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INDIANA 

UNIVERSITY 

LIBRARY 



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^u 



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ETYMA LATINA 



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BY THE SAME AUTHOR. 

Crown 8vo, ys. 6d. 

ETYMA GRAECA: 

An Etymological Lexicon of Classical Greek. 
RIVINGTONS, LONDON 



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ETYM A LATIN A 



AN ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON OF 
CLASSICAL LAT/N 



EDWARD ROSS WHARTON, M.A. 

FELLOW AND LECTURER OF JESUS COLLEGE, OXFORD 



e^ 



RIVINGTONS 
WATERLOO PLACE, LONDON 

MDCCCXC 

0- 

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46SI1 






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PKEFACE 



In Lewis and Short's ' Latin Dictionary ' (1880) the etymo- 
logical element is both fragmentary and uncritical : a 
lexicographer cannot fairly be expected to be also an 
etymologist. Breal and Bailly's ' Dictionnaire Etymolo- 
gique Latin' (1885) embraces but two-thirds of the words 
used by ordinary classical Latin writers, and the etymo- 
logical element in it is avowedly secondary. Pre-scientific 
work like that of Hintner and Zehetmayr, both of whom 
published in 1873, is hardly worth mentioning: it was 
not till the publication in 1876 of Brugmann's discoveries 
that anything was known about vocalic laws. — For other 
languages also etymological dictionaries are rare. For 
Umbrian we have Bucheler, for Oscan Zvetaieff, for 
Greek my 'Etyma Graeca,' for Gothic Feist, for German 
Kluge, for Old Slavonic Miklosich, for Armenian Hiibsch- 
mann : for Irish and Welsh, Old Norse and Anglosaxon, 
Lithuanian, Zend and Sanskrit, we have no complete 
etymological dictionary at all. — It may thus appear, 
both that an etymological Latin dictionary was wanted, 
and that it was not easy to compile one. Kluge had 
Weigand to work on : I have had to find my material 
where I could. 



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PREFACE 



The dictionaries which I have chiefly used are the foil 



English— Skeat. 

Old German — Schade. 

Modern German — Klug 
Lithuanian — Kurschat. 

Lettish — Ulmann. 

Prussian — Nesselmann. 

Old Slavonic — Miklosicl 
Armenian — Hubschmann. 
Zend — Justi. 

Old Persian — Spiegel. 

Sanskrit — Bohtlingk. 



Latin — Lewis and Short. 
Greek — Liddell and Scott. 
Gaulish— Stokes (' Celtic Declen- 
sion '). 

Old Irish — Zeuss. 

Middle Irish — Windisch. 

Modern Irish — O'Reilly. 

Welsh — Pughe. 
Gothic — Balg. 

Old Norse — Vigfussoli. 

Anglosaxon — Leo, Grein. 

Excluding (as all writers of etymological diction 
have agreed to do) Proper Names, 1 I find that the wr 
of the classical period of Latin literature, down to 
death of Trajan in a.d. 117, use 26,326 words : all of w 
except 4320 sufficiently explain their own formation, 
are derivatives or compounds of these 4320 words. In 
present work I have treated 3055 of these 4320 wo 
being those found in the sixteen Latin authors of the i 
rank (fragments in each case excluded) : viz., in chro 
logical order, Plautus, Terence, Cicero Caesar Catu] 
Lucretius Sallust, Vergil Horace Livy Tibullus Prop 
tius Ovid, Persius, Tacitus, Juvenal. 2 Setting aside so; 

1 Among these I reckon some words sometimes spelt with a sti 
initial, Oiris Codes Februa Liburna Pege Surena Triones Venetus : 
which I have nothing new to offer. On the other hand I have includ 
in my work the words ligustrum polluceo puniceus quirito venerw, 
being derivatives of Proper Names but successfully concealing th< 
real character. 

2 I need hardly apologise for omitting the conjectural Mr thyius, tl 
misreading matta^ and the ' ghost-words ' liroe nico : the proper reading 
are — Cic. Fin. 2. 23 (from Lucilius) hirsizon (whatever that may cor 
ceal), Propert. 4. 7. 49 Ohio, Ov. Fast. 6. 674 lata, Plaut. Poen. 13 
collyrae, Plaut. True. 624-625 viceris . . . vicerim. — I have omitted als 
Adverbs and Conjunctions of which the sole peculiarity lies in thi 
termination (such being sufficiently explained by Stolz .or Victoi 
Henry) ; and loanwords from the Greek of which the originals arc 
sufficiently treated in * Etyma Graeca ' or (in the case of derivatives) 
in Liddell and Scott. 



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PREFACE 



380 words of obscure origin, which cannot as yet be classi- 
fied, these 3055 words fall into the following three classes : 

I. * inherited ' words, having cognates in other Indoceltic 

languages : about 1130. 

II. 'manufactured* words, derivatives or compounds of 

the words in class I. : about 930. 

III. 'imported' words, borrowed from Greek or other 
languages : about 615. 

, So much for the scope of the work : next for details of 
its arrangement. The sign t preceding a ' head-word ' (i.e. 
the first word of an article) denotes that the word is 
borrowed from some foreign language. (It is often how- 
ever difficult to draw the line : Latin derivatives from loan- 
words, e.g. topi arias, are left unmarked.) Loanwords which 
are not ' head-words ' are marked either by f preceding, 
or by being put in brackets : thus after the translation of 
each head-word I give in brackets the more interesting of 
the English words borrowed (often through many stages) 
from the Latin word. For details on these English loan- 
words I would refer to Skeat's 'Concise Etymological 
Dictionary of the English Language ' : where he puts 
several words under one head I have given the leading 
word and added the sign * &c.\ It is of course often 
difficult to decide whether a word is borrowed or not : I 
suppose Gothic haban to be borrowed from Latin habeo, 
the Teutons originally having no word for 'have* (the 
Welsh still have none, and in Latin itself we may say 
'est mihi pater' for 'habeo patrem'). When two loan- 
words in any language are nearly identical in form the 
sign t is put before the first only, e.g. fbalneum balineum, 
*t"Tcwr»7$ Sams. 

A numeral after a word denotes that the word concurs in 
form with another word, or even several other words, of 



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viii PREFACE 

distinct origin : I have thus been obliged to divide praestc 
into two words, dringo into three, ruo into four. 

Cognates in Umbrian and Osco-Sabellian are given onlj 
when they are in themselves instructive. The cognates 
from other languages are given in the following order 
Greek, Celtic, Teutonic, Balto-Slavic, Armenian, Arian. 
I have not thought it necessary to give a cognate from 
Welsh when I had given one from Irish, nor from Old 
Norse or Anglosaxon or German when I had given one 
from Gothic, nor from Lettish or Prussian when I had 
given one from Lithuanian. — When possible, Nouns are 
given in the Nominative Singular (a rule embracing words 
from Hesychius which he gives in some other case) : Verbs 
are given in Zend and Sanskrit in their roots, in Teutonic 
and Old Slavonic (unless the translation shows otherwise) 
in the Infinitive, in other languages in the First Singular 
Present Indicative. Boots, stems, and words found only 
as the first element of a compound are marked by a dash 
following; which is itself accented (-) when we know from 
Verner's Law (that after a barytone vowel a Tenuis becomes 
in Teutonic not an Aspirate but a Media) that such was 
the original pitch-accent. (The accent, when marked, 
always denotes pitch-accent or 'tone,' not stress-accent.) 
Greek disyllabic Prepositions are marked as paroxytone. 
Enclitics in Greek have a grave accent, in other languages 
a dash preceding. Sanskrit words unaccented in the MSS. 
are left unaccented. — Hypothetical forms are denoted either 
by prefixing an asterisk or by putting a letter in brackets : 
e.g. €kai(F)ov denotes that l\aiov was originally ZXatfov. — 
The position of a single letter (or combination of letters) is 
denoted by a dash; e.g. "a-" denotes initial a, "-a-" 
medial a, "-a" final a. — When a word is given partly in 
Eoman partly in Italic type, the part in italics is alone to 
be compared with the other words mentioned. — The sign 

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PREFACE ix 



'fr.' may roughly be read as 'from/ more exactly as 
'connected with'; it denotes that the two words have the 
same root, or are 'Ablauts' of each other. 

The translation of a word, where no translation is given, 
is the same as that of the next-preceding translated word ; 
translated, i.e., into English (for convenience' sake the 
translation is sometimes into Latin or Greek). Parentheses 
are not considered as interrupting the sequence of construc- 
tion. The abbreviation 'E.' followed by a comma denotes 
that the English cognate has just been given as a trans- 
lation of some other cognate word: the abbreviation 'E. E.' 
denotes not ' Early English ' but that the English cognate 
has just been given and that one or more English cognates 
follow. A Latin or Greek word quoted simply for the sake 
of its form is left untranslated. — When a word is the same 
(as to both form and meaning) in two related languages, I 
write it only once : e.g. " Zd. Sk. ma~ measure " shows that 
ma- means ' to measure ' alike in Zend and Sanskrit. 
Similarly "Ags. E. fin" denotes that Anglosaxon fin and 
English fin are cognate words and of the same meaning. 

As a rule a vowel not marked long is to be reckoned 
short. But to this rule there are some limitations : 

(1) When a vowel in Latin stands before two consonants 
I have endeavoured to mark it according to its etymological 
quantity, not according to the quantity it may have acquired 
from the nature of the consonants ; and where the etymo- 
logy is obscure or ambiguous the quantity, if marked, is 
not to be taken as a guide to the possible etymology, forma 
may go with ferio ' strike ' (as rwros ' form ' with tvtttid) 
though in deference to authority I have marked the o long 
(see note at end of preface) : 

(2) As to marks of length in other languages than Latin : 
I have, following my authorities, left unmarked the quan- 
tities of Umbrian, Oscan, and Welsh vowels. I have 



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x PREFACE 

marked Gothic and Sanskrit e 6, though always long, bu 
left unmarked Lithuanian y if e O and Old Slavonic i y u a 
which likewise are always long. In Irish and Old Norse 1 
mark vowels as long, not with an accent : in Anglosaxon ] 
write ea eo (not, as Sweet does, ea eo), and use ae oe foi 
the long diphthongs, a 6 for the short. In Lettish I write 
e not eh, in Old Slavonic e not g. 



A note of interrogation at the end of an article is meant 
to apply to the words preceding after the last colon or 
semicolon. In the explanation of a Compound, e.g. maid- 
festus, the note of interrogation implies that the second half 
of the Compound is of obscure origin. — Where no etymology 
at all is given, it is to be understood that none yet proposed 
is satisfactory : in many of such cases the ordinary (un- 
scientific) etymology may be found in Lewis and Short. 
The following 360 derivations are, so far as I know (it is 
difficult in such matters to speak with certainty), my own : 



abdo 


anna 


caelebs 


cicuta 


abdomen 


arvina 


caepe 


clandestinus 


abundo 


as 


caerimonia 


coepi 


accerso 


asper 


caliga 


colocasium 


acervus 


assula 


callis 


coluber 


adeo 


ast 


cantharus 


comis 


adulor 


ater 


capistrum 


comissor 


aequus 


atrox 


carbo 


como 


agnitus 


auster 


carduus 


concipilo 


aha 


autem 


careo 


condalium 


alacer 


bajulus 


caries 


condo 


alapa 


balneum 


cataractria 


conquinisco 


allex 


balo 


catasta 


corbis 


almus 


boletus 


census 


corbita 


alucinor 


boreas 


cepolendrum 


cortina 


aluta 


bubulcus 


cervix 


cottidie 


ambulo 


bufo 


ceu 


crambe 


amo 


bulla 


cicada 


crocio 


apium 


cachinnus 


cicatrix 


cucumis 


apricus 


cacumen 


ciconia 


culex 



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PREFACE 



XI 



colas 


fore 


jejunus 


minus 


cumulus 


formica 


jento 


mirus 


cunctus 


formido 


juxta 


miser 


cuuiculus 


fortassis 


lacertus 


mitis 


de 


fritillus 


lacuna 


monedula 


delibero 


fuligo 


lambero 


moretum 


demo 


furca 


lamina 


morus 


densus 


furfur 


lanista 


mucro 


dirus 


fusus 


lanius 


mutus 


discipulus 


gemini 


laterna 


nempe 


doced 


genesta 


lens 


nihilum 


dodrans 


germanus 


levis 


nimbus 


doleo 


glans 


libo 


nimis 


domicilium 


gravastellus 


libum 


niteo 


drapeta 


grex 


lignum 


non 


dubius 


gutta 


lima 


norma 


dudum 


guttur 


lis 


nota 


duplex 


hapalopsis 


littera 


numella 


ecce 


hira 


liveo 


nutrio 


edepol 


hospes 


locuples 


obliviscor 


ehem 


humanus 


luridus 


obturo . 


elegans 


icio 


luscus 


omcium 


ellum 


identidem 


lustrum 


omentum 


emineo 


ideo 


mancus 


opimus 


emusitatus 


igitur 


mando 


oportet 


enim 


ilex 


mane 


optimus 


erga 


ilia 


manipulus 


opto 


eruca 


imitor 


manubiae 


paedico 


euax 


immanis 


marceo 


paelex 


exploro 


impraesentiarum marsupium 


palear 


fames 


inanis . 


materia 


palpo 


farfarus 


incilo 


medeor 


panicum 


ferula 


incolumis 


memor 


papilio 


ficus 


inferus 


mensa 


parra 


finis 


infestus 


mensus 


parricida 


firmus 


inquam 


mentula 


patior 


fistuca 


invidus 


meo 


patro 


fistula 


invitus 


mereo 


pectus 


flaccus 


ipse 


merops 


perinde 


flftmTTTi^ 


ita 


merus 


perperam 


focus 


item 


mico 


piget 


foedus Adj. 


itidem 


minae 


pignus 


fona 


jam 


minor 


pingo 



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Xll 



PREFACE 



pituita 


quantus 


scrinium 


sudiculum 


placeo 


quidem 


seria 


sumo 


placusia 


quoque 


serperastra 


suspicio 


plaustrum 


radius 


sileo 


tabula 


ploro 


ramus 


siler 


taeter 


ploxenum 


renideo 


sin 


tamen 


pluteus 


repudium 


sincerus 


tantus 


polio 


reus 


sirempse 


tardus 


poUex 


rima 


sirpe 


territorium 


polluceo 


rivus 


sisymbrium 


testa 


populor 


robur 


sobrius 


titillo 


porrigo 


rorarii 


sodalis 


turgeo 


portorium 


rudis Adj. 


soleo 


uligo 


praefica 


rudus 


sollemnis 


ulva 


praestigiae 


ruo 1 


solvo 


urtica 


prior 


ruscum 


specus 


titer 


privus 


ruta 


spiro 


vaco 


proinde 


rutilus 


sponda 


varius 


promo 


sacer 


stilus 


vehemens 


proprius 


saeculum 


stimulus 


venor 


protelum . 


salaputium 


stipula 


venter 


prox 


saltern 


strages 


verrunco 


pudeo 


saltus 


strigilis 


vidulus 


pulcher 


sapa 


stringo 1 


vilis 


pulmentum 


sartago 


stuprum 


villa 


puppis 


savium 


suavium 


vito 


quadra 


scapulae 


subtemen 


vitricus. 



I have as far as possible avoided the use of strange 
symbols. In words given (in small capitals) as from the 
' Ursprache,' the ' sonant ' liquids are denoted by a dot 
below, and the long sonants are further marked as long: 
for the consonants corresponding to i and u I use j and v, 
to be pronounced like English y in yet and w in wet respec- 
tively : the * velar' gutturals I write with a v following 
(the sign k-v, see equus, denotes that the k and the v are 
distinct elements), the distinction of 'fixt' and 'labialisable' 
velars being left to be gathered from a comparison of the 
cognate forms or from the notes in Part II. — In Old Umbrian 
I write d, not d or r ; in Lithuanian ie, not e ; in Old Sla- 



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PREFACE xiii 

vonic h, not ch. In Armenian, for the aspirates I write 
ph, th, kh ; for Hubschmann's 25th letter I use th§, for 
his 33rd ths. In Zend I write ae not ae, f not s, q not 
hv. For the Hebrew Aleph I give no sign,, for Ayin ', for 
Sheva * ; for He I write h, for Cheth h. 
A few points of pronunciation may be noticed : 

(o) Umbrian 5 or (New Umbrian) I = Eng. s in see ; & = Eng. th in 
the: 

(0) Welsh au = German ai (Eng. * Aye '), aw = Eng. ow in cow ; 
dd = Eng. th in the, 11 = an aspirated I (i.e. h + I, or, when 
final, I + h) : 

(y) Gothic gg = Eng. ng, q = Eng. qu : 

(8) Lithuanian y = Eng. i in viachine ; 11 = u + ; e and o are pro- 
nounced * close' (see p. xv); a and $, are now pronounced as 
a and & respectively. The * falling ' tone is marked * on a short 
vowel, ' on a long; the 'rising' tone (as in Eng. 'Why?') is 
marked " or A . A consonant followed by i + another vowel is 
pronounced soft, like German k in kind as opposed to k in kahn : 
sz = Eng. sh, z = Eng. 2, & (Lettish §) = French j (Eng. s in 
leisure), c = Eng. ts, cz = Eng. ch. 

(e) Old Slavonic y = a (long) ' modified ' or French u ; $ = French 
in in vin, § = French on in bon. Of the consonants, S = Eng. 
sh, c = Eng. ch, while z z c are pronounced as in Lithuanian. 

(0 Armenian \ is a ' guttural ' r, r a ' hard ' r ; j = Eng. dz in adze, 
j =3 Eng. j in jet ; S = Eng. sA, z = Eng. z, ± — French j (see 
above), c = Eng. ts,t — Eng. ch. 

(1) Zend ae = German ai, ao = German au : c = Eng. c&, 5 = Eng. 
sh, j and z are pronounced as in English : q = Eng. h + w (as 
in the dialectic Eng. pronunciation of when). The pronuncia- 
tion of 4 and hh is unknown. 

(0) Sanskrit y as Eng. y in yet ; c, 9, j, as in Zend (Sanskrit sh has a 
stronger aspiration than 5). The ' Unguals ' (or ' cerebrals ') \ d 
th dh n are pronounced ' with the tip of the tongue turned up 
and drawn back ' (Whitney), but are not by us distinguishable 
from ordinary dentals, 

The notes in Part II. on the various cognate languages 
embrace only the words quoted in Part I., and of course are 
not meant to be exhaustive. 



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xiv PREFACE 

I have to acknowledge many obligations to Professoi 
Macdonell, Margoliouth, Nettleship, Ehys, and Sayce; i 
Dr. Neubauer, Dr. Whitley Stokes, F. Y. Powell, and m 
colleague W. M. Lindsay- and, on points of natural history 
to my brother, H. T. Wharton, editor of ' Sappho \ 

I hope in some future year to complete the subject by ai 
analysis of the 1265 ' sub-classical ' words found in frag 
ments of our sixteen authors or in less important author* 
of the classical period. But in England even the worsl 
etymologist meets little encouragement. 

E. K. WHARTON. 

Oxfobd, St. DavicCs Day, 1890. 



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NOTE ON HIDDEN QUANTITIES 

It seems that certain combinations of consonants in Latin 
lengthened the preceding vowel, others shortened it, others 
(which is most perplexing of all) sometimes lengthened 
sometimes shortened it, probably in different dialects ; and, 
to complicate matters still more, each of our rules has 
numerous exceptions. Eor the determination of these 
* hidden ' quantities I have used Seelmann's ' Aussprache ' 
pp. 69-108, Marx's ' Hulfsbuchlem/ and (for the Eomance 
languages) Grober's ' Vulgarlateinische Substrate Eoman- 
ischer Worter ' in Wolffiin's ' Archiv \ The authorities on 
which these writers rely are : 

(a) the testimony of Latin Grammarians (* Gramm.'), and the old 

spellings of i u as ei ou : 
(£) the usage of Plautus and Terence, who before Mute + Liquid 

allow a vowel to be long only when it was long by nature : 
(y) the marks given in Inscriptions (' Inscrr.'), the I carved taller 

than usual, the other long vowels accented : 
(8) the Greek transcription of Latin words (* Gk.'), I u = et ou, e 6 = 

i\ a: 
(e) the evidence of the Eomance languages (' Rom. '), which repre- 
sent 1 vl by iu but I ti by e o, and e 6 by close e o (pronounced i.e. 

with the tongue convex) but 6 6 by open e o (pronounced with 

the tongue flat). 

A. Combinations which lengthen the preceding vowel : 

(a) ns nf (according to Cicero and the Latin Grammarians), Cic. 
cmmevit insanus confecU iwfelix, Inscrr. 1 and Gk. consul, Gramm. 

1 The signs * Gramm.' * Inscrr.' ' Gk.' * Rom.' in these pages may be 
read 'according to the Latin Grammarians, inscriptions, the Greek 
transcription, the Romance languages': i.e. the abbreviation denotes 
the source from which we learn the quantity of the vowel. 



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xvi NOTE ON HIDDEN QUANTITIES 

and Kom. Insula, Inscrr. Inferos. Yet one dialect must hsn 
allowed the natural quantity, Gk. CSnstantinus (1st century a.d 
ctinsul (6th century, beside CdnstaiUinus /), Priscian m&nsi, Ron: 
consilium ctinficio Infans. 

(0) nqv in qulnqice (Inscrr. Gk. and Rom.), ngv apparently in pingui 
(Rom., Grober 'Grundriss der Romanischen Philologie/ p. 50 
note). Yet not in one dialect, Rom. prqplnquus lingua Unguis. 

(y) gn (according to Priscian), Inscrr. dlgnus slgnum. Yet not ii 
one dialect, Gk. cVgnitus, Gramm. and Rom. dlgnus, Rom. lignum 
plgnus pugnus slgnum. — Apparently also gm (Marx p. 2), Inscrr 
and Rom. pigmentum, Gk. segmen. 

(8) ct from g + t (Seelmann pp. 78, 90), Inscrr. lectus ('bed ') lictor 
Rom. ludor. Yet not in one dialect, Gk. and Rom. Uctus. — S( 
x from g + s (Seelmann pp. 78-79, 91) seems to have had s 
lengthening effect, Inscrr. maximus, Inscrr. and Gk. vexillum. 

B. Combinations which shorten the preceding vowel : 

(a) nt (Marx p. 1-2), Gramm. c&ntio from coventio, Gk. frdntem mbntem 
pdntem vtntus. Yet one dialect allowed the natural quantity, 
Gramm. nuntius, (Inscrr. Gk. and Rom. quintus), Inscrr. frontem, 
Rom. fontem montem pontem (so Grober in his articles in Wol- 
fflin's 'Archiv'; in his 'Grundriss' p. 522 he makes the o 
short). — So nd, Rom. har&ndo hirUndo Undecim (from unus), cf. 
spUndeo (Lithuanian spUndliu) from (rirK^v, vindex {0iv$t£) from 
venum. Yet not in one dialect, Gramm. harundo hirundo, Inscrr. 
nondum n&ndinum, Rom. frondem (Grober is ambiguous, as above) 
prendo vendo. 

(0) 1 4- any consonant, Gramm. remfclcum (fivfiovkKovv), Rom. corSlla 
(from corona) Ultra *llcem (from ilicem: so even with a vowel 
between, pulegium), and v&llum whence Anglosaxon veal. Yet 
not in one dialect, Inscrr. ultra vallum, Inscrr. and Rom. milk 
olla villa, Rom. angulUa favilla mullus stllla trulla: which can- 
not be lengthenings, as the Romance languages substantiate 
caplllus cucullus (' cuckoo ') llle mJSllis pullus ('dark ') sllla villus, 
pulmo pulpa sllva. 

(y) Before Mute + Liquid a vowel is generally short, and hence ebrius 
n&trix (Plautus) show in the Romance languages a short root- 
vowel. 

C. Combinations which in one dialect lengthen, in another 
shorten, the vowel : 

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NOTE ON HIDDEN QUANTITIES xvii 

(a) nc lengthens the vowel in Inscrr. cUndus functus jUnctus sdnctus 
and so conjUnx, Gramm. and Rom. Unctus, Rom. ductus tinctus 
punctus. Yet one dialect allowed the natural quantity, Rom. 
pUnctus Unctus (Seelmann p. 90). — But it shortens the vowel in 
Rom. jikvcus f lovyicos) Uncut, (ovyicla). 

(/3) r + another consonant lengthens the vowel in Inscrr. area arvum 
hortus qudrtus (arma pernix are marked as barbarisms), Rom. 
cortina pertica. Yet not in one dialect, Plaut. Irgo, Gramm. ars 
&rx p&rs, Gk. cortina p&rtica, Gk. and Rom. circus fortis virga, 
Rom. f&rnus sUrcus. — But it shortens the vowel in Rom. lardum 
(laridum) *Mrdum ( = luridum) /Urea (which I would derive from 
fur). Which represents the natural quantity, flrmus (Inscrr., 
Seelmann p. 92, cf. fldus) or flrmus (Rom., cf. fides), we cannot 
tell; nor of course where the etymology is unknown, Inscrr. 
servus Rom. orea do not prove that the vowel was by nature long, 
nor Gk. formica Srbis tirna Rom. stlrps Urceus that it was by 
nature short. More perplexing still, our authorities sometimes 
differ, Gramm. Gk. and Rom. have forma but Gk. also ftirma, 
Inscrr. and Rom. ordo but Gk. (and Irish) tirdo, Inscrr. and Rom. 
ornd but Gk. brnd, Inscrr. vlrgo but Rom. vlrgo. 

(y) s + any consonant lengthens the vowel in Gramm. hestemus, Gk. 
fossa, Rom. hibiscum usque, and cf. Priscian's austrum from 
tistrum. Yet not in one dialect, Gk. Rom. f6ssa, Rom. Ittscus 
mlsceo ntister vaster Vista. — But it shortens the vowel in Gk. Sstium 
(Inscrr. and Gk. ostium), Rom. flstus (Inscrr. and Gk. festus) 
fUscus (Inscrr. fuscus) and perhaps gilstus (cf. yeiw), and I think 
in Gramm. dsper lanlsta and Gk. erassus. Where the etymology 
is unknown, or consonant with either supposition, we cannot tell 
whether the vowel was by nature short or long, Inscrr. manifestus 
viscus Inscrr. and Rom. trlstis Gk. sospes Gk. and Rom. custos 
Rom. esca fustis Mspidus do not prove that the vowel was by 
nature long, nor Gk. rMis Gk. and Rom. crista Rom. fistula fas- 
cina -miisca miistela that it was by nature short. Sometimes too 
our authorities differ, Gk. has bestia but Rom. (and later Gk.) 
bSstia, Gk. crispus but Rom. crlspus, Inscrr. crustum but Rom. 
crilstum, Inscrr. and Gk. prlscus but Gk. also prlscus, Rom. has 
both plscis and plscis. 



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ABBEEVIATIONS 



Aen. 


Aeneid. 


NHG. 


New High German. 


Aeol. 


Aeolic. 


NUmbr. 


New Umbrian. 


Aesch. 


Aeschylus. 


OE. 


Old English. 


Ags. 


Anglosaxon. 


OHG. 


Old High German. 


anal. 


analogy. 


Olr. 


Old Irish. 


Ar. 


Aristophanes. 


onomatop. 


onomatopoeic. 


Arab. 


Arabic. 


ONor. 


Old Norse. 


Arm. 


Armenian. 


OPers. 


Old Persian. 


BB. 


Bezzenberger's Beitrage. 


opp. 


as opposed to. 


cf. 


compare. 


orig. 


originally. 


Dimin, 


Diminutive. 


Osc. 


Oscan. 


Diosc- 


Dioscorides. 


OSlav. 


Old Slavonic. 


Dor. 


Doric. 


OUmbr. 


Old Umbrian. 


E. 


English. 


OW. 


Old Welsh. 


EM. 


Etymologioum Magnum. 


Part. 


Participle. 


Etrusc. 


Etruscan. 


Pers. 


Persian. 


etym. 


etymology. 


Plut. 


Plutarch. 


fr. 


connected with. 


Polyb. 


Polybius. 


Fr. 


French. 


pop. 


popular. 


Geo. 


Georgics. 


praeced. 


preceding word. 


Got. 


Gothic. 


Pru88. 


Prussian. 


Heb. 


Hebrew. 


Aedupl. 


Reduplication. 


Hes. 


Hesiod. 


Horn. 


Roman. 


Hesych. 


Hesychius. 


Sab. 


Sabine. 


Horn. 


Homer. 


sc. 


scilicet. 


Instrum. 


Instrumental. 


Schol. 


Scholiast. 


Interj. 


Interjection. 


sec. 


according to. 


Ion. 


Ionic. 


Sicil. 


Sicilian. 


Ir. 


Irish. 


Sk. 


Sanskrit. 


Ital. 


Italian. 


sq. 


following word. 


Lett. 


Lettish. 


Subst. 


Substantive. 


Lit. 


Lithuanian. 


syll. 


syllable. 


Loc. 


Locative. 


term. 


termination. 


Metath. 


Metathesis. 


Umbr* 


Umbrian. 


MHG. 


Middle High German. 


Vb. 


Verb. 


Mir. 


Middle Irish. 


W. 


Welsh. 


Neut. 


Neuter. 


Zd. 


Zend, 



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ABBREVIATIONS xix 



Other abbreviations may be seen in Lewis & Short. 

* denotes a hypothetical form. 

t preceding a word denotes that it is a loan-word ; t following a 
Sanskrit word, or meaning of a Sanskrit word, denotes that the word 
or meaning is unauthenticated (being found only in Sanskrit gram- 
marians, not in literature). 



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SELECT LIST OF AUTHORITIES 

(The numeral above the line indicates the number of the edition. — 
sq. here denotes * and following years '.) 

Balg, Comparative Glossary of the Gothic Language. 1887. 
Bartholomew, Handbuch der Alt-Iranischen Dialekte. 1883. 
Bedrossian, New Dictionary Armenian-English. 1875-1879. 
Bezzenberger's Beitrdge zur Kunde der Indogermanischen Sprachen. 1877 

sq. 
Bielenstein, Die Lettische Sprache. 1863. 

Bohtlingk, Sanskrit- Worterbuch in kurzerer fassung. 1879-1889. 
Braune, Alt-Hoch-Deutsche Grammatik. 1886. 
Bre'al et Bailly, Dictionnaire etymologique Latin. . 1885. 
Brugmann, Griechische Grammatik. 2 1889. 

„ Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik der Indogerman- 

ischen Sprachen. 1886-1889. 
Bruppacher, Versuch einer Lautlehre der Oskischen Sprache. 1869. 
Corssen, Aussprache Vocalismus und Betonung der Lateinischen Sprache. 2 

1868-1870. 
Curtius, Grundziige der Griechischen Etymologie. 5 1879. 
Delitzsch, Assyrische Studien I. 1874. 

Dioscorides, in Kiihn's Medicorum Graecorum Opera vol. 25, 26. 1821. 
Douse, Introduction to the Gothic of Ulfilas. 1886. 
Ducange, Glossarium Mediae et Infimae Latinitatis. 1840-1850. 
Feist, Grundriss der Gotischen Etymologie. 1888. 
Festus, edited by 0. 0. Miiller. 1880. 
Fick, Vergleichendes Worterbuch der Indogermanischen Sprachen. 3 

1874-1876. 
Fritzner, Ordbog over det Gamle Norske Sprog. 1867. 
Georges, Ausfuhrliches Lateinisch-Deutsche Handworterbuch. 1879- 

1880. 
Graff, Alt-Hoch-Deutsche Sprachschatz. 1834-1846. 
Grein, Bibliothek der Angelsachsischen Poesie. 1857-1864. 
Hehn, Kulturpflanzen und Hausthiere. 3 1877. 

Helfenstein, Comparative Grammar of the Teutonic Languages. 1870. 
Hesychius, edited by Moriz Schmidt. 1858-1862. 
Hiibschmann, Armenische Studien I. 1883. 



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SELECT LIST OF A UTHORITIES xxi 



Hiibschmann, Indogermanisclies Vocal-system. 1886. 

„ Umschreibung der Iranischen Sprachen. 1882. 

Isidore of Seville, in Lindemann's Corpus Grammaticotum Latinorum 

vol. III. 1832. 
Jablonski, Opuscula. 1804-1818. 
Justi, Handbuch der Zend-sprache. 1864. 
Keil, Grammatici Latini. 1857-1880. 
Key, Latin-English Dictionary. 1888. 

Kluge, Etymologisch.es Worterbuch des Deutschen Sprache. 4 1888. 
Kukris Zeitschrift fur vergleichende Sprachforschnng. 1852 sq. 
Kurschat, Grammatik der Littauischen Sprache. 1876. 
„ WSrterbuch der Littauischen Sprache. 1883. 
Lagarde, Arica. 1851. 
Leo, Angelsachsisches Glossar. 1877. 
Leskien, Handbuch der Alt-Bulgarischen Sprache. 1871. 
Lewis and Short, Latin Dictionary. 1880. 
Liddell and Scott, Greek-English Lexicon. 7 1883. 
Mahlow, Die Langen Vocale A E O in den Europaischen Sprachen. 

1879. 
Marx, Hulfsbtichlein fur die Aussprache der Lateinischen Vocale in 

positionslangen Silben. 2 1889. 
M&moires de la SoeUti de Linguistique de Paris. 1869 sq. 
Meyer G., Griechische Grammatik. 2 1886. 
Miklosich, Etymologisches Worterbuch der Slavischen Sprachen. 1886. 

„ Lexicon Palaeo-Slovenico-Graeco-Latinum. 1865. 
Murray J. A. H., New English Dictionary. 1888 sq. 
Nesselmann, Thesaurus Linguae Prussicae. 1878. 
Nettleship, Contributions to Latin Lexicography. 1889. 
Noreen, Alt-Nordische Grammatik. 1884. 
O'Reilly and 0' Donovan, Irish-English Dictionary. 1864. 
Osthoff, Zur Geschichte des Perfects in Indogermanischen. 1884. 

„ und Brugman, Morphologische Untersuchungen. 1878-1880. 
Paul, Principien der Sprachgeschichte. 2 1886. 
Pauli, Preussische Studien, in Kuhn's Beitrage VII. 1870. 
Peyron, Lexicon Linguae Copticae. 1835. 
Phrynichus, edited by Lobeck, 1820. 
Pierret, Vocabulaire Hieroglyphique. 1875. 
Plautus, edited by Ritschl, Loewe, Gk>etz, and Schoell. 1871 sq. 
Pliny, Natural History, edited by Jan. 1857-1880. 
Pughe, Welsh Dictionary. 8 1866-1873. 
Phys, Hibbert Lectures. 1888. 

„ Lectures on Welsh Philology. 2 1879. 
Poby, Grammar of the Latin Language. 4 1881-1882. 



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xxii SELECT LIST OF A UTHORITIES 



Saalfeld, Tensaurus Italo-graecus. 1884. 

Saussure F. de, Memoire sur le systeme primitif des Voyelles. 1879. 

Sayce, Introduction to the Science of Language. 1880. 

Schade, Alt-Deutsches Worterbuch. 1872-1882. 

Schmidt Johannes, Zur Geschichte des Indogermanischen Vocalismus. 

1871-1875. 
Schneider Engelbert, Dialecti Latinae priscae et Faliscae exempla seleota 

I. 1886. 
Seelmann, Aussprache des Latein. 1886. 
Sievers, Angelsachsische Grammatik. 1882. 
Sittl, Lokalen Yerschiedenheiten der Lateinischen Sprache. 1882. 
Skeat, Concise Etymological Dictionary of the English Language. 1882. 

„ Etymological Dictionary of the English Language, 2 1884. 
Sophocles, Greek Lexicon of the Roman and Byzantine periods. 1870. 
Spiegel, Alt-Persischen Keil-inschriften. 1881. 

„ Vergleichende Grammatik der Alt-eranischen Sprachen. 1882. 
Stokes, Celtic Declension. 1886. 

„ Neo-celtic Verb Substantive. 1886. 

„ Remarks on the Celtic additions to Curtius' Greek Etymology. 
1876. 

„ Three Irish Glossaries. 1862. 
Stolz, Lateinische Grammatik. 2 1889. 
Sweet, Anglosaxon Reader. 1879. 
Ulfilas, Heyne's edition of Stamm. 8 1885. 
Ulmann, Lettisches Worterbuch. 1872-1880. 
Van Eys, Dictionnaire Basque-Francais. 1873. 
Vanifak, Fremdworter in Griechischen und Lateinischen. 1878. 

„ Griechisch-Lateinisches Etymologisches Worterbuch. 1877. 
Varro de Lingua Latina, edited by A. Spengel. 1886. 
Vigfusson, Icelandic-English Dictionary. 1874. 
Weise, Griechischen Worter im Latein. 1882. 
Wharton E. R., Etyma Graeca. 1882. 

„ Latin Vocalism (Philological Society). 1888. 

„ Loanwords in Latin (do.). 1889. 

„* On Latin Consonant-Laws (do.). 1889. 

Whitney, Sanskrit Grammar. 2 1889. 
Windisch, Irische Texte I. 1880. 

„ Kurzgefasste Irische Grammatik. 1879. 
Wolfflin, Archiv fur Lateinischen Lexicographic. 1884 sq. 
Zenker, Turkisch-Arabisch-Persisches Handworterbuch. 1866-1876. 
Zeuss, Grammatica Celtica. 2 1871-1881. 
Zvetaieff, Inscriptiones Italiae mediae dialecticae. 1884. 
„ Sylloge Inscriptionum Oscarum. 1878. 



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CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Preface v 

Note on Hidden Quantities xv 

Abbreviations xviii 

Select List of Authorities xx 

Introduction xxv 

Pabt I. 

Etymological Lexicon 1 

Pabt n. 

Comparative Etymology 119 

Latin 119 

(Genesis of Latin Letters) 128 

Umbrian 132 

Oscaji 132 

Greek 133 

Irish 135 

Welsh 138 

Gothic 139 

Old Norse 140 

Anglosaxon . ' 141 

Old High German 142 

Lithuanian 144 

Lettish 145 

Prussian 145 

Old Slavonic !46 

Armenian 147 

Zend 149 

Sanskrit lfil 



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INTRODUCTION 

The languages spoken by the nations of Europe, with 
isolated exceptions (the ancient Etruscans, the modern 
Basques of north Spain, the Magyars, Turks, Esthonians, 
Livonians, Ugrians, Finns, and Lapps), and of Asia from 
the Caucasus to Ceylon, resemble each other sufficiently 
to justify the supposition that they all descend from one 
common original or ' Ursprache ' ; the speakers of which, 
issuing from Scandinavia in search of a warmer climate, 
separated in various directions. The Teutonic stock re- 
mained in Scandinavia or occupied central Europe ; the 
Celtic race proceeded to the British Isles, Gaul, and Spain ; 
the Italic to Italy; the Albanian to the east side of the 
Adriatic ; the Hellenic to Greece ; the Balto-Slavic to 
eastern Europe; the Armenian, probably through Thrace 
and Asia Minor, to the district south of the Caucasus ; the 
Arian to Persia and India. 

The family of languages here described has been denoted 
by several names, none quite satisfactory. The quasi- 
biblical term 'Japhetic* has died out, though the corre- 
sponding term ' Semitic ' has survived : all the other terms 
hitherto suggested labour under the defect of insinuating 
that the race came originally from India, a view wholly 
untenable. Max Miiller's 'Aryan/ from Sanskrit dry as 'a 
high-caste man,' has the merit of being short, and of 
lending itself to the convenient compound ' un- Aryan/ but 
is in pronunciation indistinguishable from ' Arian/ the 

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xxvi INTRODUCTION 



term applied by the Germans to Zend and Sanskrit : of 
the three compound designations, * Lido-Germanic,' by far 
the worst, as excluding the Celtic branch, has been adopted 
by the Germans, Bopp's ' Indo-European ' is cumbrous and 
not quite accurate, while the French * Indo-Celtic ' is 
logical enough, as giving the two extreme branches of the 
family, and might perhaps be adopted in the modified form 
'Celtindic'. 

Albanian, with a literature dating only from the 17th 
century, is of too little importance to be here noticed : 
sufficient information on it will be found in Gustay Meyer's 
* Albanesische Studien' (1883-1884). The remaining seven 
branches of the family may be. thus distributed : 

(1) Teutonic: 

. Gothic, preserved in Ulfilas' translation of the New Testament, 

4th century of our era. 
Old Norse or Icelandic, with literature from the 12th century. 
Anglosaxon or Old English, from the 7th to the 13th century. 
Old High German, with glosses from the 8th century ; Middle do., 

the language of the Nibelungenlied, 12th century; New do., 

from the 16th century. 

(2) Celtic: 

Gaulish, a few remains derived from Latin authors or inscriptions. 
Old Irish, glosses of the 8th and 9th centuries : Middle Irish, the 

earliest MS. a.d. 1100. 
Welsh, glosses of the 8th and 9th centuries : the earliest MS. of 

the 12th century. 

(3) Italic : 

Latin, the first inscription perhaps 300 B.C.; earliest author 

(Plautus) 224 B.C. 
Umbrian, preserved in the Eugubine Tables, the first part (* Old 

Umbrian,' perhaps 200 B.C.) written in Etruscan characters, 

the last (' New Umbrian,' perhaps 100 B.C. : from V. b. 7 to the 

end) in Latin. 
Osco-Sabellian, inscriptions from about 200 B.C. 

(4) Greek, from Homer (b.c 800?). 

(5) Balto-Slavic or Lithu-Slavic : 

Lithuanian, with literature from the 16th century. 
Lettish, from the 16th century. 



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INTRODUCTION xxvii 



Prussian or Old Prussian, of the 15th and 16th centuries, now 

extinct. 
Old Slavonic, Church- Slavonic or Old Bulgarian, frorh a transla- 
tion of the Bible by Methodius and Cyrillus, 9th century. 
(6) . Armenian or Old Armenian, 5th to 11th century. 
(7) Arian: 

Zend or Old Bactrian, the language of the Avesta, the oldest parts 

of which are said to date from 1000 B.C. 
Old Persian, the language of the Behistun inscriptions, about 500 

B.C. 

Sanskrit, said to date from 1000 B.C., and divided into two periods, 
Vedic and Classical Sanskrit, the latter from about 400 B.C. 
The earliest Indian inscriptions date from about 250 B.C. 



The Ursprache, if the speakers of it had known how* to 

write, would perhaps have had the following alphabet : 

Vowels : i, u, tf , e, o, a : i, u, F, E, o, a. 

Diphthongs : ei, oi, ai : eu, ou, au : ei, oi, ai : eu, ou, au. 

Sonants : if, n, £, B : m, n, l, b. 

Liquids : m, n, l, b. — Semivowels : J, v. 

Explosives : 

Labial p, b, ph, bh. 

Dental t, d, th, dh. 

Palatal k,g, kh, gh.— Velar kv, gv, khv, ghv. 
Sibilants : s, z. 

The Ursprache must have possessed a ' modified ' or 
French u (which I write fi), short and long, written some- 
times u, sometimes (apparently later) i : it appears fre- 
quently in Latin, see p. 119, less often in Greek (e.g. 
{tyros-tyros) and Old Slavonic (see stipula), and in Sanskrit 
in ul il as representing sonant l. — The Arian languages 
sometimes have i where other languages have a, see pater ; 
but the i may be due to foreign influence, and hardly 
necessitates the theory of an ' indefinite ' vowel (which 
Brugmann writes as an inverted e), in sound between a 
and e. — Diphthongs beginning in a long vowel are rare. — 
For sonant or vocalic r Sanskrit uses a single letter, r : 

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xxviii INTRODUCTION 



the other sonants in Sanskrit, and all the sonants in other 
languages, are represented hy a liquid + a vowel (usually 
before the liquid) differing in different languages, and of 
course different in the short form and in the long. A 
sonant may stand either in the accented syllable, e.g. re 
in Eng. pretty, or (more often) in the unaccented, e.g. en in 
Eng. seven, le or il in Eng. able, evil. 

Whether we ought to recognise 'spirants' j and v, as 
distinct from the semivowels j and v, is extremely doubt- 
ful: the 'spirant' v is nowhere distinguishable from the 
semivowel v, and the 'spirant* j, distinguished only in 
Greek (where it appears as initial f, see jam jugum jus 1 zona), 
may be only a strongly-pronounced semivowel j. — The 
Tenues Aspiratae, ph, th, kh, khv, are rare except in 
Greek, in which <f> x represent both kinds of Aspirates. — 
Palatals and Velars alike are usually called Gutturals : the 
palatals seem to have been pronounced nearer the front of 
the mouth (as k in Eng. kill), the velars further back (as c 
in Eng. cool). The palatals are preserved in the Western 
languages (Teutonic Celtic Italic and Greek), but in the 
Eastern (Balto-Slavic Armenian and Arian) become spirants : 
the velars in the Eastern languages are written as k g gh 
(or their equivalents) with no v following, while in the 
Western languages they vary in different words, i.e. are 
sometimes written as k g gh (or their equivalents) with no 
v following, and sometimes with a v following or (dialec- 
tically) as Labials or (in certain positions) Dentals. It is 
thus possible that we ought to recognise two different sets 
of velars, which have been kept apart in the Western 
languages and confused in the Eastern : the ' fixt ' velar 
in the roots given below under seed garrio congius gradus 
shows no sign of a v in any language, the ' labialisable ' 
velar given under -sequor venio ninguit regularly shows a v 
(or is labialised) in the Western languages. But how the 



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INTRODUCTION xxix 

two sets were distinguished in pronunciation, or how to 
represent them, does not appear. 

The perhaps insoluble question of the origin of language 
does not fall within our province. It may suffice to observe 
that onomatopoeic words, imitations of sounds, are rare in 
the daughter-languages, and must have been correspond- 
ingly rare in the Ursprache. Of this kind in Latin are the 
following : 

(1) from human sounds : Nouns amita mamma pappus (all infantile), 
balbus stloppus : Verbs lalld pappd (both infantile), scred, and see 
bibo : Interjections a o, hahae hau hex heja heu hui, eheu eho ohe, 
em en, bat, fu ft, *va (spelt vah or vaha), atat tat tatae, pro prox, st, 
hews. 

(2) from sounds of animals: dog see baubor, sheep bald; chicken 
pipd, cuckoo cuculus, hoopoe upupa, owl bubo strix tU, raven crocio, 

(3) from inanimate sounds: strepo strldo tlnio tintind, tax tuxtax (these 
two expressing the sound of blows). 

A kind of Onomatopoeia appears in the initial Eedupli- 
cation of some words : either the whole root is given twice 
over, cincinnm (of obscure formation) tintind irtulo, or to it is 
prefixt the initial consonant + i in Verbs, gigno sido sisto 
titubo (see also jejento jejunus), u in Nouns, cucurbita sttsurrus. 

The Ursprache was doubtless, like each of the daughter- 
languages, a congeries of different dialects. In one of these 
initial s before a Tenuis was dropt, whence we have by- 
forms in sp- and p-, st- and t-, SC- and c-, see p. 127. 
So also the variation in the ending of certain numerals, 
see decern novem septem, may have been dialectic. — Other 
pairs of forms are more difficult to understand, see 
under juvenis, rapum rete, quattuor quinque sex, dices grus 
turdus. — Apparently one dialect preferred (as Old Slavonic 
does) open syllables, ie. those ending in a vowel : hence 
the occasional instances of Metathesis in the case of liquids, 
on-no see umbilicus umbra unguis, ir-ri circus, ur-ru socer, 
er-re credo terreo, and in one dialect the vowel in such 

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xxx INTRODUCTION 

cases was lengthened, see fretus pterins. So the two ways 
of representing L and R in Latin point to different dialects 
in the Ursprache : one had la, ra, the other *51, *2r, and 
thence (if a consonant followed) al, ar. 

In the Ursprache, as in the daughter-languages, the 
majority of words were disyllabic; and w£ may call the 
first part of the word the ' root ' and the rest the termina- 
tion, without supposing that either root or termination was 
ever used independently. The root, and to some extent the 
termination, were subject as to their vocalism to definite 
changes of form (' vowel-gradation ' or ' Ablaut '), probably 
originally depending on grammatical construction : i.e. the 
word acquired a stronger meaning by copying the vocalism 
of some forcible word, an ordinary meaning by copying the 
vocalism of most ordinary words, a weaker meaning by 
copying the vocalism of less emphatic words. Such Ablaut 
may be of three kinds : any vowel may be either long or 
short, certain vowels (especially e and o) may interchange, 
e (and in some few cases o. 1 ) may disappear entirely. Latin 
examples of Ablaut are the following : 

(1) vowel long or short : 

I llquor-liqud strlx vibex-vibrd. 

u nubo-pronuba pusus-pusilltts puteo-puter rfidd scutum-scutica, and 

see suppus. 
E lex-lego rex-rego sedes-sedeo tegula-tego, and see sopio. 
glftmus moles-molesttis (?) nos-noster pro-pro- scrofa-scrobis vox-vocd, 

and see comis cupes off a persona, 
A dcer-alacer fldgitd-flagrum inddg6-ag6 labor-labd mcLcerd-inacd mdne- 

manus sagio-sagax $t6-destin6 vddo-vadum, and see mamma. 
Sonants: h gndrus-ingens, L flavus-fulvus latus-tuli largus-indulgeo, 

R grdtus-hortor pravus-por- marceo-morior pars-portio, 

(2) different vowels : 

e-o : meditor-modus necd-noced necto-noxa (?) pendo-pondus precor-pro- 
cus rego-rogt sedeo-solium sequor-socms tego-toga. So gemo-gumia 
jacio-jocus niteo-nota, and see foveo-faveo meminl-moneo. 

1 So sometimes a, see ambi- ante arduus Twrrevm lattis, sorex sUdus. 

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INTRO D UCTION 



E-d" only in the terminations -ter -tor (both later shortened). 

e-a imbecillus-baculum, and see langueo reor : in satus beside semen 

the a may be pretonic for e. 
o-a only in dwium-dare nosco-agnitus : in catus beside cos the a may 
be pretonic for o. 
(3) vowel omitted : 

e : (o) in a diphthong : ei dico-dieax fido-fides, eu duc5-dux trudo- 
trudis, eu jugis-jugum liber-libet. 
(j3) initial before an explosive in dens sum. 
(y) between two explosives, one disappearing in Latin, see hos- 

pes sido quartus. 
($) between. explosive and liquid, the latter becoming a sonant, 
n see tenuis , l pulmentum, R extorrisfors mordeo sors storea 
urged. 
(c) between liquid and explosive, the former becoming a sonant, 
m infit (?), n in/ula (?), R fortis gurges posed ( = *porcsco) 
turpis, and with long sonant flaccus. 
o : (o) in a diphthong, aeefaveo-fui: 
(j8) between two explosives, -pte : 
(y) between explosive and liquid, the latter becoming a (long) 

sonant, lana : 
(8) between liquid and explosive, the former becoming a sonant, 
pulcer. 

So in terminations : 

(1) vowel long or short : Nom. aMes aries paries, Gen. abtetis &c. 

(2) different vowel : e-o litera-lUus temperd-tempus, and see annus. 

(3) vowel omitted : e between consonants, aes ansa far, and see amnis 

annus, corylus sol, ascia mensis. So E of the (original) Nom. 
drops in the oblique cases, deer pater and on this analogy 
ager &c. ; and so 6 of stem nepos-neptis soror-sobrinus, or of 
Nom. caro-carnis cf . Iwmo-kominis, and see collis comix. 

A phenomenon akin to Ablaut is the insertion of a nasal 
before explosive or sibilant at the end of the root : pampinus 
nimbus y prehendo (?), sancio, fringilla jungo langueo ninguit 
pungo, fimbriae pinso. 

When a new idea arose, or a modification of an old idea, 
it was apparently expressed in the Ursprache not by a 



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xxxii INTRODUCTION 



wholly new word, which would have been unintelligible, 
but by giving some existent wprd a fresh termination. 
Sometimes the initial consonant of the new termination 
necessitated a change in the final consonant of the 'root ' 
or first syllable : hence we may explain occasional fluctua- 
tions in the root-ending, between b and bh cubo, k and g* 
pax pagina, kv and gv mugilis siccus. 

A sufficient account of the various terminations of words 
in the Ursprache is given in Brugmann's ' Grundriss,' vol. 
ii. The following list of Noun-endings contains only those 
found in words with which in this work we are concerned, 
with one or two examples of each ending : 

(A) Vowel-stems ending in 

(1) o (Fern, a) : mo fumus fdma, no pugnus luna, lo ocuhis pila, 
ro gndrus fibra : *jo i.e. io lanius ascia or eo (the * plebeian * form) 
cuneus llnea, vo flavus : bho acerbus probus superbus morbus, to 
lectus crusta, do crudus, ko juvencus vacca kvo fuscus furca. 
With two consonants, or consonant + sonant : mno auctumivus 
mnofemina, nto ventus ndo merenda : bdo = *blo plo duplus or 
p}o diseipulus : tmo optimus, tno pristinus, tlo = clo saeclum or 
cjo surculus periculum, tro monstrum dextra, dhlo = *blo bio 
vestibulum fibula or by Dissimilation bro cribrum crebra : skvo 
or sko vescus escaposca. — Compound endings : 
(o) double: 

fi + vo miluus centum, + no opportUnus supinus, + ro maturus, 
+ to hirsHtus cerritus, + kvo festuca apricus, + sko coruscus 
labrusca : e + ro severus, + to facetus moretum : a + ro amarus, 
+ to arquatus + do cicada, + kvo opacus. 

no + *jo i.e. io scrlnium lacinia or eo idoneus : lo + lo capillus 
axilla : ro + io mdceria, ri + no see hibemus tabema + kvo 
lubricus noverca : bho + io dubius : to + eo pluteus. 

mno + io calumnia, mon + io caerimonia : nt + io nurvtius : 
mn + to armentum. 

is + tro sinister : es + ro cerebrum tenebrae : s + Jo aesculus + 
no luna + to juxta. 
(j3) treble: 

fi + no + io vaccinium, + ro + io penuria, + kvo + lo venucula, 
+ gvo + iofastigium : e + lo + io contumelia fidelia : a + lo + 
io spondalium, + ro + io rorarii, + kvo + eo mwtaeeum. 



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INTRODUCTION xxxiii 



to + lo + lo pastillus : ta + ro + io stldtdrius mortdrium : 
tu + ft + to pUulta : kvo + lo + io domicilium : s + lo + io 
auxilium, + lo + lo pdxillus vexillum. 

nta + ro + io ferentdrius. 

In mediastlnus provincia even more terminations are com- 
bined. 

(2) i cinis : ri deer, ti tussis vcstis rite and see dos nox, si see miser, 
tri puter. Double : fi + li bubile monile, a + ri laquear palear, 
nt + ri venter : treble 1 + ta + ti simultds, es + ta + ti tern- 
pestds. 

Most -i- stems in Latin are formed from -o- stems, levis piscis, 
and see similis : in mo subllmis vermis, no acclinis amnis collis 
munis omnis^segnis, lo talis, ro imber, to fortis mitis tristis, dhro 
celeber. So with double ending : st + lo candlis ferdlis rivdlis, 
ja + lo mdjdlis, ni-f-.ro ^escendris, to + lo f Otitis, See also 
conchis hilaris, palumbes tabes. — Also from -u- stems, brevis 
dulcis gravis levis pinguis tenuis ; and from consonant-stems, 
canis juvenis mensis. 

(3) u gradus metus nurus socrus, cornu- tu atstus artus (Subst.) 
fdstus gressiis passus partus rUus saltus. 

(4) e after i, eariis facies permities rabies sanies. 

(5) Sonant : n femen inguen sanguen, r augur femur furfur jecur 
memor murmur: mn carmen crimen germen n&men. Double: 
to + r guttur, s + mn lumen omen. 

(B) Consonant-stems ending in 

(1) n: on umbo and on (n) homo margo ordo virgo: mon pulmo 
sermo tSmo and mon (mn) flamen. Double : i + 5n condicio regrw 
relligio sclpio : n + 5n fullo, ro + 5n crabrd mucro. Treble : 
fl ,+ d + on (n) hirudo formido, + nd + 5n (n) harundo hirundo, 
+ gv + 5n (n) porrigo : a + gv + 5n (n) imago : ta + gv + on 
(n) sartdgo. In fuligo uligo even more terminations are com- 
bined. 

(2) 1 pugil vigil. 

(3) r : or soror, ter (tr) f rater mdter pater, tor nomencldtor. Double : 
m + 5r rumor. 

(4) bh caelebs. 

c 



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xxxiv INTRODUCTION 

(5) t caput, amies dives limes seges stipes, and see ingens locuples : 6t 
nepos : nt cliens dens frequcns repens rudens, fons sons. Double : 
m + it fomes trarnes, j + it abies aries paries. 

(6) d lapis pccus, and after long vowel palus heres merces custos. 

(7) kv culex senex, filix silix varix. Double : I + kv cervix pernfo 
radix vibix, e + kv vervex, a + kv procdx sagdx : mo + kv 
pumex, no + kv fornix pollex, lo + kv allex : bdo (= *blo, plo) 

+ kv duplex simplex. Treble : no + I + kv comix, + a + kv 
forrvax : lo 4- 5 4- kv velox, ro + 6 + kv atrox, 

(8) s far : is anser, os odor honos and see tellus, os (es) genus opus 
robur vetus. Double : n + os (es) pignus vellus volnus : i + es 
mulier: t + OS pectus. Treble : a + vo + es cadaver papaver. 

Verb-stems are mostly similar to Noun-stems : only the 
termination dho, claudo tendu, does not appear in Nouns. 
Simple Verbs have stems in n cerno lino 8%>ernd temno fallo 
tollo vello, t flecto necto plecto sterto nitor, sk evened nosed posed 
posed (and double, i + sk apiscor nanciscor paciscor idciscoi; 
see conquinisco), u actio argud minud sternud. Verbs in do, 
abdo &c, are (except credo) formed from Adjectives : other 
derived Verbs have stems in 

i grundid : double, mo + i dormio, ro + I nutrio, do 4- 1 audio condio : 
treble fl + to + I frigutio. 

e moneo : double, mo + e umeo, no + e polled, do + e gaudeo splendeo, 
kvo + e marceo. 

a amd : ma clamd, na destind lancind muginor, la felt vdpuld mold 
stipulor, ra blaterd fiagrd igjwrd lamberd macero migro penetro tolcrt 
vibrd : ta confuto mactd nutd putt temptt hortor luctor meditor, da 
mandd : kva fried peccd : sa vex6. With two consonants tra intrC 
latrd lustrt : with consonant + sonant tma auttimd atsti7n6. Double : 
u + na opinor : treble sko + to + la pos(ci)tul6. 



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ETYMA LATINA 



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XX)C|/// 



CURAE SECUNDAE. 

almus must go with ad (cf. wpo<rrjicov * fitting,' frdm *p6s ' to '). 

an -cilia fr. ambi- + cold, cf . &fjupi-iro\os. 

arvina * accretion,' Adj. *ar-vus from ar, ad. 

assula from * ad-tula, ad-, ' rising up '. 

at, Got. ath- than ' but '. 

concipilo: 'offatim conficiam' in Plaut. True. 613 is a mere conjec- 
ture, and the reading in 621 is 'quern ego jam jam jam concipulabo '. 

crepida kbep- ONor hrijlingr shoes, cf. kbep- Kp-qirls. — The meaning 
must be ' something to stand on,' cf. crep-ldo. 

cudo : toll) can hardly be connected. 

doced = ' cause to receive,' cf. SeKojiai receive. 

e- castor cf. fj Interj., ed-£-pol cf. If. So eccere = *e-cere, ' O Ceres '. 

e-hem disyllabic in Plaut Mil. 1382 must be a compound like e-heu. 

far. 

formica = * architect,' fr. forma. 

juvenis, add OSlav. jun&. 

musca, OSlav. muha fly. 

novus, Ags. neove. 

proceres fr. *pro-cus Adj. of pro-, cf. Fest. procicm Gen. 

reor, add E. hundred. 

sarracum : cf . Mir. sessrech wagon ? 

ungula, Ags. ndgel with inserted e. 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 



a ante-consonantal form of sq. 

ab from: for *ap (from *apo, see aperio): orig. used in compounds 

before a Media, e.g. abdicd, then became the prevalent form. 
tabacus board : *&&okos, by-form of f&0a£. 
abdo hide : fr. *dbdus Adj. from ab, see -dd. 
abdomen abdumen paunch: * containing,' fr. *habdus *habidus Adj. of 

habeo (cf. albumen fr. albus). 
abiegnus of fir- wood : for fabiet-nus *abiennus fr. sq. , with g on anal. 

of llignus salignus (in which the g is from c). 
abies white fir : Hesych. &pis : 

ab-oleo destroy : « check the growth of,' see ad-olesco*. 
abolla cloak : Dimin. of f*abola, from aPo\rj Ace. of Sicilian a$o\ev$ 
1 (Hesych.), see amphora : 

fabrotonum southernwood: fappSrovov, Sk. mratanam\ a marsh- 
plant, 
tabs aps from : ab +. s (a case-ending?), cf. ex obs-. 
absinthium wormwood (Fr. absinthe) : atyivOiov, Hesych. currrlOiov {i.e. 

from Aspendus in Pamphylia ?) : spelt quasi from ab. 
ab-sur-dus out of tune : from sub-, see susurrus. 
abunde in profusion, abundo habundo (see Key) abound : f r. *habundus 

* possessing, ' Gerundive of habeo. (Popularly connected with unda. ) 
tacalanthis goldfinch : aKaXavOls, fr. *aic<l\r) thorn (see acuo), from its 

habitat. 
accerso summon : = *ad-cer-to from *cero = cedo, with -so on anal, of 

arcesso. 
accipiter hawk : = *acup6ter y cf. aKmrirtis swift-flying (epithet of hawk 

in Hes. Op. 210), Sk. acupdtvan- : fr. ocior •+■ peto * go '. 
ac-clinis leaning : cf . K\fvw turn k\1vt\ couch, and (with I) Ags. hlinian 

lean E. : klI-, see clivus, cf. kli- Zd. cri- go Sk. cri- resort, klei- Lit. 

szlieti lean. 
acer maple : akes-, cf. Hesych. tf/ecur-Tos, OHG. ahor-n. 
acer sharp (E. eager vinegar) : fr. 6c4or, with * pretonic ' a ; see alacer. 
acerbus sharp : = *acri-bus from *acru-, Lit. asztrus OSlav. ostrti : fr. 

acies. Term, bho-, cf . dubius probus superbus. 
acerra incense-box : foreign ? 

i 

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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 



acervus heap : = *acri-vus fr. acer-bus, ' pointed \ 

acetum vinegar (NHG. cssig from *aUcum, Metathesis) ; Part. Neut. of 

aceo am sour, fr. sq. 
acies edge: ak- iucls point, Ags. ecg edge E., E. egg Verb, cf. Ik- W. 

awch edge : fr. acuo. 
tacinaces scimitar : f tucivdicris, Persian, 
acinus berry : 

tacipenser aquipensis sturgeon : cf. +iuciciirfi<rios for *&Kpiirfiv<rios : Gau- 
lish, the first element fr. aqua ? 
taclys javelin : 

taconitum monkshood : &k6vitov : 
acr-edula thrush (for the term. cf. flcedtda monedula qvarqvMula, nlte- 

dula, alcldo) : 
facta shore : aicrf) headland : 
acud sharpen (E. ague eglantine) : cf. sq. 

