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»* P.N. Oak 

Some Blunders 


Indian Historical 






P. N. OAK, M A., LL., B. 
Pnildtnt, Initiate for BenritlDg World History 



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What Prompted My Historic Quest 

Blunder No. 









Indian monuments Credited to Alien Muslims 
Ignoble Akbar Believed Noble 
Misplaced Faith in Mediaeval Chroniclei 
Myth of the Indo-Saracenic Theory of 

Myth of the Moghul School of Painting 
Myth of the Development of Mu»ic in 
Mediaeval Muslim Courts 
Myth about the Moghul Garden Art 
Mythical Golden Periods Under Alien Rule 
Key Principle* for ■ Correct Appraisal oflndian 
Mediaeval History 

Alexander's Defeat Churned to be Great 
Victory over Porui 
Adya Shankaracharya's Antiquity 
Under-Estimated by 1 297 Yean 
Lord Buddha's Antiquity Underestimated by 
Over 1 300 Years 

Antiquity of Lords Rama and Krishna's Eras 
Grossly Underestimated 
•Arya' an Ideal Misconitrued as I R«t 
! Antiquity of the Vedas Grossly Underestimated 


• I 










15 : Origin of 'Allah' ■* Hiodu 0«T and K»b« as 

Hindu Temple Forgotten 
, t indna Kshtrriy. Rnl« '«» »■'» "> th * * ,1k 

•nd Korea to Kab* Forgotten 
, 7 Role oT Sanskrit M Ancient World 

Language Forgotten 
I s Hindu Ongm of Prophet Mohammad Forgotten 

Monument* in Pictures 






in India for over a millennium has 

"MImM * indiau" histories numerous blundering 
te»lw*» nlBipl ^™* cotl cepi*. Those myths nurtured under 
„*»■ " J"*"**^ aDd patronage for many centuries have 
government «** of authority through sheer passage of 
tiow acquired a stamp 

^"Tf hv history we mean a factually and chronologically accu- 
^cc^oum of a country's past current Indian bistones deserve 
to be classed with Arabian N»ghts. 

Such history must be repudiated and rewritten. In this book 
1 nave indicated a few blunders of Indian historical research^ 
The blunders listed herein are by no means the only ones. 
are just a sampling of the vast scope for research that awaits 
scholars who are prepared to take a second look at Indian and 
world history and do some fresh thinking uninhibited by pre- 
vious tutoring. 

My earlier research publication titled TAJ MAHAL WAS A 
RAJPUT PALACE has already exposed a glaring and far- 
reaching misconception of Indian history. 

Like a virus infection the blunders of Indian historical 
research have affected other spheres too. For instance students 
of architecture and civil engineering are taught to believe thai 
mediaeval monuments in India and West Asia are products of 
Saracenic architecture while in fact it has been shown in the 
following pages that the In do- Saracenic architecture theory it a 
myth. All mediaeval monuments are pre-Muslim Rajput monu- 
ments falsely credited to alien Muslim rulers. Likewise it wa* 
Indian architects and craftsmen who designed and built West 
Asian monuments since they were driven across Indian borders 
at sword-point to build such monuments in the native lands of 
the invaders. 


kmMt the miny weak lint* in the so-called Indo-Saraeeote 

architecture if the existence of Hindu patterns to to* 

JJZiIn -o .« «*««"» monuments. This it tried to be ex- 

..^iwiT as the result of the preference of the Hindu 

■!T«nftiated There are many flaws in this arguments. 

Ltiui with designing their monuments. For instance ,n the 
cm* of ihe Taj Mahal tbey ascribe ill design to some mysteri- 
ous Essa Eifendi. 

Even if they credit any design to a Hindu, in those days of 
mediaeval cruelty and fanaticism they would never have tolerate 
c d any Hindu trust weaving 'infidel' designs into the pattern 
of a Muslim mosque or tomb. So even this argument falls to 
the ground. 

The other facetious assertion is thai the master architect 
used to lay down the broad outline of the design, leaving it to 
the individual workmen to fill in the details according to their 
individual whims and fancies. The hollowness of this argument 
becomes apparent on a little reflection. 

Unless the entire contemplated design has been laid down 
at the very start it would be impossible to order the required 
material of the kind and in the quantity desired. 

If individual workmen were left to work out their own 
fancied designs tbey would all work \o cross purposes and no 
longer remain amenable to the control of their supervisee since 
iey would keep dodging and delaying, shirking and thwarting 
the project on the plea of lack of time or inspiration in fulfill- 
ing their part of the task. The argument that Hindu patterns 
■dorn 'Muslim" monuments because Hindu workmen were 

•Mowed sfi ee hand is thus palpably absurd examined from any 

llumkring Amnion, ihaM lhe fouQd j ng of 01d Dft|hi [f a 

typ>«! .Mtsnce of the absurdities thai have formed part of 
entreat, distorted Indian history. 

bJSw toW fc Uu, 1 , old **»** ™» funded by Mogul Emperor 

2S?£S ,hB . , « QilUfy ' »f that were true how Lhe 
coitus* OLD m.uued 7 In iha. ^ [( ^^ lhe neweft Ddhi 

ever founded prior lo British rule in India. As inch it should 
rank with London and New York in age 

Taimurlang who raided Delhi in the Christmas or 1398 
A,D, clearly mention? thai he perpetrated hi* massacre* in Old 
Delhi, He also adds that the Kafirs i.e :he 'infidel' Hindus 
collected in the Jama Masjid to counter-attack his troops. This 
proves that Old Delhi is in fact the oldest pari of the sprawling 
ancient metropolis of Delhi. 

Taimurlang's testimony also proves that Old Delhi's main 
temple was in Taimurlang's attack converted into a mosque. 
Had that not been so Hindus would never have rallied in thai 
building. The fact that they gathered there as e matter of right 
proves thai the building colled Jama Masjid, crriogly credited 
lo Shabjaban. was a Hindu Temple when Taimurlang's troops 
stormed into Delhi. 

There is yet another pointer to Old Delhi's antiquity* 

In Delhi there it a monument called Purana Qila i.e. Old 
Fort. This is believed to date from pre-Mustim times and even 
from the Mahabharaia era- if, therefore, Old Fort signiBes the 
ancient-most fort how come that Old Delhi signifies a near* 
modern township ! Such are the Illogicalities which bedevil and 
Vitiate current historical texts and underline the need for some 
re- thinking. 

Besides being afflicted with distortions and anomalies 
Indian history has been baciJy maimed. Many of its important 
chapters ore completely missing. Like the British empire within 
our own memory, in the remote past the Indian empire extend- 
ed to such distant parts or the world at Japan in the East. Bull 
in the South, at least Arabia in the West and the Baltic in the 
north. Traces of this vast sway are delineated in some ofihe 
last chapters of this volume. 

It is hoped thai the present publication would prove helpful 
in highlighting a few major errors in Indian historical thmkaog 
and indicating the direction of research. 

This book ha* been long out of print. This is its third 
edition. Hence it is being updated and some addition* have 
been made here and there- 



ttfeiat A -real adfflintion over the content* 
jtodcrs have expressed * re 

of'** 1 . however maintained a stunned 

ftof « B(W .tbi..on.«'-'- 6 |liog awiW .h« all 

theJ ta « .™<i.«l ■"" **2rSb jetthooed. So they tend 

Sr^S^tb-. *«ov.n« or .hey try » p* 

12-B Divya Kunji 
1076, Gokbele Road 

P.N. Oak 
Institute for Rewriting Indian 
and World History 

What Prompted My Historic Quest 

FEEL deeply concerned at the alarming state of Indian 
history as it is being taught in our educational institutions, ai 
it is being tackled on misleading assumptions in our research 
organizations and as it is being presented to the world at large 
through official and academic channels. 

The extent and depth of the inaccuracies and fabrication! 
that bedevil Indian history amount to a national calamity. 

What is it ill more tragic is that besides the many distor- 
tions, perversions and anomalies that abound in current histori- 
cal texts there are many missing chapters. Those missing 
chapters relate especially to the sway that Indian Kshatriyas 
once held from Bali island in the South East pacific to the 
Baltic in the north and from Korea to Arabia and possibly 
over Mexico, It is in thai vast region, at tbc very least, that the 
dfgvijayai (conquests) which we hear about very often in 
'Indian scriptures, were carried out. Our histories make no 
mention of that sway. 

At least a broad realization of the major points at which 
Indian historical research has branched off the path of factum! 
and chronological truth, and a realization that at least some of 
its important chapters are missing, is essential on the part of 
scholars, teaching inatitution*, research organizations, students, 
teachers and lay men 

It is intended to unfold here quite a few blunders of Indian 
historical research which have occurred to roe. By no means do 
I presume to give an exhaustive list of such blunders. The few 
that 1 intend to JeaJ with hereafter should serve as specimens 
to alert all those connected with Indian history, that the fare 
served to them, day in and day out, in the name of Indian 
history is infected with myths, and it deficient in nutritional 
values because of its musing chapter!. 



KmvoTttroT* OMIP" ^ h]y agU§tcd how 

fil lirjfc. 

subject title » 

Though our 

jl will be observed. 

at least in wme 


HISTORICAL «^ hosc b]undcis havc * bearing on, 


The «wr . ng or.hc chapters and f.ully 

this topic 

should be of immense 

world ovr i 

lit, happened that I had since my childhood been very 
dccpy'nt^ied bi visiting bistonc monuments. Over the 
Jn especially .ben I visited Dclb, Agraand Fatebpur ■ Sikn 
and wai loU, a* everybody else is lold. that almost all the 
mediaeval monuments there were built by this or that sultan, a 
series or questions arose in my mind. 

How was it J thought, thai the Hindus, who bad ruled 
India Tor at least 4,000 years from the Pandavai to Pnthviraj, 
did not have even a tingle monument to their credit ? IT they 
did not build any monuments where did they* their courtiers 
i lh= common people live? If during that period, as is 
nostalgically described rivers of milk and honey flowed in India, 
a ltd every ehrmcey emitted smoke of gold, where was all that 
•with itmed I And »rRomc is built by the Romans, London 
by Londoner and Tokyo by the Japanese, how come that in 
liuliu abac Delhi, Agra, Falehpur Sikri, Allahabad, Ahmcda- 
bal and a hesi of olhcrciti r 's teeming with mediaeval monu- 
ments, weit built by a w'de assortment of foreigners like 
Afghani Turks, Iranians, Mongols, Abyssinians, Kazaks and 
Uabeks and ia fact by every other community enccpt Indians 
themselves 1 And were IhfiM Indians, thus insinuated to be 
nincompoops and novices in the building art, not the some who 
arniirocted fa Maduiai templet, Rameswaram, Kooarak. 
fchajuiaho, A)anta p Ellora and a host of other rock cut edifices. 



tbe Mount Abu temples, mighty foru like Ranthsmbbore ind 
luxurious palace*, a at Ambir and Udaipuf ? And if at all it 
was the aliens named above who founded all the important 
towns in India and built all its magaitkeot monuments how i» 
it that they all had a uniform penchant for the Hindu style of 
Indian architecture ? If they had such a captivating ittraction 
for Indian culture how is it that the very name Hindu waa 
anathema to them so as to provoke ihem to plunder and 
massacre, rape and destruction 7 And if for centuries these alien 
rulers and their alien noblemen built all their tombs and 
palaces in the Hindu style do their cultural and religious des- 
cendants -the Muslims of today— build even a single tomb, 
mosque or home with even one single Hindu motif on them ? 
And how is it that these aliens belonging to diverse nationali- 
ties, different strata from slave is prince, and various races 
display the same vigour and identical taste in building monu- 
ment after monument, city after city and tombs and mosques 
all in the Hindu style ? Why is it that tbey built only tombs 
and mosques without corresponding palaces ? If they built only 
tombs for their predecessors and mosques where dtd ihese alien 
rulers and iheir noblemen themselves stay " And in the conteat 
of deadly iotenecine succession struggles that used to ensue in 
all Muslim households from princes to paupers how was it that 
successors to titles built tombs for hated predecessors Tor whose 
blood they had thirsted, and to supplant whom they were so 
vefv eager " And when the whole realm used to be thrown into 
utter confusion and revolts and warfare erupted on the death 
of every Muslim sovereign where did money to build a palatial 
tomb for him come from ? Who controlled the treasury exclu- 
sively in those perilous times? And was not all the monc> 
available needed to raise armies, maintain huge harems and 
consolidate ones own posiiion S And where was the nme and 
peace uecessary to supervise the construction of palatial tombs 
Where was ihc architectural know-how in those daysofstatk 
illiteracy and in an atmosphere seething wiih plotting ami 
treachery ! hH consistent with human psychology that even 
granting normal filial love a son or sooin-law succeeding « 
deceased ruler will build a palace for a dead body but none tot 
himself and bis children, *iv*i and concubines 1 la there any 



even in this 20tb century when 
I autocracy have lost ionic of their 
ftt I*.T^dv to hoitd tombs and mosques styled 
«*** " hQ *?i» L will the richest of them bifid any expen. 
like temple* \* C * ZZ^t at all ? And how is it that the 
•vc tomb for hi* l«f*^"* |W Agrfl and Fatebpur Sikri, 

m ^ ">*'«* ™ m MalIJn limef 7 And if no 
Mpnrk-om * <*' j,™^ wh eo Muslim invasions of 

- K«h. rival defending ? That leads to another mcon- 
"md tl^Uo, gave battle to the invading 
I Ly in open country? If that is so how do we explain name, 
lite Kot Lhwaha. Nagarkoi and Umarkot, since kot signifies 
afortdstd lowmbip* We know for certain that in ancient timei 
all building! rrom humble residences of the common folk to 
ihosc or the king*, used to have massive battlemcnted walls 
enclosing huge courtyards and spacious apartments. 

A thousand and one such considerations arose in my mind 
making me quite uneasy. They all seemed to add up to a 
Jigsaw puzzle— i jumble of contradictions and inconsistencies. 

Those questions set me thinking furiously. In my despera- 
tion I turned to the history of other countries or the world to 
seek a parallel. I sought to find out whether there exist in any 
other country monuments built in their hundreds by conquerors 
but none by we natives. The image of Rome came to my mind. 
Rome 100 had • proud ancient civilization, and has many 
aacjeni monument!. Would it be right. I thought to rnyaeif, to 
augp« to a Roman that ill (bote beautiful and massive monu- 
mis were after all not built by hii ancestors but by aliens 
uoquered Rome and occupied it from time to time ? That 
*tmld be absurd 

a^^bulii^ ' to|b '' lhflt *»»i .re believed to be 

^*J£Sff ;r fl " ™ in to our own 

H«^ro^l" ,ndu / JPU1, ^'riya-buiU mansions 

fcf krac*a lovadLt ! T ? mte cont » we «d and occupied 

'Tlv«Ta!,i!!l.i convcrttt * into tombs and 

bypothwi lfa * 1 was a stunning concept. 



But it did item worth investigating. Had none of there monu- 
ment* existed before the Muslim invasions of India started 
about 1200 years ago, we reach the absurd conclusion that 
Mohammad Kasirn, Gbazni and Ghori, Babur and Humayun 
waged wars for the possession of just dry. dusty, wind-swept 

In my hectic search for a solution or this enigma 1 chanced 
to remember an anecdote that I happened to read some years 
earlier. It is said that King James 1 of Great Britain once asked 
his courtiers as to why the water in a pot full to the brim does 
not spill even when a fish is put into it. Presuming the question 
to be basically correct the non-plutaed courtiers suggested 
various answers of which the most plausible appeared to be 
that the fish drinks enough water as soon as it touches the 
surface, to allow for its displacement. Obviously this answer 
too is absurd. King James then smiled, so goes the story t and 
remarked that they were all nitwits because the question itself 
was wrong, and water did spill. The same holds true of Indian 
mediaeval monuments. The very basic assumption In looking 
oi mediaeval Indian monuments and studying or researching 
their history, that they are Saracen-built is wrong. That is why 
the assumption leads to the numerous inconsistencies and con- 
tradictions mentioned by me above. 

Emboldened by that anecdote to continue my search further 
I was shocked to find that even tbe very slippery and dubious 
references to the monuments in contemporary or subsequent 
chronicles are full of contradictions and inconsistencies. 

Besides, not a single scrap of paper or record eiists to show 
that even a single tomb, fort or mosque was ever commissioned 
by a single Saracen chief or ruler. There are no design draw* 
ings. no correspondence or orders relating to the acqu«s,t ( on or 
the site or the commissioning or the building, no bills and no 
receipts for the material supplied or services ordered. 

What is more, even names such as the Taj Mahal and 
Kntub M.nar do not appear in any of the court papers or di«, 
ni«i« of contemporary Muslim monarches to whom they ire 

Z52CK-2 «. «- y i s**-*jm- >»-* 

any of Shahjahan'i court papers or 

in bis official chronicle 


i And ♦*» thousands of booka have b»n 

r.Me ineiMWble lapses «f professional 
S hbtorliDi .nd research scholar, must .,k 

* C<n Z r*LT**i» »«d at for r««rch methodology they 

a M , C nr-ic *hfl d« «° [ h * ve - pi,aCC bnllt duri0g hlS U ' '' 
JcLiM«»Pt^ ll " lu,ob,nOWr hhcoip*. Tbi- 
TdU or t*> *• a •orid-w* .PPlictmi... 

EtoPtolofim **° J»mP^ t0 ** conc,u * ion tb *t.">e 
Pyramid w winch TiKenkhanien'* remains were found wa , 
tnfll «i bit mausoleum obviously committed a blunder, ir 4 
liviap Tuicnkhamen dido'l have a palace how can a dead 
Toicnkhamwi hive a pyramidal palace ? And if Tutenkhamen'i 
MK-tcivof ni*ed a pyramidal palace over TutenkhameD's corpse 
where a tbai succwiori palace ? When neither Tutenkbamen 
nor hit lucccsior had a root over their heads how come one or 
both or them haw stupendous mausoleum es over their inert 

Lack of such searching logic is one of the greatest show* of 
modern research methodology. 

Our answer it that the Pyramids are castles in the desert 
creeled by war i&u i Pharaoh* who lived in them and stored their 
•with ioiide them the practice of burying dead inside the 
Pyramids slatted only after iheir use as castles ceased and the 
Pyramids were regarded as useless ruins. Jut aa people use 
Mlate abandoned ruined mansions 84 public toilets tbey also 
wed deserted or ruined buildings aa cemeteries. 

T* beTZlt? 5 dUfiDB * UMl m ™' Hittoriaot have 

««a^b 0i ;t ag ^^ evid <»% in™ for 

^HHuatZl T^^ had that the 
at* --. .- »*»» commi«. „M r~ Ilwl ^^ „ (| 

iftcd in 






schools and college! and scholarly volumes complacently 
innocently depended upon for reference* in research 

This serious slip has com the nation dearly. India having 
been under alien domination for over a thousand yean these 
Hunderous presumptions, and memoirs and chronicle* written 
by alien sycophant courtiers or by rulers thecuelvcs for self* 
glorification have acquired a stamp of authority and unctiiy 
through sheer passage of time- The dead weight of that 
colossal falsehood now lies to heavy and so deep that even 
those who realize the greai blunder despair of being ever able 
to uproot it. They, therefore, resign themselves to acquiescing 
in what is being taught as it ia taught. They feel it it too late 
to raise a hue and cry. We are, therefore, caught in a vicious 
circle. We teach false history to students became it is so 
written, and no generation of history scholars dares question 
that history despite its contradictions and absurdities because 
that is what they have been aught. 

Continuing my research through actual visit* t& historic 
sites, and browsing through histories I have been able to gather 
considerable evidence to prove that all prominent mediaeval 
monuments in India* from the Nishat and Shaitirnar in Kashmir 
to ihe Whispering Gallery in Bippur are pre-Islamic Rajput 
<*>o struct ions- That enables us to conclude thai all extant 
mediaeval roads, bridges, canals, mansions, serai*, iambi, 
mosques, shrines and foil* were only captured and occupied by 
Muslim invaders but never built by them. 

I wish to alert historians that they should not try to connect 
the inscriptions on monuments with the origin of the : onu- 
menta where there is no clearcut, independent corroborative 
evidence to that effect. Vincent Smith it right when he observe* 
in bis book "Akbar the Great Mogul" that Akbar had an army 
of stone cutters ready to engrave any lettering he lilted on cap- 
tured monuments, The inscriptions on Fatehpux Sikri monu- 
ments arc such engravings. That is why the guesses or different 
historians regarding the Fatehpur Sikri inscriptions contact 
one another and end up io confusion. We all know from 
experience thnt picnickers scrawl their names all over the 


-i This i« * common hun,aD WMng. So 

Bllf)H mrnl» th« WW * nimf .„„ rtOteO BtBMib tO cstubij^, 

,1^ inscribing «* * ° ooe . f ^science is also not unknown. 

^o, , dtim or i 1 " 1 ^ .. ^querent did in mooy instances, 

■Tb,, h ffcti ,mJt * * ^.fluefor ha* used an earlier monument 

Muy ■ lime me <**, tl ., e to «rawi on it just what be liked. 

amly « . ^ WD,e ^ ueot hilW ri«i who have blundered in 

ja aocb «*»» »* '■ . ciubs equent inscription and the ear. 

r ^ D|i,,D \^S^ Polity into the belief thatit was 
r»cr monument ffl»*f«oiB* * * 

, a*a «*dulitv has made historians lose sight of 

^^tbe io^I ^ tomb of Mohammad Ghaus at 

"* !* TJ^JZt&Lm Chieti at Fatehpur Sikri and or 

Tpmnta It il this gullibility which has led historians 

* bey tmilt p.bii.1 tombs not only for hated, deceased 
nL but alio Tor noble men like Safdarjang and for even lowly 
people like bttliw. ]•»»*"«. potters, wet nurset and eunuch! 
wd even for animal P*h> 

Blurvltr No. t 

Indian Monuments Credited to 
Alien Muslims 

The Cirst blunder that 1 stumbled across in Indian historical 
research thus happened to be about the origin of mediaeval 

Before examining the prominent monuments one by one we 
would like to point out to the incredulous that we can produce 
a long list of monuments which historians have accepted to be 
deceptively Muslim though factually earlier Hindu buildings 
This prima facie case should compel their scholarly attention 
\o our contention regarding all the other mediaeval monuments 

The former Punyeshwar and Narayancsbwar temples in 
Poonu are now known as Sheikh Sal la Dargahs big and small 
respectively. Mahamahopadhyoya Datto Varaan Potdar.a well 
known historian and ex*vice chancellor of the I'oona University 
mentioned this fact in Ins address as chairman or the reception 
committee of the Indian History Congress. Silver Jubilee 
session held in Poona in December 1953. The so-called Data 
peer in Ganesh Peih, Punc as a captured Dattutrcya temple. 

The uncalled Kamulmaula Mosque at Dliar in Central India 
has now for past few years been reluctantly ud mi tied to be the 
ancieni Saruswati Kanlhabharana where Sanskrit drama* ins- 
cribed on stone panels used to bo preserved. The helpless 
revelation followed the tell-lale crumbling of camoufla^ 

The famous Liogamahalaya /.*, a great Shiva temple at 
Siddhapur in Gujarat It still being used at a mosque. 

The Kashi Vishwanaih temple in Varanaai i* still being used 
as a mosque. 


TV famous Somnath temple wis reputed 10 be «d * ai m 

ffcf being ** J al * m0SqUe rf01 * 

grin* b rule- 

n„r,ns the partition riots it was discovered that a so-called 
J£ n £Sarib.K.tan locality of Old Delhi, si* p rclIy 
SXtW Hmdu deities clustered m .Is basement, 

Th c Adhai-din-kaZopda at Ajmer has been universally 
^milled to be ft part of Vigraharaj Vishatdeo's seminary. 

The so-called Kutub Minar at Delhi is now widely admitted 
to be an earlier Hindu tower, Sir Sayyad Ahmad, faiber of the 
Muslim League sod a founder of the Aligarh Muslim Univer- 
. it said to have admitted that "the current tradition which 
ascribe* the Mioar (Qutb) and the adjoining temple, to thc 
Hindu period appears to be correct." 

These are only a few instances. But if a comprehensiv- list 
»erc to be made of monuments all over India which are even 
today admittedly Hindu though ostensibly Muslim. I am sure it 
would run into thousands. 

These instances strengthened my doubts and I started 
closely examining thc other monuments ascribed to Muslim 
rulers. And surprisingly enough 1 found that they revealed 
enough evidence to convince an open mind about their Hindu 
origin. After having made out a prima facte case lei us now 
examine some of the major well known monuments throughout 
India to sec what proof we find or their Hindu origin and of 
the inconsistencies apparent in regarding them to be Muslim 

Let us first have a look at Kashmir. Only a few centuries 
back ibo vmlc of Kashmir reverberated to the chant of Sanskrit 
roantrj* Rums of battered Hindu buildings can still be seen at 
Mariand and other tiles in Kashmir. The name of its capital. 
Sriaagai u still pute Sanskrit. Thc name of tbe river Jhelurn 
fluwing through the valley, it derived from the Sanskrit word 
"Jalam" meaning "water". Thc shrine of the great Sanskrit 
philosopher Shankaracharya, on a hill inSrioagar, is a famous 




About 20 miles before we reach Srwa&rar is a diveriion 
which lea d* us by a 10— 1 2 mile tin i tumble road to Vermag. 
This marks the tource of the river Jhelurn which emerges at a 
-clear blue water fount from under the surface on plain tad 
level ground. Vermag is a alight variation of the Sanskrit 
v '\R1TnAG meaning "Water Serpent". Hindus arc known for 
their cobra worship Popular Hindu lore credits a cobra with 
being the main prop of our earth, True to tradition a temple 
of Varinag still nestles in a shanty under a nearby tree. Thc 
river- fount is enclosed in a small circular cistern. Around thc 
xi stern is a 8 to 10 feet high plinth with arched vaults. Inside 
these dark vaults, are ancient Hindu stone images still worship* 
ped by Dogra priesU wearing turbans on their heads and 
sandal paste marks on foreheads. Nearby can be seen thc 
remains of extensive plinths clearly indicating that some build* 
log which stood there has been demolished. These indications 
ore enough to convince an impartial observer that the ancient 
Varinag temple which stood there was destroyed by Muslim 
conquerors. The area if excavated is sure to yield more tnuges 
and other evidence. In spite of this overwhelming evidence.! 
comparatively recent redstone tablet hat been interpolated at 
the site to announce in modern" Urdu that the masonry work 
enclosing thc fount was constructed at Akbar's or Jahanp 

That claim cannot stand cross-examination. Thc extant 
masonry construction such as it is would hardly do credn c«n 
(o a common devout householder or moderate meant, much les> 
to a mighty emperor of liindusinan. Enclosing river-founts in 
cisterns is a holy duty for Hindus while it has never been a .pari 
of Muslim tradition. Had a Muslim emperor been the builder, 
(he premises would have been a mosque and not the haunt i 
Hindu priests and Hindu deities. Ancient Hindu images and 
recent improvised icmple of Varinag could never have exutc 
D1 the site. Moreover, the name Varinag »ou1d have long bsc* 
been changed to something in sonorous Arabic Ml these 
slderation* show that instead of undertaking any buildin 
construction on the site. Akbar and Jahangir destroyed tr* 


m*c«ni Varioai tample to which the existing plinth bean ^ 

TXrtiTorm but oot Builders 

Thi* incidentally Jeadi to in ancillary principle. r%. 
principle || that whenever the name of a Muslim ruler attache' 
to ■ monument which from all evidence appears to he of HJnd 
origin, the MuaTim ruler must be regarded as the conqueror 
and destroyer of that monument rattier than its builder 

Doccmentary Vs. Factual Erideacc 

Let us also be clear about another poinr. Diehard historian 
are prone to decry the kind of evidence, I am leading, as mere 
theorizing and conjectures. They clamour for what they calf 
documentary evidence. Let me tell them that they know not 
what they are talking about. Firstly, they themselves have been 
guilty or having ascribed the various mediaeval monuments to 
d*ffereTit Muslim sultans and emperors on mere hearsay without 
any documentary proof such as wage-bills, blue-prints and day- 
to-day cipeue accounts of the monuments. At limes they have 
bid the Aimiy support of a few sly statements m the memoirs 
of Muslim ruleii and chronicles of mediaeval -Muslim writers, 
moiUy employed by the ruleis themselves. But they know fully 
II as 1 do i bat there are ever so many versions of these 
memoirs and chronicles widely differing from each other, aud 
urtoiy references to a few monuments are found in isolated 
vcrnon.. Historian* also know that these chronicles and 

ScwST Pr:VancJllom ' *Hi«u» and deceitful chauvin.- 

*2^J^^ WC aTC CoDfronle * ** ■«PW01» 
^•heofei IVvlVf C0M ~ d *«*y ^tuat evidence 
'""^ceofalVSt ^ Cr Whkh P««««. Take the 
» * Purp^M^tV^? 8 ? y thc »•***. which has a note 
T b« rote ii io * ™ Pwwn ha * c °n"n»ted suicide. 

*»»«**< depend o,nt ^"T* CVidencc - »« "11 our 
**«* though thebodvh, a * lo iove «»*a«e the death 

"<** lb* so-called dtKu^' ^ *o»nd in the back ? In such 
t * Umcn ' *'» ** 'hrown away as trash and 

,,,,,,.! h.MiMr.Nj- CNOttBOTO UJBN Wi'*iUM 


fbc death will be investigated as murder. The itme principle 
applies 10 mediaeval monuments which are jus! tike dead 
bodies lying mutilated and have suspicious antecedents. Let 
oat, therefore, tmdi (ion-hound historians make a fetish of to- 
called documentary proof and throw their hand* op io ucmilii- 
cd horror at the kind ol evidence I am leading. The above 
explanation should convince them that the kind oT evidence I 
am leading can Aland in a court of law far decisive judgment*, 
as against the kind or Qimsy and fabricated bland staieraeni* 
rhat they have been banking upon— and that too in a very few 
cases, all these centuries. 

INiabat and Shallmar 

Having dealt above with some considerationn fundamental 
to my thesis I shall now turn to a few other prominent monu- 
ments in Kashmir. There are two beautiful landscape garden* 
in Kashmir, known ag NUhat and Shalimar. History has 
wrongly ascribed them to the Moguls, Nisbat and Shalimar (a 
variation of Shall raarg) are both Sanskrit word a Nishat means 
"well (rimmed. 11 As; such it can apply only to gardens That is 
also a current Hindu surname prevalent in Kashmir signifying 
a very talented and accomplished family, ShiTJmarg means "a 
mountain (rack winding through rice fields (sal) or through tall 
timber tree* (shal)." 

Throughout the gardens one can discern a plinth pattern 
suggesting that the gardens were enclosed by fortifications and 
were pan of demolished palaces. Their gateways still stand, as 
do the walls and bastions on some flanks* The gateways arc in 
the ornate Hindu style Besides, the Moguls with their *eat m 
far-away Agra, could by no stretch of imagination hope to 
enjoy the beauty nnd coolth of gardens laid 700 miles away. 
The way, moreover, lay through dense forest! and sleep hilly 
country. A visit to Kashmir then wa*> at it is even now, in 
spite of modern air services, but a dream. For a Mogul 
monarch to I raver so that distance at the leisurely pace of an 
elephant and with all his wealth and person and harem exposed 
to hostile attacks, for thc dubious pleasure or spending a few 
cool hours in Nishat and Shalimar, once in a life-time, was silly 
In the extreme. 


The u»mc argument applies to what is called ih e sh v 
Cfcasma meaning ihe royal fount. That fount had been pat ro ' 
rtd by l he Hindu roj-itiy or Kashmir through the ages, wl 
itt Urdu name "Sh-ihi Chasma" is a mere translation of?' 
old Sanikrit name* Raj Niraar. 

The name of Kashmir's famous lake "Dal" is also of Sa 04 . 
faH origin. "Dal" means a learand signifies foliage. The float, 
inc. gardens in thai lake and its abounding lotus plants are 4 
permanent attraction which explains the name "Dal". 

The names of many other tracks in Kashmir are stilt 
Sanskrit, such as Sonmarg (meaning a golden path) and Gul- 
marg which was formerly Gau-imarg i.e. ihc path of Goddess 
Gauri, The name Chandanwadi is also purely Sanskrit. 

It will thus be Seta that in Kashmir there is hardly any 
trace of Muslim culture except in its population which was 
forcibly converted to Islam. 

Another place known as Zain Lanka in Wular Lake, was 
built by a king called Ravana whose name is found among 
Kashmir's pre- Muslim Hindu rulers. Since in the Ramayana 
Havana's capital was Lanka it was that Hindu King Ravana 
who built Ihc palace in the Wular lake and called it Lanka. 
Later when a Muslim ruler called Zainnldin made it his resi- 
dence the palace got associated with bis name. Our historians 
who, therefore, assert that Zainuddin built the Lanka palace in 
Wular lake are guilty of a gross error. 

This should suffice to convince all that a I] mediaeval monu* 
menu, such as any exist, in Kashmir were built by pre-Muslim 
»jpui rulers. If the Muslims had built them, they would 
ncv« have conjured up Sanskrit names for those monuments, 
lojeover, we would have also been able to lay our hands on 
document* concerning the construction uff :t-a monuments, in 
Aualim cou " f«°nl» Previous Rajput records were all burnt 
bythe Muslim mien in their fanatic wrath and also with a 
new to clam, ownership and authorship of the buildings tbem- 
In the absence or the necessary documents on cither 
i *c have to turn | frdmi evidence which is overwhelm- 
ing in favour of Hindu, R aj put authorship of all mediaeval 



buildings in India— be (bey mausoleums, tomb*, shrinci, 
mosques, fort* or palaces. 

To historian* who still fail to see the cogency and force of 
the above f actual evidence tad arguments I would suggest chat 
they better search their hearts and ascertain whether it is their 
professional fear of loss of face which is masquerading a* 
righteous scholarly indignation at the so-called absence of 
documentary evidence. They may themselves ponder on the 
fact whether their traditional claims in favour of this or that 
sultan* are based on documentary evidence. 

There is also no reason why we should express despair and 
helplessness in the absence of documentary evidence and the 
falsity of mediaeval chronicles. We never display such utter 
helplessness when wc have to investigate, say, a murder com- 
mitted without even a trace of apparent evidence- It it common 
day-to-day experience that such murders a;e ultimately brought 
home to the murderers on the basis of strong and irrefutable 
circumstantial evidence. This should prove that whenever we 
are faced wicli falsification, absence or destruction of documen- 
tary evidence we can arrive at indisputable conclusions with 
the help of circumstantial evidence. It is precisely because 
scholars of Indian history paid no heed to this very sound and 
well-tried method of judicial investigation that Indian media- history happens to be riddled with numerous Inconsisten- 
cies, contradictions, absurdities and enigmas. 

It is a pity that all those who wrote mediaeval Indian histo- 
ries failed to take notice of all the relevant tacts before 
jumping 10 their conclusions and raising monsters of myths 
which they and we all Snd difficult to gel off our chest. 

in Punjab there are the Piujorc Gardens falsely ascribed to 
the Moguls, Invaders don't lay gardens in victim countries* 


Generations of historians and through them people all the 
world over have been roundly fooled in believing for the last 
several centuries thai most of the mediaeval monument* in 
Delhi were built by its Muslim monarch*, They were Dot* All 
the monuments belong to the pre- Muslim era and were built by 






Even the tombs 
Pdfc, , p ,e.Mu«««m ^ io >hcUer ||ie gTam Qf Mas[inj 

nHueUtim* »™ n " nnV fottt Hindu placet and tcmp] ef 
ru)rf» and Win* " y 

<0W * ^^^mommrm t° mediaeval Muslim rukrs 
£T puided by hearsay or by bland statement 
522!tel5* St*- <* *■««■* Muslim dm. 

^T^Tbfp^ot buflgle "hich has struck deep root* j n 

, u ^ed by *M«W evidcocc we would bay* 
libe r 
^rcmment records *° d t « tbooks of h,St ° ry " 

a review of some prominent monument m Delhi should 
MBce »° cOBvince the reader that these buildings existed much 
hrfart ihe Muslim invasions started. In Tact the monuments 
ih.t h-ve survived to our own tunes arc but a fraction of the 
.mmense architectural wealth that existed in India when Muiiira 
wwioiu «mned. In fact the abundance of such palatial man- 
sion* and temples was itself one of the greatest atlractions to 
the iovider*. 


Old Alexander Cunningham (a retired militarv engineer) 
had cunningly suggested in his letter dated September 15, 1842 
10 Col. Syfcc* tin London) when Cunningham was a mere 28- 
>tar<nid Ikuienaot, that archaeology could be used as a subtle 
political and religious tool to perpetuate British rule over India 
■nd spread Christianity. That letter may be seen at page 246 
of Volume VII of the year 1843 in the Journal of the Royal 
Annie Society. London, 

^ fuller account may be bad in my HQOpagc book titled 
WORLD VEDIC HERITAGE in a special chapter tilled Anglo- 
Mrsban Archaeological Conspiracy 

t wii because of Cunningham's crofty suggestion that he was 
i Ihe first archaeological chief in India after his retirc- 

Tfrom.hcBrHu.h Indian army though he did not know a 
m an, architecture © r ancient Indian history, 
iw incapacity as the first archaeological chief that 
concocted archaeological records and put up 


ibam notices at historic monuments wantonly and randomly 
aaenbmg lowers, maosions, farts, lownthips. luket. canati e J 
to some Muslim ruler, courtier or fakir. 

Cunningham olio invented the myth that vinous Muslim 
rulera built seven cities of Delhi, Cunningham doesn't cite even 
an iota of evidence anywhere He didn't have to became he 
was ihc big boss or a newly let- up department meant to play 
havoc with Indian archaeology. 

Generations of scholars have since acquired high academic 
degrees and occupied high academic and governmental post- 
tionsand have been purveying Cunningham's cunning fabrica- 
tions. That is why all the so-called experts in Muslim or Mogul 
art and architecture in various Indian and oversea* universities, 
colleges and museums are all a misguided lot- Their heads are 
crammed with false tutoring. 

Cunningham transferred the entire Hindu architectuial 
credit to a nil Muslim account to spile the Hindus and elate 
the Muslims hoping thereby to create a bone of contention. 
which he hoped would perpetuate British role and white. 
Christian domination in India, 

Red Fort 

Lei us start our review with the Red Fort. Prithviraj Raso, 
a contemporary chronicle tells us that Prithviraj lived in a 
palace on the bank of the Yamuna river. Traditional accounts 
also tell us that Prithvijaj's palace was known as Lal-Kol i.e. 
a red-waited structure. The only building in Delhi which 
answers four-square to these two specifications is what is today 
known as the Red Fort, And yel the Mogul emperor Shahjahan 
is being wrongly given the credit of having built the Red Fort 
in Delhi - 

Taimurlang who invaded Delhi in 1398, that is nearly 250 
years before Shahjahan. refers to Old Delhi whose inhabitants 
be massacred. And yet Old Delhi is mentioned in our historic* 
as a city founded by Shahjahan. The Red Fori in Delhi is the 
very focal point of Old Delhi. In fact Old Delhi h built around 
the axial road—The Cbandm Chowk which joins the Red 
Fori with the building which is now known as the Fatcbpun 

26 WD,AN »«STO R |CAL ttHju^ 

Mo(a ™ e tat which w« tbeteaplc of I he hereditary <fciiy or 
S3! Hindu rulen. So evet, 400 years ^fore Shahjah aQ 0ld 

Chowk did exist. 

Tie Yamuna hank to the «« ° f * e ^ is known as R aj . 

.hmr That i< * Sanskrit word. It could not have stuck on unlet* 

ml generations of Rajas had occupied the Red Fort prior 

to StaMttU «*> h,s Muslim P redcccssors * No R "JM «*r 
^led from tbc Red Fort aftet Shahjahan. I he fifth general]^ 

MofiU J emperor. Had Shabjaban buiJt the fort, the bank stretch 

r the Yamuna at the rear would have been known as Badshab 

Ghat and not Rajghat, 

The Delhi gate of the fort has a pair of stone elephants out. 
side it. Islam strictly forbids the raising of any images while 
Rajput monarch* were known for their love of the elephant 

On either side of the fort archways are embossed stone- 
flower emblems which appear on all mediaeval Hindu buildings. 

Running water channels, through which Yamuna water 
coursed its way throughout the fort, again suggest Rajput 
contuuetion because Muslims with a desert tradition could 
never have thought of running-water channels. 

The Sbravan and Bhado pavilions and the Kesar Kund in, 
the Diwan-i-Khas are again all Hindu terms. 

The Diwan-i-Khas and the Diwan-i-Am do not have a 
single dome or minaret which the Muslims are believed to 
insist on. The marble balcony in which the ruler used to sit in 
the Diwao-i-Am has a temple type ceiling with stalactite style 
ends nicking out obliquely. The Diwan i-Khas has a striking 
similarity with the royal apart ment inside Ambar (old Jaipu > 
buili by the Rajputs in pre- Muslim times. 

Everyone of the Mogul rulers had a harem of 5,000 women 
as mentioned in memoirs and chronicles. AH of them, the ru 
hinuclf and his miny children could by no stretch of in>»8 |Qa * 
lion be accommodated in the two-three rooms that compn 
the Diwin-i Kbaa. 

A maiblc grill wall near the Diwan-i-KMs display* * 
balance motif symbolic of royal justice. The Mogul rulers wh 



regarded 99 per cent of their subjects as mere vermin could 
never think of Haunting that symbol of justice in (heir palace. 
But (he Rajput rulers advised by their Brahman councillor! did 
ccrlninly have the dispensation of justice as one of their 
primary functions constantly impressed on ihcm through the 
scales motif. 

The Diwjn-i-Khas and the Di wan-i- Am have a mandap 
style ornate Hindu workmanship. Besides, the Diwan-i-Khas 
bears a close resemblance to the interior palace in Ambar (Old 
Jaipur) built around 984 A.D. 

A Persian couplet inlaid on a wall of the Diwaa-i-Khas 
proclaims the place as a veritable "Heaven on Earth'. Such a 
boast can only emanate from a captor. Had Shahjahan been 
the original builder of the fort he would never have described 
the building in such superlative iernu» The original builder is 
often very modest about his construction. Moreover a builder 
is more conscious of the building's defects to ever think of call- 
ing it a veritable "Heaven on Earth', 

Another important psychological principle also applies in 
this case- A person calls bis building a shewk or a cottage rather 
than a paradise. It is also worthwhile considering thai no 
matter how beautiful a wife a man may have he would never 
shout aboul her beauty from the road square or housetops. 
Similarly a person who toits and spends money to build a 
building is not the one who boasts about it. On ihc other band 
neighbours or strangers who have an evil eye on a building or 
a woman, arc ihe ones who praise ihe physical beauty of those 
attractions. We have on actual instance from mediaeval history. 
Padmini, the queen ofChkor fort is famed for her physical 
allure. There could have been hundreds or women its beautiful 
as her in India's Kshatriya households ♦ But histories have been 
silent regarding *hcir physical beauty precisely because such 
beauty was never bragged about at least in India in public. But 
Padmini'* physical beauty came lo be talked aboul only because 
thenliei] invader AUauddin Khilji was so enamoured of her 
that he moved heaven and bell to capture her* This should 
convince visitors to tbc Red Fort, and historians that the brmg* 
gtng Persian couplet in the Diwan-i Khas is yet another very 


•Mupocifituifrfac couplet was inlaid by the cap ter , , 
for, who, dialed by the ornate beauty of the monumcm I 1 * 
came to them « w * r boot yt characterized It si . J . ,fl *i 
paradise. Cri, ' b ^ 

Emerging from the Red Fori we see i hat the two 
shrines, onlyatwu'i threw from the fort, arc both^"' 
Muslim, One if the red Jain Temple and the other the fi °^ 
Shwrtar Temple, Had Sbabjahan built the Red Fori he woiT 
never hive allowed the two non-Islamrc shrines to remain \ht 
These two temple* are there because the fort was const™ -/a 
by the Rajpufi several centuries before Sbahiahan. 

Cbandni Chowk, the main thoroughfare stemming from the 
fort it almost exclusively inhabited by Hindus, Had the 
Moguls built the fort we should have seen Turks, Afghani 
Persian*. Arabs. Abyss in tans and Hindu converts settled in 
Chiudm Chowk 

The whole of Old Delhi has a teeming and over-whelming 
Hindu population. In its complicated, winding alleys all their 
homes too ire built in the traditional Hindu style. To maintain 
that a cruel despot lite Shahjahin built houses Tor Hindus and 
fortifed the whole city with a massive wall is absurd. Ai 
TaimurUng't autobiography testifies Old Delhi existed centu- 
ries before Shahjahan, 

*iaia*i such overwhelming proof one or two out of 
.utroui widely differing spurious versions of the Memoirs of 

?«I J r ; CO0 ' flfn * pnssin S reference to some fort and some 
«*u funded by Shahjahan historians must at once spot the 
Ck " D t0 *» unfounded and dishonest. 

Thr^t^t MUStij3 ; Chr0DiclM m * ck of «" Arabia Nighli. 
CL1 ' " 4rC r ! ,ry IalM bt ™ J «* «> humour the sover^ 

w Meovats oTnZbS? "** 0uredvc& iarovise impromptu 
*** to younjj tT*« pa,acc " vhn ™ounli«g bedtime 
***«* .lohftDcSaJr ,lh hi8torian ' Sir H.M. Elliot 
■•""•I <M» ibe mi ,- ^tedly pointed out while com- 
««™oin contained .« Muslim monarchs that those 

■»»lhta| that the monarch or the .fawning 


, bc fanccd he ought to ^££** medial 7*0* 

the Muslim era m maw 

frauo " Delhi ' s numerous 

A strange thing to be ajw* ma ^ and mauso- 

m onumeuts is that *«^3£. Wc have the Humayuu 

Teuma without corresponding *£*%&** Tomb. Lodi Tomb. 

W^SFSftw 5ph BakhUar Krti 

AHauddm Kh. Iji T°» hoft of olhcrs . 

Tomb. N^muddm Tom ..^ was 

al ways nttcPded ^ ^ y J CODC eivable that the successor 
Under such circumstances is «i cv predecessor 

would ever build ^g^tSJ& K ** could it 
after th.rsnng for the fo me^ ^s ^ hjs ^^ 

£ Sl'SSSw ^ P "aS tomb built for his prcdeces- 
dU ^iIun had a palatial tomb built for himself after 
2*5 IZcJZs ? Was there some sort of a tomb-buUd- 
^£ES I A ruling monarch will build hundreds 
of palaces for himself and his children before be ever thinks of 
building a palatial tomb for a dead ancestor. Both these con- 
siderations should convince any serious student of history that 
there arc ever so many tombs without corresponding palaces 
because the Muslim monarchs built neither tombs nor palaces. 

The alien Muslim nobility and ruling families found a 
plethora of Hindu captured buildings which were used as resi- 
dences while alive and tombs after death. This also explains 
why the bodies of Ailauddin Khilji and Iltmush have been un- 
ceremoniously tucked away in some outer apartments of the so- 
called Kutub Minar building complex. Ancient Hindu sites 
connoting of captured pateccs, temples and mansions were 
freely used to bouse the living and the dead. That is why we 
find them ornate temple-like structures and spacious palatial 
buildings, This leads to another of my historical findings which 
should- serve as a key to the study of Indian mediaeval history, 
that what is believed to be the tomb of a Muslim ruler or 

»Btatf« th , Kutub Minar fi known u 

^ *«* ^""J v0fd Mihira-twtli. It sigtiifiw 

HdwiJi iW^'JrSi tua«rt w^nomcr Mihin of 

Bl aD d w»^7; ^icil itudy. Around ihe tower 
"TSaSw itoJTcowwlWio" of ibe Hindu 

*L ,ned the so-culled Kutub tower s< 

VlUl ri4M'l«* P ' ju 


KMMb bti left « « *»•*■ lhat hc d ' s,r ^ 
twffloai Bwfcc tai«*«M that he raised any lower, 
lit emprf wcipk wi KMmed w Kuwat*ul-bJam mosque. 

pi^a diilodicd from ihe so-caJJed Kutub Mioar have 
Hindu imps ra «« wd& wiih Arabic IcUcring on [he other 
Ttaffiootibm oowbeen remold to the Museum. They 
dark star tint Mnilira invaders used lo remove the stone- 
drain oTHukIii buildnff, turn the stones inside out to hide 
ik imift ficui iad ioicribc Arabic lettering on the new 


tiofSMsfrfii ifticrip«Joii* cao lt j|! be deciphered m the 
J-"- pta «d wall,. Numerous image, still 

Tic loicr ii 

he* ■"•-■ - 

ia for Kutubuddin to 

'JW^IBffOUndlllgittBCtui^ It is 

«■* cue iwipto tf0nDd 

""•ktoiWta .- Plane 8urf ***- Those 
"* n "» Hied to go to the top aod 


try to ihout to ihe people below- Had they done so they would 
ttave found out for themselves that no one on the ground can 
hear them from that height. Such absurd claims have been 
made to justify Muslim authorship of earlier Hindu buildings. 

Another important consideration is that the entrance to the 
tower faces north and not the west as is enjoined by Islamic 
theology and practice. 

At either side or the entrance is the stone lotus flower 
emblem which also proves thai it was a Hindu building- The 
stone flowers are a very important sign of ihe Hindu authorship 
of mediaeval buildings. Muslims never use such flowers on the 
buildings they construct. 

The frieze patterns on the tower show ligrvs of tampering. 
ending abruptly or in a medley of incongment lines. The 
Arabic lettering is interspersed with Hindu tnoiifs like lotus 
buds banging limp. Sir Sayyad Ahmad Khan, a staunch Muslim 
and a scholar, has admitted that the tower is a Hindu budding. 

If one were to hoover in an aeroplane over the top of the 
tower the various galleries sliding into each other from top to 
bottom appear like a 24-pctal lotus in full bloom. The figure 
24 being a multiple of B is sacred in vedic tradition* Even the 
brick red colour of the tower is sacred to the Hindus. 

The Hindu title of the lower was Vishnu Dhwaj (l.e, 
Vishnu's standard) alias Vishnu Stambb alia* Dhruv Sttimbh 
(i.e. a polar pitlar) obviously connoting an astronomical obser- 
vation tower. The Sanskrit inscription in brahmi script on the 
non-rusting iron pillar close by proclaims lhat the lofty stan- 
di) rd of Vishnu was raised on the hillock named Vishnup&d 
Girl, Thai description indicates that n statue of the reclining 
Vishnu initiating the creation was consecrated in the central 
shrine there which was ravaged by Mohamed Ghoriand his 
henchman Kutubuddin, The pillar was raised at the command 
of an ancient Hindu king who had made great conquests in the 
East and the West- 

The lower had seven storeys representing the day* of the 
week of those only live exist now. The sixth wat dismantled, 
hauled down and re-ercctcd on the lawns closeby. 




n* seventh tlMey had ^mtlr a statue or th* r our , 

■mk-i boUmi ibe Ved»f Md banning ihe creation, A Z** 

^ /.kite *" b " c * nc ™ with gold ben ***« 

IL by Konocfait Muslims who detested the Brahma « '7 
■Pk Mmliff raiders also destroyed the reclining V ,sh nu lmtgt 

■I i be boiioffl' 

The Iron piuar was the Garud Dhwaj alias Garud St ambh 
„ U* sentinel post of the Vishnu temple. 

Go one side was an elliptical enclave formed by 27 Naksh a i r „ 
{MV»iUti0B> temple*. A gigantic red stone, ornate gateway 
(ed to the sacred enclave known as Nakshatralaya. Therefore 
iho ratcway if traditionally known as Alaya-Dwar. 

Cunningham twists the traditional Hindu name to fraudu- 
lently ascribe the great doorway to Sultan Allauddin though 
Allauddin himself makes no such claim. 

By 'Allauddin's nme ihe surroundings were totally crum- 
bling rums Why would Allauddin want to raise an ornaie 
gigantic gateway of the- Hindu orange colour) leading from 
nowhere to nowhere 7 

The theory propounded by interested Muslims thai it is a 
mua»in's tower is a motivated lie. No muazzin would even 
for a day accept a job where he has to climb and unclimb five 
timet a day a flight of 365 narrowing, curving steps in the dark 
confine* of ihe lower. He is bound to fall and die through 
sheer exhaustion. 

The arched gale way of the adjoining so-called Kuwat-uJ» 
Hlam mosque is in no way different from the ornate archways 
of lemplei in Gujarat. The frieze patterns on this building too 
ah©* signs of tampering proving that Muslim conquerors trans- 
posed noon at random to ease their conscience in readying 
tarlrtr temples for use ai mosques, 

r faeio*ct girth is made up of exactly 24 folds, arcs and 

Wangles alternating. This shows that the figure 24 had a 

aimcuce and significance iu the premises. The 

J* kning l0 | l|hl are 27 Coosidefed aUmg witb W e 

on pavilions mentioned earlier it leaves no doubt 

thai I be tower too was 

an astronomical observation pole. 

to Arabic the term 'Kutub Mmar' signifies an astronomical 

v -r « That w» how it was described to Sultan 
tl»^>^£££Z to in court correspondence. In 
Kuliibuddio. and to 1 "™ Kuiubuddm came to be un- 

«««^^^^i^b Tower leading to the mis.* ^fj^ ubuddin *,., the Kutub Minar. 
leading a.sert.oo that Kutu h0fBb0Bld „ faatend 

!,«. strip, have been used to keep the n g ^ 

togfil herinthe .onttacuo ^^^ ln my ^ JQ 
„«„ used in «he stone wall. ^JJ -t m knglb 

AI*,/ was * MP" **" ' dproved that it c*Uted during 
wi ,h the origin of »>» r "J and *«"£ im |hc use of ;tQD 
pre .Muslim times. ^^\£ ^ taiU b,i, was a Hindu 

Sf - *™ d vice u d X LcXd Kutub Minarin Delhi 
rfgwee. That device usee i MlIilim Hindu tower. 

i^^^ t wU1 formm 

^fonhrpattern 'Lotus pattern is never Muslim. 
N ,»muddinTomb Niamu ddin is in 

there after his death. 

Around the shrine can be noticed innumerable other pm. 
Hooi walls, graves, bastiom, towers, plinths etc. whfch g ito 
l7ove that k was once- a P a*p«ou. township which was 
formed and captured. Muslim fakirs happened to occupy such 
doited sites. They were Inter buried where they stayed 
T^SSpto«.of Muril. fakirs are, therefore, not original 
constructions but earlier captured Rajput buildings. 

Hutnayun Tomb 

The so-called Humaynu Tomb in New Delhi was the focal 
point of a vast township, described above. It was the Likthmi 
Temple of that township. Even to this day it forms part of 
what is called the Jaipur estate in New Delhi. What is today 
known as the Arab-ki-Serai formed the huge massive defensive 
structure around the so-called HumayunTomb- Humayun used 
to live there. When he fell down the stain of the so-called 
Sher Mandal in Purana Qila he was carried to this captured 


ill until he dsed. And as wai the 


*«M iQ 

mIicc that he tsy 

JoaTdirt be was bund in the palace in which he lived. 
Whai'« believed to be HuToayun Tomb is rn fact a *p Bciou| 
MUlsmd Temple of Goddess Lalabmi vm h hm % 

fl 7r«xoui licemjpi. a row of ornamental archway , eodi ^ 

Id willi around it. Several Western scholars have pointed 0u , 

th ttt is a close architectural similarity between the 

Hnmsvun tomb and the Taj Mahal in Agra- In my book Tot 

AiahJ*** * **»' ™ flC ' ' hflW pf0VCd thaC the Ta J M ^at 
fiffromheioiiinongioii Muslim mausoleum rthaneurlie, 

Hindu Temple Palace Likawiie what is believed to be (he 

Humayun tomb i* also ao Hindu temple palace. 

Notice ibe numerous Shakti Chakra (David's Star) Hindu 

taotric design that adorn its top facade $ 

To can »t Humayun's tomb is a big hoax since Humayun 
not at all juried in that building. According to Abul Fazal 
Humayun lies buried in Sirhind while accord ng to Farishia 
Humayun if buried in Agra. 

Moreover there is no grave at the ground level in the base- 
tacul of Lhc building. In the first floor overhead there is a 
simple marble cenotaph but Humayun's name is not inscribed 
on it 

Comrarily a French writer G. Le Bon has in his book titled 
The World of Ancient India, published a photo of marble 
footprint! found in the building. He describes them as Vishnu'i 
footprints. That confirms our finding that what is believed to 
be Humayun" j mausoleum ii id fact Lakshmi's temple since 
Laknhnu is the tpouie or Lord Vishnu, 

Yci Cunningham has put up a fake archaeological notice at 
that building crediting its creation to some non-dcscnpi Beg* 
Begum, a childless widow inmate of Humayun's teaming harem 
of 5000 women. How could a Bega Begum who had no roof 
om hw head during her own lifetime be the author of such a 
stupendous edifice ? And why would she adorn the building 
with the sacred Hindu tautrik sign of interlocked triangles ? 



Why has the building hundred! of room* in it* numerous 
storeys ? Why arc lhc roomi and the terraces cluttered wife 
lhc graves or ordinary folk if it was built for the rater 7 Uhy 
lui il three defensive walk, stately gateway* acid nancies* 
outhouse* eic, ? 

The entire temple-palace hat a huge basement with a ceiling 
tiigh enough io accommodates mounted elephant The pusillani- 
mous Archaeology department hat never cared to clean, light 
up and explore such dark recesses galore In hundreds of historic 
monuments throughout India. 


The area in which the Nizamuddin shrine and Humayun 
Tomb arc located si known as Kilokn. This word signifies a 
Jocality which got its "keel" thai is the central iron pillar up* 
rooted. Obviously the reference is to the day when the ceremo- 
nial iron pillar, which according to ancient dislom was con- 
secrated in the centre of Hindu ipwnships, got uprooted when 
the township w*s stormed by the invading Muslim armies. 

Humayun's son Akbar was not even 14 years old when hit 
father died, Akbar was faced with the overwhelming might of 
a number of very powerful enemies including bis own guardian 
fiehram Khan and a sworn adversary He mil. Throughout bit 
Jifc Akbar waged incessant warfare with Indian princes. He 
was also faced with revolts by his own noblemen and kinsmen 
all his life, Vincent Smith has observed id his book Akbar the 
Creai Mogul that Akbar had one revolt or the other always on 
hand. It ii absurd to think (hat 13*ycar-old Akbar would ever 
raise a stupendous monument for his father in the midst of 
incessant wars. 

Some chroniclers have dishonestly claimed that it was 
Akbar's foster mother, a childless widow or Humayun who 
built the monument for her husband. This claim must be sub- 
jected to a close cross-examination. A childless widow of a 
deceased monarch, illiterate and keeping herself within the 
impenetrable confines of a borqa, one among a teeming lot of 
5,000 used to be in a slate or extreme penury herself. Such 
women considered themselves fort unite if they got two square 

; at. com 

3* »»»"*«***. u^ 

SSlelWlof-rfl fo; their daily hairdo. Even th^ ■ 
Zj^,*, » C re hard to come by in thoce turbulent XT! y 
Aibirhimwir w« » desperately short of funds 
».« Kr iiked h« treasurer for R». 18 the latter di< 

r*u y 


nriet *c« hard to come by id tboec t 
Attar hi row) f *" so desperately short of funos 
vbCT) bc „Ud I* treasurer for Rs. 18 the latter did not ha*, 

ero, thil |*IW »» 0UDI - To consid " that Akbar « hi- fbft er 
mother raised a I»talW mausoleum for Humayun s <j ead w 
,, rsdiculoui in the extreme, 

SafdarjanE Tomh 

S*fdiijao£ tomb ll supposed to have been built over* 
nttbkman who was the prime minister of the Nawab of Oudh, 
Thii claim too can out stand close scrutiny. 

fjruly hlfiorians arc divided on the point whether the 
mausoleum mU built io 1753 or 1754. This sharp divergence 
ii due id the fact that both the groups are on a completely 
vraof trail. That building was extant numerous centuriei 

ore Safdarjang's death. Moreover it is not a building which 
could be constructed within a year. 

Just above the entrance to the building is a beautiful Rajput 
itjle wdiIo* witlia narrow ornate balcony of the type which 
am be «een la their hundreds in castles and palaces io Rajas- 
thin. The square building style is completely of Rajput design- 
Tue edifice is alio enclosed by a protective wail, having bastions 
■i coram and watch towers at intervals. All these attributes 
prove that it was a mansion used as a residence, 

Another point to be considered is that Safdarjang had been 

duiraocd and dismissed from icrvicc prior to his death. Who 

will build a palatial tomb for an unemployed nobleman ? Why 

of all ptacu dots bii palatial monument exist in Delhi if he 

was prime minister m Oudh ? If his dead body can boast of 

amatnificcui resting place how mucb more lavish should 

cpata* in which Sardarjang should have stayed while 

Hil* Where n that palace 7 No body can show, 

mJ.' ^! UllUr * % to bt MsunMd thal Safdarjang's son or heir 
£' i 2??*« magnificent tomb for the deceased. 

^l^ , r7ott Uld ? etV * ry * fflu *«"l*»^ Hc.IWH.ia 
«" of other palaces of hii own in Delhi to be rich 




enough lo order n palace Tor * dead body Hut we ire thown 
no palace belonging to Safdnrj>tn|t or his son. How it it vhen 
that one who did not have any palace to live In while alive got 
one, a* if by magic, on hi* death 7 

Morcver there 11 no grave as lucb m the basement* There 
areonty two mound* of looic rcd-brlck powder which gel* 
blown away and which the archaeology department keep* reple- 
nishing fraudulently to maintain n prctticc of the burial The 
other mound is supposed io be for Said urjang's wife. Hut winch 
wife * f Since he had tin harem full of con so cu And I hen If 
there are two grave mounds, io the basement how come there il 
only one marble cenotaph on the first door ? Even that cenotaph 
liai no name inscribed on it That marble loo was pilfered 
from another Hindu mansion falsely labelled aa Abdur Rahtm 
Khan Khana's (omb ? Safdarjang was buried at Paparghat id 
Uttar Pradesh, Therefore hii tomb in Delhi is an hoax. 

So-Catllcd Shcr Mandal 

What ii called Shcr Mandal inside Parana Qila is B Yin all 
circular tower with ■ few narrow rooms. The very word 
"Mandat" shows that it was the creation of the Rajputs. Sher 
Shah appropriated it through conquest But only because hii 
name attaches to it blundering Western scholars attribute this 
small isolated, truncated tower to Shcr Shah Indian historians 
have not been able to get rid of that myth. In the case of Shcr 
Mandal more imparlance should attach to the word 'Mandat' 
than io 'Shcr' became it Is too puny a structure for any ruler 
to boast about Secondly, the fanatic mediaeval Muslim rulen 
would never choose a Sanskrit name to describe their owti 
original construction. Thirdly, the very term 'Maadalft* signifies 
its round shape indicating that those who designed and order- 
ed this structure were those nurtured in the Sanskrit tradition 
and thai it is the truncated lower of an erstwhile pjlace 


Tughlaqabad is a massive, battlcmented walled township, 
in Del In* Inside it can be seen burnt and ruinod tenements, 
underground passages, towers and bastions rated to the 
ground. The Tughlaks made this captured township their head- 
quarters. Being associated with their name for centuries 

* ^**C|| 

. rt -^ miitifccnly beli«« m* archaeological *i^ b 
1 ^milv «*cr. that Ihc .ownsh.p was founded £* 
!T* « , M £•> tc t* rcaliwd thai conquerors do act *J£* 
TUf « ? \i3 \m ro teid 11 over and exploit * lMia ** 
l£2k " Mor««rd».,o,cr, «.o.. build.,,.' J£* 

Tin. -i * curious pyramidal structure. Towards llt 

^iuceo*^^ b y««3' lament., 

£ pwviof thai Atf buiidmg was converted into a io rob 

«d w not orlsiwilly *"»» for llK |. l» r PO«; h once formed 
„ of the extensive Taghlaqabad township though it no* 
land* apart as a truncated monument This tomb too is iUr . 
rounded by a hichhatitemcnted wall- inside are some pavihoiu, 
lT] d an underground passage, all leading 10 the conclusion that 
ihe tomb was a super imposition. 

The fortification* nearby known as Adilabad and Naika Kot 
are alio ancient Hicdu forts laid waste by Muslim marauders. 

Feroabib Kotli 

Near the sports stadium infront of Delhi Gate is an old 
fortified township known as the Ferowhah Kotla. From its 
name it hat been wrongly atsuiued that Ferozshah Tughlaq 
bull it for his own can It. But an Asbok pillar is firmly plant- 
erf oa its upper storey. Ferozsbah was known Tor bis ferocious 
nature He could not tolerate anything Hindu. History has 
recorded that be wed to bum people alive for the crime of idol- 
worship To believe lh*t sjch a ruler would on his own hoist 
an Athok pillar, with Hindu religious edicts inscribed on it* oa 
feu own palace is highly illogical. Femzshah could never have 
■one to sleep in peace under il In fact the chipped off tip of 
the pillar shows thai in bis fanatic fury Fcrotskah must hive 
tried 10 pall out the pillar. But obvic"«l*> it would have des- 
troyed the whole castle and left a gaping hoic in :U ceiling* 
^\y he had to put up with this L^then P»" ar toweriBf 
the palace which be found fit enough to take tof hi* «* 

kc during thro day* of instability, revolt and incessant 

n* ! *Sf ul accott0t of Ws «*P ^ *>«« win» b V sbAm * l ~ 
»HI AW. a sycophant, ietf-appointcd chronicler who confe- 



sci that it was his grandfather who w«i the contemporary of 
Fcrozshah. As ntl rumour-mongers arc wont to do, the only 
aut hori He* he feigns |o quote for the fanciful and coloured 
account that he has mitten are such stock*phr*ces as "My 
father told me" or "on tbe authority of well known historians 
1 fay..." In that chronicle hi nostalgically describes how 
Ferazahah uprooted two Aahokati pillars found a great distance 
away from Delhi, and took all the trouble to transport them 
all the way to Delhi ^ploying hundred* of carts and thousand! 
of labourer*. What the object was in hauling a heathen pillar 
to be hoisted on I us own castle in Delhi God alone knows. 
Obviously that account is an attempt to cover up the fact that 
FcroEshah bad to choose as hti residence an earlier building 
which sported the Ashok pillar on it. It is clear, therefore, that 
cither King v ihok himself originally built the castle euphemis- 
tically railed Ferozsbah Kot la, or thai some subsequent Ksha- 
tnya king proud of Ashok, had that pillar brought and hoisted 
o«r hit wn castle. Later when Feroishah ruled in Delhi he 
chose tha .-astlc for hts own residence perhaps finding it in 
much bettei shape than other) in those turbulent days. His 
chronicler Afif finding it difficult to explain away the fact that 
Feroishah lived in a usurped mansion invented the myth that 
it was Ferosshah himself who had the pillar brought and 

Rajput Glories Plagiarized 

M) discoveries also lead to the conclusion that many a time 
while destroying earlier Rajput iccords Muslim raters had the 
former's glories tacked to their own reigns. Thus it is pocaible 
that during Ferozshah's time some description by an earlier 
Rajput ruler as to bow he hauled the Ashokan pillar may have 
fallen into the hands of Ferozsbab wjth the castle and its trea- 
sures. That description was plagiarized and used as part of 
Fcrcuhah's own achievement. Jahaagir similarly u>ed the myth 
'be belt of ju*l>ce (o glorify his own regit 1 ", bottomed from 
the accounts of AnangpaTs reign, as ** -*ed by the late Sir 
H M. Elliot . This leads us to a new kfi} pru npk to be boroe 
in mind while studying the history of ibe Muslim era- Tbe 
principle it that Muslim rulers «trc m the habit of feathering 


i h df o»i> unpopular »nd Cfucl Winm by b0f 



"^""^or fthuiruj anomalies which have escaped hiii* 
M rS£55»»»lheLo* Tombs In Delhi. Nobody 
rl,M k, bothered to ask bow massive tombs ejlilt fof 
k^ 1 ' ,0 ,"! w j, h oui corresponding luxurious and 5paciQu 

■fTto At «**« <** rU,Cfl ? t H8d bi8t0riai " ■* 

r T?j ni i,i. pauicd lopof* to themselves that question the 

'2^ia would h»ve .truck .hem. The right solution u 
STIlIeiUilled tombs are old Rajput buildings later convert- 
ed into te pulcbret- 

RtMbftQ Af » Trnat 

Awtbcr instance is that of the Rosbanara Tomb in Delhi, 
B * cursory look will convince one that ir was a Rajput 
manstoDcomraundcrredbyAurangzebto bury his dead sister 
hi. tti artistically carved pillars and wide open pavilions devoid 
of iny domes or niureii. are very revealing. In this cojiocc* 
una hnmpeb'% peculiar character must also be borne in 
suae. Hf was very parsimonious and hard-hearted. He incar- 
qrrtted hit father, usurped the throne and treacherously 
murdered his brothers. His behaviour towards the Hindus was 
the most cruel- Such * monarch could never have constructed 
s Hindu style structure as i tomb for bis sister and, therefore, 
the Roihsmra tomb is a Rajput pavilion converted into a 

■lafflii Toorii is 

todioa or foreign tourists who visit historic sites around the 

"*ualiy lake a fleeting, hurried glance at a few well 

pub Dttdasowimraia such as the Taj Mahal in Agfa, the 

d!T '^ ub,To *« ™ Delhi. St Paul's in London or Notre 

6^!^Z m t0 ** * bl < t0 claim i0 P° litc competitive 

<w ^co ujabrh, m ^ nin w eVenlf,hcy «e dished out lome 
lembo aboui &, origin of those monument 

inn ian mowdmowts ca Borneo to xuem Muslims 


Therefore I hey gel what they deserve namely they ace fed 
some fictitious stereotype abroeadabto- 

Uoth the licenced guides and native historian* arc to blame 
for dulnng out traditional unverified lies about hiuorie monu- 
ments Native politics compels local historians to adopt a 
particular stance. For in nance Christian compulsions prevent 
hlitorlana in London and Paris from delving into or revealing 
the pre-Christian origin of St- Paul's or Notre Dame. 

