace (Vol. 16, p. 37), by Alan Cole, 
contains some of the most beautiful full- 
page plates and other illustrations to be 
found in the Britannica, and is a very 
full treatise on the history and the pres- 
ent state of the lace-making art. 

Flannel (Vol. 10, p. 480) describes 
the true flannels made from wool, and 
Flannelette (Vol. 10, p. 481) the cotton 
imitations and the new fire-resisting 
fabrics of this class. Drill (Vol. 8, p. 
580) covers both the cotton and linen 
tissues sold under this name. Crepe 
(Vol. 7, p. 879) mentions the curious 
fact that the Chinese and Japanese 
makers of soft crepe guard their secret 
processes, which are still unknown to 
western manufacturers, so carefully that 
the different stages of their production 
are carried on in towns far distant from 
one another. 

Carpet (Vol. 5, p. 392) contains full- 
page plates of rare specimens and de- 
scribes pile carpets, flat-surfaced carpets 
and the printed carpetings. 

Tapestry (Vol. 26, p. 403) deals with 
another luxurious branch of the textile 
industry, and is illustrated with pho- 
tographs of the finest specimens and 
with pictures showing the methods of 
weaving. Brocade (Vol. 4, p. 620) 
describes and illustrates this stately class 
of fabrics. Embroidery (Vol. 9, p. 309) 
with six full-page plates and Shawl (Vol. 
24, p. 814) deal with other art textiles. 

Tartan (Vol. 26, p. 431) describes 
I the colours and patterns of all Scottish 



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26 



BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



clan tartans. Damask (Vol. 7, p. 785) 
discusses this fine class of fabrics, the 
weaving of which is the subject of a 
special section (Vol. 28, p. 454) of the 
article Weaving. The enormous con- 
sumption of coarse bags for the packing 
of raw cotton and of sugar gives im- 
portance to the articles Bagging (Vol. 
3, p. £00) and Sacking and Sack Manu- 
facture (Vol. 23, p. 975) . Canvas (Vol. 
5, p. ££3) discusses sail cloth and artists' 
canvas, and Tarpaulin (Vol. 26, p. 430) 
deals with waterproof covers. 

It is unnecessary to describe one by 
one the seventy articles on other fabrics 
and tissues, ranging through the alpha- 
bet from Alpaca to 
The Seventy Velveteen; but they 

Articles on are all included in 

Special Fabrics the list at the end of 
this chapter, and all 
are fully described in the Britannica. 
Costume (Vol. 7, p. 224) is a long and 
important article, with a full page plate 
and many other illustrations. The sec- 
tion on dress in general is by T. A. 
Joyce, of the British Museum staff, that 
on ancient costumes by H. S. Jones, 
director of the British School at Rome, 
and that on modern costume by Oswald 
Barron, editor of The Ancestor. The 
account of underclothing is of especial 
interest, as most books on costume alto- 
gether neglect this branch of the subject. 
Another section of this article is on 
national and official costumes by W. 
Alison Phillips, principal assistant edi- 
tor of the Britannica. The study of 
ceremonial robes is carried into further 
detail by the article Robe (Vol. 23, p. 
408), with its five richly colored plates, 
in one of which the judicial robes of the 
U. S. Supreme Court Justices are shown. 
Liturgical vestments are dealt with in 
Vestments (Vol. 28, p. 27) and in a 
series of articles such as Dalmatic (Vol. 
7, p. 776) and Alb (Vol. 1, p. 497). 

Among the biographies which are of 
interest in connection with textiles are 
those of Arkwright, Richard (Vol. 2, 



p. 556), the barber who invented the 
spinning frame; Cartwright, Edmund, 
(Vol. 5, p. 425), inventor of the power 

loom ; Crompton, 
Inventors of Samuel (Vol. 7, p. 

Textile Machinery 486), inventor of 
and Great Textile the spinning mule; 
Merchants Salt, Titus (Vol. 

23, p. 87), who 
created the alpaca industry; Strutt, 
Jedediah (Vol. 25, p. 1044), who did much 
to perfect the manufacture of cotton; and 
of Whitney, Eli (Vol. 28, p. 611), who 
went from Yale to Savannah to secure a 
position as school teacher and then, be- 
ing disappointed, turned his attention to 
a device for separating the cotton fibre 
from the seeds and refuse, and invented 
the gin which has "profoundly influ- 
enced American industrial economic and 
social history." Another name of a great 
American inventor who individually ren- 
dered great services to the textile indus- 
try is that of Howe, Elias (Vol. 13, p. 
835), who invented the sewing machine. 
You will also be interested in the lives 
of successful merchants such as Ca- 
nynges, William (Vol. 5, p. 223), the 
great 15th Century cloth manufacturer 
who became a clergyman after making 
a large fortune; Mackintosh, Charles 
(Vol. 17, p. 250), who introduced light- 
weight waterproof garments; Wana- 
maker, John (Vol.28, p. 302), who began 
life as an errand boy in a book store ; Field, 
Marshall (Vol. 10, p. 322), who when 
Chicago was a comparatively unimpor- 
tant city founded there what has become . 
the finest dry goods store in the world; 
Stewart, A. T. (Vol. 25, p. 912), who 
after studying for the ministry in Dub- 
lin, immigrated to New York and gradu- 
ally built up the largest retail store in 
the city; Pease, Edward (Vol. 21, p. 
31), founder of a famous Quaker family 
of textile manufacturers in England; and 
Claflin, H. B. (Vol. 6, p. 418), who came 
from Worcester, Mass., to New York 
where he for years controlled " the great- 
est mercantile business in the world.' ' 



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27 



If you turn to the Article Worcester 
(Vol. 28, p. 823) you will note the 
associations of the locality with Elias 
Howe, Eli Whitney, Samuel Crompton, 
already mentioned, L. J. Knowles, 
another inventor who helped to perfect 
the power loom, and Erastus Bigelow, 
who invented the carpet-weaving ma- 
chine (Vol. 6, p. 580) and was one of 
the incorporators of the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology. Other lives of 
successful textile makers and dealers are 
those of Rylands, John (Vol. 23, p. 
950), founder of the largest cotton mills 
in Lancashire; Dexter, Timothy (Vol. 



Alb 
Alpaca 

Apprenticeship 
Arkwright, Richard 
Artel 
Asbestos 
Bagging 
Baize 
Bleaching 

Bombazine or Bombasine 
Book-keeping 
Bounty 
Brocade 
Buckram 
Bunting 
Calender 
Calico 
Cambric 
Camel 
Canvas 

Canynges, William 
Carding 
Carpet 

Cartwright, Edmund 
Cellulose 
Chasuble 
Cheese Cloth 
Chenille 
Chintz 

Claflin, H. B. 
Cloth 
Clouting 
Codilla 
Coir 

Commerce 
Corduroy 
Costume 
Cotton 

Cotton Manufacture 
Cotton Spinning Ma- 
chinery 
Crash 
Cravat 



INCIPAL ARTICLES 


IN THE BRITA 


RCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS 


Crepe 


Howe, Elias, 


Cretonne 


Huckaback 


Crompton, Samuel 


Jute 


Dalmatic 


Knitting 


Damask 


Lace 


Denim 


Lawn 


Dexter, Timothy 


Linen 


Demurrage 


Llama 


Diaper 


Longcloth 


Die 


Manila Hemp 
Macintosh, Charles 


Dimity 


Dowlas 


Maniple 
Mantle 


Drill 


Duck 


Matting 


Dyeing 


Mercantile System 


Embroidery 


Mercerizing 


Felt 


Merchant 


Fibres 


Mohair 


Field, Marshall 


Moleskin 


Finishing 


Mull 


Flannel 


Muslin 


Flannelette 


Nankeen 


Flax 


Net 


Flock 


Osnaburg 


Floorcloth 


Padding 
Pease, Edward 


Frock 


Fustian 


Petticoat 


Gante 


Phormium 


Gauze 


Pine-apple 


Gimp 


Plaid 


Gingham 
Girdle 


Plush 


Poplin or Tabinet 


Glass Cloth 


Print 


Guanaco 


Protection 


Gunny 


Ramie 


Haberdasher 


Rep 


Hat 


Ribbons 


Hessian 


Ring 


Holland 


Robes 


Honeycomb 


Rylands, John 


Horrocks, John 


Sacking 


Hosiery 


Salt, Titus 


Hose-pipe 


Salvage 



8, p. 141), the eccentric New England 
merchant of the 18th Century who beat 
his wife for not weeping heartily enough 
at the rehearsal of his funeral; Hor- 
rocks, John (Vol. 13, p. 712), the great 
English cotton manufacturer who was 
far ahead of his time and died of brain 
fever produced by overwork in 1804; 
Worth, C. F. (Vol. 28, p. 834), the 
famous Paris dressmaker who began 
life as a London draper's apprentice; 
Whitely, William (Vol. 28, p. 605), 
"the Universal Provider," of London; 
and Tata, J. N. (Vol. 26, p. 448), the 
great Parsee textile manufacturer. 



Scarf 
Scrim 
Shawl 
Sheet 
Shoddy 
Silk 

Sisal Hemp 
Sleeve 
Spinning 
Stewart, A. T. 
Stocking 
Stole 

Strutt, Jedediah 
Tare and Tret 
Tariff 
Tarpaulin 
Tartan 
Tata, J. N. 
Tapestry 

Technical Education 
Textile-printing 
Ticking 
Tow 
Towel 
Trousers 
Tulle 
Twill 
Veil 
Velvet 
Velveteen 
Vestments 
Vicugna 

Wanamaker, John 
Weaving 

Whiteley, William 
Whitney, Eli 
Wool, Worsted and Wool- 
len Manufactures 
Worth, C. F. 
Yarn 



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CHAPTER VI 

FOR MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS OF 

MACHINERY 



AN appreciation of the science 
of mechanical engineering is so 
indispensable to the manufac- 
ture and sale of machinery that the 
reader of this Guide might simply 
have been referred to the chapter For 
Engineers as covering the industry, if it 
were not that the Britannica contains (as 
the list at the end of this chapter shows) 
a great number of articles dealing with 
individual machines. The amount of 
space which the new Britannica devotes 
to mechanical subjects, and the great 
number of expert contributors whose col- 
laboration was enlisted in this connec- 
tion, are significant from more than one 
point of view. All other general ency- 
clopaedias, including earlier editions of 
the Britannica itself, seem to have been 
influenced by the old-fashioned fetish of 
"pure" scholarship and "pure" science, 
treating theory as a 
A Change in subject of study 
Public Opinion much more digni- 
fied than the ap- 
plication of knowledge to the practical 
affairs of life. Until recent days the 
great universities of such important 
manufacturing countries as England, 
Germany and France were almost exclu- 
sively devoted to the teaching of phi- 
losophy, history, Greek and Latin, math- 
ematics and pure or natural science. 
The older universities of the United 
States, too, were for a long time reluctant 
to recognize the growing importance of 
technical education, and the necessity, 
apart from technical education, of giving 
the general student some knowledge of 
mechanics. And it is a significant fact that 
the Britannica, the first encyclopaedia 



that has ever been published by a uni- 
versity, should be, although it comes 
from one of the oldest of all universities, 
the first to give full recognition to the 
importance of this department of knowl- 
edge. 

Men in the machinery trade will wel- 
come this change of attitude in the Bri- 
tannica, not because they crave a public 
acknowledgment of the great share of 
the world's work that they are doing, 
but because public ignorance of mechan- 
ical subjects results in the abuse of ma- 
chines and in unreasonable complaints 
against manufacturers when improperly 
used machinery fails to do its work. A 
curious illustration of the general disre- 
gard of the subject is supplied by the 
fact — as true of the United States as of 
England, Germany or France — that rep- 
resentative government is, in practice, 
chiefly government by lawyers, and that 
in this age of machinery it is the excep- 
tion to find in the cabinet which directs 
the affairs of any country, a single mem- 
ber who has any knowledge of mechanics. 
The same ignorance is conspicuous in 
newspaper offices. Even the most digni- 
fied dailies seem unable to deal with any 
news that has to do with machinery with- 
out making ridiculous blunders. 

Fortunately, the automobile is begin- 
ning to stimulate interest in practical me- 
chanics, for no one can attempt to drive 
his own car, or even 
Influence of to obtain proper 

Automobiles service from his 

chauffeur and from 
garage workmen, without realizing that 
he failed, at school, to learn some of the 
most useful of lessons. Before long the 



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29 



authorities responsible for our public 
schools may realize that it is absolute 
barbarism to neglect mechanical teach- 
ing as they do; and the new Britannica is 
already doing good service in stimulating 
public interest in the subject. 

An examination of the articles men- 
tioned in detail in the following summary, 
and a glance at the long list of articles at 
the end of the chapter, will show the 
comprehensiveness with which the Bri- 
tannica treats all types of machinery. The 
materials employed are, logically, the 
first subjects upon which information 
will be desired. 

Iron and Steel (Vol. 14, p. 801), by 
Professor H. M. Howe of Columbia Uni- 
versity, is a mine of information about 
the properties and uses of the different 
varieties of the indispensable metal of 
which 50,000,000 tons per annum are 
employed. In the manufacture of elec- 
trical apparatus Copper (Vol. 7, p. 102) 
is largely employed, and for this reason 
alone the article has great value for the 
manufacturer. Almost as important is 
Alloys (Vol. 1, p. 704). Its chief author, 
Sir William Chandler Roberts-Austen, is 
the greatest living authority on alloys, 
and it is full of interesting facts about 
new admixtures. 

The processes of Annealing, Harden- 
ing and Tempering are described in J. 
G. Horner's article under that title (Vol. 
2, p. 70). This authority explains clearly 
the difference between hardening and 
tempering and gives valuable advice as to 
the most efficient methods of hardening. 
Founding (Vol. 10, p. 743), also by J. G. 
Horner, is fully illustrated, and the ques- 
tion of the highest economies of machine 
moulding are among the practical mat- 
ters considered. Forging (Vol. 10, p. 
663), with 19 illustrations, discusses ful- 
lering, swaging, upsetting, bending, weld- 
ing, pinching, cutting-off, and die-forg- 
ing. There is also a separate article, 
Welding (Vol. 28), in which the section 
on Electric Welding is written by Elihu 
Thomson, who invented the process. A 



table of energy used in electric welding is 
added. See also Brazing and Solder- 
ing (Vol. 4, p. 463). 

The designer of machinery will find 
much practical information in Drawing, 
Drawing Office Work (Vol. 8, p. 556), and 
Sun-Copying (Vol. 
Manufacturing 26, p. 93). It is a 
Methods remarkable fact that 

prints identical in 
scale with the originals are now made up 
to a length of 22 feet. 

Bearings (Vol. 3, p. 578), illustrated, 
is written by Professor Dalby of the 
South Kensington Central Technical 
College. The article Tool (Vol. 27, p. 
14), by J. G. Horner, is 33 pages in 
length and has 79 illustrations. The 
whole subject is completely covered. In 
the section on Machine Tools are dis- 
cussed turning lathes, reciprocating ma- 
chines, machines with drill and bore 
holes, milling machines, machines for 
cutting the teeth of gear wheels, grinding 
machinery, sawing machines, shearing 
and punching machines, hammers and 
presses, portable tools, appliances, wood- 
working machines, and measurement. In 
regard to the last subject great advances 
have lately been made. A thousandth of 
an inch is now considered a coarse dimen- 
sion in the machine shop, where gauges 
within one five-thousandth of an inch are 
often used. This article is an invaluable 
manual for the machine-shop, and sup- 
plies many hints which should be given 
to workmen, for, to use the author's 
words, "a clumsy workman is as much 
out of place in a modern machine-shop as 
he would be in a watch-factory." An- 
other article useful to the mechanic is 
Screw (Vol. 24, p. 477), with 10 illustra- 
tions, by J. G. Horner, with a section on 
the Errors of Screws, by the late Henry 
A. Rowland, the American physicist, 
whose skill, shown in the construction of 
dividing engines of extraordinary preci- 
sion and delicacy, made him famous the 
world over. See also Graduation (Vol. 
12, p. 312). 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



The articles on the prime-movers are 
an important and noteworthy part of the 
new Britannica. Professor Ewing, of 
Cambridge University, contributes Air 
Engine (Vol. 1, p. 
Engines and 443) and Steam Ex- 

Motors gine (Vol. 25, p. 

818), both fully illus- 
trated. The latter has a most interesting 
preliminary historical account of engines 
from the aeolipile of Hero of Alexandria 
(about 130 B.C.) to the steam-turbine, 
the most modern type of all. The newest 
forms of internal combustion motors, Oil 
Engine (Vol. 20, p. 35) and Gas Engine 
(Vol. 11, p. 495), are described by Dugald 
Clerk, inventor of the Clerk cycle gas 
engine, and the articles are fully illus- 
trated. Under Hydraulics (Vol. 14, p. 
91) will be found complete information 
as to the construction of water-pressure 
engines, water-wheels, turbines, and also 
pumps. The article is written by Profes- 
sor W. C. Unwin, and has been univer- 
sally declared to be the best treatise on 
the subject that has yet appeared. There 
is a separate illustrated article Water- 
Motors (Vol. 28, p. 382), by Professor 
Beare of Edinburgh University. See also 
Windmill (Vol. 28, p. 710). 

Designers and constructors of elec- 
trical machinery will be greatly inter- 
ested in C. C. Hawkins' illustrated article 
Dynamo (Vol. 8, p. 764), which explains 
fully how the dynamo is constructed and 
gives its history from Faraday's discovery 
of the principle in 1831. Dr. Louis Bell, 
of the General Electric Co., writes on 
Motors, Electric (Vol. 18, p. 910). 

In hundreds of articles on manufactur- 
ing and manufactured products there are 
excellent descriptions of the machinery 
employed. Cotton-Spinning Machin- 
ery (Vol. 7, p. 301), by Professor Fox, of 
Manchester University, gives details, 
with illustrations, of the modern systems 
of spinning, all founded on the inventions 
of Paul, Arkwright, Hargreaves and 
Crompton, while an historical account of 
primitive machines as well as much prac- 



tical information, will be found under 
Spinning (Vol. 25, p. 685). Weaving 
has a section Weaving Machinery (Vol. 

28, p. 443). An ac- 
Machinery count of the special 

for Special machinery and ap- 

Purposes pliances used in the 

manufacture of wool- 
lens is included in Professor Barker's 
illustrated article Wool, Worsted and 
Woollen Manufactures (Vol. 28, p. 
805). In Hosiery (Vol. 13, p. 788) we 
learn about frame-work knitting and 
warp-knitting machines. It is recorded 
that up to the middle of the 19th century 
only a flat web could be knitted, and that 
a circular knitting machine of American 
origin is the type of machine on which is 
produced the seamless hosiery of to-day. 
This was introduced by J. W. Lamb in 
1863. Rope and Rope Making (Vol. 23, 
p. 713), by Thomas Woodhouse, of the 
Dundee Technical College, is richly illus- 
trated with pictures of the most modern 
type of machinery for the manufacture of 
fibre and wire ropes. The various ma- 
chines and apparatus for sugar making 
are carefully described in Sugar, Sugar 
Manufacture (Vol. 26, p. 35). For mill- 
ing machinery see Flour and Flour 
Manufacture (Vol. 10, p. 548), by 
George F. Zimmer, author of Mechanical 
Handling of Material. The latest designs 
in agricultural machines, with illustra- 
tions, as well as a history of their develop- 
ment, will be found under Plough and 
Ploughing (Vol. 21, p. 850), Sowing 
(Vol. 25, p. 523), Harrow (Vol. 13, p. 
27), Reaping (Vol. 22, p. 944), Thrash- 
ing (Vol. 26, p. 887), etc. It is a matter 
of interest that the first successful reap- 
ing-machine was invented by a Scotch 
clergyman in 1826. For machinery used 
in the modern dairy see Dairy and 
Dairy Products (Vol. 7, p. 750). The 
germ of the sewing machine dates back 
to 1755, and the whole story of its de- 
velopment is told in Sewing Machines 
(Vol. 24, p. 744). The descriptions of 
machinery of various kinds are continued 



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under such headings as Brewing, Brew- 
ing Operations (Vol. 4, p. 506), illustrated; 
Bellows and Blowing Machines 
(Vol. 3, p. 705), illustrated ; Pin (Vol. 
21. p. 615); Needle 
(Vol. 19, p. 338); Ty- 
pography, Modem 
Practical Typography 
(Vol. 27, p. 542), 
illustrated; Printing (Vol. 22, p. 350), 
illustrated; Bookbinding, Modern Meth- 
ods (Vol. 4, p. 218), illustrated; Textile 
Printing (Vol. 26, p. 694); Alkali 
Manufacture (Vol. 1, p. 674), illus- 
trated; Refrigerating and Ice Mak- 
ing (Vol. 23, p. 30); Silk, SUk Manufac- 



A Vast 

Encyclopaedia 
of Machinery 



ture (Vol. 25, p. 102); Lace, Machine- 
made Lace (Vol. 16, p. 44), illustrated; 
Carpet, Modern Machinery (Vol. 5, p. 
396); Leather (Vol. 16, p. 330), illus- 
trated; Bicycle (Vol. 3, p. 913), illus- 
trated; Typewriter (Vol. 27, p. 501), il- 
lustrated; Dredge and Dredging (Vol. 
8, p. 562), illustrated; and Paper, Paper 
Manufacture (Vol. 20, p. 727), illus- 
trated. 

Biographies of many inventors, de- 
signers and builders of machines are in- 
cluded in the list of articles at the end of 
the chapter For Engineers in this Guide, 
and are therefore omitted in the following 
alphabetical summary. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL MACHINES AND APPLIANCES 

DESCRIBED IN THE BRITANNICA AND GENERAL SUBJECTS 

AND ARTICLES ON MACHINERY 



Accumulator 

Acetylene Generator 

Aerating Apparatus 

Aeroplane 

Air Brake 

Alternators 

Alloys 

Ammunition Hoist 

Anemometer 

Annealing, Hardening 
and Tempering 

Archimedes, Screw of 

Babbitt's Metal 

Back-starching Mangle 

Bale-breakers 

Band-knife Cutting 
Machine 

Barbed Wire Machin- 
ery 

Barker's Mill 

Barrel Organ 

Bearings 

Beating Machine 

Beetling Machine 

Bellows and Blowing 
Machines 

Bessemer Convertor 

Bevel 

Bicycle 

Black - ash Revolving 
Furnace 

Blast Furnace 

Blocking Machine 

Boiler 

Bolt - screwing Ma- 
chines 

Book-sewing Machine 

Boring Tools 

Brake, Hydraulic 



Brass 

Brazing and Soldering 

Breaker Card 

Brewing Machinery 

Bronze 

Bundling Press 

Burner 

Butter Worker 

Butyrometer 

Calculating Machines 

Calender Machine 

Calipers 

Calorimeter 

Carburetter 

Carding Engine 

Carpet-making Machin- 
ery 

Case-making Machine 

Casing-in Machine 

Centrifugal Machines 

Chisel 

Chronograph 

Chucks 

Churn, Mechanical 

Clepsydra, or Water- 
clock 

Clock 

Coal-cutting Machines 

Coal-wedging Machines 

Coal-weighing Machine 

Coining Press 

Comber 

Compressed - air Ma- 
chines 

Continuous Press 

Conveyors 

Copper 

Copying Machines 

Core-making 



Cotton-gin 

Cotton - spinning Ma- 
chinery 

Cranes 

Crushing Machine 

Cultivator 

Current Meter 

Curvometer 

Cutting Machines 

Cutting Tools 

Damping Machines 

Dash Wheel 

Depth Recorder 

Die 

Differential Machines 

Dividing Engines 

Diving Bell 

Doublers 

Dough Kneaders 

Dough Dividers and 
Moulders 

Dough Mixers 

Drawing-box 

Drawing-frame 

Drawing-office 

Dredgers 

Dressing Machine 

Drill 

Drop Hammer 

Drying Machine, Hori- 
zontal 

Dye-jigger 

Dynamo 

Dynamometer 

Eccentric 

Elevators, Lifts and 
Hoists 

Error of Screws 

Fans, Rotary 



Fire-engines 

Flour-sifters 

Flying Machines 

Fly-shuttle 

Forging 

Forging Press, Hy- 
draulic 

Founding 

Friction 

Furnace 

Gas Engine 

Gas Plants 

Gas Producers 

Gill Frame 

Glass-blowing Machine 

Glass Press 

Graduation 

Gravity Stamp 

Grinding Machinery 

Gyroscope and Gyro- 
stat 

Hackling and Spread- 
ing Machine 

Half-stuff Machine 

Hammer 

Hand Drill, Electric 

Harrow 

Hat-making Machines 

Hay Elevator 

Hide Mill, or Double- 
Acting Stock 

Hoe, Horse 

Holden Burner 

Hydraulic Machines 

Hydraulics 

Hydro-extractors 

Ice-making Machines 

Indicator 

Injector 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



Integrators 

Iron and Steel 

Ironing Machines 

Jigger, Hydraulic 

Jigs 

Jute-Crusher 

Jute-Opener 

Jute-softening Machine 

Kier 

Knitting Machines 

Labour Legislation 

Lace Machines 

Lappet Looms 

Lathe, Automatic 

Laundry Machines 

Lever 

Lifts, Hydraulic 

Linotype Machine 

Liquid-air Machine 

Lithographing Ma- 

chines 

Loaders 

Lock 

Locomotives 

Loom 

Lubricants 

Luggage-weighing ma- 
chine, Automatic 

Machine 

Machine Gun 

Machine Moulding 

Mandrel Lathe 

Mangling Machines 

Manometer 

Measuring Machine 

Mercerizing Machines 

Metal-turning Tools 

Meter, Electric 

Micrometer 

Microtome 

Milling Cutters 

Milling Machines 

Milling Stock 

Monotype Machine 

Mortising Machine 

Motors, Electric 

Motor Vehicles 

Mowers 



Mule, Crompton's 

Nail Machines 

Needle Machines 

Netting Machine 

Oil Engine 

Oil Muffle Furnace 

Opening Machine 

Ore-Breaker 

Pantograph 

Paper - making Ma- 
chines 

Patent logs 

Patents 

Perpetual Motion 

Phonograph 

Phosphor Bronze 

Pin Machine 

Pig-casting Machine 

Planimeters 

Planing Tools 

Plug and Ring Gauge 

Pneumatic Hammer 

Potter's Wheel 

Power-looms 

Power Transmission 

Price-c omputing 
Weighing Machine 

Printing Presses 

Pulley 

Pumps 

Purifiers 

Rag Boiler, Revolving 

Rag-breaking Engine 

Rake, Horse 

Reaping Machines 

Reciprocating M a - 
chines 

Rectifiers 

Reel Paper-Cutter 

Reels 

Refrigerating Machines 

Remontoire 

Reverbatory Furnace 

Rifling Machine 

Ring-frame 

Rock Drill 

Rod Gauge 

Roller Milling Machine 



Roller Washing Ma- 
chine 

Rolling, Mill 

Rope-making Machines 

Rotary Washing Ma- 
chines 

Rounding and Backing 
Machines 

Rusden and Eeles 
Burner 

Salt-cake Furnace, Me- 
chanical 

Sawing Machines 

Scalpers 

Screw cutting 

Screw - Gill Drawing 
Frames 

Screw-thread gauge 

Screw 

Screwing Machine 

Scutcher 

Separators 

Sewing Machines 

Shaping Machines 

Shearing and Punching 
Machines 

Shuttles 

Signal Lever 

Silk-reeling Machine 

Slide-rule 

Slime-tables 

Slotter Tools 

Sowing Machines 

Spinning-jinny 

Splitting Machine 

Steam Engine 

Steam Hammers 

Steam Plough 

Steam Turbines 

Stentering Frame 

Still 

Stocking Frame 

Strength of Materials 

Sugar-making Machin- 
ery 

Sugar Weighing Ma- 
chine, Automatic 

Sulphuric-Acid Plant 



Sun Copying 

Swathe Turners 

Sweep Rake 

Table, Mathematical 

Tea-weighing Machine 

Teasel 

Technical Education 

Testing Machines 

Thermodynamics 

Thrashing Machines 

Throstle 

Tool 

Tractors, Steam and 
Oil 

Trepans 

Turbine 

Turning Lathes 

Turret Lathe 

Type-setting Machines 

Typewriter 

Units, Physical 

Vacuum brake 

Valve 

Vanners 

Vernier 

Voting Machines 

Vidcanizer 

Washing Machines 

Wash Mill 

Watch 

Water Motors 

Water - pressure En- 
gines 

Water Wheels 

Weaving Machinery 

Weighing Machines 

Welder, Automatic 

Welding 

Welding, Electric 

Winding Machines 

W'indmill 

Wire-winding Machine 

Wiring Machine 

Wood - working Ma- 
chines 

Woolen Mule 



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CHAPTER VII 

FOR MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS OF METALS, 
HARDWARE, GLASS AND CHINA 



ELISEE RECLUS, the great French 
student of the origins of civili- 
zation, says, in the Britannica 
article Fire (Vol. 10, p. 399), that "hu- 
man culture may be said to have be- 
gun with fire, of which the uses in- 
creased in the same ratio as cul- 
ture itself." The industries grouped in 
the present chapter all depend upon the 
curiously diverse effects of heat; the soft- 
ening and tempering of metals, the hard- 
ening of clay and the changes by which 
sand becomes glass. It is for the reader 
himself to decide whether he wishes to 
begin his course of reading by a study of 
the article Heat (Vol. 13, p. 135), and 
the allied articles to which it refers, and 
thus to understand how temperature 
plays its dominant part in the most use- 
ful of manufacturing processes. 

It is, indeed, one of the most attractive 
features of the Britannica that it presents 
knowledge in layers. In text-books, the 
theoretical and prac- 
Knowledge tical aspects of an 

in "Layers" industry are so in- 

terwoven that you 
cannot separate them. But in the Brit- 
annica, if you desire only to examine the 
finished products of any branch of indus- 
try, as you might see them and hear 
them described at an exhibition or in a 
manufacturer's sample room, you can 
turn 'to articles and sections of articles in 
which critical comment and elaborate il- 
lustrations put clearly before you the 



varieties of, for example, plated ware, 
china or glass. Proceeding to the next 
"layer," you find technical information 
about the manufacture of these and all 
other goods; you have been permitted to 
pass from the sample room into the fac- 
tory, which is not usually so easy of ac- 
cess. And in the scientific articles you 
arrive at the very substratum and founda- 
tion of knowledge; you have what the 
experts in the factory could not give you 
if they would: the clear teaching that 
only the great masters of science can 
supply. 

The manufacturer, of course, abso- 
lutely needs to know all that can be 
learned about the origin of his materials 
and the principles upon which his pro- 
cesses are based. But the dealer, in his 
turn, will be a shrewder buyer, a more 
convincing salesman and a better man- 
ager of the salesmen under him, if he 
knows the whole history of his wares, of 
the ingredients that enter into their com- 
position and of their manufacture. Fac- 
tory experience is hardly more universal 
among wholesale men, most of whom 
begin as clerks, than among retailers, and 
it is impossible for a business man who 
has got his foot fairly on the ladder to 
drop his work and go through an ap- 
prenticeship or take a thorough course at 
a technical college. If, however, he will 
for a few months devote his spare time to 
the studies he can pursue, unaided, in 
the Britannica, the insight he obtains 



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34 



BRITANNIGA READINGS AND STUDIES 



will give a new value to all the knowledge 
h«. picks up in the course of his business. 
The departments of physics and phy- 
sical chemistry are of course those in 
which the Britannica's scientific contents 

especially interest 
Physics and those to whom this 

Chemistry chapter is addressed, 

and the authority of 
the Britannica in those departments of 
knowledge is shown by a very striking 
fact. You may remember that Alfred 
Nobel, the great Swedish chemist, who 
made a fortune by the invention and 
manufacture of dynamite, devoted $9,- 
000,000 to the establishment of the an- 
nual Nobel prizes, to be awarded, irre- 
spective of nationality, for eminence in 
scientific research and in the cause of 
peace. In physics and chemistry, Britan- 
nica contributors have vxm 9 in eleven years, 
seven of these prizes, these winners being: 
in 1901, Prof. J. H. van't Hoff, of the 
University of Berlin; in 1902, Prof. 
Lorentz, of the University of Leiden; in 
1904, Lord Rayleigh, Chancellor of the 
University of Cambridge; in 1906, Sir J. J. 
Thomson, of the University of Cambridge; 
in 1909, Prof. Ostwald, of the University 
of Leipzig; in 1911, Prof. Van der Waals, 
of the University of Amsterdam. In 

other words, you find 
Some of the that the scientific 

Authorities committee who 

award the Nobel 
prizes select for these unique distinctions 
the same men whom the editor of the 
Britannica selected as contributors. Now 
apply another test, in connection with 
the subject matter of this chapter. What 
is, by general consent, the most exquis- 
itely finished product of any of the in- 
dustries under discussion in the present 
section? To this question there can be 
but one answer: Optical glass. Where is 
the best glass made? At the Zeiss Works 
in Jena, Germany. Very well, Dr. Otto 
Henker and Dr. Eppenstein, both of the 
scientific staff of the Zeiss Works, wrote 
the optical articles in the Britannica 



which deal with the lens and with aberra- 
tion in lenses. You should therefore re- 
member, in reading the Britannica, that 
whether you are only going as far as the 
uppermost layer of knowledge, or reach- 
ing down to the very foundations of 
science, the men whose articles you are 
reading command the respect that you 
can pay to them by giving your very 
closest attention. Do not imagine that 
because the book contains forty-four 
million words, it is made to be skimmed; 
every article in it is condensed; and you 
cannot derive the fullest benefit from 
your reading unless you feel, as you 
would feel if you were fortunate enough 
to be brought into personal contact with 
any of these great men, that you have a 
privilege of which you must make the 
most. 

Other chapters of this Guide also deal 
in detail with the scientific side of the in- 
dustries mentioned here; and in examin- 
ing the groups of industrial articles, those 
dealing with metals claim first considera- 
tion. The article Metal 
Metals (Vol. 18, p. 198) is devoted 

to classification only, and 
would not occupy more than ten pages 
of this Guide. It contains information 
as to the physical properties of the met- 
als, including a table in which the specific 
gravity of each of 42 metals is stated, a 
table of comparative ductility under the 
hammer, for rolling and for wire drawing, 
a table of elasticities, and other tables 
showing the ratio of expansion under 
heat, the melting and boiling points, and 
the relative thermic and electric conduc- 
tivity. A section is devoted to the action 
of chemical agents upon the simple 
metals. 

Metallurgy (Vol. 18, p. 203), and 
Electrometallurgy (Vol. 9, p. 232), by 
W. G. McMillan, lecturer on metallurgy 
at Mason College, Birmingham, deal 
with all the methods of smelting ores. 
Your next reading should be the great 
article Iron and Steel (Vol. 14, p. 801), 
by Prof. H. M. Howe, of Columbia Uni- 



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FOR MANUFACTURERS OF METALS, HARDWARE, CHINA AND GLASS 35 



versity, containing as much matter as 
would fill 110 pages of this Guide. At 
the beginning of this article Prof. Howe 
disposes of the much discussed question 
as to the true distinction between iron 
and- steel, as to which there has been 
great confusion. Before 1860, the word 
"steel" was never applied to a metal that 
could not be hardened by tempering. But 
when the invention of the Bessemer and 
open-hearth processes introduced a new 
class of iron, "which lacked the essential 
property of steel, the hardening power, 
yet differed from the existing forms of 
wrought iron in freedom from slag," the 
men interested in the new product did 
not like to call it "wrought iron," which 
is what it really is, because that name 
would confuse it with a lower-priced 
grade of metal. They ought to have 
coined a new word for it, but they ap- 
propriated the name of steel — so that to- 
day "steel" means either true steel or the 
low-carbon, slagless variety of malleable 
iron. The article is divided into 1SS sec- 
tions, so that to analyze its contents 
would swamp this chapter of the Guide, 
but the reader will find in it the clearest 
and most authoritative account of the 
industry which has yet been published. 

Among articles on the commercial 
metals are Copper (Vol. 7, p. 102), Lead. 
(Vol. 16, p. 314), Tin (Vol. 26, p. 995), 
Zinc (Vol. 28, p. 981), Aluminium (Vol. 
1, p. 767), Nickel (Vol. 19, p. 658), An- 
timony (Vol. 2, p. 127), and, on the 
precious metals, Gold (Vol. 12, p. 192), 
Silver (Vol. 25, p. 112), and Platinum 
(Vol. 21, p. 805). 

The article Alloys, of which Sir W. C. 
Roberts-Austen, long chemist of the 
London Mint, is the chief contributor, 
with its photomicrographic illustrations, 
contains not only an account of the alloys 
already generally used in the metal in- 
dustries, but also practical information 
as to the experiments which have been 
made recently with some of the newly 
discovered rare earths. In the article 
Metallography (Vol. 18, p. 202), by 



the same specialist, the microscopic ex- 
amination and photography of metals and 
alloys is described. 

Among articles on the metallic com- 
pounds are Brass (Vol. 4, p. 438), in 
which "Dutch metal," "Mannheim gold," 
"similor" and "pinchbeck" are described; 
Bronze (Vol. 4, p. 689), which deals with 
steel bronze, phosphor bronze, and other 
combinations; Fusible Metal (Vol. 11, 
p. 369) is an important compound. 
Pewter (Vol. 21, p. 888), by Malcolm 
Bell, author of Pewter Plate, etc., is of 
historical interest, and of value to the 
dealer or collector, while he who wishes 
to distinguish between the older and the 
more modern electroplated ware is re- 
ferred to the article Sheffield Plate 
(Vol. 24, p. 824), also by Malcolm Bell. 
Electroplating (Vol. 9, p. 287) de- 
scribes the art that put an end to the 
Sheffield plate industry. Other methods 
of coating metals are given under Gal- 
vanized Iron (Vol. 11, p. 428),Tin Plate 
and Terne Plate (Vol. 26, p. 1000), and 
Gilding (Vol. 12, p. 18). The art of 
making gold-leaf is described in Gold- 
beating (Vol. 12, p. 202). 

In regard to manufacturing processes 
there are the separate articles: Forging 
(Vol. 10, p. 668), with 19 illustrations; 
Founding (Vol. 10, p. 743), with 11 il- 
lustrations; Annealing, Hardening 
and Tempering (Vol. 2, p. 70), and 
Brazing and Soldering (Vol. 4, p. 468). 
These four articles are by J. G. Horner. 
And see Welding (Vol. 28, p. 500), also 
by Mr. Horner, with a section on Electro- 
Welding, by Elihu Thomson, inventor of 
the process of electric welding and expert 
for the General Electric Co. The article 
Tool (Vol. 27, p. 14), another of Mr. 
Horner's valuable contributions, has 79 
illustrations and possesses special interest 
for the manufacturer of metal-ware as well 
as the dealer in hardware. 

Coming now to the production of metal 
wares, the article Metal- Work (Vol. 18, 
p. 205), beautifully illustrated, is the 
work of three noted experts. The late 



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BRITANNIGA READINGS AND STUDIES 



J. H. Middleton, Slade Professor of Fine 
Art, Cambridge University, writes on 
Methods of Manijm- 
Metal-Ware lotion in Metal Work 

and tells of the metal 
work of Greece, Italy, Spain, Germany, 
France, England, Persia and Damascus. 
J. S. Gardner, an expert metal worker, 
deals with Modern Art Metal Work, and 
J. G. Horner contributes the section on 
Industrial Metal Working, in which he 
deals with Plater's Work, Coppersmith's 
Work, Raised Work, Cast Work, Methods 
of Union and Protection of Surfaces. In 
connection with the last mentioned sub- 
ject, see also Japanning (Vol. 15, p. 275), 
Lacquer (Vol. 16, p. 53), and Painter- 
Wcrk (Vol. 20, p. 457). Further infor- 
mation about lacquering, with valuable 
formulas, will be found in the article 
Japan (Vol. 15, p. 188). Some of the 
ornamental forms of metal work are de- 
scribed in RepoussS (Vol. 23, p. 108), by 
M. H. Spielmann, formerly editor of The 
Magazine of Art; Inlaying (Vol. 14, p. 
574), and Damascening (Vol. 7, p. 783). 
See also Grille (Vol. 12, p. 596). 

Plate (Vol. 21, p. 789), an article by 
H. R. Hall, of the British Museum, H. 
Stuart Jones, director of the British 
School at Rome, and E. A. Jones, author 
of Old English Gold Plate, etc., is a con- 
cise, complete hand-book on work in sil- 
ver and gold of any class other than 
those of personal ornaments and coins. 
It is profusely illustrated with plates and 
text-cuts, showing many exquisite mod- 
els; and the reader can master the details 
of style in different periods and countries. 
The subjects of the assay of gold and sil- 
ver plate and hall-marks are discussed, 
the former being treated more fully in 
Assaying (Vol. 2, p. 776), by A. A. Blair, 
chief chemist of the U. S. Geological 
Survey. The article Roman Art, by H. 
Stuart Jones, has a section devoted to 
Work in Precious Metals (Vol. 23, p. 483). 

Cutlery (Vol. 7, p. 671) is one of the 
articles pertaining specifically to hard- 
ware manufacture and trade, in which 



general processes of manufacture are de- 
scribed; and of allied interest are Knife 
(Vol. 15, p. 850), Fork (Vol. 10, p. 666), 
Spoon (Vol. 25, p. 733), Scissors (Vol. 
24, p. 407), Shears (Vol. 24, p. 815), 
Razor (Vol. 22, p. 937), Chafing-Dish 
(Vol. 5, p. 800), Nail (Vol. 19, p. 153), 
Axe (Vol. 3, p. 67), Hammer (Vol. 12, p. 
897), Chisel (Vol. 6, p. 247), Wire (Vol. 
28, p. 738), and Barbed Wire (Vol. 3, p. 
384). Articles describing all forms of 
agricultural implements will be found 
under their respective headings. 

Glass (Vol. 12, p. 86) is most complete 
in its consideration of the entire subject. 
The introductory section by H. J. Powell, 
of the Whitefriars 
Glassware Glass Works, Lon- 

don, author of Glass 
Making, and W. Rosenhain, of the Na- 
tional Physical Laboratory, London, 
deals with the manufacture of optical 
glass, blown glass and mechanically- 
pressed glass. The necessary qualities of 
each kind are stated and the newest pro- 
cesses of manufacture described, with full 
information about materials. The second 
part of the article is devoted to the His- 
tory of Glass Manufacture, by Mr. Powell 
and Alexander Nesbitt, who wrote the 
well-known Introduction to the South 
Kensington Museum Catalogue of Glass 
Vessels. Egyptian, Assyrian, Roman, 
Venetian, Bohemian and Oriental glass, 
as well as the modern types, are ex- 
haustively described. The article is 
splendidly illustrated. Drinking Ves- 
sels (Vol. 8, p. 580), by Dr. Charles H. 
Read, of the British Museum, describes 
old forms of glass cups and goblets. It is 
most valuable for its information in re- 
gard to styles of different countries and 
periods, and the illustrations show many 
types. 

Stained glass is the subject of the sepa- 
rate article Glass, Stained (Vol. 12, p. 
105), illustrated, by the late I^ewis F. 
Day, author of Windows, a Book about 
Stained Glass. It is both historical and 
descriptive in its nature, deals with 



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FOR MANUFACTURERS OF METALS, HARDWARE, CHINA AND GLASS 37 



painted and stained glass, contains a table 
of examples of important historical 
stained glass, and treats of the latest 
progress in the art, including the produc- 
tions of La Farge and L. C. Tiffany in 
this country. The art of fitting and set- 
ting of glass is described in Glazing (Vol. 
12, p. 116), illustrated, by James Bart- 
lett. Here we learn about the setting of 
window glass, the use of glass in decora- 
tion, systems of roof glazing and the use 
of wire glass. 

Full information about glass for op- 
tical purposes will be found under Lens 
(Vol. 16, p. 421), illustrated, by Dr. Otto 
Henker, of the Carl Zeiss Factory, Jena, 
Germany; Lighthouse, Optical Appar- 
atus (Vol. 16, p. 633), illustrated, by W. 
T. Douglass, who erected the Eddystone 
and Bishop Rock lighthouses, and Nich- 
olas G. Gedye, chief engineer to the 
Tyne Improvement Commission; Tele- 
scope, Instruments (Vol. 26, p. 561), il- 
lustrated, by H. Dennis Taylor and Sir 
David Gill; Photography, Photographic 
Objectives or Lenses (Vol. 21, p. 507), il- 
lustrated, by James Waterhouse; Spec- 
tacles (Vol. 25, p. 617). 

To those engaged in the chinaware, 
pottery or porcelain manufacture and 
trade, the great article Ceramics (Vol. 
5, p. 703) will prove 
Chinaware, a revelation. It is 

Pottery and the joint product of 

Porcelain a number of experts, 

both practical and 
artistic, including William Burton, chair- 
man, Joint Committee of Pottery Manu- 
facturers of Great Britain, Henry R. H. 
Hall and Robert Lockhart Hobson, both 
of the British Museum, and A. Van de 
Put and Bernard Rackham, both of the 
Victoria and Albert Museum. It is 85 ,000 
words in length and contains over a hun- 
dred beautiful illustrations, including six 
plates in colour. It deals fully with the 
artistic and economic phases of the sub- 
ject, the methods of manufacture, the 
different varieties of ceramics, their his- 



tory, decoration, etc. Japanese ceramics 
are treated separately in Japan, Ceramics 
(Vol. 15, p. 183), illustrated, by the late 
Capt. Frank Brinkley. 

Clay (Vol. 6, p. 472), by Dr. J. S. 
Flett, describes the occurrence, composi- 
tion and properties of the various clays 
used in ceramics. 

Terracotta (Vol. 26, p. 653), illus- 
trated, by William Burton and H. B. 
Walters, of the British Museum, deals 
with the artistic use to which baked clay 
is put, while Tile (Vol. 26, p. 971), illus- 
trated, also by William Burton, has great 
practical value for the present-day manu- 
facturer. 

Kaolin (Vol. 15, p. 672), by F. W. 
Rudler, of the Museum of Practical 
Geology, London, deals specifically with 
china clay and its preparation for the 
market. Gilding (Vol. 12, p. 13) con- 
tains material on the subject of the gilding 
of pottery and porcelain, and Painting 
has a section Painting with Coloured Vit- 
reous Pastes (Vol. 20, p. 484), by Prof. G. 
B. Brown, of Edinburgh University, which 
describes the use of these pastes in ce- 
ramics. Enamel (Vol. 9, p. 362), illus- 
trated, by Alexander Fisher, yields 
equally valuable information for those 
concerned with the decoration of 
china. 

In Mural Decoration, by Walter 
Crane and William Morris, there is a sec- 
tion devoted to Wall-Linings of Glazed 
Brick or Tiles (Vol. 19, p. 17). Material 
of great archaeological interest relating to 
earthenware, etc., will be found in such 
articles as Aegean Civilization (Vol. 1, 
p. 245), illustrated, by D. G. Hogarth, of 
the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford; Crete, 
Archaeology (Vol. 7, p. 421), illustrated, by 
Arthur J. Evans, the famous Cretan ex- 
plorer, and Greek Art (Vol. 12, p. 470), 
illustrated, by Percy Gardner, the class* 
ical archaeologist. 

The following is a partial list in al- 
phabetical order of articles and subjects 
in this field treated in the Britannica. 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OP ARTICLES AND SUBJECTS IN THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 
BRITANNICA OF SPECIAL INTEREST TO THOSE IN METAL, HARD- 
WARE, GLASS AND CHINA MANUFACTURE AND TRADE 



Adze 

Aegean Civilization 

Ainmuller, M. E. 

Alloy Steels 

Alloys 

Aluminium 

Amphora 

Andiron 

Annealing, Hardening 

and Tempering 
Antimony 
Anvil 

Armour Plate 
Arms and Armour 
Arretine Ware 
Assaying 
Auger 
Awl 

Barbed Wire 

Banko Ware 

Basin 

Beaker 

Belleeck Ware 

Bidri Work 

Binocular Instrument 

Biscuit 

Bismuth 

Bizen Ware 

Bohemian Glass 

Bottle 

Bow Ware 

Bradawl 

Brass 

Brasses, Monumental 

Brazier 

Brazing and Soldering 

Bronze 

Byzantine Glass 

Caffieri, Jacques 

Candlestick 

Capo di Monte Ware 

Capronnier, J. B. 

Cast Work 

Cellini, Benvenuto 

Ceramics 

Chafing Dish 

Chalice 

Chelsea Ware 

China 

China, Art 

Chinese Porcelain 

Chisel 

Churn 

Clay 

Cookworthy, William 

Coperta 

Copper 

Coppersmith's Work 

Crete 

Crown Glass 

Cup 

Cutlery 

Cultivator 



Damascening 

Damask Steel, or Da- 
mascus Steel 

Damascus Ware 

Delft Ware 

Delia Robbia 

Derby Ware 

Doulton, Sir Henry 

Dresden, or Meissen, 
Ware 

Drinking Vessels 

Dwight, John 

Electrolier 

Electroplating 

Electrum 

Enamel Painting 

Etruscan Ware 

Faience 

Fender 

File 

Finiguerra, Maso 

Fireback 

Firing 

Fire-irons 

Flint Glass 

Fork 

Forging 

Founding 

Fusible Metal 

Galvanized Iron 

German (or Nickel) 
Silver 

Gilding 

Gimlet 

Girandole 

Glass 

Glass, Ancient 

Glass-blowing Machine 

Glass Cutting and En- 
graving 

Glass, Painted 

Glass-press 

Glass, Stained 

Glazes 

Glazing 

Goblet 

Gold 

Gold and Silver Thread 

Gold-beating 

Gouge 

Gombroon Ware 

Gouthiere, Pierre 

Graffito Ware 

Grate 

Greek Art 

Grille 

Hall-marks 

Hammer 

Harrow 

Hatchet 

Henri-Deux, Oiron, or 
St. Porchaire Ware 

Hispano-M o r e s q u e 
Ware 



Hizen Ware 

Hoe 

Horseshoes 

Ingot 

Inlaying 

Invar 

Iron and Steel 

Iron Work 

Izumo Ware 

Japan, Ceramics 

Japanning 

Jug 

Kaolin 

Kashi 

Kiln 

Kioto Ware 

Knife 

Kuang-Yao 

Kuft Work 

Kutani Ware 

Lacquer - 

La Farge, John 

Lang-Yao 

Latten 

Lead 

Lens 

Lighthouse Apparatus, 
Optical 

Lock 

Lubricants 

Lustred Ware 

Majolica 

Meissonier, J. A. 

Medal 

Metal 

Metallography 

Metallurgy 

Metal Work 

Mezza Majolica 

Minoan, or Kamares, 
Ware 

Mirror 

Monstrance 

Morel-Ladeuil, L. 

Mural Decoration 

Nail 

Needle 

Nickel 

Niello 

Ormolu 

Owari Ware 

Painter-work 

Palissy, Bernard 

Palissy Ware 

Painting 

Pen 

Persian Pottery 

Pewter 

Photographic Objec- 
tives or I^enses 

Pin 

Pitcher 

Plaque 

Plate 



Plated Ware 

Plate-glass 

Plater's Work 

Platinum 

Plough 

Porcelain 

Pot-hook 

Potteries, The 

Potter's Marks 

Potter's Wheel 

Pottery 

Protection of Surfaces 

Raised Work 

Rake 

Razor 

Reaper 

Repouss6 

Roman Art 

Rookwood Ware 

Royal Copenhagen 

Ware 
Royal Worcester Ware 
Salt Glaze 
Salver 
Samovar 
Saracenic Glass 
Satsuma Ware 
Saw 
Scissors 
Sconce 
Screen 
Screw 
Scythe 

Sevres Porcelain 
Shears 
Sheet Glass 
Sheffield Plate 
Shovel 
Shuttle 
Sieve 
Silver 
Smith 
Solder 
Spade 
Spectacles 
Spit 
Spoon 
Spade 
Stone Ware 
Table-ware 
Takatori Ware 
Tanagra Figures 
Tankard 
Tazza 

Telescopic Instruments 
Terracotta 
Thrasher 
Tiffany, C. L. 
Tiffany Glass 
Tiles 
Tin 
Tinker 

Tin and Terne Plate 
Tongs 



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39 



Tool 

Torch&re 

Tray 

Tripod 

Trivet 



Tube-making, Glass 

Turkish Pottery 

Tweezers 

Trowel 

Vacuum Cleaner 



Vase 

Venetian Glass 
Wedgewood, Josiah 
Wedgewood Ware 
Whitef riars Glass 



Wire 

Wired Glass 
Yatgusftiro Ware 
Yi-Hsing-Yao 
Zinc 



CHAPTER VIII 

FOR MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS OF 

FURNITURE 



WHEN you think of your home, 
making a picture in your mind 
of the familiar surroundings as- 
sociated in your memory with your 
greatest pleasures, you are really think- 
ing of furniture. Tradition makes the 
dwelling itself the tangible symbol of 
home, because when a primitive tribe 
ceased to be wanderers, the walls that 
excluded wild beasts and inclement 
weather and gave privacy were con- 
spicuous evidences of a change for the 
better. But in our higher civilization our 
way of thinking has changed. Nothing 
seems to us more desolate than the bleak 
surfaces and harsh angles of an unfur- 
nished house. Colour and softness and 
the curved lines which we instinctively 
love because they suggest softness come 
into the dwelling with furniture, and cul- 
ture has progressed so far that the chair 
or bed must be a delight to the eye as 
well a* to the weary 
Art and limbs, that the din- 

Industry ner table and the 

bookcase must be so 
designed as to enhance the satisfaction 
we find in refreshing body and mind. 
You would not get so much pleasure as 
you do from your Encyclopaedia Britan- 
nica if its paper and print and pictures 
and the. colour and texture of the bind- 
ings did not make it one of the chief 
adornments of your home; the volumes 
might be just as useful in a less pleasing 
guise, but you would not feel the same 
affection for the book. 

To satisfy the spirit of home-love and 



house-pride in the making of furniture is 
an art, and the idea that furniture can 
only be artistic when it is made by hand, 
from a design that is to be used but once, 
is as nonsensical as it would be to say 
that a beautiful etching is not true art 
because a press produces it and others 
like it. "Fine art is everything which 
man does or makes in one way rather than 
another .... in order to express and 
arouse emotion .... with results inde- 
pendent of direct utility." These words 
from Sir Sidney Colvin's delightful Brit- 
annica article Fine Arts (Vol. 10, p. 
361), and another passage (p. 370), in 
which he speaks of "the artificers who 
produce wares primarily for use, in a 
form, or with embellishments, that have 
the secondary virtue of giving pleasure" 
might well be quoted to the supercilious 
and superficial critic 
Form and who condemns every 

Embellishment product which ma- 
chinery has brought 
within the reach of the less fortunately 
situated. Furniture, made in one form 
rather than another, oecause that one 
form gives greater pleasure, is artistic 
furniture whether it is made of machined 
pine chemically stained or of hand- 
worked and hand-polished rosewood. 
The manufacturer and dealer who in- 
geniously minimize the cost of produc- 
tion and distribution are benefiting the 
public just as truly as did Thomas Chip- 
pendale, "at once an artist and a pros- 
perous man of business/' or Thomas 
Sheraton, "the great artistic genius who 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



lived in chronic poverty." The adapta- 
tion and variation of their ideas, under 
modern conditions of manufacture, have 
given pleasure to tens of thousands for 
every one whose home was enriched by 
the original products. 

We have, then, in the furniture busi- 
ness, the combination of an art with an 
industry of the most practical and useful 
kind, and this art is one which does more 
than any other to "express and arouse" 
the home-cherishing emotions which sol- 
idify family life. The principles which 
underlie architecture, sculpture, paint- 
ing, metal work, embroidery and the 
weaving of patterns all affect the design 
of furniture, since its 
Related contours and surfaces 

Subjects are obtained by the ap- 

plication of the struc- 
tural and decorative laws of all of them, 
and it might therefore be said that the 
only course of reading in the Britannica 
which could fully justify the title of this 
chapter would be one which covered all 
these diverse fields. The reader can, 
however, with the assistance of other 
chapters of this Guide, easily find his 
way to the Britannica's articles on each 
of these allied subjects, and an indication 
of the articles dealing specifically with 
furniture will at any rate serve his pri- 
mary purpose. 

The keystone article Furniture (Vol. 
11, p. 363) is by James Penderel-Brod- 
hurst, one of the greatest of living au- 
thorities, to whom many of the sub- 
sidiary articles are also due. The 37 il- 
lustrations on plate paper include two 
large views of the most famous and re- 
splendent piece of furniture ever con- 
structed, the cylinder desk, now in the 
Louvre Museum in Paris, made for Louis 
XV by a number of "artist-artificers, " 
the chief among them Oeben and Ries- 
ener, with bronze mounts by Duplessis, 
Winant and Hervieux. The article ex- 
plains the scanty attention paid to furni- 
ture in ancient Egypt, Rome and Greece, 
and throughout the Middle Ages in West- 



ern Europe, as due to the routine of life 
in centuries during which people spent 
their days in the open air, and went to 
bed as soon as it was dark, therefore 
needing but few household appliances. 
The Renaissance was the first era of 
sumptuous and elaborately varied furni- 
ture; and it was not until the 18th cen- 
tury that the art of the cabinet-maker 
was fully developed. The English periods 
of Queen Anne and early Georgian crafts- 
manship and the reigns of Louis XV and 
Louis XVI brought the development to 
its high-water-mark. Since then, there 
has been no really 
•'Art Nouveau" new departure ex- 
School cept the "art nou- 
veau" school, which 
professed to be free from all traditions 
and to seek inspiration from nature alone. 
The revolution which was thus attempted 
was not successful, and the permanent in- 
fluence of the movement will, in all prob- 
ability, be less notable for its effect upon 
style than for the very great service it 
rendered in reviving the use of oak. 
Lightly polished, fumed or waxed, this 
wood, which was so long neglected, is the 
most effective that can be employed at 
moderate cost. 

The oldest and most indispensable of 
all furnishings is treated in the article 
Bed (Vol. 3, p. 612). The Egyptians had 
high bedsteads to which 
Beds they ascended by steps, 

and the Assyrians, Medes 
and Persians followed the same custom. 
The Greek bed had a wooden frame, with 
a board at the head, and bands of hide 
laced across, upon which skins were laid. 
At a later period, as vase-paintings show, 
the Greeks used folding beds. Another 
ancient application of an idea commonly 
supposed to be of modern origin is found 
in the Roman use of bronze beds, and 
metal is so much more sanitary than 
wood for this purpose that it seems 
strange it was afterwards discarded for 
many centuries. The bed of the Em- 
peror Eliogabalus was of solid silver, 



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41 



with counterpane and hangings of purple 
embroidered in gold. In Pompeii wall- 
niches for beds, like those still used in 
Holland, are found, and were apparently 
closed by sliding partitions as well as by 
curtains. To our modern ideas, this ar- 
rangement seems to have been disgust- 
ingly devoid of ventilation, but the four- 
poster, with its "tester" roof and its cur- 
tains, which was widely used until the 
middle of the 19th century, was not much 
better. Mattresses developed very slowly, 
for in the 18th century pea-shucks and 
straw were the stuffing materials em- 
ployed in houses of prosperous people, 
and hair had not come into use. The ar- 
ticle gives a full and interesting account 
of the quaint custom, instituted by Louis 
XI of France, and followed by many of 
his royal successors, of a sovereign re- 
maining in bed while he received the 
visits of his ministers and Courtiers. 

The chair, to us the commonest of ob- 
jects, did not come into general use until, 
as the articles Bench (Vol. 3, p. 715) and 

Stool (Vol. 25, p. 
Chests and 967) indicate, these 

Chairs two had long been 

the usual seats. The 
Chest (Vol. 6, p. 106) was also used as a 
seat, and was the original form of ward- 
robe before hanging space and drawers 
were provided. The ecclesiastical chests, 
of great length in order that they might 
contain, without folding, church vest- 
ments stiff with embroidery, are the most 
ornate of all the models of furniture 
which have been preserved from the 13th 
and 14th centuries. The article Chair 
(Vol. 5, p. 801) shows that chairs were 
everywhere uncommon until the middle 
of the 16th century; and it was not until 
the 17th was well advanced that uphol- 
stery began to be employed for them. 
The typical Louis XVI chair, with its 
oval back and ample seat, descending 
arms, round-reeded legs and gay tapestry 
was the most beautiful and elaborate 
model that has ever been devised. But 
it was the original Chippendale design 



and the still lighter patterns of Hepple- 
white, Sheraton and Adam that gave us 
the slender, compact and easily moved 
chairs which will always be the more 
numerous. It is interesting to observe 
that the revolving chair, commonly re- 
garded as an office convenience of modern 
origin, has a pedigree of no less than four 
centuries. 

It would seem that the old English 
makers of furniture went somewhat 
astray when they gave themselves the 
general designation, still surviving, of 
"cabinet-makers"; for we learn from the 
article Cabinet (Vol. 4, p. 918) that the 
elaborate cabinets which have come 
down to us from the 16th, 17th and 18th 
centuries are almost invariably of Italian, 
Dutch and French origin, and it was in 
other branches of work that the English 
were most successful. The Cupboard 
(Vol. 7, p. 634) was 
Bookcases used to contain 

and Desks books long before 

the Bookcase (Vol. 
4, p. £21) had assumed a distinct form, 
and in the earlier bookcases the volumes 
were either placed on their sides, or, if 
upright, were ranged with their backs 
to the wall and their edges outwards. 
Until printing had cheapened books, it 
was not the custom to mark the title on 
the back, and the band of leather which 
closed the volume, like the strap on an 
old-fashioned wallet, bore the inscrip- 
tion. Sheraton's satinwood bookcases 
were among the most elegant of all his 
pieces. The Desk (Vol. 8, p. 95) about 
the year 1750 had assumed the form 
which is now described as a library table 
— a flat top with a set of drawers on- each 
side of the writer's knees, when its vogue 
was interrupted by the invention of the 
cylinder-top desk. At first the cover was 
a solid piece of curved wood, but the 
"tambour," or series of slats mounted on 
canvas proved more serviceable; and the 
American roll-top desk is now exported 
to all parts of the world. Other articles 
dealing with individual pieces of furniture 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



are Wardrobe (Vol. 28, p. 323), Side- 
board (Vol. 25, p. 38), Dresser (Vol. 8, 
p. 577), Cheffonier (Vol. 6, p. 22), 
Cradle (Vol. 7, p. 360), Buffet (Vol. 4, 
p. 757), and Mirror (Vol. 18, p. 575). 

Of the more technical articles Timber 
(Vol. 26, p. 978) shows the comparative 
advantages of all the varieties of wood 
used for furniture; 
Technical and, as the list at 

Articles the end of this chap- 

ter shows, there is a 
separate article on each kind. Tool 
(Vol. 27, p. 14), by J. G. Horner, is of 
great importance. It would fill 75 pages 
of this Guide, and contains 79 illustra- 
tions. The furniture maker will find in 
it complete information about all the 
hand tools and machine tools used in the 
industry. Joinery (Vol. 15, p. 476), by 
James Bartlett, describes, with practical 
diagrams, every variety of joint and dove- 
tail. Sound guidance for the workshop 
will be found in Glue (Vol. 12, p. 143), 
Painter-Work (Vol. 20, p. 457), Lac 
(Vol. 16, p. 35), Lacquer (Vol. 16, p. 53), 
in regard to which there is also informa- 
tion in the article Japan (Vol. 15, p. 188), 
French Polish (Vol. 11, p. 154), Weav- 
ing, Industrial Technology (Vol. 28, p. 
440), Dyeing (Vol. 8, p. 744), by Profs. 
J. J. Hummel and Edmund Knecht; 
Rep (Vol. 23, p. 105), Tapestry (Vol. 26, 
p. 403), with numerous illustrations, by 
A. S. Cole; Silk, Manufacture (Vol. 25, 
p. 102); Plush (Vol. 21, p. 857), Velvet 
(Vol. 27, p. 979), Marble (Vol. 17, p. 
676), by J. S. Flett; Onyx (Vol. 20, p. 
118); and Alabaster (Vol. 1, p. 466). 

Although wood, ivory, precious stones, 
bronze, silver and gold have been used 
from antiquity for the decorations of 
furniture, the mod- 
Decoration era maker will be 
and Ornament more concerned with 
Wood-Carving 
(Vol. 28, p. 791), illustrated, by F. A. 
Crallan, author of Gothic Wood-carving. 
In this article materials and methods are 
described, and there is much information 



as to the domestic use of wood-carving. 
The article will be most valuable to manu- 
facturers and dealers who have to do 
with church fittings. Gilding (Vol. 12, 
p. 13) and Carving and Gilding (Vol. 5, 
p. 488) impart knowledge of a practical 
nature as to these processes. The art of 
inlaying is described in Marquetry (Vol. 
17, p. 751) and Bombay Furniture (Vol. 
4, p. 185); see also Veneer (Vol. 27, p. 
982). Materials other than wood used 
for inlaying are described, as, for exam- 
ple, Pearl (Vol. 21, p. 25) for pearl and 
mother of pearl; Ivory (Vol. 15, p. 92), 
Lapis Lazuli (Vol. 16, p. 199), Tortoise- 
shell (Vol. 27, p. 71), Brass (Vol. 4, p. 
433), etc. The mention of the last two 

materials naturally 
Biographical suggests the name of 

Articles Boulle and the 

Britannica's biog- 
raphy of that artist. Such biographies, 
as anyone interested in the subject knows, 
are most difficult to find, and they are in- 
cluded in much detail in the new Britan- 
nica. Boulle (Vol. 4, p. 321) was the 
most distinguished of modern' cabinet- 
makers before the middle of the 18th 
century; and, beginning with that date, 
both France and England produced a 
number of men whose renown is scarcely 
less than that of the great painters, sculp- 
tors, architects or musicians of the 
period. The Britannica's accounts of 
their lives, ideas and work will be of much 
value and interest to those who make or 
deal in furniture. For the French 
schools we get the essential facts about, 
for example, Oeben (Vol. 20, p. 11), to 
whom Louis XV's famous desk owes its 
general plan; Riesener (Vol. 23, p. 324), 
his more celebrated pupil, who completed 
the desk; Rontgen, David (Vol. 23, p. 
693), the maker of "harlequin furniture," 
several of whose ingenious mechanical de- 
vices are described; and Gouthi^re (Vol. 
12, p. 291), the metal-worker whose furni- 
ture mounts are among the most noted 
art products of the Louis XV and XVI 
periods. Chippendale (Vol. 6, p. 237), 



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FOR MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS OF FURNITURE 



43 



with whom arose the marvellously bril- 
liant school of English cabinet-makers, 
is the subject of a biography describing 
fully the characteristics of his designs; 
and the history of this school is continued 
under such headings as Hepplewhite 
(Vol. 13, p. 805), whose taste at its best 
"was so fine and so full of distinction, so 
simple, modest and sufficient that it 



amounted to genius"; Adam, Robert 
(Vol. 1, p. 172), who left so deep and en- 
during a mark upon English furniture, 
and Sheraton (Vol. 24, p. 841), "the 
most remarkable man in the history of 
English furniture," whose extravagant 
creations marked the end of the great 
school. Many other biographies are in- 
cluded in the list appended. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF ARTICLES, INCLUDING BIOGRAPHIES, IN THE ENCY- 
CLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA WHICH ARE OF SPECIAL INTEREST 
TO FURNITURE MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS 



Acacia 

Adam, Robert 

Agate 

Ailanthus 

Alabaster 

Alder 

Algum 

Arabesque 

Arbor Vitae 

Armoire 

Arts and Crafts 

Ash 

Bahut 

Bamboo 

Baroque 

Barry, Sir Charles 

Basin-stand 

Basket 

Bed 

Beech 

Berain, Jean 

Birch 

Bombay Furniture 

Bonheur du Jour 

Bookcase 

Boulle, Andr6 Charles 

Box 

Boxwood 

Brass 

Brocade 

Buffet 

Carving and Gilding 

Casket 

Cassone 

Casuarina 

Cedar 

Chair 

Cheffonier 

Chenille 

Cherry 

Chest 

Chestnut 

Chintz 

Chippendale, Thomas 

Coco-nut Palm 

Coffer 

Console 

Copal 

Copeland, Henry 

Corduroy 



Cradle 

Crash 

Cressent, Charles 

Cretonne 

Crunden, John 

Cryptomeria 

Cupboard 

Curtain 

Cushion 

Cypress 

Damask 

Dammar 

Date Palm 

Design 

Desk 

Divan 

Dresser 

Dumb-Waiter 

Duramen 

Dyeing 

Fbony 

Electroplating 

Elm 

Embossing 

Encoignure 

Etagere 

Fir 

Footman 

Frame 

French Polish 

Furniture 

Gilding 

Gillow, Robert 

Glue 

Gouthiere, Pierre 

Halfpenny, William 

Hazel 

Hepplewhite, George 

Hickory 

Holly 

Huon Pine 

Ince, William 

Ingle-nook 

Inlaying 

Iron 

Ivory 

Japan, Art 

Japanning 

Jarrah Wood 

Johnson, Thomas 



Juniper 

Kauri Pine 

Lac 

Lacquer 

Lampstand 

Lapis Lazuli 

Larch 

Leather 

Leather, Artificial 

Le Pautre, Jean 

Lime, or Linden 

Linen-press 

Liquidambar 

Lock 

Lock, Matthias 

Lowboy 

Mahogany 

Mammee Apple 

Manwaring, Robert 

Maple 

Maple, Sir John B. 

Marble 

Marot, Daniel 

Marquetry 

Mastic, or Mastich 

Mayhew, Thomas 

Meissonier, J. A. 

Mirror 

Moreton Bay Chestnut 

Morris, William 

Nettle Tree 

Oak 

Oeben, J. F. 

Olive 

Onyx 

Ormolu 

Ornament 

Osier 

Ottoman 

Overmantel 

Painter-work 

Pearl 

Pergolesi, M. A. 

Pigments 

Pine 

Plane 

Plush 

Prie-dieu 

Rep 

Resin 



Riesener, J. H. 

Rococo 

Rontgen, David 

Rosewood 

Rousseau de la Rot- 

tiere, J. S. 
Sabicu Wood 
Satin Wood 
Screen 
Sequoia 
Settee 
Settle 

Shearer, Thomas 
Sheraton, Thomas 
Sideboard 
Silk 
Sofa 
Spruce 
Stall 
Stool 
Table 
Tallboy 
Tapestry 
Tea-caddy 
Teak 
Tea-poy 
Textile Printing 
Throne 
Ticking 
Timber 
Tortoiseshell 
Tray 

Triclinium 
Tripod 
Turpentine 
Upholsterer 
Varnish 
Velvet 
Velveteen 
Vernis Martin 
Walnut 
Wardrobe 
Washstand 
Weaving 
What-not 
Willow 

Window-cornice 
Window-seat 
Wine Table 
Wood-carving 



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CHAPTER IX 

FOR MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS OF LEATHER 

AND LEATHER GOODS 



THE purpose of the department 
of the Guide in which this chap- 
ter appears, addressed to per- 
sons engaged in certain important oc- 
cupations, is not only to show them 
how Britannica-reading will enlarge their 
knowledge of some aspects and rela- 
tions of their business, but also to show 
how Britannica-reading will help them to 
realize the importance of educating the 
general public in regard to that business. 
This education of the public is not neces- 
sarily confined to advertising, although 
the best form of advertising that can be 
used by anyone who sells a good article, 
or an article that is good at its price, is 
probably to tell the public what it really is 
and how it is really made. In the direct 
personal intercourse between salesman 
and purchaser there is opportunity for 
the imparting of information w T hich, if it 
possesses genuine interest, will be gladly 
received and will stimulate trade. Mere 
praise of an article is uninteresting and 
unconvincing; while facts that explain 
why that article is adapted to a particular 
use, and why it is better than another 
article sold at a lower price will always 
receive attention. 

All this is especially true of leather 
goods, for the public ignorance on the 
subject of leather is abysmal. Nothing 
is more universally 
About Selling used, yet ninety- 
Leather Goods nine out of a hundred 
w r ho use it not only 
do not know what lies beneath the sur- 
face of it, but do not know that there is 
any difference in value between a natural 
grain surface and a mechanically grained 
false surface, and it is quite certain that 
nearly all the men and women who walk 



out of a store after buying skiver would 
be nonplussed if they were asked whether 
the upper or lower part of a split skin was 
the best. 

Both the leather merchant and the 
public would be delighted to hear some 
of the curious things that the Britannica 
tells about leather, which is, from any 
point of view, one of the most interesting 
of all commodities; although few of those 
who use it, and perhaps as few of those 
who deal in it, ever stop to think how 
curious a relation there is between the 
original nature of the material and the 
qualities of the finished product. In 
cattle and sheep, the hide is a garment 
that covers every part of the body but 
the feet. Adapted to our own use, its 
most important service as a garment is 
to cover our feet. It is so far a natural 
product that no imitation of it possesses 
any of its chief merits, and yet so far an 
artificial product that when the hide has 
been removed from an animal, it requires 
treatment in order that it may not lose 
the flexibility which makes it, for a 
thousand purposes, more valuable than 
wood or metal, and in order that it may 
not decay. 

Skin is waterproof because its surface 
consists of scales, and although in most 
quadrupeds, as in man, these scales are 

so small as to be in- 
What Skin Is visible, they will so 

resist the entrance of 
any tan liquor or other preservative fluid 
that they must be scraped away before 
the skin can be treated. Under these 
horny scales there is a layer of soft cells, 
and under this a membrane which makes 
the natural grain surface of leather. 
Under this, again, lies the "true" skin, in 



44 



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FOR MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS OF LEATHER AND LEATHER GOODS 45 



two layers. In the upper of these two, 
the white fibres lie parallel with the grain. 
In the lower, the white fibres, which are 
here coarser, lie in bundles, bound to- 
gether by yellow fibres, so that this layer 
is really a woven fabric. The spaces in 
the weave are filled with a soft jelly, and 
the fibres do not multiply among them- 
selves, as cells do, but are developed, as 
they are needed, from this jelly. Tan 
liquor has the peculiar property of con- 
verting this jelly into a "leathery" sub- 
stance, which although it does not then 
assume the shape of fibres, becomes 
nearly as tough as the fibres themselves, 
and thus makes leather more solid and 
stronger than the original skin; and the 
virtue of leather depends largely on the 
presence of this jelly. The body of an 
old bull will have absorbed it, just as fat 

is absorbed in old 
Naturally age, so that the 

Woven Fibres spaces in the weave 

of the fibre are left 
vacant, and (as the scaly outer surface of 
the skin has been scraped away to admit 
the tan liquor) any water with which the 
hide comes into contact will be soaked up. 
That is why old bull leather is not water- 
proof and is lacking in substance. Again, 
the weave of this innermost layer of skin, 
lying next to the flesh, varies in different 
animals. In sheepskin the fibres are very 
loosely woven, and for this reason great 
care is needed in preparing the leather, 
and when the skin is split, the under half 
is only fit for the light usage to which 
"chamois" leather is restricted. But 
however the quality, surface or thickness 
of the skin may differ, its true structure 
is the same in all animals used for leather, 
save the horse, which is exceptional in 
possessing, over the loins, a third skin, 
very closely woven and very greasy, 
which makes horsehide taken from this 
part of the body peculiarly waterproof, 
pliable and durable. 

As you are in the leather business, you 
probably knew all these facts already, but 
perhaps they were not arranged in your 



mind in a form in which you could ex- 
plain them to others as clearly as you will 
be able to do after reading the articles in 
the Britannica from which this general 
statement is summarized. And when you 
are reading about any other business, or 
about any other subject of any kind, you 
will find that the Britannica goes to the 
root of the subject in the same thorough 
way in which it deals with the fibres and 
the jelly that make up the substance of 
leather. Now for the articles in detail — 
or the principal ones; the others are 
sufficiently indicated by the list at the 
end of this chapter. 

Skin (Vol. 25, p. 188), by Dr. F. G. 
Parsons, vice-president of the Anat- 
omical Society of Great Britain and Ire- 
land, with illustrations from microscopic 
enlargements, covers the comparative 
anatomy of the skin in all groups of ani- 
mals, and the process of skin development 
in the embryo. The articles mentioned 
in the chapter For Stock-Raisers tell you 
about the domestic animals whose hides 
are chiefly used for leather. The chapter 
on Zoology in this Guide gives a list of the 
articles on the other animals whose skins 
are tanned for fancy leathers. The main 
article Leather (Vol. 16, p. 330), equiva- 
lent to 50 pages of this Guide, is by Dr. 
James G. Parker, principal of the Leather- 
sellers' Technical College, London, and 
author of Principles of Tanning and other 
standard trade text-books. After ex- 
plaining the distinctions between tanned, 
tawed, and chamoised leathers, it takes 
up the subject of sources and qualities of 
hides and skins, and describes the struc- 
ture of skin in relation to the finished 
product. The characteristics and pecu- 
liarities of hides and skins from different 
parts of the world are thoroughly ex- 
plained. We learn why hides from ani- 
mals bred in mountainous districts arc 
the best, and where the finest sheep- and 
goat -skins come from. 

Tanning Materials is the subject of the 
next section. These are classified into 
pyrogallols, catechols, and subsidiary ma- 



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46 



BRITANNIGA READINGS AND STUDIES 



terials; and the article describes their 
composition and preparation by grind- 
ing, with explicit di- 
Processes of rections for their 

Tanning testing, including the 

latest official meth- 
od of the International Association of 
Leather Trades Chemists. The processes 
of making heavy leathers are next dis- 
cussed. We learn the many ways of 
cleaning, softening, depilating, and fell- 
mongering (or dewooling) by liming, 
rounding and scudding, and finally the 
process of actual tanning in its three steps 
of colouring, handling, and laying away. 
In connection with depilation, it is inter- 
esting to note that it has been discovered 
that it is not the lime but the action of 
bacteria in the lime which causes the hair 
to fall out. The finishing of sole leather, 
harness leather and other grades is ex- 
plained, also the theory of the formation 
of the "bloom" and its removal, as well 
as the process of "scouring." The art of 
Currying has a section to itself, and the 
preparations for tanning or dressing 
hides for trunks and suit cases by bating, 
puering, scudding, plumping, drenching 
and splitting, receive detailed attention. 
The tanning of light leathers, and all the 
varieties of basils, skivers, Russia leather, 
seal, alligator, snake, frog and kangaroo 
leathers, Japan and enamel leathers are 
fully treated. Tawing, Wooling, Dressing, 
Chrome Tanning, Combination Tannages, 
Oil Tanning (Chamoising), PreUer's Hel- 
vetia or Crown Leather, Transparent 
Leather, Parchment, Tar and Peat Tan- 
ning, Dyeing, Staining and Finishing, 
Glove Leathers, and Bookbinding Leathers 
are some of the other sections of this ex- 
cellent treatise. Leather, Artificial 
(Vol. 16, p. 345) is a separate article. 

Tannin, or Tannic Acid (Vol. 26, p. 
399) is a general account of the vegetable 
products which have the property of con- 
verting raw hide into leather. Specific in- 
formation about the materials from which 
the pyrogallol tannins are obtained 
will be found under Myrobalans (Vol. 



19, p. 114), Chestnut (Vol. 6, p. 112), 
Dividivi (Vol. 8, p. 332), Sumach (Vol. 
26, p. 70), Oak (Vol. 
Chemistry 19, p. 931), Galls 

of Leather (Vol. 11, p. 422) a 

Manufacture full -and interesting 
account of the insect 
produced vegetable excrescence which 
yields a high percentage of tannin, by 
Francis H. Butler, of the Royal School of 
Mines; and Willow (Vol. 28, p. 688). 
For the catechol tannins see Hemlock 
(Vol. 13, p. 262), Catechu (Vol. 5, p. 
507), Mangrove (Vol. 17, p. 572), Mi- 
mosa (Vol. 18, p. 500), LARcn (Vol. 16, 
p. 211), Birch (Vol. 3, p. 958), which 
yields the empyreumatic oil used in the 
preparation of Russia leather, to which 
the pleasant odor is due. 

There are numerous articles in the 
Britannica on the chemicals used in the 
process of tawing, chrome tanning, etc., 
such as Alum (Vol. 1, p. 766), Acetic 
Acid (Vol. 1, p. 135), Glauber's Salt 
(Vol. 12, p. 114), Bichromates and 
Chromates (Vol. 3, p. 912). 

The chief classes of dyes used for 
leather are the acid; basic, or tannic; 
direct, or cotton; and mordant dyes, and 
these are described at great 
Dyeing length in a valuable article 

Dyeing (Vol. 8, p. 744), 
equivalent to 20 pages of this Guide, by 
the late J. J. Hummel, professor of Dye- 
ing, University of Leeds, and Dr. Ed- 
mund Knecht, professor of Technological 
Chemistry, University of Manchester. 
The section on the Theory of Dyeing shows 
how the dyeing property of a substance 
depends upon its chemical composition. 
Separate articles go more deeply into the 
chemistry of dyeing materials used with 
leather, and some of the more important 
of these are Sulphonic Acids (Vol. 26, p. 
60), Sulphuric Acid (Vol. 26, p. 65), 
Formic Acid (Vol. 10, p. 668), Anti- 
mony (Vol. 2, p. 127), Titanium (Vol. 
26, p. 1017), Iron (Vol. 14, p. 796), Log- 
wood (Vol. 16, p. 922), Fustic (Vol. 11, 
p. 375), Brazil Wood (Vol. 4, p. 463), 



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FOR MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS OF LEATHER AND LEATHER GOODS 47 



and Tumeric (Vol. 27, p. 474). Com- 
paratively few of the coal-tar colours 
have as yet been adapted to leather manu- 
facture, but their characteristics are dis- 
cussed in such articles as Azo-Compounds 
(Vol. 3, p. 81), Aniline (Vol. 2, p. 47), 
Indulines (Vol. 14, p. 507), Fuchsine 
(Vol. 11, p. 273), and Safranine (Vol. 
23, p. 1000). 

Parchment (Vol. 20, p. 798), by Sir E. 
Maunde Thompson, Principal Librarian, 
British Museum, is an interesting his- 
torical account of the skins and their prep- 
aration. Their use as writing material 
was widespread at a very early period. 
"The Jews made use of them," says the 
article "for their sacred books, and it may 
be presumed for other literature also; and 

the old tradition 
Special has been maintained 

Leathers down to our own 

day, requiring the 
Synagogue rolls to be inscribed on this 
time-honoured material." The difference 
between parchment and vellum is ex- 
plained. Shagreen (Vol. 24, p. 769) 
tells about a species of untanned leather 
used for ornamental purposes. It is a 



curious fact that the addition of the word 
"chagrin," for anxiety or annoyance, to 
the English language was due to the un- 
pleasant sensation that came from touch* 
ing the rasping surface of this leather. 
Stamped leather for wall hangings is de- 
scribed in the section Stamped Leather of 
the article Mural Decoration (Vol. 19, 
p. 19), by William Morris and Walter 
Crane. Shoe (Vol. 24, p. 992) contains 
an illustrated section on the Manufacture 
of Leather Shoes. Saddlery and Har- 
ness (Vol. 23, p. 988), by Cecil Weath- 
erly, and Glove (Vol. 12, p. 135) are 
treated both from an historical and a 
practical point of view. Bookbinding 
(Vol. 4, p. 216), illustrated, by C. J. H. 
Davenport, of the British Museum, has 
a great deal of interesting information 
about the leathers used in this art. The 
flexible binding, which has been applied 
for the first time on a large scale in the 
new Britannica, originated when vellum 
instead of paper was used for books, and 
it possesses the great advantage that 
a volume sewed in this way can be 
opened flat, and lies flat without being 
held. . 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF ARTICLES AND OF SUBJECTS IN THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 

BRITANNICA OF SPECIAL INTEREST TO THOSE IN THE MANUFACTURE 

AND SALE OF LEATHER AND LEATHER GOODS 



Acetic Acid 

Acid dyes 

Aldehyde tanning 

Algarobilla 

Alligator Leather 

Alum 

Angola 

Aniline 

Antimony 

Azo Compounds 

Barkometer 

Basic, or Tannin dyes 

Basils 

Bates 

Bating 

Bichromates and Chro- 

mates 
Birch 
Bleaching 
Bloom 

Bookbinding 
Bookbinding leathers 



Bottle-tanning 
Brazil Wood 
Canaigre 
Catechols 
Catechu 
Chamoising 
Chestnut 
Chestnut Oak 
Chrome Box 
Chrome Tanning 
Colouring Pits, or Sus- 
penders 
Combination Tannages 
Crust Stock 
Currying Apparatus 
Currying Processes 
Dash-wheel 
Depilation 

Direct, or Cotton, Dyes 
Dividivi 

Dongola leather 
Drenching 



Dressing 

Drum Dyeing 

Dusting Material 

Dyeing 

Enamel Leather 

Erodin 

Fatliquoring 

Fellmongering, or De- 

wooling 
Finishing 
Formic Acid 
Frog Skin 
Fuchsine 
Fustic 
Galls 
Gambier 
Glauber's Salt 
Glazing (Glace leather) 
Glove 

Glove leathers 
Grinding Machinery 

and Leaching 



Handlers, or Floaters 
Heavy Leathers 
Hemlock 

Hide Mill, or Double- 
Acting Stocks 
Hide-powders 
Hides and Skins 
Indulines 
Iron 

Iron Tannage 
Janus Colours 
Japan leather 
Kangaroo Leather 
K as pine Leather 
Kips 
Larch 
Leather 

Leather, Artificial 
I^evant Morocco 
Liming 
Ixigwood 
Mangrove 



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48 



BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



Mimosa, or Golden 

Wattle 
Mordant dyes 
Morocco Leather 
Myrobalans 
Oak bark 
Oak wood 
Oil Tanning 
Parchment 
Payne and Pullman 

Process 
Peat Tanning 
Pigskin 
Portmanteau 
Power Transmission, 

Belts 



Preller's Helvetia or 

Crown Leather 
Puerto* 
Pyrogallols 
Quebracho 
Roans 

Russia Leather 
Saddlery and Harness 
Safranine 
Sammying 
Scudding 
Seal Leathers 
Setting 
Shagreen 
Shoe 
Skin 



Skivers 
Snakeskin 
Splitting Machines 
Staining 
Sulphonic Acids 
Sulphuric Acid 
Sumach 
Sweating 
Tan Liquors 
Tanner's Beam 
Tanner's Hook 
Tanner's Knives 
Tannin, or Tannic Acid 
Tannin Precipitation 
Tanning Materials 
Tar Tanning 



Tawing 
Tiffany Bate 
Titanium 

Transparent Leather 
Tray Dyeing 
Turmeric 
Upper Leather 
Valonia 
Vellum 
Vidal Colours 
Waxing 
Willow 
Willow Calf 
Wilson Scouring Ma- 
chine 
Wool-rug Dressing 



CHAPTER X 

FOR JEWELLERS, CLOCK AND WATCH MAKERS AND 

MERCHANTS 



BY long established custom, watches 
and the higher grade of clocks form 
part of the jeweller's stock, and he 
sells a few other articles of utility, such as 
purses and bags, but to all intents and 
purposes he shares with the artist and 
art-dealer the distinction of making a 
living by adding pleasure to the lives of 
others. The very word "jewelry" car- 
ries, in its root form, the idea of joy; and 
when a Senwosri princess, 43 centuries 
ago, smiled happily as she raised her 
brown arms to fasten the clasp of a new 
necklace, the jeweller of Memphis on the 
Nile no doubt took his little profit, as the 
jeweller of Memphis on the Mississippi 
takes his to-day, all the more gladly for 
being, in the oriental phrase, a "Distrib- 
utor of delights." Sour philosophers 
have always sneered at women for loving 
jewels, and most of all for piercing their 
ears and noses to vary its display, but 
the nose-ring that overhangs a thick 
Nubian lip is an expression of the same 
charming instinct that makes a child 
diversify the arrangement of her daisy- 



chains. And jewelry plays its part in the 
higher emotions as well as in the pretty 
vanities; witness the engagement ring, 
the marriage ring and all the uses, de- 
scribed in the Britannica, of jewels as 
religious symbols. 

The article Jewelry (Vol. 15, p. 364), 
by A. H. Smith, the official in charge of 
the great jewel collection in the British 

Museum, contains 
Specimens nearly a hundred il- 

Reproduced lustrations, half of 

them on plate paper, 
which include examples of every period 
and every variety of the jeweller's art, 
and these, with the illustrations in other 
articles mentioned in this chapter, are so 
full of interest to the jeweller's customers 
that he ought really to keep his Britan- 
nica at his place of business rather than 
at his house. It is, at any rate, amusing 
to recall that in a speech made by the 
Editor-in-chief of the Britannica, on the 
occasion of a banquet given to celebrate 
the completion of the new edition, he re- 
marked that when he had chanced to 



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FOR JEWELLERS, CLOCK AND WATCH MAKERS AND MERCHANTS 49 



take home the proof sheets of this article, 
to read them at night, he carefully kept 
them out of his wife's sight lest they 
might suggest too tempting possibilities. 
The article divides modern jewelry into 
three classes: 

(1) objects in which gems and stones 
form the principal portions, and in which 
the work in silver, platinum or gold is real- 
ly only a means for carrying out the design 
by fixing the gems or stones in the position 
arranged by the designer, the metal em- 
ployed being visible only as a setting; 

(2) when gold work plays an important 
part in the development of the design, being 
itself ornamented by engraving (now rarely 
used) or enamelling or both, the stones and 
gems being arranged in subordination to the 
gold work in such positions as to give a dec- 
orative effect to the whole; 

(3) when gold or other metal is alone 
used, the design being wrought out by ham- 
mering in repoussi, casting, engraving, 
chasing or by the addition of filigree work, 
or when the surfaces are left absolutely 
plain but polished and highly finished. 

The second of these three classes in- 
cludes the work which has completely 
revolutionized the theory of design, so 
far as the best class of trade is concerned, 
since the Paris International Exposition 
of 1900 first drew general attention to the 
exquisite creations of Lalique and his 
school. L. C. Tiffany, in the United 

States, and Philippe 
The * 'Personal Wolfers, in Belgium, 
Art" Movement have done more than 

any designers other 
than the French to extend this new move- 
ment; but in England, Germany, Austria, 
Russia and Switzerland there has been a 
notable increase of individual effort and 
purpose, and a recognition of the possi- 
bilities of personal art as at any rate an 
important factor in the business. Side 
by side with this development new stand- 
ards have been established in mechanical 
work. "Nearly every kind of gold chain 
now made is manufactured by machinery, 
and nothing like the beauty of design or 
perfection of workmanship could be ob- 
tained by hand at, probably, any cost." 
The article, equivalent in length to about 
35 pages of this Guide, contains a full 



review, amplified by the results of the 
most recent excavations (some of them 
undertaken expressly for the archaeolog- 
ical purposes of this edition of the Bri- 
tannica) of the history of jewelry, Egyp- 
tian, Assyrian, Mycenean, Greek, Etrus- 
can, Roman, Merovingian, Oriental and 
Renaissance. 

Ring (Vol. 23, p. 349), of which Prof. 
Middleton, long art director of the South 
Kensington Museum, is the chief con- 
tributor, is another copiously illustrated 
article. Among the curious items of in- 
formation it contains, there is the un- 
romantic origin of the engagement ring 
(which may be cited by the jeweller to 
prove that it should always be a costly 
one), the ancient Romans regarding it as 
a pledge to assure the donor's fulfilment 
of his promise; the fact that the modern 
rheumatism ring had its medieval fore- 
runner in the rings, blessed by the sove- 
reign, which were worn as a preservative 
against cramp; and the description of the 
old poison rings, which were of two kinds: 
those merely affording, in the bezel, a 
secret receptacle so that the poison might 
be always at hand 
Rings for Love for suicide, and those 
and Murder provided with a hol- 

low point to which, 
on touching a spring, the venom ran as 
in a snake's fang, so that the murderer 
could give a fatal scratch while shaking 
hands with his victim. Brooch (Vol. 4, 
p. 641) traces, with many illustrations of 
typical specimens, the "fibula" or safety 
pin from its origin in Central Europe 
during the Bronze Age, through the 
modifications which introduced the bow 
shape, providing space for thicker folds 
of cloth, to the modern ornament. The 
long brooch is not a new fashion, for silver 
brooches no less than 15 inches in length 
have been found in Viking hoards of the 
7th, 8th and 9th centuries. Ear-ring 
(Vol. 8, p. 798) describes ear "orna- 
ments" of the most grotesque size. In 
Borneo the hole in the ear lobe is stretched 
to a calibre of 3% inches, but the Masai 



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50 



BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



tribes in equatorial Africa far outdo this, 
stretching the lobes, year after year, until 
they can wear stone ear-plugs weighing 
2 lbs. 14 ozs. each, with a diameter of 4^ 
inches; and they thus achieve the su- 
preme elegance of making the two long 
flaps of flesh meet above their heads. It 
is also curious to note the custom of 
some oriental tribes of wearing one ear- 
ring only. Bracelet (Vol. 4, p. 359) de- 
scribes the three distinct models worn by 
the Israelites, all of which the Authorized 
Version calls "bracelet," although the 
original Hebrew has separate names for 
them. Armlets have always been con- 
spicuous in the regalia of Eastern kings, 
and the pair captured at Delhi and taken 
to Persia by Nadir Shah in 1739 contain 
jewels valued at more than $5,000,000, 
including the famous "Sea of Light" 
diamond, which, although it weighs only 
186 carats as against the 516J^ of the 
largest fraction into which the Cullinan 
stone was cut, is unique as possessing the 
finest lustre of any known specimen. The 
24 plate illustrations in the article Scan- 
dinavian Civilization (Vol. 24, p. 287), 
by Miss B. S. Phillpotts, show some ex- 
quisite designs of clasps, collars and pins 
exhumed in Denmark, Norway and Swe- 
den, and supposed by some authorities to 
antedate the oldest Egyptian jewelry. 

The article Gold (Vol. 12, p. 192) is a 
thorough workshop treatise, as well as a 
detailed study of existing mines and of 

the influence their 
Precious production exerts 

Metals upon the "price," if 

it can be so called, 
of a metal which is its own standard of 
value. Silver (Vol. 25, p. 112) and 
Platinum (Vol. 21, p. 805) are treated 
with similar comprehensiveness. The 
articles Alloys (Vol. 1, p. 704), Assay- 
ing (Vol. 2, p. 776), Metal (Vol. 18, p. 
198), Metallography (Vol. 18, p. 202), 
and Metallurgy (Vol. 18, p. 203), all by 
noted authorities, are full of information 
useful to the jeweller. Metal-Work 
(Vol. 18, p. 205), fully illustrated, inci- 



dentally touches upon the art of the 
silver- and gold-smith; and this branch of 
the subject is also treated in such ar- 
ticles as Plate (Vol. 21, p. 789), with 
over 30 typical illustrations — a most in- 
teresting historical account, by several 
well-known experts, of works in gold and 
silver which belong to any class other 
than those of personal ornament and 
coins; and Drinking Vessels (Vol. 8, p. 
580), illustrated, by Dr. Charles H. Read 
of the British Museum, which discusses 
gold and silver cups. Mention must also 
be made of the description of American 
work in precious metals before the time 
of Christopher Columbus, in the section 
Archaeology of the article America (Vol. 
1, p. 812), by the late Dr. O. T. Mason, 
of the National Museum, Washington; 
also of Mexico, Ancient Civilization 
(Vol. 18, p. 335), by the famous ethnol- 
ogists, Dr. E. B. Tylor of Oxford and Dr. 
Walter Lehmann, of the Royal Ethno- 
graphical Museum, Munich; Egypt, An- 
cient AH (Vol. 9, p. 73), by W. M. Flin- 
ders Petrie; Greek Art (Vol. 12, p. 470), 
illustrated, by Dr. Percy Gardner, of Ox- 
ford; Roman Art, Work in Precious 
Metals (Vol. 23, p. 483), illustrated, by 
H. Stuart Jones, director of the British 
School at Rome; Japan, Art y Sculpture 
and Carving (Vol. 15, p. 176), by Capt. 
Frank Brinkley , author of A History of the 
Japanese People; and China, Bronzes 
(Vol. 6, p. 215), by C. J. Holmes, formerly 
Slade professor of fine art at Oxford. 

Filigree (Vol. 10, p. 343) describes 
the delicate jewel work of twisted gold 
and silver threads, and also the "granu- 
lated" work which consists of minute 
globules of gold soldered to form patterns 
on a metal surface. In India the filigree 
worker has retained the patterns used by 
the ancient Greeks and works in the 
same way they did. Wandering work- 
men are given so much gold, coined or 
rough. This is weighed, heated and 
beaten into wire, and worked in the 
courtyard or on the verandah of the cus- 
tomer's house. The worker reweighs the 



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FOR JEWELLERS, CLOCK AND WATCH MAKERS AND MERCHANTS 51 



complete work when finished and is paid 
at a specified rate for his labor. Re- 
pouss6 (Vol. 23, p. 108), by M. H. Spiel- 
mann, editor Magazine of Art; Chasing 
(Vol. 5, p. 956) and Inlaying (Vol. 14, 
p. 574) are other articles dealing with cer- 
tain processes in jewel work. The jeweller 
also must not overlook two superb ar- 
ticles, Medal (Vol. 18, p. 1), illustrated, 
by M. H. Spielmann, and Numismatics 
(Vol. 19, p. 869), which is by three spe- 
cialists, and is most fully illustrated by 
designs inviting practical use. Enamel 
(Vol. 9, p. 362), illustrated, by Alexander 
Fisher, author of The Art of Enamelling on 
Metals, goes very fully and practically 
into this interesting subject, which is 
further discussed in Japan, Cloisonne 
Enamel (Vol. 15, p. 189). Mosaic (Vol. 
18, p. 883), illustrated, by Professor Mid- 
dleton and H. Stuart Jones, deals in part 
with the ornamentation of jewelry by 
this method. In Brazing and Solder- 
ing (Vol. 4, p. 463) the composition of 
silver solder used for jewelry is described, 
and in Cement there is an account of 
Jeweller's or Armenian Cement (Vol. 5, 
p. 659). 

The article Gem treats the subject in 
two sections, of which the first (Vol. 11, 
p. 560), by F. W. Rudler, of the Museum 
of Practical Geology, 
Precious London, deals with 

Stones Mineralogy and Gen- 

eral Properties. Here 
are discussed hardness, specific gravity, 
crystaline forms and cleavage, colour, re- 
fraction, chemical composition, etc., and 
there is an interesting section on super- 
stitions in regard to gems, the medical 
and magical powers with which they 
were reputed to be endowed. These be- 
liefs are very remarkable, and it has even 
been suggested by archaeologists that jew- 
elry did not have its origin so much in a 
love for personal decoration, as in the 
belief that the objects used possessed 
magical virtue. The article Mineralogy 
(Vol. 18, p. 509), by L. J. Spencer, of the 
British Museum, and editor of the Min- 



eralogical Magazine, will be found es- 
pecially valuable for reference in the 
workshop. It gives, among other things, 
the scale of hardness, and nomenclature 
and classification of minerals. The crys- 
tal formation of gems as well as their op- 
tical properties — characteristics by which 
the genuineness of precious stones may 
be tested— are discussed and explained 
in the article Crystallography (Vol. 7, 
p. 569), with over 100 illustrations, also 
by L. J. Spencer. The cutting of gem 
stones is treated under Lapidary and 
Gem Cutting (Vol. 16, p. 195), by Dr. 
George F. Kunz, the famous gem expert 
to Tiffany & Co., New York, — an article 
of uncommon historical interest and 
practical value, in which diamond cutting 
is considered at much length. 

The second section of the article Gem, 
Gems in AH (Vol. 11, p. 562), by Dr. A. S. 
Murray, the famous British archaeologist, 
and A. H. Smith, gives an account of 
precious stones engraved with designs. 
The illustrations show more than 90 ex- 
amples, including Cretan and Mycenaean 
intaglios, Greek, Phoenician and Etruscan 
scarabs and scarabeeoids, cameos, seals, 
Oriental, Christian, and modern gems. 
This subject is further discussed in sepa- 
rate articles, such as Scarab (Vol. 24, p. 
301), by Dr. F. LI. Griffith, the Egypt- 
ologist, an account of the designs which, 
originating in Egypt daring the Fourth 
Dynasty, have exercised a lasting influ- 
ence on the design and shape of gems; 
Cameo (Vol. 5, p. 104), Intaglio (Vol. 
14, p. 680), Seals (Vol. 24, p. 539), illus- 
trated, by Sir E. Maunde Thompson, 
formerly principal librarian, British Mu- 
seum, as well as in the articles on ancient 
and Oriental civilizations, already men- 
tioned. 

The artificial duplication of certain 
gems by chemical processes which yield 

products identical in 
Synthetic composition and 

Stones physical properties 

with the natural 
stones is a subject of growing import- 



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52 



BRITANNIGA READINGS AND STUDIES 



ance to the jeweller, and the latest de- 
velopments are described in Gem, Arti- 
ficial (Vol. 11, p. 569), by Sir William 
Crookes. This famous chemist and au- 
thority on precious stones does not hesi- 
tate to declare that although the artificial 
diamonds so far produced have been 
microscopic in size, scientists have now 
found the right method and that "there 
is no reason to doubt that, working on a 
larger scale, larger diamonds will result." 
The artificial production of rubies, sap- 
phires, Oriental emeralds, amethysts, to- 
pazes and. zircons is also discussed. De- 
scriptions of the several gem stones are 
found under their respective headings, for 
example Diamond (Vol. 8, p. 158), illus- 
trated, by H. A. Miers, principal of the 
University of London, and former editor 
of the Mineralogical Magazine. Here are 
given its scientific characters, its uses 
(especially for faceting softer precious 
stones), distribution, and mining, and the 
wonderful history of the most famous 
diamonds of the world. Ruby (Vol. 23, 
p. 812), the most valued of gem stones, 
is often called "Oriental ruby" to dis- 
tinguish it from Spinel (Vol. 25, p. 684), 
an aluminate stone of inferior hardness, 
density and value. It is interesting to 
note that many historic stones described 
as monster rubies were really spinels. 
The great ruby set in the Maltese Cross 
in front of the Imperial State Crown of 
England is a spinel. Sapphire (Vol. 24, 
p. 201) was known to the Greeks as "hya- 
cinthus," and the present name was for- 
merly applied to lapis lazuli. Asteria or 
Star Stone (Vol. 2, p. 792) tells how the 
luminous star comes to be seen in sap- 
phires, rubies and topazes. The name 
Emerald (Vol. 9, p. 332) is used for a 
number of stones, of which the most 
valued is not a true emerald at all; see 
Corundum (Vol. 7, p. 207). The same is 
true of the Topaz (Vol. 27, p. 48), the 
more prized Oriental topaz being a yellow 
corundum, harder and denser than the 
stone from which it takes its name. 
"Scotch" or "Spanish" topazes are yel- 



low or smoke-tinted quartz, or cairn- 
gorm. The Amethyst (Vol. 1, p. 852) is 
violet or purple quartz, and the sap- 
phire of a purple colour is often called an 
Oriental amethyst. The many varieties 
of the beautiful Zircon (Vol. 28, p. 989), 
such as Hyacinth (Vol. 14, p. 25) and 
Jargoon (Vol. 15, p. 276) are carefully 
described and distinguished. These valu- 
able articles on the precious stones have 
been contributed by F. W. Rudler, of the 
Museum of Practical Geology, London. 
Pearl (Vol. 21, p. 24) discusses the re- 
sults of the latest researches on the cause 
of pearl formation, and gives a graphic 
account of pearl-fishing. 

The material in the Britannica on the 
semi-precious stones is as complete. 
There are many articles, specified in the 

list at the end of 
Semi-Precious this chapter. Alex- 
Stones andrite (Vol. 1, p. 

576) is remarkable 
for its property of appearing dark green 
by daylight, and red by candle-light, 
which makes it especially popular in 
Russia where green and red are the mili- 
tary colors; Chrysoberyl (Vol. 6, p. 
320), of which alexandrite is a variety; 
Chrysolite (Vol. 6, p. 320), often mis- 
taken for chrysoberyl; Peridot (Vol. 21, 
p. 147), like chrysolite, a variety of oliv- 
ine; Beryl (Vol. 3, p. 817), much prized 
by the ancients as a gem stone, and of 
which the Emerald (see above) and the 
Aquamarine (Vol. 2, p. 237) are the 
chief "precious" varieties; Tourmaline 
(Vol. 27, p 103), the remarkable stone of 
as much interest to the physicist as to the 
jeweller, on account of its optical and 
electrical properties; and Rubellite 
(Vol. 23, p. 804), its much prized red 
variety Garnet (Vol. 11, p. 470), to- 
gether with Almandine (Vol. 1, p. 712), 
which, when cut with a convex face is 
known as carbuncle; Cinnamon- Stone 
(Vol. 6, p. 376), the light red garnet, so 
easily mistaken for a variety of zircon 
(the article tells how r to distinguish them) ; 
Demantoid (Vol. 7, p. 979), the green 



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53 



garnet from the Urals, and Pyrope (Vol. 
22, p. 695), usually known as Bohemian 
garnet; Jade (Vol. 15, p. 122), which oc- 
cupies in China the highest place as a 
jewel, and whose many varieties are here 
clearly distinguished; Jet (Vol. 15, p. 
358) ; Haematite (Vol. 12, p. 804) ; Moon- 
stone (Vol. 18, p. 807;; Cat's-Eye (Vol. 
5, p. 537), a term applied to several dis- 
tinct minerals of which Crocidolite 
(Vol. 7, p. 477) has recently become very 
popular; Opal (Vol. 20. p. 120), an ar- 
ticle in which the brilliant flashes of 
colour in this stone are explained; Quartz 
(Vol. 22, p. 715), with its many orna- 
mental varieties such as Agate (Vol. 1, 
p. 368), Amethyst (Vol. 1, p. 852), 

AVENTURINE (Vol. 3, p. 54), BLOOD- 
STONE (Vol. 4, p. 85), Cairngorm (Vol. 
4, p. 952), Carnelian (Vol. 5, p. 365), 
Chalcedony (Vol. 5, p. 803), Chryso- 
prase (Vol. 6, p. 320), Heliotrope (Vol. 
13, p. 232), Mocha Stone (Vol. 18, p. 
637), Onyx (Vol. 20, p. 118), Rock- 
Crystal (Vol. 23, p. 433), Sard (Vol. 24, 
p. 209), and Sardonyx (Vol. 24, p. 218). 
The article Watch (Vol. 28, p. 362), 
illustrated, by Lord Grimthorpe, the 
great authority on watches and clocks, 

and Sir H. H. Cun r 
Watches ynghame, vice-pres- 

and Clocks ident of the British 

Institute of Elec- 
trical Engineers, is full of interest. There 
is a very valuable historical account 
beginning with the invention of portable 
time pieces in the 15th century. The 
parts of a modern watch are described, 
with details as to the mainspring, differ- 
ent types of escapement, the balance- 
wheel and hair-spring, compensation ad- 
justments and secondary compensation. 
Methods of correcting temperature errors 
are discussed, and a simple means for 
demagnetizing a watch which has been 
near a dynamo is given. The proper ma- 
terials used for jewelled bearings are de- 
scribed in the articles Diamond, Corun- 
dum, etc. Lubricants (Vol. 17, p. 88) 
contains a valuable paragraph on the 



properties and preparation of the fluid 
oils used on the spindles of watches and 
clocks. 

The article Clock (Vol. 6, p. 536) is by 
the same distinguished authorities as 
Watch, with an additional section on 
Decorative Aspects (p. 552), by James 
Penderel-Brodhurst. It is equivalent to 
55 pages of this Guide and is fully illus- 
trated. Among the topics considered are 
the earliest clocks and their gradual im- 
provement; the essential components of 
a clock; the mechanics of the pendulum; 
methods of compensation, including the 
use of the new nickel-steel alloy — de- 
scribed in the article Invar (Vol. 14, p. 
717) — the barometrical error, and meth- 
ods of counteraction; suspension of pen- 
dulums; balance, anchor, dead, pin- 
wheel, detached or free, and gravity es- 
capements; the remontoire systems for 
abolishing errors in the force driving the 
escapement; testing of clocks; clock 
wheels; striking mechanism; the watch- 
man's clock, church and turret clocks, 
electrical clocks, miscellaneous clocks, in- 
cluding magical clocks and other curious 
designs. The section on Decorative As- 
pects tells about styles of cases and 
mountings, the origin and development 
of the "grandfather" clock, etc. In con- 
nection with long-period clocks, attention 
should be given to the new and ingenious, 
if not commercially practical, device in- 
vented by the Hon. R. J. Strutt. Elec- 
trified particles emitted by a radioactive 
substance separate two strips of gold leaf, 
and these, falling together after the 
charge has been conducted away upon 
contact with metal, are extended again, 
the process being constantly repeated. 
If some way could be found to utilize this 
motion to work an escapement, we 
should have a clock that would go on in- 
definitely, since 1000 years must elapse 
before even half the small amount of 
radium used has disappeared. A de- 
scription of this so-called "radium" clock 
will be found in Perpetual Motion 
(Vol. 21, p. 181). 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF ARTICLES IN THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA OF 

SPECIAL INTEREST TO MANUFACTURERS OF AND DEALERS 

IN JEWELRY, CLOCKS, AND WATCHES 



Agat« 

Aigrette 

Aiguillctte 

Albite 

Alexandrite 

Alloys 

Almandine 

Amason-stone 

Amber 

America, Archaeology 

Amethyst 

Andalusite 

Anhydrite 

Apatite 

Apostle Spoons 

Aquamarine 

Arabesque 

Arts and Crafts 

Assaying 

Astcria, or Star-stone 

Aventurine 

Axinite 

Azurite 

Bead 

Benitoite 

Beryl 

Beryllonita 

Biddery 

Bloodstone 

Bort 

Bracelet 

Bracing and Soldering 

Britain, Ornaments 

Bronxitc 

Brooch 

Cairngorm 

Cameo 

Campani-Alimenis, M. 

Carbonado 

Carnelian 

Cat's-eye 

Cellini, Benvcnuto 

Cement 

Chain 

Chalcedony 

Chasing 

Chessylita 

China, Art 

Chrysoberyl 

Chrysolite 



Chrysoprase 

Cinnamon-stane 

Clock 

Collar 

Congreve, Sir William 

Coral 

Corundum 

Costume 

Cressent, Charles 

Crocidolite 

Cross 

Crown 

Crystallography 

Cyanite 

Demantoid 

Diallage 

Diamond 

Dioptase 

Drinking Vessels 

Dumortierite 

Ear-ring 

Egypt, Ancient Art 

Electroplating 

Emerald 

Emery 

Enamel 

Epidote 

Euelase 

Felspar 

Filigree 

Finiguerra, Maso 

Fluorescence 

Fluor-spar 

Franklin, Benjamin 

Galileo Galilei 

Garnet 

Gem 

Gem, Artificial 

Gold 

Gold beating 

G5thite 

Gouthiere, Pierre 

Greek Art 

Grimthorpe, 1st Baron 

Haematite 

Hiddenite 

Hyacinth, or Jacinth 

Hypersthene 

Inlaying 

Intaglio 



Invar 

Iolite 

Ivory 

Jade 

Japan, Art 

Jargoon 

Jasper 

Jet 

Jewelry 

Knighhood and Chiv- 
alry 

Kunzite 

Labradorite 

Lapidary and Gem 
Cutting 

Lapis Lazuli 

Leucite 

Line-engraving 

Lubricants 

Malachite 

Marot, Daniel 

Meissonier, J. A. 

Medal 

Metal 

Metallography 

Metallurgy 

Metal-Work 

Mexico, Ancient Civil- 
ization 

Microcline 

Mineral Deposits 

Mineralogy 

Miniature 

Mint 

Mocha-stone 

Monogram 

Monteith 

Moonstone 

Morel-Ladeuil, Leonard 

Mosaic 

Nepheline 

Niello 

Numismatics 

Oligoclase 

Olivine 

Onyx 

Opal 

Orthoclase 

Palladium 

Paste 



Pearl 
Peridot 

Perpetual Motion 
Phenacite 
Phosphorescence 
Plagioclase 
Plate 

Plated Ware 
Platinum 
Pollaiuolo 
Prehnite 
Pyrope 
Pyroxene 
Quartz 
Regalia 
Repousse 
Rkig 

Rock-crystal 
Roman Art 
Rubellite 
Ruby 
Sapphire 
Sard 
Sardonyx 

Scandinavian Civiliza- 
tion 
Scarab 
Seals 

Sheffield Plate 
Silver 
Sphene 
Spinel 
Spodumene 
Stau rolite 
Sunstone 
Tassie, James 
Tiffany, C. L. 
Time, Measurement of 
Time, Standard 
Topaz 
Tourmaline 
Turquoise 
Variscite 
Vesuvianite 
Watch 

Weighing Machines 
Weights and Measures 
Wyon, Thomas 
Zircon 
Zoisite 



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CHAPTER XI 

FOR MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS OF ELECTRICAL 
MACHINERY AND SUPPLIES 



ELECTRICAL machinery and sup- 
plies include three main groups of 
appliances : The apparatus by which 
electricity is originally generated; the ap- 
paratus by which current is transmitted 
and, if necessary, modified before it is 
used; and the infinitely various appli- 
ances for its final employment. In con- 
nection with any one of the latter, in- 
formation may be needed as to its struc- 
ture and its mechanical or electrochem- 
ical method of operation, or as to its 
uses, and in the treatment of these two 
aspects of a vast number of subjects the 
advantages of the encyclopaedic plan of 
the Britannica are obvious. One article 
will explain the method by which the 
same principles are applied to a number 
of different machines. Another article 
will deal with a group of appliances all 
used for similar purposes; and a reference 
to the Index of 500,- 
Construction 000 entries (Vol. 29) 
and Operation will at once guide 
the reader who turns 
to the name of any electrical appliance to 
either kind of information he desires at 
the moment, whether he wants to know 
how the machine is made and operated, 
or what kind of work it does and how 
efficiently it does it. 

The reader to whom this chapter is ad- 
dressed is already familiar with the gen- 
eral subject of electricity, but he may at 
any moment desire to review or to sup- 
plement his general knowledge in con- 
nection with some new appliance which, 
for the first time, applies to commercial 
use one of the many and intricate laws 
of electrical vibration. The whole sub- 



ject of the nature and action of electricity 
is outlined in the article Electricity 
(Vol. 9, p. 179), by Prof. J. A. Fleming, 
of the University of London, one of the 
world's foremost authorities. In a space 
equivalent to hardly more than 30 pages 
of this Guide, the field covered in detail 
by many other articles is so concisely and 
clearly surveyed that you get a complete 
view of the theoretical and practical de- 
velopments by which electrical science 
and industry have reached their present 
position. The same contributor then 
considers Electrostatics (Vol. 9, p. 240) 
and Electrokinetics (Vol. 9, p. 210); 
and, in Conduction, Electric (Vol. 6, 
p. 855), deals with metallic, non-metallic, 
dielectric and gaseous conductors. One 
section of this article is by Sir J. J. Thom- 
son, winner, in 1906, of the Nobel Prize 
for Physics. The form in which metal is 
chiefly employed for the conduction of 
electricity is the subject of a separate 
article, Wire (Vol. 28, p. 738); and the 
articles on the individual metals deal with 
their electrical properties. 

The whole subject of the chemical pro- 
duction of electricity is discussed in 
Electrolysis (Vol. 9, p. 217), by W. C. 
D. Whetham, of the 
Batteries technical staff of 

and Dynamos Cambridge Univer- 
sity. Battery (Vol. 
3, p. 531), fully illustrated, deals with all 
the forms of primary battery, and Accu- 
mulator (Vol. 1, p. 126), also illustrated, 
by Walter Hibbert, of the London Poly- 
technic, with all the secondary types. 
The alkaline accumulators, of which the 
Edison apparatus is a well known type, 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



are the subject of a special section. Turn- 
ing to mechanically produced electricity, 
the first article to read is Electromag- 
netism (Vol. 9, p. 226). This brings you 
naturally to the article Dynamo (Vol. 8, 
p. 764), by C. C. Hawkins, author of one 
of the best practical textbooks on the 
subject. This copiously illustrated ar- 
ticle, in length equivalent to 50 pages of 
this Guide, discusses continuous current 
dynamos, lap-winding , commutators, field- 
magnets, forging* and castings for magnets, 
air-gaps, armature cores, carbon brushes, 
cooling surfaces and alternators. 

Having thus covered the subject of ob- 
taining current, the group of articles next 
to be considered is that dealing with its 
measurement and the examination of re- 
sistances. The general article Units, 
Physical (Vol. 27, p. 740), contains a 
section on electrical units. Then come 
Potentiometer (Vol. 22, p. 205); Me- 
ter, Electric (Vol. 18, p. 291); Volt- 
meter (Vol. 28, p. 206), illustrated; 
Amperemeter (Vol. 1, p. 879), illus- 
trated; Ohmmeter (Vol. 20, p. 34); 
Wattmeter (Vol. 28, p. 419); Galvano- 
meter (Vol. 11, p. 428), illustrated; 
Electrometer (Vol. 9, p. 234), illus- 
trated; Electroscope (Vol. 9, p. 239), 
illustrated; Wheatstone's Bridge (Vol. 
28, p. 584), illustrated; and Oscillo- 
graph (Vol. 20, p. 347), illustrated. 

The commercial supply of current is 
covered by a series of articles of which 
the first to be read is Electricity Sup- 
ply (Vol. 9, p. 193), to which Emile 
Garcke, the famous electrical engineer, 
contributes a section. Power Trans- 
mission, Electrical (Vol. 22, p. 233), is by 
Louis Bell, chief engineer of the General 
Electric Co., Boston; and contains full 
details as to the use of both two-phase 
and three-phase generators in transmis- 
sion. Induction 
Lighting Coil (Vol. 14, p. 

Appliances 502). and Trans- 

formers (Vol. 27, p. 
173) are both fully illustrated. Lighting, 
Electric (Vol. 16, p. 659) deals with arc, in- 



candescent and vapour lamps, and with 
wiring. The section on household work 
gives excellent practical information 
about the b est arrangements of lights. A 
special class of electric light supplies is 
discussed in Lighthouse (Vol. 16, p. 
627), by W. T. Douglass, who erected the 
new Eddystone and the Bishop's Rock 
lights, and by N. G. Gedye, another 
practical expert. 

The appliances used to convert cur- 
rent back again into the mechanical 
energy from which it had been derived are 
described in the article Motors, Elec- 
tric (Vol. 18, p. 910). This article di- 
vides continuous current motors into five 
classes: Separately excited; series-wound 
constant current; series-wound constant po- 
tential; series-wound interdependent cur- 
rent and potential; and shunt-wound con- 
stant potential. Alternating current mo- 
tors are similarly classified as Synchronous 
constant potential; induction-polyphase 
constant potential; induction monophase 
constant potential; repulsion commutating, 
and series-commutating. 

Machinery for applying electric power 
to transportation, both for trolley cars 
and heavy railroad traffic, is described 
in the article 
Trolley Cars Traction (Vol. 27, 

and Railroads p. 118), by Prof. 
Louis Duncan, who 
designed the first electric locomotives 
employed with large loads — those intro- 
duced in 1895 by the Baltimore & Ohio 
R.R. for its track in the. tunnel under 
Baltimore. The article gives, with many 
mechanical diagrams, accounts of the ap- 
pliances by which the current is taken 
from trolley wires, conduits and third 
rails, and of the types of motors and con- 
trollers employed. Crane (Vol. 7, p. 
368), by Walter Pitt, describes the pecu- 
liar type of "crane-rated" motor, by the 
aid of which steam and hydraulic cranes 
can be displaced. The electric furnaces 
used for the reduction of ores and for 
manufacturing processes in which ex- 
ceptionally high temperatures are re- 



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FOR MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS OF ELECTRICAL SUPPLIES 57 



quired, are treated in Electrometal- 
lurgy (Vol. 9, p. 232), by W. G. M'Mil- 
lan, lecturer on metallurgy at Mason 
College, Birmingham. Electric machin- 
ery for the refining of metals is dealt with 
in the article Electrochemistry (Vol. 9, 
p. 208). Under Surgical Instruments 
(Vol. 26, p. 133) there is a description of 
the apparatus used for cautery and for 
illuminating parts of the interior of the 
body. The appliances used in Electro- 
therapeutics are dealt with under that 
heading (Vol. 9, p. 249). Information as 
to other medical and surgical apparatus 
will be found under Rontgen Rays (Vol. 
23, p. 694), X-Ray Treatment (Vol. 28, 
p. 887), by Dr. H. L. Jones, of St. Bar- 
tholomew's Hospital, London; and Flu- 
orescence (Vol. 10, p. 575), by Prof. J. 
R. Cotter, of Trinity College, Dublin. 

Telegraph (Vol. 26, p. 510), equiva- 
lent in length to 70 pages of this Guide, 
and fully illustrated, is by a number of 
contributors, and dis- 
cusses both land lines 
and submarine ca- 
bles. The section on 
instruments, by H. R. Kempe, electrician 
to the General Post Office, London, in- 
cludes a full description of the transmit- 
ters and receivers employed in the various 
systems of wireless telegraphy. Tele- 
phone (Vol. 26, p. 547) deals with the 
fixed and portable instruments, the bat- 
teries and switchboards, the new auto- 



Telegraph 
and Telephone 



matic exchange "selectors," and with 
special applications of the microphone. 

A number of other electric appliances 
are discussed in separate articles, such as 
Bell (Vol. 3, p. 692), by H. M. Ross, in 
which burglar alarm devices are de- 
scribed; and Ventilation, Fan (Vol. 27, 
p. 1011), by James Bartlett; while spark- 
ing plugs and other ignition appliances 
are treated under Oil Engine (Vol. 20, 
p. 35). 

There are also a number of appliances 
used mostly in experimental and educa- 
tional work. Such, for instance, are 
Electrical or Electrostatic Machine 
(Vol. 9, p. 176), with many illustrations; 
Electrophorus (Vol. 9, p. 237), and 
Leyden Jar (Vol. 16, p. 528). 

The metals, chemicals and other ma- 
terials sold by dealers in electrical sup- 
plies, and their properties and uses, are 
described in Copper (Vol. 7, p. 102), 
Zinc (Vol. 28, p. 981), Lead (Vol. 16, p. 
314), Sulphuric Acid (Vol. 26, p. 65), 
Sodium, Compounds (Vol. 25, p. 341); 
Chromium (Vol. 6, p. 296); Nitrogen, 
Compounds (Vol. 19, p. 715); Sal Am- 
moniac (Vol. 24, p. 59), Bichromates 
and Chromates (Vol. 3, p. 912), Carbon 
(Vol. 5, p. 305), Rubber (Vol. 23, p. 
795), and Gutta Percha (Vol. 12, p. 
743). 

The following is a partial list, in alpha- 
betical order, of articles of peculiar in- 
terest to dealers in electrical supplies. 



Accumulator 

Amperemeter, or Am- 
meter 

Armature 

Battery 

Bell 

Bichromates and Chro- 
mates 

Carbon 

Chromium 

Condenser 

Conductor, Electric 

Copper 

Dielectric 

Dynamo 

Electricity 



Electrical, or Electro- 
static, Machine 
Electricity Supply 
Electrokinetics 
Electrolysis 
Electromagnetism 
Electrometer 
Electrophorus 
Electroscope 
Electrotherapeutics 
Fluorescence 
Fuze, or Fuse 
Galvanometer 
Gutta Percha 
Induction Coil 
Lead 



Leyden Jar 
Lighting 
Meter, Electric 
Motors, Electric 
Nitrogen, Compounds 
Ohmmeter 
Oil Engine 
Oscillograph 
Potentiometer 
Power Transmission 
Rontgen Rays, Appa- 
ratus 
Rubber 

Sal Ammoniac 
Sodium, Compounds 
Sulphuric Acid 



Surgical Instruments 

Telegraph 

Telephone 

Thermometry, Electrical 

Traction, Electric 

Tramway 

Transformers 

Units, Physical 

Vacuum Tube 

Ventilation 

Voltmeter 

Wattmeter 

Wheatstone's Bridge 

Wire 

Zinc 



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CHAPTER XII 

FOR MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS OF 
CHEMICALS AND DRUGS 



THE chemical and drug industry is 
not only in itself an enormous 
business, but it supplies essential 
materials for almost every branch of 
manufacturing. Chemical products are 
employed in our buildings, our clothing, 
our food; we come into the world and go 
out of the world with the odour of chem- 
icals about us. The manufacturer or 
dealer cannot analyze all the influences 
that affect his market, and when he tries, 
as he must, to consider the future of the 
trade, to reckon with 
A Factor in the channels of de- 

All Industries mand that will arise 
in the course of new 
applications of chemical products, he is 
facing all the problems of all the indus- 
tries. 

The variety of raw materials from 
which chemical products are derived, and 
the activity with which new sources are 
discovered and developed, are almost 
as bewildering. Only a century has 
passed since coal-tar was first distilled, 
and to-day no chemist would venture to 
fix the limits of its industrial possibilities. 
Electrolysis has been in use since 1804, 
and yet the future of the world's wheat 
supply probably depends upon processes, 
as yet hardly beyond the experimental 
stage, of utilizing atmospheric nitrogen. 

In connection with so comprehensive 
an industry, the uses of the Britannica 
are so manifold that this whole Guide 
might be devoted to them. Articles on 
every manufacturing process touch upon 
the use of chemicals. The articles on 
countries, states and cities are full of rele- 
vant information; and there is hardly a 
scientific article that would not be help- 
ful. But the 40 general articles on chem- 



istry, the 350 on chemical compounds, 
and the 75 on manufactured products call 
most immediately for attention; and, with 
the aid of other chapters in the Guide, the 
reader who desires to go further will easily 
find his way. 

The article Chemistry (Vol. 0, p. 33), 
equivalent to 135 pages of this Guide, 
is divided into 6 
Articles on sections. The first, 

Chemicals History, traces the 

general trend of the 
science from its infancy to the founda- 
tions of the modern theory. The second 
section, Principles, treats of nomencla- 
ture, formulae, chemical equations and 
chemical changes. It provides a brief 
but complete introduction to the termin- 
ology and methods of the chemist, and 
there is not a line in it which will not 
prove of value in some way or other to 
the chemical manufacturer. Sections 3 
and 4 are devoted to Inorganic and Or- 
ganic Chemistry, giving a history of the 
subjects and the principles underlying the 
structure of compounds, with cross refer- 
ences to all articles dealing with their 
preparation and properties. Sections 5 
and 6 deal, respectively, with Analytical 
and Physical Chemistry, 

Dr. Walter Nernst, professor of phy- 
sical chemistry, University of Berlin, is 
the author of Chemical Action (Vol. 6, 
p. 26), which deals specifically with the 
nature of chemical forces and deduces the 
laws of chemical statics and kinetics. Of 
interest and importance in connection 
with the manufacture of chemicals is 
Solution (Vol. 25, p. 368), by W. C. D. 
Whetham, of Cambridge University, au- 
thor of Theory of Solution, etc. Another 
theoretical article which will be found 



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FOR MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS OF CHEMICALS AND DRUGS 59 



widely useful is Thermochemistry (Vol. 
26, p. 804), by Prof. James Walker, of 
Edinburgh University. For further de- 
tails see the chapter on Chemistry in 
this Guide. 

It is possible here to mention only a 
small amount of the material dealing with 
the manufacture of chemicals. At the 

end of this chapter 
Manufacture there is a fuller al- 
of Chemicals phabetical list. It 

may be noted, how- 
ever, that the articles on the elements, 
metallic and non-metallic, give much con- 
sideration to their compounds, how these 
are made and how used in the arts and in 
medicine. But in addition to this there 
are many noteworthy contributions deal- 
ing with chemical manufacture. For in- 
stance, Alkali Manufacture (Vol. 1, 
p. 674), by Dr. Georg Lunge, professor of 
technical chemistry, Zurich Polytechnic, 
11 pages in length and with 10 illustra- 
tions. The chief processes described are 
the Leblanc, ammonia-soda; and electro- 
lytic, together with others dependent 
upon them. The facts about the manu- 
facture of the carbonate, hydrate, and 
sulphate of soda, chlorine, hydrochloric 
acid, etc., are fully given. Potassium 
(Vol. 22, p. 197) treats of the commercial 
compounds of this metal in the same 
manner. Nitrogen (Vol. 19, p. 714) ex- 
plains the new process for the commercial 
manufacture of nitric acid from atmos- 
pheric air — a matter of enormous indus- 
trial importance — and also the conversion 
of nitrogen into ammonia, which has been 
done successfully only within the past 
few years. 