Not fr. dcior. 
acus needle : fr. praeced.,,cf. Arm. ase\n. 
ad at to : Olr. ad, Got. E. at. 
ad- up (in adimo adsurgo dscendo attollo) : = *ed- (with pretonic a), Sk. 

dd.hi> see af erga iterum. 
adeo so far : ' up from that,* praeced. + ed Abl. of is ; see af. 
adeps fat : adip- (quasi fr. adipiscor acquire) for fallp- from &\ti<pa. 
ad-miniculum vine-stake : ' handle,' fr. manus. 
ad-oled offer ('bring out the fragrance'), ad-olesco 1 smell (Georgics 

4. 379) : oledy cf. OUmbr. u&etu let him kindle. 
ad-olesco 2 grow up : fr. alo, cf . aboleo indoles suboles proles, ' survivals ' 

for *abuleo &c. — Festus' olesco is a figment. 
ador spelt : cf. Got. atisk cornfield : ? 
ad-drea glory : *aurea, cf. t*-avp4<o partake of. 
ad-iilor fawn on: *ad-udio (cf. assentor beside assentio) pay attention 

to, from audio. 
ad-ultero pollute : ' mix with something else,' fr. alter. 
aedis dwelling: 'where the fire is kept up,' fr. cdf0« burn, Mir. aed 

fire, Ags. ad pyre E. cowhouse (cf. ONor. eld-hus 'fire-house,' i.e. 

hall or parlour). 
aeger sick (E. malinger) : 'shaking,' aig- Sk. ej- stir? 

Hardly for *aesger fr. alirxpts ill-favored. 
faegis shield: alyls (either 'of goatskin,' fr. aX£ goat, or 'of oak,' see 

aesculus). 
faelinos dirge : faXKivos, Heb. ai woe lanu to us. 
aemulus emulous : Fest. aemidus swelling : 
aequus level : = *aeviquus continuous, fr. aevum. 
taer air (E.) : t4\p> fr. Arifit blow (see ventus). 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 



aerumna trouble : ' burden ' of . Fest. aerumnula forked stick to carry 

a bundle : 
aes copper : ais- short form of ajes-, see aMneus. 
aesculus winter-oak: dialectic (see ascia) for *aexulus, *aexus, aigv- 

aXyapos poplar (see onfrdxinus) alycw&i spear, Ags. dc oak E., + -s-. 
aestumo value (E. aim) : *aestumus calculating, fr. aes. 
aestus heaving motion, heat : ONor. eisa to dash, foam ? 
faether sky : ald-fip : ' burning,' see aedis. 
aevum time (E. age) : cf. (1) aivos Got. aivs E. ever (see Kluge on 

immer) aye either or no; (2) aivon alwv age; (3) aives- Olr. ais 

(= *aives-tu-), Loc. aid (= *aipt(ri) always. Orig. 'continuance,' 

see aequus. 
af from (used before consonants) : dialectic for *ab edh'- see ad-, ' up 

from', 
af-fatim enough: 'to weariness,' ad + *fatis, seefatigd. 
ager field : ayp6s, Got. akrs E. acre acorn, Sk. djras plain : ' place to 

move in,' fr. ago. 
agnitus known : ad + *gnatus by-form of gnotus, see nosed. 
agnus lamb : agvnos, OSlav. ague ; by-form agvnos, ajiv6s (for *a$v6s) ? 

Mir. uan can hardly be connected. 
ago move (E. squash squat) : AG- by to I drive, Mir. agaim, ONor. 

aka to drive Ags. acan to ache E., Arm. acem I bring, Zd. az- drive 

Sk. aj-. 
ah a (cf. oh o, prohpro) Interj. : 2, MHG. o!- E. ah, Lit. d, Sk. a. 
aha Interj. (in Plaut. a monosyllable) : dialectic spelling of a (praeced.), 

see trans. 
aheneus aeneus of copper : = *aes-neus from ajes-, Got. aiz copper 

Ags. dr brass E. ore, Zd. ayahh iron Sk. dyas, see aes. 
tai Interj. : at, cf. Ir. e, MHG. ei, Lit. at, and ai Zd. ai Sk. dv\. 
ajo say : = *ag-jo, cf. adagio proverb, agh- Olr. ai a saying (Stokes, 

Celtic Declension, p. 22), Sk. ah- say. 
ala wing : = *axla, cf . axilla. 
alacer lively : • sharp,' ad + *acer ok- cf. 5k- deer. 
alapa blow : ad + apiscor reach, 
albus white (E. auburn daub) : albh- a\<p6s white leprosy, OHG. elbiz 

swan (whence OSlav. lebedl). 
alcedo (for term, see acredula) a bird : ci &\kvwv : 

hardly from Teutonic, OHG. alacra little auk (Graff) ONor. alka 
aukE. 
alces elk: iUjcij (Pausanias), cf. elk- Ags. eolh ONor. elgr E., lk- Sk. 

teas antelope, lak- OSlav. lost elk. 
ilea gaming : 
talec allec hallec pickle : 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 



alga seaweed : 

alged am cold: &\yos pain (as ftyiov 'more horrible' is fr. fiyos 

'chill'). 
alius other : alj- &k\os, Olr. aile, Got. aljis E. else, Arm. ail. 
allex hallex thumb : aZZw* Fest. , i.e. *ad-lus from ad, * additional ' finger, 
allium alium garlick: cf. alum wild garlic Plin. 19. 116, if its a is 

long: 
almus propitious (a religious term) : = *admus, cf. NUmbr. arsmor 

ceremonies (and Hesych. tofmlvw am well ?). - J i ^ - - > v v ' ' 
alnus alder : = *elsn6s, Lit. clksnis (for *elsnis), els- cf. elis- OHG. 

cfo'ra E. (E. with ' excrescent ' d), OSlav. ellha. 
aid nourish : al- &/-oAtos insatiate, Olr. not-a?7 alit te, Got. alan grow, 
taloe aloe : \aX6r\ y Assyrian uduu. 
talpha A : \&K<pa, Heb. eleph (see elephds). 
altus high (E. haughty hawser) : Part of alb, ' grown up'. 

Hardly add Got. altlicis old E. 
alticinor allucinor (also hal- hall-) prate : ' breathe out ' (cf. fatuus 

'foolish' fr. fatisco 'gape'), *hdlucus Adj. fr. M16. 
aluta soft leather : = *aduta put on, Part, of *ad-uo, cf. ind-uo ex-uo. 
alvus belly : ' hollow,' au\6s pipe, av\4v a hollow. 
tamaracus marjoram (E.) : f&papaKos : 
amarus bitter : om-, Mir. om raw (so Ags. siir ' sour ' goes with 

OSlav. syru 'raw'), Sk. am-las sour; cf. 5m-, ujx6s raw, Arm. hum, 

Sk. dmds. 
tambactus vassal (Got. andbahts servant, spelt quasi from and towards, 

see ante: Eng. ambassador) : Gaulish (Fest.), cf. W. amaeth husband- 
man : * sent around,' fr. sq. + ago. 
ambi- around : ambh£ d/i<f>f, cf. (1) MBHf Olr. imme, Ags. ymb E. 

e?7iber-d&ys MHG. um ; (2) ABHf OSlav. obi-, Zd. aibi over Sk. aiAi 

around ; (3) bhi (?) Got. bi by E. 
ambo both : ambho &n<pu>, cf. (1) abhO" Lit. abit OSlav. oba ; (2) bh<5 

(?) Got. bai baj'6ths E., and u-bh<5 Zd. uba Sk. ubhd: fr. praeced. 
fambrosia ambrosia : fafifipoa-ia, cf. Arab, 'amber ambergris (E. E. 

amber) Zenker 639 b. 
tambubaja flute-player : Adj. fr. *ambuba pipe, Arab, embube Zenker 

99 c. 
ambulo walk : ' move both feet,' fr. *amb-lus Adj. from *amb~ by-form 

(properly before vowel) of ambi-. 
amb-uro scorch : ambi- + urd : wrongly divided am-buro, whence com- 

burd and b&stum. 
amellus starwort : Gaulish for *ampellos • loved by bees,' fr. *ampis bee 

(m spelt am, and p disappearing in Celtic : see Stokes B B. 9. 194), 

cf . OHG. impi and ifiwis gnat ? 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 



amentum amm- adm- arm- thong : ad, * attachment '. 

ames pole of bird-net : 

amita aunt (E.): ama onomatopoeic, cf. amma Hesych. bfifids mother, 

ONor. amma grandmother, Assyrian ummi mother; with parti- 
cipial ending quasi fr. amd. 
amnis river : = *abnis abh-n-, cf. abh-en- Mir. abann (E. Avon), and 

ambh- Gaulish ambe rivo, Sk. dmbhas water, 
amd love : ' choose,' fr. emd take. 

famomum balsam : f&fwpov : Semitic, cf. cinn-amomum. 
amplus large : = *am-blus from am- ambi- + term, -blus, see duplex, 

' comprehensive \ 
ampulla bottle : = *ampor-la fr. f*ampora amphora (NHG. timer pail) 

from *i,fixpopa Ace. of b.fx<pop*vs (see abolla). 
-t-amurca oil-lees : = *amurga (see spelunca), a^pyrj : 
tamussim carpenter's rule : ' line scratched,' &nv£iv (Ace.) tearing, fr. 

a/ivffffa) I tear. 
tamygdalum almond (E.) : *&fitySaKov, fafivySfan, Semitic. 
an or : cf. &v in that case, Got. an then (Interrogative). 
anas duck : anat*-, Ags. dned OHG. anet-iecho drake ('duck king') E. 

drake decoy; cf. NTf- vyaaa i/Scca ( = *j/£rja) duck, Lit. dntis OSlav. 

g,ty, Sk. dtis a water-fowl. 
ancile oval shield : = *am-clde * cut around,' am- (see amplus) + caedo? 
ancilla handmand : Dimin. of *ancula, cf. Fest. anculd serve: ^ f ^ /? 
fancora anchor (E.) : Hytcvpa, cf. kyic&v arm ('bent ') : ending on anal. 

of remora * hindrance ' ? 
fandabata blindfolded gladiator : Gaulish (cf. Gallus for mirmillo, 

Fest.) ? 
fanethum dill : \\krt)6ov, &vl<rov, oriental. 
anfr-actus winding : Osc. amfr- around (formed from amb-, see ambuU, 

as super from *sup, sub : cf. Fest. ambr-ices bars, fr. jacio) + ago : -fr- 

retained (for -&?•-) quasi fr. amb- + frango. 
angd choke (E. anguish), angustus narrow: angh- &yx<* choke, Olr. 

cum-any narrow, Got. agg- vus E. ogr-nail ONor. angr grief E. anger, 

Lit. anksztas narrow OSlav. az&kU, Arm. anjuk, Zd. dzahh distress Sk. 

anhas need. 
anguilla eel : = *engvila, enghv- cf. fyx-e\vs ; and onghv- Lit. ung- 

urys (initial vowel obscure) OSlav. ag-oriltl ; fr. sq. ? 
anguis snake : NGvf-, Lit. angis, cf. ngv- OHG. unc snake. 

Hardly add Olr. eao-ung eel (Stokes, Celtic Declension, p. 29) quasi 
' fen-snake '. 
angulus corner: OSlav. oglU, cf. (without the nasal) Sk. dgram 

point. 
anhelus panting : = *anllus {h from hal6) Adj. (cf . crOd-Slis) from an-, sq. 



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s 



ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 



anima air, animus soul: &v€/jlos wind, Olr. anim air, from an- Got. 

us-anan expire, OSlav. vonja odor, Zd. amika face Sk. an- breathe. 
annus anus year : = *asnos, asn- cf. ason- Got. asans harvest E. earn, 

Pruss. assanis autumn, asen- OSlav. jesenl. 

Rather than *atnos, Got. athn year. Not *amnos, see sollemnis: 
mn would remain, 
ansa handle : Lit. gsa : = *omsd, fr. umerus. 
anser goose : = *hansis, Mir. geis swan, Lit. zysis goose OSlav. gasl 

(with g- from Teutonic), cf . (1) ghans- Ags. gos, Sk. haiisas, ghans- 

xhv ; (2) ghan-, Ags. gandra gander E., ganot gannet E. 
Not add Arm. sag goose quasi = *gas : as soon make dog the Clas- 
sical form whence Teutonic cat quasi = *tac. 
ante before (E. advance enhance vamp ra?iguard) : = *anti 'in the row,' 

Locative fr. antes : fani opposite, cf. Got. and towards E. and answer 

tclope, Lit. ant on, and ijfTi Sk. dnti opposite, NTf Got. und to E. 

unto, nt- Olr. #an forehead. 
ante-cello excel : ' rise before,' *cel-no, see celsus. 

ante-mna (for the ending cf. la-mna) antenna (quasi fr. ten-do) sail- 
yard: ante.) 'against' the mast, cf. Atvtemnae 'opposite' the junction 

of Anio and Tiber. 
antes rows : ANTf- Got. andeis end E. , cf. anto- Sk. dntas, see ante. 
antestor call to witness : = *ante-testor. 
tantrum cave : &vrpov : from an- anima, cf. Plin. 2. 208 quae spiracula 

vocant . . . scrobes mortif erum spiritum exhalantes ? 
anulus ring anus tcucrfaios (in two senses) : Olr. dnne ring. 
anus old woman : OHG. ana grandmother, Pruss. ane, cf . Hesych. 

hvvis. 
aper boar : epr<5- Ags. efor (and JEfor-vic York). 

Hardly add OSlav. veprl. 
ap-erio uncover (E. malapert) : Sk. apa-ar- : *ap (see ab) Got. af from 

E. of off after awkward ebb evening, from apo faro, Zd. apa Sk. dpa 

away, + er- raise, see orior. 
apex top : ' point of junction,' fr. apiscor. 
apis bee: 'builder,' apo fasten, sq. 
apiscor get aptus fitted: Fest. apo fasten, Ags. dfnian to complete, 

Zd. ap- reach Sk. dp- (i. e. a* to + *ap-) obtain, 
apium parsley (E. smalloos) : ' used for garlands,' fr. apo, praeced. 
faplustrum stern : = *aplust-trum from *aplustwm = *&<p\o<rrov by-form 

of &<p\affToy (as fio\6xv oi MoAcfx*?) : 
aprlcus lying in the sun : ' basking ' like a boar, fr. aper. 
apud apur apor with : ' reaching,' fr. apiscor. 
aqua acua water (E. ewer sewer) : Got. ahva Ags. l-ge (= *e£-ja, ed- 

from au-, av-, ahv-) island E. i-s-land ey-ot Angles-ey. 



"\ 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 



aquila eagle (E. : the *dark' bird) aquilo north wind ('dark' with 

storm) aquilus dark : = *aquudus *ak-vo-dos, cf. Osc. Akudunniad 

Aquilonia : *ak-vos, cf. Hesych. &K-apos blind, 
ar to (before consonant, arbiter arcesso arfuerunt arvehd> Plaut. ar me) : 

cf. NUmbr. arfertur adfertor, from ars- NUmbr. form of OUmbr. 

ad- = Lat. ad. 
ara asa altar, sunken rock (Key's Dictionary) : 

hardly fr. areo. 
taranea spider: fr. *ardna *aracna from apdxvy. So ardneus from 

&pax vos ' 
arbiter witness: ar + gvot-, OUmbr. ad-putrati arbitratu, cf. gvet- 

ONor. at-kvaeda decision ; see vetd. 
arbos tree : abdh-, Lit. ardai frame made of bars OSlav. ras-ta 

( = *rad-ta) I grow, Zd. ared- grow Sk. ardh- thrive, 
arbutus strawberry-tree : * fast-growing,' fr. praeced. 
area chest (E. ark), arced confine : abkv- hpicsto keep off, Olr. tess- 

urc I keep, Lit. rakinti (Metathesis, from Slavonic) to lock, Arm. 

argelum I restrain. 
arcesso summon: fr. *arcessus Part., ar + cedd. 
tarctus bear : Hpxros, see ursus. 
arcus bow (E. arch): cf. Got. ar&v-az-na arrow Ags. earhv E.: 'defence,' 

fr. arced. 
ardea heron: 'plebeian' for *ardia i.e. bdia, 4-pa>8i6s £a>9i6s, cf. ONor. 

arta teal. 
ardeo burn : fr. ardus (Plaut. ) = dridus dry, f r. areo. 
arduus steep: Sdhvos Mir. ard high, Sk. urdhvds rising, cf. rdhvos 

Zd. eredhwa just ('upright ') ; and ardh-, arbos. 
But 6p06s erect = fop06s, cf. Bop0-ay6pas. 
area aria ground (E. aery ?) : 
areo am dry : 
argentum silver (Olr. arget): bgento- cf. bgeto- Osc. aragetud Abl., 

and bgeto- Arm. arcath, Zd. erezata : 'white,' from bg- apy6s white 

ipyvpos silver, cf. ebg- W. eira snow, Got. un-airkns unholy, Sk. 

drjunas white drjunam silver arj- shine. 
targilla (quasi Adj., so. terra) white clay: ZpyiWos &pyl\os, fr. praeced. 
arguo prove (' make clear ') argiitus clear : fr. argentum. 
aries ram : *erie't- t cf. Lit. tras lamb OSlav. jarina wool, 
arista awn: 

hardly = *osi8td t burr 6s arrow, from the shape, 
anna tools : ar, ' appendages '. 
armentum beast : ar, 'appendage', 
annus shoulder: bm<5s, Got. arms arm E., OSlav. rame, shoulder^ Zd. 

arema arm Sk. Irmds ; cf. bm^s, Pruss. irmo, Arm. arm-ukn elbow. 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 



aro plough : cf. &p6w, W. ar tilth, Got. arjan to plough OE. ear Verb, 

Lit. drti OSlav. orati, Arm. ar&r a plough, 
arquatus jaundiced: 'yellow as the rainbow,' arquus = areas. 
farrabo pledge (E. earnest Subst.) : •YtypafMv, Heb. trabhon. 
ars skill : |Tf-, Sk. ftis attack, cf. OHG. art nature ; * going,' see orior. 
artus Adj. close (also spelt arctus quasi fr. arced), Subst joint : ar- 

ap-ap-l(TK(c fit. 
arvina fat : cf. arUlla Fest. : ■ <- f * ^X /" 
arvum field : = *erv6m, W. erw acre, OHG. ero earth, 
arx citadel: 'defence,' fr. arced. 

as assis pound (E. ace) : = *ed-tls fr. elementum, * unit '. 
ascia axe : dialectic for *o<»ia agvsi-, i|fyT?, agvesi- Got. agist, agvs- 

Ags. eaa E. 
asilus gadfly : foreign ? 
tasinus ass (W. asyn; Got. asilus E. #wcZ; Lit. dsilas and OSlav. 

o$?Z# from Teutonic: Ags. assa E. is obscure) : *&<rivos Ionic for *&twos 

from Heb. aMon she-ass, with t quasi an Adj. -ending -ivos. 
tasparagus asparagus : icricdpayos (whence Pers. espereg a dyer's plant, 

Zenker 36 b) : 
asper (asper late, Diomedes Keil 1. 431) rough : = *abs-per unattrac- 
tive, abs +pard (see pauper). 
faspis asp : iuricls : foreign ? 
asser pole : ad + sero. 2 

Not cf. Got. ans beam. r> 

assula astula acsula (Catullus 17. 3, see pessulus) splinter : OX Y Y /» ';' 
assus roasted : = *ad-tus, cf. &(a dryness ( = *tf3-ja). 
ast but : = *ads-te, i.e. *ad-s from ad (see abs) + ti Loc. fr. to, see turn, 

1 thereto \ 
tastrum star : torpor, see stella. 
tastu city : f&orv : . 

astus craft : / ^ 

at ad but: hr-ip, Got. ath th^n, Olr. a#fc- back (= *ati-), Lit. a*- OSlav. 

otti from, Sk. a* further (= H to + *a*). 
atat attat Interj. : cf. (with short vowels) hrrarai, ONor. cUatata, Lit. a*. 
at-avus ancestor in the 5th degree : at ' further ' + avu& 
ater black: NUmbr. adro ji&ava: odh-b<5-, cf. Lit. jtidas, and ondh-ba, 

see umbra. 
tatrium hall : Etruscan (Varro). 

atroz fierce : fr. *atriis (cf. ferbx fr. ferus), od-r<58 fr. odium. 
tattagen hazel-hen : -Xhrrayiiv : Lydian (' Ionicus ' Hor.) ? 
tattegia hut : Moorish (Juv. 14. 196) ? 
auctumnus autumnus autumn: 'season of increase, harvest-time,' fr. 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 



audeo dare : fr. *audus = avidus greedy, fr. aveo. 

audio hear: by-form (see condio) of *audo from *au-dus *aus-dus Adj., 

fr. aur-is + term. -do-. 
au-fero take away : Pruss. aw- away (see clepo) OSlav. u-, Sk. dva. 
auged increase : augv- Olr. 6g entire, Got. aukan multiply E. eke 

Verb n-iefc-name y-ean, Lit. dugu I grow, Arm. oil strength, Zd. 

aojahh Sk. ojas : see owe?i. 
augur auger soothsayer : * authority,' fr. praeced. 
taula court : av\4\ : 

taura breeze, gleam Aen. 6, 204 (E. soar) : atipa breeze : 
taurichalcum (as though fr. aurum) drichalcum copper ore : *6plxa^Kos 

by-form of opel-xakicos fr. ipos mountain + xaA.*c<fc copper. 
auriga origa driver : = *aure-iga fr. OLat. aurea bridle (from os) + ago. 
auris ear: = *ousis. Lit. ausis, cf. oZs (= *o&r-as), Olr. o, Got. auso 

Ags. eare E., OSlav. uho: ' orifice,' cf. ds. 
aur-dra (an Adj. -ending) dawn: ous-, cf. Ags. eds-t east E., Lit. ausz-ra 

dawn OSlav. u-tro (i.e. *us-t-ro), and us- Zd. ushanh Sk. ush : fr. Urd, 

* when the sun begins to burn '. 
Not add (1) aVpiov to-morrow: (2) afas ijdts dawn, i.e. *h-f<i>-s (cf. 
Hesych. &&u> early), fr. tf-(f)7j-/u blow, from the morning 
breeze. 
aurum drum gold (E. oriel m-flamme oriole): Pruss. ausis Lit. duksas: 
ausculto listen (E. scout) : fr. *auscula Dimin. of aur-is (as caecultd 

1 am dim-sighted ' fr. *caeculus). 
tauster south wind : *aZa , rpos i fr. alos dry, see sudus. 
aut or : OUmbr. ute : fr. aZ again, Got. au-k also E. efo? Adverb, + *te, 

see as*. 
autem but: praeced. + a quasi-numeral ending (on anal, of septem 

novem decern), see item saltern enim quidem : cf. Osc. avti. 
autumo say : fr. *autumus Adj. (see aestumd) = *avi-tumus from ou-, 

ola> ( = bf-lu) suppose. 

Hardly add avis in the sense of ' omen '. 
auxilium help : aux- atf£« increase, Lit. duksz-tas high, fr. aug-eo + s. 
avena oats: * rustic' for *avina = *ovis-na t cf. Lit. aveiz-d OSlav. ovls-Xi: 

4 eaten by sheep,' fr. ovis ? 
aveo haveo desire : * watch for,' bita ( = hf-iu) perceive, Olr. conn-oi 

qui servat, OSlav. w-mii mind, Sk. av- favor. 
avis bird (E. ostrich) : = *ovi-s i cf . otoWs ( = bfi-uv6s). 
av-unculus (cf. fur-unculus len-unculus rdn-unculus) mother's brother 

(E. uncle): Dimin. fr. sq., cf. Ags. ed-m NHG. o-heim, Pruss. awis 

Lit. ananas OSlav. uj. 
avus grandfather : cf. Got. av6 grandmother, Arm. hav grandfather. 
axicia shears : 4 turning on a pivot,' fr. *axicns Adj. of axis. 



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io ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 



axilla armpit (Mir. ochsal): sq., cf. W. echel axle, OHG. ahsala 

shoulder E. axle. , 

axis assis axle (E. ashlar): Lit. aszis OSlav. ost: aks-, tf|«j/, OHG. 

alisa, Sk. dkshas. 

tbabae Interj. : &a&ai, Lit. ftafoi, cf. Lat. babulus fool, Sk. bababa 

crackling. 
baca bacca berry (E. fay-tree) : = *bat-ca, Cyprian frdna mulberries BB. 

15.93? 
tbaccar Celtic valerian: iftdiacapis, Lydian (Schol. Aesch. Pers. 41 

Avttiv fxvpov). 
baculum staff : cf. fidic-Tpov, Hesych. fidicnis strong : * supporter,' see 

imbecillus. 
bajulus porter (E. bail) : *bagiolus = *baciohis fr. praeced. (see pulejum). 
_4*balaena ballena bellana whale : Northern, cf. \<p$houva ipdwaiva : 
tbalanus acorn : frdXavos, GV£- cf. Lit. gile, Arm. ka\in, and gvel- 

OSlav. ieladl : • dropt,' gvl- $d\Xu throw, gvel- OHG. quellan 

gush, GVOL- Sk. gal- drop. 
tbalatrd buffoon : ' devourer,' = *baratro fr. *baratrum — barathrum. 
balbus stammering (Ir. balbh dumb) : Sk. balbala a stammering, 
""onomatopoeic. 
^ baliolus brown (of an African, Plaut. Poen. 1301) : Dimin. of badhis, 

see variu8. 
Not fr. fia\i6s dappled, 
tbalneum balineum bath: fraKaveiov : 'dropping, vapor-bath,' see 

balanus. 
bald bleat : fr. *bdla Adj. Fern, from *bd cry of sheep E. baa. 

So Varro's belt bleat fr. *bela Adj. Fern, from bee (i.e. be, firj) cry of 



tbalsamum balm (E.) : ffidtoafiov (for the A see palma*), Heb. besem. 

tbalteus belt (Ags. E. belt) : Etruscan (Varro). 

tbarathrum pit : fidpadpov, fr. vord. 

barba beard (W. barf) : dialectic for *farba, bhardh-, Ags. beard E., 

OSlav. brada t cf. Lit. barz-dk. 
tbarbarus foreign (E. brave): pdp&apos, brb- Lit. birbiii I buzz, cf. 

berb- fcpPcplfa stammer, 
tbarbitos lyre : i&dp&iros Aeol. fidpfiiroy fidpfios Sappho 154 : 
~tbarditus German warcry: 
bardus stupid : gverdh' Spanish gurdus dolt (Quint.), Sk. jaJMs 

dull, cf. gvrdhus *&pad6s slow (whence fipdtr<r<ov slower) by-form of 

(Spatvs. 
tbaro varo blockhead: Gaulish for 'soldier's servant' (Schol. Pers. 

5. 138 Jahn). 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON n 



_+barrus elephant : = *barus, Babylonian biru (Sayce). 
^tbascauda tub : British (Mart. 14. 97. 1). 

Not E. basket (whence W. basged), etym. unknown. 
-tbasium kiss : Gaulish (first in Catullus) ? 
bat Interj. : cf. fiarro\oy4u stammer, Sk. bata Interj. 
_ batillum vatillum firepan : 

hardly fr. fiardvri Sicilian for icardvri dish, borrowed from patina. 
battuo batuo beat (E. abate battle combat, but not beat) : dialectic for 

*fatuo, cf. BHATtf- Ags. beadu combat. 
.^baubor bay: fravfidw sleep ('snore'), cf. Lit. bubauti roar, onoma- 

top. 
tbaxea shoe : fr. *bax = *£<££, Hesych. +ir<£|, Mir. hais. 
^•bdellium a gum : \&4Wiov : Arabian (Diosc. 1. 80), Heb. b'dolah. 
bellum (E. revel) = duellum. 
belua bellua beast : 
bene well : = *beni (cf. beni-gnus) Loc. of *benus good (cf. bellus fine), 

dvn-, cf. dvon- bonus. 
bed gladden : 
•fberyllus beryl (E. brilliant) : -\-frfipvk\os (Arab, billur crystal Zenker 

208 b), Sk. vaicluryas catseye. 
bes bessis two-thirds : = *du-essis, duo + assis, see as (' unit '). 
bestia beast (E.): 
beta Fern, beet (E.) : 
tbeta Neut. B : t#?ra, Heb. bUh. 
bibo drink (E. beverage imbrue) : onomatopoeic for *pibo, Olr. ibid 

drink ye, Sk. pibami I drink. 
bi-fariam in two parts : 
bilis gall : 
bimus two years old : = *bi-hlmus two winters old (cf. Got. tvalib- 

vintru8 ' twelve years old,' E. twinter * beast two years old '), fr. bis 

+ x«*A"« winter (see hiems), with which go also x^f^P 05 g° a * ('year- 
ling '), Mir. gamuin yearling calf, ONor. yymbr yearling lamb Scotch 

gimmer. 
bi-pennis bi-pinnis two-edged (E. pimpernel) : OLat. pennus sharp Isid. 

Orig. 11. 1. 46 : 
bis duis (Fest.) twice : = *dvis, Ms, MHG. zuris, Sk. dvis, Zd. bi~ two-, 

fr. duo. 
tbito beto baetd go : Osc. battels thou comest, gvait- cf. Olr. to-blth 

because of, Lett, gaila going, Zd. yaUk- come, 
bitumen asphalt : GVETtf-, Ags. cvidu resin (Kluge s. t. JlnU), Sk. jatu 

gum (E. gradtapercha). 
tblaesus lisping: p\cu<r6s bandylegged, gvlais-vos, cf. ONor. kleiss 

inarticulate. 



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12 ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 



blandus agreeable : ghvlandh- Pruss. glands comfort, cf. ghvladh-, 

see glaber. 
blatero blatio babble : dialectic for flat- bhlat- ONor. bladr nonsense 

Scotch blether. 
blatta cockroach : dialectic for *flacta bhlakv-, Lett, blakta bug, cf. 

Lit. bldke. 
^tblennus dolt : 0\ew6s driveling, cf. &K4vva mucus. 
tblitum orach : frxirov : = *fi\lroy fr. fi4\i honey (see mel), cf. NHG. 

melde orach (OHG. mouTUta in Graff is a mis-writing for molta). 
_ bojae collar of iron, wood, or leather (E. buoy) : 

tbdletus mushroom (NHG. pilz) : *&u>K'i)t6s globular, fr. &G>\os clod, cf. 

Galen's j8«a/tijj mushroom, 
tbombax Interj. : j8o/*/3<£|, fr. sq. 
fbombus booming (E. bomb bound Vb. bumper): $6fi&os: onomatop., 

cf. &a/i&afra> chatter, 
tbombyx silk (E. bombast) : fj8<fyij8v|, cf. Pers. pembe cotton Zenker 

210 c. 
bonus duonus good (E. bonny toon-companion) : = *dvonus : 
+boo bovo roar: &oda> (*fiopdw) t gvov- gvou- Lit. gauju I howl, cf. gvu- 

Sk. gu- be heard, 
tboreas north wind : faptas, Thracian for *<t>op4ds ' ventus ferens ' fr. 

<f>4pw (see/ero), cf. ONor. byrr fair wind (E. pirouette). 
bos ox (E. beef bugle) : Oscan (the Rom. form would be *vous, *vbs) : 

gvou-, &ovs, Olr. bo, Ags. cu cow E., Lett, gows OSlav. govedo ox, 

Arm. kov cow, Zd. gaus ox Sk. gaus. 
bracae braccae breeches : Gaulish (Diodorus Siculus), from Teutonic, 
* Ags. brdc E. 
tbracchium brachium arm (W. braich, E. brace &c. branch) : = *brac- 

chlum from *&pdicxiov for *fipdxioy (as frp6icxos for &p6xos), by-form of 

Ppaxtov : fr. flpaxvs (see brevis), ' shorter ' than the leg. 
u tbractea brattea gold-leaf : 

tbrassica cabbage (Hesych. fipdtricri, W. bresych) : 
brevis short : mreghv-, cf . mbghv- Ppaxts, Got. ga,-maurgjan shorten. 
bruma winter solstice : = ' dull ' time, fr. sq. 
brutus heavy : Lett. gruts t fr. con-gruo. 
-bubfle ox-stall : dialectic for *buvlle bovile from bov-, bds. 
bubo owl : onomatop., Redupl. fr. &6as eagle-owl, Arm. bu owl. 
bubulcus ploughman : fr. *bubulus for *bovulus, see bvJbale. 
bubulus of oxen : = *bovi-blus fr. bos. 

bucca puffed cheek (W. boch, E. buckle debouch &c. rebuke) : 
biicina buccina horn (Polyb. fivfcdrn) : bukv- OHG. pfuchen snort, cf. 

boukv- OSlav. buSati bellow, bukv- pticnis howling, Sk. fa^-karas 

lion's roar. 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 13 

^ bufo toad : cf. Low Lat. buffs, re (E. buffer buffet &c. pop puff) to in- 
flate (as (pva-aXos toad fr. Qvtrdu blow) : 
tbulbus onion : &o\&6s : 
bulla bubble, knob (E. bill boil Vb. bull 2 &c.) : dialectic for * folia fr. 

follis. 
biiris ploughbeam : = *gvd-ris cf . gvo- yvrjs ? 
bustum tomb : see ambUrd. 

tbuxus box (E. E. blunder-&wss booze bushel bust) : */8tJ|os for "tirv^os : 
Paphlagonian, cf. Catull. 4. 13 Cytore buxifer (in Paphlagonia) ? 

tcaballus nag (E. crcper-cailzie cavalry chivalry) : Plut. ficajScUXrys, cf. 

W. iceffyl (= *kappHos), OSlav. \kobyla mare (= *kvabula) : 
tcachinnus laugh: *Kax?vos, fr. icax-dX« I laugh (as ye\aa-?uos dimple 

fr. ytAdw). 
caco : kakv- cf. ted/eta] stercus, Mir. cacc, Sk. cdkam. 
» cacula servant : kakv- cf . Ags. on-hagian to suit, Sk. cak- be able. 
cacumen top : fr. *cacuo fit, praeced. (cf. apex top fr. apo fasten). 
cada-ver (cf. papa-ver, term, -ves) corpse : fr. *cad6 by-form of sq. (cf. 

irr«/Ao fr. iriirru fall). 
cado fall (E. cadence &c. chance cheat decay) : kad- Mir. casir (= *cad- 

tric-) hail, Sk. cad- fall, 
tcaduceum herald's staff (formed quasi fr. c&ducus, stick of * fallen ' 

wood ?) : *KdpbKioy Dor. for Kr\p$Kiov, f r. Krjpv$ herald. 
tcadus jar (E. albatross) : +k(£5os, Heb. kad. 
caecus cecus blind : koik<5s koikvWco gape about, Olr. caech one-eyed, 

cf. KofKOS Got. haihs. 
caedo cut (E. chisel excise scissors) : kvaidh-, cf. skvaidh- Got. skaidan 

divide E. water-s&ed sheath shoddy skid, Lit. skiedziu I separate. 
caelebs celebs single : ' separate,' = *caedi-b- fr. praeced. + -bh- cf. 

-BHO- acerbus. 
caelum 1 chisel: 

caelum 2 sky : ' dark ' (cf. caerulus) : 
caenum dirt : 
tcaepe cepe onion (E. chive, NHG. zunebel) : quasi Adj. Neut. (like 

turpe) for *caepium, **^irioi/, cf. Hesych. Kama (Plur.) garlic, fr. ktjitos 

garden, see campus. . , 

caerimdnia cerimdnia reverence : * seclusion,' fr. caedo ' separate '. 
caerulus dark-blue : = *caelulus y fr. caelum. 
caesaries hair : = *caesdr-jes f cf . Sk. kesarcm ? 
caesius light-blue : = *caed-tius 1 kvaidh- Ags. hddor clear, cf. skvaidh 

Lit. skaid-rus. 
caespes cespes sod : 

Osc. kaispatar caedatur (?) is too obscure to compare. 



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i 4 ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 



caestus gauntlet : 

tcaetra cetra shield : Spanish, Hesych. ko.it pia.. 

calamitas cadamitas (Isid.) injury (orig. 'hail/ Donatus, or 'mould,' 

Servius) : 
fcalamus reed (E. calumet shawm, W. calaf stalk) : icdKajios, see culmus. 
tcalathus basket : K<lXa6os : 
caled glow (E. caldron caudle chafe nonchalant scald) : kei/-, of. K£- Lit. 

szilti grow warm, 
tcaliendrum headdress: slang form of ^callintrum, KdWvvrpov orna- 
ment, fr. KoWtivoo beautify. 
tcaliga soldier's sandal : ' covering,' *icd\vya = k4\vk<x (as uprvya = 

uprvKa) Acc. of k«Ui/| husk. 
caligd darkness : Sk. kdlas blue-black ? 
tcalix cup (E. chalice)'. *kJlKi$ by-form (cf. iw\<Lxq-no\6xn) of *k6\i£ 

i.e. kv\i$ (see rnola), cf. Sk. kaldcas pot. 
callis hill-path (Fr. chalet Chaux) : kvlnis, cf. kvolnis collis. 
callum hard skin (E. gall Vb.) : kvlnom, cf. kvlnos Sk. kiims. 
calo summon : Kf-, cf . kl- Kdkeu call, kel- k4\o/j.cu, kol- OHG. hcti&n 

summon.— Not = *cadd, OUmbr. kadctu vocato. 
•jxalo soldier's servant : 
fcaltha pot-marigold : = *calcantha i x^^-^V (sulphate of copper) in 

the etymological sense of ' with copper-coloured flowers ' ? 
calumnia (fr. *calumnus Adj.) intrigue (E. challenge), calvor deceive: 

kalu-: 
calvus bald : kvLvos, cf. kvlvos Sk. Jculvas. 
calx 1 heel (E. caZtrop caulk) : 
calx 2 small stone, lime (E. causeway chalk) : 
tcamelus camel : ifcdpyKos, Heb. gdmdl. 
tcamera vault (E. chamber comrade) : \icafuipa, cf. Zd. kameredha skull 

('arched'). 
fcaminus furnace (E. chimney): k&iuvos: 'stone hearth,' cf. Ags. hamor 

hammer E. (orig. of flint), and (with a) OSlav. kamenl stone. 
^ tcammarus lobster: ficdnnapos, fKopapis, ONor. fhumarr: praeced., 

' like a stone ' ? 
campus field (E. camp &c. scamp shamble) : cf. kap- ktjitos garden, Ags. 

&o/ house E. hovel hover OHG. hdba piece of land. 
^ camur bent : 

canalis pipe (E. canal channel kennel 2 ) : from f*cana, *icdvri by-form of 

ticctvKr?, see canna. 
cancelli lattice (E. chancel chancery) : cancrl Fest.: 'like a crab's claws,' 

sq., see career. 
cancer crab (E. canker) : Dissim. for *carcer, cf. KapK-ivos (Sk. karkin). 
canded shine : = *cend46, cf. ac-cend6 fire, kvbnd- Sk. cand shine. 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 15 

canis dog (E. canary kennel') : K-voNfs, cf. k-von- Sk. cvdn-, k-von k<W 
(for *Kf6v, *k6v : v from oblique cases), Arm. hen, Zd. cpa?t- : short 
form KUNfs Lit. szunis, cf. kun- KtW Ace, Olr. cow Gen. (Nom. cu: 
E. cmo), Sk. ctffi- (and kun-to*s Got. hunds E. hound*!). 

tcanistmm basket : fKikvitrrpov, fr. sq., * made of reeds '. 

fcanna reed : fnduva, Heb. qdneh. 

tcannabis hemp (Ags. hanep E. ; and E. canvas canvass) : ftcdwafiiSy 
Arab, kunneb Zenker 709 c. 

cand sing (E. cant &c.) : Olr. canaid canit, Got. hana cock E. hen. 

tcantharis beetle : Kavdapls, icdvdapos : Egyptian (the beetle worshipped 
in Egypt) ? 

fcantharus tankard (E.) : Kdvdapos, praeced., ' like a beetle inverted '. 

fcantherius gelding: Gaulish (Plaut. Aul. 491 Gallicis cantheriis), cf. 
fKavOfaios pack-ass. 

tcanthus tire (EM. Kav$6s) : Spanish (Quint.). 

canus white : = *cas-nus } cf. Ags. hasu grey E. haze ? 

caper goat (E. cab caper 1 caprice) : icdirpos boar, Ags. hafer goat: 'strong- 
scented ' ? 

Hesych. icdirpa. ctf|, Tvppqvol is obscure. 
^capero caperro am wrinkled : 

capillus hair (Got. kapillon shave the head, E. dishevel) : fr. caput. 

capid take (Olr. cacht capta, E. cable casket catch cater chase regatta 
window-sash scaffold) : = *cepio, kvep-, cf. kvop- Got. hafts joined, 
kvep- cepi Perf., kvop- xtfonj handle, and kvomp- Lett, kampt seize. 
Hardly add Got. hafjan raise E. heave behove , on account of the 
meaning. 

capis bowl : * capacious,' praeced. 

capistrum halter (E. capstan ?) : « headstall,' = *capit-trum fr. caput. 
^ tcapparis caper (E.) : ficdirirapis, Sk. capharl a plant (or borrowed 
from Gk. ?). 

tcapsa box (E. case 2 cash chase 2 ) : cf. \icd(xtya icdfiirrpa. 

caput head (E. achieve cabbage cad cadastre cape 2 cattle chattel chief cor- 
poral &c.) : kvap- Ags. hafela t Sk. kapdlam pot, skull. 

tcarbasus flax: *icdp&a<ros by-form of ficdpira<ros, Sk. karpasas cotton 
(or borrowed from Gk. ?). 
_tcarbatina carpatina (Catull. 98. 4 Ellis) shoe : fKap$arlvn Kapvarivy, 
Carian (Pollux). 

carbd charcoal : k§b-6n-, cf. corbis, ' carried in a basket ' (Ar. Ach. 333 
\dpxos charcoal-burner's basket). 

career enclosure (Sicil. ndpnapov) : ' grating,' see cancelli. 

tcarchesium beaker : \Kapxh<nov : from a place-name ? 

cardo pivot: k^d-on, cf. kbd- cor, 'heart, centre,' kerd- OSlav. sreda 
middle. 



a 



1 6 ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 

carduus thistle (E. card Vb.) : kvhd-, * shaking,' cf. *<fy>3d£ a dance, Sk. 

kurd- leap, and kvrd- Kpaddu shake, W. cryd ague. 
cared want : = *cadeo am deprived of, cf . k^ko^wv depriving. 
carex rush : 

caries decay : = *cadies fr. cado. 
carina hull (E. careen) : 

carmen song (E. charm) : = *canmen *canimen, fr. cano. 
car 6 flesh (Mir. carna, E. carnage carrion charnel crone) : Nom. kah6n 

Gen. karn6s : * portion ' at a feast, Osc. carneis part Gen. : 
—card card : kvas, cf . kvas- Lit. kasfiti scratch, Sk. leash-. 
tcarpentum chariot (Olr. carpat, E. carpenter) : Gaulish (Florus). 
carpo pluck (E. car'pet scarce) : kvrp-, cf. kvrp- Kapw6s fruit, Sk. krpdnas 

sword, kverp- Lit. kerpu I cut, kvorp- Ags. hdrfest harvest E. 
tcarrus wagon (E. career carry chariot, cargo caricature carting charge) : 

Gaulish? cf. Mir. carr (E. car). 
cams dear (E. caress charity cherish) : kar- Got. hors fioix^s E. whore 

cf. kar- Olr. cara friend. 
casa hut (E. casemate casino cassock chasuble) : 
J-cascus old : Sabine (Varr. L. L. 7. 28) : 
caseus cheese (E., W. caws) : 

hardly cf . OSlav. kvasti leaven. 
cassis hunting-net : 
tcassis helmet : Etrusc. (Isid.). 
cassus empty (E. cashier Vb.) : = *cad-tus t fr. cared. 
tcastanea chestnut (E. E. castanets) : ficao-ravta : Arm. (Hehn) ? 
^fcasteria cuddy: = *catastateria, ^KaTaa-rarrfpla fr. * Kara(rrar4u> settle, 

Ka$-l<TT7Jfll. 

tcastor beaver : ficdo-rap : 

castro : fr. *castrum knife, Sk. edstram from cos- cut ? 

castrum fort, castra camp (W. caer city) : 

castus pure (E. caste chaste) : kas- Arm. sast rebuke, cf. kas- Sk. cas- to 

order, 
tcatamitus : Etrusc. \catmite Ganymede (Deecke BB. 2. 186), from 

* Kard/uLHTdos venal. 
tcatapulta catapult : /caTair«\T7ys, fr. v4\rv shaft. 
tcataracta portcullis : tcarapdicTTis down-rushing, fr. tydcro-a) strike (cf. 

Plut. KarappdKrrjs portcullis, fr. fido-<rco push). 
tcataractria a spice : *Karap6.Krpia Fern. fr. praeced., 'rushing down' as 

it is sprinkled. 
tcatasta stage : *Karaa , T'fi i icard + Xcrrrifii. 
_tcateja spear : Gaulish (Serv. Aen. 7. 741). 
catena chain (E. E. chignon): 'capturing,' kbt-, cf. rent- Got. fra- 

hinthan seize. 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 17 

tcaterva troop : Gaulish (Isid. Orig. 9. 3. 46), = *ccUes-va, of. Olr. 

cath fight. 
catlnus dish (Sicilian tcdnvov Varro ; E. kettle) : foreign ? 
catulus whelp : 

tcatus sharp (Mir. cath wise) : Sabine (Varr. L. L. 7. 46) : of. Zd. fa- 
cut Sk. ca- sharpen, see cos. (Ablant a : ; or catus may = *cot6s.) 
cauda tail (E. coward cue) : cf. skaud- Got. skauts hem of a garment 

E. shoot &c. scout Vb. scut tail, * projection'. 
caudex trunk of a tree : * projection/ praeced. 
caulae passages, caulis stalk (E. cole kail) : ieav\6s, Lit. kdulas bone 

(< hollow'). 
caupo copo huckster : foreign ? 

Got. kaupon to traffic (Lit. kupczius merchant OSlav. kupicl) E. 
chaffer chapman cheap cope Vb. keep go rather with Got. kaupatjan 
strike (so. a bargain). 
, caurus N. W. wind : Lit. szidure N. wind. 
causa caussa cause (E. kickshaw ruse) : 

hardly = *coud-tct, fr. cUdo (as decido fr. caedo) : change of meaning 
too violent. 
tcausia hat : Kavo-ia, Macedonian. 
cautes rock : 
caved take care: kvov-, Ko(f)4<o perceive d-icotJ« hear, Lit. kaw6ti attend 

to, Sk. kavis wise ; cf . skvov- evo-tr^flos priest, Got. ua-skavs prudent 

Ags. scedvian look E. show sheen t scavenger. 
ca villa raillery : * bit of knowledge, ' fr. praeced. 
cavus hollow (E. cage cajole gabion gaol): = *covos, ko?\os (= *k6/ : i\os) 

Hesych. k6oi cavities. 
-ce Demonstrative : Mir. ce this, Got. -h (in thauA yet E. though), 

Arm. s this. 
cedo give thou : *ce-do, praeced. (cf . Osc. ce-bn-ust venerit) + root of 

do-num. 
cedo go : 
tcedrus cedar (E.): fie&pos, cf. Sk. kadaras mimosa (late: borrowed 

from Gk. ?). 
celeber frequented : *quele-bri- i see colo. 

celer quick : kvbl- cf . k4\tjs racehorse iceKeto urge, Zd. car- go Sk. car- 
move. 
cella storeroom : c covered place,' see sq. 
celo hide : kbl-, cf . kel- Mir. celim I hide, kl- Got. huljan to cover 

E. hell helmet holster hull husk housings. 
- tcelSx (term, from vZldx) cutter : k&tjs, see celer. 
celsus high : Part, of * cello raise (-sus for -tus from Perf. *celsi), rc\\a> 

rise, Lit. kelM raise, fr. celer. 



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iS ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 



cena caena caesna (Fest.) coena dinner (E.): NUmbr. sesna Ace. ; = 

*caers-na t see silicemium, kairs-na : 
census registering (Olr. cis) : kens- cf . kons- kow4w understand. 
cento patchwork : event-, cf. kvont- Sk. kanthd, kvot- OHG. hadara, 

rag. 
centum 100: kmt(5m, k-Kar6v, Olr. cU y Got. hund E. hundred, Lit. 

szimtas OSlav. s#fo, Zd. catem Sk. ? ato. 
tcepolendrum a spice : Ktjxos garden (see campus) + ? 
cera wax (Ir. ceir) : K-qp6s : 
tcerasus cherry-tree (E. cherry, OHG. kirsd whence Lit. czeresna OSlav. 

creSinja) : \iccpaff6s : 
tcercfirus a ship : Cyprian iccpieovpos : Phoen. ? 

cerebrum brain (E. saveloy) : keres- cf. kres- icdpd (= *Kdpc<ra), Sk. 
ciras; also kers- ONor. hjarsi crown of the head, krs- Arm. sar 
(= *sars) top, and krs- k6p<ti\ temple, Sk. cirshdm head. 
cerno separate: kver-, Mir. cert right ('decided'), cf. skver- Ags. 
sceran cut E. shear &c, skvr- Lit. skirti to separate. 

Not = *crind, Kpivw decide (see crlbrum), or Perf. would be *crlvi. 
cernuus headlong: kvern- skull, Got. hvaimei ; ' concave ' (cf. E. 

skull beside ONor. skdl bowl), Ktpvos dish, ONor. hverna pan. 
cerritus crazed : kvers-, cf. kvrs- tytcdpcrios slantwise, skvers- Lit. 

skersas crooked OSlav. brestt beyond, 
tcerussa white lead: * wax-like,' *icqpov<r<ra Fern, of *icrip6cis Adj. of 

Kt)p6s wax. 
cervix neck: == *crivlx fr. kreivos bent, Lit. kretwas OSlav. krivU 

(cf. OSlav. vratti neck fr. vratiti to turn), 
cervus stag: kvervos W. carw, cf. kvorva Lit. kdrue cow OSlav. 

krava : * horned, ' fr. icep-as horn. 
tcestrosphendone an engine : *Ke<rrpo<r<pevb6vr) i fr. Ke<rrpa bolt + <r<j>€v- 

$6vr\ sling, 
ceteri caeteri the rest : 
tcetus sea-monster : icrjros : 

ceu whether : *queu = qui-ve (as seu = si-ve), qui (Abl. of qui) + -ve. 
ceveo move the haunches : 

tchalybs steel : tx<^W'» irom the Chalybes (iron- workers in Pontus). 
tchara horse-radish : 

tcharta paper (E. card cartridge) : tx<fpT7js, Egyptian (see papyrus). 
tchele chaele claw : xn*4 : 
tchelys tortoise : x& v5 > ghelu- OSlav. zelUvl. 
tchlamys mantle : tx^a^ J » c ^ Thracian Ca\/j.6s skin, 
tchorda string : x°P*h > 

tchorus dance : x°P^ 5 * c *- ^*« ^Ercw way of going. 
tchrysos gold : fxpwreh, Heb. haruts. 

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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 19 



tciborium cup : fictfkbptov seed vessels of colocasia : Egyptian (from its 
habitat). 

cibus food : 

cicada tree-cricket : fr. cicur. 

cicatrix scar: fr. cicur, Naming,' subduing (being the end of) the hurt, 
cf. Varr. L. L. 7. 91 nulla res neque cicurare neque mederi potis est 
(Pacuvius). 

tciccus doit : *kIkkos, cf . kIkkci&os : Phoen. ? 

In Varr. L. L. 7. 91, ciccum dicebant membranam tenuem, the 
best MS. reads ciccur. 

cicer chick-pea : = *cecir, Pruss. keckirs pea. 

tcichoreum endive (E. succory) : *Kix6pciov ficixtpcia, Egyptian (Plin. 
20. 73). 

tcicilendrum a spice : f*Kiici\€vtipov, cf . cepolendrum : 

tclcimandrum a spice : f*KiKl-navtipov, cf . praeced. : 

ciconia (for the term. cf. Favonius) stork : sq., from its reputed affec- 
tion for its parents. 

cicur tame : *cecur, kvekv-, cf. Horn. *-e'*w gentle. 

ciciita hemlock (W. cegid cecys, whence OE. kex): praeced., domes- 
ticated, grown in gardens,' from a Vb. *cicuo. 

cieo cid move (E. cite) : cf. kIw go, Corn, ce go thou Zeuss 586 a. 

cimex bug : 

tcinaedus wanton : titfreuSoj : 

cincinnus curl : kIkiwos, Redupl. (cf. tintind beside rtrayi<rfi6s) : 

cingo gird (E. shingles) : = *cungvo from *congvo, cf. k6/a&os band. 

cinis ashes (not E. cinder) : = *cunis from *conis, kSvis dust. 

tcinnamomum cinnamum cinnamon : fKiyvd/xwfioy *iclvvatiov f Heb. 
qinnamon. 

cippus cipus stake : 

circus circle (E. carcanet search) : Metath. tcplicos ring, cf. kbink6s Ags. 
hring E. E. rink rank range rung "^harangue, 

cirrus curl : = *cirsus, OHG. hirsi millet (' tufted ') ? 

cis within : cf. -ki (in ovkI not TcoWdtci often), Got. hi-na this Ags. E. 
Tie, Lit. s&s OSlav. si. 

tcisium gig : Gaulish ? 

tcista box (E. chest) : t/tf<rnj : 

tcithara lute (E. guitar) : fKtBdpa : Semitic ? 

citra within : Got. hidra hither E., fr. ci-s. 

tcitrus Rom. form of cedrus. 

civis ceivis citizen : 

hardly cf . Got. heiva- house. 

clades loss : ' breaking,' kEd- cf. eld- K\cfiap6s brittle. 

clam secretly : = *cld-m, k£-, see cSld and tarn. 



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20 ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 

clamo shout (E. claim) : fr. Subst. *cldma (ci. fa-ma), k£-, see cal6. 

clandestinus secret: = *clandestrinus (see mediastlnus) fr. *clandester 
formed (on anal, of equester pedester) from *clande=clam (as quamde = 
quam : so clade Miiller on Fest. p. 47 = *cld i.e. cla-m). 

clangd clang (E.) : kvlangv- K\ayyft Subst., cf. kvlagv- Lit. klageti 
cackle. 

clarus bright (E. clear claret) : 

classis division : = *clad-tis cutting, fr. clddSs ? 

claudo clodo cliidd shut (OHG. sliozan from excluder e) : *claudus Adj., 
fr. clavis + term. -do-. 

claudus lame : klau-, cf. Sk. cro-nds, + term. -do-. 

clava club : 

clavis key : K\ri(F)is : 

clavus nail, helm, stripe (Olr. cloi nails, E. clove cloy) : 

clemens mild : 

clepo steal : Got. hlifan E. shop-fo/ter, Pruss. bu-klipts hidden, cf. 
jcAeirrw steal. 

cliens client : Part, of clued, ' obedient \ 

clipeus clupeus shield : — *clopeus cf. clepo, * cover,' OSlav. ipo-klopU lid. 

clitellae pack-saddle: 'sloping,' Dimin. of *cleitrae, OUmbr. kletra 
litter, Got. hleithra tent, from klei-, see acclinis. 

clivus slope: = *cloivos, Got. hlaiv tomb ('mound') E. hud-low, from 
kloi- Ablaut of klei-, see acclinis. 

cloaca cluaca clouaca sewer : from *clou-dcus Adj. (see opacus), klou- 
cf. klu- cluo cleanse and klu-d- k\6(co wash, Got. hlutrs clean. 

clued am reputed: klxj- k\6w hear, Zd. Sk. cm-, see inclutus; cf. kleu- 
K\c(f)os glory, Olr. clu rumour, Got. hliu-ma hearing E. lumbering, 
OSlav. sluti be famous, Sk. crdvas sound, and klou-s- OW. clusteu 
ears Zeuss 285 b, Ags. hlystan listen E., Lit. klauspti (with k- from 
Teutonic) OSlav. sluhU hearing, klu-s- Sk. crush- hear. 

clunis haunch : = *clounis, *k\ovvls k\6vls (cf . fiovvos /xSvos) os sacrum, 
W. clun hip, ONor. hlaunn haunch, Lit. szlaunis hip, Zd. craoni Sk. 
cronis. 

clurinus apish : dura ape : 

CO- with (used before vowels or h : comedo shows • Recomposition ') : 
Olr. co to, Got. prefix ga- E. enough handiwork : fr. cu-m. 

tcoccum scarlet (E. cochineal ; and cockroach ?) : t/tefoitos kermes-berry : 

tcodea snail (E. coach cockleshell) : Kox^ias, k6x^os : 

coepi begin : = *co-lpt, co- + Perf . (un-reduplicated, as usual in Com- 
pounds) of apo, see apiscor. — Lucr.'s co-Spl is from *epi reduplicated 
Perf. of apo. 

cdgito think: co- + agitd (fr. *ag6, ago). 

cohors enclosure (E. court) : co- + hortus. 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 21 

tcolaphus cuff (E. copse, Fr. coup blow couper cut) : kSkoQos, cf. Ko\dirrw 

peck: 
tcoliphia colyphia loin-pieces : Plur. from icwxfyiov ham Phrynichus p. 

77 Lobeck, Dimin. of kS>\ov leg (as Scvtytyiov of Mrtpov), 
collis hill : = *colni$, Ags. Aytf E., cf. kvolnos Lit. kdlnas mountain, 

kvolnus Gk)t. hallus rock: Nom. kvolSn, whence ko\<ov6s hill: 'rise,' 

fr. celsus. 
collum neck : = *colsum, Ags. heals E. fjiaubeik. 
tcollybus agio : t/e<foAuj8os doit : Phcen. ? 
tcollyra vermicelli : KoWtpa roll, cf . k6\\cl$os k6\\1£ : 
cold tend : = *quelo (see inquilinus), *•&.» go, fr. ceter. 
tcolocasium Egyptian bean : Kokoicatriov, fr. k6\os stunted + i*Ka<riov 

bean (Egyptian, from its habitat). 
color colour : ' covering ' (cf. Sk. vdrnas colour from rar- cover), kl- see 

celt. 
colostra Westings : 

coluber colober snake (E. culverin) : ' turning, ' cf. *6\os axis, fr. cold. 
colum strainer (E. colander culvert portcullis) : = *caulum fr. caulae. 
tcolumba dove (E. culver) : *Ko\6fifrr), k6\v^os grebe, fr. Ko\v/j.pda> 

dive : 4 ducking its head ' (cf. E. dove fr. dive). 
columen top : 4 turning '-point (cf . vertex top fr. verto), see cold coluber. 
colurnus (1) of hazel (Serv.) : Metath. for *corul-nus fr. coralus corylus. 

(2) of cornel (Fest.) : Dissim. for *cor-urnus fr. cor-nus. 
colus distaff : 

not ' revolving, ' f r. cold celer t as the distaff was held stationary, 
tcoma hair : kSjult) : 

comes companion : from *com cum. — Not a compound fr. eo. 
comis kind: from *com cum with vowel lengthened to form Adj. (cf. 

cupes fr. cttpio, see immdnis sopio and suppus), cf. koiv6s kind=*Ko/A-j<fe. 
Cosmis in the Dvenos inscr. (E. Schneider 19) obscure, sec. Jordan 
= comis, sec. Biicheler = comes, sec. Breal = commissi. 
tcomissor comisor revel : *Kwfjd(a> fr. ku/ios revel (while Kapdfa is fr. 

tcdjiri village). 
como arrange : * put together,' from *com (see comix). 

*co-imo from emo take would give *coemo, cf . coetus beside coitus : in 
Plaut. Bacch. 976 Lowe reads coemptionalem (oe a diphthong : the 
reading comptionalem is due to Livy's « contionali seni,' 8. 72. 4). 
compesco confine : *pdsco fix = *pac-sco fr. padscor y cf. Plin. dispesco 

separate, 
compilo rob : 

compitum cross-road : pets ' go '. 

con- with (before any cons, hutp, 6, m) : Olr. con- ; = *com, cum. 
tconcha shell : K6yx*ii see congius. 



