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Full text of "European Union"

H EDpcoTraiKfj 'Evcoar| 



AGiiva 2004 



Ilspisxonsva 

loTopiKTi GKiaypdcpriGri tt]^ E.E 3 

H "sDpcoTiaiKfi o?tOK?tf|pcoor|": Mia [xs0o5oAx)yiKf| 7ipoosyyior| 17 

Oi xpsK; 7ispio5oi TTjc; «8up(D7iaiKfi(; oXoK}^fip(DGr|9> 28 

A) 1951-1974: Hxs^tCDViaKfisvcDGri 28 

B) 1974-1986: H enojjt] tt]^ (ytty/pcriq 39 

r) 1 987-2002 : OiKovo[j,iKfi Kai No[j,iG[j,aTiKfi 'Evcogti 47 

H SuvGfiKri Tou MdaGxpixx 52 

Oi GUvaX,}tay[j,aTiKS(; igoti[j,is(; 59 

Eupd) Kai vsocpiXsXsijGspri noXniKi] 70 

E7ii[j,STpo 75 

Oi 9sG[j,oi TTjc; Evp(i)iiaiKr\q 'Ev(i)cr\q 79 

Oi Et)GX8TiG[j,oi 5i3va[j,ri^ 88 

To «Ei3vTay[j,a» 94 

0SG[j,o9sTriGri xou vso(pi}tsXsu0spiG[j,oi3 106 

Emfo^STpo 110 

H Tiopsia TT]^ «oiKovo[j,iKfi^ oXoKX.fipG)Gri9> 112 

X&tpeq Tri(; KsvxpiKfic; Kai Avaxo^^iKfic; Evp&)iir\q 1 22 

noXiTiKs^ Guvs7isis(; TT]^ aviGOfj-STprjc; avd7iTU^ri(; 127 

EuyKXiGT] f) aTiOK^iGri; 130 

A(p07iXiG[j,6(; Tou sGviKoij Kpdxoix;; D^i aKpiPocx; ! 140 

H E.E. : sva d9poiG[j,a sGvikcdv oiKovofo^icbv 159 

riapsKPaGTi: To Si3[j,(p(Dvo STa9sp6TriTa(; 166 

HKoivf) AypoTiKTi HoXiTiKfi 176 

H 5ia[j,6p(p(DGri xcov aviGOxfiTCOv gttiv KAQ 180 

H [j,STappi39[j,iGri Tri(; KAQ 1 82 

O eXXriviKog aypoTiK6(; TO[j,sa(; Kai r| KAQ 190 

E7ll[J,8TpO 196 

SuvoXiKTi GscbpriGTi Tri(;E.E. - 198 

HEupcbTiri «TOU [lekh^vToq [j,a9> 198 



«N8oX8iTOupyiKd» TSxvdG[j,aTa Kai o 7ipay[j,aTiK6(; k6- 

Gno(; 201 

IIpOOTlTlKS^ [J,8T8^8A,l^ri(; 207 

AisuGuvxripio Kai yaX,Xoysp[j,aviK6(; d^ovat; 210 

MsxaxpsTiovTat; xriv avdyKr| as apsxfi 221 

AvuTiap^ia Koiva)viKfi(; 5uva[j,iKfi^ 227 

H E.E. xou i^7i8piaXiG[j,oi3, xrjg aoxuvo[j,OKpaxia(;, 

Kai xou paxGiG[j,oi3 238 

E.E. KaiHnA 241 

O «Eup(DGxpax69> 246 

PaxGiGxiKT) noXniKT] 251 

H ApiGxspd Kai r\ EupcoTiaiKTi 'Evcogti 255 

H «Evp&)iir\ xcDV Aa(bv» - Nso(piXsXsu9spiG[j,6(; Kai 

E.E 256 

EmGxpocpfi Gxrjv «auxo5i3va[j,ri sGvikti avd7ixu^ri»; 269 

0scopis(; «OiKovo[j,iKfi(; KaxaGxpo(pfi9> Kai avaSidp- 

GpcDGT] xou 8X,}^riviKoi3 Ka7iixa}tiG[j,oi3 273 

Oi 7io}tixiKsg GUV87isiS(; XCDV GsGSCov xTjc; ps(pop[a^iGxiKfi(; 

ApiGxspd(; 281 

AvxiKamxaXiGxiKTi ApiGxspd 285 

O AsviVKaio Tp6xGKiyiaxr|v... EupcDTiaiKfi 'Evcdgti ! 295 

napdpxri[j,a: OiKovo[j,iKd Kai GxaxiGxiKd Gxoixsia 316 

BipXioypacpia 330 

Sri[j,8i(bGSi(; 336 



loTOpiKfj oKiaypd(pTioTi TTi(; E.E. 

Tov ATipiXio 1951 i5pi39riKs r\ EupcoTiaiKfi KoivoTtixa Av- 
GpaKa Kai XdX,t)Pa (EKAX), to Tiproxo pfi[j,a 7ipo(; xriv Koivf) 
ayopd. Sxriv EKAX GU[j,[j,STSixav e^r\ KpdTri-[j,sXri: BsA,yio, 
TaXkia, IxaMa, Ofo^OGTiovSiaKfi ArmoKpaxia ttjc; TEp[iaviaq, 
Aou^s[j,po ipyo, 0A,Aav5ia. Eko7i6(; ttjc; fixav r\ enikvcr] tt]^ 
ya}^}to-ysp[j,aviKfi(; 5ia(popd(; yia tov s^tsy^o xou Poup, Kai r\ 
5r|[j,iot)pyia [imq Tispioxnf; s}tsi39spou s[j,7iopiot) yia dvGpaKa, 
Gi5ripo[j,STdX,Xsu[j,a, kok Kai xakv^a- Tipoiovxa KpiGi[j,ri(; cr\- 
[j,aGia^ (oiKovo[j,iKd Kai GxpaxicDTiKd). H SiaxsipiGr] Tri(; E- 
KAX avaxsGriKs gs [im EmxpoTifi (apxiKd ovo[j,a(^6xav Avs- 
^dpxTjxri 'YTiaxri Apxr)) xrjv OTioia 5i6pi(^av oi KuPspvfiGSK; xcdv 
Kpax(bv-[j,sX(bv, gxo Eu[j,poi3Xio xcov YTioupycbv yia va vo[j,o9s- 
xsi, GXT] SuvsXsuGTi [IE KaGapd GU[j,pouXsuxiK6 xotpotKxfipa, 
Kai GXO AiKaGxfipio, yia xrjv sp[j,riv8ia xr]^ GUvGfiKric; Kai yia 
xTjv S7iiX,UGri 5ia(pop(bv. H Suvs^^sugti |J,sxpi xo 1979 auoxs^tsi- 
xo a7i6 avxmpoGCDTioix; and xa 5id(popa sBviKd KoivoPoi3}tia, 
5sv SK^syovxav 5riXa5fi d[j,8Ga mq supcoPouXsuxs^ (9sg[j,o98- 
xfiGriKs S7iiGfi[j,co^ co^ EupcDTiaiKo KoivoPoijXio xo 1987). 

H TipcDxoPouMa sixs xrjv avoixxf) a[j,spiKaviKfi UTiOGxfipi- 
^r\.^ Oi A[j,spiKavoi, [o^sgco xr|(; Tpd7is(^a(; EiGayroycbv- E^ayco- 
ycbv, sviGXUGav xrjv EKAX [le 100 8Kaxo[j,ni3pia 5oXapia. 



H Taklia evieSlcoKe iisid xov B' IlayKoojiio IloXejio va iiexaxoTiioei xa 
ocvaxoXiKd ouvopd xrig oxov Piivo Kai va Beoei utio xov eXeyxo xri<; xo Poup 
(«Kap51a» xri<; yepixavaicfig pio|irixavlag). E' auxo avxeSpaoav HTIA Kai 
Bpexavia kov iiBeXav xo SwiKoyepjiaviKo Kpdxoi; TiokxiKd lox^po T^ot va 
ovxinExcoTiioGei r\ «(joPiexiKri a7i£ilfi». 



1950-1954: To gxsSio Move - nXsPsv Tipoxsivsi tt] 5r\[ii- 
oupyia [j,ia(; «Eup(07iaiKfi(; KoivoTrixa^ A^uvag» (EKA) Kai 
xriv iSpuGTi TTjc; «Eupco7iaiKfi(; IIo^tiTiKfic; KoivoTrixa^)) (EIIK). 
H oXri Gi3X,Xri\|/r| fixav va TipoxcopfiGOUv, xauxoxpova, oi 5ia5i- 
KaGiS(; oiKovo[j,iKfi(; Kai 7io}tixiKfi(; svoTioiri gtjc; xt]^ Evp&)iir\q. 
H TaXkia stisSicoks xtjv svoTioiriGri xcov svoti^^cdv Suvdfa^scDV 
xcov supcDTiaiKcbv [j,s}t(bv xouNATO Kai xri(; 0[j,o Gn;ov5iaKfi(; 
Ari[j,oKpaxia(; xri(; rsp[j,avia(;, [j,8 gxoxo va Gsgsi vno sXsyxo xo 
vso GxpaxicoxiKo 5uva[j,iK6 xrjc; rsp[j,avia(; Kai va rjysfj.ovs'UGSi 
xcov 5ia5iKaGi(bv xr]^ «sup(D7iaiKfi(; oAoK}tfipcoGri(;», gs (g^sxi- 
Kd) iGOxifo^ri pdGTi [le xiq HQA. Qgxogo, Gxa 1954, r\ TaXkia 
(poPoi3[j,£vri s7iavs^07i}tiG[j,6 xr]^ TEp[iaviaq, apvfiGriKs va sm- 
KupcDGSi XT] GUvGriKT] xTjc; EKA. 'ExGi «[j,a(^i [j,s xr|v EKA xdOrj- 
Ks KdGs TipooTixiKTi [j,iag 7io>^ixiKfig EupcDTiric;)). 

To 1954 r\ AuxiKf) rsp[j,avia yivsxai [lekoq xou NATO. Exa 
1955 i5pi39riKs r\ AuxiKosupcoTiaiKfi 'Evcogt] (f) AuxiKf) Eupco- 
TiaiKTi 'EvcoGTi [AEE]- yia Gxevf) GxpaxicoxiKf) GUVspyaGia a- 



O Zocv Move (1888-1979) aiio to 1919 co<; to 1923 UTiiip^e ovaTiXripcoTfn; 
yeviKog ypa|i|iaTeai; Trig Koivcoviaig tcov EOvcov. Etti 5idpKeia tou B' Ila- 
yKoojiiou noXe|iou iitov OTev6<; ouvepydTTn; tou Nte TkoI. MeTa^ 1952 
Kai 1955 fiTOcv 7ip6e5po<; Trig EKAX, oTriv iSpuori Trig OTioiog ouvePale 
aTiocpaoioTiKd. ETa 1955 i5pi)oe ■a]v Etiitpothi Apdorig yia Tig Hvco|ieveg 
noA,iT8ieg Trig EupcoTirig Kai 7iape|i£ive emKecpalfig Trig |isxpi xri Sidluoii 
Trig to 1975. 

P8V8 Zav nAfPev (1901-1993) e^excov (JTeAfxo? i^o^ KivrniaTog tcov EA£i)- 
9epcov rdlXcov tou Nte TkoI otii SidpKeia tou B' nayKoojiioi) IloXeiioi). 
Yvifip^e UTioupyog A|ii)vag iieTa^u 1949-1950 Kai ^avd aTio to 1952 ecog to 
1954. 'EvOepjiog 07ia56g Trig yalXiKiig aTioiKioKpaTiag, UTiooTiipi^e Toug 
7ioXe|ioi)g Trig EalXiag otiiv IvSoKiva Kai tiiv AXyepia. Yvifip^e UTioupyog 
AiKaioouvrig Triv 7iepio5o 1969-1973. 



vd[iEGa gtk; xcopsc, Tr\c, Sutiktic; EvpG)Tir\q), aXXd 7iaps[j,8ivs 
«sv VTZv&)cei», PpiGK6[j,svri vno tt] gkioi tou NATO. 



Exriv TipayixaxiKoxriTa t\ AEE TipoiiXBe and tt\ I,mQ\\Kj] xcov Bpu^eXXcbv 
(1948) Kai ouvepale oxriv ISpuori xou NATO (xo 1949). Extj SeKoexlaxou 
1980 ri emBexiKJi tioXixikji xou xoxe 7ipoe5pou xcov HIIA PeiyKov oxo 5i- 
TiIcoiiaxiKo 7ie51o, o aycbvag 5p6|iou oxoix; e^OTikojxoix; \ie xriv xoxe EEEA, 
Kai yeviKoxepa xo yeyovog 6xi oi HIIA dpxioocv va Kivouvxai \ie pdoei xa 
«(jxevd» 5iKd xovq ouiicpepovxa, x'^PK vot 7iepi|ievouv xriv eyKpior] xcov 
«5uxiKcbv (ju|i|idxcov», evexeivocv x\c, 7ipo(j7id9eie<; xcov xcopcbv xri<; 5uxiKfi<; 
EupcoTirn; yia oa)x6vo|iri oxpaxicoxiKii Tiapouola oxa «5ie9vfi 5pcb|i8va». 
Exa 1984 r] AmiKoeupcoTiaiiKfi 'Evcoor] evepyoTioiiiBriKe ^ocvd. tloxooo xau- 
xoxpova (Kai Kawsiq ocvxicpaxiKd) eTiovoemPePaicovoxav r] orniaola xri<; 
«7ipo(Jxa(jlaig» xri<; Eupcbvirn; ano xr] oxpaxicoxiicfi Tiapouola xcov HIIA oxriv 
fiTieipo, evcb (Tuyxpovcog aviocpaoloxriKe r] (leyolyxepri Tiepicpepeiaicfi oxpa- 
xicoxiKii owepyaola. Exa 1988 r] Ilopxoyalla Kai r] loTiovia eyivocv |i8Xri 
xri<; AEE. Me xr^v Kaxdppeuori xcov KaBeoxcbxcov xou KpaxiKou Kamxali- 
ojioi) («U7iapKxoi) (jo(jiali(j|ioi)») dpxioocv oXoeva Kai Tiepioooxepo va 
5iacpaivovxai oi 5iacpope<; (ju|icpep6vxcov (lexa^u EupcoTirig Kai HIIA (x] 
xouXdxioxov 01 5iacpope<; [iexa^y HIIA Kai xou yalXoyepiiaviKou d^ova). 
H ouvBiiKTi xoi) Mdaoxpixx e9exe cog evav avio xoix; oxoxoug xri<;, xr] 5ri|ii- 
oupyia Koivfi<; «a|ii)vxiKfi9> TioXixiKiig. 

Exa 1994 xrape? otTio xrjv avaxoXiKf] Kai KevxpiKf] EupcoTUi eyivav 
(Ji)v5e5e|ieva nth] xri<; AEE. Exa 1995 eyive |ieXo<; xri<; AEE t] EXXdSa, evcb 
Auoxpia, 3)ivXav5ia, IpXav5ia Kai EouriSia aTieKxrioav KaBeoxcbg Tiapaxr]- 
prixii. ExT] AEE (n)|i|iexexoi)v 28 Kpdxr]. tloxooo r] AEE exei avioxuxei oxtj 
5ri|iioi)pyia «ai)x6vo|iri<; a|ii)vxiKfi<; eupcoTiaiKfig xawx6xrixag». E^aKoXou- 
9ei va PpioKexai Kdxco avio xr] papid oKid xou NATO Kai xcov HIIA. Oi 
Siacpopeg oi)|i(pep6vxcov [iexa^u xcov Kpaxcbv-|ieXcbv xrig EupcoTiaiKfn; 'Evco- 
oTt]q e^aKoXouBouv va e|i7io5i(^oi)v xtjv koivii tioXixikii oe 9e|iaxa e^coxepi- 
Kr\q Kai «a(ii)vxiKri9> 7iokxiKfi<;. 

E7iiKecpalfi<; xri<; AuxiKoeupcoTiaiKfn; 'Evcoorn; eivai xo EuiiPouko 
xTjc; AEE 7101) aviapxii^exai avio xovq UTioupyoix; e^coxepiKcbv Kai a\mvac, 
xcov Kpaxcbv-|ieXcbv. To EuiiPouXio eSpeuei oxk; Bpu^eXXei; (xa oxoixeia 
eivai avio: BamXeiou Ilavdyoi), Kcovoxavxivou Toouvxa, AiaKpaxiKii Kai 
i)7iepe9viKfi Euvepyaoia, eKSooeii; naTiai^fjori, A6fiva2002, oeX. 371-375, 
Kai xTjv eyKUKloTiaiSeia Britamiica). 



H EupcDTiaiKTi Koivoxrixa ATO[j,iKfi<^ Ev8pysia<; (EKAE r\ 
EURATOM) Kai r\ EupcoTiaiKfi OiKovo[j,iKfi KoivorriTa (EOK, 
f) cvjya EupcoTiaiKTi KoivoTrixa) i5pi39riKav [is tt] SuvGfiKri 
Tr|(; P(b[j,ri(; to Mdpxio 19 5 7(r| EOK avacpspsxai cvjya oav 
«Et)pco7iaiKS(; Koivottitsc;)) [E.K.] yiaxi aTiOTS^isixai and xiq 
GU[j,(pcovi8(; EKAX, EKAE Kai EOK). Sxoxog ttjc; EOK fixav r\ 
KaxdpyriGri xcov s^tioSicdv (xcdv 5aG[j,(bv- xutiikcdv r\ dxuTicDv) 
Gxr] SiaKivriGTi xcov s^7iopsu[j,dx(DV, UTiripsGicbv, KscpaXaiou Kai 
spyaGia^. H Koivf) Ayopd enpene va 7ipay[j,axo7ioiri9si GxaSi- 
aKd G8 nia 5(o5sKasxfi [j,sxaPaxiKfi 7ispio5o- [j,sxpixo 1970. 

Er|[j,avxiK6 KO[j,[j,dxi xcov GU[j,(pcovicbv acpopouGS xr|v Koivf) 
AypoxiKT) no^LixiKTi (KAQ), oi gxoxoi xr|(; OTioiat; fixav:'' a) 
au^riGri xri(; 7iapaycDyiK6xrixa(; gxov aypoxiKo xo[j,sa, P) s^a- 
GCpd^tiGT] «5iKaiou» PioxiKot) S7ii7is5ou Gxou(; ayp6xs(;, y) Gxa- 
GspoTioiriGri xcov ayopcbv, 5) Ejjx)r\(yr\ «KavoviKoi3 s(po5ia- 
G[j,oi3» xou 7iXri9uG[j,oi3 [le yscopyiKd upoiovxa, s) s^aGCpd^^iGr] 
«>uoyiKcbv xi[j,(bv» gxoix; KaxavaXcoxs(;. 

Ilapd xo i^ijGo, r\ aypoxiKf) noXniKi] xrjc; EOK 5sv fixav i- 
5iaixspa «(piXiKfi» 7ipo(; xovq ayp6xs(;. H Gxripi^r] (smSoxriGri) 
xcov aypoxiKcbv xi[j,(bv suvoriGS Kupicot; xovq [j,syaXoayp6xs(; ce 
Pdpo(; xcov [j,iKpoaypox(bv, Kai smxdxuvs xrjv aypoxiKf) s^o5o. 
O api9[j,6(; xcov a7iaGxo}toi3[j,svcov gxt] yscopyia xri(; EOK gxo 
5idGxri[j,a 1960-1971 [j,sicb9riKs Kaxd 6 sKaxofj.^ijpia.'* Oi 58 
KaxavaXcDxs(;, TiXfipcDvav (Kai s^aKoXou9oi3v va Tikr\p&)Vovv) 
xa aypoxiKd upoiovxa gs xi[j,S(; 7io}^i3 u\|/r|X6x8p8(; xcov 5is9vcbv, 
Xojd) v\\ir\hhv SaGfo^cbv gxk; siGaycoyst;. 

Tov lavoudpio 1960 UTioypdcpsxai r\ Su[j,(pcovia xrjc; Sxok- 
x6X[ir\q- iSpuGT] Et)pco7iaiKfi(; Zcbvri^ EXsu9spcov EuvaX.>uaycbv 
(EZEE).* 



* H EOK 5ev titov t] (iovaSiicri TipooTidGeia 5ieupco7iaiiKri<; oiKovo(iiKfi<; 
ouvspyaoloig. Molioxa, apxiKo, oSfiyrioe oxriv oiKovo|iiKri «5id(j7ia(jri» 



Ioi)X,iog 1961- UTioypacpfi 'Zv[i(pG)viaq EwSsarjc; EX,Xd5a(; - 
EOK. 

IavoudpiO(; 1963 - O 7ip6s5po(; ttjc; TaXkiaq Nts TkoX 
7ipopdX.X,8i veto Gxriv svia^r] tt]^ Bpsxaviat; gttiv EOK. 

Sxa 1965 01 5ioiKr|TiKS(; smxpoTist; EKAX, EKAE Kai EOK 
GuyxcovsiJTriKav as [im [lovo EmxpoTifi (Commission), xa [le- 
Xr\ TTj^ OTioia^ 5iopi(^ovTav and xiq KuPspvfiGSK; xcov Kpaxcbv- 
[ishhv. 

Sxa 1965 01 «s9viks(; 5ia(pops9> avd[j,SGa Gxa Kpdxri-[j,8>uri 
Pyaivouv [is GCpo ^oxrixa Gxr|v STiicpdvsia. Tov loij^^io xou 
1965 r| TaXkia avaKoivcbvsi 6xi 5sv 9a GU[j,[j,sxdGxsi ^avd gxk; 
spyaGiS(; xou Su[j,pouMou YTioupycbv xri(; Koiv6xr|xa(; ([is a- 
(pop[j,fi 5ia(pcovia gxt] xprifo^axoSoxriGri xrjc; Koivfi(; AypoxiKfic; 
rioXixiKTi^). H noXniKT] xri(; «K8vfig 85pa^» (aTioxn auo xa 98- 
G[j,iKd opyava xri(; EOK), 9a 5iapKSG8i STixd [V(\VEq. Ms xo 



xcov 5i)TiKoeupco7iaiKcbv xcopcbv oe 5uo oiioSeg. H Bpexovla, \\ OTiola titov 
e^aipexiKd KaxuTiOTixri aTievovxi oxriv EOK, Xoyco xri<; Papyxrixoi; xou yal- 
Ax)yep|iaviKoi) o^ova, Tipcoxooxdxrioe oxr] 5ri|iioupyla xri<; EZEE cog ocvxi- 
Papo Tipog xriv EOK. H EZEE fixocv \na ouvepyaola kov acpopoyoe avio- 
KleioxiKd xo e|i7i6pio (xa aypoxiKd Tipoiiovxa oumaoxiKd avioKXelovxav 
avio XT] Q&)V^ eXeu9epcov owalXaycbv), evcb 5ev eyive TipooTidGeia yia xriv 
evieKxaori xrig ouvepyaolrag oe dlXoix; xo|iel<;. Exriv EZEE ou|i|iexelxocv 
apxiKd Auoxpla, Aocvla, Bpexovla, NopPriyio, riopxoyalla, EouriSia Kai 
EXpexla. H 3)ivXav51a eyive [leXog xrig xo 1986, r] loXocvSla xo 1970 Kai xo 
Aixvevoxdiv xo 1991. To 1967 KaxapyiiBriKav oi 5ao|iol avdiieoa oxk; 
xcbpeg nth]. Exa 1973 r] Bpexavla Kai r] Aavia eyKaxeXeiv|/av xov opyavi- 
(j|i6 Kai eioiiXBav oxriv EOK. H Ilopxoyalia eioiiXBe oxriv EOK xo 1986. 
Exa 1995 eyKaxeXeiv|/av xov opyavi(j|i6 Kai eioiiXBav oxriv EOK r] Auoxpia 
Kai T] 3)ivXav5ia. Efi(iepa oxriv EZEE PpioKovxai EXpexia, loXav5ia, Nop- 
Priyia, Aixvevoxdiv. Exi<; 14/2/1992 EOK Kai EZEE ou|i(pcbvrioav oxrjv 
iSpuor] xoi) EupcoTiaiKoi) Oikovo|iikoi) Xcbpou (EOX)- xr] Srijiioupyia (iia^; 
[leydlrig (^cbvri<; eXeuOepcov ouvalXaymv (lexa^u xcov Kpaxcbv-jieAxbv xcov 
5i)o auxcbv opyavio|icbv. 



«Su[j,piPaG[j,6 Tou Aou^s[j,poi3pyou» (1966) aTiocpaGiGxriKs 
OTi, TipaKTiKd Gxs56v GS 6?ta xa Gs^axa, aTiaiTSixo o[j,o(p(Dvia. 
KdGs KpdTO^-[j,sXo(; f^TiopoiJGS va smKaXsGisi (yia 07ioio5fi- 
710TS (^fiTri[j,a) OTi Giyovxai «(^coTiKd sGviKd GU[j,(pspovTa», Kai 
va aTiaiTTiGSi o[j,o(pcovia yia va STiiKupcoGsi [im aTiocpaGr]. 

To 1968 oXoKX,rip(bv8Tai r\ T8X,(DviaKfi 'Evcogt] tt]^ EOK Kai 
TO Koivo s^coTspiKo SaGfo^oAoyio. O gt6xo(; fixav r\ koivt) 7ioX,i- 
TiKTi GTO 5isGvs(; sfo^Tiopio (koivo 5aG[j,oX6yio evavxi xpixcov 
Xcopcbv) Kai r| KaxdpyrjGri KdGs «EQviKr\q oiKovo[j,iKfi(; noXni- 
Kr\q» nov suvosi xk; sGviks(; Pio[j,r|xavis^ xcov Kpax(bv-[j,8>^(bv. 
Qgxogo aKOfo^a Kai Gfifo^spa (onrnq Ga 5oi3[j,s gxt] 5idpKsia au- 
xoij xou PiPMou) r| upoGxaGia xr|(; «EQviKr\q oiKovo[j,ia(;» [is 
7iapa5aG[j,oXoyiKd S[j,7i65ia auo xa Kpdxri-[j,s}tr| s^aKoXouGsi 
va sivai a7ioxs}tSG[j,axiK6xaxri. 

AvxiGsxa [IE xo 56y[j,a xrjc; «8X8i3G8pri(; ayopd(;» nov (vko- 
G8xiKd xouXdxiGxov) iGXU8 yia 6Xa xa UTioXoma, r] Koivf) A- 

ypOXlKT) rio^^lXlKTl GUV8Xl(^8 (Kai GUV8xi(^8l) Va GXripi(^8Xai GXOV 

7ipoGxax8uxiG[j,6 Kai xig 87ii5oxfiG8i(; (KoivoxiKsg Kai sGviKsg)- 
Tidvxoxs U718P xcov [j,syaXoaypoxcbv. H GuyKsvxpoTioiri gt] xcov 
yscDpyiKcbv SK[j,sxaX,Xsi3G8cov suixaxuvGriKs, [is a7ioxsXsG[j,a xo 
[lEco [j,sysGo(; xr|(; koivoxikt)^ SK[j,sxdA,XsuGri(; xo 1993 va (pxd- 
G8i xa 164 Gxps[j,[j,axa, aXkd [j,s gt] [j,avxiKS(; aTioK^iGSK;: Bps- 
xavia (670 Gxps[j,[j,axa avd 8K[j,sxdA,XsuGri), Aavia Kai Eourj- 
5ia (370 Gxp8[j,[j,axa), YaXkia (350 Gxps[j,[j,axa) Kai acpsxspou 
EX,Xd5a (40 Gxps[j,[j,axa), IxaMa (59 Gxps[j,[j,axa), HopxoyaMa 
(81 Gxps[j,[j,axa). 

To A8KS[j,Ppio 1969 (5Tr\ GUvdvxrjGri Kopucpf)^ xcov apxnyrov 
xcov Kpaxcbv-[j,sXcbv gxt] Xdyr], sXficpGri r\ aTiocpaGr] yia xr] 
GxaSiaKT) 5ri[j,ioupyia, Gxr| 5idpKsia xr|(; 5sKasxia(; xou 1970, 
[j,ia(; OiKovo[j,iKfi(; Kai No[j,iG[j,axiKfi<; 'Ev(i)cr\q (ONE). H upcb- 



TT] auxfi 7ipoG7id9sia yia xriv ONE, 9a KaxaXfi^si as iik^pr] 
aTiOTUxia. 

Tov lavoudpio xou 1973 5isupi3vsTai r\ EOK [is Tr|v svia^r] 
Bpsxavia^, Aavia(; Kai IpXav5ia(;. 

Sxa 1974 STiiPsPairovsTai Kai S7iiGri[j,a o Kupiapxo(; poXo^ 
Tcov KuPspvfiGSCDV TCDV KpaT&)V-[iehhv (o SiaKuPspvriTiKo^, 
5ri?ta5fi, Kai 6xi «t)7isps9viK6(;» xapaKTfipa(; Tr|(; EOK) [is tt] 
98G[j,o9sTriGri xou EupcDTiaiKot) Eu[j,pot)Mou. ATiOTS^sixai and 
TOU(; apxnyotx; (7ipco9u7io ipyo ij; f) TipoeSpoix;) tcov Kpaxcbv- 
[lehhv Kai xoix; UTioupyotx; tcdv E^coxspiKcbv. Suvspxsxai xou- 
XdxiGxov 5uo (pops(; xov xpo'vo, Kai xapdGGSi xi^ ysviKst; Ka- 
xsu9i3vGSi(; yia xrjv EOK. To Kijpio vo[j,o9sxik6 opyavo xrjc; 
EOK (aXka Kai Gfi[j,spa xr|(; EupcoTiaiKfi^ 'EvcDGrjc;) sivai xo 
Eu[j,poi3}tio xcDV YTioupycbv (aTioxs^^sixai and xovq UTioupyoij^ 
xcov Kpax(bv-[j,sX(bv). Kd9s koivoxikti vo[j,o9sGia auaixsi xrjv 
syKpiGT] xou Eu[j,pouMou xcov YTioupycbv. 

MdpxiO(; 1979- siGaycoyf) xou EupcoTiaiKou No^iG^iaxiKou 
SuGxfi[j,axo(; (ENE). 

To 1981 8VxdGG8xai r\ EA,Xd5a gxtjv EOK (sixs 7iporiyri98i, 
xov louvio 1975,aixri[j,a xrjc; eXkriviK^q KuPspvrjGrig yia stii- 
GTisuGT] xT]^ svxa^rjc; Gxr|v EOK). 

AsKS[j,PpiO(; 1985- gxo Aou^s[j,poupyo r\ Suvo5o(; Apxnyrov 
Kpaxcbv GU[j,(pcDvsi gxtjv Eviaia EupcoTiaiKf) TTpd^r] (r\ GU[j,(pco- 
via xs9riKS gs igxu and xov louXio 1987) Sxoxo^ fixav r\ dr\- 
[j,ioupyia (|j.6xpi xo 1993) [imq «7ipay[j,axiKd» svo7ioir|[j,svri^ 
ayopd(; (7ip6ypa[j,[a^a «EGCOxspiKfi(; Ayopd9>) xtopi<; 7iapa5a- 
G[j,oXoyiKd sf^TioSia: vo|iiKd, xsxviKd, xP^moit^OTiiGxcoxiKd s- 
^7i65ia GXT] SiaKivriGTi 8^7iopsu[j,dxcov, spyaGia^ KscpaXaiou 
Kai UTiripsGicbv. Fia 7iapd5siy[j,a, oi 5ia(popsxiKS(; s9vik8(; vo- 
[j,o9sGi8<; GS 98[j,axa aGCpdXsiat; spyaGiat;, vjieivr\q Kai oi xs- 



jyitceq TipoSiaypacpsg, GscopfiGriKav s^7i65ia yia xriv «sXsi39spri 
ayopd». 

'Onmq ema[iE, oi aTiocpdosK; gto Eufo^Poij^tio xcov YTioupyrov, 
[iS'Xpi xriv Eviaia EupcoTiaiKfi Ilpd^ri, aTiaiTOuaav o[j,o(p(Dvia. 
Ms xriv Eviaia EupcoTiaiKfi Ilpd^ri STisKTSivsiai r\ apxn T:r\c, 
«si5iKfi^ 7iXsio\|/ri(pia(;» («dniki\ 7iX8io\|/ri(pia») yia [im osipd 
l^r\Tr\[iaTa: xa KpdTri-[j,sA,ri sxouv SiacpopsxiKo api9[j,6 \|/fi(pcov, 
nov s^apidxai and xov 7iXri9uG[j,6 xoix;, Kai r] t)7isp\|/fi(piGri 
[j,ia^ vo[j,o9sGia^ aTiaixsi (xov5piKd) xa 5uo-xpixa xcov \|/fi(pcov 
aXXd Kai 7iapdA,A,riXa va GuyKsvxpcbvsi xr|v 7iXsio\|/ri(pia xcdv 
Kpax(bv-[j,sX(bv. 

Tov lavoudpio 1986 svxdGGOVxai r\ iGTiavia Kai r\ IIopxo- 
yaMa gxtjv EOK. 

Atio xo 1988-89 apxi(^8i r\ TipoTiapaGKSufi (xri(; 58i3xspri(; 
7ipoG7id9sia(;) yia xrjv 7ipay[j,axo7ioiriGri xrjg ONE (OiKovo[j,iKfi 
Kai No[j,iG[j,axiKfi 'Evcogt]). 

To A8KS[j,Ppri 1991 Sia^iopcpcbvsxai r\ Suv9fiKri xou Mda- 
Gxpixx (oA,}tav5iKfi 7i6X,ri). H GUv9fiKri akhx^e xo 6\o[j,a xr]^ 
EOK G8 EupcoTiaiKTi 'EvoDGT] (E.E.). 'E9sGS mq gxoxo, yia xo 
1999, xTjv KaxdpyrjGTi xcdv Sidcpopcov s9viKcbv vo[j,iG[j,dxcov Kai 
xTjv avxiKaxdGxaGT) xoix; [is sva koivo v6[j,iG[j,a- xo supcb. Exo 
supcb 9a GU[j,[j,sxsixav oi x&ipeq xcdv otioicdv xo eXksi[i[ia xou 
7ipol)7ioXoyiG[j,oi3 5sv 9a UTispsPaivs xo 3% xou AEII, xo 5ri- 
[j,6gio jpsoq 9a fixav KdxcD and xo 60% xou AEII, o 7iXri9cDpi- 
G[j,6(; 9a sixs 5iaKU[j,avGri |J,sxpi 1,5% and xovq xpsK; xot^il^o- 
xspou(; pu9[j,ou(; 7i}tr|9cDpiG[j,ou xri(; E.E., Kai 9a SiaxrjpouGav 
Gxa98p8g GUvaA,Xay[j,axiKS(; iGOxi[j,is(; [j,sxa^u xcdv vo[j,iG[j,dxcDV 
xou(;. 

E7imp6G9sxa, r] GUv9fiKri gxoxsus gxtjv «7ioXixiKfi svoTioir]- 
Gri» xrjc; E.E., 5ri}ta5fi r] «Eupcb7iri» va auoKxriGSi Koivf) s^co- 
xspiKT) TioXixiKTi, 5sG[j,8uxiKfi aTio 6}^a xa Kpdxri-[j,8}^ri, Kai xrjv 



10 



TipooSsuTiKTi 5ia[j,6p(pcoGri auT6vo[j,ri(; GxpaTicoxiKfi^ [ir\xavr\q. 
BaoiKo pfi[j,a 7ipo(; xriv KaxsuGuvari auxf) GsropfiGriKs r\ Gsgtii- 
cr\ xou GsG[j,oi3 xr|(; Koivfi(; E^coxspiKfic; IIo^tixiKfi^ Kai Ilo^tixi- 
Kr\q AocpdXsiat; (KEllllA). Si3[j,(p(Dva [is xr] auvGfiKri, xo Eu- 
pcoTiaiKo Su[j,poi3Xio (5riXa5fi oi apxnyoi xcov Kpaxcbv-[j,8}^(bv) 
KaGopi(^si xi^ apxs(; Kai xovq ysviKotx; 7ipoGavaxoXiG[j,oi3g xrjg 
KEllllA. IIpoKsixai 5riXa5fi yia «5iaKuPspvrixiKfi auvspyaai- 
a» 710U s^si a7ioxsX8G[j,axiK6xrixa [j,6vo gxo PaG[j,6 iiov UTidp- 
X8i GUvaivsGTi (gxtiv Tipd^r] o[j,o(pcovia) [j,8xa^i3 xcov Kpaxcbv- 
[lehhv. To aTioxeXsG^ia fixav gxtjv Tipcbxri [lejakf] KpiGT] tiou 
avxi[j,sx(b7iiGS r\ E.E., xr] 5idA,t)Gr| xrjc; upcbriv riouyKOG^^aptat; 
xo 1992, va KaxappsuGSi 07ioia5fi7ioxs «Koivfi s^coxspiKf) 710- 
XixiKT))), r] E.E. va 5iaG7iaGxsi gs avxi[j,ax6[j,sva GxpaxoTisSa, 
Kai XT] «A,i3Gri» va Scdgouv oi HIIA. 

<I)sPpoudpiO(; 1992- UTioypacpfi GUvGfiKri(; yia xrjv EupoDTiai- 
Kr\'Ev(i)cr\. 

Tov lavoudpio xou 1993 oXoKXripcbvexai xo 7ip6ypa[j,[j,a 
«EG(oxspiKfi(; Ayopd9>. 

Tov lavoudpio 1995 svxdGGOVxai AuGxpia, SouriSia, Kai 
OivXavSia gxtjv EupcoTiaiKfi 'Evcogt]. H E.E.-15 sivai: BsXyio, 
Aavia, rsp[j,avia, EA,Xd5a, iGuavia, raX,Ma, IpXavdia, IxaMa, 
Aou^s[j,poi3pyo, OXhxvdia, AuGxpia, IlopxoyaMa, <I)ivX,av5ia, 
Eouri5ia, Bpsxavia. 

Tov loijvio 1997 GXT] guvoSo Kopucpfi^ XOU A[J,GX8pVXa[J,, 
UTioypdcpsxai xo Si3[j,(pcovo ExaGspoxrixac; Kai Avduxu^rjc;. O 
Gx6xo(; fixav xa Kpdxr] nov Ga GU[a^[j,sxsixav Gxr| vo[j,iG[j,axiKfi 

SVCOGT] va 58G[J,8t)XOl3v G8 «5iapKfl 7lSpiOpiG[J,6» XOU 5ri[J,OGlO- 

vof^iKot) sA,Xsi[j,[j,axo(; gxo 3% xou AEII. Sxriv Tipd^r], xo Si3[j,- 
(pcDvo SxaGsp6xrixa(; aTioxs^^sGS xo TipoGxnM^ot yia xr|v smPoXfi 
[j,ia(; «dypia(;» vsocpiXs^tsuGsprjc; oiKovo[j,iKfi(; tio^^ixiktic;: auo- 
KpaxiKOTioifiGSi^ Kai Kaxs5d(piGri xou Kpdxou^ Tipovoiag. 



11 



Tov lavoudpio xou 19 9 9^8KivriGS to «TpiTO GTd5io» ttjc; 
ONE, r\ sioaycDyfi tod evp&i (oav 5iaTpa7is(^iKfi cvvaXhrf[ia- 
TiKT) [j,ovd5a). H «(pt)GiKfi» sfo^cpdviGri tod supcb (Ksp[j,aTa Kai 
XapT0V0[j,iG[j,aTa) syivs to 2002 Kai TipoKdXsos Kij^a Ksp5o- 
GKOTiiKcbv avaTi[j,fiGSCov Tcov TipoiovTCDV g' oX6KX,ripr| Tr|v Eu- 
pcDTiri. Oi Fspfj-avoi noXneq auoKd^^SGav to supcb (euro), 
teuro, a7i6 ttjv ysp[j,aviKfi Xs^r] teuer, nov Gtmaivsi «aKpiP6». 

STtt 1999 GTT] vo[j,iG[j,aTiKfi svcDGTi GU[j,[j,8TSixav 11 x(bps(; 
(av Kai noXXeq X'^P^'i [swsa gtk; sv5sKa] sixav 5ri[j,6Gio xps- 
oq Tidvro ano 60% tod AEII, svcb ttjc; Ixakiaq Kai tod BsX,yioD 
DTispsPaivs TO 120%): ADGTpia, BsXyio, OivXavSia, TaXkia, 
Fspfj-avia, IpXav5ia, iTaMa, AoD^s[j,poDpyo, OXXavSia, IIop- 
ToyaMa Kai iGTiavia. 

AsKS[j,PpiO(; 2000- DTioypacpf) Tri(; SDv9fiKri(; ttjc; NiKaiat;. 
0SG[j,o9sTsiTai r\ SDvaTOTriTa va Dudp^si i^ia EE. «iioXhhv 
TaxpTTiTCOv)). IIpopXsTiSTai OTi [j,spiKS(; [j,6vo x&ipsc, TTjc; EE. 
I^TiopoDV va TipoxcopfiGODV GS «sviGXP[j,svri GDVspyaGia», ce 
[j,syaA,DTspri [j,STa^D xovq «oAoK}tfipcDGri» (oiKovo[j,iKfi, 5mXco- 

[laTlKT], «a^DVTlKfl»). H EDpCDTiri TOD «5l8D9DVTripiOD» Tipo 

TCOV tidXcdv (;). 

To 2001 r\ EA,M5a siGspxsTai gto SDpcb. 

Sto SDpd) 5£v GD[j,[j,STSxoDV o'ksq 01 x&ipeq Tri(; EE (av Kai 
SKTiXripcbvoDV Ta KpiTfipia tod MdaGTpixT). Ekt6(; SDpcb sivai 
BpsTavia, EoDrjSia, Aavia. 

Tov Aupi^tio TOD 2003 svTdxGrjKav 5sKa vsa [iEkr\ (r\ eni- 
cr\[ir\ TipoGxropriGTi 9a D7ioypa(p9si to Mdio tod 2004): Kd- 
npoq (tiogogto [j,sgod koivotikod AETI, 80%)), MdA,Ta (tiogo- 
gt6 [j,sgod koivotikod AEn, 5 5 °/^, TloXcovia (4 "z^, TGSxia 
(57%), E}.opaKia (48%), EXopsvia (69%), ODyyapia (51%), 
Ai9oDavia (38%), AsTOvia (33%), EG9ovia (42%).'^ 



12 



H a[j,spiKavoPpsTaviKfi eiG^oXr\ Kai Kaxoxfi tou IpdK to 
Mdpxio Tou 2003 a7ioKaX,i37iTSi oxi r\ «7ioXiTiKfi svo7ioiriGri» 
Tri(; E.E. aTioxs^^si ([j,aKpiv6) «6vsipo Gspivfic; vukt69>. Bpsxa- 
v(a, loTiavia, IxaMa, Aavia Kai OXhxvdia, nopxoyaMa, x&ipeq 
nov o 7iXri9uG[j,6(; xovq 7iXriGid(^si xo 50% xou guvoXikoij Tikr\- 
9uG[j,oi3 xTjc; E.E.-15 UTiOGxfipi^av xov 7i6Xs[j,o gxo IpdK. Oi 
TispiGGOxspst; a7i6 xk; X&tpeq xrjc; KsvxpiKfi(; Kai Avaxo}tiKfi(; 
Et)p(b7iri(; STipa^av xo i5io- r\ IIoXcDvia gu[j,[j,8xsixs [ie [j,iKp6 
api9[j,6 Gxpaxicoxcbv gxi^ 7ioXs[j,iks(; smxsipfiGSK;. 

SxT] XaX,Ki5iKfi xov loijvio 2 3\|/ri(pi(^sxai «Kax' apxnv» 
([IE 7ioA,?ts^ 5ia(p(DviS(; 8k [lEpovq «[j,iKp(bv» Kai «[j,SGai(DV» 
Kpax(bv-[j,s}t(bv) xo supcDTiaiKo «Si3vxay[j,a». IIpoKsixai yia 
Kaxaypacpf) Kai 9sG[a^o9sxr|Gri xr|(; [lEjpi xcbpa ypacpsioKpaxi- 
Kr\q Kai avxi5r|[j,0KpaxiKfi(; Xsixoupyiag xrjg E.E.- [ie 5uo Kpi- 
Gi[j,8^ 5ia(pops(;: STiixsipsi [j,ia tiio «GuyK8vxpcoxiKfi» Xsixoup- 
yia [IE XT] 9sG[j,iKfi avapd9[j,iGri xcov «[j,sydXcov» Kpaxcbv g8 
Pdpo^ xcov «[j,iKp6xspcov». napdXXriXa, 9sG[j,o98X8i Kai «gu- 
vxay[j,axiKd» xo v80(pi}ts}tsu9spiG[j,6 Ga [iovteXjo oiKovo[j,iKfi(; 
>^sixoupyia^ yia xrjv E.E. H xsXikti xou \|/fi(piGri (av stiixsu- 
x9si. . .) 7ipoypa[j,[j,axi(^8xai yia xo 2004. 

H AiaKuPspvrixiKTi gxk; Bpv^EXkEq, xo AsKS[j,Ppio xou 
2003, a7ioxuyxdv8i va yscpupcDGSi xk; 5ia(pops(; avd[j,SGa Gxa 
Kpdxri-[j,sX,ri. Oi 5ia(pcovis^ gs gxsgti [ie xo «Si3vxay[j,a» STia- 
vacpspow, [IE i5iaixspri o^ijxrixa, xo (^fixri[j,a [imq «Eup(b7iri^ 
7ioA,}t(bv xaxuxfixcov». O 7ip6s5po(; xr|(; EupoTiaiKfic; E7iixpo7ifi(;, 
Po[j,dvo IIpovxi, 5r|X(bvsi: «Edv gs [im GuyKSKpifa^svri Gxiy[j,fi 
5ia7iiGxco98i 6xi Kduoist; x^^ps? S7ii9u[j,oi3v va s[j,pa9i3vouv Ka- 
xd Kduoio xpoTio xTjv supcoTiaiKTi oAoK^fipcoGfi xoix;, x6x8 Tips- 
71SI va \mopovv va xo Kdvouv». '' Ilapdyovxs^ xri(; EmxpoTific; 
U7ioypd[j,[j,i(^av 6xi oi x^'PS'^ auxs(; 5sv xpsid(^ovxai xr] vofo^ifa^o- 
TioiriGri xri(; E.E. acpoij «U7idpxsi Kai o Spo^iot; xri(; GUVspyaGiat; 



13 



EKlOq TCDV KOlVOTlKCbv QeG\1&)V». H EupCOTiaiKTl 'EVCDGTI GS 710- 

psia aPsPairi(; Kai a[j,(piPoA,ri(; [i£TE^Eki^r\q sv [j,8G(d «s9viK(bv» 
avTiTiapaGsGSCov. . . 

Edv r\ Tiopsia [j,STS^s}ti^ri(; Tri(; E.E. sivai aPsPair], UTidpxsi, 
(OGTOGO, [j,ia «s^aG(pa}^iG[j,8vri» PsPaiOTrixa: To 9s[j,s}tio ttjc; 
«vsa(; Eup(b7iri9>, sivai r| op96 5D^r| s(pap[j,oyfi xrig vsocpiXs- 
Xsi39spri(; EKdo')(j(\q xou Ka7iiTaXiG[j,oi3. H vsocpiXeXsuGspri sm- 
GsGTi Kaxd Tcov spya(^o[j,8vcov sivai gttiv rmspfiGia Sidxa^ri g' 
oXoK^tTipri Tr|v EupcDTiri, cogtogo, t] xcbpa gttiv OTOia auxfi r\ 
STiiGsGTi Kai r\ KaxsSdcpiGri xou Kpdxoix; 7ip6voia(;, skxo^ auo 
xo ouGiaGxiKo xT]^ 7ispi£x6[j,svo GU[j,poM(^si xauxoxpova Kai xo 
TEkoq xou «Ka7iixa}tiG[j,oi3 [ie avGpromvo 7ip6G(07io», sivai r\ 
rsp[j,avia. H Fsp^avia s^si [im [lOKpa TipoiGxopia «koiv(dvi- 
Kr\q 7ip6voiag» nov oi a7iapxs(; xr|(; PpiGKovxai Gxa teIt] xtjc; 
5sKa8xia(; xou 1870 STii M7iiG[j,apK! Msxd xo 1945 r\ tioXixikti 
auxf) GUGxri[j,axiK07ioifiGriKs Kai xo «ysp[j,aviK6 [j,ovxsAo» xa- 
paKxripiGxriKs ax; r\ «KoivcoviKfi oiKovo[j,ia xrjc; ajopaqy}. Ex6- 
Xoq xTjc; oiKovo[j,iKfi(; tioXixiktic; GsropfiGriKs 6xi TipsTisi va sivai 
r\ 7i>ufipri^ aTiaGxoXriGri Kai oi (G^sxiKd) t)\|/ri>uoi [j,iGGoi, svcb xo 
S7ii5o[j,a avspyia(; s^aG(pdXi(^s gxou^ avspyoix; a^iOTipsTifi 5ia- 
PicoGT] yia 6go 5idGxr|[j,a 7iapE[j,svav skx6(; ajopac, spyaGiat;. 
H laxpocpapfj-aKsuxiKT) 7ispiGaX,\|/ri fixav and xiq u\|/riX6xsp8(; 
Gxov k6g[j,o xogo yia xoix; spya(^6[j,£vot)g 6go Kai yia xoix; d- 
vspyotx; Kai xoix; Guvxa^iouxoix;. OuGiKd, Ssv STipoKsixo yia 
«Ka7iixa}tiGxiK6 7iapd5siGO». H Guvsxnf; |J,sxa7io}tS[j,iKfi oiko- 
vo[j,iKfi avduxu^T], 01 nohb xa[ir\kEq Gxpaxi(DxiKS(; 5a7idvs(;, g8 
GUv5uaG[j,6 [IE xTjv TiapaSoGiaKTi 5i3va[j,ri xcov ysp[j,aviK(bv 
GUvSiKdxcov STisPaXav auxfiv xrjv TioXixiKf). 

Ms xo 7ip6ypa[j,[j,a Ax(^svxa 2010 (xou G0Gia}t5ri[j,0Kpdxri 
KayKs^tapiou Epsvxsp) TipocoGsixai r\ gugxt] i^axiKf) KaxsSdcpi- 



14 



cr\ Tou «ysp[j,aviKoi3 [j,ovtsXou». Evcb Gr\[iepa UTidpxouv 4,5 
8KaTO[j,^i3pia dvspyoi gtti rsp[j,avia, TipocoGowxai: 

KaidpyriOTi xou S7ii56[j,aTO(; avspyia(; [o^STd xoix; 12 
[V[\VEq Kai avTiKaTdGTaofi xou [j,s to «S7ii5o[j,a 2», i3- 
\|/ot)g 345 supd) TO [o^fiva (Kupio^^sKTiKd S7ii5o[a^a 7isiva(; 
i5iaiTspa yia to k6gto(; C,(£)i\q ttjc; r8p[j,avia(;). Es 6- 
GOtx; avspyotx; apvowTai xa[j,riX6[j,iG9s(; Gsgsi^ spya- 
Gia(;, TispiKOTiTSTai Kai auTO to S7ii5o[j,a. 
Aij^riGri Tou opiou GUVTa^ioSoTriGti^ GTa 67 %p6via. 
YTioxpscoGT] Tcov GUVTa^ioiJxcov va Tikr\p&)VO\)v and 
[j,6voi TOU(; TT] voGTiXsia TOU(;. 

Ar|[j,ioupyoi3vTai i5i(DTiKd ypacpsia supsGSOx; spyaGiag. 
Aij^riGri Tou opiou [j,a(^iK(bv anohbceayv, i5i(D(; gti^ [j,i- 
Kpo[j,SGaiS(; smxsipfiGSK;. 
H EupcoMvSri gtov aGT8piG[j,6 tou «dypiou» vsocpiXsXsu- 

98piG[J,Ol3... 

To 2001 o Tik^QvGiioq tt]^ E.E.-15 api9[j,oi3GS 377.455.000 
KaTOiKou^. Oi 7ioX,u7iXri9sGTsps(; sivai Fspfj-avia (82,2 sKaT.), 
BpsTavia (59,8 sKaT.), TaXkia (59,5 sKaT.), iTaMa (57,8 s- 
KttT.), iGTiavia (39,5 sKaT.).^ 

STtt 1996 r\ E.E.-15 six8 [j,8yaX,i3Tspo AEII (6.919.958 SKaT. 
supcb) an' 6ti oi HQA (6.153.332 sKaT. supcb). Qgtogo, enei- 



H 5e^id lisxaxomori xrn; EomalSruioKpaxlai; 7iayK6o|iia, Koa o evayKoli- 
o|i6<; xri<; \ie xo veo(piA£Xeu9epi(j|i6, U7ioypa|i|il(^exai avio xriv Tipoxaor] xri<; 
riyexiKJn; 0|id5aig vko xov Epevxep, va aTioleicpBel avio xo 7ip6ypa|i|ia xou 
FepixocviKoi) Eo(Jial5ri|ioKpaxiKoi) K6[i\iaxoq aiq oxpaxriyiKOi; oxoxog o 
«5ri(xoKpaxiK6<; (jomali(j(x6<;» (EXeuBepoxuma, 27/8/2003). IlapoXo kov> 
avxoq oxoxog 5ev ofmaive TipaKxiKd xmoxa oumaoxiKo e5cb Kai 7ioXXe<; 
5eKa£xle<;, evxouxon; r] Tipoxaor] (jri(xaxo5oxel (Kai ori|i£ioXoyiKd) xriv Tipo- 
oTidBeia a7io5e(j(i£i)ori<; xri<; oomalSrijioKpaxiai; avio xig 7iieoei<; xou epya- 
xiKou Kivfi(iaxo<;. 

15 



5r\ r\ a[j,8piKaviKfi oiKovo|i(a xr] 5sKasTia xou 1990 avaTixua- 
Goxav [IE [a^syaX,i3xspot)(; pt)9[j,oi3(; and xrjv supcoTiaiKf), oxa 
2000 01 HHA (10.708.897 SKax. supcb) ^STispaoav xrjv E.E.-15 
(8.524.371 SKax. supcb). To AEII xrjc; lanmviaq ryzav xrjv i5ia 
Xpovid 5.145.362 sKax. supcb. Oi [j,syaX,i3xsps(; oikovo[j,is(; xri(; 
E.E.-15 xo 2000, Gi3[j,(pcova [le xr] Eurostat, sivai Kaxd osipd: 
rsp[j,avia (2.025.534 sKax. supcb), Bpsxavia (1.547.903 sKax. 
supcb), TaXkia (1.404.775 sKax. supcb), IxaMa (1.165.677 8- 
Kax. supd)).^ 



Eto Tiapdpxriiia xou PipXlou 7iapa9eTOU|i£ oiKovo|iiKd oxoixeiot yia Kdte 
Kpdxoi; Tri<; E.E.-15, Ka9cb<; Kai Kdvioia orniavxiKd oxaxioTiKd oxoixeiot. 
Elvai oxriv euxepeia xou ocvayvcboxri va cruvexioei xriv ocvdyvcoori fj va 
(ju|iPouXeuxel axrza xa oxoixeiot. 

16 



AvTi ;rpo>^6yoD 



H "sDpcojralLKfi o>^OK>^fipcooTi": 
Mia fis9o8o>^oyiKfi jrpoosyyioTi 

H TipoGTidQsia yia tt] 5ri[j,ioupyia [imq «7iavst)pco7iaiKfi(; oi- 
Kovo[j,ia9>, xcopi^ sGviKd oijvopa, av s^si (GscoprixiKd) [im pe- 
aXiGTiKTi pdori, auTTi 7iriyd(^8i and to ysyov6(; oxi oi Tiapaycoyi- 
Ksq 5uvd[j,si(; xou Ka7iiTaXiG[j,oi3 sxouv, Tipo noXkoi), UTispPsi 
xa sGviKd Gijvopa. O Ka7iiTaXiG[j,6^ sivai to Tiproxo ouGiaoTiKd 
«oikou[j,svik6» Gi3GTr|[j,a. IIpiv and auxov 5sv UTifipxs Ta^iK6(; 
KoivcDviKoi; Gxri^oiTiG[j,6(; nov va SKTsivexai g' oXoK^ripo xov 
Ti^^avfiTri. To SouXokttitiko GUGirma ouGiaGxiKd 7ispiopi(^6Tav 
yijpcD a7i6 xriv XsKdvr] ttjc; MsGoysiou, r\ (psou5apxia acpopou- 
GS TT] SuTiKTi EupcDTiri. 'Hxttv o Ka7iiTaXiG[j,6(; Kai r\ ejjev^c, 
xdGTi Tou va 5isupi3vsi SiapKO)^ xriv TiapaycoyiKfi 5ia5iKaGia, 
[j,8GC0 Tcov S7iiGTri[j,oviK(bv Ktti TSxvoAoyiKCDV avaKaA,i3\|/scov va 
8KGuyxpovi(^8i Kai va au^dvsi tk; 5uvaT6TriTS(; tcov Tiapayroyi- 
K(bv 5t)vd[j,scov (togo tcdv [j,rixavri[j,dTCOv 6go Kai tt]^ opydvco- 
Gri(; Kai a7iOTsX8G[j,aTiK6TriTag Tr\q spyaGiat;), tiou avayKaGxi- 
Kd oSriyoiJGS gto ^STispaG^ia ttjc; sGviKTig, SGCOxspiKfic; ayopd(;, 
Gxri SiapKT) STisKxaGTi g' ohx xa [j,fiKri Kai xa 7iMxr| xou nXa- 
vfixri, ava(^rix(bvxa(; vss(; ayopst; yia xa upoiovxa, S7isv5uxiks(; 
suKaipis(; yia xa Kscpd^iaia, Tipcbxs^ v'keq yia Pio^irixaviKfi 8k- 
[j,8xdA,}t8UGri. 

Atio xTjv apxn o Ka7iixaXiG[j,6^ 5r|[j,ioi3pyr|G8 xrjv 7iayK6G[j,ia 
ayopd [j,SGCO xrjc; OTioiat; o'keq oi xd)ps(; Pps9r|Kav gs [j,ia Kaxd- 



17 



Gxaari togo aXXriXs^dpTriGri(; 6go Kai avTay(oviG[j,oi3, yia to 
Tioia xcbpa 9a sXsyxsi xiq s^7iopiKS(; o5oi3(;, tk; KpiGi[j,S(; Tipcb- 
TS(; vT^q {%.%. TisxpsXaio), to Tioia x&)^a xsXiKd 9a 5ri[j,iot)p- 
yoiJGe suvoiKS(; GUv9fiKS(; yia xov s9vik6 v(\c, Ka7iiTaXiG[j,6, gs 
TiayKOGfj-io S7ii7is5o, yia xa Kscpd^^aia Kai xa Tipoiovxa xrjg. 
Ka[j,id xcbpa, 6go [j,8ydXri Kai va fixav, aK6[j,a Kai oi HQA, r] 
rsp[j,avia, r] Fa^^Ma, r] AyyMa f) r] PcDGia, 5sv sixs xr] 5uvax6- 
xTjxa va kXsigxsi (5V(\v SGroxspiKf) v(\c, ayopd, va a7io[j,ovco9si 
a7i6 xTjv TiayKOGfj-ia ayopd (rj oiKovo[j,iKfi auxdpKsia acpopd 
aypoxiKoij^ 7ipoKa7iixa}tiGxiKoi3(; koivcdvikoij^ Gxri^iotxiG[j,oi3(;). 
O TpoxGKi [j,8 TLoko yXttcpupo xpoTio 7ispiypd(p8i: 

«AiaKpiv6[j,8VO(; g' auxo anb xa 7iporiyoi)[j,£va oiko- 
vo^iKd GUGxfi[j,axa, o Ka7iixaXiG[j,6(; s^si Gav iSioxrjxa va 
X81V81 Guvsxox; 7ipo(; xTjv oiKovo[j,iKfi 87i8KxaGri, va 5i- 
81g5i381 g8 Kaivoi3pyi8(; 7i8pioxs(;, va KaxaviKd xk; oiko- 
vo[j,iK8^ 5ia(pops(;, va [j,sxa[j,op(p(bvsi xk; 7ispi(pspsiaKS(; 
Kai s9viKS(; oiKovo[j,is(;, tiou fixav K}t8iG[j,sv8g gxov sauxo 
xou(;, g' sva Gi3Gxri[j,a GuyKoivrovouvxcov 5ox8icov, va 
7iXriGid(^si sxGi, va s^iGcbvsi xa oiKovo[j,iKd Kai tioXixi- 

GXlKd S7ll7is5a XCOV 7110 7ipOX(Dpri[J,SV(DV Kai XCDV 7110 Ka- 

9uGxspri[j,sv(DV xropcbv. [...] 

Ma 7iXriGid(^ovxa(; xxc, xcbpsg Kai s^iGcbvovxag xa 87ii- 
7185a avd7ixu^fi(; xoix;, o Ka7iixaXiG[j,6(; svspysi [j,s xk; 5i- 
KS(; xou [j,s9o5s(;, 5ri}ta5fi \iz xk; avapxiKS(; [j,s9o5s(;, 7iou 
t)7iOGKd7ixouv Guvsxdx; xrjv i5ia xrjv spyaGia xou, avxi9s- 
xovxa^ XT] \aa xcbpa (5V(\v aXKr[, xov sva K^dSo 7iapayco- 
yf)^ GXOV aXKo, suvocbvxat; xrjv avd7ixu^ri opiG[j,8vcov [j,s- 
pcbv v(\c, 7iayK6G[j,ia(; oiKovo[j,ia(;, (ppsvdpovxa(; Kai pi- 
Xvovxat; 7iiGC0 aXhi [j,spri v(\c,. Movd^a o GUv5uaG[j,6(; 
auxcbv XCOV 5t)o 98[j,s}^iaK(bv xdGSCov, Ksvxpocpuycov Kai 



18 



K8VTpo[j,6>^(DV, iG07is5coGri(; Kai aviG6TriTa(;, nov Kai oi 
5uo sivai anoTekec[ia ttj^ (5ia^ ttjc; (pi3Gri(; xou Kamxa- 
XiG[j,oi3, [laq s^riysi tt] (^covxavfi TispmXoKfi tt]^ iGxopiKfic; 
5ia5iKaGia(;». 

Ta TiapaTidvco 5ri[j,ioupyoi3v [im «8GC0TspiKfi» avTicpaGrj. 
Atio tt] [im, r\ 5is9vfi(; «(pi3Gri» xou Ka7iiTaXiG[j,oi3, Kai and xriv 
dA,Xri, T] sGviKTi pdGTi, r] sGvikti Gt)yKSKpi[j,svo7ioiri gt] KdGe Ka- 
7iiTa}^iGTiKoi3 KoivcoviKoij Gxn^oiTiG[j,oi3. To a7iOTs}tSG[j,a fixav 
o oikovo[j,ik6(; avTay(DviG[j,6(; va fj-sxaxpsTiSTai ce i^Tispia^^i- 
G[j,6 Kai avd 7ispi65ou^ ce 7i6Xs[j,o, Kai [j,dXiGTa auxot; va auo- 
KTTiGSi sv5ri[j,iK6 xapaKTTipa. O 7iayK6G[j,iO(; xapaKxfipat; xou 
Ka7iiTa}tiG[j,oi3 [j,STSTps\|/s auTOtx; xovq ■iio'ke.[iovq gtou(; npch- 
TOix; 7ipay[j,aTiKd nayKOGfo^ioix; no}tS[j,ou(;, svcb g8 GUv5uaG[j,6 
[IE xriv avduTU^ri ttjc; xsxvoXoyiat; xcov oti^^cov, gtoix; tiio ai[j,a- 
xripoij^ TT]^ avGpromvri^ iGTopia(;. 

Kdxco a7i6 avxeq xiq GUvGfiKst; (KaGoXou 7iapd5o^a), r\ i- 
GTopia TT]^ EupcDTiri^, TT]^ 7110 ava7iTuy[j,£vri(; KaTHxa^^iGTiKd 
Tispioxn^ Tou TiXavfiTri |J,sxpi xiq npcdxeq 58Ka8TiS(; xou 2 C" 
aicbva, sivai [j,ia iGxopia oiKovo[j,iKcbv, 87iiGTri[j,oviK(bv Kai xs- 
XVoAx)yiK(bv S7iiT8uy[j,dTC0v, aA,A,d xauxoxpova, Kai r\ iGxopia 
sv6(; avsXsrixou i^7ispiaXiG[j,oij Kai avxay(DviG[j,oi3 avd[j,SGa 
Gxi^ [iEjakeq supco7iaiK8(; 5uvd[j,si(; yia Kupiapxia Tidvco gxtjv 
supcDTiaiKTi fiTisipo, ava(^rix(bvxa(; xr] xi[j,aipa xr]^ xsXikti^ 71a- 
yKOGfj-iat; r\'YE[ioviaq. EiproviKd, xo xs^liko a7ioxsXsG[j,a 5sv fi- 
xav r\ avdSuGT] [imq 7iayK6G[j,ia Kupiapxri<; 6upco7iaiKfi(; vnep- 
5i3va[j,ri(;, aX,Xd r\ avdSuGr] xrjc; riy8[j,oviag xcov HIIA. 

H Tiopsia 7ipo(; xrjv «8upco7iaiKfi oXoKXfip(DGri», sivai ougi- 
aGxiKd r\ Tipcbxri upoGTidGsia UTispPaGrjc; xcov avxixiGsfo^svcDV 
sGviKcbv KamxaXiGxiKcbv GU[j,(psp6vxcov [is siprjviKo xpoTio. 
I5pi3ovxa(; [im oiKovo[j,iKfi C,&)vr\, nov va «ayKaXid(^si» 0X6- 



19 



K^ripri xriv EupcDTiri, «Ta 7iapa5oGiaKd opia gttiv avdTiTU^ri 
KdGs sGviKot) Ka7iiTa}tiG[j,oi3 9a ^Tiopouaav va ^STispaaxoiJV 
Xcopi^ GxpaTicoTiKTi Gi3yKpouGri» Kai 9a f^TiopoiJGS GxaSiaKd 
«va ^SKivfiGSi r\ GuyxrovsuGr] xcov avTay(ovi(^6[j,£vcov KaTiixa^^i- 
GTcbv GS \na KpaxiKfi 5o[j,fi evoq supcDTiaiKoij U7ispKpdT0U(;».^^ 

Qgtogo, r\ 6}tri 5ia5iKaGia sPpiGKs GoPapd s^7i65ia. To 
PaGiKo 7ip6p}tri[j,a PpiGKoxav (Kai PpiGKsxai) Gxa dviGa stii- 
7is5a oiKovo[j,iKfi(; avd7iTU^ri(; Kai GUvaK6Xou9a tk; ([iejakeq) 
5ia(pops(; TiapaycoyiKoxriTat; Kai avTaycoviGTiKoxriTa^ [j,STa^i3 
Tcov 5id(pop(DV Ka7iiTa}tiGTiK(bv Kpaxcbv Tri(; Evp&)iir\q. Oi 5ia- 
(pops(; auTS(; Grmaivouv TipaKxiKd oxi av 5ri[j,ioupyri9oi3v guv- 
Qr\KEq «TsXsiou avTaycoviG[j,oi3» ce TiavsupcoTiaiKfi KM[j,aKa 
(5r|}ta5fi xcopi^ s9vikoi3(; 5aG[j,oi3(;, xcopi(; [o^ri SaGfo^oXoyiKotx; 
(ppay[j,oi3(; [7iapa5aG[j,oXoyiKd s^7i65ia], svoTioiriGri tcdv sm- 
[j,8pou^ 89viK(bv vo[j,o9sGi(bv, Kai koivo v6[j,iG[j,a nov dev 9a 
ekeyxei Ka[j,id S7ii[j,spou(; 89viKfi KuPepvriGri, ommq (dgts 6Xa 
xa KS(pd}taia va avTaycovi(^ovTai gs iG6Ti[j,ri pdGT] Kai gs 7ia- 
vsupoDTiaiKo S7ii7is5o) TOTS TO KscpdXaio nov sivai 7110 TiapaycD- 
yiKo Kai avTaycoviGTiKo 9a KupiapxilGSi stii tou aG9svsGT8- 
pou. Kai 87isi5fi TO K8(pdXaio s^si s9viKfi TauTOTtiTa, auTO 9a 
(5r\[iaive ttjv Kupiapxia tou tiio iGXupoij (gt^v 7ipoKsi[j,svri ne- 
piTiTCOGTi TOU ysp[j,aviKoi3) STii ohov TCOV akhi)v. 

'Eva TiapdSsiy^ia (ano tt] SsKasTia tou 1960) 5ia(pcoTi(^8i Ta 
TiapaTidvco: 

«Triv SKTaGT] tt]^ dviGr|^ avaTnv^r\q tcov GUv9riK(bv 
avTaycoviG[j,ou gto xcbpo Tri(; KoivoTriTat; T8K[j,ripi(bvsi r\ 
dviGT] avduTU^T] TCDV [lEccm Ti[j,cbv s^aycoycbv yia ti^ 
GTiouSaiOTsps^ X&ipeq Tri(; EOK. Evcb o 5siKTri(; auTOt; 
Tri<; e^eki^r\q tcdv Ti[j,cbv tcdv s^aycoyiKcbv aya9cbv avsPrj- 
K8 [iSTa^u 1963 Kai 1970 gtt] Autikt) Fsp^avia (0[j,o- 



20 



G7iov5iaKfi ArmoKpaxia tt]^ rsp[j,avia(;) and to 1 00 gto 
103, avsPriKs gtti TakXia gto 147, gtt] M. BpsTavia gto 
159 Kai GTTjv iTaMa to 180. npoG5iopiG[j,8va - GTaGe- 
pd cvvakXajixaTa, 9a s^ouv GTa TiXaiGia [j,ia(; ONE 

[OlKOVO[J,lKfl Kai NO[J,lG[J,aTlKfl 'EVCOGTI] KOITCD ttTl' auTS(; 

Tig Gt)v9fiK8(; KaTaGTpo(piK8(; S7ii5pdGSi(; yia to PpsTavi- 
k6 Kai iTaXiKo KS(pdXaio». ^^ 

H aviG6[j,8Tpri oiKovo[j,iKfi avduTU^ri sivai S7ii[j,ovr| Kai tt] 
5iaKpivou[j,s G8 [j,aKpoxp6via pdGt]. To KaTd KscpaXfiv AEII 
a7i6 TO 1950 [J-sxpi to 1988 au^fiGriKs gtt] TakXia KaTd 6,48 
(popsg, GTT] (AuTiKTi) Fspfj-avia KaTd 8,1 (pops(;, gttjv iTaMa 
KaTd 8,9 (pops(; Kai GTT] BpsTavia KaTd 4,7. ^'^ Dgo yia tov 
7i}tri9(DpiG[a^6, av U7io9sgou[j,s 6ti to 1980 avTiGTOixsi gto eni- 
7is5o 1 Otcov Ti[j,(bv g' oXsg Tig X^ops?, <^T0 5idGTri[j,a auo 
1979 cog TO 1990, oi Ti[j,sg KaTavaXcoTiKcbv TipoiovTCOv gtt] 
Fspiiavia sixav au^ri9si gto 121 aX,}td gto 214 gttiv iTaMa.^'* 
Ss aDTsg Tig Gt)v9fiKsg, tov aG9svsGTspo «s9vik6» KamTa^^i- 
G^io, g' sva TsAsio avTayroviGTiKo 7i8pipdX,>^ov, 9a tov av8[j,8V8 
«PsPairi KaTaGTpo(pfi». 

Ka96}tou Aomov avaiTia, o Klaus Busch dev 9a 5iGTdG8i, 
GTa 1984, va 7ipop}ts\|/8i 6ti r| ONE 5sv TipoKsiTai tiots va 
7ipay[j,aT07ioiri9si, svcb to [isXkiv Trig EupcDTirig sivai gkotsivo 
Kai 5uGoi(Dvo: 

«H TsXcDVSiaKTl SVCDGTl [J,7l6p8GS Va S7llP}tri9si GTTjV 

EOK, Tiapd Ta dviGa s9viKd S7ii7is5a avduTU^rig, STisiSf), 
G8 TispiTiTCOGTi ^STaTOTiiGTig TTjg 9sGrig Tcov xcopcbv [J,8X(bv 
GTOV [j,STa^i3 Toug avTay(oviG[j,6, [levei KaT' apxdg avoi- 
XTT) r\ SuvaTOTTiTa yia 5iop9(bGSig tcov GUvaX,}tay[j,aTiKcbv 
iGOTi[j,icbv [5riXa5fi r\ aG98VSGT8pri avTaycoviGTiKd xcbpa 



21 



va U7iOTi[j,fiGSi TO vo[j,iG[j,a vr\c, yia va Kavsi cpxrivoTspa 
xa Tipoiovxa xr]^ Kai dpa tiio avxaycovioxiKd gxo 5is9vs(; 
s^iTiopio]. Auxfiv xTjv TipoGxaoia 5sv xrjv sxouv oi5id- 
(pop8(; x&tpeq [leca oxriv ONE, nov 7ipol)7io9sxsi sxgi xo 
i5io S7ii7i85o oiKovo[j,iKfi^ avaTnv^r\q, cdgxs r\ 7ipay[j,axo- 
TioiriGri xT]^ va [j,riv aTioPsi ce pdpo(; xcov Xiyoxspo ava- 
7ixuy[j,svcov sGviKcbv Kscpa^^aicDV. Mia Kai, [...] 58v [iko- 
psi va auoKaxaGxaGsi iGO[j,spfi^ GUGGcbpsuGti KscpaXai- 
ou Gxr|v EOK, sivai guvstiocx; Suvaxf) r| smKpdxriGri xrjc; 
ONE [lovo [le s^(doikovo[j,ik6 s^avayKaG[j,6, [le xrjv 710- 
>uixiKOGxpaxicoxiKfi TiiSGTi [imq i[j,7ispiaXiGxiKfi(; riysxiKfig 
5i3va[j,ri(;. Ms xov 5og[j,svo Kai xov d[j,SGa 7ipopXs7i6[j,£vo 
GUGxsxiG[j,6 5uvd[j,s(DV GXTjv EOK, 5sv 5ia9sxsi 6[i(i)q 
Ka[j,id xcbpa, oijxs r\ OAF, xrjv a7iaixoi3[j,svri 5i3va[j,ri yia 
\nav avayKaGxiKT) oXoK^fipcDGri xri(; Eup(b7iri9>.^^ 

O Chris Harman, nohb mo TipoGSKxiKOt^, sypacps xo 1971: 

«H xdGT] xrig avduxu^rig xov TiapaycoyiKcbv 5uvd[j,scov 
I^Tiopsi va o5riysi gxtjv UTispPaGri xcdv sGvikcdv Guvopcov, 
(DGXOGO xo ysyov6(; 7iapa[j,£V8i 6x1 r\ xspdGxia 7iXsio\|/ri- 
(pia xcov sxaipsicbv cvvexiCpvv va sivai vno xrjv iSiokxtj- 
oia Kai va X,8ixot)pyoiJV svxog [imq GuyKSKpi[j,svri(; s9vi- 
Kr\q pdGTj^. AK6[j,ri Kai 01 7ioA,us9viks(; exouv [im xsxoia 
PdGT] a7i6 xrjv OTioia skkivoijv. H EOK 5sv f^TiopsGS va 
aX,}td^si auxf) xrjv 7ipay[j,axiK6xrixa TiporoGcbvxat; 5iaGU- 
vopiaKS(; Guyxcov8iJG8ig. 'Exgi o S7ii9u[j,rix6(; «8^supco7ia- 
iG|i6g» xou KscpaXaiou GUVsxiCsi va GuyKpoiJsxai [is xa 
80viKd Gijvopa. H [j,ova5iKfi 5is^o5o(; 9a fixav va [o^sico- 
9si [IE Kduoio xpoTio r\ s^dpxrjGri xcdv sxaipsicbv and xo 
s9vik6 Kpdxo(; [is xrjv avduxu^r] KdTioiou si5ou(; Eupco- 



22 



TiaiKot) Kpdxoix;. Qgtogo supcDTiaiKoi 98G[j,oi Ssv exouv 
aK6|j.a apxiGSi va avaSuovxai UTispdvcD xcov avTi[j,ax6- 

[J,8V(DV sGviKCbv GU^lCpSpOVTCOV)). ^^ 

H STiiKpaxriGri Tri(; ONE Kai r] siGayroyf) tod evp&) cpaivsiai 
va 5ia\|/si35ouv tk; TiapaTidvcD 7ipopXs\|/8i^. Qgtogo o avakv- 
Tr\q, 5sv 9a TipsTisi va TiayiSsuxsi ce [im «8k tcov UGTspcov» 
Gocpia. E7isi5fi xa 7ipdy[j,aTa dev s^sMxQrjKav [is xriv TipopXs- 
7i6[j,svri Tiopsia, yv(Dpi(^ovTa(; tk; e^eki^eiq sikogi [ie xpidvxa 
Xpovia apyoTspa, va 5iaypd\|/si [is [im [j,ovoKovTu}tid o'keq xiq 
7iporiyoi3[j,svs(; GscopfiGSK; Kai va ava(^r|TfiGSi [iia dA,Xri, mo 
«Pa9id» avakvcr\. 

Sxriv Tipayfj-axiKOTTiTa, o'keq oi TiapaTidvcD 8KTi[j,fiGSi^ 6xi 
a7iA,d fixav pdGi[j,S(;, aX,M aTioxs^tow xri pdGt] yia xriv Kaxavo- 
riGTi xcov 7ipopXri[j,dxcov nou s^aKoXouGow va xaXav{(^ot)v xo 
«syxsipr|[j,a Eup(b7iri». 

Es KdGs pfi[j,a xrig Tiopsiag Tipo^ xrjv «8up(D7iaiKfi oXoKX.fi- 
p(DGr|», poXo 58V 87iai(^av [j,6vo oi oikovo[j,iks(; Tipoxspaioxr]- 
xs(;, aXXd Kai oi 7ioXixiks(; smXoyst; xcov apxouGcbv xd^scov Kai 
01 ysviKoxspst; yscouoXixiKs^ s^sXi^sk;. Ka[j,id dpxouGa xd^r] 
58V Ka9opi(^si xrjv GxpaxriyiKfi xri(; [j,6\o [le pdGT] xr| «Gxsvfi» 
oiKovo[j,iKfi 7ipay[j,axiK6xrixa, aXXd avayKaGxiKd 9a TipsTisi va 
Xdpsi U7i' 6\|/ri xri(; Kai sva gijvoXo dXXcDV TiapayovxcDv: xrjv 
xa^iKT) TidXr] avd[j,SGa gxo KscpdXaio Kai xrjv spyaGia, xou^ 
(5iapK(b(; [j,sxaPaXX6[j,svou(;) gugxsxig[j,oi3(; 5i3va[j,ri(; avd[j,SGa 
gxk; [lEjakeq i^7ispiaXiGxiKS(; X'^P^'i (il i^iTispiaXiGxiKd i^tiXok), 
xTjv avayKaia oiKo56[j,riGri GU[j,[j,axicbv yia va uudp^ouv suvoi- 
KS(; GUv9fiKS(; STisKxaGrjc; xou KscpaXaiou gxtjv 7iayK6G[j,ia ayo- 
pd k.Xti. Kai PsPaico(;, Guvsxn niecf] s^aGKouGav Kai oi [j,sxa- 
PaXXofo^svoi GUGxsxiG[j,oi 5i3va[j,ri(; (oiKovofo^iKfic; Kai 5mXcD[j,a- 
xiKTic;) [j,sxa^i3 xcov [j,sydXcDV KamxaXiGxiKcbv x^prov xrjc; i5ia(; 



23 



TTjc; SuTiKTic; EvpcoTU]^. Eivai Ga(pS(; oxi gtt] [j,aKpd laxopiKfi 
Tiopsia Tri(; «supco7iaiKfi(; o}^OK}tfip(DGr|9>, nov i\dr\ [lexpa Tidvco 
a7i6 TisvfivTa jpovm, auxoi oi Tiapdyovxst; sxouv [j,STap}tri9si 
noXkeq 9ops(;, Kai svcb tk; suaipvav uti' 6\|/iv xoix; oi TiaXaio- 
Tsps(; avaXuGSK;, Ssv fixav Suvaxov va 7ipop}^s(p9oi)v [j,s aKpi- 
Psia (to [isXkov sivai Tidvioxs s^' opiG[j,oi3 «avoiKT6» as Kd9s 

Ilap' 6Xa auxd, to 6Xo «supco7iaiK6 8yxsipri[j,a» e^aKoXou- 
981 va PpiGKSTai as [im [leyjevf]: and tt] [im, r\ (loxopiKd) s- 
9viKfi 5ia[j,6p(p(DGr| xou KS9aXaiot). Asv UTidpxsi Kavsv6(; si- 
dovq Koivf) «supco7iaiKfi» GUVsi5riGri f) koivo «supco7iaiK6» 
Gt)[j,(pspov. Ta KscpdXaia GuyKpoTOWxai gs s9viKfi pdGt] - to 
s9vik6 KpdTO(; s^aKoXou9si va aTioxe^tsi to SGxaxo Kaxacpuyio 
yia Kd98 supcoTiaiKo Kscpd^^aio tiou «7ips7isi» va TipoGTaxsuTSi 
and Tov avTay(oviG[j,6 and dX,Xa supcDTiaiKd KscpdXaia. A716 
xriv dA,>tri u^^supd, UTidpxsi r] avdyKt] yia [j,ia «Gt)G7i8ip(DGri» 
oXcov Tcov supcDTiaicov KannakicT&iv, yia va [j,7iopsGOUv va ^s- 
TispaGTOiJV 01 KaTaGTpo(piKS(; avTiTiaXoxriTSt; xou 7iaps}t96vTO(;, 
yia va f^TiopsGSi r\ «Eup(b7iri» va avxifj-STCOTiiGSi tov avxaycovi- 
G[j,6 a7i6 tk; HQA Kai xriv laTicovia - tk; aveeq 7ipoKXfiGSK;», 
7101) Ka[j,id supcoTiaiKTi xcbpa 5sv [inopei va avTi[j,STC07iiGSi ^8- 
XCopiGTd, a7i6 [j,6vr| ttjc;. 

Qgtogo, r\ Kijpia iikevpa ttjc; avTi9sGrig 8^aKo>uOt)9si va 8i- 
vai r\ s9viKfi 5ia[j,6p(p(DGri tou supcoTiaiKoij KscpaXaiou. Eivai 
auTT) nov Ka9opi(^si tk; s^sM^sk; Kai toix; GU[j,piPaG[j,oi3(; tt]^ 
«supco7iaiKfi(; o}tOKXfipcoGri(;». Sttiv EupcoTiaiKfi 'Evcdgt], tisvti- 
VTa xpovia [lExa ttjv iSpuGr] ttjc; EOK, s^aKoXou9oi3v Ta Pa- 
GiKd Tri(; «87iiTSi3y[j,aTa» va sivai oiKovo[j,iKd (r\ TsXcoviaKf) 
svcDGTi, r\ ONE, TO supd)), svcb r| tio^^itikti svo7ioir|Gri va Ppi- 
GKSTai Gxs56v GTO i5io Gr|[j,sio and to otioio ^skivtigs. Ss l^r\- 
Tfi[j,aTa 8^coT8piKfi(; r\ «anuvTiKfi(;» 7ioXiTiKfi(; auaiTSiTai o[j,o- 



24 



(pcovia, svd) TO sGviKo Kpdxo^ s^aKoXouGsi va ekkyxei xriv s- 
GviKT) oiKovo^iia (to Kscpd^^aio s^aKoAouGsi va sivai sGviKd, 
Tiapd supcoTiaiKd 5ia[j,op(p(D[j,svo). Aut6(; sivai o }t6yo(;, nov ce 
KdGs ormavTiKo (^fiTri[j,a s^coxspiKfic; 7io}tiTiKfi(; (sits STipoKsiTO 
yia TT] 5idX,UGri ttjc; Tipcbriv riouyKOGXaPia(; sits yia ttjv si- 
gPoXti gto IpdK) r\ E.E. [j,STaTps7iSTai gs 7is5io fJ-dxH? oXav 
svavTiov ohm. Aut6(; sivai S7iiGr|(; o X6yo(;, nov KdGs Tipo- 
GTidGsia yia mo «GuyKsvTpcoTiKfi» XsiTOupyia Tr\c, E.E., Guva- 
VTd A,UGGaXsa avTiGTaGr] and KpdTri-[j,s}Lri (onrnq gttjv Tispi- 
TiTOGTi TT]^ \|/fi(piGri(; Tou «SuvTdy[j,aTO(;») Kai r\ KaTdXri^r] si- 
vai aPsPaioi GU[a^PiPaG[j,oi. H E.E. Gfi[j,spa s^aKoXouGsi va 
sivai [j,ia oiKovofo^iKfi Kai vo[j,iG[j,aTiKfi C,&)vr\, uapd [j,ia oXo- 
K^tripcDfo^svri oiKovofo^iKd Tispioxn (ri OTioia dX,A,(DGTS Ga TipoD- 

TISGSTS Kai TTjV TloXlTlKf) SVOTloitlGTl). 

H s7ii[j,ovri ijTiap^ri noXkxhv avTiTiGs[j,sv(DV sGvikcdv Gt)[j,(ps- 
povTCDV, sivai auTTi nov s^avayKd(^si ttjv KpaTiKf) Kai aKa5r|- 
[laiKT] ypacpsioKpaTia, nov 5iaxsipi(^STai r\ «GTOxd(^STai» ttjv 
«supco7iaiKfi oXoK}tfipcoGri», va KaTacpsuysi SiapKox; gs suxo- 
A,6yia Kai KdGs si5ou(; «7iapaivsGSi(;», Tiapd gttjv \|/Dxpfi avd- 
Xvcr\ TCDV 5s5o[j,svcov: r\ «Eup(b7iri» «7ips7isi» va TipoxcopiiGSi 
GS «7io>tiTiKfi Kai oiKovo[j,iKfi oXoK}tfipcoGr|», yiaTi auTO sivai 
Tipog «T0 GU[j,(pspov TCDV supcoTiaiKCDV hxchv}}. «nps7isi» va ^s- 
TispaGTOiJV 01 «sGviKoi sy(oiG[j,oi», yiaTi 5ia(popsTiKd r\ «Eu- 
p&)iir[» Ga «U7ioPaG[j,iGTsi» gttjv 7iayK6G[j,ia GKrivf). Qgtogo 
[j,s su^oAoyia, sMxioTa 7ipdy[j,aTa [mopei Kavsit; va stiitijxsi, 
akin, Kai 7ioA,i3 uspiGGOTspo, sivai a5i3vaTOV va s^riyriGoiJV oi 
5ia5iKaGis(; [j,sgco tcov OTioicov s^sMGGSTai r\ Tipay^aTiKOTriTa. 

O [lejakoq a[j,spiKav6^ Guyypa(psa(; N6p[j,av Msi^tsp [likm- 
vxaq yia to Kscpd^^aio tou Map^, smGrna^aivsi Ta s^^q: 



25 



«A7i6 6Xa xa PipXia nov sxod Siapdosi gtti C,G)r\ [lov 
sivai, [j,aKpdv, to mo armavxiKo. Dxi yia xriv i5so}toyia 
Tou, xriv OTioia 5sv GU[j,[j,8pi(^o[j,ai, oijts yia tk; a7i6\|/si(; 
Tispi Tcov oiKovo[j,iK(bv 7ipay[j,dT(DV nov 5sv si[j,ai ce Gsar] 
va Kpivco. Auto nov [is STiripsaos and xov Map^ sivai to 
ijcpoi; TTj^ cKE\\ir\q tou, auTf) r] KaGapoTriTa Kai r\ ooPa- 
poTTiTd Tou xcopi(; ixvo(; cTUvaiG9r|[j,aTiG[j,oi3. Yudp^si 
KdTi Gxs56v TsXsoXoyiKo gtov Mdp^: gs UTioxpscbvsi va 
aKo}tou0si(; tt] GKs\|/ri |J,sxpi tk; mo Pa0iS(; pi^s? ttjc; Kai 

(pTdvSl |J,SXPI TO VSUpiKO GOD Gl3GTr|[J,a. Av [J,sXsTflGSl(; 

Tov Map^ [IE TipoGOxn, |J,a9aivsi(; va GKscpTSGai [le ne- 
piGGOTspr] KaGapoTTiTa Kai mo 5r|[j,ioupyiKd». ^ '' 

0a 87ip87i8 va 8^8TaGTOi3v ([IE xj/uxpoTTiTa Kai «xropi^ ^jyoq 
Gt)vaiG9ri[j,aTiG[j,oi3») Ta avTiK8i[j,8viKd 585o[j,sva tou oXou 
«8upco7iaiKoi3 8yx8ipfi[j,aTO(;». Movo [is auTOV tov Tpouo [ino- 
poijv va yivouv KaTavorjTd Ta «8mT8i3y[j,aTa», aXM Kai Ta 8- 
[inodm nov opGcbvovTai yia ttjv «8up(D7iaiKfi oXoKXfip(DGri»: 

Iloia flTaV r\ aVTlK8l[J,8VlKfl PdGt] (0lK0V0[J,lKfl, TloXlTl- 

KT), y8C07ioXiTiKfi) Tri(; aTiapxnf; tou 8up(D7iaiK0i3 8yx8i- 
pfi[a^aTO(; TT] 58Ka8TiaTOU 1950. 

IIoiOl flGaV 01 GTOXOl Kai TIOGO 87l8T8l3x9riGaV ([IE 58- 

5o[j,svo, onmq 9a 5oi3[j,8, 6ti oi gtoxoi auToi aXhxC,av 

[lECa GTO XPOVO 7101) 8^8MGG8Tai T] «8UpC07iaiKfl oXo- 

K>^fipcoGr|»). 

IIgx; 8^8MGG8Tai Gfi[j,8pa r\ E.E. IIogo sx8i Tipoxcopfi- 

G81 r\ 5ri[j,ioupyia 8v6(; 8v07ioiri[j,8vou oiKovo[j,iKd Kai 

7lO>tlTlKd 8UpC07iaiKOl3 X^OPOU- HOGO 8X81 7ipOXC0pflG8l T] 
TlO^tlTlKTl 8V07l0iri GT] (kOIVT) 8^(DT8piKfl TlO^tlTlKTl Kai 

Tio^tiTiKTi «d[^uva(;», r\ 8v07ioiriGr| tcdv Siacpoprov 89vi- 
K(bv vo[j,o98Gi(bv K.Xn.). IIogo ava7iTi3x9riK8 r\ oikovo- 



26 



[iiKx\ 8V07i0iriGri - KaxdpyriGri KdGs «s9vikoi3» s^7io5i- 
ou (DOTS va 5ri[j,iot)pyri98i [im [iejakf] sviaia supcouai- 
KT) oiKovo[j,ia a7i6 xriv OTioia 9a npoekQovv [isjakeq 
supcoTiaiKst; STaipiS(;, xcopi<^ s9viKfi pdori, iKavst; va 
avxaycoviGTOiJV xa «[j,sya9fipia» xcov HQA Kai xrjg la- 
Ticovia^. 

Tekoq (aX,}td Ka96Aou tiggovoc; Grifo^aGiac;) Tioia sivai r\ 

xa^iKT) pdGT] xou «supa)7iaiKoi3 syxsipfi[j,axo(;»- 7ioia(; 

xd^ri(; xa GU[j,(pspovxa SK(ppd(^ovxai, Tioia sivai r\ 9sGri 

710U S7ii(puMGG8xai Gxou(; spya(^6[j,£vot)(; [leca and xrjv 

oXri Tiopsia xr|(; E.E. To Gr|[j,sio auxo, Tipocpavdx;, acpo- 

pd Kai xo KpiGi[j,o (^fixri[j,a xr|(; GxdGTjc; xrjc; ApiGxspd(; 

Gxo 9s[j,a xri(; «supco7iaiKfi(; o}tOK}tfipcoGri9>. H ApiGxs- 

pd 7ips7i8i va S7ii5i(b^si xr] 5idA,UGri, «s5(b Kai x(bpa», 

xrig E.E., f) avxi98xa, xr] GxaSiaKf) [j,sxaxpo7ifi xrjc; E.E. 

G8 «Et)pcb7iri xcov Xa(bv», r\ Kdxi svxsMx; vso, xrjv TidXr] 

yia [j,ia pi(^iKd SiacpopsxiKf) Evp&)iir\- [imq Eup(b7iri(; 

xri<; d[j,SGri(; GOGiaX,iGxiKfi(; 5ri[j,0Kpaxia^ Kai xr]^ sipf)- 

vri^; 

Exo Tiapov «7i6vri|J.a», r\ avdXuGri [laq 9a aKoXou9fiG8i [im 

«auGxr|pd» xpovoXoyiKf) GSipd s^iGx6pr|Gri(; xou 6)^01) «supco- 

TiaiKoij syxsipfi[j,axo(;». Fiaxi Tiap' 6)^0 nou r\ «sup(07iaiKfi o- 

XoKXfip(DGri» 5iavi3si fi5ri Tisvfivxa xpovia iGxopia^, 5sv 7ip6- 

Ksixai yia [im Tiopsia «Gxa5iaKfi(; Gi3yKXiGri(;» xcov s9viK(bv 

supcDTiaiKcbv oiKovo[j,i(bv, akin g' auxfiv xrjv Tiopsia ^Tiopoi3[j,s 

va SiaKpivoufo^s xpsK; Gacpdcx; 5iaKpixs(; Tispi65ou(;. 



27 



(pdJ^aiol 



K£ 



Oi xpsK; jTspioSoi 

TTi(; «EDpco;ralLKfi(; oIoK>^fjpcooTi(;» 

A) 1951-1974: H TsXcovEiaKfj evcoot] 

Kaxd xriv TispioSo auxfi, oi aufj-cpoDvisg uspio pi(^ovTav g8 
«GT8vd» oiKovo[j,iKd 9s[j,aTa. Exriv Tipd^ri (6xi gto «6pa[j,a») 
5sv 8Ti9sTO Kavsva (^fiTri[j,a 5ri[j,ioupyia(; evoq «sup(D7iaiKoi) 
U7ispKpdTOU9>: 

«[...] TO sGviKo Kpdxot;, onmq Ssi^vsi r| iGTopiKf) 8- 
psuva xrig xekevTaiaq SsKasxiat;, s^aKo^iouGsi va Siaxri- 
psi xrjv UTiOGxaGTi xou, av 5sv exei svigxuGsi, and xo sy- 
Xeipr\[ia xrjc; svo7ioiriGri(;. [...o Taylor] xapaKxripi(^8i xrjv 
E.E. mq [im «Gt)[j,[j,axia 5iaxsipiGri(;» [j,sxa^i3 Kupiapxrov 
Kpaxcbv f) svaXXaKxiKd [im «GUvaivsGri» [j,sxa^i3 Guvsp- 
ya(^o[j,£vcov KuPspvrixiKcbv riysxiKcbv 0[j,d5(DV» [...] H Eu- 
pcoTiaiKTi Koivoxrixa 5sv sivai oijxs evaq GUvfiGri^ 5is- 
Qvr\q opyaviG[j,6^, oijxs sva 5i89vs(; KaGsGxd)^, aXM oijxs 
aK6[j,a sva U7isp-Kpdxo(; 8V xco ysvsGGai. Eivai KaXuxspo 
va xTjv s^sxd(^ou[j,s ax; sva 5ikxuo Kpaxcbv gxo otioio a- 
Gpoi(^ovxai 01 S7ii[j,spou(; Kupiapxist; xoix; (polling of so- 
vereignty) Kaxd xov Taylor». ^^ 



28 



Sxriv Tiproxri TispioSo Tri(; EOK xa TiapaTidvco sivai kcxti tis- 
piGGOTspo a7i6 Tipocpavfi. 'Hxav oi smXoyst; tcdv KuPspvfiGSCov, 
l^s pdori TO «s9vik6 Gt)[j,(pspo v>, nov sGsxav xa opia togo 
Gxriv STiSKxaGTi OGO Kai Gxr] Xsixoupyia xrjc; EOK. Sxa 1963 r\ 
TaXXia xou Nx8 TkoX sGsgs Psxo gxtjv svxa^r] xri(; Bpsxavia^ 
Gxrjv EOK. AkoXouGtigs KpiGr] gxoix; koXtioix; xt]^ EOK, tiou 
GUvSuoiGxriKs [j,s 5ia(pcoviS(; mq 7ipo(; xrjv aypoxiKf) tio^^ixikti 
Kai XT] 98G[j,iKfi Xsixoupyia, svcb gxtjv KoptxpcoGti xri(; KpiGr]^ r\ 
KuPspvriGTi xou Nxs FKO^t Kaxscpuys gxtjv tio^^ixikti xri(; «d- 
demq KapsK}ta(;». Atioxh auo 6>^a xa 9sG[j,iKd opyava xr]^ Eu- 
p(i)iiaiKr\q Koiv6xrixa(; (aTioxn auo xk; GUVs5pidGSi^ xou Sufj,- 
PouMou xcov YTioupycbv xri(; EOK, skx6(; xcov smxpoTicbv 5ia- 
X8ipiGr|^ xTjc; yscopyia(; Gxa Ti^^aiGia xou KAII [Koivf] Aypoxi- 
KT) no^tixiKf)]) Kai U7ispa^i3v9riKs xrjc; «eQviKr\q Kt)piapxia(;». 

TsXiKd r\ EOK o5riyfi9riKS gxo 5iaP6rixo «Eu[j,piPaG[j,6 xou 
Aou^s[j,poi3pyou» xo 1966, nov ene^ake xrjv apxn xr|^ o[j,o(p(D- 
viac; yia xr] Xr\\\ir\ xcdv aTiocpdGSCov aK6[j,a Kai Gxa 5suxspsi)o- 
vxa (^rixfi[j,axa Gxa Su[j,poi3}tia xcov YTioupycbv. ^^ 

H yKO>^iKfi Tio^tixiKTi Gxoxsus Gxr|v noXniKT] riy8[j,ovia gxtjv 
EupcDTiri xcov s^T], 7ipoPdX,}tOVxa(; xr| 9sGri xr]^ yia «avs^apxri- 
Gia» svavxi xcov HQA (yi' auxo fixav r\ TakXia r\ mo «avxia- 
[j,spiKaviKfi» a7i6 xk; x&tpeq xri(; EOK). Fia va [j,riv auoKxriGSi 
g' auxov xov Gxoxo r\ TaXkia avxaycDviGxfi evioq xrjc; EOK 
avxi5poi3G8 GXTjv siGoSo xri(; Bpsxavia^ gxtjv Koivoxrixa (rj 
Bpsxavia - fixav [Kai sivai] r\ nkeov «(pi}toa[j,spiKaviKfi» and 
xi^ 8upco7iaiKS(; x&ipeq, svcb S7im?t80v fixav [o^syd^^ri Gxpaxicoxi- 
KT) Kai oiKovo[j,iKfi 5i3va[j,ri). 

H yKoXiKT) TioXixiKTi aTisxuxs, XOGO 8^ aixia^ xri(; oikovo[j,i- 
Kfi(; Kai 7io}tixiKfi(; 5i3va[a^ri(; xrjc; Suxikt)^ Tep[iaviaq, 6go Kai 
a7i6 xo ysyov6(; 6xi r] 7ipoG7id9sia «avs^apxriGia(;» svavxi xcov 
HQA TipoGSKpouGS GXTjv avxi98Gri xcov UTioXoiTicDV [j,sXcbv xri(; 



29 



EOK 710U xriv spXsTiav, aTiXA, oav TipooTidGsia ttjc; YaXkiaq va 
Tiai^si «[j,riTpo7io}tiTiK6» p6}to gttiv Eup(b7ir|. Stk; 5ia7ipay[j,a- 
TSiJGSi^ yia [j,ia sv5sx6[j,svri Koivf) «a[a^uvTiKfi» Xsixoupyia tt]^ 
EOK: 

«[...] xa vno^joma tisvts KpdTri-[j,8}tri tt]^ EOK 87ii- 
6u[j,oi3Gav [j,ia avacpopd gto NATO Kai, av fixav 5uva- 
Tov, [lEca GTOix; gt6xod(; [Tri(; EOK] va f^TiopoiGS va 
GU^7ispi}tri(p9si r| uioGsxriGri [imq Koivfi(; a^uvxiKfic; 710- 

XlTlKIIC, GTO TlXaiGlO OUCOC TTIC Ax^^aVTlKflC SuuLiaYi- 

20 

a9>. 

EmTipoGGsxa, oi [j,iKp6Tsps(; xcbpst; avxsSpaGav svxova gto 
PsTO TT]^ raX,Ma(; yia xriv 81go5o tt]^ Bpsxavia^, yiaxi spXsTiav 
xriv 8(go5o xt]^ Bpsxaviat; gxtjv EOK ax; sva Tiapdyovxa s^i- 
GoppoTiriGTig svavxi xou yaX,Xo-ysp[j,aviKoi3 d^ova. Oi [j,iKp6- 
xsps(; x&tpeq S7is5icoKav [im mo «avs^dpxrixri» 9sG[j,iKd Xei- 
xoupyia xr|(; EOK (nov opiG[j,svoi Kdvouv xo M9o^ va xrjv o- 
vo[iaC,ovv 7110 «U7isps9viKfi»), nov sixs Gav gxoxo va [j,riv s- 
^apxdxai 9sG[j,iKd r\ EOK ce Kupiapxo Pa9[j,6 and xa KuPsp- 
VTjxiKd Ksvxpa xcDV «[j,sydXa)v», ouGiaGxiKd TakXiaq Kai Fsp- 
[j,avia(;. Exa 1962 r\ jakXiKi] KuPspvrjGri Kaxs9sGS xo «gxs5io 
Fouchet» yia xr] 9sG[j,iKfi Xsixoupyia xrjg EOK, xo otioio s5iv8 
s[j,(paGri GXT] SiaKuPepvrjxiKfi (SiaKpaxiKf)) xr]^ uXsupd. Avxi- 
5p(bvxa(; o OA,}tav56(; U7ioupy6(; s^coxspiKcbv Sfi^^covs xapaKxr]- 
piGxiKd: 

«To yaXXiKo g^sSio PaGi(^8xai 87ii xtj^ uaXidg iSsac; 
[j,ia(; Euv9fiKri(; [j,sxa^i3 Kpaxcbv, [imq GU[j,[j,axia(; xr|(; Eu- 
pcDTiri^ xcov 7iaxpi5(ov. niGxsi3ou[j,s 6xi TipsTisi va auop- 
pi(p98( auxo xo GxsSio, o/icog si/iaars SiaTsOsifisvoi va 



30 



KOLVovfis napa/ajpijasig, sdv svSiafspsTai tj Msyaltj 
Bpsravia yi ' avToyy 



21 



Oi xoc)p8(; (tiou UTiOTiGsxai) on fixav uusp \ixac, mo «U7isps- 
9viKfi(;» XsiTOupyiat;, S7ii9u[j,oi3Gav SiaKadx; xriv sigo5o \aa.c, 
Xcbpa^ 710U fixav o Kaxs^oxnv SKcppaoxfic; v(\c, auoxripd SiaKpa- 
x\Ki\c, }tsixoupyia(; v(\c, EOK! Ms aXKn }t6yia, oxriv 7ipay[j,axi- 
Koxrixa, T] 5ia[j,dxn yupro auo xr] 9sG[j,iKfi Xsixoupyia, xogo yia 
xk; [j,sydX8(; xcbpst; 6go Kai yia xk; [j,iKps(;, smKsvxpcDvoxav gxk; 
iGoppo7iiS(; 5uvd[j,scov [j,sxa^i3 xcov Kpax(bv-[j,s}^(bv, Kai 6xi av 
auxf) 9a fixav 7ipay[j,axiKd «U7isps9viKfi». 

O (p6Po(; xcDV [j,iKp6xspcov Kpaxcbv 6xi 9a «Ka7isXco9oi3v» 
a7i6 sva yaX,}to-ysp[j,aviK6 d^ova i^xav 7ipay[j,axiK6(;. H auoxu- 
Xia xou «Gxs5iou Fouchet», aTioxs^^SGS xo scpaXxfipio yia xrjv 
87iiGri[j,07ioiri GT] xou yaX,Xo-ysp[j,aviKoi3 d^ova \ie xtjv UTioypa- 
(pf), Gxi^ 22 lavouapiou 1963 gxo IlapiGi, <nib xovc, Nxs Fko^^ 
Kai Avxsvdousp v(\c, Suv9fiKri(; Su[j,(piMcoGri(; avd[j,SGa gxk; 
5uo xcbps^. Atio xoi35s Kai gxo s^f)^, o aipvac, avabc, 9a auo- 
xzk&i xTjv ax[j,o[j,rixavfi tiou 9a Ka9opi(^si gs [j,sydXo Pa9[j,6 xrjv 
Tiopsia v(\c, EOK. 

AXka. 5sv 9a TipsTisi Kavsi(; va UTispPdXXsi co(; 7ipo(; xrjv 
Koivoxrixa GU[j,(psp6vxcov YaXKiac, - rsp[j,avia(;. EupoKsixo yia 
XuKocpiMa, 7ipdy[j,a tiou S7iiPsPai(b9riKs [j,sxd xrjv aTioxcbpriGri 
xou Nxs FkoX a7i6 xr] yaXXiKf) TiposSpia. O SidSoxp^ xou Nxs 
FKo^t a7i6 xov loijvio 1969, no^mvxot), akhx^e TipoGavaxo^ti- 
G[j,6, }t6ycD xTjc; a7ioxuxia(; xr|(; |J,sxpi xoxs yaA,}tiKfi(; tioXixikti^ 
a7i6 xi^ GUv5uaG[j,svs^ avxiGxdGSi^ nov avxi[j,sx(b7iiGS. H ya>u- 
XiKT) TioXixiKTi u7iOGxfipi(^s xwpa xTjv siGoSo xTjc; Bpsxavia^ 
Gxr|v EOK yia 5uo Xoyoug. Flpcbxov, yia va 5r|[a^ioupyri9si a- 
vxtpapo GXT] 5i3va[j,r| xri(; 5uxiKfi(; TEp[iaviaq Kai 5si3xspov, 
yiaxi r\ Bpsxavia 9a U7iOGxfipi(^s xr] TaXkia svdvxia gxi^ Tipo- 



31 



G7id9si£^ yia tt] 5ri[j,ioupyia «U7isps9viK(bv 98G[j,(bv» (utio tt] 
yspfj-aviKTi oiKovo[j,iKfi riy8[j,ovia) evzoq Tri(; EOK (raX,Ma- 
Bpsxavia and koivoij S7is5icoKav va SiaxripriGsi o 5iaKuPspvri- 
tik6(; xotpotKTfipa(; Tri(; EOK). To Mdio 1971 o TaXkoq Tipos- 
5po(; no[j,7iiVTOi3 GUvavTaxai [is to Bpsxavo TipcoGuTioupyo 'E- 
VTOuapvT Xi9 Kai GU[j,(pcovoi3v oi koivotiks^ auocpaGSK; va 
Xa[j,pdvovTai [is o[j,o(pcovia. 