The manufacture of chemical products 
by the use of electricity is the subject of 
Electrochemistry (Vol. 9, p. 208), and 
a still larger field is covered by Electro- 
metallurgy (Vol. 9, p. 232). Both of 
these valuable articles are by W. G. M' 
Millan, formerly secretary of the Insti- 
tute of Electrical Engineers of Great 
Britain. Sulphuric Acid (Vol. 26, p. 65), 
illustrated, by Dr. Lunge, describes the 



properties, reactions and manufacture of 
the most important of all chemicals, in- 
cluding the more modern contact pro- 
cesses. 

As a key to the subject of the origin 
and manufacture of drugs, the article 
Pharmacology (Vol. 21, p. 347), by Dr. 
Ralph Stockman, 
Drugs, Origin professor of materia 
and Manu- medica and thera- 

facture peutics in the Uni- 

versity of Glasgow, 
presents a great amount of interesting 
and valuable information on the action of 
chemical substances (apart from foods) 
on all kinds of animals, from bacteria up 
to man. A short history of pharmacology 
is given and a large part of the article 
concerns the action of drugs. There is 
also a classification of drugs according to 
the latest and most scientific methods 
into twenty-eight groups, describing the 
effects of each group. An appendix to 
the article, by Dr. H. L. Hennessy, is 
entitled Terminology in Therapeutics, and 
is a general explanation of the common 
names used in the therapeutic classifica- 
tion of drugs. 

Since therapeutics is concerned with 
the remedial power of drugs and the con- 
ditions under which they are to be used, 
the article Therapeutics (Vol. 26, p. 
793), by Dr. Sir Lauder Brunton, of St. 
Bartholomew's Hospital, London, and 
author of the well-known treatise, Modern 
Therapeutics, should not be overlooked, 
nor Poison (Vol. 21, p. 893), by Dr. Sir 
Thomas Stevenson, lecturer on chemistry 
and forensic medicine at Guy's Hospital, 
London, wherein all poisons are classified 
and their antidotes are indicated. 

Pharmacy (Vol. 21, p. 355), by E. M. 
Holmes, of the Pharmaceutical Museum, 
London, is largely historical in its nature, 
and yields much interesting and valuable 
information about the pharmacist. We 
learn that an Egyptian papyrus of the 
date 2300 B.C. gives direction as to the 
preparation of prescriptions, and that 
diachylon plaster, invented by Mene- 



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60 



BRITANNIGA READINGS AND STUDIES 



crates in A.D.I, is used for the same 
purposes to-day. A great deal of curious 
knowledge about ancient remedies, such 
as the thigh bone of a hanged man, moss 
grown on a human skull, the ashes of the 
head of a coal-black cat, etc., renders this 
article especially entertaining. Phar- 
macopceia (Vol. 21, p. 353), also by Mr. 
Holmes, tells about the pharmacopoeias 
in use in different countries, the standard- 
ization of drugs, etc. 

In the list at the end of this chapter are 
noted the numerous separate articles on 
drugs, their preparation and use that ap- 
pear in the Britannica. Mention should 
be made of the articles on the elements, 
such as Iron (Vol. 14, p. 799), Arsenic 
(Vol. 2, p. 653), Mercury (Vol. 18, p. 
158), Iodine (Vol. 14, p. 725), Bromine 
(Vol. 4, p. 633), Sodium (Vol. 25, p. 343), 
Potassium (Vol. 22, p. 200), Magnesium 
(Vol. 17, p. 321), Bismuth (Vol. 4, p. 11). 
Separate sections dealing with pharma- 
cology are found in the articles on 
very many plants, such as Aloe (Vol. 
1, p. 720), Anise (Vol. 2, p. 55), 
Arrowroot (Vol. 2, p. 649), Ice- 
land Moss (Vol. 14, p. 241), Cinchona 
(Vol. 6, p. 869), Coca (Vol. 6, p. 614), 
Colchicum (Vol. 6, p. 661), Dandelion 



(Vol. 7, p. 801), Hop (Vol. 13, p. 678), 
Horehound (Vol. 13, p. 692), Lobelia 
(Vol. 16, p. 837), Mint (Vol. 18, p. 557), 
Mustard (Vol. 19, p. 97), Peppermint 
(Vol. 21, p. 128), etc. 

The scientific biographies include not a 
few subjects which will be of interest, 
owing to familiarity with the names, to 

those engaged in the 
Biographies chemical and drug 

of Eminent business. Among 

Scientists these are Lister, 

Baron Joseph L. 
(Vol. 16, p. 777), to whose work and 
teaching the present importance of the 
manufacture of antiseptics is largely 
due; Pasteur, Louis (Vol. 20, p. 892); 
Curie, Pierre, and Mme. Marie Curie 
(Vol. 7, p. 644), the physicists who 
first announced the existence of ra- 
dium; Liebig, Baron J. von (Vol. 16, 
p. 590), the great physiological chem- 
ist; Lunge, Georg (Vol. 17, p. 126), the 
noted expert in technical chemistry, al- 
ready mentioned as a contributor to the 
Britannica, and Glauber, J. R. (Vol. 12, 
p. 114), the German chemist who made 
a living chiefly by the sale of se- 
cret chemical and medicinal prepara- 
tions. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF ARTICLES IN THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNIGA OF 
SPECIAL INTEREST TO THOSE ENGAGED IN THE MANUFACTURE 
AND SALE OF CHEMICALS AND DRUGS 



Abel, Sir Frederick A. 

Acacia 

Acenaphthene 

Acetic Acid 

Aceto-Acetic Ester 

Acetone 

Acetophenone 

Acetylene 

Achard, F. C. 

Acid 

Acid Amides 

Aconite 

Acorus Calamus 

Acridine 

Adenine 

Adipocere 

Affinity, Chemical 

Albumin, or Albumen 

Alcohol 

Alcohols 

Aldehydes 



Alembic 

Algaroth, Powder of 

Alizarin 

Alkahest 

Alkali 

Alkali Manufacture 

Alkaline Earths 

Alkaloid 

Alkanet 

Allantoin 

Alloxan 

Alloxantin 

Allyl Alcohol 

Almond 

Aloe 

Alum 

Aluminium 

Amidines 

Amines 

Ammonia 

Ammoniacum 



Amygdalin 
Amyl Alcohols 
Amyl Nitrite 
Anaesthesia and 

aesthetics 
Analysis 
Anatto 

Andrews, Thomas 
Angelica 
Aniline 
Anirae 
Anise 

Anthracene 
Anthraquinone 
Antimony 
Antipyrine 
Antiseptics 
Apothecary 
Araroba Powder 
Archil 
Argol 



Aristolochia 
Arnica 
Arrowroot 
An- Arsenic 
Asafetida 
Asparagine 
Aspen 
Asphodel 
Azo Compounds 
Azoximes 

Baeyer, Adolf von 
Balard, Antoine J. 
Balsam 
Barium 
Base 

Bauml, Antoine 
Bdellium 
Becher, J. J. 
Bell, Jacob 
Belladonna 
Benzaldehyde 



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Benzine 

Benzidine 

Benzoic Acid 

Benzoin 

Benzophenone 

Benzyl Alcohol 

Berberine 

Bergman, Torbern Olof 

Berthelot, M. P. E. 

Berthollet, C. L. 

Beryllium, or Glucinum 

Berzelius, J. J. 

Betaine 

Betel Nut 

Bhang 

Bibirine or Bebeerine 

Bichromates and Chro- 

mates 
Bismuth 
Bittern 
Black, Joseph 
Borage 
Borax 
Boric Acid or Boracic 

Acid 
Boron 

Boussingault, J. B. J. D. 
Brande, William 

Thomas 
Bromine 
Brown, S. M. 
Brucine 
Buchu 

Bunsen, P. W. von 
Butyl Alcohols 
Butyric Acid 
Cadmium 
Caesium 
Caffeine 
Caiuput Oil 
Calabar Bean 
Calcium 
Calomel 

Calvert, F. Crace 
Camphors 

Cannizzaro, Stanislao 
Cantharides 
Capsicum 
Capsule 
Caraway 
Carbazol 
Carbide 
Carbohydrate 
Carbolic Acid 
Carbon 
Carbonates 
Carbon Bisulphide 
Carbonic Acia 
Cardamon 
Carvacrol 
Cassia 
Castor Oil 
Catalysis 
Catechu 
Caustic 

Cavendish, Henry 
Cayenne Pepper 
Cellulose 



Cerium 

Chamomile, or Camo- 
mile Flowers 

Charcoal 

Chemical Action 

Chemistry 

Chevreul, M. F. 

Chloral 

Chlorates 

Chlorine 

Chloroform 

Chlorpicrin 

Chromium 

Chrysene 

Cimicifuga 

Cinchona 

Cinnamic Acid 

Cinnamon 

Cinnolin 

Citric Acid 

Clark, Thomas 

Cloves 

Coal-tar 

Cobalt 

Coca, or Cuca 

Cocaine 

Coco-nut Palm 

Cod-liver Oil 

Colchicum 

Colcothar 

Collodion 

Colocynth 

Colt's-Foot 

Columbium 

Combustion 

Condenser 

Conine 

Copaiba 

Copal 

Copper 

Copperas 

Coriander 

Corrosive Sublimate 

Coumarin 

Coumarones 

Creosote 

Cresols 

Crookes, Sir William 

Crotonic Acid 

Croton Oil 

Crystallization 

Cubebs 

Cumin 

Curie, Pierre 

Cyanamide 

Cyanic Acid and Cya- 
nates 

Cyanide 

Cyanogen 

Cytisine 

Dalton, John 

Dammar 

Dandelion 

Daniell, John F. 

Davy, Sir Humphry 

Decolourizing 

Depilatory 

Dessication 



Dewar, Sir James 

Dextrine 

Diazo Compounds 

Didymium 

Digitalis 

Dill 

Diphenyl 

Disinfectants 

Distillation 

Dividivi 

Ddbereiner, J. W. 

Dragon's Blood 

Drug 

Dulong, Pierre Louis 

Dumas, J. B. A. 

Durene 

Earth 

Ecgonine 

Elaterium 

Elecampine 

Electrochemistry 

Electrolysis 

Electrometallurgy 

Element 

Elixir 

Elm 

Epsom Salts 

Equivalent 

Erbium 

Erdmann, Otto Linn6 

Ergot, or Spurred Rye 

Erythrite 

Esters 

Ether 

Ethers 

Ethyl 

Ethyl Chloride 

Ethylene 

Eucalyptus 

Eugenol 

Euphorbium 

Eupion 

Europium 

Fehling, Hermann von 

Fennel 

Fenugreek 

Fig 

Filter 

Fir 

Fischer, Emil 

Fittig, Rudolf 

Flamel, Nicolas 

Flavin 

Fluoranthene 

Fluorene 

Fluorescein 

Fluorine 

Formalin, or Formalde- 
hyde 

Formic Acid 

Formula 

Fourcroy, A. F., Comte 
de 

Foxglove 

Frankland, Sir Edward 

Fremy, Edmond 

Fresenius, Karl R. 

Friedel, Charles 



Fructose, or Fruit- 
sugar 

Fuchs, Johann N. von 

Fulminic Acid 

Fumaric and Maleic 
Acids 

Fumitory 

Furazanes 

Furfurane 

Fusel Oil 

Gadolinium 

Galangal 

Galbanum 

Gallic Acid 

Gallium 

Gamboge 

Gannal, J. N. 

Garlic 

Gay-Lussac, J. L. 

Geber 

Gelatin 

Gelsemium 

Gentian 

Geoffroy, E. F. 

Gerhardt, Charles F. 

Germanium 

Gibbs, Oliver Wolcott 

Gilbert, Sir Joseph H. 

Ginger 

Ginseng 

Gladstone, John Hall 

Glaser, Christopher 

Glauber, Johann R. 

Glauber's Salt 

Glucinum 

Glucose 

Glucoside 

Glutaric Acid 

Glycerin, or Glycerol 

Glycols 

Gmelin (family) 

Gold 

Graham, Thomas 

Grains of Paradise 

Greenheart 

Guaco, Huaco, or Guao 

Guaiacum 

Guanidine 

Guarana 

Guelder Rose 

Guimet, Jean B. 

Gum 

Guyton de Morveau, 
Baron 

Harcourt, W. Vernon 

Hartshorn, Spirits of 

Hashish 

Hellebore 

Helmont, Jean B. van 

Hemp 

Henbane 

Henna 

Henry, William 

Herb 

Hippuric Acid 

Hoftnann, A. W. von 

Homberg, Wilhelm 

Homoeopathy 



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Hop 

Horehound 

Houseleek 

Hydantoin 

Hydracrylic Acid 

Hydras tine 

Hydrate 

Hydrazine 

Hydrazone 

Hydrocarbon 

Hydrochloric Acid 

Hydrogen 

Hydroxylamine 

Hyposulphite of Soda 

Hyssop 

Iatrochemistry 

Iceland Moss 

Imidazoles, or Glyoxa- 

lines 
Indazoles 
Indene 
Indicator 
Indigo 
Indium 
Indole 
Indulines 
Inulin 
Iodine 
Iodoform 
Ipecacuanha 
Iron 
I satin 
Isomerism 
Isoxazoles 
J a bo rand i 
Jalap 
Juniper 
Kamala 

Kekule\ F. August 
Kelp 
Kermes 
Ketenes 
Ketones 
Kino 

Klaproth, M. H. 
Kolbe, A. W. Hermann 
Kopp, Hermann F. M. 
Kousso 
Kunkel, or Kunckel 

von Lowenstjern, J. 
Lactic Acid 
Lactones 
Laevulinic Acid 
Lanolin 
Lanthanum 
Laudanum 
Lavender 
Lavoisier, A. L. 
Lead 

Le Blanc, Nicolas 
Lemery, Nicolas 
Lemon 

Liebig, Baron J. von 
Lime 
Linseed 
Liquorice 
Lister, Baron 
Lithium 



Litmus 

Lobelia 

Lunge, Georg 

Madder 

Magnesium 

Magnus, H. G. 

Malic Acid 

Mallow 

Malonic Acid 

Malt 

Mammee Apple 

Mandelic Acid 

Mandrake 

Manganese 

Mangos teen 

Manna 

Marggraf, Andreas S. 

Marignac, Jean C. G. 

de 
Mastic 

Mayow, John 
Medical Jurisprudence 
Medicine 
Mellitic Acid 
Mandelleff, Dmitri I. 
Mercaptans 
Mercury 
Mesoxalic Acid 
Methyl Alcohol 
Meyer, J. Lothar 
Meyer, Victor 
Microcosmic Salt 
Mineral Waters 
Mint 

Mitscherlich, E. 
Mohr, K. Friedrich 
Moissan, Henri 
Molybdenum 
Mond, Ludwig 
Morphine 
Mucic Acid 
Murexide 
Murray, John 
Musk 

Muspratt, J. and J. S. 
Mustard 
Mustard Oils 
Mvrrh 
Myrtle 
Naphtha 
Naphthalene 
Naphthols 
Naphthylamines 
Nepenthes 

Newlands, John A. R. 
Nickel 
Nightshade 
Niobium 
Nitre 

Nitric Acid 
Nitrobenzene 
Nitro Compounds 
Nitrogen 
Nitroglycerin 
Nobel, Alfred B. 
Nux Vomica 
Officinal 
Oils 



Olefine 

Oleic Acid 

Opium 

Orcin 

Orpiment 

Orris-root 

Oxalic Acid 

Oxazoles 

Oxide 

Oximes 

Oxygen 

Oxy hydrogen Flame 

Palladium 

Palmitic Acid 

Paraffin 

Paraldehyde 

Pasteur, Louis 

Pelouze, T. Jules 

Pennyroyal 

Peppermint 

Pepsin 

Perfumery 

Perkin, Sir W. H. 

Pettenkofer, Max J. 

von 
Pharmacology 
Pharmacopoeia 
Pharmacy 
Phenacetin 
Phenanthrene 
Phenazine 
Phenol 

Phenolphthalein 
Phosphates 
Phosphorus 
Phthalazines 
Phthalic Acids 
Picene 
Picric Acid 
Picrotoxin 
Pilocarpine 
Pimento 
Pine 

Piperazin 
Pipcrine 
Piperonal 
Platinum 
Plattner, K. F. 
Podophyllin 
Poison 

Polymethylenes 
Pomade 
Potashes 
Potassium 
Priestley, Joseph 
Primuline 



Louis 



Pumice 

Purin 

Purslane 

Pyrazines 

Pyrazoles 

Pyrene 

Pyrethrum 



Pyridine 

Pyrimidines 

Pyrocatechin 

Pyrogallol 

Py rones 

Pyrophorous 

Pyrrol 

Pyruvic Acid 

Quassia 

Quercitron 

Quinazolines 

Quinine 

Quinoline 

Quinones 

Quinoxalines 

Radium 

Ramsay, Sir William 

Raoult, Frangois M. 

Rare Earths 

Regnault, H. V. 

Resorcin 

Retene 

Rhamnus Purshiana 

Rhatany, or Krameria 

Root 
Rhodium 
Rhubarb 
Richter, J. B. 
Roebuck, John 
Roscoe, Sir H. E. 
Rose 

Rouelle, G. F. 
Rouge 
Rubidium 
Ruthenium 
Saccharic Acid 
Saccharin 
Safflower 
Saffron 
Safraninc 
Sainte - Claire Deville, 

E. H. 
Sal Ammoniac 
Salep 

Saliein, Salicinum 
Saliscylic 
Salt 

Saltpetre 
Samarium 
Sandalwood 
Sandarach 
Santonin 
Sarsaparilla 
Scammony 
Scandium 
Scheele, K. W. 
Schlippe's Salt 
Schonbein, C. F. 
Schiltzenberger, P. 
Senega 
Senna 
Sesame 
Silica 
Silicon 

Silliman, Benjamin 
Silver 
Snake-root 
Soap 



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63 



Soap-bark 

Sodium 

Solution 

Spectroscopy 

Spikenard, or Nard 

Spirits 

Sponges 

Squill 

Stahi, G. E. 

Stas, J. S. 

Stearic Acid 

Sterochemistry 

Stero-isomerism 

Stoichometry 

Stramonium 

Strontium 

Strophanthus 

Strychnine 

Styrolene 

Succinic Acid 

Sugar 

Sulphonal 

Sulphonic Acids 

Sulphur 

Sulphuric Acid 

Sumbul, or Sumbal 

Supra-renal extract 



Talc 

Tamarisk 

Tannin or Tannic Acid 

Tantalum 

Tar 

Taraxacum 

Tartar 

Tartaric Acid 

Tellurium 

Tennant, Charles 

Tennant, Snaithson 

Terbium 

Terpenes 

Tetrazines 

Tetrazoles 

Thenard, L. J. 

Therapeutics 

Thermochemistry 

Thiazines 

Thiazoles 

Thiophen 

Thomsen, Julius 

Thomson, Thomas 

Thorium 

Thymol 

Thyroid 

Tin 



Tincture 

Titanium 

Toilet Powders 

Toluene 

Tonqua Bean 

Tooth Powders and 

Pastes 
Triazines 
Triazoles 

Triphenylmethane 
Trophine 
Tungsten 
Turmeric 
Upas 
Uranium 

Urea, or Carbamide 
Urethane 
Urotropin 
Valency 
Valerian 
Valeric Acid 
Vanadium 
Vanilla 

Van't Hoff, J. H. 
Vaseline 

Vauquelin, L. N 
Veratrum 



Veronal 

Viburnum 

Vitriol 

Weighing Machines 

Weights and Measures 

Weldon, Walter 

Wenzel, K. F. 

Williamson, A. W. 

Wine 

Wintergreen 

Winter's Bark 

Wislicenus, J. 

Witch-hazel 

Wohler, Friedrich 

Wollaston, W. H. 

Wormwood 

Wurtz, C. A. 

Xanthic Acid 

Xanthone 

Xylene 

Yew 

Young, James 

Ytterbium 

Yttrium 

Zinc 

Zirconium 



CHAPTER Xin 



FOR MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS OF 
FOOD PRODUCTS 



THE manufacturer of or dealer in 
food products must of necessity be 
interested in questions of trans- 
portation by land and sea, of taxation, of 
agriculture, stock-raising and fishing, for 
example. For all such subjects as these 
he is referred to other chapters of this 
Guide. Here he will find only the chief 
articles on the subjects most closely re- 
lated to the study of food products. 
But on these he may glean a wealth of 
information that will be of greatest value 
to him, and from them he can turn 
readily and with profit to a survey of the 
larger area covered by other chapters. 

As a general introduction to the sub- 
ject the student should read Dietetics 
(Vol. 8, p. 214), by the late Dr. W. O. 
Atwater, who was in charge of the Nu- 
trition Investigation of the U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, and R. D. Milner, 



also of that Department. This article 
deals with the composition and nutritive 
values of foods, their fuel value, quan- 
tities of nutriments needed, hygienic and 
pecuniary economy of foods (with tables 
showing the percentage composition of 
common food materials), conditions of 
digestibility, and other matters of equal 
importance. Nutrition (Vol. 19, p. 
920), by Prof. D. N. Paton and Dr. E. P. 
Cathcart, both of the University of 
Glasgow, discusses more particularly di- 
gestion and the utilization of the different 
food constituents. 

After establishing the value and rela- 
tive importance of the various substances 
used as food, it is of great interest to 
everyone in the business to consider the 
subject of Food Preservation (Vol. 
10, p. 612), an article by Otto Hehner, 
formerly president of the Society of Pub- 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



lie Analysts, in which there are separate 
sections on Preservation by Heat (which 
includes all canning 
Food processes); by Chem- 

Preservatioii icals ; by Drying; 

by Refrigeration ; by 
Pickling. The sterilization of milk, con- 
densed milk and milk powder all fall 
within the scope of this article. The 
preservation of food by cold is described 
in fuller detail in the article Refrigerat- 
ing and Ice Making (Vol. £3, p. 30), by 
T. B. Lightfoot, author of the standard 
technical book on that subject. Among 
the separate articles on preservative ma- 
terials are Vinegar (Vol. £8, p. 96), 
Acetic Acid (Vol. 1, p. 135), Citric 
Acid (Vol. 6, p. 397), Oils (Vol. 20, p. 
43), Salt (Vol. 24, p. 87), Saltpetre 
(Vol. 24, p. 93), Sugar (Vol. 26, p. 32), 
Borax (Vol. 4, p. 243), Formalin or 
Formaldehyde (Vol. 10, p. 667), Ben- 
zoic Acid (Vol. 3, p. 756), Salicylic 
Acid (Vol. 24, p. 69), Sulphur, Com- 
pounds (Vol. 26, p. 63), Alcohol (Vol. 
1, p. 525). 

The objections to the use of some of 
these chemicals are discussed in Adul- 
teration (Vol. 1, p. 218), by Otto Heh- 
ner. This article is about as long as 50 
pages of this Guide. There is an inter- 
esting historical introduction, from which 
we learn that the first legal statute in 
which the adultera- 
Adulteration tion of food is no- 

ticed dates from the 
reign of King John in England (1203). 
There is an elaborate account of all the 
subsequent legislation in Great Britain, 
the United States, and Germany. The 
effects upon digestion of the chemical 
preservatives mentioned above are shown 
in the light of the very latest investiga- 
tions. There is a section on colouring 
matter in food, with information about 
harmless and harmful dyes; and the last 
part of the article considers adulteration 
as recently applied to the more important 
articles of food, such as milk (with tests 
for borax and formaldehyde), cream, 



butter, cheese, lard, oils, flour and bread, 
sugar, marmalade and jams, tea, coffee, 
cocoa and chocolate, wine, beer, spirits, 
non-alcoholic drinks, and vinegar. 

The properties of adulterants and col- 
ouring matters are described in separate 
articles, such as Glucose (Vol. 12, p. 
141); Saccharin (Vol. 23, p. 970); Pa- 
raffin (Vol. 20, p. 752), which is some- 
times added to coffee when it is roasted; 
Alum (Vol. 1, p. 766), often used with 
weak and unstable flours in bread making, 
and unwholesome, although not strictly 
speaking an adulterant; Sago (Vol. 23, p. 
1003) and Arrowroot (Vol. 2, p. 649), 
which provide adulterants of cocoa; 
Chicory (Vol. 6, p. 131), which many 
consumers insist upon using in their 
coffee; Copper, Compounds (Vol. 7, p. 
109), which describes the copper salts 
used for colouring canned vegetables; 
Anatto (Vol. 1, p. 943) and Turmeric 
(Vol. 27, p. 474), two harmless vegetable 
colouring matters, much employed; and 
Aniline (Vol. 2, p. 47). A full list of 
the various other colouring matters will 
be found in the article Dyeing (Vol. 8, 
p. 744). 

Another group of articles will be found 
particularly useful in connection with the 
manufacture of certain classes of food 
products. Among these are Fermenta- 
tion (Vol. 10, p. 275), by J. L. Baker, the 
noted English analytical and consulting 
chemist; Fungi (Vol. 11, p. 333), illus- 
trated, with its information about molds; 
Bacteriology (Vol. 3, p. 156), illus- 
trated, especially for the material relating 
to the nature of toxins (p. 174) — both of 
these articles by the late Professor Ward 
of Cambridge and Professor Blackman of 
the University of Leeds; Medical Juris- 
prudence, Food Poisoning (Vol. 18, p. 
29), by Prof. H. H. Littlejohn, of the 
University of Edinburgh, and T. A. In- 
gram; and Poison (Vol. 21, p. 893), by 
the late Dr. Sir Thomas Stevenson, of 
Guy's Hospital, London. 

The diseases of animals which affect 
meat are described in the article Veter- 



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65 



inaby Science (Vol. 28, p. 2), by George 
Fleming, author of Animal Plagues, and 
Prof. John MacQueen of the London Vet- 
erinary College, which contains sections 
on diseases of cattle, sheep and pigs as 
well as on the principal parasites of dom- 
estic animals; and there are separate ar- 
ticles on Anthrax (Vol. 2, p. 106); Foot 
and Mouth Disease (Vol. 10, p. 617), 
Pleuro-Pneumonia, or Ltjng Plague 
(Vol. 21, p. 888), and Rinderpest (Vol. 
23, p. 848). 

The article Flour and Flour Manu- 
facture (Vol. 10, p. 548), by George F. 
Zimmer, not only describes the processes 
of milling and of 
Special Foods dressing and bleach- 
ing the flour, but 
also gives the history of milling from the 
earliest times, and deals with the special 
customs of different countries. There is 
a very full article Bread (Vol. 4, p. 465), 
by the same contributor. It is not gen- 
erally known that there are in existence 
remains of cakes made by the Swiss lake- 
dwellers in the Stone Age. The author 
says that, in all probability, they were 
baked on hot stones. The machine 
bakeries of the present day are described; 
and there are sections on sanitation of 
bakehouses, quality, flavour and colour of 
flour, baking powders, methods of dough 
making (the ferment-and-dough, the 
sponge-and-dough, and other systems), 
leavened, unleavened and aerated bread, 
and the recently invented Apostolov pro- 
cess, which among other advantages, per- 
mits the utilization of about 87j^% of 
the wheat berry in bread making. A 
complete modern bread-making plant is 
described, together with the latest types 
of machine kneaders, dough dividers and 
mixers, and baking ovens. There are 
also articles on Biscuit (Vol. 3, p. 992), 
Macaroni (Vol. 17, p. 192), Vermicelli 
(Vol. 27, p. 1024), and Gluten (Vol. 12, 
p. 145). 

The article Starch (Vol. 25, p. 794) 
treats of the manufacture of this most 
important alimentary substance. The 



materials from which the chief food 
starches are made are described in Maize 
(Vol. 7, p. 448), Arrowroot (Vol. 2, p. 
649), with illustrations showing the ap- 
pearance under the microscope of the 
substances which pass commercially un- 
der the name of arrowroot or farina; 
Sago (Vol. 23, p. 1008), Tapioca (Vol. 
26, p. 413), and Cassava (Vol. 5, p. 457). 
Oat (Vol. 19, p. 938) has information 
about the manufacture of oatmeal. 

The article Sugar (Vol. 26, p. 85) is by 
two practical experts, Alfred and Valen- 
tine W. Chapman. It deals with the 
chemistry, manufacture, history and 
statistics of this important food product 
as well as with the cultivation of the 
sugar cane and beet. 

Among articles on the products in the 
manufacture of which sugar is employed 
is Jams and Jellies (Vol. 15, p. 150), by 
Otto Hehner. The author points out 
many things of interest, for example why 
starch-glucose is an ingredient and not an 
adulterant of these products, and he shows 
the baselessness of the prejudice against 
the use of beet sugar in their manufac- 
ture. The manufacturer of jellies and 
preserves will find separate articles on all 
the fruits employed, and other informa- 
tion in Gelatin (Vol. 11, p. 554); in 
Irish Moss (Vol. 14, p. 795) as to the 
properties of vegetable gelatin; and in 
Isinglass (Vol. 14, p. 872), which, be- 
sides its gelatinous qualities, possesses the 
property of clarifying wines, beers, and 
other liquids. Confectionery (Vol. 6, 
p. 898) describes an important industry 
— which until the middle of the 19th cen- 
tury was part of the druggist's business. 
See also Chocolate (Vol. 6, p. 259) and 
Jujube (Vol. 15, p. 546). 

Salt (Vol. 24, p. 87) covers the manu- 
facture of salt very fully. It is curious 
to note that the termination "wich" in 
English place-names points to localities 
of ancient salt manufacture, for "wich" 
is an old English word meaning salt- 
spring. This article contains an interest- 
ing section on the Ancient History and 



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BRITANrilCA READINGS AND STUDIES 



Religious Symbolism of salt (p. 90), by the 
late Dr. William Robertson Smith. The 
preservative qualities of salt were held to 
make it a peculiarly fitting symbol of any 
enduring compact, and in more than one 
part of the world cakes of salt have been 
used as money. 

Butter and cheese manufacture fall 
under the article Dairy and Dairy 
Farming (Vol. 7, p. 737), illustrated, by 
the late Dr. William 
Dairy Fream, of Edin- 

Products burgh University. 

There are sections 
on Milk Production; Cheese and Cheese- 
making, including Canadian and Amer- 
ican factory practice and the Babcock 
and Russell investigations in Wisconsin 
which have opened up a new field for 
commercial exploitation (the varieties of 
English, French, German, and Italian 
cheeses being also described); Butter and 
Butter -making, Dairy Factories, Adultera- 
tion of Dairy Produce; The Milk Trade, 
American Dairying, etc. Margarine, 
the "perfectly wholesome butter sub- 
stitute" is the subject of a separate ar- 
ticle (Vol. 17, p. 704). 

There is an article on Lard (Vol. 16, p. 
214), showing what real leaf lard is, and 
how the term is applied in commerce. 
Oils (Vol. 20, p. 43), by Dr. Julius Lew- 
kowitsch, author of Chemical Technology 
and Analysis of Oils, Fats, and Waxes, 
deals with the fixed oils and fats, and 
essential, etheral or volatile oils. Some 
of these are among the most important 
articles of food, and the oil and fat in- 
dustry may be considered as old as the 
human race itself. The three processes 
of oil extraction are described, also re- 
fining and bleaching, methods of testing, 
etc. A list of all oils and fats, including 
those that are edible, is given. For the 
chief oils used as food see Olive (Vol. 20, 
p. 85), Cotton, Cotton-seed (Vol. 7, p. 
260), Sesame (Vol. 24, p. 701), Sun- 
flower (Vol. 26, p. 102), Poppy Oil 
(Vol. 22, p. 91). 

Other articles on foods deal with the 



preparation for the market of such pro- 
ducts as Ginger (Vol. 12, p. 27), Must- 
ard (Vol. 19, p. 97), Pepper (Vol. 21, p. 
127), with the different varieties dis- 
tinguished, Cayenne Pepper (Vol. 5, p. 
589), Vinegar (Vol. 28, p. 96), Pimento 
(Vol. 21, p. 614), Cloves (Vol. 6, p. 562), 
Cinnamon (Vol. 6, p. 376), Curry (Vol. 
7, p. 649), Caviare (Vol. 5, p. 582), from 
which we learn that the finer grades 
rarely find their way out of Russia; Ket- 
chup (Vol. 15, p. 761), Chutney (Vol. 6, 
p. 350), Pickle (Vol. 21, p. 584), Vanil- 
la (Vol. 27, p. 894), Raisin (Vol. 22, p. 
864), Currant (Vol. 7, p. 648), Prune 
(Vol. 22, p. 518), Fig (Vol. 10, p. 332), and 
Guava (Vol. 12, p. 665). 

The same completeness is displayed in 
the Britannica articles on beverages. Tea 
(Vol. 26, p. 476), by John McEwan, has 

an admirable his- 
Beverages, torical introduction. 

Tea and Coffee It was not until the 

middle of the 17th 
century that the English began to use tea. 
It is a curious fact that whereas 35 years 
ago China practically supplied the world 
with tea, to-day Russia alone takes half 
of her export. The reason for this is ex- 
plained. The characteristics of all vari- 
eties of tea are given and the main facts 
about the cultivation and manufacture. 
Tea Adulteration and Effects on Health are 
other sections of this valuable article. 

Coffee (Vol. 6, p. 646) is treated in 
very similar fashion by A. B. Rendle and 
W. G. Freeman. This beverage, in spite 
of fierce religious opposition, became the 
national beverage of the Arabians, and 
finally appeared in Europe in the 17th 
century. The physiological action of 
coffee has a section all to itself. Coffee 
consumption, roasting and adulteration 
are also discussed. It is of interest to 
note that while one branch of the Anglo- 
Saxon race, namely the people of the 
United States, is near the head of the 
list of coffee consumers, others, especially 
Great Britain, Canada and Australia 
"are almost at the foot, using only about 



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FOR MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS OF FOOD PRODUCTS 



67 



1 lb. of coffee per head each year." In the 
United States "the average consump- 
tion per head is about 11 or 12 lbs. per 
annum." 

Cocoa (Vol. 6, p. 628) is an interesting 
and valuable article on "the food of the 
gods" — the great beverage and dietary 
substance which America has given the 
world. Modern lovers of chocolate as a 
beverage (which is the same as cocoa 
save that the fat has not been extracted) 
will envy the digestive powers of the 
Emperor Montezuma of Mexico who had, 
each day, 50 jars of chocolate prepared 
for his personal consumption. 

Beer (Vol. 3, p. 642), by Dr. Philip 
Schidrowitz, member of the Institute of 
Brewery Council, confines itself to the 
history of this important beverage, the 
chemical composition of beers of different 
types, and information in regard to pro- 
duction and consumption. In Brewing 
(Vol. 4, p. 506) this same author enters 
very fully into the manufacturing opera- 
tions. The English and foreign systems 
are described and there are many illustra- 
tions. It is curious to note that Pliny, 
who is the earliest writer to mention 
beer, describes it as scorned by the Ro- 
mans, who looked upon it as only fit for 
barbarians, and he thought it a more sin- 
ful drink than wine. "So exquisite," he 
says, "is the cunning of mankind in 
gratifying their vicious appetites, that 
they have invented a method to make 
water itself produce intoxication." The 
section on Brewing Chemistry is very 
valuable. In connection with Brewing 
there is an article on Malt (Vol. 17, p. 
499), illustrated and very complete in its 
treatment, by Arthur R. Ling, editor 
Journal of the Institute of Brewing, and 



one on Hop (Vol. 18, p. 677), by the late 
Dr. Wm. Fream. Dr. Schidrowitz also 
contributes the article Wine (Vol. £8, p. 
716). The art of wine-making is thor- 
oughly described, and there are most in- 
teresting sections on the wines of France, 
Spain, Portugal, Germany, Italy, Aus- 
tria-Hungary, United States, classifying 
the different varieties and affording a full 
survey of the industry. 

Spirits (Vol. 25, p. 694), illustrated, 
and also by Dr. Schidrowitz, is a general 
article covering the subject of the distilla- 
tion of fermented saccharine and starchy 
liquids. The account is both historical 
and technical, and there are separate and 
more specific articles on Brandt (Vol. 4, 
p. 428), Rum (Vol. 23, p. 825), Arrack 
(Vol. 2, p. 642), Whisky (Vol. 28, p. 591), 
in which the difference between three 
main types — Scotch, Irish and American 
— is carefully explained; Vodka (Vol. 28, 
p. 170), Gin (Vol. 12, p. 26). The many 
flavoured and sweetened forms of alcohol 
are described in the article Liqueurs 
(Vol. 16, p. 744), where we also learn the 
difference between a "cordial" and a 
"liqueur/* There are separate articles on 
Absinthe (Vol. 1, p. 75), Benedictine 
(Vol. 8, p. 721), Chartreuse (Vol. 5, p. 
954), CuRAgoA (Vol. 7, p. 686), Kirsch 
(Vol. 15, p. 834), and Vermouth (Vol. 
27, p. 1029). 

Mineral Waters (Vol. 18, p. 517) 
classifies all the great springs according 
to their mineral constituents, and dis- 
cusses the effects upon digestion of their 
use, and their value in medical treatment. 

The appended list includes a large 
number of articles of interest to the food 
producers, including chemical compounds 
and flavouring extracts. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF ARTICLES IN THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA OF 
SPECIAL INTEREST TO THOSE- ENGAGED IN THE MANUFAC- 
TURE OR SALE OF FOOD PRODUCTS 

Angelica 
Aniline 
Anise 
Anthrax 



Absinthe 


Aerated Waters 


Almond 


Acetic Acid 


Alcohol 


Alum 


Acorus Calamus 


Aldehydes 


Anatto 


Adulteration 


Ale 


Anchovy 



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68 



BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



Apple 
Apricot 
Arrack 
Arrowroot 
Artichoke 
Asparagus 
Aspic 

Avocado Pear 
Bacon 

Bacteriology 
Bael Fruit 
Banana 
Bannock 
Barley 
Barm 
Bean 

Bee, Bee-keeping 
Beef 
Beer 
Beet 

Benedictine 
Benzoic Acid 
Bilberry, or Whortle- 
berry 
Biltong 
Birch 
Biscuit 
Bisque 
Bitters 
Blackberry 
Bohea 
Boletus 
Borax 
Brandy 
Brazil Nut 
Bread 

Bread Fruit 
Brewing 
Buckwheat 
Butter 
Butter-nut 
Cabbage 
Caffeine 
Candle 
Capers 
Caraway 
Cardamon 
Carrot 
Cassava 
Cassia 
Cattle 
Caviare 

Cayenne Pepper 
Celery 
Chanterelle 
Chartreuse 
Chasse 
Cheese 
Cherry 
Chestnut 
Chicory 
Chive 
Chocolate 
Chupatty 
Chutney 
Cider 
Cinnamon 



Citric Acid 


Iris 


Citron 


Irish Moss 


Claret 


Isinglass 


Cloves 


Jams and Jellies 


Cocoa 


Jujube 


Coco-nut Palm 


Juniper 


Cod 


Junket 


Coffee 


Kava 


Confectionery 


Ketchup 


Cookery 


Kipper 


Copper 


Kirsch 


Cotton 


Koumiss 


Crab 


Kvass, or Kwass 


Cranberry 


Lactic Acid 


Cucumber 


Lard 


Curagoa 


Lemon 


Currant 


Lentil 


Curry 


Liqueurs 


Date Palm 


Loaf 


Dietary 


Lobster 


Dietetics 


Macaroni 


Dyeing 


Mackerel 


Eel 


Maize 


Enzyme 


Malmsey 


Esters 


Malt 


Extract 


Maple 


Fennel 


Marchpane 


Fenugreek 


Margarine 


Fermentation 


Marmalade 


Fig 


Mate 


Fisheries 


Meal 


Flour and Flour Manu- 


Mealie 


facture 


Meat 


Food 


Medical Jurisprudence 


Food Preservation 


Medlar 


Foot and Mouth Dis- 


Melon 


ease 


Milk 


Formalin, or Formalde- 


Mineral Waters 


hyde 


Mint 


Fructose 


Molasses 


Fruit 


Mulberry 


Fruit and Flower 


• Mulligatawny 


Farming 


Mushroom 


Fungi 


Mustard 


Furfurane 


Nasturtium 


Garlic 


Negus 


Gelatin 


Nut 


Gentian 


Nutmeg 


Ghee 


Nutrition 


Gin 


Oat 


Ginger 


Oils 


Glucose 


Okra 


Gluten 


Oleic Acid 


Gooseberry 


Olive 


Grain Trade 


Onion 


Ground Nut 


Orange 


Gumbo 


Oyster 


Guava 


Palmitic Acid 


Haddock 


Paraffin 


Herring 


Pea 


Hippocras 


Peach 


Honey 


Pear 


Hop 


Pemmican 


Horseradish 


Pepper 


Huckleberry 


Pepsin 


Hyssop 


Perry 
Pickle 


Indian Corn 



Pig 

Pilchard 

Pimento 

Pine-apple 

Pistachio-nut 

Plants, Pathology 

Pleuro Pneumonia 

Plum 

Poison 

Pomegranate 

Poppy Oil 

Potato 

Poultry and Poultry 

Farming 
Prune 
Pudding 
Puff-ball 
Pulque 
Pumpkin 
Punch 
Quince 
Radish 
Raisin 
Raspberry 
Ratafia 
Rice 

Rinderpest 
Rum 
Rye 

Saccharin 
Sago 
Sake 

Salicylic Acid 
Salmon 
Salsify 
Salt 

Saltpetre 
Scone 
Sea Kale 
Sesame 
Shaddock 
Sheep 
Sherbet 
Sherry 
Shrimp 
Sorghum 
Spirits 
Sprat 

Starch # 

Steak 

Stearic Acid 
Strawberry 
Sturgeon 
Suet 
Sugar 
Sulphur 
Sunflower 
Syrup 
Tamarind 
Tapioca 
Tart 
Tea 

Terpenes 
Thyme 
Tomato 
Treacle 
Trichinosis 



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Truffle 

Tunny 

Turmeric 

Vanilla 

Venison 



Vermicelli Vinegar 

Vermouth Vodka 

Veterinary Science Walnut 

Vine Wheat 



CHAPTER XIV 



FOR INSURANCE MEN 



Whisky- 
Wine 

Wintergreen 
Wormwood 
Yeast 



FOR the insurance man, whether 
veteran or tyro, the new Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica has much of 
value and importance, and it has it in 
quickly available form so that the desired 
information may be readily found, whether 
the experienced * student wants an au- 
thoritative statement on a difficult point, 
or the beginner wishes an outline course 
of the subject. This availability, whether 
for the expert or the novice, is secured by 
the Index (the 29th volume), which guides 
the reader immediately to desired infor- 
mation, if he does not find it in the alpha- 
betically arranged articles in the body of 
the book upon first turning up the article 
in which he expects the subject to be 
treated. 

To be more concrete — if you want to 
know something about insurance, turn 
first to the article Insurance in Volume 
14, beginning on p. 656. You find an 
elaborate article, which would occupy 
about 75 pages if printed in type and on 
a page like this Guide. 

In other encyclopaedias you would have 
no clue to the whereabouts of any infor- 
mation about insurance except what 
would be given in the article Insurance 
or in articles to which it might refer you 
in that article. For anything else you 
would have to guess how the editor's mind 
had worked to find where in the book he 
had put other information about insur- 
ance; and to guess how each contributor's 
mental processes have been related to his 
interest in insurance so that you might 
know whether in some article, on a topic 
apparently not related to insurance at all, 



the contributor had put in some interest- 
ing and important fact about insurance. 

But in the Britannica you have one en- 
tire volume, the 29th, which was made 
for the sole purpose of increasing the 
practical efficiency of the other 28 vol- 
umes. Under the heading Insurance in 
this index, you will find references to 
many articles and cross references to 
Title Insurance and to Title Guarantee 
Companies. 

Apart from the fact that he has the in- 
itial assurance that what he gets from the 
Britannica in the first place is fuller and 
better than he would get from another 
work of reference, what are the advan- 
tages offered by the index in this par- 
ticular instance? 

First: Instead of having a reference to 
volume 14 only he has references to vol- 
umes 2, 3, 4, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 
19, 20, 22, 24, 25, 26, 27 and 28,— nine- 
teen volumes in all, — say a gain of 1800% 
in efficiency. 

Second: Instead of having one article 
Insurance to refer to, he has reference to 
specific information in the following ar- 
ticles : 



A nnuity, 

A ustria, 

A verage, 

Barratry, 

Bonus, 

Employers' Liability, 



Lloyds, 

Mensuration, 

Novation, 

Old Age Pensions, 

Post Office, 

Probability, 



Fire and Fire Extinc- Shipbuilding, 

Hon, Socialism, 

Friendly Societies, Switzerland, 
Oaming and Wagering, Title Guarantee Corn- 
Guarantee, pontes, 
Income Tax, Tontine, 
Infanticide, Underwriter, 
Japan, Unemployment, 
Land Registration, Warranty. 



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BRITANNIGA READINGS AND STUDIES 



That is, to 28 new articles,— say 2800% 
additional gain. 

Observe, too, that this is a gain that 
cannot be expressed in figures. The in- 
dex references are classified. First there 
is a main head Insurance; then subheads, 
Fire, Life, Marine, Title, Workmen's; and 
under the subheads special topics ar- 
ranged alphabetically. 

In brief, the Index facilitates and ac- 
celerates reference to anything in the 
Britannica that bears on any desired 
topic. 

The article Insurance opens with a 
definition of that word and with drawing 
a distinction between it and "assurance/' 
The general history of insurance traces 
marine insurance back to Greek com- 
merce in the 4th century B.C., but shows 
that modern methods of marine insur- 
ance were unknown until the 14th cen- 
tury; that fire insurance dates from the 
17th century and especially from the 
Great Fire of London in 1666; and that, 
although there were a few instances of 
life insurance in the 16th and 17th cen- 
turies, it did not become a regular busi- 
ness until the 18th century and was not 
widely extended until the 19th century. 
Separate sections of the article deal with 
Casualty (or accident) and Miscellaneous 
Insurance, Fire Insurance, Life Insurance, 
British Post Office Insurance, and Marine 
Insurance. 

The section on British Post-Office In- 
surance will give to the American insur- 
ance man a knowledge of this innovation 
in the post-office to which the American 



post-office seems to be tending, if one 
may judge by the introduction of 
postal savings-banks and the adoption of 
the parcels-post system. 

In the same way the article Old Age 
Pensions will make you acquainted with 
another radical measure which has been 
adopted in Great Britain, Germany, 
France, Denmark, Victoria and notably 
New Zealand, with fuller description in 
the article New Zealand. The import- 
ance of the subject to the American in- 
surance man lies in the fact that similar 
schemes are under consideration or actual 
operation in Massachusetts, New Jersey, 
and other states of the United States. In 
the same way the article on Employers 
Liability and Workmen's Insurance 
will give him a wider grasp of the subject 
of state insurance, mandatory or elect- 
ive, for workmen. 

The principal articles on insurance top- 
ics have already been mentioned. It is to 
be noted, however, that the actuary will 
find important information in the mathe- 
matical articles Mensuration and Prob- 
ability; that the article Friendly Soci- 
eties is supplemented by such special 
articles as Free Masonry, B'nai Brith, 
Building Societies, Burial Societies, 
Odd Fellows, etc. 

In the Classified List of Articles in the 
Index Volume the student of insurance 
will find on page 893 a list of articles in 
the field of economics and social science, 
many of which will bear more or less di- 
rectly on the subject. Among these ar- 
ticles and sub-articles are: 



Abandonment 

Accident 

Actuary 

Annuity 

Assets 

Austria 

Average 

Baby-Farming 

Barratry 

Boarding-out System 

Bonus 

Bounty 

Casualty Insurance 

Census 



Charity 

Co-insurance 

Combination 

Communism 

Conflict of Insurance 
Laws 

Co-operation 

Emigration 

Employers' Liability 

Eugenics 

Fire and Fire Extinc- 
tion 

Fire Insurance 

Foundling Hospitals 



F. P. A. Liabilities 

Friendly Societies 

Gaming and Wagering 

General 

Guarantee 

Halley's Table 

Housing 

Illegitimacy 

Income Tax 

Industrial Insurance 

Infanticide 

Insurance 

Interest factor 

Japan 



Labour Legislation 

Land Registration 

Liability 

Life Insurance 

Lloyd's 

Maritime Insurance 

Mendicancy 

Mensuration 

Mutual Insurance 

Mortality Rates 

Negative Values 

Net Liability 

Net Premium 

Non-forfeiture 



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Northampton Table 

Novation 

Old Age Pensions 

Pauperism 

Pawnbroking 

Policy 

Poor Law 

Population 

Post Office 

Premium 



Probability 

Production 

Profit Sharing 

Rates of Mortality 

Reserve 

Salvage 

Selection 

Shipbuilding 

Socialism 

Social Settlements 



Subrogation 
Suicide 

Sumptuary Laws 
Surplus 

Surrender Values 
Switzerland 
Tariff 

Taxation of Insurance 
Title Guarantee Com- 
panies 



Tontine 

Trade Unions 

Tramp 

Trusts 

Underwriter 

Unemployment 

Usury 

Wages • 

Warranty 

Wealth 



CHAPTER XV 
FOR ARCHITECTS 



A LTHOUGH architecture is more 
A% and more coming to be recog- 
-*- ^niized as one of the fine arts, it is 
at the same time so largely practical and 
utilitarian that its theory and methods 
may to a great extent be gathered from 
systematic reading. In the article Fine 
Arts in the Britannica, by Sir Sidney 
Colvin, it is well said that "The original 
or rudimentary type of the architect, 
considered not as a mere builder but as 
an artist, is the savage, who, when his 
tribe had taken to live in tents or huts 
instead of caves, first arranged the skins 
and timbers of his tent or hut in one way 
because it pleased his eye, rather than in 
some other way which was as good for 
shelter." Whether the architect wishes 
to learn how the eye may be pleased, to 
study critically the history of architec- 
ture, or, like the less imaginative savage 
who failed of being the first inspired 
architect, to consider comfort and shelter 
rather than beauty and charm, he will 
find much to help him in the Britannica. 
If his interest is chiefly practical, he 
should consult the chapter For Builders 
in this Guide. 

The architect should read first — and 
he will constantly be referring to it 
afterwards — the article Architecture 
(Vol. 2, p. 369), equivalent in length to 
235 pages of this Guide and illustrated 
by 140 figures, about one-third of which 



are photogravures. The article is his- 
torical in the main and a brief outline 
of it is as follows: — 

Egyptian 

Assyrian 

Persian 

Greek 

Parthian 

Sassanian 

Etruscan 

Roman 

Byzantine 

Early Christian 

Coptic Church in Egypt 

Romanesque and Gothic in 

Italy 

France 

Spain 

England 

Germany 

Belgium and Holland 
Renaissance : Introduction 

Italy 

France 

Spain 

England 

Germany 

Belgium and Holland 
Mahommedan 
Modern 

Classical Revival in British Ar- 
chitecture 

Classical Revival in Germany 

French Classicism 

Barry's " Common-sense " Style 

Gothic Revival in England 



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Gothic Revival in France 

Queen Anne Style 

" Free Classic " Style 

Arts allied to Architecture 

Craftsmanship Ideal 

Architecture in United States 
(Figures 97, 98, 99, 181, 182, 
188, 184, 185, 186, 187, 138) 

English Churches 

English Public Buildings 

English Domestic and Street Ar- 
chitecture 

Recent French Architecture 

Germany 

Other Countries 

The part of the article dealing with 
Modern Architecture is by H. H. Statham 
author of a well-known book on the sub- 
ject. Earlier sections are by R. Phen6 
Spiers, late master of the Royal Acad- 
emy's Architectural School, with sections 
on the Romanesque and Gothic in France 
by W. R. Lethaby, principal of the Cen- 
tral (London County) School of Arts and 
Crafts. 

Before continuing his more systematic 
historical readings the student may well 
read the article House (Vol. 13, p. 810), 
illustrated with 12 figures (3 plates), 
including four particularly fine examples 
of "half timbered buildings," and one 
English house, the Jew's House at Lin- 
coln, dating from the 12th century. An 
interesting article on Mural Decora- 
tion (Vol. 19, p. 16) is by a remarkably 
distinguished trio: William Morris, poet, 
craftsman and painter, John Henry 
Middleton, late Slade professor of fine 
art, Cambridge, and Walter Crane, the 
well-known illustrator and decorator. 
This is illustrated with 16 figures in black 
and white and with a reproduction in 
colours of a wall-painting from a Roman 
villa of the early Empire. The article 
deals with: reliefs in marble and stone; 
marble veneer; glazed bricks or tiles; 
hard stucco; sgraffito; stamped leather; 
painted cloth; printed hangings and wall- 
papers; and painting. 

If the student of architecture would 



know about the buildings of prehistoric 
times, in which there was little architec- 
ture in the sense of a fine art, he should 
read the articles Archaeology, (Vol. 2, 
p. 344), Lake Dwellings (Vol. 16, p. 91), 
Stonehenge (Vol. 25, p. 961) and Stone 
Monuments, Primitive (Vol. 25, p. 962), 
— the last two of particular interest to 
the building engineer because it is so 
puzzling a problem how these great 
blocks could have been brought such 
distances and set in place without mod- 
ern appliances. 

Engineering problems will be the most 
interesting in a large part of the student's 
reading about Egyptian architecture. 
Supplementing the 
Early Oriental 4,000 or 5,000 words 
Architecture on this subject un- 

der Architecture, 
accompanied by seven illustrations, there 
is much information in the articles 
Egypt (Vol. 9, p. 21); Abydos (Vol. 1, 
p. 81) and Karnak (Vol. 15, p. 680); 
and in the articles Pyramid (Vol. 22, 
p. 683), (by W. M. Flinders Petrie) and 
Sphinx (Vol. 25, p. 662) by Francis 
Llewellyn Griffith, another well-known 
Egyptologist. In the former article the 
author points out that the outside and 
inside work on all the pyramids was ex- 
cellent and that the casings were not a 
mere veneer but were "of massive blocks, 
usually greater in thickness than in 
height, and in some cases (as at South 
Dahshur) reminding the observer of 
horizontal leaves with sloping edges." 
The massive character of the roofing of 
the sepulchral chambers is indicated by 
Prof. Petrie's estimate that "in Pepi's 
pyramid it is of three layers of stone 
beams, each deeper than their breadth, 
resting one on another, the thirty stones 
weighing more than 80 tons each." But 
neither Stonehenge nor the pyramid was 
really an engineering problem. Here, and 
as in all his studies of early architecture, 
artist or engineer will find religion and 
worship the aim and the reason of the 
building even more, if that is possible, 



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than in the great European cathedrals of 
comparatively recent times. 

In the article Babylonia and Assy- 
ria there is a brief section (Vol. 3, p. 108) 
on Art, supplementing the treatment 
under Architecture. It is interesting 
to note that even in Assyria architecture 
was trammelled, reactionary, governed by 
Babylonian styles and using brick and 
clay because Babylon did, although there 
was stone in Assyria, and none in Baby- 
lonia; and keeping the heavy brick 
platform foundation which the Baby- 
lonian architects had adopted because of 
the marshy character of their country, 
although there was no need of such con- 
struction in Assyria. Here too the func- 
tion of architecture was largely as an 
aid to religion: as shown in the article 
Nippur (Vol. 19, p. 707), with its de- 
scription of the "ziggurat" or artificial 
mountain in the shrine, built probably 
40 or 45 centuries B. C. One temple was 
272 ft. square, with seven storeys, each 
smaller than the one below and thus 
surrounded by a terrace, each dedicated 
to a planet, each coloured a separate 
tint, the first probably 45 ft. high, and 
the total height 160 ft. 

In Assyria great palaces of the 9th, 
8th and 7th centuries B. C. have been 
found, and these are probably the earliest 
large buildings of any architectural im- 
portance not religious in their purpose; 
but this distinction must not be carried 
too far, for the king was sacrosanct, 
half priest and half god, and his palace 
was a shrine. 

Although the main treatment of Greek 
and Roman architecture is in the article 
Architecture, the student should read 
the articles Greek 
Greece Art (Vol. 12, p. 470; 

and Rome equivalent to 70 

pages in this Guide; 
written by Percy Gardner, author of 
Grammar of Greek Art) and Roman Art 
(Vol. 23, p. 474; equivalent to 40 pages 
of this Guide; written by H. Stuart Jones, 
director of the British School at Rome). 



The article on Greek Art contains 82 
illustrations, many of them half-tones. 
It makes clear the dependence of the other 
fine arts in Greece on architecture — and 
on religion — in showing that the greatest 
sculptures were adjuncts to temples, 
and (p. 471-472) in a discussion of the 
architecture of Greek temples calls atten- 
tion to four basal principles of Greek 
architecture: 

(1) Each member of the building 
has one function and only one, and this 
function controls even the decoration of 
that member. Pillars support archi- 
traves ; their perpendicular flutings em- 
phasize this. Moulding at a column's 
base suggests the support of a great 
weight. 

(2) Simple and natural relations 
prevailed between various members of 
a construction. 

(8) Rigidity of simple lines is 
avoided; scarcely any outline is ac- 
tually straight. Columns are not equi- 
distant. 

(4) Elaborate decoration is reserved 
for those parts of the temple which 
have, or seem to have, no strain laid 
upon them. 

The article Temple (Vol. 26, p. 603) 
gives plans and general information 
about Greek and Roman sacred archi- 
tecture, as well as Hebrew, Egyptian and 
Assyrian temples; and the reader should 
study the article Parthenon (Vol. 20, 
p. 869) and the diagram in that article, 
and the article Pergamum (Vol. 21, p. 
142) and the two plates which accompany 
it. 

The article Roman Art (Vol. 23, p.474) 
is probably the first brief and authorita- 
tive treatment of a topic long over- 
shadowed in popular interest by the 
earlier art of Greece and the later art 
of Italy. It begins with a history of 
recent research. Architecture, pre-emi- 
nently the most Roman of the arts as 
combining utility with beauty, is outlined 
(pp. 476-477 especially) and the main 
point in regard to Roman architecture is 
brought out as follows: "the specific 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



achievement of the Roman architect 
was the artistic application of a new set 
of principles — those which are expressed 
in the arch, the vault and the dome," 
as contrasted with the rectilinear build- 
ings of the Greeks. The arch, particu- 
larly the triumphal arch, is specifically a 
Roman product and is specifically Roman 
besides in being an expression of reverence 
for governmental authority, — which, it 
should, however, be remembered, cannot 
be separated from religion. Among the 
most important of Roman sculptures and 
particularly reliefs are those of the arches, 
described in the articles Arch (Vol. 2, 
p. 342) and Triumphal Arch (Vol. 27, 
p. 297), the latter with eight figures. 
The part of the article Aqueduct which 
deals with Roman aqueducts (Vol. 2, 
pp. 241-243, with 2 plates, 6 illustrations) 
will interest the architect as well as the 
contractor or engineer. And he should 
read the article on the Roman architect 
and writer on architecture, Vitruvius 
(Vol. 28, p. 150), whose book so strongly 
affected the Renaissance. 

Before taking up modern architecture 
as distinguished from ancient, the stu- 
dent will do well to examine the archi- 
tecture of some more remote peoples — 
for instance, 

Aztec (Vol. 5, p. 441 and p. 677) 

Abyssinian (Vol. 12, p. 232) 

Hittite (Vol. 18, p. 587) 

Indian (Vol. 14, p. 428, with 4 
plates) 

Japanese (Vol. 15, pp. 181-182) 

Chinese (Vol. 6, p. 214) 

Byzantine (Vol. 4, p. 906, with 2 
plates), and the article Constan- 
tinople (Vol. 7, p. 8) 

The last topic will serve as a transition 
to the modern architecture of Europe, es- 
pecially because the 
Modern influence of the By- 

Architecture zantine was so strong 

in the early church. 
The study of the Italian Romanesque 
and Gothic in an elaborate section cf 
Architecture (Vol. 2, p. 391) may well 



be supplemented by reading the articles 
on the Italian cities in which this art 
is preserved. The following list is rough- 
ly chronological, the cities named first 
being those in which there are the oldest 
churches. 



Ravenna, Pisa and Venice, 
Byzantine Romanesque. 

Milan 
Pavia 
Brescia 
Bergamo 

PlACENZA 

Parma 

MODENA 

Bari ) for Southern 

Molfetta J Romanesque 

Palermo 



for 



for Lombard Romanesque 



for Sicilian Romanesque 



for Italian Gothic 



Messina 

Monreale 

Cefalu 

Wurzburg, for Romanesque in Ger- 
many 
Genoa 
Assisi 
Orvieto 
Verona 
Perugia 
Siena 

In the same way, for Gothic in other 
countries, the student should read: 

Aix-la-Chapelle 
Le Puy 
Angouleme 
Arles 

NlMES 

St. Denis 

Noyon 

Senlis 

Sens 

Reims 

Le Man 8 

Oviedo 

Leon 

Avila 

Segovia 

Lerida 

Toledo 

Burgos 

Seville 

Salamanca 



for French 
Gothic 



for Spanish Gothic 



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Durham 
Lincoln 
Salisbury 
Gloucester, etc., 



for English Gothic 



Aiz 

Mainz 

Worms 

Spires 

Cologne 



for German Gothic 



Tournai, Louvain, etc., for Bel- 
gian, 

and in general, the articles Cathedral, 
Nave, Aisle, Choir, Apse, Chevet, 
Lady-Chapel, Vault, Flying But- 
tress, Pinnacle, Clerestory and Tri- 
forium. The article Cathedral has 
plans of Canterbury, Salisbury, Durham, 
Ely, Chartres, Sens and Angoul&me and 
a perspective of Amiens cathedral. 

In the same way the student of the 
Renaissance architecture may supple- 
ment the section in the article Archi- 
tecture (p. 408, etc.) by reference to 
the articles on the cities in which the 
great Renaissance buildings stand. But 
now "the career of the individual has to 
be taken into consideration," so true is 
it that the Renaissance in architecture 
as in scholarship was intensely indi- 
vidualistic. The article Architecture 
points this out and in this section is 
largely biographical in its treatment. 
The reader should study the following 
separate articles also 

For Italian Renaissance 

Filippo Brunelleschi 

Florence 

Leone Battista Alberti 

mlchelozzo di bartolommeo 

Bramante 

Rome (for St. Peters: see Fig. 51 

in Architecture) 
Borooonone 
Baccio d'Agnolo 
Sangallo 
polhiulo 
Michelangelo 



Jacopo Sansovino 
Michele Sanmichelb 
Andrea Palladio 
Barocchio da Vignola 
Galeazzo Alessi 
Lombardo 

Domenico Fontana 
Baldassare Peruzzi 

The French Renaissance 

For this period, less individual than in 
Italy, the reader will find it best to study 
the geographical articles. Let him read 

Blois (noting Plate VIII, fig. 84, 
in the article Architecture) 
Tours 
Chambord 
Orleans 
Chenonceaux 
Fontainebleau 
Paris 

Spanish Renaissance 
«~. 

Granada 

Valladolid 

Saragossa 

Malaga 

Salamanca (Plate V., fig. 78 in 
Architecture) 

Seville (Plate V., fig. 74 in Archi- 
tecture) 

Escorial (with plan) 

Madrid (Palacio Royal) 

English Renaissance 

John Thorpe 

Inigo Jones 

Sir Christopher Wren 

St. Paul's Cathedral (see Fig. 58 

in Architecture) 
Greenwich (for Hospital) 
Nicholas Hawksmoor 
Sir John Vanbrugh 
Dean Henry Aldrich 
George and James Dance 
William Kent 
Robert Adam 
Sir William Chambers 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



German Renaissance 
Rothenburg (town-hall) 
Augsburg (town-hall) 
Heidelberg (see Plate VII in Ar- 
chitecture) 
Renaissance in Belgium and Holland 
Antwerp 
Amsterdam 
Rotterdam 
Haarlem 

On Mahommedan Architecture the stu- 
dent should read not only the section 
(Vol. 2, pp. 422-427) in the article Archi- 
tecture, with eight illustrations, but 
the separate articles 

Indian Architecture (with 4 

plates, 17 figures) 
Mosque (with 8 diagrams) 
Minaret 
Cairo 

Constantinople 
Damascus 
Jerusalem 
Mecca 
Kairawan 
Cordova 
Alhambra 
Tabriz 
Isfahan 

On the more recent period, the 19th 
century, roughly, the student should 
supplement the last part of the article 
Architecture by reading the following 
articles 

For the Classical Revival in the 

British Isles 
Dublin (see also Fig. 85 in Archi- 
tecture) 
Edinburgh 
Sir John Soane 

English Gothic Revival 
A. W. N. Pugin 
Sir George Gilbert Scott 
George S. Street 
William Butterfield 
John Loughborough Pearson 
Alfred Waterhouse 
France (Figs. 122-129 in article Ar- 
chitecture) 
L. P. Baltard 
J. L. C Garnier 



The Last 50 Year* 

George Frederick Bodley 
R. Norman Shaw 
William Morris 
Harvey L. Elmes 
Charles R. Cockerell 
Liverpool (and Fig. 86 
in Architecture) 



England 



H. H. Richardson 
Richard M. Hunt 
Charles F. McKim 
Stanford White 
William R. Mead 
ru88ej.l sturgi8 
Steel Construction 



United States 
(and see 
Plates XV 
and XVI, and 
Figs. 97, 98, 
99 in article 
Arc hite c- 
ture) 

Classical Revival in Germany 

Karl Friedrich Schinkel 

Berlin (and Fig. 87 in Architec- 
ture) 

Potsdam (and Fig. 88 in Architec- 
ture) 

Munich (and Fig. 89 in Architec- 
ture) 

Gottfried Semper 

French Classicism 

Adolphe Theodore Brongniart 
Jacques Ignace Hittorff (Plate 
XII in Architecture) 

English " Common sense " 

Sir Charles Barry 

Halifax (Fig. 90 in Architec- 
ture) 

Westminster (Houses of Parlia- 
ment; see Fig. 91 in Archi- 
tecture) 

Budapest (Fig. 92 in Architec- 
ture) 

The sections of the article Archi- 
tecture dealing with France and Ger- 
many in the last two generations may best 
be supplemented by a study of the arti- 
cles Paris, Berlin, Vienna, and Buda- 
pest. 

The following is a brief alphabetical 
list of architectural articles and topics 
in the Britannica, including topics for 
the builder and contractor. 



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Abacus 
Abated 
Abbey 
Abutment 
Acroterium 
Adam* Robert 
Aedicula 
Aisle 
Aiwan 

Leone Battista Alberti 
Alcove 

Galeazzo Alessi 
Alley 
Almery 
Almonry 
Almshouse 
Alure 
Am bo 

Ambulatory 
Amphiprostyle 
Amphitheatre 
Anaron 
Angel-lights 
Antae 

Ante-chapel - 
Ante- choir 
Ante-ftxae 
Anthemion 
Apophyge 

Apollodorus of Da- 
mascus 
Apse 
Apteral 
Aqueduct 
Araeostyle 
Araeosystyle 
Arcade 
Arch 

Architrave 
Archivolt 
Arcosolium 
Arena 
Arris 
Ashlar 
Astragal 
Astylar 
Atrium 
Attic 

Attic Base 
Baccio d'Agnolo 
Back-choir 
Bailey 
Balcony 
Ball-flower 
L. P. Baltard 
Balustrade 
Banker-marks 
Baptistery 
Barbican 
Bargeboard 
Giacomo Barocchio 
Bartizan 
Base 

Basement 
Basilica 

Batement-lights 
Baths 
Patter 



Battlement 

Bay 

Bed-mould 

Belfry 

Bell-cot 

Belvedere 

Bema 

Bench-table 

Bevel 

Bezantee 

Sir A. W. Blomfield 

G. W. Bodley 

Bonding 

Giuseppi Bonomi 

Francesco Borromini 

Bowtell 

Bracket 

Bramante 

Brattishing 

Sir Reginald Bray 

Brick, and Brickwork 

Bridges 

Broach 

Sir I. M. Brunei 

Filippo Brunelleschi 

Building 

Charles Bulflnch 

Bungalow 

William Butterfield 

Buttress 

Cable moulding 

Luigi Cagnola 

Caissons 

Camber 

Campanile 

N. le Camus de M6- 

zieres 
Canal 
Canalis 
Cancelli 
Candelabrum 
Canephorae 
Canopy 

Cantilever Foundations 
Capital 
Carpentry 
Cartouche 
Caryatides 
Casement 
Castle 
Cathedral 
Cathetus 
Cauliculus 
Cavaedium 
Cavea 
Cavetto 
Ceiling 
Cella 
Cements 
Chalcidicum 
Sir William Chambers 
Chamfer 
Chancel 
Chapter-house 
Charnel-house 
Chateau 
Chersiphron 
Chevet 



Chevron 

Chimney 

Chimneypiece 

Choir 

Chresmographion 

Cinque Cento 

Cleithral 

Clerestory 

Cloaca 

Cloister 

C. R. Cockerell 

Coenaculum 

Coffer, and Coffer 

Dams 
Cogging 
Colonnade 
Placido Columbani 
Column 
Compluvium 
Composite Order 
Compound pier 
Conch. 
Concrete, Concrete 

Piers, etc. 
Consisterium 
Construction 



Corbel 

Corbie 

Cornice 

Counterfort 

Coursed Rubble 

Cramps 

Crenelle 

Crest 

Crocket 

Crossing 

Cross springer 

Crypt 

Crypto-porticus 

Cubicle 

Cuneus 

Cupola 

Curvilinear 

Cusp 

Frangois de Cuvilles 

Cyclopean Masonry 

Cyclostyle 

Cyma 

Cyrto-style 

Cyzicenus 

Daedalus 

Dais 

Dance (family) 

Decastyle 

Decorated Period 

Dentil 

Diaconicon 

Diastyle 

Diaulos 

Diazomata 

Dikka 

Dinocrates 

Dipteral 

Philibert De l'Orme 

Discharging Arch 

Distyle 

Docks 



Dodecastyle 

Dog-tooth 

Dome 

Donjon 

Door 

Doorway 

Dormer 

Dormitory 

Dosseret 

Dovetail 

Dowels 

Drafted masonry 

Dredging 

Dripstone 

Dromos 

Dungeon 

Early English Period 

Eaves 

Echinus 

Eiffel Tower 

Elevator 

Elizabethan Style 

H. L. Elmes 

James Elmes 

Embrasure 

Engaged Column 

Entablature 

Entasis 

Ephebeum 

Epi 

Epinaos 

Epistyle 

Estrade 

Eupalinus 

Eustyle 

Exedra 

Extrados 

Facade 

Facing 

Fan Vault 

Femerell 

Fenestration 

Feretory 

James Fergusson 

Festoon 

Fillet 

Finial 

Flamboyant Style 

Flechc 

Floor 

Flue 

Flying Buttress 

Pierre F. L. Fontaine 

Domenico Fontana 

Footing 

Foot-stall 

Formeret 

Foundation 

Fountain 

Charles Fowler 

Frater 

Free-stone 

Fret 

Frieze 

Frigidarium 

Frontispiece 

Gable 

Gablets 



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Galilee 

Gallery 

Gargoyle 

J. L. C. Gamier 

Garret 

Garretting 

Gate 

Gatehouse 

Gazebo 

Girder 

Glazing 

Glyph 

Glyptothek 

Godroon 

Gothic 

Grange 

Granite 

Griife 

Groin 

C. G. Guarini 

Guilloche 

Gutta 

Gutter 

Joseph Gwilt 

Gynaeceum 

Hagioscope 

Half-timber Work 

Hall 

Halving 

Hammerbeam Roof 

J. A. Hansom 

Nicholas Hawksmoor 

Heating 

K. A. von Heidcloff 

Helix 

Heinicyclc 

Herring-bone 

Hexastyle 

Hip-knob 

Hipped roof 

Hippodamus 

Hippodrome 

J. I. Hittorff 

Hdtel-de-Ville 

H6tel-Dieu 

Hot-water Heating and 

Supply 
House 
Hypaethros 
Hypocaust 
Hypos tyle 
Hypotrachelium 
Ichnography 
Iconostasis 
Ictinus 
Imbrex 
Impluvium 
Impost 
In-antis 

Indian Architecture 
Intercolumniation 
Interlaced arches 
Intrados 
Jacobean Style 
Jamb 
Jesse 
Joinery 
Joints 



Joggles 

Inigo Jones 

Owen Jones 

Jube 

Keel-moulding 

Keep 

Keystone 

Label 

Labrum 

Laconicum 

Lacunar 

Lady-Chapel 

Lancet 

Lantern 

Lanterns of the Dead 

Lectern 

Libon 

Lighting 

Lightning Conductor 

Limestone 

Lintel 

Loft 

Louver (Louvre) 

Lucarne 

Lunette 

C. F. McKim 

Machicolation 

Maksoora 

Manor-house 

Marble 

Mastaba 

Mausoleum 

Megaron 

Merlon 

Meshrebiya 

Meta 

Metope 

Mezzanine 

Mihrab 

Minaret 

Minbar 

Minster 

Modillion 

Module 

Monotriglyph 

Mortar 

Mortice 

Mosque 

Mouldings 

Moving Stairs 

Mullion 

Mural Decoration 

Mutule 

Narthex 

Nave 

W. E. Nesneld 

Newel 

Niche 

Notching 

Nymphaeum 

Obelisk 

Octastyle 

Odeum 

Oecus 

Ogee 

Ogive 

Oillets 

Order 



Ordinance 

Oriel 

Orientation 

Orthostatae 

Orthostyle 

Oubliette 

Ovolo 

Pagoda 

Painter-work 

Palace 

Palaestra 

Andrea Palladio 

Palladian 

Panel 

Pantheon 

Parament 

Parapet 

Parascenium 

Parclose 

Pargetting 

John Henry Parker 

Parquetry 

Parthenon 

Parvis 

Patera 

Patio 

Pavement 

Pavilion 

J. L. Pearson 

Paruzzi 

Pedestal 

Pediment 

Pendant 

Pendentive 

Pergamum 

Peripteral 

Peristyle 

Perpendicular Period 

Perpent Stones 

Perron 

Philon 

Piazza 

Pier 

Pilaster 

Pile Foundations 

Pillar 

Pinacotheca 

Pinnacle 

Piscina 

Plan 

Plancecr 

Plaster 

Plinth 

Podium 

Poppy Heads 

Porch 

Porticullis 

Portico 

Postern 

Presbytery 

Prick Posts 

Propylaea 

Proscenium 

Prostyle 

Prothesis 

Pseudo-dipteral 

Pseudo-peripteral 

Pteron 



Philon 

A. W. N. Pugin 

Pulpit 

Purlin 

Pycnostyle 

Pyramid 

Pyramidion 

Pythis 

Quadriga 

Quatrefoil 

Quoins 

Rag-stone 

Random 

Rear vault 

Refectory 

Regula 

Reredos 

Respond 

Rib 

George Richardson 

H. H. Richardson 

Thomas Rickman 

River Engineering 

Road 

Rood 

Rough Cast 

Rubble 

Rustication 

Sacristy 

Saddle 

Sangallo (family) 

Sanmichele 

Scabbling 

Scaffold 

Scam ill i impares 

K. F. Schinkel 

Sir G. G. Scott 

Scotia 

Sedilia 

Gottfried Semper 

Sepulchre, Easter 

Severy 

Sewerage 

Sexpartite vault 

Shaft 

R. Norman Shaw 

Shoring 

Sill 

Skeleton Construction 

Slaking 

Slip Joints 

Slype 

Sir John Soane 

Soffit 

Solar (Soller) 

Sommer 

Spandril 

Sphaeristerium 

Spina 

Spire 

Spire light 

Springer 

Squinch ' 

Squint 

Stag Bars 

Stage 

Stained Glass 

Staircase 



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Stairn 

Stall 

Stanchion 

Steam-Heating 

Steel Construction 

Steeple 

Stele 

Stereobate 

StUlicidium 

Stilted 

Stoa 

Stone, Stone Wash 

Storey 

G. E. Street 

Russell Sturgis 

Style 

Stylobate 

Bartolommeo Suardi 

Sudatorium 

Surbase 

Surveying 

Suspensura 

Systyle 

Tabernacle 

Tablinum 



Tabularium 


Sir William Tite 


Vault 


Taenia 


Toran 


Ventilation 


Talar 


Torus 


Verandah 


Talus 


Tower 


Verge 


Tambour 


Trabeated 


Vesica Piscis 


Taper 


Tracery 


Vestibule 


Tas-de-charge 


Trachelium 


Vignette 
Villa 


Tegula 
Telamones 


Transept 


Transom 


Viollet-le-Duc 


Temenos 


Transverse Rib 


Vitruvius 


Temple 


Trapezophoron 
Trefoil 


Volute 


Tenon 


Voussoir 


Tepidarium 


Trial Boring 


Wall, and Walling, and 


Terminal Figures 


Tribune 


Wall Coverings 


Terrace 


Triforium 


Alfred Waterhouse 


Tessellated 


. Triglyph 


Water Spray Ventila- 


Tetrastodn 


Triumphal arch 


tion 


Tetrastyle 


Tudor flower 


Wattle and dab 


Thatch 


Tudor period 


Wedging 


Theatre 


Tunnel 


Well Foundations 


Thesaurus 


Tunnel-vault 


Wind braces 


Tholobate 


Turning-piece 


Window 


Tholos 


Turret 


Sir Christopher Wren 


John Thorpe 


Under-croft 


James Wyatt 


Timber 


Vane 


Xystus 



CHAPTER XVI 
FOR BUILDERS AND CONTRACTORS 



THE rapid increase in population, 
and especially in its density, the 
congestion in great cities, with the 
consequent building up of suburbs; and 
the equally rapid upward tendency in the 
scale of comfort, are factors 6f modern 
civilization which make the work of the 
builder and contractor increasingly com- 
plex. The good builder is probably much 
commoner than ever 
The Builder's before, in spite of the 
Problems popular impression 

that building mate- 
rials are poorer and that construction 
work is more often "scamped" than they 
used to be. Increased transportation 
facilities make the builder much less de- 
pendent on local and often inadequate 
materials. And there has been a change 
in the theory and practice of government : 
the old easy-going policy has been aban- 
doned, and new laws, strictly enforced, 
have resulted in such inspection and 
control of building operations as would 



have seemed tyranny to the builder of a 
generation ago and as make modern 
buildings, especially in cities, much safer 
than ever before. Insurance companies 
have done much to the same end. 

There is a general prejudice against the 
modern builder on the part of the tem- 
peramental "praiser of the past." Occa- 
sionally similar complaints are made even 
against the builders of the past. Kipling 
sings: 

Who shall doubt the secret hid 

Under Cheops' pyramid 
Was that a contractor did 

Cheops out of several millions? 
Or that Joseph's sudden rise 

To Comptroller of Supplies 
Was a fraud of monstrous size 

On King Pharaoh's swart civilians? 

The mere duration of the pyramids, un- 
damaged except by the hand of man, is an 
answer to such a charge; and in the Bri- 
tannica article Pyramid the reader will 
find (Vol. 22, p. 683) that even where the 
hidden material was rubbly or of mud 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



bricks, "the casings were not a mere 
veneer, but were of massive blocks, usu- 
ally greater in thickness than in height" 
— in other words, that the construction 
was of the best character. 

But the builder must be a far better- 
informed man under present conditions 
than ever before. To give him the neces- 
sary information there is a large and 
growing literature ranging from builders' 
and contractors' pocket manuals to 
special periodicals. This literature is ex- 
pensive, and like all special literature puts 
the intending purchaser in a difficult posi- 
tion, for if he buys it all, he must pay 
much more than the returns from his pur- 
chase warrant, and he will then have to 
read it all and use his own judgment in 
deciding what is best. If he does not buy 
all, he must be an expert, not merely in 
every branch of his business but in the 
bibliography of his business, to make a 
wise selection, — and if he is sufficiently 
expert for this he will probably need no 
such library. But he will find, to a re- 
markable degree, the best of all that 
there is in such special literature in the 
Encyclopaedia Britannica, with the 
strongest assurance of its being authori- 
tative, and with the certainty that for an 
outlay, small in comparison with what 
he would make for such special informa- 
tion elsewhere, he will get the guidance 
that he needs for his work and also in- 
formation as excellent on any other 
subject that he or any member of his fam- 
ily may wish to pursue. 

The key or foundation article for the 
builder or contractor is Building (Vol. 4, 
p. 762), by James Bartlett, lecturer on 
construction, etc., King's College, Lon- 
don, who has contributed other articles 
on related topics. The article deals with: 

The relation of building to architec- 
ture and with building laws and 
special types of plans according 
to local governmental require- 
ments 

The conditions necessary for a suc- 
cessful building, namely — ease of 



access, good light, good service, 
pleasing environment and ap- 
proaches, minimum cost with true 
economy, and, for office build- 
ings, ease of arrangement to suit 
tenants 

Construction, its general principles 

Materials of construction, especially 
stone and brick 

Particular objects of construction 

Foundation walls 

Footings to walls 

General procedure for an intended 
building 

Builder's sphere 

American building acts 

Fire-resisting construction. 

This general article is supplemented by 
the following articles: 

Foundation, containing 18 dia- 
grams and paragraphs on: load 
on foundation; trial boring; con- 
struction ; types — concrete piers, 
pile foundations, concrete piles, 
plank foundations, caissons, well 
foundations, coffer dams, dock 
foundations, cantilever founda- 
tions, building on sand (at Cape 
Henlopen, Delaware) 

Caisson 

Masonry, with 18 diagrams, and 
with special treatment of tools, 
including hammers, mallets, saws, 
chisels, setting tools, hoisting ap- 
pliances; of seasoning stone; of 
setting stones; of use of mortar; 
of bonding; slip joints; footings; 
walling; random; coursed rubble, 
ashlar, etc.; backing to stone 
work; pointing and stonewash. 
There is also a brief vocabulary 
of technical terms and a discus- 
sion of methods of facing; joints; 
cramps; dowels; joggles; stone 
arches; tracery and carving; and 
the articles Ashlar, Rao-stone, 
Random 

Cement, with 8 figures; description 
and analysis of Pozzuolanic and 
Portland cement; mixing; load- 
ing of kilns; types of kilns; ce- 
ment clinker; testing; hydraulic 



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lime; Roman cement; natural ce- 
ments; Passow cement; uses of 
hydraulic cement; calcium sul- 
phate cements 

Concrete, with 16 illustrations and 
paragraphs on constituents; pro- 
portions; mixing; moulds; depos- 
iting; strength; durability; con- 
venience and appearance; resist- 
ance to fire ; cost ; artificial 
stones; steel concrete, including 
columns, piles, beams, floor slabs, 
etc.; concrete arches 

Mortar, with sections on slaking; 
hardening; magnesia in mortar; 
strengths; adhesion, decay, ef- 
fects of salt and frost; legal re- 
strictions; limes 'and cements for 
mortar 

Lime 

Brick, with sections on brick-clays 
and brick-making 

Brickwork, with 15 diagrams; sec- 
tions on hollow walls; materials 
and labor; varieties of bricks; 
strength of brickwork; mortar; 
pointing; footing; binding; pre- 
vention of damp; arches and 
plates; chimneys and flues; brick 
paving 

Basement 

House, with 17 illustrations 

Bungalow 

Carpentry, with 36 diagrams show- 
ing joints, notching, cogging, 
dovetail, housing, halving, mor- 
tise, tenons, wedging, dowelling, 
turning-piece, lintel, floors, strut- 
ting, partition, half timber con- 
struction, braced frame; and de- 
scriptive text on these and other 
topics 

Steel Construction, with 4 illus- 
trations; sections on skeleton 
and steel-cage construction; local 
laws; protection from corrosion; 
columns; girders; floors; wind- 
bracing ; materials ; floor-Ailing ; 
partitions; time and cost of con- 
struction 
Stone, with sections on constitu- 
tion, colour, testing, preservatives, 
natural bed, seasoning, varieties, 
artificial stone 



Marble, a descriptive article, about 
4000 words long 

Granite, with descriptions and an- 
alyses of typical granites 

Limestone, about 2500 words 

Timber, with paragraphs on: fell- 
ing timber, conversion of timber 
— with diagram of bastard and 
quarter sawing; seasoning; de- 
fects; decay; preservation of 
timber; varieties, with descrip- 
tion of the principal coniferous 
and hard woods — and separate 
articles on Pine, Fir, Larch, 
Cedar, Birch, Beech, Chest- 
nut, Walnut, Elm, Teak, Ma- 
hogany, Maple, etc. 

Half-timber Work 

Chimney-piece 

Scaffold, with 4 figures; sections 
on bricklayers' and masons' scaf- 
folds, material, erection, gantries, 
derrick towers, cradles, chimney 
scaffolds, accidents 

Shoring, with 8 figures; sections 
on raking shores; braces, hori- 
zontal or flying shores; needle, 
vertical and dead, shoring; rules 
and sizes for all shores 

Staircase, divided into architecture 
and construction, the latter hav- 
ing 4 diagrams, description of 
dog-legged or newel stair, open 
newel stair, geometrical stair, 
circular stair, spiral stairs; a de- 
fining vocabulary of technical 
terms; concrete and stone; mov- 
ing inclines; local building laws 

Baluster 

Balustrade 

Elevator, with 8 illustrations; 
paragraphs on history; construc- 
tion, essentials of design; safety 
devices ; traveling staircases ; 
freight elevators 

Parquetry 

Ceiling 

Roofs, with 28 figures and two 
plates; with sections on forms of 
roof, trusses, open timber roofs, 
mansards; iron roofs, covering 
materials — felt corrugated iron, 
zinc, lead, copper, " tin," slate, 
tiles, miscellaneous — weight of 
roofs, building laws; and sepa- 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



rate articles on Slate, Tile, Tin, 
Tin Plate, etc. 

Plaster Work, with paragraphs on 
lathing, metal lathing, limes, hair, 
substitutes for hair, sand, exter- 
nal work, rough stucco, rough- 
cast or pebble-dash, sgraffito, in- 
ternal work, three coats, mould- 
ing, cracks, slabs, fibrous plaster. 

Joinery, with 13 illustrations, and 
treating such topics as: tools and 
materials; joints, mitre, dovetail, 
etc.; warping; moulding; floor- 
ing, including wood block and 
parquet; skirting, dados; picture 
rails; windows, bay windows; 
shutters ; shop-fronts ; doors ; 
church work; ironmongery, in- 
cluding hinges, locks, etc. 

Door 

Doorway 

Casement 

Windows 

Glazing 

Stained Glass 

Wall Coverings, with sections on 
marble wall-lining, mosaic, tiles, 
metal sheeting, tapestry, wall-pa- 
pers — and see Mural Decora- 
tion. 

Painter-Work, dealing with paint 
bases, vehicles, thinners, driers, 
pigments, enamel, paints, wood- 
work paints, varnish, gums, 
French polishes, putty, tools, 
workmanship, graining, marbling, 
painting on plaster and on iron, 
repainting on old work, blister- 
ing and cracking, distemper, 
gilding, etc. 

Sewerage 

Lighting, with sections on oil, gas 
and electric lighting 

Lightning Conductor 

Heating, with sections on open fires, 
closed stoves, gas fires, electrical 
heating, oil stoves, low pressure 
hot water, high pressure hot wa- 
ter, steam heating, hot water sup- 
ply, safety valves, geysers, in- 
crustation, Lockport central steam 
supply 



Ventilation, with sections on rate 
of air consumption, ventilation of 
buildings, with table; chimney 
draught; other outlets; inlets; 
window and door ventilation; ar- 
rangements in barracks, in public 
buildings, exhaust cowls; extrac- 
tion of vitiated air; fans; water 
spray ventilation; extraction by 
hot-air shaft; measurement of 
air; systems in public buildings 

Both the builder and contractor will 
find valuable information to govern their 
financial relations with their clients in 
the article Building Societies, of which 
the American part is by Carroll D. 
Wright, late United States Commissioner 
of Labor. 

The contractor will find the following 
articles of importance to him, in addition 
to those of more particular interest for 
the builder: 

Surveying 

Geodesy 

Bridges 

Cantilever 

Caisson 

Cofferdam 

River Engineering 

Harbour 

Divers and Diving Apparatus 

Docks 

Dredges 

Breakwater 

Tunnel 

Canal 

Road 

l.ighthou8e 

Irrigation 

Reclamation of Land 

and the article Railway, with the other 
articles on railway construction listed in 
the chapter For Railroad Men in this 
Guide. 

For an alphabetical list of the principal 
articles and topics of interest to builders 
and contractors, see the end of the chap- 
ter For Architects in this Guide. 



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CHAPTER XVII 



FOR DECORATORS AND DESIGNERS 



THE decorator and designer is a 
specialist in his purposes rather 
than in his methods, and his taste 
and judgment must be based upon a wide 
range of information. His selection and 
combination of decorative factors call for 
a knowledge of architectural design, of 
painting, sculpture, furniture, textiles, 
pottery, enamels, embroideries, laces and 
all the other arts, crafts and products 
that contribute to the perfecting of "the 
house beautiful." The variety of the 
materials at his command offers him in- 
finite possibilities of successful achieve- 
ment, and as many temptations to in- 
coherence and exuberance. The highest 
success in decoration can be attained only 
when the designer 
All the Arts possesses the re- 

in One sources of all these 

arts and crafts, and 
failure perhaps comes oftenest through 
too exclusive a use of one medium of ex- 
pression because it is the one with which 
the designer feels he can most compe- 
tently deal. The ideal should be not only 
to employ, but to enlarge, the scope of 
every contributory medium of form or 
colour, as Wagner found new possibilities 
in the use of every musical instrument in 
one orchestra. This practical usefulness 
of versatility is clearly indicated in one 
of the articles, characteristic of the Bri- 
tannica, where one great expert writes 
about the work of another. William 
Morris and Walter Crane have been the 
leaders of the modern revival of artistic 
interest in the daily accessories of life; 
and Crane in the Britannica (Vol. 2, p. 
701) says of Morris that his influence is 
to be attributed to his having "personally 
mastered the working details and handling 
of each craft he took up in turn, as well as 
to his power of inspiring his helpers and 



followers. He was painter, designer, 
scribe, illuminator, wood-engraver, dyer, 
weaver and, finally, printer and paper- 
maker; and, having effectively mastered 
these crafts he could effectively direct and 
criticize the work of others." Obviously, 
few men can afford to devote forty years, 
as Morris did, to the close study and ac- 
tual practice of all these pursuits, and 
still fewer could hope to develop so many 
manual dexterities. But any earnest stu- 
dent can become a competent critic in all 
these varied fields, and can retain an 
equal appreciation of all the materials and 
methods employed, if he will enlarge and 
refresh his knowledge by constant read- 
ing of the best authorities. The compre- 
hensiveness of the Britannica makes it, 
for such purposes, invaluable to the de- 
signer and decorator, no matter how 
many technical books his working library 
may contain. 

Since harmony of proportion, the es- 
sence of architecture, is also the primary 
law of interior decoration, the reader of 
the present chapter 
The Influence may well begin his 
of Architecture reading with a num- 
ber of the articles 
described in the chapter For Architects, of 
which only those dwelling most upon the 
use of ornament and colour need be sepa- 
rately mentioned in this connection. The 
article Architecture (Vol. %, p. 369) is 
by R. Phen6 Spiers, formerly master of 
the Architectural School of the English 
Royal Academy, with sections on special 
periods and schools of architecture by 
other famous authorities. Oriental archi- 
tecture, with its elaboration of detail, is 
peculiarly suggestive to the decorator, 
who may be surprised to find, in the 
Britannica, treatises so highly specialized 
as Indian Architecture (Vol. 14, p. 



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BRITANNIGA READINGS AND STUDIES 



428), by Dr. James Burgess, editor of the 
standard book on the subject, the History 
of Indian Architecture; the architectural 
part of China, AH (Vol. 6, p. 214), by 
Lawrence Binyon, whose work in the 
great British Museum collection has 
made his reputation as one of the fore- 
most modern critics; and Japan, Art 
(Vol 15, p. 181), by Capt. Frank Brink- 
ley, whose many years of study in Japan 
have given him an exceptional mastery 
of the subject. Among other articles 
dealing with the decorative aspects of 
architecture are Order (Vol. 20, p. 176), 
Capital (Vol. 5, p. 275), and House (Vol. 
13, p. 810), with its exquisite full page 
plates. 

The article Design (Vol. 8, p. 95), by 
W. R. Lethaby, principal of the Central 
School of Arts and Crafts, London, con- 
tains a passage which 
Design and the decorator may 

Mural well bear in mind 

Painting when he has to con- 

tend against the typ- 
ical client's unreasoning demand for the 
sensationalism which, for the moment, is 
accepted as an evidence of originality, 
but is always the cause of subsequent 
dissatisfaction and complaint. "Modern 
use has tended to associate design with 
the word 'original' in the sense of new or 
abnormal. The end of design, however, 
is properly utility, fitness and delight. 
// a discovery, it should be a discovery of 
what seems inevitable, an inspiration aris- 
ing out of the conditions, and parallel to 
invention in the sciences." These fifty 
words are but a millionth part of the con- 
tents of the Britannica; but alone they 
show that the work can practically serve 
the designer. Mural Decoration (Vol. 
19, p. 16), with its delightful reproduc- 
tion in colour of a wall painting preserved 
in the National Museum at Borne, and its 
other illustrations, is by William Morris 
and Walter Crane, with a section on 
classical wall paintings by Prof. J. H. 
Middleton, Slade professor of fine art at 
Cambridge University. The "furnishing" 



point of view is considered under other 
headings (see below). Here the distin- 
guished contributors give an interesting 
account of marble and stone reliefs, the 
oldest method of wall decoration; marble 
Veneer, especially appropriate to 14th 
and 15th century Italian style; wall- 
linings of glazed brick or tiles; coverings 
of hard stucco; the recently revived 
sgraffito method; stamped leather, much 
used in rooms of the 16th-18th century 
period; painted cloth; printed hangings 
and wall-papers, of great antiquity among 
the Hindus and Chinese but not common 
in Europe until the 18th century; wall- 
painting, with description of the charac- 
teristic schemes of mural art in ancient 
and modern times, and methods of exe- 
cution. 

In further connection with this subject 
the reader should turn to Egypt, Art and 
Archaeology (Vol. 9, p. 65), by the noted 
Egyptologist, W. M. Flinders Petrie; 
Greek Art (Vol. 12, p. 470), by Percy 
Gardner; Roman Art (Vol. 23, p. 474), 
by H. Stuart Jones; Painting (Vol. 20, p. 
459), by Prof. G. B. Brown, of Edin- 
burgh University, and other authorities; 
Sculpture (Vol. 24, p. 488), by Professor 
Middleton and other authorities; Mosaic 
(Vol. 18, p. 883), by Professor Middleton 
and H. Stuart Jones, with a practical sec- 
tion on Modern Mosaic (p. 888), by Sir 
William Blake Richmond, noted for his 
accomplishments in decorative art. All 
of these articles are richly illustrated. 
See further, the chapters on Fine Arts, 
Painting and Sculpture. 

Wall-Coverings (Vol. 28, p. 279), by 
James Bartlett, of Kings College, Lon- 
don, deals with the subject in its prac- 
tical relation to 
The Wall and house furnishing, 
the Floor with reference to the 

conditions of the 
room, the use to which it is to be put, its 
lighting aspect, and its outlook. There 
is much information about the employ- 
ment of marble, mosaic, tiles, metal 
sheeting, tapestry, and wall-papers; and 



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85 



separate articles will be found on the fol- 
lowing materials: Marble (Vol. 17, p. 
676), by J. S. Flett; Tile, Wall and Floor 
(Vol. 26, p. 971), illustrated, by William 
Burton; Leather (Vol. 16, p. 330), illus- 
trated, by Dr. J. G. Parker; Tapestry 
(Vol. 26, p. 403), by A. S. Cole, an ad- 
mirable historical account, fully illus- 
trated, and giving information on varie- 
ties of design, indications of date, the 
marks of makers, modern tapestry weav- 
ing, etc. Bateux Tapestry (Vol. 3, p. 
555) is an interesting historical account 
by the antiquarian, J. H. Bound, of this 
venerable relic executed by order of the 
half-brother of William the Conqueror; 
it is illustrated with two plates contain- 
ing 11 views of the tapestry. 

In the matter of Floor-coverings there 
are the articles Floor-Cloth (Vol. 10, p. 
527), Parquetry (Vol. 20, p. 861), and 
Carpet (Vol. 5, p. 392), illustrated, by 
A. S. Cole, devoted to descriptions of 
carpets and rugs as designed and manu- 
factured in Europe and Oriental coun- 
tries. 

The next group of topics begins with 
the article Furniture (Vol. 11, p. 363) 
with 36 illustrations by J. G. Penderel- 
Brodhurst. The 
Furniture classified Table of 

Articles in the Bri- 
tannica (Vol. 29, p. 888) indicates over 
75 articles on separate pieces of furni- 
ture, but in this general treatise we have 
a concise history, describing periods and 
styles, with many interesting facts about 
the origin and use of different pieces of 
furniture from the earliest time to the 
"art nouveau" of very recent date. 
Some of the noteworthy separate articles, 
which have been written by Mr. Penderel- 
Brodhurst, are Chair (Vol. 5, p. 801); 
Desk (Vol. 8, p. 95); Table (Vol. 26, 
p. 325), and Bed (Vol. 3, p. 612). See 
also Marquetry (Vol. 17, p. 751). 
For those who wish to preserve unity 
of style in furnishing a room, these 
articles will prove of the highest value. 
A full list is appended to this chapter; 



and the reader should consult the chapter 
in this Guide For the Manufacturer of 
Furniture. 

The decorator and designer must be 
familiar with all manner of fabrics, and 
the Britannica contains an immense 
fund of information 
Textile in regard to the na- 

Fabrics ture, manufacture 

and use of textiles. 
For purposes of study a beginning would 
perhaps here be made with the article 
Weaving, which is in two parts. The 
first, Industrial Technicology and Ma- 
chinery (Vol. 28, p. 440) with 28 illus- 
trations, is by T. W. Fox, professor of 
textiles in the University of Manchester. 
Very useful will be found the classifica- 
tion of weaving schemes into groups, 
from which we learn the distinctive 
weaves of plain cloth, twills, satins, 
damasks, compound cloths, repps, piled 
fabrics, chenille, velvets and plushes, 
gauze, etc. All weaving machinery is 
described. The second part, Archae- 
ology and Arty is written by A. S. Cole. 
It is a most interesting and valuable 
account of the origin of various textiles, 
and the periods to which they are ap- 
propriate. There are many illustrations 
of typical designs of silk, brocade and 
flax weavings. 

The investigation of woven fabrics 
reveals the fact that the almost endless 
variety of effects obtained is due in part 
only to the method of weaving. Con- 
sequently, it is necessary for the student, 
in order to acquire an expert knowledge 
of the character and effect on any tex- 
tile product which he wishes to employ, 
to have access to the information in the 
articles Bleaching (Vol. 4, p. 49) illus- 
trated; Mercerizing (Vol. 18, p. 150); 
Dyeing (Vol. 8, p. 744) illustrated, and 
with an elaborate classification of colour- 
ing matters — acid, direct, and developed 
colours; Finishing (Vol. 10, p. 378) 
illustrated, and Textile Printing (Vol. 
26, p. 694), illustrated. The fact that this 
fine series of articles has been prepared 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



by Dr. Edmund Knecht, professor of 
technological chemistry. University of 
Manchester, assisted by noted authori- 
ties like the late J. J. Hummel, professor 
of dyeing, University of Leeds, and A. S. 
Cole, is a guarantee of their great interest 
and value. 

In the matter of the fabrics themselves, 
under Cotton, Cotton Goods and Yarn 
(Vol. 7, p. 275) will be found descrip- 
tions of many cotton fabrics, and see 
also Silk (Vol. 25, p. 96) illustrated, by 
Arthur Mellor and other authorities; 
Wool, Worsted, and Woolen Manu- 
factures (Vol. 28, p. 805) illustrated, 
by Prof. A. F. Barker of Bradford Tech- 
nical College; Linen and Linen Manu- 
factures (Vol. 16, p. 724) by Thomas 
Woodhouse, head of the weaving and 
textile designing department, Technical 
College, Dundee. Those who desire a 
closer scientific knowledge of fibres may 
obtain it from Fibres (Vol. 10, p. 309), 
illustrated, by the well-known English 
analytical chemist, C. F. Cross. There 
are separate articles on Brocade (Vol. 4, 
p. 620); Muslin (Vol. 19, p. 93); Canvas 
(Vol. 5, p. 223); Chintz (Vol. 6. p. 235); 
Cretonne (Vol. 7, p. 431); Gauze (Vol. 
11, p. 357) and other textiles. A full 
list of these materials is appended. 

The article Lace (Vol. 16, p. 37) is 
one of the most notable contributions 
to the Britannica. It is written by A. 
S. Cole, author of Embroidery and Lace, 
Ancient Needle Point and Pillow Lace, 
etc., and has over 60 illustrations. A 
full history of lacemaking is given, and 
the article is of the highest interest 
throughout. There exists no better man- 
ual on the subject than this, and the 
pictures alone will enable the student 
to distinguish the different varieties. 
Embroidery (Vol. 9, p. 309) by A. F. 
Kendrick, keeper of the Victoria and 
Albert Museum, and A. S. Cole, has 18 
illustrations and describes the charac- 
teristics of the art as practised by differ- 
ent nationalities. Gold and Silver 
Thread (Vol. 12, p. 200), also by A. S. 



Cole, is a general and historical account 
of the gold and silver strips, threads and 
gimp used in connection with varieties 
of weaving, embroidery and twisting and 
with plaiting or lace-work. 

Before taking up the specific objects 
of art used in interior decoration and 
furnishing, attention must be called to 

the many articles of 
Arts and great value to those 

Crafts engaged in all arts 

and crafts-work, 
whose success depends upon a sound 
knowledge of methods and the principle 
of design. In Arts and Crafts (Vol. 2, 
p. 700) Mr. Walter Crane gives an account 
of the recent movement in the arts of 
decorative design and handicraft that 
has for its object the adornment of the 
house. Handicraft workers will find 
valuable material, discussing designs, 
methods and tools, in Needlework 
(Vol. 19, p. 339); Woodcarving (Vol. 28, 
p. 791) fully illustrated, by F. A. Crallan, 
author of Gothic Wood-carving; Carving 
and Gilding (Vol. 5, p. 438); Metal- 
Work (Vol. 18, p. 205) illustrated, by 
Professor Middleton of Cambridge Uni- 
versity, with sections on Modern Art 
Metal-work by John S. Gardner, and on 
Industrial Metal Work by J. G. Horner, 
author of Practical Metal Turning; 
Medal (Vol. 18, p. 1) illustrated, by M. 
H. Spielmann, formerly editor of The 
Magazine of Art; Glass, Stained (Vol. 
12, p. 105) illustrated, by Lewis Foreman 
Day, late vice-president of the Society 
of Arts; Spinning (Vol. 25, p. 685) by 
Professor Fox; Basket (Vol. 3, p. 481) 
with an account of the basket-making 
industry and methods employed, by 
Thomas Okey, examiner in basket-work 
for the City of London Guilds and In- 
stitute; Embossing (Vol. 9, p. 308); 
Chasing (Vol. 5, p. 956); Repouss6 
(Vol. 23, p. 108); Enamel (Vol. 9, p. 
362) a very complete historical and 
technical article, fully illustrated, by 
Alexander Fisher, author of The Art of 
Enamelling on Metals; Japan, Cloisonne* 



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87 



Enamel (Vol. 15, p. 189); Inlaying (Vol. 

14, p. 574). Much knowledge about prim- 
itive shapes and designs may be obtained 
from Archaeology (Vol. 2, p. 344) by 
Dr. Charles H. Read of the British 
Museum, Aegean Civilization (Vol. 1, 
p. 245) by D. G. Hogarth, the explorer, 
Scandinavian Civilization(Vo1. 24, p. 
287), and America, Archaeology (Vol. 1, 
p. 810) by the late O. T. Mason, of the 
National Museum, Washington. These 
articles are beautifully illustrated. 

Some of the articles on art objects 
have already been mentioned; in addi- 
tion to them there is Ceramics (Vol. 5, 

p. 703), equivalent 
Portable to 133 pages of this 

Ornaments Guide, with over 100 

illustrations includ- 
ing 10 full-page plates, six of which are 
colour. This magnificent article is the 
joint contribution of six special author- 
ities and describes the art of pottery and 
porcelain manufacture, potter's marks, 
etc., in all countries and at all periods, 
with the exception of Japanese ceramics, 
for which see Japan, Art, Ceramics (Vol. 

15, p. 183). Glass (Vol. 12, p. 86) has 
a section on the History of Glass Manu- 
facture .(p. 97) in which glassware from 
the primitive vessels of ancient Egypt 
to modern wares is discussed and illus- 
trated. The authors of this valuable 
account are Alexander Nesbitt, who 
wrote the descriptive catalogue of glass 
vessels for the S>outh Kensington Muse- 
um, and H. J. Powell, of the White- 
friars Glass Works, London. Plate 
(Vol. 21, p. 789) illustrated, is the joint 
product of H. Stuart Jones, formerly 
director of the British School at Rome; 
H. R. H. Hall, of the British Museum, 
and E. Alfred Jones, author of Old Eng- 
lish Gold Plate. It contains unusually 
full information about hall-marks. There 
are also separate articles on Pewter 
(Vol. 21, p. 338) and Sheffield Plate 
(Vol. 24, p. 824) by Malcolm Bell, 
author of Pewter Plate, etc. 



Clock has a section Decorative Aspects 
(Vol. 6, p. 552), by J. G. Penderel-Brod- 
hurst. Fan (Vol. 10, p. 168) by the late 
J. H. Pollen, author of Ancient and Mod- 
ern Furniture and Woodwork, devotes 
special attention to styles of fan painting. 
Ivory has a well-illustrated section on 
Ivory Sculpture and the Decorative Arts 
(Vol. 15, p. 95) by A. O. Maskell, author 
of Ivories, etc. Mirror (Vol. 18, p. 575) ; 
Frame (Vol. 10, p. 773), and Screen 
(Vol. 24, p. 477) are likewise useful 
articles for the decorator and furnisher. 
Terracotta (Vol. 26, p. 653) illustrated, 
by H. B. Walters of the British Museum, 
and William Burton, deals with the use 
of this material in architecture and sculp- 
ture, describes its manufacture, and con- 
tains an historical and critical discussion 
of subjects and types. Byzantine Art 
by W. R. Lethaby contains a section, 
Metal Work, Ivories, and Textiles (Vol. 
4. p. 910). 

The subject of Lacquer (Vol. 16, p. 
53) is further treated under Japan, 
Lacquer (Vol. 15, p. 188), a part of a very 
elaborate discussion of all forms of Jap- 
anese art, including especially Painting 
and Engraving (Vol. 15, p. 172), which, 
as well as China, Art (Vol. 6, p. 213), 
will be referred to constantly by all who 
are interested in Oriental handiwork 
and design. 

A great number of the biographies in 
the Britannica will possess much interest 
for the decorator and designer. Some 

of the noteworthy 
Biographies names of modern 

times are Morris, 
William (Vol. 18, p. 871); Crane, 
Walter (Vol. 7, p. 366); Tiffany, 
Louis C. (Vol. 26, p. 966); La Faroe, 
John (Vol. 16, p. 64); Richmond, Sir 
William Blake (Vol. 23, p. 307); 
Chippendale, Thomas (Vol. 6, p. 237); 
Hepplewhite, George (Vol. 13, p. 305); 
Sheraton, Thomas (Vol. 24, p. 
841); Gibbons, Grinling (Vol. 11 p, 
936). 



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ALPHABETICAL LIST OF ARTICLES IN THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA OF 

SPECIAL INTEREST TO THOSE ENGAGED IN DECORATING, DESIGNING, 

INTERIOR FURNISHING AND ALL FORMS OF ART HANDICRAFT 



Abbey, E. A. 
Acroliths 
Adam, Robert 
Aegean Civilization 
Ainmuller, M. £. 
Alb 

Alexander, J. W. 
Almuce 
Alto-Relievo 
America, Archaeology 
Amice 
Amphora 
Andiron 

Angerstein, J. J. 
Antimacassar 
Apostle Spoons 
Aquarelle 
Aquatint 
Arabesque 
Arch 

Archaeology 
Architecture 
Armoire 
Art 

Arts and Crafts 
Art Teaching 
Bagging 
Bahut 
Baize 

Ball-flower 
Baroque 
Basin-stand 
Basket 
Basso-relievo 
Bead 
Beaker 
Bed 

Berain, Jean 
Bezel 
Biretta 
Bleaching 
Blondel, J. F. 
Blum, R. F. 
Bombay Furniture 
Bombazine or Bomba- 
sine 
Bonelace 

Bonheur du Jour 
Bookbinding 
Bookcase 
Book-plates 
Boulle, Andrg Charles 
Box 

Bracelet 
Bracket 

Brasses, Monumental 
Brazier 
Brocade 
Brooch 



Buckram 

Buffet 

Bunting 

Byzantine Art 

Cable-moulding 

Caffieri, Jacques 

Calender 

Calico 

Cambric 

Cameo 

Candelabrum 

Candle 

Candlestick 

Canopy 

Canvas 

Capital 

Capronnier, Jean Bap- 

tiste 
Carding 
Carpet 
Cartoon 
Cartouche 
Carving 

Carving and Gilding 
Caryatides 
Casket 
Cassock 
Cassone 
Ceiling 
Cellaret 

Cellini, Benvenuto 
Ceramics 
Chair 
Chandelier 
Chasing 
Chasuble 
Chatelaine 
Cheese-cloth 
Cheffonier 
Chenille 
Chest 
Chevron 
Chimere 
Chimney-piece 
China, Art 
Chintz 

Chippendale, Thomas 
Cimabue, Giovanni 
Cinque Cento 
Cloth 
Coffer 
Column 

Composite Order 
Console 

Cookworthy, William 
Cope 

Copeland, Henry 
Copper 
Corduroy 



Corner Copiae 

Cornice 

Corregio 

Cosmati (family) 

Costume 

Cotton 

Cotton Manufacture 

Cotton - spinning Ma- 
chinery 

Cowl 

Cox, Kenyon 

Cradle 

Crane, Walter 

Crape 

Crash 

Cressent, Charles 

Crest 

Cretonne 

Cross 

Crozat, Pierre 

Crunden, John 

Cupboard 

Curtain 

Cushion 

Dais 

Dalmatic 

Damascening, or Dam- 
askeening 

Damask 

Darly, Matthias 

Decorated Period 

Delacroix, F. V. E. 

Delia Robbia 

Denim 

Design 

Desk 

Diaper 

Die 

Dimity 

Diptych 

Dog-tooth 

Domenichino, Zampieri 

Doulton, Sir Henry 

Dowlas 

Drawing 

Dresser 

Drill 

Drinking Vessels 

Duck 

Dumbwaiter 

Dwight, John 

Dyeing 

Early English Period 

Ear-ring 

Egypt, Archaeology 

Electrolier 

Electroplating 

Embossing 

Embroidery 



Enamel 

Encaustic Painting 

Encoignure 

Engraving 

Etagere 

Etching 

Faience 

Fan 

Felt 

Fender 

Festoon 

Fibres 

Filigree 

Fine Arts 

Finiguerra, Maso 

Finishing 

Fireback 

Fire-irons 

Flag 

Flamboyant Style 

Flannel 

Flannelette 

Flock 

Floor 

Floorcloth 

Footman 

Frame 

French Polish 

Fresco 

Frieze 

Furniture 

Fustian 

Gante 

Gargoyle 

Gauze 

Gem 

Gem, Artificial 

Gesso 

Ghiberti, Lorenzo 

Ghirlandajo 

Gibbons, Grinling 

Gilding 

Gillow, Robert 

Gimp 

Gingham 

Giotto 

Girandole 

Girdle 

Glass 

Glass Cloth 

Glass, Stained 

Glue 

Gobelin 

Goblet 

Gold 

Gold and Silver Thread 

Goldbeating 

Gouache 

Gouthiere, Pierre 



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89 



Graffito 

Grate 

Greco, El 

Greek Art 

Grille 

Grisaille 

Grotesque 

Guendon 

Guido Reni 

Gunny 

Halfpenny, W. 

Hallstatt 

Hamerton, P. G. 

Hepplewhite, George 

Heraldry 

Hessian 

Hiroshige 

Hokusai 

Holland 

Honeycomb 

Horn 

Hosiery 

House 

Huckaback 

Icon 

Illuminated Manu- 
scripts 

Illustration 

Impressionism 

Ince, William 

India, Costume 

Indian Architecture 

Ingle-work 

Inlaying 

Intaglio 

Iron-work 

Ivory 

Jack 

Jacobean Style 

Japan, Art 

Japanning 

Jewelry 

Johnson, Thomas 

Jug 

Jute 

Kashi 

Knitting 

Lac 

Lace 

Lacquer 

Lacrymatory 

La Farge, John 

Lampstand 

Lantern 

Lawn 

Leather 

Leather, Artificial 

Lectern 

Leonardo da Vinci 

Le Pautre, Jean 

Line Engraving 

Linen, and Linen Man- 
ufactures 

Linen-press 

Lithographing 



Lock, Matthias 

Longcloth 

Lowboy 

Macabre 

Majolica 

Man waring, Robert 

Marble 

Marot, Daniel 

Marquetry 

Matting < 

Mayhew, Thomas 

Mazer 

Medal 

Meissonier, J. A. 

Mercerizing 

Metal-work 

Mezzotint 

Michelangelo 

Miniature 

Mirror 

Mohair 

Moleskin 

Monogram 

Monteith 

Morel-Ladeuil, L. 

Mosaic 

Mouldings 

Mull 

Mural Decoration 

Museums of Art 

Muslin 

Nankeen 

Needlework 

Net 

Niello 

Numismatics 

Oeben, F. F. 

Order 

Ormolu 

Ornament 

Osnaburg 

Ottoman 

Overdoor 

Overmantel 

Padding 

Pagoda 

Painting 

Palissy, Bernard 

Pantograph 

Papier Mache' 

Parchment 

Parquetry 

Pastel . 

Pearl 

Pedestal 

Pediment 

Pendant 

Pergolesi, M. A. 

Perpendicular Period 

Perugino, Pietro 

Pewter 

Photography 

Phylactery 

Pigments 

Plaque 



Plate 

Plated Ware 

Platinum 

Plumbago Drawings 

Plush 

Poplin or Tabinet 

Poppy-heads 

Porcelain 

Portiere 

Poster 

Pot-hook 

Prie-Dieu 

Print 

Process 

Puvis de Chavannes, 
P. C. 

Raphael Sanzio 

Relief 

Rep 

Repousse 

Reredos 

Ribbons 

Richmond, Sir W. B. 

Riesener, J. H. 

Ring 

Robes 

Rococo 

Roman Art 

Rontgen, David 

Rousseau de la Rot- 
tiere, J. S. 

Rubens, Peter Paul 

Rug 

Sacking and Sack Man- 
ufacture 

Salt cellar 

Salver 

Samovar 

Sampler 

Sargent, J. S. 

Scandinavian Civiliza- 
tion 

Scarab 

Scarf 

Sconce 

Screen 

Scrim 

Sculpture 

Seals 

Servan, J. N. 

Settee 

Settle 

Shagreen 

Shawl 

Shearer, Thomas 

Sheffield Plate 

Sheraton, Thomas 

Sideboard 

Silk 

Silver 

Sofa 

Soutane 

Spinning 

Spit 

Spoon 



Stencil 
Stole 
Stool 

Sun Copying or Photo- 
Copying 
Surplice 
Table 
Tallboy 
Tankard 
Tapestry 
Tarpaulin 
Tartan 

Tassie, James 
Tazza 
Tea-caddy 
Tea-poy 
Tempera 
Terracotta 
Textile-printing 
Throne 
Ticking 
Tiepolo, G. B. 
Tiffany, C. L. 
Tile 

Tintoretto 
Titian 
Tool 

Torchere 
Torque 
Tortoiseshell 
Tracery 
Tray 

Triclinium 
Tripod 
Triptych 
Trivet 

Tudor Period 
Tulle 
Twill 
Uniforms 
Utamaro 
Varnish 
Vase 
Velvet 
Velveteen 
Veneer 

Vernis Martin 
Vestments 
Walker, H. O. 
Wall-coverings 
Wardrobe 
Washstand 
Wax Figures 
Weaving 

Wedgwood, Josiah 
What-not 
Window-cornice 
Window-seat 
Wine Table 
Wood-carving 
Wood Engraving 
Wyon, Thomas 
Yarn 



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CHAPTER XVIII 



FOR RAILROAD MEN 



THERE are no less than six dis- 
tinct classes of articles in the new 
Encyclopaedia Britannica which 
contain information of peculiar interest 
to railroad men: — 

1. Articles on continents contain au- 
thoritative and original accounts of trans- 
continental routes and traffic. For ex- 
ample the article Europe has a table in 
which the 19 chief avenues of trade are 
analyzed, showing the direct distance, 
the distance by sea and the distance by 
rail from point to point; another table 
comparing railroad developments in the 
various parts of Europe, and also an ac- 
count of the contour of Europe from the 
railroad man's point of view, discussing 
the mountain ranges pierced by tunnels 
and the passes over which lines have 
been carried wholly or largely in the 
open. 

2. The articles on separate countries, 
on the individual states of the Union, and 
on colonies contain detailed accounts of 

the railway systems. 
Six Classes For example, the ar- 

of Articles tide France de- 

scribes the six great 
French railroads, traces their lines and 
explains the financial system by which 
they were constructed, the concessions 
granted to them by the French govern- 
ment, and the extent to which direct state 
ownership and management has been 
adopted. 

2. The articles on cities show the rela- 
tion of each centre to the general rail- 
road system of the country and describe 
the terminals and the methods of urban 
communication. For example, in the 
article Berlin there is an account of the 
Stadtbahn, carried through the heart of 
the city, 20 feet above the street, provid- 



ing for through traffic as well as for sub- 
urban service. 

4. The maps as well as the many 
plans of cities, all of which were specially 
prepared for the Britannica, show much 
more clearly than does an ordinary atlas, 
the present development of railroads in 
all parts of the world. 

5. The articles on various branches of 
engineering and mechanics, described in 
other chapters of this Guide, are com- 
plete treatises on the technical subjects 
connected with railroad construction and 
management. 

6. The articles devoted exclusively to 
the subject, of which a brief account is 
given in the present chapter, are those to 
which railroad men will naturally first 
turn. 

The key article is Railways (Vol. 22, 
p. 819), equivalent in length to more than 
120 pages of this Guide. It is written by 
the foremost authorities on the subject 
both in the Old World and in the New, 
including: 

Arthur Twining Hadley, presi- 
dent of Yale University, and author of 
Railroad Transportation. 

Hugh Munro 
Technical Ross, author of 

Authorities British Railways 

and editor of the 
Engineering Supplement of the London 
Times. 

Ray Morris, formerly managing 
editor of the Railway Age Gazette of 
New York and author of Railroad 
Administration. 

Lt. Col. H. A. Yorke, C.B., chief 
inspecting officer of railways of the 
English Board of Trade. 

Prof. Frank Haigh Dixon, of 



90 



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Dartmouth College, author of State 
Railroad Control. 

Bbaman Blanchard Adams, asso- 
ciate editor of New York Railway Age 
Gazette. 

William Ernest Dalby, professor 
of engineering in the South Kensing- 
ton Central Technical College, and au- 
thor of The Balancing of Engines, etc. 
William Barclay Parsons, for- 
merly chief engineer to the. New York 
City Rapid Transit Commission and 
advisory engineer of the Royal Com- 
mission on London Traffic. 

Maj. Gen. C. E. Webber, found- 
er of the Institute of Electrical 
Engineers. 

Emile Garcee, managing director 
of the British Electric Traction Co., 
Ltd., author of Manual of Electrical 
Undertakings. 

The article opens with an introductory 
historical summary which describes the 
use of railways or tramways before the 
invention of the steam lo- 
The Key comotive in mining dis- 
Article tricts in England (just as 

in the article Mauch 
Chunk, Vol. 17, p. 903, early mine trans- 
portation in America is described) and 
the way in which their use induced the 
development of high speed locomotives 
and how the first American trans-con- 
tinental railroads were built. The stu- 
dent will find next a section of general 
statistics of railway mileage for the 
world, with a summary of American 
railway building, especially in the Far 
West since 1896. The following section is 
on economics and legislation in general, 
followed by separate treatment of British 
railway legislation and of American rail- 
way legislation. The great problem of 
government control and operation of 
railways as practised in various European 
countries is also discussed and is of in- 
terest in connection with contemporary 
American tendencies. The safety of 
railway transportation is treated in a 
section containing in compact form the 



most valuable classified statistics. A 
section on Financial Organization com- 
pares American and British conditions in 
a most illuminating way. 

Of even greater importance to the tech- 
nical student are the remaining sections 
of this great article, namely: 

(1) Construction, with subsections 
on Location, Cuttings and Embankments, 
Gradients, Curves, Gauge, Permanent Way 
(including ballast, ties, fish-plates and 
other rail joints, and rails), Bridges, 
Rack (or cog) Railways, Cable Railways, 
Mono-Rail Systems, Switches and Cross- 
overs, Railway Stations (for passengers 
and for freight), Round Houses for Loco- 
motives, and Switching Yards. This trea- 
tise on construction is equivalent to 22 
pages of the type and size of this Guide, 
and is in itself an adequate brief manual 
for the use of the construction engineer, 
with valuable illustrations in the text. 

(2) Locomotive Power, including 
sub-sections on Fundamental Relations* 
Methods of Applying Locomotive Power, 
General Locomotive Efficiency, Analysis of 
Train Resistance, Vehicle Resistance, En- 
gine Resistance, Maximum Boiler Power, 
Draught, The Steam Engine, Tractive 
Force, Engine Efficiency; Piston Speed, 
Compound Locomotives, Balancing of Loco- 
motives, Classes of Locomotives, Current 
Developments. This section of the article 
is a little longer than the preceding, — it 
would fill 25 pages of this Guide, — and 
has illustrations, tables, and formulae. 
It is written by Prof. Dalby, the prin- 
cipal British authority on locomotives. 

(3) Rolling Stock, dealing with din- 
ing, sleeping, passenger and vestibule 
cars, wood and metal, their heating and 
lighting and their weight and speed; with 
freight cars, their weight and speed; and 
with car-couplers and brakes. 

(4) Intra-Urban, or city street rail- 
ways, elevated and underground, by W. 
B. Parsons, formerly chief engineer of 
the New York Rapid Transit Commis- 
sion. 

(5) Light Railways for rural and in- 



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terurban service and portable railways. 

The next article to be read is Tramway 
(Vol. 27, p. 159), dealing with the earliest 
railways used in coal mines, American 
and English, without locomotive power; 
and with modern street railways, — sur- 
face lines, steam, cable and electric, the 
last being subdivided 
Other Major into three classes, 

Articles overhead or trolley, 

open conduit and 
closed conduit. The different types of 
street cars are discussed, and there are 
summaries of legislation and of commer- 
cial results, with general statistics. 

The article Traction (Vol. 27, p. 118, 
equivalent to more than 20 pages of this 
Guide) is by Louis Duncan, formerly 
head of the department of electrical en- 
gineering in the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology. It deals principally with 
electric traction and thus supplements 
the article Tramway. Steam traction, as 
treated in the section on Locomotive 
Power in the article Railways, by Prof. 
Dalby, may be studied further in the 
article Steam-Engine (Vol. 25, p. 818), 
and especially that part of the article 
which deals with locomotives (§ 104, p. 
841). 

The civil engineer engaged in railway 
work will profit by reading, besides the 
articles already mentioned: Professor W. 
C. Unwin's article (Vol. 4, p. 533) on 
Bridges, especially pp. 545 and 547 seq., 
dealing with railway bridges; and the ar- 
ticle Tunnel (Vol. 27, p. 399), by H. A. 
Carson, engineer-in-charge of the Boston 
Subway and of the East Boston Tunnel, 
which would make about 30 pages if 
printed in the form of this Guide. This 
article classifies tunnels into river, moun- 
tain and town (subway) tunnels, and 
gives special information about rail cor- 
rosion and ventilation in tunnels. 

The equipment engineer will add to 
the topics already listed (cars, engines, 
etc.) the article Signal, § Railway Sig- 
nalling (Vol. 25, p. 73; as long as 15 pages 
of this Guide), by B. B. Adams, of the 



Railway Age Gazette, and H. M. Ross, of 
the London Times Engineering Supple- 
ment; and Brake (Vol. 4, p. 414). 

On the history of railroading and on 
statistics there is much information in 
the Britannica in local articles. It has 

already been re- 
Legislation marked that each 

article dealing with 
a state of the United States, or any of the 
commercial countries of the world, has a 
section on Communications, giving railway 
mileage and describing the principal rail- 
way lines in the area; and that articles on 
cities and towns give accurate and minute 
information about railway service. In 
pursuing the study of legislation bearing 
on railways, and especially on rate legis- 
lation, the student should read the article 
Interstate Commerce (Vol. 14, p. 711), 
by Prof. Frank A. Fetter of Princeton 
University, a part at least of the article 
Trusts (Vol. 27, p. 334), by Prof. J. W. 
Jenks, of New York University (formerly 
of Cornell), parts of the article on the 
history of the United States, in the same 
volume, especially pp. 315, 316, 353, 367, 
394, 395, 396, 406, 407, and, in separate 
state articles, the sections on laws and 
history, notably North Carolina for 
the rate cases of 1907 (Vol. 19, p. 778), 
Nebraska for the maximum freight rate 
of 1893 (Vol. 19, p. 329), Wisconsin on 
radical rate legislation and on physical 
valuation for ad valorem tax of railways 
(Vol. 28, p. 744). 

The biographical articles in the new 
Britannica also have much important in- 
formation for the student of railways. 

Among the names of 
Biographies inventors whose 

lives are outlined are : 
Thomas Newcomen (Vol. 19, p. 475), 
James Watt (Vol. 28, p. 414), Matthew 
Boulton (Vol. 4, p. 324), George and 
Robert Stephenson (Vol. 25, pp. 888 
and 889), Richard Trevithick (Vol. 27, 
p. 256), Oliver Evans (Vol. 10, p. 2), 
John Ericsson (Vol. 9, p. 740), Peter 
Cooper (Vol. 7, p. 80), and Sir Marc I. 



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Brunbl (Vol. 4, p. 682); among the 
names of engineers and railway and 
bridge builders George Parker Bidder 
(Vol. 3, p. 918), Thomas Brassey (Vol 
4, p. 435), John Cockerill (Vol. 6, p 
625), Erastus Corning (Vol. 7, p. 174) 
James Buchanan Eads (Vol. 8, p. 789) 
Sir William Fairbairn (Vol. 19, p. 129) 
Sir John Fowler (Vol. 10, p. 761) 
James Henry Greathead (Vol. 12, p 
398), Sir John Hawkshaw (Vol. 13, p 
99), William Kingsford (Vol. 15, p 
817), Sir Robert Gillespie Reid (Vol 
23, p. 50), John Rennie (Vol. 23, p. 101) 
and J. A. Roebling (Vol. 23, p. 450) ; and 
among railway financiers, — to take only 
a few American names, — the Vander- 



bilts (Vol. 27, p. 885), Jay Gould (Vol. 
12, p. 284), Asa Packer (Vol. 20, p. 441) 
and E. H. Harriman (Vol. 13, p. 
18). 

In such articles as Strikes and Lock 
Outs (Vol. 25, p. 1024) and Trade 
Unions (Vol. 27, p. 140), each with Amer- 
ican sections by Carroll D. Wright, late 
U. S. Commissioner of Labor, the reader 
will find valuable assistance in studying 
railway economics as affected by the 
relations of labour and capital. 

For marine transportation see the next 
chapter in this Guide. 