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22 ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 



tconchis lentils: *conchus, K6y\os dialectic for *ic6yicos, cf. Sk. kankus 

millet. 
concinnus neat : • harmonious, * = *concen-nus from con-cino sound to- 
gether. 
concipilo finish off (Plaut. uses in the same sense * offatim conficiam * 

and ' offatim concipilabo ') : dialectic for *concumul6 or *concubI6 fr. 

cumulus. 
condalium (in Plaut. prob. trisyllabic) ring: fr. f*condus, Hesych. 

k6v$os knob, Sk. kandas lump. 
condicio agreement : dik- cf . deik- died, ' fix '. 
condio preserve : by-form of condo put together (cf . pinsitum sancltum 

from *pinsio sancio beside pistum sanctum from pinso *sanco), see -do. 
confuto check : *futus Part. fr. dhu- ONor. dyja shake, Sk. dhu-. 
tconger sea-eel : *ic6yypos by-form of fySyypos (see corytos). 
congerro playmate : fr. fgerrae. 
congius quart : * shell-full, ' konkhv- K&yxn mussel, Sk. cankhds and 

(with -e-) Lett, seiice. 
congruo meet: *fall in with,' from *grud fall, Lit. griuti fall down, 

gvrO- cf. gvrou- gravis. 
coniveo connived cog^niveo wink : from *nigveoi see nlctd. 
conor attempt : 
conquinisco cower: from *qua-n-isco (ci. fruniscor beside fruor), *qua-no t 

kva- cf. kva- ircirrri-dbs crouching (for irr = ir cf . irr6\is = ir6\is). 
Perf. conquexi and Part, quactum driven together Isid. Orig. 20. 2. 
35 are from the fuller kvak- KaTa-irrcucdv crouching, cf. kvak- 
irri\<T<r<o crouch. 
considero inspect : 

hardly (1) fr. consido am in session, from sidd, as 'look at' seems the 
orig. meaning : (2) ' look at something bright,' svid- cf. svid- Lit. 
s-widiis shining, 
consilium assembly : fr. sedeo. 
consternare alarm : by-form of con-sternere overthrow (as appellate com- 

pellare of appellere compellere), cf. strn- OHG. stornen be astounded, 
consul chief magistrate : formed from Plur. consules, fr. sedeo. 
consulo deliberate : * sit together, ' praeced. 
contamino blend : fr. *tagmen touching, tango. 
cdntio (cdntio late, Diomedes, Keil 1. 433) meeting :=*coventio dialectic 

form (see curia) for conventio. 
contumax insolent, contumelia insult : turned swell (with pride). 
tcontus pole : kovt6s, fr. *k4vtu> kcvtIco prick. 
tcdnus cone : kwvos pine-cone : 

hardly add (1) ONor. Mnn knob, on account of the vowel : (2) Sk. 
canas grindstone, see cos (no resemblance of meaning). 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON. 23 

convexus vaulted : *vaxus Part, (for the term* see celsus) of *vac5 bend, 

see vacilld. 
convlcium outcry : fr. vicus, ' meeting in the street '.—Also spelt convi- 

Hum as tho' fr. vita, ' meeting of guests '. 
tcophinus basket : fic6<l>ivos : 
coquo cook (E. E. coke cockney kitchen apricot biscuit) : = *quequ6 y kvekv- 

treicwv ripe, kvokv- W. pobi bake : blending of the forms kvep- Lit. 

keph I bake and pekv- »eV(ra I cook, OSlav. peka, Zd. Sk. pox- cook. 
cor heart : cord- = krd-, Kaptla KpaSi-q, Olr. cride, Lit. szirdis OSlav. 

sr&dlce srldlce, Sk. hfd, cf. kerd- Kepdea wiles (' intelligence '), Mir. 

cerd art, Got. hairto heart E., Arm. sirt, Zd. zarad- (in zaraz-dditi 

devotion), see cardd. 
tcoralium coral : *K<opd\iov Dor. for ticovpd\iov : 
corbis basket (E. corbel) : krbi- cf. kbebi- ONor. hrip. 
corbita hoy (E. corvette) : praeced., « carrying a basket full of stones ' to 

serve as an anchor (cW). 
tcordax a dance : *(fy>5d£, see carduus. 

tcoriandrum coriander : *icopiav$pov by-form of iicoplavvov : Semitic ? 
corium hide (E. cuirass quarry 2 scourge) : = *querium, kver-, cf. Sk. 

airman. 
comix crow : fr. *corna (see coxendix), korn- cf. korn- Hesych. K6pa<pos 

a bird : Nom. koron (see collis), whence KopAvri crow. 
cornu horn (Mir. corn ; E. corn 2 cornelian corner) : krn- Galatian 

icdpvos trumpet (Hesych.), Got. haurn horn E., cf. krn-gvo- Sk. 

cfngam, see crambe. 
cornus cornel : krn-, Kpdveta. 

Hardly add Lit. kirna band of brushwood. 
tcorona garland (E. crovm) : Fern. (sc. taenia) of *coronus t x°P<° v 6s 

Simonides 174 Bergk : * worn by dancers,' see chorus. 
corpus body (E. corps corpse) : kvbp- npaxlSes midriff, Zd. kehrp body 

Sk. krp form, cf. kvrep- irpevco appear, Ags. hrif womb E. midriff. 
cortex bark (E. cork) : = *quertex % ' cut off ' (cf. E. bark fr. break), 

kvert- Lit. kertii I strike, cf. kvort- OSlav. krattiM, short, Zd. karet- 

cut Sk. kart-y and kvrent- Ags. hrendan cut down (Skeat) E. rend. 
cortina curtina caldron: fr. curtus* 'cut down,' not tall like the am- 
phora, cf. Lucr. 4. 1026 dolia curta. . 
cor-uscus scor-iscus (Probi Appendix, Keil 4. 198 ; for the term. cf. 

labrusca mollUscus marisca vopiscus) waving : 
corvus raven (Mir. crU ; E. cormorant) : kor- K6p-a£ : 
tcorycus sack : ictipvicos : 
corylus (with y as tho' Greek !) corulus corilus hazel : kosel- Ags,. 

hdsjsl E., cf. K08L- Olr. coll. 
fcorymbus cluster : ic6pvfi&os top, krn-gvo- cf. crambe, see cornH. 



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24 ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 

tcorytos quiver : *Ka>pvr4s by-form (see conger) of \y<*pvr6s : 

cos flint : ko-tis cf. ko-nos Sk. canas grindstone, ca sharpen, see cat us. 

costa rib (E. accost coast costermongei cutlet) : cf. OSlav. kostX bone ? 

tcostum a plant : Mtrros, Sk. kushthas. 

tcothurnus boot : n6Qopvos : 

tcottabus clap : ic6rra&os a Sicilian game : 

tcottana cdtona coctana small figs : t^Tovo, Syrian (Plin. 13. 51), 

Heb. qlton little. 
cotti-die cdti-die (cf. Oatull. 68. 141 cotUjana MSS. : Mart. 11. 1. 2 
. qu&tidiana quasi fr. quot) daily : Loc. of *cotus *qud-tus (correlative of 

to-tus), fr. qui, + dies. 
cdturnix (Ovid, quasi fr. Mopvos, artificially * booted' for fighting) 

cdturnix (i.e. *cotturnix) cocturnix (Caper, Keil 7. 108) quail: fr. 

*cocl-ur-na (see comix), kvokt- OHG. wahtala (E.). 
tcovinnus covinus car : Belgic (Lucan 1. 426), = *co-veg-nos fr. co- + 

vehd, cf. W. cy-wain convey. 
coxa hip: 'bend,' kvoks- Olr. coss foot, MHG. hahse bend of knee, 

Zd. kasha shoulder Sk. kdkshas armpit. 
coxendix hip (for term. cf. clacendix shell fr. calx 2 ): fr. *coxenda (see 

comix) ' bending ' (for term. cf. merenda), fr. praeced. 
crabro hornet : = *crds-rdn, kbs- cf. krs- Lit. szirszen- (Nom. szirszu) 

wasp OSlav. srHSenl hornet. 
tcrambe cabbage : Kpdfi&ri, kbn-gva, see corymbus cornu. 
crapula intoxication : 

not fr. KpaiirdXrj. 
eras to-morrow : = *crdss from crassum l close ' (i.e. * near '), sq. ? 
crassus thick (E. grease) : ' matted,' = *crat-t6s kvSt- cf. kvebt- Olr. 

certle ball of wool, kvort- K^pr-q weel Kporwrq excrescence on trees, 

Got. hardus hard E., Sk. kathinas hard katas wickerwork kart- spin, sq. 
cratis wickerwork (E. grate grill) : Kv&rf- cartilagd gristle ('meshed'), 

cf. kvrt- icdpraXos basket uparfo strong, Got. haurds door (orig. of 

wickerwork) E. hurdle hoarding hurst, Pruss. korto hedge. 
creber thick : « increasing,' fr. cr8-sc6. 
credo believe (E. grant miscreant tecreant) : = *cred-do, krbd-dho, Olr. 

cretim I believe, Sk. crdd-dha- believe; *put the heart to,' from 

kred- cf. kerd- under cor, + -d6. A word of the Ursprache, and so 

not regarded as a compound (which would be *crSf5 from *creff5 

*cred-fo). 
cremo burn : 
cremor broth (E. cream) : 
creo make (E. creole) : 

hardly ere- Metath. for cer- Pest, cents creator, Varr. cered make, 
cf. kvor- Zd. Sk. kar*. 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 25 

tcreper uncertain: Sabine (Varro) : 'dark,' * crepes- fr. crepusculvm. 
crepida slipper : 

not from Kprjiris military boot, see sq. 
crepido foundation : 

not from Kprpris basement : 
crepo rattle : = *crequ6 t kvrekv- Kp4icco make a noise by striking, 

OSlav. krektati to quack, cf. kvbenkv'- Ags. hritigan to sound E. 

ring Vb. 
tcrepusculum twilight : Sabine (Varr.), see creper. 
cre-sco grow (E. accrue crew recruit) : fr. cred. 

creta chalk (Olr. ere clay ; E. crayon) : 4 sifted,' critics Part, of cerno. 
cribrum sieve : Mir. criathar, kbi-dhro- cf. kri-dhlo- Ags. hriddel E. 

riddle ; from xrI- npivoo separate, cf . kroi- Got. hrains clean. 
crimen charge : fr. tcpi-va decide, praeced. 
crinis hair: 

not cf . Lit. szeiys bristle. 
criso crisso move the haunches : 

not cf. Got. ol-hrisjan shake off. 
crispus curled (E. crape) : cf. krisp- Ags. hrespan tear to pieces E. rasp 

frapier, and kbips- W. crych curled (E. crease). 
crista tuft : 

crdcio croak : = *craucio, Lit. kraukti OSlav. krukU raven. 
cru-dus raw : kvru- Mir. crit 1 Sk. kru-rds, see crUsta. 
tcrumena crumina purse : cf. (with u) *Kpvfi4a by-form of fypvfi4a bag 

(see conger corytos) : 
cruor blood: = *cr®8~6r, cf. Mir. crW. 'curdled, thick' (as opp. water), 

fr. crUs-ta. 
tcruppellaril champions : Gaulish (Tac). 
eras leg from knee to ankle: 'hard' (as opp. the thigh), fr. sq., cf. 

Arm. $rtt-n-kh shins. 
crusta crust (E. custard): kvb!js- hard, Ags. hrOse earth, cf. kveus- 

KpforaWos Kp6(<r)os frost, Lit. kruszd hail, Zd. khrush- injure; see 

cru-dus* 
tcrux cross (E. E. crouch crusty curse) : Punic (as a Carthaginian 

instrument of torture) ? 
cubitum elbow (Sicil. nifrnov) : kvub- * bent,' Got. hups hip E. E. hoop 

hump, Sk. kub-jds humpbacked. 
cubd lie (E. covey) : kvubh- Ktfwrw bend, cf. kvubh- kv$6s bent, by-form 

of praeced. 
tcucullus hood (Olr. cocul\ E. cowl) :- Gaulish (Santonic, Juv. 8. 145). 
cuculus cucullus cuckoo (E.): kvukv- k6kkv£, Lit. kuktUi cry as a 

cuckoo, Assyr. fmuku cuckoo, cf. kvoukv- Mir. c&ach, OSlav. kuka- 

vica Sk. Jctikas, onomatop. 



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26 ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 



cucumis cucumber (E.): fr. Adj. *cucumus * baked, ripe,' fr. coquo, cf. 

t4tcov (ripe) 4 a kind of gourd not eaten till quite ripe ' (Liddell & 

Scott). 
cucurbita gourd (E.) : Redupl. of corbis, ' shaped like a basket '. 
? cucus cuckoo (Plaut. Persa 173 Ritschl, from Gruter ; MSS. cujus) : 

fr. cucHlus. 
cudo strike: fr. *cUdu8 Adj., kvou- cf. *olri grass (= *»of-^, struck ' 

by the sithe), Ags. hea-van hew E. E. hay hoe, Lit. kauti fight OSlav. 

kovati strike. 
culcita pillow (W. cylched, E. quilt cushion counterpane): * rounded,* 

kvxjlkv- Lit. kulkd ball, cf. kvulkv- Sk. kUrcds cushion. 
culex gnat (Ir. cuU) : * wheeling ' in its flight, fr. cold celer. 
culina colina kitchen (E. kiln) : fr. cold, ' quod ibi colebant ignem * 

(Varr.). 
culleus culeus : cf . cdleus scrotum : fr. caulae, l having a mouth '. 
culmus stalk : klmos K&Kafxos, cf. kolmos Ags. healm E. haulm, OSlav. 

slama. 
culpa colpa fault (E. culprit) : 
culter knife (E. coulter cutlass cutler) : 

Sk. kutharas ' axe ' seems too late (a.d. 500) to compare, 
culullus cululus culillus sacrificial vessel : 
cuius irvyfi : fr. caulae, l opening '. 
cum 1 com- with (E. paraxon): kolv6s oommon (= *ko/j.-j6s, see comis), 

Olr. com- with. 
cum 2 quom quum when: from kvo- qui + a case-ending (see tarn : but 

cume is only a conjecture for cuine in Terentius Scaurus, Keil 7. 28). 
cumera meal-tub : 

tcumlnum cumin : fictfiivov, Heb. kammon. 
cumuhis heap (E. cumber)} = *cub4us, * arched,' fr. cubitum, cf. kvoub- 

Ags. heap E. 
ciinae cradle : = *coinae, koi- Koirn lair, cf . kei- it€T/icu lie, m- Zd. 

Sk. ci-. 
cunctor delay : konkv- Sk. cank- doubt, 
cunctus conctus all : * inclusive ' (see frequens omnis saepe), Part, of 

*congvo i.e. cingo. 
cuneus wedge (W. cyn, E. coign coin) : 

no resemblance of meaning to kwvos, see cdnus. 
tcunlculus rabbit (Polyb*. k^vikKos^W. cwning,J&. coney): Iberian (Aelian 

N. A. 13. 15); properly * little dog,' = *caniculus (whence NHG. 

kaninchen rabbit), fr. canis. 
tcunila savoury (not cunlla in Plaut. Trin. 985) : icovikti : 
cunnus: = *cut-nus i KVtJT- ktodos kvff6s (= *kvrj6s) kAtos a hollow, Lit. 

kutys purse. . ..,-.'".• 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 27 

cupa tub (E. coop cup cupola coif cuff goblet kibe ; OSlav. kupa cup) : 

kvup- Sk. k&pas pit, cf. kvup- kv*(Wov cup, Ags. hyfi hive E. 
cupid desire (E. covet) : kvop- cf. kvbp- capiS, i try to take ' (see 

am6). 
cuppes ciipes dainty : ' greedy/ kvop- long form of praeced., cf . Lucr. 

cupedo desire Apicius coppddia titbits. 
tcupressus cypress : * Kinrpeacros by-form of iKmripurcos, Heb. kopher a 

tree. 
cur quor why : = *quod Abl. of qui . 
cura care (E. proctor proxy scour sure) : = *coisa t Pselignian coisatens 

curaverunt, kvois-, cf. kvis- t€-ti(<t)-i7c&s sorrowing. 
curculio weevil : *curculus thin, kvrk- cf. kvork- Zd. karec- be thin 

Sk. karc-j kvrok- cracens (see gracilis). 
curia division : = *coviria, co- (see contio) + vir, cf. Volscian covehriu 

conventu. 
curro run (E. corridor corsair): = *quorso i kvrs- MHG. hurren move- 
quickly E. hurrah. 
curtus mutilated (E. curtail, OHG. kwrz short): krt6s icaprSs sliced, 

Part. fr. ker- Kclpw cut, Mir. cert small, Got. hairus sword. 
curvus bent (E. curb) : 
cuspis point : 

ciistds keeper (E. accoutre) : kuzdh- cf. Got. huzd hoard E. : 
cutis skin : kut- 4y-Kvri close ('on the skin ';, cf. kuti- Ags. hyd hide E. 
tcyathus ladle : K^aBos : 
tcybaea transport : *icv&ala Adj. Fern. fr. *Kifa by-form of Ktufa, see 

cymba. 
tcycnus cygnus swan (E. cygnet): kvkvos: kukv- Sk. cukrds bright, 

white. 
tcymba cumba boat (E. coomb): icv^ri boat, cup, cf. khvumbh- Zd. 

khumba pot Sk. kumbhds. 
tcymbalum cymbal (E* chime) : KVfxfraXov : * cup-shaped,' fr. praeced. 
tcytisus clover : \K{nuro s : 

tdaedalus variegated: halhahos, daid- Ags. tat delicate, joyful. 

-dam enclitic (in quidam quondam) : a case-ending (cf. jam.) from do-, 

see -de -do -dum. 
damma dama deer : 
damnum loss (E. damage) : = *dapnum, dapno- ONor. ta/n sacrifice, cf . 

dapna handvri expense, fr. sq. 
daps feast : cf. 5<iirr« devour. 
tdapsilis (term, after facilis) sumptuous : 5chJ/iA^j, = *&wr-Tt-A-^j fr. 

praeced. 
-de enclitic (in inde &c. unde quamde) : -5c (in #5c ToiefcrSe), cf. -dam* 



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28 ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 

de from (E. denizen) : Olr. dl concerning : = *dv€ a case-form fr. "dvd 

two, 8<£- (in fttocjca twelve), Olr. (ta, OSlav. dm, Sk. dt$, see duo dis-. 
decern ten (E. dismal ?) : dekm Lit. diszimtis OSlav. desetl (m for n from 

the ordinal de*km-mos, see novem septem), for dekn 8&a, Olr. cfeicfc ?i-, 

Got. taihun E. E. lilAi, Arm. tarn, Zd. dacan- Sk. <&fya. 
decet befits : dek- cf . dok- Zok4oh seem. 

de-fendd repel (E. fend fender) : 'beat off,' cf. of-fendd strike against : 
de-frutum (Plaut.) must boiled down: bhboutom Ags. bread bread E., 

cf. BHRtfroM Thracian fyvrov beer, Parts, fr. bhreu- Ags. breovaii 

brew E. Also defrutum (Verg.) must, bhbutom Olr. bruth heat, Ags. 

brod broth E. , cf . Mir. bruith cookery. 
de-inceps next following (orig. Adj.) : fr. d€ + incipid begin, 
dein-de thereafter: *de-im 'from that,' d$+*im Abl. of is (cf. illitn 

istim). 
de-jero swear : formed for de-jUrd on anal, of pejerd quasi = per-j&rd. 
delenio delinio (quasi fr. linum ' net ') charm : fr. lenis. 
de-led destroy : see letum : 

not fr. tir)\4ojjMi (Dor. SaKcojjiai) hurt. 
de-libero consider : fr. liber, ' set free ' from extraneous matter. 
de-libutus anointed : fr. *libuo anoint, libh- cf. leibh- d\€^«. 
tdelphinus dolphin (E.) : *tic\<l>?vos by-form of fa\<f>is : ' young,' gvelbh- 

5&<J>a| porker tic\<pfo womb, cf . gvolbh- Got. kalbo calf E. , Zd. garewa 
. womb Sk. gdrbhas. 
-dem enclitic (in ibidem Idem identidem itidem pridem quidem tandem 

tantundem totidem) : -dm, of. Kp6$-$a secretly, Sk. i-ddm it (see idem). 
demo take away: fr. *demus Adj., sq. (see emo). 
demum at length : Neut. of *demus Adj. from de. 
deni 10 : for *dec-ni, on anal, of se?ti 6 = *sex-nl. 
deni-que at length : f r. *dene, de + -ne. 
dens tooth: dnt- Olr. del, Got. tunthm E. E. tusk, Zd. dahtan Sk 

ddntas, cf, dont- Lit. dan&s and- with copulative prefix 6-5ot5s: Part. 

(with reduced root) of edo, 
densus thick : = * dent-tils Part. fr. dnt-, cf. Zaavs — Sgr-fa. 
/ depso knead : 5fy«, cf. desp- OHG. zispan tread on ; from debh- MQu 

knead, 
desidero long for : 

hardly (1) 'miss from the session,' fr. stdo: (2) 'fail to see,' see 
considerd. 
de-stino make fast : from * y stand *sta~no set, sta- <rrdtris standing, Mir. 

scssed (= *si-sta-tu-), cf. Got. sta-n-dan stand E., and sta- st6. 
deterior worse (for term, cf . exterior interior) : ' degenerate, ' * detents 

from de. 
deus god (E. deuce) : = *d&ous, divus. 

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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 29 



dexter right : Comparative form, cf. ^tr€p6s, from deks- t^rfs; Olr. 
dess, Got. taihs-va, cf. de*ksinos Lit. destine right hand OSlav. deslnti 
right, Zd. dashina Sk. ddkshinas. 
tdiaeta diet (E.) : 8f-aira maintenance, fr. ttd through + atwfiai take, 

Osc. aeteis partis. 
tdica lawsuit : Stay, fr. sq. 
dicax witty, dicio command, dicis (Gen.) form, died consecrate : dik- 

Zd. dig- show Sk. die- point, cf. sq. 
dico deico say (E. dight ditty) : deik- feUvvfu show, Got. %&-teihaji pro- 
claim E. token teen tiny, cf. praeced. 
dierectus crucified: pop. etym. (quasi 'dies rectus,' euphemism for 

' dies malus '), for dlrectus 'cut in pieces ' from di-rig6. 
dies dies day (E. journey sojourn) : die- cf. dje- Sk. dydus sky, day, see 

diurnus nUndinae. — Also dev-, biduum two days. 
digitus finger: deg- cf. deg- Got. tekan touch E. take tack tick &c. 
tickle. 
Osc. degetasis (epithet of a magistrate, quasi * fingering ' the public 
money !) is obscure, 
dignus worthy (E. dainty deign disdain) : ' noticeable, ' fr. died. 
di-ligo love : from *lego care for, cf. intel-lego neg-lego (all three with 

Perf. in -xi) relligio, d-x£y« care for. 
di-mico fight : ' strike on different sides,' micd. 

dims ill-omened : = *dvt-r6s fr. duo, ' different ' from what should 
be, cf. Serv. Aen. 3. 235 Sabini et Umbri, quae nos mala, dira 
appellant. 
dis- (Got. dis-tairan burst) di- apart : lost cases fr. duo, ' in two, ' cf . 

Got. ftrw-standan to separate. 
discipulus pupil : = *disci-blus Adj. (see duplus) fr. sq. 
disco learn : = *dic-8co fr. dico, ' have pointed out to me \ 
tdiscus quoit (E. dish dais desk) : Mcricos, = *8f*c-(TKos fr. tiice'iv throw. 
disertus fluent : «with different accomplishments,' fr. ars, with inter- 
vocalic s preserved as though Deponent Part, of dissero discourse. 
dis-sipo scatter : from supd throw, Lit. sitpti swing. 
di-stinguo divide : * strike asunder,' see stinguo. 
tdithyrambus hymn to Bacchus: irMpapfros (for term, see iambus 

triumphus) : 
diurnus by day: fr. *dius day, Olr. die (= *di-jos), cf. dies, with term. 

of nocturnus by night, ytJicrwp. 
dives rich : ' godlike, blest,' fr. dims. 
di-vido divide (E. device devise) : vidh-, see viduus. 
dlvus deivos dius god divum sky (as home of the gods) : deiv- Lit. 
diewas god, Sk. devds, cf. div- Stos divine, Mir. dia god, ONor. tivi 
Ags. Tives-d&g Tuesday E. 



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3 o ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 

-do enclitic (in endo quando, and see idoneiis) : do to, Ags. to E., cf. r>o 

Olr. do, OSlav. do, see d6nec. 
do give (E. dado dice) : = *da-6, cf. 5<{-vo* gift, Ann. ta-m I give, r>A- 

weak form of do- ddnum. 
-do put (in cre-dd) : for -deo -dS5 (by analogy of abdo &c.), dhe- rl$ri/uLi t 

Got. gb-dSds action E. deed, Lit. d2mi I place OSlav. dej'g,, Zd. (ia- put 

Sk. dha-, cf. dho- floyufc heap, Got. doms judgment E. doom deem Ags. 

ddn do E. 

But abdd addd condo dido edo indo obdd perdd reddo subdo vendd are 
from Adjs. *ab-dus &c, cf. condus * one who lays up ' from con-. 
doceo teach : 
dodrans three-fourths : = *doquadrans from *dd by-form of de (see non 

and sobrius) + quadrans quarter : * minus a quarter,' as dextans five- 

sixths = de + sextans, 
doled suffer : * am beaten,' fr. dold. 
dolium jar : 
dolo pike, studding-sail (triangular, like the head of a pike : Polyb. 

f$6\av, while Plut.'s 86\<ov * stiletto ' is fr. 86\os) : sq., ' striking ' (of. 

TT€\€Kdw dold fr. itcKckus battle-axe). 
dolo hew : dl- MHG. zol log. 
dolus guile : Z6\os. 

domicilium habitation: fr. *domiculus Dimin. of *domicus Adj. of domus. 
dominus domnus dubenus (Fest.) master (E. dam &c. danger demesne 

domain duenna dungeon monkey) : = *dob-nos : foreign ? 
domo tame (E. daunt) : dom- W. dofi, Got. g&,-tamjan E., Sk. dam- 
control, cf. dm- tiapdfa, Olr. io-daimim I suffer (' am tamed '). 
domus house : SSfios, Olr. dom, OSlav. domU, Zd. dema Sk. damds, cf. dm- 

Arm. tun house ( = *tm-an) : fr. S^ua build, Got. timrjan E. timber. 
donee donique (on anal, of neque beside nee) donicum till : do- * to * (see 

-do) + -ne + cum when. 
ddnum gift (E. guerdon) : Olr. dan, do- 5f5«/u give Swpov gift, Lit. dUti 

give OSlav. dati, Arm. tur gift, Zd. Sk. da- give. 
dormid sleep: dr-m- cf. der-m- OSlav. dremati nod, and dr- tapddvoo sleep. 
dorsum dossum back (E. reredos) : = *dort-tum drt- cf. drot- Olr. 

druim % 
dos dower (E.) : do-ti- cf. %wr\vr\ gift, fr. do-num. 
tdrapeta runaway: tpavcrris: 'going at a run,' fr. b-Ko-Sitpdo-Koo run 

away, Sk. dm- run, + pet- ' go ' see petd, cf . ookv-v4tt)s swift-running. 
dubius doubtful (E. doubt) : fr. *dubus (cf. medius-merus), Pest. dubat 

dubitat addubdnum dubium : fr. duo + bho- (see acerbus). ■ 
duc5 douco draw (E. douche redoubt Bubdue) : = *deuco, deuk- Got. 

tiuhan E. fo?0 Jw# tie toil toy tuck Vb. wanton ftouch, cf . duk- <te 

leader, Hesych. $atit<r<rc<r6cu be dragged. 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 31 

diidum before : 4 till now,' dd- to (see donee) + -dum. 

duellum war (E. duel) : = *dvellum, of. helium : 

dulcis sweet : = *dluquis, cf . y\victs = *$\vk6s : 

-dum now (in dudum nondum) : Ace. Neut., cf. -dam -de -do : 

dum while : Ace. Neut, from do, see -do. 

dumus dumetum dummetum thicket : *dusm-, cf. Fest. dusmo 

dumoso : 
duo duo (Ausonius) two (E. dozen): duvo, OUmbr. tuva (Neut.), 

W(f) w » OSlav. dtiva, cf. duvo Ho, dvo Got. tvai E. E. twig &c, Zd. 

dm- Sk. dwf-, cf. sq. 
dupl-ex duplus double (E.) : du- two Lit. du, + term, -blus for -bdus cf. 

Umbr. tribdicu trebling ( = *tri-plic-io). 
durus hard (Mir. dur) : 

ebrius drunk : e (see ex) * very ' + *brius drunk (see so-brius) : 

ebulum danewort : 

tebur ivory (E.) : cf. Egyptian db (Pierret), and perhaps Sk. ibhas 

elephant. 
e-castor O Castor : *e Interj., cf. t *. 
ecce lo : et + -ce. — In comedy also declined (on anal of ille ipse iste), 

Ace. Sing, eceum eccam, Ace. Plur. eccos eccds ecca. 
techinus hedgehog: ixivos, egh- cf. OHG. igil, Lit. ezljs OSlav. jezl 

(=*j-ez-ju), and ogh- Arm. ozni. 
Hardly fr. fy 15 viper, Arm. i&, Zd. azhi snake Sk. dhis : no resem- 
blance of meaning. 
techo echo : ^x^ : 
ecquis any : et + quia 2 . 
edepol indeed : Osc. *ed for et (cf . Osc. deded = dedit), as in late Lat. : 

short for * e Castor ed e Pol-,' Castor and Pollux. 
edd eat : l&», Mir. esur Put., Got. itan E. E. fret ort, Sk. ad-, see 

Ssca. 
eged want : eg- ONor. ekla dearth, Zd. az to desire. 
ego ego I : 4y6, Got. ik E., Lit. asz OSlav. az& (the a in both obscure), 

Arm. es ; cf . 4ydv, Zd. azem Sk. ahdm. 
ehem Interj. : = em (cf. mehe = me, see vehemens). 
e-heu Interj. : *£ cf. ^ + heu. 
e-ho Interj. : e- see ecastor + *A5 = 6. 
eja heja Interj. (e lengthened by they) : ela. 
ejero refuse : formed for S-j&rd on anal, of pej'erd quasi = per-jUrd, see 

ejulo hejulo wail : fr. eja, the meaning of Interjs. being indeterminate, 

ah and oh are used both of joy and of grief. 
telectrum amber : Hj\*KTpov : Prussian (amber from the Baltic) ? 



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32 ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 

e-legans e-ligans luxurious: 'very careful,' *leg6 by-form of *lego (as 

lavd sond of lavd sono) care for, see dlligd. 
telegi elegy: ffaeyoi: 

elementum element : = *edementum, ed-, see as : 

telenchus ear-pendant of tapering pearls (Plin. 9. 113) : fceyxos refu- 
tation : history of change of meaning unknown, 
telephas elephant : f4\4<t>as, Heb. eleph bull, see alpha. 
telleborus helleborus hellebore : i4\\4Qopos itetQopos : 
ellum behold him : = 8m (l)llum. 
te-logium inscription : 8 + \6yiov announcement, 
em hem Interj. 

e-mined project : mun- see prdmunturium, cf. k-n$v<a ward off. 
emo buy (E. ransom redeem) : orig. «take' (Fest.), as in adimo <fcc, 

Mir. fo-emaim I take, cf. m- &/i<£w collect, Lit. imti take OSlav. yeti. 
Hence adimo coemo dirimo eximo interlmo perimo redimd, Pert, ademl 
&c, and *surimo (see sirempsc) ; but not comd demo promo sumo, 
Perf . compsi &c. 
emolumentum gain : fr. e-moU grind out. 
e-mungd wipe the nose : mungv- cf . mugv- mUgilis. 
emusitatus finished Plaut. Mil. 631 : 2 + a comic form *mussim for 

amussim. 
en lo : ijv, cf. Olr. en-de (Stokes, Remarks), onomatop. 
enim indeed : NUmbr. enem then : ' inside,' fr. in + a quasi numeral 

ending, see autem. 
ensis sword : nsis, Sk. asis. 
ed go (E. issue) : = *ej6, ei- el/u, Lit. etti to go OSlav. iti, Sk. ay, cf. i- 

Got. iddja I went, Ags. gan go (=*ga-i-n; see co~) E., Zd. Sk. i-. 
tepiredium trace : *4iri-pfi8iov fr. +*^8>;, raeda. 
tepops hoopoe (E.) : fcroif/, for *&ro\f/, see upupa. 
tepos epic : tiros word, vekv-, see voc6. 
epulae feast : 

e-quidem indeed : e- pronominal element, cf. 4-kuvos he ? 
equus horse : e*k-vos, Olr. ech, Got. aihva- (in aihva-tundi bush, quasi 

' horse's tooth ') Ags. eoh, Zd. acpa- Sk. dcvas, cf. ok-vos Lit. aszwa 

mare. 
TWiros Xkkos horse can hardly be connected. 
erga opposite, ergo because of : = *edga *edgo, edh- up see ad- + Adj.- 

ending -gvo. 
ericius (from an Adj. *Srucus) er hedgehog (E. tvrehin) : = *her> Hesych. 

xhp- 
erro wander (E. arrant err) : = *ers6, cf. Got. airman mislead OHG. 

irrdn err. 
eruca colewort (E. rocket 3 ) : ' like a hedgehog curled up,' er see ericius. 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 33 

eras herus master: = *esus, Zd. anhus; 'proprietor,' es- see sum, cf. 

obffia (from the same root) property. 
ervum pulse (OHG. araweiz pea NHG. erbse) ; 'of the field,' fr. 

arvum? 
esca food : = *ed-sca, ed- Got. uz-eta crib, Lit. 'edmi I eat OSlav. jadl 

food, Sk. ddyas edible, of. ed- edo. 
tessedum car : Belgic (Verg. Geo. 3. 204). 

et and : = *6ti, in further, Got. ith and, Sk. dti over, cf . eti Zd. aiti. 
etiam also : = et + jam, as quoniam since = quom + jam. 
teuax Interj. : *e2a| from evoi, sq. (cf. ir<frra£ from into™). 
teuhoe evoe Interj. : tv(f)o?. 

teurus S. E. wind: efyos: = *e&r-pos fr. iird, 'scorching'? 
ex e (on anal, of de) out of (E. strange) : i£, Olr. ess-, Zd. ash- very : 

= ek ec-fero carry out, 4k out of, Lit. isz (cf. eg OSlav. izU), + s (cf. 

abs- os-). 
examen exag-men swarm : = ex ■+■ agmen train (fr. ago). 
texanclo draw out : i^avrKew, fr. &vr\os hold of a ship. 
texcetra snake : 

hardly cf. Pruss. esketres sturgeon, 
exemplum model (E. sample) : = *exem-blum (for term, see duplus) fr. 

exim-o take out. 
ex-ilis thin : * eviscerated/ fr. ilia. 
ex-pedid set free : ' unfasten,' ped-, see oppido. 
ex-perior try : see perlculum. 
ex-ploro search out: 'strike out,' fr. plodo (as excutio examine fr. quatio 

shake). 
ex-sul ex-sol (Cassiodorus, Keil 7. 152) exile : fr. sedeo, see consul. 
exta internal organs : = *enxta btkvsto- Lit. inkstas kidney. — Hardly 

add ONor. eista testiculus, OSlav. isto, from oisto- (or oikvsto-). 
ex-torris banished : trs- cf. ters- terreo. 
ex-uo doff : = *exuvo from *avo clothe, NUmbr. exi-ovihimu let him 

assume, Lit. aUti put on shoes, see induo subucula. 

faba haba bean (W. ffden) : bhab- (or bhabh-) Pruss. babo OSlav. bobil. 
faber smith (E. forge frigate) : 'adapter,' dhabh- Got. gs,-daban happen 

ga,-dobs fitting E. dapper daft deft, Lit. dabinti adorn. 
facetus elegant : ' well-made,' fr. * faced by-form oifacio. 
fades shape, facio make (E. feat fetish franion surfeit) : dhe-k- Olr. 

denim I do, cf. dhS-k- ie^Ka I placed : from dhe- Arm. dnem I place, 

cf. dhe-, see -do. 
faenum fenum hay (E. fennel) : 
faenus fenus interest : fr. praeced. (cf. emolumentum). 
faex dregs : 



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34 ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 



fagus beech : <pny6s oak (see on frdxinus), Ags. bece beech E. E. buck- 

wheat. 
tfala tower : Etrusc, cf. Etrusc. falandum sky (Fest.), « high \ 

Hesych. <p6Xai • opi\ is a conjecture for <pd\at • fy>a. 
tfalarica fiery arrow : Spanish (used by the Saguntines, Liv. 21. 8) ? 
falld deceive (E. fail falter fault) : = *fahio, dhvl- Mir. dall blind, cf. 

dhvol- 6o\(p6s turbid 0o\6s mud, Got. dvals dull E. E. dolt Ags. 

dvelian mislead. 

Not = *falvo, bhalv- <f>av\os slight (= *<p6xpos) y Got. balvfan to 
plague E. baleful : which gives too strong a meaning, 
falx sickle (E. falchion) : 
fama fame : <^/«j, fx.f&ri. 
fames hunger (E. famine): 'gaping,' ohvam- xa^« yawn (= *x^ftj«), 

cf. ghvam- x*wos gaping ( = *xa/ifoj) X^m cockle, Ags. goma jaws E. 

gums, Lit. gomurys gum. 
tfamulus slave : Osc. famel (Fest.) for * famed-, cf. OUmbr. famedias 

families: 'dweller' in the house (oikIttis), bham- cf. bham- Osc. faamat 

he dwells. 
fanum temple : ' sacred,' = *fds-num fr. fas. 
far spelt: farr- bhar-s-, Ir. bar bread, OSlav. brdslno food, see farina. 

Hardly add Ags. bere barley E. E. bam. 
farcid cram (E. farce forceme&t) : bhekv- Olr. bare multitude (Stokes 

Remarks), ct bhrkv- fortis, <pp&crcr<a fence, bhrekv- seefrcquens. 
tfarfarus farferus coltsfoot : Sabine, cf . the river-name Farfarus or 

Fabaris : nascitur secundum fluvios Plin. 24. 135. 
farina flour : = *faris-na i cf. Got. barizcins of barley, bhar-es- cf. 

bhar-s- far. 
far! to speak : bha- <fmfil I speak, Olr. ad&o I forbid, OSlav. bajati to 

converse. 
fas religion : 
fascino bewitch : fZafficalrca (for *<pa<ricodv<a : Thracian, see boreds ?) : 

* bind,' fr. sq. 
fascis bundle : bhask- (pdo-KuXos wallet. 
fastidium loathing : = *fastitldium fr. fdstus + taedium weariness (fr. 

taedet). 
fastlgium top : = *farsti-gvium fr. BHRSTf- cf . BHRSTf- Ags. byrst bristle 

E., Sk. bhrshtis point, + term. -gvo-. 
fastus pride : = *farstus, bhars- OHG. parrunga, parren be stiff, 
fastus Adj. lawful : fas. 

fateor own : ' open the mouth,' fet- seefessus, sq. 
fatigo fetlgd (Probus, Keil 4. 212) tire ('cause to gape '), fatisco gape : 

fr. *fetis gaping, fessw. 
fatuus foolish (Ei.fade) : * gaping,' praeced. 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 35 

fauces pharynx : 

not fr. Sk. bhukasf opening. 
faveo favour: 'give life to,' = *foved, bhou- cf. bhO -fui. 
favilla emberd : 'glowing,' = */ovllla dhoghv- cf. dhoghv- Sk. ni-d 

heat, dheghv- r4<ppa ashes ( = *e4xF~pa) t Lit. elegit I burn. 
favus honeycomb : * dwelling,' = *fovos, bhou- Got. bauains dwelling E. 

bower booth, Sk. bhavanam, fr. fui. 
fax torch : 
febris hebris fever : 

not fr. (1) (p^o/xai flee: no similarity of meaning: (2) Ags. bifian 
tremble, bhibh-. 
fecundus faec- foec- fertile: 'nourishing,' cf. fellx, dhe- suck, seefelld. 
fel gall : fell- ghvel-n- cf. ghvol-n- Ags. gealla E. ; and ghvol- x^ 05 * 
- ghvl- OSlav. zlittl : ' yellow, ' see flaws. 
feles faeles cat : 
felix fertile : 'nourishing,' fr. *fela breast, 6r;A^, dhE-l- cf. dhe-l- Mir. 

del, OHG. tila, sq. 
fello felo suck : dhe-l- 6r)\vs female, Lit. dele leech, Sk. dhdrtis suck- 
ling: from dhe- 0rj<rdai suck, OSlav. detg infant, Arm. diem I suck, 

Zd. da- suck Sk. dhd- t cf. dhe- Olr. dith suxit, dho- Got. (£addjan 

suckle. 
femina woman (Ags. faemne maiden; E. female) : 'giving suck,' dhe-, 

see praeced. 
femur femen thigh : 
tfenestra festra window : 
feralis funereal : ' solemn,' fr. fer-iae. - 
fere nearly : ' brought close to,' ir.fero. 
ferentarius lightarmed : ' rushing,' fr. ferens Part, of ferd, in the sense 

of seferre, to rush. 
feriae holydays (E. fair Subst.) : = *fesia£ i ci.fes-tus. 
ferio strike : bher- ONor. berja, cf. bhor- Lit. barii I scold OSlav. borja 

I fight. 
ferme nearly ; is. fere + Adj. -ending -mo-. 
fermentum yeast: 'causing movement,' fr. sq., cf. Ags. beorina and 

BHOR-MO- E. barm. 
fero bear, move: <p4pw bear, Olr. bcrid fert, Got. bairan E. E. barrow' 2 , 

OSlav. bera I take, Arm. berem I bear, Zd. bar- bear Sk. bhar-. 
ferrum iron (E. farrier) : 

not (1) Heb. barzel: (2) cf. Ags. bras brass E., ONor. brasa harden by 
fire E. brazier. 
fertum ferctum cake : Part. Neut. of *fergo ' bake,' bhergv- cf. bhrgv- 

Olr. bairgen bread, bhrgv- Pruss. birga-k&rkis basting-ladle. 
ferula fennel-giant : ' light ' (gestatu facilis Plin. 13. 123), fr. fero. 



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36 ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 



ferns wild (E. fierce) : 

not cf. gh-v-eb- <^p dtp beast, Lit. zimeris OSlav. zverl. 
ferved ferbed boil : bherv- Mir. berbaim I boil. 
fessus weary : = *fet-tus gaping, aeefatisco, Part, from fet- : 
festino hasten : 

festuca fistuca stalk : see fistula : 
festus solemn : of. Oso. filsno temple : 
feted faeted foeted stink : 
fetiales heralds : 

fetus foetus fruitful, newly delivered: 'giving suck,' dhe- seefelld. 
fi Inter j. : oi.fu. 

fibra fibre : = *fis-ra of. Qnvia-filum. 
fibula buckle : = *flvi-bula fr. flv5 (Cato) —figo. 
f icedula (for the term, see acredula) f icella becafico : fr. sq. 
flcus fig (E.) : ' shaped like a drone,' fucus 2 . 
fidelia pot : bhidh- nidos jar. 
fides faith (E. E. defy): bhidh-, seefldus. 
fides 2 lyre: 

not QHIDH- Kiddpa (quasi *x^-dpa : rather Semitic). 
f idus trusty : bheidh- irefflw persuade, cf . bhoidh- Got. baidjan compel. 
flgo fix : dialectic for fivo, see fibula : ' prick/ digv- Lit. dygiis 

prickly. ^ 

filius son: = *fulius tribesman, <pv\ov tribe, from bhu-, seeful. 

Rather than = *felius suckling fr. felld, cf. Lit. pirm-c^Zys firstborn 
(of animals). 
filix felix fern : 
f Hum thread, thickness (Munro Lucr. 2. 341 : E. profile) : = *fislum. 

Lit. gysla sinew, see fibra. 
fimbriae fringe (E.) : = *finsriae ghvins- cf. ghvis- praeced. 
fimus dung: 'strong-smelling,' = *fumus t see suffio. 
findo split (E. vent) : cf. bhid- <f>irp6s (i.e. *<i>fi-Tp4s, see meditor) log, Zd. 

bid- split Sk. bhid-, and bheid- <p(i$o/Aai spare (' take a bit of '), Got. 

beitan bite E. E. butt Vb. 
fingd mould (E. faint feint) : cf. dhigh- Sk. dih- smear, dheigh- t€?xoj 

wall (see mdceria), Got. deigan mould E. dough dairy lady. 
finis limit (E. finance fine Subst. and Adj.) : * marked by a rope,' funis. 
f 15 become : = *fuo fr. fui. 

f irmus firm (E. farm) : = *fid-mus fr. fido> ' reliable '. 
fiscus basket : 
fistuca rammer : fr. fastis. 

fistula pipe (E. fester) : fr. festuca (cf. avena stalk, pipe). 
flaccus flap-eared (E. flange flank flunkey) : = *fldcus, bhlk<5s (j>o\k6s 

bandy-legged, fr. flecto. 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 37 

flagitium importunity (' demanding '), shameful act : sq. 

flagi to demand : ' press, beat,' long form fr. flag-rum. 

flagro burn : bhleg- <p\4yw, OHG. blechen to flash, cf. bhlog- Sk. 

bhrdj- shine. 
flagrum whip (E. flail flog) : 
flamen priest : = *fldd-me7i (for term, cf . -Koi-fi^v), bhlad- Got. bldtan to 

worship. 
flamma blaze : = *fldma fr. fit. 
flavus yellow (E. flavour) : ghvi.-vos of. fulvus gilvus, ghvl- xAewp<fe, 

ghvel- Lit. gelsti grow yellow. 
flecto bend (E. flinch) : 
flemina congestion of blood : = *flet-mina, bhlet- cf. bhlot- Got. Moth 

blood E. : fr. sq., ' flowing '. 
fled weep (E. feeble foible) : <f>k4oo overflow : aeeflos. 
fllgo strike : bhligv- <f>\ifia> Okipa, W. blif catapult. 

Not add Got. bliggvan beat, or OSlav. blizna scar. 
flo blow (E. flageolet flute flout flue) : = *fld-o, bhl- cf. bhl- ONor. bylr 

gust. 
floccus lock of wool : 
flos flower (E. E. flour) : bhlo-s- Ags. blos-ma E. blossom, cf. bhlo- Mir. 

bla-th. Got. blo-ma E. bloom Ags. blo-van to smell E. blow Vb. 2 , and 

bhle- cf. fleo. 
fluo flow (E. floss-silk, flotilla ; but not flovi) : = *flugvo, bhlugv- olv6- 

<p\vl- drunken <p\vKraiva blister (' discharging '). 
foculum fire-pan Plaut. Persa 104 : = *foviculum fr. foveo. 
focus hearth (E. fuel fusee) : l place,' fr. facio. 
fodio dig: bhodh- 06dpos trench (with j8, for ir, from jSa^tJs?), Lit. 

badau I prick OSlav. boda, cf. bhedh- W. bedd grave, Lit. bedu 

I dig. 
foedus fidus (Enn.) fedus Subst. treaty: = *foidos, Beefidus. 
foedus fedus Adj. foul : = *foes-dus tr.fus-Gus,fois-. 
folium leaf : <pv\Xov (for *<p6\]op). 

follis bag (E. fool) : = *fol-nis, bhol-n- OHG. ballo ball E. 
fomes tinder : = *fovimes fr. foveo. 
fons spring: = *faunsfavens 'blessing,' Part, of fa veo, cf. NUmbr. fons 

(i.e. *fau-nus) favens. 
forceps pincers : =• *formi-ceps (fr. capio), Fest. formus hot, ghvor-mo- 

Zd. garema- hot Sk. gharmds heat, cf. ghver-mo- dep^6s hot, Arm. 

jerm, ghvb-m- Pruss. gorme heat ; from ghvor- Lit. gdras steam 

OSlav. goreti burn, Sk. ghar-, cf. ghver- dtpofxai grow warm. 
fore to be about to be : short for * fore esse,' to be out, abroad, beyond, 

cf . Hor. Sat. 1. 2. 67 exclusus fore ( = forts out as mage pote = magis 

potis). — From fore, taken as Inf., was formed forem Subj. 



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38 ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 



foris door (E. foreign forest foreclose forfeit) : dhvb-is OSlav. dviri, cf. 

dhub- 06pa, Olr. doros, Got. daur E., Lit. diirys, Arm. durn, dhvor- 

Zd. dvara ; and dub- Sk. (far-, dvob- Sk. ^i^r. 
forma shape : 

not cf. Sk. dhariman balance, formf, from dhar- hold. 
formica furmica ant : 

formidd bugbear, fear : ' shape, imaginary shape,' fr. forma. 
fornix oven, fornix arch (' vaulted ' like an oven) : seefumus. 
ford bore : bhb- <pdpos plough, Ags. borian bore E., cf. bheb- Zd. bar- 
bore. 
fors chance : forti- BHBTf- Ags. ge-byrd fate, cf. (for the form) Got. ga- 

baurths birth E., Sk. bhrtis maintenance : * what comes,' it.fero. 
fortassis fortasse perhaps : ' you would affirm ' (hence in Plaut. and 

Ter. with Inf.), 2 Sing. Perf. Subj. of *fort6 {=firm6, 'affirm,') fr. sq. 
fortis forctis strong (E. force fort) : ic. fortius horctus good (Fest.), bhbkv- 

to*s <ppaKr6s fortified, fr. far do. 
forum market-place : dhvob- Lit. dwdras court OSlav. dvorfi, Zd. dvara 

palace : 'place with doors,' see foris. 
fonts gangway : fr. fero (as via fr. veho). 
fovea pit : ghevia x^/ 7 )"* no ^ e « 
foveo warm : * revive,' bhev- Ags. beon be E. E. bondage bondsman. 

husband hus&a?idman boor bylaw neighbour, cf. bhev- Sk. bhavayus 

fostering, fr. ful. 
fraga strawberries : = *srdqa, cf. fi&£ grape. 
fragrd fraglo flagro (Ellis Catull. p. 344 sq.) smell: = fiagrd, smell 

being brought out by burning (the 2 first spellings to differentiate the 

meaning). 
tframea spear : German (Tac.) : 

hardly a mistake for * franca, Ags. franca. 
frangd break (E. frail osprey refrain Subst.) : = *frengo, cf. bhbeg- Got. 

brikan E. E. brook Subst. brake bray f bribe. 
frater brother (E. friar) : <ppdrr)p clansman, Olr. brdthir brother, Got. 

brothar E., Lit. broterelis (Dimin.) OSlav. bratrU, Arm. cXbair, Zd. 

bratar- Sk. bhrcitar. 
fraus hurt : BHBOUDf- cf. bhbeud- Ags. breotan break E. brittle. 
fraxinus ash: = *frdg-ti-nus, BBUG-farnus (Vitruvius, = *farg-nus), Sk. 

bhurjas birch (for confusion of tree-names seefagus), cf. bherg- Ags. 

beorce E., Lit. birzas OSlav. breza. 
fremo roar : ghvrem- xp€/*« T ^C« n eigh> Ags. grim wild E. grim grumble, 

cf. ghvrom- Mir. yromma satire, Got. gramjan provoke, OSlav. gromti. 

thunder. 
frendo crush, gnash the teeth : ghrendh- Ags. grindan grind E. 
frenum fraenum bit (E. refrain Vb.) : 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 39 

frequens frequent: bhrekv- seefarcio, * crowding' (see cunctus). 

fretum strait : 

fretus relying on : ' borne up by,' Part, otfero (as cretus of cemo). 

fried rub (E. fray Vb.) : fr. *fri-cus Adj. fr. frit. 

frigo roast (E. fritter fry) : = *frUgo f Qpvyoo, cf. bhrug- Ir. bruighim I 

roast (E. broil). 
frigus cold (E. frill) : = *srigus, fiyos. 
friguttid (Plaut.) fringuttid (Varr.) twitter : frigv- cf. frigo squeak 

(Afranius), fringv- cf. fringuWa chaffinch (Varr.) : 
not cf. Lit. brizgeti bleat, 
frio rub : ghri- cf. ghri- xp*« anoint xp*/* a °^» an ^ ghri-s- xP' (r / ia - 
fritillus dicebox: Dimin. of *frulus—frutex (cf. alius allex), 'like a 

small tree'. 
frivola lumber : *frl-vus rubbed, W. briw broken, see frid. 
frons 1 brow (E. flounce Subst.) : BHRONTf- cf. bhront 7 - ONor. brand 

ship's beak (Vigfusson). 
frons 2 leaf: bhrondI- cf. bhrend- Lit. brindau I ripen. 
fruor enjoy : = *fruor *frugvor y bhrugv- Got. brukjan enjoy E. brook Vb. 

broker. 
frustra in error : = *frOd-trd fr. fraus. 
frustum frustrum bit : dhraus- 0pat5(cr)« break, 
frutex shrub : 
fu Interj. : <pv t E.foh. 
tfucus 1 rock-lichen (used as a dye): foreign, cf.t <pvicos seaweed, Heb. 

puk paint. 
fucus 2 drone : 

fugid flee: <pvyi) flight, Sk. bhuj- bend, cf. bhugv- Lit. bilgau am fright- 
ened, bheugv- <peby<a flee. 
ful fu-vi was : bh(j- tptw produce, Lit. btiti be OSlav. byti, Zd. bu- Sk. 

bhu-, cf. bhu- <pvr6v plant, Mir. both hut ('place to live in'), aeefaveo 

favus fid foveo. 
fulcio support : 

fulgd shine : bhlg- cf. bhleg- flagrd. 
fulica coot : = *fuliga (see pertica) bhli-gva- MHG. belche ( = *buliche) t 

cf. bhl- <pa\apis: 'white-headed,' h.fullo. 
fuligo soot : = *fuvili-go fr. *fUvilis Adj. (see ullgo) from dhu- fumus. 
fulld fuller (E. E. foil Vb.) : ' whitener,' = */wZ-?io, bhl- <pa\-opida> whiten 

<pa\aKp6s bald, cf. bhol- Lit. bdltas white, bhel- Ags. bael fire, OSlav. 

beta white, Sk. bhdlam brightness. 
fulvus yellow : ghvl-vos, cf. fldvus. 
fumus smoke: Lit. dtimas OSlav. dymU, Sk. dhumds, from dhu- Obw 

rush. 
funda sling: sq., 'striking'. 



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4 o ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 



fundd pour, scatter (E. foison funnel refuse) : bhund- of. bheud- fudl 

Perf., bhoud- Ags. bedtan strike E. beat fbutt, see f Hsu*. 
Rather than ghund- cf. gheu-d- Got. giutan pour E. gush gust gut 
ingot, from gheu- x^if)^ 8ee gutto" 
fundus bottom (E. found Vb. founder Vb.) : bhund- vivtiat (for *<t>fo8a£, 

with ir- from irvdfi-fip), Olr. bond (E. bounds bourn 1 ), cf. bhud- Ags. 

botm E. : by-form bhudh- trvO/jL-nu, Zd. 6wwa Sk. budhnds. 
fungor perform : cf . bhug- Sk. bhuj enjoy, bhoug- Arm. boic food, 
tf unguis mushroom: foreign, cf. i<r<j>6yyos <rir6yyos sponge (E. E. spunk). 
funis rope : = *foinis ghvoinis cf. ghveinis Lit. geinis ? 
funus corpse on the pyre (Serv.) : 

fur thief: = *fdr (ci.forcilla Dimin. of sq., Catull. 105. 2 Ellis), <p<i>p : 
furca fork : praeced., ' instrument for punishing thieves '. 
furfur bran: 'purgamentum farinae' (Facciolati), cf. NUmbr. furfant 

they cleanse : 
furnus oven : ghvrn6s OSlav. grunU kettle, Sk. ghrnds heat : from 

ghvor-, see forceps. 
furo rage: = *fuso dhus- 0v{<r)ids Maenad 6v<r-rds (Hesych.), Ags. dysig 

foolish (Grein) E. dizzy. 
furvus forvus black : 
fuscina trident : 
fus-cus black: see foedus Adj. : 
fustis club (E. fusty) : 
fusus fussus spindle : = *fud-tus Part. fr. fundd, ' struck ' to make it 

revolve. 
futtilis futilis vain : fr. *futus, see confutd, ' shaky '. 
futud : Ir. both Wos (O'Donovan). 

tgaesum gesum javelin (ONor. kesja halberd) : Spanish (Athenaeus) 

Polyb. fy euros : ghais- x^i*) 05 shepherd's staff, Olr. gai spear, Ags. 

gar E. &u-ger garlic gore Vb. 
tgalbanum a gum : *xd\fiwov txaAjS^, Heb. helb'ndh. 
galbinus green : 
t galea helmet (orig. of weasel-skin, II. 10. 335 icnticr) kwctj) : ya\€ri 

weasel. 
gallus cock : =/gal-nus, gal-n- ONor. kalla call E. 
ganeum underground room (Fest.) : 
gannio yelp : 

not = *gangnio fr. *gang~nus Adj., gvangv- OSlav. gagnati to murmur, 

cf. gvagv- MHG. kach loud laughter this would only become *gagwid. 

garrio chatter : = *garsid gvars- Hesych. yappubfitBa we abuse, OHG. 

kerran to cry, Lit. garsas noise, 
tgarum caviar : fydpos : 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 41 



gauded rejoice (E. E. gaud jewel joy) : = *gdvidco (of. gavisus Part.) fr. 

Adj. *cfdvidu8 fr. *gd-vus, ga- yri-Oca, cf. GA- ya-ioov (Part.). 
tgaulus pail : fy av\6s : cf. Sk. gold\ jug ? 
t gausape felt : *yav<rairi fyafoairos : 

tgaza treasure (E. gazette ?) : fyd(a, cf . Pers. geng' Zenker 763 a. 
gelus frost (E. jelly) : gvel- cf. gvol- Got. kalds cold E. E. cool chill, 

OSlav. golotl ice. 
,gemini twins : * fellows,' dialectic by-form of *hemines fr. hemo, see 

homo (for the terminations cf. termini r4pfiov€s). 
gem-ma bud, gem (E. cameo) : l swelling,' fr. sq. 
gemd groan (Ital. gcmere trickle) : 'am sated, oppressed,' gvem- ycfico 

am full, cf. gvm- OSlav. zlma I compress. 
gena cheek : Olr. gen mouth, Arm. cnaut cheek, see genulnus. 
gener son-in-law : 4 kinsman ' by election, fr. genus. 

Not for *gemros gm-ros cf . gam-ros yajifipSs, fr. yd/mos marriage. 
genesta genista broom : ' sprouting,' fr. genus. 
genu, knee : gnu cf . go"nu y6rv, gDnu Sk. jctnu, gon- Arm. cunr ; and 

gnu yvv-ireTos fallen on the knees, Zd. zhnu knee Sk. jnu, gneu Got. 

kniu E. 
genuinus grinder : genu- yhvs jaw, Got. kinnus cheek E. chin, cf. Sk. 

hdnus jawbone, see gena. 
genus birth (E. gender jaunty) : gen- yfros, Mir. gem, Arm. cin } Zd. 

zan- give birth to Sk. jan- t cf. gn- Got. kuni kin E. E. kind king knave 

knight, see ndscor. 
germanus brother : gen-mn-n<5s (see humdnus), gen-mn- cf. sq. 
germen sprig : = *genmen cf. Late-Lat. genimen, fr. genus, * growth '. 
gero carry (E. jest register) : = *geso : 
tgerrae nonsense : yfypa wickerwork (' flimsy ') : 
gibbus hump : = *gubbus *gilbus gvub- (or gvubh-) cf. gvumb- (or 

gvumbh-) Lit. gumbos excrescence. 
gignd produce : cf. ylypo/iai become, Redupl. of gn- see genus. 
gilvus gilbus yellow : dialectic by-form of helvus light bay, ghvelvos 

Ags. geolo yellow E. E. yolk, cf. ghvlvos fulvus, and seejlavvs. 
gingiva (for term. cf. sal-iva) gum : Gaulish (as first in Catullus) ? 
glaber smooth : ghvladh- OHG. glat smooth, bright, gay Ags. glad gay 

E. glad, cf. ghvlad - Lit. glodus smooth OSlav. gladiti to smooth, 

see blandus. 
glacies ice : 

gladius sword (E. glaive) : 
glaeba gleba clod : 
tglaesum glesum amber : German (Plin. 87. 42), Ags. glaere resin 

(Kluge) ; akin to Ags. glds glass E. 
glans acorn : » like a stone,' ghland- cf. ghlad- sq. 



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42 ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 



glarea gravel : = *glddea, cf . x*t)5os rubbish. 

tglaucus bright : y\avic6s : 

gliscd spread : gli- of. gu- Zd. zri- extend, gloi- Sk. jrdyas extent. 

globus ball : 

glomus glomus ball : * bound together,' cf . Ags. clam band. 

gloria fame : = *glosia, OSlav. glasU voice, ' making a noise in the 

world '. 
glubo peel: gleubh- Ags. cleofan split E. cleave, cf. glubh- ykhpw 

carve. 
gluten glutinum glue (E.) : glutus tenacious, gvloi- y\oid glue ykoi6s 

oil, Ags. claeg clay E., NHG. klei slime, OSlav. glenti mucus. 
g"lutio gluttio swallow (E. glut glutton) : 
gnarus narus skilful : gn- cf. gn- see ingens. 
tgdbius gudgeon (E.) : *yufit6s ticwPris (see conger) : 
tgrabatus couch: *ypd&aros fKpdfiaros (cf. praeced.), Macedonian, 
gracilis thin : 

hardly cf. Enn. cracens Part, of *crac6b i kvrok- see curculio. 
gradus step : = *gred / As ghvredh- Olr. ingrennat they follow, Got. grids 

step, cf. ghvrendh- OSlav. gr\da I come. 
gramen grass : ghbI- Ags. grovan grow E., Ags. grene green E., cf. 

ghra- Got. gras grass E. 
grandis large : 
grandd hail : ghrand- cf. ghrad- OSlav. gradil (for the g cf. anser), Sk. 

hrddfaiis, fr. Zd. zrad- rattle Sk. hrdd- to sound. 
granum grain (Olr. gran Plur. ; E. E. garnet granite grange grenade) : 

grno- cf. grno- Got. kaurn E. corn churn kernel, Lit. Utirnis pea 

OSlav. zrUno grain : 'ripe,' grno*- Sk. jlrnds worn out, fr. ger- yepw 

old man, OSlav. zreti grow ripe, Sk. jar- grow old. 
gratus pleasant (E. agree) : ghr-to*s cf. ghr-tos see hortor. 
gravastellus old man : comic Dimin. Masc. fr. *grdvastra ' old woman 

formed from *ypavd{a> grow an old woman, ypavs old woman, 
gravis heavy (E. grief) : = *grovis gvrov- cf. gvru- Papfo, Got. kaurus, 

Sk. gurus Zd. gouru- hard, see congrud. 
gremium lap : 

gressus going : = *gred-tus, see gradus. 
grex flock (Mir. graig herd of horses) : 4 rounded mass ' (for the meaning 

cf. globus ball, company), gvreg- cf. gvrg- gurges, ydpy-apa plenty, 
grunnio (dialectic, cf. mannus) grundio grunt (E. gurnard) : grund- 

cf. grud- ONor. krytja to murmur (E. grudge). 
griis crane : gvru- Arm. krunk, cf. gverv- Lit. girwe, gver5v- OSlav. 