Etov oikovo[j,ik6 TO[j,sa, r\ «7ipoGTaGia Kai avdTiTU^ri tt]^ 
89viKfi(; oiKovo[j,ia(;» fixav o Tipcoxsijcov gt6xo(;: 

«Stov oikovo[j,ik6 T0[j,8a aKoAou9fi9riKs r| }tsy6[j,svri 
Tio^tiTiKTi Tou «89viKoi3 7ip(OTa9XriTfi», Ka9(b(; oi Guyxo- 
vsijgsk; Kai oi GUVspyaGist; [j,STa^i3 xcov sxaipicbv uspio- 
piGxriKav GS s9viKd Ti^^aiGia, [is a7iOT8>^SG[j,a va 5iaKu- 
Psijovxai xa 7iXsovsKxfi[j,axa xr]^ TsXcovsiaKfic; 'Evcogti^, 
acpoij Ka9s[j,id s9viKfi ayopd TipoGxaxsuexo and sva nv- 
Kv6 Tik£j\jia \xr[ 5aG[j,o}^oyiK(bv e\mo5i(X)V ».^^ 

Sxrjv 7ipay[j,axiK6xrixa r\ avduxu^r] xr]^ EOK dev epxoxav g8 
GuyKpouGT] [IE xo 89vik6 Kpdxo(;. To avxi9sxo [lakicTa, r\ EOK 
ava5i39riKs Gav [lepoq xr|(; avaGt)yKp6xriGri(; xou s9vikoi3 Kpd- 
xou(; [j,sxd xov B' TTayKOGfj-io n6Xs[j,o. Asv UTifipxs, [is aXhi 
X,6yia, avxi9sGri EOK-89vikoi3 Kpdxoix;. 



Mri-5ao|ioXoyiKol cppayiiol: eva owoXo [lexpcov xou axooKomow oxriv 
Tipooxaola xcov eOviKcbv exaipeicbv avievavxi oxoug «^evou9> ovxaycovioxei;, 
aK6|ia Kai oxocv exouv KaxapynSei oi 5a(j|ioi, OKCoq oxiiv Tieprnxcooi] xii<; 
EOK. Tia 7iapd5eiy|ia: ripooxaxeuxioiioi; oxk; 5ii|i6(ji£<; 7ipo(iii9ei£<; - Kd9e 
xcbpa cppovxii^ei cboxe oi 7ipo|iii9eie<; xoi) Siijiooioi) 11 xa 5ii|i6(jia epya va 
xa avala|ipdvoi)v e6viKe<; exaipeieg. AiacpopexiKd TipoxuTia Kai xexviKei; 
TipoSiaypacpeg oe Kd6e xrapot viou exouv oav 0x6x0 va e|i7io5i(joi)v xi] 
5iei(j5i)OTi ^evcov Tipoiovxcov. AiacpopexiKo cpopoXoyiKo ouoxrijia, kov eu- 
voei xTjv avdTixu^ri eGviKcbv Piojirixavirav, K.a. 

32 



To 89vik6 Kpdxo^ avaGuyKpoxfiGriKs [iSTd to 1945 uapsfj,- 
Paivovxat; gttiv oiKovo[j,ia ([lejaJjoq KpaTiK6(; TO[imq - ksDv- 
GiaviG[j,6(;), [j,s gto^o tt] 5iapKfi oiKovo[j,iKfi avd7iTU^r| Kai 
cvjjpovmq xriv Ti^^fipri aTiaGxoXriGri - xriv koivcovikti Guvaivs- 
cr\ [j,SGCO xric; [iEi(i)cr\q xcov koivcdvikcdv svxdGSCov. ErmavxiKo, 
GS auxf) xrjv Tio^tixiKf), fixav Kai r| Gxfipi^r| xou aypoxiKoij si- 
Go5fi[j,axo(; (dgxs va \xr\v UTidpxsi xdG[j,a [j,sxa^i3 xou siGo5fi[j,a- 
xo^ xcov TioXscov Kai xT]^ UTiaiGpou. Ta TiapaTidvco aTioxsXoij- 
Gav xa 98[j,s}tia xr]^ 5r|[j,ioupyia(; xou [j,8xa7ioXs[j,iKoi3 sBvikoij 
«Kpdxou(; 5iKaiou». 

Atio xTjv aTiapxn xrjc;, r] Tiopsia xr]^ «8upcD7iaiKfi^ oXokXt)- 
pcoGri9> fixav d[j,SGa Guv5s5s[j,£vri, xogo [j,s 7io}tixiKS(; Kai koi- 
vcoviKS(; GK07ii[j,6xr|xs(; £vx6(; xou sGvikoij Kpdxoix;, 6go Kai [is 
xou(; 5s5o[j,8vou^ (KdGe cpopd) gugxsxig[j,oij<^ 5ijva[j,ri^ ce na- 
yKOGfj-ia KM[j,aKa. 

H «supco7iaiKfi oXoKXfipcoGri» s5ivs xr] 5uvax6xrixa Gxa 8- 
GviKd Kpdxr] va s^^axiGxoTioiow xk; koiv(dviks(; svxdGSK; gxo 
SGCOxspiKo xoix;, [j,sxa(pspovxa(; xk; suGi3vs(; gs 5uvd[j,si^ «7ispa 
a7i6 xTjv 5iKaio5oGia xoDg». Fia 7iapd5siy[j,a, r\ 7iapaK[j,fi xr]^ 
Pio[j,rixavia^ dvGpaKa xou BsXyiou auoSoGriKs, and xrjv x6x8 
KuPspvriGfi xou, GXT] (piXsXsuGspoTioiriGri (Gxrjv dpGT] xcDV 5a- 
G[j,(bv) xcov oiKovo[j,iKcbv avxaXhrfchv xrjv OTioia nene^aXe r\ 
EOK» Kai 710U r\ KuPspvriGri «a5uvaxouGS va avxi[j,sxcD7iiG8i». 
H avduxu^T] xr]^ Koivfic; AypoxiKf)^ IIoXixiKfi^ gxt] SsKasxia 
xou 1960, S7isxps\|/s xTjv S7ii56xriGri xou siGo5fi[j,axo(; xcov a- 
ypoxrov, Gxi^ \|/fi(pou(; xcdv otioicdv apKsx8(; KuPspvfiGSK; Gxrjpi- 
C,ovcav. To [j,spi5io xcov a7iaGxoXou[j,8VCDV gxt] yscopyia gxo 
Guvo^^o xou 7iXriGuG[j,ou PpiGKoxav Gxa 1950 gxtjv IxaMa gxo 
42,8%, GXTj raX,Ma 29,3%, gxtj Auxikt) rsp^iavia 24,8%) (s- 
^aipsGTi a7iox8>.ouG8 T] Bpsxavia \xe ixoTaq 5,4%)).^'' 



33 



Ms auTO Tov xpoTio ri EOK XsixoupyoiJGS GV\nikr\pG)[iaTiKd 
mq 7ipo(; to sBviko KpdTO(;. E^ac(pakiC,e cboxs r\ oiKovo[j,iKfi 
avdTiTU^ri, nov UTifipxs tots, va [ir\v [j,STaTpa7is{ as «avs^sXs- 
yKTO» avTay(DviG[j,6 [j,STa^i3 tcdv 5ia(p6pcov KpaT(bv-[j,s}t(bv Tri(;, 
SVG) TO sGviKo KpdTO(; 7iaps[j,svs o PaGiK6(; SKcppaoTfit; togo 

TCOV GU[J,(pSp6VTC0V TCOV KaTllTaXlGTCDV OGO Kttl TTjc; «KOlV(0VlKfl(; 

GUvaivsGri(;». H KaTdpyriGri tcov 5aG[j,(bv Kai r\ TsXcoviaKf) s- 

VCOGT] 5SV U7lSGKa\|/S TTjV sGyIKT) PdGT] TCDV Ka7llTaXlG[J,(bv TTj^ 

EOK. Ekt6(; ttjc; i37iap^r|(; [j,r| 5aG[j,o}toyiK(bv (ppay[j,(bv, nov 
7ipoava(pspa[j,s, UTifipxs S7iiGri(; Kai o [j,rixaviG[j,6(; tcov cvvak- 
Xay[j,aTiK(bv iGOTi[j,i(bv. Av Ta s^7iopsi3[j,aTa [j,ia(; x(bpa(; sxa- 
vav GS avTaycoviGTiKOTTiTa, tots r\ xcbpa auTf) TipoxcopouGS gs 
avTaycoviGTiKT) u7iOTi[j,ri gt] tou sGvikoij vo[j,iG[j,aT6(; ttjc;, Kdvo- 
VTag ETGi Ta s^7iopsi3[j,aTd ttjc; (pTrjvoTspa gtt] 5is9vfi ayopd: 

«'Etgi sva [j,SGO s^7i6psu[j,a [j,ia(; XiyoTspo Tiapaycoyi- 
KTig Xcbpat;, f^Tiopsi va 5iaTs9si gttjv 7iayK6G[j,ia ayopd 
GTTjv i5ia Ti[j,fi fj,' sva [j,sgo s^7i6psu[j,a [j,ia(; uspiGGOTS- 
po avauTuyiiEvrig X^opot?- Auto^ o [ir\xavi(5[i6q upoGTa- 
Gia(; [j,s TT] [J-opcpfi TCOV Ti[j,(bv GUvaX,Xdy[j,aTO^ e[nio5iC,ei 
tk; TispiGGOTspo ava7iTuy[j,svs(; x(bps(; va KaTaTpoTicb- 
Gouv GTO 7is5io Tou avTaycoviG[j,oi3 tk; avTiGTOi^a Xijo- 
Tspo ava7iTuy[j,Evs^, Kai smTpsTisi etgi va UTidpxouv oi 
s^7iopiKE(; cvvaXhrfsq avd[j,SGa gs 5uo dviGa avauTuy- 
[leveq x&ipeq. [Ms ttjv TS^tcoviaKf) evcogti] au^dvsi o a- 
VTay(DviG[j,6(;, aXXd 5sv auoPaivsi [j,oipaiO(; yia tk; Xiyo- 
Tspo ava7iTuy[j,EVS(; x&tpeq, nov guvsxICouv va TipoGTa- 
TSiJOVTai aTio ti^ ti[j,E(; GUvaX,Xdy[j,aTO(;».^'* 

EuiTipoGGsTa, Ta apxiKd e^r\ [lekr] Tri(; EOK (aX,}td aKOfo^a 
Kai [i£ TT] 5isi3puvGri tou 1973 [is BpsTavia, Aavia, IpXav5ia) 



34 



ttTlOTsXoiJGaV SVa GXSXlKd 0[J,OlOy8V8g GlJVoXo auO OlKOVO[J,lKfl 

d7io\|/ri, [IE s^aipsGTi tt] voxia IxaMa (Mezzogiorno), Kai xriv 
IpXav5ia. 'Etgi o GUv5uaG[j,6(; 5iapKoi3(; oiKovo[j,iKfi(; avdTiTU- 
^r\q Kai a7iOTsXsG[j,aTiKfi(; «s9viKfi(; 7ipoGTaGia(;» xcov oikovo- 
[ivhv TODV KpaT(bv-[j,s}t(bv, fixav STicocps^^fi^ yia ohx xa GU[j,pa}^- 
>t6[j,8va [iskf] Kai oSrjyoiJGe ce G[j,iKpuvGri (aXM. Kai xriv zav- 
xoxpovri SiaxfipriGTi) xcdv oiKovo[j,iK(bv 5ia(popcbv. Exa TiXaiGia 
xou sv5oKoivoxiKoi3 sf^Tiopiou o 5siKxri(; s^ayroycbv xri(; 5uxiKfi(; 
TEp[iaviaq au^fiGriKs and 100 [j,ovd5s(; xo 1963 ce 463 xo 
1975, o yaX,XiK6(; Ssikxtjc; s^aycoycbv scpxaGS xi^ 530 i^ovdSs^ 
Kai o avxiGxoixog ixa>uiK6^ xk; 581: 

«To 5uxiKoy8p[j,aviK6 KscpdXaio guvsxi(^81 va riys[j,o- 
V81J81 a7i6A,uxa xo sv5okoivoxik6 s^Tiopio, auxf) 6[i(i)q r\ 
decnoCpvca Gsgti s^aGS Gxa5iaKd s5a(po^ s^aixia^ xrjc; 
5ia5iKaGia(; oXoK^fipcDGric;. A^ioXoyr] sivai r\ oikovo[j,i- 
KT) avdKa[j,\|/r| xri(; IxaMac;, xrjc; ^tiyoxspo ava7ixuy[j,svri(; 
X(bpa(; xri(; EOK».^^ 

H TioXixiKTi auxf) UTifip^s smxuxnf;, xdpi(; gxt] ysviKoxspri 
oiKovo[j,iKfi avduxu^ri [lexa xov B' nayKOGfj-io n6Xs[j,o. Ei5i- 
Koxspa, r\ xoxs Auxikt) Tep[iavia ava5i39riKs gxtjv Kupiapxn 
oiKovo[j,iKfi 5i3va[j,ri xrjg EupcoTiric;. H AuxiKf) Fsp^avia 6xi ^lo- 
vo s^fiyays PiO[j,rixaviKd Tipoiovxa, aX,Xd Kai siGiiyays npoio- 
vxa a7i6 xov apxiKo Tiupfiva xrjc; EOK (raX,Ma, IxaMa, Kdxco 
X&tpeq), a7ioxs}t(bvxa(; xrjv Kupia siGaycoyiKf) ayopd xoix;. To 
s[j,7i6pio [j,sxa^i3 xcov e^r\, avauxuGGOxav yprjyopoxspa an' o- 
7iou5fi7ioxs aXXoij gxtjv Evpchiu]. H oiKovo[j,iKfi avduxu^r] a- 
TioxsXsGS xr| pdGT] xr|(; GU[j,(pcovia(; xcov e^r\ gxtjv Pcb[j,ri Gxa 
1957, Kai apyoxspa xrjc; xs^tcoviaKfic; EV(i)cr\q (1968). Ss auxfiv 
xTjv 7i8pio5o, xo 8|i7i6pio xTj^ EOK [IE XOV UTioAoiTio k6g[j,o au- 



35 



^fiGriKs Kaxd 110%, [is xov i5io 5ri}ta5fi pu9[j,6 avdTiTU^ri^ xou 
7iayK6G[j,iou s^Tiopiou. AvxiGsxa, svcb xo koivcoviko npo'iov (ce 
xpsxouGS(; Ti[iEq) UTispSiTi^^aGidaxriKs [lexa^X) 1958-1968, x8- 
xpa7iA,aoidGxriKs xrjv i5ia 7i8pio5o xo s^Tiopio [j,SGa oxriv E- 

OK. To SGCOXSpiKO Sf^TlOpiO XT] EOK GXO GUVoXlKO s^iTiopio 

xri(;, o }tsy6[j,svo(; GUVxs^^SGxfic; oXoK^tfipcDGric;, avsPrjKS ano 
30,1% xo 1958, GS 45% xo 1968 Kai xo 1972 scpxaGS xo 
50,1%.^*^ 

To jEjovoq, COGXOGO, 6x1 8^aKo}tou9oi3GS va 5iaxr|psixai r| 
sGviKTi 5ia[j,6p(p(DGri Kai TipoGxaGia xcdv Kscpa^^airov gxtjv E- 
OK, sGsxs s^ apxn^ opia gxtjv «8t)p(D7iaiKfi oXoKX,fip(DGri» Kai 
avaSsiKvus xk; sGviKst; 5ia(pops(; (Kai avxaycoviG[j,oi3(;) avd[j,s- 
Ga Gxa Kpdxri-[j,8}tri. H Fepfj-avia stisSicoks (xauxoxpova [is 

XTjV OlKOVO[J,lKfl) Kai XTjV TloXlXlKf) oXoK^^flpCDGTl - XT] 5ri[J,lOUp- 

yia (uTioxiGsxai) «U7isp8GviK(bv G8G[j,(bv» evzoq xrjc; EOK. H 
S7ii5ico^ri auxf) fixav KaGapd sGyikt) (Gi3[j,(p(Dvri [is xa sGviKd 
GU[j,(pspovxa xTjc; rsp[j,avia(;): H rsp[j,avia sPyaivs rixxri[j,svri 
a7i6 xov B' TTayKOGfj-io n6}t8[j,o Kai Siaipsfo^svri. H avxiGxpocpf) 
auxfi(; xTjc; KaxdGxaGTjc; f^TiopoiJGS va yivsi [lovo xdpi^ gxtjv 
oiKovo[j,iKfi xri(; r|ys[j,ovia. Msgco «U7i8p8GviK(bv» GsG[j,(bv r\ 
Tep[iavia Ga [j,7iopoi3GS va KaGopiGSi auocpaGiGxiKd xr|v tioXi- 
xiKT), 5m}t(D[j,axiKfi Kai GxpaxicoxiKf) KaxsuGuvGr] xr|(; EOK, s^' 
aixiat; aKpipdx; xrjc; oiKovo[j,iKfi^ xr]^ 5i3va[j,ri^. AvxiGsxa, r] 
FaXMa fixav Kaxd xou 7i8piopiG[j,oi3 xr]^ «EQviKr\q Kupiapxia(;» 
[j,SG(D «U7ispsGviK(bv» GsG[j,(bv, Gxoix; OTioioix; 5ispXs7is xrjv 
TipoGTidGsia xri(; rsp[j,avia(; va ava5uGsi ^avd gs supcDTiaiKfi 
U7isp5i3va[j,ri. Msxpi Gfi[j,spa auxf) r] avxiGsGr] 7iapa[j,8vsi. H 
TaXkia xovi(^si xo SiaKuPspvrjxiKo xapaKxfipa xri(; EOK (gti- 
|ispa xri(; E.E.) svcb r\ rsp[j,avia upopdXsi (uTioxiGsxai) o[j,o- 
G7iov5iaKd «opd|j,axa». 



36 



Oi s9viKS(; avTiGsGSK; Kai stiiSkd^sk; fixav auxst; nov Ka96- 
pioav xriv «aviGoppo7iia» [j,STa^i3 oiKovo[j,iKfig Kai noXniKr\q 
oAoK}tfipcoGri(; gttiv oXt] Tiopsia ttjc; EOK. Evcb r| «oiKovo[a^iKfi 
oXoK}tfip(DGri» TipoxropoiJGS ([IE 5s5on8vri, xauxoxpova, Tr|v 
sGviKTi TipoGxaGia 710U 7ipoava(pspa[j,s) r\ «7ioXiTiKfi oAokXti- 

PCOGT])) SITS S[J,SVS GTdGl[J,ri SITS, ^SipOTSpa, OTllGGoXCDpOlJGS. 

Stk; Koiva)viKE(; Kai oiKovo[a^iKE(; avayKaiOTriTSt; nov odr\- 
yrjGav gttjv EOK Kai gtk; ennvxieq Tri(; |J,sxpi to 19 7 09a 

TipSTlSl Va TipOGTSQoiJV Kttl (oi S^' IGOU GT] [J,aVTlKS(;) «ysco7io}ti- 
TlKEg» TipOTSpaiOTTlTS^: 

A) O «yaA,Xo-ysp[j,aviK6(; d^ova^». 0s[j,eXio tt]^ ysp[j,avi- 
\d\q s^coTspiKTic; TioXniKr\q [lexa to 19 4 5 Qnmq tx] xdpa^s o 
TipcDTOt; KayKs}tdpiO(; Tri(; Autiktic; rsp[j,avia(; KovpavT Avts- 
vdousp, fiTav r\ «supco7iaiKfi oAoK}tfipcoGri» va auoTS^tsi tt] 
PdGT] yia TTjv aGCpdXsia ttjc; AuTiKfi(; TEp[iaviaq, svcb stiitiXeov, 
auTT) aTiOTS^toiJGS TT] [j,ova5iKfi TiiGavoTTiTa va STiavsvcoGsi r| 
rsp[j,avia GTO [leXkov. Fia tt] FaXMa, [j,STd auo TpsK; iio'kk- 
[lovq (and to 1870 ^isxpi to 1945) gs 75 xpovia [is tt] rsp[j,a- 
via, o GTOxog fiTav r\ s^iGoppoTiriGri Tri(; ysp[j,aviKfi(; oikovo[j,i- 
Kr\q r[Ye[ioviaq [j,egco ttjc; 5ri[j,ioupyia(; [imq gtsvtic; GUVspyaGi- 
aq, OTiou GTpaTicDTiKd Kai SmXcofo^aTiKd r| raX,Ma 9a sixs tov 
TipcDTO Aoyo. O Nts TkoX ekeje: «H EOK sivai evaq Guv5ua- 
|j.6<; a>u6you Kai d[j,a^a^: H rsp[j,avia sivai to dXoyo Kai r\ 
YaXkia o a\jiat,a,q». 

B) Oi HQA, r\ a5ia[j,(piGpfiTriTri riys[j,oviKfi 5i3va^r| (GTpa- 
TicoTiKd Kai oiKovo[j,iKd) [lexa to 1945, nieCjE. 7ipo(; ttjv KaTSij- 

GUVGTI TTj^ «8UpC07iaiKfl^ oXoK^flpCOGri^)) a7l6 TTjV STlOXn TOU 

GxsSiou MdpGaA, GTa 1947-48.* Fia ttjv OudGiyKTOV, r\ «su- 



"To oxsSio Mdpoal (European Recovery Program), lowiog 1947, Tipoxei- 
ve aiispiKoviKfi poiiBeia «yia xriv avaciuyKpoTriori xrn; Eupcb7iJi9>, vko tov 
6po 6x1 6a TiepiXaixPovoTOV o' eva 7ip6ypa|i|ia Jiou 9a acpopouoe oXt] tt] 

37 



pcoTiaiKTi oXoKX,fipcoGri» (ri d[i^Xvvcr\ xcov oiKovo[j,iK(bv Kam- 
xaXiGTiKcbv 5ia(pop(bv gto socoxspiKo ttjc; 5uTiKfi(; Evp&)iir\q) 
9a aTiOTsXoiJGe xr] pdori togo yia xriv «a7iopp6(priGri» a[j,spi- 
KaviKcbv s^7iop8U[j,dTC0v OGO Kai yia xriv avdTiTU^ri xou NA- 
TO- 9a 85ivs xriv avayKaia Guvoxn gxtjv EupcoTiri yia va avxi- 
[j,sxco7iig9si r\ «GoPisxiKfi a7i8i}tfi». H oiKovo[j,iKfi UTispoxn xcov 
HQA fixav xsxoiat; SKxaGri(;, sksivt] xtjv stioxh, tiou t] avaSuGT] 
xrjc; EOK gs oikovo[j,ik6 avxaycoviGxfi xcov a[j,spiKaviKcbv 
GU[j,(psp6vxcov (pdvxa(^s [im TipocmxiKfi nohb Pa9id gxo [leXkov 
(Kai a[j,(piPo}tr| av Kduoxs SKu^^ripcovoxav). To State Depart- 
ment s^riyoiJGS Gxa 1955: 

«E8 auxfiv xTjv TipoGsyyiGTi xcov HQA [xri(; UTiOGxfipi- 
^r\q xT]^ «supco7iaiKfi(; o}tOK}tfipcoGr|9>] alln 7ipopXfi[j,a- 
xa, 67ico(; xa 7ipdy[j,axi GoPapd s^TiopiKd 7ipopA,fi[j,axa 
710U sv5sxo[j,svcD^ va UTidp^ouv Gav a7ioxsXsG[j,a xri(; a- 
vduxu^Tjc; xri(; [supcDTiaiKfic;] Koivfic; ayopdt;, 98copoi)vxai 

58UX8p8l)OVXa».^^ 

E7io[j,svcog, yia xrjv Tipcbxri 7ispio5o xrjc; EOK 5ev UTidpxouv 
7ispi9cbpia yia noX^Mq a[j,(piPoMs(;. Tlapd xrjv TsXcoviaKf) 'E- 
vcDGT], r\ EOK fixav evaq GUvaG7iiG[j,6(; Kupiapxcov, avs^dpxrj- 
xcov Kpaxcbv xa OTioia sixav 5ri[j,ioupyfiGSi [im «a7iXfi» oikovo- 



5uTiKfi EupcoTiri. O A|iepiKocv6<; UTioupyog e^coxepiKcbv Mdpoal 6\\kjwe: 
«Elvai ma oXocpdvepo: Ilpiv cjuvexioouv oi HTIA xiq 7ipoo7id9eie<; xoix; va 
PeXxicboouv xriv Kaxdoxaor] Kai va ouiipdlouv oxt] SiaSiKaola e^DyiavOTi? 
xri<; EupcoTirn;, 9a npemi oi eupcoTiaiKeg x'i'PS? va ouiicpcovrioouv (lexa^i) 
xou<;, XI aviaixel t] jiapouoa Kaxdoxaori Kai Kaxd tiooo [iTiopouv va (Ji)|ipd- 
Xouv 01 i5ie<;, cboxe va eK|i£xalXei)xoi)v TiXfipcog xa |iexpa kov nr]pe t] ku- 
Pepvijofi (iag». (Klaus Busch, H Kpior] xcov eupcoTiaiKcbv koivoxiixcov, oeX. 
14). Exo napim ouyKpoxeixai xo 1948 o EupcoTiaiKot; Opyaviojioi; Oiko- 
vo|iiKfi<; Euvepyaoiog. 

38 



[iiKx\ C,G)vr\. H GUViJTiap^ri xcov [lehbv ttj^ (Tiapd xi^ o^iJVGSig 
nov o5fiyriGav gto Su[a^PiPaG[j,6 xou Aou^8[j,poi3pyou) Gxripi- 
(^oxav GS 5uo nvT^veq. Sxr] [j,sxa7io}tS[j,iKfi oiKovo[j,iKfi avd- 
Tixu^r] Kai xrjv «7ipoGxaGia» xrjc; A[j,spiKaviKfi(; r\'YE[ioviaq. H 
GUGTisipcDGTi yi3p(D ttTio xk; HQA fixav avayKaia, xogo ausva- 
vxi Gxo «goPisxik6 Kiv5uvo», OGO Kai Gxrjv s^aG(pdX,iGri xr|(; 
oiKovo[j,iKfi(; avd7ixu^ri(;, auoppocprovxat; supcDTiaiKd Tipoiovxa, 
Kai S7iipdX,Xovxa(; cpiXsXsuGspoTioiriGri xcov oiKovo[j,iK(bv gxs- 
Gscov (s^7io5i(^ovxa(; xrjv STiiGxpocpfi gxov KaxaGxpocpiKo oiko- 

V0[J,Ik6 7ipOGXaX8UXlG[^6 XOU [J,8G0710X8[J,0U). 

AXM ((psu!) GXT] (^cDTi 6Xa xa ropaia 7ipdy[j,axa sxouv sva 
xs^to^. rioXt) TispiGGOxspo GXOV Ka7iixa}tiG[j,6, xo 071010 sivai 
sva Gi3Gxr|[j,a nov xapaKxripi(^sxai and guvsx81(; avaxpousc;, 
oiKovo[j,iKs^ KpiGSK; Kai akhxyeq gxou^ GUGxsxiG[j,oi)g dvva- 
\xf\q avd[j,SGa gxi^ [lejakeq 5vvd\jiEiq. 

B) 1974-1986: H ETTO/fj xTiq a\)yxvar\q 

H oiKovo[j,iKfi KpiGT] xou 1973-1974 aTioxs^^si opoGrmo 
GXTjv s^sXi^T] xou [j,sxa7ioXs[j,iKoi3 Ka7iixa}tiG[j,oi3. To 6Ao «5u- 
xik6» oiKo56[j,ri[j,a (GU^7ispiXa[j,pavo[j,£vri(; Kai xri(; EOK), fi- 
xav dpprjKxa 5s[j,8vo [is xrjv oiKovo[j,iKfi dvGiGti Kai xr] GxaGs- 
poxrixa nov ene^a)^ r\ a[j,spiKaviKfi riys[j,ovia. H riys[j,ovia au- 
xf) 5sv }t8ixoupyoi3GS [lovo 7ipo(; ocpsXxx; xcov HIIA, aX,M 87i8- 
xpsTis xauxoxpova gxoix; GU[j,[j,dxou(; xoix; va avauxuGGOVxai 
[IE pu9[j,oi3(; [j,syaX,i3xspou(; xcov HIIA. H laucovia [j,sxaxpd7iriKs 
GS 5si3xspri oiKovofjiKT) 5i3va[j,ri xou 7i>^avfixri, r\ rsp[j,avia ce 
xpixT]. 

Auxf) r\ 7ispio5o(; (xa «xpDod xp6via» xou 5uxikoi3 Kamxa- 
?tiG[j,oi3) (pxdvsi GXO xsXo(; xrjc; [j,s xrjv oiKO\0[j,iKfi KpiGr] xou 
1973-74, Kai apxi(^si [j,ia [lOKpa 7i8pio5o^ avaSidpGpcoGr]^ xcov 



39 



GUGX8TiG[j,(bv 5i3va[j,ri^ avd[j,SGa gti^ [leyakeq 5vvd[iEiq xou 
5uTiKoi3 [iTikoK. O^tosva Kai TispiGGOxspo, 9a apxiGOUv va 
avacpijovxai oi 5ia(pops(; GU[j,(psp6vT(DV avd[j,SGa gs EuproTiri 
Kai HTIA. 

To 7ipoavdKpouG[j,a ttjc; KpiGrjc; fixav r] a7io5sG[j,suGri xou 
5o}tapiot) a7i6 tk; GU[j,(pcoviS(; xou MupsTOV Fowxt; xou 1944* 
npo(; xa xsXr] xrjc; 5sKasxia(; xou 1960ri KpiGr] xou 5o}tapiou 
5ri[j,ioupyoi3G8 GUvaX,Xay[j,axiKfi aGxdGsia avd[j,SGa Gxa Kpd- 
xri-[j,sXri xri(; EOK. H a7iOGi3v5sGri xou SoXapiou and xo jpvco 
(15/8/1971), Kai r\ GUvaK6>uOu9ri s(pap[j,oyfi xcov KU[j,aiv6[j,s- 
vcDV GUvaA,Xay[j,axiK(bv iGOxi[j,i(bv, sixs Gav a7ioxs}^SG[j,a 7ia- 
yKOGfj-ia vo[j,iG[j,axiKfi avaxapaxH- EtiitiXsov, r\ s^aGGsviGT] 
xou a[j,spiKaviKoi3 vo[j,iG[j,axo(; svxaGGOxav gs [j,ia TipoGTidGsia 
xcov KannakicTchv xcdv HTIA va avxiGxa9[j,iG0DV xrjv oikovo- 



Pu6|iol ovdTiTU^rn; xou AEIl xriv 7ieplo5o 1974-1979 yia xriv EOK: 2,6% 
ia%6 4,9% liSTO^y 1968-1973). Avepyla: 4,8% (aTio 2,7%). mTiecopi(j|i6<;: 
12,3% (ttTio 5,8%) (AouKOi; TooukoIth;, H vea eupcoTiaiicfi oiKovo|ila, oxo 
Kaxcbcpk xou 21™ aicbva, eKSooen; IlaTiai^fiori, oeX. 45-47). 
'' To Mvipexov Fouvxt; elvai Tiepioxil xou Niou Xdiioep xcov HIIA. To 1944 
UTioypdcpxriKe t] iSpuxiKf] ouiicpcovla xou AieOvoix; No|ii(j|iaxiKoi) Euoxiiixa- 
xo<;. To 5oXdpio avioxeXoixje xo Kevxpo xou ouoxfuiaxog, evcb 6Xa xa aXka 
vo|ilo|iaxa Ka9opi(^6vxouoav oe oxsot] |i£ awxo. To SoXdpio ocvxioxoixouoe 
oe |iia opio|i£vri vioooxrixa ■xpv(50v{\iia ouyKid xpuoou ioo5wa|ioi)oe (xe 
35 SoXdpia). To 5oXdpio iixocv Kkripaiq (i£xaxpev|/i|io oe xpi^oo. IlpopieTio- 
xocv 6x1 xa eupcoTiaiKd vo|ilo|iaxa 9a Ka96pi(^av xt] owalXayiiaxiicfi looxi- 
(xia xou<; evavxi xou 5oXaplou Kai 9a 5iao(pdli(^av |i£ 6Xa xa |ieoa (7iape|i- 
Paoi] oxig ayopeg, xpoTiOTioiiioii xcov emxoKicov) 6xi oi SiaKuiidvoen; xoix; 
evavxi xoi) SoXapiou 5ev 9a ^eviepvoixjav xo 1% Tidvco x] Kdxco aTio xijv 
KevxpiKii i(joxi|iia. IlapdlXriXa i5pi)9riKe xo Ai89ve<; No|ii(j|iaxiK6 Ta|i8io 
|ie aTiooxoXf] va 7iapaKoXoi)9ei xtjv Tiopeia xcov oiKovo|iicbv xcov Kpaxcbv- 
[leXcbv Kai XT] Xeixoupyia xou ouoxfuiaxog. Na 5avei(^ei, \ie awoxripoix; 6- 
poix;, KEcpdlaia oxk; x'^P^ 'tou xa eixav avdyKi] yia va oxa9epo7ioifiooi)v 
xi<; (ji)valIay(iaxiK8<; looxijiiei; xoix;. 

40 



\iiKx\ a5vva[iia xoix; svavxi xcov avxaycoviGTcbv xotx; (Kaxd kij- 
pio A,6yo xT]^ AuxiKTic; Tep[iaviaq Kai xr]^ lanmviaq), [j,sgco xt]^ 
(avxaycDviGxiKTic;) u7ioxi[j,riGri(; xou SoXapiou (va yivouv sxgi 
(pxrjvoxspa xa a[j,spiKaviKd Tipoiovxa gxt] 5is9vfi ayopd, Kai 
dpa va au^riGsi r\ avxaycoviGxiKoxrixd xovq). 

Ss avxiGxd9[j,iG[j,a auxcbv xcdv s^sM^scov, xov OKxcbPpio 
xou 1972 Gxo IlapiGi, gxt] GUvdvxriGri Kopu(pfi(; xcov swsa 
(xoxs) Kpax(bv-[j,sX(bv xri(; EOK, a7io(paGi(^sxai r\ «OiKovo[j,iKfi 
Kai No[j,iG[j,axiKfi 'EvcoGri» Kai r| GuyKpoxriGri xrjc; «Ev(i)[iEvr\q 
Et)p(b7iri9> [IE xpoviKo opio xo 1980. Sav Tipcbxo Gxd5io opiC,e- 
xai va TipoxcopfiGOUv xa Kpdxri-[j,sX,ri gs GxaGsps^ cvvakhrf- 
[j,axiKs^ iGOxi[j,is(; [j,sxa^i3 xcov vo[j,iG[j,dxcov xou^. Exa 1972 5ri- 
[j,ioupyfi9riKs xo «vo[j,iG[j,axiK6 (pi5i». Ta supcouaiKd vo[j,iG[j,a- 
xa 9a sixav [j,sxa^i3 xoix; SiaKij^avGri cvv-iikr\v 2,25%, svcb r\ 
SiaKij^avGri xou Kd9s s9vikoi3 vo[j,iG[j,axo(; 7ipo(; xo 5oXdpio 
opiGxriKs GXO 4,5%. Qgxogo, xo «(pi5i» KaxsXrj^s ce cpidGKo 
Kai KaxsppsuGS xo 1978. Ss GUv9fiKS(; 7iayK6G[j,ia^ oikovo[j,i- 
KTic; iJcpsGri^ (onmq xrjg SsKasxiat; xou 1970), r\ SiaxfipriGri Gxa- 
98pcbv GUvaX,Xay[j,axiKcbv iGOxi[j,icbv [j,sxa^i3 xcov Kpaxcbv- 
[j,8Xcbv xT]^ EOK, KaxsXriys [lovov 7ipo(; 6(psXo(; xrjc; iGXupoxs- 
prjc; oiKovo[j,ia(;, 5ri}ta5fi xou ysp[j,aviKoi3 Ka7iixa}tiG[j,oi3. Av 
s[j,svav GXO [j,rixaviG[j,6 xou «(pi5ioi3», oi aG9svsGxsps(; oiko- 
vo[n£.q (ano xr] ysp[j,aviKfi) 5sv ^iTiopoiJGav va U7ioxi[j,fiGOUv xa 
vo[j,iG[j,axd xoug «8Xs'u9spa», Kai sxgi va Kdvouv xa Tipoiovxa 
xoix; (pxrjvoxspa gxo 5is9vfi avxaycDviG[j,6 (aX,}td Kai gxov a- 
vxaycoviG[j,6 nov sixav [le xa ysp[j,aviKd Tipoiovxa). OugioXo- 
yiKd, XoiTiov, |J,sxpi xo 1978 8yKax8Xsi\|/av xo «(pi5i» r\ GxspM- 
va, r] Xipsxa Kai xo jaXkiKo (ppdyKo.^^ Msxpi xo zekoq s[j,sivav 
[j,6vo 01 x&tpeq xri(; Mtisvs^^oij^ (BsXyio, OXhxvdia, Aou^Sfj,- 
Poijpyo), Tiou sixav sxgi ki' akXimq, v\\ir\kr\ s^TiopiKf) s^dpxrj- 



41 



or] a7i6 xriv tots Autikt) Fspfj-avia, [j,8TaTp87iovTa(; to «(pi5i» 

G8 C,&)Vr\ TOU [J,dpKOU. 

H TipcDTri, Xomov, TipooTidGsia 7ipo(; sva koivo v6[j,iG[j,a 
(Tipo^ TTjv ONE), KaTsppsuGS yittTi PpsGrjKs avTi[j,ST(D7iri [is xa 
SiacpopsTiKd S7ii7is5a oiKovo[j,iKfi(; avd7iTU^ri(; nou sixav Ta 
KpdTri-[j,sXri. npdy[j,a nou ofmaivs, 6ti oxsTiKd oTaGsps^ au- 
vaX,}tay[j,aTiKS(; igoti[j,is(; f) (7ioX,i3 TispioaoTspo) sva sviaio v6- 
[j,iG[j,a, 5sv i^TiopoiJGS va avTiGTaG[j,iGSi Ta avTiTiGs[j,sva «sGvi- 
Kd» Gt)[j,(pspovTa Tcov 87ii[j,spou^ KpaT(bv-[j,sX(bv. MsTd a7i6 
auTTiv TTjv aTiOTUxia, o kiv5uvo^ 5aG[j,oAoyiK(bv TidkE[i(i)v avd- 
[leca GTa KpdTri-[j,sXri s[j,(pavi(^STai [is GCpoSpoTriTa gttjv EOK. 
ETa 1974-76 r\ iTaMa eni^aXkei 7ispiopiG[j,oi3(; siGaycoycbv, r\ 
Aavia eni^aXkei (popoix; KaTavd}tcoGri(; yia [im GSipd siGayo- 
[lEva TipoiovTa, GTa 1975-76 ^sgtioijv yaX,}to-iTa}tiKoi 7i6Xs[j,oi 
Tou KpaGioij, 8V(b «^avdyivs to Ka^^oKaipi tou 19 7 7 to 7ip6- 
pXri[j,a Tou 7ipoGTaTSt)TiG[j,oi3 GTTjv EOK o^iJTaTO [IE Ti^ auai- 
ttigsk; yia siGaycoyiKotx; 7ispiopiG[j,oi3(; tcov Pio[j,rixavi(bv ucpa- 
VTOupyiat;, xapTiou Kai xdA,uPa».'"^ 

Atio to 1978-79 oi oikovo^is(; tcov xcopcbv tt]^ 5uTiKfi(; Eu- 
p&)iir\q yvcbpiGav tt] [j,syaA,i3Tspri Kai tiio 7iapaTSTa[j,8vri txpSGr] 
a7i6 Ta TsXri tou B' riayKOGfj-iou no}^s[j,ou, nov Ga 5iapKSGSi 
[iS'Xpi TO TipcDTO [j,ig6 TTjc; 5sKasTia(; tou 1980. To a7iOTsXsG[j,a 
fiTav va STiiKpaTSi KM[j,a auaiGioSo^iat; yia ziq 7ipoo7iTiKS(; ttjc; 
EOK- fiTav Ta xpovia ttj^ «st)pcoa7iaiGio5o^ia(;» Kai Tr\c, «su- 
pcoGK}tfipcoGri9>. 

Stov KivSuvo va KaTappsuGSi oAoK^ripcDTiKd to oko oiko- 
56[j,ri[j,a Tri(; EOK, GTa 1978 o tots KayKsXdpio^ ttjc; Autiktic; 
TEp[iaviaq XeX^ouT E[j,it Kai o TaXkoq 7ip6s5po(;BaXspi Zi- 
GKdp Nt' Egtsv, TipoTSivav TO EupcoTiaiKo No[j,iG[j,aTiK6 Ei3- 



naTrivEOK-12: 1980-1985, pu6(ioi avd7iTU^ri<; AEIl: -1,5%, ovspyia, 
8,4%, %h\Qa,picii6q, 9,8%. 

42 



GTri[j,a (ENE- dpxios va Xsixoupysi to Mdpxio 1979). Oi }^6yoi 
nov o5fiyriGav gto ENE fioav: 

ripcDTOV, r\ 5is9vfi(; vo[j,iG[j,aTiKfi aaidGeia GUVsxiCoxav [is 
8VTSiv6[j,8vri 87ii5paOTi gtk; oikovo[j,is^ tt]^ EOK. 'EupsTis, Xoi- 
7i6v, va 5r|[j,ioupyri9oi)v GUv9fiKS(; vo[j,iG[j,aTiKfi(; GxaGspoxriTa^ 
Gxriv EOK. 

AsiJTspov, 01 oiKovo[j,i8g Tri(; EOK sixav TiXriysi and xov 
7iXri9(DpiG[j,6 (o [j,SGO^ 7iXri9copiG[j,6(; to 1982 fixav 10,28%''^) 
Kai [j,ia vo[j,iG[j,aTiKfi GxaGspoxriTa 9a o5r|yoi3GS Gxr] [leimcr] 
xrov 7i>^ri9copiGxiK(bv tiisgscdv. 

Tpixov, xo ENS, u7ioxi9sxai, 6xi 9a 5r|[j,ioupyoi3GS Guv9fi- 
Ksq oiKovo[j,iKfi(; avaTnv^r\q, 5isuKoX,i3vovxa(; Kai 5isupi3vo- 
vxaq xrjv «ayopd» g' oXoK^ripri xr] Suxikt) Evp&)iir\. 

Tsxapxov, xo ENE 9scopfi9riKs Gav [j,r|xaviG[j,6(; «auxo7ipo- 
GxaGia^» 8v6\|/si xr]^ SisupuvGrjc; xr]^ EOK [is [j,SGoysiaKS(; 
X&tpeq (x&tpeq [le u\|/r|X6xspo 7i}tri9copiG[a^6 Kai «x8ip6xspa», 
akin nohb (pxrjvoxspa Tipoiovxa). «Asvovxa(;» oi x&tpeq avxeq 
xa vo[j,iG[j,axd xoix; gxo ENE, oi avxaycDviGxiKs^ U7ioxi[j,fiG8i(; 
xrov vo[j,iG[j,dxcov xoix; 9a fiGav viio ekejxo.^^ 

EuGxaxiKo GX01X810 xou ENE fixav o MrixaviG[j,6(; EuvaX- 
Xay[j,axiK(bv lGOxi[j,i(bv (MEI) Kai r| EupoTiaiKfi No[j,iG[j,axiKfi 
Movd5a- r| ECU. H ECU fixav [im Gi3v9sxri [j,ovd5a nou auo- 
xsXsixo a7i6 Gxa9spd TiOGd Kd9s koivoxikotj vo[j,iG[j,axo(;. Ta 
supcoTiaiKd (s9viKd) vo[j,iG[j,axa STipsus va sxouv [j,sxa^i3 xoix; 
SiaKij^avGri scd^ GUV-7iX,riv 2,5%. Av r| SiaKij^avGri fixav [le- 
jakmepr], xoxs STipsTis oi KuPspvfiGSK; Kai oi KsvxpiKst; xoix; 
xpd7i8(^8g va S7is[j,pouv yia va 5iaxripfiG0uv xr] 5iaKf)[j,avGri Gxa 
auoSsKxd TiXaiGia. Exriv TispiTixcDGri xri(; Ixakiaq, xa opia 9a 
fixav [a^syaA,f)xspa (+-6%) [lexpno 1990. To 1989 siGfiX9s gxo 
[j,rixaviG[j,6 Kai r\ usGSxa [is xriv i5ia 5iaKf)[j,avGri [is xriv ixa^^i- 
Kfi }^ipsxa. Asv GU[j,[j,sxsixav s^' apxn^ r\ GxspMva, r\ 5pax|J.fl 



43 



Kai TO SGKoi35o. TsXiKd, \i6Xiq to 19908iGfi}^98 Kai r\ oTspM- 
va [IE dmKX)[iavcr\, Kai avzi], +-6%. 

Kai GTO ENE (onrnq TiaXiOTspa [is to «(pi5i») fiTav KaTd 
Kijpio Xoyo Ta ysp[j,aviKd KaTiiTa^^iGTiKd GU[j,(pspovTa auTd 

TlOU K8p5l(^aV TlSpiGGOTSpO. AsVOVTa^ 01 rsp[J,aVOl Ka7llTa}tl- 

GTS(; TO [j,dpKo [j,s 7110 a5i3va[j,a supcoTiaiKd vo[j,iG[j,aTa, avsKo- 

TlTaV TTjV aVoSlKT) TOU TlOpsia G8 GXSGTl [J,S TO SoAoipiO (Kai [IE 
aUTOV TOV TpOTlO SiaTTlpOlJGaV TTjV aVTayCOVlGTlKOTTlTa TCOV 

ysp[j,aviK(bv TipoiovTCOv). IlapaXkr\hx, xa vnoXoma supcouaiKd 
sGviKd vofj-iGfo^aTa, 5s[j,sva onmq fiTav [j,s to [j,dpKo, sixav ava- 
Ti[j,ri9si, [IE a7iOTsXsG[j,a va sivai Ta TipoiovTa tcov avTiGTOixcov 
Xcopcbv XiyoTspo avTaycoviGTiKd and xa ysp[j,aviKd: 

«I5iaiT8pa EVTvnmcmKr] sivai r\ svTOvri au^riGri tou 
7iXsovdG[j,aTO(; tou ysp[j,aviKoi3 s^TiopiKoij iGO(^uyiou gs 
GxsGTi [IE TT] TaXkia. To Getiko UTioXomo au^fiGriKs and 
6, 8 5iG. [j,dpKa TO 1979 gs 17,2 5ig. [j,dpKa to 1982, [ie 
dA,A,a Xoyia TpmXaGidGTr|Ks. [...] 

nap6[j,oia s^sMxGriKs to s^coTspiKo s^iTiopio ttjc; O- 
[j,OG7iov5iaKfi(; ArmoKpaTiat; ttjc; rsp[j,avia^ [j,8 ttjv iTa- 
Ma. Ettjv 7i8pio5o 1976-78, OTav to ysp[j,aviK6 [j,dpKo 
avaTi[j,fiGriKs 7ipay[j,aTiKd KaTd 12,4% (SsiKTrjc; Ti[j,(bv 
KaTavaXcoTTi), Kai avTiGTOixa KaTd 9,1% (58iKTri(; Ti[j,(bv 
XOv5piKoi3 sf^Tiopiou) svavTi Tri(; nakiKr\q XipsTa^, to 
7i}ts6vaG[j,a tou s^coTspiKoij s^Tiopiou [j,STaTpd7iriKs gs 
sA>t8i[j,[j,a TOU sf^TiopiKoij iGO(^uyiou. Sto SidGTTi^a 1976- 
1979 01 ysp[j,aviK8^ siGaycoyst; and ttjv iTaMa au^fiGri- 
Kav KaTd 36%), avTiGsTa oi s^aycoys(; nov KaTSuGwo- 
VTav GTTjv iTaMa [lovo KaTd 29%). H KaTdGTaGt] dX,}ta^8 
pi(^iKd [j,STd TTjv iSpuGTi TOU ENS Kai TTjv svTOvri Tipay- 

HaTlKT) U7lOTi[J,ri GT] TOU [J,dpKOU 8VaVTl TT]^ ITa^^lKl^c; }^ip8- 



44 



Ta(;. To ysp^iaviKo EXke.i\i[ia i)\\fovq 1,2 5ig. [idpKov xou 
1979 [j,STaTpd7iriK8 to 1980 as 7iXs6vaG[j,a i3\|/ou(; 2,8 
5iG. [j,dpKcov, 710U |J,sxpi TO 1982 au^fiGriKs g8 3,6 5ig. 
[j,dpKa». 

H ysp[j,aviKfi oiKovofo^iKfi Kupiapxia, SKcppdGTrjKs ^SKdGapa 
GTa xpovia Tri(; 7ipos5pia(; tou OpavGOud MiTspdv. H sK^oyi- 

KT) VlKTl TCOV So Gia^tlGTCDV GTT] FaXMa TO 1981, GUVOSSTJTTIKS 

[le sva 8KTSTa[j,svo 7ip6ypa[j,[j,a KpaTiKOTioifiGSCDV, koivcovikcdv 
Kai oiKovo[j,iK(bv [j,8Tappu9[j,iGSCov. To 7ip6ypa[j,[j,a auTO Guvd- 
VTrjGS TT] XuGGaXsa avTiSpaGTi tcov KamTaXiGTcbv, nou avxe- 
5paGav [IE (puyfi tcov KscpaXaicov toix;, stisySutikti auspyia, 
Kai S7ii9sGr| gtt] GUvaXXayfo^aTiKfi iGOTi[j,ia tou jakXiKoi) cppd- 
yKou. H KuPspvriGTi MiTspdv 7ipoG7id9r|GS va 5iaTr|pfiGSi ttjv 
iGOTi[j,ia Tou (ppdyKou GTa TiXaiGia tou ENE. Qgtogo, [j,8Ta^i3 
1981 Kai 1983, to yaXXiKo v6[j,iG[a^a t)7iOTi[j,fi9riKs Tpeit; (popsg. 
Sttiv TpiTTi u7iOTi[j,ri GT], o U7ioupy6(; oiKovo[j,iK(bv Tou MiTspdv, 
ZaK NTS^top, S7iip}tfi9riK8 eni tt]^ apiGTspf)^ TiTspuya^ tcov Eo- 
GiaXiGTcbv (nov S7ii(^riTOi3GS ttjv auoGupGri ano to ENS), Kai 
STisPaXs 8va 7ip6ypa[j,[j,a XiT6TriTa(;: syKaTdX8i\|/ri ttjc; tioXiti- 

KT)^ KpaTiKOTioifiGSCDV Kai OUGiaGTlKd uio9sTfi9r|Ks 8va vsocpi- 

}ts}tsi39spo [j,ovTsAo oiKovo[j,iKfi(; avaTnv^r\q. 

FiaTi, 6[j,co(; auTf) r] s7ii[j,ovfi gttjv 7iapa[j,ovri gto ENS, av 
auTO fiTav (7ipay[j,aTiKd) sk; pdpo(; Tri(; oiKovo[j,iKfi^ avTaycovi- 
GTiKOTTiTat; Tr|(; ya}t}tiKfi(; oiKovo[j,ia(;; Sttjv Tipay^aTiKOTriTa, 
01 S7iiXoys(; Sev fiGav Kai noXkeq: r\ STipsTis to SoGia^^iGTiKo 
K6[j,[j,a va TipoxcopfiGSi gtti... GOGiaXiGTiKf) STiavdGTaGT] Kai 
[j,d}tiGTa va TTjv auXcDGSi TiavsupcDTiaiKd (7ipdy[j,a tiou, aGCpa- 
Xcb(;, 58V fiTav oijts gtk; mo «TpsXs(;» tou enikojeq) sits va 
S7ii5icb^si [j,ia «psa}tiGTiKfi» 5is^o5o GTa 7ipopXfi[j,aTa tou 
jaXkiKoi) Ka7iiTaXiG[j,oi3. 



45 



O yaX}tiK6(; Ka7iiTaXiG[j,6^ avs[j,£vs (Kaxd Kijpio Xojo) xpia 
0(pEkr\ and tt] GU[j,[j,STOxn tou gto ENS: 

ripcDTOV, o yaX,X,iK6(; Ka7iiTaXiG[j,6(; va riyriGsi Tri(; «st)p(D7ia- 
iKfi(; o}tOK}tfip(DGri9> Kai va avTiGTa9[j,iGSi xr] ysp[j,aviKfi oiko- 
vo[j,iKfi riys[j,ovia [j,s tt] 5i7iX(D[j,aTiKfi Kai GxpaxiCDTiKfi icji) ttjc; 
TaXkiaq. Na KaGopiGSi, [j,sgcd aDxfig Tri(; 5ia5iKaGia(;, xriv oi- 
Kovofo^iKTi noXniKi] ttjc; EOK [j,8 pdGSi Kai xa GU[j,(pspovTa xou 
yaX,XiKoi3 Ka7iiTaXiG[j,oi3. 

AsiJTSpOV, [J,SG(D TTjc; «aVTay(DVlGTlKfl^ 7llSGri(;», tiou guvs- 

Tiayoxav r] GU[j,[j,STOxn gto ENE, oi ydX,}toi KamxaXiGTSt; va 
TipoxcopfiGOUv GS SKGuyxpoviG[j,6 Tou TiapaycDyiKot) xoix; 5u- 
vafo^iKoij Kai va yivouv stgi oiKovo[j,iKd tiio avxaycoviGxiKoi. 

TpiTOV, r\ GU[j,[j,STOxn GTO ENS, Gfi[j,aivs avxmXriGcDpiGTiKfi 
Tio^tiTiKTi, (DGTS va 7iapa[j,8ivsi TO (ppdyKo GTO [j,r|xaviG[j,6 tou 
+-2,5%. O iiajchvaq KaTd tou 7i>uri9(DpiG[j,oi3» Gf^aivs «ava- 
7i6(psuKTa» 7ispiopiG[j,6 Tcov 5ri[j,OGi(ov 8X,X8i[j,[j,dTC0v, 7iay(b[j,a- 
Ta [j,iG9(bv, i5icoTiK07ioifiGSi(; (7i}tfipri(; avTiGTpocpf) tou apxiKoij 
7ipoypd[j,[j,aTO^ tcdv EoGiaXiGTcbv). Autt) r\ tioXitikti sixs Gav 
GTOxo va riTTTiGow Ta spyaTiKd GUv5iKdTa Kai oi «a7iaiTfi- 
G8i(;» Tou^ yia [j,iG9oXoyiKS(; au^fiGSK;. Fia va 5iKaioXoyri9si 
TO 7idyco[j,a tcdv [iicQchv (va [o^sicdGoijv oi 7ipay[j,aTiKoi [j,iG9oi), 
fiTttv suKoXoTspo va 7ipop}tr|9si o kiv5uvo(; ttjc; [iEi(i)cr\q Tri(; 
avTay(oviGTiK6TriTa(; ttjc; «eQviKr\q oiKovo[j,ia(;» Kai r\ avdyKt] 
va «yivot)v 9uGis^ yia va 5iaTripri9si r\ 98Gri Tri(; raA,Ma(; gttjv 
Eup(b7ir|». 

Atio TTjv apxn, ?^om6v, to 6)^0 supcDTiaiKo 8yx8ipri[j,a, fiTav 
d[j,8Ga 58^i8vo [j,8 tk; v80(piX8X8i398p8(; 98copi8^ Kai 7ipaKTiKS(; 
Kai Kd98 xropa (Kai 6xi |j,6vo t] raX,Ma) «G7ipcoxv6Tav» yia va 
tk; eni^aksi, aKpipdx; 87i8i5fi 8^U7irip8TOi3Gav Ta Ta^iKd gu[j,- 
(pspovTa TCOV «89viK(bv» TOU<; Ka7iiTaX,iGT(bv. 



46 



r) 1987-2002: Oikovohikii 
Ktti Nonio^aTiKTJ 'EVCOOT] 

To OsPpoudpio Tou 1986 u7ioypd(pTr|Ks r\ Eviaia EupcoTiai- 
KT) Ilpd^ri (r| GU[j,(p(DVia tsGtiks gs ic/p and xov loijXio 1987), 
[IE 7ipcoTspydTS(; to rsp[j,av6 KayKsXdpio Xs}t[j,ouT KoX Kai to 
TaXko 7ip6s5po Opavooud MiTspdv, [is ttjv ouoia GU[j,(pcovsi- 
Tai r\ «o>^OK>tfipcoGri Tri(; SGCOTspiKfic; ayopd^ Kai opi(^8i xpovi- 
k6 opiCpvxa to 1992 ».'''* St6xo(; fiTav r] 5ri[j,ioupyia \naq «e- 
GCOTspiKTic; ayopd(;», x®pi<^ SGCOTspiKd Gijvopa, gttjv ouoia 9a 
5iaG(paM(^STai r\ «s>tsi39spri KUK^ocpopia s[j,7iopsu[j,dTC0v, Tipo- 
GCDTicDV, UTiripsGicbv Ktti KS(pa}tai(ov» (oi 7ispi(pr|[j,S(; «TSGGspi(; 
s}tsu9spis(;»). E^' igou Gr|[j,avTiK6 gtt] GU[j,(p(Dvia, fiTav r\ 
7ipoG7id98ia va TipoxcopfiGSi 7iapdX,}tr|}ta Kai r| «7io}tiTiKfi oXo- 
K>ufipcoGri». H apxn Tr\c, o[j,o(p(Dvia(; ([j,STa^i3 tcdv KpaTcbv- 
[lehhv) yia tt] X'r\\\ir\ tcov aTiocpdGSCov avTiKa9iGTaTai, g8 ap- 
K8T8(; TispiTiTCDGSK;, ttTio «si5iKS(; 7iXsio\|/ri(piS(;» (5riXa5fi [im 
aTiocpaGTi 87iiKup(bvsTai av Xdpsi sva opiG[j,svo api9[j,6 \|/fi(p(Dv 
710U Xa[j,pdv8i U7i' 6\|/ri Kai tov 7iXri9uG[j,6 Kd9s xcbpat;- 9a s- 
7iavsX9ou[j,s avaXuTiKd g' auTO gti^ svottitsc; «SuGX8TiG[j,oi 
5i3va[j,ri(;» Kai «Ei3vTay[j,a»). 



H Tiopela Tipog xriv «oXoKXfipcoori -rri<; eocoxepiicru; ayopdu;» ouvoSevcriKe 
avio [xeXexeg xrig EupcoTiaiiKfig EmxpoTifig yia «Ta TiAfoveKifniaxa xrn; oiko- 
vo|iiKfi<; oXoKXfipco(jri9>. Oi [xeXexeg TipopXeTiov au^riori xou AEIl Kaxd 
4,5%, 5ri(xioupyla vecov Oeoecov epyaolrag Kaxd 1.750.000, iielcoor] xcov 
eXXei|i(idxcov xou 5ri|i6mou xo|iea Kaxd 2,25%, K.Xn. Exriv TipayiiaxiKoxri- 
xa ((xe EK xcov uoxepcov ava6ecopfi(jei<; oxa xeh] xri<; SeKasxlog xou 1990), t] 
ETilTixcoori oxo AEn fixav yupco oxo 1%, t] avepyla oe [isoo emTieSo ecpxaoe 
oxo 11% evcb xa eXM(i|iaxa xou 7ipol)7ioXoyi(j|ioi) au^iiBriKav avio 4% oxa 
xeXr] xri<; SeKaexiai; xou 1980 oe 6% oxa 1993. 

47 



H Tiopsia auxfi, TipoTiapaoKsufic; Tipo^ tt] (vsa TipooTidGsia 
yia) ONE (OiKovo[j,iKfi Kai No[j,iG[a^aTiKfi 'Evcoori), UTioPoriGfi- 
GrjKs a7i6 xr] ^ekTimcf] xou oikovo[j,ikoi3 KM[j,aTO(; (yia xa Ksp- 
5ri Kai xou^ pu9[j,oi3(; avd7ixu^ri(;, svcb r\ avspyia 7iaps[j,svs ce 
v\\ir\kd enmeda- 9,1% as [leco enmedo oxa 1986-1990). Exa 
5t)o xs^tsuxaia xpovia xri<^ SsKasxiag xou 1980 xo [leco tiogo- 
Gx6 avdTixu^ri^ xcov oiKovo[j,icbv xr]^ EOK Ti^triGiaas xo 4%. 

Qgxogo, (yia aXkr\ [j,ia (popd) xo xsXiko a7ioxsXsG[j,a fixav r\ 
EOK va [o^sxaxpaTisi gs (^(bvri xou [j,dpKou. H ysp[j,aviKfi Ks- 
vxpiKT) Tpd7is(^a, r\ M7ioi3vxsG^7iavK, avsPoKaxsPa(^s xa smxo- 
Kid xT]^ [IE yv(b[j,ova xa GU[j,(pspovxa xou ysp[j,aviKoi3 Kamxa- 
XiG[j,oi3, 7ipdy[j,a nov s^avdyKa(^s xoix; utioXoitioix; va aKoXou- 
Goijv, sixs xo fiGs^^av sixs 6xi. Sxa Tekr\ xrjc; 58Kasxia(; xou 
1980, o Pio[j,r|xaviK6(; xo[j,8a(; xrjc; AuxiKfi(; Fsp^aviag scpxavs 
Gxo 68% xou avxiGxoixou xri(; TaXkiaq, IxaMa^, Bpsxaviag 
cvv5vac[is\/a.^^ Oi Financial Times sypacpav sksivt] xtjv uspi- 
o5o: 

«H EupcDTiri 8X81 fi5ri [iia K8vxpiKfi Tpd7i8(^a. Ovo[j,d- 
(^8xai M7ioi3vx8G^7iavK Kai sx8i s5pa gxt] OpavKcpoup- 

36 

xri». 

Oi 8Dp(D7iaiKS(; STiavaGxdGSK; xou 1989 nou yKp8[j,iGav xa 
KaGsGxcbxa xou KpaxiKoij Ka7iixaXiG[j,oi3 («xou UTiapKxoij go- 
Gia}tiG[j,oi3»), r\ ysp[j,aviKfi svoTioiriGri xo 1 9 9 OKai r\ Kaxdp- 
psuGT] xrjc; ESSA xo 1991, sixav Gav aTioxs^^SG^a xrjv avd5uGri 
(^avd) xT]^ TEp[iaviaq Gav TiayKOG^iiat^ 5i)va[j,ri^, nov gs guv- 
5uaG[j,6 [IE xrjv oiKovo[j,iKfi riy8[j,ovia, aij^avs xrjv auxoTiSTioi- 
GriGTi xou ysp[j,aviKoi3 Ka7iixa}tiG[j,oi3. 

Qgxogo, r\ Fsp^avia 5sv fixav Kai xogo svGouGi(b5ri(; yia 
xTjv Tiopsia 7ipo(; xrjv ONE. OscopouGS 6xi sva koivo v6[j,iG[j,a, 



48 



acp' 6v6^ 9a a7io5uvd[j,cov8 tt] y8p[j,aviKfi smppofi, svcb ennike- 
ov, av 5sv TipoxropoiJGS xauxoxpova r\ noXniKi] svcoori Tri(; 
Evp&)iir\q, 6a ekeme r\ avayKaia «7io}tiTiKfi» UTiOGifipi^ri xou 
Koivoij vo[j,iG[j,aTO(; Kai to 6Xo syxsiprma f^TiopoiJGS va Kaxa- 
Xfi^si GS KaxaGxpocpiKo (pidGKo. H Fspfj-avia nieCjE. yia «7ioXi- 

TlKTl SV07lOiriGri», 7ip0G50K(bVTa^ OTl GS [J,ia «£V07lOiri[J,£Vri» 

EupcDTiri, r\ oiKovofJiKTi Tri(; icjpq ce Gt)v5t)aG[j,6 [j,s xriv smp- 
pof) TTjc; gtk; (oiKovo[j,iKd) «5opu(popiKS(;» Tri(; x'i'PS'^ (Mtisvs- 
Xoij^) -svd) sivai T] TioXuTiXriGsGTspri 7iXri9uG[j,iaKd xcbpa tt]^ 
EOK- 9a oSriyoiJGS gs ysp[j,aviKfi riys[j,ovia. 

H yspfo^aviKTi GxpaxriyiKfi, nov tots s^s(ppa(^s o Xs}t[j,ot)T 
KoX, sixs fi5ri [j,ia [lOKpa TipoiGTopia tiigcd ttjc;. STa 1 9 7 6 ,o 
TOTS EoGia}t5r|[j,oKpdTri(; KayKsMpiot; Xs}t[j,ouT E[j,it, uspis- 
ypacps TT] ysp[j,aviKfi GTpaTTjyiKfi ge Enicr\[io syypacpo: 

«0 E[j,iT 7iposi5o7ioioi3GS OTl av T] AuTiKTi Fspfa^avia 
«avs7ii9i3[j,riTa Kai S7iiKiv5uva avaSuoTav Gav r\ SsuTspr] 
SuTiKT) TiayKOGfj-ia 5i3va[j,ri gti^ guvsiStigsi^ tcov akhov 
KuPspvfiGSCov)) TOTS 9a UTidp^si «[j,ia avaptcoGri tcov a- 
va^vfiGSCov 6x1 [lovo tou AougPit(; Kai tou XiT^sp aX,Xd 
S7iiGri(; Tou rouXisX[j,ou tou II Kai tou BiGfo^apK... 7ii9a- 

VOVTOGO GTT] AUGT] OGO Kai GTTjV AvaTO^LT))). Fl' aUTO 

sivai «avayKaio yia [laq, 6go auTO sivai SuvaTO, va Xsi- 
TOupyoi3[j,s 6x1 s9viKd Kai [j,s[j,ov(D[j,sva, akXd GTa TiXai- 
Gia TTjc; Evp(i)iiaiKr\q Koiv6TriTa(; Kai Tri(; [NaTOiKfi(;] 
(5V[i[iaxiaq. Autti r\ a7i67isipa nohbiikevpriq Kah)\\ir\q 
TCOV Tipd^scbv [laq 9a stiitijxsi [lovo [j,spiKd, yiaTi (ava- 
yKaGTiKd Kai Tiapd tt] 9sXriGfi [j,a(;) 9a [j,STaTpa7ioi3[j,s gs 
riysTiKotx; 7iapdyovTS(; Kai GTa 5uo GUGTfi[j,aTa»».'''' 



49 



Eto tsAo(; TTjc; SsKasxiat; xou 1980, r\ Yepiiavia s^avayKa- 
(^oxav va TipoxcopfiGSi as cn)[j,piPaG[j,6 [le tovc, Kupiou^ sxai- 
pou(; xri(; oxriv EOK: 

«To 1989-90 o OpavGOud Mixspdv Kai r\ MdpyKapsx 
©dxosp 7ipoG7id9riGav va s^tioSigouv xtjv svcogt] xcov 
5i3o y8p[j,aviK(bv Kpaxcbv. H ayyXiKfi avxiGxaGr] hbjice 
[IE xTjv aTiocpaGiGxiKTi [j,8GoXdpri GT] xou Afo^epiKavot) 
7ipos5po V Mtioix;. Ausvavxi gxt] TaXkia, o Xs^tfo^oux 
Ko}t fixav xoGO e.fy)itvoq, (dgxs va Scdgsi xtjv svxtjtkdgti 
6x1 fixav 5iax898i[j,8vo^ va «9uGidG8i» xo y8p[j,aviK6 

[J,dpKO Kai XT] |J,8Xpi X6X8 7ip08XOt)Ga GSGTl XOU GXO Eu- 

pcoTiaiKo No[a^iG[j,axiK6 'LvcTr\[ia 7ipo(; 6(ps}tO(; xou 8U- 

, * 38 

pro ». 



Ta Ysyovoxa eK£iv\\q T\\q 7i£pi65oi) (XTiopow va «5iaPa(jT0i)v» Kai co<; 

«0i TiepioGOxepoi koivotikoI mrahixeq moxeuouv on oxriv TipayiiaxiKOTri- 
xa TO eupcb yewiiBriKe Kdxco avio xa (n)vxpl|i|iia xou xelxoix; xou BepoXivou 
Kai (juyKeKpi|i£va Kaxd xr] 5idpKeia |iiag ouvdvxriorn; xou xoxe KayKeXdpi- 
01) xri<; repiiaviog XeX|ioux KoX \ie xo ydlXo TipoeSpo 3)pavooud Mixepdv. 
Kaxd XT] 5idpKeia xri<; ouvdvxriorn; awxfi<; Kai evcb o KoX 5ev eixe aK6|iri 
e^aocpalioei xr] 5i£6vfi DTiooxiipi^ri yia xriv eviavevcoori xrig Fepiiaviai; o 
Mixepdv xou avaKoivcooe 6xi 9a xrjv oxripi^ei, vko evav 6po: xr] Buoia xou 
jidpKou Kai XT] 5ri|iioupyia ev6<; eviaiou eupcoTiaiKou vo|ii(j|iaxo<;. Ex6xo<; 
xou Mixepdv iixav va e^aocpaXioei 6xi oxo [ieXXov r] e7iavevco|ievri Kai na- 
vioxupTi TiXeov Fepiiavia 5ev 9a eioeXBei oxaSiaKd oxov 7ieipao|i6 va ku- 
piapxiioei oxriv EupcoTiri. Tia va |iriv (ju|iPei auxo, o Mixepdv (^iixrioe aTio 
xou<; Fepiiavoui; va Gumdoouv 6,xi 7ioXuxi|i6xepo eixav -5riXa5fi xo [idpKo 
xou<;- Kai va aviocpaoioouv 6xi oxo (leXXov r] oikovoiiikii Kai vo|iio|iaxiKfi 
TiokxiKfi Tiou 6a aKoXou9ouv 6a avioxeXei avxiKei|ievo Siavipayjidxeuorn; 
(le xoug KoivoxiKoui; exaipou<; xou<;» (M. EmvGoupdKrn;, Ilou xo Tidei o 
«oKlrip6<; 7rupfivag» xri<; 'Evcoorn;, To Bfijia, 30 Noe|iPpiou 2003). 

50 



Es avTiGTd9[j,iG[j,a, yia tt] Fspfj-avia, r\ ONE Kai to supcb 
fixav TO pfi[j,a yia va fj-sxaxpaTisi to [j,dpKo (to vo^iGfa^a-pdari 
yia TO supcb) ce 5is9v8(; v6[j,iG[a^a. H yspfo^aviKfi oiKovofo^ia 8i- 
vai, GuyKpiTiKd, noho [j,iKp6T8pri tcov HQA, Kai o [lovoq Tp6- 
noq yia va vnap^ei sva diedveq v6[j,iG[j,a avTayroviGTiKo tou 
5o}tapiou, fiTav to v6[j,iG[j,a auTO va aTiOTS^^si v6[a^iG[j,a [j,ia(; 
[j,sydX,ri(; ayopd^, avTiGTOixn<; ttt; a[j,spiKaviKfi(;. H rsp[j,avia, 
XoiTiov, r\kTiiC,E (PdGi[j,a) 6ti to supcb 9a avTavaK^ouGS KaTd 
Kijpio Xoyo Ta Gt)[j,(pspovTa tou y8p[j,aviKoi3 Ka7iiTa}tiG[j,oi3. 

Atio TTjv 7i}tsupd Tri(; r\ jaXkiKi] KuPspvriGri gtoxsus [j,sg(d 
TT]^ «Koivfi(; sup(D7iaiKfi(; 7iopsia(;» va s^^sy^si tt] B6wr|, svcb 
TiapdXXri^ta, r\ 5ri[j,ioupyia evoq koivoij vo[j,iG[j,aTO(; 9a o5ri- 
yoiJGS GS [j,ia EupcDTiaiKTi KsvTpiKf) Tpd7is(^a ttjc; ouoiat; ttjv 
noXniKT] 5sv 9a Ka96pi(^s auoK^^siGTiKd Kai [lovo r\ Mtioij- 

VTSGf^TiaVK. 

«H TipcoToPouMa yia ttjv ONE 7ipofiA,9s stgi, o^i and 
TTjv Fspfj-avia, akin auo aX,A,0TJ. O David Marsh tcov Fi- 
nancial Times to aTioKdXsGS «[j,ia auoTisipa, vno tt] 
TaXkia Kai ttjv iTaMa, va a7io5uva[j,(bGOUv ttjv Mtioij- 

VTSGf^TiaVK [IE TO Va SVTd^OUV TO ySp[J,aVlK6 [O^dpKO GS 

sva Koivo supcoTiaiKo v6[j,iG[j,a». H ONE fiTav sX-kugtikt) 
yia TT] jaXkiKT] dpxouGa Td^r] yia Suo >^6yot)(;. FIpcbTOV, 
[j,s TO va iGXupoTioisiTai r\ EOK Gav oikovo[j,ik6 [iiikoK 
9a STiSTpsTis gtk; supcoTiaiKst; KuPspvfiGSK; va svspyow 
7110 avs^dpTTjTa and xiq HQA. Tov i5io avTiKsi[j,sviK6 
oTOxo sixav 01 yaXXiKs^ 7ipoG7id9sis^, nov GUvavTOUGav 
TT] G9svapfi avTi9sGri ttjc; OudGiyKTOV Kai tou Aov5i- 
vou, va sv9appi3vouv tt] Fsp[j,avia siSiKOTspa Kai ttjv 
KoivoTTiTa ysviKOTspa, va TipoxropfiGOUv gs GTpaTiOTi- 
KT) GUVspyaGia e^od and to TiXaiGio tou s}tsyx6[j,8vou 



51 



a7i6 Ti^ HQA, NATO. Asuxspov, r\ ONE 9a avTSoxpscps 
TO iGO(^i3yio Tri(; oiKovo[a^iKfi(; 5i3va[j,ri(; nov eixe ysipsi 
UTisp TT]^ TEp[iaviaq gti^ cipxeq tt]^ SsKasxiat; xou 1980. 
H EupcoTiaiKTi KevxpiKTi Tpd7is(^a nov 5ri[j,ioupyfi9riK8 
[IE xri SuvGfiKri xou Mdaoxpixx, avxiGsxa [is xrjv Mtioij- 
vxsG^TiavK, 9a sXsyxsxai auo xi^ supco7iaiKS(; KuPspvfi- 
ceiq, gxk; 07ioi8(; r] raX,Ma 8X8i Papwouoa S7iippofi».''^ 

E7io[j,£vco(;, r| x8A,iKfi Tiopsia npoq xrjv ONE Siafo^opcpcbGriKs, 
xoGO a7i6 xa avxixi9s[j,8va Gt)[j,(p8povxa TEp[iaviaq - TaXkiaq, 
OGO Kai a7i6 xouq avayKaiou^ GU[j,piPaG[j,oi3(; nou enpene va 
Kdvouv [j,sxa^i3 xovq. EmTipoGGsxa, Tiapd xi^ avxixi9s[j,svs(; 
S7ii5i(b^si(; Tep[iaviaq - TakXiaq, yivoxav guvsiStigti oAosva 
Kai 7110 noXi), 6xi «ri [ir\ 8K[j,sxdX,}^suGri xcov 5uvrixiK(bv oiko- 
vo[j,i(bv KM[j,aKa(; TipoGCpspsi sva gt] [j,avxiK6 avxayroviGxiKo 
7iXsovsKxri[j,a gxk; HQA Kai xrjv Ia7icovia».'*'' AK6[j,a Kai r] xoxs 
«Kpaxaid» ysp[j,aviKfi oiKovo[j,ia, fixav aSwaxov va GxaGsi 
iG6xi[j,a ausvavxi gxi^ HQA - laTicovia. 

Fi' auxo r\ «oiKovo[j,iKfi oXoKXfipcoGri» TipoxcopouGS [is ap- 
jovq [lEV, aX,Xd GxaGspou^ pu9[j,oi3(; (7ipdy[j,a nov oSrjyoiJGS, 
7iapdA,}triXa, gxtjv xaux6xpovr| 5isi3puvGr| xr|(; EOK). 

H EDvGfJKt] TOD MdaoxpixT 

H SuvGfiKri xou MdaGxpi^x (u7ioypd(pxr|K8 gxi^ 7 OsPpou- 
apiou 1992 Kai xsGtjks gs igxu xtjv 1/11/1993) aTioxsXsGS 
GU[j,piPaG[j,6 avd[j,SGa gxt] rsp[j,avia Kai xr] raX,Ma. Oi Fsp- 
[laviKsq smcpuXd^sK; Kd[j,(pGr|Kav, oxav syivs KaGapo 6xi r\ no- 
psia 7ipo(; xo supcb (opiGxriKs yia xrjv 1 lavouapiou 1999)Ga 
fixav GK^ripd TispiopiGxiKf) (5idpa(^s vsocpiXeXsuGspr]) Kai 5sv 
Ga o5riyoi)G8 g' 8va v6[j,iG[j,a nov Ga i^xav tiio aSwaxo and xo 



52 



[j,dpKo. 'AXkxDCTE, 01 v80(piXsXsi39sps(; noXniKsq, [isjpi tots, 
sixav a7io5(bGSi «Kap7ioi39>. O [lecoq STfiGiO(; puGfo^ot; aij^riGri^ 
Tou KOGTOix; spyaGiat; avd [j,ovd5a 7ipoi6vTO(; (k6gto(; nov 
acpopd oixnaGTiKd to X)\\ioq tcov [iicQchv), and 7,8% to 1982, 

S718G8 GTO 4,6% TO 1990. Ol GK^trjpSt; 7l0}tlTlK8^ 7lSpiOpiG[J,Ol3 

TCOV 5ri[j,OGiovo[j,iK(bv EXkei[i[iaT(i)v (nov 7ispi6pi(^av ttjv oiko- 
vo[j,iKfi avduTU^ri Kai au^avav ttjv avspyia), o5fiyriGS, gs [j,s- 
GO 87ii7is5o, TO eXkei[i[ia gto iGO(^i3yio TpsxouGcbv cvvaXkrf&iv 
(nq TiOGOGTO Tou AEH a7i6 2% to 1982, gs 0,5% to 1992."*^ 

Ta KpiTTipia nov sGsgs to MdaaGTpixT fiTav SpaKovTSia 
Kai GTO STiaKpo v80(piXsXsi39spa. 0a GU[j,[j,ST8ixav gto koivo 
v6[j,iG[j,a, [lovo 01 x&tpeq tcdv otioicov o 7iXri9copiG[j,6(; 9a ane- 
K^tivs [j,6Xi(; KaTd 1 ,5 %> and to [j,sgo 7iXri9(DpiG[j,6 tcdv mo i- 
Gxupcbv oiKo -vofj-icbv, TO s9vik6 tou(; v6[j,iG[j,a 9a STipsTis va 
I^TiopoiJGe va [j,sivsi gto cvv-iikr\v 2 ,5%) tou ENS Ta xekev- 
Taia 5uo xpovia Tipiv ttjv sXsugti tou supcb, to EXkei[i[ia tou 
7ipol)7ioXoyiG[j,oi3 5sv STipsTis va UTispPaivsi to 3%) tou AEII, 
8vcb TO 5r|[j,6Gio jpsoq dev enpene va UTispPaivsi to 60%) tou 
AEn. H GUv9fiKri smGrjc; TipospXsTis tt] 5ri[j,ioupyia [imq Eu- 
pco7iaiKfi(; KsvTpiKTic; Tpd7is(^a(; (and to 1998) Tri(; 07ioia(; to 
Ka9fiKov (gttjv Tipayfj-aTiKOTTiTa to fo^ovaSiKo) fiTav r\ SiaTf)- 
priGTi Tri(; GTa9sp6Tr|Ta(; tcov Ti[j,cbv. 

H St)v9fiKri Tou MdaGTpixT sixe TpsK; «Tw}jhvEq»: 
- O 7ipcbT0(; TuuXcbva^ acpopouGS ttjv EupcoTiaiKfi Koivottj- 
Ta- ava98cbpriGri tcov Tpicbv koivottitcov, 5r|}ta5fi, Tr|(; EupcD- 
TimKr\q Koiv6TriTa(; Av9paKa Kai XdA,uPa (EKAX), Tri(; Eu- 
pco7iaiKfi(; KoivoTTiTa^ ATO[j,iKfi(; Ev8py8ia(; (EKAE) Kai tt]^ 
Eupco7iaiKfi(; OiKovo[j,iKfi(; Koiv6TriTa(; (EOK). H GUv9fiKri 
i5pus Tr|v EupcDTiaiKTi 'Evcdgti, [ie cpiXoSo^ia va [j,STaTpa7isi r\ 
«Eupcb7iri» a7i6 s^iTiopiKfi svcogt] ce 7ipay[j,aTiKfi «oiKovo[j,iKfi 
Kai Pio[j,rixaviKfi 5vva\xr[».'^^ Tr] 5ri[j,ioupyia «U7isps9viKcbv» 



53 



opydvcov Tiou va smpdXouv vo[j,o9sgis(; Kai o5riyi8^, (dgts r\ 
E.E. va o5r|yri9si as Tipayfo^aTiKfi «oiKovo[j,iKfi oAoKXfip(DGri», 
XCopi(; sGviKd s^7i65ia gtti SiaKivriari KscpaXaicov Kai s^tio- 
psu|idTCOv, Kai Gxri 5ri[j,ioupyia TiavsupcoTiaiKcbv STiixsipfiGSCDV. 
O 5si3Tspo(; Kai xpnoq imhhvaq acpopouGav xriv «7toXiTiKfi 
svo7ioiriGri». 

- O SsiJTspo^ imhhvaq fixav r| Koivf) E^coxspiKfi IIoXiTiKfi 
Ka noXiTiKTi AG(pdXsia(; (KEllllA). O gt6xo(; fixav r\ E.E. va 

aTlOKxflGSl KOlvf) S^COTSpiKTl TloXlTlKTl, SViaia GldGT] Gxa 5lS- 

BvT] (^riTfi[j,aTa, Gav PaGiKo pfi[j,a 7ipo(; xriv KaxsuGuvGr] tt]^ 

d[J,pXuVGri^ TCDV 5ia(pOpSTlK(bv «89viK(bv GU[J,(pSp6VT(DV»- KO- 

VToAoyi(;, r] KEllllA GsropfiGriKS PaGiKO pfi[j,a Tri(; «7io}tiTiKfi(; 
8v07ioir|Gri9>. Si3[j,(pcova [j,s Tr|v GUv9fiKr|: 

«To EupcDTiaiKo Eu[j,poi3}tio Ka9opi(^8i xig apxsg Kai 
TOtx; ysviKotx; TipoGavaxo^tiGfo^otx;. Ta KpdTr|-[j,sXr| ocpsi- 
>uOuv va U7iOGTripi(^ouv xriv KEllllA Kai va aTisxouv a7i6 
KdGs SpdGT] avTiGsxri 7ipo(; xa GU[j,(pspovxa xr]^ E.E. f) 
iKavf) va Gi^si xrjv a7ioxs}^SG[j,axiK6xrixd xri^))."^^ 

- O xpnoq imhhvaq acpopouGS xr] GUVspyaGia gxoix; xo[j,si^ 
xri(; «5iKaiOGi3vri(; Kai xcdv SGCOxspiKcbv U7ioGsgscov» (xtj gu- 
vspyaGia xrov Siacpoprov sGvikcdv aGxuvo[j,i(bv, xi^ 7ioXixik8(; 
Tiapoxn? aGijXou Kai xk; 7ioXixiks(; yia xr] [j,sxavdGxsuGri). 
Muopsi T] 7ispiP6rixr| «7ioXixiKfi svo7ioir|Gr|» xri(; E.E. (and x6- 
xs Kai [J-sxpi Gfi[j,spa) va [o^riv 7ipoxcbpr|GS Kai noXi), aA,M gxt] 
SsKasxia xou 1990 au^fiGriKav KaxaKopucpa oi 5isupco7iaiKoi 
aGxuvo[j,iKoi KaxaGxaXxiKoi [j,rixaviG[j,oi. To Gi3Gxri[j,a EsvyKsv 
(SuvGfiKS(; EsvyKsv 16/6/1985 Kai 19/6/1990) svG(D[j,ax(bGriKs 
Gxo Ti^^aiGio xrjc; E.E. Gxa 1997.H GUVspyaGia xcdv aGxuvo^i- 
K(bv apxcbv xcov Kpax(bv-|i8A,(bv gxt] «C,&)vr\ SsvyKsv» acpopd: 



54 



a) xriv KaxdpyriGri xcov sXsyxcov oxa socoxspiKd awopa, P) oxo 
GUVxoviG[j,6 xcov ekeyxdiv oxa s^coxspiKd oijvopa, y) gxov a- 
gxuvo[j,ik6 SiaouvopiaKo [j,rixaviG[j,6 ekeyxov Kai 5ico^ri(; Kai 
Gxr] SiKaoxiKTi auvspyaaia (aTiXoiJGxsuGri xrjc; 5ia5iKaGia(; sk- 
5oGri(;), 5) gxo «Gi3Gxr|[j,a Ti^^ripocpopicbv S8vyKsv» - 
[j,rixavoypa(pri[j,8vri xpd7is(^a 5s5o[j,svcov- oi aGxuvo[j,iKS(; apxs(; 
va avxaX,}tdGGOt)v 7i}tr|po(popiS(; Kai va Gsxouv and koivoij 
7iXripo(popiS(; yia dxo[j,a. 

Sxa KpiGi[j,a (^rixfi[j,axa xrjc; Tio^tixiKfic; svoGrig, r] Fspfj-avia 
(nov 7iis(^s 7110 7ioA,ij) 58V 8718XUXS Kai TioXXd Tipdyfo^axa. H a- 
vduxu^r] Koivfig s^oDxspiKTi^ TioXixiKTic;, df^uvat; Kai aGCpdXsia^, 
r\ svapfj-oviGTi xcov SiacpopsxiKcbv (sGvikcdv) vo[j,o9sGicbv, 5sv 
avaxsGrjKav gs Kduoio «U7isps9viK6 supcoTiaiKo 9sg[j,6», aX,}td 
acpsGrjKav va Ka0opi(^ovxai and xiq SiaPouXsuGSK; avd[j,SGa 
Gxi^ 5id(pops(; 8upco7iaiK8(; KuPspvfiGSK; (5iaKpaxiKS(; GU[j,(pco- 
vieq). Qq PaGiKf) apxn 7iap8[j,siv8 r\ SiaKuPspvrixiKfi Guvspya- 
Gia, [IE xo EupcoTiaiKo Su[j,poi3}^io (gi3vo5oi Kopu(pfi(; xcov ap- 
Xnyrov xcDV Kpaxcbv-[j,s>ucbv) Kai xo Eu[j,poi3}tio xcov YTioupycbv, 
va sivai auoK^siGxiKd S7ii(popxiG[j,sva [is xrjv ap[j,o5i6xrixa 
Xfi\|/ri(; xcov auocpdGSCov. 

To a7iox8}tSG[a^a fixav, va ^SGTidGOUv Pa9iS(; 5ia(pcoviS(; [is 
xTjv Tipcbxri [lEjakf] tioXixikti KpiGr] nov avxi[j,sxcb7iiGS r\ [j,sxd- 
MdaGxpixx EupcDTiri - GuyKSKpi[j,8va, gxo (^fixri[j,a xr]^ 5idG7ia- 
cr\q xT]^ Tipcbriv FiouyKOGXapiac;. H Fspfj-avia s^avdyKaGS xrjv 
EOK va avayvcopiGSi xrjv Kpoaxia Kai xr| S^^oPsvia. To ^s- 
G7iaG[j,a xou 7io}tS[j,ou GXT] BoGVia, a7ioKdX,u\|/s xrjv 7i}tfipr| a- 
5uva[j,ia xcov [j,sydXcov supcouaiKcbv 5uvd[j,scov va smxijxouv 
Koivf) GxdGT] Kai va scpapfj-OGOUv cx'qv Tipd^r] xk; apxs(; xri(; 
KEllllA. A7ioKaX,i3(p9riKs r| GxpaxicDxiKf) aSuvafo^ia xr|(; Fsp- 
[laviaq, nov Tiapd xrjv oiKovo[j,iKfi xri(; 5i3va[j,r|, dev f^TiopoiJGS 



55 



va avTiGTa9[j,iG8i tt] GxpaTicoxiKfi UTispoxn TaXkiaq - Bpsxa- 
via(;. 

Eto xeJjoq, fixav oi HQA nov susPaXav tt] GxpaxicoTiKfi Xv- 
cr\ Gxriv Tipcbriv riouyKOGXapta. Sxr] SidpKsia xrjc; 5sKasxia^ 
xou 1990, 01 HQA 7iapouGia(^av oikovo[j,ikoi3(; pu9[j,oi3^ avcb- 
xspoug xrig EupcDTirig, svcb xauxoxpova STiavasmPsPaicovav xr] 
GxpaxicoxiKTi Kai 5i7i}t(D[j,axiKfi xou(; riys[j,ovia gxo 5uxik6 
GxpaxoTisSo. H STisKxaGTi xou NATO gxtjv avaxoXiKf) EupcoTiri 
[j,sxpi xa Gijvopa xrjc; P(DGia(;, s^UTiripsxoiJGS 5i7i}t6 gxoxo: x6- 

GO XTjV SVGCDfO^dxCOGri XCDV TipCDTlV GOPlSXlKCDV 5opU(p6pC0V, OGO 

Kai xTjv STiiPsPaiCDGri xr]^ riys[j,oviKfi(; GsGrjc; xcdv HQA gxo 5u- 
xiKo GxpaxoTisSo (Kaxd Kijpio Xoyo gxtjv supcDTiaiKfi fiTisipo). 

Sxa TiapaTidvco 9a TipsTisi va TipoGxsGsi, 6xi xa Kpixfipia xou 
MdaGxpixx (oTiGx; aXkacTe fixav (pUGiKo) suscpspav txpSGr] 
GXTjv oiKovo[j,ia xrig Et)p(b7iri(;. 'OXs(; oi sup(D7iaiKS(; KuPepvfi- 



O ii6l£\ioq oxriv Tipcbriv eviala riouyKooXapta eixe xig aiiapxeq xou oxa 
xeXr] louvlou 1991 oxocv EXoPevla, Kpoaxla ocvaicfipu^av xriv ave^apxr|aia 
xou<;, Kai apyoxepa T] MaKeSovla (AeKeiiPprig 1991). To 3)ePpoudpio- 
Mdpxio 1992 01 Kpodxeg Kai oi Moi)ooi)X|idvoi xrig Booviai; (^iixrioav a- 
nocxicT] avio n\ riouyKooXapia. Em xeooepa xpovia o 7i6Xe|io<; 9a [laoxi- 
oei XT] xcbpa. Me xr] 5ia|ieooXdpri(jri xou NATO Kai xcov HIIA UTioypdcpxri- 
Kav 01 (juiicpcovieg xou Nxeixov (21/11/1995). Ext] Boovia-Epi^eyopivri St]- 
(iioupyfiBriKav 5i)o «e5a(piKe<; ovx6xrixe9>, |iia Kpoaxo-PooviaKii o|ioo7iov- 
5ia (51% xoi) eSdcpoix;) Kai t] EepPiKii ArnioKpaxia (49% xou eSdcpoug). 
Auvdiieig xou OHE aoxuvoiieuouv |i8xpi ofniepa xk; (ju|i(pcovie<;. Exa 1998 
T] Eeppia e7i8vepri oxpaxicoxiKd oxo KoooPo. Exo KoooPo KaxoiKouoav 
90% Aipavoi Kai 10% EepPoi. To Mdpxio 1999 5eKaxpia [isXri xou NA- 
TO apxiCouv Po|iPap5i(j|iou<; xou KoooPou Kai xrig Eeppiog. Tov louvio 
1999 T] Eeppia xou MiXooePixg ev5i5ei oe «eipriveuxiK6 (JX£5io». Aie9vfi<; 
5uva|iri 50.000 avSpcbv aTio 30 xrape? avaTixuooexai oxo KoooPo oe Tievxe 
yecoypacpiKoug xo|i8i<; (ayyXiKo, yalXiKo, a|i8piKaviK6, yepjiaviKo Kai ixa- 
XiKo). O MiXooePixi; avaxpdTiriKe xo 2000 avio xriv e^ouoia (i£xd avio jiia 
y£ViK8U(i8vri E^eyepoT]. 

56 



gsk;, avayKdaxriKav va au^fiGOUv xa STiixoKid xoix; yia va 5ia- 
xripfiGOUv xa sGviKd xod^ vo[j,iG[a^axa [leca oxo [j,rixaviG[j,6 xou 
ENE. To ysyov6(; auxo, ce GUv5uaG[j,6 [is xr] [leimcr] xcov Kpa- 
xiKcbv 5a7iav(bv, o5fiyriGS gs oiKovo[j,iKfi smPpaSuvGrj. To a- 
7ioxsA£G[j,a fixav r\ uopsia 7ipo(; xrjv EupoTiaiKfi 'Evcogti va yi- 
V8i Guv(bvu[j,ri xTjc; oiKovo[j,iKfi(; Kaxs^ia^ Kai xr]^ s7ii[j,svouGa^ 
avspyia(; (Tidvco auo 10% avspyia gxt] 5idpK8ia xrjc; 58Kasxia(; 
xou 1990). 

H MTioiJvxsG^TiavK, yia va 5iaG(paMG8i xa GU[j,(pspovxa xou 
ysp[j,aviKoi3 Ka7iixaXiG[j,oi3, SiaxrjpoiJGS uxj/riM xa ysp[j,aviKd 
STiixoKia, odryt&iVTaq sxgi xo [o^dpKo gs avaxi[j,ri gt], nieC^ovTaq 
xa dX,}ta vo[j,iG[j,axa va aKoAouGfiGOUv yia va 5iaxripri9oi3v gxo 
ENS ([lemvovxaq sxgi xtjv avxayroviGxiKoxrixa xcov avxiGxoi- 
Xcov sBviKcbv oiKovo[j,i(bv xoix;). H ysp[j,aviKfi 7ioA,ixiKfi «dp- 
XiGS va 5ri[j,ioupysi GoPapd 7ipop}tfi[j,axa gxk; fi5ri 7ipopXri[j,a- 
xiKS(; oiKovo[j,iS(; xrjc; Bpsxavia^, xrjc; TaXkiaq, xr]^ Ixakiaq Kai 



«To [leyalirrepo 7ip6pXri|ia 5ri|iioupyfi9riKe (is xriv «Tpo|iaKTiKfi» avio 
oiKovo|iOTexviKfi<; aviovi/ecog xoxe aviocpaori xrig KuPepvriorn; xrn; Oiiootiov- 
5iaKfi<; ArnioKpaxloi; xrig repiiovloi; va «5copo5oKfi(jei» xou<; Kolixeq xri<; 
AaiKfi<; ArnioKpaxloi; xri<; repiiovlrag, koIcovxck; xou<; va mrxakla^om gxv; 
xpdTiei^eg - |ie iooxi|ila eva 7ipo<; eva - xa avaxoA,iKoyep|iaviKd |idpKa xou<; 
|ie 5i)xiKoyep|iaviKd. H aviocpaori avxx] 9a enpsTiE XoyiKd va oSriyfioei oe 
yewaleg U7ioxi|ifioeK; xou yepiiaviKoy [idpKou, xiq 07iole<; 6|ico<; e|i7i65io£ ri 
yepiiaviKii KevxpiKii xpdvisi^a Kpaxcbvxog xa emxoKid xri<; uv|/riXd. H Koh.u- 
Kii avxx] elxe cpuoiKd xiq umeTK.is.q xri<; Kai o «Xoyapia(j|i69> 5ev dpyijoe va 
eX9ei. Aiyo apyoxepa dpxioav va Kaxappeouv xo yalXiKo cppdyKo, i] ixali- 
Kii Xipexa, n PpexaviKii Mpa, i] oouiiSiKii Kopova K.d. kov [leoa oe 5i)o x] 
xpia xpovia exaoav Tiepi xo 25% |i8 30% xii<; a^ia^; xoix; evavxi xou |idp- 
Koi). Oi KuPepviioen; xcov xcopcbv auxcbv (^iixijoav xijv TiapeiiPaoi] xii<; 
MTiouvxeoiiTiavK, i] OTioia 6|ico<; aypov ijyopaoe)) (M. E7iiv9oi)pdKii<;, Iloi) 
xo Tidei «(5Kh]p6q 7ii)piivag» xii<;'Evcooii<;, To Biijxa, 30 Noe|iPpioi) 
2003). 



57 



TT]^ ipripiKTi^ X^P'^ovfiGOU)).'^^ ETHTipoaGexa, r\ KaxdpyriGri xcov 
7ispiopiG[j,(bv Kai sXeyxcov oxriv Kivriori xou xpr|[j,axiGxiKoi3 
Kscpa^^aiou, SKavs xa sGviKd vofj-iofa^axa xcdv Kpaxrov-fo^s^^cbv 
8ud}tcoxa gxk; Ksp5oGK07iiKS(; stiiGsgsk;. 

2x1^ 8 Ss7ixs[j,Ppiou 1992, xo (pivXavSiKo [j,dpKo syKax8>^8i- 
\|/s xo ENS Kai dpxioe va KU[j,aivsxai ekevQepa, «X6yco xrjc; 
avriGUxia(; xri(; <I)iv}tav5ia(; yia xk; e^eki^eiq gxt] SisGvfi ayopd 
aXXd Kai xTjc; sKxi[j,riGri(; 6xi dev [j,7iopoi3GS va avxs^si xrjv 7ia- 
paKo^touGriGTi GxaGepfic; iGOxi[j,ia(; xou eGviKou xr]^ vo[j,iG[j,a- 
xog |j.8 xTjv ECU». Sxk; 13 Ss7ixs[a^Ppiou 1992 r\ Xipsxa utio- 
xi[j,fiGriK8 Kaxd 7% Kai r\ TiSGSxa Kaxd 5%. Sxig 16 E87ix8[j,ppi- 
ou 1992ri BpsxaviKTi Xijpa avayKdGxrjKs va Pysi and xo Mrj- 
XaviG[j,6 St)vaA,}tay[j,axiK(bv lGOxi[j,i(bv, svcb gxk; 17 SsTixsfj,- 
Ppiou auoGupGriKs Kai r\ naXiKi] }tipsxa. Exa Tekr\ Nos[j,Ppiou 
aTiOGUvSsGriKs auo xo ECU Kai r\ goutiSikti Kopcbva. 

Tov AijyouGxo xoul993 [j,sxd and tiiegsk; nov SexGrjKs xo 
yaX,}tiK6 (ppdyKo, KaxsGxr] avayKaio va smxpaTisi Gxa sGviKd 
vo[j,iG[j,axa va 5iaKU[j,aivovxai |J,sxpi (5VV-Tikr\v 15%, 7ipdy[j,a 
nov ouGiaGxiKd Gfi[j,aivs xo xsXo^ xou supcDTiaiKoij Mrjxavi- 
G[j,oi3 EuvaX,Xay[j,axiK(bv lGOxi[j,i(bv (MSI). 

H Tiopsia, Xomov, xri(; ONE gxt] 5sKasxia xou 1990, cr\[ia- 
xo5oxfiGriKs and xrjv SKprj^ri xcov sGviKcbv avxaycoviG[j,(bv, 
7ipdy[j,a nov o5fiyriGS noXkivq ([isTa^v xcov otioicov Kai oi 
KepSoGKOTioi!) va Tipos^ocpXoiJV xrjv xs^ikt) auoxuxia xrjc; O- 
NE. 

IlapdSo^a (aX}A KaGo^^ou avs^fiyrixa onmq Ga 5oij[j,8), na- 
pd xo «Gdvaxo» xou MSI, r\ ONE stiiPicogs. raA,Ma Kai Fsp- 
[lavia, cvvexiC,av va 7iis(^ouv 7ipo(; xrjv KaxsuGuvGr] 8v6^ koi- 
voij vo^iiG^iaxo^. 



Mexpi TO 3)ePpoudpio 1994 6Xa xa vo|il(j|iaTa elxocv emoxpevi/ei evxoi; 
xcov apxiKcbv 7iepi6coplcov. H oxaBepoxrixa svi(5xvQ\]ke oxa e7i6|ieva xpovia 

58 



Sto Gr|[j,8{o auTO, sivai armavxiKo va KaTavofiGOt)[j,8 to 
poXo Tou sGviKot) vo[j,iG[j,aTO(; Kai xi GU[j,paivsi [is xiq cvvak- 
hrf[iaTiKEq igoti[j,is(;. Oi 5id(pops(; s9viks(; oikovo[j,is(; sxouv 
dviGa 87ii7is5a avdTiTU^ric;, 7ipdy[j,a tiou Gtmaivsi SiacpopsxiKd 
S7ii7is5a 7iapaycoyiK6TriTa(; Kai kogtoix;. 'Etgi, avaTiocpsuKxa 
UTidpxouv [j,STa^i3 xoix; [j,8ydA£(; 5ia(pops(; mq Tipo <; xriv avxa- 
ycoviGTiKoxriTa xou Kscpa^taiou xoix;. H SiaK-u^avGri xcov gu- 
vaA,}tay[j,axiK(bv iGOxi[j,i(bv, Xsixoupysi Gav «[j,rixaviG[j,6(;» [j,s- 
Gco xou OTioiou 01 s9viKS(; oiKovo[j,i8(; «7ipoGap[j,6(^ovxai», a- 
vxi5poi3v g' auxs(; xk; 5ia(pops(;. 

Edv [j,ia oiKovo[j,ia sivai nohb avxaycoviGxiKf) gs gxsgti [j,8 
xi^ oiKovo[j,iS(; aXkxDV xcopcbv, xoxs oi s^aya)y8(; au^dvouv, xo 
iGO(^i3yio 7i}tripco[a^(bv (s^aycoys(; [j,siov siGaycoyst;) 7iapouGid(^8i 
7iXs6vaG[j,a, r] Tiapayroyfi xr]^ [j,sys9i3vsxai, r] iSicoxiKf) Kai 5ri- 
[j,6Gia Kaxavd^tCDGTi au^dvsi, oi emvdvceiq Kscpa^^aiou gug- 
GCDpsiJovxai. To aTioxsXsGfo^a sivai xo sGviko xt]^ v6[j,iG[j,a va 
avaxi[j,dxai, tioXij TispiGGOxspo tiou xa sGviKd xrjc; smxoKia 9a 
TipsTisi Kduoia Gxiy[j,fi va au^riGoiJV, yia va [j,riv uudp^si «u- 
7i8p9sp[j,avGri» xri(; oiKovo[j,ia(;. Ssva KscpdXaia siGspxovxai 
GXT] xojpa yia va SK[j,sxaX,X8uxoi3v xi^ 87isv5uxiks(; suKaipist; 
Kai va S7ico(psXr|9oi3v and xa u\|/ri>^6x8pa STiixoKia. To auoxs- 



Kai OTO xeloq xou 1997, 61a xa vo|il(j|iaTa Kuixalvovxav oxo eocoxepiKo 
hick; IcoplSou; SiaKujiovorn; 0,71% |i6vo. To auoxpiaKo geIxvi eioiiXGe oxo 
HTixocvi(j(i6 (jwalXdy(iaxo<; xov locvoudpio 1995, xo cpivXovSiKo |idpKo xov 
OKxcbPpio 1996, Kai t] ixoIikji Xipexa xo Noe|iPpio 1996. H eiooSog xri<; 
e'k'h]viKX]q 5pax|iii<; eyive xo 1998 (BamXeiou Ilavdyoi), Kcovoxocvxivou 
Toowxa, AiaKpaxiKii Kai UTiepeGviKi] Euvepyaoia, eK56oeii; IlaK(£,r]o-[], 
AGiiva 2002, oeX. 655). 

59 



XsG[j,a 9a 8ivai, to aKpiPoxspo sGviko v6[iic[ia va KaGioxd tk; 
s^aycoys(; aKpiPoxsps^ (Xiyoxspo avxaycoviGxiKst;) Kai r| oiko- 
vo[j,ia Gxa5iaKd 9a apxiosi va S7iiPpa5i3vsi. E^iGoppoTicbvxat; 
auxf) xr|v uopsia (xouMxioxov GscoprixiKd), sdv apxioouv va 
s[j,(pavi(^ovxai Gri[j,d5ia txpsoric;, xoxs xa STiixoKia 9a TipsTisi va 
[j,sico9oi3v, xo v6[j,iG[j,a apxiCsi va U7ioxi[j,dxai, oi s^aycoys(; yi- 
vovxai Kai naki mo avxaycovioxiKst; Kai r\ oiKovo[j,ia avaKd- 

I^TlXSl. 

AvxiGxpocpa, av [im x^pa eivai Xiyoxspo avxayrovioxiKfi, r\ 
«5ioMG9riGri» xou vo[j,iG[a^ax6(; xri(; (u7ioxi[j,riOTi) sivai evaq |j.ri- 
XaviG[j,6(; [j,sg(d xou otioiou xa Tipoiovxa xri(;, Tiapd xr] xa\x{\k6- 
xspr] TiapaycoyiKoxrixa g' auxfiv xr| x^opot, yivovxai mo (pxrjvd 
GXT] 5i£9vfi ayopd Kai sxgi avau^triprovsi, g' sva Pa9[j,6, xo 
«8X.>^8i[j,[j,a» avxaycDviGxiKoxrixat;. 