The following is a brief list of articles, 
and of sections of articles, of interest to 
all railroad men: 



Analysis of Train Re- 


• Concrete 


Horse Power 


Roof 


sistance 


Conveyors 


Hydraulics 


Semaphore 


Anthracite 


Cranes 


Iron and Steel 


Sewerage 


Atmospheric Railway 


Cross-overs 


Location 


Shaft Sinking 


Ballast 


Curves 


Locomotive Power 


Shoring 


Balancing of Locomo- Current Developments 


Maximum Boiler Power Shovel 


tives 


Cuttings 


Masonry 


Signalling 


Blasting 


Dock 


Methods of applying Siphon 


Bearings 


Draught 


Locomotive Power 


Sleeper 


Bogie 


Dredge 


Monorail Systems 


Smoke 


Boiler 


Elevators 


Mortar 


Steam Engines 


Boring 


Embankments 


Motors, Electric 


Steel Construction 


Brake 


Engine 


Oil Engine 


Stone 


Brickwork 


Engine Efficiency 


Permanent Way 


Strength of Materials 


Bridges 


Engine Resistance 
Felloe 


Pier 


Switches (or points) 


Cable Railways 


Piston Speed 


Switching Yards 


Caisson 


Fire brick 


Rack Railways 


Ties 


Canal 


Fish-plates 


Rafter 


Timber 


Cantilever 


Foundations 


Rail 


Traction 


Car 


Freight 


Railways 


Tractive Force 


Cement 


Fuel 


Railway Stations 


Tramway 


Classes of Locomotives Gauge 


River Engineering 


Tunnels 


Coal 


General Locomotive Ef- 


Roads and Streets 


Vehicle Resistance 


Cog Railways 


ficiency 


Roadbeds 


Ventilation 


Compound Locomotives Gradients 


Rolling Stock 


Welding 



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CHAPTER XIX 



FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATION MEN 



THE immediate future of marine 
commerce cannot fail to be very 
greatly affected by changed con- 
ditions. No one believes that England, 
Germany, France, Russia, Austria, Ja- 
pan and China will be able, before the 
middle of the century, to establish a 
stable adjustment of the international 
difficulties which surround them. No 
one knows what changes the Panama 
Canal may make .in the movement of 
freights within the first ten years of its 
operation. No one 
Problems of knows to what in- 

the Near dustry the United 

Future States may next ap- 

ply the methods by 
which the country has created the age 
of steel. 

Coal and the steam engine may both, 
within a few years, be displaced as fac- 
tors in marine transportation. Sweeping 
tariff changes in the United States, in 
Great Britain and in Germany may vi- 
tally affect the movement of freights.^ 
Transatlantic passenger traffic, not only 
a huge business in itself, but also im- 
portant, so long as it is sea-borne, in its 
effects upon transatlantic freights, may 
become aerial instead of marine. 

Confronted by the approach of a period 
so full of changes, the uttermost alertness 
of outlook is merely elementary prudence 
on the part of everyone engaged in the 
business of marine transportation; and 
the new Britannica reviews all the many 
fields of knowledge which are of impor- 
tance in this connection. It supplies 
technical information regarding the con- 
struction of ships, the management of 
shipping lines, marine engines of every 
kind, shipboard and waterside appli- 
ances for the handling of cargo, the de- 



velopment of harbours and the dredging 
and embankment of rivers, the building 
of docks, warehouses and dry docks, 
ship canals and canal locks, navigation, 
lighthouses, light- 
Technical ships, buoys, lanes 
Subjects of traffic, marine in- 
surance, cold trans- 
port — every conceivable subject with 
which shipping men are concerned. 
Articles by contributors in twenty differ- 
ent countries, deal with all the world's 
ports, industries, exports, imports and 
shipping. The financial and legal as- 
pects of the business are exhaustively 
covered. Tariffs, legislation affecting 
marine transportation, and such questions 
of international policy as the command 
of the sea, the right of search, and the 
position of neutrals in wartime are dis- 
cussed by the highest authorities. 

In addition to all this, the Britannica 
articles on these and similar subjects 
contain historical sections which, in con- 
junction with the articles on the history 
of all countries, show how past changes, 
as sweeping as these which are now antic- 
ipatedy have affected commerce. Whether 
your present position — or the position 
you are endeavouring to make for your- 
self — in relation to shipping is such that 
this coming period of transition promises 
to affect you favourably or unfavour- 
ably, you need to be forewarned and fore- 
armed, prepared to keep what you have 
or get what you want. 

A course of reading should always 
begin with the study of general principles, 
in order that in your subsequent and 
more detailed examination of the field, 
the relative importance of each fact 
that you master may be appreciated. 
The Britannica provides, in the article 



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Commerce (Vol. 6, p. 766), a bird's-eye 
view of the whole subject of marine 

transportation. The 
An Outline article would not fill 

of Sea Trade more than 16 pages 

of this Guide; you 
can read it (and digest it as you read 
it, so clear is it) in an hour, and yet 
it will give you such a grasp of the whole 
science — for it is a science — of inter- 
national trade that you will spend another 
hour in assorting and classifying, in your 
own mind, a mass of impressions you had 
received before, at school or in the course 
of casual reading, impressions which have 
not been so useful to you as they should 
have been because they had not been 
systematically arranged. There is no 
text book in existence which outlines the 
subject so fully and clearly as does this 
one brief article — about one five-thou- 
sandth part of the total contents of the 
Brltannica. 

This article will arouse your interest 
in the direct relation between commercej 
past, present and future, and the prog- 
ress of civilization. You will realize 
that the man who has any part in the 
vast shifting of cargoes from one part of 
the world to another is distributing 
ideas and ideals and ambitions as well 
as commodities, and in the article Civil- 
ization (Vol. 6, p. 403), by Dr. Henry 
Smith Williams, editor of The Historians* 
History of the World, you will see how 
harbours receive and send on to the in- 
lands the influences as well as the manu- 
factures of the more advanced com- 
munities. 

From these articles you should turn 
to the three great articles which deal 
with the methods by which these wonder- 
ful results are accomplished. These 
three are Ship, Shipbuilding and Ship- 
ping, all in volume 24, and equivalent to 
about 420 or 425 pages of this Guide. 
These three articles contain hundreds of 
illustrations, more than forty being full 
page plates. They are by the most 
eminent authorities. Sir Philip Watts, 



director of naval construction for the 
British Navy, designer of the Dread- 
noughts and the Super-Dreadnoughts of 
the British Navy, as well as of the "Mau- 
retania" and the "Lusitania," chairman 
of the Federation of Shipbuilders, and 
naval architect and director of the war- 
shipbuilding department of Armstrong, 
Whitworth & Co., Ltd., wrote the arti- 
cles Shipbuilding and Ship (except the 
history of ships before the invention of 
steamships, which is by Edmund Warre, 
provost of Eton, well-known as a writer 
on nautical history). The article Ship- 
ping is by Douglas Owen, lecturer at the 
Royal Naval War College and author 
of Ports and Docks. 

In brief, these three articles in length, 
contents, — both text and illustrations, — 
and authorship, make up a remarkable 
book on the subject, valuable either as a 
text-book or a work of reference for the 
ship builder, the marine engineer or the 
student of shipping. 

Taking the articles separately, the 
article Ship begins with a section of 
nearly 10,000 words on the early develop- 
ment of snips. It suggests 
Story of that shells floating on the 
the Ship water or the nautilus may 
first have suggested the use 
of a hollowed tree-trunk for transporta- 
tion — the first boat or "ship" (the word 
comes from the same root as "scoop") 
as distinct from a raft. The evolution of 
boat building is traced, — from dug-out 
to bark- or skin-covered frame, built 
like modern racing-shells sometimes ribs 
first and then skin laid on and sometimes 
sheU first and then ribs inserted. In 
spite of the great length of the period 
during which such boats were used — 
of course they are still used by more 
primitive peoples, — it is interesting to 
notice that there were local variations 
which never became general, such as the 
outrigger and weather platform, used in 
the South Pacific and not found elsewhere. 

Egyptian vessels we may study in the 
excellent early tomb-paintings still pre- 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



served, and one of these shows a ship, 
not a canoe or large boat, such as was in 
use from 3000 - 1000 B. C, fitted with 
oars and a mast in two pieces which could 
be lowered and laid along a high spar- 
deck. 

The Phoenicians did more than the 
Egyptians to develop ship and naviga- 
tion, and a Phoenician galley of the 8th 
century B. C. is shown in an Assyrian 
wall painting. The Phoenicians proba- 
bly sailed out of the Mediterranean, to 
Britain for tin, or even around Africa. 

Greek ships and shipbuilding we know 
from a full and varied national literature, 
from the figures on coins and vases, and 
from the discovery in 1834 at the Peiraeus, 
the port of Athens, of records of Athenian 
dockyard superintendents for several 
years between 373 and 324 B.C. We 
have besides descriptions, partly tech- 
nical, showing the point of view of the 
engineer or architect, written by Roman 
authors. The article gives a critical 
account of the Greek types of vessels. 
The growth of Roman shipping seems 
to have been due primarily to political 
reasons and to fiave advanced slowly 
but surely, — practical devices being in- 
troduced to solve special difficulties in a 
field and on an element where the Romans 
were far from being at home. A five- 
tiered Carthaginian galley which had 
drifted ashore served the Romans as a 
model for their first war-ship, and with 
crews taught to row in a framework 
set up on dry land they manned a fleet 
which was launched in sixty days from 
the time that the trees were felled. 

Passing quickly over the remainder of 
the earlier period, which the reader will 
find treated in full in the article Ship, 
he should notice that 
Mast and Sail the sailing vessel 
came into use grad- 
ually for merchant use, but that galleys 
(propelled by oars) were long the only 
type for warships. There were some 
galleys even in the Spanish Armada of 
1588. In the meantime the invention 



of gunpowder and the development of 
artillery brought about changes in size 
and in form, with a notable tendency 
to more masts and a greater spread of 
sail. The discoveries of the 15th and 
16th centuries and especially the con- 
sequent expansion of trade in the 17th 
century, all tended to increase the size 
and efficiency of sailing ships. The 
end of the 18th and the beginning of the 
19th century marked the highest point 
in the development of American sailing 
ships. "The Americans with their fast- 
sailing 'clippers 9 taught the English 
builders a lesson, showing that increased 
length in proportion to beam gave 
greater speed, while permitting the use 
of lighter rigging in proportion to tonnage, 
and the employment of smaller crews. The 
English shipyards were for a long time 
unequal to the task of producing vessels 
capable of competing with those of their 
American rivals, and their trade suffered 
accordingly. But after the repeal of the 
Navigation Laws in 1850, things improved 
and we find clippers from Aberdeen and 
the Clyde beginning to hold their own 
on the long voyages to China and else- 
where." 

The revolution in marine transporta- 
tion by the introduction of steam is 
summed up by Sir Philip Watts as 
follows: 

Before steam was applied to the propul- 
sion of ships, the voyage from Great Bri- 
tain to America lasted for some weeks; at 
the beginning of the 20th century the 
time had been reduced to about six days, 
and in 1910 the fastest vessels could do it 
in four and a half days. Similarly, the voy- 
age to Australia, which took about thirteen 
weeks, had been reduced to thirty days or 
less. The fastest of the sailing tea-clippers 
required about three months to bring the 
early teas from China to Great Britain; in 
1910 they were brought to London by the 
ordinary P. & O. service in five weeks. At- 
lantic liners now run between England and 
America which maintain speeds of 25 and 
26 knots over the whole course, as compared 
with about 12 knots before the introduction 
of steam. 

The introduction of iron for wood 
began about the same time as the sub- 



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stitution of steam for sails, and there was 
even more prejudice 
Iron Hulls against it. This was 

due not merely to 
the sentiment attaching to the oaken 
timbers that typified "hearts of oak," 
or to the "Wooden Walls of England." 
In all seriousness it was objected that 
iron would not float! It was feared 
that iron bottoms would be more easily 
perforated when ships grounded; but 
this was found not to be the case when 
construction was careful. It was proved 
that fouling of iron bottoms from weeds 
and barnacles might be remedied by 
frequent cleaning and repainting. The 
most serious objection against iron was 
that it affected the compass; but in 1839 
Sir G. B. Airy laid down rules for the 
correction of compass errors due to iron 
in construction. But even to-day wood is 
preferred for the construction of ships 
for scientific expeditions to the Polar 
regions where the slightest disturbance 
of the compass is to be avoided. Iron 
and steel (first used in ship-building to 
any extent in 1870-75) have three advan- 
tages over wooden ships: less weight; 
greater durability; greater ease in secur- 
ing the necessary general and local 
strengths. But while iron was coming 
into use largely because it is more dura- 
ble, there was a great increase in the 
durability of wooden ships, due to the 
improved knowledge of wood-preserva- 
tion. At the end of the 18th century 
15 or 20 years was the average life of 
a wooden ship; but there are several 
instances of ships built in the first decade 
of the 19th century — or even earlier — 
which were still in commission at the be- 
ginning of the 20th century. 

Full details are given in regard to the 
first ships used for canal and river navi- 
gation in Great Britain and the United 
States; the comparatively rapid adop- 
tion of steam vessels on the Irish and 
English channels; and the first steam- 
ships to make long trips — the American- 
built "Savannah" which crossed the At- 



lantic in 1819 in 25 days using steam only 
a part of the time, 
Early the "Enterprise" 

Steamships which went from 

London to Calcutta 
in 1825 in 103 days (64 under steam), the 
"Sirius," the "Great Western," etc. 
AD these were propelled by paddle-wheels. 
Jet propulsion had been suggested by 
Benjamin Franklin in 1775 and was tried 
several times with some success. But 
the greater success of the screw-propeller, 
perfected by Colonel John Stevens and 
Captain John Ericsson, soon caused jet- 
propulsion to be abandoned. The screw- 
propeller made possible — and was quickly 
followed by — great improvements in 
engines; the gearing used with paddles 
was soon given up for direct-acting en- 
gines — compound about 1854, triple- 
expansion in 1874. 

Statistics of shipping for all countries 
are given in tables and diagrams equiva- 
lent to 18 or 20 pages of this Guide. 

A brief summary outline of the re- 
mainder of this article Ship is all that 
can be given here. 

Merchant Vessels 
Sailing Ships 

Barges, Smacks or Cutters, 
Schooners, Brigs and Brigan tines 

Steamships 

Types: Turtle-back, etc. Cargo 
Ships : Modern Developments, 
Great Lake Freighters, Oil Tank 
Steamers, Motor Tank Vessels. 
Passenger Steamers : Ferries, 
River and Sound, Cross-Channel, 
Ocean Liners (Atlantic: Cana- 
dian, Emigrant Vessels, Liners on 
other Routes; Pacific Liners). 
Special Vessels (Dredge, Train 
Ferries, Ice Breakers, Surveying 
Vessels, Lightships, Coastguard 
and Fishery Cruisers, Salvage and 
Fire Vessels, Lifeboats, Yachts). 
Propulsion by Electricity, by 
Naphtha Engines, by Internal 
Combustion Engines 

War Vessels 

Battleships and Armour Protec- 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



tion ; Sir E. J. Reed and the Brit- 
ish Navy Turret Ships ; American 
Monitor; Sir Nathaniel Barnaby 
in England; the work of Sir W. 
H. White; Development from 
1885 to 1902; The "Dread- 
nought " type — in England, 
United States, Germany, France, 
Japan, Russia, Italy, Austria, 
Brazil, Argentina, etc., with 
Table, " Development of Some of 
the Leading Features of Notable 
Armored Battleships from 1860 
to 1910." 

Cruisers, Second-Class Cruisers, 
Third-Class, Armored Cruisers, 
Dreadnought Cruisers, Cruisers in 
Different Navies 

Gunboats and Torpedo Craft and 
Torpedo-boat Destroyers 
Submarines: American experi- 
ments in the 1 8th Century ; inven- 
tions of Holland and Nordenf eldt ; 
the Goubet System in France; 
Submarines in different navies. 
The article Shipping (Vol. 24, p. 98S) 
is devoted to the history and practice 
of maritime transportation. It outlines 
the early period of 
History of trade, and the con- 

Shipping test for trade among 

Spain, Portugal, the 
Netherlands and England, especially in 
the period after the discovery of America, 
when the prizes of commerce became 
suddenly so much richer. The Naviga- 
tion Act of 1651, confining the trade 
between England and her colonies and 
the British coasting trade to English 
ships, was followed by a rapid growth 
of English shipping. The tonnage 
doubled between 1606 and 1688. In the 
18th century and into the 19th, the 
history of shipping was primarily a 
contest for trade between France and 
England, finally won by the latter. The 
19th century, as has already been seen 
in the article Ship, was marked by the 
adoption of steam as a motive power. 
The struggle for supremacy in the At- 
lantic trade and in commerce with China 
and the Far East between the United 



States and Great Britain was won by the 
latter largely for this reason — the Ameri- 
can ship-builders clung to the sailing 
clipper too long — and they were too 
slow in adopting iron instead of wooden 
hulls. The American Civil War was an 
additional set-back to American com- 
merce. Other great factors during the 
last 50 years in the development of ship- 
ping, treated in the article, may be cat- 
alogued here: • 

. The opening of the Suez Canal in 
1869. 

Improved apparatus for fire preven- 
tion. 

Refrigerating machinery, making 
possible the shipment of meats 
and other foods. 

Germany's merchant marine. 

Japanese merchant vessels. 

French efforts to get trade. 

The shipping combine of 1902. 

" Liners " and " Tramps." 

The freight rate question and in- 
creased tonnage. 

Special passenger transport: tour- 
ists, emigrants, etc. 

The third of the main articles is 
Shipbuilding (Vol. 
Instructions 24, p. 922) by Sir 

for the Philip Watts. The 

Ship-Builder articte is equivalent 

to 200- pages of this 
Guide, and the illustrations include 
more than 120 working drawings. A 
brief outline of the article is all that can 
be given here. 

Stability: Equilibrium, Stability 
of Equilibrium, Transverse Stabil- 
ity, Small Inclinations, Metacentric 
Heights, Inclining Experiment, 
Large Inclinations, Curves of Sta- 
bility, Effect of Freeboard, Effect of 
Beam, Effect of Position on Centre 
of Gravity, Geometrical Properties, 
Dynamical Stability, Sailing Ships, 
Longitudinal Stability, Stability 
when Damaged, Stability in any Di- 
rection. 

Rolling of Ships : Unresisted Roll- 
ing — Froude's Theory, Resisted 
Rolling, Methods of Reducing Roll- 



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99 



ing (Bilge-Keels, Water Chambers, 
Gyroscope), 

Resistance: Components of Force, 
Wake, Frictional Resistance, Law of 
Comparison, Model Experiments, 
Experimental Results. 

Propulsion : Experimental Re- 
sults, Cavitation. 

Strength: Longitudinal Bending, 
Transverse Bending. 

Steering: Nature of Forces when 
Turning, Heel when Turning, Types 
of Rudders, Experimental Results. 
Process of Design 

Registration Societies 

Board of Trade Supervision 

Load line and Freeboard 

Loading of Grain and Timber 
Ship-yard Work 

Structural Parts 

Materials 

Cranes and Gantries 
Course of Construction 

Models 

Laying-off 

Sheer Drawing 

Fairing the Body 

Contracted Method of Fairing 

Fairing the End 

Stern Mould 

Displacement Calculation 

Frame Lines 

Cant Frames 

Double Canted Frame 

Swell for Propeller Shaft 

Mould for Boss Frame Casting 

Shaft Struts 



Anchor 

Ballast 

Barge 

Belay 

Berth 

Bilge 

Binnacle 

Boat 

Bowline 

Bumboat 

Buoy 

Burgee 

Cable 

Cabotage 

Caique 

Canoe 

Capstan 

Catamaran 

Cleat' 

Coble 



Commerce 

Coracle 

C. H. Cramp 

Sir Samuel Cunard 

Dahabeah 

Dhow 

Dinghy 

John Ericsson 

Felucca • 

John Fitch 

Robert Fulton 

Gimbal 

Hawser 

Holystone 

T. H. Ismay 

Junk 

Kayak 

Keel 

Lateen 

Life-saving Service 



Sight Edges in Body Plan 

Inner Bottom 

Inner Surface of Frames 

Outside Double Bottom 

Deck Lines 

Framing and Plating behind 
Armour 

Laying off Armour of a Warship 

Order of Work 

Keel 

Transverse Frames 

Scrive-Board 

Shoring Ribbands 

Deck Beams 

Longitudinals 

Bilge Keel 

Drawings 

Laying Keel Blocks 

Keels and Frames 

Shell or Outside Plating 
Structural Arrangements 

Longitudinal System as used in 
New London, Conn.; Great Lake 
steamer; British cargo steamer; At- 
lantic liner; Differences between 
war and merchant ships; Auxiliary 
Machinery. 

The student should read the article 

Navy and Navies 

A Dictionary (Vol. 19, p. 299) and 

of Ships and refer to the chapter 

Shipping For Naval Officers. 

The following is a partial list of the 
articles in the Britannica of particular 
value to the marine transportation man. 



Lighthouse 

Log 

Mast 

Navigation 

Navigation Laws 

Oars 

Pilot 

Pinnace 

Pirogue 

Polacca 

Poop 

Pram 

Proa 

Punt 

Quarterdeck 

Quay 

Random 

Rigging 

Rowlock 

Rudder 



Sail, and Sailcloth 

Sampan 

Schooner 

Seamanship 

Seamen, Laws of 

Semaphore 

Ship 

Shipbuilding 

Ship Money 

Shipping 

Sloop 

Smack 

Starboard 

Steamship Lines 

Tonnage 

Trinity House 

Turbine 

Wharf 

Sir William H. White 

Yawl 



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CHAPTER XX 



FOR ENGINEERS 



THE history of a word wffl some- 
times supply the key to the 
gradual development of an art. 
"Engineering" was originally used to 
describe a mere branch of military 
science, the construction of fortifica- 
tions and the trenching and sap- 
ping needed for their capture. Then 
about a century and a half ago the use 
of the phrase "civil engineering" came 
into use to indicate the broadening of 
the engineer's functions to civil pursuits, 
but even then it served for a long time 
chiefly to describe surveying, road-mak- 
ing and bridge building. To-day, the 
specialized knowledge of engineers of one 
kind or another directs or facilitates 
every branch of industry. Consider for 
a moment the handling of iron, which, 
as the Britannica article Iron and Steel 
shows, has become the most indispensa- 
ble of all substances save air and water, 
because we can find 
What no substitute for it 

"Engineering" that possesses its 
Includes strength, the hard- 

ness and the pliabil-. 
ity we can give to it, and its mag- 
netic properties, upon which all our 
electrical work depends. The mining 
engineer is concerned with the ore, the 
mechanical engineer with the machinery 
employed in its treatment; the trans- 
portation of the finished iron or steel 
depends upon the skill of the engineers 
who construct railroads and ships; the 
structural engineer shapes our buildings 
from the girders and erects them on the 



sites indicated by the surveying engin- 
eer; the sanitary engineer makes them 
wholesome, and the electrical engineer 
provides them with the many convenient 
appliances we need. Various primitive 
races have believed that the earth is 
supported upon the back of a tortoise, 
an elephant, or a fish; but when we 
begin to look into the origin of the sur- 
roundings we have made for ourselves, 
we cannot carry our examination very 
far before we find that almost every- 
thing we possess begins with a blue- 
print. 

It seems a paradox, and yet it is true, 
that the more a man's profession tends 
to specialization, the more help he can 
get from the comprehensiveness of the 
Britannica. He finds it necessary to dig 
so deep that the shaft he sinks must 
perforce be of narrow diameter, limiting 
his daily vision to but a small circle of 
the broad sky above him. The engineer 
of each class has his own text books, but 
at any moment his work may bring him 
into temporary relation with allied sub- 
jects which they do not cover, and in 
connection with which he may need 
trustworthy information. There is cer- 
tainly no other book which surveys so 
authoritatively and minutely as does the 
Britannica the whole field of applied sci- 
ence. The services rendered by the 73 
engineering experts — German, Ameri- 
can, English, French and Italian — who 
collaborated in the production of the 
work are not to be measured only by the 
articles they wrote; for the advice and 



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FOR ENGINEERS 



101 



assistance many of them gave the edi- 
tors in planning the book as a whole, en- 
sured such treatment as an engineer 
would desire of many subjects indirectly 
connected with his work. 

The engineer will naturally turn first 
to the mathematical articles, which may 
be described as text-books of the most 
concise and useful 
Mathematical nature, written by 
Articles leading mathemati- 

cians of the age. 
Algebra (Vol. 1, p. 599) is by Dr. Shep- 
pard, and G. B. Mathews, formerly pro- 
fessor of mathematics, University Col- 
lege of North Wales; Algebraic Forms 
(Vol. 1, p. 620) by Major P. A. Macma- 
hon, formerly president of the London 
Mathematical Society; Geometry (Vol. 
11, p. 675), Euclidean, Projective, De- 
scriptive, by Dr. Henrici, professor of 
mathematics, Central Technical College 
of the City and Guilds of London Insti- 
tute; Analytical, by E. B. Elliott, Wayn- 
flete professor of pure mathematics, 
Oxford; Line, by B. A. W. Russell, 
author of Foundations of Geometry, etc., 
and Dr. A. N. Whitehead of Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge; Axioms, by Dr. White- 
head; Trigonometry (Vol. 27, p. 271) 
by Dr. E. W. Hobson of Cambridge 
University; Surveying (Vol. 26, p. 142), 
Geodetic Triangulation, Levelling, Topo- 
graphical Surveys, and Geographical Sur- 
veying, by Sir Thomas Holdich, formerly 
superintendent of Frontier Surveys, In- 
dia; Nautical, by Vice-Admiral A. M. 
Field, R.N., author of Hydrographical 
Surveying, etc.; Geodesy (Vol. 11, p. 
607) by Col. A. R. Clarke of the 
British ordinance survey, and Prof. 
F. R. Helmert of the University of 
Berlin; Logarithm (Vol. 16, p. 868) by 
Dr. J. W. L. Glaisher, editor of the Quar- 
terly Journal of Pure and Applied Math- 
ematics; Mechanics (Vol. 17, p. 955), 
Statics, Kinetics, by Dr. Horace Lamb, 
professor of mathematics, University of 
Manchester; Theory of Structures, The- 
ory of Machines, Applied Dynamics, by 



Dr. W. J. M. Rankine, late professor of 
civil engineering, Glasgow University, 
and W. E. Dalby, professor of civil and 
mechanical engineering, City and Guilds 
of London Institute; Dynamics (Vol. 8, 
p. 756) by Professor Lamb; Differ- 
ences, Calculus of (Vol. 8, p. 223), by 
Dr. W. F. Sheppard; Infinitesimal 
Calculus (Vol. 14, p. 535) by Dr. A. E. 
H. Love, secretary of the London Math- 
ematical Society; Variations, Calcu- 
lus of (Vol. 27, p. 915), by Dr. Love; 
Quaternions (Vol. 22, p\ 718) by 
Alexander McAulay, professor of math- 
ematics and physics, University of Tas- 
mania; Diagram (Vol. 8, p. 146), by 
Dr. James Clerk Maxwell, the noted 
physicist; Mensuration (Vol. 18, p. 
135) by Dr. Sheppard; Table, Math- 
ematical (Vol 26, p. 325), by Dr. J. 
W. L. Glaisher; Units, Physical (Vol. 
27, p. 738), by Dr. J. A Fleming, profes- 
sor of electrical engineering, University 
of London; Units, Dimensions of (Vol. 
27, p. 736), by Sir Joseph Larmor, secre- 
tary of the Royal Society, England; and 
Calculating Machines (Vol. 4, p. 972), 
with 24 illustrations, is by Professor 
Henrici. 

These admirable treatises as well as 
the article Drawing, Drawing-Office 
work (Vol. 8, p. 556), by Joseph G. 
Horner, will be useful to all engineers, 
and in the special field of civil engin- 
eering the following partial list of ar- 
ticles will convey some idea of the scope 
of the material to which the professional 
man has immediate access. 

Bridges (Vol. 4, p. 533), with 72 illus- 
trations, diagrams, etc., is a thorough 
discussion of the subject by Dr. William 
C. Unwin, emeritus 
Articles for professor of en- 

Civil Engineers gineering, Central 
Technical College, 
City and Guilds of London Institute, 
author of Wrought Iron Bridges and 
Roofs, etc. This article covers the whole 
theory of bridge design, and describes 
all the typical structures from the timber 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



Pons Sublicius of ancient Rome, the 
bridge Horatius defended, to the Man- 
hattan Bridge over the East River at 
New York. Roads and Streets (Vol. 
28, p. 388); River Engineering (Vol. 
23, p. 374), with 26 illustrations, by the 
late L. F. Vernon-Harcourt, professor 
of civil engineering, University College, 
London, and author of Rivers and Canals , 
etc.; Jetty (Vol. 15, p. 359), with 6 
illustrations, and Pier (Vol. 21, p. 588), 
illustrated, also by Prof. Vernon- 
Harcourt; Dredge and Dredging 
(Vol. 8, p. 562), with 13 illustrations, by 
William Hunter, consulting engineer for 
Waterworks to Crown agents for the 
Colonies. 

Hydraulics (Vol. 14, p. 35), with 213 
illustrations, is by Prof. W. C. Unwin — 
an article in which the whole theory and 
practice of water-power, including dis- 
cussions of water-motors and turbines, 
are brought fully up to date by the 
designer of the first water-motors at 
Niagara, the section dealing with hy- 
draulic machines occupying 25 pages; 
Hydromechanics (Vol. 14, p. 115) by 
Sir Alfred George Greenhill, formerly 
professor of mathematics in the Ord- 
nance College, Woolwich; Ventilation 
(Vol. 27, p. 1008), illustrated, by James 
Bartlett; Water Supply (Vol. 28, p. 
387), with 20 illustrations, diagrams, and 
maps, by Dr. G. F. Deacon, former- 
ly engineer-in-chief for the Liverpool 
Water Supply; Aqueduct, Modern Con- 
struction (Vol. 2, p. 244), by E. P. Hill; 
Sewerage (Vol. 24, p. 735), with 29 illus- 
trations, by James Bartlett; Irrigation 
(Vol. 14, p. 841). 

Canal (Vol. 5, p. 168), by Sir E. 
Leader Williams, chief engineer of Man- 
chester Ship Canal during construction, 
is an interesting article. There are also 
separate articles on great engineering 
undertakings, such as Panama Canal 
(Vol. 20, p. 667); Manchester. Ship 
Canal (Vol. 17, p. 550) by Sir E. Leader 
Williams; Suez Canal (Vol. 26, p. 22). 
It will surprise many readers to learn 



that the project of a ship canal across 
Central America was considered as early 
as 1550, when a book demonstrating its 
feasibility was published in Portugal. 
Only a year later the King of Spain was 
strongly urged, in a memorial presented 
by De Gomara, the Spanish historian, 
to undertake the work. 

Tunnel (Vol. 27, p. 899),with many 
plans and illustrations, by H. A. Carson, 
in charge of designing and constructing 
the Boston Subway; Dock (Vol. 8, p. 
353), with illustrations and plans; Cais- 
son (Vol. 4, p. 957) ; Breakwater (Vol. 
4, p. 475), with 16 illustrations; Har- 
bour (Vol. 12, p. 935), illustrated; 
Reclamation of Land (Vol. 22, p. 
954), with 13 illustrations. The last 
five articles are by Professor Vernon- 
Harcourt; Lighthouse (Vol. 16, p. 627), 
with 59 illustrations, by W. T. Douglass, 
who erected the Eddystone and Bishop 
Rock Lighthouses, and Nicholas G . Gedy e, 
chief engineer to the Tyne Improve- 
ment Commission; Shipbuilding (Vol. 
24, p. 922), with 125 illustrations — a com- 
plete treatise on the subject by Sir Philip 
Watts, director of naval construction 
for the British Navy; Traction (Vol. 
27, p. 119), illus- 
Railways and trated, by Prof. Louis 
Transportation Duncan, of the Mas- 
sachusetts Institute 
of Technology; Tramway (Vol. 27, p. 
159), illustrated, by Emile Garcke, man- 
aging director of the British Electric 
Traction Co., Ltd.; Railways (Vol. 22, 
p. 819), a magnificent composite article, 
fully illustrated, in which the Introduc- 
tion and the sections on Construction and 
Rolling Stock are by H. M. Ross, editor 
of The Times Engineering Supplement; 
General Statistics and Financial Organi- 
zation, by Ray Morris, formerly of the 
Railway Age Gazette, New York, and 
author of Railroad Administration; Eco- 
nomics and Legislation, by Arthur T. 
Hadley, president of Yale University; 
American Railway Legislation, by Prof. 
Frank H. Dixon, of Dartmouth College, 



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FOR ENGINEERS 



103 



author of State Railroad Control; Acci- 
dent Statistics ', by B. B. Adams, associ- 
ate editor, Railway Age Gazette; Intra 
Urban Railways, by W. B. Parsons, 
formerly chief engineer, Rapid Transit 
Commission, New York, and Light Rail- 
ways, by C. E. Webber of the Royal 
Engineers, and Emile Garcke. No 
book on the subject has ever before 
contained so great a collection of expert 
knowledge as this article presents. 

In regard to construction, engineers 
will find most valuable for reference and 
study the elaborate treatises Strength 
of Materials (Vol. 
Structural 25, p. 1007), with 42 

Engineering diagrams and illus- 

trations, by Prof. 
J. A. Ewing, and Elasticity (Vol. 
9, p. 141), with 82 diagrams, by 
Prof. A. E. H. Love. Notable arti- 
cles in this connection are Iron and 
Steel (Vol. 14, p. 801), illustrated, by 
Dr. H. M. Howe, professor of metal- 
lurgy, Columbia University; and Steel 
Construction (Vol. 25, p. 861), illus- 
trated. It is interesting to note that 
early in the 19th century a tall shot- 
tower was built in New York city by 
erecting a braced cage of iron and filling 
in the panels with masonry. Stone 
(Vol. 25, p. 958); Masonry (Vol. 17, p. 
841), with 18 illustrations; Brickwork 
(Vol. 4, p. 521), with 15 illustrations — 
these four articles by James Bartlett, 
lecturer on construction at King's Col- 
lege, London; Cement (Vol. 5, p. 653), 
illustrated, by Bertram Blount, hon. 
president, Cement Section of Interna- 
tional Association for Testing Materials, 
Budapest; Concrete (Vol. 6, p. 835), 
with 16 illustrations, by F. E. Went- 
worth-Shields, dock engineer of the 
London and South- Western Railway; 
Mortar (Vol. 18, p. 875); Foundations 
(Vol. 10, p. 733), with 13 illustrations; 
Timber (Vol. 26, p. 978); Roofs (Vol. 
23, p. 697), with 23 illustrations; Scaf- 
fold (Vol. 24, p. 279) illustrated; Shor- 



ing (Vol. 24, p. 1004), illustrated— the 
last six by James Bartlett. 

The Engineering Section of the new 
Britannica provides an equal wealth 
of authentic material for members of 
other branches of the 
For the profession. It is im- 

Mechanical possible to indi- 

Engineer cate the exact lines 

of demarcation be- 
tween these branches, and many articles 
are of use to all engineers alike; but in 
the special field of mechanical engineer- 
ing there are Thermodynamics (Vol. 26, 
p. 808) by Dr. H. L. Callendar, professor 
of physics, Royal College of Science, 
London; Steam Engine (Vol. 25, p. 818) 
by Prof. Ewing, more than 30 pages long, 
with 68 illustrations. This article, with 
its up-to-date section on turbines, is one 
of the many in the engineering depart- 
ment of the Britannica which have been 
said by technical critics to merit sep- 
arate publication as text-books. But 
such articles are all the more useful be- 
cause they form part of one great library 
of universal knowledge. Other mechan- 
ical articles are Air Engine (Vol. 1, 
p. 443), illustrated, also by Professor 
Ewing; Gas Engine (Vol. 11, p. 495), 
illustrated, by Dugald Clerk, inventor of 
the Clerk Cycle Gas Engine; Oil En- 
gine (Vol. 20, p. 35), illustrated, also by 
Dugald Clerk; Boiler (Vol. 4, p. 141), 
with 20 illustrations, by James T. Mil- 
ton, chief engineer surveyor to Lloyd's 
Registry of Shipping, and Joseph G. 
Horner, author of Plating and Boiler 
Making; Injector (Vol. 14, p. 570); 
Water Motors (Vol. 28, p. 382), illus- 
trated, by T. H. Beare, Regius professor 
of engineering in the University of Edin- 
burgh; Windmill (Vol. 28, p. 710), illus- 
trated, by Professor Unwin; Fuel (Vol. 
11, p. 274), illustrated, Solid Fuels by 
Hilary Bauermann, of the Ordnance Col- 
lege, Woolwich; Liquid Fuel, by Sir 
James Fortescue-Flannery, formerly pres- 
ident of the Institute of Marine Engin- 
eers; Gaseous Fuel, by Dr. Georg Lunge, 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



professor of technical- chemistry at the 
Zurich Polytechnic; Gas, Gas for Fuel 
and Power (Gas producers) (Vol. 11, p. 
490), illustrated, also by Professor Lunge. 

Power Transmission (Vol. 22, p. 224), 
illustrated, Mechanical, by Professor 
Dalby ; Hydraulic, by Edward B. Elling- 
ton, chief engineer of the General Hy- 
draulic Power Co., Ltd.; Pneumatic, by 
A. de W. Foote, superintendent of the 
North Star Mining Co., California; Pul- 
let (Vol.22, p. 641), illustrated, by Dr. 
Ernest G. Coker, professor of mechan- 
ical Engineering in the City and Guilds 
of London Technical College; Pump 
(Vol. 22, p. 645), illustrated; Brake 
(Vol. 4, p. 413), illustrated; Tool (Vol. 
27, p. 14), with 79 illustrations, by Joseph 
G. Horner; Cranes (Vol. 7, p. 368), with 
21 illustrations, by Walter Pitt; Eleva- 
tors (Vol. 9, p. 263), illustrated, by G. F. 
Zimmer, author of Mechanical Handling 
of Material; Lubricants (Vol. 17, p. 89) 
by R. M. Deeley, joint author of Lubri- 
cation and Lubricants; Pneumatic De- 
spatch (Vol. 21, p. 865) by H. R. Kempe, 
electrician to the General Post Office, 
London; Gyroscope and Gyrostat 
(Vol. 12, p. 769), illustrated, by Sir Al- 
fred Greenhill; Motor Vehicles (Vol. 
18, p. 914), with 37 illustrations — Light, 
by the Hon. C. S. Rolls, late managing 
director of the Rolls Royce Co., Ltd.; 
Heavy Commercial Vehicles, by Edward 
S. Smith, editor of The Commercial Mo- 
tor; Railways, Locomotive Power (Vol. 
22, p. 842) by Professor W. E. Dalby. 

The key article describing the general 
principles of electrical engineering is 
Electricity Supply (Vol. 9, p. 192), 
illustrated, by 
For the Emile Garcke, but 

Electrical at the immediate 

Engineer service of the elec- 

trical engineer 
there also stand Dynamo (Vol. 8, p. 
764), with 42 illustrations, by C. C. 
Hawkins, author of The Dynamo; Power 
Transmission, Electrical (Vol. 22, p. 
233) by Dr. Louis Bell, chief engineer, 



Electric Power Transmission Dept., Gen- 
eral Electric Co.; Conduction, Elec- 
tric (Vol. 6, p. 855), Conduction in Solids 
by Professor Fleming; in Liquids, by 
W. C. D. Whetham; in Gases, by Sir J. 
J. Thomson, a Nobel prize-winner and 
professor of experimental physics at 
Cambridge; Electrolysis (Vol. 9, p. 
217) by W. C. D. Whetham; Electro- 
kinetics (Vol. 9, p. 210), illustrated; 
Electrostatics (Vol. 9, p. 240); Elec- 
tromagnetism (Vol. 9, p. 226), illus- 
trated; Units, Physical, Electrical Units 
(Vol*. 27, p. 740); Galvanometer (Vol. 
li, p. 428), illustrated; Electrometer 
(Vol. 9, p. 234), illustrated; Ampere- 
meter (Vol. 1, p. 879), illustrated; Volt- 
meter (Vol. 28, p. 206), illustrated; Ohm- 
meter (Vol. 20, p. 34), illustrated; Watt- 
meter (Vol. 28, p. 4 19)— all of these by 
Professor Fleming; Potentiometer (Vol. 
22, p. 205); Accumulator (Vol. 1, p. 
126), with 24 illustrations and diagrams, 
by Walter Hibbert, of the London Poly- 
technic; Transformers (Vol. 27, p. 173), 
with 15 illustrations and diagrams, and 
Wheatstone's Bridge (Vol. 28, p. 584), 
illustrated, by Professor Fleming; 
Motors, Electric (Vol. 18, p. 910), by 
Dr. Louis Bell; Meter, Electric (Vol. 
18, p. 291), by Professor Fleming; Light- 
ing, Electric (Vol. 16, p. 659), with 16 
illustrations, by Professor Fleming, and 
a chapter on its commercial aspects, 
methods of charging, wiring of houses, 
testing meters, etc., by Emile Garcke; 
Telegraph (Vol. 26, p. 510), fully illus- 
trated, Land and Submarine Telegraphy, 
by H. R. Kempe; Wireless Telegraphy, 
by Professor Fleming, and Commercial 
Aspects, by Emile Garcke; 'Telephone 
(Vol. 26, p. 547), illustrated, by H. R. 
Kempe and Emile Garcke; Traction, 
Electric (Vol. 27, p. 120), illustrated, by 
Professor Duncan. An admirable histor- 
ical sketch of electricity will be found in 
Electricity (Vol. 9, p. 179), by Profes- 
sor Fleming, which contains also an ac- 
count of the development of electric 
theory. 



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FOR ENGINEERS 



105 



It is typical of the policy pursued in 
making the new Britannica that the Edi- 
tor placed the mining section in the 

hands of American 
American experts, since they 

Practice in are universally re- 

Mining garded as the best in 

the world. This en- 
tire section is a worthy monument to 
American learning and practice. 

The key-article Mining (Vol. 18, p. 
528), fully illustrated, is by Dr. Henry 
Smith Munroe, professor of mining in 
Columbia University. This covers 
every branch of the subject, but further 
discussion of its special phases is con- 
tinued in Mineral Deposits (Vol. 18, 
p. 504) by Dr. James F. Kemp, professor 
of geology, Columbia University; Quar- 
rying (Vol. 22, p. 712) by Dr. F. J. H. 
Merrill, formerly state geologist of New 
York; Ore-Dressing (Vol. 20, p. 238), 
illustrated, by Dr. R. H. Richards, pro- 
fessor of mining and metallurgy, Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology; Shaft- 
Sinking (Vol. 24, p. 766), illustrated; 
Boring (Vol. 4, p. 251), illustrated; 
Blasting (Vol. 4, p. 44), illustrated — 
the last three by Robert Peele, professor 
of mining in Columbia University. 

Metallurgy (Vol. 18, p. 203) de- 
scribes in outline the general sequence 
of operations. Assaying (Vol. 18, p. 

776) is by Andrew 
The A. Blair, formerly 

Metallurgical chief chemist U. S. 
Section Geological Survey. 

See also Metal 
(Vol. 18, p. 198). Metalography (Vol. 
18, p. 202), illustrated, is an account of 
the new and important method of micro- 
scopical examination of alloys and metals 
by Sir William Chandler Roberts-Aus- 
ten, and Francis H. Neville. Alloys 
(Vol. 1, p. 704), with unique photo- 
micrographs of alloys and metals, is also 
by the authors of the article Metall- 
ography. Annealing, Hardening and 
Tempering (Vol. 2, p. 70), illustrated, is 
by Joseph G. Horner, who also writes 



Forging (Vol. 10, p. 663), which has 19 
illustrations, Founding (Vol. 10, p. 743), 
with 11 illustrations, and Rolling-Mill 
(Vol. 23, p. 468), with 8 illustrations. The 
material on Fuel has already been men- 
tioned. Furnace (Vol. 11, p. 358) de- 
scribes and illustrates all the latest de- 
signs. Welding (Vol. 28, p. 501) is by 
J. G. Horner and Elihu Thomson, who 
writes on his own invention, Electric 
Welding. 

The mining engineer or metallurgist 
will have in the new Britannica con- 
stantly at his elbow a complete series of 
articles dealing with the mining and 
metallurgy of all minerals and metals. . 
Professor Howe's exhaustive article Iron 
and Steel has already been noted in 
another part of this chapter. A few of 
the other important articles are Copper 
(Vol. 7, p. 103); Gold (Vol. 12, p. 192); 
Silver (Vol. 25, p. 112); Lead (Vol. 16, 
p. 314); Tin (Vol. 26, p. 995); Zinc 
(Vol. 28, p. 981); Manganese (Vol. 17, 
p. 569); Aluminum (Vol. 1, p. 767) by 
£. J. Ristori, member of Council, Insti- 
tute of Metals. Safety-Lamp j (Vol. 23, 
p. 998) is written by Hilary Bauermann. 
The latest mining statistics of all coun- 
tries are to be found under their re- 
spective headings. 

Military men are familiar with the 
lives and deeds of great soldiers; lovers of 
art and literature know something of the 

careers of their fa- 
Biographies of vorites; but as a rule 
Engineers the engineer knows 

little or nothing 
about the lives of the great ornaments of 
his profession, the splendid heroes of 
peace who have done much more than 
the soldier and the artist to create the 
world of to-day. The reason for this is 
that engineering biographies are very 
scarce, and in this connection the new 
Britannica fills a positive gap in the engin- 
eer's library. There are considerably 
more than 100 biographies of great en- 
gineers, living and dead, written in the 
most interesting fashion by authorita- 



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106 



BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



tive contributors. Among these articles 
are Watt, James (Vol. 28, p. 414) by Pro- 
fessor Ewing; Arkwright, Sir Richard 
(Vol. % p. 556); Stephenson, George 
(Vol. 25, p. 888); Bessemer, Sir Henry 
(Vol. 8, p. 823); Whitworth, Sir Jos- 
eph (Vol. 28, p. 616); Rennie, John 
(Vol. 23, p. 101); Lesseps, Ferdinand 
de (Vol. 16, p. 494) by Henri G. S. A. de 
Blowitz; Eads, James B. (Vol. 8, p?789) ; 



Edison, Thomas A. (Vol. 8, p. 946); 
Ericsson, John (Vol. 9, p. 740); Maxim, 
Sir Hiram (Vol. 17, p. 918); Roebling, 
John A. (Vol. 23, p. 450); Siemens, Sir 
William (Vol. 25, p. 47) by Professor 
Ewing; Telford, Thomas (Vol. 26, p. 
573) ; McAdam, John L. (Vol. 17, p. 190), 
and Trevithick, Richard (Vol. 27, p. 
256). 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL ARTICLES IN THE ENCYCLOPEDIA 
BRITANNICA OF SPECIAL INTEREST TO ENGINEERS 



Aberration 

Abrasion 

Abscissa 

Absorption of light 

Acceleration 

Accumulator 

Achromatism 

Acoustics 

Actinometer 

Adhesion 

Adjutage 

Adze 

Aeronautics 

Aether, or Ether 

Aggregation 

Adonic lines 

Air Engine 

Algebra 

Algebraic Forms 

Aliquot 

Alloys 

Aluminium 

Amicable Numbers 

Amperemeter, or Ammeter 

Anchor 

Angle 

Annealing, Hardening and 

Tempering 
Anthracite 
Anvil 
Aperture 
Aqueduct 

Archimedes, Screw of 
Architecture 
Arkwright, Sir Richard 
Armature 
Armour Plates 
Armstrong, 1st Baron 
Artesian Wells 
Assaying 

Atmospheric Electricity 
Atmospheric Railway 
Auger 
Autoclave 
Awl 
Axe 
Axis 
Axle 



Baird, James 

Baker, Sir Benjamin 

Ballast 

Ballistics 

Balloon 

Banket 

Barker's Mill 

Barometer 

Barometric Light 

Battery 

Bazalgette, Sir Joseph 
William 

Bearings 

Bell, Henry 

Bellows and Blowing Ma- 
chines 

Bench-mark 

Berlin 

Berthon, Edward Lyon 

Berthoud, Ferdinand 

Bessel Function 

Bessemer, Sir Henry 

Bicycle 

Bidder, George Parker 

Biddery 

Binocular Instrument 

Binomial 

Biquadratic 

Bisectrix 

Blasting 

Bloom 

Bogie 

Boiler 

Boring 

Boulton, Matthew 

Brachistochrone 

Bradawl 

Brake 

Bramah, Joseph 

Brass 

Brassey, Thomas 

Brazing and Soldering 

Breakwater 

Brick 

Brickwork 

Bridges 

Bridgewater, 3rd Duke of 

Bright, Sir Charles 



Brindley, James 

Bronze 

Bronzing 

Brown, Sir John 

Brunei, I. K. 

Brunei, Sir Marc 

Buoy 

Building 

Burns, Sir George 

Bush 

Cab 

Cable 

Caisson 

Caisson Disease 

Calculating Machines 

Caledonian Canal 

Calorescence 

Calorimetry 

Camera Lucida 

Camera Obscura 

Camus, F. J. des 

Canal 

Cantilever 

Capillary Action 

Car 

Cardioid 

Carnegie, Andrew 

Carpentry, 

Cart 

Cartwright, Edmund 

Cash Register 

Catenary 

Causeway 

Caustic 

Cautley, Sir Proby 

Thomas 
Cement 
Chain 

Chappe, Claude 
Chart 
Chisel 

Chronograph 
Chubb, Charles 
Cinematograph 
Circle 
Cissoid 
Clark, Josiah Latimer 



Clock 

Coal 

Cockerill, W. (and J.) 

Cofferdam 

Cold 

Colour 

Combinational Analysis 



Conchoid 

Concrete 

Condensation of Gases 

Conduction, Electric 

Conduction of Heat 

Cone 

Congreve, Sir William 

Conic Section 

Conoid 

Continued Fractions 

Contour, Contour-line 

Conveyors 

Coode, Sir John 

Copper 

Copying Machines 

Cordite 

Corning, Erastus 

Coxwell, Henry Tracey 

Cramp, Charles Henry 

Cranes 

Crank 

Crompton, Samuel 

Cube 

Cubitt, Thomas 

Cubitt, Sir William 

Cunard, Sir Samuel 

Curricle 

Curve 

Cycloid 

Cyclometer 

Cylinder 

Damascening or Damas- 
keening 

Damask Steel or Damas- 
cus Steel 

Density 

Destructors 

Determinant 

Diagonal 



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107 


Diagram 


Fire and Fire Extinction Heating 


Lindley, William 


Diamagnetism 


Firebrick 


Heliostat 


Line 


Diameter 


Firth, Mark 


Hodgkinson, Eaton 


Liquid Gases 


Dielectric 


Fitch, John 


Hodograph 


Lock 


Differences, Calculus of 


Flight and Flying 


Holden, Sir Isaac 


Locus 


Differential Equation 
Diffraction of Light 


Flume 


Horse-Power 


Logarithm 


Flux 


Hose-pipe 
Hydraulics 


Logocyclic Curve, Stro- 


Diffusion 


Focus 


phoid, or Foliate 


Dimension 


Folium 


Hydrodynamics 


Longitude 


Dispersion 


Forging 


Hydrography 


Loxodrome 


Divers and Diving Appa- Fortification and Siege- Hydromechanics 


Lubricants 


ratus 


craft 


Hydrometer 


Lubrication 


Dock 


Fossick 


Hydrostatics 




Dodecahedron 


Foundations 


Hyperbola 


Magic Square 


Drawing 


Founding 


Hypsometer 


Magnetism 


Dredge and Dredging 


Fourier's Series 


Hysteresis 


Magnetism, Terrestrial 


Drill 


Fowler, John 




Magnetograph 


Drummond, Thomas 


Fowler, Sir John 


Icosahedron 


Magnetometer 


Dry Rot 


Friction 


Illumination 


Magneto-Optics 


Dupuy de Lome, S.C.H.L. Frustum 


Inclinometer 


Manchester Ship Canal 


Dynamics 


Fuel 


Induction Coil 


Manganese 


Dynamite 


Fulton, Robert 


Infinitesimal Calculus 


Manometer 


Dynamo 


Function 


Ingot 


Map 


Dynamometer 


Furnace 


. Injector 


Masham, Baron 




Fusible Metal 


Interference of light 


Masonry 


Eads, James Buchanan 


Fusion 


Interpolation 


Mathematics 


Earth Currents 


Fuze, or Fuse 


Invar 


Matter 


Earth, Figure of the 
Edison, Thomas Alva 




Inversion 


Maxima and Minima 


Galvanized Iron 


Involution 


Maxim, Sir Hiram 


Elasticity 


Galvanometer 


Iron and Steel 


McAdam, John Loudon 


Electrical, or Electrostatic Gas Engine 


Irrigation 


McCormick, Cyrus Hall 


Machine 


Gatling, Richard Jordan Ismay, Thomas Henry 


Mechanics 


Electricity 


Gauge, or Gage 
Geodesy 




Mensuration 


Electricity Supply 
Electric Waves 


Jacquard, Joseph Marie 


Meridian 


Geoid 


Jenkin, H. C. F. 


Metal 


Electrochemistry 


Geometrical Continuity 


Jetty 


Metallography 


Electrokinetics 
Electrolysis 


Geometry 
Gimlet 


Joinery 
Joints 


Metallurgy 
Meter, Electric 


Electromagnetism 


Girard, Philippe Henri de Joist 


Metric System 


Electrometallurgy 


Glazing 


• 


Microscope 


Electrometer 


Gnomon 


Kaleidoscope 


Mill 


Electron 


Gold 


Kiln 


Mineral Deposits 


Electroplating 


Gooch, Sir Daniel 


Kinematics 


Mining 


Electroscope 


Goodyear, Charles 


Kinetics 


Mirror 


Electrostatics 


Gouge 
Graduation 


Kingsford, W. 


Model 


Electrotyping 


Knife 


Molecule 


Electrum 


Gramophone 


Knot 


Mortar 


Elevators, Lifts or Hoists Graphical Methods 


Krupp, Alfred 


Mortise, or Mortice 


Ellipse 


Gravitation 




Motion, Laws of 


Ellipsoid 


Greathead, James Henry 


Labour Legislation 


Motors, Electric 


Embankment 


Grimthorpe, 1st Baron 


Ladder 


Motor Vehicles 


Employers' Liability 


Groups, Theory of 


Lamp 


Murdock, William 


Energetics 


Guncotton 


Lantern 


Myddelton, Sir Hugh 


Energy 


Gyroscope and Gyrostat Lath 




Engine 


Gunpowder 


Lathe 


Nasmyth, James 


Engineering 




Latitude 


Navigation 


Epicycloid 


Hachure 


Latten 


Newcomen, Thomas 


Equation 


Hammer 


Lead 


Nitroglycerine 


Ericsson, John 


Harbour 


Lemniscate 


Nixon, John 


Evans, Oliver 


Harmonic 


Lens 


Noble, Sir Andrew 


Explosives 


Harmonic Analysis 


Lessens, Ferdinand de 


Number 




Harrison, John 


Lever 


Numbers, Partition of 


Fairbairn, Sir William 


Hartley, Sir Charles Au 


■ Leyden Jar, or Condenser Numeral 


Felloe 


gustus 


Life-boat 




Ferguson, James 


Hawkshaw, Sir John 


Light 


Objective, or Object Glass 


Figurate Number* 


Hawksley, Thomas 


Lighthouse 


Octahedron 


File 


Hawser 


Lighting 


Ohmmeter 


Filter 


Heat 


Lightning Conductoi 


Oil Engine 


Finlay, Sir George 


Henthcoat. John 


Lima^on 


Optics 

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108 



BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



Ordinate 
Ore Dressing 
Oscillograph 
Oval 

Painter-work 

Palanquin 

Palmer, Sir Charles Mark 

Panama Canal 

Pantograph 

Parabola 

Parachute 

Parallel Motion 

Pedometer 

Perkins, Jacob 

Permeability, Magnetic 

Permeameter 

Perpetual Motion, or Per- 

petuum Mobile 
Perspective 
Phonograph 
Photography 
Photometry 
Physics 
Pier 
Piston 
Plaster-work 
Pneumatic Despatch 
Pneumatics 
Polarity 

Polarization of Light 
Pole, William 
Polygon 

Polygonal Numbers 
Polyhedral Numbers 
Polyhedron 
Porism 

Potentiometer 
Power Transmission 
Prism 
Probability 
Projection 

Prony, G. C. F. M. R. de 
Pulley 
Pump 
Pyrometer 

Quadra trix 
Quarrying 
Quaternions 

Radiation, Theory of 

Radiometer 

Rafter 



Railways 
Random 

Rankine, W. J, M. 
Rawlinson, Sir Robert 
Reclamation of Land 
Reflection of Light 
Refraction 
Refrigerating and Ice 

Making 
Reid, Sir Robert G. 
Rennie, John 
River Engineering 
Rivet 

Roads and Streets 
Roebling, J. A. 
Rolling-mill 
Roofs 
Roulette 

Safes, Strong-rooms and 

Vaults 
Safety-lamp 
Saw 

Scaffold, Scaffolding 
Scantling 

Schichau, Ferdinand 
Science 
Scissors 
Screw 
Semaphore 
Seppings, Sir Robert 
Series 
Serpentine 
Sewerage 
Sewing Machines 
Sextant 
Shadoof 
Shadow 
Shaft-sinking 
Shears 
Ship 

Shipbuilding 
Shoring 
Shovel 
Shuttle 
Siemens, Sir William 

(Karl Wilhelm) 
Sieve 
Signal 
Silver 

Siphon, or Syphon 
Sleeper 

Sleigh, Sled, or Sledge 
Smeaton, John 



Smoke 

Solder 

Sound 

Sounding 

Spade 

Spectroscopy 

Speculum 

Sphere 

Spherical Harmonics 

Spheroid 

Sphereometer 

Spiral 

Starley, James 

Statics 

Steel Construction 

Steam Engine 

Stephenson, George 

Stephenson, Robert 

Stereoscope 

Stevenson, Robert 

Stone 

Strength of Materials 

Strutt, Jedediah 

Stucco 

Suez Canal 

Sun Copying, or Photo 

Copying 
Surface 
Surveying 

Table, Mathematical 

Tacheometry 

Tangye, Sir Richard 

Technical Education 

Telegraph 

Telephone 

Telford, Thomas 

Tetrahedron 

Theodolite 

Therm odynamics 

Thermoelectricity 

Thermometry 

Thomas, Sidney Gilchrist 

Tide 

Timber 

Time, Measurement of 

Time, Standard 

Tin 

Tin-plate and Terne-plate 

Tire 

Tongs 

Tool 

Topography 

Traction 



Tramway 

Transformers 

Tredgold, Thomas 

Trevithick, Richard 

Triangle 

Tricycle 

Trigonometry 

Trisectrix 

Trumpet, Speaking and 

Hearing 
Tube 
Tunnel 
Turbine 
Tweezers 
Typewriter 

Units, Dimensions of 
Units, Physical 

Vacuum Tube 

Valve 

Vaporization 

Variations, of Calculus 

Vector Analysis 

Ventilation 

Vernier 

Vision 

Voltmeter 

Wagon or Waggon 

Water Motors 

Water Supply 

Watt, James 

Wattmeter 

Wave 

Wedge 

Weighing Machines 

Weights and Measures 

Weir 

Welding 

Well 

Wheatstone's Bridge 

White, Sir William H. 

Whitney, Eli 

WTutworth, Sir Joseph 

Wilkinson, John 

Windmill 

Witch of Agnesi 

Zero 
Zinc 



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CHAPTER XXI 

FOR PRINTERS, BINDERS AND PAPER-MAKERS AND 
.ALL WHO LOVE BOOKS 



"Al 



N author, even 'an immortal 
genius, is, from the economic 
»point of view, a producer of 
raw material," says. the Britannica article 
Publishing, and from the educational 
point of view, his product, until it has 
undergone the industrial and commercial 
processes of reduplication and distribu- 
tion, is as undeveloped as the seed lying 
hidden in the winter soil. The history 
of civilization might, indeed, be divided 
into four stages : the period before writing ; 
the period before printing, when libraries 
of manuscripts were almost exclusively 
the property of kings and priests; the 
period of costly, hand-printed books; 
and the period of the power-press, which 
began less than a hundred years ago. 
Of these four periods, the first is almost 
unimaginable. You are sometimes 
brought into contact with absolutely 
illiterate people. But they live in shadow, 
not in total darkness; they get the dif- 
fused light of our age of culture. The 
second period, the 
From Manu- era of books in man- 
script to Book uscript, we can, how- 
ever, to some extent 
reconstruct; and by one fantastic sup- 
position we can even bring it into the 
focus of our 20th century. Let it be 
assumed that for some reason the print- 
ing of the new Britannica had been en- 
joined by the law courts, but that the 
original typoscript was available for 
consultation — say in a public library at 



New York or Chicago. Instead of your 
29 volumes, weighing only 80 lbs. and 
occupying only about two cubic feet of 
space, the walls of a large room would be 
lined with partitioned shelves on which 
the 300,000 typed sheets and the 7,000 
illustrations, on cardboard, would be 
ranged. What a mob of students there 
would be, waiting their turns to read the 
40,000 articles, what a mass of note- 
books would be filled each day! The 
impossibility of accomplishing, without 
the use of printing, all that the Britannica 
does, will present itself very forcibly to 
your mind, in another aspect, if you try 
to imagine 1,500 separate audiences, 
assembled each day to listen to lectures 
by the 1,500 contributors to the book. 
Any attempt to imagine the Britannica 
doing its work in any way but the way 
in which it does makes you realize, too, 
that if it were not for modern methods 

of spreading knowl- 
Supply and edge, there would 

Demand be no such system 

Interacting of assembling and 

co-ordinating knowl- 
edge as finds its fullest development in 
the Britannica. It is not only for 
commercial reasons that the demand 
must be sufficient to justify the sup- 
ply; the 1,500 specialists who laid 
aside their usual work in order to 
write these articles would never have 
combined their efforts if this vast public 
of all educated English speaking people 
109 



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110 



BRITANNIGA READINGS AND STUDIES 



were not to have been enabled to avail 
themselves of the result. 

The industrial arts which make it 
possible to produce books swiftly and to 
sell them at low prices are obviously 
subjects of interest not only to those 
who do the producing and selling, but 
to all who profit by the use of books. 
And, as the articles mentioned in this 
chapter show, these arts are in them- 
selves among the most ingenious and 
curious of all processes; so that in a 
double sense they merit the attention 
of everyone to whom the chapters on 
Literature in this Guide would appeal. 
As the warp of cloth carries the weft, so 
the raw material of printers' paper and 
printers' ink carries the "raw material" 
of the writer's thoughts. 

The article on Paper (Vol. 20, p. 725) 
is equivalent to 35 pages of this Guide 
and is illustrated with 15 diagrams. 
The article is divided into three parts: 
History, by Sir Edward Maunde Thomp- 
son, director of the British Museum; 
Manufacture, by J. W. Wyatt, author 
of The Art of Making Paper; and India 
Paper, by W. E. Garrett Fisher. 

The history of paper, like that of so 
many other great inventions, dates back 
to an early period in China; and, as is 
the case with almost 
History of every great contri- 

Paper bution to civiliza- 

tion which came 
from China, paper came to the Western 
world only after many years and only 
by chance. In the 8th century of the 
Christian era, when paper had been made 
in China for 1000 years, some Chinese 
paper-makers were taken captives in 
Samarkand by Arabs, who thus learned 
the methods of its manufacture. The 
Arabs and the Persians used linen as a 
base for the paper instead of the cotton 
the Chinese used; and the name "paper" 
was transferred from the Egyptian rush 
and the writing material made from its 
fibres to the new product. Paper was 
manufactured in Europe first by the 



Moors in Spain at Xativa, Valencia and 
Toledo in the 12th century; and into 
Italy also it seems to have been brought 
by the Arab occupation of Sicily. 
Among other interesting points in regard 
to the history of paper are: water-marks 
as a sign of age; old papers; variation in 
prices of paper; blotting-paper, wrap- 
ping paper, etc. The articles Papyrus 
(Vol. 20, p. 743) and Parchment (Vol. 
20, p. 798), both by Maunde Thompson, 
deal with these earlier writing materials. 
Palimpsest (Vol. 20, p. 633) describes 
the processes by which writings which 
have been scraped or washed from sheets 
of vellum, so that the material might be 
used again, can sometimes be chemically 
restored and deciphered. 

In taking up the study of paper manu- 
facture, the first article to be read is 
Fibres by C. F. Cross, the well-known 
analytical and con- 
Paper suiting chemist, and 
Manufacture especially the section 
in it on Paper-making 
(Vol. 10, p. 312). This describes the 
treatment of cotton and flax for writing 
and drawing papers, wood pulp, esparto, 
cellulose and cereal straws for printing- 
paper, etc. See also the article Cellu- 
lose (Vol. 5, p. 606) by C. F. Cross. 
The section on Manufacture in the article 
Paper, already mentioned, should next 
be read. Here it is stated that rags, 
linen or cotton, were the principal mate- 
rials used for paper in Europe until 
the middle of the 19th century; and then 
when prices rose, because the necessarily 
inelastic supply was no longer sufficient, 
esparto-grass, wood and straw began 
to be used as substitutes. The change 
from hand-making to machinery began 
in France in 1798 and was accomplished 
in England in 1803, with the result that 
hand-made paper is now used only where 
great durability is the chief requisite, 
as for bank-notes and drawing paper. 

Actual paper manufacture may be 
divided into two processes: the prelimin- 
ary cleaning and reduction to pulp; and 



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FOR PRINTERS, BINDERS, PAPER-MAKERS AND BOOK-LOVERS 



111 



the methods of converting pulp to paper 
— including beating, sizing, colouring, 
making the sheet or web, surfacing, 
cutting, etc. Iteduction to pulp is de- 
scribed in the treatment of esparto, 
straw and wood, and there are cuts 
showing rag-boiler, rag-breaking engine, 
esparto boiler, press-p&te or half-stuff 
machine, esparto bleaching and beating 
plant, and the Porion evaporator and 
the Yaryan multiple-effect evaporator 
for soda recovery. 

Paper-making proper, after the pulp # 
has been prepared, is next described. 
The first process is beating; and besides 
the esparto bleaching and beating plant, 
described under bleaching, there are 
drawings of the Taylor and Jordan 
beaters and a description of them and of 
the Kingsland beater. Sizing, loading 
and colouring are then explained. The 
other main topics of the section on man- 
ufacture are: hand manufacture (with 
two illustrations), paper machine, with 
pictures of the paper machine, of the 
dandy roll, of super-calender and of 
reel paper cutters, and paragraphs on 
straining, forming the sheet, shake, 
water marking and couching, pressing 
and drying, surfacing, machine power, 
tub-sizing, glazing or surfacing for better 
grades, cutting, sheeting, sizes (with 
table), standards of quality, the paper 
trade, and a list of the best books on 
paper. 

The article Paper closes with a brief 
history and description of India paper, 
which is of particular interest because 
of the adoption and 
India Paper successful use of this 

paper in the new 
Encyclopaedia Britannica. In this true 
India paper, "the material used is 
chiefly rag," but "the extraordinary 
properties of this paper are due to the 
peculiar care necessary in the treatment 
of the fibres, which are specially beaten 
in the beating engine." The first India 
paper was brought to England from 
the Far East in 1841 by an Oxford gradu- 



ate, and the name India was used merely 
to express this Oriental origin, as in 
"Indian ink" or in the name "Indians" 
as applied to the American aborigines 
when their home was thought to be a 
part of the East. Just where the paper 
came from is not known. It was given 
to the Oxford University Press and was 
used in printing a very small English 
Bible in 1842. This book was only one- 
third the usual thickness, and attracted 
much attention by its lightness and by 
the opacity of the thin tough paper. 

In 1874 a copy of this Bible fell into the 
hands of Henry Frowde, and experiments were 
instituted at the Oxford University paper 
mills at Wolvercote with the object of produc- 
ing similar paper. On the 24th of August 
1875 an impression of the Bible, similar in all 
respects to that of 1842, was placed on sale 
by the Oxford University Press. The feat of 
compression was regarded as astounding, the 
demand was enormous, and in a very short 
time 350,000 copies of this "Oxford India 
naper Bible" had been sold. Many other edi- 
tions of the Bible, besides other books, were 
printed on the Oxford India paper, and the 
marvels of compression accomplished by its 
use created great interest at the Paris Exhi- 
bition of 1900. Its strength was as remark- 
able as its lightness; volumes of 1500 pages 
were suspended for several months by a single 
leaf, as thin as tissue; and, when they were 
examined at the close of the exhibition, it was 
found that the leaf had not started, the paper 
had not stretched, and the volume closed as 
well as ever. The paper, when subjected to 
severe rubbing, instead of breaking into holes 
like ordinary printing paper, assumed a tex- 
ture resembling chamois leather, and a strip 
8 in. wide was found able to support a weight 
of 28 lb. without yielding. The success of 
the Oxford India paper led to similar experi- 
ments by other manufacturers, and there were, 
in 1910, nine mills (two each in England, Ger- 
many and Italy, one each in France, Holland 
and Belgium) in which India paper was being 
produced. India paper is mostly made upon 
a Fourdrinier machine in continuous lengths, 
in contradistinction to a hand-made paper, 
which cannot be made of a greater size than 
the frame employed in Us production. 

In addition to technical information 
in regard to paper the student of the 
manufacture of books must know some* 
thing about ink. 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



The necessary information he will find 
in the article Ink (Vol. 14, p. 571) with 
special descriptions of writing inks, 
tannin inks, China or Indian 
Ink ink, logwood ink, aniline ink, 

copying ink, red and blue ink, 
marking ink, gold and silver inks, in- 
delible or incorrodible ink, sympathetic 
ink, and, of the most importance for our 
present purpose, printing inks. 

The process of putting ink on paper 
is a subject which in the Britannica 
takes much more ink and paper than the 
subject of ink or of paper. 

This topic is treated in two main 
articles: one dealing with type and the 
other with presses. The former, Typog- 
raphy (Vol. 27, p. 
Printing 509), is a good sized 

treatise in itself, be- 
ing "equivalent to more than 135 pages 
of this Guide. It is divided into two 
parts: The History of Typography, by 
John Henry Hessels, author of Gutenberg: 
an Historical Investigation; and Modern 
Practical Typography, by John South- 
ward, author of A Dictionary of Typog- 
raphy and its Accessory Arts, and Hugh 
Munro Ross, editor of The (London) 
Times Engineering Supplement. 

The former part of the article, and the 
longer, is a very important and elaborate 
contribution to the knowledge of early 
printing. On these first developments 
the student should read the same writer's 
article Gutenberg (Vol. 12, p. 739) and 
should notice the great difficulty sur- 
rounding the whole question of the 
"invention," obscured by the fact that 
so many of the documents on Gutenberg 
exist only in copies, while others seem 
to be forgeries by two librarians of the 
city of Mainz who were eager to prove 
the claims of their fellow citizen Guten- 
berg to be the inventor of printing with 
movable metal types. See also Mr. 
Hessel's article on Johann Fust (Vol. 11, 
p. 373). The honour of the invention of 
typography, Mr. Hessels decides, be- 
longs to Lorens Janszoon Coster of 



Haarlem and its date was somewhere 
between 1440 and 1446. In Mexico 
printing was established in 1544, in Ma- 
nila in 1590, and in Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts, in 1638 or 1639. The early 
printers had only a few types of each 
character in a fount, and they printed 
books, even small quartos, page by page. 

This whole treatment of the history 
of typography is too elaborate to be 
summarized here, but it is interesting 
to note that the article gives information 
about the history of the earliest types — 
Gothic, Bastard Italian, Roman, Bur- 
gundian, etc., with fac-similes of 13 
different and characteristic faces between 
1445 and 1479; and of different styles 
and alphabets — Italic, Greek, Hebrew, 
Arabic, Syriac, Armenian, Ethiopic, Cop- 
tic, Samaritan, Slavonic, Russian, Etrus- 
can, Runic, Gothic, Scandinavian, Anglo- 
Saxon, Irish, Music, Characters for the 
Blind, Initials, Ornaments and Flowers. 

The second part of the article Typog- 
raphy, on Modern Practical Typography, 
will be of more value, 
Practical probably, to most 

Typography students of printing 

and book-making. 
It deals with the following topics: — 

Material characteristics of Type. Fount 
may consist of 275 " sorts " or charac- 
ters. Numbers of sorts vary with differ- 
ent languages — and with different styles 
and writers; Dickens draws heavily on 
vowels, Maeaulay on consonants. Bill of 
type or scheme — how computed. 

Logotypes or word character as distinct 
from letters. 

Parts of a type — face, stem, serif, 
beard, shoulder, shank, belly, back, coun- 
ter, nick, kern, feet, burr and batter. 

Species of letter — short, ascending, de- 
scending, long, superior, inferior, fat- 
faced, lean- faced, bastard. 

Sizes: classification by names and by 
point-system. 

Varieties of face: Roman, sanserifs or 
grotesques; black; script; old style; Cas- 
lon ; influence of William Morris and the 
Kelmscott Press; Vale Press. 



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Manufacture of type: type metal; 
punch, drive and matrix (with illustra- 
tions) ; type-casting — by hand and ma- 
chine; inventions of Bruce, Barth, Wicks, 
with description and picture of the Wicks 
rotary type-casting machine. 

Type-setting by hand. Type case, with 
illustration. Composition, justifying. Im- 
position. Signatures. Forme, quoin, side- 
stick, foot-stick, shooting-stick. Distrib- 
uting. 

Type-setting by machine. Linotype 
and Monotype. Earlier machines — the 
Paige (in which Mark Twain lost a for- 
tune). Distributing machines — Delcara- 
bre, Fraser, Empire, Dow, Thorne, Sim- 
plex (with cut). Linotype — with dia- 
grams and description. Monotype (the 
machine used for the Encyclopaedia Bri- 
tannica) with illustrations of perforated 
strip. 

Electrotyping and Stereotyping. Shells. 
Turtle. Flong. Wood's Autoplate proc- 
ess. See also the articles Electrotyping 
(Vol. 9, p. 252) and Electroplating 
(Vol. 9, p. 287). 

The reader should next turn to the 
articles Engraving (Vol. 9, p. 645), 
Line-Engraving (Vol. 16, p. 721), 
Wood-Engraving (Vol. 28, p. 798)— 
special reference to America where this 
method is still used for some book and 
magazine illustration — to Lithography 
(Vol. 16, p. 785) including offset printing; 
and Process (Vol. 22, p. 408), for fur- 
ther information in regard to "printing" 
apart from (and before) actual press 
work. The last-named of these articles 
is by Edwin Bale, art director of Cassell 
& Company, Ltd.; it would occupy about 
20 pages of this Guide; and it is illustrated 
by a plate showing the three-colour 
process. The article describes: 

(1) — relief processes, line blocks, 
swelled gelatin process, typo- 
graphic etching, half-tone proc- 
esses, three colour blocks, colour 
filters ; 

(2) — intaglio processes, monotype, 
electrotype, steel-facing, blanket- 
ing, changes in machinery; 



(3) — planographic processes, includ- 
ing woodburytype, stannotype, 
collotype or phototype, heliotype 
and photolithography. In rela- 
tion to lithography there is fur- 
ther information in the biograph- 
ical sketch of Senefelder, its 
inventor. 

The article Printing (Vol. 22, p. 350) 
deals entirely with the subject of press- 
work, thus using printing in the narrower 

and more correct 
Press-Work sense of the word. 

In length this article 
is equivalent to 25 pages of this Guide; 
and it contains 9 illustrations of presses. 
The article is by C. T. Jacobi, author of 
Printing, and The Printer's Handbook of 
Trade Recipes. The article gives a 
history of the printing press, which was 
practically unchanged for a century and 
a half, until the Dutch map-maker 
Blaeu greatly simplified it. The first 
important metal press — earlier ones were 
of wood — was invented by Lord Stanhope 
nearly two hundred years later. It had 
greater power with smaller expenditure 
of labour, and its workings, as well as 
that of the Blaeu press, and of the Albion, 
which was used by William Morris at 
Kelmscott, may be readily understood 
from the illustrations in the article. 
Another hand press is the Columbian, 
invented in 1816 by a Philadelphian, 
George Clymer, and still in use for heavy 
hand work. Power presses began to be 
made at the end of the 18th century, 
but the presses invented by William 
Nicholson (1790) and Friedrich Konig 
(adopted by the London Times in 1814) 
printed only on one side at a time, as 
did the "double platen" machine of a little 
later date. The cylindrical eight feeder 
built by Augustus Applegath in 1848 for 
the London Times and the Hoe Type Re- 
volving Machine are described in the 
section on the history of power presses, 
which closes with the story of Bullock's 
machine (1865) for printing from a con- 
tinuous web of paper. 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



The closing section of the article on 
printing is devoted to a de- 
Modern scription of modern presses. 
Presses It opens with a list of the 
principal types of presses still 
in use, which are classified under the fol- 
lowing seven heads: — 

(1) — iron hand-presses like the Alhion 
or Columbian, for proof-pulling 
or limited editions; 

(2) — small platen machines for job or 
commercial work; 

(8) — single cylinder machines 
(" Wharfedales ") printing one 
side only; 

(4) — perfecting machines, usually two 
cylinder, printing both sides, but 
with two distinct operations; 

(5) — two-revolution machines with one 
cylinder ; 

(6) — two-colour machines, with one 
cylinder usually, but two print- 
ing surfaces and two sets of ink- 
ing apparatus; 

(7) — rotary machines for printing 
from curved plates upon an end- 
less web of paper — principally 
for newspapers or periodical 
work. 

These seven classes are next described 
in detail and the article illustrates them 
all. A cut of an Albion press is given in 
an early part of the article, and the 
other six presses shown in the cuts are: 

The Golding jobber platen machine 
Payne & Sons' Wharfedale stop-cylin- 
der machine 
Dryden & Foord's perfecting machine 
The Miehle two-revolution cylinder 

machine 
Payne & Sons' two-colour single cylin- 
der machine 
Hoe's double-octuple rotary machine 

The article closes with a discussion 
of the following very practical topics: 
the preparation or "make ready" for 
printing; recent development in printing 
with cross references to the article 
Process; and a paragraph on the man- 
agement of a printing house. 



From this closing paragraph and the 
article on Printing, the student is re- 
ferred to the article Proof-Reading 
(Vol. 22, p. 4S8) 
Proof-Reading which is by John A. 
Black, head press 
reader of the 10th edition of the Ency- 
clopaedia Britannica, and John Randall, 
sub-editor of the Athenaeum and of 
Notes and Queries and former secretary 
of the London Association of Correctors 
of the Press, so that this article, like all 
the other articles on the subject of book- 
making, is written by eminent practical 
authorities on the subject. 

The same is true of the article Book- 
Binding (Vol. 4, p. 216), which natu- 
rally follows in a systematic course of 
study. This is by 
Book-Binding Cyril J. H. Daven- 
port, assistant keep- 
er of books in the British Museum and 
author of History of the Book, etc. This 
article is illustrated with 14 figures, 
including 8 in halftone, showing typical 
fine bindings. The other illustrations 
show machines and processes used in 
binding. Besides a historical sketch 
of book-binding the article treats of the 
following- topics: 

Modern methods and modern binding 
designers; machine binding, machine 
sewing, rounding and backing, casing, 
wiring, and blocking. A case-making 
machine, a casing-in machine and a 
blocking machine are shown in the illus- 
trations. 

A bookbinder or a student of the sub- 
ject will find a great deal of very valuable 
information elsewhere in the book, par- 
ticularly in the article Leather (Vol. 16, 
p. 330) by Dr. J. Gordon Parker, princi- 
pal of the Leathersellers Technical Col- 
lege, London, and author of Leather for 
Libraries, etc. The article occupies the 
equivalent of 55 pages of this Guide; 
and the possessor of the Britannica will 
be interested to know that the leather 
bindings used for its volumes were all 
made according to specifications drawn 



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115 



up by Dr. Parker, the greatest authority 
in the world on tanning, curing and 
dyeing leather for book-bindings. 

The last stages in getting the author's 
raw material "from him to the ultimate 
consumer" are those in which the pub- 
lisher and bookseller 
Publishing and play their part; and 
Book-Selling for a description of 

their functions the 
student should refer to the articles on 
publishing and book-selling in the Bri- 
tannica. The article Publishing (Vol. 
22, p. 628) explains that publishing and 
book-selling were for a long time car- 
ried on together since "booksellers were 
the first publishers of printed books, as 
they had previously been the agents for 
the production and exchange of authen- 
tic manuscript copies." The separation 
of publishing from book-selling is due to 
"the tendency of every composite busi- 
ness to break up, as it expands, into 
specialized departments." As publishers 
became a separate class the work of their 
literary assistants also broke up into 
specialized departments — proof-reading 
and the reading of manuscripts sub- 
mitted by authors — or the work of prin- 
ters* readers and publishers 9 readers. 

The importance of the work of the 
publisher's reader is dwelt upon in this 
article which sketches besides the growth 
of the Society of Authors in England and 
of the formation there of the Publishers' 
Association and the Booksellers' Asso- 
ciation. The article also outlines the 
methods of publishing in the United States 
and gives particular prominence to the 
effect on the British market of the in- 
troduction of American books and of 
American book-selling methods. 

Among other articles of interest to the 
manufacturer of books are the following: 
Book (Vol. 4, p. 214) 
Historical and by Alfred William 
Miscellaneous Pollard, assistant 
Articles keeper of books in 

the British Museum, 
gives a general historical description of 



books and in particular calls attention 
to the great change in book-prices in the 
last thirty years. "About 1894 the num- 
ber of medium-priced books was greatly 
increased in England by the substitution 
of single-volume novels at 6s. each 
(subject to discount) for the three- 
volume editions at Sis. 6d. . . The pre- 
posterous price of 10s. 6d. a volume had 
been adopted during the first popularity 
of the Waverley Novels and had contin- 
ued in force for the greater part of the 
century." To-day, well printed copies 
of these novels sell for Is. in England 
and for 35 cents in the United 
States. 

It may be added that one of the most 
striking lessons to be learned from the 
Britannica, in relation to the improve- 
ments and economies effected by the 
application of the most modern processes 
to the manufacture of books, is supplied 
by the consideration of the Britannica 
itself. The extent of the composition 
and machinery involved, the accuracy 
of the proof-reading, the novel employ- 
ment — upon a large scale — of India pa- 
per and flexible bindings, the beauty of 
the illustrations, and, above all, the low 
price at which the product is sold, form 
a combination of the very latest perfec- 
tions of every department of the in- 
dustry. 

Read too Book-collecting (Vol. 4, 
p. 221) also by A. W. Pollard; the article 
Book Plates (Vol. 4, p. 230) by Egerton 
Castle, illustrated with ten cuts of book 
plates (which are so well chosen that 
book plate collectors have not infre- 
quently asked the publishers of the Ency- 
clopaedia Britannica for extra copies so 
that they might include them in their 
collections); the article Bookcase (Vol. 4, 
p. 221) from which the reader may be 
surprised to learn that "the whole con- 
struction and arrangement of bookcases 
was learnedly discussed in the light of 
experience by W. E. Gladstone in the 
Nineteenth Century for March 1890;" 
and the article Bibliography and Bibli- 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



oloot (Vol. S, p. 908) by A. W. Pollard, 
supplemented by the article Incunabula 
(Vol. 14, p. 369). 

The following alphabetical list of 
articles and sections of articles, although 



it does not profess to be complete, will 
give the student some idea of the large 
number of topics connected with the 
general subject of the manufacture of 
books: 



Albion Press 
Aniline Ink 
Applegath, Augustus 
Autoplate Process 
Backing 
Barth, Henry 
Bastard Letter 
Batter 

Bibliography and Bib- 
liology 
Bill of Type 
Binding 
Black Type 
Blaeu Press 
Blanketing 
Bleaching 
Blocking 
Blue Ink 
Boiling 
Book 

Book-Binding 
Book-case 
Book-collecting 
Book-Plates 
Book-selling 
Bourgeois 
Breaking 
Brevier 
Bruce, David 
Burr 

Case-making Machine 
Casing 

Casing-in machine 
Caslon Type 
Casting 
Cellulose 
China Ink 

Chinese Paper-makers 
Chiswick Press 
Clymer, George 
Collotype 
Colour Filters 
Colour Process 
Columbian Press 
Composition 
Copying Ink 
Coster 
Couching 



Cutter 

Dandy Roll 

Delcambre Machine 

Distributing 

Distributing Machines 

Dow Machine 

Drive 

Drying 

Electroplating 

Electrotyping 

Empire Machine 

English Type 

Engraving 

Esparto 

Evaporator 

Face 

Flong 

Forme 

Fount 

Fraser Machine 

Fust 

Glazing 

Golding Machine 

Gold Ink 

Goodson 

Gutenberg 

Half Stuff 

Half-tone 

Heliotype 

Hoe, Robert 

Imposition 

Incunabula 

Indelible Ink 

Indian Ink 

India Paper 

Ink 

Intaglio Process 

Italic Type 

Jordan Beaters 

Justifying 

Kelmscott Press 

Kern 

Kingsland Beater 

Kdnig, Friedrich 

Lanston Monotype 

Leather 

Line-Engraving 

Linotype 



Lithography 

Logwood Ink 

Machine Presses 

Marking Ink 

Matrices 

Miehle Press 

Minion 

Monoline 

Monotype 

Morris, William 

Nicholson, William 

Nick 

Nonpareil 

Octuple Rotary Ma- 
chine 

Off-set Printing 

Old-style Type 

Paige Composing Ma- 
chine 

Paper 

Papyrus 

Parchment 

Pearl (type) 

Perfecting Machine 

Photolithography 

Phototype 

Pica 

Planographic Process 

Platen 

Point System 

Porion Evaporator 

Power Presses 

Pressing 

Press Plate 

Press-work 

Primer 

Price of Paper 

Printing 

Printing Ink 

Process 

Proof-reading 

Publishing 

Pulp 

Punch 

Quality, Standards of 
Paper 

Rag 

Red Ink 



Reel Paper Cutter 

Relief Process 

Roman Type 

Rotary Presses 

Rounding 

Ruby 

Scheme of Type 

Senefelder 

Serif 

Sewing 

Shake 

Sheeting 

Shells 

Signature 

Silver Ink 

Simplex Machine 

Sizes of Paper 

Sizing 

Soda Recovery 

Stanhope Press 

Stannotype 

Steel-facing 

Stem 

Stereotyping 

Straining 

Super Calender 

Surfacing 

Swelled Gelatin Process 

Sympathetic Ink 

Tachytype 

Tannin Ink 

Thorne Machine 

Three Colour Process 

Tub-sizing 

Turtle 

Type-case 

Typograph 

Typography 

Vale Press 

Water mark 

Wharfedale Presses 

Wicks, Frederick 

Wiring 

Woodbury Process 

Wood Engraving 

Wood's Autoplate 

Writing Ink 

Yaryan Evaporator 



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CHAPTER XXII 



FOR JOURNALISTS AND AUTHORS 



NO writer can consider the use he 
will make of the tools of his trade 
— and the Britannica is certainly 
the chief among them — unless he has 
very definite views as to the particular 
kind of work he is trying to do. Where 
writing is regarded as a business, the art 
of writing is the art of being read, and the 
art of being read lies, nowadays, in con- 
vincing the reader that you have some- 
thing fresh to say, rather than in arous- 
ing his admiration of your way of saying 
it. Writing is none the less one of the 
fine arts: the modern writer must form 
his style with the utmost care, and al- 
ways guard himself against the tempta- 
tion to relax his standards. But the 
juggling with words, the "rhythmical se- 
quences of recurring consonants," the 
musical prose in which sounds are ad- 
justed as artfully as in verse, presuppose 
readers to whom these elaborations are 
delightful. Such readers are rare, to- 
day. Thirty or forty years ago it was a 
matter of course, in thousands of homes, 
for some one member of the household to 
read aloud to the others. The custom 
has almost disappeared, and there has 
been a change in public taste, due, per- 
haps, in great measure to a change in the 
pace at which people read. A book does 
not "last" as it did. 
The Develop- Newspaper reading 
ment of Style has trained the eye 
and the mind to 
swifter consumption. The modern pro- 
fessional writer adapts himself to the 
existing conditions. He knows that those 
who ride in automobiles do not peer under 
tufts of leaves to look for roadside violets. 
But he also knows that they want a 
straight, smooth road. He endeavors to 
write as concisely as possible, yet to 



write so clearly that every point he makes 
is made once for all; and he can work 
fully as hard, and apply talents fully as 
great, in forming a style that pleases by 
its simple directness — or, better, that 
pleases because the reader does not think 
of it as "style," — as if he were aiming at 
the most elaborate ornament. 

In developing the power of clear and 
concise statement, the first essential is to 
form the habit of getting your "some- 
thing to say" absolutely plain to your 
own mind before you attempt to say it. 
A writer deliberately strives to be wordy 
and vague when he is trying to misrepre- 
sent facts, and it is impossible, when he 
is groping for his facts, that he should 
avoid wordiness and vagueness. The 
Britannica article on Rudyard Kipling 
speaks of his "pow- 
" Vitalized ers of observation 

Observation 9 9 vitalized by imagina- 
tion." It would be 
difficult to find a phrase more tersely de- 
scribing the ideal equipment of a writer, 
and Kipling's observation is rapid obser- 
vation amplified by deliberate investiga- 
tion. He gets a swift impression of the 
complex framework of a ship or of the in- 
tricate machinery of a locomotive, and 
then, before he writes "The Ship that 
Found Herself" or ".007," he makes as 
elaborate a technical study as if he were 
writing an engineering article instead of 
a story. His imagination so vitalizes the 
result that when you read the story, al- 
though it describes beams and valves you 
never saw, you recognize the accuracy of 
his technical description as you recog- 
nize, in an art gallery, the fidelity of a 
portrait, although you never saw the per- 
son portrayed. In using the Britannica, 
the investigation by which you amplify 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



your personal observation helps you in 
four ways. First, you correct your facts 
if they need correction. Whatever your 
subject may be, you find information so 
authoritative that you cannot question 
it. Second, you amplify your own obser- 
vations; you discover the underlying 
causes and relations of the events or 
opinions you are about to discuss. Third, 
the reading by* which you have, con- 
sciously or unconsciously, been influenced 
in forming your style, is rendered more 
profitable and stimulating by your study 
of the Britannica articles in which the 
work of all the world's great writers, past 
and present, is analyzed by the most 

brilliant critics. Fourth, 
Models of you have in the Britannica 
Style itself such examples of 

scholarly, forcible, com- 
pacted English as cannot often be found 
in contemporary books. It is not within 
the province of this Guide to institute 
detailed comparisons between these ar- 
ticles by the leading literary men of the 
day and other writings from the same 
pens. But the reader will discover for 
himself that the editorial policy which 
demanded rigorous concision has stimu- 
lated, not hampered, the distinguished 
writers whose Britannica articles are, in 
case after case, the best of their produc- 
tions. 

The foregoing summary of the uses of 
the Britannica to writers is based upon 
reviews of the work which have appeared 
in the daily and weekly press; and it may 
be supplemented by brief extracts from 
one or two letters to the publishers, 
written by men whose reputations give 
their opinions great weight. In one of 
these Horace White, formerly editor of 
the Evening Post of New York, spoke 
highly of the practical utility of the Bri- 
tannica. Joseph Pulitzer, of the New 
York World, shortly before his death 
wrote: "I want to thank you for the in- 
tellectual pleasure I enjoyed this winter 
in examining this extraordinary produc- 
tion. I have already distributed a dozen 



sets in America as presents among editors 
and my children. [He afterwards ordered 
six more sets.] The work is a liberal edu- 
cation." John Habberton wrote: "The 

new edition of the Bri- 
Practical tannica has already cost me 
Tests hundreds of hours that I 

should have given to my 
work, but I do not regret the outlay, for 
I have been richly repaid. There never 
was a handier book for a desk or a more 
readable one.*' 

It is not only true that no ordinary 
library would supply the information to 
be found in the Britannica, but it is as 
true, and as relevant, that no ordinary 
library presents information in a form as 
stimulating to the writer who uses books 
as the tools of his trade. 'The editor- 
in-chief of the Britannica had all the 
world's greatest experts in all fields of 
human knowledge and endeavour to 
choose from. He chose in each instance 
the expert whose knowledge was so 
thorough, and whose correlation of his 
special knowledge with related branches 
was so complete, that his articles are not 
merely "last word" information but in- 
teresting and alive. You may remember 
the new interest you felt in natural science 
when you first read an essay by Huxley, 
because he had the power of creating en- 
thusiasm. It is a justifiable figure of 
speech to say that, in this sense, the Bri- 
tannica has been written by Huxleys. 
Perhaps you have ransacked a public li- 
brary for some out-of-the-way fact and 
finally found it, in skeleton form, and in 
crabbed German, in Meyer or Brockhaus 
or some other German encyclopaedia. Or 
did your search end by finding the fact in 
Larousse or La Grande EncyclopSdie, in 
some clever phrase, so brilliantly written, 
so strikingly put, that it was the phrase 
and not the fact that you had got — and 
you felt that the Frenchman had hidden 
the fact, if he ever had had it, in his epi- 
gram? You may have wished, then, for 
a third type of encyclopaedia which 
should be "German-thorough" and 



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119 



"French-interesting." Such a combina- 
tion is the Britannica, — more authorita- 
tive, more up-to-date, more interesting, 
than any other book. 

A newspaper man, reporter or editor, 
must be informed at a moment's notice 
on any one of so large a number and so 
wide a range of top- 
The Jour- ics that the best li- 

nalist's Needs brary of reference 
obtainable can be 
none too good for him. This is especially 
true of the man on the smaller newspaper 
which does not have the luxury of special- 
ists on its editorial staff, or of many re- 
porters dividing among them the work 
of gathering news on such lines that each 
may work in a field with which he is inti- 
mately acquainted and in which he is 
particularly versed. And the rural news- 
paper is, besides, further from good pub- 
lic libraries and financially less able to 
have a large office library. The authority, 
the scope, the interest and the conve- 
nience of the Britannica make it just the 
book to fill these varied needs of the news- 
paper man. If he has to write a "murder 
story" in which some unusual poison has 
been used, he can find a full description of 
the origin, the use, the action and the tests 
of the drug by turning to the Britannica — 
instead of hunting for (and then through) 
a text book on medicine. And if, on the 
same day, or the next, he must write an 
editorial on the tariff, he will find in the 
article Tariff, in the articles Free 
Trade and Protection, and in that part 
of the article United States which deals 
with the country's economic history, the 
information that he wants; and he can get 
it quickly, and can be sure of its being 
authoritative. 

If the Britannica is evidently the work 
of reference for the writer, how is he to 
use it? 

It has already been suggested that he 
will find authoritative and recent informa- 
tion on any topic connected with the sub- 
ject on which he is writing. . It would be 
interesting to see — or at least to imagine 



— how largely the Britannica might be 
used as a source for fiction. A novelist 
with an appetite for human documents 
like Balzac's or like that of Charles Reade 
— with his many albums full of newspaper 
clippings, — could satisfy himself with the 
Britannica, taking his characters "from 
life" in its biographical and historical ar- 
ticles and his setting from its geographical 
articles. 

It has already been suggested that the 
writer will find in the Britannica the 
clearness and conciseness of style which 
he cannot but wish to attain in his own 
work. Here he has the writings of great 
masters of English. He may remember 
Robert Louis Stevenson's story of how he 
played "the sedulous ape" to the great 
stylists; and in the Britannica he can 
read not only an excellent sketch of Ste- 
venson by Edmund Gosse, his friend and 
a well-known essayist, but Stevenson's 
own article on Beranger. He may read 
Matthew Arnold on Sainte-Beuve; Walter 
Besant on Froissart and on Richard 
Jefferies; John Burroughs on Walt Whit- 
man; G. W. Cable on William Cullen 

Bryant; Edmund 
Literary Kerchever Cham- 

Criticism bers on Shakespeare : 

Ernest Hartley Cole- 
ridge on Byron; Sidney Colvin on Giotto, 
Leonardo, etc.; Austin Dobson on Field- 
ing, Hogarth, Richardson, etc.; Henry 
van Dyke on Emerson; John Fiske on 
Francis Parkman; Richard Garnett on T. 
L. Peacock and on Satire; Israel Gollancz 
on "The Pearl"; Edmund Gosse on many 
literary genres, on Ibsen, etc.; Edward 
Everett Hale on James Freeman Clarke 
and on Edward Everett; Frederic Harri- 
son on Ruskin; W. E. Henley on James 
Fenimore Cooper; William Price James 
on Barrie, Henley and Kipling; Prince 
Karageorgevitch on Marie Bashkirtseff 
Stanley Lane-Poole on Richard Burton; 
Andrew Lang on Ballads, Moliere, etc. 
Henry Cabot Lodge on Albert Gallatin 
E. V. Lucas on Jane Austen and Charles 
Lamb; Lord Macaulay on Bunyan, Gold- 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



smith, Johnson and Pitt; David Masson 
on Milton; Brander Matthews on Mark 
Twain; Alice Meynell on Mrs. Browning; 
William Minto on Dryden, Pope, Spenser 
and Wordsworth; John Nichol on Robert 
Burns; Charles Eliot Norton on George 
William Curtis; Mark Pattison on Casau- 
bon, Erasmus, Macaulay and Thomas 
More; W. H. Pollock on Thackeray and 
de Musset; Quiller-Couch on Thomas 
Edward Brown; Whitelaw Reid on Gree- 
ley; C. F. Richardson on Bronson Alcott 
and John Fiske; W. M. Rossetti on 
Shelley; Viscount St. Cyres on F6nelon 
and Madame Guy on; Saintsbury on 
French literature, Balzac, Montaigne, 
Rabelais, etc.; Carl Schurz on Henry 
Clay; H. E. Scudder on Lowell and Har- 
riet Beecher Stowe; Thomas Seccombe 
on Boswell, Dickens, Charles Lever, etc.; 
William Sharp ("Fiona McLeod") on 
Thoreau ; Clement Shorter on the Brontes, 
Crabbe, Cowper and Mrs. Gaskell; W. W. 
Skeat on Layamon: E. C. Stedman on 
Whittier; Sir Leslie Stephen on Browning 
and Carlyle; Richard Henry Stoddard on 
Hawthorne; Swinburne on Beaumont and 
Fletcher, Congreve, Hugo, Landor, Mar- 
lowe, Mary, Queen of Scots; John Add- 
ington Symonds on the Renaissance, 
Machiavelli, Tasso, etc.; Arthur Symons 
on Hardy, Mallarm6, Verlaine; W. P. 
Trent on Sidney Lanier; A. W. Ward on 
Drama; Mrs. Humphry Ward on Lyly; 
Theodore Watts-Dunton on Poetry, Son- 
net, Borrow, Wycherley, Matthew Arnold; 
Arthur Waugh on William Morris, Walter 
Pater; and G. E. Woodberry on Ameri- 
can Literature. 

The more you know of the subjects or 
authors in this list the more likely you 
will be to say what a Western professor 
of theology said, in reviewing the articles 
in the Britannica dealing with the Bible: 
"They are the very authorities that I 
would have chosen to write these ar- 
ticles!" 

But the Britannica will serve the pro- 
fessional author in other ways than by 
giving him information in special fields 



and by keeping before him admirable 
models of style. He might well follow any 
of the courses suggested in the chapter on 
Literature in this Guide; and if he will 
read the articles on great authors written 
by great authors, already mentioned, he 
will have a doubly valuable course in 
biographical criticism by the ablest of 
literary critics. 

Any newspaper writer or contributor 
to the periodical press should read such 
articles as: 

Newspapers (Vol. 19, p. 544; equiva- 
lent to 125 pages of this Guide), by Hugh 
Chisholm, editor-in-chief of the Britan- 
nica, with sections 
Newspapers and on the price of 
Magazines newspapers by Lord 

Northcliffe, on illus- 
trated papers by Clement Shorter, general 
information on American newspapers, and 
an elaborate historical account of British, 
American and foreign newspapers. 

Periodicals (Vol. 21, p. 151; equiva- 
lent to 40 pages in this Guide), by Henry 
Richard Tedder, librarian of the Athen- 
aeum Club of London, treats the subject 
under the heads: British, United States, 
Canada, South Africa, Australia and New 
Zealand, West Indies and British Crown 
Colonies, India and Ceylon, France, Ger- 
many, Austria, Italy, Belgium, Holland, 
Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Spain, Por- 
tugal, Greece, Russia, and other Countries. 

Societies, Learned (Vol. 25, p. 309), 
also by H. R. Tedder, deals with the pub- 
lications of such societies and classifies 
them (with geographical sub-classifica- 
tion for each head) under Science Gener- 
ally, Mathematics, Astronomy, Physics, 
Chemistry, Geology, Mineralogy and Pal- 
aeontology, Meteorology, Microscopy, Bot- 
any and Horticulture, Zoology, Anthro- 
pology, Sociology, Medicine and Surgery, 
Engineering and Architecture, Naval and 
Military Science, Agriculture and Trades, 
Literature, History and Archaeology, and 
Geography. 

Local information in regard to news- 
papers and journalism will be found in 



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121 



separate local articles. Thus under Bos- 
ton, Philadelphia, New York City, New 
Orleans, San Francisco, etc., there is 
valuable information in regard to these 
cities as literary centers and about their 
principal periodical publications, includ- 
ing newspapers; and in the articles on 
smaller cities, such as Albany and Spring- 
field, Mass., there are valuable historical 
sketches of the local press of each. 

The newspaper man should read the 
biographies of great American printers 
and editors: William Bradford (Vol. 4, 

p. 370); Benjamin 
Literary Franklin (Vol. 11, 

Biographies p. 24; equivalent to 

20 pages of this 
Guide); Isaiah Thomas (Vol. 26, p. 
867); Noah Webster (Vol. 28, p. 463); 
William Cullen Bryant (Vol. 4, p. 
698); James G. Birney (Vol. 3, p. 988); 
Gamaliel Bailey (Vol. 3, p. 217); W. 
L. Garrison (Vol. 11, p. 477); James 
Gordon Bennett (Vol. 3, p. 740); 
Thurlow Weed (Vol. 28, p. 466); Gid- 
eon Welles (Vol. 28, p. 506); John 
Bigelow (Vol. 3, p. 922); Horace 
Greeley (Vol. 12, p. 531); Henry J. 
Raymond (Vol. 22, p. 933); George 
Ripley (Vol. 23, p. 363); C. A. Dana 
(Vol. 7, p. 791); George William Cur- 
tis (Vol. 7, p. 652); Carl Schurz (Vol. 
24, p. 886); Samuel Bowles (Vol. 4, p. 



Alliteration 


Encyclopaedia 


Ana 


Epic Poetry 


Anecdote 


Epigram 


Anthology 


Epilogue 


Anticlimax 


Epistle 


Antithesis 


Essay 


Aphorism 


Euphemism 


Apologue 


Fable 


Apophthegm 


Feuilleton 


Archaism 


Gazette 


Assonance 


Humour 


Bathos 


Hyperbole 


Belles-Lettres 


Idyll 


Biography 


Impromptu 


Book 


Index 


Book-Collecting 


Irony 


Bookselling 


Lampoon 


Burlesque 


Laureate 


Comedy 


Legend 


Criticism 


Libraries 


Dialogue 


Limerick 


Drama 


I Jtotes 


Elegy 


Lyrical Poetry 



344); Joseph R. Hawley (Vol. 13, p. 
101); Whitelaw Reid (Vol. 23, p. 52); 
George W. Childs (Vol. 6, p. 141); E. 
L. Godkin (Vol. 12, p. 174); and Henry 
Watterson (Vol. 28, p. 418). 

The reading of these biographies will 
give the student many interesting start- 
ing-points for studies in American poli- 
tics, economics, literature, reform move- 
ments as widely separated as abolition 
and the introduction of the merit system 
into the civil service. The author should 
also read the article American Litera- 
ture (Vol. 1, p. 831; equivalent to 35 
pages of this Guide), by Professor G. E. 
Woodberry, and, if his field is that of the 
publicist, he should read the article on 
the history of the United States (Vol. 
27, p. 663), equivalent to 225 pages of 
this Guide; and the allied articles to 
which he is referred from that. 

The advertising writer will find a valu- 
able and stimulating article on Adver- 
tisement (Vol. 1, p. 235, equivalent to 
20 pages in this Guide), which gives a 
history of the subject, deals with posters 
and signs, circulars, periodical advertis- 
ing, and legal regulation and taxation. 

For a full list of articles of particular 
usefulness for the author, see the chapter 
Literature in this Guide. The following 
brief list may serve as the basis for a pre- 
liminary course of reading; 



Manuscript 


Prosody 


Melodrama 


Proverb 


Metaphor 


Psalm 


Metonymy 


Pseudonym 


Metre 


Pun 


Monologue 


Quatrain 


National Anthems 


Quotation 


Newspapers 
Novel 


Reporting 


Rhetoric 


Ode 


Rhyme 


Pamphlets 
Parable 


Rhythm 


Romance 


Paradox 


Saga 


Paraphrase 
Parody 


Satire 


Song 


Pasquinade 


Sonnet 


Periodicals 


Squib 


Philippics 


Stanza 


Plagiarism 


Stvle 


Pleonasm 


Tale 


Poetry 


Tract 


Proof-Heading 


Treatise 


Prose 


Verse 




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CHAPTER XXIII 



FOR TEACHERS 



EVERY teacher has one pupil who 
tries harder than any of the 
others to absorb knowledge, and 
yet is never content with the prog- 
ress made, who knows how hard the 
teacher works, and yet is never sat- 
isfied with the teacher — and that pupil 
is the teacher's self. For every other 
learner there is a limit to the amount 
of knowledge to be acquired, but in 
the case of the teacher a "standard" is 
supposed to indicate no more than an 
indispensable minimum. When you are 
trying to make your pupils master a 
text-book, the volume seems to contain a 
most stupendous mass of learning, and 
when one of them asks you a question 
about the subject with which the text- 
book deals, that particular point is sure 
to be one that the text-book does 
not cover. What engineers call the 
"factor of safety," the margin by which 
the strength of materials must exceed 
the stress it is expected to encounter, is, 
for the teacher, incalculable. It is, of 
course, a favorite 
The Teacher's pastime of parents 
"Factor of to send a child to 

Safety" school primed with 

some question "to 
ask Teacher," selecting an enigma that 
has been for centuries a battle-ground 
for scholars or scientists. And, apart 
from these malicious pitfalls, children 
themselves seem, quite innocently, to 
hit upon questions of extraordinary 
difficulty. A rebuff, a careless response, 
or, worst of all, an ingenious evasion of 
the issue, is fatal to the teacher's author- 



ity and influence. "Ask me that again, 
to-morrow morning," is the phrase with 
which a conscientious teacher often 
meets such a contingency. And then 
how a fagged brain is tormented that 
evening, how the few books available 
(and they are likely to be a very few if 
there is no public library at hand) are 
searched in vain! That is not all. If 
it be true that the teacher is the most 
diligent, yet always the least satisfied, 
of all the teacher's pupils, it is equally 
true that many of the most puzzling 
questions with which the teacher is con- 
fronted arise in the teacher's own mind. 
The question-answering power of the 
Britannica is therefore of cardinal im- 
portance to the teacher, and is to be con- 
sidered not only in connection with the 
use of the work for reference, but also in 
the selection of such courses of reading 
as may be expected to supply informa- 
tion of the kind that 
Answers to questions most 

All Questions often demand. And 
this question-answer- 
ing power lies in three characteristics of 
the work, and may be measured by the 
extent to which the three are found in 
it: broad scope, unimpeachable authority 
and convenient arrangement. Its scope 
covers the whole range of human knowl- 
edge, everything that mankind has 
achieved, attempted, believed or studied. 
Its authority is doubly vouchsafed. The 
fact that the Britannica is published by 
the University of Cambridge (England), 
one of the world's oldest and most famous 
seats of learning, in itself gives such a 



122 



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123 



guarantee as no other Encyclopaedia 
has ever offered, and the assurance thus 
given may be regarded as showing, 
chiefly, that there are no errors of omis- 
sion, for against the existence of the errors 
of commission there is a further guarantee. 
The articles are signed by 1,500 con- 
tributors, including the foremost special- 
ists in every department of knowledge. 
Among this army of collaborators, chosen 
from twenty countries, there are no less 
than 704 members of the staffs of 146 
universities and colleges. This means 
that by means of the Britannica the 
youngest teacher in the most isolated 
village is brought into stimulating con- 
tact with the great leaders of the teaching 
profession. Its arrangement gives it 
the advantages of a universal library, 
providing the varied courses of reading 
outlined in this Guide, and those also 
of a work of reference which yields an 
immediate answer to every conceivable 
question. The index of 500,000 entries 
instantly leads the enquirer to any item 
of information in the 40,000 articles. 
No teacher could hope to form, in the 
course of a lifetime, a collection of separ- 
ate books which would contain any- 
where near as much information. 

In another relation, the Britannica is 
of daily service to anyone engaged in 
educational work. It has already been 
remarked that the 
A Library of teacher needs a "fac- 

Text-Books tor of safety," a re- 

serve of knowledge 
beyond that which is directly called for 
in the ordinary routine of the class room. 
But in the very course of that routine, 
there is also a need for co-ordinated 
knowledge, presented in a form available 
for use in teaching, of a more advanced 
kind than that in the text-books with 
which pupils are provided. And the 
Britannica is, in itself, a vast collection 
of text-books. 

Professor Shotwell, of Columbia Uni- 
versity, recently wrote to the publishers 
a letter in which he said: "I shall use 



the articles in the Encyclopaedia Britan- 
nica which deal with industrial processes 
as a substitute for a text-book in one 
of my courses in Social and Industrial 
History and have especially in mind 
the splendid treatment of the cotton 
industry by Professor S. J. Chapman 
and others." A large number of Bri- 
tannica articles have, by permission, 
been reprinted, word for word, for use 
as text-books; and it is impossible to say 
how many have been paraphrased, and, 
in a form less clear and vivid than the 
originals, similarly employed. The writ- 
ers of the Britannica have, among them, 
done so large a share of the world's 
recent work in research and criticism, 
that no one who is engaged in writing 
a text-book or in preparing a course of 
lectures should fail to use the work as a 
check to test the completeness and the 
accuracy of independent investigation. 

Fortunately, the system of monthly 
payments has enabled teachers to pur- 
chase the Britannica to an extent which, 
in view of their limited resources, is a 
striking evidence of their earnest desire 
to perfect their professional equipment. 
In some cases two and even three 
teachers have combined their efforts in 
order that they might jointly possess 
the work. But whatever may be the 
difficulties to be overcome, it is certain 
that the Britannica is, for the teacher, 
an instrument as directly productive 
as a technical library is for a doctor or 
a lawyer. 

A professor in an eastern college 
wrote to the publishers: "It has become 
4 the collection of books' which Carlyle 
might term 'the true university ' " ; and 
the practical head of a business school in 
Pennsylvania says: "By its purchase, I 
have secured access to a university 
education." A well known professor of 
German calls it "a Hausschatz of amazing 
richness and variety." and adds: "I hope 
you will not be sued at law for an attempt 
to monopolize the market for profitable 
and entertaining literature." The presi- 



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124 



BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



dent of a southern university wrote: "It 
is the first book to consult, the one book 
to own, if you can own but one." And 
a Harvard professor says: "I have been 
particularly interested in some of the 
recent phases of European history. Con- 
cerning some movements, about which 
it is as yet extremely difficult to find 
material in books, I'have found the Ency- 
clopaedia most useful." A teacher in 
a theological seminary exclaims: "What 
a university of solid training it would 
be for a young student, if he would spend 
an hour each day reading the work, 
volume by volume, and including all 
the articles except those of a technical 
nature belonging to other departments 
than his own!" 

This is what teachers have said of the 
value to them of the Encyclopaedia 
Britannica. Specialists in school-hygiene 
and school librarians have also noted 
the advantage of the light, handy vol- 
umes printed on India paper — one weighs 
no more than two monthly magazines — , 
which may be easily held at the proper 
angle for eye-focus on a large page. 

The teacher will find in this Guide 
valuable suggestions about particular 
subjects which he may wish to teach or 
study, — such as history, literature, lan- 
guage and biology. In this chapter we 
suggest a general course. 

Let him begin with the article Educa- 
tion (Vol. 8, p. 951), which is the equiva- 
lent in length of 120 pages of the size 
and type of this Guide, and of which 
the first part is by James Welton, pro- 
fessor of education in the University of 
Leeds and author of Logical Bases of 
Education, etc., the sections on national 
systems by G. B. M. Coore, assistant 
secretary of the London Board of Edu- 
cation, and that on the United States 
by Nicholas Murray Butler, president of 
Columbia Univers- 
The Theory ity. This valuable 

of Education article begins with a 

discussion of the 
meaning of the term "Education," ex- 



cludes John Stuart Mill's extension to 
everything which "helps to shape the 
human being," and narrows the meaning 
to definitely personal work, — the true 
"working" definition for the practical 
teacher. 

The section on educational theory 
might equally well be styled a sketch 
of the history of education and will 
prove valuable to the teacher preparing 
for a licence-examination in this subject 
or for a normal training course. It 
discusses old Greek education with 
special attention to Spartan practice, 
Plato's theory and Aristotle's, and the 
gradual change from the point of view 
of the city-state to Hellenistic cosmo- 
politanism. The older Roman education, 
practical and given by father to son, is 
contrasted with the later Heflenized 
training, largely by Greek slaves, largely 
rhetorical and ^largely summed up in 
Quintilian's Institutio. The contest be- 
tween the pagan system and Christianity 
is shown to have culminated in monas- 
ticism; and barbarian inroads stifled 
classical culture until the Carolingian 
revival under Alcuin in the 8th century 
and the scholastic revival (11th to 18th 
centuries) of Abelard, Aquinas and 
Arabic workings over of Aristotle. Scho- 
lastic education is considered especially 
in relation to the first great European 
universities and the schools of the Do- 
minicans, Franciscans and Brethren of 
the Common Life, and in contrast to 
chivalry, the education of feudalism. 
The Renaissance is treated at greater 
length, and this is followed by sections 
on the influence of the Reformation on 
education, and the consequent growth 
of Jesuit schools. The key-note of the 
story thereafter is reform, — the move- 
ment away from the classics, toward 
natural science, and, especially after the 
French Revolution, by means of new 
methods and theories, notably those of 
Rousseau, Pestalozzi, Froebel and Her- 
bart. 

The remainder of the article Educa- 



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125 



tion deals with national systems of 
education: French, German, Swiss, Bel- 
gian, Dutch, Scotch, Irish, English, 
Welsh and American, with an excellent 
bibliography. These, and other, na- 
tional systems are also treated from 
another point of view in the articles on 
the separate countries. 

The article Education should natur- 
ally be followed by a study of the article 
Universities (Vol. 27, p. 748 — about 
100 pages, if printed in the style of this 
Guide) by James Bass Mullinger (author 
of the History of Cambridge, The Schools 
of Charles the Great, etc.) and, for 
American universities, by Daniel Coit 
Gilman, late presi- 
Articles on dent of Johns Hop- 

Great Schools kins University; and 
by a reading of arti- 
cles on the great universities, as for 
instance, Oxford, Cambridge, Aberdeen, 
Glasgow, St. Andrews, Dublin, Harvard, 
Yale, Columbia, Cornell, Princeton, 
Pennsylvania, Michigan, Wisconsin, Cali- 
fornia, Leland Stanford, Jr., etc. The 
student should then turn to the article 
Schools (Vol. 24, p. 859; equivalent to 
about 40 pages of this Guide) by Arthur 
Francis Leach, author of English Schools 
at the Reformation, who gives a summary 
of what is known of Greek, Roman and 
English schools. 

Then, — to supplement these general 
articles, — he should read — 

On Greek education: 

Plato (Vol. 21, p. 808), espe- 
cially p. 812 (on Meno) and 818 
(on the Republic). 

Aristotle (Vol. 2, p. 501). 

Sparta (Vol. 25, p. 609, partic- 
ularly p. 611). 
On Roman education: 
_ Cato (Vol. 5, p. 535). 

Quintilian (Vol. 22, p. 761). 
On early Christian education: 

Clement of Alexandria (Vol. 
6, p. 487, particularly p. 488, on the 
Paedagogus). 

Augustine (Vol. 2, p. 907) and 



Jerome (Vol. 15, p. 826), with es- 
pecial attention to their early pagan 
education and their attitude toward 
it as Christians. 

Ambrose (Vol. 1, p. 798). 

Martianus Capella (Vol. 5, p. 
249). 

Boetius (Vol. 4, p. 116). 

Cassiodorus (Vol. 5, p. 459). 

Isidore (Vol. 14, p. 871). 

St. Gregory (Vol. 12, p. 566). 

Bede (Vol. 8, p. 615). 

Monasticism (Vol. 18, p. 687). 
On the Carolingian revival: 

Alcuin (Vol. 1, p. 529). 

Angilbert (Vol. 2, p. 9). 

Charlemagne (Vol. 5, p. 891, 
especially p. 894). 

France (Vol. 10, p. 810). 
On the Scholastic revival: 

Scholasticism (Vol. 24, p. 846). 

Abelard (Vol. 1, p. 40). 

John of Salisbury (Vol. 15, p. 
449). 

Albertus Magnus (Vol 1, p. 
504). 

Grosseteste (Vol. 12, p. 617). 

Thomas Aquinas (Vol. 2, p. 250). 

Roger Bacon (Vol. 8, p. 158). 
On the Renaissance : 

Renaissance (Vol. 28, p. 88). 

Dante (Vol. 7, p. 810). 

Petrarch (Vol. 21, p. 810). 

Boccacio (Vol. 4, p. 102). 

Manuel Chrysolaras (Vol. 6, 
p. 820). 

Manutius (Vol. 17, p. 624). 

Thomas More (Vol. 18, p. 822). 

Erasmus (Vol. 9, p. 727). 

John Colet (Vol. 6, p. 681). 

Thomas Lin acre (Vol. 16, p. 
701). 

On the Reformation period and 
Counter-Reformation : 

Reformation (Vol. 28, p. 4). 

Melancthon (Vol. 18, p. 88). 

Luther (Vol. 17, p. 188). 

Trotzendorff (Vol. 27, p. 808). 

Reuchlin (Vol. 28, p. 204). 

Ascham (Vol. 2, p. 720). 

Rabelais (Vol. 22, p. 769). 

Jesuits (Vol. 15, p. 887), espe- 
cially p. 842. 

La Salle (Vol. 16, p. 281). 



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BRITANNIGA READINGS AND STUDIES 



On the Moaern period: 

Comeniu8 (Vol. 6, p. 759). 

Rousseau (Vol. 28, p. 775). 

Voltaire (Vol. 28, p. 199). 

Pkstalozzi (Vol. 21, p. 284). 

Fboebel (Vol. 11, p. 288). 

Herb art (Vol. 18, p. 885). 

Wilhelm Von Humboldt (Vol. 
18, p. 875). 

Andrew Bell (Vol. 8, p. 684). 

Joseph Lancaster (Vol. 16, p. 
147). 

Sir John Fitch (Vol. 10, p. 
488). 

James Blair (Vol. 4, p. 84). 

T. H. Gallaudet (Vol. 11, p. 
416). 

F. A. P. Barnard (Vol. 8, p. 
409). 

Henry Barnard (Vol. 8, p. 410). 

Horace Mann (Vol. 17, p. 587). 

Mark Hopkins (Vol. 18, p. 684). 

William T. Harris (Vol. 18, p. 
21). 

Justin S. Morrill (Vol. 18, p. 



Alexander Melville Bell (Vol. 
8, p. 684). 

S. C. Armstrong (Vol. 2, p. 591). 

Booker T. Washington (Vol. 28, 
p. 844). 

Co-Education (Vol. 6, p. 687). 

Blindness (Vol. 4, p. 66). 

Deaf and Dumb (Vol. 7, p. 887). 

Infant Schools (Vol. 14, p. 
588). 

Kindergarten (Vol. 15, p. 802). 

Museums of Art (Vol. 19, p. 60). 

Museums of Science (Vol. 19, p. 
64). 

Polytechnic (Vol. 22, p. 88). 

Technical Education (Vol. 26, 
p. 487), an elaborate article, about 
40 pages in the form of this Guide, 
by Sir Philip Magnus, author of In- 
dustrial Education, member of the 
Royal Commission on technical in- 
struction (1881-1884) and, in 1907, 
president of the education section of 
the British Association. 

Of equal importance with this course 
on the history of education, for the stu- 



dent taking the licence-examination or 
for a teacher taking an examination 
for a higher grade licence or a principal- 
ship, is a course in Psychology in the 
Britannica. This will be found largely 
in the great article on Psychology (Vol. 
82, p. 547; equivalent in length to 200 
pages of this Guide) by James Ward. 
The systematic 
The Study treatment of the 

of Psychology subject in this arti- 
cle is particularly 
valuable to the teacher, whether the 
object desired is to review the entire 
subject, sharpening one's impressions 
from a longer course of reading; to get a 
general grounding in the subject — for 
which a careful study of this one article 
will suffice; or to make one's self more 
certain of his comprehension of any part 
of the subject. It is not practicable 
to give an outline of this article here, 
but a few of its special topics are listed 
below: 

General analysis of the subject 
Attention 

Theory of presentations 
Sensation 
Perception 

Imagination or Ideation 
Mental Association 
Reminiscence and Expectation 
Experimental Investigations on 

Memory and Association 
Feeling 

Emotion and Emotional Action 
Intellection 
Self-Consciousness 
Relation of Body and Mind 
Comparative Psychology 

Besides the general article with its 
systematic summary of the subject, the 
Britannica contains many briefer articles 
on special topics, so that the teacher will 
find not only an excellent text-book of 
the subject in Prof. Ward's article, but 
also an elaborate dictionary or encyclo- 
paedia of psychological terms or topics. 
Among the topics treated in this " Dic- 
tionary of Psychology" are: 



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Affection 
Apperception 
Association of 

Ideas 
Attention 
Category 
Cognition 
Concept 
Connotation 
Deduction 
Definition 
Denotation 
Dream 
Extension 
Hearing 
Idea 

Imagination 
Imitation 
Immortality 
Individualism 
Induction 
Instinct 
Intellect 
Introspection 



Intuition 

Mnemonics 

Motive 

Noumenon 

Object, Subject 

Parallelism 

Perception 

Personality 

Phenomenon 

Pleasure 

p8ychophysic8 

Recept 

Relativity 

Reminiscence 

Retro-Cognition 

Self 

Sensationalism 

Smell 

Suggestion 

Taste 

Touch 

Vision 

Weber's Law 

Will 



Furthermore, the teacher will find the 
Britannica a valuable biographical dic- 
tionary. This he will already have re- 
alized, if he has looked up the biograph- 
ical articles mentioned in connection with 
the history of education. The following 
is a brief outline course in psychological 
biography: 



Adamson, Robert 

Aristotle 

Bain, Alexander 

Baldwin, James Mark 

Beneke, F. E. 

Berkeley, George 

Clifford, Wm. K. 

Democritus 

Epicurus 

Fechner, G. F. 

Geulincx, Arnold 

Hamilton, William 

Hartley, David 

Helmholtz, 

von 
Herbart, Johann F. 
Hobbes, Thomas 
HSffding, Harold 
Hume, David 



Hucheson, Francis 
James, William 
Kant, Immanuel 
I^dd, G. T. 
Lange, F. A. 
Leibnitz, G. W. 
Lewes, George Henry 
Locke, John 
Lotze, R. H. 
Mill, James 
Mill, J. S. 

Muller, Johannes Peter 
Mttnsterberg, Hugo 
Hermann Reid, Thomas 
Ribot, T. A. 
Spencer, Herbert 
Sully, James 
Ward, James 
Wundt,* W. M. 



CHAPTER XXIV 



FOR MINISTERS 



THE minister or candidate for the 
ministry will find a valuable course 
of reading laid out for him in this 
Guide under the heading Bible Study, and 
it might be said with little exaggeration 
that any systematic course of reading in 
the Encyclopaedia Britannica should add 
to the efficiency and power of one who 
would be an ideal pastor. If the schools 
of the Middle Ages could truly call all the 
arts and sciences hand-maids and helpers 
to Theology, much more truly, in the 
present age, should the minister, in order 
that he may minister truly, know not 
merely the history of the Bible and of the 
Church, the results of modern criticism, 
and of comparative religion and folk-lore, 
but, almost as fully, general history, lit- 



erature, philosophy, psychology, educa- 
tion, something of the fine arts, much of 
law and political science, and still more of 
social science and economics. In a period 
of specialization he cannot afford to be a 
specialist — or, it might be nearer the 
truth to say that, like every other true 
specialist, he must make all knowledge, 
all the circle of the sciences, tributary to 

his specialty, which 
The Great is the knowledge and 

Preachers the improvement of 

the human soul. The 
suggestions that follow must necessarily 
be fragmentary, and should be considered 
as including merely a few topics not 
covered in the chapter on Bible Study nor 
in the other courses which, as has just 



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been suggested, a minister might profit- 
ably pursue. 

The article Sermon (Vol. 24, p. 673) is 
by Edmund Gosse, librarian of the House 
of Lords, biographer of John Donne, 
Jeremy Taylor and Dr. Thomas Browne. 
The writer is especially conversant with 
the English literature of the 17th cen- 
tury, in the middle of which, to quote his 
article, "the sermon became one of the 
most highly-cultivated forms of intellec- 
tual entertainment in Great Britain, and 
when the theatres were closed at the 
Commonwealth it grew to be the only 
public form of eloquence." 

Each name on the following list of great 
preachers is accompanied by volume and 
page reference to the biographical sketch 
in the Britannica, containing criticism of 
the preacher and a bibliography of his 
works and of works about him, so that the 
articles supply the basis for a study of 
the world's great preachers. 

British. 
John Wycliffe (Vol. 28, p. 868) 
John Fisher (Vol. 10, p. 427) 
Hugh Latimer (Vol. 16, p. 242) 
John Knox (Vol. 15, p. 878) 
Richard Hooker (Vol. 13, p. 672) 
John Donne (Vol. 8, p. 417) 
Joseph Hall (Vol. 12, p. 847) 
John Hales (Vol. 12, p. 834) 
Edmund Calamy (Vol. 4, p. 967) 
Benjamin Whichcote (Vol. 28, p. 587) 
Thomas Adams (Vol. 1, p. 180) 
Richard Baxter (Vol. 8, p. 551) 
Thomas Manton (Vol. 17, p. 607) 
John Owen (Vol. 20, p. 892) 
Ralph Cudworth (Vol. 7, p. 612) 
Robert Leighton (Vol. 16, p. 898) 
Jeremy Taylor (Vol. 26, p. 469) 
Isaac Barrow (Vol. 8, p. 440) 
Robert South (Vol. 25, p. 463) 
John Tillotson (Vol. 26, p. 976) 
Edward Stillingfleet (Vol. 25, p. 921) 
Benjamin Hoadly (Vol. 18, p. 542) 
Joseph Butler (Vol. 4, p. 882) 
Thomas Boston (Vol. 4, p. 289) 
John Wesley (Vol. 28, p. 527) 
George Whitefield (Vol. 28, p. 603) 
Thomas Chalmers (Vol. 5, p. 809) 
Edward Irving (Vol. 14, p. 854) 



Charles Haddon Spurgeon (Vol. 25, p. 

742) 
Edward Bouverie Pusey (Vol. 22, p. 

667) 
John Keble (Vol. 15, p. 710) 
John Henry Newman (Vol. 19, p. 517) 
Henry Edward Manning (Vol. 17, p. 

589) 
John Clifford (Vol. 6, p. 507) 
George Muller (Vol. 18, p. 961) 
Frederick Temple (Vol. 26, p. 600) 
Archibald Campbell Tait (Vol. 26, p. 

368) 
Benjamin Jowett (Vol. 15, p. 527) 
Arthur Penrhyn Stanley (Vol. 25, p. 