%eravl; also gvron- Ags. crane E., gvorn- Lit. garnys stork, gvern- 

ycparos crane, Gaulish tri-garanus with 3 cranes W. garan crane, 

shank. 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 43 

tgryps griffin (E.) : ypfy> &• ypv*4s hooknosed. 

tguberno steer (E. govern) : *yvPepvdw Kvfepvdco (see gobius), cf. Sk. 

ktlbaras pole {so E. helm fr. haulm), and Lit. kumbryti steer. 
gula throat (E. gullet gully) : gl- Ags. ceole, cf. gel- Olr. gelid he 

consumes. 
Not gvel- Arm. klanem I devour, gvol- Sk. </aZas throat. 
gumia gourmet (Span, gomia) : 'full,' NUmbr. gomia gravidas, gvom- cf. 

gvem- gemo. 
gurges whirlpool (E. gorge gorgeous gargoyle gtirgle) : l round,' see grcx, 

cf. OHG. querca throat (E. carcanct), and gvrg- Olr. brdge neck. 
gurgulio gullet: gvrg-l- OHG. querechela ( = *quur-i-chulja), cf. gvrg-r- 

yapyape&p, fr. praeced. 
gurgulio 2 weevil: pop. etym. (quasi fr. praeced., 'quoniam paene 

nihil est nisi guttur ' Varr. ap. Serv. Geo. 1. 186), for curculio. 
gurgustium hut : fr. *gurgus Neut. pit, cf. gvorg- y6pyvpa dungeon, 

gverg- ycpyvpa, gvrg- gurgos, ' circular \ 
gusto taste (E. ragout) : gus- Olr. to-gu I choose, Ags. cyssan to kiss 

E., Zd. zush- to love Sk. jush- enjoy, cf. geus- ye6(<r)a) give to taste, 

Got. Jciusan approve E. choose, gous- Got. kausjan to taste. 
gutta drop (E. gout gutter), guttus giitus flask: *guta, dialectic for 

*huta Part. Fern. fr. gheu- x«(f)« pour, ghu- Sk. hu- pour into the 

fire, see under fundo. 
gattur throat : fr. praeced., « pipe '. 

tgypsum white lime : fyfyos, cf. Pers. gibs gypsum Zenker 348 c. 
tgyrus circle : yvp6s : 

habeo hold (Got. haban have E. E. behave havoc hawk : E. able binnacle 
malady pledge) : ghvabh- Osc. hafiest habebit, Olr. gabal to seize, 
OSlav. gobino abundance. r 

haedus aedus (Roman, Varr. L. L. 5. 97) hedus edus (rustic, Varr.) 
kid: GHAfDOS OLat. foedus (Fest.) Sab. fedus (Varr.), Got. gaits 
goat E. 

haereo stick : ghvais- Got. us-gaisjan frighten (' cause to hesitate ') E. 
gaze garish ghastly ghost, Lit. gatszti tarry. 

hahae hahahe ahahe Interjs. of laughter : MHG. haha E. haha. 

halo breathe : 

thama ama bucket : fyy fyy, cf. Arm. aman vessel, Sk. amatram. 

hamus hook : 

thapalopsis a spice : *aircU.o\f/is, fr. aira\m dirrav roast moderately. 

hara pen : — *hesfi bhes- cf . <rv-<pe(o)6s sty ? 

harena arena sand : Sab. fasena : 

hariolus ariolus soothsayer : bhar- Ir. bar sage. 

tharmonia concord : ap/xoyla fastening, fr. *&p^<av Adj . 



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44 ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 



tharpe falchion : Upm) sickle, srp- OSlav. srUpU, cf. srp- sarpo. 

harundd arundo reed : 

haru-spex aru-spex hari-spex (£r. speeid) diviner: 'inspecting entrails,' 

ghr- x°?-H gut (E. cord), cf. ghb- Sk. hirct vein, ghor-no- ONor. 

garnir guts Ags. gearn yarn E., Lit. zdrna gut. 
hasta spear : ghazdha cf. Got. gazds goad OHG. gart E. yard 2 gird at 

(but not E. goad). 
hau au Interj. 
haud haut hau not : = *au-de, see au-tem and -de, 'now* (the notion of 

negation being supplied by gesture). 
haurio draw (E. mist) : = *ausio aus- i^avfrriip flesh-hook Hesych. i^avaai 

take out, ONor. ansa pump, sprinkle. 
thebenus ebenus ebony (E.) : *€fievos \ifcvos, Heb. hobriim. 
hebes blunt : 

hedera edera ivy : ' tenacious, ' ghved- cf . ghvend- prehendo ? 
hei ei Interj. 

helluo heluo glutton : foreign ? 
helvella pot-herb : ' green food,' fr. helvtcs, see gilvus. 
themicillus (reading doubtful) mule : *fi/j.iicikkos, fipi- see semi- + kIWos 

ass. 
herba grass : fr. <t>ty&a feed, ctforbea food (Fest.), Qopfrfi fodder. 
hercisco ercisco divide an inheritance : 
heres eres haeres heir (E.) : 

hardly cf. x^pwa-ro/ guardians, fr. xvp^ am bereaved, 
heri yesterday : ghjes- x9* s > Sk. hyds, cf. Got. grwfra-dagis to-morrow 

(see Vigfusson on ONor. goer) E. yesterd&y, cf. ghjes- hes-ter-nus Adj. 
therds hero : fy>«s : cf . Sk. sdras strength ? 
heu Interj. 
heus Interj. 
hibernus wintry : = *hibrinus *himrinus, cf. *himerinus xttpc-pt-vrfs, 

from gheim- x € */* a winter, see hiems. 
thibiscus marsh-mallow : fiftifficos (Dioscorides) : 
thibrida offspring of a sow and wild boar (Plin. 8. 213) : cf. Hesych. 

i&pl-KctXos pig : 
hie hie this : = *hi-ce (shortened on anal, of is) *h-o-i-ce from -o- c£ Sk. 

a- this, + -i- Demonstr. cf. 65-f, Got. theX-ei as, + -ce. 
hiems hiemps winter: ghiem- Mir. gam (for *giam on anal, of sam 

summer), cf. ghi6m- x i ^ v snow ; a l so ghim- Sfo-xwos troublesome, 

Zd. zima winter Sk. himds, and gheim- x^A" 1 ' Lit. ziema OSlav. zima, 

Arm. jiun (= *jivan *jiman), Sk. heman-. 
thilaris hilarus gay : I\ap6s : 
hilum trifle : = filum. 
hinnio neigh : fr. *hinnus *hls-nus Adj., gheis- Sk. Kesh- ? 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON , 45 

thinnuleus fawn : cf . Hesych. \tvs\os : 

hid gape : = *hh6 (cf. hl-sco) ghei- OHG. glen, OSlav. zijati, of. ghoi-n- 

Ags. ganian yawn E. 
hira gut : = *hlsa ghvis- see fibra. 
hircus ircus hirquus goat : Sab. firms : 
hirnea jug : 
hirsutus shaggy : fr. *hirsus Subst. (as versutus fr. versus Subst.), = 

*hirt-tus fr. sq. 
hirtus shaggy : 
hirudd leech : 
hirundo swallow : = *hedHndtn as x €Kl ^ v = *x € ^^ v (with \ for 5 cf. 

'0\vt€vs = 'Otiuffffets, with l for v cf. X for in Lesbian fyos = fyos) : ? 
hlsco gape : ghei- see hio. 
hispidus rough : 

thistrid actor (term, from lud-io) i Etrusc. hister (Liv.). 
hodie to-day : = *odie, Sk. adya, see hie and dies. 
holus olus folus (Fest.) vegetables: ghl- cf. ghel- helus, Lit. MmTt 

plant zelti grow OSlav. zelije vegetables : 'green,' OSlav. zelenil green f 

Zd. zairi yellow Sk. hdris green. 
homo homo human being (E. homage) : ghomon cf. ghomn- hominis 

&c. ; also ghmon hemo, ghmon- Got. guman- E. groom, ghmn- see 

gemirii, ghman- Lit. bndnes men : ' fellow, ' see geminl. 
honos dignity : 

hardly fr. onus, 'responsibility' (Varr.). 
thdra ora hour (E.) : 8>pa season, job- OSlav. jara spring, Zd. yare 

year, cf. jer- Got. jer E. 
hordeum ordeum fordeum barley : = *horsdeum ghvrz-d- cf. ghverz-d- 

OHG. gerstd, and ghvrs- Arm. gari (= *garsi). 
Hardly add Kpid4\ quasi = *XP 1 ^ *XP €<r W *X*P< r H' 
hdria oria fishing-smack : ' coasting-vessel,' fr. ora shore ? 
hornus this year's : = *ornus *orinus *osinus from *osus year, NUmbr. 

ose Gen. 
horreo bristle (E. ordure) : — *horseo ghrs- cf. ghors- Sk. harsh-. 
horreum barn : = *horseum bhrs- cf. bhars- far, Fest. farreum. 
hortor urge : fr. *hortils causing delight, x^P^^y Parts, fr. horior urge 

(Enn.), x a ^P w rejoice, ghr- cf. gher- OUmbr. heris thou wilt, Got. 

gairnjan desire E. yearn, Sk. har- be gratified, see grdtus. 
hortus ortus garden (E. ortolan) : xtpros straw-yard, Olr. gort field. 

Hardly add Got. gard house (ghortos) E. yard i -garden. 
hospes guest (E. host 1 ) : hospit- cf. *hospt~, hostis : 
hostia fostia (Fest.) victim (E. host 3 = eucharist) : * return ' to the gods 

(see victima), fr. sq. 
hostid requite Plaut. Asin. 877 : 



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46 ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 

hostis fostis (Fest.) stranger (E. host 2 = army): Got. gasts guest E., 

OSlav. gostl : ghvospt- cf. hospes : 
hue hoc hither : from *ho (cf. horsum = *hd-vorsum, Mo thither, isto), 

see hie. 
hui Interj. 
humanus human : = *homd-nus ghomn-n6s (see germdnus) cf. ghomn- 

under homo. 
humus umus ground: ghom- Zd. zem earth, ghSm- x®& v (= *X^m)> °f« 

ghem- Lit. zime OSlav. zemlja, ghm- x«/*«* on tne ground. 
thyacinthus a flower : vdK-iydos, vo,k- ' young ' = jvpaK- juvnk- juvencus. 

(Orig. a proper name, see under juncus.) 
thyalus glass : tfaAos, Egyptian (as first made in Egypt). 
thydrus watersnake : fifyos, ud-r- cf. Ags. oter otter E., Zd. udra Sk. 

udrds, and ud-r- Lit. tidra OSlav. vydra, fr. unda. 

tiambus iamb : fta/mfios satire : 

tiaspis jasper (E. E. diaper) : ftcurwis, Heb. yash'phch. 

tibis a bird : +T/8ts, cf . Coptic hippen. 

icio it©4^ latter formed backward from Inf. icere, see sisto) strike : = 

*jicio *jecio, see jacio (for the meaning cf. fr4\\<a throw, strike). — 

Lucr. Icit formed after eicit (= ejicit), and so tcimur. 
tictis weasel : HktIs : 
idem the same : = *is-dem t is + -dem. — With Neut. i-dem cf . Sk. i-ddm 

it. 
identidem repeatedly : = Idem + ante + -dem, ' the same before '. 
ideo for that reason : = *ed-eo 'and for that reason,' et (see edepol) + Abl. 

of is. 
idoneus proper : fr. *ido here, i- see is + -*rfo see -do, with Adj. -ending: 

' on the spot '. 
tidus eidiis middle of month: Sab., Etrusc. itus (Varr. L L. 6. 28), 

the Etrusc. alphabet having no d. 
igitur then : = *jigitur *jiigitur ' it is added,' Aoristic form of jungitur 

(as tago of tango). — In old Lat. it often begins a clause. 
ignis fire (E. ingle) : = *ingnis NGVNfs Lit. ugnis OSlav. ognl, Sk. agnis. 
ignoro know not: in- + *gno-rus Adj. fr. no-sco. 
ilex holm-oak : = *idex t Ity wood. 
ilia entrails, flanks (as enclosing them : E. jade a stone) : = *hilia fr. 

filum. 
ilicd illico on the spot : = *i-luco from *7 Loc. of is + loco. 
ille (i.e. *ulle) olle (Fest.) ollus (Varr., quasi Noun) he : = *ollo (a pure 

stem, like 6 : cf. ipse), olo, see olim : 
hardly = *on-lo from on- Lit. ans that OSlav. onU he, Sk. and- this. 
imago emago copy, imitor imitate : ' select,' fr. emo take. 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 47 



im-becillus weak (E. embezzle) : 'disabled,' gvek- Hesych. b-(f)Ki)s vigo- 
rous, cf. gvak- baculum. 
imber rain (Olr. imrim storm, Stokes Remarks) : = *iimbri- ombri- cf. 

OflfipOS. 

imbuo fill : dialectic for *in-fuo, ^u-tf>t?« implant, fr. ful. 

im-manis monstrous : 'un-manageable,' fr. nianus good (i.e. 'tractable,' 

ci/xepfis), fr. manus (see comis). 
immd Imo certainly : ' at bottom, ' Abl. of Imus. 
im-portunus unfit : see op-portunus. 
impraesentiarum at present : = in *praesentidrum loco, periphrasis for 

in praesentid ' on the spot '. 
imus lowest : = *ins-mus, Olr. is below, from in + s (see abs), cf. eh 

into (= *iv-s). 
in in : = *en, 4v, Olr. Got. Lit. in. 
in- Negative : N-, ay- a-, Mir. an-, Got. un- E., Arm. an-, Zd. Sk. an- 

before Vowel a- before Cons. 
inanis empty : *in-agnis = *dgnis (as in-cdnus in-clutus in-columis in- 

vidus invltus = canus clutus columis *wdus *vltus: Hn enim saepe 

augendi causa adicimus' Fest.), agh- $t,xh v poor, cf . angh- angustus 

narrow, see ango. 
tin-clld reproach : *cll6 grin, x«iA<fo (surround with a rim), fr. x € ^ os lip. 
in-clutus in-clitus famous : = clutus (Fest.), k\vt6s, Mir. cloth, Sk. 

crutds heard, cf. klut6s Ags. Mud loud E., Parts, fr. clued. 
in-coho in-choo in-coo begin (verbum sacrorum Serv., see Key) : 

hardly ' put the pole of the plough into the yoke, ' fr. cohum ' hole in 
the yoke ' (Varr. L. L. 5. 135) or * strap uniting pole and yoke ' 
(Fest.). 
in-columis in-colomis safe : also columis (see in-anis) : = *colu~mus 

' taken care of,' fr. cold protect + Adj. -ending -mos. 
ind-ago track : = indu + ag- in amb-dg-es co-dg-ulum, cf. ag- ago. 
inde thence : = *im Abl. of is (cf . illim istim) + -de. 
indoles nature : fr. sq. + aid, see adolesco 2 . 
indu endo into, in : *endo, see in and -do. 
in-dulged indulge : fr. *dalgus = largus, ' am bountiful to '. 
induo don : indu + *avo see exud. 
tindusium smock : *4Mo-iov fr. htvcris dress. — Varr. L. L. 5. 131 spells it 

intusium quasi fr. intus, ' worn inside '. 
industria industry : indu + *strila fr. struo, * heaping up,' cf. in-struo 

build up, furnish. 
indutiae truce : fr. indu + otium, * interval of quiet '. 
infensus hostile : = *infend-tus Part, of *in-fendo strike, cf. de-fendo. 
inferos below: = *infrus (cf. infra Adv.) for *ins-rus from *ins, see 

imus : dialectic for *imbrus. 



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48 ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 



in-festus unsafe : * un-pleasant,' in- +festus merry, cf. festivus agree- 
able. 

infit begins : dialectic for *indit mdh- cf. medh- medius, * interposes ' ?• 

infula fillet : dialectic for *ingula ngh- cf. negh- nectol 

ingens huge: 'un-familiar,' in-gen~tl- cf. Ags. un-cvA unknown E. 
uncouth, from in- + gn- Got. kunnan know E. can &c. keen, Lit. zindti, 
Arm. canauth known, Zd. zan- know, see nosed. 

ingluvies maw : 

in-grud attack : ' fall on,' see con-gruo. 

inguen groin : ngv-en- abb- gland (Nom. abfr), cf. (unnasalised) egv- 
ONor. dkvinn lumpy. 

inquam I say: *I should say,' Subj. of *inquo cut, clear, clear up, 
whence co-inqu6 cut off : 

inquilinus tenant : in + kvel- cold. 

in-quino pollute : fr. *queno *cono (cf. inquilinus fr. cold), cf. Fest. cunio 

KIZKKCC : 

insilia leash-rods (?) Lucr. 5. 1353 Munro : 

instar image : ' weight,' formed (like laquear from laqueare) from instare 

Inf. of in-std press on. 
in-stauro renew (E. story 2 ): *put on,' staur- place ovavp6s stake, 

ONor. btaurr. 
in-stigo incite : stigv- cf. stigv- <rrl(<o prick, Got. stiks point E. stick 

&c. t stucco, and tigv- Zd. Sk. tij- be sharp. 
in-stinctus incited : stingv- cf . praeced. 
insula island (E. isle ; but for island see aqua) : Dimin. of *insa »s- 

Olr. inis, cf. NS- tniffos. 
intellego intelligo understand : sq. + *lego care, see diligo. 
inter between : n-ter Olr. etar, Zd. antare Sk. antdr, cf. en in, 
inter-pres agent (orig. a commercial term) : inter-pret- fr. pretium. 
tintibus intubus endive (E., imv&ov Geoponica 12. 1) : = *hindubus, 

Semitic, Arab, hindibd Zenker 943 b, fr. Hind India. 
intro enter: fr. *intrus Adj., cf. inter. 
intus within : 4vr6s t in + Adverb-ending -tos, cf . funditus &c. penitus, 

Sk. -tas. 
inula elecampane (which = inula campdna) : 
invidus envious: 'keeping aloof, unsympathetic,' vidh- see 

viduus. 
in-vito entertain : * enliven,' fr. vita, cf. vitulor. 
in-vltus (see in-anis) loth : = *vt-tus forced, see vttd. 
fid Interj. : id>. 

ipse himself : = *ipso (see ille) *i-pti-so fr. i-s + -pte + *so he, see sic. 
ira anger : = hlra (for the meaning cf. x<* Ao * DUe > anger), 
ir-rito provoke : in + *rxtd stir, cf . pro-rUd incite, fr. ritus. 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 49 

is he : Hesych. Xv Ace. (Cyprian), Got. is OHG. er r Lit. yis OSlav. i-%e, 

Zd. Sk. i- this, cf. ei- ea she (= *ej-a), Olr. e he, Got. eis they, Sk. 

aydm this. 
iste he : = *esto (see i7Ze), Umbr. estu Ace. : 
ita so : = *itd cf. Naev. itdque, fr. e< + Instrum. ending (cf. Kpv<f>a 6Vd 

Tairro Dor., Lat. g?*a where). 
item also : ' secondly,' et -t- quasi-numeral ending (see autem). 
iterum again : = *edrum (dialectic for *ebru7n) Adj. Neut. from edh- 

back, Ags. ed, Sk. ddhi up, see ergd ad-. 
itidem so : = *eti-dem fr. et + -dem. 

jaceo lie (E. agistment gist joists) : Intrans. form (see paved) of sq. 
jacio throw (E. jet 1 jetty jotsam jut pargeted) : jekv- cf. jekv- jeci 

Perf., jokv- ONor. jaga move to and fro E. yacht Yankee OHG. 

jagon hunt. 
jam now : * at ' this time, je cpa-fe on the ground xaA"*C € > ftfywf* at (i.e. 

out of) the door, + a case-sign -am, see tarn. 
janua door, janus passage : ja- go, Lit. j6ti ride OSlav. jad, Zd. Sk. yd- 

go, by-form of 1- see eo. 
jecur liver: jekv-r- cf. jekv-r- ^irap, jekv-r- Zd. ydkare (Fick), jokv-r- 

Plin. jocur, jekv-r-t- Sk. ydkrt : also with -n ending jekv-n- 

jedn-or-is Gen., jekv-n- Lit. jeknos, jekv-6"n- Sk. yakdn-, jekv-n- 

^ira-ros Gen., jokv-n- Celsus jocin-or-is : shortest form ikv- Urtpos 

jaundice. 
jejunus fasting : ' bound ' (cf. Got. fastan QvKdrrciv, vrio-Tefciv, Eng. fast 

' bound '- and. fast ' abstinence '), = *jl-ju-nus Redupl. from ju- cf. ju- 

Zd. Sk. yu- bind, 
jento (with e from next form) jejento (Redupl.) janto breakfast : eat 

* at once ' on rising, from jam. 
jocus jest (E. jeopardy juggle) : jokv- cf. jokv- Lit. jfikas ridicule, 

jekv- l^ik pastime (•jeicf-Tirf) : * thrown out,' fr. jacio (as ffK<farra> 

mock fr. (r/c^irr« hurl, E. slang fr. sling). 
juba mane : 

jubar daystar ; ' crested ' with light, fr. praeced. 
jubeo order: ju- short form of jv-jus 2 (cf. OLat. joubeo), + dhe- see 

-do ; Perf. jtcssljousl from *judeo. 
jugerum half-acre : * ploughed in one day by a pair of oxen,' fr. *jugus 

pair, fevyos, jeugv- (ctyvvfii yoke, cf . jugv- jugum. 
jiigis ever-flowing : 4 continuous, connected,' see praeced. 
jugum yoke (W. iau): Cvy6v, Got. juk E., OSlav. igo, Sk. yugdm, jugv- 

cf. jungv- Lit. jiingas, tr.jungo. 
j Omentum carriage, beast of burden : = *juvimentum, fr. *hivo, 

juvd. 

4 

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5o ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 



juncus rush (E. jonquil junk* junket)', 'twig' (as in Plin. 26. 72), = 

*junicus, cf. jUniculus old vine-branch (Plin. 17. 182), see juni-perus : 
not fr. juvenis, if only because this is not used of plants (see 
hyacinthus). 
jungd join (E.) : jungv- Lit. jungiu I yoke, see jugum, cf. jugv- Zd. 

Sk. yuj- join, 
juniperus juniper (E. gin) : * twig-bearing,' fr. j&n-cus + pario. 
jus 1 broth (E. juice) : Lit. jtisze, Sk. yusas, cf. ( v-pr) (= *( vc-fiy) leaven, 

and jous- OSlav. juha broth. 
jus 2 jous law : Zd. yaosh welfare Sk. yos (change of meaning obscure), 
juvencus young: juvn-ko"- v6.k-ivBos (see hyacinthus), W. ieuangc, Got. 

juqgs (— *juvungas), Sk. yuva^ds youthful, fr. sq. 
juvenis young : juvn- Sk. yuvan-, cf. jovn- Zd. yavan, jovno- jouno- 

Lit. jaunas. 
juventa youth: juvn-t! Got. junda (= *juvunda) E., fr. praeced. 
juvo help (E. aid) : = *jov6 (whence jocundus pleasant, = *jovi-cundus, 

cf. Faliscan jovcnt = juvent) from *jev6 : 
juxta near (E. adjust jostle) : fr. *juxtus Part, of *juxo join, jeugv- (see 

jUgerum) + 8. 

labes fall, stain ('failure,' cf. casus fall, disaster) : fr. labor. 

labium labrum lip (Ir. lab) : lab- (quasi fr. lambo) for leb- Ags. lippe E., 
Pers. lab Zenker 790 c. 

labd totter : slab- OHG. slaf loose, Lit. slabnas weak, cf . sleb- Got. 
sleps sleep E., see labor. 

labor distress : * falling, failing,' praeced. 

labor fall : slab- OSlav. siabfi weak, see labo. 

labrum tub : lab- cf . lab- Aafielv seize (cf . NHG. fassen seize, contain) ? 

labrusca wild vine: fr. labrum edge, 'growing at the edges of vineyards'. 

tlabyrinthus maze : iha&vpivQos, Egyptian (Jablonski Opuscula 1. 250). 

lac lact lacte milk (E. lettuce) : 

lacer torn : vlakv- \aicls a rent, Zd. vrac- to tear. 

lacerna cloak ; fr. praeced., ' skin torn off an animal ' (cf. \<fan) robe fr. 
AeVcy peel, E, robe fr. Lat. rumpo, shroud fr. shred). 

lacertus lizard (E. E. alligator), upper arm (from some fancied resem- 
blance ; cf. fids mouse, muscle) : ' fragile,' fr. lacer. 

lacinia lappet : 'torn,' fr. lacer. 

lacrima lacruma dacrima tear: dakr- Scfcpv, OW. doer Zeuss 827 b, 
Got. tagr E. E. \train-oi\. 

lactes intestines : • juicy,' fr. lac. 

lacto allure : fr. lacio draw (Fest.), see laqueus: 

lacuna luciina cavity (in poetry ' pool,' quasi fr. sq.), lacunar panelled 
ceiling : ' space,' fr. locus, with pretonic a. 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 51 

lacus vat, tank (E. lake, Mir. loch lake) : \<Lkkos pit. 

laedd hurt : * strike/ cf. collido strike together : 

tlaena mantle : pop. etym. (quasi fr. lana) for *claena, x* a '" a '- which 

= *xA<£/u-ja fr. xA.a/ti5s, chlamys, 
laetus glad : 

laevus left : \cu{f)6s, OSlav. levil. 
tlaganum cake : xdyavov, ir. \ayap6s thin, see langueo. 
tlagena lagoena flagon : = *laguna f *\ayvn) cf. f\dywos, an AeoL form 

(as xcAupif of x*^<bvy) of **>a-y&vt\ whence lagona. 
lallo sing : = *lal6 lal- cf. lal- \6\os babbling, NHG. lallen lisp E. 

lull lullaby loll (W. lol prattle), Lit. laluti, onomatop. 
lama slough : * broken ' ground, lam- OHG. luoini faint (' broken '), cf. 

lam- Ags. lam lame E. E. lam Vb., OSlav. lomti slough lomiti break. 
lambero tear : * lick up,' fr. sq. 
lambo lick (E. toiprey) : lamb- cf. lab- OHG. la fan, OSlav. lobUzil 

kiss ; also lap- Kdirrco I lick, Arm. laphem. 
lamentum wailing : la- Arm. lal to lament. 
tlamia ogress : Acfyua, fr. \afivp6s greedy. 
lamina lammina lamna plate (E. omelette) : fr. la-tus Adj. + participial 

ending. 
lana wool : vln- W. gwlan (E. flannel), Sk. urna, cf. vln- vellus. 
tlancea spear (E. launch) : Spanish (Varr. ap. Gell. 15. 30 fin.) : 
lancino tear: 'divide into pieces, weigh out,' fr. lanx scale of a balance. 
langued faint : slangv- Kayydfa slacken, cf. slagv- \ayap6s thin, Mir. 

lag weak (E. lag), Ags. side slow E. slack &c. slake slouch ; and slegv- 

\4iyu) cease, 
tlanlsta trainer (Cic.) : = fdanlsta moneylender (Plaut.), iaveia-r^s : a 

slang term of gladiators. 

Isid. calls it Etruscan, only because the use of gladiators came 
from Etruria. 
lanius butcher : = *lam-jus from lam- see lama, ' breaking up ' meat. 
tlanterna laterna (quasi fr. latiis carried) lamp : = *lampterna, KajMn-fip, 

with term, of luc-erna. 
lanx dish : 
tlapathum sorrel : \dvaOov, fr. Kavdtrffw empty (Plin. 20. 235 alvom folia 

solvont). 
lapis stone : lapid- = *lepid- cf. \faas bare rock, fr. \4irw peel. 
lappa burr : 

laquear panel : fr. lacUna. 

laqueus noose (E. lace lasso latchet) : fr. lacio draw, see lacto. 
largus abundant : = *lalgus *dalgus dlghv<5s SoKix^s long, Zd. daregha- 

Sk. dirghds, cf. dlghvos Got. tulgus steadfast, Lit. \lgas long OSlav. 

dlugu. 



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52 ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 

laridum lardum bacon (E. lard) : 

larva lama ghost, mask : 

tlasanum pot : \\6xrwov : 

lascivus wanton : fr. *lascus, las- \i\cdo/xai desire, Sk. lash-. 

tlaserpicium laserpitium silphium : African (as first grown near Cyrene 

Plin. 16. 143) ? 
lassus weary (E. alas): = * lad-tics, lad- Got. lots slothful, E. late let 2 

(= hinder), cf. led- Got. letan to leave, E. let 1 . 
lated lurk : * efface myself, ' la- cf . le- de-led letum ? 
later brick : 
latex liquid : latic-, cf. Mir. laith ale. 

Hardly cf. \dray€S drops. 
tlatro mercenary (E. larceny) : *\6.rp<av by-form of f\drpis servant : from 

Heb. noUr guardian (as \irpov natron from Heb. nether) ? 
latro bark (Hesych. Karpi^iv talk gibberish) : fr. *latra barking dog, 

la- Lit. I6ti bark OSlav. lajati, Sk. ra-. 
latus side : lat- cf . lt- Olr. leth half. 
latus stlatus Adj. wide : stl-t6s extended, Part. fr. stel- OSlav. stcljg, 

I spread, cf . stol- Lit. stdlas table. 
latus Part, borne : t^-tos, fr. tollo. 
tlaurus baytree : = *daurus, *$avpos *$dpf : os tree, Olr. daur oak, drvo- 

cf. dru- Zd. dru wood Sk. dries log, dru- $pvs oak, dreu- Jey- 

tipe(f)ov tree, Got. triu E. E. tar; also derv- Lit. derwa pine-wood 

OSlav. drevo tree, doru Hpv beam doru Zd. dduru log Sk. a%ru. 
laus praise : laudi- : 

lautia dautia (Fest.) banquet, lautus splendid : *dautos: 
lavo wash (E. laundry lava lavender) : = *lovo, lov- Kovw, Gaul, lautro 

balneo, Ags. leak lye E., Ags. leddor lather E., Arm. loganam I bathe. 
laxus loose (E. lazy lease leash) : = *lag-sus Part, (see celsus) from slagv- 

see langueo. 
tlebes kettle : \4p-qs : 
lectus bed (E. litter) : = *leg~tus leghv- \4x os Mttrpov, \c£cu to lay, Olr. 

lige bed, Got. ligan lie E. E. lay ledge log low frely, OSlav. legnati, cf. 

loghv- Lit. oX-lagai fallow land. 
lego gather (E. cull) : A£y«. 

tlembus pinnace : tA€juj8os, Cyrenaic (Plin. 7. 208). 
tlemniscus ribbon : hrtfivla-Kos Polyb. : 
lemures ghosts : 
lenis soft : Lett, leni, see lentus. 
lend : 
lens lentil : lent- fr. lentus, * soothing ' (Plin. 18. 123 aequanimitatem 

fieri vescentibus ea). 
lentiscus mastic-tree : fr. sq., 'resinous*. 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 53 



lentus flexible : len-t<5s cf. len-t- OHG. lindi soft ; Part, from len- 

Got. eA-linnan yield, cf. len- lenis. 
tlenunculus skiff : Dimin. of *lenus, \rjv6s trough : 
fled lion (E.) : fAeW : Assyrian aria. 

W. Hew, OHG. lewo (whence Lit. lidwas OSlav. Uvfi), may go with E. 
low Vb. 
lepor charm : 

lepus hare (Sicil. \€iropis Varr. L. L. 5. 101 ; E. leveret): 
lessum (Ace.) wailing : 

letum death : Part. Neut. from le- deled, see lated. 

levis light (E. carnival leaven lever levy) : leghv- Arm. arag quick, Sk. 

raghus light, cf. lenghv- Lit. leng~wus, Zd. revj- be light Sk. langh- 

leap, leghv- Got. leihts light E., lghv- i-\a%os small l\a<pp6s light, 

OSlav. UyUkii, loghv- (?) Mir. laiget smallness. 

levis laevis smooth : = *llvis *llvus AeI(/ : )os : ' beaten,' see lived (cf. E. 

smooth fr. smith). 
lex law (Osc. ligud Abl.): 'laid down/ leghv- cf. leghv- lectus, loghv- 

Ags. lay 10 E. 
liber inner bark : 

liber leiber free (E. deliver livery) : = *luber *leuber, Osc. luvfreis Gen., 
l-\€v0€pos (dialectic for *4\e6<l>cpos) : ' doing as one likes,' leubh- 
cf . sq. 
libet lubet it pleases : lubh- Sk. lubh- be lustful, cf. lubh- Lit. lubptis 
to love oneself, leubh- Got. Hubs dear E. love lief believe ffuilough 
leave Subst. Zeman livelong. 
libo take a little of : = *lub6 taste, fr. praeced. (as Got. kausjan taste fr. 

kiusan approve, see gustd). 
libra pound (E. level) : lidhra, Sicilian \irpa (for *\iOpa as Sicilian 

kit&v for x'tc^v) : 
libum cake : * taste, ' fr. lib 6. 
liceo am for sale, licet is allowed : ' is left,' likv- cf. linkv- linquo. 

Hesych. Xiffffoo^v • tdo-wficv is too doubtful to add. 
liciutn thrum (E. lists) : fr. oh-liquus, * at right angles ' to the woof (see 

trdma). 
lictor marshal : * binding,' fr. *ligo by-form of ligd. 
lien ljen (Plaut., see Key) spleen: = *spljen (no Lat. word begins with 
spl" y see isplendeo), <nrA.(j)^ : 
not related to spelgh- Mir. selg, OSlav. slezena t splgh- Zd. fpereza 
(Fick), or pl$gh-, Sk. pllhdn- plihan-. 
lig^num log : = *lic-num likv- see linquo, ' remnant, end '. 
ligo mattock : 

ligo bind (E. alloy ally league liable rally) : = *lug6 lugv- bend, \vyi(w 
twist, Ags. loc lock (E.) of hair (' twisted '), Lit. lugnas pliant. 



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54 ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 

ligula shoe-latchet : fr. praeced. 

ligustrum privet : fr. Ligus Ligurian (as E. lovage from Lat. Ligusticum 

Ligurian). 
tlilium lily : *\el\iov 1 dissirailated ^Kelpiov : = *\i\\iov (with €t from 

Hom.'s \(ipi6tis delicate), cf. Pers. Idle tulip Zenker 789 c. 
lima file : 'fluted across/ from limns Adj. 
limbus border : 
llmen threshold : ' at right angles ' to the door-posts, fr. limits Adj. (as 

gluten fr. glutus). 
limes cross-path (E. lintel) : fr. limus Adj. 
limpidus clear : = *dumpidus watery, see lympha. 
limus 1 Subst. mud: = * litmus loimos Ags. lam loam E., cf. leimos 

Ags. llm lime E. 
limus 2 Subst. apron: sq., with a purple stripe * across* the bottom 

(Serv.). 
limus Adj. sidelong : = *lix-mos likv-s- see obllquus. 
linea string (E. line) : fr. linum. 
lingo linguo (Priscian, as though fr. sq.) lick : lingh- cf. ligh- Ags. 

liccian (= *lic-jan) E., Sk. lih-, ligh- Olr. ligim I lick, leigh- Aefx«» 

Lit. HeZiu OSlav. lizati lick, Arm. lizum I lick, and loigh- Got. bi- 

laigon lick. 
lingua dingua tongue: dnghva Olr. tenge (with t from Teut.), Got. 

tug go E. 
lino smear : = *le-no le- cf. le- lev'i Perf. : 
linqud leave : linkv- cf . likv- Arm. Ikhanem I leave, Sk. ric~ leave, likv 

Lit. lykius remainder, leikv- Aefow I leave, Olr. leicci sinit, Got. 

leihvan lend E. E. loan, Lit. liekii I leave, and loikv- OSlav. otu- 

lekU remainder. 

But for Got. dA-lifnoAi see lippus. 
linter lunter tub, boat: lunt- cf. lut- ONor. Mdr flour-bin ('trough')? 
linteum cloth : lint- cf. lit- \?ra : 
linum flax (Got. lein linen E. E. Zmseed linnet) : lis-nom \lvov (Lit. linai 

OSlav. Unit: for *\ivvov *\l(rvov), ONor. lesni head-gear, cf. lis-no- 

\Iy-otrrdofiai watch nets, lis-n-ion Olr. leinc shirt. 
lippus blear-eyed : = *lipus * sticky ' with rheum, lip- cf. lip- \liros fat, 

Got. dA-lifnan remain ('stick') E. leave eleven. Lit. lipti to stick OSlav. 

Upeti, Sk. lip- smear. 
liquo liquefy : vlikv- Olr. fliuch wet. 
liquor flow : vlikv-, cf . praeced. 
lira ridge (E. delirious) : lis A Lit. Ifise garden-bed, cf. loisa OSlav. leha, 

lois- Got. laists track E. last Subst. and Vb. 
lis leis slis stlis sclis strife : orig. « drvision/ cf. littera littus : 
lito worship successfully : ' pay a debt,' = *lut6 fr. *lutus Part, of hto. 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 55 

littera litera leitera letter : * division, cutting/ see lis. 

littus litus shore : * cut,' see lis (cf. E. shore fr. shear). 

tlituus trumpet : Etrusc. (as being an Etruscan invention) ? 

lived am blue : ' am beaten ' (see l&ridus), fr. levis. 

lixa sutler : ' water-carrier, ' llxa water (Nonius) : 

locuples trustworthy, substantial: 'of full position/ loco *pleto (see 

ple-nus : cf. pleno jure * with a complete title '). 
locus stlocus place (E. couch) : stlokvos, see loquor : 
locusta lucusta lobster (E.) : 
tlodix blanket : 
ldligd lolligd cuttlefish : 
lofium darnel (OHG. lolli Graff) : 

longus long (Got. laggs E. E. lounge lunge purZom) : cf . \oyyd(a> loiter. 
loquor speak : ' put in order, place my words,' fr. locus, Varr. L. L. 6. 56 

is loquitur qui suo loco quodque verbum sciens ponit. 
lorea after- wine : 
lorum thong (E. loriner) : 

tlotos a plant: *\oor6s y Egyptian (Jablonski Opuscula 1. 250). 
lubricus slippery : fr. *lub-rus t sleub- Got. sliupan slip. 
lucar pay of actors : Etrusc. (see histrio) ? 

lucerna lamp : lukv- a.wpi-XvKrj twilight, Zd. Sk. rue- shine, see lux. 
lucrum gain : * pay,' fr. luo. 
luctor wrestle : lugv- Ug6, * twist '. 
liicus loucos grove : loukvos Ags. leah E. lea meadow, Lit. lafikas field, 

Sk. lokds space : ' clearing,' fr. lux. 
liidus loidos game : 
lues pestilence ('flood' of corruption), fluid Petronius 128. 192: lu- 

Xvdpov gore, see lutum, cf. lu- \vfia filth, ruin. 
liigeo mourn: leug- \evya\eos wretched, cf. lug- \vyp6s sad: 'broken,* 

Lit. Iti&au I break, Sk. ruj- break. 
lumbricus worm (W. llymriad sand-eel) : 

lumbus loin (E.): londh-, cf. lendh- Ags. lenden, OSlav. ledvija loins. 
lumen loumen light (E. limn loom Vb.) : = *loux-men, see sq. 
luna ldsna (Praenestine, E. Schneider 55) moon : = *louxna, cf. Pruss. 

lauxnos stars, Zd. raokhshna shining, loukv-s- see lustrd. 
luo pay : lu- cf. lu- A»« loose, Got. lun ransom, Sk. lu- cut, lou- Lit. 

liautis cease, lou-8- Got. lausjan to loose E. E. lose. 
luplnus pulse: 'sharp, bitter' (tristis Verg. Geo. 1. 75), fr. sq. 
lupus wolf : dialectic (Umbr. ? : Sab. was hirpus or irpus) for *luquus, 
\vkos, cf. Praenestine Luqorcos Lupercus E. Schneider 48, v£kvos 
Got. vulfs E., Lit. wilkas OSlav. vltikU, Arm. gail (= *galy *galg) t Zd. 
vehrka- Sk. vfkas. 
lured lurcho glutton : 



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56 ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 



luridus yellow: fr. *leurus 'beaten,' \cvp6s smooth (for transition of 

meaning see lived levis). 
luscinia nightingale : 

luscus one-eyed: Mir. lose blind, lame : = luxus Adj., see luxus. 
lustro illuminate : = *luxtr6 loukv-s- see l&na, cf. lukv-s Zd. rukJish- 

shine, fr. loukv- see lux. 
lustrum morass : = *hU-trum fr. lutum. 
lustrum purification : 'clearing,' fr. lustrd (for transition of meaning cf. 

ONor. skcirr clear, bright, cleansed from guilt). 
lutum mud : Part, from lu- see lues. 
lutum weld : 
lux light : leukv- \cvk6s white Ae<W« see, Got. liuhatfi light E., OSlav. 

luily cf. loukv- Olr. loche thunderbolt, Lit. laukas bald-faced, lukv- 

see lucema. 
luxus extravagance : ' derangement,' fr. luxus Adj. dislocated, = *loxos, 

\o$6s slanting, see luscus. — The transcription of luxuria as \€i£ovpla 

(Ducange) must be due to popular etymology. 
tlychnus lamp : K^xvos, lukhv- by-form of lukv- see lucerna. 
lympha water: pop. etym., quasi from *\vfi<f>rj (Varr. L. L. 7. 87 Av/jxpo- 

\Jlirrovs) by-form of Nv^??, quasi 'fountain' Nymph: for *dumpa, 

Osc. Diumpa-fs Nymphis, see llmpidus. 
tlynx lynx : A£y£, lunk- cf. luk-s- OHG. hilis, Lit. luszis. 
tlyra lyre : fAi5po : Semitic ? 

tmaccis a spice (E. mace) : cf . imacir an Indian spice Plin. 12. 32, 

Diosc. ifi6.K€p. 
tmacellum meat-market (NHG. inetzger butcher) : fr. *macelum railing, 

Hesych. /xdiceAos, * enclosed by a railing \ 
macer lean (E. meagre) : 'mauled,' fr. maco. 
maceria wall: 'moulded' of clay, fr. sq. (seefaigo). 
macero steep (E. macaroni) : mak- ci mak- maco. 
tmachaera sword : pAx™?* (Heb. m'kera) : 

not used in war, so not fr. fidxv battle. 
tmachina engine : fidxcwd Dor. wxarfi Ion., maghv- cf. maghv- Olr. do- 

iov-maig auget, Got. magan be able E. may &c. maw, OSlav. mogq, 

am able. 
maco maul : 
mactd 1 sacrifice (Ir. mactadh slaughter ; E. matador) : praeced. 

Hardly ' offer in honour of a god,' sq. 
mactd 2 honour, macte good luck : mak- yMKp6s long, Zd. mac great, 
macula spot (E. mackerel mail-cl&d trammel) : ' bruise,' fr. maco. 

Hardly add Got. mail (quasi *mahil) wrinkle, cf. E. mole 1 . 
madeo am wet : fiatdw. 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 57 



tmaena mena sprat : puairq : 

maered moered mourn : mais- : 

tmagulia huts : Heb. magor habitation (whence also fityapov hall, 

Meyapa a town?). 
magraentum offering : fr. mactd. 2 

tmagnes magnet : pdyrns, from Magnesia in E. Thessaly. 
magnus great (E. main Adj. master mayor merino) : = *meg-n6s meg- 

ixcyas, Got. mikils much E., Arm. mec great, Sk. mahds. 
tmagudaris stalk of silphium : fpayvdapis, Syrian (Plin. 19. 46). 
tmagus magician : fpdyos, Median (the Magi a Median tribe). 
majalis barrow hog : * offered to the goddess Maia ' (Isid. : Mdja fr. mdjus 

great, = *mag-jus fr. mag-nus). 
mala jaw : = *max-la, see maxilla. 
tmalacus soft : hoXukSs, — *fia\'ii-K6s (see juveiicus) fr. a-fia\6s, see 

malus. 
malleus hammer (E. mallet maul ; OSlav. mall) : 

tmalobathrum a plant : Diosc. fna\d&a0pov : Indian (from its habitat). 
malum apple : firjKoy (E. melon marmalade) : 
malus bad : a-fia\6s weak, Mir. maile malum. 
malus mast : = * modus mazdos, Ags. mast E. 

Hesych. fiaa-raKl^es stakes is doubtful : M. Schmidt conj. ffTa\Ltics. 
malva mallow (E. E. mauve) : mal-va cf. Lucian ,uaA/3a£ (= */«U/ : -a|), cf. 

MAL- fiaXdxv : 
mamma mother Pers. 3. 18, breast : onomatop., mamma fidfi/iri mother, 

E. mamma, cf. mama OHG. muomd, Lit. mdma OSlav. mama, Pers. 

mama Zenker 802 a, mam- mamilla breast, W. mam mother. 
mancus maimed (E. mangle Vb. mullion) : 'tamed,' *manicus fr. mantis 

(as x*lp ios ' m one's power' fr. x*lp hand). 
mando chew (E. mange manger) : * moisten,' mand- cf. mad- madeo. 
mando commit (E. commodore)'. It. *mandus *iaanidus Adj. of mantis, 

1 hand ' a thing to a person, 
tmandra pen : f*dv$pa : cf . Sk. mandura stall, mand- linger ? 
mane early : ' in manageable time,' see immanis. 
maneo stay (E. manor manse menial menagerie messuage) : = *men6o, 

men- fievca, Arm. mnam I stay, Zd. man- stay. 
mango dealer, furbisher : = *mengtn, cf. Mir. meng craft, 
mani-festus manu-festus plain : manus + ? 

manipulus maniplus handful : fr. manus + Adj. -ending, see disci-pulus. 
tmannus cob: = *mandus (see grunnio), Basque mando mule (Van Eys). 
mand flow : 
tmantele napkin, mantelum mantle (E.) : ' cloth,' Spanish mantum cloak 

(Isid. Orig. 19. 24. 15). 
manubiae booty : fr. sq. + the same term, as dubius. 



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58 ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 

manus hand (E. maintain manage manner) : mn- cf. mn- Ags. mund. 

tmapalia huts : Punic (Fest.). 

tmappa napkin (E. E. apron map mop) : Punic (Quint.). 

marced droop: fr. *marcus Adj., mb-kv6s cf. MR- morior. 

mare sea : = *morl, Olr. muir, Got. marei E. mere marsh, Lit. mares. — 
Sk. miras, mb-, is unauthenticated. 

tmargarita pearl : ffiapyapirrjs (Got. marikreitus ; Pers. merwdrid Zen- 
ker 838 c) : 

hardly cf. Sk. manjari.f 

margd edge: mBg- Got. marka E. mark marches fmarquis t marquee, 
cf . mrog- Mir. mruig boundary. 

marisca fig : ' big,' fr. mas. 

tmarmor (term, after aequ-or) marble : pdpfiapos, cf. fiappaipw shine, 
Kedupl. of mar- Sk. mdrlcis ray. 

marra hoe : 

tmarsupium marsuppium marsippium purse : /xafxTihnov, •ifxdpo'ivos : 
kmarsp-, cf. Kpddir^ov border of a cloak (in which the purse was 
kept: so iicavMs t/*av5«J»7 from kmand-, •[kIvSos ffilv$a£ from fanind-): 
Pers. (as fxavthq is). 

mas male (E. E. mallard marry) : mas- : 

tmassa lump : ndfa cake, = */xdy-]a mag- fid^ffw knead (dialectic for 

v» 

tmastruca manstruga (Plaut. Poen. 1313 Goetz) sheepskin : Sardinian 
(Isid. Orig. 19. 23. 5), i.e. prob. Phoen. 

mater mother (E. madrepore) : jucfrnip, Olr. mathir, Ags. modor (with d, 
for d, from fader father, see paler) E. (with th, for d } from the -er, 
see pater and cf. Ags. veder = E. weather), Lit. moterd woman OSlav. 
mater- mother, Arm. mair, Zd. maJtar- Sk. mdtdr-. 

materia stuff (E. Madeira) : 4 ready for use,' mat- see maturus. 

tmateris matara madaris pike : Celtic (Hesych. s. v. ixaSdpeis) : 

matertera aunt: = mater + Comparative-ending as in 0r\\vr4fni fe- 
male. 

matula pot : 

maturus ripe, matutinus early (E. matins) : cf. OSlav. matorU old. 

maxilla jaw : 

me mehe (Quint. ) me : Olr. me I, Zd. Sk. ma me, cf. me fit, Got. mi-k 
E., OSlav. me,, Arm. raekh we. 

tmeddix medix magistrate : Osc. meddiss /t€Wet| metd(ix) : 

medeor heal : * stand in the middle, stop the disease,' see merus. 

niediastinus mediastrinus drudge : fr. *mediaster formed fr. medium (as 
surdastcr fr. surdm, on anal, of Verbs in -<££« e.g. firirpdfa take after 
my mother), 4 between childhood and manhood '. 

tmedimnum bushel : n&ifivos, fr. sq. 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 59 



meditor consider : lUto/uu think on, Olr. mess judgment : 'measure,' cf. 

praeced., fi4rpov (for *p4Broov, see findo) measure, Got. mitan to 

measure E. mete meet Adj. 
meditullium middle : *medus (see merits) + ? 
medius middle (E. mean Subst. mizen-m&8t moiety) : medh-j- /j.4<r<ros, 

Grot, midjis E., OSlav. mezda n4<rov, Arm. ml) fi4o-ov, Zd. maidhya Sk. 

mddhyas, see merus. 
medulla marrow : fr. *medus merus, ' in the middle ' of the bone. 
mejo : = *mijo *mig-j6 migh- b-fiix4oo, Ags. mice/an, cf. moigh- Arm. m«s 

oSpop, mingh- mingo. 
mcl honey (E. molasses) : m«ZZ- *meZu- medhu fi&v wine, Mir. mid mead 

(E. metheylin), Ags. m^w E., Lit. medius honey OSlav. medti, Zd. 

madhu Sk. mddhu mead. 
Not mel- fi4\i honey, Mir. mil, Got. milith E. mildew, Arm. meAr. 
traeles maeles marten: dialectic for males (Caper, Keil 7. 110) i.e. 

*mades *mazdes Ags. meard OHG. marder E. fmarten (Lat. martes in 

Martial 10. 37. 18 is a figment). 
melior better : = *medior fr. merus, ' moderate,' a \n6rr\s. 
traelos song : /t^Xos song (' piece '), limb. 
membrum limb: mems-rom Olr. mlr morsel (= *rries-ro-), cf. mems'- 

Got. mimz flesh, Pruss. mensd Lit. mesa (dialectic for *m$8a, see anscr) 

OSlav. meso, mem- see memor: also mems-r6- fiyp6s thigh (= *firi(rp6s), 

mems- fxriviyl membrane (= *firjwiyi), Arm. mis flesh, Sk. mamsdm. 
metnini remember : Perf . of *meno, men- fi4vos force, Olr. menme mind, 

OHG. minna remembrance E. f minion, Lit. menu I remember, Zd. 

Sk. man- think, cf. mn- Got. mnns thought, OSlav. mlneti think, see 

mens moneo. 
memor mindful: 'discriminating' (see scio), mem- see membrum (in 

mems- the s is a suffix, cf. anser mensis). 
menda defect: Olr. mennair spot (Stokes), Sk. mindfi defect, 
mendax lying : ' defective,' fr. praeced., a \it6ttis. 
mendicus beggar : fr. menda, cf. praeced. 
mens mentis mind : mnt£- Got. ga,-munds memory Ags. mynde thought 

E. mind, Lit. \%z-minVLs reason OSlav. ]>&-metl memory, Sk. mails 

thought, see memini. 
mensa table (Got. mesa) : ' flesh-board,' = *memsa, see membrum. 
mensis month : me-n-s- Dor. pfe Ion. pels {yA\v from the oblique cases), 

Olr. mis Gen. ml Nom. , OSlav. meseci, Arm. amis, cf. me-n-es- Lit. 

menesis, me-n- Got. m&noths Ags. monad E. month (and the words for 

moon, fiiivri, Got. m&na Ags. mdna E., and the Lit. and OSlav. words), 

me-s- Zd. maohh- Sk. mds, from me- measure meta. 
mensus measuring : = *7nent-ttis, mnt- cf. mens, 'thinking over', 
tmenta mint (E.) : *fi4v$a ifiivOa : 



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60 ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 

mentio mention : * thinking,' fr. mens. 

mentior lie : * devise,' fr. mens, cf. com-mentum fiction. 

mentula : = *ineherUula, *mehens Part, of *meho meigh- cf . migh-, see 

mejo. 
mentum chin : Mifao- Got. munths mouth E. 
meo go (Fr. congt leave) : * take my way,' fr. mens mine (cf. suesco fr. 

suus his). 
tmephitis exhalation : *jj.f<f>7ris : 
merces hire (E. amerce mercy) : fr. merx. 
merda dung: 'pungent,' smeed- cf. smrd- Lit. smirdeti to stink, see 

mordeo. 
merenda lunch : * portion,' fr. sq. 
mereo earn (E. turmeric) : fr. *merio (see jaceo paved) pay, = * medio see 

meditor, ' measure out to \ 
mergae pitchfork : fr. sq., ' dipping ' into the corn, 
mergo dip, mergus diver : medgv- Sk. madgus a water-fowl majj- (the 

final j = gv palatilised before original e) sink, cf. modgv- Lit. mazgdti 

wash. 
meridies noon : formed from men-die Loc. of merus + dies. 
tmerops bee-eater : fiepo\\/ : formed from fie pones men, * humane ' (geni- 

tores suos reconditos pascens Plin. 10. 99). 
merula medula (Isid. Orig. 12. 7. 69) blackbird (E. merlin) : 
merus unadulterated : * central, essential,' = *mcdus medh- MeO^yt) a 

town, Olr. medon nfoov, cf . medh-j- medius. 
merx wares (E. market) : merkv- cf. mrkv- fidfyirrw seize, Hesych. pp&pai 

Ppd£ai Inf. 
-met self : Abl. -ending, cf . -smet Sk. -smat (see tarn). 
meta moeta goal : ' measured point.' me- firjris counsel (' measuring, 

estimating'), Got. mel season E. meal, Lit. mierd measure OSlav. 

mera, Zd. Sk. ma- to measure. 
tmetallum mine (E. medal mettle black mail) : ffieraWou : 
meto reap : Mir. methel reapers. 
meto measure : fr. meta. 

metus fear : metu- cf . mtu- hr^Cofxai am dismayed. 
mica morsel : smik- o-/xiKp6s fiiKp6s little. 
mico quiver: = *miic6 * strike,' muk- Lit. miiszti strike. 
migro remove : meigv- a-pclfa change, OSlav. miglivU mobile, 
miles soldier : 
milium millet (E.) : mel- cf. fiehivn : 

hardly 'honey-fruit' (mel frugum Plin. 22. 131), fr. mel, and fnKivi\ fr. 

mille mile meile thousand (Olr. mile ; E. mile) : 
miluus milvus kite : smid- Ags. smitan smite E. ? 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 61 



tmimus actor : tp*/io* : 

tmina pound : ffiva, Heb. maneh. 

minae threats (the sense « battlements ' is a figment) : ' pressure ' (cf . 

E. threat fr. Lat. trtido push), min- Low-Lat. minare drive (Ducange) 

Ital. mcnare (E. mine 2 ), Mir. msnad awl (' pressing '), Lit. minii I tread, 

from smin- o-fxivw) mattock. 
mingd : mingh- Lit. mizau, cf . migh- Zd. miz- Sk. mih-, see tnejo mentula. 
tminium vermilion (E. miniature): Spanish (Propertius 2. 3. 11), cf. the 

river-name Minius (now Miriho) in N. W. Spain, 
minor less (E. minstrel ??mchief mystery-^lay) : min- Got. mins E. f mince, 

OSlav. mlnij\ cf. min- Mir. min little : * pressed down,' fr. minae. 
minud diminish (E. minnow minuet) : ixivvQw : * press down,' fr. minae. 
minus smooth : min- cf. min- Mir. min : * pressed down, ' see minor. 
fmirmillo a gladiator : = *murmurulo fr. *murmurulus Dimin. of *mur- 

murus, fiopfiipos a fish (as his crest). 
minis wonderful (E. marvel mirage mirror) : = *musus * dazzling,' mus- 

fjLvw shut the eyes. 
misceo mix (E. meddle medley pellraeZZ) : mi(k)-sk- Mir. mescaim I mix, 

OHG. miscan mix E. E. mash mess, from mik- Lit. BU-miszti get mixt, 

Sk. micrds mixt, cf . mik-s- Sk. miksh- mix. — A word of the Ursprache, 

and so without compensatory lengthening of the -i-. 
miser wretched (E. miser) : mus- fiva-os defilement. 
mitis mild : = *mHtis 4 quiet ' fr. mutus. 
tmitra turban : ffilrpa, Phrygian (Aen. 9. 616-617). 
mitto send (E. mass 2 mess-room message) : = *smlto (cf. Fest. cosmittere 

committere) : 
mitulus mutulus mussel (E. niche) : 
modus measure (Olr. mod mode ; E. model modem mould Vb.) : mod- cf. 

med- meditor. 
tmoechus : fioixts, fr. V«*X» = mingo. 
moenia walls : 

moles mass (E. mole*) : fia\os struggle? 
molestus troublesome : * crushing,' fr. mold. 
mollis soft (E. moil) : = *molvis, molv- Got. %p.-malyjan crush E. mellow. 

— Not = *mold-vis mld- Hesych. &j8Aa5e«s sweetly, Sk. mfdtis soft, cf. 

m£d- b-ixaXtivvo) destroy, and mold- Got. ga.-malteins dissolution E. melt, 

OSlav. mladU soft, Sk. mard- rub. 
mold grind (E. mill) : mol- fi6\rj mill, Got. malan grind E. meal mould, 

Lit. malii I grind, Arm. malem I pound, cf. mel- Olr. melim I grind, 

OSlav. melja, Sk. mar- crush. 
monedula (for term, see acr-edula) daw : * bird of omen,' fr. sq. 
moned warn (E. mint money summon) : mon- Ags. manian exhort, cf. 
men- meminx. 



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62 ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 



monile necklace: mon- pdvvos (dialectic for *fi6wos) 1 Olr. muin, Ags. 

mene, OSlav. monisto : * worn on the neck,' cf. OHG. mana mane E. , 

Sk. mdnya neck. 
mons mountain (E. E. m&wnot) : mont!- cf. mntI- Ags. mund protection 

E. mound : * refuge '. 
monstrum prodigy (E. muster) : = *mond-lntm ' sign,' mondh- OSlav. 

madrH wise, cf. mendh- pcvO'fipr) thought, mndh- fiadc?y learn, Got. 

mundon consider, modh- Zd. mad- know (Spiegel). 
mora delay (E. demur) : mb- cf. mb- Olr. mar ait they stay, see 

morus. 
morbus disease : mR-bhos cf. m$-bhos Olr. marb mortuum, fr. rnorior 

+ -BHO- (see acerbus). 
morded bite (E. morsel muse Vb. muzzle) : smrd- cf. smerd- afxtpdaXeos 

terrible, OHG. smerzan feel pain E. smart Vb., see merda. 
moretum salad : fr. *moreo I pound, cf. *moro whence mortdrium. 
morior die (E. murrain) : mb- fiapatyw destroy, Lit. mirti die, cf. meb- 

OSlav. mreti, Arm. meranim I die, Zd. Sk. mar- die, and mor- Ags. 

mearian weaken E. mar moor Vb. marline nightmare \moraine, Lit. 

marhiti cause to die. 
mdrdsus peevish : * stickling for etiquette,' fr. mos. 
mors death : MRTf- Lit. mirtis OSlav. sH-mriUl, Sk. mrtis, cf. mrt- Got. 

maurthr murder E., fr. morior. 
mortarium mortar : see moretum : 
tmorum mulberry (E. mul-h&rcy murrey, Lit. moras) : *fiwpov by-form 

of \fx6pov : 
tmdrus foolish : fi<ap6s : mor- cf. mb- Sk. murds, and mb- mora (as E. 

dull fr. dwell), ' halting '. 
mos measure, custom (E. demure) : 
moved move (E. mob meeting) : mev- meu- a-/*ei5o/i<u, surpass, cf. mu- Sk. 

mu- push. 
mox soon : mok-su* Mir. mos, Zd. moshu, cf. mok-sU Sk. makshu, from 

mok- Olr. moch early + a case-sign -su. 
mucrd point : muk- cf. muk- mico. 

Rather than mok- cf . mok- Hesych. /a6kp<cv sharp. 
mucus muccus mucus: moukv- Lit. maUkti let slide, cf. mukv- atro- 

fji^a-a-w wipe the nose fi^a ( = *hvktjo.) phlegm (E. match), Olr. ?nucc 

pig, Zd. Sk. muc- release, from smukv- Hesych. <rfivicT-fip nose a-fx^tcv 

a fish (cf. sq.). 
mugilis mullet : * slimy,' mougv- by-form of moukv-, praeced. 
miiginor (sec. Nonius) murmur (E. curmudgeon miching): fr. sq., cf. 

NUmbr. mugatu let him speak. 
mugid bellow : moug- cf. mug- nvfa groan, OHG. ii-muccazan mutter, 
mulced stroke, mulco beat : melk- Sk. marc- touch. 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 63 



mulged milk : mlg- OSlav. vilUza I milk, cf. melg- d-^eAyw, Mir. 

Subst., Got. miluks Subst. E., Lit. rrtilzu I milk. 
mulier woman: 'giving suck,' mud- 116(00 suck, Mir. muimmc nurse 

(= *mud-mia). 
mullus mullet (E.) : cf. (with U) pvWos a-fivWa a fish. 
mulsus honied : ' softened,' Part, of mulceo. 
tmulta mulcta fine : Osc. (Fest.) : 
multicia silks : = multi-licia, ' of many threads '. 
multus much : = *mulctus Part, of *mulgo swell, see promulgd. 
mulus mule (E. mulatto) : 
mundus Subst. enclosure, sky, world, equipment, Adj. equipt, neat: 

mund- cf . mud- MHG. mutzen adorn ? 
munis obliging, munus service : moi-n- Olr. maini gifts, Got. g&-mains 

common E. mean 1 Adj., Lit. malnas exchange; from moi-, see mutd. 
tmuraena murena lamprey : fxtpaiva, smur- afivpos eel : 
murex purple-fish : fr. mils sea-mussel, as /u»5a£ purple-fish fr. fids sea- 
mussel. 
muria brine : mud- fifoos slime, cf . moud- Lit. mdudau I bathe ? 
murmur roar (OHG. murmuron murmulon, Lit. murmeti grumble) : 

morm- fwpfi-vp<a boil, Sk. marmaras rustling. 
tmurra 1 myrrha myrrh : fftvppa (also <r/jLvpva f see smyrna), Heb. mor. 
tmurra 2 agate or porcelain : *n6ppa, ffiSppia Paus. : Pers. (from Parthia 

and Carmania, Plin. 37. 21). 
murus moerus moiros wall : 
mus mouse (E. marmot muscle mussel) : /ulvs Hesych. <rtivs y Ags. mus E., 

OSlav. mysl, Arm. ??mkn, Sk. mush : ' thievish,' cf. Sk. mush- steal ? 
musca fly (E. mosquito musket): mus- fiv?a (—*fiv<r-ja) i Lit. muse\ cf. 