The AI'Hambra and the so called Cardova mosque in Spain 
are being somnolently attributed to tbt Muslim Moors. 

The Dome on the Rock and A I Aqsa in Jerusalem are being 
paraded a* Muslim mosques when they ore captured pre*I*lamic 

In Russia the Shah-i-iiod and another palatial building are 
being misrepresented as majestic mausoleums of Muslim 

All those are spurious, hearsay claims which stress the need 
for rewriting, and a thorough revision and overhauling of world 

So when people seek my advice on what to see at historic 
places I tell them not to be content with routine hurried visits 
to select haunts but to wonder at leisure to historic surround- 
ings and aspire to look into every nook and corner of historic 
sites from ihc pinnacle on the high dome to the nelhermost 
chambers and secret passages. 

Usually one finds most of the vast expanse of historic build- 
ings locked and barred and yet the visitor doesn't smell a rat. 

Tourists of the world may contribute a fund and agitate lo 
secure entry tc barred chambers and recesses For instance the 
Tej Mahal is a isven-storyed building complex, il also has 
molii-storicd minarets at its four corners, the Vishnu tower 
(K 11 tub) in Delhi is five*storicd and yet cutty to ill interior it 
denied. This is an insult lo the living and to the great minds 
which raised those stupendous edifices, 

Historic cities alt over the world are hundreds and thou- 
sands of years ancient and yet the historic edifices in ihem are 




credited 10 supe r * d ' a < 

faitbi such 

■« l»lftnj lft4 

T^w^Hiodo (2) Every hmone ed.fice mod taw n>h 

£2J?i!-h- ■ cap,ured property P* ,n medi4 ^ 

—n Muiliffl d«troyer hi* been ironically landed as « 
buiW«<*)At til h«»»ork lire* the construction is lA 
Bi«d- ■«» destruction •« Muslim. 

Tic same conclusions would apply mutatis mui&ndit to 
ed^ Ktnbuted to Cbrhtianity fa Europe^ Neo-convert 
amtitM captured ill pre-Christian edifices and declared them 
co be Chmuan For instance the Vatican in Rome and the scat 
of uk Archbishop in Canterbury (England) arc pre-Christian 
essabltshaeaij And yet who cares to know the troth or who 
darts tell it Thais the sordid state of history all over the 

Rome, Plril, Varans*!. Ujjayini alias Avanti, Delhi and 
Agra are tamed ibe oldest cities of the world. Therefore those 
who woold *ani to hive a glimpse of (he 4000-year historic 
panoraEi of Delhi may visit Sultan Gharry, Sharnsi Tatao and 
Ik adjacent nuoiico, . Vijnv Mandal, Begumpura, Hauz Khas. 
Siri ton ruin* near Aiiad village and the vast ravaged area 
around tbe uncalled KuLub (Vjihnu) tower. Humayun tomb, 
Arab Ki Seraj Abdur Rahim Khan Khanas tomb, Jiafdarjang 
Wab, tndi toobi. Feroubafa Kotla, Nizamuddio's tomb, the 
Purana Qila etc. 

Tbe tuao lifted abort are only a select few. Delhi »* 

led «itb inch ruiai within a radius of about 30 miles. Many 

w*« been bfoited out of eijuenee. For initancn the tene- 

for sportsmen participating in the Asian Games 

bulldozing * huge area of Sir. Fort ruins. When 

***** **«£d tbe tite for building the Viceregal 

«<Ki%r*ih7 f? ^ al "' ehj »oiber and other edifices 

eatilei, palaces, citadels and man- 
**»*» along Eh 


«ok of ibe Yamuna river have a 



*ere « number of Hindu 

palaces (n those open apaces. Ther; swi iljp two molt*, 
storey ed mansions flanking tbe so-called Divan-i-Am. No* a 
trace of them earns today. Therefore the Red Fort ia Daflu 
that ok vets today is a pale shadow of III origmal Hindu 
splendour. Muslim invader* plundered and ravaged ibe fort 
during their 600 yearlong misrule and internecine warfare 

If inch was the devastation inflicted on the Red Fort alone 
one may visuals bo* the sprawling metropolis of Hindu 
Delhi must have been systematically deamated by MusUm 
marauders- Instead of indicting and glorying Muslim rulers, 
courtier* and aenerab for such ravage current histories eoamo- 
lously sing the praises of Muslim architecture People don i 
realize that e^en the surviving historical monuments wwen a,e 
being blunderingly described as Muslim tombs. »os^ei. 
forts, minarets and towers tbrougboui Delhi and shronihout 
India, are all captured Hindu edifices, including tanks, bridges, 
canals and mansions. If was Alexander Cunningham »bo mss- 
chievomly stuck fake Muslim labels on them. Therefore the 
names of monuments in Delhi mentioned above are all rates 
foisted by eiiher the Muslim rulers or by the cunning Cunning- 
ham Visitors should therefore view and study all historic 
monuments attributed to Muslims as captured Hindu immov- 
able property. 

Legal Action 

The above conclusions are so firm and irrefutable that ihcy 
can stand Judicial scrutiny. Hereunder are a few instances. 

It so happened that around 1963-64 one of my articles 
published in some Gujarati papers claimed that ill « 
Ahmedabad's 1000 mosques were 1000 captured temples and 
the main Bbadrakali temple was being misused by Muslims as 
their Jama Masjid. 

Soon thereafter, as chance would have it a rich hoskiy 
firm (M/i K.C Bros.) demolished its decades old buiWing and 
built a towering mansion. 

Since Muslims are tutored to find every excuse lo pick op a 
quarrel with the Hindus. The Moalirn trainee* of the so-called 
Jama Masjid filed a suit in a local court of law demanding that 


. - k. A.rtcted to demons ,hci ' «WMion which h „ . 

T^w*. quite • . oovcJ. a^«rd of and uoabashcd p| 

SJw* «< be sorter than lh , , ' 
n,Zc. S ito M«limi everywhere are . law unio them. 
«]«* Tbdf nurture trams ihem Id be on a perpetual prow] 
ud icep up a continooat growl to temfy everybody and f oroe 
every BOB-Muilim to declare himself a Musi, m that is how 
Islam wis spread. 

Thr KG Bros, firm was worried. Its old owner approached 
bis friends and relations for advice. Some of them who wc f0 
writ-read informed him that they had read an article claiming 
that every historic edifice in Ahmedabad was a captured Hindu 
mansion and that tht so-called Jama Masjid was the Bhadra- 
kali temple dedicated to the guardian deity of the historic town- 
ship Rajnigar alias Asawal alias Karnavati which on capture 
by Abmedshab w« named as Ahmedabad. 

On further effort they ascertained the writer's name as P.N, 
Oil ind found out my address. The owner of the firm thee 
wroic a pathetic letter describing his anguish and shock at (he 
Muilim demand and requesting me to help him tide over the 
pndicamsat by my historical acumen. 

I immediately wrote back telling the old men that the 

matter which hod caused him great gloom was to me an occa- 

m for great jhx since j was ii cn jng to prove my finding in a 

*Wrt of law that no historic edifice or township throughout the 

I »i of Muslim origin. Since Muslims themselves had 

the roiMtivc I advised the old defendant not to buckle 

«m 10 Muslim bluff and Muster since I was there, to help 

I led see that his new buiLiog won't be demolished. 

Oemy „j vlw lbe g^ ^^ ^^ ^ dc ^ am 
J* ' Jit the plBiotuT Muslims had no right to file the uiil 

<Zt^T lttapiCMithorttot ^ *»*>* ^urren- 



The Ahmedabad Muslims got the shock of their life Never 
in history had they ever got such a stunning retort and rcbutT 

They held animated and agitated consultations with mullahs, 
moulvit. archaeologists and historians- 

They were alt convinced that the to-called Jama Masjid was 
a captured Hindu temple despite the Kg- leaf of a marble plaque 
implanted in the ochre stone wall by wily Cunningham declar- 
ing in English that the Jama Ma&jid svas built in 1414 AD by 
Ahmadshah I. Thus the Muslim* themselves realized to their 
chagrin that Cunningham wat a liar who could not be relied 
upon Ultimately in great frustration the Muslims in Ahmeda- 
bad beat a hasty retreat and precipitously withdrew their »ait 
thereby conceding that they were Infact conducting Islamic 
rices to an Hindu temple. But that does not perturb them 
because that has been Muslim practice throughout history — 
namely to force captured persons to turn Muslims and then 
further force them to use their erstwhile temples as mosques. 
The Muslims withdrew the suit because they were afraid that 
far from being able to demolish KX, BroVs mansion they 
would have to surrender the building they were misusing ai a 
mosque when during the hearing it turns out to be a captured 

A similar Muslim threat was stalled around 1985 in New 
Delhi. Residents of New Delhi South Extension Part 11 were 
threatened by a Muslim mob that they would seise the historic 
monument known as Maijld Moth and turn it into a fanatic 
Islamic pressure centre. The agitated Hindu residents approach* 
ed me. Thereupon I toured the monument with their workers. 
An architect, a photographer and a lawyer were also in ai.en- 
dancc, 1 pointed out to them how every detail there proved the 
edifice to be a Hindu Mandir Math i.e. n temple cum-monas- 
tary, A suit wat later filed and an infraction wis obtained 
restraining Muslims from offering prayers inside that building 
Later a scrutiny of the relevant revenue records revealed that 
the name Masjid Moth was foisted on thai monument in 1880. 
Obviously that was Cunningham's mischief 1 have had many 
anch consultancy cases in each one of which I have won bands- 


iLmemnini ciu'w» therefore note thai not a llft , 
"^^W* » Muslim. Consequently^ 8 
|Msi iB ' Jl6c * |-¥ claim fo ««y tuch can and must / 
Md ,lim ■«" n P ' T ; e building themselves bear nurnerou, 

rfWl *' J ^11 « octagonal contours, filigree decoraw on 
«" vlftdlv f Vochrt colour stone, zodiacal signs display^' 
tow,f ?h. faocied kibla. K° raQic overwriting etc. e(Ci ' 
■liianieoi or n= ^ ^ ww |hi| ledu]ique of identifying 

Urtder* ■.« Hjndu (0 fcsisl facetious and fictitjou, 

tiitonc b^»^«" ^ e , ■■ 
Ittomic claim* 

and fictitious 

PIC ■- !■■•*<- 

Td t^ Mollis **ould like to say that their first prat** 
, In historf ihowM be to trace their own Hindu lineage 
lum 10 Hinduism which is now ready to welcome them 
wk .1 loaa-estranged brethren. Muslims who are not pre- 
^ ,o do that may thereby realize that r hey lack the basic 
eoartic and honcjiy to study history or to speak or write about 
It Those who close their eyes to their own history will 
naturally ignore tbe truth in other areas of history and pairo* 
ni« a special Mtnltm concoction of world history. 

Thr T»j Mahal 

la fawut of the current belief I bat it was Sn.abja.ban who 
buili lac Taj Mahal we concede only two points and even those 
boI without sutninniial reservations ; 

We admit thai there are two sepulchral mounds in the 

chamber of the Tij which look like Muslim tombs, and 

mOAm wen be tho« ui Mun.M* Mahal, one of the (hdtt* 

•fcoosom of Shahjahan. and of Shahjahan himself. 

tut' P T Wcih *»^w point out our rescrva- 

^p»C2n ° f ° UDd 00thc ,cr ™«» of historic 

»«4 ItU |Z" 4 WfclMi'W date of Mumiai 
^"ifcT.j £J&**** Aether she was at all 

2J? a ^ to »«te mBo iL Pe ' J l0d|lmMlto »Wi *« between 

.*«*. Such vagueness, even 

l *** Nuial ' " *««». Such vagueness. 
"**«» « *l*led to have been 



tructcd for her body, u highly suspicious, Monuphi. an officer 
In the service of the F.a*l India Company during Auraogzebs 
time, has recorded thai Akbars tomb It empty. Who knows 
then whether Mumlas'i oupposcd tomb i« not empty 100. In 
ipite of such weighty reservation* we are ready to presume that 
the two tombi could be those of Mumtui and Shatajahan. 

2. The other point m favour of the traditional Taj legend 
could be that Koranic texts have been inscribed alonj the out- 
side of some of the arches. Our weighty reservation on th.s 
poini Is that such inscriptions exist on tbe exterior of the 
Adhai Dfo Ki Zopda in Ajtner and on the so-tailed Kutub 
Minae in Delhi, but they are known to be a camouflage. The 
etchings on tne Taj have therefore only suspicious value, those 
*rs me*c overwriting* on a captured Hindu building, 

Fioolt in support of our contention that the Taj Mahal is an 
ancient Hindu temple-p*lace complex known as Tcjomahalaya 
are as under — 

(l) Shahjahan's own official court chronicle (Ts» Badshah- 
su-na) records on page 403 volume I that Mumiaz s body «- 
burned from a grave iu Borhanpur (after a ..*moDtu bun., 
there) was brought to Agra and interred inside a *»»« of 
unique splendour capped with a dome. That mansion then 
known ..Raja Mausingh's mansion was owned by Mansmghs 
grandson Juisingh, 

121 In a letter written by prince Aurangieb in 1652 AJX to 
bis ruling father emperor Shahjahan, Aurangzeb reports carry. 
ing out some urgent, hasty repairs to the cracked dome and 
caking seven'toteyed building complex. Contrar. ly tbe 
modern archaeological notice at the Taj entrance asserts hat 
the Taj was ready brand new in 1653. Does the archaeology 
department know better than prince Aurangzeo ( 

(3) There arc two pairs or Shatajahan-Mumta, Q'jM 
pai each in tbe marble basement and the ■ j» rble gfou Q d lloor 
Why two graves each ! Did each of them die a double death? 
And why U the marble .lab of Muintt* cenoUph in the ba«- 
meni juai plain white when it. hump and the other three 
Tno Jphs bavo filigree decoration. That is a suapicou. detail 


. fi „, ,hit MumiM'i interment in Agra Wa| 

( 4l SMb^» B - ol Jeft eV co a scrap of paper aboui th„ 
pcnrf ^ h, " of ;: Taj thus there are no order* commissi^. 
caMufov ol in denCC for the purchase or ar*,tiiiii, 0n 

to * lbeT- M53a' no de^gn drawings, no bills or receipt*, 

e f lit ICK3HW w» 

B nd oc*r*n«^ ounlsh ^ 

«... . m , Tai Mahal itself signifies a royal residence or 
{5 > The ■"*?*>* By no slrttch f imagination could 

?J£Z£?*^ as T ,acc unkS5 * palace "* 

]££> cow** ™° **«">*'*- 

< 6 )H*dShehj.hanr*tlly ^n^e^ 

LVlMO of .ruling monarch coold never he ton 
tight of by a paid court chronicler. He should not need a 
apecial reminder for it. 

(7) Mull* Abdul Hamids chronicle contains serious discre- 
te lite the absence of the designer's name, and a ridicu- 
lously km eitiraale (40 lakh rupees) of tbo cost of the Taj ( 
vhJeb b Koffcd at by subsequent scholars. 

IB) Even other estiautei of the cost vary from Rs. 50 lakhs 
to Ri. 9 ctoTCi and 17 lakhs. 

ki, ycrorcs ana 1 1 wai. 

[91 Shabjihau's reign was no golden reign since it was 
iricd by unending wars and revolts, epidemics and famines. 

CIO) Shahjahaoi overbearing, conceiled slingy and self* 
centred nature ruled out any possibility of his wasting any 
Jnooej on a sentimental project amounting to throwing away 
money on i dead body. 

I) That he could not even in bis wildest dreams conceive 

■JUeflaUat toco a gorgeous project is apparent from the fact 

te concocted aeoounu tell us that he made the 

on meagre rations without giving Ihem any oat** 

Another aceouol tayi that he made Rajaa and 

mesa * paiacc itself 

eiver of the Taj be 
[>dul Hani id not to 


Maharajas pay a large part or the CMt. So even the addition! 
and alteration* required 111 converting a palace into a tomb 
were got done by making labourers tod for mere meagre 
rations and by imposing levies on subservient rulers. 

CLE If a stupendous monument tike the Taj Is built foi a 
consort there would be a ceremonial burial date and it would 
„ot go unrecorded. Bui not only is the burial date not mco- 
rumed but even the pciod during she may have been 
buried in the Tuj, varies from si* month* to mae years of 
Mumtaz's death. 

(I JlMumtaa having been married to Shabjahan when lb- 
latter was 21 years old show* that «ba wa* hi* umpteenth wife 
S* to Shabjaban'* time children and royal ehUdim. at 
S uTcd lo be manicd much before they entered their ,*•». 
Having been the umpteenth and one among at least 5.000 
tfm there was no reason why she should be commemorated 
in a dreamland monument. 

(14) Even by birth Mumiaz being a commoner she did not 
deserve a palatial monument , 

(15) History makes no mention or any special out-of-the- 
wa ya.tachm C m or romance between Shahjahan »d Mumlar 
during theTllfe times unlike that of Jahangir and Nurjahan. 
This shows that the tuNcqwrn. uory *«* love .. a concoc- 
t,on seeking to justify the about the building of At Taj 
for Mumtaz's dead body. 

M6) Shahjaban was no patron of art. Had he beeo one he 
w ould not have had the heart to chop .he hands of those «ho 
arc said to havt toiled to build the monument '« ^ lf ^ 
urtis. especially one disconsolate on his wife* death, would 
«o ndulge in an orgy of maimmg skillful era umen, But Ore 
maiming story is apparently true because. ♦oade »tt l^ 
leuly on meagre rations just to usurp an ancient and venerated 
pall to bouse a corpse, apparently infuriated .he workmen 
who broke into revolt. 

(17) The subterranean emergency «it from the Tajto.bc 
for. could only exist in a palace. A dead body does not need 
any escape route and a subterranean one at that. 




^ ,h*«airfll mnrbk Jtmclu re consist* of a nearly 

! . t nt.reTai wmpk* contained nearly JOO or even 
BBft woo* i " ul * M 

Jc, md in mm i***«- 

-„ ^ ^dUcd motque on one flank and the nondes- 
^i ^rp*n caphemiiticlly explained away as a luele* 
U«^»«he B ^« pavilion guardrooms and waiting 

hiili of Ibe palace. 

22J The picture pavilioos in the Taj premises could never 
fonn'pwt of a »■*» tomb bat alway* of a palace, 

(23) The wordi Kalsu and Basal (tower) are Sanskrit words, 
They could never have entered an original mausoleum unless 
ifcryiracktc the premise* before ihebuildiogwat requisitioned 
for ©bowijob into a tomi. 

(24) The decorative patterns are not only entirely of Indian 
Pari but alio of lacred Hindu motifs like the* lotos, which 
"infidel' character lilies, according to Islamic beliefs, would 
arm allow any peace to the soul of the individuals lying buried 
under Death. 

(25) The jalleries. arches, supporting brackets and cupolas 
arteotircK m the Hindu style such a* can be seen all over 

Onl Like every other nupicioui aspect of the faj the 

pCTjMcrfcflnstruciioniivirionily staled to be 10, 12. 13. 17 

an, which again proves that the traditional version is a 

boom. Appatwiy (he above periods are all true since 

arinhobi * Cf0 completed within 10 years, Some others. 

S^TST **** W,hi W*rtii,he Taj was 

™**^toZT**" hcslwthe commcn - 

oi the building work while weakening ihs 



<a5c of traditionalists strengthens our ca*c became Tavernier 
mnvcil in India only in 1641 i*«, 10 years after Mumuz^ 
death. If bis statement is to be believe J the Taj wu not begun 
•even after 10 yean of Mum tax* death. His maserpeot helps us 
foui'Square to refute the traditional ibeory It hfli all along 
been out contention tbnt Jai Singh's hereditary palace was 
taken over from him and Mumtaz buried in il to me time after 
tier death. Since she wai already buried in the building for 11 
yean before Ta vernier arrived in India, he refers to the build- 
ing only os Mumtaz's Tomb, and when during his presence in 
India from 1641 to 1668 a scaffolding was raised and Koranic 
-etchings were carried out he referred to it as "the com men* 
«mcnl and the end of the building work" duri&g his presence 
Id India. We therefore, fully accept Tavernier 1 * record and give 
it a most honoured place in our testimony, 

(i8) Apparently the reports thai Sbabj&han levied Urge 
amount i on Raja* and Maharajas and the so-called building 
work dragged on over 10, 12, 13, 17 and even 22 yean are all 
very true details. We fully accept them. They fit in four square 
with our case Since Staahjahan was too shrewd to spend any* 
thing out of his own packet and would lose no opportunity of 
taxing and persecuting the local people he made political and 
economic capital even out of the death of his own wife. While 
on the one hand he compelled the Rajas and Maharajas to pay 
for the alterations to the palace, owned by one of their own 
kith and kin, that it may be converted into a tomb, he made the 
labourers and artisans toil on a meagre ration. That is why the 
work dragged on -at a snail's pace over a long period. 

(29) The designers are variously mentioned by Western 
scholars to be Europeans and are claimed by Muslims lo be 
Muslims while ihe Imperial Library Manuscript contains ill 
Hindu names, What greater proof is needed of the utter falsity 

-•of the traditional Taj theory* 

(30) Apart from the fact that the Imperial Library Manu- 
script lists nil Hindu names there is one other very remarkable 
detail which refutes the traditional claims about the designers 
of the Taj being some Europeans or Muslims. It should be 
noted that eveo among the Western scholars there arc two 



One aiiribwtm the Taj dciign to Geronimo Veroneo , n 

Lmn The elusion in the Muslim camp of sctibi^ ^ 
«, They too arc divided into three group.. » c 

5 nv^ttrlhat he was a Persian. Since after J5J 

" i hetrtious name plucked from among those common 

7k Ir.icT* timet his nationality remained vague. The tliiid 

ril % fAr from causing him any expenditure the Taj proved 
m be the proverbial hen laying golden eggs for Shahjahte. 
Ttadltiooal account, tell us that the Taj had ^-studded 
mibk W«ea». i»W railing* and silver doors. Even Shahjahan . 
™„ or even his wife's palace did not possess such fairytale 
C„«» *hUc the two were tlive. It ,s absurd to suggest that 
■hMecetth and fabulous fialuiee almost dropped from heaven 
la it Miimtai died. But the accounts of those future, are 
neverthtlmtrue. We accept them as such. They fully support 
our view thai Shahjahan. shrewd as he was. made capital even 
ouiofbU wife* death. He used that sombre occasion as u 
lever to force Jaitingh out of his ancestral palace. Mumtaz was 
buried in a stripped, cold palace robbed of all its cosily trapp- 
ing!, latei ail coolly removed to Shahjahan's treasury. And it 
were not merely the trappings, mentioned above, which were 
lemoved but also the Rajput Peacock Throne which was kepi 
amidst those resplendent surroundings. Because what else 
euept the Peacock Throne could be kept in an enclosure cor- 
doned off b> gcm-siuddeo marble screens, and equipped with 
silver doors and gold railings ? The Peacock Throne which was 
earned to Iran was, therefore, not a Mogul heirloom but a 
very ancient sacred, Indian Kshatnya throne which might even 
date back to Anangpal of the lih Century A.D , or Vlkrama* 
ditya who begun the Vikram S:.mvai in 57 B.C. 

i he place where the Taj is now situated was o busy 

twin township known as the Juisingpura and Khuwaspura. The 

i palace was the focal centre or those towiumipi. "Pura" ■" 

SaotVtu signifta a busy township and noi just an open plot o\ 


^ ***■"« «-"»io «•»"««»■ » 

tssssz cttvgs sa : - — ><-< 

for ii That assumption H baseless. 

* .ru T*i t^lace has various other annexes ouwde its 

of SaSSt, mtmgm ^J£J%£ Z£ 

enj oyl«g the fti* "*«r °LXe o" y b«n thn adjunct 

wis no other than the Taj. 

(11) Akbar on his oatly «WM to Agra ««d »*£ » 

„„,d S SW He ^^sSES'S *£ 

of ill magnificence beea«»e |M •?""'" *';"° d „„ lv hlled 
n»««l down in .uceealve a*aul« And Ahhnr. deeply «« 
a, be waa by oil ffoo, hia own »n downwards, could not ano 
to liay in an nnbwricaded pla« ot palace. 

(38) Bern*, say. that the **»ebi"h.« of *£*££ 

opened on.y once a year and no «^ - »"" ^ J. 
& Tb.. rr ,bah«,b-n 1 ,,b. T y »-— ^ 

underground Boon of the Taj. » « P J up 

Government .ml our scholars show no ee*r«« > » «£»JP 
.he underground cbao^rsof be ^e^ ^ «^ 

l.ghling. remove ihe filling* in «^™?ha»a * free run of tbe 
Undent* of history and even ' ^»« J^L^ ftinOU0t fro , 
premise*. The Government can earn a hanasonM .a. 

njp,** tnsrotiCAL io8A*at 

.**■* to levy while >»»« researcher, the 
'*^3\Kh««c»- «0I be .11 the wiser by 

^-••^'^ Trto** »** fir,irt ' c fflttlcr,flT L for 

^ " * ' Terikb i T.j hllbll d«d ha. been Elected .0 be 


fitted *i!b nunive, heavy. 



<40) Tts Tu IWW 1 

m A »«t nj» «st« oo tome wdct of the T.j * 
iV-^a Z a palace brfoK being convened 


taeamMe «cb pom* could be brought up to favour of 
ooreooKflUc*, BQ nbcue«%b»lWtheve said above should 
wot* to p«"t that the traditional account of Sban^han 
tu»*t bssto the T§» Mahal should rank if one of the biggest 
bcamofbiwmv Acd lbs pricking oflbe Taj bobble auto- 
Brtia n j deflate* much or mediaeval history. We may here 
prc&sbri reall the *ordi of the great historian Sir H M 
Mtiea to deface to hia cigbi- volume study of media- 
I'-bioeida has *t?y iptl) tad pointedly remarked that the 
bmort of lie Muilim period in India "ii an interested and 
-sctDx fmtc " Uaiormtiniel) the fraud hat been laid *o 
detf> ifaai era peer Sir fi.M. Elliot who knew that it was a 
fraud, *at %i,v ebeated into bettrviot tome aspect i of it. The 
fraud hn bees to consummate thai generation! of Kbolar* 
Km and Eastern uic Fefumon. Vincent Smith and 
been badfy duped, 1 hope that scholars, students 
of ladno binary at lean now sit up and think 
i Ueplsf Ibtar hcadi butted in ifae n n d» of fanciful 
» in the Mar i lUh history , n Indian scboolf. 
h itanisft institution* **««*„ , hc mighly Taj 
£tbt m,no* ti TOell ^^ Md mituved 

««, «it» una rete*nhpu.h ft automatically carric. 


B I1 the lw«r buildings in it* train out of the fancied Mogul oi 
(D c Muslim yard in general where they lay usurped, cooflieau 
«i and dumped in the name of various saltans, emperors, 
eyQ ucbs> fauzdars, potters and even bhisties. And when all 
these building* are removed from the credit side of Muilim rule 
in India their whole history is reduced to a shambles. 

The new light thrown on the o.igin of the Taj Mahal 
should, therefore, induce in our teachers, professors, scholars 
nnd students of history and univeisitics the need for a thorough 
research in this fascinating subject unless we are resolutely 
resigned and sworn to perpetuate what already appears to be a 
bad joke and an unconscionable load of falsehoods from under 
which Indian history cries out to be rescued and relieved. Will 
our historians rise to the occasion or the public cry out for 
iheir right to be told the truth ! What passes for the history of 
the Muslim period in India today is 99 per cent or the stuff that 
Arabian Nights is made of. 

The age-old argument of believers in the to-called Indc- 
Saraccmc architecture, that the Taj is the culmination of that 
5ty lo # no longer holds good since the Taj itself is only a Rajput 
palace converted into a Muslim tomb. 

Endorsing the finding that the Taj Mahal far fiom being a 
I7th Century Muslim tomb, is m much anc.cnt Hindu _ palace. 
Dr. M. Flagmcicr, President of the American ioaeij -Tar 
Scandinavian and Eastern Studies. 4059 Monroe Street North- 

--. Minneapolis, Minnesota.l^A.^c h» Hm«« 

that Shahjahan built the 
bolstered our 

December 6, 1965 addressed 

held in contempt the absurd notion 

Taj Mahal, Your scnolarjy » o vest! gat. on s ^J^T^ 
own theories, and vou are to be commended for the clar. ty » .16 
which you have presented this new and refreshing mtfoo< » 
turbulent chapter of Indian hiitory...<On my vtt W the Ja M 
*as struck by the fact that in .pile of certain }*£££*£ 
lltica, this was NOT a Mogul building- For f^^,,, 
Minarets reminded me of picture* 1 bad seen ol 4 "« d "^. 
turc In what was then known as Rajputana. Alio, 
nal design was definitely of Hindu origin. 



1* **** T *!!" |u ^cacocfc Throne spirited away by the 
^.norttn ^ ^ js D0 |0Dgcr m existence. („ 

l^* ,K ^; 1 ,, Xy the throne was dismembered audit* 

W**** Si i«Kb«J « # VCD awa > % B,ts <> f *« 
lid perhaps be traced among the royal and 
tf*« 1Jirflne ;t.. cri ijj, jf a propct searcn is undent**, 
^flOB*s*i "V awa> . W j t h the impression that ihe 

Lujv mcamng The Peacock Throne) treasured 

LT^Shab, But lhc exta,t Takbt-e-Taus i, 

T^*<>*™»<> peacock effigy on it. It gels its 

L^ Peacock) not from the bird but from Taus 

IXnrcaua itelheart of. former Iranian ruler who loved 

ia mb lore to the lady on that throne. 

teftaStDy, the Peacock Throne also belonged to the same 
to smffc M> *'hsch last owned the Taj. It was sacrilegious 
(* i Mmkn nwouch to have ordered a throne with animal 
eifki Both ihe throne and the Taj enter into the unauthentic 
reoiiii of 5bifajihin T i reign just about the same time. The 
aatai&xnt palice (now known as the Taj) provided just the 
f$i type of Kiting for the scintillating throne. 


the audit of the crowded city of Agfa is a huge citadel 

Wwifls. It is now called tie main mosque. Bur 

of m ttooe wall* and other indications such as 

■*m point out thai it could only be an earlier 

'empk or ifae royal deity. Usually principal 

1 ,Dd,1 » **te captured and converted into 

— tnwques <.,. J an a Masjids in mediaeval 

«*■** t, U ? kl <* il "*" h «vs that tbe mosque 

»**too»tJ l , ahlu "' « * forgery. How could 

n * P»lwe hem"* -v Cr build a palatial 


W. « known as Fatehpur Sikri. 



Current Indian historical texts and tourist literature profoundly 
assert that the royal township was built by Akbar, the third 
generation Mogul emperor who ruled over a large pail or India 
from 1>56 to 1605 A. D. 

Since all extant mediaeval monuments throughout India, 
even though of pre-Muslim origin, have been blatantly credited 
to this or that alien Muslim ruler it is no wonder if the Faich- 
pur Sikri royal township also suffered the same fate. Bull here 
is voluminous evidence to prove that Fatehpur Sikri was a 
Rajput township encompassing all Hi extant redstone monu- 
ments, constructed several centuries before Akbar. Though 
this would be a fitting topic for a separate book yd in view of 
the amount of evidence available a rapid survey of (bat evi- 
dence should give the lay reader and rescachcr alike enough 
grounds (o scour out from bis mind the traditional notion that 
Fatehpur Sikri was built by Akbar or for that matter by any 
alien Muslim overlord. The main points of ihe evidence may 
be summed up as under ! 

1. A number of Muslim chronicles pertaining to the reigns 
of rulers preceding Alcbar allude to this township as 
"Fathpore", or as "Sikri" and even as "Fathpore Sikri 1 ". 

2. A historical book titled •'Akbar 1 ' written by Justice J.M. 
Shelat and published by The Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Bombay, 
carries facing page 82, a painting captioned "Humayun's troops 
entering Faihpore". Here it may be remembered lb at Humayun 
was Akbar's father. The painting is clear proof that Faihpore 
(Sikri) existed before Akbar, t 

3. The faierul battle between Rana Sanga and Babar-iha 
founder of the Mogul dynasty jn India— was fought around 
Fatehpur Sikri "within sight of the hillock"* as is mentioned to 
Babat a Memoirs Rana Sanga had to come out of the walled 
township because the betieglng Mogul forces were ravaging 
the country-side, massacring innocent civilians and poisoning 
the water of the Anup Lake which was the township i main 
reservoir. The R^nn having emerged out to give battle. Babar 
states that Ihe batik was fought within view of the hillock. 

4. The. uninformed are likely to argue that ihe engagement 
was fought a few miles away at Kanwih* Bui that is not ihe 


whole truth The JUwbi battle was only an initial encounter 
between Babars taees ™d * detachment of Rana San BJI * u 

v « The ultimate decisive action was fought around Fateh, 
Slfcrl a few days later with the main body of the array l c <j 
by the Ran* himself. 

The massive wall which encloses the entire township 

jmg the hillock and hundreds of acres of plain ground 

,1,11 bears mark* of ibelUrig. Gupta* holes id the walls a re 

proof of Babar's troops having aimed their guns at Rana 

Sanga's defences. 

6, That Akbar himself lived in such a ruined township |» 
tetiined to by a representative of the British crown who called 
on Jahengir soon after the latter succeeded to the throne after 
hi* father Akbar's death. The caller has recorded that the 
touuship was in ruins. Even assuming that the township was 
built by Akbar, when we see its magnificent monuments stand- 
ing intact for alt these centuries in all their splendour, as 
though Ihey were buili only yesterday, it surpasses one's imagi- 
nation how the township, presumed to have been completed in 
1383) could have been in ruins within 23 years when the 
Englishman visited Jahangir there. This piece of testimony 
makes a dear that Akbar .all atong lived in the Rajput town- 
ship thai bad goi battered when his grandfather stormed it only 
• few decades earlier, 

7. Another Englishman, Ralph Fitch visited Fatehpur Sikri 
in September 1563. In the notes that he has left of his visit he 
comparts Agra with Fatehpur Sikri which shows that he looked 
upon both &s ancient townships. Had Fatehpur Sikri been a 
brand-new township completed around 1581 A.D., as is falsely 
churned in Muslim chtontcles, he would have said so and would 
I- ^ compared the two. He also says thai merchants used 
> flock to Fatehpur Sikri to display their costly goods for sale, 
Thu remark tlw indicates lh.v the mercantile congregation 
in ancient practice. Had Fatehpur Sikri been a new town- 
ii would never have compared a with ancient Agra— 
lean not without ipecificalty mentioning Patehpur Sikri to be 
a newly founded town. 

TheSanskui name (Anup) of the huge lake (now dry> 

n -fouls In ore-Muslim times. 

numtwrof decades tU.«versiDc obstructed. 

around 1583- it tnai is so »j 5gJ ^ , t 

15SS | The real reason was that he lake burst n ^^ 
possible for Akbar to 1, cm the «*£t jj^ ^ 
Had Akbar got both the lake ana v ^ |B 

completed by 1583 then firstly the ta«» ™" »* * (hc lalcc 
"nWJ. ^d secondly Akbar ^"^^J^ptai 

Urcdtbau totally ab-doo -ewlyj taft ^ ^ 

But Akbar had to leave because he lacfcco «nc 

to repair the lake. 

called "Hiranmaya (golden) . that ame 5 ^ 

rvow been deftly transformed mo ^-^^ roaik lh * 
the forged Akbar-legend, and I ft. tower*^ d <o * 
burial spot of a pet deer of Akbar, Did Akbar • «e F 
dying wish /or « Hindu lamp-post with a spiralling staircase 
a memof lal 1 .wi^i 

L, The hulk, of M. hug. **»u "'f^H,™ T 




r Mm in ireh o*cr At entrance exactly as they do 0Vcr n. 

Z ;--'■» ChittorandlbeRcd Fori. | n *£«£ 
SSI li ^wns on .11**. Moreover the elcphan^ 
.11 .lom been . symbol of W«l «<■ **■» might, power a„ d 
dory is Hindu mythology end history. It rs also a specifically 
Indus aoimat. This proves Ibat far from constructing th l 
Hithipol gate of Fatehpur Sikri Akbar had the clepham, 
beheaded and their gracefully arching trunks hammered 

14. Similar vandalism may be noticed inside many Fateh- 
pur Sikri mansions where peacock plumes on walls have been 
chiselled away 

15. The entire township with its stables for horses (Ashva- 
ihala) and elephants (Gajaihala) and intricately ornamental 
Hindu workmanship and motifs ii in the traditional Rajput 

16. Even its names and associations are almost exclusively 
Hindu— such as Pancbamahil, Jodhabai's Mahal, Tansen 
Mahal, BirbaJ Mahal. This shows that alien Muslim noblemen 
could not occupy those ornately carved Hindu buildings with 
an easy religious conscience, 

17. Use so-called Salim Chisty tomb is an ornately carved 
Hindu marble temple Inside and out. Inside it is an exquisitely 
carved marble pillar which has do place in a genuine original 
tomb, it hi* also a perambulatory passage. 

18. The presence ofaMuilim fakir's tomb anywhere In 
ima » itself proof that the location marks an ancient Indian 

"hip because mediaeval Muslim fakirs used to take re** 
to » the midst or ruined monuments. This may bo observed 

Kaktril* " C kn ° wn ° Nlumudditi and Bakhtiar 
M» tomb. 1D Delhi and that of Moimiddin Chisti in 

*^£&J!E'?*' ***** by «k««^IW Butand 

**» that or IIS i aSTi^? T BCOr " of olher * ravcs 

•oyatwlace. Had AWh L^" k b * J° wl wilh " Iiei ,D0 
«** Aabar ba,it the township could he have 

1ND1AN MommeHTS casino to auhi nutans M 


M One verandah of that same huge quadrangle Is a so 
frZuc This alio proves that this hotch-potch 

s h,p was captured by Babur. 

21 in the huge quadrangle infront of the Panch Mahal i 

h 0B e Cbaup^ tf a rd has been delineated on the paved redstonc 

£oo Sat (Backgammon) is an csd.sively Hmdu game of 

h^rv oritin Ii used to be the most popular pastime in media- 
hoaryor.g.o liu«o ^ hdu$ehold|T 

eva times. Cnaupai is never yi* } 

This board also proves that Ihe township was built by the 


« The term "'Sikri is of Sanskrit origin, tu Sanskrit 
■*i£J me n /W". From this a native principality ,n the 
aanuy R 8 " tbani tract is kno.n as Sikar The 
Sineiorm of Sikar is W. * * ~ for ^ 
*■ ct«r trt name a new township as Siltri iros 

, ^facX? Z original founders of h K k|»r Sifcii 
j>o«ntcf to the tad in»i i« c w * » _,«;- *'D«r" aUo 

captured by the invading aliens. 

23, In Ihe quadrangle infront of the Panch Mahal ii • «W 


tifliu PW8WO decanted with a huge python like curing ^ 
rtMe arch. The seat *■» mcnot for the royal Hrodu astrologer 
Curia* Rajput role. 6n rht arch are inscribed episodes f rom 
Hisdt , myology such 15 Gajendramoksha. 

2*. Opposite ibe astrologer's seal on the other side of the 
quadrate H ■ slow water-clock tuch as was invariably used 
in 1*11 rbc lime, to »■■ Hindu Kshatriya and Brahmin homes. 
]u Simkrif name is GbatiPatra. 

25. In the records of Akbar's reign there ia not even a scrap 
of paper proving that the Fatchpur Sikri township was ever 
comtnrjsioned, designed, materials ordered, money paid to 
labourers or any day-to-day account kept. Had Akbar really 
ordered mob a huge township to be constructed huge piles of 
records or at least some tattered bits should have been avail- 
able in the Mogul record captured by the British. 

26. Contemporary Jesuits at Akbar 's court have recorded 
that cot a stone-cutter's chisel was ever heard or any building 
material piles seen and that, therefore, the city (if at all) must 
have been "built oversight as if by magic for which stones 
dressed to the required size must have been brought readymade 
from the distant quarries". That a whole, city couJd be built 
overnight without I he slightest trace- of any material lying. about 
is the height of sentimental nonsense. Apparently taken in by 
the gullible talk of Akbar's fawning courtiers whose language 
ihe Jesuits could hardly follow, the latter have made this naive 
noting in their mediaeval simplicity and bclier in magic. But 
for us now that noting is of immense significance in seeing 
through the medieval game of falsification of Indian history. 

Even before the fictitious dates on which the building 
of Fatehpur Sikri township is believed to have been begun by 

t I -m 2 T rdCd m hhlwy lbat bc "*> «o send his wives 
fL*^ * Fatch P Uf **■ This clearly shows that 
Z ™ S? 0I lttt *" ,y pcri&d of Akba ''* wig" »>«* stately 
ZZ ci T X WOrDCQ l ° lic iQ «**«■««. In spit, of 

^■i prince, in Sal.m Chisii'i "cavo"(.i c ). The very 


.h.i Qkitm Chliti lived in a cave is false. He lived 

""d, ...?.'y" S a. H Muslim BktoiW. Secondly I 
amidst the stately ruins lisnesw to 

ought u> be lea '«» ,h ^ A % fd Ty .he «sc, (l o» that AM... 

certified midwife. 

->r According to current falsified account. Fatehpur Sikci 

=s»fere£:S.r fltsa 

Akbar live in . township under constructs 1 

f^t nnd *en suddenly leave *• •>«-* ""-""J? 
tamXl'ly after « completion i. on the very face of . 

£d" U.veltin " 8S because the hto*»" «■■»* »'«"*' 
of 1 SS3 life in Fatehpur Sikrl untenable. 

30 The gaping holes in the outer wall thai enclose! 
the IVek S the surrounding plain !• vivid proof of the In,. 
Latttfonsht there by B»h» against Rana Sang, over three 
decades before Akbar ascended the throne. 

That in spite of sueh massive evidence, turreut historical 
* Jaud"ouri,t shonld »««. anach,o»,.t.«lly that 
F S hZ Sikri a patently Hindu ,ownsbip-was condoned 
bj Akbar. U one of the major end glaring tragedte. ofhlunder- 
ing Indian historical research. 

Agra Fort 

in the stylish Diwan4-KJias and Dlwan- 

style. The architecture 


interior apartments tn Amu 




the Hindu mandap design. No Muslim rukr ever ha 


or ibc resources to 
Hindu til me* *uch 

build such a cosily fori. 
as "Aroar Singh Gate 




C 'I'lUfi 

Gate" At the gates wert statues of Rajput prince?"- -?°* 
bor*r< and elephants in full regalia. 

U ii absurd (o explain this away 
appreciation of the valour of the 
valiantly in tbe defence of Chit tor fort 

as Akbars 
prince who 

against his army, T h 
flames were of earlier Rajput princes and the fort was 

many centuries before Akbar ascended the throne. 





Agra fort ft a twin of the Delhi Red Fort. To ascribe 



«i 'hekarch- 
' e Diwan*f- 

Since Islam 
never construct 

to Akbar and another to Shahjahan is wrong. Wheats^ th* 
were built they were built by Hindu rulers. There is no auth 
tic documentary evidence to sustain the claim that they nT 
built by Mogul emperors. In believing that claim hbionant 
nave made a grievous error of judgment. 

Both those forts have stone flower emblems 
w*>4. The architecture of the Diwanj-Am an 
kbii halls „ of the ornamental Hindu roaaiap sryle. They 

Save fix terrace roofs and no domes or minarets. Elophmt 

taigesex.stattbe gateways or both the fotts. 

frowns on images. Muslim monarch; 

forts featuring elephant images. 

tt J? C Tf"" 1 " ABta hn bad re « al ,ra PP in 8 s »»<» "vet 
« h.v^. e ^ JPU ' P : in " S in fu " regal, ' a - To «P |ain *»m away 
oe«Z »* en , CT ' d . by *"** ,0 commemorate some 
CtoZ T r n0 t* bam > durift 8 Ak »»''» «iW "f 
.reacherv/iK yr "" C ° IOUS - In Mbar ' a davs lo«MC»rf 

« h, n Alh , wry were galore " oce fi * n,i "e •»• «<««*■ 

™ « . n< " er " ,ed s,a,UM '"» r <>r his own brave 

T^T«1 ta 7 UM bC d ° " ,0t an «"-» 1 Moreover ho 

Wbe,wi'^ h d ?' Cted "" ene,nv '» "8"' accoutrement. 

h*»KfJ^ J " , '*■ lita,e,, ° f P»"»lraj he bad put 
mm up ai a doorkeeper— and ool in royal style. 

b,.™moir , .' , .K?,r . hC ; pieCe c,f " i <""«- J«hao S ir claim, in 

™"„," si™: cl r ha * r? ,c ™ ed "« my " by 

i Historians. The seemingly meticuloua details 

1H0 ,a^0HU--»« a °'» O ™* UWW!L,,B 

turned to b« mi**""" £* '" ^ ^gpal. «* Tomar 
^ claim Uh*J P»-' d ™ SSjW.dtW '> t "" ,i * m 

Hmdu Ki«g of ■*»»** " f m' »„ and other Muslim roten 
hl ,pal,ce««D«b,. Since be Mogu^ ^^ R 

betrayed » " * u,,r wci,k0 " , thenars reference to the gold 
glr,« to their .•« 'X^^uUlclue th.MheRed 
chain of ituHcem Agra to .. fcM11 gp.|-s time.. I... 

Ports ut Delhi and Agra esistea 

around 370 A.D. „„ tmmU at Amber elotely 

Tbc architecture of the ««-«£££. ^ „ lhtR ed 

res cmbl«.ha«of«beTa,»ndrt,= ^ ^ , 

• a £5A*a ft - ,h - Taj M ' tal ot ^ 

Rajput built monuments. 

AkbaraTomb-Slbandr. Sikandn. Akb , t « 

Six mi..s from Af »; 1° Leu" Historian, say *« 
Mine* to lie buried '» > ha '^^ pa1i « before being uaed 

the aozen on it. mosaic Boor. ^ 

Tbe intertoked triangles as an «M c«^ o ^ 

in Muslim theology. f-^!*S*2«-H«. ofw«P • 
amongi- Hindu, have ""•^ Mc emb o 5 «d row. of mtt.- 
smatl wnare copper sheet on wbion 

locked triangles. eo twhile 

^conclusion .bat Mft« %££$* ^c, h-.- 
paiace makes the origin o J.ther wmbs 8 ^^^ „ 

^barwasthe ^^^J^^- how COBld ^ 
^SKWSli? Mogo. rulers ha,, bee. „ 
vided with -peeially constructed tombaT ^ 

rct.rburdTu«wh. p eb.i.yf...n»m. 






Memoir* of Jabangir make a ily reference to Akh- , 
lcam make* the lomb'a origin su5 Dect S? 

which again "w™ 4Ufi "'*""* w«B'» suspect. 
Memoir* themselves arc notorious for their rrivoto tt , 1* 
Cliims. B«n k> B«* J chronicle The reference to Akbar' * 
n m> shady and »luiJty. Jnhangir claims thai he entrusi* 1 , 0011 * 
building of hi* father's tomb to a set of workmen and \S. , > 
timi When the building was complete he round th aT th 'J* 1 
bungled with it Od inspection, therefore, he ordered thl* !? 
building be suitably altered. 

This statement bristles wilh anomalies and , s therefore 
obvious lie. The workmen available to Mogul rulers w crc * 
such novice* ai their job* as to make a mess of a task criimu 
to them. Moreover such a project is under the constant tu 
Tjtioi? of expert architects and engineers. Then again, ifi Q , 
had really bungled they would have been publicly impaled oa 
ttakes which was Jahangir's usual mode of punishing those 
who routed his royal ire. Jabangir has quoted many instanc 
hi i having impaled people publicly on stakes, but a 
memoir* an silent about any punishment having been meted 
out to vvorkmcti who allegedly made a mess of A k bar's torn 

The question then arises why does Jabangir at all lay claim 

to his having ordered a tomb for Akbar when he in fact did 

not 1 The reason was that he wished to allay contemporary 

Muslim opinion. After Akbar was buried in Sikander Lcdi 1 * 

palace which earlier bad been a Rajput palace, Muslim priests 

and noblemen pointed out to Jabangir many signs, Kke inier* 

locled tuangtrs, which misfit a Muslim tomb, Both to cover 

up such incongruities and to exhibit his non-existent solicitude 

l«d father, a mighty monarch. Jahongir introduced a 

uvd in his Memoirs claiming that he ordered a special tomb 

rather. And because that canard would be exposed by 

'gnsand motifs Jabangir tried to cover it up syiib 

SfiJ thai the workmen made n mess of it. Such hanky 

ibcut even Akbar't tomb is glaring proof that the tombs 

luslsm sovereigns are all commandeered or captured 

ETduM ft r eBt a i ? d O0t OI1 * iMl Mus,i * constructs 

-n tomb, *ud the existence, of thai building even to 

mVU» MONUMENTS CMPHW TO *«■" « U5 " M ' W 

Akbar'. Time, historians resorted to their uwal slipshod 
ip^utior. that A®** began eduction af h t own lomb 
AUt, it unfinished and later Jabangir completed It They 
r^fihlClctet that !*«..< etai™ * ha« built the 
mmb from the very foundation. 

Khotru Bigh-AUaHcLsrt 

Allahabad provides another HMO M^LstS The two 

Important mediaeval monument* seeoin *¥■" 
called Khusru Bagt. nod the fort .1 the confluence. 

n«.«t archwavs In the town wall, one leading 
The two magnificent arenways, in »« 

Jaipur and other town, in l|Wa Beyond the arch way, 
i Jdc the town. lie. Rani Stand, and ^,^ B ; 
abbreviated ,n vulgar parlance »"«**£ L^aSlhar 
wa, that Rant (by whose name the "Mand « ' ^^ 
Rnia who lived in what is today mtilakealy belieud to ne 
Khuuu Sagh Tnat was thdr palace which |0t demolished 
W hen Mult armies stormed the town- A few apartment. 
Ibtch escaped demolition v, ere later used as ral cham- 

bers This will be apparent from thai very odd and 

contain nny tomb at all which showa thai all ** ^^^ 
mnu were built lor other than sepulchral purpose*- In another 
Sber masonry has been clum.l, piled right up to the «, 
ing- The name of a woman Tambooian assoc laled w.ih«eoT 
he tombs is again intriguing since Tambool Ctneamng betel 
can U a Sanskrit word. A huge wall enclosure »£■"■£ 
those miserable, grotesque and truncated ^ «.*•£ 
. seems uncalled for. U Baih were to U ^proper \y ^ 
vated it would reveal plinths and other ramaips of 
Ktbntriya palace. 

Ano.her foam q««»™ «**» »'*" JJJ ^ "™, 
.pcbUy Mh .amb, why «. .bey h> -b« H, »V« »« 
.oothcr qu«i.on li ibat if lhaw »« tomb. b».u for we > 


»hwt arMhc corraponding palace* oflhe living and TilU 
Muilim princes 7 ,n * 

Aliaiubid Fort 

Allahabad fori has alio b«n wrongly attributed to Akbar 
There art many does to prove that Allahabad fon existcj 
wvcral centuries before Akhar. A ribbon*] ike streak ofth* 
acallop design nin* through the fon wajl at high flood \tv t \ 
Thaf design and the ornamental pattern of the windows over* 
looking the confluence, the intricate carvings in some of the 
inner chamber* of the fort, and the exigence of the Ashok 
Pillar, the Pataleshwar temple and the Akshayya Wat (immor- 
tal banyan tree) inside the fort is adequate proof of the fort 
having been built much before the advent of the Muslims. 
When emperors like Harsh a visited Prayag Le* Allahabad for 
giving away all their wealth to the poor, they stayed in the 
fort. That, therefore* is a very ancient monument of pre* 
Muslim times and Fergusson did not take proper care in 
attributing its construction to Akbar. Other historians quoting 
his authority have all gone wrong in thinking that Akbar built 
the fort This is a typical instance of how Indrao mediaeval 
histories hav-ng been based on the slippery guess >'ork of some 
blundering authors, have ail become distorted. 

River Ghats Demolished 

There is another aspect or ancient Allahabad which has 
remained hidden from the public because historians have failed 
to delect facts. It has been often wondered how the holiest of 
the holy confluence of the three rivers at Allahabad has no 
jthats for pilgrims to bathe on even though it has been an in- 
variable Hindu custom to construct magnificent ghats even in 
minor places of pilgrimage. A popular myth is that since the 
.Ganges changes its bed no ghats could be constructed. This It 
a facile explanation tn such cases ghats are constructed at the 
farthest limits at which the river flows. That is not, therefore, 
a satisfactory explanation. 

Moreover the confluence is surrounded by very ancient 
townships like Pratistbanpur and Arai, on the other side of the 
rivers* facing Allahabad. A careful exploration of the area 
reveals (bat ghats which existed along the banks were demolish- 


ALlB* Ml-'**- 1 -*** 

believe ihal **• did «■• nasi 

*hich **''«"«» » hoseA nu m«oi» g°ldcn 

Thc l0W „' S .kyline too -Jj**^, towering mansions^ 
JZ ink* patace towers and bwuui • con taimof 

£h«. bat £+£% ;t Z * forgotten ihjjFrW 
dec*dcnt brick tenements 11 m ^ Jnd , a which h w 

(Allahabad* il the hol«« of Wy P „„*»«« and 

ST*** by P"^^£ im me«orW. To accom- 
coanionc* for gyration* from > bad count less huge 

m0 date tHem there *^ btt ™ ^ ns and gba «s. U was. thoPB- 
lA H^* r^LTomeTcit A Uah,b'd W » <az=d to ihe 

Akbar but only occupied by him in 1384. 

ti. M»m*ir* nf Shahiaban make a flaunting claim ot 

,„8 tta precedent, of ki> faiher, grandfather and Cher pieced- 

inj5 Muslim rulers* 






Ahmcdabad ll another case in point of how Rajpui 
Btf have bce» ascribed wholesale to succeeding 


been ascribed wholesale 

Before being named after Ahmad Shah 1, Ahmedabod «* 
*nawa a* Rjjiiagar. Karciavati and Ashaval. Its history extends 
to.u very iemuie past. Abroad Shah was* very fanatic and 
tyrannical ruler. As was the practice with Muslim invaders 
Ahmcid Shah used captured Rajput temples and palaces u 
cnoaqucs and tombs. A glimpse of his iutole ram dcprcdaiioni 




can be had fwm Mr, Ash ok Kumar Mujumdnr's eriki 
"Three Saints which was published in the special V'"*! 
numbrt ol ihc Caravan Magazine (Delhi) of August lajg 11 "" 

In that he observes. "In MM AJX Sultan Ahmad Sh 
Gujarat appointed an officer lo destroy all Hindu tempi! 
bis kingdom, and Ihe task was executed with great din^ '" 

i vear the Sultan himself went to Siddhapur and broke" 
famous Rudramahalaya temple of Siddharaj und convened, 
into a mosque. The reign of the notorious bigot MuhnmmM 
Bagds (1458 to till) was yet to come'*. The word "destroy" 
here obviously signifies that only Hindu worship was destroyed 
ami tb« umf buildings were occupied and used as mosques, 

In spire 01 ihe many naively misleading accounts f 
Ahmad Shah's reign ascribing the several monuments 
in Ahmcdabad to him, there are unmistakable clues to pro'.e 
thai all those buildings wen only appropriated and not cons- 
tructed by htm. 

The thickly populated ;',rea of the ancient walled town of 
Ahmcdahad is still known as "Bhadra". That is a Sanskrit 
vnit) meaning "auspicious-" it was given that name because it 
teemed with temples All those temples have now been turned 
into mosques, Ahmcdabad is fdll of mosques more than any 
other comparable town, At almost every few hundred yards 
there i» a tomb or :% mosque, \\ bat is more, they are all iu the 
create Rajput style. 

In A amid Shah 'i lime the Muslim population of Ahmeda* 
bad was infinitesimal. As such it was impossible that the ruler 
constructed mosques galore all over the town for such a small 
section of his iub|ecti. Neither could he have got the mosques 
and tombs done in the Hindu temple style. One who would 
have had abiding love for Hindu arcuitectuiw v»ntd not d«t- 
lemples, convert them into mosques and loot aud massacre 
tne pe p| c w Ahmad Shah did 

.i- !'." if b * ** d bu,,t mosques he would not have allowed 
We old Hindu name of Bhadra" to couiinue. 

•fcieJ^ hB *! tnp,t * Jlfch « 4(ewi y kD0 * D "the Teen DarweH* entry to the Bhadra area, is itself in lb* oroalf 


|MD ,AN MONUMUHTS cmtDmD fO ALU * «« ** * ll 

Hindu .tyle, 1*1 atthttecturs may be chared with the Hindu 
So-tillc*! Juina Maijid m-.,ia 


hundred closely vet pillar, ** are common .* Hindu roUU 
temples. Genuine Muslim mosque* do not have evcaaamgic 
nillur since ibey hamper mass prayers. 

,„ lhc ntche. of the sanctuary are h*ed ««'^J 
emblems as, he Muslims were wont to <lo m the «*■£ 
captured and converted monuments. A pa" of ibis huge lempic 
has been used as a graveyard, 

The carvings reveal many Hindu »^ «* fl ^ 
chains, bells and niches. The upper portion of one ^Mbs m* n 
>puc*ofthcih,inehas been chopped off asco.hi h PP co 
the first flush of victory and consequent iconoclastic fury. 

Ornamental stones which fell off the stormed temples can be 
seen scattered in the vicinity. One such ornamental **ȣ* 
as a filling in a wall of ibe public wv«ot> op^ii. the »nsque 
on the main thoroughfare known as the Manatnu aandni 

Rupmati and GhaauDUti Mosques 

Some sccalkd mosques still retain their Hindu "^""J 
and names lute the Ran, Sipri mosque and the Rupmal 
mosque. Ran. and Sipri and Rupmat. are ill Sanskrii eamei. 
They only prove that Rani Sipri's and Rupmat. s l» 1 -** *"" 
convcited btO mosques. The same is the case with Abmetlanao * 
teeming monuments in the Bhadra are*. 

Alongside the monuments that are being used as mosques 
and tombs, are a number of others which lie neglected and hall 
buned In the soil. Those ruins, identical in architecture with 
ihe others under use, are additional proof that in the stampede 
that followed the Muslim invasion of the town a few Hindu 


in , d ncclecicd and abandoned, 
unkTe sod u«» c " 


because tb tv ^ 

■ lhr monument* bave tower* with a rare cngi 0ceri 
*^.._ . |f a visitor climln •* 


nh* forming part of thctn 



rare engineering gimmick 
arc seen in most of the so-called 

-of the towers, grip* its s lone window wiih both 
Z* hu "ft tart repeatedly for a while and lets go to hold 
ntneri«c« - strange feeling of the tower under hj| 
to, C visitor who happen* to be in the twin tower „u » Uo the same feeling. Thai 

architectural skill, since the so called mosques 
all previous, Hindu buildinp. 

SMdbipiff ana Champauer 

Siddhapur, an ancient town *?^1*^*™ 
.»d huge Hind" .brine known at the LlNGAMAHALAYA. it 
was destroyed at Ahmad Shah's orders. Its huge towcnot 
archway* now stand in naked isolation. A few yards away 
the MKltniy of that famous temple complex. But the saoctu- 
ary has now been converted into a mosque. This conversion of 
a famous ancient Hindu temple, has been admitted, though 
only indirectly, by ibe Government of India's Archaeology 
Department by putting up a "protected monument signboard 
there. The none flower emblems appearing in it* many niche* 
alio prove the fact that mosques which have stone-flowers in 
ib eir. niches, were earlier Hindu monuments. 

Caampaner and Pivigid 

Nearly SSmilet from Batoda in Gujarat is a town known e» 
■*anw. On a nearby bill is an ancient fort called 
Both Champancr and Pavagad ore Sanskrit name* 
«te dually ancient. Yet an atcUacolog. ignboaf 

decuues that Champancr was founded by M ' ' ***£ 

History records thai Mohammad Bagda was a sadist ruler. H^ 
tyranny and torture knew no bounds. This is apparent 
Mr. Asbok Kumar Mujumdar's remark quoted earlier. 



.. \a K,.r rtnlw destroy. Moreover. Muslims din 
r11 |ers do not build but °y^"J* Jh , Ufed Bottr i ab - 

n o, go to ^^T^J^ift^^ People, turned 
m township imd them <™£££ 

temples mla r^^^Tlw** with various 
lowns. Tbai »s now .heir names ^ go cbampantr he 

townships. Had Mohammad Bagm " OIJDU ' ' 

£££ »»!!«•» ft.*** n»n.c. nor would tat*, 
found any people to massacre. 

.empte. Oraalc paaels d, S | d S cd from >n 

SftSSB S5WMWC&. »• PU, » 

use a$ a mosque. 

We shall ne*t turn our attention '^"^J^^ 
ihe nearby mountain fort known as Mandavgad or Mandu. 
jL are n Central India. This survey «\<«?**?™« 
mediaeval monuments situated several hundred miles f rom one 
another In different parts of India, is just W*"^ l j£ 
same story has been repeated all over India Monuments eo«- 
lrU cted during different periods of Hindu rule ^» d ^rough- 
out India, were, after capture, converted to Muslim use The 
iavaders and captors belonged to different "ationalm« ace . 
cultures and strata of society. Some of them were mere ^slaves 

rootmen or freebooters who happened to capture parts or the 
country and proclaim themselves rulers The divers* iW 

included Mongols, Patbans, Abyssimans. Iranians. Turks and 


Dbar . * 

Dhar is a Sanskrit name. That city was the capital of a 

flourishing empire in ancient times. As such il bad many 
temples and palaces. Most of these now stand converted mo 
mosques. Even ibeir outward appearance should suffice t 
convince anyone that those monuments originated as temple* 
But what is more, there is written proof. Stones embedded u 
the soil and those plattered over in the wall*, beat Sanskrit 

A graphic example l» that of n monument euphemistically 



,1,4 ,hc Kamal M»u»* Mo«l"*- A few years back when ltlfn 
^^ ™ca,ed «onc £* 

X; „o» been established that ihc monument know^ 
^BASWATI KANTHABHARANA was intended to be" 
^library of Sanskrit f-teratarc. It was un.quc be ^ t 
pn^ed literature inscribed on stone tablets .nstead ^ 
deductible paper, This stance ^ould suffice to mdwe 
uudrnts of history, archaeology and arch.tccturc to t \^ ly 
eaamioc an mediaeval monuments which claim to be t 0mbj 
or mDHiun. One is sure to discover that they were ancieoi 
Rajput temples tod palaces. 

A few miles away Id thickly wooded country, lies the anet* 
ent mountain fortress of Mandu or Mandavgadb. This is a 
Sinikriinamc. It is so ancient a site that its origin cannot be 
established with any degree of certainty, Being a small locality 
all its extant monuments should have existed since pre-Mutlim 
times. 10 have been a useful fort and capital. Later, durin 
Muslim occupation the Rajput palaces and temples were co 
verted info tombs and mosques. Its pillars, bracket* and stone 
flower emblems bear mute witness to the fact that one 
Hindu buildings currently stand disguised as t^rabs 
mosques. The Archaeology Department signboard on Hosha 
Shah s tomb admits that the building used io be a great Hmd 
shrine where a great annual fair used to be held. H used to 
a Shiva Temple known as Neclkanlheswar Mahadeva. 

The inscription on another nearby monument admits lh> 
originally a Shiva temple, it was turned into a pleasure resoi 
by Shah Budagh Khan. Governor of Mandu under emperor 
Akbar, These two instances should be enough io show tw 
others of identical construction falsely ascribed io various 
Mnrita rulcts, were built by earlier Rajput rulers. 

In such cases the utmost that Is conceded by historians an 
■ichacoloinii of ibe old school, is that the lucceeding MjJ*Jj™' 
ndcis may hive used Rajput building material and sites. Tho 
academicians would have us believe that the original RJ 

m D1A N «o*u«in«» cueoiTt* ro .lien husums « 

, em „« M and, .ere H» down and rebuilt stone by 
acme and brick by brick. 

Anyone who Ha, *^* £«*g ^£2& 
consulted civil engineers, should know tua in 

so .illy and qmaotic « demolishing ■» «« • ^ 

, TOM dhopl.t« «^^VSm^S«l monuments. 

•fcwlili*.^-"'^^^. impeccable. The 
Such a thing >* impossible. -MSiWe a p ^ 


must have been commissioned by the Muslim rulers- 

Several anomalies and -.radices could be pointed out 
in the forgoing argument. First of a I .. «»« ^ ^ 
even conceding for arguments «U* r *• «« *, 
ft* concrete were newly £Z^Z^«^ 
invaders how do Hindu features "«* . orn amenta 

pillars ramifying into four brackets at .he op and om 
brackets near the ceiling appear « *«a ^ J^J mhn 
ments ' If the Muslims introduced the.r «*»*>■"< fllhw 

th ey wou!d naturally bav < "P^* ? of the' H.ndu 

style supporting arches ^* ^*« ™ uncomP romis,ng 
architecturally not feasible- Moreover ine fid a 

fanaticism of **»!«■*« **£*** M?Z*» « d 
Hindu features in sacred, religious ^ ^''^^0^. 
mosque, had those stores £«££ ^» w lole „, 
Even Mmlim engineers (if any e*iiteo/w"« buddings of 

ed the incorporation of Hindu characteristics m bunaing* 
Muslim conception. 

, The m ,y «*.*. o„= ta. « -"»£■*£ * M.U- 

mediaeval moouraflOW origiomlly Hindu bear* *« 




« I m , 

Neither the dome nor the minaret arc Muslim since 



primary shrine, the K»ba has neither a dome nor a minaret. 