777) 
J. F. D. Maurice (Vol. 17, p. 910) 
Hugh Price Hughes (Vol. 18, p. 860) 
Andrew M. Fairbairn (Vol. 10, p. 129) 
Norman Macleod (Vol. 17, p. 262) 

American. 
Cotton Mather (Vol. 17, p. 883) 
Increase Mather (Vol. 17, p. 884) 
Richard Mather (Vol. 17, p. 885) 
Jonathan Edwards (Vol. 9, p. 2) 
John Carroll (Vol. 5, p. 409) 
J. L. A. M. L. de Cheyerus (Vol. 6, p. 

114) 
S. W. G. Brute (Vol. 4, p. 695) 
John Witherspoon (Vol. 28, p. 759) 
John Woolman (Vol. 28, p. 817) 
Samuel Seabury (Vol. 24, p. 531) 
Francis Asbury (Vol. 2, p. 715) 
Peter Cartwright (Vol. 5, p. 485) 
Matthew Simpson (Vol. 25, p. 185) 
Demetrius A. Gallitzin (Vol. 11, p. 

421) 
Alexander Campbell (Vol. 5, p. 127) 
John Winebrenner (Vol. 28, p. 729) 
William A. Muhlenberg (Vol. 18, p. 

957) 
William Ellery Channing (Vol. 5, p. 

843) 
G. W. Doane (Vol. 8, p. 849) 
Edward Payson (Vol. 21, p. 2) 
Adoniram Judson (Vol. 15, p. 543) 
John Hughes (Vol. 13, p. 860) 
Archibald Alexander (Vol. 1, p. 564) 
Moses Stuart (Vol. 25, p. 1048) 
Nathaniel W. Taylor (Vol. 26, p. 472) 
Leonard Bacon (Vol. 3, p. 152) 
James Freeman Clarke (Vol. 6, p. 444) 
Henry Ward Beecher (Vol. 3, p. 689) 
Hosea Ballou (Vol. 3, p. 282) 



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Horace Bushnell (Vol. 4, p. 873) 
Phillips Brooks (Vol. 4, p. 649) 
Edward Everett Hale (Vol. 12, p. 882) 
R. S. Storrs (Vol. 25, p. 969) 
Charles Force Deems (Vol. 7, p. 921) 
Edwards Amasa Park (Vol. 20, p. 825) 
David Swing (Vol. 26, p. 287) 
Michael Augustine Corrigan (Vol. 7, 

p. 197) 
James Gibbons (Vol. 11, p. 986) 
T. DeWitt Talmage (Vol. 26, p. 880) 
Isaac T. Hecker (Vol. 18, p. 194) 
Robert Collyer (Vol. 6, p. 694) 
Henry C. McCook (Vol. 17, p. 205) 
John Fletcher Hurst (Vol. 18, p. 960) 
Dwight L. Moody (Vol. 18, p. 802) 
Washington Gladden (Vol. 12, p. 68) 
John Ireland (Vol. 14, p. 742) 
John Joseph Keane (Vol. 15, p. 706) 
Minot J. Savage (Vol. 24, p. 289) 
Reuben Archer Torrey (Vol. 27, p. 61) 

French. 
John Gerson (Vol. 11, p. 904) 
John Calvin (Vol. 5, p. 71) 
Theodore Beza .(Vol. 8, p. 889) 
St. Francis of Sales (Vol. 10, p. 940) 
J. B. Bossuet (Vol. 4, p. 287) 
Louis Bourdalous (Vol. 4, p. 829) 
Esprit Flechier (Vol. 10, p. 491) 
Jules Mascaron (Vol. 17, p. 886) 
Jean Baptiste Massillon (Vol. 17, p. 

867) 
Jean Siffrein Maury (Vol. 17, p. 915) 

These lists could easily be made longer 
and fuller, but the articles mentioned give 
such a view of the great preachers of the 
world as cannot fail to stimulate any 
minister. Supplementing what has been 
said above about the necessity of the 
minister's being a well-rounded man, it 
may be worth while to notice that Donne 
and Keble and, in a less degree, Doane 
and Muhlenberg, were poets as well as 
preachers; that Cudworth was known as 
the founder of the Cambridge Platonists, 
and Jowett as the translator of Plato, 
Barrow as a mathematician, second, in 
his day, only to Isaac Newton, Edward 
Everett Hale as an essayist and writer of 
short stories, and McCook as a great 
naturalist. 

The minister will find the Britannica an 



excellent encyclopaedia of comparative 
religion and of church history, with the 
newest and most authoritative informa- 
tion on any subject in this field. For a 
brief outline course in these topics let him 
read: 

The article Religion (Vol. 23, p. 61; 
equivalent to 50 pages of this Guide), by 
Dr. Joseph Estlin Carpenter, principal 
of Manchester College, Oxford, and Rob- 
ert R. Marett, fellow and tutor of Exeter 
College, Oxford, author of the Threshold 
of Religion and contributor to the Bri- 
tannica of articles on Prayer, Ritual, etc. 
This article is made up of: a general in- 
troduction sketching the history of the 
study of religions, especially in the last 
century, and concluding that "the origin 
of religion can never be determined arch- 
aeologically or historically; it must be 
sought conjecturally through psychol- 
ogy" > & section on primitive religion, 
which is a remarkable summary of all 
that is known of this subject; and a 
section on the higher religions which 
discusses developments of animism, transi- 
tion to polytheism, polytheism, the order 
of nature (a half-way stage to mono- 
theism), monotheism, classification of re- 
ligions, revelation, ethics and eschatology 
and bibliography. 

Another class of articles comprises An- 
cestor Worship, Animal Worship, 
Animism, Fetishism, Folklore, Magic, 
Mythology, Prayer, Ritual, Sacri- 
fice, Serpent- Worship, Totemism and 
Tree- Worship, written by such author- 
ities as N. W. Thomas, author of Kinship 
and Marriage in Australia, etc., Andrew 
Lang, Stanley Arthur Cooke and R. R. 
Marett. 

Certain primitive religions are sepa- 
rately treated, as in the article Indians, 
North American (Vol. 14, especially 
pages 471-473), by A. F. Chamberlain, 
assistant professor of anthropology, 
Clark University, Worcester; in the ar- 
ticle Australia (Vol. 2, especially p. 
957); in the article Hawaii (Vol. 13, 
pages 87, 88). 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



On higher religions there are the fol- 
lowing separate articles (among many): 

Babylonian and Assyrian Religion, 
by Morris Jastrow of the University of 
Pennsylvania; and the articles Anai, 
Ishtar, Ea, Marduk, Assur and Gil- 
gamesh, — all by the same author and all 
of particular value as throwing side- 
lights on Hebrew Religion. 

Egypt (Vol. 9, pp. 48-56), by Allan H. 
Gardiner, editor of the New (Berlin) 
Hieroglyphic Dictionary. 

Hebrew Religion (Vol. 13, p. 176; 
equivalent to 40 pages of this Guide), by 
Dr. Owen Charles Whitehouse, pro- 
fessor of Hebrew, Cheshunt College, Cam- 
bridge; and the articles Hebrew Litera- 
ture, Jews, etc. 

Brahmanism (Vol. 4, p. 881) and Hin- 
duism (Vol. 13, p. 501), by Julius Eggel- 
ing, Professor of Sanskrit, Edinburgh. 

Buddhism, Buddha and Lamaism, by 
T. W. Rhys Davids, author of Buddhist 
India, etc. 

Confucius, by James Legge, author of 
The Religions of China. 

Sikhism, by Max Macauliffe, whose 
book The Sikh Religion is accepted by the 
Sikhs as authoritative. 

Zoroaster, by Karl Geldner, profes- 
sor at Marburg, and the article Parsees. 

Mahommedan Religion (Vol. 17, p. 
417; equivalent to 45 pages in this Guide^, 
by G. W. Thatcher, warden of Camden 
College, Sydney. 

Mahomet, by D. S. Margoliouth, 
Laudian professor of Arabic, Oxford; 
Mahommedan Institutions and Ma- 
hommedan Laws, by D. S. Macdonald, 
professor of Semitic languages, Hartford 
Theological Seminary. 

Babiism, by E. G. Browne, professor of 
Arabic, Cambridge, and author of His- 
tory of the Bab. 

Greek Religion (Vol. 12, p. 527), by 
L. R. Farnell, fellow of Exeter College, 
Oxford, author of Cults of the Greek 
States; and such articles as Demeter, 
Hecate, Hera, Hermes, Hestia, Nike, 
Phoebus, Themis and Zeus. 



Roman Religion (Vol. 23, p. 577), by 
Cyril Bailey, fellow of Balliol College, 
Oxford, and author of The Religion of 
Ancient Rome; and such articles as Anna 
Perenna, Arval Brothers, Bona Dea, 
Concordia, Fama, Faunus, Juno and 
Jupiter; and the valuable articles on 
Eastern cults in Rome, Great Mother 
of the Gods, Attis, Mithras, etc., by 
Professor Grant Showerman of the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin. 

Christianity (Vol. 6, p. 280; equiva- 
lent to 35 pages of this Guide), by G. W. 
Knox, professor of philosophy and his- 
tory of religion, Union Theological 
Seminary, New York; Jesus Christ 
(Vol. 15, p. 348; equivalent to 35 pages 
of this Guide), by the Very Rev. Joseph 
Armitage Robinson, Dean of Westmin- 
ster; Gospel (Vol. 12, p. 265), by Rev. 
V. H. Stanton, Ely professor of divinity, 
Cambridge; articles on the separate 
gospels; Paul the Apostle (Vol. 20, 
p. 938), by the Rev. James Vernon 
Bartlett, professor of church history, 
Mansfield College, Oxford. 

On Church History there is an ex- 
cellent key article in volume 6 (p. 331; 
equivalent to 45 pages of this Guide). 
It begins with an outline of the work of 
the great church historians and divides 
the subject into three parts: first, up to 
590 B.C., — this part and the general 
introduction are by A. C. McGiffert, 
professor of church history in Union 
Theological Seminary, New York City; 
second; the Church in the Middle Ages, 
by Albert Hauck, professor of church 
history at Leipzig; and The Modern 
Church, by W. Alison Phillips, author 
of Modern Europe. This sketch may be 
filled in by reference to the following 
articles (among many) : 

Abyssinian Church 

Armenian Church 

Roman Catholic Church 

Papacy 

Orthodox Eastern Church 

Reformation 

England, Church of 

Ireland, Church of 



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Scotland, Church of 

Scotland, Episcopal Church in 

Lutherans 

Baptists 

Presbyterianism 

Cameronians 

Congregationalism 

Methodism 

Friends, Society of 

Calvini8tic Methodists 

Disciples of Christ 

German Baptist Brethren 

Mennonites 

Moravian Brethren 

Doukhobors 

German Catholics 

Old Catholics 

United Brethren 

United Presbyterian Church 

A brief course in theology and dogma 
is contained in the following articles: 

Theology (Vol. 26, p. 772; equivalent 
to 45 pages in this Guide), by the Rev. 
Dr. Robert Mackintosh of Lancashire 
Independent College, Manchester. 

Atonement 

Baptism 

Confession 

Confirmation 

Conversion 



Dogmatic Theology 

eschatology 

Eucharist 

Excommunication 

Grace 

Immaculate Conception 

Infallibility 

Inspiration 

Penance 

Predestination 

Purgatory 

Sin 

tran8ub8tantiation 

Worship 

On Religious Orders: 
Abbey 
Friars 
Monasticism 
Monk 
Nun 
Sisterhoods 

and see also the names of different orders 
and hundreds of biographical articles on 
saints and heretics, preachers and theolo- 
gians. 

The following alphabetical list in- 
cludes only a part of the articles in the 
Britannica on religious topics; but it 
will serve to show the value of the book 
to a clergyman in his own field: 



Abbess 

Abbey 

Abbot 

Abbreviators 

Abecedarians 

Abgar 

Ablution 

Abrahami tes 

Absolution 

Abstemii 

Abyssinian Church 

Acephali 

Acerra 

Acoemeti 

Acolyte 

Adamites 

Adiaphorists 

Adoptianism 

Advent 

Adventiste, Second 

Advocatus Diaboli 

Agape 

Agapemonites 

Agapetae 

Agapetus 

Agnoetae 



Agnosticism 

Agnus Dei 

Agrapha 

Alb 

Albigenscs 

Allah 

AU Saints 

All Souls Day 

Allocution 

Almoner 

Almuce 

Altar 

Ambrosians 

Ambrosiaster 

Amen 

Amice 

Amora 

Ampulla 

Anabaptists 

Anathema 

Angel 

Angelus 

Anglican Communion 

Anglo-Israelite Theory 

Annates 

Annunciation 



Anthropomorphism 
Antichrist 
Antinomians 
Antitype 

Apocalypse, Knights of 
Apologetics 
Apostasy 
Apostle 

Apostolic Canons 
Apostolic Fathers 
Apostolical Constitu- 
tions 
Apostolic! 
Apotactites 
Apotheosis 
Aquarii 
Arabic! 
Archbishop 
Archdeacon 
Arches, Court of 
Archimandrite 
Archpriest 

Aristides, Apology of 
Arras 
Ark 
Armenian Church • 



Artemon 

Asaph 

Ascension, Feast of 

Asceticism 

Ascitans 

Ash-Wednesday 

Asperges 

Assassins 

Assumption, Feast of 

Asterius of Cappadocia 

Atheism 

Athos, Mount 

Atonement 

Attrition 

Augsburg, Confession 
of 

Augustinians 

Augustinians Canons 

Augustinian Hermits 

Autocephalous 

Auto da F6 

Auxentius of Cappa- 
docia 

Acan 

Acymites 

Babiism 



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Babylonian Captivity 

Bagimond's Roll 

Bairam 

Bambino, II 

Bangorian Controversy 

Baphomet 

Baptism 

Baptists 

Basel, Confession of 

Basel, Council of 

Basilian Monks 

Beatification 

Beguines 

Benedictines 

Benediction 

Benedictus 

Bethlehemites 

Bible Christians 

Bidding-Prayer 

Biretta 

Bishop 

Black Veil 

Bogomils 

Bollandists 

Boy's Brigade 

Breviary 

Bridgebuilding Broth- 
erhood 

Bridgittines 

Brothers of Common 
Life 

Cadi 

Calf, The Golden 

Calvary 

Calvinistic Ministers 

Camaldulians 

Cameronians 

Candlemas 

Canon 

Canoness 

Canon Law 

Canonization 

Capuchins 

Cardinal 

Carmathians 

Carmelites 

Carnival 

Carthage, Synods of 

Carthusians 

Cassock 

Catechism 

Catechumen 

Cathars 

Catholic 

Catholic Apostolic 
Church 

Celestines 

Celibacy 

Cenobites 

Cerdonians 

Chalcedon, Council of 

Chaldee 

Chalice 

Chambre Ardente 

Chant 

Chantry 

Chapel 

Chapter 



Chaplain 

Chasuble 

Chiliasm 

Chimere 

Chrism 

Christ 

Christadelphians 

Christian Catholic 
Church 

Christian Connection 

Christian Endeavour 
Societies 

Christianity 

Christian Science 

Christmas 

Church 

Church Army 

Church Congress 

Church History 

Churching of Women 

Churchwarden 

Ciborium 

Cistercians 

Clares, Poor 

Clergy 

Clerk 

Clementine Literature 

Cluny 

Cohen 

Commendation 

Common Order, Book 
of 

Conclave 

Concord, Book of 

Concordat 

Confession 

Confessional 

Confessor 

Confirmation 

Confirmation of Bish- 
ops 

Congregation 

Congregationalism 

Consistory 

Consistory Courts 

Constance, Council of 

Constantinople, Coun- 
cils of 

Consuetudinary 

Convent 

Conversion 

Convocation 

Cope 

Copts 

Corban 

Corporal 

Corpus Christi, Feast 

Council 

Cowl 

Cowley Fathers 

Creatianism and Tra- 

ducianism 
Credence 
Creeds 

Cross and Crucifixion 
Crozier 
Culdees 



Curia Romana 

Curate 

Cyprus, Church of 

Dalmatic 

Davidists 

Deacon 

Deaconess 

Dean 

Decretals 

Dedication 

Deism 

Dervish 

Devil 

Didache, The 

Diocese 

Diognetus, Epistle to 

Dionysius Areopagi- 
ticus 

Diptych 

Dirge 

Disciples of Christ 

Dispensation 

Dissenter 

Docetae 

Dogma 

Dogmatic Theology 

Dominicans 

Donation of Constan- 
tine 

Donatists 

Dort, Synod of 

Dossal 

Doukhobors 

Doxology 

Easter 

Ebionites 

Ecclesiastical Jurisdic- 
tion 

Ecclesiastical Commis- 
sioners 

Elder 

Elvira, Synod of 

Ember Days 

Encyclical 

Energia 

England, Church of 

Enthusiasm 

Ephesus, Council of 

Ephod 

Epiphany, Feast of 

Episcopacy 

Eschatology 

Essenes 

Establishment 

Eucharist 

Evangelical Alliance 

Evangelical Association 

Evangelical Church 
Conference 

Evangelical Union 

Exarch 

Excommunication 

Exorcist 

Extreme Unction 

Fakir 

Faldstool 

Familists 

Fasting 



Fathers of the Church 

Feasts and Festivals 

Febronianism 

Ferrara-F 1 o r e n c e , 
Council of 

Flagellants 

Font 

Franciscans 

Frankincense 

Fraticelli 

Free Baptists, or Free- 
will Baptists 

Free Church of Eng- 
land 

Free Church of Scot- 
land 

Free Church Federa- 
tion 

Friars 

Friends, Society of 

Gallicanism 

Gaon 

German Baptist Breth- 
ren, or German 
Brethren (U. S. A.) 

German Catholics 

German Evangelical 
Synod of North 
America 

Ghazi 

Giaour 

Glasites 

Glory 

Gnosticism 

Golden Rose 

Good Friday 

Grace 

Gradual 

Grandmontines 

Great Awakening 

Gustavus Adolphus 
Union 

Habdala 

Haggada 

Hagiology 

Haij 

Halakha 

Halfway Covenant 

Halisah 

Hallel 

Hanukkah 

Haptara 

Harem 

Hebrew Religion 

Heidelberg Catechism 

Helvetic Confessions 

Hemerobaptists 

Heresy 

Hermas, Shepherd of 

Hermeneutics 

Hermit 

Hesychasts 

Hierarchy 

Hieronymites 

High Place 

Hippolytus, The Can- 
ons of 

Holy 



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Holy Water 

Holy Week 

Homiletics 

Homily 

Hospice 

Houri 

Hours, Canonical 

House! 

Humanitarians 

Humiliati 

Hussites 

Hymns 

Hypostasis 

Iblis 

Icon 

Iconoclasts 

Ignorantines 

ifiuminati 

Image 

Imam 

Imitation of Christ, The 

Immaculate Conception 

Immortality 

In Coena Domini 

Incumbent 

Independents 

Index Librorum Pro- 

hibitorum 
Indulgence 
Indult 
Infallibility 
Innocents' Day 
Inquisition, The 
Inspiration 
Installation 
Institutional Church 
Interim 
Interdict 
Investiture 
Ireland, Church of 
Islam 

Jacobite Church 
Jansenism 
Jehovah 
Jerahmeel 

Jerusalem, Synod of 
Jesuati 
Jesuits 
Jesus Christ 
Jews 
Jihad 

Jubilee, Year 
Jubilee, Year of 
Ka'ba 
Kabbalah 
Kermesse 

Keswick Convention 
Kismet 
Koran 

Koreshan Ecclesia, The 
Kosher or Kasher 
Kyrie 

Labour Church, The 
Lamb 

Lambeth Conferences 
Laodicea, Synod of 
Lateran Councils 
Laud 



Lavabo 

Lay 

Laymen, Houses of 

Lazarites 

Lazarus, St., Order of 

Lection, Lectionary 

Lector 

Legate 

Lent 

Libellatici 

Liber Diurnus 

Liber Pontificalis 

Libertines 

Lights, Ceremonial use 
of 

Limbus 

Limina Apostolorum 

Lincoln Judgment, The 

Litany 

Liturgy 

Logia 

Low Churchman 

Low Sunday 

Lutheran 

Luther League 

Lyons, Councils of 

Mahdi 

Mahommedan Institu- 
tions 

Mahommedan Law 

Mahommedan Religion 

Mandaeans 

Manichaeism 

Maniple 

Manse 

Marabout 

Marburg, Colloquy of 

Marcion and the Mar- 
cionite Church 

Maronites 

Marprelate Controversy 

Martyr 

Marty rology 

Matins 

Maundy Thursday 

Mauris ts 

Mechitharists 

Melchites 

Mendicant Movement 
and Orders 

Mennonites 

Messiah 

Methodism 

Methodist New Con- 
nexion 

Metropolitan 

Midrash 

Millennium 

Minister 

Miracle 

Miserere 

Missal 

Missions 

Mitre 

Moderator 

Monarchianism 

Monasticism 

Monk 



Monophysites 

Monothelites 

Monsignor 

Monstrance 

Montanism 

Moravian Brethren 

Mormons 

Morse 

Mortuary 

Mozarab 

Muckers 

Mufti 

Mysticism 

Mythology 

Nazarenes 

Necrology 

Neo-Caesarea, Synod of 

Neophyte 

Nestorians 

New Jerusalem Church 

New Year's Day 

Nicaea, Councils of 

Nfmes, Councils of 

Nonconformist 

Nosairis 

Novice 

Nun 

Nuncio 

Oblation 

Oecumenical 

Offertory 

Official 

Old Catholics 

Olivetans 

Ophites 

Oratory 

Oratory of St Philip 

Neri, Congregation 

of the 
Order, Holy 
Orphrey 
Orthodox Eastern 

Church 
Pallium or Pall 
Palm Sunday 
Pantheism 
Party Royal 
Passion Week 
Pastoral Letter 
Pastoral Staff 
Patarenes 
Paten 
Patriarch 
Patron 
Paulicians 
Pax 

Pectoral 
Peculiar 
Peculiar People 
Pelagius 
Penance 
Penitential 
Penitentiary 
Pentecost 
Peter's Pence 
Pew 

Philadelphians 
Phylactery 



Piarists 

Pietism 

Pilgrim 

Pilgrimage 

Pirke Aboth 

Pisa, Council of 

Pistoia, Synod of 

Plymouth Brethren 

Poissy, Colloquy of 

Pope 

Prayer, Book of Com- 
mon 

Prayers for the Dead 

Preaching 

Prebendary 

Precentor 

Preconization 

Predestination 

Prelate 

Premonstratensians 

Presbyter 

Presbyterianism 

Primate 

Primitive Methodist 
Church 

Prior 

Procession 

Procession Path 

Prolocutor 

Proselyte 

Protestant 

Protestant Episcopal 
Church 

Protestantenverein 

Provision 

Purgatory 

Purim 

Puritanism 

Qaraites 

Quakers 

Quietism 

Rabbi 

Ramadan 

Ranters 

Rawendis 

Rector 

Recusant 

Reformed Churches 

Reformed Church \u 
America (Dutch) 

Reformed Church in 
U. S. A. (German) 

Reformed Episcopal 
Church 

Regium Donum 

Regular 

Relics 

Religion 

Remonstrants 

Requiem 

Reredos 

Retable 

Reverend 

Ritual 

River Brethren 

Robber, Synod 

Rochet 

Rogation Days 



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Roman Catholic Church 

Rood 

Rosary 

Rota, Court of 

Rubric 

Rum 

Sabbation 

Sabians 

Sacerdotalism 

Sacrament 

Sacramentals 

Sacramentarians 

Sacrarium 

Sacred Heart 

Saint John of Jeru- 
salem 

Salvation Army 

Saragossa, Councils of 

Sardica, Council of 

Schism 

Scillitan Martyrs 

Scotland, Church of 

Scotland, Episcopal 
Church in 

Sect 

Secular 

See 

Sepulchre, Canons Reg- 
ular of the Holy 

Servites 

Sexton 

Shakers 



Shiites 

Shrine 

Shrove Tuesday 

Silvestrines 

Sin 

Sion College 

Sisterhoods 

Skoptsi 

Soutane 

Spanish Reformed 

Church 
Sponsor 

Stations of the Cross 
Stigmatization 
Stole 
Suffragan 
Sufiism 
Sunnites 
Supererogation 
Superintendent 
Surplice 
Syllabus 
Symbol 
Synagogue 
Synagogue, United 
Synazarium 
Syncellus 
Synedrium 
Synod 
Talmud 



Tanna 
Targum 
Templars 
Tenebrae 
Tertiaries 

Testamentum Domini 
Tetragrammaton 
Teutonic Order 
Theism 
Theocracy 
Theology 
Theosophy 
Therapeutae 
Thurible 
Tiara 
Tithes 

Toledo, Councils of 
Tonsure 

Transubstantiation 
Trappists 
Trent, Council of 
Trinitarians 
Trinity Sunday 
Tunicle 
Ulema 

Ultramontanism 
Unction 
Unitarianism 
United Brethren ii 
Christ 



United Free Church of 

Scotland 
United Methodist 

Church 
United Methodist Free 

Churches 
United Presbvterian 

Church 
Universalist Church 
Ursulines 
Vallombrosians 
Vatican, Council of 
Venerable 
Verger 
Vespers 
Vestments 
Viaticum 
Vicar 

Vienne, Council of 
Vigil 
Wahhabis 
Waldenses 
Wesleyan Methodist 

Church 
Westminister Synods 
Whitsunday, or Pente- 
cost 
Worship 
Yezidis 
Young Men's Christian 

Association 
Zenana 



CHAPTER XXV 



FOR PHYSICIANS, SURGEONS AND DENTISTS 



THE Britannica adds so largely 
to medical literature that, in out- 
lining the services which the work 
can render to those engaged in the pre- 
vention and treatment of disease, it is 
desirable to define the limits, rather than 
to insist upon the extent, of the plan 
adopted by the technical assistant editors 
to whom the Editor-in-chief entrusted 
the control of this important part of 
the undertaking. It is true that the 644 
medical articles, many of which might 
be described as books in themselves, 
cover the whole field of anatomy, phy- 
siology, pathology, therapeutics, surgery, 
pharmacology, medical education, medi- 
cal jurisprudence and medical biography. 



It is also true that the writers who sign 
these articles are specialists of world- 
wide authority, and that the total 
number of words and illustrations in these 
articles is as great as would be required 
for a complete encyclopaedic handbook 
of medical science. But, notwithstand- 
ing all this wealth of matter and of inter- 
national collaboration, the Britannica 
does not profess to take the place of the 
elementary working library in daily use 
by every professional man. "Working 
library" is, however, an elastic term, 
and it is used here to mean only the hand- 
books which constitute an irreducible 
minimum, the few without which no 
beginner would venture to establish 



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135 



himself in practice. Certain manuals 
are, to the practitioner, what mathe- 
matical tables are to the engineer; and 
it is not the function of the Britannica 
to duplicate what the practitioner al- 
ready posseses, nor yet, for example, to 
include a pharmacopoeia in a book used 
by the general public. 

On the other hand, no professional 
man restricts himself a day longer than 
he must to the bare modicum of medical 

literature with which 
The he may have been 

Encyclopaedic forced, at first, to do 
Method his best; and when 

he can add anything 
to it, there is nothing he will use so 
often, or find so helpful, as the Britannica. 
It may be well to define in general, its 
professional uses, before dealing in de- 
tail with the articles included in this 
course of reading. 

(1) The system of technical collabora- 
tion is, in the Britannica, organized and 
coordinated with a completeness which 
gives the medical articles an authority 
and impartiality often lacking in isolated 
treatises. The contributors were selected 
with a view to their recognized ability 
only, whereas the publication of medical 
works is too often an outcome of the 
writer's ambitions, which, however legiti- 
mate they may be, are no proof of his 
capacity. 

(2) The Britannica articles were writ- 
ten for the sole purpose of being used in 
their present form. A great part of 
current medical literature originates in 
lectures to students, and retains too 
much of its first form to be satisfactory 
to the professional man. 

(S) The articles are all based upon 
an original and recent survey of knowl- 
edge, and thus contain information which 
cannot be found in reprints of standard 
medical works insufficiently brought up 
to date by additions to earlier editions. 

(4) In relation to statistics, to admin- 
istrative and legislative provisions re- 
garding public health, to hospitals and 



other public institutions, the broadly 
international character of the Britannica, 
with its contributions from twenty 
different countries, gives a scope which 
the private writer cannot attain. 

(5) The great number of biographies 
of physicians, surgeons and men who 
devote themselves exclusively to re- 
search, gives professional men access to 
information which they cannot else- 
where obtain. 

(6) Chemistry, bacteriology, general 
biology, botany, psychology and other 
sciences allied to the more immediate 
field of medicine are fully treated by 
specialists of the highest authority. 

(7) Apart from the definite occupa- 
tional diseases (fully discussed in the 
Britannica), there is often a relation be- 
tween the pathological results of overwork 
and the routine of the patient's business 
life. Every branch of industry and com- 
merce is treated in detail in the Bri- 
tannica, and the insight which the phy- 
sician may thus gain will often be of ser- 
vice to him. 

(8) The Britannica not only enlarges 
the medical library of the practitioner, 
but gives him, and the members of his 
family, the use of the only complete K- 
brary of general information. 

Specifically, the medical and surgi- 
cal section of the Britannica com- 
prises 3 general articles, constituting 
broad systematic surveys of the various 
provinces of the subject: 103 articles on 
anatomy and physiology, which are 
partly surgical; £65 
Scope of the articles on pathol- 

Medical Section ogy; 75 on pharma- 
cology; 21 on public 
health, in addition to the articles on 
dentistry and on veterinary science, 
and 170 biographies. But this compre- 
hensive scheme does not by any means 
include all the material of value to the 
medical man. The sister sciences of 
chemistry, physics, biology, botany, zool- 
ogy and psychology, have much to offer 
him. A consultation of the list appended 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



to this section will show how the needs 
of the physician and surgeon are served 
by the Encyclopaedia. It must suffice 
here to call attention briefly to some of 
the more important contributions. 

Taking up, first, the more general 
articles, there is Medicine (Vol. 18, p.41) 
containing about 35,000 words. This deals 
with the history and development of the 
science. Dr. J. F. Payne of the Royal 
College of Physicians, London, traces 
its history from the earliest known 
times to the middle of the 19th century; 
and Sir T. C. Allbutt, professor of phy- 
sic in Cambridge University, completes 
this review with a section on Modern 
Progress (p. 55). Of high practical value 
is Medical Jurisprudence or Forensic 
Medicine (Vol. 16, p. 25), by H. H. 
Littlejohn, professor of forensic medicine, 
University of Edinburgh, and T. A. 
Ingram. This deals solely with that 
branch of the science which has to do 
with the application of medical knowledge 
to certain questions of civil and criminal 
law. There are discussions of questions 
affecting the civil or social rights of in- 
dividuals, and injuries to the person, 
the function of the physician in questions 
of mutilation, homicide, infanticide, poi- 
soning, etc. Medical Education (Vol. 
18, p. 23) is a useful reference article by 
Sir John Batty Tuke, Dr. W. H. Howell, 
dean of the medical faculty, Johns Hop- 
kins University, and Dr. H. L. Hennessy, 
furnishing data on the educational quali- 
fications necessary to the practice of 
medicine in Europe and America. 

Dr. Frederick G. Parsons,vice-president 
of the Anatomical Society of Great 
Britain and Ireland, 
Anatomy, lecturer on Anat- 

Embryology, omy at St. Thom- 

and Physiology as's Hospital, Lon- 
don, contributes the 
general article Anatomy (Vol. 1, p. 
920) which goes deeply into its history, 
and has further sections on Modern 
Human Anatomy (Anthropotomy) and 
Anatomy, Superficial and Artistic This 



noted authority also writes detailed and 
fully illustrated articles on the anat- 
omy and embryology of the Brain 
(Vol. 4, p. 392); Heart (Vol. 13, p. 
129); Eye (Vol. 10, p. 91); Ear (Vol. 8, 
791) ; Olfactory System (Vol. 20, p. 77) ; 
Lymphatic System (Vol. 17, p. 166); 
Vascular System (Vol. 27, p. 926); 
Nervous System (Vol. 19, p. 400); 
MuscuLAif System (Vol. 19, p. 51); 
Reproductive System (Vol. 23, p. 129) ; 
and Respiratory System (Vol. 23, p. 
184) and on the Skeleton (Vol. 25, p. 
169); Skin and Exoskeleton (Vol. 25, 
p. 188); Skull (Vol. 25, p. 196); Joints 
(Vol. 15, p. 483); and Nerve (Vol. 19, 
p. 394). Another valuable anatomical 
article is Connective Tissues (Vol. 6, 
p. 958), by Dr. T. G. Brodie of the Uni- 
versity of Toronto. Prof. Adam Sedg- 
wick writes a most excellent general 
and historical account of Embryology 
(Vol. 9, p. 314); and Dr. Hans A. E. 
Driesch of Heidelberg University adds to 
it a section Physiology of Development 
(p. 329), treating of the laws that govern 
the development of the organism. The 
general article Physiology (Vol. 21, 
p. 554) is from the pen of the celebrated 
Prof. Max Verworn of the University 
of Bonn, and to this there are closely 
linked, according to the new plan of 
the Britannica, extensive and detailed 
accounts of the physiology of the Brain 
(Vol. 4, p. 403); Sympathetic System 
(Vol. 26, p. 287); Spinal Cord (Vol. 25, 
p. 672); Muscle and Nerve (Vol. 19, 
p. 44); Respiratory System (Vol. 23, 
p. 187); Vascular System (Vol. 27, p. 
929) ; Alimentary Canal (Vol. 1, p. 663) ; 
Blood (Vol. 4, p. 77), etc., by noted 
specialists, including Dr. Charles S. 
Sherrington, professor of physiology in 
the University of Liverpool, Dr. J. S. 
Haldane of Oxford University, Dr. L. 
E. Hill, lecturer on physiology at the 
London Hospital, Dr. P. Chalmers Mit- 
chell, and Dr. T. G. Brodie of the Uni- 
versity of Toronto. 

Drs, D.J.Hamilton and Richard Muir 



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are the authors of a brilliant summary of 
the whole subject of Pathology (Vol. 20, 

p. 913) with over 50 
Articles on illustrations, includ- 

Pathology ing coloured plates. 

The whole story of 
the elevation of the science dealing with 
the theory and causation of disease from a 
mere philosophical abstraction to one of 
the natural sciences is admirably told. 
For the pathological details of various dis- 
eases and groups of diseases the reader is 
referred to Parasitic Diseases (Vol. 20, 
p. 770), fully illustrated, by Dr. G. Sims 
Woodhead, professor of pathology, Cam- 
bridge University, one of the notable 
contributions to the Britannica; Meta- 
bolic Diseases (Vol. 18, p. 195), by 
Prof. D. N. Paton of Edinburgh Univer- 
sity; Digestive Organs, Pathology (Vol. 
8, p. 262) by Dr. A. L. Gillespie of Edin- 
burgh and M. Fisher; Kidney Diseases 
(Vol. 15, p. 784), by Dr. J. R. Bradford 
of University College Hospital, London, 
and Dr. Edmund Owen, the famous 
English surgeon; Bladder and Pros- 
tate Diseases (Vol. 4, p. 27) ; Venereal 
Diseases (Vol. 27, p. 983)— these two 
also by Dr. Owen; Skin Diseases (Vol. 
25, p. 190); Insanity (Vol. 14, p. 597), 
by Sir John Batty Tuke, president of 
the Neurological Society of the United 
Kingdom, and medical director of the 
New Staughton Hall Asylum, Edin- 
burgh, Dr. J. Macpherson, and Dr. L. 
C. Bruce, author of Studies in Clinical 
Psychiatry, — for this article the noted 
American specialist Dr. Frederick Peter- 
son has written a section on Hospital 
Treatment of the insane; Neuropathol- 
ogy (Vol. 19, p. 429), fully illustrated, 
by Dr. F. W. Mott, the distinguished 
pathologist to the London County Asy- 
lums, and editor of the Archives of 
Neurology; Respiratory System, Path- 
ology (Vol. 23, p. 195), by Dr. Thomas 
Harris, author of numerous articles on 
this subject, and Dr. H. L. Hennessy; 
Blood, Pathology (Vol. 4, p. 82), by Dr. 
G. L. Gulland of Edinburgh; Heart, 



Disease (Vol. 13, p. 132), by Sir J. F. 
H. Broadbent, author of Heart Disease 
and Aneurysm, etc.; Eye, Diseases (Vol. 
10, p. 94), by Dr. George A. Berry, hon. 
surgeon oculist to his Majesty George V; 
Vision, Errors of Refraction and Accommo- 
dation (Vol. 28, p. 142), by Dr. Ernest 
Clark of the Central London Ophthalmic 
Hospital; Ear, Diseases of (Vol. 8, p. 
794), by Dr. E. C. Baber, late senior 
surgeon, Brighton and Sussex Throat 
and Ear Hospital. 

Dr. Harriet L. Hennessy is the author 
of Gynaecology (Vol. 12, p. 764). 

For more specific details there is the 
complete list of articles on different dis- 
eases and ailments under their common 
names. This includes veterinary dis- 
eases, to which branch of medicine an 
admirable introduction is furnished by 
Veterinary Science (Vol. 28, p. 2), by 
Drs. George Fleming and James Mac- 
Queen. In the articles on diseases there 
will be found accounts of the latest 
methods of diagnosis and treatment, as, 
for example, the Calmette eye-test in 
tubercular diseases, serum treatment 
and its latest developments, vaccine 
therapy, etc. 

The general article Therapeutics 
(Vol. 26, p. 793), by Dr. Sir Lauder 
Brunton, consulting physician to St. 
Bartholomew's Hos- 
Therapeutics pital, London, au- 

thor of Modern The- 
rapeutics, etc., not only discusses both 
rational and empirical therapeutics, but, 
taking up the different parts of the body 
considers in detail the therapeutic meas- 
ures most commonly employed in the 
treatment of disease. The subjects of 
Electrotherapeutics (Vol. 9, p. 249); 
Baths (Vol. 3, p. 514); Balneothera- 
peutics (Vol. 3, p. 284); Hydropathy 
(Vol. 14, p. 165); Aerotherapeutics 
(Vol. 1, p. 270); Massage (Vol. 17, p. 
863) and X-Ray Treatment (Vol. 28, 
p. 887) have separate articles devoted 
to them. The last is by Dr. H. L. 
Jones, clinical lecturer on medical elec- 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



tricity at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, 
London. 

In connection with the subject of 
therapeutics, mention must be made of 
Phabmacology (Vol. 21, p. 347), by 
Professor Stockman of the University of 
Glasgow, in which will be found an in- 
teresting history of drugs, and a classi- 
fication into 28 groups with a descrip- 
tion of the effect of each remedy. To 
this valuable material Dr. H. L. Hennes- 
sy has added a section, Terminology 
in Therapeutics (p. 352) — a general ex- 
planation of the common names used in 
the classification of drugs. The list at 
the end of this chapter indicates the 
separate articles on drugs and on materi- 
als from which the principal drugs are 
obtained. 

Dr. Charles Creighton of King's Col- 
lege, Cambridge, writes on the history 
of Surgery (Vol. 26, p. 125) and the 
famous English Surgeon, 
Surgery Dr. Edmund Owen the 
section Modern Practice of 
Surgery (p. 129) in which are discussed 
antiseptic and aseptic surgery, drainage 
tubes, bloodless operations, Rontgen 
rays, use of radium, etc. The article 
Surgical Instruments and Appli- 
ances (Vol. 26, p. 132) is fully illustrated. 
Dr. Owen also contributes articles on 
the surgery of the different organs, the 
article Bone, Diseases and Injuries 
(Vol. 4, p. 200) and many accounts of 
diseases and disorders that come within 
the province of the surgeon, such as 
Appendicitis (Vol. 2, p. 217); Perito- 
nitis (Vol. 21, p. 171); Hernia (Vol. 
13, p. 372); Fistula (Vol. 10. p. 
438); Varicose Veins (Vol. 27, p. 920), 
and Haemorrhoids (Vol. 12, p. 805). 
Sir Alexander R. Simpson, emeritus 
professor of midwifery and the diseases 
of women and children, University of 
Edinburgh, writes on Obstetrics (Vol. 
19, p. 962); Dr. Louis Courtauld, for- 
merly research scholar, Middlesex Hos- 
pital Cancer Laboratories, on Tumour 
(Vol. 27, p. 370); Dr. Arthur Shadwell, 



of the Epidemiological Society, on Can- 
cer, with a special account of cancer 
research; and H. C. Crouch, teacher of 
anaesthetics at St. Thomas's Hospital, 
London, on Anaesthesia and An- 
aesthetics (Vol. 1, p. 907). 

A most interesting, unusual and in- 
structive course of reading on the his- 
tory and development of medicine may 
be based on the 
Medical biographical articles 

Biographies alone. In Aescu- 

lapius (Vol. 1, p. 
276) we learn how the gods of Greece 
effected cures. The life story of Hip- 
pocrates (Vol. 13, p. 518) is worthy of 
note, for the "medical art as we now 
practice it, the character of the physi- 
cian as we now understand it," both 
date from him. For information about 
the theory that disease originated from 
an irregular or inharmonius motion of the 
body corpuscles we turn to Asclepiades 
(Vol. 2, p. 722). An account of the man 
"out of whom the greater part of medi- 
cine has flowed" is found in Galen (Vol. 
11, p. 398). The biography of the 
great Arab physician and philosopher 
Avicenna (Vol. 3, p. 62) should not be 
overlooked, nor the story of the revolt of 
Paracelsus (Vol. 20, p. 749). Impor- 
tant and interesting, too, are the biog- 
raphies of Harvey, William (Vol. 13, 
p. 42); Sydenham, Thomas (Vol. 26, 
p. 277), the father of English medicine, 
and Haller, A. von (Vol. 12, p. 855), 
whose work marks the beginning of mod- 
ern physiology. The work of Morgagni 
(Vol. 18, p. 831) in pathological anatomy 
marks an epoch in medicine, and the 
description in Cullen, William (Vol. 
7, p. 616) of his new doctrine of "irri- 
tability" possesses a distinct interest. 
The accounts of Jenner, Edward (Vol. 
15, p. 319), Hunter, John (Vol. 13, p. 
939) and Hahnemann, S.C.F. (Vol. 12, 
p. 819) describe momentous events in 
the history of medicine at the close of 
the 18th century, while among the great 
names of the 19th will be found the 



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139 



chemist Pasteur (Vol. 20, p. 892), 
Koch, Robert (Vol. 15, p. 885), Lister 
(Vol. 16, p. 777) and Virchow, Rudolf 
(Vol. 28, p. 110). 

It has already been noted that the 
Britannica will prove an invaluable help 
to medical specialists in fields of knowl- 
edge other than their 
The Allied own. The regret is 

Sciences often expressed by 

physicians that it is 
not easy for them to study subjects 
outside their profession, even when 
these are closely connected with their 
work. It is, unfortunately, only too 
true, that material for such study is not 
readily available. But with so complete 
a work of reference at his disposal, and 
with its highly authentic information 
skillfully compressed into reasonable 
space, the medical man now enjoys a 
magnificent opportunity to obtain a 
full acquaintance with many subjects 
that he knows will assist him in the 
work. 

It would be impossible to name all the 
articles here, but the alphabetical list at the 
end of this chapter includes them, and 
the attention of the physician and sur- 
geon is directed to Bacteriology (Vol. 
3, p. 156), by the late Prof. H. M. Ward 
of Cambridge and Prof. V. H. Blackman 
of the University of Leeds, and especially 
the section Pathological Importance (p. 
171), which Prof. Robert Muir of Glas- 
gow University has written; Biology 
(Vol. 3, p. 954), a classic article by the 
late Professor Huxley, revised and 
brought up-to-date by Dr. P. Chalmers 
Mitchell; Heredity (Vol. 13, p. 350), 
also by Dr. Mitchell; Mendelism (Vol. 
18, p. 115), a brilliant study of the 
foundations of an exact knowledge of the 
physiological process of heredity, by 
Prof. R. C. Punnett of Cambridge; Evo- 
lution (Vol. 10, p. 22) and Longevity 
(Vol. 16, p. 974), both by Dr. Mitchell; 



Nutrition (Vol. 19, p. 921), by Prof. D. 
N. Paton and Dr. E. P. Cathcart of 
Glasgow University; Dietetics (Vol. 8, 
p. 214), by the world-famous authority 
on this subject, the late Prof. W. O. At- 
water, and R. D. Milner, formerly of the 
U. S. Dept. of Agriculture; Vegetarian- 
ism (Vol. 27, p. 967), by Dr. Josiah Old- 
field, senior physician to the Lady Mar- 
garet Fruitarian Hospital, Bromley; Cli- 
mate in the Treatment of Disease (Vol. 6, 
p. 526); Acclimatization (Vol. 1, p. 114), 
by the renowned scientist, Dr. A. Russel 
Wallace; a very complete and up-to-date 
article on Vivisection (Vol. 28, p. 153), 
by Dr. Stephen Paget; Psychology (Vol. 
22, p. 547), by Prof. James Ward of 
Cambridge; Psychical Research (Vol. 
22, p. 544), by Andrew Lang, which is the 
key to a series of 25 remarkably interest- 
ing articles covering the entire subject; 
Hypnotism (Vol. 14, p. 201); Faith 
Healing (Vol. 10, p. 135); Suggestion 
(Vol. 26, p. 48); Phrenology (Vol. 21, p. 
534), by Professor Macalister of Cam- 
bridge; Temperance (Vol. 26, p. 578), by 
Dr. Arthur Shadwell; Microscope (Vol. 
18, p. 392) ; Blindness, Causes and Pre- 
vention (Vol. 4, p. 60), by Sir Francis J. 
Cambell, principal Royal Normal College 
for the Blind, London; Deaf and Dumb 
(Vol. 7, p. 880), by Rev. A. H. Payne, 
formerly of the National Deaf Mute Col- 
lege, Washington. 

The subject of Dentistry (Vol. 8, p. 
50) is covered by the highest American 
authority, Dr. Edward C. Kirk, of the 
University of Pennsylvania, and a full 
account of the anatomy of the teeth will 
be found under Teeth (Vol. 26, p. 499), 
by Dr. F. G. Parsons. It is, however, in 
connection with bacteriology, chemistry, 
metallurgy, mechanics and other subjects 
with which the dentist is concerned, rathe* 
than in connection with the technics of 
his profession, that he will desire to 
make use of the Britannica. 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF ARTICLES IN THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA OF 

SPECIAL INTEREST AND IMPORTANCE TO MEMBERS OF THE 

MEDICAL PROFESSION 



Abano, Pietro d\ 

Abattoir 

Abdomen 

Abercrombie, J. 

Abercromby, D. 

Abercromby, P. 

Abernethy, J. 

Abortion 

Abscess 

Abscission 

Abu-1-qasim 

Acclimatization 

Acetic Acid 

Ackennann, J. C. G. 

Acland, Sir H. W. 

Acne 

Aconite 

Acromegaly 

Acron 

Actinomycosis 

Acupressure 

Acupuncture 

Adam's Apple 

Addison's Disease 

Adenoids 

Adolescence 

Adulteration 

Aegineta, Paulus 

Aerotherapeutics 

Aesculapius 

Aetius 

Agnew, David Hayes 

Ague 

Ala 

Albumin, or Albumen 

Albuminuria 

Alcohol 

Aldehydes 

Alexander of Tralles 

Alienist 

Alimentary Canal 

Aloe 

Alum 

Amaurosis 

Ambulance 

Amman, J. C. 

Amman, Paul 

Ammonia 

Amuck, Running 

Amyl Nitrite 

Anabolism 

Anaemia 

Anaesthesia and An- 
aesthetics 

Anatomy 

Anderson, Elizabeth G. 

Anel, Dominique 

Aneurysm, or Aneur- 
ism 

Angina Pectoris 

Animal Heat 

Anise 

Ankle 



Ankylosis 

Ankylostomiasis 

Anodyne 

Anthrax 

Antipyrine 

Antiseptics 

Aphasia 

Aphemia 

Apnoea 

Aponeurosis 

Apophysis 

Apoplexy 

Apothecary 

Appendicitis 

Apyrexia 

Araroba Powder 

Aretaeus 

Arm 

Arnica 

Arnott, Neil 

Arrowroot 

Arsenic 

Arteries 

Arthritis 

Articulation . 

Arytenoid 

Asafetida 

Ascites 

Asclepiades 

Aselli, or Asselio, Gas- 

paro 
Asphyxia 
Asthma 
Astruc, Jean 
Athetosis 
Athletic Sports 
Atrophy 

Aureiianus Caelius 
Auscultation 
Autopsy 
Avenzoar 
Baby-farming 
Bacteriology 
Baldinger, E. G. 
Baldness 

Balneotherapeutics 
Balsam 
Barthez, P. J. 
Bartholinus, Gaspard 
Baths 

Beddoes, Thomas 
Bedlam, or Bethelem 

Hospital 
Bedsore 

Bell, Sir Charles 
Bell, John 
Belladonna 
Bellini, Lorenzo 
Bence-Jones, Henry 
Bennett, John Hughes 
Benzoic Acid 
Benzoin 
Beri-Beri 



Bernard, Claude 

Bert, P. 

Bhang 

Bibirine 

Bichat, M. F. X. 

Bilharziosis 

Billroth, A. C. T. 

Biology 

Bismuth 

Blackwater Fever 

Bladder 

Bladder and Prostrate 

Diseases 
Blane, Sir Gilbert 
Blindness 
Blister 
Blood 

Blood-letting 
Boerhaave, Hermann 
Boil 
Bone 
Borax 

Borelli, G. A. 
Boric, or Boracic Acid 
Bow-leg 
Boyer, Alexis 
Brain 

Brasdor, Pierre 
Breast 

Bright's Disease 
Brocklesby, Richard 
Brodie, Sir B. C. 
Bromine 
Bronchiectasis 
Bronchitis 
Bronchotomy 
Broussais, F. J. V. 
Brown, John 
Brown-Sequard, C. E. 
Bunion 
Burdon-Sanderson, Sir 

John S. 
Burns and Scalds 
Busk, George 
Cabanis, P. J. G 
Caesarean Section 
Caffeine 
Caisson Disease 
Cajuput Oil 
Calabar Bean 
Caldani, L. M. A. 
Calomel 
Camphors 

Cancer, or Carcinoma 
Cantharides 
Capsicum 
Carbolic Acid, or 

Phenol 
Carbonic Acid 
Carbuncle 
Cartilage 
Carus, K. G. 
Castor Oil 



Catabolism 

Catalepsy 

Catarrh 

Catechu 

Caul 

Caustic 

Cephalic Index 

Chadwick, Sir Edwin 

Chamomile 

Charcot, Jean Martin 

Charity and Charities 

Chemistry 

Cheselden, William 

Chicken-pox 

Chilblains 

Chirurgeon 

Chloral 

Chlorates 

Chloroform 

Cholera 

Christison, Sir Robert 

Cinchona 

Clark, Sir Andrew 

Clark, Sir James 

Clay, Charles 

Cleft Palate and Hare- 
Lip 

Climacteric 

Climate 

Clinic 

Clot, A. B. 

Club-foot 

Coal-tar 

Coca, or Cuca 

Cocaine 

Cock, Edward 

Cod-Liver Oil 

Coelom and Serous 
Membranes 

Colchicum 

Colic 

Collodion 

Colon 

Colt's Foot 

Coma 

Combe, Andrew 

Connective Tissues 

Connor, Bernard 

Conolly, John 

Constipation 

Convulsions 

Cooper, Sir Astley P. 

Copaiba 

Corn 

Cornaro, Luigi 

Coroner 

Corpulence 

Corrosive Sublimate 

Craniometry 

Cramp 

Creche 

Cremation 

Creosote 



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141 



Cretinism 

Croton Oil 

Croup 

Cruveilhier, Jean 

Cubebs 

Cullen, William 

Cupping 

Curling, T. B. 

Dandelion 

Death 

Delirium 

Dengue 

Dentistry 

Desault, P. J. 

Dextrine 

Diabetes 

Diaphoretics 

Diaphragm 

Diarrhoea 

Dietary 

Dietetics 

Digestive Organs 

Digitalis 

Dilatation 

Dill 

Diphtheria 

Dipsomania 

Disinfectants 

Diuretics 

Dropsy 

Drowning and Life 

Saving 
Drug 

Drunkenness 
DuBois-Reymond, Emil 
Duchenne, G. B. A. 
Ductless Glands 
Dupuytren, G., baron 
Dwarf 
Dysentery 
Dyspepsia 
Ear 
Eczema 
Elaterium 
Elbow 

Electrocution 
Electrotherapeutics 
Elephantiasis 
Elixir 

Elliotson, John 
Embalming 
Embryology 
Emetics 
Emphysema 
Empyema 
Enteritis 
Epilepsy 
Epistaxis 
Epithelial, Endothelial 

and Glandular 

Tissues 
Epsom Salts 
Equilibrium 

Ergot, or Spurred Rye 
Erichsen, Sir John E. 
Erysipelas 

Esmarch, J. F. A. von 
Esquirol, J. E. D. 



Ether 

Ethyl Chloride 

Ettmtiller, Michael 

Eucalyptus 

Eugenics 

Eugenol 

Euphorbium 

Evolution 

Excretion 

Extract 

Eye 

Fabricius, Hieronymus 

Face 

Faith Healing 

Fallopius, or Fallopio, 
Gabriello 

Fusel Oil 

Fauces 

Favus 

Fayrer, Sir Joseph 

Fergusson, Sir William 

Fermentation 

Fernel, Jean Frangois 

Feuchtersleben, E. von 

Fever 

Fibrin 

Filariasis 

Finger 

Fistula 

Flint, Austin 

Floyer, Sir John 

Food 

Foot 

Foot-and-mouth D i s - 
ease 

Forbes, Sir John 

Formalin, or Formalde- 
hyde 

Formic Acid 

Forster, John C. 

Foster, Sir Michael 

Fothergill, John 

Foundling Hospitals 

Fracastorc. Girolamo 

Freind, John 

Friendly Societies 

Frostbite 

Fructose, or Fruit 
Sugar 

Fumigation 

Galangal 

Galbanum 

Galen 

Gall 

Gallic Acid 

Galvani, Luigi 

Gamboge 

Gangrene 

Gastric Ulcer 

Gastritis 

Gelsemium 

Giant 

Ginseng 

Glanders, or Farcv 

Glauber's Salt 

Glycerin, or Glvcerol 

Goitre 

Good, John Mason 



Goodsir, John 

Gout 

Grafe, Albrecht von 

Grafe, K. F. von 

Graham, Sylvester 

Guaco, Huaco, or Guao 

Guaiacum 

Guarana 

Guinea-worm 

Gull, Sir William W. 

Gymnastics 

Gynaecology 

Haematocele 

Haemophilia 

Haemorrhage 

Haemorrhoids 

Hahnemann, S. C. F. 

Hall, Marshall 

Haller, Albrecht von 

Hallucination 

Hammer-toe 

Hand 

Hart, Ernest Abraham 

Hartshorn, Spirits of 

Harvey, William 

Hashish 

Hawkins, Caesar Henry 

Hay Fever 

Head 

Health 

Heart 

Heberden, William 

Heel 

Henle, F. G. J. 

Hernia 

Herpes 

Hewett, Sir Prescott G. 

Hilton, John 

Hinton, James 

Hip 

Hippocrates 

Hippuric Acid 

Hoffmann, Fried rich 

Holland, Sir Henry 

Homoeopathy 

Hop 

Horehound 

Hospital 

Hufeland, C. W. 

Humane Society, Royal 

Hunger and Thirst 

Hunter, John 

Hunter, William 

Hutchinson, Sir J. 

Hydras tine 

Hydrocele 

Hydrocephalus 

Hydrochloric Acid 

Hydropathy 

Hydrophobia, or Rabies 

Hygiene 

Hypertrophy 

Hypnotism 

Hypochondriasis 

Hysteria 

Iatrochemistry 

Ibn Usaibi'a 

Icthyosis 



Illegitimacy 

Imbecile 

Incubation and Incu- 
bators 

Infancy 

Influenza 

Insanity 

Insomnia 

Intestinal Obstruction 

Intestine 

Intoxication 

Iodine 

Iodoform 

Ipecacuanha 

Iron 

Israeli, Isaac ben Solo- 
mon 

Jaborandi 

Jalap 

Jaundice 

Jaw 

Jenner, Edward 

Jenner, Sir William 

Joints 

Kala-Azar 

Kamala 

Kidney Diseases 

Kino 

Kitazato, Shibasaburo 

Knee 

Koch, Robert 

Kousso 

Lactic Acid 

Lan gen beck, B. R. K. 
von 

Lanolin 

Largus, Scribonius 

Laryngitis 

Laudanum 

Lead Poisoning 

Leg 

Leontiasis Ossea 

Leprosy 

Lethargy 

Lichen 

Life 

Ligament 

Linacre, or Lynaker, 
Thomas 

Ling, Per Henrik 

Linseed 

Lip 

Liquorice 

Lister, Joseph Lister, 
Baron 

Liston, Robert 

Lithium 

Litmus 

Liver 

Lobe 

Lobelia 

Locomotor Ataxia 

longevity 

Lumbago 

Lung 

Lupus 

Lycanthropy 

Lymphatic System 



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BRITANNIGA READINGS AND STUDIES 



Lymph and Lymph 
Formation 

MacCormac, Sir Wil- 
liam 

Mackenzie, Sir Morell 

Magnesium 

Malaria 

Malta, or Mediterra- 
nean, Fever 

Mammary Gland 

Marshall, John 

Massage 

Matrix 

Mead, Richard 

Measles 

Medical Education 

Medical Jurisprudence 

Medicine 

Mendelism 

Meniere's Disease 

Meningitis 

Mercury 

Mesmer, F. A. 

Metabolic Diseases 

Metabolism 

Microscope 

Midwife 

Milk 

Mineral Waters 

Mitchell, Silas Weir 

Monster 

Morphine 

Mortification 

Mott, Valentine 

Mouth and Salivary 
Glands 

Mumps 

Murrain 

Muscle and Nerve 

Muscular System 

Mushroom 

Mustard 

Mutilation 

Myelitis 

Myxoedema 

Naevus 

Narcotics 

Navel 

Necrosis 

Nepenthes 

Nerve 

Nervous System 

Nettlerash, or Urti- 
caria 

Neuralgia 

Neurasthenia 

Neuritis 

Neuropathology 

Nicotine 

Nightingale, Florence 

Nitroglycerin 

Nose 

Nosology 

Nostalgia 

Nursing 

Nutrition 

Nux Vomica 

Obstetrics 



Oesophagus 

Officinal 

Oils 

Old-age Pensions 

Olfactory System 

Ophthalmology 

Opium 

Orffla, M. J. B. 

Osteology 

Ovariotomy 

Oxalic Acid 

Oxygen 

Ozone 

Paget, Sir James 

Pain 

Palate 

Pancreas 

Paracelsus 

Paraldehyde 

Paralysis, or Palsy 

Paranoia 

Parasitic Diseases 

Parasitism 

Pare", Ambroise 

Pasteur, Louis 

Pathology 

Pediculosis, or Phthiri- 

asis 
Pellagra 
Pelvis 
Pemphigus 
Pennyroyal 
Pepper, William 
Peppermint 
Pepsin 
Peritonitis 
Perspiration 
Phagocytosis 
Pharmacology 
Pharmacopoeia 
Pharmacy 
Pharyngitis 
Pharynx 
Phenacetin 
Phlebitis 
Phosphorus 
Phrenology 
Phthisis 
Physiology 
Picrotoxin 
Pinel, Philippe 
Pinto 
Piperazin 

Pitcairne, Archibald 
Pityriasis Versicolor 
Placenta 
Plague 

Pleurisy, or Pleuritis 
Pleuro-pneumonia, or 

Lung-plague 
Pneumonia 
Podophyllin 
Poison 
Polypus 
Possession 
Potassium 
Pott, Percivall 
Poultice 



Pringle, Sir John 

Prognosis 

Protoplasm 

Pruritus 

Prussic Acid 

Psoriasis 

Psorospermiasis 

Psychical Research 

Psychology 

Ptomaine Poisoning 

Puberty 

Public Health, Law of 

Puerperal Fever 

Pulse 

Purpura 

Pyrocatechin 

Qualn, Sir Richard 

Quarantine 

Quassia 

Quinine 

Quinsy 

Radcliffe, John 

Radioactivity 

Radium 

Raynaud's Disease 

Relapsing Fever 

Reproductive System 

Resorcin 

Respiratory System 

Rhamnus Purshiana 

Rhatany, or Krameria 
Root 

Rheumatism 

Rheumatoid Arthritis 

Rhubarb 

Rickets 

Rinderpest 

Ringworm 

RokHansky, C. von 

Rdntgen Rays 

Rush, Benjamin 

Saccharin 

St. Vitus Dance, or 
Chorea 

Sal-ammoniac 

Salep 

Salicin, Salicinum 

Salicylic Acid 

Salt 

Sanatorium 

Sandalwood 

Sandarach 

Santonin 

Sarsaparilla 

Savory, Sir William S. 

Scabies, or Itch 

Scalp 

Scarlet Fever, or Scar- 
latina 

Sciatica 

Scrofula, or Struma 

Scurvy, or Scorbutus 

Sea-sickness 

Seborrhoea 

Semmelweiss, I. P. 

Senega 

Senna 

Sepsis 



Serenus, Sammonicus 

Sewerage 

Shock, or Collapse 

Shoulder 

Sibbald, Sir Robert 

Simon, Sir John 

Simpson, Sir James Y. 

Sinew 

Skeleton 

Skin and Exoskeleton 

Skin Diseases 

Skull 

Slaughter-house 

Sleep 

Sleeping-sickness 

Sioane, Sir Hans 

Smallpox 

Smith, T. S. 

Sneezing 

Sodium 

Somnambulism 

Soranus 

Spikenard, or Nard 

Spinal Cord 

Spirits 

Spleen 

Sprue 

Squill 

Stammering, or Stut- 
tering 

Starvation 

Stethoscope 

Stomach 

Stramonium 

Strophanthus 

Strychnine 

Sugar 

Suggestion 

Suicide 

Sulphonal 

Sulphur 

Sumbul, or Sumbal 

Sunstroke 

Supra-renal Extract 

Surgery 

Surgical Instruments 
and Appliances 

Sweating-sickness 

Sweetbread 

Sydenham, Thomas 

Syme, James 

Sympathetic System 

Syncope 

Tagliacozzi, Gasparo 

Tannic Acid 

Tapeworms 

Tar 

Taraxacum 

Tartar 

Tartaric Acid 

Teeth 

Temperance 

Terpenes 

Tetanus 

Therapeutics 

Thompson, Sir Henry 

Thorax 

Throat 



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Thymol 

Thyroid 

Tincture 

Tongue 

Tonsillitis 

Toxicology 

Tracheotomy 

Trachoma 

Trance 

Trichinosis 

Tuberculosis 

Tumour 

Typhoid Fever 

Typhus Fever 

Ulcer 



Upas 
Urea 
Urethane 
Uric Acid 
Urinary System 
Urotropin 
Vaccination 
Valerian 

Variation and Selec- 
tion 
Varicose Veins 
Vascular System 
Vaseline 
Vegetarianism 



Veins 

Venereal Diseases 

Verdigris 

Veronal 

Veterinary Science 

Viburnum 

Vivisection 

Voice 

Wakley, Thomas 

Wart 

Water-supply 

Weights and Measures 

Wells, Sir Thomas S. 

Whitlow 



Whooping-cough 

Willis, Thomas 

Wilson, Sir W. J. ] 

Windpipe 

Wine 

Wintergreen 

Witch-hazel 

Wound 

Wrist 

Wry-neck 

X-Ray Treatment 

Yaws 

Yellow Fever 

Zinc 

Zymotic Diseases 



CHAPTER XXVI 



FOR LAWYERS 



IN the days when Marshall and Story, 
on the bench of the Supreme Court at 
Washington, were listening to Web- 
ster's thunder; when Chancellor Kent was 
scrutinizing precedents in New York, and 
Rufus Choate quoting Justinian at Salem, 
success at the bar depended upon elabor- 
ate rhetoric and a close study of the Re- 
ports. To-day, sound advice is in greater 
demand than brilliant oratory, and ques- 
tions of fact are, as a rule, more important 
and more perplexing than questions of 
law. 

The Britannica is the one great Digest 
of Facts. Its articles cover all scientific, 
industrial, commercial and financial sub- 
jects. Fifteen hundred of the world's 
foremost specialists, chosen from twenty 
different countries* deal not only with all 
knowledge, but with the practical applica- 
tion of knowledge in the laboratory, the 
machine shop, in the mine, on the ship's 
deck and in the ship's engine-room, in the 
railroad office and on the railroad line. 
Bankers and engineers, builders and con- 
tractors, physicians and surgeons and 
manufacturers of every kind describe the 
work which they have themselves suc- 
cessfully done. They explain to the law- 
yer the details of his client's own business, 



which the client is almost always incapa- 
ble of explaining. They enable the lawyer 
to test his client's knowledge and his 
client's good faith. They show the law- 
yer what he has to hope or to dread from 
expert evidence. 

In a mining town in Alaska, where the 
workmen were mostly Servians, a lawyer 
recently had an unusual case. The Ser- 
vians had a church, 
The Volumes which in the absence 
as Used by of the Servian priest, 

Lawyers was in the charge of 

a father or "papa" of 
the Russian orthodox church, and he 
tried to exclude from their church the en- 
tire congregation because they disobeyed 
him. The lawyer brought into court the 
Encyclopaedia Britannica to prove the 
independence of the Servian Church from 
the authority of the Russian Church. The 
Britannica was recognized as ah authority 
by the court, and the Servian congrega- 
tion won its suit for the use of its church 
building. 

A Buffalo lawyer in a recent letter to 
the publishers of the Britannica told of 
his being retained in a case involving the 
qualities of materials used in the con- 
struction of automatic car couplers. He 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



read many technical works to get infor- 
mation on this subject, but "the article 
that to me was most instructive was that 
on Iron and Steel in the Encyclopaedia 
Britannica." He adds, "In my opinion 
the work is invaluable to any person who 
desires the means of handy reference to, 
and accurate information on, any topic." 
Similar testimony from lawyers all over 
the world to the usefulness of the Brit- 
annica could be adduced in great volume. 

A brief reference to the different parts 
of this Guide will show in a general way 
the contents and value of the Britannica 
in the many fields in which an attorney 
may need, in connection with the prep- 
aration of a case, immediate and authori- 
tative information on subjects not purely 
legal. 

But on legal topics, also, the lawyer or 
the law student will find much valuable 
information. 

He should read the stimulating and 
suggestive article on American Law (Vol. 
1, p. 828), by Simeon E. Baldwin, gover- 
nor of Connecticut, 
American Law professor of constitu- 
tional and private 
international law at Yale, and formerly 
chief justice of the Supreme Court of 
Errors, Connecticut. Governor Bald- 
win's article points out the general iden- 
tity of origin of American and English 
law, with the important exception of ter- 
ritory formerly French or Spanish, — par- 
ticularly Louisiana, — a point on which 
the reader will find fuller information in 
the articles Louisiana (Vol. 17, p. 57) 
and Edward Livingston (Vol. 16, p. 
811). Besides he calls attention to the fact 
that the state and not the nation is for 
the most part the legislative unit and the 
legislative authority. And this leads to 
a consideration of the great part played 
in American jurisprudence by the Civil 
War and the consequent changes in the 
Federal Constitution, especially the Four- 
teenth Amendment, which has been the 
basis of so many recent cases in the Su- 
preme Court and has "readjusted and re- 



set the whole system of the American 
law of personal rights" by transferring 
final jurisdiction from state to Federal 
courts. 

Within the Southern states the Recon- 
struction period affected local law in 
various ways: by putting political power 
into the hands of outsiders ("carpet bag- 
gers," etc.), by the social revolution con- 
sequent on the abolition of slavery, and 
by the commercial assimilation of the 
South to the North. 

Governor Baldwin points out that the 
judicial department has been made part- 
ly administrative by the artificial distri- 
bution under most state constitutions 
of governmental powers into executive, 
legislative and judicial, overlooking the 
administrative, and making the courts 
the interpreters of statutes and giving to 
them the power of deciding whether or 
not statutes are constitutional. 

That the police powers of the states are 
more and more liberally interpreted by 
the Federal Supreme Court is an interest- 
ing tendency, especially when the student 
remembers that in the last year or so cer- 
tain states (notably Washington, c. 74, 
Laws 1911, Compensation of Injured 
Workmen) have definitely stated the 
police power as the basis of acts which the 
state supreme court might otherwise have 
declared unconstitutional as depriving of 
property without due process of law. 

The article on American law is supple- 
mented: 

(a) in a general way by the valuable 
contribution of James Bryce (author of 
The American Commonwealth, and late 
British ambassador to the United States) 
on the Constitution and Government of 
the United States and of the states (Vol. 
27, p. 646 — an article which would fill 
about 50 pages of this Guide). 

(b) more particularly, under the ar- 
ticles on the separate states (as well as on 
Alaska, Hawaii, Philippines and Porto 
Rico), by the description of the state or 
local constitution with an outline of char- 
acteristic and peculiar statutes. For 



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145 



instance, in the article Alabama (Vol. 
1, p. 459), the first in the Britannica 

on a separate state 
State Statutes of the Union, there 

is a general sketch of 
the constitution and government with 
particular attention to these points : term 
of judiciary, 6 years; legislative sessions, 
quadrennial; law against lobbying; execu- 
tive may not succeed himself; sheriffs 
whose prisoners are lynched may be im- 
peached; grandfather clause, practically 
disfranchising the negro — with a sum- 
mary of Giles v. Harris, 189 U. S. 474; 
Jim Crow law; disfranchisement for vote- 
buying or selling; Australian ballot law; 
anti-pass law; freight rebate law; home- 
stead exemptions; wife's earnings sepa- 
rate property; women and child labour 
laws; peonage; liquor laws. 

(c) by special articles, such as Home- 
stead and Exemption Laws (Vol. 13, p. 
639), Original Package (Vol. 20, p. 273) 
and Interstate Commerce (Vol. 14, p. 
711; equal to about 10 pages of this 
Guide), by Prof. Frank A. Fetter of 
Princeton (formerly Cornell), which deal 
with purely American legal topics. 

(d) by legal sections in general econ- 
omic articles, for instance: in Railways, 
the section on American Legislation, by 
Prof. F. H. Dixon of Dartmouth, author 
of State Railroad Control; in Trusts, by 
Prof. J. W. Jenks, the great American au- 
thority on the subject; in Employers' 
Liability ; in Trade Unions and in 
Strikes and Lockouts, both by Carroll 
D. Wright, late U. S. Commissioner of 
Labor; Bankruptcy, by Edward Man- 
son, author of Law of Bankruptcy; and in 
Insurance (Vol. 14, especially p. 662 c). 

(e) by general legal articles like: Com- 
mon Law; Criminal Law, by W. F. 
Craies, editor of Archbold On Criminal 
Pleading; Liquor Laws, by Arthur Shad- 
well, author of Drink, Temperance and 
Legislation; Medical Jurisprudence, by 
H. H. Littlejohn, professor of forensic 
medicine in the University of Edinburgh; 
Military Law, by Sir John Scott, former 



deputy judge-advocate-general, British 
Army; Navigation Laws, by James 
Williams, of Lincoln College, Oxford; 
Press Laws; Seamen, Laws, relating 
to, etc. 

and (f) by sections and paragraphs on 
American law in hundreds of articles on 
legal topics — for list see below. 

The following list of American jurists 
does not include all American lawyers 
about whom there are separate articles 
in the Britannica, but 
Biographies will serve to suggest a 
of Lawyers brief course of bio- 
graphical readings 
which the lawyer could not duplicate 
even in a special and expensive work on 
the American bar: 

Samuel Sewall (Vol. 24, p. 783) 
John Rutledoe (Vol. 23, p. 945) 
Samuel Chase (Vol. 5, p. 956) 
Francis Dana (Vol. 7, p. 792) 
John Lowell (Vol. 17, p. 76) 
Oliver Ellsworth (Vol. 9, p. 294) 
John Jay (Vol. 15, p. 294) 
Robert R. Livingston (Vol. 16, p. 812) 
Luther Martin (Vol. 17, p. 794) 
Theophilus Parsons (Vol. 20, p. 868) 
John Marshall (Vol. 17, p. 770) 
Edmund Randolph (Vol. 22, p. 886) 
James Kent (Vol. 15, p. 735) 
Edward Livingston (Vol. 16, p. 811) 
Bushrod Washington (Vol. 28, p. 844) 
Roger Brooke Taney (Vol. 26, p. 396) 
Samuel Hoar (Vol. 13, p. 542) 
Horace Binney (Vol. 3, p. 949) 
James Wilson (Vol. 28, p. 698) 
William Pinkney (Vol. 21, p. 627) 
Lemuel Shaw (Vol. 24, p. 813) 
Daniel Webster (Vol. 28, p. 459) 
Simon Greenleaf (Vol. 12, p. 548) 
Henry Wheaton (Vol. 28, p. 583) 
Richard Rush (Vol. 23, p. 857) 
John Bouvier (Vol. 4, p. 836) 
Joseph Story (Vol. 25, p. 969) 
Levi Woodbury (Vol. 28, p. 790) 
James Hall (Vol. 12, p. 847) 
Reverdy Johnson (Vol. 15, p. 462) 
Hugh S. Legare (Vol. 16, p. 373) 
Rufus Choate (Vol. 6, p. 258) 
Benjamin F. Butler (Vol. 4, p. 881) 
David Dudley Field (Vol. 10, p. 821) 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



S. P. Chase (Vol. 5, p. 955) 
John J. Crittenden (Vol. 7, p. 471) 
Hamilton Fish (Vol. 10, p. 427) 
Benjamin R. Curtis (Vol. 7, p. 652) 
J. S. Black (Vol. 4, p. 18) 
Judah P. Benjamin (Vol. 8, p. 789) 
John Y. Mason (Vol. 17, p. 840) 
George Ticknor Curtis (Vol. 7, p. 651) 
R. H. Dana (Vol. 7, p. 792) 
Samuel J. Tilden (Vol. 26, p. 970) 
Samuel F. Miller (Vol. 18, p. 464). 
Stephen J. Field (Vol. 10, p. 822) 
W. M. Evarts (Vol. 10, p. 4) 
Francis Wharton (Vol. 28, p. 575) 
Morrison R. Waite (Vol. 28, p. 246) 
T. W. Dwight (Vol. 8, p. 741) 
E. J. Phelps (Vol. 21, p. 868) 
Stanley Matthews (Vol. 17, p. 899) 
L. Q. C. Lamar (Vol. 16, p. 100) 

C. C. Langdell (Vol. 16, p. 172) 

D. W. Voorhees (Vol. 28, p. 211) 
T. F. Bayard (Vol. 8, p. 554) 
Horace Gray (Vol. 12, p. 891) 
Joseph Hodges Choate (Vol. 6, p. 258) 
Melville W. Fuller (Vol. 11, p. 296) 
Wayne MacVeagh (Vol. 17, p. 269) 
John Marshall Harlan (Vol. 12, p. 

954) 
Richard Olney (Vol. 20, p. 91) 
Cushman K. Davis (Vol. 7, p. 866) 
Oliver Wendell Holmes (Vol. 18, p. 

616) 
David Bennett Hill (Vol. 18, p. 464) 
Elihu Root (Vol. 28, p. 711) 
Philander C. Knox (Vol. 15, p. 882) 

Of great value to the student of law, as 
widening his scope, would be a course of 
more general reading. This should in- 
clude: 

(a) the articles Law, Jurisprudence 
and Comparative Jurisprudence, by 
Paul Vinogradoff, Corpus professor of 
jurisprudence at Oxford. 

(b) articles on national and other legal 
systems, such as 

English Law, History, by the late 
Frederick W. Maitland, Downing pro- 
fessor of English law at Cambridge. 

Anglo-Saxon Law, by Paul Vino- 
gradoff. 

Germanic Laws, Early, by Professor 
Christian Pfister, of the Sorbonne. 



Code Napoleon, by Jean Paul Esmein, 
professor of law in the University of 
Paris, 

and Roman Law, probably one of the 
most remarkable articles in the new edi- 
tion and of the utmost importance (as in 
a less degree are the articles Code and 
Code Napoleon) to the student of civil 
law. It is based on the well-known ar- 
ticle contributed to the Ninth Edition of 
the Britannica by James Muirhead, pro- 
fessor of civil law, Edinburgh; but the 
article is actually the work of the reviser, 
Henry Goudy, regius professor of civil 
law, Oxford, and it may well be called the 
best present treatment of the subject. 
The article is a brief text-book in itself, 
containing matter equivalent in length 
to nearly 200 pages of this Guide. The 
treatment is historical, beginning with 
the almost mythical regal period and 
throwing light on the laws before the 
XII Tables, but this does not mean that 
the later period, legally more important, 
is not treated with proper fullness so that 
the practical as well as the theoretical is 
considered. 

Slightly remoter systems are the sub- 
jects of separate articles: Salic Law, by 
Professor Pfister of the Sorbonne; Bre- 
hon Laws, by Law- 
Some Legal rence Ginnell, M. P., 
Systems author of a mono- 
graph on the subject; 
Welsh Laws; an elaborate article on 
the little-known subject Greek Law, 
by John Edwin Sandys of Cambridge, 
author of History of Classical Scholarship; 
Indian Law, by Sir William Markby, 
reader in Indian Law at Oxford, formerly 
judge of the High Court of Calcutta; 
Mahommedan Law (a subject no longer 
alien to the American because of the large 
number of Mahommedans in the Philip- 
pines), by D. B. Macdonald, professor in 
Hartford Theological Seminary, and au- 
thor of Development of Muslim Theology; 
and Babylonian Law (by C. H.W. Johns, 
Master of St. Catharine's, Cambridge, au- 
thor of The Oldest Code of Laws, etc.), 



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147 



containing a summary of the famous 
code of King Khammurabi. 

The following list does not include the 
biographies of lawyers and is not a com- 



plete list of all topics pertaining to law 
in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, but it 
will give some idea of the scope of the 
legal department of the work. 



Abandonment 

Abatement 

Abdication 

Abduction 

Abettor 

Abeyance 

Abjuration 

Abode 

Abrogation 

Abscond 

Abstract of Title 

Acceptance 

Acceptation 

Access 

Accession 

Accessory 

Accommodation Bill 

Accomplice 

Accord 

Accountant-General 

Accretion 

Accumulation 

Accusation 

A cknowledgment 

Act 

Action 

Act of Parliament 

Act of Petition 

Address, The 

Ademption 

Adjournment 

Adjudication 

Adjustment 

Administration 

Administrator • 

Admiralty, High Court 

Admiralty Jurisdiction 

Admission 

Adoption 

Adscript 

Adultery 

Advancement 

Adventure 

Advocate 

Advocates, Faculty of 

Advowson 

Affidavit 

Affiliation 

Affinity 

Affray 

Affreightment 

Age 

Agent 

Agistment 

Agnates 

Alabama Arbitration 

Alderman 

Alias 

Alibi 



Alien 

Alienation 

Aliment 

Alimony 

Allegiance 

Alliance 

Allocatur 

Allodium 

Allonge 

Allotment 

Allowance 

Alluvion 

Ambiguity 

Amendment 

Amercement 

American Law 

Amicus Curiae 

Amnesty 

Amortization 

Analyst 

Ancient Lights 

Angary 

Anglo-Saxon Law 

Annates 

Annexation 

Annoy 

Answer 

Apology 

Appanage 

Apparitor 

Appeal 

Appearance 

Appointment, Power of 

Apportionment 

Apportionment Bill 

Appraiser 

Appropriation 

Appurtenances 

Aram, Eugene 

Arbitration 

Arbitration, Interna- 
tional 

Arches, Court of 

Aristocracy 

Arraignment 

Array 

Arrest 

Arrestment 

Arrondissment 

Arson 

Art and Part 

Articles of Association 

Assault 

Assembly, Unlawful 

Assessment 

Assessor 

Assets 

Assignment, Assigna- 
tion, Assignee 



Assize 

Associate 

Assumpsit 

Asylum, Right of 

Attachment 

Attainder 

Attaint, Writ of 

Attempt 

Attestation 

Attorney 

Attorney-General 

Attornment 

Auctions 

Audience 

Autocracy 

Autonomy 

Average 

Avizandum 

Award 

Babylonian Law 

Back-bond 

Bail 

Bailiff and Bailie 

Bailment 

Ballot 

Bank Holidays 

Bankruptcy 

Banns of Marriage 

Bar, The 

Bargain and Sale 

Barmote Court 

Barratry 

Barrington, George 

Base fee 

Basilica 

Basoche 

Bastard 

Bastinado 

Baylo 

Beadle 

Beheading 

Belligerency 

Bench 

Benefice 

Beneficiary 

Bequest 

Bering Sea Arbitra- 
tion 

Bet and Betting 

Betterment 

Bigamy 

Bill 

Bill of Exchange 

Bill of Sale 

Birth 

Blackmail 

Black Rod 

Blanch Pee, or Blanch 
Holding 



Blasphemy 
Blinding 
Blockade 
Blue-book 
Boarding-house 
Bocland 
Body-snatching 
Boiling to Death 
Bona Fide 
Bond 
Boot 
Borough 

Borough English 
Bottomry 

Bound, or Boundary 
Brachylogus . 
Branding 
Branks 
Brawling 
Breach 
Brehon Laws 
Breviary of Alaric 
Bribery 
Brief 
Britton 
Burgage 
Burgess 
Burglary 

Burial and Burial Acts 
Burke, William 
Burning to Death 
By-law 
Cabinet 
Cadastre 
Camera 
Cangue 
Canon Law 
Canton 

Capital Punishment 
Capitulary 
Capitulation 
Caption 
Captive 
Capture 
Cargo 
Carrier 
Case 

Casus Belli 
Caucus 
Caveat 
Cemetery 
Cessio Bonorum 
Cestui, Cestuy 
Challenge 
Chamberlain 
Chambers 

Champerty, or Cham- 
party 
Chance-medlev 



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BRITANNIGA READINGS AND STUDIES 



Chancery 

Chantage 

Charge^ d'affaires 

Charging Order 

Charter 

Chartered Companies 

Charter-Party 

Chattel 

Cheating 

Children, Law relating 
to 

Children's Courts 

Chiltern Hundreds 

Chose 

Church Rate 

Churchwarden 

Churchyard 

Cinque Ports 

Circuit 

Citation 

Citizen 

City 

Civil Law 

Civil List 

Civil Service 

Clergy, Benefit of 

Clerk 

Closure 

Code 

Code Napoleon 

Codicil 

Coercion 

Cognizance 

Coif 

Coinage Offences 

Collateral 

Collusion 

Colony 

Comity 

Commercial Court 

Commercial Law 

Commisson 

Commissioner 

Commitment 

Common Law 

Common Lodging- 
House 

Common Pleas, Court 
of 

Commons 

Commonwealth 

Company 

Compensation 

Compromise 

Comptroller 

Compurgation 

Conacre 

Concert 

Conditional Fee 

Conditional Limitation 

Confarreatio 

Confession and Avoid- 
ance 

Confiscation 

Conge* d'Elire 

Congress 

Conjugal Rights 

Conquest 



Consanguinity, or Kin- 
dred 

Conseil de famille 

Conservator 

Consideration 

Consignment 

Consistory Courts 

Consolidation Acts 

Consort 

Conspiracy 

Constable 

Constituency 

Constitution and Con- 
stitutional Law 

Consul 

Consulate of the Sea 

Contempt of Court 

Contraband 

Contract 

Contumacy 

Conversion 

Conveyancing 

Convoy 

Coparcenary 

Copyhold 

Copyright 

Co-respondent 

Coroner 

Corporal Punishment 

Corporation 

Corpse 

Corrupt Practices 

Costs 

Counsel and Counsellor 

Counterfeiting 

County 

County Court 

Court 

Court Baron 

Court Leet 

Court-martial 

Covenant 

Coverture 

Covin 

Credentials 

Crime 

Criminal Law 

Criminology 

Crimp 

Crown Debt 

Crown Land 

Cruelty 

Culprit 

Curator 

Curtesy 

Curtilage 

Custom 

Customary Freehold 

Custos Rotulorum 

Cy-pres 

Damages 

Day 

Death 

Debentures 

Debt 

Declaration 

Declaration of Paris 

Declarator 



Decree 

De Donis Conditionali- 
bus 

Deed 

Defamation 

Default 

Defeasance 

Defence 

Defendant 

Del Credere 

Demesne 

Demise 

Democracy 

Demurrage 

Demurrer 

Denizen 

Deodand 

Department 

Deportation or Trans- 
portation 

Deposit 

Deputy 

Derelict 

Desertion 

Detainer 

Detinue 

Digest 

Dilapidation 

Diligence 

Diplomacy 

Directors 

Disability 

Discharge 

Disclaimer 

Discovery 

Disorderly House 

Dissolution 

Distress 

District 

Divorce 

Doctors' Commons 

Document 

Domestic Relations 

Domicile 

Donatio Mortis Causa 

Dower 

Dowry 

Dragoman 

Drawing and Quater- 
ing 

Droit 

Duke of Exeter's 
Daughter 

Durbar 

Duress 

Earl Marshal 

Earnest 

Easement 

Eavesdrip 

Ecclesiastical Commis- 
sioners 

Ecclesiastical Jurisdic- 
tion 

Ecclesiastical Law 

Edict 

Ejectment 

Election 

Elections 



Electrocution 

Elegit 

Embargo 

Embassy 

Embezzlement 

Emblements 

Embracery 

Eminent Domain 

Emperor 

Enclave 

English Law 

Englishry 

Entail 

Envoy 

Equity 

Error 

Escheat 

Estate 

Estate and House 
Agents 

Estate Duty 

Estoppel 

Estovers 

Estreat 

Evidence 

Execution 

Executors and Admin- 
istrators 

Exequatur 

Exhumation 

Exile 

Expatriation 

Expert 

Express 

Expropriation 

Expulsion 

Extenuating Circum- 
stances 

Exterritoriality 

Extortion 

Extradition 

Factor 

Faculty 

False Pretences 

Faubourg 

Federal Government 

Fee 

Felo De Se 

Felony 

Feoffment 

Ferry 

Fetters and Handcuffs 

Feu 

Fictions 

Fiduciary 

Fieri Facias 

Fine 

Finger Prints 

Fishery, Law of 

Fixtures 

Flat 

Fleet Prison 

Fleta 

Flotsam, Jetsam and 
Ligan 

Foreclosure 

Foreign Office 

Foreshore 



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149 



Forest Laws 
Forfeiture 
Forgery 
Franchise 
Frank-almoign 
Frank-marriage 
Fraud 
Freebench 
Freehold 
Freeman 
Freight 
Fuero 

Gallows, or Gibbet 
Game Laws 

Gaming and Wagering 
Garnish 
Garrote 
Gavelkind 
Geneva Convention 
Germanic Laws, Early 
Gift 
Glebe 
Goodwill 
Government 
Grant 
Gravamen 
Greek Law 
Gross 

Ground Rent 
Guarantee . 
Guardian 
Guerrilla 
Guillotine 
Habeas Corpus 
Hanging 
Hanaper 
Handwriting 
Haro, Clameur de 
Hegemony 
Heir 

Heirloom 
Hereditament 
Heriot 

Heritable Jurisdictions 
High Seas 
Highway 
Hinterland 

Hire-Purchase Agree- 
ment 
Hiring 
Holiday 
Homage 
Home Office 
Homicide 

Horning, Letters of 
Hotch-pot 
Household, Royal 
Hue and Cry 
Hundred 

Husband and Wife 
Hypothec 
Identification 
Ignoramus 
Ignorance 
Immunity 
Impeachment 
Impotence 
Impressment 



Incendiarism 

Incest 

Inclosure 

Incorporation 

Indemnity 

Indenture 

Indian Law 

Indictment 

Indorsement 

Inebriety, Law of 

Infamy 

Infant 

Infanticide 

In Forma Pauperis 

Information 

Informer 

Inheritance 

Inhibition 

Initials 

Injunction 

Inn and Innkeeper 

Inns of Court 

Innuendo 

Inquest 

Insanity 

Instalment 

Instrument 

Intent 

Interdiction 

Interesse Termini 

Interest 

International Law 

Interpellation 

Interpleader 

Interpretation 

Interstate Commerce 

Intestacy 

Intransigent 

Inventory 

I. O. U. 

Jactitation 

Joinder 

Joint 

Jointure 

Jougs, Juggs, or Joggs 

Judge 

Judge - Advocate- Gen- 
eral 

Judgment 

Judgment Debtor 

Judgment Summons 

Judicature Acts 

Jurat 

Jurisdiction 

Jurisprudence 

Jurisprudence, Com- 
parative 

Jury 

Jus primae noctis 

Jus Relictae 

Justice 

Justice of the Peace 

Justiciary, High Court 

Justification 

Juvenile Offenders 

Ketch, John 

Kidnapping 

King's Bench, Court of 



Knight-Service 

Knout 

Kurbash 

Laches 

Lading, Bill of 

Landlord and Tenant 

Land Registration 

Lapse 

Larceny 

Law 

Law Merchant 

Lease 

Legacy 

Legation 

Legitim 

Legitimacy and Legiti- 
mation 

Lesion 

Letters Patent 

Libel and Slander 

Liberty 

Licence 

Lien 

Limitation, Statutes of 

Liquidation 

Liquor Laws 

Local Governuient 

Local Government 
Board 

Lodger and Lodgings 

Lord Advocate 

Lord Chamberlain 

Lord Chief Justice 

Lord Great Chamber- 
lain 

Lord High Chancellor 

Lord Hjgh Constable 

Lord High Steward 

Lord High Treasurer 

Lord Justice Clerk 

Lord Justice-General 

Lord Keeper of the 
Great Seal 

Ix>rd President of the 
Council 

Ivords Justices of Ap- 
peal 

Lords of Appeal 

Lord Steward 

Lost Property 

lotteries 

Lynch Law 

Magistrate 

Mahommedan Law 

Maiden 

Maiming 

Maintenance 

Majority 

Mandamus, Writ of 

Mandarin 

Mandate 

Manifest 

Manor 

Mansion 

Manslaughter 

Man-traps 

Mnre Clausum and 
Mare Li be rum 



Maritime Territory 

Marriage 

Marshalsea 

Martial Law 

Master and Servant 

Master of the Horse 

Master of the Rolls 

Maxims, Legal 

Mayhem 

Mayor 

Mediation 

Medical Jurisprudence 

Meeting 

Memorandum of Asso- 
ciation 

Merger 

Mesne 

Messuage 

Military Law 

Ministry 

Miscarriage 

Misdemeanour 

Misprision 

Mistake 

Monarchy 

Monition 

Mortgage 

Mortmain 

Motion 

Multiplepoinding 

Municipality 

Muniment 

Murder 

Mutiny 

Nationality 

Naturalization 

Navigation Laws 

Negligence 

Negotiable Instrument 

Neutrality 

Next Friend 

Nisi Prius 

Noise 

Nolle Prosequi 

Nonconformity, Law 
relating to 

Nonfeasance, Misfeas- 
ance, Malfeasance 

Nonsuit 

North Sea Fisheries 
Convention 

Notary or Notary Pub- 
lic 

Notice 

Novation 

Nuisance 

Nullification 

Oath 

Obiter Dictum 

Obligation 

Obscenity 

Office 

Oligarchy 

Ordeal 

Order in Council 

Ordinance 

Ordinary 

Original Package 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



Ouster 

Outlawry 

Overt Act 

Oyer and Terminer 

Pacific Blockade 

Pandects 

Paraphernalia 

Pardon 

Parish 

Parlement 

Parliament 

Parricide 

Parson 

Partition 

Partnership 

Party Wall 

Passport 

Patents 

Patents of Precedence 

Patron and Client 

Paymaster-General 

Payment 

Payment of Members 

Peace 

Peace, Breach of 

Peace Conferences 

Peine forte et dure 

Peerage 

Penalty 

Penology 

Pension 

Perjury 

Perpetuity 

Person, Offences 

against the 
Personal Property 
Personation 
Petition 
Picketing 
Pillory 

Pirate and Piracy 
Plaintiff 
Pleading 
Plebiscite 
Pledge 
Plurality 
Plutocracy 
Police * 
Police Courts 
Posse Comitatus 
Possession 

Post & Postal Service 
Potwalloper 
Power of Attorney 
Praemunire 
Preamble 
Prerogative 
Prerogative Courts 
Prescription 
Press Laws 
Prime Minister 
Primogeniture 
Principal and Agent 
Prison 
Privateer 
Privilege 
Privy Council 
Privy Purse 



Privy Seal 

Prize or Prize of War 
Probate 
Probation 
Procedure 
Process 
Proces-verbal 
Proclamation 
Proctor 
Procuration 
Procurator 
Profanity 
Prohibition 
Promoter 
Property 
Prorogation 
Prosecution 
Prospectus 
Protectorate 
Provisional Order 
Provost 
Proxy 

Public House 
Puisne 
Purchase 
Quantum Meruit 
Quarantine 
Quare Impedit 
Quarter Sessions 
Queen Anne's Bounty 
Quorum 
Quo Warranto 
Rack 

Ragman Rolls 
Raid 
Rape 
Rate 

Real Property 
Rebellion 
Receipt 
Receiver 
Recess 
Recidivism 
Recognisance 
Record 
Recorder 
Reeve 
Referee 

Referendum and Initi- 
ative 
Refresher 
Regent 
Register 
Registration 
Release 

Remainder, Reversion 
Remand 
Remembrancer 
Rent 
Repairs 
Repeal 
Replevin 
Representation 
Reprieve 
Reprisals 

Request, Letters of 
Requests, Court of 
Rescue 



Reservation 

Residence 

Resident 

Residue 

Respite 

Respondent 

Restraint 

Retainer 

Reward 

Ridings 

Riot 

Robbery 

Roman Law 

Rundale 

Sacrilege 

Salary 

Sale of Goods 

Salic Law and other 

Prankish Laws 
Salvage 
Sanction 
Satisfaction 
Scandal 

Scavenger's Daughter 
Schedule 
Scire Facias 
Scot and Lot 
Scrip 
Scrutiny 
Sea Laws 
Seamen, Laws relating 

to 
Search or Visit and 

Search 
Secession 
Secret 

Secretary of State 
Security 

Sederunt, Act of 
Sedition 
Seduction 

Seignory or Seigniory 
Seisin 
Senate 
Sentence 
Sequestration 
Sergeant-at-Law 
Serjeanty 
Servitude 
Session 
Set-off 
Settlement 
Sexton 
Share 

Shelley's Case, Rule in 
Sheppard, John (Jack) 
Sheriff 
Shire 

Sign Manual, Royal 
Simony 
Slander 
Socage 
Soke 
Solicitor 

Solicitor-General 
Sovereignty 
Speaker 
Specification 



Specific Performance 
Spheres of Influence 
Spring-gun 
Spy 
State 

State, Great Officers of 
State Rights 
State Trials 
Statute 
Stipend 
Stocks 

Stocks and Shares 
Stolen Goods 
Subinfeudation 
Succession 
Succession Duty 
Suffrage 

Summary Jurisdiction 
Summons 
Sunday 

Superannuation 
Supercargo 
Supply 

Supreme Court of Ju- 
dicature 
Surety 
Surrender 
Surrogate 
Suzerainty 
Swearing* 
Syndic 
Syndicate 
Taille 
Tally 
Tanistry 
Tenant 
Tenant-right 
Tenement 
Tenure 
Term 
Theatre 
Theft 
Thegn 
Threat 

Tichborne Claimant 
Ticket-of-leave 
Time 
Tipstaff 
Tithes 
Tithing 
Toleration 
Toll 
Tort 
Torture 
Town 

Trade, Board of 
Transfer 
Tread-mill 
Treason 
Treasure Trove 
Treasury 
Treaties 
Trespass 
Trial 
Tribute 
Trover 
Truck 
Trust and Trustees 



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Turpin, Richard 

Twelve Tables 

Udal 

Ukaz or Ukase 

Ultimatum 

Underwriter 

University Courts 

Uses 

Valuation and Valuers 

Venue 

Verdict 

Vestry 



Veto 

Vicar 

Vice-Chancellor 

Viceroy 

Vidocq, F. E. 

Vigilance Committee 

Vizier 

Vote and Voting 

Voucher 

Wager 

Wainewright, T. G. 

War, Laws of 



Warden 

Warrant 

Warrant of Attorney 

Warranty 

Warren 

Waste 

Water Rights 

Waters, Territorial 

Welsh Laws 

Wergild 

Westminster Statutes 

Wheel, Breaking on the 



Whig and Tory 

Whip 

Whipping or Flogging 

Wild, Jonathan 

Will or Testament 

Witness 

Woolsack 

Works and Public 

Buildings, Board of 
Wreck 
Writ 
Writers to the Signet 



CHAPTER XXVII 



FOR BANKERS AND FINANCIERS 



OF all classes of business men, 
bankers and financiers study most 
closely the general tendencies of 
public opinion and the general course of 
industrial and commercial development. 
Each day's financial news reports a posi- 
tion which has been reached in the path 
of a movement of which the origin and 
earlier course — and therefore the direc- 
tion — must be sought in the record of 
past months and years, and 
Social sometimes in the record of 

History a past century. But the 
banker who turns to the 
standard histories in his library with the 
desire to trace the course of any gradual 
and long-continued development is gen- 
erally disappointed. 

It is only of late that historical in- 
vestigation has been directed to social 
and commercial activities rather than to 
politics and wars. Yet the history of 
civilization may be said to lie in the 
course of finance and commerce much 
more than in party strife and in civil and 
international wars. For the latter al- 
ways arrest for the moment, even if they 
ultimately further, the progress of civi- 
lization. 

The new Britannica has been called 
"the most comprehensive of all surveys 
of past and present civilization," and its 



treatment of finance and commerce pos- 
sesses a breadth and sweep directly due 
to the international character of the 
book. The American financier knows 
that under existing conditions he must 
take into account the laws and usages of 
foreign countries in regard to banking, 
currency, taxation, stock exchange trans- 
actions, corporations and all the other 
methods and appliances used in dealing 
with money and credit. The Britannica 
could not have covered this broad field 
authoritatively if its articles had all been 
written by Americans instead of being 
contributed, as they are, by specialists of 
twenty countries. And the very first 
step, in examining any question of Amer- 
ican finance, may be to consider what has 

been done abroad. 
International For example, there 
Finance has been adopted in 

Louisiana a system 
of rural credit such as was strongly urged, 
for more general use, during President 
Taft's administration. That would seem 
to be purely a matter of internal policy. 
But for a description of the actual work- 
ing of such a system, the sources of in- 
formation are in the Britannica article 
Raiffeisen (Vol. 22, p. 817), the German 
banker who perfected the system of ag- 
rarian credits, in the article Schtjlze- 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



Delitzsch (Vol. 24, p. 383), the Saxon 
economist who founded the German cen- 
tral bureau of co-operative societies, and 
in the article Co-Operation (Vol. 7, p. 
82), where the Danish system of financing 
farmers is described and compared with 
the German and French methods. 

Systematic reading in the Britannica 
on financial subjects should begin with 
the article Finance (Vol. 10, p. 347, 
equivalent to 20 pages of this Guide), by 
C. F. Bastable, professor of political 
economy in the University of Dublin, 
whose books on economics have been 
largely read in the United States. This 
article deals with state revenue and ex- 
penditure, or public finance, after point- 
ing out the prevailing looseness in the 
use of the word finance. It is interesting 
to know that "in 'the later middle ages, 
especially in Germany, the word finance 
acquired the sense of usurious or oppres- 
sive dealing with money and capital." 
So long ago did an unpopular meaning 
attach to a term connected with "big 
business." The same is true of the word 
usury, which originally meant use, or in- 
terest; and the Britannica in an article on 
Usury (Vol. 27, p. 811) says "usury, if 
used in the old sense of the term could 
embrace a multitude of modes of receiv- 
ing interest upon capital to which not the 
slightest moral taint is attached." In 
each case there may have been some 
reason besides chance for the develop- 
ment of the unpleasant meaning, and it 
has always been the custom of the spend- 
thrift and the gambler to make the wrong 
use of words as well as of business meth- 
ods. But what we call public finance was 
a century ago called political economy, 
"political" being used strictly to apply to 
the state, and "economy" in its original 
sense of housekeeping or house-rule. The 
word "economy" has thus become broad- 
er, as the word "usury" has become nar- 
rower, in significance. 

It is curious to see how one page after 
another of the historical section of this 
article describes theories of finance which 



are to-day propounded by popular 
agitators as if they were absolutely new 
and not only de- 
Early scribes them but 

Economics * shows how they were 
tried and how they 
failed. The eastern empires taxed land 
produce, usually to the extent of one fourth 
or one fifth (two tithes) . In Athens, under 
a more elaborate system, the state owned 
and administered agricultural land and 
silver mines, and yet this state ownership, 
instead of making for democratic equal- 
ity, resulted in too rigid a separation of 
classes; and the Athenian attempt to 
surtax the rich citizens in order to defray 
the cost of public games and theatrical 
performances and to equip ships (in this 
case a close parallel to certain recent Ger- 
man legislation) led, as class taxation al- 
ways does, to ingenious evasions and, in 
the end, increased the power it sought to 
restrict. 

In Rome, home taxes were suspended 
as soon as conquests brought tribute from 
Spain and Africa. But taxes were always 
the curse of the provinces, and the vexa- 
tious method of the tax "may be regarded 
as an additional tax." "The defects of 
the financial organization were a serious 
influence in the complex of causes that 
brought about the fall of the Republic." 
The early Empire took its revenues from 
public lands, from monopolies, from the 
land tax, from customs, and from taxes 
on inheritances (5%), sales (10%) and 
the purchase of slaves (40%). There was 
no just distribution of taxation among 
the territorial divisions, and the burden 
fell too much upon the actual workers and 
their employers. In the kingdoms which 
succeeded the Empire after its fall, Ro- 
man customs survived in finance, as in 
all departments of government; and there 
was a want of coherent policy until the 
time of Charlemagne, when centraliza- 
tion produced a better system. But sci- 
entific taxation did not really exist until, 
in the 15th century, under Charles VII, 
the first French standing army was 



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FOR BANKERS AND FINANCIERS 



153 



created, and its needs led to a new and 
more intelligent system. In England, 
the co-ordination and control of public 
revenue and expenditure was similarly 
due to the growth of the navy. Since 
then the tendency has been to include 
taxes in general categories; the need for 
national credit has developed a system 
of national debts; and expenditures and 
receipts are now governed by legislative 
sanction. Local finance has been revolu- 
tionized by modern business methods, too 
slowly adopted it is true, and by the grad- 
ual change from private to public control 
of water supply, lighting and transporta- 
tion. 

The articles Taxation, National 
Debt and Tariff should be read after 
this article on public finance. Taxation 

(Vol. 26, p. 458; 
Taxation and equivalent to 25 
Tariff pages of this Guide), 

by Sir Robert Giffen, 
formerly Controller-General of the Brit- 
ish Board of Trade, classifies taxes, points 
out that direct and indirect taxes are not 
intrinsically different and that such a 
classification is merely a matter of con- 
venience, and the article proceeds to de- 
scribe the principal taxes. It should be 
supplemented by reading the sections on 
finance in the articles on various coun- 
tries and especially by the article Eng- 
lish Finance (Vol. 9, p. 458; equiva- 
lent to 25 pages in this Guide), the section 
on Finance in the article United States 
(Vol. 27, p. 660) and similar sections in 
the articles on each of the states of the 
Union. These articles give definite in- 
formation about public debts, national or 
state, but the student should read care- 
fully the main treatment in the article 
National Debt (Vol. 19, p. 266). The 
articles Tariff (Vol. 26, p. 422), by Prof. 
F. W. Taussig of Harvard, author of The 
Tariff History of the United States; Pro- 
tection (Vol. 22, p. 464), by Edmund 
Janes James, president of the University 
of Illinois and author of the well-known 
History of American Tarif Legislation; 



and Free Trade (Vol. 11, p. 88), by 
William Cunningham, author of Growth 
of English Industry and Commerce, will be 
of great interest. The student should 
read besides the sketches in the Britan- 
nica of Henry Clay (Vol. 6, p. 470), by 
Carl Schurz, of William McKinley 
(Vol. 17, p. 256), Roger Q. Mills (Vol. 
18, p. 475), and of other American tariff- 
leaders, and, for the tariff reform move- 
ment in England, the articles on Joseph 
Chamberlain (Vol. 5, p. 813) and Ar- 
thur J. Balfour (Vol. 3, p. 250) . Before 
turning from public to private finance the 
reader should study the articles Ex- 
chequer (Vol. 10, p. 54) and Treasury 
(Vol. 27, p. 228). 

For what may be called 'private finance, 
the student should turn first to the article 
Banks and Banking (Vol. 3, p. 334; 
equivalent to nearly 60 
Private pages in this Guide), by 

Finance Sir R. H. I. Palgrave, di- 
rector of Barclay & Co., 
Ltd., Bankers; Charles A. Conant, author 
of The Principles of Money and Banking; 
and Sir J. R. Paget, author of the Law 
of Banking. Further information on the 
early history of banking in the United 
States will be found in the historical 
section of the article United States 
(Vol. 27, especially p. 697), and in the 
article Andrew Jackson (Vol. 15, p. 107) 
by Prof. W. G. Sumner of Yale. 

Next in his course of reading, he should 
study the article Money (Vol. 18, p. 
694; equivalent to 45 pages in this Guide), 
by C. F. Bastable. 
Currency This deals with: the 

functions and vari- 
eties of money, including coined money 
and all else that can take its place in 
facilitating exchange, in estimating com- 
parative values, as a standard of value or 
of deferred payments, as a store of value; 
the determining causes of the value of 
money and of the quantity of money 
required by a country, the credit theory, 
early forms of currency — greenstones, 
ochre, shells, furs, oxen, grain; metals 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



as money; coinage and state control; 
representative money, and credit as 
money; economic aspects of the pro- 
duction and consumption of precious 
metals; review of the history of some 
important currencies — Greek, Roman, 
medieval, English and French coinages 
are treated in the article Numismatics 
(Vol. 19, pp. 869-911, equivalent to 135 
pages of this Guide, with 6 plates and 
11 other text illustrations); which dis- 
cusses such questions as the constitution 
of money; typical currency systems; 
statistics of production of gold and silver 
since the discovery of America, and 
coinage systems. Other relevant articles 
are Bimetallism, and Monetary Con- 
ferences for the relation of the metals; 
and the articles Gold, Silver, Seignior- 
age, Demonetization, Gresham's Law, 
Token Money and Greenbacks. In 
the article on the George Junior Re- 
public (Vol. 11, p. 749), the "children's 
state" at Freeville, N. Y., the student 
will find an interesting proof of the rela- 
tion of "token" to "real" money. "The 
government issued its own currency in 
tin and later in aluminium and 'American' 
money could not be passed within the 
48 acres of the Republic until 1906, 
when depreciation forced the Republic's 
coinage out of use and 'American* coin 
was made legal tender." 

For information as to the methods of 
financial business the reader should study 
the articles Savings Banks (Vol. 24, p. 

248) by Sir G. C. T. Bart- 
Banking ley, founder of the National 

Penny Bank, and Bradford 
Rhodes, founder of the 84th St. National 
Bank, N. Y. Friendly Societies (Vol. 
11, p. 217); Trust Company (Vol. 27, p. 
829), by Charles A. Conant, author of 
The Principles of Money and Banking; 



Clearing House (Vol. 6, p. 476) ; Let- 
ter of Credit (Vol. 16, p. 501); Stock 
Exchange (Vol. 25, p. 980) ; Bill of Ex- 
change (Vol. 8, p. 940) ; Exchange 
(Vol. 10, p. 50); Futures (Vol. 11, p. 
875) ; Time Bargains (Vol. 26, p. 988) ; 
Market (Vol. 17, p. 781), by Wynnard 
Hooper, financial editor of The Times, 
London, with sections on Movements of 
Prices, Cycles, Tendency to Equilibrium, 
Disturbance of Equilibrium, Future Deliv- 
ery, Corners, Money Market, The Great 
Banks, Foreign Loans, and Discount 
Houses; Consols (Vol. 6, p. 979); Cou- 
pon (Vol. 7, p. 818); Dividend (Vol. 8, 
p. 381); and Premium (Vol. 22, p. 279). 

Information on distinctive banking 
and business laws in the separate states 
will be found in the section on finance 
of the article on each state. For in- 
stance in the article Oklahoma (Vol. 20, 
p. 60) there is a summary of the bank 
deposit guaranty fund. 

For insurance see the chapter in this 
Guide For Insurance Men. 

In financial biography, as in history, 
theory and practice, the Britannica is 
valuable because of its full, clear and 
authoritative 
Lives of treatment. Thestu- 

Financiers dent will find arti- 

cles on great finan- 
ciers, such as the Astors, the Vander- 
bilts, the Barings, the Rothschilds, James 
Law, George Peabody, James Fisk, Jay 
Gould, £. H. Harriman, James J. Hill, 
J. P. Morgan; and on great authors on 
the subjects of economics and finance, — 
for instance, Malthus, Adam Smith, Wal- 
ter Bagehot, Ricardo, Roscher, Boehm 
von Bawerk, Thorold Rogers, H. C. 
Carey, E. R. A. Seligman, F. A. Walker, 
J. W. Jenks, F. W. Taussig, Richmond 
Mayo-Smith and A. T. Hadley. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF ARTICLES IN THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA OF 

INTEREST TO BANKERS 



Account 
Accountants 
Achenwall, Gottfried 
Adams, Henry Carter 



Agio 

Aguado, A. M. 
Alcavala 
Aldrich, N. W, 



Allport, Sir J. J. 
Alstromer, Jonas 
Amortization 
Angel 



Anna 
Annuity 
Arbitrage 
Armour, P. L. 



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Ashley, W. J. 

Assignats 

As tor, John Jacob 

(and family) 
Atkinson, Edward 
Attwood, Thomas 
Audit and Auditor 
Backwardation 
Bagehot, Walter 
Balance of Trade 
Bank Notes 
Bank Rate 
Banks and Banking 
Barbon, Nicholas 
Baring (family) 
Barter 

Bastiat, Frexteric 
Bates, Joshua 
Baudrillart, H. J. L. 
Bawbee 

Baxter, Robert Dudley 
Bemis, E. W. 
Bezant 

Biddle, Nicholas 
Bill of Exchange 
Bimetallism 
Blanqui, J. A. 
Bliss, C. N. 
Block, Maurice 
Bodin, Jean 
Bodle 

Boehm von Bawerk 
Boisguilbert, Sieur de 
Book-keeping 
Bourse 

Breaking Bulk 
Brentano, L. J. 
Broker 
Bucketshop 
Budget 
Bullion " 
Buying in 

Cairnes, John Elliott 
Call 
Capital 

Carey, Henry Charles 
Carli-Rubbi 
Carrying-over 
Cash 

Chase, S. P. 
Cheque, or Check 
Chevalier, Michel 
Child, Sir Josiah 
Circular Note 
Claflin, H. B. 
Clark, John Bates 
Clearing House 
Cohn, Gustav 
Coin 

Coeur, Jacques 
Colston, Edward 
Combination 
Commerce 

Commercial Treaties 
Consols 
Contango 
Cooke, Jay 
Co-operation 



Cooper, Peter 
Cossa, Luigi 
Coulisse 
Coupon 

Courcelle-Seneuil, J. G. 
Cournot, A. 
Coutts, Thomas 
Cover 
Credit 

Credit Foncier 
Crockford, William 
Crore 

Crown (coin) 
Cunningham, William 
Custom Duties 
Custom House 
Davenant, Charles 
Decker, Sir Matthew 
Decimal Coinage 
Delessert, J. P. B. 
Delftco, Melchiorre 
Demonetization 
Dewey, Davis Rich 
Dime 
Discount 
Distribution 
Dividend 
Dock Warrant 
Dollar 
Drawback 
Drexel, A. J. 
Ducat 

Ely, Richard Theodore 
Engel, Ernst 
English Finance 
Exchange 
Exchequer 
Excise 

Farr, William 
Farrer, Baron 
Farthing 
Florin 

Field, Cyrus West 
Fisk, James 
Fix, Theodore 
Fouquet, Nicolas 
Franc 
Free Trade 
Friendly Societies 
Futures 
Gabellc 

Gallatin, Albert 
Ganilh, Charles 
Gamier, C. J. 
Gamier, Marquis 
Genovesi, Antonio 
George, Henry 
Giffen, Sir Robert 
Gilds 

Gilbart, James William 
Gioja, Melchiorre 
Girard, Stephen 
Goldsmid (family) 
Gould, Jay (and fam- 
ily) 
Grain Trade 
Greenbacks 
Gresham, Sir Thomas 



Gresham's Law 

Groat 

Guinea 

Gurney (family) 

Hadley, A. T. 

Hamilton, Alexander 

Hamilton, Robert 

Hanna, M. A. 

Harriman, Edward H. 

Haxthausen, L. von 

Hermann, F. B. W. von 

Hill, James J. 

Horner, Francis 

Horton, Samuel Dana 

Hudson, George 

Hufeland, Gottlieb 

Income Tax 

Ingram, J. K. 

Insurance 

Invoice 

Jakob, L. H. von 

Jenks, J. W. 

Jesup, M. K. 

Jevons, William S. 

Jones, Richard 

Kay, Joseph 

Laing, Samuel 

Lakh 

Laveleye, E. L. V. de 

Law, John 

Lawrence, Amos 

Le Play, P. G. Fr6de>ic 

Leroy-Beaulieu, P. P. 

Leslie, Thomas E. C. 

Letter of Credit 

Levasseur, Pierre Emile 

Levi, Leone 

Lingen, Baron 

Lipton, Sir T. J. 

Lira 

List, Friedrich 

Lloyd's 

M*Culloch, John R. 

Mackay, John William 

Macleod, Henry Dun- 
ning 

Making-up Price 

Malthus, Thomas Rob- 
ert 

Mark 

Market 

Marshall, Alfred 

Marx, Heinrich Karl 

Mayo-Smith, Richmond 

Mint 

Mohur 

Moidore 

Monopoly 

Monetary Conferences 
(International) 

Money 

Money-lending 

Moon, Sir Richard 

Moratorium 

Morgan, John Pierpont 

Morris, Robert 

Morton, L. P. 

Mun, Thomas 



National Debt 

Newmarch, William 

North, Sir Dudley 

Octroi 

Overstone, 1st baron 

Par 

Paterson, William 

Pauperism 

Pawnbroking 

Peabody, George 

Pender, Sir John 

Penny 

Penrhyn, 2nd baron 

Peseta 

Petty, Sir William 

Picayune 

Pistole 

Poll-tax 

Pound 

Premium 

Price, Bonamy 

Production 

Profit-sharing 

Protection 

Proudhon, P. J. 

Pyx 

Quesnay, Francois 

Raiffeisen, F. W. 

Rau, Karl Heinrich 

Rebate 

Reciprocity 

Revenue 

Ricardo, David 

Rockefeller, J. D. 

Rodbertus, K. J. 

Rogers, James Edwin 

Roscher, W. G. F. 

Rothschild (family) 

Royalty 

Rupee 

Sadler, Michael Thomas 

Sage, Russell 

Saint-Simon, Comte de 

Savings Banks 

Say, Jean Baptiste 

Say, Leon 

Schaffle, A. E. F. 

Schmoller, Gustav 

Schulze-Delitzsch, F. H. 

Seigniorage 

Seligman, E. R. A. 

Senior, Nassau William 

Sequin 

Shekel 

Shell-monev 

Sherman, John 

Shilling 

Slater, John Fox 

Smith, Adam 

Sou 

Sovereign (coin) 

Spreckels, Claus 

Stag 

Stamp 

Standards Department 

Sterling 

Steuart, Sir J. D. 

Stewart, A. T. 



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Stock Exchange 

Sumner, W. G. 

Tael 

Tariff 

Taxation 

Taussig, Frank William 

Thornton, Henry 

Thornton, W. T. 

Time Bargains 



Title Guarantee Com- 
panies 

Token Money 

Tonnage and Poundage 

Tontine 

Tooke, Thomas 

Torrens, Robert 

Torrens, William Tor- 
rens M'Cullagh 



Trusts 

Trust Company 
Tucker, Josiah 
Vanderbilt, Cornelius 

(and family) 
Wagner, Adolf 
Wages 

Walker, Francis Amasa 
Walras, M. E. L. 



Wanamaker, John 
Watkin, Sir E. W. 
Wealth 

Wells, David Ames 
Window Tax 
Wolowski, L. F. M. R. 
Wright, Carroll D. 
Zollverein 



CHAPTER XXVIII 

FOR CIVIL SERVICE MEN AND WOMEN AND STUDENTS 
PREPARING FOR SERVICE EXAMINATIONS 



FEDERAL, state and municipal 
civil service includes so many spec- 
ialized branches that a number of 
the chapters in Part 1 of this Guide, 
devoted to courses of reading adapted 
to various occupations (such as For 
Teachers, For Engineers, For Builders 
and Contractors) will supply useful in- 
dications. Part 2 of the Guide, contain- 
ing classified courses of educational 
reading, will point to articles especially 
serviceable to those who are preparing 
for examinations and, for that reason, 
desire to review the ground they covered 
at school or college. 

Part 4 of the Guide, with its special 
references to the subjects to which ad- 
ministration and legislation are chiefly 
directed, should be carefully examined. 
There the reader will find lists of articles 
dealing with schools and institutions; 
the defective classes; crime and alcohol; 
revenue and finance; ballot representa- 
tion and suffrage; trusts, competition, 
co-operation and socialism; labour and 
immigration; legislation and the admin- 
istration of justice; foreign relations 
and the expansion of the United States. 
The present chapter, in order that 
repetition may be avoided, deals only 
with the aspects of federal, state and 
municipal government which are most 



closely related to civil service organi- 
zation. The article Civil Service (Vol. 

6, p. 412) devotes 
International nearly as much space 
Comparisons to the British as to the 

American service, 
and its information as to British organi- 
zation, examinations, salaries and pen- 
sions will greatly interest those to whom 
the details needed for an international 
comparison have not been elsewhere 
accessible. Until 1855 all British ap- 
pointments were by nomination; and 
although the service was quite free from 
the abominable system of secretly taxing 
salaries in order to support party funds, 
that was about all that can be said for it. 
There was hardly a pretense of selection 
for merit. Influential families and the 
relatives and personal friends of minis- 
ters of state and of ladies whom kings 
delighted to honor monopolized the ap- 
pointments. Many posts were pure 
sinecures, and in many ethers the work 
was done by a substitute to whom the 
nominee paid less than half the salary or 
fees he received. Under George III the 
system was at its worst, and the discon- 
tent that was aroused in the American 
colonies by the maladministration of 
colonial affairs was "one of the efficient 
causes of the American revolution." 



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157 



The reforms begun in 1855 had by 1870 
been so successful that since then open 
competition has been the general rule; 
and where nomination is still required, 
as in the Foreign Office and the Educa- 
tion Department, searching examina- 
tions must be passed. Women are em- 
ployed in the post-office, board of agri- 
culture, customs, India office, depart- 
ment of agriculture, local government 
board and home office (factory inspec- 
tors, etc.). The age for compulsory 
retirement is 65, but the commissioners 
may prolong this five years in excep- 
tional cases. Subjects of examinations, 
salaries and pensions are described in 
the article. Since 1859 there has been 
a superannuation pension of 10/60 of 
the annual salary and emoluments to 
any one serving 10 years and less than 
11, and an additional sixtieth for each 
year's service more than ten. 

In the same article there is an historical 
treatment of civil service in the United 
States and of its gradual reform and ex- 
tension since 1883. 
Civil Service This may well be 

in the supplemented by a 

United States study of the Ameri- 
can party system of 
goverment and of the "spoils system" 
under which party loyalty and personal 
service to a party machine became the 
test of a candidate's fitness for office. 
For this the student should refer to the 
section (Vol. 27, p. 646) on Constitution 
and Government, of the article United 
States, written by James Bryce, author 
of The American Commonwealth and 
formerly British ambassadorto the United 
States; see p. 658-659, especially. There 
is also much information in the section 
History of the same article, especially 
paragraphs 168, 169 (p. 697) on the be- 
ginnings of the spoils system in Jackson's 
time, paragraph 333 (p. 722) on the be- 
ginnings of reform under Hayes, and para- 
graph 343 (p. 724) on Cleveland and 
civil service reform, etc.; and biographies 
of Andrew Jackson, W. L. Marcy and 



Martin Van Buren (for the spoils system) 
and of George William Curtis, E. L. 
Godkin, Carl Schurz, R. B. Hayes, 
Grover Cleveland, Benjamin Harrison, 
William McKinley and Theodore Roose- 
velt. 

Information in regard to the civil 
service systems of states and cities may 
be found in separate state and city 
articles, — in addition to the material 
on state and city systems in the articles 
already mentioned. 

The wide-awake student who has 
read this far in this chapter and has 
referred to the articles mentioned in 
the Britannica, will 
"General now be saying to 

Information" himself: "There is 
Papers evidently much val- 

able information in 
the encyclopaedia about the history and 
status of civil service reform, and this 
seems as full and complete for the United 
States as for Great Britain. If other 
topics are as fully treated in the Britan- 
nica, it will be invaluable to me in prep- 
aration for general information papers 
for civil service examinations." And 
he will be right. For instance, the 
government employe must know more 
about the government and its machinery 
and history than does the average "man 
in the street", — and he can learn this 
from the Britannica. 

As has already been pointed out, 
the main treatment of the government 
of the United States in the Britannica 
is by James Bryce. This means that it 
is authoritative and that it is inter- 
esting and that in both these qualities 
it is far superior to the usual text book 
of "civics" or "civil government." It 
occupies pp. 646-661 of volume 27, and 
is equivalent to about 50 pages of this 
Guide— so that it is more than a bare 
outline. And it is followed by a valu- 
able bibliography of the subject to guide 
the student to the best books on any 
special topic which he may wish to 
pursue further. 



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But this is far from being all the in- 
formation in the Britannica on the sub- 
ject. The contribution of Mr. Bryoe 
is only a part of the article United 
States. The entire article would take up 
nearly 400 pages if printed in the style 
of this Guide. It treats the physical 
geography, geology, climate, fauna and 
flora, population, industries and com- 
merce, government, finance, army and 
history of the country — the equivalent 
of 225 pages of this Guide is devoted to 
History alone. All parts of this article 
contain valuable information about the 
country; and this article is supplemented 
by hundreds of others: — 

(a) Articles on each of the states, 
arranged much as in the article United 
States with sections on history and gov- 
ernment serving as an authoritative 
summary of the salient facts, and making 
up a complete course on state "civics," 
government and history; 



(b) Articles on cities and towns with 
similar treatment of the distinctive 
elements in the government of each, and 
of the main points in their history; 

(c) Separate articles on the important 
rivers, lakes, mountains and other topics 
in physical geography; 

(d) Separate articles on topics in 
American history and government: such 
as Nullification, State Rights, Fugi- 
tive Slave Laws, Electoral Com- 
mission; and 

(e) Biographies of great Americans, 
famous in war, politics, administration, 
business, science, art, religion, — in short 
all fields of activity. 

In brief, whether for an examination 
on general information, on civics, on 
history, or on the special branch of the 
civil service to which the student wishes 
to be appointed, no book will give as 
valuable and complete information as 
the Britannica. 



CHAPTER XXIX 



FOR ARMY OFFICERS 



IT is often said of an article in the 
Britannica that it is "the last word on 
the subject," so thoroughly has the 
authority of the book been recognized. 
This is quite as true of military articles 
as of those in any other field; but of the 
military articles it may also be said that 
they are the first word. Of course, there 
have been, in pre- 
A New vious editions of the 

Departure Britannica and, to a 

less degree in minor 
works of general reference, articles on 
military history and biography. But in 
the new Britannica, for the first time, all 
branches of military knowledge are in- 
cluded, and the spirit of the entire treat- 



ment is comparative and critical. The 
military student will find a discussion not 
merely of Napoleon's influence on army 
organization or Frederick's influence on 
cavalry (in the articles on these two 
leaders), but also of the influence of army 
organization on Napoleon (in the articles 
on the French Revolutionary Wars and 
the Napoleonic Campaigns), and of cav- 
alry drill on the peculiar generalship of 
Frederick (in such articles as Seven 
Years' War, on Hohenfriedberg, and on 
Rossbach). Put more concretely, the 
novelty consists in the inclusion of ar- 
ticles on wars, campaigns and battles, 
chosen because of their importance in 
military as well as in political history, 



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159 



and treated from the point of view of the 
military critic and with particular atten- 
tion to the lessons they contain for the 
modern army officer. The care with 
which the battles and campaigns of the 
American Civil War are analyzed and 
criticized will be of singularly great in- 
terest to the American soldier, who will 
immediately notice among the contribu- 
tors to the military department of the 
Britannica such names as those of Capt. 
C. F. Atkinson, author of The Wilderness 
and Cold Harbour, Major G. W. Redway, 
author of Fredericksburg: A Study in War, 
Col. G. F. R. Henderson, author of Stone- 
wall Jackson and the American Civil War, 
and Col. F. N. Maude, lecturer in mili- 
tary history, University of Manchester. 
The best starting point for a study of 
military affairs in the Bri- 
Army tannica is the article Army 

(Vol. 2, p. 592; equivalent 
to more than 100 pages of this Guide). 
This "key" article may be outlined as 
follows: 

General History 

Early Armies — Egypt (chariots, in- 
fantry, archers). Babylon and As- 
syria (horsemen, charioteers, etc.). 
Persian, largely cavalry ; the first " or- 
ganized " army. Greece, — compulsory 
service; citizen militia; heavy infantry 
the strong arm; phalanx, the Greek 
formation. Sparta, — a nation in arms. 
Greek mercenaries. Epaminondas and 
Thebes — new phalanx tactics, " oblique 
order"; development of cavalry. Al- 
exander and Mace don — a modified The- 
ban system. Carthage — mercenary 
troops led by great generals, with mod- 
ification of phalanx for greater elastic- 
ity. Rome — army under the Repub- 
lic; its characteristics; under the Em- 
pire; see also separate article Roman 
Army (Vol. 28, p. 471), by Professor 
F. J. Haverfield of Oxford. The Bark 
Ages, the Byzantines, and the develop- 
ment of Feudalism. Medieval Mer- 
cenaries. Infantry in Feudal Times. 
The Crusades. The Period of Transi- 
tion (1290-1490), development of Eng- 
lish archers and of professional sol- 



diery, — condottieri, Swiss, Lands- 
knechts. The Spanish army : " at the 
disposal of its sovereign, trained to the 
due professional standard and organ- 
ized in the best way found by experi- 
ence." The Sixteenth Century — rise of 
the heavy cavalry armed with pistols, 
and fall of the pikemen. Dutch Sys- 
tem — attention to minute detail; Wil- 
liam the Silent and Maurice of Nassau. 
Thirty Years 9 War— the Werbe-sys- 
tem, small standing army to be in- 
creased by levy at time of need. The 
Swedish Army — conscription and feu- 
dal indelta; Gustavus. The English 
Civil War — real national armies; 
Cromwell and the " New Model " only 
an incident without influence on army 
organization. Standing Armies. French 
pre-eminence after Rocroi. Small field 
armies, well-fed and sheltered for econ- 
omy's sake. 18th Century organiza- 
tion: "linear" formation and its nega- 
tive results. Frederick the Great: the 
art of war a formal science. The 
French Revolution: a " nation in arms," 
a war-machine more powerful than 
Frederick's. The conscription in 
France. Napoleon — his attempt to 
make a dynastic army out of the " na- 
tion in arms." The Grande Armee of 
1805-1806; development of artillery; 
the army corps. The Wars of Libera- 
tion: new Prussian army; excellent 
Austrian organization. Armies of 
1815-1870. American Civil War,— its 
alow decision. Contrast between French 
and Prussian staff systems in 1870. 
Modern Developments: German model 
followed slavishly except in Great Brit- 
ain and the United States. 