OSlav. muha : ' greedy,' Sk. mush- steal, see praeced. 
muscus moss : mus- Ags. mos E. E. mushroom. Lit. mHisas mould, cf. 

mus- OSlav. mUhU moss. 
tmusso mutter : /xiJfcw, see mugio. 
mustaceum bride-cake : * baked on bay-leaves ' Plin. 15. 127, fr. mustax 

bay Plin., from mustus. 
mtistela mttstella weasel : 
mustus fresh (E. moist mustard) : 
mutilus maimed : mut- muticus docked, Theocr. fxlrvAos hornless (Dis- 

sim. for *fivrv\os). 
mutio muttio mutter (E. motto) : formed fr. fmuttum a grunt (Lucil.), = 

*mutum> fivdos word. 
muto change (E. mews moult), mutuus lent : moi-t- Sicil. fioiros thanks, 

Got. maithms gift, Lett, meetot to exchange ; from moi-, see munus. 
mutd mutto Subst. : moit-, cf. Lucil. ap. Non. p. 15 Mulier Moetlnus, 

MHG. meidem stallion. (Mart, 's miito7iiatus a popular corruption.) 



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64 ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 



mutus dumb: mut- Olr. moeth tender, cf. mut- Hesych. fivrrjs fivrr6s 

dumb : * subdued,' cf. mutilus, and see mitis. 
fmyoparo corsair : fivoirdpwv, fr. fids see mils + irapdv a light ship, 4 mouse 

(i.e. thief) of Paros \ 
fmyrica tamarisk : ffivpiicn = *T i uvpl/crj tmor- cf . ftamarix : 
tmyrtus myrtle : fptpros, cf. Pers. murd Zenker 892 a. 

tnablium naulium harp : *vdp\iov *vat\iov fr. fvd&\a vav\a, Heb. nebhel 

flute. 
naevus mole : 

nam for, -nam Enclitic : = *nam *na-me (see tarn), from no-, see -ne -num. 
nanciscor obtain : * carry off,' nenk- l-veyiccTv bring, cf . nek- Mir. coein- 

nacar potui, Lit. neszti carry OSlav. nesti, Zd. Sk. nac- attain, 
tnanus dwarf : vavos : ' father,' a euphemism, nan- cf. nan- W. min 

grandmother, Sk. nantt mother, 
tnarcissus daffodil : vdpici(r<ros : 

hardly fr. ydpKV numbness Plin. 21. 128, quasi * narcotic '. 
tnardus nard : fvdptios, Heb. nerd. 
naris nostril : nas- Lit. ndsis, Zd. naohha Sk. n$s-, cf. nas- Ags. nam E.. 

OSlav. nosti, Sk. nds-. 
narro nard gnarro relate : = *gnar6, fr. gndrus. 
nascor am born : = *gna-scor cf. gnd-tus Part., gn-, see genus. 
nassa naxa weel : 

nasus nassus nose : dialectic for *ndrus, see naris. 
natis (E. aitch-bone) : = *notis not- cf. not- vSnov back? 
tnauclerus skipper: vav-K\ypos : * whose ship is his estate,' K\T)pos estate. 
naucum trifle : 
tnausea seasickness (E. noise) : *pav<rla Ion. form of vavria, fr. vavrys 

sailor, sq. 
navis ship (MHG. nawe, E. nave of a church) : nav- nau- vavs, Olr. naxu 

ONor. nor, Arm. nav, OPers. nam Sk. nails. 
navus gnavus active: gn-vos, cf. gn- see ingens: so ONor. knar vigorous 

fr. kna know. 
ne- not : Olr. ni, Got. ni E. E. nay no naught, Lit. OSlav. ne, Zd. na Sk. 

nd, cf. ne 1 . 
-ne Enclitic (in denique pone superne) : see -nam -num, cf. ne" 2 . 
ne 1 not : Olr. nl, Sk. nil : = sq. (see haud) ? 
ne 2 nae truly : rfi, cf. vai. 
nebula mist : vc<p€\r) cloud, W. nifwl mist, OHG. nebul ; from nebh- 

ve^os cloud, W. nef sky, OSlav. nebo, Sk. ndbhas mist, cf. nbh- Arm. 

am& cloud. 
nebul 6 worthless fellow: fr. praeced., * Child of the Mist,' obscure 

skulking. 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 6s 



ne-cesse necessary : * infallible, ' fr. ne- + cassus. ' 

need kill : nek- vckvs corpse, Zd. nac- disappear Sk. nac- be lost, cf. nk- 

Olr. ec death. 
tnectar nectar : fvcierap : 

nectd tie (Hesych. v€%as bedding) : negh- Zd. naz- Sk. nah-. 
ne-cubi lest anywhere : ne + *quobi cube (Probi Appendix, Keil 4. 199) r 

Umbr. pufe where, fr. quis 2 + a case-sign as in ibi ubl. 
neglegd neglect (for the latter element see diligo) : *ne-ge from ne- + ge 

yh at least, Got. mi-& me, see negotium. 
nego deny (E. E. renegade runagate) : from *nege, praeced. 
negotium business : *nege (see negligo) + otium. 
nemo no one : ne- + hemo (see homo). 
nempe certainly : nm- cf. %-va where, see nam, + -pe. 
nemus grove: vc^os, Gaul. v^x.t\rov temple Olr. 'nemed: 'portion' of 

ground, fr. viyaa distribute. 
tnenia naenia dirge : *vrjyia t fvrjvidrov Hipponax 129 Bergk, Phrygian 

(Pollux 4. 79). 
neo spin : ne- j/etw, Got. nethla needle E., OHG. ndwan sew. 

Not add sne- Zd. end- stretch, cf. sno- Olr. snathe thread, Got. snorjo 
basket, for sn- would remain in Gothic. 
tnepa crab, scorpion : African (Fest.). 
nepos grandson (E. nephevj) : nepot- Zd. napdt- Sk. ndpdt-> cf. nepot- 

reVoSes children Odyss. 4. 404 (with 5 from *j/^iroSes footless), Olr. 

niath nephew's, Zd. napat- grandson, see sq. So nepos spendthrift, 

opposite of patruus uncle, the model of severity: not Etrusc. (as 

Fest.). 
neptis granddaughter (E. niece) : nept£- a-i/c\j/i6s cousin (from *vtya for 

*v€irTJa), Got. ni(f)thjis kinsman, OSlav. ne(p)tij nephew, Zd. napti- 

relationship Sk. napti daughter, cf. nept- Olr. necht, OHG. nifi, and 

nep- Ags. nefa nephew, see praeced. 
nequam worthless : ne + -quam ' anyhow ' fr. quis 2 , ' naughty ' : orig. 

Adv. , cf . per-quam extremely. 
nervus sinew : nerv- vevpov, cf. norv- Ags. nearu narrow E. 

(* bound '). 
ni unless: = *ne-i, ne- + -I Demonstr. see hie; *not,' cf. ni-mirum ('not 

wonderful ') certainly, see nihilum. 
nicto wink : gnigv- cf . coniveo : 
nldor vapor : 

not cf. Kvitrn fat, smell of fat, quasi *yy\9-j'n from ghnidh-. 
nidus nest : nizd^s Mir. net, Ags. nest E., Arm. nist situation, Sk. nldcls 

nest. 

Hardly fr. Sk. ni- down + zd- cf. sed- sedeo. 
niger black : negbo-, Fest. negritu grief ('gloom ') : 

5 

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66 ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 



nihilum nilum nihil nil nothing : nl not, see nl, + Adj. -ending -ulo-. — 

Ovid has nihil through a popular connection with hihim. 
nimbus storm : numbh- "So^^j) Nymph ( 4 spirit '), cf . nubh- nubes. 
nimis exceedingly, too much (cf . the two senses of &yav) : = *numesum 

Ace. of *numesus numerus (thus nimis altum = a quantity high, as 

Fr. trop haut = a crowd high, Lat. turbam altum). 
ninguit ningit it snows : sninghv- Lit. sninga, cf. snighv- Pacuv. nivit, 

see nix. 
nisi nesei (E. Schneider 95. 5) unless : = Fest. nesl without, ne- + si. 
nitedula (for term, see acr-edula) nitela nitella dormouse : 
nited shine (E. neat) : = *gneteo 'am polished, rubbed,' gvnet- Ags. 

cnedan knead E., OSlav. gneta I press, see nota. 
nltor lean, strain : = *gnlvitor gnigv-, cf. Fest. gnlxus Part, (which = 

*gnlct-tus as nlsus = *gnit-tus) : 
nix snow : snighv- vi<t>a Ace, Olr. sneckti Plur., W. nvf, Zd. gnizh- to 

snow, cf. snoighv- Got. snaivs snow E., Lit. snaigyti to snow OSlav. 

snegU snow. 
no swim (E. alley andiron) : SNA- vda flow, Mir. sndim I swim, Zd. gna- 

wash Sk. snd-. 
By-form sneu- ve{f)<a swim, Mir. snuad river, cf. snu- Zd. piu- flow 
Sk. snu- distil. 
noceo hurt (E. nuisance) : nok- cf. nek- need. 
nodus knot : nozdos, OHG. nestila band. 
nomen -gndmen name (E. noun renoum; but not name) : OSlav. snamg 

sign, from gno- nosco. 
nomenclator ndmenculator usher: fr. *nomencul6 call by name, praeced. 

+ cald. 
non not: = nonne (used as Interrog.) i.e. *no-ne y from no- by-form (see 

dodrans) of Tie, + -ne. 

Not connected with noenum, which — ne-\- oinom unum. 
nonus 9th : = *novin-us from *novcn, see novem. 
norma square : = *nonma fr. nona ninth, * shaped like L,' the 9th letter 

in the Etruscan (acefzhOil) and Faliscan {acdefzhi I) alpha- 
bets ; cf . Rev. 22. 13 iyk to &\<pa koI to & t vp&ros ical $o~xcitos. 
nos we : no- v& Dual, OSlav. na Ace. Dual, Zd. nolo Ace. Plur. (Spiegel), 

cf. nau Sk. ndu Ace. Dual, ni Olr. ni Ace. Plur. 
nosco gnosco recognise : gno- yiyvdxrKoo, Olr. gnath accustomed, OSlav. 

znati know, Zd. zJind- (Spiegel) Sk. jnd-, cf. gne- Ags. cnavan recognise 

E. know ; and gna- agnitus, gn- ingens, gn- navus. 
ndster our: nos, Sk. nas us, cf. ns fyt/aes we (= *nff-fics), Got. uns us 

E. E. our, Sk. cw-m^n, see nos. 
nota mark : * rubbing,' gvnot- cf . gvnet- nited. 
fnothus spurious : v6Bos : ' obscure,' see umbra. 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 67 

tnotus south wind : v6ros : 

novem 9 (E. noon) : nevm (-m for -n from the ordinal nevm-mos, see 
decern) for nevn (see nonus) lv~via (' up to 9, ' 4v Aeol. and Dor. for 4s), 
Olr. noi n-, Got. niun E., Pruss. newints 9th Lit. dcwyni 9 OSlav, 
deveti (both with de- from the words for 10), Arm. inn (= *e-ncn), Zd. 
w#van- Sk. ?kim : ' the new number ' after 2 quaternions, fr. novus ? 

noverca stepmother: = *nov-ri-ca fr. sq. with double Adj. -ending, cf. 
vit-ri-cus. 

novus new : neVos v4(f )os, Olr. nice, Lit. nawas OSlav. novii, Zd. nova 
Sk. ndvas, cf. nev-jos Ags. weove E., nev-i- Got. niujis, nevo-r- Arm. 
nor. 

nox night : nokvt- vi*£, Mir. nocht, Got. watas E., Zd. nakhturu noctur- 
nal, cf. NOKVTf- noctium Gen. Plur., Lit. naktis night OSlav. noUl, Sk. 
naktis. 

noxa imprisonment, injury : nogh- cf. negh- necto, ' bonds '. 

nubes cloud : nu"bh- cf . ntjmbh- nimbus. 

nubo marry : * cover my face,' cf. obnubo veil, nubh- cf. numbh- vvyu$-r\ 
bride. 

nudius ago : nu vvv now, Got. nu E., OSlav. ny-ne, Zd. nu Sk. ?itf, cf. 
nxj Lit. nit, Sk. ?ii£ ; + diu- by-form (see diurnus) of die- dies. 

nudus naked : = *nodus *ndvi-dus nogv- Lit. nilgas, cf . n<5gvo-to- Mir. 
nockt, Got. naqatJis E., nogv-n<5- Zd. maghna (m- a mistake for n~) Sk. 

nugae ndgae naugae trifles : naug- : 

num whether: = *nu-me (see ta-m) from nu Olr. nu Verbal-Particle, 

see nudius, •+ a case-ending. 
-num now (in etiam-num) : cf. viv (in ro/iw), praeced. 
numella tether : * limit,' = *numerula Adj. Fern. fr. sq. 
numerus number (E.) : = *numesus (cf. Numisius for Numerius) : 
nummus numus coin (Sicil. vodfifios) : = *numsus (cf. Osc. Niumsieis = 

Lat. Numerii Gen.), nums- cf. numes- praeced. : 
hardly add noms- Mir. nos custom. 
nunc now : = *num-ce, *num l now ' (see -num) + -ce. 
nuncupo name : = *nom(e)n-cup6 (cf. oc-cupd) fr. nomen + capid. 
nundinum nondinum noundinum 8th day : fr. novem + din- day, Olr. 

tre~denus 3 days, OSlav. dlnl day, Sk. dinam, cf. din- Got. sin-teins 

daily (see semper). 
nuntius nountios messenger : = *noventios fr. *novens Part, of *noveo 

1 am new,' fr. novus. 
nuper lately, nuperus fresh : = *novi-perus fr. novus + part. 
nurus daughter-in-law : snus* w(<r)6s, OHG. snur, OSlav. snuha, Arm. 

nu, Sk. snusM. 
niitd nod : = *neu-t6, veiu. 



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68 ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 



nutrid nourish (E. E. nurse) : = *notrio, Quint. 1. 4. 16 notrlx = nutrix 

nurse : fr. *not-rus Adj., nod- cf. ned- y^bv/xos refreshing, 
nux nut (E. newel ; but not nut) : nuk- : 
tnympha bride : vvfupn, see nubd. 

6 oh Interj. : &, Got. o, OSlav. o. 

ob around (sec. Fest. and Serv.), before: Osc. op apud: = *6pi, <wn-cr0ev 

behind, Lit. api- around, Zd. aipi Sk. dpi by. 
tobba ubba obua (i.e. obva) cup for libation to the dead : cf . Etrusc. uf- 

lea (Bugge B. B. 10. 111). 
ob-liquus slanting : leikv- cf . likv- licinus (Serv. Geo. 3. 55) with up- 
turned horns, linkv- Lit. linkiu I bend. 
ob-liviscor forget : * smooth down, repress,' leiv- see levis lived. 
oboedid obedio obey (E.) : = ob-Udio from audio. 
tobrussa assay : *6fyi>Cn fr« iofyv(os pure (of gold). 
obscenus obscaenus obscoenus ominous : 
ob-scurus dark : skvu- Ags. scua shade ONor. sky cloud E. sky, cf. skvu 

Zd. cku- be blind Sk. sku- cover. 
obs-olesco decay: obs- fr. ob (see abs), and see ad-olesco 2 . 
tobsono (quasi fr. ob) cater : otywvfa, fr. fyov meat, c^w boil, «Vcw prepare 

see sequ-or, + wveofiai buy, see venum. 
ob-turd stop up: fr. taurus, 'put a bull (i.e. a heavyweight, stopper) 

on, ' cf . povs 4*1 y\<0ff<rri Aesch. Agam. 36. 
occo harrow: = *6c6 okv- cf. okv'- W. og Subst., MHG. ege f Lit. aketi 

Vb. 
oc-cul5 hide : *celo, see celd. 
tocimum basil : &kiixov. 
ocior swifter: ok- ookvs swift, OW. di-auc slow Zeuss 2 894 a, Zd. acus 

swift Sk. df&s ; cf. ok- Zd. Sk. ac- attain. 
ocrea greave : foreign ? 
octavus 8th : = *octov-os from oktou Got. ahtau 8, Sk. aslitdti, by-form 

of octo. 
octingenti 800 : for *octo-centi, sq. + centum ; with -in- from septingenti 

( = *septem-centl) 700, and -g- from viginti, see quadringenti. 
octo 8 : oktA, Olr. ocht, Ags. eahta E., Lit. asztu-nl OSlav. os(t)-ml, 

Arm. uth, Zd. asta Sk. ashtd, see octavus. 
oculus eye (E. antler inveigle) : okv- 6o-<rc Dual (= *6k-jc) 6fi/xa ( = *tMr-juo), 

Lit. akis OSlav. oko, Arm. akn y Zd. ak- see (Spiegel). 
odium hatred (E. annoy noisome) : od- oStJa-tro/xat am angry inr-6$-pa 

fiercely, Ags. atol horrible, Arm. ateam I hate. 
odor smell : od- o5/x^, Arm. hot, cf. od- Lit. 'ildziu I smell. 
toestrus gadfly : oT<rrpos : 
toesypum unwashed wool : *o1<r\mov cf . folo-farn : 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 69 

offa ball : = *ofa y cf . Vfella : 

officina workshop, officium observance: fr. ob around +facio, •com- 
plete doing \ 
6he Inter j. : cf . + hei. 
foiei Interj. : *oU? cf. oloi. 
oleo smell : od- odor. 

olim at that time : Abl. (see inde) of *dlo, see Me. 
tolivum oil (whence *olevum oleum, and from this W. olew, Got. alev E., 

Lit. aliejus OSlav. olej) : i\ai{f)ov (unaccented ai becoming i as in 

Achlvl from *Axai(f)oO, with 0- quasi from *olivus 'fragrant' Adj. of 

oleo. 
611a aula pot (E. olio) : = *aux-la, cf .■ auxilla Fest. : 
tolor swan : 

t omasum tripe : Gaulish (Gloss. Philox.) : 
omen osmen (Varr. L. L. 6. 76) sign: = *aux-men * authorisation,' from 

aux- see auxilium, and cf. the meaning of augur. 
omentum adipose membrane : = *obs-mentnm (see d-mentum), from obs- 

ob l around '. 
omittd give up : = *6mitto (6- as in Plaut. Trin. 712 nihil ego in oculto) 

*obs-mUto. 
omnis all (E. bus) : = *op-nis ' comprehensive ' (see cunctus), fr. ob 

' around '. 
onus honus burden : 

tonyx onyx : tc>vu|, Egyptian, cf . Coptic ankoki ring-finger (Peyron). 
op-acus (for term. cf. mer-dcus) shady : ' covered,' fr. ob ' around '. 
op-eri5 cover : ob ' around ' + eb-, see aperio. 
opllio (Plaut. Asin. 540) upiljo (Verg. Buc. 10. 19) shepherd : 
opimus rich: *well covered,' fr. ob 'around' + Adj. -ending (cf. pair- 

imtis, prob. with -£-). 
opinor think: 'put before myself,' fr. *opinus (cf. nec-opinus) Adj. of ob 

' before ' (as supinus of sub). 
oportet is necessary : • rises up,' fr. *op-ortum Part. Neut. of *op-orior 

ob-orior spring up. 
op-perior wait : see ex-perior. 
op-pido exceedingly : ' fitly,' fr. ob + ped- seize, hold, see ex-pedio, cf. 

c/i-w€8os fixt, and pod- Ags. fabian seize 'Et.fit vat. 
op-pidum town : ' hold, stronghold,' fr. praeced., cf. Sk. pat-tanam. 
op-port-unus fit : ' conducive,' fr. portd (as <xv/x<popos conducive fr. <^>€pcw 

carry). 
ops power : ' circumstance,' fr. ob ' around ' ? 
optimus opitumus best : * complete, perfect,' fr. ob (i.e. *opi) 

• around '. 
opto choose : ' put before myself,' fr. * opium Part. fr. ob before. 



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7o ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 



opus work (E. inure manoeuvre manure, use (Subst.) in law) : <5p- Sk. 

dpas, cf. op- OHG. uoba festival, Sk. dpas a religious work. 
6ra extremity, rope-end, coast (E. ullage) : 
orbis circle : 
orbus bereft : orbh- 6(xpav6s, Mir. orbe inheritance (of an orphan), Got. 

arbi, Arm. orb orphan. 

Hardly add Sk. arbhds small. 
drca jar : 

torchas an olive : bpx&s (Nicander) : fr. fy>x ts testis, from its shape. 
ordo row (Olr. ordd order) : 
orior rise : r- atpa raise, Arm. y-ar-nem I rise, cf. er- Zd. ar- go Sk. ar- 

raise, and or- UpvOfii stir. 
ornd furnish : *6s-n6 Varr. L. L. 6. 76, = *6si-n6 : 
ornus mountain-ash : 

not Sk. drnas stream, teak.f 
toryx gazelle : tfy>v| opvs, Semitic, Assyrian t-urahu antelope. 
toryza rice : tu-pufo, cf. io-piytfo Adj., vrind- vrid-, OPers., from Sk. 

vrlhls (as OPers. d = Zd. z = Sk. h). 
OS bone (E. osprey) : = *ost (ossis &c. formed from Nom. os on anal, of 

assis &c. from as) ost- 6<tt4ov, Zd. acta Sk. asthdn- : ' refuse, not eaten,' 

fr. Sk. as- throw (cf. E. pluck, * heart, liver, and lights of an animal, 

as plucked out after killing ' Skeat) ? 
os mouth : = *aus, cf. Plaut. ausculum Dimin. : ' orifice,' see auris. 
ostium austium door (E. usher) : 'opening,' aus-t- OSlav. usta mouth, 

Sk. fishthas lip, fr. praeced. 
tostreum sea-snail (E. oyster) : tiarpcov oyster, purple made from the 

sea-snail, ostr- cf. forpctKov shell, potsherd. 
tostrum austrum (Priscian, on anal, of plaustrum) purple : = *ostrum 

*b<rrpovv (cf. for the termination hedychrum = yMxpovv and see remul- 

cum) contracted form of forpcov, praeced. 
otium rest : aut- Got. auths deserted Ags. edde empty, easy OE. eath 

easy (but not E. easy). 
tovis sheep : Osc. (the Rom. form would be *avis), <5vi- #(f)«, Olr. di, 

Lit. awis OSlav. ovlca, Sk. dvis, cf. Got. avethi flock Ags. eavu ewe E. 
OVO exult : = *ev6 ev- eu- eldfa shout cvai evo7 Interj. 
ovum egg: o-vom d)(f)6v cf. o-v-eom &{f)tov tipcov; also oi- &iov $6v, 

OSlav. aje. 

paciscor agree : pek- Zd. pac- bind, see pecu, cf . pok- Got. fahan seize 
faginon rejoice fagrs fit E. fain fair Adj. fadge, and pok- Sk. pacas 
knot. 

tpaean hymn : firaiaiv, see paeon. 

tpaedico : fr. *paed-icus (formed after am-ica) Adj. of *paes, va?s boy. 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 71 



paedor pedor filth : 

tpaelex pelex pellex (quasi fr. pellicio allure) : *iri)\a£ Ion. form of 

Dor. 7raAAa£ boy, cf. irpo-mjXaK'ifa abuse. 
paene pene poene nearly : ' within a little,' *paenus little, see penuria : 
paenitet poenitet grieves: fr. praeced., 'does not satisfy, seems too 

little '. 
tpaenula penula cloak : f<paiv6\r)s : 
tpaeon a metrical foot : iirauhv, see paean. 
paetus petus blink-eyed : 
pagina page ('joined' to the other pages: E. page 2 ), pagus district 

(* station ' : E. peasant) : pag- wfiyyvfit fix, cf. pag- Ags. fdc interval 

feccan fetch E., and pang- pango. 
pala spade (E. palette pellmeM) : 

hardly = *pas-la fr. pastinum dibble, on account of the difference of 
meaning. 
palam openly : • in the hand,' = *pala-m *pald-me (for the term, see 

tarn) from *pala 'hand,' PL-, see palma 1 . . 
palatum vault, palate : 

palea chaff (E. pallet) : pel'- Lit. pelai, Sk. palavas. 
palear dewlap : fr. palea wattles of a cock, as resembling short straws^ 

praeced. 
tpaliurus Christ's-thorn : va\lovpos : 
palla robe (E. pall taxpaulin) : 
palleo am pale (E. pale Adj. pall Vb. appal) : dialectic for *palveo fr. 

*palvus Adj., Ags. fealu yellow E. fallow, Lit. palwas OSlav. plavH 

white, 
pallium Greek cloak : 
palma 1 palm of hand : pl-ma Olr. lam hand, cf. pl-ma ira\dfiri palm of 

hand, Ags. folme E. fumble : from PL-, cf . pol- Sk. panis. 
t palma 2 palm-tree: Heb. ftamar (E. tamar-md). — With^? for t, ctpdvo; 

Im for m, cf. <ra\a/jL<li/Bpa salamander Pers. semender Zenker 519 a, 

Italian calamandrea germander from x*P*l-tpvs, and see balsamum. 
palor wander : 
palpo stroke : dialectic for *palqu6 plkv- OSlav. plakati mourn (• strike ' 

the breast). 
paludamentum general's cloak : fr. *paludd Vb. cloak : 
palumbes ringdove : 
paliis marsh : 
palus stake (E. pale Subst. pole) : = * pax-Ins cf. paxillus peg, pag-s- cf . 

pango. 
pampinus vinebranch : Lit. pampti swell. 
pando spread (E. spawn) : 

not = *pat-no fr. pateo. 



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72 ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 



pandus curved : * hanging by the two ends,' = *pendds fr. pended ? 

Hardly cf . ONor. fetta bend back. 
pangd fix : pang- cf . pag- pdgina. 
panicula tuft : 'meshed,' Dimin. of *pdna, wfivn thread on the bobbin, 

see pannus. 
panicum panic-grass: 'swelling/ fr. pdnus tumor, ear of panic-grass 

Plin. 18. 54, = pannus, 'meshed'. 

Not fr. sq., cf. Plin. 18. 54 panis . . . e panico rarus. 
panis bread (E. appanage company pannier pantry) : fr. * pdnus, Messapian 

rdvSs Athenaeus 111 c : = *pas-nus fr. pastillus ? 
pannus cloth (E. pane panel jxiwn 1 penny) : = pdnus see pdnicum, icrjvos 

thread on the bobbin, pan- cf. pan- Got. fana cloth E. fgon-f anon 

vane fond fun, OSlav. ponjava.^ 
tpantex paunch (E., NHG. panzer coat of mail) : 
tpanthera panther : iirfoQrip : 

hardly cf. Sk. pwiddrikas a proper name, tiger, t 
tpapae Interj. : irairai, cf. ir6iroi. 
tpapas tutor: vairds vdinras father, onomatop., see pappus, cf. Late — 

Lat. papa bishop (E. pope), E. papa. 
papaver poppy (E.): fr. *papd swell (for term, see cadaver), papula, 

1 with globular capsules '. 
papilio (for term. cf. pumilio fr. pumilus dwarf) butterfly (E. pavilion) : 

fr. *pdpulus *pappulus Dimin. of pappus grandfather (cf . luc-avus stag- 
beetle, ' grandfather of the grove,' Plin. 11. 97, t€tti£ grasshopper fr. 

tctto father, and Eng. ' daddy longlegs '). 
pappo papo eat : fr. papa food Varro (E. pap * pamper), onomatop. 
pappus thistledown: irdmrosi 'greybeard,' irdmros grandfather, see 

papas. 
papula pimple (E. E. pebble) : pap- cf. pamp- pampinus, ' swelling '. 
tpapyrus papyrus (E. paper) : firdnvpos, Egyptian (as growing in Egypt). 
par equal (E. apparel pair peer umpire) : pari- fr. pars, ' sharing '. 
parcus sparing : cf. spar- Ags. spar E. spare, see parum parvus. 
tpardus panther : fvdptos : cf. Sk. pfdakus snake, pantherf ? 
pared parreo obey: 'seem, appear (cf. ap-pdreo), offer oneself,' — * parsed, 

NUmbr. parsest will be seemly, pe-s- irop<ralv<i> offer, cf . pr- part. 
paries wall (E. pellitory 1 ) : * boundary,' cf. ircTpap ircpas end. 
parid bring forth : per'- Lit. pcr'eti to brood, cf . por- ir6pis calf, Ags. fear 

ox E. heifer, and PR- part. 
tparma palma target: Polyb. firdpfiv *ird\fiv, Thracian (Fest. s. v. 

Thraeccs). 
paro provide (E. parachute parade parasol pare parry rampart) : PR- 

iropelv to offer. 
parra a bird : = *parsa, ' companion,' sq. 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 73 



parri-cida pari-cida murderer : fr. *parrus *parsus companion, * offering 

himself,' see pared, + caedo. 
pars part (E. E. parcel parse) : par-ti- fr. par 6, i what one gets '. 
parum but little : Neut. of *parus Adj., cf. sq. 
parvus small : iravpos (= *irdp-pos) : cf. spab-, see parous. 
tpasceolus purse : *<j>oo'kIo\os by-form of <pdffK<o\os (as <pa<rio\os of (pdffri- 

\os), seefascis. 
pa-sco feed (E. pastern pester) : pa- Zd. Sk. pa- protect. 
passer sparrow : 
passus step (E. pace pass) : = *pat-tus, pat- vdros path, Zd. pathan Sk. 

pdth-j cf. tat- Mir. ath ford. 
pastillus loaf : 

pastor paastor shepherd : pas- fr. pa-scd .+ s. 
tpatagium gold edging : f*iraray€Tov : 
pateo am open (E. pail): pet'- ircrdyvv/jLi stretch, OW. etem flounce 

Zeuss 2 148 b, cf. pot- Ags.ftidm fathom E., Zd. pathana broad, 
pater father (E. patois pattern) : pat^b pate- irar^p Nom. varp6s Gen. , 

Olr. athir, Got. fadar E., Arm. 7wti>, Zd. patar- pitar- Sk. pitdr-. 
patina dish (irardrn ; E. pan) : fr. pateo, as ir4raxvov saucer fr. it«t<£i/- 

1/Vfll. 

patior suffer : * lie open to,' fr. pateo. 

patro bring to pass : fr. pater, ' act as father,' i.e., as head of a legation, 

pater patratus (' the father who acts as such,' from *patror Middle). 
paucus few : pau- pav- Got. favai E. 
paulus paullus little : = *paux-lus, cf. pauxillus. 
pauper poor (E.) : pau- (see paucus) + part, * provided with little \ 
tpausa stop (with term, on anal, of causa) : iravtris, fr. irai/w cause to 

stop, 
pauxillus pausillus little : 

hardly fr. paucus. 
paved am afraid : ' am struck ' (cf. QevX&ynv fr. t\4i<t<t(0 strike), fr. sq. 

(seejaceo), cf. pavitd shake with ague. 
pavio beat (E. pave) : = *povio, Fest. puvio (dialectic), pov- iro(f)^ grass 

(cf. E. hay fr. hew), Lit. piauti cut, bite, Sk. paviram spear. 
In Tola strike, Boeotian wfjco (cf. Boeotian k4\ for kclI), the ai is 
original, not for avi. 
tpavo peacock (E.) : fraS>s (for the p- seepalma 2 ), cf. Arab, tails Zenker 

593 a. 
pax peace (E. E. pay) : ' arrangement,' pak- cf. pag- pdgina. 
-pe enclitic (in nempe prope quippe, quispiam = *quis-pe-jam, uspiam = 

*us-pe-jam) : dialectic for -que. 
pecco err : 

hardly = *ped-c6 fr. pes, ' get entangled '. 



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74 ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 



pecto comb : pek- *r«c«, Lit. peszti pluck, cf . pok- Ags. feax (i.e. *feah-s) 
hair E. Fair- fax ipax-wax. 

pectus breast (E. paraph) : * framework, fastening,' from pek- paeiscor.— 
Not cf . Sk. pakshds wing, side of the body, which would give *pexus 
(see texo ursus). 

pecii pecus cattle (Lit. pekus) : Got. faihu property E. fee fellow feud- 
fief Zd. pac u cattle Sk. pdcus : ' appropriated,' fr. paeiscor (as E. 
farm fr. firm). 

pedis louse : * many-footed,' fr. pes. 

pedd (E. petard) : pezd- MHG. fist wind E. foist, Pruss. peisda podex, 
cf. bzd- jBSew pedo, Lit. bezd^ti (for *bzde*ti) pedere. 

pedum crook to catch sheep with : ped- seize, see oppido. 

pejero swear falsely: 'make worse, alter, violate,' fr. pejes- properly 
stem of oblique cases of sq. (cf. majes-tds beside major). 

pejor worse : = *pec-jor fr. peccd. 

tpelagus sea : v4\ayos : 

pellax deceitful : * affecting,' fr. pello move. 

pellis hide (E. peel 1 &c. pillion plaid ; W. pilen rind) : pel-n- ircMa 
pail (orig. of leather), Got. filleins of leather E. fell 2 . 

pello strike (E. pelt pursy push) : = * pel-no, pel-, vfoas near. 

tpelta target : firforn, Thracian (Hdt. 7. 75). 

pelvis peluis (Nonius 543) pelluis (Velius Longus, Keil. 7. 65) basin : = 
*pelovis, Sk. pdlavl vessel. 

pendeo hang (E. penthouBe), pendo weigh (E. avoirdupois pansy poise 
spend; NHG. speise food = Lat. expensa) : ' swing,' cf. spend- Sk. 
spand- quiver. 

penes with (properly proclitic before a consonant, penes me, te, vos, 
quern, or it would become * penis), penitus (for term, see in-tus) in- 
wardly, penetro (cf . intrd beside intus) enter : f r. penus in the sense 
of * closet,' Fest. penus locus in aede Vestae intimus {penes Loc. like 
cues). 

penis tail (E. pencil) : * waving,' fr. sq. 

penna pesna (Fest. : petna is a mere conjecture for pecna i.e. *jjena, 
penna) wing (E. pen Subst. pennon) : = *pet-na from pet- vcrofiau fly, 
Mir. etc wing, Ags. feder E. feather, Sk. pdt-tram ; l go,' see peto. 

tpentethronica Plaut. Poen. 471, Ritschl conj. ptenanthropica *imjv- 
avdpuyrriK-f) * of birds and men,' Goetz ptenotherica *imjyo-0ripiicfi i of 
birds and beasts'. 

pemiria paenuria want: *paenurus (for term. cf. mdt-u-rus) Adj. from 
*paenus little, see paene. 

penus store : Lit. pinas food. 

tpeplum robe : ircir\osl 

per through : Got. fair- Verbal-Prefix, Lit. per. 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 75 

per- very : peri ir4pi around, Zd. pairi Sk. pari. 

-per enclitic (in nuper parumper paulisper semper) : ir\p altogether, cf . 

praeced. 
tperabag: Hipd: 
per-celld overthrow: from *cel-no, kvel-, cf. kvol- Lit. kdlti strike 

OSlav. klati prick. 
per-contor per-cunctor enquire : ' linger over,' from cunctor. 

Not fr. contus pole (first in Verg., while percontor is in Plaut.), quasi 
1 explore \ 
per-eg-re abroad : fr. per + ago. 
peren-die day after to-morrow : 
per&ula booth: formed quasi fr. pergo go on ('projection'), for precula 

(with -e-?) Quint. 1. 5. 12: 
hardly cf . NUmbr. praco bulwark. 
periculum danger (E. peril) : l experience,' see peritus. 
perinde equally : = *perim Abl. (see inde) fr. per- ' around,' + -de. 
peritus experienced: per- irc?pa attempt irepdw go through, Mir. erud 

fear, Zd. par- go over (Spiegel) Sk. par- pass, cf . per- Ags. faer danger 

E. fear, see portd. 
per-mities ruin : fr. meto, l being cut down, reduced '. 
perna ham (E. prawn) : persna irrepvri heel, cf. persn 7 - Got. fairzna, 

from persn- Zd. pashna heel Sk. parshnis. 
pernix (for term, cl.fel-lx) swift : fr. praeced., ' strong in the ham '. 
tpero boot : *trfipuv i 'of leather,' fr. wfjpa leather pouch, see per a. 
perperam wrongly (Polyb. irepvepos vainglorious) : fr. per- + parum, 

' insufficiently, unsatisfactorily '. For term, see tarn. 
persona mask (E. parson) : fr. *personus Adj. (with vowel lengthened, 

see cornis) of per-sono sound through. 
pertica pole (E. perch 1 ) : = *pertiga (Lat. having no ending -ga, see 

praefica sublica, aniurca spelunca), fr. per-tingo reach, from tango. 
pes foot (E. pawn 2 pioneer trivet vamp) : ped- ir4(a, Arm. het track, cf. 

pod- vo$6s Gen. foot, Lit. pddas sole, Arm. otn foot, Zd. Sk. pad-, and 

pod- Dor. irtfo, Got. fotus E. E. fetter, Zd. pad- Sk. pad-. 
pessimus worst : dialectic for *peximus f pek-, see pejor pecco. 
pessulus pexulus pestulus (Caper, Keil. 7. Ill) bolt : = *ped-tlus fr. pes y 

1 foot ' of the door (see assula). 
pessum down : = *persum, Plaut. Pers. 737 Persa me pessum (i.e. *per- 

sum) dedit : 
pestis plague : 

hardly cf. irijpa woe quasi *irrjff-fia; or Fest.'s pesestds plague. 
tpetaurum trapeze : v4ravpov perch, fr. veronal fly, see penna. 
peto fall on : pet- * go,' ev-ircr'fis easy, Zd. pat- fall, run, Sk. pat- fall, 

fly, see penna, cf . pt- vt-irrco fall (with l from piirrw ?). 



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76 ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 

tpetoritum petorritum four-wheeled carriage : Gaulish (Quint.), from 

petor W. pedwar four, see guattuor, + bit- Olr. rith course, see ritus. 
tphaecasium shoe : ffaiicdo'tov, Qaiicds : Egyptian (as worn by Egyptian 

priests). 
tphalanx host, phalangae (formed from Ace. <p4\ayya) rollers : <pd\ay£ 

battle-array, log (* bar,' and so « line '), for *<$>4\y$ bbxng-, cf. bhlg- 

sufflamen, bholg- Ags. bale beam E. baulk bulkhe&d t balcony tcata- 

falque fscaf/bZrf, Lit. balh&na cross-piece. 
tphalerae bosses : <pd\apa cheek-pieces, fr. <f>d\os boss. 
tphaselus bean : ■\-<f>da"n\os i Pamphylian (cf . the town-name *>a<rr)\ls). 
tphiala saucer (E. vial) : <pid\-n : 
tphilyra limetree : <f>i\6pa: 
tphimus dicebox : <pifi6s cup : 
tphdea seal : qAkt) : 
tphoenix a bird : t<f>om£ (formed after ♦o?w( Phoenician), fr. Egyptian 

bennu (Pierret). 
tphii phy Interj. : <pv, cf. ONor./y E. /oh phew. 
picus woodpecker (NUmbr. peiqu Abl. ; E. pie 1 , whence W. pi magpie) : 

pikv- cf . pikv- Sk. pikas Indian cuckoo. 

But OHG. speh magpie goes rather with specio. 
piger slow (' irksome '), piget irks : * pricks,' pug- cf. pung- pungd. 
pignus pledge : « handsel,' fr. pugnus. 
pila ball (E. pellet pile J pill platoon) : 

hardly cf. Sk. pindas quasi *pU-ndas. 
pila mortar, pillar (' shaft,' see pllum) : = *pis-la fr. pinso. 
tpilentum chariot : Spanish (Diefenbach Origines Europaeae p. 399) ? 
pilleus pileus felt hat : m\os felt ; ' compressed,' fr. sq. 
pilo ram down, pilatus dense Aen. 12. 121 : cf . spil- Lett. spilet squeeze, 
pilum pestle, javelin (from its shape) : = *pis-lnm fr. pinso. 
pilus hair (E. c&terpillar plush urig) : 

hardly cf. irrl\ov down, on account of the difference of meaning. 
tpina pinna mussel (E. periwinkle 2 ) : \iriva wlwa : 
pingd paint (E. E. pimento pint) : ' stipple,' pungo. 
pinguis thick : = *penguis, pngm-v- iraxbs. 
pinna wing (E. pin pinion) : =penna. 

Hardly add Ags. E. fin. 
pinso piso pound (E. piston) : pins- cf. pis- witros pea m-iaea winnow, 

OHG. fesa hush, OSlav. plhati strike, Zd. pish- rub Sk. pish- crush, 
pinus fir (E. pinnace) : 

tpiper pepper (E.) : = * piper e *irlircpi (cf. Sk. pippalt) fveircpi. 
pipilo chirp, pipulum outcry: fr. plpo chirp (OHG. /If a fife E.), pip- 

onomatop., Ags. pipe pipe E. (W. pib) E. peep 1 fpibroch ipigeon fpimp 

ipivot, Lit. pypti to pipe, cf. pipp- irnnri(u chirp, Sk. pippaka a bird. 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 77 

pirum pear (E. E. 'pearl 'perry) : 

piscis fish (E. grampws) : pisk- Got. fisks E., cf. pisk- Olr. tasc. 
tpistris pistrix (both quasi * pounding,' fr. pinso) pristis pristix sea- 
monster : ^irpiffrts : 
pltuita slime (E. pip 1 in fowls) : formed (like Substs. dtra noxia satura 
from Adjs. dints &c.) from Adj. *pltuttus (for term. cf. fortu-ltus gratu- 
ities) *putus fr. puteo. 
pius plus holy (E. pity) : 
pix pitch (E. E. pay 2 a ship) : pikv- iri<r<ra, Lit. pihis OSlav. plklti, Arm. 

fphiH. 
tplacenta cake: formed quasi ir.placens, for *placunta, vKaicovs: 'flat,* 

plak- x\<£| plain, Lit. plasztaka hand-breadth. 
placed please (E. plea plead) : l stroke ' (cf. mulceo muled) , plokv- Lit. 

pl&kti strike. 
placo appease : plokv- cf . praeced. 

plaga net, region : orig. * rope ' Serv. Aen. 4. 131, hence * net of cords ' 

or ' belt of country ' (Nettleship), cf. plagula curtain (« hanging on a 

cord ') : 

plaga blow (E. plague play) : plag- wKriyfi, Got. flokan lament (« beat ' 

the breast), cf. plag- OH&.flah flat ('beaten down') E. flake &c. fleck. 

plagiarius plunderer : fr. \plagium kidnapping, ir\dyios crooked. 

tplagiisia a fish: for *placusia (-g- from plaga 'hunting-net'), *w\eucov- 

aia fr. w\aK6eis flat, see placenta. 
plango beat (E. complain) : plang- cf. plag- plaga. 
planguncula doll : Dimin. of f*plango, vKayydv Callimachus : 
planta sprout (' spreading ' : Olr. eland offspring, whence E. dan), sole 
of the foot : = *plont& plont-, cf . plot- Zd. frath- spread Sk. pratJi-, 
PLOT-tf- Lit. platits broad, plot-no"- Arm. lain, plt-tj- *Aarfc, Zd. perethu 
Sk. prthils, plt-no*- Olr. lethan. 
tplanus cheat : tt\<Ivos, tt\6.vt) wandering. 
planus flat (E. plain plan) : Lit. pldnas thin, from pla- Lit. pUti beat 

out. 
tplatalea spoonbill : *v\ardk4a Fern, of Adj. *ir\ara\4os fr. vKaris, see 

planta. 
plaudo beat : 

tplaustrum plostrum wagon : = *plaux-trum, see ploxenum. 
plebes people : 

not cf. v\rj0os multitude, Dor. fr\ados. 
plecto plait : plek- w\4ku, cf. plok- Got. flahta plaiting E. flax, Sk. 

pracnas basket. 
plector am punished : 

plenus full: ple-n<5- Mir. lin number, from ple-^?Zco fill (Fest.), w\€-'ios 
full, Arm. li, Sk. pra- fill, cf. pel- Zd. Sk. par-, pl-n<5- polled. 



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78 ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 



ple-rus most : fr. praeced. 

plied fold (E. plait plight 2 ply &c. plot splay supple) : = *plec6, see 

plecto. 
pldro cry out : = *plaudd fr. plaudo, ' beat ' the breast. 
fploxenumploxemum wagon-box: Gaulish (Quint. ),kvlaug-s-, kvlaug- 

= Celt, plog-, whence OHG. fphluog plough E., Lit. \pliugas. 
pluit rains (E. plover) : = *pluv-it cf. pluv-ius rainy, *plovit, Fest. per- 

plovo leak, plev- ' flow, float,' n\4if)a> sail, cf. plov- v^iflos voyage, 

OHG. flatcen wash, Lit. plduti OSlav. pluti flow, sail, and plu- Olr. 

luam yacht, Sk. plu- float pru- flow, 
pluma feather: ' means for floating,' plu- cf. praeced.— Not pleugh-, 

Ags.fleogan fly E. E. f/Zi'buster ffuglem&n. 
fplumbum lead (E. plump Vb. plunge pump) : mlumb- cf. mlub- ffi6\v- 

j38oj fj.6\ifios. 
plus more : = *pliis, cf . plurima plouruma plisima ploirume ploera, *pleus 

from *ple-us *ple-jus, i.e. ple- plenus with Comparat.-ending, cf . ONor. 

fleiri (= *fla-is-i) and TrAe-fow/, Olr. lia> Zd. frayao. 
pluteus shed : * defence from rain ' i.e. from missiles, *plut6s « rained on,' 

Part, from plu-, see pluit. 
podex : pozd- cf . pezd- pedo (for the sense cf . grffajros beside x*C» caco). 
tpodium wall round the arena: 'foot' (i.e. lowest part) of the amphi- 
theatre, *6Ziov little foot, see pes. 
tpoena punishment (E. pain pine Vb. punch 2 repine) : *oirt\ fine, kvoi-na 

OSlav. cena price, Zd. kaena punishment, from kvoi- cf. kvi- riu 

value, kvi- Sk. ci- observe. 
tpoeta maker, poet : *irorir'i\s dialectic for irotr/r^s, as iroew for iroUu 

make, 
tpolenta pulenta pearl-barley (a Greek preparation, Plin. 18. 72, 84) 

formed (quasi fr. pollen) from *vdKvvri\ Part. Fern, of iraXvvw sprinkle. 
polio polish : ' rub,' cf . spod- <riro1>4<i> beat, see pudet. 
pollen fine flour: = *polen: 
polled prevail : = *polneo ' am full,' pl-no- Got. fulls full E., Lit. pdnas 

OSlav. plunti, Zd. perena, cf . pl-n<5- noWol many, Olr. Ian full, Sk. 

purnds, see plenus. 
pollex thumb: fr. *pollus (cf. allex fr. alius) 'projecting,' = *por-lus from 

por-. 
pol-lingo dress a corpse : 
polluced offer in sacrifice (esp. to Hercules) : properly « offer to Pollux,' 

fr. Pollux (from *Tlo\v\cvKris by-form), Etrusc. Pultuke (from UoXv- 

5eu/cr?s), whence Etrusc. pultace he sacrificed Bugge B. B. 11. 43. 
pdmum fruit (E. pomade pommel) : 

pondus weight (E. pound 1 ) : Mir. onn stone, pond cf. pend- pendo. 
pone behind : = *pos-ne, pos- see post + -ne. 

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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 79 

pond put (E. post 2 provost'., but pose Subst. and compose &c. are from 

pausa) : = *posno *po-sind, po (see post) + sino. 
pons bridge: 'passage,' pdnti- cf. OSlav. pati way (see saeta), Sk. pdn- 

than- road. 
tponto punt (E. E. pontoon) : Gaulish (Caes. B. C. 3. 29). 
tpontus sea : ir6mos : 
popa priest's assistant : 

popina cookshop : Oscan form of coquina kitchen, fr. coquo. 
poples ham of the knee : ' rounded ' (whence called in OHG. knie-rado 

1 knee- wheel '), see populus, 
populor ravage : ' enring,' fr. sq. 
populus people (E.) : Umbr. puplum Ace. : dialectic for *quoclus, kvo- 

kvlos 'ring' of people, k6k\os circle, cf. kvekvlos Ags. hveohl (Skeat) 

wheel E., Zd. cakhra Sk. cakrds. 
populus poplar (E.) : 
por- forth : pb-, ndpa beside. 
porcus pig (E. pork &c. porcelain porpoise) : v6pKos y Mir. orc f Ags. fearh 

porker E. /arrow, Lit. parszas pig OSlav. prase,. 
porricio poricio offer : = * t por-jici6 from por- + jacio (j lengthening the 

preceding syllable and then dropping, cf. obicio from objicio). 
porrigo scurf (for the term, cf . mcnt-lgo ost-igo pet-lgo scab) : f r. porrum 

' head ' in the slang dialect, cf . Moretum 74 capiti nomen debentia 

porra. 
porrd forward : Abl. Neut. of *por-rus Adj. from por-. 
porrum leek : pbsom vpdo-ov. 

porta gate : ' passage,' Fern. Part, from pr-, see portd. 
porticus colonnade (E. porch) : fr. portus ' passage '. 
portio share : prti- cf. pbti- pars. 
portisculus baton : 
portd carry (E. disport sport) : fr. * portus Part., pr- cf. por- Got. far an 

go E. fare ferry , seeperitus. 
portdrium toll : = *portitdrium fr. portitor douanier, = *portu-tor fr. 

sq. 
portus harbour (' passage ' to land), house (which one enters) : pr-t'- 

Ags. "Et.ford, Zd. hu-peretu with a good ford, see portd. 
pd-sca pu-sca vinegar : fr. po-t6 + term, of e-sca. 
posed ask : = *porc-sco prk-sk- OHG. forscon, Arm. karths enquiry, cf. 

pSk-sk- Zd. pares- ask, prek-sk- Sk. prach-, see precor. 
post poste behind (E. puny) : formed (on anal, of ante quasi an-te) from 
*po-s, i.e. po after (Quint.), irtJ-^oros last, Lit. pa~ under OSlav. po 
about, + -s (see abs). 
postis doorpost (E. post 1 ) : Sk. pastya dwelling: 'strong,' cf. Got. fastan 
hold fast E. fast. 



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8o ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 



postulo demand : = *p6scitul6 f r. *poseitus Part, of posed (as ustuU f r. 

ustus). 
potis able (E. power puissant) : potis *6(ris husband, Lit. pats (from 

pedis), Zd. paiti lord Sk. pdtis, cf. p6t- mfTj/ta lady, Got. bmth-f aths 

bridegroom, pot'- Ags. fadian arrange E./arf. 
poto drink, potus drunk (E. pot porridge) : po- Wirowa have drunk, Sk. 

pa- drink. 
prae before : Loc. of *prd (as Romae of *Moma), see pro-. 
praeco crier : = *praevico fr. prae + iwcd (cf . calcitro epulo erro incubo 

mandueo paedlco palpo praedo Substs. from Verbs in -6). 
praeda booty (E. prey) : = *praehida from prae + ghed- Got. hi-gitan 

find E. get gait gate guess. 
praedium estate : fr. praes. 

praefica hired mourner : = *pracfiga (see pertica) fr. prae + jingo, * simu- 
lating ' grief. 
praemium profit : = *prae-imium 'what one takes before others,' fr. 

prae + emo* 
praeputium : = *prae-poutium fr. prae + pavio, cf. Lit. ap-^'aw-klas. 
praes surety : = *prae-vis, OLat. praevides Plur. , from prae + vas. 
praestigiae praestrigiae tricks (E. prestige) : ' enchantment, glamour,' 

fr. prae + strlga witch, see strlx. 
prae-stino buy : * set before other things, choose,' see de-stint. 
praestd praestu ready : Abl. of *praestus = *praesitus (cf. postus = posi- 

tus) Part, of *prae-sind 'set before'. — Hence praestd warrant, exhibit 

(opp. prae-std excel). 
praestolor praestulor wait : * set oneself by,' stol- Got. stdls seat E. 

stall stale still stool, cf. stel- <rr4xx<a place, Lit. steliuti order, stl- 

stolidus. 
prandium lunch : 
pratum meadow (E. prairie) : = partum acquired, prt6- Part. fr. 

par 6. 
pravus crooked: ' perverted,' pb-v6s, cf. PR-^or-, and wapa-palvo) trans- 



preciae praeciae (vocalic relation obscure) a grape-vine : 

precor pray (E.) : peek- Got. fraihnan ask, cf. perk-s- Umbr. persnimu 

let him pray, see procax posed. 
prehendo prendo seize : from prae- + ghvend- W. genni be held, cf. 

ghvnd- ix a &ov I contained, 
prelum praelum press-beam : = *pres-lum pre-s- pressl have pressed, 

from pre- sq. (cf. rpe(<r)<a beside rpffico). 
premd press (E. E. print sprain) : pre-, cf. praeced. : 
pretium price (E. E. praise prize Vb.) : 
prldem long ago : = *pris-dem, see sq. + -dem. 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 81 

primus first (E. •prim primrose privet) : Paelignian prismu Abl., from 

*pris, =s *pro-is fr. pro- + the same term, as bis. 
prior former : Dissim. for *prlr-or *pris-or it. praeced. 
pris-cus pris-tinus old : prls- see primus. 
privignus stepson: 'born before the second marriage,' fr. sq. (in the 

orig. sense of * before ') + gn- see gigno. 
privus single : * put in front, selected,' Dissim. for *prir-vus *pris-vus, 

see primus. 
pro- Prefix: irp6 before, Olr. ro- Prefix, Got. fra~ Prefix, Lit. pra- 

Prefix OSlav. pro before, Zd. fra- Sk. prd-. 
pr5 before (E. purlieu) : OSlav. pra- y long form of praeced. 
pro 2 proh Interj. 
probrum disgrace : 

probus good (E. prove reprieve) : pro- + -bho- see acerbus. 
procax shameless: 'importunate,' fr. proco demand (Fest.), prok- 

dtoirpdicos priest ( = *0€o-irp<fe-/ : os), Lit. praszpti beg OSlav. prositi, Sk. 

pracnas question, cf . pSk- Mir. com-aimm I ask, see precor. 
procella storm : = *pro-ceUna i see percelld. 
proceres chiefs : 

proc-erus tall : fr. *pr5-cus Adj. of pro (see sinc-erus), ' advanced '. 
procul far : = *proculum Neut. Dimin. fr. *procus forward, fr. pro-. 
procus suitor : ' demanding,' see procax. 
prod-eo go forth : from *pro-du (see in-du) + eo. 
prod-igium portent : *pr6du praeced. + agh- q/5, cf . the deity Ajus 

LociUius ' the voice that spoke '. 
proelium praelium battle : 

proin-de just so : *pr5-im ' according to that,' see deinde. 
proles offspring : = *pro-olSs i see adolesco*. 
pro-lixus stretched out : ' flowing forth,' Part, of *pr6-liquor. 
promo bring out : fr. promus cellarer, pro + Adj.-ending (see emd d&mo). 
pro-mulgo publish: 'cause to swell forth,' m^g- Lett, milst swell Lit. 

milhnas giant, see multus. 
promunturium promontorium (quasi fr. mons) headland : fr. pro-mineo 

jut out, mun-, see emitted. 
prope near (E. approach reproach) : pro- + -pe. 
pro-perus quick : fr. parti, * ready '. 

pro-pi tius favourable : fr. peto in the orig. meaning of 'go '. 
proprius special : = *proprius Dissim. for *pro-prir-U8 *pro-pris-us t see 

primus. 
pro-sapia race : 
prosper prosperous : = *pr5'8pSr (-e- shortened Sefore final r), prd + 

sperd hope, fr. spfy. 
pro-telum row : fr. tsla, * series of threads '. 

6 



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82 ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 



protervus (Plaut.) protervus wanton : * trampling down,' fr. pro {pro-) + 

terd. 

Plaut. True. 266 proptervS is either amis-reading or from a different 
word. 
provincia province: 'governorship,' fr. *pr6vinquus Adj. fr. *provus (as 

longinquus fr. longus), cf. OSlav. praviti lead ; from prd. 
prox Interj. (for term, cf. euax) : from prd 2 . 
proximus next : = *proc-simus fr. *pro-que Rom. form of pro-pe. 
pruina rime : Dissim. for *prurina *prusina, pbeus- Got. frius frost E. 

E. freeze ; fr. sq. (cf . Verg. Geo. 1. 93 frigus adurit). 
pruna live coal : = *prus-na preus- cf. prus- Sk. plush- burn, 
tprunus plum-tree (E. plum) : *vpovvos cf. *vpovfwos fvpotpvri : Syrian 

(from Damascus Plin. 13. 51). 
prurio itch : ' burn,' preus- see pruna. 
tprytanis chief magistrate : irpfoavis, from **p6 dialectic for *p6 before, 

see pro-. 
tpsalld play (Mir. salland sing) : \pd\Xoo pluck (i.e. the strings), 
tpsittacus parrot : f^lrroucos, also filrraicos ffirrdicn, Indian siptace Plin. 

10. 117. 
tpsythia psithia a vine : tyteios tyl6ios a vine : 
-pte self : pt- rl-irrc why, cf . pot- Lit. pats self, see potis. 
pubes adult : 
publicus poblicus poublicos public : = *poubdico8, Umbr. pupdike Dat. : 

fr. praeced.? — Poplicus, fr. populus, is a different word, 
pudeo am ashamed : « am stricken,' cf . spod- see polio. 
puer pover (Oorssen Aussprache 2 1. 362) boy: pev- ct pu- W. 10-yr 

grandson. 
pugil boxer : fr. pug-nus. 
pugna battle : 
pugnus fist : PUG- irvy/x-fi. 

pulcer pulcher polcer beautiful : plkv- cf . plokv- placed. 
pulejum pulegium fleabane (E. penny-royal) : = *p&lec-jum (see bdjulus), 

fr. sq. 
pulex flea (E. puce) : = *p6lcx fr. *&\os see sq., * young \ 

Not (1) pul- cf . pul- Sk. pulakas a kind of grain, verminf : (2) cf. 
tyvXXa flea, or Ags. fleah E., or Lit. blusa OSlav. bl&ha, or Arm. 
lu. 
pullus Subst. foal, chicken (E. pool 2 poultry polecat pulley Punch) : = 

*pul-nus pl- Got. fula foal E. E. filly, cf. pol- ira>\os young animal, 
pullus Adj. dark: pl-n<5s cf. pel-no's *c\\6s dusky, Cyprian ti\p6s 

(Hesych.). 
pulmentum relish : « affecting ' the appetite, see pellax, PL- ct pel- 

pelU. 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 83 

pulmo lung : ' beating, pumping,' ir.pellopulsd ; pop. etym. for *plumo pleu"- 
mon icXetfxnv, cf. pleu-tji- Lit. plaucziai lungs OSlav. pluttaiung: 'float- 
ing,' fr. pluit (as Ags. lunge fr. lungre light, and E. lights — lungs). 

pulpa solid flesh: * tangible,' plkv- cf. p%kv- palpo. 

pulpitum stage : 

puis pottage (E. poultice pulse 2 ) : polti- cf. p<5lto- v6\ros. 

pulvinus bank, cushion (E. pillow) : 
hardly cf. splv- Lett, spiltoens cushion, fr. bpilwa marsh-grass. 

pulvis dust (E. powder) : 

pumex pumice (E. pounce Subst.): 'like foam' (as E. meerschaum = 
4 sea foam '), pom- Ags. fam foam E. 

pungd prick (E. point pounce Vb. punch Vb. puncheon) : 

puniceus purple: fr. Punicus (Carthaginian) in its proper sense of 
1 Phoenician, ' purple coming from Tyre. 

tpuppis stern : = *pupis (quasi fr. sq., * the boy's ' i.e. the steersman's 
* place ') for *epopis, *&r«irfe fr. fjrarjr^ lookout-place. 

pupus boy (E. puppet puppy):. 

tpurpura purple : ficopftpa: Phoenician? 

purus clean (E. spurge) : pU- Sk. pu- cleanse, cf. pu- putus Adj. 

pus matter : pu-s pustula blister, ct pu-s *6(<r)os matter ; from pu-, cf. 
pdi- Sk. pdyas, see puteo. 

pusus boy, pusillus petty : pus- pus- : 

puteo stink: fr. *putus Part, from pu- iru0» make to rot, Mir. &r 
mould, ONor. Jui rottenness Got. fats rotten E. foul. Lit. puti rot, 
Zd. pu- stink, cf . pui- Sk. puy-. 

puter rotten : pu-, cf . pu- praeced. 

puteus dungeon, pit, well (E. pit) : 

putd cleanse, think (' sift ' my thoughts) : fr. putus Adj. 

putus Subst. boy: * young,' put- Lit. putptis chick OSlav. p&ta bird, Zd. 
puthra son Sk. putrds. 

putus Adj. pure : Part, from pu- trritov winnowing-fan, OHG. fowen sift, 
cf . pu- purus. 

tpyelus bath : tm5eA.os trough : 

tpyga: iru-y^: 

tpyramis pyramid : irvpa/xis wheaten cake, pyramid (from its shape), fr. 
irvpds wheat. 

tpytisso spit out : irvrlfa, Dissim. for *wrvrifa spjTj- see spud. 

quadra square (E. E. quarry 1 squad squadron) : for *quat-ra (with d from 
quadra-), cf. triquetrus, kvad-, 'pointed' (i.e. at each corner), Ags. 
hvat keen E. whet. 

quadringenti 400 : for *quadru-centi i sq. + centum, on anal, of septingentl 
(see octingenti). 