H siGayroyfi xou ENE, nohb TispiGGOxspo xou supd), auo- 
GX8priG8 xi^ 5id(pops(; supcDTiaiKsc; s9vik8(; oikovo[j,is(; and av- 
x6v xo [j,r|xaviG[j,6 TipoGxaGiat; xcdv oiKovo[j,i(bv xoix;. To 7ip6- 
p}tr|[j,a 8[j,(pavi(^sxai (nohb TispiGGOxspo) gxk; «(px(ox6xsps(;» 
(Kai Xiyoxspo avxaycoviGxiKst;) supco7iaiKS(; x&tpeq nov sivai 
«7iayi5su[j,svs(;» gs sva iGXPpo v6[j,iG[j,a, nov Ssv f^Tiopow va 
UTioxifo^fiGOUv, Kai GUGGopsiJouv sA,Xsi[j,[j,axa, [j,s a7ioxs}tSG[j,a 
o [j,6vo(; xp67iO(; avxi5paGr|(; va sivai oi xa|J.ri?^oi [j,iG9oi Kai sva 
[j,6vi[j,o u\|/riA6 tiogogxo avspyiat; (r\ EA,M5a GU^7ispiXa[j,pdvs- 
xai GS auxf) xrjv Kaxriyopia). BsPaiax;, oi koivoxike(; ')(pr\[iaTi- 
Ksq [o^sxaPipdGSK; 7ipo(; xk; (px(Dx6xsps(; x&ipeq (xa 7ispi(pri[j,a 
KoivoxiKd nXaiGia Sxfipi^ric;) sivai evaq xpoTiot; s^iGoppoTirj- 
cr\q xcov Siacpopcbv. Qgxogo, oi [j,sxaPipdGSi(; avxeq sivai [ii- 
Kps^ (o supco7iaiK6(; «o[j,OG7iov5iaK6(;» 7ipol)7ioXoyiG[j,6(; sivai 
nohb xa[ir\kj6q) svd) r\ xdGT] sivai va [a^sico9oi3v 5paGxiKd Gxa 
E7i6[j,sva xpovia. 



60 



To 7ip6pXri[j,a Ssv acpopd [lovo tk; mo a5i3va[j,S(; x&ipsc, 
(EX,}td5a, nopxoyaMa, loTiavia), aXM Kai tk; loxupoxsps^ 
(ii.X- IxaMa). AK6[j,a Kai o jaXkiKoq Ka7iiTa}tiG[j,6(; aTioaxspfi- 
GrjKs a7i6 sva otiXo (to sGviko v6[j,iG[j,a) gtov avTaycoviG[j,6 as 
GxsGTi [j,s Tov iGXupoTspo yspfj-ttviKo Ka7iiTa}tiG[j,6. Oi Tiapa- 
Tidvo X,6yoi, GU[j,pdA,Xouv (Kai auxoi) (dgts Bpsxavia, Aavia 
Kai Eouri5ia va [j,riv gu[j,[j,stsxouv gto supcb Gfi[j,spa. 

To 8p(bTri[j,a Xomov tiou avaKUTixsi sivai yiaxi, Tiap' 6Xa 
auxd o5riyri9fiKa[j,s gttiv ONE Kai to supcb (aX,M Kai yiaxi r| 
Bpsxavia a[j,(piTaXavTSi3sTai SiapKocx; mq 7ipo(; xriv sigoSo ttjc; 
GXT] (^(bvri Tou supcb). 



O lojoq TT\q PpexoviKfn; a|i(piTaldvTeu(jri<; elvai on o PpexocviKoi; Kamxa- 
liciioq elvai Tispioooxepo «7iayKO(j(ii07ioiri|ievo9> om' 6xi oi alXeg |i£ydd£<; 
oiKovo(iiKe<; 5uvd(i£i<;. Oi Tiepioooxepei; 7ioXue6viKe<; emxsipiloeK; exouv xa 
Tiepioooxepa TispioumaKd xou<; oxoixeiot Kai 7icoXfi(jei<; ouyKevxpcoiieva 
oxriv eBviKJi xoug pdor]. Evcb auxo lox^ei ^ai yia x\c, PpexaviKe<; enixsim- 
GSiq, Pa9|i6<; «e9viKfi9> ouyKevxpoTiolriorig elvai xotliil^oxepog. 'Exm oxa 
1992-1993 xo 75% xcov TicoXiioecov xcov laTicoviwav Kai xcov FepiiaviKcbv 
exaipicbv eyivav oxriv eOviKf] xoug pdor], xo 67% xcov A|iepiKocviKcbv Kai 
|i6vo xo 65% xcov BpexocviKcbv. Ta i5ia exi] xo 97% xcov TiepiouoiaKcbv 
oxoixeicov xcov lavicoviKcbv TioXueGviKcbv ijcjocv (jxijv eBviKi] xoug pdcji], xo 
73% xcov A|iepiKocviKcbv Kai |i6A,i<; xo 62% xcov BpexocviKcbv. Oi BpexocviKe<; 
e7iixeipii(J8i<; exouv xepd(jxie<; e7iev5i)(jei<; Kai TiepioucjiaKd oxoixeia oe |ie- 
xoxe<; (5x\c, HTIA Kai cpopowxai xi<; £7ii7ixcboei<; avio |iia «oxevii» ouvSecni 
|ie xijv E.E. To City xou AovSivou xo 1995 5iaxeipiC6xocv [isxa^u xoi) 40% 
(18 50% xcov 5ie9vcbv cjuyxcoveixjecov Kai e^ayopcbv. Auxd oSfiyrioocv xoix; 
Tiepioooxepoix; ^pexmrovqenixsipmiaxieq-a] SeKoexia xou 1990 (aK6|ia 
Kai oooix; fixocv DTiep xou eupcb) va kXivouv UTisp xri<; «ocvaPoXfi9> xri<; ei- 
a65oi) (jxo eupcb. 

Q.(5x6(50, T] Bpexocvia 5ev eivai, xotuxoxpova, 5iaxe9ei(xevri va Ppe9ei ekxoi; 
xri<; «eupco7iaiKfi<; oXoKXfipco(jri<;». Kdxi xexoio 6a eixe xepdcjxio Kocjxog 
(juvoXiKd yia xo PpexocviKo Kamxctlicjiio, xou otioiou oi 7iepi(j(j6xepe<; oi- 
KovojiiKEi; (jxeoei? eivai jie xc^pe? ^^^Q E.E. H Bpexocvia cjxa |i8(ja xrig 5e- 
Kaexic*; xou 1990, ouyKevxpcove xo 40% 6>.cov xcov A|i8piKocviKcbv Kai la- 

61 



H ijTiap^ri svog loxupot) SieGvotx; supcoTiaiKoij vo[iiG[iaToq 
8X81 [lEjahx 7i}t80V8KTfi[j,aTa yia xovq 8upco7iaiot)(; Kannaki- 
GTS(;, xa OTioia avTiGTa9[j,i(^ot)v (vnepKahbiiTOVv) xa [j,siovs- 
Kifmaxa, av (puoiKd ^STispaaxow oi ava[j,STa^i3 xovq s9viks(; 
5ia(pops(^: 

«As5o[j,£vou OTi xa Tipoiovxa TicoXowxai [gxt] 5is0vfi 
ayopd] G8 5ia(popsxiKd vo[j,iG[j,axa, o [j,rixaviG[j,6(; xcov 
GUvaX,}tay[j,axiK(bv iGOxi[j,i(bv, [...] sivai 87iiGr|(; sva avxi- 
Ksifo^sviKo Gi3Gxri[j,a i5i07ioiri gtjc; 5is9voi3(; a^ia(;. Ta s- 
GviKd KS(pd}taia sxgi i5i07ioioi3vxai 5is9vfi a^ia gs [lop- 
(pf) 8K(ppaG[j,svr| GS ^sva vo[j,iG[j,axa. 

H ovvcdXayjuanKrj loonj^ia sivai r] iGOxi[j,ia Gxr|v o- 
Tioia xa ^sva vo[j,iG[j,axa, GU^7ispi}ta[j,pavo[j,£vou Kai xou 
5is9voi3(; vo[j,iG[j,axo(;, [j,sxaxps7iovxai gs [j,ovd5s(; xou 
sGviKot) vo\d(5\i<xioc,. Av o [j,rixaviG[j,6(; Gt)vaX,Xay[j,axi- 
K(bv iGOxi[j,i(bv GT] [j,aivsi i5i07ioiri GT] a^iat;, xoxs oi [j,sxa- 
PoXs(; xT]^ GUvaA,}tay[j,axiKfi(; iGOxi[j,ia(; S7iripsd(^ouv auxf) 
xTjv i5i07ioiri GT]. H avaxi[j,riGri sv6(;vo[j,iG[j,axo(;, yia 7ia- 
pd5siy[j,a xou laTicoviKoij ysv gs gxsgti \ie Kduoio oXKo 
v6[j,iG[a^a, yia 7iapd5siy[j,a xo Fspfj-aviKo [o^dpKo, 5ivsi 5i- 
Kaico[j,a Gxoix; Kaxoxotx; ysv a7i6KxriGri(; [j,syaA,i3xspri(; 
TiOGOxrixat; rsp[j,aviK(bv [j,dpKcov Kai, S7io[j,sv(0(;, [j,syaA,i3- 
xsprjc; TiOGOxrixa^ a^icbv ypf[(yx\c, a7ioxi[j,ri[j,svcov gs [j,dpKa 
{aX^A byji aTiapaixrixa TiapaxQsvxcov (5V(\ rsp[j,avia). 



TicoviKcbv e7i£v5i)(jecov oxriv E.E. Q.qx6qo, xrq cruyKevxpcove cog pdor] yia 
TipooPaori oTTiv eupiirepri ayopd vt\q E.E. 'Exm, Xomov, e^riyouvxai oi ?>\\- 
Mxjek; tou Ppexovoi) 7ipco9u7ioupyoi) Tovi MviXep on Tiap' oka auxd t] 
«Bpexavla KdTioxe 9a Tipevisi va evxaxSel oxt] (^covr] xou eupcb». (Ta oxoi- 
Xeia elvai avio Alex Callinicos, Europe: The mounting crisis, International 
Socialism issue 75, July 1997). 

62 



AkoXouGsi r\ i5i07ioiriGri [j,syaA,i3T8pri(; 5is9voi3^ a^ia(; 
ano TODc; Kaxoxouq ysv. nap6[j,oia igxuouv yia xriv vno- 
T{[j,ri GT] Tou ysv Kai xriv U7ispTi[j,ri gt] f) xriv avaTi[j,ri gt] 
Tou [j,dpKou. [...] r\ avaTi[j,riGri GUVSTidysxai xriv i5i07ioi- 
riGTi a^ia^ and tt] xcbpa (a7i6 xovq Tiapaycoyotx; tt]^ %&>- 
pa^) TTjc; 07ioia(; to v6[j,iG[j,a sxsi avaxifj-riGei Kai r] vno- 
Ti[j,riGri GUVSTidysxai aTicbXsia a^iat; and tt] xcbpa (a7i6 
TOU(; Tiapaycoyoij^ ttjc; xcbpat;) tt]^ OTioiat; to v6[j,iG[j,a 

t)7lOTl[J,fl9r|KS».'*'' 

BsPaiGx;, UTidpxsi r\ avxippoTiri idGr], r] avaTi[j,riGri tou vo- 
[j,iG[j,aTO(; o5riysi gs S7iiPpd5uvGri xcov s^aycoycbv (yiaxi syivav 
aKpiPoTspst; Xoyco Tri(; avaTi[j,riGri(; xou vo[j,iG[j,aTO(;). S' auxfiv 
TTiv TispiTiTCOGTi T] avTiSpaGr] i^Tiopsi vtt sivai: SITS r\ Tiapauspa 
TipocbGriGri ttjc; avxaycoviGTiKoxriTa^ Kai a7iOTsXsG[j,aTiK6TriTa(; 
Tri(; oiKovo[j,ia^ ([j,sg(d xs^voXoyiKcbv avaPa9[j,iGSCov Kai Tiapa- 
Tispa 7ipo(b9riGri(; ttjc; GuyKsvxpoTioiriGric; xou Kscpa^taiou), sits 
r\ avxaycoviGTiKTi u7iOTi[j,ri gt] tou vo[j,iG[j,aTO(;. Oi xs^voAoyiKd 
KaxcDTspoi avxaycoviGTsg xsivouv va U7ioti[j,oi3v xa vo[j,iG[j,aTd 
Tou^, yia va auocpuyouv xriv auroXsia ^svcov ayopcbv. Qgtogo 
auTTi r\ 5ia5iKaGia syKU[j,ovsi xspdGxioix; kiv5i3vou(;: 

« MIA r\ U7iOTi[j,ri GT] [is tt] GSipd ttjc; smcpspsi Tikr\- 
0copiG[j,6. Sxriv Tipayfj-axiKoxriTa r\ U7iOTi[j,ri gt] tiXtittsi ti^ 
Ti[j,S(; TCDV siGayroycbv gs opoix; sGvikoij vo[j,iG[j,aTO^ 
[j,si(bvovTa(; etgi xa KspSr] xcov siGayroyscDV. Exo Pa9[j,6 
nov 01 siGaycoys(; sivai [leca 7iapay(Dyfi(;, oi u\|/riX6xspsg 
xi[j,S(; xou(; [j,si(bvow xa KspSr] xcov KamxaXiGxcbv. Ako- 
>uOu9si [j,ia xdGT] yia 7iXr|9copiG[j,6. Exo Pa9[j,6 nov oi si- 
cajmjeq sivai aya9d tiou Kaxava^tcbvovxai auo spydxst;, 
01 u\|/riX6xsps(; xi[j,s^ xoix; [j,si(bvouv xrjv ayopaGxiKf) di)- 



63 



va[j,ri xrig spyaoia^ (ri[j,spo[j,iG9ia) au^dvovxat; xa KspSr]. 
Qgxogo 01 spydxs^ f^Tiopsi va avxioxaGoiJV gxt] [leimcr] 
xcov Tipayfo^axiKcbv ri[j,spo[j,iG9icov [[is viKri(p6ps(; a7ispyis(; 
7101) oSriyoiJV gs au^fiGSK; [j,iG9(bv] Kai xo KscpdXaio 
I^Tiopsi va Kaxacpijysi gs 7i}tri9copiG[j,6, [is xov 6po 6xi o 
pu9[j,6(; a'u^riGri(; xcov xi[j,(bv xcov aya9cbv nov Kaxavahh- 
vovxai a7i6 xovq spydxs^ au^dvsxai tiio ypfiyopa and xo 
pu9[j,6 a'u^riGri(; xcdv ri[j,spo[j,iG9iCDV. AXXd o 7iXri9cDpi- 
G[j,6^, 710U GUViGxd [j,ia fj-sxaKu^tiGTi ayopaGxiKfi(; 5i3va- 
[ir\q and xrjv spyaGia gxo KscpdXaio, 5r|[j,ioupysi 5ugko- 
Ms^ 7ipay[j,axo7ioiriGri^ gxov xofosa xcov aya9cbv tiou Ka- 
xavaXcbvovxai and spydxst; [5riXa5fi, upoiovxa [ievodv 
aTioijXrixa], 5ugkoMs(; tiou avxi[j,sxcD7ii(^ovxai [is s^ayco- 
ys(; Kai, S7io[j,svcd(;, [j,s sva Ssuxspo yijpo U7ioxi[j,ri gt]^ Kai 
7iXri9copiG[j,oi3 [yia va au^ri9oi3v oi s^aycoyst; 7ipay[j,axo- 
Tioisixai vsa U7ioxi[j,ri gt] xou vo[j,iG[j,axo^]. Auxf) r\ Kaxtj- 
(popiKT) G7isiposi5fi(; KivriGTi o5riysi gs au^av6[j,svri cpxcb- 
XSia xcov spyaxcbv [le o'ksq xiq koivcdviks(; svxdGSit; Kai 
xa 7ipopXfi[j,axa iiov Gxsxi(^ovxai [j,s auxf). 

Ilspa a7i6 auxd, av auxf) r\ 5ia5iKaGia guvsxigxsi yia 
[lejaXo xpoviKo 5idGxr|[j,a, [im xcbpa f^Tiopsi va Pps9si 
[IE sva v6[j,iG[j,a xcopi(; a^ia. Auxo guvsPt] gs noXkeq %&>- 
peq xTjc; AaxiviKfic; A[j,spiKfi(; xiq 5sKasxiS(; xou 1970 Kai 
xou 1980. O Gt)v5uaG[j,6(; xs^voXoyiKf)^ Ka9uGxspriGri^, 
7i}tri9cDpiG[j,oi3 Kai U7ioxi[j,ri gtjc; o5fiyriGS gxk; TiaGiyvco- 
cTsq Kai aTiiGxsuxst; GUv9fiKS(; [iiC,epmq gs avxeq xiq %&>- 
peq Ka9cb(; Kai gs GxpaxicoxiKs^ 5iKxaxopis(; Kai auxap- 
XiKd Ka9sGxcbxa nov ')(pEmC,ovTai cvjya 7ipoKsi[j,svou va 
S7iipd}touv auxs^ xk; <jV)vQf[Keq».'^^ 



64 



E710[J,£V(D^, 8Va IGXUpO v6\llC\ia 5l8t)K0X,l)V8l Gxriv VXOTIOU]- 

cr\ 8v6^Tpi7iXoi3 GTOxou: a) gttiv i5i07ioiri gt] [j,8yaA,i3T8pri^ 5i- 
89voiji; a^ia(;, P) gttiv TipoGxaGia and xovq kiv5i3vou(; 8v6^ 
av8^sX8yKTOt) 7iXri9copiG[j,oi3 Kai y) gttiv stiigtisugti tcov 5ia5i- 
KaGicbv «SKGuyxpoviG[j,oi3», 5ri}ta5fi gxt] [j,syaX,i3Tspri GuyKs- 
vxpoTioiriGri Kai gttiv xsxvoXoyiKfi avapd9[j,iGri, acpoij aTioxs- 
Xoijv TT] [j,ova5iKfi 5is^o5o yia tt] PsXticogti ttjc; avxayroviGxi- 
KOTTixa^ Aoyco tt]^ x)iiap^r\c, xou iGXupoij vo[j,iG[j,aTO^. 

Yudpxsi sva(; stiiti^^sov X6yo(; nov Kdvsi togo 8A,kugtik6 to 
evp&) GTOtx; 8up(D7iaiou(; KamxaXiGTSt;: 

«[...] 01 x&tpeq nov to v6[j,iG[j,d xoix; xpriGifj-OTioisixai 
mq [lEco 5is9v(bv GUvaX,}tay(bv aTio^^afa^pdvouv sva nohb 
si5ik6 Tipovofo^io, TO sk5otik6 Tipovofo^io (seignorage) . 
Auto GU[j,paivsi [is to SoMpio tcov HQA and tt] [lexa- 
7ioXs[j,iKfi 7ispio5o. Oi HQA, auXd SK5i5ovTa^ 5oXdpia, 
imopotv va Ti^^ripcbvouv yia 7ipay[j,aTiKd s^7iopsi3[j,aTa 
Kai eno[iev(i)q yia a^ia [is sva upaKTiKd EVTskeq xapTi. 
Auto aTiOTsXsi i5i07ioiriGri 5is9voi3(; a^iat;. KaT' auTf) 
TTjv swoia, 01 HQA a7io}ta[j,pdvouv sva 7ipov6[j,io Tiapo- 
[j,oio [j,s auTO [j,ia(; KsvTpiKfi(; Tpd7is(^a(; OTav SK5i5si xap- 
T0V0[j,iG[j,aTa: Kai auTf) oiKsiOTioisiTai sva [j,spi5io syxcb- 
piat; (Kai 5is9voi3(;) a^iat;, xpTl<3i^07ioi(bvTag auTO to vso 
Xpfi[j,a. OuGiKd, UTidpxouv opia gs auTf) tt] SiaSiKaGi- 



Ioo5uva|iel [is tt] xpimaToSoxriori 5ri|iomovo|iiKcbv eXA£i|i|idTCOv [isoco 
eKSoorig veou xpiltiotTOi;. 

* 'Exoi TO xepdoTio e|i7iopiK6 eXXei(i|ia tcov HTIA ouvioxd Kaxd to 15io 
XpoviKo 5id(jTri(xa |iia xepdoxia oiKeiOTiolriori o^loi; [isoco xou ekSotikoi) 
Tipovojiiou. Eivai yi' awxo to Xoyo kov to eiiTiopiKo eXXei|i|ia tcov HTIA, 
8vcb oTi(iaTo5oT8i (iia oiKovo(iiKTi appcboTia, SriXoSfi tt] oxeTiKii (oe ovtI- 

65 



a. H iisyaX.ijTspri TioaoxriTa 5oXapicov [lemvei xriv ayo- 
paGTiKTi TOU(; 5i3va[j,ri otico^ Kai xriv S7ii9u[j,ia xcov ^svcdv 
va xa Kpaxoijv mq [leco 7iXripcD[j,cbv Kai ax; cvvaXhrf[ia- 
xiKo a7i69s[j,a. Auxo SiaPpcbvsi xo Kupo^ xou 5oXapiou 
mq 5is9voi3(; vo[j,iG[j,axo^ Kai 87io[j,sv(Dg xr] 5t)vax6xrixa 
va Ksp5i(^ot)v a7i6 xo sk5oxik6 7ipov6[j,io. E7iiGri(;, r] 5ri- 
[j,ioupyia xpfi[j,axo(; f^Tiopsi va TipoKa^tsosi 7i}tri9(DpiG[j,6. 
Auxo i^Tiopsi va o5riyfiGSi gs t)7ioxi[j,ri gt] Kai gs Tispaixs- 
pco SidPpcoGTi xou Kijpoix; xo V dohipiov mq 5i89vo i^ 
Xpfmaxo9>.'*^ 

npdy[j,axi xo sk5oxik6 7ipov6[j,io sivai GtmavxiKo, aXXd 5sv 
9a TipsTisi Kavsi(; va vnep^aXkei, aA,X,d va xo svxd^si gxk; 
7ipay[j,axiKS(; xou 5iaGxdGSi(;: 



BeoT] |ie xriv a-K.61m:\\) titcooti tth; TiapaycoyiKoxriTou; xcov HTIA, elvai xaw- 
xoxpova eTicocpeXfn; yia xriv oiKovo|ila xcov HTIA. 
E^aipexiKd SiacpcoxioxiKo yia xo «eK5oxiK6 7ipov6|iio» Kai xi<; meoen; kov 
Sexovxov 01 eupcojiaiKEg x^pe? eivoa Kai xo aKoXouBo aviooTiaoiia avio 
xoix; n. KanoKOv'koq - n. na7ia5ri|irixpioi), «Eviaio v6|iio|ia Kai eXXriviKii 
Pio|irixavia», oeX. 13: 

«H SieypuvOT] xcov 5ri|ioaiovo(xiK(bv Kai e|i7iopiKcbv eXIeijxjxdxcov xcov 
HTIA oxr] 5eKa£xiaxoi) 1960, kov TipoeKXiBri avio xijv SioyKcoor] xcov 5a;ia- 
vcbv yia xr] xpil|iaxo56xri(jri xcov tioXeiiikcov emxsipilosKJV oxr] voxioavaxo- 
h.Kx\ Aoia Kai xtjv aw^riori xcov Saviavcbv yia xtjv 7ipoo7id9eia oiKo56|iri(jri<; 
xoi) KoivcoviKou Kpdxoug (5x\c, 7i£pi65oi)<; xrig 5iaKuPepvri(jri<; avio xovq At]- 
jioKpaxiKoix;, oSiiyrioe oe iieicoari xri<; cjuyKpixiKfn; orniaoiai; xou 5oXapioi) 
avio XT] Beor] xou cog |iova5iKoi) 5ie9voi)<; [leoou cruvalXaycbv Kai a7io9e|ia- 
xoTioiriorn; nkovzov. IlapdlXriXa, t] evoxA-riori xcov SuxiKoeupcoTiaiKcbv ku- 
Pepviioecov aTio xo yeyovoi; 6xi [leydlo [ispog xcov 5a7iavcbv awxcbv expri|ia- 
xoSoxeixo [leoco xri<; xpil^it; xou 7ipovo|iioi) xcov HIIA oxriv ekSooti 5oXa- 
picov, 5i)vax6xrixa tiou ouvioxouoe [lexacpopd Tiopcov avio xr] jxia oxriv dllri 
nksvpa xou AxXavxiKou, xk; oSiiyrioe va ajicpioPrixfioouv xov riyejioviKO 
poXo xou SoXapiou oxo TiayKooiiio vojiiojiaxiKo ouGxri(ia». 

66 



«[...] oxav £va v6[iiG[ia xpTloi^OTioieixai SisGvdcx;, o 
SK56Tri(; xou vo[j,iG[j,aTO(; a7ioKO[j,i(^si STiiTipoGGsxa sgo- 
5a. Em TiapaSsiyia^axi, to 1999 TispiGGOxspa and xa [j,iGd 
SoMpia 710U s^s5coGS xo Federal Reserve (r\ Ofo^OGTiov- 
SiaKT) KsvxpiKTi Tpd7is(^a xrov HQA) xpiloi^OTioifiGriKav 
8Kx6(; HQA. To yeyovog aDxo U7isp5i7iXaGid(^8i xo [leje- 
9o(; xou iGo}toyiG[j,oi3 xou Federal Reserve gs gxsgti [le 
[j,ia KaxaGxaGT] Kaxd xrjv OTioia xo SoXdpio 9a xpriGi[j,o- 
Tioioijvxav i^ovo Gxo SGCOxspiKo xcov HQA. Auxo cr\[iai- 
vsi 6x1 xa Ksp5ri xou Federal Reserve U7isp5i7iXaGid(^o- 
vxai. E7i8i5fi auxd xa Ksp5ri KaxaXfiyouv gxtjv a[j,spiKa- 
viKT) KuPspvriGTi, 01 A[j,spiKavoi noXneq a7io}ta[j,pdvouv 
xa 7iXsovsKxfi[j,axa xri(; 5is9voi3^ xpriGi[j,07ioiriGr|(; xou 
5o}tapiou U7i6 [J-opcpfi >^iy6x8p(DV (poprov, nov sivai aua- 
paixrixoi yia xr] xpri[j,axo56xriGri evoq dEdo[isvov X)\\iovq 
Kt)Pspvr|xiK(bv danavcav. Av xo supcb ava58ix9si gs avd- 
Xoyo TiayKOGfj-io v6[j,iG[j,a, otiox; xo 5oXdpio, oi itoXheq 
xG)v x(£)p&)V-[ie'Xxhv xTj^ (^(bvri^ xou supcb 9a a7io>ua[j.pd- 
vouv 7iap6[j,oia 7iX80V8Kxfi[j,axa. 

Asv TipsTisi 6[i(i)q va UTispxoviGxow auxd xa iikeove- 
Kxfi[j,axa. Ta GUVo^^iKd Ksp5ri xou Federal Reserve auo- 
xsXoiJV TiOGOGXo [j,iKp6xspo xou 1% xou AEH xcov HQA. 
EuvsTidcx;, xa snxKkeov SGo5a auo xrjv X)iiap^r\ evoq 5is- 
9voi3(; vo[j,iG[j,axo(; 7iapa[j,svouv GxsxiKd [j,iKpd. 

Mia 5si3xspri uriyfi 7i}tsovsKxri[j,dxcov sivai 7ii9av6xaxa 
[j,syaA,i3xspr|, akXd Kai mo 5i3gkoAo va 7iOGOxiK07ioiri9si. 
'Oxav sva v6[j,iG[j,a yivsi 5is9vs^, auxo 9a xovcdgsi xt] 
5paGxripi6xrixa gxi^ eyxchpieq xPTmoiTOOiKovo[j,iK8(; ayo- 
peq. Oi ^svoi KdxoiKoi 9a 9sXouv va enevdvcow gs ne- 
piouGiaKd Gxoixsia Kai va 5avsi(^ovxai gs auxo xo v6[j,i- 
G[j,a. To a7ioxsXsG[j,a 9a sivai oi syxcbpist; xpd7is(^S(; va 



67 



TipoGsXKijGOUv TisXaxsia, OTiox; aXXcoGTS Kai r\ ayopd 
o[j,oX6ycDV Kai xa xprmaTiaxfipia. SuvsTidx;, av to supcb 
yivei 5i89v8^ v6[j,iG[j,a, otico^ to 5oXdpio, auTO mGavoTa- 
Ta 0a 5ri[j,ioupyfiG8i V8S^ suKaipist; yia Ta xprmaTOOiKo- 
vo[j,iKd i5pi)[j,aTa gtk; x&)pEq-[iekr\ ttjc; C,(hvr\q to u 8u- 

50 
PCD». 

Ta TiapaTidvco s^riyow yiaTi to xprmaTiGTiKo KscpdXaio r\- 
Tav S7iiKS(pa}tfi(; tcov 5ia5iKaGi(bv nov o5fiyriGav gto Mda- 
GTpixT Kai TO supd). Asv 9a TipsTisi va ^sxvd[j,s 6ti r\ 5sKasTia 
Tou 1990 fiTav r\ SsKasTia Tri(; pay5aia(; av65ou tcov xprmaTi- 
GTTipicov (xpri[j,aTiGTripiaKS(; «(poi3GKS(;»), [im SsKasTia otiou 
01 Tikeov S7iiKsp5si(; «8718v5i)gsi9> fiTav gtt] «xdpTivri oikovo- 
[j,ia»: 

«To MdaGTpixT aTiOTsXsi GTpaTrjyiKfi STuXoyf) tcov 
XptjjuananKOJV Kscpcdaicov tcdv [j,syd}tcov supcoTiaiKcbv 

XCOpcbv, TlOU 87ll5lcbKOt)V [J,8GC0 V(\C, VO[J,lG[J,aTlKfl(; SVOTIOI- 

r[(yx\c, va avaPa9[j,iG0uv v(\ Gsgti tou^ svavTi v(\c, Nsat; 
YopKTic; Kai Tou Tokio. IIpoKpivovTat; \aa. tioXitikti \|/ri- 
>u(bv STiiTOKicov, vo[j,iG[j,aTiKfi(; Kai 5ri[j,OGiovo[j,iKfi(; gts- 
voTTiTat;, Pu9i(^ouv tk; 8upco7iaiKS(; oiKovo[j,is(; gttjv ijcps- 
ax\. KaGcbg r] Ci1i^t1<^t1 ouppiKvcbvsTai, oi TiapaycoyiKs^ 
87isv5i3gsi^ 7iapa[j,svouv 7ispiopiG[j,8VS(;, r] supcoTiaiKf) 
oiKovo[j,ia avaTiTiJGGSTai [j,s xa\v(\KbxEpovc, pu9[j,oi3(; auo 
6,Ti 01 avTaycoviGTS(; ttjc;, svcb Ta Tpo(po5oTOi3[j,sva <ni6 
TT] XiTOTTiTa Ksp5ri Tou TiapaycDyiKot) KscpaXaiou, \v(\ 
PpiGKovTat; aXk&c, GCpaipst; totioGsttigti^, KaTSuGwovTai 
GS au^avofo^svo Pa9[j,6 gtt] ypr[\iax\(5x\Ki\ GCpaipa. O 
(^axikoc, kvikKoc, v(\c, Xnbxxxiac, Kai v(\c, ucpSGrjc;, tiou 
7ipoG5i58i GTTjv avspyia v(\ [J-opcpfi \aa.c, KoivcoviKfic; [j,d- 



68 



GTiyat;, avaTiapdysi xriv Kupiapxr] Gsar] xou xprmaxiGTi- 
KOTJ KS(pa}taiou» 



51 



Ev KaxaK^tsiSi: 

Ms xriv uioGsxriGTi xou supcb oi Ka7iixa}tiGxs(; xrjg Evp&)iir\q 
aTisKxrioav sva v6[j,iG[j,a 5i89v(bv cvvaXhrfchv iKavo va avxa- 
ycoviGxsi xo 5oXdpio. Evcb Gacpdx;, oi ti^^sov avxayroviGxiKoi 
Ka7iixaXiG[j,oi xTjc; E.E. sivai auxoi nou KapTicbvovxai xa TispiG- 
Goxspa o(^ekr\, Tiap' o^^a auxd Kai oi [j,iKp6xspoi sxouv va 
Ksp5iG0t)v a7i6 xo supcb: 

Ilpcbxov, 5£v Kiv5uvsi3ouv and xiq cv/yeq Kai aTipopXsTixsc; 
5iaKU[j,dvG8i(; xcov GUvaX,Xay[j,axiK(bv iGOxi[j,i(bv, nov noXkeq 
(pop8(; Kax8}tr|yav gs Ksp5oGK07iiKS(; stiiGsgsk; Gxa sGviKd xovq 
vo[j,iG[j,axa, [j,s a7ioxsXsG[j,a (yia xrjv UTispdGTiiGri xou sGvikoij 
vo[j,iG[j,axo(;) va avayKd(^ovxai va xpriGi[j,07ioioi3v xa GUvaX- 
Xay[j,axiKd xoix; a7ioGs[j,axa gs «GK}tr|p6 v6[j,iG[j,a». Sxo iia- 
p8>^G6v, r| EA,Xd5a sixs s^avayKaGGsi, apKsxst; (pops(;, va ayo- 
paC,ei 5pax[j,S(; 7iou}t(bvxa(; 5iGSKaxo[j,^i3pia 5oMpia yia va 
UTispaGTiiGSi xTjv GUvaXXayfj-axiKf) iGOxi[j,ia xr]^ 5pax[j,fi(;. 

Asijxspov, T] TipoGSsGTi xou^ GXT] 5ia5iKaGia avapdG[j,iGrig 
xcov KamxaXiGxiKcbv xcopcbv xr|(; 5uxiKfi(; EupcoTiric;, xovq avoi- 
ysi SDKaipisc; oiKovo[j,iKfi(; SisigSugtic; skx6(; sGvikcdv Guvoprov 
Kai SKxog E.E. H STisKxaGri xou sXXriviKoij Ka7iixaXiG[j,oi3 Gxa 
Ba^Kdvia, xrjv Tispioxn xou KauKdGOU r\ xr] Msgti AvaxoX,fi 
aTioxsXsi sva 7iapd5siy[j,a. 

Tpixov, r\ KaGispcoGT] xou supcb smxaxuvsi xk; «SKKaGapi- 
GxiK8^» 5ia5iKaGi8(; gxo SGCOxspiKo xcov sGviKcbv Kpaxcbv xrjc; 
E.E. KscpdXaia nov dev sivai tiXsov a7ioxs}t8G[j,axiKd (5sv 
[j,7iopoi3v va «GxaGoi3v» gxo v80 o^t)[j,£vo supcoTiaiKo avxayco- 
viGxiKo 7ispipdX,}tov) SKKaGapi(^ovxai mo suKoXa ([imq Kai 5sv 
UTidpxsi Tikeov xo «[j,a^iXapdKi» xri(; u7ioxi[j,riGrig xod sGvikoij 



69 



vo[iic[iaToq) Kai TipocoGsixai r\ GuyKsvxpoTioiriGri Kai SKouy- 
XpoviG[j,6(; Tou KscpaXaiou. 

Tsxapiov, r\ 5r|[j,OGiovo[j,iKfi TisiGapxia nov ene^ake r\ ei- 
oaycoyfi xou supd) 5isuk6X,uv8 xriv em^oXi] vso(piXsXsi39spcov 
[j,STp(DV yia va [j,riv «xa9si to xpsvo ttjc; sup(D7iaiKfi(; oAok^^ti- 
p(i)cr\q», sv(b enm'ke.ov r\ «89viKfi KuPspvriGri» [o^TiopoiJGe va 
a7i07ioir|9si Tr|v su9i3vri, yiaxi o vso(piX8}t8u9spiG[j,6(; auoTS- 

Xoi3g8 «St)pC07iaiKfl VTip8KTlPa». 

EDpCO Kttl V£0(plX£X£V6£pTl TTOXlTlKfj 

H KaxappsuGTi xou MSI Gxa 1992-1993, o5fiyriGav tt] Fsp- 
[lavia Kai tt] FaXMa va 7ipoGavaToM(^ovTai 7ipo(; xriv Kaxsij- 
9t)VGri [imq Evp&)iir\q unoXhhv xaxuxfiTCOv)). S' auxfi xrjv Tispi- 
TixoGTi, Gxo evp&) 9a gu[j,[j,8X8(x8 8vag GKA,rip6(; 7iupfiva(; xco- 
pcbv (r8p[j,avia, TaXkia, MneveXox)^, AuGxpia, IpXavSia Kai 
OiXav5ia), 8V(b r\ Bp8xavia Kai oi [j,8Goy8iaKS(; xcbps^ 9a s- 
I^Tiaivav g' 8va S7i6[j,8vo Gxd5io. Qgxogo, r\ TipocmxiKfi auxf) 
GUvdvxriGS icjppeq avxiSpoiGSi^. iGTiavia, IxaMa Kai EX,Xd5a 
Gxa 1996-7, SiaPsPaicDvav 6xi 9a stiixijxouv xa Kpixfipia xou 
MdaGxpixx. To 7ip6pXri[j,a auxcbv xcov xcopcbv fixav xo u\|/ri}t6 
5ri[j,6Gio jpsoc, xo eXkei\ji\jia xou 7ipol)7ioXoyiG[j,oi3 Kai o iik{\- 
9copiG[j,6(;. 

Qgxogo, gs GUv9fiKS(; avE[nKr\q oiKovo[j,iKfi^ avaTnv^r\q 
7101) STiXrixxs GUVoXiKd xTjv EupcDTiri XT] SsKasxia xou 1990 (xd- 
pi(; Kai Gxa TispiopiGxiKd [j,sxpa tiou STisPaXs xo MdaGxpixx), 
aKOfo^a Kai oi mo icjppeq oikovo[j,is(; 5uGKo}tsuovxav va sk- 
Ti^tripcDGOUV xa Kpixfipia xrjc; ONE. Sxriv Tiopsia 7ipo(; xrjv 8i- 
Gaycoyf) xou supd) xov lavoudpio 1999, okeq oi supcDTiaiKs^ 
KuPspvfiGSK; avayKdGxr|Kav va upoxcopfiGOUv Gxr| «5r|[a^ioup- 
yiKT) }toyiGxiKfi», yia va 8K7i>^rip(bGOUV «x8xyiKd» xa Kpixfipia 



70 



Tou MdaaxpixT. Ss GUv9fiKS(; KaxsKxiKfic; avd7iTt)^ri(; Kai au- 
^av6[j,£vri^ avspyiag, r\ Fsp^avia yia va SKTiXripcbasi xa Kpixfi- 
pia (i5iaix8pa xo gxoxo xo eXkei\ji\jia xou 7ipol)7ioXoyiG[j,oi3 va 
[j,riv UTispPaivsi xo 3% xou AEII), 7ipox(bpr|GS gxo s^fic; xs^va- 
G[j,a: xa a7io9s[j,axa xri(; M7ioi3vxsG^7iavK ce jpvco Kai GUvdX- 
Xay[j,a «ava9scopfi9riKav» Kai U7ispxi[j,fi9riKav [j,s a7ioxsXsG[j,a, 
[le auxovxo ^^oyiGxiKo xpouo, va KaA,u(p9si xo eXkei[i[ia xou 
7ipol)7ioAoyiG[j,oi3 Kai va 7iapa[j,sivsi gxo opio xou 3%. Envike.- 
ov swsa x&ipeq sixav avaXoyia xpsoix; u\|/riX6xspr| and 60% 
xou AEn xo 19 97 Kdxco and avxeq xiq GUv9fiKS(;, 5sv fixav 
5uvax6v va s^tio&gxsi r\ siGo5o(; gxo supcb xcov xropcbv xou 
voxou, a7i6 XT] Gxiy[j,fi tiou Ka[j,id ouGiaGxiKd x^pa 5sv SKTi^^f)- 
pcovs [IE auoXuxri TiiGxoxrixa xa Kpixfipia xou MdaGxpixx. 

Ilap' o'keq xiq avxicpdGSK; Kai xa 7ipop}tfi[j,axa, xsXiKd r\ si- 
GayoDyfi xou supd) syivs 7ipay[j,axiK6xrixa, Kupirog, x'^pi^'^ gxou(; 
e^^q }t6you(;: 

Ilpcbxov, r\ avduxu^r] xr]^ a[j,8piKaviKfig oiKovo[j,ia^ auo xo 
1993-4 GS GUv5uaG[j,6 |is xrjv U7ioxi[j,ri gt] xou [j,dpKou (sxaGS 
xo 1/10 xri(; a^ia^ xou xo 1997) 5ri[j,ioupyriGav xi^ GUv9fiKS(; 
yia au^riGTi xcov s^ayroycbv xrjc; TEp[iaviaq (xri(; ax[j,o[j,rixavfi(; 
xri(; sup(D7iaiKfi(; oiKovo[j,ia(;) Kai ysviKoxspa S7is5paGS 9sxiKd 
yia xo GUVo}^o xri(; sup(07iaiKfi(; oiKovo[j,ia^, [j,si(bvo vca(; sxgi 
xTjv avxaycDviGxiKTi TiisGr] avd[j,SGa gxk; x^'P^'^-^s^tI- 

Asuxspov, [j,ia sv5sx6[a^£vri auoxuxiot xr]^ ONE, 9a sixs Ka- 
xaGxpocpiKd aTioxs^tSGfo^axa 6xi M-ovo yia xrjv EupcDTiri aX.M Kai 
yia xTjv TiayKOGfj-ia KaTHxaXiGxiKf) oiKovo[j,ia. Tov ATipi^^ri xou 
1997 xo Ai89vs(; No[j,iG[j,axiK6 Ta[j,sio 7iposi5o7ioiouGS [j,8gco 
xou PpsxaviKou Guardian 6xi: 

«Sxo ANT 7iiGX8uou[j,8 6x1 07ioia5fi7ioxs Ka9uGxspr|Gri xou 
xpixou Gxa5iou [xr]^ siGaycoyfic; xou supcb] 9a o5riyouG8 ce 



71 



GoPapotx; Kiv5i3vot)(; iiov 9a ^iTiopoiJGav va TipoKaXsoouv xd- 
oq gtk; xpri[j,aTayops9>.^^ 

TpiTOV, xa [j,STa7ioXs[j,iKd «xpuGd xp6via» xou Kannaki- 
ciioi) 6x1 aiikd aTioxs^^oiJGav Tiaps^^Gov and xa [j,SGa xrjc; 5sKa- 
sxia(; xou l970f{kXd Kai r] guvoxh xou «5uxikoi3 GxpaxoTis- 
5ou», 710U Gxripi(^6xav gxtjv STicocpsXfi yia xoix; Ka7iixaXiGxs(; 
riys[j,ovia xcov HQA, scpxaGS gxo opiGxiKO xekoq xri(;. H 5iap- 
Kr\q, [IE [j,iKpd 5ia}tsi[j,[j,axa, oiKovofo^iKfi aGxdGsia nov aKo- 
}toi39riGS, o^uvs xov avxaycDviG[j,6 avd[j,SGa gxk; [j,sydXs(; 5uxi- 
KS(; x^ps<^ 'i^ot) xcbpa 87ips7i8 va guvtiGigouv gs «[j,iKp6xspri 
7iixa». H 5idX,t)Gri xri(; ESSA a7io58G[j,suGS aKOfo^a TispiGGOxspo 
xk; aTioKMvouGS^ 5uvd[j,si(; gxo SGCDxspiKo xou «5uxikoi3 Gxpa- 
xo7is5ot)». Oi HQA, o}^osva Kai mo avoixxd xr] SsKasxia xou 
1990, dpxiGav va 5pouv «[j,ovo[j,sp(b9>, x^pi? "^oi guvswooij- 
vxai [IE xou(; «5t)xiKoi3(; GU[j,[j,dxou(;», xPTl<^i^^07ioicbvxa(; xr] 
GxpaxicDxiKTi Kai 5i7iXco[j,axiKfi xou(; iGXP yia xrjv s^UTiripsxriGri 
xrov 5iK(bv xou(; «Gxsv(bv» GU[j,(psp6vxcov. 

O oikovo[j,ik6(; avxaycoviG[j,6^ xcov supcoTiaiKcbv xmp&iv [ie 
xi^ HQA 5sv sixs Ka[j,id 8X,7ii5a stuxuxiok;, Xa[a^Pavo[j,svou uti' 
6\|/iv xou [o^sysGoix; xri(; a[j,spiKaviKfi(; oiKovo[j,ia(; Kai xou Pa9- 
[ioi) GuyKsvxpoTioiri GTjc; xou a[j,spiKaviKoi3 Kscpa^^aiou, gs gxs- 
ar\ [IE koBe [im |is[j,ov(D[j,8va and xiq sup(D7iaiKS(; x^^ps?- Ms- 
xa^ij xou 1978 Kai xou 1990, r\ [iEcr\ oiKovo[j,iKfi avduxu^r] 
fixav 2,1% yia xr|v EOK, 2,9% yia xk; HQA Kai 4,3%) yia xrjv 
laucovia. ^^ H EupcDTiaiKfi 'Evcogt] 8[j,(pavi(^sxai Gav r] [j,ova5iKfi 
5uvax6xrixa xou supcouaiKou Kscpa^^aiou va 5ri[j,ioupyfiGSi s- 
vav 8Kxsxa[j,svo oikovo[j,ik6 x^^po, [lEca gxov otioio va UTidp- 
^81 r\ 5uvax6xrixa va 5r|[j,ioupyr|9ouv [lEjakEq sxaipis(; ava^^o- 
you [lEjEQovq [ie xcov HQA (Kai xrjc; lanoviaq) Kai [j,8A,}tovxiKd 
8va iGxupo GxpaxicoxiKo-5mXco[j,axiK6 ^itiXok tiou va a[j,(piGPri- 



72 



TSi xriv a[j,spiKaviKfi riys[j,ovia (f) TOuXdxioTOV apxiKd va auo- 
Tskei «ig6ti[j,o» sxaipo). 

Tsxapiov, r\ avxaycoviGTiKfi tiisgti fixav ysviKoxspri. Oi ev- 
pco7iaiKS(; x&tpeq s[j,8vav maco gttiv Koupoa ttjc; uxjniXfic; xs^vo- 
Xoyia^, sv(b vss(; (avTaycoviGTiKS(;) oikovo[j,ik8(; 5uvd[j,si(; ava- 
Sijovxav Gxriv Tispioxn Tr\c, AGia(; (Kiva, Kopsa, EiyKaTioupr], 
MaXaiGia). 

H TipoGTidGsia 5ri[j,ioupyia(; [lejakDV supcoTiaiKcbv sxaipicbv 
710D va i^Tiopow va «Gxa9oi3v» gxo 5is9vfi avxay(DviG[j,6 s^si 
xTjv TipoiGxopia xri(;. Tr] SsKasxia xou 1960 ava5i39r|Kav [leja- 
Xeq 87iixsipfiGSi(;, aXXd evioq xcdv sGvikcdv Guvoprov xcov 8U- 
pcDTiaiKcbv xcopcbv. Tr| 5sKasxia xou 1970 5ri[j,ioupyfi9riKav 
[lejakeq 7ioA,us9viks(;, aX}A r\ xdGt] 5sv fixav [j,sgco 5isupco7iai- 
K(bv GUVspyaGicbv, aX.M [is [isjakeq a[j,8piKaviK8g r\ laTicoviKs^ 
smxsipfiGSi^. Ti^ SsKasxis^ xou 1980 Kai 1990 syivav apKsxs(; 
GuyxcovsiJGSK; gs SisupcoTiaiKo S7ii7is5o (siSiKoxspa gs xo[j,si(; 
OTico^ xo sf^Tiopio, r\ xpri[j,axayopd Kai oi [j,sxa(pops(;). To ysyo- 
v6<; auxo aTioxs^^SGS [im and xiq pdGSK; 7ipo(; xrjv ONE. 

IIs^Tixov, a7i6 xo 1 9 9 3cai xo MdaGxpi^x, yia va yivsi 
7ipay[j,axiK6xrixa r\ ONE Kai xo supcb, S7iipXfi9riKav oi tiio 



£2ot6oo, am\\ \\ 5ia5iKaola elvai xauxoxpova Kai e^aipexiKd avTicpaxiKii, 
TipoKolcbviOi; 7ioA,iTiKe<; evidoeig. Oi neyaksq 5DTiKoei)pco7iaiKe<; koIveQvi- 
Ksq, xauTOXpova Siaxiipoyv xiq oxeveg oxsoen; xoix; (xe a|iepiKaviKe<; Kai 
imiwviKEc, exaipie<;. AvaviocpeuKxa xa mo [isyola Kecpolaia eivai Kai xa mo 
5ie6vo7ioiri|ieva (oe yeviKe<; ypa|i|ie<;), Kai eivai auxd kov evcb avio tx] \iia 
em9i)|ioi)V xt] lisyalyxepr] «oiKovo|iiKfi oXoKXfipco(jri» oxriv E.E. xawxo- 
xpova 5ev em9i)|ioi)v «ave^eXeyKxoi)9> oikovojiikoix; 7ioXe|ioi)<; |i£ x\c, 
HTIA x] xriv laTicovia. IlapdlXriXa, UTidpxoDV Kai xa [leydla (Kai (isoaia) 
KEcpdlaia 7101) eivai djisoa 5e|i£va \ie xo eGviko xoix; Kpdxo<;. 'Olsq aoxeq 
xiq avxicpaxiKEi; Kaxaoxdoen; Kpemi va xi<; ouiiPipdoei t] ONE Kai oi Tiok- 
xiKoi 5iaxeipi(jxe<; xri<;. OXa auxd 6a xa e^exdoouiie avaluxiKoxepa oxo 
KEcpdlaio «H Tiopeia xri<; oiKovo(iiKri<; oIoKXfipco(jri<;». 

73 



GK^ripst; vso(piXsX£i39sps(; noXniKsq. To cpGivoTicopo xou 1995 
TO UTioupysio OiKovo[j,iKcbv xrig rsp[j,avia TipocoGouas xriv iSsa 
sv6(; Su[j,(p(bvou ExaGspoxriTat;, [j,8gcd tou otioiou xa [lekf] xr]^ 
No[j,iG[j,axiKfi(; 'Ev(i)cr\q ocpsiXav va 5sg[j,suxoi3v ce [im av- 
Gxripfi 5ri[j,OGiovo[j,iKfi TisiGapxia, [j,sxd xrjv svap^r] xq^ igxuo(; 
xou evp&). To Ei3[j,(pcovo ExaGepoxrixat; syKpiGriKs gxt] gi3vo5o 
Kopu(pfi(; xou A[j,Gxspvxa[j,, xov loijvio xou 1997. Oi Fspfj-avoi 
Kaxdcpspav «va 5sg[j,suxoi3v xa Kpdxri 6xi Ga GsPovxai xo [le- 
G07ip6GsG[j,o 5ri[j,OGiovo[j,iK6 Gxoxo GS \xm GsGTi 7iXsovaG[j,axi- 
KT) f) Kovxd GXTjv iGoppo7iia» Ktti 6x1 Gtt S7iipdA,}tovxai Kupcb- 
gsk; gs TispiTixcDGTi «5iapKoi3(; 7iapaPiaGri(;» xou Kpixripiou xo 
eX%£i[i[ia xou 7ipol)7ioAoyiG^oi3 va sivai [is'/pi xo 3 % xou A- 

En. ^4 

A7ioxsXsG[j,a xrjc; GsG[j,oGsxriGri(; xri(; vsocpiXs^^suGspric; op- 
Go5o^ia^ GXTjv oiKovo[j,iKfi Xsixoupyia xri(; E.E., fixav o Kpaxi- 
k6(; xo[j,sa(; xrjc; oiKovo[j,ia(;, xo «Kpdxo(; 7ip6voia9> Kai oi «u- 
\|/ri}toi» [j,igGoi va Gscopoijvxai ax; oi PaGiKS(; anieq xrjc; «su- 
p(i)TiaiKr\q UGX8priGri(;». Oi 5ri[j,6Gioi 7ipol)7io}toyiG[j,oi TispiKO- 
Tixovxai, KpaxiKs^ smxsipfiGeK; i5i(DxiK07ioioi3vxai [is au^avo- 
[j,8vo puG[j,6, 01 GUVxd^sK; Kai oi koivcoviks^ 5a7idvs(; KaxaPu- 
Gi(^ovxai, 01 «s}taGxiKS(; gxsgsi(;» spyaGiat; GsG[j,oGsxoi3vxai. H 
vsocpiXsXsijGspri auxf) tioXixikti, TipoKd^^SGS xr|v suGuypd[j,[j,iGri 
6A,cov xcov KamxaXiGxcbv, KdGs sGvikti^ xauxoxrixa^, 7ipo(; xrjv 
ONE [imq Kai auxf) r\ uopsia s^UTiripsxoiJGS xa xa^iKd xotx; 
GU[j,(pspovxa, avs^dpxTjxa and xrjv xsXikti KaxdXri^ri nov Ga 
sixs xo «supco7iaiK6 syx8ipri[j,a». 

H Tiopsia Tipo^ xTjv «8upco7iaiKfi oXoKXfipcoGri» Ga TipSTlSl 
va KaxavoriGsi mq [im 5ia5iKaGia and xr] GKOTiid xou Kscpa- 
Xaiou, [IE dA,}ta Xoyia xa^iKd. Dxi 5ri}ta5fi xa^iKd s^UTiripsxsi 
xa GU[j,(pspovxa xou Kscpa^^aiou, avs^dpxrjxa and sGvikti xau- 
xoxrixa f) Kpdxot;, Kai auxo aTioxsXsGS xrjv ouGiaGxiKf) «gu- 



74 



yKoX,>uriTiKfi ouGia» xou oXou 8yxsipfi[j,aT0(;. Ka[j,id «avTiK8i- 
[j,8viKfi vo[j,OTsXsia» OGO icjppi] Kai va fixav (r| avdyKr] avxa- 
ycoviG[j,oi3 [IE tk; HQA, r\ xsxvoXoyiKfi uoTspriGri, o (p6Po(; sv6(; 
auTOKaxaaTpocpiKoij supcoTiaiKoij avTaycoviG[j,oi3 k.A,7i.) 5sv 9a 
I^TiopoiJGS va o8riyfiG8i gttiv ONE, uapd [lovov av sixs Gav 

OUGiaGTlKO GTOXO TTIV S^UTlTlpSTTlGri TCOV Xa^lKCDV GU[J,(pSp6- 

VTCOV Tou KscpaXaiou. Oi koivcovikoi Gxn^oiTiG[j,oi sivai xa^lKOl 
Gxn^oiTiG[j,oi, 710U GT] [j,aivsi OTi 01 67ioiS(; 7ipcoToPouMs(; f) «sy- 
XSipfi[j,aTa» avayKaGTiKd PpiGKovxai Kdxco and xov sXsyxo 
Tri(; dpxouGa^ Td^ri(; Kai [j,6vo co^ Tsxoia sxouv mGavoxriTS^ 
STiiTUxiac^. 

ETTlHETpO 

Suvo\|/i(^ovTa(; xriv emq to gt] [j,sio auxo avakvci] [laq: 

Msxpi s5(b, 7ispiypd\|/a[j,s xi^ xpsi^ 5iaKpix8(; uspioSotx; a- 
vdTixu^ric; xou supcoTiaiKoij syxsipfi[a^axo(;, Kai svxo7iiGa[j,s xk; 
anieq nov oSfiyriGav gxtjv ONE Kai xrjv iSpuGT] xri(; EupcoTiai- 
Kr\q 'Ev(i)cr\q xo 1992. Evxo7iiGa[j,s xa TipoP^^fno^axa nov gxsko- 
vxai (i)q s^7i65ia gxtjv Tiopsia xrjc; «supco7iaiKfi(; oXoK^tfipcD- 
Gri(;», Kai nov r\ piC,a xovq sivai r\ aviGOfj-sxpr] oiKovo[j,iKfi a- 
vduxu^ri xcDV Kpax(bv-[j,sX(bv r\ OTioia 5ri[j,ioupysi [isjakeq 5ia- 
(pops(; «89viK(bv GU[j,(psp6vx(DV». 

Qgxogo, ava7i6(p8UKxa, TipoKijTixouv KpiGi[j,a spcoxfi[j,axa 
((^rixfi[j,axa) tiou TipsTisi va s^sxaGxoiJV avaXuxiKd gxt] guvs- 
Xsia. 

H rsp[j,avia sivai r] 5sG7i6(^ouGa oikovo^ikti 5i3va[j,ri gxtjv 
E.E. H 6}tri «supco7iaiKfi o}tOKXfipcoGri» avauocpsuKxa Xa[j,pd- 
V8i U7i' 6\|/ri xTjv riysfj-OViKTi xri(; 5i3va[j,ri- Kai yi' auxo r\ oXr] 
Tiopsia UTifip^e xogo ETi(i)(pEkf\q yia xo ysp[j,aviK6 Ka7iixaXiG[j,6. 
To ysyovot; auxo sxsi 7iupo5oxfiG8i xrjv 7i8pi(pri[j,ri GU(^fixriGri, 



75 



av r\ E.E. Gri[j,aivsi «ysp[j,aviKfi Et)p(b7iri» r\ «8upco7iaiKfi Fsp- 
[laviayy. To sp(bTri[j,a sivai: 

- riaxi 01 vnoT^meq 8upco7iaiKS(; apxouceq xd^sK; f^TifiKav 
g' auTTiv TT] 5ia5iKaoia, av fixav as pdpo(; xovq; H NopPr|yia 
5t)o (popsg (1974 Kai 1994) 7ipoG7id9riGS va yivsi [lekoq, akXd 
01 NopPriyoi \|/r|(po cpopoi Kai tk; 5uo (pops(; a7isppi\|/av xriv 
sioSoxn OS avTiGTOixa 5ri[j,o\|/ri(piG[j,aTa.^^ AK6[j,a Kai gttiv 
ou5sTspri EXpsTia Kd9s togo Sis^dysxai GU(^fiTriGri yia to av 
9a 7ips7i8i va yivsi [leXx^q Tri(; E.E. r\ xcbpa. 

S' auTO TO sp(bTri[j,a, a7iavTfiGa[j,s fi5ri (a7iapi9[j,(bvTa(; toix; 
Xoyotx; 710U oSnyriGav gttjv ONE), [is tov s^fi(; TpoTio: r] oXr] 
5ia5iKaGia sivai S7i(D(ps}tfi(; yia oXoix; TOiig «STaipou9> Tri(; 
E.E. Kai 6x1 |J,6vo yia tt] Tep[iavia (i5iaiTspa Ta^iKd STicocps- 
X^q yia to Kscpd^^aio, [is ttjv smPo^^fi vso(pi}tsX8i39spcov [le- 
Tpcov). AK6[j,a, r\ avTaycoviGTiKf) TiisGr] auo HQA - laTicovia 
s^aGKsi TiiEGTi yia [im supcoTiaiKfi «GUG7isip(DGri». 

Qq 7ipo(; TT] rsp[j,avia: 

ripcDTOV, T] rsp[j,avia aus^TioXriGS sva PaGiKo oti^^o (guij,- 
PoXo) TT]^ oiKovo[j,iKfi^ TT]^ riys[j,ovia(;- to [j,dpKo. AivsTai stgi 
GTOix; dXAoix; STaipoix; r] SuvaTOTtiTa (o Ka9si(; avdXoya ttjc; 
5i3va[j,fi^ Tou) va GUv5ia[j,op(p(bGOW [is tx] rsp[j,avia tt] 5ia- 
XsipiGT] Tou V80U vo[j,iG[j,aTO(;, Tou supd). AG(paX(b(;, r] rsp[j,a- 
via 8^avayKdGTriK8 va to Kdvsi auTO Xoyco tou (GxsTiKd) ne- 
piopiG[j,svou [j,sys9ou^ tt]^ oiKovo[j,ia^ tt]^ ce gxsgti [j,s HQA - 
laTicovia, nov Ka9iGTOi3GS a5i3vaTri ttjv stiiPo^^ti tou [j,dpKou 
ax; ig6ti[j,ou 5i£9voi3(; vo[j,iG[j,aTO(;. Qgtogo, to jejovoq auTO, 
58V avaipsi to 6ti o ysp[j,aviK6(; Ka7iiTaXiG[j,6(; SKavs toix; a- 
vayKaioix; GU[j,piPaG[j,oi3^ [is xovq «STaipou9> tou. 

AsuTspov, [j,SG(D Tri(; «sup(D7iaiKfi(; oXoKXfipcoGr|9> , ohx xa 
KpdTri-[j,s}tri 7ipoG5oKouv avapd9[j,iGri Tri(; 9sGri(; xovq gttjv 
TiayKOGfj-ia KamTaXiGTiKfi ispapxia, sits 7ipoGsA,KuovTa^ ks- 



76 



(pdXaia SITS s^dyovTa(; KscpdXaia, Xoyro Tri(; GU[j,[j,STOxn^ xoug 
GTO «iGXup6Tspo oikovo[j,ik6 i^TiXoK Tou 7i}tavfiTri». 

Qgtogo, r\ 6}tri 5ia5iKaGia f^Tiopsi va SiaxripfiGSi tt] 5uva- 
[j,iKfi Trjc;, [lovo s(p' ogov s^aKoXouGfiGSi va sivai STicDcpsXfi^ 
yia 6>uOt)g Tou^ «s9vikoi39> sxaipoix;. noA,i3 TispiGGOxspo, av 

STllTlJXSl GTOV aTlCDTSpO GTOXO, 710U SlVSl v6ri[J,a Kai TipOOTlTlKTi: 

Tri 5ri[j,ioupyia evoq supcDTiaiKot) KaTinakic[iox), UTispsGvi- 

KOIJ, SV6(; SV07l0iri[J,SV0t) OlKOVO[J,lKd Kai TloXlXlKd SUpCDTiaiKOt) 

Xcbpou, 710 u va f^Tiopsi va GxaGsi iGOxifj-a gtov 7iayK6G[j,io a- 
VTaya)viG[j,6 [is xiq HQA Kai xriv laTirovia. 

Ac(pahhq, auxo 5sv sivai «avayKaio» va yivsi. H E.E. 
I^Tiopsi va 7iapa[j,sivsi aidxi [im vo[j,iG[j,aTiKfi Kai oiKovo[j,iKfi 
C,&)vr\, x(opi(; oiKo\o[j,iKfi oXoK^fipcoGri. Qgtogo, auxo 5sv 9a 
S7iiA,i3gsi tk; tipokXtigsk; Kai xa 7ipopXfi[j,aTa nov avTi[j,ST(D7ii- 
C,o\)v 01 supcDTiaioi Ka7iiTaXiGTS(; (9a aKupcoGSi xa tiXsovsktti- 
[laxa [j,iag [lejakriq svo7ioiri[j,svri(; ayopdt;), svcb, STimXsov, oi 
KaxaGxpocpiKoi avTaycoviG[j,oi Tri(; SsKasxiat; xou 1970 f^Tiopsi 
va ava5u9oi3v ^avd gto TipoGKfivio [is [j,syaA,i3Tspri op[j,fi (stii- 
7ip6G9sTa, r\ x)iiap^r\ koivoij vo[j,iG[j,aTO(; 9a Ka9iGTOi3GS [im 
TSTOia E^eki^f] nohb mo KaxaGxpocpiKfi). 

Eiio[is\/(i)q, auTO nov xpsid(^STai va s^STdGOU[j,s, sivai nov 
PpiGKsxai Gfi[j,spa r\ uopsia Tr|(; «sup(D7iaiKfi(; o}tOK}tfipcoGri9>, 
TOGO GS STiiTisSo 9sG[j,(bv, OGO Kai oiKovo[j,iKfi(; GuyKXriGrjc; 
Tcov 5ia(p6pcov «s9viK(bv» oiKovo[j,i(bv. Ms dXXa Xoyia, av s/si 
SpojUoloyrjOsi /Jia SiaSixaaia avyxQJVsvarjg tcov avrmOs/jsvcov 



H EupcoTiri TCOV 15 to 2002 KaTexei to 37% TispiTiou tou 5ie9voi)<; e|i7iopl- 
01) (e^aycoye<;), oi HTIA to 10,7% Kai t] lavicovla to 6,4%. Eti<; 5i£6vei; 
eioaycoyet;, t] E.E. KaTexei to 36% tou owoXou 5ie6vcb<;, oi HTIA 19,02% 
Kai T] laTicovla 5,32% (Hkiac, Kallmpac,, EupraiEoK Kai Aeo<;, eK56oei<; 
Aipdvri, oeX. 36). 

77 



sdviKcbv avjUfspovTCOv npog sva «vnsps6viKd» svpconaiKd xa- 
itnalio/jd. 

ApxiKd 9a s^8TdGOt)[j,8, av Kai Kaxd tiogo, oi Sispyaois^ g8 

TloXlTlKO S71171S50 (t] TloknXKX] SVOTlOlTlGri) f^Tiopow Vtt avTi- 

GTa9[j,iG0uv Ti^ a7ioKMvouGS(; oikovo[j,ik8(; 5uvd[j,si^ [j,STa^i3 
Tcov KpaT(bv-[j,8X(bv v(\c, E.E. riaxi, aGCpaXcb^, r] tioXitikti sxsi 
[j,ia (gxstikti sivai r] aXfiQsia) auT0V0[j,ia gs gxsgti [j,s xriv oi- 
Kovo[j,ia. Msxd 9a s^STdGOt)[j,s xriv uopsia ttjc; «oiKovo[j,iKfi(; 
oXoK}^fip(0Gri9>. Auxd 9a sivai xa (^rixoi3[j,sva Gxa 87i6[j,8va 5uo 
Kscpd^^aia xou Tiapovxog PiPMou. 



78 



K£ 



(pd>uaio2 



Oi Bsofioi TTi*; EDpco;ralLKfj(;'EvcooTi(; 

A7iOTsX8G[j,a Tri(; eTinv')(r\[ievr\q S7iiPo}tfi(; Tri(; ONE Kai xou 
supd), sivai va STiavacpspsxai r\ GxpaxriyiKfi yia xr] GxaSiaKf) 
oiKo56[j,riGri 8v6^ «U7isp89viKoi) Kpdxou(;». Ei)[j,(pcova [is xr] 
Gscopsia: 

«Avxi va TipoxaxGei r\ 5ri[j,ioupyia [imq noXniK^q 5o- 
|j,fi^ Tispa a7i6 xa opia xou sBvikoij Kpdxou^, TipoxdGGS- 
xai [iia GxpaxriyiKTi r\ OTioia TipocoGsi xr] GxaSiaKf) acpai- 
psGTi xcov Gxripiy[j,dx(DV xou sBvikoij Kpdxoix; [j,sgco xri(; 
svxaxiK07ioir|Gr|(; xcov 5is9viK(bv GUVspyaGicbv gs l^r\Tr\- 
[laxa «xa[ir\kr\q 7ioXixiKfi(;» (oiKovo[j,iKd) xa OTioia 5sv 
7iapot)Gia(^av, SKsivr] xouXdxiGxov xrjv STioxn, mGavoxri- 
xs^ 8VXOVC0V avxiTiapaGsGSCov. [...] H 5ia5iKaGia 7ipo(; xo 
UTispsGviKo Kpdxo(; 7iapo[j,oid(^sxai [le xrjv kivtigti Kaxd 
[j,fiKO(; evoq d^ova, nov s^si acpsxripia xr] GUVspyaGia gs 
98[j,axa xa[ir\ki\q TioXniKr\q Kai KaxaXfiysi gxt] Guvspya- 
o(a G8 98[j,axa t)\|/riXfi^ tioXixikti^ (d^uva, aG(pdXsia)».^'' 

H GUvGriKT] xTjc; P(b[j,ri(; xou 1957 siGTiyays sva Gi3Gxri[j,a 0s- 
G^icbv a7ioxsXoi3[j,svo and xrjv EmxpoTifi xcov EupcDTiaiKcbv Koi- 
voxfixcov, xo Eu[j,poi3Xio xcov Yuoupycbv, xr] Suvs^sugti (Gs- 
G[j,o9sxri[j,sva mq KoivoPoi3}tio and xo 1987) Kai xo EupcDTiai- 
k6 AiKaGxfipio. To Ti^^aiGio auxo s[j,sivs a[j,sxdp}trixo [is [iiKpeq 



79 



Tpo7i07ioifiG8i(; [J-sxpi TTiv Eviaitt EupcDTiaiKTi Ilpd^ri TO 1987. 
Ms xr] SDvGfiKri yia xriv EupcoTiaiKfi 'Evcoori, to 1992, upoGTS- 
9riK8 Kai TO E>u8yKTiK6 EuvsSpio. H oTpaTriyiKfi Tri(; E[i(pacr\q 
GS (^riTfi[j,aTa «xa[ir\kf\q 7ioXiTiKfi(;» (oiKovo[j,iKd), ormaivsi 6ti 
01 9sG[j,oi GTTiv E.E. xapaKTripi(^ovTai Gav [a^tixaviGfa^oi 5iaKpa- 
TiKcbv GxsGSCov Ktti SiaPouXsiJGSCov avd[j,SGa gs Kupiapxa 8- 
GviKd KpdTT], 6x1 5ri}ta5fi Gav 98G[j,oi nov o5r|yoi3v gtti dr\[ii- 
oupyia evoq U7i8p89viKoi3 KpdTOix;. 

To avcDTttTO opyavo ttjc; E.E. 8ivai to EupcoTiaiKo Et)[j,poi3- 
}tio, nov a7iOT8}t8iTai and xovq 87iiK8(pa}tfi(; tcdv Kxi^Epvr\cE(i)v 
Kai TOU(; UTioupyotx; tcov 8^(DT8piK(bv, to otioio xapd(^8i tk; y8- 
viKS(; KaT8u9i3vG8i(; togo g8 oiKovo[j,iKd OGO Kai G8 9s[j,aTa 

8G(DT8piKfl(; Kai 8^C0T8piKfl(; 7l0}tlTlKfl(;. To EupcoTiaiKO Sufj,- 
PoijXlO GUVSpX8Tai TOUMXIOTOV 5U0 (pOpS(; TO XPOVO, U7l6 TTjV 

7ipos5pia Tou apxnyoiJ tou KpdTOU^ nov KaTSxsi ttjv 7ipos5pia 
TT]^ 'Ev(i)cr\q (|J,sxpi Tcbpa aXlxiC,ei Kd9s e^r\ [ir\vEq avd[j,SGa 
GTa KpdTri-[j,sXri). 

Oi KaT8t)9i3vGSi(; tou EupcDTiaiKot) Su[j,pouMou [j,STaTps7io- 
VTai GS v6[j,ou^ a7i6 to Eu[j,poi3Xio tcov YTioipycbv (GUvfi9(D(; 
avacpspsTai aidxhq mq «to Et)[j,poi3Xio»), nov acpopow ttjv oi- 
Kovo[j,iKfi noXniKT], ttjv noXniKT] gtov aypoTiKo TO[j,Ea K.Xn. 
To St)[j,poi3}tio U7io5iaip8iTai gs 5id(pops(; U7ioo[j,d5s(;: To 
Eu[j,poi3Xio TCOV UTioupycbv tcov oiKovo[j,iKcbv (EcoFin), to A- 
ypoTiKO Eu[j,poi3Xio, t)7isi39t)VO yia ttjv Koivf) AypoTiKf) IloXi- 

TIKT) (KAII), TO Su[J,Poi3XlO TCOV UTlOUpyCDV TCOV S^CDTSpiKCbv 

(Koivf) E^coTspiKT) no^tiTiKTi Ktti noXniKT] Accpakemq [KETI- 
nA]), K.Xn. To Eu[j,poi3Xio s5psi3si gtk; Bpv^eXkeq (upcoTSij- 
ouGa Tou BsXyiou). KaTd toix; [V(\VEq ATipiXio, lowio Kai O- 
KTcbPpio Guvs5pid(^si GTO Aou^sfo^Poupyo. 

H SKTSXSGTIKTI S^OUGltt PpiGKSTttl GTtt X^PlOl Tri(; EupCOTiai- 

K^q E7iiTpo7ifi(; (ri Ko[j,igi6"^, a7iaGxo>^si TispiTiou 14.000 u- 



80 



TiakXr\kovq- GTr\v ouoia sivai Xiyoxspoi and xoix; 5ri[j,6Giot)^ 
viiakh(\kovq [imq [lejak^q 7i6}tr|(;. H EmxpoTifi aTiOTS^^sixai 
a7i6 20 [lekf] (yia Tr|v E.E.-15). Oi [j,syaX,i3Tsp8(; 7iXri9uG[j,iaKd 
X&ipeq diopiCpvv and 5uo ennponovq, svcb oi U7i6Xoi7iS(; auo 
svav. Ta [lekf] ttjc; 5sv SK^tsyovxai, aA,M 5iopi(^ovTai and xiq 
KuPspvfiGSK; Tcov Kpaxcbv [lehhv. H EmxpoTifi sivai U7isi39uvri 
yia xriv S7iipXs\|/ri tcov GU[j,(pcDvi(bv and xa Kpdxri [lekr], upos- 
xoi[j,d(^8i xo uXiKo yia xo EupcoTiaiKo Eu[j,poi3Xio, Tipoxsivsi 
(gxo Eu[j,poi3}tio xcov YTioupycbv) veovq v6[j,ou(;, svcb SKupo- 
GC07181 xTjv E.E. GXT] 5is9vfi GKrivf). H s5pa xri(; EmxpoTific; Ppi- 
GKsxai gxk; Bpv^eXksq. 

To EupcDTiaiKo KoivoPoi3}tio (xri(; E.E. -15, anoTeksnai and 
626 [j,sXr|) sivai xo [j,ova5iK6 koivoPoij^^io gxov k6g[j,o nov 5sv 
vof^oGexsi! Movo xo Eu[j,poi3Xio xcov Yuoupycbv vo[j,o9sxsi. To 
KoivoPoijXio, xo [j,6vo SKXsy[j,svo Gcb[j,a, s^si Kupico(; 5iaKo- 
G[j,rixiK6 Kai GUfj-PouXsuxiKo poXo. Msxpi xo 1987 o p6Xo(; xou 
fixav KaGapd GU[j,pou}tsuxiK6(;. Ms xrjv Eviaia EupcoTiaiKfi 
Tlpd^ri xou 1987xoD 569r|Ks r\ 5uvax6xrixa va auoppiTixsi vo- 
[j,o98xfi[j,axa- cogxogo, Tiap' 6Xa auxd, xo Eu[j,poi3Xio xcov Y- 
Tioupycbv [j,7iopsi va xa em^aXkei Tiapd xr] 9sXriGri xou Koivo- 
PouMou, av auocpaGiGSi [le o[j,o(pcovia. Ss Kd9s TispiTixcDGri, 
Kavsva(; v6[j,0(; dsv s^si icji), av 5sv GU[j,(pcDvfiGSi Kai xo Eufj,- 
PoijXio xcov Yuoupycbv. O a7io5uva[j,co[a^£VO(; p6Ao(; xou Eupco- 
TiaiKoij KoivoPouMou cpaivsxai Kai gxtjv «xs[j,axiG[j,8vri» Xsi- 
xoupyia xou: r\ s5pa xou KoivoPouMou PpiGKsxai gxo Expa- 
GPoijpyo (avaxo^tiKTi raX,Ma, Kovxd Gxa yaX,}toysp[j,aviKd gi3- 
vopa). Oi SKxaKxs(; 7ispio5oi xcov guv65cov xtjc; oXo[j,8X8ia(; yi- 
vovxai gxk; Bpu^sX,Xs(;. H Fsvikti rpa[j,[j,axsia Kai oi UTiripsGi- 
eq sivai syKaxsGxr|[j,sv8(; gxo Aou^sfo^Poupyo. 

O'keq 01 auocpdGSK; uaipvovxai tiigco and K^^siGxst; Tiopxsg, 
[j,SGCO i^UGxiKcbv GUV0[j,iXicbv avd[j,SGa gxou^ UTioupyotx; Kai 



81 



TOU(; apxnyoiJ^ tcov Kpaxcbv tt]^ E.E (to 7ispi(pri[j,o «5ri[j,0Kpa- 
TiKo sA,X8i[j,[j,a»): 

«'OTav 01 SKTipoGCOTioi Tou EupcoTiaiKoij KoivoPouM- 
OD [to 2000] (^fiTTiGav va Gsgtiigtsi vo[j,o9sTiKfi Guvap- 
[j,o5i6TriTa tou EupcoTiaiKoij KoivoPouXiou yia KdGs vo- 
[j,o9sTiKfi Tipd^r] Tou Eu[j,pouMou tcov YTioupycbv nov 
UTioKsiTai GTT] 5ia5iKaGia Tri(; si5iKfi(; 7iXsio\|/ri(pia(; (Kai 
6x1 T:r\c, 0[i0(p(miaq), r\ auavTriGri fiTav apvriTiKfi, [is to 

GKSTITIKO OTl ttUTO 5sV GUVdSsi 7ipO(; TOV S71i5i(Dk6[J,£VO 

GTOxo Tri(; a7iOTsXsG[a^aTiK6TriTa(;, acpoij r| Gij^Tipa^ri tou 
EupcoTiaiKoij KoivoPouMou GUVSTidysTai an&i'kem jpo- 
vou»! 

H «8t)pC07iaiKfl 0X0KX,flp(DGri» PpiGKSTai KdTCD a7l6 TOV a- 

7i6X,t)TO sXsyxo v(\c, K^ax\Kx\c, ypa9sioKpaTia(; tcdv S7ii[j,spou(; 
Xcopcbv. EtiitiXsov, t] i5ia r] y^icoGGa tiou xpriGi[j,07ioi8i avxx\ r] 
ypacpsioKpaTia sivai aTiiGTSUTa Sugvotitti, \xz gkotio va Tiaps- 
I^TioSiGSi TTjv KaTavoriGTi a7i6 xovc, hioiic, v(\c, E.E. v(\c, oh\c, 
5ia5iKaGia(;. «Ei5iKfi 7iXsio\|/ri(pia», «avaGTsXXot)Ga [j,sio\|/ri- 
(pia», «sviGXU|J.6vr| GUVspyaGia», aTiOTsXoiJV opo^^oyist; s^ai- 
psTiKd GKOTSivcbv Ktti TispiTiXoKCDV 5ia5iKaGi(bv. Asv 8ivai Ka- 
96Aou Tuxaio, Aoitiov, 6ti oi sup(D7iaiK8(; SK^oyst; avTi[j,STC07ii- 
(^ovrai a7i6 tou^ hiovc, v(\c, E.E. \ie aSiacpopia, [j,s SKuXriKTiKd 
TiOGOGTd <nioyj\c, nov KU[j,aivovTai auo 30% kmc, Kai udvco auo 
50%! Stk; TsXsuTaist; Eup(DSK}toys(; gtti YaXKia \iovo to 20%) 

TCOV V8C0V \|/ri(pO(p6pC0V [J,7lflKS GTOV KOTIO Vtt \|/ri(plG8l. Ettjv EX- 
Xd5a, 710U GT] [J,81CDT80V T] \|/ri(pO(pOpia 8lVai U7lOXP8COTlKfl, \ibvo 

TO 72%.^^ 

'0710T8 5i8V8pyoiJVTai 5r|[j,o\|/r|(piG[j,aTa, auTd KaTa58iKvi3- 
ouv TT] PaQid Kaxu7io\|/ia tcov 8upco7iaicov tio^^itcdv ausvavTi 



82 



Gxriv «sup(D7iaiKfi oXoKXfipcoGri». H EuvGfiKri xou MdaoxpixT 
STiiKupcbGriKs Gxri TakXia GuyKsvipcbvovTag os 5ri[j,o\|/fi(piG[j,a 
[loXiq TO 5 1%TC0V \|/fi(pcov (to 49% \|/fi(piG8 6xi). Oi Aavoi a- 
7i8ppi\|/av TT] GUvGriKTi GTa 1992(7iap6Xo 6ti Ta GrmavTiKOTS- 
pa TioXiTiKd K6[j,[j,aTa, o S7iixsipri[j,aTiK6(; k6g[j,0(;, oi rjysTSt; 
Tcov GUvSiKoiTCDV Ktti 01 [j,8yaA,i3Tsps(; 8(pri[j,spi5s(; ttjc; xcbpa^ 
sixav TaxGsi vnep Tri(; GUvGfiKri(; tou MdaGTpixT) Kai xpsid- 
GTTjKS 87iavdXri\|/ri tou 5ri[j,o\|/ri(piG[j,aTO(; to 1993yia va stii- 
KupcoGsi r\ GUvGriKr]. Kai auTO [lovo OTav r\ Aavia stistuxs «s- 
^aipeceiqyy (yia va KaTaGTfiGOUv tt] GUvGfiKri avsKTr) a7i6 to 
SaviKo hxo) and 5iaTd^si(; ttjc; GUvGfiKr|(; nov acpopouGav tt] 
SidPpcDGTi TTjc; KoivcoviKfi(; 7ip6voia(; Kai ttjv «s}taGTiK6Tspri» 
TipoGTaGia Tou 7ispipdA,}tovTO(;,. Stti BpsTavia oi avTi5pdGSi(; 
fiTav T8T0ia(; SKTaGrjc;, cdgts o tots 7ipcoGu7ioupy6(; TCpv Msi- 
T(^op TO 1993 s^avayKdGTTjKs va (^tittigsi \|/fi(po s^thgtoguvti^ 
yia va smKupcoGsi r| GUvGfiKr|. 

Ta [j,8ydXa TiOGOGTd auoxn^ Kai r\ SidxpTt] Kaxu7io\|/ia a- 
VTavaK^tow S7iiGri(;, to ysyov6(; 6ti oi ypacpsioKpaTiKs^ ekn 
710D 5iaxsipi(^ovTai ttjv «supco7iaiKfi oXoKXfipcoGri», sivai 8- 
VTsXcb^ a7io5sG[j,su[j,svs(; and tt] yv(b[j,ri tcdv supcoTiaicov tioXi- 
T(bv. H SuvGriKTi Tri(; NiKaia(; (AsKSfo^Ppiot; 2000) STipsTis va 
TispdGSi a7i6 5ri[j,o\|/fi(piG[j,a gttjv Ip}tav5ia (yiaTi UTifipxs 7ip6- 
p}tri[j,a [IE TO Gi3vTay[j,d ttj^ tiod npo^'kenei tt] GTpaTicoTiKfi ou- 
SsTspoTTiTa TTjc; IpXav5ia^) yia va syKpiGei and auTf) tt] xcbpa. 
H GUvGriKT] a7isppi(pGr| gs 5ri[j,o\|/fi(piG[j,a tiou syivs tov Ioijvio 
Tou 2001 (KaTd TTjc; GUvGfiKr|(; si^av Ta^Gsi to 54% tcov sk^^o- 
yscov Kai vnep to 4 6 "Z^. H aTidvTrjGri tt]^ Eupco7iaiKfi(; Etii- 
Tpoiv(\q fiTav OTi «Ti7iOTa 5sv akXdC^ei, r\ NiKaia sivai aK6[j,ri 
Kai GTi^ }tS7iT0[j,spsiS(; Tri(; a5ia7ipay[j,dTSUTr|».^^ Triv i5ia GTd- 
GT] sixs Kai r\ KuPspvriGri Tri(; Ip}tav5ia(; (Kai r\ a^ico[j,aTiKfi a- 
VTmoXiTSUGri). AisvspyfiGriKs stgi vso 5ri[j,o\|/fi(piG[j,a 



83 



(19/10/2002) 710U avsTps\|/s to 7iporiyoi3[j,£Vo: to 62,89% \\fr\- 
(pios «vai» CTX] SuvGfiKri ttj^ NiKaia^, svavTi 37,11% tou «6- 
Xi». Sto 5ri[j,o\|/fi(piG[j,a \\ii\(picav [loXiq to 48,4%) tcov SK^oye- 
(ov. Ms dX,Xa }t6yia, OTav oi Xaoi 5sv oufj-cpcovotv, 5isvsp- 
yoTjfo^s ^avd Kai ^avd, ooa 5ri[a^o\|/ri(piG[a^aTa xpsid(^ovTai |J,sxpi 
va (pTdG0U|i8 OTO S7ii9u[j,riT6 a7iOTsX8G[j,a, avs^dpTrjTa and to 

TIOGOGTO SKAoyiKT)^ CV[i[iETO')(Jt\q- Kttl (pUGlKd TOTS [J,6V0 TiaiJ- 

ou[j,s va 5isvspyoi3[j,s 5ri[j,o\|/ri(piG[j,aTa! ! KdTCO and avxeq xiq 
GUv9fiKS(;, 5sv TipoKa^^si skti^^ti^ti r\ TipoTaGT] tou dX,}tOTS Tipco- 
GuTioupyoij TTjc; TakXiaq, PoKdp, va a7ioK>^8iGTSi opiGTiKd r| 
[j,s9o5o(; TCOV 5ri[j,o\|/ri(piG[j,dT(DV, 5s5o[j,£vou 6ti «oi Xaoi 5sv 9a 

I^TlOpSGOUV 710TS Va KaTaVOflGOUV TTjV «7lSpi7lX0K6TriTa» TCDV 

supcDTiaiKcbv 7ipay[j,dT(DV»! l''^ 

H 5iKaio>uoyia yia ttjv sA,}tsi\|/ri Siacpdvsiat;, sivai 6ti r\ E.E. 
Ssv aTiOTsXsi sviaio KpdTOt; Kai dpa 5ev f^Tiopsi va Kpi9si [is 
xa [lExpa sv6(; «KavoviKoi3» aGTiKoij koivoPouXsutikoij Ka9s- 
GTCDTO^. EnxKkeov, Ti^ (i^UGTiKst;) SiaPouXsiJGSK; Kai tk; tsXi- 
K8^ aTiocpdGSi^ tk; Xa[j,pdvouv «5r|[j,0KpaTiKd» SK>u8y[j,8V8^ ku- 
PspvfiGSK; Kai 5ia auTOij tou (8[j,[j,sgou) Tpouou vo[j,i[j,07ioioi3- 
VTai «5ri[j,0KpaTiKd». Qgtogo, sivai 7ipo(pavs(;, 6ti r\ Tiapaud- 
vco S7iixsipri[j,aTo}toyia, 5sv avaipsi 6ti to supoTiaiKo «syxsi- 
pri[j,a» 5isvspy8iTai spfmriv tcov hx&iv Tri(; Evp&)ivr\q, onaq yi- 
v8Tai (pavspo gttjv tispititcogti tt]^ Ip}tav5ia(; r\ gto yeyovot; 
OTi 01 8upco7iaioi noXneq 5sv KaTavooiJV ti^ s^aipsTiKd nohb- 
7i}tOKS(; Kai GKOTSivs(; 5ia5iKaGis(; ttjc; E.E. (xovq sivai svtsMx; 
«^svs(;», terra incognito). Ethti^^sov, touMxiotov 9scopriTiKd, 
gtk; aGTiKS(; 5ri[j,0KpaTis(;, oi KuPspvfiGSK; PpiGKovTai vno tov 
sXsyxo TCOV KoivoPouMcov Kai oi v6[j,oi \|/ri(pi(^ovTai and auTd. 
Ettjv E.E., onmq eida[iE, oi aTiocpdGSK; uaipvovTai xtt)pi<^ ^av 

TTjV TUTllKTl SyKpiGT] a7l6 TOIX; SK}tSy[J,SVOU(; SK7ipOG(b7lOU(; TOU 

EupcoTiaiKoij KoivoPouMou. 



84 



Exriv Tipayfj-axiKOTTiTa, r\ (xouXaxiGTOv) 5ri[j,0KpaTiKd ek- 
?^8i[j,[a^aTiKfi XsiTOupyia Tri(; aGTiKfi(; koivoPouXsutiktic; dr\[io- 
Kpaxia^ [j,sys9i3vsTai ce xpofj-aKxiKo Pa9[j,6 gttiv E.E. Stk; s- 
QviKsq KoivoPouXsuTiKS(; SK^oyst;, oi \|/ri(po(p6poi SK^syouv sva 
KOfj-fo^a (nov 9a oxn^iotTiGSi KuPspvriGri) nov tiots dev s(pap[j,6- 
(^si tk; 7iposKXoyiKS(; xou 5iaKripi3^si(; (uTiOGxovxai xa Tidvxa 
yia va xa «^sxdGOt)v» xrjv S7io[j,svri xcdv SKAoycbv, 7ipdy[j,a a- 
nohbimq (pUGiKo, acpoij oi \|/ri(po(p6poi 5sv sxouv Kavsva xpouo 
va sXsy^ouv [j,sxd xo uspat; xri(; sK^toyiKfic; 5ia5iKaGia(; ogoix; 
s^s^ts^av). 

Sxriv E.E. xa 7ipdy[j,axa sivai aK6[j,a xsipoxspa: o [o^SGog 
TioMxri^ «Kaxavosi» TipaKxiKd xrjv E.E., [lovo gxk; aTiocpdGSK; 
710U sxoi)v dfo^SGr] stiitixcogti gxt] (^cofi xou, 5ri}ta5fi oxav Ka9o- 
pi(^ovxai oiKovo[j,iKd 7ispiopiGxiKS(; 7io}tixiKS(; f) 8^ayy8X,X,ovxai 
vso(piXsXsi39spa [j,sxpa (aGCpaXiGxiKo, GUVxd^sK;, «8}taGxiK8(; 
gxsgsk; spyaGia(;»). Sxriv a7i6ppi\|/ri and xovq Eouri5oi3(;, gxo 
5ri[j,o\|/fi(piG[j,a xri(; 14/9/2003, xr]^ avxiKaxdGxaGri(; xri(; Kopcb- 
va(; a7i6 xo supcb (56% Kaxd - 41% UTisp) gt] [j,avxiK6xaxo po^^o 
87iai^s T] 7iS7ioi9riGri xr]^ 7iXsio\|/ri(pia^ xou goutiSikoij hxoi) 6xi 
xo supd) 9a xpTloi^07ioiri9si Gav TipoGxn^a yia xrjv KaxsSdcpi- 
GT] xou GOur|5iKoi3 Kpdxoix; 7ip6voia(;, svd) stiitiXsov, t] avxiSr]- 
[j,OKpaxiKfi }tsixoupyia xr|(; E.E. sxsi o5riyfiG8i 7ioX,}tOi3(; gxo va 
5iapX87iouv xTjv aTisiXf) «8v6(; PsXoi35ivou [j,sxa- 
oXoKXripcoxiG[j,oi3 nov 9a Guvxpi\|/si Xaoij^ Kai koivcovis(;».^^ 

Tt] ypacpsiOKpaxiKTi sMx xri(; E.E. f^TiopoiJV va xrjv S7ir|psd- 
Gouv [j,6vo xa opyavco[j,sva GU[j,(p8povxa xou Kscpa^taiou, tioxs 
01 hxoi xT]^ E.E. Sxriv Tipd^r], r\ E.E. 5ist)9i3vsxai auo [j,ri 8- 
KXsy[j,svou(; x8xvoKpdx8(;, tiou evcb oi supcoTiaioi noXneq 5sv 
8xot)v Ka[j,id 5uvax6xr|xa smppofi^, 58v GUfo^Paivsi xo i5io [is 
xa [j,syd}ta Kamxa^^iGxiKd GU[j,(pspovxa. Fijpco and xo koivo- 
Poi3}tio Kai xrjv EmxpoTifi, 5paGxripio7ioioi3vxai Tispi xa 500 



85 



X6[nii [IE 10.000 \iekr\, nov 7ipoco9oi3v xa oufj-cpspovxa tcdv [le- 
ydXcDV supcDTiaiKcbv smxsipfiGSCDV. Fijpco gtoix; 3.000 ^^[nii- 
GTS(; 5paGTripio7ioioi3vTai yupro and to koivoPoijXio, 5riXa5fi 5 
Xo[j,7iiGTS(; avd Pou^tsuxfi. To tiogo a7iOTsXsG[j,aTiKd sivai xa 
Xof^Tii, (paivsxai a7i6 xr| Xsyofo^svri TipaKxiKfi xrjc; «7ispiGxps(p6- 
[j,svr|(; 7i6pxa(;»: [a^syaXoKamxa^^iGxsc; tiod syivav Tiapdyovxs^ 
xri(; E.E. Kai xo avxiGsxo. O GOGiaXiGxfig Kdp8>^ Bav Mispx, 
Tipcbriv S7iixpo7iO(; yia xov avxaycoviG[j,6, syivs [j,sxs7isixa stii- 
KS(pa}tfi(; xTjc; Swissair, svcb o Po[j,dvo IIpovxi, TiposSpot; xrjc; 
EupoTiaiKfic; EmxpoTific;, fixav gxsXsxo(; xt]^ KpaxiKfig sxaipia^ 
Xapxocpu^^aKiou IRI. 

H a5ia(pavfi(; }t8ixoupyia xcdv supcoTiaiKcbv 98G[j,(bv SKxps- 
(psi XT] 5ia(p9opd. To Es7ixs[j,Ppio xou 2003 ^SGTiaGS GKdv5a}to 
GXTjv EupcDTiaiKTi EmxpoTifi, oxav a7ioKaX,i3(p0riKs 6xi spyoXa- 
pts^ XT]^ Eurostat (xtj^ 8t)pco7iaiKfi(; GxaxiGxiKfic; UTiripsGia^) 
avaxs9r|Kav gs «r|[j,8X8pou(;», svcb oi |J,iC£<; KaxsXr|^av gs f^u- 
GxiKotx; XoyapiaG[j,oi3(; avcoxdxcov gxsXsxcdv xtjc; Eurostat i3- 
\|/ou(; xouMxiGxov tisvxs SKaxofo^^upicov supcb.'''* O TIpovxi Kai 
r\ EDpcDTiaiKTi EmxpoTifi TipoGTidGriGav va a7ioKpi3\|/ot)v xo 



To 1985, T] nil 7101) TipoiiSpeue o Po|idvo IlpovTi, aTiocpdoioe va TiouXf]- 
(j£i Ti<; KpaxiKEt; «7ipopXri|iaTiKe<; Pio|irixavie9> SME. To 5iaycovKj|i6 Kep- 
5ioe epyooxaoiapxrii; Kai iSioKTiixrig (xoxe) xrn; «OA,iPexi» Nxe Mtkve- 
vxexi. EvipoKeixo yia ^enovlmia. H a^la xou o(xlXou SME fixav 1. 100 Sio. 
hptxeq aXka ciujxcpcovfiBriKe va e^ayopaoxow evavxi nolxq 400 5kj. kpe- 
x£<; . TeXiKd xo ^enovlmia aviocpeyxSriKe xotpi? oxt] 5copo5oKia 5iKaoxcbv 
avio xov avxiTialo emxeiprniaxla... MTiepXouoKovi! O MTiepXouoKovi |id- 
koxa 9ecopel xi<; 5copo5oKie<; kov 5i£7ipa^e «e9viKfi euepye(jla»: «E|ieva 
xpeviei va |i£ PpaPeuoei xo Kpdxo<; kov xdpr] oxriv TiapeiiPaoii \iov 5ev 
^ETiouXfiOriKe SME oxov Nxe Mvievevxexi. EkeIvti xtjv 7ieplo5o o Kpd^i 
\iov 81718 6x1 e7i8oav Kolla cpaKeXdiaa (5riXa5fi avio xov evSiacpepojxevo 
emxeipriiiaxla 7ipo<; opi(j|ievou<; tioXixikoix;). 'Exoi (xou (^iixrioe va eTiejxPco 
oxriv ayopd yia xo Kalo xri<; x<i)pai;»! (EleuGepoxuma, 6/5/2003). 

86 



GKdv5aXo, Kai KivfiGriKav yia va to «s^8TdG0t)v» [lovo oxav 
Tifips 5ri[j,OGi6TriTa. H 5ia(p9opd Kai xa cKavdahx 8ev (paivsxai 

va TITOOIJV Tl^ KUPspvflGSK; GTO 5lOpiG^6 TipOGCDTlCOV GS KpiGl- 

[j,ri(; Gri[j,aGia(; TiOGxa. O 7ip6s5po(; Tri(; EvpG)iiaiKr\q KsvTpiKfi(; 
Tpd7is(^a(;, Zav KXovx TpiGS, sixs KaTr|yopr|9si yia to [lejahb- 
Tspo Tpa7is(^iK6 GKdv5aXo ttjc; FaXMat;, oxav «[j,aysips\|/s» a 
hi Enron xa XoyiGxiKd PiPMa xrjc; xpd7is(^a(; Credit 
Lyonnais.''^ 

To i5soA6yri[j,a nov xpriGi[j,07ioisixai, yia va «xpuGCo9si xo 
Xd7ii», sivai 6x1 r\ o^^r] 5ia5iKaGia oSriysi gs [im svo7ioiri[j,svri 
EupcDTiri GXTjv OTioia 9a s^ouv ^STispaGxsi oi anakieq avima- 
X6xrix8(;» oi 07io(£(; o5fiyriGav gs 5uo TiayKOGfo^ioix; 7ioXs[j,ou(; 
Kai Gxo 5iax(DpiG[j,6 xou *Fuxpoi3 no}^s[j,ou. YuoGxovxai sm- 
7iA,80v, 6x1 r\ oiKovo[j,iKfi oAoK^fipcDGri 9a o^ioysvoTioifiGSi o- 
X6KXripri xTjv EupcDTiri odryf&iVTaq oh^vq xovq hxovq xri(; gxo 
i5io (GxsxiKd u\|/ri}t6) Pioxik6 enmedo KdTioicov xcopcbv xrjc; 5u- 
TiKr\q EupcDTiri^. 

Tov loijvio 2003 GXT] ©SGGaXoviKri (XaX,Ki5iKfi) syKpi9r|Ks, 
«Kax' apxnv», 8va «supco7iaiK6 Ei3vxay[j,a». To ysyov6(; aux6 
SIX8 Kai [j,ia s^aipsxiKd gt] [j,avxiKfi gt] [j,sioXoyiKfi gt] [j,aGia. 
«Ei3vxay[a^a» Grmaivsi, gxo [ieco tioMxti, evaq KaxaGxaxiK6(; 
Xdpxri(; evoq sviaiou Kpdxoug. H Evp&)iir\, Aom6v, «xou [lel- 
X,ovx6^ [j,a^» xxi(^sxai «7iapd xa 7ipopXfi[j,axa». H 5ia5iKaGia 
[inopei va sivai [j,aKpoxp6via, aX,Xd gxo xsXoc; 9a uudp^si xo 
«sviaio sup(D7iaiK6 G7iixi», [im supcoTiaiKfi o[j,OG7iov5ia. 

Auxf) r\ TipooTixiKTi i^Tiopsi va suxapiGxriGS 7ioX,}toi3(;, ak- 
T^vq 6[i(i)q (xovq 7ispiGG6xspou(;) xou^ s^si 9opupfiGSi, Kai 
[j,dXiGxa UTispPoXiKd: 

«'Ogoi [j,iXoi3v yia «o[j,OG7iov5iaKfi Kaxsi39uvGr|», sv- 
vooijv o[j,OG7iov5ia, 5riXa5fi «o[j,OG7iov5iaK6 Kpdxo^», 



87 



TOTS OCpSlAoUV Va Tipd^OUV KOITI 710U, GK67ll[J,a (pUGlKd, 

7iapa}^si7iouv: va a7ioKaX,i3\|/ouv evQemq gtoix; noXneq 
TTjc; EupcDTiTi^ OTi siGrjyoiJVTai ttjv KaTdpyriGri ttjc; KpaTi- 
Kr\q UTiOGTaGTi^ tcov TiaTpiScov xovq. FiaTi g' sva GXHiJ-a 
o[j,OG7iov5iaKoi3 KpdTOug 01 o^OGTiovSst; x&tpeq, 6go ki 
av Ka[j,id (popd ovo[j,d(^ovTai KpdTt] f) 7ioXitsis(;, oijts si- 
vai KpdTT] oi3t8 01 noXneq xovq xiq aiGGdvovTai ax; Kpd- 

66 

Tri». 

To (^fiTri[j,a, (pUGiKd, 5sv sivai Tioia sivai r\ yv(b[j,ri (f) to «6- 
pa[j,a») TCOV 5ia(p6p(DV aT6[j,cov, ak}A tcdv KpaTcbv Kai tcdv Ka- 
7iiTa}tiGT(bv TOU(;. Kai sivai KaGapo (onrnq 9a 5oi3[j,s) 6ti r\ 
7iXsio\|/ri(pia TCOV KpaTcbv ttjc; E.E., 5sv smGufo^si sva sviaio su- 
pcDTiaiKo o[j,6g7iov5o KpdTO(;. 'Etgi oi mGavoTriTS^ r\ E.E. va 
«s^sXix9si GS KpdTO^ tk; S7i6[j,svs(; 5i3o SsKasTis^ sivai sXdxi- 

GTS9>.^'' 

Oi Edoxstio^oi 8vva^t]<g 

Eivai Gri[j,avTiK6 va s^STdGOU[j,s ttiv KaTavo^f) tcov \|/fi(pcov 
avd[j,SGa GTa KpdTri-[j,s}^r| Tri(; E.E., [j,ia(; Kai to 9s[j,a auTO a- 
(popd TOix; GUGxsTiG[j,oi3(; 5i3va[j,ri(; avd[j,SGa GTa KpdTri-[j,sXri 

GTO Eu[J,Poi3XlO TT]^ EupCDTiri^, TT] GXEGT] [lEXa^V [lEJolXDV Kai 

[j,iKpcbv KpaTcbv, Kai KaTd to tiogo [j,sgcd tt]^ 9sG[a^iKfi(; }tsi- 
Toupyiat; yivsTai UTispPaGr] tcov s9viKcbv Siacpopcbv 7ipo(; ttjv 
KaTSi39uvGri Tri(; «7ioXiTiKfi(; svoTioiri gtjc;)). 

H KaTavo[j,fi tcov \|/fi(pcov gto EupcDTiaiKo Eu[j,poi3Xio (cpai- 
vo[j,sviKd) suvosi Ta [j,iKp6Tspa KpdTr|-[j,sXri, acpoij s^ouv, ava- 
}^oyiKd, TispiGGOTspoix; \|/fi(pou(; gs cxecr\ [is tov 7iA,ri9uG[j,6 
TOU(;. H KaTavo[j,fi tcov \|/fi(pcov gttjv E.E. -15, fiTav (Kai 9a s- 
^aKo}iou9si va sivai |J,sxpi to 2005): ^^ 



88 



Kaxavo^iii v|/ii(p(ov oxtiv E.E. 


-15 (2001) 


KpdTri-^sA,ri 


*Ffi(poi 


nX,ri9uG[^6(; 
(xdid5s(^ KdioiKoi) 


rsp^iavia 


10 


82.038 


Bpsxavia 


10 


59.247 


YakXia 


10 


58.966 


Ixakia 


10 


57.612 


iGTiavia 


8 


39.394 


0X,}^av5ia 


5 


15.760 


E^^MSa 


5 


10.533 


Bekjio 


5 


10.213 


UopTOjakia 


5 


9.980 


EourjSia 


4 


8.854 


AuGxpia 


4 


8.082 


Aavia 


3 


5.313 


Oiv^tavSia 


3 


5.160 


Ip}tav5ia 


3 


3.744 


Aot)^s[j,poi3pyo 


2 


429 


Eijvo^io E.E. 


87 


375.325 



To jejovoq oxi oi fj-iKpoxspsg X^ops? exovv avaXoyiKd %e- 
Pigg6t8P8(; \\ir\(povq, ce gxsgti [j,s tov 7iXri9t)G[j,6 xoix;, avxa- 
vaKM 5uo 7ipdy[j,aTa: nproxov, r] E.E. sivai GUvaG7iiG[j,6(; avs- 
^dpxriTCOv, Kupiapxcov Kpaxcbv, Kai [im ava^^oyiKfi sKTipoGcb- 
TiriGTi xcov \|/fi(p(DV (avdXoya [j,s xov 7iXri9uG[j,6 f) xrjv oikovo[j,i- 
KT) 5i3va[j,ri) 9a U7i8xaGG8 aTioXuxox; xk; [j,iKp6xsps(; Kai tiio a- 
5i3va[j,S(; gxk; iGXup6xsps(; (7ipdy[j,a tiou 5sv 9a yivoxav a7io5s- 
Kx6, sv(b 9a sixs 5iaA,uxiK8^ stiitixcdgsk;). Asuxspov, Kai mo 
ouGiaGxiKo, r\ xutiikti iGOxrixa avd[j,SGa Gxa Kpdxri-[j,sXri dev 
[inopei va avaipsGSi xrjv 7ipay[j,axiKfi aviGOxrixa [j,sxa^i3 xoix;. 



89 



H TUTiiKTi (vo[j,iKfi) iGOxriTa avd[iEGa gtoix; noXneq [iiaq %&>- 
pa(; 5sv aipsi xriv aviaoxriTa gtov «7ipay[a^aTiK6 KOGfo^o)). 
Muopsi vo[j,iKd evaq EpjaC,6[iEvoq va sivai «igo(;» [ie tov 
Bap5ivoyidwr|, yia 7iapd5siy[j,a, 6[i(i)q sivai Ga(pS(; on o xs- 
Xsuxaiot; [j,7iopsi Kai S7iripsd(^si tk; KuPspvriTiKst; auocpdGSi^ [ie 
KaGopiGTiKo xpoTio, 7ipdy[j,a nov sva^ auXo^ spya(^6[j,8VO(; 58v 
sivai Suvaxov va to stiitijxsi (a7i65si^r| oi vofo^oi nov noXkEq 
(pops(; 8ivai «(p(DToypa(piKoi», eivai 7ipo(; to GU[j,(pspov GuyKs- 

Kpi[J,SVCOV KaTllTaXlGTlKCbv GU[J,(pSp6VTC0V). To l5lO IGXUSl Kai 

yia tk; gxsgsk; [lETa^v tcov KpaT(bv-[j,sX(bv tt]^ E.E. '0}^S(; oi 
[j,iKps(; x(bps(; yv(Dpi(^ouv 6ti 5sv f^TiopoiJV va GuyKpiGoiJV [ie 
TTjv TioXiTiKT), oiKovofj-iKT) Kai 5i7i}t(D[j,aTiKfi 5i3va[j,ri [imq [lEja- 
Xr\q xcbpat; (ttjc; rsp[j,avia(; yia 7iapd5siy[j,a). rvcopi(^ouv 6ti 
|iia [lEjakf] x^pot sxsi toix; Tpouotx; Kai tt] SuvaTOTriTa, va 
«Ti[j,CDpfiG8i» [j,ia [j,iKp6Tspri xropot av to GsXtigsi. Sttiv Tipd^r], 
auTO SK(ppd(^STai gto ysyov6(; 6ti oi [j,syaA,i3Tsps^ W>P^'i sXsy- 
Xouv TOU(; 7110 GT] [j,avTiKoi3(; xo)pou(; tioXitikti^ [ie 5ikoi3^ tou^ 
ETiiTpoTioix; GTa 5id(popa opyava Tri(; E.E. 