Present Day Armies: The general 
accounts of existing armies, and of the 
past organizations of each country, are 
supplemented by detailed information 
in the articles on different countries. 
Especial attention should be given to 
the military information in the article 
on Japan. Army Systems: Compulsory 
Service; Conscription; Voluntary Serv- 
ice; Militia. 

Army Organization 

The three chief arms — their relative 
importance: proportion on peace foot- 



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ing — 5 or 6 guns per 1000 men, 16 
cavalry soldiers to 1000 men of other 
arms ; proportion in war — Russian 
(1905) % l /2 guns per 1000 men of other 
arms, 60 cavalry to 1000 infantry; 
Japanese (1905), 2 l / 2 field guns per 
1000 men, 87 cavalry to 1000 infantry. 
Command: Brigade; Division; Army 
Corp*, its constitution; Army; Chief 
Command of group of armies; chief of 
general staff and his relations to com- 
mander-in-chief — for example, von 
Moltke and King William. Branches 
of Administration — war office and gen- 
eral staff. 

Table: Comparative strength of Va- 
rious Armies. 

British Army, Indian Army, Cana- 
dian Forces. 

Austrian Army. 

French Army. 

German Army. 

Italian Army. 

Russian Army. 

Spanish Army. 

Turkish Army. 

United States Army. 

Armies of minor countries. 
Bibliography (2000 words) 

Next in order the student should turn 
to the article War (Vol. 28, p. 305; 
equivalent to 40 pages of this Guide), by 

Col. G. F. R. Hen- 
Theory and derson, well known 
Practice for his books on the 

American Civil War 
(Fredericksburg, Stonewall Jackson, etc.), 
with a section on Laws of War, by Sir 
Thomas Barclay. Col. Henderson's ar- 
ticle lays down important general prin- 
ciples. An analysis of modern conditions 
shows that improved methods of com- 
municationhavemadewaramuch speedier 
process, in which the victorious general 
cannot make mistakes at the outset. 
That intellect and education count for 
more than stamina and courage was the 
lesson of the Franco-Prussian War— a 
lesson learned by the Prussians before 
that war. Modern war is a science and 
the amateur has little chance; in this 
respect things have changed. "It is im- 



possible to doubt that had the Boers of 
1899 possessed a staff of trained strate- 
gists, they would have shaken the British 
Empire to its foundations." There must 
be a concert between diplomacy and 
strategy. Civilian war ministers cannot 
solve strategic problems. The greater 
deadliness of modern warfare, and the 
greater moral effect of being under fire 
call for better foresight, strategy and 
morale. The relation of army and navy 
is discussed and the new doctrine of "sea- 
power" explained. (See the chapter For 
Naval Officers in this Guide). The re- 
maining topics in the article are: weak- 
ness of allied armies; railways and sea as 
lines of operation; amphibious power; 
value of unprofessional troops and the 
need of professional leaders. 

In the articles Infantry (Vol. 14, p. 
517; 2 plates; equivalent to 35 pages of 
this Guide) and Artillery (Vol. 2, p. 

685; St plates; equiv- 
Arms of alent to SO pages of 

Service this Guide), both by 

Capt. Atkinson, and 
in the article Cavalry (Vol. 5, p. 563; 
illustrated with % plates and 1 cut; in 
length equivalent to 30 pages of this 
Guide), by Col. F. N. Maude, the 
student will find an elaborate treatment 
of the history, organization and tactics 
(especially since 1870) of each of these 
arms. For details of their organiza- 
tion and equipment he should read the 
articles Engineers, Staff, Mounted 
Infantry, Supply and Transport (Mil- 
itary), Officers, Ambulance, Forti- 
fication, Machine Guns, Coast De- 
fence, Ordnance, Ballistics, Sights, 
Rifle, Gun, Pistol, Explosive, Gun- 
powder, Guncotton, Cordite and 
Nitro-glycerine. In many geograph- 
ical articles there are descriptions of the 
world's great fortifications, e. g., Paris, 
Antwerp, and Verdun. Other topics 
of a more miscellaneous character are 
covered by the articles Army Signal- 
ling, Pigeon Post, Signals, War Game, 
Manoeuvres, Kite, etc. 



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The military use of aeroplanes and 
balloons is very fully shown in the arti- 
cles Flight and Aeronautics.. 

Before taking up a systematic course 
in military history, there are two general 
articles that the military student should 
read: Tactics (Vol. 
Strategy and 26, p. 347; equiva- 
Tactics lent in length to 20 

pages of this Guide), 
by Maj. Neill Malcolm, editor of the 
Science of War; and Strategy (Vol. 25, 
p. 986; equivalent to 35 pages of this 
Guide), by Col. F. N. Maude. The 
former article should be compared with 
the sections on tactics in the articles 
Infantry, Cavalry and Artillery. 
Major Malcolm makes much of the con- 
tinuity of military history, comparing 
Metaurus and Ramillies with the fighting 
in Manchuria, and Wellington at Maya 
with Oyama in his contest with Kuro- 
patkin. The mistakes that have been 
made once should not be made again; 
at least the careful student of tactical 
history may see to it that if they are 
repeated, it is done by his opponent and 
not by himself. Modern tactics are 
different from ancient because of greater 
fire-power and improved methods of 
transportation. Cavalry tactics are in 
an uncertain condition; there is no recent 
practice to serve as a guide, since neither 
in South Africa in the Boer war nor in 
Manchuria during the Russo-Japanese 
conflict was cavalry much used. In- 
fantry must co-operate to make artillery 
bombardment effective. An interesting 
discussion of offensive and defensive 
fighting is summed up in the words 
'To the true general the purely defen- 
sive battle is unknown" and as evidence 
are adduced Wellington at Salamanca 
and Oyama at Sha-ho. Oyama's victory 
in the latter battle, it is pointed out, 
shows the increased ease of the process 
of envelopment, which has resulted in 
discarding corps artillery in favour of 
divisional artillery. The importance — 
and the possibility — of the counter stroke; 



the danger of using for the relief of one's 
own troops forces which might better 
be launched at the enemy's weakest 
spot; and the similar unwisdom of any 
negative tactics, adopted to avoid loss, 
as in "holding attacks" — are the other 
principal points made in the article. 

The article Strategy should be read 
in conjunction with the articles Army 
and War. It is impossible to summarize 
or outline it here, but it is worth noting 
that the article closes with a definition 
and discussion of the following terms: 
Base; Line of Communication; Line of 
Operations; Exterior Lines; Obstacles. 

For a reasoned history of warfare 
in more detail than has been given in 
the general articles 
Military His- already alluded to, 
tory and the reader will find 

Criticism some outline like the 

following valuable, 
the arrangement being roughly chrono- 
logical and all words in Italics being titles 
of articles in the Britannica. 

Marathon; Darius; MUtiades; He- 
rodotus. 

Thermopylae; Leonidas; Salami*. 

Peloponnesian War; Pericles; Cleon; 
Pylos; Brasidas; Alcibiades; Critias; 
Thucydides; Xenophon. 

Epaminondas; Mantineia. 

Philip II of Macedon; Olynthus; 
Chaeroneia; Alexander the Great; Ar- 
rian. 

Pyrrhus. 

Roman Army; Caudine Forks; Punic 
Wars; Cartilage; Hanno; Hannibal; 
Hasdrubal; Mago; Trasimene; Fabius 
(Cunctator) ; Cannae; Scipio Afri- 
canus; Scipio Aemilianus; Aemilius 
Paulus; Perseus; Marius; Jugurtha; 
Sulla; Sertorius; Pompey; Caesar; An- 
tonius (Mark Antony). 

Charles Mart el. 

Charlemagne. 

William I (of England) ; Hastings; 
Standard, Battle of. 

Crusades (equivalent to 90 pages of 
this Guide); Godfrey of Bouillon; 
Raymund of Toulouse; Richard I (of 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



England) ; Philip II (of France) ; 
Saladin; Henry VI (Roman Emperor) ; 
Baldwin I; Frederick II; Louis IX (of 
France). 

Bouvines. 

Bannock burn; Robert Bruce. 

Hundred Years' War; Philip VI; 
Edward III; Crecy; John of Bohemia; 
Edward (the Black Prince); Calais; 
Poitiers; John II (of France) ; Lan- 
caster, House of (for John of Gaunt) ; 
Bertrand Du Guesclin; Henry V (of 
England) ; Agincourt; Joan of Arc; 1st 
Duke of Bedford (John Plantagenet) ; 
Count of Dunois. 

• Wars of the Roses; St. Albans; 
Towton; Earl of Warwick (Richard 
Neville) ; Edward IV. 

Ravenna, battle of; Bayard (the 
"chevalier) ; Gaston de Foix; Pescara; 
Navarro; Marignan; Francis I (of 
France). 

Flodden; James IV (of Scotland) ; 
Norfolk, 3rd Duke. 

St Quentin (1557) ; Coligny; Mont- 
morency (constable) ; Emmanuel Phili- 
bert. 

Alva; William the Silent (Vol. 28, 
p. 672) ; Maurice of Nassau; Farnese 
(duke of Parma). 

Thirty Years' War; Maximilian I 
(of Bavaria) ; Frederick V (elector 
palatinate; Vol. 11, p. 59); Mans f eld; 
Tilly; Wallenstein; Gustavus Adol- 
phus; Breitenfeld; Lutzen; Bernhard 
of Saxe-W eimar ; due de Rohan; Fred- 
erick Henry; Gallas; Baner; Piccolo- 
mini; Turenne; Torstensson; Conde; 
Freiburg; Mercy; Nbrdlingen; Wran- 
gel (1618-1676); Fronde. 

Great Rebellion (English Civil Wars 
of 1642-52) ; Charles I (of England) ; 
Prince Rupert; Essex (2nd Earl, Vol. 
9, p. 782); Edgehill; John Hotham; 
Baron Hopton; Sir William Waller; 
Duke of Newcastle (1592-1676) ; Fair- 
fax of Cameron (2nd and 8rd Barons) ; 
Sir Bevil Grenville; Oliver Cromwell; 
Manchester, 2nd Earl of (Vol. 17, p. 
548) ; Marston Moor; Leven; Skippon; 
Argyll, 8th Earl; Montrose; Lord New- 
ark; Goring; Naseby; John Lambert; 
Charles Fleetwood; Dunbar; Thomas 
Harrison. 



Dutch Wars; Louis XIV; Conde; 
Frederick William of Brandenburg; 
Turenne; Montecucculi; William III 
(of England) ; Duke of Luxembourg; 
Charles of Lorraine (Vol. 17, p. 11). 

Vauban. 

Grand Alliance, War of; Catinat; 
Luxembourg; Vauban; Fleurus; Lou- 
vois; Due de Boufflers; Coehoorn; Wil- 
liam III of England; Steenkirk; Neer- 
winden; Villeroi. 

Spanish Succession; Marlborough; 
Eugene of Savoy; Villars; Peterbor- 
ough; Ruvigny; Catinat; Vendome; 
Blenheim; Ramillies; Oudenarde; Mal- 
plaquet; Berwick. 

Polish Succession War. 

Austrian Succession; Frederick the 
Great; Count von Schwerin; L. A. 
Khevenhuller; Due de Broglie; Traun; 
Charles (of Lorraine; Vol. 5, p. 936); 
Seckendorf ; George II (of England) ; 
Noailles; Conti (Vol. 7, p. 28); Ho- 
henfriedberg ; Fontenoy; comte de Saxe 
(marshal) ; Duke of Cumberland; Li- 
gonier; Belle-Isle. 

Seven Years' War (with 5 dia- 
grams) : Frederick the Great; Clive; 
Amherst; Wolfe; comte de Lolly; 
Montcalm; Count von Browne; Ferdi- 
nand (of Brunswick) ; Daun; Zieten; 
F. E. J. Keith; Seydlitz; Rossbach; 
Soubise (1715-1787); Leuthen; Lou- 
don; Kunersdorf; Finck; Minden; 
Sackville, 1st Viscount; Granby. 

American War of Independence; 
Lexington; Concord; Bunker Hill; Jo- 
seph Warren; Israel Putnam; Thomas 
Gage; William Howe; Ethan Allen; 
Ticonderoga; George Washington; 
Benedict Arnold; Richard Montgom- 
ery; Long Island; Rufus Putnam; Wil- 
liam Alexander; Trenton and Prince- 
ton; Henry Knox; Brandywine ; Ger- 
mantown; Burgoyne; Bennington; John 
Stark; Saratoga; George Rogers 
Clark; Sir Henry Clinton; Monmouth ; 
John Sullivan; Anthony Wayne; Wil- 
liam Moultrie; Charleston (S. C.) ; 
Francis. Marion; Thomas Sumter; An- 
drew Pickens; Horatio Gates; Nathan- 
ael Greene; Cornwallis; Kalb; Cam- 
den; King's Mountain; Daniel Mor- 



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gan; Henry Lee; Tarleton; Eutaw- 
ville; Lafayette; Yorktown. 

French Revolutionary Wars (with 6 
diagrams) ; Dumouriez; Keller man 
(1785-1820); Custine; Jemappes; Gri- 
beauval; Neerwinden (1798); Cler- 
fayt; Vendee; L. N. M. Carnot; Jour- 
dan; Wattignies; Joubert; Frederick 
Augustus, Duke of 'York; Souham; Mo- 
reau; Kray von Krajova; Vandamme; 
Pichegru; Marceau; Charles, archduke 
of Austria (Vol. 5, p. 985) ; Massena; 
Napoleon; Auger eau; Serurier; Jou- 
bert; Sir W. Sidney Smith; Kleber; 
Alexandria; Oudinot; Suvarov; Boro- 
dino; Macdonald; Marengo; Murat; 
Lannes; Berthier; Bautzen, 

Napoleonic Campaigns (9 diagrams; 
and see, on p. 288 of Vol. 19, " The 
Military Character of Napoleon ") ; 
Napoleon; Wrede; Murat; Charles 
XIV (Bernadotte) ; Marmont; Davout; 
Ney; Lannes; Soult; Berthier; Ange- 
reau; Dupont de I'Etang; Austerlitz; 
Kutusov; Hohenlohe (Vol. 18, p. 572): 
Bliicher; Lasalle; Massenbach; Kalck- 
reuth; Scharnhorst; Lefebvre-Desno- 
ettes; Count von Bennigsen; Eylau; 
Friedland; Grouchy; Mortier; Senar- 
mont; Oudinot; Massena; Aspern-Ess- 
ling; Charles, archduke of Austria; 
Bellegarde; Wagram; Beauharnais; 
Macdonald; Jerome Bonaparte (Vol. 
4, p. 195) ; Barclay de Tolly; Bagra- 
tion; Victor-Perrin; Yorck von Warten- 
burg; Lauriston; Wittgenstein; Baut- 
zen; Schwarzenberg; Gouvion St. Cyr; 
Dresden (battle). 

Peninsular War; Junot; Murat; Du- 
pont de I'Etang; Moncey; Palafox y 
Melzi; Wellington; Sir John Moore; 
Sir David Baird; Talavera; Suchet; 
Sebastiani; Foy; Lord Hill; Lord 
Lynedoch; W. C. Beresford; Sala- 
manca; Clausel; O'Donnell; Vitoria; 
Sir William Napier. 

American War of 1812; Isaac 
Brock; Dearborn; Baltimore; Wash- 
ington; New Orleans; Andrew Jack- 
son; Jacob Brown; James Wilkinson; 
and for sea-fighting the titles in the 
chapter of this Guide: For Naval 
Officers. 

Waterloo Campaign (with 8 maps) ; 



Napoleon; Murat; Schwarzenberg; 
Barclay de Tolly; Wellington; Blii- 
cher; Lord Hill; Anglesey; D'Erlon; 
Gneisenau; Gerard; Grouchy; Van- 
damme; Thielmann; Billow (1755- 
1816) ; Ney; Exelmans; Pajol; Picton. 

Greek Independence; Ypsilanti; 
Mavrocordato; Cora'es; Dundonald; 
Sir Richard Church. 

Russo-Turkish Wars ( 1 828-29) ; 
Paskevich; Diebitsch (1877-78); Os- 
man; Skobelev; Plevna (with dia- 
gram) ; Todleben; Shipka Pass. 

Crimean War (with 2 diagrams): 
Gorchakov; Hess; Raglan; Saint Ar- 
naud; Canrobert; Pelissier; Meushi- 
kov (1787-1869); Bosquet; Todleben; 
Alma; Balaklava; Scarlett; Cardigan; 
Inkerman; Sir George Brown; Sir 
George Cathcart; Kinglake. 

Italian Wars (1848-1870); Ra- 
detzky; Charles Albert of Sardinia 
(Vol. 5, p. 988) ; Durando; Pepe; Vic- 
tor Emmanuel; Pelissier; Canrobert; 
La Marmora; Napoleon III; Forey; 
MacMahon; Bazaine; Wimpffen; Bene- 
dek; Niel; Custozza; Cialdini. 

American Civil War; Bull Run; Mc- 
Dowell; Beauregard; J. E. Johnston; 
R. E. Lee; Rosecrans; Lexington, Mo.; 
Fremont; Nathaniel Lyon; F. P. Blair, 
Jr.; Pope; Burnside; B. F. Butler; Mc- 
Clellan; A. S. Johnston; G. H. 
Thomas; U. S. Grant; C. F. Smith; 
Lew Wallace; McClernand; Halleck; 
0. M. Mitchel; Shiloh; N. P. Banks; 
T. J. (Stonewall) Jackson; Shenan- 
doah; Fair Oaks; Seven Days; A. P. 
Hill; D. H. Hill; J. E. B. Stuart; 
Braxton Bragg; Longstreet; Bull Run 
(second battle); Ewell; Sigel; Hooker; 
Kearny; Fitz-John Porter; Antietam; 
E. V. Sumner; Hood; Burnside; Van 
Dorn; Fredericksburg; W. B. Frank- 
lin; John F. Reynolds; D. N. Couch; 
Stone River; Hardee; A. McD. Mc- 
Cook; T. L. Crittenden; G. H. Thomas; 
J. C. Breckinridge; McPherson; Chan- 
cellorsville; T. F. Meagher; Meade; 
Gettysburg; O. O. Howard; Double- 
day; Early; Hancock; Sickles; Vicks- 
burg; J. H. Morgan; Chickamauga; N. 
B. Forrest; Chattanooga; Sheridan; 
Wilderness (4 diagrams); Fitz-Hugh 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



Lee; J. H. Wilson; G. K. Warren; 
John Sedgwick; Merritt; R. H. Ander- 
son; Spottsylvania; Cold Harbor; 
Petersburg; Shenandoah Valley; Cedar 
Creek; W. T. Sherman; Marietta; At- 
lanta; Slocum; Sc ho field; Joseph 
Wheeler; J. A. Logan; Nashville; Rich- 
mond; Appomatox Court-House; Dur- 
ham, N. C. 

Seven Weeks' War (with 2 dia- 
grams) : William I (of Germany) ; 
Moltke; Benedek; Frederick III (of 
Germany) ; Frederick Charles (of 
Prussia; Vol. 11, p. 61); Steinmetz; 
Blumenthal; Hohenlohe - Ingelfingen 
(Yol. 18, p. 578b); Goeben; and see 
Italian Wars above. 

Franco-German War; Napoleon III; 
Niel; Moltke; William I (of Ger- 
many) ; Steinmetz; Frossard; Mac- 
Mahon; Worth (with plan) ; Basaine; 
Metz (2 plans) ; Alvensleben; Canro- 
bert; Bourbaki; Leboeuf; Manteuffel; 
Caprivi; Prince Frederick Charles; Se- 
dan (with plan) ; Vinoy; Wimpffen; 
Gallifet; Werder; Gambetta; Frey- 
cinet; Aurelle de Paladines; Orleans; 
Bourbaki; Le Mans; Chanzy; Faid- 
herbe; Belfort; Clinchant; Paris. 

Servo-Bulgarian War; Alexander of 
Bulgaria (Vol. 1, p. 544); Milan of 
Servia. 

Greco-Turkish War; Edhem Pasha. 

Spanish- American War; Joseph 



Wheeler; F. V. Greene; Roosevelt; 
Miles. 

Transvaal (Vol. 27, pp. 208 sqq. for 
Boer War of 1899-1902); Kruger; 
Cronje; P. J. Joubert; Sir George 
White; Buller; Lord Roberts; Lord 
Kitchener; J. H. De la Rey; Christian 
DeWet; Louis Botha. 

Russo-Japanese War (with 4 dia- 
grams) ; Kuroki; Kuropatkin; Inouye; 
Oku; Nozu; Oyama. 

The military student will see from 
what has already been said that the Bri- 
tannica is not merely a general work of 

reference but a valu- 
A Military able aid in the study 

Encyclopaedia of military history, 

biography, theory, 
practice and phraseology. The following 
alphabetical list names only the chief 
of the articles in the Britannica which 
make it a military cyclopaedia. As has 
been noticed above, many articles are 
special treatises in themselves dealing 
with many related topics, and — for in- 
stance — articles on wars or campaigns 
contain elaborate descriptions of separate 
battles. Many topics are treated in the 
Britannica, even if they are not in the 
following list, and their whereabouts 
may be readily learned by turning to 
the Index volume. 



Abatis 

Accoutrement 

Acinaces 

Adjutant 

Ad j utant-general 

Adye, Sir John Miller 

Aelian (Aelianus Tacti- 
cus) 

Aemilius, Paulus 

Aeneas Tacticus 

Aeronautics 

Agincourt, Battle of 

Aide-de-camp 

Albert, Charles, of Sar- 
dinia 

Alcibiades 

Alexander 

Alexander the Great 

Alexander, William 

Alexander of Bulgaria 

Alexandria 

Alignment 



Allan, Ethan 

Alma 

Alva 

Alvensleben 

Ambush 

Ammunition 

American Civil War 

American War of 1812 

American War of In- 
dependence 

Amherst 

Anderson, R. H. 

Anglesey 

Antietam 

Antonius (Mark An- 
tony) 

Antwerp 

Archery 

Argyll, 8th Earl 

Arniet 

Arms and Armour 

Army 



Army Corps 

Army Signalling 

Arnold, Benedict 

Arquebus 

Arrian 

Arsenal 

Artillery 

Asclepiodotus 

Aspern-Essling 

Assegai 

Atlanta 

Augereau 

Augsburg, War of the 

League of 
Augustus, Frederick, 

Duke of York 
Aurelle de Paladines 
Austerlitz 
Austrian Succession, 

War of the 
Aventail or Avantaille 
Bagration 



Bailey 

Baird, Sir David 

Balaklava 

Baldwin I 

Ballistics 

Bandolier 

Baner 

Banks, N. P. 

Bannockburn 

Barbette 

Barclay de Tolly 

Barracks 

Barricade 

Basinet 

Bastion 

Batta 

Battalion 

Battering Rajr 

Battle 

Bautzen 

Bayonet 

Bazaine 



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Bayard (the Chevalier) 

Beauharnais 

Beauregard 

Bedford, 1st Duke of 

Belfort 

Bellegarde 

Belle-Isle 

Benedek 

Bennigsen, Coilnt von 

Bennington 

Beresford, W. C. 

Bernhard of Saxe- Wei- 
mar 

Berthier 

Berwick 

Bivouac 

Blair, F. P., Jr. 

Blenheim 

Blockhouse 

Blticher 

Blumenthal 

Blunderbuss 

Bomb 

Bombardier 

Bombardment 

Bonaparte, Jerome 

Borodino 

Bosquet 

Botha 

Boufflers, Due de 

Boulevard 

Bourbaki 

Bouvines 

Bragg, Braxton 

Brandywine 

Brasidas 

Breckinridge, J. C. 

Breitenfeld 

Brevet 

Brialmont, H. A. 

Brigade 

Brigand ine 

Benedetto Brin 

Bronsart von Schellen- 
dorf, Paul 

Brown, Sir George 

Brown, Jacob 

Brown Bess 

Browne, Count von 

Bruce, Robert 

Bullet 

Buller 

Bull Run 

Bull Run (second bat- 
tle) 

Billow, Dietrich Heln- 
rich 

Bunker Hill 

Burgonet, or Burganet 

Burgoyne 

Burnside 

Busby 

Butler, B. F. 

Cadet 

Cadre 

Caesar 

Calais 

Caliver 



Caltrop 

Camden 

Camp 

Campaign 

Canadian Forces 

Cannae 

Cannon 

Canrobert 

Canteen 

Cantonment 

Capitulation 

Caponier 

Caprivi 

Captain 

Carabiniers 

Carbine 

Cardigan 

Carnot, L. N. M. 

Carronade 

Carthage 

Cartridge 

Carrington, H. B. 

Casemate 

Case-Shot 

Cashier 

Castle 

Catapult 

Cathcart, Sir George 

Catinat 

Caudine Forks 

Cavalry 

Cedar Creek, Va. 

Chaeroneia 

Chancellors ville 

Chanzy 

Chaplain 

Charlemagne 

Charles, Archduke of 

Austria 
Charles I (of England) 
Charles XIV (Berna- 

dotte) 
Charles Martel 
Charleston, S. C. 
Chassepot 
Chattanooga, Tenn. 
Chesney, C. C. 
Chesney, Sir G. T. 
Chevaux-de-frise 
Church, Sir Richard 
Chickamauga Creek 
Cialdini 
Circumvallation, Lines 

of 
Clark, George Rogers 
Clausel 

Clausewitz, Karl von 
Claymore 
Cleon 
Clerfayt 
Clinchant 

Clinton, Sir Henry 
Clive 

Coast Defence 
Coastguard 
Coehoorn 
Cold Harbor 
Coligny 



Colonel 

Colours, Military 

Colour-sergeant 

Commander 

Commandeer 

Commando 

Commissariat 

Concord 

Condg 

Condottiere 

Conscription 

Conti 

Coraes 

Cordite 

Cormontaingne, Louis 

de 
Cornwallis 
Corporal 
Corps 

Couch, D. N. 
Counterscarp 
Countersign 
Court Marshal 
Cox, J. D. 
Creey 

Crimean War 
Crilias 

Crittenden, T. L. 
Cromwell, Oliver 
Cronje 
Crusades 
Cuirass 
Cuirassiers 
Cumberland, Duke of 
Custine 
Custozza 
Cutlass 
Dagger 
Dannewerk 
Darius 
Daun 
Davout 
Dearborn 
Defile 
Depot 
D'Erlon 
De la Rey 
Devolution, War of 
De Wet 
Diebitsch 
Dirk 
Division 

Dodge, Theodore A. 
Donelson, Fort 
Doubleday 
Dragoon 
Dresden 

Du Guesclin, Bertrand 
Dumouriez 
Dunbar 
Dundonald 
Dunes 

Dunois, Count of 
Dupont de PEtang 
Dttppel 
Durando 
Dutch Wars 
Early 



Echelon 

Edgehill 

Edhem Pasha 

Edward (the Black 
Prince) 

Edward III 

Edward IV 

Emmanuel Philibert 

Emmanuel, Victor 

Enceinte 

Enfilade 

Engineers, Military 

Ensign 

Epaminondas 

Epaulette 

Essex 

Eugene of Savoy 

Eutawville 

Ewell 

Exelmans 

Explosives 

Eylau 

Fabius (Cunctator) 

Faidherbe 

Fairfax of Cameron 

Fair Oaks, Va. 

Farnese (Duke of 
Parma) 

Fascine 

Ferdinand (of Bruns- 
wick) 

Filibuster 

Finck 

Fleetwood, Charles 

Fleurus 

Flodden 

Flying 

Flying Column 

Foix, Gaston de 

Folard, Jean Charles 

Fontenoy 

Forey 

Forlorn Hope 

Forrest, X. B. 

Fortification and Siege- 
craft 

Foy 

Francis I (of France) 

Franco-German War 

Franklin, W. B. 

Frederick II 

Frederick III (of Ger- 
many) 

Frederick V 

Frederick Charles (of 
Prussia) 

Frederick Henry 

Frederick the Great 

Frederick William of 
Brandenburg 

Fredericksburg, Va. 

Freiburg im Breisgau 

Fremont, J. C. 

French Revolutionary 
Wars 

Freycinet 

Friedland 

Frigate 



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Fronde 

Frossard 

Fugleman 

Fusilier 

Gabion 

Gage, Thomas 

Gafias 

Galliffet 

Gambetta 

Garrison 

Gates, Horatio 

Gauntlet 

General 

George II of England 

Gerard 

Germantown 

Gettysburg 

Gingall or Jingal 

Glacis 

Gneisenau 

Godfrey of Bouillon 

Goeben 

Gorchakov 

Gorget 

Goring 

Gouvion St. Cyr 

Granby 

Grand Alliance, War 

of the 
Grant, U. S. 
Grape 

Great Rebellion 
Greco-Turkish War 
Greek Fire 
Greek Independence, 

War of 
Greene, F. V. 
Greene, Nathanael 
Grenade 
Grenadier 
Grenville, Sir Bevil 
Gribeauval 
Grouchy 
Guards and Household 

Troops 
Guardship 
Guibert, Comte de 
Guichard, Karl Gottlieb 
Gun 

Gun-cotton 
Gunner 
Gunpowder 
Gun-Room 
Gustavus Adolphus 
Halbert 
Halleck, H. W. 
Haniley, Sir Edward 
Hancock 
Hannibal 
Hanno 
Hardee 

Harper's Ferry, W. Va. 
Harrison, Thomas 
Hasdrubal 
Hastings 
Haversack 
Heliograph 
Helmet 



Henderson, G, F. R. 

Henry V (of England) 

Henry VI (Roman 
Emperor) 

Herodotus 

Herrings, Battle of the 

Hess 

Hill, A. P. 

Hill, D. H. 

Hill, Lord Rowland 

Hohenfriedberg 

Hohenlohe-Ingelflnjfen 

Holster 

Hood 

Hooker 

Hopton, Baron 

Hostage 

Hotham, John 

Howard, O. O. 

Howe, William 

Howitzer 

Hull, William 

Hundred Years* War 

Hussar 

Infantry 

Inkerman 

Inouye 

Isly 

Italian Wars 

Jackson, Andrew 

Jackson, T. J. ( M Stone- 
wall") 

James IV (of Scot- 
land) 

Japan, Army 

Jemappes 

Joan of Arc 

John of Bohemia 

John II of France 

Johnston, A. S. 

Johnston, J. E. 

Jomini, Baron A. H. 

Joubert, P. J. 

Jourdan 

Jugurtha 

Junot 

Kalb 

Kalckreuth 

Kearny 

Keith, F. E. J. 

Kellermann. 

Khaki 

Khevenhiiller, L. A. 

Kinglake 

King's Mountain 

Kitchener, Lord 

Kite 

Kteber 

Knobkerrie 

Knox, Henry 

Kray von Krajova 

Kriegspiel 

Kruger 

Kunersdorf 

Kuroki 

Kuropatkin 

Kutusov 

Laager 



Lafayette 

Lally, Comte de 

Lambert, John 

La Marmora 

Lancaster, House of 

Lance 

Landsknecht 

Landsturm 

Landwehr 

Langlois, H. 

Lannes 

Lasalle 

Lauriston 

Leboeuf 

Lee, Fitz-Hugh 

Lee, Henry 

Lee, R. E. 

Lefebvre-Desnoettes 

Legion 

Leipzig 

Le Mans 

Leonidas 

Leuthen 

Leven 

Lexington 

Ligonier 

Linstock 

Logan, J. A. 

Long Island, N. Y. 

Longstreet 

Lorraine, Charles of 

Loudon 

Louis IX (of France) 

Louis XI V 

Louvois 

Ltttzen 

Luxembourg 

Luxembourg, Duke of 

Lord Lynedoch 

Lyon, Nathaniel 

McClellan 

McClernand 

McCook, A. McD. 

Macdonald 

McDowell 

McPherson 

Macedon 

Machine Gun 

MacMahon 

Mago 

Major 

Malleson, George Bruce 

Malplaquet 

Mameluke 

Manchester, 2d Earl of 

Military Manoeuvres 

Mans f eld 

Manteuffel 

Mantineia 

Marathon 

Marceau 

March 

Marengo 

Marietta, Ga. 

Marignan 

Marion, Francis 

Marius 

Marlborough 



Marmont 

Marston Moor 

Martello Tower 

Martial Law 

Martinet 

Massena 

Massenbach 

Massinissa 

Matross 

Maurice of Nassau 

Mavrocordato 

Maximilian I (of Ba- 
varia) 

Meade 

Meagher, T. P. 

Menshikov 

Mercenary 

Mercy 

Merritt 

Met* 

Meuse Line 

Milan of Servia 

Miles 

Military Law 

Militia 

Miltiades 

Minden 

Minute Men 

Mitchel, O. M. 

Moat 

Moltke 

Moncey 

Monmouth 

Montalembert 

Montcalm 

Montecucculi 

Montgomery, Richard 

Montmorency (con- 
stable) 

Montrose 

Moore, Sir John 

Moreau 

Morgan, Daniel 

Morgan, J. H. 

Morion 

Mortier 

Moselle Line 

Moultrie, William 

Mounted Infantry 

Murat 

Musket 

Muster 

Mutiny 

Napier, Sir William 

Napoleon 

Napoleonic Campaigns 

Napoleon HI 

Naseby 

Nashville 

Navarro 

Needle-gun 

Neerwinden 

Newark, Lord 

Newcastle, Duke of 

New Orleans 

Ney 

Niel 

Nitro-glycerlne 



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Noailles 

Ndrdlingen 

Norfolk, 3rd Duke 

Nozu 

O'Donnell, H. J. 

Officers 

Oku 

Olynthus 

Onosander 

Ordnance 

Orleans 

Osman 

Oudenarde 

Oudinot 

Oyama 

Paiol 

Palafox y Melsi 

Panoply 

Parade 

Parados 

Parallels 

Paris 

Parole 

Partisan 

Paskevich 

Pasley, Sir C. W. 

Patrol 

Pavis, or Pavise 

Pelissier 

Peloponnesian War 

Peninsular War 

Pericles 

Perseus 

Pescara 

Petard 

Peterborough 

Petersburg Campaign 

Petronel 

Petty-Officer 

Phalanx 

Philip II (of Macedon) 

Philip II (of France) 

Philip VI 

Piccolomini 

Pichegru 

Pickens, Andrew 

Picket 

Picton 

Pigeon Post 

Pike 

Pistol 

Platoon 

Pneumatic Gun 

Poitiers 

Polish Succession, War 

of the 
Polyaenus 
Pompey 
Poniard 
Pontoon 
Pope 

Porter, Fits-John 
Press Gang 
Propellants 
Punic Wars 
Purser 

Putnam, Israel 
Putnam, Rufus 



Pylos 

Pyrrhus 

Quadrilateral 

Quiver 

Radetzky 

Raglan 

Ramillies 

Range-finder, Teleme- 
ter or Position-finder 

Rapier 

Rapparee 

Ravenna 

Raymund of Toulouse 

Razzia 

Reconnaissance 

Redan 

Redoubt 

Regiment 

Retrenchment 

Rlveilte 

Reynolds, John F. 

Richard I of England) 

Ricochet 

Riciimond 

Rifle 

Roberts, Lord 

Rocket 

Rohan, due de 

Roosevelt 

Ropes, J. C. 

Rosecrans 

Roses, Wars of the 

Rossbach 

Rupert, Prince 

Russo-Japanese War 

Russo-Turkish Wars 

Rttstow, Friedrich W. 

Ruvigny 

Sackville, 1st Viscount 

Saint Arnaud 

St. Quenlin 

Salade, Sallet or Salet 

Saladin 

Salamanca 

Salamis 

Saratoga, Battles of 

Saxe, Comte de (mar- 
shal) 

Scabbard 

Scarlett 

Scharnhorst 

Schiavone 

Schofteld 

Schwarsenberg 

Schwerin, Count von 

Scimitar 

Scipio Aemilianus 

Scipio Africanus 

Scout 

Sebastian! 

Seckendorf 

Sedan 

Sedgwick, John 

Senarmont 

Sentinel or Sentry 

Sepoy 

Serjeant 

Sertorius 



Servo-Bulgarian War 

Serurier 

Seven Days' Battle 

Seven Weeks* War 

Seven Years* War 

Seydlitz 

Shenandoah Valley 

Campaign 
Sheridan 
Sherman, W. T. 
Shield 
Shiloh 

Shipka Pass 
Sickles 
Siege 
Sigel 
Sights 
Signal 

Sile8ian Wars 
Sirdar 
Skippon 
Skobelev 
Sling 
Slocum 
Smith, C. F. 
Smith, Sir W. Sidney 
Soubise 
Souham 
Soult 
Sowar 
Spahis 

Spanish-American War 
Spanish Succession, 

War of The 
Spear 
S pontoon 
Spottsylvania 
Spur 

Squadron 

Staff, military 

Standard, Battle of 

Stark, John 

Steenkirk 

Steinmets 

Stiletto 

Stone River 

Stony Point 

Strategy 

Strelits 

Stuart, J. E. B. 

Suchet 

Sulla 

Sullivan, John 

Sumner, E. V. 

Sumter, Thomas 

Supply and Transport 

(Military) 
Sutler 
Suvarov 
Swold 
Sword 
Tactics 

Talavera de la Rein a 
Target 
Tarleton 
Tattoo 
Thermopylae 



Thielmann 

Thirty Years' War 

Thomas, G. H. 

Thucydides 

Ticonderoga, N. Y. 

Tilly 

Todleben 

Torstensson 

Towton 

Transvaal 

Trasimene 

Traun 

Traverse 

Tr6buchet 

Trenton and Princeton 

Troop 

Turenne 

Ulan 

Uniforms 

Vandamme 

Van Dorn 

Vauban 

Vedette 

Vegetius 

Vendee 

Venddme 

Verdun 

Verdy du Vernois 

Veteran 

Vexillum 

Vicksburg 

Victor-Perrin 

Villars 

Villeroi 

Vinoy 

Visor 

Vitoria 

Volunteers 

Wagram 

Wallace, Lewis 

Waller, Sir William 

Wallenstein 

Ward Room 

War Game 

Warrant Officer 

Warren, G. K. 

Warren, Joseph 

Warwick, Earl of 

Washington, George 

Waterloo Campaign 

Wattignies 

Wayne, Anthony 

Weapon 

Wellington 

Werder 

Wheeler, Joseph 

White, Sir George 

Wilderness, Va. 

Wilkinson, James 

William the Silent 

William I (of Eng- 
land) 

William III (of Eng- 
land) 

William I (of Ger- 
many) 

Wilson, J. H. 

Wimpffen 



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Wittgenstein 

Wolfe 

Wood, Sir H. E. 

Worth 


Wrangel Yeomanry 

Wrede Yorck von Warten- 

Xenophon burg 

Yataghan Yorktown, Va. 


Ypsilanti 

Zieten 

Zouave 




CHAPTER XXX 
FOR NAVAL OFFICERS 



THE scope of a naval officer's pro- 
fessional interests is so broad that 
the present chapter of this Guide 
could not, without duplicating other 
chapters, indicate all the aspects of the 
Britannica with which he is directly con- 
cerned. And he will find that his use of 
the Britannica is simplified by the sub- 
divisions about to be specified, which vir- 
tually present his subjects under four dif- 
ferent heads. Of course he may be called 
upon, in the exercise of his duties, simul- 
taneously to think and to act in all his 
capacities, to concentrate upon the swift 
solution of one problem his knowledge of 
warfare, of shipbuilding, of navigation 
and of mechanical, engineering; but his 
reading upon these topics naturally di- 
vides itself into these four parts. 

Inasmuch as army officers, even when 
they are at sea, are passengers, and, save 
in relation to the discipline of their troops, 
have nothing to do 
Three Other with the ship's man- 

Relevant agement, it could not 

Chapters be assumed that the 

present chapter 
would appeal to them. But naval officers, 
when co-operating in a land expedition, 
need to employ every kind of knowledge 
that is of use to army officers, and as the 
chapter For Army Officers in this Guide 
would therefore in any case be read by 
them, it has seemed convenient to include 
in it the description of those articles in 
the Britannica which deal with war in 
general. 



The chapter For Marine Transporta- 
tion Men in this Guide is also one to 
which the naval officer should refer, as it 
deals with ships and navigation in gen- 
eral. The articles Ship and Shipbuild- 
ing mentioned in that chapter are (ex- 
cept for the historical section of the form- 
er) by Sir Philip Watts, designer of the 
British "Dreadnoughts" and "Super- 
Dreadnoughts;" and the article Shipping 
is by Douglas Owen, of the Royal Naval 
War College at Portsmouth. Obviously 
these and many other articles described 
in that chapter are of the greatest im- 
portance to naval officers. 

The chapter For Engineers in this 
Guide describes the articles dealing with 
steam engines, internal combustion en- 
gines, electrical machinery and fuels of 
all' kinds; and it would be a waste of space 
to repeat in this chapter a summary of 
the Britannica treatment of these sub- 
jects. 

All three of the chapters mentioned 
should therefore be treated as forming 
constituent parts of the general plan of 
this present chapter, in which the naval 
officer will find no repetition of their 
contents. 

The article to which he will naturally 
first turn is Navy and Navies (Vol. 19, 
p. 299), by David Hannay, 
The Key author of A Short History 
Article of the Royal Navy. This 

article is equivalent to 60 
pages of this Guide in length. It con- 
tains: 



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FOR NAVAL OFFICERS 



iC9 



Naval Personnel. 

Sketches of the Administrative His- 
tory of navies: Athenian; Roman; By- 
zantine; Medieval; British, with spe- 
cial attention to the period since the 
Restoration, and the reforms under 
James II when Samuel Pepys was sec- 
retary ; 

French — modern navy dating from 
the time of Richelieu; 

Spanish — a great navy without an 
organization before the 18th century; 

Dutch — good seamen and well-fed, 
led by able admirals, but unorganized, 
and unimportant after the 17th cen- 
tury; 

United States — the first great extra- 
European power on the sea ; 

Russian — dating from the reign of 
Peter the Great, when it was organized 
and led by foreigners. 

The Balance of Navies in History: 
influence of sea-power — " when Napo- 
leon fell, the navy of Great Britain was 
not merely the first in the world ; it was 
the only powerful navy in existence." 
Modern Rivalry between Italy and 
Germany (1871), United States 
(1890), Japan; England and the Dual 
Alliance — "naval scares" since 1874; 
British Naval Defence Act of 1889; 
Russia's navy crushed (1904) ; new na- 
vies rivalling Great Britain and 
France, — Italy, Germany, United 
States, Japan. 

Latest developments : " Dread- 
noughts " ; Building Programmes. 

Bibliography (about 1800 words). 

Naval Strategy and Tactics. 

Historical evolution: inter-relation of 
the ship's capacity and armament. 

Early history: ramming demanded 
oars for propulsion; small warships, 
large fighting crews, — no blockade, 
short cruises; 

Greek and Roman methods: board- 
ing introduced by Romans ; " beard- 
ing," that is, fortifying with iron bands 
across the bows, an early form of armor 
plate. 

Sailing ships: ramming discarded; 
" line ahead " formation displaces " line 
abreast " ; principles of fighting tac- 



tics — order at beginning to be kept 
throughout, thus no advantage taken of 
enemy's disorder; Clerk's theories 
(1790-97) — not maximum safety but 
immediate melee the desideratum; Suf- 
fren, Rodney and Howe and their dis- 
regard of accepted tactics. 

Improved ship-building and modern 
times: New problems — steam propul- 
sion, its gain in speed, but its depend- 
ence on fuel; fleet in being; risk of 
transporting troops while enemy is un- 
beaten; ramming and pell-mell battles 
forbidden by torpedoes; searchlight as 
check to torpedoes; failure of attempts 
to " bottle up " harbours ; gun-fire still 
the great factor; position; speed; sub- 
marines still an unknown factor. 

Bibliography. 
The first part of this article Navy and 
Navies should be supplemented by the 
article Admiralty Administration (Vol. 

1 , p. 195) , by Admiral 
Naval Admin- Sir R. Vesey Hamil- 
i8tration ton, and, for the 

United States, the 
late Admiral W. T. Sampson. The Amer- 
ican part of this article describes the divi- 
sions and the working of the Navy De- 
partment, its bureaus, judge advocate- 
general, office of naval intelligence, boards 
etc.; and there is additional information 
on the subject in such articles as Dock- 
yards, and United States Naval Acad- 
emy. 

For the legal side of naval administra- 
tion the reader should study the article 
Admiralty Jurisdiction (Vol. 1, p. 205), 
by Sir Walter Phillimore, former presi- 
dent of the International Law Associa- 
tion (and author of the Britannica article 
Admiralty, High Court of, and, for the 
United States, by J. Arthur Barrett; and 
also the general articles International 
Law (Vol. 14, p. 694), by Sir Thomas 
Barclay, author of Problems of Interna- 
tional Practice and Diplomacy, and Inter- 
national Law, Private (Vol. 14, p. 701), 
by Dr. John Westlake, formerly professor 
of international law, Cambridge Uni- 
versity , and member for the United King- 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



dom of the International (Hague) Court 
of Arbitration; as well as such special 
articles as Search (Vol. 24, p. 560), by 
Sir Thomas Barclay, and Sea Laws (Vol. 
24, p. 535), by Sir Travers Twiss. 

It has already been noticed that the 
closing part of the article Navy and 
Navies dealt with strategy and tactics in 
a general way. This sub- 
Policy, ject is treated in fuller de- 
Strategy, tall by Admiral Sir Cyprian 
Tactics Bridge, G.C.B. (former Di- 
rector of Naval Intelligence, 
British Navy, author of Sea-Power and 
other Studies) in two articles Sea-Power 
(Vol. 24, p. 548) and Sea, Command of 
the (Vol. 24, p. 529). Each of these ar- 
ticles will be of great value and interest 
to the naval officer as a summary and 
criticism of the theories of Captain A. T. 
Mahan and Vice-Admiral P. H. Colomb; 
and this will be made evident by the brief 
outline of the two articles which follows. 

Article, Sea-Power — Use of the 
term to mean (1) a state pre-eminent- 
ly strong at sea; and (2) — as in this 
article — the various factors in a state's 
naval strength. Thucydides as a fore- 
runner of Mahan ; he makes Pericles in 
comparing Athenian resources with 
those of her enemies comment on the 
importance of " sea-power." 

The meaning of sea-power can only 
be learned historically. Although there 
have been more land- wars, " the course 
of history has been profoundly changed 
more often by contests on the water/' 
Salamis saved Greece and held back 
Oriental invasion. The loss of the 
Peloponnesian War by Athens was due 
to her weakening sea-power. The 
First Punic War, Roman rather than 
Carthaginian control of the Mediterra- 
nean, was won by Roman naval pre- 
dominance. Mahommedan conquest 
spread west in Africa only with the 
creation of a navy. The crusades could 
not have continued had not Mahomme- 
dan naval power sunk as the Venetian, 
Pisan, and Genoese grew. The defeat 
of Genoa by Venice gave the latter a 
right to perform the ceremony of 



" wedding the sea " with a ring as 
token of " perpetual sway." Lepanto 
(1571) the end of Turkish sea-power. 

Spanish and Portuguese sea-power 
crushed by English growth and the 
loss of the Armada. Early English 
naval history: the importance of the 
battle of Dover in 1217. Appearance 
of standing navies. The New World 
and its influence on sea-power. The 
sea-power of the Dutch; its sudden 
rise; its basis in foreign trade; the 
Dutch wars with England resulted in 
England's becoming the first great 
naval power, but did not crush the 
United Provinces because of their sea- 
power. Torrington and the " Fleet in 
Being" in 1690. Change in naval op- 
erations in 17th century — the scene 
thereafter in the enemy's waters, not 
near the coast of England. 

The 18th century. Rise of Russia's 
sea-power — an artificial creation. 
Seven Years' War and its gains to 
Great Britain. War of American In- 
dependence: British mistakes — the 
enemy's coast not considered the fron- 
tier. Wars of the French Revolution 
and Empire: Great Britain's advantage 
not in organization, discipline or " sci- 
ence," but in sea-experience. 

The War of 1812. "The British 
had now to meet the elite of one of the 
finest communities of seamen ever 
known. ... In any future war British 
sea-power, great as it may be, should 
not receive shocks like those that it un- 
questionably did suffer in 1812." 

Later Manifestations of Sea-Power. 
American Civil War — " By dominat- 
ing the rivers the Federals cut the Con- 
federacy asunder; and, by the power 
they possessed of moving troops by sea 
at will, perplexed and harassed the de- 
fence, and facilitated the occupation of 
important points." Russo-Turkish War 
of 1877-78— Turkish control of Black 
Sea forced Russians to invade by land 
through the difficult Balkans. Chilean 
Civil War of 1891 — an army defeated 
by a navy. Chino-Japanese War of 
1894-95 — Japanese navy in transport 
work and in crushing last resistance. 
Spanish- American War: "Spaniards 



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were defeated by the superiority of the 
American sea-power." 

Article, Sea, Command of the — 
Sketch of Sovereignty of the Sea; 
Command different from Sovereignty 
or Dominion. 

Attempts to gain Command: Dutch 
Wars. 

Strategic Command or Control — 
largely the power of carrying out con- 
siderable over-sea expeditions at will. 
Seeking the enemy's fleet. Temporary 
command in smaller operations. 

As for the army officer, so the Britan- 
nica has for the naval officer many sepa- 
rate articles on wars, campaigns, battles, 

generals, command- 
Special ers. The following 
Historical * list of articles will 
Articles serve as a guide to a 

course of reading 
constituting a history of naval warfare, 
furnishing the concrete separate facts on 
which are based the articles already de- 
scribed. 

Ancient History. 

Greece: articles Salami* , Themisto- 
cles, Xerxes I, Peloponnesian War, 
Pericles. 

Rome: articles Punic Wars, Car- 
thage, Pompey, Ac Hum. 
Medieval History. 

Crusades; Swold; Dover, -Battle of; 
Sluys, Battle of; Espagnols sur Mer 
(and article Edward III), Chioggia 
(and articles Venice and Genoa). 
16th Century. 

Lepanto (and article Don John of 

Austria). 
Armada (and articles on Howard, 
Hawkins, Drake, Frobisher, Ra- 
leigh, Richard Grenville, and the 
other heroes of this first bright 
glow of England's naval glory). 
The Era of Sailing Vessels. 

Dutch Wars (and articles Tromp, 
Robert Blake, Ayscue, De Ruy- 
ter, Cornelius De Witt, William 
Penn, George Monk, Sir John 
Lawson, James II, Prince Ru- 
pert, First Earl of Sandwich, 
Abraham Duquesne). 



Grand Alliance, Naval Operations 
(and articles Earl of Torrington, 
and Beachy Head, Battle of; La 
Hogue, Earl of Oxford [Edward 
Russell] and Tourville). 

Spanish Succession, Naval Opera- 
tions (and Chateau-Renault, Ben- 
bow, Rooke, Cloudesley Shovel, 
Duguay-Trouin, Forbin). 

Austrian Succession, Naval Opera- 
tions (and the articles Edward 
Vernon, Lord Anson, Toulon, 
Battle of, and Thomas Mathews, 
marking the official sanction in 
England of an absurd formal sys- 
tem of tactics). 

Seven Years' War, Naval Opera- 
tions (and Boscawen, B y n g , 
Hawke, Pocock, Quiberon). 

American War of Independence, 
Naval Operations (and E s e k 
Hopkins, John Paul Jones, Comte 
d'Estaing, Suffren St. Tropes, 
Thomas Truxtun, Lord Howe, 
John Byron, Hotham, Hyde 
Parker, Rodney, Guichen, Comte 
de Grasse). 

French Revolutionary Wars, Naval 
Operations (and First of June, 
Battle of, Howe, Villaret de Joy- 
euse, Lord Bridport, Lord Hood, 
Earl of St. Vincent [John 
Jervis], St. Vincent, Battle of, 
Lord Keith, Lord Duncan, Nile. 
Nelson, Sir Thomas Troubridge) 

Napoleonic Campaigns, Naval Op- 
erations (and Baron de Sauma- 
rez, Copenhagen, Battle of, Sir 
Hyde Parker, Sir Rpbert C alder, 
Villeneuve, Trafalgar, Lord Col- 
lingwood). 

American War of 1812 (and John 
Rodger s, Isaac Hull, William 
Bainbridge, Stephen Decatur, 
David Porter, Oliver Hazard 
Perry, Sir Philip Broke, Thomas 
Macdonough). 
And Lissa (1811), closely resembling 
Trafalgar, and Navarino, decisive for 
Greek Independence. 
The Era of Steam. 

American Civil War (and Hampton 
Roads, Andrew Hull Foote, New 
Madrid, D. G. Farragut, D. D. 
Porter, W. B. Cushin'g), 



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Chile-Peruvian War. 

Chilean Civil War. 

Chino- Japanese War (and see I to). 

Spanish-American War (and see the 

articles W. T. Sampson, W. S. 

Schley, George Dewey, Pascual 

Cervera y Topete Cervera). 
Russo-Japanese War (and Togo, 

Dogger Bank, Tsushima). 

The subject of armaments. is treated in 
the articles Ship and Shipbuilding (see 



chapter For Marine Transportation Men), 
Armour Plates, 
Armaments with illustrations, by 

Major William Eger- 
ton Edwards, late lecturer at the Royal 
Naval War College, Greenwich, Ord- 
nance, Ammunition; Torpedo, etc. 

The following is an alphabetical list of 
articles in the Britannica of especial in- 
terest to naval officers or other students 
of naval warfare. 



Actium 

Admiral 

Admiralty Administra- 
tion 

Admiralty Jurisdiction 

American Civil War 

American War of In- 
dependence 

American War of 1812 

Ammunition 

Anson, Lord 

Armada 

Armour Plates 

Arms and Armour 

Ayscue 

Bainbridge, William 

Beachy Head 

Benbow 

Beresford 

Blake, Robert 

Boscawen 

Bridport, Lord 

Broke, Sir Philip 

Byng 

Byron, John 

Calder, Sir Robert 

Camperdown 

Carthage 

Casemate 

Case-shot 

Cervera 

Chateau-Renault 

Chile-Peruvian War 

Chilean Civil War 

Chino-Japanese War 

Chioggia 

Coaling Stations 

Coast Defence 

Coast Guard 

Codrington 

Coligny 

Collingwood, Lord 

Colomb 

Commodore 

Copenhagen, Battle of 

Crusades 



Cushing, W. B. 

Decatur, Stephen 

d'Estaing 

De Ruyter 

De Saumarez, Baron 

Dewey, George 

DeWitt, Cornelius 

Dockyards 

Dogger Bank 

Dover, Battle of (1217) 

Drake 

Duguay-Trouin 

Duilius 

Duncan, Lord 

Duquesne, Abraham 

Dutch Wars 

Edward III 

Espagnols sur Mer 

Farragut, D. G. 

Fireship 

First of June 

Flagship 

Fleet 

Flying Column 

Foote, Andrew Hull 

Forbin 

French Revolutionary 

Wars 
Frigate 
Frobisher 
Genoa 

Grand Alliance 
Grasse, Comte de 
Grenville, Richard 
Greek Independence 
Guardship 
Guichen 

Hampton Roads 
Hawke 
Hawkins 
Hood, Lord 
Hopkins, Esek 
Hotham 
Howard 
Howe, Lord 



Hull, Isaac 

International Law 

James II 

Jones, John Paul 

Keith, Lord 

La Hogue 

Lawson, Sir John 

I^epanto 

Liner 

Lissa (1811, 1866) 

Macdonough, Thomas 

Madrid, New 

Mahan 

Marines 

Mathews, Thomas 

Meloria 

Miaoulis 

Midshipman 

Monk, George 

Napoleonic Campaigns 

Nauarchia 

Naucrary 

Naval Operations 

Navarino 

Navy and Navies 

Nelson 

Nile, Battle of the 

Ordnance 

Oxford, Earl of 

Parker, Hyde 

Parker, Sir Hyde 

Peloponnesiun War 

Penn, William 

Pepvs 

Pericles 

Perry, Oliver Hazard 

Piracy 

Pocock 

Pompey 

Porter, David 

Porter, D. D. 

Privateer 

Punic Wars 

Quiberon, Battle of 

Raleigh 



Range-finder 

Rodgers, John 

Rodney 

Rooke 

Rupert, Prince 

Russo-Japanese War 

Saint-Bon 

Saint Vincent 

Saints, Battle of the 

Salamis 

Sampson, W\ T. 

Sandwich, 1st Earl of 

Schley, W. S. 

Sea, Command of the 

Sea Laws 

Seamanship 

Sea-Power 

Search 

Seven Years' War 

Ship, Shipbuilding 

Shovel, Cloudesley 

Sluys 

Spanish- American War 

Spanish Succession 

Squadron 

Submarine Mines 

Suffren, St. Trope* 

Swold 

Themistocles ' 

Togo 

Torpedo 

Torrington 

Toulon, Battle of 

Tourviile 

Trafalgar 

Tromp 

Troubridge, Sir Thomas 

Truxtun, Thomas 

Tsu-shima 

U. S. Naval Academy 

Venice 

Vernon, Edward 

Villaret de Joyeuse 

Villeneuve 

Xerxes I 



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Part II 

Courses of Educational Reading 

to Supplement Or Take the 

Place of School or 

University Studies 



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CHAPTER XXXI 



MUSIC 



THE general articles on music in 
the Encyclopaedia Britannica pro- 
vide an illuminative discussion 
of broad artistic principles which can- 
not fail to stimulate the musical sense 
and perception of the professional or 
the amateur. The technical and criti- 
cal treatment of the subject was di- 
rected by Donald F. Tovey, composer, 
pianist, and author of Essays in Mu- 
sical Analysis; and no one could be 
better fitted for the work of organizing 
this department of the Britannica. He 
was assisted by W. H. Hadow, the well- 
known musical writer and composer, 
J. A. Fuller Maitland, musical critic of 
The Times (London), E. J. Dent, author 
of Alessandro Scarlatti and His Works, 
R. H. Legge, principal musical critic on 
the Daily Telegraph (London), and others; 
and the section treating of musical in- 
struments was organized and contributed 
by Miss Kathleen Schlesinger, the great- 
est living authority on the subject. 



In mapping out courses of reading 
the subject is divided into sections as 
follows: (1) Evolution, (2) Theory, 
(3) Musical Forms, (4) Musical Instru- 
ments. 

The article Music (Vol. 19, p. 72), 
by Donald Tovey, which contains a mas- 
terly account of the development of the 
art from the earliest time down to the 
present day, provides the reader with 
just that general survey which enables 
him to see the whole picture in perspec- 
tive. This he will naturally turn to first, 
but to fill out the picture there are a 
number of other articles which he will 
wish to read. In the following scheme 
the evolution of the art has been sketched 
in skeleton, so that the student may 
have before him a guide to the study of 
any period in which he is specially 
interested. This outline serves to show 
how very thoroughly the ground is cov- 
ered in the new Encyclopaedia Bri- 
tannica. 



(1) EVOLUTION OF MUSIC 

Subject for Reading Article 

PRE-HARMONIC STAGE 

Primitive Music. Music (Vol. 19, p. 72). 

Song (Vol. 25, p. 406). 

Musical sense first awakened by the Dance (Vol. 7, p. 795); see also Rhythm 
rhythm of the dance. (Vol. 23, p. 278). 

Legendary account of the invention of David (Vol. 7, p. 859). 
music by a Judean. 

Hebrew music: setting of the Psalms. Psalms, Book of (Vol. 22, p. 589 and p. 

586). 

Suggested Jewish origin of some Gre- Plain Song (Vol. 21, p. 706), 
gorian Tunes. 



175 



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176 



BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



Dawn of modern music in Greece. 
Connection of music with lyric 
poetry. Terpander of Lesbos (660 
B.C.) adds 8 strings to the 4- 
stringed lyre, giving compass of oc- 
tave. 

Characteristics of Greek music. Py- 
thagoras (6th century, B.C.) fixes 
the intervals of the harmonic series 
and of the diatonic scale. 

The Greek scale shows a latent har- 
monic sense, though octaves only al- 
lowed. 



Pitch in Greek music. 

Other primitive systems without influ- 
ence on modern music. 
Chinese adopted Pythagorean sys- 
tem; a lost art recovered in 8rd 
century, A.D. 

Indian music- — Scale of 22 intervals. 



Greek Literature (Vol. 12, p. 509). 



Music (Vol. 19, p. 78); see also Pythag- 
oras (Vol. 22, p. 699). 



Lyre (Vol. 17, p. 178); see also Orches- 
tra (Vol. 20, p. 168); Aulos (Vol. 2, 
p. 917); Cithara (Vol. 6, p. 395). 

Harmony (Vol. 13, p. 1). 

Pitch, Musical (Vol. 21, p. 661). 

China, Literature (Vol. 6, p. 228 and 
p. 215). 



Sanskrit (Vol. 24, p. 181). 



Siamese music: 7 tone scale; orches- Siam (Vol. 25, p. 5). 
tras perform in unison. 

The music of the North American Indians, North American (Vol. 14, p. 
Indian. 470). 

Biographies of musicians of the primitive, non-harmonic, period in the Britan- 
nica are: Terpander, 7th century B.C.; Pythagoras, 6th century B.C.; Aristo- 
xenu8, 4th century; Alypius, 3rd century B.C.; Aristides, Quintilianus, 3rd 
century. 

HARMONIC ORIGINS 

The Greeks found that by doubling the melody at the octave a greater sonority 
resulted. It was a great step from this to the discovery that two separate tunes 
could be combined which should be satisfying to the ear. With this discovery 
modern harmony may be said to have begun. 



Subject 

Awakening of the harmonic sense. 

The Grecian modes modified into the 
ecclesiastical by Ambrose in the 4th 
century. 

Following Hucbald, " beatus Guido in- 
ventor musicae " in the 11th cen- 
tury, invents names for the notes and 
improves system of notation. 



Article 

Music (Vol. 19, p. 74); Harmony (Vol. 
13, p. 1). 

Plain Song (Vol. 21, p. 705); see also 
Ambrose (Vol. 1, p. 798), and Greg- 
ory (Vol. 12, p. 567). 

Guido of Arezzo (Vol. 12, p. 687); see 
also Hucbald (Vol. 13, p. 847). 



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MUSIC 



177 



The Troubadour becomes a learned mu- 
sician in the 13th century. 

After Dunstable of England and Dufay 
of the Netherlands had invented 
counterpoint comes the first great 
composer, heralding the advent of 
the " Golden Age." 



Adam de la Hale, 13th century (Vol. 1, 
p. 171); Machaut (Vol. 17, p. 233). 

Des Pres, Josquin (Vol. 8, p. 108); see 
also Binchois, Egidius (Vol. 8, p. 

948). 



THE GOLDEN AGE 

Composers were not long content with the simple combination of two tunes. 
They soon found that three tunes so treated afforded a yet richer texture, and the 
extension to the elaborate polyphony of 16th century choral music was an inevitable 

step. An elaborate system of prohibitions, based on the limi- 
The First tations of the human voice, and the difficulty of attacking certain 

Great Climax intervals, shackled the composer at every turn and formed the 

basis of theories of counterpoint which endured almost to our 
time. Despite the restrictions imposed by their rules, the structure raised by the 
great composers of the first half of the 16th century was of amazing richness and 
complexity. 



Subject of Reading 

The Riot of Choral Polyphony in the 
16th century. 



Musical forms brought to great perfec- 
tion in this period those in which 
texture holds first place. 



Leaders of musical thought in the 
" Golden Age." 



Article 

Music, The Golden Age (Vol. 19, p. 75) ; 
see also Harmony (Vol. 13, p. 2) ; In- 
strumentation, Vocal Styles of 16th 
Century (Vol. 14, p. 651). 

Contrapuntal Forms, Canonic Forms 
and Devices, Counterpoint on a Canto 
Fermo (Vol. 7, p. 42) ; see also Mass, 
Polyphonic Masses (Vol. 17, p. 849) ; 
Madrigal (Vol. 17, p. 295) ; Motet 
(Vol. 18, p. 905). 

Lasso, Orlando (Vol. 16, p. 287) ; Tallis, 
T. (Vol. 26, p. 877) ; Palestrina (Vol. 
20, p. 627). 

Composers of the " Golden Age," following the polyphonic tradition of the 
early 16th century, biographies of whom appear in the Britanaica, are: Netherland- 
ish: Arcadelt, Jacob, 1514-1556; Lasso, Orlando, c. 1530-1594;' German: Finck, 
Hermann, 1527-1558; Eccard, Johann, 1553-1611; Aichinger, Greoor, leader 
of Reformation church music, c. 1565-1628; French: Goudi- 
Composer mel, C, c. 1510-1572; English: Wilbye, John, 16th century, 

of the famous for his madrigals; Merbeck, John, d. 1585; Bennett, 

Golden Age John, d.c. 1614; Bateson, T., d. 1630, a composer of madri- 

gals; Tallis, T., c. 1515-1585, "father of English cathedral 
music"; Farrant, R., c. 1530-1581; Byrd, Wm., 1543-1623; Morley, T., 1557- 
1608; Gibbons, Orlando, 1583-1625; Italian: Animuccia, Giovanni, c. 1490-1571; 
Zarlino, Gioseffo, 1517-1590, fixed the diatonic scale as now accepted; Palestrina, 
Giovanni Pierluigi da, 1526-1594; Banchiere, Adriano, c. 1557-1634, fought 
against monodist revolt — see below; Anerio (brothers), c. 1560-1620; Artusi, 
G. M., 16th century, opposed Monteverdi's innovations — see below; Spanish: Vic- 
toria, ToMMASso L. da, c. 1540-1613. 



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178 BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 

THE FIRST ROMANTIC MOVEMENT 

The last word in polyphony seemed to have been said by such masters as 
Orlando Lasso, and Palestrina, and a change into new paths was inevitable. More- 
over, men's minds were craving something more directly stimulating than the pas- 
sionless web of ecclesiastical polyphony, which was the glory of the 16th century. 
Freedom was sought from the conventions of modal counterpoint. The monodist 
revolt was the result. 

Subject Article 

Revolt against the overelaboration of Music, The Monodic Revolution (Vol. 19, 
texture. p. 76) ; Harmony, Modern Harmony 

(Vol. 18, p. 4). 
Prominence given to solo part rather Song (Voh 25, p. 406) ; Aria (Vol. 2, p. 
than to choral effect leads to devel- 489). 

opment of the aria. 
The leader in the new paths, the pio- Monte verde, Cl audio (Vol. 18, p. 778). 

neer of modern harmony. 
The first oratorio (1600). Oratorio (Vol. 20, p. 161); see also 

Cavaliere, Emilio del (Vol. 5, p. 
568). 
The first opera (1600). Opera (Vol. 20, p. 121); see also Peri, 

Jacopo (Vo. 21, p. 144). 
The monodic impulse synchronizes with Violin (Vol. 28, p. 108) ; see also Amati 
the startling development of the vio- (Vol. 1, p. 788); Guarnieri (Vol. 12, 

lin family by the Cremona makers. p. 660); Stradivari (Vol. 25, p. 977). 

Among distinguished composers of this period and school are: English: Bull, 
John, c. 1562-1628; Ford, Thomas, b. 1580; Lawes, Henry, 1595-1662; Italian: 
Cavaliere, £. del, c. 1550-1602; Peri, Jacopo, b. 1561 ;Gabriele, Giovanni, 1557-0. 

1612, early experimenter in chromatic harmony; Caccini, 
Famous Giulio, 1558-1615; Monteverde, Claudio, 1567-1648; Al- 

Monodi8tS leori, Gregorio, c. 1570-1652; Frescobaldi, Girolamo, 1588- 

1644, famous also as a teacher; Agostino, P., 1598-1689; 
Cavalli, F., 1596-1676, popularized opera; Carissimi, G., c. 1604-1674, popularized 
oratorio; Rossi, Luigi de. All the above have separate articles assigned to them in 
the Britannica. 

THE 17th CENTURY AND AFTER 

Those who revolted from the traditions of the polyphonic school went, as was 
inevitable, too far. A reaction was equally inevitable, for the language of the new 
music was uniformed and was in danger of being stereotyped into the emptiest of 

formulas. The welding of the old and new ideas was all that 
The Second was needed to prepare the way for the colossal achievement of 

Great Climax a Bach or a Beethoven. It was a busy period when the rules 

of counterpoint were reviewed and revised, when theories of 
harmony as a distinct science took shape. But, save for the work of such men as 
Purcell, the Englishman (Vol. 22, p. 658), born 100 years before his time, the 17th 
century was mainly one of preparation. The next great climax came in the first 
half of the 18th century. 



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MUSIC 179 

Subject Article 

The renascence of texture, the weld- Music (Vol. 19, p. 77) ; Harmony (Vol. 

ing of polyphony and monody. 13, p. 4). 

Publication in 1715 of the famous Fux, Johann Joseph (Vol. 11, p. 375). 
Gradus ad Parnassum, the first com- 
plete theory of counterpoint. 
The first systematic theory of harmony Rameau, J. P. (Vol. 22, p. 874). 

published in 1722. 
The second great climax in music. Music, Bach and Handel (Vol. 19, p. 78). 

The achievement of Johann Sebastian Bach, J. S. (Vol. 8, p. 124); see also 
Bach. Contrapuntal Forms (Vol. 7, p. 41); 

Concerto (Vol. 6, p. 825) ; Overture 
(Vol. 20, p. 384) ; Suite (Vol. 26, p. 
51) ; Oratorio (Vol. 20, p. 161) ; Can- 
tata (Vol. 5, p. 209) ; Mass, Lutheran 
Masses (Vol. 17, p. 850); Variations 
(Vol. 27, p. 912); Instrumentation, 
Decoration and Orchestral Schemes 
(Vol. 14, p. 651 and p. 655). 

Composers of the period who have separate notices in the Britannica are: Ital- 
ian: Cesti, M. A., c. 1620-1669; Colonna, Giovanni P., c. 1637-1695; Pasquini, 
B., 1637-1710; Stradella, Alessandro, 1645-1682; Corelli, Arcanoelo, 1658- 
1713, first classic of the violin; Steffani, A., 1653-1728; Scar- 
17th and 18th latti, Alessandro, 1659-1725, largely created language of 
Century modern music; Pitoni, G. O., 1657-1743; Lotti, Antonio, c. 

Composers 1667-1740; Clari, G. C. M., c. 1669-1745; Bononcini, G. B., 

c. 1672-1750; Albinoni, T., c. 1674-1745; Astorga, Eman- 
uele d', 1681-1736; Durante, Francesco, 1684-1755; Marcello, B., 1686-1789; 
Vinci, Leonardo, 1690-1730; Leo, Leonardo, 1694-1744; Looroscino, Nicola, c. 
1700-1763; Pergolesi, Giovanni Battista, 1710-1786; Alberti, Domenico, c. 
1710-1740; French: Cambert, R., 1628-1677; Lully, Jean-Baptiste, c. 1623-1687, 
inventor of the classical French opera style; English: Locke, Matthew, c. 1630- 
1677; Blow, John, 1648-1708; Purcell, Henry, 1658-1695; Croft, William, 
1678-1727; Handel, George Frederick, 1685-1759; Greene, Maurice, 1695-1755; 
German: Bach, Johann Sebastian, 1685-1750; Hasse, Johann A., 1699-1788; 
Eberlin, J. E., 1702-1762. 

THE RISE OF THE SONATA 

Bach, like Palestrina, seemed to have closed a period; and for nearly a hundred 
years after his death his influence on the course of musical development was aston- 
ishingly small. Again men sought new channels of expression and found them in in- 
strumental music. But a structure less loosely knit than the 
The Third suite form was needed if the new ideas were to be adequately 

Great Climax stated, and the sonata grew into being, a form which has sufficed 
to this day as a medium for the noblest thoughts of the great 
composers. The 18th century saw, too, the reform of the opera by Gluck, a great 
development of orchestral resources, and the rise bf the string quartette in chamber 
music. 



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180 BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 

Subject Article 

The new language: evolution of the Music (Vol. 19, p. 79); Sonata, Sonata 
sonata from the suite. Style (Vol. 25, p. 894) ; see also Scar- 

lktti, Dominico (Vol. 24, p. 802) ; 
and Bach, K. P. E. (Vol. 8, p. 180). 
Reform of the opera. Opera (Vol. 20, p. 128) ; see also Gluck 

(Vol. 12, p. 188); Piccinni (Vol. 21, 

p. 579); Mozart (Vol. 18, p. 951). 

The rise of the symphony and the Music, The Symphonic Classes (Vol. 19, 

string quartette, development of the p. 78) ; Sonata Forms (Vol. 25, p. 

sonata. 895); Symphony (Vol. 26, p. 290); 

see also Haydn (Vol. 18, p. 110). 
The growth of the orchestra. Instrumentation, Symphonic (Vol. 14, 

p. 652) ; see also Haydn (Vol. 18, p. 
110). 
The third great climax. The perfec- Beethoven, L. von (Vol. 8, p. 644) ; sec 
tion of the sonata form. also Sonata Forms (Vol. 25, p. 897) ; 

Instrumentation (Vol. 14, p. 658) ; 
Variations (Vol. 27, p. 918); Mass 
(Vol. 17, p. 850). 

Biographies of the following composers of the period appear in the Britannica : 
German and Austrian: Bach, Karl Philipp Emanuel, 1714-1788; Gluck, C. W., 
1714-1787; Hiller, J. A., 1728-1804; Haydn, Franz Joseph, 1782-1809; Ditters- 
dorp, Karl Ditters von, 1789-1799; Winter, P., c. 1755-1825; Mozart, Wolf- 
gang Amadeus, 1756-1791; Himmel, F. H., 1765-1814; Beethoven, Ludwig van, 
1770-1827; French: Gossec, F. J., 1784-1829; Gretry, A. E. M., 1741-1818; 
Mehul, Etienne H., 1768-1817; Lesueur, Jean Francois, c. 1768-1887; Boiel- 
dieu, F. A., 1775-1884; English: Arne, T. A., 1710-1778, preserved English tradi- 
tion in face of Handelian obsession; Boyce, William, 1710-1779; Jackson, W., 
1780-1808; Battishill, J., 1788-1801; Arnold, S., 1740-1802; Dibdin, C, 1745- 
1814; Shield, W., 1748-1829; Storace, S., 1768-1796; Attwood, T., 1765-1888; 
Wesley, Samuel, 1766-1887, father of modern organ playing; Italian: Scarlatti, 
Domenico, 1685-1757; Martini, G. B., 1706-1784; Galuppi, Baldassare, 1706- 
1785; Jommelli, N., 1714-1774; Guglielmi, P., 1727-1804; Piccinni, N., 1728- 
1800; Sarti, Giuseppe, 1729-1802; Sacchini, A. M. G., 1784-1786; Paisiello, G., 
1741-1816; Boccherini, Luigi, 1748-1805, last real master of suite form; Cima- 
rosa, D., 1749-1801; Salieri, A., 1750-1825; Cherubini, 1760-1842; Paer, F.. 
1771-1889. 

NEW PATHS 

Early in the 19th century the wave of romanticism broke over Europe. The 
effect on music was not nearly so violent as was the monodic revolt of the 16th-17th 
centuries, since the resources and technique of the art had now been developed; 
but it was nevertheless striking and showed itself in several directions, but mainly 
in two: lyrical and dramatic. The short compositions of Field, Schumann, and 
Chopin, and the development of the art song are instances of the former; the whole 
range of programme music, of which the symphonic poem is the prototype, is evi- 
dence of the latter; while in opera the reforms started by Gluck were carried to their 
logical conclusion by Wagner. Two other movements are also significant; the re- 
turn to Bach and a recognition of his amazing modernity, and the pronounced revival 
of national characteristics in music, as shown particularly in the new English, Russian, 
and Bohemian Schools. 



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MUSIC 



181 



Subject 

The Romantic Period. 

The Romantic in opera. 

The first great lyrical song writer. 

The Romantic in the symphony. 

The rediscovery of Bach. 

Development of song forms. 

Discontent with the sonata form. 

Gluck's idea realised; union of music 
with drama. 

The last of the royal line of German 
composers shows vitality of the so- 
nata form. 

Modern Tendencies. 



Article 

Music, From Beethoven to Wagner (Vol. 
19, p. 79). 

Weber, Carl Maria F. E. von (Vol. 28, 
p. 455); Song (Vol. 25, p. 409). 

Schubert, Franz Peter (Vol. 24, p. 
879) ; Song (Vol. 25, p. 409). 

Programme Music (Vol. 22, p. 424) ; see 
also Berlioz, Hector (Vol. 8, p. 791). 

Bach, J. S. (Vol. 2, p. 124); Mendels- 
sohn (Vol. 18, pp. 121-124). 

Song (Vol. 25, p. 410); see also Schu- 
mann, Robert (Vol. 24, p. 884) ; 
Wolf, Hugo (Vol. 28, p. 771); 
Brahms, J. (Vol. 4, p. 890). 

Symphonic Poem (Vol. 26, p. 289) ; 
Liszt, F. (Vol. 16, p. 780). 

Music (Vol. 19, p. 80) ; Operas, Lett- 
Motif (Vol. 20, p. 125); Wagner, W. 
Richard (Vol. 28, p. 286). 

Brahms, Johannes (Vol. 4, p. 889) ; So- 
nata Forms, Sonata since Beethoven 
(Vol. 25, p. 898). 

Music (Vol. 19, p. 82); see also Strauss, 
Richard (Vol. 25, p. 1008); Debussy, 
Achille (Vol. 7, p. 906). 

Composers of this period, who have had separate articles assigned to them in 
the Britannica, follow: the growth of national schools will be noted. 

German and Austrian: Gansbacher, J. B., 1778-1844; Kreutzer, K., 1780- 
1849; Spohr, Ludwig, 1784-1859; Weber, Carl Maria F. E. von, 1786-1886; 
Meyerbeer, G., 1791-1868; Hauptmann, M., 1792-1868; Lowe, J. K. G., 1796- 
1869; Schubert, Franz Peter, 1797-1828; Lortzing, G. A., 
19th Century 1801-1851; Strauss, Johann, 1804-1849, king of valse com- 

Composers posers; Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, J. L. F., 1809-1847; Nico- 

lai, Otto, 1810-1849; Schumann, Robert Alexander, 1810- 
1856; Hiller, F., 1811-1885; Wagner, Richard, 1818-1883; Heller, Stephen, 
1815-1888; Franz, Robert, 1815-1892, song composer; Abt, Franz, 1819-1885, art 
folk-song; Suppe, F. von, 1820-1895; Raff, J. J., 1822-1882; Cornelius, Carl 
August Peter, 1824-1874, song writer; Bruckner, Anton, 1824-1896, Wagnerian 
symphonist; Reinecke, C. H. C, 1824-1910; Lassen, Eduard, 1830-1904; Joachim, 
Joseph, 1831-1907; Brahms, Johannes, 1833-1897; Bruch, Max, b. 1838; Rhein- 
berger, J. G., 1839-1901; Goetz, Hermann, 1840-1876; Neszler, V., 1841-1890: 
Humperdinck, E., b. 1854; Wolf, Hugo, 1860-1903; Strauss, Richard, b. 1864. 

French; Auber, D. F. E., 1782-1871; Herold, L. J. F., 1791-1833; Halevy, 
J. F. F. E., 1799-1862; Berlioz, Hector, 1803-1869; David, F., 1810-1876; 
Thomas, C. L. Ambroise, 1811-1896; Gounod, C. F., 1818-1893; Offenbach, J., 
1819-1880; Franck, Cesar, 1822-1890, founder of Modern French School; Lalo, 
E., 1823-1892; Reyer, E., b. 1823; Lecocq, A. C, b. 1882; Benoit, P. L. L., 1884- 
1901; Saint-Saens, Charles Camille, b. 1835; Dubois, F. C. T., b. 1837; Bizet, 
Georges, 1888-1875; Joncieres, V., 1839-1903; Chabrier, A. E., 1841-1894; 
Audran, E., 1842-1901 ; Massenet, J. E. F.,« 1842-1912; Faure, Gabriel, b., 1845; 
Widor, Charles Marie, b. 1845; Godard. Penjamin L. P., 1849-1895; Plan- 



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182 BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 

ouette, R., b. 1850; DIndy, P. M. T. V., b. 1851; Messager, A. C. P., b. 1858; 
Bruneau, Alfred, b. 1857; Chaminade, Cecile, b. 1861; Bemberg, Herman, b. 
1S61 ; Debussy, Claude Achilles, b. 1862. 

Belgian: The violinist Ysaye, b. 1858. 

Italian: Spontani, G. L. P., 1774-1851; Rossini, G. A., 1792-1868; 
Donizetti, G., 1798-1848; Bellini, V., 1801-1885; Verdi, Giuseppe, 1818-1901; 
Ponchielli, Amilcare, 1834-1886, on whom have modelled themselves, Mas- 
cagni, Leoncavallo, etc.; Bono, Arrigo, b. 1842; Sgambati, G., b. 1848; Leonca- 
vallo, R., b. 1858; Puccini, G., b. 1858; Mascagni, P., b. 1868. 

British: Horsley, Wm., 1774-1858; Smart, Sir George T., 1776-1867; Bishop, 
Sir H. R., 1786-1855; Pearsall, R. L. de, 1795-1856; Field, John, 1782-1887, 
inventor of the nocturne; Goss, Sir John, 1800-1880; Hatton, J. L., 1800-1886; 
Barnett, J., 1802-1890; Benedict, Sir Julius, 1804-1885; Balfe, M. W., 1808- 
1870; Wesley, S. S., 1810-1876; Hullah, John P., 1812-1884; Macfarren, Sir 
G. A., 1818-1887; Wallace, Wm. V., 1814-1865; Pierson, H. H., 1815-1878; Ben- 
nett, Sir Wm. Sterndale, 1816-1875; Ouseley, Sir F. A. G., 1825-1889; Bache, 
F. E., 1888-1858; Clay, F., 1838-1889; Barnby, Sir J., 1888-1896; Stainer, Sir 
John, 1840-1901; Sullivan, Sir Arthur S., 1842-1900; Cellier, Alfred, 1844- 
1891 ; Mackenzie, Sir A. C, b. 1847; Parry, Sir C. Hubert H., b. 1848, on whom 
fell the mantle of Purcell; Thomas, Arthur Goring, 1850-1892; Cowen, F. J., b. 
1852; Stanford, Sir Charles Villiers, b. 1852; Elgar, Sir Edward, b. 1857; 
MacCunn, Hamish, b. 1868. 

Bohemian: Smetana, F., 1824-1884, founder of modern Bohemian School; 
Dvorak, Anton, 1841-1904. 

Hungarian: Gung'l, Josef, 1810-1889; Liszt, Fraz, 1811-1886; Goldmark, 
Karl, b. 1882; Paderewski, I. J., b. 1860. 

Polish: Chopin, Frederic Francois, 1810-1849; Moszkowski, Moritz, b. 
1854. 

Russian: Glinka, M. Ivanovich, 1808-1857, founder of national school; Dar- 
gomusky, A. Sergeivich, 1818-1869; Rubinstein, Anton, 1829-1894; Borodin, 
A. Porfyrievich, 1834-1887; Moussorgsky, M. Petrovich, 1835-1881; Balakirev, 
M. Alexeivich, b. 1886; Tschaikovsky, Peter Ilich, 1840-1893; Rimsky-Kor- 
8akov, N. Andreievich, 1844-1908; Glazunov, A. Constantinovich, b. 1865. 

Norwegian: The violinist Bull, Ole, 1810-1880; Kjerulf, Halfdan, 1815- 
1868; Svendsen, J. S., b. 1840; Grieg, Edvard Hagerup, 1843-1907. 

Danish: Gade, Niels W., 1817-1890. 

Sweden: Wennerbert, G., 1817-1901, song writer. 

American: Emmett, D. D., started "negro minstrels," 1815-1904; Foster, 
Stephen C, 1826-1864, song writer; Eichberg, Julius, 1824-1893, founded Boston 
Conservatory of Music; Buck, Dudley, 1839-1909; MacDowell, Edward Alex- 
ander, 1861-1908. For notices of other modern composers and their tendencies — 
see Music, Recent Music (Vol. 19, p. 82). 

Famous musical historians and writers on music, whose biographies are in the 
Encyclopaedia Britannica, are: Aristoxenus, 4th century B.C.; Praetorius, M., 
1571-1621; Perusch, J. C, 1667-1752; Barnard, John, 17th 
Musical century; Hawkins, Sir John, 1710-1789; Gerbert, M., 1720- 

Historians 1798; Burney, Ch., 1726-1814; Gerber, 1746-1819; Forkel, 

J. N., 1749-1818; Baini, G., 1775-1844; Novello, V., 1781- 
1861 ; Callcott, J. W., 1766-1821 ; Fetis, F. J., 1784-1871 ; Chorley, H. F., 1808- 
1872; Chappell, Wm., 1809-1888; Dwight, John S., 1818-1893; Ambros, A. W., 
1816-1876; Grove, Sir George, 1820-1900. 



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(2) THEORETICAL ARTICLES 



"In the beginning/' said Hans von 
Billow, "was rhythm," and as Rhythm 
(Vol. 23, p. 277) is the skeleton of every 
musical phrase and formula, the inter- 
esting article by Donald Tovey on 
rhythm in music may well serve as an 
introduction to the other subjects in 
this section. Passing to the elements, 
the articles Sound, Diatonic Scale (Vol. 
25, p. 448) and Plain Song (Vol. 21, 
p. 705) should be read. In the former 
article the physical basis of the modern 
scale is determined, while in the latter 
an account is given of the modes which 
for centuries were the vehicles of musical 
expression. In the article Musical No- 
tation (Vol. 19, p. 86) the steps by which 
the present system of recording music 
was reached are noted, and in Pitch, 
Musical (Vol. 21, p. 660), the whole of 
this interesting and vexed subject is 
reviewed by Alfred J. Hipkins, a high 
authority, formerly hon. curator of the 
Royal College of Music. The article 
Melody (Vol. 18, p. 96) contains in 
addition to a discussion of the terms 
a series of useful definitions (e.g., con- 
junct and disjunct motion) and several 
musical examples. This brings us to 
the main articles of this section — Coun- 
terpoint (Vol. 7, p. 315), Harmony (Vol. 
IS, p. 1) and Instrumentation (Vol. 14, 
p. 651). All are by Donald Tovey and 
all are brilliant. In particular the arti- 
cle Harmony deserves the most careful 
study, especially interesting being the 
sections Tonality and Key-relationship. 
The article on counterpoint is mainly 



a definition of the principles involved 
and is introductory both to Harmony 
and to Contrapuntal Forms. In In- 
strumentation the question of colour 
is discussed from the historical and 
aesthetic aspects, accompanied by valu- 
able analysis of the colour schemes of 
various composers from the choral writers 
of the "Golden Age" down to Wagner 
and Richard Strauss. 

Famous theorists who have helped to 
establish the grammar of music are the 
following: Terpander, 7th century B.C., 
founder of Greek music 
Theorl8t8 (Vol. 26, p. 647) ; Pythag- 
oras, 6th century, B.C., said 
to have discovered numerical relation gov- 
erning the harmonic series (Vol. 22, p. 
699); AlypiIjs, 8rd century B.C. (Vol. 1, 
p. 776) ; Aristides, Quintilianus, 8rd 
century A.D.; Hucbald, c. 840-980, in- 
ventor of new notation (Vol. 18, p. 847) ; 
Guido of Arezzo, c. 995-1050, " Beatus 
Guido, inventor musicae," (Vol. 12, p. 
687); Aoricola, Martin, c. 1500-1556; 
Zarlino, G., 1517-1590, fixed the diatonic 
scale; Artusi, G. M., 16th century, op- 
posed monodist revolt; Fux, J. J., wrote 
the famous Gradus ad Parnassum, Ra- 
meau, J. P., 1688-1764, to whom the first 
systematic theory of harmony is due; Al- 
BRECHT8BEROER, J. G., 1786-1809, the 
teacher of Beethoven; Reicha, A. J., 
1770-1886; Richter, E. F. E., 1808- 
1879; Curwen, J., 1817-1880, inventor of 
tonic sol-fa system; Berlioz Hector, 
whose text book on instrumentation is 
classic. On all these separate articles will 
be found in the Britannica. 



(3) MUSICAL FORMS 



In making a detailed study of any 
particular form, reference should be made 

to t he critical sections 
Contrapuntal of the biographies 
Forms of those masters 

who have done most 
towards its development. As has been 



seen in the historical section of this 
chapter, the Contrapuntal Forms 
(Vol. 7, p. 41) were the first to attain to 
a high standard of organization in the 
hands of such 'masters as Orlando 
Lasso (Vol. 16, p. £37) and Palestrina 
(Vol. 20, p. 627). The articles Mass 



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(Vol. 17, p. 849), Motet (Vol. 18, p. 905), 
Madrigal (Vol. 17, p. 295), Canon 
(Vol. 5, p. 190), Chorale (Vol. 6, p. 269), 
cover the ground of early choral music. 
In tracing their development reference 
should be made to the articles on Bach, 
J. S. (Vol. 3, p. 127), Beethoven (Vol. 3, 
p. 649), Brahms (Vol. 4, p. 390). Ora- 
torio (Vol. 20, p. 161) and Cantata 
(Vol. 5, p. 209) had their beginning in 
the work of the followers of Monteverde 
in the early 17th century, and their 
development may be traced in the work 
of Cavaliere (Vol. 5, p. 563), Carissimi 
(Vol. 5, p. 338), Purcell (Vol. 22, p. 658), 
Bach (Vol. 3, p. 127), Handel (Vol. 2, 
p. 912), Brahms (Vol. 4 p. 390), CSsar 
Franck (Vol. 11, p. 3), and Sir C 
Hubert Parry (Vol. 20, p. 865). 

In instrumental music, the Suite 
(Vol. 26, p. 51), of which Boccherini 
(Vol. 4, p. 105) was the last master, most 

nearly foreshadowed 
Suite and the Sonata (Sonata 

Sonata Forms, Vol. 25, p. 

394), and together 
they tell the tale of the development of 
absolute music up to modern experi- 
ments in the more elastic Symphonic 
Poem (Vol. 26, p. 289) of which Liszt 
(Vol. 16, p. 780) was the first to see the 
possibilities. In addition to the articles 
Sonata and Sonata Forms the reader 
should carefully study that part of the 
article Beethoven beginning on page 
647 of Vol. 3; also the article Harmony, 
Key Relationships (Vol. 13, p. 5) which 
contains analyses of several striking key 
systems, and further reference should 
also be made to the articles Variations 
(Vol. 27, p. 912), Symphony (Vol. 26, 
p. 290). 

To the Romantic movement of the 
early part of the 19th century may be 
traced the attempt to escape from the 

apparent restrictions 
Programme of the Sonata Form, 

Music and Schumann's 

(Vol. 24, p. 384) many 
Fantasie-Stucke and Chopin's lyrical 



compositions ( Vol. 6, p. 268) are proto- 
types in little of the tendencies of the 
time. On a larger canvas are the Ton- 
dramen of Liszt and the symphonic 
poems and the elaborate programme 
music of modern composers such as 
Richard Strauss (Vol. 25, p. 1003); 
and though Brahms (Vol. 4, p. 389) 
showed clearly enough that the classical 
sonata form was a framework sufficiently 
elastic to hold the most elaborate and 
modern ideas, the direction in which 
music has tended is towards the Sym- 
phonic Poem in which, by such devices 
as the transformation of themes and 
the Leitmotif (Opera, Vol. 20, p. 125) 
a still greater elasticity is sought in form 
with a greater continuity of idea in 
substance. See Programme Music 
(Vol. 22, p. 424). 

Supplementing the article Opera (Vol. 
20, p. 121) are several which should be 
consulted. Aria (Vol. 2, p. 489), Over- 
ture (Vol. 20, p. 384), and 
Opera especially Gluck (Vol. 12, p. 
139), Mozart (Vol. 18, p. 
951), Weber (Vol. 28, 457), and 
Wagner (Vol. 28, p. 237). These, with 
the biographical notices of operatic com- 
posers, which include almost every Italian 
composer from the days of Peri (Vol. 21, 
p. 144), and French composers from 
Lully (Vol. 17, p. 121), give a mass of 
information bearing on the development 
of this popular form. 

Song (Vol. 25, p. 400), the oldest of 
art forms, and almost the last to be 
rescued from the too narrow formalism 
of which the classical Aria 
Song (Vol. 2, p. 489) is the beauti- 
ful example, is so much the 
most generally popular that the arti- 
cle on it in the Britannica will probably 
be more widely read than any other on 
musical subjects. Written by W. A. J. 
Ford, a scholarly musician and teacher 
of singing at the Royal College of Music 
(London), it provides a brilliant survey 
of the evolution of the song from its 
earliest beginnings. In connection with 



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it the reader will find much to interest 
him in the biographical notices of two 
famous troubadours of the 13th and 14th 
centuries, Adam de la Hale (Vol. 1, 
p. 171) and Machaut, G. De (Vol. 17, 
p. 233) ; of Monteverde (Vol. 18, p. 778), 
the pioneer of the monodist revolt at 
the end of the 16th century, of Scarlatti, 
Alessandro (Vol. 24, p. 302), 17th cen- 
tury, who perfected the aria form, of 
Purcell, Henry (Vol. 22, p. 658), the 
great English composer of the 17th 
century, of Johann Sebastian Bach 
(Vol. 3, p. 126) 18th century, of Schu- 
bert (Vol. 24, p. 380), the creator of the 
modern song, of Schumann (Vol. 24, 
p. 384) who brought a yet greater in- 
timacy into the form, of Hugo Wolf 



(Vol. 28, p. 771), the most clairvoyant 
of song writers, of Sir Hubert Parry 
(Vol. 20, p. 865), and Sir Charles 
Villiers Stanford (Vol. 25, p. 773), 
who have respectively done the best 
modern work in the English and Irish 
tradition, and of the American Mac- 
Dowell (Vol. 17, p. 214). Reference 
should also be made to the articles 
Melody (Vol. 18, p. 96), Accompani- 
ment (Vol. 1, p. 122), Rhythm (Vol. 23, 
p. 277). Suggestive also are the articles 
Ballads (Vol. 3, p. 264), Poetry (Vol. 
21, p. 889). On the technique of singing 
the article Voice (Vol. 28, p. 172) by 
Dr. J. G. McKendrick, will be found 
very helpful, especially the section on 
the Physiology of Voice Production. 



(4) MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS 



One branch of the subject yet remains, 
that of musical instruments. Here the 
editor of the Britannica had the advan- 
tage of the assistance of Miss Kathleen 
Schlesinger (author of The Instruments 
of the Orchestra, and the greatest author- 
ity on the subject), who contributed 
practically all of the articles in the book 
on musical instruments. A list of them 
is given below, classified under their 
most convenient groupings. From these 
articles in the Encyclopaedia Britannica 
the reader will get a full account of 
every known musical instrument whether 
modern or ancient, with its compass, and 
scale, and of its connection with other 
instruments of the same class; so that 
the evolution of every type is clearly 
brought out. As a preliminary to a 
general study of the subject, the articles 
Orchestra (Vol. 20, p. 168), and In- 
strumentation (Vol. 14, p. 651) may 
conveniently be read. In the former 
Miss Schlesinger gives a summary of 
the development of the various classes 
of instruments and of their concerted 
use. In the article Instrumentation, 
on the other hand, Donald Tovey illus- 



trates the principles which govern their 
use. This article closes with an inter- 
esting survey of the orchestral schemes 
at different periods in the history of the 
art. The following classified list of 
separate articles on musical instruments 
in the Britannica, shows how very com- 
pletely this work covers the field: 

Stringed Instruments (Vol. 25, p. 1088). 

Strings Plucked by Fingers or Plec- 
trum: A80R; Balalaika; Banjo; Bar- 
biton; Chelys; Cithara; Citolk; Cit- 
tern; Epioonion; Guitar; Harp; Harp- 
Lute; Kin nor; Kissar; Lute; Lyre; 
Mandoline; Nanoa; Pandura; Psalt- 
ery; Rebab; Rotta; Sambuca; Theorbo; 
Trioonon; Zither. Strings Set in Vi- 
bration by Friction of the Bow: Crowd; 
Double Bass; Fiddle; Geige; Guitar- 
Fiddle; Gusla; Nail Violin; Philo- 
mel; Ravanastron; Rebab; Rebec; 
Tromba Marina; Vielle; Viol; Viola; 
Violin; Violoncello. Strings Struck 
by Hammers or Tangents: Clavecin; 
Clavicembalo; Clavichord; Clavicy- 
therium; Dulcimer; Harmonichord; 
Harpsichord; Pianoforte; Spinet; Vir- 
ginal. Strings Set in Vibration by Fric- 
tion of a Wheel: Hurdy-Gurdy; Organ- 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



I8TRUM. Strings Set in Vibration by the 
Wind: Aeolian Harp. Appliances: Bow; 
Monochord; Mute; Mouthpiece; Key- 
board; Sordino. 

Wind Instruments (mouth blown) (Vol. 
28, p. 709. 

Wood Wind. 

The Pipe Class: Eunuch Flute; Fife; 
Flageolet; Flute; Nay; Piccolo; Pipe 
and Tabor; Recorder; Syrinx. Single 
Reed Class (cylindrical bore) : Reed In- 
struments; Arghoul; Aulos; Bass Clar- 
inet; Basset Horn; Batyphone; Clar- 
inet; Pedal Clarinet. Double Reed 
Class (conical bore): Reed Instruments; 
Aulos; Bassoon; Bombard; Contra fa- 
gotto; Cor Anglais; Oboe; Pommer; 
Shawm; Clarina; Holztrompete ; Cro- 
morne; Rackett; Saxophone; Sordino; 
Tibia. To reed instruments also be- 
long the Bagpipe Class: Askaules; Bag- 
pipe; Biniou; Chorus; Drone; Plater- 
spiel; Symphonia. 

Brass Wind. 

Bombardon; Buccina; Bugle; Cor- 



net; Euphonium; Helicon; Horn; Li- 
tuus; Ophicleide; Sackbut; Saxhorn; 
Serpent; Trombone; Trumpet; Tuba; 
to which may be added, though not of 
brass or metal: Alpenhorn; Oliphant; 
Shofar; see also Mouthpiece; Mute; 
Valves. 

Wind Instruments (mechanically blown). 

Accordion ; Barrel-Organ ; Concer- 
tina; Harmonium; Orchestrion; Or- 
gan; Physharmonica; Portative Or- 
gan; Positive Organ; Regal; to which, 
though mouth blown, may be added 
Cheng. See also Free Reed Vibration; 
Keyboard. 

Instruments of Percussion. 

Sounding a Sensible Note: Bell; Bum- 
bulum; Carillon; Glockenspiel; Gong; 
Harmonica; Jews' Harp; Musical Box; 
Parsifal Bell-Instrument ; Xylo- 
phone. Not Sounding a Sensible Note: 
Castanets; Cymbals; Chinese Pavil- 
lon; Drum; Kettle Drum; Nacaire; 
Sistrum; Tambourine; Timbrel; Tom- 
Tom; Triangle; Tympanon. 



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CHAPTER XXXII 



THE FINE ARTS: GENERAL AND INTRODUCTORY 



THE art-student and every other 
reader interested in the fine arts 
will find in the Britannica the 
material for courses of reading of very 
great range and of the utmost interest 
and value — whether he wishes to study 
theory, practice or history. 

Of course no adequate treatment of 
the arts, or of any one of them, could 
logically, much less advantageously, sep- 
arate theory, practice and 
Theory of history. But the theory 
Art of art, though it may be 

inferred or deduced from 
many other articles in the book, including 
those the most devoted to the practical 
or historical, may best and most directly 
be studied in three articles, Aesthetics, 
Art, and Fine Arts. Of these, the first, 
Aesthetics (Vol. 1, p. 277), equivalent 
to nearly 40 pages of this Guide, is writ- 
ten by Professor James Sully, late of 
University College, London, and author 
of The Human Mind and other psycho- 
logical studies. It discusses the meaning 
of beauty and the problem of the nature 
of pleasure, especially "higher" pleasure, 
its relation to play, etc. And the article 
closes with a history of Aesthetic Theo- 
ries, including those of the following 
philosophers, on all of whom the student 
will find separate and elaborate critical 
biographies in the Britannica: Plato, 
who ' set beauty high, but thought art 
a mere trick of imitation and wished it 
be censored rather than encouraged in 
his model republic; Aristotle, who sets 



beauty above the useful and necessary, 
but whose aesthetic seems to be applied 
to poetry rather than to any other art; 
the German philosophers, Kant, Schell- 
ing, Hegel, Schopenhauer, who so 
deeply impressed their theories on the 
literature of their times, etc. The arti- 
cles Art (Vol. 2, p. 657) and Fine Arts 
are both by Sir Sidney Colvin, formerly 
keeper of prints and drawings, British 
Museum. The former begins with a 
contrast between art and nature — the 
contrast made famous by Pope, by 
Chaucer, repeatedly by Shakespeare and 
by Dr. Johnson in his definition of Art 
as "the power of doing something which 
is not taught by Nature or by instinct." 
This definition is in itself an excellent 
text for a discourse on the importance 
in the study of the fine arts of the best 
literature on the subject. But Sir Sid- 
ney Colvin points out that the definition 
is incomplete, since Art 

is a name not only for the power of doing 
something, but for the exercise of the pow- 
er; and not only for the exercise of the 
power, but for the rules according to which 
it is exercised; and not only for the rules, 
but for the result. Painting, for instance, 
is an art, and the word connotes not only 
the power to paint, but the act of paint- 
ing; and not only the act, but the laws for 
performing the act rightly; and not only 
all these, but the material consequences of 
the act or the thing painted. 

Art is then "Every regulated operation 
or dexterity by which organized beings 
pursue ends which they know before- 
hand, together with the rules and the 



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result of every such operation or dex- 
terity." 

And a consideration of the etymology 
of the words "Art" and "Kunst" is the 
basis of a discussion of the relation of 
Science and Art, which is summed up in 
these words: 

Science consists in knowing, Art consists 
in doing. What I must do in order to- 
know, is Art subservient to Science: what 
1 must know in order to do, is Science sub- 
servient to Art. 

After speaking of dancing, music, draw- 
ing, painting, sculpture, architecture, 
poetry, the author says: 

Of all these arts, the end is not use, but 
pleasure, or pleasure before use, or at least 
pleasure ana use conjointly. In modern 
language, there has grown up a usage 
which has put them into a class by them- 
selves under the name of the Fine Arts, as 
distinguished from the Useful or Mechan- 
ical Arts. (See Aesthetics and Fine 
Arts.) Nay, more, to them alone is often 
appropriated the use of the generic word 
Art. . . . And further yet, custom has 
reduced the number which the class-word is 
meant to include. When Art and the works 
of Art are now currently spoken of in this 
sense, not even music or poetry is fre- 
quently denoted, but only architecture, 
sculpture and painting by themselves, or 
with their subordinate and decorative 
branches. 

The article Fixe Arts (Vol. 10, p. 355; 
equivalent to 70 pages of this Guide) 
is divided into the following parts: 

General Definition, with 
Fine Arts particular attention to 

the theory that makes the 
arts a form of play and to the definitions 
of Plato and Schiller; Classification — 
architecture, sculpture, painting, music 
and poetry classified as "shaping" and 
"speaking" or as imitative and "non- 
imitative," with definitions from the 



aesthetic or philosophic point of view of 
sculpture and of painting; and Historical 
Development, with a criticism of Spen- 
cer's theory of the evolution and gradual 
separation of the arts and of Taine's 
natural Jiistory, as well as a critical and 
illuminating outline history of the arts. 

Whether we include under the fine 
arts music and poetry, or with the more 
popular usage make the fine arts not five 
but three, architecture, painting and 
sculpture, the arts may be studied in the 
Britannica and there is the basis for this 
study in this Guide. 

Music is the subject of a separate 
chapter. 

Poetry is treated in the chapters on 
Literature, but it will be well to remind 
the student of the philosophy of art of 
the remarkable article Poetry (Vol. 21, 
p. 877; equivalent to 45 pages in this 
Guide) by Theodore Watts-Dunton, 
and of the articles on the different poetic 
forms, mostly by Edmund Gosse. 

Architecture in the Britannica is out- 
lined in this Guide in the chapter For 
Architects. 

The two chapters immediately follow- 
ing this are devoted respectively to 
Painting, Engraving and Drawing and 
to Sculpture and the Subsidiary Arts. 
Of practical value to the art student 
as an introduction to these two chapters 
are the articles Art Societies, by A. C. 
Robinson Carter, editor of The Year's 
Art, and Art Teaching, by Walter 
Crane, the English illustrator, who also 
contributed the article Arts and Crafts. 

For an alphabetical list of articles on 
the fine arts see the end of the chapter 
on Sculpture. 



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CHAPTER XXXIII 



PAINTING, DRAWING, ETC. 



THE article Painting (Vol. 20, p. 
459; equivalent to 190 pages of 
this Guide) is an elaborate "key" 
article which may well be the starting 
point for more definite study. The art 
student who actually wishes to paint or 
draw — as distinct from the student of 
the history of art — will do well to read 
first in this great article its third section, 
The Technique of Painting (pp. 482-497), 
by Gerard Baldwin Brown, professor of 
fine art, Edinburgh, and author of The 
Fine Arts. The main topics in this part of 
the article are: 

The Materials of Painting; The Sur- 
faces Covered by the Painter; Binding 
Materials or Media; The Processes of 
Painting, and their Historical Uses; 
Painting with Coloured Vitreous Pastes 
(with bibliography) — on this method 
and on similar processes see the sepa- 
rate articles Ceramics, with remarkably 
valuable and beautiful coloured illus- 
trations; Mosaic; Enamel; Glass, 
Stained. The following sections are 
Fresco Painting (with bibliography) — 
see Fig. 34, Plate X (facing p. 477) ; 
Fresco-Secco (with bibliography) ; 
Stereochromy or Water-Glass Paint- 
ing (with bibliography) ; Spirit Fresco 
or the " Gambier Parry " Process, as 
improved by Professor Church (with 
bibliography) ; Oil Processes of Wall 
Painting; Tempera Painting on Walls; 
Encaustic Painting on Walls (with bib- 
liography) ; Encaustic Painting in Gen- 
eral (with bibliography) ; Tempera 
Painting (with bibliography) ; Water 
Colour Painting (with bibliography). 

In connection with this part of the ar- 

t i c 1 e — theoretically 

Drawing and before it, perhaps, — 

Engraving the student should 

read the articles 

Drawing and Engraving. 



Drawing (Vol. 8, p. 559), by John R. 
Fothergill, editor of The Slade, is a pe- 
culiarly interesting article in its denial of 
the possibility of conveying colour by 
drawing or monochrome, in its tracing the 
development of drawing from the "pa- 
pery" and flat first attempts on early 
Greek vases to the depth, length and 
breadth of the later Greeks or of a 
Michelangelo, for its criticism of the 
definition of artistic drawing as a process 
of selection and elimination from the 
forms of nature, and for its discussion of 
style or personality in drawing. See also 
the articles Caricature, Cartoon, Il- 
lustration, Poster, Plumbago Draw- 
ings. 

Engraving (Vol. 9, p. 645) is a short 
outline article to be supplemented by: 
Line-Engraving (Vol. 16, p. 721), by 
Philip Gilbert Hamerton, author of 
Drawing and Engraving, and more popu- 
larly known as the author of The Intel- 
lectual Life, Human Intercourse and other 
essays, and by M. H. Spielmahn, for- 
merly editor of the Magazine of Art; Wood 
Engraving, by the same authors; Mez- 
zotint, by Gerald Philip Robinson, presi- 
dent of the Society of Mezzotint Engrav- 
ers; and Etching. 

Supplementing the section in the ar- 
ticle Painting on The Technique of 
Painting are the separate articles : 
Crayon, Pastel, Palette; Aquatint, 
Aquarelle, Encaustic Painting, Fres- 
co, Gouache, Illuminated Manu- 
scripts (with 5 plates), by Sir E. Maunde 
Thompson, late director British Museum 
and author of English Illuminated Manu- 
scripts; Miniature (with 19 illustrations 
in halftone), by the same author, and by 
G. C. Williamson, author of History of 
Portrait Miniatures, whose articles on the 



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miniature painters the Clouets, Cos- 
way, the Hilliabd8, George Morland, 
Peter Oliver, the Petitots, Pierre 
Priettr, John Smart, etc., should also be 
read; Panorama, Pastel, by M. H. 
Spielmann, Portraiture, by Sir George 
Reid, the Scotch artist and late president 
of the Royal Scottish Academy, Pre- 
della, Tempera and Triptych. 

Although the articles enumerated in 
the last paragraph have primarily to do 
with technique, there is in them — es- 
pecially in such ar- 
History of tides as Miniature 

Painting and Portraiture — 

much historical and 
critical information. And from them the 
student may well turn back to the article 
Painting to pursue there those topics 
which he has not yet covered. These are : 
Part I. — A Sketch of the Development of 
the AH (pp. 460-478); Part II— Schools 
of Painting, a tabular scheme (pp. 479- 
481), and Recent Schools of Painting (pp. 
497-518), by M. H. Spielmann, for 
British; L£once B£n£dite, keeper of 
the Luxembourg Museum, for French; 
Fernand Khnopff , painter and etcher, for 
Belgian; Prof. J. C. Van Dyck, Rutgers 
College, author of History of American 
Art, for the United States; and Prof. 
Richard Muther, Breslau University, 
author of The History of Modern Paint- 
ing, on Dutch, German, Austrian, Italian, 
Spanish, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, 
Russian and Balkan States. 

These parts of the article are illustrated 
with ten plates containing 36 figures, in- 
cluding four prehistoric incised drawings 
of animals found in French caves and 
remarkable for their technical accuracy 
and life; two paintings, a boar and a bi- 
son, reproduced in colours, from the 
palaeolithic cave of Altamira — see also 
Plates II and III in the article Archae- 
ology (between pp. 348 and 349, Vol. 2), 
Figs. 6, 7 and 8 in Plate accompanying 
Anthropology (opposite p. 118, Vol. 2), 
and the plates of American antiques in 
the article America (Vol. 1, pp. 808- 



816); an excellent Egyptian drawing of 
birds; the Francois vase (Greek); a Pom- 
peian wall painting — see also the repro- 
duction in colours of a wall-painting from 
a Roman villa in the article Mural 
Decoration (Vol. 20, p. 22); a wall 
painting from Brunswick cathedral; and 
typical examples of the work of Hubert 
van Eyck, Giotto, Lorenzetti, Masaccio, 
Uccello, Pollaiuolo, Piero della Francesca, 
Ghirlandajo, Mantegna, Bellini, Gior- 
gione, Michelangelo, Botticelli, Titian, 
Holbein, Watteau, Gainsborough, Rem- 
brandt, Quintin Matsys, Brouwer, Ruys- 
dael, Turner, Chardin. 

"A rough division of the whole history 
of art into four main periods" gives 
"first . . . the efforts of the older 
Oriental peoples, best represented by the 
painting of the Egyptians; the second in- 
cludes the classical and medieval epochs 
up to the beginning of the 15th century; 
the third the 15th and 16th centuries, and 
the fourth the time from the beginning of 
the 17th century onward. In the first 
period the endeavour is after truth of 
contour, in the second and third after 
truth of form, in the fourth after truth of 
space." 

The Egyptian artist was satisfied if he 
could render with accuracy, and with prop- 
er emphasis on what is characteristic, the 
silhouettes of things in nature regarded as 
little more than flat objects cut out against 
a light background. The Greek and the 
medieval artist realized that objects had 
three dimensions, and that it was possible 
on a flat surface to give an indication of 
the thickness of anything, that is, of its 
depth away from the spectator, as well as 
its length and breadth, but they cannot be 
said to have fully succeeded in the difficult 
task they set themselves. For this there 
was needful an efficient knowledge of per- 
spective, and this the 15th century brought 
with it. During the 15th century the 
painter fully succeeds in mastering the 
representation of the third dimension, and 
during the next he exercises the power thus 
acquired in perfect freedom, producing 
some of the most convincing and masterly 
presentments of solid forms upon a flat 
surface that the art has to show. During 
this period, however, and to a more partial 
extent even in the earlier classical epoch, 
efforts were being made to widen the hori- 
1 son of the art and to embrace within the 



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scope of its representations not only solid 
objects in themselves, but such objects as 
a whole in space, in due relation to each 
other and to the universe at large. It was 
reserved, however, for the masters of the 
17th century perfectly to realize this ideal 
of the art, and in their hands painting as 
an art of representation is widened out to 
its fullest possible limits, and the whole of 
nature in all its aspects becomes for the 
first time the subject of the picture. 

Following this classification, the article 
Painting, after commenting on primitive 
art among bushmen, Eskimo and Aus- 
tralians and on the re- 
Early Painting markable cave draw- 
ings and paintings of 
Altamira, Gourdan and Lortet, — even the 
paintings are thought to be 50,000 years 
old, — discusses the painting of contour in 
Egypt and Babylonia, in prehistoric 
Greece, in ancient Greece and Italy, and in 
the early Christian and early medieval pe- 
riods. Of particular interest is the crit- 
icism of Greek drawing. 

It may be admitted that in many artistic 
qualities it was beyond praise., In beauty, 
in grace of line, in composition, we can 
imagine works of Apelles, of Zeuxis, of 
Protogenes, excelling even the efforts of 
the Italian painters, or only matched by 
the finest designs of a Raphael or a Le- 
onardo. . . . The facts, however, re- 
main, first, that the Greek pictures about 
which we chiefly read were of single fig- 
ures, or subjects of a very limited and 
compact order, with little variety of planes; 
and second, that the existing remains of 
ancient painting are so full of mistakes in 
perspective that the representation of dis- 
tance cannot have been a matter to which 
the artists had really set themselves. . . . 
The problem of representing correctly the 
third dimension of space . . . had cer- 
tainly not been solved. . . . It is an ad- 
ditional confirmation of this view to find 
early Christian and early medieval painting 
confined to the representation of the few 
near objects which the older Oriental artists 
had all along envisaged. 

For more detailed treatment of this 
period see the articles: Egypt, Art and 
Archaeology (Vol. 9, pp. 65-77), with 
many illustrations both of painting and 
sculpture, by Dr. W. M. Flinders Petrie, 
the eminent Egyptologist; Babylonia 
and Assyria, particularly the two plates 
of illustrations (opposite pp. 104 and 105, 



Vol. 8); Aegean Civilization, especially 
the illustrations (Vol. 1, pp. 246-251); 
Greek Art (Vol. 12, pp. 470-492), by 
Percy Gardner, author of Grammar of 
Greek Art, — and, mostly by the same au- 
thor, the articles Agathabchtjs, Panae- 
nus, Micon, Polygnotus, Protogenes, 
Apelles, Aristides of Thebes, Pausi- 
as, Theon, Zeuxis; Roman Art (Vol. 23, 
pp. 474-486), especially Plates V (p. 481) 
and VI (p. 484); and for the early Chris- 
tian and early medieval periods such ar- 
ticles as Illuminated Manuscripts, 
with illustrations, by Sir E. Maunde 
Thompson, late director British Museum, 
and Miniature. The reader should also 
consult the articles China and Japan for 
the section on the art of each of these 
countries (Vol. 6, pp. 213-216, with two 
plates, 17 figures; and Vol. 15, pp. 172- 
190, with eight plates, 30 figures — see 
especially Plates I-IV, pp. 172-177), as 
Oriental art in general may be said to 
belong to this phase of effort after truth 
of contour and of form. See also the 
separate articles on Japanese artists, 
mostly by E. F. Strange, author of Japan- 
ese Illustration, Hokusai, etc., — particu- 
larly Korin, Utamaro, Hokusai, Hiro- 
shige, and Yosai. 

The first important individual names 
after those of the Greek painters men- 
tioned above are those of the Proto- 
Renaissance of the 13th and 14th cen- 
tury. 

For Italy see Pietro Cavallini; in 
Florence, Cimabue, by W. M. Rossetti, 
author of Fine Art, Chiefly Contemporary; 
Giotto, by Sir Sidney Colvin, late keeper 
prints and drawings, British Museum; 
Gaddi, by W. M. Rossetti; Orcagna, by 
the late John Henry Middleton, Slade 
professor of fine arts, Cambridge, art 
director South Kensington Museum; 
Spinello Aretino (Vol. 25, p. 685), and 
Angelico, by W. M. Rossetti; in Siena, 
Simone Martini; and for Flanders, the 
van Eycks (Vol. 10, p. 90), by Sir Joseph 
Archer Crowe, author with G. B. Caval- 
easelle, of Early Flemish Painters, etc. 



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With the 15th century, and particularly 
at Florence, begins the third of the four 
periods in the evolution of painting. 
"The father of mod- 
15th Century: era painting is the 
Florence Florentine Masac- 

cio": see the article 
on him (Vol. 17, p. 833), by W. M. Ros- 
setti, who says "he led the way in repre- 
senting the objects of nature correctly, 

with action, liveliness and relief 

All the greatest artists of Italy, through 
studying the Brancacci chapel, became 
his champions and disciples.'* For the 
other great Florentine names of the cen- 
tury see the articles: Masouno da Pani- 
cale, by Rossetti; Brunelleschi, archi- 
tect, student of perspective, and, with 
Masolino, master of Masaccio; the two 
earlier Lippi, by Rossetti; Botticelli, by 
Sir Sidney Colvin; Gozzoli, by Rossetti; 
Rosselli; Piero di Cosimo (Vol. 21, p. 
950); Castagno; Baldovinetti, by Sir 
Sidney Colvin ; Pollaiuolo ; Ghirlan- 
dajo, father and son, by W. M. Rossetti; 
and, marking the perfection of art on the 
formal side, Bartolommeo, and Rossetti's 
article, Andrea del Sarto (Vol. 1, p. 
969). 

As for the remainder of Italy, Sienese 
art declines in this century, but there is 
an advance in Northern Italy and in Um- 
bria. See the arti- 
15th Century: cles:FRANCEscm,by 
Other Parts Rossetti, Melozzo, 

of Italy "the first who prac- 

tised foreshortening 
with much success," and Signorelli; 
Raphael's master, Perugino, by Ros- 
setti; Mantegna, by the same author; 
Lorenzo Costa; Francia, by Rossetti; 
and at Venice, Gentile, the Vivarini, 
Antonello da Messina, Carpaccio, 
the Bellini (Vol. 3, p. 700), by Sir Sidney 
Colvin. 

In Germany and the Low Countries 
the art of the 15th and 16th centuries 
may be traced in the articles: for Ger- 
many — Schongauer; Durer, by Sir 
Sidney Colvin; GRttN; the Holbeins and 



Cranach, by Sir Joseph Archer Crowe; 
Burgkmair; GrEnewald; and for the 

Low Countries — 
15th and 16th Roger van der 
Cen turie8 : Weyden ; his greater 

Northern Europe pupil Memlinc, by 

Sir J. A. Crowe and 
P. G. Konody, art critic of the Observer 
and Daily Mail; Goes; Gerard David, 
by P. G. Konody; Lucas van Leyden 
(Vol. 17, p. 93); Heemskerk; Matsys; 
Breughel; Mabuse, by Sir J. A. Crowe; 
Floris; Moro; and Bril. 

Roughly contemporary with Durer and 
Holbein the younger were the even 
greater masters of Italian painting. See 

the articles : for Flor- 
16th Century: ence — Leonardo da 
Italian Vinci (Vol. 16, p. 

Masters 444, equivalent to 

35 pages of this 
Guide), and Michelangelo (Vol. 18, p. 
362), both by Sir Sidney Colvin, and 
Vasari, painter and biographer of paint- 
ers; for Rome — Raphael Sanzio (Vol. £2, 
p. 900, with 7 cuts), by the late Prof. 
John Henry Middleton, and Giulio 
Romano, by W. M. Rossetti; for North 
Italy — Luini, Correggio, Parmigiano, 
and Moroni, all by Rossetti, and Mo- 
retto; and for Venice — Giorgione, by 
Sir Sidney Colvin; Lotto and Palma, 
Titian, Tintoretto, and Paul Veron- 
ese (Vol. 20, p. 965), all by W. M. Ros- 
setti. 

We have now come to modern times so 
far as painting is concerned. The article 
Painting says: 

By the 17th century the development of 

painting had passed through aU its stages, 

and the picture was 

The Fourth no i° n g er a mere sil ~ 

jy^-i^A . i n*u n A ++ houette or a tran- 

Period: 17th Cen- script of ob jects 

tury and After against a flat back- 

ground, but rather an 
enchanted mirror of the world, in which 
might be reflected space beyond space in in- 
finite recession. With this transformation 
of the picture there was connected a com- 
plete change in the relation of the artist to 
nature. Throughout all the earlier epochs of 
the art the painter had concerned himself 
not with nature as a whole, but with certain 



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selected aspects of nature that furnished 
him with his recognized subjects. These 
subjects were selected on account of their 
intrinsic beauty or importance, and as rep- 
resenting intrinsic worth they claimed to be 
delineated in the clearest and most substan- 
tial fashion. In the 17th century, not only 
was the world as a whole brought within 
the artist's view, but it presented itself as 
worthy in every part of his most reverent 
attention. In other words, the art of the 
17th century, and of the modern epoch in 
general, is democratic, and refuses to ac- 
knowledge that difference in artistic value 
among the aspects of nature which was at 
the basis of the essentially aristocratic art 
of the Greeks and Italians. . . . The 
artist who was the first to demonstrate con- 
vincingly this principle of modern painting 
was Rembrandt. . . . Rembrandt in 
his later work attended to the pictorial ef- 
fect alone, and practically annulled the ob- 
jects by reducing them to pure tone and 
color. Things are not there at all, but only 
the semblance or effect, or u impression n of 
things. Breadth is in this way combined 
with the most delicate variety, and a new 
form of painting, now called "impression- 
ism," has come into being. 

See: Rubens, by Henri Hymans, au- 
thor of Rubens: sa vie et son ceuvre, and P. 
G. Konody ; Rembrandt, by John Forbes 
White and P. G. Konody; and Frans 
Hals, by P. G. Konody. These were the 
leaders of the great 17th century school — 
the Dutch. For the more immediate fol- 
lowers of Rembrandt see the articles: 
Douw, Eeckhout, Flinck, Maes, 
Hooch, Meer. For Rubens' great pu- 
pil and rival p,nd his successors, the arti- 
cles Van Dyck and Teniers, both by 
Henri Hymans and P. G. Konody, Sny- 
ders and the great animal painter Ftt. 
See Brouwer for Hals' pupil and assist- 
ant. For the genre painters, the articles : 
Ter Borch, Metstj, Steen, Wotjwer- 
mann, and the Ostade family, by Sir J. 
A. Crowe and P. G. Konody. On the 
landscapists see the articles: Koninck, 
Goyen, Neer, by Sir J. A. Crowe and 
P. G. Konody; Rtjysdael, Hobbema, by 
Sir J. A. Crowe, and Berchem; and, for 
animal and landscape, A. Vandevelde, 
Cuyp, by Sir J. A. Crowe, and Potter, 
by P. G. Konody. The other important 
articles for the Dutch school of the 17th 
'•entury are: Heem, Heda, Honde- 



coeter, Weenix and HuySum, painters 
of still hfe, etc.; W. Vandevelde and 
Backhuysen, marine painters; and at 
the close of the period, or marking its de- 
cline, Mieris and Netscher. 

In the article on Painting this summary 
follows the outline of the general develop- 
ment of painting through the 17th cen- 
tury: 

The fact that the Dutch painters have 

left us masterpieces in so many different 

walks of painting, 

Kind8 of makes it convenient 

PalnHnd that we should add 

rainiuifc . hepe gomc brief notcg 

on characteristic modern phases of the 
art on which they stamped the impress of 
their genius. The normal subject for the 
artist, as we have seen, up to the 17th 
century, was the figure-subject, generally 
in some connexion with religion. The Egyp- 
tian portrayed the men and women of his 
time, but tie pictures, through their con- 
nexion with the sepulchre, had a quasi-re- 
ligious significance. 

Portraiture is differentiated from this 
kind of subject-picture through stages 
which it would be interesting to trace, but 
the portrait, though secular, is always 
treated in such a way as to exalt or dignify 
the sitter. Another kind of figure-piece, 
also differentiated by degrees from the 
subject-picture of the loftier kind, is the 
so-called Genre Painting, in which the hu- 
man actors and their goings-on are in 
themselves indifferent, trivial, or mean, and 
even repellent; and in which, accordingly, 
intrinsic interest of subject has disap- 
peared to be replaced by an artistic in- 
terest of a different kind. Landscape, in 
modern times so important a branch of 
painting, is also an outcome of the tradi- 
tional figure-piece, for at first it is nothing 
but a background to a scene in which 
human figures are prominent. "Marine 
Painting is a branch of landscape art dif- 
ferentiated from this, but supplied at first 
in the same way with figure-interest. The 
origin of Animal Painting is to be sought 
partly in figure-pieces, where, as in Egypt 
and Assyria, animals play a part in scenes 
of human life, and partly in landscapes, in 
which cattle, &c, are introduced to enliven 
the foreground. The Hunting Picture, com- 
bining a treatment of figures and animals 
in action with landscape of a picturesque 
character, gives an artist like Rubens a 
welcome opportunity, and the picture of 
Dead Game may be regarded as its off- 
shoot. This brings us to the important 
class of Still-life Painting, the relation of 
which to the figure-piece can be traced 
through the genre picture and the portrait 



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The article then proceeds to sketch the 
history and development of different 
kinds of painting: 

Portraiture: 

It is Gentile and Giovanni Bellini . . . 
who may be regarded as the fathers of 
modern portrait painting. Venetian art 
was always more secular in spirit than that 
of the rest of Italy, and Venetian portraits 
were abundant. . . . Some of the finest 
portraits in the world are the work of the 
great Venetians of the 16th century, for 
they combine pictorial quality with an air 
of easy greatness which later painters find 
it hard to impart to their creations. 
Though greatly damaged, Titian's eques- 
trian portrait of Charles V. at Madrid 
ffig. £6, Plate VIII.) is one of the very 
finest of existing works of the kind. It is 
somewhat remarkable that of the other 
Italian painters who executed portraits the 
most successful was the idealist Raphael, 
whose papal portraits of Julius II. and Leo 
X. are masterpieces of firm and accurate 
delineation. Leonardo's "Monna Lisa" is 
a study rather than a portrait proper. 

The realistic vein, which, as we have 
seen, runs through northern painting, ex- 
plains to some extent the extraordinary 
merit in portraiture of Holbein, who rep- 
resents the culmination of the efforts in 
this direction of masters like Jan van 
Eyck and Dilrer. . . . Frans Hals of 
Haarlem, one of the most brilliant paint- 
ers of the impressionist school that he did 
much to found, achieved remarkable suc- 
cess in the artistic grouping of a number 
of portraits. ... As portraitists the 
other great 17th-century masters fall into 
two sets, Rembrandt and Velazquez con- 
trasting with Rubens and his pupil Van 
Dyck. ... In the 18th century, though 
France produced some good limners and 
Spain Goya, yet on the whole England was 
the home of the best portraiture. Van 
Dyck had been in the service of Charles I., 
and foreign representatives of his style 
carried on afterwards the tradition of his 
essentially courtly art, but there existed at 
the same time a line of native British por- 
traitists of whom the latest and best was 
Hogarth. One special form of portraiture, 
the miniature (q.v.) f has been characteris- 
tically English throughout . . . 

Genre: 

Probably the most excellent painters of 
genre are Ter Borch, Metsu and Brouwer, 
the two first painters of the life of the up- 
per classes, the last of peasant existence in 
some of its most unlovely aspects. The 
pictures of Brouwer are among the most 
instructive documents of modern painting. 
... He is best represented in the 
Munich Pinacotek, from which has been 



selected fig. 30, Plate IX. Hardly less ad- 
mirable are Teniers in Flanders; De 
Hooch, Ver Meer of Delft, Jan Steen, A. 
van Ostade, in Holland, while in more mod- 
ern times Hogarth, Chardin, Sir David 
Wilkie, Meissonier, and a host of others 
carry the tradition of the work down to 
our own day (see Table VIII.). . . . 