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84 ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 



quadru- four- (E. carillon quarantine) : for *quetrti- (with d from some 

Celtic dialect, cf. the Belgic town-name Quadri-burgium?), Zd. cathru-, 

kvetvb- see quattuor. 
quaero seek (E. query) : kvais- : 

quaeso ask : = *quaes-so (for term. cf. capesso &c), fr. praeced. 
qualis of what kind : fr. *qualus Adj. of qua where, case-form from qui, 

see talis, 
qualum basket : = *quas-lum, see quasillum. 
quam how : = *quam *qud-me from qua see qualis, and see tarn. 
quantus how great : formed from quan-tum (taken as Adj. Neut.) i.e. 

quam turn correlative of tantum (see tardus), cf. Verg. Geo. 4. 101 

nee tantum dulcia quantum et liquida. 
quartus fourth (E. quart) : = *ctvar-tos kvtvS- ct kvtvb- (ir)rpd-ir€(a 

* four-footed ' table, and kvetvr-tos r4rparos fourth, Lit. ketwirtas 

OSlav. fetvr&tl quarter, Sk. caturthds fourth, see quattuor. 
quasi quasi quasei as if : from the phrase ' tarn quam si ' (cf . ' tarn qua 

sei sei ' : old form quansei, Key), with Dissim. of -m. 
quasillum basket : kvas- Lit. kdszius OSlav. koSa (= *kos-ja). 
quater four times : = *quetru, Zd. cathrus, see quattuor. 
quatio shake (E. cask casque fracas quash rescue) : kvat- irarct<r<ra> strike. 
quattuor quatuor quattor quator four : kvetv6 cf . kvetvb Osc. petor, 

rcffffapcs (= *Kf erf opts), kvetver Olr. cethir, Lit. ketweri OSlav. let- 

veril Zd. cathware-, kvetv6r Got. fidvor Ags. fedver E., Zd. cathwaro 

Sk. catvftras, kv(tv)or Arm. thSor-kh.. 
-que -que (Attius) and : -kvo -kve fr. qui , cf . -kve ri, Zd. Sk. ca t and 

Got. ni-A neque. 
queo am able : = *quej-6 kvei- cf. kvi- W. piau to own. 
quercus oak : = *querquus cf . Pest, querquetum oakwood, = *quorqum 

kvbkv- Ags. furh- fir E. (for confusion of tree-names see fagusfraxi- 

nus). 
queror complain (E. quarrel) : 'sigh,' k-ves- Sk. cvas- blow, cf. k-ves- 

ONor. hvaesa hiss E. wheeze weasand whizz whistle, K-vos- Mir. cai 

lamentation. 
qui who : r= *quo-i (for term, see hie) NUmbr. poei Osc. pui, kvo- vov 

where, W. pvjy who, Got. hvas E., Lit. kas quis 1 , 2 . OSlav. kova quando 

Zd. ka quls, Sk. kds quis. 
quia because : = *quia *quo-i-ja fr. praeced. + Instrum. ending, cf. 

(without the -$-) Sk. kd-ya ir«s ; 
quidem indeed : * somewhat/ fr. quid Ace. Neut. of quls + M see autem. 
quies rest (E. coy decoy quit quite) : = *qui-es Kvf- OSlav. po-&tf to 

rest. 
quin but that : = *qui-num, qui Abl. of quis + -num. 
qufni 5 : for *quinc-ni fr. sq., on anal, of bini 2 = *bis-ni. 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 85 

quinque 5 : = *quinque, cf. Olr. coic (kve~ becoming ko-), kvenkve (with 
kv- from the word for 4) for pe'nkve ireVre, Got. Jimf (-/ by assimila- 
tion) E., Lit. penki OSlav. petl (for *penk-ti), Arm. king, Zd. pancan- 
Sk.pdnca. 

quippe certainly : = *qui-pe, qui Abl. of quis + -pe. 

quirito wail (E. cry) : fr. Quirts, ' demand the rights of a Roman 
citizen '. 

quia 1 who Interrog. : kvi- rls, Olr. da, OSlav. clto Neut., Zd. cis Sk. 
kim Neut. (with k, for c, from kds, see qui), cf. kvo- qui. 

quis 2 anyone: NUmbr. pis, rls, OSlav. clto Neut., Zd. md-cis ne quis 
Sk. ntti-kis ne quis, fr. praeced. 

quispiam anyone : see -pe. 

quisquiliae droppings of trees : = *quesqueliae *quosquoliae cf . cuscolium 
scab on ilex Plin. 16. 32, KoffKvKpdria shreds of leather fr. *Ko<rictWo* 
tear, kvoskv- cf . kveskv- kcvkIov tow. 

quo-que also: for *quoquo Redupl., see -que. 

quot how many (E. quote) : — *quoti Sk. kdti, cf . kve-ti Zd. caiti ; Loc. 
of sq. 

quo-tus which : from kvo- see qui + a term. -to-. 

rabies rage (E. E. rave reverie) : 

rabula brawling advocate : ' mad dog/ fr. praeced. (cf. Quint. 12. 9. 12 

rabulam latratoremque). 
racemus bunch of grapes (E. raisin) : 
radius staff (E. ray) : * scraped,' = *rodids bod- see rodo. 
radix root (E. radish) : ved-, cf. vrd- W. gwreiddyn, Got. vaurts E. E. 

orchard wort whortleberry. 
rado scrape (E. ra-ck s rail Vb. rascal rash Subst. raze <fcc. graze 1 ) : BD-, 

cf. r5d- rodo. 
traeda reda rheda (the last from t*^^, see epiredium) coach : Gaulish 

(Quint.), beidh- Olr. riad journeying, Ags. rldan ride E. E. raid 

road. 
ramex hernia, ramices blood-vessels of the lungs: 'branching out,' 

fr. sq. 
ramus branch : ' arm,' rmc^s armus. 
rana frog : 

rancens putrid (E. rankle ; but for rank Adj. see rego) : 
traphanus radish : frdQavos : by-form of frd-rrvs, see rdpum ? 
rapid seize (E. ravage raven Vb. ravine ravish) : 
rapum turnip (E. rape 2 ) : bap- OHG. ruoba, Lit. r6pe, cf. bap- fxhrvs, 

OHG. raba ; by-form bep- OSlav. repa. 
ra-rus thin : fi-, cf. b- Lit. Irti to separate ; by-form be- see rete. 
ratis raft : = *retis, bet-, see remus. 



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86 ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 

raucus hoarse : = *ravi-cu8 fr. ravim. 
raudus rodus nidus roudus piece of brass : 

not fr. rUfus. 
ravim Ace. hoarseness : 
ravus grey (between yellow and blue Fest.) : 
re- back, up (Verg. Geo. 3. 76 crura reponit = lifts his legs ; so &ya = 

back, up. — E. rear) : 
re-cello spring back : ' strike back/ see per-celld. 
recens fresh : * coming up,' Part, of *reced Vb. fr. *re-cus Adj. of re-. 
recipero recupero regain (E. recover) : fr. *recus, see praeced., + par6, 

cf. Varr. se quiete reciperare * recruit '. 
reci-procus returning : * demanded back,' fr. *recus % see recens> -+- procd, 

see proedx. 
red- back (whence reccidi repperl reppuU rettuli Perfs., redducd rellatum 

relligio relliquiae, reded &c.) : = *re-du * re-do (see indu), from re- + -do. 
red-imio bind round : 

redi-vivus used again : = *rcdu-vlvus ' alive again,' see red- and vlvus. 
reduvia reluvium (Fest.) whitlow : ' shed off,' red- + *avo see exuo induo. 
re-fert profits: mea refert = mea res fert 'my interest tends,' med 

archaic Nom. (with -a preserved because re- was taken as Abl.). 
re-fragor oppose : cf. suf-frdgor. 
rego direct (E. escort rule source surge) : 'stretch,' cf. regio tract, reg- 

6-p4yo> stretch, cf. rog- Got. ui-rakfan lift up E. reach rich right rank 

Adj., rg- Mir. rigim I stretch, Zd. erezu straight Sk. rj- direct, 

stretch, attain, RG- Zd. arez- be straight, see rex. 
relligio religid religion : = ^red-ligidy fr. red- + *legd care, see diligd. 
remeligo hinderer : = *re-mealgo fr. re- + Sk. mad- linger wand- (see 

mandra) ? 
tremulcum tow-rope : formed as tho' from re-> for *rHmulcum^ pOfiov\- 

kovv Part. Neut. of fiv/xovKictw tow, fr. pv^a tow-rope + €*.*» drag. 
remus oar : = *resmos (cf . triresmds, Duilian inscr.) *ret-m6s, l-per-ii6v, 

Mir. ram, from ret- ratis. 
renes kidneys (Plaut. rien Sing, on anal, of Urn. — OE. reins) : 
re-nideo smile : fr. nUdus f • show the teeth,' cf. Catull. 39. 1 quod can- 

didos habet dentes renidet. 
trend fur pelisse : Gaulish (Varr.). 

reor reckon (E. arraign rate reason) : = *rBor, Ri-, cf. ra- ratio reckon- 
ing, Got. rathjo number, 
repens sudden : vrep- j>4ir<a fall, cf. vrp- Lit. toirpeti shake. 
repo creep : r2p- Lit. replidti, cf . rep- Zd. rap- go. 
re-pudium divorce : ' beating back,' see tri-pudium. 
res thing (E. rebus) : Sk. rfis property. 
treslna resin : *faa\rr\ Ion. form of ifarirn : 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 87 



restis rope : 

rete net : Lit. retis sieve, bS- see rams. 

reus disputant : = *revus *rivus (see deus divus) — rivalis (for the termi- 
nations cf. aequus aequalis). 
rex king: Olr. rig Gen., Got. reiks rule E. drake (see andts), Sk. raja 

ruler (E. rajah) raj- to rule, beg-, cf. reg- rego. 
trhetor rhetorician: tfrwp speaker, vbe- Olr. briathar word, cf. veb- 

cXpv (= *F4p-]o») say. 
trhd B. : ij>u, for *fius from Heb. rM (with -«- from £ ^€701 ?). 
trhomphaea spear: ffiofupala sword (used as a missile?), Thracian (Gel- 

lius). 
trhythmus harmony : j>v-6-n6s, fr. fta> flow. 
rica veil : * torn ' (see lacerna), reik- ^-pcfow tear. 
ricinium recinium a square garment : 
rideo laugh : 

riged stiffen : * stretch,' fr. rego? 
rigd moisten : 

rima crack : * running along,' bi- see ritus. 
ringor show the teeth : 
ripa bank (E. arrive river) : ' torn ' (see littus), beip- i-pdirw tear down, 

ONor. rifa to tear E. reef rift rifle Subst. rive, cf. rip- 4-pinvri cliff, 
triscus chest : tfil<ricos, Phrygian (Donatus on Ter. Eun. 754). 
ritus ceremony: * course,' bi- b-pivw stir, cf. bi- Olr. rith course (see 

petorritum), Got. rinnan run E. 
rivalis rivinus rival : biv- see rev*, cf. biv- OSlav. rivinti. 
rivus brook : = *ru-vus *rur-vus fr. rud 1 . 
rixa brawl : beik-s- cf. beik- rica, ' split '. 
roblgo riibigo rust : 'red,' boudh- see rufus, cf. budh- Lit. rudls, budh- 

4-pvcri$T] mildew, Ags. rust E. rust, OSlav. rtizda rust. 
robur strength: Mir. rUad: boudh- see rufus, 'red' as the sign of 

* freshness,' cf . rudis Adj. So robur oak, from its buds and young 

leaves being red. 
robus Juv. 8. 155 Schol. red : see rufus. 
rodo gnaw: b5d- cf. bod- Ags. rat rat E., see radius rado. 
rogo ask : bog- cf. beg- rego, ' try to attain '. 
rogus pyre : bog- cf. beg- Got. rikan to heap E. rake. 

Not from j>oy6s silo. 
rorarii skirmishers: 'rushing,' bous- 6-f>oi5(<r)« rush, see rud 1 . 
ros dew (E. rosemary) : bos- cf . bos- Lit. rasa OSlav. rosa, Sk. rasas sap. 
trosa rose (E. E. coppe?-ew) : dialectic for *rossa, Osc. (cf. Verg. Geo. 4. 
119 rosaria Paesti, Paestum in Lucania where Oscan was spoken) for 
*rodia (cf. Sabine Clausus for Claudius), *pob*la Adj. Fern. fr. -\p6Zov, 
*Fp6$ov, cf. Arab, werd Zenker 930 b. 



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r 



88 ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 



rota wheel (E. barouche rile roll roue" round) : bot- Olr. roth, OHG. rod, 

Lit. rdtas, Zd. ratha- chariot Sk. rdthas wagon. 
rubed blush : fr. sq. 
ruber red (E. rouge ruby) : budh-b- i.pvBpts, OSlav. rMrti, cf. budh-b- 

Sk. rudhiras : rudh-, cf. roudh- rufus. 
rubus bramble : * with red berries,' cf. praeced. 
ructd : rbugv- i-ptiyoftai, cf. bugv- Lit. rugiu OSlav. rygaja, rugv- Ags. 

rocetan Inf., Arm. orcam vomo. 
rudens rope: * rattling' in the wind, Part. fr. rudo (Nonius, cf. Ov. 

Trist. 1. 713 stridunt aquilone rudentes). 
rudis Subst. rod : rudh- cf . budh- Ags. rod E. E. rood. 
rudis Adj. raw: 'red,' and so applied to earth, metal, meat (cf. E. bran- 
new 'fire-new,' fresh and bright), budh- see ruber. 
rudo roar: bud- Zd. Sk. rud- weep, bud- OSlav. rydati, beud- Ags. 

redtan, cf. boud- Lit. raudd wailing. 
rudus broken stones : ' fresh,' cf. rudis Adj. 
rufus red (E. roan): dialectic for * rubus, robus, NUmbr. rofu rubros, 

boudh- Mir. ruad, Got. rauds E. E. ruddy, cf. budh- Lit. rudas, see 

ruber. 
ruga wrinkle : 
rumen throat : 

rumex spear, sorrel (' with hastate leaves ') : 
rumis breast : 
rumor (for term. cf. clamor) talk: bu- at-piofiai howl, Ags. runian,' cf. 

beu- OSlav. ruii, bu- Lit. rujd rutting, Sk. ru- cry. 
rumpd break (E. rout route rote rut) : bump- cf. bup- rupes, Lit. rupeti to 

trouble, bup- Lit. rupas rough, Sk. rup~ break, beup- Ags. bereofan 

be broken off E. bereave rove rob ruff rubbish rubble gruff. 
runa dart : 

runcina plane (j>vK&rn) : fr. sq., twigs being compared to hairs. 
runco deprive of hair (Pers. 4. 36), weed out : Sk. lunc- tear. 
ruo 2 fall, rush ; *ruo Dissim. for *ruro *ruso, bous- see rorarii : hence 

irruo obru5 J proruo 1 . 
ruo 2 demolish : Sk. ru- break to pieces, cf. beu- Got. riurs corruptible : 

hence deruo diruo eruo 1 prdruo 2 subruo 1 semirutus. 
ruo 3 heap up : hence adruo obruo 2 : 
ruo 4 dig up : bu- OSlav. ryti dig, cf. bou- Lit. rduti dig up : hence ruta 

4 minerals ' eruo 2 subruo 2 . 
rupes rock : * broken,' see rumpd. 
rus country (E. roistering) : bu-s Mir. roe plain, cf. bu-m- Got. rums 

room E. 
ruscum rustum butcher's broom (E. rush Subst.) : * used in the country 

to make brooms ' Plin. 23. 166, fr. praeced. 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 89 

russus rusus red (E. russet) : = *rud-tus, cf. budh- rudis Adj. 

triita rue (E.) : j>vr4\ : '' curative,' Part. Fern, from fiuofiai cure Hdt. 4. 

187 fin. 
rutilus red : budh-los, see rudis Adj. 

tsabbata sabbath : frdpfiara, Heb. shabbdth. 

sabulum saburra sand : psabh- cf . psabh- \yrj<pos pebble ? 

Not = *samvdum samadh- &fiados sand cf. samdh- Ags. E. sand. 
tsaccus bag (E. sack) : fffdiacos, Heb. fsaq : Egyptian, cf. Coptic sok. 
sacer consecrated: = *sec-r6~ fr. sequor, 'followed,' i.e. regarded, by the 

gods, cf. secundus propitious, facts retribution. 
saeculum seculum saeclum seclum race : SAf-TLOM W. hoedl life : ' con- 
nexion,' sai- see saeta. 
saepe often : short for saepe-numero ' with the tale inclusive,' saepe Abl. 

(cf. Ov. perenne Abl.) of *saepis Adj. fr. sq., ' crammed, fenced in ' 

(see cunctus). 
saepes sepes hedge (E. transept) : ' enclosure,' dialectic for *saeques 

saikv- OSlav. sektt sheepfold. 
saeta seta bristle (E. satin seton) : ' bound together ' to make a brush or 

line, 8AI-t / - Ags. sad noose, Lit. saitai prison ('place of binding') 

OSlav. sell noose, Zd. haetu- bridge, road ('connecting') Sk. situs 

binding, from sai- see saeculum. 
saevus sevus fierce : 
sagax acute: 'pointing out the way,' sag- Olr. saigim I visit, Got. 

sakan contend (' point out ' the adversary) E. sake, cf. sag- sagio. 
saglna cramming: svagv- <rdrru (dialectic for *<rd(a> *<rfdy-}a>) load, 

Zd. qaj- surround Sk. svaj- embrace. 
sagio am keen: 'find the way,' rjycofiai lead, Got. sokjan seek E., see 

sagax. 
tsagitta arrow : 
sagmen sacred herbs : 

fsagum cloak (E. sail ?) : Gaulish (Varr. L. L. 5. 167). 
sal salt (E. salad s&lt-cellar) : sal- &\s Masc, Olr. salann, Lit. salunka 

salt-box OSlav. soli salt, Arm. a\, cf. sal-do- Got. E. salt. 
tsalaco braggart : <rdk&K<t>v ; fr. <xd\os tossing, see solum. 
tsalaputium mannikin : ' deserving a slap,' cf. fsalapitta { = *salapita 

*8alaputa) box on the ear : 
salio leap (E. sally) : sal- &\\ojjlcii, Mir. tui-sel fall. 
tsaliunca Celtic nard : Gaulish (to judge by its botanical name). 
saliva (for term, cf . ging-iva) : Mir. saile : Gaulish (as first in Catullus) ? 
salix willow : salik- Arcadian 1\Ikti (for *a\licn, cf . Arcadian (epcdpov 

for fidpadpov), Mir. sail, cf. salk- Ags. sealh E. sallov) Subst. 
salsus salted: Part, of sallo (as falsus of /alio) I salt, = * sal-no fr. sal. 



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9 o ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 

saltern at least : ' swiftly, without difficulty/ fr. saltus leaping, solid, + 

M see autem. 
saltus woodland: 'running-ground' for cattle (see ager), Zd. har- go 

Sk. sar- run. 
tsalum sea : <rd\os tossing, sval- Ags. svellan swell E. E. swallow Subst. 
salus safety : saint- = *salUvi-t- fr. *sal-ilvu8 = sq. 
salvus safe : sl- Olr. sldn sound, cf. sl- solidus. 
tsambiica harp : to-o/ijSoicij, Aramaic sabVka. 
sancid ordain : senkv- cf. sekv- sacer. 
tsandalium slipper : cay9d\iov Dimin. of f<rdy$a\ov t Pers. sendel Zenker 

521 a. 
tsandapila bier : 
tsandiz sandfz vermilion: f<rdv$iZ (rck50|, Lydian (Lydus de Magis- 

tratibus 3. 64). 
sanguis sanguen blood : sangvbt cf. sagvn- hyviov (for *h&viov) bowl to 

catch the victim's blood : 
sanies matter : 

tsanna grimace (not E. zany) : *(rdvmj fr. iafovas buffoon, 
sanus sound : OHG. suona expiation (' making whole '). 
sapa must : dialectic for *saqua, Lit. sakai resin OSlav. sokti, juice. 
tsaperda a fish : t<rdir^>$7;$, Pontic (as coming from Pontus). 
sapid taste, understand (E. savour): sep- Ags. sefan understand, ct 

sop- b*6s juice. 
sarcio mend: sarkv- Lit. szarlcas garment (ONor. serhr shirt Scotch 

sark) OSlav. sraka. 
tsarisa sarissa spear : io-dpio-a (rdpuraa, Macedonian. 
sarpo prune : sbp- cf. sep- harps. 
/tsarracum serracum wagon: Gaulish, like other names of wheeled 

vehicles (carpentum carrus petorritwm, raeda, covinnus essedum) ? 
sarrapis in Plaut. Poen. 1312 (Goetz) deglupta mena, sarrapis semen - 

tium: 
sarrio sario weed (E. assart) : 
sartago frying-pan: fr. sartum 'in good repair,' Part, of sarci6\ ' putting 

the ingredients in good order, making them serviceable '. 
tsatelles attendant : Etrusc. zatlaS Bugge B. B. 11. 1 : a bodyguard of 

satellites first introduced by Tarquinius Superbus, an Etruscan by 

origin, 
satis enough (E. assets sate) : sat- Mir. sathach satisfied, Got. saths full 

E. sad OHG. sat satisfied, cf. sat- Lit. sotus satisfying, 
tsatrapa viceroy: to-aTprfmjs 4^arpdmi$ t OPers. khshatrapdva fr. khsha- 

tram dominion + pa- protect. 
satureja savory : ' satisfying,' fr. satur full, see satis. 
satus sown (E. season) : = *set6s se-, cf. se- semen. 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 91 

tsaucaptis a spice : tVafocwrm : 

saucius wounded: fr. *savicus, Chian <rafyuc6s rotten (Hesych.). 
savium suavium kiss : from *vasium, basium, quasi fr. su&vis. 
saxum stone (E. sassafras) : sakso- OHG. sahs knife (orig. of flint). 
scabellum scabillum scamillum (Terentius Scaurus, Keil 7. 14) Casta- 
net : from *scab-lum skvabh- scamnum (the castanet, inserted in the 

performer's shoe, being compared to a bed-step). 
scaber rough, scabo scrape (Nonius' scapres pro scabres should perhaps 

be * scabres pro scabra es ') : skvabh- <ncdirru> dig, Got. skaban shave 

E. E. shaft shabby scab, Lit. skabeti cut OSlav. skobll scraping- 
iron. 
tscaena scena stage : ckt?^ booth : 
scaeva omen: 'seen on the left,' scaevus left, <riecu6s (for *<rKaif6s), 

ONor. skeika to swerve (for the second -k- see on vivus). 
scaiae steps : = *scddae skvad- cf . skvand- scando. 
tscalmus thole : 0*0X^5 : * pointed stick,' cf. <tku\os stake and (nccC\A« 

I hoe. 
scalpo carve : sklp-, cf. sklp- sculpo. 
tscammonea scammony: to-Kawavla, coming from Mysia (Diosc. 4. 

168). 
scamnum stool (E. shambles): = *scab-num 'support,' skvabh- Lit. skaba 

horseshoe OSlav. skoba buckle, cf. skvambh- Zd. ckemb- to prop Sk. 

skambh-. 
scando climb (E. scan): 'jump up,' skvand- <rKav$4\ri6pov springe (E. 

slander), Olr. ro-sescaind he leapt forth, Sk. skand- leap, see scaiae. 
tscapha boat : <tk&$t\ trough ; * scraped out, hollowed,' fr. scabo. 
scapulae shoulderblades : ' bearers ' on which to carry a burden, skvabh- 

scamnum. 
scapus yarn-beam : ' supporter,' skvap- (ncrjirrpov staff (ncfiirro/xat support 

myself, by-form of skvabh- scamnum. 
tscarus wrasse : <ricdpos ; f r. aicalpu skip. 
seated gush : skvat- Lit. skatau I leap. 
scaurus large-ankled (<ricavpos, 10th century a.d.) : 
scelus crime: 'debt, requiring expiation,' skvel- cf. skvol- Got. skal 

I must E. shall, skvl- Lit. skllti become indebted. 
scheda sheet of paper (<rxfty, 12th century a.d., so scheda cannot be 

borrowed from it : E. sketch) : pop. etym. (quasi fr. rx&ios common) 

for scida, see scindo. 
tschoenus rush : cxoivos : 
scindo split : skhvind- cf. skhvid- o*x^f«, Zd. ccid- break Sk. chid- cut 

off. 
scintilla spark (E. stencil tinsel) : fr. *scintHi l s Part, of *scino shine, skin- 

cf. skin- Got. skeinan shine E. 



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92 ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 

scio know (E. nice) : ' discern,' = *sclo skei- * separate,' Mir. scian knife, 

cf. kei- Ktlu split. 
scipio staff : gkvkuv : ' for throwing,' skvTp- OHG. sella ball, cf. kvsip- 

Sk. kship- throw. 
scirpus sirpus rush (OHG. sciluf?), surpiculus rush-basket : 
sco bis sawdust : 
tscomber mackerel : <nc6fi&pos : 
sedpae twigs (E. scullion) : 

tscopulus rock : <nt<forcAos ; ' place of observation,' fr. <r/toWa> see specio. 
tscorpius scorpion : <ricopirlos : 

scortum hide : ' cut off,' skvrt<5m Part. Neut., see cerno. 
screo hawk : = *screjd skrei- cf. skbi- OHG. scrlan cry, skbi- Mir. scret 

a cry, cf. E. scream screech shriek, onomatop. 
tscribllta cheesecake: pop. etym. (quasi fr. sq., 'marked' with notches) 

for *strebllta, Vrpe/SXiTij* fr. <rrp€$\6s twisted (cf. <rrp€irr6s cracknel 

fr. <rrp4<pa turn, E. tart Subst. from Lat. tortus twisted). 
scribo write (OHG. scriban, E. descry scribble scrivener shrive) : skribh- 

cf. skribh- (TKapi<pdofiai scratch. 
scrlnium chest (Ags. serin ark E. shrine ; OSlav. skrina chest) : = *scrH- 

n-ium fr. scru-ta, ' place for keeping odds and ends '. 
scrobis ditch (E. screw) : ' dug out,' skvrobh- Lett, shrabt scrape. 
scrofa sow : dialectic for *scr6ba t skvbobh- cf. praeced., ' scratching up 

the ground '. 
scrupus sharp stone : = *scr6pus skrop- cf. skrp- Ags. sceor/an scrape E. 

scurf scurvy. 
scruta trash : Ags. scrUd garment E. shroud, skbut(5- Part, of *scruo. 
scrutor examine (Olr. ar&scruta ut scrutetur, OHG. scrutdn explore) : 

1 cut up,' fr. praeced. 
sculpo carve : sklp- see scalpd, cf . skolp- <tk6\o$ stake. 
sculponeae wooden shoes : 
tscurra buffoon : = *scura *scora t *<ricapas (cf . the slave-names 'AAefo* 

Artfuis 'Eiccuppas 'Epfws) from *(rKwp-<pdyos 'dirt-eater' (cf. E. toad- 
eater). 
scutale thong : ' strip of hide,' fr. scutum. 
scutica lash : ' strip of hide,' skut- cf. skut- scutum. 
scutra square tray (E. scuttle Subst. skillet) : 
tscutula roller : <ncvrd\ri staff : 

scutum oblong leather shield (E. escutcheon squire) : cf. o-kvtos hide, 
tscymnus whelp : (tkv^vos : 
tscyphus cup : <TKv<pos : 
se Ace. himself: sve (see me), cf. sve t, Gk)t. si-k E. basfc busk, OSlav. 

sg, see suus. 
se- apart : ' by oneself,' Abl. fr. praeced. 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 93 

sebum sevum tallow : = *saebum saib- Ags. sap red antimony E. soap 

(Gaulish sdpd pomade Plin. 28. 191 from Teutonic). 
seed cut (E. risk scion sickle) : sekv- OHG. seh coulter ONor. sigde sickle 

E. sithe sedge f hassock, cf. sokv'- Ags. saga saw E., sekv- OSlav. seka 

I cut. 
seed 3 follow Aen. 10. 407, Hor. Epp. 1. 16. 42 : fr. sequor. 
secta path (E. sept suit suite) : fr. praeced. 
sectius (Gell. 18. 9) setius less : 

hardly cf. Got. seithus late, which will not account for sectius. 
secus otherwise, sequius worse : sek- eicds apart, Olr. seek beyond. 

Enn.'s Prep, secus 'by,' Sk. sded with, is fr. sequor: from it come 
altrinsecus extrinsecus intrinsecus, 
sed set without (Fest.), but : = *sed, OLat. se-dum, see se- and 

-dum. 
sedeo sit (E. assize hostage see Subst. siege size surcease) : sed- c5os seat 

eCofiai sit, Got. sitan E. E. seat set f seize, OSlav. sedlo saddle, Zd. had- 

sit Sk. sad-, cf. sod- (?) Mir. saidim I settle, see sldo. 
sed-itio discord : fr. *se-du (see in-du), see sS-, + eo. 
sedo settle : sed- Olr. sid peace, Lit. sedHi sit, cf. sed- seded. 
sedulo diligently (whence sedulus diligent) : ' without deceit,' a without 

(Fest.), see si- and sed, + dolus. 
seges cornfield : seg- cf . sog- W. hau sow. 
segnis slow : cf. Sk. saj- hang ? 

sella sedda (Terentius Scaurus, Keil 7. 13) seat : = *seda, see sedo. 
semel once : Oscan (see famulus) for *semul *semulum Adj. Ace. Neut. 

from sem- €v one Neut., see simul. 
semen seed : sS-mn cf . OHG. samo, Lit. shnenys OSlav. seme,, from se- 

Olr. sll (E. shillelagh). Got. saian sow Ags. saed seed E., Lit. seti sow: 

'throw,' cf. trifii (= *<rl-<rri-ni) send. 
semi- half: ijju-, Sk. sami-, cf. sem- OW. hanther Zeuss 2 149 b, Ags. sam 

E. saw^-blind. 
semis half -as: from *semissis = *sem(i)-issis *sem(i)-e8sis (cf. quitiquessis 

five asses), fr. praeced. + as. 
semita footpath (E. sentinel) : fr. semi-, * half the width of the road '. 
semper always : sen- Got. sinteind, Arm. hanapaz, Sk. santit, + -per : ' as 

of old,' fr. senex. 
sempiternus eternal : for *semper-nus fr. praeced., on anal, of aeviternus 

(fr. aevitds). 
senex old (E. sir sirrah surly) : sen- wos, Olr. sen, Got. sineigs E. fsene- 

schal, Lit. sinas, Arm. hin, Zd. hana- Sk. sdnas. 
senticetum thorn-brake : fr. *sentex formed from sentis on anal, oifrutex 

ilex. 
sentina bilgewater : snti- &<ris mud for *&ns ? 



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94 ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 

sentio perceive (E. scent) : ' recognise as being, realise,' fr. *sens Part. 

(cf . prae-sens) of sum. 
sentis thorn : 
sentus rough : 
sepelio bury : 

tsepia cuttlefish : <micia, ir. \<rf\ty snake : 
septem 7 : septii (-m for -n from the ordinal septm-mos, see decern) for 

sept£ kxrdy Olr. secht n- s Got. sibun E., Arm. evthn, Zd. haptan- Sk. 

saptd, cf. Lit. septyni OSlav. sedml ( = *sept-mi). 
septuaginta 70: formed on anal, of octuagintd 80, i.e. *octuagintd *octo-a- 

gintd f see trlgintd. 
sequor follow (E. sue) : sekv- «ro/xai, Mir. sechur I follow, Got. saikvan 

see E. ('follow with the eyes'), Lit. sekti follow, Zd. hoc- Sk. sac- 

accompany. 
serenus dry, serescd Lucr. 1. 306 get dry : 
seria jar : ' heavy,' sq. 
serius grave : sveb- OHG. swari heavy Got. svers honorable, ct sveb- 

Lit. swerti weigh. 
sermo speech : * connected ' discourse, fr. sero 2 . 
sero 1 sow: ses- W. haidd barley (= *hei-ja *hes-ja), Zd. hahya corn Sk. 

sasydm, cf. Plin. 18. 141 secale (' rye ') Taurini sub Alpibus sasiam (so 

Stokes conj. for asiam: hence Span./eja) vocant. — Perf. sevz from se- 

semen, Part, satus from 8E-. 
sero 2 join (E. concert seraglio) : seb- tlpoa (= *€p-j«), cf. ser- Lit. seris 

thread, 
serperastra splints ^for term, see mediastinus) : fr. *serperv& Adj. of sq. 
serpo creep : Spra, Sk. sarp-. 
tserpyllum serpullum serpillum thyme : ? pm/AXos, fr. Sp™ creep, spelt 

as though direct fr. praeced. (cf. salm-acidus sour from Hkm brine, 

with s- from sat), 
serra saw : 

serum whey : seb-, cf. sob- 6p6s t Sk. sdrasas juicy, 
serus late (Fr. soir evening) : Olr. sir long. 
servo keep : 

servus slave (E. serf) : fr. praeced. , * protege '. 
tsesamum sesame : fa-faa/iov, for *<rdfio-afiov 1 Arab, semsem Zenker 518 b 

Assyrian samassammu. 
sescenaris of 600 pounds' weight (Graevius) Liv. 41. 15 bovis : fr. sescenJi 

600 ( = *sex-cent-n%, sex + centum). 
tseselis hartwort : f<r4<rc\is : 
sesqui- 1 J : fr. semissi- (see semis) + -que. 
tsetanium medlar: 'fresh,' <rrirdyiov (Neut.) of this year, fr. Vipm Att. 

ttjt€s this year, = Vf-jjre* fr. r6 this + term, -vo- + &ros. 



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ETYMOtOGICAL LEXICON 95 



severus serious : * fixt,' Lit. segii I fasten. 

sex 6 (E. siesta) : sees Got. saihs E., Sk. shdsh, cf. (1) sjeks OSlav. 

hstl, (2) 8VEKS c|, Lit. szcszi (unless these two are from seks), Olr. 

s5 W. chwech, (3) vers ^, Arm. wtffo, uks Pruss. uschis sixth, (4) 

KV8VBKS Zd. khshvash 6. 
si sei if : proclitic form of *svai Osc. *ral, ol : from svo- Got. smsoE.? 

Hardly add cl if, which rather = Lit. jei. 
slbilus sifilus whistling : 
• sic thus : = *so-l-ee (see hie), so Enn. sam earn, 6 he, Olr. se this Neut., 

Got. sa he, Zd. ha- Sk. #&. 
sica dagger : cf . Lit. sykis stroke. 

siccus dry (E. sack sherry) : = *sU-cus fr. sitis, cf. Mir. seise (= *sit-kios). 
si-cubi wherever : from si, see nS-cubi. 
sido settle : = *si-sdo- zd- Arm. n-stim I sit down (Bedrossian), cf. sed- 

sedeo. 
sidus constellation : praeced., 'fixt,' as opposed to the moon. 
signum mark : sig-, cf . sigilla images : 

siled am silent (Got. an&-silan abate, of wind) : 'settle down,' fr. seded. 
siler brookwillow: 'growing by rivers,' cf. Siler SUarus river in Lu- 

cania: 
silcx flint : 
sili-cernium funeral feast: 'meat at which they sat' (the old Bom. 

fashion) instead of reclining, fr. seded + *ctrsna dinner, OUmbr. cers- 

natur cenati, see cena. 
siligd winter-wheat (ffiklyvtov) : 
siliqua pod : fr. silex, ' hard '. 

tsilurus shad : f<ri\ovpos : Egyptian, Plin. 9. 44 silurus in Nilo. 
sflus snubnosed : svi-, see simus. 
silua silva wood (E. savage) : 
simia ape : fr. simus. 
similis alike: from * stimulus som-l6s d/xa\6s level, som- 6/x6s in common, 

Got. soma same E., cf. sm- o- together &-^ia with, Got. sums some 

E. E. game-some, Arm. ham- together, Zd. Kama like Sk. samds, and 
bom- OSlav. samu ipse, see semel simul. 
simltu at once (for term. seepituUa) : sm-, see simul. 
simplex simplus simple (for terms, see duplex) : sem-, see semel. 
simpulum ladle : fr. sq., cf. OUmbr. seples Abl. Plur. 
simpuvium bowl : 
simul at once (E. assemble) : = *simulum sm-lo- cf. Olr. samal likeness, 

from sm- see similis, 
simultas quarrel : ' match,' fr. similis. 
simus snub-nosed : <ri><fe, svf-, see sUus. 
sin but if : = *si-num ' if now '. 



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96 ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 

tsinapis mustard (MHG. sen/) : *<rlya*vs Dor. for t<rlt>Tnrvs, cf. (o-)vawv : 

Egyptian (Plin. 19. 171 semen optumum Aegyptium) ? 
sincerus clean (for term. cf. sev-erus): fr. *ain-cii8 simple, sem-, see 

simplex. 
sinciput half a head : slmi- + caput. 
sine without : sn- Av^v, Zd. hanare, cf . &rtp t Got. sundrd privately E. 

sunder, Sk. sanitdr without. 
singuli each : dialectic (?) for *sinculi Dimin. from *sincus, see sincerus. 
singultus sobbing : fr. *singulio Vb., sing- cf. sig- Ags. sican sigh E. ? 
sinister left (for term. cf. magister minister): sen- senex, * elder' (a 

euphemism like ev&vyixos ' well-named, left, ' and Ags. vinster left fr. 

Sk. van- to desire). 
sino leave (E. site) : 

hardly cf. ONor. svina subside (of a swelling) svi- cf . svi- Ags. svima 
dizziness E. swim 2 am dizzy, 
sinum bowl : 
sinus fold : 

siparium curtain : = *sUparium fr. supparum. 
tsipho pipe : <ri<puv : 
sirempse (Plaut. Amph. 73) siremps (for loss of -e see instar) : = *sur- 

em-p'Se Inf. Perf. of *8urim6 take up, Fest. suremit Perf., from sus + 

emo ; so that siremps lex esto quasi = '.let an assumption be law, as 

though,' &c. 
tsirpe (see caepe) silphium : for *sirpium, *<rlp<piov by-form of i<ri\<piov : 
sisto stop : formed from Inf. sistere = *si-st&-re Bedupl. of sta- see st6 y 

cf. iffrdvai place (= *<rt-<TT<i-voi). 
tsistrum rattle : <r*?<rrpov : Egyptian (as used in Egypt), but formed 

quasi fr. velta shake. 
tsisura coverlet : <rur6pa : 
tsisymbrium mint : <ri<r6fi&piov> Bedupl. (with 6 softened in Ion. before 

v, cf . ipxtoi&n wlffwos) fr. dvfi&pa savory, see thymbra. 
sitis thirst : 

tsittybus label ; *<tIttu&os, trirrvfrov piece of leather : 
situla jar : 
tsmaragdus emerald (E.) : fcr/jApaytios (for <r- see murra 1 ), cf. Sk. 

marakatam. 
tsmyrna myrrh : \tfyJtpva, see murra 1 * 
sobrinus cousin (E. E. cozen) : = *svesr-tnus * sister's son,' Lit. seserynai 

Plur., svesb- Lit. sesers sister's, and (with -t- from the words for 

* brother') svestb- Olr. sethar, Got. svistar sister E., Pruss. swestro 

OSlav. sestra y cf. svesob- soror. 
sobrius sober : ' free from drunkenness,' 86- by-form (see dddrans) of s8~, 

+ *brius see ebrius. 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 97 

tsoccus slipper : *<r<fex°*> Zd. hakha sole, cf . Hesych. t<r«5«xof Phrygian 

shoe. 
socer father-in-law : svekur- €Kvp6s, Lit. szesziiiras, Zd. qacura Sk. g v&- 

furas, cf. Arm. skesur mother-in-law, see socrus. 
socius ally : sokv- hnwuv attendant, cf . sekv- seguor. 
socors dull : fr. so- see sobrius + cor wit. 
socrus parent-in-law : svekbu- W. chwegrwn father-in-law, OSlav. svekrii 

(-k-, for -s-, from Teutonic?), cf. svekron- Got. svaihra, see socer. 
sodalis fellow : ' going ' with one, see solum. 
sodes pray : = *saudes t si audes ' if you are inclined,' cf. Aen. 2. 347 

audere in praelia. 
sol sun : saul- W. haul, Lit. sduU> cf . sauel- Got. sauil, from sauel- 

ijfKios (= *<raf4\ios). 
tsoldurii vassels : Gaulish, t<rtA<foov/>o< (Athenaeus). 
solea slipper : ' for going in,' see solum (as ipfyLs fr. &alvw go). 
soled am accustomed : ' go my way,' see solum. 
solidus firm (E. soda solder soldier) : sl-, cf. sl- salvus. 
solium seat : = *sodium t Olr. suide, sod- cf . sed- sedeo. 
sollemnis sollennis (quasi fr. annus) appointed : ' coming when the 

round is completed,' fr. sq. + *amnus round, Osc. amnod circuitu. 
sollus whole : Osc. sollo totum (Fest. ) : s<5lvos, ol\os, Zd. haurva- all 

Sk. sdrvas. 
solor comfort : ' make to go,' sod- cf. sod- sq. ? 
solum ground : ' for going on,' sod- 684s way, OSlav. hoditi walk, 
solus alone (E. sullen) : ~ { by oneself,' from so- (see sobrius). 
solvo loose (E. assail) : ' let go, ' fr. *sol-vus Adj. from sod- see solum. 
somnus sleep : svop-nos Lit. sdpnas y Zd. hvafna- Sk. svdpnas, cf. svep- 

nos Ags. sve/n dream, sup-nos fhrvos sleep, OSlav. sUnti, Arm. khun, 
. sup-nos Mir. suan ; fr. sopor. 
sons guilty : sonti- cf. snti- OHG. sundea sin Ags. syn E. 
sonticus serious (of a reason or disease) : svent- avd-4vrrjs (fr. avr6s) 

perpetrator (E. Effendi) avdemicas authentically, Got. svinths strong, 

cf. svht'- Ags. sund sound (Adj.) E. 
sonus sound (E. E. sonnet ; Olr. son word) : sven- Olr. senim t Ags. svin 

song, Zd. qan- to sound Sk. svan-. 
sopio lull : fr. *sopus Adj. (see comis) fr. sq. 
sopor sleep: svep- Ags. svefan put to sleep E. softy Zd. qap- to sleep Sk. 

svap't cf. sup- OSlav. s&pati, see somnus. 
tsoracum hamper : <rtibpaicos : 
sorbed swallow : sebh- OSlav. sriibanije swallowing, Arm. arbi I drank, 

cf. 8BOBH- fio<t>€u swallow, srebh- Lit. sriebiu. 
sorbum sorvum (Plin.) service-berry (E.) : srv-, cf. srov- f>ovs sumach 

po(f)id pomegranate, Sk. sravdf a plant. 

7 

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98 ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 

sordes dirt: svbd- fyffa, cf. svobd- Got. svarts black E. swarthy, see 

suasum. 
sorex saurex (Plaut. Poen. 1313 Goetz) shrew-mouse : saub- cf . sur- 

6pa| (Nicander). 
soror sister : svesob Olr. siur, Arm. khoir, cf . svbsob- Zd. qa&har- Sk. 

svdsar-, see sobrinus. 
sors lot (E. sorcery) : 8RTf- Olr. aneftA row, fr. *«ro 2 , 'connected'. 
sospes sispes (i.e. **&spe$) safe : 

tspadix nut-brown : ' palm-coloured,' <nr£5l£ palm-branch : 
tspado: <nri9ctfv: 
sparged scatter : 
tspartum esparto-grass: trirdpros: 'used in making ropes,' fr. mrdprow 

rope, spbt- see sporta, cf. spobt- Lit. spartas band, 
tsparus spear: Gaulish? cf. Ags. sp#r E. spar (W.par), and speb- Ags. 

sper E. 
tspatha broadsword : <rw<i$n broad blade, Ags. E. spade. 
tspatium space : Etruscan (see Idus) for *spadium from (nrttSier Aeelic 

for (rrddiov race-course. 
specio spicio see (E. pillory spice spite) : spek- OHG. spehon watch E» 

tspy, Arm. spasem I await, Zd. cpac- look Sk. spa? - perceive, cf. spok- 

SKOP- (TKOirew. 

specus cave: 'refuge,' spek- skep- (cf. praeced.) o-Kfiras shelter, 
tspelaeum cave : <rirf\\aiov : 

tspelunca cave : <rirfi\vyya (see on pertica) Ace. of <rirq\vy$, fr. praeced. 
sperno sever, despise : ' kick off,' Ags. speornan kick E. spurn,, from 

speb- NHG. sperren struggle E. spar Vb., cf. spb- oW/w, Lit. spirU 

kick, Sk. sphur- jerk. • 
spes hope : spe- ' go on,' Lit. sp'Sti have leisure OSlav. speti advance, 

Sk. sphd- grow fat (' advance '), cf. spo- Ags. spovan succeed E. speed. 
tsphaera ball : <r<pcupa : 

splca speca (rustic, Varr.) point (E. spigot spike spoke) : 
spina thorn ; spin- cf. spin- OHG. spinula pin. 
tspinter (Neut.) bracelet : ' compressing,' = *spincter (with term, on 

anal, of tuber), ctfuyKT'fip muscle, fr. <r<t>lyya> bind, 
tspinturnix (with term, from cot-urnix) avis carbonem ferens ex aris 

Plin. 10. 36 : fr. *spinter, (rrnvd^p spark, 
tspira coil : <rwt?pa : speb- cf . spb- Lit. spira ball, 
spiro breathe : ' emit ' breath, = * spurt fr. *spu-rus Adj. fr. spud. 
spissus thick : = *spid-tus Part., spid- Hesych. <nritiv6s close Horn.. <r*t- 

5^s broad, 
tsplen milt : ffvKfri see ^*» 
splended shine (Lit. splendliu) : = *splenideo fr. *splenidus yellow, Adj. 

fr. praeced. (cf. ardeo fr. aridus). 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 99 

spolium spoil : 

-fsponda side of a bedstead: 'place of preliminary libation 1 before 

getting into bed, (nrovd-f) libation, see spondeo. 
*t*spondalium hymn : fr. *sponddlis Adj. of *sponda libation, o-wovti-fi, see 

sq. 
spondeo promise (E. spouse) : spond- of. spend- <rtr4vtiu> offer. 
-f-spongia sponge : <riroyyid, fr. fa^yyos, see fungus. 
sponte freely : 

sporta basket : * plaited,' spbt-, see spartum. 
spuma foam : fr. sq. 
spu5 spit (E. scupper) : spju- tttiJw, W. ffum a puff, Arm. thukh saliva, 

cf. spiv- Got. speivan spit E. spue, spjeu- Lit. spiduti OSlav. pljuti, 

and stju- stiv- Sk. shthlv-. 
spurcus dirty : spbk-, cf. spobk- Sk. spare- touch, 
squalor roughness : = *squddor t cf . sq. : 
squama scale : = * squad-ma fr. praeced. 
squilla prawn : <ricl\\a : 

st Interj, : cf. E. hist whist, and pst ij/vrra, French^, 
tstadium furlong : o-rddiov, Aeol. <rird8iov (see spatium) : 
stagnum pool (E. stanch staunch tank) : from *steg-nus Adj., cf. <rrcyav6s 

close, fr. trriya hold water, see tego. 
stamen warp (W. ystaf) : cf. <rr^/*a>j>, Got. stoma stuff : • set up,' fr. st6. 
tstatera steelyard : arar-fip a weight, from sta- cf . stI- st6. 
fstega deck : <rrcyri roof, see tego. 
Stella star : *stela (French itoile), = *ster-la t steb- k-trr^p, W. seren, Got. 

stairnd Ags. steorra E., Arm. o,-st\, Zd. ctare Sk. star-: fr. steroid, 

'strewn* about the sky? 
stellio stelio stillio newt : praeced., 'marked with stars '. 
stercus stircus dung : cf . stcrquillnium mixen : Metath. (quasi fr. sterno) 

of *squertus *squortus skvbt-, cf. skvbt- W. ysgarth offscourings, 

skvobt- <ricd>p dung. 
sterilis barren : steb- trrtipos, Got. stairo, Arm. sterj, Sk. starts barren 

cow : ' hard,' cf. <rT€pc6s solid, Ir. seirt strength. 
sternd spread (E. stray street) : steb- OSlav. streti, Zd. ctar- Sk. star-, cf. 

stb- Olr. srethi substernendum, Ags. E. storm, stb- stravl Perf. stra- 
tus Part., ffrp&vvvfjLi <rrop4yyvfii ffrSpvvfju; also STBEV- Ags. streovian 

strew E., stbou- Got. straujan Ags. strea straw E., stbo- Lit. strdja 

stall. 
sternud sneeze: psteb-n- Arm. phrngal, cf. pstb-n- irrdpyvfiat : fr. sq., 

' make a noise with the nose \ 
stertd snore : psteb-, cf . pstb- Olr. srenim. 
stilla drop (E. still Subst.), stilicidium (fr. cado) dropping: *stila=*stlr-la 

fr. stiria. 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 



stilus stake : = *studns, studh- Ags. studu. pillar E. stud 2 . 

stimulus stake, goad (Mir. sibal thorn, pin) : = *stib-lus stub- (or STtJBH-) r 

see stipula. 
stingud quench : ' strike asunder,' sting v- Got. stigqan push, 
stipendium pay : = *stip-pendium, fr. stips + pendo. 
stipes log : stIjp- ONor. stufr stump, Sk. stfipas tuft, cf. stup- (frxmos 

stump, Sk. stupds tuft, 
stipo press (E. costive stevedor) : st5p- of. stuppa : 
stips gift : 
stipula stalk : = *stupula (whence the forms in the Bomance languages, 

and W. sq/l stubble, OHG. stupfila E.) * stub-la stub- (or stubh-) 

OSlav. sttiblo stiblo stalk. 
stipulor bargain : * take earnest-money,' fr. stips. 
stiria drop : 
stirps stock : 

stiva plough-handle : ' tail,' stiv- cf. stiv- OHG. stiuz haunch, 
stlatarius stlattarius deceitful: fr. stldta stlatta pirate vessel (not 'broad/ 

as Fest., quasi fr. latus Adj.) : 
stloppus scloppus slap : onomatop. 
sto stand (E. stage stanchion stanza) : sta- uttij/u set, Lit. stdti tread 

OSlav. stati stand, Zd. ctd- Sk. stha-, cf. stai- OHG. stan E. stay stow 

stithy ■, and see destind. 
stolidus dull : stlo-do- cf. stl-do- Ags. stolt rash E. stout : ' set,' see 

praestol&r. 
storea mat : ' spread out,' stb- cf. steb- sterno. 
tstrabo squinting : (rrpdfiwy, stbb-, cf. stbeb- (rrp€&\6s crooked, 
strages overthrow : ' making a strewing,' = *stra-ages from stb- see 

sterno + AG- amb-dges circumlocution, see ago, cf. sq. 
stragulum coverlet : ' made for strewing,' = *stra-dgulum from stb- 

praeced. + ag- co-agulum bond, see ago. 
stramen straw : stb-mn (rrpv/ia bed ; ' strewn,' see sterno. 
tstrangulo choke : <TTpayya\d<i>, stbng- <rrpayya\is knot (* tight ') o-rpay- 

yevofxai hesitate (' am tied ') <rrp6.y\ drop (' pressed ' out). 
tstrena strenna omen : Sabine for « health ' (Lydus de Mensibus 4. 4), 

cf. sq. 
strenuus brisk: stben- arprjvos health, cf. stbn- Ags. styrn stern (Adj.) 

E., Pruss. sturnawiskan earnest. 
strepo make a noise : onomatop. 
striata scallop : ' fluted,' fr. stria furrow : 
strido creak : onomatop. 
tstrigilis scraper : quasi- Adj. , for *strigila *stregida from Ace. of *arpeyU 

by-form (cf. <pdpvya later cpdpvyya) of fa-rpeyyis ffrXeyyis. 
strigosus thin : ' drawn together,' stbugv- cf. stblngv- sq. 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 101 



stringo 1 bind, draw tight: stbungv- cf. stbeugv- o-rpetyofiai grow 

weary ('am tied'), stbugv- striga row of hay ('raked together'), see 

struo. 
stringo 2 strip off, pluck: stbungv- cf. stbugv- Lit. strugas shears, 

strugv- OSlav. strUgati shave. 
strings 3 graze, touch lightly: stbingv- cf. stbigv- Got. strife tittle 

('stroke' of the pen), stbigv- OHG. strihhan to smooth E. strike 

stroke. 
strix strix screech-owl : cf. striga witch (' bloodsucker,' as the screech- 
owl was supposed to be): 'squeaking,' onomatop., cf. <rrpl(u rplfa 

squeak. 
struo arrange : 'bind together,' = * struo *struvo stbugv- cf. stringo 1 . 
studeS am eager: pstud- cf. psteud- ffirefoo) hasten, pstoud- Arm. 

phoith zeal, 
stultus foolish : stl-tos Part., see stolidus. 
stupeo am amazed: 'am struck,' stup- airo-<rTvir<L(u beat off, cf. 

stump- OHG. stumbal mutilated ; also tup- tiWw beat, OSlav. 

tiipati throb, 
stuppa stiipa stipa tow (E. stuff) : a-rivrj : * compressed,' see stip6. 
stuprum dishonour (E. strumpet) : 'being beaten,' see stupeo. 
suadeo recommend: 'cause to please,' svId- Ags. svete sweet E., cf. 

svand- avdduw please, Olr. sant desire, Zd. qand- be merry (Spiegel), 

svad- Sk. svad- sweeten, sud- Got. siUs pleasant, see suavis. 
suasum dark colour : = *stcarsum *svard-tum Part. Neut. from svbd-, 

cf. svbd- sordes. 
suavis sweet (E. assuage) : = *sudd-vis, ytivs, Sk. svadus, see suadeo. 
suavium (quasi fr. praeced.) savium kiss : popular perversion of *vdsium, 

bdsium. 
sub under (E. sudden suzerain) : = *sup (see ob) *s-upo ' there-under,' 

from so see sic + u*po foro, Olr. f-o, Got. uf E. eaves often, Zd. upa to 

Sk. upa. 
suber cork-tree : ' with wrinkled bark,' crv<pap old skin : 
sub-lestus slight: from las- Got. lasivsvreak E. less, OSlav. loH cheap, 

+ Part. -ending. 
tsublica stake : Volscian (Fest.) : = *sub-liga (seepertica) fr. ligti. 
sub-Hmis high : ' obliquely up,' fr. Zimus Adj. 
tsubo : *<rv$doo, fr. Hesych. crv&as lewd : 
sub-oles sob-oles (dialectic, cf. Cato jogalis for jugalis) offspring : see 

adolesco 2 . 
subtemen subtegmen woof : fr. tego, ' covering ' the warp, 
subtilis fine : = *sub-telis fr. tela, ' suited for weaving '. 
subiicula shirt : fr. *sub-uo ' put under ' from *avo, see exuo. 
subulcus swineherd : from su- see sus, with term, from bubulcus. 



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jT 



ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 



sucus succus juice (E. sewer) : sukv- OHG. tugan sack, cf. sunkv- 1A%. 

sunkti pour out : see sugo. 
sudiculum flagri Plaut. Pers. 419 whipping-post: Dimin. of *sude Neut. r 

by-form of sq. 
sudis stake : 
sudor sweat: svoid- Ags. svat E., Zd. qaedhem (Fick), cf. svid- Arm. 

khirtn, Sk. svid- to sweat, svid- Uos sweat i$pdos> W. chwys, Lett. 

swidri. 
sudus clear : = *sus-dus ' dry,' saus- ados dry Hesych. <rawrap6s (dia- 
lectic), Ags. sedrian dry up E. sear sere sorrel Adj., Lit. sausas dry 

OSlav. suhUy cf. sus- b-vvrdKios squalid Odyss. 19. 327, Zd. hush- to 

dry Sk. cush-. 
suescd am wont : sev6- suus, cf. Perf. suevi (disyllable) from sv<5- is 

his, OSlav. svoj one's own, Zd. hva- Sk. was-: 'have my own way/ 

with meaning extended to all persons, 
tsufes suffes consul (at Carthage) : Punic (Fest.), Heb. shofit judge. 
sumo fumigate : = *sub-fu6, dhu- smell, see fimus thymum. tus. 
sufflamen drag : = * sub-flag-men ' under-beam, ' bhlg- see phalanx. 
suf-fragor vote for : from *fragor vote : 
sugillo beat black and blue : Dimin. of sq. , ' draw blood '. 
sug5 suck: sugv- Mir. sugim t Ags. sucan E. E. soak; by-form of sukv- 

see sucus. 
sulcus furrow : s£kos Ags. sulh plough, cf. solkos 6\k6s furrow. 
tsulfur sulphur sulpur (Sk. culvaris) brimstone : 
sum am : formed from Plur. sumus, for *em es-mi tl/xi, Olr. amy Got. 

im E., Lit. esmi OSlav. jesmi, Arm. em, Zd. ahmi Sk. dsmi, es- cf. 

esse Inf. 
summus highest: = *sup-mus from sub ('upward,' see super) , cf. Sk. 

upamds. 
sumo take: fr. *sumics Adj. 'taking up,' sus + Adj. -ending (see emo 

demd). 
Slid sew : = *suo sj&- Ka-<r<rva stitch, Got. siujan sew E. E. seam, Lit. 

siuti OSlav. hti, Sk. syu-. 
super over (E. somersault sovereign) : so (see sub) + upeb fhrep, Olr. i-or 

( = *f-w-ar), Got. w/ar E. E. orlop, Zd. upairi Sk. updri: fr. «m&, 'more 

upward, higher,' see summus. 
super-bus proud : praeced. + term, -bho-, see acerbus. 
supercilium eyebrow : ' above the eyelid,' cilium eyelid (Fest.), = *ciilium t 

cf. Kv\a Plur. 
sup-inus backward : from *sup see sub 'up,' cf. fa-nos backward, 
tsupparum sipparum smock (worn over the subucula f Varr. L. L. 5. 

131), topsail: Oscan (Varr.), = *suparum 'upper,' see suppus. 
sup-pedito am at hand : from sub + peditd go on foot, fr. pes. 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 103 

snp-plex submissive, supplicium offering : fr. *placo — placed. 

suppus inverted : * turned up,' = *supus from *sup sub (cf. c&mis from 

com-). 
sura soera calf of leg : = *soira : cf . sums stake (cf . ONor. Uggr leg, 

trunk of a tree), the calf compared to a shaft : 
surculus sprout : = *suriculus Dimin. of sUrus, praeced. 
surdus deaf : 
sus up (in susque deque up and down, suscipio suscito suspends sustined 

sustuli ; also su-, surgd = *sU-rigd t su-splcid, sU-splcio, su-splro ; and 

see sirempse) : cf . NUmbr. surur also : 
sus pig (E. sail Vb.) : sti- fe, W. hw-oh sow (not E. hog), OHG. su E., 

cf. su- Zd. hu pig. 
su-spicio suspicion : fr. sus + spica, * pricking,' cf. spik- sU-spicor sus- 
pect, sUspectus suspected. 
susurrus hum : = *su-sUr-us Redupl. of sTJr-, cf. sur- Lit. surma, sver- 

Sk. svar- to sound, svor- OHG. E. swarm ('humming'). 
Not add <rvpiy£ pipe, as primarily ' hollow \ 
suus (from *suvus) sovos his: sevos, lifys, Lit. sdwa, Arm. iur (« 

*sev-r), cf. svo- see suesco si. 

taberna booth (E. tavern) : * made of boards,' fr. tabula. 

tabes wasting : 

tabula board : = *teb-l&, tebh- cf . stebh- Sk. stabh- to prop, stembh- 

Zd. ctemb- Sk. stambh-, stebh- Lit. st&bas post. 
taceo am silent : tak- Got. thahan Inf. 
taeda pitch-pine : 
taedet irks : 
ttaenia fillet: rawia, fr. *rcuv6s Adj., = *Tav-]6s from tn- see tendd (as 

(polvios fr. <poiv6s, = *<pov-]6s). 
taeter titer offensive : taetro- = *taed-rd- fr. ta-edet. 
talea staff (E. tailor &c. detail intaglio tally) : OSlav. talij young branch, 
ttalentum talent : r&Kavrov : ' weight,' see tollo. 
talis such : fr. * talus Adj. of *ta thus, case-form from to- see tarn, and 

see qualis. 
talpa mole : 

talus ankle (E. talon) : = *tax-lus, see taxillus. 
tarn so : = *tam tame (Fest.) i.e. *td-sme from td- (see talis and ito), TO- 

r<f this, Got. thata that E., Ags. E. the Ags. *A«s this E., Lit. tas> Zd. 

to- Sk. to'- ; + a case-ending -smo, cf. OUmbr. pu-sme to whom, Got. 

tha-mma to him, see -met. 
tamen yet: 'in spite of all,' Ace. of *tamen (Neut.) contempt, tm-n 

from tm-, cf. tm- temiv5. 
tandem at length : = *tam-dem t tarn + -clem. 

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io 4 ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 

tango touch (E. taste task tax ; but for touch see died) : tang- cf. tag- 

Tcraydv seizing. 
tantus so great : formed from tan-turn ' only ' (taken as Adj. Neut.) i.e. 

tarn turn correlative of quantum, see quantus. 
ttapete carpet (E. tapestry tape tabard tippet) : *rdirriTi by-form of trt&in?* 

tidiris : 
tardus slow (E. tarry) : * smitten, crippled,' cf. Sk. tad- beat. 
tarmes woodworm : 

ttarpesslta banker : *rapir€( irq* rpaireC fays, fr. r/wkrefa table. 
tat tatae Interj. : cf. toto?, E. tut, see atdt. 

ttaurus bull : ravpos (OSlav. turti), = *rdpfos, Gaulish tarvos Olr. tarb. 
tax sound of blows: onomatop., cf. E. thwack. 
taxillus die (E. tassel) : 
ttechna techina trick : rixvn art : tegh- Ags. thicgan touch, cf . tengh- 

Ags. E. thing. 
tego cover : tegv- rtyos roof, Olr. teg house, Ags. theccan to cover E. 

thatch fdeck tight taut ; cf . stegv- vriyw shelter, Sk. sthag- cover, 
tegula tile (E.) : tegv- cf. praeced., and stegv- Lit. stkgiu I cover, 
tela web (E. toilet toils) : = *tex-la fr. texo. 
tellus earth : = *tel-os (for term. cf. ald-6s i)-6s) tel- 'flat,' cf. tel- Ags. 

thelu board, Sk. talas level ground, and tl- OSlav. tllo pavement. 
telum spear : Mir. tal axe : = *tex-Um fr. texo, ' shaped '. 
temere by chance: Neut. (cf. facile Adv.) of *temeris 'blind,' tem-es-, 

see tenebrae. 
temetum wine : 

tetnno scorn : * confuse,' tm- see timed ? 
temo pole : = *tex-mo fr. texo, l shaped, ' cf. Ags. thisle pole. 
tempero qualify (E. tamper): 'fix the limits of,' temp- Lit. tempti 

stretch, sq. 
templum open space: 'expanse,' cf. cx-templo 'on the spot,' see prae- 
ced. 
tempora temples of the head : ' spaces,' see praeced. 
tempus time : ' extension,' see tempero. 
tendo stretch (E. tent) : fr. *tendus Adj., ten- *tend whence Part, tentus 

and Fest. obs-tinet ostendit, relvw, Zd. Sk. tan-, cf. ton- Got. ui-thanjan, 

tn- Olr. tet harpstring (E. tether), see tenuis. 
tenebrae darkness: formed quasi fr. teneo, 'detaining,' for *tcmebrae 

*temesrae, Sk. tdmisrd, cf. tem-es- OHG. demerunga twilight, Zd. 

temanh darkness Sk. tdmas, tm-es- OSlav. tlma, tem-s- Olr. temel, 

tom-s- Lit. tamsd ; and tem- Lit. Umii grow dark, tm- Zd. tarn- perish 

Sk. tarn- to faint. 
teneo hold (E. rein tenoii) : ' stretch to,' see tendo. 
tener soft (E. tender tendril) : tn-, see temiis. 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 105 

tensa car for images of gods : 

tento (quasi fr. teneo) tempto handle (E. taunt) : ' stretch,' see temper 6. 

tenuis thin : TN-tJ- raw- long-, Sk. tawds thin, cf. ra- rava6s long, Olr. 

tana thin, Ags. thyn E., OSlav. tlnlM, see tendo. 
tenus Subst. snare ('stretched out') Prep, as far as ('stretching to ') : 

ten-, see tendd. 
teped am warm: tep-, Olr. *e hot (= *tepent-), OSlav. teplo hotly, Zd. 

tap- burn Sk. tap- be hot. 
ter thrice : = *tri f rpl-s rpt- t Gaul, tri-, Zd. thri- 3, Sk. trl-, cf. trei- 

tres. 
tterebinthus turpentine- tree (E. turpentine) : frcpc&ivdos, Syrian (as 

growing in Syria, Plin. 13. 54). 
tergd wipe : 

hardly = *trigvo rpi&a) rub, or Perf. would be *trixi. 
tergum tergus back: terghv- cf. trghv- rpAxv^os neck; and sterghv- 

<rr4p<pos skin. 
termes (for term, cf . Times beside limen) bough cut off : ' end, ' fr. sq. 
terminus termen limit : ter-mn repfia, Sk. tarmanf point, from ter- 

Zd. tar- go over Sk. tar- pass. 
tero rub (E. try) : = *trio (cf. trivT Perf. tritus Part.), tru- rpiw weary 

(for the meanings cf. E. tire Vb. fr. tear Vb.), cf. trou- Ags. thredvian 

threaten E. throe. 
terra earth (E. terrace terrier tureen turmeric) : = Hera ter- Osc. teer[um], 

Olr. tir. 
terreo frighten : = *terseo ters-, cf. trs- Mir. tarrach timid, Zd. tarec- 

be frightened, and tre-s- Tpe'(<r)eu flee, Sk. tras- be terrified; see 

tremo. 
territdrium land round a town: 'land subject to octroi,' formed fr. terra 

on anal, of portitorium ' custom-house ' fr. portus. 
ttesca tesqua deserts (an augural term) : Sabine (Schol. Hor. Epp. 1. 