EtiitiXsov, fj,' 8vav s^aipsTiKd tioXijtiXoko TpoTio sivai r\ 
a>tfi9sia, r\ GsXtigti tcov [j,syaX,i3Tspcov KpaTcbv SK(ppd(^STai Kai 
68G[j,iKd GTO SGCOTspiKo Tri(; E.E. Oi auocpdGSK; auaiTOUv, sits 
o[j,o(pcovia, SITS aiikr] 7iX£io\|/ri(pia, sits «si5iKfi 7i}tsio\|/ri(pia». 
DTav TO Eu[j,poi3Xio a7io(paGi(^si [ie siSikt) 7i}^sio\|/ri(pia, KdGs 
KpdTO(;-[j,sXo(; sxsi svav api9[j,6 \|/fi(pcov oi onoiEq avTava- 
K^toijv, «[iE apKSTT) SoGT] au9aipsGia(; gtoix; U7ioXoyiG[j,oi3(;, to 
\jiEjEQoq Tou TiXriGuGf^oij tou».^^ H siSikt) 7i}tsio\|/ri(pia sivai 
sva(; Tp67iO(; [j,sg(d tou OTioiou oi [j,sydXs(; xo)p£<; auoKTOW [j,s- 
yaXuTspri PapuTtiTa and uq [j,iKp6Tsps(; x^^ps?- Tia va stiiku- 
pcoGsi [j,ia aTiocpaGTi [ie siSikt) 7i}tsio\|/r|(pia auaiTOWTai 62 
\|/fi(poi (71,26%), sMxioTO SKaTOGTiaio tiogogto STii tou 7iA,ri- 
GuG[j,ou Tri(; E.E. 5 8,16%, Kai tt] GU^iTipa^ri ttjc; 7iXsio\|/ri(pia(; 



90 



Tcov KpaT(bv-[j,s}t(bv (8 KpdTri-[j,8Xri). Mia Tipoxaori 5sv syKpi- 
vsxai («[a^sio\|/ri(pia apvriGiKupia(;») av GuyKsviproasi 26 \\ii\- 
(potx; (29,89%) [is sAaxioxo SKaxoGTiaio tiogogto tou Tikr\Qv- 
a[j,oi3 1238%. Sxriv Tiproxri 7ispi7iTCOGr|, r\ SuvaxoTriTa tcdv [le- 
ydXcDV Kpaxcbv va gxh^oitigouv siSikt) 7iXsio\|/ri(pia sivai au- 
^ri[j,svri, svd) gttiv TispiTiTCOGri ttjc; «[j,8io\|/ri(pia^ apvriGiKupia^» 

TO sXdxiGTO SKaXOGTiaiO TIOGOGTO TOU 7l}tri9UG[J,Ol3 Kai TCOV 

\|/fi(p(DV, TO GuyKsvTpcbGOUv Tp8i(; [iEjakeq W>P^'i, Kai stgi 
I^TiopoiJV va i^TiAoKdpouv 07ioia5fi7iOT8 aTiocpaGr]. 

Ms TT] SuvGriKTi Tri(; NiKaiat; (AsKSfo^Ppiot; 2000) sxsi svTa- 
981 T] TipoGTidGsia yia mo GuyKsvTpcDTiKfi XsiTOupyia tt]^ E.E. 

G8 PdpO^ TCDV [J,lKp6TSpC0V KpaTCDV. AtIO TO 2005 r| KaTavo[j,fi 

TCOV \|/fi(pcov (Kai yia Ta vsa [lekf] nov 9a sigs^^Gouv gttjv E.E. 
TO 2004 9a sivai (av, (pUGiKd, 5sv Tpo7i07ioiri9si svTC0[j,STa^i3 
T] NiKaia):™ 



Kaxavofiii v|/ii(p(j)v 


OTt] SlSDpDflSVt] 


E.E. 


KpdTr|-[j,sXri 


*Ffi(poi 


KpdTri-[j,8}tri 


*Ffi(poi 


rsp[j,avia 


29 


AoD^SfxPoTjpyo 


4 


BpsTavia 


29 


IloXcovia 


27 


raA,Ma 


29 


TGSxia 


12 


iTaMa 


29 


Ouyyapia 


12 


iGTiavia 


27 


EXoPaKia 


7 


OXhxvdia 


13 


Ai9ouavia 


7 


EXkd5a 


12 


AeTOvia 


4 


Bekjio 


12 


SXoPsvia 


4 


TlopTOjakia 


12 


EG9ovia 


4 


Eouri5ia 


10 


K'U7ipo(; 


4 


AuGTpia 


10 


MdA,Ta 



J 


Aavia 


7 


IpXav5ia 


7 


Oiv^^avSia 


7 


Ei)vo}ioE.E.-15 


237 



91 



Oaivo[j,sviKd, o GVGxeTic[i6q xcov SiaKpaxiKcbv gxsgscov, 
avd[j,8Ga gtk; [iiKpeq Kai [lejakeq X^ops? Ssv avaxpsTisxai pi(^i- 
Kd. H GxsGTi Gxriv Kaxavofo^fi xcov \|/fi(pcov, [j,sxa^i3 xcdv fj-sya^^ij- 
xspcov xmp&iv Kai xcov [j,iKp6xspcov akXdC^ei [lovo opiaKd, and 
2:1 yivsxai 2,4:1. 

Qgxogo, [j,ia 7110 TipoGSKxiKTi [j,axid GXT] SuvGriKTi o5riysi gs 
5ia(popsxiKd GU^7ispdG[j,axa. Sxr|v E.E.-15 auaixowxai 169 
\|/fi(poi GS GUVoAo \|/fi(pcov 23 7yia xo Gxn^oixiG[j,6 xrjc; si5iKfi(; 
7i}tsio\|/ri(pia(;, 5ri}ta5fi xo 71,3% xcdv \|/fi(pcDV, Kai xrjv 7iXsio\|/ri- 
(pia XCDV Kpaxcbv-[j,s}tcbv. H 5uvax6xrixa 6[i(i)q xcov [j,syaA,i3xs- 
pcov Kpaxcbv va [j,7iXoKdpouv auocpdGSK; sivai av^r\[iEvr\. H 
EuvGriKTi npo^'kenei 6xi r\ 5ia[j,6p(pcoGr| xr|(; 8i5iKfi(; 7iXsio\|/ri- 
(pia(; TipsTisi va avxiGxoixsi gxo 62% (and 58,16%) 7ia}^i6xspa) 
xou GUVoXiKoiJ 7iXr|9uG[j,oi3 xTjc; 'EvcDGri(;. Edv Kdxi xsxoio Ssv 
Gt)[j,paivsi, x6x8 aTiocpaGTi Ssv }^a[j,pdvsxai. IIpoKsixai yia sva 
[j,sxpo 710U smxpsTisi GS xpsK; [j,syaX,i3xsps(; X'^P^'i^ '^'^'^Q oitoieq 
9a GU[j,[j,sxdGxsi Kai r\ Fsp^avia, va «^7i}tOKdpouv» auocpd- 
gsk;, ''^ [j,ia(; Kai oi xpsic; |ia(^i 9a GuyKsvxpcbvouv TidvcD a7i6 xo 
40%)xou 7iXri9uG[j,oi3 xrjc; E.E (gxtj 5isupu[j,svri E.E. r\ TEp[ia- 
via 9a sxsi xo 17,1%) xou guvoXikoij 7iXri9uG[j,oi3, r\ TaXkia xo 
12,2%), T] IxaMa xo 12%) Kai r] Bpsxavia xo 12,4%)). Ethti^^sov, 
T] «avaGxs}tXouGa [j,sio\|/ri(pia» avspxsxai gs 69 \|/fi(pou(;, ysyo- 
voq nov gt] [j,aivsi ticdc; 5ijo [j,sydXs(; x^Jps*; Kai ^iia GxsxiKd [ii- 
Kpoxspr] i^TiopoiJV va «^7iXoKdpouv» otioisgStitioxs auocpd- 

72 

gsk;. 

Za^tiGxfiKaxs XiydKi, sxgi 5sv sivai; Qgxogo, auxf) r| 5ai5a- 
}^cb5rig 5ia5iKaGia, avxavaK^d xo ysyovog 6xi r\ E.E. sivai gu- 
vaG7iiG[j,6(; avs^dpxTjxcov Kpaxcbv, otiou oi 5ia5iKaGis(; ^fi\|/ri(; 
XCDV auocpdGSCDV TipsTisi va GU[j,pipdG0uv TioXXd Kai avxixi9E- 
[j,sva GU[j,(pspovxa, va SKcppdGOUv, xauxoxpova, gugxsxig[j,oi3(; 
5i3va[j,ri(; avd[j,SGa gxk; [j,syaX,i3xsps(; Kai [j,iKp6xsps(; x&tpeq, Kai 



92 



avayKaoTiKd auxo yivsxai [lecG) noXvuikoKov 5ia5iKaGi(bv. To 
TS^tiKo aTiOTsXsGfo^a sivai aKpoPaxiKoi GU[j,piPaG[j,oi nov o5ri- 
yoijv GS avTi(paTiKS(; SuvGtiks^. 

Oi a7io(pdG8i(; ttjc; NiKaiat;, 7ipoG7ia9(bvTa(; va iGoppoTifi- 
Gouv TioXXd Kai 5ia(popsTiKd «s9viKd Gt)[j,(pspovTa», xapaKxr]- 
pi(^ovTai a7i6 aA,A,riAoavaipoi3[j,svs(; TipoxdGSi^. Evicjpcr] xcov 
[j,sydXcov Kpaxcbv gs pdpo(; xcov [j,iKp6xspcov, cdgxogo, oi 169 
\|/fi(poi xTjc; 8i5iKfi^ 7iXsio\|/ri(pia(; (yia xrjv E.E.-15) 9a upsTisi va 
GuyKsvxpcbvouv xk; \|/fi(pot)(; xrjc; 7i}tsio\|/r|(piag xcdv Kpaxcbv- 
[j,8>^cbv. E7ii7i}tsov, 9scopfi9r|Ks «GKdv5a}to» xo jejovoq 6xi I- 
GTiavia Kai IIoXcDvia 9a sxouv nepmov xov i5io api9[j,6 \|/fi(pcov 
[IE x&tpeq «7ioX,i3 mo nXo wieq Kai iGXups(;» 67icd(; Fa^^Ma, 
Tep[iavia, Bpsxavia, IxaMa (avoixxf) o[j,oXoyia 6xi r] E.E. si- 
vai ouvaG7iiG[j,6(; Kpaxcbv avd>uoya xr]^ gxsxiktic; xoix; 5i3va[j,ri^ 
Kai 6x1 8v07ioiri[j,svo(; oiKovo[j,iKd Kai TioXixiKd x(bpo(;). H a- 
vxicpaxiKoxrixa gxt] 9sG[j,iKfi Xsixoupyia o5fiyriGS xotx; TispiG- 
Goxspou^ va 9s(opoi3v xr] Nkaia «(pidGKo», o 5s U7ioupy6(; 
s^oDxspiKcbv xou BeXyiou xrjv sxsi xapaKxripiGSi «KoXoGGiaia 
a7ioxuxia». ''■' Auxoi sivai oi }^6yoi nov o5fiyriGav, gxsSov a[j,s- 
GGx; [j,sxd XT] NiKaia, va apxiGOUv 5iaPouXsi3G8i(; yia xrjv vko- 
ypacpf) [im veaq Suv9fiKri(; tiou va sivai (xouMxigxov!) }tiy6- 
xspo avxicpaxiKT). 

To 7110 GT] [j,avxiK6, COGXOGO, fixav 6x1 GXT] NiKaia Kaxoxp- 
pcb9riKs r\ 5uvax6xrixa yia [im E.E. 5i3o xaxpxfixcov, gxtjv o- 
Tioia 569riKs xo \|/su5(bvu[j,o «sviGXU|J.6vri GUVspyaGia». H 
7ipopXs7i6[a^£vri «sviGXU[J.6vri GUVspyaGia» 5ivsi xr] 5uvax6xrixa 
GS opiG[j,8va [j,6vo Kpdxri-[j,s}tri va TipoxcopfiGOUv gs Gxsv6xspri 
GUVspyaGia (oiKovo[j,iKfi, tioXixikti, 5mX(D[j,axiKfi aX,Xd Kai 
GxpaxicoxiKTi) an' 6xi xa aXkn Kpdxr|-[j,sXr|. 'Exgi avoiysi o 
5p6[j,0(; yia xr] 5ri[j,ioupyia evoq 5isu9uvxr|piou, evoq GK}tr|poi3 
Twpi\va, Kai xr] [j,sxaxpo7ifi ohm xcov utioXoiticov gs aTi^^fi oi- 



93 



Kovo[j,iKfi C,&)vr\, yijpco and auxov to oK^ripo 7iupfiva7'^ O 98- 
G[j,6(; Tr|(; «sviGXU|J.svr|(; GUVspyaGia(;»: 

«[...] Tpo7i07ioifi6riK8 [IE TT] SuvGfiKri TT]^ NiKaia(;, 5sv 
aTiaiTsi Kax' avdyKriv o[j,o(pcovia, [...] aXXd siGdysi Kai 
85(b xriv apxn xr]^ 8i5iKfi(; 7iXsio\|/ri(pia(;. 'Exgi, aKo^r] Kai 
sva x[j,fi[a^a (ofo^dSa Kpaxcbv) xri(; Eupco7iaiKfi(; 'Ev(i)cr\q 
I^Tiopsi va 5ri[j,ioupyfiG8i 0[j,d5a s\/ic')(p[ievr\q GUvepyaGi- 
aq Kai va aGKfiGSi, sv ov6[j,axi 6[j,(0(; oXtjc; xri(; EupcoTiai- 
KTig 'EvcDGri(;, tioXixiks^ nov oi dXXoi 5sv 9a f^TiopoiJV r\ 
Kai 58V 9a 9sXouv va 5sxxoi3v. 

O 9sG[j,6(; aux6(;, [...] Tispisxsi xov tioXij GoPapo kiv- 
5uvo, xsxoi£(; o[j,a5o7ioifiG8i(; va opiGxiK07ioiri9oi3v, Kdxi 
710U vo^iox8>^8iaKd 9a o5riyoi3G8 gxtjv EupcoTiri xcov «5i3o 
xd^8CDV» f) «5i3o xaxuxfix(DV» Kai, iGrog, ^8A,A,ovxiKd gxt] 
5idA,UGri xri(; gt] [j,8pivfi(; xr]^ Gi3v98Gr|(;. 

Eivai PsPaia Tipocpavs^ ticd^ o 9sg[j,6(; 9sG7iiGxriKs yia 
va avxi[j,8xco7iiGxoi3v oi «Kiv5uvoi» nov 9a 5ri[j,ioupyfiGSi 
yia xou(; ti^^oijgioix; Kai iGXupotx; r| sigo5o(; Tixcoxoxsprov 
Kpaxcbv [j,sM)v. YTiripsxsi xrjv d7io\|/ri: «Aisi3puvGri vai, 
aX,Xd SK xou aG(pa}toi3(;!». ''^ 

To «Lv\Tay\ia» 

ExT] XaA,Ki5iKfi xov lowio 20038yiv8 [im Tipcbxri upoGTid- 
98ia va «S7ii5iop9co9si» r\ 9sG[j,iKd avxicpaxiKf) }tsixoupyia xrjc; 
E.E. onmq SK(ppa(^6xav auo xr] Suv9fiKri xr]^ NiKaia^. Mox^6(; 
auxfi(; xTjc; 7ipoG7id98ia(; fixav xo 5iaP6rixo «Si3vxay[j,a» nov 
7iapouGidGxriK8 S7iiGri[j,a gxt] XaX,Ki5iKfi. 

Mia Tipcbxri uapaxfipriGri nov TipsTisi va yivsi, sivai 6xi xo 
\|/8u5cbvu[j,o «Sijvxay[j,a» Ssv s^si Ka[j,id gxsgti [j,8... a}tri9ivd 



94 



Gt)VTdy[j,aTa. Ss 98G[j,ik6 S7ii7is5o, TipoKsixai Kupico(;, yia Kaxa- 
ypacpf) Tr|(; |J,sxpi xcbpa avTi5r|[j,0KpaTiKfi^, ypacpsioKpaxiKfic; 
'kenovpjiaq ttjc; E.E. Ss Ka[j,id TispiTixcDGri 5sv 7ipoGsyyi(^si o- 
TiSfiTiOTS 9a i^TiopoiJGS va GscopriGsi Gav, sgtcd Kai ax; TipoGxs- 
5io, KaxaGTaxiKoc; xdpxrit; o[j,OG7iov5iaKoi3 Kpdxoix;: 

«0i mo Gri[j,avxiK8(; [aXhrfsq] acpopouv xk; 5ia5iKa- 
cieq Kai xk; 7iXsio\|/ri(pis^ ^ilV^l? i^tov aTiocpdGSCov. H ap- 
Xn xT]^ o[j,o(pcovia^ 7ispiopi(^sxai aiGGrjxd, svcb npo^'kene- 
xai GS TioXXoTjg xo|is((; r\ apxn xrjc; si5iKfi(; 7iXsio\|/ri(pia(;. 
[...] To KaXoi3[j,8vo EupcDTiaiKo Ei3vxay[j,a 6xi |j,6vov 5sv 
aA,Xd(^8i XT] C,(i)r\ xou [xou supcoTiaiou tioMxt]] akXa Kai 
5sv xov acpopd d[j,SGa: o xpoTiot; opydv(DGri(; Kai 'kei- 
xoupyia^ xcov koivoxikcdv s^ougicdv [levei a7iapdX,}ta- 
Kxo(;, ypa(psioKpaxiK6(;, Kpi3o(;, a7i6[j,aKpo(; auo xoix; 
>uaoi3(; Kai xoix; noXneq, [is [im a[j,(pipo}tr| Kai [j,r| apfo^o- 
(^ouGa Gxi^ KaxaGxdGSK; vo[j,i[j,07ioiriGri. To KaXoi3[j,8vo 
s}^8i[j,[j,a xri(; 5r|[j,0KpaxiKfi(; vo[j,i[a^07ioiriGri(; s^aKoXou- 
9si co^ (pdvxaG[j,a va TiXavdxai. [...] H ouGia sivai [lia: 
PdcpxiGav Si3vxay[j,a xrjv aiikf] KcoSiKOTioiriGri 5is9v(bv 
GUvGriKcbv yia xrjv oiKovo[j,iKfi svoTioiriGri Kai xr] 5iaKu- 
PspvriGTi xri(; oiKovo[j,ia(; xrjc; ayopdt;, 9u[j,fi9riKav Xs^sk; 
Kai KaxaKxfiGSK; GUVxay[j,axiKs^ xou 18ou aicbva Kai ni- 
Gxs\|/av 6x1 i^TiopoiJV va ^sysXdGOUv xov k6g[j,o Kai xov 
sauxo xou(; ovo[j,axi(^ovxa(; [j,s aTiaxrjM ov6[j,axa gxsgsk; 
Kai KaxaGxdGSK;, dGX6xs(; [j,s auxo tiou [j,a(; K}tr|po56xri- 
GS o supcDTiaiKot; GUVxay[j,axiG[j,6(;». '''' 

H sK7i6vr|Gri xou «Euvxdy[j,axo(;» syivs and [im \|/su5(bvu[j,ri 
«Euvs}tsuGri» (Convention), r\ OTioia Ka[j,id gxsgti 5sv sixs [le 
XT] Xaud] Poi3X,riGri xcov supcoTiaiKcbv ^^acbv. Aiaxrip(bvxa(; xk; 



95 



«7iapa56GSig» ttjc; E.E., xriv sktiovtigti tou «SuvTdy[j,aTO(;» 
xriv avs^^aPav 5otoi ypa(psioKpdTS(; - SKTipoocoTioi tcdv KuPsp- 

vflGSCOV Kai TCOV KOlVOPouMcOV TCOV KpaT(bv-[J,sX(bv, Kai KOITIOI- 

01 SKTipoGCOTioi Tou EupcoTiaiKoij KotvoPouMou Kai Tri(; Eupco- 
TiaiKr\q ETinpoiv(\q. AK6[j,a 6[j,(d<; Kai auxfi r| «Suvs}tsuGri» xs- 
}^iKd 7iapaKd[j,(p9riKs: 340 and xa 460 dpGpa xou k81[j,8vou xou 
«Euvxdy[j,axo(;» f^TifiKav «Gico7ir|}td» Gxr| XaXKiSiKf) and xovq 
apxnyotx; xcov Kpaxcbv, ypdcpovxat; Gxa 7ia}ti6xspa xcov U7io5ri- 
[j,dx(DV xou^ XT] iiLvvekevc^yy.^^ H xs^tiKf) xpoTiOTioiriGri Kai 
a7io5oxn Tou «Suvxdy[j,axo(;» 9a yivsi ano xovq apxnyotx; xcov 
Kpax(bv-[j,sM)V ([j,dA,Xov xo 2004, av Gi)[j,(pcovfiGOUv [j,sxa^i3 
xou(;, sv(b r\ s(pap[j,oyfi xou TipoP^^STisxai yia xo 2009), 5ri}ta5fi 
9a TipoKsixai yia SiaKpaxiKf) GU[j,(pcovia, vsa Suv9fiKr| yia xrjv 
E.E., Kai 6x1 Ei3vxay[j,a mq Tipcbxo pfi[j,a yia xrjv iSpuGr] «u7is- 
ps9viKoi3» Kpdxoix;: 

«Sxri Suv9fiKri, onaq oXoi oi GUVxay[j,axo}t6yoi Tiapa- 
5sxovxai, sxou[j,s Kupiapxa Kpdxr] nov SK(ppd(^ouv xr] 

PouXriGTl XOU^, GU[J,(p(DV01JV Kai 58G[J,8l)OVXai G8 Kdxi. 

To «Ei3vxay[j,a» 7ipocD9oi3v Kai UTioypdcpouv xa Kupi- 
apxa Kpdxr] xr|(; EupcDTiaiKfic; 'Ev(i)cr\q. IIpoKsixai, Aoi- 
7i6v, yia [j,ia svcogt] Kpaxcbv, 5sv sivai oijxs svcogt] tio^^i- 
xcbv oijxs svcDGT] XacDV. Ta Kupiapxa auxd Kpdxr] Tipo- 
Xcbpr]Gav gs [im [j,opcpoAoyiKfi Kaivoxo[j,ia, 5r]Xa5fi Ka- 
xdXr]^av g' sva suavdyvcoGxo, GUVOTixiKoxspo Kai guvs- 
KxiKoxspo Ksi[j,svo 710U [j,oid(^si [IE Gi3vxay[j,a aX,}td 5sv 
sivai GTJVxayfj.a''^ [...] H s^ouGia PpiGKsxai Gxa xspia 
xcov Kpaxcbv. A7io(paGi(^ouv oi KuPspvfiGSK; Kai xa Sufj,- 
Poi3}tia xcDV Ytio ipycbv s^ouv xr]v s^ouGia Gxa xspia 

79 

xoix; ». 



96 



Aut6(; sivai o hbyoq nov o Evajjekoq BeviC,Ekoq xapaKxfi- 
piGS xriv «Suvs}tsuGri» «5iaKuPspvriTiKfi 7ipo-5idGKs\|/ri, [is 
KoivoPouXsuTiKd 7ipoGxn|J.aTa».^*' 

Qgtogo, 58V 9a TipsTisi Kavsi(; va U7iOTi[j,fiGSi xiq 87ii7iT(b- 
G8i(; a7i6 [j,ia a7io5oxn xou «SuvTdy[j,aTO^». Kai oi stiititcdgsk; 
auTS<^ sivai GoPaps(; Kai acpopow 5uo to[j,si(;. nproxov, tk; 
gxsgsk; avd[j,SGa Gxa KpdTri-[j,sXri Kai Ssuxspov, xa KoivroviKd 
Kai 5ri[j,0KpaTiKd 5iKai(b[j,aTa. 

To «Si3vTay[j,a», nov \|/ri(piGTriKs «KaT' apxnv» gxt] XaX,Ki- 
5iKfi, ava(^co7i'up(DGS [is GCpoSpoTtixa tk; 5ia[j,dxs(; yupoD auo 
Toug GUGxsTiG[j,oi3(; 5i3va[j,ri(; avd[j,SGa Gxa KpdTri-[j,sXri. To 
«KaT' apxnv» Gr|[j,aiv8i, oxi o'keq oi [j,iKps(; Kai [j,SGais(; X(bp6(; 
7ipo8PaX,}tav noXkeq Kai iGXupoTaxst; avxippfiGSi^ gs gxsgti [ie 
Siaxd^sK; xou «Suvxdy[j,axo(;» Kai oi xsXiKsg aTiocpdGSK; acps- 
GrjKav va 7iap9oi3v gs vsa 5iaKuPspvrixiKfi 5idGKs\|/ri vno xrjv 
nakiKT] 7ipos5pia. To «Ei3vxay[a^a» auoxs^^si xrjv, sax; xcbpa, 
KoptxpcoGTi xri(; 7ipoG7id9sia(; yia xr] 9sG[j,o9sxri[j,svr| u7iopd9[j,i- 
GT] xcov [j,iKp6xsp(DV KpaxcDV Kai GXT] St] [j,ioupyia oprov yia xrjv 
ijTiap^ri xou 7ispi(pri[j,ou «5isu9uvxripiou». Avoiysi xo 5p6[j,o 
«yia XT] [leimcT] xr]^ iGOxi[j,ia(; xcov Kpax(bv», Kai exgi «vai [lev 
58V opiGxiKOTioisi XO 5isu9uvxfipio, akin avoiysi xo 5p6[j,o 
Tipog auxf) xTjv Kax8i39uvGr|» .^^ 



«Oi evKJxun£ve<; ouvepyaofet; okotio exouv va 5i8uko>,i3vouv xriv Tipay- 
lidxcoori xcov oxoxcov xrig'Evcoarn;, va SiacpuXdooouv xa ouiicpepovxa xri<; 
Kai va eviox^ouv xr] 5ia5iKaola oXoicXfipcoofn; xri<;. [. . .] H eyKpior] yia xtjv 
KaBiepcooT] |iiag svwxoiisv^c, ciuvepyaolai; xopiiyeixai avio xo Eu|iPoi)A,io 
xcov Yvioupycbv cog ecjxotxri Xvcjx] [...] Kai vko xov 6po 6xi 9a cjuyKevxpcbvei 
xouXcxxicJxov OKxcb Kpdxri |ieXri». 

(SX85io (n)v6fiKri<; yia xr] Becjmcjri duvxayjiaxog xrig EupcoTirn;, Kecpcilaio 
III, Oi evi(JXD(i£ve<; cruvepyacjiei;, cjeX. 37). ndvxcoi; Kai e5cb, |ie xo va 5iv8- 
xai T] eyKpioT] \na£, evi(jxu|isvri<; ouvepyacjiotig cjxo Ei)|iPoi)A,io xcov Yvioup- 
ycbv KivSuveuel va avoi^ei veo 7ie5io avxiTiapaOecjecov cjxriv E.E., avdjiEoa 

97 



Sto «Ei3vTay[j,a» Tipoxsivovxai: ^^ 

A) KaxdpyriGri Tri(; iG6Ti[j,r|(; SKTipoocDTiriGric; okmv xcov 
KpaT(bv-[j,s}t(bv Gxriv EupcoTiaiKfi ETiixpoTifi. A716 to 2009 Tipo- 
pXsTisxai r\ [leimcf] xou api9[j,oi3 xcov smxpoTicov ce 15 [is 5i- 
Kaicofo^a \|/fi(pou (oi utioXoitioi 10 9a sivai «7iapaxriprixs9>), [le 
8vaA,>taGG6[j,£vri sKTipoGCOTiriGri oXcov xcov Kpax(bv-[j,sX(bv 
Gxou(; 1 5 [j,s 5iKai(D[j,a \|/fi(pou. S' auxfiv xrjv 7ispi7ix(DGr|, sivai 
Ga(pS(; 6x1 xo pdpo(; xcov [j,sydXcov Kpaxcbv 9a au^ri98i 5pa[j,a- 
xiKd, i5iaixspa oxav xo «Ei3vxay[j,a», s[j,(paxiKd xovi(^si, 6xi r\ 
[j,sicD[j,8vri api9[j,rixiKd EmxpoTifi 9a «avxiKaxo7ixpi(^si [is iKa- 
voTioirixiKo xpoTio xo 5ri[j,oypa(piK6 Kai yscoypacpiKo (pdG[j,a 
xou GUVoXou xcDV KpaxcDV [lehbvy). O itpoedpoq xr\q EupcDTia- 
'iKr\q E7iixpo7ifi(; 9a SK^^sysxai [lev and xo EupcDTiaiKo Koivo- 
Poi3}tio, COGXOGO o U7io\|/fi(piO(; 9a opi(^sxai and xo EupcDTiaiKo 
Eufo^PouXio ([IE siSiKT) 7iX8io\|/ri(pia). To KoivoPoijXio sxsi xr] 
Suvaxoxrixa va [j,riv xovsyKpivsi, otioxs xo EupcoTiaiKo Sufj,- 
PoijXio 7ipoxsiv8i vso U7io\|/fi(pio. Ms auM }t6yia, Kai gxtjv 718- 
piTixcoGTi auxf), xov Tipcbxo (Kai xsXsuxaio) }t6yo xov sxouv oi 
KuPspvfiGSK; xcov Kpaxcbv, 6xv xo EupcoTiaiKo KoivoPoijXio. 



axv; xraps? 'tou 9a Gelfioouv va Tipoxcopiioow oe «evi(jxu^£vri cruvepyaoi- 
a» Kai ce auxet; tiou 9a eivai eKxog. EmTiXeov, to va Ppe9oi)v oktco x^pe? 
oTi] oiiiispivii E.E. 7101) va exouv Koivonixa e9viKcbv ouiicpepovTCOv, koIv 
Tiepioooxepo Koivonixa oiKovo|iiKcbv duiicpepovTCOv, 5ev eivai Kai to mo 
euKoXo Tipdyiia xou k6o|ioi)! 

«H EmxpoTifi aTioxeXei Ecb|ia aTiapxi^ojievo avio eva IlpoeSpo, xov Y- 
Tioupyo E^coxepiKcbv xri<; 'Evco(jri<;/Avxi7ip6e5po, Kai 13 EupcoTiaioix; Em- 
xpoTioix; 7101) emXeyovxai pdoei ouoxfijiaxog i(j6xi|iri<; evalXayfn; \iexaip 
xcov Kpaxcbv [isXcbv. [ . . . ] Kd9e SiaSoxiKO Ecb|ia ouyKpoxeixai Kaxd xpoTio 
cboxe va avxiKaxo7ixpi(^ei (le iKavoTioirixiKo xpoTio xo SrnioypacpiKo Kai ye- 
coypacpiKo cpdojia xou ouvoXou xcov Kpaxcbv [leXcbv xri<; 'Evcoori9> (Ex^Sio 
(ji)v9fiKri<; yia xr] 9e(J7ii(jri ouvxdyjiaxoi; xtji; EupcbTirn;, TixXog IV, Ta opya- 
vaxri<;'Evco(jri<;, oeX. 21). 

98 



B) nspiopiG[j,6(; TTjc; o[io(pG)viaq Kai xou 5iKai(b[j,aT0^ «P8- 
T0» Gxri 5ia5iKaGia A,fi\|/ri(; xcov aTiocpdoscDV. ETisKxaari xcov 
si5iK(bv 7iXsio\|/ri(pi(bv («dxKkr\ 7iXsio\|/ri(pia»): [iia aTiocpaori 
TipsTisi va GuyKsvxpcbvsi xrjv 7iXsio\|/ri(pia xcov Kpax(bv-[j,sX(bv 
xa OTioia Kai va avxi7ipoGC07i8i3ouv xo 60% xou 7i}tri9uG[j,oi3 xrjc; 
E.E. E^aipoijvxai r\ s^coxspiKfi tio^^ixikti, r\ d^iuva Kai r\ cpopo- 
}toyiKfi noXniKT] yia xa OTioia auaixsixai o[j,o(p(Dvia. 

r) AXXayf) xou xpoTiou 5is^aycoyfi(; xcdv \|/ri(po(popi(bv gxo 
Eu[j,poi3Xio xcov YTioupycbv. Oi rsp[j,avoi (aX,}Ld Kai oi TaXkoi, 
[le noXkeq 6[i(i)q 5ia(pops(; avd[j,SGd xodc;), S7ii9t)[j,oi)v xrjv «s- 
7iavaGxd9[j,iGri» xcov \|/fi(pcov pdGSi xou 7iXri9uG[j,iaKoi3 Kpixr]- 
piou, Sri^taSfi STimXsov svigxugti xcdv [lejaknv Kpaxcbv. To 
«Ei3vxay[a^a» 9sG7ii(^8i xrjv ava^^oyia noXnchv (KaxoiKCDV Kd9s 
XOC)pa(;)-\|/fi(pcov, 5ivovxag ctt] rsp[j,avia xo 17% xcdv \|/fi(pcov 
Kai Gxrjv Ka98[j,id and xiq aXkeq xpsK; [lejaXeq X^ops? TispiTiou 
12%. 

TpsK; a7i6 xk; 2 5 x&tpeq xri(; E.E. (rsp[j,avia - raA,Ma - 
Bpsxavia, r\, Fspfj-avia - TakXia - IxaMa), [is tx] GU^iTipa^ri 
opiG[j,svcDV [j,iKp6xspcov KpaxcDV, 9a 8X0UV XT] Sisupu^isvri 5d- 
vaxoxrixa va S7iipdX,}touv 07ioia5fi7ioxs aTiocpaGr] r\ xouXd^i- 
Gxov va XT] i^Ti^tOKdpouv. Ei5iKd gs 9s[a^axa oiKovo[j,iKd, Kai 
Kupico(; pofi(; kov5uMcov 7ipo(; xk; [j,iKp6xsps(; x&tpeq, akin Kai 
yia sviGXUGSig siSiKcbv xo[j,scov, nohb GU^vd oi Qeceiq xcov [le- 
ydXcov xcopcbv gu^tiitixouv. To ysyov6(;, [j,dXiGxa, 6xi gxk; tis- 
piGGOxspst; KaxriyopiS(; 9s[j,dxcDV sxsi Kaxapyri9si xo Psxo, oi 
pos(; Kov5uMcov 9a xpriGi[j,07ioiri9oi3v yia xov 7i8i9avayKaG[j,6 
xcov [j,iKp6xspcov Gxi^ S7ii}^oy8g xcov «[J,SydXcDV». 

A) 0SG[j,o9sxriGri 9sGri(; 7ipos5pou xou EupcoTiaiKoij Eufj,- 
PouMou (Kdxi Gav 7ip6s5po(; xr|(; 'EvcDGrjc;) [le 9rixsia 2,5 xp6- 
vcDV, [le 5uvax6xr|xa avavscDGrjc; yia dXXri [im 7i8pio5o. To 
TipoGCDTio Tiou 9a KaxaXa[j,pdvsi auxf) xr] 98Gri 9a 8K>u8y8xai 



99 



a7i6 TO EupcoTiaiKo Et)[j,poi3X,io (5riXa5fi and xoix; apxnyotx; 
Kpaxcbv), [IE «si5iKfi 7iXsio\|/r|(pia» xo^pi*^ ^av tt] yv(b[j,ri xou 
EupcDTiaiKoiJ KoivoPouMou (E^sSio auvGfiKric; yia Tr| Gsamari 
GUVTdy[j,aTO(; Tri(; Evp&)iir\q, TnXoq IV: Ta opyava ttjc; 'Evco- 
oTjc;, dpGpo 21). 

napdXXriXa, KaxdpyriGri ttj^ 7i8pio5iKfi(; avdXri\|/ri(; tt]^ 
7ipos5pia(; auo xa 25 [o^sXri (avd 8^d[j,r|vo oticd^ yivoxav emq 
Gfi[j,spa). 

E) 0SG[j,o9sTriGri evoq «U7ispu7ioupyoi3» tcdv E^roxspiKcbv, 
o 07ioiO(; 9a SK^^sysxai naki and to EupcoTiaiKo Eu[j,poi3}tio [le 
«si5iKfi 7i}tsio\|/ri(pia»- 5sv aTiaiTSixai r\ yv(b[j,ri xou EupcoTiai- 
Koij KoivoPouMou. To «Ei3vTay[j,a» tovi(^si 6ti xa KpdTri-[j,sXri 
«9a U7iOGTripi(^ouv svspyd Kai avs7ii(pi3XaKTa» xov UTioupyo 
E^coTspiKcbv TT]^ 'Ev(i)cr\q Kai «9a auexouv and oiaSfiTioxs 
SpdGT] G8 avTi9sTri KaTSi39t)VGri». To sproTrma sivai PsPaia, 
7ioiO(; 9a sivai o poAoc; xou Kai nmq 9a smpd^Xsiai r] tioXitikti 
Tou, a7i6 TT] GTiy[j,fi 710U r\ 5ia[j,6p(p(DGri Koivf)^ s^coxspiKfi^ tio- 
XniKr\q sivai aSwaxri, acpoij aTiaixsi o[j,o(pcDvia: «2s 98[j,aTa 

K0ivfl(; S^(DTSpiKfl(; 7l0}^lTlKfig Kai TlO^^lTlKTl^ aG(pd>^8ia(;, TO Eu- 

pcoTiaiKo Eu[j,poi3Xio Kai to Eu[j,poi3Xio tcov YTioupycbv 9sG7ii- 
C,o\)v supco7iaiKS(; aTiocpdGSK; o[j,6(pcova» (Kscpd^^aio II - Ei5i- 
Ks^ 5iaTd^8i^, dp9po 39). 

H e[i(pacr\ nov 5(bGa[j,s gto jejovoq 6ti 5sv auaiTSiTai r\ 
yv(b[j,ri Tou supcoTiaiKoij koivoPouMou, dsv sivai [lovo yia va 
U7ioypa[j,[j,iGTsi to «5ri[j,0KpaTiK6 eXkei\ji\jia», 6go yia va 5si- 
x98i OTi 01 auocpdGSK; 5sv akXdC,o\)v ce TiuoTa to SiaKpaTiKo 
(SiaKuPspvriTiKo) xapaKTfipa tt]^ E.E. Aut6(; o xapaKTfipa(; 
6x1 M-ovo 58V aXkdC,ei, akXd o^i3v9riKs a7i6 tk; auocpdGSK; ttjc; 
XaA,Ki5iKfi(; Kai tk; 5iaTd^si(; tou «SuvTdy[j,aTO(;». To gxs5io 
«EuvTdy[j,aTO(;» 5sv 9s[a^8}ti(bv8i [le Kavsva TpoTio [im uopsia 
7ipo(; Kduoiou si5ou(; «Ev(D[j,8V8g no>uiTsis^ ttjc; Evp&)iir\g>}. To 



100 



«5ri[j,0KpaTiK6 sA,Xsi[j,[j,a» nov xapaKTripi(^si to «Ei)VTay[j,a», 
auM S711TSIV81 Kai U7ioypa[j,[j,i(^8i to SiaKpaTiKo Kai SiaKuPsp- 
vrjTiKo xapaKTTipa Tri(; E.E. AK6[j,a Kai av (uTioGsTiKd) to Eu- 
pcDTiaiKo KoivoPoijXio a7io(pdGi(^s, (yia otiStitiots), [le iikeio- 
\|/ri(pia 9999% xcopi(; ttjv syKpiori tou Su[j,pouMou tcov Y- 
Tioupycbv (Kai guvstigx; Kai tou EupcoTiaiKoij Eu[j,pouMou) Ka- 
vevaq v6[j,0(; r\ aTiocpaori 5sv sxsi loxu (TnXoq V: AaKtiari tcov 
ap[j,o5iOTfiT(DV Tr\q'Ev(i)cr\q, dpGpo 33). Sttiv EupcoTiaiKfi E711- 
TpoTif), UTioGsTiKd, TT]^ avaTiGsTai o ekejxoq Tri(; s(pap[j,oyfi^ 
TCOV v6[i(m Kai tcdv KavovcDV nov 5iS7iouv ttjv E.E. Qgtogo, 
Ka[j,id Tioivf), aK6[j,a Kai 5r|[j,6Gia GUGTaari, 5sv [inopei va sk- 

SCDGSI r\ EupCDTiaiKTl ETllTpOTlfl XCDpi(; Tr|V SyKpiGT] TOU Sufj,- 

PodA,iou tcov Yuoupycbv, Kai [j,d}tiGTa xpsid(^STai av^r\[iEvr\ 
7iA,sio\|/ri(pia gto Eu[j,poi3Xio, cvvr\Q(i)q 7iXsio\|/ri(pia tcov Tpicbv 

TlSf^TlTCOV. 

Ms aXhx }t6yia, sivai Ta KpdTr|-[j,sXr| (Kai GsG[j,iKd KaTOXu- 
pco[j,sva) auTd nov KaGopi(^ouv (avaXoyco^ tcov ava[j,STa^i3 
TOix; GUGxsTiG[j,cbv 5i3va[a^ri(;) oXoK^^ripcoTiKd to xapaKTfipa Kai 
TTjv Tiopeia tt]^ E.E. Kai Kavsvat;, sgtco Kai \|/su5s7iiypa(pa, 
«U7isp8GviK69> GsG[j,6(;. H E.E. sivai, Kai gs Gsg[j,ik6 Enmedo, 
[j,ia svcoGT] avs^dpTTjTCDV, Kupiapxcov KpaTcbv, nov sxouv Tipo- 
XCopfiGSi GTT] 5r|[j,ioupyia [imq oiKovo[j,iKfi(; Kai vo[j,iG[j,aTiKfi(; 
SVCOGT]^, aXkn to ysyov6(; auTO dev ttjv oSrjysi «auT6[j,aTa» 

Tipog TTjV TloXlTlKTl SVOTloiriGTl. AvTlGSTa [J,dXlGTa, TipO^ TO 7ia- 

p6v, o^ijvsi tk; avTiGsGSK; [iSTa^X) tcov KpaTcbv-[j,s}t(bv mq 7ipo(; 
TT] GsG[j,iKfi TT]^ XsiTOupyia (gto S7i6[j,svo KscpdXaio Ga 5oi3[j,8 
OTi TO i5io GU[j,paivsi Kai gttjv oiKovo[j,iKfi XsiTOupyia). 

Qgtogo, to «Si3vTay[j,a» s^aipsTiKd avTicpaTiKd, STiixsipei 
TauTOXpova [im mo GuyKsvTpcDTiKf) XsiTOupyia Tri(; E.E. E711- 
XSipsi Tov T8TpaycoviG[j,6 tou kijkXou: KdTi XiyoTspo and v- 



101 



TispKpdxo^, Kdxi TispiGGOTspo ttTio aTikx] Guvspyaoia Kupiap- 
Xrov Kpaxcbv. 

To TsXiKo a7iOT8XsG[j,a fixav gtti 5iaKuPspvriTiKfi ttjc; Pcb- 
[j,ri(;, Tov OKTcbPpri 2003, 6Xs^ oi avxiGsGSi^ avd[j,SGa Gxa Kpd- 
Tri-[j,8X,ri va 8Kpayoi3v, [is aTiOTsXsGfo^a r] 5idGKs\|/ri Kopucpfic; 
va o5riyri9si gs a5is^o5o. DXst; oi [iiKpeq x&tpeq avxsSpaGav 
yia Tr|v U7iopd9[j,iGfi xovq, Kupiax; gs gxsgti [le tt] [j,ri iG6Ti[j,ri 
SKTipoGCDTiriGri oXcDV TCDV KpaxcDV GTTiv EupcoTiaiKTi EmxpoTifi. 
AIM 5sv fixav [j,6vo oi [j,iKps(; xcbpst; auTS(; nou avxsSpaGav, 
a7io58iKviJOVTag oxi oi Siacprovist; 5ia7ispvoi3v o'keq xiq x&ipeq, 
[j,iKps^ Kai [isjaksq. O SKTipoGCDTiog xcov Bpsxavcbv Suvxripri- 
xiKcbv, MdiK^t AvKpafj,, dr\ki)ce 6xi xo «Si3vxay[a^a» Gsxsi xekoq 
«GS 1.000 xpovia PpsxaviKfi(; Kupiapxia9> (Kai auxo Tiapd xov 
KpauyaXso SiaKpaxiKo xou xapaKxfipa!) Kai 6xi xo K6[j,[j,a xou 
9a Tiake.\\iei «[ie vvxm Kai [le 56vxia» yia xrjv Kaxa\|/fi(piGri xou 
«Euvxdy[a^axo9> [leca and 5r|[j,o\|/fi(piG[j,a.^'' 

ExT] P(b[j,ri, 01 8KPiaG[j,oi xcov «[j,sydXcov» 7ipo(; xoix; «[j,i- 
Kpoi3^» STiscpxav ax; xo xaM(^i! To [j,sxco7io Kaxd xou «Suvxdy- 
[j,axo^» xo s^s(ppa(^av [is «GKX,rip6» xpouo r\ iGTiavia Kai ri 
Tlo^tcovia (oi «suvori[j,svs(;» x^psf; vr\q NiKaia(;, onmq Eida[iE). 
O KayKsXdpiO(; xr|(; TEp[iaviaq Epsvxsp U7is5si^s gxoix; 5ia- 
(pcovoi3vxs(; 6xi UTidpxsi «^SKd0apri GxsGr|» avd[j,SGa gxt] 5is- 
V8^ri yia xov xpoTio ^fi\|/ri^ xcov auocpdGSCDV Kai xi^ supcDuaiKs^ 
S7ii5oxfiG8i^. H Fspfj-avia f^Tiopsi va kXsigsi xt] Gxpocpiyya xcov 
oiKovo[j,iKcbv 8iG(popcbv Gxa 7110 a5i3va[j,a Kpdxr|-[j,8}tri. «'0}ta 
GUv5sovxai [j,s 6hx», Sti^^cdgs o Spsvxsp, Kai o vocbv vosixco.^'* 
Trjv dvoi^T] xou 2004 9a Kopu(pco9oi3v oi 5ia7ipay[j,ax8i3GSi^ 
yia xTjv Kaxavo[j,fi xcov koivoxikcdv kovSuMcdv [j,8xd xo 2006, 



«MeTC07io» 6x1 Kai xooo appaye<; elvai t\ akt\Qzia. Oi 5uo cmieq X'^P^ ^^ 
«(j(paxTOi)v» ayplco<; yia tt] Siavojifj xcov aypoxiKcav Kai olXcov kovSuMcov 
Tri<; E.E. [isid to 2006. 

102 



Kdxi 710U 9a xpTl^i^OTioiriGsi SKPiaoxiKd yia va Ka[j,(p9oi3v oi. . . 
avTippriGiS(;. 

H vsa AiaKuPspvriTiKTi AidGK8\|/ri, to AsKS[j,Ppio 2003 gti^ 
Bpv^eXkeq, nov 7ipay[j,aT07ioifi9riK8 [le Kijpio gtoxo va PpsGsi 
Gt)[j,piPaGTiKfi hb(yr\ mq Tipo^ to «Ei3vTay[j,a», o5riyfi9riK8 ce 
TiXfipri aTiOTUxia. Oi TekiKeq (;) auocpaGSK; [j,STa(psp9riKav yia 
TO 2004 7ipdy[j,a 710U Grmaivsi 6ti r\ uopsia 9a sivai [j,aKpo- 
Xpovia (Kai aPsPairi). Stk; Bpv^eKkeq oi s9viks(; 5ia(pop8(; nov 
5iaipoi3v TTjv E.E. 6x1 M-ovo 5sv ^STispdGTTjKav, aX,Xd GuyKpo- 
TOWTai Tikeov ce 0[j,d5s(;, 7ipdy[j,a nov 9a sxsi [j,aKpoxp6viS(; 
Guvs7isis(; yia ttjv Tiopsia Tri(; E.E. H BpsTavia (u7isp[j,axo(; tt]^ 
5iaKuPspvriTiKfi(; [Kai 6x1 «U7isps9viKfi(;»] }tsiTOupyia(; tt]^ 
E.E.) s[j,(paviGTriKs «7ipoGTdTri(;» Icnaviaq, TloXcaviaq Kai 6- 
hiiv OGCOV sxouv Xoyo va (poPowTai to yaX,Xo-ysp[j,aviK6 d^o- 
va. 

O Xs}t[j,ouT E[j,iT (a7i6 to 1974 sax; to 1982 KayKs}tdpiO(; 
TTj^ [tots] AuTiKfi(; rsp[j,avia(;) sypacps to 2000 s^riycbvTac; tt] 
GTpaTTjyiKfi Tri(; BpsTaviat;: 

«To Ao\6ivo 9a 7iapa[j,sivsi Kai gto [leXkov Tpop- 
7is5ri Tr|(; oXoK}tfipcoGri(;. 0a xaipsTiGSi ttjv EVTa^r] 6go 
TO SuvaTOV TispiGGOTspcov KpaT(bv-[j,sX(bv, yiaTi auTO 
UTiOGxsTai Ka9uGTspriGri, av 6x1 xot^oipto<3Tl, tti? 5ia5i- 
KaGia^ oXoK^fipcDGric;. To AovSivo 9a 7iri5dsi - 
7ii9av6TaTa Kai gto [leXkov- udvTa ttjv TsXsuTaia GTiy- 
[j,fi GTO supcoTiaiKo Tpsvo, [j,6vo OTav, yia 7iapd58iy[j,a, 
9a ava[j,8V8Tai evaq Koivog rxYExiKoq p6Xo(; tou Ilapi- 
Gioij Kai TOU BspoMvou yia ttjv Eup(b7iri».^^ 

TakXia Kai Tep[iavia and ttjv dX,Xri, dcprjvav va swor|9si 
OTi Tuxov aTiOTUxia tou «SuvTdy[j,aTO(;» Kai to 2004 9a avoi- 



103 



^si TO 5p6[j,o yia to «Aist)9uvTfipio». Eto ysviKo KO[j,(poi3(^io, 
TipoGTsGriKs r\ cv[i(p(mia yia oTpaTicoTiKfi auvspyaaia BpsTa- 
via^ - TakXiaq - Fspfa^avia^, xropcbv nov Pps9r|Kav avTi[j,STCO- 
7is^ GTTiv sigPo^^ti gto IpotK, SVG) 5sv sxouv CV[l(p(i)Vr\cei GXS- 
56v 710TS GS (^riTfi[j,aTa XsiTOt)pyia(; Tri(; E.E. 

Oi sGviKs^ avTiTiapaGsGSK;, oi aTiiGavoi GU[j,piPaG[j,oi nov 
anhhq [j,8Ta9sT0uv xpoviKd Ta 7ipop}tfi[j,aTa 7ipo(; enikvcf] vno 

XSipOTSpOU^ OpOU^, SXOUV [J,STaTpS\|/Sl 98G[J,lKd TTjV E.E. G8 

«auXfi Tcov 9au[j,dTC0v»! 

H 9sG[j,iKfi }tsiTOupyia ttjc; E.E. 7ipoGO[j,oid(^si [is aKpopdTTj: 
5iapK(b(; aKpoPaTSi avd[j,SGa GTa avTiTi9s[j,sva «s9viKd gu[j,- 
(pspovTa» [le avTi(paTiKS(; Kai aX,Xr|}toavaipoi3[j,£VS(; auocpd- 
gsk;. IIio GuyKsvTpcDTiKTi Xsnovpyia, aXM TauTOXpova [im 
aTiocpaGTi TipsTisi va GuyKsvTpcbvsi ttjv TiXsioxj/ricpia tcov Kpa- 
T(bv-[j,sX(bv. AuvaTOTTiTa «5i8u9t)VTripiot)», aX,Xd Kai koiv6(; 
Yuoupyot; E^coTspiKcbv- cogtogo gttjv s^coTspiKfi noXniKi] a- 
TiaiTSiTai o[j,o(pcovia. «Ei3vTay[j,a» Kai Tiopsia yia to «koiv6 
supcDTiaiKo G7iiTi», aA,M TO s9vik6 KpdTO(; ekeyxei gxs56v 6- 
Xou^ Tou TO[j,si(; Tri(; KoivcoviKfi(; Kai tioXitikti^ Ctoil<;: 7iai5sia 
Kai SKTiaiSsuGTi, Ta GUGTfi[j,aTa uysia(; Kai KoivcoviKfi(; aGCpd- 
XiGri(;, TT] 5iKaiOGi3vri, ttjv aGTUV0[j,ia, to GTpaTO, Ta cpopoXo- 

yiKd GUGTfl[J,aTa, TTJV S^COTSpiKf) TlO^tlTlKTl. AXkiiCTE, a7l6 TT] 

Et)v9fiKri Tou MdaGTpixT iGXPSi r\ «apxn Tri(; STiiKoupiKOTri- 
Ta^»: r\ 'Evcogt] 58v S7is[j,paivsi Tiapd [lovo ce 6ti acpopd to 
«7iav8up(D7iaiK6 S7ii7is5o», 6Xa Ta UTioXoma sivai gttjv apfo^o- 
SiOTTiTa TOU s9viKoi3 KpdTOix;. H aKpaia avTicpaTiKOTriTa nov 
XapaKTripi(^8i tt] 9sG[j,iKfi }tsiTOupyia tt]^ E.E., o5fiyriG8 tov 
IIpovTi, 7ip6s5po TTjc; EupcDTiaiKTic; EmTpoTifi^, va Sti^cdgsi 6ti 
Ta TiapaTidvco «sivai 7ii9av6v (!) va o5riyfiGOUv gs 7iapdA,UGri 

TTjV E.E.». 



104 



H E.E. [lEca and xi^ 9sg[j,iks(; aKpoPaoist; S7ii5i(bK8i va 

K8p5lGSl XPOVO, (DOTS [lETO. TTIV 7ldpo5o 7loX,}t(bv STCDV (Kttl yitt- 

Ti 6x1 Kai 5sKasTi(bv!) va GuyKpoxriGsi sviaiO(; 7io}tiTiK6(; %&>- 
po(;- 7ipdy[j,a tiou aTioxs^^si KpiGi[j,o 6po yia va UTidp^si Tipay- 

[J,aTlKfl OlKOVOfO^lKTl SV07lOir|Gri. AXM [IE aUTO TOVXpOTlO, 9u- 

[j,i(^si Ti^ 7ipoG5oKiS(; 710U TipoKa^tsi sva(; Tipayfj-axiKo^ aKpopd- 
TTjc;: o Kpu(p6(; 7i60O(; tou (piXo0sd[j,ovo(; koivoij sivai Tidvxoxs 
va 5si Tov aKpopdxri va yKps[j,OTGaKi(^STai! 

H 9sG[j,iKfi XsiTOupyia ttjc; E.E. [iomC,Ei va GTripi(^8Tai cxiq 
i5is(;, (ppoi35s(; sX,7ii5s(;, nov SKxpscpsi to «a6paT0 x^P^>> '^'^'i 
«sXsi39spri^ ayopd(;»: otiox; (uTiOTiGsxai) oxi o sXsi39spo^ a- 
VTaycoviG[j,6(; s^iGoppoTisi xriv TipoGCpopd Kai tt] Ci1tti<3T1 Kai 

58V UTldpxSl TllGaVOTTlTa OlKOVO[J,lK(bv KpiGSCOV, [IE TOV l5lO 

xpoTio, [lEca and xa avTixiGsfo^sva sGviKd GU[j,(pspovTa 9a u- 
Tidp^si TsXiKd GuyKXiGT]. Qgtogo, OTicD^ T] 7ipay[j,aTiKfi Kam- 
xaXiGTiKTi oiKovo[j,ia TsXiKd GUVxapdGGSxai a7i6 KpiGSK;, [ie 
TOV i5io xpoTio Kai ri E.E. 5sv aTiocpsuysi xi^ noXniKEq KpiGSK; 
a7i6 xriv EXkEi\\ir\ xri(; 7io}tixiKfi(; svoTioiri gt^;. Ss o'kjEq xiq [iEiC,o- 
VEq KpiGSK;, a7i6 xoix; 7ioXs[j,ou^ gxtjv Tipcbriv svco[j,£vri Fiou- 
yKOG^apta Emq xrjv a[j,spiKavoPpsxaviKfi sigPo^^ti gxo IpdK xo 
2003,071(0^ Kai GXO (^fixr|[j,a xr|(; 5ri[j,ioupyia(; auxovofjou and 
xk; HQA GxpaxicDxiKoij [j,rixaviG[j,oi3, r\ E.E. 5iaG7idGxriKs gs 
avxi[j,ax6[j,sva GxpaxousSa, otiou xo «s9vik6 GU[j,(pspov» STiai- 
C,E xov TipcDxaycoviGxiKo poXo. 

Sxo 98G[j,ik6 xpoTio Xsixoupyiat; xrjc;, r\ E.E. 7iapa[j,sv8i sva 
svspyo TjcpaiGxeio s9viK(bv avxmapa9sGSCov. H TipoxaGT] xrjc; 
5ri[j,ioupyia^, yia va ap9si xo a5is^o5o, «sviGXU[j,svri(; Guvsp- 
yaGia(;» [j,sxa^i3 opiG[j,sv(ov Kpax(bv-[j,8}t(bv («5isu9uvxfipio»), 
GXO [j,6vo 710U 9a oSnyfiGSi sivai Gxr|v Tiapauspa o^uvgti xcov 
s9viK(bv avxaycoviG[j,(bv, Ka9iGX(bvxa(; xo 6Xo «supco7iaiK6 sy- 
Xsipri[j,a» aK6[j,a mo STiiGCpaXs^ Kai aPsPaio and 6xi fi5ri sivai. 



105 



©sonoGsTTioti TOD vsocpiXsXsDGspionov 

To dXXo [lEja 9s[j,a nov avoids to «Ei3vTay[j,a», acpopd xriv 
TipoGTidGsia S7iiGri[j,ri(; 9sG[j,o9sTriGri(; xou vso(piXsXsu98piG[j,oi3 
cog 98[j,sXiou M9ou Tri(; E.E., Kai xriv aTisiXf) yia xiq Srifo^oKpa- 
TiKsg s}^su9spis(; nov aTioisXei to i5io to «Ei3vTay[a^a». 

Av TO «Ei3vTay[j,a» 5sv akXdC^ei ce TiTiOTa to SiaKpaTiKo 
XapaKTTipa Tri(; E.E., cogtogo TiayiOTioisi Kai KaTOXupcbvsi tt] 
vso(piXs}tsi39spri uopsia Tri(; E.E., STiixsipcbvTat; [j,dX,iGTa tt] 
«GUVTay[j,aTiKfi» KaTOXupcoGf) Tri(;, opi(^ovTa(; 6ti 9s[j,8}tio Tri(; 
E.E. sivai o «s}tsi39spo(; avTay(oviG[a^69>, r\ «oikovo [ia ttjc; 
ayopd(;» Kai r] [j,ri 7iaps[j,paGri tou KpdTOix; gtt] XsiTOupyia Tri(; 
ayopd(;. Eto 7ipooi[j,io (TiT^^ot; I: OpiG[j,6(; Kai gtoxoi Tri(; svco- 
Gri(;, dp9pa 3 Kai 4) SiaKtipijGGSTai 6ti oi tsggspk; apxs(; tou 
vso(piXsXsu9spiG[j,oi3 aTiOTsXoiJV to 9s[j,sXio ttj^ E.E.: r\ ekei)- 
9spri SiaKivriGTi aya9(bv, UTiripsGicbv KscpaXairov Kai TipoGcb- 
Ticov. To «Si3vTay[j,a» UTiOGxsTai «[j,ia sviaia ayopd, otiou o 
avTay(oviG[j,6g sivai 8}tsi39spo(; Kai av69suT09> (!) Kai «[j,ia 
dKpcog (!) avTaycDviGTiKf) koivcdvikti oiKovo[j,ia ttjc; ajopaqyy. 
KaTOXupcbvsTai GUVTay[j,aTiKd r| s}tsi39spr| 5iaKivriGr| Kscpa- 
Xaicov, Kai yia 07ioia5fi7iOTS s^aipsGr] r\ TpoTiOTioiriGri, aTiaiTsi- 
Tai o[j,6(pcovri \|/fi(pO(; tou Eu[j,pouMou tcov YTioupyrov. Ms a- 
nkA A,6yia, aK6[j,a Kai gttjv tispititcogti nov Kduoist; x&tpeq a- 
7io(pdGi(^av Tr|v smPo^^fi Kduoiou cpopou gtt] 5iaKivr|Gr| Kscpa- 
A,aicov (onrnq yia 7iapd5siy[j,a to (popo To^tiiv), r\ aTiocpaGf) 
T0D(; aKupcbvsTai av sgtcd Kai [im [lovo xcbpa \|/ri(piGSi KaTd. 

XsipoTspa, TO «Si3vTay[j,a» 98G[j,o9sT8i mq SiapKf) gto^o tt] 
«5ri[j,OGiovo[j,iKfi 7isi9apxia», 9sG[j,o9sTsi 5ri}ta5fi tt] ^^iTOTriTa 
GTO S7ii7is5o TOGO Tr\q'Ev(i)cr\q, 6go Kai tcov KpaTcbv-[j,sXcbv: 



106 



«0 7ipol)7ioXoyiG[j,6g TipsTisi va sivai igogksXig[j,svo^ 
(nq npoq xa SGo5a Kai tk; 5a7idvs9> (TitXo(; VII: Ta oi- 
Kovo[j,iKd TTjc; EV(i)cr\q, dpGpo 52) «H 5pdGri xcov Kpa- 
T(bv [ishhv Kai TTjc; 'Ev(i)cr\q GUVSTidysxai xriv xfipriGri 
Tcov aKoXouGcDV KaxsuGuvxTipicov apxcbv: Gxa9sps(; xi- 
[leq, uyifi 5ri[j,6Gia oiKovo[j,iKd, uyisit; vo[j,iG[j,axiK8^ guv- 
9fiKS(; Kai GxaGspo iGO(^i3yio 7iXrip(D[j,(bv» (KscpdXaio II, 
OiKovo[j,iKfi Kai vo[j,iG[j,axiKfi TioXixiKTi, dpGpo III-69). 
«Ta KpdxT] [lekf] a7io(p8i3youv xa UTispPo^^iKd 5ri[j,6Gia 
sA,}tsi[j,[j,axa. H STiixpoTifi TiapaKoXouGsi xrjv s^sXi^r] xr]^ 
5ri[j,OGiovo[j,iKfi^ KaxdGxaGri(; Kai xo X)\\ioq xou 5ri[j,6Giou 
jpsovq Gxa Kpdxr] [o^sXri 7ipoKsi[j,8vou va svxo7ii(^si [j,syd- 
A,S(^ a7ioKX,iGSi(;» (dpGpo III-76) 

OuGiKd, i^Tiopsi Kav8i(; siJKo^^a va avxiXricpGsi, 6xi g8 uspi- 
o5o oiKovo[j,iKfi(; Kaxs^iat;, r\ auGxripfi tioXixikti Xix6xrixa(; 
(nov eni^aXkei xo «Ei3vxay[j,a») and tx] iikevpa xou KpaxiKou 
xo[j,sa Ga STiixsivsi xa TipoP^^fno^axa xri(; avspyia(; Kai xrjc; koi- 
vcDviKTig (px(bxsia(;. Toix; [j,6vou^ tiou Ga cocpsXfiGSi [im xsxoia 
TioXixiKTi, Ga sivai xoix; xpanel^nEq Kai xotx; Kaxoxoix; Kpaxi- 
K(bv xpsoypdcpcDV. 

To KoivcoviKo Kpdxo(; («xo Kpdxo(; 7ip6voiag») Ssv avacps- 
psxai TiouGsvd, r\ uysia, r\ 7iai5sia Kai r] KaxoiKia 6ev Gsropoij- 
vxai d^ia va avacpspGsi 6xi TipsTisi va acpopouv okovq Kai va 
8ivai 5ri[j,6Gia, xa 5ri[j,0KpaxiKd 5iKai(b[j,axa avacpspovxai ys- 
viKoAoya. 

To «Ei3vxay[j,a» aTioxsXsi 7ipay[j,axiK6 kivSuvo yia xk; dr\- 
[j,OKpaxiKS(; sXsuGspis^, avaxpsTiovxa^ Kaxa^xfiGSK; nov eni- 
xsiJxGriKav [is ai[ia, yupi(^ovxa(; xo poXoi xrjc; iGxopia(; (oiko- 
vo[j,iKd Kai 7io}tixiKd) Gxov 19° aicbva, xou dypiou (pikekevQe- 
pou Ka7iixaXiG[j,ou, xcopi(; Kavsva koivcdviko 5ixxu TipoGxaGi- 



107 



aq. To «(pi3Xo GUKfi(;» yia tk; «7iapaXfi\|/si(;» xou «EuvTdy[j,a- 
Toqyy gtti SiaacpaXiari xrov 5ri[j,0KpaTiK(bv 5iKaico[j,dTCOv, sivai 
OTi auxd «5iaG(paM(^ovTai and xiq s9viks(; vo[j,o9sgis(;». Q- 
oTOoo, r\ aTioSoxn tou «EuvTdy[j,aTO(;» 9a arna^dvsi avaTiocpsu- 
Kxa xriv xpoTiOTioiriGri tcdv 89viK(bv EuvTay[j,dTCOv, Tipo^ vsocpi- 
'kekevQepr] Kai avTi5ri[j,0KpaTiKfi KaTSi39t)VGri. Sxo Tipoxsivo- 
[j,8vo «Ei3vTay[j,a»: 

Asv Kaxoxuprovovxai prjid to aTiapaPiaaxo tt]^ oiko- 
jEVEmKr\q Kai i5i(DTiKfi(; Ctoil<^, to dou^to Tri(; KaxoiKiat;, 
T] aTiayopsuGTi aoTUV0[j,iKfig spsuvag XCopi<^ ttiv Tiapou- 
Gia SiKaGTiKTi^ s^ouGia^. Asv Kaxoxuprovovxai to a- 

7l6ppr|TO TCDV STllGToXcbv Kttl TTjc; S7llKOlVC0Via(;. 

H s}t8u9spia i5puGri(; svcdgscdv TipoGCDTicov (GCO[j,aTSia, 

7l0}tlTlKS^ OpyaVCDGSK;, TloXlTlGTlKOl Gl3X,}tOyOl, K.X,7l.) 

58V Guvo5si3sTai and xiq 5iaG(paMG8i(; 6ti oi svcdgsk; 
at)T8(; 5sv [j,7iopoi3v va 5iaA,u9oiJV x(opi(; 7iporiyoi3[j,svri 
SiKaGTiKT) aTiocpaGr]. 

KaTa^tijSTai ax; PaGiKf) UTioxpscoGti tou KpdTOix; r\ 5co- 
psdv 5ri[j,6Gia TiaiSsia, 7i8piopi(^ovTag tt] Scopsdv 5ri- 
[j,6Gia SK7iai5suGri [j,6vo gttjv SKTaGt] tt]^ UTioxpscoTi- 
KTic; sK7iai5suGr|(; (Mspo(; II, dp9po 11-14), s^aip(bvTa(; 
Ta avcDTttTa SK7iai5suTiKd i5pi3[j,aTa Kai tk; S7iayysX[j,a- 
TiKS(; cxo'ke.q, Kai avoiyovTag to 5p6[j,o yia ttjv iSpuGT] 
iSicoTiKcbv 7iavs7iiGTri[j,icDV. Tig 87imT(bGSi(; nov 9a s^si 
auTO gtk; s9viks(; vo[j,o9sGis(; (paivsTai gttjv TispiTiTCO- 
cr\ TTjc; EX,}td5a(;. To sX,X,riviK6 Gi3vTay[j,a S7iipdA,Xsi to 
5ri[j,6Gio xapaKTTipa Tri(; sKTiaiSsuGtic;. Me TipoGxn^a 
TTjv 8vap[j,6viGri [is ttjv koivotikt) vo[j,o9sGia, S7ii5i(b- 
K8Tai T] i5icoTiK07ioiri GT] Tri(; 8K7iai5suGri(; Kai r\ Tpouo- 
TioiriGTi GTO Gri[j,sio auTO tou 8X,X,riviKoi) SuvTdy[j,aTO(;. 



108 



H spyaoia, mq QE\iEki&)5r\q GUVTay[j,aTiKfi STiiTayfi Kai 
5iKaico[j,a, yia to otioio to sXXriviKo Ei3vTay[j,a 'ke.ei 6ti 
«[j,8pi^vd TO KpdTO(;», GTO supcDTiaiKo Gxs5io «Eu- 
VTdy[j,aTO(;» akXdC^ei Kai yivsTai: «Kd9s TipoocoTio sxsi 
5iKai(D[j,a va spyd(^STai...»(!) svcb Kdvsi tt] [lakXov 8k- 
TiXriKTiKTi (yia Kduoiov vso(piXsXsi39spo) TiapaxcbpriGri 
«Kd9s tioMtti^ Tr|(; 'Ev(i)cr\q sivai s}tsi39spo(; va ava(^ri- 
Td a7iaGx6XriGri» (! !) (Mspo(; II, dp9po 11-15). 
KaTapysiTai, co^ UTioxpscoGri tcov KpaTcbv [iehm ttjc; 
E.E., r\ KpaTiKT) [iEpi[iva yia tt] 5iaTfipriGri Kai KaTO- 

XUpCDGTl TODV 5ri[J,6GlC0V GUGTri[J,dTCOV KOIVCDVIKTI^ a- 

(5(paki(5r\q Kai Tiapoxnf; GUVTa^rjc; (Mspo^ II, dp9po II- 
34). H [ir\ avacpopd gto 5ri[j,6Gio xotpotKTfipa auTcbv 
TCOV GUGTri[j,dTCOv 5£v 8ivai Tuxaia. Ta i5ia iGXPOuv yia 
Ta GDGTfi[j,aTa koivcovikt)^ ap(i)jr\q nov acpopow tk; 
Tiapoxs^ yia tt] [j,riTp6TriTa, ttjv aG98vsia, to spyaTiKo 
aTiJxn^oi, TT] TipoGTaGia TCDV avspycov, to yfipa(;, toix; 
dTiopoix; K.Xn. Muopsi oi si5iks(; avxeq 7io}tiTiKS(; va 
acpfivovTai gto «koivotik6 Skaio Kai ti^ s9viks^ vo- 
[j,o9sGis9>, aXkA sivai oAocpdvepr] r\ 7ip69sGri va acps- 
9oi3v avoiKToi oi 5iau}toi KaTdA,UGr|(; auTcbv tcov 5iKai- 
co[j,dTCOv nov r\ SiaGCpd^^iGf) xovq 9a ausppss mq cv- 
VTay[j,aTiKfi UTioxpscoGti tou KpdTOix;, Ka9(b(; Kai r\ i5i- 

CDTlKOTloiriGTl TOU(;. 

AK6[j,a Kai to 5iKaicD[j,a gttjv aTispyia 7ispiopi(^STai gto s- 
MxiGTo: o PpsTav6(; 7ipco9u7ioupy6(; Tovi Mu^^sp auaiTriGS Kai 
KspSiGS a7i6 TT] «SuvTaKTiKfi Suv8}t8UGri» va [j,riv i^Tiopsi va 
XpriGi[j,07ioiri9si to 5iKaico[j,a auTO GTa s9viKd 5iKaGTfipia! O 
Tipcbriv GOGia}tiGTfi(; (!) 7ipco9u7ioupy6(; ttjc; TaXkiaq, Migs}^ 
PoKdp, 5iKaio}t6yriGS tt] vso(piX8}tsi39spr| KaT8ij9uvGri tou 
«2t)VTdy[j,aT0^» 5riXcbvovTa(; [is 9pdG0(;: 



109 



«Ei[iacTe ce 7iayK0G[j,icD(; avoixT^f) oiKovo[j,{a, 5ev v- 
Tidpxsi oiJTS pi39[j,iGri, oijts opio gtti pta xou avxaycovi- 

. 87 
G[J,Ot)». 

ETTlHETpO 

Sto 0sg[j,ik6 S7ii7is5o r| E.E. 7iapa[j,svsi sva d9poiG[j,a 8- 
Gvcbv-Kpaxcbv, svcb KdGs TipoGTidGsia va uudp^si «Gi3v9sGri» 
TODV avTiTi9s[j,sv(ov sGviKcbv GU[j,(psp6vT(ov Kiv5t)vsi3si va Ka- 
xa^tfi^si GS (pidGKo, OTiox; aKpipdcx; KaxsXri^av Kai oi GU[j,(pcovi- 
eq TTjc; NiKaiat;. 

Av TO (^fiTri[j,a to u gugx8tig[j,oi3 5i3va[j,ri^ avd[j,8Ga GTa 
KpdTri-[j,sXri aTiOTsAsi sva vapK07is5io avTiTiapaGsGSCDV, r] 9s- 
Gfj-oGsTTiGTi [j,SG(D Tou «EuvTdy[j,aTO(;» Tou vso(pi}ts}tsu9spi- 
G[j,oi3, sxsi Gav GTOxo (uspav tou ouGiaGTiKoij, nov sivai to 
\|/aM5iG[j,a tcdv koivcovikcdv Kai 5r|[j,0KpaTiK(bv 5iKai(D[j,dT(Dv), 

va UTlSpTOVlGSl TO KOIVO s5a(pO^ TldvCO GTO 071010 50[J,fl9riKS s^' 

apxHt; r\ E.E.: ttjv S7ii9sGri tou KscpaXaiou svdvTia gtoix; sp- 
jaC,6[is\/ovq. 'Etgi, cogtogo, 5ri[j,ioupyoiJVTai GUv9fiKS(; Ta^i- 
KoiJ 7io}tS[j,ou g' oXoK^tTipri Tr|v E.E. Av r| oiKo56[a^r|Gri Tr|(; E.E. 
oi3t(D(; f) aXkaq 7ipay[j,aT07ioisiTai gs auo^svcDGri and xovq su- 
pco7iaiou(; noXneq Kai [is svTS^^cb^ avTi5ri[j,0KpaTiK6 TpoTio, [is 
TO «Ei3vTay[j,a» 5ivsTai sva stiitiXsov koivo s5a(pO(; TidXric; 6- 
XcDv TCDV supcoTiaicov spya(^o[j,svcov: Tr| guvtovig^ievti SpdGtj 



«Elvai TioXi) m9av6 va [n\v UTidp^ei cruiicpcovla Kai oi 5ia7ipay(iaTei)08i<; 
va TiapaxaBouv [. . .] Eivai emoin; 7ii6av6 va UTidp^ei kcxtioioi; PiaoxiKoc; 
(ji)|iPiPa(j|i6<; Kai va o5riyri9oi)(xe oe |iia eKipcoiiaxiKfi ouiicpcovia, (xe Tidpa 
KolMq avTi(pd(jei<;, 5riXa5fi |iia Seuxepri NiKaia, |iia ouiicpcovia kov o Ka- 
9evai; 9a 7ipo(j7ia9ei av avaxpevi/ei Tipoxou oxeyvmoei xo jieXdvi xri<; utio- 
ypa(pfi<;» (Ka9ri|iepivri 2/12/2003). 

110 



svdvTia GTOV dypio vso(piX8Xst)9spiG[j,6 Kai tk; koiv(dviks(; s- 
tiititcdgsk; tou. 

Avs^dpxriTa and to Kaxd tiogo xs^^iKd o 7iav8t)p(07iaiK6(; 
GUVT0viG[j,6(; TCDV spya(^o[j,sv(DV 9a ennevxQei, sva sivai 5s5o- 
[j,8vo: o GUv5uaG^6(; sGvikcdv avxiTiapaGsGSCov avd[j,SGa gtk; 
dpxouGS(; xd^sK; Kai 6fyivcr\q xcov koivodvikcdv Kai xa^iKcbv 
avxi9sG8(DV svx6(; xcdv sGvikcdv GUVopcDV xcdv Kpax(bv-[j,s}t(bv, 
KaGiGxd aK6[j,a tiio aPsPaist; (au' 6xi fixav fi5ri) xi^ TipooTixi- 
Ksq 7io}tixiKfi(; svo7ioiriGri(; xcov apxouGcbv xd^scov xrjc; Eupcb- 
TiT]^ GS Gsg[j,ik6 S7ii7is5o. 'Evtt 7iapd58iy[j,a 5ia(p(Dxi(^si xrjv 7ia- 
paTidvco GsGrj. Sxa xsXr] xou 2003 ^SGTiaGS 5ia[j,dxn avd[j,SGa 
Gxa Kpdxri-[j,sXr| mq 7ipo(; xrjv xfipriGri xou Su[j,(p(bvou SxaGs- 
poxrixat;, xo otioio TipopXsTisi kupcdgsk; av gs [im xcbpa xo sX- 
}tsi[j,[j,a xou 7ipol)7ioXoyiG[j,oi3 UTispPsi xo opio xou 3% xou 
AEn. O TaXkoq 7ip(oGu7ioupy6(; Pacpapsv (nov r\ KuPspvriGfi 
xou sxsi eni^aksi pi(^iKS(; TispiKOTis^ gxtjv koivcdvikt) upovoia 
Kai au^riGS xa opia GUVxa^ioSoxtiGrjc; sv [j,sgco ysviKcbv ausp- 
yicbv), SiKaioAoyrjGS xo ysyov6(; 6xi r] FaXMa 7iapaPid(^si xo 
opio yia xpsi^ guvsxsi^ Xpovis^, 5riX(bvovxa(; 6xi r\ KuPspvriGfi 
xou, GS GUvGfiK8(; oiKovo[j,iKfi^ i3(pSGri(; Kai SiapKcbv auspyia- 
K(bv Kivr|xo7ioifiGSCov, 5sv sivai 5uvax6v va smpd^^si Kai 5ri- 
[j,OGiovo[j,iKoi3(; 7i8piopiG[j,oi3(; nov Ga si^av Gav a7ioxsXsG[j,a 
S7ii5siv(DGri xou 7ipopXfi[j,axo(; xr]^ avspyiat; Kai dpa KXi[j,dKco- 
cr\ xcov KivTjxoTioifiGSCov xcov 8pya(^O[J,£VC0V. 

To 7i}toio xri(; «supco7iaiKfi(; svoTioir] gtjc;)) and xiq KpaxiKst; 
ypa(p8ioKpaxiS(;, gxk; cv[nikr[Yadeq xcdv sGvikcdv avxmapaGs- 
G8C0V Kai XT]^ o^uvGrjc; xr]^ xa^iKf)^ 7idXri(;. . . 



Ill 



K£ 



(pd>uaio3 



H jTOpsia TTi(; 

«OlKOVOfilKfi(; o>^OK>^fipcooTi(;» 

Sxriv svoTTixa auxfi 9a s^STdGOU[j,s xriv mGavoxriTa «oiko- 
vo[iiKr\q oXoKX^pmcriqyy ttjc; Eup(b7iri(;, xriv TriGavoxriTa Sri^^a- 
dr\, TO oiKovo^iiKo 87i(7is5o Kai 01 pt)9[j,oi avdTiTU^rig avd[j,8Ga 
Gxa KpdTri-[j,8}tri va GuyKMvouv, xa 87ii[j,spou(; sGviKd Kamxa- 
XiGxiKd GU[j,(pspovxa Gxa5iaKd va GuyxrovsuGoiJV Kai va dr\[ii- 
oupyriGsi sva^ £v07ioiri[j,svo(; «supco7iaiK6^ Ka7iixaXiG[j,6(;» xco- 
pi(; sGviKd Gijvopa. Sxo xsXsuxaio [lepoq xrjc; £v6xr|xa(; auxf)^, 
Ga 8^8xdGOU[j,s 87iiGri(;, Kaxd tiogo r\ ONE Kai xo supcb s^ouv 
5po[j,oXoyfiGSi [j,ia «avayKaGxiKfi» Tiopsia 7ipo(; auxfiv xrjv Ka- 
xsuGuvGrj. 

Fia va UTidp^si 7ipay[j,axiKfi oiKovo[j,iKfi oXoK^tfipcDGri, Ga 
TipsTisi va 5ri[j,ioupyriGoi3v oi tipoDtioGsgek; (dgxs r\ tipogSsgti 
xcov apxouGcbv xd^scov r\q E.E. [is xo sGviko xou^ Kpdxo^ Gxa- 
5iaKd va axovfiGSi. Auxo Ga auaixouGS xrjv svotioitigti xcdv 
sGviKcbv vo[j,oGsGi(bv Kai xri(; cpopoAoyia^, xrjv Kaxdpyr|Gr| xcdv 
sGviKcbv KpaxiKcbv S7ii5oxfiGSCov 7ipo(; xiq «sGvik8^» smxsipfi- 
G8ig (Kai E^akei\\ir\ oXcov xcov 7iapa5aG[j,oXoyiKcbv s^7io5icov), 
CDGxs oXoK^ripri r\ EupcDTiri va KaxaGxsi «sviaiO(; oikovo[j,ik6^ 
Xcbpo(;» avs^iTioSiGxou avxaycoviG[j,oi3, Kai [a^sX,}tovxiKd Kduoi- 
01) siSoug sviaio (igcd^ o[j,OG7iov5iaKoi3 xapaKxfipa) Kpdxo(;. 



112 



Mia Tiopsia oiKovo[j,iKfi^ oXoKXfipcoGri(;, 9a aTiaixoiJGS xriv 
ijTiap^ri STiapKcbv oiKovo[j,iK(bv Tiopcov (xprno^dxcov), xovq otioi- 
ovq va 5iaxsipi(^STai [im UTispsGviKfi eupcDTiaiKfi apxn tiou va 
sivai avs^dpxriTri and xiq KuPspvfiGSK; xcov KpaT(bv-[j,sX(bv. To 
apxiKo [j,sXri[j,a [iiaq xsioiat; apxnf;, 9a fixav va avTi[j,STC07ii- 
GTOiJV a7iOT8XsG[j,aTiKd 01 [isjakeq oikovo[j,iks(; aviGOxriTSt; 
avd[j,8Ga Gxa KpdTri-[j,s}tri, nov vapKoGsxow xriv 6}tri uopsia 
Tri(; E.E. ava(^co7iup(bvovTa(; SiapKocx; tk; sGviksc; avxiGsGSi^. 
Auto 9a auaiTOUGS tt] [j,8Ta(popd Tiopcov and xiq mo avaTiTuy- 
[ikveq Tispioxsg (Kpdxri) Gxa tiio KaGuGisprmsva. 

Eivai Ga98(; on to 6Ao supcoTiaiKo oiKo56[j,ri[a^a, t)7iovo[j,£u- 
sxai aTio tk; Pa9iS(; oiKovo[a^iKS(; aviGOTriTSt; [j,STa^i3 tcov Kpa- 
T&)V-[iehhv. To KaTd Kscpa^tfiv AETI (gs ti[j,S(; ayopdt;) gs e^r\ 
X&tpeq PpiGKSTai KdTCO and to [ieco 6po (EX,}td5a 66,nopTO- 
yaMa 70, iGTiavia 77, Ip>uav5ia 93, BpsTavia 96, OivXavSia 
97) 8V(b yia ti^ vnoXomeq oktcd xoc)ps(; r] auoKXiGri sivai tioXij 
7110 [j,iKpfi (Souri5ia 101, iTaMa 103, 0X,Xav5ia 107, Fa^^Ma 
107, Tep[iavia 110, AuGTpia 111, Aavia 113, BsXyio 114). To 
Aoi)^8[j,poi3pyo (pTdvei to Ssiktti 168. H TispicpspsiaKf) auo- 
kXigt] sivai aK6[j,ri tiio gt] [j,avTiKfi, [is 7ispioxs(; tt]^ TIopToya- 
Ma(; va PpiGKovTai [j,STa^i3 50 Kai 57%, r\ de Ti^^siovoTriTa tcdv 
eXkr[vvK&)V Tispioxcbv [j,STa^i3 43 Kai 50%.^^ H Siacpopd [j,STa^i3 
TTjc; TispiGGOTspo 7iXoi3Gia(; 7ispi(pspsia(; (A[j,poi3pyo) Kai ttjc; 
XiyoTspo TiXoiJGia^ (AC^opeq Kai uspioxn to u AX8vts(^o gttjv 
TIopToyaMa) sivai Tri(; Td^ri(; 4,5 : 1.^^ Fia Ta vsa iieh], tk; 
X&ipeq Tri(; KsvTpiKfic; Kai AvaToXiKfi(; Evp&)iir\q, o [lecoq 6po(; 
sivai 44 (31 gtt] AsTOvia)!^'^ 

Qgtogo, o 7ipol)7ioXoyiG[j,6(; ttjc; E.E. sivai s^aipsTiKd [ii- 
Kp6(; yia [j,syaXs7ifiPo}ta Gxs5ia. AvTmpoGCDTisiJsi [loXiq to 
1,27%T0U GUvSuaGfo^svou AETI ttjc; E.E., tiogogto nohb xa- 
fj-TjAoTspo an' 6go sixs TipoTaGsi gto TiapsXGov a7i6 ttjv Eu- 



113 



pcoTiaiKTi ETiixpoTifi (5-7% Tou AEn). Fia va avTi}^ri(p9oi3[j,s xi 
aKpipd)^ Gr|[j,aivsi auxo, apKsi va avacpspGsi oxi o o[j,og7iov5i- 
aK6(; 7ipol)7ioXoyiG^6(; xcov HQA sivai xouXdxioxov xsoospK; 
(pops(; t)\|/riX6xspo(; Kai and sksivs(; xk; 7iporiyoi3[j,8VS(; Tipoxd- 
gsk; xTjc; Eiinpoiv[\q (r\ sikogi (popst; n8yaA,i3xspo(; xou xcopivoij 

S7ll7is50t)).^^ 

O koivoxik6(; 7ipol)7ioAoyiG[j,6(; xpr|[j,axo5oxsixai, vnoxiQe- 
xai, a7i6 «i5iot)(; nopovqyy. Exrjv 7ipay[j,axiK6xrixa xo [j,syaX,i3xs- 
po [j,spo(; xou iG^voij 7ipol)7ioXoyiG[j,oi3 Tipospxsxai and sva 
TiOGO 710U avxiGxoixsi Gxo AEII KdGs x(bpa(;. To ysyovog 6xi 
01 [j,syaX,i3xsps(; x&tpeq (Kaxd Kijpio Xoyo r\ rsp[j,avia) Gt)[j,pdX- 
Xouv Gxov 7ipol)7ioXoyiG[j,6 Kaxd xo [j,syaX,i3xspo [ispoq, xovq 
5ivsi XT] 5uvax6xr|xa acp' evoq va f^TiopoiJV va S7iipdX,Xouv xr] 
Gs^^riGTi xotx; (5ri}ta5fi xa GU[j,(pspovxd xoix;) ctovc, ypacpsio- 
Kpdxs^ xcov Bpv^ehhv, Kai acp' sxspou, va SKPid(^ow ziq [ii- 
Kp6xsps(; (67icD(; 8i5a[j,s r] rsp[j,avia xpriGi[j,07ioiriGS xov koivo- 
xiKo 7ipol)7ioXoyiG[j,6 GXTjv TipoGTidGsid xrjc; va Ka[j,(pGoi3v oi 
avxippfiGSK; lG7iavia(;-noX(Dvia(; gs gxsgti [j,s xo «Ei3vxay[j,a»). 
H s^dpxrjGTi xcov Bpu^sXcbv and xiq [isjakeq W>P^'i oSnysi s- 
nicr\q, gxo oxi avxeq f^Tiopow va TiapaKd^Tixouv aK6[j,a Kai xk; 
Gt)vGfiKS(; xri(; E.E. 'Exgi svcb rsp[j,avia - TaXkia 7iapaPid(^ouv 
xo Si3[j,(pcDvo ExaGspoxrixa yia xpia Guvsxn jpovm, r\ EupcoTia- 
iKT) ETiixpoTifi 58V x6X[j,riGS va 87ii[j,sivsi Gxrjv em^oht] Kupcb- 

G8C0V. 



Oi Kupioxepeg laiyeq eooScov xou koivotikoi) 7ipol)7ioXoyi(j(xoi) elvai: oi 
5a(j|iol, xa yecopyiKd xeXri, xa eoo5a avio |iepo<; xou OTIA nov eioTipdxxe- 
xai oxo eOviKo eSacpog, Kai eva tiooo kov ocvxioxoixei oxo AEII Kd9e xa- 
poi;. Ta Ka6apd eooSa xou koivoxikou 7ipoi)7ioXoyi(j|ioi) iixocv (xo 1998): 
83,5 5i(j. eupcb, ek xcov otioicov xo 43% npor]kQe ano xo AEII, xo 41% avio 
xo 3)nA Kai xo 15% ttTio xoug Saojioix; (BamXeiou Ilavdyoi), Kcovoxovxi- 
voi) Toouvxa, AiaKpaxiKii Kai UTispeBviKfi Euvepyaoia, eK56oei<; IlaTiai^fi- 
c^, Aefiva2002, oeX. 435, 745). 

114 



Oi iiE'Yokmepeq xropsg (iSiaixspa r\ Yepiiavia) a7ioK>^8iot)v 
xriv TiiGavoxriTa va au^riGsi o 7ipol)7io}toyiG[j,6(;, svcb [is tt] 
5i8ijpt)VGri Tcov 10 vscDV [j,sX(bv r\ «7iiTa» 9a acpopd TispiGGOxs- 
potx;, dpa gttiv Tipayfj-axiKOTriTa sxou[j,s [j,si(DGri xou 5ia0SGi- 
[j,ou 7ipol)7ioXoyiG[a^oi3. Es Koivf) stiigto^^ti toix; 7ipo(; xov Tipos- 
5po TTjc; Et)pco7iaiKfi(; EmxpoTifi^, to AsKS[j,Ppio 2003, s^r] Kpd- 
Tr\-[iekr\ (Tep[iavia, TaXkia, Bpsxavia, 0X,}tav5ia, AuGxpia, 
SouriSia) T6vi(^av oxi 5sv 9a 5sx9oi3v Ka[j,id au^riGri xou koi- 
voTiKot) 7ipol)7ioXoyiG[j,oi3.^^ To 7idy(D[j,a xou koivotikoij TipoD- 
7ioAoyiG[j,oi3 GT] [j,aivsi on auT6(;, gs GTa9sps(; ti[j,S(;, 9a Guppi- 
Kvco9si G8 0,9% TO STO(; 2006. O KayKsXdpiot; Spsvxsp s^si 
Sri^tCDGSi OTi 5£v Qekei va «Kaisi to yspfo^aviKo xpfma gti^ 
Bpv^eXkeq».^^ Fia tt] Yepiiavia, r[ 7ipoT8pai6Tr|Ta sivai r] «a- 
vaGuyKpoTTiGTi)) TTjc; oiKovo[j,ia(; ttjc; upcbriv avaTo}tiKfi(; Fsp- 
[laviaq (ttiv ouoia £VG(D[j,dT(DGS to 1990) nov aTiaiTsi i^STacpo- 
pd Tiopcov Tidvco a7i6 70 5ig. supcb to xpovo.^'* 

O [j,iKp6(; 7ipol)7ioXoyiG[a^6(; s^si ax; a7iOTs}^8G[j,a va [j,riv u- 

(plGTaTai GTTjV E.E. KOlvf) OlKOVO[J,lKfl TloXlTlKTl, SVa SlOlKrjTlKO 

Kai oikovo[j,ik6 KevTpo Tiouva [mopei va S7iipd>^>^8i [iia cv- 

VTOVlG[J,SVri GS TiaVSUpCOTiaiKO S71171S50 OlKOVO[J,lKfl TloXlTlKf). 

Oi KuPspvfiGSi^ TCDV KpaT(bv-[j,sX(bv sivai auTS(; nov sxouv tov 
andXvTO sXsjxo tcov sOvikcov rovg oikovo/jiojv, [iiaq Kai si- 
GTipdTTOUv Kai 5iax8ipi(^ovTai and ttjv s9viKfi oiKovo[j,ia to 
100% Tou 7ipol)7ioAoyiG[j,oi3 tou^. AK6[j,a Kai gti^ X^ps^ tiou 
01 KoivoTiKS(; [j,STaPipdGSi(; ([j,sgco tcov Koivotikcdv n^^aiGicDV 
STTipi^ric;) sivai G^STiKd [lejakeq (IIopToyaMa, EXMSa, Icna- 
via) at)T8^ avTiGTOixoiJV gs [loXiq 2-3%) tou AEII tou^. 

O [j,iKp6(; koivotik6(; 7ipol)7ioAoyiG[j,6(; gt] [j,aivsi 87imp6G98- 
Ta, OTi sivai a5i3vaTO va avTi[j,STC07iiGTOi3v a7iOTsXsG[j,aTiKd 
«[j,ri GU[j,[j,STpiKd GOK», «aGi3[j,[j,STps^ 5iaTapaxs(;» gtk; oiko- 
vo[j,iKS(; Tispicpspsis^ Tr[c, E.E.^^ Ta 5id(popa KpdTri-[j,sXri, s- 



115 



Xouv SiacpopsTiKo S7ii7is5o oiKovo[j,iKfi(; SidpGpcoGTi^, 710U cr\- 
[laivei OTi as 7ispi65ou(; oiKovo[j,iK(bv «5iaTapaxcbv» (i3(pSGr|(; 
f) KpiGr|(;) 9a avxiSpdaouv [is SiacpopsxiKo xpoTio oi oikovo[j,i- 
eq TOtx;. H sioaycoyfi xou supcb 5ri[j,ioi3pyriGS 8va sviaio 
(«GK}trip6»- 5ri}ta5fi aKpiPo) v6[j,iG[j,a yia tk; nohb Siacpopsxi- 
Ks<; 6[i(£)q ([j,8ys9ou(; Kai avaTnv^r\q) s9viks(; oikovo[j,is(; Tri(; 
E.E. Dgo s^sMGGSxai r] uapouGa oiKo\o[j,iKfi txpSGr], x&tpeq 
cav xriv EX,Xd5a f) xrjv IIopxoyaMa, GUGGCopsuouv s^TiopiKd 
EXkei[i[iaTa, xa OTioia oAosva Kai TispiGGOxspo xstvouv va yi- 
vouv 5uGpdGxaKxa. Fi' avxeq xiq x&tpeq sva aKpiPo supcb (Gxa 
zekf] xou 2003 UTispsPr] xa 1,20 SoMpia) S7ii5siv(bvsi xo 7ip6- 
pX,ri[j,a. AGCpaXdx;, xo i5io 7ip6pXri[j,a avxi[j,sxco7ii(^o w Kai oi 
rsp[j,avoi s^ay(Dy8i(;. Qgxogo , yia xovq Tep[iavo is; xo X)\\ioq 
xou «a7io5sKxoi3» supcb PpiGKsxai nohb u\|/ri}t6xspa an' 6go 
xcov EXkr\v(m r\ IlopxoydXcov KamxaXiGxcbv (gxtiv 7ipay[j,axi- 
Koxrixa aK6[j,a Kai yia xoix; IxaXotx; f) iGTiavotx;). Ilapd xo «a- 
KpiP6» supd), r\ Tep[iavia 5isupi3vsi xo s^TiopiKo xr]^ 7i}^s6va- 
G[j,a, xo 071010 scpxaGS, [lovo yia xo [V(\va Mdio 2003 Gxa 10,1 
5iG. evp&), and 9,2 5ig. supd) nov fixav xov i5io [V[\va sva xpo- 
vo Tipiv. SuvoXiKd yia xo 2003, oi s^ayroyst; xrjc; TEp[iaviaq 
7iapouGid(^ouv ai3^r|Gr| Kupiax; 7ipo(;xi(; aXksq W>P^'i tti<; Zcb- 
vrjc; xou Eupcb.^'' To s[j,7iopiK6 7iX£6vaG[j,a xrjc; rsp[j,avia(; xo 
2003 avfiA,9s gs 135 5ig. supd) 7iapouGid(^ovxa(;, gs gxegt] [j,s 
xo 2 2 piu^riGTi 3% gxi^ s^ayroyst; [is xiq aXkeq W>P^'i tti? 
E.E., svd) [j,s xi^ xpixs(; xd)ps(; au^fi9riKs Kaxd 1%.^^ 

To 7ip6pXr|[j,a S7ii5sivd)vsi xo ysyov6(;, 6xi oi 5id(pops(; xd)- 
ps^ 710U a7iapxi(^ouv xrjv E.E. s^Tiopsuovxai gs SiacpopsxiKo 
Pa9[j,6 [IE x&tpeq skx6(; E.E. Xchpeq onmq r\ EX,Xd5a (5 % s- 
I^Tiopio SKx6(; E.E.), IpXav5ia (6 4 % Oiv^^avSia (6 5 % 9a 
S7iripsaG9ouv Papuxspa and sva «GKA,rip6» supd) au' 6xi r\ 
AuGxpia (37% s^iTiopio skx6(; E.E.), oi x&tpeq xrjc; MtisvsXou^ 



116 



(39%), r\ nopxoyaMa (33%).^^ Kaxd ouvsTisia, 6go [lejahb- 
T8p8(; 8ivai 01 oiKovo[j,iKS(; 5ia(pops(; Kai tiisgsk;, togo 5ugko- 
XoTspr] yivsxai r\ sviaia ([leca gttiv E.E.) 5iax8ipiGri xou su- 
pd). Aut6(; 8ivai 8va^ and tovc, Xojovc, TiouxpsK; x&ipeq ttjc; 
E.E.-15 5£v GU[j,[j,STSxouv gto supd) (Bpsxavia, Aavia, Eour]- 
5ia), x&tpeq nov KaGoAou xDxaia, sixav xaxuxspri oiKovofo^iKfi 
avdTiTU^ri a7i6 tk; x&ipeq ttj^ Evp(i)C,&)vr\q, togo Kaxd tt] 5idp- 
K8ia TTjc; 7iopsia(; 7ipo(; xriv ONE, 6go Kai [j,8Td xriv siGayroyfi 

' 100 
TOU SUpCO. 

Adtti r\ Tiisori 9a ^iTiopouGS va avTiGTa9[j,iGT8i [is 5t)o xpo- 
novq. EiT8 r\ oiKovo[j,iKfi avduTU^ri va sivai STiapKr)^, oijtco^ 
(DGTS va sivai 5iaxsipiGi[j,a xa EXkei[i[iaTa (va 5isupi3vovTai 
5riXa5fi 7iapdA,}tri}ta Kai oi s^aycoys(; tcdv xropcbv tiou s^ow 
7ip6p}tri[j,a 7ipo(; xa dX,}ta KpdTri-[j,sA,ri Tri(; E.E.), sits [j,sgco [j,s- 
xacpopcbv Tiopcov and xov Tipo moAoyiG[j,6 ttjc; E.E. Oi Tipoo- 
7iTiKS(; TTjc; TiayKOGfj-iat; oiKovo[j,ia(; sivai [laXkov gkotsivs(; yia 
xriv Tipcbxri TispiTiTCOGri, svd) o [j,iKp6^ 7ipol)7ioXoyiG[j,6(; auayo- 
psiJEi TT] SsiJTspri (svd) aK6[j,a [Kai xo avsTiapKsc;] F' Koivoxi- 
k6 n^^aiGio Exfipi^rig Xfiysi xo 2006). 



H apxiKii ouvBiiKri yia xriv EOK 5ev TipoepXevis iioh.uKx\ Tiepicpepeiaicfn; 
ovdTiTU^rn;. H ecpapixoyii Tiepicpepeiaicfig noXniKX]q yia Tipcbxri cpopd aviocpa- 
oloTTiKe ano xovq apxriyoix; Kpaxcbv Kai KuPepvfioecov oxo Ilapioi xo 1972 
(Kaxomv PpexaviKiig vifeorig!). To 1975 6eo|io9exfi9riKe xo EupcoTiaiKo 
Ta|i£io riepicpepeiaicfn; Avd7ixi)^ri<;. Ta xpcbxa 7ipoypd|i|iaxa UTiopXiiBriKav 
xo 1977, xo 1985 5ri|iioi)pyfi9riKavxaMeooyeiaKdOXoKXripco|i£vanpo- 
ypd|i(iaxa (MOIl) kov acpopoyoav xt] voxia TaXkia, xt] voxia Ixalia Kai 
xrjv EXXdSa. H Eviaia EupcoTiaiKii Ilpd^ri (1986) evie^epydoxriKe Tipo- 
ypd(i(iaxa yia xrjv «oiKovo|iiKfi Kai koivcovikii (n)voxii», xo 1988 eixa|ie xo 
Tiepicpriiio Tipcbxo «7iaKexo NxeX6p», 9a aKoXoi)9fi(jei apyoxepa Kai 5ei)xe- 
po (1992). H Ei)v9fiKri xoi) Mdaoxpixx 9e(j|io9exri(je xriv EmxpoTifi xcov 
riepicpepeicbv (ciuiiPouXeuxiKoi) xopaKxiipa) evcb SiTiXamdoxriKav oi Tiopoi 
xcov Aiap9pcoxiKcbv Ta|ieicov. H xpri(xaxo56xri(jri viriyaivei Kupicoi; oe Tispio- 
xeg OTioi) xo Kaxd Kscpodfiv AEIl eivai Kaxcbxepo xou 75% xou (leooi) koi- 

117 



To Ti GU[j,paiv8i G8 [iia o[j,OG7iov5iaKfi xcbpa, gtk; HQA, 5i- 
a(p(DT((^8i TO (^fiirma. Dxav [im noXneia xcov HQA avTi[j,STC07ii- 
C,Ei i3(p8Gri Kai TO 8iG65ri[j,a [j,8i(bv8Tai Kaxd sva 5oXdpio, oi 
o[j,OG7iov5iaKoi (popoi Tiou GuA,A,8yovTai and xriv 7i8pioxri [lei- 
(bvovxai Kaxd 0,34 5oXdpia Kai oi [j,ovo[j,8p8i^ [j,8xaPipdG8i(; 
au^dvovxai Kaxd s^r] gsvx^. AvaTiXrjpcbvsxai 5riXa5fi, xo 40% 
xou a7ioX8G9svxo(; 8iGo5fi[j,axo(; xri(; Tispioxnf;, |j,sgco xou o[j,o- 
G7iov5iaKoi3 7ipol)7ioXoyiG[j,oi3.^''^ nap6[j,oio tiogogxo igxusi 
Kai yia xrjv TispiTixcDGri xcov Tispioxcbv xrjc; Tep[iaviaq, aX,}td 5sv 
IGXU81, oijxs 9a iGXUGSi, [lETa^i) xcov xcopcbv [lehav xq^ E.E (o 
Xa[j,r|}t6(; 7ipol)7ioXoyiG[j,6(; aXkucTe xo «a7iayopsi3si»). 

0a TipsTisi Gxo Grifa^sio auxo va gt] [o^sicoGsi, 6xi r\ [j,sxa(popd 
Tiopcov a7i6 xov 7ipol)7ioXoyiG[j,6 xr|(; E.E. 7ipo(; xk; «7ispi(pspsi- 
S9> 5sv yivsxai (pUGiKd «5copsdv» yia xoix; «(pxcox6x8pou9>. 
Atio xo r' KoivoxiKo nXaiGio Sxfipi^ri^, r\ EA,Xd5a 9a siGTipd- 
^si Kov5i3Xia i3\|/ou(; 2132 5ig. supcb. IldvcD and xo sva xpixo 



voTiKoy. H xpTHiaxoSoxriori yivexai |ie eBviKoix; iiopovq (xou Kpdxoug- 
|ieXou<;) Kai koivoxikoix; (oiryxpriiiaxoSoxriori). H koivoxikii ou|i|i£xoxil 
7iepiopl(^exai avio 50% ecog 75% xou cjuvoXikoi) Kooxoug. 
Atio xt] SeKoexla xou 1990 5ri|iioupyoi)Vxai «KoivoxiKd IlXalma Exiipi- 
^ri<;» (K.n.E.). Oi x^P^Q 'tou 5exovxai xriv mo orniocvxiKfi poiiBeia elvai 
Kuplco<; T] EXXoSa, r] Ilopxoyalia, r] loTiavla Kai r] lpXav51a. Mexa^y xcov 
alXcov xcopcbv, |i6vo r] Ixalla Kai r] Tepiiavia (yia xa vea O|i6o7iov5a Kpa- 
xiSia xri<; avaxoXiKiig Tepiiaviai;) Sexovxai orniavxiKfi poiiGeia. 
napoXo Kov xa Tiood eivai orniavxiKd oe avioXuxa |ieye9ri, eivai |iiKpd 
xooo yia xi<; avdyKeg (|i£ xrjv raap^ri xoocov [leydlcov TispicpepeiaKcbv avi- 
ooxiixcov) ooo Kai oe oxsot] |ie xo koivoxiko AEIl. H EmxpoTifi Siaxiiprios 
XT] xpTl|iaxo56xri(jri oxo 33% xou 7ipol)7ioXoyi(j|ioi) xri<;'Evcoori<; x] xo 0,46% 
xoi) KoivoxiKoy AEn - eva 6xi Kai koIv yewai65copo voujiepo eivai r] a- 
Xfi9eia! (BamXeiou Ilavdyoi), Kcovoxavxivou Toowxa, AiaKpaxiKii Kai 
i)7iepe9viKfi Euvepyaoia, eKSooen; IlaTiai^fiori, ABiiva 2002, oeX. 777-786, 
Kai AouKo; ToouKalrn;, H vea eupcoTiaiKfi oiKovojiia, oxo Kaxdxpk xou 
21™ aicbva, eKSooeig IlaTiai^fiori, oeX. 292-299). 