Landscape and Marine Painting: 

Several of the Dutch masters, even be- 
fore the time of Rembrandt, excelled in the 
truthful rendering of the scenes and ob- 
jects of their own simple but eminently 
paintable country; but it was Rembrandt, 
with his pupil, de Koningk, and his rival in 
this department Jacob Ruysdael, who 
were the first to show how a perfectly natu- 
ral and unconventional rendering of a 
stretch of country under a broad expanse 
of sky might be raised by poetry and ideal 
feeling to the rank of one of the world's 
masterpieces of painting. Great as was 
Rembrandt in what Bode has called "the 
landscape of feeling," the " Haarlem from 
the Dunes" of Ruysdael (fig. 31, Plate 
IX.) with some others of this artist's ac- 
knowledged successes, surpass even his 
achievement. . . . Among Turner's chief 
titles to honour is the fact that he por- 
trayed the sea in all its moods with a 
knowledge and sympathy that give him a 
place alone among painters of marine. . . . 

Animal Painting: 

In Holland, in the 17th century, the ani- 
mal nature presented itself under the more 
contemplative aspect of the ruminants in 
the lush water-meadows. True to their 
principle of doing everything they attempt 
in the best possible way, the Dutch paint 
horses (Cuyp, Wouwerman) and cattle 
(Cuyp, Adrian Vandevelde, Paul Potter) 
with canonical perfection, while Honde- 
koeter delineates live cocks and hens, and 
Weenix dead hares and moor-fowl, in a 
way that makes us feel that the last word 
on such themes has been spoken. There is 
a large white turkey by Hondekoeter in 
which the truth of mass and of texture in 
the full soft plumage is combined with a 
delicacy in the detail of the airy filaments, 
that is the despair of the most accom- 
plished modern executant. 

But animals have been treated more 
nobly than when shown in Flemish agita- 
tion or in Dutch phlegmatic calm. Le- 
onardo da Vinci was specially famed for 
his horses, which he may have treated with 
something of the majesty of Pheidias. . . . 

SMI-Life Painting: 

There is no finer Rembrandt for pic- 
torial quality than the picture in the Louvre 
representing the carcase of a flayed ox in 
a flesher's booth. As illustrating the prin- 
ciple of modern painting this form of the 



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graphic art has a value and importance 
which in itself it could hardly claim. . . . 
The way was prepared for it as has been 
noticed, by the minute and forcible render- 
ing of accessory objects in the figure-pieces 
and portraits of the early Flemish masters, 
of Dtirer, and above all of Holbein. The 
painting of flower and fruit pieces with- 
out figure interest by Jan Breughel the 
younger, who was born in 1601, represents 
a stage onward, and contemporary with 
him were several other Dutch and Flemish 
specialists in this department, among whom 
Jan David de Heem, born 1608, and the 
rather older Willem Klaasz Heda may be 
mentioned. Their subjects sometimes took 
the form of a luncheon table with vessels, 
plate, fruit and other eatables; at other 
times of groups of costly vessels of gold, sil- 
ver and glass, or of articles used in art or 
science, such as musical instruments and 
the like; and it is especially to be noted 
that the handling stops always short of 
any illusive reproduction of the actual tex- 
tures of the objects, while at the same time 
the differing surfaces of stuffs and metal 
and glass, of smooth-rinded apples and 
gnarled lemons, are all most justly ren- 
dered. ... In this form of painting 
the French 18th-century artist Chardin, 
whose impasto was fuller, whose colouring 
more juicy than those of the Dutch, has 
achieved imperishable fame (see fig. 38, 
Plate X.); and the modern French, who 
understand better than others the technical 
business of painting, have carried on the 
fine tradition which has culminated in the 
work of Vollon. The Germans have also 
painted still-life to good result, but the 
comparative weakness in technique of Brit- 
ish painters has kept them in this depart- 
ment rather in the background. 

The history of painting since the 17th 
century may best be studied in the Bri- 
tannica in the order in which "recent 
schools" are treated 
National Schools (Vol. 20, pp. 497- 
of Painting 518), and this plan 

will be followed here 
in a brief outline, giving only a few out 
of many articles for each country. 

British art in the 17th and 18th cen- 
turies is dependent largely on foreign and 
particularly Flemish influences — Van 
Dyck in especial. See Ros- 
Britiah setti's articles on Lely and 

Kneller, who, like Hol- 
bein and Van Dyck, were importations, 
but, unlike them, were pretty thoroughly 
Anglicized. For the first purely English 



painter see Austin Dobson's article Ho- 
garth (Vol. 13, p. 560). For "the most 
prominent figure in the English school of 
painting" whose Discourses largely af- 
fected English notions of aesthetics, see 
Sir Joshua Reynolds; also the article on 
his rival George Romney. And read 
Rossetti's article Gainsborough; and 
those on the portrait painters Raeburn 
and Sir Thoma s Lawrence. On the Nor- 
wich school of landscapists see the articles 
Crome, Cotman and George Vincent. 
For foreign influences on landscape paint- 
ing see Richard Wilson (Vol. 28, p. 695) 
for French influence, and John Con- 
stable (Vol. 0, p. 982), by C. J. Holmes, 
author of Constable and His Influence on 
Landscape Painting, for German. With 
the article on the greatest of English 
landscapists J. M. W. Turner (Vol. 27, 
p. 474), by Sir George Reid, the student 
should read Frederic Harrison's article on 
John Ruskin, himself an exquisite 
draughtsman, although unable to com- 
pose a picture, whose championship of 
Turner and general theories of art so 
strongly influenced British painting. See 
also the articles on the subject painter 
Thomas Stothard and the landscapist 
Girtin; and on the genre painters, Sir 
David Wilkie, by J. Miller Gray, late 
curator of the Scottish National Portrait 
Gallery, Mulready, William Collins, 
and Frith. See the article William 
Blake, by J. W. Comyns-Carr, author of 
Essays on Art, for an appreciation of that 
remarkable genius, who in his combina- 
tion of painting and poetry may be reck- 
oned a forerunner of the Pre-Raphaelites. 
On the F. R. Brotherhood see the articles : 
D. G. Ros8ETTi, by F. G. Stephens, 
former art-critic to the Athenaeum and, 
for Rossetti's literary work, Theodore 
Watts-Dunton; Sir J. E. Millais and 
W. Holman Hunt, by Cosmo Monk- 
house, the poet and critic; and Ford 
Madox Brown, by W. M. Rossetti, him- 
self a member of the Brotherhood — see 
the article on Rossetti. Of much the 
same school were several later men. See, 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



for instance, the articles: Lord Leigh- 
ton, by Cosmo Monkhouse; .William 
Morris, by Arthur Waugh; Burne- 
Jones, by Lawrence Binyon, poet and 
author of monographs on Blake, Crome, 
etc.; George Frederick Watts, by 
Malcolm Bell, biographer of Burne- 
Jones; Walter Crane. On the "New- 
lyn" school, see the article Newlyn; on 
the etchers, Whistler, by Frederick 
Wedmore, author of Whistler's Etchings, 
and William Strang and Sir F. S. Ha- 
den, by Sir Charles Holroyd, artist and 
critic; on figure painters, Sir John Gil- 
bert, Albert Moore, John Pettie, G. 
H. Boughton, Alma-Tadema, Sir E. J. 
Poynter and Sir W. B. Richmond; for 
painters of sentiment, Marcus Stone, 
Sir Luke Fildes and Sir Hubert von 
Herkomer; among portrait painters, J. 
J. Shannon, and C. W. Furse; the deco- 
rator Frank Brangwyn; the realistic 
landscapists, H. W. B. Davis, David 
Murray, Sir E. A. Waterlow, Vicat 
Cole; the more imaginative and roman- 
tic painters of landscape, Alfred W. 
Hunt, Cecil Gordon Lawson, John 
Linnell, G. H. Mason, Frederick 
Walker, Sir Alfred East, J. Buxton 
Knight, George Clausen; the "subjec- 
tive landscapist" B. W. Leader; the 
marine painters Henry Moore, C. Na- 
pier Hemy, James Clarke Hook ; the 
animal-painters Breton, Riviere, J. M. 
Swan, and, for the earlier period, Land- 
seer; the Scottish artists Orchardson, 
by Sir Walter Armstrong, director of 
National Gallery of Ireland; John Pet- 
tie, Thomas Faed, David Murray, 
Arthur Melville, John La very, Rob- 
ert Brough, Sir James Guthrie, and 
Sir George Reid, of whom we have al- 
ready spoken as a contributor to the 
Britannica; and the water colorists Sir 
John Gilbert, by F. G. Stephens, 
former art critic of the Atlienaeum, 
Henry Moore, Albert Moore, George 
Clausen, E. J. Gregory, Birket Fos- 
ter, Haag, Kate Greenaway, by M. H. 
Spielmann, biographer of Kate Green- 



away. On English illustrators, besides 
those already named, Hogarth and Blake 
notably, see the articles Thomas Be- 
wick, Bartolozzi, Flaxman, by Sir Sid- 
ney Colvin, Cattermole, Samuel Prout, 
James Ward, Gillray, Bunbury, Row- 
landson, cruik8hank, john leech, 
Richard Doyle, Tenniel, Sir John 
Gilbert, Aubrey Beardsley, by E. F. 
Strange, Thomas Creswick, Du Maur- 
ier, C. S. Keene, Frederick Walker, 
G. J. Pinwell, R. Caldecott, Harry 
Furniss, Sir F. C Gould, E. Linley 
Sambourne, Phil May, Leonard Ra- 
ven-Hill. 

On French painting of the 17th century 
read : on landscape, Poussin, and Claude 
of Lorraine (Vol. 6, p. 463), by W. M. 

Rossetti; the historical and 
French religious painters Le Brun 

and Le Sueur; and the por- 
traitist Philippe de Champaigne. For 
the 18th century: the articles Watteau 
and Fragonard, by P. G. Konody; 
Francois Boucher, Lancret, Vernet 
the eldest, Rigaud, Chardin, and 
Greuze, by Lady Dilke, author of 
French Painters of the 18th Century. 

In the 19th century came a classical 
reaction: see the article on its leader 
Jacques Louis David and his pupils and 
imitators J. B. Regnault, Girodet, 
Baron Gu£rin, Prud'hon; then a medi- 
ate movement, on which see Ingres, by 
Lady Dilke, and Gros; and then a Ro- 
mantic revolt — see Delacroix, G£ri- 
cault, Isabey. Other important names 
are Ziem, Meissonier and Rose Bon- 
heur, both by Henri Frantz of the 
Gazette des Beaux Arts, Cabanel, Bau- 
dry, G£r6me, Bouguereau, Benjamin 
Constant, Cormon, Bonnat and Hen- 
ner. On the Barbizon school, see the 
articles Barbizon, Theodore Rousseau, 
Daubigny, Corot, and Diaz, by D. 
Croal Thomson, author of The Barbizon 
School, J. F. Millet, by ! ady Dilke; 
Dupr£, Francais and Harpignies. 
Ranking with Corot and Millet in influ- 
ence is Courbet; see the article on Cour- 



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197 



bet, by Henri Frantz of the Paris Gazette 
dee Beaux Arts, and on Courbet's follow- 
ers, Legros, Fantin-Latour, Ribot, by 
Frederick Wedmore, Carolus-Duran. 
Contrasted with these nature-lovers are 
the more mystic Moreau, Ricard, De- 
launay, Fromentin and Cazin. 

The later names we may classify: the 
decorative painter — Puvis de Chavan- 
nes, by Henri Frantz; the impressionists 
— see the article Impressionism (Vol. 14, 
pp. 348-346), by D. S. MacColl, keeper of 
the Tate Gallery, and author of Nine- 
teenth Century Art, and in the article 
Painting the discussion on pp. 473-474 
of Vol. 20 — Manet, by Henri Frantz, 
Monet, Degas, Renoir; the plein-airists 
Jules Breton, Bastien-Lepage, by 
Henri Frantz; Roll, Gervex; the sym- 
bolist Gustave Moreau; the military 
painters Alphonse de Neuville and 
Detaille; and the "neo-evangelist" Ca- 
zin. 

The art of Belgium and Holland in the 
19th century is to be studied in Prof. 
Muther's sections on these two coun- 
tries (pp. 506-509) in 
Belgium and the article Painting, 

Holland and in such sepa- 

rate articles as Leys, 
Alfred Stevens (to be distinguished 
from the English sculptor), Braekeleer, 
Willems, Clays, Portaels, Wauters, 

CONSTANTIN MeUNIER, VeRLAT, the DE 

Vriendts, Khnopff, already mentioned 
as a critic and a contributor to the Bri- 
tannica, — all these are Belgians; and, in 
Holland, Israels, Maris, Mauve. 

Going back to the close of the 18th 
century for German painters influenced 
by Winckelmann, the important articles 

are Mengs and Carstens. 
Germany See Overbeck, by J. Beav- 

ington Atkinson for the 
German "pre-Raphaelite" movement — 
and the articles, Peter von Cornelius, 
by W. Cave Thomas, author of Mural or 
Monumental Education; the Schadows, 
by J. B. Atkinson; Veit, and Schnorr. 
The other more important names before 



1870 are: Bethel, Schwind, Achen- 
bach and Preller. The glorification of 
the Empire and of Prussia is the theme of 
the new historical school : see particularly 
Menzel. The study of the old masters 
is to be seen in Kaulbach and Lenbach. 
Among the members of a more modern 
school are: Liebermann, Kalckreuth, 
Keller, Uhde; of another reaction, 
Feuerbach, Thoma, and Bocklin, by 
Henri Frantz; and of a sculptural order 
Klinger and Stuck. 

As for Austria-Hungary, we may here 

mention only three 

Austria-Hungary articles: Makart, 

Pettekofen, and 

Munkacsy, by E. F. Strange. 

In Italy since the great days of the 
17th century, we may mention Tiepolo, 
Canale and Guardi be- 
Italy fore the 19th century, and 

in that era Segantini, Gio- 
vanni Costa, and Muzzioli. 

The art of Spain has not been touched 
heretofore in this summary. For the 
16th century see the articles Coello, 
Becerra, Vincente Joanes, 
Spain Navarrete, El Greco; and 

for the 17th, the Spanish 
century, Herrera, his great pupil Velaz- 
quez, by J. Forbes White and P. G. 
Konody; Cano, and Zurbaran and 
Murillo, both by W. M. Rossetti. In 
the 18th century the only great Spanish 
artist was Goya y Lucientes, painter 
and etcher. On the 19th century see: 
Fortuny, by Alfred Lys Baldry, art critic 
of the London Globe; Pradilla; Benlli- 
ure y Gil; Sorolla y Bastida; Ma- 
drazo y Kunt; Zuloaga. 

To the other countries of Europe, fully 
as their painting is treated in the Britan- 
nica, we can devote 
Other European little space here. It 
Countries may suffice to men- 

tion the Norwegian 
Hans Dahl and the Russians Repin and 
Vereschagin. 

On painting in the United States, see 
the section in the article Painting, by 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



Prof. J. C. Van Dyke of Rutgers College 
(Vol. 20, pp. 518- 
The United 519); and the articles 

States J. S. Copley, Ben- 

jamin West, John 
Trumbull, Gilbert Stuart, John Van- 
derlyn, Washington Allston, Rem- 
brandt Peale, J. W. Jarvis, Thomas 
Sully, Thomas Cole, Asher B. Du- 
rand, J. F. Kensett, F. E. Church, 
Chester Harding, Henry Inman, Wil- 
liam Page, G. P. A. Healy, Daniel 
Huntington, W. S. Mount, W. M. 
Hunt, John La Farge, George Fuller, 
Eastman Johnson, Elihu Vedder, 
Leonard Ochtman, Winslow Homer, 
A. H. Wyant, George Inness, Homer 
D. Martin, Swain Gifford, the Mor- 
ans, Jervis McEntee, D. W. Tryon, 
Albert Bierstadt, W. H. Beard, Blash- 
field, J. W. Alexander, W. M. Chase, 
Duveneck, Cecilia Beaux, W. H. Low, 
H. S. Mowbray, H. O. Tanner, E. C. 



Tarbell, R. W. Vonnoh, — and the 
Americans who have made their home 
and their fame in Europe, like Whistler, 
Sargent, E. A. Abbey and J. J. Shan- 
non, and those whose work is Continen- 
tal, or even purely Parisian in tone, like 
W. T. Dannat, George Hitchcock, Gari 
Melchers, C. S. Pearce, E. L. Weeks 
and Walter Gay. On illustrators, see 
the articles: Howard Pyle, Frederick 
Remington, C. S. Reinhart, W. T. 
Smedley, Robert Blum, Charles Dana 
Gibson, W. Hamilton Gibson, the wood- 
engraver Timothy Cole, the etcher 
Joseph Pennell; and for caricature the 
article Thomas Nast and the section on 
the United States in M. H. Spielmann's 
article Caricature (Vol. 5, pp. 334- 
335). 

For a fuller list of articles on painting, 
drawing, engraving, etc., with articles on 
sculpture, see the end of the next chapter 
Sculpture. 



CHAPTER XXXIV 



SCULPTURE 



THE Britannica article Sculpture 
(Vol.* 24, p. 488; equivalent to 
90 pages of this Guide) is a com- 
plete treatise on the technique and 
history of this branch of art by J. H. 
Middleton, late professor of Fine Art, 
Cambridge, M. H. Spielmann, former 
editor of the Magazine of Art, P. G. 
Konody, art critic of the Observer and 
Daily Mail, and, for French sculpture, 
L6once BSnedite, keeper of the Luxem- 
bourg Museum and author of Histoire 
des Beaux Arts. It is illustrated with 
10 full page plates as follows: I and II. 
Medieval, etc., with examples of the 
work of Jacopo della Quercia, Donatello 
(i), Andrea Pisano, Michelangelo, Verroc- 



chio and Leopardo, Luca della Robbia, 
Benvenuto Cellini, 
The Main " Peter Vischer, Ber- 

Article nini, Goujon, Ca- 

nova, Houdon, Coy- 
sevox; III. IV. V. Modern British — 
Alfred Stevens, Sir George Frampton, 
Lord Leighton, Harry Bates, H. H. 
Armstead, G. F. W'atts (2), A. Gilbert, 
F. W. Pomeroy, E. Onslow Ford, W. 
Hamo Thorny croft (2), Alfred Drury, 
F. Derwent Wood, Bertram Mackennal, 
Albert Toft, Havard Thomas, W. Gos- 
combe John, W. R. Colton (2), Sir 
Charles Lawes-Wittewronge, Sir J. Ed- 
gar Boehm, Thomas Brock; VI. American 
—J. Q. A. Ward, D. C. French and E. 



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C. Potter, Augustus St. Gaudens, Frede- 
erick MacMonnies; VII. VIII. and IX. 
Modern French — Falguiere, Barrias, De- 
laplanche, Idrac, Becquer, L. Ge>dme, 
Marqueste, Longepied, Fremiet, Guill- 
aume, Puech, Saint-Marceaux, Mercie\ 
Rodin, Michel, Dalou, Aube\ Chapu, 
Bloche, Gardet, Bartholomew and X. 
Other Foreign Countries — Sinding, Begas, 
Ximenes, Querol, Antokolski, Lambeaux, 
Meunier. 

This article opens with an account 
of technical methods of sculpture which 
should be supplemented by other articles, 

which deal also with 
Other General history and criti- 
Articles cism: Wood-Carv- 

ing(Vo1. 28, p. 791), 
by Franklyn Arden Crallan, author of 
Gothic Woodcarving, with four plates and 
with descriptions not merely of Gothic 
and Renaissance work in . Europe, but 
of Coptic, Mahommedan, Persian, In- 
dian and Burmese, Chinese and Japanese, 
and the carving done by savage races; 
Ivory (Vol. 15, especially pp. 95-98, 
with 5 illustrations), by A. Maskell, 
author of Ivories; Chryselephantine; 
Metal-Work (Vol. 18, p. 205), with 9 
text cuts and 2 full page plates), by 
Prof. J. H. Middleton, Cambridge, and 
John Starkie Gardner, author of Armour 
in England and Iron Work; Gem (Vol. 
11, p. 560; with 2 full page plates con- 
taining 76 illustrations, mostly of an- 
tique gems, besides 10 cuts in the text) 
by Alexander Stuart Murray, author of 
History of Greek Sculpture, Terra Cotta 
Sarcophagi, etc., and Arthur Hamilton 
Smith, keeper of Greek and Roman 
Antiquities, British Museum; Cameo; 
Intaglio; Seals (Vol. 24, p. 539; with 
9 illustrations), by Sir E. Maunde Thomp- 
son, late director British Museum; 
Numismatics (Vol. 19, p. 869; equivalent 
to 120 pages of this Guide; with 6 plates — 
20 Greek coins, 27 Greek and Roman 
coins, 23 Roman and Medieval coins, 
22 Oriental coins, 8 modern coins and 
medals, and 4 Italian medals — and 11 



cuts illustrating modern coins) by Regi- 
nald Stuart Poole, formerly keeper de- 
partment coins and medals, British 
Museum, Herbert Appold Grueber, keep- 
er of the same department in 1906-1912, 
and George Francis Hill, assistant keeper 
of this department; Medal (Vol. 18, 
especially pp. 1 and 2, with 2 plates, 
showing 32 medals), by M. H. Spielmann; 
Terra Cotta (Vol. 26, p. 652, with 2 
plates, 12 illustrations), by William 
Burton, author of English Stoneware and 
Earthenware and H. Beauchamp Walters, 
assistant keeper Greek and Roman an- 
tiquities, British Museum ; Plate (Vol. 21, 
p. 789; with 31 illustrations), by H. R. H. 
Hall, author of The Oldest Civilization of 
Greece, H. Stuart Jones, author of The 
Roman Empire, and E. Alfred Jones, 
author of Old English Gold Plate, etc.; 
Alto-relievo; Basso-Relievo; Relief 
and Repouss6, by M. H. Spielmann; 
Wax Figures; Effigies, Monumental, 
by the late Charles Boutell, author of A 
Manual of British Archaeology, and M. 
H. Spielmann. 

Early sculpture is separately treated. 
For "Classical" sculpture see the articles 
Greek Art by Percy Gardner and 
Roman Art by H. 
History of Stuart Jones, both 

Sculpture elaborately illus- 

trated and devoting 
particular attention to statuary, plate, 
etc. See also the illustrations in the 
articles mentioned in the last paragraph, 
— especially Gem, Numismatics, Terra 
Cotta; and those in the article Archi- 
tecture and subsidiary articles men- 
tioned in the chapter of this Guide For 
the Architect. And on Greek art see the 
article Pergamum and the sketches of 
the great sculptors of Greece: 

Agasias 

Agesander 

Agoracritus 

Alcamenes 

Antenor 

Apollonius of Tralles 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



Archermus 
Bathycles 

BOETHUS 

Bryaxis 

bljpalus and athenis 

BUTADES 

Calamis 

Callimachus 

Canachus 

Cephisodottjb 

Chares 

Cresilas 

Critius and Nesiotes 

Damophon 

Demetrius 

dlpoenus and scyllis 

Endoeus 

eutychides 

Leochares 

Lysippus 

Lysistratus 

Myron 

Onatas 

Paeonius 

Pasiteles 

Pheidias 

polyclitus 

Praxias and Androsthenes 

Praxiteles 

Rhoecus 

Scopas 

SlLANION 

Strongylion 
Thrasymedes 

TlMOTHETJS 

See also the article Byzantine Art; 
and for sculpture elsewhere the sections 
Art in the articles Egypt, China, Japan. 

For medieval sculpture, almost en- 
tirely an adjunct to architecture and 
particularly ecclesiastical architecture, 
see, besides the treatment 
Medieval in the historical part of 
the article Sculpture (pp. 
'490-496), the articles Architecture and 
Effigies, Monumental, comparing with 
the latter the article Brasses, Monu- 
mental (with 13 illustrations). 

The close of the medieval period and 



the beginning of the more individualistic 
Renaissance are marked by the occur- 
rence of the names 
Renaissance of great individual 

artists, whose biog- 
raphies are the best summary of the 
sculpture of the period. 

See on Italy: the articles Niccola 
Pisano (Vol. 20, p. 048); Vittore Pisano 
(Vol. 20, p. 649); Andrea Pisano (Vol. 
20, p. 647) and the article immediately 
following on his son, Giovanni Pisano; 
each of these four with an illustration; 
Vittore Pisano or Pisanello; Agostino 
and Agnolo da Siena (Vol. 1, p. 381); 
Orcagna, "the last great master of the 
Gothic period," by J. H. Middleton; 
Della Quercia, who "heralds .... 
the boldest and most original achieve- 
ments of two generations hence," by E. 
T. Strange, assistant keeper, South 
Kensington; Ghiberti, "the first of the 
great sculptors of the Renaissance' 9 ; 
Donatello, by P. G Konody; Miche- 
lozzo; Della Robbia family (with 3 
illustrations), by J. H. Middleton and 
William Burton, author of English 
Stoneware and Earthenware; Leonardo, 
by Sir Sidney Colvin; Verrocchio, by 
J. H. Middleton; Leopardo; Pollaiuolo; 
Michelangelo, by Sir Sidney Colvin; 
Bandinelli; Ammanati; and in the 16th 
century period of decline Giovanni 
da Bologna, Lombardo family, Cellini, 
by W. M. Rossetti and E. Alfred Jones, 
author of Old English Gold Plate, etc. 

On the Renaissance in France: Jean 
Goujon, Sarrazin. 

— In Germany: Veit Stoss, Adam 
Krafft, the Vischers. 
— In England: the Italian Torrigiano. 
— In Spain: Alonzo Cano, MontaRes, 
Pedro de Mena, Zarcillo. 

Some of the names just mentioned 
are those of 17th century artists. But 
the rococo character 
17th and 18th of the period is 
Century best seen in Italy: 

see the articles Ber- 
nini, Algardi, and, for France, Girar- 



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201 



don and Puget. With the 18th century 
came a classical revival for which the 
great names are Canova and Thor- 
waldsen : see the articles on these sculp- 
tors, that on Canova being by W. M. 
Bossetti. See also the articles on Thor- 
waldsen's followers, Sergel, Bystrom 
and Fogelberg. The more important 
articles on French sculpture in this period 
are Pigalle and Houdon, the latter 
known to Americans by his portraits of 
our Revolutionary worthies. For Eng- 
lish sculpture in the 17th and 18th cen- 
turies see: Nicholas Stone, Roubiliac, 
by M. H. Spielmann, Scheemakers, 
Nollekens, John Bacon, and, possibly 
most important, John Flaxman, by Sir 
Sidney Colvin. For Germany: Andreas 

ScHLtJTER. 

On the 19th century in Germany see 
the articles: Schadow, Rauch, Riets- 
chel, Dannecker, Schwanthaler, and 
marking a sharp re- 
19th Century action, Reinhold 
and Modern Begas, and the 

Schools younger men, known 

also as painters, 
Franz Stuck and Max Klinger. 

On modern British sculpture see the 
articles: John Gibson, E. H. Baily, 
Thomas Banks, Sir Richard West- 
macott, and Alfred Stevens; and, for 
the last thirty years, Jules Dalou, 
Lord Leighton, better known as a 
painter, E. Onslow Ford and Alfred 
Gilbert, the most influential and im- 
portant factors in the awakening, and 
Thomas Woolner, Marochetti, Sir 
Edwin Landseer, Sir J. E. Boehm, J. 
H. Foley, H. H. Armstead, Thomas 
Brock, W. Hamo Thornycroft, John 
M. Swan, Harry Bates, G. F. Watts. 
Scores of others are criticized and their 
work summarized on pp. 501-508 in the 
article Sculpture. 

The 19th century in France opened with 

a pseudo-Roman school, 

France and among the names of this 

period are Pradier, Rude, 

P. J. David, Etex, and Carpeaux and 



Barye, by Henri Frantz, who mark 
a transition. For the more modern 
period see Guillaume, Dubois, Fal- 
GUlfcRE, Merci£, Fr£miet, Gustave 
Crauck, Dalou, Rodin. 

In addition to the discussion of mod- 
ern Belgian sculptors in the section 
on Belgium of the article Sculpture 

there are separate 
Other European articles on Paul de 
Countries Vigne, Van der 

Stappen, Jef Lam- 
beaux, Julien Dillens, and Constan- 
ts Meunier. For Italian sculpture 
in the 19th century see Bartolini, and 
the summary in the article Sculpture 
(Vol. 24, p. 513). Separate articles on 
Spanish sculptors are Jose Alvarez and 
Manuel Alvarez. 

In the United States there was little 
sculpture of native origin, and virtually 
none of the slightest merit, before the 

19th century. The 
American following list of 

Sculpture articles in rough 

chronological order 
will supplement the outline in the article 
Sculpture (Vol. 24, p. 516): Horatio 
Greenough, Hiram Powers, Thomas 
Crawford, Henry Kirke Brown, 
William Rimmer, E. D. Palmer, 
Thomas Ball, L. W. Volk, Harriet G. 
Hosmer, J. Q. A. Ward, Launt Thomp- 
son, Larkin G. Mead, G. E. Bissell, 
Oun L. Warner, W. R. O'Donovan, 
Jonathan S. Hartley, Augustus 
Saint-Gaudens, D. C. French, J. J. 
Boyle, C. H. Niehaus, Lorado Taft, 
W. O. Partridge, Cyrus E. Dallin, 
A. P. Proctor, Charles Grafly, F. 
W. MacMonnies, George Gray Bar- 
nard, P. W. Bartlett, Hermon A. 
MacNeil, Karl Bitter, Borglum. 



This chapter, and the one before, outline 
courses on these arts in the Britannica, 

but there are many articles 
Summary on these topics to which no 

reference has been made in 
these pages. It may, therefore, be in- 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



teresting to the student of these forms of 
art to have before him a list, fairly com- 
plete, of articles in the Britannica dealing 
with painting and sculpture. The fol- 
lowing is such a list in alphabetical 
arrangement. The student should re- 
member that the absence from the list 



— or from any similar list in the Guide — 
of a topic on which he wishes informa- 
tion does not mean that there is no in- 
formation on the subject in the Britannica, 
but merely that there may be no separate 
article on the subject. In such cases let 
him turn to the general index (Vol. 29). 



LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL ARTICLES DEALING WITH THE FINE ARTS 



Abati, N. 

Abbey, E. A. 

Abildgaard, N. A. 

Achenbach, Andreas 

Acroliths 

Adam/ L. S. 

Adams, Herbert 

Aertszen, Pieter 

Aetion 

Agasias 

Agatharchus 

Ageladas 

Agesander 

Agoracritus 

Agostino and Agnolo 

da Siena 
Agricola, C. L. 
Aikman, William 
Albani, Francesco 
Albertinelli Mariotto 
Alcamenes 

Aldegrever, Heinrich 
Alexander, Francis 
Alexander, John White 
Alfani, Domenico 
Algardi, Alessandro 
Allan, David 
Allan, Sir William 
Allori, Alessandro 
A lis ton, Washington 
Alma-Tadema, Sir L. 
Altdorfer, Albrecht 
Alto-Relievo 
Alvarez, Don Jose" 
Alvarez, Don Manuel 
Amalteo, Pomponio 
Amman, Jost 
Ammanati, Bartolomeo 
Amsler, Samuel 
Andrea del Sarto 
Andreani, Andrea 
Andrieu, Bertrand 
Angelico, Fra 
Anguier, Francois and 

Michel 
Angussola, Sophonisba 
Anichini, Luigi 
Anna, Baldasarre 
Ansdell, Richard 
An tenor 
Antiphilus 

Antonello da Messina 
Apelles 



Apollodorus 
Apollonius of Tralles 
Appiani, Andrea 
AquareUe 
Aquatint 
Archermus 
Aristides of Thebes 
Armstead, H. H. 
Asper, Hans 
Asselyn, Hans 
Audran (family) 
Bacon, John 
Backhuysen, Ludolf 
Badalocchio, Sisto 
Baer, William Jacob 
Bagnacavallo, B. 
Baily, E. H. 
Baldinucci, Filippo 
Baldovinetti, Alessio 
Ball, Thomas 
Bandinelli, B. 
Banks, Thomas 
Barbieri, G. F. 
Barbizon 
Barnard, G. G. 
Barocci, Federigo 
Barry, James 
Bartels, Hans von 
Bartlett, P. W. 
Bartolini, Lorenzo 
Bartolommeo di Pag- 

holo, Fra 
Bartolozzi, Francesco 
Barye, A. L. 
Bassano, Jacopo da 

Ponte 
Basso-Relievo 
Bastien-Lepage, Jules 
Bates, Harry 
Bathycles 
Batoni, P. G. 
Baudry, P. J. A. 
Beard, William H. 
Beardsley, Aubrey V. 
Beaux, Cecilia 
Beccafumi, Domenico di 

Pace 
Becerra, Gaspar 
Beck, Dayid 
Beckwith, J. C. 
Beechey, Sir William 
Begas, Karl 
Begas, Reinhold 



Bellini (family) 
Bellows, Albert F. 
Benlliure y Gil, Jos6 
Benson, F. W. 
Berchem, Nicolaas 
Bernini, G. L. 
Besnard, P. A. 
Beverley, W. R. 
Bewick, Thomas 
Bierstadt, Albert 
Bissell, G. E. 
Bitter, K. T. F. 
Blackburn, Jonathan 
Blake, William 
Blakelock, R. A. 
Blanche, J. E. 
Blashfield, E. H. 
Bloemaert, Abraham 
Bloemen, J. F. van 
Blum, R. F. 
Bocklin, Arnold 
Boehm, Sir J. E. 
Boethus 

Bologna, Giovanni 
Bone, Henry 
Bonftgli, Benedetto 
Bonheur, Rosa 
Bonnat, L. J. F. 
Bordone, Paris 
Borglum, S. H. 
Borgognone, Ambrogio 
Bosch, Jerom 
Bossi, Giuseppe 
Botticelli, Sandro 
Bouchardon, Ednie 
Boudin, Francois 
Boudin, Eujjene 
Boughton, G. H. 
Bouguercau, A. W. 
Boulanger (family) 
Boulogne 
Boursse, Esaias 
Boyle, John J. 
Bracquemond, Felix 
Bradford, William 
Braekeleer, H. J. A. de 
Brangwyn, Frank 
Brascassat, J. R. 
Bredael, J. F. van 
Breton, Jules A. A. L. 
Breughel, Pieter 
Bridgman, F. A. 
Brierly, Sir O. W. 



Bril, Paul 
Briosco, Andrea 
Brock, Thomas 
Bronzino, II 
B rough, Robert 
Brouwer, Adrian 
Brown, Ford Madox 
Brown, Henry Kirke 
Brown, John George 
Browne, Hablot Knight 
Brush, G. de Forest 
Bry, T. (Dirk) de 
Bryaxis 

Bunbury, H. W. 
Bupalus and Athenis 
Burckhardt, Jakob 
Burgkmair, Hans 
Burne-Jones, Sir E. B. 
Burton, Sir F. W. 
Busch, Wilhelm 
Butadeo 

Bystrom, Johan Niklas 
Cabanel, Alexandre 
Calamis 

Calcar (Kalcker^, de 
Caldecott, Randolph 
Callcott, Sir A. W. 
Callimachus 
Callot, Jacques 
Calvart, Denis 
Calvert (3 artists) 
Cambiasi, Luca 
Camphausen, Wilhelm 
Camphuysen, D. R. 
Campi, Guilio 
Camuccini, Vineenzo 
Canachus 

Canale, A. (Canaletto) 
Canini, G. A. 
Cano, Alonzo 
Canova, Antonio 
Cantarini, Simone 
Caracci, L o d o v i c o , 

Agostino and Anni- 

bale 
Caran d'Ache 
Caravaggio, M. A. da 
Caravaggio, P. C. da 
Carducci, Bartholom- 

meo 
Caricature 
Carolus-Duran 
Carpaccio, Vittorio 



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Carpeaux, J. B. 
Carpi, Girolamo da 
Carpi, Ugo da 
Carstens, A. J. 
Cartoon 
Carving 

Cassana, Niccolo 
Castagno, Andrea del 
Castello, Bernardo 
Castello, G. B. 
Castello, Valerio 
Castiglione, G. B. 
Catterraole, George 
Cavallini, Pietro 
Cavedone, Jacopo 
Cazin, J. C. 
Cephisodotus 
Cesari, Giuseppe 

Cespedes, Pablo de 

Chalmers, G. P. 

Chambers, George 
Champaigne, Philippe 
de 

Chantrey, Sir F. L. 

Chardin, J. S. 

Chares 

Charlet, N. T. 

Chase, W. M. 

Chasseriau, Theodore 

Chiaroscuro 

Chodowiecki, D. N. 

Chryselephantine 

Church, F. E. 

Cibber, C. G. 

Cicognara, Count Leo- 
poldo 

Cignani, Carlo 

Cigoli, L. C. da 

Cimabue, Giovanni 

Cimon of Cleonae 

Cipriani, G. B. 

Civerchio, Vincenzo 

Clarke, T. S. 

Claude of Lorraine 

Clausen, George 

Clays, Paul Jean 

Cloiiet, Frangois 

Clouet, Jean 

Clovio, G. G. 

Cockx, Hieronymus 

Coello, A. S. 

Cole, Thomas 

Cole, Timothy 

Cole, Vicat 

Colin, Alexandre 

Collaert, Hans 

Collins, William 

Colman, Samuel 

Colman, Sidney 

Conca, Sebastiano 

Conder, Charles 

Constable, John 

Constant, Benjamin 
Conway, Sir W. Martin 
Cooper, Abraham 
Cooper, Alexander 
Cooper, Samuel 
Cooper, Thomas Sidney 



Copley, John Singleton 
Coques (Cocx), Gon- 
zales 
Corenzio, Belisario 
Cormon, Fernand 
Cornelius, P. von 
Corot, J. B. C. 
Correggio 
Cort, Cornelius 
Costa, Giovanni 
Costa, Lorenzo 
Cosway, Richard 
Cotman, J. S. 
Cottet, Charles 
Courbet, Gustavc 
Courtois, Jacques and 

Guillaume 
Cousin, Jean 
Cousins, Samuel 
Coustou (family) 
Couture, Thomas 
Cox, David 
Cox, Kenyon 
Coxcie, Michael 
Coypel 

Coysevox, C. A. 
Cranach, Lucas 
Crane, Walter 
Crauck, Gustave 
Crawford, Thomas 
Crayer, Gaspard de 
Crayon 

Credi, Ix>renzo di 
Cresilas 

Crespi, Daniele 
Crespi, Giovanni B. 

Crespi, Giuseppe M. 

Creswick, Thomas 

Critius and Nesiotes 

Crivelli, Carlo 

Crome, John 

Cropsey, J. F. 

Crowe, Sir J. A. 

Cruikshank, George 

Cuyp 

Dahl, Hans 

Dahl, J. C. 

Dahl, Michael 

Dallin, Cyrus E. 

Dalou, Jules 

Damophon 

Dan by, Francis 

Daniell, Thomas 

Dannat, William T. 

Dannecker, J. H. von 

Daubigny, C. F. 

Daumier, Honored 

David, Gerard 

David, J. L. 

David, Pierre Jean 

Davis, C. H. 

Davis, H. W. B. 

De Camp, Joseph 

Decamps, A. G. 

Degas, H. G. E. 

De Haas, M. F. H. 

De Kevser, Thomas 

Delacroix, F. V. E. 



Delaroche, H. (Paul) 

tefano 
affaellino 
Jacopo 



De Loutherbourg, P. J. 

Demetrius 

Desiderio da Settig- 

nano 
Detaille, J. B. E. 
Dewing, T. W. 
De Wint, Peter 
Diamante, Fra 
Diaz, N. V. 
Dielmann, Frederick 
Diepenbeck, A. van 
Dies, C. A. 
Dietrich, C. W. E. 
Dillens, Julien 
Dipoenus and Scyllis 
Dobson, William 
Dolci, Carlo 
Domenichino, Zampieri 
Donatello 

Dor6, L. A. Gustave 
Douw, Gerhard 
Downman, John 
Doyen, G. F. 
Doyle, Richard 
Drawing 
Drouais, J. G. 
Dubois, Paul 
Du Maurier, G. L. P. B. 
Dumont (family) 
Dumont, Francois 
Duncan, Thomas 
Dupr£, Jules 
Durand, Asher Brown 

Diirer, Albrecht 

Duveneck, Frank 

Dyce, William 

Eakins, Thomas 

Earle, Ralph 

Earlom, Richard 

East, Alfred 

Eastlake, Sir C. L. 

Eaton, Wyatt 

Eckersberg, Kristoffer 

Edelinck, Gerard 

Eeckhout, G. van den 

Effigies, Monumental 

Egg, A. L. 

Encaustic Painting 

Endoeus 

Engleheart, George 

Engraving 

Enncking, J. J. 

Etching 

Etex, Antoine 

Etty, William 

Euphranor 

Euphronius 

Eupompus 

Eutychides 

Everdinoren, Allart van 

Eyck, Van 

Faed, Thomas 



Faithorne, William 
Falcone, Aniello 
Falconet, E. M. 
Falguiere, J. A. J. 
Fantin-Latour, I. H. T. 
Farinato, Paolo 
Feltre, Morto da 
Fernow, K. L. 
Ferrari, Gaudenzio 
Ferri, Ciro 
Feuerbach, Anselm 
Fielding, A. V. Copley 
Fildes, Sir Luke 
Finden, William 
Fiorenzo di Lorenzo 
Fiorillo, J. D. 
Fisher, A Ivan 
Flandrin, J. Hippolyte 
Flaxman, John . 
Flinck, Go vert 
Floris, Frans 
Fon tana, Lavinia 
Fontana, Prospero 
Fogelberg, B. E. 
Foley, J. H. 
Foppa, Vincenzo 
Forain, J. L. 
Ford, E. Onslow 
Forster, Francois 
Fortuny, M. J. M. B. 
Foster/ M. Birket 
Foucquet, Jean 
Fragonard, J. II. 
Fran^ais, F. L. 
FrancescM, Piero d •■* 
Franceschini, Baldas- 
sare 

Francia 

Franciabigio 

Franck 

Francken (family) 

Fremiet, Emmanuel 

French, Daniel C. 

Frere, P. E. 

Fresco 

Fresnov, C. A. du 

Frith, W. P. 

Fromentin, Eugene 

Frost, W. E. 

Fruytiers, Philip 

Fiihrich, Joseph von 

Fuller, George 

Furniss, Harry 

Furse, C. W. 

Fuseli, Henry 

Fyt, Johannes 

Gaddi (family) 

Gainsborough, Thomas 

Gallait, Louis 

Gauermann, Friedrich 

Gaul, G. W. 

Gavarni 

Gay, Walter 

Geddes, Andrew 

Geikie, Walter 

Genelli, G. B. 

Genea, Girolamo 

Gentile da Fabriano 



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Gentileschi, Artemisia 

and Orazio de' 
Gerard, Baron F. 
Gerard, J. I. I. 
Gericault, J. L. A. T. 
Gerdme, Jean Leon 
Gervex, Henri 
Ghiberti, Lorenzo 
Cliirlandajo, Domenico 
Ghirlandajo, Ridolfo 
Gibson, C. Dana 
Gibson, John 
Gibson, W. H. 
Gifford, R. S. 
Gifford, S. R. 
Gilbert, Alfred 
Gilbert, Sir John 
Gillot, Claude 
Gillray, James 
Giordano, Luca 
Giorgione 
Giottino 
Giotto 

Girardon, Francois 
Girodet de R o u s s y , 

A. L. 
Girtin, Thomas 
Giulio Romano 
Giunta Pisano 
Giusto da Guanto 
Gleyre, M. C. G. 
Goes, Hugo van der 
Goldschmidt, Hermann 
Goltzius, Hendrik 
Gordon, Sir J. W. 
Gouache 
Goujon, Jean 
Gould, Sir F. C. 
Goya y Lucientes, F. 
Goyen, J. J. Van 
Gozzoli, Benozzo 
Grafly, Charles 
Granet, F. M. 
Grant, Sir Francis 
Gray, Henry Peters 
Greco, El 
Green, Valentine 
Greenaway, Kate 
Greenough, Horatio 
Gregory, Edward John 
Greuze, J. B. 
Grimaldi, G. F. 
Grisaille 

Gros, Antoine Jean 
Griin, Hans Baldung 
GrUnewald, Mathias 
Guardi, Francesco 
Guariento (Guerriero) 
Guli-in, J. B. P. 
Guerin, P. N. 
Guido of Siena 
Guido Reni 

Guillaume, J. B. C. E. 
Guthrie, Sir James 
Haag, Carl 

Haden, Sir F. Seymour 
Hals, Frans 
Hamerton, P. G. 



Hamon, Jean Louis 
Harding, Chester 
Harding, J. D. 
Harpignies, Henri 
Harrison, T. A. 
Hart, William 
Hartley, Jonathan S. 
Harvey, Sir George 
Hassam, Childe 
Haydon, B. R. 
Hayter, Sir George 
Head, Sir E. W. 
Healy, G. P. A. 
Heda, Willem Claasz 
Heem, Jan Davidsz van 
Heemskerk, M. J. 
Heim, F. J. 
Heist, B. van der 
Hemy, C. Napier 
Hennequin, P. A. 
Henner, J. J. 
Henry, E. L. 
Herkomer, Sir H. von 
Herlen, Fritz 
Herrera, Francisco 
Hersent, Louis 
Hess (family) 
Heusch, Willem 
Heyden, Jan van der 
Hildebrandt, Eduard 
Hildebrandt, Theodor 
Hilliard, Lawrence 
Hilliard, Nicholas 
Hilton, William 
Hiroshige 
Hitchcock, George 
Hobbema, Meyndert 
Hoefnagel, JoVis 
Hogarth, William 
Hokusai 

Holbein, Hans (elder) 
Holbein, Hans (young- 

er) 
Holl, Frank 
Hollar, Wenzel 
Holroyd, Sir Charles 
Homer, Winslow 
Hondecoeter, M. d* 
Hone, Nathaniel 
Honthorst, Gerard van 
Hooch, Pieter de 
Hoogstraten, S. D. van 
Hook, James Clarke 
Hoppner, John 
Horsley. J. C. 
Hoskins, John 
Hosmer. Harriet G. 
Hotho, Heinrich G. 
Houbraken, Jacobus 
Houdon, J. A. 
Hovenden, Thomas 
Huchtenburg (family) 
Humphry, Ozias 
Hunt, Alfred William 
Hunt, William Henry 
Hunt, William Holman 
Hunt, William Morris 
Huntington, Daniel 



Hurlstone, F. Y. 

Huysmans (family) 

Huysum, Jan van 

Illuminated MSS. 

Illustration 

Impressionism 

Ingham, C. C. 

Ingres, J. A. D. 

Inman, Henry 

Inness, George 

Isabey, Jean Baptiste 

Israels, Josef 

Ivory 

Jackson, Mason 

Jameson, George 

Janssen, Cornelius 

Janssens, V. H. 

Janssens van Nuyssen, 
Abraham 

Jarvis, J. W. 

Joanes, Vicente 

Johnson, Eastman 

Jordaens, Jacob 

Jouvenet, Jean 

Kalckreuth, Leopold 
von 

Kauffmann, Angelica 

Kaulbach, Wilhelm von 

Kay, John 

Keene, C. S. 

Keller, Albert 

Kensett, J. F. 

Khnopff, F. E. J. M. 

Klinger, Max 

Kneller, Sir Godfrey 

Knight, D. R. 

Knight, John Buxton 

Koninck, Philip de 

Korin, Ogata 

Krafft, Adam 

Kyosai, Sho-fu 

Laer, Pieter van 

La Farge, John 

Lafosse, Charles de 

Lagrene>, L. J. F. 

Lahire, Laurent de 

Lambeaux, Jet 

Lancret, Nicolas 

Landon, C. P. 

Landseer, Sir E. H. 

Lantara, S. M. 

Lanzi, Luigi 

Largilliere, Nicolas 

Lathrop, Francis 

La Tour, Ouentin de 

Lavery, John 

Lawrence, Sir Thomas 

Lawson, Cecil Gordon 

Leader, B. W. 

I^andre, C. L. 

I,ear, Edward 

LeBrun, Charles 

Leech, John 

Learns, Alphonse 

Leighton, Baron Fred- 
erick 

I^ejeune, Baron L. F. 

Lely, Sir Peter 



Lemoyne, J. B. 
LeNain 

Lenbach, Franz von 
Leochares 
Leonardo da Vinci 
Leopardo, Alessandro 
Leslie, C. R. 
Le Sueur, Eustache 
Leutze, Emanuel 
I^ewis, J. F. 
I^eys, Hendrik 
Liebermann, Max 
Limousin, Leonard 
Line Engraving 
Linnell, John 
Linton, W. J. 
Liotard, J. E. 
Lippi 

I^ockwood, Wilton 
Lombardo (family) 
Longhi, Pietro 
I^otto, Lorenzo 
Low, Will Hicok 
Lucas, J. Seymour 
Leyden, Lucas van 
Luini, Bernardino 
Lysippus 
Lysistratus 
Mabuse, Jan 
MacCulloch, Horatio 
Macdonald, Lawrence 
McEntee, Jervis 
Maclise, Daniel 
MacMonnies, F. W. 
Macnee, Sir Daniel 
MacNeil, Hermon A. 
Madou, J. B. 
Madrazo y Kunt, Don 

F. de 
Maes, Nicolas 
Makart, Hans 
Mander, Carel van 
Manet, Edouard 
Manson, George 
Mantegna, Andrea 
Marcantonio 
Maris, Jacob 
Marochetti, Baron 

Carlo 
Marr, Carl 

Martin, Homer Dodge 
Martin, John 
Martini, Simone 
Masaccio 

Masoliono da Panicale 
Mason, G. H. 
Matsys, Quintin 
Mauve, Anton 
May, Phil 
Mead, Larkin G. 
Meer, Jan van der 
Meissonier, J. L. E. 
Melanthius 
Melchers, Gari 
Melozzo da Forli 
Melville, Arthur 
Memlinc, Hans 
Mena, Pedro de 



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Mengs, Anthony 

Raphael 
Menzel, A. F. E. von 
Mercie, M. J. A. 
Merian, Matthew 
Meryon, Charles 
Metcalf, W. L. 
Metsu, Gabriel 
Meulen, A. F. van der 
Meunier, Constantin 
Mezzotint 
Michel, Claude 
Michelangelo 
Michelozzo di B a r - 

tolommeo 
Micon 

Mierevelt, M. J. van 
Mieris (family) 
Mignard, Pierre 
Mignon, Abraham 
Milanesi, Gaetano 
Millais, Sir J. E. 
Miller, William 
Millet, Francis Davis 
Millet (Mil£), Jean 

Frangois 
Millet, Jean Francois 
Miniature 
Mino di Giovanni (da 

Fiesole) 
Minor, Robert C. 
Models, Artists' 
Monet, Claude 
Montafies, J. M. 
Moore, Albert J. 
Moore, Henry 
Mora, Jos6 
Moran, Edward 
Moran, Thomas 
Moreau, Gustave 
Morelli, Giovanni 
Moretto, II 
Morghen, R. S. 
Morland, George 
Moro, Antonio 
Moroni, Giambattista 
Mosler, Henry 
Mount, W. S. 
Mowbray, H. S. 
MUller, W. J. 
Mulready, William 
Munkacsy, Michael von 
Mnrillo, B. E. 
Murphy, John Francis 
Murray, David 
Muziano, Girolamo 
Muzzioli, Giovanni 
Myron 

Nanteuil, Robert 
Nasrnyth, Alexander 
Nast, Thomas 
Nattier, J. M. 
Navarrete, J. F. 
Neal, D. D. 
Neer, van der 
Netscher, Gaspar 
Neuville, Alphonse M. 

de 



Newlyn 

Niehaus, C. H. 

Nicholson, William 

Nicias 

Nicomachus 

Nollekens, Joseph 

Northcote, James 

Oberlandcr, A. A. 

Ochtman, Leonard 

O'Donovan, W. R. 

Oliver, Isaac 

Oliver, Peter 

Onatas 

Opie, John 

Orcagna 

Orchardson, Sir W. Q. 

Orley, Bernard von 

Ostade 

Oudine\ E. A. 

Overbeck, J. F. 

Pacchia, Girolamo del, 

and Pacchiarotto, 

Jacopo 
Pacheco, Francisco 
Paeonius 
Page, William 
Painting 
Paiou, August in 
Palette 

Palma, Jacopo 
Palmer, E. D. 
Palmer, Samuel 
Palomino, de Castro y 

Velasco 
Pamphilus 
Panaenus 
Panorama 
Pareja, Juan de 
Parmigiano 
Parrhasius 

Partridge, J. Bernard 
Partridge, W. O. 
Pasi teles 
Pastel 

Paton, Sir J. Noel 
Paul Veronese 
Pausias 
Peale, C. W. 
Peale, Rembrandt 
Pearce, C. S. 
Pennell, Joseph 
Penni, Gianfrancesco 
Perino del Vaga 
Perkins, C. C. 
Perugino, Pietro 
Peruzzi, Baldassare 
Petitot, Jean 
Petitot, Jean Ixuiis 
Pettenkofen, A. von 
Pettie, John 
Phcidias 
Phillip, John 
Phillips, Thomas 
Picknell, W. L. 
Piero di Cosimo 
Pigalle, J. B. 
Piloty, Karl von 
Pinturicchio 



Pinwell, G. J. 
Piranesi, G. B. 
Pisano, Andrea 
Pisano, Giovanni 
Pisano, Niccola 
Pisano, Vittore 
Pissarro, Camille 
Plimer, Andrew 
Plimer, Nathaniel 
Plumbago Drawings 
Pollaiuolo (family) 
Polyclitus 
Polygnotus 

Pontormo, Jacopo da 
Poole, Paul Falconer 
Pordenone, II 
Portaels, J. F. 
Porter, B. C. 
Portraiture 
Poster 
Potter, Paul 
Poussin, Nicolas 
Powers, Hiram 
Poynter, Sir E. J. 
Pradier, James 
Pradilla, Francisco 
Praxias and Andros- 

thenes 
Praxiteles 
Predella 

Preller, Friedrich 
Prieur, Pierre 
Prinsep, V. C. 
Proctor, A. P. 
Protogenes 
Prout, Samuel 
Prud'hon, Pierre 
Puget, Pierre 
Puvis de Chavannes 
Pythagoras 
Pyle, Howard 
Raeburn, Sir Henry 
Haffaellino del Garbo 
Raffet, D. A. M. 
Raimbach, Abraham 
Ramsay, Allan 
Ranger, H. W. 
Raoux, Jean 
Raphael Sanzio 
Raven-Hill, Leonard 
Rauch, C. D. 
Redgrave, Richard 
Regnault, Henri 
Regnault, J. B. 
Reid, Sir George 
Reid, Robert 
Reinhart, C. S. 
Reinhart, J. C. 
Relief 
Rembrandt 
Remington, Frederick 
Renoir, F. A. 
Repin, I. J. 
Res tout, Jean 
Rethel Alfred 
Reynolds, Sir Joshua 
Rhoecus 
Ribera, Giuseppe 



Ribot, Theodule 
Ricard, L. G. 
RicciareUi, Daniele 
Richards, W. T. 
Richmond, Sir W. B. 
Richter, A. L. 
Rietschel, E. F. A. 
Rigaud, Hyacinthe 
Rimmer, William 
Riviere, Briton 
Robert, Hubert 
Robert, L. L. 
Robert-Fleury, J. N. 
Roberts, David 
Robinson, Theodore 
Rodin, Auguste 
Rogers, John 
Roll, A. P. 
Romney, George 
Rops, F61icien 
Rosa, Salvator 
Rosenthal, T. E. 
Rosselli, Cosimo 
Rossellino, Antonio 
Rossetti, D. G. 
Roubiliac, L. F. 
Rousseau, Jacques 
Rousseau, P. E. T. 
Rowlandson, Thomas 
Rubens, Peter Paul 
Rude, Frangois 
Runciman, Alexander 
Russell, John 
Ruvsdael, Jacob van 
Rvder, A. P. 
Ryland, W. W. 
Sacchi, Andrea 
Saint-Gaudens, A u - 

gustus 
Sambourne, E. Lin ley 
Sandby, Paul 
Sand r art, Joachim von 
Sandys, Frederick 
Sansovino, Andrea C. 

del Monte 
Sansovino, Jacopo 
Santerre, J. B. 
Sargent, J. S. 
Sarrazin, Jacques 
Sartain, John 
Satterlee, Walter 
Sayer, James 
Schadow 

Schadow, J. G. and R. 
Schalcken, God fried 
Scharf, Sir George 
Scheemakers, Peter 
Scheffer, Ary 
Schetky, J. C. 
Schiavonetti, Luigi 
Schirmer, Friedrich W. 
Schirmer, Johann W. 
Schlliter, Andreas 
Schnorr von KarolsMd 
Schongauer, Martin 
Schreyer, Adolf 
Schwanthaler, L. M. 
Schwartze, Teresa 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



Schwind, Moritz von 
Scopas 
Scott, David 
Scott, William Bell 
Sculpture 

Sebastiano del Piombo 
Seddon, Thomas 
Segantini, Giovanni 
Sequeira, D. A. de 
Sergei, Johan Tobias 
Severn, Joseph 
Shannon, C. H. 
Shannon, J. J. 
Sharp, William 
Shee, Sir M. A. 
Sherwin, J. K. 
Short, F. J. 
Sigalon, Xavier 
Signorelli, Luca 
Silanion 

Simon, Abraham 
Simon, Thomas 
Simmons, E. E. 
Simson, William 
Sisley, Alfred 
Slodtz, Rene Michel 
Smart, John 
Smedley, W. T. 
Smillie, J. D. 
Smirke, Robert 
Smith, Colvin 
Smith, John Raphael 
Smybert, John 
Snyders, Franz 
Sodom a, II 
Solario, Antonio 
Sorolla y Bastida, J. 
Spagna, Lo 
Spinello, Aretino 
Stanfield, W. C. 
Stannard, Joseph 
Stark, James 
Steen, Jan Havicksz 
Steer, P. Wilson 
Stevens, Alfred 
Stevens, Alfred 
Stewart, Julius L. 
Stillman, W. J. 



Stone, Frank 
Stone, Marcus 
Stone, Nicholas 
Stoss, Veit 
Stothard, C. A. 
Stothard, Thomas 
Strang, William 
Strange, Sir Robert 
Strongylion 
Stuart, Gilbert 
Stuck, Franz 
Subleyras, Pierre 
Sully, Thomas 
Swan, J. M. 
Taft, Lorado 
Tait, A. F. 
Tanner, H. O. 
Tarbell, Edmund C. 
Tempera 
Teniers (family) 
Tenniel, Sir John 
Ter Borch, Gerard 
Terra Cotta 
Thayer, Abbott H. 
Theon of Samos 
Thoma, Hans 
Thompson, Launt 
Thomson, John 
Thornhill, Sir James 
Thornycroft, W. Hnmo 
Thorwaldsen, Bertel 
Thrasymedes 
Tiepolo, G. B. 
Tiffany, I.. C. 
Timanthes 
Timomachus 
Timotheus 
Tintoretto 
Tisio, Benvenuto 
Tissot, J. J. J. 
Titian 

Torrigiano, Pietre 
Triptych 
Troy, J. F. de 
Troyon, Constant 
Trumbull, John 
Tryon, D. W. 
Turner, Charles 



Turner, J. M. W. 

Uhde, F. K. H. Von 

Utamaro 

Vanderlyn, John 

Van der Stappen, C. 

Van der Weyden, R. 

Vandevelde, Adrian 

Vandevelde, William 

Van Dyck, Sir An- 
thony 

Vanloo, C. A. 

Vanloo, J. B. 

Varley, Cornelius 

Varley, John 

Vasari, Giorgio 

Vedder, Elihu 

Veit, Philipp 

Velazquez, D. R. de 
Silva y 

Verboeckhoven, E. J. 

Vereshchagin, V. V. 

Verlat, M. M. C. 

Vcrnct (family) 

Verrocchio, Andrea del 

Vertue, George 

Vien, J. M. 

Vierge, Daniel 

Vigee-I^brun, M. A. E. 

Vigne, Paul de 

Vincent, George 

Vinton, F. P. 

Vischer (family) 

Vischer, F. T. 

Vivarini (family) 

Volk, L. W. 

Vonnoh, R. W. 

Vouet, Simon 

Vrancx, Sebastian 

Vriendt, J. J. de and 
A. F. L. de 

Waagen, G. F. 

Waldo, S. L. 

Walker, Frederick 

Walker, H. O. 

Walker, Horatio 

Walker, Robert 

Wappers, E. C. G. 

Ward, James 



Ward, E. M. 
Ward, J. Q. A. 
Ward, William 
Warner, Olin Levi 
Waterhouse, J. W. 
W T aterlow, Sir E. A. 
Watteau, Antoine 
Watts, G. F. 
Wauters, Emile 
Wax Figures 
Webster, Thomas 
Weeks, E. L. 
Weenix, J. B. 
Weir, R. W. 
Werner, A. A. von 
West, Benjamin 
Westall, Richard 
Westmaeott, Sir R. 
Wheatlev, Francis 
Whistler, J. A. McN. 
White, Robert 
W r iles, I. R. 
Wilkie, Sir David 
Willems, F. J. M. 
Willette, I.. A. 
Willmore, J. T. 
Wilson, Richard 
Wohlgemuth, Michael 
Wolf, Joseph 
W r oodbury, C. H. 
Wood Carving 
Wood Engraving 
W r oollett, William 
Woolner, Thomas 
Wouwerman, Philip 
Wright, Joseph 
Wyant, A. H. 
Wylie, Robert 
Yosai 

Zarcillo y Alcaraz, F. 
Zeuxis 

Ziem, F. F. G. P. 
Zoffany, Johann 
Zuccarelli, Francesco 
Zuccaro, Taddeo 
Zuccaro, Federigo 
Zuloaga, Ignacio 
Zurbaran, Francisco 



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LANGUAGE AND WRITING 



ONE of the most interesting sub- 
jects of scientific study developed 
during the last century is that of 
primitive culture and the gradual ad- 
vancement of primitive man from a 
state of savagery to comparative civiliza- 
tion. For this study there are no histor- 
ical documents in the ordinary use of the 
words "historical" and "document." The 
story must be arrived at by analysis, de- 
duction, even by guess-work, supple- 
menting the studies of travelers among 
tribes which now are in the lowest stages 
of development and farthest from civi- 
lization, and therefore most resemble our 
remotest human ancestors. Almost the 
very earliest of writers on 
Evolution evolution, the Roman poet 
Lucretius (Vol. 17, p. 107), 
who died in 55 B.C., sketched general out- 
lines of the development of this primi- 
tive civilization in much the same way as 
do modern ethnologists. But his de- 
scription was imaginary and was fash- 
ioned to fit his and Epicurus's evolution- 
ary theories. 

The article Civilization (Vol. 6, p. 
403) in the Britannica makes the develop- 
ment of speech the mark of the first 
period when mankind was in the lower 
stages of savagery. "Our ancestors of 
this epoch inhabited a necessarily re- 
stricted tropical territory and subsisted 
upon raw nuts and fruit." The next 
higher period in the progress of civiliza- 
tion began with the knowledge of the use 
of fire (p. 404). 

This wonderful discovery enabled the de- 
veloping race to extend its habitat almost 



indefinitely, and to include flesh, and in 
particular fish, in its regular dietary. Man 
could now leave the forests and wander 
along the shores and rivers, migrating to 
climates less enervating than those to which 
he had previously been confined. Doubtless 
he became an expert fisher, but he was as 
yet poorly equipped for hunting. . . . 
Primitive races of Australia and Polynesia 
had not advanced beyond this middle status 
of savagery when they were discovered a 
few generations ago. 

The next great ethnical discovery was 
that of the bow and arrow, a truly won- 
derful instrument. 

The possessor of this device could bring 
down the fleetest animal and could defend 
himself against the most predatory. He 
could provide himself not only with food, 
but with materials for clothing and for 
tent-making, and thus could migrate at will 
back from the seas and large rivers. . . 
The meat diet, now for the first time freely 
available, probably contributed, along with 
the stimulating climate, to increase the 
physical vigour and courage of this highest 
savage, thus urging him along the paths of 
progress. Nevertheless, many tribes came 
thus far, and no further, as witness the 
Athapascans of the Hudson's Bay Terri- 
tory and the Indians of the valley of the 
Columbia. 

After the use of fire and the discovery of 
the bow and arrow came the invention 
of pottery, the domestication of animals, 
and the smelting of iron, all successive 
stages in man's history which "in their 
relation to the sum of human progress, 
transcend in relative importance all his 
subsequent works," — and this is even 
truer if there is included in this period the 
development of a system of writing, 
which may be reckoned either the end of 
the primitive period or the beginning of 
the period of civilization proper. These 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



two great steps in the story of civiliza- 
tion, language and writing, are closely 
connected in our minds, though so far 
separated in time of origin; and their 
story as told in the Britannica by the 
world's greatest authorities, English, 
American, German, French, Italian, Dan- 
ish, etc., is an interesting one for the gen- 
eral reader, while the articles are in- 
valuable to the specialist in linguistic 
study. 

The starting point for a course of read- 
ing is the article Philology (Vol. 21, p. 
414; equivalent to 80 pages in this Guide), 
of which the first 
Philology part, a general treat-, 

ment, is by the 
greatest of American philologists, William 
Dwight Whitney, editor-in-chief of The 
Century Dictionary, and author of Life 
and Growth of Language, one of the 
most important scientific contributions to 
the subject. The second part, on the 
comparative philology of the Indo-Euro- 
pean languages, is by Prof. Eduard 
Sievers of Leipzig and Prof. Peter Giles 
of Cambridge. Both these names are 
well known to students of the subject, 
the former as that of the author of nu- 
merous valuable works on Germanic pho- 
netics and metric, and the latter as a 
writer on Greek language and as the 
author of A Short Manual of Compara- 
tive Philology. 

The article begins with a definition of 
"philology," the science of language, and 
of "comparative philology," the com- 
parison of one language with another, in 
order to bring out their relationships, 
their structures, and their histories. 
Prof. Whitney shows how much the re- 
cent development of linguistic science 
owes to the general scientific movement 
of the age. "No one," he says, "however 
ingenious and entertaining his specula- 
tions, will cast any real light on the 
earliest history of speech." But he notes 
the obvious analogy between speech and 
writing, and he puts stress on the "social- 
ity" of man as the prime factor in his 



development of speech. Other topics in 
this part of the article are: 

Instrumentalities of expression — 
gesture, grimace, and voice; "lan- 
guage " means " tonguiness " — a mute 
would call it " handiness "; advantages 
of voice over gesture. 

Imitation as a factor in development 
of language and of writing; onomato- 
poetic origin of words. 

Development of sign-making: 
" Among the animals of highest intelli- 
gence that associate with man and learn 
something of his ways, a certain amount 
of sign-making expressly for communi- 
cation is not to be denied; the dog that 
barks at a door because he knows that 
somebody will come and let him in is an 
instance of it; perhaps, in wild life, the 
throwing out of sentinel birds from a 
flock, whose warning cry shall adver- 
tise their fellows of the threat of dan- 
ger, is as near an approach to it as is 
anywhere made." 

Brute speech and human speech: 
" Those who put forward language as 
the distinction between man and the 
lower animals, and those who look 
upon our language as the same in kind 
with the means of communication of 
the lower animals, only much more 
complete and perfect, fail alike to com- 
prehend the true nature of language, 
and are alike wrong in their arguments 
and conclusions. No addition to or 
multiplication of brute speech would 
make anything like human speech; the 
two are separated by a step which no 
animal below man has ever taken; and, 
on the other hand, language is only the 
most conspicuous among those institu- 
tions the development of which has 
constituted human progress." 

Language and culture : " Differ- 
ences of language, down to the posses- 
sion of language at all, are differences 
only in respect to education and cul- 
ture." 

Development of language signs: the 
beginning slow, acceleration cumula- 
tive. 

The root-stage: first signs must have 
been " integral, significant in their en- 
tirety, not divisible into parts." 



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LANGUAGE AND WRITING 



209 



Earliest phonetic forms: the sim- 
plest syllabic combination a single con- 
sonant with a following vowel. See 
the article Hawaii (Vol. 18, p. 88) for 
a similar langnage even now in exist- 
ence: "Every syllable is open, ending 
in a vowel sound, and short sentences 
may be constructed wholly of vocalic 
sounds." 

Character of early speech : " first 
language-signs must have denoted 
those physical acts and qualities which 
are directly apprehensible by the senses. 
. . . We are still all the time draw- 
ing figurative comparisons between ma- 
terial and moral things and processes, 
and calling the latter by the names of 
the former." 

Development of language as illus- 
trated in Indo-European speech. 

Laws of growth and change: inter- 
nal growth by multiplication of mean- 
ings; phonetic change — the principle 
of economy (euphony) ; borrowing and 
mixing of vocabularies. 

Classification of languages by struc- 
tural types : isolating (Chinese) ; ag- 
glutinative (Turkish, etc.); inflective 
(Indo-European); or — a more elabo- 
rate classification: 

Indo-European: on which see part II 
of the article Philology and the article 
Indo-Eubopean Languages (Vol. 14, p. 

495; equivalent to 
Indo-European 20 pages of this 
Languages Guide), by Prof. 

Peter Giles, — espe- 
cially interesting for the attempt on a lin- 
guistic basis to reconstruct the original 
civilization and to discover the home of 
the ancestors of this language-stock 
which now occupies nearly all of Europe 
and is so intimately connected with the 
civilization of the last 2500 years. See: 
Greek Language (Vol. 12, p. 496), by 
Professor Giles, and articles Homer 
(Vol. 13, p. 626); Dorians (Vol. 8, p. 
423), etc.; but the main treatment of 
different Greek dialects is in the article 
Greek Language (Vol. 12, p. 496), to 
which the student should refer for Ar- 



cadian and Cyprian, Aeolic, Ionic-Attic, 
and Doric dialects. 

Latin Language (Vol. 16, p. 244), by 
Dr. A. S. Wilkins, late professor of Latin, 
Owens College, Manchester, and Dr. 
Robert S. Conway, professor of Latin, 
University of Manchester, with a pe- 
culiarly valuable summary of The Lan- 
guage as Recorded, which is a linguistic 
critique of the style and vocabulary of the 
great Roman authors and a comparison 
(p. 253) of Latin and Greek prose. And 
see the articles on the dialects of ancient 
Italy: Italy, Ancient Languages and 
People; Etruria, Language; Liguria, 
Philology; Siculi; Pompeii, Oscan In- 
scriptions; Sabini; Falibci; Volsci; Osca 
Lingua; Iguvium; Brutii; Umbria; Pi- 
cenum; Samnites, etc., by Prof. Conway, 
which will serve the student as a founda- 
tion for this subject, with more recent 
revision of all that is known than there 
is in Prof. Conway's books, in the works 
of C. D. Buck, or in other authorities. 

For the descendants of Latin, the ar- , 
tide Romance Languages (Vol. 23, p. 
504), by Dr. Wilhelm Meyer-Liibke, Pro- 
fessor of romance 
Romance philology in the Uni- 

Languages versity of Vienna; 

and the following 
separate articles: 

Italian Language (Vol. 14, p. 888), 
by Graziadio I. Ascoli, professor of com- 
parative grammar at the University of 
Milan, and Carlo Salvioni, professor of 
Romance languages in the same univer- 
sity, with a valuable summary of the 
dialects of modern Italy. 

French Language (Vol. 11, p. 103), 
by Henry Nicol and Paul Meyer, pro- 
fessor at the College de France; particu- 
larly interesting because treated com- 
paratively with constant reference to 
English and French influence on English. 

Proven§al Languages (Vol. 22, p. 
491), by Prof. Paul Meyer. 

Spain: Language (Vol. 25, p. 573), by 
Alfred Morel-Fatio, professor of Romance 
languages at the College de France, and 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



James Fitzmaurice-Kelly, professor of 
Spanish, Liverpool University; describ- 
ing the Catalan as well as the Castilian 
and the Portuguese. 

Rumania: Language (Vol. 23, p. 843). 

The general articles Scandinavian 
Languages (Vol. 24, p. 291), by Dr. 
Adolf Noreen, professor in the Univer- 
sity of Upsala, with 
Teutonic sections on Iceland- 

Languages ic, Norwegian or 

Norse, Swedish, and 
Danish, and the Scandinavian dialects; 
and Teutonic Languages (Vol. 26, p. 
673), by Hector Munro Chadwick, Li- 
brarian of Clare College, Cambridge. 

More in detail on the Teutonic lan- 
guages are the articles: 

English Language (Vol. 9, pp. 587- 
600; equivalent to 45 pages of this Guide), 
by Sir James A. H. Murray, editor-in- 
chief of the (Oxford) New English Dic- 
tionary, and Miss Hilda Mary R. Murray, 
lecturer on English at the Royal Hollo- 
.way College. 

Dutch Language (Vol. 8, p. 717), by 
Prof. Johann Hendrik Gall6e of the Uni- 
versity of Utrecht. 

German Language (Vol. 11, p. 777), 
Dr. Robert Priebsch, professor of German 
philology, University of London, which 
deals with modern and ancient, new, mid- 
dle, and old, high and low German. 

For Indo-Iranian languages, see: 

Persia: Language and Literature (Vol. 
21, p. 246), by Dr. Hermann Ethe\ pro- 
fessor of Oriental languages, University 
College, Wales, deal- 
Persia and ing with Zend, and 
India Old, Middle and 
New Persian and 
modern dialects of Persian. 

Indo* Aryan Languages (Vol. 14, p. 
487), by George Abraham Grierson, for- 
merly in charge of the Linguistic survey 
of India, who treats in this article the 
relations of Pisaca, Prakrit and Sanskrit, 
and contributes the separate articles 
Pisaca Languages, Prakrit, Bengali, 

BlHARI, GUJARATI AND RaJASTHANI, HlN- 



dostani, Kashmiri, and Marathi. More 
important than these minor dialects are 
Sanskrit Language (Vol. 24, p. 156), by 
Dr. Julius Eggeling, professor of Sanskrit, 
Edinburgh University, — an article equi- 
valent in length to 90 pages of this Guide; 
and Pali (Vol. 20, p. 630), by Prof. T. 
W. Rhys Davids of Manchester Univer- 
sity, president of the Pali Text Society. 

Armenian Language and Litera- 
ture (Vol. 2, p. 571), by Dr. F. C. Cony- 
beare, author of The Ancient Armenian 
Texts of Aristotle 9 etc. 

Lithuanians and Letts, Language 
and Literature (Vol. 16, p. 790); Slavs: 
Language (Vol. 25, p. 233), by Ellis 
Hovell Minns, Lecturer in palaeography, 
Cambridge, with a table of alphabets; 
and supplementary information in the 
articles Russia, Bulgaria, Servia, 
Poland, Bohemia, Croatia-Slavonia, 
Slovaks, Slovenes, Sorbs, Kashubes, 

POLABS. 

Albania, Language (Vol. 1, p. 485), 
by J. D. Bourchier, correspondent of 
The Times (London) in South-eastern 
Europe. 

The material on the Semitic group is 
principally in the article 
Semitic Semitic Languages (Vol. 
24, p. 617), by Theodor 
Noldeke, late professor of Oriental lan- 
guages at Strassburg. This article deals 
with: 

Assyrian — see also Cuneiform (Vol. 
7, p. 629); 

Hebrew — see also Hebrew Language 
(Vol. 13, p. 167), by Arthur Ernest 
Cowley, sub-librarian of the Bodleian, 
Oxford; 

Phoenician — see also Phoenicia (Vol. 
21, p. 449), by the Rev. Dr. George 
Albert Cook, author of Text Book of North- 
Semitic Inscriptions, etc.; 

Aramaic — and see the separate article 
Aramaic Languages (Vol. 2, p. 317); 

Arabic, Sabaean, Mahri and Socotri, 
Ethiopic, Tigre and Tigrina, Amharic, 
Harari and Gurague. 

And see the article Syriac Language 



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LANGUAGE AND WRITING 



211 



(Vol. 26, p. 309), by Norman McLean, 
lecturer in Aramaic, Cambridge. 

The article Hamitic Languages (Vol. 
12, p. 893) is by Dr. W. Max Muller, 
professor in the Reformed Episcopal 

Seminary, Philadelphia. See 
Hamitic also the article Egypt, 

Language and Writing (Vol. 
9, p. 57), by Dr. Francis Llewelyn 
Griffith, reader in Egyptology, Oxford; 
and the articles: Ethiopia (Vol. 9, 
p. 845), by Dr. D. S. Margoliouth, pro- 
fessor of Arabic, Oxford; Berber, Lan- 
guage (Vol. 3, p. 766) and Kabyles 
(Vol. 15, p. 625) for the Libyan group 
of the Hamitic languages. 

On the mono-syllabic languages see 
China, Language (Vol. 6, p. 216), 

by Dr. H. A. Giles, pro- 
Other fessor of Chinese, Cam- 
Tongues bridge, and Lionel Giles, 

assistant Oriental Depart- 
ment, British Museum; 

Japan, Language (Vol. 15, p. 167), 
by Captain Frank Brinkley, late editor 
of the Japan Mail; and 

TlBETO-BuRMAN LANGUAGES (Vol. 26, 

p. 928), by Dr. Sten Konow, professor 
in the University of Christiania. 

The article Ural-Altaic (Vol. 27, 
p. 784), by Dr. Augustus Henry Keane, 
late professor of Hindustani, University 
College, London, gives a general account 
of the relationship of Turkish, Finno- 
Ugrian, Mongol and Manchu; and is 
supplemented by the articles Turks, 
Language (Vol. 27, p. 472), by Sir Charles 
Eliot, vice-chancellor of Sheffield Uni- 
versity; Finno-Ugrian (Vol. 10, p. 388), 
on language of Finns, Lapps and Samoy- 
edes, Hungary Language (Vol. 13, p. 
924), on Magyar, both by Sir Charles 
Eliot; and Mongols, Language (Vol. 18, 
p. 719), by Dr. Bernhard Julg, late 
professor at Innsbruck. 

On the non-Aryan languages of South- 
ern Africa see the article Tamils (Vol. 
26, p. 388), by Dr. Reinhold Rost, late 
secretary of the Royal Asiatic Society. 

For languages of Malay-Polynesia and 



other Oceanic peoples see Malays, 
Language (Vol. 17, p. 477), by Sir Hugh 
Charles Clifford, colonial secretary of 
Ceylon, and joint-author of A Dictionary 
of the Malay Language; and the articles 
Polynesia, Samoa, Java, Hawaii, etc. 

On the Caucasian language see Geor- 
gia (Vol. 11, p. 758) and Caucasia 
(Vol. 5, p. 546). 

On other European languages see 
Basques (Vol. 3, p. 485), by the late 
Rev. Wentworth Webster, author of 
Basque Legends, and Julien Vinson, 
author of Le Basque et les langues Mexi- 
caines; and for the Etruscan language 
Etruria (Vol. 9, p. 854), by Professor 
R. S. Conway. 

On African languages see Bantu 
Languages (Vol. 3, p. 356), by Sir H. 
H. Johnston; Bushmen (Vol. 41, p. 871) 
and Hottentots (Vol. 13, p. 805); and, 
for the intermediate group, the article 
Hausa (Vol. 13, p. 69). 

On the languages of the North Ameri- 
can Indians see the article Indians, 
North American (especially p. 457 of 
Vol. 14), by Dr. A. F. Chamberlain, 
professor of anthropology, Clark Uni- 
versity, Worcester, Massachusetts. 

This list of articles will serve the stu- 
dent as a guide for the purely linguistic 
articles. Besides the general treatment 
in the article Philology from which 
we started, he should read articles on 
such general subjects as Phonetics (Vol. 
21, p. 458), by Dr. Henry Sweet, author 
of A Primer of Phonetics, A History of 
English Sound* since the Earliest Period, 
etc. . This leads to a study of the article 
Alphabet (Vol. 1, p. 723), equivalent 
to 80 pages of this Guide, 
Alphabet written by Professor Peter 
Giles of Cambridge and 
illustrated with a plate and various 
fac-similes of early alphabets. This arti- 
cle is supplemented by Professor Giles's 
articles on all the letters of the alphabet, 
which deal with the history and form of 
the symbol, the character of the sound 
it stands for and, particularly, the develop- 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



ment and change of the sound in English 
and its dialects. For instance the arti- 
cle on the letter N describes four different 
sounds, of which {here are two in Eng- 
lish — usually distinguished as n and ng; 
explains that in the early Indo-European 
language some n's and m's could some- 
times be pronounced as vowels; describes 
the opposite process, the nasalization of 
vowels, especially in French; and closes 
by saying: "It is possible to nasalize 
some consonants as well as vowels; 
nasalized spirants play an important 
part in the so-called Yankee pronuncia- 
tion of Americans." 

From alphabets the student may well 
turn to ideal languages in the article 
Universal Languages (Vol. 27, p. 746), 
by Professor Henry 
Artificial Sweet, which criti- 

Languages cizes VolapUk and 

Esperanto and the 
Idiom Neutral as being unscientific, not 
really international — even from a Euro- 
pean point of view, and still less when one 
considers the growing importance of 
Japan and China in world-trade and 
world-history. Their being based on 
national languages Dr. Sweet thinks is a 
disadvantage. But in their comparative 
success he sees proof that a universal 
language is possible. See also Prof. 
Sweet's separate articles VolapIjk (Vol. 
28, p. 178) and Esperanto (Vol. 9, p. 773). 
The article Writing (Vol. 28, p. 852) 
deals, chiefly from the anthropological 
standpoint, with primitive attempts to 

record ideas in an intelligi- 
Writing ble form, -for example with 

"knot-signs," "message- 
sticks," picture-writing and the like. 
The needs, which led to the invention 
of these primitive forms of writing, 
were: mnemonic, recalling that some- 
thing is to be done at a certain time — 
the primitive "tickler" was a knotted 
string or thong, like our knotted handker- 
chief as a reminder, and these knot- 
strings were finally used for elementary 
accountings, commercial or chronological, 



like the use of the abacus in little shops, 
or of the similar system in scoring games 
of pool; to communicate with some one 
at a distance, for which marked or 
notched sticks, engraved or coloured 
pebbles, wampum belts, etc., were used; 
and, third, to distinguish one's own 
property or handicraft whence cattle- 
brands, trade-marks, etc. In Assyria, 
Egypt and China picture-writing devel- 
oped into conventional signs: on these 
see Egypt (Vol. 9, p. 60), and China 
(Vol. 6, p. 218). All of these are of 
great interest to the general reader, but 
the article Cuneiform (Vol. 7, p. 629) 
by Dr. R. W. Rogers, professor of Hebrew 
and Old Testament exegesis, Drew Theo- 
logical Seminary, Madison, New Jersey, 
has the sort of entertainment in it that 
there is in a good detective story, since 
it tells how the meaning of the mysteri- 
ous wedge-shaped inscriptions on the 
rocks at Mount Rachmet in Persia was 
discovered. 

The subject of writing is treated, also, 
in the articles: 

Inscriptions (Vol. 14, p. 618); Sem- 
itic, aside from the Cuneiform, by Ar- 
thur Ernest Cowley, sub-librarian of the 
Bodleian, Oxford; Indian inscriptions, 
by John Faithfull Fleet, author of In- 
scriptions of the Early Gupta Kings, etc.; 
Greek, by Edward Lee Hicks, Bishop of 
Lincoln, author of Manual of Greek 
Historical Inscriptions, etc., and George 
Francis Hill, author of Sources for 
Greek History, etc.; and Latin, by Emil 
Hiibner, late professor of classical phil- 
ology at Berlin, author of Romische 
Epigraphik, etc., and Dr. W. M. Lindsay, 
of the University of St. Andrews, author 
of The Latin Language, etc. 

Palaeography (Vol. 20, p. 556), 
equivalent to 75 pages of this Guide, 
by Sir Edward Maunde Thompson, late 
librarian of the British Museum and 
author of Handbook of Greek and Latin 
Palaeography, etc. The article is illus- 
trated with 50 fac-similes of typical 
handwritings. 



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Manuscript (Vol. 17, p. 618), equiva- 
lent to 20 pages of this Guide, by the 
same author, with a description of the 
various forms of manuscripts, of the 
mechanical arrangement of writing in 
MSS., and of writing implements and 
inks. See, also, Illuminated Manu- 
scripts, Papyrus, Paper and other 
articles mentioned in the chapter in this 
Guide For Printers. 

The student of language and literature 
and of writing will also find much valu- 
able information in the article Textual 
Criticism (Vol. 26, p. 708), 
Text equivalent to 25 pages of 

Criticism this Guide, by Professor 
J. P. Post gate of the Uni- 
versity of Liverpool, well-known to 



Latinists as the brilliant editor of Ti- 
bullus and Propertius. The article gives 
examples of the classes of errors occur- 
ring in texts and the methods of restoring 
true readings — largely of course by con- 
jecture — and illustrates such errors and 
their correction by the very poorly 
printed first editions of the English 
poet Shelley. 

In the study of language and writing 
as in courses on other sciences and arts, 
the reader will find an additional interest 
in supplementing general and abstract 
articles by biographical sketches of the 
great men in the science. 

The following is a partial list of the 
articles in the Britannica on great 
philologists : 



Aasen, Ivar 
Adelung, J. C. 
Ahrens, F. H. L. 
Ascoli, G. I. 
Baehr, J. C. F. 
Baiter, J. G. 
Bake, Jan 
Barth, Kaspar von 
Benfey, Theodor 
Bennett, Charles E. 
Bentley, Richard 
Bernhardy, Gottfried 
Bhau Daji 
Blass, Friedrich 
Bleek, W. H. I. 
Bloomfleld, Maurice 
Bbhtlingk, Otto von 
Bopp, Franz 
Bosworth, Joseph 
Breal, M. J. A. 
Brown, Francis 
Bucheler, Franz 
Buck, C. D. 
Bugge, Sophus 
Burmann 
Burnell, A. C. 
Burnouf, Eugene 
Buttmann, P h i 1 i p p 

Karl 
Carey, William 
Casaubon 
Caspari, K. P. 
Castell, Edmund 
Castiglione, Count 
CastnSn, M. A. 
Childers, R. C. 
Cleynaerts, Nicolas 
Cobet, C. G. 
Conington, John 
Cook, A. S. 



Corssen, W. P. 
Cotgrave, Handle 
Creuzer, G. F. 
Csoma de K5ros, A. 
Darmesteter, J. 
Delius, N. 
Diez, F. C. 
Dobrowsky, J. 
Doderlein, J. C. W. L. 
Donaldson, J. W. 
Drisler, Henry 
Dunash 
Ebel, H. W. 
Egger, Emile 
Elias, Levita 
Ellis, A. J. 
Ellis, Robinson 
Erasmus 

Erpenius, Thomas 
EttmUller, E. M. I,. 
Facciolati, J. 
Fairuzabadi 

Fleckeisen, C. F. W. A. 
Fleischer, Heinrich L. 
Fliigel, G. L. 
Flugel, J. G. 
Forcellini, Egidio 
Freund, Wilhelm 
Freytag, G. W. F. 
Furnivall, F. J. 
Ftirst, Julius 
Gabelentz, H. C. von 

der 
Gaisford, Thomas 
Gayangos y Arce, P. de 
Gildersleeve, B. L. 
Goeje, M. J. de 
GoldstUcker, T. 
Goldziher, Ignaz 
Golius, Jacobus 



Goodwin, W. W. 
Greenough, J. B. 
Grimm, J. L. C. 
Grimm, W. C. 
Gudeman, Alfred 
Gutschmid, Baron von 
Hadley, James 
Hagen, F. H. von der 
Haldeman, S. S. 
Hale, W. G. 
Halhed, N. B. 
Hall, Fitzedward 
Hall, Isaac Hollister 
Hasden, B. P. 
Haug, Martin 
Haupt, Moritz 
Henry, Victor 
Herbelot de Molain- 

ville, B. d' 
Hervas y Panduro, I,. 
Hoffmann, J. J. 
Hopkins, E. W. 
Hottinger, J. H. 
Hiibner, Emil 
Humboldt, K. W. von 
Ingram, James 
Jauhari 
Jawaliqi 
Jirecek, Josef 
Jonah, Rabbi 
Jones, Sir William 
Karajich, V. S. 
Kern, J. H. 
Khalil ibn Amhad, 
Kimbi (familv) 
Klaproth, H. "j. 
Kuhn, F. F. A. 
Lachmann, Karl 
Lanman, C. R. 
Lassen, Christian 



Legge, James 
Leitner, G. W. 
Liddell, H. G. 
Littre, M. P. E. 
Ludolf, Hiob 
Madvig, J. N. 
Malan, S. C. 
March, F. A. 
Max Miiller, F. 
Mayor, J. E. B. 
Menant, Joachim 
Meyer, P. H. 
Mezzofanti, Giuseppe C. 
Miklosich, Franz von 
Mohl, Julius von 
Monier-Williams, Sir M. 
Morris, Richard 
Munro, D. B. 
Murray^ Sir James 
Nettleship, Henry 
Noldeke, Theodor 
Oppert, Julius 
Paley, F. A. 
Paris, B. P. G. 
Peerlkamp, P. H. 
Peile, John 
Petrarch 
Poggio 
PoBtian 

Porson, Richard 
Pott, A. F. 
Quatremere, E. M. 
Rask, R. C. 
Reiske, J. J. 
Reland, Adrian 
Remusat, J. P. A. 
Ribbeck, Otto 
Rieu, C. P. H. 
Ritsche, F. W. 
Rutherford, W. G. 



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BRITANNIGA READINGS AND STUDIES 



Sale, George 
Salesbuiy, William 
Sanders, Daniel 
Sayce, A. H. 
Schafarik, P. J. 
Scheler, J. A. W. 
Schiefner, F. A. 



Schleicher, August 
Schultens (family) 
Scott, Robert 
Sellar, W. Y. 
Skeat, W. W. 
Taylor, Isaac 



Ten Brink, B. E. K. 
Teuffel, W. S. 
Thorpe, Benjamin 
WaUly, N. P. de 
Walker, John 
Warren, Minton 



Webster, Noah 
Whitney, W. D. 
Wilkins, Sir Charles 
Wordsworth, Christo- 
pher 
Zarncke, P. K. T. 



CHAPTER XXXVI 



LITERATURE, INTRODUCTORY AND GENERAL 



THE student of literature, like the 
student of painting, finds it as 
necessary to examine the great 
examples of the art as to study the laws 
which guide the artist, for the history of 
their development, and he will find that 
the articles which discuss literature in 
the Britannica are themselves literature, 
models of the form of artistic expression 
which they describe. A list of these con- 
tributors who deal with literary topics 
might, indeed, easily be mistaken for a 
list of such articles on the great contem- 
porary writers as the student would most 
desire to read. Among these contribut- 
ors are, for example: Edmund Gosse, 
Theodore Watts- 
Contributore Dunton, Swinburne, 

A. C. Benson, John 
Morley, Austin Dobson, Arthur Symons, 
J. Addington Symonds, Frederic Harri- 
son, Walter Besant, William Sharp 
("Fiona Macleod")* Professor George 
Saintsbury, Sir Arthur T. Quiller-Couch 
("Q"), William Archer, Israel Gollancz, 
Robert Louis Stevenson, Andrew Lang, 
Sir Leslie Stephen, E. V. Lucas, Arthur 
Waugh, Mrs. Craigie ("John Oliver 
Hobbes"), Alice Meynell, Mrs. Hum- 
phry Ward, and — among American 
names, — George E. Woodberry, Henry 
Van Dyke, Edward Everett Hale, T. W. 
Higginson, Brander Matthews, W. P. 
Trent, Charles Eliot Norton, Charles 
William Eliot, George W. Cable, Lyman 



Abbott, Edmund Clarence Stedman, 
John Burroughs, Thomas Davidson, Hor- 
ace E. Scudder, and Charles F. Richard- 



son. 



Before discussing the articles in which 
these and many other distinguished con- 
tributors deal with various aspects of 
literature, attention may be directed to 
the treatment of religious literature in 
the Britannica. The Bible is the subject 
of a separate chapter in this Guide on 
Bible Study, to which the reader is also 
referred for the whole literature of Bib- 
lical criticism. Religious literature based 
upon the Bible is discussed in the articles 
Liturgy (Vol. 16, p. 795), by the Rev. 
F. E. Warren; Sermon (Vol. 24, p. 673), 
by Edmund Gosse, and Hymns (Vol. 14, 
p. 181), by Lord Selborne, equivalent to 
35 pages of this Guide. The medieval 
miracle plays and mysteries, presenting 
incidents from Scripture, are described 
in the section on the Medieval Drama 
(Vol, 8, p. 497) of the article Drama. On 
the literature of other religions, see the 
chapter For Ministers. 

The student of literature in general 
may begin his course of reading with the 
article Literature (Vol. 16, p. 783), a 
concise critical summary by 
General Dr. James Fitzmaurice-Kel- 
Articles ly, professor of Spanish 
language and literature, 
Liverpool University, best known as the 
editor of Cervantes. Read, after the ar- 



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LITERATURE, INTRODUCTORY AND GENERAL 



215 



tide Literature, the same contributor's 
article Translation (Vol. 27, p. 183). 
The student who does not wish to ap- 
proach literature from the philosophic 
side need not read the articles Aesthetics 
and Fine Arts; but even such a one 
should read the article Style (Vol. 25, 
p. 1055), by Edmund Gosse, essayist, 
poet, biographer and librarian of the 
House of Lords, and the article Prose 
(Vol. 22, p. 450), by the same contributor. 

There is a well-known and perfectly 
authentic anecdote of Edmund Gosse's 
predecessor as librarian of the House of 
Lords, who was once asked in the course 
of a newspaper symposium on education, 
"What were the principal factors in your 
education?" He replied by putting sec- 
ond only to his university training "the 
articles in the Encyclopaedia Britannica 
and in the Athenaeum by Theodore Watts- 
Dunton."" Certainly the student will be 
well repaid by repeated study and analy- 
sis of Watts-Dunton's article Poetry 
(Vol. 21, p. 877; equivalent to 45 pages of 
this Guide). The same author's articles 
Sonnet (Vol. 25, p. 414), Matthew Ar- 
nold (Vol. 2. p. 685), and Wycherley 
(Vol. 28, p. 863) should be studied with 
the article Poetry as supplementing his 
literary philosophy. 

The greatest of literary forms is apiply 
represented by the space and the author- 
ity given to it in the Britannica. The ar- 
ticle Drama (Vol. 8, p. 475; equivalent to 
225 pages of this Guide) is mainly the 
work of Prof. A. W. Ward, master of 
Peterhouse, Cambridge, editor of the 
Cambridge History of English Literature 
and of the Cambridge Modem History; 
but some parts of the article are by Wil- 
liam Archer, the dramatic critic, and by 
Auguste Filon ("Pierre Sandrte"). This 
elaborate article should be supplemented 
by the short article Comedy (Vol. 6, p. 
759) and by the biographical and critical 
sketches of the great dramatists. 

Among the many other articles in the 
Britannica on the forms of literature are: 
Satire (Vol. 24, p. 228), by Richard 



Garnett, late librarian British Museum, 
with which the student may well combine 
the articles Humour and Irony, the ar- 
ticles Ballade, Ballads (Lang), Bu- 
colics, Pastoral, Cento, Chant Royal 
(with Gosse's first English chant royal, 
"The Praise of Dionysus," transcribed in 
full), Descriptive Poetry, Elegy, Epic 
Poetry, Epithalamium, Heroic Verse, 
Idyl, Limerick, Lyrical Poetry, Mac- 
aronics, National Anthems, Ode, Ot- 
tava Rima, Pantun, Rime Royal, Rond- 
eau, Rondel, Sestett, Sestina, Song, 
Triolet, Vers De Soci^Tfi, Vilanelle, 
Virelay, and — a few of the prose forms, 
Biography, Conte, Criticism, Epistle, 
Essay, Euphuism, Novel, Pamphlet, 
Picaresque Novel, Romance, Tale, 
Tract, — nearly all these being by Ed- 
mund Gosse. Two articles of the utmost 
importance are Dictionary and Ency- 
clopaedia. Read the general article 
Rhetoric 

Periodical publications, especially those 
in the English and French languages, have 
contained a great part of the best literary 

criticism of miscel- 
Periodical laneous essays pub- 

Publications lished since the first 

French review ap- 
peared in 1665 and since the first English 
review, consisting wholly of original mat- 
ter, was established in London in 1710. 
The latter was indebted to France not 
only for its model, but for its editor, who 
was a French Protestant refugee. Ben- 
jamin Franklin founded the first Amer- 
ican monthly, the Philadelphian General 
Magazine in 1741. The article Period- 
icals (Vol. 81, p. 151), by H. R. Tedder, 
librarian of the Athenaeum Club, Lon- 
don, contains separate sections on the re- 
views and magazines of England, the 
United States, Canada, South Africa, West 
India and the British Crown Colonies, In- 
dia and Ceylon, France, Germany, Austria, 
Suritzerland, Italy, Belgium, Holland, Den- 
mark, Norway, Sweden, Spain, Portugal, 
Greece, Russia, Bohemia, Hungary and 
Japan. 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



Newspapers (Vol. 19, p. 544), equiva- 
lent to 140 pages of this Guide, is an ar- 
ticle in which the student will find a full 
account of the most fertile, if not the 
most studied, form of modern literature 
in all parts of the world. See also the 
chapter in this Guide For Journalists and 
Authors. 

The reader should note that of the 
many articles on literary forms and rhet- 
orical figures, only a few are given above, 
but they are listed more fully in the Index 
Volume, p. 929, where there are more 
than 350 such titles. He must remember 
also that there are more than 8,000 bio- 
graphical and critical articles on authors 
in different languages and different peri- 
ods. The following are "key" articles on 
national literatures: 

English Literature, by Henry Brad- 
ley, joint-editor of the New English Dic- 
tionary; Prof. J. M. Manly, University 
of Chicago; Prof. 
National Oliver Elton, Uni- 

Literatures versity of Liverpool; 

Thomas Seccombe, 
author of The Age of Johnson. 

American Literature, by G. E. 
Woodberry, formerly professor in Colum- 
bia University. 

German Literature, by Prof. J. G. 
Robertson, University of London, author 
of History of German Literature. 

Dutch Literature 
Flemish Literature 
Walloons, Literature by 
Belgium, Literature > Edmund 
Denmark, Literature Gosse. 
Sweden, Literature 
Norway, Literature 

Iceland, Literature, Classic, by Prof. 
Frederick York Powell of Oxford; Recent, 
by Sigfus Blondal, librarian of Copen- 
hagen University. 

French Literature, by George Saints- 
bury. 

Provencal Literature, by Paul 
Meyer, Director of the ficole des Chartes, 
Paris, and Prof. Hermann Oelsner, Ox- 



ford, author of a History of Provengal 
Literature. 

Anglo-Norman Literature, by Prof. 
Louis Brandin of the University of Lon- 
don. 

Spain, Literature, by Prof. J. Fitz- 
maurice-Kelly of the University of Liver- 
pool, and A. Morel-Fatio, author of 
L'Espagne au XV I e et au XV lie siecles. 

Portugal, Literature, by Edgar Pres- 
tage, editor of Letters of a Portuguese Nun, 
etc. 

Italian Literature, by Prof. Her- 
mann Oelsner, Oxford, and Prof. Adolf o 
Bartoli of the University of Florence, au- 
thor of Storia delta letteratura Italiana. 

Switzerland, Literature, by Prof. W. 
A. B. Coolidge. 

Hungary, Literature, by Emil Reich, 
author of Hungarian Literature, and E. 
Dundas Butler, author of Hungarian 
Poems and Fables for English Readers, etc. 

Poland, Literature, by W. R. Morfill, 
late professor of Slavonic Languages, Ox- 
ford, author of Slavonic Literature, etc. 

Russia, Literature, also by Prof. Mor- 
fill. 

Arabia, Literature, by the late Prof. M. 
J. de Goeje, University of Leiden, and the 
Rev. G. W. Thatcher, warden of Camden 
College, Sydney, N. S. W. 

Persia, Literature, by Prof. Karl Geld- 
ner, Marburg Univeraity, and Prof. Her- 
mann Eth6, University College, Wales. 

China, Literature, by H. A. Giles, pro- 
fessor of Chinese, Oxford. 

Japan, Literature, by Capt. Brinkley. 

Hebrew Literature, by Arthur Cow- 
ley, sub-librarian of the Bodleian, Oxford. 

Armenian Literature, by F. C. 
Conybeare, author of The Ancient Ar- 
menian Texts of Aristotle. 

Syriac Literature, by Norman 
McLean, lecturer in Aramaic, Cam- 
bridge. 

Hindostani Literature, by Sir 
Charles James Lyall. 

Sanskrit, Literature, by Prof. Julius 
Eggeling, Edinburgh. 

Classics, by Dr. J. E. Sandys, Cam- 



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LITERATURE, INTRODUCTORY AND GENERAL 



217 



bridge, author of History of Classical 
Scholarship. 

Greek Literature: Ancient, by Sir 
R. C. Jebb, author of Companion to Greek 
Studies; Byzantine, by Prof. Karl Krum- 
bacher, editor of Byzantinische Zeitschrift 
smdByzantinischesArchiv&nd Modern, by 
J. D. Bourchier, correspondent of The 
Times (London) in South-Eastern Eu- 
rope. 

Latin Literature, by Prof. A. S. 
Wilkins, of Owens College, Manchester, 
and Prof. R. S. Conway, of the Univer- 
sity of Manchester. 

Celt, Literature, to which W. J. 
Gruflfydd, lecturer in Celtic, University 
College, Cardiff, contributes the section 
on Welsh literature; and E. C. Quiggin, 
lecturer in Celtic, Cambridge, contributes 
the sections on Irish, Manx, Breton and 
Cornish literatures. 

This list of the literatures of many 
tongues, from each of which translations 
have added to the common stock access- 
ible even to those who can read with ease 
only one-language, indicates the existence 
of a bewildering mass of printed matter, 
and just as each language has its litera- 
ture — using the word to signify output, 
so each subject upon which men write has 
its literature — using the word to signify 
material for any one branch of study. 
Bibliographies are 
Bibliography the charts by which 

students are enabled 
to navigate these vast seas of knowledge. 
The articles Bibliography (Vol. 3, p. 
908), by A. W. Pollard, assistant librarian 
of the British Museum, and Index (Vol. 
14, p. 378) describe the technicalities of 
cataloguing and classifying books and 
their contents. 

The Britannica is itself the most com- 
plete index to the subjects treated by 
books and the most complete biblio- 
graphical manual for the student that 
could be imagined. The Index of 500,000 
entries (Vol. 29) shows to what class any 
one of half a million facts belongs, by re- 
ferring to the article in which that fact is 



treated. At the end of the article a list of 
the best books on the subject shows the 
student who desires to specialize just 
where to go for further details. No less 
than 203,000 books are included in these 
lists appended to Britannica articles and 
many of them are, in themselves, sub- 
stantial contributions to literature. The 
Shakespeare bibliography would, for ex- 
ample, fill 30 pages of the size and type 
of this Guide; the bibliography of Eng- 
lish history, by A. F. Pollard, of the Uni- 
versity of London, 13 pages, and the bib- 
liography of French history, by Prof. 
B6mont of the Ecole des Hautes Etudes, 
Paris, 8 pages. 

A group of articles of great interest to 
every student of literature deals with the 
methods and appliances by which writ- 
ings are preserved and circulated. Manu- 
script (Vol. 17, p. 618) is by SirE. 
Maunde Thompson, of the British Mu- 
seum Library; Book (Vol. 4, p. 214); 
Book-Collecting (Vol. 4, p. 221) and 
Incunabula (Vol. 14, p. 369) are by A. 
W. Pollard, also of the British Museum 
Library. Libraries (Vol. 16, p. 545), 
equivalent to 100 pages of this Guide, is 
by H. R. Tedder, librarian of the Athen- 
aeum Club, London. The articles on 
printing, binding, publishing and similar 
subjects are described in the chapter of 
this Guide For Printers. 

With this chapter to help him the stu- 
dent will have little difficulty in devising 
his own course of reading in any one lit- 
erature — starting with the general treat- 
ment, going from this to the separate 
biographies of the great authors men- 
tioned in the general article, and, when 
there is in the national literature that he 
is studying some special development of 
a literary genre, as of the sermon in the 
17th or the satire in the 18th century, 
turning to the article in the Britannica 
dealing with this form of literature, Sat- 
ire, Sermon, or whatever it may be. For 
example, what could be more illuminating 
to the student of 19th century literature 
than the following passages — discon- 



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218 



BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



nected here — from the article Satire? 

Goethe and Schiller, Scott and Wads- 
worth, are now at hand, and as imagination 
gains ground satire declines. Byron, who 
in the 18th century would have been the 
greatest of satirists, is hurried by the spirit 
of his age into passion and description, be- 
queathing, however, a splendid proof of the 
possibility of allying satire with sublimity 
in his Virion of Judgment. . . . Miss 
Edgeworth skirts the confines of satire, and 
Miss Austen seasons her novels with the 
most exquisite satiric traits. Washington 
Irving revives the manner of The Spectator, 
and Tieck brings irony and persiflage to 
the discussion of critical problems. . . . 
In all the characteristics of his genius 
Thackerav is thoroughly English, and the 
faults and follies he chastises are those espe- 
cially characteristic of British society. Good 
sense and the perception of the ridiculous 
are amalgamated in him; his satire is a 
thoroughly British article, a little over-solid, 
a little wanting in finish, but honest, weighty 
and durable. Posterity must go to him for 
the humours of the age of Victoria, as they 



go to Addison for those of Anne's. . . . 
In Heine the satiric spirit, long confined to 
established literary forms, seems to obtain 
unrestrained freedom to wander where it 
will, nor have the ancient models been fol- 
lowed since by any considerable satirist ex- 
cept the Italian Giusti. The machinery em- 
ployed by Moore was indeed transplanted to 
America by James Russell Lowell, whose 
Big low Papers represent perhaps the highest 
moral level yet attained by satire. 

In no age was the spirit of satire so gen- 
erally diffused as in the 19th century, but 
many of its eminent writers, while bordering 
on the domains of satire, escape the defini- 
tion of satirist. The term cannot be prop- 
erly applied to Dickens, the keen observer 
of the oddities of human life; or to George 
Eliot, the critic of its emptiness when not 
inspired by a worthy purpose; or to Balzac, 
the painter of French society; or to Trol- 
lope, the mirror of the middle classes of 
England. If Sartor Reeartus could be re- 
garded as a satire, Carlyle would rank 
among the first of satirists; but the satire, 
though very obvious, rather accompanies 
than inspires the composition. 



CHAPTER XXXVII 
AMERICAN LITERATURE 

TIE list in the preceding chapter of the key articles dealing with national 
literatures shows that the Britannica separately treats the literary products 
of some 30 countries. To outline 80 courses of reading, mentioning the 3,000 
critical and biographical articles, would make this Guide unwieldy. On pp. 920- 
937 of Vol. 29 the reader will find classified lists of these articles, and only four groups 
are selected here for detailed treatment: those on American, English, German and 
Greek literature. The main article in the literature of each of the other countries 
indicates the characteristic forms, the typical works of the leading writers discussed 
in special articles, so that courses of reading as systematic as these four can easily 
be planned for other countries by the reader. 



Topic of Study 

General Summary of the subject, with 
critical appreciation of main ten- 
dencies and great authors. 



Colonial Period. 

English writers, especially histori- 
cal. 



Article and Contributor 

American Literature (Vol. 1, p. 831), 
by George E. Woodberry, formerly pro- 
fessor in Columbia University, biogra- 
pher of Poe and Hawthorne, author of 
America in Literature, etc. 

John Smith (Vol. 25, p. 26i), by Prof. 
Edward Arber, editor of English Garn- 
er, etc. 



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AMERICAN LITERATURE 



219 



Colonial writers, especially of Puri- 
tan New England. 

Massachusetts governors and his- 
torical writing. 

The Clergy as writers of History, 
and of Theology of the Puritan 
School. 



The Mathers. 

Apostle to the Indians. 

Revolt against Puritanism. 

Ethical. 

Theological. 
New England Verse. 

The New England Diarist. 

The great New England Philosopher 

and Theologian; the first American 

author with a lasting and European 

reputation. 

Edwards's contemporaries. 

Edwards's followers, — the New 
England theology. 

The first newspaper in New York. 

A Virginia educator. 

The American Quaker preacher. 

A royal governor and historian. 

A New York statesman and philos- 
opher. 

The first great American figure in sec- 
ular literature, — essayist, pamphlet- 
eer, politician, autobiographer. 

Revolutionary Period. 

The patriotic orators and Pamph- 
leteers. 



" Common Sense." 
James Otis's Sister. 
The Declaration of Independence 
and its author. 



Prominent Patriots in New Jersey. 

A Connecticut Educator and Pa- 
triot. 



Massachusetts, History (Vol. 17, p. 
858) ; Connecticut, History (Vol. 6, . 
p. 954). 

William Bradford (Vol. 4, p. 370) ; 
John Winthrop (Vol. 28, p. 736). 

John Cotton (Vol. 7, p. 255), by Prof. 
Williston Walker, Yale, author of His- 
tory of the Congregational Churches in 
the United States; Thomas Hooker 
(Vol. 18, p. 674). 

Cotton, Increase, and Richard Mather 
(Vol. 17, p. 883). 

John Eliot (Vol. 9, p. 278), by Prof. 
Walker. 

Thomas Morton (Vol. 18, p. 882). 
Roger Williams (Vol. 28, p. 682). 
Michael Wigglesworth (Vol. 28, p. 

626). 
Samuel Sewall (Vol. 24, p. 738). 
Jonathan Edwards (Vol. 9, pp. 3-6), by 

Prof. Harry Norman Gardiner, editor 

of Jonathan Edwards — a Retrospect, 

and Richard Webster. 
Charles Chauncy (Vol. 6, p. 18). 
Jonathan Mayhew (Vol. 17, p. 985). 
Joseph Bellamy (Vol. 8, p. 694). 
Samuel Hopkins (Vol. 18, p. 685). 
William Bradford (Vol. 4, p. 370). 
James Blair (Vol. 4, p. 84). 
John Woolman (Vol. 28, p. 817). 
Thomas Hutchinson (Vol. 14, p. 13). 
Cadwallader Colden (Vol. 6, p. 663). 

Benjamin Franklin (Vol. 11, p. 24), 
by Richard Webster, late fellow 
Princeton University, editorial staff, 
Encyclopaedia Britannica. 

James Otis (Vol. 20, p. 366). 

Patrick Henry (Vol. 13, p. 300). 

John Adams (Vol. 1, p. 176). 

Josiah Quincy (Vol. 22, p. 753). 

James Wilson (Vol. 28, p. 693). 

Thomas Paine (Vol. 20, p. 456). 

Mercy Warren (Vol. 28, p. 830). 

Independence, Declaration of (Vol. 
14, p. 372), and Thomas Jefferson 
(Vol. 15, p. 801), both by Dr. F. S. 
Philbrick. 

William Livingston (Vol. 16, p. 813). 

John Witherspoon (Vol. 28, p. 759). 

Ezra Stiles (Vol. 25, p. 919). 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



Opponents of Independence. 

" A Westchester Farmer." 

In Massachusetts. 

In Maryland. 
Patriotic Poetry. 

The " Hartford Wits." 

Satire and Epic. 

" Battle of the Kegs." 

A Western Traveler. 

The National Period. 

The Constitution and its Pamphlet- 
eers — " The Federalist," the 
greatest application of elemen- 
tary principles of government to 
practical administration. 
Importance of the early national 
period on the development of 
American literature. 



The first professional " man of 
letters." 
First foreign vogue. 

Essay and History: "The Ameri- 
can Goldsmith." 

Fiction: " The American Scott" 



Poetry, 

The Knickerbocker School. 

New York as a literary centre. 

A Southern novelist and poet. 
Cooper's successor as novelist of the 

sea. 
Poetesses of the early 19th century. 

The " Literati." 

The short story. 
Traveler, Translator, Poet. 

New England in the 19th century. 
Boston and Cambridge. 



Joseph Galloway (Vol. 11, p. 421). 
Samuel Seabury (Vol. 24, p. 581). 
Mather Byles (Vol. 4, p. 896). 
Jonathan Boucher (Vol. 4, p. 312). 
John Trumbull (Vol. 27, p. 324). 
Timothy Dwight (Vol. 8, p. 741). 
Joel Barlow (Vol. 3, p. 406). 
Francis Hopkinson (Vol. 13, p. 685). 
Jonathan Carver (Vol. 5, p. 487). 



James Madison (Vol. 17, p. 284). 
Alexander Hamilton (Vol. 12, p. 880), 

by Dr. F. S. Philbrick and Hugh Chis- 

holm. 
John Jay (Vol. 15, pp. 294-296). 
United States, History, §106 (Vol. 27, 

p. 688), by the late Prof. Alexander 

Johnson, Princeton, and C. C. Whin- 

ery, assistant editor, Encyclopaedia 

Britannica. 
Charles Brockden Brown (Vol. 4, p. 

657). 

Washington Irving (Vol. 14, p. 856), 
by Richard Garnett, late librarian Brit- 
ish Museum. 

James Fenimore Cooper (Vol. 7, p. 79), 
by W. E. Henley, poet, critic and es- 
sayist. 

William Cullen Bryant (Vol. 4, p. 
698), by G. W. Cable. 

New York City, Literature (Vol. 19, p. 
615). 

James Kirke Paulding (Vol. 20, p. 958). 

Fitz-Greene Halleck (Vol. 12, p. 854). 

W. G. Simms (Vol. 25, p. 123). 

Herman Melville (Vol. 18, p. 102). 

Lydia Huntley Sigourney (Vol. 25, p. 

82). 
Alice and Phoebe Cary (Vol. 5, p. 438). 
N. P. Willis (Vol. 28, p. 686). 
Rufus Wilmot Griswold (Vol. 12, p. 

610). 
Edgar Allan Poe (Vol. 21, p. 875), by 

David Hannay. 
Bayard Taylor (Vol. 26, p. 467). 



Boston (Vol. 4, p. 298). 

Harvard University (Vol. 13, p. 38). 

George Ticknor (Vol. 26. p. 936). 



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AMERICAN LITERATURE 



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History and Scholarship as affected 
by European contacts. 



Unitarianism and its Literary Lead- 
ers, Influencing and Influenced 
by Transcendentalism. 



Transcendentalism and the Concord 
School — its central figures. 



The Dial. 

Brook Farm. 

The author of " Margaret." 

The great New England Novelist. 

The great New England Poet. 

Earlier Romanticism. 

Oratory. 

In the North. 



In the South. 



George Bancroft (Vol. 3, p. 307), by 
Prof. W. M. Sloane, Columbia. 

Edward Everett (Vol. 10, p. 8), by Ed- 
ward Everett Hale. 

Jared Sparks (Vol. 25, p. 608), by Prof. 
W. L. Corbin, Wells College. 

J. G. Palfrey (Vol. 20, p. 629). 

W. H. Prescott (Vol. 22, p. 294). 

J. L. Motley (Vol. 18, p. 909). 

Hosea Ballou (Vol. 3, p. 282). 
William Ellery Channing (Vol. 5, p. 

843), by Richard Webster. 
James Freeman Clarke (Vol. 6, p. 444), 

by E. E. Hale. 
Theodore Parker (Vol. 20, p. 829). 

Amos Bronson Alcott (Vol. 1, p. 528), 
by Prof. C. F. Richardson, Dartmouth 
College. 

Ralph Waldo Emerson (Vol. 9, p. 882), 
by Prof. Henry Van Dyke, Princeton. 

Henry David Thoreau (Vol. 26, p. 
877), by William Sharp (" Fiona Mac- 
leod"). 

Margaret Fuller (Vol. 11, p. 295). 

George Ripley (Vol. 28, p. 863), by Ed- 
ward Livermore Burlingame, editor of 
Scribner's. 

Brook Farm (Vol. 4, p. 645, by E. L. 
Burlingame. 

Sylvester Judd (Vol. 15, p. 586). 

Nathaniel Hawthorne (Vol. 18, p. 
102), by Richard Henry Stoddard, 
poet and essayist. 

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (Vol. 
16, p. 977), by Thomas Davidson, au- 
thor of The Philosophical System of 
Rosmini. 

Washington Allston (Vol. 1, p. 709). 

Richard Henry Dana (Vol. 7, p. 792). 

Daniel Webster (Vol. 28, p. 459), by 

Everett P. Wheeler, author of Daniel 

Webster, etc. 
Rufus Choate (Vol. 6, p. 258). 
Wendell Phillips (Vol. 21, p. 407), by 

Col. T. W. Higginson. 
Charles Sumner (Vol. 26, p. 81). 
Robert Charles Winthrop (Vol. 28, p. 

736). 
Henry Clay (Vol. 6, p. 470), by Carl 

Schurz, biographer of Clay. 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



Other Southern Orators. 



The Pulpit Orator of the North. 



The Abolition Novelist, author of 
Uncle Tom's Cabin. 



Another anti-slavery authoress. 
The New England Poets prominent in 
the Anti-Slavery Movement. 



Their Contemporary, the " Autocrat." 



The American Poet — by the criterion 
of foreign standards. 

Scholarship and criticism in this Pe- 
riod and the Next: the particularly 
Important Work done by Americans 
in Grammar, Language, Text Criti- 
cism, etc. 



The later Poet*. 
New England. 



New York. 



Pennsylvania. 



John C. Calhoun (Vol. 5, p. 1), by 
Judge H. A. M. Smith, South Caro- 
lina. 

Robert Young Hayne (Vol. 13, p. 114). 

Henry Ward Beecher (Vol. 3, p. 639), 
by Dr. Lyman Abbott, editor The Out- 
look. 

Harriet Elizabeth Beecher Stowe 
(Vol. 25, p. 972), by Horace E. Scud- 
der, late editor of the Atlantic 
Monthly. 

Lydia Maria Child (Vol. 6, p. 135). 
John Greenleaf Whittier (Vol. 28, p. 

613), by Edmund Clarence Stedman, 

poet and critic. 
James Russell Lowell (Vol. 17, p. 74), 

by Horace E. Scudder, biographer of 

Lowell. 
Oliver Wendell Holmes (Vol. 13, p. 

616), by J. T. Morse, biographer of 

Holmes. 
Walt W f hitman (Vol. 28, p. 610), by 

John Burroughs, author of Whitman, 

A Study. 
Francis James Child (Vol. 6, p. 135). 
Cornelius C. Felton (Vol. 10, p. 246). 
George Perkins Marsh (Vol. 17, p. 

768). 
William D wight Whitney (Vol. 28, p. 

611), by Benjamin E. Smith, editor 

Century Dictionary. 
Richard Grant White (Vol. 28, p. . 

601). 
Horace Howard Furness (Vol. 11, p. 

862). 
Francis Andrew March (Vol. 17, p. 

688). 
Basil Lanneau Gildersleeve (Vol. 12, 

p. 12). 
Charles Eliot Norton (Vol. 19, p. 797). 

Thomas Bailey Aldrich (Vol. 1, p. 536). 
Julia Ward Howe (Vol. 13, p. 836). 
William Wetmore Story (Vol. 25, p. 

970). 
Edmund Clarence Stedman (Vol. 25, p. 

861). 
Richard Henry Stoddard (Vol. 25, p. 

939). 
Richard Watson Gilder (Vol. 12, p. 

12). 
Charles Godfrey Leland (Vol. 16. p. 

405). 
Silas Weir Mitchell (Vol. 18, p. 618). 



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223 



The South. 

The Middle West (especially hu- 
morous, light and character 
verse). 

The Far West. 



Later Fiction. 

The American Realist. 
The American Cosmopolite. 
Stories of Italy. 
Historical Romance. 
Humorous Short Story. 
Pietistic Novel. 

The Provincial Types — 

Maine. 

New England. 

West. 



South: Tennessee. 

Kentucky. 
Virginia. 
New Orleans. 

Essayists. 



Humor. 



The American " Hood." 

" Bill Nye." 

America's Great Humorist. 

" Uncle Remus." 

Puck. 

" Mr. Dooley." 

History. 



Sidney Lanier (Vol. 16, p. 181), by 
Prof. W. P. Trent, Columbia. 

John Hay (Vol. 13, p. 105). 

Eugene Field (Vol. 10, p. 821). 

James Whitcomb Riley (Vol. 23, p. 
343). 

Francis Bret Harte (Vol. 13, p. 31). 

Joaquin Miller (Vol. 18, p. 464). 

Edward Rowland Sill (Vol. 25, p. 107). 

W. D. Howells (Vol. 18, p. 839). 

Henry James (Vol. 15, p. 143). 

F. Marion Crawford (Vol. 7, p. 386). 

Lewis Wallace (Vol. 28, p. 276). 

Francis R. Stockton (Vol. 25, p. 938). 

E. P. Roe (Vol. 28, p. 449). 

J. G. Holland (Vol. 13, p. 587). 

Sarah Orne Jewett (Vol. 15, p. 371). 
Mary E. Wilkins (Vol. 28, p. 646). 
Edward Eggleston (Vol. 9, p. 17). 
Mary Hallock Foote (Vol. 10, p. 625). 
Francis Bret Harte (Vol. 13, p. 81). 
*' Charles Egbert Craddock " (Vol. 7, 

p. 860). 
James Lane Allen (Vol. 1, p. 691). 
Thomas Nelson Page (Vol. 20, p. 450). 
George W. Cable (Vol. 4, p. 920). 

Thomas Wentworth Higginson (Vol. 

13, p. 455). 
Edward Everett Hale (Vol. 12, p. 

832). 
Charles Dudley Warner (Vol. 28, p. 

326). 
George William Curtis (Vol. 7, p. 

652), by Charles Eliot Norton. 

Henry Wheeler Shaw, " Josh Billings " 

(Vol. 24, p. 818). 
John Godfrey Saxe (Vol. 24, p. 258). 
Edgar Wilson Nye (Vol. 19, p. 929). 
Mark Twain (Vol. 27, p. 490), by Prof. 

Brander Matthews, Columbia. 
Joel Chandler Harris (Vol. 13, p. 20). 
H. C. Bunner (Vol. 4, p. 799). 
Finley Peter Dunne (Vol. 8, p. 682). 

Francis Parkman (Vol. 20, p. 832), by 

John Fiske. 
Hermann Eduard Von Holst (Vol. 28, 

p. 210). 
Francis Lieber (Vol. 16, p. 590). 
C. E. A. Gayarre (Vol. 11, p. 542). 
Henry Charles Lea (Vol. 16, p. 814). 



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224 



BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



Historians. 



Newspaper Men. 



New York Tribune. 



New York Herald. 
Springfield Republican. 
New York Times. 
New York Sunt 
New York Evening Post. 

Louisville Courier- Journal. 



Henry Martyn Baird (Vol. 3, p. 224). 
John Fiske (Vol. 10, p. 437), by Prof. 

C. F. Richardson, Dartmouth. 
James Ford Rhodes (Vol. 23, p. 257). 
Henry Cabot Lodge (Vol. 16, p. 860). 
James B. McMaster (Vol. 17, p. 264). 
James Schouler (Vol. 24, p. 377). 
Theodore A. Dodge (Vol. 8, p. 369). 
John Codman Ropes (Vol. 23, p. 718). 
Alfred T. Mahan (Vol. 17, p. 394). 
Albert Bushnell Hart (Vol. 13, p. 30). 
Hubert H. Bancroft (Vol. 3, p. 309). 
Theodore Roosevelt (Vol. 23, p. 711), 

by Lawrence F. Abbott, New York 

Outlook. 

Newspapers, American (Vol. 19, pp. 566- 

572). 
Periodicals, United States (Vol. 21, pp. 

154-155). 
Horace Greeley (Vol. 12, p. 531), bv 

Whitelaw Reid. 
Whitelaw Reid (Vol. 28, p. 52). 
James Gordon Bennett (Vol. 3, p. 740). 
Samuel Bowles (Vol. 4, p. 344). 
H. J. Raymond (Vol. 22, p. 933). 
C. A. Dana (Vol. 7, p. 791). 
Edwin Lawrence Godkin (Vol. 12, p. 

174). 
Henry Watterson (Vol. 28, p. 418). 



CHAPTER XXXVIII 



ENGLISH LITERATURE 



ON English literature, with its 
vastly longer history and greater 
volume, there is much more mat- 
ter in the Britannica than on American 
literature — or of course any other na- 
tional literature. The key article is 
English Literature (Vol. 9, p. 607; 
equivalent to 120 pages of this Guide), 
and an excellent outline for the study 
of this subject may be based on this 
article which should be supplemented 
by the sections on Literature in the 
articles Scotland, Canada, etc. A 



combination of these with special articles 
may be arranged as follows: 

On the period before Chaucer — the 
first part of the article English Litera- 
ture (Vol. 9, p. 607), by Henry Bradley, 
joint-editor of The 
Anglo-Saxon New English Dic- 

tionary , etc.; the 
same author's Beowulf (Vol. 8, p. 
758), Cedmon (Vol. 4, p. 934) and 
Cynewulf (Vol. 7, p. 690), Anglo- 
Saxon Chronicle (Vol. 2, p. 34), and 
Alfred the Great (Vol. 1, p. 582), 



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ENGLISH LITERATURE 



225 



both by the Rev. Charles Plummer, 
author of Life and Times of Alfred the 
Great, etc.; Dan Michel of Northgate 
(Vol. 18, p. 371); Anglo-Norman Lit- 
erature (Vol. 2, p. 31), by Prof. L. M. 
Brandin, University of London; Ancren 
Riwle (Vol. 1, p. 952); Orm (Vol. 20, 
p. .293), by Henry Bradley; Layamon 
(Vol. 16, p. 311), by the late Prof. W. 
W. Skeat of Cambridge; Havelok the 
Dane (Vol. 13, p. 80); Romance, Ar- 
thurian Romance, etc. 

On the period from Chaucer to the 
Renaissance, see the second part of the 
article English Literature (Vol. 9, 
p. 611), by Prof. J. M. 
Chaucer Manly, University of Chi- 
cago, author of The Lan- 
guage of Chaucer' s Legend of Good Women; 
The Pearl (Vol. 21, p. 27), by Prof. 
Israel Gollancz, King's College, London, 
editor of the Temple Shakespeare, etc.; 
Langland (Vol. 16, p. 174); John 
Gower (Vol. 12, p. 298), by G. C. 
Macaulay, editor of Gower 's works; 
Geoffrey Chaucer (Vol. 6, p. 13), by 
A. W. Pollard, chief-editor of the "Globe" 
Chaucer; John Lydgate, (Vol. 17, p. 
156), by Frederick J. Snell, author of 
The Age of Chaucer; Thomas Occleve 
(Vol. 19, p. 966), by W. S. McCormick, 
formerly professor of English, Univer- 
sity College, Dundee; Stephen Hawes 
(Vol. 13, p. 93); John Skelton (Vol. 25, 
p. 184); Juliana Berners (Vol. 3, p. 
801); Thomas of Erceldoune (Vol. 26, 
p. 865); John Barbour (Vol. 3, p. 389), 
by Professor George Gregory Smith, 
Queen's University, Belfast; Andrew of 
Wyntoun (Vol. 28, p. 873); Harry the 
Minstrel (Vol. 13, p. 29); John Wyc- 
uffe (Vol. 28, p. 866), by Reginald 
Lane Poole, author of Wyclifft and 
Movements for Reform, and W. Alison 
Phillips; Reginald Pecock (Vol. 21, 
p. 33); Sir John Fortescue (Vol. 10, 
p. 678), by P. C. Yorke; William Cax- 
ton (Vol. 5, p. 587). 

The English versions of the Bible are 
dealt with in the chapter of this Guide 



on Bible Study; but the article Bible, 
English (Vol. 3, p. 894), by Canon 
Henson of Westminster Abbey and 
Anna C. Paues, lecturer in Germanic 
philology at Newnham College, should 
be read in connection with the study of 
this and earlier periods of English litera- 
ture. 