14. 19) : 
ttessera die (' square-sided ') : reo-o-apa 4, see quattuor. 
testa brick (E. Ust tester) : = texta Part. Fern, from tcxo, ' shaped '. 
testis witness, testiculus : = *tcrstis *tristis, Osc. tristaamentud by will : 
texo weave, construct : tekth- (see ursus) ' shape, ' t€ktcw carpenter, 

OHG. dehsen to shape, OSlav. tesati cut, Zd. takhsh- hew (Spiegel) Sk. 

taksh- fashion, cf. tokth- Lit. taszyti hew. 
tthalamus bower: fed\afxos, Egyptian (Isid. Orig. 15. 3. 6). 
ttheca case: d^xy, cf. €0r}Ka I placed, see J acid. 
•fthesaurus thensaurus treasure (E.) : fd-qcavpos *B-nv<ravp6s : 
ttheta TH : f^ra, Heb. teth. 
tthiasus dance : fdlaaos : 
ttholus dome : 66\os : 



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io6 ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 



tthorax cuirass : dupd^ : 

tthunnus tunny : Bfovos Bvvos : fr. Bvv rush, see/Umus. 

tthymbra savory : dvp&pa : ' odorous,' dhumbh- cf. dhubh- rt<p<a smoke. 

tthymum thyme : 06fiov : dhu- smell, see suffid. 

tthyrsus stalk, Bacchic staff (E. torso) : dipaos : 

ttiara turban : fri&pas, Persian (as worn by Persian kings). 

tibia shinbone : toibh- cf . stoibh- Lit. staibiai shinbones, staibis post. 

tignum beam : tig- cf. tigillum Dimin. : 

ttigris tiger: frlypis, oriental (cf. the river-name Tigris, Zd. tighri 

arrow), 
tilia linden: * spreading,' = *ptelea t m-cK^y elm (see on fraxinus), from 

pt-, cf. PKT-pated? 
timed fear : * faint,' tem- see tenebrae. 
tinea tinia worm : * tenacious,' fr. tened ? 
tingo tinguo wet (E. stain taint Tent) : tungv- Mir. tummim I dip (== 

*tumbim), OHG. duncon dip. 
tinnid tinio jingle : onomatop. 
tintinno tintino jingle : onomatop. Redupl. of tn-, cf. Tiravi<rfi6s singing 

of paeans Strabo p. 281. 34 Muller and Dubner, Lit. titinoti brag. 
tinus laurustinus : 
tippula tipula water-spider : 
tiro recruit : 
titillo tickle (for E. tickle see digitus): Dimin. of *tit6 * inflame/ cf. 

tilid brand (E. entice), see Wolfnin's Archiv. 1. 244. 
tltivillitium trifle: coined by Plaut., 'nullius significationis ' (Fest.). 
titubo stagger : Redupl. of tub-, cf. stub- ONor. stupa stoop E. 
titulus inscription (E. tittle) : 

ttofus tufa : foreign, cf . Heraclean rcxpidov tufa-quarry : 
toga cloak : togv<- cf. tegv- tego, and cf. OSlav. o-stegU garment. 
tolero tulero bear, tolld raise (= *tol-no), toliitim trotting (E. trot), tull 

have borne : tl- r&Kavrov weight, Mir. tlethar carry off, Got. thulan 

endure Scotch thole, Sk. tul- lift, cf. tl- r6kfm daring. 
tomentum stuffing : tvom-n- o-a/xa body, 
tondeo shave : 

hardly cf . t«V5» gnaw : meaning too different. 
tono thunder: ton-, cf. tn- Ags. thunian, Sk. tan- roar: * continue,' fr. 

Undo. 
tonsa oar: ' bough stript of leaves,' Part. Fern, of tondeo, cf. Fest. ton- 

silla stake, 
tonsillae (quasi fr. praeced.) tossillae tosillae tussillae tusillae toxillae 

tonsils : tox-, cf. Fest. toles tumor in faucibus : 
topiarius ornamental gardener : fr. Utopia ornamental gardening, land- 
scape-painting, *r6*ia fr. t6icos place, ' making the most of a space '. 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 1.07 

ttornus lathe (E. attorney tornado tour twrri) : r6pvos : * boring,' tor-, of. 

ter- rcpcrpou gimlet reipv weary, OSlav. treti rub, Sk. tdrunas tender, 

Tf - Olr. tarathar gimlet. 
torpeo am stiff (E. sturdy) : trp-, Lit. tirpti stifEen. 
torqueo turn (E. tart Subst. torch tortoise trousers truss trousseau) : trkv- 

&rpaicros spindle, of. torkv- OSlav. traffic bandage, Sk. tarkus spindle. 
torreo burn (E. toast) : = *torseo trs- Got. thaursjan to thirst E. E. 

thrush 2 , Arm. tharanim I wither, of. trs- Olr. tart thirst, ters- r4p- 

cofiat dry up, Zd. taresh- to thirst Sk. tarsh-. 
torus knot : 
torvus fierce : 

tot so many : = *toti, Sk. tdti, cf. toti-de?n, Loo. of sq. (see quot). 
tdtus so great : from to- see tarn + a term, -to- (see quotus). 
totus tottus whole (E. teetotum) : fr. *to Abl. of to- see tarn (and see 

cottidie), + a term. -to-. 
ttrabea robe of state : Sabine, as introduced by Numa (Lydus de Men- 

sibus 1. 19). 
trabs beam (E. architrave travail travel) : trabh- Tpdtfyql- stake. 
tragula dart attached to a strap : = *tragla *trd-veg-la fr. trans + veho, 

cf. sq. 
traho draw (E. portray trace &c. train tret) : = *traho trd-veho from trans- 

+ veho. 
trama woof : * across ' the warp, = *trans-ma from trans. 
frames crossway : = *trans-m-es from trans. 
franquillus calm : 
trans across (E. trance trespass) : NUmbr. traf trahaf (=*tra,s), W. trach 

beyond (= *trass *trans). 
fransenna network : praeced., with same term, as antenna. 
tremo shake (E. turmoil) : tre-m- rpefiu, cf. tr-m- Lit. trimti, tre-m-s- 

OSlav. tresti] and tre- under terreo (see premo). 
trepidus alarmed : trep- OSlav. trepetU tremor, Sk. trap- be abashed. 
tres 3 : = *trei-es trei- rpels, Got. threis E., Arm. e-re-kh, Sk. trdyas, cU 

tri- Olr. tri, Lit. trys OSlav. tri, see ter. 
fribuo assign : ' divide, ' cf . sq. : 

fribus trebus tribe: OUmbr. trefi Abl., Mir. treb: 'division,' cf. praeced. 
tricae tricks (E. intrigue ; but not trick) : 
ttrichila bower Caes. B. €<. 3. 96 (E. trellis) : 
trig-inta 30 : formed after vi-gint-J (with -a of old Neut. Plur.) for *tria- 

conta rpi&Kovra, cf. tri-kot- Zd. thrigala, trin-k6*t Sk. tringdt; see 

tres. 
ttrigo game at ball : rpiywv : fr. rpl-ycwos triangular, yavla angle, as 

being played by three. 
ttrigonus trugonus sting-ray : *rpVyovos by-form of rpvydoy roach : 



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108 ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 

tri-pudium a dance : * striking thrice,' tri- see ter + (s)pod- seepudet. 
tri-quetrus triangular: = *tri-qued~rus 'with 3 points,' see quadra. 
tristis bitter : Ags. thrlste bold : 
trit-avus strit-avus (Fest.) ancestor in the sixth degree : 

hardly cf. strut- Olr. smith ancient, noble, 
ttriumphus triumpus triumphal procession (E. trump-card) : *rpion~ 

<po$ by-form (as T<i0mj of fdryrj) of *0plo/j.$os fOpian&os hymn to 

Dionysos : 
ttrochlea troclea pulley : = *trochilia, rpoxt\(a, fr. rp4x<* run. 
trua ladle (E. trowel) : tvr- cf. tvor- roptivri, ONor. thvara stirring-stick, 

tver- OHG. dweran mix up Ags. thviril churn-handle E. twirl, Sk. 

tvar- hasten. 
truoidd (for term. cf. formidd fear) kill: 'mangle,' truk- W. trwch 

maimed, cf . trunk- truncus : 
trudis pike : trud-, cf. sq. 
triidd push : treud- Got. us-thriutan to trouble E. thrust threat, OSlav. 

trudil toil. 
truncus Adj. maimed, Subst. stem (E. trounce truncheon trunnion) : 

TRUNK- Cf . TRUK- truddd. 

ttrutina balance (Scotch Tron) : rpvrdvv : 

trux fierce : tvrk-, cf. tverk- Got. thvairTis angry. 

ttryblium plate : rp6$\ioi/ bowl : 

tu thou : tu ru-vrj, Olr. tu, Got. <M E., OSlav. ty, Arm. du, Zd. tu turn, 

cf. tu (tj5, Lit. tit, Sk. tu-, tv- Sk. tvdm. 
tu 2 cry of owl Plaut. Men. 651: onomatop., E. toowhoo, cf. Hesych. 

tvt<£ owl. 
tuba trumpet (E. E. trombone trumpery trunk of elephant) : cf. tubus 

pipe : 
tuber swelling (E. trifle truffle, NHG. k&rtoffel potato = terrae tuber) : 

tum-r- from tum- W. twf growth, Ags. thuma thumb E., cf. tum- 

tumeo. 
tuburcinor devour : 
ttuccetum tiicetum salt beef: Gaulish (Schol. Pers. 2. 42), cf. NUmbr. 

toco. 
tueor watch : 

tugurium tigurium tegurium (quasi fr. tego) hut : foreign, cf . attegia ? 
tuli have borne : see tolcro. 
tum then : = *to-me (for term, see tarn), to- t6-t€, cf. Ags. th-on E., see 

(am. 
turned swejl : tum- Sk. tumras strong, cf. tum- see tuber. 
tumultus uproar : cf . Sk. tumulas noisy, praeced. 
tumulus mound: tum- rv/xfas (= *rvfi-yf : os: E. tomb, whence W. torn), 

fr. tumco. 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 109 

tundo beat (E. 'puree) : tund- Mir. tond wave, cf. tud- Sk. tud- push ; 

and stoud- Got. stautan strike E. stoat stutter. 
ftunica shirt : = *ctun-ica Heb. k'thoneth, whence also x i<T & v ' 
turba uproar (Fr. trap too much ; E. troop trouble) : tvurb- rvp&ri dis- 
order crvp&rivefc noisy, cf. STVURB- (rrvp&dCw stir up. 
turbo whirl (E. turbot) : praeced. 

turdus thrush: turzd- cf. truzd- Ags. E. ^ros^le, and strozd- Lit. 

strdzdas, cf . Bohemian drozd (Miklosich : with dr- from OSlav., see note). 

A different bird (Carmen de Philomela 11 droscam 17 turdus) from 

Late-Lat. drosca, with which cf. Ags. thryssce E. thrush, OSlav. 

drozgii. 

turged swell : ' am rubbed ' (so that a blister is raised), trg- cf. terg- 

tergo. 
turma torma (late) troop : 
turpis ugly : trp-, cf. trep- trepidus, * frightful '. 
tturris tower (E., Ags. torr rock, NHG. thurm tower, W. twr) : frvppt? 

rvpcris : 
turtur turtle-dove (E. turtle) : quasi-Redupl., for *tetrur tetr- rerpa^ 
grouse, ONor. thidurr partridge, Sk. tittirds, cf. tetr- Late-Lat. 
tetrinnio I quack, Mir. tethra scall-crow, and teter-v- Lit. teterwa 
moor-hen OSlav. tetrevl pheasant, Pers. iczerw Zenker 273 b. 
ftiis incense : = *tuus, d6os, see suffio. 
tussis cough : = *tud-tis tud- Got. ^i^-haurn trumpet, cf. teud- Ags. 

theotan howl E. toot tootle. 
ttiiticus public : Campanian (Liv. 23. 35. 13), from teuto- Osc. tovto 
people, Got. thiuda (and Lat. Teutones, E. Dutch), Olr. tuath, Lett. 
tauta. 
tutus safe : Part, from tu- OSlav. tyti grow fat, cf. tu- Zd. Sk. tu- be 

strong. 
tuxtax sound of blows : Redupl. of tax, cf. E. thwick-thwack. 
ttympanum typanum drum (E. timbrel)-, rvfiirauou rxmavov, tump- tup- 

rvvroo beat, see stuped. 
ftypus figure : rfaos, see praeced. 
ttyrannus despot : frtpawos : 

iiber Adj. rich, Subst. breast : oddap udder (for *'vdap, to avoid a double 
aspiration), Ags. uder E., Sk. udhar-. cf. Lit. udr&ti get milk. 

ubi where (for term, see necubi) : u- Relative, cf. vo- 8s who. 

ulciscor volciscor take vengeance : 4 wound,' fr. sq. 

ulcus sore : = *vulcus *velcus t H\kos wound. 

ullgo moisture : = *uvili-go fr. *uvilis moist, see uvidus (ct.fuligo). 

ulmus elm: elmos Ags. E. elm, cf. lmos Ir. lem, Russian ilemu (Mik- 
losich). 



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S 



no ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 

ulna elbow : olen- wA^Vij, cf. oln- Sk. anis axle-pin ; also olen- Got. 

aleina cubit (mis- written for *alina), oln- Olr. uille Ace. Plur. elbow, 

Ags. eln E. eZ-bow ell. 
tulpicum leek: Punic (Columella 11. 3). 
-ultra ills beyond : ud out, cf. ud- tUerus. 
ul-ula screech-owl: ul- $\<Lu> bark. Lit. uUti to halloo, cf. ulueus 

screech-owl (Servius), Sk. ulukas, and ul- ONor. yla howl, 
ululd howl (E. E. hurly-burly) : Redupl. of ul- praeced., cf. 6\o\t(u 

( = *v\-v\'v(u>), Lit. uluUti shout. 
iilva sedge : ud see ultra, growing ' out ' in the marsh, not in the field, 
umbilicus imbillcus navel : from *ombolos ombh-l- 6fi<pa\6s, cf . mbh-l- 

Mlr. imbliu, nobh-el- Ags. nafela E., nobh-£- Sk. nabhllamf ; from 

nobh- Lett. naba, nobh- Sk. ndbhis: 'centre,' cf. sq. 
umbo boss : ombh-, cf . nobh- Ags. na/u nave (of wheel) E. E. auger. 
umbra shade (E. sombre umber umbrage umbrella) : ondh-, Sk. andhds 

blind, cf . ndh- Zd. afidao, see ater ; and nodh- Hesych. wB6s dark, see 

nothus. 
umeo hiimed am moist : fr. *uvimus Adj., see uvidus. 
umerus humerus shoulder : omesob, cf. o*msos NUmbr. onse Abl., Grot. 

ams, Arm. us, Sk. dmsas, and <5m- &/jlos. 
um-quam ever : um- from *u-me (for term, see tarn), u- see ubi. 
uncia one-twelfth (Sicil. ovyicla, also oyicla quasi fr. fryieos mass ; E. inch 

ounce) : = *unicia fr. unicus single, see unus. ^ 
uncus hook : = *vuncus vonk- fry/cos. Lit. wgszas. " 
unda water (E. sound Vb. surround) : = *vunda vond- Lit. %oand&, cf. 

vod- Got. wato Ags. voter E., Ags. vat wet E., OSlav. voda water, ved- 

Arm. get river; also und- Lit. undll water, ud- OUmbr. utur, w8«p 

(Gen. vtiaros), ud- Mir. u-sce (E. whisky), Sk. Man-, cf. Zd. ud- flow 

Sk. ud- to wet. 
un-de whence : from *um Abl. (see inde) of u- see ubi. 
ungo ungud smear : ongv- OHG. anco butter, Sk. anj- anoint, cf . ngv- 

Olr. imb butter. 
unguis nail : onkhv-, cf. nkhv- Olr. ingne Ace. Plur., nokhv- 6-wl-, Lit. 

ndgas OSlav. nogiiti, Sk. nakhds. 
ungula hoof : fr. praeced., cf. nokhv-el- Ags. nagel nail E. 

Not add Arm. magil claw, 
unus oinos one (E. onion) : oin- oKvr\ ace, Olr. din one, Got. ains E. E. 

any, Pruss. ains Lit. wtinas OSlav. inil. 
upupa hoopoe (Fr. huppe E.) : op-op- tiroty (for *8iroty ; formed quasi fr. 

Mm-ns on-looker, Aesch. fragm. 291) Hesych. kwa<p6s, from its cry 

op or ap. 
urbs city: = *vurbs vordh- OPers. vardana; 'concretion,' fr. Zd. vared- 

promote Sk. vardh- grow. 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 



urceus pot (Gk)t. aurkeis; E. lurch Subst.) : = *vurceus vbkv- OSlav. 

vri&l. 

Hardly add tipxa jar. 
urged urgued press : = *vurgueo vbgv- cf. vebgv- verg6 t 4-(f)4pya shut 

up, vobgv- Lit. wargas distress OSlav. vragu enemy. 
iirina water : = *vur-ina vob- Sk. v&r, ct ub- Lit. jtires sea, vob- otyor 

water (= *f = 6p-[ : ov), Ags. var sea, Zd. vairis. 
urinor dive : 4 get into the water, ' f r. praeced. 
urna water-pot : 

uro burn : eus- efa singe, cf . us- Ags. ysla ashes, Zd. Sk. ush- burn. 
ursus bear : £kthos (see texo), Zpfcros, Arm. ar), Sk. fksJicui, cf. rkthos 

Ir. art. 
urtica nettle : = *vurtica vbt- see verto, * altering, poisoning \ 
fiirus wild ox: Gaulish (Macrobius), borrowed from Teutonic, OHG. 

uro. 
iisquam anywhere, usque continuously : us- from u-, see ubi f + a case- 
sign, see abs. 
iisurpo use: fr. Adj. *Hsu-ripus * getting by prescription,' usu Abl. + 

rapidy cf . usu-capio acquire. 
ut as : = *u-tl, u- see ubi + -ti Loc, see ast. 
uter skin : utri- = *od-ri-> od- Lit. tida. 
uterus womb : ud-ro- Sk. uddram, from ud out (i.e. * beyond ' the 

stomach, cf . extremus i furthest off ' from ex out) Got. ut E., Sk. ud, 

cf. va-repos behind, wr-Tepa womb. 
uti utei as : u- see ubi + ti from to-, see tarn. 
utor oitor use : « take as my portion,' oit- cf. olros fate ('portion '). 
iiva grape : = *6va ogv-, OSlav. vm-jaga Lit. Uga berry. 
uvidus huvidus moist : ugv- cf . ugv- vyp6s, Mir. ur fresh, and vogv- 

ONor. vbkr moist E. wake of a ship. 
uxor (from *vuxor) voxor wife : 

vacca cow (E. bachelor'})'. = *vet-cci (for term. cf. juven-ca), vet- Sk. 

vat-s-d8 calf, see vitulus. 
vaccinium whortleberry: fr. *vaccinus Adj. of praeced., 'eaten by cows', 
vacillo stagger : Dim. of *vac6 vakv- Ags. vah crooked E. woo, Sk. 

vakrds : also vaccilld stagger, from *vaccd *vacd vakv-. 
vaco voco am empty : ' am open to an offer,' vok- Arm. vasn on account 

of, cf. vek- kit&v willing, Zd. vac- be willing Sk. vac- be eager. 
vadd rush : vadh-, cf . sq. 
vadum ford: 'passage,* vadh- Mir. fonnadh travelling, Ags. vadan go 

E. wade waddle. 
-vae Interj. (oval) : Got. vai Ags. va woe Subst. E. E. wail well&way, 

Lett, wax Interj. 



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ii2 ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 



vafer cunning : vaf-ro- vaghv-, Lit. wagls thief. 

vagina sheath (E. vanilla) : 

vagio cry : 

vagus roaming (E. tennagant?) : 'broken,' vagv- &yvvm break, Mir. farm- 

weak. 
van vaha Inter j. : = *va (see aha). 
valeo am strong: gval- £<&€ oh that ('mayst thou be able'), Lit. gaUti 

be able. 
valgus awry : = *volgus volgv- Ags. vealcan roll E. walk f galop, Sk- 

valg- to spring, cf. vlngv- Olr. lingid he leaps, 
valles valley (E. E. avalanche) : ' shut in,' cf. sq. 
vallum palisade (Ags. veal rampart E. wall), vallus stake for a palisade: 

= *valno- : * enclosing,' cf . Mir. fal hedge. 
valva door : = *volvci fr. volvo, ' revolving ' on its hinges. 
vannus fan (E., OHG. wanna) : 
vanus empty (E. vaunt) : 
vapor steam : 
vappa flat wine : = *vapa, *vapus Adj. fr. praeced. (see comis), ' that has- 

emitted its bouquet '. 
vapulo am flogged: 'wriggle,' vap- vappo moth (= *vapo), cf. vap- Ags. 

vafer unsteady E. wave waver waft. 
varius variegated (E. miniver vair) : = gvodios (with accent of vo\t6s) r 

dialectically Varr. badius brown (E. bay Adj. baize), cf. Olr. buide 

yellow. 
varix dilated vein: 'blotch,' vr- varus pimple, cf. vb- Lit. wiras. 
varus crooked : 
vas surety (E. engage) : VEDH-f- cf. &-(f)€0-\os contest, W. gwystl pledge 

(= *vedh-tlion), and vodh- Got. vadi E. wed fwage, Lit. waditti 

redeem. 
vas vessel (E. E. flask) : OUmbr. vasus Abl. Plur : 
vastus waste (E.) : vast- Olr. fas empty, Ags. veste waste, 
fvates vatius (Caper, Keil 7. 112) : voti- Celtic ovar€is priests (Strabo 

4. 4. 4) Olr. faith prophet, cf. Ags. Voden a god E. TFecfoesday, and 

Got. vods mad OE. wood Adj. ('inspired,' cf. /xdyris prophet fr. fialvopat 

am mad), Rhys, Hibbert Lectures, p. 278. 
-ve or : -ve rt-(f)4, cf. VE Zd. Sk. va. 
ve- vae- depreciative particle (ve-cors ve-grandis ve-pallidus ve-sanus, see 

vescus vestibulum) : 
vectis lever : ' mover,' fr. veho. 
vejreo arouse: = *vogeo vog- Got. vakan watch E. E. wake wait fbivouacy 

cf . vog- Zd. vaza strength Sk. v&jas quickness ; also UG- vyi-fts healthy r 

Olr. di-uch-t-r&d to wake. 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 113 

veheraens (-ehe- dialectic spelling of -£-, see aha ; in poetry always a 

disyllable) veemens vemens violent : 4 mad,' ve- + mens. 
vend carry : vegh- Olr. fen wagon, Got. g&-vigan move E. wag wagon 

weigh wall-eyed whit wight earwig fvogue. Lit. wezit I carry OSlav. 

veza, Zd. vaz- drive Sk. vah- carry, c£. vogh- &x os chariot. 
vel or : ' choose,' Imperat. fr. void (cf. die ducfacfer fr. died &c). 
veles skirmisher : fr. *velus, see vSlox. 
vello pluck : = *vel-no, vel-n- W. gwellaif shears. 
vellus fleece : = *vollus voln-es-, cf. voln- oZkos woolly (=*f6\vos) t 

and vln- Grot, vulla wool E., Lit. wilnos OSlav. vl&na, Arm. gain 

lamb, see lana. 
velox swift : from *velus (see atrox) *veh-elus fr. veho, l carried away '. 
velum 1 covering: Olr. fial : = *ves-lum t see vestis. 
velum 2 sail : = *vex-lum, see vexillum. 
vena vein : = *vex-na * conductor,' vegh- vehd + -s- see vexd? 
venenum poison (E venom) : = *venes-num * philtre ' (Hor. Epod. 5. 87), 

fr. Venus, sq. 
veneror beseech : ven-es- cf. Venus goddess of love, from ven- Ags. vine 

lover, Sk. van- to love. 
venia kindness : = *vonia von- bviv^ixi help, cf. vn- MHG. wunnan be 

happy. 
venio come (E. adventure saunter venue) : gvn-jo &alva> ( = *fidy-j») t for 

gvm-jo, cf. gvem- Olr. beim step (= *bem-men, Stokes Remarks), 

Grot, qiman come E., Lit. gemii am born, Arm. ekn he came (= *e- 

gem-t), cf. gvom- Zd. Sk. gam- go. 
venor hunt (E. venison) : i gain,' fr. venum. 
venter belly: sq., * wind-bag'. 
ventus wind: vent- Got. vinds E., cf. vent-jo- W. gwynt; from ve- 

(with shortening before -nt-) &-(f)i\iu blow, Got. vaian, Lit. wejas 

wind OSlav. vejati blow, Zd. Sk. vd-. 
venucula venniicula venicula venuncula a grape for preserving : Fern. 

Dimin. from *v$nticus or *venilnquus * preserved for sale,' fr. sq. 
venum vaenum sale : ven- OSlav. veniti sell, Arm. gin price, cf. von- 

&vos, Mir. Uain loan. 
Not add Sk. vasndm price, for -sn- would remain in OSlav. 
vepres briar : 
ver spring : ONor. vdr. 
veratrum hellebore: * corrective, purgative,' fr. *ver6 set right, fr. 

virus. 
verbenae herbage (E. vervain) : = *verbes-nae fr. sq., * shoots '. 
verbera whips (Nom. Sing. *verbus, cf. Plaut. sub-verbustam l slightly 

beaten ') : = *vorbera vbb- fid&os wand, Lit. wirbas rod OSlav. vrfiba 

willow. 

8 



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ii 4 ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 



verbura word : = *vorbum vrdh- Got. vaurd E., cf. vobdh- Lit. wardas 

name. 
vereor reverence : ' look to,' = *voreor vor- dpdw see, Got. vars wary E. 

E. ward warrant <fcc. wormwood worthy wraUh t garnish &c. f garret. 
vergo bend (E. verge Vb.) : see urged. 
vermina gripes : = *vert-mina fr. verto (as arp6<f>os colic fr. a-Tp4<pv 

turn). 
vermis worm : = *vormis vrm- fi6fios wood- worm (Lesbian for *frdftos), 

Got. vaurms serpent E. worm. 
verna home-born slave : ' born inawr sacrum ' (Nonius). 

Not = *vesina from ves- dwell, see villa. 
verpa Wos, verpus circumcised : 
verres boar : vers- tppaos ram cpo-at young lambs, Lit. werszis calf, Zd. 

varshni ram, cf. vrs- Sk. vrshnis. 
verrd vorrd sweep: vrs- OSlav. vr&Jia, cf. vers- fa6-{f)ep<re it swept 

away, vors- ONor. vorr pull of the oar. 
verruca wart, steep place (Cato) : ' rising,' = *vorr^uca vrs- Lit. wirsziis 

top OSlav. vrUhUj cf. vers- Arm. i-ver up, Sk. vdrshman- height. 
verrunco turn out: *rise' (cf. averruncd avert, 'prevent from rising'), 

= *vorruncd fr. *vorr-unquu8 Adj. from vrs- praeced. ; whence also 

urruncum (i.e. *vurruncum) top of stalk of corn (Varr.). 
vertd vorto turn: vort- tprvl- quail ('dancing'), Lit. wartad I turn 

over OSlav. vratiti turn, Zd. varet- turn to Sk. vartakas quail vart- 

turn, cf. vert- W. gwerthyd spindle, Got. vairthan become E. worth 

(in ' woe worth the day ') weird Got. and-vairths present E. toward. 
verfi spit: gverv- OUmbr. berva Plur., Olr. beura stakes: 'of wood,' 

cf. gvr- Hesych. papves trees, Lit. glre forest. 
verus true (E. very) : ver- Olr. ftr> Got. tuz-verjan to doubt Ags. vaer 

true E. warlock, Lit. wiera faith OSlav. vera. 
vervex berbex (Petronius 57) wether : 
vescor eat : = *voscor 1 gvo-sko &4<rie<a feed. 
vescus small : = *ve-squus from ve~. 
ves-ica vens-Ica bladder : vens- : 
vespa wasp : = *vospa vosp- Ags. vdsp E., cf. vops- Ags. vaps, Pruss. 

wobse OSlav. vosa. 
vesper evening (Olr. fescor) : to-vcpos. 
vester voster your : vos Sk. vas you Enclitic, cf . vos vos. 
ve-stibulum porch : ve- + stabulum stall, ' inferior building ' (cf . Fejovis 

' little Jupiter ' Ov. Fast. 3. 447). 
vestigium track : 
vestis garment (E. travestie) : = *vostis Got. vasti E. \gaiter % from vos- 

Got. vasjan clothe E. wear, Zd. varih- Sk. vas-, cf. yes- wvO/u, Arm. 

z-oe-num I dress. 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 115 

veterinus of beasts of draught : * of yearlings,' vet-es- see vetus, and cf . 

vitulus. 
veto voto forbid : ' speak,' gvot-, see arbiter, cf. gvet- Got. qithan speak 

E. quoth bequeath. 
vetus old: 'full of years,' vet- tros year, Lit. wetuszas old OSlav. vetHhU, 

Sk. tri-vat-s-as three years old. 
vexillum standard : • carried,' fr. *vexus Part, of veho. 
vexo shake : • move,' from vegh- veho + -s-. ^ 

via vea (Varr.) way (E. envoy invoice voyage) : OUmbr. vea ; = *veha fr. 

veho, cf. Ags. veg E. 
vibex vibix weal: Lett, vlbele: 'mark of a whip,' vib- Lit. wyburti 

wag the tail, cf . vib- sq. 
vibro shake: vib- OHG. wipph vibration E. whip wipe wimple quip 

fgimp, cf. praeced. 
viburnum wayfaring- tree : ' quivering,' vib- see vibex. 
vicem Ace. change (E. traffic): vek-, cf. vek-s- OHG. wehsal 

change. 
viceni 20 : = *vlcent-ni, viknt-, see viginti. 
vicia vetch (E. ; Galen &Uiov bean) : ' sown at intervals,' thrice a year 

Plin. 18. 137, fr. vicem. 
victima victuma victim: 'return' to the gods, fr. *vectus Part. fr. 

vek- vicem. 
vicus veicus quarter (E. -wick ~wich in place-names ; QUi.flch village) : 

voiK- oIkos house, Sk. vecas tent, cf. veik- Got. veihs village, vik- Zd. 

vie, vik- OSlav. vlsl farm. 
video see (E. advise survey view visage vista) : vid- fair to see, W. gwedd 

aspect, Got. vitan watch E. tcit &c. twit f guide, Zd. Sk. vid- know, cf. 

vid- OSlav. videti see. 
vidulus wallet (Fr. valise ?) : v!dh-, cf. vidh- ' bind,' Olr. co-beden con- 
nexion, Grot, gprvidan bind E. wallet wattle &c. wad weeds wind Vb. 

&c. 
viduus bereft (E. void; Qli.fedb widow) : = *viduvus *vidovus vidh-ev- 

illOeos ( = ^-pidepos) bachelor, OSlav. vldova widow, Sk. vidhdva, cf . 

vidh-u- Grot, vid-u-vo E. ; from vidh- 'separate,' see di-vidd, lo-6/j.6s 

(= *ftO-0ix6s) neck of land, cf. vidh- Ags. vid wide E. 
vietus vjetus withered : Part, of *vieo ' overpower,' = *vieo from vi- see 

vis Subst. 
viged thrive : = vegeo. 
vigil awake (E. vedette) : see vegeo. 
viginti 20: dialectic for *vlcintl vikjsti cf. viknti Dor. pticari, Zd. vtcaiti, 

VEIKNTI cfeo<n (with 0, for a, from rpiixovrc), vn*K$n Sk. vincati, 

viknti Olr. fichet Gen., Arm. khsan. 
vilis cheap (E. revile) : * common, from a farm,' sq. 



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s 



n6 ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 



villa vella (Varr.) farm: = *vlla *vela cf. vllicus bailiff, * toes-la 'dwelling,* 
ves- Got. visan to stay E. was wassail west, Zd. vanh- dwell Sk. vas-, 
cf. vos- MIr./oss a staying, Arm. gom I am. 
villus shaggy hair (E. velvet) : = *vellus from *vollus, vlno-, see vellus. 
vimen withe : vi- vied weave, cf. vi- Sk. w-, and vi-t- see vUis vitta. 
vincio bind (E. periwinkle 1 ) : 
vincd conquer (E. vanquish) : vinkv-, cf. veikv- Got. veihan fight E. 

wight Adj., OSlav. vekfi strength, and vikv- Mir. fichim I fight, Lit. 

wikrhs active. 
vindico vendico claim (E. vengeatice) : ' declare the price,' see venum 

and died died, with the -e- shortened before -nd-. 
vinnulus delightful : ven-, see veneror. 
vinum wine (Got. vein E. E. vignette vine vinegar vintage win-hercy) : 

voin- ofoos, Arm. gini, Heb. ydyin (borrowed from Europe). 
viola violet : Dimin. of *via, cf. lov (= *fiov). 
violo injure : fr. *violus Adj. from vi-, see vis Subst. 
vipera adder (E. wyvern) : 'wriggling,' voip- ONor. veifa to wave E. 

waive waif, cf. vip- W. gwibio wander, Ags. vifel weevil E., Sk. vip- 

tremble. 
vir man: viro- Qlx.fer, Got. voir ]£. wervroli wo?-ld, cf. viro- Lit. tofrras, 

Zd. vira Sk. vlrds hero. 
virago heroine : ' acting like a man,' fr. praeced. + ag-, see strdges. 
vired am fresh, green (E. farthingale verjuice) : fr. Adj. *virus gvi-ros 

Zd. jira eager, cf . gvi-R(5s Sk. jirds lively ; from gvi- Zd. ji~ live Sk. 

ji- quicken. 
virg^a twig (E. verge Subst.) : vidga (see mergd), OHG. wise wisp E. 
virgo maiden : 
virus poison: visds Us, cf. visom Zd. visha Sk. vishdm: from vis- Sk. 

vish- be active ? 
vis Subst. strength : vi-s- from vi- U, cf . vietus. 
vis Vb. thou wilt : vi- UfMt desire, Sk. vi- enjoy. 

Vois in the Dvenos inscription (E. Schneider 19) is too obscure to 
compare. 
viscum misletoe : visk-, cf. viks- ll>6s. 

viscus internal organs : visk- cf . viks- t£ffe waist : ' growth, develop- 
ment,' fr. praeced. (as E. waist fr. wax Vb.). 
vita life : = *vivita gvivo-t- Lit. gywata, fr. vivus, cf. Gvrvo-T- &iott) 

Olr. beothu (E. usquebaugh). 
vitilena Plaut. Most. 213 (204), corrupt. 
vitis vine (E. vice 2 ): fr. vi-Td"- Part, from vied, see vlmeii, cf. vltex 

chaste-tree (Plin.), Ma willow, Ags. vldie withe E., Ags. vldig willow 

E. vrithy, Lit. wytis withe OSlav. vitl twisted, cf. voi-t- OSlav. vetr'i 

branch, Zd. vaeti willow. 



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ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 117 

vitium defect (E. vice 1 ) : 

vito avoid : * feel loth towards, dislike,' fr. *v\tus ' forced ' Part, of vi-, 

vis Subst., see invltus, 
vit-ri-cus stepfather: * marrying a widow,' fr. *vid-ra widow, see 

viduus. 
vitrum woad, glass (as of a bluish tint : E. varnish vitriol) : vit-, cf. 

voit 7 - Ags. vad woad E. 
vitta band : 'woven,' = *vlta Part. Fern, from vi- see vied v'ttis. 
vitulor keep holiday (E. fiddle viol): 'enliven myself,' fr. *vltula Dimin. 

of vita* 
vitulus calf (ira\6s ; E. veal vellum) : ' yearling,' see vetus, vet- cf. Got. 

vnthrus lamb E. wether. 
vivo live (E. viands): avfv- Arm. keam I live (= *kivam), Zd. Sk.jiv- 

live, cf. gveiv- fcloficu shall live, sq. 

Perf. vlxi and Supine vlctum are fr. vigeo. 
vivus alive : gvivo- Olr. blu, Lit. gijwas OSlav. UvU, Sk. jivds, ct gvivo- 

filos life, Got. qius alive Ags. cvic cvicu- (with -c- developed before -u) 

E. quick whitlow, cf. praeced. 
vix hardly : = *vic-su (for term, see mox), fr. vicem, ' at the chance of 

circumstances '. 
voco call: vokv- faa Ace. voice, OHG. gi-wahan to mention NHG. 

ev-wahnen, Pruss. wackis war-cry, cf. vekv- tiros word, Zd. Sk. vac- 
speak. 
tvolaema volema warden-pears : Gaulish for « good and large ' 

(Serv.). 
void wish : vol- cf. vel- velle Inf., Got. viljan to will E. E. well weal 

wild, Lit. wilyti wish OSlav. veleti, Zd. Sk. var- choose. 
void fly (E. volley) : 'drop,' gvl-, see balanus. 
volup agreeably : 

hardly cf. velp- 4\irls hope. 
volva vulva integument : vlv- Sk. tilvam caul, cf. sq. 
volv5 roll (E. revolt vault) : volv- Olr. fulumain rolling W. olwyn 

wheel, Got. &i~valvjan roll away E. loallow, cf. velu- 4\v<r0els rolling. 
vomer vomis ploughshare : 

hardly = *vox-m4s from voghv-s-, cf. vonghv-s- ONor. vangs-ni 
(Fritzner), from voghv- Hesych/o^Ws, OHG. waganso, Pruss. v)ag- 
nis coulter. 
vomd : vom-, cf. vem- i/U« t Lit. wemiu vomo, Zd. Sk. vam- vomere, and 

vem- ONor. vdma qualm. 
voro devour : gvob- Zd. Sk. gar-, cf. gver- Lit. girti to drink, Arm. ker 

food, gvro- Ir. broth, gvb- OSlav. grillo throat, gvb- Ptfydaicw devour 

&opd food. 
vos ye : vo- OSlav. va Dual, Zd. vdo Ace. Plur., see vester. 



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S 



n8 ETYMOLOGICAL LEXICON 

voveo vow (E.) : OUmbr. vuvci a vow : 

not from (1) ovo- &<rfi cry or ty-yfai pledge, or Umbr. would be *bov$i; 
(2) voghv- cf . Sk. vagh&t sacrifice, or Perf. would be *wxi. 
vox voice (E.) : vokv- Sk. v&k, cf. vokv- vocd. 
vulgus volgus multitude : volgv- Sk. vdrgas class. 
vulnus volnus wound : = *volinu8 vol-en-es- cf . vol-na ov\4i scar 

vel-n- vello. 
vulpes volpes fox : dialectic for *volques, vlkv- see lupus, beast-names 

being confused, 
vultur voltur vulture : vol-, ci. vel- vello. 
vultus voltus face : 

hardly fr. volo> which gives too weak a meaning. 

tzamia loss : (afiia Dor. = Cn/xla Ion. : 
tzephyrus west wind : (tyvpos, cf. (6<j>os west. 

tzdna girdle : fl&nj, = *(<i><r-vn from jos- Lit. jiisiu I gird OSlav. jn-jasfi 
girdle, Zd. yah- gird oneself (Spiegel). 



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COMPARATIVE ETYMOLOGY 

(Letters given in Capitals are those of the Ursprache.) 

LATIN. 

i remains, see e.g. is pix vir; before j it = tjejUnus, seejent6] unac- 
cented before r (from s) it = e miser. Final it = e ante mare, which 
often drops (orig. before an initial vowel), ad- amb- ast aut et hie ob 
post quot tot utj instar siremps. — Dialectic compression by omission of 
unaccented i (of whatever origin) between consonants, see forceps 
sesqui- sinciput, splended j Uncus uncia, 6rn6 usurpd drded, ipse abdomen, 
mulficia antestor fasttdium portdrium pdstuU, pond sumo, and below 
on v. Contraction : i + hi = I bimus, ae + hi = ae praeda. 

u cutis furd lucerwi. After Lingual it = later v calvor mtlvus pelvis sal- 
mis 8ilva, larva : Metathesis after dl dulcis. Final it drops mox, see 
vix red-. 

ij written u, later i : clued culullus domusfrutex jungd lacruma lubet lunter 
luo manubiae numerus pugnus pungd supd surpiculus sus- opp. cliens 
culillus domidlium frUillus igitur lacrima libet linter lito manibiae 
nimis pignus pingo dissipd sirpus sirempse; seefimus ligo miser nimbus 
redivivus stipula stringd supercilium lingo and below on the short 
sonants. Unaccented before r it = e socer. Dialectically it = o 
soboles. 

E ego jero sequor ; dialectically it = i cicer cicur filix fistula in milium 
nisi niteo pinna plied sileo singuli sinister spicid tribus via vindicd vitu- 
lus, see quinque and below on m n. — Before nasal + g" it = a anguilla 
frangd : before 1 + any consonant but v it = u mulced ulcus ulmus, 
see below on adulter indulged ; before v it = o foved moved novem novus 
ov6 sows or (see on o) u juv6 pluit viduus. It = o after initial s 
from 8V, socer sonus sopor soroi', or initial c from kv, cold coqud 
corium cortex (also u, cucumis culina). — Pretonic e, unless saved 
by analogy, = a : in Noun-stems in eS palea, n6 (na) alnus catena 
magnus stagnum taberna, l£ tabula, r6 aper sacer, k£ vacca, i as ratis 
vas, u gradus manus, j£t aries, id lapis ; Verb-stems in f capid facio 
jacid sapid, e canded maneo pateo, & amoflagrd, isko nanciscor paciscor ; 



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COMPARATIVE ETYMOLOGY 



and Prepositions ad- af. — Unaccented e (i.e. in any syllable but the 
first) before two consonants remains haruspex or (diaiectically, see 
above) = i see semis ; before a single consonant it = ii i.e. u famulus 
nuncupo occulo or i arbiter compitum diligo inquilinus inquino memint 
oppido permities, unless preserved by ' Kecomposition ' elegans intel- 
legd neglego impetus, — Final b drops (see on i) in ceu haud neg-lego non vel. 

domus ob potis ; diaiectically = ii, i.e. u or i, locus-lucuna-Uico, colober- 
coluber colpa-culpa dolus-sedulo locusta-lucusta poUer-pulcer, polio-pudet, 
clupeus-clipeus cunctus-cingo recupero-reciperd umMlicus-imbilicus, see 
cunctor cupio gumia humus luxus murmur umbo umbra ungo, cinis imber 
similis, and below on l b. — Later = u in atonies cum (Prep., cf. hunc 
sunt) and before consonant in final syllable of polysyllables centum 
filius genus robur &c. Initial vo remains by analogy in vocd void 
volvo, else later = ve vegeo vellu-s venia verbum verto vespa vester (or, 
pretonic, va, varius vocd, see below) ; so initial vo from gvo = ve 
vescor veto. Initial quo remains by analogy in quot quotus, else = que 
(see on b) or qui (see e above) quisquiliae (o canis see below). — o 
before v = a avis caveo cavus faveo favilla favus gravis lavo pavid, 
unaccented u (see above on a) exuo. — Pretonic o, unless saved by 
analogy, = a : in Noun-stems in & ansa valva 6 valgus (or in these two 
the al may = l) i6 radius varius t6 amarus air ox (and see catus), f 
canis; Verb-stems in e cracens (see gracilis) placeo f a vaco. — o final = 
e illc iste tame (see tarn). — Contraction : o + o = 6 proles, and so o + a 
cogitd. 

a ago caper pater. Unaccented before two consonants it = e convexus 
identidem necesse peregre sollemnis sublestus or i (see above on e) am- 
cinnus, or, before 1 + another consonant, u, adulter , see indulged; 
before a single consonant it = o aboleo (cf. Hecoba from 'E/cciiStj), later 
ii (see above on o), i.e. u (contubemium) or i adminiculum conquinisco 
destino vestibulum, which before r = c properus recipero sistere. — Con- 
traction : a + 6 = 6 do, no. 

1 acclinis vitex vivus; diaiectically = e avhia, reus (so covehriu, see curia 

= *co-verio), and see spica villa. 

u cupafumus mus. 

u spelt u fucus mutulus muius pitted scruta stupa t see supparum trugonus, 
or I ficus mitulus mitis pituita scrinium stipa, siparium trigonus, see 
flofrvgd gibbus limpidus minis spird stipes: also oe amoenus (see below 
on oi, eu, au). 

E femina res rex (to show the length spelt also ee see bald penna veTie- 
mens or che ehem mehe vehemens ; later Rtfaecundus laevis nae praelum 
vaenum, fcaepe fchaela fnaenia fpaelex fscaeptrum, or oe foecundus 
foetus moeta) ; diaiectically it = I sinciput subtllis y seQ farina villa and 
perhaps spica, and below on ei, ai. 



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COM PARA TIVE ETYMOLOG Y 121 

ddnum ndsco potus (to show the length spelt also oh oh proh) ; dialec- 
tically it = ii i.e. ufur hue jucundus nudus nutrio praestulor ulna upilio 
iter uva, see septuagintd, or I renldeo slspes (see sospes). — Pre tonic, un- 
less saved by analogy, it = a deer pldcd. 

Ifdgus mater suadeo (to show the length spelt also ah ah vah or aha aka 
vaha, see trans). 

Original vowel-length is often denoted by doubling the consonant 
following : 
i immo, hinnio (?), illico ille millia pilleus villa, cippus lippus quippe, 

gibbus, littera-littus mitto vitta (and fsagitta?), crisso (fsarissa). 
u dummetum nummus, cunnus, cucullus culullus culleus, cuppa stuppa 

fsupparum suppus, friguttio futtilis glutlio gutta muttio mutto, buccina 

muccus ftuccetum, suggillo, fussus russus. 
E penna strenna vennucula, belluafelld hellud mustella pelluis sella (from 

sedda) stellio tellus, susurrus terra (cf. Fest. fcreterra from Kprjrrjpa). 

nonne, lolligo, porricio. 

1 damma flamma lammina, annus pannus, failed allium allucinor cal- 
llgo, narro parriclda sarrio, vappa (cf. appludd sapplnus), attdt battuo 
quattuor stlattdrius, accipiter baeca fbraccae fbracchium flaccus vaccilU, 
nassus. 

Conversely, for a short vowel + two consonants may be written a long 
vowel + a single consonant, amentum coturnlx stipendium suspicio. 

A long vowel is shortened before 

(1) another vowel, or h + vowel : I dies hid proprius vioU nihilum, ii 
cruor prulna rub 1 ruo 4 , e deinde neo reor (see ceu), 6 (from ov) cloaca, 
a traho. 

(2) nt contiofontis ventus (but mSntula nuntius probably earlier forms), 
nd vindico (but nundinum prendo). 

(3) final m clam, r prosper, d sed. 

ei remains in Interj. hei, else later = 1 dlco fldo lived, dialectically e 
llvis and see ceu deus. Before vowel it = e eo queo scred, see tree. 

01 later = oe foedus (Subst. and Adj.) moenia soera, later still U i.e. ii 
cunae cura fuscus ludus munus murus muto mutd pumex unus utor or 1 
cllvus pdus (Subst.) tibia or (dialectically, see above on i) e fedus 
(Subst. and Adj.) : pretonic, unless saved by analogy, it = ae caecus 
(later mis-spelt oe). 

ai later = ae aevum caedo scaeva (later mis-spelt oe coelum coena hoedus 
inoereo poenitet), or dialectically (' rustic ') e cena gleba hedus heres 
obscenus pene seculum s§ta titer. Before vowel, or h + vowel, it = a 
a'eneus aheneus, in Compounds e prehendd. Unaccented ai = i si, 
and see ollvum. 



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COMPARATIVE ETYMOLOGY 



eu remains in Interjs. Zheu heu heus, else = 3 i.e. u ducd gusto lubricus 

luged luridus lux nutd pluma prima ructd or I liber. 
ou = later u clUnis cudo lucus mucus publicus rubigo, dialectically 5 pob- 

licus rdbigd ; both with shortening before vowel, cluaca cloaca, Pre- 

tonic ou, unless saved by analogy, = au auris aurora fraus, see 

autumd. 
au auged caulis haurid ; dialectically = ii (vulgar ?) cludus culeus cupd 

frustrd frustum nugae rudus sudus (also, to show the length, spelt ou 

roudus), 5 ( 4 rustic ') adorea clddic6 dodo cdleus cdpd corns crdcid ndgae 

dlla 5men origa 6s dstium otium plddo pldstrum rodus sodes and see Jons. 

Unaccented au = fi i.e. u adulor indiiutiae obtUrd or oe oboedio or e 

obSdid. 
5u before vowel = *ov iv oct&vus : bovis, like bds, is un-Roman. 
au before vowel = iv navis ; before consonant (after loss of i) it = au 

claudd gaudcdj dialectically (see above on au) u cludo. 

Dialectically h is prefixt to an initial vowel, Ivaud haurid haved herus hie 
hodii homus humerus and Interjs. hau hex heja hSm. In hcUec halu- 
cinor harUndd helluo herciscor hires honus it is doubtful whether it 
is original or prefixt. It is added between vowels to prevent hiatus 
in aheneus nihil. 

Sonants. 

m = em gcminl temno, decern novcm septem i or (see above on e) im simul ; 
when unaccented in trisyllables it = urn i.e. urn or im aestimd autumb 
optumus. 

N = en centum dens densus ensis genu mens mensus mentum tenuis, ingens 
juvenis lumen (after v with Contraction in ndnus ; = e [or e ?] before x 
exta), or (see above on e) in in- infit (?) infula inter lingua pinguis, 
dominus terminus tintind vlgintl (= I before gn ignis). 

l = ol dol6 holus polled stolidus toler6 t or (see above on o) til i.e. ul culnws 
fulgeo fulica fulvus gula mulgeo multus pulcer pullus (Subst. and Adj.) 
sculpo stulius tuli, gurgulid promulgd, angulus cumulus dlscipulus /ice- 
dula manipulus saeculum stimulus stipula tabula trdgula, or il similis 
concipild ridilus. — Initial vl dialectically = hi (see below on b) lupus, 
else vol volpes volva (and so GV£-, void) or vul vulpSs vulva. 

B = or cor corbis cornu dormid dorsum forndx foro fors fortis horreum 
hortor morn morded morior oiHor por- porrum portioportd portus scortum 
sorbed sors sporta storea torped extorris (which before sc for *csc = d 
posed) , or (see above on o) ur curculid curtus fumus spurcus turpis 
ursus er (for *ir, see above on u) iterum uterus auger uber. — vb dia- 
lectically = rii i.e. ru quadru- trua trux or ri quadri- ; else = vor vorro 
(or, after t, uor quattuor) or (when initial) *vur ur urged urtica, later 



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COMPARATIVE ETYMOLOGY 123 



when initial (see above on o) ver verbera vermis verro. So initial 
.kvr = *quor *quur cur currd, later quer qucrcus : initial gvr = *g , or 
gur gurges-gnrgulio, dialectically = vor voro. 

ft = am tamen. — n = an anguis manus or na gndrus-navus ndscor, which 
after m = a germdnus humdnus. 

£• = al callum calvus falld palma 1 scalpo (by Dissimilation ar largus) or 
la clddes cldmd fldvus fio latus Part., see clam flaccus. — b = ar ardea 
arduus argentum armus ars carduus carpdfarcid haruspex marceo margo 
paro quartus varix (which before st = afastigium) or ra crdbro crdssus- 
crdtis frdxinus grdnum grdhis prdtum prdvus radix ramus varus strdmen. 

Consonants. 

m remains, see e.g. mcdius : = n before J lanius venio, t centum quantus 
d dcindc, c nunc nuneubl, s ama mensa : before 1 it = p f plumbum, 
before r it = b brevis (see hlbemus), and so before e tuber. — Omitted 
before nc nuiicupo, sq sesqui-, and between r and c forceps. — Final urn 
drops (originally before an initial vowel) in eras (?) donee nihil nimis 
procul quln sed simul sin. 

N nemus : = m before Labial semper imbuo : assimilated before r irrlto. — 
nm in Derivatives = rm carmen germen norma (in Compounds = mm 
immuto) : nt before n drops with compensation x vlcenl : ns dialec- 
tically = s with compensation vesica, dropt with compensation before 
m imus trdma v trdveho. 

L lingo : by Dissimilation it = r caeruleus largus or (in a Compound) 
drops multicia. — ln from len remains ulna vulnus, else = 11 bulla 
callum coll is follis fullo pellis procella pnllus vellus, antecello fallopello 
percello polled recello tollo vello : ls = 11 collum. 

R ruber : by Dissimilation it = 1 columns (?) or (before c) n cancer : 
before 1 in Compounds it is assimilated intelligo pollingo, in Deriva- 
tives dropt (with compensation if required) see stella stilla. Dialec- 
tically omitted after st clandestlnus frustum mediastinus praestigiae. — 
Dialectically ri ri rii become er, hlbernus lucerna noverca tcr cervix, 
acerbus qicater tero, see testis. — rs = rr ccrritus curro err 6 farra garrid 
Jwrreo horreum parreo parriclda porrum terreo torreo verres verruca, but 
before t = s with compensation fdstigium. fdstus testis, before n drops 
cena : unoriginal rs remains accerso dorsum ursus, but dialectically = 
ss dossum pessum or after a long vowel s sudsum and so (with com- 
pensation) before c posed. 

1 I.e. the vowel is lengthened to make up for the dropping of one or more of the 
following consonants : the syllable thus retains its weight though its elements are 
reduced m number. 



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124 COMPARATIVE ETYMOLOGY 



J initial jecur jocus juvenis, drops before i ici6 igitur. Between vowels 
it usually drops, see plus, but remains (lengthening the vowel before 
it) in Reduplication jejenio jejunus, onomatopoeic words ejuU, and 
terminations satureja. It = i (in the classical dialect) after Liquid 
lanius venio, alius folium lien opilid salid, caesaries, v vietus (?), d 
medius, c socius : drops after h her! p spud s suo. 

v initial vehd vir voco : remains before u + 1 vulgus vulnus vulpes vultur 
vultus vulva (unless c follow, ulciscor), drops before u (or u) + any 
cons, but 1, uncus unda urbs urceus urged urtica uxor urlna: drops 
before Lingual lana liquo radix repens. — Intervocalic v drops (dialec- 
tically) before u reus deus foleum (dea olea are due to analogy), 
*saluus (whence salvus) from *saluvus; and after u duo exuo pluit puer 
sum tuus viduus (but uv remains after } juvenis juvd or before i from J 
exuviae pluvius). Unaccented vi or ve later (1) after a short vowel 
drops the i or e and vocalises the v : thus ov = ou = u bubulus curia 
nundinae or dialectically 5 forties contio fdns nondiiiae nonus, av = au 
audeo autumd raucus saucius; (2) after a long vowel or diphthong 
drops entirely (for claudo gaudeo t in which the i first drops and then 
av becomes au, see above on au) : traho, fuligo vita fibula nitor uligo 
umeo, aeauus pra&co praedes. — Postconsonantal v remains after Lin- 
gual alvus arvum, but dialectically = b gilbus cor bus ferbeo sorbum, or 
(as in Oscan) assimilates after 1 mella mollis palled sollus (cf . mlllio 
beside mllvus) ; remains (spelt u) after q from k equus, and after s 
suadeo-sudvis (but se serius si sordes : drops before u sudor) ; is vocal- 
ised later after n tenuis t t quaUuor, d arduus duellum (but, later still, 
initial dv = b bellum bis bonus, medial dv = v suavis) ; drops after f 
(from dh) fallo foris forum, and in an atonic syllable after d de dis- 
dims.—FineA v (after loss of -e) = u ceu (cf. neu sen). 

P nepos pater plenus ; drops initially before t tilia (?) s sabulum (?) st 
sternuo studeo, and between s and t hostis (in Compounds the s drops, 
Fest. vo-pte = vds) or 1 lien. It assimilates before Labials summus 
suffio, = m bef . n damnum omnis somnus. Final p remains, volup ; ab 
ob sub were originally used only before Mediae, and the b drops with 
compensation before s-p dsper or m (from s-m) dmentum. 

B (rare) labium lambo lubricus ; dialectically = v sevum and perhaps 
arvlnaferveo fvdro vatillum vertex. Before n it = m dominus; before 
1 from d it remains in publicus, elsewhere = p amplus duplex exemplum 
maniplus (so before 1 from d dlscipulus manipulus) : before original L 
it = p or dialectically m, concipilo-cumulus stipula-stimulus. 

bh initial before vowel = f far fero fungor &c, dialectically h haba Kara 
(?) hariolus herba horctum Korreum and perhaps harena hircus (some- 
times omitted, ariolus, arena ircus) or b barba battud bulla im-buo: 
before Lingual it = f frango frater frlgo de-frulum &c, dialectically b 



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COMPARATIVE ETYMOLOGY 125 

Mater 6. — Medial it dialecticaUy = f serf fa, else b glubo ambi- albus 
orbus &c, which before n = m amnis scamnum, before 1 either re- 
mains scabellum or (dialecticaUy) = p scapulae, before pi drops 
ampins. 

t pater tendo tres ; drops between r and m vermina, p and s ipse, kv and v 
quartus, later between s and 1 lis locus, and when final after s in 
Nom. os. Before Nasal it = s *resmos pesna, later drops with com- 
pensation remus peena (so nt, sescenl viceni) or doubled consonant 
penna cunnus: before 1 it drops if initial lotus (Part.), if medial = c 
saeclum (see lis) and so before | saeculum. Assimilates before c ecce 
siccus vacca, cf. ecquis : drops before s nox. — tt = ss fessus passus or 
(after consonant) s densus dorsum. hirsUtus mensus, but before r = st 
capistmm lustrum : tt from ti-t = t after consonant, antestor fdstldium 
portorium. 

d died duo rodo : dialecticaUy = (1) 1 (as in some Oscan dialect, see 
f famulus), initial lacrima largus lautia llmpidus lingua, between 
vowels adulor aemulus (?) ancile (?) aquilus baliolus calamitds consilium- 
solium-consul-exul ifamulus mlluus (?) mulier oleo polio reluvium remc- 
llgo (?) scdlae sileo squalor stilus fstrigilis, before consonant almus mella 
(sella) ultrd-ulva % after consonant amplus-duplex publicus and malus : 
(2) r (cf. Varr. L. L. 5. 110 'perna a pede,' quasi *pedre), apor ar 
cared cur (cf. quirquir = quidquid Varr. L. L. 7. 8) mered muria (?) 
varius, accerso mergo virga, and (perhaps DissimUation, for 1) glarea 
merula ploro. — Before m it drops with compensation amentum fiamen 
squama : before 1 it assimilates allex : before r it remains dialecticaUy 
quadra- and by analogy quadra, else = t atrox nutrio taetrum utrem 
and so before r uterus: before d drops with compensation credo: 
before c assimUates accerso. For dv see on v. — dt = ss assis pessulus 
cassus gressus lassies spissus or (after long vowel, diphthong, or con- 
sonant) s sudsum caesius tonsa, but before r or J = st/rustra (pestulus). 
— D after n dialecticaUy (cf . Campanian upsannam = operandam) 
assimilates in gnennio fmannus, cf * Plaut. MU. Glor. 1407 dispennite 
. . . et distennite. 

dh initial- = f faber facio felld fikmus furo", /alio /oris, frustum. Medial 
it = b (dialecticaUy f) before r glabro- libra rubro- umbra, after r 
arbor barba verbum, after m or n lumbus (infit), and in the classical 
dialect after u or u jubeo rubeo (rufus) uber : elsewhere it = d caedo 
fidelia fides 1 fodio gradus rudis vades vadum vidulus viduus (which, 
see above on d, dialecticaUy = 1 caelebs melior stilus, or r caerimdnia 
merus ergd firmus), and so between r and original v arduus. (This 
d before r = t vitricus, and so before r or } iterum rutilus.) Final 
it = d ad-, dialecticaUy f af. — dht = ss assula, after consonant = s 
infensus, but before r or J = st monstrum (astukt). 