Ajnuf is rhe corrupt form of the ancient Sanskrit 

Aiaya-Meru. Irs central city-palace, now housing som c 1^,, 

office* has been falsely claimed in fawning, flattering chronicle, 
to have been built by Akbar. 

Aimer with its spacious and massive central palac, ifc c 
mountain fortress ofTaragadh, the mosque half-way up the 
track leading 10 the fort, the other mosque inside the fort, 
sporting two fat stone lamp-posts bristling with brackets- a n ' 
unmistakable feature or an Hindu temple— the so-called 
Moiouddiit Chisti tomb* the Adhai-din-ka-2opda camouflaged 
with Arabic lettering, and the Anoa*Sagar lake are all of pre. 
Muslim Rajpui origin. They have been falsely credited to alieo 
Muslim monarch!. 

Thm tbc Adbai-din-ka-Zopda is the extant part of Vishat- 

dco's seminary has been already established. The Taragadh— a 

Sanskrit name— is a fort of immemorial antiquity, as old as the 

Ajaya-Meru township. The mosque half-way up the mountain 

track was a Hindu temple prior to the capture of the fort by 

the Muslims. The mosquc-cum-tomb on lop, in the Fort was a 

temple Brahmins still get a share in the annual offerings by 

Muslim pilgrims at the shrine. The two lamp posts also testify 

that it was a goddess temple. Bangles, a symbolic offering in 

Hindu worship, are still offered at the altar during the annual 

Muslim festival. The Moinuddin Chisti tomb ties amidst the 

ruins of the fortifications at the foot ofTaragadh. As has been 

observed earlier Muslim fakirs used to occupy captured and 

ruined Hindu mansions. When the fakirs died they were buried 

at the place where they lived. In course of time the sito assum- 

«d importance as a shrine* Except for the triangular mound 

marking the burial place of St. Moinuddin Chisti the entire 

monument is pari of a huge Hindu mansion which came under 

Muslim occupation through conquest and conversion and was 

not built for St. Moinuddin Chisti. 

Hindu Temple* in Mecca 

Another little known fact is that these same arches, dome* 


. ,i «~*,rt*t, were unreduced to the homelands of the 

Mecca Was SUWfflW •' W <-' i»«nra m 

tailed huge temples 360 (InduO idols. 

The term Mecca derives from the't word Makh* U. 

Saalte the ancient Hindus wetc known 10 worship- 
ThM Dre-worsn.p *^ j inate f rom ihat reg.on and 

bc ludg ed fro* Ac *^™ temples are known to eaisl in 

ZZXS^ £.>»*»"* ***■* **■ tCB " n 

even today. 

The central object of Islamic worship in Mecca * stdl he 
Hindu Shiva Lioga. The ancient Hindu nte of eiwiim.ainbntai- 
^^,.«ifol*r«d« atecs by all Muslim pilgrims 
though it does not prevail in any other mosque. 

All the countries from Sukkur to Sue* bear Sanskrit name* 
., ra l!:-« meaning "salty or barren ground ■ » .the 
Iran. Nishapur the birth-place of poer-ph losopber Omar 
Khtvvam is a Sanskrit word, Turkestan (abbreviated as 

abbreviation of Arbasthan which in turn » a eorrupi form of 
Arva" th a n=Und of Horse, (^k^-J* A-, 
sthan changing into Arbasthan is not at a ^f ^ J * 
in Sanskrit has invariably changed into ' b- In Prakrit a* 
"Vaehan" (promise) is pronounced ' Bachan 

Afghan.sthan is also a Sanskrit word which is explained by 
Afghans as the land which provided the transit link betwee . 

India und Central Asia. 

Temples of Ganesh, Shiva and other Hindu deities can still 
be discovered Iving in mini in desolate areas of several i Central 
Asian countries The word "Alta" means Mother or 
"Goddess' in Sanskrit. 

Manuscripts of Narada Smriti and many other ancient Sans- 
krit texts have been dug up from the sands of Asia Minor. All 
this points to the fact that thousands of years before Islam wa* 





e^o born Sanskrit language and Hindu culture held » w . 
,l,e Middle-East Hindu* had built hug* tcmp|«, 7 
|M lace* and mansions all over Central Asia. It ls , h ' ,ne » 
not correct to W lhal the Muslims introduced the dome 
concrete and the arch to India, It was just the opp os .te f 
The Muslim word Gumbaj for dome is Sanskrit Kurnbhaj 

Because Indian mediaeval history had been put in the 

grooves from the very 
architects have all along 

start, archaeologists, historians ajj 
presumed that the mediaeval „, * 
menu ■« oM ot Muslim or ign. That idea and association nu r ! 
lured for the last sin to eight centuries has grown into a monster 
which many antiquarian* find it difficult to shake off. That 
because they started with wrong presumptions and premise* 
They must now unlearn that and begin to associate the dome 
arch and lime concrete as inherent and indigenous features of 
Indian architecture, 

Bijapur"s Whispering Gallery 

The last important monument which 1 now propose to deal 
with specifically is the Gol Gumbaz (The Whispering Gallery) 
of Bijapar. Bijapur is a Sanskrit name and signifies a very 
ancient and flourishing city. It was captured and ruled over by 
the Muslim Adil Shahi dynasty. What is now termed as the 
Got Gumbaz was the ancient Shiva shrine of jhe Lmgayali 
{the local Hindu Community) who are great Shaivaits (wor- 
shippers or Shiva). Around that shrine lie scattered and buried 
innumerable Hindu images. A few of the escavated ones have 
been collected in 4 small museum in a nearby building. 

The acoustic gimmick built-in in the dome which reverbera- 
te! the slightest sound 1 1 times, was intended to produce lb* 

^ida-Brabma, that is phonetic ecstasy, during the great Shiva- 
ratn and other pujas offered to Shiva, Shiva is known for fail 
Tandava Nritya (Cosmic Dance) which is accompanied by » 
gtcat ecstatic din of mridangas. damajni, cymbals, bells and ft 
number of other instruments. It was to reverberate those sound! 
thai Hindu engineers had designed the Gol Gumbaz. Fnr an 
origmal sepulchre no such gimmick is ever thought of because 

k soul bat to rest in peace undisturbed. Moreover who date 


ihlnkof*uehf«uitas!icfiiromieki. never henrd of In Warn, m 
the sombre mood of a sorrowing realm 1 On the other band 
there are a great many dues to believe that It «M a N> 
temple because the entire iurrou»dlng area bears unmistakable 
liens of massive destruction and desolation of Hindu sbnnee. 
The ornamental stone dressing or Iho Got Gumbaz itself has 
apparently been peeled off so thai the soul of the buried 
nonarch may rest in peace. Mr. GXL Joshi, an archMect from 
Nagpur, ha. written to the author that he specially visited the 
Gol Gumbaz on hearing of Ihe authors thesis, and convinced 
himself that «hc Gol Gumbaz ism fact a pte-Mustitn Hindu 
temple built lo the ancient Sbilpa Snail ra specification* and n 
not an original tomb. 

The huge Taj Bavdl and the massive walls around Bijapur 
town are all of prc-Musliro origin. The Adil Shahs only captur- 
ed the place and ruled over it. They destroyed a good many 
buildings and built none ; that is why too there are no palaces 
in their names. 


Spacious lounges, parlours and apartments in medieval 
monuments, are vaguely introduced to the visitors as 
•Madarsas," Under illiterate, mediaeval Islamic regimes in 
India, when all academic instruction was conuned to the recita- 
tion of the Koran, and that too to an infinitesimal section of 
the Muslim population, what rulers— drink and drug addicts as 
they were— would ever build stupendous monuments for 
Madarsas i.e. seminaries ! So the very fact that spacious apart- 
ments in mediaeval monuments arc speciously and nebulously 
palmed off on gullible lay visitors, and unsuspecting scholars, 
as Madarsas is further proof that the mediaeval Indian monu- 
ments which contain many features inexplicable to Islamic 
usage are in fact prc-Muslim Rajput monuments- The name 
Madarsa sticks to those buildings because they were Vedic 

Bibliography I 

I, History of India as Written by lis Own Historians, by Sir 
H>M. Elliot and Prof. Dowson. Vols. I to & 



MriltA Altai""-. Vo "- "° 3 - ■»■■*•" *•« 

m^c-»» «»<• AfI "- A Mol,l, " y Rev,cw ' c< " ,ctl 

ty James Ko*wle*- 
5 Pelcf Muoday * Travels. 

Commenl-f JuS 

9 Tartkb-i^rozsbashi by Sb-mw-SbiiK Afif. 
10." Rambles «d RecoliectioDi of an Indian Official, by 

H Col . W.H-Sleeman. 
,i. Imperial Agra of the Moguls, by Kcshav Chandra 

12, Tarikh-i*Daudi. 

13, Kceae'i Handbook for Visitors to Agra and It* Neighbour* 


14, Maharaihfriya Dnyankosb, Vols. I to 23. 

Blunder No. 2 

Ignoble Akbar Believed Noble 


te c«rr«n< MM "*"* V'Uotte " bjworf" for «X 

f . rter ofAu,»nB«b "» ™ch wo AftMi| , 

«.„««, nave coded «r fo"y d lwMp lhosa oil. u»«l« 

Start M •»**•■*«"* vbicb i. » 
pr««. .o Ita re t" fi *uS«. for . «P««c •«*■ F« from 

the height of academic absurdity. 

^^^^'t^f^ hook thT-Akbar would ha« 

hecouquctof Kaliuga. ould have ^^^ 

his great predecewor't decision to abstain from all further wara 

of aggreasion." 

The view that Akbar's conquests were intended to achwc 

,he great goal or welding the l«>er state* into a great empire, 

Smith dinnisset as just "sentimental rubbish.*' 

A perusal of accounts of Akbar"* reign written by contem- 
poraries like Abul Fazl, Niiamuddin and Badauni and by 
Western icholata like Vincent Smith is enough to convince 
reader thai tlavery in il* most abject forms n>"- 
Akbar and his reign was full of atrocities, lawleimcsi, rcprcs- 
■ion and rdeollesi conquest of a kind rarely paralleled in 






m« at a correct appraisal ° rAkb " ff individuality , t 
^ to review the traditions and the standard «r 

-v-KTofhi-lwwkViiicenl Smith obse-ves "Akbar ^ 

f^tnTm India. He b*d «<* ■ dro P of * nd,an w «* « hii 

!iT- Sii« .how how generations of Indian student, hav , 

Z„ elwaiod into learning by rote and repeatrng in their ;. DS w er 

. AkbmT w ai an Indian and one of the greatest one at 

» was not n> Indian, As for the other part of the myth 

,'he was a great man and ruler we propose to prove in this 
article that he was one of the most detested by even bis nearest 
of kiu and all Indians, lad* therefore, ought to be ranked at 
nieb in Indian histories. 

)n continuation of the above-quoted remark Vincent Smith 
iay» that Akbai was a direct descendant in the 7lh generation 
on his father's side from Tamettaia, and on bis mother's side 
from Change Khan Thus Akbaf was descended from two of 
the most crnet marauders known to history who made tbe earth 
quail during their life times. But Indian historical ««s would 
almost have us believe that Akbar belonged to i family of 
people as saintly as St. Francis of Assisi and Abou ben Adhem. 

On page 29* of Vincent Smiths book it is stated that 
"Intempe ranee was the besetting sin of the Timuroid royal 
family, as it was of many other Muslim ruling houses. Babur 
(was) an elegant toper... Humayun made himself stupid with 
opium— Akbar permitted himself the practice of both vices*.. 
Attar's two younger sons died in early manhood from chronic 
alcoholism, and their elder brother was saved from the same 
fate by a strong const itutioo, not by virtue." 

Akbai 's uncle Kara rati, says Smith, habitually "disgraced 
bimsdf by inflicting on his opponents the most fiendish tor- 
lutes, not sparing even women and children." (Page 15), 

Humayun ihioughoui his life was engaged in deadly combat 
agimn hh own brothers as was usual with all Muslim ruler* in 
lodia He was quite a match for Kamrnn so far as atrocities 
wete flpnotrned. When captured, Kamran was subjected CO 
real torture Smith remarks (p. 20) "Humayun felt Utile con- 
cern for bis brother*! sufferings. Kamran was pulled out of his 

Z* to ride away *U« ***** k aod A * 

^JZ™ «» h f T ^d u^ -d Akbar's own 
?„g down to bh own f*h «rf m ^ . » 


noblest humans ever born, chara ctcristi« 

From tbe description or Ate **gj^ Akbtf. w- ■» 

given by Vincent Smith P- WW ^^ £*£ 

„ B ly. deformed f^*^^ vicioua famdy. Smi* says. 
^ since he belonged *. very ^^ pCfha 

>Akbar (m middle We) was a — |png amed 

Hislcgs were ^^ Ta as if be were lame. His head 

t^TCX^t^m shoulder , be nose was 

I TLL with a bony prominence in the middle, and 
Ta tber *Hfr m* » J A smalJ wart about 

;t common was dark." In spite of such ugly features 
tbe seir-appointed. self-styled sycophant chronicler of Akbar s 
reign Abul Fad, described by his contemporaries as a shame- 
less flatterer", does not tire of asserting that Akbar was the 
"handsomest man on earth." 

History is replete with instances of Akbar's extreme addic- 
tion to strong drinks and stupefying drugs. He also used to 
take liberal helpings of horrifying combinations or both, drugs 
and drinks- Akbar 's son Jahangir records "My father whether 
in his cups or sober moments always called me 'Sftckhu BabiT '. 
This clearly implies that Akbar was very often drunk. Smith 
observes (p. 82) that although panegyrists of Akbar mike no 
mention of his drunken bouts it is certain that he kept up the 
family tradition and often drank more than he could cany. 

Aquaviva, a Jesuit at Akbar'* court, says that Akbar "went 
to such excesses in drinking that he... often fell asleep (while 
talk Lob to visitors), the reason being that he made too much 
«se t sometimes of wrack, an extremely heady palm wine, aad 


g* ****** 

»-«,« of post, a ««''*' P'*P» Mtion of °P iu »n. dlluM „ 

S^i. .to m-tori manhood. On page 244 ,t „ roent| * 

£Xa Akbar had drunk more thin was good Tor hj m g 

£m*° "riou. mad freaks He spec ally fancied . v * 

idy toddy- Ai an iltcroative be wed to take a ip.ccd i oflJli * 

Jolm He followed the practice of bis family for ma 

Lotions ill consuming both strong drink and variou, ^ 

nar.tioos of opium sometimes to excess. Any number «f ^ 

p^gMca could be quoted but this should suffice to conv, Dce 

tbe reader, of Akbar's very vicious habits. It need not be i\ tm . 

cd that a conscience ill at ease with an ever mounting int | er . 

able bQTden of sia alone seeks escape io drugged stupefaction, 

AH batofian* unanimously testify to Akbar's stark tils 
racy. Mis son Jahangir has recorded that Akbar could neit 
read nor write but used to pose as though he was very learn 
It a not 10 much a question of Akbar's posing as ofotheri' 
humouring bim into the belief that all that ho said or did wai 
the outcome of profound wisdom, What else could they do 
when faced with a cruel and unscrupulous, alt-powerful 
monarch ! 

Akbar's life « a good example of a Sanskrit adage which 

Youth* Wealth. Porter and Intemperance 

Each irogly can bring ruin 

What theu when all combine. 

On page 31 Smith says "*Abul Fazl never tires of repeating 
thai Albar during hit early years remained "behind a vert'*- 
Whit he meani Thereby is that Akbar used to spend most of 
his tune in the harem." On page 81 Smith informs us thai 
Aquivm. 'the good (Jcsuttl father had boldly dared te 
reprove the emperor iharply for his licentious relations with 
•omen,,, Akbar blushingly excused himself." Abul Fazl deicr** 
tni Akbar '• harem says, "Ms Majesty baa made a large enclo- 
sure with fine buildmgi inside where he reposes. Though there 
arc more than 5.000 women (in the harem) lie hat given «o each 


(OMoaw *^ WL ioo „ „r course * 


Abul F«1 tdb *« *■** .^Z «f ibe icalm who coH 


lancing girl* **« ™ ^^ have a virgin 
^urtiers. if any well known coumervvan^ ^ ^ ^ 

: h ;; near thepalace The ^»^ ed ^ ^ .nei 

Sii tbe shop could scarcely bee. hofj|e by th e 

number ...TV* dancing g>rl» *•* » . d , h ave a virgin 
D if.«« *ell known courtier w»n« . ame 

courtiers, if any «e« kii« , permission, m «c » 

£ *«*" » rSl hai ? *iiSo and drunkenness »* »*"" 
,2 boys prostituted therme Ives, - an ^miesf cabled some 

Zl Jon led to -Woo* ^^ lw WHO HAD 

DEPRIVED THEM OY TV* i ^ ^ s0 . ca]led 

A percent question would be of ll|llW , 

prtntlwMa T Whcrefrom did m- PWW loCMto 7 

Ldenly descend » Akbar * yea to hke « w£re n0De 

Tbe answer is that «^«^^ T ^^cI we.c daily 
other than decent Hindu women wh^ ase h°n ^^ 

ra ,ded and plundered and after their menfolk w 
massacred or converted were helplessly left to ^ fend ^l 
selves and were exposed to the mercy of sex-hungry wog 
courtiers* „ . 

D«pite an eaclusivc harem of over 5.000 women «diUihe 
virgin "prostitutes" of the realm whose vtrgmity. as Abu JFw 
tells us was at Akbar's exclusive royal command and could not 
be violated without special permission by any courtier 
honour or the wives of noblemen and courtiers was itself always 
subject to Akbar's sexy pleasure. Id Vol. Ill of Atbarnama. 
edited by Sir Jadunath Sarkar, Abul Fazl says 'Whenever 
Bcgami or the wives of nobles, or other women of chaste (sic) 
character, desire to be presented, they first notify their wish to 
the scrvanis of the seraglio and wait for a reply. From thence 
they send their request to the officers of the palace, after which 
those who arc eligible (sic) are permitted to enter the harem. 
Some women of rank obtain permission to remain there for a 
*bolc month/' 

Remembering that Abul Fazl has the reputation of being a 


86 IMD,AN w *Wtic*t nt^ 

"thtmdtt* nsiteref". the above passage is a clear iaV 
ihat Ak&r used to compel wives of courtiers and nohl U 


toward* *hotn he fell sufficiently attracted, to remain w,ihr7* 
hum at least for a month al a lime. ° hJ » 

Tbi» conclusion is further reinforced by a perusal ofrk 
coatHiiant or the treaty of Rantbambhorc. The first condiuo* 
at listed by Vincent Smith, was ''that the chiefs of Buadi {*ho 
owned the fort) be exempt from that custom, degrading to. 
Rajput of tending a dofa (bride) to the royal harem/' Thu 
show* thai Akbar had made it a pernicious custom to demand 
choice women from the household of vanquished foes. Thus aft 
«ooeo 10 ternioriei conquered by Akbar* whether commoner* 
or of noble or royal descent, were at Akbar 's sexual mercy. 

On page a? Smith referring to Akbar's extreme weakness 
for women says "Early in January 1564 Akhar moved io 
Delhi,... While he was passing along a road a man standing JQ 
the balconj of a roadside building discharged an arrow which 
injured Akbar in the shoulder.... Akbar seems to have discourag* 
ed attempts to ascertain the assailant's accomplices. He was 
then engaged in a scheme of marrying ladies belonging to 
Deli i families, and had compelled one Sheikh to divorce his 
Me in bis favour. The attempted assassination ..was probably 
prompted by resentment at the royal invasion of the honour of 
fimiliei AKBAR. throughout his life allowed himsrir ample 
latitude in the mailer of wives and concubines !" 

from tbii sordid record it seems clear that since Akbar had 
an e>e on Bairam Khans wife, and married her soon after 
Bairam Khan was murdered, Akbar must have caused i 
violent and tragic end of his erstwhile guardian. 

On page 37 Smith describes how Akbar's commander 
AOham Kbao after defeating Ba* Bahadur, Ihe ruler of 
Mandavgid. tent to Akbar "nothing ciccpt a few elephants, 
reserving for himself the women and choicest articles of the 
Akbar left Agra on April 27. 1561, and with forced 
nuKhea surprised Adnata Khan just to get for himself the 
"omen of Baz Bahadurs harem. Akbar's harem was thus 
being constantly swelled by hundreds of women, The lot of 

„ N oaU U*. — » *- ^ cculd BO t have been, 


22 r= i-% «< T^Z oa ^ .* wh, h 

1>i> P° int » t0 ^oan errand. The garbled verston of 
Bhagwaadas, was sent on *n *mn ead ^ ^ way HlS 

the incident says that J^" *^ perilous days prepnr- 
w ,dow no longer desiring to hve ■■J^f a^bar lost no 

3 io bur, herself on ^^'X^ «"*■« *"! 
ii« in chasing those who ^^^ ion fc ukcly to reveal 

C^^says -Onmon, -— J-^ 
bad conned bimself to one wife and £^ *'£££. 
sorts among the courtiers boot .^^tty confirm^ t 
sources '. This adds a new dimension to *»«* ^ ^ 
oecause it reveals how women were cons^red as me e cbj.« 
io be freely exchanged among Akbar and his cour Uers in a 
eomlnuouLerry-go -round of «^J*~"E 
in a mutton market being freely pulled this side and that bet 
ween the vendor and the customer in commercial haggling- 

Then there was the notorious Institution of Meena Bazar 
according to which on the New Year's day the women of aU 
Hindu households bad to be paraded before Akbar for his 
choosing. Any number of these sickening tales of every conceiv- 
able form of lechery can be found in the accounts of Akbar & 

Akbar's Cruelty 

In cruelty Akbar should rank among the greatest sadists of 

Vincent Smith says (p. 20) that in privately executing 
Kamran's son (namely Akbar's own cousin) at Gwalior in 1565 
"Akbar set an evil example, imitated on a large scale by bis 
descendants Shahjahan and Aurangzcb." Toe atrocities per- 


.i.hi<h*i> * od Auran ** eb *'"" 1bei * f *«. not 
^jtd by SMhJW WB ||. W om traditions handed ^ 

5* — gsSS •«£«•' Akbar - ,! cou,d . 7* havc ^ 

t,, u>«r illustrious w bct , eve (bat huma mty shed ,t s m ed} ^ 
otherwise bee*"** " W3J . S ovct a number of generai,o D| 

cvl ? aadiy *"« U0 J cr ' ( bree generations removed f rom 

(bc0 Akbar w *° ** ZCD must be many tiroes more cruel thao 
.shabjafaan and Aur ■ Evfln lhis S i m p]e truth is ignored by 
bl> worthy (J) d^ n nMstory who have perpetuated *> e 
•Dialled scholars 01 *«««» 
At" Akbar "s greatness, 

A i«6 the day after the battle of Pinipai 

K°Cu C ^it 'before Akbar. wounded and .emt, 
.hen Hrmu was w J ^ ^ ^ ^.^ 

SSiK^SN- ^ 14 years of age Hvea 
ay. Smith, Akbar coward , y fciiu of hc 

after the battle of Panipat Akbar'a victorious force, 
"marched straight to Delhi, which opened its gates to Akbar, 
who made his entry in state. Agra also passed into his posses- 
sion. fa accordance with the ghastly custom oftbc limes, a 
tower was bull w.lh the beads of the slain. Immense treasures 
were taken with the family nf Hemu, whose aged father was 
execuled." (p 30 of Smith's book). 

In suppressing Khan Zaman's revolt his confidant 
Mohammad Mirak "wu tortured for five successive days on 
tbe execution ground. Each day he was trussed up in a wooden 
frame and placed before one of the elephants. The elephant 
caugbi him id his trunk and squeezed him and flung bim from 
one tide to the other.... Abul Fail relates this horrid barbarity 
without a word of censure" (p, 58), 

After the capture of Cbittor, says Smith (p. 64) *' Akbar, 
exasperated by tbe obtiinaie resiitance oneicd to bis arm*. 
Ue jfl* te g * Triwo ro< * tow n with merciless seventy— Th* 
C ?K!S„ OI(UfflJ * |cncfal m *»»cw which resulted in the death 
of 30.000 Many »ere made prisoners." 

TW attstwt indictment of Akbar is perhaps presented by 


IOKOBLE **■** BB * 

Hamzabao, a military $13 

•ibyAkbwlV«b.«««orb»ioi»i^ ^ fear wfeo fcid 

Masud Hussain Mir**, a near W a ^ Qtber 

rim in revolt, had b.s eyes se ™ ^' Akbar < V ith tbe skins of 

inherited from his Tartar ancestors, says buna 

j e t-A in the battle of Abmedabad. 
When the Miraa was defeated .nth e w me 

Sept- 2, 157*. ^ pyramid was bail w.tb the heads 
rebels, more than 2,000 in number. Cp. 8b). 

When the ruler of Bengal Daud Khan was defeated 
"following «he barbarous custom or the times (^*» co » 
J; d" Munim Khan) massacred his Prtf^^J^J 
w c re sufficiently numerous to furnish eight «ky high m .naret* 
(Akbarnama in, 180). When Daud overcome with thirst asked 
for water "they filled his slipper with water and brought it 
to him." 

These instances should suffice to convince the reader that 
Akbat'i whole reigo is a continuous tale of hornd cruelties. 
Smith's account of Akbar's reign contains numerous instances 
of Akbar's perfidy. On page 57 he says '"An extraordinary 
incident which occurred in April while the royal camp was at 
Thancsar, the famous Hindu place of pilgrimage to the north 
of Delhi, t'.srows a rather unpleasant light upon Akbar'i 

"The Sanyasins assembled at the holy tank were divided 

into two parties, called the Kurs and Puris. The leader of the 

latter complained to the King that the Kurs had unjustly 

occupied the accustomed sitting place of the Puns who were 


INDIAN MlSTORf CAt n tlfc 

ihu* debarred from collecting the pilgrims" afro*." T , 
nked fo decide ihc issue by modal combat. They were d r * 
op on either side with their arms drawn. In ihe fight 1 ?.* 
ensued the combatants used swords, bows and arrows 
$ron«, "Akhar seeing that I he Puris were outnumbered a * Bd 
(be signal 10 some of his more savage follower* lo help J? 
maker party." This was something worse than i he Acsor,' 
fable of the two quarrelling cats approaching a monkey J 
divide between them a lump of cheese, In (his fight between 
the two Hindu Saovasin sects Akbar saw to it that both Wer 
ultimately annihilated by his own fierce soldiers, M Tbe chroni. 
cler unctuously adds'ifaat (Akbar) was highly delighted with thJi 
■port." remarks Smith. 

At the battle of HaJdigbal when Akbar'$ forces were ranged 

against Rana Pra lap's it was mainly a fight between Rajput and 

Rajput because Akbar by his demoralizing atrocities had tcrrj. 

tied a number of Rajput chiefs into submission, and through 

them sought to subdue the proudest of the clan, Rana Pratap. 

At a lime when the sides were locked in battle and it was not 

easy to distinguish between Rajputs allied with Akbar, and 

those opposing him, Badauni fighting on Akbar's side, asked 

Akbar's commander where to shoot so that be may hit only the 

enemy. The commander replied it did not matter, he could 

merrily shoot in the midst of the Rajput armies and whoever 

was killed, it was a gain to Islam. With thai assurance, says 

Badauni, he had no difficulty and be started shooting with gay 

abandon secure m the belief thai no precautions were 


After the capture of Chiitor, says Col. Tod, "Akbar defaced 
every monument that bad been spared by the earlier conquerors. 
Akbir was long ranked with Shihabuddin, Allauddin and other 
inmrumenti of destruction and with every just claim, and like 
these he constructed a number (pulpit or reading desk in i 
mosque) for the Koran from the deity of Eklinga (the hereditary 
pod ofthe Rajput)" This gives the lie to the assiduously 
loitered view that Akbar was tolerant towards the Hindus and 
fwpeeted their deiiies, 

"In or about A.D. 1603 Akbar who was us:d lo retire to 


r r «*t happened to emerge earlier 
hh room in *• afternoon for rest " ppe ^ ^ 

' bB „*as ejected and . *to >™« ^ ^ U 
v„nts. When »»« «"• »^ T ' £ 5|ee p close to the royal couch 
btt p,e» l^^^Sr cS^ri him to be thrown from the 
En ^ n/wa* M taio a thousand pieced 
tower, uod he was an Avar's D0 licy with 

O. ,*. .45 »d .4* <*«*«£& A ^ n ?„r y A. *« 

reg .,d to d» ~'» ™ , ^approach** «• » u " to 
ve ,y mom«»< «h« am ownw ' «« PP ^ lfmy 

IO MPlure tb« Europe." pom. Tte u who pre , 

fr/V'^rt 1 ;""^^ wbiJ,,, orac riDg 
hostilities." -^ 

but had no hope of victory, says Vincent smitn ip. f"' 
S^ofwd to rcYy on those arts of-intrigue and guile : m which he 
eicelkd He. therefore, invited *n.g Miran Bahadur (of Asts- 
ga S to come out for an interview, sweating on hit own royal 
head that the visitor would be allowed to return m pea<* 
Miran Bahadur accordingly came out wearing a scarr in a way 
signifying Amission... .Akbar sitting motionless as a statue.... 
As Miran Bahadur did reverence thrice and was advancing, a 
Moghui officer caught him by the head and threw him down 
forcing him to perform complete prostration...* ceremony on 
which Akbar laid much stress. He was held in custody and 
asked lo send an order in writing to ihe Tort commandant to 
surrender The latter refused to surrender and sent his son to 
ask for the king's release, The youth, asked whether his father 
was willing to surrender the fort, gave a spirited retort on 
which he was stabbed. The fort commander, informed that bis 
son had been done to death, addressing the garrison to defend 
the ran to the last man. strangulated himself with a scarf. This 
instance will prove that nothing was too mean for Akbar and 
that his perfidy could stoop to abysmal depths. 

Lust for wealth, women, territory and power was the chief 
motive for Akbar's conquests, to the Ranthambhorc treaty wc 
Have seen that the vanquished were always compelled lo* 




, f mC ir women »* * kbflf ' ? n M «**'*> wiU, Ak . 
|Uf rcnd«r *«* B Bthadur we have already obst rvc ?^ 

Mt * r * "ST * the way from Agra, to make him ttn ^ 
^^frornB^B^dur-i harem that the ^ 

Sipp«prii^ terl,i,n " ,f - . 

unn turd «o Akbar's campaign against Bund elkoaodsfu,, 
jS-ih Lhi <PP- 50-51) «AkWe attack * \ 
Z* character so noble was mere aggression, wholly ^ 
Sd land devoid of all justification other than the lust for 
!Zue.7 and p1under....Akbar*s annexions were the ret^ 
TrrJkmely action tupported by adequate power. Tb e 
|KK""-» i u5 «°' - the eKcellent gove., 
^ of RauiDurgavati was made on the pnncipte , wh* 
Lrtmoed the subsequent annexions of Kashmir. Ahmad. 
n «TL other kingdom,. Akbar felt no scruples about* 
WH* «r»d once he had begun a quarrel he h,t hard 
without mercy....His proceedings were much the same « 
those of other able, ambitious kings." 

Describing Akbar's waoton attack against Rana Pratap of 
Mewar. Smith remarks (p. 107> "It is not necessary to adduce 
any partlculir incident is supplying a motive for the attack on 
tbe Rana. The campaign of 1576 was intended to destroy the 
Rana. and cruib anally his pretensions to stand outside ohhe 
empire The emperor desired the death of the Rana and the 
absorption of his territory," 

A proper understand iug of the struggle between Rana Pratap 
andlAkber should by itseir be enough for any judicious observer 
to condemn Akbar as a rank aggrandizes Since the two wen 
working at cross* purposes and were opposed to each other id 
dead!} combat a student or history cannot escape the responsi- 
bility of adjudging one of them u representing the forces of 
injustice, tyranny and repression. Since Rana Pratap was a »» 
of tbe toil fighting agaiott unprovoked aggression it ft« t0 * 
maiicaUy follows that Akbar must be charged with wanton 
row-slaughter and other crimet in attacking principality aRer 
J«»paht>. Kn& yet curiously enough Indian history «« 
te»0r loaded with Akbaf » eulogies representing him **<>* 

order f " W ine*s a* d *™ , doin g obei ^"." lhal bc . was 
„d th« o" »° faience *» s - *"" to himself unbridled 

that in his Q 7V : , .* - . 

finite and the lofimte- 


finite and the Infinite. ,, feiUire wrote m 

Fal ber Monsenate descnbmg to rn thal Jalalu dd.n 

SOULS P* . ttih ,, . n e Jesuits had 

j^tr-rsr "- • • - - 

dalC " nftce 153 "The truth is that Akbar's pre- 

Smith observes ospiljl^ ' - 0Q of hls per- 

tended Religion" consists e**nuall « ^ ^^ 

sonal supremacy over ^ f Xo"io n to His Majesty con- 
temporal. The four degree* of devotion o > ^ 

.uted of readiness to sacrifice property, lire, honour 
giorr."(p. 1S4). 

"Notwithstanding the fine phrases about genets) tolcreo* 



9* - ""■■Aieii 

which occupy w l*'*c a space in (he writings of AM f w1 
ihe tayinr of A**» many acts of fierce intolerance ^ 
oomrairrcd." (p. 1*9) 

AIvmii Akbar's political, slum religion, Smith remarks ( D 
160) "The whole scheme was the outcome of 'ridiculous v «nj,J' 
a monstrous growth of unrestrained autocracy." 

Xavicr, a Jesuit « Akbar's court, gives a typical in« lneB 

of Akbar'a perfidy in making people drink water in which hit 

feel bio* been washed. Xavjer writes, says Smith (p. ig?) 

Akbar posed "as a Prophet, wishing it to be understood thai 

he works miracles through healing the sick by means of the 

water in which be washes his feet." A footnote oa the same 

page quotes a contemporary chronicler. Badauni, to say that 

this special type of humiliation was reserved by Akbar only fo r 

Hindus. Says Badauni "if other than Hindus came, and wished 

to become disciples at any sacrifice, His Majesty reproved 


Women in abject misery and sheer desperation subjected to 
rape, plunder and torture used to approach Akbar as a last 
retort laying their children a t his feet and begging for mercy. 
Repression in several forms being daily routine, as observed 
above, tfcere always used to be a crowd of women and children 
at Akbar's court gate. But wily nobles interpreted this to the 
Jesuits at Akbar's court as their coming to seek Akbar's bless- 
inp as a high priest, "Blessings" tbey certainly sought, but not 
in the tejBc in which it has been cunningly interpreted. The 
women and children louglit some relief from hellish torture and 
tyranny let loose on them. 

Akbar 'i having married many Rajput women is often trotted 
out ai a glorified instance of his spirit of so-called conciliation 
and tolerance. Thii is adding insult to injury and pulling a 
premium on lechery. It has been amply illustrated above that 
Akbar considered hit entire realm as a huge harem, and that be 
sought I he women of all he vanquished, through coercion and 
compulsion. Thai was one of his devices to make the humili- 
ation of his vkli mi complete, Dragging Hindu women into 
tbejr harems had been a pcrnicioui tradition with all invaders. 
AJtbar, for »everal reasons had a penchant for it. To parade 




^Thl "«*« «"«" d k b " ": t d,bJvtt mwn.y.on 

,ho .peciou* pl"» "»" Ind ,„ ^nd Miflfertrcc allowed a VMl 
£?t ou. of 1°"™'%^ from <ha< of the rig 
tiori.y.oP-«'«;^ t hou g ' 8 .hcirnosc for ,ri. -to- 
, te ,(«heP«opl«)^JJ but ieligious blackma.1 »1 

*£ *££ C *""« on his hdp,ess subJ , 

Akbar far fro m being « £* * J f ^^^ «.„, 

*-*! ^UpUoo (ta. -he JiOy. for » .«-■ 
stipulated for special w p , fc j^. 

£ ffisESaft .5- .** * -sa 

TheSaTha Proves that people were compelled off and 
I * a* or JccXemption from the Jiziya. Moreover even 
^Mbar rn.ght have sent an occasional visitor across the court 
threshold happy in the thought that the visitor s request for 
exemption from the Jiziya had been sanctioned, we have by 
now learnt enough of Akbar's ways to believe that it was any- 
thing but an empty assurance from a wily host. 

-Worlds Must Hated Person 

For from the angel that he is being represented la b* In 
Indian history Akbar wa* perhaps the world's most hated 
person. Such was the resentment that everybody felt that nume- 
rous persons from his own sod lahangir downwards attempted 
to murder Akbar. 

Smith deicribcs on page 220 "Throughout the year 1602 the 
prince (Sail m) continued to hold court at Allahabad and to 
maintain royal slate as king of the provinces which he had 
usurped. He cinphaaiicd his claim to royalty by striking both 





fold and copper money, specimens of which he had 
dcncc ro «nd to his father. He sent 1 hi* a< u, he lm pik 
Mohammad, to Kabul. *s his envoy to negotiate wh^a Do i1 
tmpage 237 Smith relfs us "Jabangir's rebellion, ^tu T ' 
must have resulted in hit parent's death." In a f 0ut CCeM, ui, 
page 233 dealing wjib Akbar's death it is stated "It |°° Ie Q » 
that Salim ardently desired hi* father** demise.'* * tn ^h 

A footnote on page 191 says '*As early as 159 1, whe 
was suffering for s time from stomach-ache and col * f 
expressed suspicion that bis eldest son had poisoned'^' ^ 
Prince Salim* who became tired of waiting for the crown w h 
to obtain Portuguese support in his intended fight f f J 



On page 276 Smith tells the reader, "Akbar usualiy 
rebellion somewhere or the other on his hands and the 
recorded outbreaks of disorder in the provinces, summari? 
dealt with by the Faujdara, must have been innumerable." 

Among Akbar's own supporters who revolted against hits 
one by one were Bairam Khan, Khan Zaman, Asaf Khan, Shah 
Mausur (the Finance Minister) and all the Mirzas that is, bleed 
relations of the royal family. 

Akbar's Murders 

On page 250 Smith tells us of historian Wheelers assertion 
that Akbar kept a paid official whose duty it was to poiira 
people who incurred Akbar's fatal displeasure- According to 
tome historians Akbar died of poison pills he mistakenly took 
but had intended for Man Singh. 

In a footnote on page 249 Smith lists persons who were 
secretly eieculcd or poisoned by Akbar : 

1. Secret execution of Kamran's son at Gwalior, 1565. 

2. The highly suspicious deaths of Makhdum-i~Mulk and 
Sheikh Abdur Nabl after their return from Mecca. The Ikbal- 
nama expressly states that the latter wag put to death hf Abul 
Fail in pursuance of Akbar's orders, 

3 The equallv amnicious death of Masum Faranghudi. 

tffiLllVED NOBt-E 

a FicCU' ,on 0I . 

l r-aok«"» CH"""""- "■ „ IH Ilk) to add Ike ™ u ' d " 

Sro Uh ^*^" m od« of ««cu.,o» ,.*«•*- 

ZpH^^lZ^L^yoric^. Norecorda c 
, of 8 r«t « «'«J c w rimingl werc kept Persons ac.,06 » 
proceeding' civil or cr n. AkbM encou „ ge d 

[u6 6 e S .ho U6 M«' a ff h " or f; < ;; a or „ execution ground are 

s&js**" - * *■ Mpks ° f ,he AkbarMraa 

South Kensington. 

. Akbar's Avarice ^ f ww 

u AB wrfate a contemporary oi ft*""' =°J 
Monscmtca ^ f money" On page 263 Smith 

ct'. aid ruthlessly seized the entire property of every decea^d 
who e family bad to make a **** «""»■«" «** 
goodwiHofthc emperor. (P. 252) Akbar was a bard beaded 
man or business, not a sentimental philanthropist, and his 
whole policy was directed principally to the acquisition of 
power and riches. All the arrangements about jagirs, branding 
(horses) etc were devised for the one purpose namely, the 
enhancement of the power, glory, and riches of the crown," 

Though Akbar's mother died just over a year before Akbar 
it\ after Akbar had made all his conquests and hoarded 
immense wealth through usury and repression, yet he could not 
resist the temptation of flouting her dying wish. Describing 
this on page 230 Smith says "The deceased left in her bouse a 
large treasure and a will directing that it should be divided 
among her male descendants. Akbar. -was too fond of money to 
withiUnd the temptation of annexing her wealth, the whole of 




.hich he appropriated without regard to the term* or 

v.ll ' 

India* perverted history has ail along striven hard to den 
lDdia -* alien rulers bedecked with glories borrowed f rom *£ 
Mu$l ,m l^ian rulers descriptions. A remarkable instance * 

such e graft « 4 fouod i0 3CC0unts of Akbar * s r «igo. In imitation 
or what n said of King Vikramaditya a myth assiduously r i s , t<j 
on mediaeval Indian history is that Akbar had a similar g a | axy 
of nine talented men called the nine gems of his court. That 
Akbar did not consider them anything better than a group of 
idiots, is «eo in a characteristic remark of his (p. 258) in wn j ctl 
be says Tt was the £ racc of God tlmt l founo no capabl 
muusier othtrwiac people would have considered that 
measures had been devised by them." 

'Ntae Gems' A Myth 

Eyen otherwise all these much publicised men were men of 
no worth. Todar Mai, was associated with devising a peraici. 
ous system of "screwing 1 ' money out of people, to extract 
which they had to be flogged and to remit which they had to 
sell their wives and children- Abul Fazl had the reputation of 
being a "shameless flatterer" and was got murdered by the 
crown prince Salira himself, Faizi. who died a premature death, 
was a mediocre poet boosted up in a court where sycophant 
flattery flourished at its worst. About him Smith remarks 
(p. 301-302) "Blochmann held that after Amir Khusro of Delhi 
Muhammaden India has seen no greater poet than Faizi . 
Ad mittmg the justice of Blochmann 's verdict, lean only say 
that the other poets of Muhammaden India must be worth very 
little.' Birbal died in a battle. He was supposed to have been 
given a Jagu which he never enjoyed. The much extolled wit. 
humour and repartee ascribed to him are in fact the work of 
tome wag who used Btrbal's name sad court associations as a 
fictitious stalking horse. Shah Mansur, the so-called Finance 
Minister, was executed at Akbar 's order by Abul Fazl himself- 
So from beginning to end it is such a sickening tale that these 
much vaunted nine gems' turn out to be hapless individuals 
caught up in the infernal machine of a corrupt and rcpre*si vc 


|0frt >BLr AKB AB 

«, urvED NOBLE 



Bhogwanda* once 

5 ,abbed himself in disgust because 

qf his situation i 

n which he had given many 

tw*« *?J£%L*t tappn^d to take *• PO'»« P'»' 


tv mistake- Jag*l 

was in all probability 

b¥ m « »i. mnifed to Jahang.r, was in a" p.««.u .», 
S5TJ5 ^ one edition of Jahangirnama itj.«at^ 

.fasted for « days' and 

while in another she a 

Ut'ed suicide by taking poison. It is known 

not enough to kill a woman, and 

is notorious as a tissue of lies- 

have been a very cruel and 


stated to have commv 
xW ,hree day's fasting 
moreover Jahangirnama itself 

SSffs^ Afghan, murdered, and could look upon 
w ?th pl«sure at the sight of a man being flayed ahve. 

Daswaoth; a young painter, at Akbar's court stabbed him- 
«lf to death. Alt such suicides by Hindus have been represent- 
ed in contemporary Muslim records, as having been committed 
in a fit of madness. This description is literally true tn another 
sense namely that conditions in Mogul courts were so intoler- 
able that the Hindus driven to desperation by the loss of their 
culture, honour, property, women, sanctity of their homes, and 
religion were driven to ma^> - and death. Todarmal, in spite 
of hi* having sold his conscience ,o Akbar, in devising a system 
to fleece the subjects, had all his private altar, to which as an 
orthodox Hindu he was very much attached, removed together 
nilh the idols he worshipped. To an orthodox Hindu in those 
days, when idols were not to be touched, even by persons in the 
same household without a bath and holy attire, summary 
removal of all idols by Muslim iconoclasts was a mortifying 
sacrilege. And yet such acts were encouraged by Akbar even 
with regard to persons like Todarmal who had mortgaged and 
losi all their honour in Akbar'* service. In disgmt Todarmal* 
therefore, resigned and left for Banaras. 

Prayag and Banaraa Plundered 

On page sk Smith says "Akbar then marched to Piayag and 

1 01 

JW "TO"" HIITOMCtt. ^ A ^ 

OD to B.n*«». *W# **« uodcred bccftUS * People * Cri 
m r» enough to close their gates. 

This explain* whyPrayag ha* no river ghats and a^ 

Slliwofpraciiimg advocate!. But for then, Allah aS > tt(l 
JU a bleak appearance. At an ancient holy pl tttt , „ nCft| 

Dot be stressed thai Prayag had excellent, towering river ghau 

0B both ijdr* of the Ganga und Yamuna along with its magni , 

Boml fori. The demolition or Prayag's magnificent ghais out. 

rivalling thofc at Baneras, and many mansions and numerous 

itmpies roust be laid squarely at the door of Akbar. Contrary 

popular belief the famous Kasbi Vrshwanath temple m 

Banara* was first desecrated by Akbar when be wreaked 

vengeance on ill people in fact no question of even vengeance 

The Indian people are traditionally known for their 

ejurcme devotion to royally. Hod Akbar's visit been harmless 

ii could not have occasioned any other feelings amongst 

Banara* residents except those of the deepest reverence. But 

from the very fact thai they slammed their doors against Akbar 

it ti clear that his entry into Banaras must have beat occasion- 

ed by lecherous and rapacious motives. 

Slavery la Its Worst Torms 

We have already seen that Akbar insisted on complete prcs- 
tratioa by all and sundry before him- He made people drink 
the water in which he washed his feet. He also made people 
drink water on which he had breathed. Ralph Filch, a contem- 
porary English traveller has recorded that William Lcedcs. an 
English jeweller at Akbar's court was "given a house and five 
Uim." On page 147 Smith says "Aquaviva (the Jesuit) had 
obtained mere sustenance throughout his stay at court. While 
leaving, therefore, the only boon be asked was to take with him 
a family of Russian slaves father, mother, two sons and cerlam 
dependenii who had been among Mohommadens so long as to 
be Christians in name onlv." This shows that Akbar held 
innumerable slaves of various nationalities. 

Oo page 159 Smith avers that "In the years 1581-82 a large 
number of Sheikhs and Fakirs, apparently those who resist* 1 *' 
innovation, wetc e*iled. mostly to Kandahar, and exchanged 

Ll *>*» &** 1 " "^ ' « c m Ub also describe. 
|OH oai-L *■* slaved." Sim* •» ^ up 

Kn^rf^f^u ,—t«* r„d Th« ""'soever 

I-"* "J^Tw* » utom ? M Ve« "onnd ««*« brand- 
owned » wnwtof " . lhc realm 1&**" ™Z j^een H« 

A k b»r. A" ,he h °"" ' , norse round h.»« i » b „., 

^ T „ u( « m ano«n,og ^^ ,„ be «. « 

"", .j, va And if he retained the *°™ d lo p.,. 

Rented horror. "*\™"°££Z*ta~* *Hh H» 
P ol .r,.li.y«"«°" n0U h ^ o 2 w 7' k r d.nd the .pp«rancc of 
own eyes .hat nten ».« ' *"^ k « one cou ,d steely look 
taiined sufferers was so hideous in* husbanda- 

from »he risk of famine suffered severely for iix m 

1S7> T4. Pestilence as ^'W'^^^^S. 
lants rich and poor, fled the country and were scat tered abroad 
AbuIFazI with characteristic vagueness "f^ lUa \ D J 5 " 
or 15S4. as prices were high on account of the dryness >t toe 
year, the means of subsistance of many people came to an coo. 
If we may judge (sayi Smith) from the slovenly way m wlncn 
he treats the tremendous calamity of 1595-98 we may infer 
that the famine of 1583-84 was serious, h docs not seem lo be 
mentioned or even alluded to by other chroniclers 

"The famine which began in 1 595 and lasted three or four 
yean until 1598 equalled in ils horrors the accession yeai and 
excelled the visitation by reason of its longer duration. Inunda- 



1« < ■ -""-"■■ "^ 

pion and epidemics occasionally marred Akbar' t 


ei to . 

Smith dwmi .bat when Akbar died, in Agra fort „, 
bad left iwc»t> million sterling m cash. There were ^.7 
bowA.tof&Ollttfertl* And yet Akbar doe* not * * 
h,*r taken any ftmiW relief measures. Descriptions to ,!* 
^ntnrv fell bv Abul Fail arc dismissed as mere flattery. 
Attar* Marriages Were Brought Aboul by Blackmail 

It bus been wrongly and felseJy asserted and assumed ttai 
ALbai's marriages with Kajput princesses were brought about 
with the rarj noble aim of bringing about communal unity ^ 
ntnnony. This claim can be debunked by asking the si m p| e 
question whether Aibar ever offered his own daughters 
and niece* or sisters in marriage 10 Hindu chiefs and noble* 
men ! 

Secondly ft is aMutd to suggest that the brave Rajputs w| 
preferred mass burning of their women rather than let the 
fall in the hands of an alien gentry given to extreme drinking 
dragging and sex-orgies, felt proud in offering their daught 
to Akbar and hi* kinsmen ? 

Let us talc the instance of the Jaipur royal family which 
bid 10 surrender many of its daughters 10 the Mogul rulers. 

An account of how the Jaipur rulers were coerced into 
tending their daughters to (he Mogul harem is found on 
paget6l to 63 of Dr. Ashirbadi Lai Srivastava's book tilled 
"Akbar the Great'*. Vol. I. 

The bane of Indian historical scholarship has been the 
reluctance or nubility to draw ihe right, logical conclusion* 
from all known facts. Dr. Srivastava's account of Akbar's cap- 
ture of tie Jaipur princess, is a typical instance. 

The rol story of how Akbar terrorized the royal house of 

lipur to pan with the.r beloved daughter for being locked up 

Wad a burqa in a teeming Mogul harem, has been carefully 

torn to bits and conveniently went under the royal rug of 

Akbar 1 bed chamber. 

* abali piece together the fragments of that bushed "P 


l0 „OB t .*^» E " BVEDWOnlJ 

r *tWi commanders who orgatu- 

Sn.rfuddm ™* one of Akbar * com ^ fey Raja 

* d S2S raid, *•*« ^ ?££%«* Sbarfuddin «u 

.bie to capture three of BharjaK P ^ ily tb ca 

and Kbangar- They we c P « out . of .the-way place called 
tenedwith torturous death *[ * n ° ^ ^ (Bharmal) 

Sarobbar. ^ SnvastavW ma he! pics, condition sought the 


paid, bad to be euphemistically described as dowry Bu Jhn 
is no reason why scholars of today should feel compelled to per- 
petuate the myth. 

Dr. Srivastav has further stated that "After a day's stay at 
Sambhar Akbar marched rapidly to Agra/* Near Rantham- 
bhore BbarmaTs sons, grandsons and other relatives were intro- 
duced to Akbar. These lurid details put the whole episode in- 
to bold relief. It is well known that in the 16th Century a royal 
wedding was an elaborate affair lasting tor months. And yet 
Akbar had no more time to spare than a day's wayside halt for 
this pTcudo-marriage. And obviously none of Bharmai's rela- 
tives attended the humiliating surrender of a royal princess' 
honour and chastity as is apparent from the fact that Bharmai's 
sons, grandsons and other relatives were introduced to Akbar 
at Ranthambborc- 

Ir was this initial marital grip which enabled the Mogul* 
to force Jaipur to pan with its other daughters on demand 

As soon as Bharmal had been forced to cede his daughter to 
A*nar the Utter put his commander Sharfuddin on another 




H ' Sl0 ^CA l ^ 

*,mil»r blackmailing mission namely the reduction of . 
ctpaHiy of Mcrt*. •wiv 

All marital connexions with other Rajpm fuh|)g h 
were the remit of similar coercion. History f s Wple . "«% 
uar«r* of many a helpless daughter or sister bei Dg ,*^ * 
a1rt y under the very nose of reluctant and helpless paW*" 11 
guardians by Man Singh and other henchmen of Akbar ^ 
abductions and kidnappings have been glorified in hj* 5 i , 
Akhars noble, inter-communal marriages brought abc-u^ * 
(he lofty aim of bringing about peace, harmony and unity. 

Duty of Indian UnlwrsWes 

In vie* or the above observations it is the duty of | ^ 
universities to scrap all references to Akbars greatness froon 
educational textbooks, and institute chairs to bring otii ft. 
horrid truth Jiboul Akbar's tyrannical regime. FromSmiU'j 
account it is cleat that Akbar deserves to be ranked witb the 
world's most hated rulers. 

Bibliography : 

1. Akbar the Great Mogul by Vincent Smith. 

2. Akbar the Great, Vol. 1, by Dr. Ashirbadi Lai Stivuiavi. 

3. Akbar by MM* Shelat. 

4. Akbaroama by Abul Fazl, Bibliotbeca Indica series. 

5. Commcntarius. 

6. Annals of Rajasthan by Co!. Todd. 

1- India's History As Written by Its Own Historians, El 
ami Dowson, Vols. 1 to 8. 

Slundtr N& 

Misplaced Faith in Mediaeval _ 

j* «at*t A i4Ml research has been the 
A0 o.h«b| U ..J«of fa*« . *-" -„ 2J» chKmteles . 

Thc« chronicle* «« m,>i " y . "~ lmls „a in which Ihc ft" 
tiicraie people coiMceml wiih U« '°^ t ^ „ tev of (heir owt 

S£S3« W? — 2*! m ^ 

therefore, be regarded as supplement* 


Arabian Nights than 

is only incidental, and would have »»*~**2£2 
moit caution after firm corroboration by "**^™**™ 
Such truth would be as difficult to find as a needle, in an haj 


Warnings of this kind have been uttered by discerning and 
serious historians even before but have not been heeded. For 
instance the late Sir H.M. Ellioi says in the Preface to his eight 
volume critical study of mediaeval chronicles that the History 
of the Muslim era in India, is an 'Impudent and interested 

In his address to the All India History Congress session held 
at Allahabad, in 1938, Dr. Surendranatb Sen, a sectional presi- 
dent, similarly observed : 

*"Here I deem il necessary to sound a note of warning. There 
is a tendency i,» certain quarters to treat everything written in 
Persiuo a* a prima:) source of history. Nothing can be more 
ridiculous^.. The chroniclers weie mainly interested in the court 
and the military aristocracy. Some of them deliberately sought 
ilic patronage of the ruling sultan and the principal nobles. 



TV M»U» wtiicn were seldom free from religious bin tu 
nude them indirTcrent to the culture of the Hindus, The H ' 
was i deluded misbeliever doomed to eternal perdition u^ 

r-iryibat inspire of These defects the Persian chronicle* t » 
onr>Tm« to influence the historical works of India." " 

m religious bit, n 
nude ihem inditTcremi to the culture of the Hindus, Th* ■» tt1 


ian cr 

af India/ 

Dr. S,N Sen then wear on to quote Dr. Tcssitorl, the gre 
liiluD scholar to say that "The history of mediaeval India hai 
been so far compiled chiefly from the works of Muslim hisior 
ni who rcpTcieni the Rajput princes in an unfavourable light* 
calling ihem infidel dogs, headstrong rebels, etc Bearing such 
unfriend t> feci inn 'be Monammaden historians never do full 
justice to the important role which Rajput princes played in 
unpens! campaign*,.,."* 

The shove two extracts should be enough lo highlight two 
bts; failings of ihc mediaeval Muslim chroniclers : One was ihat 
tan »rote their chronicles not out of a literary urge lo leave 
innhful accounts of contemporary happenings for posterity hut 

I run ai*>frmding. They were mainly interested in flatt- 
•tini the sultan or badihah *ith a view to curry favour for seir- 

jnndraent. Their other drawback was that they wrote 
1V l.i t K d TT ■**»««* local culture, people and 
nd^wtuch mihuted af a,„« ,be impartiality, veracity and 
*ttcta»*i *hKh . true historian should possess 

W^** «* Akbar »£.? *' i fof ,D »"oce works on 

**-l>n»** ct A^^re lift* °' ^ " ,bt 

***» pwp»H,n. to Uve been J,r v. IO L PDin * ° M ' h * 1 
«»•« Ufa Jafaanp,,^ .j™ *«*«*» by the rulers them- 

*« mgni •,,,*, « lBe '„ ™"»J' , or "-called accounts of 

**" lter p,,n *'> ob w w, t w prol, 1 ' , 1 ! ^^..iotu 
.___ »"» FCi a rah* , magc of the 

1 JSP** * the 1*^ H 

•"» Congress. Alliha&ad* 


..aoocratc crown wealth out of all proportion, and 

loss over the rulers' many misdeeds. 

M h u therefore, mediaeval Muslim chronicles and rulers* 

ought to have been handled with the utmost caution 

*** j[* e1 j on I find that our histories have gone all out in 

V u reliance on these suspicious records- Every word written 

"5 1L needs to to properly weighed and verified before being 

Died It will be found that sometimes these records provide 


"rftnirtble material for adverse inferences. At times, the asscr- 
Itenita thrm need to be taken with a pinch of sail, sometimes 
L v rive us a clue to the glories of previous Rajput rulers* 
while at other times the events dealt with in them need to be 
carefully lurned and examined with a pair of tongs. 

Because of the indiscreet and blind reliance hitherto placed 
in mediaeval Muslim chronicle* and rulers' memoirs many 
myths have become embedded in Indian history. A proper 
reappraisal will show that there is absolutely no evidence of the 
kind as will stand in a court of law to prove thai Akbar built 
any of ihe forts, towns, palaces and canals scribed to him. or 
that Shabjaban built the Taj Mahal or the Delhi Red Fort. Like 
rumours starting as oral canards all these assertion* originat- 
ing as written yarns have become sacrosanct beliefs through 
repetition, If historians take the trouble of going to the very 
root of these much vaunted claims they will find that the claims 
are baseless. . 

In support of the above contention I shall present before 
you a panoramic survey of all important Muslim chroniclers 
and the much quoted records left by them, to show why discern 
■ng historians have repeatedly pointed out the utter unrelia- 
bility of these men and their works and how In spite ofthwe 
emits the applecart of Indian mediaeval history »«'■**» 
move merrily through our schools, colleges and research institu- 
tion* unmindful of its false and insecure wheel*. 

Let ui take Alberuni. In Ms ease as in that of others through- 
out mediaeval history, we are told that the account* tnat 
Alberuni has left are the only noun* of our knowkdg e n ^ 
events he has dealt with. And soon after wi *re 
Alberuni had scant regard for iruts. In this connecttoo t»- 


Edward C Sachau the well known wboJar-Mitorfon ±. 

H.ficnc tradition failing us. we arc reduced to a s j 0ftjt *"*■ 
Of tofonMlion--U« author's (7-e. Alberuoi's) work 1 . w^"* 
wrote King Mibmud (ofGhazni) had been dead only tf * 
weeks As a cautious politician he awaited the issue of th 
contest (between the two heirs Mahmud and Masud) a„d ,JJ 
Masud bad been firmly established on the throne or his rather 
he at ooce hastened to dedicate to him the greatest work of hii 
life the Canon Masudteus If he had been affected by a D y fe& 
fog of sincere gratitude to the dead king he (ought to have 
praised him and dedicated to him his works in grateful 
memory). He has not done so. and the terms in which he 
speaks of Mahmud throughout his book arc not such as a mm 
would ase when speaking of a deceased benefactor. He oaly 
mentions bim as Amir Mahmud (white the preface of OrkaM 
authors used to attain the height of absurdity in the court of 
Mogul emperors of Delhi). The manner in which the author 
mentions the dead king is cold in the extreme, the words of 
praise are meagre and stiff. He says of Mahmud 'He utterly 
ruined tbc prosperity of the country (India), and performed 
those wonderful exploits by which the Hindus became like 
atoms of dust scattered in ail directions, like a tale of old ia 
the mouth of the people* ... That it was not at all agaicst the 
moral principles of Alberuni to write such dedications to 
princes is ibown by two other publications of his with dedica- 
tions whicb exhibit the customary Byzantynism of the tiro o In 
the preface of the Chronology of Ancient Nations (translated 
and etc. by Edward C. Sachau, London 1869), be extols with 
abundant praise the prince of Hyrcania or Jurjan* Shiroi 
Almaati. who was a dwarf by the side of giant Mahmud. The 
itud ied character of the neglect of Mahmud comes out mot* 
nroDgly if we compare the unmerited praise which Alberuni 
lamhes upon his son and successor, The preface of bis Ow* 
Maauticiij ii a farrago of high-sounding words in honour of 
King Masud, who wai a drunkard, and lost in less than a 

« to 'Aiberuni'e India 1 . lit India teprml, le- 
aked by S. Chand & Co., New Delhi, edited by aw 
ird C- Sachau, Professor in the University of Berlin* 

■ t 

» litthCUD , , hilt fathers swotd aod policy ga«<*«d 

a^ato* *°* 1 ° f * rJvs "He (Masud) baa conferred upon me 
???«»«. ^^"'/I'd me under the obligation of ever- 
' Hi*h d,s«in= tion and ^tThis we find that Alberuni d,d not 
ni«^«« da " A6 T«a«se inDr. Sachau'* words -Our 

&V»^^f^« of Mahmud's rca£*d 
from W* »« t,vc wuntiy to |eBdiflg men ..He had 

S "•*» lbC torf0U "i o coco* agmaoi nor any hope of royal 
romciannducemen or -c-r^g «* ^ 

^ ward "Vm tui HSir«o'«« complaint of the time 
*»*» * M X r uni is a" glee and exultation about the royal 
"* it$ n *:£^-XM>* swelling hart and overflowing 
words be proc. ^ gc 

U0JD Df *ZX?£iES£ of ghats at holy bathing places 
'■^j'^SX'tt, Hindus have attained a very 
A ^"' Sa nrirt?oth!t y our people (the Muslims) when they 

Sff^SK -? -* ™ truct m * 

ihins like them-" . . 

D, also says that .Mneroni "*«. not attack Islam. 
„„, ta .tucks the Arabs. In his work on chronology he rcpro- 
1 L «n ™e»t Muslims with having destroyed the ancen. 

^LTof Et.n ' Dr. Sachau adds "To Mahmud the 
nSSZZEZ i he despatched to hel. as they refused 
10 be plundered." 

From the extracts quoted above we arrive at the following 
conclusions : 

1 That Alberuni's assertions need to be examined with the 
utmost caution nod discernment because ho wrote with an 
animus against Indians, and that his praise or denunciation 
varied in direct proportion to the favours he received from 

2 Secondly, he has made it clear thai the invader* who 
were dazed by the mere river ghats in India could hardly build 
anything worth the name themselves, This was but natural 
since all their energies were dissipated in loot, drinking orgies. 


'""Ian HisTofcr 





ibe nme of Auran*Kh. And ft is not difficult " ***& u p , 
lhat r.iutcry or Uic building art presupposes tote ""^1 
insrrucrion ud persevcriag study These became "*'** ,ul <'0n 
India durfn* the 1.000 years of Muslim invanons r^'^'P 
Muiltms and Hindus. It is, therefore, clear that h f ° r l| * 
mitemiftiery that the Indians had attained in ,ll Con »tt*» 
science of building was of the pre-MusJim era 

"* file 



Thirdlv, we can deduce from Albeninj's staleni 
the invaders destroyed all that was good and bcautif i 
in India and Eran but wherever they went. AIJ ' noton ly 
Musltm rulers oflndia, therefore, having promoted ^" l * 
its forms, and built monuments in brick and stone (S bi'V" *" 
4, FourlfaJy. what Alberani ascribes to M.hmud rh 
adv the reduction of the Hindus to particles ofdujt h 

continued, at least till the 





end of 



AtatnpeVi rule, and lessened thereafter only beta, 
decadence of Muslim powe, to a state of harmlessneT * 

That Firdcusi too (though he has not written on 
in no way better than Alberuni in the matter of Vet* ( 

^.^•W^orhun. Dr. Sacbau say, m the same 

J^^^^sr 1 ro dca,h by *>** 

to have KnairM t Z L youDg en, *™ r . h * *«™ 

TdS ; iC ° U " ™ly«y*r after enthrone «ion 

Kiii?dIL ^ hB fiBiriMd ** Shihnan». and foufld 

J2IiT ,a,ed n **** for reward, he flung at him 

^carccfutatio^roTl f ° U8h ° U ^ ^"^ taH ~ * 
to the *ru and lettm Wh Patronage and engagement 

to iMBfih^.. - Whatever Patronage was encoded *« 

lo i>coph»ntt and to the Vl|] 
•ocompaoying drinking orgie,. 

kind of dance and music 


r «rt «H HFJ>I*W^ CHWHlClJi 

,, is «.ll k^wn lh.i he invariably ttfetl to 
Badauol II « *J h of Hmd „ courtiers and 


c ,reu«n*l BnC0 

scoundrel went to hell. 
Abul F«» we fiod ,hat 

amounting lo iay that 

fulC " r.mnao scoundrel went to 
■•The d" 1 ™"; ^..cuiwcfim 


all discerning Furopcon 

doyen of Qattcfcrs. Mr, rf. 

,\bu1 Fail's Aiu-e-Akbari 

brand him as 

Blocnma.- -■ , |bc prcracc tnat *»"■ ■ »- ■■« — 

firm, A* * hcd * *d by European writers of flattery and even 
^fS^^^ ***—*■ ofh,. 
^TSSSl succeeded remarkably 

W &&^222% 

10 ihc reputation of hi* 

in hi* otteropt \n 

aad making «hcm believe 

a "*^°! l l™™.icsnkt Badwiiilloo have gone OD record lo 
1 iMM^JM^Ms^MMli 

published by- 
street- Preface to ihc nrsl edition. 
2. That contemporary courtier* and Jahangir knew Abul Fajfil 
lobcahypocriieiB mcniioned in the biography of Abul 
F*zl appended 10 the 1st volume of the Akbarnuraa. The 
biographer suys 'The courtier* aodJahiingir were againsi 
Abul Fazl. An unexpected visit by the latcer to Abul J asl 
gave him an excellent opportunity 10 charge him with 
duplicity- On entering the house he found 40 writers busy 
in copying commentaries on the Quran. Ordering them to 
follow him at once, he took them to the emperor> and 
showing him the copies he said "What Abul Fazl teaches 
me is very different from what he practices in ihc hove." 
The incident is said to have produced a temporary estrange- 
ment between Akbar and Abut 1-azL 

3- On page 178 of the 1st volume of Akbarnama Blochmann 
quotes Badauni 1 * opinion about Abul Fazl. Badaum says 
1 Abul Fazl when once in favour of the emperor (officious 
as he was and lime serving, openly Faithless, continually 
Itudying Hit Majesty 1 ! whims, a llattcrcr beyond all 
bounds) took every opportunity of reviling in the most 
■ way l hat sect whose labours and motives have 
been io little appreciated. 

Ill ,Ml>,A * | HIS110»| CAL|| 

bywMltftrtl«J"i^ ,bJ( fr<>™ thai vantage po in, 
hro*heat anybody- Jafcangir ibc crown prince h 10l8elr he *Oufo 
tly wioeiof under the overbeanng authority or A|? PPqr *«i. 
found hi* position so intolerable as lo be compelled !' F- *l. 
abour the assassination of Abut Ftel. 1 *° bti^ 

We ba»'c Abul Fail's own confession lo show that c 
time s-erver and opportunist. In Bfocbmanns mef*** 1 ' 
tbt fim edition be has quoted Abul Fail's own remark ta 
Akbsrnftma in which Abul Fail says "As fortune did '» '*** 
lakmmcU.*- when be failed in bis first attempt r ' olfir| l 
Akbar'* a rtention) ! almost ! became selfish and conceited* 1511 
price of lenrniof bad made my brain drunk with the h "* 
inclusion..., The advice of my father with difficulty Icm ' f ** 
from outbreaks of folly." "**«=* *e bo* 

Footnotes in Akbarnama describe Abul Fazl as a si 
who oied to consume about 22 seers of food everyday. "i!? 
certainly ought not to be one of the attributes of a suave hist * 
nan and scholar. 