On English literature in the Eliza- 
bethan age read part 3 of the article 
English Literature (Vol. 9, p. 616), 

by Prof. Oliver El- 
Elizabethan ton, University of 
Literature Liverpool; also Sir 

Thomas More (Vol. 
18, p. 822), by Mark Pattison, the essay- 
ist and student of the Renaissance; 
William Tyndale (Vol. 27, p. 498); 
Roger Ascham (Vol. 2, p. 720), by A. 
F. Leach, author of English Schools at 
the Reformation, etc.; William Dunbar 
(Vol. 8, p. 668), by Prof. G. Gregory 
Smith; Sir Thomas Hoby (Vol. 13, p. 
553); Raphael Holinshed (Vol. 13, 
p. 584); John Foxe (Vol. 10, p. 770); 
Sir Thomas North (Vol. 19, p. 759); 
Sir Thomas Wyat (Vol. 28, p. 861); 
Earl of Surrey (Vol. 26, p. 138); 
George Gascoigne (Vol. 11, p. 493); 
Nicholas Udal (Vol. 27, p. 554), by 
A. F. Leach; Edmund 
Spenser Spenser (Vol. 25, p. 639,) 
by the late Professor Will- 
iam Minto of Aberdeen, and F. J. Snell, 
author of The Age of Chaucer, etc.; Sir 
Philip Sidney (Vol. 25, p. 43); John 
Lyly (Vol. 17, p. 159), by Mrs. Humphry 
Ward; Euphuism (Vol. 9, p. 898); 
Michael Drayton (Vol. 8, p. 557), and 
Samuel Daniel (Vol. 7, p. 808), all by 
Edmund Gosse; William Warner (Vol. 
28, p. 327); Edward Fairfax (Vol. 10. 
p. 130); Sir John Harington (Vol. 12. 
p. 952); Giles and Phineas Fletcher 
(Vol. 10, p. 498); Thomas Watson (Vol. 
28, p. 413), by E. Gosse; Thomas Lodge 
(Vol. 16, p. 860), by Prof. A. W. Ward, 
Cambridge; Thomas Campion (Vol. 5, p. 
137), by P. Vivian, editor of Campion; 
Nicholas Breton (Vol.4, p. 501); Rob- 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



ert Southwell (Vol. 25, p. 517); the 
metaphysical poets, John Donne (Vol. 
8, p. 417), George Herbert (Vol. 13, 
p. 889), Richard Crashaw (Vol. 7, 
p. 379), Abraham Cowley (Vol. 7, p. 
347), Thomas Traherne (Vol. 27, p. 
155), and Henry Vaughan (Vol. 27, 
p. 955); William Browne (Vol. 4, p. 
667); George Wither (Vol. 28, p. 758); 
William Drxjmmond of Hawthornden 
(Vol. 8, p. 600); Robert Herrick (Vol. 
13, p. 389), by E. Gosse; Richard Love- 
lace (Vol. 17, p. 71); Sir John Suck- 
ling (Vol. 26, p. 7); Andrew Marvell 
(Vol. 17, p. 805); Edmund Waller (Vol. 
28, p. 282), by E. Gosse; and John 
Milton (Vol. 18, p. 480), in great part 
by David Masson, late professor at 
Edinburgh University. 

Elizabethan drama — particularly 
Shakespeare — deserves a separate para- 
graph, .especially as its treatment in 

the Britannica is so 
The Drama full. Read in the 

article English Lit- 
erature, pp. 622-626; in the article 
Drama, by Prof. A. W. Ward, Cam- 
bridge, pp. 520-524 of Volume 8; and the 
articles: John Lyly (Vol. 17, p. 159), 
by Mrs. Humphry Ward; Thomas Kyd 
(Vol. 15, p. 958), by E. Gosse; George 
Peele (Vol. 21, p. 44); Robert Greene 
(Vol. 12, p. 539), by A. W. Ward; 
Christopher Marlowe (Vol. 17, p. 
741), by A. C. Swinburne and Thomas 
Seccombe, author of The Age of Johnson, 
etc.; and above all Shakespeare (Vol. 24, 

p. 772; equivalent to 
Shakespeare 80 pages of this 

Guide), containing 
a biography and sketches of the different 
works by E. K. Chambers, editor of the 
"Red Letter Shakespeare" and author 
of The Medieval Stage, with a discussion 
of the portraits of Shakespeare (20 of 
which are reproduced), by M. H. Spiel- 
mann, formerly editor of the Magazine of 
Art, and of the Shakespeare-Bacon con- 
troversy by Hugh Chisholm, editor-in 
chief of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, 



and an elaborate, classified bibliography 
by H. R. Tedder, librarian of the Athen- 
aeum Club, London. In his discussion 
of the Baconian theory of the authorship 
of the plays Mr. Chisholm says: 

"No such idea seems to have occurred 
to anybody till the middle of the 19th 
century. . . The most competent special 
students of Shakespeare, however they 
may differ as to details, and also the most 
authoritative special students of Bacon, 
are unanimous in upholding the tradi- 
tional view." And he adds that as re- 
gards the effort to account for the posi- 
tive contemporary evidence in favour of 
the identification of the man Shakespeare 
with the author of Shakespeare's works, 
"it is highly significant that it was not 
attempted or thought of for centuries." 
See also: Hamlet (Vol. 12, p. 894) for 
earlier treatment of the legend, and 
Macbeth (Vol. 17, p. 197) for the his- 
torical basis of the play. 

For the other dramatists of the time 
see the articles Ben Jonson (Vol. 15, 
p. 502), by A. W. Ward; George Chap- 
man (Vol. 5, p. 852), John Webster 
(Vol. 28, p. 462), Cyril Tourneur 
(Vol. 27, p. 106), and Beaumont and 
Fletcher (Vol. 3, p. 592), all by A. C. 
Swinburne; Thomas Dekker (Vol. 7, 
p. 939), by William Minto and R. B. 
McKerrow; Thomas Heywood (Vol. 13, 
p. 439); Thomas Middleton (Vol. 18, 
p. 416); John Marston (Vol. 17, p. 776); 
Philip Massinger (Vol. 17, p. 868); 
John Ford (Vol. 10, p. 641), by A. W. 
Ward; James Shirley (Vol. 24, p. 990). 

For Elizabethan prose writers not al- 
ready mentioned, see: the translators, 
John Bourchier, Lord Baron Ber- 
NERs(Vol.3,p.800), 
16th and 17th Philemon Holland 
Century Prose (Vol. 13, p. 587) and 
Giovanni Florio 
(Vol. 10, p. 546); and the philosophers 
and essayists, Richard Hooker (Vol. 13, 
p. 672), by T. F. Henderson, Francis 
Bacon, (Vol. 3, p. 135; equivalent to 55 
pages of this Guide), by Robert Adamson 



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227 



and J. M. Mitchell, Thomas Hobbes 
(Vol. 13, p. 545), by G. Croom Robert- 
son, biographer of Hobbes, Sir Thomas 
Browne (Vol. 4. p. 666), Izaak Walton 
(Vol. 28, p. 300), Robert Burton (Vol. 
4, p. 865), Jeremy Taylor (Vol. 26, p. 
469), Thomas Fuller (Vol. 11, p. 296), 
William Chillingworth (Vol. 6, p. 
162), John Hales (Vol. 12, p. 834), 
Ralph Cudworth (Vol. 7, p. 612), by 
Henry Sturt, author of Personal Idealism, 
etc.; the historian Clarendon (Vol. 6, 
p. 428), by P. C. Yorke; and the letter- 
writer James Howell (Vol. 13, p. 
838). 

On the Restoration period — from 1660 
to 1700 — see Professor Elton's chapter 
(Vol. 9, pp. 628-631) in the article Eng- 
lish Literature; and the 
Dryden articles: John Dryden 
(Vol. 8, p. 609), by William 
Minto and Margaret Bryant; Samuel 
Butler (Vol. 4, p. 885), Sir Isaac New- 
ton (Vol. 19, p. 583), by H. M. Taylor, 
Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge; 
Isaac Barrow (Vol. 3, p. 440), John 
Ray (Vol. 22, p. 931), by Prof. D. Went- 
worth Thompson, University College, 
Dundee; Joseph Glanvill (Vol. 12, p. 
77), Thomas Burnet (Vol. 4, p. 853), 
John Tillotson (Vol. 26, p. 976), Sir 
William Temple (Vol. 26, p. 602), by 
G. W. Prothero, editor The Quarterly 
Review and joint-editor Cambridge Mod- 
ern History; Marquess Halifax (Vol. 
12, p. 839), by P. C. Yorke; Robert 
South (Vol. 25, p. 463), William Sher- 
lock (Vol. 24, p.850), Richard Baxter 
(Vol. 3, p. 551), John Howe (Vol. 13, 
p. 835), George Fox (Vol. 10, p. 765), 
John Bunyan (Vol. 4, p. 803), by Lord 
Macaulay; 2nd Earl op Rochester 
(Vol. 23, p. 427), Sir William Davenant 
(Vol. 7, p. 851), Nahum Tate (Vol. 26, 
p. 449), Thomas Otway 
Pepys (Vol. 20, p. 376) , Nathaniel 

Lee (Vol. 16, p. 361), 
Watts-Dunton's article William Wy- 
cherley (Vol. 28, p. 863), and the two 
great diarists John Evelyn (Vol. 10, 



p. 5) and Samuel Pepys (Vol. 21, p. 
130), by D. Hannay. 

On the 18th century literature see thfc 
chapter in the article English Litera- 
ture (Vol. 9, pp. 631-636), by Thomas 
Seccombe, author of 
Addison, Steele The Age of Johnson, 
and Swift etc.; and the articles: 

John Locke (Vol. 
16, p. 844), by Prof. Alexander Campbell 
Fraser, Edinburgh; Joseph Addison 
(Vol. 1, p. 184), by William Spalding and 
Austin Dobson; Sir Richard Steele 
(Vol. 25, p. 865), by William Minto and 
Austin Dobson; Jonathan Swift (Vol. 
26, p. 224), by Richard Garnett and 
Thomas Seccombe; John Arbuthnot 
(Vol. 2, p. 339), Bernard de Mande- 
ville (Vol. 17, p. 559), by J. M. Mitchell; 
Bolingbroke (Vol. 4, p. 161), by P. C. 

Yorke; Alexander Pope 
Pope (Vol. 22, p. 82), by William 

Minto and Margaret Bry- 
ant; Matthew Prior (Vol. 22, p. 359), 
by Austin Dobson; John Gay (Vol. 11, 
p. 540), Thomas Parnell (Vol. 20, p. 
859), Mark Akenside (Vol. 1, p. 454), 
James Thomson (Vol. 26, p. 871) and 
Thomas Gray (Vol. 12, p. 392), both 
by D. C. Tovey, editor of Gray's Letters; 
William Collins (Vol. 6, p. 692), by 
Edmund Gosse; Christopher Smart 
(Vol. 25, p. 249), William Cowper 
(Vol. 7, p. 849) and George Crabbe 
(Vol. 7, p. 358), by Clement K. Shorter, 
editor of The Sphere; William Blake 
(Vol. 4, p. 36), by J. W. Comyns-Carr, 
author of Essays on Art; William Shen- 
stone (Vol. 24, p. 839), Thomas Chat- 
terton (Vol. 6, p. 10), Thomas Percy 
(Vol. 21, p. 136), Thomas Warton (Vol. 

28, p. 337), Robert Burns 
Burns (Vol. 4, p. 856), by John 

Nichol, the biographer of 
Burns, Byron and Carlyle; among the 
prose writers, fore-runners of the novel, 
Daniel Defoe (Vol. 
The Novel 7, p. 927), Samuel 

Richardson (Vol. 
23, p. 800) and Henry Fielding (Vol. 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



10, p. 324), both by Austin Dobson, 
Tobias Smollett (Vol. 25, p. 278), by 
Thomas Seccombe, and Laurence 
Sterne (Vol. 25, p. 901), by William 
Minto and Austin Dobson; the other 
great prose writers of the age, Samuel 

Johnson (Vol. 15, p. 463), 
Johnson by Lord Macaulay and 

Thomas Seccombe, Oliver 
Goldsmith (Vol. 12, p. 214), by Lord 
Macaulay and Austin Dobson, Lord 

Chesterfield (Vol. 6, p. 
Goldsmith 109), by Austin Dobson, 

and Horatio Walpole 
(Vol. 28, p. 288), by W. P. Courtney; 
in a lesser group, James Boswell (Vol. 
4, p. 297), by Thomas Seccombe, 
Frances D'Arblay, "Fanny Burney" 
(Vol. 7, p. 826), Hester Lynch Piozzi 
(Vol. 21, p. 632), Gilbert White (Vol. 
28, p. 599); the historians David Hume 

(Vol. 13, p. 876), by Robert 
History Adamson and J. M. Mit- 
chell, William Robertson 
(Vol. 23, p. 406) and Edward Gibbon 
(Vol. 11, p. 927), by Prof. J. B. Bury, 
editor of The Decline and Fall; and the 
philosophers, Joseph Butler (Vol. 4, 
p. 882), by Robert Adamson and A. J. 
Grieve, Yorkshire United Independent 
College, William 
Philosophy Paley (Vol. 20, p. 

628), Berkeley (Vol. 
3, p. 779), by Robert Adamson and J. M. 
Mitchell, Thomas Reid (Vol. 23, p. 51), 
by Prof. A. Seth Pringle-Pattison, Edin- 
burgh, David Hartley (Vol. 13, p. 35), 
Abraham Tucker (Vol. 27, p. 361), 
Thomas Paine (Vol. 20, p. 456), Joseph 
Priestly (Vol. 22, p. 322), Richard 
Price (Vol. 22, p. 314), by J. M. Mit- 
chell; William Godwin (Vol. 12, p. 177), 

Sir James Mackintosh 
Politics (Vol. 17, p. 259), Edmund 

Burke (Vol. 4, p. 824), by 
John Morley, and "Junius" (Vol. 15, 
p. 557), — see also Sir Philip Francis 
(Vol. 10, p. 941). 

For the 19th century see the last sec- 
tion of the article English Literature 



(Vol. 9, pp. 636-645), by Thomas Sec- 
combe; and the arti- 
Lake Poets cles: William 

Wordsworth (Vol. 
28, p. 826), by William Minto and Hugh 
Chisholm; S. T. Coleridge (Vol. 6, p. 
678), by J. Mackinnon Robertson, author 
of Modern Humanists, etc., Hugh Chis- 
holm, and the Very Rev. George David 
Boyle; Charles Lamb (Vol. 16, p. 104), 
by E. V. Lucas, editor of Lamb; Will- 
iam Hazlitt (Vol. 13, p. 119), Leigh 
Hunt (Vol. 13, p. 934); De Quincey 
(Vol. 8, p. 61), by J. Ritchie Findlay, 
author of Personal Recollections of De 
Quincey; Keats (Vol. 15, p. 708), by 
A. C. Swinburne and Margaret Bryant; 
Thomas Lovell Beddoes (Vol. 3, p. 
614), Thomas Hood (Vol. 13, p. 666), 
Landor (Vol. 16, p. 161), by A. C. 
Swinburne; Shelley (Vol. 24, p. 827), 
by W. M. Rossetti; Southey (Vol. 25, 
p. 511), Campbell (Vol. 5, p. 130), 

Thomas Moore (Vol. 18, 
Byron p. 810), Lord Byron (Vol. 

4, p. 897), by E. Hartley 
Coleridge, editor of Byron's Poems; 
Francis Jeffrey (Vol. 15, p. 307), 
Sydney Smith (Vol. 25, p. 268), J. G. 

Lockhart (Vol. 16, p. 853), 
Criticism William Gifford (Vol. 12, 

p. 5), Bentham (Vol. 3, 
p. 747), by Dr. T. E. Holland, formerly 
professor of international law, Oxford, 
Malthus (Vol. 17, p. 515), Henry 
Hallam (Vol. 12, p. 851), by Lord 
Lochee of Gowrie; William Roscoe 
(Vol. 23, p. 726), by W. E. A. Axon, 
Manchester Libraries; Lingard (Vol. 16, 
p. 728), Henry Hart Milman (Vol. 18, 
p. 476), Macaulay (Vol. 17, p. 193), 
• by Mark Pattison; Thirl - 
History wall (Vol. 26, p. 851), 

William Mitford (Vol. 
18, p. 620), Grote (Vol. 12, p. 619), by 
J. M. Mitchell, edition of Grote's Greece; 
James Mill (Vol. 18, p. 453), Sir 
William Napier (Vol. 19, p. 175), 
William Cobbett (Vol. 6, p. 606), 
Sir Walter Scott (Vol. 24, p. 469), 



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ENGLISH LITERATURE 



229 



by William Minto; Lever (Vol. 16, 

pp. 508-510), Marryat 
Fiction (Vol. 17, p. 759), Bulwer 

Lytton (Vol. 17, p. 185), 
by Arthur Waugh; Beaconsfield (Vol. 3, 
p. 563), by Frederick Greenwood; Jane 
Austen (Vol. 2, p. 936), by E. V. Lucas; 
Maria Edgeworth (Vol. 8, p. 934), 
Harriet Martineau (Vol. 17, p. 796), 
Mary Russell Mitford (Vol. 18, p. 
619), Elizabeth Cleghorn Gaskell 
(Vol. 11, p. 50i) and the Brontes (Vol. 
4, p. 637), by C. K. Shorter; Thomas 
Love Peacock (Vol. 21, p. 21), by 
Richard Garnett; George Meredith 
(Vol. 18, p. 160), by Hugh Chisholm; 
Tennyson (Vol. 26, 
Tennyson, p. 630), by E. Gosse; 

Browning Elizabeth Bar- 

and Carlyle rett Browning 

(Vol. 4, p. 668), by 
Alice Meynell; Robert Browning 
(Vol. 4, p. 670) and Carlyle (Vol. 5, p. 
349), both by Sir Leslie Stephen; 
Charles -Read (Vol. 22, p. 938), 
Dickens (Vol. 8, p. 178), by Thomas 
Seccombe; Thack- 
Victorian • eray (Vol. 26, p. 

Novelists 716), by W. H. Pol- 

lock; George Eliot 
(Vol. 9, p. 275), by Mrs. Craigie ("John 
Oliver Hobbes"); Anthony Trollope 
(Vol. 27, p. 301), Wilkie Collins (Vol. 
6, p. 693), Charles and Henry Kings- 
ley (Vol. 15, p. 817); Herbert Spencer 
(Vol. 25, p. 634), by F. C. S. Schiller, 

author of Studies in Hu- 
Natural manism, etc. ; John Stuart 
Science Mill (Vol. 18, p. 454), by 

William Minto and J. M. 
Mitchell; Charles Darwin (Vol. 7," 
p. 840), by Prof. E. B. Poulton, Ox- 
ford; Huxley (Vol. 14, p. 17), by Sir 
W. T. Thiselton-Dyer; J. R. Green (Vol. 

12, p. 534), William Stubbs 
History (Vol. 25, p. 1048), E. A. 

Freeman (Vol. 11, p. 79) 
and J. A. Froude (Vol. 11, p. 252), all 
by William Hunt, formerly president 
Royal Historical Society; Lecky (Vol. 16, 



p. 354), Buckle (Vol. 4, p. 732), Maine 
(Vol. 17, p. 432), by Sir Frederick Pol- 
lock; George Borrow (Vol. 4, p. 275), 
by Theodore Watts-Dunton; Edward 

Fitzgerald (Vol. 10, p. 
Arnold 443), by E. Gosse; Mat- 

thew Arnold (Vol. 2, p. 
635), by Theodore Watts-Dunton and 

Sir Joshua Girling Fitch; 
Ruskin John Ruskin (Vol. 23, 

p. 858), by Frederic Har- 
rison; Dante Gabriel Rossetti (Vol. 
23, p. 747), by Theodore Watts-Dunton 
and F. G. Stephens, formerly art-critic 
of the Athenaeum; Swinburne (Vol. 26, 
p. 234), by E. Gosse; William Morris 
(Vol. 18, p. 871), John Addington 
Symonds (Vol. 26, p. 286) and Walter 
Pater (Vol. 20, p. 910) all by Arthur 
Waugh; Newman (Vol. 19, p. 517), by 
Arthur Wollaston 
Oxford Hutton, biographer 

Movement of Manning; John 

Keble (Vol. 15, p. 
710), Edward Bouverie Pusey (Vol. 22, 
p. 667), Richard Jefferies (Vol. 15, p. 
300), by Sir Walter Besant, biographer 
of Jeffries; Thomas Hardy (Vol. 12, 
p. 946), by Arthur Symons; Robert 
Stevenson (Vol. 25, p. 907), by E. Gosse; 
and among later names — the historians 
Lord Acton (Vol. 1, p. 159), by Hugh 

Chisholm, M a n d e l l 
History Creighton (Vol. 7, p. 401), 

Morley (Vol. 18, p. 841), 
Bryce (Vol. 4, p. 699) and Bury (Vol. 4, 
p. 867); the novelists William Black 
(Vol. 4, p. 19), Blackmore (Vol. 4, p. 
24), M. E. Braddon (Vol. 4, p. 369), 
Mrs Humphry Ward (Vol. 28, p. 320), 
Marie Corelli (Vol. 7, p. 143), Hall 
Caine (Vol. 4, p. 949), George Gissing 
(Vol. 12, p. 52), George Moore (Vol. 
18, p. 808), H. G. Wells (Vol. 28, p. 
514), William De Morgan (Vol. 8, p. 
10), Rudyard Kipling (Vol. 15, p. 825), 

by W. Price James, author 
Fiction of Romantic Professions, 

etc.; the critics and essay- 
its Walter Bagehot (Vol. 3, p. 198), 



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230 



BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



by Richard Garnett, Stopford A. Brook 
(Vol. 4, p. 645), Mark Pattison (Vol. 

20, p. 937), Leslie 
Essays and Stephen (Vol. 25, 

Criticism p. 885), by Thomas 

Seccombe, H. D. 
Traill (Vol. 27, p. 155), George 
Saint8bury (Vol. 24, p. 45), Sidney 
Colvin (Vol. 6, p. 748), Watts-Dunton 
(Vol. 28, p. 422), R. C. Jebb (Vol. 15, 
p. 299), F. W. H. Myers (Vol. 19, p. Ill), 
Edward Dowden (Vol. 8, p. 456), Will- 
iam Archer (Vol. 2, p. 862), Richard 
Garnett (Vol. 11, p. 471), Edmund 
Gosse (Vol. 12, p. 268), Andrew Lang 
(Vol. 16, p. 171), G. K. Chesterton 
(Vol. 6, p. Ill), Arthur Symons (Vol. 
26, p. 287), — a list in which it is interest- 
ing to note how many are contributors to 

the Encyclopaedia 
Recent Poetry Britannica; of 

poets, Robert 
Bridges (VoL 4, p. 532), so recently 



named poet-laureate, his predecessor Al- 
fred Austin (Vol. 2, p. 938), William 
Watson (Vol. 28, p. 414), by W. Price 
James, W. B.Yeats (Vol. 28, p. 909), Wil- 
liam Sharp, "Fiona Macleod" (Vol. 24, 
p. 811), Francis Thompson (Vol. 26, p. 
869), John Davidson (Vol. 7, p. 863), 
Sir W. S. Gilbert (Vol. 12, p. 9), by 
Thomas Seccombe; Owen Seaman (Vol. 
24, p. 543), Laurence Binyon (Vol. 3, 
p. 952), H. J. Newbolt (Vol. 19, p. 463), 
Stephen Phillips (Vol. 21, p. 407), 
Alice Meynell (Vol. 18, p. 350); 

and of the younger 
Modern Drama dramatists, Oscar* 

Wilde (Vol. 28, p. 
632), by Hugh Chisholm, Sir A. W. 
Pinero (Vol. 21, p. 625), A. H. Jones 
(Vol. 15, p. 498), J. M. Barrie (Vol. 3, 
p. 485), by W. Price James; G. Ber- 
nard Shaw (Vol. 24, p. 812), — and see 
also under Drama (Vol. 8, especially 
pp. 534-538). 



CHAPTER XXXIX 
GERMAN LITERATURE 



THE article in the Britannica on 
German Literature (Vol. 11, p. 
788; equivalent to 55 pages of this 
Guide) is by Professor John George Rob- 
ertson, University of London, author of 
History of German Literature. This ar- 
ticle is divided into six sections, and fol- 
lowing this scheme the course of reading 
below is divided into six parts, in con- 
nection with each of which the reader 
should first peruse the correspondingly 
numbered section in the article German 
Literature. 

I. The Old High 

Old High German Period, 750- 

German 1050: — the articles 

Ulfilas (Vol. 27, p. 

565), by Charles Anderson Scott, author 



of Ulfilas, Apostle of the Goths; Heliand 
(Vol. 13, p. 221), by Henry Bradley, 
author of The Story of the Goths; Ein- 
hard (Vol. 9, p. 184), by A. W. Hol- 
land; Notker (Vol. 19, p. 824) and 
Hrosvitha (Vol. 13, p. 842), by A. 
W. Ward — and see Prof. Ward on the 
medieval drama in the article Drama 
(Vol. 8, especially p. 497). 

II. The Middle High German Period, 
1050-1350:— the articles Romance (Vol. 
23, p. 500), by George Saintsbury; Wal- 
tharius (Vol. 28, p. 298), 
Middle Nibelungenlied (Vol. 19, 
Period pp. 637-640), Gudrun (Vol. 
12, p. 668), Dietrich of Bern 
(Vol. 8, p. 221), Ortnit (Vol. 20, p. 341), 
Wolfdietrich (Vol. 28, p. 772), Hel- 



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GERMAN LITERATURE 



231 



denbuch (Vol. 13, p. 218), Lay of Hil- 
debrand (Vol. 13, p. 460), by J. G. Rob- 
ertson; Ruodlieb (Vol. 23, p. 854), Ar- 
thurian Legend (Vol. 2, p. 684), Per- 
ceval (Vol. 21, p. 132), and Tristan 
(Vol. 27, pp. 292-294), by J. L. Weston, 
author of Legends of the Wagner Drama; 
Hartmann Von Aue (Vol. 13, p. 37), 

GoTTFRIB* VON STRASSBURG (Vol. 12, p. 

277), Wolfram von Eschenbach (Vol. 
28, p. 775), by J. L. Weston; Walther 

VON DER VoGELWEIDE (Vol. 28, p. 299), 

Minnesingers (Vol. 18, p. 547), Frei- 
dank (Vol. 11, p. 94), Conrad of Wurz- 
burg (Vol. 6, p. 968). 

III. The Transition Period, 1350-1600: 
— the articles Frauenlob (Vol. 11, p. 

42), Reynard the 
14th and 15th Fox (Vol. 23, p. 226), 
Centuries Sebastian Brant 

(Vol. 4, p. 431), 
Maximilian I. (Vol. 17, p. 922), by A. 
W. Holland; Meistersinger (Vol. 18, 
p. 86) and Eulenspiegel (Vol. 9, p. 
887), by J. G. Robertson; Hans Sachs 
(Vol. 23, p. 972), Tauler (Vol. 26, p. 
452), Geiler von Kaiserberg (Vol. 11, 
p. 553), Erasmus (Vol. 9, p. 727), by 
Mark Pattison and P. S. Allen, editor of 
the Oxford Erasmus; Reuchlin (Vol. 23, 
p. 204), by W. Robertson Smith; Ul- 
rich von Hutten (Vol. 14, p. 14), by 
the Very Rev. G. W. Kitchin, Dean of 
Durham; Martin Luther (Vol. 17, p. 
133), by Dr. T. M. Lindsay, author of A 
History of the Reformation; Erasmus Al- 
berus (Vol. 1, p. 504), Thomas Murner 
Vol. 19, p. 37), Johann Fischart (Vol. 
10, p. 425), Philipp Nikodemus Frisch- 

LIN (Vol. 11, p. 232), JORG WlCKRAM 

(Vol. 28, p. 619), Ayrer (Vol. 3, p. 74), 
Faust (Vol. 10, p. 210). 

IV. The Renaissance, 1600-171*0:— the 
articles Paul Gerhardt (Vol. 11, p. 768), 
Jakob Boehme (Vol. 4, p. 113), Georg 

Rudolf Weckherlin 
Renaissance (Vol. 28, p. 464), Mar- 
tin Opitz (Vol. 20, p. 
129), Georg Philipp Harsdorffer 
(Vol. 13, p. 29), Simon Dach (Vol. 



7, p. 726), Paul Fleming (Vol. 10, 
p. 494), von Logau (Vol. 16, p. 
877), Abraham a Sancta Clara 
(Vol. 1, p. 72), Johann von Rist 
(Vol. 23, p. 366), Andreas Gryphius 
(Vol. 12, p. 642), Moscherosch (Vol. 18, 
p. 890), Grimmelshausen (Vol. 12, p. 
603), Pufendorf (Vol. 22, p. 634), 
Thomasius (Vol. 26, p. 868), Christian 
Wolff (Vol. 28, p. 774), by Andrew Seth 
Pringle-Pattison; Leibnitz (Vol. 16, p. 
385), by Prof. W. R. Sorley, Cambridge; 
Spener (Vol. 25, p. 638), von Canitz 
(Vol. 5, p. 183), Johann Christian 
GtfNTHER (Vol. 12, p. 730), B. H. 
Brockes (Vol. 4, p. 624), and, the dic- 
tator of the pseudo-classic age, Gott- 
sched (Vol. 12, p. 279). 

V. The Classical Period of Modern Ger- 
man Literature, 171*0-1832: — the articles 

J. J. Bodmer (Vol. 4, p. 
Classical ill), Gellert (Vol. 11, 

Period p. 558), Rabener (Vol. 

22, p. 773), J. Elias 
Schlegel (Vol. 24, p. 329), K lop- 
stock (Vol. 15, p. 848), Lavater 
(Vol. 16, p. 291), Gerstenberg (Vol. 11, 
p. 907), Gleim (Vol. 12, p. 118), Gotz 
(Vol. 12, p. 289), Uz (Vol. 27, p. 828), 
Ramler (Vol. 22, p. 876), Hagedorn 
(Vol. 12, p. 813), Albrecht von Haller 
(Vol. 12, p. 855), E. C. von Kleist (Vol. 
15, p. 846), Lessing (Vol. 16, pp. 496- 
499), by James Sime, author of A His- 
tory of Germany, and J. G. Robertson, and 
Lessing's associates — Winckelmann 
(Vol. 28, p. 707), by James Sime and J. 
M. Mitchell, Moses Mendelssohn (Vol. 
18, p. 120), by Israel Abrahams, author of 
A Short History of Jewish Literature, and 
C. F. Nicolai (Vol. 19, p. 662)—; Wie- 
land (Vol. 28, p. 621), by J. G. Robert- 
son; M. A. von Thummel (Vol. 26, p. 
898), A. von Knigge (Vol. 15, p. 850), 
Musaus (Vol. 19, p. 43), Basedow (Vol. 
3, p. 461), Pestalozzi (Vol. 21, p. 284), 
Hamann (Vol. 12, p. 869). 

On the Sturm und Drang period, the ar- 
ticles Herder (Vol. 13, p. 347), the Stol- 
bergs (Vol. 25, p. 953), J. H. Voss 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



(Vol. 28, p. 215), Holty (Vol. 13, 
p. 620), Burger (Vol. 
Sturm und 4, p. 812), M. Claud- 
Drang ius (Vol. 6, p. 466),— 

all of the Gottingen 
school; Goethe (Vol. 12, p. 182), by J. 
G. Robertson; his imitators and followers, 
J. M. R. Lenz (Vol. 16, p. 431), Klinger 
(Vol. 15, p. 846), Friedrich ("Maler") 
MtiLLER (Vol. 18, p. 961), Heinse (Vol. 
13, p. 216), K. P. Moritz (Vol. 18, p. 
838); the great dramatist of the late 
Sturm und Drang, Schiller (Vol. 24, p. 
324), by J. G. Robertson; A. W. Iffland 
(Vol. 14, p. 291), F. Jacobi (Vol. 15, p. 
115). 

On the classical period proper, the lat- 
ter part of the article on Goethe and 
Schiller, Immanuel Kant (Vol. 15, p. 
662), and J. G. Fichte (Vol. 10, p. 313), 
both by Robert Adamson; the historians 
Schlosser (Vol. 24, p. 342), Moser 
(Vol. 18, p. 895), and Johannes von 
Muller (Vol. 18, p. 962), by W. A. B. 
Coolidge; the scientists J. G. A. Forster 
(Vol. 10, p. 674), Alexander von Hum- 
boldt (Vol. 13, p. 873), by Agnes Mary 
Clerke, and Karl Wilhelm von Hum- 
boldt (Vol. 13, p. 875), by Archibald 
Henry Sayce; the dramatist Kotzebue 
(Vol. 15, p. 919); the novelist Richter, 
"Jean Paul" (Vol. 23, p. 313); and the 
poet Matthisson (Vol. 17, p. 901). 

On the romantic school: the articles 
on the founders, August Wilhelm 
Schlegel and Friedrich Schlegel 
(Vol. 24, p. 328 and 
Romanticism 329), Tieck (Vol. 26, 
p. 962), Holderlin 
(Vol. 13, p. 583), and Novalis (Vol. 
19, p. 829); in the second Romantic 
school, the more realistic Heidelbergers 
Klemens Brentano (Vol. 4, p. 496), L. 
A. von Arnim (Vol. 2, p. 630), J. J. von 
Gorres (Vol. 12, p. 260), and, owing 
much to the interest in folk-literature of 
the Heidelbergers, the brothers Grimm 
(Vol. 12, pp. 600-602), by Dr. Henry 
Sweet of the University of Oxford, 
Chamisso (Vol. 5, p. 825); the patriot 



poets Korner (Vol. 15, p. 913) and 
Arndt (Vol. 2, p. 627); the North Ger- 
mans Kleist (Vol. 15, p. 846), Zacharias 
Werner (Vol. 28, p. 523), Fouqu6 (Vol. 
10, p. 749), E. T. W. Hoffman (Vol. 13, 

p. 561), ElCHENDORFF (Vol. 9, p. 131), 

and RtfcKERT (Vol. 23, p. 813) and Wil- 
helm Muller (Vol. 18, p. 963), who, 
like Byron, found romance, YJne in the 
Orient and the other in Greek struggles 
for liberty; and, of the Swabian school, 
Uhland (Vol. 27, p. 563), Kerner (Vol. 
15, p. 757), Hauff (Vol. 13, p. 65), and 
Morike (Vol. 18, p. 837); and the phi- 
losopher Schelling (Vol. 24, p. 316). 

VI. Literature since Goethe, 1882 on- 
wards:— Read G. W. F. Hegel (Vol. 13, 
p. 200, by the late Prof. William Wallace 

of Oxford and Prof. J. II. 
1832-1870 Muirhead, University of 

Birmingham) , Schelling's 
successor as a philosophic force in Ger- 
many; the articles on the "Young Ger- 
mans'' Heine (Vol. 13, p. 213), by J. 
Walter Ferrier and J. G. Robertson; 
Borne (Vol. 4, p. 255), Gutzkow (Vol. 
12, p. 744) and Laube (Vol. 16, p. 276); 
and the historians and philosophers D. F. 
Strauss (Vol. 25, p. 1002), Gervinus 
(Vol. 11, p. 908), W. Menzel (Vol. 18, p. 
147) and Feuerbach (Vol. 10, p. 303); 
the dramatists — some more closely con- 
nected with the preceding period, — 
Grabbe (Vol. 12, p. 306) and Grill- 
parzer (Vol. 12, p. 596), Immermann 
(Vol. 14, p. 335) and Platen-Haller- 
mund (Vol. 21, p. 804), Holtei (Vol. 13, 
p. 619), Raupach (Vol. 22, p. 921) and 
Mullner (Vol. 18, p. 965), and, in Aus- 
tria, besides Grillparzer, Collin (Vol. 
6, p. 690), Munch-Bellinghausen, 
"Friedrich Halm" (Vol. 19, p. 2), Bauern- 
feld (Vol. 3, p. 538) and Raimund (Vol. 
22, p. 861); the novelists Willibald 
Alexis (Vol. 1, p. 576), Hauff (Vol. 13, 
p. 65) and Zschokke (Vol. 28, p. 1046); 
and such poets of the '30 and the '48 as 
Herwegh (Vol. 13, p. 405), Freiligrath 
(Vol. 11, p. 94), Dingelstedt (Vol. 8, p. 
275), Hoffmann von Fallersleben (Vol. 



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GERMAN LITERATURE 



233 



13, p. 561), and, in Austria, a little earlier, 
Auersperg, "Anastasius Grtin" (Vol. 2, 
p. 900); and the possibly greater poets 
who were less interested in politics, 
Geibel (Vol. 11, p. 550), Lenau (Vol. 16, 
p. 417), Strachwitz (Vol. 25, p. 976), 
and Droste-Hulshoff (Vol. 8, p. 591). 
On the mid-century period: — the arti- 
cles on Schopenhauer (Vol. 24, p. 372, 
by Prof. Wallace), — the philosopher of 
the new age; the natural scientists Vogt 
(Vol. 28, p. 172), and Buchner (Vol. 4, 
p. 719); the fiction writers Spielhagen 
(Vol. 25, p. 667), Gustav Freytag (Vol. 

11, p. 212), Ebers (Vol. 8, p. 841), Dahn 
(Vol. 7, p. 734), "Charles Sealsfield" 
(Vol. 24, p. 543), Gerstacker (Vol. 11, 
p. 906), Storm (Vol. 25, p. 968), Gott- 
fried Keller (Vol. 15, p. 718); and, 
among those who portrayed peasant and 
provincial life, Bitzius, "Jeremias Gott- 
helf" (Vol. 4, p. 15), Auerbach (Vol. 2, 
p. 899), Softer (Vol. 25, p. 915), Fritz 
Reuter (Vol. 23, p. 210); the dramatists 
Hebbel (Vol. 18, p. 165) and Otto Lud- 
wig (Vol. 17, p. 114); in the Munich 
School, Bodenstedt (Vol. 4, p. 109), 
Scheffel (Vol. 24, p. 315), Baumbach 
(Vol. 3, p. 539), Hamerling (Vol. 12, p. 
876), Hexse (Vol. 13, p. 438); and the 
Platt-Deutsch poet Klaus Groth (Vol. 

12, p. 621). 

On the period since 1870, see the articles 
Lassalle (Vol. 16, p. 235, by Thomas 

Kirkup, author of An In- 
Since 1870 quiry into Socialism) and 

Marx (Vol. 17, p. 807, by 
Eduard Bernstein, Socialist deputy on the 



Reichstag) for new economic views; and 
Lotze (Vol. 17, p. 23), by J. T. Merz, 
author of European Thought in the XlXth 
Century, and Henry Sturt, author of 
Personal Idealism, and Eduard von 
Hartmann (Vol. 13, p. 36) for philo- 
sophical compromises between science 
and metaphysics and between pessimism 
and idealism; the dramatists Anzengru- 
ber (Vol. 2, p. 158), Paul Lindau (Vol. 
16, p. 717, and, composer and dramatist, 
Richard Wagner (Vol. 28, p. 236), by W. 
S. RocLstro, author of A Great History of 
Music, and D. F. Tovey, author of Essays 
in Musical Analysis; the historians Sybel 
(Vol. 26, p. 275), Treitschke (Vol. 27, p. 
238), Ranke (Vol. 22, p. 893), Mommsen 
(Vol. 18, p. 683) and Burckhardt (Vol. 
4, p. 809); and Burckhardt's friend, the 
early friend of Wagner and the type of a 
new spirit in German letters, Nietzsche 
(Vol. 19, p. 6*2), by F. C. S. Schiller, 
Oxford, author of Studies in Human- 
ism. 

The most important names of the last 
few years are Sudermann (Vol. 26, p. 20) 
and Hauptmann (Vol. 13, p. 68). See, 
besides, the articles on Wilhelm Jensen 
(Vol. 15, p. 321), Wilhelm Raabe (Vol. 
22, p. 765), W. Busch (Vol. 4, p. 869), 
Peter Rosegger (Vol. 23, p. 734), Fon- 
tane (Vol. 10, p. 608), Ebner-Eschen- 
bach (Vol. 8, p. 843), Franzos (Vol. 11, 
p. 38), K. F. Meyer (Vol. 18, p. 349), 
Richard Voss (Vol. 28, p. 215), Ernst 
von Wildenbruch (Vol. 28, p. 633), and 
for modern German drama, in the article 
Drama (Vol. 8, especially, pp. 535-536). 



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CHAPTER XL 



GREEK LITERATURE 



IN the article Literature in the Bri- 
tannica, by Professor James Fitzmaur- 
ice-Kelly, himself a specialist in Span- 
ish literature, are these sentences: 

The evolution of literature is completed 
in Greece, and there its subdivisions may 
best be studied. Epic poetry is represented 
by the Homeric cycle, lyric poetry by Tyr- 
taeus, dramatic poetry by Aeschylus, his- 
tory by Herodotus, oratory by Pericles, 
philosophy by Plato, and criticism by Zoilus, 
the earliest of slashing reviewers; and in 
each department there is a long succession 
of illustrative names. Roughly speaking, all 
subsequent literature is imitative. 

This testimony to the importance of 
Greek literature is all the more weighty 
as coming from one whose own field of 
criticism is in Romantic literature. The 
authority with which such an important 
subject as Greek literature is treated in 
the Britannica will be apparent to any 
classical student who notes the names of 
the contributors of the articles men- 
tioned in the following course of reading. 

The key article 
The Main Greek Literature 

Article (Vol. 12, p. 507; 

equivalent to 65 
pages of this Guide) is divided into three 
sections: Ancient (p. 507), Byzantine (p. 
516) and Modern (p. 524). The second 
section, by Pnof. Karl Krumbacher of 
Munich, author of Geschichie der byzantin- 
ischen Literatur, and the third, by J. D. 
Bourchier, correspondent of The Times 
(London) in South-Eastern Europe, need 
not be dwelt upon here. To the ordinary 
student, in spite of the increasing interest 
shown in Byzantine and modern Hellenic 
literature, "Greek literature" must mean 
the literature of ancient Greece, and for 
him the first part of the article will be the 
foundation of his study of the subject. 
This section of the article is by the late 



Sir Richard C. Jebb, professor of Greek at 
Glasgow and then at Cambridge, known 
as the biographer of Bentley, as the 
author of an excellent brief history of 
Greek literature, and as an authority on 
subdivisions of that subject so diverse as 
rhetoric and oratory on the one side 
and lyric and dramatic poetry on the 
other. 

Jebb's article divides ancient Greek 
literature into three periods: Early, in- 
cluding epic, elegiac, iambic and lyric 
poetry and coming -down to 475 B.C.; 
Attic, 475-300 B.C., including tragic and 
comic drama and historical, oratorical 
and philosophical prose; and Decadence — 
Alexandrian, 300-146 B.C., and Greco- 
Roman, 146 B.C.-529 A.D. 

In the first of these periods the student 
should supplement Professor Jebb's treat- 
ment in the article Greek Literature 
by the following articles: 
Epic Epic Poetry (Vol. 9, p. 

681), a general sketch of 
the form by Edmund Gosse; Homer (Vol. 
13, p. 626; equivalent to 40 pages of this 
Guide), by the late Prof. David Binning 
Monro of Oriel College, Oxford, editor of 
Homer and author of Grammar of the 
Homeric Dialect, — and on the "Homeric 
question" see also the articles Aris- 
tarchus and F. A. Wolf; Hesiod (Vol. 
13, p. 407), by James Davies, formerly 
head master Ludlow Grammar School, 
and John Henry Freese, formerly fellow 
St. John's, Cambridge; Cycle (Vol. 7, p. 
682; last part of the article); and the 
cyclic poets, Stasinus, Arctinl t s, Les- 
ches, and Creophylus. 

For the elegy see Edmund Gosse's ar- 
ticle Elegy; and on the Greek elegists, 
the articles Callinus and TrRTiEus for 
martial poetry, Mimnermus for melan- 



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choly verse, Solon for political and 
ethical poetry, Theqgnis 
Elegy and Phocylides for the 

gnomic elegy, and Xeno- 
phanes for the use of the measure in di- 
dactic philosophical verse. On iambic 
verse and its Greek writers before the 
time of the drama see: Iambic, Archi- 
lochus, Simonides of Amorgos, and 

HlPPONAX. 

The third poetic form of the period, 
one which unfortunately has come down 
to us only in tantalizingly brief fragments 
— comparable to the 
Lyric Poetry quotations illustrat- 

ing word-usage * in 
our dictionaries — is the lyric. On this 
see the general article Lyrical Poetry, 
by Edmund Gosse, on this form in dif- 
ferent literatures, and the sketches of the 
Greek lyrists the Aeolians Alcaeus (see 
also the article Alcaics) and Sappho, by 
Prof. John Arthur Piatt, University Col- 
lege, London; Praxilla and Erinna, 
Sappho's rivals as lyric poetesses; (the 
Ionian Anacreon (see also the article 
Anacreontics, by Edmund Gosse); the 
Dorian Alcman; Stesichorus, Arion 
and Ibycus; Simonides, who may be 
called Panhellenic; Pindar (Vol. 21, p. 
617; equivalent to 10 pages of this Guide, 
by Sir R. C. Jebb), the only Greek lyrist 
whose work has come down to us in any 
considerable quantity, and whose poems 
are such remarkable examples of metrical 
structure; Bacchylides (Vol. 3, p. 121; 
equivalent to 9 pages of this Guide; also 
by Sir R. C. Jebb, who was one of the 
first editors), Pindar's rival, whose poems 
until a few years ago were known to us 
only by brief quotations by grammarians, 
but who had the good luck to survive in 
papyrus lately found in Egypt; and 
Timotheus of Miletus, of whose "Per- 
sians" a valuable fragment was found in 
1903 in what seems to be the oldest papy- 
rus in existence. 

The Attic period has two important de- 
velopments — the drama, tragic and com- 
ic, and the beginnings of a Greek prose. 



For the drama read the part of Prof. 
A. W. Ward's arti- 
Attic cle Drama dealing 

Literature with the Greek period 

(Vol. 8, pp. 488-493), 
and the article Comedy; and the articles 
on the great dramatists: — the tragedians 
Thespis, Choerilus, Phrynichus and 
Pratinas in the earlier period; Aeschy- 
lus (Vol. 1, p. 272; equivalent to 12 pages 
of this Guide), by Arthur Sidgwick, fel- 
low of Corpus Christi, Oxford, and editor 
of the Oxford text of Aeschylus; Soph- 
ocles (Vol. 25, p. 424; equivalent to 12 
pages of this Guide), by Lewis Campbell, 
editor and translator of this poet; and 
Euripides (Vol. 9, p. 901; equivalent to 
15 pages of this Guide), in the main by 
Sir R. C. Jebb; and the comic poets, — the 

Sicilian Epicharmus; the 
Comedy representatives of the Attic 

Old Comedy, Cratinus, 
Crates, Pherecrates, Eupolis, Phry- 
nichus (not to be confused with the 
tragic poet of that name), Magnes, 
Plato (to be distinguished from the phi- 
losopher), — all these known to us only by 
allusions and chance quotations — and 
Aristophanes (Vol. 2, p. 499; equivalent 
to 7 pages of this Guide, by Sir R. C. 
Jebb), the only Greek poet of whom we 
have complete plays and probably the 
greatest of the writers of Greek comedy; 
the names — they are little more — of 
Eubulus, Antiphanes, Alexis in the 
Middle Comedy; and in the New Comedy 
or third period, Philemon, Menander 
(by J. H. Freese), who was so highly 
esteemed and so constantly pilfered from 
by the Roman comic writers, and of whose 
plays large fragments have been found in 
the last few years; Diphilus, Apollo- 
dorus of Carystus, Posidippus, Rhin- 
thon and Sotades. 

The prose of the Attic period we may 
divide roughly into history, oratory and 

philosophy. On the his* 
History torians read Logographi, 

Greece, Ancient History, 
"Authorities" (Vol. 1«, p. 454), with 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



criticism of the historical accuracy of 
Herodotus, Thucydides, Diodorus, Plu- 
tarch, Xenophon, etc., Hecataeus of 
Miletus, Herodotus (Vol. 13, p. 381; 
equivalent to 10 pages of this Guide), by 
the historian George Rawlinson and E. M. 
Walker, librarian of Queen's College, Ox- 
ford; Thucydides (Vol. 26, p. 893; equi- 
valent to 10 pages of the Guide), by Sir 
R. C. Jebb, and Malcolm Mitchell, editor 
of Grote's Greece; Xenophon (Vol. 28, p. 
885; equivalent to 7 pages in this Guide), 
by E. M. Walker and J. H. Freese; 
Ctesia8, Philistus, Theopompus, and 

TlMAEUS. 

On Attic orators read Andocides, 
Lysias, Isocrates, Isaeus, Antiphon, 
Demosthenes, Aeschines, Hypereides, 
— most of these articles 
Oratory being by Sir R. C. Jebb, 
who was particularly versed 
in this branch of Greek literature. The 
special student of the orators should read 
also the articles Greek Law (Vol. 12, p. 
501 ; equivalent to 15 pages in this Guide), 
by Prof. J. E. Sandys of Cambridge, au- 
thor of A History of Classical Scholarship, 
etc.; Sophists (Vol. 25, p. 418, equivalent 
to 20 pages of this Guide), by Prof. Henry 
Jackson of Cambridge, a well-known 
writer on Greek philosophy, and Rhet- 
oric (Vol. 23, p. 233), by Sir R. C. Jebb. 

On Greek philosophical writing see the 
articles Pherecydes of Syros, Anaxi- 
menes of Miletus, Anaximander, and 
the names great not only in Greek 
thought and literature but in the world's 
— Plato (Vol. 21, p. 808; equivalent to 
about 50 pages of this Guide), by Lewis 
Campbell, editor and critic of many of 
the Platonic dialogues, and Aristotle 
(Vol. 2, p. 501; equivalent to 70 pages of 
this Guide), by Prof. Thomas Case, Ox- 
ford, author of Physical Realism, etc. 
For a fuller guide to Greek philosophy 
see the chapter in this Guide on Philoso- 
phy. 



The third period of classical Greek lit- 
erature was one of Greek thought in un- 
Greek surroundings — see the article Hel- 
lenism, by E. R. Bevan, author of 
The House of Seleucus, etc., — and this 
came to its first and 
Decadence finest flower in Al- 

exandria, in Egypt, 
under the Ptolemies — see the article 
Alexandrian School, especially that 
part of it dealing with Literature (Vol. 1, 
p. 573). On the writers of the Alex- 
andrian period see : for poetry, Philetas, 
Hermesianax, Asclepiades of Samos, 
and the comic poets Sotades and Rhin- 
thon, already mentioned; Herod as, by 
W. G. Headlam, editor of Herodas; the 
idyllist Theocritus (Vol. 26, p. 760), 
by A. C. Clark, fellow of Queen's, Oxford; 
Theocritus's followers Bion and Mos- 
chus; the mythologist Callimachus, 
who influenced Catullus as much as 
Theocritus did the young Virgil; the 
didactic poet Aratus, whom Cicero 
translated into Latin and whom Virgil 
imitated in his Georgics; the epic Apol- 
lonius of Rhodes, and the late tragedian 
Lycophron; and for prose the critic 
Aristarchus. 

In the Greco-Roman period, following 
the Alexandrian the principal articles for 
the student are: the historians Polybius 
and Diodorus Siculus, the satirist 
Lucian, the later historians Dionysius 
Halicarnassensis, Dio Cassius, Ar- 
rian, Appian, Herodian, Eusebius, 
Zosimus, the biographers Plutarch, 
Diogenes Laertius, Philostratus, the 
rhetoricians Longinus and Dio Chry- 
sostom, and the emperor philosopher 
Marcus Aurelius and his forerunner 
the "slave philosopher" Epictetus. 

Possibly the most typical output of the 
later Greek age is the matchless collec- 
tion of short poems known to us as "the 
Greek Anthology"; on this see the ar- 
ticles Epigram and Anthology. 



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CHAPTER XLI 



BIBLE STUDY 



IT is impossible for the student to 
consider the subject of Bible Study 
without being impressed by the im- 
mense labour and the profound scholar- 
ship which have been devoted to the 
interpretation and discussion of Scripture. 
Continued investigation has solved many 
difficulties, but has also vastly increased 
the mass of evidences and conjectures 
which must be weighed in connection 
with any doubtful passages. The Bri- 
tannica tells us, for example, (Vol. 8, 
pp. 908, 904) that the translators of the 
King James's version spent only two 
years and nine months over their task, 
while the work on the Revised Version 
took eleven years for the New Testament 
and fourteen for the Old Testament. 

It is equally true that all the time 
which learned men have given to trans- 
lating and elucidating the text seems 
nothing when it is 
The Bible as compared with the 

a Focus of time that mankind 

Thought at large have spent 

in reading it. But 
the Britannica mentions a report of the 
great English Bible Society, the "British 
and Foreign," in which the copies cir- 
culated by it are totalled at more than 
198 million, and, for the American Bible 
Society and its federated associations, 
it gives a total of more than 84 million 
copies (Vol. 8, p. 907). It has often 
been said that the English Bible is the 
only example of a translation that be- 
came more famous than the original, 
and it is as true that no other transla- 
tion has been the source of so many 
secondary translations, for versions in 



no less than 530 distinct languages and 
dialects have been derived from the Eng- 
lish text. It is interesting to note, al- 
though in this case the English version 
has certainly nothing to do with the 
matter, that "in Italy, by a departure 
from the traditional policy of the Roman 
Church, the newly formed, 'Pious Society 
of St. Jerome for the Dissemination of 
the Holy Gospels' issued in 1901, from 
the Vatican press, a new Italian version 
of the Four Gospels and Acts" and sold 
400,000 copies at 4 cents each. 

As a sort of threshold-study, it will 
be well to consider three topics: Hebrew 
Literature, Hebrew Religion and Biblical 
History. 

Hebrew Literature (Vol. 13, p. 
169), by Dr. Arthur Cowley, of the 
Bodleian Library, Oxford, points out 
that the term "He- 
Preliminaries brew Literature" is 
loosely used of "all 
works written in Hebrew characters, 
whether the language be Aramaic, Arabic, 
or even some vernacular not related to 
Hebrew ;" and that "this literature be- 
gins with, as it is almost entirely based 
upon, the Old Testament." This article 
on Hebrew Literature may be supple- 
mented by the following articles : 

Targum, by John Frederick Stenning, 
lecturer in Aramaic at Oxford. 

(by Israel Abrahams, read- 
er in Talmudic and 
Rabbinic Literature, 
Cambridge. 



Talmud 
Midrash 



( by Stanley Arthur Cook, 
\ lecturer in Hebrew and 



Syriac, Cambridge. 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



Seadiah, by Dr. Arthur Cowley. 

Maimonides, by Herbert Loewe, cur- 
ator of Oriental Lit- 
erature, Cambridge. 

Quite as important is the article He- 
brew Religion (Vol. 13, p. 176), by 
the Rev. Dr. Owen Charles Whitehouse 
of Christ's and Ches- 
Hebrew . hunt Colleges, Cam- 

Religion bridge. His treat- 

ment of the subject 
is comparative and historical. There 
is an interesting summary of what is 
known and may be inferred about pre- 
Mosaic religion; and it is important to 
notice that the author does not consider 
that the plural Elohim used in certain 
Old Testament passages to mean "God" 
is to be understood as "a comprehensive 
expression for the multitude of gods 
embraced in the One God of Old Testa- 
ment religion," but explains the plural 
as one "of majesty" like the "we" of 
royalty. Blood-offerings and magic 
charms against demons and jinns may 
be assumed as belonging to the early 
Hebrew religion as to the later Arabian 
period before Mahomet. Dr. White- 
house thinks that there is little or no 
trace of totemism but possibly some of 
ancestor-worship in the Jews' religion. 

Among the many articles supplement- 
ing this general treatment of Hebrew 
religion the following are possibly the 
most important: 

Circumcision, by Israel Abrahams. 

Teraphim, by W. Robertson Smith 
and G. H. Box, formerly lecturer in 
theology, Oxford. 

Baal, by W. Robertson Smith and 
Stanley Arthur Cook, editor for Palestine 
Exploration Fund. 

Calf, The Golden, by S. A. Cook. 

High Places. 

Feasts and Festivals. 

Passover, by Dr. Joseph Jacobs of 
the Jewish Theological Seminary of 
New York City. 

Pentecost, by Dr. O. C. Whitehouse. 



Ark, by Stanley Arthur Cook. 

Tabernacle and Temple, by Dr. 
Archibald R. S. Kennedy, professor of 
Hebrew and Semitic languages, Edin- 
burgh. 

Ephod, by S. A. Cook. 

Urim and Thummim, by G. H. Box. 

Prophet, by W. Robertson Smith, 
Owen Charles Whitehouse, Adolf Har- 
nack of Berlin, and Professor A. C. Mc- 
Giffert of Union Theological Seminary, 
New York. 

Jehovah, by George Foot Moore, pro- 
fessor of history of religion, Harvard. 

Messiah, by W. Robertson Smith and 
O. C. Whitehouse. 

Eschatology, by Dr. A. E. Garvie, 
principal of New College, Hampstead. 

Angel, by William Henry Bennett, 
professor of Old Testament Exegesis in 
New and Hackney Colleges, London. 

The third topic is history and for 
this the student should read the article 
Jews (Vol. 15, p. 371), especially the 
part on Old Testament His- 
Biblical tory, by S. A. Cook; the 
History article Palestine, Physical 
Features, by R. A. S. Mac- 
alister, director of excavations for the 
Palestine Exploration Fund, Old Testa- 
ment History, by S. A. Cook, especially 
the treatment of Biblical Religion (pp. 
610-611 of Vol. 20); Canaan, by Dr. 
Thomas Kelly Cheyne, formerly Oriel 
professor of interpretation of Scripture, 
Oxford; Hittites, by D. G. Hogarth, 
keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, 
Oxford. 

But of course the central article for the 
Bible student is the article Bible (Vol. 
3, p. 849), which is divided into two 
main parts — Old 
The Article Testament and New 

Bible Testament, each of 

these being divided 
in turn into five parts: Canon, Texts and 
Versions, Textual Criticism, Higher Crit- 
icism, and Chronology. This logical 
arrangement greatly enhances the value 
of the article, which is in itself an ex- 



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cellent summary of the subject written 
by the following authorities: Dr. Samuel 
Rolles Driver, professor of Hebrew, 
Oxford, on Old Testament canon and 
chronology; John Frederick Stenning, 
dean of Wadham College, Oxford, and 
lecturer in Aramaic, on Old Testament 
texts and versions; Dr. George Buchanan 
Gray, professor of Hebrew and Old 
Testament exegesis, Mansfield College, 
Oxford, on Old Testament textual and 
higher criticism ; Dr. William Sanday, 
professor of Divinity and canon of 
Christ Church, Oxford, on New Testa- 
ment canon; the Rev. Kirsopp Lake, 
author of The Text of the New Testament, 
etc., and professor of New Testament 
exegesis at Leiden, on New Testament 
texts and versions and textual criticism; 
Dr. Francis Crawford Burkitt, professor 
of divinity, Cambridge, and author of 
The Gospel History and its Transmission, 
etc., on New Testament higher criticism; 
and Cuthbert Hamilton Turner, of 
Magdalen College, Oxford, on New Test- 
ament chronology. 

The article Bible, English (Vol. 3, 
p. 894), by Anna C. Paues, author of 
A Fourteenth Century Biblical Version, 
and Canon Henson of Westminster 
Abbey (on the Revised Version) is ac- 
companied by a plate with fac-similes of 
several early English Bibles and is 
besides of special value as giving quo- 
tations from different versions in Anglo- 
Saxon and later English. The article 
Bible Societies (Vol. 3, p. 905), by the 
Rev. Thomas Herbert Darlow, literary 
superintendent of the British and For- 
eign Bible Society, will also be of value 
to the student. 

One other general article should be 
studied before the articles on different 
books of the Bible are taken up. This is — 

Inspiration (Vol. 14, p. 645), by Dr. 

Alfred Ernest Gar- 

Inspiration vie, author of Studies 

in the Inner Life of 

Jesus; it outlines the principal theories of 

inspiration — 



(1) Mechanical dictation or verbal in- 
spiration; 

(2) Dynamic influence or degrees of 
inspiration; 

(3) Essential inspiration, distinguish- 
ing matters of doctrine and conduct from 
the remaining contents of Scripture; 

(4) Vital inspiration, emphasizing re- 
ligious and moral life. 

A course of study in the books of the 
Bible may well start with the outline 
in the article Bible, 
The especially pages 851- 

Hexateuch 854 for the Old Tes- 

tament. For the 
Hexateuch the student should read first 
the brief article Hexateuch; then what 
there is under Bible on pp. 851-852 of 
Vol. 3; then under Jews for the early 
period; and then the articles: 

Genesis, by S. A. Cook; and the 
subsidiary articles: Cosmogony, Eden, 
Paradise, Adam, Eve, Abel, Cain, 
Enoch, Lamech, Noah, Deluge, Ara- 
rat, Ark, Babel, Canaan, Genealogy, 
Nimrod, Ham, Shem, Japheth, Abra- 
ham, Beersheba, Melchizedek, Isaac, 
Midian, Abimelech, Ishmael, Esau, 
Jacob, Jacob's Well, Bethel, Israel, 
Simeon, Shechem, Reuben, Issachar, 
Zebulun, Dan, Naphtali, Asher, Gad, 
Manasseh, Joseph, Benjamin, Lot, 
Moab, Ammonites, Goshen, etc. 

Exodus, Book of, by John Frederick 
Stenning, and Exodus by S. A. Cook; 
and the articles Moses, Aaron, Rameses, 
Pithom, Amalekites, Jethro, Passover, 
Sinai, Horeb, Decalogue, Sabbath, 
Calf (Golden), Tabernacle, Ark, 
Urim and Thummim. 

Leviticus, by J. F. Stenning and 
Levites, by S. A. Cook; and Sacrific e. 
Atonement and Day of Atonement, 
Moloch, Pentecost. 

Numbers, by Dr. James Alexander 
Paterson, professor of Hebrew, New 
College, Edinburgh; and the article? 
Balaam, Hebron. 

Deuteronomy, by Dr. Paterson, and 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



the articles Ezra, Nehemiah, and 
Josiah. 

Joshua, by S. A. Cook, and the articles 
Amalekites, Gibeonites, Hivites, 
Philistines, Gezer, Judah, Caleb, 
Shechem. 

Judges, Book of, by S. A. Cook, and 
the articles, Othniel, Ehud, Deborah, 
Gibeon, Abimelech, Jephthah, Shib- 
boleth, Samson, Ephod, Teraphim, 
Micah (of Ephraim). 

Samuel, Books of, and Samuel, by 

S. A. Cook; and the articles Eli, Shiloh, 

Ar£, Saul, Jonathan, David, Goliath, 

"Ahithophel, Jashar, Absalom, Jerah- 

meel, ken1tes. 

Kings, Books of, by S. A. Cook; and 
the articles David, Adonijah, Solomon, 
Temple, Jerusalem, Abiathar, Joab, 
Ephraim, Jeroboam, Rehoboam, Asa, 
Omri, Ahab, Jehoshaphat, Jehoram, 
Athaliah, Ahaziah, Elijah, Carmel, 
Jordan, Elisha, Jehu, Rechabites, 
joash, azariah, hosea, uzziah, ahaz, 
Isaiah, Hezekiah, Manasseh, Josiah, 
Jehoiachin, Samaria. 

Chronicles, by W. Robertson Smith 
and S. A. Cook; and the articles Absalom, 
David, Uzziah, Jubilees, Midrash, 
Levites and many mentioned above un- 
der Samuel and Kings. 

Ezra and Nehemiah, Books of, by 
S. A. Cook; the article Ezra; and, as the 
books are to be grouped with Chronicles, 
that article and Deuteronomy, and the 
article Samaritans and those on the 
two "apocryphal" books, Ezra, Third 
Book of, and Ezra, Fourth Book of, 
by Dr. Robert Henry Charles, lecturer 
in Biblical studies, Oxford. See also 
Synagogue. 

For the prophetical books the article 
Prophet as an 
The Prophets introduction, and 

then : 

Isaiah, by T. K. Cheyne; and, for 
outline, under Bible, Vol. 3, p. 853; and 
Emmanuel (on chap. 7) and Messiah 
and Atonement (on chap. 53). 

Jeremiah, by T. K. Cheyne; and the 



articles Baruch, Zedekiah, Nebu- 
chadrezzar, Edom, Ammonites, Moab. 

Lamentations, by the Rev. Charles 
James Ball, lecturer in Assyriology, 
Oxford, with peculiarly valuable infor- 
mation about poetical structure and 
acrostic verse, some suggested emenda- 
tions of the text, and a summary of the 
arguments in regard to the authorship. 

Ezekiel, by Professor C. H. Toy of 
Harvard University; and the articles 
Zedekiah, and, for certain literary 
forms, Allegory and Parable. 

The Minor Prophets: see Vol. 3, p. 

853; Vol. 22, p. 

Minor Prophets 443; Vol. 13, p. 

183. 

Hosea, by W. Robertson Smith and the 
Rev. Henry Wheeler Robinson, professor 
of church history, Rawdon College, 
Leeds; articles Baal, Calf (Golden), 
etc. 

Joel, by W. Robertson Smith and 
T. K. Cheyne; and Eschatology, etc. 

Amos, by T. K. Cheyne; Jeroboam, 
etc. 

Obadiah, by W. Robertson Smith and 
H. W. Robinson; and Edom, Eschatol- 
ogy, etc. 

Jonah, by T. K. Cheyne; and the arti- 
cle Nineveh, and, for an explanation of 
the "great fish," Cosmogony. 

Micah, by W. Robertson Smith and 
H. W. Robinson; and Samaria, High 
Place, Messiah, Eschatology. 

Nahum, by G. H. Box; Nineveh, etc. 

Habakkuk, by H. W. Robinson; 
Chaldaean, etc. 

Zephaniah, by S. A. Cook; and^BAAL, 
Moloch, Costume, Oriental (Vol. 7, 
p. 226 sq., for chap. 1, v. 8), etc. 

Haggai, by W. Robertson Smith and 
Dr. A. J. Grieve, professor at the United 
Independent College, Bradford; and the 
article Temple. 

Zechariah, by Julius Wellhausen, 
professor at Gottingen, and H. W. 
Robinson; and the articles Angel, Tem- 
ple, Messiah, Zion, Japheth and Io- 
nians (for "Javan" of chap. 9, v. 13). 



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Malachi, by W. Robertson Smith and 
H. W. Robinson. 

Psalms is by W. Robertson Smith and 
Dr. Robert Hatch Kennett, Canon of 
Ely and professor of Hebrew, 
Psalms Cambridge; read the arti- 
cles Hallel, David, Solo- 
mon, Temple, Levites (for Levitical 
Psalms), Asaph, Chronicles, Ezra, 
Psaltery, Liturgy, the section of He- 
brew Hymnody in, and the whole article 
Hymns; Bible, English, for the version 
of the Psalms in the English Prayer 
Book from the Great Bible; and, for 
Psalms 9, 10, 25, 34, 37, 111, 112, 119 
and 145, and the article Acrostic. See 
also R. H. Charles's article on the apo- 
cryphal book, Solomon, Psalms of. 

The student should read the article 
Wisdom Literature, by Prof. C. H. 
Toy of Harvard as an 
Wisdom introduction to Prov- 

Literature erbs, Job and Eccle- 
siastes (and to the 
apocryphal Wisdom, Book of — see 
article by Professor Toy; Ecclesias- 
ticus, — see article by William Emery 
Barnes, Hulsean professor of Divinity, 
Cambridge; Tobit, — see article by St. 
George Stock, lecturer University of Bir- 
mingham; and 4th Maccabees — see the 
article Maccabees, by Dr. William Fair- 
weather, editor of Maccabees in the 
"Cambridge Bible for Schools.") 

Proverbs, Book of, by C. H. Toy; 
and the articles Solomon, Proverb and, 
for other famous collections, Publilius, 
Erasmus, etc. 

Job, by Dr. Andrew B. Davidson, late 
professor of Oriental languages, New Col- 
lege, Edinburgh, and author of a Com- 
mentary on Job, and Prof. C. H. Toy; 
and the articles Devil (for the meaning of 
"Satan" in chap. 1, v. 6); Sabaeans, Uz, 
Behemoth, etc. 

Ecclesiastes, by Professor Toy; the 
articles Pessimism, Eschatology, Sad- 
ducees. 

Canticles, by W. Robertson Smith 
and H. W. Robinson. 



Esther, by T. K. Cheyne and, on the 
•'additions," Dr. 
Other Robert Henry 

Old Testament Charles, Grinfield 
Books lecturer, Oxford; 

and the articles 
Ahasuerus, Susa, Cosmogony, Purim. 

Ruth, by W. Robertson Smith and S. 
A. Cook; and the articles Bethlehem, 
Caleb, and, for the marriage custom 
underlying the story, the article on 
Levirate. 

Daniel, by John Dyneley Prince, pro- 
fessor of Semitic languages, Columbia 
University, and, for the "additions,' * Su- 
sannah, Bel and the Dragon, and The 
Song of the Three Children, the Rev. Dr. 
Robert Henry Charles; the article Sem- 
itic Languages for the Aramaic of chap- 
ters 2 (from verse 4) to 7; Angels, Ga- 
briel, Michael; Chaldaean and Chal- 
dee; Belshazzar; Apocalyptic Litera- 
ture (for chapters 7-12). 

Before passing to the New Testament 
the student should read the article Apoc- 
ryphal Literature, by Robert Henry 
Charles; and the ar- 
Apocrypha tides on the separate 

books: Ezra, Third 
Book of (1 Esdras) and Ezra, Fourth 
Book (or Apocalypse), both by Robert 
Henry Charles; Judith, by the same 
scholar; Ecclesiasticus, by Dr. W. E. 
Barnes; Baruch, by R. H. Charles; 
Tobit, by St. George Stock; Jeremy, 
Epistle of, by R. H. Charles; Macca- 
bees, Books of, and Maccabees, by the 
Rev. Dr. William Fairweather; Manas- 
ses, Prayer of, by R. H. Charles, and 
Manasseh; and Wisdom, Book of, by 
C. H. Toy. 

The general articles preliminary to a 
study of the New Testament are: — be- 
sides the part of the article Bible dealing 
with New Testa- 
New Testament ment, Canon, Criti- 
cism, Text, Chron- 
ology, etc. — the following: 

Messiah, by W. Robertson Smith and 
Dr. Owen Charles Whitehouse, lecturer 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



in Hebrew, Cheshunt College, Cam- 
bridge. 

Jesus Christ, by the Very Rev. Dr. 
Joseph Armitage Robinson, dean of 
Westminster, constituting a critical out- 
line of the gospel story. 

Christianity, by Dr. George William 
Knox, late professor of philosophy and 
history of religion, Union Theological 
Seminary, New York City. 

In outlining a course of study on the 
New Testament, the order of the books as 
printed in English Bibles will not be fol- 
lowed absolutely. Here, as in studying 
the Old Testament, a rearrangement 
may be worth while for topical study. 

But first the student should read the 
article Gospel, by the Rev. Dr. Vincent 
Henry Stanton, professor of divinity, 
Cambridge, and au- 
The Gospels thor of The Gospels 

as Historical Docu- 
ments, etc.; and the article by Dr. Kirsopp 
Lake on Tatian the compiler of the 
Diatessaron or "Gospel of the Four 
Gospels." 

For the gospel story the student should 
read the following separate articles: 

John the Baptist, Herod Antipas, 
Salome, Joseph (Vol. 15, p. 513, col. 2), 
Mary, Immaculate Conception, Beth- 
lehem, Nazareth, Nazarenes, Ebion- 
ites, Galilee, Capernaum, Cana, Jor- 
dan, Peter, Andrew, James, John, 
Philip, Bartholomew, Thomas, Mat- 
thew, Judas, Demonology, Possession, 
Exorcism, Miracle, Mary Magdalene, 
Nathanael, Pharisees, Sadducees, 
Sabbath, Passover, Eucharist, Para- 
ble, Caesarea Philippi, Judaea, Jeru- 
salem, Bethany, Olives, Mount of; 
Gethsemane, Pilate, Calvary, Joseph 
of Arimathaea. 

In studying the separate Gospels, let 
the reader follow the order suggested in 
the articles Gospel and Jesus Christ. 

First he should study the article Mark, 
Gospel of, by Dr. Stanton; the article 
on St. Mark, by Dr. James Vernon 
Bartlett, professor of Church History, 



Mansfield College, Oxford, and, for a 
summary of the points in the Marcan or 
Galilean narrative as contrasted with 
the Jerusalem narrative in regard to the 
betrayal of Jesus and the period imme- 
diately following, the article on St. Peter 
by Dr. Kirsopp Lake. 

Matthew, Gospel of St., by Dr. 
Vincent H. Stanton, and Matthew, by 
Dr. J. V. Bartlett; with particular atten- 
tion to the paragraph on additions to 
Mark's narrative in Vol. 15, p. 355, and 
to the stress on the Messianic character, 
the mention of the church and of St. Peter 
as the Rock in chapter 16. 

Luke, Gospel of St., by Dr. Stanton, 
and the biographical sketch of Luke, by 
Dr. Bartlett; and the paragraph • on 
Luke's additions to Mark's narrative in 
Vol. 15, p. 356. This is the universal 
gospel, just as Mark's was for extra- 
Palestinian use and Matthew's particu- 
larly for the Jew, as is shown by the inci- 
dents of Zaccheus and of the Samaritan 
leper; and Renan's characterization of 
the gospel of the one evangelist who was 
not a Jew, "the most beautiful book in 
the world," is quoted twice in the Bri- 
tannica. 

John, Gospel of St., and John (the 
Apostle), both by Baron Friedrich von 
Hiigel, author of The Mystical Element of 
Religion: the paragraph on the distinctive 
elements of John's gospel (in Vol. 15, p. 
357), such as the story of John the Bap- 
tist (see the article on this "forerunner," 
by G. H. Box, late lecturer in theology, 
Oxford); the philosophical prologue (see 
the article Logos, by the late Rev. Dr. 
Stewart Dingwall Fordyce Salmon, pro- 
fessor of systematic theology, United 
Free Church College,' Aberdeen, and the 
Rev. A. J. Grieve, professor of New Testa- 
ment and church history, Yorkshire 
United Independent College, Bradford); 
the Judean scene as contrasted with the 
predominance of Galilee and Samaria in 
the other three (synoptic) gospels, and 
the prominence given to great abstract 
ideas and symbols — the Light of the 



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World, the Living Bread, the Only-Be- 
gotten, the Re-Birth, Eternal Life, the 
Way, the Truth, and the Life, Water and 
Wine, the Paraclete, and the refrain and 
variations on the theme of Love. 

Before studying the articles dealing 
with the book of Acts, let the reader 
consult Dr. Garvie's article Miracle, for 
a study of the supernatural and par- 
ticularly for a development of the argu- 
ment for miracles from "the congruity of 
the miracle with divine truth and grace"; 
the miracles of Jesus, and of the apostles, 
consist in "the relief of need, the removal 
of suffering, the recovery of health and 
strength." 

The article Acts of the Apostles, by 
Dr. J. Vernon Bartlett, should be sup- 
plemented by referring again to the ar- 
ticle Luke, and the student 
Acts should call to mind that 

the probable author was not 
a Jew, was a personal friend and traveling 
companion of both Paul and Peter, and 
was a physician, a trained scientific ob- 
server, as can be seen not only from his 
descriptions of disease, but from his ac- 
curacy in geographical, meteorological 
and other matters. The importance of 
the testimony of the physician to the 
miracles of the apostles is brought out 
(p. 164, top of column 2) in the article on 
the book. For the study of Acts, be- 
sides the article on the book, read the 
following separate articles: 

Luke, Peter, John, Judas, Acel- 
dama, Matthias, Pentecost, Tongues, 
Gift of; Ananias, Gamaliel, Stephen, 
Simon Magus, Philip, Paul, Joppa, An- 
tioch, Herod, Barnabas, Iconium, Ly- 
caonia, Mark, Timothy, Silas, Phil- 
ippi, Thessalonica, Athens, Areo- 
pagus, Corinth, Aquila, Apollos, Eph- 
esus, Felix, Ananias, Agrippa. 

For a study of the book of Acts, which 

was probably written before any one of 

the Gospels, one will 

St. Paul need constantly to 

refer in the Britan- 

nica to the article on Paul, the Apostle 



(Vol. 20, p. 938), by Dr. J. Vernon 
Bartlett. This article, equivalent to 
55 pages in this Guide, is so important 
that it will be well to outline it 
here. After an introduction, in which 
Paul's attitude toward Jewish legalism is 
made an explanation of the superficially 
obvious contrast between Jesus and Paul, 
there is a biographical sketch: Paul of 
Tarsus, a Roman citizen with Roman 
name, talking Latin and not a narrow, 
one-sided Jew; his Jewish training; in 
Jerusalem, under Gamaliel (see the ar- 
ticle Gamaliel); first impressions as to 
Jesus, and Saul as persecutor; the vision 
at Damascus and its spiritual content; 
his new theory of the law and its universal 
value; Christology of Paul, — his deep in- 
sight into Jesus's character; Paul's the- 
ology rooted in experience; his early apos- 
tolate; his first missionary journey; the 
issue of Gentile Christianity raised; 
Paul's conciliatory spirit; Peter's visit to 
Antioch; Paul's protest; the second mis- 
sion tour; Paul in Europe — Athens, Cor- 
inth, etc.; first missionary letters; as an 
ethical teacher; Paul, the Law, the Spirit; 
later travels; later letters; Paulinism — its 
Christocentric character; apparent con- 
trasts and contradictions between Paul's 
gospel and Jesus's gospel — one seen 
through the eyes of a conscious sinner, 
the other the sinless consciousness of the 
Saviour; Paul's position between Judaeo- 
Christianity and Gnosticism — see also 
the article Gnosticism, by Wilhelm 
Bousset, professor of New Testament 
exegesis, Gottingen. 

In general on the Pauline epistles the 
student should not only read this article 
Paul, but should turn again to the treat- 
ment of New Testa- 
The Pauline ment canon in the ar- 
Epistles tide Bible (Vol. 3, 

pp. 872-873), and 
should look over the first part of the ar- 
ticle Jesus Christ which finds in 1st 
Thessalonians the earliest extant docu- 
ment of Christianity. Then let him read 
the articles: 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



Thessalonians, Epistles to the, by 
the Rev. James Everett Frame, professor 
of Biblical theology, Union Theological 
Seminary, New York City. See also in 
the article Paul (Vol. 20, pp. 945-946) 
for Paul at Thessalonica, and the articles 
Eschatology and Apocalyptic Litera- 
ture for the doctrine of the "second 
coming" or "Parousia," especially in 2 
Thess., chap. 2. 

Corinthians, Epistles to the, by the 
Rev. Dr. James Hardy Ropes, professor 
of New Testament criticism and inter- 
pretation, Harvard; and the articles 
Corinth, Apollos, Peter, Asceticism, 
Fasting, Eucharist (1 Cor., chap. 11, 
vs. 23 sqq. is the oldest extant account of 
the Lord's Supper), Titus. 

Galatians, Epistle to the, by the 
Rev. Dr. James Moffatt, author of The 
Historical New Testament: and the ar- 
ticles Galatia (for the "South Galatian" 
theory), Antinomianism (for Christian- 
ity vs. legalism). 

Romans, Epistle to the, by Dr. 
Moffatt; and the article Hebrew Reli- 
gion for the covenant which Paul here 
presents as one of faith and not of 
the law. 

Ephesians, Epistle to the, by Prof. 
J. H. Ropes, pointing out that the theme 
is "the unity of mankind in Christ and 
hence the unity and divinity of the 
Church of Christ"; the article Ephesus; 
the articles on Colossi ans and on 1st 
Peter for textual criticism; the article 
Marriage for Paul's influence (Eph. ch. 
5, v. 23-32) on the Church's attitude 
toward marriage; and the article Gnos- 
ticism for the tendency in the church 
which Paul attacked in this epistle and 
in Colossians. 

Colossians, by Prof. J. E. Frame; the 
article Colossae; Angel (on chap. 2, v. 
18); Asceticism (on chap. 2, v. 16). 

Philemon, Epistle to, by Dr. Mof- 
fatt; the article Slavery, Rome (Vol. 25, 
p. 218) for the status of a runaway like 
Onesimus. 

Philippians, Epistle to the, by Dr. 



Moffatt; the article Philippi; Antino- 
mianism (on the beginning of chap. 3); 
and on the Kenosis or emptying of self of 
Christ in Phil. 2, 7, see the article on 
Charles Gore (Vol. 2, p. 255), and in 
the article Theology the discussion in 
column 1 of p. 781 (Vol. 26). 

Timothy, First Epistle to; and 
Timothy, Second Epistle to, by Dr. 
Moffatt; the article Timothy; the articles 
Marriage and Celibacy (on 1 Tim. 4, 
3); Fasting, the article Gnosticism (for 
the "knowledge falsely so-called" of 1 
Tim. 6, 20), and the article Pastoral 
Epistles on these letters and on that to 
Titus. The article Titus has much im- 
portant criticism on Timothy. 

Titus, The Epistle to, by Dr. Mof- 
fatt; the articles Bishop and Presbyter, 
etc. 

Hebrews, Epistle to the, by Dr. J. 
Vernon Bartlett; and, on authorship, the 
articles Paul, Barnabas, Apollos, 
Luke, Clement, Stephen; and the ar- 
ticles Clementine Literature, Hebrew 
Religion, Temple, Atonement and 
Day of Atonement, Angel, Moses, 
Priest, Aaron, Melchizedek, Sacri- 
fice, Messiah. 

Before turning to the articles on the 
other books of the New Testament, let 
the student read a part of the article 
Theology, by the 
The Other Rev. Dr. Robert 

Epistles Mackintosh of the 

Lancashire Indepen- 
dent College, Manchester, with special 
attention to the paragraphs (end of p. 
773 and p. 774, Vol. 26) on Jewish the- 
ology, St. Paul and contents of the New 
Testament Here "Paulinism" is shown 
not merely in the Pauline writings but in 
the Acts, in 1st Peter ("good independent 
Paulinism"), and even in the Apoc- 
alypse, at least as regards the atonement 
and Christology. "The Johannine Gos- 
pel and Epistles are later than Paulinism, 
and presuppose its leading or less start- 
ling positions." And the same article 
(p. 783) after pointing out that Luther 



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and the evangelical revival "went back 
to St. Paul" asks "can Christianity not 
dig deeper by going back to Jesus?" The 
writer also suggests that the German 
school of Ritschl in "not idolizing Paul- 
inism" have "idolized Luther." 

The other principal topics to be studied 
are: 

James, Epistle of, by the Rev. Dr. 
Benjamin Wisner Bacon, professor of 
New Testament criticism and exegesis, 
Yale; the article on James by the Rev. 
Dr. George Milligan, Professor of divin- 
ity and Biblical criticism, Glasgow; and 
the articles Revelation, Clement, Her- 
mas, etc., for the question of date and 
relation with other writings; Wisdom 
Literature, for earlier writings on- the 
"Wisdom" and proverbial expressions of 
chapter 8; Matthew, for a similar view 
cf the gospel and the Church; and on 
"Justification," vol. 20, p. 954, in article 
Paul. 

Peter, Epistles of, by Dr. Kirsopp 
Lake; the article on St. Peter, by the 
same scholar. For a date earlier than 
that of the Epistle of James, see the ar- 
ticle on that book. See also Romans and 
Polycarp to supplement what is here 
said of the relations of 1st Peter to these 
writings; and Eschatology on the ex- 
pected "second coming" of 2nd Peter, 
chapter S, vs. 1-13, and Jude, Epistle 
of, on its relation to this book. 

Jude, Epistle of, by Prof. B. W. 
Bacon of Yale; the article on Hegesip- 
pus, the authority for the little we know 
of Jude; the articles Eschatology (for 
"the last time" of verse 18), Angel 
(for vs. 6, 9), Michael, and espec- 
ially the articles Apocryphal Litera- 
ture; Moses, Assumption of; and 
Enoch, Book of, for the allusions in 
verses 9 and 14. 

Under the head of Johannine are 
grouped, besides the fourth gospel, the 
three epistles of John and the Revelation. 
On these see: 

John, The Epistles of, by Dr. 



Moffatt, and the article on St. John in 
regard to authorship, 
Johannine which may more 

Writings probably be assigned 

to John the presby- 
ter; and the articles Antichrist (on 1 
John, 2, 22), Gnosticism (for chap. 3, 
vs. 4-7), etc. 

Revelation, Book of, by the Rev. 
Dr. Robert Henry Charles, lecturer in 
Biblical studies, Oxford. This book, and 
this article, should be studied in connec- 
tion with the article, also by Dr. Charles, 
on Apocalyptic Literature, and the 
canonical apocalyptic passages in Mark 
13, Mathew 24, Luke 21 and 2nd Thes- 
salonians 2, as well as the extra-canonical 
apocalypses described in Apocalyptic 
Literature and in the separate articles 
Isaiah, Ascension of, and Hermas, 
Shepherd of. Besides see the articles 
Eschatology, Millenium. The student 
should read the article Nero, even if 
"666" does not certainly refer to him, and 
the articles Domitian and Vespasian on 
the possibility that one of them may have 
been "the beast that was and is not, . . . 
himself also an eighth" (see footnote on 
p. 220, Vol. 23). 

As an epilogue the student should read 
the articles Apocryphal Literature, 
both of the Old and New Testament pe- 
riods, by Dr. Charles 
Apochryphal and at least the first 

Literature part, by Dr. A. C. 

McGiffert of Union 
Theological Seminary, New York City, 
of the article Church History. 

The study outline sketched in this 
chapter will give the student some idea 
of the possibilities of the Britannica in 
helping him. The 
A Biblical list of articles deal- 

Encyclopaedia ing with the Bible 
on pp. 944-945 of the 
Index (Vol. 29) will show that in the 
Britannica there is an adequate and 
excellent encyclopaedia of the Bible or 
text-book of Bible Study. 



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CHAPTER XLII 



HISTORY, INTRODUCTORY AND GENERAL 



WHEN you turn to the new 
Britannica to study history, you 
naturally expect to learn a great 
deal that will be new to you. But you 
can anticipate something more and better 
than that. You will find a great deal that 
is new to everyone, even to those who 
have been reading history for years. For 
the contributors to the work, in making a 
completely fresh survey of the whole field 
of human knowledge, were helping one 
another to obtain new light upon the 
history of even the earliest periods. As 
all the articles were completed before a 
single volume was printed, there was 
such an opportunity for comparison and 
revision as has never before existed. 
When research upon one subject had dis- 
closed new evidence that was of value in 
relation to another subject, the contri- 
butors and editors could co-operate as 
fully as if they had all been assembled in 
a great international congress. And the 
result of this collaboration is that the 
publication of the new Britannica does 
more, at one stroke, to advance historical 
knowledge, to solve historical doubts, and 
to correct historical mistakes than is done 
by isolated historians in the course of a 
generation. 

With this idea of combined effort 
clearly before you, consider for a mo- 
ment the accumulated individual au- 
thority of such individual 
Authority specialists as those who 
deal with history in the 
Britannica. There are,to name only a few, 
the Germans Eduard Meyer and Schie- 
mann of Berlin, Hashagen of Bonn, von 



Pastor of Innsbruck, Pauli of Gottingen, 
Keutgen of Hamburg, and Count Liit- 
zow; Frenchmen like Mgr. Duchesne, 
Luchaire, Valois, Anchel, Halphen, Ba- 
belon and Bemont; the Italians Villari, 
Barnabei and Balzani; the Canadians 
Doughty, Grant, Dionne and Wrong; 
among Americans, J. H. Robinson, W. A. 
Dunning, H. L. Osgood, C. H. Hayes, G. 
W. Botsford, and J. T. Shotwell of Col- 
umbia; President Emeritus Charles W. 
Eliot, and Drs. Edward Channing, F. J. 
Turner and Charles Gross of Harvard; 
Drs. A. D. Morse, R. B. Richardson and 
Preserved Smith of Amherst; Dr. T. F. 
Collier of Williams; Professors William 
Graham Sumner, G. Burton Adams and J. 
C. Schwab of Yale; Prof. Grant Shower- 
man of Wisconsin; Prof. William Mac- 
Donald of Brown; Profs. Fleming and 
Scroggs of Louisiana; Dr. McMaster of 
Pennsylvania; Prof. I. J. Cox of Cincin- 
nati; the late Alexander Johnston of 
Princeton; Prof. W. Roy Smith of Bryn 
Mawr; Henry Cabot Lodge, Carl Schurz 
and James Ford Rhodes; and — to men- 
tion only a few English names — S. R. 
Gardiner, Edward Freeman, Thomas 
Hodgkin, James Bryce, James Gairdner, 
J. D. Bury, C. W. C. Oman, A. F. Pol- 
lard, J. H. Round, H. W. C. Davis, Os- 
mund Airy, G. W. Prothero, John Mor- 
ley, Reginald Lane Poole, J. Holland 
Rose, F. J. Haverfield, W. Alison Phil- 
lips, Sir Donald Mackenzie Wallace, R. 
Nisbet Bain, W. Warde Fowler, J. L. 
Myres, J. S. Reid, W. J. Brodribb and 
H. F. Pelham. 

So much for the quality of the his- 



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torical matter in the Britannica. The 
quantity is equally remarkable. 
// the history in the Britannica 
was printed in the usual vol- 
umes on heavy paper, contain- 
ing 100,000 words to a volume, 
it would fill about 70 such vol- 
umes, or, say, four good-sized 
shelves in an ordinary "unit" 
book-case. 
Every country and every event from 
the earliest syllable of recorded time re- 
ceives its proper treatment. Under such 
circumstances it is ob- 
Method of vious that in the limits 
Treatment of this Guide it would 
not be possible to give 
outlines of courses of historical read- 
ings for all nations and periods. Such 
readings in history alone would more 
than fill this whole Guide. But the 
information is all in the Britannica, and 
what has been said above will give the 
reader some notion of the authority of 
the articles written by natives of nearly 
every civilized country in the world, and 
some idea of the scope of treatment. The 
character of the subject matter of history 
and the method of treatment in the Bri- 
tannica combine to make minute outlines 
less necessary for historical study than 
for the pursuit of a course in almost any 
other subject. The Britannica, the stu- 
dent will quickly see, contains in each 
instance a "key" article on the history of 
each nation — either as a separate article, 
like English History or Roman His- 
tory or as a historical section of the ar- 
ticle on the country — f or instance, in the 
article Greece there is a "sub-article," 
so to say, on history (Vol. 12, pp. 440- 
470), and in the article United States 
a sub-article on American history (Vol. 
27, pp. 663-735). The student of any 
country's history should read first such 
an article or sub-article, so that he will 



get a big outline view of the subject, and 
then use it as a basis or starting point for 
further reading, looking up in the Index 
volume the important topics mentioned 
in the main article. These will be: 

(1) Articles on the history of parts of 
the country he is studying — states, prov- 
inces, counties, kingdoms, duchies, cities 
and towns. 

(2) Biographies of rulers, statesmen, 
soldiers, reformers, etc. 

(3) Articles on wars and battles, each 
under its proper heading. 

(4) Articles on movements and changes, 
sometimes of national, sometimes of in- 
ternational importance, the Renaissance, 
political parties, economic, political and 
religious revolutions, the Crusades, etc. 

(5) Articles on churches, sects and 
denominations of historical importance 
in the country under consideration. 

But although it is impossible to give in 
this Guide complete courses of reading 
for the history of all countries, it is pos- 
sible and desirable to give it in cases 
where it would be most useful to the 
greatest number of readers. 

The following chapter is an outline 
course of study in the History of the United 
States, which is given in some detail, be- 
cause it has a peculiar interest to Amer- 
icans. 

Next is given an outline of a course of 
reading in Canadian and then in English 
History, then in French History, and 
then in the History of the countries of 
the Far East, India, China and Japan. 
These will show the reader how fully and 
authoritatively the history of countries, 
whether near or distant, is given in the 
Britannica; and if he wishes to pursue his 
studies into the record of other coun- 
tries, it is certain that with these for 
an example, and with the aid of the 
Index, he will have no trouble in so 
doing. 



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CHAPTER XLIII 



AMERICAN HISTORY 



THE plan adopted in most of the 
chapters of this Guide is to give 
a separate account of each of the 
more important articles on the subject to 
which the chapter is devoted. But in the 
case of American history, the articles are 
so numerous, and are so accurately dove- 
tailed to make a continuous story, that 
the reader's convenience has been better 
served by reversing this process, and 
grouping the articles under the periods 
with which they deal. The reader is thus 
enabled to turn at once to any one of the 
outstanding episodes of the story, and to 
find explicit references to those parts of 
the Britannica in which the narrative is 
continued from one article to another. 
The summary has been put in the form 
of a table, in order that its contents may 
more easily be surveyed. There is a 
much fuller summary, in narrative form, 
in the Britannica itself in the historical 
portion of the article United States 
(Vol. 27, pp. 66S-785). This is the most 
complete condensed history of the country 
that has ever been written. It is not 
quite so long as this entire Guide; but 
from each of its 412 sections the reader 
can turn to articles describing in detail 
the events consecutively outlined. 

It has been taken for granted that the 
reader will recognize the natural connec- 
tion between this and other chapters of 
the Guide. For example, no attempt has 
been made in this chapter to indicate the 
articles, elsewhere described, which dis- 
cuss the history of American industries 



and commerce, railroads and shipping, 
finance and economics, art and litera- 
ture. Again, the particular history of a 
city, town, or river may be of the greatest 
interest in itself, although the events 
with which its name is associated were 
not so typical of any period as to give the 
article a place in the present chapter. 
Similarly, the numerous and elaborate 
American biographies are represented, in 
this chapter, only by the names of the 
foremost statesmen and soldiers of the 
periods included in the table. In short, 
the articles named are so few, in propor- 
tion to all those which directly relate to 
American history, that the general effect 
is to make the space which the Britan- 
nica devotes to the subject seem less than 
it really is. But it is not the purpose of 
this Guide to impress upon the reader the 
magnitude of the volumes he is using. 
In that respect the Britannica speaks for 
itself. The table instances a few of the 
main topics of American history, in order 
to show the reader how he may plan 
fuller courses of reading by combining 
other articles on the principle indicated 
by these illustrations. 

The left hand columns present a brief 
outline of the main periods and aspects 
of American history. The right hand 
columns give the titles of the articles to 
be read, the page numbers as well as the 
volume numbers (so that when the refer- 
ence is to only one section of a long ar- 
ticle the reader can find it at once) and 
the names of the contributors. 



248 



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AMERICAN HISTORY 



249 



Topics for Reading 

The Aborigines. 

Where did they come from, and when? 
Their food, tools, clothing and cus- 
toms. How they carried on their 
wars. Their practical knowledge 
and religion. What the white man 
has learned from the Indians. Over 
1000 languages and dialects in 
America* 



Evidence of Asiatic origin. A state of 
culture in Mexico and Peru, " which 
in some respects must have put the 
Spaniards to shame." 

The fascinating story of the Aztecs. 
Did the Asiatic peoples- make voy- 
ages to America long before Colum- 
bus? 

The splendid past of Central America. 
What was accomplished during the 
500 years of Mayan culture. An in- 
teresting calendar. 

First Voyages of Discovery. 

The Northmen first Europeans to 
reach American continent, about 
1000 A.D. The story of the Ice- 
landic sagas. Was Vinland Nova 
Scotia? 

The accident of Leif's discovery of the 
American continent 



The first coloniser (A.D. 1002). Fate 
of the colony. The hostile Skrael- 
ings. 

Columbus and His Successors. 

Treaty of Tordesillas (1494). 



Columbus thinks he 

His voyages and 

1504). 
Discovery of the Mainland (1497) 



discovers Asia, 
colonies (1492- 



How the New World received its name. 
The beginning of free-lance expedi- 
tions. The mystery of the vovagc 
of 1497. 



Articles 

America, Ethnology and Archaeology 
(Vol. 1, p. 810, fully illustrated), by 
Otis Tufton Mason, late curator, De- 
partment of Anthropology, National 
Museum, Washington; author of Primi- 
tive Travel and Transportation, etc. 

Indian 8, North American (Vol. 14, p. 
452), by Dr. A. F. Chamberlain, pro- 
fessor of anthropology, Clark Univer- 
sity. 

Archaeology (Vol. 2, p. 849), by Dr. 
Charles H. Read, keeper of British and 
Medieval Antiquities and Ethnography, 
British Museum. 

Mexico, Ancient History and Civilization 
(Vol. 18, p. 829), by Dr. E. B. Tylor, 
professor of anthropology at Oxford; 
author of Methods and Results in Mexi- 
can Research. 

Central America, Archaeology of (Vol. 
5, p. 677), by Dr. Walter Lehmann, 
Royal Ethnographical Museum, Mun- 
ich. 

Vinland (Vol. 28, p. 98), by Julius E. 
Olson, professor of Scandinavian lan- 
guages, University of Wisconsin, editor 
of Voyages of the Northmen, etc. 

Leif Ericsson (Vol. 16, p. 896), by Dr. 
C. R. Beazley, professor of modern his- 
tory in the University of Birmingham, 
author of The Dawn of Modern Geog- 
raphy. 

Thorfinn Karlsefni (Vol. 26, p. 878), 
by Dr. C. R. Beazley, author of The 
Dawn of Modern Geography, etc, 

America, General Historical Sketch (Vol. 

1, p. 806), by David Hannay, author 

of A Short History of the Royal Navy. 
Columbus, Christopher (Vol. 6, p. 741), 

by Dr. C. R. Beazley, author of The 

Dawn of Modern Geography, etc. 
Cabot, John (Vol. 4, p. 921), by Henry 

P. Biggar, author of The Voyage of the 

Cabots to Greenland. 
Vespucci, Amerigo (Vol. 27, p. 1058), by 

Dr. C. R. Beazley, author of The Dawn 

of Modern Geography, etc. 



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250 



BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



The Discovery of the Pacific (1513). 

The existence of a new continent dis- 
tinct from Asia revealed to the 
world. First circumnavigation of 
the globe. The Pacific Ocean named 
(1520). 

The Conquest of Mexico (1519-1521). 
" The Descendant of the Sun." Dis- 
covery of Lower California. In- 
gratitude of Charles V. 

Exploration of Guatemala and Yucatan 
(1528), and the Mississippi (1541). 

France attacks Spain in the New 
World. 

Discovery of the St. LawTence (1534). 
How Canada got its name. Early 
Canadian History. 



Foundation of Quebec (1608). Dis- 
covery of Lake Champlain (1609). 
Champlain assists Algonquins and 
Hurons against the Iroquois. The 
beginning of the murderous conflicts 
between the French and the Iroquois. 

The Fortunes of New France. Colo- 
nial Expansion. Horrors of Indian 
Warfare. 

Louisiana in possession of France 
(1682). Discovery of the Ohio 
River. 

The first English colony (1583) unsuc- 
cessful. 

The persistent efforts of Raleigh 
(1584-1587). First English child 
born in America (Aug. 15, 1587). 



The first permanent English settlement 
(1607). 

Colonial Expansion and Development 

of Imperial Control. 
The Thirteen Original Colonies, their 

Founders and Leaders, and their 

early Struggles. 



Balboa, Vasco Nunez dk (Vol. 3, p. 
241). 

Magellan, Ferdinand (Vol. 17, p. 802), 
by Dr. C. R. Beazley, author of The 
Dawn of Modern Geography, etc. 

Pacific Ocean, History (Vol. 20, p. 488). 

Cortes, Hernan (Vol. 7, p. 205). 
California, Lower (Vol. 5, p. 21). 
Soto, Ferdinando de (Vol. 25, p. 485). 

Las Casas, Bartolome de (Vol. 16, p. 
232). 

Cartier, Jacques (Vol. 5, p. 483), by H. 
P. Biggar, author of The Voyage of the 
Cabots to Greenland. 

Canada, History (Vol. 5, p. 156), by 
Dr. George McKinnon Wrong, Univer- 
sity of Toronto. 

Champlain, Samuel de (Vol. 5, p. 830), 
by Prof. Narcisse E. Dionne, Libra- 
rian of the Legislature of the Province 
of Quebec, author of Life of Samuel de 
Champlain, Founder of Quebec, etc. 

Frontenac (Vol. 11, p. 249), by Dr. 
Arthur G. Doughty, Dominion archivist 
of Canada, author of The Cradle of 
New France, etc. 

La Salle, Rene Robert, Sieur de 
(Vol. 16, p. 230), by Charles C. Whin- 
ery, assistant editor, Encyclopaedia 
Britannica. 

Newfoundland, History (Vol. 19, p. 
482), by Beckles Willson, author of 
The Romance of Canada, etc. 

North Carolina, History (Vol. 19, p. 
775). 

Raleigh, Sir Walter (Vol. 22, p. 869), 
by David Hannay, author of Short His- 
tory of the Royal Navy. 

Virginia, History (Vol. 28, p. 122). 
Jamestown (Vol. 15, p. 148). 



United States, History (Vol. 27, p. 668), 
by Dr. Herbert L. Osgood, professor 
of history, Columbia University, au- 
thor of The American Colonies in the 
17th Century, etc. 



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AMERICAN HISTORY 



251 



Virginia. 



North Carolina. 
South Carolina. 
New England. 
Massachusetts. 



Maine (a part of Massachusetts). 



Rhode Island. 



New Hampshire. 
Connecticut. 



Vermont. 

Indian Wars in New England. 

New York. 



Virginia (Vol. 28, p. 122). 
Jamestown (Vol. 15, p. 148). 
Smith, John (Vol. 25, p. 264). 
Gosnold, Bartholomew (Vol. 12, p. 

265). 
Berkeley, Sir William (Vol. 8, p. 781). 
Blair, James (Vol. 4, p. 84). 
Spotswood, Alexander (Vol. 25, p. 785). 
North Carolina (Vol. 19, p. 775). 
South Carolina (Vol. 25, p. 508). 
New England (Vol. 19, p. 476). 

Massachusetts (Vol. 17, p. 858). 
Plymouth, Mass. (Vol. 21, p. 868). 
Bradford, William (Vol. 4, p. 870). 
Standish, Miles (Vol. 25, p. 772). 
Alden, John (Vol. 1, p. 588). 
Winslow, Edward (Vol. 28, p. 788). 
Endecott, John (Vol. 9, p. 882). 
Salem (Vol. 24, p. 62). 
Winthrop, John (Vol. 28, p. 786). 
Boston, Mass. (Vol. 4, p. 290). 
Ipswich, Mass. (Vol. 14, p. 789). 
Vane, Sir Henry (Vol. 27, p. 892). 
Hutchinson, Anne (Vol. 14, p. 12). 

Maine (Vol. 17, p. 489). 
Popham, Sir John (Vol. 22, p. 88). 
Gorges, Sir Ferdinando (Vol. 12, p. 

256). 
Portland, Me. (Vol. 22, p. 120). 

Rhode Island (Vol. 28, p. 251). 
Williams, Roger (Vol. 28, p. 682). 
Providence (Vol. 22, p. 512). 

New Hampshire (Vol. 19, p. 496). 
Portsmouth, N. H. (Vol. 22, p. 182). 

Connecticut (Vol. 6, p. 954). 
Hooker, Thomas (Vol. 18, p. 674). 
New Haven (Vol. 19, p. 499). 
Eaton, Theophilus (Vol. 8, p. 838). 
Hartford (Vol. 18, p. 38). 

Vermont (Vol. 27, p. 1028). 

Pequot (Vol. 21, p. 132). 
Philip, King (Vol. 21, p. 889). 

New York (Vol. 19, p. 608). 
Hudson, Henry (Vol. 18, p. 849). 
Iroquois (Vol. 14, p. 839). 
New York (City) (Vol. 19, p. 620). 
Albany (Vol. 1, p. 490). 
Staten Island (Vol. 25, p. 802). 
Long Island (Vol. 16, p. 982). 
Stuyvesant, Peter (Vol. 25, p. 1055). 



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252 



BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



New Jersey. 



Delaware. 



Pennsylvania. 



Maryland. 



Georgia. 



The French and Indian Wan. 

Struggle of the British and the French 
in America. Pressure of British on 
the French " paper barriers." 
Old-World quarrel carried into the 
New World. 



Capture of Louisburg, 1745. 

Albany Congress of 1754. 

The Continental Contest of which the 

French and Indian Wars were a 

part. 



Western Campaigns, 
and Virginia. 



In Pennsylvania 



The New York Frontier and Fighting 
there. 



The Campaign against Quebec and 
its Capture by the British. 



New Jersey (Vol. 19, p. 508). 

Carteret, Sir George (Vol. 5, p. 418). 

Andros, Sir Edmund (Vol. 2, p. 1). 

Elizabeth, N. J. (Vol. 9, p. 287). 

Delaware (Vol. 7, p. 949). 

Lewes (Vol. 16, p. 522). 

New Castle (Vol. 19, p. 472). 

Wilmington (Vol. 28, p. 690). 

Pennsylvania (Vol. 21, p. 111). 

Penn, William (Vol. 21, p. 99), by Os- 
mund Airy, author of Charles II, editor 
of the Lauderdale Papers, etc. 

Friends, Society of (Vol. 11, p. 227). 

Philadelphia (Vol. 21, p. 872). 

Maryland (Vol. 17, p. 881), by N. D. 
Mereness, Ph.D., author of Maryland 
as a Proprietary Province, 

Baltimore, George Calvert, 1st Baron 
(Vol. 8, p. 288). 

Baltimore (Vol. 8, p. 290). 

Mason and Dixon Line (Vol. 17, p. 841). 

Georgia (Vol. 11, p. 755). 

Oglethorpe, James Edward (Vol. 20, 
p. 24). 

Savannah (Vol. 24, p. 240). 

United States, History, The Struggle 
with the French (1690-1760) (Vol. 27, 
p. 670), by Prof. H. L. Osgood, Colum- 
bia University. 

Canada, History (Vol. 5, p. 156), by 
Prof. G. M. Wrong, author of A Cana- 
dian Manor and Its Seigneurs, etc. 

Louisburg (Vol. 17, p. 52). 

Albany, N. Y. (Vol. 1, p. 490). 

Seven Years* War (Vol. 24, p. 715), by 
Col. F. N. Maude, author of War and 
the World's Policy, and David Han- 
nay, author of Short History of the 
Royal Navy. 

Pittsburg (Vol. 21, p. 680). 

Braddock, Edward (Vol. 4, p. 869). 

Pontiac (Vol. 22, p. 65). 

Dinwiddie, Robert (Vol. 8, p. 278). 

Shirley, William (Vol. 24, p. 991). 

Ticonderoga (Vol. 26, p. 987). 

George, Lake (Vol. 11, p. 748). 

Niagara, Fort (Vol. 19, p. 634). 

Johnson, Sir William (Vol. 15, p. 472). 

Quebec (Vol. 22, p. 728). 

Wolfe, James (Vol. 28, p. 773). 

Montcalm (Vol. 18, p. 761). 



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AMERICAN HISTORY 



253 



Colonization on the Pacific Coast. 
Spanish Government in California. 
Rule of the Missions. " A complete 
failure save in the acquisition of ma- 
terial wealth." 
The Spaniards neglect northwestern 

America. 
British Traders seize the opportu- 
nity. 

The Colonial Revolt and Events Lead- 
ing up to It. 

(1768-1788). 



Immediate Causes: 

The Stamp Act (1765). 

Boston Massacre and Boston Tea 
Party. 

Suffolk Resolves. 

Mecklenburg Resolutions and " Dec- 
laration/' May, 1775. 

Virginia leaders decide on independ- 
ence to secure foreign assistance. 

The Leaders of Public Opinion: 
Virginia. 



Massachusetts. 



New Hampshire. 
Pennsylvania. 

New York. 



Conservative Leaders. 



Why did not the Canadians revolt? 



California, History (Vol. 5, p. 17). 



Oregon, History (Vol. 20, p. 247). 

Hudson's Bay Company (Vol. 18, p. 
852). 



United States, History (Vol. 27, p. 
672), by Prof. H. L. Osgood, Columbia 
University. 

Stamp (Vol. 25, p. 772). 

Boston (Vol. 4, p. 296); Hutchinson, 

Thomas (Vol. 14, p. 18). 
Milton, Mass. (Vol. 18, p. 492). 
North Carolina (Vol. 19, p. 776). 

Virginia, History (Vol. 28, p. 128). 



Henry, Patrick (Vol. 18, p. 800), by N. 

D. Mereness, author of Maryland, a 

Proprietary Province. 
Washington, George (Vol. 28, p. 844), 

by Prof. William MacDonald, Brown 

University. 
Lee, Richard Henry (Vol. 16, p. 862). 

Otis, James (Vol. 20, p. 866). 

Adams, Samuel (Vol. 1, p. 180), by Prof. 

Edward Channing, Harvard. 
Adams, John (Vol. 1, p. 176). 
Langdon, John (Vol. 16, p. 172). 
Dickinson, John (Vol. 8, p. 184). 
Franklin, Benjamin (Vol. 11, p. 24), 

by Richard Webster. 
Hamilton, Alexander (Vol. 12, p. 881). 

by Dr. F. S. Philbrick and Hugh Chis- 

holm, editor-in-chief Encyclopaedia 

Britannica. 
Loyalists, or Tories (Vol. 17, p. 79). 
Galloway, Joseph (Vol. 11, p. 421). 
Seabury, Samuel (Vol. 24, p. 531). 
Tryon, William (Vol. 27, p. 340). 
Johnson, Sir William and Sir John 

(Vol. 15, p. 472). 
Quebec Act (Vol. 22, p. 729). 



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254 



BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



Declaration of Independence. 

Resolution of Independence adopted 
July 2. 

Jefferson's Declaration adopted July 
4. Most of the signatures affixed 
Aug. 2. One not until 1781. 



Independence, Declaration of (Vol. 
14, p. 872), by Dr. F. S. Philbrick. 



Some of the " Signers " 
Virginia. 



Massachusetts. 



New York. 
Pennsylvania. 



New Jersey. 

Connecticut. 

Rhode Island. 
Maryland. 
South Carolina. 



English Opinion and Policy. 



' Conciliation." 



American Foreign Agents and their 
work, especially in France, during 
the war. 



Jefferson, Thomas (Vol. 15, p. 801), by 

Dr. F. S. Philbrick. 
Lee, Richard Henry (Vol. 16, p. 862). 
Lee, Francis Liohtfoot (Vol. 16, p. 

862). 

Hancock, John (Vol. 12, p. 908). 
Adams, Samuel (Vol. 1, p. 180), by Prof. 

Edward Channing. 
Adams, John (Vol. 1, p. 176), by Prof. 

Edward Channing. 
Paine, Robert Treat (Vol. 20, p. 456). 
Gerry, Elbridoe (Vol. 11, p. 908). 

Livingston, Philip (Vol. 16, p. 813). 
Morris, Robert (Vol. 18, p. 871). 
Rush, Benjamin (Vol. 23, p. 857). 
Franklin, Benjamin (Vol. 11, p. 24). 
Wilson, James (Vol. 28, p. 693). 

Witherspoon, John (Vol. 28, p. 759). 
Hopkinson, Francis (Vol. 13, p. 685). 
Sherman, Roger (Vol. 24, p. 851). 
Wolcott, Oliver (Vol. 28, p. 770). 

Ellery, William (Vol. 9, p. 290). 
Carroll, Charles (Vol. 5, p. 409). 

Middleton, Arthur (Vol. 18, p. 415). 

Rutledge, Edward (Vol. 23, p. 945). 

George III (Vol. 11, p. 740), by Dr. S. 
R. Gardiner, author of History of Eng- 
land. 

Guilford, Frederick North, 2nd Earl 
(Lord North) (Vol. 12, p. 691). 

Burke, Edmund (Vol. 4, p. 824), by 
John Morley (Viscount Morley of 
Blackburn). 

Chatham, Earl op (Pitt) (Vol. 6, p. 1). 

Fox, Charles James (Vol. 10, p. 761), by 
David Hannay. 

Franklin, Benjamin (Vol. 11, p. 24). 
Deane, Silas. (Vol. 7, p. 898). 
Lee, Arthur (Vol. 16, p. 860). 
Jay, John (Vol. 15, p. 294). 



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AMERICAN HISTORY 



255 



The War for Independence. 
General outline. 



American Leaders 

• In early fighting in Massachusetts 



On the border and in Canada 



In the Middle States 



In the South 



In the Northwest 
On Sea 



Foreign Officers in the War 
French 



Polish 
German 



American War op Independence (Vol. 
I, p. 842), by Prof. Harry Phelps 
Johnston, New York University, author 
of Loyalist History of the Revolution, 
and, for naval affairs, by David Han- 
nay, author of A Short History of the 
Royal Navy. 

Revere, Paul (Vol. 23, p. 228). 
Warren, Joseph (Vol. 28, p. 880). 
Putnam, Israel (Vol. 22, p. 670). 
Washington, George (Vol. 28, p. 844), 

by Prof. William MacDonald, Brown 

University. 
Allen, Ethan (Vol. 1, p. 691). 
Montgomery, Richard (Vol. 18, p. 784). 
Arnold, Benedict (Vol. 2, p. 688). 
Schuyler, Philip John (Vol. 24, p. 

887). 
Washington, George (Vol. 28, p. 844), 

by Prof. William MacDonald, Brown 

University. 
Stirling, William Alexander, Earl of 

(Vol. 25, p. 925). 
Knox, Henry (Vol. 15, p. 878). 
Stark, John (Vol. 25, p. 798). 
Wayne, Anthony (Vol. 28, p. 482). 
Gates, Horatio (Vol. 11, p. 529). 
Benedict, Arnold (Vol. 2, p. 688). 
Sullivan, John (Vol. 26, p. 57). 
Moultrie, William (Vol. 18, p. 985). 
Morgan, Daniel (Vol. 18, p. 888). 
Marion, Francis (Vol. 17, p. 722). 
Pickens, Andrew (Vol. 21, p. 582). 
Sumter, Thomas (Vol. 26, p. 85). 
Shelby, Isaac (Vol. 24, p. 826). 
Gates, Horatio (Vol. 11, p. 529). 
Lee, Henry (Vol. 16, p. 861). 
Greene, Nathaniel (Vol. 12, p. 588). 
Clark, George Rogers (Vol. 6, p. 442). 
Jones, John Paul (Vol. 15, p. 499). 
Hopkins, Esek (Vol. 18, p. 684). 



Lafayette (Vol. 16, p. 65). 
Rochambeau (Vol. 28, p. 425). 
Grasse, Comte de (Vol. 12, p. 869). 
Estaing, C. H. d' (Vol. 9, p. 789). 
Kosciuszko (Vol. 15, p. 914). 
Pulaski (Vol. 22, p. 640). 
Steuben (Vol. 25, p. 904). 
Kalb, Johann (Vol. 15, p. 689). 



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256 



BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



English Leaders 
On land 



On sea 



Howe, William (Vol. 18, p. 889). 
Clinton, Sir Henry (Vol. 6, p. 529). 
Burooyne, John (Vol. 4, p. 819). 
Andre, John (Vol. 1, p. 968). 
Cornwallis, Charles (Vol. 7, p. 188). 
Tarleton, Sir Banastre (Vol. 26, p. 
428). 

Hastings, Marquess of (Lord Rawdon) 

(Vol. 18, p. 58). 
Howe, Richard (Vol. 18, p. 886). 
Rodney, George Brydges (Vol. 28, p. 

447). 
Byron, John (Vol. 4, p. 906). 



The Principal Engagements of the 
War, Separately Treated 
Around Boston 



Canada and the Border 



Middle States 



South 



Governmental History. 

First attempts at Confederation 
(1776-1789). Article of Con- 
federation (1777-1781). 

Difficulties of ratification. 



Lexington (Vol. 16, p. 527). 
Concord (Vol. 6, p. 880). 
Bunker Hill (Vol. 4, p. 798). 
Boston (Vol. 4, p. 296). 

Ticonderoga (Vol. 26, p. 988). 
Crown Point (Vol. 7, p. 519). 
Quebec (Vol. 22, p. 728). 

Long Island (Vol. 16, p. 984), by C. F. 

Atkinson, author of The Wilderness 

and Cold Harbour. 
New York City (Vol. 19, p. 622). 
Trenton and Princeton (Vol. 27, p. 

252). 
Brandywine (Vol. 4, p. 480). 
Germantown (Vol. 11, p. 804). 
Saratoga (Vol. 24, p. 205). 
Bennington (Vol. 8, p. 748). 
Valley Forge (Vol. 27, p. 864). 
Monmouth (Vol. 18, p. 727). 
Stony Point (Vol. 25, p. 966). 
West Point (Vol. 28, p. 559). 
Charleston (Vol. 5, p. 944). 
Camden (Vol. 5, p. 102). 
King's Mountain (Vol. 15, p. 819). 
Eutawville (Vol. 9, p. 957). 
Yorktown (Vol. 28, p. 986). 



United States, History (Vol. 27, p. 681), 
by Prof. H. L. Osgood, Columbia Uni- 
versity. 

Maryland (Vol. 17, p. 882), by Dr. N. 
D. Mereness, author of Maryland, a 
Proprietary Province. 



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AMERICAN HISTORY 



257 



Necessity for centralization seen 
(1779-1780). 



Recognition of the United States. 
Treaty of Versailles (Sept. 
1788). 



Struggle for National Government. 
The Critical Period. 
Government found impossible under 
the articles (1788-1789). 

Territorial cessions and government. 
Ordinance of 1787. 

Roundabout origin of the Constitu- 
tional Conventions: 
Alexandria (1785). 
Annapolis (1786). 
Philadelphia (1787). 

The three plans : 
Virginia 
Pinckney 
New Jersey (Paterson) 

Struggle over State Representation. 

Origin of the Senate, Connecticut 
compromise. 

Opposition and Ratification. 



Federalists and Anti-Federalists. 

Government Under the Constitution. 
The form of Government estab- 
lished by the Constitution. 



Washington as President (1789- 
1797). 



Development of Democracy (1789- 
1801). 

Constitution finally ratified by all 
the States. 



Hamilton, Alexander (Vol. 12, p. 880), 
by Dr. F. S. Philbrick and Hugh Chis- 
holm, editor 11th Edition Encyclopae- 
dia Britannica. 

Franklin, Benjamin (Vol. 11, p. 27), 
by Richard Webster. 

Adams, John (Vol. 1, p. 176), by Dr. 
Edward Charining, Harvard Univer- 
sity. 

Jay, John (Vol. 15, p. 294). 

Laurens, Henry (Vol. 16, p. 284). 

United States, History (Vol. 27, p. 684), 
by Dr. Alexander Johnston, late pro- 
fessor of history, Princeton Univer- 
sity, and C. C. Whinery, assistant edi- 
tor, Encyclopaedia Britannica. 

Jefferson, Thomas (Vol. 15, p. 808), by 
Dr. F. S. Philbrick. 

Madison, James (Vol. 17, p. 285). 

Alexandria, Va. (Vol. 1, p. 572). 
Annapolis, Va. (Vol. 2, p. 6S). 
Philadelphia, History (Vol. 21, p. 872). 

Randolph, Edmund J. (Vol. 22, p. 886). 
Pinckney, Charles C. (Vol. 21, p. 616). 
New Jersey (Vol. 19, p. 512). 
Morris, Gouverneur (Vol. 18, p. 869). 
Connecticut, History (Vol. 6, p. 956). 

Henry, Patrick (Vol. 18, p. 800). 
Hamilton, Alexander (Vol. 12, p. 880), 

by Dr. F. S. Philbrick and Hugh Chis- 

holm. 
Madison, James (Vol. 17, p. 286). 
Jay, John (Vol. 15, p. 294). 
Federalist Party (Vol. 10, p. 285). 
Anti-Federalists (Vol. 2, p. 124). 

United States, Constitution and Govern- 
ment (Vol. 27, p. 646), by Hon. James 
Bryce, British Ambassador at Wash- 
ington, and author of The American 
Commonwealth. 

Washington, George (Vol. 28, p. 847), 
by Dr. William MacDonald, professor 
of American History, Brown Univer- 
sity. 

United States, History (Vol. 27, p. 
688), by Prof. Alexander Johnston and 
C. C. Whinery. 

North Carolina (Vol. 19, p. 777). 

Rhode Island (Vol. 28, p. 252). 



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258 



BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



The first Tariff act, 1789, a mod- 
erate protective measure. 

Admission of new States, Vermont 
and Kentucky. 

Hamilton's efforts for strength and 
stability. His tendency towards 
Aristocracy. Opposition of Jef- 
ferson. 



Excise troubles (1794). First em- 
ployment by the Federal Execu- 
tive of power to enforce Federal 
laws within the States. 

Jay's treaty with England (1794). 

Its defects. 
Presidency of John Adams. Alien 

and Sedition Laws. 
Organization of Navy Department 

(1798). 



Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions. 

Part in them taken by Jefferson and 

Madison. 
Idea of Secession present from the 

beginning. Early threats. 

Invention of cotton gin (1798) and 
its far-reaching consequences, in- 
troducing a commercial element 
into slavery. 
Democracy and Nationality (1801- 

1829). 

Election of Jefferson (1800). The 
Democratic Party called by Jef- 
ferson the Republican Party, 
later and officially the Demo- 
cratic-Republican, and later still 
simply the Democratic Party. 

The acquisition of Louisiana (1808). 

The Lewis-Clark expedition (1804; 
a basis for future acquisition of 
territory in the far west. 

War with the Barbary pirates 
(1805). These robbers first 
checked by the little American 
navy. 



Tariff (Vol. 26, p. 425), by Dr. F. W. 
Taussig, professor Harvard University, 
author of Principles of Economics, ietc. 

Vermont (Vol. 27, p. 1028). 

Kentucky (Vol. 15, p. 746). 

Hamilton, Alexander (Vol. 12, p. 881)., 
by Dr. F. S. Philbrick and Hugh Chis- 
hqlm, editor-in-chief Encyclopaedia 
Britannica. 

Jefferson, Thomas (Vol. 15, p. 808), by 
Dr. F. S. Philbrick. 

Whisky Insurrection (Vol. 28, p. 592). 

Gallatin, Albert (Vol. 11, p. 414), by 
Henry Cabot Lodge, U. S. Senator 
from Massachusetts, biographer of 
Washington, Webster, etc. 

Jay, John (Vol. 15, p. 



Adams, John (Vol. 1, p. 176), by Prof. 
Edward Channing of Harvard. 

Navy and Navies, The United States 
(Vol. 19, p. 808), by David Hannay. 

Admiralty Administration (Vol. 1, p. 
201), by the late Rear- Admiral Wil- 
liam T. Sampson, U. S. Navy. 

Virginia (Vol. 28, p. 124). 

Kentucky (Vol. 15, p. 746). 

Madison, James (Vol. 17, p. 286). 

Secession (Vol. 24, p. 568), by Dr. Wal- 
ter L. Fleming, professor Louisiana 
State University. 

Whitney, Eli (Vol. 28, p. 611). 



United States, History (Vol. 27, p. 

692), by Prof. Alexander Johnston and 

C. C. Whinery. 
Democratic Party (Vol. 8, p. 2). 
State Rights (Vol. 25, p. 802). 



Louisiana Purchase (Vol. 17, p. 62). 
Lewis, Meriwether (Vol. 16, p. 528). 
Clark, William (Vol. 6, p. 442). 
Oregon, History (Vol. 20, p. 248). 
Pirate and Piracy, History (Vol. 21, p. 

688), by D. Hannay, author of Short 

History of the Royal Navy. 
Eaton, William (Vol. 8, p. 889). 



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AMERICAN HISTORY 



259 



War with Barbary Pirates. 



Expedition of Aaron Burr (1806- 
1807). 



Election of Madison (1808). 

Difficulties with Great Britain. Re- 
strictions of Commerce and right 
of search. 

The War of 1812. 

Military and naval events. 



Principal engagements and Strategic 
Points 
In the Northwest 



In the East 

In the Southwest 
Principal Leaders in the War on 
Land and on Sea 
American 



On the other side 



Weakness of Madison's Administra- 
tion. 

Opposition to the war in New Eng- 
land: The Hartford Convention. 
After the War. 

Reaction against Federalist party 

Acquisition of Florida (1819) 



Derna (Vol. 8, p. 74), by D. G. Ho- 
garth. 

Hull, Isaac (Vol. 18, p. 869). 

Burr, Aaron (Vol. 4, p. 862). 

Wilkinson, James (Vol. 28, p. 647), by 
Dr. Isaac Joslin Cox, professor of his- 
tory, University of Cincinnati. 

Madison, James (Vol. 17, p. 284). 

Search, or Visit and Search (Vol. 24, 
p. 560), by Sir Thomas Barclay, au- 
thor of Problems of International Prac- 
tice and Diplomacy. 

American War op 1812 (Vol. 1, p. 847), 
by David Hannay, author of Short His- 
tory of the Royal Navy. 



Mackinac Island (Vol. 17, p. 255). 
Detroit (Vol. 8, p. 116). 
Michigan (Vol. 18, p. 876). 
Toronto (Vol. 27, p. 58). 
Sackett's Harbor (Vol. 28, p. 974). 
Plattsburo (Vol. 21, p. 825). 
Champlain (Vol. 5, p. 881). 
Niagara, Fort (Vol. 19, p. 685). 
Washington (Vol. 28, p. 852). 
Baltimore (Vol. 8, p. 290). 
New Orleans (Vol. 19, p. 581). 



Rodgers, John (Vol. 28, p. 447). 
Decatur, Stephen (Vol. 7, p. 910). 
Hull, Isaac (Vol. 18, p. 869). 
Bainbridge, William (Vol. 8, p. 228). 
Porter, David (Vol. 22, p. 118). 
Chauncey, Isaac (Vol. 6, p. 18). 
Perry, Oliver Hazard (Vol. 21, p. 185). 
Brown, Jacob (Vol. 4, p. 659). 
Scott, Winfield (Vol. 24, p. 475). 
Jackson, Andrew (Vol. 15, p. 107). 
Brock, Sir Isaac (Vol. 4, p. 628). 
Ross, Robert (Vol. 28, p. 740). 
Broke, Sir P. B. V. (Vol. 4, p. 628). 
Tecumseh (Vol. 26, p. 499). 
Madison, James (Vol. 17, p. 286). 

Hartford (Vol. 18, p. 88). 



Federalist Party (Vol. 10, p. 285). 
Florida, History (Vol. 10, p. 545). 



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260 



BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



Bank of the United States (1816). 



Tariff revision (1816-1828). 



"The American System "—Clay's 
name for the combination of pro- 
tective tariff and internal im- 
provements begun by Dallas and 
carried on by himself and the 
Whig and Republican parties. 

The Monroe Doctrine (1828). 

The first weighty international ac- 
tion of the Government — warning 
to European states at instance of 
England. 

Admission of new States: 
Indiana (1816) 
Mississippi (1817) 
Illinois (1818) 
Alabama (1819) 
Maine (1820) 
Missouri (1821) 

Fixing the Northwest Boundary: 
Agreements with Great Britain 
(1818 and 1827) and with Rus- 
sia (1825). 

A nationalizing element in the Re- 
publican Party fostered by com- 
mercial and manufacturing ele- 
ments in the East fuses with 
broad constructionists to form 
new party (National Republican, 
later the Whig) under J. Q. 
Adams and Clay (1824). 

Jackson and the Democratic Party. 
The " power of the people M estab- 
lished. 
Free vs. Slave States. 



Beginning of a sectional struggle, 
which Clay and others tried to 
compromise (1820). 

Industrial Development and Sectional 
Divergence. 



Banks and Banking, United States (Vol. 
8, p. 845), by Charles A. Conant, au- 
thor of The History of Modern Banks. 

Tariff (Vol. 26, p. 425), by Prof. F. W. 
Taussig, Harvard, author of Tariff 
History of the United States, etc. 

Protection (Vol. 22, p. 465), by Dr. 
Edmund J. James, president of Univer- 
sity of Illinois, author of History of 
American Tariff Legislation. 

Dallas, A. J. (Vol. 7, p. 768). 

Clay, Henry (Vol. 6, p. 471), by Carl 
Schurz, biographer of Clay. 

Monroe, James (Vol. 18, p. 786). 

Monroe Doctrine (Vol. 18, p. 788), by 
Dr. Theodore S. Woolsey, professor of 
International Law, Yale University. 



Indiana, History (Vol. 14, p. 425). 
Mississippi, History (Vol. 18, p. 602). 
Illinois, History (Vol. 14, p. 809). 
Alabama, History (Vol. 1, p. 462). 
Maine, History (Vol. 17, p. 489). 
Missouri, History (Vol. 18, p. 618). 
Oregon, History (Vol. 20, p. 248). 