118 



aUTOlJ TOU TIOGOIJ, STllGXpSCpSl GTiq [lEJokeq X^OPS? TTl? 5t)TlKfl(; 

Evp&)iir\q, 5i6ti oi uopoi Kaxa^^fiyouv as spya U7io5o [j[\q Kai 
SKGt)yxpoviG[j,oi3, nov xpsid(^ovTai 8^07iXig[j,6 Kai u^^iKd xa 
OTioia 0a npoekdow and xiq Pio[j,rixaviS(; xcov tiio avs7iTuy[j,8- 
vcDV auTcbv Kpaxcbv. ^'^^ 

Ms aidjd Xojm, f^Tiopsi r\ Fspfj-avia va GUVsiGCpspsi «5uGa- 
vdXoya» gtov koivotiko 7ipol)7ioXoyiG[j,6, aXXd auxfi r\ «gu- 
vsiG(popd» Tri(;, Xsixoupysi TioXXaTiXaGiaGxiKd yia xriv i5ia xriv 
sGviKTi xTjc; oiKovo[j,ia. H KaGapf) GUVsiGCpopd sivai }tiy6xspo 
a7i6 1 % xou AEn xr|(; rsp[j,avia(;. H «5uGavaXoyia» sivai gs 
GxsGTi [j,s xk; vnoXomeq xr]^ 0[a^d5a(; xcdv KaGapcbv TiXripcDxcbv: 
BsXyio (0,16% xou AEH), Bpsxavia (0,18%), YaXkia 
(0,25%), IxaMa (0,58%) Kai rsp^avia (0,90%).^''^ Eiio^ievmq 
xa TiOGd sivai GxsxiKd ^iiKpd, svcb xa o(pEkr\ and xrjv xovcdgt] 
xcov s^aycoycbv Kai xrjg ysviKoxspr]^ oiKovo[j,iKfi(; SpaGxripioxr]- 
xa(; xTjc; 89viKfi(; oiKovo[j,ia(; xri(; rsp[j,avia(; [lejahx. 

H «8GC0xspiKfi» [j,sxavdGxsuGri, 9a f^TiopoiJGS va auoxs^s- 
GSi svav [j,rixaviG[j,6 «a7iopp6(pr|Gri(;» xcov koivcovikcdv Kpa5a- 
a[i6iv 710D auocpspsi [im «oiKovo[j,iKfi 5iaxapaxn» gs [im Tispi- 
oxn (Kpdxog-[j,8Ao(; xrjc; E.E.). Qgxogo, r\ SGCOxspiKf) [lexava- 
GxsuGTi gxk; HQA, a7i6 Tio^^ixsia gs Tio^^ixsia (dvspyoi aval^r\- 
xoijv spyaGia [j,sxaKivoi3[j,£voi gs akXr\ uoXixsia), sivai 7ioX,}ta- 
TiXdGia an' 6xi gxtjv EupcDTiri. F^^coGGiKd Kai 7ioXixiG[j,iKd s- 
^7i65ia (aXXd Kai «sp7icov» s9vikig[j,6(; gxi^ X^psf; U7io5oxn^) 
sxouv Gav a7ioxs}tSG[j,a xa[ir\kr\ SGCOxspiKf) [j,sxavdGxsuGri 
GXTjv E.E. Evd) xo TiOGOGxo avspyiat; gxtjv Tispioxn xri(; Prjva- 
via^ sivai [j,6Xi^ 2%, UTispPaivsi xo 34%) gxtjv Tispioxn Tr\c, Av- 
5a>^ot)Gia^^'''*: 

«Eivai 7ii9av6v 6xi Kd9s C,&)vr\ xrjc; Evp&)iir\q PpiGKs- 
xai GS SiacpopsxiKT) iGxopiKfi Gxiy[j,fi Kai [is avdyKst; a- 



119 



tiokMvougs^, 6\iG)q, eav auxo aXriGeusi, tots to 7ip6- 
p}tri[j,a TTjc; evp(i)iiaiKr\q o}tOK}tfip(DGri(; a7io5siKvi3sTai 
aK6[j,ri 7110 nepmkoKo. 

Si3[j,(pcova [IE TT] ysviKT) Gscopia ttjc; oiKovo[j,iKfi(; oXo- 
K^fipcDGric; G8 TispicpspsiaKo Kai 5is9vs(; stiitisSo, r\ GTa- 
GspoTTiTa Tou GUVoAou 7ipol)7io9sTSi TTjv 7ipoGap[j,oyfi 
TCOV [j,sp(bv. 

[...] EvoGCO r\ Av5aAot)Gia dev auoGTeXXsi toix; avsp- 
jovq TTjc; GTTjv Privavia, oijcs Kav [le.'xpi ttjv KaGTiXr], 
Kai svoGCO Ta ysp[j,aviKd KS(pdA,aia 58v g718i35ouv va s- 
yKaTaGTaGoiJV gtov Noto, oijts Kav ce 7i8pioxs(; [is [le- 
cr\ avdTiTU^ri, TipoKsifo^svou va S7ico(psXri9oi3v tou xo^^tI- 
Aoij spyaTiKoij KOGTOix;, oi TispicpspsiaKst; aviGO[j,spsiS(; 
GTTjv EupcDTiri 5s 9' a7ioppo(p(bvTai [le ttjv au96 p[j,riTri 
XsiTOupyia TCOV ayopcbv. Fia ttjv stiitsu^ti auTOU tou t6- 
GO avayKaiou gtoxou 9a TipsTisi avauocpsuKTa va svsp- 
yo7ioiri9oi3v 9sg[j,iks(; [j,STaPipdGSi(; Tiopcov and xiq Tikeo- 
vaG[j,aTiK8(; Tispicpspsist; iipoq tic, 8X.>^8i[j,[j,aTiKS(;». ^'^^ 

O iGxvot; KoivoTiKo^ 7ipol)7ioXoyiG[j,6(; sxsi mq tsXiko auo- 
TsXsGfo^a, va \xr\v sivai 5ia9sGi[j,oi oi avayKaioi Tiopoi yia [j,ia 
GUVTOViG[j,svri, GS TiavsupcoTiaiKo S7ii7is5o, noXniKT] ava9sp- 
[j,avGri(; Tri(; oiKovo[j,ia(; gs 7ispi65ou^ i3(p8Gri(;. Envikeov, Tipo- 
KaXoiJVTai avTi7iapa9sGSi(; [j,8Ta^i3 tcov KpaT(bv-[j,8}t(bv co^ 
7ipo(; TT] 5iax6ipiGri tcov 7ispiopiG[j,£V(ov KoivoTiKcbv Tiopcov. 

Oi HQA GS [j,ia 7ipoG7id9sia ava(^cooy6vriGri(; ttjc; diKr\q 
Tou^ oiKovo[j,ia^, au^dvouv ti^ KpaTiKS(; 5a7idvs(;, 7ipdy[j,a tiou 
SX61 o5riyfiGSi gs eXkei\ji\jia 5% tou AEII. ^*"' BsPaico(;, aTUTico^ 
Kai «Gico7iriM», TO opio Tou 3% sxsi TiapaPiaGTSi and KpiGi- 
[j,S(; xo)p£<; TT1<; E.E. (rsp[j,avia- to 2003 to sXkei[i[ia scpTaGS 
TO 4% Tou AEn, raX,Ma - r\ 7ip6pXs\|/ri sivai yia EXkei[i[ia na- 



120 



vffl auo 4% yia to 2003 Kai Tidvco and 3% to 2004, svcb iTaMa 
Kai IIopToyaMa PpioKovTai oto opio tou 3%). Qgtooo, o ^i- 
Kp6(; koivotik6(; 7ipol)7ioAoyiG[j,6(;, r\ eXksi\\ir\ oiKovo[j,iKfi(; o- 
[j,oioysvsia(; gttiv E.E. Kai ouvaKoXouQa Ta SiacpopsTiKd sQvi- 
Kd cru[j,(pspovra nov tt] Siaipouv, s^ow oav a7iOTs}^SG[j,a ttjv 
a5uva[j,ia smPo^tfic; [imq cvvenotiq STisKTaTiKfic; oiKovo[j,iKfi(; 
TioXniKr\q. IIoXiTiKfi, tiou oijtgx; r\ aXkaq «a7iayop8i38Tai» Kai 
a7i6 TTjv op965o^ri vsocpi^sXeuGspr] oiKovo[j,iKfi tioXitikti (nov 
s^aoKsiTai TOGO a7i6 Ta sGviKd KpdTT] 6go Kai gs enmedo 
E.E.) Kai 7101) eni^aksi ax; gto^o iG0GKs}tiG[j,8V0D(; (f) TispiTiou 

lGOGKsXlG[J,SVOU(;)7ipOl)7loXoyiG[J,Ol3(;. 

H a5uva[j,ia tou koivotikoij 7ipol)7ioXoyiG[j,oi3, (pdvriKs ^8- 
KdGapa gtk; TipoTdGSi^ tt]^ iTa^^iKfic; uposSpiac; tov Ioi3}tio tou 
2003, yia ava(^a)oy6vri gt] ttj^ oiKovo[j,iag ttjc; E.E. [j,s spya u- 
7io5o[j,fi(; (AisupcDTiaiKd AiKTua - o5iKd, Gi5ripo5po[j,iKd, svsp- 
ysiaKd Kai vauTiXiaKd, [is apxiKo 7ipol)7ioAoyiG[j,6 220 5ig. 
supd) sco^ TO 2020^*'''). Qgtogo, yia va [j,riv uapaPiaGTsi to 
Ei3[j,(pcDvo STa9sp6TriTa(; (nov smpd^^si opio sA,}tsi[j,[j,aTO(; 3% 
TOU AEn) Ta spya 9a xpri[j,aTo5oTri9oiJV ano Sdvsia ttjc; Eu- 
p(i)TiaiKr\q Tpd7is(^a(; E7isv5i3g8(dv. Auto TipoKdXsGS ttjv avTi- 
SpaGT] Tr|(; STaip8ia(; 7iiGTo}tri7iTiKfi(; a^io}t6yriGri(; Standard & 

Poor's, 710U 7ip6pX8\|/8 TTjV U7loPd9[J,lGr| TTjc; 7llGT0Xri7lTlKfl(; i- 

T- T- 108 

KavoTTjTat; tt]^ E.E. 

M8 a(pop[j,fi TO GxsSio TTj^ vzakiK^q upoeSpiat;, (^a- 
va)fip9av gttjv smcpdvsia oi s9vikoi avTay(DviG[j,oi [j,STa^u tcov 
KpaT(bv-[a^sM)V Tri(; E.E., mq 7ipo(; tt] SiaxsipiGT] tcdv koivoti- 
K(bv Tiopcov, U7ioypa[j,[j,i(^ovTa(; yia aXkr\ [im (popd, 6ti r\ E.E. 
58V aTiOTsXsi sviaio oikovo[j,ik6 x^^po, aXXd d9poiG[j,a s9vi- 
Kcbv oiKovo[j,i(bv. Oi TipoTdGSK; Tri(; iTa}tiKfi(; 7ipos5pia(; 9s(o- 
pfi9riKav Gav 7ipoG7id9sia ttjc; P(b[j,ri^ va ucpapud^si tt] «[j,spi- 
5a TOU >^80VT09> auo tt] xpri[j,aTo56Tri gt] yia va SKGuyxpoviGSi 



121 



TO fj-sxacpopiKo TTj^ SiKTUO. Es avTiTiapdGsGri, gtt] yaX^toysp- 
[laviKT] Gi3vo5o Kopucpf)^ TO Ss7iTS[j,Ppio 2003 GTO BspoMvo, 
SipdK Kai SpsvTsp, TipoTSivav (Kai r\ EupcoTiaiKfi EmxpoTifi, 
(pUGiKd, a7io58x9riKs) xriv avdTiTU^ri 5ikti3cov \|/ri(piaKfi^ tt]- 
XsopaGT]^, pa5io(p(bvou supsia^ Co^^^tI?^ '^^ gtjvSsgti tcov s9vi- 
K(bv Gi5ripo5po[j,iK(bv 5ikti3cov u\|/riXfi(; xaxuxriTat; Kai xriv ne- 
paiTspco avduTU^ri xou 5opu(popiKoi3 GUGTfi[j,aTO(; 7i}tofiyriGri(; 
Galileo ^''^- [j,s aXka Xoyia xriv avduTU^ri to[j,8cov gtou^ otioi- 
ovq Kupiapxoijv yaX,}^iKS(; Kai ysp[a^aviKS(; STaipsis(;. EKxifj-dxai 
OTi 01 Fspfj-avoi «9a auoGTidGOUv tt] [j,spi5a xou Asovxot; gtov 
87i8px6[j,svo TiupsTO Tou T(^ipou (KaTaGKsuaGTiKs^ sxaipsist;, 
Pio[j,rixavis(; xakv^a, Tpd7is(^S(;), x(opi(; auxo va Grmaivsi oxi 
KaGuGTspoiJV PsPaia Kai oi rdA,Xoi». ^^"^ 

AK6[j,a 7110 87iiKiv5uvo yia tt] Guvoxn xrig E.E. (avoiyovra^ 
V80 7is5io sGviKcbv avxmapaGsGSCov) sivai to ysyov6(; oxi gtk; 
SiaTipayfa^axsiJGSK; yia to A' Koivotiko n^^aiGio Exfipi^ric; (nov 
acpopd xriv 7ispio5o 2006-2012) yivsxai Gxpocpf), Kai 5iox£xsi3- 
8xai [lejako uaKsxo xcov koivoxikcdv uopcov Tipo^ xk; «7i9^oi3gi- 
Eq» x&tpeq xr]^ 5uxiKfi(; EupcoTiri^. Ava[j,8vsxai 6xi [j,8gco xcov 
AisupcDTiaiKcbv Aikxijcov 9a 7isvxa7i}taGiaGxoi3v oi uopoi nov 
KaxsuGiJvovxai 7ipo(; xk; [isjaksq oikovo[j,is(; Kai avxiGxoi^a 9a 
[j,si(d9oi)v yia xi<; [j,iKp6x8p8(; Kai «(px(Dx6x8p89> x(bp8(;.^^^ 

X(ops<g Tiyq KsvTpiKfi(g 
Ktti AvaToXiKfi(g EvpG}nr\q 

Oi oiKovo[j,iK8^ aviG6xrix8^ [j,8xa^i3 xcov Kpaxcbv-[j,8}tcbv yi- 
vovxai oXo(pdv8p8(; gxtjv 7i8pi7ixcoGri xcov Xcopcbv xrjg K8vxpi- 
Kr\q Kai AvaxoXiKfic; EupcDTiri^ (XKAE- GU[j,7i8piXa[j,pdvovxai 
8Kx6(; xcDV OKxcb 7101) 9a 8vxax9oi3v (Kai 87iiGri[j,a) gxtjv E.E. xo 
2004 Kai 01 U7io\|/fi(pi8(; x&tpeq BouX,yapia, Pou[j,avia), x&tpeq 



122 



[IE xa[ir\M. S7ii7is5a 7iapaycoyiK6TriTa(; Kai Piotikoij stiitisSou. 
Eivai TispiGGOTspo a7i6 TriGavoTaxri [im emdeivmcr] ttjc; oiko- 
vo[j,iKfi(; TOU(; Gsorjc;, Xoyco xou oxi SKxiGsviai xcopi^ (f) [j,8 eka- 
XiGxa) TipoGTaxsuTiKd 5ixTua, gtov avTaycoviG[j,6 [j,s tioXij mo 
iGXupotx; Ka7iiTaX,iG[j,oi3(;, svcb to (sv5sx6[j,svo) pd9s[j,a ttjc; 
5is9voi3g oiKovo[j,iKfi(; txpSGr]^, gs GUv9fiKS(; avoiKxot) avxayro- 
viG[j,oi3, sivai TiiGavoTaxo va o5r|yfiGSi gs GoPapd s^TiopiKd 
EXkei\ji\jiaTa. 

Ev5siktik6 TTjc; oiKovo[j,ia^ tcdv XKAE (xcopig xi^ Pot)[j,avi- 
a, BouXyapia) sivai oxi r\ svxa^ri xcov xcopcbv auxcbv gxtjv E.E. 
TipoGGsGS 75 sKaxofo^^ijpia veouq KaxoiKoix;, aXkn au^riGS xo 
AEn xri(; E.E. [loXiq Kaxd 4,5%.^^^ Evcb o 7i}Lri9uG[j,6(; xrjc; IIo- 
XcDVia^ sivai xo 10% xr|(; E.E., xo AEII xr|(; sivai [loXiq xo 2% 
xri(; E.E. Fia GuyKpiGt], xa avxiGxoixa TiOGOGxd xri(; iGTiaviat; 
sivai 14% Kai 8%). To 1998, r] E.E. sixs sva s^TiopiKo iikeo- 
vaG[j,a [IE xig XKAE 20 5ig. supcb, xo Ti^tsovaGfo^a 5s auxo r\- 
xav Kaxd 14 5ig. supcb [j,syaA,i3xspo an' 6xi xo 1 99 3 , 7ipdy[j,a 
7101) Kaxa5siKvi3si xr] guvsxh smSsivroGr] xrjc; oiKovo[j,iKfi(; xou^ 

0a STipsTis XoyiKd, r] SiapGproxiKfi PofiGsia npoq xiq XKAE 
va sivai yswaioSropri Kai, cpUGiKd, va au^rjGsi o koivoxik6(; 
7ipol)7ioXoyiG[j,6(;, yia va [j,r|v [j,sicoGoi3v oi [j,sxaPipdGSi(; 7ipo(; 
7ispioxs(; xri(; E.E.-15. Qgxogo, aTiocpaGiGxriKs o 7ipol)7ioXoyi- 
c\ji6q va 7iapa[j,sivsi Gxa i5ia S7ii7is5a, TispiKOTixovxa^ Kaxd 
1 1 %)Xi(; 5a7idvs(; yia xrjv E.E.-15. Suvstiocx;, oi 5a7idvs(; xri(; 
5isi3puvGri(; Ga ')(pr\[iaTodoTr\Qot)v Kaxd pdGT] [is 7ispiK07iS(; 
Gxi^ 5a7idvs(; xrjc; E.E.-l 5, akXd, Kupirog, gs pdpo(; xcov vscov 
Xcoprov 7ipo(; xk; 07iois(; oi [o^sxaPipdGSi^ Ga sivai nevixpeq (x6- 
GO GS GxsGTi [le xk; avdyKS(;, 6go Kai GuyKpixiKd 7ipo(; xk; [j,s- 
xaPiPdGSK; 7ipo(; xa [iekr\ xri(; E.E.-l 5) E^' apxHt; oi XKAE 

PpiGKOVXai GS [J,SlOVSKXlKfl GSGTl GS GXEGT] [IE XTjV E.E.-l 5. Fia 



123 



TO GWoXo TTjc; 7ispi65ou 2000-2 006Ta Tiood nov 9a SiaxiGs- 
vxai oxa vsa Kpdxri-[j,s}tri 9a sivai [j,iKp6xspa and xo [iico (u- 
7ioXoyi(^6[j,£va Kaxd KE(pakr\v) xcov tiogcdv 7ipo(; xa uaXaid [j,s- 
>tri. H 5iKaioXoyia nov xPTl<^i^^07ioifi9riKs fixav 6xi av xa vsa 
[lekf] 87iaipvav xo gtjvo^^o xcdv stiiSoxtigscdv, xoxs 5sv 9a Tipo- 
XCopoiJGS o «8KGuyxpoviG[j,6(;» ([is dX,}^a }^6yia, r\ GuyKsvxpo- 
TioiriGri xT]^ aypoxiKTic; 7iapaycoyfi(; gs Xiyoxspst; Kai [j,syaA,i3xs- 
peq SK[j,sxaX,Xsi3GSi(; Kai r\ «s^o5o(;» and xo yscopyiKo xo[j,sa 
xou «7i}t80vd(^ovxo9> aypoxiKot) Tikr\Qvc[ioii: 

«[...] r\ siGaycoyfi Ka9sGX(bxo^ d[j,8GCDV 7iXrip(D[j,(bv g8 
TiOGOGxo 100%su9i3(; [j,8xd xrjv TipoGxcbpriGri 9a sixs mq 
a7ioxsXsG[j,a xo «7idyco[j,a» xcdv ucpiGxdfo^svcov yscopyiKcbv 
5iap9p(bGSCov Kai 9a 7iapsn7i65i(^8 xov SKGuyxpoviG[j,6, r\ 
ETiixpoTifi xdGGSxai UTisp [j,ia(; Gxa5iaKfi(; s(pap[j,oyfi(; xcov 
d[j,8GC0v 7iXripco[j,(bv, Kaxd xr] 5idpKsia [j,ia(; [j,sxaPaxiKfi^ 
7ispi65ou 5sKa sxcbv. EuyKSKpifo^sva oi d[j,SGS(; Tikr\p(i)[ieq 
yia xa sxtj 2004, 2005 Kai 2006 9a avs}t9ouv gs 25%, 
30% Kai 35%) avxiGxoixa, (pxdvovxa(;, xo 2013, gs 
100%».^^^ 

Ms auM }t6yia, oi Tikr\p(i)[iEq 9a (pxdGOUv xo 100%) xo 
2013, oxav r] Koivf) AypoxiKf) IIoXixiKfi (KAII) sixs 5sv 9a 
UTidpxsi Ka96Xou sixs oi ■iikr\p(i)[iEq 9a sivai [j,ri5a[j,ivs(;! ! 

Oi KoivcoviKS(; Guvs7isis(; gxk; veeq x&tpeq [lekf] 9a sivai 
xpo[j,axxiKS(;. Ms pdGt] xr] vso(piXsXsi39spri ava5idp9p(DGri xcdv 
oiKovo[j,i(bv xcov XKAE, r\ EupcoTiaiKfi EmxpoTifi TipopXsTisi 
sxfiGia [j,sicoGri xrjc; aypoxiKfic; a7iaGx6XriGri(; Kaxd 1% Kai [isi- 
COGT] xri(; a7iaGx6A,r|Gr|(; gxo 5r|[j,6Gio xo[j,sa Kaxd 2 %) Sxriv 
7ipay[j,axiK6xrixa, oi koivcoviks(; cvveneieq 9a sivai 7ioA,i3 [leja- 
Xmepeq, yiaxi r] EmxpoTifi Gxripi(^si xa Gsvdpid xrjc; gs nohb 



124 



«aiGi65o^s^» 7ipopXs\|/8i^. H EmxpoTifi TipopXsTisi oxi yia xriv 
7ispio5o 2000-2009 oi XKAE 9a TiapouGidaouv sxfiGia avd- 
Tixu^r] 3%, 7ip6pXs\|/ri nov r\ TipoGCpaxr] stiiSsivcogti xri(; uayKO- 
G[j,ia(; oiKovo[j,ia(; xrjv Kdvsi nohb a[j,(piPoXri. Fia xrjv IloXcovia, 
[j,s TiOGOGxo aTiaGxoXri GT]^ Gxov aypoxiKo xo[j,sa 21%, Tipo- 

PXsTlSXai 6X1 G8 718VX8 XpOVltt TlSpiGGOXSpOl ttTlO 8Va SKaxOfJ,- 

l^ijpio ayp6x8(; 9a xdGOUv xr] yr] xoix;, svd) dA,Aoi 250000 dv- 
9pco7ioi 9a xdGOUv xr] SouAsid xoix; gxo 5ri[j,6Gio Kai i5icoxik6 
xofj.sa.^^'' 0a TipsTisi va Gri[j,sico9si, 6xi r] GU[j,(pcovia svxa^rjc; 
xrov XKAE Ka9opi(^8i 6xi r] sXsi39spri [j,sxavdGX8t)Gri Tipo^ xrjv 
E.E.-15 ouGiaGxiKd 9a aTiayopsusxai yia 7ispio5o tisvxs xpo- 
vcDV Kai dpa 5sv f^Tiopsi va xpTl<3i^£iJ<3£i (xouXdxiGxov v6 [n- 
[la...) Gav 5is^o5o(; yia xovq avspyotx; xcov XKAE. 

Atio xk; pu9[j,iG8ig nov syivav yia xrjv sigoSo xcov XKAE, 
UTidpxouv Ksp5iG[j,8voi Kai xa[j,svoi gxtjv E.E.-15, 7ipdy[j,a nov 
[iKopei va TipoKaXsGSi s9vikigxiks(; avxmapa98GSi(; avd[j,SGa 
gxk; x&ipeq xr]^ E.E.-15, o^i3vovxa(;, 7iapdX,}tri}ta, paxGiGxiKd 
(paiv6[j,£va upoc; xodc; avaxo^^iKosupcoTiaiou^. Sxr] FaXMa au- 
^dvovxai 01 (poPoi 6xi r] 5isi3puvGri xri<; E.E. 7ipo(; xa avaxoXi- 
Kd 9a U7ioPa9[j,iGSi xr] 98Gri xr]^ TaXkiaq, sviGXUovxa(; xr] Fsp- 
[j,avia, 7ipdy[j,a tiou s^si 9opupfiGSi aK6[j,a Kai xr] «[j,sxpi07ia9fi 
As^id)).^^'' H SisijpuvGri 9a 7ipoG9sGSi Kduou 24 5ig. supcb 
GXOV 7ipol)7ioAoyiG[j,6 xrig AuGxpia(;, TispiTiou 10% xou AEII 
xT]^, 8V(b T] Fspfj-avia U7ioXoyi(^sxai 6xi 9a s^si sva «guv» gxov 
7ipol)7ioAoyiG[j,6 xri(; i3\|/o u; 1 05ig. supcb, TispiTiou 5%) xou 
AEn. ^^^ Sxoix; xa[j,svou(; (Xoyco [j,sicoGr|^ xcov koivoxikcdv [j,s- 
xaPipdGSCov) GuyKaxaXsyovxai iGuavia, FIopxoyaMa, IpXav- 
5ia, Aavia. Fia xrjv EA,Xd5a oi skxi^tigsk; sivai avxicpaxiKst;: oi 
V88^ X&ipsc, 58V Tiapdyouv Xd5i, 8G7i8pi5o8i5fi, ev&) Kai [is xa 
(pp8GKa Kri7i8uxiKd 7101) KaX,}Li8pyoi3v 58v (paiv8xai 7ico(; 9a 
Tikr\^ovv xTjv 8A,>uriviKfi ayopd. Qgxogo Tiapdyouv 7iap8[j,(p8pfi 



125 



Pio[j,rixaviKd Tipoiovxa, oxa OTioia o sA,}^riviK6(; Ka7iiTaXiG[j,6(; 
9a aioGavGei avxaycoviGTiKfi msori. 

Ev KaxaKXeiSi, to i5io to oikovo[j,ik6 UTioPaGpo yia [im 
«o[j,OG7iov5iaKfi» KaTSi39uvGr| Tri(; E.E. aTi^tdx; 5sv UTidpxsi. 
XsipoTspa, r\ avuTiap^ia tou o5riysi gttiv oiKovo[j,iKfi vno- 
Pd9[j,iGri Tispioxcbv (5riXa5fi KpaTcbv) tt]^ E.E. 'H5ri sivai opa- 
TT) r\ [j,STaTpo7ifi TCDV XKAE GS UTiavdTiTUKTri C,&)vr\ xa[ir\kr\q 
avTaycoviGTiK6TriTa(; yia tk; x&tpeq tt]^ E.E. -15, aXXd Kai (pTTj- 
voij spyaTiKoij 5uva[j,iKoi3 7ipo(; SK[j,STdA,}tsuGri, sits svToma 
([IE TTjv iSpuGTi g' auTE(; Pio[j,r|xaviK(bv [o^owScov nov 9a Xsi- 

TOUpyOW [IE TO (pTTlVO [J,£V, aX,Xd Sl5lKSU[J,SV0 5s, TipOGCOTllKO 

Tou^) SITS Gav (pTTivoi [j,STavdGTS(; . AXXd Kai r\ iik^priq svgco- 
[j,dT(DGfi TOU(; GTTjv E.E. sivai a[j,(piPoXri. To tiots, Kai av, 9a 
siGdyouv TO supd) sivai dSrjXo. Kai aGCpa^^dx;, r\ 7ipoG7id9sia 
va SiaTTipfiGOUv Ta vo[j,iG[j,aTd tou^ GTa Ti^^aiGia tou Mrjxavi- 
G[j,oi3 SuvaX,Xay[j,aTiK(bv lGOTi[j,i(bv (cvv-Tikr\v 2,5%) gs guv- 
9fiKS(; au^av6[j,svou avTaycoviG[j,oi3 Kai s^TiopiKcbv EXkEi[i[ia- 
TODV, 9a 5r|[j,ioupyfiGSi vss^ aviGOTriTSt; Kai avTma^^OTriTsg. 

Qgtogo, r\ oiKovo[j,iKd sud>uCOTri Kai U7ioPa9[j,iG[a^svri 9sGri 
Tcov XKAE, 5sv gt] [j,aivsi ttjv sukoXt] [j,STaTpo7ifi xovq gs C,&)- 
vr\ «vsoa7ioiKiaKfi(; SK[j,STdXXsuGr|(;». Stti Gr|[j,spivfi E.E. 5sv 
ucpiGTavTai oiJTS 01 7io}tiTiKE(; oiJTS (nohb TlSpiGGOTSpo) 01 
GTpaTicoTiKS(; 7ipol)7io9EGSi^ yia [j,ia e^eXi^t] 7ipo(; auTfiv ttjv 
KaTSi39uvGri. Oi dpxouGSt; Td^si^ tcdv XKAE ^Tiopoijv va sXi- 
x9oi3v xPTl<^i^^o''^oi^(ovTa(; tk; avTi9EGSi(; avd[j,SGa gtk; xoc)ps(; 
Tri(; E.E.-15 (rj «GU[j,[j,axia» IloXcoviat; - iGTiaviat; - BpsTaviat; 
GTTjv avTi9sGfi Tou^ [IE SiaTd^si^ Tou «GUVTdy[j,aTO^» sivai sv- 
SsiKTiKTi). EnmXEOv, uudpxouv Kai oi «7iaiKTS^» skt6(; E.E. H 
GiJVTa^ri TCOV XKAE [ie tk; HIIA gttjv sigPo^^ti gto IpdK, sivai 
[lEpoq Tri(; GUVO^tiKOTsprjc; avTi9sGr|(; tcdv XKAE gttjv vno- 
Pa9[j,iG[j,Evri 9EGri toix; svt6(; ttjc; E.E. H [j,STacpopd pdGSCov 



126 



Tcov HQA a7i6 tx] Yepiiavia ce xcopsc, Tr\c, avaxoXiKfic; Eupcb- 
Tirig, Tispav Tou jejovoioq oxi gt] [j,aTo5oTSi xriv au^riGri tcov 
avTiGsGSCDV HQA Kai E.E.-15, aTioxe^tsi Kai [lepoq xri^ Gxpa- 
TTiyiKTic; TCOV apxouGcbv xd^scDV tcov XKAE va avTiGTa9[j,iG0uv 
tk; tiisgsk; and ttjv E.E. xpriGi[j,07ioi(bvTa^ ti^ gxsgsi^ tou^ [ie 
tk; HHA. 

ETio[iev(i)q, r\ Gsgti tcov XKAE 8vt6^ Tri(; E.E. 0a aTiOTsXsi 
Tiriyfi 5iapKcbv avTiTiapaGsGSCov Kai 9a GU[j,pdX8i gtt] ysviKo- 
Tspr] aGTOiGsia Tri<; TS^tsuTaiac;. 

HoXniKsq oDVs;rsis<g rryq a\iG6\i£Tpr\q avd;rTD^ii<g 

AIM r\ i5ia aTisi^^fi (oiKovo[j,iKfi u7iopd0[j,iGri) sivai opaTf) 
Kai yia tk; tiio a5i3va[j,S(; x&tpeq Kai 7ispi(pspsiS(; Tri(; E.E.-15. O 
Ka7iiTaXiG[j,6^ sivai 8va GUGTr^a oikovo[j,ikoi3 avTaycoviG[j,oi3, 
TO 071010 avayKaGTiKd, oSrjysi gttjv UTiOTayfi tou mo a5i3va- 
[j,ou KscpaXaiou gto iGXupoTspo. E' sva «tsX810» avTaycovi- 
GTiKo 7ispipdA,}tov, OTiou 01 vo[j,o9sGis(; Kai 01 (popoXoyiK8(; 
noXniKsq 9a svo7ioiri9oi3v (svcb UTidpxsi Kai sviaio v6[j,iG[j,a), 
TOTS r\ Kupiapxia tou iGXupoTspou KscpaXaiou sivai 585o[j,£vr|. 
Kai r\ Kupiapxia auTf) gttjv E.E. sxsi «s9vik6 xp(o^a», Grmai- 
vsi TTjv Kupiapxia tou ysp[j,aviKou f) yaXXiKou KscpaXaiou, r\ 
TOU OTioiou iGxupoTepou s9viKou KscpaXaiou. AGCpaXcb^, onmq 
9a 5ou[j,s (gttjv E^eki^r\ tou TiapovTO^Kscpa^^aiou), [im Tiapo- 
[j,oia 8^s}ti^ri s[j,7io5i(^STai a7iOTsX8G[j,aTiKd and ttjv s9viKfi 5i- 
a[j,6p(pcoGri tou supcoTiaiKou KscpaXaiou - and to ysyovo^ 6ti 
TO s9vik6 KpdTO(; Kd9s dXXo Tiapd sxsi a7iOGTspri9si tcov ^rj- 
XaviG[j,cbv 7ipoGTaGia(; tou «s9vikou KS(pa}taiou». Qgtogo, Kai 
[lovo TO ysyov6(; 6ti sX,Xoxsusi o Kiv5uvo(; oiKovo[j,iKfi(; utio- 
Pd9[j,iGri(;, apKsi cdgts va 7iupo5oTsi 7ioXitiks(; kpigsk; Kai a- 
vaTapd^sK; gto SGCOTspiKo tcov KpaTcbv-[j,8}tcbv tt]^ E.E.-15. 



127 



To 7ip6pXri[j,a sivai PaGmspo. H dvapxn oiKovo[j,iKfi avd- 
TiTU^ri GTOV Ka7iiTa}tiG[j,6, o5riysi gttiv aviG6[j,STpri avdTiTU^ri 
Kpaxcbv aX,Xd Kai Tispioxcbv (Tispicpspsicbv) evzoq xou sGvikoij 
Kpdxoix;. Exriv EX,Xd5a, yia 7iapd5siy[j,a, sivai xspdGxiS(; oi 
5ia(pops(; oiKovo[j,iKfi(; avaTnv^r\q (Kai Pioxikoij enmedov) a- 
vd[j,SGa GXT] ©pdKT] f) xTjv 'HTisipo a7i6 XT] [j,ia, Kai xrjv Axxikt) 
a7i6 xTjv dX,}tri. Evcb xo Kaxd Kscpa^^fiv siG65r|[j,a gxtjv EX,Xd5a 
(AEn avd KdxoiKo 7ipoGap[j,OG[j,svo [is pdGT] xo kogxo^ Ctoil<;) 
sivai xo 65,2% xou [lecov koivoxikoij opou (xrjc; E.E.-15) gxtjv 
n8>^07i6wriGO sivai [loXiq xo 56%. Ms [leco tiogogxo avsp- 
yiag 10,9%) xo 2002 gxtjv EX,Xd5a, oi lovioi vfiGOi si^av 
13,1%), xo voxio Aiyaio 20,7%), r] Suxikt) MaKs5ovia 16,3%).^^*' 

H IxaMa sivai gxtjv 7ipay[j,axiK6xr|xa «5ixoxo[j,ri[j,svri» avd- 
[j,SGa Gxov ava7ixuy[j,svo Poppd Kai xov Ka9uGxspri[j,svo voxo. 
H avspyia gxov ixaXiKo voxo (18^2%)) sivai 5mXdGia xou [le- 
Gou sGviKoij opou/^^ To jejovoq auxo sxsi (upocpavdcx;) xspd- 
Gxis^ KoivcoviKs^ Guvs7isis(;. FsviKd [j,i}t(bvxa(;, avxeq oi 5ia(po- 
psg 5ev i^sxaxpsTiovxai gs auoGxiGxiKd Kivfi[j,axa svxo^ xcov 
s9viK(bv Guvopcov. O X6yo(; sivai 6xi r\ KpaxiKf) s^ouGia sivai 
vo[j,i[j,07ioiri[j,Evri, [leca and «s9vikoi3(; ay(bvs(;», 7ioXixig[j,iks^ 
TiapaSoGSK;, yXcDGGiKf) svoxrixa k.Xti. 

Qgxogo xa TiapaTidvcD, 5sv GxdQrjKav s[j,7i65io yia xr|v sfj,- 
(pdviGT] GXTjv IxaMa xrjc; AsyKa xou Boppd xou Ou[j,7ispxo 
Mtiogi, 710U ouGiaGxiKd STiayysXXsxai xrjv auxov6[j,ri gt] xou 
Poppd xr|(; x^Jpotf; auo xo voxo. Exk; xs}tsuxais(; SK^oyst; (Mdi- 
oq 2 0^ xo K6[j,[j,a xou Mtiogi utiegxt] Ka9i(^riGri, auo 1 CP/o 
Tiou sixs STiixuxsi OTIC, 7iporiyou[j,svs(; SKkijeq, gs 3,9%).^^^ AX- 
Xd, Tiap' 6Xa auxd, xa TiOGOGxd xou sivai svxuTicoGiaKd yia sva 
K6[j,[j,a Tiou STiayysXXsxai xrjv sGvikti SidGTiaGT]. EurnXsov, oi 
S7iayysX,is<; xou Mtiogi 5sv s^i7i65iGav xov M7isp>^ougk6vi va 



128 



svxd^si TT] AsyKa xou Boppd gtov KuPepvriTiKo GUvaG7iiG[j,6 

TOU. 

Av auxd Gt)[j,paivouv gs sGviko stiitisSo, f^Tiopsi Kavsit; si3- 
Ko}ta va npo^aXkei xiq guvs7isis(; ttjc; aviGOfj-STprjc; avaTnv^r\q 
ce S7ii7is5o E.E. (iSiaixspa ce guvGtiks^ 7iayK6G[j,ia(; oikovo[j,i- 
Ki\q i3(pSGri(;). H E.E. 5sv exei tt] vo [ji[j,07ioiriGri xcov sGviKcbv 
Kpaxcbv. Exn^axiGTriKs [leca and 5ispyaGi8(; KpaxiKcbv ypa- 
(psioKpaxcbv, 5sv TipofiXGe and [lal^iKovq hxiKovq aymveq, 6- 
Ticoc; xa sGviKd Kpdxr| xri(; Evp&)iir\q. Mia oiKovo[j,iKfi e^eki^r] 
nov Ga o5riysi gxtjv s[j,pdGuvGri xcov oikovo^ikcdv aviGOxfixcDV 
avd[j,8Ga Gxa sGviKd Kpdxr] Kai xi^ Tispicpspsist;, tiou Ga o5riysi 
GS Xixoxrixa Kai avspyia, suKoXa f^Tiopsi va [j,sxaxpa7isi gs a- 
7iOGxiGxiKE(; xdGSK;, xoGO «a7i6 xa Kdx(D», OGO Kai «a7i6 xa 
7idv(D». EnvKkeov, r\ E.E. auoxs^^si gxoxo «si3KoA,r|(;» a7i65o- 
Gri(; suGuvcbv, Kai sxgi r\ avxi-E.E. SidGsGr] 5ia7ispvd xogo xk; 
[iiKpeq, OGO Kai xi^ [isjakeq W>P^'i- O «supcoGKS7ixiKiG[j,6(;» 
7101) avauxuGGSxai gxoix; noXneq gxi^ ava7ixuy[j,svs(; x&tpeq 
xri(; P6psia(; EupcoTiric;, sivai s^aipsxiKd sv5sikxik6(; xr|(; 5i8i3- 

pUVGTl^ xcov aVlGOxflXCOV Kai xcov 7l0}^lXlKCbv GUV87l8lcbv xou^. 

H avduxu^ri aKpoSs^icbv Kai cpaGiGxiKcbv Kivri[j,dxcov g' o- 
A,6KA,ripri xrjv EupcDTiri, a7ioxsX,8i xrjv Kopucpf) xou TiayoPouvou 
xcDV sGviKcbv avxmapaGsGSCov svxoc; xr|(; E.E. Sxr] raX,Ma, xo 
2002, o AsTisv, 7101) r\ 7ipo8K>uoyiKfi xou Ka^Tidvia syivs [is a- 
vxi-E.E. GUvGfi[j,axa Kai yia xrjv auoGupGri xrjc; TaXkiaq and xo 
supcb, ^S7ispaG8 xov U7io\|/fi(pio xou EoGiaXiGxiKou K6[j,[j,axo(;, 
Kai xoxs TipcoGuTioupyo Zogtisv, Kai PpsGrjKs gxo 5suxspo yu- 
po XCDV 7ipos5piKcbv SKAoycbv. TsXiKd 8A,aP8 18% xcov \|/fi(pcov 
svavxi 82% xou ZaK EipdK. 

AXM r\ avduxu^ri avxi-E.E. aiGGr|[j,dxcDV 58v acpopd xk; ne- 
piGcopiaKS(; (;) aKpo5s^iS(; xdGSK;, aX,}td Kai xovq STiiGrno^out; 
SK(ppaGX8(; xcov sGvikcdv apxouGcbv xd^scov gxtjv EupcDTiri. O 



129 



apjjYfoq Tou XpiGTiavo5ri[j,oKpaTiKoi3 K6[i[iaToq ttjc; Fspfj-avi- 
aq St6i[j,7isp, Sis^fiyays xriv TiposKXoyiKfi tou SKOTpaxsia to 

2002, [IE SVTOVO «GKS71TIKIG[J,6» yitt TO SUpCD, TT] 5i8i3puvGri 

7ipo(; tk; x&ipeq Tri(; AvaTO^tiKf)^ Kai KsvTpiKfic; Evp&)iir\q, svcb 
t6vi(^s 6ti t] E.E. «GTOixiCsi aKpipd gtt] rsp[j,avia». 

Oi 89viK8(; avTiGsGSK; [j,8Ta(pspouv tk; oiKovo[j,iK8g avTiTia- 
XoTTiTS^ GTO 7i85io TTjc; TioXniKr\q. Fia TiapdSsiyfo^a, oi Siacprovi- 
eq avd[j,SGa GTa KpaTti-fo^sXri co^ Tipo^ ttjv aKoXou9oi3[j,svri oi- 
Kovo[j,iKfi noXniKT] (to i3\|/0(; tou 7ipol)7ioAoyiG[j,oi3 Kai tt] GUfj,- 
PoA,fi g' auTOV TCDV S7ii[j,spou(; KpaTcbv [Kupico^ PsPai(D(; tcov 
[j,8ydXcov KpaTcbv], tt] 5idpKsia Kai ttjv SKTaGt] tcov Koivoti- 
K(bv Ta[j,si(DV STfipi^ri(; k.Xti.) [j,STa(pspovTai [j,s suKoMa auo 

TO 01K0V0[J,Ik6 S71171S50 GTO 7is5l0 TTjc; S^COTSpiKTlc; 7l0}tlTlKfl(;, 

onmq KaTs5si^av oi 5ia(p(Dvi8(; yia ttjv a[j,spiKavo-PpsTaviKfi 

SmGSGTl GTO IpdK. 

O avTiXoyog GTa 7iporiyoi3[j,£va, sivai 6ti Ta Kscpd^^aia and 
xa 5iap9pcoTiKd Tarsia, Tiap' 6ti eXlmi], «Pofi9riGav Ta (pTCO- 
XOTspa KpdTT] va avauTUxGow TaxuTspa and xa tiXougiots- 
pa».^^'^ npdy[j,aTi, and to 1994 o pt)9[j,6(; avduTU^ric; iGTiaviat;, 
nopToya>u(ag, Ip>^av5ia(;, Kai tt]^ EA,Xd5a(;, gs [j,sgo stiitisSo, 
fiTav TaxuTspog and to [j,8go 6po ttjc; E.E. 

EtiitiXsov, TiapouGidGTTiKs PsA,Ti(DGri TTjc; ayopaGTiKTic; 5i3- 
va[j,ri(; g' auTS^ tk; x&ipeq ([is s^aipsGr] ttjv EX,Xd5a), svcb, a- 
VTiGsTa, [j,si(b9riKs r\ ayopaGTiKf) 5i3va[j,ri gs apKSTSt; «7iXoi3gi- 
Eq» x^Jpst;, |J.6 xapaKTTipiGTiKOTspo 7iapd58iy[j,a tt] Yepixavia. 
H E^eki^T] Tou KaTd Kscpa^^fiv AKaGdpiGTOU Eyxropiou IIpoio- 
VTO(; (AEn) GS Movd5s(; AyopaGTiKfi(; Ai3va[j,ri(; (MAA) gtk; 



130 



X&)pEq-[iekr\ tt]^ E.E. xa stt] 1981 Kai 2001 sivai r\ aKoXouGr] 
(E.E.=100KaiTa 5uo sxri)^^'*: 



XcDpwv-fisXwv AEn OS MAA 


E.E.-15 


1981 


2001 


% MsxaPoXf) 


Aov^8[x|3oi)pyo 


121 


190 


57 


Ip}^av5ia 


68 


118 


73,5 


Aavia 


111 


116 


4,5 


0X,}^av5ia 


107 


115 


7,5 


AuGxpia 


106 


111 


4,7 


BsXyio 


107 


109 


1,9 


Oiv^tavSia 


99 


104 


5,1 


YakXia 


111 


103 


-7,2 


rsp^iavia 


117 


103 


-12 


IxaMa 


102 


103 


1 


Eot)r|5ia 


113 


102 


-9,7 


Bpsxavia 


96 


101 


5,2 


iGTiavia 


73 


84 


15,1 


nopxoyaMa 


56 


69 


23,2 


EXkd5a 


69 


65 


-5,8 



H sxfiGia [j,8xaPiPaGri TiopoDV auo xa AiapGpcoxiKd Tarsia 
xrig E.E. avxiTipoGCDTisiJOUV TispiGGOxspo a7i6 3% xou AEII yia 
xTjv EXlAda Kai xrjv IIopxoyaMa Kai TispiGGOxspo and 2% yia 
xrjv IpA,av5ia Kai xrjv iGTiavia. Y7ioAoyi(^8xai 6xi GUVsiGCpspouv 
nepmov 1% gxtjv sxfiGia au^riGri xou AEII ce EXknda, IpXav- 
5ia Kai IIopxoyaMa. ^^^ Ta tiogoi auxd, 5sv UTidpxsi a[j,9iPoM- 
a, sivai Gr|[j,avxiKd, Kai mq sva Pa9[j,6, s^riyow yia xrjv EXXd- 
5a (aX,Xd Kai yia xk; UTioXomsg xrn; 0[j,d5a(;), xov u\|/ri}t6 Pa9[j,6 
a7io5oxn(; T:r\c, E.E avd[j,SGa gxov Tikr\Qvc[i6. 



131 



Qgtogo, to ysyo\6(; auxo Ssv avaipsi on 3 0-40% and xa 
GUVo^tiKd Tiood 710U [j,STaPipd(^ovTai gtk; (pxcoxoxspst; xcbps^ 
I^STaxpsTiovTai g8 EicajcDjeq auo tk; dX,Xs(; mo ava7iTuy[j,8VS(; 
X&>psc, (5ri[j,ioupy(bvTa^ XPOvia 7ipopXfi[j,aTa s^TiopiKcbv ek- 
'ksi[i[iaT(i)v), sv(b TO xdG[j,a sivai nohb [lejako Kai xa GUVo^^iKd 
TiOGd, TsXiKd, [j,iKpd ([j,6Xi^ TO 0,45% Tou AEn ttjc; E.E.). 

H PsXticogti Tri(; GsGrjc; xcov «(pTCOx6Tspcov» Kpaxcbv sivai 
[j,iKpfi ([j,s s^aipsGTi xriv IpXav5ia), «K07ii(b5ri^» (ce SidGirma 
[j,ia(; siKOGasTiat;), svcb to xdG[j,a s^aKoXouGsi va sivai [leja- 
Xo, aKOfo^a Kai av r\ TiOGOGxiaia PsX,TicoGri sivai gt] [j,avTiKfi (6- 
nmq gttiv TispiTixcDGri nopToyaMa(;, iGTiaviat;). H KdX,u\|/ri tt]^ 
Siacpopdg aK6[j,a Kai av oi GUv9fiKS(; sivai suvoiks(; (r\ oiko- 
vo[j,ia Tcov «(pTC0x6Tsp(DV» avaTiTOGGSxai [j,s uxj/ri^tOTspoix; 
pt)9[j,oi3(;), sivai [j,iKpfi GUV0>^iKd. H EX,Xd5a, r\ ouoia ava- 
TiTUGGOxav a7i6 TO 1997 |J,sxpi to 2003 (upoP^STiSTai 6ti r\ i5ia 
TdGT] 9a GUV8XIGTSI Kai TO 2004) [IE apKSTd u\|/riX6Tspoug 
pu9[j,oi3(; an' 6ti o [lecoq 6po(; tcov xcopcbv Tri(; E.E. ([is s^ai- 
psGTi TTjv IpXav5ia) 7iapouGid(^8i ttjv e^^q siKova GUGGCopsu- 
TiKd: Tr] SsKasTia 1993-2001 r\ Siacpopd avd[j,SGa gto pu9[j,6 
avaTnv^r\q Tri(; eXkr\viKr\q oiKovo[j,ia(; Kai sksivo ttjc; E.E. mq 
GUv6}tou fiTav [j,6}ti(; 0,3%) Kai ttjv TisvTasTia 1997-2001 [lovo 
1,2%).^^'' Na Gri[j,sico98i 6ti ttjv i5ia 7ispio5o, r| oiKovo[j,iKfi 
avduTU^r] tcov iGXupcbv Popsicov xcopcbv fiTav noTv Tispiopi- 
G[j,8vri. Av r\ oiKovo[j,ia uapouGidGSi avdKa[j,\|/ri g' avxeq tk; 
Xcbps^, t6t8 r\ Siacpopd 9a [j,sya}tcbGSi Kai r\ Kakv\\ir\ ttjc; 9a 
auaiTTiGSi noXksq 5sKasTis(; Kai pu9[j,oi3(; avduTU^rjc; s^co- 
7ipay[j,aTiKoi3(;. Y7ioAoyi(^STai 6ti av o pu9[j,6^ avduTU^r]^ ttjc; 
E.E. ^s7ispdG8i TO 2%), TOTS TO KaTd Ke(pakr\v AEII tt]^ EX,Xd- 
daq GS MAA yia va (pTdGSi auo 65 tiou sivai cr\[iepa gto 100 
TO... 2019, 9a TipsTisi r\ oiKovo[j,ia va avauTUGGSTai [is pu9- 
[j,oi3(; 5%). 



132 



ETintkeov, to k6gto(; ttjc; PsXticogtic; sivai noXi) v\\fr\k6- [is 
aXku A,6yia oi apiG^ioi 8t)r|[j,spoi3v aA,M o k6g[j,o (; UTiocpspsi. 
Sxriv loTiavia to tiogogto avspyia(; sivai to [j,syaA,i3Tspo tt]^ 
E.E., 11,3% TO 2003 (ttjc; EA,Xd5a(;, to Ssmspo [lejahbTspo 
TIOGOGTO, 9,5%), svd) TO TIOGOGTO Tou Ti}tri9uG[j,oi3 Tlou 5iaPisi 
KoiTCO aTio TO opio (pTcbxittt; sivai 19%) gttjv iGTiavia. Kai gtk; 
TpsK; x&ipeq (EX,}td5a, iGTiavia, IIopToyaMa) oi 5aTidvs(; yia 
TTjv uysia f) TTjv Tiai5sia sivai aTio tk; xa[j,riX6Tsps(; gttjv E.E. 
H p8}LTico[j,svr| GsGTi Tri(; nopToyaMa(; (Kai r\ au^riGri 2 3?%) 
Tiou TiapouGid(^si) 5sv avaipsi to jejovoq 6ti oi [j,ig9oi gttjv 
IIopToyaMa sivai oi xa[j,r|}t6Tspoi ttjc; Evp&)iir\q (r\ ^ekTimcr] 
TipoKijTiTSi aTio TO ysyo\6(; 6ti to k6gto(; C.m^q sivai xa[j,riX6- 

TSpO, TO 79%) TOU [J,SGOU KOGTOIX; C,(X)f[q GTTjV E.E.)^^'', £V(b TO 

TIOGOGTO TOU Ti}tr|9uG[j,oi3 Tiou SiaPisi KdTCO aTio TO opio (pT(b- 
Xmq sivai 22%) (6go aKpiPocx; Kai ttjc; EX,Xd5a(;). 

IIspiGGOTspo 6[i(i)q Kai aTio Ta TiapaTidvro, r\ TispiP6r|Tr| dr\- 
9sv «Gi3yKXiGri» sKTsivsTai gs [iejakf] xpoviKf) TispioSo, r\ o- 
Tioia 5sv sivai TidvTa Tipo(; tt] Gstikt) ttjc; KaTSi39uvGri (ttj G[j,i- 
KpuvGTi 5riXa5fi ttjc; 5ia(popd(; [j,STa^i3 tcdv xropcbv Tri(; E.E). H 
TdGT] i^Tiopsi KdXXiGTa va avTiGTpacpsi, av tk; oiKovo[j,is(; ttjc; 
E.E. TiXfi^si ysviKSU[j,svri oiKovo[j,iKfi txpSGr], OTirog guvsPt] tt] 
5sKasTia tou 1970, gtk; apxs(; tcov 5sKasTicbv tou 1980 Kai 
1990, Kai GTTjv TiapoiJGa txpSGr] tiou SiapKf) aTio to 2001. Sto 
5idGTri[j,a tiou 5iapKsi r\ ucpSGr], r\ aTioKXiGT] [isTa^v TispiGGO- 
Tspo Kai ^tiyoTspo avaTiTuy[j,svcov xcopcbv, Tsivsi siTS va au^d- 
vsi, siTS va Tiapa[j,svsi gto i5io STiiTis5o: 

«AXXo sva xapaKTTjpiGTiKo ttj^ ucpSGrj^ [ttj^ SsKasTi- 
aq TOU 19 7pfiTav r| au^riGti tcdv aviGOTfiTCOv [j,STa^u 

TCOV TlSpiGGOTSpO Kai TCOV ^tiyOTSpO avaTlTUy[J,SVCDV xco- 

pcbv Kai Tispioxcbv ttjc; KoivoTriTag, r\ OTioia avsTps\|/s 



133 



xriv xdari nov 8ix8 TiapaxripriGsi gtt] SsKasxia xou 1960, 
oxav xo oikovo[j,ik6 xdofa^a yscpupcovoxav Pa9[j,iaia». ^^^ 

napa9sxot)[j,s Kduoia oiKovo[j,iKd oxoixsia yia EX,}td5a, I- 
GTiavia, IIopxoyaMa Kai xriv E.E.-12 (xcopi^ 5ri}^a5fi avxeq xiq 
Xchpeq). Sxr] ysviKoxspr] oiKovo[j,iKfi siKova auxcbv xcov xcopcbv, 
xk; 7i8pi65ot)(; nov 7iapa9sxou[j,s, 9a TipsTisi va GUVSKxi[j,ri9oi3v 
Kai o pu9[j,6(; 7iXri9copiG[j,oi3 Kai r\ avspyia: 

Pt)9[a^oi avaTnv^r\q, sxfiGia % [j,sxaPo}tfi xou 7ipay[j,axiKoi3 





AE] 


I G8 Gxa9sps^ Xl[J,S^ 








1974- 
79 


1980- 
85 


1991- 
94 


2000 


2001 


2002 


EXkdda 


3,7 


1,4 


1,1 


4,3 


4,1 


4 


UopTCTfokia 


2,9 


1,5 


0,7 


3,4 


1,7 


0,4 


iGTiavia 


2,3 


1,5 


1,0 


4,1 


2,8 


1,8 


EE-12 


2,6 


-1,5 


1,2 


3,4 


1,4 


0,7 





AsiKxs^ xi[j,(bv 


Kaxava^^cDXT) 








1974- 
79 


1980- 
85 


1991- 
94 


2000 


2001 


2002 


EXkdda 


16,1 


21,4 


17,7 


2,9 


3,5 


3,7 


nopxoya^ia 


23,7 


22,1 


9,1 


2,8 


4,9 


4,6 


iGTiavia 


18,3 


12,8 


6,5 


3,5 


3,9 


4,3 


EE-12 


12,3 


9,8 


3,9 


2,3 


2,5 


2,2 



IIoGOGxd avspyiat; 





1974-79 


1980-85 


1991-95 


2000 


2001 


EXMSa 


1,9 


6,1 


9,1 


11,1 


10.5 


nopxoya- 


6,0 


8,0 


5,8 


4,1 


4,1 


iGTiavia 


5,3 


17,0 


20,9 


11,3 


10,6 



134 



EE-12 4.8 8.4 10.2 7.8 7.3 



Sxriv EA,Xd5a, r\ TiapaycDyiKoxriTa xrig spyaaiag to 1978 a- 
vspxoxav GTO 85% xou [j,sgou opou Tri(; E.E. To 1990 (Xoyco 
Tri(; 7iapaTSTa[j,svri(; i3(pSGri(; tiou sixs Ti^^fi^si tt] xcbpa tt] 5sKa- 
8T(a Tou 1980) sixs PuGigtsi gto 65%. Atio tots, Kai [lexa and 
7ioA,Xd xpovia XiTOTTiTat; Kai u\|/riXfi(; avspyia^, to 2002 scpTaGS 
Kai TidXi GTO 85%), OGO 5riXa5fi Kai to 1978! 

To «oikovo[j,ik6 Gaij^a)) Tri(; IpXavSiat;, GTtipixGriKs KaTd 
Kijpio Xoyo GTig 'A[iE(5Eq Eeveq EtisvStjgsi^ (ASE), Kai o^i gtk; 
KoivoTiKsc; po8(; (oi AHE fiGav TpsK; epopee; [j,syaX,i3Tsps(; and 
TOix; KoivoTiKotx; Tiopoix;). Eitntkeov to ipXavSiKo «oikovo- 
[j,ik6 Gaij^a)) s^riysiTai and tt] GxsTiKd (pTrivf), dcpGovr] Kai i- 
SiaiTspa s^si5iKsu[j,svri spyaTiKf) 5i3va[j,ri, to [j,iKp6 [lEjedoq 
TTj^ Xcbpa(; nov STiiTpsTisi [isjakeq (popoanaXhrfsq tcov ^svcov 
S718v5i3gscov, tk; a[j,sXriTS8(; s^07iXigtiks(; 5a7idvs(; (gs avTiGs- 
GT] [j,s TTjv EX,Xd5a), Kai tt] ysiTviaGT] [is tt] BpsTavia, x^opot 
7ipoopiG[j,oi3 Tou [j,syaA,i3Tspou [o^spoii; tcov ASE nov gtoxsij- 
ouv GTTjv supcoTiaiKTi ayopd. Qgtogo, oi ASE sivai s^aipsTiKd 
suaiGGriTS^ gttjv oiKovo[j,iKfi GuyKupia. 'Etgi, to 2001 (nov 
syivs e[i(pavr\q r\ vsa 7iayK6G[j,ia txpSGrj) uapouGidGTriKs titg)- 
GT] KaTd 20%) TCOV ASE gtk; X'^P^'i '^^^ OOSA,^'''' titcdgti tiou 
GUVSxiGTriKS Kai TO 2002. 

E' sva oikovo[j,ik6 TispipdXXov to otioio yivsTai oXosva Kai 
7110 avTaycoviGTiKO, otiou r\ GuyKSVTpo7ioir| gt] ttjc; 7iapaycDyfi(; 
STiiTaxuvsTai (oiKovo[j,is(; KMfo^aKat;), Ga uudp^ouv Ksp5iG[j,s- 
voi Kai xotfJ-svoi, 710U GTTjv TispiTiTCOGTi TTjc; E.E. Gri[j,aivsi 5isi3- 



Exriv EXXd5a to 50% tcov Tiopcov tou Koivotikou nXaioiou ETiipi^rn; Ka- 
TeuBwovTai 7ipo<; epya U7io5o|ifi<;, evcb to ocvtIotoixo tth; IpXovSlou; eivai 
(iovo 20%. IlpdyjiaTiou ovTOvaKldTO uv|/riX6Tepo oikovojxiko emvieSo ttji; 
IpIovSio^. 

135 



puvori Tou xdG[j,aTO^ togo ce TispicpspsiaKo S7ii7is5o 6go Kai 
avd[j,8Ga Gxa KpdTri-[j,sXri. npdy[j,a iiov 5sv [mopei va to Ka- 
A,i3\|/si o ic/yoq koivotik6(; 7ipol)7ioXoyiG[j,6(;, Kai xa oijtcd^ f) 
dX,Xco(;, avsTiapKTi KoivoxiKd n}^aiGia ETfipi^ri(;: 

«H KaxdpyriGri xcov SGCOxspiKcbv (ppay[j,(bv [...] 9a 
I^TiopoiJGS, yia 7iapd5siy[j,a, va svigxugsi xr|v xdGt] yia 
yscoypacpiKT) GuyKsvxpcoGri xr]^ oiKovo[j,iKfi(; SpaGxrjpio- 
xTjxa^ G8 xo[j,8i(; u\|/ri}tfi(; xs^voXoyiat;, yia xoix; otioioix; r\ 
iJTiap^ri SiaGsGi^ou si5iksu[j,svou spyaxiKou 5uva[j,iKoi3 
Kai r\ ysixviaGT] [is spsuvrixiKd, 5ioiKrixiKd Kai xprifo^axo- 
TiiGxcoxiKd Ksvxpa i^Tiopsi va sivai s^aipsxiKd gt] [j,avxiKd 
[Tipdyfo^axa 5ri}^a5fi nov PpiGKovxai Kaxd Kavova gxk; 
7110 ava7ixuy[j,8V8^ X^ops?] - to i5io f^Tiopsi va igxusi, Ps- 
Paia, Kai yia dXXou^ xo[j,si(;. 

[. . . ] T] EVTshaq dviGt] Kaxavo[j,fi xcdv Ksp5(bv Kai xcdv 
(^rmicbv a7i6 xrjv oAoK^^fipcoGri 5sv f^Tiopsi ce Ka[j,id Tispi- 
TixcoGTi va aTiOK^^siGxsi. O Krugman (1987, g. 130), yia 
7iapd5siy[j,a, s^si xrjv d7io\|/ri 6xi xo s^Tiopio tiou Gxrjpi- 
(^sxai GS oiKovo[j,is(; KM[j,aKa(;, onaq sivai gs [j,sydXo 
Pa9[j,6 xo sv5okoivoxik6 s^uopio, «7ipoKaXsi mGavdcx; 

[J,lKp6xSpri GUyKpOUGT] GU[J,(pSp6vXC0V GXO SGCOXSpiKO XCDV 

Xcopcbv, Kai [j,syaX,i3xspri GuyKpouGr] GU[j,(psp6vxcov [j,sxa- 
^l3 xcov S7ll[J,8pOt)g xcDpcbv)).^''^ 

To xs^tiKo a7iox8>uSG[j,a sivai, xa KITE Kai oi koivoxiks(; 
pos(; 7ipo(; xk; xcbps^ xrjc; «7ispi(pspsia(;», sMxiGxa sxouv gu[j,- 
PdXsi GXTjv d[j,pA,uvGri xcov tioXixikcdv Siacpopcbv [j,sxa^i3 Poppd 
- voxou. H ai3^r| GT] xou oikovo[j,ikoi3 avxaycoviG[j,oi3 (i5iaixspa 
GS 7ispi65ou(; TJCpSGrjc;) [j,sxa(pspsxai ypfiyopa Kai gxo tio^^ixiko 
enmedo. 'Exgi, Tiapd xk; koivoxiks(; stiiSoxtigsk; Kai xr] (gxsxi- 



136 



KTi) oiKovo[j,iKfi 7ip6o5o, loTiavia Kai nopxoyaMa GUVxdxQri- 
Kav 1^8 TOU(; A[j,spiKavoPpsTavoi)g oxriv siaPo^^fi gto IpdK, r\ 
IpXav5ia fixav «ou5sTspri», svcb r\ GTdari Tri(; EX,Xd5a(; fixav 
S7ia[j,(pOTspi(^ot)Ga, TipoGTiaGcbvia^ va looppoTifiGSi avd[j,SGa 
GS HQA - Bpsxavia Kai to raX,Xoysp[j,aviK6 d^ova. 

Tekoq (aX,}td s^aipsxiKd gt] [j,avTiK6), sScb Kai xpovia Sis^d- 
ysxai Gxriv E.E. [im cvC^^vricr] nov acpopd xriv ouGia tcdv «5i- 
apGpcDTiKcbv 7ioXiTiK(bv». MsGa Gxa TiXaiGia tt]^ ysviKoxspric; 
vso(piXs}tsi39spri(; KaTSuGuvGrjc;, Gscopsixai oxi tt] GuyK^^iGr] 
Tcov «(pT(Dx6Tsp(DV» 7ipo(; TOtx; «7i}^ouGi6Tspot)(;» 9a TipsTisi va 
xriv avaXdpsi r\ «ayopd» Kai o^i r\ KpaxiKfi (f) koivotikti) 71a- 
psfj-PaGT]. ©scopsixai oxi «KaTaG7iaTaXoi3vTai» xpfmaxa yia 
«[j,iKpfi(; e[i^ekemq spya», svcb «9a S7ips7is» va SiaxiGsviai 
Xpfmaxa nov a au^dvouv xriv avxayroviGxiKoxrixa xcov fi5ri 
7110 avxaycDviGxiKcbv oiKovo[j,i(bv: 

«E' auxo xo Gri[j,sio avaKijTixsi sva aK6[j,ri 7ip6p}tri[j,a 
riGiKot) Kiv5i3vou: 9a TipsTisi va smxpaTisi gxoix; Xiyoxs- 
po ETinv')(r\[ievovq and xovq gt] [j,8pivoi3^ TiaiKxst; «va 
[j,sivouv Gxo 7iaixvi5i» svcb 01 x&tpeq [is xrjv KaXuxspr] s- 
TiiSoGTi [...] 9a 7id\|/ouv va STicDcpsAoiJvxai; Mtitiox; 9a 
TipsTisi va 5o98i [j,8yaA,i3xspri E[i(pacr\ gxk; Kaivox6[j,S(; 
7ioXixiKS(;, avxi va [j,oipd(^ouv aTikmq xpf^axa, [j,ia duo- 
\\ir\ yia xk; 5iap9pcoxiKS(; 7ioXixiks(; nov smKpaxsi Gfi[j,s- 
pa GS apKsxs(; x(bps(;-ai[j,o56xs(; xou 7ipol)7ioXoyiG[j,oi3 
xr|(; E.E.». ^^^ 

'ExGi s^riysixai Kai r\ «Gxpo(pfi» xou 87i8px6[j,8VOt) A' Koi- 
voxiKoij nXaiGiou Sxfipi^ri(; and xk; x&tpeq xr|(; «7ispi9spsia(;» 
7ipo(; xk; x&tpeq xou «Ksvxpou» xri(; E.E. Fia xa spya nov cvl^r\- 
xowxai va xpri[j,axo5oxri9oi3v and xo A' Koivoxiko nXaiGio 



137 



STfipi^ri(; (AisupcoTiaiKd AiKiua), 5sv GU^7ispiXa[j,pdvsTai Ka- 
vsva spyo [is ekXr\viK6 svSiacpspov nov va [j,ri PpioKsxai fi5ri 
Gxri (pdori eKTekecr[q. ^^^ H KaTdaTaari auxfi f^Tiopsi va PsXti- 
coGsi (7ipdy[j,a nov [laXkov 9a yivsi), cogtogo sivai svSsiktikti 
Tcov xdGSCDV nov 5ia[j,op(p(bvovrai aq Tipot; tk; 5iap9pcoTiK8(^ 
noXnxKEq. 

EuvoXiKd, r\ ijTiap^ri Tri(; ONE Kai tou supcb au^dvsi tic; a- 
VTaycoviGTiKS(; tiisgsk; avd[j,8Ga Gxa KscpdXaia Kai avxi va a^- 
PA,i3vsi tk; s0viKS(; 5ia(pops(;, tk; o^ijvsi. 

Ta TiapaTidvco, cogtogo, [ie Kavsva Tpouo 5sv gt] [j,aivouv 
OTi PpiGK6[j,aGTS svcDTiiov [j,ia(; 5ia5iKaGia(; [j,STaTpo7ifi^ tcov 

«(pTC0x6TSpC0V» KpaTCbv GS «SGCDT8piKfl a7lOlKia» TCDV «7lXot)- 
GlOTSpCOV)), OTIOU TO sGviKO KS(pd}taiO TCDV «(pTC0x6TSpCDV» 9a 

auoppocpriGsi and xa «[j,ovo7icb}tia» tcdv Popsicov (mo ava- 
7iTuy[j,8vcov) xcDpcbv. 

To ysyov6(; 6ti oi «(pTC0x6Tsps9> x&tpeq Tri(; E.E.-15 avf)- 
Kouv Kai auTS(; gti^ ti^^sov ava7iTuy[j,svs(; x&tpeq tou 7i}^avfiTri 
(sivai fj,' aXhi }^6yia cpTCDxoTspst; GuyKpiTiKd [is tk; [lejakeq 
oiKovo[j,i8(; TTjc; 5DTiKfi(; Et)pcb7iri(;) Gtmaivsi 6ti to [j,sydXo ks- 
(pdXaio g' auTsg sivai apKSTd iGXupo cdgts va avTS^si tov 
(at)^av6[j,svo) avTaycDviG[j,6. To sBviko KscpdXaio tcdv [j,iKp6- 
Tspcov Kai [lecaimv KpaTcbv 9a guvsxigsi va ucpiGTaTai Kai va 
TipooSsiJsi, onmq aKpiPocx; oi [j,iKpo[j,SGaioi KauiTa^^iGTS^ 5sv 
a(pavi(^ovTai and tov avTaycoviG[j,6 Kai tt] GuyKsvTpoTioiriGri 
Tri(; 7iapaycDyfi(; nov ucpiGTaTai evzoq tcov sGvikcdv Guvopcov. 

'0[i(i)q Ta «xpuGd xp6via» tou Ka7iiTaXiG[j,oi3 (r\ a5idXsi7iTri 
oiKovo[j,iKfi STisKTaGTi a7i6 TOV B' TlayKOGfj-io n6Xs[j,o |J,sxpi 
TX] 5sKasTia tou 1970) sxsi napelBei ed&i Kai nohb Kaipo. H 
Guvsxnf; oiKovo[j,iKfi avduTU^ri fiTav r| pdGr| udvcD gttjv ouoia 
Ta avTiTi9s[j,sva oiKovo[j,iKd (Kai sQviKd) GU[j,(pspovTa [ino- 
poiJGav va GU[j,picbvouv Kai va GU[j,pipd(^ovTai. Oi «[j,iKpo[j,s- 



138 



Gaioi» i^TiopoiJGav va a7io5sx9oi3v xriv riys[j,oviKfi Qegt] tcov 
[iejaXmeprnv, as otioio Pa9[j,6 auxo, TiapdXXriXa, e^ac(pakiC,e 
Kai TT] 5iKfi TOU(; oiKovo[j,iKfi STisKxaari, aXXd Kai xriv koivcdvi- 

KT) GXaQspOTTlTa (kOIVCOVIKTI GUVaiVSGTl [Sipfivri] [J,SG(D TTjc; [J,l- 

Kpfi(; avspyiag Kai ttjc; 5iapKoi3^ PsA,TicoGri(; xou Piotikoij sm- 
7is5ot)). 

Oi oiKovo[j,oX6yoi, ti^^sov, Gsropow SKsiva xa xpovia «8- 
^aipsGri» ([lakicTa, sv 7ioX,Xoi(; yia xovq TispiGGOxspoix;, avs- 
^fiyriTTit;) Kai xriv KaidGTaGri nov S7iaKoXoi39riG8, tcov Tispio- 
5iK(bv svTOVCDV oiKovo[j,iK(bv u(p8G8cov Kai avaxapd^scDV (aX,M 
Kai TT]^ [ial^iKr\q avspyiat;) Gav STiiGxpocpfi Gxr] «(puGioXoyiKfi» 
XsiTOupyia Tou GUGTfi[j,aTO(;. Tr| SsKasTiaxou 1990 r| GU[j,pi(D- 
GT] [j,iKpo[j,SGaicov Kai [iEjakiiv Kscpa^^aicov (sKcppaGfo^svcDV Gav 
«[j,iKpd» Kai «[j,8yd}ta» KpdTri-[j,8>^ri) ^TiopouGS va GxripixGsi 
GTO ysyovog oxi, acp' 8v6(;ri oXr] «8up(07iaiKfi 7iop8ia» [ino- 
poiJGS va xpriGifj-OTioiriGei TipoGxn^axiKd yia xriv smPoXfi vso- 
(pi>^s}tsi39sp(DV [j,sxp(DV, svcb Pori9oi3Gri(; Kai xri(; avduxu^rjc;, 
xoxs, XT]^ a[j,spiKaviKfi(; oiKovo[j,ia(; Kai xr|(; ysviK6xspri(; tixcd- 

GT]^ XCOV STIIXOKICOV, T] «5iap9p(DXlKfl Pofl9sia» XCDV KOlVOXlKCbv 

xa[j,sicov i^TiopoiJGS va 9s(Dpri9si (sTiiKoupiKd) S7iapKfi(; - xou- 
MxiGxov OGO SiapKoiJGS T] «dv9iGri» xri(; a[j,spiKaviKfi oikovo- 
[j,ia(; Kai xa sX,}Lsi[j,[j,axa fixav 5iax8ipiGi[j,a. 

Mia avxiGxpocpf) auxcbv xcov 5s5o[j,£V(dv 9a aXXd^si xo xo- 
7110. Av, Aomov, and tx] [iia Ssv 9a acpaviGxoiJV xa s9viKd ks- 
(pdXaia XCDV [o^iKpoxspcov Kpaxcbv-[j,s}tcbv, svxoijxok; [im Tiapa- 
xsxa[j,svri oiKovo[j,iKfi txpSGr] gs GUv5uaG[j,6 [le xr] [j,sicoGri xcov 
KoivoxiKcbv siGpocbv, avauocpsuKxa 9a Ka9iGxd 6Ao Kai tiio 
5i3gkoXou(; (Kai avfiGUxoix;) xoix; otioioix; GU[j,piPaG[j,oi3(;. 

noX,i3 TispiGGOxspo, 7101) XO s9vik6 KS(pd}taio xcov 7110 a5i3- 
vaxcov xcopcbv (onaq ac(pahhq Kai xcov 7iio iGXupcbv) Kd98 ak- 



139 



Xo Tiapd 8XSI aTiOGTspriGsi tt]^ TipoGxaGiat; tiou f^Tiopsi va xou 
Tiapsxsi TO s9vik6 KpdTO(; xou. 



ETieiSf] TioXXd Xeyovxai oe oxsot] \ie xoug pu9|ioi)<; avioppocpriorn; xcov 
KoivoTiKcbv Tiopcov OTTiv EXXdSo, olXd Kai xiq animeiq xrig Eupco7iaiiKri<; 
EmxpoTifn; yia KaKoSiaxeipiOT], 9a xpeiaoxouv opi(j|i£ve<; SieuKprnoen;. Oi 
xcbpei; 7101) 5iKaioi)vxai koivoxikoix; Tiopoug 5ev xoug avioppocpouv olovq (t] 
Ixalla exei xiq xeipoxepeg emSooeii;). O Xoyog elvai mikoq: xa xpiinaxa 5ev 
Sivovxai 5copedv. Ta epya kov yivovxai duyxpriiiaxoSoxouvxai ano xa e- 
9viKd KpdxT] (avio 25% eco<; 50%). Ilopoi, Xomov, 5ev avioppocpouvxai yiaxl 
xo Kpa.xoq-^iE.'koq, mika, 5ev exei va Kaxapdlei xo \is.poq xcov xpiindxcov nov 
xov avaloyel. Eninksov Xoyoi elvai t] SioiicrixiKfi avevidpKeia oe e9viK6 f] 
TiepicpepeiaKo emTieSo va KaxapdlXei ox^^ia uXoTiolriorig epycov e(X7ip69e- 
(j(xa, T] a7ipo9u(xla xou iSicoxiKoi) xojxea va eTKvSuoei oe epya tiou ev5exo- 
(xevco<; va |iriv xa 9ecopel oiKovo|iiKd avioSoxiKd, k.Xk. AKOjia, o uv|/riX6<; 
pu9|i6<; avioppocpriorn; 5ev ornialvei Tidvxoxe Kai a7ioxeA£0|iaxiKfi xpilOT] 
xcov Tiopcov. Tlollsq cpope<; yia va a7ioppo(pri9oi)v Tiopoi 5ioxexei)ovxai oe 
[iiKpoxepa epya (kov elvai eiJKoXo va eK7iovri9oi)v) x^-W^^Q oiKovo|iiKfi<; 
avioSoxiKoxrixai;, x] mika Kaxaliiyouv oxk; xcsEKsq aexovuxnScov xou iSicoxi- 
Koy xo|iea (apKexd ouvri9io|ievri TipaKxiicfi). 

Kai oxTjv TiepiTixcoori xcov koivoxikcov 5iap9pcoxiKcbv Tiopcov ejicpocvi^exai xo 
yeyov6<; 6xi oxtjv E.E. 5ev eivai oXoi. . . looi! H EupcoTiaiicfi EmxpoTifi tioX- 
"ksq (pope<; e|i(pavi(^exai «ai)oxripfi» co<; 7ipo<; xa eKxeXoujieva epya |ie ouve- 
xei<; eA£yxoi)<; (doxexa, PePaia, avio xo yeyov6<; 6xi t] 5iacp9opd xcov i5icov 
xri<; xcov emxpoTicov exei nolMq cpope<; a7ioKali)(p9ei co<; 7ipo<; xo «xoe7ico|ia» 
xprijidxcov xcov KTE oe ouvepyaoia |ie i5icbxe<;). AXXd t] EmxpoTifi 5ev 
eivai «awoxripfi» jie o'ksq xvq xcopeg. Fia 7iapd5eiy|ia: «ri yepiiaviKii ku- 
Pepvr|ori 5ev acpfjvei oxe56v Kaveva 7iepi9cbpio eXiyiicbv oxtjv EmxpoTifi co<; 
Tipoi; xi<; 7ipoxepai6xrixe<; Kai xtjv ecpapiioyf] xou KTE yia xa O|i6o7iov5a 
KpdxT] xri<; Tipcbriv AvaxoXiicfn; Eepiiaviai;, ioco<; evieiSfi opio|ievoi avio xoix; 
yeviKJn; loxDog Kavoveg 9ecopoi)vxai KaxdlXriXoi |i6vo yia xoix; «cpxcox6xe- 
poix; ouyyevei<;»» (Aouko; ToouKaXrn;, H vea eupcoTiaiicfi oiKovojiia, oxo 
Kaxcbcpk xoi) 21™ aicbva, eK56oei<; naviai^fiori, oeX. 306). 

140 



A(ponXiG\i6q tod sGvikod Kparovq; D^i aKpiP(o<g! 

OpiG[j,8voi avaX,UT8^ U7iOGTripi(^ouv, OTi Tiapd xi^ sGviks^ 
avTiGsGSK; Kai avTiTiaXoxriTS^, r\ Tiopsia 7ipo(; xriv «st)p(D7iaiKfi 
o}tOKXfipcoGri» 8ivai 5s5o[j,svri, yiaxi «avTiKsi[a^sviKd» oi oiko- 
vo[j,iK8(; E^eki^eiq sxouv aTiOGxspfiGSi (iSiaixspa [j,STd xriv sm- 
PoA,fi Tou supcb) a7i6 to sGviko Kpdxot; tt] SuvaxoTriTd xou va 
ekeyxei xriv sGvikti oiKovo[j,ia. E7io[j,£vco(;, sxouv 5ia[j,op(pcoGsi 
fi5ri 01 GUvGfiKS(; yia xrjv (sgxcd GxaSiaKf) Kai [j,aKpoxp6via) 
UTispPaGTi xou sGviKot) Kpdxou^ Kai XT] 5ri[j,ioupyia sv6^ supco- 
TiaiKoij UTispKpdxoix;. 

IIpoKsixai yia Gxn^axiKfi, smcpavsiaKfi (Kax' aXkovq vne- 
paiGi65o^ri) GscbpriGri xcdv oiKovo[j,iK(bv s^sM^scov. Auxo nov 
7ipdy[j,axi s^si GU[j,psi emq xropa, sivai 6xi xo sGviko Kpdxo(; 
sxsi aTiOGxspriGsi (KpiGi[j,a sivai r\ aXfiGsia) «8pyaXsia», nov 
COGXOGO, oijxax; r\ aXkoq, dev sixs xr] 5uvax6xrixa va sXsy^ei. H 
UTispdGTiiGri xou sGviKoij vo[j,iG[a^axo(;, xogo and Ksp5oGK07ii- 
Ksq 7ii8GSi(; OGO Kai a7i6 xk; cvjyeq Kai anpo^'keiiTEq 5iaKu- 
[j,dvGSi(; xou, a7io5sixGriKs (xogo yia xi^ [iiKpeq 6go Kai xk; [ie- 
jakeq X^ps^) s^aipsxiKd a[j,(pipoXri Kai gs KdGs TispiTixcoGri 
8^aip8xiKd 5a7iavripfi. H rsp[j,avia, Tiap' 6xi sixs sva nohb i- 
Gxupo v6[j,iG[j,a (xo [j,dpKo), fixav (pavspo 6xi 5sv sixs xr] 5uva- 
xoxrixa va xo [j,sxaxps\|/si gs 7iayK6G[j,io v6[j,iG[j,a avxaycoviGxi- 
k6 xou SoXapiou r\ xou ysv (uap' 6xi xpixr] oiKovo[j,iKfi 5i3va[j,ri 
xoD 7iA,avfixri r\ Fspfj-avia, xo [ierfsQoq xri(; oiKovofiat; xri(; 5sv 
87iapK8i yia xogo \jiEja'keTd\PoXo gxoxo). 

Qgxogo, o ekejxoq xou supcb KdGs dXXo Tiapd ig6xi[j,0(; si- 
vai a7i6 xa KpdxT] [lekr] xrjc; E.E. Triv EupcDTiaiKfi KsvxpiKf) 
Tpd7is(^a (EKT) oi x&ipeq nou ouGiaGxiKd xrjv sXsyxouv sivai 
r\ rsp[j,avia Kai r\ TaXkia (r\ s5pa xr|(; EKT PpiGKsxai gxt] 
OpavKcpoijpxri). O OX,Xav56(; Bifj, Nxoi3i(^sv^7ispyK, tiou syivs 
o Tipcbxo^ 5ioiKrixfi^ xrjc; EKT, sixs gxsvs(; gxsgsk; [j,s xr| ysp- 



141 



l^aviKTi M7iot)VT8G^7iavK (oKO TioXi) TiaXid TO (piopivi fixav d- 
H8oa 58[j,8vo [j,8 TO [j,dpKo) Kai yi' auxo to Xojo sxaip8 tt]^ 
yspfj-aviKTi^ U7iOGTfipi^ri(;, akXd Kai ttjc; jaXkiKr\q. . . Sugtiigti- 
a(;. H TaXkia eixe auaiTfiGSi o TipcDTO^ Sioiktittic; ttjc; EKT va 
[j,iXd8i ya^tXiKd (!!) Kai avTiTipoTSivs to Sioiktitti ttjc; Tpdus- 
(^a^ TTjc; TaXkiaq Zav-KXovT TpiGS. IIpoTdGriKs o GU[j,piPa- 
(5[i6q xa TSGGspa TipcDTa xpo ^oi va sivai 5ioiKr|Tfi(; o Bifj, 
NTOi3i(^8v^7ispyK, Kai Ta UTioXoma TSGGspa o Zav-KXovT Tpi- 
GS. E7i8i5fi auTO 5sv [j,7iopoiJGS va GTaGsi vo[j,iKd: 

«[...] yi' auTO Kai r\ [o^sTaysvsGTspri i5sa va 8(pap[j,o- 
GTSi TO opio Tj^tiKiat; [yia va aTioxcopiGSi stgi o Ntoiji- 
C,EV[niEpjK Kai va tov 5ia5sx9si o TpiGS, onmq Kai syive 
TO 2003]. T6gs(; 7iovripiS(; 5sv SKavav KaQoXou Kakr\ s- 
VTiJTicoGri GTO ^EKivr\[ia Tou 8up(b». [...] Ms Mya Xoyia, 
01 89viKiG[j,oi Ssv Tiaijouv va 5uGKo}tsi3ow tt] X'r\\\ir\ a- 

TlOCpdGSCOV G8 SUpCOTiaiKO STllTlsSo Kai 7ipo5i5oUV OTl, 711- 

a(D and xiq 5iaKripi3^si(; Tispi avs^apTrjGia^ tt]^ EupcoTia- 
iKTig KsvTpiKTi^ Tpd7is(^a(;, KpijPsTai r\ sv56[j,uxn ehiida 
KdGs x&tpaq 6ti 9a s^ei sksi tov «5ik6» tt]^ dvGpco- 

Stt] 98G[j,iKfi XsiTOupyia Tri(; EKT UTidpxouv noXkeq avTi- 
(pdGSig, 710 u 7iriyd(^ouv and ttjv sX,Xsi\|/ri iGXupil(; KsvTpiKfic; 
7io}tiTiKfi(; s^ouGia(; gttjv E.E. H EKT sxsi 5uo opyava: ttjv 
EktsXsgtikti ETiiTpoTifi (s^r| [leh]) nov 5iopi(^STai and to Eu- 
pcoTiaiKo Su[j,poi3Xio apjryt&iv KpaTcbv Kai KuPspvfiGSCov, Kai 
TO AioiKrjTiKo Sufo^PouXio Tri(; EKT, tiou a7iapTi(^8Tai and xa 
[iekr\ Tri(; EKTs}tSGTiKfi(; E7iiTpo7ifi(; Kai xovq AioiKr|TS(; tcov s- 
GviKcbv KsvTpiKcbv Tpa7is(^(bv (5(b5sKa Gfi[j,spa), oi ouoioi 5i- 
opi(^ovTai a7i6 tk; avTiGTOixs^ KuPspvfiGSK; tcov KpaTcbv- 



142 



[lekcov. H GriTSia ttjc; EktsXsgtikti^ EmxpoTifi^ sivai OKxasTfi^ 
Kai i^ri avavs(bGi[j,ri, «yia va 5iaG(paM(^STai KaX,i3Tspa r\ avs- 
^apxriGia Tri^». ^^^ Qgtogo, gto Aioiktitiko Eu[j,poi3X,io ti^^sio- 
\|/ri(poi3v 01 AioiKriTS(; tcdv sGvikcdv KsvxpiKcbv Tpa7is(^(bv [is 
«Kiv5uvo» va SKcppaGTOiJV g' auxo oi s9viks(; 5ia(pops(;. Xcb- 
peq nov to «s9vik6 xovq GU[j,(pspov» va sivai u\|/riA,d STiixoKia 
svdvTia GS xd)ps(; tiou S7ii(^riTOi3v xa^riXoTspa STiixoKia. ^'^'' 

Ms aXkx Xoyia, Kai gttiv EKT sK(ppd(^STai r] aKpoPaGia 
avd[j,SGa gs avTiTi9s[j,sva sGviKd Gt)[j,(pspovTa, tiou xapaKxr]- 
p((^8i GDV0>tiKd TT] XsiTOupyia TTjc; E.E. Ilapd to ysyov6(; oxi r\ 
avs^apxriGia Tri(; EKT sivai 98G[j,iKd KaTOXupcofo^svri, to Eu- 
pcDTiaiKo Eu[j,poi3}tio sivai auxo non Ka9opi(^8i tk; Kijpis^ Ka- 

T8u9l3VGSl(; TCDV OlKOVOfJlKCbv 7l0}tlTlK(bv. H GUv9flKri TOU Md- 

aGTpixT ava9sTSi gttjv EKT tov Ka9opiG[j,6 Tri(; vo[j,iG[j,aTiKfi(; 
TioXniKr\q Kai gto Et)[j,poi3Xio tcov YTioupycbv tt] GUvaX,}tay[j,a- 
TiKT) TioXiTiKT), 710U 6[i(i)q sivai aX}tr|}tsv5sTS(;. To Eu[j,poi3}tio 
sxsi TT] SuvaTOTTiTa, [j,6vo 6[i(i)q [is o[j,6(pcovri aTiocpaGr], «va 
auocpaGiGSi [lExpa nov sv5siKvuTai yia Kduoia GuyKSKpi[j,svri 
oiKovo[j,iKfi KaTdGTaGT])). "'^ Eivai Ka9ap6, 6ti oi KuPepvfiGSi^ 
I^TiopoiJV va aXXd^ouv ttjv oiKovo[j,iKfi KaTSi39uvGri (Kai stgi 
va avaTps\|/ouv, av QeJjovv, tt] [j,ovsTapiGTiKfi Kai oiKovo[j,iKd 

TlSpiOpiGTlKTl TlO^tlTlKTl Tri(; EKT), (pTdvSl va GU[J,(pC0VflGOUV 

[j,STa^i3 TOU(;. AXXd Ta avTiTi9s[j,8va s9viKd GU[j,(p8povTa (aXM 
Kai Ta GU[j,(pspovTa tou xpri[j,aTiGTiKoi3 KscpaXaiou nov UTirips- 
Toijv 01 KuPspvfiGSK;) Ka9iGTOi3v [j,ia GU[j,(pcovia Sugko^^t]. 

H 98Gr| OTi 01 s9viKS(; avTma}t6Tr|TS(; GTa5iaKd 9a ^STispa- 
GTOTJV, PpiGKSTai GTT] Gcpaipa Tou a7i>toi3 suxoXoyiou. 'Onmq 
fi5ri 8xou[j,s avaXiJGei, to 7ip6pA,ri[j,a [is to supcb sivai 6ti sm- 
Pd?tsi 8va sviaio v6[j,iG[j,a gs tioXij 5ia(popsTiKS(; oiKovo[j,is(; 
(one size fits all). Eu[j,piPaG[j,oi [inopovv va yivouv (avdfo^SGa 
gtk; x&tpeq [leh] [is nohb SiacpopsTiKd 87ii7is5a oiKovo[j,ia(;) 



143 



[lovo s(p' OGOV r\ oiKovo[j,ia Kivsixai [is 87iapKsi(; pu9[j,oi3(; (aq 
7ioi3[j,s, yijpco GTO 3% guvoXikoi yia xriv E.E.) Kai stgi va avxi- 
GTa9[j,i(^ovTai oi tiisgsk; gtoix; aGGsvsGxspoix;. Av auxo 5sv 
GU[j,psi, TOTS 01 avTi9sTiKS(; tiisgsk; 9a avE^aC,ovv S7iiKiv5uva 
TO 9sp[j,6[j,STpo. Ta TiapaTidvcD gt] [j,aivot)v, 6ti xpsid(^STai gu- 
yKsvTpcDTiKTi rjysGia gttjv EupcoTiaiKfi Tpd7is(^a yia va f^Tiopsi 
va XsiTOupyfiGSi. Kai auTf) ttjv riysGia tt] 5ivouv (sgtcd [is 
5ai5aX(b5ri Kai avTicpaTiKo TpoTio) oi SuvaTOTspoi, fiTOi Fsp- 
[lavia, TaXkia. AKpipdcx; yiaTi uudpxsi «s9vik6(;» ekejxoq tou 
supd), sivai evaq and xovq Xoyoix; nov BpsTavia, Aavia, Sou- 
rjSia cvvex&iq [j,STapdA,}touv d7io\|/ri yia ttjv uio9sTr|Gri tou su- 
pco. 

Qgtogo, r\ avTicpaTiKT) >^siTOt)pyia ttjc; EKT, to dviGO oiko- 
vo[j,ik6 S7ii7is5o Tcov KpaT(bv-[j,s}t(bv (Kai GUvaK6Xot)9a, Ta a- 
VTiTi9s[j,sva s9viKd GU[j,(pspovTa nov 5ri[j,ioupyoi3v KO[j,(poi3(^io), 
I^Tiopow va o5riyfiGOUv gs [im KaTdGTaGt] otiou r\ 5iaxsipiGr| 
Tou supd) va yivsi r\ ania KaTaGTpocpiKcbv avTaycoviG[j,(bv a- 
vd[j,SGa GTa KpdTri-[j,s}tri. Ms aXhi. Xoyia, r\ x)iiap^r\ tou supcb 
avTi va aTiOTsXsi GuyKoA,A,riTiKfi ouGia avd[j,SGa GTa KpdTTj- 



AuTO PePalcog 5ev ornialvei on Xelviouv oi evxaoeiq ovdiisoa oxriv Eupco- 
KdiKX] KevxpiKii Tpcmsi^a (EKT) Kai xri rep|iaviKfi x] xri ralXiicfi KuPepvi]- 
OT], yia 7iapd5eiy|ia co<; Tipog xo v\\ioq xod «(jco(jxoi)» emxoKioD. H EupcoTia- 
iKii Tpdmi^a, oe ciuvBiiKeg veo(piXeXei)9epio|ioi), npsTiEi va eivai gx^ukci 
ave^opxiixii, OTicog ouiiPaivei Kai |i£ xijv aiispiKaviKi] Fed. £2ox6oo auxo 
58V avaipei 6xi oi x^pe? |ie t^iiv KaBopioxiKi] emppoii oxiiv EKT eivai Fep- 
(xavia, TaXkia, okchq i] Fed (viapd xijv «ave^apxii(jia» xiji;) exei oxevii oxs- 
oi] Kai e^dpxiioii avio xtjv aiiepiKaviKii oiiooTiovSiaKi] KuPepvijoii. Exo 
xekoq, SKSiSir] o Bap5ivoyidwii<;, 7i.x-, |i7iopei va Siacpcovei (is xo eXXijviKo 
UTioupyeio oiKovojiia^; co<; 7ipo<; xiiv aoKouiisvi] koIxxikx], |i£ Kaveva xpoTio 
5ev (TUVETidyexai 6xi o e'k'h]vac, UTioupyog xcov oikovojiikmv 5ev e^UTiripexei 
xa (ji)|i(pepovxa xou eXXiiviKou Kamxaliajioi). 

144 



\xekr\, Kiv5t)V8i38i va aTioxs^^sasi Tiriyfi [j,6vi[j,cov avxiTiapaGsos- 
CDv: 

«OpiG[j,svoi (pavTd(^ovTai oxi to Ti^taioio xou supcb 9a 
A,8iT0upyfiGSi mq [loxT^q yia xriv s^aacpaXiari ttj^ sipf)- 
vrig Kai TTjc; 7ioX,iTiKfi(; svo7ioiriGri(;. 'O[j,co(; [...] [is to ev- 
pcb 7ioX,Xa7iXaGid(^ovTai Kai o^wovxai oi avTay(DviG[j,oi 
Gxri yripaid fiTisipo, avxi va UTioxcopow Kai va Tiapaxco- 
poijv TT] GsGTi TOU(; GS svcoTiKf) Suvafj-iKf). Sxriv AcppiKT), 
Xenovpjei eni noXXeq SsKasxis^ GUGirma sviaiou vo[j,i- 
G[j,aTO^, TO Xsy6[j,8vo CFA, to otioio 5iaxsipi(^8Tai opya- 
viG[j,6(; svTsXdcx; avs^dpTtiTOt; and xiq 7ioXitiks(; 8^ot)GiS(; 
Tcov acppiKaviKcbv KpaTcbv, r\ Tpd7is(^a ttjc; TaXkiaq. Ka- 
Td Ti TO sviaio Kai [lovaSiKo acppiKaviKo v6[j,iG[j,a [is ttjv 

aVS^dpTTlTTl KSVTpiKTl Tpd7lS(^a SX81 Gt)[J,pdXsi GTTjV 

TiporoGriGTi TTjc; sipfivric; Kai tt]^ tioXitiktic; svoTioiriGrig 
TCOV acppiKaviKcbv ^^acbv; 

[...] r\ KoivoTTiTa Ta[j,8iot) i^Tiopsi va avaSsi^Gsi r\ i5ia 
aiTia TipoGGsTCOv avTay(DviG[j,(bv Kai GuyKpouGSCDV. O 
Martin Feldstein, KaGriyriTfi(; gto nav87iiGTfi[j,io tou 
XdpPapvT, [IE UTispPoXiKTi a7iaiGio5o^ia, cpGdvsi gto 
aKpoTaTO Gr|[j,sio va Gscopsi to supcb ax; ama [j,s}t}tovTi- 

K(bv 7l0X8[J,lK(bv GUyKpOlJGSCOV GTTjV SUpCDTiaiKTl flTlSipO. 

DTav 01 Tiopol 7iapa[j,svouv a^ico[j,aTiKd 7ispiopiG[j,8voi, 
7ipop}tS7iSTai svTaGTi [laXkov Tiapd ayaGTf) gij^twoi- 

138 

a». 

Asv UTidpxsi a[j,(piPoMa 6ti to sGviko KpdTOc; exei auoGTS- 
prjGsi «spyaX8ia» (nov oijtgx; f) aXkaq 5sv f^TiopoiJGS va s^^sy- 
^si [j,8[j,ovco[j,sva), Kai ce akXovq TO[j,si(; skto^ tou sGvikoij vo- 
[j,iG[j,aTO(;. H avTi[j,8T(b7iiGri ttjc; «7iapdvo[j,ri(; [j,STavdGTSUGri^» 



145 



sivai, E[i(pav&)q, evaq aXkoq TO[j,sa^ nov xp8id(^STai SiaKpaxiKfi 
Guvspyaoia. AXXd aK6[j,a Kai g' auxo, to 7ioiO(; 9a TiXripcbasi 
TO XoyapiaGfo^o yia to «[a^dvTpco[j,a» tcdv [j,STavaGT(bv [j,s aGTU- 
vofjiKotx; [j,rixaviG^oi3(;, sivai sva 9s[j,a nov 5ri[j,ioipysi 5iap- 
Kchq s9viKS(; TipoGTpiPst; avdfo^SGa GTa KpdTri-[j,s}tri. 

Qgtogo GUVo^LiKd, TO s9vik6 KpdTO(; s^aKoAou9si va 5ia- 
TTipsi U7i6 Tov s}tsyx6 Tou TOtx; PaGiKotx; [j,rixaviG[j,oi3(; sXsyxou 
TT]^ s9viKfi^ oiKovo[j,ia(;, Kai 5sv TipopXsTiSTai gto opaTO [lek- 
Xov va TOU(; a7iOGTspri98i. H 5iaTfipriGri ttjc; cpopoAoyiKfic; 710- 
XniKf\q KdTCD auo 89vik6 ekeyxo, sivai sva^ tstoio^ [j,rixavi- 
G[j,6(;. Oi 5id(pops^ [j,op(p8^ s[j,[j,SGri(; stiiSottigti^ tcov s9viK(bv 
Pio[j,rixavi(bv (671(D(; r\ GU[j,poXfi tou KpdTOix; gs 7ipoypd[j,[j,aTa 
spsuvat; Kai TSxvo}toyia(;) sivai noiKikeq, Kai (pUGiKd, 6go i- 

GXPpOTSpO OlKOVO[J,lKd SlVai TO KpdTO(;, TOGO [J,8yaX,l)T8p8^ 81- 

vai 01 87ii5oTfiG8i(; auTS(;. Kai aGCpaXdcx;, U7idpx8i sva gijvoXo 
dTUTioDV [j,op(p(bv TipoGTaGia^ TTjc; «EQviKr\c, oiKovo[j,ia(;» (71a- 
pa5aG[j,oXoyiKd s^7i65ia), tiou }^8iTOupyoi3v a7iOTs}tSG[j,aTiKd. 

Ta spya viiodoix^q gttjv EXkd5a, yia 7iapd58iy[j,a, tiou 
Xpri[j,aTo5oTfi9riKav auo to F' Koivotiko nXaiGio ETfipi^ri^, 
KaT0xupcb9riKav, gttjv TspdGTia 7iXsio\|/ri(pia tou(;, g8 sXXrivi- 
Ksq KaTaGKsuaGTiKS(; STaipiS(;, svcb gs [im «Ts}tsia avTaycovi- 
GTiKT) supcDTiaiKTi oiKovo[j,ia», 01 yiyavTiai8(; KaTaGKsuaGTiKS(; 
STaipis^ TCOV PopsicDV KpaTcbv, [laXXov 9a Ksp5i(^av tt] [j,spi5a 
Tou 'ke.ovToq suKoXa. 

To KpdTO(; (mo GuyKSKpi[j,sva, to s9vik6 KpdTOt;), 01 stisv- 
5i3gsi(; tou, 01 5a7idvs(; tou, GUVoXiKd o KpaTiK6(; TO[j,sa(; Tri(; 
oiKovo[j,ia^, Tiapd ti^ auoKpaTiKOTioifiGSK; ttjc; TsXsuTaiat; si- 
KOGasTiat;, s^aKoXou9si va S7irip8d(^si Ka9opiGTiKd Tispi to 
50% TOU s9viKoi3 siGo5fi[a^aTO(; gttjv E.E.^''^ Oi ajopeq aya9(bv 
Kai UTiripsGicbv and xa 5id9opa s9viKd KpdTt] avTmpoGCOTisij- 
ouv TO 15%-20% TOU AEn tt]^ E.E. Qgtogo, Tiapd tov Ka9o- 



146 



piGTlKO poXo TOU KpaXOU^ GTTIV OlKOVO[J,ia, O SvSoKOlVOTlKO^ 

avTaycoviG[j,6(; s^si aTioK^^siaGsi and xiq 5r|[j,6GiS(; 7ipo[j,fi9siS(; 
Tcov KpaT(bv-[j,sX(bv. Movo to 2%tcov 5ri[j,6a(DV GU[j,pdGS(DV 
7ipo[j,ri9si(bv Kai 87iiGri(; [lovo to 2% tcdv dr\[i6 acov KaTa- 
GKsucbv 7ipay[j,aT07ioioi)VTai [is STaipsist; and aXhx KpaTTj- 

,-1 *140 
Es SkGsGTI TTj^ EupODTiaiKTl^ EmTpOTlfl^, TOU 1998, T0V((^8Tai 

ri: 

«[...] Tispispyri [!!] TdGT] tcov KuPspvfiGSCDV va [j,riv 
ava(^riT0i3v aTiapaiTriTa tk; Kokmepeq suKaipiS(; avs^dp- 
TTjTa a7i6 TTjv Tipos^tsuGT) TOU(;, aX,Xd va guvsxi(^ouv 
[j,dA,Xov TTjv UTiOGTTipi^ri TCOV 5iKcbv TOU(; smxsipfiGSCov, 
SIT8 yia 7ioX,iTiKoijg Aoyoug sits [ie tt] fj-opcpf) [j,ia(; ko- 
VT6(p9a}t[j,ri(; [sic] PiO[j,rixaviKfi^ 7ioXiTiKfi(;». ^"^^ 

ODGiKd, ri TdGT] auTT) TCDV sGviKCDV KuPspvfiGSCDV 5sv sivai 
oiJTS «7ispispyri» oijts «K0VT6(p9a}t[j,ri». To KscpdXaio gttjv 
EupcDTiri sivai 5ia[j,op(pco[j,svo gs sGvikti pdGt], nov Grmaivsi 
a7i}tosA,XriviKd: 



Kaxd xriv EupcoTiaiiKfi EmxpoTifi, oe eKBeor] xou 1998, oi ayope<; xou 6\\- 
|i6mou xo|iea kov 5ev Tipoepxovxai avio xriv eyxcbpia ayopd aw^iiBriKav 
avio 6% xo 1987 oe 10% xo 1994 (Mario Monti, H Eviala ayopd Kai r] 
aupiocvfi EupcoTCTi, eKGeor] 7ipo65ou eK7iovri9eloa avio xriv EupcoTiaiicfi Em- 
xpoKX], eK56(jei<; IlaTiai^fiori, ABiiva 1998, oeX. 69). Or api9|rol auxol a|r- 
cpioprixouvxai - Kaxd xov AouKd ToouKalr] oxa [xeydla Kpdxri-ireXr] xo 
TiOGOoxo xcov eioaycoycbv oxii; KpaxiKe<; 7ipo|rfi6eie<; elvai kyoxepo aTio 4% 
(AouKo; ToouKalrn;, H vea eupcoTiaiicfi oiKovo|rla, oxo KaxcbcpXi xou 21™ 
aicbva, EKSooeig IlaTiai^fiori, oeX. 112). EniKksov xa Tiooooxd auxd elvai 
e^aipexiKd euirexdpXrixa oxriv oiKovo|riKfi (Kai TioXixiKfi) cruyKupia, evd) 
ouxcoi; 11 aXlmq Tiapairevouv oe koIv xairri^d emTieSa. 

