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Full text of "Epidemiology and Overview of Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis"

Understanding Cancer and Related Topics 

Understanding Cancer 



Artwork by Je; 



I Kelly. © 2004. 



Developed by: 

Lewis J. Kleinsmith, Ph.D. 

Donna Kerrigan, M.S. 

Jeanne Kelly 

Brian Hollen 

Discusses and illustrates what cancer is, 
explains the link between genes and 
cancer, and discusses what is known 
about the causes, detection, and 
diagnosis of the disease. 



These PowerPoint slides are not locked files. You can mix and match slides from different tutorials as 
you prepare your own lectures. In the Notes section, you will find explanations of the graphics. 

The art in this tutorial is copyrighted and may not be reused for commercial gain. 

Please do not remove the NCI logo or the copyright mark from any slide. 

These tutorials may be copied only if they are distributed free of charge for educational purposes. 



J 



Loss of Normal Growth Contro 



Normal 
cell division 







/ \ 

l J 



Cell Suicide or Apoptosis 



Cell damage — 
no repair 



Cancer 
cell division 










&£&' 



First Second 

mutation mutation 



Third Fourth or 

mutation later mutation 



Uncontrolled growth 



Normal Cancer 










Zl 



Zl 




o 



^ 



Large, variably shaped nude 



Small cytoplasmic volume 
relative to nuclei 



Variation in cell size and sha 



Loss of normal specialized 
cell features 




J 



Tobacco Use and Cancer 

Some Cancer-Causing Chemicals in Tobacco Smoke 



aminostilbene 
arsenic 



indeno[1,2,3-c d]pyrene f 
S-methylchrysene \ 

. S-methylfluoranthene 
^^ a/pfta-naphthylamine 
V nickel compounds 



benz[a]anthracene \ S-methylfluoranthene 
benz[a]pyrene ^V a/p/ia-naphthylamine 

benzene X^ nickel compounds 

benzo[jb]fluoranthene S V. N-nitrosodime 

- benzo[c]phenanthrene *V 

benzo[r]fluoranthene *S 
w cadmium 
\ chrysene 
\ dibenz[a cjanthracene 
\ dibenzo[a e]fluoranthene 
\ dibenz[a Ai]acridine 
dibenz[ay]acridine 
dibenzo[c g]carbazone 

VN-dibutylnitrosamine 
2,3-dimethylchrysene 



N-nitrosomethylethylamine 
N-nitrosodiethylamine 
V N-nitrosonornicotine 
X. N-nitrosoanabasine 
^V N-nitrosopiperidine 



N-nitrosodimethylamine A polonium-210 



1*1 



J 



Lag Time 



20-Year Lag Time Between 
Smoking and Lung Cancer 







Cigarette 
consumption 




Cigarettes 
Smoked 

per Person 
per Year 


4000 
3000 
2000 
1000 


(men) 










Lung 

cancer 

(men) 







150 

Lung Cancer 
100 Deaths (per 

100,000 people) 



1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 

Year 



J 



Genes and Cancer 



^ 




Chromosomes 
are DNA 
molecules 



imiuaui 




MATOW 

Cancer 
Institute 



J 



Oncogenes 



Normal cell 




Normal 
genes 
regulate 
cell growth 



Cancer cell 




Oncogenes 
accelerate 
cell growth 
and division 



Mutated/damaged oncogene 



J 



Tumor Suppressor Genes 



"!w> 



ti 



// 



»' 



Normal cell 






!! 



Remove or inactivate 
tumor suppressor genes 



Normal 
genes 
prevent 
cancer 



-^ 



Cancer cell 




Damage to 
both genes 
leads to 
cancer 



Mutated/inactivated 
tumor suppressor genes 



J 



DNA Repair Genes 



W 



4> ; 




Base pair 
mismatch 



Normal DNA repair 

TCGAC 



No cancer 




Cancer 



AGi iTG AG1A1TG 

No DNA repair 



Cancer Tends to Involve Multiple Mutations 



Benign tumor cells 
grow only locally and 
cannot spread by 
invasion or metastasis 



Malignant cells invade 
neighboring tissues, enter 
blood vessels, and 
metastasize to different sites 





^F 


TT 


p 




V A 


pa 


2^ 


m . 



**.» 




Time ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^™ 

Mutation Cells Mutations 

inactivates proliferate inactivate 
suppressor DNA repair 

gene genes 



Proto-oncogenes 
mutate to 
oncogenes 



More mutations, 
more genetic 
instability, 
metastatic 
disease . ™