Whig Party (Vol. 28, p. 589), by Dr. 
Anson D. Morse, professor of history, 
Amherst College. 

Adams, John Quincy (Vol. 1, p. 178), by 
Prof. Edward Channing, Harvard Uni- 
versity. 

Clay, Henry (Vol. 6, p. 470), by Carl 
Schurz, author of Life, of Henry Clay. 

Anti-Masonic Party (Vol. 2, p. 127). 

Democratic Party (Vol. 8, p. 2). 

Crawford, W. H. (Vol. 6, p. 886). 

Missouri Compromise (Vol. 18, p. 614), 
by Prof. William Roy Smith, Bryn 
Mawr College. 

Missouri, History (Vol. 18, p. 618). 



United States, History (Vol. 27, p. 
697), by Prof. Alexander Johnston and 
C. C. Whinery. 



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AMERICAN HISTORY 



261 



Tendencies to Disunion 
(1829-1851). 
" The reign of Andrew Jackson " 
(1829-1887). 



The Kitchen Cabinet and the Cab- 
inet Crisis. 



Jackson and the Bank. 



The new school of leaders. 
Jackson's lieutenant and 
cessor. 



sue- 



Van Buren's lieutenant in New 

York. 
The Jacksonian leader in the 

Senate. 
Jackson's War Secretary, 1881- 

86. 
Jackson's Attorney-General, 

Treasurer, and (1885) Chief 

Justice. 
Jackson's Secretary of State 

(1881-88), who drafted the 

anti-nullification proclamation. 
Georgia and the Cherokees. Oppo- 
sition in the South to the Protec- 
tive System. Tariff of 1882. 



Rise and fall of doctrine of Nulli- 
fication (1880). 



Nullification not original with Cal- 
houn. 

The debate in the U. S. Senate 
on nullification — Webster and 
Hayne. 

Compromise Tariff of 1888. 



Beginning of abolitionist movement 
(1831). The " Liberator." 

Foundation of American Anti-Slav- 
ery Society (1881). Its leaders. 



Jackson, Andrew (Vol. 15, p. 107), by 
the late Prof. William G. Sumner, Yale 
University, author of Life of Andrew 
Jackson, etc. 

Green, Duff (Vol. 12, p. 584). 

Eaton, Margaret O'Neill (" Peggy 
O'Neill ") (Vol. 8, p. 888). 

Banks and Banking, United States 
(Vol. 8, p. 846), by C. A. Conant, au- 
thor of History of Modern Banks of 
Issue. 

Van Buren, Martin (VoL 27, p. 881), 
by Prof. William MacDonald, Brown 
University. 

Marcy, W. L. (Vol. 17, p. 696). 

Benton, T. H. (Vol. 8, p. 758). 
Cass, Lewis (Vol. 5, p. 455). 
Taney, R. B. (Vol. 26, p. 896). 

Livingston, Edward (Vol. 16, p. 811). 



Georgia, History (Vol. 11, p. 756). 

Tariff, United States (Vol. 26, p. 425), 
by Prof. F. W. Taussig, Harvard Uni- 
versity, author of Tariff History of the 
United States. 

Calhoun, John C. (Vol. 5, p. 1), by 
Hon. Henry A. M. Smith, U. S. Dis- 
trict Judge, South Carolina. 

South Carolina, History (Vol. 25, p. 
504). 

Nullification (Vol. 19, p. 846). by Prof. 
Walter L. Fleming, Louisiana State 
University. 

Webster, Daniel (Vol. 28, p. 461), by 
Everett P. Wheeler, author of Daniel 
Webster, etc. 

Hayne, Robert Young (Vol. 13, p. 114). 

Tariff (Vol. 26, p. 425), by Prof. F. W. 
Taussig, Harvard, author of Tariff 
History of the United States. 

Slavery, United States (Vol. 25, p. 225), 

by Dr. J. K. Ingram. 
Lundy, Benjamin (Vol. 17, p. 124). 
Garrison, W. L. (Vol. 11, p. 477). 



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262 



BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



Dissent from this view and forma- 
tion of anti-slavery political party 
(1840). 



"Dorr's Rebellion." 
Seminole War (1885-1842). 

Texas independent of Mexico 

(1836). 
Admission of Texas (1845). 



Polk's Administration. 

War with Mexico (1846-1848). 

The Generals and the Fighting. 



Wilmot Proviso and similar meas- 
ures. 

Cession of California (1848), and 
Discovery of Gold there. 

The Gadsden Purchase (1858). 
Compromise Measures of 1850. 



Opposition in Georgia. 

Fugitive Slave Laws. 

Various political elements join to 
oppose introduction of slavery 
into territories (1847-1848). 

Tariff Reduction, Walker Bill of 
1846. 



Independent Treasury System 

(1846). 
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty (1850). 

The northern boundary " Fifty-four 

forty or fight." 
New Leaders in the '50's. 

Northern anti-slavery men. 



Phillips, Wendell (Vol. 21, p. 407), by 
Thomas Wentworth Higginson, author 
of History of the United States. 

Liberty Party (Vol. 16, p. 548). 

Birney, James G. (Vol. 8, p. 988). 

Smith, Gerrit (Vol. 25, p. 261). 

Rhode Island (Vol. 28, p. 252). 

Osceola (Vol. 20, p. 846). 



Texas, History (Vol. 26, p. 

Houston, Sam (Vol. 18, p. 828). 

San Antonio, Texas (Vol. 24, p. 126). 

Austin, S. F. (Vol. 2, p. 940). 

Crockett, David (Vol. 7, p. 477. 

Polk, J. K. (Vol. 21, p. 988), by Prof. 
W. R. Smith, Bryn Mawr College. 

Taylor, Zachary (Vol. 26, p. 478), by 
Prof. Isaac J. Cox, University of Cin- 
cinnati. 

Scott, Winfield (Vol. 24, p. 475). 

Santa- Ana (Vol. 24, p. 184). 

Mexico, History (Vol. 18, p. 840). 

Mexico City (Vol. 18, p. 847). 

Wilmot, David (Vol. 28, p. 691). 

California, History (Vol. 5, p. 17). 



Gadsden, James (Vol. 11, p. 888). 
Compromise Measures of 1850 (Vol. 6, 

p. 818), by Prof. W. R. Smith, Bryn 

Mawr College. 
Georgia (Vol. 11, p. 756). 
Fugitive Slave Laws (Vol. 11, p. 288). 
Free Soil Party (Vol. 11, p. 87). 



Tariff (Vol. 26, p. 425), by Prof. F. W. 

Taussig, Harvard University. 
Walker, Robert James (Vol. 28, p. 

278). 
Polk, J. K. (Vol. 21, p. 988), by Prof. 

W. R. Smith, Bryn Mawr. 
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty (Vol. 6, p. 

475). 
Clayton, John M. (Vol. 6, p. 474). 
Oregon, History (Vol. 20, p. 249). 
Washington, History (Vol. 28, p. 857). 

Sumner, Charles (Vol. 26, p. 81). 
Seward, William H. (Vol. 24, p. 788). 
Chase, Salmon P. (Vol. 5, p. 955). 



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AMERICAN HISTORY 



263 



Southern leaders, protecting sla- 
very in the Territories. 



Northern " popular sovereignty 
leader." 

Attempt to uphold Fugitive Slave 
Law of 1850 — a death blow to the 
Whig Party. 

The American or " Know Nothing " 
Party. 

Kansas-Nebraska Bill, repealing 
Missouri Compromise. 

Origin of the Republican Party 
(1854.). 

Opening of Japan (1854). 



Efforts to obtain Cuba in the inter- 
ests of Slavery. The Ostend 
Manifesto (1854). 

The election of 1856. 

The Dred Scott decision and its 
effects (1857). 

Lincoln and Douglas debates in Illi- 
nois Senatorial contest (1858). 



John Brown's Raid (1859). 
Admission of Minnesota and Oregon. 

The Presidential Campaign of 1860. 



Lincoln elected with Hannibal Ham- 
lin of Maine as Vice-President. 



Secession (1860-1861). 



Davis, Jefferson (Vol. 7, p. 867), by 
Hon. W. W. Henry, late president of 
the American Historical Association, 
and Dr. N. D. Mereness. 

Stephens, A. H. (Vol. 26, p. 887). 

Douglas, Stephen A. (Vol. 8, p. 446). 

Whig Party (Vol. 28, p. 590), by Prof. 
A. D. Morse, Amherst College. 

Know Nothing Party (Vol. 15, p. 877). 

Kansas, History (Vol. 15, p. 658). 
Nebraska, History (Vol. 19, p. 880). 

Republican Party (Vol. 28, p. 177), by 
Prof. A. D. Morse, Amherst College. 

Japan, History (Vol. 15, p. 287), by 
Capt. Frank Brinkley, late editor of 
" The Japan Mail "; author of Japan; 
Perry, M. C. (Vol. 21, p. 184). 

Buchanan, James (Vol. 4, p. 716). 



Fillmore, Millard (Vol. 10, p. 844). 
Fremont, John C. (Vol. 11, p. 97). 
Taney, Roger B. (Vol. 26, p. 896). 

Lincoln, Abraham (Vol. 16, p. 705), by 
J. G. Nicolay and C. C. Whinery. 

Douglas, S. A. (Vol. 8, p. 446). 

Free port, III. (Vol. 11, p. 85). 

Brown, John (Vol. 4, p. 660). 

Minnesota, History (Vol. 17, p. 558). 

Oregon, History (Vol. 20, p. 249). 

Bell, John (Vol. 8, p. 686). 

Everett, Edward (Vol. 10, p. 8), by Dr. 
Edward Everett Hale, author of The 
Man Without a Country, etc. 

Lincoln, Abraham (Vol. 16, p. 708), by 
John G. Nicolay, author (with John 
Hay) of Abraham Lincoln — a History, 
and C. C. Whinery, assistant editor, 
11th edition, Encyclopaedia Britannica. 

Hamlin, Hannibal (Vol. 12, p. 896). 

United States, History (Vol. 27, p. 
707), by the late Prof. Alexander John- 
ston of Princeton and C. C: Whinery. 

Secession (Vol. 24, p. 568), by Prof. W. 
L. Fleming, Louisiana State University. 

State Rights (Vol. 25, p. 802). 



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264 



BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



Organization and administration of 
the Confederacy. 



President 

Vice-President 

Other leaders and administrators 

Commissioners to Europe 



Secession by popular vote, May 

(1861). 
The people of Virginia divide the 

State (May, 1861). 

The main article American Civil War 
(Vol. 1, p. 818), by Capt. Charles F. 
Atkinson, author of The Wilderness and 
Cold Harbour, is richly supplemented with 
detailed accounts of the principal cam- 
paigns and battles, and biographies of 
military leaders on both the Federal and 
Confederate sides. For battles and cam- 
paigns see: Charleston (Vol. 5, p. 944); 
Bull Run (Vol. 4, p. 
Battles and 791), with map and de- 
Campaigns scription of both fa- 
mous battles; Lexing- 
ton, Mo. (Vol. 16, p. 527); Shenan- 
doah Valley Campaigns (Vol. 24, p. 
834) ; Yorktown (Vol. 28, p. 936) ; Seven 
Days' Battle (Vol. 24, p. 707), both 
with fine maps, and written by Major 
George W. Redway, author of The War 
of Secession: Fair Oaks (Vol. 10, p. 133); 
Hampton Roads (Vol. 12, p. 906); Don- 
elson, Fort (Vol. 8, p. 414); Shiloh, 
Battle of (Vol. 24, p. 859); Corinth 
(Vol. 7, p. 150); New Madrid (Vol. 19, 
p. 516); Perryville (Vol. 21, p. 185); 
Iuka (Vol. 15, p. 87); Memphis (Vol. 18, 
p. 107); New Orleans (Vol. 19, p. 531); 
Harper's Ferry (Vol. 13, p. 14); An- 



CONFEDERATK STATES OF AMERICA (Vol. 

6, p. 899), by Dr. J. C. Schwab, Yale, 

author of The Confederate States of 

America. 
Davis, Jefferson (Vol. 7, p. 867), by 

Hon. William Wirt Henry and 

N. D. Mereness. 
Stephens, Alexander H. (Vol. 25, p. 

887). 
Benjamin, Judah P. (Vol. 8, p. 789). 
Reagan, John H. (Vol. 22, p. 940). 
Cobb, Howell (Vol. 6, p. 606). 
Toombs, Robert (Vol. 27, p. 47). 
Vance, Z. B. (Vol. 27, p. 882). 
Yancey, William Lowndes (Vol. 28, p. 

902). 
Mason, James Murray (Vol. 17, p. 889). 
Slidell, John (Vol. 25, p. 241). 
Tennessee, History (Vol. 26, p. 624). 
Virginia, History (Vol. 28, p. 124). 
West Virginia, History (Vol. 28, p. 563). 



tietam (Vol. 2, p. 124); Fredericks- 
burg (Vol. 11, p. 68); Stone River, 
Battle of (Vol. 25, p. 966); Chancel- 
lorsville (Vol. 5, p. 835), see also Wil- 
derness (Vol. 28, p. 633); Gettysburg 
(Vol. 11, p. 911), with map; Vicksburg 
(Vol. 28, p. 21), with maps; Port Hud- 
son (Vol. 22, p. 117); Baton Rouge 
(Vol. 3, p. 521); Helena, Ark. (Vol. 13, 
p. 219); Chickamauga Creek (Vol. 6, p. 
130), with map; Chattanooga (Vol. 6, 
p. 7); Knoxville (Vol. 15, p. 883); Red 
River (Vol. 22, p. 969); Wilderness 
(Vol. 28, p. 633), with 4 maps, by C. F. 
Atkinson, author of The Wilderness and 
Cold Harbour: Washington (Vol. 28, p. 
352); Marietta, Ga. (Vol. 17, p. 715); 
Atlanta (Vol. 2, p. 854) ; Savannah (Vol. 
24, p. 241); Mobile (Vol. 18, p. 636); 
Galveston (Vol. 11, p. 431); Franklin, 
Tenn. (Vol. 11, p. 34); Nashville (Vol. 
19, p. 247); Petersburg (Vol. 21, p. 301), 
with two maps, by Major G. W. Redway; 
Columbia, S. C. (Vol. 6, p. 738); Appo- 
mattox Court House (Vol. 2, p. 226); 
Richmond, Va. (Vol. 23, p. 311). 

On the leaders on both sides see the 
biographical articles: McClellan, 



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AMERICAN HISTORY 



265 



George Brinton (Vol. 17, p. 201); 

Halleck, Henry Wager 
Union (Vol. 12, p. 854); Grant, 

Generals Ulysses Simpson (Vol. 12, 

p. 355), by John Fiske 
and Capt. C. F. Atkinson; Dix, John 
Adams (Vol. 8, p. 346); McDowell, 
Irvin (Vol. 17, p. 214); Burnside, 
Ambrose Everett (Vol. 4, p. 861); 
Hooker, Joseph (Vol. 13, p. 671); 
Meade, George Gordon (Vol. 17, p. 
945) ; Pope, John (Vol. 22, p. 87) ; Buell, 
Don Carlos (Vol. 4, p. 751) ; Rosecrans, 
William Starke (Vol. 23, p. 734); Sher- 
man, William Tecumseh (Vol. 24, p. 
851); Thomas, George Henry (Vol. 26, 
p. 866); MacPherson, James Birdseye 
(Vol. 17, p. 268); Sheridan, Philip 
Henry (Vol. 24, p. 847); Slocum, Henry 
Warner (Vol. 25, p. 243); Butler, Ben- 
jamin Franklin (Vol. 4, p. 881); Han- 
cock, Winfield Scott (Vol. 12, p. 909); 
Humphreys, Andrew Atkinson (Vol. 
13, i . 891); Sedgwick, John (Vol. 24, p. 
578); Reynolds, John Fulton (Vol. 23, 
p. 226) ; Warren, Gouverneur Kemble 
(Vol. 28, p. 329); Howard, Oliver Otis 
(Vol. 13, p. 833); Doubleday, Abner 
(Vol. 8, p. 441); Sickles, Daniel Edgar 
(Vol. 25, p. 36) ; Schurz, Carl (Vol. 24, p. 
386); Devens, Charles (Vol. 8, p. 120); 
Butterfield, Daniel (Vol. 4, p. 890); 
Porter, Horace (Vol. 22, p. 116); 
Franklin, William Buel (Vol. 11, p. 
33); Porter, Fitz-John (Vol. 22, p. 115); 
Shields, James (Vol. 24, p. 856); Hunt, 
Henry Jackson (Vol. 13, p. 934) ; Couch, 
Darius Nash (Vol. 7, p. 307); Cox, 
Jacob Dolson (Vol. 7, p. 352) ; Meagher 
Thomas Francis (Vol. 17, p. 946); Sum- 
ner, Edwin Vose (Vol. 26, p. 83) ; Sigel, 
Franz (Vol. 25, p. 60); Kearny, Philip 
(Vol. 15, p. 707); Smith, Charles Fer- 
guson (Vol. 25, p. 259); Smith, William 
Farrar (Vol. 25, p. 271); Crittenden, 
Thomas Leonidas (Vol. 7, p. 471); Mc- 
Clernand, John Alexander (Vol. 17, 
p. 202); Smith, Andrew Jackson (Vol. 
25, 259); Garfield, James Abram (Vol. 
11, p. 464); Wallace, Lewis (Vol. 28, 



p. 276); Banks, Nathaniel Prentiss 
(Vol. 3, p. 333); Washburn, Cadwal- 
ader Colden (Vol. 28, p. 344); Logan, 
John Alexander (Vol. 16, p. 866); 
Palmer, John McAuley (Vol. 20, p. 
645) ; McCook, Alexander McDowell, 
McCook, Daniel, and McCook, John 
James (Vol. 17, p. 205); Smith, Morgan 
Lewis, and] Smith, Giles Alexander 
(Vol. 25, p. 267); Blair, Francis Pres- 
ton (Vol. 4, p. 34); Schofield, John 
McAllister (Vol. 24, p. 345); Newton, 
John (Vol. 19, p. 592); Miles, Nelson 
A. (Vol. 18, p. 442); Merritt, Wesley 
(Vol. 18, p. 173); Custer, George Arm- 
strong (Vol. 7, p. 668); Stoneman, 
George (Vol. 25, p. 962); Wilson, James 
Harrison (Vol. 28, p. 695); Tracy, Ben- 
jamin Franklin (Vol. 27, p. 127); Lyon, 
Nathaniel (Vol. 17, p. 173); Farragut, 
David Glasgow (Vol. 10, p. 187); Por- 
ter, David Dixon (Vol. 22, p. 113); 
Foote, Andrew Hull (Vol. 10, p. 625); 
Cushing. William Barker (Vol. 7, p. 
667). 

And, for Confederate leaders: Lee, 
Robert Edward (Vol. 16, p. 362); Jack- 
son, Thomas Jonathan, "Stonewall" 
(Vol. 15, p . 110); 
Confederate Longstreet, James 
Generals (Vol. 16, p. 985); 

Johnston, Albert 
Sidney (Vol. 15, p. 472); Johnston, Jo- 
seph Eggleston (Vol. 15, p.474); Beau- 
regard, Pierre G. T. (Vol. 3, p. 599); 
Bragg, Braxton (Vol. 4, p. 376) ; Hood, 
John Bell (Vol. 13, p. 665); Polk, 
Leonidas (Vol. 21, p. 984); Hardee, 
William Joseph (Vol. 12, p. 941); Hill, 
Ambrose Powell (Vol. 13, p. 463); Hill, 
Daniel Harvey (Vol. 13, p. 464) ; Ewell 
Richard Stoddert (Vol. 10, p. 40); 
Early, Jubal Anderson (Vol. 8, p. 
797); Anderson, Richard Henry (Vol- 
1, p. 960); Floyd, John Buchanan (Vol. 
10, p. 573); Buckner, Simon Bolivar 
(Vol. 4, p. 732); Crittenden, George 
Bibb (Vol. 7, p. 471); Breckinridge, 
John Cabell (Vol. 4, p. 483); Smith, 
Edmund Kirby (Vol. 25, p. 260); Lee, 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



Stephen Dill (Vol. 16, p. 364); Van 
Dorn, Earl (Vol. 27, p. 887); Ashby, 
Turner (Vol. 2, p. 730) ; Stuart, James 
Ewell Brown (Vol. 25, p. 1047); Hamp- 
ton, Wade (Vol. 12, p. 905); Lee, Fitz- 
hugh (Vol. 16, p. 360); Wheeler, Jo- 

Topics for Reading 

Political History During the Civil War. 
Paper money (1862). 

Public lands given to settlers at re- 
duced rates (1862), and granted 
to agricultural colleges (1862). 

War Tariffs (1862-1864). 



Establishment of National Banking 
System (1862-1865). 

Emancipation (1868). 



Second election of Lincoln (1864). 
Opposition to the War in the North. 



The War Governors of the North- 
ern States. 



Assassination of Lincoln (1865). 
The Reconstruction Period. 



Organizing the negroes into a .polit- 
ical party. 

Opposition to Reconstruction Meas- 
ures (1865-1876). 

Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fif- 
teenth Amendments. 



seph (Vol. 28, p. 586); Forrest, Nathan 
Bedford (Vol. 10, p. 673); Morgan, 
John Hunt (Vol. 18, p. 834); Mosby, 
John Singleton (Vol. 18, p. 890); 
Wise, Henry Alexander (Vol. 28, p. 
751). 

Articles 



Greenbacks (Vol. 12, p. 587). 

Homestead and Exemption Laws (Vol. 

18, p. 639), by Dr. N. D. Mereness. 
Morrill, J. S. (Vol. 18, p. 869). 

Tariff, United States (Vol. 26, p. 425), 
by Prof. F. W. Taussig, Harvard, au- 
thor of Tariff History of the United 
States. 

Banks and Banking, United States (Vol. 
8, p. 347), by Charles A. Conant, au- 
thor of Banks of Issue. 

Lincoln, Abraham (Vol. 16, p. 707), by 
J. G. Nicolay, biographer of Lincoln, 
and C. C. Whinery, assistant editor, 
Encyclopaedia Britannica. 

McClellan, G. B. (Vol. 17, p. 201). 

Knights of the Golden Circle (Vol. 

15, p. 868), by Prof. W. L. Fleming, 

Louisiana State University. 
Vallandigham; C. L. (Vol. 27, p. 862). 
Copperheads (Vol. 7, p. 110). 
Andrew, John A. (Vol. 1, p. 978). 
Curtin, A. G. (Vol. 7, p. 651). 
Morgan, E. D. (Vol. 18, p. 888). 
Seymour, Horatio (Vol. 24, p. 755). 
Morton, Oliver P. (Vol. 18, p. 882). 
Yates, Richard (Vol. 28, p. 908). 

Lincoln, Abraham (Vol. 16, p. 709), by 
J. G. Nicolay and C. C. Whinery. 

United States, History (Vol. 27, p. 711), 
by Dr. Frederick J. Turner, professor 
of history, Harvard University. 

Freedmen's Bureau (Vol. 11, p. 75), by 

Prof. W. L. Fleming. 
Howard, O. O. (Vol. 13, p. 838). 
Ku Klux Klan (Vol. 15, p. 942), by 

Prof. W. L. Fleming. 

United States, Constitution and Gov- 
ernment (Vol. 27, pp. 647, 658, etc.), 
by James Bryce, author of The Amer- 
ican Commonwealth. 



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AMERICAN HISTORY 



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Character of Reconstruction Gov- 
ernment 

" Scalawags " and " Carpet Bag- 
gers." 

Johnson's Policy: his impeachment. 

The Legal Tenders. 
Grant's two administrations (1869- 
1877). 



Beginning of Woman's Suffrage 

(1869). 
Black Friday (1869). 

The Alabama Claims, Treaty of 
Washington (1871). 

The "Virginius" Affair (1878). 

The Panic of 1878 and the Inflation 
Bill (1874). 

Political unrest in the West (1878- 
1874). 

Railway abuses. The greatest 
American political scandal. 

War with the Sioux. Custer mas- 
sacre (1876). 

The Hayes-Tilden Contest (1876). 

Withdrawal of Federal troops from 

the South. 
Civil Service Reform. 

Monetary Question — Bland- Allison 
Act (1878). 

Republicans regain control of Con- 
gress. 

Factions in Republican Party. 

Assassination of Garfield. 



Succession of the Vice-President. 
Anti-Polygamy Act (1882). 

Triumph of Civil Service Reform 

(1888). 
Tariff revision (1888). 



See under History in articles on Southern 

States. 
Carpet Bagger (Vol. 5, p. 897). 

Johnson, Andrew (Vol. 15, p. 461). 

Impeachment (Vol. 14, p. 840). 

McCulloch, Hugh (Vol. 17, p. 207). 

Grant, U. S. (Vol. 12, p. 857), by Dr. 
John Fiske, author of American Politi- 
cal Ideas, etc., and C. F. Atkinson, au- 
thor of Wilderness and Cold Harbour, 
etc. 

Woman (Vol. 28, p. 788). 

Gould, Jay (Vol. 12, p. 284). 
Fisk, James (Vol. 10, p. 437). 
" Alabama " Arbitration (Vol. 1, p. 
464)/ by Montague H. Crackanthorpe. 
Santiago de Cuba (Vol. 24, p. 198). 
Greenbacks (Vol. 12, p. 536). 

Farmers' Movement (Vol. 10, p. 181). 

Credit Mobilier of America (Vol. 7, p. 

391). 
Custer, George A. (Vol. 7, p. 668). 

Electoral Commission (Vol. 9, p. 172). 

Tilden, S. J. (Vol. 26, p. 970). 

Hayes, R. B. (Vol. 18, p. 112), by Carl 

Schurz. 
Schurz, Carl (Vol. 24, p. 386) ; Godkin, 

E. L. (Vol. 12, p. 174). 
Allison, W. B. (Vol. 1, p. 696). 

Conkling, Roscoe (Vol. 6, p. 950). 

Platt, T. C. (Vol. 21, p. 825). 

Garfield, James A. (Vol. 11, p. 465), by 
Prof. John B. McMaster, University of 
Pennsylvania, author of A History of 
the People of the United States. 

Arthur, C. A. (Vol. 2, p. 683). 

Mormons (Vol. 18, p. 846). 

Utah (Vol. 27, p. 818). 

Civil Service, United States (Vol. 6, p. 
414). 

Tariff (Vol. 26, p. 426), by Prof. F. W. 
Taussig, Harvard University, author of 
Tariff History of the United States. 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



The Presidential campaign of 1884. 
First election of Grover Cleve- 
land. 



Party Breaks. 

Increasing problems of Interstate 
Commerce. Federal legislation 
(1887) on interstate commerce. 

Labor combinations, social unrest. 



Republican success in 1888. Benja- 
min Harrison, president. 

Republican policy in Congress. 
American control in Samoa (1889). 
Republican and Democratic Tariffs: 

Mills Bill (1888), McKinley Act 

(1890). 

States powerless to arrest the prog- 
ress of Industrial Combinations. 
Federal legislation. Sherman 
Anti-Trust Law (1890). 

Party disruption over free coinage 
of silver. Sherman Silver Pur- 
chase Act (1890). 



Opening of Indian Lands (1889- 
1 898) . Formation of Oklahoma. 

Beginning of restriction of Negro 
suffrage (1890), and adoption of 
grandfather clauses in constitu- 
tions of Southern states. 



The campaign of 1892. 
The candidates. 



Blaine, James G. (Vol. 4, p. 82), by 
Charles Emory Smith, late editor Al- 
bany Journal and Philadelphia Press, 
and Postmaster-General of the United 
States. 

Cleveland, Grover (Vol. 6, p. 501), by 
Horace White, formerly editor The 
Evening Post, New York; author of 
The Tariff Question. 

Mugwump (Vol. 18, p. 956). 

Interstate Commerce (Vol. 14, p. 711), 
by Prof. Frank A. Fetter, Princeton 
University, author of The Principles of 
Economics. 

Trade Unions, United States (Vol. 27 p 

150), by Carroll D. Wright, late L\ S. 

Commissioner of Labor. 
Strikes and Lockouts, United States 

(Vol. 25, p. 1088), by Carroll D. 

Wright. 

Harrison, Benjamin (Vol. 18, p. 22), by 
Hon. J. W. Foster, formerly U. S. Sec- 
retary of State. 

Reed, Thomas B. (Vol. 22, p. 978). 

Samoa, History (Vol. 24, p. 116). 

Tariff, United States (Vol. 26, p. 426}. 
by Prof. F. W. Taussig. '* 

Mills, R. Q. (Vol. 18, p. 475). 

McKinley, William (Vol. 17, p. 256). 

Trusts (Vol. 27, p. 884), by Prof. J. W. 
Jenks, professor of Economy and Gov- 
ernment, New York University, special 
investigator of Trusts for U. S. Gov- 
ernment. 
Sherman, John (Vol. 24, p. 850), by 
Prof. W. A. Dunning, Columbia Uni- 
versity, author of Essays on Civil War 
and Reconstruction, etc. 
Bimetallism (Vol. 8, p. 946), by C. F. 
Bastable, Dublin University, author of 
Public Finance. 

Oklahoma, History (Vol. 20, p. 60). 

United States, Constitution and Govern- 
ment (Vol. 27, p. 647), by Hon. James 
Uryce. Sections on Government of ar- 
ticles Mississippi, Virginia, North 
Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Louis- 
iana and Oklahoma. 

Harrison, Benjamin (Vol. 18, p. 22) bv 
Sia^' F ° Ster ' ^ U * S ' Secreta ^ of 



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AMERICAN HISTORY 



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Second election of Cleveland. 
Panic of 1898. 



Wilson Tariff (1894). 

Venezuela Boundary Question 

(1895). 
New phase of Monroe Doctrine. 
The issues of 1896. McKinley 's 

election. 

Republicans and Gold Standard. 

Democrats and Silver. 

Gold Democrats. 

The Dingley Tariff (1897). 

Annexation of Hawaii and events 

leading to it (1898). 
War with Spain (1898). 

Treaty of Paris (1898). The United 
States finds itself "in a position 
of increased importance and pres- 
tige among the nations of the 
world." 

Regeneration of Cuba (1898-1909). 



Initiative and Referendum 
adopted (1898). 



first 



Discovery of gold in Alaska. 
Conservation of National Resources, 
a new policy. 



Assassination of McKinley. The 
Roosevelt Administration (1901- 
1909). 

Isthmian Canal. 

Panic of 1907. 



Elkins Law. 
Eastern Policy. 



Weaver, James B. (Vol. 28, p. 439). 
Cleveland, Grover (Vol. 6, p. 502), by 

Horace White, late editor of The New 

York Evenirig Post 

Tariff, United States (Vol. 26, p. 426), 
by Prof. F. W. Taussig. 

Cleveland, Grover (Vol. 6, p. 503), by 
Horace White. 

Olney, Richard (Vol. 20, p. 91). 

McKinley, William (Vol. 17, p. 257). 

Hanna, M. A. (Vol. 12, p. 919). 
Bryan, William J. (Vol. 9, p. 697). 
Palmer, J. M. (Vol. 20, p. 645). 
Buckner, S. B. (Vol. 4, p. 732). 

Tariff, United States (Vol. 26, p. 427), 

by Prof. F. W. Taussig. 
Hawaii, History (Vol. 18, p. 91). 

Spanish-American War of 1898 (Vol. 

25, p. 594). 
Philippine Islands, History (Vol. 21, p. 

399), by Prof. Hiram Bingham, Yale 

University. 
Porto Rico, History (Vol. 22, p. 126). 

Cuba, History (Vol. 7, p. 604), by F. S. 
Philbrick. 

South Dakota, History (Vol. 25, p. 508). 

United States, Constitution and Govern- 
ment (Vol. 27, p. 651), by Hon. James 
Bryce, author of The American Com- 
monwealth. 

Alaska (Vol. 1, p. 475). 

Forest and Forestry, United States 
(Vol. 10, p. 651), by Gifford Pinchot, 
formerly chief of the Forestry Service, 
U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

Roosevelt, Theodore (Vol. 28, p. 707), 
by Lawrence F. Abbott, president of 
" The Outlook Company." 

Panama (Vol. 20, p. 666). 

Panama Canal (Vol. 20, p. 666). 

Banks and Banking (Vol. 3, p. 348), by 
Charles A. Conant, author of A History 
of Modern Banks of Issue. 

Railways, American Legislation (Vol. 22, 
p. 829). 

Hay, John (Vol. 13, p. 105). 

Root, Elihu (Vol. 28, p. 711). 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



This sketch of American History closes 
with the inauguration of President Roose- 
velt, for the questions that have arisen 
since that date are questions into which 
current politics enter, and these are 
treated in the chapter of this Guide on 
Questions of the Day. Here we need only 
say that throughout his study of Amer- 
ican history the reader will constantly — 
and easily — find many more articles bear- 
ing on the subject than are mentioned in 
the outline given above. In particular 
let him note: 



— that there are many biographies of 
figures prominent in nation and state not 
mentioned above; 

— that in each article devoted to a 
state there is a section on history, which 
has a double value, as giving the outline 
of the state's history and as showing its 
part in the history of the nation; 

— and that there is in articles on cities 
and towns a great deal of important in- 
formation of historical value, sometimes 
merely local, but oftener bearing on the 
history of state or nation, or both. 



CHAPTER XLIV 



CANADIAN HISTORY 



ALL the world thinks of Canada as 
the youngest of countries, for the 
extraordinary rapidity with which 
her western territory has been developed 
within recent years surpasses every other 
record of agricultural expansion. But in 
order to realize how young Canada is, in 
another sense, one must examine the less 
familiar facts of her geological history. 
"The innumerable lakes and waterfalls," 
says the Britannica (Vol. 5, p. 143), prove 
"that the rivers have not been long at 
work," and that the country owes its 
contours to comparatively recent geo- 
logical action. "In many cases the lakes 
of Canada simply 
"Young" Rivers spill over, at the 
and Lakes lowest point, from 

one basin into the 
next below, since in so young a country 
there has not yet been time for the rivers 
to have carved wide valleys . . . Thou- 
sands of these lakes have been mapped; 
and every new survey brings to light 
small lakes hitherto unknown to the 
white man . . . For the great extent of 
lake-filled country there is no comparison" 



in any part of the world. And because 
the rivers have not yet worn their beds 
to an even slope, there are waterfalls 
enough to provide unlimited horse power; 
so that the natural advantages of Canada 
invite manufacturing just as the fertility 
of her soil invites agriculture. 

The geographical and geological por- 
tions of the article Canada (Vol. 5, p. 
142) must be carefully read in order that 
the significance of the historical account 
of the country may be fully grasped; and 
the same is true of those parts of the ar- 
ticle which deal with agriculture and with 
the commerce of which the first develop- 
ments were associated with early explora- 
tion. There is ample and authoritative 
information on all these subjects in the 
article, which is equivalent in length to 
85 pages of this Guide. The sections and 
their contributors are: Geography, by 
Prof. A. P. Coleman, Toronto University; 
Population, Commerce, etc., by Prof. W. 
L. Grant, Queens University, Kingston; 
Agriculture, by E. H. Godfrey, editor of 
Census and Statistics Office, Department 
of Agriculture, 'Ottawa; History — to the 



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CANADIAN HISTORY 



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Federation by G. M. Wrong, University 
of Toronto, and after the Federation by 
G. R. Parkin, author of Imperial Federa- 
tion and Life of Sir John Macdonald, etc., 
and Literature — English-Canadian, by L. 
J. Burpee, author of The Search for the 
Western Sea, and French-Canadian by 
William Wood, author of The Fight for 
Canada. 

On the early history of Canada the stu- 
dent should compare what is given in 
this Guide on the early history of America 
in general and es- 
Exploration and pecially the follow- 
Settlement ing articles: Leif 

Ericsson (Vol. 16, 
p. 896) ; Vinland (Vol. 28, p. 98), by Prof. 
Julius Emil Olson, University of Wis- 
consin; John Cabot (Vol. 4, p. 921); and 
Jacques Cartier (Vol. 5, p. 433), both 
by H. P. Biggar, author of The Voyages of 
the Cabots to Greenland; Samuel de 
Champlain (Vol. 5, p. 830), by N. E. 
Dionne, librarian of the Legislature of 
the Province of Quebec and biographer of 
Champlain; Jacques Marquette (Vol. 
17, p. 752) ; Sieur de la Salle (Vol. 16, p. 
230), by Charles C. Whinery, assistant- 
editor Encyclopaedia Britannica; Fron^ 
tenac (Vol. 11, p. 249), by A. G. Doughty, 
Dominion archivist of Canada; Louis- 
burg; Detroit; Sault Ste. Marie; 
Mackinac Island; Pittsburg; Nova 
Scotia, History; Seven Years' War 
(Vol. 24, especially page 722); Quebec; 
Montcalm and Wolfe. 

The close of the Seven Years' War saw 
New France ceded to Great Britain. On 
English rule down to Canadian Federa- 
tion, the student should consult the fol- 
lowing articles: Quebec Act; James 
Murray; American War op Inde- 
pendence — and particularly the articles 
on Montgomery and Arnold, leaders in 
the nearly successful attempt of the 
Americans to capture Canada, and that 
on the 1st Baron Dorchester, the Brit- 
ish defender of Quebec; John Graves 
Simcoe; Loyalists — and the articles 
New Brunswick and Ontario, both 



regions largely influenced by the settle- 
ment there of these Loyal- 
The War ists; American War of 
Periods 1812— and especially the 
articles Isaac Brock, by 
Prof. W. L. Grant, Queens University, 
Kingston; Erie, Oliver H. Perry, 
Sackett's Harbor, Tecumseh, Lake 
Champlain (Vol. 5, p. 830); Fort Niag- 
ara (Vol. 19, p. 634); John Strachan; 
Papineau and W. L. Mackenzie for the 
two revolts of 1837; Lord Durham; 
Lord Sydenham; Robert Baldwin and 
Sir Louis Lafontaine, heads of the first 
Liberal administrations; Earl Elgin 
(Vol. 9, p. 268); Sir A. A. Dorion; John 
Sandfield Macdonald, "the Ishmael of 
Parliament"; Sir John Beverley Rob- 
inson, head of the Tory "Family Com- 
pact"; and, for Irish-American outrages 
on the Canadian border, the article 
Fenians. 

On the period since federation (1867), 
see the article Federal Government 
(Vol. 10, p. 233) for a general description 

of this form of ad- 
Federation ministration; the ar- 
and Since tides Nova Scotia, 

Alfred Gilpin 
Jones and Joseph Howe, for local oppo- 
sition to federation ; Sir Charles Ttjpper, 
who alone in the delegation from Nova 
Scotia favoured federation; Thomas 
D'Arcy McGee (by A. G. Doughty), a 
prominent opponent of Fenianism who 
was assassinated by a Fenian; the ar- 
ticles Hudson's Bay Company and Sir 
G. E. Cartier, by Prof. W. L. Grant, 
Queens University, Kingston, for the 
extinction of the Hudson's Bay Company 
claims and the transfer of its territories 
to the government; Louis Riel for the 
Red River Rebellion; Prince Edward 
Island for its entrance into the Domin- 
ion; George Brown, a prominent ad- 
vocate of federation, by Prof. Grant; 
George Monro Grant, author of Ocean 
to Ocean; Sir John Macdonald, by G. 
R. Parkin, author of Imperial Federation, 
and biographer of Macdonald; Sir Fran- 



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BRITANNIGA READINGS AND STUDIES 



cis Hincks and Sib Alexander Galt, 
financiers; Sib Hugh Allan and Sib 
David Macfhebson, for the Canadian 
Pacific Railway question; Lord Duf- 
febin; Alexandeb Mackenzie, head of 
a Liberal government from 1873 to 1878 
when Sib John Macdonald returned to 
power on a platform calling for protec- 
tion of Canadian industries; George 
Tatlob Denison, founder of the "Can- 
ada "First" party; Sib Samuel Leonard 
Tilley, MacdonakTs minister of finance, 
who was principally responsible for the 
tariff of 1879; Sib Louis Henry Da vies, 
Liberal politician and jurist; Lord 
Stbathcona, by Prof. W. L. Grant, 
Baron Mountstephen, Sib William 
C. Van Horne and Sib Sandfobd Flem- 
ing for the completion of the Canadian 
Pacific Railway; Louis Riel for the 
Second Riel Rebellion; Sib John Thomp- 
son; George Eulas Foster; Sib H. G. 



Joly de Lotbiniebe; Honore Mebcieb, 
the French leader of Quebec; S. N. Pab- 
ent; Sib Mackenzie Bowell, premier in 
1894-1896; his successor, Sib Charles 
Tuppeb; Edward Blake, a Liberal 
leader who in 1892 left Canadian politics 
to take a seat in the British House of 
Commons; Sir Oliver Mowat, Blake's 
successor as premier of Ontario; George 
William Ross; Sib Daniel Wilson, edu- 
cational reformer, by Professor Grant; 
Sib Wilfrid Laurier (by J. S. Willison, 
author of Sir W. Laurier and the Liberal 
Party: A Political History), the great 
Liberal leader of the last decade, and 
Laurier's ministers of finance, Sir Rich- 
ard John Cartwbight and W. S. Field- 
ing, and his minister of militia Sir Fred- 
erick William Borden; Sib William 
Mulock; and Robert L. Borden, long 
leader of the Conservative opposition and 
premier in 1911. 



CHAPTER XLV 
ENGLISH, SCOTCH AND IRISH HISTORY 



THE student of English history in 
the Britannica may well begin 
with the summary view in the 
article British Empire (Vol. 4, p. 606), 
equivalent to SO pages of this Guide, by 
Lady Lugard, wife of the British explorer 
and colonial administrator, Sir Frederick 
Lugard, herself an authority on colonial 
subjects and well-known as colonial 
editor of the Times of London. On pp. 
. 608-610 there is a chronological list of 
the acquisitions of the Empire, and noth- 
ing will surprise the reader more than 
the comparative recentness of the move- 
ment by which two 
The British small islands have 

Empire expanded into an 

empire covering near- 
ly one-fourth of the earth's land surface. 



Except for the Channel Islands, the 
Isle of Man, and "the nominal possession 
of Newfoundland by Sir Humphrey 
Gilbert in 1583, all the territorial acqui- 
sitions of the Empire have been made 
in the 17th and subsequent centuries." 
On each of the localities mentioned in 
this imposing list the reader will find 
a separate article in its proper alpha- 
betical place in the Encyclopaedia Bri- 
tannica dealing with geography, govern- 
ment and history. Here it will be 
possible only to call attention to articles 
on the more important branches of the 
subject. 

On the early inhabitants of the islands 
and on British archaeology, read the 
elaborate article Celt (Vol. 5, p. 611; 
equivalent to 135 pages of this Guide), 



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ENGLISH, SCOTCH AND IRISH HISTORY 



273 



by Prof. William Ridgeway, Cambridge, 
author of The Oldest Irish 
Early Epic, and E. C. Quiggin, 

Britain lecturer in Celtic, Cam- 
bridge, — with particularly 
full treatment of Celtic languages and 
literatures, — Gaulish, Irish, Scottish, 
Gaelic, Manx, Welsh, Breton and Corn- 
ish; and the article Britain (Vol. 4, p. 
583; equivalent to 40 pages of this Guide), 
which is illustrated by a map of Roman 
Britain and plans of Roman remains. 
The treatment of pre-Roman and Roman 
Britain is by Professor F. J. Haverfield 
of Oxford; and later Britain is described 
by Hector Munro Chadwick, librarian 
of Clare College, Cambridge, and author 
of Studies on Anglo-Saxon Institutions. 
Then read: 

Wales, History (Vol. 28, pp. 261-268), 
}>y Herbert Murray Vaughan, Keble 
College, Oxford. 

Scotland, Political History (Vol. 24, 
pp. 429-457), by Andrew Lang, author 
of History of Scotland from the Roman 
Occupation; and, among 
Scottish many other articles, Scot- 
History land, Church of, (Vol. 24, 
460), by the Rev. Dr. Allan 
Menzies, St. Mary's College, St. An- 
drews, and such biographies as: Mal- 
colm III. (Canmore); Alexander I, II 
and HI (Vol. 1, p. 563); William The 
Lion (Vol. 28, p. 665); Wallace, Sir 
William (Vol. 28 , p. 277), by A. F. 
Hutchinson, late rector of the High 
School, Stirling; Robert I, the Bruce 
(Vol. 23, p. 395); David I and II (Vol. 
8, p. 859); James I, II, III, IV and V 
(Vol. 15, p. 139); Mary, Queen of 
Scots (Vol. 17, p. 817), a striking bio- 
graphy by the poet and essayist Algernon 
Charles Swinburne, author of the trage- 
dies Chastelard, BoihweU and Mary 
Stuart; Bothwell (Vol. 4, p. 303), by 
P. C. Yorke; Rizzio (Vol. 23, p. 388); 
Darnley (Vol. 7, p. 836), and see also 
the article Casket Letters (Vol. 5, p. 
449), an examination of the evidence in 
this mystery by Andrew Lang; Mar 



(Vol. 17, p. 666); Knox, John (Vol. 15, 
p. 878), by Dr. Alexander Taylor Innes, 
author of John Knox and Studies in 
Scottish History; Gowrie (Vol. 12, p. 
301), by R. J. McNeill, late editor St 
James' 8 Gazette; and James I of England — 
VI of Scotland (Vol. 15, p. 136); and for 
the later period see English History 
to supplement Andrew Lang's account 
of the period since the Union under 
Scotland, History. 

Ireland, History (Vol. 14, p. 756), 
by Prof. E. C. Quiggin, of Cambridge, 
on the early period, and Richard Bagwell, 
commissioner of national 
Irish education for Ireland and 

History author of Ireland under the 
Tudors, Ireland under the 
Stuarts, etc.; and to supplement this 
general treatment such separate articles 
as St. Patrick (Vol. 20, p. 933) and St. 
Columba (Vol. 6, p. 737), both by Dr. 
E. C. Quiggin; St. Brendan (Vol. 4, p. 
495); Brian (Vol. 4, p. 515); Brehon 
Laws (Vol. 4, p. 488), by Laurence 
Ginnell, M.P. for North Westmeath and 
author of Land and Liberty, etc.; O'Neill 
family (Vol. 20, p. 107) and O'Donnell 
family (Vol. 20, p. 6), by R. J. McNeill; 
Fitzgerald family (Vol. 10, p. 441), 
by J. H. Round, author of Feudal 
England, etc.; Tyrone, earls of (Vol. 27, 
p. 549); Tyrconnell (Vol. 27, p. 548); 
St. Leqer, Sir Anthony (Vol. 24, p. 23), 
by R. J. McNeill; Desmond (Vol. 8, 
p. 98); Butler family (Vol. 4, p. 879), 
by Oswald Barron, editor of The Ancestor: 
Drooheda (Vol. 8, p. 587) f Peep-of-day 
Boys (Vol. 21, p. 45); Orangemen 
(Vol. 20, p. 160); Flood, Henry (Vol. 
10, p. 525); Grattan, Henry (Vol. 12, 
p. 379); Tone, T. Wolfe (Vol. 27, p. 2) 
and Emmet, Robert and Thomas A. 
(Vol. 9, pp. 342-343), all by R. J. Mc- 
Neill; O'Connell, Daniel (Vol. 19, 
p. 990), by the late William O'Connor 
Morris, author of Irish History, etc.; 
Fenians (Vol. 10, p. 254), by R. J. 
McNeill; Butt, Isaac (Vol. 4, p. 889); 
Parnell, C. S. (Vol. 20, p. 854), by 



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James R. Thursfield, author of Peel, etc.; 
Davitt, Michael (Vol. 7, p. 870); 
Boycott (Vol. 4, p. 353); Dillon, John 
(Vol. 8, p. 273); Plunkett, Sir Horace 
Curzon (Vol. 81, p. 857); Redmond, 
John E. (Vol. 22, p. 968); and many 
articles on Irish towns and counties, 
and, on Home Rule and recent political 
questions, the biographies of English 
viceroys, premiers and chief secretaries, 
and the latter part of the article English 
History. 

ENGLISH HISTORY 

On English history the student will 
find the Britannica particularly valuable. 
The article English History (Vol. 9, 
pp. 466-587), is itself equivalent to 
about 380 pages of this Guide, and 
carries the story through 13 centuries. 
This great article — a text-book of the 
subject in scope and power — is written 
by: Prof. C. W. C. Oman, Oxford, 
author of England before the Norman 
Conquest, etc., dealing with the period 
down to the time of Elizabeth; Prof. 
A. F. Pollard, University of London, 
assistant editor Dictionary of National 
Biography, for the Reformation and the 
reign of Elizabeth, 1528-1603; Samuel 
Rawson Gardiner, best known as the 
historian of the Puritan Revolution, 
who deals with the period from 1603 to 
1793; W. Alison Phillips, author of 
Modern Europe, on the years 1793 to 
1837; and Hugh Chisholm, editor-in- 
chief of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, for 
the period since the accession of Queen 
Victoria. And the article closes with a 
critical estimate of Sources and Writers of 
English History, by Prof. Albert Frederick 
Pollard, University of London. 

For the period from 600 to 1066 read: 
Part 1 of English History (Vol. 8, pp. 
466-474); and the separate articles: 

For the introduction of Christianity 
and the "Kingdoms'' — Augustine (Vol. 
2, p. 910); Aethelberht (Vol. 1, p. 289); 
Edwin (Vol. 9, p. 7), by F. G. M. Beck, 
of Clare College, Cambridge; Anglo- 



Saxons (Vol. 2, p. 38), by H. M. Chad- 
wick; Britain, Anglo-Saxon (Vol. 4, 
pp. 589-595) and Angli (Vol. 2, p. 18) 
and Jutes (Vol. 15, 
Anglo-Saxon p. 609), by the same 

Period author; Saxons (Vol 

24, p. 264); North- 
umbria (Vol. 19, p. 793); Bernicia 
(Vol. 3, p. 802); Deira (Vol. 7, p. 933); 
East Anglia (Vol. 8, p. 827); Wessex 
(Vol. 28, p. 534) ; Mercia (Vol. 18, p. 151) ; 
Sussex, Kingdom of (Vol. 26, p. 168), 
and Kent (Vol. 15, p. 735), Ecgbert 
(Vol. 8, p. 869); Aethelwulf (Vol. 1, 
p. 292). 

On the Danish invasions and the Anglo- 
Saxon period, Viking (Vol. 28, pp. 62-66), 
by C. F. Keary, author of Tlie Vikings in 
Western Europe; ^Ethelbald (Vol. 1, 
p. 289), jEthelberht (Vol. 1, p. 289) 
and jEthelred I (Vol. 1, p. 290); 
Alfred the Great (Vol. 1, p. 582), by 
Charles Plummer, biographer of Alfred; 
Danelagh (Vol. 7, p. 803), by Prof, 
Allen Mawer of Armstrong College, 
Newcastle- on -Tyne; Edward "the 
Elder" (Vol. 8, p. 989), jEthelstan 
(Vol. 1, p. 291), Edmund I (Vol. 8, p. 
948), Edgar (Vol. 8, p. 933), all by 
Prof. Mawer; St. Dunstan (Vol. 8, p. 
684), jEthelred II "the Unready " 
(Vol. 1, p. 290), by Eev. C. Stanley 
Phillips, King's College, Cambridge; 
Sweyn I (Vol. 26, p. 224), by R. Nisbet 
Bain of the British Museum; Danegeld 
(Vol. 7, p. 803); Canute (Vol. 5, p. 221), 
by R. Nisbet Bain; Edmund "Ironside" 
(Vol. 8, p. 948), by Rev. C. Stanley 
Phillips; Harold I (Vol. 13, p. 11); 
Hardicanute (Vol. 12, p. 942); Edward 
"the Confessor" (Vol. 8, p. 990), by 
Rev. C. Stanley Phillips; Harold II 
(Vol. 13, p. 11). 

For the Norman Conquest and the 
Norman and Angevin kings the student 
should read the second section of the 
article English History (Vol. 9, pp. 
474-486) and, at least, the following 
important articles: 

William I, "The Conqueror" (Vol. 



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275 



28, p. 659), by H. W. Carless Davis of 
Oxford, author of England under the 

Normans and Ange- 
William the tins; Hereward 

Conqueror (Vol. 13, p. 363), 

William Rufus by J. H. Round, 
Henry I author of Feudal 

Stephen and England, etc.; Feud- 
Matilda alism (Vol.' 10, p. 

Henry II 297), by Prof. 

George Burton 
Adams, Yale University, author of Polit- 
ical History of England, 1066-1216, etc.; 
Domesday Book (Vol. 8, p. 398), by 
J. H. Round; William II, "Rufus" 
(Vol. 28, p. 661) and Lanfranc (Vol. 16, 
p. 169), both by H. W. Carless Davis; 
Anselm (Vol. 2, p. 81); Henry I (Vol. 
13, p. 279), Stephen (Vol. 25, p. 881), 
Matilda (Vol. 17, p. 888), Henry H 
(Vol. 13, p. 281), Becket, Thomas (Vol. 
3, p. 608), Richard I, "Coeur de Lion" 
(Vol. 23, p. 294), all by H. W. Carless 
Davis. 

In connection with the third section 
of the article English History dealing 
with the struggle for constitutional 

liberty from 1199 to 
John 1337 (Vol. 9, pp. 

Henry III 486-501) the follow- 

Edward I to HI ing supplementary 

articles are among 
the many to which the student should 
turn: John (Vol. 15, p. 489), and Lang- 
ton, Stephen (Vol. 16, p. 178), both by 
H. W. Carless Davis; Magna Carta 
(Vol. 16, p. 314), by A. W. Holland, 
late scholar of St. John's, Oxford; 
Henry III (Vol. 13, p. 282), Pembroke 
(Vol. 21, p. 78), Montfort, Simon de 
(Vol. 18, p. 781), Evesham (Vol. 10, p. 
10); Edward I (Vol. 8, p. 991-993), by 
Prof. T. F. Tout, University of Man- 
chester, author of Edward I; Mortmain 
(Vol. 18, p. 880); Westminster, Sta- 
tutes of (Vol. 28, p. 551); Edward II 
(Vol. 8, p. 993); Lancaster, Henry and 
Thomas, Earls of (Vol. 16, pp. 144 
and 148); Despenser, Hugh Le (Vol. 
8, p. 101); Mortimer family (Vol. 18, 



p. 879); and Edward III (Vol. 8, p. 
994). 

On the Hundred Years' War (1337- 
1453) and contemporary history, see the 
section in English History (Vol. 8, 
pp. 501-516); the 
Richard II article Hundred 

Henry IV to VI Years' War (Vol. 
13, p. 893), by Jules 
Viard, archivist of the National Archives, 
Paris; Sluys, Battle of (Vol. 25, p. 
246), by D. Hannay, author of Short 
History of the Royal Navy; Crecy (Vol. 7, 
p. 389); Poitiers, Battle of (Vol. 21, 
p. 898; Edward, The Black Prince 
(Vol. 8, p. 999), by Prof. Tout; Wycliffe 
(Vol. 28, p. 866), by R. Lane Poole, 
author of Wycliffe and Movements for 
Reform, and W. Alison Phillips, author 
of Modern Europe, etc.; Lancaster, 
John of Gaunt, Duke of (Vol. 16, p. 
146), by C. Lethbridge Kingsford, bio- 
grapher of Henry V; Richard II (Vol. 
23, p. 295), also by C. L. Kingsford; 
Tyler, Wat (Vol. 27, p. 495); Ball, 
John (Vol. 3, p. 263); Lollards (Vol. 
16, p. 929), by Dr. T. M. Lindsay, 
author of History of the Reformation; 
Gloucester, Thomas, Duke of (Vol. 
12, p. 130); Norfolk, Thomas Mowbray, 
Duke of (Vol. 19, p. 742); Henry IV 
(Vol. 13, p. 283), by C. L. Kingsford; 
Glendower, Owen (Vol. 12, p. 120); 
Northumberland (Vol. 19, p. 787); 
Henry V (Vol. 13, p. 284) and Oldcastle, 
Sir John (Vol. 20, p. 66), by C. L. 
Kingsford; Agincourt (Vol. 1, p. 375); 
Henry VI (Vol. 13, p. 285) and Glou- 
cester, Humphrey, Duke of (Vol. 12, 
p. 129) , both by C. L. Kingsford ; Bedford 
John, Duke of (Vol. 3, p. 616); Joan of 
Arc (Vol. 15, p. 520),by Prof. J. T. Shot- 
well of Columbia University and Hugh 
Chisholm, editor-in-chief of the Ency- 
clopaedia Britannica; Beaufort family 
(Vol. 3, p. 585); Cade, John (Vol. 4, 
p. 927). 

On the fifth period of English history, 

read section 5, The Wars of the Roses 

I (1453-1497) in the article English 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



History (Vol. 9, pp. 516-525); the separ- 
ate article, Roses, 
Edward IV and V Wars of the (Vol. 
Richard III 23,p.735);andthear- 

Henry VII tides: York, House 

of (Vol. 28, p. 924), 
and Lancaster, House of (Vol. 16, 
p. 143), both by James Gairdner, 
author of The Houses of Lancaster and 
York, etc.; York, Richard, Duke of 
(Vol. 28, p. 926), Warwick, Richard 
Neville, Earl of (Vol. 28, p. 339), 
Edward IV (Vol. 8, p. 996), Margaret 
of Anjou (Vol. 17, p. 702), Clarence, 
George, Duke of (Vol. 6, p. 428), 
Edward V (Vol. 8, p. 996), Richard III 
(Vol. 23, p. 296), and Buckingham, 
Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of (Vol. 
4, p. 726), all by C. L. Kingsford; Henry 

VII (Vol. 13, p. 286), by James Gairdner, 
author of The Houses of Lancaster and 
York, and biographer of Henry VII; 
Warbeck, Perkin (Vol. 28, p. 316). 

The sixth section of the article Eng- 
lish History, dealing with the years 
1497-1528 (Vol. 9, pp. 525-530), should 
be supplemented by 
Henry VIII the latter part of 

Edward VI James Gairdner's 

Mary article on Henry 

Elizabeth VII and by the arti- 

cles: Reformation 
(Vol. 23, p. 4), by Prof. James Harvey 
Robinson, Columbia University, author 
of History of Western Europe, etc; Henry 

VIII (Vol. 13, p. 287) and Fox, Richard 
(Vol. 10, p. 766), both by Prof. A. F. 
Pollard; Wolsey, Thomas (Vol. 28, p. 
779); Catherine of Aragon (Vol. 5, 
p. 529) and Boleyn, Anne (Vol. 4, p. 
159), by P. C. Yorke, Oxford; Cromwell, 
Thomas (Vol. 7, p. 499); Cranmer, 
Thomas (Vol 7, p. 375); Fisher, John 
(Vol. 10, p. 427), by Rev. E. L. Taunton, 
author of The English Black Monks of 
St. Benedict, etc.; More, Sir Thomas 
(Vol. 18, p. 822), by Mark Pattison, 
late rector of Lincoln College, Oxford; 
Howard, Catherine (Vol. 13, p. 832); 
Parr, Catherine (Vol. 20, p. 861); 



Norfolk, Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke 
of (Vol. 19, p.743); Askew, Anne (Vol. 
2, p. 762), by A. F. Pollard; Edward VI 
(Vol. 8, p. 996); Somerset, Edward 
Seymour, Duke of (Vol. 25, p. 386); 
Northumberland, John Dudley, Earl 
of Warwick, and Duke of (Vol. 19, 
p. 788); Grey, Lady Jane (Vol. 12, p. 
590); Mary I (Vol. 17, p. 814) and Gar- 
diner, Stephen (Vol. 11, p. 460), both 
by James Gairdner; Wyat, Sir Thomas 
(Vol. 28, p. 862); Pole, Cardinal (Vol. 
21, p. 974), by E. L. Taunton; Ridley, 
Nicholas (Vol. 23, p. 320); Latimer, 
Hugh (Vol. 16, p. 242), by T. F. Hender- 
son, author of Mary Queen of Scots and 
the Casket Letters; Elizabeth (Vol. 9, 
p. 282); Mary Queen of Scots (Vol. 
17, p. 817), by A.C. Swinburne; Norfolk, 
Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of (Vol. 
19, p. 744); Armada (Vol. 2, p. 560); 
Hawkins, Sir Richard (Vol. 13, p. 99); 
Drake, Sir Francis (Vol. 8, p. 473); 
Raleigh, Sir Walter (Vol. 22, p. 869); 
Leicester, Robert Dudley, Earl of 
(Vol. 16, p. 390); Essex, Robert 
Devereux, Earl of (Vol. 9, p. 782); 
Bacon, Francis (Vol. 3, p. 135), by Prof. 
Robert Adamson of Glasgow, and J. 
Malcolm Mitchell, University of London; 
Burghley, William Cecil, Baron (Vol. 
4, p. 816); and — for this whole period 
the article England, Church of (Vol. 
9, especially pp. 447-448), by William 
Hunt, author of History of the English 
Church. 

The seventh part of the article Eng- 
lish History (Vol. 9, pp. 535-542) 
deals with the Stuart Monarchy, the 

Great Rebellion and 
James I the Restoration(1603' 

Charles I 1689). From the 

The Common- great wealth of sup- 
wealth plementary material 
Charles II in the Britannica on 
James II this interesting 

period, at least the 
following articles should be selected: 
Stewart or Stuart family(Vol. 12, p. 
911); James I (Vol. 15, p. 136); Gun- 



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277 



powder Plot (Vol. 12, p. 727); Bible, 
English (Vol. 3, p. 894); Salisbury, 
Robert Cecil, 1st. Earl of (Vol. 24, 
p. 76); Buckingham, George Villiers, 
1st Duke of (Vol. 4, p. 722); Thirty 
Years* War (Vol. 26, p.- 852); Charles 
I (Vol. 5, p. 906) and Laud, William 
(Vol. 16, p. 276), both by P. Chesney 
York; Ship-Money (Vol. 24, p. 982); 
Hampden, John (Vol. 12, p. 900); Pym, 
John (Vol. 22, p. 680) and Strafford, 
Thomas Wentworth, Earl of (Vol. 
25, p. 978), both by P. C. Yorke; Great 
Rebellion (Vol. 12, p. 403) ; Cromwell, 
Oliver (Vol. 7, p. 487), by P. C. Yorke, 
C. F. Atkinson and R. J. McNeill; 
Cromwell, Richard (Vol. 7, p. 498); 
for the military operations of the Great 
Rebellion, the articles listed under that 
heading in the chapter of this Guide 
entitled For Army Officers; Monk, 
George (Vol. 18, p. 723); Charles II, 
(Vol. 5, p. 912); Clarendon, Edward 
Hyde, 1st Earl of (Vol. 6, p. 428); 
Buckingham, George Villiers, 2nd 
Duke of (Vol. 4, p. 724); Cleveland, 
Duchess of (Vol. 6, p. 500); Ports- 
mouth, Duchess of (Vol. 22, p. 131); 
Gwyn, Nell (Vol. 12, p. 750); Lauder- 
dale, Duke of (Vol. 16, p. 279); 
Shaftesbury, 1st Earl (Vol. 24, p. 760) 
by Osmund Airy, biographer of Charles 
II; Dutch Wars (Vol. 9, p. 729); Test 
Acts (Vol. 26, p. 665); James II (Vol. 15, 
p. 138); Argyll, 9th Earl of (Vol. 2, 
p. 484); Monmouth, Duke of (Vol. 18, 
p. 725); Tyrconnell (Vol. 27, p. 548). 

On the Revolution and the age of 
Anne (1689-1714) see the article Eng- 
lish History (Vol. 9, pp. 542-544), 

and William III. 
William and (Vol. 28, p. 662); 

Mary; Mary II. (Vol. 17, 

Anne p. 816); Burnet, 

Gilbert (Vol. 4, p. 
851); Grand Alliance (Vol. 12, p. 342), 
and for additional military articles 
the chapter For Army Officers in this 
Guide; Anne (Vol. 2, p. 65); Marlbor- 
ough, 1st Duke of (Vol. 17, p. 737), by 



W. Prideaux Courtney; Masham, Lady 
(Vol. 17, p. 836); Godolphin (Vol. 12, 
p. 174); Somers (Vol. 25, p. 384); 
Halifax, 1st Marquess of (Vol. 12, 
p. 839); Oxford, 1st Earl (Vol. 20, 
p. 403); Bolingbroke, Viscount (Vol. 
4, p. 161); Shrewsbury, Duke of (Vol. 
24, p. 1016). 

The part of the article English His- 
tory dealing with the Hanoverian Kings, 
1714-1793 (Vol. 9, pp. 544-551) and 

that on the Rev- 
George I to IV olutionary epoch, 
William IV the reaction and 

the triumph of re- 
form, 1793-1837 (pp. 551-558) are respec- 
tively by S. R. Gardiner and W. Alison 
Phillips. They should be supplemented 
by S. R. Gardiner's articles on the four 
Georges (Vol. 11, pp. 737-745) ; South Sea 
Bubble (Vol. 25, p. 515); Stanhope, 
1st Earl (Vol. 25, p. 773); Walpole, 
Horatio (Vol. 28, p. 288); Whig and 
Tory (Vol. 28, p. 588); Townshend, 
Charles (Vol. 27, p. Ill); Caroline 
(Vol. 5, p. 380); Pelham, Henry (Vol. 21, 
p. 67); Charles Edward, "the Young 
Pretender" (Vol. 5, p. 940), by H. M. 
Vaughan, author of The Last of the Royal 
Stuarts; Methodism (Vol. 18, p. 293); 
Wesley, John (Vol. 28, p. 527); New- 
castle, Thomas Pelham Holles, Duke 
op (Vol. 19, p. 471); Chatham, William 
Pitt, 1st Earl of (Vol. 6, p. 1); Seven 
Years* War (Vol. 24, p. 715) and, for 
engagements and commanders in the 
war, see the chapter in this Guide For 
Army Officers; India, History (Vol. 14, 
especially pp. 407-409); Canada, His- 
tory (Vol. 5, especially p. 158); Bute, 
3rd Earl of (Vol. 4, p. 877) ; Grenville, 
George (Vol. 12, p. 580); Rockingham, 
Marquess of (Vol. 23, p. 434); Guil- 
ford, 2nd Earl, Lord North (Vol. 12, 
p. 691); Wilkes, John (Vol. 28, p. 642); 
Burke, Edmund (Vol. 4, p. 824), by 
John Morley; Fox, Charles James 
(Vol. 10, p. 761); Gordon, Lord George 
(Vol. 12, p. 253); Lansdowne, Mar- 
quess of, Lord Shelburne (Vol. 16, p. 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



184); Portland, 3rd Duke (Vol. 22, 
p. 119); Pitt, William (Vol. 21, p. 667); 
French Revolutionary Wars (Vol. 11, 
p. 171), Napoleonic Campaigns (Vol. 
19, p. 216) and, for leaders and engage- 
ments in these wars, in the Peninsular 
War, and in the American War for In- 
dependence, see the chapter in this 
Guide For Army Officers; Caroline 
Amelia Augusta (Vol. 5, p. 380); 
Wellesley, Marquess (Vol. 28, p. 
506); Londonderry, Marquess of, 
Castlereagh (Vol. 16, p. 969); Canning, 
George (Vol. 5, p. 186); Corn Laws 
(Vol. 7, p. 174); Cobbett, William 
(Vol. 6, p. 606); Wellington, Duke of 
(Vol. 28, p. 507); William IV. (Vol. 28, 
p. 664); Grey, 2nd Earl (Vol. 12, p. 
586); Brougham, Lord (Vol. 4, p. 652); 
Parliament (Vol. 20, especially p. 843); 
Melbourne, 2nd Viscount (Vol. 18, 
p. 90); Peel, Sir Robert (Vol. 21, p. 40). 
On the reign of Victoria the section 
of the article English History (Vol. 9, 
pp. 558-582) gives a very full treatment, 

which should be 
Victoria supplemented by the 

study of such 
articles as: Victoria (Vol. 28, p. 28), by 
Hugh Chisholm, editor-in-chief of the 
Encyclopaedia Britannica; Albert (Vol. 



1, p. 495), by the same author; Palmer- 
ston (Vol. 20, p. 645); Russell, 1st 
Earl (Vol. 23, p. 863); O'Brien, Will- 
iam Smith (Vol. 19, p. 953); Chartism 
(Vol. 5, p. 953); Derby, 14th Earl 
(Vol. 8, p. 66); Crimean War (Vol. 7, 
p. 450); "Alabama" Arbitration (Vol. 
1, p. 464); Bright, John (Vol. 4, p. 567); 
Cobden, Richard (Vol. 6, p. 607); 
Beaconsfield (Vol. 3, p. 563); Glad- 
stone, W. E. (Vol. 12, p. 66), by G. W. 
E. Russell, biographer of Gladstone; 
Salisbury (Vol. 24, p. 72); Transvaal, 
History (Vol. 27, p. 193); Parnell, C. S. 
(Vol. 20, p. 854); Gordon, C. G. (Vol. 11, 
p. 249); Rosebery (Vol. 23, p. 731); 
Rhodes, C. J. (Vol. 23, p. 254). 

For the years since Victoria's death 
see the articles: Edward VII. (Vol. 8, 
p. 997) and George V. (Vol. 11, p. 745), 

and the articles on re- 
Edward VII cent political leaders: 
George V Balfour (Vol. 3, p. 

250); Chamberlain 
(Vol. 5, p. 813); Campbell-Bannerman 
(Vol. 5, p. 131); Asquith (Vol. 2, p. 769); 
and Lloyd George (Vol. 16, p. 832); and 
on the reform of the House of Lords 
Parliament (Vol. 20, especially pp. 845- 
847) and Representation (Vol. 23, es- 
pecially pp. 111-113). 



CHAPTER XLVI 



FRENCH HISTORY 



THE article France in the Ency- 
clopaedia Britannica includes a 
section on History (Vol. 10, pp. 
801-906) equivalent to 320 pages of this 
Guide, of which the first part, down to 
1870, is by Paul Wiriath, director of the 
ficole Superieure Pratique de Commerce 
et dTndustrie, Paris, and the part since 
1870 is by J. E. C. Bodley, author of 
France, etc. Opposite page 802 are four 



coloured historical maps showing France 
at the end of the 10th, 13th and 14th 
centuries, and the changes in the eastern 
frontier from 1598 to 1789. The his- 
torical part of the article closes with a 
historiographic section, or critical sum- 
mary of French historical writing, by 
Charles B&nont of the University of 
Paris. 
Supplementing this main treatment, see : 



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FRENCH HISTORY 



279 



On prehistoric and Roman France, 
Gaul (Vol. 11, p. 533), by Prof. F. J. 
Haverfield, Oxford, the well-known au- 
thority on Roman 
Early History occupation of Brit- 
of France ain and Gaul; Bi- 

BRACTE, ALESIA, It- 

ius Portus, Druidism, and, on Caesar's 
campaigns, Caesar, Julius; and, on 
Roman remains, Arles, NImes, Orange, 
Architecture, Aqueduct, and Amphi- 
theatre. 

On the Franks, the articles Franks 
(Vol. 11, p. 35) and Salic Law (Vol. 24, 
p. 68), by Prof. Christian Pfister of the 
Sorbonne; and the articles, Austrasia, 
Merovingians, Childeric, Clovis, 
Childebert, Clotaire, Sigebert, Cha- 
ribert, Guntram, Fredegond, Brun- 
hilda, Clotaire II, Dagobert, Pippin 
I, II and III, Ebroin, Carolingians, 
Charles Martel (Vol. 5, p. 942), Car- 
loman, Childeric; Charlemagne, Ro- 
land, Einhard, Alcuin; Louis I "the 
Pious," Lothair (Vol. 17, p. 17); Char- 
les n "the Bald" (Vol. 5, p. 897); 
Feudalism; Louis II and III; Charles 
III "the Fat" (Vol. 5, p. 898); Odo; 
Louis IV (Vol. 17, p. 35), by Dr. Ren6 
Poupardin, secretary of the Ecole des 
Charles; Lothair (Vol. 17, p.18); Bruno; 
Louis V. 

For the Capetian period,the articles Ca- 
pet (Vol. 5, p. 251) ; Robert "the Strong" 
(Vol. 23, p. 402); Hugh "the Great" 

(Vol. 13, p. 857); 
Medieval Hugh Capet (Vol. 

France 13, p. 858); Robert 

"the Pious" (Vol. 23, 
p. 399); Henry I (Vol. 13, p. 290); 
Philip I (Vol. 21, p. 378); Louis VI 
(Vol. 17, p. 35), by Prof. J. T. Shotwell, 
Columbia University; Prof. ShotwelPs 
article on Louis VII; Suger; Eleanor 
of Aquitaine (Vol. 9, p. 168); Philip 
Augustus (Vol. 21, p. 378); Ingeborg; 
Albigenses; and for French and English 
relations, Richard I and John of Eng- 
land; Louis VIII; Blanche of Castile 
(Vol. 4, p. 40) ; Prof. Shotwell's article on 



Louis IX "St. Louis"; and the article 
Crusades; Philip III "the Bold" (Vol. 
21, p. 381); Philip iy; Boniface VIII; 
Saisset; Nogaret; Templars; Louis 
X; Philip V and Charles IV. 

For the Valois line and the history of 
the period (1328-1498), the article Hun- 
dred Years' War; Sluys; Cr£cy; and 
for detail of the war the articles under 
that head in the chapter For the Army 
Officer in this Guide; and Philip VI (Vol. 
21, p. 383); Flanders; Artevelde (Ja- 
cob and Philip van); Dauphin£; Dau- 
phin; Gabelle; John II (Vol. 15, p. 
441) ; Poitiers; Marcel; Le Coq; States 
General; Charles II of Navarre (Vol. 
5, p. 924); Charles V (Vol. 5, p. 917); 
Jacquerie; du Guesclin; Charles VI; 
Armagnac; Isabella of Bavaria (Vol. 
14, p. 860); Benedict XIII (Vol. 3, p. 
718); John "the Fearless" (Vol. 15, p. 
445); Agincourt; Charles VII; Ar- 
thur III of Brittany (Vol. 2, p. 682); 
Joan of Arc; Coeur; Agnes Sorel (Vol. 
25, p. 432); Br£z£; Praguerie; Louis 
XI; Balue; Le Daim; Li£ge, History; 
Charles "the Bold" of Burgundy (Vol. 
5, p. 932); Charles VIII; Anne of 
France (Vol. 2, p. 70); Anne of Brittany 
(Vol. 2, p. 69). 

For the years, 1498-1589, and the Or- 
leans dynasty, Louis XII and Amboise, 
by Prof. Jules Isaac of the Lyons Lycee; 
Mary (Vol. 17, p. 
16th Century 824); Francis I 
(Vol. 10, p. 934), by 
Prof. Isaac; Louise of Savoy; Marig- 
nano; Pavia; Marguerite D'Angou- 
l&me (Vol. 17, p. 706); Etampes (Vol. 9, 
p. 803); Du Prat, Anne de Mont- 
morency (Vol. 18, p. 787); Henry II 
(Vol. 13, p. 291); Diane de Poitiers; 
Catherine de' Medici; Francis II; 
Guise (Vol. 12, p. 699); L'H6pital; 
CondA; Amboise; Romorantin; Hugue- 
nots; Charles IX; Coligny; Saint 
Andr£; St. Bartholomew; Henry 
III. 

For the Bourbon kings, beginning 
1 589 — Bourbon (with genealogical chart) ; 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



Henry IV; Duke of Mayenne; Edict 
of Nantes (Vol. 19, 
The Bourbons p. 165); Sully; 
• Louis XIII; Marie 
de* Medici; Richelieu, by Prof. J. T. 
Shotwell, Columbia University; Con- 
cini ; Luynes ; Cinque-Mars ; Rohan ; 
Soubise; Jansenism; Thirty Years' 
War; and for leaders and engagements 
in that conflict the titles listed in the 
chapter in this Guide entitled For 
Army Officers; Louis XIV, by Prof. A. J. 
Grant of Leeds University; Mazarin, by 
Prof. H. Morse Stephens, University of 
California; Marie Ther^se; La Val- 
li&re; Montespan; Maintenon; Due 
de Beaufort; Fronde; Turenne; Retz 
and La Rochefoucauld, by Prof. George 
Saintsbury of Edinburgh University; 
Fouquet; Colbert, by Prof. J. T. Shot- 
well, Columbia; Champlain; La Salle; 
Louvois; Camisards, by M. Frank 
Puaux, president of the Socfete* de V His- 
toire du Protestantisme Frangais; Jan- 
senism, by Viscount St. Cyres; Port 
Royal; Bossuet; Fenelon; Le Tel- 
lier; Grand Alliance; and for details 
of military operations and sketches of 
commanders the articles enumerated in 
the chapter in this Guide For Army 
Officers; Louis XV ; Philip II, Duke of 
Orleans (Vol. 20, p. 286); Fleury; 
Austrian Succession and Seven Years' 
War and articles under these heads in 
the chapter in this Guide For Army 
Officers; Chateauroux; Pompadour; Du 
Barry; Comte d* Argenson (Vol. 2, p. 
459), Choiseul; Maupeou; Aiguillon. 
On the Revolution and the period im- 
mediately before it, the articles Louis 
XVI, by Robert Anchel, archivist to the 
Department de 1* 
The Revolution Eure; Marie An- 
toinette; Beau- 
marchais; Maurepas; Turgot; Neck- 
er; Vergennes; Calonne; Diamond 
Necklace; Lom£nie de Brienne; 
French Revolution (Vol. 10, p. 154, 
equivalent to 58 pages of this Guide), by 
Prof. F. C. Montague, University Col- 



lege, London; Des Moulins; Mirabeau; 
SiEYfcs; D anton; Robespierre; Moun- 
nier; La Fayette; Montmorin de Saint- 
H£rem; Marat; Corday; Talleyrand; 
Assignats; Narbonne-Lara; Jacobins; 
Girondists; Roland; Brissot; Moun- 
tain; Directory; Babeuf; French Rev- 
olutionary Wars; and for battles and 
leaders in these wars the articles men- 
tioned under this head in the chapter in 
this Guide For Army Officers. 

On the Napoleonic period, the articles 
by J. Holland Rose, author of Napoleonic 
Studies, etc., on Napoleon (Vol. 19, p. 
190) — equivalent to 
The First 65 pages of this 

Empire Guide, and on the 

principal figures of 
the Napoleonic period, — for example, 
Bonaparte family, Fouch6, Gardane, 
Junot; the articles Napoleonic Cam- 
paigns, Peninsular War and Water- 
loo and the articles listed under these 
two heads in the chapter in this Guide 
For Army Officers. 

On the Bourbon restoration, Louis 
XVIII; Decazes ; Due de Richelieu 
(Vol. 23, p. 302); 
The Kingdom Due de Berry; Vil- 
Again l£le ; Charles X 

(Vol. 5, p. 921); 
Martignac; Polignac; Marmont. 

On the revolution of 1830 and the rule 
of Louis Philippe, the articles Louis 
Philippe (Vol. 17, p. 51); Cavaignac; 
Thiers; Guizot; Constant; Casimir 
P£rier; Lafitte; Barrot; Dupont de 
L'Eure ; Berryer; Saint-Simon ; Fou- 
rier; Lamennais; Louis Blanc; Mol£. 

On the revolution of 1848 and the 
second Empire, besides most of the ar- 
ticles in the preceding paragraph, Na- 
poleon III, by Al- 
The Second bert Thomas, author 

Empire of The Second Em- 

pire; Cr£mieux; 
Ledru-Rollin; Carnot; Garnier-Pa- 
g£s; Montalembert; Ollivier; Rou- 
her; Favre; Picard; Crimean War; 
Italian Wars; Franco-Prussian War; 



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281 



and articles listed under those heads in 
the chapter in this Guide For Army Officers; 
Eugenie ; Maximilian of Mexico (Vol. 
17, p. 924). 

On the Third Republic, 1870 and the 
following years, the story in Vol. 10, pp. 

873-904 (equivalent 
Modern Times to 100 pages of this 

Guide) is to be sup- 
plemented by the articles Thiers; R£- 



musat; Simon; Barth£lemy; Broglie; 
MacMahon; Dufaure; GrIjvy; Ferry; 
Gambetta; Freycinet; Chambord; Cl£- 
menceau; Brisson; Boulanger; Car- 
not; Loubet; Lesseps; Casimir-P£rier; 
Faure; Ribot; M^line; Waldeck- 
Rousseau; Dreyfus; Dupuy; Ribot; 
Galliffet; JaurJ:s; Millerand; Com- 
bes; Delcass£; Rouvier; Pelletan; 
Briand; Lemire; Falu&res; Poincar£. 



CHAPTER XLVII 



THE FAR EAST 



AN account, in this chapter, of the 
principal articles dealing with the 
history of India, China and Japan, 
will sufficiently indicate to the student 
the plan adopted in the Britannica's 
treatment of all the countries in the far 
East. But before turning to these three 
groups of articles, he should read Asia 
(Vol. 2, p. 734), which defines the social 
and economic position of the Orient in 
general, and gives a survey of the field 
covered by articles on Eastern countries 
other than the three dealt with in this 
chapter. This article, equivalent in 
length to 65 pages of this Guide, is by Sir 
Richard Strachey, the famous Indian 
administrator; Sir Charles Eliot, of the 
British diplomatic service ; Sir T. H. 
Holdich, of the Indian Frontier Survey; 
and Philip Lake, the Oriental geologist. 
The general survey 
Asiatic of Asiatic character- 

Characteristics istics, as revealed by 
history, with which 
the historical section (p. 749) of the ar- 
ticle begins, is noteworthy in connection 
with current political questions: 

The words " Asiatic " and " oriental M are 
often used as if they denoted a definite and 
homogeneous type, but Russians resemble 
Asiatics in manv wavs, and Turks, Hindus, 



Chinese, etc., differ in so many important 
points that the common substratum is small. 
It amounts to this, that Asiatics have not 
the same sentiment of independence and 
freedom as Europeans. Individuals are 
thought of as members of a family, state or 
religion, rather than as entities with a des- 
tiny and rights of their own. This leads to 
autocracy in politics, fatalism in religion, 
and conservatism in both. 

All three of these are certainly conspicu- 
ous in the history of the first Eastern 
country dealt with in this chapter. 

INDIA 

In the article India (Vol. 14, p. 375), 
equivalent to 140 pages of this Guide) 
there is much of value to the historical 
student besides the chapter on History 
(p. 395), which is written by Sir William 
Wilson Hunter, administrative head of 
the statistical survey of India and one of 
the editors of The Imperial Gazetteer of 
India, and by James Sutherland Cotton, 
editor of this same Gazetteer. Par- 
ticularly important are the sections, The 
People (p. 382), Administration (p. 385), 
and Indian Costume (p. 417), illustrated 
from pen-and-ink drawings by J. Lock- 
wood Kipling, known to many as the 
illustrator of his son's book Kim. And 
the student of Oriental history will find 
it possible to gain a little comprehension 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



— at least — of Oriental ways of thought, 
Eastern setting and colour, by reading in 
the Britannica such articles as Caste 
(Vol. 5, p. 464), Hinduism (Vol. 13, p. 
501), Brahmanism, Brahman and Brah- 
mana (Vol. 4, p. 378), all by Prof. Julius 
Eggeling, Edinburgh; Buddha and Bud- 
dhism (Vol. 4, p. 737), both by Prof. T. 
W. Rhys Davids of Manchester, author 
of Sacred Books of the Buddhas, etc.; 
Mahomet (Vol. 17, p. 399), by Prof. D. 
G. Margoliouth, Oxford; Mahommedan 
Institutions and Mahommedan Law 
(Vol. 17, p. 411), by Prof. D. S. Mac- 
donald, Hartford Theological Seminary, 
and Mahommedan Religion (Vol. 17, p. 
417), by Rev. G. W. Thatcher, Camden 
College, Sydney, N. S. W.; Indian Law 
(Vol. 14, p. 434), by Sir William Markby, 
author of Lectures on English Law, etc.; 
and Zoroaster (Vol. 28, p. 1039), by 
Prof. Karl Geldner, Marburg, and Par- 
sees (Vol. 20, p. 866). This list of ar- 
ticles subsidiary to the history of India 
could be prolonged almost indefinitely, 
but enough has been given to put the 
student on the track of valuable articles 
which might otherwise escape his notice. 
Before we come to the authentic his- 
tory of India there is a legendary period, 
the only historic test for which is the rock 
inscriptions, — see «the article Inscrip- 
tions, Indian (Vol. 14, p. 621), by J. F. 
Fleet, author of Inscriptions of the Early 
Gupta Kings. On the earliest literary de- 
scription of the Aryans in India and their 
contests with the Dravidians see the ar- 
ticle Sanskrit, Vedic Period (especially 
p. 161 of Vol. 24, on the Rig Veda)— and 
in general the articles Aryan and Dra- 
vidian. An interesting reconstruction of 
the civilization of the primitive Aryans 
on the basis of languages will be found in 
the article Indo-European Languages 
(Vol. 14, especially pp. 498-500), by Dr. 
Peter Giles, Cambridge, author of Manual 
of Comparative Philology; and this picture 
of Aryan life before the conquest of India 
will hold in the main for the earlier period 
of the Aryans in India. 



With the 6th century we come to the 
beginning of the Buddhist period. See 
the article Jains, the articles on Bud- 
dhism already men- 
Early tioned, and the ar- 
Buddhism tides: Asoka, the 
great Buddhist em- 
peror and organizer of the faith, whose 
rock inscriptions throughout India are so 
valuable as historical records; Kanishka, 
the Buddhist king of Kabul and Kashmir; 
Fa-Hien and HstJAN Tsang, the Chinese 
pilgrims of India, who left important 
records of early Buddhism and of Brah- 
manism, which was steadily growing in 
power and strength. 

The' Hindu period, overlapping the 
Buddhist, is marked by the beginning of 
Western influences on India. For the 
Persians in India see the articles Persia 
(Vol. 21, especially pp. 209-210), Darius 
(Vol. 7, p. 832), and Scylax, the Greek 
who under Darius's orders explored the 
course of the Indus. Far more important 
was the conquest by Alexander the Great 
and the establishment of the Hellenistic 
empire of the Seleucids in Syria, Bactria 
and India: see Alexander the Great 
(Vol. 1, especially p. 548), Nearchus, 
Alexander's admiral and navigator, and 
Seleucid Dynasty. The first para- 
mount ruler of India was Chandragupta 
(Vol. 5, p. 839), whom the Greeks called 
Sandracottus and who crushed the Seleu- 
cid power and founded the Maurya dy- 
nasty. Of his grandson Asoka we have 
already spoken in outlining the growth 
and decline of Buddhism. In this period 
Greek thought and art influenced India, 
greatly, and in the period immediately 
following — the 2nd century B.C. — north- 
western India was invaded again by west- 
ern troops: see Demetrius, Eucratides, 
Menander. The records of the next four 
centuries are confused and vague; on the 
invasions from the North, see Saka and 
Yue-Chi, by Sir Charles Norton Edg- 
cumbe Eliot. 

The Yue-Chi founded the Kushan dy- 
nasty, in which the greatest king was 



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Kanishka (Vol. 15, p. 653), already men- 
tioned as a Buddhist ruler whose policy 
marked the beginning of the end of Bud- 
dhism in India. On the succeeding dy- 
nasty see the article Gupta; and refer 
again to the article Fa-Hien for the Chi- 
nese account of the rule of the second 
Gupta king, Chandragupta, — on whom in 
legend see Vikramaditya. On the White 
Huns and their invasion consult the ar- 
ticles Ephthalites and Huns. On the 
only other great king of this period, who 
was paramount monarch of northern In- 
dia in the first half of the 7th century and 
whose administration was described by 
Hslian-Tsang, see Harsha. On the prin- 
cipal Deccan dynasties of the Hindu pe- 
riod, see Chalukya and Rashtrakuta, 
and the article Deccan. 

For a general notion of the Mahom- 
medan period in India the student should 
read the articles on Mahommedanism al- 
ready mentioned, 
Mahommedans and for more definite 
and Moslems information about 
India, the articles 
on the 11th century invader Mahmud of 
Ghazni (Vol. 17, p.397), and on Somnath, 
the temple city which he captured and 
sacked in 1025. See Deccan and Gu- 
jarat for the Moslem conquest of these 
states by Ala-ud-din. For the destruc- 
tion of the Tughlak dynasty, which fol- 
lowed Ala-ud-din's successors, see Af- 
ghanistan (Vol. 1, especially p. 315) and 
Timur (Vol. 26, p. 994), by Major-Gen- 
eral Sir Frederick John Goldsmid. The 
"last stand made by the national faith in 
India against conquering Islam" was in 
Vijayanagar (Vol. 28, p. 62). With the 
16th century and the Mogul dynasty, In- 
dia is quite definitely Moslem: see Baber, 
Humayun, Akbar, Abul Fazl the his- 
torian of Akbar's reign, Jahangir, Shah 
Jahan, and Agra and Indian Architec- 
ture (especially Fig. 17, opposite p. 433, 
Vol. 14) for the Taj Mahal, the Mau- 
soleum built by Shah Jahan for his wife 
Mumtaz Mai, and — for the culmination 
of the Mogul power, the beginning of its 



decay, and the first sign of Moslem big- 
otry and intolerance on the part of the 
Mogul emperors, — Aurangzeb. His at- 
tempt to conquer the Mahommedan 
kings of the Deccan gave the natives an 
opportunity to regain power: see the ar- 
ticle Maiirattas, and for the earlier ris- 
ings of the Mahrattas, Sivaji. And for 
the rise of Afghan power under the 
Durani dynasty and the battle of Panipat 
in 1761, a crushing defeat for the Mah- 
rattas, see Afghanistan, History (Vol. 1, 
especially p. 316), and Ahmad Shah. 

On earlier European settlements in 
India see the article India, History (Vol. 
14, p. 404), and more particularly for 
Portuguese explorations and settlements 
the articles Vasco da Gama (Vol. 11, p. 
433), Albuquerque (Vol. 1, p. 516), and 
Goa the capitol of Portuguese India, the 
last article being by K. G. Jayne, author 
of Vasco da Gama and His Successors: for 
Dutch rule the article Dutch East India 
Company (Vol. 8, p. 716); and for the 
beginning of British influence in India 
the articles East India Company; Surat; 
Madras, where the first English fort was 
built in 1640 and the first grant, except 
for factory use, was made by the English; 
Bombay, acquired from Portugal in 1661- 
65; Sir John and Sir Josiah Child; Job 
Charnock, founder of Calcutta, and the 
article on Calcutta. 

On British political history in India in 
the 18th century, see the articles on 
Pondicherry, Dupleix, French Gover- 
nor-General in Pon- 
The British dicherry, his rival 

Conquest Clive the founder 

of the British Em- 
pire and of the power of the East India 
Company in India, Eyre Coote who 
took Pondicherry from the French in 
1761, Suraj-ud-Dowlah and Calcutta 
for the siege of the city and story of the 
Black Hole, Plassey, Shah Alam for the 
massacre of Patna; and for the period 
after Clive the articles Wakren Hast- 
ings, Mahrattas for the first Mahratta 
war, Hyder Ali and Mysore for the 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



first Mysore war; Tippoo Sahib and 
Cornwallis for the second Mysore war; 
Teignmouth and Bengal, for the per- 
manent settlement of Bengal under Corn- 
wallis; Wellesley and Tippoo Sahib 
and Seringapatam, Wellington and 
Lake (Vol. 16, p. 85) for the campaigns 
against the French and natives during 
Wellesley's governor-generalship ; Lord 
Minto for the years from 1807 to 1813; 
Marquess op Hastings, Ochterlony 
and Nepal for the war in Nepal; for the 
wars of 1817 the articles Pindaris, Mah- 

RATTAS, ELPHINSTONE, SlR JOHN MaL- 

colm; for the administration (1823-28) of 
Lord Amherst, the articles Amherst, Bur- 
mese Wars, Bharatpur and Comber- 
mere ; for Bentinck's rule, the articles Ben- 
tinck, Suttee, Thugs by Reinhold Host, 
late secretary of the Royal Asiatic Socie- 
ty, and Mysore; Metcalfe, for a view 
of his short tenure of office; for the 
stormy period of the '40's, Auckland, 
Ellenborough, Afghanistan, Sir W. 
H. Macnaghten, Sir R. H. Sale and 
Sind; and for the Sikh wars, Hardinge, 
Punjab, Sikh Wars, Ranjit Singh, Sir 
Hugh Gough, Dalhousie, Sir Henry 
Lawrence, Edwardes, Burmese Wars 
for the second war of 1852, and Oudh for 
its annexation; and for the close of the 
Company's rule, the articles Lord Can- 
ning, Indian Mutiny, Delhi, Lord 
Lawrence, Richard Baird Smith, John 
Nicholson, Sir Neville Chamberlain, 
Cawnpore, Nana Sahib, Lucknow, Sir 
Henry Lawrence, Sir J.*E. W. Inglis, 
Havelock, J. G. S. Neill, Outram, Sir 
Colin Campbell. 

On India under the Crown, since 1858, 
see particularly the articles on the vice- 
roys, Canning, Elgin, Lawrence, Mayo, 
Northbrook, Lytton (see also Shere 
Ali and Yakub Khan), — Ripon (see also 
Ayub Khan, Earl Roberts, ahd Abdur 
Rahman Khan), Dufferin (see also 
Panjdeh for the Russian scare of 1885 
and Burma and Burmese Wars for the 
dispute with Thebaw), Curzon and 
Kitchener, and Minto. 



CHINA 

As with India, so with China, the whole 
of the article in the Britannica is of value 
to the historical student. The article 
China (Vol. 6, pp. 166-231) is equivalent 
to 200 pages of this Guide. The most 
important part for the student of history 
is section V. (pp. 188-212) on History: 
but such parts of the article as Geography, 
with a coloured map, the People (pp. 171- 
174), Religion (174-177), Economics (177- 
181), Government and Administration 
(181-188), AH (213-216) with illustra- 
tions, and Language and Literature (216- 
231) are all of importance to help get the 
background that is so baffling to an occi- 
dental studying the Far East. As was the 
case with India, the study of religions is 
particularly important and besides the 
section Religion in the article China, the 
student should turn to the articles Lao- 
Tsze, the founder of a philosophy debased 
into Taoism, Mencius, and Confucius, 
all by the Rev. James Legge, author of 
The Religions of China, and the editor of 
The Chinese Classics, and Buddhism and 
Lamaism, the latter the form of Bud- 
dhism in vogue in China, — and he should 
remember that there are some Mahom- 
medans in China. In connection with the 
latest developments in Chinese history 
he should read with great care in the ar- 
ticle China, Section IV, Government and 
Administration, especially p. 184 on the 
Civil Service, an elaborate merit system. 

Section V. of the article China opens 
with a treatment by Sir Henry Yule, the 
famous Orientalist, of the European 
knowledge of China before 1615, par- 
ticularly "Cathay" and the early explor- 
ers of Mongolia, Carpini (see Vol. 5, p. 
397) and Rubbuquis (see Vol. 23, pp. 
810-812), and of Cathay itself Marco 
Polo (see Vol. 22, pp. 7-10). The in- 
ternal history of China begins (Vol. 6, p. 
191) with a discussion of Chinese origins: 
"anthropological arguments seem to con- 
tradict the idea of any connection with 
Babylonians, Egyptians, Assyrians, or 



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Indians. The earliest hieroglyphics of 
the Chinese, ascribed by them to the 
Shang dynasty (second millenium B.C.) 
betray the Mongol character of the nation 
that invented them by the decided obli- 
quity of the human eye whenever it ap- 
pears in an ideograph. . . . Our stand- 
point as regards the origin of the Chinese 
race is, therefore, that of the agnostic. . . . 
Their civilization was already old at a 
time when Britain and Germany were 
peopled by half-naked barbarians, and 
the philosophical and ethical principles 
on which it is based remain, to all appear- 
ances, as firmly rooted as ever." Chinese 
legendary history goes back to Fu-hi as 
the "first historical emperor; and they 
place his life-time in the years 2852-2738 
B.C." There is much that is purely le- 
gendary and mythical in these early rec- 
ords, but with the 
The First year 776 B.C. we 

Definite Date find a veritable rec- 
ord: in an ode refer- 
ring to a wicked emperor there is mention 
of "certain signs showing that Heaven it- 
self is indignant at Yu-wang's crimes. 
One of these signs was an eclipse of the 
sun . . . the date and month being 
clearly stated. This date corresponds 
exactly with August 29, 776 B.C.; and 
astronomers have calculated that on that 
precise date an eclipse of the sun was 
visible in North China." It is an inter- 
esting coincidence that this earliest sure 
date in Chinese history is the date of the 
first Greek Olympiad, from which time 
was reckoned in the Greek calendar — 
though there are no certain dates in 
Greek history until much later. The first 
outstanding event in the history of China 
was nearly 20 centuries later — the Mon- 
gol invasion; see the articles Mongols 
(Vol. 18, pp. 712-719) and Jenghiz Khan 
(Vol. 15, p. 316), both by Sir Robert K. 
Douglas, author of The Life of Jenghiz 
Khan. On the period immediately fol- 
lowing see Kublai Khan, for the founda- 
tion of the Mongol dynasty, and the sec- 
tion Medieval Cathay (Vol. 6, p. 189) of 



the article China for early exploration 
and missionary effort. Mongol rule was 
broken in the 14th century by the founder 
of the Ming dynasty. The Portuguese 
arrival at Canton in 1517 marked the 
beginning of modern intercourse with 
Europe; and see the article Matteo Ricci 
by Sir Henry Yule, for the first important 
work of a Christian 
Foreign missionary in China 

Relations early in the 17th cen- 

tury. Immediately 
thereafter came the Manchu invasion, on 
which see the article Manchuria, by Sir 
R. K. Douglas. Trade with Europe on 
a large scale began in the second half of 
the 18th century; see the article Canton. 
British diplomatic missions for the im- 
provement of the condition of traders in 
Canton were unsuccessful, but in 1840 
the opium war made China feel the weight 
of Great Britain's power when Hong 
Kong was ceded to the English and other 
ports were opened to trade: see Lord 
Napier, Sir Hugh Gough, and Hong- 
Kong. On the T'ai-p'ing rebellion, the 
"Arrow" affair, and the second interfer- 
ence of Great Britain with China, see Sir 
H. S. Parkes, Charles George Gor- 
don ("Chinese Gordon"), Earl of Elgin 
(Vol. 9, p. 268), Tseng Kuo-fan, Li 
Hung Chang. On the Russian boundary 
disputes of 1858 and 1860 see Amur and 
Vladivostok. 

The history of China since 1875 is told 
pretty completely in the article China, 
in two sections, the first on 1875-1901 
being by Sir Valentine Chirol, au- 
thor of The Far Eastern Question. But 
in connection with the general treatment 
the student should read the articles on 
Korea, Annam andToNGKiNG for the ear- 
lier efforts to detach from the Chinese 
empire these quasi- vassals; Chino-Japa- 
nese War for the military details of the 
struggle by which Japan got command of 
the Korean coast-line; Mekong for the 
dispute of 1895 with Great Britain; 
Kiaochow Bay, Port Arthur and Wei- 
Hai-Wei for the seizures of 1897 and 



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1898 by Germany, Russia and Great 
Britain respectively; John Hay for 
America's part in the Open Door policy; 
Peking and Tientsin for details added 
to the general account in the article 
China, of the "Boxer" rising; Manchu- 
ria for Russian encroachments before, 
and Japan for Manchuria after the Russo- 
Japanese War. 

JAPAN 

The article Japan (Vol. 15, p. 156) is 
equivalent to 370 pages of this Guide, — 
and is almost entirely the work of Cap- 
tain Frank Brinkley, editor of the Japan 
Mail, author of Japan, A History of 
Japan, An Unabridged Japanese-English 
Dictionary, etc. The article is divided 
into 10 parts — Geography, People, Lan- 
guage and Literature, Art, Economic Con- 
ditions, Government and Administration, 
Religion, Foreign Intercourse, Domestic 
History, and The Claim of Japan; A Japa- 
nese View, by Baron Dairoku Kikuchi, in 
which the president of the Imperial Uni- 
versity of Kyoto and of the Imperial 
Academy of Japan discusses "the ambi- 
tion of the Japanese people ... to be 
recognized as an equal by the Great 
Powers," their resenting "any discrimina- 
tion against them as an Asiatic people," 
the "misrepresentation, arising from want 
of proper knowledge of Japanese char- 
acter and feelings," 
Japanese that the Japanese 

in America immediately after 

the war with Russia 
were "ready and eager to fight with the 
United States" — whereas the Japanese 
have always regarded the Americans 
with a special good will, due no doubt to 
the steady liberal attitude of the Amer- 
ican government and people towards 
Japan and Japanese, and they look- upon 
the idea of war between Japan and the 
United States as ridiculous." 

Any justifiable discrimination against 
the Japanese as Asiatics must of course be 
based upon such characteristics of cus- 
tom and thought as render Japanese im- 



migration undesirable, and not upon the 
colour of the Japanese skin or any other 
peculiarity of appearance. But it is none 
the less interesting to turn from Baron 
Dairoku Kikuchi's argument to Capt. 
Brinkley's careful study (p. 164) of the 
physical characteristics of the Japanese. 
"The best authorities are agreed that the 
Japanese do not differ, physically, from 
their Korean and Chinese neighbors as 
much as the inhabitants of Northern 
Europe differ from those of Southern 
Europe." Some of the bodily traits 
which distinguish the Japanese from 
races of European origin are to be ob- 
served "in the eyes, the eyelashes, the 

cheekbones and the beard." 
Marks of The eyeball does not differ 
the Race from that of an occidental, 

but the eye is less deeply 
set. The conspicuous peculiarity is that 
the upper eyelids are much heavier at the 
inner corners than at the outer, making 
the eyes apparently oblique; and a fold 
of the upper lids hangs over the roots of 
the upper lashes. The lashes, too, are 
short and scanty, and converge, instead 
of diverging as they do in occidentals, so 
that the tips are nearer together than the 
roots. There is but little hair on the 
face (except among the Ainus), and it is 
nearly always straight. The cheekbones 
are prominent among the lower, rather 
than the upper classes. The article pro- 
ceeds to discuss the moral characteristics 
of the Japanese; attributing to them a 
degree of frugality and endurance such 
as to make it virtually impossible for any 
occidental race, living in reasonable com- 
fort, to compete with Japanese labour. 

As in the study of India and China, it 
will be well for the student of Japanese 
history to make himself familiar with the 
Britannica's full material on native re- 
ligion: see Vol. 15, p. 222, noting espe- 
cially that in the section on Shinto it is 
said: "The grandson of the sun goddess 
was the first sovereign of Japan, and his 
descendants have ruled the land in un- 
broken succession ever since." 



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In Japanese history two main topics of 
study present themselves — foreign inter- 
course and domestic or internal history — 
the former naturally the more attractive 
to the foreign student, 
Foreign and of additional inter- 

Intercourse est both because of its 
picturesque and roman- 
tic early detail and by reason of its ex- 
plaining the sudden emergence of Japan 
as a power in world politics. Portu- 
guese shipwrecked in Japan in 1542 or 
1543 opened the country to Portuguese 
trade and in 1549 landed the great Jesuit 
missionary, Francisco de Xavier: see 
the article by K. G. Jayne, author of 
Vasco da Gama and his Successors. The 
contest between Spain and Portugal for 
Eastern trade and between Jesuits and 
Franciscans for Japanese converts to 
Christianity and the other factors that 
resulted in the suppression of Christianity 
in 1614 and the consequent persecutions 
of converts and missionaries are told in 
the article Japan — and so also is the 
story of the foothold that Dutch and 
English traders got before the Japanese 
practically excluded them also, as Chris- 
tians rather than as foreigners or traders. 
From the middle of the 17th to the begin- 
ning of the 19th century Japan was prac- 
tically untouched by Western civiliza- 
tion. The part of the United States navy, 
in opening the country to trade in 1853 
is described in the article Japan (pp. 237- 
238) and in the article Matthew Cal- 
braith Perky. The article Japan also 
devotes much space (p. 238) to the work 
done by another American, Townsend 
Harris, who was less known than Perry, 
but who carried through the immensely 
important first commercial treaty. 

The remainder of the story of Japan's 
foreign relations is given in the main ar- 
ticle Japan, but the 
Recent Wars student should read 

besides the articles 
Chino - Japanese War, Manchuria, 



and Russo-Japanese War. The last of 
these would be equivalent to 40 pages of 
this Guide; it is accompanied by the fol- 
lowing plans: General Dispositions after 
Nanshan, Liao-Yang, Port Arthur, and 
Mukden: and it is a remarkable critical 
summary of the military operations of 
the war. Read also the biographies of 
Katsura, Kodama, Kuroki, Nogi, 
Nozu, Okuma, Oyama, Togo, Yama- 

GATA. 

As for domestic history, it is important 
to note that early Japanese history is 
more purely mythical and legendary, and 
is chronologically untrust- 
Domestic worthy for a longer pe- 
History riod than is Chinese his- 

tory. The convention- 
ally accepted date of the establishment 
of the Empire is 660 B. C; and from 
this year all dates are reckoned; but 
Japanese annals are self-contradictory 
and are proved faulty by Chinese and 
Korean records. Even the famed Jap- 
anese invasion of Korea in 200 is pos- 
sibly apocryphal, and there are few trust- 
worthy recorded facts before 400 A.D. or 
dates before 500 A.D. In the middle of 
the 6th century Chinese influence, through 
Korea, became strong, and in 552 Bud- 
dhism was introduced from Korea. A 
century later legislative government and 
administrative reform began. 

On the Japanese feudal system begin- 
ning in the 12th century see: the article 
Bushido; in the article Japan the ac- 
count of the earlier army; and the articles 
Shogun and Mikado. The more im- 
portant separate articles for the later 
period are: Tokugawa and Arisugawa 
for the rival families of the 17th-19th 
centuries; Mutsu Hito; San jo; Okubo 
Toshimitsu; Saigo; Mutsu; Iwakura 
Matsukata, the financier; Kato; Ko- 
mura; Ito; Enomoto; Itagaki, "the first 
to organize and lead a political party in 
Japan 9 '; Inouye; Okuma; Yamagata; 
Hayashi. 



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CHAPTER XLVIII 



ECONOMICS AND SOCIAL SCIENCE 



MANY topics in the field of eco- 
nomics and social science are 
treated with some detail in other 
parts of this Guide. For public finance, 
for instance, see the chapter For Bank- 
ers and Financiers. Tariffs, trusts, la- 
bour questions and the problems of 
population (such as immigration, eugen- 
ics, aliens and race-conflict, the liquor 
traffic, penal and charitable institutions) 
are among the topics presented* in the 
course on Questions of the Day. In this 
chapter is a brief outline of the entire 
subject, including these special topics. 
The key article, equivalent to 35 
pages in this Guide, is Economics, (Vol. 8, 
p. 899), by W. A. S. Hewins, formerly 
director of the London School of Eco- 
nomics, secretary of the tariff commission. 
For the history of economic theory in 
biographies of great economists, see 
Jean Bodin; Thomas Mun; Hobbes; 
Sir William Petty; 
Great Sir William Tem- 

Economists ple; Sir Josiah 

Child; Vauban;Sir 
Dudley North; F£nelon; Charles 
Davenant; Pierre Boisguilbert; 
Montesquieu; Francis Quesnay;* 
Benjamin Franklin; Antonio Geno- 
vesi; Sir James Steuart; Josiah 
Tucker; Victor Mirabeau; Count 
of C arli-Rubbi ; J u s t u s Moser ; 
Pedro Rodriguez; Adam Smith; Anne 
Robert Jacques Turgot; Ferdinando 
Galiani; Beccaria-Bonesana; Du pont 
de Nemours; Gaspar Melchor de 
Jovellanos; Gaetano Filangieri; 
Alexander Hamilton; Henry Thorn- 



ton; Thomas Robert Malthus; Mel- 
chiorre Gioja; Jean Baptiste Say; 
David Ricardo; Jean C. L. de 
Sismondi; James Mill; Thomas Tooke; 
Richard Jones; Robert Torrens; 
Friedrich List; J. R. M'Culloch; 
Nassau W. Senior; Karl Heinrich 
Rau; Henry Charles Carey; Auguste 
Comte; Frederic Bastiat; Harriet 
Martineau; John Stuart Mill; 
Bonamy Price; W. T. Thornton; 
Emile de Laveleye; J. E. Cairnes; J. 

E. Thorold Rogers; J. K. Ingram; 
Walter Bagehot; T. E. Cliffe Leslie; 
David Ames Wells;. W. Stanley 
Jevons; Henry George; Francis Amasa 
Walker; W. G. Sumner; L. J. Bren- 
tano; William Cunningham; Eugen 
Boeiim von Bawerk; Arnold Toynbee; 
R. T. Ely; A. T. Hadley; D. R. Dewey; 

F. W. Taussig; W. J. Ashley; E. W. 
Bemis; and E. R. A. Seligman. 

For the chief branches of economic 
theory read : 

Value (Vol. 27, p. 867) by Dr. J. S. 
Nicholson, professor of political economy, 
Edinburgh University, author of Prin- 
ciples of Political 
Economic Economy, etc. This 

Theory article, equivalent to 

2 5 pages of this 
Guide, distinguishes between utility and 
value — to be valuable a "thing must 
have some utility ; and there must be some 
difficulty in its attainment." There are 
three laws of value — supply and demand, 
in the discussion of which monopoly- values 
and competition- values are considered; 
that of cost of production, in which 



288 



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cost of raw material and wages are 
obvious factors; and that of increasing 
cost with increased quantity of produc- 
tion, — upon which depends the theory of 
rent. 

Wealth (Vol. 28, p. 437) is by the 
same author, who adopts the definition 
of wealth connected with the name of 
Adolf von Held, based on a study of 
consumption, production and distribution 
of wealth, — "consumable utilities which 
require labour for their production 
and can be appropriated and ex- 
changed." 

Consumption (Vol. 7, p. 23) is the 
"destruction of utilities." 

Production (Vol. 22, p. 423) is the 
creation of utilities. 

Capital (Vol. 5, p. 278) is accumu- 
lated wealth available for earning in- 
terest and producing fresh wealth. It 
is not antithetical to labour, but . . . the 
accumulated savings of labour and of 
the profits accruing from the savings of 
labour." The "importance of ability 
or brain-work, as against much of mod- 
ern theorizing against capitalism," must 
not be overlooked. 

Wages (Vol. 28, p. 229), also by Dr. 
Nicholson, is equivalent to 17 pages in 
this Guide. It distinguishes between 
nominal and real wages, describes the 
economic wages fund theory, and deals 
with such topics as state regulation of 
wages, factory legislation, trades unions 
and wages, effects of machinery on 
wages. 

Further information, more particularly 
in the field of finance, will be found in: 

Banks and Banking (Vol. 3, p. 334), 
with a special treatment of American 
banking by Charles A. Conant, formerly 
treasurer of the Morton Trust Co., New 
York City, and author of History of 
Modern Banks of Issue, and with the 
general description by Sir Robert Pal- 
grave, director of Barclay & Co., Ltd., 
and editor of the Dictionary of Political 
Economy. 

Trust Company (Vol. 27, p. 329) is 



by C. A. Conant, late treasurer of the 
Morton Trust Co., New York. 

Money (Vol. 18, p. 694) and Finance 
(Vol. 10, p. 347) are by Prof. Charles 
Francis Bastable, University of Dublin, 
author of Public Finance, etc. 

See also the articles on Gold, Silver, 
Bimetallism, and Monetary Con- 
ferences. 

On "Ideal" social systems, see these 
four groups of articles: 

Anarchism (Vol. 1, p. 914), by Prince 
Kropotkin, author of Modern Science 
and Anarchism, and a contributor to the 
Britannica on Rus- 
Anarchi8m, sian geography; and 

Socialism, etc. Nihilism (Vol. 19, 
p. 686), by Sir Don- 
ald Mackenzie Wallace, author of Russia, 
and The Web of Empire; and biographies 
of William Godwin, Proudhon, Baku- 
nin, Cl£mence Louise Michel, Kro- 
potkin, Most, Reclus (Uke Kropotkin, 
well known as a geographer), Tolstoy, 
and on "anarchist" outrages see Chicago 
(Vol. 6, p. 125), McKinley, Alexander 
II of Russia, M. F. S. Carnot, Elizabeth 
of Austria (Vol. 9, p. 285), and Humbert. 

Communism (Vol. 6, p. 791), and see 
also Robert Owen, New Harmony, 
Amana, Shakers, Fourier, Brook Farm, 
Considerant, Cabet, Saint-Simon and 
Oneida Community; and on Plato's 
"Republic," Plato (especially pp. 818- 
819, Vol. 21); on More's "Utopia," the 
article Sir Thomas More (especially p. 
825, Vol. 18) ; on Bacon's "New Atlantis," 
the article Francis Bacon (especially 
p. 144, Vol. 3); on Hobbe's "Leviathan," 
the article Hobbes (especially p. 547, 
Vol. 13); on Campanula's "Civitas Solis" 
or "City of the Sun," the article Cam- 
panella (Vol. 5, p. 121); Samuel Butler 
(Vol. 4, p. 887) for "Erewhon" and 
"Erewhon Revisited"; and Edward 
Bellamy (Vol. 3, p. 694) for "Looking 
Backward," the latest of the well-known 
literary pictures of an ideal common- 
wealth. 

Co-Operation (Vol. 7, p. 82), by 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



Aneurin Williams, chairman of executive, 
International Co-Operative Alliance, and 
author of Twenty-eight Years of Co- 
operation at Guise; and Building So- 
cieties (Vol. 4, p. 766) and Friendly 
Societies (Vol. 11, p. 217), both collab- 
orative articles by Sir Edward William 
Brabrook, late chief registrar of friendly 
societies, and Dr. Carroll D. Wright, 
late United States Commissioner of 
Labor; and for the different co-operative 
experiments, see, in addition to the 
articles mentioned under Communism 
above: Rochdale, Guise, Jean Bap- 
tiste, Andr£ Godin, E. V. Neale, 
Raiffeisen and Schulze-Delitzsch for 
German co-operative banks and rural 
credit, Ireland (especially p. 749, Vol. 
14), France (especially p. 782, Vol. 10), 
Italy (especially p. 14, Vol. 15), Russia 
(especially p. 887, Vol. 23, on the Artel); 
and for American approaches to co-oper- 
ation the articles Hopedale, Pullman 
and Mormons (especially p. 846, Vol. 18). 

Socialism (Vol. 25, p. 301), by James 
Bonar, author of Philosophy and Political 
Economy; and supplement this by the 
articles Robert Owen; Karl Marx, by 
Edward Bernstein, author of Theorie and 
Geschichte des Socialismus and formerly 
a Socialist member of the Reichstag 
and a leader of the German Socialist 
movement away from Marx; Rodbertus; 
Lassalle; Kettler; Bebel; Lieb- 
knecht; Schmoller; Jaures; Mille- 
rand ; Henry George ; William MpRRis ; 
H. G. Wells; Bernard Shaw; John 
Burns; and local articles, especially 
New Zealand and Finland. 

Among the more interesting general 
economic topics are tariffs and trusts, 
matters of constant and great importance 
both in politics and 
Tariffs, business. See the 

Trusts, etc. articles: Tariff 

(Vol. 26, p. 422), by 
Dr. F. W. Taussig, professor at Harvard, 
and author of The Tariff History of the 
United States; Free Trade (Vol. 11, p. 
88), by Dr. William Cunningham, arch- 



deacon of Ely, author of Growth of Eng- 
lish Industry and Commerce. 

Protection (Vol. 22, p. 464), by E. 
J. James, president of the University of 
Illinois, author of History of American 
Tariff Legislation, etc. 

For the history of tariff legislation in 
the United States,, the articles Alexan- 
der Hamilton, Henry Clay, Federal- 
ist Party, Anti-Federalist Party, 
Democratic Party, Whig Party, Re- 
publican Party, J. S. Morrill, Mc- 
Kinley, etc., and United States His- 
tory (Vol. 27) especially §113 (p. 689), 
§151 (p. 694), §195 (p. 701), §241 (p. 
708), §297 (p. 716), §314 (p. 718), §354 
(p. 728), § 370 (p. 728), § 373 (p. 729), etc. 

And for the English tariff legislation 
in the last hundred years, the articles 
Corn Laws, John Bright, Cobden, 
Joseph Chamberlain, etc. 

The article Trusts (Vol. 27, p. 334), by 
Prof. J. W. Jenks of New York Univer- 
sity should be supplemented by the arti- 
cle Gilds (Vol. 12, p. 14), contributed 
by the late Professor Charles Gross of 
Harvard University, and for American 
Trust Legislation, by the articles Inter- 
state Commerce (Vol. 14, p. 711) and 
United States, History (Vol. 27), espe- 
cially pages 725-726, 729, 734. See also 
under separate state headings. 

The article on Gilds just referred to 
will serve as an introduction to the 
subject of labour and labour organiza- 
tions. The most im- 
Labour and portant articles on 

Wages modern conditions 

are Trade Unions 
(Vol. 27, p. 140); Strikes and Lock- 
outs (Vol. 25, p. 1024); and Labour 
Legislation (Vol. 16, p. 7), all with 
American sections by Carroll D. Wright, 
late U. S. Commissioner of Labor. On 
labour legislation see the special article 
Employers' Liability (Vol. 9, p. 356) 
and the sections on legislation and mis- 
cellaneous laws in separate state articles. 

One of the great branches of economics 
is the study of statistics. Advisedly 



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we say "study of statistics" and in the 
Britannica the stu- 
Statistics, dent will find corn- 

Population, etc. paratively few sta- 
tistical tables, but 
much analysis both of statistics 
and of their meaning. For statistics of 
population see, for instance, the section 
on population in the article United 
States or in any one of the state or city 
articles. Under Population and Social 
Conditions in the article United States 
(Vol. 27, pp. 634-638) are treated: 
growth of the nation geographically and 
in population, with special consideration 
of immigration; changes in localities; 
urban and rural population; interstate 
migration; sexes; vital statistics — death 
rate, marriage, families, birth-rate, illit- 
eracy; religious statistics; occupations; 
national wealth. And the state articles 
give: total population at each census; 
foreign-born and of foreign parentage, — 
often with analysis and historical out- 
lines of immigration and its variation 
and character and amount; religious sta- 
tistics; negroes and whites, Indians, Asiat- 
ics, etc.; urban population, with list of 
larger cities and population of each. In 
articles on American cities and towns 
population figures are given from the 
last census; comparisons are made be- 
tween native and foreign-born and the 
foreign-born are classified, and, where 
there is a predominant element, like 
the Germans in Cincinnati and St. Louis, 
an estimate of the influence of this 
element. 

One of the problems of population 
peculiar to the United States, particu- 
larly the Southern states, is the negro. 
See the article Negro (Vol. 19, p. 344), 
especially the part dealing with the 
United States, which is by Walter F. 
Willcox, professor of social science and 
statistics in Cornell University and chief 
statistician of the U. S. Census Bureau. 
This article and that on Divorce (Vol. 8, 
p. 334) — another urgent American prob- 
lem — are remarkable examples of the 



treatment of a social question from the 
point of view of a statistician in a most 
interesting and illuminating manner, 
although based on dry statistics, and 
in a manner all the more satisfying and 
accurate because it has carefully 
analyzed figures at the back of it. 

The status of the negro in different 
states is described in the separate state 
articles, and there, too, the reader will 
find a summary of local divorce laws. 

Other articles coming under the head 
of population are Infanticide, Illegit- 
imacy, Legitimacy and Legitimation. 

In the chapter in this Guide on Ques- 
tions of the Day attention is called to the 
increasing tendency of the state to 
control and regulate 
Social matters which a gen- 

Legislation eration or so ago 

were considered out- 
side the sphere of government. Two 
particular economic questions — "social 
evils" we sometimes call them — are fore- 
most in this category and on these the 
student of economics should read in 
the Britannica: 

The article Prostitution (Vol. 22, p. 
457), by Dr. Arthur Shadwell, member 
of the Council of the Epidemiological 
Society and author of Industrial Effici- 
ency and Drink, Temperance and Legisla- 
tion, and the articles Liquor Laws (Vol. 
16, p. 759) and Temperance (Vol. 26, 
p. 578), also by Dr. Shadwell. These 
should be supplemented by accounts of 
local legislation against liquor, as for 
example in the articles Maine, Kansas, 
South Carolina, etc. On the Gothen- 
burg system of Sweden and Norway see 
Vol. 16, pp. 769 and 780, and Vol. 26, 
p. 587, where we learn that the essence 
of this method of conducting the retail 
traffic is that the element of private 
gain is eliminated. See besides bio- 
graphies of temperance reformers — e.g., 
Theobald Mathew, Neal Dow, John 
B. Gough, etc. 

Another great problem which the state 
and the municipality are attempting to 



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BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 



solve, or to help solve, by means of 
legislation is that of housing. See the 
article Housing (Vol. 13, p. 814), which 
comprises not only the topic of city hous- 
ing and its faults due to overcrowding, 
excessive value of land in great cities, 
etc., but the subject of rural housing, 
and the experiments in garden cities, 
model towns, etc. See also the article 
Octavia Hill (Vol. 13, p. 465), and for 
American model towns, Hopedale, Pull- 
man, etc. 

Many movements for social welfare 
are of a very different character and are 
based on an entirely different principle 
from that of repres- 
Social Welfare sive or controlling 
legislation. Chari- 
ties, education, care of insane, training 
of defectives, prison reform — such are a 
few of these topics, and the student will 
quickly learn that these burdens have 
been borne quite as much by the indi- 
vidual as by the State, and that in many 
instances individual initiative has by 
long and laborious effort succeeded in 
reforming in this field abuses which had 
flourished under government care. 

Of prime importance to the student 
is the elaborate article on Charity and 
Charities (Vol. 5, p. 860), by Dr. 
Charles Stewart Loch, sec- 
Charity retary to the council of 
the London Charity Organ- 
ization Society and author of Charity 
Organization, Methods of Social Advance, 
etc. This article, equivalent in contents 
to 100 pages of this Guide, is made up 
of an introduction and six parts, as 
follows: 

Introduction : " Charity," as used in 
New Testament, means love and mercy — 
an ideal social state. 

Part I. — Primitive Charity — highly de- 
veloped idea of duty to guest or stranger, 
whether beggar or vagrant. 

Part II. — Charity among the Greeks. 
" In Crete and Sparta the citizens were 
wholly supported out of the public re- 
sources." In Athens, charity by: legal 
enactment for release of debts; assisted 



emigration; gifts of grain; poor relief for 
infirm and for orphans of soldiers; pay 
for public service; private charity; loan 
societies. 

Part III. — Charity in Roman Times. 
" The system obliged the hard-working to 
maintain the idlers, while it continually 
increased their number." " The effect on 
agriculture, and proportionally on com- 
merce generally, was ruinous." 

Part IV. — Jewish and Christian Char- 
ity. In Christianity a fusion of Jewish 
and Greco-Roman practice. Summary of 
Hebrew Charity. " To mark the line of 
development, we compare: 1. The family 
among Jews and in the early Christian 
church. 2. The sources of relief and the 
tithe, the treatment of the poor and their 
aid, and the assistance of special classes 
of poor. 3. The care of strangers; and, 
lastly, we would consider the theory of 
alms giving, friendship or love, and char- 
ity." 

Part V. — Medieval Charity and its De- 
velopment. St. Francis and his influence. 
St. Thomas Aquinas. Medieval endowed 
charities. 

Part VI. — After the Reformation. 
" The religious life was to be democratic 
— not in religious bodies, but in the whole 
people; and in a new sense — in relation 
to family and social life — it was to be 
moral. That was the significance of the 
Reformation." Organization of municipal 
relief. Poor relief acts and statutory serf- 
dom. Progress of thought in 18th and 
19th century: influence of Rousseau, of 
Law, of Howard, of Bentham, of Non- 
conformists, particularly Friends in Eng- 
land; Society for Bettering the Condition 
of the Poor (1796). The Poor Law. 
Movement for Old Age Pensions. Char- 
ity Organization. Hospitals. 

American charities and their peculiar 
problems. 

Other articles bearing on the subject 
are: 

Poor Law (Vol. 22, p. 74), for the 
British system, and Dr. T. A. Ingram's 
articles Unemployment (Vol. 27, p. 578) 
and Vagrancy (Vol. 27, p. 837). 

One of the earliest and most important 
definite charitable movements was prison 



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reform. On this subject see in the 
Britannica the articles, — 
Prisons all by Major Arthur Grif- 

fiths, British inspector of 
prisons, — Prison, Crime, Criminology, 
Children's Courts, Police, Juvenile 
Offenders, Deportation, Finger 
Prints, Identification. This series of 
articles shows both the improvements 
in methods of treating criminals, in itself 
a means of protecting society, and 
the better methods of defense and of 
police. 

On the treatment of the insane and 
feeble-minded, on the gradual assump- 
tion of responsibility for them by govern- 
ments, and on the transi- 
Iiisane tion from the prison-like 

asylum to the modern hos- 
pital, see the article Insanity, particu- 
larly part III (Vol. 14, p. 616), on Hos- 
pital Treatment, by Dr. Frederick Peter- 
son, professor of psychiatry, Columbia 
University, author of Mental Diseases, 
etc. 

As great as the change in treatment 
of the insane has been that in the treat- 
ment of the deaf and blind. On this 
subject read the 
Deaf and Blind articles: Blindness 
(Vol. 4, p. 59), by 
Sir Francis J. Campbell, principal of the 
Royal Normal College for the Blind; 
and Deaf and Dumb (Vol. 7, p. 880), by 
the Rev. Arnold Hill Payne, chaplain of 
the Oxford Diocesan Mission to the 
Deaf and Dumb. Both these authors 
have had experience in teaching in the 
United States as well as in Great Britain, 
— one of the many striking instances of 



the wisdom displayed in the choice of 
contributors to the Britannica. And see 
the articles on Gallaudet (Vol. 11, p. 
416), the great teacher of the deaf, and 
S. G. Howe (Vol. 13, p. 837), the edu- 
cator of the blind. 

The following list, arranged for the 
most part in chronological order, gives 
some of the names of reformers and 
philanthropists 
Biographies about whom there 

are separate articles. 
These biographical sketches will be of 
great value for the study of the history 
and development of charitable work for 
the public welfare. 



John Kyrle 
Thomas Guy 
Thomas Coram 
Adam Anderson 
Gen. Booth 
John Howard 
Tuke (family) 
Baron de Montyon 
Granville Sharp 
Johann Beckmann 
Sir Thomas Bernard 
Robert Owen 



J. B. A. Godin 
John B. Gough 
George Jacob Holyoake 
Madhowdas Vurjeevan- 

das 
Clara Barton 
I^ouis Adolphe Bertillon 
Henri Cernuschi 
Mary Ashton Livermore 
Sir Francis Galton 
Geo. Thorndike Angell 
Sir D. M. Petit 
Frangois Charles Marie George Smith of Coal- 
Fourier ville 
George Birkbeck M. E. L. Walras 
Elizabeth Fry Emily Faithfull 
Sir M. H. Monteftore Lyman Judson Gage 
Sir Thomas F. Buxton Octavia and Miranda 



Theobald Mathew 
Lucretia Mott 
Joseph St urge 
Sir Rowland Hill 
B. N. M. Appert 
Gerrit Smith 



Hill 
A. Carnegie 
Baron Rowton 
J. D. Rockefeller 
Benjamin Waugh 
Frances E. Willard 



Framjee NasarwanjeeF. A. Bebel 

Patel Charles Booth 

Victor P. Considerant Gabriel Tarde 
E. Vansittart Neale Laurence Gronlund 
Baroness B u r d e 1 1 -Samuel Gompers 

Coutts Sidney Webb 

Grace Horshey DarlingJane Addams 
Helen Gould 



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CHAPTER XLIX 



HEALTH AND DISEASE 



YOU may have happened to glance 
at one of the text-books written 
for the use of medical students 
and of doctors, and found that you could 
hardly understand a word of it. And yet 
you have found, when you consulted a 
specialist, and he wanted to explain to 
you just what was wrong with some part 
of your body, that he could make it all