147 



Asv UTidpxsi Kavsva(; «T8xvoKpaTiK6^» Kavovag nov va Ka- 
QopiC,ei [le anoXvzo xpoTio xi sivai (oiKovo[j,iKd) mo «avTayco- 
vigtik6» Kai TV sivai mo «S7i(D(psXs(;». To «avTaycoviGTiK6» 
Kai TO «87ico(psXs(;» sivai Tidvxa as gxsgti [ie to GU[j,(pspov tcdv 
(Sirov TCDV (sGviKcbv) KamTa^^iGTcbv. 'Onmq Kavsva^ [j,iKpo[j,s- 
Gaiog KamTa>^iGTfig 5sv TipoKsiTai tiots va 5sx9si va acpavi- 
GT81 a7i6 [j,ia [lEjakf] STaipsia, yiaTi auTO aTiaiTSi r\ «oikovo[j,i- 
KT) auoSoTiKOTTiTa)), [IE Tov i5io TpoTio Ta sGviKd supcoTiaiKd 
KS(pd}taia 5sv TipoKeiTai va Guyxcov8u9oi3v gto 6vo[j,a OTioiaG- 
5fi7iOTS «8up(D7iaiKfi(; avayKai6TriTa(;». Fia va GU[j,psi auTO, 9a 
TipsTisi SITS o avTaycoviG[j,6^ va GapwGSi Ta mo a5i3va[j,a, sits 
[j,SGCO TTjc; 5ia5iKaGia(; Gt)yKsvTpo7ioir|Gri(; (ttj GU[j,[j,STOxn Gav 
ig6ti[j,oi «[j,STOxoi» [j,ia(; «7ioX,us9viKfi(;» Evp&)iir\q) va au^ri9si 
r\ 5i3va^ri Kai o 7iXoi3to(; todc;. Qgtogo tt] SsuTspr] TispiTiTCOGri 
s[j,7io5i(^si r\ aviGOfj-STpr] KamTaXiGTiKf) avduTU^r] (otico^ KaTa- 
5si^a[j,s 7iporiyoi3[j,sva) Kai stgi to s9vik6 KpdTO(; 7iapa[j,svsi 
TO «SGxaTO oxup6» ausvavTi gtov a(paviG[j,6 [j,sgco tou avTa- 
y(DviG[j,oi3. EnvikEov, gttjv o^^r] 5ia5iKaGia s^7i>uEK0VTai 6xi 
[j,6vo Ta iGXupoTspa (Ta mo avTayroviGTiKd) Kscpd^^aia, aXXd 
Kai Ta [j,iKpo[j,SGaia nov sivai Kai Ta mo 5s[j,sva [j,s to s9vik6 
KpdTO(; Kai Tr|v upoGTaGia nov auTO [o^Tiopsi va toix; Tiapsxsi. 
'Etgi 01 oiKovofo^iKst; avTi9sGSi(; SiauXsKovTai [ie 7io}tiTiKS(; a- 
VTmapa9EGSi(; Kai Ka9iGTOi3v to «pu9[j,igtik6» poXo tou s9vi- 



Exriv 8K9eori xrn; EupcoTiaiicfig EmxpoTifn; tiou Tipoovacpepaiis, ornisicbve- 
xai 6x1 oxo epcbxriiia oe emxeiprioei<; xri<; [izxmioiT\oi\q : «To 7ip6ypa|i|ia 
XT|<; eviaioig ayopoi; iixocv emxuxe<; yia xriv exaipela orag;)), oi |i£yali)xepe<; 
exaipei£<; SiiXcooov 6xi cocpeXfiOriKav Tispioooxepo avio xi<; [iiKpeg - «oi o- 
Tioleg aocpoMx; exouv Ixyoxepeq 5uvax6xrixe<; SiaouvopiaKcbv e|i7iopiKcbv 
(juvalXaycbv» (Mario Monti, H Eviala ayopd Kai t] awpiocvfi EupcoTiri, £k- 
Beor] 7ipo65ou eKviovriOeloa avio xriv EupcoTiaiKii EmxpoTifi, eK56oei<; Ila- 
^ld;^c^, Aeiiva 1998, oeX. 81). 

148 



Koij Kpdxotx; avayKaio, aXXd Kai avTiKpou6[j,svo [is xriv «su- 
pcDTiaiKTi oXoK}tfipcoGri». 

IlapoAo 710U TO 60% xcov sGvikcdv vofo^oGsTiKcbv aTiocpdos- 
cov, Gxriv Tipd^ri, aTioxsAow Tiapdycoyo xou koivotikoij 5iKai- 
ou/'*^ 01 s9viKS(; KuPspvfiGSK; s^ouv yivsi s^aipsxiKd scpsups- 
TiKS(; (DOTS va TiapaKdf^TiTOUv xriv koivotikti vofo^oGsaia: 

«[... ] 01 5ri[j,6GiS(; apx8(; sxouv xpTlcJ^M^OTioifiGSi Tikr\- 
9(bpa TSxvaG[j,dTCOv 7ipoKsi[j,svou va auocpuyouv tk; sm- 
titcdgsk; tcdv o5riyi(bv. Auxd 7ispi}ta[j,pdvouv, to 5iax(D- 
piG[j,6 TCDV GU[j,pdGSCov GS [j-iKpoTspa T[j,fi[j,aTa [j,s a^ia 
Xa[j,ri}t6Tspri tou opiou Tispav tou otioiou auaiTOWTai 
5ia5iKaGiS(; avoiKTOij 5iaycoviG[j,oi3. Tov 7ipoG5iopiG[j,6 

TCOV GTOIXSICOV TCOV 5iay(DVlG[J,(bv KttTd TpOTlO (DGTS Vtt 

7i8pi}^a[j,pdvot)v s9viK8(; t8xviks(; 7ipo5iaypa(pS(; f) aTio- 
K^tsiGTiKd TipoiovTa syxopicDV smxsipfiGSCDV. Triv smPo- 

Xf) D\|/riX6TSpC0V OlKOVO[J,lK(bv f) TS^VlKCbv auaiTTlGSCDV 

GTic; ^eveq smxsipfiGSi^ gs gxsgti [ie tk; syx(bpis(;. Tr] 
5id9sGri av87iapKoijg xpovou g8 ogoix; gu[j,[j,stsxouv yia 

TipCDTri (popd (DGTS Vtt f^TlV f^TlOpOW Vtt XdPoUV [J,SpO(; GTO 

5iaya)viG[j,6. Kai tov ava^^riGfi xapaKTripiG[j,6 GUfo^pdGS- 
(Dv OTi 5fi68v aTiOTsXow «GUV8xsia» 7iporiyou[j,sv(DV 

GU[J,pdGS(OV f) KaTS7l8iyOUGS^ GU[J,pdG8l(;, (DGTS va SK[J,S- 

TaXXsiJOVTai Ta «Ksvd» tcov o5riyi(bv Kai va auocpsuyouv 
TT] 5ri[j,OGi6TriTa».^'*'' 

AGCpaXdcx;, 9a [^uopouGS Kduoiot; va iGXupiGTsi 6ti TipoKsi- 
Tai yia (^fiTri[j,a otitiktic;: to TiOTfipi sivai [j,iGoy8[j,dTO r\ [j,iGod- 
Ssio; IIpoKsiTai, [is dX,Xa Xoyia, yia (^fiTr|[j,a xpovou. Apyd f) 
ypfiyopa r| koivotikt) vofo^oGsGia 9a S7iipX,ri9si. Qgtogo [ie av- 
t6 tov TpoTio o jpovoq avTi[j,8TCD7ii(^8Tai [IE ou5sTspo TpOTlO. 



149 



Sxriv Tipayfj-axiKOTTiTa oi 5sikts(; tou poXoyioij axriv E.E. 58v 
KivoTJVxai auT6[j,aTa, xpsid(^STai koitioioi va xovq kivoijgouv [is 
TO 5dKTt)Xo. 'Onrnq si5a[j,s r\ EupcoTiaiKfi EmxpoTifi, o sktsXs- 
gtik6(; Ppaxiova^ Tri(; E.E., aTiaoxoXsi togoix; vnaXk^Xovq 
6gou(; [j,ia [lejakf] TioXr]- [j,6}ti(; 14.000. OuGiaGxiKd 5sv sxsi 
TOD(; 8A,syKTiKoi3g [j,rixaviG[j,oi3(; yia va eni^aXkei xriv «koivoti- 
KT) Poi3Xr|Gri». Fia aXXr] [j,ia cpopd, 9a STipsTis o koivotiko^ 
7ipol)7ioXoyiG[j,6(; va sivai [j,syaX,i3Tspo(; Kai va UTidpxouv oi 
7io}tiTiKS(; (Kai oiKovo[j,iKS(;) 5uvd[j,8i(; nov va sxouv tt] 5i3va[j,ri 
va S7ii5i(bKouv xriv t)7iopd9[j,iGri xou sGvikoij Kpdxoix; 7ipo(; xriv 
Kax8i36uvGri evoq o[j,OG7iov5iaKoi3 (u7isp)Kpdxou^. Qgxogo, 
xsxoiS(; 5uvd[j,si(; 5sv ucpiGxavxai. 

H a5uva[j,ia auxf) sK(ppd(^sxai gs 7ioX,}toi3(; xo[j,si(;, otiox; yia 
7iapd58iy[j,a, gxo (^fixri[j,a xr]^ UTiap^rjc; 7ioA,}t(bv Kai Siacpopsxi- 
K(bv xs^viKcbv 7ipo5iaypa(p(bv nov xP^l^^i^M^OTioioiJvxai and xa 
80viKd KpdxT] yia va 7iaps^7io5i(^sxai r] SisigSugti upoiovxcov 
a7i6 akXeq W>P^'i- 

«A6yco xcov 7ispiopiG[j,svcov uopcov tiou 5ia98xouv oi 
EupcoTiaiKoi opyaviG[j,oi, [j,sydXo [lepoq xri(; 5ouXsid(; yi- 
vsxai GXTjv Tipd^T] a7i6 xoix; opyaviG[j,oi3(; xcov [j,8ydX(DV 
Xcopcbv xr|(; E.E. [... ] Oi opyaviG[j,oi auxoi 5sv sxouv 
Gxa[j,axfiGSi va «7iapdyouv» Kai 7ipo5iaypa(pS(; gs sGviko 
87ii7is5o, 01 07iois(; [j,dXiGxa s^aKoXouGow va sivai nohb 
TispiGGOxspst; an' 6xi oi Eupco7iaiKS(;. [...] napdA,Xri}ta, 
01 Tiapaycoyoi sxouv oXosva Kai [a^syaA,i3xspr| avd[j,i^ri 
GXT] GxsxiKTi 5ia5iKaGia. Aiaypdcpsxai, Xoxkov, Gacpcb^ o 
Kiv5uvo(; 01 Eupco7iaiKS(; 7ipo5iaypa(pS(; va avxavaK^ow 
Kupiax; xa GU[j,(pspovxa xcov oiKovo[j,iKd 7iporiy[j,svcov 
xcopcbv Kai xcov [lejakm uapaycoycbv, sk; pdpo(; xcov [ii- 
Kpcbv Kai [j,SGaicov STiixsipfiGSCov ce mo a5i3va[j,8(; x&tpeq 



150 



Kai 7ispioxs(; (aXXd Kai eiq pdpog xcov Kaxava^tcoxcbv, 



144 



To ysyov6(; oxi xo supcoTiaiKo Kscpd^^aio sivai sGviKd 5ia- 
[j,op(pco[j,svo, (paivsxai Kai gxo ysyovog 6xi oi 5iaKpaxiKS(; sv- 
5o-8upcD7iaiK8^ S718v5i3gsi(; avxiTipoGCOTisiJouv [j,6Xi(; xo 0,5% 
xou supcoTiaiKot) AEn, svcb mq tiogogxo gxi^ guvoXiks(; stisv- 
5i3gsi(; 710U Xa[j,pdvouv xcbpa gxtjv E.E. avxi7ipoGC07isi3ouv [lo- 
Xiq Tdjo TispiGGOxspo a7i6 2%^^*^: 

«A^iOGri[j,8{(Dxo STiiGrig 8ivai 6xi, [...] xo [j,syaA,i3x8po 
[lepoq xcov sv5o-sup(D7iaiK(bv Kscpa^^aiaKcbv siGpocbv nou 
hx[i^avovv [lepoq gxtjv E.E., 5sv a9opoi3v d[j,SGS(; 7ia- 
paya)yiK8(; stisvSijgsk; gxo [j,sxa7ioirixiK6 xo[j,sa, aX,M 
xotioGsxtigsk; KscpaXaicov gxk; U7iripsGis9>.^'*'' 

Oi EvprnnaiKeq ')(r\[iiKeq smxsipfiGSK; Kaxsxouv xo 27% xr]^ 
TiayKOGfj-iat; Tiapayroyfic;. H GuyKsvxpoTioiri gt] xtjc; Tiapayroyfic; 
yivsxai G8 sGviKo 87ii7is5o Tiapd ce SisupcoTiaiKo: 

«To 1988 s^^aPav xcbpa gxtjv Evpchiu] 240 Guyxro- 
v8i)G8ig i3\|/oug 134 8Kaxo[j,^upicov 5o}tapicov, 100 sk xcov 
OTioicov GS sGviKo S7ii7is5o (60 sKaxo[j,^i3pia 5oXapia), 
130 [j,sxa^i3 EupcDTiri^ Kai B6p8ia(; A[j,spiKfi(; (53 sKa- 
xo[j,^i3pia SoMpia), 15 [j,sxa^i3 Eupcb7iri(; Kai AGiat; (19 
SKaxo[j,^i3pia 5oXdpia) Kai [lovo 24 GuyxcovsuGSK; avd- 
[leca GS supcoTiaiKsg X^ops? tiou avspxovxai gs 13 sKa- 
xo[j,^i3pia 5oXdpia. H avaSidpGpcoGt] auxoij xou xo[j,sa, 
7101) TipocoGsixai Gxr|v IxaMa Kai xr| TakXia, smxsipsixai 
Kupico(; G8 sGviKo 871171850 Kdxco a7i6 xrjv cbGriGTi 6[i(i)q 



151 



Tou avoxY[iaToq tt]^ KoivoxiKiig ayopat; Kai gttiv Tipoo- 
TiTiKTi Tou 5i89voi3(; avxaycDviGfj.oij)).^'*'' 

H 5ri[j,ioupyia [j,syd}tcov 5isupcD7iaiK(bv smxsipfiGSCDV, xcopig 
GuyKSKpi[j,svri sGvikti PaGT], 5sv UTidpxsi a[j,(piPoMa oxi 9a s- 
nnaxove xriv Tiopsia 7ipo(; xriv «supco7iaiKfi oXoKX,fip(DGri». To 
(^rixoi3[j,svo, XoiTiov, sivai tiogo [im xsxoia 5ia5iKaGia s^ei 
TipoxcopfiGSi. Ilap' 6x1 xa Gxoixsia nov vnapxouv oijxs STiapKr) 
8ivai oijxs 5iaKpivovxai yia xrjv aKptpsid xoix;, 7ipo(; xo xsXxx; 
xT]^ 5sKasxia(; xou 1980 syivav noXXeq cvyxavevceiq [j,sxa^i3 
supcoTiaiKcbv sxaipsicbv. Msi(b9r|Kav gxk; apxs^ xr|(; 5sKas- 
xia(; xou 1990, STiavfi^tQav gs avoSiKf) uopsia gxt] Guvsxsia (oi 
S7iixsipr|[j,axiKS(; cvyxcmevceiq Kai s^ayopst; gxtjv EupcoTiri 
xpiTiXaGidGxriKav [J,8xa^i3 1995 Kai 2000 ), yia va Tiapou- 
GidGOUv ^avd TixroGr] gxk; apxs(; xrjc; 5sKasxia(; xou 2000. 

0a TipsTisi, COGXOGO, va yivouv xpsK; uapaxripfiGSK; gs g^s- 
cr\ [IE auxfiv xr] 5ia5iKaGia: 

Ilpcbxov, xo 60% ohm xcov GuyxcovsuGsrov Kai xcov s^ayo- 
pcbv s^aKoXouGsi va Xa[j,pdvsi xcbpa svx6(; xcdv sGvikcdv guvo- 

150 
PCDV 

«H SiaGUVopiaKTi GUVspyaGia [j,sxa^i3 EupcoTiaiKcbv 
smxsipfiGSCDV sxsi avxi[j,8xco7iiG9si mq [leco yia xrjv stii- 
xsu^T] xT]^ sviaiag EupcoTiaiKfic; ayopdt; Kai xr] PsXxicoGri 
xri(; 5i£9voi3(; avxaycoviGxiK6xrixa(;. nap6[j,oiS(; Guvspya- 
cieq 9a ^iTiopoiJGav smGrjc; va GU[a^pdA,}touv (dgxs va svi- 
Gxu98i r\ oiKovo[j,iKfi Kai tioXixikti pdGt] xri(; EupcoTiaiKfi^ 



Atio to 2001 01 ouyxcoveyoen; Kai e^ayopeg Tiopouma^ouv paySaia titco- 
OT] oe TiayKooiiia KXljxaKa (Xoyco Kai xrig oiKovo|iiKfi<; ucpeorig). EniKksov, 
5ie9vcb<;, oujicpcova (le oxoixeia xrn; Thomson Financial, xpeig oxi<; Tievxe 
oDyxcov8i)08i<; aTioxuyxovouv (EXeuBepoxumo, 11/11/2001). 

152 



oAoK^^fipcoGri^, [IS TO va [j,8TaT07ii(^ouv Pa9[j,iaia xi^ 710- 
XniKsq 5iaGUv5sGSi(; gto EupcoTiaiKo S7ii7is5o, Kai stio- 
[levmq va koPouv tov o[j,(pdXio hhpo [j,sydXcov emxsipfi- 
G8C0V [IE tk; KuPspvfiGSK; Tcov xcopcbv TOtx;. H 5ri[j,ioupyia 
sup(D7ipcoTa9}^riT(bv ax; Tiproxo pfi[j,a 7ipo(; xriv EupcoTiai- 

KT) noXniKT] SVODGTi; 

[. . . ] Aiya 7ipdy[j,aTa, TidvicD^, sxouv yivsi co^ Grmspa 
7ipo(; auxfi xriv KaxsuGuvGr]. IlapoAo oxi noXkeq [lejakeq 
EupcoTiaiKs^ smxsipfiGSK; sxouv TispdGSi Tipo 7ioX,Xoi3 
xTjv ri^tiKia xou sBvikoij TiproxaGXrixfi Kai oi 5sg[j,oi xovq 
[IE dA,Xs(; Eupco7iaiK8(; x&tpeq (r\ r\ TiapouGia xovq sksi) 
sxouv fi5r| sviGXuGsi Gr|[j,avxiKd, oi supcDTipcoxaG^trixs^ 
s^aKoX,ou9oiJV va sivai \xaXkjov si5o(; nov G7iav((^si ». ^^^ 

Asijxspov, r\ 5ia5iKaG{a xrov GuyxoDvsiJGSCDV 58v sivai a[j,i- 
jchq «st)pco7iaiKfi», akXd acpopd xr] GxpaxriyiKfi xcov [j,sydXcov 
STiixsipfiGSCov Kai 7ioX,us0viK(bv GS 5is9vfi KM[j,aKa- 7iapdX,X,ri- 
hx [IE xi^ GuyxcovsiJGSi^ G8 supcoTiaiKo S7ii7is5o Tipoxcopow Kai 
01 GU[j,(pcovis^ (f) GuyxcDvsiJGSK;) Kai GUVspyaGist; [is A[j,spiKa- 
viKS(; Kai Ia7icoviKS(; STiixsipfiGSK;. npdy[j,a tiou Grmaivsi, 6x1 
01 [iEjaksq STiixsipfiGSK; r\ 7ioA,us9viks(; nov TipoKUTixouv and 
XT] 5ia5iKaGia GuyxrovsuGsrov, xauxoxpova, sivai Kaxd [imq 
«U7ispPoXiKfi(; sup(D7iaiKfi(; oXoKXfipcoGri(;» (f) xr] 'kej6[ievr\ 
TipooTixiKTi xrig «Evp&)iir\q Opoijpio))): 



«Oi SiaouvopiaKeg ciuyxcoveixjeK; aK6|iri e|i7io51(^ovTai aiio TipopXruiaxa 
voinKX]q (xopcpfn;, Kai t] opydvcoori Kai SioiKiiori jxiog emxsipTloTl? vtou em- 
6u(i£i va SpaoxripiOTioiriOei co<; alri9ivfi eupcoTiaiKfi exaipeia 5ev eivai Ka- 
Goloi) ei)KoXri» (Mario Monti, H Eviaia ayopd Kai i] awpiavii EupcoTiri, 
eKGeoT] 7ipo65oi) SKTiovriOeioa avio xriv EupcoTiaiKii EmxpoTifi, eK56oei<; 
na7ia{;ri(jTi, ABiiva 1998, oeX. 176). 

153 



«H Gri[j,aGia nov s^si yia xi^ Eupco7iaiK8(; eTiixsipfi- 
gsk; to va SiaGsxouv TipoaPaori gtti yia7i(Dvs(^iKri xs^vo- 
>uoyia Kai xriv ayopd xcov HQA -mq e^ajmyeiq, Kai Pa9- 
[imia 6X0 Kai Tispiaaoxspo mq enevdvTeq Kai «s^ayopa- 
GXS(;»- GUV87idysxai, yia 7iapd5siy[j,a, 6x1 r\ Evpchiu] [si- 
vai] [lalljov [iia Tixuxn Tr\c, 5isK5iKriGri(; laxupoxspr]^ 98- 
Gri(; Gxriv 7iayK6G[j,ia ayopd. 

[01 GuyxcovsiJGSK;] dsv 8x0 w TipocoGfiGSi xogo xtjv 
«Eup(07iaiO7ioiriGri» 6go xt] 5is9vo7ioiri gt] GrmavxiKcbv 
xo[j,scov xri(; oiKovo[j,ia(; [j,sg(d xri(; uio9sxriGri(; [j,sxpcov 
yia xo dvoiyi^a xrjc; ayopd9>. 

Tpixov (Kai iGCOc; gt] [j,avxiK6x8po), 01 GuyxcovsuGSK; Kai s- 
tfijopeq G8 SisupcDTiaiKo stiitisSo, Kd9s dA,Xo Tiapd anakXaj- 
[leveq sivai «89viK(bv GxpaxriyiK(bv». Exk; GuyxcovsuGSK; Kai 
s^ayops(;, 01 mo 5paGxfipiS(; smxsipfiGSK; xr|v 7ispio5o 1990- 
92 fiGav 01 yaXXiKs^ STiixsipfiGSK;. Auxo 5sv fixav Ka96Xou 
dGxsxo [IE xTjv 7ipoG7id9sia xTjc; yaA,}^iKfi(; KuPspvriGri^ va avxi- 
Gxa9[j,iGSi xTjv oiKovo[j,iKfi ysp[j,aviKfi riys[j,ovia f^TipoGxd gxov 
kivSdvo xri(; (xoxs TipoGCpaxr]^) Fspfj-aviKfig svo7ioiriGri(;: 

«Ms 5s5o[j,8vou(; ^id>uiGxa xou^ Gxsvotx; 5sg[j,oi3(; tio- 
XniKx\q Kai Pio[j,rixaviKfi(; ekn gxt] raX.>^ia, xo jsjovoq 
6x1 01 xdGSK; GXTjv s^coxspiKT) Kai XT] Pio[j,rixaviKfi TioXi- 
xiKT) GU[j,pd5i(^av 5sv 9a TipsTisi va 98copsixai GU^7ix(D[j,a- 
xiKo. AX}t(DGxs, Kai 01 GuyxcovsiJGSK; [j,sxa^i3 yaA,}tiK(bv 
8xaipsi(bv sixav Gacpf) EupcoTiaiKo 7ipoGavaxoXiG|i6. 

A716 xrjv aXkr\ [lepm, 01 ysp[j,aviKs^ smxsipfiGSig fixav 
(pavepo 6x1 5sv s5sixvav xr|v i5ia 7ipo9u[j,ia va «^7iouv 
Gxo 7iaixvi5i», S7ii}tsyovxa(; Gudvia va S7isv5i3gouv and 
KoivoTj i^s aXkivq s^co auo xr] x^pa xot)g». ^^'^ 



154 



Adto Tiou 6a 7ip87i8i va KaxavoriGsi sivai oxi, Tiapd tk; ouy- 
X(0V8i)G8i^, xriv aA,XriXo5isiG5uGri tcdv KecpaXairov, oi sGvikoi 
avTaycoviG[j,oi o^wovxai 5ev 7ispiopi(^ovTai. To i5io GU[j,paivsi 
Kai GS 7iayK6G[j,ia KM[j,aKa. Ilapd xiq 5iaKripi3^si(; xcov ispo- 
KTipijKcov TT]^ 7iayKOG[j,i07ioiriGri(;, OTi 5fi98v 01 SisGvsic; 5ia- 
7iXoKS(; Tou KscpaXaiou 7ipoco0oi3v svav tiio sipriviKo k6g[j,o, r\ 
Tipayfj-axiKoxriTa auoSsiKviJsi oxi Tiapd xriv aXXriXs^dpxriGri 
Gxa Ti^^aiGia xri(; SisGvotx; ayopd(;, o5riyoi3[j,aGxs ce svav k6- 
G[j,o OTiou 01 auoK^GSK; Kai 01 sGviKs^ svxdGSK; Kopucpcbvovxai 
5sv UTioxropoiJV, 7ipdy[j,a nov igxusi Kai gxtjv 7ispi7ix(DGr| xr|^ 
E.E. H pdGT] xou oAou 7ipop}tfi[j,axo(; 7iapa[j,svsi r| sGvikti gu- 
yKpoxriGTi xou KS(paX,aiou : 

«AvxixiG8[j,8va Gt)[j,(p8povxa xa OTioia f^TiopoiJGav va 
Siaxsovxai gs 7ispi65ou(; oiKovo[j,iKfi(; dvGiGri(; ^acpviKd 
S7iav8[j,(pavi(^ovxai [is mo o^u[j,8vri fj-opcpf) gxt] 5idpKsia 
7ispi65cov KpiGrjc;. Dxav r\ avduxu^r] xrjc; ayopdt; sivai 
|j.iKpfi Kai xa TiOGOGxd Ksp5ou(; Tiscpxouv 7iayK6G[j,ia, r\ 

TipOGTldGsia XCDV 7l0A,UsGviK(bv va XPTl<3l^07lOlflGOUV xo 

[sGviKo xou(;] Kpdxo(; yia va TipoGxaxsuGOUv xa GU[j,(ps- 
povxd xou(; 5isGv(b^ GuyKpoiJsxai [is xiq aTiOTisipsc; d}^- 
hx)V TioXueGviKcbv va Tipd^ouv xo i5io». ^^"^ 



ripdyiia Tiou ylvexai opaxo Kai oxo yeyovog 6xi oi 7ioXi)e9viKe<; eXeyxo- 
vxai avio Kamxalioxeg xri<; (n)yKeKpi|i£vri<; eBvoxrixoig tiou avioxeM Kai xi] 
pdoi] xoix;. Atio xi<; 35 (isyaluxepeg exaipiei; xiji; EouiiSiai; oe |i6A,i<; 5eKa 
uxdpxouv KdTioioi 5iei)9i)vxe<; dlXii<; eBvoxiixai;, evcb oxa xpia xexapxa xcov 
[leyaluxepcov 0XXav5iKcbv exaipicbv 5ev UTidpxouv ^evoi 5iei)9i)vxe<; Tiapd 
xo yeyov6<; 6xi xo 60% xcov TicoXiioecbv xoix; 7ipay|iaxo7ioieixai eKx6<; OX- 
XavSia^; (Chris Harman, Analysing imperialism, International Socialism 
issue 99, Summer 2003). 

155 



Ta TiapaTidvco sivai TispiGGOxspo auo E[i(pavr\ GTr\v Tispi- 
TiTCOGTi Tri(; E.E. H GuyKsvxpoTioiri gt] xri^ Tiapaycoyfic; gs vne- 
psGviKo, SisupcoTiaiKo S7ii7is5o, s[a^7io5i(^STai (uapd Kai svdvxia 
Gxa vsocpiXsXsijGspa 56y[j,aTa) and xriv KpaxiKfi 7iaps[j,paGri, 
oxav Kiv5uvsi38i [im «s9viKfi» sxaipia. H Ksvxpo5s^id KuPsp- 
vr\(5r\ xTjc; TaXkiaq sgtisugs va SiaGCDGSi (uapd xiq a7i8i>^8g xrjg 
EupcoTiaiKTic; Ennpon^q) xo Pio[j,r|xaviK6 koXoggo [j,r|xavoAo- 
yiKoij 8^07iXiG[j,oi3 Alstom. H Alstom KaxaGKsud(^si xa xpsva 
u\|/ri}^fi(; xaxuxrixa(; TGV, Kpoua(^sp67iXoia, aspoxoup^Tiivs^ 
Kai sv ysv8i [j,r|xavo>uoyiK6 s^OTi^^iGfo^o yia xrjv Tiapayroyfi riA,8- 
KxpiKfi(; svspysiat;, svcb aTiaGxoXsi 7iayK0G[j,i(D^ TispiGGOxspoug 
a7i6 110.000 spya(^6[a^£vot)(;. Ms 3,4 5ig. supcb xo yaXXiKo 5ri- 
[j,6gio SiSGCDGS a7i6 xTjv TixcbxsuGri xrjv Alstom, Kai sxgi r\ jak- 
XiKTi KuPspvriGTi ausKxriGS xo 3 1 $% xou Pio[j,r|xaviKoi3 o[j,i- 
A,ou. Exk; aixidGSK; xrjc; EupcoTiaiKfi^ EmxpoTific; 6xi «7iapaPid- 
(^ovxai 01 Kav6vs(; xou avxaycoviG[j,oi3», aTidvxriGS o TaXkoq 
U7ioupy6(; OiKovo[j,iK(bv OpdvGic; Msp: 

«A8V aTiayopsiJsxai gxo Kpdxo(; va ava[j,iyvi38xai oxav 



sivai aTiapaixrixo va gcoGsi [j,ia 87iixsipriGri» 



155 



O 87iixpo7iO(; AvxaycDviG[j,oi3 xrjc; Evp(i)iiaiKr\q EmxpoTific;, 
Mdpio Movxi, a7i8i>^oiJG8 va. . . Gi3p8i xr] raX,Ma gxo EupcoTia- 
iKo AiKaGxfipio yia «v698t)Gri xou avxay(DviG[j,oi3» Kai yia «a- 
Qe.[ineq KpaxiKsc; svigxugsi(;». To a7iox8}tSG[j,a fixav «gi3ggco- 
\jioq o 7ioXixik6(; k6g[j,0(; xtjc; raA,Ma9>^^'' va UTiOGxripi^si xr] 

jaXklKT] KUPspVriGTl GXTjV aVXlGSGTl XTjc; [IE XTjV ETiixpoTifi. Ss 

avaKoivcDGfi xou xo GUv5iKdxo CGT UTiOGxfipi^s: 



156 



«Edv r\ Alstom TisGdvsi, tots 9a 7iapa|is{vsi [lovo s- 
va^ Kupiapxog tou 7iaixvi5ioiJ ottiv EupcoTiri: r\ Siemens, 
aXXd 9a sxsi 8kX8{\|/81 o avTay(DviG[j,6(;». ^^ '' 

Sto Tskoq fiTav, (puoiKd, r\ EmTpoTifi nov SKavs tiigcd. Fia 
va KpaTri9oi3v Ta 7ipoGxn|J.aTa r\ jaXkiKi] KuPspvriGri «58G[j,8i3- 
TriK8» va [j,riv auoKTiiGSi r| i5ia [j,8pi5io gttjv STaipia «iipoq to 
7iap6v»!!^^^ Ettjv Tipay^aTiKOTriTa PsPairo^ TipoKsiTai yia 
«Kapa^7iivdTri» KpaTiKf) 7iaps[j,paGr| vnep [imq «EQviKr\q» Pi- 
o[j,rixavia(; nov Gacpdcx; spxsTai gs KaTdcpopr] avTi9sGri [j,s tov 
U7iOTi9s[j,svo GTOxo Tr|(; 5ri[j,ioupyia(; [j,ia(; «U7isps9viKfi(;» su- 
p(i)iiaiKr\q oiKovo[j,ia(;. KaTd 5s tov Economist, r| 7iaps[j,paGri 
Tou MovTi sixs TO avd7io5o a7iOTsX£G[j,a, o5fiyriGS gttjv au^ri- 
GT] (!) TCDV KS(pa}taicov nov 7ipoco9oi3G8 r\ jaXkiKi] KuPspvriGri 
GTOV 6[j,iXo Alstom. ^^^ 

Ms TOV l5lO dXXcOGTS TpOTlO, 81X8 7iapS[J,p8l T] y8p[j,aviKfi 

KuPspvriGri Tou FKspxapvT EpevTsp, [is ')(pr\[iaTiKr\ Pofi98ia 
126 8KaTO[j,^i3pia supcb to 1999 yia va 5iaGCo9si r\ KaTaGKSD- 
aGTiKT) STaipia Philipp Holzmann (r\ OTioia xekiKa xpsoKOTirj- 
GS TO 2002). To 2002 ene^ake gtk; KpaTiKS(; Tpd7is(^8(; va gtti- 
pi^ouv Tr| MobilCom. O U7ioupy6(; EQviKr\q OiKovo[j,ia(; Tri(; 
rsp[j,avia(;, Xavq Aixek, uapoTpuvs GTa Tekr\ tou 2003 tk; 

Tpd7lS(^S(; GS GUyXCOVSlJGSl^, (DGTS «Va [J,riV a7lOT8>uSGOUV GTOXO 

s^ayopd(; auo ^£vou9>.^'''' H PpsTaviKf) KuPspvriGri Kivfi9riKs 
auocpaGiGTiKd yia va 5iaG(bGSi auo tt] xpsoKoma tt] British 
Energy. To 2002[a^STd ttjv xpsoKoma ttjc; Railtrack, r| KuPsp- 
vriGTi Miikep s7iavs9viK07ioiriG8 gttjv ouGia to Gi5ripo5po[j,iK6 
5iKTU0. Ettjv iTaMa r\ KuPspvrjGri Mtisp^ougkovi stiiSottigs 
TTjv Fiat, sv(b s[j,7i65igs tt] jaXkiKi] EDF, u7ioypd(povTa(; 5id- 
Tay[j,a, va s^ayopdGSi ttjv nakiKi] Edison. ^''^ 



157 



2t)voX.iKd, TO 2001 01 d[j,SGS(; KpaxiKst; evicxpceiq gttiv 
E.E.-l 5, UTisp sGviKcbv sxaipicbv, avfi^Gav gto tiogo tcov 8 6 
5iG. supd)/''^ Kaxd xriv S(pr|[j,spi5a Le Monde, oxav oi Kpaxi- 
KEq 87iixopriyfiG8i(; 7iapaPid(^ouv 5is9vsi(; GUvGfiKst; Tispi «s- 
XeuGspou avxaycoviG[j,oi3», xoxs oi «U7isps9viKoi opyaviG[j,oi» 
OTico^ o nayK6G[j,iO(; OpyaviG[j,6(; E[j,7iopiot) f) r\ EupcoTiaiKfi 
EmxpoTifi «58v i^TiopoiJV Tiapd va 5sx9oi3v avxeq xiq 7iap8[j,pd- 
gsk;. Kai o xop6(; xcov UTioKpixcbv KaXd Kpaxsi». ^'^^ 

H KpaxiKT) 7iaps[j,paGr| yia xr] 5idGC0Gr| «89viK(bv» sxai- 
psicbv 8XSI Tidpsi [lEjakeq 5iaGxdG8i(; gxtjv E.E. : 

«Sxri Tep[iavia Ti^triGaivouv oi KuPspvrixiKst; (pcovs(; 
710U auaixow xr|v «7ipoGxaGia» xr|(; yspfo^aviKfic; i5io- 
KxriGiat; yia xk; STiixsipfiGSK; nov Kpivovxai nohb cr\[ia- 
vxiKsg yia xTjv yspfj-aviKf) oiKovo[j,ia. Sxr] FaXXia r\ 
«7ipoGxaG{a» xrig i5ioKxriGia(; (i5iaixspa Gxriv svspysia) 
xcov KpaxiKcbv sxaipsicbv cpaivsxai [le xrjv TispiTixcDGri xri(; 
Alstom va STisKxsivsxai Kai gxk; [isjakeq i5i(dxiks(; sm- 
XSipfiGSi^, 8V(b avd^toya (paiv6[j,£va s[j,(pavi(^ovxai Kai 
GXTjv IxaMa. 

To sv5ia(pspov PsPaia sivai 6xi oi «GU^7ispi(pops9> 
auxs(; GUVo58i3ovxai and [isjakeq KpaxiKst; svigxugsk; 
7ipo(; xk; STiixsipfiGSK; nov kiv5uvsi3ouv sixs va s^ayopa- 
Gxoijv sixs va kXsigouv, ysyov6(; nov avxiPaivsi gxoix; 
Kav6vs(; xr|(; «sXsi39spri(;» avxaycoviGxiKfic; ayopdt; gxo 
SGCOxspiKo xri(; E.E. To (paiv6[j,svo SKxi[j,dxai 6xi 9a svi- 
oxp9ei gxo d[j,SGO [j,sA,Aov i5iaixspa gxt] rsp[j,avia Kai xr] 
FaXMa, oi 07iois(; (paivovxai 5iaxs9si[j,svsg va TipoGxa- 
xsiJGOUv aK6[j,a Kai sk; pdpo(; xcov «v6[i(i)v» xr|(; E.E. xi^ 
s9viKS(; xou(; S7iixsipfiGSi(;». ^'''^ 



158 



Tekoq (aX,Xd s^aipsxiKd armavxiKo), gto OTiXooTdaio xou 
sGviKot) Kpdxoix; yia xriv TipoGxaGia xod sGvikoij Kscpa^taiou 
UTidpxsi Kai r\ cpopoXoyia (onmq eida[iE yia xa 9s[j,axa (popo- 
}toyia(; auaixsixai o[j,o(p(Dvia oxriv E.E., xo Kd9s sQviko Kpdxot; 
8X81 5ia(pop8xiKd (popoXoyiKd GUGxfi[j,axa). A716 xrjv iSpuari 
xri(; EOK syivav noXkeq 7ipoG7id9siS(; yia xr] (popoXoyiKf) 8- 
vapfj-oviGrj. Qgxogo xa a7ioxsXsG[j,axa fiGav [j,sxpia, Tispa auo 
xTjv uioGsxriGTi a7i6 xa Kpdxri-[j,sXri Koivf)^ [j,s965ou vnoXoji- 
c[iox) xou OIIA. napa[j,svouv 6[i(i)q [isjakeq 5ia(pops(;, Kupico(; 
600V acpopd xou^ (popoAoyiKoijg guvx8>^8gxs(;. 

MsGCO xcov 5ia(pop8xiK(bv (popoAoyiKcbv guvxsXsgxcdv (i- 
5iaixspa xcov 8[j,[j,sgcov (popcov) smpdXXovxai G^sxiKd t)\|/riXoi 
GUVxsXsGX8(; yia upoiovxa nov Kupiax; siGdyovxai and xo s^cd- 
xspiKo Kai xa|J.ri?^6xspoi GUVx8>t8GX8^ yia upoiovxa nov Kupi(D(; 
Tiapdyovxai syxcbpia. H (popoXoyiKf) avo[j,oioy£vsia sivai evaq 
(a7iox8XsG[j,axiK6(;) xp67iO(; 7ipoGxaxsuxiG[j,oi3. Oi SiaKpiGSi^ 
[inopovv va yivovxai [is svTshhq GU^cprovo xpoTio [is xrjv koi- 
voxiKT) vo[j,o9sGia. Ta upoiovxa f^TiopoiJV va opi(^ovxai avd 
Kaxriyopia [is «gxsv6» xpoTio, Kai va S7iipdA,A,ovxai noXi) 5ia- 
(popsxiKoi GUVxsXsGxs(;. H [mipa, yia 7iapd58iy[j,a, va f^Tiaivsi 
G8 SiacpopsxiKT) Kaxriyopia auo xo KpaGi Kai va UTioKsixai gs 
SiacpopsxiKT) (popoXoyiKT) Kaxriyopia. 

EtisiSti aKpipdcx; r| (popoXoyiKTi 7ioA,ixiKf| sivai KpiGi[j,r|^ Gr|- 
[laciaq yia xr|v upoGxaGia xr|(; sGviKfig oiKovo[j,ia(;, sxsi XsxQsi 
«6xi r| sX,7ii5a nrnq 0a uudp^si svap[j,6viGr| Gxr|v «7iapoi3Ga 
C,(X)f\», 5r|Xa5fi gxo opaxo iieXkov, sivaiKaGapfi ouxo7iia»! ^''^ 

H E.E.: sva dGpoiojia sGvikwv oikovoukdv 

Es oikovo[j,ik6, Xomov, S7ii7is5o, Kai [is 5s5o[j,svou(; xoix; 
avai[j,iKoi)<; pu9[j,oij(; oiKovo[j,iKfi^ avduxu^ri^ (a7i6 xo 2001 



159 



sax; TO 2003 UTifipxs ouGiaGxiKd txpsori, evcb yia to 2004 Tipo- 
pXsTisxai [j,spiKfi avdKa[a^\|/r| yupro gto 2%), r| E.E. aTioxs^^si 
sva vapK07is5io sGvikcdv avTaycoviG[j,dc)V, nov aneiksi xriv i5ia 
Tri(;Tri ouvoxn: 

« Av r\ KpiGTi TiapaxaGsi [...] ^iTiopsi va o5riyfiGSi ce 
a[j,(piGpfiTri GT] PaGiKcbv gtoixsicdv ttjc; st)pco7iaiKfi(; opyd- 
v(i)cr\q, onmq r\ ONE, svd) smGrjc; 9a s^aGGeviGSi tt] 5id- 
GsGTi Kai xriv iKavoTrixa noXhhv Kpaxcbv [j,sX(bv va gu- 
vsxiGOUv va ucpiGxavxai xrjv TisiGapxia xtj^ 7ipoGap[j,oyfi^ 
Gxo sviaio v6[j,iG[a^a Kai gxoix; Kav6vs(; xr|^ SGroxspiKf)^ 
ayopd^. Auxo 9a Gfi[j,aivs smGxpocpfi (f) UTioxpoTifi, avd- 
Xoya [j,s xrjv otixikti ycovia) gs sk5oxs(; xou oikovo[j,ikoi3 
s0viKiG[j,oij, noD cvvr\Q(i)q 5iaGxsX,}tsxai, oxav oi oikovo- 
\neq 5sv Tiriyaivouv KaXd». ^'^'^ 

Exo GT] [j,sio auxo 9a TipsTisi va t)7ioypami{GOt)[j,8 6xi, 9sg[j,i- 
Kd, r\ E.E. 5£v UTioxpsoiJxai va SiaGWGSi sva Kpdxo(;-[j,s}tO(; 
xT]^ a7i6 xTjv oiKovo[j,iKfi xpsoKOTiia (av yia 7iapd5siy[j,a [im 
Xcbpa aSuvaxsi va «s^U7irip8xfiGSi» xo 5ri[j,6Gio jpsoq xrjc;). 
Avxi9sxa [j,d}tiGxa, UTidpxsi pfixpa Gxr| Suv9fiKri xou Mda- 
Gxpixx «7i8pi [j,ri 5idGC0Gri(; [j,sgco Tiapoxnf; oiKovo[j,iKfi(; Pof)- 
9sia(;» GS Kpdxri-[j,8>uri nov avxi[j,sxco7ii(^ot)v xo (pdG[j,a xrjc; oi- 
Kovo[j,iKfi(; KaxaGxpocpf)^. ^'' '' AGCpaXdcx;, Tiapd xr] pfixpa, r] E.E. 
I^Tiopsi Gxrjv Tipd^T] va 7iaps[j,p8i gs [j,ia xsxoia TispiTixcoGri, and 
xo 96P0 6x1 [j,ia KpiGTi xpsoix; gs [j,ia xcbpa f^Tiopsi va 5iaxu9si 
7ipo(; oXoK^ripo xo oikovo[j,ik6 Gi3Gxri[j,a. Qgxogo, sivai KpiGi- 
[j,o 6x1 9sG[j,iKd r\ E.E. 5sv UTioxpsoiJxai va xo Kdvsi. Ta s9viKd 
KpdxT] sivai anohbToq U7isi39uva yia xr|v oiKovo[j,iKfi tio^^ixikti. 
npdy[j,a 710U, yia [im aK6[j,ri cpopd, smPsPairovsi 6x1 r\ E.E. 5sv 



160 



sivai sviaiog oikovo[j,ik6(; x^^poi; aXXd d9poiG[j,a 87ii[j,8pou^ 
(avxaycoviGTiKcbv) «89viK(bv» oiKovo[j,i(bv. 

KaGoXou AoiTiov xuxaia, tioXXoi avaXuxst; avTi[j,8TC07ii(^ot)v 
[IE PaQid a7iaiGio5o^ia to 6Xo «sup(D7iaiK6 syxsipri[j,a»: 

«[...] T] Gijyxpovri supcoTiaiKTi Tiopsia Tipo^ xriv utioti- 
Qe[iEvr\ svo7ioir|Gr| 5i5si xriv sytoticdgti TispiGGOxspo s- 
voq aPsPaiou «dX[j,aTO(; gto GK0Td5i» f) gttiv xuxn, Tia- 
pd OTi avTiGTOixsi GS Kduoia TSK[j,ripi(D[j,svri Kai sX,}toyri 
7ip6pXs\|/r|. '0[i(i)q, Tiapd tk; au^ouGSt; aPsPaioxriTSt;, (- 
G(D(; Kai S7isi5fi oi aP8Pai6TriTS(; au^dvovxai, oi 89viks(; 
noXniKsq Kupiapxist; xcov KpaT(bv-[j,sM)V GxaQspd sm- 
PsPairovovxai Tiapd KAovi(^ovTai. 

BaGiKT) SidGxaGTi ttjc; viiepeQviKr\q oAoK}tfipcoGri(; 9a 
S7ip87i8 va 8ivai r\ svSokoivotikti KivriTiKoxriTa KscpaXai- 
ou Kai spyaGiat;. '0[i(i)q, [is'/pi Gfi[j,spa, oi [j,STaKivfiGSi^ 
Kai Tcov 5uo auTcbv cvvTekecT&iv 7iapa[j,svouv s^aipsxi- 
Kd xa[ir\ke.q Kai avs7iapKsi(;, (dgts va xpocpoSoxfiGOUv 
5uva[j,iKfi ouGiaGTiKTic; svoTioiri gtjc; Kai cvvo')(j(\q. Aiyo- 
Tspo a7i6 1% TCOV supcDTiaicov spya(^o[j,svcov fj-sxaKivsixai 
sv5oKoivoTiKd G8 ava(^fiTriGr| spyaGia^, svcb 7iapdX,}tr|}ta 
>^iy6Tspo a7i6 1% tou 8upco7iaiKoi3 AEII avxmpoGCOTisij- 

ODV 01 SVSOKOIVOTIKS^ [J,STaKlvflGSig 87l8v5t)TlK(bv KSCpa- 

>uaicDV. Oi auT8^ a5uva[j,is(; SiaTHGTcbvovxai aKo^r] o^i3- 
Tspa GTO Ti^taiGio Tou 5iaP6riTOU yaX,Xo-ysp[j,aviKoi3 d- 
^ovo(; TTjc; Eup(b7iri(;: togo r\ TaXkia 6go Kai r\ Fspfa^avia 
7iapa[j,8vouv auxoKsvipst; 5uvd[j,8i^, xcopi^ d^ia Xoyou 
aA,XriXo5isiG5uGri xcov oiKovo[j,i(bv xou^. Oi 5ia7iiGX(b- 
ceiq auxs(; igxuouv gs aK6[j,ri [j,syaX,i3xspo PaGfo^o yia xr| 
Bpsxavia, xrjv IxaMa Kai xrjv iGuavia, oi 07iois(;, o[j,oi3 
[IE xic; 5t)o 7ipoava(psp6[j,8VS(;, auoxsAow xk; tisvxs [leja- 



161 



Xeq oiKovo[j,is^ Tri(; EupcDTiric;. Mova5iK6(; Kai ava[j,(pi- 
opfiTriTO(; 5siKTri(; supco7iaiKfi(; oAoK}tfipcoGr|(; 7iapa[j,sv8i 
[isjpi Gfi[j,spa o GxsTiKd t)\|/r|}t6(; 6yK0(; xou 5iaKivoi3[a^s- 

VOU Sv50K0tV0TlK0l3 Sf^TlOpiOU. '0[i(i)q, STGl, r\ 7l0A,UGU(^ri- 

Tri[j,8vri Kai ava[j,8v6[j,svri supcoTiaiKfi oXoK^^fipcDGri Ka- 
TokrYfEi TsXiKd v' avTiGxoixsi gs anXi] C,&)vr\ ekevQepriq 
5iaKivriGri(; s^7iopsu[j,dTC0v, SiKairovovxa^ xriv TiaXaid 
ayyXoGa^oviKTi Gi3X,Xri\|/ri Kai [j,6vi[j,ri 7ipoTi[j,ri gt]. 

[...] Oi 8upco7iaiKS(; x&tpeq a7io5sG[j,s'UTriKav and to 
9s(bpri[j,a Tri(; «GUVoxn9> Kai TipoGxcbpriGav gto ysp[j,a- 
viKO Gxn|J.a TTjc; «Gi3yK}triGri(;» [a^sxa^ij avs^dpxriTCDV s- 
xaipcov, 01 OTioioi s[j,[j,svow gttiv auTOxs^^sid xoix;, stii- 
5i(bK0VTa(; sGviKOKupiapxiKd xr] vo[j,iG[j,aTiKfi GuyK^riGri 
6x1 mq GiJvoXo, aX,}td g8 aTO[iiKr\ KM[j,aKa Kai PaGi(^6[j,s- 
voi o Ka9si(; gtk; 5iks(; tou 5uvd[j,si(; Kai 6xi gttiv 8vo- 

TlOiriTlKTl SuVafO^lKfl TOU GUVOXOU))/''^ 

Suvo\|/i(^ovTa(; xa GU^7ispdG[j,aTa auxfic; Tri(; sv6TriTa(;: 

H E.E. Tiapd xriv ONE Kai to supd) 7iapa[j,8vsi d9poiG[j,a 

86viK(bv OlKOVO[J,l(bv, XtOp{<; OlKOVO[J,lKfl oXoK^flpCOGri, [IE Pa- 

9i8(; aviGOxriTSt;, togo 7ispi(pspsiaKS(; 6go Kai [j,STa^i3 xcov Kpa- 
T(bv-[j,s}t(bv, Kai xo3pi<^ ^ov a7iaiTOi3[j,svo [j,r|xaviG[j,6 (euapKri 
7ipol)7ioXoyiG[j,6, Kai GUvaKoXouGa STiapKr] Sioiktitiko [j,rixavi- 
G[j,6), 7101) va i^Tiopsi va a[j,pA,i3vsi xi^ 5ia(pop8(;. Ilohb uspiG- 
GOTspo, yia va avxifj-STCOTiiGSi KpiGSK; nov [mopei va TipoKXr]- 
Goijv a7i6 [j,ia stiiSsivcogti ttjc; oiKovo[j,iKfi(; GuyKupia(; Kai va 
[j,STaTpa7ioi3v ce tio^^itiks^ kpigsk; avd[j,SGa Gxa KpdTri-[j,8Xri. 
AuTTi sivai r\ TUYfi] nov 5sv sxsi stiitsuxQsi |J,sxpi Gf^spa r\ 
7ioA,U7i69r|Tr| «7ioX,iTiKfi svo7ioir|Gr|». 

Ta supcoTiaiKd Kscpd^^aia 5iaTr|poi3v xriv sBvikt) xovq 5ia- 
[j,6p(pcoGri, 7101) STiiTsivsTai Kai U7ioypa[j,[j,i(^STai and xriv avs- 



162 



7idpK8ia Tcov supcDTiaiKcbv 9sG[j,(bv Kai tt] SiaKuPspvriTiKfi (5i- 
aKpaxiKTi) 9sG[j,iKfi Xenovpjia Tri(; E.E. 

Ilapd Tr|v ONE Kai to supcb, to sGviko KpdTO(; 7iapa[j,sv8i 
TO sGviKo «oxup6» ausvavTi gtov avTay(DviG[j,6 and akhi sv- 
pcoTiaiKd KscpdXaia. 'Onmq TiaXiOTspa, r\ KaTdpyr] gt] tov 5a- 
G[j,oXoyiK(bv (ppay[j,(bv dev o5fiyriGS gttjv a7io5uvd[j,(DGri tou 
sGviKot) KpdTOix;, to i5io GU[j,paiv8i Kai [le ttjv ONE. O 7ia- 
ps[j,paTiK6(; p6Xo(; tou KpdTOix; (vnep tou sGvikoij KscpaXaiou) 
Tiapd TO vso(pi}tsX8u9spiG[j,6 7iapa[j,sv8i icxppoq Kai 5sv 8^a- 
VT^siTai, SITS GTOix; 5aG[j,oi3(;, sits gtk; GUvaA,}tay[j,aTiKs^ igo- 
Ti[j,iS(;. napafo^svouv GTa xspia tou sGvikoij KpdTOU^ sva tiukvo 
5iKTU0 [j,ri-5aG[j,o}a3yiK(bv (ppay[j,(bv (stiiSottigsk; gs s9viks(; 
STaipsiS(;, TSxviKS(; 7ipo5iaypa(pE(;, (popoXoyiKo Gi3GTr|[j,a, Kpa- 
TiKS(; 7ipo[j,fi9sis^, K.Xn.). E^' igou GrmavTiKo, to sGviko Kpd- 
T0(; Exsi U7i6 TTjv KaTOxn Tou «7ioXiTiKd OTiXa)) - 7iapa5siy[j,a- 

T0(; X^ipi^V^ S^CDTSpiKTl TloXlTlKT) f) TO ySyOv6(; OTl TO sGviKo Kpd- 

T0(; sivai to [j,ova5iK6 «spya}tsio» S7iip}ts\|/ri(; Kai S7iiPo}ifi(; tcdv 
«KoivoTiK(bv S7ii}toy(bv» - Kai, S7io[j,svcd^, [j,sgco auTcbv, xdpa- 
^r\ auTOVo^icDV (7io>tiTiK(bv Kai oiKovo[j,iK(bv) sGviKcbv STllXo- 
ycbv. 

Fia va «^S7ispaGTsi» to sGviko KpdTOt; (f) touM^igtov va 
UTiOGKacpGsi a7iOTs}tSG[j,aTiKd r\ icjpq tou) Ga STipsTis oXeq oi 
TiapaTidvG) ap[j,o5i6TriTS(; va TispdGOUv GTa xspia UTispsGviKcbv 
supcoTiaiKcbv GsG[j,(bv - 7ipdy[j,a nov TipaKTiKd gt] [j,aivsi ttjv 
KaTaKopucpT] au^riGri tou koivotikoij 7ipol)7ioXoyiG[j,oi3, ttjv 
au^riGTi Tou 5ioiKriTiKoi3 [j,r|xaviG[j,oi3 tt]^ Eup(D7iaiKfi(; Etii- 
Tpoiv[\q (tt] 5ri[j,ioupyia su[j,sysGou(; UTispsGviKfi^ ypacpsioKpa- 
Tiag), TTjv sv5uvd[j,coGri tou EupcoTiaiKot) KoivoPouMou 7ipo(; 
TTjv KaTSTjGuvGTi TTjc; 5r| [j,ioupyia(; «supco7iaicov 7io}tiTiK(bv», 
avs^dpTTjTCOv a7i6 Ta sGviKd KpdTt] nov anoxeXjovv ttjv E.E. 



163 



QgTOGO KOITI T8T010 5sV SlVai OIJTS GTK; TipoGSGSl^ TCOV KU- 

PspvfiGSCov TCOV KpaT(bv-[j,s}t(bv, aA,M oijts ucpiGTaxai (onaq 
si5a[j,s) sva STiapKotx; [lEjeQovq «sup(D7iaiK6 KS(pdXaio» nov 
va 8X81 a7ioK6\|/8i xovq 58G[j,oi3(; tou [le xa 89viKd Kpdxri. 

To t8X,ik6 a7iOTsX8G[j,a sivai r\ 9sG[j,iKfi avxicpaxiKOTriTa, oi 
5iapK8i^ 5ia(p(ovis^, oi S7ia7isiXoi3[j,£V8^ [iiKpeq r\ [lejaXeq Kpi- 
gsk; avd[j,SGa Gxa KpdTri-[j,s}tr| Kai xs^^iKd oi GU[j,piPaG[j,oi ce 
«vss9> (KdGs (popd) Gt)[j,(p(oviS(; tiou avauapdyow tk; i5is^ 
avTicpdGSK;. 

Asv DTidpxsi a[j,(piPoMa, oxi r\ uopsia Tri(; «Eup(b7iri<;» exei 
va 87ii58i^si «[a^sydXs(; S7iituxis(;». H ONE Kai r\ siGaycoyfi xou 
supd) avfiKouv g' avxeq (onrnq Tia^tioxspa r| Ts^tcoviaKfi 'Evcd- 
cr\). Asv UTidpxsi S7iiGri(; a[j,(piPoMa, oxi to supcb Kai r\ ONE 
ayyi(^ouv (Giyouv) TispiGGOxspo and 07ioia5fi7iOT8 dX.Xri Tispio- 
5o xrig «Eup(b7iri(;», xriv «Kap5id» xou sGvikoij Kpdxotx;, (pxd- 
vouv |J,sxpi xou Gri[j,siou va UTiovosixai r\ u7iov6[j,suGri xrjc; s- 
9viKfi(; Kupiapxia(;. To S7ii9u[j,rix6 9a fixav r| E.E. va o[j,oidG8i 
7ipo(; [j,ia sxaipsia A.E. (Av(bvu[j,ri Exaipsia). Es [im A.E. o 
Ka9si(; Xa[j,pdvsi xo [j,sp(5i6 xod avdXoya xcdv [ietox&iv nov 
Kaxsxsi, 5iaxrip(bvxa(; (t)7io98xiKd) xrjv at)x6vo[j,ri UTiap^f) xou. 
Dtico^ gs [j,ia A.E. sivai oi [j,syaXo[j,sxoxoi auxoi nov Ka9opi- 
C,ow xTjv Tiopsia xrjc; sxaipsia(;, aX,}^d Kai oi [j,iKpo[j,sxoxoi (ce 
i5aviKS(; xouXdxiGxov GUv9fiK8g) K8p5i(^ouv and xrjv 7ip6o5o 
xT]^ sxaipsia^. Qgxogo gs [j,ia A.E. [j,iKpo[j,sxoxoi Kai [o^eyaXo- 
|i8xoxoi Xsixoupyoijv £vx6(; xou i5iou vo[j,ikoi3 Kai tio^^ixikoij 
7i>uaiGiou. Asv GU[j,paivsi 6[i(i)q xo i5io gxtjv E.E. Sxriv E.E. 
7iaps[j,paivsi r\ GuyKpoxriGri xcov apxouGcbv xd^scov ce s9viKd 
Kpdxr], 710U Xsixoupyow TipoGxaxsuxiKd 7ipo(; xo s9vik6 Kscpd- 
Xaio (aXM Kai avxaycoviGxiKd 7ipo(; xa «^sva» Kscpd^^aia). 

Oi S7iixuxfe<;, M^sxpi Tcbpa, xrjc; E.E. sivai 6xi [j,sg(d xtjc; ONE 
Kai xou supd) sviGXUGS XT] 5i3va[j,ri Kai xr] 5ia7ipay[j,axsuxiKfi 



164 



iKavoTTixa Tcov [lehbv tt]^ gto 5is9vfi avTaycoviG[j,6 ([j,8gco ttjc; 
5r|[j,ioupyia(; [imq [iSYakr\q SGCOTspiKfi(; ayopd(;), svcb sxouv 
5r|[j,ioupyri98i oi tipoDtioGsgsk; to supcb va avxaycoviGGsi to 
SoMpio Gav 5is9vs(; v6[j,iG[j,a. Qgtogo, oi ennvxieq avxeq 5sv 
KaTa[j,spi(^ovTai o[j,oi6[j,op(pa Gxa KpdTri-[j,8}^ri, [j,8 a7iOTsXsG[j,a 
5iapKsi(; 5ia(pcovis^ Kai mq Tipo^ to xsipiG[j,6 auTcbv tcov stiitu- 
Xirov. 'Onrnq 8i5a[j,s, to Tioia aKpipdx; sivai r\ «GCOGTfi» Guva}^- 
Xay[j,aTiKfi iGOTi[j,ia tou supcb, avoiysi Xa^Tipo 7is5io avTiTia- 
paGsGSCDV avd[j,SGa GTa iGXupoTspa Kai aGGsvsGTspa KpaTTj- 
[iekr\. Ta 7iA,sovsKTfi[j,aTa [imq [lejakriq SGOTspiKfic; ayopd^, 
nov 9a f^TiopoiJGS va aTiOTS^^SGSi tt] pdGt] yia ttjv avanxv^r] 
[lejaXav supcoTiaiKcbv STaipsicbv, oi 07ioiS(; va [inopovv va a- 
VTaycDviGTOW Ta a[j,spiKaviKd Kai laucDviKd [o^syaGfipia, tsi- 
vouv va avaipsGoiJV and ttjv X)iiap^r\ tou sGvikoij TipoGTaTSU- 
TiG[j,oi3. Ms dX,Xa Xoyia, Ta 87iiTSi3y[j,aTa tou Gf^spa Tsivouv 
va Tpo(po5oTfiGOUv tk; [lejakeq avTiTiapaGsGSK; tou aijpio. 

Sto Tiapov Kai gto d[j,SGO [leXkov, oi 87iiTUxis(; auTSc; Tiapa- 
l^svouv «[a^STSCopo pfi[j,a» av 5sv GUvSuaGTOW [le eva tioiotiko 
ak[ia: ttjv STiiTSU^ri [j,syaA,i3Tspri^ oiKovo[j,iKfi(; Kai TioXniKr\q 

GUVOXni;, TTjV 7110 GUyKSVTpCDTlKTl XsiTOUpyia. Av 58V S711TSU- 

xGsi auTO, r\ ONE Kai to supcb f^Tiopow va [j,STaTpa7ioi3v gs 
^7ioi3[j,spavyK, o^i3vovTa(; tk; sGviks(; 5ia(pops(;. To ysyov6(;, 
yia 7iapd5siy[j,a, 6ti to sGviko KpdTO(; s^si auoGTspriGsi «sGvi- 
Kcbv OTiXcov)), onmq tou [j,rixaviG[j,oi3 GUvaX,Xay[j,aTiK(bv igoti- 
l^icbv, [j,STa(pspsi TTjv TiisGr] gs akXovq TO[j,si(; - o^ijvsi tk; avTi- 
Gsgsk; gs (^riTTiia^aTa (popoXoyiat;, s^coTspiKf)^ tio^^itiktic;, gtov 
apiG[j,6 TCOV \|/fi(pcov gto EupcouaiKo Su[j,poi3Xio - ausiXcovTa^ 

[IE GUVoXlKTl TiapdXuGri TTjV E.E. 

AuTOi sivai 01 Xoyoi nov 5iapKcb(; STiavspxsTai r| e^^q Tipo- 
p}tri[j,aTiKfi: acpoij oi «25» f) oi «1 5» 5sv [inopoi^/ (r\ 5sv Gs- 
Xouv) oXoi [iaC,i, va yivsi r\ «(puyfi 7ipo(; Ta S[j,7ip6(;», a7i6 sva 



165 



[j,6\o [lepoq ttjc; E.E. OpiG[j,sva f^ovo KpdTri-[j,sXri va Tipoxco- 
pfiGOUv x(opi(; TOU(; dX,}tou^, as [j,syaX,i3Tspri «o}tOKXfip(DGr|» 
[lETa^i) Tou^. npoKsixai Tipocpavocx; yia xriv TipooTixiKfi xou 5i- 
aPorixou «Aisu9uvxripiou». Qgxogo auxf) r] TipooTixiKfi oSriysi 
GS ak}^q, s^aipsxiKd S7iikiv5uvs(;, e^eki^eiq. AXXd... Myri d- 
■iio[iovr\. E' auxo 9a S7iavsX9ou[j,s avaXuxiKd gxo KscpdXaio, 
«Et)vo}tiKfi 98(bpriGri xrjc; E.E.- r| «Eup(b7ir| xou [leXkovzoq 

napEKpaoT]: To IIv^cpcovo LxaGEpOTTiTai; 

E7isi5fi 7ioA,}tfi [j,sXdvi SX81 jpQei yia xo ysyov6(; 6xi xo Ei3[j,- 
(pcDvo Sxa9sp6xrixa(; xou A[j,Gxspvxa[j, xo 1997, TipopXsTisi ku- 
pcDGSi^ Gxa Kpdxri-[j,sXri tiou 7iapaPid(^ouv xo opio xou 3% xou 
AEn GXO eXkei[i[ia xou KpaxiKoij 7ipol)7io}ioyiG[j,oi3, jpemCp- 
vxai opiG[j,svs(; 5isuKpiviGSi(;. Av Kai xo Qe.[ia exei, ev 7ioX,Xoi(;, 
^SKa9apiGxsi [j,sxd xrjv aTiocpaGr] va [j,riv 87iipXri9oi3v kupcdgsk; 
GS raX,Ma - Fspfj-avia tiou TiapaptaGav xo opio yia xpia guvs- 
x6[j,sva xpovia, sv xoijxok; sxsi GtmaGia va 5oi3[j,s xo Ei3[j,(pcovo 
(Kai xi^ stiitixcdgsk; xou) Myo mo avaXuxiKd. 

Oi KuPspvfiGSK; xcDV Kpax(bv-[j,8}t(bv xpr|Gi[j,07ioiriGav xo 6- 
pio xo u 3 % svxsXdx; TipoGxnM^oixiKd. E7ii9u[j,o mav (u7ioxi9s- 
xai), va aKoXou9fiGOUv [im mo «8XaGxiKfi» oiKovo[j,iKfi tioXi- 
xiKT), aX,>ud «t)7isps9viKoi» [j,rixaviG[j,oi («oi Bpu^sX,Xs(;») xo 
auayopsuav smpdX^tovxat; kupcdgsk;. 

'Hxav ropaio 7iapa^i39i! Oi KuPspvfiGSK; xcov Kpax(bv-[j,s}t(bv 
fixav auxs(; nov GU[j,(p(bvriGav xo 1997gxo opio xou 3%, Kai 
OTioxs (Kai av) xo 98XfiG0uv fj-Tiopotv, [IE vea aTiocpaGr] xou 
EupcDTiaiKoij Eu[j,pouMou, va xo aX,}td^ouv (9sG[j,iKd, xo Eu- 
pcoTiaiKo Sufo^Poij^tio sivai auxo nov a7io(paGi(^si eni ohav xcdv 
9s[j,dxcov, svcb xo Eu[j,poi3Xio xcov YTioupycbv sivai xo [lovo nov 

166 



vo[j,o9sT8i). Eivai xa GU[j,(pspovTa xcov KaTiiTa^^iGTcbv auxd tiou 
eni^akXovv tt] vso(piXsA£i39spr| noXniKi] ([is Tipooxn^oi to 
Ei3[j,(pcovo STa9sp6TriTa(;) Kai Kavsvat; (avuTiapKiot;) «t)7isps- 
9vik6(;» [j,rixaviG[j,6(;. 

A(; 5oi3[j,s xa itpdjixaTa aiio iiio Kovxd, yia va KaxavofiGOt)- 
[lE TiOGO auxol)7iovo[j,8u6[j,svo fixav xo i5soX6yri[j,a. Si3[j,(p(ova 
[le XT] Si3vo5o Kopucpfic; xou A[j,Gxspvxa[j, oi kupcdgsk; yia 6- 
Tioia xropot 7iapaPid(^8i xo 3 % sivai 7ip6Gxi[j,o 710 u (pxdvsi xo 
0,5% xou AEn. To opio xou 3% f^Tiopsi va TiapaPiaGxsi [lovo 
av [o^ia x^pa avxi[a^sx(D7ii(^si «i5iks^ GUv9fiKS(;», otkd^ [im (pu- 
GiKT) KaxaGxpocpf) f) [j,8icoGri xou AEn [j,8yaA,i3xspri xou 2% gs 
sva xpovo. Exo A[j,Gxspvxa[j, GU[j,(p(Dvfi9r|Ks S7iiGri(;, 6xi x^ops? 
710U avxi[j,sxco7ii(^ouv TixcDGTi xou AEII [o^iKpoxspri xou 0,75% va 
[j,riv S7iiKa}toi3vxai xi^ «8i5iks(; GUv9fiKS(;». 

Qgxogo, 01 KupcDGEK; 58V S7iipdX,Xovxai aux6[j,axa: «[...] xo 
Su^Poi3}tio xcDV Yuoupyrov [mopei va auocpaGiGSi, [is siSikt) 
7iX8io\|/ri(pia, TiapaxripfiGSK;, Kaxomv GUGxdGSi^, Kaxomv o- 
X^f[ceiq yia xr] X^xiri] [j,sxpcov Kai, zekoq, Kup(bG8i9>.^''^ Em- 
7iA,80v, 7ip6Gxi[j,a i^TiopoiJV va S7iipXri9oi3v [j,s 7iXsio\|/ri(pia xcov 
5i3o xpixcov xcov \|/fi(pcov gxo Eu[j,poi3Xio, avs^dpxrjxa av xo «u- 
TispPoXiKO)) eXlei[i[ia 7iposKu\|/s and [leimcr] xou AEII f) 6xi 
Kai av8^dpxr|xa auo xo iiejsQoq avTf\q xrjc; \jiei(X)cr[q. ^'^'^ 

'Hxav Ga(pS(;, auo xrjv apxn nov \|/ri(piGxriKs xo Si3[j,(pcDvo 
Sxa98p6xrixa(;, 6xi fixav s^aipsxiKd 5i3gkoXo va ysviKsu9oi3v 
01 KupcDGSK; (i5iaixspa gs GUv9fiKS(; ucpSGrjc; xr]^ oiKovo[j,ia(;), 
XCopi(; va avoi^ouv oi aGKoi xou Aio^tou (xcov 89viK(bv avxma- 
pa9sGSCov) avd[j,SGa Gxa Kpdxri-[j,sXri: 

«[...] 5s5o[j,svou 6x1 01 uspiGGOxsps^ u(pSG8i(; nov 
7i}tfixxouv 5id(pops(; x&tpeq Gxsxi(^ovxai [j,sxa^i3 xoix;, si- 
vai a7ii9avo va s^aGCpaXiGxsi r\ 7iA,sio\|/ri(pia [xcdv 5ijo 



167 



xpixcov] %ov aTiaiTsixai yia xriv smPoXfi tioivcdv. Av auxo 
sivai a}tr|9s(;, xo Si3[j,(pcDvo SxaGspoxrixat; f^Tiopsi KoXki- 
Gxa va aTioxsAsGSi 8va ksvo 7ispi£xo[j,svot) oufj-cpco- 



171 

vo». 



H [i6vr\ xcbpa yia xr|v OTioia KivfiGriKav oi 5ia5iKaGiS(; ku- 
pcDGSCov yia Tiapapiaari xou Eu[j,(p(bvou fixav r\ «[iiKpr\» IIop- 
xoyaMa (yia eXksi[i[ia 4,2% eni xou AEII xo 2001). AXXd x6x8 
r\ Tjcpsori Gxriv oiKovo[j,ia xr|(; Evp(i)C,&)vr\q [loXiq sixs apxiosi, 
Kai oXoi GsropoiJGav «avayKaio xo Si3[j,(pcovo». 

To (^fixri[j,a ^SKaGapioxriKs oxav xo 7ip6pXri[j,a xou eXkei[i- 
[lazoq xo aTisKxrioav «[j,sydXs9> x&tpeq. To 2004 Ga cv[nikr\- 
proGow xpia auvsxn xpovia nov TaXkia Kai Fepfj-avia Tiapa- 
Pid(^ouv xo opio xou 3 % xcopi(; va avxi[j,sxco7ii(^ouv Tixcbari xou 
AEn xou(; a7i6 0,75-2%. H raX,Ma 6xi M-ovo 5sv (poPoxav xk; 
KupcDGSK;, aX,Xd xouvavxiov, «t)7iOGx6xav» 6xi Ga Guvsxiosi va 
7iapaPid(^si xo opio xou 3%) 6xi M^ovo xo 2004,«aX,}td sv5sxo- 
[j,svco9>, Kai xo 2005! T8>uiKd syivs xo ava[j,sv6[j,svo: xo Eufj,- 
PoijXio xcov YTioupycbv xcov OiKovo[j,iK(bv GUVsSpiaas gxi^ 
Bpv^eXkeq, gxk; 26 Nos[j,Ppiou 2003, Kai auocpdGiGS va [j,riv 
87iipX,riGoi3v KupcDGSK; Gxr] TaXkia Kai xr] rsp[j,avia, aXM va 
xoug yivsi. .. TiapdKXrjGri va Kdvouv «6xi ^7iopow» yia va 
[j,si(bG0uv xa sX,Xsi[j,[j,axa 

EiTiafo^e, oXoi gxtjv E.E. sivai igoi, aXXd Kduoioi sivai mo... 
iGOi a7i6 xou(; akXovql npdy[j,a nov Gacpdx; xo yvcopi(^ouv dua- 
vxsg. 0A,}tav5ia, AuGxpia, OivXavSia Kai iGuavia s[j,(paviGxri- 
Kav apxiKd ^8 (Sropsdv) >u80vxapiG[j,oi3(; svdvxia gxtjv Tiapapt- 
aGT] xou Et)[j,(pcbvou (acpot) 7iporiyou[j,£vco(; fixav KaGapo, 6xi 
KupcDGSK; 5sv fixav 5uvax6vva S7iip}tr|Goi3v, and xr| Gxiy[j,fi 
nov oXeq oi vnoXomeq x&ipeq s5si^av «Kaxav6riGr|» yia FaX,- 
Ma - Fspfj-avia).^^^ 



168 



Atio xriv «aGuMa» YaXkiaq - Yepiiaviaq to Kupo^ tt]^ Eu- 
p(i)iiaiKr\q Eiinpoiv[\q KaxappaKcbGriKs. Qq U7ioti9s[j,svo(; «u- 
7isps9viK6(;» 9s[j,aTO(pi3}taKa(; Tri(; vo[j,i[j,6TriTa(; GTr|v E.E. sixs 
KivriGsi yia va S7iipX,ri9oi3v KupcbosK; gtti TaXkia (mo Sioxa- 
KTiKd, sivai r\ akf\QEm, yia tt] Fspfj-avia). Msxd xriv aTiocpaori, 
KoiTioioi STiixpoTioi, Sfi^covav 6x1 9a Tipoacpijyouv gxo EupcoTia- 
iKo AiKaoxfipio, 7ipoGpdA,Xovxag xr|v aTiocpaori xou Eufo^PouM- 
ou xcov YTioupycbv oav «7iapdvo[j,ri». Aiys(; [lepeq apyoxepa, r\ 
EmxpoTifi GUVsi5rixo7ioiriG8 6xi 6Xa sixav yivsi svxsXcb^ v6[j,i- 
[la Kai Gi3[j,(p(Dva [le xovq 9sg[j,oi3(; xtjc; E.E. O [lovo q v6[j,0(; 
GXTjv E.E. (Kai 9sG[j,iKd Kaxoxupco[j,8va) sivai o v6[j,0(; xcdv ku- 
PspvfiGSCov. 

Qgxogo, r\ TiiEGTi yia xrjv xpoTiOTioiriGri (f) xrjv «sXaGxiKfi» 
sp[j,rivsia) xou opiou xou 3% eivai, 7ipdy[j,axi, tusgxikti. O 
7ip6s5po(; xrjc; EupcoTiaiKfic; EmxpoTific;, Po[j,dvo IIpovxi, exei 
Sri^cDGSi S7iavsiX,ri[j,[j,sva 6xi xo opio xou 3% «sivai avorj- 
xo)).^'''' O 'Xjojoq eivai r\ KpiGr] nov [j,aGxi(^si xrjv E.E. Atio xtjv 
STioxn xri(; em^oX^q xri(; ONE, xr] SsKasxia xou 1990,ri oiko- 
vo[j,ia xT]^ EupcoXdv5ri^ avauxuGGSxai [is avai[j,iKoi3(; pt)9[j,oi3(;, 
xo 5s 20 03ri avduxu^ri xri(; Evp(i)TiaiKr\q oiKovofiat; VTVt\p^E 
[j,ri5sviKfi. Eivai, Xoitiov, r\ KpiGr| nov 5ri[j,ioupysi xo TipoP^trj- 
[la. XapaKxripiGxiKTi sivai r\ TispiTixcoGri xrjc; ax[j,0[j,rixavfi(; xri(; 
E.E., xri(; rsp[j,avia(;. To 2000 eixe 5ri[j,OGiovo[j,iK6 7i}t86vaG[j,a 
1,1%, xo 2001, Xoyco oiKovo[j,iKfig GxaGi[j,6xrixa(; xo iikeova- 
G[j,a syivs eXkei\ji\jia (-2,8%) Kai xo 2002 scpxaGS xo -3,8%.^^"^ 

'ExGi aKoijyovxai, o^^osva Kai mo 5uvaxd, TipoxdGSK; yia va 
XpriGi[j,07ioiri98i xo Kpdxo(; ([j,sgco KpaxiKcbv S7isv5i3gscov Kai 
sX,Xsi[j,[j,axiK(bv 7ipol)7ioXoyiG[j,(bv) yia va ava(^cooyovri9si r\ 
oiKovo[j,ia. O Takoq 7ip(o9u7ioupy6(; Pacpapsv [lal^i [is xov Ka- 
yKsMpio xr|(; TEp[iaviaq Spsvxsp dr\ki)cav gxtjv ixaXiKf) s(pr|- 
[j,spi5a Repubblica 6xi sivai «U7isp xr]^ [j,syaA,i3xspri^ susXi^ia(; 



169 



Gxriv s(pap[j,oyfi xou Eu[j,(p(bvou, KaGcb^ Tiposxsi r\ avaTixu^iaKfi 
Tiopsia TCDV oiKovo[j,i(bv TOtx; Kai r\ 5ri[j,ioupyia vscov Gsgscov 
epjaciaq».^^^ O TaXkoq 7ip6s5po (; SipdK Kai o Spsvxsp, axri 
5i[j,spfi GUvdvTTiGri Kopt)(pfi(; nov sixav gto BspoMvo to Es- 
7iTS[j,Ppio Tou 2003 dr\ki)cav on «a[j,(p6Tspoi 7iiGTSi3ou[a^s on r\ 
EupcDTiri 5£v 7ips7i8i vtt 7ispi[j,svsi TTiv avoiTiTU^ri, akin va xriv 
ava(^riTfiGSi r] i5ia». ^ ''^ 

To sp(bTri[j,a sivai, Xomov, acpoij Kai 9sG[j,iKd [j,7iopsi va 
xpoTiOTioiriGsi TO opio Tou 3% Kai UTidpxsi avdyKr| Xoyo) Tr|(; 
oiKovo[j,iKfi^ i3(pSGri(;, yiaxi 5sv Tipoxcopoijv ([J-sxpi xcbpa nov 
ypdcpovxai avxeq oi ypa[j,[j,S(;) oi KuPspvfiGSK; xcov Kpaxcbv- 
[j,s}t(bv Gxr|v xpo7i07ioiriGr| xou Eu[j,(p(bvou Sxa9sp6xr|xa(;; 

O a7iX6(; (Kai kuvik6(;) }t6yo(; sivai 6xi xo Si3[j,(pcovo SxaGs- 
poxrixa^ (yia xo «voiKOK'ups[j,a xri(; oiKovo[j,ia^ Kai xov uspio- 
piG[j,6 xTjc; KpaxiKT)^ G7iaxdXri(;») aTioxsXsGS xo [j,oxA6 yia xk; 
stiiGsgsk; xogo gxo siG65ri[j,a xcdv spya(^o[a^£VCDV 6go Kai Gxr|v 
Kaxs5d(piGri xou GUGxfi[j,axo(; Koiv(DviKfi(; upovoiat;. 

H UTioypacpfi xou Su[j,(p(bvou s^s(ppa(^s xa GU[j,(pspovxa xou 
Xpri[j,axiGxripiaKoi3 KscpaXaiou. Oi Tpanel^nEq Kai oi [j,8yaXo- 
Ka7iixaXiGxs(; nov sxouv «S7isv5i3gsi» g8 KpaxiKd xpsoypacpa 
58V S7ii9u[j,oi3v va 5ouv xk; «S7isv5i3gsi(;» xoix; va SiaPpcbvo- 
vxai a7i6 «avs^sX£yKxo» 7iXri9copiG[j,6 (onmq aziq 58Kasxis(; 
xou 1970 Kai 1980). Auxcbv xa GU[j,(pspovxa smpdXouv xrjv 
TispiPorixri «5ri[j,OGiovo[j,iKfi 7isi9apxia» Kai xov «ay(bva svd- 
vxia Gxov 7i}tri9(DpiG[j,6» (xo 2003 gxk; x&tpeq xr|(; Evp(i)C,(m/r\q 
o 7iXri9(DpiG[j,6(; fixav Kdxco and 2%\ AvxiXa[j,pav6[j,aGxs tiogo 
\|/su5fi^ sivai auxf) r\ 5iKaio>toyia). Y7i8paG7ii(^ovxa^ xa gu[j,- 
(pspovxa xou xpimoixiGxiKou KscpaXaiou, o OX,Xav56(; Tpanel^i- 
xri(; Kai [lekoq xou Sioiktjxikou GUfo^Poii^tiou xrjc; Eupco7iaiKfi(; 
KsvxpiKTic; TpaneCfiq (EKT), Nouc B8X,ivk, anEiXr\(5E 6xi av 



170 



GUV8XIGT81 r\ Tiapapiaari xov opiou xou 3 % 9a avsXGouv xa 
STiiTOKia Tri(; EKT. 

AXM r\ Tiisori 58v Tipospxsxai [lovo and to xprmaxiGTiKo 
K8(pd>uaio, aXXd ouvoXiKd auo xou^ KaTiixaXiGTSt;. Es dpGpo 
xrig T] Allgemeine Zeitubg ypdcpsi: 

«Oaiv8Tai OTi TiTioxa 5sv f^Tiopsi va dmhbcei xriv 
TiXdvri OTi KpaxiKst; stisvSijgsk; Tipodyouv xriv oikovo^i- 
KT) avduTU^ri. '0[i(i)q sivai ysyovog. Ta 7ipoypd[j,[j,aTa 
KpaxiKcbv 5a7iav(bv tiou xpri[j,aTo5oTOi3vTai [j,s xpsr] 5sv 
[j,7iopoi3v va yupiGOUv xovq oikovo[j,ikoi3(; kijkXoix;. [...] 
Auto nov [j,STpdsi gtov avTay(oviG[j,6 [j,STa^i3 xcov 5ia- 
(popcov oiKovo[j,i(bv 5sv sivai r\ tio^^itikti nov anevQvve- 
xai GTOU^ Ppaxu7ip698G[j,oug oikovo[^ikoij<^ ktjkXou^, ak- 
M r\ [j,aKpoxp6via GxpaxriyiKfi avduTU^rig. 

'0[i(i)q o'keq oi [j,syaA,i3T8ps(; st)pco7iaiK8(; x&tpeq sxouv 
auoTOxsi GTOix; to[j,si(; K^siSid ttjc; ayopd(; spyaGia(;, ttjc; 
(popoAoyiKTit; vo^oGsGia^ Kai xcov GUGirmdicDV Tipovoi- 

178 

a9>. 

Ms auM Xoyia, yia Tr|v oiKovo[j,iKfi KpiGr] cpxaivs oi spya- 
(^6[j,svoi (oi «avsXaGTiKS(; gxsgsk; spyaGia(;») Kai to aiikovci- 
07idpoxo» Kpdxog 7ip6voia(;! To «(pdp[j,aKo» tiou TipoxsivsTai 
sivai r\ STisKxaGri ttj^ [j,spiKfi(; (Kai avaGCpdXiGxri^) aTiaGxoXri- 
cr\q, r\ [lemcf] xcov S7ii5o[j,dxcov avspyia(; (Kai o 7ispiopiG[j,6^ 
xT]^ XpoviKfi(; 5idpKsid(; xoix;), r\ au^riGri xcov opicov Guvxa^io- 
56xriGri(; - KovxoAoyig, r\ STiiGsGr] Gxa 5iKai(b[j,axa xcov spya- 
(^ofisvcov Kai 6x1 r\ au^riGri xcov KpaxiKcbv S7isv5i3gscov yia xrjv 
ava(^cooy6vr|Gri xri(; oiKovo[j,ia(;. 

Kdxco a7i6 xrjv TiisGr] xcov KamxaXiGxcbv, oi KuPspvfiGSi^ 
s[j,(pavi(^ovxai aToX[ieq, mq 7ipo(; xo opio xou 3%. To TiapaPid- 



171 



C,ovv, aXXd «Myo» r\ oiicoq 5r\XxDGE o SipdK, ava(^riT0i3v [iia 
«Xpt)ofi TO[j,fi» [lETa^i) Tri(; «[iEi(i)cr\q xou EXksi[i[iaToq Kai ttjc; 
s^aG(pdX,iGri(; \naq o\jiak{\q 7iopsia(; avd7iTt)^ri9>.^''^ AXkd sksi 
710U 58V sivai KaGoXou dToX[j,S(; oi KuPspvfiGSi^ sivai gto va 
5ivow jr\ Kai uSrop Gxa KaTiixa^^iGTiKd GU[j,(pspovra. H «[ii- 
Kpfi» TiapaptaGTi xou 3%, avTiGTa9[j,i(^STai Kaxd xov Epsvxsp, 
a7i6 TO ysyov6(; oxi r\ ysp[j,aviKfi KuPspvriGri STisPaXs (popoXo- 
yiKS(; sXacppiJVGSK; yia xovq KaTiixaXiGTSt; ([j,6vo yia to 2003) 
i3\|/ou(; 15,6 5iG. supcb Kai xauxoxpova ene^ake sva auo xa [le- 
jakmepa TiavsupcDTiaiKd 7ipoypd[j,[j,axa Kaxs5d(piGr|(; xou Kpd- 
xoug Tipovoia^ (7ip6ypa[j,[j,a Ax(^8vxa 2010). AvxiGxoixa gxt] 
TaXkia, r\ KuPspvriGri Pacpapsv Ene^ake [iia «[j,sxappi39[j,iGri» 
xou aGCpaXiGxiKot) nov avePaGS xa opia GUVxa^io56xriGri(; Gxa 
65 f) aK6[j,a Kai Gxa 70 xpovia! Etiiti^^sov, K'upiO(; utisijGuvo^ 
yia xTjv TiapapiaGTi xou 3 % GscopfiGriKs and xrjv KuPspvriGri 
Pacpapsv r\ sP5o[j,d5a xcov 3 5 opcbv (nov igxusi gxtjv TaXkia), 
Kai sxGi T] KuPspvriGfi xou 8Pa>^8 nk&)pr\ yia xrjv KaxdpyrjGTi 
Tr\q. 

Ev5ia(pspov (akkd Kai auoKaXuTixiKo) sivai xo ysyovog oxi 
r\ Ekkdda sxsi |J,sxaxpa7isi gs U7isp[j,axo xou Eu[j,(p(bvou Exa- 
9sp6xrixa(; (gxk; Bpv^ekksq, PsPaia, r\ sX^^tivikti nkevpa \\ir\- 
(piGS Kaxd xr|(; eTii^ok{\q KupcDGSCov gs Tep[iavia - Takkia). O 
U7ioupy6(; OiKovo[j,iK(bv N. XpiGxoSouXdKT]^: 

«[...] Kaxriyopsi opiG[j,svou(; o[j,oA6you(; xou 6xi «5ai- 
[j,ovo7ioiouv» xo Eufo^cpcovo Exa9sp6xr|xa(; Kai UTiOGxripi- 
C,£i 6x1 xuxov xakdpmci] xou 9a TipoKaXsGSi S7ii(^fi[j,ia yia 
xi<; oiKo yd[iieq xri(; EvpmCfhvriq au^riGr] xcov stiixoki- 

180 
(DV». 



172 



npdy[j,aTi, yia xcopsc, [is v\\fr\k6 5r\[i6Gio jptoq (oticd^ r\ EX- 
Xd5a) [j,ia au^riGri tcdv stiitokicov 9a eixe ooPaps^ cvveneieq 
yia xriv oiKovo[j,ia xovq. Qgtogo, dev UTidpxsi Ka[j,ia gtjvSsgti 
avd[j,8Ga GTO opio xou 3% Kai tt]^ au^riGric; tcdv stiitokicov ys- 
viKd GTTjv E.E. Aq 7idpoi:(j,8, ttjv utioGstikti TlSpiTlTCDGri, TTjc; 
5iapKoi3(; TiapaptaGric; tou opio u tou 3% aq 7ioi3[j,s auo ttjv 
iTaMa, Kai aq 9scDpfiG0U[j,s 6ti auTO o5riysi tt] xcbpa gs u\|/r|}^6 
5ri[j,6Gio jpsoq Kai gs u\|/riX8^ SavsiaKs^ avdyKst; tou 5ri[j,0Gi- 
ou. Auto 9a o5r|yfiGSi gs ysviKsu[j,svri dvo5o tcov stiitokicov g' 
oAoK^tripri ttjv E.E.; 

«H aTidvTrjGri sivai apvriTiKfi. Av oi KS(pa}taiayops(; 

GTT] VOfJ-lGfO^aTlKTl SVCDGr| XsiTOupyoiJV a7lOTsXsG[J,aTlKd, 

9a avayvcopiG9si 6ti to ■iip6^Xr\[ia tou xpso -m, sivai 
7ip6pXri[j,a TTjc; Ixakiaq. H ayopd 9a svGCO[j,aTcbGSi [j,ia 
a[j,oipfi Kiv5i3vou yia to jpeoq Tr\q nakiKr\q KuPspvriGric;. 
'0[i(i)q auTO 5sv 9a STirjpsdGSi ttjv ysp[j,aviKfi KuPspvri- 
cr\. H TsXsuTaia 9a f^Tiopsi va 5avsi(^STai [is xa[j,ri}^6Tspo 
STiiTOKio, STisiSf) 01 5avsiGTS^ avayvcopi(^ot)v 6ti o kiv5u- 
voq 7101) UTidpxsi GTa 0[i6h:)ja Tr\q ysp[j,aviKfi(; KuPspvri- 
cr\q sivai [j,iKp6Tspo(; and tov kivSuvo nov UTidpxsi gttjv 
ayopd [j,SGCD xpri[j,aTo56TriGri(^ tou jpsovq Tr\q iTa^tiKfic; 
Kt)PspvriGri9>. ^^^ 

Eiio[iev(i)q, r\ aXfi9sia PpiGKSTai aXkoi): 

«Av 5ri[j,ioupyri9si aT[j,6G(paipa otiou to S-ufj-cpcovo 
I^Tiopsi va aKupco9si r\ va KaTapyri9si, auTf) r\ 5ai[j,ovo- 
TioiriGri Tou Eu[j,(pcbvou auoGTid ttjv upoGOxn auo alleq 
7ipoTspai6Tr|TS(;, onmq oi 5iap9pcDTiKS(; [j,STappu9[j,i- 
GSi^», GU^iTiXripcbvsi o K. XpiGToSou^KTi^, S[J,(paVl(^6[J,S- 



173 



voq PaGiXiK6Tspo(; xou ^acikemq, acpoij r\ avriauxia xou 
58V sivai T8>^iKd togo [ir\v au^riGow xa envzoKia, aX,M 
[ir\ 58V TipoxcDpfiGOUv 01 5iap9pcoTiKs^ [j,8Tappt)9[j,iGSi(;: 
r\ TispaiTspco aTia^icDGri xou Kpdxoix; upovoia^ Kai r\ s- 
XaGTiKOTioiri GT] [lE'xpiq... SGxdxcDV Tri(; ayopd(; spyaGiat;. 
A7i6\|/8ig 710U aKOTjyovxai aXkiiCTE cvjya-TWKva Kai auo 
TO Tpa7is(^iK6 ispaxsio ttjc; E.E., nov 7iis(^si tt] G0GiaX5ri- 
[j,OKpaTiKfi KuPspvriGri Tr\c, TEp[iaviaq va aTis^TioXfiGSi 
s5(b Kai Tcbpa xa ouoia [lexpa koivcoviktic; 7ipoGTaGia<; 
yia xdpri Tri(;... avd7iTt)^ri9>. 

Ma(^i [IE xriv EA,Aa5a gttiv UTispdGTiiGri xou Eu[j,(p(bvot) 
ETa9sp6TriTa(; GUVTdx9r|Ks Kai r\ OXhxvdia, o U7ioupy6(; oiko- 
vo[j,iK(bv Tri(; 07ioia(;, Gerrit Zalm, a7i8i}triG8 va o5riyfiGSi to 
9s[j,a TTjc; 7iapapiaGri(; xoix; Su[j,(p(bvou gto EupcoTiaiKo AiKa- 
GTTipio/^'' Asv sivai Ka96Xou xuxaio oxi oi 5uo xrops^ sxouv 
[j,8TaTpa7isi, r\ [iev EX,Xd5a «7ip(DTa9A,fiTpia» xcov i5icotiko- 
7ioifiG8CDV, r\ 5s 0X,}tav5ia «7iapd5siG09> ttj^ spyaGia^ «[j,spi- 
Kr\q a7iaGx6XriGri(;» Kai ttjc; aTia^icDGric; xou Kpdxou^ Tipovoiat;. 
O 7ip6s5po(; Tri(; KsvTpiKfi(; Tpd7is(^a(; ttjc; IIoXcDviat;, Astgsk 
M7iaX,TGspoPiT(;, smGrjc; u7ispa^i3v9riKs xou Su[j,(p(bvou, aXXd 
T] 8(pr|[j,spi5a Ka9r|[j,spivfi^^'* U7isv9u[j,i(^si on fixav and zovq 
apxiTSKTOVS(; Tri(; 9spa7isia(; gok Tri(; Tio^^coviKfi^ oiKovo[j,ia^ - 
5riXa5fi tcdv GapcoxiKcbv aTioKpaxiKOTioifiGSCov Kai xcov [lal^i- 
K(bv aTio^tijGSCDV a7i6 upcbriv KpaxiKst; smxsipfiGSK;. Sxriv IIop- 
xoyaMa, r\ KuPspvriGfi xrjc; (ppovxiGS a[iEC(i)q va GU[j,[j,op(p(D98i 
[j,s xo opio xou 3%, 87iipdX,Xovxa(; sva 7ip6ypa[j,[j,a GapcoxiKcbv 
auoKpaxiKOTioifiGSCov (xo SKX8V8Gxspo GXTjv iGxopia xTjc; xo)- 
pa(;), [iaC,iK&)V anohbcEov Kai Kaxs5d(piGr|^ xou Kpdxotx; 7ip6- 
voiat; (7ipdy[j,a tiou 7ipoKd>^8G8 KUf^a aTispyicbv Kai [iaC,iK&)V 

KlVrjXOTlOlfl GSCOV) . 



174 



EuvsTidcx;, to Ei3[j,(p(Dvo SxaGspoTriTat; STiipXfiGriKs auo tk; 

KUPspvflGSl^, 710U TO XpTlGlfO^OTlOiriGaV GUV8l5riTd Gav PaGlKO 

«spyaXsio» yia xriv smPo^^fi vsocpi^^s^^suGsprov noXniKchv Kai 

5SV TO STlsPaXs T] «U7lSps9viKfl» EupCOTiaiKTl ETllTpOTlfl. H ek- 

Xr\viKr\ KuPspvriGri sKavs Ga(pS(; 6ti 9a S7ii[j,stv8i gto opio tou 
3%, aKOfo^a Kai av to Ei3[j,(pcovo KaTapyriGsi. 

npo(; TO Tiapov, 5sv sivai Ga(pS(; ma 9a sivai r\ Tijxn tou 
Eu[j,(p(bvot) ETa9sp6TriTa^, [j,STd ttjv avaipsGr) tou (gttiv Tipd- 
^ri) a7i6 TTjv aTiocpaGTi va [j,riv «Ti[j,copri9oi3v» raX,}tia - Fspfa^a- 
via. YTidpxouv upoTdGSK; yia sva vso Ei3[j,(p(Dvo, mo apeaki- 
gtik6» Kai 7110 «sus}tiKTO». Es Kd9s TispiTiTCO GT], sva sivai 5s- 
5o[j,svo: 071010 (vso) Ei3[j,(pcDvo Kai va U7ioypa(p9si, 9a s^si ttjv 
i5ia vso(piA,sXsi)9spri KaTSi)9uvGri [le auTO nou 9a avTiKaTa- 

GTTIGSI. 

Kai GTO (^fiTri[j,a tou Et)[j,(pcbvot) ETa9sp6TriTa(;, aTioKaXijcp- 
9riKav TOGO o 5iaKpaTiK6(; (Kai o^i U7isps9viK6(;) xapaKTfipa^ 
TTjc; E.E, OGO Kai oi s9viks(; avTmaXoTriTSt; nov tx] 5iaipoi3v. 
Kavsva(; «v6|io<;» 5ev ucpiGTaTai gttjv E.E. xcopig ttjv syKpiGT] 

TCOV KuPspvflGSCOV 710U TTjV aTlOTsXoW, SVCb oXoi 01 «v6[J,0l» 

I^Tiopow va avaTpauow, avd TidGa GTiy[j,fi, [is SiaKuPspvrjTi- 
KE^ 5iaPou}tsi3GSi(;. H EupcoTiaiKfi EmTpoTifi (f) r\ 07ioia5fi7iOTS 
aXXf] «8up(D7iaiKfi apxn»), sivai U7ioxps(0[j,svri va aKo}tou98i 
tk; 5iaKuPspvriTiKS(; auocpdGSK; [imq Kai auTS^ sivai nov Ka- 
QopiCpvv TOix; «6pou(; tou 7iaixvi5ioi3» Kai ou5si(; STspo^. 

S' auTTiv Tr| SiaKuPspvriTiKTi }tsiTOupyia, sivai oi [isjakeq 
X&ipeq, KaTd Kupio Xojo, nou Ka9opi(^ouv ti^ auocpdGSK;, aXM 
TO ysyovoc; auTO avTi va |isi(bvsi, o^ijvsi tk; avTi9sGSi^. X&tpeq 
Gav TTiv EXXd5a (aXXd Kai to BsXyio r\ ttjv iTaMa), (poPoij- 
VTai OTi [j,ia ava9s(bpr|Gri tou Eu[j,(p(bvou STa9sp6Tr|Ta(; [ino- 
psi va [j,STaT07iiGSi to KsvTpo pdpou; and to EKksi[i[ia tou 
7ipol)7ioAoyiG[j,oi3 GTO 5ri[j,6Gio jpsoq (otiou avxeq oi xcbps^ 



175 



8X0DV jpsoq yijpco r\ Tidvco and to 100% xou AEII, svcb YaXkia 
- Fspfj-avia sxouv [j,iKp6 5ri[j,6Gio jpsoq). ETio[is\/(i)q r\ tvjt] 
Tou Et)[j,(p(bvou ExaGepoxriTa^ avoiysi vso 7is5io avxiTiapaGs- 
Gscov, SiJGKoXcov GU[j,piPaG[j,(bv Kai avTicpaxiKcbv auocpaGSCov. 

H Koivii AypOTiKi] IIoXitikii 

ndvco a7i6 TSGGspK; SsKasxisg scpapfo^oyfic; ttjc; KAII, 58v 
sxouv oSriyfiGSi gxt] GuyKXiGt] xcov aypoxiKcbv 5o[j,(bv xcov 
Kpaxcbv [ishhv xri(; E.E.-15. Oi aypoxiKst; do[iEq Kai xa aypo- 
xiKd GU[j,(pspovxa xcov Kpaxcbv [isT^v 6ia(pspouv ce nohb [le- 
yd}^o Pa9[j,6 . Exr] PopsioSuxiKf) EupcDTiri, r\ Tiapaycoyf) stiiks- 
vxpcbvsxai GS sva [j,iKp6 api9[j,6 upoiovxcov- r\ gtiovSuXikt) 
cTi\kr\ xTjc; y8copyia(; sivai r] yaXaKxo(p6po(; aysXdSa Guv5ua- 
(^6[j,8vri [j,8 xTjv KaA,X.i8py8ia Gixripcbv. ErmavxiKf) 8ivai 87iiGri(; r] 
(^coiKTi TiapaycDyfi «8K[j,8xaX,X£i3G8cov xcopi^ s5a(pO(;» (xoipo- 
xpocpia Kai 7ixr|voxpo(pia). H yscopyia xri(; Popsio5uxiKfi(; Eu- 
p&)iir\q sivai auo xk; tiio 7iporiy[j,svs(; xou k6g[j,ou, uio9sxcbvxa(; 
xaxuxaxa cvjjpoveq x8xvoAoyiS(; Tiapaycoyfic;. AvxiGsxa, r\ 
MsGoysiaKTi EupcDTiri Tiapdysi [j,syd}to api9[j,6 TipoiovxcDV, ku- 
picD^ (puxiKcbv. IIpoKsixai GU^vd yia Ga^vcbSsi^ KaXXispysis^ 
(a^7isXosi5fi, (ppouxoTiapaycoyiKd 5sv5pa, ekm), xcov otioicov r\ 
5idpKsia C,(X)f[q sivai \jiejaXr[.^^^ To aTioxs^tSGfo^a sivai r] [j,sgo- 
ysiaKT) yscopyia va avxi[j,sxco7ii(^si 5ugkoMs(; ava7ipoGavaxoX,i- 
G[j,oi3 oxav [j,sxapdX,Xovxai oi yscopyiKoi oiKovo[j,iKoi opoi (6- 
xav, 71.%., Xoyco UTispTiapaycoyfic; oi xi[j,S(; Tiscpxouv gxtjv uayKo- 
G[j,ia ayopd, f) }t6ycD GU[j,(pcovicbv gxov nayKOGfj-io OpyaviG[j,6 
Ef^Tiopiou TipsTisi va syKaxaXsicpGsi ^iia KaX,>.iEpysia Kai va 
avxiKaxaGxaGsi and Kduoia aXkr\). 

Oi KoivcoviKS(; GUvGfiKS(; 7iapaycoyfi(; Siacpspouv Gr^avxiKd. 
SxT] Pop8io5uxiKfi EupcDTiri xo Kijpio [ispoq xTjc; yscopyiKfic; sp- 



176 



yaoiat; 7iapa[j,sv8i «oiKoysvsiaKfi spyaGia» (Xoyco tt]^ Kaxa- 
K6pu(pri(; av65ou ttjc; 7iapay(DyiK6TriTa(;), xcopi(; orna^avTiKo [j,s- 
po^ [j,iG9(DTfi(; 8pyaGia(; (skt6(; tt]^ Bpsxaviat; otiou avspxsxai 
GS 53%). AvTiGsxa, Gxr] MsGoysiaKf) EupcDTiri gs apKSTS(; 
TTspiTiTCDGSK; xpriGi[j,07ioi8iTai 7ioA,udpi9[j,o TipoXsTapidxo, £V(b 
o svspyo^ [j,SGoysiaK6(; y8CDpyiK6(; 7iXri0UG[j,6(; 7ispi}ta[j,pdvsi 
noXkcrbq STioxiaKotx; spydxs^ [is «aGTa9s^ aGCpaXiGxiKo Ka9s- 

187 
GTC09>. 

Ta TiapaTidvco 5sv gt] [j,aivouv oxi (pxcoxoi aypoxsg (f) [j,8 [j,8- 
jaXeq SugkoMs^ gxo va Tiapafo^sivouv gxtjv TiapaycoyiKf) 5ia5i- 
KaGia) UTidpxouv [lovo gxt] voxia EupcoTiri. Sxr| Popsia Eupcb- 
Tiri r\ au^riGri xr|(; xpr|Gi[j,07ioiriGri(; KscpaXaiou (yia }tmdG[j,axa, 
(^(Doxpo(pS(;, KauGifj-a, [j,rixavoAoyiK6 s^07i}tiG[j,6) o5fiyriGS 
GXTjv au^riGri xou xpsou; xcov yscopycbv. EiGoSri[j,axa nov va 
sivai s^aipsxiKd iKavoTioirixiKd, igxuouv: 

«[... ] gxk; KaX.i3x8p8^ xcov uspioxcbv otico^ r\ Kdxco 
Ea^ovia, r\ Avaxo^^iKf) AyyMa, r\ IlsSidSa xrov IlapiGi- 
(Dv K.Xn. Ss noXXeq nepioxeq, oi Gijyxpovs^ oiKoysvsia- 
K8(; SK[j,sxaA,X8i3G8i^ aTioxsXow xrjv [j,sio\|/ri(pia f) auXoij- 
Gxaxa 5sv UTidpxouv, a(pfivovxa(; xr] Gsgti xoix; gxk; (pxco- 
XS(; Kai [j,8piKfi(; a7iaGx6}triGri(; sK[j,sxaX,}^si3GSi(;. 

ExT] voxia EupcDTiri Kai gxk; [j,8iov8KxiK8g 7i8pioxs(;, r\ 
SiapGpcoxiKTi KaxdGxaGT] 8ivai, Guxvd, aK6[j,ri 7i8piGG6- 
x8po 5i)GKo}tr|, xapaKxr|pi(^6[j,8vri and [j,8yd}tri 8X8poy8- 

188 

V8ia». 

Exov TiivaKa tiou aKoXot)98{ 7iapa9sxot)[j,8 xa PaGiKd ^isys- 
9ri xr|(; jeoipjiaq Gxr|v E.E. : ^^^ 



177 



Ba^iXii (JsysSyj -njg yEDpyiag tt^ E.E. (1 997) 





riOoOOT;6 (^) 


nO(J0OT6 


MoOOTTii (%) 


riocmfTTi^ 


lfl«^tri^ 


naaaam i%) 


AEn ow 


nOOOtTTD {^) 


ilofmcr-.6 




EVSpYDli 


(%) ayP''^"""^ 


«YpoTtxtiv 


(%) «YP&T. 