Thai Akbar himself rega rded A b : 1 1 i . . ,-. I . , - n o mo -,.• t h , , 
hanger-on and i camp follower is proved by the fact tbath* 
did not bat even an eyelid or raise a finger on Abul Ftofy 
assassination. Had he been the Just and great ruler that we 
have been wrongly made to believe he should have arraign 
Jahingir with ibe charge. 

Abul FazTs 'rand strategy wu to hitch his wagon to 
Akbar* tram so as to forge a lifelong link for ensuring his 
©TO security, prosperity and commanding authority it court 

or undemanding of this role of Abul Fazl is essential for 
a correc appraisal of his Akbarnama. 

Inhouid be demy understood that Akbarnama wis • 

S^Jl ,a , n,l " ake lo »«««lil« anything more, A» 

mc Z ni J!"' J ,hefcforc ' taPN «o contain is only 
— —• TMlry|t, M why in iu Iecming pagC5 wc find all 

<ne AkbTSiJ'Sf^y *PP end « f d to the 1st volume of 
tosti i D bu n»emft?» vI l|TBp l hef 5a > s "Jabatigir openly co* 

c WM his enemy/' 

M ,jlPtACCO 

f Ai rti >H 



except a coherent and 

iHioH undcr .? J"J, Hamlet without 

reign- — 

object in writing 
lich could 
iiasort of Penelope 

S^*' ^^rTtX^iScould-be extended 
^ fl,0U Tbrdc1- HisasottofPenelope-s 

^^.:r:fu^rng*io commercial rates - 
Failure «o ^£;; nccptionS about Akbar 



Akbarnnma wia lo 


Web that is 


and metal lur- 

ass— — * 

ibe Akbarnama and its author has rcsul - 

conceptions about Akbar's reign and hi. 
^mthe^rem^ncj s m^ ^^ ^^ ^ 

personality 0° * Urd . and a sovereign who in «pUe of 
opium add^« ; »drun^ d ^ grained a harem of over 

5,000 wotnen- 

TT^elsTr the 1st Vol, or Akbarnama Abul Fazl I reveal* 

L -Whenever His Majesty takes wine, opium or Kuknai ; ( ho 
| 4 ucr he calls Sabri ,i a drug par excellence outlining 
?1 aumtessence of ill other drug*) the servants in charge 
p ace before him the stands ." Akbar's extreme addichou 
o drinks, drugs and women could only result in extreme 
cruelly and tyranny towards his helpless subjects coniiar 
to the claims about his exemplary justice, fairplay, impartia 
Hty f generosity and nobility. Obviously he was anothet 

% On page 57 of the 1st vol. of Akbarnama uanslated by Mr* 
Blochmann Abul Fazl records that Akbar "does not dnnk 
much but pays attention to these (Abdar Khan a) mat lets/ 
By now, being well familiar with Abul Fail's utter unrelia- 
bility we can construe the above as unimpeachable evidence 
of Akbar's extreme addiction to drink. In the latter part of 
the above quoted sentence Abul Fazl emphasizes the atten- 
tion that Akbar used to bestow on his liquor cellar. More* 
over we must here recall the fact that Akbar's descendants 
and ancestors both being inveterate boozers he could not 
be any different from them especially when we have the 
above reinforcing testimony from his own chronicler Abul 

3- lu Ain-15 dealing with "The Imperial Harem" Abul Fazl 

Ie ' 1 * the reader "His Majesty has made a large enclosure 

with fine buildings inside, where he reposes. Though there 

"•'- more ibtn 5,ooo women be bti gtvon to eicli ± topktmli 

apartment. Surprisingly enough Abul Fazl fails to mention 



In addition »he womenfolk or Akbar** subject* 
—- . mi*** fomoelled to ipend up. to a truinn. 


^ «Tt ilw compel to ipend up to a roomh jn ^ c <Ju n . 
We hate lie wofd of Jtbnngrr to prove thai Alcbar » a ' 
BDWilB. He coufd neither read nor write a word. Al JJI 
0* *bul Ft? I MS hi* readen to believe that this eW aiQ " 
who ied * A* hfc «nd who eojagerf himself j n jn«„- 
...i n « ia Mrth nairiots like Rann Prat... 

n «ssaot 

f«rt n» ruontaf to earth patriots like Raoa Pratap, wa M s "'" 
that Ubar used to perform miracles and lhat Alt bar WBl| IE "' 
unequalled composer* of music and a first rate inventor *r 
innumerable gidgets. devices and processes From the abo* 
CimimtVfrirT attribute* it should not take toielligcnt and co^ 
icienriout historiani or even lavmen any lime to gauge that the 

where this huge hurem was located, It should have been* 
magnificent building complex where a mighty eoiperor'i 
5.000 consorts were lodged in royal comfort. But there ii 

_— _.._*_ L.wl linn Avfnnl inh inh a-kaA..— — *l_ _ . >■ j 

so such building extant which proves that these hapten 
women must have been herded together m abject misery in 
something resembling a cattle shed awaiting the pleasure of 
Hu Majesty'* lascivious urges, 

I On page 47 of the lit Vol. of Akbaroama Abul Fazl siyt 
"w-htnever beg&ms or the wives of nobles or other women 
of chime character, desire to be presented, they first notify 
their wnb to the icrvanu nf the seraglio, and wait for a 
reply, From thence they send their request to the officers of 
palace, after which those eligible are permitted to enter 
the harem. Some women of rank obtain permission to 
remain ibere for a whole month...." From what wc know 
of lemmine nature it is impossible to believe lhat women 
i chant, decent women and wives of nobleman 

«?;«Z! ? U VMlm f ° f Akbafs '«*«?. This lead* lo 
^"1 ■ ODtc ouclusion namelv not content with hi i 
ftjme,ous wwi and over 5,000 'consorts Akbar nevei 

SSLt^i 1 ™^! of h,» courtier, and subject* from hi* 
Cfi?'- S «* «««i°i« behaviour backed by 

tfifSia ShSb ic 1 '^ p* 1 ****?* "»w" 

Moiul household T? n / , Rajpul g,rl! 

..Is married in the 
**» Mia "ES ,nd n r ily ? r to » uicide . the insanity of 
TodarmalioliSLraV ,he Notary retirement of Raj* 

I 1 be* tHCtlkotlt of At K, • 

S **> t«pern*, u ;:i l J' u P* rllu ni''t' and angelic quali- 
raafntn) 16. |g j;™' *»*«« are described in Am* 
'"•■»* 37. 38 etc. 

-- to tall " n<l unwarranici ,. wil i cl |ee to support such 

I Elusion- AH ! h £« ™ kflOVV lhw the stereotype claims 

^ tbCy d ?^S ^favour of fl .m0.« all Mo*-, monarch* 
,o.d. have been mad jn ^ ^ n0 dcarth> wh , le 

,.^l*^*£^rtl sadists and cruel tyrants who 
«t * kDOwn U,0t 1 * e $ and other despicable crimes against 

T mCD « ^t the!? respective patron monarch* were great 
ten or* intrepid builders, layers of gardens, connoisseurs and 
^^rfaws.ndthe-i-1 God-fcring tiod kind-hearted 
iDdividuab on earth. 

Wc shall now examine the Jahangirnama which purports to 
bcftcuccountofhisrcign written by Jahangir himself. The 
Foithuroous Papers of Sir H»M.filUot on (lie Jahangjrnama, 
ai edited by Prof- Joho Dowson are an excellent critical study 
of the ao-called chronicle. From the beginning to end Sir H-M. 
EUioff observations underline the faei that Jahangir's memoirs 
m fall of falsehood*. 

At tbc very outset Sir H.M. i:Uiot debunks Jahangir's claim 
io have written the memoirs under bis own hand 1 because if 
ihc scholar-historian observes, Jahangir was not a man who 
l -,borious task ofwr 
ary accounts speak 
stoteofcoma because of excessive drug 

i nc scniQiar-mstoriBn observes, Janangir was not a i 
«uid BttdttttdCQ tbc laborious task of writing a historical com- 
peadium. Contemporary accounts speak of Jahangir having 
been many a time in a stale of coma because of excessive dru* 
Ifid drink addicti 


5Sh M B n7 B .°i J "Vu nBir CPosthumoui Papers of 

■toon eSireW u«2? ?h *!*» of Jahangir depend* 

under hi &\oS It Sf. ^ cmolfs written by h.mself or 

»* *»s hardly he La" t u^l^ w,th h,s own *■*"■. for 
""Miwil hboir •■ haVe taken "Pon himself iuch 

MA nmw ««TO fctC Al ^ 

About Jibmafir"* obsession for exaggerating .. 
1M J quantities of cro«u jewels to agronomical fagy ™ v *li* 
Bnnsh historians have observcd vcr V perlioenily that iii if **" 
mm Kb a jeweller's -eport than an emperor's narration. k| 

The claim' ofltthangir to have install-* i a bc|| orjuaii 
hi, palace fli Agra for anybody to ring and demand juMi^V* 
H.M 01 1 os has dismissed as 'silly **. ^ Sir 

Examining the much vaunted twelve Institutes which ace m 
,rgio Jabaogir, formed the basis or his regime. Sit Hto 
Elliot says that those have been mechanically repeated by r j 
alu? Miulim i ulcf cacb pledging tw root outrank corrupt'* 
rjmpafli previously. Thus between themselves these cbrotu 
and memoirs provide staggering evidence of the nigbtmamh 
cstcm and depth of corruption that prevailed under all ruler, 
from Kutuboddra to Bahadursbah Zafar. 

iibiogiTi claim i* to have built serais, sunk wefts and 

1 Jo ihc preface to Jahangirnaraa the editor says "Sir H M 
reject* Price's version a> having been written by a jeweller 
aiher than an emperor the pretended accuracy and 
minuteness with which Ihc value of gold, silvc and precicwi 
s given, and the abounding exaggeration displayed 
in enumerating suras... must be ranked with the fictions of 
coxutu and PialBmanzaT." 

'^f™ . Utt 5 w ^! His,or > V ° l v[i - P a «* 206 records "h 
ThTL\° « r ly ctl 5 m ° r Justice which the emperor tells 
■«r.E ,M , cow,rr °u | « h * P*i«ce at Agra to a stone pillar 
2f »e Ju it does not appear that it was ever shaken. 

and probably was never meant for anything but parade. 
taEZrf7i" :ka ? Umil * tian of what was attributed 

' tk.r* J Alul, H»t had alrcadv done the same at 
rulrn « Pf ' e '% h ,e * r fierce of ihc habit of Muslim 
their Ra,pj" D ; o S'^ n,etvei will > *he recorded glories of 
suien flK r'^S;* "- Therefore, even though Muslim 
*«»ctiDco OW «r n ^ fl, " ,ly dci "oycd all Rajput reoardi 
P«^fi C ; in!5,oMu *^ chronicle* and rule*' 
knspui rwi e ,i ,0 '" rcCQntIru «* <«* '>•«<>'* <* P revJoUl 

MM. Elliot's 7 " tCDt f 

J «Kangir «*mm«oi on the fifth Institute « 


Jc d other amenities for wayfarers it cynically scoffed at bi 
g° H id Elliot as jost another yam unworthy of consideration 
iLosc all Wi predecessor, had been m the habit «f nsechanl- 
^jy recording limilar empty and unfounded d*,m- id their 


jabangtr'* claim 1 that he regarded everybody** private pro* 
_, ty unviable and sacrosanct is refuted by Sir H.M. Elliot 
hv citing the classic instance of Mohobbal Khan, a military 
Lirflandcr of Jahangir. While this leader-soldier was Bating 
n Kabul on the frontier* of Jabangir'v kingdom hii family 
l ft s unceremoniously ousted from its mansion to make room 
for Prince Parwcr This also incidentally proves bow deipera- 
«tv sbort of accommodation the Moghuls used to be and 
therefore the hollowncss of the traditional claim of their having 
been great and intrepid builders. These observations of the 
British scholars reduce Ihc veracity and reliability of ihc 
jtohangirnoma almost to a cipher- 
Let us now turn our attention to Bitdshuhnama or Ihc 
account or the reign ofShahjaban written at btsinttance by 
Italia Abdul Hamitl of Lahore. It must first be stated here that 
ever since Abul Fail left behind his Akbnrriama subsequent 
KtoghulruleTswcie in desperate search of similar chronicler 
mo wiih their alchemic peas could make base, cruel and tyran* 
meal regimes appear resplendent, righteous andgencfOBI as had 
been successfully demonstrated by Abul Fail That Shrthjahun 
found a tolerable prototype in Mulla Abdul Hamid 1 «.an be 

I Commenting on the third Institute of Jahlfflgif wbjch 
claims that all heirs to proper' Y Wcre «*««! ' m,e "5-*«j 
enjoyment of the deceaseds property, bir « M- fcuiot 
obscrvei "The descent to heirs it ■ nicre repetition of 
Timurs Institute (Davy and White Institutes of Tiraur. p. 
373) but bow little it was adhered to may be teen by refer- 
ence to the history of Jahangir* grandson Aurangneb, who 
again abolishes the same custom of confiscating the estttei 
of deceased subjects, which be says, was constantly practis- 
ed by his predecessor (Mi rat ul Alam). 

2. In the Posthumous Papers of the Ute Sir H.M. ElKoi deal- 
inn with the chronicles or Sbahjaban's rcigo, J* 9 U< "*» 
Mulla Abdul Hamid to say that the emperor (Shah |*n*o> 
desired someone to write the history of his reign m lb* 



,*orrom the fact that the latter has succeeded in | U |, 
«to ihebcliertbM Shahjahan brill the Taj Mnh.i , lnd ,, 
Fori at Delhi, and ordered Ihe Peacock Throne, witboui adj ' 
iMMVPfWJf whiiwevw. His mcfe asscr *'on of im* „ u 


mto the hchef that Shahjahan built the Taj Mahal and ifc, , Ul 

j i iU- n.n.^.1. ti "" Red 

a^malie* and contretemps in favour of Shahjahan hTi b^* 
regarded bv generations of otherwise discerning aad doubt""* 
Brian as gospel truth. * 

Thai Sbahjihan had no scruplei in ordering make-believe 
iscounts to be written u apparent from the fact that three ytan 
aficr Jahangir's death Shahjahan ordered a fake Jahangtrnaniii 
to be written as a substitute to be forced upon all courtiers And 
official! who were asked to surrender copies of Jahangjr't 
original version. Thii was done because lahangir's version eon 
wined vrlcaod disparaging remarks about Shahjahan since the 
lancr had all along proved 10 be not only a problem child and 
a wayward ion bur also a traitor by raising the banner of revolt 
ignnsr hit reigning father. Given ibis fact does it need to be 
tirawrjibat the account of Shahja ban's own reign written at 
bis bidding by Mulla Abdul Hamid cannot but be sham. 

Th: Tarikh'i-Firoahahi purporting to bean account of 

Sultan Fu-ez Shah Tugblak's reign written by Shami-i-Shim 

i unique among the mediaeval Muslim chronicles for its 

puerile disregard of a!J canons of historical writing, and reck* 

EmSd-Lfc bu - ?*£L Akbarnama. Alluding to Abdul 
SlS t0rShhjlWl fci * nSir H.M. is quick 
££a?l?»i» J ^J^ lt$t ■■*■*■■ »o "»e work is the 
miolnil JL * Ch . n t ° r lh * 1 »*»uherai«d kind introduced 

CAWti-iJ UrSld ' v " bo * an <* folwnw a* bis n*JW 

cto^Ss E if ii;" hl * ^tauioui Papers dealing with the 
WSSSiff 1^'^ Kamgar Khan ihj 

«'»»(ioiuido[2h* byS w hAb J* h "'> in the third year of his 
^■sreputS th^'ir ,ahaoEif bad done to Sfaah; 
b«ini ,/«d'S ^fr"" 30 * h "»tnvi!e terms for 
Jahanair). ^ »'*«dard of revolt against hrs f«in« 


^.acbo rAJTH 




concern for troth, 1 The author tells us Ibal he was only 
. rt M when Sultan Firo* transplanted the two Ashokan 

old when 

-rC i!"]. '"that Sulian Feroi dug two irrigation canals, one each 
author, *> . .. #■„»•_; ■ ,t._. .»._ *»„,. # .»_.* 

rl towns, built palaces and laid out verdant gardens by 

the Jumna and the Sutlej, and that the Sultan founded 

|2 ye * T .|i arSt B nd that the author's grandfather was of ihe 
jtoiic p • ^.^ 4raounls to a confession that his recordings 
' !t h° ed on nsere hearsay. "My father informs me" says the 

J -jg two irrigation canals, one each 

lej, and that the Sultan founded 

ind laid out verdant gardens by 

i assertions are like the ones we make while 

lhC ratios fci'Y ta,c * to c *" Wrcn m ,ul,lD 8 them to sleep Had 
"h "c numerous bland statements been true the author could 
haw quoted belter sources than merely ascribing the inforroa- 
,]<«, to bis father. Rumour-mongers always ascribe such infor- 
mation to somebody. 

All these canals, serais, forts, palaces and towns which a 
Ferozshah, Sher Shah or Akbar claims to have constructed 
existed centuries before him. A more diligent and intelligent 
iludy should convince any dispassionate and discerning reader 
that the very raison d'etre which brought these alien invaders 
pressing and hurtling down on the Indian sub-continent was 
exploitation, plunder and massacre. The Tarikhi-Ferozshahi 
and Futubat-e-Firozshahi contain enough proof of this. 

As an instance or mediaeval writers* wanton disregard for 
iruth I wish to hold up lo their attention the very itile 
"Fuiuhat e-FJro2shahi'\ "Futuhat" signifies victories of Fcroi' 
shah but the surprising fact is that in all the four major cam- 
paigns of his reign he suffered crushing defeats— two in hii 
expeditions against Lakhnauti in Bengal, and two against 
Thatta. The account contains absurd statements describing 
how the Sultan's victorious" armies continued to fall back 
while the "defeated" enemy followed them in hot pursuit. 

Let us now get back to examining Shams- i-Shirai Afifs 
Tatikbi-Firoishahi a little mere closely. Throughout that 

Sir H.M, Elliots Posthumous Papers dealing with 
Tarikh-i-Firozshabi of Shums-i-Shiraj Aflf. as edited 
p tof. John Dowson. 



m INDIAN »l5TOm CA , „ 

r4, **c, 
chronicle ihr author DM contradicted himself WVe 

Once ht astern thai throughout the 40 years of J* ""*..» 
rv.pi pft f*P enjoyed oo nplele peace, prosperity and h^ 
Ni later* the author describe* conditions of ncute*^' " 1, 
«hen feodgraun were not available even at two rune $Trc ** 
and starving people had to resort to boiling old hide an*t ^ ^ 
mp that water a* soup in rhe absence of anything he» 
more substantial, er ic )d 

Dealing with the two Ashofcan pillar* said io have K> • 
tian*pl«oted by Sultan Firozshah the author tells us J "a T 
authority of good historiBDs" ihflt the stone pil| ars were" ih 
tricks with which the hefty Bhecm (the mighty brother ij 
the ftndsvas) used lo tend cattle. This is another proof of ihf 
uiier unreliability of the Tarikb-i-Firozshahi, its author jnd k 
•'' He recklessly ascribes his information o D « to 
b» father and then to "good historians" without realism, »,! 
-bsurdiry of dubbing the Ashokan pillars to be Bheem,* 

.nd^'.^'" 8 L" 5 " * l0,>8 lis ' of ""*■»■ P»'«««. fort. 

J.^, ZT « ■ C ' UI " ' hc '"«"»»<» of his claim wte, 

Aft*.* ^ tlw * , * " ""oonal it, him«lf u Sutl.a 
■Witani in ,„ ™" ,0 hitMdf. Thin ttatcoicoi if 

Fm "**-*ta*Jii "* "» ""'ho' of (be T.riW.1- 

»«ui nc d^-nks tne iratjmonol 

I hb ha ... . 



lhat Kutubuddm baitl ,hc loWcr ' Secondly ihe author ol 

.rlkU-i-F' roZshal 
,DB ' ma tinted the earlier Rajput tower in ihe manner ol 



i r |kb-J-F ,rozshahl ,odiiec,,w «»■■*«•** >hat Altmash ioc 
" ronnated the ettltfll Rajput town h 
i iro?- miaappropriatiog ihe Aahokan pillars as bis own 

cross* section of mediaeval 
nemoirs and of the motive. 


this cursory examination of 
Muslim chronicles and rulers 1 

■h impelled ihcit authors should suffice to convince student* 
rt!" story 'that Indian historical texti which have based ibem- 
° i « on these unreliable chronicles have grossly erred in mate- 
pflrticulan. These chronicles haying been written with 
ulterior motives, any historical material ihey migbi contain is 
mly incidental. Tbcy were written by time-servers for »«■ 
crindiDg. As such these chronicles were never intended even by 
their very authors to be taken seriously. They were meant only 
to fulfil a contemporary purpose namely humouring the sover- 
eign and winning favours- Or where the chronicles purport to 
have been written by the rulers themselves or at their bidding 
they were intended to compel th* subjects and officials to 
mechanically repeal the official version to drown the dreadful 
experiences, memories and miseries of diurnal tyranny in 
official bluff and blustci. Posterity has erred in over-looking 
this primary objective which impelled the writing of these fake 
chronicles. Unwarranted reliance having been placed on these 
counterfeit chronicles and memoirs it is no wonder that our 
mediaeval historical texts contain unsuspected blunders. 

It h not my contention that mediaeval Muslim chronicles 
and rulers' memoirs be condemned out of band. As contempo- 
rary writing* they can be of great help in reconstructing media* 
eval history. As stressed above they may be useful for adverse 
inferences if for nothing else. Bvcn fake documents many a 
lime provide .aluablc clues. What is intended to bo conveyed is 
lhat ihey ate far from truthful records, 

I hope, therefore, that votaries of troth and students and 
scholars of mediaeval Indian history would With meticulous 
Mre and utmost caution review medhieval Muslim chronicles 
and ruler*' memoirs. At every stage the assertions made therein 
need to be subjected to a close scrutiny and careful orois- 


Indian urston^L nt ^ 


A"Cl k 


._,B,,iuHKin. Description* smacking of chauvinism. w|f 
aod tall daim* m«i« fl« ** accepted unless corrobor Weu '** 

indepcDdent evidence, * 

»i imui a& ** frtrjEoirea that they make suspicious, Mcren. 
tyrwclaimsoftbe various rulers having governed their ten 
no the hasu cflofly principles, the rulers having been &t T t 
jmwon,md all ^Mhero having dug caaals and bujlt scratj 
roads, paliees and forts. 

irmcdiarvaf Muslim chronicles and rulers' memoirs are 
in 01 srudicd with the vigilance nod diligence urged here, i n 

titration of ihc traditional implicit reliance placed in them 
1 an sure, il will he found necessary lo rewrite Indian mtdin* 
ersi history. 

h wan a mutter of pleasant surprise to me when I read in 
iht Maharashtra Herald (a daily published from Pune) of July 
II, \9K a nesvs report of a speech delivered at a Bombay con. 
fereace b> a Muslim history Professor K.A, Nizami or Aligarh 
Univcfsitv debunking Medieval Muslim chronicles as most 
wtnitivorthv. Such a confession al appraisal from a Muslim 
professor of tbe diehard Aligarh tradition is a rare 

ier Muslim academics had better emulate Prof Nizam is 

it> and emerge out of the holes of their chauvinistic 

mc tutoring and bask fo the sunshine of the TRUTH 

'IT ifli 

The ne*i repoei ran is under— 

bHioS^I;^ 2 : "^'^Wiiory" ■ new technique of 

ZEISS? t] T ,m ° lbf ■""•' n «»W ■«! -o** 

^toZZll t? 7 U " C * M ™* *•* time,, has 

he** a teUisiiag. rab hl tonography tradinoo 

taoomougiciiftaf ik. **_.■ 

w -^««l^cihdai .T/ dV0Ci,led by Fmwh h ' a, °* 
*»*» of I,:, "! '"■J 1 *" "searcbera, the former 

^»h« found aaiCf'^ J* g *» University. Mr. K.A. 

Ionic, jtifluencwi by the W T . chf0ni «l«» of court bis* 

' UMainn WMongraphy tradition, 


the Arab historian '"disdained writing the history of 

* din*' end wrote the history of an age." the Iranian 

■ <*'•? • «,| (M j lJ | ge d io glorification of kings and dynasties 

fjuiofun , tjjj moral obligation to adhere to truth and testi- 

KM "1!' Prof N.zami observe*. 

assessment* of Muhammad Bin Tughluq. Akbar and 
' 0ur ob— jhree most interesting yet roost complex penooa* 
A " '^mediaeval i n dja— wilt remain partial and perfunctory 
,i,1 * i ° hc interplay of psychological factor* in the approach of 
UElk4S ns is carefully investigated". Prof. Nizami notes in 
Kafl/c Culture" an English quarterly published from Hydera. 
J d bv lb c Islamic Culture Board. 

Sbvs Prof. Nizami, a psychobistonan alone can analyze con- 
tradictory situations and motivations to arrive at the "historic 
f ICl " A classic poser for a historian is to what extent Akbar 
wa5 guided by considerations for Rajput ladies of his harem in 
adopting vegetarian habits, while revelling in animal hums 
enjoined by the "Qubusnamab". 

Historians' accounts can't be properly interpreted unless t 
reader first understands them, their psychology, their predilec- 
tions and above all the duality of their minds, observes Prof. 
Nizami. For instance, Abu Al-Fail. one of the most important 
historians of mediaeval India and author of the "Akbaroamah 
recording Hie achievements of Mughal emperor Akbar. laments 
id a letter that "I have become a slave of dirhams and 

Prof. Nizami analyses that whenever Abu Fail found bis 
assessments of a situation running in a different channel from 

the emperor's, he very artistically hid himself in a plethora of 

high sounding words or quietly let out bis views m abstract 

and philosophical language, 

'Wherever his florid style begins to soar higher, wherever 

hi* philosophic ideas become more abstruse, he (Fail) is always 

fating some psychological situation, 

Accounts of Iranian historians, notes Prof. Nizami, cannot 
be regarded as comprehensive or truly reflective of their times, 
« 'hey dedicated their works to ruling monarchs and consider- 


«d any reference to common man or his pr M 

tort to tbe art of h rstory writ ins. * ro| H 





The Persian Renaissance after the i !rh c* 
♦■7VA/r«r> *//*<■ age'' into 'TAe history onZ\ COftVe ^ 
towards the beginning ol the Bth century, histo - " •■« 

• ere written in Persian in nfj countries fro ra t «? 
Minor. Prof Nizimi's conclusions are alto b- 
acconnti of British historians. ■ . 

"Muhammadens, unlike the Brahman* always h 
a liking md aptitude for writing of professed historic? *T 
every Muslim dynasty in Alia has found its chronicler *° 
neot British hiitoriin, Vincent Smith observed in his "tJj**' 
th< Muhammadan Period" first published in 1920 as HibS!*! 
pirt of the "Oxford History of India;' ***** 

Yean earlier. Sir Henry Elliot commenting about the 
Munammadan period in his History of India as told by its tm 
Historian, criticised instances of "fabricated catalogue of manu- 
KTjpts and chronological tables of Moghul Dynasty," (PTI) 

Nizami'i appraisal that Muslim chronicles being 

Wpbant noi inp of court stooges are not wholly reliable li 

^me to far as ii goes. But it does not go far enough. It u 

»*■*« general summation. In that it still slicks to the 

type.] mentality of, Muslim Indian of appearing to be wry 

>ru»nght and impartial without conceding anything concrete. 

He should have added that those chronicles have misrepre- 
w captured Hindu edifices and townships as having beer. 

iSri!^"? Mm ™ ; ** htve «™^flaged the bedi- 
the ruling iliMmic junta |bey hflVe $un , 

fc hen "■J'™!"* fakirs as great Sufi saints, and painted 
^Iwe. TvTf ? ,,ery ° n,tBm,t: rule at enrichment of Hindu 
*«» com*. JfC T Niit ■ m,,, P flr ' '° identify specific diss* 
^Wt^tmiMSIi t vlniMic M«'"«n writings illustrate! 

* be nn ktT.nii e0T,shtcDwi Muslims even when appearing 

*** «h*it Islam ™ JjJJ fr0m jhe 0lked ™* hort,d mth 

**** biatttficaj f0C * be Vcr * cautious when they «*mc 
■ BOttBta Written by Muslim and C3»M* 


,.«* MIT>» «N MroiAWAL CHROMICUS 12* 


BecauMS both those faith* were spread through force 
writer*, y^^jequcntly they have destroyed lot of history 
'"I dotted tha remmioder. 

thinking people of Europe and America and of 

R ' Eht "tiMfrfwni Afghanistan to Algeria must reallte that 

^lualito rcg, wn rea , p re -CbtJslian and prc-Mohamed history has 

even the* ° haye ^ DurtUfC< i otI a fake history 

even tn* tT . antJ , h6y naVc been nurtured ou a fake history 

bee " * UP ?hv their fanatic nubjugatora. That history must be 
coneoctco c u u n k.m»i and nre-Ointtlan historvof 


w ,«t bv their fanatic nuojugaiora, *"- 

c oncoc ,c4 t» (hc pre . Mcbam cd and pre-Christian history of 

f ' ?U i*ty» primordial Vedic unity must be revived. 

W**#+ 4 

Myth of the Indo-Saracenic Theory 
of Architecture 

Another blunder of Indian huiorical research is the asji, 
pUwed belief in the cxitreuoe of lo-called lodo-Saracenic raonu. 
buoIa. and the formulation of a so-cfllJed theory based on 

Ai already observed by u> atl mediaeval monuments includ- 
inf the Tij Mahal, Hum ay un's Tomb, Akbar"s Tomb and the 
*o*c*Ued Kutub M.nar are pre*Muslim Rajput buildings. The 
oul) Saracenic element in some of them is confined to Arabic 
etehloiiaodierne superficial tampering- It it like somebody 
ftealini lomebody data meta/ware and etching one's own 
name on it In that case juit a* the engraver cannot be credited 
with the manufacture of the mtm\- ware for the mere fact of 
©•tJtnhrp through conquest and etching one's own name on it, 
aiaulariy the cantors and appt opriator* of mediaeval monu- 
meflti cannot be claimed to be monumeni-builden. 

The myth of the Indo-Sa raceme architecture theory is root- 

i in the misplaced belief that the Taj Mahal and other moou- 

i *c« buift by this or that Muilim raler. Since we have 

S^rETlVS'* ^^^'^^et tombs andmos- 

wwnjcineory or architecture has no basis. 
1' »t analyse the 
Tbewy" it *ijo,fi t 

i be 

'•lode-Saracenic Architecture 
■?■«"» bull, j «t ndo » |e b „ noB . 

•^.H, D du. ELS zT cm r buia ™™>y I* a. 

*■ ■** ^ £££"£?*• * h <° «*-! I- Emitted 

miQ ln **** remaim merely a 






tiff* 1 

ee And we have already cited overwhelming 

,i,tcr » f ' , C " produce much more to ptove that every one 
c „dcf"^ uroCfJ i S existed in pre-Muslim times 
rtbc»*c , . llcory ha* not only adulterated Indian hit- 

Thi* •"> tD,t ? iD fected architectural taxi book*- Hence it 
,otic* but *** *_ . hly debunked, fast, present and future 
„ £ ed* to be . " desp alr of ibis task of disowning and jettison- 
-fC hUeci3 1" 1 * 11 ^ oF tnC j r profession. We would like to assure 
iog« bMic l CO Mi is not as overwhelming and formidable as 
ibem* 3 ' <„,.,. needs to be done is to delete the *ord 
it look*- AH » archilecturtt l text books wherever Indian 

•SitaoeoK . teclurC is referred to Let that architecture be 

l ,OB * t," from architectural re*i ^«- ™-**j?* *"" 

•Saracen* hitcClurC is referred to. Let that architecture be 
tpediacval arcn mtaAiM afi nurc v v Indian mediaeval architecture 

"»■" ^hitecture is rcicrrco id. "i u. a . «x»....«-, — — 

mediaeval arco ^ ^ ly i Q<J i an mediaeval architecture 

icferred to and s aracco . c unkcfl0g sucb a* engravings 

vilh » UWte * 9 '™ l0QS M ad hoc filling* of stones dislodged 

*° d at ln rSing 4 were stormed or deliberately hammered 

tO* ^iconoclastic fury. 

several ether .harp considerations ton help us prtck and 
JZX Mo-Saracenic Architecture Theory bubble. 

I Taimurlang, AI Bimni and ^ihtt aliens have confessed 

« sfS^ttrsas rats: 

2. Ma««, in scalptu.e presupposes certain ^W^f £ 
rt*To*U nurtured and pracused om number of 
«™™tlous Invading West Asian hordes consisted of illiterate, 
StXun'omh desperados unsaiUed in any unman art. 
except fighliQg. 

3. H l8 hscn.p, U ral talent pr«np P o 8 « a «mta «™. 
4WWWK. Th, «vada tS p«patra U ngunh e a,drf^« 
lit, wcV. ,nno«nt of an, «6n C n.c t bas,oally essantwl 
being sood t artistic builders- 

4. Had the invaders been really gieat buUder* they tal 
Ibcir own sandy stretches to build on- They «o 

tneuned the odtum and risk* of aggression to capture ou» 



.T^meca the Indian style of architecture as n ^ 

f ', In ThtyTrc no, introduced to India by aliens Anyb OJy 
I! hi* own arch and dome would ipso facto bring (hf 
ZT« unLr *iniciai C with .1 too because ihc dome a( , d thf 
" pre . 1uP po*c ■ ccruia undcrstnietuic The dome and the 
U th c^pld not have been d^efoped just in the air by Saracen,. 
Had lhcy really developed a special type of arch and dome 
ihey would have had a special building style entirely their own 
from the foundation upward 

7 An) *un»latity thai exists between West Asian monu- 
meoW and Indian iltoW *"«oai the fact that Taimurlang and 
others drove Indian craftsmen at sword-point to their own 
native landi to build tombs and masques similar to Hindu 
buildings in India. TaimorUng confesses to this in his memoirs 

g. It has been illogically asserted that because most of the 
craftsmen were Hindus or Indians monuments ordered by 
Motions happen to be ceplcte with Indian motifs and traits, 
Tbi* is sheer ti'uistry The British rulers of India got t heir 
churches built *uh the help of Hindu and Muslim labourers 
and craftsmen and yet their churches do uot contain a single 
motif of Islam or Hinduism 

9 rtjjpo&euu of the tndo-Saracenic theory of architecture 

h«»r bypassed certain inconvenient questions- In order to 

jumly their mythical theory they also asserted thai Muslim 

invaders *tw otder cd mediaeval monuments only laid down 

I specificaii&oi leaving ;i to the sweet will of Hindu 

abourwi io :r*m the feign «lih their ornate patterns and 

It is comtmently forgotten that this is impossible. 

maiSe Muslims for whom Hindu motifs, ornament 

s ana ,jn»|*» were anathema would never permit any Hindu 

la apacnu ., tdcreJ nuildmgt Secondly, no artist or 

I worth thsuaae win be „„» 0c< i with laying do»n 




j pattern of * new edifice. He will work out the 
' the brna f ^ j^i. Thirdly, when there are thousands 
^cation to * J ( j cra ftsmcn working on a building if the details 
of l* bo J? fef * t heoi the whole project witl end up in nothing but 

— re Ie ^' ' w use the thousands of workmen will all be of 
c onf« ,iot !\J! faun ds, strata, artistic attainments and tempera- 
^frereni ba w0 rkerswerc always a mixed group of Hindus 
menu- ***£ ^ Qd oot hjng but chaos would result IMbey were 

jntl euL minor detail* of design a* per their individual 

left to tl11 
orC uilcc" oClS " 

i leet has to give the workmen a design completed 

An° re " it Allowing individual workmen to fill in 
10 *»* f desian and pattern according to their own whims and 
.:.!."• *; ;;; -; u , t dnnc , [l , impracticable Thai nyth mi 
f 'ih« Western scholars unable to explain why allegedly 
ggT monuments followed an entirely Hindu plan and 


in It need not be Bttwsed that it is the man who pays the 

n Jr that calls the tune. This shows that the ornate Hindu 

f««rf structures could not have beet, commissioned by Mus- 

ms Had they commissioned them they would have insisted 

on ie buildings being entirely m their own style. 

it Had the mediaeval buildings been of Muslim aulbot- 
ihlo their rtfeM patierns and decorations would not have 
shown signs of tampering as are seen in the soiled Kuiub 
Minar and surrounding structures. 

12 In fact even the tombs and mosques m fiaM Asiajre 
earlier mdlan wnp* «* palaces because ,, to*ug£» 
proved that Indian rule once extended upto Arabia. The Sow 
Sadul sculptural drawing m the ^^^^^^ 
fewknd is proof that Taimurlang was buried in ««£**« 
Indian palace because Soor-Sadul is the Sanskrit term Soory. 
Sbardul meaning the sun and the tigcr-wbicb is exactly what 
Ihc sculpture depicts. 

13. Had the alien ruler, really built any »« u ^"»?^ 
would not have built only tombs and mosques wiihoiil huodreos 
of cot responding palaces. 


•n«"*n »isroft rCAL 

Hi:, i 


1 4 The invaders had come to exploit and i 0f , 
m ic > ,o.l an A buifd ,r °»etb w 

15. Their reign* were full of turmoil and unrest 

w eswnt offensive nod defensive campaigns, inkmccin'' 
•ltd revolts They, therefore, did not have the time n^** 1 * 

w commission huge building*. 

; c,,, 

I iiv. India's alien rulers did not have ihc fabnJou 
necessary io order stupendous buildings, All the vnata"!^ 
ihey gathered by plunder had lo be constantly doled 
henchmen, cliroouring noblemen and (he inmates of |« 1*° 
harems m addition to Ihc fining out of costly cxpc^T""* 
Akhar"* treasurer ooce did not have even the paltry sum ofT 
18 u mentioned by Vincent Smith and Dr, Asbirbadi Lai S * 

17, The Muslim invaders being of diverse nationafh.ei 

Ike Afghans. Persians, Turks, Arabs. Kazaks, Uzbeks and 

Abvuimaiif, and of dtvtrse strata from princes to slaves caul 

rt all display the same vigour and the same penchant in order. 

mi huge monuments-all tombs and mosques and all JD the 

retet,.tb c ,h Th : fact ,hai aJI *"*■**«»»*» 

Xrit^r" heyond ■«■■**«***■* 

^UUnZl*? U00>m ™ ,cin »»«» ^Muslims 

EiT^jL?*' £ *«*■ «»■« by now become a 
- ^^Cd^n: ** *«* -would have 
««Pfc-«dtoB« Bail!? J"'* *** h ° mW Ukt HiatfU 
•modem m^ e™^ ?* * C noUw ia ^ le meteDl ' No 
15,00 *** plinth ito * ' ,0g,e Hindu trait or motif 

°™ -*W* d* H^yle 5£ i!^" proof ttKU *? 
••■**■ «d tombs mih*u\ Tnwe fr«. what appear to be 

*■*«■•■ >Ppropr,»,eS I, m , ^ tfe in facf "*» Hindu 

«* aiuium use. 

***»■» "«l A, SU^ M L Ul]i0lB ^naolished old Hindu 
^"itoio .ucm t T ° ,,,et hiildlng. from the same 

10 C0Vcr «P ihe many illogicality* 

„, Tl« lNDO-5A»*«N lC TtlBOJiV , M 

roponcnu or the Indo-Saracemc theory or architecture 
&R hard to explain. 

oresume thai ihc io-ealled Kutab Mioar is • Hindu 
- if j Muslim conqueror intends to dismantle U nod 

building ^ ^ cfcc( another building he would either hxve 
ttf e 11* Tn " ^ tower from it* base or tend up workmen in an 
f o blo w orocess ion to the top to dislodge every stone and 

" r II? brine il down aU thc way ' The ° he * ooW blVe t(> 
hr ihcmandlay them out in neat row & pile upon pile. 

ThTwiU be nothing but quixotic because it will involve a huge 
f effort, liibe and money. Most of the dislodged stones 
WSS W chip alT m the dismantling process and turn out to be 
v0 " M for mbscquent use When the entire structure is dli- 
" niled the whole foundation will have to be dug up for * 
Snt wth a new design. Since the Kulub Minar is * round 
ruciurc us stones would be useless for a square or rectangular 
\ructure That means that by dismantling a Kutub-Mioar its 
stone* can be used only to re-erect thc same tower over again. 
And who would be 40 stupid as to dismantle a huge town and 
re-ercct it stone by stone and boulder by boulde* once again 
for some dubious satisfaction. And even if such a one ii re* 
erected the credit for thc structure would have lo be given only 
to the original builders for their designing the building and 
tutting and fashioning thc itonffl to the required specification*. 
Moreover even ibe hypothc'ical rebuilding of thc Kutub Mtntr 
from Ihe debris of the previous, dismantled towtsr would be an 
impossibility because most of the stones damaged and chipped 
off in thc process of dismantling would jiol fall into place as 
before. It is common exptrteti"e that in the case of a shop- 
front shuttered up with wooden planks unless the planks are 
carefully numbered tbey do not fall into nlace. 

20. One very important consideration is that while India 
has had a very elaborate and masterly Sbilpashastra U. a science 
of architecture, ancient and mediaeval Muslim world has had 
nothing corresponding to it. 

Any community claiming architectural skill must have basic 
(rcatisei describing structural form* and strength of mater all 
uied in construction Ancient and mediaeval ladia had these. 
The invading Muslims had none. 





m lf tep further we may say that invading M 
Mkl *w predominantly illiterate not to talk of <, lv 7*! iTr 
t»d elaborate rikJIh they possessed, n '»e, 

If. therefore, theie (is dose similarity between m cdi 
Indian monument' and those in Muslim ooviltiet ofW Cl , JJ?f 
taeooottoion li clear that those monuments were erected J,',' 

hrtf> of Indian architects, engineers and workmen. 

A*, i Mohammad GhazoTs and Taimurlang'sinvn 

torn tbt In as much when they state that taken aback by \L 
beauts and grandeur of Indian palaces, temple* and river gliid 
e barbaric tnvaden used to spare skilled workman 
and techmowjn ft dm mats massacres only to dnve them ui 
3 po'titt to Wen Asain lands to have tomb? and moiquet 
beitl caoipanble io Indian monuments. 

Wc musi. therefore, [reverse the current concept, and say 
instead thai initead of Muslim architects and engineers having 
designed and built mediaeval Indian buildings it was Indians 
Ir1n> brill West Atian monuments, 

tl. Another point to be noted is that all :xtanl Indian 

\*I maoboenif tun* been built according to the Indian 

'iihaitra irecifiratiaai even if they appear supcrficiiilfy to 

ibi aad mosque*. Visitors to Indian monuments have 

levertl centuries of luioriug come to associate very 

»Jx ibe .quart rectangular or octagonal building shapes 

ilhdomci wilt) inseparable characteristics of Muslim 

■notqott. This is perhaps o unique mi lance in world 

»»* raUtficanon of records and mere grafting of *V 

mound, inside build.n*, ind archcJ fW M HjnJ(J im ^ s 

***•+* *ofW including students of architecture 

y that the building, are buih entirely to Hindu 

23^^ - «^« «^ were eommissione, , 

m*Z [*• A* Hum same motlfl and style* 

■**q«» doer '? coo 'eo»Porary lomb* tnd 

■tcliatoioBitti mm* . disturb or bother ihe historical. 

A £ uo^taT^ d ; 8ma ^ "»" ^ 
r *« book, dealing with the topic 


THB l|4 pO.*««»IIC TH60HY 


1 to bring home to the reader the fatse bonom 
*t l rl b X»cenic Architecture Theory. 
in thaT IS BIJAPUR the author S. PadmoraJ observes 
OI.ORY THA coco at BijBpur (which is the city with the 
There ta «° og Gallery nnd many so-called Muslim tombs* 
fgjnou* W'"'P ^ foreign influence but very strong evidence 
woiqu***™' Adopting itself to the Muslim requirements. 

of Hiodutrm ^^ in the splendid buildings at Bijapur that 
T |««iin aglhc (ogica| aeQUenCB f India's living 

. .niiel DC ' *l . . .._ . u.^iJ;-*. n fth. Ui.tUm f>* 

anuot be wf ^ undematld the buildings of the Muslim (?) 

^^of a mediaeval Hindu empire)." 

lathe KARNATAK DARSHAN volume presented to an 
b-MliiJitir. Mr. Diwakar ii is staled About the Whispering 
Gallery that M To the north is an octagonal chamber which 
lecrni to have not been used at all." 

It has already been observed in connection with the Taj 
Mahal that the octagon is a purely Hindu shape. Moreover 
the unused chamber is an indication that the use of the Whis- 
pering Gallery as a Muslim tomb was an afterthought in which 
no uk could be found for every chamber of the earlier Hindu 

Mr, Yakub Hasan it is stated on page 165 that "A peculiar 
style known as Saracenic was invented... Muslim architecture of 
one country differs from the Muslim architecture of another." 

Th- false claims in the above sentences become apparent 
<>n a critical study. If Mr. Yakub Hasan claim* that a new 
■'acenle style was developed he should produce the necessary 
treatises of the style. Secondly the admission thai Muslim 
architecture f one country differs from that of another is clear 
P'oofihiii the Muslim invaders used earlier indigenous build- 
»«! «* tombs and mosques and staked a false claim to have 
* u »l them themselves, 

, ht io lht ,cl ata Society's journal titled ARTS AND LETTERS 
article 'Akbar the Master Builder' coo tains a characteristic 

'■* ,NDUT *»T S TO«u c . Li 

•eatence- If *ays "The largest tomb* at Delhi a re 

plan or rather polygonal, the central tomb chamber h!?' 1 ' l " 

lowded b an arcade, a plan which ha* ancient orlgi ? % - 

Th« *ffll«nce again underline* how all students of 

. and hiiTorj have been mistaking ancient Hindu l*^*" 

be original Muslim creations merely because someM ** 

tombs have been grafted in them. 1toll ta 

Id the article VISHNUDHVAJ A ...REVIEW, Vol XLI 
l#.I54, of the year 1962 or the Bhandarfcar Oriental R^-f 1 
Institute, the author writes "Professor K, Chaitopadhij*. 
Research Director. Sanskrit University, Vuranasi, iarbnnii 
that Mabnj'j'i GbdZOt look ihe moders of the Delhi Manar do 
called Kuiub Miner) with him to Ghasoi for a timilnr codi- 
traction there. He carried away Hindu masons from Mai hum 
to build hi j mosques and palaces at Ghazaj and the HiDda 
architect built the isolated manars at Gba?ni like Ihe Outh 

Sliri V-S. Bendre a noted historian observed in the paper 

fta. he read at the Indian History Congress. Calcutta seisino, 

i thai "Akash BbnJrav Kalpa°— a Sanskrit manuscript 

i detailed dimensions and even the qualities and the 

tooph of the various kinds of strongholds and details of tli- 

Wjetauoni of wans, towers and doors have been defined and 

Uj enough these appear totally perfect with what is left 

'a the ruined forts/" (Paper titled "Urgent Need for 

T.^1 [. Lhtfftture 0D Science and Technology of Otdra 
pabhaheej ,n U, e R uparc j College Publications, 

•'kewije a perfect example of ancient Hindu 

■;'; ""' ' y«i current texts falsely claim thai i>« 

T "TuiufAdilShah of Bijapur creeled the fort* 

Z°\ Khz c3a "" can be exposed by several clues. 

baiwav.. , C *° not be «>n"ratcd in one year. 

Ad»l Shah. Sholapur, an ancient city. 

^•«»We.Of\; S n * ai0ml Tfai "*ly there arc several 

«"fcal temple, one haa been lurac* 

m *a«lbcr Shiva temple, which bi» 

(it 1 * 

df *« '^ 

^aanACiHiC TltEOAY 




imaged by the 

Muslim conqueror** iconoclastic 

J» * ff0fia Ids' flowing the genius of your country, 
* befo^*** *" t^d the physical facta tbey were «* 
U^^TiTiTsprntual language, but facts were 
M ^ Ut ' nthe n^Ev ry canal which went southwards, 
™1 *U the santc, ***** fi Wiraihi. or remained a 


tl to each other. 

They were 

" M ' 5rt ?^ S <ror«U for -he irn 8 auon of ftj «; 
cUlW tn Muslim chronic :.cs ^*£»!^ ™ „ m po inl 

rr i^ 

STLJ^ ***• ■*«*■« across India t y f d n thl 

it even ordinary elementary education not to talk of highly 
developed skills and technical knowhow. 

About [ndian expertise in io*n-planning Mr. V.R. Ayar in 
ik famous town planner Mr. Patrick Geddes to say about 
Cooicevaram 'Here is not simply a city made monumental by 
great temples and rich and varied by innumerable minor ones ; 
what rejoices me is to find the realization of an exceptionally 
wtll'sroarwd and comprehensive town-plan ; and this upon a 
teak of spacious dignity ; combined with individual and artis- 
hc freedom to which I cannot name any equally surviving 

If historians and archaeologists will similarly study Old 

Uelhnbey will find in it the common ancient Indian planning 

Jraiqua of laying down a central axial road and planning 

k, ™«ag reaideatial lanes around it to form a security-cocoon 

'^cd by a peripheral wall. In the case of Old Delhi 




Ctaindni CUawk it iht axial road with the ki a ». 
red fort) at ow rud md il» tempte of his hcrcdji 


vfccb »»» a** ^c proactive deity or the row J. *lt K 
tamed into the Fatch r jnMo$que]-ai the other aror V**** 
, Delhi was buil. centuries before the Moghuj ^ 
Shibjahin. The notion Ihil tl was Shah;ah an who J^'oi 
Old DeTiu is baseless. The same holds true or a j| anC i ni ^ 
ed townships which stilt exist and thousands which got'T '"'"■ 
cd ind burnt down in India's deadly struggle wjth 2S? 
invaders. Uil1 " 1 

Considerations like those cited above should be en 
prove the illogicality and mythical character oftbe so^c |i'° 
Jndo-SAraceoie Theory of Architecture. No mediaeval s 
ccnic architecture exists in India and even abroad. All hisi '* 
buildings in so-called Muslim countries from Afghanistan? 
Algeria arc of pw> Muslim origin. Muslim captors only sertwj. 
ed the Koran on the exterior and planted real or fake cenolfphi 
inside. For instances when a fancied grave in Shah i-jind 
nwcumem in Russia, was dug up it did not reveal any buraan 
'mains. Similarly Tarnerlains grave inside a huge palace in 
Samsrcand if explored is likely 10 be a hoax. 

Here are a few cut and dry hints to debunk the claims of 
fancied Muslim buildings. 

(be ttonr used is uf ochre colour it is not an Islamic 

be building has symmetrica! features such as pairs of 
m 0f P xil » °f »*ifta*« it is not Islamic. 

A bteldnig (taio,^ t0 bc a b m(Jlt fflewr 

Be taulu Mcrejed 

4 ^Cit ZX\2 bl * (praycr Dichc) * re n0( acCflf- ' 

3 the Kaba ,t »» not a Muslim aiructufe. 

« * UMdhJ i , lbr,n * hu * l*«ab«Iatof¥ ?•«•■ 
*bnnc ^ambulation || |i n captured veJic 

* A buiadtng bavut 

KgU *U«i IHII1 V ,,y oct »«ODal rcaturc is non-isl*mic 
°°^-* have at their base a 4 to 6 >«r» 


Of «*«•' 





g ona* pWnili *«*■ 

That is an unmistakable 

Hlo d » ^^decorative designs inttftbed. mlntd, embossed 

or r amI 3 jtjxcn steps must never be maunder- 

W» en *' ! Muslim Muezzin's shouting towers. A mueixio 
4! o«J l<» bc ■ "J lQ cl|mb aDU unclimb hundreds or narrow, 
who Si rcqu' r ^ |jneI a day to sound the prayer 

dstfc- *^ a * * p ¥OIIS wrec k in no time. He will resign 

«ill will bc * 
/ .It. t iob and run away. 

1 building which has a botlHa drum house (alias music 
'' £*»«> l» never of Muslim origin. 
,* a building with a dome is seldom of Islamic origin. 

An Mamie building should not have generally more than 

Z minaret. Uoaymmetrfcal minarets are an Islamic 

]2 Buildings with more than one dome and one Qibla (prayei 

niche) are never Muslim because they cannot be all aligned 

to the Kaba at the same time 
\l Domes and buildings with decorative lions, tigers, and 

otier animals and lotus patterns arc never Islamic. 
II Buildings with three, five or similar symmetrically placed 

domes are never Islamic. 
IS. A building with irrelevant, frivolous Islamic overwriting 

is a usurped pre -Islamic edifice. 
IS. A building studded with graves is captured property. 
P« Buildings in rums splattered with Islamic writings, or 

graves arc also captured un-Islamic property. 
IS. Palatial tombs of dead potentates without corresponding 

mansions .re other people's captured property. 
■ Koranic or other Islamic inscriptions interspersed with 

»n 'Islamic decorations are a sure sign of Islamic usurpa- 
tion of that edifice. 

edifice said to be a mosque or mausoleum must never 
,| ,V< 0Vcr, **e. surplus, unaccountable accommodation. 
L™^ 116 *t>d a non-mosque if ol identical size and shape 
6 ^Hue should be deemed to be an hoax 




A boiW>np *'ih si" minarci or with more ihn Q Ooc 
o, fl newt be a Re""" 16 mosque, 
v Muiiin' miusciJcum must never have any mi 0art , s 
U ^Jslimiccclmpmust have no chain hanging f . 

concave lop ««"•«• Such cha,ns « rc * feature f 

Temple* to hang wa I cr- dripping pitchers. 

MIC g.mmicks associated with historic edifice^ 

nn.Jsli»m»c feature 

Historic structures with Vedic, Hindu, Sanskrit niltDei 
h as Gokonda foil or Taj Mahal te. TejomahaLa^ 

must never be deemed 10 be Muslim. 
21 Structure* with unmeaning, frivolous names such asGcj 

Gurobu are never Muslim. 
2$ Ringed it ructures must always be identified to be of 0(m . 

Mudim origin, 
2S. Graves inside palatial buildings, with no name* Inscribed 

mint be deemed to be fakes. 
30 Baildiogs »itb water channels, cascades etc are never 


Readean who meditate on the above guidelines will soon be 
able to discover ibat not a single building or township around 
the world ascribed Islam was founded or built by Muslims 
blamoolj misappropriated other peoples* property. 



ilh e Mogul School of Painting 

My' 1 

of P'"" i0B ',* ■„, is DOihing but the saroa igwld R«P« *£ 
^"^tZ^d Th* Mogul cour. and for _itai ma»« 

■ nnvthine like a special Mogul stylQ 


■<!**• fSUM7"fl^"i»l»J« r«kcd riK 
W^.fiZfc, M , u al revelty, cunucbi. plotting and 

^""'V^nn orgies, Kauai Weto. annuel* plotting aud 
wiomy, Jr " 1 * ^murders and massacres, and destrueuve and 

dtmoMion tm» bi , ttulJil . s lD such an atmosphere. 

, fflP „„ih . .n -"«n.ra.c onl^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

S d Z nnd painting which need pros- 

£**■ W 'P« ial filli P and pMr0,,aee ' S a " unwarra, " ,:d 

Fine arts can never prosper in an atmosphere surcharged 
with hate, tenure and massacres which were the hallmarks of 
Muslim rule in India. The few artists who eked out a precari- 
ous livelihood by practising painting and sculpture continued 
an ancient art for which 'Mogul Art' U a blundering mis- 

Islam is the very antithesis of all art since the Koran forbids 
all decoration as well as the sketching of any living being. 
That is why there are no statues in Islam, Muslims do not 
toon how their Allah looks like or how their own prophet 
Mohamed looked like. Muslims arc disallowed from seeing the 
face of any woman because of the feminine burqa. A doctor 
called in to attend a Muslim woman patient had to feci the 
Mie of the outstretched hand but was not allowed a glimpse 
01 lw itck face, Can any art grow or thrive in such conditions. 

J40 »«««« HISTOU Cal „ 

° i **!C*j 

Therefore caticarares nude during Muslim rule mu 
tfnritmavi to be Muslim art. Those w ere absoW, ^ ** 
HitsJa iryk known variously as the Garhw,i School cr a!' tht 
St>»c « Rajaiib*ni Art and so oil Even when a Muslim!?^ 
•tefcftoif be vu cUver ■ Hindu convert or a Muslim . ** 
nee forced to earn a living againit Islamic taboos. EveT^" 
facalt of Mogul queens which adorn history boob are V^' 
modern imaginary forgeries since none was allowed to 
at them. ** 



tb of the Development of Music in 
Mediaeval Muslim Courts 

s »«.*df oainliog also hold* good for music. The 
Wh * t " 4n associated with cbe court of any mediaeval 

ptM i musia » Tensen . Bu t the credit for hii attain- 


«3icn rul^ .."^jVAktw at all. Tansen was already a 

sician before he bad to t 
erstwhile Rajput patron 

*■«-- - nil belong 113 ^^ tN ** ■ ,iu " •»*•—— — — ■ * 

orttt Accomplished musician before he bad to be surra* 

that b Tarn sen's erstwnne njjput rou. As ob- 
^^w the atmosphere in mediaeval Muslim rulers' 
«eked'wilb all vicious attributes in which no profound 
m flnurish Far from fine arts flourishing the> became 
T Ideo i tfnMnJ depths. We notice in the Ramayana and 
JKStbhartii and id accounts of subsequeot Kshatriya 
Zm that dancing, painting, music, poetry and sculpture were 
considered as accomplishments and refinements befitting even 
mat warriors and scholars. But in our own times we find 
parents reluctant to send their own daughters to music and pain- 
tmg classes. This gieat transformation, degradation and deth- 
roocffieai of the fine arts from their high sacred pedestal io> 
their present relegation to a status of hate and suspicion came 
about because of the prostitution of those arts, their misuse and 
association with drinking lorgies, sexual revelries and amorous 
songs during mediaeval Muslim rule in India. 

History must, therefore, not only renounce the notion that 
tie fine arts received any encouragement during mediaeval 
Muslim rule but reverse it and assert instead that the fine arts 
*tte degraded lo a lowly status of hate and ignominy during 
'iai period. 

?** °* so ** mentioned here that the Invention of stringed 

Mother musical instruments like the Sitar credited to Muslim 

m P au <»>«Bc is all part of that pressure propaganda which 



ikouw Haton, CAi 


farmer* aatllemnum tried to gross over HI atroci©„, r* i 
ttatdtenl »<«'* * ilh n°* tJ, S» c amounts cr ifnagba^" 

,»«, fe Sa»ar,i term "Sapta-lar" signifying lft ** 

nt-rr IrJ&J As inch it « a wry ancient miir 1:rn "•* 

of such remote antiquity rfoat we 

w traced* fomwitw P^od. We hear or ft only ft| ■J 
doetoped *« fro« ** remotest times. To iav ibatwch 

rtttimi a*> »J*cial encouragement in the vj C|0Ul CRV ^ 
port cf mediaeval Muslim courts is irrational 

Tbe twre musical tradition of India emerges from ih, 
Sioawda million* of years prior to Islam. It* daaka] trcaii". 
«ea air eisiuiively in Sanskrit. The teaching tradition is offr 
Gareknl ijsiot, lu tunes are woven around Lord Kmhai 
or Shiva o* tbe Typically Indian seasons such as the spring ttt )4 
use monsoon. All this has no connection with Islam. Yet ufaeo 
many Murium practise and pursue music they de so in spite of 
Muslims. That is they are all of Hindu descent who were 
or terrorized to turn Muslim. Chauvinists have floated 
i myths ittffbuting some tunes or singing style or musi- 
cal tauruoeau to Amir Khusroor Abdur Ranitu Khan Khma, 




lh About the Mogul Garden Art 

^ Mogul Gardens applied to the garden of Dclh. 
nt ^vSZL i* » mi*nomer. We have already observed 
RjsbtMp™^*, monutne0t s in India, be they tombs or mos- 

mediaeval monumeo 

; L Rajput palaces and temples. As such the geo- 
-J*en8 around them represent the Rajput 
^den style and not the Mogul. 

" JUC *- « Lterned gardens around them rcpresen 
ffle ,nc a llypaU^^ tell u 

us that Arabia 

tod Siad 

which are now 

deserts were well vegitated and iin- 
LTnds "during the early Christian era when those lands 
' * till uodet Indian Kihatriy* rule. Soon thereafter how- 
W ; r d the era of alien invasions and destruction started 
S.ific methods of agriculture and waterworks fell into neg. 
\tiU Subject 10 plunder and destruction and insecurity ot I 
and limb all civilized life and pursuits ground to a halt. People 
had to flee to the forests for protection. Histories tell us that 
before the start of Muslim invasions of India there used to be a 
broad welt-maintained 400-mile highway, almost an arcade with 
tall shady trees planted on either side of it. from Lahore to Agra 
The invaders ruthlessly cut down those huge trees for camp and 
kitchen fires and never cared to maintain tbe great highway. As 
a result that great highway survives only in name- This is only 
atypical instance of how Indian civilization and prosperity got 
wrecked and ruined during the millennium of Muslim rule io 
Indiu beginning with Mohammad Kasira. Indians were driven 
from their majestic mansions to seek shelter in wild forests and 
fadttftcounm They were ruthlessly ferreted out of .aeir 
homes like rodents and reptiles. It is that long period of LI HO 
<iri i of destruction and non-productive hibernation which is 

*h ch ftl f p ° ni,W * f ° r ,hc prcsenl iUUe[D,c economy of India 
refuses to p lc k up economic health despite vigorous 


Hi ,hlDlAN "»i 0R!CAL 

dfom Ncju« IIOO years of bfeedfne mischief and 

of all re*ou«« cannot be made good with ft fd1v g. "•Ir 0q 

Haw. <* f 

Ancient accounts tell us ihanheretiied to be lush garrf 
and pf<wp*rou> orchards In Smd. Afghanistan, PcrS * 
Arabia before those regions were reduced to trid wast tt T 
MoturJet of Muslim turbulence. Those lands boasred of ve rf 
field, and beautiful gardens in Hie pre-Muslim era when \ n ^ K 
Kihatnyas ruled in those regions as has been explain^ ,(*" 
often m this book - 

Invasion* are undertaken to ravage and not to plant garden 
Napoleon and Bilfci who Invaded Russia did not lay an' 
garden* there. Will anybody plan an invasion of Britain j 0S ( Z 
teach ihc Brnish how the Hyde Park in London could be mad 
Therefore the concept ihat invader aft*" 

leach the 

more bcautitul .....-.— . ...» . v ^v r i iuai uvaaer an>.r 
Muslim invader laid garden! galore in India is a despicable 
mi'tivated Islamic falsehood perpetuated by gullible British 

Perhapijn the WVi Senator Moynihan was American 

ambassador in New Delhi His wife once drove lo Dbolpur 

guided by an erstwhile fief holder of thai native slate. Since 

invader Bibar r"f«:rs 10 tome garden around Dholpur as "My 

garden" Mrs, Moynihan who was perhaps browsing through 

Bibura Mcmoires (ai pan of her effort to know something or 

India'* hinor>) the previous night, fancied that the garden that 

she mi tramping about, three miles from Dholpur city, was the 

one planied by Bibui. She gleefully announced that as a plea 

wot dficovL Equalfy ignorant newsman flashed the new*. 

Both of ihcm were ignorant of the fact that when Babur referred 

u "my garden what he meant was the garden existing m 

imitofy captured by him, as Napoleon would refer to 

cmrrun by him during his Moscow campaign or as 

ttWtt overrunning Stalingrad would refer to gardens there as 
Hit gtrdenr. 

semoires mention employ. ng labour to maintain 

".S?" ' A ehpUf Sikli **' Th Q t ooly means lidving up 
of woe conquered garden*. 


««. MOOI/L oam*n ** T 

point ofvif* 



\\\ thical Golden Periods Under 
Alien Rule 

Our histories nostalgically describe some periods, such at 

d* rrfp of Sbahjahan, during the 1 100 year stretch of alien 

rule tegittniDj; with Mohammad Kastm, as "golden agev' 

This w ■ grow perversion of Truth. A period during which sons 

of the mil were murdered, massacred and ruthlessly persecuted, 

their property confiscated without rime or reason, justice was 

rekpted to the wimni of religious fanatics, revolts, famines 

aS wirfare were endemic, can with no justification be regard- 

ntB a* • normally good period. How can an era in which 

til the Mints of a country, who form a vast majority of the 

selpifu rabjKii of an alien monarch, are regarded as second 

asaudcoademaed to a third rate existence through 

i« regarded even as a tolerable age ? The 

UOO years must be regarded as a harrowing 

roognlK this truth amounts to equating cruel 

caUgftiened native rulers, persecution with 

■»"«*« lib filial protection, famine with abuc- 

*oih richw. icarcity with prosperity, rape and 

-n *«* «. ordw * caseations with security of 

%ou. fanat,ci.m with freedom of worship, 
i num. iw.f AU . . . . . • j 

^lUUjerefore. not only be suitably amended 

nUcoDcluiiou will have to be thorou- 

Principles for a Correct Appraisal 

k,v ; t iX. M« diaevai History 

wtofbre should convince the reader thai 

I* ««*"'*/ , ecords they must be carefully sifted for-coo- 
•***?! TZ man enormous amount of falsehood. 

«nrv evidence 

from an 

Sir H.M- Elliot «•! of the same 

1111 .i historian air n.m* *-..— 

,hC Xt ccd from his very succincL 

remark in the 

opinioti ro;vj 
preface to h» 

.volume critical study of me J J Muslim 
MM «hat S. history of the Muslim e~ra in lodit. * an 
Jpudeat and misled fraud. 

Unfortunately subsequent students and scholar* of history 
ImMl paid enough attention to the import of Sir H.M. 
Elliot's profound observation. 

It Is ironical that Sir H.M. Elliot himself perhaps was un- 
iware of the far-reaching imp rt of his finding He and otheri 
like him who Mir* convin.. of the "fraud" ilill did not 
,. rrectly fathom its depth- uly they were taken in by 

ulklaims at ilippery assertions that mediaeval monuments 
were built by alien Muslim rulers, saints, noblemen and the 
like. Sir HM Elliot himself was unwittingly cheated into 
believing the innumerable mediaeval tombs and mosques 
were genuine original constructions while they are in fact 
earlier Rajput palaces, mansions and :emples which 
■Ppropmted for own use by conquering Muslims. 

TM* necessitates ihe 



principles for the 


SHT" mediaeval wri,ings - These k * 

+£^T£i?^ chronictes ""»»«".;„ 

^'Hrttol,!.??' aDy ""Wcmui or com- 



Thc Elding h^ *Z £»"* -orsht £«* *■•* 
*»on was iusr ann cr Proved A /* ' n 'he ten, "P* i u 

*'n explained nbovt Th* PCClfl| c «n™. * nd W 

**»ofhti» B more. sS^S * riIWl lhe ^Jv c ^ ^C 

^He-dJ*, This to «j£ £. '»«<««« ««, «* d £ *" 

«** with .» tr S « a^ Z^! ^^ ««■»-. Faripur 

H llt „ *«oar from Rn na San 

Hrttoriaoi would do w*n ... 
,0Q on whal IS s^^ "*" lo «««*% emu* the jnrerip. 