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126 COMPARATIVE ETYMOLOGY 

k = c accllnis cis decern, later dialectically = ch pulcer : before v it = q 
aquilus equus queror or (after loss of v) c canis : dialectically = g in 
singull vlgintl. Before Nasal it = g in the accented syllable dignus 
magmentum, dropt by analogy dSnl : before t dialectically assimilates 
fbrattea, or drops with compensation cdtumix settles (cf. pdstulo from 
*pdscitulo, and see percontor). — ks = x coxa dexter ex saxum sex (dialec- 
tically ss famussim assis nassa pessimus tossillae), or, before sc, s 
with compensation composed dlscd pdscd (see also on misced), and 
so before c sesc&nl : before 1 this drops with compensation ala mala 
talus, cf . panllus tdles (see tonsillae). So kth = x texd, or s before t 
testa or after r ursus : before a Liquid this drops with compensation 
tela temd. 

G ego genus regd. This in the accented syllable remains before m agmen 
sagmen (?), in the unaccented syllable drops with compensation sub- 
temen suffidmen: before initial n it (later) drops narro nascor navus 
nlctd nited nosed : drops before medial j major. — gs = x, which before 
1 drops pdlus. 

GH before vowel = h haedus haruspex hasta helvus hiems holus homo horreo 
hortor hortus humus (dialectically omitted anser and sometimes aedus 
aruspex olus ortus), vehd (dialectically omitted via, and with contrac- 
tion bimus) : dialectically f folus fovea, g" gemini gilvus gutta (which 
before final a = c, praefica, see below on gv). Before or after con- 
sonant it *= g gldrea grdmen grdtus (so before 1 tragula), ango Jingo 
lingo mirigd pinguis, which before j drops with compensation ajo 
mejd, and so in the unaccented syllable before n inanis, before t = c 
nectd vectis, + s = x vexillum (dropt before Liquid velum, see vena) : 
dialectically iflavus, infula. 

kv (1) as a ' fixt ' velar, with no sign of labialisation in any language, 

• = c callum carpo cicer collis cortex coxa culcita dulcis lucerna lucus 
mucus seed vacilld and before consonant crdssus crepo (dialectically 
assimilated before t blatta ; before j it = g pulegium or drops 
bdjulus pUlejum). This c, + », =x axis exta lux, see nox; which 
drops before Liquid lumen luna. (2) as a labialisable velar = qu 
(i.e. qv) aqua conguinisco coquo frequens inquillnus liquo loquor quaero 
quatio -que queo quercus qui quinque (dialectically, as in Oscan, p 
crepd palpo prope quippe), also later written c areas ceu cold coquo corpus 
jecinoris jocus locus quercus : always written c before u (obliquus late) 
cum (Conjunction) cura jecur oculus or consonant (dropping before d 
dodrans and later between r and tfortis), e.g. before original zfarcid 
llcium provincia socius (before n this c = g lignum), and so when 
final ac nee. 

GV (1) as a * fixt ' velar = g garrid gelus gibbus, auged ligd, which before 
t = c auctumnus luctor, dialectically dropt atUumnus. This g, + s, 



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COMPARA TIVE ETYMOLOG Y 127 

= x auxilium, dropt before m omen. (2) as a labialisable velar = gu 
(i.e. gv) inguen stinguo, also written g flgo fitgo dingo tingo ungo erga 
(which before final a in trisyllables, on analogy of fabrica manica 
pedica &c, = c fulica pertica fsublica, cL famurca fspelunca, see on 
praejka under gh) : always written g before u angulus gurges-gurgulio 
or consonant dgnus gravis-congruo (before t this g = c, later dropt 
after r fcrtum). — Dialectically : (1) in the Roman dialect it = v, 
initial valeo varius verU vescor veto vivo void voro ; medial conlveo seve- 
rus uva uvidus (with contraction fibula nitor nudus timed), dropping 
after u fluo fruor struo (before i from j the v remains, fluvius) : (2) 
in the Oscan dialect it = b badius baculum bardus bitumen bds, blandus 
brutus. 

ghv (1) as a * fixt ' velar (see above on gh), before vowel = h hdbeo 
Jiaereo hilum-hira hordeum hostis prehendo (dialectically omitted abdo- 
men-abundd Ilia-Ira ordeum } and with contraction praeda prendo) : 
dialectically f fames fel filum fostis funis (?). Before or after con- 
sonant it = g" glaber gradus, indulged-largvs y which before t = c lectus : 
dialectically f fremo frid. (2) as a labialisable velar = gu (i.e. gv) 
liiigua ninguity also written g ningit tergum, which + s = x nix : 
dialectically before vowel = f forceps. Between vowels v brevis levis 
nivem. 

khv (1) as a * fixt ' velar = g congius ; after s = c scindo. (2) as a 
labialisable velar = gu (i.e. gv) unguis. 

s before vowel salio sequor solum : between vowels = r erus furo uro 
quaero auris &c. (ornd from *6sin£\ anser arbor vomer with r from 
oblique cases), omitted after r + vowel cruor prior- proprius pruina 
7-uo 1 and (before v) prlvus rivus, but later remaining prurio roraril. 
Intervocalic s remains in Compounds positus and Reduplication 
susurrus, dialectically in nasus, and (perhaps to denote a soft s, Eng. 
z) in caesaries cam miser pusus quasillum vdsa, and in the loan-words 
asinus bdsium blaesus emeus cisium gaesum laserpicium : in causa quaeso 
frosa the s is from ss, in fusus from dt. — s remains before v suavis 
(see above on v), and before Tenues spes std scid, dialectically, 
dropping initially in parcus pendo pild polio, tabula tegd tergum tibia 
titubo tundo turba turdus trltavus, cauda caveo cerno cerrUus coruscus. 
It drops before f refert, and, with compensation if required, before m 
mica miluus (?) minae mordeo (see sum) dumus primus sumo tarn -met, 
n neo nix nurus alnus annus avena cdnus (?) fdnum farina llnum panis 
(?) perna pone p6n5 prima venerium verbinae, 1 laM langueo lubricus pila 
prelum qualum velum 1 (and so after loss of interconsonantal p lien, 
see splendeo, and, later, t lamina-lotus lis locus). Before r initial it 
= f fraga frigus, before r medial it dialectically = f infrd, else = b 



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128 COMPARATIVE ETYMOLOGY 



cerebrum crdbrdfibra mcmbrum sdbrtnus tenebrae. — Dialectically it suffer* 
Metathesis with c aesculus ascla luxus iriscum viscus, see assula pessulus. 
z before d drops, with compensation if needed, audio crudusfoedus (Adj.) 
hordeum mdlus nidus pedo pridem sldo sudus turdus. zdh = st custos 
hasta. 



[Genesis of Latin Letters. 

(I give first the Latin letter, then the various letters (or combinations 
of letters) of the Ursprache, or of older Latin, which it may repre- 
sent. ) 

a = a ago, ai before vowel or h denus ahenus, o pretonic canis or before 
v cavus. — = ave before h traho: — e pretonic gradus or before ng 
frango. — a- may = ha- abundd anser ariolus: am an al ar may respec- 
tively = fi§ES tamen unguis calvus arduus. 

a = I fagus : = n after m germdnus humanus, = r before s fastigium 
fdstus sudsum. — = ab before s dsper, ad before m amentum, ag or 
ag" unaccented before nasal suffldmen indnis, ans before m trama, 
as before 1 qudlum and so mdlus, ax before 1 dla pdlus : = 5 pretonic 
deer or before v octdvus. — na la ra may = n l r gndrus clddes grdmen. 

ae = ai aevum, — = aevi aequus praedes aevo praeco aehi praeda, aes 
before n caena : = e (late) laevis : = oe pretonic coccus. — ae- may = 
hae- aedus. 

au = au auged, pretonic ou auris or ouz before d audio. — = avi raucus 
autumS avi gaudeo. 

b = b baubor t bh medial glubo, dh medial labor liber barba libra, m before 
r hlbemus tuber, s before medial r cerebrum. — = v dialectically after 
lingual gilbus sorbum. — b- may = bh- dialectically battuo blaterd im- 
buo, gv- baeulum brutus, m- before r brevis^ dv- bonus : -b may = -p 
from -pi ob or -po sub. 

c = k centum, kv area, k-v canis, khv after s scindo. — = g before t 
lectus luctor necto or final a in trisyllables fulica praefica : = t before 
guttural ecce acquis or medial 1 saeclum or ul (l) saeculum. — c- may 
= skv- caved : -c may = -ce sic or -cum donee. 

ch = c (dialectically) pulcer : in loan-words x chinjsos. 

d = d do, medial dh gradus arduus. — = t dialectically edcpol. — d- may 
= dv- pretonic dis- : -d may = -de haud, -du red-, -dhi ad-. 



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COMPARATIVE ETYMOLOG Y 129 



. e = e ferpy ei before vowel eo, 1 before r in the unaccented syllable 
anser or final ante, o later after initial v vespa. — = a unaccented 
before two consonants peregre or r properus : = en (n) before x exta, 
ev before u deus and by analogy dea : = e before final r prosper or d 
sed. — ee or ehe may = e veemens vehemens : em en may = m n temno 
dens, and -em may = -en (-N) decern ; en before t may = em (y) 
centum : er may = R unaccented uterus, ei hibernus ei cervix, eu 
acerbus socer. 

e = e res, ez before d pedo. — = ed before s esca, ec before s compesco and 
dialectically before t setius, ehe mentula prendo, en before s vesica, 
eat before n viceni, er before s testis,. es before 1 velum 1 , et before m 
remus, ex or ex before liquid tela-temo vilum 2 ~vena (?), em from 
emi sesqxii-, es before consonant refert : (later) = ae seculum cena : = 
unaccented au ohedio : = i levis, 1 before j jej'uniis. 

eu = eu onomatopoeic heus. — eu may = -eve ceu. 

f = bh initial fagus frango and dialectically medial scrdfa, dh initial 
facio and dialectically medial infit (?) rufus, dhv initial f alio f oris, gh 
initial folus fldvus and dialectically medial in/ula, ghv initial fremo, 
s before r initial frigas and dialectically medial infra (and so before 
r inferus). — = b before f suffio. — f may = -dhi af. 

g =■ G genH, GV garrio filgo dgnus gravis, gh gilvus gldrca grdmen trdgula 
Jingo, ghv glaber largus ningit, khv congius. — = c before n dignus 



gfu (i.e. gv) = gv after n ingven, ghv ninguit, khv unguis. 

h initial = bh herba, gh hiems, ghv hatred : intervocalic = gh veho. — 
prefixt herus, inserted ahenus, to show vowel-length ah vaha (of. 
NUmbr. preplohotatu beside preplotatu, see trans). 

i = 1 #£r, j after consonant w?wo. — = i before vowel or h dies nihil and 
so by dissimilation ir prior : = unaccented a de&tind and so concinnus : 
= e felix diligo, eh before vowel via : = u (ti) cZie7w and from o clipem 
ilicQ quisguiliae. — i- may = ji- iciti igitur: vox in may = m n simul 
inter dominus, il may =» unaccented l similis. 

i = 1 wpms, iz or iz before d ?ii^U5 pridem, ei /Idtf, e before nq guingue, 
u stipa and so from eu liber 61 £&ia 6 sispes.— = in (n) before gn 
^7125, ins before m tmus : ihi blmus, iji fttgrou, Ivi fibula nitor vita. — I- 
may = hi- ira or his- before 1 ilia. 

y initial = J semivowel jecur or * spirant ' jugum : medial = J semivowel 
}Qulb satureja jqjunus, gj major ajo and this from cj pulej'um. 

9 

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i 3 o COMPARATIVE ETYMOLOGY 



1 = L lingo, dialectically d lacrima solum : by assimilation 2? bulla B 
stella v (dialectic) sollus s collum, in compound d allex. — 1- may = vl- 
liqud TL- Vitus sl- langued spl- Zten, stl- to: -1 may = -le vel, -lum 
nihil. 

m = m mater : = b before in (n) dominus or ul (l) cumulus or n scamnwn> 
= n before p semper, = p before nasal summus damnum : = mbi before 
p amplus. — m- may = sm- mica : -m may = -me tarn. 

n = n nebula, m before J venio, by dissimilation r cancer. — = m before 
c nunc d deinde n (popular etymology) sollennis s ansa ; = t before n 
penna ; = d dialectically after n grunnio \mannus ; by contraction = 
men nuncupd mjuncus nte antestor. — n- may = gvn- nited, sn- neo : -n 
may = -ne non. 

o = o ob, before vowel ou cloaca, e after initial c (kv) cold or s (sv) 
socer or before v novus. — = unaccented a aboleo. — o- may = ho- 
ortus : ol or may = l b tolerd cor, and or- may = hors- (ghvbz-) 
ordeum. 

6 = o donum, ou robigo ou fbos, ao do ao nd. — = oa cogitd do proles, 
ove nondinae ovi fdrnes, 6-que dodrans : by compensation = oc 
(dialectically) before t cotumix, op-s before m omentum, ore (rk) 
before s posed, os (from o-si) before n pond : = au copo, aux before 
m omen. 

oe = oi foedus Subst., oiz before d foedus Adj. — (late) = ae hoedus coena 
or e foetus: = unaccented au oboedio. 

p = p pix, pj before vowel spud, m before 1 -tyZttm&wwi, dialectically kv 
prope. — = pt from pti before s ipse ; b before 1 (d) duplex ul (l) disci- 
pulus scapulae stipula. — p- may = sp- parcus. 

qu (i.e. qv) = kv aqua kvtv quartus, k-v equus. 

r = b rego, s after r erro. — = re before t fertum, rt before m vermina, 
by contraction ri usurpd rmi forceps rti portdrium : dialectically = d 
accersd mergd ergd : by dissimilation = 1 caeruleus largus : = n before 
m in derivatives carmen and before r in compounds irrttd : later = s 
between vowels erus and so si drnd. — r- may = vb- repens : -r may = 
-re instar* 

s = 8 sequor, sj before vowel sud, between vowels z (?) miser dt fusus 
sudsum, after consonant tt dorsum mensus dt totwa. — = ss between 
vowels causa, d before tr frOstra monstrum, t before n pesna and after 



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COMPARATIVE ETYMOLOGY <* 131 



r (d) accerso, x between vowels (dialectic) pausillus and before tenuis 
sescenl testa and after r ursus. — s- may = sv- sudor se si, pst- sternuo : 
ss may = tt fessus dt cassus dht gressus dhs jussi, dialectically rS 
pessum, in Greek words ( massa : sc may dialectically = x ascia luscus 
viscus : st may = dt (before J) astula, zdh custos : -s may = -ss (st) 
in Nom. os, -se siremps, -ssum eras (?). 

t = t tarn, d before r atrdx or er (b) uterus or il (l) rutilus, dh before r 
mtricus or er (b) iterum. — = tr dialectically after s mediastlnus, by 
dissimilation til multicia ; c dialectically before t blatta. — t- may = pt- 
tilia (?) st- tego : -t may = -te (ti) et post. 

u = u cutis, ti elueo, dialectically o clupeus, e after c (kv) cucumis or 
before lc ulcus lm ulmus, v after d duellum arduus n tenuis t quattuor. — 
= u before vowel ruo A and after r, from us cruor or ous ruo 1 ; = uv 
before vowel fluo, unaccented ov before vowel exuo viduus : = un- 
accented a amcutio adulter indulged e ffamulus, o in final syllable 
before consonant genus. — ul ur may = l b tull discipulus curtus : ul 
may = lu after d dulcis : lu- may = V£- lupus, ur- may = vb- urged. — 
u- may = vu- uxor. 

u = u fumus, u slupa, eu duco, ou clunis, dialectically o fur 01 cura au 
cludo cupd: uz sudus uz crudus. — = eu (ejo) plus'. = unaccented au 
adulor : = us before m sumo, ux before nasal lumen luna : = uvi 
jumentum uvi fullgo umeo ovi bubulus curia ovi nudus ove nundinae. — 
u- may = vu- urina. 

v = v veho, gv valeo uva, ghv between vowels brevis. — = medial dv 
sudvis : dialectically = b sevum. — Spelt u after guttural or s, aqua 
equus anguis suadco. 

x = ks coxa ghs vexillum, kvs exta gvs auxilium ghvs nix, kth texo, — 
-x may = -ksu mox. 

j = v ithymum : wrongly for u (from unaccented e) corylus. 
y = ipyramis. 

z = C fzephyrus fzdna. 

Any doubled consonant may simply denote that the preceding vowel 
was originally long.] 



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132 COMPARATIVE ETYMOLOGY 



UMBEIAN. 

(0 = Old Umbrian, the language of the first 4§ of the Eugubine Tables ; 
N = New, of the remaining 2J.) 

in = u see adoleo voveo. So 5 = u0 duplex. — v (from o) = u 
arbiter. 

1 = N ei qui. — X = a vas N trans, also written aha N trans. 
ei = e clitellae. — ai = e silicemium N cena. 

ou = u publicus, o N ru/us. — au = u aut, o N/<m». 

m before s = n N umerus. — ns final = f N trans , remaining when from 

nos N fons. 
E with Metathesis of e precor : rs remains silicemium N pared, before 

n = s in N cena. 
J (Lat. i) lost after 5 (from k) duplex. — v remains voveo. 
bh = f tribus. 
d medial = & adoleo ar duplex famulus piiblicus, N rs almus ar. — dh = 

f N ru/us. 
k dropt before s precor ; = ^Ns before e silicemium cena or original 

J duplex. — gh = h hortar, dropt between vowels via. 
kv = p N qui quis 2 . — gv initial = b veru, medial = p arbiter. 
s between vowels remains after long vowel hornus vas, = r after short 

vowel N sus. 

OSCAN. 

(Brackets denote that the word is from Roman grammarians, not 
epigraphic.) 

I written f see testis. — o = u qui. 

I = i qui ; in Volscian = e, written eh curia. — u after dental = iu 

lympha. 
E written ee terra or iifestus : X written sol famulus. 
oi remains in Paelignian cura. — ai written ai bito si, later ae diaeta or 

e (haedus). 
eu = 6v liber : ou = ov tuticus : au = av autem. 
R == or quattuor : b = ar, + inserted a argentum. 

v remains after s si, assimilates after 1 (sollus), drops after t quattuor k 

aquila. 
bh = f anfractus habeo (and kareiw, hircus ?) 



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COMPARATIVE ETYMOLOGY 133 

t later assimilates before d meddiz ; final = d edepol, — d dialectically 

= 1 {famulus), 
K aquila later spelt c card cedo. — gh = f (haedus ; and harena hircus?), 
kv = qu or c after r (hircus) s (tesqua), elsewhere = p quattuor qui. — 

gv = b bito cedo. 
s remains between vowels Paelignian curd (harena) and before nasal 

festus Paelignian primus, 

GEEEK. 

Vowels remain (both u and ft written w) : w dissimilates to see cuculus 
uluU ; v initial is aspirated sub super uterus uvidus ; o dialectically = w 
calix crdssus folium mola nox post prytanis umbra unguis. — Tp6<r0c(ris 1 
of e before initial double consonant satrapa r ardea remus rica rlpa f 
urged (lengthened in a polysyllable to n viduus) ; of before m mingo 
n unguis r rego ritus; of a before double consonant stella m malus 1 
delibutus f vas ventus. — iu/dirrv^is (insertion of a vowel between two 
consonants) of 1 largus sinapi tunica, v corymbus } sculpo, a palma 1 
phalanx scribo. 

Long vowels remain : v initial is aspirated sus, before an aspirate = ov 
fiber ; d in Ionic = n anser campus std &c. ; n shortens before vowel 
vto. — xp6(T0€(ns of u> before r rumor. 

Diphthongs remain : 01 = <p ovum, ov = ov bos, au = aw navis. 

M = a/i before vowel humus, a before consonant metus similis. 

N = av before vowel sine tenuis, a before consonant centum inguen pinguis 

&c. or final decern novcm septem. — N = yd (Ionic vy) anas. 
L = oA. edit fullo palma 1 , before consonant also Aa planta: vl = Aw 

lupus. — L = \aflavus or oA largus polled sulcus tolerd. 
R = ap argentum gravis jecur &c, before consonant also pa cor quartus 

turtur &c. — fi = poo ardea sterno vord or op carduus haruspex part. 



Liquids remain : 

m before lingual = j3 blitum brevis ; final = v centum hiems semel, — 
ms = vs = w = v membrum, see below on ns. 

n before labial = u corymbus, before guttural = y ancorn longus ango ; 
assimilates after I polled pullus Adj. and with compensation vellus, 
— ns before a vowel = Lesbian vv prjwos Gen. (see census) = v Ion. 
finv6s xwts see mensis anser (Nom. pf\v xh* tek© their v from the 
oblique cases) : ns final after a long vowel shortens the vowel and 

1 Prefixing a vowel to an (originally) initial double-consonant or liquid or v. 

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1 34 COMPARA TIVE ETYMOLOG Y 

then becomes s with compensation Dor. fifo Ion. fids see mensis : 
unoriginal vs (from vr) = s viginti. 
B initial suffers rp4<r0*<ris, see above, or (dialectically) aspirates ardea 
rdpum. 

J semivowel when initial = * h&ra jecur jocus : elsewhere 

(1) with liquid : mj = vj = tv comis fames venid : N J = iv Undo : p) = ip 
curtus periculum spira sterilis hortor : A j = AA alius praestolor. 

(2) with explosive : pj = wr spud : TJ after consonant = <r mucus : 
dhj = <r<r bardus medius : kj = <r<r conquinisco duco, and so kvj coquo 
farcid mucus oculus pix : gj = ( massa niugid : ghj initial = x^ ^ eri - 
So with sibilant, sj = <r<r pinso sud. 

j * spirant ' which in all other languages appears as a simple j, in 
Greek = ( jam jugum jungd jus 1 zona. 

v = f (dialectically j3 saucius), dialectically omitted, whether initial 
vehd vctus vis &c. lacer repeus rosa vermis (the vowel afterwards some- 
times aspirated ulcus vereor vesiis) or between vowels acvum divus 
wis &c. and after d bin dh falld ; after liquid transposed (as v) fames 
alvus sollus laurus nervus parvus urina. — rf initial = r quartus or dia- 
lectically <r setainum lurba trua % medial = tt or dialectically <r<r quat- 
tuor. — <rf = <r i.e. ' si socer suadeo sudor, dialectically ' tardea sudor or 
<r saglna : medial = <r blaesus. 

p and b remain : ir initial dialectically = wr perna pinso ; ir<r = ^, from 

xt before i dapsilis jocus or j neptis ; Metathesis of p (after s) and K 

specio. 
bh = <p amb6 Ac. or dialectically fligo liber : $ before vowel + aspirate 

= v fido fundus (for j8 see fodio), before t it = w cubt scabo : <f><r = $ 

depso. 

t and D remain : t = <r before i potis viginti (sometimes remains by 
analogy meta) v densus tu (dialectically remains tu), drops before p 
myrica and when final stercus. — 8 before t = <r uterus (8 drops before 
rpfindo meditor), before A = y dulcis. 

dh = 6 uber &c. ; before vowel -f aspirate it = r favilla fingo ; = <r before 
i robigd v sisymbrium $ viduus. 

k and g remain : * Affrication ' (ie. doubling) of k cacd laeus : k + f = * 
procdx, k + th = kt texo ursus, k + <r = | axis dexter ex luxus sex. 

GH — - x o>ngd &c. 

kv (1) as a 4 fixt ' velar = k cancer capio carduus carpo crates crusta cupa 
lux scando (by * Affrication ' kk cuculus), which + <r (from tj or r<r) = £ 



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COMPARATIVE ETYMOLOGY 135 

mucus nox. — (2) as a labialisable velar = w deer linquo sequor &o. 
(dialectically m- conquinisco : dropt before rp quart us), = t before 
€ quattuor -que quinque or 1 quia: dialectically k area (or kt 
jecur), and so after v lupus. 

GV (1) as a * fixt ' velar = y fugid gaivio grus jungo ructd tego. — (2) as a 
labialisable velar = bos gravis vord &c, = 8 before e inguen, = y 
after v aeefluo : dialectically y, grex gurgulio, which + <r = | ascia. 

ghv (1) as a 'fixt' velar = x fremo frU lectus. — (2) as a labialisable 
velar = <p nix, = before e forceps, = x before v levis (on * Affrication ' 
see bracchium). 

khv whether 4 fixt ' or labialisable = x congius scindo unguis (by ' Affri- 
cation ' kx soccus). 

s initial before vowel remains only dialectically sudus, else = ' sal sedeo 
septem (whence the dialectic prefix of ' , hama uro, see above on v) or 
dialectically * obsond sero 2 serum sine socius sol sollus; drops before n 
nix n6 nurus m (except dialectically) mucus murena mils 1 langueo, 
before r = ' sorbeo sorbum, remains before tenuis (by-forms without s 
pilleus stuped tego tergum turba caved cerritus) or aspirate scindo.- -s 
medial drops between vowels auris nurus uro &c. (the s preserved 
between vowels miser pinso porrum was perhaps a soft s) ,* drops, with 
compensation where required, before mjus 1 sum n llnum zona (dialec- 
tically without compensation llnum, or sn = w vestis) : bs remains 
torreo vcrres verro, later = pp garrifo verres. — pst- with Metathesis = 
*<nrr-, whence dialectically either <nr- studeo or m-- sternuo : so bzd- 
= *(Tj35- whence j85- pedo. 



IEISH. 

1 remains ; by o- or a- Umlaut 1 it = e miscco nix vir &c, by i-Umlaut 
= ei siccus, by u-Umlaut = iu liqud. 

u remains ; by o-Umlaut = o canis fui inclutus <fec, by i-Umlaut = ui 
frigo mulier. 

E accented remains nemus ; by i-Umlaut = ei decern genus steriHs, by 
u-Umlaut = eu veru, by e- o- a- Umlaut = i fe 16 lectus mel ne- ntpos 
plus quattuor soror : unaccented = a amnis nanciscor sum. By com- 
pensation it = e facio sex tepeo oeho (by i-Umlaut = ei venio, by o- 
Umlaut = ia velum 1 ), or, when pretonic, a remus telum. 



1 The influence of a vowel (or j or v) in the next following syllable ; which influ- 
ence remains even when that vowel (or j or v) has dropt.—* Uinlaut' is found also 
in Teutonic (not in Gothic), Armenian, and Zend. 



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136 COMPARATIVE ETYMOLOGY 

accented remains eo-, by i-Umlaut = ui dorsum mare margo monile 
solium Ulna varius (the ai in laigtt saidim, see levis seded, is obscure), 
by u-Umlaut = u volvo : unaccented = a nepds. 

A remains cdrus caterva taurus, by i-Umlaut = ai alius al6 ai &c, by u- 
Umlaut later au laurus ; unaccented sometimes = u area e solid. 
By compensation it = e and by i-Umlaut ei anser. 

1 by o- or a- Umlaut = la cribrum piscis. 

u by i-Umlaut = 6e mutus rits, by o-Umlaut = ua somnus. 

E = I de mensis serus Ac. (by a-Umlaut = la rh&or), after kv = d 
quinque ; in onomatopoeic words remains en : unaccented = i mater 
pater. 

= a d8 ned ndscd queror t by i-Umlaut = ai vdtes : unaccented = u 
soror. 

1 remains vallum, by i-Umlaut = ai votes. 

ei = e is, by i-Umlaut = ei linquo, by o-Umlaut = ia raeda scio. 

01 = oi Unus f dialectically ai munis or ai caecus. 

ai = ai acvum, also written ai gaesum, later e ai : unaccented = i 

bitd. 
bu from bv = u clued, by i-Umlaut = 6i novem, by o-Umlaut = tie 

novas or ua nd. 
ou = 6 auris lux, by o-Umlaut = ua cuculus rdbur tuticus. So ou from 

ov = 6. and by i-Umlaut oi ovis. — 5u = 5 bos. 
au = 6 augeo. So au from av = 6 and by i-Umlaut oi aveo. — lu = au 
. ndvis. 

m before consonant = em and by e- o- a- Umlaut im ambi- umbilicus 
ungo ; before vowel it = am sfmul and by i-Umlaut aim domd. 

N before consonant = en lingua (which before t or c = e ante ce>Uum 
dens tendo need or, when atonic, e inter viginti) and by e- o- a- Umlaut 
in unguis and with kvim-v^is ini insula, ; before vowel it = an in- 
tenuis, or n attached to the word following decern novem. 

l = li valgus and by e- o- a- Umlaut le laius planta tolerd ulmus. — t = la 
palma 1 polled or alfallo. 

B = ri cor rego and by e- o- a- Umlaut re sterno sterto and further i- 

. Umlaut rei sors. — b = ra gurges or ar arduus mora morbus terreo 
tornus torreo ursus (also written ar fardo) and by i-Umlaut air fertwn 
procax. 



ti drops with compensation before s nummus membrum. So n before t 
(see above) c quinque s Imus mensis. n assimilates after 1 ulna. 



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COMPARATIVE ETYMOLOGY 137 

v = f liqud vir &o. ; after r spelt b ferved taurus, and so after original n 
vidulus (later assimilated to the n vadum) : dropt between vowels 
aevum dlvus vita &c, before li from l valgus, and after t quattuor d 
arduus de s sex somnus soror suadeo. — vo = u vlvus volvo ; vo = ua and 
by i-Umlaut uai venum. — f is in later Irish prefixt to an initial vowel 
sub super. 

p before t = ch neptis septem, elsewhere drops pater tepeo somnus planta 
pro- sterto &c. (with h later prefixt to the vowel baxea). 

b final in later Irish = bh balbus. — bh = hferd orbus &c, umbilicus, later 
assimilated after m ambi-. 

t remains ; after vowel it = th at mater votes &c. ; before c it = s siccus, 
bef6re m drops with compensation dorsum remus. — st = s stcrilis &c. 
vastus, between vowels ss destind. 

d remains ; after vowel it = dh vadum, after n it sometimes = t sua- 
deo-, assimilates before m mulier and later after n menda pondus, 
drops before s edo unda. — dt = s cado, between original vowels ss 
medUor : d + dh = t credo. 

dh = 6, f oris robur vidulus, which assimilates before n gradus. 

k = c, after vowel = ch decern mox octo &c. equus ; drops with compen- 
sation before n facio. — kth = t ursus: ks = ss dexter ex, which when 
final drops with compensation sex. 

G remains gula vosco, after vowel = gh frigo, before t = ch vcgeo. 

gh = g an go anser lingo &c, which drops with compensation before n 
veho. 

kv = c crdssus qucror quinque &c. (when hard spelt cc cacd linqud mucus), 
after vowel = ch liqud nox sequor. 

gv = b bos gurges ungd &c, assimilating before n vagus and in later Irish 
after m (from n) tinguo ; dialectically = g lingua margo, which before 
t = ch nudus, before r drops uvidus. 

ghv = g fremd lectus levis machina, which before t = ch nix. — khv = g 
unguis. 

s remains when initial before vowel simul or liquid ned nix nd ; when 
medial it remains before c misceo scando, assimilates before 1 corylus 
(or drops with compensation velum 1 ) and after r terreo, drops before 
m sum r membrum and between vowels linum queror soror; when 
final it drops auris bds cruor gaesum gustd rus far, and so after loss of 
N canis mensis. 

zd = t nidus. 



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138 COMPARATIVE ETYMOLOGY 



WELSH. 

i remains fiigd ; by o-Umlaut it = e video. 

u = wpuer socrus spud trucuU. — uv = eujuvencus. 

e remains socrus : by i-Umlaut it = y vas ventus, by u-Umlaut = i 

nebula, by c- or o- Umlaut = a semi- cervus. By compensation it = ei 

argentum, later ai covlnus sero 1 . 

after p (from kv) = w qui ; by u-Umlaut it = au seges, by w-Um- 
laut = y covinus. 

a remains traits ; by i-Umlaut it = ai nanus. By compensation it = 
ae ambactus. 

1 = y crlspus qui sudor. — TJ = w sus tuber. 

e shortened before nt semi- ventus. — o = au dcior. — a = aw acies. 

ai = oe saeculum. — ou = u clued clunis. — lu = au sol. 

N = an griis juvencus. 

E = la lana.—B, = ri (later ry carduus), with i-Umlaut = ei radix.— 
R = ar stercus. 



m before t = n sSrni- ; between vowels = f dojnd, see tuber. 
n assimilates after 1 velld : ns = ss = ch trans. 

J = i juvencus ; between original s and vowel it = dd sero 1 ; drops after 

ff (from sp) spud. 
v = w arvum sex volrd &c. ; initial it = gw before e vas velld verto Ac. or 

lingual lana radix, before o drops volvo. 

p between vowels = b vipera, elsewhere drops paled puer pUteo.— 

ps = ss = ch crispus. 
bh = b fiigd fodidy after vowel = f nebula ; drops after m ambactus. 

T remains trans ; = th after vowel ambactus or lingual vcrtd ; before 1 
it = d saeculum, but remains between s (from dh) and 1 vas. — st = s 
stella. 

d assimilates after n prehendd, drops before s sudor : d j = dd radix 
video. 

dh = d, before t = s vas : dhj = dd fodid. 



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COMPARATIVE ETYMOLOGY 139 

K = c did corvua crlspus &c. 5cwr, later after vowel == ch odes trucidd or, 
after o, g occd, and so before r socrus : ks = ss = ch sex.— G drops be- 
tween vowels seges and, with compensation, before t ambactus and 
after r argentum. 

gh = g, dropt with compensation before n covinus. 

kv initial = p qui, between vowels b coquo ; after s it = g stercus. 

gv = ifligo ; as a * fixt ' velar it = g grus. 

ghv as a * fixt ' velar = gprehendo, as labialisable = bfrivola. 

s remains ; before vowel it = h saeculum semi- sus &c, before w (from 
v) = ch sex socrus sudor ; drops with compensation before dd (from j) 
Sfiro 1 .— sp = ff spud. 

GOTHIC. 

1 and u remain, minor luo &c. : ' Breaking ' of u to au before r /oris : u 

inserted between 1 and k mulgeo. 
E = i edd &c. : * Breaking ' to ai before h peril r/ero &c. 

= a nox &c. — a remains, ager &c. 

1 = ci linquo &c. — u remains fruorputeo. 

e remains virus &c. ; dialectically = ei levis rex ; before i (from J) = a 

semen ventus, 
remains flos pes praestolor, — I = of rater stamen &c. 

ei remains died &c. — 01 = ai munis &c. — ai remains aevum &c. 

eu = iu duco &c. — ou = au luo &c. — au remains augeo &c. — Iu = au sol. 

m = urn homo. — js = un dens &c. 

% = ul tolerd &c. — b = aur (a ' Breaking,' see above) granum gravis mors 
&c. 



Liquids remain : n before guttural is written g ango longus stinguo : n 
after 1 is assimilated collis vellus. 

J remains, whether semivowel juventa or ' spirant ' jugum : drops be- 
tween vowels aheneus. 

v remains avus duo socrus &c. (but sv- in enclitics = s se) ; dropt with 
contraction between u and u juvencus ; assimilated after n genulnus ; 
before consonant = u vivus. 

p = f potis &c, after barytone vowel = b septem ; dropt before th (from 
t) neptis. — b = p cubitum lubricus. — bh = b farina libet &c. 



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i 4 o COMPARATIVE ETYMOLOGY 

T = th f rater &o. , after barytone vowel = d ante pater votes &c. ; dropt 
between b (from p) and sonant septcm. — st remains stella st6 tundo 
&o. — d = t decern &c. — dh = d gradus &c. 

K = h nox &o. equusy after barytone vowel = g juvencus laerima pacisebr, 

and so in proclitic co-. — sk remains cauda piscis. 
G = kfrango &c. — gh = g haedus &c. 
kv (1) as a « fixt ' velar = h clepd vincd : skv = sk caedd caved scabo : (2) 

as labialisable = hv aqua arcus cernuus linquo qui sequor (when final 

= h -que) or (in the neighbourhood of a v) f lupus quattuor (so by 

assimilation quinque). 
gv (1) as * fixt ' = k augeo gelu. — (2) as labialisable = q arbiter ascia 

nUdus stinguo venio vivus, — k before R gravis or j fruor. 
ghv (1) as 4 fixt * = g hostis. — (2) as labialisable = v nix : before t = h 

levis, 

8 remains auHs nix locus &c. ; drops between barytone vov7el and m 
8um\ = z after barytone vowel aes ascia farina or barytone vowel -f 
liquid membrum errd perna. — zdh = zd hasta. 

OLD NOESE. 

I remains, anciently spelt y bimus ; later = e llmvm. 
u remains ; by j-Umlaut it = y grunnio. 

E remains egeo &c. ; before r it = ja cerebrum ; also spelt i corbis seed 
turtur ; by v-Umlaut = 6 inguen. 

= a trua v&mer ; by u-Umlaut it = 6 Uvidus verro. 
a remains ago &c. ; by i-Umlaut it = e sarcio. 

1 remains divus ripa. — u remains puteo ; by j-Umlaut it = y confutd 
ulula. 

£ = a ver vomo ; by j-Umlaut it = ae arbiter. 

oi = ei vipcra. — ai = ci aestus blaesus scaeva. — ei = eiplus. 
ou = au clunis. — au remains haurio.— au = 6 ndvis. 

B = ur turtur. — 5 = ** ardea. 



Liquids remain. — J and v remain, jacio vom6. 

p = f damnum plus puteo &c. — B = p corbis titubd. — bh = b blaterd ferio. 
t = th turtur , medially written 4 arbiter &c. — d = t damnum &c— dh 
= d confutd. - 



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COMPARATIVE ETYMOLOGY 141 

k = h clUnis &c. , after barytone syllable g alces jacid seed. — Q = k ago 

&c. — gh = g ango &c. 
kv = hv cernuus queror. — gv = kv arbiter inguen, before lingual k blae- 

sus uvidus. 
8 remains haurid &c. 

ANGLOSAXON. 

1 remains accllnis &c. ; by a-Umlaut it = e crispus nidus, 

u remains rdbtgd ; by a-Umlaut it = o defrutum fundus hydrus turdus, 

by i-Umlaut = y cupafurd gustd urd. 
e remains tegd &c. (inserted between g and 1 ungula) ; * Breaking ' to eo 
before h equus populus I alces gilvus rfrdodnus sperno ; = i by i-Umlaut 
carpus fremo sonus techna temo trua veneror (this i, + uv, = eov novus) 
or before nasal + another consonant crepdfrendo. 
o = a odium &c. ; = 
(a) a before consonant (1) + another consonant carpo oppido vespa, 
(2) + e corylus unda ungula, (3) final when not nasal unda 
urina: 
($) ea by ' Breaking ' before h (in x from hs) pecto 1 collum culmus fel 

(and by i-Umlaut = y collis) r morior pario porcus : 
(7) e by i-Umlaut anas f alio monlle ulna. 
a remains ago &c. ; = 
(a) a before consonant (1) + another consonant apiscor mdlus pateo, 
(2) -f e anas caper vapuld, (3) final when not nasal langueo pagus 
parens quadra sparus : 
(0) ea by * Breaking ' before h (in x from hs) ascia 1 palled salix valgus 

r barba ; or by u-Umlaut battuo : 
(y) c by i-Umlaut acies pagus solum sapio. 

i remains divus &c. — u remains mils &c. ; by a-UmJaut it = muscus, 

by i-Umlaut = y cutis. 
B = a semi- ; before n it = o mensis ; by i-Umlaut it = ae verus. 

remains flos. 

1=6 mater &c. ; by i-Umlaut it = efdgus gramen vastus. 
ei = I llmus raeda. 

01 = a hid llmus ; by i-Umlaut it = ae gluten. 
Ai = a.aes &c. 

eu = ebfraus &c. 

ou = ea defrutum &c. ; by i-Umlaut it = y clued. So ov before con- 
sonant = ea caved lavd. 

au = ea aurora. So av before consonant = ea avunculus ; au by 
j-Umlaut = i aqua 



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i 4 2 COMPARATIVE ETYMOLOGY 

M = um, by i-Umlaut ym ambi-. — n = un manus &c. , by i-Umlaut yn 

sons tenuis. 
l = ul, by a-Umlaut ol palma 1 stolidus or, after palatal, eol gida.— 

B = ur quercus ; by a-Umlaut or aper ford partus or, after palatal, 

cor scrupus ; by i-Umlaut yr fdstigium fors. 



Liquids remain : n assimilates after 1 fel y drops with compensation 

before s anser. 
j assimilates after p labium ; gj = eg acies mejo techna ; j drops between 

a and i aheneus. 
v remains, before j written w, uv novus ; va (from vo) after 1 = o gilvus 

palled ; v drops before un sonticus, and after final h equus. 

p = f pateo &c. ; after barytone vowel = b, between vowels f aper. — sp 

remains parous sparus vespa &c. 
B = p cannabis labium. 
bh = b when initial ful &c. or after m ambi-, between vowels f umbo. 

T = th tego &c. ; after barytone vowel = d anas battuo fors &c. (see on 

mater). — st remains stilus stolidus vastus. 
d = t odium &c. ; before t it = s roblgo ; dropt between n and original J 

sons. — dh = d barba &c. 

K = h cutis &c. ; after barytone vowel g cacula circus seed. — sk remains 

as sc caved cerno scrupus scruta ; K8 = hs = x pecto. 
G = cfagus &c. — gh = g anser via. 
kv (1) as a ' fixt * velar = h, after a barytone vowel g seed : (2) as labial- 

isable = hv quadra (which between vowels = v see aqua, final = h 

quercus) or, before u, f quercus ; after a barytone vowel gv, which 

after n = g crepd. 
GV = cv vivus, when final c langued. 
ghv as a ' fixt * velar = g fames f el fremok — khv = g ungula. 

s remains ndris llmus collum Ac. ; after barytone vowel it = r aheneus 



OLD HIGH GERMAN. 

(Middle High German marked M.) 

I and u remain : I by a-Umlaut = e pinso, and so in original mono- 
syllable is : i dropt between consonants Mfulica, inserted (and by e- 
Umlaut = e) between r and ch gurgulio. 



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COMPARA TIVE E TYMOLOG Y 1 43 

E remains arvum &c. ; = i by i-Umlaut depsd echinus errdfelix neptis or 
before nasal + another consonant Untus memini. 

= a rota &c. ; by i-Umlaut it = e nodus M occd. 

a remains pldga &c. ; by i-Umlaut it = e albus. — a inserted between 1 
and c alcedd. 

1 and u remain. 

E = a ned semen serius. — o = uo opus ploxenum. — I = uo rdpum sdnus; 
in onomatopoeic words remains M ah. 

oi = ei M mutd. — ai = ei M ai. — Ii = a std. 

n = un anguis sons M venia. — l = ul and by a-Umlaut ol M dolt, by i- 

Umlaut el gurgulid "M. fulica. 
B = ur and by e- or 6- Umlaut or consternd posed, by i-Umlaut er gurges. 



Liquids remain : n after c assimilates mugio. 

J remains jacio. 

v = w vocd serius &c. : va final after r = o arvum. 

p = f neptis &c, in loanwords written pf stipula or ph pldxenum ; after 

barytone vowel b opus rdpum scipio stuped. 
B = pf bucina, earlier written pph vibrd. 
bh = bjlagrd, in Oberdeutsch (Alsatian and Alemannic) pfdstus. 

t = d cento &c, after barytone vowel t anas. — st remains std stuped. 
d = z depso &c, in MHG. between vowels tz mundus. 
dh = tfellx. 

K = h specid &c, after barytone vowel g jacio. — sk remains as sc misced 

posed scret : kth = hs texd, and so ks axis saxxim M coxa. 
<a = h plaga, later medially written ch flagrd M fulica gurgulid ; after 

barytone vowel c gurges mugio. 
OH = g echinus hasta. 
kv as a * fixt * velar = h seed &c, also written ch bucina ; after barytone 

vowel g sugd M occd. — skv = sc scipio. 
gv as a ' fixt ' velar = k or (medially) ch M fulica M gannid : as a 

labialisable velar = gu balanus gurges gurgulid. 
ghv between vowels = g vdmer. 

8 remains morded &c. ; assimilated after r errd f&stus: Metathesis 

depsd. 
ZD ^ st hordeum M p§dd : zvu = rt hasta. 



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144 COM PARA TIVE ETYMOLOG Y 



LITHUANIAN. 

i remains : it is inserted between consonant and vowel to denote that 
the consonant is pronounced soft (as Germ. lc- in kind opp. kahn), 
virus meta lud congrud pavid divus caurus hiems caedd &c. 

u remains :. lengthened by accent to u lynx. 

E remains : lengthened by accent to € aries celsus tenebrae &c, £ decern 
penus void &c. : in monosyllables it = i ex in : initially it sometimes 
= a ego, and so before w novus suus. Inserted between b and z pzdo. 

= a : lengthened by accent to a cervus collis fullo &c. , a chorus mare 
rota &c. 

a. remains : lengthened by accent to a ard haruspex, a blatta quasillum. 

1 = y sica f vir f linqud &c. 

u remains uber hfumus u muscus &c. 
e = e repd rete £ mensis. 

= u ddnum &c. ; final = u ambd. 

1 = of rater &c. ; onomatopoeic remains as a ah a mamma. 

ei = ei ccri^a; eo, or 6 accllnis divus. — oi = ai nix tibia ai munus, or e 
unus. — ai remains caesius ai hatred, or = 6 caedo. — Why these diph- 
thongs sometimes = k is unknown. 

eu = au lud pulmo au spud. — ou = au clunis au pavis au Zwcws Ac. 

au remains crdcid, = au a^eo au sudus. — au = au sol. 

m = im centum emd tremd. — n = in exta ingens mens tintind, before gn = u 

Ignis : N = an anas. 
l = il balanus polled vellus &c. — r = ir cor granum quartus &c. 



m drops before is, dialectically without nasalising the preceding vowel 
membrum. — n drops, nasalising and lengthening the preceding vowel, 
before s ansa anser sz (from k), uncus £ (from gh) mingd. 

l and R remain. 

j remains, whether as semivowel jecur or as ' spirant * jus 1 zona : it is 
dialectically prefixt to initial i is u urina u ater. — tj before i = & 
pulmo. 

y = w : it is ; dialectically prefixt to an initial vowel unus. 

p remains. — b onomatopoeic babae barbarus baubor.—'BB. = b/odid &e. 

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COMPARATIVE ETYMOLOGY 145 

t remains : inserted between sz (from k) and r acerbus. 

d remains : before final iu it = di caedd odor splendea, before g it = z 
merg5, before il (from l) it drops largus, 

dh = d arbor &c. ; before d it = z barba. 

K = sz caleo &e. ; dialectically before w it = si equus. — kth = sz teed, 
and so ks axis dexter ex lynx sex, 

Q = z luged &o. ; final it 5= sz ego. 

gh = 2* anser &c. ; before t it = ksz angd, 

kv = k caulis &c, and so before s exta. 

gv = g augeo &c. ; before sz (from s) it = k auxilium. 

GHV = g nix &c, and so before terminational w levis. — ^KHV = g un- 
guis. 

s remains, dialectically with k prefixt alnus awrwm ; but = sz after r 
erabro verres verrUca and dialectically when initial before vowel sarcid 
(and sea;?), medial between vowels crusta jus 1 quasillum or before r 
aurora or t auxilium haereo. — sj initial = si sud, between vowels = 2 
avena. — sv = sw sSrius; dialectically it = s sobrinus somnus, or, before 
vowel + sz (from ks or k), sz sex(?) socer. 

zd remains pedo turdus. 

LETTISH. 

Short vowels the same as in Lithuanian. 

I remains pild sudor vibex. — u brUtus. — e lenis. 

01 = ee mutd. — ai remains bltd vae. — ^bu = au tutieus. — ou = 6w bds. 

L = il see pulvinus. 

bh = b blatta scrobis umbilicus, 

k = s congius. 

kv = k blatta capio. — gv = g bito bds brutus. — khv = c congius, 

a before consonant = 3 pU6 scrobis. 



PRUSSIAN. 

Short vowels as in Lithuanian : e before sd = ei ptdG, e unaccented = i 

clepd, 
01 = ai ilnus. — ou = au luna. — au remains auferO aurum, 
B = ir armus, after velar = or cratis forceps, 
m before s = n menibrum, 
V = w novem &c. sudor. 
p before s = b vespa. — bh = bfaba, 

10 



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i 4 6 COMPARA TIVE ETYMOLOG Y 



ks = sch sex. 

kv = k clepo, after a short accented Towel ck deer vocd : kvs = x tuna. 

gv = g blandus. — ghv = g forceps vomer, 

s after a short vowel = ss annus. 



OLD SLAVONIC. 

I = I. — u = ii, spelt ft nurus &c. or sometimes I stipula ; so initial 
jd =' *ji, i jugum. 

e remains ; in monosyllables it = i ex; initially sometimes a ego and 
with j prefixt aries. — ev before vowel = ov novus : em en before con- 
sonant (except j) = § membrum quinque &c. : eb, to avoid a close 
syllable, = re dormid &c. 

remains. — on before consonant (except j) = a pons &c. : ol ob = la ra 
culmus porcus &c. 

A = o acerbus &c. ; initially sometimes with j prefixt, when it = e annus. 
— an before consonant (except j) = a ango angulus anser : ad ab = la 
ra palled barba &c. 

1 = i tres &c. — u = jfumus &c. — fl is dialectically spelt i suo. 

S remains venum &c. ; initially with j prefixt, when it = a edo. — en 
before s = c mensis. 

= a nomen &c. 
a = a j rater &c. 

ei = i migrd &c. — 01 = e poena &c, initially = i units. — ai = e saepes 

&c. — 01 before vowel = aj ovum. 
eu ou au all = u lux clued auris &c. — ou before vowel = ov bos. 

m = Im gemo &c. — n = in tenuis &c, or, before consonant, when initial 
o ignis, when oxytone £ memini, when barytone fi centum. — n before 
consonant = a anas. 

1 = til, written il (as in Russian, ulmus), before vowel tellus; before 
consonant it = lti, written lti mulgeo &c. II levis. — Z = la palpd. 

b = tir, written Ir, before vowel /oris ; before consonant rii, written rtt 
mors &c. ri cor.— S = ra armus. 



For Nasals before any consonant but j, see above on e o a e a n. 
1 is inserted between m andj humus, p (from sp) and j spud. 
j often prefixt to initial vowel annus aries echinus edo emo sum uva : so 
dialectically v anima hydrus. 



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COMPARATIVE ETYMOLOGY 147 

p remains : pt before m = d septem. — bh = b barba. 

T remains ; inserted between s (from k) and r acerbus \ dropt between s 

(from k) and m odd.— tj = st pulmd. 
dh = d barba &c. ; before t it = s arbor. — dhj = id medius rdblgd. 
k = s centum &c, through foreign influence k socrus. — kth = 3 texd: 

so ks axis dexter sex. 
Q — z mulged &o. 
gh = z angd &c, through foreign influence g anser grandd. — ghj = 2 

echinus. 
kv = k cervus &c. ; = c before I quis urceus e poena, = C before e quattuor 

or original E cerrltus ; before t it = S wosc or, after original n, is dropt 

quinque. — kvj = £ bucina. 
gv = g 04771143 &c. ; = 2 before I gemd i vivus e botanies chelys grus. 
ghv = g forceps &c. — khv = g unguis* 

s remains sarcio ma; arwer &c. ; = h after I alnus pinsd (unless before ti 
avena) fi mUscus nurus verrUca u awris clued jus 1 sudus e /ira, and 
dialectically init. before vowel solum ; = i before I crabro far mus 
sublestus i musca; omitted between long vowel and tr aurora, and 
before plj (from pj) spuo. — sj = § quasillum sex suo : sv remains socrus 
suesco, but = s in enclitics se and dialectically sobrlnus. 

AEMENIAN. 

The vowel of the original last syllable drops, b see novem, nf rater mater 
pater stella, o soror : monosyllables excepted, canis. Further, in the 
word in its Armenian form i and u drop except in the last syllable, i 
linquo viginti (and so when from b before liquid, gena gula sternuo), u 
rUctd ; in the last syllable they remain, i nidus sudor, u bUb6 canis 
foris socer samnus spud. 

e remains egofero sex ; dialectically (from Arian influence) it = a argen- 
turn decern levis or (with h prefixt after loss of s) ha- semper ; = i 
before n quinque (hi- senex) r cor 2 (from gh) see echinus ; = o before 
i (from s before b) soror ; by j-Umlaut it = e medius ; drops before o 
(from vo) novus.—irp6<rde<ris before X frater r tres, and (as i) before n 
novem. 

remains lavd orbus &c, dialectically with h- prefixt odor ; dialectically 
(from Arian influence) it = a mold odium planta vacd. — wp6<r0*<ns before 
r rUctd. 

A remains agd art pater &c, dialectically with h- prefixt amis; by j- 
Umlaut it = ai alius. — irp6(rB*<ris before m mensis r levis s stella. 

1 + a = ea vivd. — u = u crUs grUs mils tu. 
e = ifelld mensis plenus venum. 



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i 4 8 COMPARATIVE ETYMOLOGY 

3 = u canis ddnum genii, and so when from compensation odd wmerm ; 

dialeotically with h- prefixt amdrus. 
A = a J rater mater. 

ei in last syllable (of the Armenian word) = e tres, elsewhere = i hiems 

lingo. 
oi in last syllable (of the Armenian word) = e mejo, elsewhere = 

vinum. 
bu (from bv) =» iusuus. 
ou = oi fungor studeo. 
ou = ov bos. — lu = av ndvis. 

M = am, dialeotically with h- prefixt (after loss of s-) similis. 

N in the originally last syllable = n decern novem, elsewhere = an in- 

ingens viginti. 
l = al and with g-Umlaut ail lupus ; dialeotically it = aX balanus ; 

before n it = ar vellus. 
e = ar argentum armus cerebrum (in these three it might be from r), 

hordeum posco ursus ; dialeotically it = af torreo. 



m remains armus mensis ; before original t it = n venio, before n it = u 

domus hiems ; drops (with compensation if needed) before s mernbirum 

umerus. 
N remains nidus nurus somnus ; drops before s mensis. 
l remains alius lingo t after vowel dialeotically = X met sal; dialeotically 

(from Arian influence) = r levis. 
B remains orbus socer tres ; = r before n /oris sternuo or vowel + n grus 

morior ; dialeotically = X/rdter stella. 

j after r = J sterilis, after 1 gives Umlaut alius t and so after J (from 
dh) medius : pj = ph lambd. 

V initial remains sex vacd verruca y dialeotically = g lupus unda vellus 
venum vestis villa vinum or (before s) kh viginti: medial before r 
it = u suus, between (originally) vowels drops novem norms vivo or 
dialeotically = g lavo : final (after loss of the final vowel) remains 
avus. 

p initial before vowel = h paler pes quinque f dialeotically drops pis ; 

after vowel = v septem ; drops everywhere before liquid planta plenus 

somnus. 
B onomatopoeic bubo. — bh = b/ero fungor orbus : bhb = Xbfrdter. 



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COMPARATIVE ETYMOLOGY 149 

t remains after s Stella, elsewhere = th octo seplem^torred or (before u) d 
tu ; drops before original r tres, — i before (in the Armenian form of 
the word) r /rater mater pater or n planta ; when final.it drops after n 
(from m) venio. • 

d = t decern odium sido &c. or when final th studeo : db = rt sudor. 

dh = d -do fellt forte ; before original j it = Jf medius. 

k = s acus decern socer &c. ; before t it drops with compensation odd. — 

kth = j ursus : k- v = 3 cants : ks = ths sex, and so ksk posed. 
G = c ago gena ructd &c. ; why it sometimes = s ego is obscure. 
gh = j ango hiems, after vowel z echinus lingo mejo or dialectically £ see 

echinus. 
kv = k before consonant oculus, kh before vowel linqud ( =* £ in pix, 

foreign), g after liquid quingue area (and so lupus). — kvtv = th5 

quattuor. 
gv = k balanus bos venio &c. — ghv = g hordeum levis, before e = j forceps. 

8 remains before t sido Stella sterUis and after original nasal umerus 
mensis ; before r it = i soror ; drops before vowel sal septem suus (and 
see above on prefixt h-) or nasal sum nurus vestis or kh mus, after r 
verruca cerebrum hordeum torreo, and when final after an original 
vowel nurus. — pst = ph sternuo studeo : spj = th spud : sv = kh som- 
nus soror sudor, or, before vowel + s (from k), sk socer. 

zd = st nidus. 

ZEND. 

1, u, i, u remain. 

b remains before a nasal, see tabula tenebrae levis ; elsewhere it = a, 

which by i-Umlaut = ai holus medius per- super. It is inserted after 

r arbor cortex curculio delphinus forceps torred verto (even when final, 

inter), see below on the sonant linguals. 
6 before m = e centum domus ego humus ; elsewhere it = a, which by i- 

Umlaut = ai ob potis Urina, by v-Umlaut = au sollus. 
A before m = e seamnum ; elsewhere it remains (in pater interchanging 

as in Sk. with i), and by i- Umlaut = ai ambi- anima. It is inserted 

after r cor. 

a = a, by i-Umlaut ai et : before nh it = ao mensis. 

= a, by u-Umlaut au laurus : at the end of a word it = ao n5s plus 
vos. 

a remains : before nh it = ao ndris. 

01 = ae poena sudor vitis ; so ai bito saeta. 

ou = ao clunisjUs 2 lUna ; so au augeo. — ou = au b&s. 



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150 COMPARATIVE ETYMOLOGY 

m = am similis tenebrae. — N = an decern in- juvenis novem, before a Dental 
an dens inter umbra ; barytone before consonant a centum in-, which 
by i-Umlaut = ai viginti. 

l = er ( + e, see e above) lien planta. — B = er ( + e) argentum partus 
regd, before k or p = ehr lupus corpus, before u = our gravis : vb 
final = ru quater. — % = ar ( + e) largus, and so B armus rego terreo. 

n before z (from gh) disappears, the preceding vowel becoming a ango. 
l = r. — b remains ; it drops before sh (from s) perna. 

j = y. 

v remains, but after q (from k) it = p canis equus, after th (from t) 
it = a * spirant ' w quattuor. On sv see below. 

p remains before vowel or t septem ; before any other consonant it = f 

somnus planta plus posed pro. 
bh = b ; later between vowels it = w delphinus. 

t remains before vowel (yet sometimes as in Sk. becomes th, passus 
pated planta rota bito) ; before consonant it = th putus quattuor tres ; 
it = t at the end of a stem nepds or root cortex peto planta verto. 

d remains ; between vowels it = dh sudor, before d (from dh) it = z 
cor. — Pretonic dv = b bis. 

dh = d, omitted before n fundus. 

k = q ; dialectically z cor ; before t it = s octo. — kth = khsh texo : ks 

= sh coxa dexter ex mox sex, ksk = s posed. — g = z ; before n it = zh 

genu nosco. — gh = z. 
kv before original e = c celer quattuor -que quinque (and so at end of 

root, coquo lacer sequor &c.) ; before any other vowel it = k corpus 

oculus qui &c. ; before consonant it = kh luna nox sex. 
GV = j before i vivus or original e augeo (and so at end of root, instigd 

jungo saglna) ; before any other vowel it = g ; before consonant it 

= gh nudus. 
ghv before original e = j (and so at end of root, levis ; later zh, nix) ; 

elsewhere it = gh largus. — khv before i = c scindo ; elsewhere it = kh 

cymba soccus. 

8 = 

(1) h before a saeta saltus sedeo &c. (and so at end of root, zona), or 
between a and another vowel erus, or between a and m sum. 

(2) nh between a and a soror, or when final after ao mensis ndris ango 
villa. 



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COMPARATIVE ETYMOLOGY 151 

(3) sh after i pinsd u crusta gustd urd, r verves and so orig. perna, kh 
(from kv) lustrd sex. 

(4) £ before p t k c n lien stella tabula obscurus scindd ned nix nd. 
sv = q sagina socer somnus sonus soror sudvis sudor. 

SANSKEIT. 

i, u, 1, u remain. 

e and o alike = a : a remains. But occasionally e and a = i, menda 

turtur pater. 
b and o alike = a : I remains. 

ei and ai alike = e : ou and au alike = o. — ou = au see bos; au remains 
ndvis. 

if. = am similis tenebrae. — n = an ante dens in- inter juvenis ; barytone 
before consonant it = a centum Ignis in- mens viginti. — n = a anas. 

L = ul i.e. ul calvus tolerd or il, which + n = in (see below) callum ; 
before consonant it = r planta. — b = iir i.e. ur gravis or ir cerebrum 
haruspex ; before consonant or final it = r alces ars corpus &c. — L = fir 
i.e. ur lana polled or ir largus, later 3 umbilicus. 

m assimilated to a following consonant is written m umerus rrvembrum. 

So n is written n viginti anser ango. — n after r = n lana polled, and later 

the B (or l) itself disappears callum palma 1 pUa ulna. 
L = r celer levis void, later 1 balanus libet lingo &c. — b remains, later = 1 

pruna : after it a dental becomes cerebral and the r itself disappears 

crdssus tardus bardus. 

j = y. — v remains, but drops initially before u volva or ii lana. 

p remains ; dialectically = pp piper pipild, ph spes. 

b rare, gubernd, onomatopoeic babae bucina. 

bh remains ; before vowel + aspirate it = b fundus. 

t remains ; dialectically = tt turtur, th cents crdssus passus planta rota 
std tego ; after sh it = $ odd, dialectically th costus ostium. 

d remains, even before dh crSdd ; it is assimilated before t oppidum or j 
mergd. 

dh remains ; before vowel + aspirate it = dfavilla Jingo. After original 
B it becomes dh and dialectically Jh bardus. 

k — $ ; dialectically h cor ; before t it = sh odd, before ch (from sk) is 
lost posed. — kth = ksh texd ursus : ks = ksh axis coxa dexter misced 
mox, final sh sex. 



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152 COMPARATIVE ETYMOLOGY 

G = j ; dialectically h ajd ego magnus. — gh = h. 

kv = k ; but = c before i poena (see on quis 1 ) or original e celer corium 

quattuor (and so at end of root, coquo sequor vocd Ac). — kvs (like ks) 

= ksh scijrio. 
GV = g ; but = j before i vivo or original B augeo bardus bitumen (and so 

at end of root, jungo sagina unguo). 
ghv = gh. — khv = kh congius unguis, before vowel + aspirate = k 

cymba : skhv before i = ch scindo. 

s remains ; but (1) = sh after i pinsd virus (and so drig. gaesum), u clued 
costum nurus prUna uro (and so orig. ostium) u mus (and dialectically 
after a lascivus), r horreo perna verrUca r fdsttgium verres, and before 
vowel + sh sex ; (2) = q before vowel + q socer ; (3) dialectically drops 
before p lien t instlgd. — sk before original b = ch posed. 

z before d makes the d cerebral and itself drops with compensation 
nidus. 



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