«Y^OTlK!iv 


SctoAvfiC 


kAtOSho 


jrJ.ijewpifJiJoi)'' 


(.%) 




ffr(5!>njif>6 


rtpOtdVTO? 


i^ctyoYfOiV 


ei(jaY(iiT(Jv 


npOLOVTfiJV 


BKcrpoqifi^ 


IA4' 




KvspTia^ 




niT|9uo[ioij 


crro AEn 


OTO (HJVOAO 


UtO (Jt»VCi).0 


tSt? hCl) 


17.5^ 


1g.979 


l.S 




E.E-15 


5.0 


1.G 


7.6 


■10,6 


-16,3 


10," 


Athrr:pift 


fi,S 


0,9 


6,7 


S,3 


-1.3 


16.3 


21,i4il 


i,& 


4,4 


BeXyiO 


2.7 


1.1 


11.3' 


11,9' 


0,4 


l.'i.T 


21. 4M 


1.4 


92 


rnWiift 


4.r> 


1.9 


13.S 


10.G 


9.5 


17.S 


19,317 


i,y 


12,4 


I^spjwivla 


2.y 


0.S 


5.2 


in.s 


-16,S 


14.2^ 


20.SG5 


o.e 


10.0 


AKuift 


3.7 


2.4 


2tJ.B 


■15,8 


r>,^ 


iy.7 


'i1.7n1 


\.9 


5,!> 


EM«5m 


!5.9 


3.9 


2.9,9 


wa 


-0.9 


22.2 


l3.i:iR 


6.9 


9.6 


Hu. BaiT!J.E[o 


l.S 


0.7 


e.s 


■io.y 


-n,4 


10.9 


1&,9^0 


2.7 


",0 


Ipl.nfvgtft 


i0.fl 


3 4 


12,^ 


0,3 


28 


30,7 


IS. 294 


2.2 


10,1 


lQ!tavi« 


S.3 


i/i 


16.3 


13,S 


a^ 


iy.:3 


14 75fi 


2,0 


20,J1 


Itpiiff 


fl=5 


as 


fi.fl 


■14.2 


-116 


13S 


19,239 


2.& 


121 


KdtM Xiipst 


;i.5 


2.6 


21.4 


14,0 


15,5 


i;,i 


1ft, 835 


2,2 


rx2 


Anij^etiPodpYg 


2.4 


0.7 


11.3' 


11.9' 


0.4 


13.2= 


31.531 


3.4 


y,& 


nopTTtviTtiia 


13,3 


2,^. 


R.2 


1&,2 


^,ft 


2S,0» 


L'?.;!,'! 


2.S 


as 


EaunSui 


S.2 


0,4 


6.1 


S,3 


-0.3 


1S.4 


1S.I3T^ 


1.2 


9,& 


^ivAavSiK 


7,7 


_0,7_ 


V,9 


8^^ 


0,5 


10,.5 


IS. 723 


2.2 


13.1 


i. 0t7i!>vi>[iUf^ 'EvwfTT] B^YLOU-/ 










3. 1B96. 




















S. EniEiHjm] 


KUROSTAI. 


















4. Iot)B0ui7[io A-fTifiaCTTiit)^4 Auvklit;:;. 
















5. Ajt(M:\iieopiUT^ ABn. 


















JZijjTJ: ELjpMnHwri ExtTpomi, i/A:£r 


raornoiT tj;; rsMoriac; mnv Ko 


iwr*;™ [199S: 













Ta xpia (pTCOxoTspa KpdTri-[j,8Xri, r\ nopxoyaMa, r\ EXM.5a 
Kai r\ loTiavia, sxouv nohb gt] [j,avTiK6 aypoxiKo xofo^sa, [is 
GxsTiKd [j,sydXo api9[j,6 aypoxiKot) 7iXri9uG[j,oi3. H Tiapaycoyi- 
KOTTixa Tcov SK[j,STaX,X8i3GSCov PpiGKsxai G8 xa[j,riXd S7ii7is5a (rj 
nopxoyaMa PpiGKsxai gs xa[j,riX6Tspo S7ii7is5o auo xriv EXXd- 
5a). Etk; xcbpst; auTS(; (aXM Kai gttiv IxaMa) UTidpxsi iik^Qoq 
aypoTcbv [j,8 tioXij xa[j,riXd siGoSfmaxa Kai [lejakf] UTioaTia- 
GxoXriGri Kai 7ioX,ua7iaGx6XriGri. 

AvTiGsxa, gtk; dXXs^ X^ops? ttt; E.E. -15, r] GtmaGia tt]^ 
aypoTiKTic; oiKovo[j,ia(; sivai SsuxspsiJOUGa, [le aKpaia Tispi- 
TiTCOGTi TT] Bpsxavia OTiou T] GTifa^aGia TT]^ yscopyia(; gttiv oiko- 
vo[j,ia sivai s^dxiGxr]. Qgtogo, gs xcbps^ otiox; r\ TaXkia, r\ 
0A,}tav5ia Kai r\ Aavia, xa TiOGOGxd s^ayroycbv aypoxiKcbv Tipo- 
lovxcov Gxo GiJvoXo xcov s^ayroycbv sivai GrmavxiKd. Eiio[ie- 
vmq, sxouv Gr^avxiKd oiKovo[j,iKd ocps^^ri and xr| 5iaxfipriGri 
Kai avduxu^ri xou aypoxiKoij xo[j,8a. 



178 



Dgov acpopd TO [leyeQoq xcov aypoxiKcbv SK[j,STaA,}t8i)G8a)v, 
r\ cxecr\ ttjc; EA,}td5a(; ([j,iKp6Tspo [j,sys9o(; SK[j,STdA,?tsuGri(;) [is 
TT] Bpsxavia ([j,syaX,i3Tspo [j,sys9o(; 8K[j,8TdA,X8UGri(;) sivai 
1:18. H GxsGTi TiapaycoyiKoxriTat; ttjc; spyaGiat; gtk; aypoTiKS(; 
8K[j,STaX,X£i3GSi(;, [j,STa^i3 xcov aKpairov TispiTixcDGSCov nopxoya- 
Ma(; Kai Aavia(;, sivai 1:12. Hapaxripsixai |idA,iGxa S7ii5si- 
vcoGT] xcov aviGOxfixcov [j,sxa^i3 Poppd-voxou. 

ExT] Bpsxavia, xo 83% xri(; xpriGi[j,07ioioi3[j,svri(; yscopyiKf)^ 
SKxaGrjc; avfiKsi gs SK[a^sxaX,}tsi3GSi(; [j,syaA,i3xsps(; xcov 50 sKxa- 
picov, 8vcb [j,6\o xo 0,5% gs [j,iKp6xsps(; xcov 5 sKxapicDV. Ta 
GxsxiKd TiOGOGxd GS iGTiavitt, TaJOda Kai Aou^s[j,poi3pyo sivai 
avxiGxoixa 50%) Kai [j,sxa^i3 2-10%). Es x(bps(; OTicot; r] EX,}td5a, 
HopxoyaMa Kai IxaMa xa avxiGxoixa TiOGOGxd sivai, yia xi^ 
SK[j,sxaA,Xsi3GSi^ [j,syaX.i3xsps^ xcov 50 sKxapicov, 10%), 44,5%), 
31,5%) Kai 01 [j,iKps^ M^^XPi^ 5 sKxdpia sivai 32%), 18,5%) Kai 
20,1%.^^^ 

Exk; Xcbps(; xr|(; KsvxpiKfi(; Kai AvaxoXiKfi(; EupcoTiri^ (Kai 
GXTjv KijTipo), r\ KaxdGxaGT] gxov aypoxiKo xo[j,sa sxsi (dc, s- 
^fj^: 





n<uiHt« (S) 


non»t4 


nwititwiw) 


nOUMT* 


Ido^io 


mmomi re) 


Mnmd 


mmwTO «) 


nwwTd 




eycjyrc4i 




ev(>Ki^civ 


{<f>*TfflT. 


OYfJO^uaiP, 


(araiHK 


mro™ 




(«) 




oy^MKULoy 


r.(>«4™; 


E^tlYMTtiV 


EKKTfUVWV 




^MTpttq)^ UT*J 


!A1' 








^Jjjflw^mj 


<jTu AEn 


fFvj oyw^o 


trtO Ou^Q 


(ai4 t:( L 3 (nrLktl. SL«3ih]fia^ 








KH^ 


ZkS 


4.3' 


3IJ 


!7.9 


-771 


- 


11.i7fi 


3.0' 


3.1' 


EoSoita 


S.^ 


5.5' 


uo 


le.! 


-«« 


33J 


:.039 


11l.2> 


4J 


Ourr^io 


a.ji 


3.2 


lit 


e.a 


l.iJJT 


t:.7 


3.3(ii 


ia.3> 


l(l.( 


RDtann 


JfKjl 


r..i 


K,V 


IJ.O" 


-i.o»;i 


laji 


7.331 


11,9> 


10.5 


U*vi. 


f.j' 


3.S' 


hi 


9.5 


-103 


^1 


ilSK 


8.3* 


li.il 


Totpa 


■1.1' 


S.tf 


!J 


e.2 


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31.! 


ti.m 


S.P 


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"i. tmiujen] OECD. 
3. 19^. 

iSiuM and 0£CD pjxnamic Oulfaok. Sa. G^, louvj]^ ]^S&. HapLcn- L'>:iT:CI-: secntadal Atimitf!. 

Uij]^'. (a) Eupiiimi'j^i^ Efli.TpOH^. H Jtat^uJWffj n;j j'ft^j'B^ argv JTckk^tv^ 03S81' {^"i T\a to tiooemto ^r:6r/r^ S^aipogif,; (no ouwMLni Ewii- 

^«: OECD Stfrttiriat. 



179 



Sxriv KijTipo Kai xriv IIo^tCDVia to tiogogto tou spyaxiKoij 
5Dva[j,iKoi3 GTOV aypoTiKo TO[j,sa sivai iSiaixepa u\|/riX6. Exriv 
IloXcovia [j,dXiGTa, o api9[j,6^ tcdv aypoxcbv sivai s^aipsxiKd 
[lejaXoq Kai r\ TiapaycoyiKoxriTa noho xa[ir\X'r\. 

H 6ia^6p(pa)Gii tcdv aviooxiiTCOv GTiyv KAII 

Oi TipoTspaioxriTSt; Tri(; KAII (xriv stioxh Tr\c, dia[i6p(p(D(5r\q 
Tri(; a7i6 xa e^r\ iSpuxiKd Kpdxri xrjc; EOK xr] 5sKasxia xou 
1960) fixav va STisKxaGsi r\ xs^coviaKf) svcogt] Kai Gxa aypoxi- 
Kd Tipoiovxa, fj,' sva Gi3Gxr|[j,a 7iaps[j,paGr|(; tiou TipoGxdxsus 
xTjv SGCDxspiKTi ayopd ([le 5aG[j,o}toyiKd xsixn svavxi xpixrov 
Kpaxcbv), 5ia[j,op(p(bvovxa(; xi[j,S(; yia xa aypoxiKd Tipoiovxa 
xcov Kpax(bv-[j,8}^(bv u\|/riA6xsps(; and xiq 5is9vsi(;. Oi s^aycoysc; 
S7ii5oxoi3vxav (dumping) cdgxs [lepoq xcov 7i}tsova(^6vxcov Tipo- 
lovxcov va 5isig5i3ouv gs 5is9vsi(; ayopst;. Ta vnokoma iikeo- 
vaCpvxa Tipoiovxa sixs auoGriKsiJovxav yia [j,sA,XovxiKfi Tipocb- 
GriGTi GXTjv ayopd sixs «a7iOGi3povxav» (xco[j,axsps(;). To k6- 
(5T0C, xo TiXfipcovs o koivoxik6(; 7ipol)7io}toyiG[a^6(; (tiou Tiapsfj,- 
Paivs ayopd(^ovxa(; oxav r| TipoGCpopd fixav 7i}tsovd(^ouGa), ak- 
A,d Kai 01 KaxavaXcDxs^ tiou ay6pa(^av (Kai s^aKoXouGoiJV va 
ajopaCpvv) aypoxiKd Tipoiovxa aKpiPoxspa aTio xi^ 5is9vsig 

Auxoi Tiou, Kupiax;, STico(psXfi9r|Kav aTio xr|v KAII fixav oi 
[lejakoi Kai tiio aTio5oxiKoi aypoxsg. Oi [j,rixaviG[j,oi Gxripi^rjc; 
xcov xi[j,(bv, sixav Gav aTioxs^^SG^ia va avxa[j,sipovxai oi tiio 
TiapaycDyiKoi ayp6xs(;, 5ri}ta5fi oi [o^sya^^oaypoxsg. Dgo TispiG- 
Goxspo Tiapfiyays KdTioiO(;, xogo TispiGGOxspsg stiiSoxtigsk; 
STiaipvs. AvxiGsxa [is xo ^i39o, r\ aypoxiKf) tioXixikt) xri(; EOK 
5sv fixav (piXiKf) Tipo^ xou(; aypoxst;: 



180 



«H [J,0Va5lKfl TipOOTlTlKTl TlOU TipOGCpSpSl GTOtX; [J,l- 

Kpoi3(; Kai [j,SGaiot)(; Tiapaycoyotx; eivai SKsivri xou «au- 
TOSK[j,STaA,}tsu6[j,£vot)», SKsivou 5riXa5fi nov (pxdvsi oxa 
opia Tri(; GCO[j,aTiKfi^ xou avTOxni; a7iaGxo}toi3[a^svog 5i- 
TiXd, yia va KaxaXfi^si va KaxappsuGSi Kai va auoTOxsi 
cav ayp6Tri(;. [...] o api9[j,6(; xcov a7iaGxoXoi3[j,svcov gxt] 
yscopyia xrjc; EOK gxo 5idGxri[j,a 1960-1971 [j,si(b9riK8 
Kaxd 6 8Kaxo[j,^i3pia». 

H GuyK8vxpo7ioiriGri xcdv 8K[j,8xaA,X8i3G8CDV 87iixaxuv9riK8 
a7i6 xr| 58Ka8xia xou 1980, [j,8 a7iox8}t8G[j,a xo [j,sgo [j,sy89o(; 
xri(; KoivoxiKfi(; 8K[j,8xdX,X8U gtjc; xo 1993 va 8ivai 164 Gxps[j,[j,a- 
xa, aXkd [j,8 gt] [j,avxiKS(; aTioK^iGSK;: Bpsxavia (670 Gxps[j,[j,a- 
xa avd SK[j,sxdX,XsuGri), Aavia Kai Eouri5ia (370 Gxps[j,[j,axa), 
raX.Ma (350 Gxps[j,[j,axa) Kai acpsxspou EXkd5a (40 Gxps[j,[j,a- 
xa), IxaMa (59 Gxps[j,[j,axa), HopxoyaMa (81 Gxps[j,[j,axa). 
Sxa 1990 xo 80% xcdv 5a7iav(bv Kaxsu9uv6xav upoc; xo lO/o 
xcov aypoxiKcbv 8K[j,sxaX,Xsi3GSCov. ^^'^ H tio^^ixikti auxf) oSriysi 
eniTikeov ce oXosva Kai [j,syaA,i3xspri GuyKsvxpoTioiriGri xrjc; 
7iapaycoyfi(;. H GuyKsvxpoTioiriGri (paivsxai auo xo ysyov6(; 6xi 
xo 6% XCDV GixoTiapaycoycbv Tiapdyow xo 6 0%xri(; uapaycD- 

Ss s9vik6 S7ii7is5o, r] tioXixikti Kai iSsoXoyiKf) Kupiapxia 
XCDV [lejakDV aypoxcbv Grifo^aivsi 6xi, cvvr\Q(i)q, oi [j,iKp6xspoi 
GUVxdGGOVxai [le xa GU[j,cpspovxa xcdv [j,syaA,i3xspcDV aypoxcbv. 
Asv GU[j,paiv8i 6[i(£)q xo i5io ae 87ii7is5o E.E. : 

«Eivai S7i6[j,svo 6xi gxo 7ioX,u89vik6 [o^opcpcDfa^a xr|(; 
E.E. 58V sxouv 5ia[j,opcpcD9si oi opoi tio^^ixiktic; Kai i5so- 
XojiKr\q Kupiapxiat; xcdv [iejaknv aypoxcbv xcdv Popsio- 



181 



TspcDV xcopcov Tiavff) oTOtx; [j,iKpoTspou(; aypoTS^ xcov vo- 
TiOTspcov. Oi avTi98G8i(; [j,STa^i3 xcov aypoxcbv, svcb sivai 
KoivcoviK8(;, yivovxai avauocpsuKxa s9viks(; oxa TiXaioia 
xTjc; E.E. Kai xri(; KAn». 

Oi s9viKS(; 5ia(pops(; o^iJvGriKav and xr] 5isi3puvGri xrjc; 
EOK [le [j,SGoysiaKS(; x&ipeq, acpoij xa upoiovxa [is xo u\|/riX6- 
xspo 87ii7is5o TipoGxaaiac; (KxrivoxpocpiKd-aixripd) sivai auxd 
nov Tiapdyovxai Kaxd Kijpio Xojo and xiq Popsioxsps^ W>P^'i 
xTjc; E.E. Ms auxd xa 5s5o[j,8va, xa siGo5ri[j,axiKd ocpsXr] sivai 
dvioa Kaxavs[a^r|[j,£va avd[j,SGa oxa Kpdxri-[j,sXri. H OXhxvdia, 
yia 7iapd5siy[j,a, sioTipdxxsi iioXkaTikcicia and xrjv KAII and 
XT] Gxiy[j,fi 710U r| TiapayroyiKoxrixa Gxriv 0X}tav5ia sivai 5sKa- 
TiXdoia xrjc; EX,Xd5a(;. Ms pdor] xo Kaxd KscpaXfiv 6(psXo(;, oi 
Aavoi aypoxs^ Xa[j,pdvouv xk; [j,syaA,i3xsps(; [j,sxaPipdGSi^ [le- 
GCD KAn. SxT] Aavia Kai gxk; xcbpst; xou Poppd KdGs aypoxiKf) 
SK[j,sxdA,X£UGri siGTipdxxsi 18.000 supcb, svavxi 1.000-4.000 
supd) GXTjv EA,A,d5a^^'': 

«'ExGi 01 Kaxava}^(Dxs^ xcdv Kpaxcbv-[j,sXcbv Gxa OTioia 
01 ayp6xs(; xoix; 5sv Tiapdyouv upoiovxa [le v\\ir\kr\ Tipo- 
GxaGia, S7ii5oxoi3v xou^ ayp6xs(; xcov aXkav Kpaxcbv- 
[j,sX(bv 710U Tiapdyouv Kai s^dyouv xsxoia 7ipoi6vxa». ^^^ 

H (isTappvGnioti Ttitg KAII 

Ilapd xo u\|/riA6 k6gxo(; yia xov ig^vo koivoxiko npovno'Xjo- 
yiG[j,6, r\ Tio^tixiKTi xrjc; KAII xr] SsKasxia xou 1960fixav ava- 
yKaia, yiaxi oi ayp6xs(; auoxsAouGav GrmavxiKo [lepoq xou 
7iXri9uG[j,oi3 yia xk; SuxiKosupcDTiaiKs^ W>P^'i (<^ti<; apxst; xri(; 
5sKasxia<; oi a7iaGxoXoi3[j,svoi gxt] yscopyia gxtjv IxaMa fiGav 



182 



42,8%, Gxri YakXia 29,3% gtti Autikti Yepiiavia 24,8%) [s^ai- 
psGTi aTiOTsXoiJGS T] Bpsxavia [j,8 [j,6X,ig 5,4%)]). Qgtogo, 5sv 
TiapouGidGxriKs GoPapo 7ip6pXri[j,a n^ 5uo Tipcbist; 5sKasTiS(;, 
Tou 1960KaiTOU 1970, yiaxiri aypoxiKfi Tiapayroyfi 5sv S[j,(pd- 
viC,E [j,8yd>ua aSidGsxa 7i}tsovdG[j,aTa. H EOK auo to [lejakb- 
Tspo siGaycDysa aypoxiKcbv TipoiovxcDV, aTisKxriGS TiXfipri au- 
xdpKsia Gxo GiJvoXo Gxs56v xcdv Tipoiovxcov Gxr] 5sKasxia xou 
1970, svd) [j,8xaxpd7iriKs gxo [j,syaX,i3xspo s^aycoysa aypoxiKcbv 
TipoiovxcDV GXT] SisGyt) ayopd. ^^^ H e^ehL,r\ xr|(; aypoxiKfic; na- 
paj(£)jr\q (paivsxai and xov aKo^^ouGo mvaKa: 



«jr(S rjv TZ()0cipo()O[ irffXiTixi^v jrpDifjkrcjv an;v E.K. f%J 





19BS/fi9 


laim 


l98(i/8' 


193W7 




(E.K.-fi) 


(E.K.-9) 


(li.K.-12) 


(E.E.-t5) 


ZiTijpa 


86 


91 


111 


105'-' 


2%P1 


82 


100 


127 


1^ 


BoUTDflO 


92 


98 


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109 


Tuj)i 


99 


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106 


107 


Kpett^ pooe[8(iv 


95 


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<fpWTO 


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82 


85 


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Aifonpofijio itp£H5 


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1 E.K.-ri. 











Dirri- Ri>p<Mtnu(Ti Esitpoic^. ff K^dTUtTTj iijf yewpfiCTf mtjv KuiKtnjra (1970. 1975, 1989, 
1998), 

ExT] 5idpK8i,a XT]^ SsKasxia^ xou 1980, o pu9[j,6(; aypoxiKfig 
7iapaycoyfi(; au^avoxav Kaxd 2-3%) sxriGi(0(; svcb r] au^riGri xri(; 
(^fixriGri(; 5sv ^STispvouGS xo 0,5-1%).^'"' Oi u\|/riXs(; syyuri[j,svs(; 
xi[j,S(; o5fiyriGav gs UTispTiapaycoyfi xcov TispiGGOxspcov aypoxi- 
Kcbv TipoiovxcDV, CDGxs XT] SsKasxitt xou 1980 va yivsxai Xoyo^ 
yia «Pouvd a7i6 Poi3xupo» Kai «7ioxa[j,oi3(; a7i6 ydXa». Atioxs- 



183 



}^SG[j,a fixav va au^dvovxai oi 5a7idvs(; yia tt] oxfipi^ri xcov xi- 
[i&)V (XoycD at)^av6[j,sv(DV 7iXsovaG[j,dx(ov), svcb xa Tipayfo^axiKd 
8iGo5fi[j,axa xcov aypoxcbv [j,si(bvovxav (Xoyco Tixcbari^ xcov xi- 
[i&)V s^' aniaq xri(; au^av6[j,svri(; 7ipoG(popd(;). 

Msxa^ij 1975 Kai 1987 oi 5a7idvs(; xri(; KAII au^fiGriKav 
Kaxd 164% svcb xa aypoxiKd 8iGo5fi[j,axa [j,8icb9riKav Kaxd 5%. 
To x[j,fi[j,a ayopcbv (syyufiascDV xi[j,cbv) |J,sxpi xa Tekr\ xri(; 5sKa- 
sxia^ xou 1980 aTioppocpouas xo 95-96% xou guvoXou xcov 
5a7iavcbv xrjg KAII. ^'^^ To k6gxo(; avTf[q xrjc; 7io}tixiKfi(; fixav 
u\|/riX6, svcb 7iapdA,}tri}ta Guvsxi(^6xav r\ [leimcr] xcov aypoxiKcbv 
siGo5ri[j,dxcov Kai r\ GUGGcbpsuGt] 7iX80vaG[j,dxcov. 

0a TipsTisi, PsPaicot;, s5cb va U7ioypa[j,[j,iG9si xo ysyov6(; 6xi, 
xo Kijpio 7ip6p}tri[j,a xo 5ri[j,ioi3pyriGS r\ oiKovo[j,iKfi KpiGr] nov 
S7i}tri^8 xov ava7ixuy[j,8vo Kamxa^tiGxiKo k6g[j,o xt] 5sKasxia 
xou 1970.T6x8 fixav nov xo k6gxo(;xcov aypoxiKcbv 87ii5oxfi- 
Gscov dpxi(^s va Gscopsixai «avop9oXoyiK6». 

EnvKkeov, Gxa Ti^^aiGia xcov 5ia7ipay[j,axsi3GSCov gxov GATT 
(Gfi[j,spa IlayKOGfj-iog OpyaviG[j,6^ E^Tiopiou [IIOE]) r\ EOK 
5sx6xav tiisgsk; (Kupico(; and HQA, AuGxpaMa, N. ZriXav5ia) 
yia [j,sicoGri xri(; 7ipoGxaGia(; xou aypoxiKoij xo[j,sa. H EOK s- 

TipSTlS va KdV8l UTlOXCOpflGSK; GXOV aypOXlKO XO[J,Sa, 7ipOKSl[J,S- 

vou va S7ico(ps}tri0si gs dA,}^ou(^ xo[j,8i<; xcov 7iayK6G[j,icov avxa}^- 
>uaycbv.* 



* H UTioKpiola e5cb Tispiooeuei! 'O'ksq oi ovaTiTuyiieveg x'i'PS? (svcb eiicpovi- 
(^ovxai oriiiaiocpopoi xou «eXei)9epou avTaycovi(j|ioi)») emSoxouv xa aypo- 
xiKd Tipoiiovxa oe pdpoi; xcov Kaxaxpeco|i£vcov vko ovdTixu^ri Kpaxcbv. Ta 
oxoixeiot xou OOEA Selxvouv 6xi oi aypoxeg Kkr]povq aviaoxo^Tiorn; oxk; 
Xcbpeg-iisXr] xou Xa|ipdvouv Tiood tiou ocvxioxoixouv oe 11.000 5oXdpia xo 
Xpovo yia oxfipi^ri xi|icbv. H EupcoTiri 5a7iavd avd aypoxr] 17.000 5oXdpia 
xo xpovo, 01 HIIA 16.000 5oXdpia, evcb r] NopPriyia xou<; ^ETiepvd 6Xou<; 
(18 45.000 SoXdpia! To avioxeXeoiia eivai KaxaoxpocpiKo yia xou<; cpxcoxoix; 
aypoxei; xou Tpixou Koojiou. Fia TiapdSeiyiia, oxi^; apxe<; xri<; SeKaExiog 

184 



Sxa 1985, [IE TipcoToPouMa xou tots 7ipos5pou tt]^ Etiitpo- 
7ifi(; NTsXop, dpxiGS r\ 7ipoG7id9sia [j,STappi39[j,iGri^ ttjc; KAII. 
Oi TipoTdosK; fiTav 7ipo(; ttjv KaTeuGuvori tt]^ [j,8icoGri(; tcdv 
KaX,Xispyoi3[j,sv(ov SKTdascov, tiogogtcdgsk; gttjv Tiapayroyfi 
Kai opia syyurmsvcDV tiogottitcov Tiapaycoyfic;. KaGopiGTiKfic; 
Gr|[j,aGiag gttjv aX,>uayfi noXniKr\q, fiTav to ysyovoc; 6ti r\ [lei- 
(i)cr\ TCDV aypoTcbv GTa S7ii7is5a tou 3-4% gti^ xcops^ ttj^ Po- 
psio5uTiKfi(; EupcDTiric;, 5i8uk6A,uvs tt] [j,8Tappu9[j,iGTiKfi Tipo- 
GTidGsia. XpriGi[j,07ioifi9riKav stiitiXsov S7iix8ipfi[j,aTa UTisp ttjc; 
«7ipoGTaGia(; tou 7ispipdA,>uOVTog» auo ttjv «a}t6yiGTri» jp^cr] 
(pUTO(pap[j,dKcov. 



Tou 1990, 01 e^aycoye<; (em5oTOi)|ievou) KolajxTioKiot) xcov HIIA oxo Me^i- 
k6 xpiTiXamdoTTiKav, |ie aTioxeXeoiia xriv Tixcbori xcov xi|icbv KodaiiTioKioi), 
Kai 15 eKaxo(X|ii)pia Me^iKocvol Tiapaycoyol K0(la|i7ioKioi) va e^a6A,ico6oi)v 
oiKovo|iiK(x (H Ka9ri|i£pivri, 7/9/2003). 

AXkd Kai e5cb (r] SoXocpoviicfi) UTioKpiola Tiepiocjeuei. Oi TispiKOTieg cjxig 
aypoxiKeg emSoxiioeig oxriv E.E. cjuvoSeuovxai |ie ocvacpope<; (avio auxoix; 
7101) elvai 01 Kuplcog vtievQwoi yia xriv e^aBMcoor] oxig cpxcoxe<; X'i'PS?) 
(jxoix; «5uoxuxei<;, cpxcoxoix; ayp6xe<; xou Tplxou K6o|iou». Auoxuxctx;, eva 
x|ifi|ia xri<; Apioxepcii; avioSexexai avxx] xt] XoyiKf], BecopcbvxoK; 6xi oi Tiepi- 
KOKsq (5xiq em5oxfi(jei<; elvai (^iixruia «e^op6oXoyi(j|ioi)» Kai PoiiBeioti; 7ipo<; 
xi<; x'^P^Q "t^ou Tpixoi) k6(J(ioi). O «e^op6oXoyi(j|i69> 5ev \iKopei va eivai oe 
Pcxpog xcov cpxcoxcbv aypoxcbv xr|<; E.E. 15iaixepa yia xiq MecjoyeiaKeg X'^P^ 
01 KspiKOKsq 6a ornidvouv KaxaKopucpr] au^riori xrig cpxcbxeiotig Kai xri<; a- 
vepyiaig. H Xvux] eivai Tipocpocvfn;, aXka 5ev (n)|icpepei xa^iKd xovq Kamxa- 
liGxeq xoi) ocvaTixuyiievoi) k6(J|ioi): H KaxcxpyrjcJii xou xpeoug xcov xcopcbv 
xoi) xpixoi) K6(j|ioi), T] Kaxopyriori xcov (e^ovxcoxiKcbv) 5a(j|icbv yia xa Tipo- 
iiovxa auxcbv xcov xcopcbv, t] ay^riori xrig 5copedv PoiiBeiai; 7ipo<; awxeg, (le 
xTjv xauxoxpovT] oxiipi^ri xcov ([iiKpcbv Kai [iscjaicov) aypoxiKcbv ei(jo5ri|id- 
xcov (5x\]v E.E. AXka, PePaicog, 6,xi eivai «7ipoq)ave9> 5ev eivai xauxoxpova 
«peali(jxiK6» yia xa cjujicpepovxa xcov KamxalKJxcbv. 'Excji, eivai koIv mo 
«p8ali(jxiK6» va cjTiepvexai t] cpxcbxia Kai ri Suoxuxiot 8vx6<; Kai ekxoi; E.E. 

185 



H [j,STappi39[j,iGri tt]^ KAII, tiod 7ipay[j,aT07ioifi9riKs xov 
loijvio Tou 1992, syivs Suvaxfi Tiapd tk; 5ia(pcoviS(; [lExa^X) tcdv 
UTioupycbv yscopyia(; tcdv KpaT(bv-[j,s}t(bv, yiaxi: 

«[...] r\ TipooSoKia ')(pr\[iaTiKr\q avTiGTd9[j,iGri(; ttjc; 
|j,8icoGri^ Tcov 8iGo5ri[j,dTC0v Tcov [j,iKp6Tspcov aypoTcbv, 
XCopi(; 7ipol)7io9sGSi(; [j,sgco ttjc; smSoxri gtjc; Tri(; KaXkiep- 
jox)[is\/r\q sKxaGTi^ Kai 6xi xou TiapayroyiKot) aTioxeXs- 
G[j,axo(;, oSnyriGS, (gox; yia Tiproxr] cpopd, gxt] Siacpopo- 
TioiriGTi xTjc; GxdGTjc; xou^ gs gxsgti [j,s xou^ [j,syd}tot)(; a- 
ypoxsg. 'ExGi, xa Kpdxri-[j,sXri otiou Kupiapxow oi [j,iKpoi 
ayp6xs(;, 5sv TipoPaXav gt] [j,avxiKS(; avxippfiGSK; gxt] [ie- 
xappi39[j,iGri auxf). To ysyov6(; auxo, GUv5ua(^6[j,£vo [le 
XT] GxsxiKTi [leimcT] xou api9[j,oi3 Kai guvstiocx; Kai xrjc; 
7ioXixiKfi(; 5i3va[j,ri(; xcov [lejakDV aypoxcbv gxi^ X^psf; 
gxk; 071018^ Kupiapxoijv, SKavav Kai xk; utioXoitis^ X'^P^'i 
va GU[j,(pcovfiGOUv, Kpivovxat; 6xi auxo GU[j,pdX,}tsi gxtjv 
STiixsu^r] GU[j.(pcoviag gxt] GATT».^''^ 

Oi S7ii5oxfiG8ig Gt)v589riKav [is xrjv KaXXispyoTjfo^svri sKxa- 
cr\ Kai xov api9[j,6 xcdv SKxpscpo [jevcdv (^(bcov, Kai 6xi M-s xov 
oyKo xri(; 7iapay(Dyfi(; onrnq gxo 7iapsX96v. A716 xr] [j,sxappi39- 
|j.iori xri(; KAII (^ri[j,i(b9riKav o^i [lovo 01 [j,sydXoi aypoxs^ (5i6- 
XI [j,8i(b9riKs xo siG65ri[j,d xoix;), akXd Kai xo siG65ri[j,a xcov 
(pxcDxoxspcov aypoxcbv [j,sicb9riKS, Xoym xrjc; ysviK6xspri(; tixcd- 
cr\q xcov xi[j,cbv Tiapaycoyot). AXXcdgxs, 01 [j,syd}tS(; aypoxiKS(; 
SK[j,sxaA,Xsi3GSi(;, exouv stiixijxsi xsxoia uapaycoyiKoxrixa nov 
ouGiaGxiKd 58V xpsid(^ovxai Tikeov upoGxaGia. 

EuvoXiKd, r\ [j,sxappi39[j,iGri xr|(; KAQ Kivsixai Gxr| XoyiKf) 

XOU V80CplX,8X8u9spiG[J,Ol): 



186 



«[ri [j,8Tappi39[j,iGri] Kivsixai ouGiaGxiKd gtt] XoyiKf) 
TTjc; [lEjakriq avTay(DviGTiKfi(; sK[j,STdA,XsuGri(; r\ OTioia 9a 
I^Tiopsi va smPicDGSi koitco and xiq guvGtiks^ Tri(; sXsijGs- 
pr\q 5is9voi3(; ayopd(; vno KaGsGxdcx; sA,Xsi\|/ri^ GTfipi^ri(;. 
H QsGTi auTTi PsPaia 5sv svSiacpspsxai Ka96}tou yia to 

[leXkoV 8K81VC0V TCOV aypOTlKCbv SK[J,STaX,}t8l3G8C0V 710U 

5sv i^Tiopow va smPicDGOUv xcopi(; Gxfipi^ri svcb xa sm- 
XSipfmaxd xTjc; smKsvxpcbvovxai Kupiax; gxo k6gxo(; nov 
5ri[j,ioupysixai yia xrjv KoivcDVia Kai xrjv guvsxigti xtjc; 
Gxfipi^ri(; xcov [iiKp&iv SK[j,sxaA,>^s'UG8(DV». 

H [iei(i)cr\ xcov Sauavcbv yia xrjv KAII sivai Tipayfo^axiKd 
pay5aia. To 1985 oi GUVo^^iKst; 5a7idvs(; xrjc; KAII auoppo- 
90i3Gav xo 70% xou guvo>^ikoi) 7ipoD7io}toyiG[j,oi3 xr|(; EOK, xo 
1989 xo 59%, xo 1993 xo 52% Kai xo 1997 xo 44%.^"'* 

Dgo avauxuGGSxai r\ [j,sxappi39[j,iGri xri(; KAII, sK(ppd(^o- 
vxai 7iapd>^>^ri>^a Kai oi avxiGsGSi^ [j,sxa^i3 xcov Kpaxcbv-[j,s}tcbv. 
X&ipeq [IE |iiKp6 yscDpyiKo xo|isa (i5iaixspa Tep[iavia, Bpsxa- 
via) GscDpoiJV 6x1 TiXripcbvouv noXkn yia xrjv KAH. X&tpeq 6- 
Tico^ r\ EX,Xd5a, r\ IpXav5ia, r\ IxaMa, r\ Aavia, r\ TaXkia, r\ 
OXhivdia (upocpavdcx; gs SiacpopsxiKo Pa9[j,6 r| Kd9s [im), cps- 
pouv TispiGGOxspo XO pdpo<; xTjc; ^sicogtic; xri<; 7ipoGxaGia<; xrjc^ 
yscopyiat;. 



Tt] oriiiala xrn; |ieTappi)6|iiori<; (Kouxooypeiia) v:\q KAII tt] otikcovouv 
repiiocvla, Bpexovla, |i£ xri Bpexovla va iixocv Kai t] Tipcbxri kov xo eBeoe 
emxaKxiKd xt] SeKaexla xou 1980. H Bpexavla exei koIv |iiKp6 aypoxiKo 
xo|iea Kai eiodyei xa Tispioooxepa aypoxiKd Tipoiovxa. EvisiSfi Siaxripei 
i5iaixepe<; e|i7iopiKe<; oxsoeig |i8 xi<; x^P^Q ''^Q KoivoTioXixeiai; Kai oi x^pe? 
auxeg eivai xpixei; x^P% yiot xijv E.E., oi eioaycoyet; avio awxeg empapwo- 
vxai |ie 5a(j|ioi)<; Kai eioaycoyiKd xeh], xa OTioia 5ev 9a uvnipxav av o ecpo- 
5ia(j(x6<; xiji; Bpexavla^; yivoxav aTio ameq x] aXksq X<i>P%- Me 5e5o|i8vo 
87ii7il80v xij SiacpopexiKii cpopoloyia (iSiaixepa oxoix; e|i|i£(joi)<; cpopoug), i] 

187 



Tov loijvio Tou 2003, syivs r\ mo aapcoxiKfi avaGsropriari 
Tri(; KAn and to Eufo^Poij^tio YTioupycbv FscDpyia^, [le Kaxsij- 
GuvGTi TT] «[j,STdpaGri a7i6 tt] yscopyia tcdv stuSottigscov gtti 
yscopyia tt]^ ayopd(;». H GUvSiKaXiGTiKf) riysGia xcov aypo- 
T(bv, navsup(D7iaiKS(; AypoxiKs^ OpyavwGSK; COPA - CO- 
SECA, xapaKTTipiGS tk; auocpaGSK; «KaTaGTpo(pfi». 

Ei3[j,(pcova [IE xriv aTiocpaGr] oi Tiapaycoyoi 9a smSoTOWxai 
yiaxi, aTiXdx;, sivai Tiapaycoyoi (a7iOGUv5sovTai Tikr\p(i)q to i3- 
\|/o^ Tri(; 7iapay(Dyfi(; and xriv stuSottigti). Oi stiiSottigsk; 9a 
Paivouv 5iapK(b(; [j,sioi3[j,svs(;. Oi ^isicdgsi^ tcov svigxugscov 9a 
apxiGOUv [IE 3% TO 2005, 9a TispdGOUv gto 4% to 2006 Kai 
5% TO 2007, EV&) GS 5% 9a avsX9ouv yia to 5idGTri[j,a 2008- 
2013. 

E7ii7ip6G9sTa, r\ smSoTriGri 5sv 9a sivai 5s5o[j,svr|, akXd 
«9a s^apTdTai and ttjv «TfipriGri sXdxiGTCOv npomiimv Tipo- 
GTaGia(; tou 7ispipdX,XovTO(;». Eivai 7ipo(pavs(;, 6ti oi [j,ikp6ts- 
poi KaX,A,ispyriTS(; 9a 5uGKo}tsuTOi3v va 7ipoGap[j,OGTOi3v GTa 
«7ispiPaX}tovTo}toyiKd KpiTfipia», Kai 9a UTioKsiVTai gtt] 5a- 

[J,6kXsIO G7ld9a tcov KUpCOGSCOV. 

Oi Koiv(DviKS(; S7ii7iT(bG8i^ a7i6 TTjv [j,8Tappi39[j,iGri Tri(; KAII 
ava[j,svovTai 5pa[j,aTiKS(;. Tk; 5sKasTis^ tou 1950, 1960 Kai 
[iEjpi Ta [lEca Gxs56v Tr|(; 5sKasTia(; tou 1970, r\ «s^o5o9> 
TCOV a7iaGxoXoi3[j,£VCDV GTO yecopyiKo TO[j,sa f^TiopoiJGe va yivsi 
«0[j,aXd», a7i6 tt] cTrf[vt\ nov r\ ysviKOTspr] oiKovo[j,iKfi avd- 

TITU^T] aTlOppOCpOlJGS TOV 7l}tS0Vd(^0VTa aypOTlKO 7l}^r|9UG[J,6. 

BpexaviKfi KoPepvriori, xrig ©dxoep, to 1980 Kai 1981 eBeoe to (^iiTiniaTiig 
«5iKaiii<; KaTOcvoinig tcov Papcbv» Kai aviaiTiioe emoTpocpeg ajio tov koivo- 
TiKo 7ipol)7ioXoyi(j(x6 (TeXiKd evieTUxe emoTpocpeg 1,17 Sio. ECU Kai 1,4 
5i(j. TO 1980 Kai 1981 avTioTOixa). To 1982 \ie acpopjiii tk; PpeTaviKe<; 
emoTpocpeg Kai t] Tepiiavia eviSTUxe va [isicboei tt] Sikt] tth; duveiocpopd 
(BamXeioi) Ilavdyoi), KcovoTavTivou ToouvTa, AiaKpaTiKii Kai UTiepsGvi- 
Kii Euvepyaoia, eKSooen; IlaTiai^fiori, A9fiva2002, oeX. 749-751). 

188 



Qgtogo, 5£v Gt)[j,paivsi to i5io ofmspa. H avai[j,iKfi Tiopeia 
TTj^ oiKovo[j,ia^ Gxriv E.E. ormaivsi on r\ aypoxiKfi s^o5o(; (i- 
5iaiT8pa GS x&tpeq [is GrmavxiKo aypoxiKo 7iXri9uG[j,6 onmq 
EA,A,d5a, HopToyaMa, iGTiavia, IxaMa, Kai iioXi) TispiGGOxspo 
aziq Xcdpeq xr]^ KsvxpiKfic; Kai Avaxo^tiKfic; EupcDTiri^) 9a au- 
^fiGSi xTjv avspyia Kai 9a STiixsivsi xiq koivcoviks^ svxdGSi^. 

TsXsuxaio (aXkd 6xi SG^axo), 9a TipsTisi va U7ioypa[j,[j,iGxsi 
6x1, Kai Gxov aypoxiKo xofosa, r\ uspiPorixri «oiKovo[jiKfi svo- 
7ioiriGri» xri(; E.E. [j,sxa(pspsxai gxi^ sX,XriviK8(; Kokevdeq. Ms- 
Xpi XT] [j,sxappi39[j,iGfi xT]^, r\ KAII fixav r\ [lovadiKi] UTiapKxfi 
Koivf) supcoTiaiKTi noXniKT]. Sxriv KAII GUvaXXaGGOVxav [le 
xov supcDTiaiKo 7ipol)7ioXoyiG[j,6 6x1 xa s9vr|-Kpdxr|, aXM Kax' 
su9siav 01 aypoxiKst; 7ispi(pspsiS(; xou guv6Xou. Ms xt] [lexap- 
pi39[j,iGri xri(; KAII, s7iavs9viK07ioioi)vxai oi ajpoziKeq 5a7id- 
vs(;: 

«[...] o Gx6xo(; svavxi xri(; KAH [j,8xovo[j,d(^8xai «Guy- 
Xpri[j,axo56xriGri» Kai «S7iavs9viK07ioiriGr|» au^av6[j,8vou 
x^ifmaxo^ xcov 8upco7iaiK(bv yscopyiKcbv danavchv. EiGd- 
yovxai V8s^ [J-sicdgsk; xi[j,(bv [is avacpopd xa 5is9vfi stii- 
7is5a xifo^cbv Kai, iiapaXh\ka, o 7ispiopiG[j,6(; xou api9[j,oi3 
xcov a7io(^ri[j,ioi3[j,8vcov aypoxcbv. Oi d[j,SGS(; 8iGo5r|[j,axi- 
KS(; sviGXUGeK; TipopXsTisxai va s9viK07ioiri9oi3v [isjpi 
25%. Aq u7isv9u[j,iGOU[j,8 navxaq 6xi oi 89viks(; 5a7idvs(; 
GXTipi^rjc; xrjc; supco7iaiKfi(; ys(Dpyia(; avspxovxai fi5ri ce 
TiOGOGxd 40% 8C0(; 60%)xr|(; GUVo}tiKfi(; Gxfipi^ri(; nov 5i- 
aG(paM(^sxai gxov ys(DpyiK6 xofo^ea. Ms xrjv 7ip6G98xri 
89viK07ioiri GT] d[j,SGCOv S7ii5oxfiGSCov, T] supcDTiaiKTi yscop- 
yia Gxo Gi3voX6 xr|(; a7io[j,aKpi3v8xai Tiksov and xo gx6xo 
xri(; 8up(D7iaiKfi(; oXoK>ufipcoGri(;, 67i(D(; aux6 Gxs5ia(^6xav 



189 



Kaxd xriv 7ispio5o 1960-1990, yia va STiavsviaxGei opi- 
oTiKd oxa sGviKd TiXaioia and xa OTioia Tipospxsxai. [...] 
Fia xi^ xcbps(; xou supcoTiaiKot) voxou auxf) r\ e^eki^r\ 
sivai i5iaixspa 5t)G[j,8vfi(;. Sxo [j,sxpo nov oi s9viks(; ys- 
(DpyiKS(; 5a7idvs(; sivai gxk; x(bps(; avxeq 7iapa[j,sXri[j,svs^, 
01 8upco7iaiKS(; yscopyiKS(; 5a7idvs(; guvsxi(^ouv |j,8xpi Gf)- 
l^spa v' avxi7ipoGC07i8i3ouv Tispi xa xpia xsxapxa xri(; gu- 
vo>uiKfig Gxfipi^ri(; nov 5iaG(paM(^sxai gxou^ voxiosupco- 
Tiaioix; ayp6xs(;. Auxo s^si ax; a7ioxs}tSG[j,a xo gok auo 
xTjv ai(pvi5ia Gi3[j,7ixu^ri xcov supcoTiaiKcbv yscopyiKcbv 5a- 
Tiavcbv va s^si [j,oipaia 7ioA,i3 [j,syaA,i3xsps^ cvveneieq 
Gxov Noxo a7i' 6x1 gxov supcDTiaiKo Boppd)).^*"^ 

O sUtiviKOig aypoTiKOig TO^safg Kai r\ KAII 

ExTjv EX,}^d5a, o aypoxiKot; 7iXri9uG[j,6(; sxsi 7iapa[j,8iv8i g8 
u\|/r|}td S7ii7is5a (19,9%, xo 1997), mq a7ioxs}^SG[j,a xrjc; sXXsi- 
\|/ri(; a7iaGx6}triGr|(; gs dX^^otx; xo[j,si(; xri(; oiKovo[j,ia(;. Qgxogo, 
|isi(bvovxai [IE v\\ir\h:)X)q pvQ[iox)q [leca gxo xpovo ogoi sxouv 
cog Kijpia a7iaGx6Xr|Gri xrjv aypoxiKf) sK[j,sxdX,X8UGri. Atio 
53,9% xo 1961 GXO 19,9% xo 1997. O puen6(; [iemcr\(; tov 
oiKovo[j,iKd 8vspyoi3 7iXri9uG[j,oi3 gxov aypoxiKo xo[j,sa, smxa- 
Xpvsxai XT] SsKasxia 1981-1991, xr] SsKasxia A,8ixoupyiag xou 
8X,}tr|viK0i3 aypoxiKot) xo[j,sa evzoq xri(; KAII. 

H KaA,Xispyoi3[j,svr| yr| KUfo^aivexai yupro Gxa 40 8Kaxo[j,^i3- 
pia Gxpsfj.fj.axa.^*''' To 2000 UTifipxav 814.000 8K[j,sxaX,Xsi3GSig 
(api0[a^6(; svxt)7i(DGiaK6(; yia x^Jpa xou [j,sys9ou(; xri(; EXXd- 
daq), [j,s [j,SGO 6po 42 Gxps[j,[j,axa avd SK[j,sxdX,}^8UGri. To [j,i- 



Fia Xoyoui; duyKpiorn;, oxri Tepiiavla to 2000 UTifipxocv 472.000 yecopyi- 
Ksq eKiiexalXeuoeK;, oxri rolXla 664.000, oxri Bpexovia 233.000 (viriyfi, 50 
years of figures on Europe, Eurostat). 

190 



Kp6 [leyeQoq Kai o KaTaKsp[j,aTiG[j,6(; Tri(; [iEcr\q aypoxiKfic; sk- 
[j,STdA,XsuGri(;, s^si oav a7iOTs}tSG[j,a xriv sA,X8i\|/ri Kscpa^^aicDV 
(yia xriv au^riGri ttjc; TiapaycDyiKoxriTat; Kai xriv s^taxiGXOTioiri- 
GT] Tou KOGTOix; 7iapaycoyfi(;), akin Kai xriv a5i3va[j,ri koivcovi- 
KT) GsGTi Tou aypoTiKoij GTp(b[j,aTO(;. H a5uva[j,ia xcov aypoxi- 
K(bv Gt)vsTaipiG[j,(bv va avaXdpouv xriv s^Tiopia Kai xriv xutio- 
TioiriGri xcov TipoiovxcDV, o5fiyr|GS (dgxs oi Tiapayroyoi va sxouv 
[j,iKpfi 5ia7ipay[j,axsuxiKfi 5i3va[j,ri gs gxsgti [ie xovq xo^^Sps- 

[J,7l6pOU^. 

To xa[ir\kj6 siGoSrifo^a, r\ SugkoXt] stiiPicogti [iiKpchv (aXM 
Kai [j,SGaicov) aypoxiKcbv SK[j,sxaX,X8i3GSCov, o5riysi gs au^avo- 
[j,svs(; tiisgsk; «SKGuyxpoviG[j,oi3» xou aypoxiKoij xo[j,sa, gs 
[j,si(DGri xou oiKovo[j,iKd svspyoij 7iX,r|9uG[a^oi3 Kai GuyKsvxpo- 
Tioiri GT] xTjc; KaA,Xispyoi3[j,svri(; SKxaGTjc;. 

To ysyov6(; auxo avxavaK^xai, gxoix; [lejakonq (G^sxiKd) 
pu9[j,oi3^ GuyKsvxpoTioiri GTjc; xr|(; yrjc; gxov sX,}triviK6 aypoxiKO 
xo[j,Ea: 



Koravopn v^upYiKric; yr|^ kqi anaox6Ar|CFr|<l 
ant; ekjj/ctek; koto to^k; (j£Ye6ou<; <ni\\i EAAdSa 




MiKpri 

KAl'liaKQ 

<20 tJTpejj. 


MiKpn KQI 

(icaai'a KAijjaKa 

20-100 OTpEJJ. 


MeydAn 
KAipoKa 

> 100 OTPE|J, 


IiivoAo 
Xupaq 


'EKTaori Yf;(i)PY- ^''K 
Apia. EKfj/crewv 
Api9. sfPia^o]iivm 
Apxnvoi EKij/oetov 

AVO) TMV 55 ETCCV 

EpYOTornoepEc;* 
BaS|j6c; anaox6\r|or]C; 
ava tp-^a.lp[itm** 
npetjuiiuax/uTpKii 


9% 
44% 
38% 

50% 
23% 

0,24 
90 


47% 
46% 
51% 

43% 

53% 

0,46 
44 


44% 
10% 
11% 

7% 
19% 

0,63 
15 


100% 
100% 
100% 

100% 
100% 

0,40 
36 



nfjyrj; EUROSJAT, "Farm Structure, 1993Sun/ey, main results" 



191 



«Aia7iiGT(bvsTai itpdjixaTi oxi gttiv 7ispio5o [j,STd to 
1961 01 [lEjakeq SK[j,STaX,}tsi3GSi(; [is Tidvco and 100 
GTps[j,[j,aTa dmhxcmC,ovv xriv SKxaGri ttjc; jr\q xovq (and 
20,1% GS 40,1% TO 1991), ams^ 58 ^is udvco auo 200 
GTps[j,[j,aTa TispiTiou xriv Tpi7i}taGid(^ouv (auo 6,6% ce 
18,4%)). To 2%) 5riXa5fi tcdv SK[j,STaA,}^si3G8cov sXsyxsi 
Tidvco aTio swsaTiXdGia yrj. Ildvco and 6 8KaTO[j,^i3pia 
GTps[j,[j,aTa GUVoXiKd [j,8Ta(p8p9riKs gs 30 xpovia and xiq 
\jiVKpeq gtk; iiejakeq SKfj.sxaX.AsijGSK;)).^'^^ 

To 10%) Tcov SK[j,STaA,X8i3G8(DV ekeyxEi to 44%) tt]^ KaXkiep- 
yoi3[j,£vri(; yrjc;, aTiaG^oAsi [^oXk; to 1 1%)T0U api0[j,oi3 tcov sp- 
ya(^o[j,£vcov gtov TO[j,sa, 7ipdy[j,a nov Ssi^vsi ttjv nohb v\\ir\kr\ 
TiapaycDyiKOTTiTa ttjc; spyaGiat;. Oi (hpeq avd GTps[j,[j,a [j,6}ti(; 
(pTdvouv tk; 15, 7ipdy[j,a tiou Grmaivsi [j,syd}to Pa9[j,6 TS^vo^to- 
yiKoij SKGuyxpoviGf^ot). H GuyKsvTpoTioiriGri (paivsTai Kai a7i6 
TO ysyov6(; 6ti to 8%) tcov uapaycoycbv, KapTicbvsTai gxs56v to 

fl[J,lGU TOU GUVOAOU TCDV 87ll5oTflG8CDV TTjc; KATI 710U ttvaXo- 

yoijv GTTjv EX,Xd5a.^*'^ 

To siG65ri[j,a tcov TispiGGOTspcov aypoTcbv Ssv STiapKsi yia 
va KaA,i3\|/si tk; Piotik8(; toix; avdyKst; Kai stgi 7ioA,ua7iaGxo- 
XoiJVTai (TispiTiou TO 50%))^^*^. Eivai 8va^ dA,>^o^ >u6yo(; 710 u 
XpriGi[j,07ioisiTai, gs [j,8ydXri sKTaGt], spyaGia [j,8TavaGTcbv 
GTOV aypoTiKo T0[j,8a: 

«E5cb Kai 7ioX,}td xpovia Tiia gttjv sXXriviKfi yscopyia 
XpriGi[j,07ioioi3vTai aX,Xo5a7ioi utio 5id(pops(; [j,op(pS(; Kai 
GUv9fiKS(; (s7iiGri[j,ri siGaycoyf) auo tk; apxs(; tt]^ 5sKas- 
Tia(; Tou 1970 [j,STavaGTcbv KupicD(; and ttjv AGia, xpil<^Tl 
TOupiGTcbv Kupico(;, GTTi SsKasTia Tou 1980 KaTd tk; stio- 
Xeq TCOV GuyK0[j,i5cbv, KaTd TipcDTO Aoyo PsPaia gtk; v6- 



192 



Ti8(; 7i8pioxs(; TTjc; x^Jpotf;, 67ico(; Kai [j,iKpoi api9[j,oi UTiri- 
KOCDV Tcov avaxo^tiKcbv xropcbv ttjc; EupcoTiric; Kai cr\[ia- 
vtik6(; api9^6(; utitikocov tcov xropcbv auxcbv sX,A,riviKfi(; 
Kaxaycoyfic; nov [j,STd to 1990 syKaxaaTdGriKav Tipooco- 
pivd f) [j,6vi[a^a axriv sA,X,riviKfi ijTiaiGpo) r| [lal^iKi] sigo5o(; 
Xa9po[j,STavaGT(bv, Kupico^ and xriv AXpavia, Kaxd xa 
xsXsuxaia xpovia 5r|[a^ioi3pyriGS Tskeimq Kaivoupyia 58- 
5o[j,sva Gxov sXXriviKo aypoxiKo xcbpo. H [j,a(^iK6xrixa 
xri(; 7iapouGia(; Kai xo 7iapdvo[j,o KaGsGxdx; xoix; guvGs- 
xouv xi^ KaTaXkr\keq GUv9fiKS(; yia xrjv iSiaixspa «9sxi- 
Kfi» GUVsiGCpopd xou(;: 

Ilpcbxov, GXTjv Tiapaycoyf) KaGcb^ GU^Ti^^ripcbvouv xrjv 
a7i6 xpovia yvcDGxr) sA,}tsi\|/ri spyaxiKcbv xspicbv Gxr|v eX- 
XriviKTi ysropyia gxk; S7ioxs(; ai)(p.r\q, ce Pa9[j,6 [j,d}tiGxa 
710U, 67i(D(; fi5ri u7iOGxripi(^ouv ogoi jvmpiCpw xrjv gu- 
v8iG(popd auxf), apKsxoi KXd5oi (svxaGri^ spyaGiat;) s- 
^apxcbvxai Gri[j,avxiKd and xrjv TiapouGia xovq. 

Asijxspov, [IE xa 7ioX,i3 xa[j,riM xou^ ri[j,spo[j,iG9ia gxt] 
[iei(i)cr\ xou kogxou^ 7iapaycoyfi(; Kai dpa Kai gxtjv avxa- 
ycDviGxiKoxrixa xcov sXXriviKcbv aypoxiKcbv upoiovxcov, ce 
xs^tiKT) 5s avdA,UGri ce [j,syaA,i3xspri GUGGcbpsuGr] gxov 
xo[j,sa. 

Tpixov, GXT] GUVo^tiKT) s9viKfi oiKovo[j,ia yia oXou^ 
xoug TiapaTidvco AoyoD9>.^^^ 

Dgov acpopd xo s[j,7i6pio, xa Kupia s^ayroyiKd upoiovxa xr]^ 
EX,Xd5ag sivai xa (ppoijxa Kai xa }^axaviKd Kai oi Kijpist; siGa- 
ycoys(;, xa KxrjvoxpocpiKd Kai yaXaKxoKO[j,iKd Tipoiovxa (r\ cvv- 
9sGri xou sX,Xr|viKoi3 aypoxiKoij 7ipoi6vxo(; sivai 70%(puxiKfi 
Tiapaycoyfi, 30% (^(dikti Tiapaycoyf)). Auxf) r\ gxsgti 5sv sxsi 



193 



aXXd^si a7i6 xriv 81go5o gttiv EOK. H TiapaycoyiKoxriTa au^f)- 
GrjKs, akXd 7iapa[j,8vsi xa[ir\kxi ce koivotiko enmedo. 

IIpiv xriv siGo5o Gxriv EOK, r\ EX,Xd5a eixe Gstiko (aypoxi- 
k6) sf^TiopiKo iGO(^'6yio [is xriv EOK. Msxd xrjv sigo5o, xo s- 
I^TiopiKo iGO(^i)yio syiv8 apvrjxiKo (a7i6 xr] 5sKasxia xou 1980, 
«S7iix8ivovxa(; sxgi xa r\5r\ UTidpxovxa 7ipopXfi[j,axa s^TiopiKoij 
iGO(^uyiou xrig x&)paq»^^^), mq a7ioxsXsG[j,a xou 6xi r\ EX,Xd5a 
fixav xcbpa U7ioxpsco[j,8vri («KoivoxiKfi 7ipoxi[j,riGri») va ayopd- 
C,ei KXTjvoxpocpiKd Tipoiovra and xr|v EOK gs xi[j,S(; u\|/ri}t6xs- 
peq ano xiq Ti[iEq xrig 5i89voiJ^ ayopdt;. 'Onmq 8xou[j,8 fi5ri nei, 
r\ KAn 5ri[j,iot)pyfi0riK8 [is xsxoio xpoTio (dgxs va suvosi xa 
Tipoiovra xou apxiKoij uupfiva xrjc; EOK, [le a7ioxsX8G[j,a xa 
KxrjvoxpocpiKd Tipoiovxa auxcbv xcdv xropcbv va a7ioX,anPdvouv 
u\|/riX6xspr| TipoGxaGia (s7ii56xriGr|): 

«H SidKpiGT] auxf) npoc, ocpeXxx; xcov «p6p8icov» kxtj- 
voxpocpiKcbv TipoiovxcDV [...] Kai xo ysyov6(; 6xi vno xo 
KaGsGxdcx; xr|(; «KoivoxiKfi(; 7ipoxi[j,riGri(;» oi 'EA,Xr|vs(; Ka- 
xava>^CDxs^ fixav «t)7ioxpsco[j,8voi» va ajopaCpvv Kaxd 
Tipoxspaioxrixa yscopyiKd Tipoiovxa aTio xk; x&ipeq xrjc; 
EOK Tiapd aTio xr| 5is9vfi ayopd gxtjv OTioia STiiKpaxoij- 
Gav 7ioX.i3 xa[j,r|}t6xsps(; xi[j,S(;, sixs Gav a7ioxsX8G[j,a i- 
cxppsc, siGo5ri[j,axiKS(; [j,sxaPipdG8i(; and xovq 'EXkr\vEq 
KaxavaX(Dxs(; 7ipo(; xoix; (Popsio)- supcoTiaioix; Tiapayro- 
yotx; Kpsaxo(; Kai ya}taKxoKO[j,iK(bv Tipoiovxcov. Avxeq oi 
8iGo5ri[j,axiKS(; [j,sxaPipdG8i(; sviGXuQriKav aK6[j,ri TispiG- 
Goxspo a7i6 xo y8yov6<; 6xi oi 7ipoxi[j,fiGSi(; xcov sXXfivcov 
KaxavaXcDxcbv [j,8xapXfi9riKav xi^ xsXsuxaist; 5sKasxis^ 
Kai s^ouv [o^sxaxoTiiGxei a7i6 xrjv 7ipoxi[j,r|Gr| gs Gixrjpd 
Kai ysviKd Tipoiovxa (puxiKfic; 7iapay(oyfi(; 7ipo(; kxtjvo- 
xpocpiKd Kai yaXaKxoKO[j,iKd Tipoiovxa, mq a7iox8XsG[j,a 



194 



TT]^ aij^riGri^ xcov 8iGo5ri[j,dTC0v Kai xou 87ii7is5ou Siapt- 
(i)cr\q. 

Yufipxav PsPaico^ Kai oi 8iGo5ri[j,aTiK8^ [j,8TaPipdG8i^ 
a7i6 TOU(; EupcoTiaioix; KaTavaXcoTS(; Tipo^ xouq sAJ^rivst; 
Tiapaycoyotx; cppouxcDV Kai ^^axaviKcbv. AXXd, avzeq fixav 
oacpdx; |j,iKp6Tsps(; Ka9' ogov t] Gxfipi^ri tt]^ KAII yi au- 
xd xa Tipoiovxa sivai tiio aSiJvaxri an' 6xi yia xa Kxrjvo- 

r 213 

xpo(piKa». 

Atio xrjv dX,Xri uXsupd 7idvxco(;, r] EA,Xd5a sixs KaGapo 6sxi- 
k6 ocpsXog, AoycD xcov stiiSoxtigscov tioXXcdv MsGoysiaKcbv 
TipoiovxcDV. H EX,M5a, svcb Tiapdysi gs a^ia xo 4,05% xrjc; gu- 
vo}tiKfi(; aypoxiKTic; uapaycoyfic; xri(; E.E. Kai KaX,}tispysi xo 
2,58% xT]^ GUVO>uiKd KaX,}tispyoi3[j,svri(; SKxaGri(;, siGTipdxxsi xo 
9 ,2 %) xou GUVoXou xcov Sauavcbv xri(; E.E. yia xov aypoxiKo 
xofj.sa.^^'* Updjiia iiov 5sv avxiGxa9[j,i(^si, PsPaia, xrjv S7ii5si- 
vcoGT] (Kai xou aypoxiKoij) s^TiopiKoij iGO(^uyiou, KaGcb^ Kai xo 
ysyovog 6xi xo aypoxiKo siG65ri[j,a PsXxicbGriKs [j.8xpia, Kai u- 
TioXsiTisxai GT] [j,avxiKd xou [j,ri-aypoxiKou. 

To S7li7is50 XCDV KOlVOXlKCbv S7ll5oxflG8CDV Tipo^ XTIV EX,Xd5a 

ava[j,svsxai va [o^sicoGsi xa S7i6[j,£va xpovia. To 60%) xou guvo- 
Xov xcov 8iG7ipd^scov yia aypoxiKS(; stiiSoxtigsk; xtjc; EX,}td5a(; 
Tipospxovxai a7i6 KaTWO, sXai6Xa5o, Pa[j,pdKi.^^^ 'Eco^ xo 2013 
xa 5iaxi9s[j,sva TiOGd xcov smSoxfiGSCov 9a 7iapa[j,sivouv (cpai- 
vofOEViKd) Gxo i5io 87ii7is5o. Qgxogo, yia xrjv siGTipa^r] auxcbv 
xcov TiOGcbv auaixsixai r\ xfipriGri «Kpixripicov Tioioxrixat; Kai 
TipoGxaGiat; xou 7ispipdX,Xovxo(;» (Kpixfipia tiou xPt1<^i^^07i:oi^- 
ouvxai TipoGxn^axiKd yia xr] [leimcr] xcov S7ii5oxfiGSCov) svcb 
enxKkeov, r\ EupcoTiaiKf) EmxpoTifi auaixsi [leimcr] xcov KaXki- 
spyou[j,£VCDV Gxps[j,[j,dxcov yia xo Pa[j,pdKi Kai xov KaTWO, 
7ipdy[j,a 710U 9a Gri[j,dvsi [j,sicoGri xcov 5iaxi9s[j,8vcov Tiopcov.^^'' 



195 



0a 7ip87i8i STiiarig va gt] [j,8ico9si oxi oi Ti[iEq nov Sivovxai and 
xriv E.E. yia tt] MsyiGxri Eyyuri[j,svri noaoxriTa (5ri}ta5fi igxu- 
ouv [j,6vo yia [iia opiG[j,£vri TiOGOxriTa uapaycoyfic;) Ka9opi(^o- 
vxai «GTO 7110 xa|J.riX6 S7ii7is5o, [j,s pdGri to v6[j,o TipoGCpopd^- 
(^fiTriGri9> (DGTS «va 7iapaKivr|9si o yscopyog va 7ipoG7ia9fiG8i 
va 5ia9sGSi (nmX^cei) o i5iO(; xriv Tiapayroyfi xou gttiv ayopd, 
avTi va STiavaTiausxai, oSriyrovxat; to gijvoAo r\ to [j,syaX,i3Tspo 
[j,spo^ Tri(; GTTjv [koivotikt) Kai KpaTiKf)] 7iaps[j,paGri». ^^'' Su- 
vo^tiKd: 

«H «XoyiKfi» nov smKpaTSi gttjv EupcoTiaiKfi Em- 
TpoTif) 8ivai 01 Tiapaycoyoi va f^TiopoiJV va 5ia9sT0uv gto 

S^lTlOpiO Tl^ TIOGOTTITS^ 710U 9a S7ll50T0l3VTai. AuTO 6[l(i)q 

sivai i5iaiT8pa 5i3gkoAo yia TOtx; 'EXkr\veq Tiapaycoyoij^ 
5i6ti 58V 5ia9sT0uv oijts toix; opyavco[j,8vou(; GUVSTaipi- 
G[j,oi3(; oiJTS tk; KaTaXkr\keq 0[iadEq Tiapayroycbv yia ttjv 
STiiTSU^ri Tou GTOxou. 'AXX(i)CTE 01 5is9vsi(; ti[j,S(; sivai 
nohb KaT(bTsps(; and SKsivst; nou 7ipoG5oKd (Kai 8i- 
G7ipdTT8i co^ Tcbpa). 

ETTlHETpO 

Eivai 7ipo(pavs(;, an' OGa 8xou[j,s 7ispiypd\|/si GUVoXiKd [le- 
Xpi 65(b, OTi TO 6Xo «sup(D7iaiK6 oiKo56[a^r|[a^a» Tipoxcopsi avTi- 
(paTiKd, [le Gxs56v aA,}tri}toavaipoi3[j,svs(; auocpdGSK;. Sto stii- 
7is5o TT]^ «7ioXiTiKfi(; svoTioiriGTi^)), 01 «si5iKs^ 7iXsio\|/ri(pis^» 
7101) Xa[j,pdvouv U7i' 6\|/iv to 7iXri9uG[j,iaK6 KpiTfipio, Tipocpavox; 
suvosi tk; [isjakeq X'^P^'i- ^otogo, auaiTSiTai r\ GU[j,(pcovia Tr|(; 
7iX,sio\|/ri(pia(; tcov KpaT(bv-[j,s}t(bv. 0SG[j,o98Tfi9riKs Y7ioupy6(; 

E^COTSpiKCbv, COGTOGO GTTjV S^COTSpiKTl TloXlTlKf) auaiTSlTai O- 

[j,o(p(Dvia. H a5uva[j,ia koivt)^ TioXniKr\q gttjv a[j,spiKavoPps- 



196 



xaviKTi sigPoXti gto IpdK KaxsSsi^s (yia [iia aKo^r] cpopd) xriv 
a5uva[j,ia smPo^^fi^ [imq Koivfic; s^coxspiKfic; 7io}tixiKfi(;. 

Sxriv oiKovo[j,iKfi TioXixiKTi, iSittixspa Gxa 9s[j,axa cpopoXo- 
yiag, 67i(D(; Kai oxa 0s[j,axa s^coxspiKfic; tioXixiktic; Kai d^uva(;, 
aTiaixsixai o[j,o(p(Dvia, 5riXa5fi KdGs Kpdxo(;-[j,sXo(; 5iaxripsi xo 
5iKaicD|ia xou Psxo. Oi [iEjaksq 5ia(pops(; oikovo[j,ikoi3 stiitis- 
5ou [j,8xa^i3 xcov Kpaxcbv [lehhv 5sv [j,7iopoi3v va avxiaxaQfo^i- 
Gxoijv a7i6 xk; «5iap9pcoxiK8(; 7ioXixiks(;». Exov aypoxiKo xo- 
[j,sa 01 5ia(pops(; voxou Poppd o^wovxai, avoiyovxac; eva [le- 
ydX,o 7is5io avxiTiapaGsGSCov. 

To sGviKo Kpdxo(; 5iaxr|p8i, Tipog xo GU[j,(p8pov xcdv «5i- 
K(bv» xou KamxaXiGxcbv, xov sksyxo xri(; eQviKr\q oiKovo[j,ia(;. 
Sxo 8up(b 5£v GU[j,[j,sxsxot)v o'ksq oi x(bps(; (and xk; 25 5sv 
GU[j,[j,sxsxouv 13 x&ipeq), svcb gxtjv TispiTixcoGri xcov Xropcbv 
KsvxpiKTig Kai AvaxoXiKTic; Evp&)nr\q Ssv sivai Giyoupo tiois^ 
Kai av 9a Gt)[j,[j,8X8xouv tioxs. H E.E. 7iapa[j,svsi [j,ia vo[j,iG[j,a- 
xiKT) svcoGT], Kai 6x1 M-ia oiKovo[j,iKfi svcDGT] (nohb TispiGGOxspo 

[J,ia TlO^tlXlKTl SVCDGT]), 710U 9a 05riy0l)G8 GXTJV «OlKOVOHlKfl Kai 
KOIVCOVIKT) 0XoK>^flpCDGri».^^^ 

Exo S7i6[j,8vo KscpdXaio 9a 87iix6ipfiGOU[j,8 [j,ia guvoXikti 8- 
Kxi[j,riGri xri(; E.E. Kai xcdv TipooTixiKcbv xri(;. Ilapd xk; 5ai5aXcb- 
dr\q 5ia5iKaGi8(;, xk; avxicpaxiKsc; noXniKsq, Kai xk; noXkeq a- 
PsPai6xrixs(; nov UTidpxouv, sivai, cdgxogo, ^SKd9aps(; oi xd- 
gsk; Kai 01 TipooTixiKs^ xTjc; E.E. 



197 



4 



KS(pd>^aio 



I^DVoIiKTJ BscoprioTi TTi(; E.E. - 
H EDpcojTTi «TOD fis>^>^0VT6(; naq» 

IIou Pa5i(^si r] E.E.; H avakvci] [laq scpxaas (ennekovql) 
GTO GTiia^sio 710U sivai Suvaxfi [im guvoXikti Gscbpriari xou «su- 
pcoTiaiKoij syxsipfi[a^aTO(;». 

Eivai Ga(pS(; oxi to 6Xo 8yxsipri[j,a xapaKTripi(^STai and 
(noXkeq) aPsPaioxriTS^ (to aPsPaio supcoTiaiKo [laq [leXkovl). 
IloXXd 9a s^apxriGoiJV and Tr|v uopsia Tri(; TiayKOGfo^iat; oiko- 
vofiat;. Av r] 7iayK6G[j,ia oiKovo[j,iKfi txpSGr] o^uvGsi, tots si- 
vai PsPaio OTi 01 5ia(pcoviS(; ax; 7ipo(; ttjv oiKovo[j,iKfi tio^^itikti 
9a [j,STaTpa7ioi3v gs svTOva aTioKMvouGsg 7io}^itiks(; Siacprovi- 
eq, nov 9a Ka9riX(bG0uv to 6Xo supcoTiaiKo syxsiprma. Av r\ 
TiayKOGfj-ia oiKovo[j,ia TiapouGidGSi «Pi(bGi[j,ri» avdTiTU^ri, au- 
t6 9a 5(bGSi «avdGS(;» Kai 7ispi9(bpia GU[j,piPaG[j,(bv tcov avTi- 
Kpot)6[j,svcov GU[j,(psp6vTC0v avd[j,SGa gti^ dpxot)GS(; Td^sK; tcov 
KpaT(bv-[j,sX(bv. 

O aXkoq, KpiGi[j,0(;, aGTd9[j,riT0(; 7iapdyovTa(;, acpopd ti^ 
gxsgsk; HQA - E.E. 'Onmq ausSsi^s r\ KpiGr] nov ^SGuaGS [le- 
Td TTjv a[j,spiKavoPpsTaviKfi sigPoXt) gto IpdK, oi HQA sivai 
GS 9sGri va TipoKaXsGOUv GoPapoTaTa pfiy[j,aTa gto SGCDTspi- 
k6 Tr|(; E.E. noX,}td TispiGGOTspa pfiy[j,aTa, [mopei va upoKa- 
}tSGSi Eva(; sv5sx6[j,svo(; s^7iopiK6(; Kai oikovo[j,ik6(; 7i6}tS[j,0(; 
avd[j,SGa gtk; HQA Kai ttjv E.E. 



198 



Aidcpopoi avaA,UTS(; t)7iOGTripi(^ot)v, oxi r\ aPsPaiOTtixa tiou 
XapaKTripi(^si xriv o^^r] Tiopsia xr]^ E.E., Tipospxsxai and xo ys- 
yov6(; 6xi r\ E.E. sivai sva «uPpi5iK6 [j,6p(pco[j,a»: 58v sivai oi3- 
xs sva 7ipay[j,axiK6 o[j,OG7iov5iaK6 Kpdxo^, aX,Xd oijxs evaq a- 
nXoq 5is9vfi(; opyaviG[j,6(; (gxov otioio, UTioGsxiKd, xa Kpdxrj- 
[lekf] sivai «a7ioA,i3xco(;» avs^dpxrjxa Kai Kupiapxa). H oikovo- 
[j,iKfi aA,}triXs7ii5paGr|, xo koivo v6[a^iG[j,a, oi sgxco 5ai5a}t(b58i^ 
(Kai [IE apKsxs(; a7ioxuxis(;) 7ipoG7id9siS(; yia xr] 98G[j,o98xriGri 
5ia5iKaGi(bv «7io}tixiKfi(; o}^OK}LfipcoGri(;», Kaxsu9i3vouv xrjv 
E.E. 7ipo(; ofa^OGTiovSiaKTi Tiopsia. Qgxogo, r\ 5iaxfipriGri xri(; 
lajpoq xou s9vikoi3 Kpdxotx;, avaipsi xrjv o[j,OG7iov5iaKfi xdGTj. 
Kovxo}toyi(;, r\ E.E. sivai «Kdxi TispiGGOxspo and [im aiikr] 5i- 
s9vfi opydvcoGT], Kdxi }tiy6xspo auo sva U7isp-Kpdxo(;: [im [le- 

piKT) 0[J,OG7lOv5ia» ! 

SuvoXiKd, r\ E.E. s[j,(pavi(^8xai Gav sva «7ipcox6xu7io iGxopi- 
k6 7i8ipa[j,a», Gxo otioio oi 5ia5iKaGiS(; s^sXiGGOVxai 6xi 5ia 
xri(; ptat;, akXd [j,sgco 7ioX,i37iXok(dv 5iaPou}^si3GSCov Kai GU[j,pi- 
PaG[j,cbv. H OTioia o[j,OG7iov5iaKfi KaxdX,ri^ri, av 9a uudp^si, 9a 
EnekQei 6xi [j,8gco xou 7io}^s[j,ot) (oTirog guvsPt] [j,8 xk; HQA nov 
Gxn^oixiGxriKav Gav a7ioxsXsG[j,a evoq cpoPspd ai[j,axripoi3 sfj,- 
(puMou 7ioXs[j,ou xo 19° aicbva), aXM [j,sgco xcov 5iaKpaxiK(bv, 
sipriviKcbv 5ia7ipay[j,axsi3GSCov. H E.E. sivai sva TipcoxoxuTio 
iGxopiKo 7isipa[j,a «sv xco yiyvsG9ai». 

MiX(bvxa(; ysviKd, r\ (^cofi sivai uXfiprig TipcoxoxuTiicbv! H i- 
Gxopia, dX,}t(DGxs, tioxs 5sv S7iavaXa[j,pdvsxai. Kai oxav aK6[j,a 
s[j,(pavi(^sxai va S7iavaXa[j,pdvsxai, xrjv Tipcbxri cpopd sivai xpa- 
ycoSia, xrjv S7io[j,svri cpdpGa! 

Qgxogo, 5sv sivai r\ upcoxoxuTiia xo Kijpio xapaKxrjpiGxiKo 
xri(; E.E. H UTispPo^^iKTi 5s S[j,(paGr| gxtjv «7ipcoxoxu7iia», o5riysi 
siJKoXa Gxr] GuyxuGT]. Sxov Ka7iixaXiG[j,6, oi GUvaG7iiG[j,oi Kpa- 
x(bv sivai Kdxi xo GUvri9iG[j,svo, Kai [j,dXiGxa [is s[j,(paGri gxtjv 



199 



oiKovo[j,iKfi nkevpd xcov GUvaG7iiG[j,(bv. To NATO r\ TiaXioxs- 
pa TO Gi3[j,(p(Dvo xri^ BapGopta^, sivai 7iapa5siy[j,aTa 6xi [lovo 
GTpaTi(DTiKfi(; GUVspyaGiat;. Sxa Ti^^aiGia ttjc; a[j,spiKaviKfi^ 
r[Ye[ioviaq gto «5utik6 GxpaxoTisSo)) xa GU[j,paA,}t6[j,sva Kpdxri 
5sv fiGav «a7ioA,i3xco(;» avs^dpxrixa- noXkeq ^>ops.q, aK6[j,a Kai 
xa [j,syaX,i3xspa Kpdxri, UTioxpscbvovxav va aKoXouGfiGOUv xk; 
a[j,spiKaviKS(; 7ipoxspai6xrixs(;. H riys[j,ovia xcov HQA gxo 5u- 
xiKo GxpaxoTisSo [j,sxd xo x8Ao(; xou B' nayKOG^iou noXs[j,ot), 
5sv ene^ake aidxhq [im GxpaxicoxiKf) riys[j,ovia, aXXd oi HQA 
STisPaXav XT] (pi}ts>^8u9spo7ioiriGri xcdv Suxikcdv oiKovo[j,i(bv 
([iEi(i)cr\ xcov 5aG[j,(bv Kai xcdv s^7io5icov 5iaKivriGri(; xou Kscpa- 
Xaiou) G8 SKxaGT] 7ipcox6yvcDpr| (g' SKxaGT] tiou 5sv xo eixe s- 
mxijxsi T] 7ipor|yoi3[j,svri (pi}ts}tsi39spri i^Tispia^^iGxiKTi 5i3va[j,ri, 
r\ Bpsxavia). To SoMpio [j,sxapXfi9riKs gs 7iayK6G[j,io v6[j,i- 
G[j,a. To 5oXdpio XsixoijpyriGS xogo Gav GxaGspoTioirixiKo^ 
Tiapdyovxa^ yia xrjv 7iayK6G[j,ia oiKovo[j,ia (xouXdxiGxov [le^pi 
xr| 5sKasxia xou 1970) 6go Kai Gav [j,rixaviG[j,6(; oiKovo[j,iKfi(; 
Kupiapxiat; xcov HQA. Oi HQA, cpuGiKd, ou5s7ioxs S7is5icD^av 
xTjv o[j,OG7iov5i07ioiriGri [IE xoug «5t)xiKoi3(; cv[i[iaxovq». And 
auxfiv xTjv d7io\|/ri, r\ COMECON, r\... E.E. xcdv Tipcbriv xcopcbv 
xou KpaxiKot) Ka7iixa}tiG[j,oi3 («U7iapKxoi3 GOGiaXiG[j,oi3»), sivai 
sva 7iapd5siy[j,a mo kouivo gxt] Grmspivf) E.E. AGCpa^^cb^, 
GXTjv COMECON r\ riys[j,ovia (tiio GCOGxd r\ i^TispiaXiGxiKTi 
riys[j,ovia) xrjc; xoxs ESSA 5£V sxsi xo avxiGxoixo xrjc; gxt] cr\- 
[lepivi] E.E. Qgxogo (onmq 0a 5oi3[j,s 6go avauxuGGSxai auxf) 
T] svoxrixa), aKpiPocx; r] avuTiap^ia [imq a5ia[j,(piGpfixrixri^ rjys- 
l^oviKTig 5i3va[j,ri^ sivai r\ TUYfi] xcov 7ipopXri[j,dxcov xr\q E.E. 



H COMECON (Eu|iPoi)A,io A|ioiPaiou; OiKovo|iiKfi<; Evicxvci\q) iSpuGr]- 
KE Tov locvoudpio 1949. Ta apxiKd [isXri fioocv: EEEA, BouXyapla, Toe- 
XOoXoPaKia, Ouyyapla, IloXcovla Kai Poi)|iavia. H AXpocvia eyive (leXoi; 
TOV 3)ePpoi)dpio 1949 aXka avioxcbprioe to 1961. H ocvaToXiicfi rep|iavia 

200 



Ktti jrpay^aTiKOfg Koo^oig 

Mia [j,spi5a avakvx&iv U7iOGTripi(^si xriv d7io\|/ri, oti o Gi3y- 
jpovoq k6g[j,0(; aTiOTsXeixai and eva «7iukv6 5iktuo aXkr\ko- 
GxsGS(ov»^^^ 710U o5riysi avayKaGxiKd ce 7ispi(pspsiaKS(; oXo- 
K^^ripcDGSK; «TOU mnov Tri(; E.E.» f) Kai Tr|v «aA,}triXs^dpTriGri» 
oAou Tou TiXavfiTri [j,8gco ttjc; 7iayKOG[j,i07ioiriGri(; (r\ GxoXfi ttjc; 



eyive [leXog to 1950 Kai \\ AdiKX\ ArnioKpaxla xrn; MoyyoMoi; to 1962. Exa 
1964 T] nouyKooXapia eyive ev [ispei [isXoi;. Exa 1972 t] Koypa eyive xo 
evaxo nkripeq |i£Xo<; Kai xo Biexvd|i oxa 1978 xo 5eKaxo. KaBeoxox; Tiapa- 
xiipuxi] eixocv n AyKoXa Kai i] AiBioma. Exa 1973 i] <I)ivXav5ia eyive t] 
Tipcbxr] (iri-«KO|i|ioi)vi(jxiKri» x<i)pa tiou i)7ieypav|/e ouiicpcovia ouvepyaoiog 
He xriv COMECON. Exa Tipcbxa xpovia t] COMECON aTiAxix; TipocoOoiJoe 
xi<; 5i(iepfi<; ejiTiopiKeg oxeoen; avdiieoa oxa Kpdxri-|ieXri. Atio xa |ieoa xri<; 
SeKaexia^; xou 1950 eyive 7ipoo7id9eia yia [leyaluxepri «oiKovo|iiKfi oXo- 
KXfipcoori», |ie xTjv 7ipocb9riori ox^^icov yia oiKovo|iiKfi e^eiSiKeuori xcov 
Kpaxcbv-|ieXcbv. To e^aipexiKd evSiacpepov, eivai 6xi xa ox^^ia auxd (tiou 
TipocoBouoe Kaxd Kupio Xoyo t] EEEA) vipooeKpouoav oxig Siacpcovieg avd- 
iieoa oxa Kpdxri-|ieXri, i5iaixepa xri<; Ouyyapiog Kai xri<; Poi)|iaviai;, avio xo 
cpopo xri<; Kupiapxia^; xcov mo ava7ixuy|ievcov [leXcbv em xcov ao9eveoxepcov. 
BXe7ioi)|ie Xoitiov, 6xi aKOjia Kai oxtjv COMECON, otiou t] riye|ioviKri 
5i)va|iri xri<; EEEA fixav 7ipay|iaxiKd owxpiTixiKii, xa avxixi6e|ieva eGviKd 
oi)|i(pepovxa aKupcovav x^v «oiKovo|iiKfi oXoKXfipcoori». Tt] 5eKaexia xou 
1970 T] COMECON aveXaPe Sidcpopa [leydla oiKovo|iiKd 7ipoypd|i|iaxa, 
OTicog T] KaxaoKeuf] opuxeicov oe KouPa, IloXcovia Kai EEEA Kai xtjv Ka- 
xaoKeuf] epyooxaoicov TiupriviKfn; evepyeiog. Ext] 5idpKeia xri<; SeKaexia^; 
xoi) 1980 xa |ieXri eixav eoxidoei xtjv Tipoooxil xoix; oxtjv aw^riori xri<; Tia- 
paycoyfn; xpocpijicov, xtjv avdvixu^ri pio|irixavicbv i)V|/riXfi<; xexvoXoyia^;, Kai 
xTjv «oiKovo(iiKfi a7ioxeXeo|iaxiK6xrixa». To xeXoi; xri<; COMECON ouoi- 
aoxiKd r]kQe |ie xtjv Kaxdppeuor] xcov KaBeoxcbxcov xou KpaxiKou Kamxali- 
ojiou (le x\c, eviavaoxdoeii; xou 1989-90. H emoTKiri Sidluorj xtji; COM- 
ECON eyive xo 1991. 

201 



aXkr\ket,dpTr\Gr\q- Interdependance). Ei3[j,(pcova [is tt] Gscopia, 
r\ GU[j,[j,STOxn |J,ia(; x(bpa(; gttiv TispicpspsiaKfi oXoK^^fipcDGri a- 
Tiocpspsi [j,ia GSipd a7i6 ocpsXr] Kai yi' auxo KaGiGxaxai «S71(d- 
(psXfic; Kai avayKaia»: KdGs KpdTO(;-[j,sAo^ s^siSiKsusxai gttiv 
Tiapayroyfi GuyKSKpi[j,sv(DV Tipoiovxcov, Kai stgi aTioKxd «gu- 
yKpiTiKo 7iXsov8KTri[j,a». BsA,Ticbv8Tai r\ aTioSoTiKoxriTa tt]^ 
oiKovo[j,ia(;, Xoyco xou evTOVoxspou avTay(DviG[j,oi3 gxt] C,&)vr\ 
TTjc; 7ispi(p8psiaKfi(; oXoK^fipcDGric; tiou s^avayKd(^si tk; stiixsi- 
pfiG8i(; GS SiapKTi sKGuyxpoviGfo^o. EmTuyxdvovxai «oikovo[j,i- 
eq KM[a^aKa(;» gttiv i5ia xriv TispicpspsiaKfi oXoK^^fipcoGri- 5ri- 
[j,ioupyoi3vTai [isjaksq STaipsiS(; nov f^TiopoiJV va GxaGouv as 
TiayKOGfj-ia KM[j,aKa. EniKkeov, PsXiicbvovTai (kcrfd) Tri(; guv- 
5uaG[j,svri(; icjpoq) oi opoi s^Tiopiou Tri(; 0[j,d5a(; xcov xcopcbv 
nov GU[j,[j,STSxouv GTTIV oAoK^tfipcoGri GS GxsGTi [IE Ti^ xcbps(; 
Tou vnoXomov k6g[j,ou. 

H oXri GuXXoyiGTiKTi auxfic; Tri(; TipoGsyyiGrjc; xcov Tispicps- 
psiaKcbv o^tOK^^ripcDGSCDV, sxsi TO 7ip6p}tr|[j,a oxi sivai s^aipsxi- 

Kd «TSXVlKfl». AVTI[J,STC0711(^SI Ttt «OlKOVO[J,lKd 0(pEkr[» GttV Vtt 

sivai ou5sTspa, «avTiKsi[j,8viKd». Triv oiKovo^iia 6xi Gav gxs- 
cr\ [lETa^i) avGpcDTicov, 5riXa5fi xd^srov, Kai noXi) TispiGGOxspo, 
8^(D a7i6 tk; iGTopiKS(; GUvGfiKS(; 5ia[j,6p(p(DGr|(; tcdv KaTiixa^^i- 
GTcbv GS sGvri-Kpdxri Kai tcdv GUvaKoXouGcov avxiGsGSCov avd- 
[lEca g' auxd xa sGvrj-Kpdxri. Ta «o(psXri» nov Tispiypdcpovxai, 
7iapouGid(^ovxai [ie xogo ysviKo Kai acpriprmsvo xpoTio, nov 
(aKoXouG(bvxa(; auxf) xr] }toyiKfi) Ga fixav [j,syaX,i3xspa, av oi 
oiKovo[j,iKs^ oAokXtipcdgsk; sixav 7iayK6G[j,io x^paKxripa. Kai 
7ipdy[j,axi, auxo fixav Kai xo PaGiKo i5soX6yri[j,a xq^ «7iayKo- 
G[j,i07ioiriGri(;»- 6xi 5riXa5fi r\ avduxu^r] xcov oiKovo[j,iK(bv gxs- 
GSCDV avd[j,SGa Gxa Kpdxr| o5riysi oAoK^ripo xov 7iXavfixr| g8 
[j,syaX,i3xspri avduxu^r] Kai aXXri^^s^dpxriGri, gxtjv oiKovo[j,iKfi 



202 



Gi)yK>uriGri Kai 0[j,oy8V07ioiriGri Kai xs^^iKd GTr\v S[j,7is5coGri tt]^ 
«7iayK6G[j,ia(; sipfivri(;». 

H i5ia r\ (^cofi 5ia\|/si35si xa i58oXoyfi[j,aTa at)Tfi(; ttjc; g^o- 
X^q. H 7iayKOG[j,i07ioiriGri acpopd [im xoucpxa av87iTt)y[j,svcov 
Kpaxcbv (mq 7ipo(; xriv 5is9vo7ioiri gt] tou KscpaXaiou), r] cpxcbxia 
SX81 STisKxaGsi GTi^ ava7iTUGG6[j,8V8^ X^ops?, £V(b 01 5iapKsi(; 
i^7ispia}^iGTiKoi 7i6}tS[j,oi 5ia\|/si35ouv tk; t)7iOTi98[j,svs(; gu- 
yK^fiGSK;. Oi 5iapKsi(; svxdGSi^ evzoq Tri(; E.E., o kiv5uvo(; dr\- 
[j,ioupyia(; SisuGuvxripiou, r\ Evpchiu] xcov noXhhv xaxuxfiTCOv, 
aTiOTsXoiJV dA,>tri [j,ia 5id\|/suGri. 

©sropriTiKd, 01 7ispi(pspsiaKS(; o^^okXtipcdgsi^ (onmq r\ E.E.), 
GXT] pi(^ovTai, g' auTO 710U sxsi Tispiypacpsi Gav «XsiT0upyiK6 (f) 
vsoXsiTOupyiKo) TSxvaG[j,a»: r] i5ia r\ 'ksnovpjia Tr|(; oikovo- 
[j,ia(;, T] avduTU^ri gtsvcdv oiKovo[j,iK(bv gxsgscdv avd[j,SGa Gxa 
KpdTri-[j,sXri [j,ia(; TispicpspsiaKfic; oXoK}tfipcoGri(;, o5riysi Guva- 
KoXouGa GXT] 5ri[j,ioupyia «U7isp-s9viK(bv» opydvcov nov 9a 
5iaxsipi(^ovTai xriv (oiKovo[j,iKd apxiKd) TispicpspsiaKf) o}to- 
Kkr\p(i)cr\, Kai gto xekoq, GxaSiaKd, oSrjysi «ava7i6(p8UKTa» 
GXT] 5ri[j,ioupyia o^OG7iov5iaK(bv 5o[j,(bv, gto ^87i8paG[j,a xcov 
s9v(bv-KpaT(bv. Sxa TiapaTidvco 7ipoGTi98Tai r\ «7ioXiTiKfi Poi3- 
XriGr|» Tcov KuPspvfiGSCov TCDV Gt)[j,paA,Xo[a^8vcov [lepchv va 5ri- 
[j,ioupyri9oi3v oi «U7isp-s9viKoi» 9sg[j,oi, yiaxi s^avayKd(^ovTai 
7ipo(; TOiJTO Xoyco ttjc; avTi[j,8T(b7iiGri(; «Koiv(bv exQpchv Kai 

7ipOKXflGSC0V»- GXriV TlSpiTlTCDGri TTjc; E.E., xriv U7l0Pd9[J,lGri TCOV 

KpaT(bv-[j,8}t(bv Gxriv 7iayK6G[j,ia Kamxa^tiGTiKfi ispapxia sva- 

VTi TCOV HQA Kai ttjc; laucoviat;. 

H 6A,ri GuXXoyiGTiKTi sivai (s[j,(pav(b(;) Xav9aG[j,8vri Kai 5sv 

xriv smPsPaicbvsi r\ iGTopiKf) s^Tisipia: 

Y7ioPa9[j,i(^si tk; avTi9sGSi(; nov UTidpxouv avd[j,SGa 
gtk; x&tpeq nov gu[j,[j,stsxouv gttiv o}tOK}tfipcoGr|. 



203 



Y7ioPa9[j,i(^8Tai o p6Ao(; xou s9vou(;-KpdTOU^, togo gtt] 
SiaxfipriGri xrig Ta^iKfi(; Kupiapxia^ gto SGCOxspiKo xou 
KpdTO(;-[a^8Aot)(;, ogo Kai Gxr] SiaxfipriGri (Kai avapdG- 
[j,iGr|) TTjc; 9sGri(; ttjc; «s0viKfi(;» dpxouGa(; xd^rjc; gttiv 
TiayKOGfj-ia KamxaXiGTiKfi ispapxia. Mia TispicpspsiaKfi 
oXoK^fipcDGri 710U 9a Kaxs^^riys va sivai gs pdpo^Tri(; 
«s0viKfi(;» dpxouGat; Td^ri(; 5sv s^si v6r\[ia. To s9vo(;- 
Kpdxot; 9a avTiTax9si g' auxfiv, [is xriv oAoTiXsupr] gu- 
I^TiapdGTaGri xcov KamTa^LiGTcbv xou. H TispicpspsiaKf) 
oAxDKA,fip(DGri SX81 v6ri[j,a, 6xi i^ovo av Siaxripsi, aXXd 
Kai av S7iau^dv8i xa o(pekr\ Kai xa GU[j,(pspovxa xri(; s- 
9viKfi(; dpxouGat; xd^r|(;. Aux6(; sivai o X6yo(; nov xo 
89vo(;-Kpdxo(; (Gav o GuX,}toyiK6(; SKcppaGxfic; xcdv gu[j,- 
(pspovxcov xT]^ dpxoDGa(; xd^rjc;) 5iaxripsi utio xov sXsy- 
x6 xou xTjv «s9viKfi oiKovo[j,ia» onmq Kaxa58i^a[j,8 
(5Tr\v 8v6xrixa «H uopsia xri(; oiKovo[j,iKfi(; oXoKA,fip(D- 
Gri9>. 

Y7ioxi[j,dxai xo ysyov6(; 6xi r\ 5i89vo7ioiri gt] Kai r| ak- 

}^riXs^dpxriGri xcov 5ia(p6pcov oiKovo[j,i(bv gxov Kamxa- 

>^iG[j,6, oSriysi, xauxoxpova, gxtjv o^uvgti xcov avxayco- 

viGfo^cbv (oiKovo[j,iKcbv, TioXixiKcbv Kai yscoGxpaxriyiKcbv) 

7ipdy[j,a nov iGXPSi xogo ysviKd, ogo Kai svx6<; xcov i- 

5icov xcov TispicpspsiaKcbv oXoK^ripcDGSCov. 

ExTjv 7ipay[j,axiK6xrixa auxf) r\ GxoXfi, aTioxuyxdvsi va avxi- 

Xri(p9si xov k6g[j,o 5uva[j,iKd, 5ia}tSKxiKd, 7ipdy[j,a nov Grmai- 

vsi, psa^tiGxiKd. 

Asv UTidpxsi Kavsvat; dXXo^ xp67iO(; 5iaKpaxiKcbv gxsgscov 
GXOV Gijyxpovo k6g[j,o, skx6(; a7i6 xoix; gugxsxig[j,oi3(; 5i3va[j,ri(; 
avd[j,SGa Gxa s9vri-Kpdxri. Ta s9vri-Kpdxr| 7ipoG5oKoi3v 0(psXr| 
a7i6 XT] GU[j,[j,sxoxn Tovq g' sva GUvaG7iiG[j,6 Kpaxcbv. H Fsp- 
[lavia, 7ipoG5oKd 6xi 9a s^apyupcDGei xrjv oiKovo[j,iKfi xrjc^ 5iJ- 



204 



va[ir\ ce TioXnud], 5i7iXco[j,aTiKfi Kai ([j,sA,>^ovTiKd) oxpaxicDTiKfi 
UTispoxn TOD ysp[j,aviKoi3 Ka7iiTa}^iG[j,oi3 os [iia o[j,og7iov5io- 
7ioir|[j,svri E.E. H TaXkia, S7ii5i(bKsi va avTiGTa9[j,iGSi tk; ysp- 
[j,aviKS(; S7ii5i(b^si(; (yi' auxo Kai sivai svavxiov [imq o[j,6g7iov- 
dr\q E.E.) Kai xauxoxpovx r\ enidim^f] xrig TaXkiaq sivai va 
[j,sxaxpa7i8i r\ i5ia ce riy8[j,oviKfi 5i3va[j,ri gxtjv E.E. O p6Xo(; 
Kai r\ ijTiap^ri xcov 5i89v(bv opyaviGfo^cbv Kai GUvaG7iiG[j,(bv 
Kpaxcbv, sivai a^s5idX,uxa 58[j,svo(; [is xovq avxaycoviG[j,oi3(; 
xcov sGviKcbv Kpaxcbv. 

Kavsvag Gt)vaG7iiG[j,6(; Kpaxcbv 5sv 5r|[j,ioupysixai, cpUGiKd, 
Gxripi(^6[j,8vo^ GXTjv Koki] Qekr\cr\ xcdv GU[j,paX,Xo[j,8vcov. Oi3x8 
y8viKd Kai aopiGxa and... avdyKt]. O GUvaG7iiG[j,6^ 7idvxox8 
8Kcppd(^8i xa GU[j,(p8povra xri(; riy8[j,oviKfi(; 5i3va[j,ri(; (f) xcdv r\- 
y8[j,oviKcbv 5uvd[j,8CDV, onrnq gxtjv 7i8pi7ixcDGri xrjg E.E.). Auxo 
58V Gri[j,aiv8i, 6xi oi vnoXoxKeq x&tpeq U7ioxp8cbvovxai va gu[j,- 
[j,8xdGxouv Gxov Gt)vaG7iiG[j,6 Tiapd XT] GsXriGTi xoix;, Kai 8vd- 
vxia Gxa GU[j,(p8povxd xovq. H riy8[j,ovia xcov HQA, (xov5piKd) 
[j,8xpi XT] 58Ka8xia xou 1970, U7ifip^8 GUVo^^iKd 87ico(p8Xfi(; yia 
xa GU[j,(pspovxa xou «5uxikoi3 Gxpaxo7is5ou». Xdpi(; g' auxfiv 
xTjv riys[j,ovia, r\ laucovia [j,sxaxpd7iriKs gxt] 5si3xspri oikovo[j,i- 
KT) 5i3va[j,ri xou Ti^^avfixri Kai r\ Tep[iavia gxtjv xpixr], svcb avxi- 
[j,sxco7iiGxriKs ennvx&iq r\ «GoPisxiKfi a7isiXfi» Kai o «ko[j,[j,ou- 
vigxik6(; Kiv5uvo(;» gxk; 5uxiks^ W>P^'i- AK6[j,a Kai oi [j,SGais^ 
f) [iiKpeq KamxaXiGxiKs^ W>P^'i, onmq r\ EX,Xd5a, si5av xrjv oi- 
Kovo[j,ia xou(; va avauxuGGSxai [is v\\ir\h:)X)q pvQ[iox)q. Qgxogo, 
g' sva GUvaG7iiG[j,6 Kpaxcbv, SK(ppd(^ovxai Kupico(; xa GU[j,(ps- 
povxa xT]^ riys[j,ovsuoixja^ 5uva[j,ri(;. Eivai r\ upoGTidGeia au- 
Tr\q xTjc; 5uva[j,ri(;, va GxspscbGSi Kai va stiskxsivsi xa GU[j,(pspo- 
vxd xr|^, auxo tiou Ka9o5riysi Kai Ka9opi(^si xov i5io xo Guva- 
G7iiG[j,6 Kpaxcbv. H E.E. 5sv 9a UTifipxs xcopit; xrjv oiKovo[j,iKfi 
5uva[j,ri xri(; TEp[iaviaq Kai xr] GxpaxicDxiKf) Kai 5mXcD[j,axiKfi 



205 



loxp Tri<; YakXiaq. A716 xov 7ispi(pri[j,o yaX,Xo-ysp[j,aviK6 d^ova, 
apxiC,ovv (Kai aTioppsouv) ohx gttiv E.E. Bits ano xiq koivs(; 
TipoxdasK; xou sits (avxiGxpocpa) and xiq 5ia(po fkq xou (9a 
EnavEkQov[ie avaXuxiKd a[iec(i)q TiapaKdxro). 

AKpipdcx; yiaxi oi GUvaG7iiG[j,oi Kpaxcbv Gxripi(^ovxai gxou^ 
([a^sxaPaA,X6[j,svot)(;) GUGxsxiGfo^otx; 5i3va[j,ri^ xcov S7ii[j,spou(; 
Kpaxcbv Kai gxoix; sGvikoix; xovq avxay(DviG[j,oi3(;, yi' auxo a- 
Kpipdx; xov Xoyo [j,sxapdX,Xovxai SiapKox; onmq r\ Kivoi3[j,svri 
a[i[ioq, PpiGKovxai SiapKox; gs 5ia5iKaGia [iETe^eki^r\q. Ms 
dA,A,a Xoyia, PpiGKovxai udvxa gs aGxaGf) iGoppoma. 

H d7io\|/ri 6x1 r\ E.E. auoxs^si svav GxaGspo gxo xpovo op- 
yaviG[j,6 (uTidpxsi s5(b Kai 50 jpovm) Gxspsixai iGxopiKfi(; 
xsK[j,ripi(DGr|^. H E.E. 5sv auoxs^tsi [im «sviaia iGxopia» 
ypa[j,[j,iKfi(; avduxu^rjc; 7ipo(; xrjv «o}tOKXfip(DGri», aX,}td s^uspi- 
sxsi, GXT] SidpKsia xcov Tisvfivxa xpovcov, noXkeq «iGxopiS(;» 
xauxoxpova. Msxpi xr] 5sKasxia xou 1970 5sv sxiGsxo 9s[j,a 
yia 07ioia5fi7ioxs o[j,OG7iov5ia, svcb, siproviKd, r| EOK o5fiyriGS 
GXTjv sv5uvd[j,(DGri Kai Gxa9spo7ioiriGr| xou sGvikoij Kpdxoix;. 
EtiitiXsov, 01 HQA GscopouGav xrjv EOK Gav svav auo xou^ 
Twhhveq xrjc; 7iayK6G[j,ia(; riys[j,ovia^ xovq. And xr] SsKasxia 
xou 1970 Kai |J,sxpi xa xs^^ri xrjc; 5sKasxia(; xou 1980, r\ 6Xr| 
5ia5iKaGia evzoq xri(; EOK sKxpaxuvGriKs, Xoyco xr|(; uayKo- 
G[j,ia(; oiKovo[j,iKfi(; KpiGrjc;, Kai 5iapKsi(; s[j,7iopiKoi 7i6Xs[j,oi 
(aX,Xd Kai sGviKd aA,A,riXo[j,axaip(b[j,axa) ^SGuouGav gxo sgcd- 
xspiKo xTjc;. H «vsa» EupcDTiri xou MdaGxpixx dpxiGS va XTiC,e- 
xai a7i6 xo AsKSfo^Ppri xou 1991 Kai [j,sxd, sxsi 5riXa5fi 5idpKsia 
(^cofi(; 5(b5sKa xpovia. Kai fi5ri vsa Gsvdpia [j,sxs^sXi^rig (5isu- 
Guvxfipio K.A,7i.) ava5uovxai. 