"^^'"J r.iht f bid £rrfJ i0ffw '''* «<1 nursing her 

»«* Mo***, ; *"f '* »y maty even lo nukt both 

2*^ b ««ttl.lfca t ^ li r*"7 ,Qt, <'» of Ibe building and 

«« J»«*r> -he .owr,.^*' 00 ^ »> «hc building i, do 

*«i*hi 5S^^ *^ «tau Nfc. MM^ 

^LDBH ■»!«• 


__- n..,nl.Ar inrrr nnt bUlll »flCf 


nh»irt tomb near Gwalior were not 

.hrjr J** ,b ? . . L .. ;« fhf wake of 


-""» tlM , bu cd ia tbeir "living quarters." That El why all 
J,cd l *J Tniiooed above ill look like oroale templet ud 
(]vfl !0l „b4 oi« ■ cwn a( the Ume of origin! occupation by 

h.vinf bew ' t cohewoi plan. 

^Jandina of mediaeval Muatim chronicles, namely that lhe 
SS^W-Hu-w-. Akbar.Sher Shah (at Saaaram 
nS-r. ^LodiTointaO- Delhi), tomb, of pnncej hke 
C, Allahabad, Khusm Bagb). and tomb* of noblemen 
like safdiqani and Abdurr.him Kb.o Khananin Delhi were 
diepaUiM aud mansions in which they lived wbik alive. More 
.cciifjuly w« may Bay thai those individual* died in lhe very 
building* m wbwb they Ik buried or a« supposed to have been 
buried Those palaces and mansion* were captured from earlier 
ftajpat rulers. Thai is why ihey are so spacious, massive and 
ornate In the Hindu style, ll is historically and academically 
.bsurd to reBard those buildings as products of Indc-Saracenic 
architecture. It must be realized thai they were captured and 
occupied Rsjput palaces, mansions and temples. Thus Sikandra 
w« a captured Rajput palace in which Akbar died and was 
buried. The same holds good of what is known a* Hnmayum 
Tomb and of the oihcr mediaeval tombs throughout India and 
abroad, broadly speaking, 

5. Claims in Mediaeval chronicles aboul invading a J kn 
touttim rulers having founded cines are unwarwnied- in 
mediaeval Muslim parlance "founding" citic* meant merely 
reebmtcning earlier ci!ies.Thii should be clearly underttood. 
Thus Abmcdabsd was not founded by Ahmadshah but >u S t 
conquered by him and christened in his own name supplanting 
the earlier name ol Rajnagar alias JCarn.vati Tfliikh-i-Ferox- 
lhabi naively states that while Feroxshah was poised lo sime 
a« Delhi m the contest for ihe throne after the earlier ruler had 
died, a son was bo.n to him, and in commemoration he fqui.<£ 
cd a township ju.t where he was camping. Since ihe mi 
name was Fateh Mohammad the township was named Fauna- 

1*0 >»«>« AN HISTORICAL RtS BA)Un| 

bad. Such puerile claim* have raided historians, What wai i„ 
facl done was that an existing and en I township was named 
after the new-born. If this i* nol clearly understood and felte 
claims made by chroniclers are to be accepted as literally true 
Then Allahabad would have lo he regarded as having becu 
founded b> Allah Himself (or rather Herself because M Allah" 
hj a Sanskrit term for a Goddess) - 

6. What we have said above should help us to formulate 
mother key principle in understanding mediaeval Muslim 
chronicles. The principle is that not a single extant mediaeval 
bridge canal, tomb, palace, fort, mosque, mansion or township 
to whih the tourist goes out of historical curiosity is built by 
alien Muslim invaders. All mediaeval monuments extent in 
India are only an infinitesimal part of its enormous arcbiiec 
lural wealth which got destroyed in a of 
and all-destructive invasions and vandalism. The extant menu- 
ments and canals claimed to have been built by .lien rulers or 
nobility are earlier Indian creations. 

A very graphic illustration of the falsity of such claims is 
found Yn chVonicles relating to Sher Shah's reign. He w**a 
^landlord who led a very beet, life r = « a — 

exited for centuries before Sher Shah ^ 

7. An incidental conduit which *e reacn^ ^ 
irJ vestigations is that wherever ,ta ^£ * mus , bt dce mcd 
ruler or nobleman attaches * a 7°^ rUcf Rajp ut mnou- 
,o be the destroyer and captor of .hat earl 
m ent than it, originator or bujde^ Tbu £» ^ u 
tton at a devastated sue in K"™ f ]UB ., V eru»l » 

9town a ,ound the source of the river J $ MbJ 

.bould be understood to *e£ **it**™ rf Vcrin ag » 

oc4tr oyed the ancient- ^^'^^ —■ * ■* 
tbe wcred source onhe r.ver. 

0Dd Hindu images at the sue ^ (oc , 

6 Medical chronicle. lutf* *«* 


r«,,diaeval history. These claims are patently false. 
P*"^ S ?1„ periods could there be when 99 per cent of Indians 
What goloe P cn " 

flnlv hated by the ruling alien junta ? Talcing a concrete 
"«w „' mJl y point out that Shabjahan's reign is claimed to 
'"''T^iHmi period" of Indian history but 1 have shown in 
^h^s reign was full of the most horrid cruelties for » vaat 
only of his subjects. When such innate cruelty was being 
oerpetraied against most of the population could it be called a 
floldea period ? The entire alien rule in India for over a mille- 
on turn until the British took over was a harrowing nightmarish 
period in which rape, rapine, levy of cruel and despotic taxes. 
manslaughter and rounding up of Indians to be sold as slaves 
gbroad were very common occurrences. 

9. Many current concepts of mediaeval history need to be 
completely reversed. For instance, it baa been repeatedly 
claimed that extant Indian mediaeval monuments were built at 
ibe orders of alien rulers by alien architects and craftsmen. 
Here it must be remembered that the existence of thousands of 
palatial mansions was itself one of the strongest pulls which 
attracted the predatory attentions of alien Muslim invaders. 
Secondly, just as the Western style of architecture is currently 
in vogue all over the world similarly during mediaeval times it 
was the Indian style of architecture which was followed throu- 
ghout the world. This explains the similarity of Wkst Asian 
and Indian medieval monuments. Hence the contrary principle 
« arrive at is that instead of alien Muslim designers and art.. 
iST 8 \ m fficdiaeval 1-kHm monuments, ,t was Indian 

S2^7l" eowl,of " ,,lioned mcdiaevaJ West Asian 
^tZclnr M ,° haromad Gtai and Taimurlang have 

«^» and river r^°[^ aD tenJp!cf ' paJaccs > ^nsions. 
, ^ahey U5c e d r f^ tSWb,ch ,** no P^aUels in their home- 

^n^SS^* 1 ™ Sad 'T ^era before per. 
J°'"»*ecfo.sihe lIS?! \ j* dnVC thoSC arlUt « « ***"»' 

«o Indian palaces and temples converted 

! SS '"WAN iiinoiitcAt sttti^, 

lo Muslim use, precisel' because thai was the very basic j n( 
lion Therefore the principle we establish here is that far uT 
■ Urn Muslim architects and workmen having built mediaeval 
fod i a ft HK»numeni», it was Indiaiu who designed, fashioned and 
built Wen Asian mediaeval monuments. 

10, Moat of the key principles formulated in this chapicr 
would be found relevant in a proper understanding orMushrn 
history even in other countries For instance, the principle that 
massive and grand tomb* were the pa] acts or the very persons 
who lie buried in them, may well apply to Tamcrlain's tomb in 
Samarkand in the Soviet Union, A drawing of the rising sun 
and « rampant tiger decorating its walls reinforces our findings. 
What is more, the drawing is known by its Sanskrit Dame 

>or-SaduI' (5oorya*Shardul) meaning the "sun and the 
tiger The existence of an "infidel" drawing and its Sanskrit 
name prove that Tamerlaw was buried in an earlier captured 
Hindu palace in which he used to live. 

11, False claim* in mediaeval Muslim chronicle* sometimes 
afford tit a glimpse of earlier Rajput rulers' archives which 
were captured and burnt by the conquering aliens. Thus for 
insiauct Sir H.M. Elliot has pointed out in his critical study or 
the Jahangirnama that Jahangir's false claim to have installed 
a gold chain of justice in his palace at Agra was plagiarized 
from accounts of Anangpal's reign. Such nostalgic claimst 
therefore, far from applying to India's alien rulers, afford us a 
glimpse of accounts of earlier Rajput rulers' reigns, de&troyed 
by their alien successors. 

12 Claims in mediaeval Muslim chronicles sometimes lend 
themselves to adverse inferences. A broad, shaded highway 
connected Lahore and Agra, and perha, : extended right upu> 
Attack on the Indus The shaded trunk road existed from ttawi 
immemorial. But during successive Musuui UsWllOBl the hifb- 
vay was almost destroyed from lack of maintenance and coo- 
lant heavy marauding traffic. Huge trees thai lined the highway 
on either ride net hacked by the invaders for cooking food an 
heating wtter when they cam pod by the roadside. In spile < 
such a cleai-cut conclusion false claims have been J*» 



mediaeval chronicles of invading alien rulers having first built 
ih«i and ^er grand trunk roadi. 

,3 The claims made on behalf or ruler after Muslim ruler 
i rtjlldlng aerais. mail posts and other amenities at short interval* 
along roadsides are unfounded. They were lifted from ami 
accounts of Rajput charity and deftly implanted in Muslim 

14- Scrawling huge building fronts with Koranic texts by 
predominantly illiterate regimes as the mediaeval alien rulers 1 
regimes in fact were— is itself suspicious It is a common psy- 
chological axiom Ihat only literate regimes would care to keep 
Inscribed records. When highly illiterate regimes scrawl enor- 
mously across huge wall surfaces it is a case of ' ifae lady pr> 
testing much too much." In faci those who stake false claims 
areoverzeatousto prove ownership or origin of the building 
by scrawling their own inscriptions on captured buildings. 
Even otherwise picnickers scrawl their names on the places 
tley visit. This is a common human failing 

Hence Muslim inscriptions on mediaeval Indian buildings 
even appearing to be tombs and mosques, must never be mis- 
taken to signify the original builder but only a captor, occupier 
and usurper, 

Vincent Smith has testified that Akbar. and consequent all 
"ten Muslim monarchs used to have an army of sculptorsand 
insenben at their command to scrawl the inscriptions they 
wanted on captured buildings 

mJi!lw A | 1 | 3 ! hcr princ, P ,c to ^member to studying Indian 
worth* h ° ry ,S lftat Mu * lita <*"»»*'« »« most untrust. 

record eh "I* ' hcy *** Wri " CD DOt wi,h lhc imefl, » 0ft '° 
«urt ** rooo, °W or ^ v *"*s but just to flatter royal or other 

•ontain I "*" Hcnce ' n ,hc,r °P cralive portions the chronicles 
^^hercT? 1 " ,lMdu,tcrate< l falichoods- A few quotations 
cl *hns iboTalf 1 W * uffice t0 coavince ,nB reader how false 
metiia | n i "! "* u *J ,n » rulers or noblemen having buili monu- 
india have misled generations of historians, 

b ^ ViocT*^ 3 ! 5 of AKBARTHE GREAT MOGUL wr.ttca 
»»«h he observes "The so-called Jahangiri Mahal 

154 l? *" ** HmoHKUL ta**^ 

in the Agra Fort, J* FergfKKc* justly obeervea, would w.n_ 
be <Mrt of place at Crritor or Gwtiior." ^ 

Smith then goes on lo point out that the to-calt*d iodi, 
E*i'f Mahal ib Fatehpor Sikn bean a general resem bland 
the Jahaogin Mabai w 

further say* "No sn/onaarioo a at my diipcial eon. 
the -handsome mosque erected by Akbax (?) at Mirtba 
(Mem) in Rajputana, awl it may not be purely Mstlua to 
:ci pt* Had Smith only bees careful :o take cote ofibe 
ccmmcn mediaeval Muslim practice of using conquered tampan 
at mosques be would have arrived at the correct conclusion 
Hm ihc so-called 'handsome' mosque was never built by Akbar 
bet is fact it is an erstwhile temple which came to be used as a 
DOaqoe since Akbar s lime. 

Again Smith sayi *Tba liwan or service portion of the great 
O at Fatehpor Sikri. although it professes to be copied 
a model of Mecca, yen exhibit! Hindu construction in the 
and roofinf- 

' At first fiance (Humayun *s tomb) seems to be purely fore- 
ign and oB-ihdiaa, acvcrthcks*, the grouadplaa baaed oa the 
gi oping of four chambers round ooe great central room, is 
purely Indian 

The tomb of Mohd. Ohaus ai Gwalior. - .nobody could 
miltaii ii for anything but an Indian monument. The building 
is a square, measuring 100 ft on each side, wrth a hexagonal 
tower attached by an angle to each corner. The single tomb 
chamber. 43 ft- square is surrounded by a deep verandah pro- 
tected by extraordinarily large eaves ..some of the io. * 1 * 
cotaau and bracket capitals might belong to a Hindu u mpte*" 
f?afe 316 of Smith a book.) What Smith and others mistake ffl 
seen a ease is oot realizing the fact that the so-called tomb of 
Mohd Ghaus was not at all Uilt after bis death but w« *° 
caalicr tempk in itself. 

About the ic-calkd Satim Cbistt tomb at Faiebpux Srkn 
South hovers at the brink of the truth but fails to gr«P "* 
thai the so-called tomb a a temple built by the pjf 
owners of Fatehpor Sikri. On page 321 *• w 



took Smith says "It »» wprising to find tinmutakable Hindu 
features m **« arehiiecture of the tomb of a matt zealot* 
Matalmao saiat, but the whole structure suggests Hindu fed* 
jag, and nobody can mistake the Hindu origin of the columns 

t0 4 struts of ihc porch" 

The fact was that the huge courtyard at Fatehpor Sikn 
entered through the Bulaod Darwaza on ooe tide and the royal 
cite on the other was the royal Rajput kitchen-cum-dming hall. 
The so-called Chilli tomb was the temple of the family deity to 
»bojo the Rajputs said Grace before beginning the community 
meals in long rows and the verandah which stands converted 
into a mosque was the royal kitchen. 

v Above area few principles culled to help a correct under- 
standing of Indian mediaeval history. 

A dense fog of many anomalies and absurd i ties has been 
enveloping Indian mediaeval history. For instance firstly it 
could not be explained why alien Muslim invaders Ihundering 
anathema against the Hindus, unanimously fell for the Hindu 
architecture to build I heir fancied toraba and mosques ind 
iecotvdiy why ibey have left us absolutely no record of buUdtn. 
any monuments- * * 

The beacons of the above principles should help the bew,t- 
J«d student of Indian bmory find a way out of the foe of 
KaT^d"*"^* 1 *«**■ it ckar to rJor 

£S*™ Int Z\ l °t ^^ *** «"*« tombs and 
-Mqutt were never boilt by them but were only adopted for 

Blunder No. 9 



Alexander's Defeat Claimed to be Great 
Victory Over Porus 

Unlike the easy forays thai India's inimical neighbour! 
make with impunity in modem tiroes ancient India's defences 
being much stronger, aggressors were sent back staggering and 

One such adventurer who got the shock of his life and died 
soon thereafter on tinkering with India's borders was 
Alexander, the Great. 

But in spite of Alexander's discomfiture out histories sttit 
describe fa is misadventure as a great victory over India's invin- 
cible scion, Porus. This great travesty of the truth has imbed- 
ded itself in Indian history because all the accounts that have 
come down to ui of that great encounter arc all the partisan 
Greek And it is well known that aggressors suffering humi- 
liating defeats shroud their reverses in the phraseology of 
victory. This is what has happened in the case of Alexander*! 
Indian adventure, 

Alexander the Great— as he is known— was born in 356 
B.C He was the son of Philip H, King of Macedonia, and 
Olympia. the Princess of Epirus, Philip was known for his 
■Utesmamhip and wisdom but Alexander's mother is said to 
have been uncultured, uneducated, uncouth, a sorceress and a 

Ambitious plani for waging aggressive wars and expanding 

the borders of the kingdom rilled the court atmosphere in 

Macedonia dun ng Alexander 'a childhood. Macedonia looked 

otwwd to be the leader of ihe Greek stales and win renown rn 

aggresaivc waxa. 


tie tbe famous Greek philosopher was appointed tutor 

A J ,5t °rider when the latter attained tbe age of 14 But 

lo A1CXW ^ ^ ^ w a<JveDturc refused to bo tamed by 

instruction or philosophical advice. Rather than sit 
^Tiv'bV the side of his tutor. Alexander preferred to hear 
01 h nd ; accounts from travellers, adventurers, soldiers and 
fir *!y -"dors. He liked to taste life in the raw. Once during his 
f h *s tbsence from the capital, Alexander had led the realm's 
iroops to que" * rebellion by the hill tribes. 

Ai about this time domestic trouble between Alexander's 
parents was coming lo a head. They decided to separate. Philip 
took another wife named Cleopatra. Olympia, the queen, left 
the palace. Alexander, whose turbulent nature was more akin 
to his mother's, left with her too. Cleopatra bore a son to 
Philip creating a rival claimant to the throne. Sometime later 
Philip was murdered and history has suspected Alexander of 

Alexander's complicity in his father's murder does not seem 
improbable in view of his making common cause with his 

Having been known to fhe iroops as the royal prince and 
beir apparent for a number of years, Alexander was helped by 
them to grab the throne after his father's death. On coming to 
throne, Alexander had bis cousin and step brother murdered 
so that he may have no rival to throne. 

Alexander now lauched on a carrier consolidation and ex- 
pansion. He first subdued the rebellious hill tribes. He then 
wiled out to the west and annexed the region along the 
Danube river. In the meantime tbe people of Thebes rose m 
'cvolt Alexander struck at them with great agility and razed 
ibw capital to the ground. This established his reputation as 
» wirnor of promise. The Athenians and all other Greek com- 
■wmiie, now made submission to Alexander and agreed to 
»wp him conquer Iran and other countries. 

waL h e ?r UrCti ° rsu PP° rl Alexander set about in 334 B.C. to 
»*iied lo .£ ° fC€k comnjUD,tACi Alexander 


*'**"*' * fS,vi5 « ed Tr oy Bud worshipped t 


'*DIAK miTOtlCftl. 

ing diTinr blessings for his intended career of r^!?- ! ioB ** 

heroes of the Trojftn war, as an act of faiih i„h ,f *° ul1 ° r Hit 

Hearing of Alexander's advent the king of Fran 

superior, to nip Al««, dw . M 2 

force said to be numerica 

lions in the bud, even before he succeeded overrui 

Minor. The two armies met on (he banks of Ctamcu^^ 

engagement was fought. By sunset the Iranian army's 2? 

tiDce broke and it fled. y rcw * 

Alexander was now in full control of all routes leading 
of Asia Minor. He declared the local Greek settlements tote 
independent, appointed governors over the other conquered 
regions and proclaimed nimseir emperor. The newly annexed 
Tegjon fell easily to Alexander because its large Creek popula- 
tion and soldiery proved helpful. 

A year later Alexander annexed the kingdom of Gordium 
in North Pnrygia. Legend has if that there be cut with his 
sword the famed Gordian Knot tied on the chariot of Gordius. 
the ancient Phrygian King, 

Simultaneously with his land expeditions Alexanders navy 
had moved into the Hellespont. That armada had helped him 
keep in touch with his native country. But now since he intend- 
ed to proceed to distant lands Alexander ordered his navy to 
return to its base. 

Soon after Alexander's navy withdrew from the Hellespont 
the Iranian navy received orders from their king to prepare far 
an attack on Greece. To call off the threat to his homeland 
Alexander thought of overrunning the Syrian coast. To provide 
land cover to bis navy King Darius of Iran personally leading 
a large force entered Syria. The two armies met at Isus in 333 
B.C. Greek historians record that the Iranian army fled in 
disarray leaving their women-folk behind but Alexander show- 
ed peat chivalry and restraint, Darius offered to part with half 
his realm but nothing short of the whole would satisfy 

He now besieged Tyre. The liege lasted seven months and 
die whole of Phoenicia was annexed. 


.Gaza Alexander entered Egypt- The Egyp- 
Ul« "■P'Tlin, ! is their deliverer from Iranian rule, 
it- ^T^tthc winter of 332-331 B.C« Egypt i* 

w " h * infill tne wmici *** -r-- .--- -- 

****** ™ LZl founded Alexandria at this time, Bui at 
^edited with fisv, 7 in 

history he may have foisted bis name on 

earlier township. 

entire eastern coast of the Mediterranean 

-««. iHfl entire easicm ^.u^n '■ ^- ■-* -— 

A 1°d« nol .« W, sight, on Iran i.s.lf. On Snp.en.bT 20, 
Alexander now * 2L-i. -i a. t.« tr*v»r«Ml Mmhim 

£ 331 
tQJ ia and moved 

«r -3 Jibe crossed the! Igrfc fiver. Ashe traversed Mesopo- 
«mia and moved ahead the Iranian army led by Darius con- 
tooled him near Gogmil, A sharp engagement followed. The 
Lamar, ormy again suffered defeat and Darius escaped to 
Media. The battle of Gogmil is alternatively known as that of 
Erbil from a town of that name 60 miles away. 

Alexander an oexed the Babylonian region of the Persian 
empire and entering Persipotis, the capital of Iran, ransacked 
[bat wealthy city and theb burnt it down. It is said that this 
was in revenge for the burning down of Greek temples by an 
earlier king, Xerxes, 

Dariui fled to the north. But now a regular hunt followed. 
A king was pursuing a king. Darius was overtaken. He was 
accompanied by his cousin Besam and a few noblemen only. 
It was the lummer of 330 B.C. As Alexander's men were about 
to move forward and arrest Darius the latter's companion* 
themselves pul him to death and handed over his body, to 

vi'toJ^J m ° Ved ,owards Af 8^ni,.an. By now his 

'«»<« coMum, TrZ i! S ° Pltd ' he ftania0 "«»'"» «o 
M»cedoniao troor,, rh S " at "«»"»«' amongst b» 

"■"•WW I Z?*2n K 'r g< "" ng " ,rM « ed *«u S eh« 

ftata? * 5 M&*2?s 4prMd 

ea *ne n the araiv Wflft _„ ,my * Serous dissensions 

-camped at ^iWtoS 




The cavalry commander pbj , * fCj * ^ 

charged With AleirX, DUlnb *^fo, her , 
jlmost derided to 2LJ S Lut £[ ^ A, ^S ^ 
He visuehzed that such a ltep would 'dt ?T h *£■£? 
t-on, end. therefore, relented. * l0 furthe ' * W.5; 

lo ihc spring of 32S B C Atj.. ■_■ 
I ««»f ,„« whcl, of B»« XS ** Hini,i "'»". 
»»Od»Mrt* By ,„„ AufZTZ^r*"* 
.horoogWj te^W, „«„„,, A „ ™' ba y •«., 

arraigned with plotting >»,.<. .w. r_.. ""^ *m 

•od amused .he whole of B»elri». Stan^iZ?, ' TO Min **Mh 
erne .o the By .hen AUuZZ ZT"T ** 

•miffed w»h plotting , gaills , tl)l!jr fun „ r ' ^^ "«te 
WTtile in this region, Rn MM , , oe iiv ^ "*• 

Ai bis armies moved forward towards ihc Indus inn: 
Pathu tribes harassed them by constant sniping These •21 
the outer defences of India then. It was*, this time says* 
legend, that Alexander identified sacred Mount Deesa and the 
track of Dionysus on it. 

Alexander was now poised on the outskirts of the Indim 
sub-continent beyond the Indus. Beyond the Indus inside India 
et its northern tip lay three kingdoms, King Ambbi ruled the 
region around Jhelum river. Takshashila (Taxita) was his 
capital. Poms ruled over the territory bordering on the Cheosb, 
while another king ruled the Abhisar territory around Kashmir, 
King Ambhi being at loggerheads with Poms saw in Alexan- 
der's advent an opportunity to settle old scores. The Abhisus 
-keeled to sit on the fence by keeping both Porus and Alexander 
guesting by avowing friendship with either. Porus was, there- 
fore, left si one to face the invader who was actively helped by 

Traditional accounts give no d*les. A bridge was improve 
ed over the Indus and Alexander's armies crossed over into 
India. The invading force encamped 16 miles to the " or,h ° f 
Attock. A lot of inconsistencies, anomalies and lacunae can 
detected m Greek accounts aince they find u hard log 
.way the much vaunted end idolized Alexander i u*do<n* « 
India. They, therefore, pretend to depict that **»*£% „ 
magnanimity threw away hi. conquests in India and return* 


n-Uve land. H should not be forgotten that he returned a 
rh sober man, broken in spirit, sorely wounded and with hi* 

Eighty I** badly battcrcd ' 

Vt cording to Plutarch Alexander's array consisting of 
20 000 tool men and 15.000 horse vastly outnumbered the force 
'thai Porus put >" the nc,J Alexander was helped by Antbhi** 
forces and Persian recruits. 

Pflge 531. Vol. 7 of the Maharashtriyan Dnyankosh (encyc- 
lopaedia) says that Alexander's and Porus's armies met in an 
head- on clash on the banks of the Chenab. But Curtiui writes 
i hat Alexander was encamped on the other side of ihc Jhelum. 
•*A division of Alexander's army reached an island in the 
jhelum. The soldiers of Porus swam to the island. They laid 
siege to it and attacked the Greek advance guard. They killed 
many Greek soldiers. To escape death many jumped into the 
river but were drowned." 

It is said that Alexander crossed the river Jhelum with bis 
army on a dark night in boats at a sharp bend about sixty 
miles above Haranpur. Porus's advance guard was ted by his 
son. Id the battle that ensued he got killed. It is said that it 
wis a rainy day and Porus's mighty elephants got bogged 
down. But accounts left by Greek historians if properly cons* 
trued make it clear that Porus's elephant corps caused havoc in 
the enemy ranks and routed Alexander's mighty host. 

A man records that "The Indian prince wounded Alexander 
and killed ffis horse Bucephalus," 

Justin says "As the battle hegau, Porus ordered a general 
assault. To avoid bloodshed Porus (generously) offered to hgrit 
the Greek leader in single combat. Alexander refused (the 
gallant offer). In the engagement that followed, his horse. 
mortally hit, slumped under him. Thrown down on the battle* 
ncld with a thud Alexander was in the danger of being sur- 
rounded by the enemy but was whisked away by his body- 
luard," ' 

About ihe terror that Porus'- elephants spread in the Greek 

thi Ul writes "These animals inspired great terror and 

ltr rM °n»nt (trumpet IikeJ cries frightened not only the 





Cieek boras who shied away but also their riders. Thf 
such disorder in iheir rants that these vcierans of m 
victory now looked around for a place to which they^ n 
repair for shelter. Alexander thereupon commanded bis briga* 
of the lightly armed Agrianians and Thracians to go into actio- 
egatm-t the elephant corps. Irritated by Urn assault the wound- 
ed animals charged in rage upon the attackers who were m 
consequence trampled to death under their feet. The most 
dismal of all sights was of the pachyderms gripping the Greek 
soldtcrrwith ihcir trunks, hoisting inem above their heads and 
delivering them over into the hands of their riders for being 
beheaded. Thus the outcome was doubtful, the Macedonian* 
sometimes pursuing and sometimes fleeing from the elephants, 
so thai the straggle was prolonged till the day was far spent." 

Diodonu testifies that "The huge elephanU had enormous 
strength and proved very useful. They stamped under fool 
many Greek soldiers crushing their bones and coats of mail. 
The elephants caught the soldiers by their trunks and dashed 
Ihem against the pound in great fury. They also gored the 
soldier* to death with their tusks." 

All these descriptions show that either the battle took place 
cm a dry Geld or that even if wet it did not bog down Poras's 
elephant corps as is alleged. 

In spite of these descriptions of the terror that Porus's 
e army ,ir«ck in the Greek hearts it »s claimed by partisan 
*l iccounii that Porus was wounded and captured ajid his 
«my bad to Uy down arms. 

'* canard and a motivated myth is also borne 
»« ct^«^ ' * h ° htd » ■"■* ° r serous "»«•- 

Mi fcA.w. Bad« „ hli llM . 
TEXTS- b*sW^ oh Two t k J ^ ' he "ETHIOPIC 

A-JWBO.tarp^iority T^\\J^ ln ,he b "" ,c of 

^* WU, ^» «*alry w « killed. 


Alexander realized (hat if he were to continue fighting be 
-would be completely ruined. He, therefore, requested Portu to 
»top fighting- True to Indian tradition Porus did not killifae 
iU rrendcrcd enemy. After this both signed a treaty. Alexander 
then helped him in annexing other territories to his 

The reason given by Mr. Badge for Alexander's plight u 
that his soldiers were grief-stricken by tfao loss of tbousands of 
comrades in arms. They threw thetr weapons and urged their 
leader to sue for peace. Mr, Badge adds that in asking for 
peace Alexander said "Porus please pardon me. I have realiz- 
ed your bravery and strength. Now 1 cannot bear these 
agonies. Saddened in heart I am planning to put an end to my 
life. I do not desire that my soldiers should be ruined like me. 
I am that culprit who has thrust them into the jaws of death. 
It docs not become a king to thrust his soldiers into the jaws. 
of death." 

In spire of such clear evidence borne out by subsequent 
developments, historians have been prone to brand and dismiss 
the above passage as an interpolation. Even asRiiming for argu- 
ment's sake that the above passage could be an Interpolation 
we pose the question as to how Alexander, who bud joined 
battle wuh the avowed intention of, making Poms'* bead roll 
like that of Darius, not only spared Porus-. fife but *ka releas- 
ed ufm from custody, return d him his entire kingdom and 
threw in some other territory in good measure into the bargain 
at a sort of a reward ? This is as fantastic at saying that a 
deadly cobra which had reared its bond to strike furiously 
suddenly changed into a charmin* prince who writhed in smiles 
presided over a prize-giving ceremony. 

The very fact that Porus won from Alexander some addi- 
tional territory instead of losing his own shows that Alexander 
not only sued for peace but thai his rout was so complete thai 
he had to cede some additional tracts to Porut Even bdievmg 
Greek accounts that he helped Porttt w,n some additional 
territory it is qutte clear that *£"***»» *£*£ 
<*l meekly agreed to aervt « » |U 
and ai reparation for bis intrusion 


dc 1 

lubscrvicDi ally under Form 
iota? India mon iocoe more 


territory for Porus It could be that rhc art.ihi ^ 

belonged to Ambh. the king of T««« w| lo Jl™' 1 , ■•rilory 
and the Abb.sars who hidroainiain^ diplomal'c ^ ^ 

Alexander"! might was so complctelv broken * "** 
wild granhe wall of ancient India's defence* hai^r"" thc 
batik with Porus, Greek soldiers refused to fi fiU , -L * hc 

can Well be imagined that when Porus alone could (T** U 
combined might of Alexander and Ambhi, the forme *" 
noi have BVM crossed tbe Indus ,T Ambhi's patriotism' U?d 
ameni had got the better of his animosity for Pom*. *° d 

Even after deciding to return, it is clear that Alexander wju 
not allowed to retrace his steps through the regions he had 
already conquered and knew well. 

The recorded fact that Abbisar refused 10 meet Alexander 
also points to Alexander's defeat. Had Alexander subdued 
Porui'i might, as is claimed, Abhisar who had remained 
neutral, would have precipitately rushed to Alexander to make 
peace and fe go friendship. 

Alexanders forces crossed the Cbenaband the Ravi without 
any opposition, as the Greek historian! would ha e us believe- 
This only shows that white Poms bad barred his erstwhile 
enemy Alexander from retreating into Ambhi'? northern terri- 
tory arj thence withdrawing to the wen of the Indui Poru* 
had magnanimously agreed to assure him safe conduct through 
hi* own territory if Alexander proceeded south 

Thi» was a very farsigbied move on Porus'* part because 
had he let Alexander go back to Ambht's region and ioio 
Afghanistan Alexander may have treacherously regrouped 
forces for another attack as subsequent Muslim invaders repca- 
tedh did. 

As soon as Alexander's armies crossed the Ravi. India's 
second line of defence went into action. Porus had provided 
them t protective cover t (trough bis own territory. But he 
knew that Alexander would never be able to go unscathed 
through other pant of India which were thoroughly and ic** 
lously guarded by out brave Ksbairiyas, and that by the nmc 
he wail out through the other end his back would be cowplc 

ken and far f' onl bein * a world-conqueror he would be 
• c 'y *"° penury mnd destitution. Thin is exactly what happen- 
*? "History must, therefore, take note that far from being a 
r icd foe Po^s musr be lauded as a great Indian hero and 
d teaman who stripped Alexander of all his pride and proud 
""my s" d f0fccd him lo r8lurn home * wfatenwl **** wbered 

Between the Ravi and the Beas Alexander's forces bad to 
fight many fierce engagements. In ancient times Indian armies 
were so alert that they did not tolerate any armed intrusion. 
Every citizen was n soldier. He did not allow misplaced com- 
pulsion to gel tbe better of his patriotism. War-weary t wound- 
ed, home-sick, starved and fiercely opposed at every step 
because they were armed intruders, Alexander's soldiers refused 
to fight any more when they reached the banks of the Beas, 
They had enough of it. Thc engagement with Porus was their 
fourth and last big battle in Asia, Its harrowing memories were 
too much for them- 

Being unwelcome in thc territories through which their path 
of retreat lay Alexanders starving soldiery indulged in pillaging 
defenceless civilian communities. But this fact has been twisted 
in Greek accounts as proof of the false claim that Alexander 
turned south after the so-called subjugation of Porus, to con- 
quer more territory and collect plunder. 

Alexander retreated through Sindh and Makran. At every 

stage the ranks of his depleted host were getting thinner 

through skirmishes, sniping by Indians, starvation and 

during this retreat an Indian tribe called the Mallois gave 
» "Jff fight t Alexander's Greek hordes. In the many engage* 
wots that followed Alexander himself was wounded. In one 

'^XT'-a? 001 1° be hacked lo picces ' p,uuuch hM 

™nseir m ° St warlikc tribcin ^ia Finding 

fcvbaruuw k . company much galled by the darts of the 

^^Znd C i?h?TK l ° thC ' r midsl - T*"**'*** **toa 

14 funded him I ,WOrdi and 8pCa " picrCCd W> arnl0uf 
mm. An enemy arrow was shot at him with such 



*«* AM .. made fo Way * . *" *****«. «^ 
- „. «e was ki|| cd 

■••••MMtw "'""-"Ward ca „ jed £ £g» 

Throughout its , etreat , h _ 
•troeititi, Wh«h er drunk . r J« •><"<!« committed 

J- "fowl he)p , h « y fc „ ^"tai. «& 

•"men* Mva ' ou , 'll peacefl " '«'<ie , s „,£ 

•word. ° ^ P ut "« *om„ and chj|drra Jg 

«3£2SR *zzz* r ■?*"*- « **. 

encounters cm land 8ll3CC hi , r ™ m ° rthe h*fc To avoid 

11 wiimtng home by 5ea STrv™ " ! ° yCd wi,h < hc W« 

B « "dieted sea-worthl' *""«•' »»»««i«« wyibeid. 
A^*^^^*?* "£■»■■*« therefor, 

"*°nibe Greek armies wcre71«TK a ': Ch,SthaD - mthis 
««* to Rasmalan and Pa ! n " hafaMcd b * tne Or,r« 8 . As be 
WJ "Pod hi, f atnubed rt „™ **•*»« dinner temperature* 
**«* Weary BDd downed ,! P ^ I""* 1 *"« fu " hcr ** 
*—••■. There be wl, J £5°^ W«d«™ and ^ched 

«'«c .ertiior, pu| J™ " "^ .*««. Th.s reunion j n ]m 
1 «he^ «rZe r ed *7 '" 5* harncd Bod battered 

E£ nsit^ ^ Est .^ >«** * 

PrU °° Cr A, ™»*r haxl him 

AL£ ^insi>^ TCLAIME0 167 

d bv his servants and then had oil nose and can chop* 
".l!! ff Later Basus was put to death* Alexander had many 
nftcficrals brutally executed. He did not hesitate toexe- 
PC |e bis own tutor Aristotle's nephew Kalasthanese Tor having 
d ° re d to criticise Alexander for sporting the Persian regalia* 
On« white in a rage Alexander stew his own friend Clyrui. 
Hii father's trusted lieutenant Parmenian was also done to 
death by Alexander, Wherever his army went it burnt down 
whole cities, carried away the women and put children to 
death. On page 72 of bis "Glimpses of World History 1 ' 
Jawaharlal Nehru writes "Alexander was vain and conceited 
and sometimes very cruel and violent. He thought of himself 
almost as a God, In fits of anger or whims of the moment be 
killed sons of his best friends and destroyed great cities with 
their inhabitants." 

Alexander had helped himself with two princesses of Iran 
arnoog women of other regions. His generals too had taken 
ii ves wherever they went. 

His adventure in Indja had backfired. On his way home 
w> n he was campiijg in Media a serious revolt broke out in 
his ,trmy. Alexander threatened the Macedonians with dismis- 
sal and raising an army of people from other communities. 
With great difficulty the revolt was quelled and Alexander 
Teaehtd Babylon in 323 B.C. 

T* • days before he was scheduled to move out of Babylon 
Alexander happened to attend a feast at the house of his RUM 
Mcdius, Indulgence in excessive drinking, lo drown the oikct 
memories of his humbled pride in the Indian misadventure, led 
to his being stricken with fever He was then only 3 - *"£**■ 
The fever persisted and rose higher. After «en £* £ lo«to 
Power of speech and later on June 28 in 323 B.C. Alexander 
*ed m a coma. A posthumous son *•««". Jo«J * 
Alexander but within a few months both Alexander , wrfe and 
infant son were done to death. 

Alexander's remarkable career had bjgn. with a ban, but 

when be allowed his enthusiasm 

I Ml 

'eavitaggering back with *hi 

SiT^u^i-rJS^T'J^ h0W " 

to gel the bciitfi of hi* judfft- 







being ilain in India. Badly wounded when he retreat 

India he died even before reaching home. His miehi ' r0n, 

presented a dismal picture of complete disarray. Hisiorv 
i ft tfcfof* re assess the Porus» Alexander encounter 
Porat v> the undisputed hero. It is hi 


*° acclaim 
time that the pn n ™ 
claims of Greek chroniclers were closely cross-examined to fi 
cut the iruih about Alexander's Indian campaign. 

1, Pror Hans Chandra Seth's Research Paper on ihe top. 
rtad at me Allahabad Session (!938Kof the Indian HistoTj 

2, Prof. SX. Bodtmnkar's articles on the topic. 

3, Maharasbtnya Dnyankosh. 

4, Ethiopia Tali, ed. by E.A.W. Badge, 

5, Glimpse* of World History by Jawaharjal Nehru. 

Hdtr So '0 

Adya Shankaracbarya*s Antiquity 
Under-Estimated by 1297 Years 

Among the question marks of Indian historical chronology 
ok of the most important relates to lt»e great philosopher 
Adya Shn Shankaracharya. The great Shankaracharya is held 
in universal reverence throughout India because his Advaita 
(non-duality) philosophy is considered to represent the quin- 
tessence of Indian metaphysical thought - 

This great philosopher founoed many peethas (monasteries). 
Four of these have traditionally wielded supreme religio-philo- 
sophical authority in their respective regions. Those four are : 
The Badn Kedar Pecth in the north, the Dwarka Pecth in the 
west, Jagannatbpuri in the east and Shringert in the iouih. The 
fifth monastery— at Kanchipurum— was presided over by the 
great Shankaracharya himself until his death. 

Shri Shankaracharya wa* short-lived. He lived only for 32 
years. But the crux of the question is. which 32 years ? Did he 
li?c from 788 to 820 A,D. as has been maintained by Western 
scholars whose word held unquestioned sway during British 
rule in India, and is considered sacrosanct even now ? Or did 
the Shankaracharya live from 509 B.C to 477 B C. as has been 
ft cld by a number or Indian scholars. 

The academic stakes in the controversy are high. An error 
margin of 1297 years in either view is a serious matter which 
ran throw Ihe whole chronology of ancient Indian history out 
*' gear because Shankarucnarya forms an important landmark 
» n Indian history. If, therefore, becomes necessary to review the 
Pioof> adduced by either aide. 

The Kamakoti Pcctha at Kanchipuram where tfae Shanku*- 
c b*rya finally leiiled down after a peripatetic moauiic career. 

wat founded by him in 482 B C. It has 

WX * NH1,TOI,c * l »'H H 

an unbroken 

of succeeding pontiffs ever since. The present incumkL * 
68th in The line The third in the Iio c f iva3 J** 1 h U* 
Sanrajnaimau and the 4th, Shn Salyabodh held swsy°J* Shri 
end 104 yean respectively, while the 32nd incumbent'* 
ChidinaDdagham presided only for four years. The oer " 
which the 3*th pontiff, Chjtsukhananda. held authority"^* 
not seem to be known became white bis name figure* in J^?* 1 
i be period is not record ed. 

Tbe average period of each of the 68 pontiffs who held 
office as Shankaracharya during the 2,448 years from 482 8 C 
to 19G6 AJX, work* out to 36 years which is not an impouibk 
figure when we consider that the incumbents were strict celt- 
bates who led exemplary lives characterized by continence, 
temperance, frugality and purity. 

A third view supported by one tradition of the Sh ringer i 
monastery is that the great Shankaracharya lived in 44 B.C. 

We shall now weigh the available evidence to determine the 
time when the great Shankaracharya lived. 

I. A Cambodian inscription mentions one Sivasoma des- 
cribed as a pupil of "Bhagawao Sbankara-" Sivasoma was the 
preceptor of Indravarman. The latter is known to have lived 
around 878-S87 A.D. This is cited as evidence that Shankara- 
cbarya lived from 768 to 822 A.D, In rebuttal of thii view ■ 
must be pointed out that no Sivasoma is listed among the : |**"j 
Sbankai a'i disciples. Moreover Sivasoma ha* obviously alta» 
to a successor Shankaracharya, because ever since the Shan* 
Lrecharya line was founded the presiding pontiff has alway 
been referred to with the deepen reverence. 

X A work called theSAUNDARYA LAHARl isat^ted 
to the Great Shankaracharya. Its 75th verse i* ™p ravjdl 
allude to ihe Tamil Saint Tirujnana-Sambhanda as a# 
Shishu.' Since that saint lived in the 7th Century * ■ 
argued that a century roust have elapsed before bis '^^g. 
all over South India and thai, therefore, the B rW {hc g ( h 
charya who refers to him must himself have » vc F i rt il/ 

Century. Many flaws can be detected in this argument .^ ^ 
me assumption that about a century aod nothing 



, . matl , fame to spread throughout the country 
tt D eec*a*y fo ; \™ dl> tbe ^^ption that the SAUND- 
i, un**^*?^. u lhe great Shankaracharya** composition ts 
* RYA - v^vdoubtruL many case the whole of it is not com- 
il * ]im him U could be that the work is the creaUon of a 

" (to fll| accounl5 f shankaracbarya refer to 

* - ih Kumaril Bhatta, the author of the philosophy 
hil meeting fwii ^ „ poorva Mjma^a." Since Bhatta lived 
^ tract w» Q shankara, considerably younger 

"° 0X S? rnuTt have lived ,n the 8th Century, In rebuttal it 
4haB . i notoicd out that the two were no doubt contempora- 
^wKumarit Bhatta himself to much more ancient a per- 
Sap in niibcrto suspected. Therefore instead of beheving 
* . L and the Rreat Shankaracharya lived near about the 8th 
Century ^AD^tsetms more certain thai both lived in the 6th 

Century B,C 

4 The SOOTRA BHASHYA of Shankaracharya is said to 
contain a refutation of the Pasupata doctrines from the 
Parana* assigned to the 4th Century A.D. This is cited as proof 
thai Shankaracharya lived in the 8th Century A.D. Against 
tins it may be said that the dating of the several Puranas is 
itself by no means faultless. All Indian chronology having been 
warped by Western scholars to suit their pre-conceived notion 
that the Indian civilization is not very old, their assigning the 
said Puranas to the 4th Century A.D. is itself questionable. 

5. The SOOTRA BHASHYA is also said to contain a 
quotation from Kamalasila s commentary on the TAT I VA- 
SAMGRAHA of Shantarakshtta, In reply it may be pointed 
out that the said passage may as well have been lifted by 
Kamalasila from Sfaankaracharya's SOOTRA BHASHYA 
instead of being vice versa. 

6. It is pointed out that Shankaracharya refutes the doctri- 
ne* of Buddhist scholars— Asanga, Dinnaga, Nagarjuna and 
Aihvaghosha, These latter are supposed to have lived not 
writer than the 3rd Century A.D., therefore, Shankara must 
j*j* lived in the 8th Century A.D, In refutation of this it 

**« to be pointed out that Shankaracharya no doubt refutes 



Hi Sauuntr» Vij j, M wdj and Shoonyavada «* 
Ruddhi*i ihmifhi but he never mentions A sun on r*. oli «f 

nt Asanga, Djumi-. 
Najjiriuoa by name, Thos« particular Bnddhfstie d ** r 

were propounded long before the three Budrthict ° C . ,T ' nc * 
championed them during their own times 
rebutted by Shankara are much more ancient 
Dmnag* or Nagarjuna. Moreover it ie probable Thanh *!!!**' 
jcholan lived earlier than the 3rd Century A.D, e 

*■>« the doetrinea 

Shankara >• said to have lived after Bhanrihari 
famous Sanskrit poet. Tne farter having been scribed to i 
650 A.D. Sh-nkaraeharya u believed to have Jived in rh. a 


Century A D. Bhartrihari no doubt lived earlier than Shank* 
charya but the claim that Bhartrihari lived in the 7th C«u " 
A.D. it itself questionable, Ury 

8, Those assigning Shankara to the 8tb Century A.D. quote 
iwo chronograms in support One chronogram finding support 
from a branch of the Shringeri Peetha put* the date of 
Shankara s birth ai 788 A.D. and death in 820 A.D, The 
chronogram read* : 



The expression ^rfrTPhraflt gives us the figure 9883. This has to 
be reverted since the Sanskrit way of quoting the digits is the 
opposite of other*. The year then would be 3889 of the Kali 
era Since the Kali era began in 3102 B C it would mean thai 
Shankara was born in 3889 minus 3102=787—788 A.D, 
Another chronogram which reads ^i^aHMTOi furnishes the dale 
of Sbankara's death at 819*20 A.D. 

In rebutting the above evidence we must consider other 
detail' which teem to have escaped enough attention. The very 
verse which gives the year as rVftprr#**t( adduces some more evi- 
dence as to the day of Shankart's birth. It says flrw* «mri «rrf* 
tswai rate*: which means Shankara was born in the cyclic year 
Vibhiva in the Yaishakha month on the 10th day of the lunar 
fonutght Tins wholly discomfits and undermines the ca»* of 
tboac who put Snankaracbatva in the 8th Century A D.. 

ACf|A ,iAS antiquity 

&***«*** f(i . Qkjia - ( birth it idmiited by all 

»<5£ *" f'^rsa'y emitted to be the 5th 

****** IseteJ throughout Indus, 
^a^o^ ehatwhatis believed to 

Tfci, .nom-ly ■ frt T l I^ ori«in»l Shankaracharya is «o fact 

»*Z^%£» P— over the Kamakon 
w '' ? tt« A D to M0 A.D. 

n ,X^MAUKA combed by Sadashjv BrchoKndr* 

SS™ ^ ** *<« ^ Abhi0 * va ShaDkara ,hus : 

„ he was born in the cyclic year Vtbhava. Vaishakha month. 

'fob day of the bright fortnight of the year 38S9 Kali cones- 

pooding to 788 A.D. 
The PUNYASHLOKA MANJARI by Sarvajoa Sadashiva 

Bodb also confirms Atroa Bodha's assertion thus : 
iirw f>«tfJmw eswrts*" Puwif-t* 
sfratwifirs *M4Ti-afl «i*t* | *i'if«t/r»*'i»n ' 

Since all contemporaries have been referring to the succeed- 
ing pontiffs presiding over the various spiritual leats as Shan- 
katneharya, the identity of the first Shankaracharya got mixed 
up with his 38th successor on the Kamakoii Pcetha, Abhiaava 
Shiniara. This mix-up was occasioned by a very close simila- 
rity between the events of their lives, 

Adi Shankara was born at Kalau in Malabar 
lava Shankara was horn at Chidambaram. 

'O'Dotbcrtradition Adi Shank 

But according 

ara is considered to be a native 

--"'- — ■ --MIUIJRUIJ ia I 

ill *" m They b0lh lravcll ed 

'me over the Sarvajiia 
o Kailas, entered the 

ir and presided for some t 

™"« there. After that he 

D *»^ya Cave and 

*as seen no more. 



by -d^ng lht year of Abhi«* sL^™ 1 ^ 
m Thus a branch oHhe Shrmgcrj P«th ? * **"» ^20 
^nk.r.'.Guharr,vesh Ceoieri^.^ ^h^ *■"* 
^ *™«*r which cor« spond " IO 820 AD ^ **'■ 

*Jfc means he died in the cyclic vear 5ff ? W 
month n the New M™ iw' Slddhaftf "* '« H* 
year 840 A, D. D ** C0 ' r _"P°n<iir>li | Q the 

Assuming .he earlier Shringcri reference to Ad, Shankw, 
to-lub. correct it could not be tbar Adi Sh ^ a t^ 
*8tb wceeuor on ,he Ktmokoti Peetha died w.bin 20 w. rf 

riSL^sft ° bv,ou>,y thc ^-^s 2 

Shtoktr. * death The year 820 A.D. should m fact be 840 
A u as explained above, 

fi#ll 3? U ! ,h0l f who ««rt Adi Shaoktrt to have Jived in the 

1. Century AD . ,n fact confuse him with fai. 38th successor 

'hm.vaSh.nk.ra. The confusion oflater day scholar! was 

«n fact anticipated by Atmu Bodha when he wrote hit work 

hham. in the first quarter of the 17th Century. He remarks: 

m n**xr tn, vi9^nmmni4\ ^raw^ irfenr trc«r «rmrfc* a«r- 

Mfe ff«v^ »«,*, naifcfafi? .*t*hptto ; mnfm. fort* «« 

(SUSHAM* 16) 1 


itAtyombt (mother or /.:. Shanknra) gave birth 

a ton in *n .nsp^ooi ascendant when the Sua* Man and 

.turn wne iu cAairjiUim »u J Jupiter In Kcadra : wrartfr f **- 


llt «**M««-^ A,,f " ,UW ' 


AP L *^° r of MA D ,I the year of Shank.ra'* b.nh 

ass - ^jesse ,ndia ° -* "^ hc 

* Hint w aD * aDC Lb or the ascendant These are 

S£ ft- tnonth. th< J^^UfUe of his evidence. 
^ d ^StM in any genuine ln*.n astronc, 

m ical birth shankara maintained by the 

^^SSWWb is stated to be 3058 Kali. 

SW '" 8e Sa«t ^"^ Sunday the 5th Lunar date of the bn*tal 

b w. ^«"* • Vaishakha . But the planetary disposition 

^.llSXe -<»««« ***» th0SC CithCr ° f44 
^r 788 AD Hence either the horoscope is wrong or the 

rfr 3058 Kali adduced is incorrect. But the horoscope with 
m adjustments tallies with 509 B.C. We shall deal with th.s 

M later. For Ihc present it may just be noted that the year 
44 BC or 7*8 A.D. assigned for Shankaracharya's birth by 
two different schools are both wrong. 

9. It is claimed that Shankaracharya's commentary in the 
ISth lootra of the 1st part of the 2nd chapter mentions two 
cities Sbrughna and Palaliputra of ancient India. Pataliputra 
having been destroyed by floods in 756 A.D. hc most have 
lived before that date. This argument is illogical because we 
often refer even to non-existent cities like Babylon and Nineveh 
in various contents. 

10. 1q the same commentary Shankaracbarya draws atten- 
mJLff J ll0etCality of «««»"«. like "Punarvarman 

V — 1 Ponarva So o ^1:^ **! W — ^ *« 


Kg individual. 


Pu " nrvarmao Wld be 

,v . fci,(.m» name lik« Tom. D,ck or Harry. I. i lpuerite (d 

n rra« «*o tJwi Punarvarraan was. K he were a real co n . 

, person Ificn why not alio try to identify the barren 

«»uji nd »* r «* < 7 ' ,0 ° ,f "' ° !1 * teW C ° Utd bc O0C ' 

On lb« contrary there fl positive evidence that the Magadhn 
ruler cooiemporarv of Acfi Shankaracharya was Hala. Sadastm 
Brahmmdra* GURURATNAMALIKA (21) in remarking 
.iifjTHwrwfwK; DCUtiOTJ Hala of the Andhra dynasty who nigs, 
ed Airing 206&267J of Kali era corresponding with 494-489 
8-C Hala was a contemporary of Nara of ihc Gonanda dynasty 
Kashmir mentioned in the RAJATARANGIN1. 

Adi Shankara lo be a contemporary or Bana, Mayora and 
Dattdi(Sar*a 15, 1*1) thus itf*if**wfow vfiirfiroiPf. i ftrlWr. 
yyftiPnn frnsT«awf«i1f5Ti'«awriT 

Since professors Weber, Bubfer and Max Muller hold thai 
Dandi lived towards the end of trie 6th Century A.D. and Bana 
ind Mavurj id the beginning of the 7ih it n believed thai Adi 
Shankara too mutt have lived about that lime. 

Here ii must be pointed out that the MADHAVEEYA 
SK.YNKABA VIJAYA needs to be classed as a highly tinrtlt* 
able *o*k since it also makes Srikantachsrya (of the 1 1th 
Century A.D.) and Abhmavagupta (of the 10th Century A.D.) 
conrempc arits of Adi Shankara. This amounts to lumping 
logeiher as contemporaries of all people from Jesus Christ to 
Jawaharlal Nehru "Pill work itself is an anachronism lincc 
thauf b lit auibDr or authors lived m the early pa»"t of this 
omiijr || it itcribed to Vldyaranya Madhavacharya of the 
Mth Century ft cannot be more than twoccnturies old because 

it two commentaries by Diodima and Advajta Lakshmi 
Tr* latter belongs to the first quarter ofthel9tb Century It 
r revised and altered beyond recognition by a 
number ui inUi v,*iuaI* ai explained by Veinri Ptabhakara Sasiri 
in hi» article In The Andhra Patrlkn (Madras), Saturday. 
Marpura Maia. Durmiti Samwatsara, 193: 

edlhai Shankara's preceptor was Govinda- 
pteceptnr GaudapadB"s commentary on 

pad* The laiiet't 


rshwara Krishna'* SAMKHYA KARIKA was (rambled into 
Chinese perhaps in 570 A.D, Therefore Gaudapada mutt 
j fw d about that time and his grand-disclph, Shankara mutr 
, lBVe lived about two centuries later. This argument is noi 
plausible- A man's work does not become so famouj-especl- 
al)y | n ancient times viicn there were no printing presses and 
naodern publicity media— and get translated jn f ir awa y count- 
ries Tike China immediately. It could be that a period or 
several centuries elapsed between the writing of the commentary 
aT) d its translation in China. This proves that Gaudapada* 
Govindapnda nnd Adi Shankara lived centuries before 570 

n An emperor Trivikruma mentioned in a Tamil work 
called KONGUDESA KALA is said to have been converted to 
Saivtsm by Shankara. A cc ppcr-plate inscription gives the date 
of Tnvikrama I as the 4th Century A.D. and that of Trivi- 
krama 11 ai 6lh Century A:t5. It is argued that the Tnvikrama 
converted by Adi Shankara, was the latter. In refutation or 
this contenticn it must be pointed out thai Adi Shankara was 
not interested in Shaivaiic sectarianism and protely ligation. He 
wai first and foremost a philosopher. The Shdnksracharya 
referred to was, therefore, one of his later successors, perhapi 
Satchldananda Ghana, the 23rd pontiff of the Kamakon 

After having thus pointed out the lacunae, anomalies, and 
contradictions in the various traditions about Adi Shankara"* 
lime quoted above we shall now discuss the evidence support- 
ing the view that he lived from 509 to -477 B.C. 

We base our case on the following i 

(a) The records of the Dwaraka, Puri and Kaociripuram 

lb) The more ancient traditions of the Sh ringer i Feel ha- 
te) The PUNYASHLOKA MANJARI of Sarvajna Rodba. 

7^fGURURATNAMALIKA by Attta Hodha. and 
(d) On certain verse* of Jina Vijaya, a Jain scripture eon* 

laming valuable clues lo the time of Shankara. 

*e * h all discuss then one by one : 



A relating <° Mi Sh f U ™ " d *PP ea »"t in 
MACH1NASHANKARA VfJAYA it quoted by Atma Bodha 

mhil workSUSHAMA. H reads : 

fntf s*t*w wffaarrW 
i) spc* farw»jprs*infa] i 

cngmT* ft^w: 9*w**fa 11 

In the above stania 'ftnala' is 3. 'Shevadhi' is 9 'Bana' U S 
ud *Netra* means 2 Potting these down we get the figure 
Reverting «t. because of the peculiar Sanskrit mode of 
motioning the di E ib, we have 2593. Tb.s | *P"Wf» « he **•« 
afThe Kali urn. The Kali era began io 3102 B.C. Hence 2591 
^corresponds «> »* ralnttS 2593-509 B.C. Thai was the 
year in which Adi Snankata wa* born. 

Among the other details we have the cyclic year Nand-ra, 
Vaiihaaba month and Sunday which was the Silt day or the 
bright hair of the month. The ascendant was SBgiutriu* and 
the constellation Punarvasu. What is noteworthy is that 
Sbaskim't birth anniversary is celebrated all over India exacily 
in accordance with in* above data every year. Therefore, there 
should be no doubt at to the authenticity or thtycat of his 
bjith being 509 B.C 

From that dale the Dwarka Peetha has an unbroken line of 
succession of nearly 79 pontiffs, the Pun Peetha has hud over 
140 acharyai and the Kamakoti Peetha, 68. The traditions 
preserved by these three great centres cannot just be ignored 
and brushed aside. 

There is also a copperplate inscription of King Sudhanva 

addressed to Ad I Shankara himself. It is reproduced on page 

of VIMARSA, a work written by a recent head of (M 

DwU pectha. The inscription is dated 2663 of the YiidhJs- 

ih ii a era which corresponds to 478-477 B.C. 

The chronology «f the Govardha&a Peetha of Jigannith- 
pun tallies with thai or Dwarka 

£vaa Shfingct i which has had a chequered history bcC *** 
of political opheavali has m tradition by which Adi Shankac* 
lived abound 44 B.C and not in the Etb Century A.D. 


f he Kamakoti Peetha lineage of disciples succeeding to the 
•chiflknracharya pontificate is recorded in the PUNYA* 

PUNYASHLOKA MANIARL consists of 209 verses coo- 
p.lrd by Sarvajna Sadashiv Bodha, the 54tb pontiff of tbc 
Kamakoti Peetha. He lived in the 16th Century. He testifies 
,h i most of the verses are very old, handed down io succeed- 
ing pontiffs through the ages. Those verses ire 'ven table 
obituary notices of the pontifical succession mentioning the 
dale, month, year and place of the demise of each The verses 
were intended to be recited in memory ofthe departed pdntsffs 
while paying them homage. 

THE GURURATNAMALIKA contains 86 beautiful and 
terse stanzas composed by Sadashiva Bra h mend ra r a disciple 
ofthe 55th pontirT of the Kamakoti Peetha- Param ash i vend ra 
Saraswati. In those verses is recorded the succession to the 
Ptetoa from Adi Shankara's times. 

SUSHAMA is a commentary written by Atma Bodha on 

the GURURATNAMALIKA Atma Bodha was the discjpte of 

the 58th pontiff of the Kamakoti Peetha. Adhyatma Prakashen- 

dttSaratwaii. He is also the author of^a gloss on PUNYA- 

SHLOKA MANJAR1, known as MAKARANDA. His >s a 

highly critical and historical genius which compels the reader's 

Historians have ignored the fact of a remarkable similarity 
£ the records of the Kamakoti, Puri, Dwarnka and Kudali 

««nas, Shringeri is the only exception, ll would be very 

W«f to imagine thai the heads of the former four at some 
^! cn ' dftl * conspired together and faked those records just to 
baa h P ° 1,c "' v aDour their antiquity. Far from ever coming 

*te er I*"** pontiffs known for their pious, simple and 
"Oflfcd Would ncm havc c°"*ctively OT Individually 
wtBwoL'r tht VeniaUty of * an >P eri °S with the dale* of their 
tisifi,. roande ^* life just for the fun of it without the reroo- 

^* nt * °f any material gain, 

^oaoj.? hl,toriaiu bave eoramitled ihemielvei to certain 
He* which they dogmatically assume are uniiaallah'* 



l '■«■> • refine to admit dates which Mte r ^ 
luntpiion eicn though supported by s . r ™ onru8 *'b*u „,. 
h «. ... of revolution changV^^ *£ 
concept* .re undergoing amendment liTj*** 1 «JS 
therefore .that the 17th-l8th Ctaituiy tol"!'^^ 
immutable and unassailable. Lionel tbeori ei ,J 

The chronogram which puts the date of «ih<, ■ 
M B, ■ supported by j IDa V«.v a fjS^ 1 ^ ** « 
^ughit«ou« S poke Q , y to^fc , Vha'oLr ffi *? 
Yudb.Hhira era which corresponds to .L L tefer * to,J * 
Yudhmhira. 36 years before the Kali J L fW " IO » ° r 
minus 36-3102 B.C. Bra be|IB '•*- «*l 

*tehdM Ml ta^h7.^ ? ban ^« "«» contemporaries the 

**£?*********—- The chronogram 

Jg™ ™ra wfaifterfrr , 
#* rerpfrafw aqiftfblestat II 

Martyak^V'S ™"" " 7 » Wara h 7 ' Pw ™» & °- 
* '> become BWTtfrt.! « ?.,"* fieurc 77 °" w *» ■*■* 

Blum,. » C. That ii me birth dale of Kumar it 

• 4M B^ *»<>». m., Kmma .. hi. I Sl „ yo „ ((u , 

',""-" J '.'!ri" 


l0 VA SHAW*lw«- — "" I81 

«ic PUNYASHL0K4 MANJARt alio pull the death of 
F \ in the y« ar 2625 Ka,i or 3l02 - 2625 =4" B.C in the 
SM r RakiaksH. on the 1 l!h lunar date of the bright hair of the 
V^habha month' 

Snankara visited Nepal during the reign or Vmhadeva 
Varmu, who according to Nepalese dynutic history, reignel 
from 2615 Kali to 2654 Kali. (Kota Venkatachelam's Chrcno- 
frgy of Nepal History, p. 55). 

That date it confirmed by the- BRIHAT SHANKARA 
VIJAYA written by Cbitsukhacharya, a very sober biographer 
contemporary ofShankara, Both were close childhood compa- 
nions- In rhe 32nd chapter of that work the author says "In 
the 10th month of pregnancy marked by all auspicious signs, 
in the 2631st year of the Yudhisthira en, io the auspicious 
year Nandana on Sunday the 5th day or the bright fortnight of 
the auspicious month of Vaishakha, when the Sun was in 
Aries, the Moon bad advanced in the Punarvasu constellation, 
when Cancer was ascendant, at midday, at the hour known a 
Abhijit, Jupner, Venus. Saturn, Mart and Sun all being in 
exaltation. Mercury being posited with the Sun t Aryamba 
rSnankara's mother) gave birth to the glorious Shanmukha." 

Yudhtstnira era 2631 corresponds 10 2593 Kali which if ihe 
stmeai 509 B.C. The horoscope as cast from (he above date 
would be <« follow* : 

<quoi«l i n THE ACM 01 




Since 'he Node* have not boen mentioned they haves 
been noted here 

Compiling ihu horoscope with thai maintained by ^ 
ShringerJ Peclhn we find boib identical except for tome »i, lht 
correction!, Tbe horoscope in the Shringeri Peetha doei &o, 
agree with planetary positions in 44 B.C. as ascertained from 
cphemerici- Therefore, while Ihe Shringeri horoscope n rnon 
or let* accurate the yew of Sbankara'* birth which they believe 
if* he 44 R.C -La not justified On the other hand iho plancint) 
positions mentioned by Chitsukhacharya do tally with tbe dis- 
position of planets in 509 B.C. 

Nagwjuna Yogi it assigned the dale 1294 B.C. (p. 110 
CHRONICLE OF NEPAL HISTORY) hence the belief thai he 
Dtfl a forerunner of Shank are ii correct. 

Kumanl having been shown to have been born in 55f B.C. 
ii rightly considered a senior contemporary of Shankara. He it 
also called Bhartrihan or Bhartriprapancha. He was ibe ton of 
Govinda Bhagwaipada the preceptor of Shankara. 

To thoie who contend thai putting Shankaracharya down 
he 6th Century B.C. Ik almost making him u contemporary 
or Lord Buddha, it mutt be pointed out that Buddha himself 
mux be ante-dated. Hit antiquity too has been undcr-eiti mat- 
ed. But that ia the subject -matter of another chapter. Lord 
Buddha lived from IBB? to 1807 B.C. 

The QRIHAT SHANKARA VIJAYA gives tbe d»re oa 
which Snankara waa fully ordained in Sanyasa as : the second 
day of the bright hair of the Phalguaa month of the year 2640 
Yudhialhtra era. Thai corresponds to 499 B.C. further corro- 
borating Ibe birth date 509 B.C It it therefore quite apparent 
that <Vdi Shankjuacharya wai born in 509 B.C. and died in 
477 B C. 

ind the 

Bibliography : 

I The Traditional Age of the Shank aracbarya 
Malha by A. Nataraja Atyer and & Ukshminaraiimh- Seam- 
Saundaiy* Lahari, 

3. Soon* Bluabya by Adi Shaokara. 




, suihama by Auna Bodba, 

5 pnoyathloka Manjarl by Sarvajna Sadashiva Bodba, 

I Madbaveeya Shankara Vijaya. 

7 Rajatarangini by Kalhana, 

* Commentary on Ithwara Krishna's Sonkhya Kariko by 


9. Ourumlnamalika by At ma Bodba. 

in Makaranda by Adbyatma Prakashendra Sara i wan. 

It. Brihai Sbankaravljaya by Chitsukhacharya, 

12. Chronology of Nepal Hiitory by Kota Veokatacbelam, 

Footnote— Since Adya Shankara's period needi to be ante- 
dated by 1297 years i I is obviout thai the entire scenario of 
W* life changes and that his real life-story it not known. In 
*wb a iHuaiiou I suggest as a hypothesis for study and further 
•Qvwiigatjon that just as he established four spiritual outposts 
i" Jeidi.i be also travelled abroad byaWp lad on fort lolbe 
jest and established bit spiritual hermitage* at the ICaba in 
WW* (which waa then an international Vedic ihriotV at tbe 
•I ican in Rome and at Canterbury io England since all those 
"« have been traditional Centres of Vedic lessoning and 
JJW * 0fl h»p. The Shjv worship and Shankaracbarya tradition 
'Jul 01 " lhlM p,ace> has heen dealt with at tome length in my 


■»»« volume tuled— WORLD VEDIC HERITAGE 


Bbt^r So II 

Lord Buddha's Antiquity Under- 
estimated by Over 1300 Years 

In the Year of Grace 1956 when India celebrated with great 
juito ibe so-called 25001* birth anniversary of one of her moat 
famous sons Shalya Muni Gautama Hie Buddha, the celestial 
timekeeper must have laughed in his sleeves and the serene 
names of "The Enlightened One' all the world over must have 
brofcen into a broad, tolerant smile at the underestimation of 
The Buddha's antiquity by over BOO years by a not to enligh- 
tened posterity. 

Modem Indian histories and world histories have tended to 
tell readers that Lord Buddha was born around 544, 563 or 567 
B.C.' and died after SO years. 

This seems to be yet another blunder in Indian historical 
research because there is very strong evidence to prove that the 
Buddha was bora jo 1887 B.C. and died in 1807 B.C. That 
meini Lord Buddha's antiquity bas been underestimated by 
over 1300 yearn. 

The question then arises as to how and why such a big 

murg i u of error crept into Indian historical chronology. The 

eaplaoatioo is that India having been under British rule For 

nearly ISO yean and the entire Indian educational apparatus 

having been dominated by them dates acceptable to them alone 

came to be foitted on Indian history willy nilly. The British 

who came tortile over India in the 18 th and 19th Centuries 

bad vary primitive notions about the human creation. They 

thought it wat only a few thousand years old- Consequently 

tbey presumed thit the Indian civilization was not more than 

flaw to five thousand years old. With that cramping assumption 

ibey tamed all Indian hniorical chronology out of shape and 

tended lo pta* tack major event at ai hire a date as possible. 



Like doubling Thomases they first doubted cverytblotind 
then gave the benefit of doubt to all later dates. They i m 
however, entered a very pathetic confession that they ihcro' 
selves are not very sure of their findings. On page |7| VO f I 
of 7* 4 , Cambridge History of India 'Mr. Hi, Rapion taw 
"Unfortunately even after all thai bas been written on tbe 
♦ubject of early Buddhist chronology we are still uncertain as 
to tbe exact date of The Buddha's birth. The dale 489 B.C.- 
adopted in this history must still be regarded as provisional/' 
Likewise Mr. Vincent Smith observes on page 44 of the J9I5 
edition of The Oxford Students* History of India that "The 
date of Buddha's death is uncertain, but there Is good Teason 
for believing that the event happened in or about 487 B.C. 
possibly four or five years later." 

In view of this confusion it is worthwhile marshalling and 
sifting all available evidence and finding out whether Lord 
Buddha's dates of birth and death, could be fixed with any 
degree of certainty. Such fixation is of great importance for 
Indian historical chronology because Lord Buddha forms an 
important landmark and many other events can be dated with 
reference to Him. 

It would be worthwhile noticing at the outset how Western 
scholars have ai rived at their dates about Lord Buddba. Because 
of their pet aversion for dates recorded in the Indian Puraoaa 
and astronomical data, the Western scholars by-passed these 
eompletely Instead they plumped Tor the peg of some proxi- 
mate Western records and hung their assumptions on it. In 
•he case of Lord Buddha, flouting all Indian data, the Wesienr 
coolers took Alexander's invasion as the starting point. State 
mdr v u Cd lhat comem P°' ar Y <***& historians were the 

i t lh0y tr ' cd t0 (rtc * back ladian k'* 10 "** 1 chrono- 
inTk o Thc Buddha '» times from the data they found helpful 
* *i* Greek chronicles. 

*l*Badh C f k nil '°" 1I »* mem ion three successive rulers of 
*°a!emt>L aS : ^ flndr * nies * Saodrocouus and Sandrocyptus as 
>ranes of Atexander. It must first be noted here that 

IqdfiiQ _ Arabic chroniclers are notorious for mutilating all 

* h *ir own* 0081 * nd p,BC<J Rttmci oul of recognition to suit 
banners of apeech, II Is, therefore, highly dinforaw 

It* tSWAH »"«UC*L U^n^ 

, tec? atfutam from their matilstiont. But thai 
• hat the Ware-* K&okn hawe dooe. They nrjfiu, . 

aMe fo CbaBdragupta Manrya. his preoecea- 
Naodx lelas Dhanaoanda) and facet,** 

&«BacanoryglBft« aod resVctknthm Id coavaseo 
that there « so similar*} between the Greet «peg. 
» aad **a» "Nawds" tod * Bindnsara- " 

Gmf chroawJcs do aot mt vfeethe? it tt Chandr*g»pta oT 
or Maarya dyaasty Mr. Kota \ eokataehelam 
on safe! of ba book THE AGE OF BLTJDHA, 
Ac Ths wrsof ideatxacarjoaof the Maarya Ouodragttpci a* 

toe entire cferooolofy 
of Bhara! ' wg * Mi t * g the due of Lord 

2 of ha book Mi. Kou Veokatachetain »js "I>je 

tdt Biifc Hiw the ancient history ofBbarat his 

foe" by a dtaereece of 12ceoUme», Akxaacer'i inra- 

:»32a B.C (mmQ k a Owndragapta of too 

i to 327-320 B.C" 

Tie Xaadrasus referred to by the Greek chroaiders ts 

i=as tiiis Qiiidn Soros ibe last Aodhra king of 

<***-n. He. was laueeded by ha aai arer-ccaa-army coa- 

tne fotmdcr of toe Gupta dynasty. Tha 

by the ward Saodrococtoi Hem 

*! SeneaeVagac**. It u ibis Sansodragnpts who is 

55 the Greek ref erence to S eB d tOcyptut - Samadri- 

«ke eldest too by the first wife of Qsaisdragaeaa. 

»o bypass him 1 


wife to be the heir. Coming to kao» 
anted by bis maternal grand/aibcr. 
" ' I r Nepal, staked ha data at the fotare kieg it ike 
■•■■iea. It iv therefore, that conlesapo- 
the three saecetsrte rslers of 

g^pto h,t>dha's Aj#T?oirmr 


loofht in 3138 B.C. Tracing tbe virions dynasties aamin,.,i 
is thro we rexcb ibe reign of Ckaodragnpta (of theft 
dyaafly) of Megsdhe to 32* S,C. Mr. Kou Vcakuaeheaaai 
eoansaeetsea page 3 of ha book thst "The s^eatnacarioe of 
Gopta-Clucdragupta of Msgadha as the rrwui niminii or 
Aleaaudcf tallies *.ith ail the dates of aadeat events noted in 
the sacred aod secular literature of ancient tiaaea of Hmdau. 
Buddhas and Jains." 

Parana* are tte ooty reliable soarte to reconstruct the his- 
tory of ancient India- Th* chroooiogy gleaned from them wot ka 
oat hke t h a YodhJstkrra. the victor was cro»aed kiag 10 day a 
after Use end of the Mahabharata War (3133 B.Ck Ha coro- 
oauos date amks Use beginning of a oe* era called the 
YodkbJkira Saka In the 37tk year of his reiga Lord Kjiabni 
died. From tbe moment of bis death the Kali Ynga (era) 
began .that was at 2- 27, 20 pj». 00 20th February 3102 &C 
Lord Krishna had tkeo lived foi 125 yean. Thai means" Lord 
Krishna *as bore in 3227 B.C. Yodbistkira pra H away m 
30*e B.C Yudhiitkira's reigo, therefore, lasted tor 62 years 
The passing a*ay of Yttdhisthira marks too begsssiaf of 
■aother era koo*n as 'be Saptarshi or Laukika era. Dr Eohler 
arrees whh this finding (pages 26>268 of INDIAN ANTI- 
QUARY, vol. vi). 

tli. Yudhutbfra aod Stptarski alias Lsukika eras ha*« 

been prevalest in aooent lodia aod were qjoted in daimg 

«*vots Anneal almanacs based oa ibera were eaapikd ice 

*"** ever since. Western lastoriana- asserticea that the 

«»*»k8d 00 eras to dale events a, therefore, tnrwarrajaed. 

^oaowbo knows the Hindu peockant for astrology aod 

■"^ecoed uminjt tney obserred 10 find out a 

a * oti •- well as their comprehension of eras aod 

^«fflg ibe immensity of time will at oace reject the 1 

^|ey were Ua ia keeping a ckroaological record of 

^™»"> There a no josti5cauoo, tkere/ore, for the ft'es- 

»cto an plumping for Alexander *t invaaioo as a coroooio- 

^^ P*l and ihea letting their imagjrMtJoo ran 

1 J^f tbe three kings monuooed by the Greek 

°l n» noss-dauDg fjjdian hsstory by over twalvc 

m WDM* I.I5TQ«, CAL kfisCAi ^ 

Buriog pointed out the exact beginning of ihc ihttc r rf - 

era* we *h*ll n™» <""* «o "* Lord Buddha's time wirk . ° 

cncc to rbese era* " n ^A* 

Lord Buddha was born tn the Ikshvaku dynasty Th 
founder, ikihwaku rcfgoed at the beginning of the Krita Vuc 
H« 56ih defendant was Dasharalh, The 57th was Lord R a J 
the ban of the Ramayann. The 86t|j descendant Brihndbaf 
Mi killed m the Mahabhnrata war. Tbia long line of desce ' 
branched off into many families and jplit into many principal], 
liet and sub-dynasties known as Pava, MaTJa and Lichchavj 
H il -descendants ofLakshmana) Lord Buddha was born 
the Lichcbavi branch. Gautama wat his gotra (i e . relic bus 
allegiance to a particular house of priests). This lineage it 
recorded tn the Upodghatapadt In the IV chapter in Bran* 
nunda Parana. The list names prominent rulers of the 
Ikshvaku dyna«> from Its inception to the end of the M 3 ha. 
feharara war (3U6 B.G). 

According to the Manyi, Vayu, Vishnu. Brahmanda and 

^io^STi c KiB|1 fo,,owed in lhc Ik5hvaku ****** fro * 

M^ 6 Bnhadbflh ' ki,,ed *» «* Mahabharata war by 
2S? *~ * UCCttdcd aflCf ««oration of peace, by 

«£?* W " Sh T M ^ lhc ft, *» <* <-ord Buddha. 
2n w^T" W u ?° QC Siddb * r,! ». **• * 24tb descent 
^3r k 2?;f f ,M,arjd 30lh <«**l*ni in the line. 
*t IV i^ ' ' ' 0tal ° f ,5 °* *«■ 'mim Parana, 

■■si tf 'hh XtllT 6 dUri ° B Wh,Ch he Ilwd «• ■* refer to 

<^ ..rr 1 "" ° c, ° * da,cd wjth -*** 

^b^MhTe^L^ Mf ' Ko '- Venkatacbclam s ayi 
*•**•.*» ' 32od *«» the 33rd kings respectively of 

Zm^^"™ CLSS/l? Budd *»™ 72 year. 
' lt,Srorth ***n. im, 1 * > tt»rfH^ of India series. 

- Buddha died of dysentery after partaking ©r food 

.TLi devotee at Kushinara in 1807 B.C. at the age 
offered ny ** U( - 

of BO. 

ttAltvt the 22od king of the iksbvaku dynasty *fter the 

Mahabbarata war (3108 B.C.) became the ruler of the north- 

portion of the Kosala kingdom Lying at the foot of the 

Himalayas, adjoining Nepal. KarulavaMu was its capital. 

•'The Sakyas and Ltchcbavis are branches of the tame 

ftftle" i * the Ikshvakus, says Mr, Bimalacbaran Law on 

^ge 17 of his book KSHATRtYA CLANS IN BUDDHIST 


Bharata's Commentary on the AMARAK.OSHA points out 
that the name Sakya derives from a tree known as Saka near 
which a king of the Ikshvaku dj nasty lived. 

Buddha was the son of Queen Maya and KingShuddhodana. 
Slddharta renounced princely life at the age or 29 and under- 
took penance for six years under a Peepat tree near Gnya 
where he attained the Buddhabood. His son Rahula lucceeded 
to thctbrone. 

Ajatashatru is idenlined in Buddhistic works as the son of 
Queen Mahadevi and King Bfrabisara whose capital was 

About the contemporaries of ibe Buddha there is unaniimty 
between Buddhist literature and modern histories. 

According to the chronology of the MM«*»» ^« ««£ 
in the Purana*. Somadhi alias Nlarjari was the «« ^ 
at the time of *ar. His ^"^ bad 2 T?^ r 

They ruled 1 006 year, They •" — f «? £ ^el 
thcPradyota dynasty who ruled for 13H yea^JR _ 

10 King, of the Shishuaag ^^^ ?£*$£** 
these 37 rulers the 31al (re. tne iou Buddb a-, 

dynasty). Ksbemajit >va* the conieoinow orwr 
father, Shuddhodaua. Kshe ma,, ru led f I** » (|||7 
It wa4 during that period that the H" ™ .., f lsU 

B.C ) in the reign of .he 32nd ItUlS, »V" b ^ 
BC.yPrineeSiddhar.ha became ^.^'^^JJjVc l« 
BuddhaUfter m years nf penance fro. n IS5SW 

the reign of the 53rd Kmg. Ajataihatru 0ftJ4 io 1787 Rr 
Lord Buddhi died { 1807). Thit gives u* a coherent chmn ' 
of Lord Buddha"* life : "Woiojy 

Bora 1887 B.C. . 

Renunciation 1858 B.C 

Penance 1858-1852 B.C. 

Death 1807 B.C. 

If The Buddha is deemed to have lived in the 6th Centur 
B.C. as is now presumed then it follows that his contempora- 
rici Ksbcmajit, Birabisara and Ajatashatru also lived during that 
period. Since Bimbisara was rhe 32nd ruler from the date of 
the Mahabharata war the total period of 263S years (3l3g 
mmm 500—2638) would mean that on an average each ruler's 
reign lasted for 82 years and sin months. On the other hand if 
according to our calculation Bimbisara was the 32nd ruler from 
the Mahabharata war until 1807 B.C. (3138 minus 1807=1331) 
each ruler reigned on an average for 41 years which is more 

Fa-Htcn r a Chinese Buddhist who loured India at the close 
or the 5ih Century AD. has recorded that the image of 
Maltreya Bodhisatva was put up during the reign of King 
Ping on he Chow dynasty. That event took place more than 
three hundred years aflei Lord Buddha's demise. Il is known 
that King P'ing feigned from 750 (o 719 B.C. (A RECORD 
James Lcgge. (Footnotes 3, A. 5. edition 1886), That means that 
according to Fa*Hicn'i inquiries The Buddha was born not 
later than the 1 1th Century B.C. Hii testimony, therefore, also 
disproves the current belief thai The Buddha lived In the 6tb 
Century B.C. 

Adi Shankaracbarya, the great Indian philosopher who is 
wrongly placed by modern histories in the 8th Century A.D. 
was bom on a Sunday on the 5th day of the bright half of the 
nwwth of Vaisakha while Sagittarius was Ascendant, iu the 
eycrw year known as Nandana in the year 2593 of the Kaliyug*. 
That corresponds to (3102 minus 2593 -~ 309) B.C. This shows 
t»uw Shiokaracbarya should in fact be placed in the period in 
which The Buddha it believed to have lived, while The Buddh^ 


must be placed much earlier because Shankaracbarya refuiei 
Buddhistic metaphysics In bis commentary on the Bubm 
Sutras- That Shankaracbarya was born about 1300 years a Her 
kord Buddha is quite plausible because soon after 
Buddha bis doctrine flourished in India. Then as Centura 
passed the hold of his philosophy on the public mind began to 
*ear thin, and while in that decadent stage Shankaracbarya i 
vigorous propagation of the Vaidik doctrine obliterated 
Buddhistic metaphysics from the Indian mind, once for HI. So 
the revised date for Shankaracbarya also lends support i the 
view that Lord Buddha lived in the 19th Century B.C (The 
elaborate thesis which justifies our placing Shankaracbarya la 
the 6th Century B.C. has been dealt with independently) 

RAJATARANGINI (an ancient history of Kashmir rutcri 
compiled by Kafh ana in 1178 A.D,) states that a Kshamya 
king named Nagarjuna came from the land of the Bodhiiatva 
and did penance for six days in Kashmir during Kanaka's 
reign. Again (in 1-277) RAJATARANGINI slates that the 
same Nagarjuna resided in Kashmir for some time and propa- 
gated Buddhism during the rule of Abhimanyu, successor or 
Kanishka. Nagarjuna is staled to be a Kshatriya king and 
therefore must not be confounded with any Brahmin or Sudra 
of the time. 

According to Kalbana he has narrated the history of the 
rulers of Kashmir from his own lime (1148 A.D.) covering a 
period of 2330 years earlier t,<> from the time ofGonanda HI 
(1182 B.C.). Abhimanyu, the father of Gonanda 111, ruled fur 
52 years. That means Abhimanyu's rule began in 2330+52= 
2382 years before Kalbana. That marked the end of the 60- 
year rule of his predecessor, Kanishka. Thai prove* that 
Kanishka 'a rule began in 1294 B.C. Which means that Nagar- 
juna Bodhisatva visilcd Kashmir between 1294 and 1234 B.C. 
Since Tho Buddha was born before Nagarjuna Bodhisatra 
eould preach Buddhism, the dates 1887-1807 8 C fit The 
Buddha stand corroborated. 

During the reign of Abhimanyu the 52nd t.inj| or Kasnroir- 
11234-1182 B.C) the scholar Chaudracharyj viiiled Kash. 
,cacb and popularize Patanjali't treatise (Man* BhubyaJ. 



White there Oumdracharya hmisdf wrote a *„ 

also ri» oontcoww, or ^uhyamitro Si^JX **. 

Nap.,^ v .«red Kashmir for propaStin, J ? ,,s » 

S tfcesamc i, me . Therefore. The BuddbT^f. I **** 

before Patapjali. musl h »*e lived 

RAIATARANGIW stales that ISO years before Lot. it 
a contemporary of Kanishka (1294-1234 nr\ Lofca «to.ij, 
■Haloed Nirvana. BC)t Lorct B ^dh. 

According 10 Western scholar* Kanisbka lived it. 7ft a rv 
.The Buddha died ,50 >ears before Kanisbka Z\?£ *£ 

D*cd by the Western scholars themselves fo 5* 
for kaiinhka advanced by the Western scholars is wrong 

^sssssr^ 1 ****** *wa 

*>Wm, ny „ beloogeo- to ,„ J Bd i. n Ks ba,ri Ja ftmfl" 

» 'be So«J. d"T«y '. M "l»bl>«..a here bdo«.cd 

™ AD- lb« d'; t "r K l y * We ' K ™ "**» '» "K™ to be 
be 7»+a4«_2sjo A o k* ,' Mn, « >0,to « R»j«i«raodioi wilt 
R'jaunoiio, ,,"i„ h, Jr"* ;, W ll «eomc. Wb.cb meins 

"/•«* b> Wetuto HW ," C ™ a .?' « Ka.iiifaka-1 dote as 
*"« mW «*» <>ril«« mi 0ul7 i t,r„ (070 


gjjuishka and the composition of the RAJATA* 

i*riNI *•" was a 5UCC *" ion of 86 mon,rchl Tbe *8S«- 
R iod of their rule work* out to 2190 years (giving an 

pfcf^.-gm 25 years* rule to each monarch). Deducting 
* od of 1070 years from it we get an excess of \ 120 years 

tb ft dangling unaccounted for if tbe Western scholars' views 
were accept^ 

On page if of his book Mr, Kota Venkatachclam observe j 
that since it conflicted with their presumptions the Westerner* 
concluded dial Vikraraaditya of the 1st Century B.C., and 
SaUvahaoa of tbe 1st Century A.D. never existed. Further. 
they stated that Vikrama and Salivahana Sakas were the same 
as Azcs and Kanishka Sakas. Since the Western scholars post- 
dated the Andbra Satvahana dynasty from B.C. to A,D. to 
support their recent date, they called "Salivahana" as "Hala 
Satavahana" arguing that 'Sata" is a synonym of "Sail", la 
support of their contention they cite tbe authority or novel* 
and romances like LILAVAT1. KATHASARITSAGARA and 
others- They affirm that Hala Safavahana wa» no other than 
Salivahana who lived in 78 A.D. 

PhilologicaUy tbe names Sata and Sali may be synonyms 
but as proper names they mail remain separate, Af for ins- 
tance if one woman spells be • -<amc as Laksbrai and atimhcr 
as Laehmi, both connoting the tame meaning tbar 
ground for confounding tbe two and insisting that 
signify but one person. One is a Sanskrit name while luc other 
is Prakrit, 

Salivahana of 78 A,D. «bo founded tbeSaka era ^longed 
to the fanwar dynasty while tbe otber ** Wj»g»ite 
Saiavahana race and ruled from » »Jf j^i^SjT 
R - grandson oni, great J^g^S^ 


Andbra Salavahnna « led " v J r "^ ln Mi(ll dha from 833 


indian msroarcAL i 



In that dynasty Saiavabana ruled from 5oo , 

MHdwH hid bis capital at ujjiio (Avanti) io Central 

M krithnamacbariar In hti HISTORY OF CLA<Ki/-a, 
SANSKRIT LITERATURE (1937 edition) write* on |w , f 
the Preface thai "!ud*a hat tu well written history and the 
IWn tih.bii that history and chronology. Punnas arc nor 
pioui fmodi " uul 

Maa Mueller condemned tendencies of Western ichojari to 

lUow the trimniMuon to run wild on tbe batis of pre-concek- 

tson. He satd "Men who possessed the true faculty of an 

mm* l*tN**r, have abstained from passing sentence 

<* a won who* literature had only ju« been 

-toj^bubr had let undone, and after perusing some poems 
t^SSiSS^ f HIT0PADESA «■* verse, of the 

MM ■ ia^iM historical account of the Ind fan nation 
™7l^ *— f-MheTost 

•u^igai™ *<* empl ° )Cd ' without «he leui historical 

-X^^^s* h,story oF 

t*«*uiim la m* ShTZ , Mlny allc S ed indents of the 

*• tn"ntkd' ^« i C ^ t , V r id,y ' n ,hc «**»« PO»*- 
•^aoiperhapg .» iW LT _ *****■«» (Mudra Rakahau) 
be ofcnuHly unwIe to !* £«««* after Chr.ii Bui it would 

t>»* m • *ork or imatimti " m " ter -°r-'*« bislor ical narra- 
• fto ^ma(»dr.nutuJd" com P°i«« some 
^ w t accept y» u 

^7^^ 'hei. 4a»T7,5t!? % , dB,C ° r « *»< far 
"»** • mtaii a^, ".^r hia iwo generations 

» »hc to,, tad D..^, J ^ two riltm JaIaul£i 

^ "**«*> came to the 

c0 an«^»« A,sAWT,QUlT¥ " 

That would mean they ruled for an average of 154 

Si*-** " ' b " u[<l - 

A V Thyagaraja Aiyar in his book INDIAN ARCHI- 
TPrTURE writes that a tomb in Athens discovered recently 
, an inscription which reads "Here lies Indian Sramana* 
harva from Bodh Gaya, a Sakya monk taken to Greece by 
h Greek pupils and the tomb mark* his death about l.OOO 
BC " If Buddhist monks had gone to faraway Oreeee in 1.000 
BC the date of Kanishka must be at least 1100 B.C., and that 
«f AshoU 1250 B.C. and that of Chandragupta Maurya, 1300 
■BC ' (vide A. Somayajulu's DATES IN ANCIENT HISTORY 
OFINDIA, pp> 112, II 3). The Buddha must have lived over 
three centuries before Chandragupta Mauryj. 

We may no* sum up the various theories about Lord 
Buddha's date : 

|. Sir William Jones believes the date to be 1027 RC on 
the strength of the Chinese, Tibetan accounts, Abul tads 
writings and the Dabistan Document (vide Jonei's Works, vol 
iv. pp- 1 7 & 42-46). 

2. According to Max Mueller, the Chinese accounts i assign 
850 B.C for Ashoka. The interval between Buddha Nirvana 
and Ashoka's death is 371 years So The Buddha muii have 
died (850+371=) in 1221 B.C. (vide his HISTORY OF ANCI- 
ENT SANSKRIT LITF.RATURE. Allahabad edition pp. W 

143 & pp 3-8 of the 1859 edition of the same book). 

According to Ma, Mueller Ceyloncsc J^«Jj"jgi^ 5 
B,C. for Ashoka The Buddha nirvana wou d then fall 1*3 
311=686 B.C. (i.e. in the 7ih Century B.C.) 

» D,. F.«. is or,hc opinio '^' c B ^ltr^ta 
D.C. »m« A.hok. lived .round 1 2WB.^on« ^ ^ 

RA.ATARANOINI). Fl«- W> *^£ „ mevkat < .b«< 
RAJATARANaiNI would pl«« **T"., le BC l!W"d 
.260 B.C. W. -hoold prefer «o ..« ^gj*,* u* 
(h« we .hoold «■ .boo. "»"»»«?■ 2"^, (at lU .ppro- 
of rod, ,„c,r. fro* ^"ZSfZ^Zrt* t*»\ 

Kimalc date of accession of Attioaa 


(Quoted by M. Kruhoamacharya in his HISTORY OFn * 

4. E.J. Rtpaoa's 4*te for The Buddha's demise, 4g 3 Q c 
was only provisional even according to his own B dmi«' 

5. Vincent Smith did not undertake any original research 
on the point but believes in that same date (OXFORD STir 

6. RAJATARANGINl places Buddha's demise 150 years 
before Kanishka, That gives us 1294+ 150= 1444 B.C. 

7 Inscription! evidence brought out by A.V, Thyagaraia 
Aiyar places the event in the 17th Century B.C. 

" Fa-Hien surmises the event to have occurred .i round 

I0*(i B.C 

9. A.P. Sinnett in his ESOTERIC BUDDHISM (Vill edi- 
item, 1903. p. 175) assigns 643 B.C for The Buddha's birth. 

The above theories all conflict with one another and it" otic 
among them, namely that which alludes t^ the 6th Century 
B-C.. rules the roost it is a mere accident. Even among the 
above flippant theories the 6th Century theory is the weakest 

Somsyajulu writes "All Jains and Hinous agree that in 528 

fw. S^" Mah4lvira dicd ■*» «»t Kumar.) Bhaita 
wa, vehemently attacking the Jams all over 

^«2 T d "* Shankaracharya (509-447 B.C.). 

Japan akuUw .^ IB ,be 7lh &**»* A.D. hence the 
the Buddb. « « „ oo|y I^"'; C * U i hor,| y forfialng the date or 
£*«. pi^ upwi co Cj ™^ d ; ftfo ™«'on^ The Western 
&«cwa. The hirtoty no* la Jl* Ccord,n « «o their whims and 
h*p of «c h «H*pi««SL 'J Ind L ftn ,CQOO '« b simply a 
©ATBSINaWthisi Snf biMtew conjecture, 
TW «k, IZ ^ H,STORY <* INDIA, pp. i |2-| 14) 

the «tb Century B.C. 

The* *bo Tht UMk* in 


.-, Menander with Milinda. According lo the Bharatiya 
,6i f rhavan sponged History Vol. II (Dr , Sircar'% article) 
let belongs to the 2nd Century B.C. Milinda lived in the 
JSSUf B.C According to thc MILINDA PANHA the 
v ana king Milinda flourished 500 years after the demise or 
IZ Buddha, and (2) soon after the reign of the later Mauryan 
king Salisuka, and (3) probably before the accession of Puihya- 
mitra— about 187 B.C. 

Comparing the three indications afforded by the MILINDA 
i»ANHA with the Puranic evidence we find that Chanel ragupta 
Maurya was crowned king in 1584 B.C, The reign of the nine 
kinnt in the dynasty lasted 214 years. That means the last king 
S Ska's reign ended in 1320 B.C According to the Puranas 
TtlSMh.dMmlB07B.C Milinda came 500 years la cr. 
St gt* us 1307 B.C. as Miiiuda's time Th.s surely .sa^er 
,he do* of Saiisuka's reign as suted « ^ MI " N B ^ 
PANHA- Fushyamitra Sunga was crowned king *M*™~ 
^hich again was certainly long .*« Milinda (m 1307 B.C). 


attempted. Thua: arc ldenrM with the folding 

The Yona names of ^ ^^ 

Ashokaa .nscnpt.ooi ^ htotU , ( s^ 

Amtiyoka J^ Phi Weiph« effigy* 

™ at " ay * AntigonosOonatu. 


Alikya Sudnlc 

Alexander (of Bptrni). 

Toe .hove *«*£«£ &tf SSSSj 
White Asboka'B inscriptions cl«r"> si. (hc ^ k ^ 

rulers mentioned by b.« *£J* ^ ^ nu) n n. Aihokaa 
confused by Western »cb oil • ..aditfanc. 

inscriptions ruled war *J-™ J h maQ y other oo«£ 
ofWWiiill-f^^!^*^^ 1 . distance af 2*00 m,l»- 


jutcrvcolnj. E*>P« 


Ionia *u nearly 3000 miles away. So Amiivufc 
Bniram* UotJianl Yavana prince ruling ,„ A foh - Wa * • 
to 1436 B.C. The Sanskrit wordw!" * 
o©« be interpreted to n can the Greeks. | n 1472-14« 
sbokaArulcd, Greek% as a peoplejwere unknown md ?*" 
«ere no Greek nates jo the region of modern Greece V 
#etr Indian Kshatnyas nlio ruled beyond tLc Indus * Van * 

Rhvs Davids after discussing the reliability of ihe Grwa 
nutorte* and Buddhist chronicles, in his book BUDDHIST 
INDIA arrives at the conclusion that they were useless for Oxi™ 
historic! Ichronolof y . B 

Bui the Purantc account has never been contradicted ^roni 
the Pumnai ISQ7 B.C is the unambiguous date of" The 
Buddha*i demise. 

To try fixing ancieul Indian historical chronology from 
Mbcru,Kandy. London or Tokyo dubbing or presuming ifa* 
Mian Puranas 10 be fraud, is at best a very- squinted v.ew 
of Indian history. 

of V m J K h " t,vt ! ,lk * l "f haTi >". formerly head of the department 

of Government Arts College. Rajahmundrv. 

wwfaog on the astronomical data available of Buddfaaa life 

:bc Moons phase, and week days mentioned for 

events or The Buddha's life) has also arrived at l«07 

ontbl U? l° f U,d Bttddh *"* dc " h » e **■ «"» *» «t,cle 
•Hh mL^ i" tD °° 0lhcr 3*" d «« 'he data given tally 
**e t TZ?2* ***""** ****** year ISO* B.C. He 
Xlatloo? tt ° P " Ul '* L,FE 0F GAUDAMA for h.s 

* w • P Bieaadet tn,« ••■n. 
«*hr«|»thcv,, epocJl « r Gaudama is a point 

The Cbgak* a ur ^ ,Wt,oa, P ro ««*ing Buddhism do not agree 
* K *** h *» btiW .J *? S,ames * an °n'» P^cc that event 

C ^* n «»-Tb*Tiwi ° flhc ^ ^ nturv heforc tbe 
luuu »nfc ^ r^^ *««, and »i 4 consequence the rVSODJO- 
p«vto^. "Ptaceihat even, n*^ Hundred year* 

i *> «• «» India* hi- 

■"• ****** Pwaa*. " nc f ! ch '<wolo W by completely by- 

,h * wsuoipiion that they were 




aoioiuiis to acodemic cusscdness. The history or 
fr " U i can never be properly investigated by suspecting their 
■^ILjIttoOT mid record* in their own land. Since this is 
°* a Wt»lcm scholars and their disciples have attempted io 
J b *thcii researches end up in a welter of numerous conflicting 

As against lhcif mulli P ,e dMlei hopelessly disagreeing wilh 
another it has already been shown that Puranic chronology 
, coherent account of ancient India. Indiao histories 
Suit therefore, to amend their currently professes chronology 
1 put The Buddha's birth at 1887 B.C.. and demise at 1807 
B C the datu to which those events properly belong. The 
other important event* of ancient Indian history dated during 
ihe count of the research on The Buddha must also be like* 
wise adopted by Indian histories tince they ill fall in a homo- 
genous narrative of ancient Indian history. 

Bibliography : 

L The Cambridge History of India by E J. Rapson. 

2. The .Oxford Students' History of India by Vincent A. 

3. The Afce or Buddha, Milmdo and Amtiyckn and Yuga 
Purana by Kota Ycukatachetam. 

4. India* Antiquary. Vol VI 

5- Gautama The Buddha by Kenneth Saunders, !<>:: 

*. Ksbatnya Clans Kd India by WrntlKharaa 

7. Commentary on the Amarakoshn by Bharaia. 

»- A Record of Buddhistic Kingdom* by Fa-Hien, trans- 
luted by James Leggc, 

9. Rajatarangini by Kalhana. 

10, Buddhist India by Rhys Davids, 





II ! \t of Gaudama by Biiliop Bigandet. 

i: Esoteric Buddhism by A.P, Sinnctt. IS03 edition 

13. History of Anctent Sanskrit Literature, by Max Mu*i) 

M. History of Classical Sanskrit Literature by M Kr h 

15. Daws in Ancient History of India by B. Somayajulu. 
16- Indian Architecture by A.V, Thyagaraja Aiyar. 


Blunder No 


Antiquity of Lords Rama aud 
Krishna's Eras Grossly Underestimated 

Both Rama and Krishna are held in Ihe highest reverence 
n India and by Indians all over as divine tncurna lions. Both 
ire regarded as the most ideal human beings. That is testified 
by the epithet "Maryada Purushottam" applied to both. 

Both symbolise two very ancient stages of Indian civiliza- 
linn. They are so ancient that we seem to have lost track of 
their eras, But the remote antiquity of their times do not in the 
least signify that they lived in less civilized communities than 
our own. In fact the lofty thought about civic duties, engineer- 
ing feats, armaments, quality of raiment and complicated 
astronomical data contained in the two epics Ratnayana and 
Mahabbarata dealing with the life-times ot Rama and Krishna 
ousht to convince us in all humility that compared to their 
»g<s our achievements appear puerile. 

It is sometimes argued that the Ramayana and tbeMaha- 

CtoJluTt coaiain VCfy ,ofl y " d nob,e *«»«■« I** 

« for £l ■ I* hMd,3r bCCa equa,,c<J in '»* «*■ ■** bu < 
■nth^"/ 1 CVemem ' " i8sa,d th«« descriptions found 

IWsiisZr. 1 " PUrC fiC!i ° n aDd ou « hl n01 to be bflilcved ** 
Wioloiv h ' 3Cl belrayfi our own 'Koorance of human 
^ '» to « av ,° cornmunit y progress is never lop-sided, 
■w^ystegi * °! Dmuo,ll « which can reach the summit of 
^bnic.1 C ' V ' C C0DCC P ,S Wou ^ ««ver 

^ i ^com D ll VCO ' ,0 " , ' industry, mter-steller 

t^^^Kih^" 1 ? l !' ,alter aU thc satnc hum " 

° U, * , *^»iooi 1,11 ^P' 1 *' 1 *" 1 concept! that runs wild in 
i**. I'kc inventing means of temporal comfort and 

lag behind in 
travel «od 



Out miirlsced belief *h«t w « '« -he 20tb Century h 
achieved heights of material inventions never before reached^ 
rooted in an unwarranted assumption. We have been believu'* 
thai human progress i» a straight track starring from thee," 8 
man and culminiiiing in the present sophisticated stage. Tr/ 
belief *i unwarranted. If we look around wc shall find thai 
cosmic affairs run along ellipses and not straight lutes Th 
earth and other stellar bodies arc all orb*. They all move , n 
elliptical orbits. Magnetic and electric fields too are elliptical 
Applying the same law to human civilization* wc would-llnd 
iimi they too rise and full in an unending cycle. At each stage 
ihcy icach great heights and then disappear. The same could 
be the case with the civilizations described in the Ramayana 
mi the Mahabhnrata. If This is clearly understood then there 
should be no difficulty in visualizing that the two Indian epics 
describe two real, ancient civilizations and the achievements 
they claim are no myths invented by imaginative authors. 

Since, the Vcdic times and the times of the Ramayana and 
liic Muhabharatu represent three distinct and important stages 
hi Indian history n is a pity thai no, 'sympathetic* and serious 
attempts have been made to fix their chronology. Thisua 
basic discrepancy in current teats of Indian history. In fact our 
hisioncs just brush pait thine three stages almost dubbing them 
as mMh%. fantasies and fables. 

The reason for this academic intransigence is that India has 
been ruled by aliens for over a thousand years. Of these the 
first 800 year* undct Muslim rule were of complete chaos and 
dccp»ictued hatred between the rulers and the ruled. During 
British dotnicniion for the next 200 years Western scholars* 
immature, meditcvil concepts about time and space, the origin 

Ibe cosmos and the appearance of life on earth were high* 
uandedly imposed and implanted m all academic texts and 
reference books- They made us believe that till very lately we 
were ill monkeyi. After some years when we learnt Id walk on 
uur hind legs and use the forelegs for bunds, through the cave- 
man stage and the stone age lo and behold; Jesus Christ appea- 
red on the stage and iiocc then humanity raced to its present 
position of treat material progress, 






enough Western physical 
oU * ,1. primitive notions «t 

ooui ihe origin nf |] 
Tbey now talk ohout the earth 

* and rhe bumaD race 

n billions of years as did the ancient India* 
1 !,C °" n' social scientists and historian* have faired to 
The latter doggculy cling 10 their untenable, obs^ 
Kroaiatic notions. 
I* itr0 science should now help us to realize thai (he 
[Indian concept of time and . osmic origin measure! ,„ 
i0 rYugas. Mahayugasand Manaos (i.e. ages and neons} 
Lents *o omniscience and com pre It ci,: ion which the 
o^fcm man has not been able to equal. 

That realization should prepare u* psychologically to study 
the Ramayana and Mahabharata civilizations as vrry ancn 
communities. If, therefore, internal and external evidence tnd.~ 
catcs that Rama and Krishna lived thousands or even hundred* 
of thousand years age one need not suffer from shuck 
Western scholars and their disciple* arc prone to. 

At least there is no harm in evaluating the traditional 

ilencc. The mere fact that it indicates Rama and Krishna 

lobe of great antiquity should not put us off because we 

it jvc already explained earlier that human civilizations have 

risen and fallen in an unending cycle 

Lord Rarriii is regarded as the seventh incarnation The 
nme of his birth is known with certainty. Hr was bora at the 
irrokc of 12 noon The day of his birth too is kiiown for ccr- 
' ' He was born on the ninth day of t lie bright bill of the 
Minn month Quite! corresponding to the end of March and 
•Wring of April The only uncertainty is about the year in 
Wih .orn.That could be calculated and tallied with 

™rent available data. 

K*«a?%! T * inCK ' m lnd,a11 tn ' lJlIitJ » «"= Present era is the 
**».10« . ,V iIr ° nomy hasl,med ^ beginning as from 
mmXZ££ ,M V FebrM, y *» 3103 B C . the mom- 

ftttkih . 

; cv « planets were 

in conjunction in Areas- Bailey, the 

■NiSSffi £* reCOrd ^ *«« 4IBM4M 

imuu astronomy. 
* E ™ m pnwM by D wapar , Trctu and Kriu V u «« 




\ie eras) in thai order. From Krita to Kali the dumtion o 
four yugu rus bceo calculated to be 4,800. 3,600, 2 4q ,ilc 
1,200 rfrww year* in the ratio of 4 : 3 : 2 : l. The d/"** 
yean ruraed into human years amount respectivek " C 
IT^S.000 j [2,96,000 . 64.000 , and 4,32,000- t0 

Of the total 4.32,000 year span of the current Kali « 
only 5.066 years have elapsed These years when added to ih" 
8,64,000 years of the intervening Dwapara era give u» u, 
figure ft.96.066- That many years have passed since the end of 
the Tretaera in which Lord Rama lived A 1 2th part of the 
beginning and end of each era is regarded as forming the 
transition period. To our latest figure we, therefore, add 
1,08,000 years of the transition period. Since Shrce Rama Is 
said to have lived towards the end of the Treta era, it means 
thai the epic Ramayana dealt with the life of a society existing 
about a million yean ago. 

The fauna described in the Ramayana includes pachyderms 
with four tusks Elephants with only two tusks were also not 
unknown- The four tuskers are especially mentioned among 
animals found in Havana *s capital Lanka- 

According to antiquarians elephants with four tusks 
became extinct about a million years ago This is just a speci- 
men of the kind of scientific evidence which awaits to be pro- 
perly evaluated. 

A* a tally we may also use the traditionally handed down 
horoscope of Shree Rama Except for the positions of the two 
Nodes of the Moon, namely Rahu and Ketu. the position of 
the other celestial bodies has been recorded in Sage Vnlmiki'i 
Ramayana itself It could be that it was not the practice then 
so 'place' the Nodes Shree Rama's horoscope indisputably 
accepted and adopted throughout India for ages is on page 205- 

Even those who scoff at interpretative astrology nhould 
have no quarrel with its matt *matieal aspect— namely astro- 
nomy. Jim ai the -datively fucd position of stars helps navi- 
i*ton locate their position in the vast, bewildering, featureless 
apajue of the oceans, similarly a plancirry than Kelps us 
pinpoint . n event in the vast, bewildering illimitable eapao" 
«fTlME. Astronomers and matbematiciani would do ««'» 

or lords 



- to find out bow many years ago the above planetary 

'^ination occurred. Jf It did occur *bout a million years 

nd if other indications in and outside the Ramayana 

i ooin* w tR e samc conclusion we shall have dated a very 

unjortant landmark in the Indian civilization. 

It could be that the same planetary combination recurs at 
intervals of hundreds or thousands of years. Even then we 
could take all those dates and try to match them with the other 
corroborating evidence to find out which of them should have 
b«a Shree Rama's birth date. 

Any body who knows even the rudiments of astrology 
would be able to notice that the particulars of Rama's life are 
borne out by the planetary position in his birth chart. For 
Initaoce when a number of planets arc exalted and most of the 
remaining are m their own houses they indicate an irresistible 
personal magnetism which makes almost all callers-on kneel 
wd prostrate. Moon in its own house and Jupiter exalted 
*m pouted together in the Ascendant Cancer signify a per- 
,;■;*'<- «ly dedicated io truth, ,^m ,. JSTdK 

^S^^'l ^? 11 , "**«*»" the spot,*. 

-ro r r;;w:i:r lt rthr y io >* n « m * **■« 




■"* number of —-«■*■* me arc 

5 Cb "Pter in, ™ 1 1 rl " P "* Zuch a * *■»•*« (part 

■ ^r^. Kapler VI and VII) • vt.l 

«. 5. 23 and 3?) • 

2) Wd H »rtv.m.ta (PaVri; Chapter 

■*■ ^Cb^rT, " J W' 1 1 *** V «> I VishnupurU 
111 •«*». 51-52 1; u"" d 3?) . : Mat ^ Punn (Chapter 






•ft i! 

Lord Krishna bm bofn ra the cm. 

♦rfetaeil.oaraedajtaai'lie Kaljyuga b*taa «* 'r^ 
UaF U Lord Krishna wis born 125 jee-t JfaT*'* 

data That r«» « 3227 or 3221 B.C as jv* aJI2 .*■! 

year of Lori 

The tine aad day of Lord Kmhoj't bir,k it already koo* 
Hi* btrtt rt ccaebraioi HI over India on Use eighth da> of 
*■* toit*B*t of rhr mouth of Start* an a ctrtetpoadiof to fah 
8«**ioor» exact:;, ax the stroke of midnight. The tradition- 
*% kMdoi down baroscope of Lord Krishna is aa folio* 

* tUt there are on* or two other differing boeo. 
~ rveu by M-. B.V. Raman to hu book trtkd 
Nottbk Hoeo^opea Bat Msec he loo bases hit boto- 
«h« attrooaaical data elaborated abost it should be 
3 «Ml»*aiis»j cafculationi whether the deoloy- 

**"* ■•* twoscopc rbat baa come down 

•ad m caea Dae a. iu. • ► -i ^" heroes and deities 

<" ««OQ aoaa£ P * Wtl **■ *»** fa *«* own 

If w« cxrtjoxM, oa«ine the afe^ to| 

■*"■" would kaow that tb| 

^ of preparing and afe-keepiag of astral 



''^/'adbered to m India- It a not therefore, right to 
'TSLieooei.H could be that an over 
*"j££rV* af able to lay tail > hand, oo the 
■^moc in a while introduced a fctitn 

5.: | .:: 

*"^" _ >to ^ tW0i , ibree or more horoscopes are found to be 
f^rte there are vanoui «ji of identifying which a tat com 
^T The best method would be to nod out the pota 
tsntl bodies from ancient ephesene* or 
pans if the date, year and time of birth an 
apse ekmeotary ©asclusions reached from :: 
scope cottM be tallied with the eventa of the subject's Lfe. A* 
to placing planeti in own or eaaited homes i: mast be observed 
thaitbe planets of ettraordinary person* are ts%- is 

ertrtoidinary positions. Had that not been to thoae ind 
would never hive displayed those qoajiues. I: mas ale be 
pointed oui that rf at all fictitioot horoscopes kara beta aade 
thej caa always be verified by referring to th: 
dtployment at i he time of the individual's birth- 
be iiated that if ancient Indians are accused of i 
aion with boroscopes. the modern scholars euaoi 
for an equally eaxesslvc bUnd pr I again»t taatbeaai 

aatroaomical charts which if properly cast sre rfnl, at 

least in dating the events of life, is tb« manaer* jettings i 
astral observatiuns are on the nastptwattl cfc 

Those *ith no acquaintance with astrology *** * 
note that it is not easy to fabf*catc an horoacope. 
easy at placing any of the nine planets MJ^ H°^Z 
the 1 : houses If a noviot doe. it be can eaad, be foaad l^.* 
even a cursor, glance. Fot ****** » ^ ^JTJl 
placed nppcmte each other or Nfercury u not ^« "J* 

or Venus within two house, of the sun «**£*£*£ 
iU proper pi»ce la «be horoscope fur a »«• ** 
and'mo'ntb E.en ifu «pcr« ^^^T^L VZ 

m b. vermed ^ ? £S£S-" " ^ - 

subject and ersots of hjs life Mi ^^~1 ^ f>soiia , .,u 

tbcm can be Unmcdimwlj eaposed- 


, -*. ***** 

Speaki 0R broadly about Lord Krishna'* hfiP '*** 

above one finds that a ) mo « all the placets are in T?* ci «* 
tilled positions. Such a personality is verily a r J? ,r «*■ o r 
ip.r..uil aura compels universal homage Anruh * d *«W 
tal and mfallible feature is the exalted moon in tJ ^ "* 
dant which g.ves the subject a very attract, ve pJnnlv" ***»' 
fa why Lord Krishna is known as MOHAN « I' ^ 
illracTivc." **** the Very 

By rejecting astronomical data so toomhtf,,!!, 
ancient Ind,.. modern scho,™ hav, Z f ^ ™°' dci '« 
«K*nh. Rejection of snch data out of h«„rf " m to 

ioainu«,on On, aoclnll ladaoraJmon a „r° UmS l0ao 
Centorv ««arch,chola ts h,pd e n^r;abr^ r" 18 MUl 
>o stabc a claim of great aotiouuv fori . fabr " a,ed •»"»! dala 
WXtodrttate! , " for the, own civilizat.oo „ 

■»» united .o fo,„i ag f.^."" ^ h0rr " c< : *«"l daw 
dirooologjio indi,. * h 7~f <! "" Md 'oplsnting unwarranted 

fl^-wZ^l??- T ° " lus,ra * «W P«n. lean 
ocuiiovi date id a research thesis. 

H.^ufd.^rTod",™ cr, s ,r ,ki u g ^N' dM ' or " ** 

data. The wbjec. of the thel « tlu "l"™ fof lndiM *# at 
C«»«r> Marat., .t,^..^ ** S N,na Phadoawaj-tbe 18th 

•it Ea« !„,),„ Cofflp„ y Z«Z S "" £l, "' isl1 officiate ">f 

'«"«h. The ,h« *iE£» ' *""•■ OO Nan. Phodn .- 

^T-«l«... ., ^ £ ,'*""?*•*» recorded, b.i 

«•*«.«. «dtb lb, htrlll 0( , £* »d Deee mber ,j, ,„, ,„ 

^£?^ : " h -»«^v i b b j, h on,t ■**» »— 

date ^ ' '" ,WI0 I» *l*h save ,£*„ '? •'^"on , tcr e 

T * "«- My «£,„„. 


jnlaiicc who WW to write his thesis brought the above facts to 
lhc Qonce of his 'guide" saying that since the Indian horoscope 
(aural date) tallied with the date mentioned by the first Engliih- 
man, that was Nana PhadnaveesH authentic birth date. 

The 'guide' because of his learned prejudice against antral 
data refused to have -nytliing to do with it. He was not even 
prepared to concede any corroborative value to it. That almost 
amounted to insinuating that whenever any Indian is born 
<here are ever so many astrologer forgers around him who 
take delight in dumping oo the world a sheaf of concocted 
hoioscopes to confound later scholars or just for the fun of 
forgery The 'guide' therefore insisted that the candidate 
strictly confine himself to the three dales mentioned by ihc 
contemporary English officials and buttress one of these dates 
as the real date of Nana Phadnuvees's birth Tin* prejudiced 
instance might have resulted m imparting a stamp of autho- 
rity to a wrong date because nf the learned' short-sightedness 
of the 'guide/ 

But as luck would have it the candidate with rare 
could devise a formula by which even the two differing dates 
could be reconciled with the Indian dale mentioned in the 
horoscope. He explained to ihc 'guide' that one of ihc three 
dates recorded by the Englishmrn which tallied with the Indian 
horoscopic date was (he rem birth date while the 24th Fe wuar> 
reception marked the naming IChrfetcnIoi) ceremony of the 
boy (always observed on the 1 2th day from the birth, m Slahrj. 
rashtrajand 12th December (completing 10 months) reception 
was to mark the pate-shaviiig ot«m«iy. Thi. convinced the 
*gu,dc< ot the scholar's finding- But 1 am .till ooi »•»«•»«»«' 
that disarming and illuminating expiation b« enable* 1 the 
•' to .hed some of his prejudi-e against Indian astronomi- 
cal noting! for the dating of event* 

T .. , ,. . „„ lhc rei der thai modern luipicion of 
This ihould convince he/«oe ^^ 

Indian astronomical recod, en *M t ^ ^ 

m a > have resulted in great hum ™ f d }tctt 

hlitorical chronology, bj refu,m« «o believe 

U out of hand. , , 

A.Mwi. 1 ,,o«mph^b,«...h. "or .J«. 



horoKopn too may be critically examined „^ N 

there ire mare «b*n one in vogue for the sam/ " y •hti t 
present abhorrence of them as something fi { tln Jjf W 
rial record nnwamnted and barmfuj ,' i*" * * 
dear to historians. They almost seem to gel T V ' ry *•«»» 
horoscopes arc put forward as historical evid-j '^ wbea 
horoicopei or astral data point out to the g ." V ™r ^ 
personalities or events which scholars have been Uf 

assume or presume.., be comparatively recent thcir^* * 
shock knows no bounds. Such disparity itself rarte7th° f 
ion the aural evidence as a fabrication. 

eholarthip had, therefore, better learn to 
h Indian astral data. There can be no barm done in at lad 
Batty ing inch data and accepting It* iofenoeaasi 

possible atihwer where other indications too do not point oui 
toy decisive conclusion. 

la fact if astral noting* are found to be accurate there can 

better proof for dating historical events and personals 

Because eras may change and could be tost track of in (he 

burly burly u[ history but astral noting* could be always idtnii* 

by mathematical calculations. Ancient Indians, rather 

l to be cong r at U | atc d for their uncanny historical scnte 

nog astral dan for individuals and events, rather than get 

cursed and be impeded of innocent fun or not so innocent 

nor oieopic forge rie* 

^vmg anything 10 do with Indian historical 

l Aotild. therefore, be prepared to accept the peat 

?Z « Jndi * n •WWmioa, and the Dtility of recorded 

No genuine historical research ol nny kind of iW 

„ , ole by scholar* hating and uflpMiiHt * 

ladlist ***** m3,Cft,lon of «M immen« antiquity of *• 

; « U< Horded by . tooileal ptob. 

■«*« bo^ U^LT^ ™* "^nomkal m .,bemaiic». No 

at ruli r dtwkn-r*, **5° ** m 6nd ,hoM «*» and scicocei 

U> Kim , , >"*** °f »»udy. Not to talk of being ■*><* 

"^«»o«aftaS , Si 0oot eve,i COfnt ««om any pari** 
"* "itncea were in their formative itagca Ai 


... e go back tracing their history we find every maestro referring 
to some old master along an unending trail reaching back into 
untraceable antiquity. It should no- therefore, 'surprise histo- 
rians, if ai indicated by Lord Rama's horoscope the Indian 
civilization U millions of years old. That antiquity should not 
be denied it only because it does not fit in with the mediaeval 
presumption thai human civilization itself hat a very recent 

Bibliography ; 

1. History of Dhamashnstras by Dr. P.V. Kane, 

2. Tbe Age of Buddha, Milinda and Amtiyoka and tho 
Vuga Parana by Kota Venkatachcbm. 

3, Various Indian Puranas. 

4, Some Notable Horoscope! by B.V, Raman- 



Blundt* So 1 3 

•Arya" an Ideal Misconstrued 
as a Race 

aveminmng Asi m the wafco of iti nascent imnerh 
iira .n the 18th Cental* Western scholarship ran berserk n " 
pounding half-baked theories and forcing mistaken them on 
the subjugated peoples of the world. 

One such mistaken notion forced on a psychologically 

lup-ne world was the phantom of tt settled Aryan race' 

vcr armic, cf lchofm hflVe fof geocrat[ons a]| ^ 

woitt over been hard put to define what an 'Aryan sign.St*. 
■ bii language or languages and locate his homeland. 

[hmhadu'.v.chasrag was bound to result \a nothing but 

wo confusion and total railurc because blundering Wevten. 

chohifshjp has raited Ihc phantom of the so-called 'Aryan 

out of 11$ own imagination caused by a basic misunder- 

"auding of the Sanskrit term Ary»\ 

Evfa ente it now available that the Aryan* were no race ai 
'l^elore, tbe.r supposed migration jn warn, an 
over Mil um | Europe appears to be a big joke in 

ro the Indians an *Arya signified a thorough. 
Be,i»*~ :l ««»lemao.nn ideal person... a superman. 

IiantK r V* *"" " ,Ck,erS for purlty of bc,lflviour thcV 
hi* *!| , l ° 1,,c * At > a " concept at a state of evolution 
"'^wy individual must aspire/ 

**»»n Bart "Si"? 0l thu ,rul " can bc fonod than the well 

^VMH^AMaryam- U, "MAKE TH 


D ARYAN'". Had the word 'Aryan* signified a race, 
* hove dictum would not have come into being because race- 
,bC Lous people far from wanting to assimilate the 'world' in 
iheirfold belie c in maintaining an exclusive identify. 

That the word 'Aryan" signified an ideal man and no race Is 

m proV cd by Lord Krishna's admonition to Arjuu"Bc not 
^oward-.shed uu- Aryan feelings— and be ready to stand up 
and 6ght." Lord Krishna teing a divine incarnation he would 
flcver identify htmself with only one race to the discriminating 
exclusion of others. 

Another proofis afforded by the vocative use of the term 
'Arva' in ancient India to accost the husband or the king The 
elbct vocative synonym for a husband was "Vara". In Sanskrit 
Uie term 'Vara' signifies a highly accomplished man, hence the 
term Arya too had an identical connotation. 

Therefore, to regard 'Aryans' as some race, and a very 
proud race at that, which distinguished itself from and nitb* 
to*ty dominated the so called Dasyns or slaves U a blunder 
W mch has vitiated the study of all ancient Indian and world 


The term 'Arya> was nothing more than a *«*££»£ 
as a modern speaker addresses his audience a. Ladw «* 
Gentlemen". That does not mean than* = apoto <J^"£ 
not count himself among gentlemen or ^^ *£" 
among the audience are not 'gentlemen . 1- ito cw j 
-Ladil and Gentlemen" do not ^^Zr,Tt « 
similarly when the ancients uttered the wort An^ ffom 

not refer to any race or diW""", **»* 
some others supposed to be 'slaves 

hi their book titled HEKfc- 
Dunn and Dobihansky have r ja- opitaUua 

DRY. RACE AND *&£*£»£ unUy day-«- «* 
when they observed ;^M»^ r ^ ^ ^ oftl|t , tOBB 

words "Aryan Race T.nw « 

an imaginative creature. Ary. ^ SAN , kRlT 

Professor T *" t "r"™£°** lodo-Aty- .j^oorf 
I ANGUAGE observed i^ bUlo {h£ tCTt r Uk R.g- 

India no direct evident 






wdi itself although historical -allusions arc not uncomm 
Iher* n no reference anywhere to ihe fact of the migration 
any definite indication thai it waa still remembered." ' n ° r 

Tim* evidence it enough lo refute the notion, long beld u 
Indians aft ■ conglomerate of Central Asian and Arctic peon' 111 
Indian history book! start by making us learn by ihe rote it 
the very outset that we arc aliens and that the real inhabitant 
Of India were The aboriginals. Wc the aliens invaded India and 
almost cstcrrainated its. original inhabitants we are asked to 
believe, Those of them who survived the holocaust got absorb- 
ed m the Aryan fold. It is necessary to rake a second, closer 
look at this sinister doctrine. 

One way of looking at and classifying human beings has 

been htied on their complexion. Thus it is said thai there jre 

four major groups of people in our world : whites, blacks, 

browns and yellows Thi* may be alf ighi so far as it goes. But 

lo identify ihe whites as "Aryans" is a historical blunder. Ai 

cipliined earlier 'Aryan* was a synonym for a 'gentleman*, a 

ughbred". Therefore, any or all of the above four group* 

people could be called "Aryans', This is exactly what 

Tne Germans and Greeks who are whites and the 

i who are classed among the 'browns' arc all supposed 

la. If Aryans were a race this could not happen, 

i iracc those peoples have a common Sanskrit culture they 

^Zr r ' ommon, y »*"* «>e honorific 'Arya' to refer to each 

Wj&vch rented use f .be word "Arya' subsequently made 

**k aod Kor« to JLkT.iT T* **" "■^ f '° m Bali l ° ** 
* nc « Luf U it facitriv rau " ,iavc a MraniM linguistic 

«*a*hi D| aa, a te WrTh Ct l ^ ^ " Cttl " , ,an * Ua * c Wal 
*** *he laaaaaaa cW* T' S * n&kr "- Then il '» * r *" cd 
Uthwwiao htace ibo* wh v *°"** ,,cd '"do-European is 
!f *** smpaiM fro* ncMI V t C "T "^k^ '"do-European 
*W tui.raiion U ^ '« "hie. The cot £ re theory of 

■*™W**u olibeormnai home of 





■*■" ... and *B' followed by ttie.r iwu 

irtB ns •«<» r0U ' eS A lL fiU ch descriptions one wonders « 
lhC m-^*«* ^nfoler who sat detached, perched on 

* k .hrock, or b°f>P* d all r - *T, in si Aryans". Historians who 

* &c aern»y ^^^^ to have 'gulped* the 'Aryan 
S5S^^ without much of o—ogor 

***** . m to lav down the dictum that the* 

Some linguists seem Wj^^^j lq be the region 
M | home of the Aryans ^ * Jw> ■■ »*»' 
wb ere the majority **5J3Ei5 * Jhat the W ^ I 
The mevitable •"£*** % t ^itelogiHi arc not agreed 

Their vcty basic argument toj- ^£ ^nd. 
original home of the Ar v- ~ h .^* o m |c . d 
European languages are found '^n* take a contemporary 
to a very different t^™™^*™^ find a concentration 
instance. In America in our own .me* «»" d in 

of the most varied dialects not only of Europe ^ ^ ^_ fc 
particular but of many othc. . '^ olooised Eor ope but vice 
docs not prove that Americana 


u .hat if European languages 
By the same token we can say ih to itt prf.d« 

show a Sanskritic base and 'f Sa °f ™, ioul »ha« ii *« enter 

glory only in India the ^^ttSSm continents Later 
priiing Indians who miguted to all n_ jnapp ^ 

L when in the course -^JjJ^SJj of Sanskrit .bile 
the European languages retained y ^^ |odll> 
real Sanskrit .till flourishes .t its so ^ 

That conclusion, further ^^^^Kr-w-w 

ancient Vaidik 1-^--;^^^ A^ffwhich .mpe'- 
Vi.hwamAryam'(Maaeth«wM« lotit H>n» to *■ 

ted them to push ^^^J**™ 
«mottst land, to spread lb*" ">° 


With ihc.r preconceived theory of the Aryans h i 

and Aryan migration to India European scholars il?' * ra< * 

pret all Ved.c terms or the basis of a supposed conflZr. ? ^ 

the 'mvadrng Aryan and the native Indian ThteK *'" 

terms -Ayajawanah f non-sac hficers), Shisnadevah' Z*T 

wonhippm) and 'Pishangabhrshti' (black) are conce v d ^ 

European scholars to be derogatory terms used by the , J ?> 

Aryan, for the native 'black' Indian*. It is quite reason h 1 J ' 

i-pcct that the Europeans superimposed thSr coC^ * 

bygone age and on an imaginary race of 'Ar™ J 

Secondly, Shiva being a deity mentioned ,n the Vedas the J r rn 

*hisnadevah meaning phaliuv-wor£nppcrs could not have 

been derogatory B t all. It could be :l,ai some people worsen. 

ped Shiva while others did not. In .bat sense it could be a 

purely d.ii.nctive trait. Moreover 'Shtsnadevah' could as well 

mean passionate' or dynamic' and not 'phall^worshmpcrs' 

d LJ ™™*- lo ""■»■* ^at the term signifies the Dran- 

W^tT^" ^^ " AryanS, h m *™ and * 

. n d^,^ 1 t3! ,h^is,1ll ■ "*"** a ■*■* bf0wn Unit 

m *E5m^M%?& of dubbin * ,hc *■"* *° '* 

to ™«TL? ^ d W l0 ano,hcf "under namely of 

Mo tlcCj ^ro "JfhL ^ L hC fi0d ° f " Shiva * U * Ut J ° 

in tfcc Indus vX t.1 '^ Cnn * ° f * hC " afncS of ,he Vfdli 
Wesi« B KBoUl ^ ^ ^ 1,n « l have eiploded two fond belwfc "' 

4*o •* » Ur»v«ii»r n n ° i° n8cr •*" *««rtwl that Moheiijii- 
'^•tohcenoBM^M .* civilization. Simultaneously 
***> yt»i out uSIk ** ,<ef lhai lhe RifiVedu il t,nfy 

"ttk it m»> b^n'iJl 11 ^^" 1 ** Con - ^ "»** -I any colour 

*.*. coaui™, ^ ^Tu«^ J *"» **•». F.i from .he 

lfl ^'wewi coloured 


i cs wc find i he so-called Dm& and Aryans being hath 
bracketed together as enemies by a third party. Thus we have 
hymns which say 

"Oh Manu with your help may we conquor both lhe Aryans 

and Datas 

Oh lodra with your help may we kill both the 

Dasas and Aryans." 
fRigveda 1 0-83) 

Should fchli be interpreted to mean that before the rtai 
while Aryans invaded' India some native 'Aryan' variety 
already existed in India. 

References lo Arctic geography which Lokmanya Tilak dii 
covers in lhe Vedas could only mean lhai composers orVedk 
hymns had penetrated as far as the North Pole in their explo- 
ratory real inspired by the tdeal of carrying education, science 
and culture lo lhe four corners or the world, This has been 
discussed by Dr. Abinash Chandra Pass in his book tilled 

A diligent study of the Rigvcda will reveal lhai Ibe Daiyui 
were no rival race differing in physiological character Hi ics from 
•Ibe so-called 'Aryans'. 

The word "Dasyu" occurs about 40 times la the **•*. £ 
no place does i, signify - ««e of .he .bongm-h «-»* 
ed from the Aryans' believed to be whites. The ep, £»*■* 
as applied to the Dasyus ,s MM -gj- ^ 
lars as Implying those tavim i jo »°* ™ iMc c0DI |d 6 ridg thai 
interprets it as "mouthless" which >* pl*"« Dl h 

the Dasyus are also known a. M «f ««»P-^ "**«* 
due to a curse. ^^ ^^ ^ |(lirv 

Since -Aos' means to lfl ihi «« /|g| fefcn to , he 

the 'wanderer • . e urpjJ«* ™ ** f (hc hlllIIlinl Thai oca* 
^Killing of the Dasyus for thc^c ^^ l1a , iai<1 f 

that lhe Dasyus wew '"J^'^^n prc^.el, ■*««• ^ 
the Datyut is eonaidared »ttpc« ^ McDMtti j^ ,heir boot 
Daiyus were super human*- m B-I , y p« tW gci 

THE VED.C "NPf X * 'V P S i . U*"— **««* ^' 



h a God, ttc rtio-giver, one who used to release light and ih* 
waters lo diipcl drought and darkness. He smashed "Put,,.* 
of clouds sod of wow wW fih hloeked those wateri. To read in 
this a fancied allusion.** Western scholar* do. to the destruc 
tin of the so-called non-Aryan civilization of Mohenjadaro 
and Ha rap pa by the Aryan Indra is lo read theology and 
metaphysics as history. 

Merely because the Dasyus are described *>s those not per- 
forming rituala, sacrifice or worship does not signify any 
enmity between them and the so-called Aryans In our una 
umes the Jains and Buddhists could be described as those not 
following the Hindu form of worship. Thai by itself docs Dot 
connote enmity or hostility between the two, 

The Dasyus are described as the enemies of the country and 
001 of the so-called Aryan peoples as such. Therefore, instead 
of Aryans being supposed to be foreigners a more proper inter- 
pmalion would be that some supernatural beings called the 
Dasyut were mimical to th- Indian people, The Indian people 
*creno foreigners. They were people who used the term 
' Arya" as an ideal to be attained or as an honorific as we use 
the term "gentleman". 

The ftjgveda prays 16/22/ 10) "Oh Indra. give us that glory by 

which Dasyus will become Aryas and all the human foes will 

be dewoyed." This makes || quite clear that the term "Arya M 

anal u id»t human being and that there was no racial con- 

(w«b the Daiyui and "Aryas'. The Indians wanted the 

WaaoDBe superoaiutal forces to be tamed. IftheDaW"* 

i«mcd and civiii«d l0 become 'Aryas" it mean* that 
me fa*, mttz nol dlffefcnt . o rwe 

viitTa l ow\ R ' ,,V ? t Itfc " {2i2 W to "lndr» the slay" ° r 

w^s; r* ^ ***** Yotu D «> ui ' n *■ " c,d a,oft b> 

■J u* dad -w" Pf00f thl ' ,hc " inva ding Aryans" dertWJ 
««• ttoi tha|E2S f V* lte,do ""I seem to have «*» 
«* R.«t«j» Z™. flcK * ib£ ' «* Aryans alio as dark. Thus 
liOlOiii, Mottrfiw!!'*' ' he tt>D of Nrlihad was black 
*•*• we compote bT.^T* '" ,h * * th Mandate of the Rig- 
♦a. the ««oi of t b^J «**i>d»nu of K.nva. One Ka*v* 

" r **«* Yajurvedlnt. This show* 


' Kanva" though dark in completion was no Daiyo. No 
SrtMofiBfc'ioritj is invoked in admitting Kanva to be of 
S^comptafoft. One Rigvcdic hymn (1/85/1) says "Oh 
A^hvios this Krishna is making offerings to you.' Since 
"Krishna" »ig*'fi«* a l*" OD of dark complexion it would mean 
lbut the composer or that hymn was dark just as "Krishna 
Ynoi Dasyus is taken to signify thai the Dasyus were all 
hluck-complcxioned. Hymn 2/3/9 of Ihe Rigveda pray* "Let 
our offspring be tawny fPishang) ". Since lawny is non white 
the prayer proves that no stigma attached to a non»whita com- 
plexion and. therefore, there was no quarrel with the so-called 
Dasyus on the basis of "colour" In hymn 7/33-1 the Vashisia* 
arc specifically described as white which proves that the Indians 
ofVedic limes were a mined people «W * a ,n ** arc loday 
having alt shades of complexion from the milky while to black. 
Therefore, to imagine the Aryans to be a race, then call them 
foreign invaders and class them as white is all pure fantasy. 
According to Savana the word Dasyu derives from the root 
Dai' meaning one who harms. This again bears out the earlier 
meaning ihat the Dasyus were (supernatural) beings who barm- 
ed ihe people (by obstructing rain etc,). 

From historical parallels we can reference to 
colour of the complexion of.eti refers lo the leadership only 
and not to the actual people. Thus when ladiai. historic* reft. 
«o 'White" armies they only mean armie* led und »""-£ 
by the Europeans, or those which fought * thecau- onhc 
Europeans. Actually the entire army was nol whre ■ »■ *" 
a vast majority was non-wbite. And ye, .1 wa. caM* wb 

so called "Aryas" with the uaiyu* „ rt „ l2lllftn Waters 

al, a case of «« ^"-^ tC3THZ|^ a 
scholar, have played havoc m* the ■ « moucMi 

'class- and 'colour' siruggle and o *>«»■ »« 
theories oui of a theological worJu . Arva0 *- 

JC . .< lrt n u« conclude thai the Aryan* 
From the above>" «oo i ^^^ ^ 

were no race but tbe Irfhan ^^ mm find Mtbt 
Secondly (lie traces o **" a „ y * Alv ^ race or tenguagt 
world over do nol °'|* 1 TL*J J% f wkri ( speaking Indian, to 
bui from the pioneering offon * 


ltmiAH ""**». U^, 


early the torch flf knowledge and culture to r# mA . 

the world. mat * P»ru of 

Another conclusion we draw from the above disc 
ih.i Ssnikm was not only widely spoken in rndia bur 7 " 
•Mely spoken world language in ancient times, *** ' 

There having been no ■Aryan' races* such all e ff or , 
find ihetr homeland, tuces of their migration and their J *° 
■Ittiuaie' were bound to be fruitless as indeed they have (^ 

This belief in an Aryan race" has been a blunder of histJ 
«l research. It needs to he rebutted and all reference ^£ 

dS*r ,,<m ?A nd,l,eir SUpp "* d ""•«*» ought toJe 
oceud from world history. Instead it should be clearly Ude^ 

G^T" ^ bd * ni Wb ° ****** from titlSt 

E««ope and friitttf Ary * nS wbo hved somewhere in 

^-^r^^^^^ed language f the.™. Wha< 
^u tt « 00( ., od ;^ e ^ u ;fc of the world', ancicnt-mosc 

^^^ Delhi ltclop,cw »««byDr. N.R Wvha* 

Abl0 »* Chandra D a „. 

ja/jjn^ No> M 

Antiquity of the Vedas Grossly 

The confident a&sertion in THE HISTORY OF MANKIND, 
a recent UNESCO publication that the Rigvcda..,humanUv'i 
oldest extant piece of literature. as recent a^ 1200 B.C. sur- 
passes r schoolboy howler in its absurdity 

Underestimation or the antiquity of the Vedas and in faci 
alt major events or ancient India has hamstrung Indian history 
ever since uninformed Western scholars controlled the eon re 
educational apparatus in Asia in the wake of their nascent 
empires between the 18th and 20th Centuries 

According to Indian tradition the Vedas arc of such un- 
traceable antiquity as to be considered Apauruihcya U. not 
composed bv anv identifiable humans. One interpretation of 
this term is "that the great *ages *ntl seers who first sang the 
Vedas attributed their utterances to divine inspirat.on ruling 
out any personal credit* 

Western scholars like Sir Mortimer Wheeler and Prof 
Piggot read m the Rigvcdlc descriptions d^'"** 

^n^£*^^^Jfi^* drive, 
»l Aryans^ Thus India ^ ^^ lbcm ( „,o the so 
minister wedge among Indians o . M arch 

caUed Dravidi-ns .ml Afljg ^SStoATZi 
enemies of each other ma k. ^ *•*- »'* ^ kjjm 

under imaginary '"'""^ir! *■! «"«»* m**** *' 
a, the wicked .nvada ra J« JP d jn(| ho ^ CI j ,, 

Mohenjad-ro and Haieppa •« P° ^ AmM , 

.^^^ in the -hove lb*fc The 
Therearea^imber oi r»i 


Dasyuswereeo human being* it afj but only * upcr 
beinri lodra u Ibe personification of Divinity Wa| D " 0f ' 1 
nan or racial God. Neither was be an Aryan nor a Icutf 1 * " 1 " 
tbe Aryans, Tbc fancied Aryans themselves are no nr. *' ? f ' 

,„. „.,«,«. .— — -™ ...,..„ *-"'»"'« are no race ar *n 
Tbc word as used by the ancient Fndians signified a Uioro I, 
bred. weH mannered, highly accomplished. duty-dedicaTi 
ideal human being. Their ideal wot to train all humans i 

Attain thai « rage. This is testified to by the ancient fndi 
maxim "Kruuwanto Vishwam Aryam" meaning "Make lb 
enure world Aryan \ Every superior was addressed as "Am""' 
Hence "Arya" was honorific and a common term used iq 
accosting mow individuals. 'Aty*' is also a surname in India 
Having been so widely used, like the current term ""Gemlc- 
catt" Max Mueller and others mistook it to be a race. 

Incidentally, the very wide use of the term Arya and its 
proud associations alt Ibe world over prove that tbe ancient 
Indians colonised and ruled over a very large part of ibe 
world Had it not been so the use of the term "Arya" to accost 
people would not b*%c been so widespread as to be mistaken 
to be a race comprising al] Europeans and all Indians* That, 
hoaever. ij a subject for a separate dissertation. 

Smce tbire was no Aryan race it need not be added that 
there were no Aryan in vayoos. .Con sequent] y ihc Dravidian- 
Aryan conflict is a myth. 

The Mohenjadaro and Harrappan civilization* did not even 
exist during tbe time or the Rigveda because as we shall see 
hereafter only a part or North India was then extant. The rest 
of tbe sub-continent as known to ua today was submerged by 
the Telhys Sea. This is apparent from topographical and geo- 
graphical descriptions in the Rigveda. Therefore, far from there 
being pte-Vedic civilizations the Vedai preceded (hose civJIiw- 
tions by millenniums 

AVI reference* in Indian histories to so-called Aryans, their 
sswaaiociof Ind j ■. (he supposed division of Indians between 
Aryan and Dfividians. the prc-Vedic concept of the Moben- 
jadaroaod Hwappa. and the Rigveda being as recent as 120© 
B.C must, tnarefofe, be suitably and drastically revised. ^ 

«*• who batten to assert that the Rigveda is aa recent *» 



. assert thai Lord Buddha was born around SM 
l20 B.C- »l»° fladJhi| is much more ancient ihan that is of 
„ C. Tbti Lord i» v ^ b||l cven assuming thai dale to be 
^rsesscparai n ^^ ^^ hgve gsked lhemielvei lhe 

en* 1 ^' ,h \ [hcf the entire hlSlory f the Indian civilization 
question w ^-^ {0 Lord Buddba, which includes the rise and 
fromine '» |1|?ation j aslhat of lhe R a mayana and 

f *" °! S hhharata had n tola! range or no more than 600 years 
, hc M an *™ 6Q0 B c ) 3 This simple test-question should 
<1 «b° w debuok the theory that the Rigveda is no older than 
tf]0B.C But there arc still other proofs. 

The Mababharata itself goes back to 3138 B.C. because the 
Yudhistbira era of India which is still quoted and has com- 
jcied over 5.030 years began with the crowning of Yudhisthtra 
Jen days after tbe Mababharata war. 

The Mababharata civilization was preceded by the Rama- 
yana era. In between there may have been many intervening 
cirilrtaiiODt. And beyond them all loom tbc Vedas. 

Certain portions in tbe Rigveda describe some extraordina- 
rily devastating seismic events. In the RAJA TARANG INI (an 
ancient history of Kashmir) and in NEELAMAT PURANA 
tbe event is described in mythological terms while in the Rig- 
veda the same is dcrcribed practically in scientific detail. There 
it \t stated thai Indra the God of thunder and lightning accom- 
panied by the Ma ruts (Tbe wind deity) and Varuna (who 
controls water) broke mountains, killed a number of people 
■ad let loose enormous quantities of water from the mountains 
km asunder. Thai water flowed out in lhe form of SaptA* 
Sindhu (seven rivers). Il is apparent that the Rigveda alludes to 
a naiural cataclysm of repeated earth tremors, accompanied 
by storms and lightning. Numerous hymns give the detail . of 
this happening. 

Geologists admit the existence of a big lake in ihc Kashmir 
|«Jh ^teni times. The 1964 edition or the British Encydo- 
Picdiaiiaies: on page 8K7-B of its vol. 12 lhat at onetime 
js| " n m 1 , , r wa ' an inland sea with an "Archipelago of volcanic 
«nj V * cc<JU 'nt of the tectonic movements of the earth** 

W the floor of the lake rose while tbc neighbouring 



Himalayas alto registered ■ sympathetic rise in their ilij, udc 
The southern mountains of Kashmir.,. the Pir Panjal a$ ,• 
tre no* known wbsided ind wuter *hieb flowed out drained 
i«iy the entire Kashmir lake. 

Geologists de Terra and Patterson have <! scribed the 
channel beds resulting from the ftow-out. Fredrick Drew hat 
described the huge expanse of the lake an J its great depth of 
about 2000 feet. 

Apparently these geological upheavals aroused great interest 
throughout the contemporary world because even the Zeoda* 
win refers to the creation of the Land of Sapta-Sindhu 
(Hapina Hindu i- 

The tail lift in the height of the Himalayas took place five 
hundred thousand > ears ago according to modern geological 
studies* Since the Rigveda refers to the great seismic events 
which pushed b«k the Telhys Sea and pushed up the 
Himalayas it is clear that the Rigveda is a very ancient 

It Li likely 10 be argued thai tie language or the script of 

edaiinofio old Bui it must be remembered that 

ngtn the Indian tradition the Vedas were regrouped 

>od and transmitted from generation to generation 

*"**** HOWM.UU, therefore, quite likely that after 

L£2w CBd ° r fl0ur,5h,D » <*«Wi00i succeeding 
TT anc,ent event, in their own contemporary 

«« „„s mS " xnl - T ">c belief ihal apt- 

m«i ciat jiujj ^Mmm 

*'*td 1.1 lulftno %«*. nM tnd *kcleton of 

■** of the discovery was 

AHT ,(jUtTt OF THE VBPAS 22 5 

wirie d by the potassiu roar goo technique at mentioned in 
•be March 1*64 Proceedings of The American Academy of 


Unfortunately historians the world over have stuck to their 
primitive notions about the comparatively very recent origin 
of the human race while almost every branch of science has 
repeatedly revised and pushed back its horizon* Modern 
physics has accepted the time- space continuum theory and has 
admitted that the process of creation and destruction of rojucr 
goes on incessantly. 

Both these concepts form the very foundation of Indian 
philosophical, scientific and metaphysical thought from times 
immemorial, Indians have always held that our pride in the 
20th Century civilization having reached the apex of demo- 
cratic thinking and scientific discoveries is misplaced. In the 
eternal whirl of lime, uncountable civilizations have claimed the 
same distinction, and have perhaps attained greater heights of 
temporal and spiritual achievements but hive been lost and 
forgotten. Likewise ours is not the only world in the baffl.ngly 
vast cosmos. Many other civilizations more wonderful and 
similar or different from ours could exist This too Is an ana- 
eat asiom of the Hindus who term God to Lord of 
Uncountable Millions of Worlds like our own. Thai .he whole 
creation is a continuoui cycle without beginning or end a. has 
been propounded by the Hindus since time immemorial mi 
uk up o^v .^rtkinc around our cosmic environment 

also be verified by looking « t " l ' uu 

Our solar system ,i made up of orbs which have been going 
uur sow ^sy». M|m-(| ^ K3t . 

round and round in " "^ teof cfelticm and des.ruc- 

table hfe turn round " a «*££ * ^ ^ w ^ 

non. Time and £*™* „ h ^logical to—* thai 

Considered ag.m« ^~% a , mM for lhc first time 
in this vast ™^» "' J£ .U ,0,000 years ago, 

beg.o from the «^™ D « ££„ „ „ koown coda,,, 
The topography of n»^ tod - ^ ^ ^ ^ 

quite different from *«■' ' ^ of MMam hi 10 «■»« «"• 
Rigvcdie Nadi Soofcw. »J» ^ bgfft r( dttctlbn lbj , ih9 
■even river, flowing WMJ' ^^ ^^ (JUirf) a-a 

Qa0i, * ^K^aart now** '" ' b ' •» independent to on* 


own lime however the Yamuna joins the Ganga ai p , 
I a I lib ■ had) and the Samwati (though now extinct] i» t * ^ 
to have been onte joining the Ganga and Yamuna in,,'* 11 
confluence it the same place, p,e 

Hymn 95 of Mandela 7 specifically mentions that th 
Sareswati falls into the sea Similarly Sutlej and Ravi W h h 
are now tributaries of the Indus, used to fall into the tea direci 
Asikni (Cbenab) and Vitasta (Jncluro) which now are tribute! 
riei of the Indus used to join together to form the Maruvrjdht 

r and flow to the sea. Arijikiya (Beas) also (lowed to the 
sea direct instead of merging with the Indus. Yamuna being an 
independent river Sowing to the sea shows that during Rir. 
vcdic times the sea northwards and eastwards reached at least 
unto what we know as Allahabad or Prayag today. In the West 
the sea exic tided beyond the points where the several tributa* 
nes mentioned above joined the Indus, 

That the sea extended over much of what we call northern 
India, during Rtgvcdic times is further confirmed in Rigvedic 
it in ia 5 t hyran 136. Mandal 10 which says that the sun fus 
his home in the sea both in the east and the west. This clearly 
means that the Rigvedic people saw the sun rise from the sea 
and set in the ica It If, therefore, apparent that the Sapta- 
Siwlhu land in which the Rigvedic people lived had the sea to 
it* can, iou«h and west, 

Rigvedic habit also describe the Sara swan as a mighty river 
on the banks of which they performed penance and worship. 
I he Ganga and the Yirauna were then comparatively small. 
Indian tradition also preserves the memory of the Saraswaii ai 
■ mighty nver which because of a curse was turned upside 
TO and sent to the nether world to How through subterra- 
m. Latest geological rcsearchei testify to that find- 
believe that over live hundred thousand years must 
mmsT ***! T1 met Sara * w ^ disappeared underground. 
!^ i **'> topographical and geographical evident 
m the *, E veda kads to the inescapable conclusion tli at 
™r i f, T bc,nS «™p0icd around 1200 B.C (• <>t 
. £LTJ^ ™V ly M Jl "*■» Sieved by the Hindus and 
" *•*"»*• l0 «*»' unfathomable tradition. All attempt!. 



therefore, to rank the Rigrreda as a collateral f alkm , 
teripiurei around the world are highly a^bron,, £*' **" 
j S (he basic scripture of the whole world, not ™! ,*** 
Hindus, inasmuch us the other scripturei which "* 

b^lowin the line of scriptural succession afteMhflT*** 
dcr ive considerable inspiration from it both in th ?* ved * 
content. OU8nl ^d 

That the Rigveda is rhe oldest piece of human* „ 
lilcrature the origin of which goes back to immernotial 1 
quity is a staggering concept for those nursed .n nr i r 
Western thinking. But when its antiquity is pr0 vcd hvtflZ 
graphical and geological evidence contained within the Rjtve 
itself there is no escape from it however much ft mav hurt™! 
corny academic toes. ' " our 

Bibliography : 

1. The Spibox Speaks by Dr. Jwala Prasad Sinehal. 1963. 

2. British Encyclopaedia, 1964 edition. 

A Geology of India by D.N. Wadio, 1957 edition. 

4. Geology of India and Pakistan by R.C. Mefadiratta. 
1954 edition. 

5. Geology of India and Burma by MS. Kriihnan. i960 

6. Aryon Ka Adi Desh (in Hindi* by Dr. Sampurnanaad* 

7. Rasatala by Nan dial Dey. 

8* The Outline of World History by H.G. Weill, 
9. Historical Atlas of India by C. Collin Davies 
10. Rajatarangini by Kalhana. 

11 The Ancient Civilizations of Perm, by J. Aldan Mason 
"57 edition (Pelican Books). 

Bimdtr S* /-* 

Origin of 4 Allah" as Hindu God 
and Kaba as Hindu Temple Forgotten 

Que of the greatest tragedies of Indian historical research, 
hawing a bearing on world history, is that the sway that Indian 
Kifcitriyas once held all over West Asia has been clean 

Almost ill traces of that sway got obliterated in the det- 
i recti™ fury that seized thai part of the world soon after the 
founding of Islam. 

That detractive fury, with its epicentre in Arabia, spread- 
in | in a chain of shock* waves soon engulfed the *hole of Wear 
Asia including Afghanistan. AJl Countries suffus*. J by it were 
made to breakaway completely from their past. 

Encyclopaedias Islam ia and Britanoica tell us that Arabia 
itself obliterated all its past history by destroying images and 
record*. We are now told that the 2,500-year history of Arabia 
before the founding oflslara has been ironically written off as 
an 'age of ignorance" though it was in Tact the "wise" succcs- 
lots 10 that age who chose to remain ignorant by a deliberate 
breakaway from the past- 
There are many clues still which if pieced together convince 
•aofthattway. One is the naming of different countries a* 
"Stbaa". Just as in modem times we bad the British cmp* te 
apread over a large part of the world which resulted in differ* 
tefiom beicB named as Greenland, Iceland. Basutoland, WW* 
land similarly the word* Ghariehntao, ZabulisUn, A( * b **\^ 
tan, Baluchiiian. Turkman, Acvastan. Kurdistan ■"JJJJ 
convince us thai Sanskrit speaking Indian Ksbatriyas o" 
riled over thoac rcgioni. 


There is *Ho another piece of evidence. Albiraoi and oitie- 
i0 cient chroniclers have recorded thai Buddhism prevailed 
ove r those regions. They are nor very correct- From the 
Bli ddnJ statues noticod in those regions by Albirunt and others 
, t would be wrong to assert that those regions followed Buddh- 
ism. We have a contemporary parallel, to our own times when 
Mahatma Gandhi commanded universal respect hit statues 
were set up at various places. That does not indicate that 
people forsook Hinduism and took to Gandhism. Similarly the 
existence of Buddha statues only implies that Buddha being a 
famous Hindu of those times his statues were erected in the 
regions where Hinduism prevailed. The existence of Buddha 
ttatues in West Asia, therefore, prove Hinduism was the faith 
followed by all West Asian people whose descendants now 
profess Islam. 

Some footnotes in the book tilled SULTAN MAHMUD 
OF GHAZNfN 1 written by Prof. Mohammad Habib of Aligarh 
Muslim University, has some relevant information. On page 14 
he says "some time before the Christian era the Turki Sbahi 
(Kushan) dynasty of Scythian Turks founded by BarhaUgin 
began a career of conquest. Under its greatest monarch, Kani- 
thfca, a large pan of Northern India, Afghanistan, Turkastan, 
and Mawarauu Nahr was included in the Kushan Empire. The 
Turks were quickly assimilated by Indian civilisation,,.. 
Albirunt states that the dynasty included no less than 60 kings, 
the last of whom, Legaturman, was deposed by Ills Brahman 
waiir. I' ilur....The pedigree of the kings written on silk was 
preserved in the fortress of Nagarkot but Albirunt says he was 
«mble to see ft* 

A number of very important conclusions flow from the 
•hove information. Firstly it tells us that ''Turks had nssimitat- 

ladian civilization" i.e. they professed Hinduism. This con- 

'tort h farther reinforced by the fact that they bad Brahman 

**" a* all Indian Kshatriya rulers in India had. Thirdly the 

h , r£ftJh « ancient Indians bad no archive* and wrote no 

nry ts Proved baseless by the reference to the silk scroll of 

• ^Wished by S. Chand A Co,, Delhi 1951- 



Linp preserved to Nagarkot fort. India had voluminous hut 
rical record* unco every Indian ruler had by lradiijo n t °I 
custom to spend a couple of hour* every day listening i th 
history of bis ancestors read by bis Brahmin counsellor* 
Thank* to Muslim invasions and rule over West Asia and tndi 
for a millennium, voluminous Indian records of the away that 
Indian fCshatriia held over those lands have been almost com- 
pletely obliterated. 

In that clean sweep and breakaway from the past the anci- 
ent Indian scripts and literature in vogue in countries like 
Turkey and Arabia have also been completely forgot tea. Many 
would no* express surprise if told that before the current 
Arabic script Arabs used to write in ao Indian script and that 
ancient Turks too had an Indian script and maintained records 
in Sanskrit. 

Turkish, Arabian and Persian names corrupted through 
centuries or msl- pronunciation might appear far removed 
from Sanskrit but nevertheless their origin is Sanskrit. An 
illustration or this may be found in the names Legatureman 
and hi* Brahmin waiir Kallur appearing above. 

In a fooinotc on page 13 of his book Prof Ha bib gives the 
dates for Sumanid Kings : Abdul Malik bin Nuh (343-350), 
Mtntur bin Nuh (350-365), Nuh bin Mansur (365-387). It 
should be remembered that the Samanids bad a big empire in 
West Asia. Early Arab chronicles which record the invasioni 
ot Mohammad Kasim and others against India refer to Indiani 
as Turks and Saminu. That shows that the Turks and Santo is 
•ere Hindu*. The Samanaid empire was therefore that of 
Indian Kahauiyai. 

Tha word "Nuh" quoted above is also a Hindu word. Jt i» 
lbs abbreviation of "MamT. That is why "Nuh" Is associated 
wHfe the legendary "Hood" in Weat Asia as has been the name 
of Menu in Indian tradition. 

Manu ai the law giver and the originator of every new 
civiliuuoQ i* held in the highest respect in Indian tradition 
His name wai, therefore, associated with Indian royalty adioof 

.ad**'*"** »■ 

Icr's many titles- Tho Samanids being Hindus we find the 

Another proof of Hinduism having been the faith of ancient 
bia j S found in the fact that a very large part of Islamic 
r< lig.ou» terminology is m Sanskrit. 

Allan" is i ,4elf ■ Sanskrit word for "Moines" or 
"Goddess". Muslim tradition is likewise unable to explain the 
. f the word "Kaba" which they claim to be their central 
h'rine. That is because Kaba was a Hindu temple. The extant 
Kaoa was surrounded by a huge shrine consisting of 360 Hindu 
images. One of them was known as Allah (goddess). Another 
(as mentioned in encyclopaedias) was known as "Lai". The 
name or the author of an ancient Indian astronomical work is 
"Ui-f}eV\ There is evidence to show that the Kuba and in 
fact the huge destroyed shrine housing the 360 deities was built 
by the Indian King Vjkramaditya of India who founded a new 
era id 58 B.C. 

In our attempt to reconstruct the story of pre-Jslamic 
Arabia we begin with the name of the country itself. The name 
if fully Sanskrit. Arva in Sanskrit means a horse. Therefore, 
Amsihan is the Land of horses. Its central pilgrim centre, 
Mecca is also a Sanskrit name. Makha in Sanskrit signifies a 
sacrificial fire. Since Vaidik fire-worship was prevalent all over 
West Asia in pre-Islamic days Makha signifies the place which 
had in important fire temple. Mecca-Medina is Makha-Medini 
i he region of fire worship. 

Coinciding with the annual pilgrimage a huge bazar used to 
spring op in Makha i.e. Mecca since times immemorial. The 
annual pilgrimage or Muslims to Mecca is not at all ao innova- 
toa but a continuation of the ancient pilgrimage. This fad is 
*«J»nacd , n encyclopaedias- 

or S ideoce " now ■ v «ltble thai the whole of Arabia was pari 
uLkiUofv*! la(il,ln k '°8 Vikramaditya's vast empire. The 
•" » world . l i J r * inadi| y* s empire is one of the main reasons for 
lu »»i fe«r' dC famCi toeidenially I his also explains many iowi- 
■^rcs about Arabia. It could be thai Vikramtditya 

232 ,KDUH "»«>*ICAL Hfcs,^ 

himKir hid this peninsula njmcd Arvasthan if lie was u, e fif 
lodum monarch to capture if tod bring it under his sw*y. 

The second intrigui.,g aspect it (he existence of ,1 Shiv«H 0ti 
or the Mibadcva emblem in the Kaba shrine in Mecca, km 
11 Sungay As wad Le, Blael Stone. 

Before going inio further details about the ancient Vajd,v. 
ritual! and names still clinging to Muslim worship at Mecca we 
thai I kc what evidence we have about Arabia having formed 
pert of Vtkramflditya's dominions. 

In Istanbul in Turkey, is a famous library called Makhtab-^ 
Sufiima which is reputed to have the largest collection of 
ancient West Asian literature In the Arabic section of ihat 
library if an anthology of ancient Arabic poetry. That antho- 
logj «u compiled from an earlier work, in A.D. 1742 under 
the order of the Turkish ruler Sulran Salim. 

The 'pages' of thai volume are made of Harter — a kind of 
silk used for writing on. Each page has a decorative gilded 
border. It may be recalled that gilding pages of sacred books 
ii an ancient custom afsoeiaied with old Sanskrit scriptures 
found tn Java and other places. 

The anthology itself is known as SAYAR-UL-OKUL* It is 
divided into ibree parti. The first part contains biographic 
details and the poetic compositions of pre -Islamic Arabian 

eta. The second part embodies accounts and verses of poets 
of the period beginning just after Prophet Mohammed upto the 
end of the Banec-Ummaya dynasty. The third part deals with 
later poet* opto the end of Khali ra Harun-al-Rashid's timet. 
Incidentally "fanee" meaning "Vaoee" and Ummaya a» in 
Kriabnayyi arc Sanskrit uamei. 

Abu Amir Abdul Aitmai. a distinguished Arabian bard 
■ho *a» the Poei Laureate of Haruo-tl-Rasnid** court has 
ootnaukd and edited «he anthology. 

The n>n modem edition of Ssyar-ul-Okul anthology «•• 
printed and published m Berlin in A.D. 1864, A subsequent 
edition wu pubUifccd in Beirut in A.D. 1912. Thil work i» 

a d as «bc most important and authoritative anthology of 
'"*' t Arabic poetry. It throws considerable light on the 
J,BC . ,f i° v-ie customs, manners and entertainment forms in 

x ' "* \ fgbia 1 h b b o o k 1 1 tfl g o n I 1 1 a i m 1 1 1 b prate d t te 1 1 p« 
* n o of the ancient Mecca shrine, the town and the annual fair 
*'° |$ OKAJ which used to be held there every year, Thii 

hould convince readers that the annual Haj of the Muslims to 
* ^ ^ jj niy a continuation of the old fair and not a new 


But the OkaJ fair was far from a carnival, Ii provided a 
forum for the elite and learned to discuss the social, religious. 
political, ftrauy rad otbsi MpeGta. of ttts >&tdik culHire them 
pervading Arabia, SAVAR-UL-OKUL asserts that the conclu- 
sions reached at those discussions were widely respected 
throughout Arabia. Mecca, therefore, followed the Vatanasi 
tradition of providing a seat for important discussions among 
the learned while the masses congregated there for spiritual 
bliss. The principal shrines at both Varanasi in India and at 
Mecca in Arvasthan were Shiva temples. Even to this day the 
central object of veneration at both Mecca and Varanasi con- 
tinues to be the ancient Mahadevi emblem, It is the Shankara 
stone which Muslim pilgrims reverently touch and kiss in 
tie Kaba. 

A few miles away from Mecca is a big signboard which 
Inn entry to tny non-Muslim in the area. This is a reminder 
of the days when the shrine was stormed and captured solely 
for Uae newly established faith of Islam. 
*« to prevent Ms recapture. 

Ws head 6 *A g ? m procwds toward* Mecca he is asked to shave 

«»iiiu of i d 3nd '° d0 ° & spccial $acred a " ir ** Thi * 
»°rn round 7k * Cain,ess shect * of wh ' te ***&■ One is to be 
tb «e rue W * ,SI ' and thc 0,her over tbc snrtulders. Both 

Hl *ta ibriT ' C . mnatt,S ° f lhC ° ,d Vftidik P rac,ice of enleria I 
-white , bctl " * n SbaveQ *° d wllb *>ly ftwnleai, spotlea 

' lkDo ^a 1 a n | h^K n li' 1 *!*** wh,ch ho "«* «he Shiva emblem 

clothed to a black shroud. This 

The object obviously 

iheKaba. ft 

custom could alio originate from ibe days when it W a 
necessary to discourage its recapture through eamoufloJ h ° U,h ' 

According to encyclopaedias Britannia* and Isla ■ 
Kaba had 360 images. Traditional accounts mention th"*! ^ 
oJ the deities among tbe 360 destroyed when the ihrini ^ 
stormed was that of Saturn, another was of (be Mooiv and **' 
another was one culled Allah. In India the practice of ton 
graba puja that is worship of the nine planets is still j Q vogue 
Two of these nine are the Saturn and the Moon, Besides the 
Moon is always associated with Lord Shaukara. A crescent 
always painted across the forehead of Shiva emblem. Since the 
presiding deity at the Kaba shrine was Lord Shiva if 
Sbankara the crescent was also painted on it. It is that crescent 
which is now adopted as a religious symbol of Islam. 

Another Hindu tradition is that wherever there is a Shiva 
shrine ihe sacred stream of Ganga that is the Ganges must 
always co-exist. True to that tradition a sacred fount exists. 
ncai the Kaba, Its water i* he]d sacred because it was regarded 
as but another Ganga since pre-hlamic times. 

The common Muslim exclamation and invocation "Ya 
Allah" js aho of pure Sanskrit origin as may be observed by 
referring to the invocation of Goddess Saraswati which runs 
thus: Ya Kundendu Tushar Har Dbavala, Ya Shubhra 

Muslim pilgrims visiting the Kaba shrine go around it seven 
time* In no other mosque does this perambulation prevail. 
Hindus invariably perambulate around their shrines. This is 
)«i another proof that the Kaba shrine is a pre-lslarmc Shiva 
mnlc »herc the Hindu practice of perambulation is still meti- 
culously observed, 

'J*»m*Hi Albh, Akka trd Amba are synonyms. They 

"*> i godden or mother. * be term Altah appears «n S»o*- 

km chants while invoking goddess Durga I.e. Bbavani. The 

lktDJC *** AlUb for God n therefore, not an innovation but 

ancient Sanskrit appellation retained and continued «° bo 

used by Ulam. 



vco perambulations too are significant. At Hindu 

ThC Ceremonies the bride and bribegroom go round the 

?fl seven times. The practice of seven perambulations 

taeici W ^ a 5hrioc j Mecca is# therefore, a Hindu Vaidik 

■ roun lt is t \ $0 proof tbal Mecca was Maltha or the shrine of 

custom arounc j which worshippers made seven pcram- 

tUe sacrea u"- 

bula«i° n3 * 

SAYAft-UL-OKUL tells us that a pan-Arabic poetic sytn- 
am used to be beld in Mecca at the annual Okaj fair in 
^Islamic limeu All leading poets used to participate in it. 
Poems considered best were awarded prizes. The best, engraved 
on gold plate, were hung inside the temple. Others etched on 
camel or goat skin were hung outside. Thus for thousands of 
years the Kaba was the treasure house of the best Arabian 
poetic thought. This tradition was of immemorial antiquity. 
But roost of the poems got lost and destroyed during the 
storming of the Kaba by Prophet Mohammad's forces. His 
court poet Hassan-bin Sawik who was among the invaders 
captured some of the treasured poems. His descendant in the 
third generation hoping to earn some reward carried some of 
those salvaged poems to Khalif Harun-al-Rashid's court. At 
the Khalif's court he met the well known Arab scholar Abu 
Amir Abdul Asamal. The latter received from the bearer five 
gold plates and 16 leather sheets with the prize-winning poems 
engraved on them sending away the latter happy bestowed 
with a good reward. 

On the five gold plates were inscribed verses by two ancient 
'« poets Labi Baynay and Akhtab-bin-Turfa. This discovery 

of ■" caT a, " Ra * hJd ° rder Abu Amir l ° com P ilc * collection 
Wtteclion composi,ions * One of the compositions in the 
before Pronh* b ? P0Bt Jirrhlm Bintoi who livcd 1*5 *««*■ 
•wardforTh k hamtnadt Biotoi bftd M «' v *d U« topmost 
Mec *4*vm tp0etn forU)rce > c «* io auccessioo at the 
011 told p| al ? Smms . Atl * how thr « e Po«ras of Bintoi inscribed 

^^'elaj^T'ti insidc lhc Kabj aori0js - One of his 
"■under- Kiag Vikramaditya. Its Arabic transcript Lt 



' NDMM »*T0.,c AL 


"llrassh.pha. Santuf Bikraraatul Ph.t. ^^ 

Y.rUpheeha Wayow.ssaru BihiHahaya V. a **° K lrtm 
brew* BihUlah. Yuhee Qaid C^-'- fiU Mo't^ 
Am , Oslriro Bayjayhalcco V? ™ ph " J <b«rtt jC* 
Binayakhtan, Yaha Sabdu^ Z^Tn Biabln "SS 
Atedeii Bilala Mtt.ur.teen PhTjrL^l B « 
M ;i aU,alhada Walhada. ^J^ J«S» *.„ J 

Ph.heya J«R,.b,| Amaray Bikratnatoon" (SaTao , t Amar<m °- 

Pf 315). Rendered » English the .bove J^ UU>Kt «<- 
tunate arc tbose wb0 were ^ Poem mca „ 8 , . Tor . 

Viknnj's reign He was *, „ A w durm * King 

" be** .» on . Nel t ^ Wa * eflVe! ° Ped in * darkDW 

****** ^t?*T n ? mail ofthe favouror 

*'<" foreigner? » wc W ? r r^ 0eV ° ,COCC d,dDOt ,0Sesi « hl 

amongst ui and Kn , h , *P«ed his sacred religion 

Alliance ,b 0w ,:. . ,c b0 »« from his own country, whose 

^.^-ii^SL^ Wh&K *«*>»«« we were 
to «<* aacrcd knaHedBV LI P '" cllce of God . introduced 
?£■*•« «unio tfp^l J"' oa ,he '«d to truth, had 
This d« r |y lho * "» weir religion and impart cduca- 
{ b.n t but Ayurved. hZL ™ Yun * nl Wen of medicine 

Arabs in ancient rime*. 

^■"•buiA/u^^f Yunan. sy.t 
^ '^ poem or r ,tC Arabs '" 

■««rieej An ,, J *«* An^tan. |< ha. not 

,h > fwliiHa who ruled 

opjoik op WW* »' 

ntire region in the ancient paat who gave all these namei 
tbl *hese countries, established cultural centres and spread 
tc ^gc and civilisation throughout West Am. It could be 
hi Arabia itself was not a part of the Indian empire until 
K* ft Vikrama because Biotoi says that it was Vjkrama who 
t "fhc firs* time brought about a radical change in (he social. 
cultural and political life of Arabia. It may be that the entire 
011 between India and Arabia was ruled over by Indian 
ftjoMi priot to King Vikramaditya. The latter perhaps added 
Arabia too to the Indian empire. Or it may be that Vikrama. 
ditya htmseir conducted a series of brilliant campaign* annex- 
ing to hh Indian empire the vast region from Karachi to 

This atso explains why King Vikramaditya is so famous in 
history. Apart from the nobility and truthfulness of heart and 
his impartial filial affection for all his subjects be they 
« ££l as testified by Bintoi. he is enshrined in .he pages of 
Z5a because he was perbapi the world's greatest ruler. The 
Vkr mUva« W hichhe fniliiied over 2.000 *«>•*** 
Z tSU his victory over Arebb. and ««*««W^-* 
tower may be the Vikram Tower commemuratlng that victory. 

,^d by a proper ^"^^/^a.Jtdian scholar,. 
King Vikramadity.. A. ^J^p A 9^ 
preachers and ^a. wj«r*^™ % ooh , ,et up Ayurvedic 
ched the Vaidik way of life oiaww B d agficulturc 

centres, trained the local people » iW*- • "^ 
and consolidated in OHM "I*" 1 » ?™ 

*"^*"^2^ mm* mm 

It is from such ancient ««««* ™ htv0 bc!ll tWfly over Iran 
familie. like the Pchlvls and B-w«tt ptW| A|01 . 

andhac, It rtth««« u " J IreJor, «««■ Bed"*- 
hotrcei or «te-woi»bipp<«« ■ "^ |||ttd dialect*, fire tempi" 
Kurd, and Iranians »P«^J; d thouslodt o! 

existing in P^. like i*"*^ anci ent lndi.i 

ike Baku »»u w«"-- ;— Bd|lB rtrtwmi 
cervtces hkc NevbiiMiJoJBf h ft ^^ ^ |lM , „> ^ 

cerilfcs hkc i 1 '"' fcitt 

Soviet Rfl« la lprff 




vibaraj are often dug up ia Soviet Ru wja . ^ 

•cripturw arc alio fouod .a excavationi m Cenu^T In(,, »& 

Unfortunately these chapters of world hit 
no*t aUUarsted fWnn nnhii^ «,-*. ».. If y have b&« 

• be, 
piled they might change the entire "co'nce^nrtT^ arc ' 
ancient history. P d Oric n'«ion f 

almost obliterated from public memory. They** '!! h * Vc 
fullv deciphered and re-written. When these chut *° ** c * r<s 
pi Jed thev miehi chance the entitm -« * are con,. 

ancient history. 

A movie produced by Hollywood and featurioo >l 
boy actor Sabu is titled "The Thief of Baghdad " I, J Qdi, ° 
glimpse of pre-Islimic Iraq. In that a huge itatue of ft ?.? 
with a shining diamond on iti forehead is shown J*!m 
beatific meditation in a Baghdad temple. In other tee '" 
bottled imp when released is shown to asmme the gigantic" * 
portion of a giant with a tuft of hair on his head a* the Hindi 
have, and a goddess with eight anna has been depicted thk 
show* that even Western script writers conducting research i 
the past culture of West Asia find nothing but the Vaidit way 
of life prevailing in those lands. 

At least one Koranic verse is an exact translation of a 
stanza in the Yajurveda. This was pointed out by the great 
research scholar Pandit 5.D. Satavlekar of Pardi in one of his 

It will now be easy to comprehend the various Hindu 
customs still prevailing in the West Asian countries even after 
the spread of Islam for the last 1,300 years. I intend to dtscuss 
some of those Hind i traditions which have become an indivi- 
sible pan of Islamic Ufc. The Hindus have a pantheon of 33 
gods. People in Asia Minor too worshipped 33 gods before the 
spread of Islam. Islam has continued to be guided by the lunar 
calendar. The Muslim month "Safer*' signifies an "eitra" 
month This is identical with the "Adhilc" meaning an ext» 
month of the Hindu calendar. 

Their month designated as ,, Rabi" is the corrupt fori" i «j 
Ravi meaning the sun since it has already been showa » 
SsLsirit "V" changes into Prakrit "B'\ The MiladuW 
festival which falls in the month of Rabl aignillei * £*" (b- 
with OoJ Another festival which falls in this month 

of •*«* AH 


In Hirxlu 

, the pious eleventh day. In Hindu 
lt vi Sbareef fl« an ' * {(b d it always considered 

*S£ «» Ek r .'torn or c bating the verna, equinox 
St ThC HJ on* * Go which is reflected ,» the Muslim 
^nrrvanlon the lUh day of..* month a 
^'^ U ^ ' rat nitiation ceremony used to be held. It is ,hat 
sped"! M*"^, 1 ameliorated m the Gyarahav. Shareef 

cu>t° m 

u Hindu calendar the first sis months constttute the 

t0 nl Gods and the next six months their night corrcs- 

d * y 7 .he long dW and night succession at the time when 
ponding to m a ^ ha|f of thc yeaf 

::C^»-- r*^ The , fo ? igh ' ft 8 

TtS rhis commemorative rite is performed is known as the 
MMbf, The observance is called the Pitri Shraddha. The 
Muslim term Filra is a cotrupt form of the ancient Sanskrit 
word Pitra- 

The fourteenth day is reserved for the worship of those 
killed by weapons. This day i* called Ghayal Cbaturdashi. A 
itrailir observance known as Baraha Vafat is practised by the 
Muslims. Vafat is thc corrupt form of Phiphaut meaning death, 
ia Sanskrit. Their festival Shabibarat also fails on the II ih i.e. 
the Ekadashi day of the dark half of that month. 

Il should be noted that most Muslim festivals fall on the 
nth day of the lunar fortiights in keeping with the ancient 
Vaidik importance of the Ekadashi day. Some Muslim festivals 
«e dependent on the citing of the moon. This custom derives 

GUWn day of the lunar fortnights after moon rise. 
^y^ C fo?pl y l P f ayCrS ChantCd by <"**** Hindu, uaily 

^^o (C 47o a ; y eQ ! lh tn ? ft Attiar ; a S *™ M ** blessings 

^ ll ^Z^*l£J" n *" m * ^hiviour. The 
*+*+ Pratar W^^Z™"™ **• **«■ 




-Sayam Pratna Prayonjano Anana m. ***** 

c^omof observe <he Mu ter «T m !SLT M ^ ^,. 
« peni!cnce for ihc year, evil deed. ? "* ' P^fed J ' * 

■top** * pr0Vlde for tfec as ^ o ™*' »<».,, Stfir Ui ^ 

-«« m«nr ro for the astronomic* T B Stf *' 
W s ntri day* as Wd down by , he VtSt ! djOI!mft " of 

mg iddititnl' » synonymous with «he LnZTj^ "«* 
The Muilim custom «r hu „ . . - WOrd Adh *. 



The Muslim custom of Bak* eed derive, f 
«d A.h*™dh yajnas or sacrifice, of^ d ^°^ 
h-tknt means worship. The Mtfffc wo* 1^7 ?° in 
days namely days , WOftW f lheprf °™ „ D for M*i 
*crd. The word Miiih in the Hindi i 7«*L P "? Sae,|kr " 
«■« m anceot the year u^ot^^He ' "* 

to, km word. Similarly the word Namaj derives om Z 
Wn, root, and Ynja meaning bowing and t^ 

cJSfr Sf'SS? abDU ' ,he ra ° 0n ' rhe **«* *'<»" 

por.ted from ,h, /edas ,n Koran part I. chapter 2, ,ta OMS 
14, 115 and 158, 189 ; chapter 9, stanza 37 and chapter 
10 stanza., 4 to 7. 

eeital of the Nam« five times a day owes its origin to the 
vaidik custom of Paochamahayajna which was part of the daily 
>aidik ritual prescribed for all individuals. 

Muslims are enjoined cleanliness of five parti of the body 
commencing prayer,. This derives from the Vaidik 
injunction of "Shareer Sbudhytrtham Pancbanga Ny«iha." 

Four months of the year are regarded a • very sacred la 
Islamic tradition. The devout arc enjoined to abstain from 
plunder and other evil deeds during this period. This corrc*- 
pands to the Vaidik practice of observing the four monioaa 
months as requiring special ■uiferincv and vows. 





5i* c 

r««n of Shiva Vrata or Shivaratra. 
h ,„.r.- »■ *• eor ™ P » Cor»»< SW» <«*" *• S , biv - 

' ? 1.1 .til'" '» "! 0lfi ?:.5.„ inscrioitoM on the m».<i< 

tZZ* «T tascripnofs oo .he in.ide 

edias tell US t . »_ ._ ImbM .H/votm* »n 

-*■ *"^£ BHAOWAD GEETA. 


. fl „ h .d settled in Arabia, particularly Yemen 
^^^rfdlanncr, bad deeply influenced those ^who 
***?"* „rh "witli them. At Ubla there was a large number of 
*** JD r ments The presence of the Indian tribe of Jats in 
ilTsdri^th. time of Prophet Mobammad I. borne out by 
TllZ* "traditions (abadis). Some Jat phyaictans bad 
ctded in Arabia. Imam Bukhari. one of the compilers of the 
fenfarfk traditions says that once when Hazrat Ayesba wife of 
([se Prophet fell ill her nephew sent for a Jat physician for bcr 
ircaiiiifttf. An Indian Raja sent a jar of ginger pickles. The 
Prophet relishing it asked his colleagues also to enjoy it. 

K may be recalled that early during British rule in India 
iluir doctors enjoyed a certain prestige because they were the 
rulers, Likewise the summoning of the Jat doctor to treat the 
Prophet's wife indicates that the Jats at that time belonged to 

Ualndiio ruling class in. Arabia. 

SWf So IS 

Indian Kshatriya Rule from Bali to the 
Baltic and Korea to Kaba Forgotten 

As luck would have it the maestro* and mentors of this 
ancientmost civilizaiioo were great idealists. Being clear think- 
er* they saw no reason why like the air we breathe human 
beings ought not to share the entire earth without compart- 
mental mag n into parochial boundaries. Another basic postu- 
late of iheirs was that since human beings have a common 
nature; desires, reelings, afflictions and facial there is no reason 
why ant community should be superior to another. They. 
therefore, sought to think on the lines that all humans constitu* 

led but ode family, and the whole earth was their common 


As jdcaliiti their other basic belief was that since man is 

danded Awn Divinity his Life must be so channelled as to 

lead mm back to Divinity. They, therefore, sought to evolve a 

ystem ,n *Uich like a beautiful image fashioned from a crude 

™2iL , T* individua,, * *«« instincts and desires 
Elated by constant teaching, traimog 

-^ into nigner urges by which through che 
^™* «*gt the indmdual could attain Divinity U 

•"•••^ "^ « ^"t^Sl^* l h V every ^dividual mus t be so 
f*ytfcall» •h.te mnufat ™& ****** ™<« handsome 
l»d, blare ud »«lUi C rinii Vtty AutlM ' amiabk ' 

Tnn. th«y ihonghi, could t» „».■ 
oa compleu, iskuity # . "* achieve only if they mmted 

** .0-1 «U> i»r^r2 h i *<*« «d deed. F ,rcd will. 
^»^'^m^ t ^Cl .""I-M--- The word 

iN plA* «H*TSll*A RULB j^ 

e * Sanskrit is, therefore, written eaactly aa it ii pronounced 
Jnlik* any other language in the world. 

This ideal they summed up in their famous maxim "Krun- 
vanto Vishwam Aryam". It meant that they wanted to make 
,hc whole world, all human beingsjAryans .I.e. supermen. Much 
misunderstanding has resulted in misconstruing the word 
•Arya'*. The Aryans were no race. That word signified ihc 
ideal superman— a stage to be aspired for and reached by every 
individual through constant endeavour. That is why in Sanskrit 
a wife called her husband **Arya M . 

True to their word, and aspiration the ancient Hindus dis- 
played remarkable virility and energy in sending out missions- 
ries, preachers and guides literally throughout the world. They 
dotted the world with their ashrams or training centres which 
were sometimes known as Vibaras. Their word for the globe 
or the world was "Bharata Varsha". Since Vantia is the period 
taken by the earth to complete a revolution round the sun it 
also signifies an ellipse or oval. A part of that great globe it 
Bharata Varsba, was the Bharata JCbanda it the great Aiia- 
Europe land maji or continent In ancient Indian terminology, 
therefore, Asia-Europe was considered one continent. 

As we cast a look srouod the modern worTd. in spire of the 
lapse of scores of centuries w m still ice innumerable tracei 
of the ubiquitous Hindu U KlUS! failure having once 
suffused the whole world. 

These traces are of many kind, namely actual Juiiahetl 
sites, existence of Sanskrit grammar and vyntaa in the langu- 
ages of some countries. profu«on ^m^fJStSTSL 
manners and mythology, topographical and geog ^tfad fa- 
tare, of distant region, fouod in ancient Vn.dik hterait.», and 

Indian sculpture. 

«^ India Reminiscent ol this word fre 

Let us take the w0 *'"*Ve Indiana. Indianapolis. Red 

huve all the world over M^.i^J^ 0ce , n , fodowali. 

Let us take the 
fid o\ 
Indians. West Indies- East fnd.e 


Let us now take 
We find a string *** 

the word "Stban" 
names inching 

mcaaidf place or l*iu!« 
(( iu1 to ibe w*»t oTitu 

m * 




vfT.O JH 


The sani* could 



ihout ibe sis 

uld be »*id <*f Iraq and Iran and Arabia. Tj otir) century A.D., we find it mentioned in encycfo. 
pa«4iai thai Arabia too WW * well watered and vegetated land. 
Hut about 1,300 year* a*o the people in Middle- Western count- 
er* were seircd of a new philosophy, a new way of life by 
wbwh ibey organ itcd themselves into raiding bands and raided, 
neighbouring countries to live off the toil of other people. 

Toe place where Akbar was bom is called Umarkot It is, 
situated in Sind.'i father Humayun had sought the 
hospitality of a Hindi* Rajput chief who ruled over Umarkot 
*'r<Mi Akbnr was born. These instances should prove that Siud, 
Afghani fctan and Bi loch is tan were region* where Indian Ksha- 
i nya« ruled until 1,000 to 1.200 years ago and the people used? 
lo be all Hindus. 


Whether wc call the country Iran or Persia both are Sans 
ainiB Iran derives from Iranam, and Persia from 
FarasiU- The royal family of Iran, the Peblavis are a Hindu, 
atari)*. Indian family The name Pehlavi occurs first in the 

n<??7i? t?*?"? ° f V » h «»^'* •tterapt to drive 
.•svw.ibVatbnuiheiyco*. Among the warrior tribes that 

The ink "Shah" ion h «* i j 
**l* bean «* u, k %£™ ^diaouue. The Hindu king or 

***** The w^ith* mi*U*. 2* '* " lw a COm «»OTi Hindu 
***ao* faa%p tot t^™ lu ™d over all his wealth 

Tbc Kib^.y, ki ^ Q VJ*"* *** known as Bhama Shah. 

JSL\" r* T^ * *• iaSa? K * hlch ,he ,rai >«* King 

" *° *■**,,* | odllII k,^. 

hwc 0l ^ 


lhe PSfaec oame 

gherwan is an abbreviation of Anushriwan which is a pore 
Sanikrit word. 

at the time when Islamic invasions against Iran started a 

-art of the common people came away to India, They are 

Jaowfl * 5 P arKes< Histories also record that the Iranian royal 

family too was considering leaving Iran and seeking shelter in 

India. This should induce some Newtonian thinking. Just as 

Hew ton deduced from the apple falling to tbe ground and not 

flying away towards space* that it must be gravitation which 

pulled the ft -lit earthward similarly historians ought to consider 

what made both the common people of Iran and its royal 

family think of coming away to India of alt the countries of 

the world. Incidentally we have also a receni instance. When 

a part of India was cut away in tbe name of Pakistan, who were 

those who sought shelter in India ? They were the Hindus. So 

the very fact that the people and the ruler of Iran thought of 

coming away to India in the face of Islamic raids proves that 

they were all Hindus 

Our conclusion is further reinforced by some other proofs. 
Tbe Iranian language is itself a corrupt form of Sanskrit, It is 
a blunder to regard Sanskrit as a collateral in the ao*ealled 
Indo-European family of languages. Rigveda being a very 
ancient and the ancient most scripture its language Sanskrit is 
tbe great- grandmother of all known languages* Persian is. 
therefore, a descendant dialect of Sanskrit. Sanskrit was the 
spoken language of the Iranians which is the reason why we 
&ad the present-day Persian as Saoskritized as the Prakrit 
knguages in India, 

Many towns in Iran have Sanskrit names. The birth piace 
° r Omar Khayyam, a well-known Persian poet, »• Nishapui 
*bich is a pure Sanskrit term, 

Indian troops stationed in West Asia during World Wars I 
W have reported seeing temples of Indian deities like Gancsha 
*°d Shank ar in ruins in remote desolate areas of Irao, 
Afghanistan and other countries. 

Iranian mythology has links with ancient Indian lore Even 

the Hanunun survives m their legends, a P ( 
Monkey God from Iran can be seen huog i n ihe' el', Cf 'hit 
Museum in Hyderabad. It it a shaggy monkey standi*. 1,n * 
-:.n.! legs and lifting a huge piece of rock with haiJ* ° D U| 

above Ms head, Willi their lies with the Hindu 
(napped far centuries this Monkey God surv 
mythology as a Jin or a sort of an evil spirit. 

Tbe Parseea thought of corning away to India when ih 
coed with conversion to Islam precisely because they 
Vaidik firc-worihippers They also wear a holy ihrearf ****. 
have ■ thread-ceremony for adolescents, They include innd 
wood in their oblations to the fire. The} draw geometrical 
patterns jn white stone powder in front of entrance* | their 
homes as do the Hindus. Their names Ardeshir (.Oordhwashir) 
u, "one who holds bis head high* 4 and Nausherwan meaning 
"Anuihreewan" have Sanskrit origin. This shows that before 
Islam wai forced on Iran and other countries the inhabitant! 
of those regions were followers of the Vaidik way of life, 

Like Iran what is known as Iraq too derives its name from 

ihe Sanskrit root "lr'\ On page 31 of the preface to "Albj- 

run* India " Dr Edward D. Sachau asserts that the present 

tlla f c ^avbahax in Balkh derives its name from Nava Vihara 

* "The New Cultural Centre or Hermitage". Tbe head priest 

th, s centre .obviously an Indian, was known as Paramaks. 

aBfarffSf* t0 bCCOmc * MttsliB - That family continued to 
.i'H" Par * m ^- In course of time (bat name came to be. 
rr^ouaced „ Baratnak. And until about ten years ago it 
"tbe Bum*. a l nditt , famiiy thtl ^ ov<jr lraq> 

tinned tafi! ! !! 1 -'^ Bslkh derives its na, i*c from Valhika oocn- 
^■■V^"!?* 8 - *»■** '"V" often changes rot* 

** «*» a* S^ZI^^™ as Mkb - u ,s l0 

Dr Sacbau ai lo inform* u* .w n 

b **»«» Muslin, he conii i ns ufter ,hc P flr * tD * k> 

I«h1u. The Barnsak ruler, kj?. '° Wain hi * connection *»«*» 

*W «ndmg iltclr meo for being 


The ruler also bad all high officials to run 
irfi^fflc^ fco»P«'» b ' farma Md ° thCr c * tabhihmcoti ' 
•*°J from lodia. 

^^ part of Ifaq li inhabited by the Kurds. They 

Kyrdistan, ■ P» ^ eif H)0(Ju customs and names. Their 

" iUret * iD , , r has manv Sanskrit words. Baghdad, the capital 
Iso*"*** ", hag afl a0C i c nt fire temple. Tbe building maybe 
o( ****' t velv recent but its lite is of prolslamic antiquity, 
fTai SoBMth was repeatedly destroyed and re-erected so 
that fire temple. That one still existing reminds one of 
^austndi of others stamped out of tajstence without a trace 
or were turned into mosques. 


After having dealt at some length with the Vaidik origins 
of Islamic and Arabic traditions we snail now turn to prove 
tiie Vaidik origin of Parsee traditions. 

It has already been observed etrlier how the words Pcrjia 
and Iran are Sanskrit in origin. They were given Sanskrit 
Dimes by Sanskrit people who ruled that region. It is those 
Saoikr it-speaking people who introduced the fire worship and 
ojtaer Vaidik rituals in West Asia, Under such circumstances 
it was but natural that the names of Parsee deities, months 
etc. should be the same as those of the Hindus. And to they 

Ptrsecs too have 33 deities like the Hindus, Sanskrit "S" 
» often found transformed 10 "H" in these names as "Sindhu 
teame ♦•Hindu". A comparative table of Hindu and Parsee 
^mei of deities is given hereunder : 

Parsee Hindu 

Abur Asur 

Thruta Triia 

Hukratuh Sukraluh 

Vrithraghna Viftraghna 
Bhaga Bh»I» 

Vadaray v »i f * 

Mailbra M»rra 



















J50 INDIAN HlST 0l|CAt tE3ejU( 

Panee N*vi Rox if Ihc same it Vaidik Nava Satnvat. 
inmMu i < -Nc* Year Day **t- 

The Saniknl origin of the Parsee days and months mayfe* 
judged from the fol lowing table : 

Avaa Mas 






Pravardhin Mas 



Mardan His 



Pavana antra 




Sh we tonal 



» information can be gathered from the book 

Abac Maba 



Wat aba i' 





Farnrrdm Mah 



■"■rtnT awarrjehay 






1W Eaiopean countries 10 find oui 
t Vaidik culture 10 then*. 

*"* *»9 Uacas of 

la tbe tabei^aa of 
«•* •* World WaTTi ■J?? niPd ***** ^ London after ib« 

**•* <* tea Indian God Mitraa m** ' 


ingtheauowas found buried under ihe foundation of an old 
building. It was said that *&* Raman* had introduced tun 
worship in Britain during their rule there. This ibowi thai 
ancient Hindu culture had travelled to England ai km via 
Greece and Rome. But it could as well be that Hindu culture 
was carried to England by Vaidik Indians themselves. We find 
some proof of the Vaidik culture having prevailed in the Arctic 
region. If that is admitted what could prevent those same 
people from crossing the small strip of the sea into Britain. 

This view is reinforced by the many Sanskrit roots and 
words found in the English language. Thus the Sanskrit root 
"pada" meaning the foot gives a whole range of words like 
biped, paediatrics, orthopedic and pedestal. Pedestrian is Sans- 
krit padachara A root which is widely used for English dcriva* 
lives is "Dam" meaning a tooth from which wc have dentist, 
dentistry, dental. Yet another Sanskrit root is "mrilyu" mean- 
ing death from which we get English words like mortuary, 
morgue, mortal, immortal. The word Man derive* from the 
Sanskrit word "Manai" meaning the mind and therefore 
signifying a thinking being that U a rational being Door 
dwar. The Sanskrit prefix ' W * * P™aa*b. Prevr ' m » 
widely used in English i* tn proffer, procreate. 

This influence of Sanskrit, it is Hid. permeated into English 
t hrough ££ L*c the Persian language Uuo « M - 
Sanskrit. Thus we get ^^^^JtZ^ 
from Pitri. Mam in S*^ *!"^, t0 fef wd >n. 
all Sanskrit words since chid. m«n» « ^-liwfr. 
•maim', W signify father, mother and one self respe 

. hMl „f Sanakriiwordt conunma* W 

A whole unsuspected best W ^^ hMviog ooce^veryslrong^^ ^ ra(] Ntfl . 

held sway in Europe even as i*™» m p(O0f of ertt whil* 
land and statioa P"*'™ f |heje WO rds and root* are 
British rule ov.-r India, aom c- « hH * 



£ of tub 












Mtrrr D*t 

Mttru Devi 
















Un (negative) 

Un (also as 












She la 




A ii tank 




















Greek* wot also once followers or the VaidiJc way oflifc. 

*■« is why there it iucb a close similarity between their gods, 

a. names and customs with those of ancient [ndia. The 

rheodore b or pure Sanskrit origin since Then* if Dewas 

Q^ilt 10 * 1 d * tl U ,he door he «* Theodore meant 
°* ■ Oflorl^ rbe door of a cample. 

Jtlt nEa * S^a* for a constellation becomes 
***»* the kite* • C fctf, stands for the sound "S". 

«** «u, b, msde fnm the follwi ubte . 




















Greek names arc literal translations or original Indim 
„ts such a* Bootes (Herdsman) meaning Pashupaij. 
n 'pTuchus meaning a snake-beaten it the translation of the 
Indian term Pbanidhara. 


The French language derive* its aandhi or merger or the 
c j SOU nds from Sanskrit. Thus Le table is pronounced as 

Luabla Roi. Rene meaning king and queen, Dua meaning god, 

fliga meaning cobra and Janu signifying the knees are all 

Sanskrit words. 


German declension or nouns follows the Sanskrit method 
four square. The word Nachta pronounced as Naukta is the 
Sanskrit word Naktam meaning night. This explains the spell- 
ing of the word "night." A deeper study should reveal that 
most languages of the world derive their existence from Sans- 
krit to a far greater extent than is now suspected or admitted 

The Arctic Region 

Wc find in the Mahabharata a description of how Hindus 
had proceeded to, explored and colonised the Arctic region- I 
would like to quote here at some length from an ; titled 
"Aurora Borealis Was Known to the Aoaen.s As A Man rea.a- 
titn ofNarayana^ contributed to the ^J«W» 
Antiouarv "Vol VII. No*. 3 and 4, June, July 1944. contribut- 
ed ^"7 Au^chandVa. He says that b the W|* ™^ 
or the Mahabharata by Mr. M.N. DuiNn tbc Sham p«v. o„ 
pages 535*536, 538-40, 542, «4M9. and »«W"^£ 
cr^ion or t«o expeditions conduced by ^totam* 

the Arctic region. *«%»»~Jf£ ^Ztw 

they call Naray*na meaning the sun, 

« iM ihr extreme north. The first three 
Tbe Rishi. P******^ pTO ,onged investigation. The, 
Riahis state that they ■"**?* Ved ^s of wood (in Una 
(at t»mes) stood on one foot. UK 




ibc idiom »• Snow pede in uno). That country Hot i« 
ocrta c/ Mount Meru( Altai) nod on the shores of the /£_"* 
of Milk {White Set), The steppes between the Ural and A? 1 
(Mem) is known to hive been ihe seat or Vaidiic culture fa 
y&f long period in ancient history. The Ksbirsagar mean/* 
the While Sei still survives. An island which they called 7k 
Svcta Dweepi meaning the snow covered White Island is am 
known by it* ancient name. The expeditions reached there ai 
time when the earth's South Pole was inclined towards the sun 
Therefore they could not make the observations they wanted 
to. They hive left us descriptions of the inhabitant* of those 
vesical u being of snow-white complexion, their bodies emit- 
ting i sweet smell, When the sua returned to the region they 
could observe Him after a long acid difficult stay. It also 
enabled then to get to know the inhabitants better. 

The descriptions found in ancient Hindu scriptures allude 

creatures like the seals, muskoxes. walruses and perhaps the 

hears. The epithets which they use to describe the fauna 

the place are "emitting excellent perfume, having non-wink- 

- with no external organs, the forelegs always joined as 

inough m prayer, with ro und crowned heads, having 60 teeth. 

>ni item eight being small, paws joined with skins having 

^bnnon them," None of them honoured the explorers 

22J ta ' ^ i0h,blUnls ««* were referring to were 

wSS£*!Z& * ~ ****** tells two other 
^uon^r,: 1 '^"^ 1 ^ P»P«d for the 
kantaddtftW aoiJTi . , Vcdai Wc "- Narada is said to 

«■* ■&££%! l?\ te ■* <° White Island which 
im« wa» known la thcm 

**«d in anci«rt mititai „ , " h "* hl ™d and Mount Mcru * 

-^^^te^?^ 12 ' 000 ^)^- TheYoj-na 

■«*■«• ancwni Qretk and i n ^i **** lbcfe " firei( similarity 

the lama* e^,*,^ t ,n ™ "c»sur« . Yojan. seem, 

m - A «ofding|y 35,000 Sta.1^ 




is the exact distance between Altai Mountains. Lit « w ^ 
Novaia Zeraila or Cape Cheluskin U. 75 N. 

The explorers describe the exceedingly wonderful spectacle 
that met their eyes looking in the north-western direciion 
sun with its face turned to all sides (since it appears to move in 
* circle along the horixon at the North Pole) seemed io he 
licked by several tongues. They say that the sun there warms 
not the Soma (moon) meaning that the moon had not risen 
when Narada observed the sun. 

About the Aurora Boreal is sage Narada says that desirous 
of seeing Narayana he continued to stay there- The divine 
Narayana had the whole universe for his form (covering the 
whole horizon from one end to the other). His form was some, 
what a purer than the moon's. He resembled somewhat burn- 
ing fire. He resembled the feathers of a parrot and in some 
respects a collection of pure crystals. He looked in tome 
respects a hill of antimony, and in some a mass of pure gold. 
His complexion resembled the coral when First formed, and was 
somewhat white. That complexion had the colour of gold and 
of the blue Lapis Lazuli and of sapphire, Bearing these various 
hues -of the peacock's neck and a string of pearls— i he body 
of the Eternal Deity appeared before Rishi Narada. 

That Deity whispered OM and sang the Gayalri. This des- 
cription too is not just fantasy because it is said that a soft 
sound like that of the rustling of silk pervades the region 
during the Aurora Borealis phenomenon. To set such natural 
sounds as that of the murmur of the sea, the whistling of 
wind or the rhythmic movement of a railway train to music is 

not uncommon : 

Both the expeditions contain identical descriptions of (he 

hardships encountered. They say that they had to push north- 

men r.»..u- ™;-"-T„ ,. v.idlk reptorart Mill <tOM 

Iht Uml- 

SU sflifif. 

256 INmANm ^"»c AL « lsaA)lc>| 

Sumcrians arc actually the people who had migrated f 
Sumeru region It is do wonder, therefore, if Sanskrit w^ J* 
spoken language in the Arctic region. e 

Th^s inference is further strengthened by the fact th 
Pimm's Sanskrit grammar applies to the language spoken i n 
the Latvian region of Europe. The people of Latvia tradition- 
ally believe that their ancestors came from India. Their capita 
» Ripa as in Rigveda. 

This same Vaidik civilization had also spread over ScandU 
navia. Convinced of this Dr. M. Flagmeier, President of toe 
American Society for Scandinavian and Eastern Studies wrote 
to the author in his letter of Dec. 6, 1*65 "We are concerned 
with the relationships between Scandinavia and India, Que of 
our prized possessions is a manuscript of the late, noted stu- 
dent of Oriental and Scandinavian Studies, Dr. Keshavadeva 
Shaitri. In this dissertation Dr. Shastri concludes that the 
similarity between Scandinavia and Hindu mythology, customs 
and institution! gives proof positive that the Hindus were the 
actual founders of Scandinavia. For example he writes on page 
36 thai the very word Scandinavia is in Sanskrit Skand-nabh i, 
meaning the abode of warrior*," 

Accounts have at limes appeared in newspapers of ships 

Imaged from the frozen depths of the Arctic ocean containing 

i images. Lokmanya B,G- Tilak, the well known Indian 

idbalir.patriot, hi* also adduced some evidence in his treatise 

named "ATetic Home fat tbc Vedai." 

known as DaiSTS* \ "***- Hit dc ^ ndftntt *** 
Mircwia motioned b* £S*S\ ?" Wutal klDgd ° m ° f 
Caspian region- A Calnian wL , Ji? ' "" loCttcd to ,h * 
red lo in the PuWa? M° ° VBr HirCaf)i * h "*" 
aUeady oUcrwd taiher th»| be k ^ K *» hv »P- We have 

Prttalad to be rolled down I mttuM ,!1 VO*™* hh *** P dacc 

"""un-itdc m lbenorth . we||efll 



frontier regions of the Indian sub-continent. From this we csn 
deduce that the Hircania kingdom extended from the Caspian 
region to the north- western boundary of the Indian mb> 
continent at least, 

A Russian tradr commissioner posted to Japan in 1792 bore 

the name Lakshman which, derived from the Raauyans. lit 

common Hindu name. Dooma and Agni meaning; smoke and 

fire retain their original Sanskrit form in Russian because 

Vaidik fire worship was prevalent in the whole of the Bbiraia- 

Khanda that is the Asia -Europe continent. One of thousands 

of those fire-worship-cum-cultural centres still exists in Baku. 

A chain of these fire temples can still be traced from the Jwals- 

mukhi temple in the Himachal Pradesh of India* ibe fire temple 

in Baku, the fire temple in Baghdad to Mecca which Is Saoikni 

"Makha" meaning the sacrificial fire. The custom of the sevco- 

fold perambulation around that «cred fire is still piatwadin 

the Kaba *hrine which was the abode of fire worship and 

sanctuary of 360 Hindu images, 

The fire temple in Baku has «j*< *#**; ^ 
Jl merchant^, = ds tj^ jNjj *»-£ 

Sometimes a ^^"^££!* n of M-rf- «* 
ffl id S t of a heap of arte. . D«r g *•£ y ^ ^ 

in indi. some holy ^JW^JZ fire tcfflpIe . Though the 

likely to 

construction the site W« o ; /"^f explored. The Mm* 
yield very valuable evidence «P J uimaiaaaU 

midst or a neap p- «»* b d(0 etchr d 

in tadto some holy » . Ir «M» « ^ ^ TbtfU# 
mukbi inscriptions on <hc was of comparably r 

baling bonding of ***** f t Z{ mQ[iti Equity, b like 
construction ihc site be. ng ° rf> ne m 

yidd V cry valuable evidence tiptop r t llM ^ 

came Svct.lana «. *•«■££« j^i« "«* *■**£ 
ponding Sanskrit ^'' ****,,. Jn that town ajafj hcii^ed 
Lmark^nd «— j^S*. a*cu.p«ur.. <£* ^ 
lo be Tamarlain'* «"* *r ' Bga i n ,t . aim- Tb« 

fbowtb..^- ^i*nHP-l*l ^'^S 


the local people h • pu« Sanskrit word signifying an eneainp- 
r, Ml ' The 13" me derive* from the temporary campi which 
loditn preacher* had to set up in thit in hospitable region to 
iprtad Vaidik culture 

The lanirie deity KalaeaVrn 
from a Mongolian 


* rt » H tf*Mlttce«m iry 

^, AK VMS*** ■«" 


the Ercat 
^IJn philosopher, from 
a manuscript or the 
Kham region of Sia- 
Jtlang. This peripatetic 
preacher was one onion g 
thousands «f Indians 
who in ancient tiroes 
iprcad Hindu culture in 
countries as remote as 
China and Japan, 

mfinirft «r tvxiqp 

Atyndeva in the dis- 
putation modm-from 
a Kbaro *ytaff»ph de- 
picts ihti lndiao pbilo- 
icpher driving tut point 
bome in * »eiapoy«i* 
cal di*couion. 


in Central Asia 

A Sanskrit Dbarani among the Turk* of the eighth centurv It r^ 
tbcoames of Ibc following Yaksbas. CCOfd * 

M«i"*rn* WITH** tfIR1[l*3*r 

t™ wq- 

ate f*rr**v5:a>B5»5t 

% ft ■. u vi-* *. rorc 

try srrrrFi =rr — 

7TTTT ^STWffST f^^i^H^I 

/ffirflA Some Warunah 
Prayapatir Bhardwaja hanascandantA,.. 
...Watrocanah Kama Srestha Kinikantkah 

tVadlr Manicarah Pranada 
Upapancakah Satagir ffaimawatah 
Purnakah Khadirakovtdo Gopah 
Yaksa Adavako Nara Rajo Jatmnabhaj 
Cittasenasca Gandharvo dirghmakiUca 

T "f ^l KTJBffu rrimui *l)jrt»> 
"■*» to*ijru lii[.iCj)ii Bipjii 
Q|>4UitTi Htp*fiafc<ii lc*ai ItStW* 
Apat Huiiiii BriD»u< GE]WB» 
ujipicu Km Kiiti Kaat f» 

y uM^)m„i CiTutipk lawaiftft 


In Mongolia the days of the week retain their Ssnskrit roots 
is Adiyn (Sunday), Somiya, Aogarakh, Budhiya, Sookar iod 
Sanehir (Saturday), 

The traditional medical system prevalent throughout 
Mongolia even today ii the Indian Ayurveda. 

The lad tan system of astrology it practised in Mongolia. 
Ancient Indian treatises on astrology, medicine, prosody and 
grammar, rarely found in India are still treasured and taught in 
Mongolia Mongolians also yearn to store and worship Ganges 
water as do the Indians. 

The Indian eagle is the guardian deity of tbc Mongolian 
capital Ulan Bator. 

Mongolians study ancient Indian lore connected with king 
Bboj, Lord Krishna and the Hitopadesh. They start their his- 
tory with Manu as do the Indians. 


Mr. Cb>in«i1»r> book 'HINDU AMERICA' *«">»«« 
«Iok umilariHea be.weeo the Mm eMII»t«» " d r ^*3 
The very word May. h bdta» "> ""'" *^«tf£ 
,h, Su„ have bceo Covered '»^" J' rl'Z 1& 
Mexican people ^^'^"Z^Z&a »-•*« 
biddi-g farewell to her o ~ ™^ L Zt* <* P-* 

Unties between the Maya civilian "*if T£ 

r word Maya is Indian. In Meaico deiwe* Ganesh and 

^eVurhr^enLovere, «j^ « - ** 

Mexican people the ^ l *^"^^ lef bcar.clo* 
bidding farewell to ber n w ^^ 5.11, tbe|«H- 
similarity to corresponding Ind'™ ""^ „„ at toe infcab* 
of ancient Mexico appear to be 01 ^.^ ^^ ,^3,^ 
rants of Indian nortb^stcraregion^,^ ^ ^^ 

logy ibe Wesiern K***^ u cad* * ** 1 * &- 
continents was known as the «'■* ^^ m a, haitoraeall: 
siemto the driving of Bali to ih« W ^ ^„ d torirt s, n« 
S ,gnify hi. defeat and w.tbd^' 
Bali island to dW«" Mc ** ' ;eJ ro lbc **st ef Mb 

lo trace Indian mil**] "° d P 
oow turn to U« E«*^ 


Burma ta lb* *"\ on ,bf n»« B 
Ood Brahma. b-i*"* fl 


ofBrahmjV Its nvcr* Irrawady and Chindwin are Sanskrit 
name* In S.invkni frawati means full of water and Chindwitj 
derives iti name from Ch in rvana or the stream which courses 
tbtougha forest used for meditation, Salwcen is the Sanskrit 
same r« the rivet which flows through a teak forest. Lord 
ladra's Tsount the sacred fair-bodied elephant the Airavat men. 
tuned in Indian lore derives his name from the region watered 
b\ the frawati. Unlike elephants in other regions fair- bodied 
elephant* are found only in the country around the Irrawady 
la Burmese, Sanskrit 'T changes to "D\ For the head of the 
aisle the Burmese use the word Adipadi which originates in the 
Sanskrit totdAdhipali Their kings bore Sanskrit names, and 
the traditional coronation ceremonies followed the ancient 
Vndik pattern. The Indian festival of throwing colour water 
on all and sundry is stilt lustily observed in Burma. The 
Burmese cities Mcktjla. Rangoon and Mandalay derive from 
Sinikrii *ords like Mithila, Mandala and Ranga. 

In nonh-eastera Burma-i hilly region known as the Shan 
States— the Indian custom of the village people wearing head- 
long sheets of cloth wound round their heads still 
ts. Each village has a temple of the guardian deity with a 
flif pole crowning its tall spire- The elders of the village led 
bMhemo* senior resident receive honoured guests at the 
uuje bounaary. The vi,la «* numbly hall also serves as the 
i house, and women from the community leaders house 
«d ic the lB e«*, brought from their own homes in 
!i^,^ *»l «Wl .s reminiscent of ancient 
«tom» axe identical wufa those prt 
^maa.m "Aiuhi Devo Bha- 

«■» are meat*,, wuJ, those prtvaihng ,n Indian villages. 

" enjoins on the house* 

xL Itinerant stranger* 

i led tea at tbe bouse* 

<»• E^cb teacment ilto hat u *har 

l» enxWf"' " ' Vcriubl * *<*■ Itinerant strangers 
IwUtibaycateio' ^7 l?> "d boiled tea at the house 

i«wt a Divii« tmagt 


The i«p«et of VfcuJ 

***■*■. AH ih« ^ J "" **° "» Siamese life it over- 
pare S4BUx„, t Wltl0 |t « **POirapbjeal name* are of 

««• <*!«* Ayodhya. Cbolpun. 



Rajpuii. Fetehpuri. The university in Bangkok, capital of Siam. 
js known as Cboodalankarana. Siamese temples bear Sanskrit 
names like Wat Oeva Shri Indra and Wat Arun. In Sanskrit 
"Wat is a banyan tree. In ancient times the sacred banyan tree 
would almost always be planted near holy shrines to provide 
shade and shelter and because of its medicinal use. Business 
establishments tike photographers and eating houses bear Sans- 
krit names like Chhaya Chittakan and Suddha Bhojan Hole! 
respectively- Roads and localities all bear Sanskrit names like 
Rajawansba (pronounced "Rachwong) and Ban Kapi meaning 
the Monkey Forest. Siam 1 * national emblem is the Eagle 
sacred to Indian mythology. Its name too is the same Sanskrit 
'Garud' though it is pronounced as *Krut\ To be a scholar of 
Siamese one has to be well versed in Sanskrit. Siam had kings 
bearing the name Rama. Their kings as also the common folk 
all bear Sanskrit names. The king's coronation is carried out 
according to ancient Vaidik rites. Excavations in Siam yield 
Hindu images and inscriptions. The royal temple of the 
Emerald Buddha in the heart of Bangkok has scenes from the 
Ramayana painted on the inside of its peripheral wall with suit- 
able captions on marble slabs. Siamese dance, music and 
costumes are all of Indian origin. 

A Siamese folivil in which lighted lamps ^ ^^ 
river streams have Indian parallels The festival named Ma 
Khakong derives Its name Trom the S-nskr.t term Ma Ganga 
i.e. Mother Ganga. 

Malaya and Singapore 

.».„( oort on the ancient tndtan 

Singapore was an important £ |he p.*.* Lok 

dipping route from South Indra J W ? . ( Lfafl €lly 

and the Pacific islands. I» »■« *"» Singapore iov.ardi 

The British explorer RaHfe* wb * '""^Ued m hi. Mas** 
the close of the 1 5th C "™ £*%«*»**«* located at 
havmg seen a fortress ^'l'^/ R()jd cJo „ to the southern 
the ihe now traversed by &**><> 
«a front. Singapore's north lies lfc » 

Across the narrow eh»n**' comm ^ s^W. ***• 

Malayan peninsula. MaW* 


Malayan town* all bear Sanskrit names. Thus we have Seram, 
ban which *» Shrce Ram Vana in Sanskrit. Sungei Pattaoi „ 

Toe rulers of native states in Malaya, and members f tne 
royal famil* bear Sanskrit titlev though for centuries now ihey 
have been professing lalam as their religion. Royal princesses 
arc called Puin, Mabadevi, Vidyadhari, Rulers sport titles like 
Rama and Ukshroan. Their palaces axe known as Astbana 
which it a Sanskrit word. Two generations ago the ruler of 
Johore Banna was known as the Maharaja. That title still 
appears embroidered or embossed on their table-spreads. 

All excavations in Malaya yield nothing but Hindu images 
and temples- Just a few years back a Shiva temple was excavat- 
ed in Suneci Patlani. 

A few miles from a city called lpoh is a hot water stTcam, 
The ancient Sanskrit Pundarika Stotra was found there. A 
marble slab framed and hung on a post at the spot has an 
extract from that scripture inscribed on it. 

An Indian monk known as Brahmacbart Kailasara alias 

Swimi Satyanaod who had settled in Malaya, and who ran 

■wend philanthropic institutions in Malaya and Singapore baa 

written and published a book called GLIMPSES OF 

MALAYAN HISTORY. In that book he has described in some 

detail attea of Indian historic and archaeological interest found 

m the Ban Asian region from Malay n to Korea. 



1 ■*» culture is Hindu, Vaidik culture though 

* W they have been professing the Islamic faith. 

\T? "^ : i-va, Sumatra and Bali are all Sanskrit 

d«iiat»fl £?£"■*■• ,l>c «« * hnno » "** dedicated to Indian 

*le*i its iJJui"* 1 tna todl *n "P*** m sculptural * clJef 

ei"Ie4laawuri«AH > " kd0r * lndanefi* l j d?nc* and music are 

lauuJuu name* V*^™™ ciiU: »- v|,, »B" * nd ,0WB * ***' 
km, lav* u tUc« « °**** in Indonesia are mostly Sans- 

•tiand prof*, ilJtZL^I V f Y * v,, ' Thc residents of Bah 

fourfold Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vaisbya and Shoodrad., 
.ion of society. They recite the Gec.a ifld observe v.™ 
Vaidik r«tuals. y * v, "°« 


A part of Borneo is Sarawak. Till very recently ihc Sarawak 
portion was ruled by an Englishman. But he loo bore ibe iiiic 
Raja. That shows that Borneo was a part of the Indian empires 
in East Asia. 

An issue of thc DHARMA quarterly publtibed by tile Pure 
Life Society, Petating in Malaya had a couple of years back 
carried an article in one of its issues describing bow a bell whb 
a Tamd inscription had been found with an Australian tribal— 
a Maori. The bell was obviously used by an Indian ship which 
got wrecked near the Australian shore. Some Maori fishermen 
happened to find it in their haul. That is how they came by 
that bell which has survived as a rare relic of the age when 
Indian ships sailed the high seas carryioi Indian arrolci. mer- 
chants and scholars to all the parts of I be globe then known tJ 
the Bharatj Varsha. 


vVhat is now known aa the Indoch.nese Peninsula coniistioi 
of North and South Vietnam. Cambodia and Leo* <*-* once « 
seat of a powerful Indian empire. The port Saigon U an »«ni 
Indian. Sanskrit name. Con s-gnifies a town and is a common 
suffix in India for many towoibipi. 

i. » „ A i ?#■ nine from Ma Gaoga 1 t. Mother 
The river Mekong got its name " w Riaa tbp WUDlfV 

Ganga. Reminiscent of Uw i* son ^ ^ ^^ ^ 
Laos Is also pronounced ai L»« ^ ^ ^^^ <h-J 
French who ruled there spelled i »* J ^ ££ m cJ|pitt , ^ 
spelling enab'.d them to P*""™* nmg 100 „ misleading- The 

Uvi country is Vi«n«*. J *"ortto\t capiwl " Vin Oao 
local people pronounce the n rf((w Stulkr it word Vm 

which is a corrupt ?*»*"*** Mra i*i*ood ««« 
Chandan meaning * &**« 0J IadlMJ w |. a* 

Since aandalwood ~lg& hud oh**** *»«i<f "I 
profusely in ihcir itlll^ 






landalwood plantations in Uva country and called its caph al 
VansCbandan. Sandalwood isitill widely used in the r«ligi 0u , 
ceremonies of the Lava people. 

In neighbouring Cambodge there is still to be seen in all j U 
architeeturaUlory an ancient Indian capital called Angkor 
Wat The surrounding area is still called Aranya Pradesh. 
Here too 'Wat* means the banyan tree 'Angkor* signifies its 
sprout. It could be that the sapling of a banyan tree was first 
planied in the area to mark the dedication of the site for the 
proposed capital Ruins of this once prosperous capital are 
spread over an area of 100 kilometres. Among them we find a 
massive peripheral wall interspersed with towering statues of the 
BuhmaVishnu-Mahesh trinity of the Hindu pantheon ; a 
gigantic stone sculpture depicting the mythological legend of 
the Gods and demons churning the ocean with [he Vasuki ser- 
pent as their rope and the Mandara mountain as the churning 
rod. The massive stone figures of Gods and demons ranged 
one behind the other on opposite sides clutching the long 
serpent as though engaged in a tug of war is a breathtaking 

Standing in the midst of those majestic ruins one observes 
■J] around spacious paved yards, temple spires, palace towers, 
beautifully carved windows, lofty shrines and spacious luxuri- 
ous palaces. 

Among these ruins have been found numerous images of the 
Hindu deltiei and inscriptions mentioning the names of the 
Indian kings who ruled ovct the region, and their exploits. 

The Dimes of some of those kings were Jayavarma and 

Soofy*Ywm». The name Cambodge is it&eir Sanskrit. Khambu 

: aocniot of the ruling family those born of bim were 

called Khambu-ja. tnat was the ongm of the name Cambodge, 

n* museum in .u capital IV m Peim is full of nothing else 

excepi Hindu images and inscription*. 

J^T^JTT^T orowo »^<>« P^ail in Indo- 


Sites of Indian archaeological and historic ntenat a 
in the region from Malaya to Korea have been ",? 2 
described in Brahmachari Kailaitm'i book. ' ima ** «od 


What is known as Japan to the outside world li designated 
by the people of that country as Nippon, 

The Japanese monarchy, also about 2600 years ancient like 
that of Iran, claims descent from the mn as do lie Indian 

Long before Japan adopted Buddhism as its national colt 
that country followed the Vaidik way Df life i.<*„ Shinto. That 
culture which is more ancient than Buddhism still flourishes 
side by side in Japanese life, Shinto is the corrupt form of 
Sindhu. It signifies the culture of the people living on the tanks 
of the Indus i.e. the Sindhu. That is why in Japanese Shinto 
shrines Goddess Lakshmi, the image of the Ardha Nari Natch- 
war i.e. of Lord Shankar in the form of half msn and half 
woman and such other Hindu deities occupy « pltce of 






Mantrayans travelled to Japan in the 8tb~9th eeoturics 
Since then mantra* hate been written in Japan in the artistic 
S.ddhim scnpl orindia. The eminences of Japan's cultural 
evohmofl, tike the celebrated kobo-daisbi (?74<B3S A D > have 
bequeathed a nch heritage or trjas and mantras in the perfec- 
tion «r their calligraphic art. Illustrated above is the supreme 
mantra * m the dynamic band of a Japancic master. 

from a Lbara olograph. T bc.e* ■ !■• 
of such Indian deiticporim^'^ 
Tibetan ien»|W 

coverrf by n**£g|* 
top to bottom •od '*" -— 

„ bottom —«- 
The tail "««• ,Md 


The Japanese imiq ityk with the gymnasts *_ 
nothing except ■ loin doth, is of Indian origin. So tB the * 
telfnirfeoce called Joint*"- That is a Sanskrit word *k ° F 
ocean ra the first verse of the BHAGVAD GEETA. I n s 
knt the word n Yoyatm* It signifies those desirous of null, 41 " 
Sanskrit 'Ya* very often changes to W is prakrit as Yash J"*' 
become* flfWUll and Yuwan i.e. a youth is called Jawan tk' 
English word juvenile also derives from Sanskrit Yuwan 

^ocestor-worship forming part of the Shinto tradition 
another indication of Sninto being none else than the Sindh 
culture, since commemorating the ancestors through rituals 
forms one of the basic practices of the Hindus, 

Cremation among the Japanese also points to their having 
been adherents of the Hindu faith. Japanese has many Sanskrit 
words. They use the Sanskrit word Nam** as it is when refer- 
nng to the name of a person. In English too the word origi- 
natej u the Sanskrit word *Nama\ The Japanese way of life— 
tflgaL simple living and high-thinking originates in their and- 
flit Hindu way of life. Their interrogatory suffix *Ka' has Us 
) the Sanskrit interrogatory suffix 'kim*. The Japanese 

a make partial use of a script based on the Indian alpha- 
*w«al phonetics. 

We bavethui observed in a rapid survey almost from one 

= f «* to the other the overwhelming proof of Indian. 

BUare having once permeated almost all parts of the 

a «■* !L 1 ^ * " to h0W tbat Wa * accomplished. 

^TS^^TtT mabC p0Mibte b * the ^venturous 
pWlow ^ indui who had developed a vigorous 

"**■■ of puthm.'.K UhmK Culture and CDt «^ined the lofty 
fc****** o>« .h- ^P'oralioni and disseminating their 

,h «»n^« part, of the world. 
*rthih*t 4j1n (0 _ 

••*• acaeotiits ia U nA«* aoldiers esiabiiihed military 

"*"** *~**£**L r Z Y CCDIfe, > »*» administratori 

«Wi* i mo|1J e ^™ r «* «*.< while the prieatly order 

»*o«*aure p^ " M » Philosophic tone to the whole 

* Bt * koown «vihara* like the Nava 

if< niAK KSHAiatY^ tuu 27| 

Vihara in Balkh. Many such viharas have been discovered hi 
remote parts of the world like Siberia and Mongolia, 

It would be a mistake to believe that these were Buddhist 
viharas, Buddha never founded a separate religion or icct. 
Hindu or Vaidik viharas had been established all over the 
world since hoary antiquity. When Buddha became famoui in 
India the same age-old tenets of Hinduism were reiterated and 
propagated through the numerous widespread viharas, in the 
m mc of Buddha, as we find in our own times the names of 
Gandhi and Nehru associated with traditional precepts, to lend 
those same teachings a new force and glow. In course of rime 
when the Hindu kingdoms in India declined and the worldwide 
cultural centres were starved of funds and learned preacher* 
all connections and links with India snapped. Sio« Buddha's 
name happened to be the latest to be invoked at the wuhii 

d- D cultural centres, memones of the Buddha le t their 
stamp while the stream of Vaidik culture dned up due to poU- 
tical upheavals in India. 

What, therefor.. appear .one Buddh,,, £»»£ J««* 

high and dry throughout U* v.ortd » ^ , ,,„«. 

blunder <o believe M •■**.«" ' ^^e.etre. fe«|k- 
j sm or acceleration >o W » ^££«. 
out the world. The Mk * P* «* °«\ ^^ 

Thedyoaro.c HM **"£? T!£, •* >*"""" " 

couplet utaJA 

Av*» ****** i* 

SMpaW "-"'"V. *. four Veda, ****" 
it if ncea»** ,T 




1. New Indian Antiquary. Vol. VII. 

2, Glimpses flf Malayan History by Brahmaehari Kaiiasaa, 
3 'Dnarma' Quarterly (issues) published by the Pure Life 

Society, Pctilmg. Malaya. 

4, Hindu America by Diwan Cbaman Lai. 

5. Say tr-ul-Okul. 

Blunder No. U 

Role of Sanskrit as Ancient World 
Language Forgotten 

Among tbe many misconceptions current in present-day 
historical thinking one most far-reaching relate! to the role that 
Sanskrit has played in world history. Modern man seems to 
have clean forgotten that unlike any other language in human 
memory Sanskrit had once been so widely prevalent u to justly 
claim to be a world language. But the tragic irony is that we 
find many a 'modern* scholar wondering whether Sanskrit had 
ever been a universally spoken language even in India itself. 

That India's entire ancient literature ii exclusively ia Sans- 
krit is overwhelming proof that Sanskrit was the only language 
which TasTnd mood'and universally spoken throughout Ind£ 
£ from literature all ^^^^S= 
were in Sanskrit, ^«!" ***' U iB Sanskrit ihc 
and discussions- AH text boob ^ *S b ^ 

teaching was all in Sanskrit . M ra g ^ ( ^ ^ 

and sacraments were .nSanskn. ' ^.^ 

of acience or art which did not n ^ ^ ^ 
Sanskrit, Thus we find l*iiu» flo -edkfaC; ««■• 

learning whether '» J" o3 °f r , WUwhy . hw. -«*». 
physics, psychology, log* *•_ « ^fogy, .aatomy. 

physics, history, geography' P Wy ^ ^^^ iB 

numerology or ■*g25'S dram* belle! and «u* ~ 
SZkrit AH cniert-fnmen* ,1 Sanskrit All rdljioua filet 

even ™°** t etatttt * 
n.wlew po« tf * 



t, MOBWK'i Imagination how in the face of (his stag ger . 
.ovooe can stilt adamantly and seriously maintain 

Sifetfril ™* «« * «■**«•"> ,pokcn lan 8 ua * c '« India. 
,be cementing bond of Sanskrit for centuries Jo the 

Jlrnale n*l has b« » stronR thal '° * pltC ° f ,hC mB " y brMk " 
Z uofcodtt the streak of Sanskrit lhat runs through our 

Lod nor nanwi, homo ceremonies, rituals and heritage, 
r -rru perhaps the only cohesive factor which makes us pull 
together a* a nation even today. But this should no longer be 
ulen for grained since with every day, thai link is getting 
Thinner and weaker. 

When cverv human activity in ancient India from home 'o 
crematorium, hamlet lo palace and lemple, law court to charity 
home, birth to death, sunrise to sunset, entertainment to sacra- 
mem. school instruction to past-lime and humour lo meta- 
physical discourse* was conducted in nothing but Sanskrit what 
further evidence is required to prove that Sao&krii was the one 
and cat) language of public usage throughout India during the 
eeniorici when all that Literature continued to pour in a 

The existence in ancient times of seats of learning like 
Nalanda and Takshashila where thousands of students from all 
the world over it i time used to be imparted instruction, and 
the compilation of reference works like encyclopaedias of 
VOMym (the Amarkotha Tor instance) (he Indian Siddhama 
taumudi. ana lexicons further reinforce the conclusion of 

ZlS^xi * ? und "P u,ed •*** B> anQlca[ Ind ifi' S 
MtwuaJ language md mother tongue 

J£^J!!lV* * convilu * d ** Sanskrit wa. also the 
wotW l*ngu«ip during lhat very period Irmt . . ! 

world of today or of the recent past v,H be ve v tlnM ^ 

Ut us take the example or the Br nih n ? pfll! 
lHh^ early pan of the 2(h cl ° B ,he l8,h - 

" 4r m, l"aty con- 


questi. U may thus be noted that military conquest k an 
.essential pre- requisite, Tor the spread of a language- The Indian 
e pic Mahabharata and the Indian Puranas contain copiow 
references to Indian conquests (called Digvijayu) throughout 
tbc world. The people and region* mentioned in them are 
identifiable even today. Their military conquests were made 
possible by inviacible r t»ur-fold armed force: coniuisng oS in- 
fantry, animal corps (elephant and horse), cmlry (which 
included forces who moved over land and water in vehicles sad 
fcoats and air force (using aeroplanes, guided missiles and other 
air-dropped ammunition) equipped with a remarkable advanced 
technical know-how. 

Here the reader's attention muit be drawn to another hiato- 
lical myth which ts very widely prevalent. It Li often seriously 
contended that through some inherent magic ancient India 
could just send a beaming smile acroc* her border* to be uni- 
versally loved, and its language Sanskrit respected and kg 
throughout the world. Such a thing never happen, The lug*. 
age of one country spreads in another onh ifanrngb .ww 

we si g „ Of .he f»™™™^Z*m — 
This can be deduced from o «i«io- 

Eaglish «.«l«Hy ee™« - - ■■* 'J £ ^^ 

„, en! of freedom end her neb. »twen' »"' * 

■ „. lad., i. mivtrally loved «d 
respected despite her mil »n _c < ^ ^^ OOI1| 
discrimiMtc be.«e» the n, M . « , ^.^ «Mw 
philo,ophy of ■£* ' ,2. «■»«»" "" h " T£r\ 

iiresp «,iv. »;»r \^r * ST r^ «« 

admiration. This can w jjjjj^ UJ| vcry rcce0 tiy >« 

« «?5C3ss -sag 

of British rule over • 



•01 named «n English iu«h is Iceland. Greenland. Buchanaland 
Soinililud. East Indies. Weil ladies. New York. New England 
iwifoon. That means lhat whosoever rules |fa world (or tt 
Uipe pari of ibe world) gives his own names to vast areas, I n 
tfec iKthi oT this principle if we are able to prove that Sanskrit 
names were predominant in the ancient -lias wq shall have 
conclusively proved the existence of Indian rule and Sanskrit 
ow most or the ancient world. 

Looking ovei the ancient alias we find name-; like Balucrm- 
tfain. Afpmttnan, Zabulisthan, Gharichiithan, Kurdisthnn, 
Arvasthan (modem Arabia), Turagasihan (modern Turkey), 
Staftban and many others. The suffix "sthan" in the above 
rumens the equivalent of I he English word "Land". Iranam 
(modem Iran) and Iraq derive from the Sanskrit root "Ira" 
meaning water. "Iranam" is defined in the Sanskrit dictionary 
ai ' fealty, desert ground". Balkh is a corrupt form of the 
Sanskrit term "Valhika." Kandahar was originally "Gandhara" 

Greek names like Deodorus and Theodoro are corrupt 
form* of De.-a.Dw (God's door i.e. temple do. r). The Medi- 
terranean a a Sanskrit term because 'med * is Santa rir- 
*iadby." (centre or middle) and ■ W fa ' Dua £. ^** 
be^ noddle of the earth-so to say. has the Med L J 

tbec^^ tnr , ginofro ^ ero ^^'t '.at*. Paxasika is 

.. u^djsau Ttnduu Ha r 


I* I*" V *«**nd* Mandiia Kara 
Ya Sh»m p»d mM<u 



Latin and Persian are dialects or Sanskrit Grr v i. 
rowed a lot from Sanskrit, French and English arc I L?£ 
Sanskrit words, roots and speech forms. The u« or Prani " v' 
for the negative as in atnonl" is Sanskrit. The leLnaitan 
•stry" as in Dentistry. Chemistry derives from the SaniJt 
word "Shastra meaning science or branch of knowledge 
Words fashioned from roots like ''Dam'" (ai in "dental 
dentistry"), "Mrutyu M (as in "mortal, ..mortuary. moTgue...poii 
mortem) are all Sanskrit. "Vesture"' for apparel if the Sanskrit 
word "Vastra". Common words like "Door" 1 (Dwar), "Name' 1 
are all Sanskrit Numerals like "two (Dwi). Three (troika. 
tripartite, tripod) is based on the Sanskrit word "iri" Fotir 
(Chatwar), five "Paoch" in Sanskrit gives us such words as 
pentagon .pentecostal), six (Shat in Sanskrit), seven (sapta), 
eight (astha), nine (nava), ten (dasha gives us words like 
decimal, decade). "Gon 1 is the Sanskrit Kon' meaning "Augle' 
Christ-Mas is really the month of Christ. In Sanskrit a month 
is called *Mas\ The Sanskrit root "pada" meaning foot kadi 
to words like biped, centepede, ped fairies and iripod. Pedest- 
f jan is almost a pute Sanskrit word which <s explained in 
Sanskrit as "Padais Charati ili PadacbiraliV. The root 
-Bhara* 4 meaning weight gels transformed in La(m rate 
"Barus" and gives us words like Barometer, barjiphere TB 

word Naktam meaning "nighl", ^Ifc-W^ 

Oerman) md " Nocturnal* 

like "night", Naucht (in 

ginal Sanskrit 

Eoghsh word "Pedestal" retains ft. « ^^ 
formpada-sthala". hFw**^ ^fZ Sat 

reipectively arc all Sanikr.t ^» • ..'^ -w'.To.! 
corrupt form of the Sanskrit word r. ^^^ the 5*^1 
is why it is called the Blue NIT* Siaskr£| w0iC ^ 

word "Sambandhr is used in '» ° ■ roo-Bln| a uoo. .» ihe 
ing a relation, in Africa the word Sun |f ^ 

Sanskrit word Simha. ™%^ pMfll <R.|.* ( i* ■*«* 
Panini's Sanskrit 8<» ro "%™V PoUiiu U- «"i"* * 
root we find in .he word *■■" t „ * siaac* ** »"*"*2 
Arghanisthan is a dialect of» "^^ of n0 uns is b— ■ 

of Thailand. In 0«»»»" kf4l pattern 



- mtA days from Monday to Sunday j s 
lW«,«n«flC «; |tfd dowa by Saotkrit-apeaWng 

S5»»*-» , **.' ,, i2? 

The nainci September. 

April •« w> ii »•• -^ ^ dem-e from the Sanskrit word* 

^*21l The deity Mitres" worshipped in the 
S^JSlT^M^-- oriheSu. God of the Hindu. 
S£Tk «*■** of -mors (Skand Nabhi in Sanskrit> 
of ihe Vikings. 

The above ii a «n sampling which, it ii hoped, would be 
anwjanto.convjf** the reader of the world-wide weep of 

Th» bHop us to another myth of world history originated) 
by Western teholan. Thc> have been maiotferning that the 
iodo- Germanic language den*e from tome other parent langu- 
age If that » in, we aik. which ii that language ? In which 
pin of Uk world it it spoken ? To thi* they have no answer. 
The? presume that the parent language has, been wiped out of 
ft mem* Tins i» an illogical conclusion arising out of wrong: 
tun: presumpticiDL 

A» to *ho i hose people were who spoke the parent 
languapr, the answer perhspt it that they were "Aryans", Bui 
we have already discussed the so-called Aryan race problem jo 
a forttomj chapter and wen thai "Arya* 1 was no race but only 
Thai ibmald convince the reader that the concepts of 
a parrot race and a parent language other than Sanskrit arc 

|*w already proved in a foregoing chapter that 
ism '« t «wo»*'aiaonq U i I y hundred! of thousand 

nu^JZT J 1J,DgUi|e of lbc Vcdu » Sanskrit and It .a 

»^*^ JT " lh0U ' d ** WW that the 

«* i^vuh*?^ 1 * *T * auld a »« been impossible 

'«.*. round iba contemporary wo,ld -hows 

(0lf OF3AM5lOliT t» 

, English words, names and customs spread over a large 
"' f the world only when the British ruled over vast areas. 
P* rt ^ ry conquest alone enable* the spread of one country's 
culture, customs and religion in another. That 

cimu .*, and religion in another. 

r'dioiV in lbe ce nlurics b€fore Je3U * Ch " sl ft nd Prophet 

also borne 

Mohammad ruled over most par la of thc world is 
oal by the descriptions of "Digvijayas (i.e. "conquests)" 
fde d in ancient Indian histories. Jo an earlier chapter we 
Lye already cited evidence of Vikramaditya's rule over Arabia, 
Another proof is thc existence of the Sam an aid empire. Like 
the word "Gnaznavid" the original word in thc term 
"Samanaid" is "Samant". Early Arab chronicles when dealing 
with the invasions of Mohammad Kasim, Mohammad Ghazni 
and Mohammad Ghori refer to Indians as "Samani". This is 
yet another proof that the Samanaid empire was the empire of 
Indian Kshairiyas. Those Indian rulers who were later forcibly 
converted to Islam now seem different and are looked upon as 
aliens over this distance of centuries. 

That West Asia was ruled by Indian Ksbalriyas may be 
proved by tracing the ancestry of Barmaks the erstwhile rulers 
of Iraq, and Pehlavis (thc present rulers of Iran). The Pehlavis 
■re mentioned as an Indian clan in the Raraayana and the 
Mahabharata, The Barmaks were the Pararnak (bead priest of 
Navuvihara in Balkh) — a Sanskrit term— who gained ascen- 
dancy and ruled over Iraq. 

The existence of Sanskrit words in Russian, the numerous 
vi haras {Le. cultural-cum-rejigious centres) being brought to 
light through excavations all over Russia and Mongolia and the 
And of Sanskrit scriptures and fire temples over a vast region of 
Europe and Asia is a clear pointer to Indian military conquest 
and subsequent administration for numerous centuries over a 
large part of the world. It is that which caused the spread of 
0,km language, customs and culture throughout the world. 

■ Sinw tQ e basic scriptures of that culture, the Vedas are of 

J~ morial antiquity, and since they and the Sanskrit language 

e 'he exclusive heritage of India in our own times, it should 

•Pparcnt to thc reader that the oldest language (Sanskrit) 

tf "lture (Vaidik) known to the world are Indian. Words 


derive from Sur And Asura became 

likfSyf«i»» tftdA * s> " ««« ef"i»" The words "Mali nnd 
.^ ^r«« «* T H^ f (wo AfficttlI stftltt are foimd 

Sob*]/' «hfch m «• »™ ^ of |hc ancjent WOf|d |b0(||d 

te the «■«»««■■ ' "' kri( ^ „„« the spoken language 

*»*«**** mdt^W a | mm , alt over the world. 

"irJf^lCa of most .ansuage* of the world and ha* 
^^;« f fched and noshed others. 



Hindu Origin of Prophet Mohammad 


* ^ftn* the observations in a foregoing chapter proving 
SmsiDU TEMPLE evidence is also available indicating that 
Prtthci Mohammad Himself was born a Hindu and that when 
£ chose to breakaway from the family's Hindu tradition and 
heritueand declare himself a Prophet the joint Hindu family 
broke up in aa internecine feud and Hazrat Mohammad's own 
uncle had to lay down his life fighting to save Hinduism. 

Farflung Hinduism had, therefore, its own Karbala in far- 
away Arabia, There, no less a person than Prophet 
Mohammad's own uncle Umaf bin-e Hassham, a staunch 
Hindu and a fervent devotee of the Hindu God Lord Shiva laid 
down his life fighting for bis faith, 

This piece of information unknown even to historians and 
scholars, thanks to the successful destruction of ancieBt Arabic 
history and other evidence, is found on page 235 of the famous 
anthology of ancient Arabic poetry titled Sayr-ul-OkuL 

An extract of the page has been reproduced in black ink on 
a redstooe column of the fire-worship pavilion in the backyard 
of the Likshminarayan Temple, popularly called the Birla 
Temple, on Heading Road in New Delhi, for anyone to see. 

According to another extract cited on another column of 
the same pavilion, which will be quoted later in this chapter, 
Hinduism held exclusive sway for several millenniums in Arabia 
««ore Prophet Mohammad. In fact from Prophet Mohammad's 
"Wei backwards the entire history of Arabia down to the 
J??! 1 * 11 aall 1 uit y *» °ne of continued sway of Hindu rule and 
dtt Wo '«bip prevalent in the whole of Arabia and conic- 



qucalK 10 the *hele of W«t Asia. The hazy reference* t© fl,^ 
pn*ileoct of Buddhism in those regioni arc io faci the reiuli 
of » niiunderstandinf. and a misinterpretation of history. Since 
Baddft* happened to be the most faraoui Hindu just before 
JnJja's tie* with cull) rag legions snapped* Buddha statues were 
teen erected all o\tt. From that the myth that Buddhism pre- 
vailed in West Asia and some parts at least of Europe prior to 
Chnfitaniry and islam, took root. But Buddha's statues were 
let up only because be wai considered a great Hindu reformer, 
rres as in our own times statues of Mahatma Gandhi came to 
be installed in different parts of the world. 

The prevalence throughout ancient Arabia of Hindu worship 
is further proved by the Sanskrit names Makha— Medioi, cur- 
rently pronounced as Mecca— Medina. 'Makha* means sacrifi- 
cial fire, while Medmi' means land". The twin terms Mecca- 
Medina (Mafcna- Medmi}, therefore, signify the strip of land 
which wu famous as a greet centre of fire worship which used 
to form the centre of an annual pilgrimage. The present Haj of 
Islam is a mete continuation of (hat same Hindu religious con- 
grefaljos under a rival libel. 

The term Haj itself derives from the Sanskrit word "Vraj' 
signifying 'pilgrimage'. That is «by Sanyasini i.e. recluses who 
renounce the world and move from one holy place -to another 
are known in Sanskrit as Pari v raj aks, 

ll is apparent, therefore, that (Makha-Medini) Mecca- 
Medina resounded to the chants of the Vedas and the sound of 
drums, eocene* and belli that accompanied the worship of 
Lord Shiva and the 360 ether Hindu deittes, 10 the Kaba. 

Hunt Mohammad's uncle who died fighting to save Hindu* 
named Umar bin-e Hauham. He *as a renowned poel 
famous Arabic poem in praise of Lord Shiva and the 
land of Hinduaihan appears oo page US of the Sayr-ul- 
CSksd aa thotot> That piece, cued oo a redstone column in the 
piecweu ©fine Laluhmmaravan Temple. New Delhi, i$ ** 

ataiatioaJt Jik/a Mtn Llumin Tab Aaayni 
KaOusran Amataiuj tia»a Wa Tajakhru— I 



^ n\****° h n„ hav Yaurna Tab A»yrt-2 
225* ^^jLzn MAHADEV A-o 


^ n0j1 ' xTav-yam Feema-kamtl MNT>AY 

Nfl Latah ajan Kacenoak Tawajjaru-4 

H '*Za*TL** Oabu. HINDU-5 
iClto. of » ^ve _ »**. U« Shiva 

Or waste it in lechery and wrath— 1 

If at last he relent and return to righteousness 

Can he be saved— 2 

If but once he worship MAHADEVA with a 

pure heart 

He will attain the ultimate in spirituality— 3 

Oh Lord (Shiva) exchange my entire life for but a 

day's sojourn in India where one attains 

salvation — 4 

But one pilgrimage there secufes for one alt merit 
And company of the truly great— 5 

(Sayr-ul-Okul page 235) 

A number of very important conclusions flow from Umar 
** Hassham '* ,if e aod poetry as recorded in Sayr-ul-OkuL 

Jl£u2 lh V hefinihm]t s between Hinduism and Islam 
Si *• •?! ** which has been flaunted a. the 

9**Z^a ,g,aal Crtdle ° fIs!ani ttod lbal *" ««."» Arab 
We shin Cmirt HmdU pamhcOD * 

* Uppers of i? H C eL bal '** Aribt WCfC D01 on,v **&*• 
11^ W binhfe h«! Shjva ' w ^b they even now are since 

■o avid reciters or the Vedaa, 
«"**** we derive from Umar bi« M— 



testimony »» that until Warn reversed the process of pilgrimage 
I Arab* seamed «o visit Indian temples at Prayag. Harder, 
\Irtwii.*h«ir -nd other shrine* Like the real oT the 
aodent ■« rid the* regarded Indian sages, rishts, savants and 
wdantisti at their mentor* and guides, H a al their feet that 
the Aribi came to prostrate 10 attain divine bliss and spiritual 


ir hin-c Haisham was held in such hjgh regard that his 
contemporaries called him Abul Hakam meaning The Father or 
Leaning. His enemies, jealous of this pious man, during the 
diyi of lawlesffless that followed dubbed him Abu Jihal— the 

Father of Ignorance. 

On page 257 of the same ancient Arabic anthology Sayr-ul* 
Otul is another very important verse- The composer is Labi 
bra*e Akhlab bin-e Turfa. He lived 2,300 years prior to Pro- 
phet Mohammad. Even at that early date /.«. about 1800 B.C. 
Lab« pays devout bardic tribute to the Vedas and mentions each 
otic of ihem by name. 

That the Vedai were the only religious scriptures to -which 
the Arabs owed allegiance as early as 1800 B.C. proves not only 
the tutiquity of the Vedat but also the existence of Indian rule 
over the entire region from the Indus to the Mediterranean 
because u is an axiom of history that religion follows in the 
wake or administrative control. 

In the light of this evidence the very confident assertion in 
THE HISTORY OF MANKIND. Vol. I, part 11 published by 
UNESCO, that the Rigved could not be older than 1200 B.C. 
seems worse than a schoolboy howler. 

The very name of the poet which is quoted as Labi bin-e 

Akhlab bio-e Turfa is reminiscent of the Sanskrit mode of 

tracing every individual 4 ! ancestry to the third generation. 

Thus m Indian marriages and other important religious fune- 

*M the worshipper u aiway* mentioned ac the son of tucb 

and tucfc pawn and the gruuaoa of such and such The Arabs 

too tKii> ( nurtured m itae Indiin Sanskrit tradition adopted 

the system ot meuncmiog every individual with reference to hit 

father add atandfaiber. "Bin' ug^ta the "son of". Thus Lab. 

was the ion of Akhub who in turn was the son of Turfa. 


His Arabic poem in praise or the Vedas when transcribed Ea 
ibe Roman script reads as follows : 

Aya Muwarekal Araj Yushaiya Noha Mmir 


Wa Aradakallah* Manyonaijail Jikararun.,.1 
Wahalatjjali Yatoo Ainana Sahabi Akna-atun Jikra 
Wabajayhi Yonajjeluwasul Minal Hindatun ..2 
Yakuloonallaha Ya Ahlal Araj Alameen Kullahura 

Fattabe-u Jikaratul VEDA Hukkun Malam 

YoaajjaylaluD 3 

Wabowa AlamuaSAM WalYAJUR Mioallabay 


Fa-e-noma Ya Akhiyo Muttabay-an 


Wa-isaNain HumaRlGATHAR Nasayhin 


Wa Asauat Ala-udan Wabow- Masba-e-ramn ...5 

The two Arabic poems quoted in this article iwcre ami 
The two ft»o v , ± hhmk Arabia and were 

«« mo « *<Z ^ "let ter of gold in the Ksb. shrine which had 

S^ «--"*■ "■■* ***» 

O h m Divine Land of MtfUM ^ art Thou 

, *hicb Ito four llihdiouK. 
That Celeatitl Ki»-W* wh.cb^^ ^ bmuKa 

*-«„- M iih bands do»« 

The path The 






Bursting with (Divine) knowledge are SAM nod YAAJR 

bestowed on Creation 

Hence brothers respect and Follow the Vcdns... 

guides to salvation,.. 4 

Tf*«o<bert,..the RIG and ATHARV teach us 

1 fraternity 

Sheltering under their lustre dispels darkness 

(ill eternity 5 

The supreme reverence which the Arabs bad for India, the 
Vcdas and Lord Shiva and consequently for Sanskrit and 
Indian culture in pre-Islamic times is amply borne out by the 
Above two poemi. 

Ancient Indian universities like those at Nalanda and 
TakihoihiU, therefore, catered not only to students from China 
but also from countries ts far as Arabia and Israel and perhaps 
even Egypt. 

Labi also clearly mentions ihal Arabs were initialed in the 
Indian dociriae of human fraternity and monolithic brother- 
hood through the study of Rigved and Atbarvaved, Thai slate* 
meet of a respected ancient Arab poet proves that Islamic 
pioneering claim to preaching brotherhood is incorrect. 

Ancient Arabia'* identity with Hindu culture so clearly 

STJ5 b L^' "^ UmIr lul<UMtl ««» «PWm the e X i.(. 
««ofBoddha .mage, and Indian fire worship throughout 

I » .« alio generally presumed thai a«i- 
Wd«% to India L u^ZZ 2 " nnn8m camo 
^*P P ^ ofi^ £*«* b0O,M and 
+m hapbaMrdly to ,he,r own ^Tple * % introduced 

On a little reflection it itwa t— 

7^^be i.u-0,^ ™ m " «**! ihat profound 
tmrtfcw. Mtai^^^T^-ta, of casual 

•"•"end careful pl.n- 



niDg. The testimony of Labi and Umar and or Jirth. m a 
<a ,so quoted rrom Sayr-ul-Qkul in the chapter prlvi ' Kara 
imparts quite a new meaning to the historical assertion ibit the 
Arab* picked their learning from India. Il meant ibai Indians 
during their benevolent rule lasting for numerous centuries 
over Arabia Imparted all their profound learning to the Arabs 
and without any superiority complex treated Arabs on i pir 
-with Indian*. The portals or the highest knowledge were not 
only open <o all but were freely accessible because under the 
ancient Indian way of life all essential services like medicine 
-and educnion were free of cost or charge. 

A sign of the profound impact that India bad made over 
the Arab mind during millenniums of iu rule in Arabia la 
found later in mediaeval history when even marauders like 
Mohammad Kasim retained their faith in astrology and were 
mentioned with reference to their great grand fathers in the 
"Putra, Paul r a and Prapaulra" style of Sanskrit usage. 

it in clearly mentioned in encyclopaedias that In prt*f*1anle 
times Arabia was a land of canals and lush green fields It was 
only when renouncing their erstwhile peaceful way of life that 
Arabs took to plunder and massacre and illiteracy and turned 
every land ifaey foraged, into a desert, Thui Arabia ll a graphic 
example of how Hinduism has always stood for peace, pros- 
perity broibcrhood. piety, temporal erudition and.pmu.l 
Si Some of the greatest Arab minds Kb those o Lab,, 

golden a & e «^»™^££ *i™« ^^ 
still treasured in Savr-ul ow ■ 
ivhicH revelled in wiping out an 


The ftrit pafe of the Mongolian translation of the Sanskrit text n^sftJTHflv^fci Wtrfl Tflre^fai ManjutbrL wai ;hc mtelary deity 

(ishtadevata) of the Maochurian emperor*- 

Gunaprabba aad Shahyaprabtaa, the two 

lodias acaryas, whose names and 

descriptions ars *cnowu only 

through TIb*ian *ouices 

* - 







,ronp,, " rn *«Th e Q rubTo», CT 
The .ron pillar bearing a Hindu m«criotion im k 
»„g un-nistcd through ram and shine for mZ I™ "*" 
so-called Qutub M.nar amidol th« 4U ™ iX^Z T'** 
by Muslim horde, Qutubuddin could .^H^IT 
of material and dug a sprawling foqodaum f* * * ^ 
(called the Qutub) inside the l^^ '£ ~ 
temple* and other budding work. Dodged Jlonn Z2 
Htodu .mages on one s,de and Arab on .he u4 
found around the so-called Quiub Tower alio prove thai 
Muslim conquerors staked false claims lo Hindu monism, 
through sculptural forgeries 

Kulub Minis 

This 238 ft- tall tower euphemiilCJlly called Kutub Miaar 
was erected by King Vikramadit>J for Wirenowfcel ■*•«** 
t,ons centuries before Islam was even founded Hie Jdjowu 
township called Mehraul, a the corrnp. fom .of the &*. 
term Mihira-Awal. meanmg the MJhira **mh.p I Mfc»«- 
Vikramad.tyas royal ■*!»««««*««» ™no«r-* 
meteorologist. Even .he Arabic term Kyi* ^X^" 
astronomical tower ^^^JtS * — '« 
unwitt.n B mix-up Around he ^ JU 7„ » taft rf-MT 

temple, which aJJJS^SB ~* ■*■ 
ed. The tower too h»* -7 ■ Buim * |b# 1(ffllJkMnCe rf 

are 2 7 holes-one in a-eh a MM flofth 

thc icrmKutub. wit***" 



QUWAT-ri-Idm Mmn 



into a mosque called Quwat-ul-W 4ln lhtk 
ornamental pillars of ibis monument by ihe 1 IrT * 
called Qutub lower are a clear proof of Ms taJ^ftl 
temple No genume mosque has ever » * pdlan £, "^! 
■of Namaz standing and bending whh hiir-cl««f em itia T*" 
janlly break their heads against them. 

Ni/jm-ud-din Tomb 

Note the ornamental Hindu style pillars in the white mirble 
structure turned into Nizam uddin tomb The arch on the right 
and parts of arches visible on either side of the dome are clear 
proof that mis haphazard conglomerate of heterogenous build* 
tngs was part of an ancient Hindu township stormed by iavtdicuj 
Muslim armies Fakir* like Nizamuddin following in their **ie 
used to take up residence in the rums of bartered buildings for 
preaching Islam to terrorize infidels On their death they used 
to be buried in the rums where they lived J^^m* 
like those of Nizamuddin and Bakhinr Kaki in Delhi Sabm 
G^sn in Fatehpur Sikxi and of Mo.nudd* CJ-P-J^- 

prescnt a mivup *™^™™^iLto*£Z>> 
plan Around the W^ a ^™£*m. 
called Chausatb ^*J»^£L«* « rem- 
decadenl graves ^J^to™* nmKaibm d * «he 
uou of the stormed Hindu «^"j£ \ iy te a* central pdlar 

erected when a Hindu "^'^ **<«>* ***** - 
rooted .n the MusliM^"' fait 





So-Ctlled Humijun » Tomb 

m M|U bu^UJinp known - 
llK ,„»ai;»' lwM ^ '*„ Mm I "' 

?£.<■» -:;;:;;,:,:::: *~*s*, 

^o«« *"£3 '-«« j Arttl r\ to camped «« " n 

>.mH«»«« imC1,h iicrcd «rf* ■"!" Linn »urncO W 


Cured pa]*« which was Ihc focal point of the ruined township 
since faWM ■ Kilokn The nearby nth* in which Fakir 
Nuamuddia hn barfev 1 were a pari of thi* huge Hindu citadel, 

Rosbaaar a GarBko 

Tin* \% believed to be the tomb of Roihanara, the daughter 
of the Uii powerful Moghul emperor Aurangzeb Note that it 
has neither dome* nor minarets Instead it ho* ornamental 
pillar*. Hindfa archr* and cupolas Very parsimonious and hard- 
bttflcdaiihc Hindu-bailer Aurangzeb was he would hardly 
>pcod any money on a Hindu »tyle resting place for hto 
daug hter'i eoipte Obviously, therefore, thii i* a usurped Hindu 
f*?dc+* palace commander ed 10 serve as a tomb Hi was usual in 
Ihoce liznct 

,'u 7 

Fatebpuri Mosque 

* Tins so-called Fatchpuri Mosque at one end of Delhi ^ 
crowded Chandni Chowk highway was a pre-Muslim Rajput 
temple of the city's guardian and royal deity Lord Shank a ra 
alias Eklingaji 

Its entrance arches have the Hindu stone flower emblem* 
on either aide of the apex The word * Fatchpuri* means a con- 
quered (Hindu) township. The marble slab on the red-stone 
entrance proclaiming it to be a mosque is evidently an inter- 
polation- The monuments, archei and pillars and cupolas arc 
entirely of the Hindu Rajput style The so-called mosques 
rental revenue 1$ all derived exclusively from Hindu shop* 
farming its fringes This proves that while Ihe stalls remained 
WW the Hindus their temple fell a victim to conquest and 




Mausoleum of Safdar iw^ 

Thil ^called Safdarjang lomb in Delhi «u an urai 

i oulocc whrch dcvohed on ihc alien Mu*litu aristocracy 

Ri,J Ch conquest II bin an ornamental Rajput style gateway 

rtrotcclivc wjH with watch-towers and bastions which arc 

*" crflouti* Tor a genuine tomb Safdarjang an ex-Chief 

aiiier of the Nawab of Outlh had been disgraced and dhmt* 
d prior to his death. Who would fool the bill 10 build i 

sec lor an unemployed decease nobleman's corpse? A 
hltk prodding with two sharp questions brings down Ihe entire 
iHusory rtructurc of tall Muslim claims to Hindu build ing-work 
Wtaskihat if Safdarjang f s corpse could afford wch stupen- 
dous palace he should have had at leati ten palaces when living 
Bui there is wojic The other (gestionis that if bis heir and 
Mjeceisot built this palace for the corpse of the deceased 
Sufdarjang Ihe former must himself have had tens or palaces in 
Delhi But he too had none Our answer to this riddle is that 
Safdarjang am! Jn fact all alien Muslim ruler* and noblemen 
were buried in their own palaces even as we'tn our own times 
have allowed Mahaima Gandhi's £nd Jawaharlal Nehru J 
rciidcJices to remain unoccupied out' of respect for their 
memory A clear understanding of this truth solves the pulling 
enigma of Indian history as to why the alien Muslim invaders 
seem to have built only tombs and mosques without correspond- 
ing palace* and mansions- Ii should now be realized that the 
ftio&ques are usurped temples and the tombs nalaces. 


mmm riXi**. Red Fori 

lQf helieHhe R*d «"ori -" D*»» » **"* 

»^*^lFffilE**" sacred to < he Hjnduv 

Tace). ^'^h" V he mam highway of Delhi known 

Lt elided by Muslim* irftfitbt royal and 

^Hhl axis w^bu.11 Old DOhi protected by a massive 
JU Tt t tX+* ^ excellent etampJe orient Indian 
, ■!« According to Akbarnama and the Agni Purana, 
SS^K^i- .in, Wd J-nd 372 A.D 
Sc 'he founding ^ btom- Wtlmrej Rase, e work of 
ffitaf. times attest* to the fel that Prithviruj lived in i his 
m,] Kot-Rcd Palace) on the bank* of the Yamuna The Red 
Port answer, four-square to this description True to Rajput 
tradition the Red Fori has a gale (HathipolJ (Tanked by ele- 
phant images The Ptetra Dura designs inside arc all Hindu 
The Sawan-Bhado pavilio * are Hindu names. The portion 
where the Mogbul emperors arc believed to hit vc lived inside 
with a harem of 5. 000 women, is barely enough for even five 
royal personages to live in regal comfort The stonewalls of 
the Red Fort cannot withstand cannon-fire, which proves that 
it was built by the Hindus in ancient times when wars used to 
be waged with swords and arrows The Red Fort is un Octagon 
^sthakorT »s a Sanskrit word and a Sanskrit form because 
only the Hindus hav C distinct names for eight directions. The 
Taj (which I have proved to be an ancient Rajput palace in my 
«tag_onal building. ' ** 



jwiiu»ion*« taboo in Muslim iraditioo- AH these 
monument* arc, therefore, usurped and misappro- 
priated Hindu mansions- Muslim court records 
do not have even a single document, bill, 
receipt, expense-account sheet, design 
drawings or commissioning orders 
showing thai they built even 
one of the many t' >usands of 
monuments they claim to 
have built in India 

The Taj MmkU 

fJni symphony in marble was a royal Htndu palace Its 
very name Taj Mahal signifies nothing more nor less Its octa- 
gonal shape 2nd the cupolas and four lowers at the plinth 
cofnen are all Hmdu features. Havcll, the English architect 
h*i all along stressed that the Taj is an entirely Hindu structure 
m design and execution Within iu three floors- casement. 
Four I and first floors— the marble structure has a nearly 25- 
wir. palace suite Tfce four towers used to sport multi-colour- 
The T. j precincts are a huge building complex 
ampauing <"*' ^ree hundred rooms The locality was 
»»ngh P ur l| » a4 surrounded by defensive struc- 

Chronicles give indica- 

Am llu»htL k „J. r ^ n ^? f Tfl i Batar even died 

»£J» w? iT* lo p° ster «y a > 

■dncc a II 
in conquered and 

happ«o in 1 

rand) m*utolcum , 

Muti.n. nqrai ^r ton .g« ,m ve ^ 

oaupjed H.odu buildlDii 

of h 

l *" ,e ** «*f MumtaA 


The Marble Screen at the Taj 

*. encloses two tombs ^^^> ta* 

Shahiarwn. The network J d Mjl , r j 0l »n and 

lioiial accounts tell »* thai d* j »J* d Munil ,„ pilM 
gold railing, to boot Ben Stag*" Jg |hc H , 

never boasted of such f.buJouj-; ^ <omr lhf- ,„,.. 

and kicking from the Mnpcn-I (| ,„ 

when Mumta, died (1^0 ^-r 

when Mumw* ° E " * F . r fro m ll* ""^11."^ P*« 
carthallof-^dden Fjr' j 7^,,,,. 

dent enclosure ^^J «*»* ?J RK ^ « 
Throne That '^^.pU^" 1 l* Ta ** & , 

hi, po.scss.un «** d ^ ul0U , ancK* «» ^ ^ w „ „„„ 

f r on,,pend 1 nf^ ,h ^ fMu()11J ^^''' 

irom *pe»-» ■". „ 
,,, c sombre oce^ 



The Giteway of the Taf 

H J C * a> J Mdhlg (0 lh * Ta J ^ arden H like any other 

lit 1 ^^ ta eVCT > detatl *» *«*• of other forts 

J depicted and described in this book The uoy 

] :p»i)i in a f ow invar^bly make an odd 

•preferred to ii rtj ' "J? m Hindu Edition .he odd figure 

S«»«10QlTuoe«i«i. ' ni,JUV " do ™r sg ,v c away 101, 

■«* *'Mor « t ^ cm ^'"^ to tme up before Ihe royal 
f 1* mubk PftllM:e Me «*d ,ntn ,hc T aj garden lo pr0ceed 


Delhi Cste, Agra ¥m 

) | j 

This gateway of the Red Fort Agra t» entirely in the U 
elephant images flanking* ^"^ f ^ lir , ,, 

J5, «. of this « "ysffi^£ -*■ 

apartments too arc of the cuius R J ^ h a ^ ^ 
which asenbes autliorsli.p ° £ Inaddl ..*n 

coun flattery A'^f 6 ^ >*J ^ Rajpu , , v 

l0 elephant fag» th.sfo h <mj ^ ^ ^ 
Muslims were ■ m «^ rea *S lin 7 .mf hone **««* to con, 
,h.i Akbar erected ^ ■££,£■* «* «■**" 
mcmonlc the mounts of his RajP™ JnC041vcnie n« C*< 

and An»r Singh jga W^l^H" » f wn,fU ' h 


An fori B«gh, A era Fort 

■>l««.LAi«. A(ri For, 


n, n r ur, B. fih ^011 .m.dc Agm Tort proves tha, % 

1^,1 P ", lfacbrackc,s « hc «»Poia at .he richi i he 

Golden Pavinon, Afira Fort 

co rn Tr C ^ Ma,n th « «°p left b«d 
« ncr. , he curvcd roof ^ |||e 

&£? b¥ rhc ■*"«* ^ the 

Hm so-called Diwan-i-Aam or hall of public audience ia- 
side Agra fort has neither dome* nor minaret*, in graceful 
arches unci slender pillars iisidJ ihe pattern for Himtu .pudiJi 
raised Tor auspicious ceremonies Mushm tradition has always 
j voided such Hindu, 'infidel' patterm Their* arc grotesque 
loriuou-, shape* The Red Fori in Delhi fee hu in Identic*! 

Smut of AkbiM Htfflf 

Tbitttpllc* belie 1 * tdw •» 
nl AktuA horse imo fa 

carhcr Rajpi" <••"* A** 4 '' 

Mutfim Pfdered *> ••■w<» 

Kaipuls *"• known to crttl 

clcpham »nd ««** sutur. 

TM* *'>•> MnbuMg "* 

tfl a»tn*«ion of A*« F«« to 

Altar had »ih> ^ 
Ibfittl upon hBn the "w"** 
of 'mAdel' »w(h» 


Stiiuf of *■»' Slngbt Horn Outride ,\en For* 

Tlfh" hnm head ttf'Oftgi ro pre 
Mutfiin limn it commcrnonifci j 
brave need There *ere ever to many 
Amtr Srnght rn Rajput hrilor> The in 
vrnled Mflf> thjii fhnrepkj iv Mttghul- 
•IWgtil itiil n of Hie hcirvr -if* which 
Amjr Singh p Hoped away in j huff 
frore the MojJiul cuuri uLe* for gran- 
led *tui thtll) viftiuu ten hardly the 
lime or the ncccNvir> proumJinp in 
hiilort lo debunk *uch c.mjrd* 

lubvn^rl M»h»l, A«r* Fori 


Tornbol Sadiq Kbaa 

♦Jib 'rurwai^tj cortier i 

P«t*« minimi ,„ , HeiMj d . "*" cum ^"ior, of a demolished Rajpul 

«*I- IhM .h„uM ^ ^ ™ *« .'«« MKd to .HclUr Sad.q KI.** 

'Wt tfalu,™ ' ,£ dd " iuto ™ to the feci thitihi* 

"* ** W fl «* *« iho* £„ , t l* 1 "* " <c,, «. <he arched entrances 

*»*■»«,, piaet for ttw living. 

Thii«iir4jtoe tonic 

| inside Agra Fort K of Lht 

typical Rajpui design and 

j workmanship Usurpa- 
tion and untunes nf 
I occupation resulted id 
iMoghul names berng 
ffvoi to earlier captured 
IRajput buildifijp GuNi* 
(blc Western sehotiri 
lacking indigenous inughi 
perpetuated the ntyth of 
Mu.lim authorship of buildings mitled by iheir names ml him nwci*- 
li w They hardly cared whether a building was atlnbuied to * File 
C hand or a Fakir- Mohammad 

Jimi Matjid. Agra 

\|J so' called mediae- 
val J«m:i Ma sjid% in India 
*erc earlier main (Jama) 
temple* or the town This 
weal ted Jama Mttajid to 
lite centre of Agra WW* 
Rajpiil wMl| 

Indies' npurmicnfund an 

underground p3*><B c ,a 
Ihc tort l» &«» ahu & 

bflu-mcnl two 



Hfrin Minir. Fjfcbpur SlfcrJ 

,h < ***** iJSm*; 


Delhi which wc have proved to be rti 

bmilcd with the flamc/or h ;XrS d f ^ * 
Sanskrit word h« b,o, deftly ^ *T "7 ° B " *« 
concocted Akbar legend bc " ufred Iwe the 



hfl F fl ictitrarSrkr.udcirly 


■ JM 



- «1 km tm . „*| u«mbS,.™„ '"" Slk " coul<! 

*W* *'*" » f J? ta , ro- o- i* w £2« k€ d *t ibc .op •*« 


mural decoration in [he so-called Itmatf ud< 
fculaii tomb, Agra is no Jiffereni from that found in the pre- 
Jmi palace ,n Jaipur, which proves that the building 
■•«4i> ejriic/ Rajput palace 

r *«fc 

*' Utai Kk, 

**»Hedio*b oMnb»v». 

**•» *hey occupied 

A fmr of', To ro 



So-Ctllrd Abbtr'a M«uiofrao) IISIkMd 


tkt^2t , r iU,M f ^U ^U a ' m * * Stonily 

««*t* no h*ii 4 ,, u » °*" l»ret imc- Tins 

,UCh **■ homed pile 



upon pile to cover inconv en jen[ evidence whirh m «t 

Genera* vim of Akhat's Muutnm, SUanij 


over *» sur 1 lK „ 1 ^^^ 




Gateniy Sikaodra 

Thii it ihc raajesuc gifcwsj to Sikandra P»i|jcc The m 
«rtu inside 1*1* turned tnio a tomb after Akbar\ ite-nit h * 
troth by *hc Rjjputv ccmuncs before Muslim invaders Ijuh ' 
■^ni career af >jadaii&m and usurpation The four rowr. 
riwjf ahmv the gateway are replica of Ihc Taj MahJ towt I 
• he ir *nic flooring of the man&ion hm ihc evmeric Hin u 
ruktfchAkiaiiinterloc^ed triangles) mind in it by rh< 
**** funeral riu * idmlt of no such design Al I such pyjch 
proves ibai Akbar *a* buried here because he died >n • 
uimped Hindu iwuimoji.. 

Salah-ii khan % 




KhanS m;iu- 

lrunc4t«;r<p j- 

P"t paviitan 

Kh M fur hfe 

r **rdencc. On 

J** huncd 


G, D «b P*' Amb-r F-i-c« 

L _ , „ at , ( the Awbw P*»*«» «"*'<; 


of mosque* arvd iambi in West Asian countries .«rc also or 
•denucal -lesign Thb prove* thai far from Indian mcd^cvji 
marmmrfflt hiving been designed or ordered by Muslim pottn* 
tales -»nd craftsmen it was West Asian monuments which wen* 
designed and executed by Indian Techniarns as recorded by 
Mohammad Ghazni and Taimurlang 

Incidentally it ma> also be pointed out thai the recorded 
fact of Mobommud Ghazm having been buried, in In* own 
paiaceinG 1030 A D ) also pro\es that all so-called 

MesJrm tombs whether in India or in Wcvt Asian coimtno are 
wurrwd palaces which ihey occupied during their life iirnc* 

\mona ihc many practical considerations complete!) fost 
Mghiofsofar is the fact that victims of torture and lyrann;, 
of haled marauders and potentates who breathe a sigh of reliel 
on their lormcniors' death, would .never collect fabulous 
amounts to build a palatial tomb for theft dead bodies If 1J1, • 
»m to, there would be no difference between benefactors of 
humami* and persecutor* How could both be commcmoraied 
in aiairlt niflmimenu ! In foci even great benefactors are soon 
forgotten and posterity has hardl> the time noncy or the 
patience 10 commemorate them in huge monume< ti 

woiwr. therefore, such vaulting galea and dome* and 

i we sec in mediaeval monument* arc stripped of 

"m in ihc public mind ihc better i« will 

Jtrst^ndini and study of Indian medkevaj 

ause all mediaeval monuments m India at least arc 

ui. by ike Hindus and for the Hmdut. 

Shish Mahal Amber 


. This Shiih M ahtJ 

•» Jaipur was built 
(about 984 A-D ) ceotu- 
f«es before the founding 
f M «^n) Kingdoms m 
™« it, omite inlay 
wrfcii do different from 
that in wbai are believed 
to be mediaeval Muilim 
mosques and tombs It 
proves two things ; firstly 
lhai the so-called tombs 

tt „ , . Jt ud mosques were of 

Rajput origin, and secondly that they were intended for the Uvw* m 
for the dead. 

City P*l** e 
Gard* M 

t.vni naricrn aarden in front of the City Mac*. 

Palace Garden Amfcar 

Tliis pavilion and Ihfe garden in the Ambar Palace tfith ill 
spiked and curved roof, the graceful Hindu arch and the geo- 
metrical design in the foreground is typical of all mediae 
buildings Ambar which lies three miles away 'from nfcdern 
Jaipur, was founded not later than 984 AD. That was much 
be tore alien Muslims established their principalities in india 

The identity of the Ambar architecture with/ the so-called 

mediaeval mosques and tombs, coupled with oVicr evidence, 

one of the greatest blunders of Indian architectural and 

™«!^ el * >rCh Which had aU a,O0B fondl * ^eved and pro- 
Si »™«'o«myih that alien Muslims invading Indil 
^2^ lo f s ^lor C during their restless. turbulcm 

H-aduT He iIT^k ^ ^ CO "«P*>» d ^ P-tace*. and that 
-unmlnZ " U,,d ^ built n ° ™*™**»* i» their o»» 
EE 2 mB " y n,,HcniUms ° f ,he,r ^ ^ Ptodw 




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