206 



H E.E. 8ivai, XoiTiov, evaq Gt)vaG7iiG[j,6^ avs^dpiriTCDV, ku- 
piapxcov Kpaxcbv as aaxaGfi looppoma, nov [lokiq KaxaKid 
sva S7ii7is5o 'kenovpjiaq, dvc'kenovpjiEq apxiC,ovv va avacpij- 
ovxai Kai TipsTisi va [j,sts^sXix9si ce koiti dA,Xo. Auxo^ sivai 
Kai o X6yo(; ttjc; x)iiap^r\q togcdv aGTd9[j,riTC0v Tiapayovxcov co^ 
npoq tk; [leXkovTiKeq Tri(; 7ipoo7iTiKS(;. A716 auxfiv xriv iikevpa, 
SX81 Gri[j,aGia va 5oi3[j,s tiois^ Tipo cfixiKst; avoiyovcai yia to 
[lekXov (to «opaT6 [leXkivyy, 5ri}ta5fi gs pd9o<; 5sKa, deKane- 
VT8 xpovia, yiaTi (pUGiKd gs... SKaTO xpovia Ta udvTa f^Tiopow 
va Gt)[j,poi3v, aX,}td 9a TipoKsiTai yia... dX,}tov Ti^^avfiTri!). Tpia 
sivai Ta 5uvaTd Gsvdpia E^Eki^r\q ttjc; E.E. Aev TipoKsiTai yia 
anXi] G8vapioX,oyia, sivai 01 [j,ova5iK8^ 7ii9av8(; e^eki^eiq: 

IIspinTCDatj npcbrrj: 

H E.E. va 5iaA,u98i GTa «s^' cov GUVSTs9r|». Atiots^^si v(\ 
XiyoTspo 7ii9avfi s^s^^i^r], touMxigtov gto d[j,8G0 \ikXKov, s- 
GTCO Kai av apKSTOi fi5ri ttjv TipopXsTiouv ([j,STa^i3 tcdv otioicdv 
Kai o yvcDGTO^ a[j,spiKav6(; v80(piXsXsi39spo(; MiXtov Opi- 
VT[j,av). KaT' auTfiv ttjv SKTi[j,riGri, r] Guvsxnf; S7isKTaGr| v(\c, 
E.E. 7ipoG9sTSi vsa \iEkr[ Kai Ka9iGTd v(\ XsiTOupyia v(\c, Tipa- 
KTiKd aSuvaTT], \i\ac, Kai 5sv f^TiopoiJV va GU[j,piPaGT0i3v Ta 
avTiTi9s[j,sva GU[j,(pspovTa tcdv mo avs7iTuy[j,sv(DV KamTa^^i- 
G[j,(bv [j,s TOix; 7110 a5i3va[j,ou(; Kai «Ka9uGTspri[j,svou(;». Qgto- 
GO T] STisKTaGTi v(\c, E.E. Tispav Tcov xcoprov v(\c, SuTiKT)^ Eupd)- 
Tiri^ aTiOTsXsi avayKaiOTtiTa yia to «GKXrip6 7iupfiva» tt]^ E.E. 
Oi X(bps(; KsvTpiKT)^ Kai AvaTO^tiKfic; Eup(b7ir|(; (XKAE) auo- 
T8}toi3v «(^(dtik6 xo)po» yia tt] rsp[j,avia, svcb r| 5isi3puvGri s- 
TisKTsivsi Tov sXsyxo Tou «supco7iaiKoi3» Ka7iiTaXiG[j,oi3 |J,sxpi 
Ta Gijvopa v(\c, PcoGia^. Qgtogo, svGCO^aTcbvsi evxbc, v(\c, E.E. 



207 



Xcopsc, [J-s TspdoTia oiKovo[j,iKd Kai KoivcoviKd 7ipopXfi[j,aTa, 
ysyov6(; nov 9a o^uvGsi [is tt] [leXkovciKi] sigo5o ttjc; Pou[j,a- 
via(; Kai Tri(; Bot)X,yapia(;. Kai aacpaXdx;, UTidpxouv Kai oi PaX- 
KaviKs^ XO)p£<^ Tiou sivai dSrjXo, av Kai tiots, 9a sigsXGouv 
Gxriv E.E. (AXpavia, Ssppta, Boovia, Kpoaxia). H [ir\ 81go5o(; 
auTcbv TCDV xcopcbv, Kai (oticd^ siSafo^s) r| [o^sTaxpoTifi tcdv XKAE 
G8 U7ioPa9[j,iG[j,svri C,&)vr\ evioq Tri(; E.E., aneikei va o^ijvsi tk; 
s9viKS(; avTi98GSi(;. rioXij xapaKxripiGTiKfi sivai r\ TispiTiTCOGri 
Tri(; ToupKiat;. H o^uvGr] (Kaxd SiaGifmaxa) xcov sXXrivoTOup- 
KiKcbv GxsGSCov, sivai sva(; xpoTio q [is xov otioio r| ToupKia 
7iis(^si yia TT] Gi3v5sGfi Tri(; [j,s xriv E.E. npdy[j,aTi, r] gxsgti 
ToupKia(; - E.E. sivai akXr\ [im Kauxfi 7ispi7iT(DGr|. H [ir\ svgco- 
[j,dTCOGfi TTjc; 9a aTioxs^^si Tiriyfi avTi9sGSCov Kai svxdGSCov, r\ 
8VGCD[j,dT(DGfi Tri(; 9a [j,STa(pspsi [j,ia xcbpa (ouGiaGxiKd) oiko- 
vo[j,iKd xpsoK07iri[j,8vri Kai «TpiTOKOG[j,iKfi» 8Vt6(; Tri(; E.E. 

H 5iapKfi(; STisKxaGri svsxsi xov kivSuvo oi avTi9sGSi(; va 
[j,STa(psp9oi3v Kai gtoix; tiio avs7iTuy[j,£vou(; Ka7iiTaXiG[j,oi3^, [is 

TsXlKO a7lOT8>^8G[J,a TTIV 7iapdX,UGri TT]^ }tSlTOt)pyia^ TTj^ E.E. 

Fi' auTO Kai r\ oXr] (o^U[j,8vri) GU(^fiTriGri yia xa «xcopiKd opia 
xr\q Eup(b7iri9>. O ZiGKdp Nx' Egxsv 9s(Dpsi 6xi r\ siGo5o(; xri(; 
ToupKia(;, yia TiapdSsiyfo^a, 9a aTioxsXsGSi «KaxaGxpo(pfi yia 
xTjv Eup(b7iri». 

Av Kai xo Gsvdpio auxo (xtjc; 5idA,UGri(;) 5sv sivai Kai svxs- 
hhq a7ii9avo (Gxripi(^sxai gxt] Guvsxn GUGGcbpsuGr] avxi9sGS- 
cov svx6(; xri(; E.E.), cogxogo, auoxs^^si xrjv mo aKpaia Tispi- 
TixcDGTi. Mia svSexofo^svri KaxdppsuGr| xr|(; E.E., 9a oSrjyoiJGS 
GS TiayKOGfj-ia oiKovo[j,iKfi avaxapaxn (yia va [j,riv avacpsp- 
9oi3[j,8 gxk; xspdGxis^ 7ioXixiks(; Kai koivcoviks(; S7imx(bG8i(;). 
AG(pa}t(b(;, [j,ia KaxaGxpocpf) 5sv auoxpsTisxai, yiaxi aTikmq 
5sv... TipsTisi va GU[j,psi! Qgxogo, 5sv 9a TipsTisi Kavsit; va u- 
TispPdXsi mq 7ipo(; [im [ieiC,ova KpiGT] gxtjv E.E. H 9sG[j,o9sxri- 



208 



cr\ [lEGG) Tou 7ipoT8iv6[j,8vou «EuvTdy[j,aTO(;» (TVzXoq IX, dp- 
9po 59) 5ia5iKaGicbv a7i6Gxior|(; KpaT(bv-[j,s}t(bv and xriv 'E- 
vcoGTi svidGGOVxai Gxriv TipoGTidGsia avTi[j,ST(b7iiGri(; Tiapofo^oi- 
cov Kiv5i3vcov ([j,SG(D GxaSiaKTic; auoppocpriGric; xcov Kpa5a- 
G^icbv). EnvKkeov, oi Ka7iiTa}tiG[j,oi Tri(; 5uTiKfi(; EupcoTirig (r\ 
E.E.-15) exouv evaXhrnxiKsq hbceiq: r\ Evpchiu] xou SisuGu- 
vxripiou, r\ 5r|[j,ioupyia supcoTiaiKoij Gxpaxot) Kai r\ aij^riGri 
xcov aGxt)vo[j,iK(bv [j,rixaviG[j,(bv, aTioxsXoiJV xk; «svaX,XaKxiKS(; 
hbcEiqyy. 

EjimpoGGsxa, oi avjKXivovceq 5t)vd[j,si(; avd[j,SGa Gxa Kpd- 
Tr\-[iekr\ xr|(; E.E.-15 s^aKoAouGoiJV va sivai iGXupst;. H avxa- 
ycoviGxiKTi niECf] and HIIA - laTicovia sivai apKsxd [j,syd}tr|, 
(DGxs va smpdXsi GuyK^GSK; [j,sxa^i3 xcov [lehav. And auxfiv 
xTjv d7io\|/ri SX81 5iKio o Francois Vercammen, oxav iGXupi(^s- 
xai 6x1 xo oiKo56[j,ri[j,a xri(; E.E Ssv sivai «x6go sijGpauGxo gxo 
GT] [j,sio va KaxappsiJGSi and xrjv Tipcbxri Kaxaiyi5a, oiiGiq m- 
Gxsijouv KdTioioi xr]^ pi(^0G7iaGxiKfi(; ApiGxspd(;».^^^ 

IIspinTCDatj dsvTsptj: 

Na 7iapa[j,sivsi r] E.E. oticd^ exei, [is [iiKpeq, opiaKs^ «^ek- 
xicdgsk;)). Auxo 5sv «7ips7isi» va GU[j,psi, av, Tiap' 6Xa auxd, 
GU[j,p8i, o5riy8i gxtjv napakvcf] Kai xrjv GxaSiaKf) cpGopd. H 
5isi3puvGri xri(; E.E., T] ONE Kai xo supcb, auaixow [im nohb 
7110 GuyKsvxpcoxiKTi Xsixoupyia, yia va f^Tiopsi va GxripixGei xo 
6Xo syxsipr|[j,a. Fi' auxo Kai oi Guvsxsit; «P8}txi(bGSi(;» xcov 
G8G[j,(bv X,8ixoupyia(; xri(; E.E., xo «Si)vxay[j,a» K.Xn. 

nspinTCDatj Tpirtj: 

H EupcDTiri xcov «Ti6Khm xaxuxfixcov», v(\c, ax)i^r\(yx\c, (Kai 
GsG[j,oGsxr|Grig) xou 8i5ikoi3 pdpoix; xcdv [j,8ydkov Kpaxcbv 
(Fsp[j,avia(;, Ya}Xia.c„ Bpsxaviat;, IxaMa^) g8 pdpo^ xcov \a- 



209 



Kpcbv Kai [lEcaicDV KpaT(bv-[j,sX(bv, to «5ist)9uvTfipio» and sva 
GK^ripo Tiupfiva xcopcbv. Dtico^ siSafo^s, r| Evpchiu] tcdv «iioX- 
X(bv xaxuTTiTCOv)), fixav gttiv rmspriaia Sidxa^ri fi5ri and to 
MdaoxpixT. AKpipdcx; STisiSf) auxo to osvdpio Gscopsixai oxi 
sivai Kai to TiiGavoxspo (dA,}^coGTS GU(^riTSiTai oXosva Kai tiio 
avoixxd a7i6 6gou(; Ka9opi(^ouv tk; s^sM^sk; £vt6(; Tri(; E.E.) 
9a xpsiaoTSi va to 5oi3[j,s mo avaX,UTiKd. 

To «si5ik6 pdpo(;» xcov [j,sydX(DV Kpaxcbv tt]^ Eup(b7iri(; 
I^Tiopsi va au^riGsi Tiapauspa (oijtgx; r\ aXkaq sivai sk tcdv 
7ipay[j,dTC0V au^rifa^svo). Qgtogo, [im E.E. tcdv «[j,8yd>uCDV dv- 
vd[j,scDV», sivai SK tcdv 7ipay[j,dTCDV avscpiKTrj. Oi Siacpops^ nov 
XCDpi(^ouv auTS^ Ti^ W>P^'i sivai TspdGTis^. H BpsTavia sivai 
EKTOc; supcb, r\ oiKovo[j,ia ttjc; sivai 7ioX,i3 7110 5is9vo7ioiri[j,svri 
a7i6 Ti<; aXkeq W>P^'i tti<; E.E., sxsi 7ioA,ij 7110 gtsve^ gxegsk^ [le 
tk; HQA (oiKovo[j,iKE(; Kai «yscD7io}tiTiKE(;»), GTOixsia nov 5sv 
6a avaTpaTioiJV gto opaTO [j,eX,Xov. H iTaMa sivai r\ Tikeov a- 
SwaTTi a7i6 tk; «[j,sydXs(;» x&tpeq, r\ cx)[nikevci\ tt]^ [is tt] 
Tep[iavia Kai tt] raA,Ma sivai s^aipsTiKd 5i3GKo>uri (dX,>uCDGTS 
01 5do TsX,st)Tais^ 5sv ttjv avTi[j,STCD7ii(^ouv iGOTi^a). Asv si- 
vai, Xomov, KaGoAou Tuxaio 6ti gttjv sigPoXt) gto IpdK, Bps- 
Tavia-lTaMa ([is tt] Gi3[j,7ipa^ri Kai ttjc; Icnaviaq) PpsGriKav 
avTi[j,ETCD7iS(; [j,s rsp[j,avia-raX,Ma. 

AisdGdvtiipio Ktti Ya>.>.oyspnaviK6<g d^ovatg 

A7io[j,Evsi [j,ia E.E. 5isuGuvTripiou, and rsp[j,avia, TaXkia, 
X&tpeq Tri(; MtisvsXoij^ (BsXyio, Aou^S[j,poi3pyo). To TispiPorj- 
TO |j.riTpo7io}tiTiK6 KEVTpo Tri(; E.E. H yaX,Xoysp[a^aviKfi GU[j,cpCD- 
via-7iXaiGio tou lavouapiou 2003, [iomC,ei va avoiysi d[j,SGa 
TTjv Tipo oiTiKTi auTf). H GU[j,(pcDvia TipopXsTisi, avd[j,SGa gt' 
dA,A,a, OTi Ga TOTioGsTtiGsi Eva<; ysviKoc; ypa[j,[j,aTEa(; ttjc; [imq 



210 



X(bpa(; GTO ypacpsio xou itprnQviiovpyoi) tt]^ aXkr\q. Ss guvs- 
5pidGSi(; Tou UTioupyiKot) GUfo^PouMou 9a gu[j,[j,stsxsi o ap[j,6- 
5iO(; UTioupyot; Tri(; aXkr\q x(bpa(;, oxav xa 9s[j,aTa xov acpo- 
poijv, 01 5i[j,spsi(; GUvavTTiGSK; UTioupycbv 9a svTa9oi3v, [is 
GTOxo TT] 5ia[j,6p(p(OGri koivcdv 9sgscov ce gt] [j,avTiKd 9s[j,aTa 
xrig E.E. ' Msxd xov Ti6'ke\jiO gxo IpdK, raX,Ma, Yepiiavia, 
Bekjio, Aou^s[j,poi3pyo, avaKoivcDGav xrjv 7ip69sGfi xovq yia 
XT] 5ri[j,ioupyia GxpaxicoxiKoij [j,rixaviG[j,oi3 and xiq x&tpeq avxeq 
(TipcoxoPouMa r\ OTioia xs^tiKd KaxsppsuGS, 9a 87iavsX9ou[j,8 
GXO En6[is\/o KscpdXaio). 

H EupcDTiri, Xomov, xcov 7ioX,X(bv xaxuxfixcov Kai xou 5isu- 
9uvxripiou Tipo xcov iwhhv; H i5sa (Kai oi 7ipoG7id9siS(;) 5sv 
sivai Kaivoijpyia. IlaXioxspa, o ZaK Nxs^top, sixs xr|v i5sa au- 
xs(; 01 x&ipeq (7ip6G9sxs Kai xk; 0X,}^av5ia - IxaMa) va Guvd- 
\|/ODV «[j,ia St)v9fiKri evioq xri(; Suv9fiKri(;». O Tipcbriv KayKsXd- 
pio<; xT]^ TEp[iaviaq Helmut Kohl xo 1994 sKavs [im uapaPo- 

«OavxaGxsix8 8va gxoXo and 5sKa7i8vxs uXoia. Oa- 
vxaGX8ix8, STiiGTic;, 7i(D(;, a7i6 xa 5sKa7isvxs auxd iikoia, 
xa 71SVX8 f) 58V 9s}touv f) 5sv f^TiopoiJV va avauxu^ouv 
xTjv xaxuxrjxa xcov aXkav 5sKa. Ti 9a yivsi; Eivai 5iKaio 
58Ka nXoia va Ka9uGxspoi3v xdpiv tisvxs, nov r\ 5sv 9s- 
A,ouv f[ 58V i^TiopoiJv;)).^^'* 

Suvfiyays a7i6 auxfiv xrjv TiapaPo^^fi 6xi xp8id(^8xai gxtjv 
E.E. «9sG[j,iKfi susXi^ia», yia va f^TiopoiJV Kd7ioiS(; x^^P^? "^^ 
«7ipoxcopoi3v 7110 ypfiyopa» (onmq si5a[j,s auxfiv xrjv «9sG[j,iKfi 
susX,i^ia» xr|v s5cogs r\ Suv9fiKr| xr|(; NiKaia^ xo 2000). O 
GK}trip6(; Tiupfivat;, Kaxd xov Ko>u, 9a STipsTis va a7iox8>^sixai 



211 



a7i6 Yepiiavia, YakXia, B8>^yio, Aou^s[j,poi3pyo, 0X,Xav5ia Kai 

Qgtogo, Kai TO (oTioio) 5ist)9uvTfipio sxsi va U7isp7iri5fiGSi 
TioXXd s^7i65ia, Tooa nou to KaGioTOW s^aipsTiKd a[j,(piPoXo 
(Kai nohb S7iiKiv5uvo) yia tt] ouvoxn vr\q E.E. 

Oi 5ia(pops(; rsp[j,avia(;-raX,Ma(; sivai noXkeq, Kai KaGoXou 
siJKoXo va ^STispaGTOiJV. H ysp[j,aviKfi oiKovo[j,ia sivai nohb 
7110 «avoiKTfi» GTO SisGyt) avTaycoviG[j,6 and tt] jaXkiKi] (aX- 
XcoGTS sivai nohb iGXupoTspri tt]^ jaXkiKr\q - to ysp[j,aviK6 
AEn sivai 30% [a^syaA,i3Tspo tou yaX,XiKoi3). H TaXkia: 

«[...] sivai sva(; SsuTspoK^aGOiTOt; Ka7iiTa}^iG[j,6(; tou 
OTioiou r\ PapuTTiTa SiaTtjpsiTai and [im «oiKou[j,sviKfi» 

7l0>ulTlK0-7l0XlTlGTlKfl STlippofl, Kai O 07l0i0(; sivai U710- 

Xps(0[j,svo^ va sivai 5s[j,svo(; gto «yaX,}to-ysp[j,aviK6 d- 
^ova» yia va 5iaTripfiGSi ttjv TipcoToPouMa Kai tt] Gsgti 
TOU GTTjv riysGia ttjc; E.E. Ilap' 6Xa auTd, [is au^avofis- 
vo puG[j,6 [r\ TaXkia] PpiGKSTai 7iayi5su[j,svri [lExa^X) Tri(; 
TauTOXpovrjc; avdSuGtjc; ttjc; BpsTaviKfic; Kai rsp[j,aviKfi(; 

S . 226 

ouva[j,ri9>. 

O Chris Harman Tispiypdcpsi tiio avaA,UTiKd tk^ 5ia(pops<; 
Takkiaq - TEp[iaviaq: 

«0 rsp[j,aviK6(; Ka7iiTa}LiG[j,6(; STiiKsvTpcbvsi Kupi(D(; 
TO sv5ia(pspov TOU GTa GU[j,(pspovTa tiou acpopouv tov 
TiaviGXupo Pio[j,rixaviK6 tou TO[j,sa, Ta ouoia SKTsivovTai 
Tispav TCDV sGviKcbv TOU GUVopcDV, Kupico(; GS akka [j,spri 
Tri(; supco7iaiKfi(; sv5ox(bpa(;. AuTd tov o5fiyriGav 7ipo(; 
TTjv AvaTO^tiKT) EupcDTiri yia ttjv syKaTdGTaGt] Guyxpo- 
vrov Piofj-TixaviKcbv ^ovd5cov, Tispioxn [is GxsTiKd cpTrivfi 



212 



Kai si5iKsu[j,£vri spyaxiKfi xd^ri Kai [is syyuxriTa gtk; u- 
7idpxouGS(; ayops(; Kai xa S7isv5uTiKd Ksvxpa tt]^ Fspfj-a- 
via(;. Ta GU[j,(pspovTa Tri(; TaXkiaq sxouv [o^syaXuTspri 
SKxaari. 'E^si svav TioXixiKd armavxiKo aypoxiKo xo[j,sa, 
GU[j,(pspovxa gxk; upcbriv auoiKist; xr]^ gxt] Bopsia Kai 
AuxiKTi AcppiKT), GU[j,p6X,aia 7isxp8>^aiot) gxt] Msgti Ava- 
xoXf) (Ipdv Kai, xouXdxiGxov |J,sxpi TipoGCpaxa, gxo I- 
pdK), Kai au^av6[j,8V8(; enevdvceiq ce UTiripsGist; gxt] 
AaxiviKT) Afo^spiKTi. Ev(b o xpouot; avd7ixu^ri(; xri(; Fsp- 
[j,avia(; xrjv coGsi 7ipo(; avaxo>^iKd, r] TakXia TipsTisi va 
8^aG(paMG8i GU[j,(pspovxa nov SKxsivovxai and xov Ax- 
>uavxiK6 ax; xrjv ApaPiKf) ©d^^aGGa - 7ispioxs(; xk; 07ioiS(; 
01 HQA xk; Gsropow KsvxpiKS(; yia xa 5iKd xoix; ysco- 
GxpaxriyiKd GU[j,(pspovxa». 

Msxd xTjv sigPoXt) gxo IpdK, 01 5ia(pops(; [j,8xa^i3 TaXkiaq 
Kai TEp[iaviaq, Tiapd xo [j,sxa^i3 xoix; «[j,sxco7io», fixav s[j,(pa- 
vsi(; ax; 7ipo(; xk; g^sgek; [o^s xi^ HQA. H rsp[j,aviKfi KuPspvriGri 
fixav nohb mo GU[j,piPaGxiKfi, svd) dev kxave xrjv suKaipia va 
S7ii5siKvi3si xTjv «Kaxav6riGfi» xr]^ yia xrjv A[j,spiKaviKfi sigPo- 
Xf) GXO IpdK. H rsp[j,avia s^si iGXPpd oiKovofo^iKd GU[j,(pspovxa 
gxk; HQA (oi s^aya)ys(; xrjc; rsp[j,avia(; gxk; HQA avxmpoGa)- 
Tisijouv xo 2,6% xou ysp[j,aviKoiJ AEH).^^^ 

Ms 5s5o[j,£vs^ xk; Siacpops^ TaXkiaq - Tep[iaviaq, r\ koivt) 
5iaxsipiGr| xou supd) (tiogo «GK}trip6» r\ «[j,a}taK6» TipsTisi va 
sivai) a7i6 xi^ 5uo x&tpeq 5sv 9a sivai sukoXt] utioGsgti. Etii- 
Gri(;, TiOGO r\ oiKovo[j,ia xr]^ E.E. 9a TipsTisi va sivai «7tpoGxa- 
xsu[j,svri» a7i6 xo SisGvfi avxaya)viG[j,6 ([le axviiovc, r\ Kai Ka- 
voviKotx; 5aG[j,oi3(;), sivai dX^^o sva (^fixr|[j,a xpipfi(; avd[j,SGa 
gxk; 5uo x&tpeq. H Fsp^avia S7ii(^rixsi [iia mo «avoixxfi» E.E. 
(Gav o 7110 avxaya)viGxiK6(; Ka7iixaXiG[j,6(; xri(; E.E.) svd) r\ 



213 



YaXkia tiio «KXsiGTfi». E7iiGri[j,o syypacpo (to 199t)Tri(; ysp- 
[iaviKr\q KoivoPot)XsuTiKfi(; XpiGTiavo5r|[j,oKpaTiKfi(; 0[j,d5a(; 
sypacps: 

«To spyo Tou GK^tTipot) Twpr\va sivai, Sivovxat; gttiv 
'EvoGTi 8va iGXupo Ksvxpo, va avTiSpoiGSi GTig (pUyOKS- 
VTps(; 5uvd[j,si(; nov TipoKaXoiJV oi guvsxsi(; 5i8upi3vG8i^, 

710U kXsIVSI TlSpiGGOTSpO GTOV 7ipOGTaTSUTlG[J,6 Kttl Ktt- 

9o5r|ysiTai Kaxd Kduoio xpoTio and tt] raX,Ma, aTiofo^a- 
Kpuvofo^svo a7i6 xri PopsioavaxoXiKfi 0[j,d5a xcopcbv nov 

8UV0SI TlSpiGGOTSpO TO sXsijGspO Sf^TlOpiO Kttl KaGoStj- 

ysixai [j,8 Kduoio xpoTio and tt] rsp[j,avia». 

Oi 5ia(pop8(; TEp[iaviaq - TaXkiaq s^ouv Tidpsi 5pa[j,aTiK6 
XapaKxfipa avd 7ispi65ou(;. H STiavsvcoGr] Tri(; TEp[iaviaq to 
1990, 7ipoKd}tSGS xriv avTi5paGri tt]^ TakXiaq r\ ouoia SKavs 
xa Tidvxa yia va xrjv s^tioSigsi. H avdSsi^ri xrjc; TEp[iaviaq ce 
supcoTiaiKTi U7isp5i3va[j,ri [j,sxd xrjv STiavsvcoGr], xrjg sSodgs xtjv 
Suvaxoxrixa va SKPid(^si xr] TaXkia yia va a7io5sxxsi xk; Tipo- 
xdG8i^ xTjc; yia «7ioXixiKfi svo7ioiriGri» xrjc; E.E. Sxo i5io syypa- 
(po xTjc; yspfo^aviKTic; KoivoPou}tSUxiKfi(; XpiGxiavo5r|[j,OKpaxiKfi(; 
0[j,d5a(^, nov 7ipoava(p8pa[j,8, UTifipxs Kai ^iia ^SKdGapr] aTisi- 

«Asv 7ips7i8i 710XS ^avd va 5ri[j,ioupyriGsi sva auoGxa- 
GspoTioirixiKo Ksvo s^ouGia(; Gxr|v KsvxpiKfi Evp&)ivr\. Av 
58V TipoxcopoiJGS r\ supcoTiaiKTi svoTioiriGTi, TiiGavov va 
XP8ia(^6xav r\ va e^Tiaivs gxov 7isipaG[j,6 r\ Fsp^avia, 
a7i6 (p6Po yia xr] Sikt) xri(; aG(pd}^sia, va TipoGTiaGfiGSi va 
STiixiJxsi XT] GxaGspoTioiriGri [[j,ia }^s^ri ys[j,dxri auo 5uGd- 



214 



psGTOug iGTopiKoiJ^ ttTiorixoix;] [i6vr\ Tri(; Kai [is xov na- 
paSoGiaKo xpoTio)) 



230 



Eto EupcoTiaiKo Eu[j,poi3A,io ttjc; NiKaiat; to 2000 «fiTav a- 
TioXuxa opaxfi r\ aTiouaia OTioiaoSfiTiOTS auvspyaaiat; avd[j,SGa 
Gxri FaXMa Kai tt] rsp[j,avia». ' 'Ektots, oi 5ia(popo7ioifiGSi^ 
Tep[iaviaq - TaXkiaq yivovxai oXosva Kai mo opaxs^. Exo 9s- 
g[j,ik6 S7ii7is5o, T] rsp[j,avia upoxsivsi xr] [j,sxs^sXi^ri xri(; 'Evco- 
cr\q GS «o[j,OG7iov5ia sGvikcdv Kpax(bv», [j,8 5idp9pcoGri uapsfj,- 
(pspf) [IE xo 5ik6 xri(; o[j,OG7iov5iaK6 GUGxrifo^a. Auxo PpiGKsi 
avxiGsxr] xr] TakXia, nov 5sv smGufo^si xov U7ioPiPaG[j,6 xcov 
sGviKcbv Kpaxcbv gs o[j,6G7iov5a Kpaxi5ia. Oijxs S7ii9u[j,si xrjv 
(vnep^oXiKr]) GuyKsvxpoTioiriGri xcdv [j,rixaviG[j,(bv (9sG[j,(bv) 
[leca Gxrjv E.E. npoxi[j,d, oi auocpaGSK; va uaipvovxai TispiG- 
Goxspo [IE 5iaKpaxiKS(; SiaPouXsiJGSK;, otiou r\ noXniKi] Kai 
5mXco[j,axiKfi icypq xr|(; TaXkiaq avxiGxa9[j,i(^si xr] ysp[j,aviKfi 
oiKovo[j,iKfi 5i3va[j,ri. O T^joq sivai auXo^: gs [im o[j,og7iov5io- 
7ioir|[j,svri E.E., r\ Fsp^avia xdpi^ gxtjv oiKovo[j,iKfi xr]^ 5i3va[j,ri 
(Kai xo ysyov6(; 6xi aTioxsXsi xrjv 7ioA,U7iXri9sGxspri xcbpa xr]^ 
Evp&)iir\q, £V(b STimXsov sxsi [oiKovo[j,iKd] «5opu(popiKS(;» %&>- 
ps(;- MtisvsXoij^) 9a KupiapxnGSi. H aTiocpaGr] 6xi yia xr] }tfi\|/ri 
xcov aTiocpdGSCov gxtjv E.E. uudpxsi r] 7i}Lri9uG[j,iaKfi pfixpa xou 
60%, sviGXUsi XT] Fspfj-avia gxt] 5ia5iKaGia 5ia[j,6p(pcoGri(; tio- 
XniKr\q gxt] 5isupu[j,8vri E.E. H Fsp^avia 9a s^si xo 17% xou 
GUVo}tiKoi3 7i}tri9uG[j,oi3 gxt] 5isupu[j,svri E.E., svcb r\ TaXkia xo 
12%). H avdSuGT] xri(; ysp[j,aviKfi(; 5i3va[j,ri^ gxtjv E.E. 5sv s^si, 
(puGiKd, Siacpijysi xr]^ TipoGOxnf; xou 'EXXriva 5ia7ipay[j,axsuxfi 
aTr\v E.E., FI.K. IcoaKsi[j,i5ri: 

«[u7idpxsi [j,ia] [j,sxax67iiGri xou tio^^ixikou Ksvxpou 
Pdpou(; xri(; 'Evcogt]^ auo xo FlapiGi gxo BspoMvo. Opi- 



215 



c\ievoi avaA,t)T8g 8p[j,fiv8UGav tt] SuvGfiKri tt]^ NiKaiag 
mq TO «9pia[j,po xou sGvikoij KpdT0U9> r\ mq to «9pia[j,po 
xrov [i8yaX,UTspcov KpaT(bv-[j,sX(bv» svavxi xcov [j,ikp6ts- 
pcDV. [...] Oi Gsgsk; [...] Tri(; raX,Ma(; aTioKMvouv cr\[ia- 
VTiKd a7i6 tk; avTiaxoixst; Gsgsk; ttjc; rsp[j,avia(;, ysyov6(; 
710U TiioTOTioisi tk; 5uGxspsis^ Gxri XsiTOupyia xou yaX- 
Xo-ysp[j,aviKoi3 d^ova [j,STd xriv svotioitigti tcdv 5uo Fsp- 
[lavichv Kai xriv avdSsi^ri ttjc; rsp[j,avia(; gs tioXitikti 
5i)va[j,ri».^''^ 

H GU[j,(pcovia Tou lavouapiou 2003, nov 7ipoava(pspa[j,s (yia 
xriv GTSVOTspr] GUVspyaGia xcov KuPspvfiGSCov TaXkiaq- 
Tep[iaviaq), avxavaKM 5uo 7iapdX,}tri}tS(;, avxicpaxiKsc; 5ia5i- 
KaGiS(;: Ilpcbxov, xr] gxsgti X,uKO(piMa(; avd[j,SGa Gxig Suo x^- 
psg. H TaXkia TipoGTiaGsi va sXsy^si xr] rsp[j,avia Kai xo avxi- 
Gxpocpo. H Kaxu7io\|/ia avd[j,SGa gxk; dvo dpxouGS(; xd^sK; sxsi 
(Tipocpavd)^) TispdGSi Kai gxoix; 5uo ^laotx;. Ss 5ri[j,OGK67iriGri 

xo 50%X(DV rdX,}^COV 5UG711GX01)V GXTjV supcoTiaiKTi SV07lOir|Gri 

A,6yco XOD (poPou ysp[j,aviKfi(; riys[j,6 ^E^)Grl(;. Ildvco and 5 % 
xcDV rsp[j,avcbv SriXcbvouv uuspficpavoi tiou sivai rsp[j,avoi, 
sv(b [j,6Xi(; 20% Sri^^cbvouv iKavoTioirifa^svoi nov sivai Eupro- 
Tiaioi.^'''' Asijxspov, Tiapd xk; 5ia(pcoviS(; Kai xa avxixiGs[j,sva 
GU[j,(pspovxa, Ka[j,id e^eki^r] gxtjv E.E. 5sv [j,7iopsi va 7ipay[j,a- 
xoTioiriGsi xtopi<^ tti GUVspyaGia Tep[iaviaq - TaXkiaq. Tsxpa- 
j(i)vic[i6q xou KijK^tou; 0a cpavsi and xiq s^sM^sk;... 

Es KdGs TispiTixcDGTi, aKOfo^a Kai r\ [j,sxaxpo7ifi Tr\q E.E. (f) 
GCOGxoxspa xou «5isuGuvxripiou») gs GxpaxicoxiKf) i^uspiaXi- 
GxiKT) U7isp5i3va[j,ri nov Ga sivai ig6xi[j,0(; sxaipo(; xcdv HQA, 
«GKovxd(pxsi» gxk; avxi7ia}t6xrixs(; IlapiGioij-BspoMvou. Ka- 
[j,id xsxoia 5uvax6xrixa 5sv uudpxsi xo^piq xov u^^fipri (nov cr\- 
[j,aivsi Kai TiupriviKo) S7iavs^07iXiG[j,6 Tr\q TEp[iaviaq. npdy[j,a, 



216 



Tiou fy)Tzvd TOU(; xsipoTspoix; scpidXis^ gto IlapiGi. H smSico^ri 
Tri(; TEp[iaviaq va aTioKxfiGSi [j,6vi[j,ri Gsar] gto St)[j,poi3}tio 
AG(paXsia(; xou OHE, Gav 7ipay[j,aTiKfi at)To5i3va[j,ri «[j,sydX,ri 
5i3va[j,ri», aTioxeXsi dXXo sva Gfi[j,a Kiv5i3vot) yia tt] FaXMa. 

Ms 5s5o[j,svs(;, Xoitiov, tk; 5ia(pops(; [j,STa^i3 FaXMat; - 
Tep[iaviaq (togo g8 oikovo[j,ik6 EnxKsdo, 6go Kai gs yscoTioXi- 
TiKo [gxsgsk; [j,s HQA]), aX,M Kai [j,STa^i3 tcdv utioXoiticdv u- 
7io\|/ri(picov xcopcbv yia sva [j,sX,XovnK6 SieuGuvxripio, r\ Tipoo- 
TiTiKTi Tou TsAsuxaiou 8ivai [laXXov 5uGOicovr|. Auxoc; sivai o 
Xojoq 710U 58V sivai ^SKdGapo noieq x&tpeq aKpipdx; 9a aTioxs- 
Xoijv 8va [j,8X,Xovtik6 SisuGuvifipio, r\ 7iiGavo>uoyoi3[j,8vri gijv- 
GsGTi Tou 5iapK(b^ [j,STapdX,X8Tai. 

Qgtogo, Tipocpavdcx;, sva SisuGuvxripio 5sv f^Tiopsi va aTio- 
kA,sigtsi Gav aTiiGavoxriTa. AIM, Giyoupa, Ga a7iOT8A,8( (Kai 
auTo) dX,Xo sva S7isig65io gtti SugkoXt] SiaKpaxiKfi Tiopsia 
TTjc; E.E. Ilohb TispiGGOTspo Tiou 5sv Ga aTiOTsXsi hbcr\, aXXd 
Ga o^ijvsi tk; sGviks(; avxiTiapaGsGSi^ evzoq ttjc; E.E. 

Kax' apxd^, sva SisuGuvifipio Ga aTioxs^^SGSi xriv avaxpoTifi 
xri^ [isjpi Tcbpa Tiopsiat; ttjc; E.E. Exriv Tipayfj-axiKoxriTa, Ga 
aTiOTsXoiJGS [j,ia svxsXdcx; vsa E.E. nov Ga aKijpcovs xriv Tiporj- 
yoTjfo^svri «Koivfi» uopsia. 'Eva 5isuGuvxfipio Ga aTioxsXsGSi 
xTjv o[j,oXoyia 6xi r\ «Et)p(b7iri» 5sv xT^iC^t^^i^ oi^' oAoix;, aXXd 
[j,6vo a7i6 opiG[j,svot)(; (Kai 7ipo(; ocpsAo^ xovq). Ta UTioXoma 
Kpdxri-[j,sX,ri Ga xo spXsTiav Gav sva Ksvxpo nov Ga [j,sxaxps\|/si 
6Aou(; xoix; vnoT^movq gs aTi^tf) oiKovo[j,iKfi (^(bvri 7ipo(; sk[j,s- 
xd^XsuGT]. Mia xsxoia s^s^ti^ri Ga fixav s^aipsxiKd S7iiKiv5uvri 
xoGO yia xo gijvoAo xcdv supcoTiaiKcbv xcopcbv, 6go Kai yia xo 
TiayKOGfj-io KamxaXiGxiKo Gi3Gxri[j,a. 0a aGKouGS xpo[j,sps(; 
tiisgsk; GXTjv oiKovo[j,ia Kai xo supcb, svcb Ga STisxpsTis gs ak- 
T^vq «7iaiKxs(;» (Xsys [is HQA) va SK[j,sxaA,X,suxoi)v aK6[j,a 
Tiapauspa xk; avxiGsGSK; xrjc; E.E. 



217 



EtiitiXsov, 01 avTi98G8ig anMyq 9a [j,8Ta(psp9oi3v and [iia E. 
E. TCDV «25», GS [j,ia [j,iKp6Tspr| E.E., [imq Kai dev 9a X,i3gsi to 
7ip6p}tr|[j,a Tcov avTi9sGS(DV [j,STa^i3 TEp[iaviaq - TaXkiaq Kai 
Tcov UTioXoiTicov Tou 5isu9uvTripiou. 'Eva(; veoq ((pwbXoq kv- 
kXo^) avTi7iapa9sG8cov 9a ^skivoijgs. . . 

Ss 6>ua xa TiapaTidvco 9a TipsTisi va 7ipoGTs9si, oxi oi «[j,i- 
Kps9> x&ipsc, Tri(; E.E. 5sv sivai Kai togo... [j,iKps(;! '0X8(; oi 
X&tpeq Tri(; E.E.-15 avfiKouv gtk; tiXsov 7iXoi3gis(; Kai avaTiiuy- 
[j,svs(; xcbps^ Tou Ti^^avfiTri. Stk; AC^opeq to Mdio 2000, o tots 
nopToydXo(; Y7ioupy6(; s^cDTspiKcbv Francisco Seixas da 
Costa, s^a7isA,UGS S7ii9sGri gtou(; «n8ydX,ot)^» Tri(; Eup(b7ir|(;: 

«0' ay(DviGT0i)[j,8 |j.6xpi^ SGxdTCOv (!!) yia va upoco- 
9fiGOU[j,8 Ta 5iKai(b[j,aTa Kai Ta GU[j,(pspovTa tcov [iiKpchv 
Xcopcbv. Asv 9a U7ioki3\|/ou[j,s tiots gtov 7ioX,itik6 SKPia- 
G[j,6 TODV fj.sydXcov)).^'''* 

H EA,Xd5a a7iOT8>u8i [j,8yd>uri 5i3va[j,ri yia to xcbpo tcdv Bak- 
Kavicov, 6x1 [lovo oiKovo[j,iKd aXXd Kai GTpaTicDTiKd. H A9fiva 
H7i6p8G8 va 87iipdX8i, Tiapd Ti^ avTippfiG8i(; 7110 [j,8ydXcov a7i' 
auTTiv xcopcbv Tri(; E.E., ttjv 81go5o Tri(; v6Tia(; Kuupou gttjv 
E.E. (ttiv OTioia xpr|Gi[j,07ioiriG8 gttjv avTmapd98Gfi ttjc^ [ie ttjv 
ToupKia). 

IIio 8v5ia(pspov 8ivai to y8yov6(;, 6ti r\ A9fiva (Kai Tipocpa- 
vchq Kai dX,X8(; «[j,iKps(;» x&tpeq) tiigtsijsi 6ti sivai iKavf) va 
GU[j,[j,STdGX8i GS [j,ia E.E. «iioXhhv TaxuTfiTCOv» gttjv «iip&)Tr\ 
TaxuTrjTa)). O KcoGTa^ ErmiTri^ Tispiypdcpsi: 

«Eivai Gxs56v Giyoupo 6ti r| gt] [j,spivfi tio^^itikti 
Tipayfj-aTiKOTTiTa [...] 9a sv5uva[j,(bGSi aK6[j,ri uspiGGOTS- 
po Tig (puyoKsvTpsg 5t)vd[j,sig [...] AisupuvGr] Kai s[j,pd- 



218 



Gdvoti a7iOT8>^oi3v xoix; gtoxoix; ttjc; 'EvG)Gr\q yia xa xp6- 
via 710U spxovrai. [...] H ormspivfi EupcoTiaiKfi 'Evcdgti 
sivai fi5r| apKsxd 5uGKivriTri. Tri(; TipoodTiTOUv apyooup- 
TOU(; pu9[j,oi3(; 'kenovpjiaq, ava7iOTsXsG[j,aTiK6TriTa. [...] 
Na a7iOTpsv|/ou[j,s xriv SioMaGriari gtov mo apyo, gtov 
7110 xap-il^o Koivo 7iapavo[j,aGTfi noXiTiKr\q Poi)>^riOTi^ Kai 
iKavoTTixag yia xriv TiporoGriari tcdv gtoxcov [imq icjpp^q 
EupcDTiri^. Na [j,riv Ka9opi(^si xoix; pu9[j,oi3^ to TsAsuxaio 
7i}toio Tr|(; vr|07io [J7ifi(;. [...] H Tiproxri ouvsTisia [imq xs- 
TOiat; 7iapa5oxn(; sivai [j,ia EupcoTiri [j,s sva aviGOGKs}tS(; 
GxniJ^a o}^OK}tfip(DGr|(; [...] [im ^^oyiKf) eveki^iaq, nov 0a 
ennpenei SiacpopsxiKotx; Pa9[j,oi3(; oAoK}tfip(DGr|(;. Mia 
sus^ti^ia nov 9a acpfivsi Gxa Kpdxri sKsiva, nov sivai s- 
xoi[j,a Kai iKavd va TipoxcopfiGOUv sva [j,8yaA,i3xspo tio- 
GOGxo Kupiapxcov STiiXoycbv xou^ gxo syxeiprma xr]^ o- 
XoKX,fip(DGri(;, va TipoxropfiGOUv gs mo (bpi[j,a Gxd5ia sfj,- 
PdGuvGTic; xou^. [...] Exrjv Tiopsia auxf) KpiGi[j,o sMxigxo 
xrov 87ii5icb^8cbv [laq 9a sivai Tidvxa: 

H 5iaG(pd}tiGri xri(; iG6xi[j,ri(; GU[j,[j,8xoxn(; xrjc; x(bpa(; 
GXO 9sg[j,ik6 Gi)Gxri[j,a nov 9a 7ipoKi3\|/si Kai iSiaixspa 

GXOV SGCOXSpiKO TlUpflVa XT]^ Ev(DGri9>. 

Oi «[j,iKps(;» Kai «[j,8Gai8g» xd)ps(; xr]^ E.E.-15 [inopovv va 
avxiGxa9[j,i(^ouv tiisgsi^ Kai 8KPiaG[j,oi3(; [j,syaX,i3x8pcov 5uvd- 
[j,scov Gxr|v E.E., va avaxpsuouv G^sSia xou yaX,}toysp[j,aviKoi3 
d^ova, aKpipdcx; yiaxi Kai 7i}toi3GiS(; Kai icjppeq sivai, aA,}td Kai 
yiaxi 01 [isjakeq X^ops? Ssv s^ouv Koivd GU[j,(pspovxa. Bpsxa- 
via, iGTiavia, IxaMa, Aavia Kai OXXavSia, x&ipeq nov o Tikr\- 
9uG[j,6(; xoix; 7i}tr|Gid(^8i xo 50% xou guvoXikoij 7iXr|9uG[j,oi3 xr|(; 
E.E.-15 UTiOGxfipi^av xov 7i6}tS[j,o gxo IpdK. Oi TispiGGOxepst; 
a7i6 Tv; Xmpeq xrjg KsvxpiKfic; Kai AvaxoXiKfic; Evp&)iir\q (uap' 



219 



OTi TioXi) 7110 a5i3va[j,S(; oiKovo[j,iKd Kai tioXitikoi and tk; xcopsc, 
Tri(; E.E.-15) STipa^av to i5io- r\ Ilo^tcovia gu[j,[j,st81xs [ie [j,iKp6 
api9[j,6 GxpaTicoTcbv gtk; 7ioX8[j,iks(; smxsipfiGSi^. 

Ev KaTaKA,8{5i: 

H E.E. Tiapd xriv ONE Kai to sviaio v6[j,iG[j,a, s^aKoAouGsi 
va 7iapa[j,svsi 8va dGpoiGfo^a avs^dpxriTCDV Kpaxcbv x(opi(; oiko- 
vo[j,iKfi oXoK^fipcDGri. To sGviKo Kpdxot; (Gav o GuX^^oyiKot; 
SKcppaGTTic; Tcov KamxaXiGTcbv xou) Siaxripsi vno xov sXeyxo 
xou xTjv sGviKTi oiKovofia, svd) Gxrjv s^roxspiKf) tioXixikt) ki- 
vsixai [le yv(b[j,ova xo «sGvik6 GU[j,(pspov» Kai 6xi [j,ia «supco- 

TiaiKTl 07lXlKfl». 

H E.E. 8ivai evaq 5isGvfi(; GUvaG7iiG[j,6(; avs^dpxrjxcov, ku- 
piapxcDV, Kamxa^tiGxiKcbv Kpaxcbv, xa OTioia [j,dXiGxa, [o^sxd xk; 
HQA Kai xTjv laTicDvia, sivai xa tiio av87ixuy[j,sva xou TiXavfixri 
((pUGiKd [iika[iE yia xrjv E.E.-15, xa vsa [iekr\ and xr|v Ksvxpi- 
KT) Kai AvaxoXiKTi EupcDTiri, Gacpdx;, fi5ri avfiKouv gxtjv «5si3- 
xspr] xaxuxrjxa)) xrjc; E.E.). H opydvcoGT] xrjc; E.E. sivai ispap- 
XiKd 7iupa[j,08i5fi(;: Sxriv Kopucpfi PpiGKovxai oi Tikeov avs- 
nTVj[ievEq Kai [j,syaA,i3xsp8(; (rsp[j,avia, TaXkia, Bpsxavia, I- 
xaMa), gxk; xs^^suxaist; Gsgsk; xri(; ispapxiat; oi [j,iKp6xsps(;, 
67i(D(; EX,Xd5a, IIopxoyaMa. Tov «x6vo», xk; 7ipcoxoPouMs(;, 
xk; KaxsuGiJVGSig, xapdGGOUv (Kai eni^akXovv) oi [j,syaX,i3xs- 
poi Ka7iixaXiG[j,oi, [IE xo si5ik6 pdpo^ xrjc; «GU[j,[j,axia^» Fsp- 
[j,avia(;-raX,Ma(; va sivai [lejako- o 7ispi(pri[j,0(; «yaA,}to- 
ysp[j,aviK6(; d^ova(;». Oi [j,iKp6xspoi f) sv5id[j,SG0i Kamxa^^i- 
G[j,oi (iGTiavia, 0X,Xav5ia) aKoXouGow [j,sv, aX,M 5sv sxouv 
[j,ia GxsGTi u7ioxay[j,svou 7ipo(; Kupiapxo. Ta xa^iKd xoix; gu[j,- 
(pspovxa SK(ppd(^ovxai [o^SGa Gxr|v E.E., nohb uspiGGOxspo nov 
xou(; «5iv8xai x&ipoqyy, yiaxi oi «[a^8yd>^oi» 5sv sxouv ^SKdGa- 



220 



peq cv[i[iaxiEq Kai GU[j,(pcoviS(; [iSTa^i) xoix; (oijts o yaXXoysp- 
[j,aviK6(; d^ova^ sivai 5s5o[a^svo(;, onmq eida[iE). 

Ta «s9viKd Gt)[j,(pspovTa», Tiap' o^^otx; xovq GU[j,piPaG[j,oi3(; 
Kai xa (TipoGxn^oiTiKd) «o[j,OG7iov5iaKd opd[j,aTa», fixav, sivai 
Kai 9a 7iapa[j,sivot)v Kupiapxa- touMxigtov gto opaxo [lel- 
Xov 5iJ0 SsKasTicbv. Kai o Ka9si(; [mopei PsPaia va avTiXricp- 
981, OTi Gxriv noXniKT] o jpovoq auxo q sivai s^aipsxiKd [la- 
Kpvq, Gxriv 5idpKsid xou, sv 7ioA,Aoi(;, xa udvxa f^Tiopow va 

GU[J,Poi)V. 

Sxo Gri[j,sio auxo 9a 5iaKiv5t)V8i)GOt)[j,8 Kai [im 7ip6p}ts\|/ri: 
Oi 7ii9av6xrixsg r\ E.E. va [j,8xaxpa7isi ce o[j,6g7iov5o Kpd- 
xo(; sivai Kaxd nohb [j,iKp6xsps(; and xrjv 7ii9av6xrixa, av o^i va 
5iaA,u9si Gxa «s^' cov Guvsxs9ri», va au^ri9oi3v 5pa^axiKd oi 
(pt)y6K£vxps(; xdGSK;, Kai gxtjv Kokmepr] TispiTixcoGri, va Tiapa- 
[j,8iv8i [j,ia oiKovo[j,iKfi (onmq fixav Tipiv xo MdaGxpi^x, Kai 8- 
^aKo}tou98i va 8ivai [is^pi Kai Gfi[j,8pa) Kai vo[j,iG[j,axiKfi C,&)vr\. 
Oi 89viKS(; avxma}t6xrixs(;, xa SiacpopsxiKd S7ii7is5a oikovo- 
[iiKr\q avduxu^T]^, 9a 5r|[j,ioupyoi3v cvvex&iq 7ipoGxpiPs(;, guv- 
9fiKS(; aGxa9oi3(; iGoppo7iia(;, nov 9a o5riyoi3v [is xrjv GSipd 
xou^ G8 GU[j,(p(ovis(; Kai GU[j,piPaG[j,oi3(;, su[j,8xdp}trixou(; Kai 
aGxa9si(;. 0a 7iapa[j,sivsi [im vo[j,iG[j,axiKfi Kai xs^^coviaKfi s- 
vcoGT], xcopi(; oiKovofo^iKTi oXoK^tfipcDGri, 710U 9a Gxripi(^8xai gxi<; 
5iaKpaxiKS(; g^sgek; Kai GU[j,(p(Dvis(;. 

MsTaTps;rovTa(g Tt]v avdyKti os apsTfj 

S' aDxo xo Gri[j,sio cogxogo, 9a TipsTisi va U7ioypa[j,[j,iG9si, 
6x1 r\ 7ii8Gri (Kai r\ avdyKT]) yia va UTidp^si evaq «supco7iaiK6(; 
Ka7iixa}tiG[j,6(;» 5sv sivai «i5so}toyiKfi» r\ «(pavxaGiaKfi». H 
avxaycoviGxiKTi TiisGr] and xiq HQA (oiKovo[j,iKfi Kai yscoTio^^i- 
xiKTi) Kai xTjv laTicovia sivai UTiapKxfi Kai «(popxiKfi». Ka[j,id 



221 



supcoTiaiKTi xcbpa 58v f^Tiopsi va xriv avTi[j,8T(D7iiGSi ano |i6vri 
Tri(;. Eno[is\/(i)q, r\ 5ia5iKaGia Tri(; «supco7iaiKfi(; oXoK}tfipcoGr|9> 
s^sMoGSxai «avayKaGTiKd». npdy[j,aTi, 5ri[j,ioupyoi3vTai (fj,' 
sva s^aipsTiKd avxicpaxiKo Kai, noXkeq 9ops(;, aXXriXoavai- 
poi3[j,svo xpoTio, sivai r\ a^^fiGsia) SisupoTiaiKoi 9sg[j,oi. Ati' 
auTTi TT] 5ia5iKaGia TipoKUTixsi o gt] [j,spiv6(; uPpi5iK6(; xotp^- 
KTfipa(; Tri(; E.E. ETiiTipoGGsxa, r\ ijTiap^ri koivoij vo[j,iG[j,aTO(; 
a7io5siKvi3si OTi r\ supcoTiaiKfi TispicpspsiaKf) oXoK^fipcDGri sxsi 
TipoxcopfiGSi nohb TispiGGOTspo a7i' OTI aXT^q (r\ NAFTA r\ r\ 
[dxuTiri] C,&)vr\ xou ysv). To ysyov6(; oxi to [j,sys9o(; Tri(; oiko- 
vo[jia(; xcov HQA f) ttjc; lanmviaq sivai 7ioX,i3 [j,syaA,i3Tspo auo 
tk; «KaTaKsp[j,aTiG[j,svs(;» oikovo[j,is(; Tri(; Sutiktic; EupcoTiri^, 
s^avayKd(^si xoix; supcoTiaiKoix^ Ka7iiTa>uiG[j,oi3(; g8 «gug718(- 
p(DGri». 

Ms acpsxripia, cogtogo, to y8yo\6(; auxo, to va KaxaXfi^si 
Kavsi(; GTO GU[j,7i8paG[j,a oxi o «supco7iaiK6(; Ka7iiTaXiG[j,6(;» 9a 
5r|[j,ioupyri9si «07i(DG5fi7iOTS», yiaxi auxo aTioxs^tsi «iGTopiKfi 
avayKaiOTTixa)), UTidpxsi xspdGxia aTiOGxaGr]. To GU^7ispaG[j,a 
auxo 8ivai s^aipsxiKd acpriprmsvo, aTioyu^vcbvsi xrjv UTiapKxfi 
5ia5iKaGia tiou s^sXiGGSxai Gfi[j,spa, and 07ioio5fi7ioxs psaXi- 
GxiKo Gxoixsio xr|(;. lGo5uva[j,8i [is xo va iGXupi(^sxai Kduoiot; 
(oTiox; 7ia}ti6xspa oi Gxa^^iviKoi 7ipo7iayav5iGxs(; xou Tid^^ai 710- 
xs «t)7iapKxoi3 GOGiaXiG[j,oi3») 6xi [im 5ia5iKaGia 9a Gt)[j,p8i 
«07icoG5fi7ioxs» yiaxi uudpxouv «Gi58p8vioi v6[j,oi xrjc; iGxopi- 
a9>. 

To va Tiaipvsi Kav8i(; [im xdGt] Kai va xrjv xpapdsi, [is a(pr|- 
pri[j,svo xpoTio, Gxa dKpa, 58v sivai Kai xogo Gocpo! To va i- 
Gxupi(^8xai Kd7ioiO(; 6x1 Tiapd xa 7ipopXfi[j,axa, gs 15, 30, 50 r\ 
100 xpovia 9a S7is}t9si r\ supoTiaiKfi svo7ioiriGr|, [is xr] [im r\ 
xTjv aXkr\ [J-opcpfi, 5sv auoxs^tsi 7ip6pX£\|/ri, sivai. . . NoGxpd5a- 
[j,0(;!! npol)7io9sxsi 5s, 6x1 gs oXoK^ripri auxf) xr] xpoviKf) 71s- 



222 



pio5o r\ xdari (7ipo(; svoTioiriGri) 9a sivai at)^av6[j,8vri, svcb 6- 
Xec, 01 dX,>^8^ a7ioKMvouGS(; 5uvd[j,8i^ 6a UTioxropow. AXM 5sv 
UTidpxsi Ka[j,id opGoXoyiKTi pdor] yia [j,ia xsioia utioGsgti. 

I5oi3, Xomov, nov PpiGKOfj-aoTs: gttiv E.E. 58v s^si aK6[j,a 
^STispaoTSi TO sGviKo Kpdxot;, nov ormaivsi oxi oi s9viks(; 5i- 
a(pops(; (tiou 7iriyd(^ouv auo xa 5ia(popsxiKd S7ii7is5a oikovo[j,i- 
aq Kai guvstiocx; 5ia(pops(; «oikovo[j,ikoi3» GU[j,(pspovxo(; avd- 
[lEca Gxa Kpdxri-[j,sA,ri) s^7io5i(^ouv xrjv 5ri[j,ioupyia evoq «su- 

pCDTiaiKOlJ Ka7llXa}^lG[J,01J». 

Etvai noXi) avxyo xo (paiv6[j,£vo va [j,sxaxps7isi Kduoio^ xrjv 
avdyKT] G8... apsxT)! 'Exgi o XsX[j,ot)x E[j,ix, acpoij aTioSs^sxai 
6x1 xa sGviKd Kpdxr] 9a aTioxsXoiJV yia anoXkeq 5sKasxi8(;» xo 
PaGiKo xapaKxripiGxiKo xri(; E.E., Tipdyfo^a tiou 9a Ka9iGxd xrjv 
o[j,OG7iov5i07ioiriGri upaKxiKd a5i3vaxri, cogxogo, xo 9s(Dp8i au- 
x6 6x1 [j,6vo (pUGiK6, akXd Kai xr] pdGt] xou 6Xou syxeipfma- 
xo(;. Tovi(^si 6x1 6Xa xa Kpdxri-[j,sXri [j,sgco xtj^ E.E. : 

«[...] [IE xTjv oXoK^tfipcDGTi UTitipsxow xa [J,aKp07ip6- 
98G[j,a GxpaxriyiKd GU[j,(pspovxa xou eOvovq xovq Kai xou 
Kpdxotx; xou(;. [...] E[iEiq oi Fsp^avoi sivai auxov6rixo 
6x1 \m,opoi)\jiE va 8i[j,aGxs 7iaxpi(bxs(;, 671(D(; Kai oi aXkoi, 
aXkA 5sv smxpsTisxai tioxs va a(pfiGOU[j,s xcbpo yia 8va 
t)7ispPoXiK6 [sic] 89viKiG[j,6. [...] Ms Mya X6yia: H Eu- 
pcoTiaiKTi 'EvcoGT] 8ivai [lEca Gxo TiXaiGio xou 5iKoi3 [laq 

TiaxpiCDXlKOt) GU[J,(pSpOVXO(;. 

[...] Ssv sivai Ka96Xou Kaxavorix6 yiaxi Kai yia tioio 
GK07i6 ysviK6x8pa TipeTisi va S7ii5icox9si [j,ia xsxoia, iia- 
p6[j,oia [IE xcov HQA, do[V[\ o[j,OG7iov5iaKoi3 Kpdxoix;. 
[...] H EupcoTiaiKTi 'EvcDGTi sivai Kdxi xET^mq vso, nov 
5ia(pspsi ouGiaGxiKd a7i6 6}ta xa 7iporiyri9svxa [lovTEka. 
Av 01 GUVxay[j,axoX6yoi Kai oi Tispi xou Kpdxoix; (piX6- 



223 



Gocpol 58V sxouv scpsijpsi KoiTioio vso 6po, auTO Ssv pXd- 
TiTSi. To 6vo[j,a EupcoTiaiKTi 'Evcdgti STiapKsi a7i6A,UTa. 

ATiocpaaiGTiKTi Gri[j,aGia sxsi va SiaxripriGei Xsixoup- 
yiKT) iGoppoTiia, acpsvo^, avd[j,SGa Gxa KaGfiKovxa, xa 
5iKai(b[j,axa Kai xrjv tio^^ixikti Papijxrixa xcov sGvikcdv 
Kpaxcbv Kai xi^ ap[j,o5i6xrixs(;, acpsxspou, xcov opydvrov 
xTjc; 'Ev(i)cr\q nov sivai avayKaiS(; yia xrjv auxoKupiapxia 
xri^Eup(b7iri9>.^''^ 

noX,i3 «Xs7ixs(;», «iGoppo7ir|[j,svs(;» SKcppdGSK;, yia va auo- 
(pijysi Kavsi(; xrjv ouGia xou (^rixfi[j,axo(;. AXM (cpsu!) 5sv [^710- 
psi(; va Tisxd^sK; auo xo TiapdGupo 6xi Ga STiavs^^Gsi an' xrjv 
Tiopxa! 

Fia va UTidp^si evaq supco7iaiK6(; Ka7iixa}tiG[j,6(; nov va 
I^Tiopsi 7ipdy[j,axi va avxayroviGxsi oiKovo[j,iKd xk; HQA Kai 
xTjv laTicovia, nov va GxsKsxai iG6xi[j,a [j,s xk; HQA 5i7i}tco[j,axi- 
Kd Kai GxpaxicoxiKd (Kai [j,8A,}^ovxiKd sv5sxo[j,8vco^ [ie xtjv Kiva 
Kai xTjv laTicovia), otico^ SiaKacbg 87iiGu[a^8i o S[j,ix, sivai utio- 
XpscoxiKo va U7idp^8i 8viaio(; oikovo[j,ik6(; Kai 7ioXixik6(; su- 
pco7iaiK6(; x(bpo(;, g8 auXd sA,A,riviKd, va UTidp^si sva siSoix; 
iGXupf) KsvxpiKTi supcDTiaiKTi KuPspvr|Gr|. Kai aKpipdx; s5(b, xo 
Kijpio s^iTioSio a7ioxs}tsi xo sGviKo Kpdxo(;. 

To sGviKo Kpdxo(; 7iapouGid(^sxai auo xov S[j,ix (akXd Kai 
a7i6 xotx; TispiGGOxepoix; aKa5ri[j,aiKoi3(; supco7iaiGxs(;) Gav 
«7io}LixiG[j,iKfi», «\|/uxo)toyiKfi», «i5so}toyiKfi», f) «lGXOpiKfl» 
Kaxriyopia ([is xrjv swoia, Myo co^ nohb, xou ^S7ispaG[j,svou). 

ExTjv 7ipay[j,axiK6xrixa 7iapouGid(^sxai xo sGviko Kpdxo^ s- 
vxsXdcx; av-iGxopiKd. 

To sGviKo Kpdxo(; sivai r\ iGxopiKf) fj-opcpf) tiou Tifips r\ 5ia- 
[j,6p(p(DGri xo u KS(pa}taiou gxtjv Evp&)iir\. To sGviko Kpdxot; 
fixav Kai sivai, 6x1 aidn xo Kuxxapo, aX,Xd Kai xo SGxaxo Ka- 



224 



xacpijyio KdGs loxopiKd 5ia[j,op(pco[j,svou KscpaXaiou GTr\v Eu- 
pcDTiri. Stov avTay(DviG[j,6 xou [j,s xa aXka Kscpd^^aia, ^Tipoaxd 
Gxov Kiv5uvo va s^ayopaoxsi r\ va s^acpavioxsi and avxayco- 
viGxiKd aXkx sQviKd KscpdXaia, xo sGviko Kpdxo(; aTioxs^^si xo 
SGxaxo avdx(D[j,a. 

Dgo ucpiGxaxai r\ TipoGxaxsuxiKf) icjpq xou sGvikoij Kpd- 
xou^, 5£v 8ivai 5uvax6v va f^TiopsGOUv va 5ri[j,ioupyr|0oi3v Kpi- 
Gi[j,ou [j,sys9ou^ [iEjakeq smxsipfiGSK;, yia xi^ OTioiec; oXokXtj- 
pr] r\ EupcDTiri 9a auoxs^si xo auoXuxo (pUGiKo «SGC0xspiK6 6- 
pio». Ms 5do Aoyia, 9a TipsTisi va UTidp^ouv gxtjv E.E. Guv9fi- 
Ksq «Te'ksiov avxay(DviG[j,oi3», onmq GU[j,paiv8i gxo SGCOxspiKo 
sv6(; sviaiou Kpdxoix;. 

Fia va Kaxapyri9si r\ iGxopiKd s9viKd 5ia[j,op(pco[j,svri gu- 
yKpoxriGTi xou supcDTiaiKot) KS(pa}taiou, yia xr] [j,8xaxpo7ifi xcdv 
s9v(bv-Kpax(bv gs aitkeq «7ioXixig[j,iks(;» sgxis^ gs [im «iioXv- 
7io}tixiG[j,iKfi» sviaia Evpchiu], 5sv apKsi r| (aviJTiapKxri aXka- 
Gxs) «KaXfi 98XriGri» xcdv GU[j,paX,Xo[j,8vcov Kpax(bv-[j,sX(bv. 

Auaixsi xTjv S7iiPo}tfi xou [j,sydXou K8(pa}^aiou stii xou [ii- 
Kpoxspou - nov g' auxf) xrjv iGxcpiKf) (pdGti exei «89vik6 jp&i- 
[ia». 

Av avaxps^ou[j,s gxtjv supcoTiaiKfi iGxopiKfi s^Tieipia, avxi- 
xi9s[j,sva Kamxa^tiGxiKd GU[j,(pspovxa GuyKpoxfi9riKav gs Koivf) 
KpaxiKT) do[V(\ sixs GXTjv TispiTixcoGTi xTjc; 5ri[j,iot)pyia(; xou s- 
9vou(;-Kpdxot)(; ([j,ia s9v6xrixa GuyKpoxriGS xo «Ka9ap6» 5ik6 
xri(; s9vo(;-Kpdxo(;) sixs (Gxrjv 7ispi7ix(DGr| «7ioX,us9viK(bv» Kpa- 
x(bv) auEvavxi g' sva nohb iGXupoxspo koivo sx9p6, nov ausi- 
XoijGS xTjv i5ia xTjv iJTiap^ri ogcov xsXiKd 5ia[j,6p(pcoGav xrjv 
7ioX,t)s9viKfi 5ia[j,6p(pcoGri xou KscpaXaiou. 

Ta 5id(popa Kavxovia 5ia[j,6p(p(DGav xo sXpsxiKo s9vo(; 6- 
xav xpsidGxrjKs r\ and koivoij 5pdGri xoix; yia va avxi[j,sxco7ii- 
g9si r\ KaxaKxrixiKTi eni^ovXi] Tr\q Ayia(; Pco[j,aiKfi(; AuxoKpa- 



225 



Topiat;. Qgtogo aK6[j,a Kai stgi, to xpoviKo 5idGTri[j,a iiov a- 
TiaiTTiGriKs yia tt] vsa sGvikti GuyKpoxriGri fixav xepdGTio. 
XpsidGTr|Kav 5uo aicbvst; 7ioXs[j,(dv (1276 emq to 1499) scd^ 
OTOU xa svco[j,sva Kavxovia va aTioKxfiGOUv xrjv avs^apxriGia 
xou^ Kai va 5ia[j,op(p(bGOUv, [leca and noXkeq «Gxpo(pS(;» Kai 
SGCOxspiKS(; avxi7iaX6xrix8^, xrjv sGvikti xoix; UTiOGxaGri. Oi 
<I)}ta[j,av5oi Kai oi Ba}^6voi xou BsXyiou svcbGriKav ano zovc, 
Koivotx; ajchveq svdvxia gxtjv oX,}tav5iKfi Kaxd^xriGr]. 

Ka[j,id a7i6 avxeq xiq KaxaGxdGSK; 5sv igxusi gxt] gt] [j,8pivfi 
E.E. EXksmei, Tipocpavdx;, r\ koivt) sGvikti pdGt]. AIM Kai o 
Koiv6(; «sxGp69> (av U7ioGsgou[j,s, [le apKsxfi Sogt] uuspa- 
7iXoi3GxsuGri(;, 6xi sivai oi HQA) 5sv auoxs^^si xsxoiou [j,sys- 
Goix; aTisiXf) nov va s^avayKd(^si gs Kdxi TispiGGOxspo and [im 
vo[j,iG[j,axiKfi Kai oiKovo[j,iKfi C,&)vr\. To avxiGsxo [lakicTa, v- 
Tidpxouv noXkeq avxippo7iS(; xdGSK; Kai ax; 7ipo(; xov (utioxiGs- 
[lEvo) Koivo «sxGp6»- xk; HIIA. 

Oi HQA 6x1 |J,6vo 5sv ausiXow [is KaxdKxrjGri xiq evprnna- 
iKsc; x&ipsc,, aX,}td Kai yia noX^Mq an' avxeq, oi HQA auoxs- 
Xoijv «(puGiK6» Gi3[j,[j,axo yia xrjv s^iGoppoTiriGri avxiTiaXcov 
sv5osup(D7iaiK(bv KamxaXiGxiKcbv GU[j,(psp6vxcov. Hpdy^a nov 
iGXPSi 6x1 |J,6vo yia xr] Bpsxavia r\ xrjv iGuavia. AK6[j,a Kai r\ 
0X,Xav5ia, x^opot ttjc; OTioiat; r] oiKovo[j,ia sivai Gxsvd guv5s5s- 
[j,svri [j,s XT] ysp[j,aviKfi, s5(b Kai 5sKasxiS(;, gxov 7i6Xs[j,o xou 
IpdK xo 2003 Tifips xo [j,spo(; xcov A[j,spiKav(bv. 

A6y(0 xrjc; aviG6[j,sxpri(; oiKovo[j,iKfi(; avduxu^r]^, xcov 5ia- 
(popsxiKcbv S7ims5cov oiKovo[j,ia(; xcov 5id(popcov Kpaxcbv- 
[ishhv, avrrj KaOavrfj r] «supco7iaiKfi o>tOK>tfipcoGri», Ssv f^Tio- 
psi Tiapd va TipoxcopfiGSi [j,s [j,sydXs^ avaxapd^sK; Kai gu- 
yKpoiJGSK; avd[j,SGa Gxa Kpdxri-[j,sXr|. SuyKpouGSK;, nov auxf) 
XT] Gxiy[j,fi, 5sv i^TiopoiJV, PsPaicD(;, va udpouv piair| (Gxpaxico- 

XlKTl) [J-OpCpfl f) XT] [J-OpCpfl 0lK0V0[J,lK0l3 a7lOKXsiG[J,Ol3 KpaxcDV- 



226 



[lehbv a7i6 aXXxx KpdTri-[j,8}^ri. Qgtogo, av koitioio^ laxupiaxsi 

OTl KOITI TSTOIO 5sV TipOKSlTttl 710T8 Vtt GU[J,p8l, PpiGKSTai Gl- 

youpa skt6(; «at)T0i3 xou KOGfo^ou)). Oi 5ia[j,dx8(; yupro and xriv 

OlKOVO^llKTl f) S^CDTSpiKTl TlO^tlTlKTl, ttTlOTS^tOlJV ttTl^LOCx; Sv5si^Sl(; 

auTcbv T(ov avaxapd^scov. 

noA,ij Tipiv, Xomov, oAoK^ripcoGsi r\ «avTiK8i[j,sviKfi» uopsia 
Tipog 8vav «8upco7iaiK6 Ka7iiTa}tiG[j,6» (tcdv «15», tcov «25», 
TCDV «[j,sydX(DV 5uvd[j,s(ov» r\ xou «5isu9uvTripiou»), r] oXr] 5i- 
aSiKaGia PpiGKsxai Kdxco and [im 5xKkr\ [leyjevr]: Tcdv iGxopi- 
Kd 5ia[j,op(pco[j,sv(DV (avxiGsxcov) sGvikcdv GU[j,(psp6vxcov, aA,M 
Kai xT]^ xa^iKT)^ 7id}^ri(;. Fiaxi xo 6X0 supcDTiaiKo syx8ipri[j,a 
Gxr|pi(^8xai Gxo v80(piX8}tsu98piG[j,6, Tipdyfo^a nov 5ri[j,ioupy8i 
GUv9fiK8(; xa^iKoij 7ioX8[j,ou. Aux6(; 8ivai o }t6yo(; xri(; auo^s- 
vcoGrjc; xcov supcoTiaicDV spya(^o[j,sv(DV and xrjv «sup(D7iaiKfi o- 
XoKXfipcoGri». Kai auxo s^si xspdGxist; cvveneieq gxtjv Tipoo- 
TixiKTi XT]^ oiKo56[j,riGri^ xri(; «Eup(b7iri(;» (Kai gxo Kaxd tiogo 
auxfi sivai p8aX,iGxiKd scpiKxfi). 

AvD;rap^ia Koiva)viKfi(g 8DvaniKfi(; 

'Onmq si5a[j,s, oi noXneq xcdv Kpax(bv-[j,sX(bv xri(; E.E. sxouv 
PaGid 5uG7iiGxia gxo «st)pco7iaiK6 syxsipri[j,a». Dtioxs 5isvsp- 
yfiGriKav 5ri[j,o\|/ri(piG[j,axa gs 9s[j,axa tiou acpopow xo GuyKs- 
Kpi[j,svo xpoTio oiKo56[j,riGri(; xri(; «Eup(b7iri(;» (MdaGxpi^x, Ni- 
Kaia, siGayroyfi xou supcb) sixs xo a7ioxs}tSG[j,a fixav apvrjxiKo 
(Kai xpsidGXTjKs xa 5ri[j,o\|/ri(piG[j,axa va S7iavaXri(p9oi3v [iEjpi 
va aTiOGTiaGxsi xo 7ioX,u7i69rixo «vai»- Kai auxo o^i g' oXeq xiq 
nepxKT&iceiq, onmq gxtjv a7i6ppi\|/ri xr]^ siGaycoyfi(; xou supcb 
GXT] Sour|5ia), sixs xo a7ioxs}tSG[j,a fixav opiaKo. Aux6(; sivai o 
X6yo(; 710U 01 TispiGGOxspst; KuPspvfiGSK; xcdv Kpax(bv-[j,sX(bv 
5sv ToX[iox)V va Sis^dyouv 5ri[j,o\|/ri(piG[j,axa, svcb cDO\£q, a[j,(pi- 



227 



TaX,avT8iJ0VTai SiapKocx; (oticd^ yia to £v5sx6[j,svo 5is^aycoyfi(; 
5r|[j,o\|/ri(piG[j,dT(DV as gxsgti [ie to 5iaP6riTO «Ei3vTay[a^a»). 
AK6[j,a Kai as x&)peq-[iEkr\ [is v\\ir\kr\ a7io5oxn ttjc; E.E., oticd^ 
r\ EXTJida, r\ a7io5oxn auTf) sivai acpriprmsvou S7ii7is5ou, [is 
aXhi >^6yia 5sv acpopd to GuyKSKpi[j,svo Tpouo nou «xTi(^STai» 
r\ E.E. O s}t}tr|viK6(; }ta6(; 7iapa[j,svsi PaGid avsvr|[j,spcoTO(; yia 
Ta 9s[j,aTa ttjc; E.E. (onmq Kai oi dXXoi supcoTiaiKoij Xaoi). 
KupioXsKTiKd UTidpxsi 8va GKOTSivo 7iapa7iSTaG[j,a Kai r\ auo- 
5oxn TTjc; E.E. s5pd(^STai, Kupi(D(;, gto 6ti sivai «iipoq to sGvi- 
k6 GU[j,(pspov» (Tipdyfo^a nov xpriGi[j,07ioifi9riKs KaTd Kopov 
GTTjv TispiTiTCDGTi Tri(; sig65ou GTTjv E.E. TTjc; v6Tia(; KlJTipOt)). 
EniTikeov xpriGi[j,07ioisiTai, yia va sv5uva[j,(D9si r\ u7iOGTfipi^r| 
7ipo(; TTjv E.E., r\ 5r|[j,OGi6TriTa (5idpa(^s 7ipo7iaydv5a) yia tk; 
KoivoTiKS(; siGpos(; (spya U7io5o[j,fi(; K.Xn.) Kai r\ «GTfipi^ri» 
Tou aypoTiKoij siGo5fi[j,aTO(; (avTiGsTa oi 7ipopXs7i6[j,£V8(; Tispi- 
Koneq aypoTiKcbv stiiSottigscov [r\ to ysyov6(; 6ti auTS^ KaTSU- 
GiJvovTai KaTd Kupio Xoyo gtoix; ti^^oijgioix; aypoTSt;], sXdxi- 
GTa avacpspovTai). KdTCO and avxeq xiq cvvQr\Keq, 5sv sivai 
KaGoXou Tuxaio, 6ti av Kai r\ EA,Xd5a sivai xcbpa u\|/riXfi(; a- 



Djicog ocooxd Tiopaxripel o n. Auyepivot;, oe ouvdviriori [isxa^i) «ei5i- 
Kcbv» Tou EXXriviKot) KevxpoD EupcoTiaiiKcbv MeXexcbv, oxo yeyovog 6xi oe 
yKoloTi xo 78% xcov Ellfivcov SfiXcooav oxi 9a v|/fi(pi(^av UTiep ev6<; eupcoTia- 
iKoy ouvxdyiiaxog: «9eXco va tico oxi Tipocpavcbg, eycb xo moxeuco, 6xi xo 
78% xcov EXXfivcov tiou vi/fjcpioav vai oxo Euvxayiia, 5ev fj^epav oe xi avia- 
vxouoav. To Xeco auxo yiaxi ri auvxayixaxiicfi ewoia elvai xooo SuoKoXr] oe 
auxo Kov (n)(^rixd|ie, kov (i8 xriv epcbxriori mika «6e'ks\c, eva Euvxayiia f] 
6xi» xo vai 11 xo 6x1 elvai Kdxi kov 5ev \iKopei va xapaKxriploei Kai va 9e- 
copfioou|ie 6x1 01 'Ell-^veq elvai x6oo v|/riXd oxriv avdyicri va Qi]xr](5om Jm- 
vxayiia. Mou Kdvei evxuTicoori 6xav 6A,ri t] EupcoTUi ecpxaoe TiepiTiou oxo 
60%, ejiei; 7niya|ie 78%». («Eupco7iaiK6 Euvxayjia, p6Xo<;, orijiaola, Ilepi- 
8x6(i8VO», oeX. 73). 

228 



7io5oxn? xrig E.E., tiots 5sv sxsi SisvspyriGei 5ri[j,o\|/fi(piG[j,a yia 
07ioio5fi7iOTS (^fixriia^a nov acpopd auvGfiKri Tri(; E.E. 

Ta TiapaTidvco U7ioypa[j,[j,i(^ouv Tr|v eXksi\\ir\ svspyotx; cv[i- 
[iETO')(j(\q TCDV supcDTiaicov TioXnchv Gxriv oiKo56[j,riGri Tri(; «Eu- 
p&)iir\q». To (^fiTTiia^a auxo sivai 8^aipsTiKfi(; armaaia^ yia xriv 
ennvxia OTioiaoSfiTiOTS GxpaxriyiKfic; yia xriv «7ioXiTiKfi svo- 
7ioiriGri» Tri(; E.E. A716 noXkeq itkevpeq, sivai o Ki)piO(; Tiapd- 
yovTa(; nov avxi] r\ svoTioiriGri sxsi TipoxcopfiGei togo Myo, t6- 
GO avTicpaxiKd. H sA,X8i\|/ri svspyotx; msGrjc; «a7i6 xa KdTCO» - 
a7i6 8va [lal^iKo Kivrma to otioio va 7iis(^si 7ipo(; xriv KaxsuGuv- 
cr\ TT]^ supco7iaiKfi(; svoTioiri gt]^- aTisi^^si SiapKox; va TopuiM- 
GSi TO 6)^0 «supco7iaiK6 syxsipri[j,a». 

OuGiKd, 58V 8ivai [a^ri58ViKfi r\ «i58oAoyiKfi» an^jricr] tt] 
E.E. To y8yov6(; oxi sva and xa PaGiKd i5soXoyfi[j,aTa nov 
XpriGi[j,07ioiriGav oi Kt)piapxs(; xd^si^ g' oXoK^^ripri xriv Eupcb- 
Tiri yia xrjv 87iiPoX,fi vsocpiXsXsijGspcov [j,sxpcov fixav yia «va 
[j,riv xaGsi xo supcoTiaiKo xp8vo», (pavspcbvsi 6x1 r\ aufixnoTl 
xTjc; E.E. 8ivai supmaxri. 

H aufixnoTl auxfi sivai iGXupoxspri Gxa vsa [iekr\, cxiq Xcb- 
ps^ xri(; KsvxpiKTi^ Kai AvaxoXiKfi(; EupcDTiric;. Oaivo[j,£ViKd 
7iapd5o^o, sivai xo ysyov6(; 6x1 r\ 7ipoG[j,ovfi sig65ou gxtjv E.E. 
yswd xk; [j,syaX,i3xsps(; 7ipoG5oKis(; gs x&tpeq nov sixs r] (nohb) 
[a^sX,AovxiKfi xoix; siGo5o(; (BouXyapia, Pou[j,avia) Ga Guv5ua- 
gGsi [IE nohb [j,sydXo koivcoviko kogxo^ (avspyia Xoyco «sk- 
GuyxpoviG[j,oi3»), onmq r\dr\ GU[j,paivsi [le xk; XKAE, sixs, (6- 
nmq Gxr|v TispiTixcoGri ToupKiat; - AXpaviat; - Bopsiat; Kij- 
Tipou), 01 7iiGav6xrixs(; sig65ou gxo opaxo [j,eX,Xov sivai [j,ri5s- 
viKS(;. 

H aufixnoTl, (OGXOGO, xou supcDTiaiKot) syxsipfi[j,axo(; Gxr|v 
E.E.-15 sivai uaGrixiKfi Kai 6x1 svspyrixiKfi (5sv oiKo5o[j,si Ki- 
vrma UTisp xTjc; «Eup(b7iri9>). Sxa Tia^^id [iekr\ xrjc; E.E.-15 xa 



229 



aiG9fi[j,aTa 7ipo(; xriv E.E. eivai avd[iEiKia (a7io5oxn aX,Xd, 
xauTOXpova, au^av6[j,£V0(; 96Po(; Tipog xiq koivcoviks^ stutitg)- 
gsk; [Si3[j,(p(Dvo STa9sp6TriTa(;, KaTsSdcpiori Kpdxoix; upovoi- 
a^]). IIspiGGOTspo Ka9opi(^STai r| GTdari tcdv noXnchv g' at)TS(; 
a7i6 TO «ava7i6(psuKTO» Tri(; «supco7iaiKfi(; svoTioiri gtjc;)) f) auo 
TO (p6Po [V[\Ti(i)q r\ avTiGTpocpf) Tri(; supco7iaiKfi(; uopsiat; (pspsi 
GTTjv smcpdvsia tk; nakieq yv(DGTS(; avTiTiapaGsGSK; (yia Tiapd- 
58iy[j,a TTjv avTiTiaXoTTiTa rsp[j,avia(; - TaXkiaq). 

Etk; MsGoysiaKS(; xoc)ps(; (IIopToyaMa - iGTiavia - EXXd- 
5a) r\ a7io5oxn GTripi(^STai ano tt] ^la gti^ {5i8(; aiTist; tiou a- 
vacpspafo^s Kai yia tk; vnoXomeq ttj^ E.E.-15, svcb sviGXUSTai 

a7l6 TTjV TipoPoXf) TCDV KOIVOTIKCDV [J,STaPlPdGS(DV (tCOV KoiVO- 

TiKcbv nXaiGicov STTipi^ric;). Ennikeov KaXXispysiTai r\ «7iS7ioi- 
9riGri» OTi r\ sigo5o(; gttjv E.E. PofiGriGS gttjv s^tisScdgti tcov 
5ri[j,0KpaTiK(bv 5ia5iKaGi(bv nov aKoXoi39riGS ttjv titcdgti tcov 
5iKTaTopi(bv g' auTS(; tk; x&tpeq. Kai g' auTS(;, }toui6v, tk; x(o- 
ps(; T] a7io5oxn Tr\c, E.E. sivai TiaGriTiKfi Kai GUv5t)d(^STai [is 
PaGid dyvoia (f), av 7ipoTi[j,dTai, TiapaTi^^ripocpopriGri) yia Ta 
TSKTaiv6[j,8va gttjv E.E. 

Fia tk; XKAE r\ s^fiyriGri tou (pay5aia [j,sioi3[j,svou) Pa9- 
[ioi) auo Soxni; Tr\c, E.E. sivai uspiGGOTspo r\ gwSsgti ttjc; s- 
VTa^Tjc; [IE TTjv aTisXsuGspcoGTi a7i6 ttjv SoPistikti (Pcdgikti) 
GCpaipa S7iippofi(;, tov SK5ri[j,0KpaTiG[j,6 tt]^ SGCDTspiKfi(; 710X1- 
TiKTic;, Kai XiyoTspo r\ 7ipoG5oK(b[j,£vri dvo5o(; tou Piotikoij s- 
nmedov (upoGSoKia nov r\ i5ia r\ svTa^iaKfi 5ia5iKaGia (pp6- 
VTiGS va 5ia\|/8i)G8i GxsTiKd ypfiyopa). TauTOXpova, au^dvs- 



I,nq XKAE, Tiapd to iiktiQoq tcov (isocov %ov 5iaTe9riKav yia va Tiepiopi- 
oTel T] avioxii, oxe56v to 50% tcov v|/ricpocp6pcov 5ev (n)|i|i£Telxe cjTa Srijxo- 
v|/ricpl(j|iaTa kov opyocvcoBriKocv yia ttjv evTa^f] toix; cjttiv evcocji]: «[...] oe 
eBviKo ETiiTieSo SKi^aXkexai t] 5ri|io(jiovo|iiKfi XiTOTiiTa, tt] oTiyiifi kov 
ai)^(xv8Tai T] aTioyoiiTeucrri yia ti<; eupcoTiaiKeg evrnxucjen;. [. . .] H AvaToXi- 

230 



xai o (p6Po^ OTi r\ rsp^iavia spxsxai va avTiKaxaaTfiGSi to p6- 
Xo 710U nakm S7iai(^8 r\ ESS A. 

Fia TT] ToupKia sivai oacpst;, oxi r\ Gstikti GTdari Tipo^ xriv 
E.E. sviGXUsxai and xriv eknida 6xi [im 8v5sx6[j,£vri gtjvSsgti 
9a KaxaGxfiGSi xov SK5ri[j,0KpaxiG[j,6 xrjc; xcbpa^ «ava7i6(psu- 
Kxo», 7ipdy[j,a tiou (ppovx((^8i r] (Sia r\ E.E. va KaX,}tispysi [j,s xk; 
skGsgsk; xt]^, tiou (uTioGsxiKd), ekeyxouv xr] «5ri[j,0KpaxiKfi 
7ip6o5o» xrjc; Tot)pKia(;. Sxrjv 7ipay[j,axiK6xrixa TipoKsixai yia 
KaGapf) UTioKpiGia. H E.E. sMxiGxa s^si PoriGfiGSi gxov 8k- 
5r|[j,0KpaxiG[j,6 xr]^ ToupKiag {r\ SrmoKpaxiKfi 7ip6o5o(; g' auxf) 
XT] xcbpa ocpsiXsxai gxo SGCOxspiKo [lal^iKo Kivrma xri(; xropat;), 
svd) T] E.E. Guvsxi(^si va Tioii^d acpsiSdx; ouXa Gxr|v ToupKia 
yia xTjv avxi[j,sx(b7iiGri xogo xcov KoupScov ogo Kai xou «sgco- 
xspiKot) sxGpoi3». 

Ss 6>t8^ xk; TispiTixcDGSK;, Xomov, r\ a7io5oxn T:r\c, E.E. sivai 
[laXkov r\ a7io5oxn svoq «[j,oipaiou ysyov6xo9>- 5sv TipoKijTixsi 
sv8pyr|xiKfi nakf] yia xr|v oiKo56[j,r|Gr| xri(; E.E. MovaSiKf) ig(D(; 
s^aipsGTi (nov smPsPairovsi xov Kavova), sivai r\ Bopsia Ki3- 
7ipo(;, GXTjv OTioia xo [lal^iKo Kivrma svdvxia gxo KaGeGxdcx; xou 
NxsvKxd^, GUv5udGxriKs [is xrjv 7ipoG5oKia sig65ou gxtjv E.E. 
AXXd r\ UTiOGxfipi^ri 7ipo(; xrjv E.E. sivai 58[j,svri fj,' sva gijvoXo 
aXki)v Tiapayovxcov (xr|v sigo5o xt]^ Noxiat; Kuupou gxtjv 
E.E., xov oikovo[j,ik6 a7ioKXsiG[j,6 xou Poppd Kai xrjv GUvaKo- 
XouGt] oiKovo[j,iKfi KaxaGxpocpf), xTjv Kaxu7io\|/ia 7ipo(; xr] «[j,ri- 
xspa 7iaxpi5a» xrjv ToupKia). Kai aGCpa^tocx;, s^aipsxiKd sm- 



Kii EupcoTiri Tispaoe aiieocoi; and xt\ XoyoKpiola Kai xov Tiapaloyiojio xrn; 
YpacpeioKpaxiag xou 7iporiyoi)|ievoi) (iovoKO|i|iaxiKoi) KaGeoxcbxot;, xo o- 
Tioio cooxooo Tiapeixe koivcovikji vipooxaoia, oxriv 7rvei)|iaxiKri xpo|ioKpa- 
xia Kai oxov dypio Kamxaliojio kov ciuvoSeuav xo veocpiXeXeyBepo 56y- 
|ia» (Calherine Samary, Piiyjiaxa Kai elniSieq xiji; «Neai; Ei)pcb7iri9>. Le 
Monde Diplomatique, avaSiKxooieuOTi EleuGepoxDTiia, 30/11/2003). 

231 



KivSuva, r\ evxa^ri [lovo ttjc; Noxiat; KijTipou aTisiXsi [j,aKpo- 
7ip69sG[j,a va au^fiGSi tk; s9viks(; dieve^eiq gto vtigi. 

EmTipoGGsxa, r\ ouoia (7ia9r|TiKfi) a7io5oxn T:r\c, E.E. 5sv 
GTripi(^STai TOGO GXT] «yoriTSia» xou «st)pco7iaiKoi3 syxsipfma- 
T0(;», OGO Gxriv a5uva[j,ia Tri(; ApiGxspd^. npdy[j,aTi, r] Kaxdp- 

PSUGT] TCDV KaGSGTCDTCOV TOU KpaXlKOt) Ka7llTa}tlG[J,Ol3 («U7iap- 

KTOij GOGiaXiG[j,oi3»), 5ri[j,ioi3pyriGS tk; tipoDtioGsgek; yia [im 
«iGTopiKfi» fiTxa Tri(; ApiGxspd^. Ta GxaXiviKd K6[j,[j,aTa nou 
TauTiGxriKav fj,' avxeq xiq x&ipeq sits yvcbpiGav KaxaKopucpri 
TiTCDGri Tri(; s7iippofi(; touq sits 5ifiX9av [im 7ispio5o jpi\Yopr\q 
«GOGiaX5ri[j,oKpaTiK07ioiriGri9>, nov [lepoq tt]^ fixav Kai r\ a- 
TioSoxn TTjc; E.E (xpriGi[j,07ioi(bvTa(; to i5soX6yri[j,a «yia [iia 
EupcDTiri TCDV Xa(bv»). H sA,Xsi\|/ri svaX,XaKTiKfi(; 7ipoo7iTiKfi(; 
a7i6 TTjv 7i}tsupd Tr|(; ApiGTspdt;, togo gs gxegt] ysviKOTspa [j,s 
TO vso(piXsXsu9spiG[j,6, OGO Kai [IE xr\v E.E., TpocpoSoTriGS ttjv 
TiaGriTiKTi a7io5oxn Tri(; E.E. Gav [j,ia «avTiKsi[j,sviKfi» 5ia5iKa- 
Gia. 

Ta TiapaTidvcD Grmaivouv 6ti r\ a7io5oxn Tr\c, E.E. 6xi [lovov 
sivai TiaGriTiKTi, aA,}^d GxsTiKd suKoXa f^Tiopsi va avTiGTpacpsi, 
Xoyco TTjc; ysviKOTsprjc; vsocpi^tsX^uGsprjc; KaTSi3GuvGri(; gttjv 
oiKo56[j,riGfi Tri(; (7ipdy[j,a tiou a7io5siKvi3ouv togo Ta auoTS- 
XEG[j,aTa Tcov 5ri[a^o\|/ri(piG[j,dTC0v nov s^ouv yivsi, 6go Kai to 

U\|/riX6 TIOGOGTO «SUp(DGKS7lTlKlG[J,Ol3» KOV KaTaypdcpSTai GTTjV 

E.E.-15). AGCpaXdx;, to «si3KoXa» sivai [im KouPsvTa. 0a 
XpsiaGTSi 6x1 |J,6vo to ^scpTiGfo^a tou vso(pi}tsXsuGspiG[j,oi3 (nov 
ommq r\ dA,Xco(; sxsi stisXGsi Ta TsXsuTaia xpovia), akXd Kai 
[j,ia ApiGTspd r\ OTioia va ^iTiopsi va rjyriGsi aycbvrov nov va 
o5riyfiGOUv gs viks^, Kai, STimXsov, va f^Tiopsi va s^twsijgsi 
[j,ia aXkr\ upooTiTiKfi. AiacpopsTiKd, o av^av6[is\/oq «sup(DGKs- 
7iTiKiG[j,6(;» i^Tiopsi KdXXiGTa va o5riyriGsi 7ipo(; avTi5paGTiKE(; 
KaTSuGiJVGSig - GS dvo5o tou sGviKiG[j,oi3 yia 7iapd5siy[j,a. 



232 



H «Et)p(b7iri», Xomov, oSriysixai, 8A,Xsi\|/si «>uaiKoi3 Kivr\[ia- 
Toqyy, and xiq KpaTiKS(; ypacpsioKpaxist; xcov KpaTrov-fo^s^^cbv, 
sv(b 01 «(psvTspa}tiGTS(;» («sup(D7iaioi ai9spopd[j,ovs(;») 5sv 

8X0UV TlTlOTa TO «yOr|TSUTlK6» f) «pO[J,aVTlK6». A7lOTS}tOl3VTai 

a7i6 [j,ia 5pdKa aKa5ri[j,aiK(bv, 5i7iX(0[j,aT(bv, ypacpsioKpaxcbv, r\ 
aK6[j,a xsipoTspa and Gxuyvotx; vso(piXsXsi39spou(; TS^voKpa- 
TS(; (Tpanel^nEq r\ [j,dvaT(^sp), nov 7iis(^ouv (;) KuPspvfiGSK; r\ 
smpdXouv vso(piXsXsi398p8(; AoyiKS(;, gto 6vo[j,a xou «sup(D7ia- 
iKoij oiKo5o[a^fi[j,aTO(;», sv6(; a7i6[j,aKpou (xi|J.aipiKoi3) supcoTia- 
iKoij «U7ispKpdT0U(;», sv(b Gxriv Tipayfj-axiKoxriTa (Kai s[j,(pa- 
vdcx;), }tsiTOupyoi3v Gav tioXitikoi SKTipoGCOTioi xou KscpaXaiou 

Kai TCOV Xa^lKCbv GU[J,(pSp6VT(DV TCDV Ka7llTa}tlGT(bv TOU KdGs 

KpdTOU^-[j,s}tou(;. 

H ypacpsioKpaxia nov 5iaxsipi(^STai xriv «sup(07iaiKfi oXo- 
KXfip(DGri» [mopei va PauKaM(^STai (GUVsiSrixd - aGUVsiStixa - 
yia X6you(; 7ipo7iaydv5a(;), [is xriv i5sa oxi r\ «Et)p(b7iri» sivai 
sva «7ipcox6xu7io 7isipa[j,a» gxo otioio 5sv 9a xP£ioig9si pta, 
87iavdGxaGr|, «koivcoviks(; avaxapaxs(;». H «oiKovo[j,iKfi ava- 
yKai6xrixa» 9a eni^aXkei xsXiKd xrjv supcoTiaiKfi svotioitigti, 
Gxa5iaKd [j,sv, akXd avaTiocpsuKxa 5s. 'Ouoiot; tiigxsijsi Gxa 
GoPapd 6x1 sva xsxoio gxs5io sxsi 7ii9av6xrixs(; STiixuxiat;, sixs 
sxsi «\|/su5fi GUVsi5riGri», sixs, aTi^^dcx;, \|/si)5sxai Kai auxaTia- 
xdxai. 

Eivai, 7ipdy[j,axi, s^opyiGxiKd ysXoia r\ Kaxrjyopia nov s^a- 
TioXijsxai, GUxvd-TiuKvd, 7ipo(; xo «[j,ap^iG[j,6» yia oikovo[j,i- 
G[j,6, an' 6gou(; aTioxsXoiJV xoix; mo aKpai(pvsi(; 07ia5oi3(; xou 
«oiKovo[j,iG[j,oi3». O oiKovo[j,iG[j,6(;, o -xpdaioq uXig[j,6(;, sivai 
avauoGTiaGxo KO[j,[j,dxi xrjc; (KamxaXiGxiKfic;) i5soX,ri7ixiKfi^ a- 
vxi}tr|\|/r|(; xcdv iGxopiKcbv 5ispyaGi(bv. O GxaXiviG[j,6(; gxtjv oi- 

KOVOfO^lGXlKTI SiaGXpsP^tCOGTl XOU «[J,ap^lG[J,0l3» 5sv Tipcoxoxu- 

TioiJGS. E7isi5fi aKpipd)^ xa GxaXiviKd Ka9sGX(bxa fiGav Ka9s- 



233 



GTcbxa KpaxiKot) Ka7iiTaXiG[j,oi3 (tiou ot)5s[j,ia gxsgti sixav [j,s 
TO G0Gia}tiG[j,6) r\ i5soXoyia xovq fixav TauT6Gri[j,ri [le xiq vno- 
Xomeq KaTiixaXiGTiKst; x&tpeq (uapd xriv «apiGT8pfi» cppaGSO- 
}toyia Kai tt] Xsr|XaGia tcdv GU[j,p6}tcov tt]^ ApiGxspoK;). 

Ta vsoXsiTOupyiKd TSxvdG[j,aTa nov i5soXri7iTiKd GTripi(^ouv 
TO «8up(D7iaiK6 syxsipri[j,a», GTripi(^ovTai gttiv i5ia oikovo[j,i- 
GTiKTi }toyiKfi, Kai yi' auxo 5sv s^ouv Ka[j,id gxsgti (uspav Tri(; 
7ipo7iayav5iGTiKfi(; XsiTOupyiKoxriTdt; xoix;) [is xiq U7iapKT8(; 
iGTopiKS(; 5ia5iKaGiS(;. Dxav oi ypacpsioKpdxs^ xcov Bpu^sXcbv 
(pavxaGicbvouv 6xi r\ «oiKovo[j,iKfi avayKai6xrixa» 9a eni^ak- 
Xsi Gxa5iaKd xrjv «7ioX,ixiKfi svo7ioiriGri», avxi}ta[j,pdvovxai (;) 
[j,ia 5ia5iKaGia Kax' s^oxnv noXniKi] [is a7i6A,uxa gxsvo, oiko- 
vo[j,iGxiKo xpoTio. AX%a Kai oxav avacpspovxai gxtjv avdyKt] 
«7io}tixiKfi(; Poi3XriGri(;», auxfiv xrjv avxiXa[j,pdvovxai Gav aitkeq 
5iaPouXsi3G8i(; avd[j,8Ga gs s9viks(; KpaxiKst; ypacpsioKpaxis^. 

H («a7i6 xa 7idv(D») «st)p(D7iaiKfi svo7ioir|Gri» s^Tispisxsi 
8KpriKxiK8^ avxiGsGSK; - s9viKS(; avxiuaXoxrixs^ GU[j,(psp6vxcov, 
SidGxaGT] GD[j,(p8p6vxcov «[j,8yd}^cov» Kai «[j,iKp(bv» KauixaXi- 
Gxcbv, yscoTioXixiKs^ sf^TiXoKs^ (gxsgsk; [j,s HQA - laTicovia - 
Kiva). Avxi9sG8i^ nov KaGiGxoiJV a5i3vaxri xrjv tioXixikti svo- 
TioiriGri xcopi(; xrjv svspyrixiKfi TiisGr] «a7i6 xa Kdxco». Fia va 
Ka[j,(p9oi3v 01 avxiGxdGSK;, 9a STipsTis oi supcoTiaioi noXneq va 
Kivrixo7ioiri9oi3v [lal^iKa 7ipo(; xrjv Kaxsi39uvGri xrjt; svo7ioiriGri(; 
([j,8 6x1 auxo GUVSTidysxai). 

H «supco7iaiKfi oXoK}tfipcoGri» (i5iaix8pa r\ «7io}tixiKfi svo- 
7ioiriGr|») Gxspsixai koivcdviktic; 5uva[j,iKfi(;. Asv ucpiGxaxai 
«8t)pco7iaiK6 Kivr\[ia», oijxe «a7i6 xa 7idvco» oijxs «a7i6 xa Kd- 
x(o». H 89viKfi 5ia[j,6p(pcoGri xou KscpaXaiou 7iapa[j,sv8i Kupi- 
apxn- 5sv UTidpxouv KamxaXiGxst; nov va s^ouv a7ioK6\|/8i 
xoix; 5sG[j,oi3(; [le xo s9vik6 xoix; Kpdxot;, nov va stiiSicdkouv xt] 
5ri[j,ioupyia U7isps9viK(bv 9sG[j,(bv. Tauxoxpova oi 7ioX,ix8g xcov 



234 



KpaT(bv-[j,sX(bv Tri(; E.E. (spya(^6[j,£voi r\ aypoxs^) Kd9s aXko 
Tiapd s[j,(popoi3vTai and «7iav8up(D7iaiKd i5aviKd». 

AuTTi r| s}^Xsi\|/ri koivcdviktic; 5uva[j,iKfi(;, [o^sTaypdcpsxai gto 
ysyov6(; oxi r\ ypacpsioKpaxia xcov Bpu^sXcbv Kai KoivcoviKd 
a7io[j,ov(D[a^£vri sivai, akin Kai evxehaq a7io5uva[a^(D[a^svri as 
GxsGTi [IE xa sGviKd KpdxTj. O xa[j,riX6(; koivoxik6(; 7ipol)7ioXo- 
yiG[j,6(;, o (9sG[j,iKd) 5iaKpaxiK6(; xapaKxfipa(; xri(; E.E., r\ cv- 
vsiSrixfi u7iopd9[j,iGri xr]^ koivoxikti^ ypacpsioKpaxiat; and xa 
Kpdxri-[j,s}tri, [j,sxa(ppd(^sxai gs [j,ia 7ioA,i3 [j,iKpfi (Kai api9[j,r|xi- 
Kd) ypacpsioKpaxia a7i6X,uxa s^apxri[j,svri and xa sGviKd Kpd- 
XT], aK6[j,a Kai yia xrjv smPoXfi xcdv i5icov xcov [j,sxpcov xrjc; Eu- 
pco7iaiKfi(; E7iixpo7ifi(;. 

H Tio^tixiKTi svoTioiriGri xr]^ EupcDTiric; (av tioxs 7ipay[j,axo- 
TioiriGsi) 9a sivai Kax' s^oxnv tio^^ixiko ysyov6(;, 7ipdy[j,a nov 
Gri[j,aivsi, 6x1 9a auaixfiGSi xrjv KivrjxoTioiri gt] sKaxo[j,^upicov 
av9p(b7i(DV. 

Qgxogo, «hxiK6 Kivr\[ia» vnep [imq svco[j,svri(; Evp&)iir\q 
ankxf. 5sv ucpiGxaxai. '0[i(i)q Kavsva Kpdxo^ 58v 7ipofi}t98 anhhq 
«an6 xa 7idv(o». 'OA,a xa Kpdxr] 7ipofiX9av [j,sxd auo GK^ripotx; 
«XaiKoi3(;» aycbvsg, sixs Ka9apd xa^iKotx; (raXMa-AyyMa) 
sixs [j,sxd a7i6 8va GUv5uaG[j,6 «s9viK(bv» Kai xa^iKcbv aycb- 

VCDV- OTIOU G8 Kd9s TlSpiTlXCOGTl T] KOIVCDVIKTI SldGXaGT] flXaV 

KupiapxH- Oi Xaoi UTiOGxfipi^av svspyd ([is suavaGxdGSK;, s- 
^syspGSK;, Tio'ke.[iovq) xrjv iSpuGT] xou Kpdxou^, Gav auocpaGi- 
GxiKTic; Gri[j,aGia(; yia xrjv koivcovikti 5iKaiOGi3vri (dG^sxa Kaxd 
TiOGO auxf) Tipdyfo^axi S7isxsi3x9ri), xrjv TipooSo, xrjv i5puGri xou 
Kpdxou^ Gav xTjv o56 7ipo(; xk; ysviKoxsps^ koivcoviks^ («>^ai- 
KS(;») KaxaxxfiGSi^. 

Mia xsxoia TipooTixiKfi sivai «skx6^ gxs5iou». H «Eup(b7ir|» 
7101) xxi(^sxai sivai r| Evp&)iir\ xcov Kamxa^^iGxiKcbv GU[j,(psp6- 
vxcov. IIou Gri[j,aiv8i 6xi 9a Kivsixai avxicpaxiKd, [leca and xiq 



235 



cv[nikr\yd5eq xcov avTiTi98[j,8vcov Gt)[j,(psp6vTC0v xcov apxouGcbv 
xd^scDV Tri(; Eup(b7iri(;, Kai as KdGs TispiTiTCoari, [j,aKpid and 
TOU(; supcDTiaiKotx; Xaotx;. 0a xT^iC^t^^i^ ^'^^ ^^o^? koivoPouXsu- 
TiKoix; 8K7ipoG(b7iot)(; (aTiofo^aKpoix; aGTsps(;, otiox; Kai oi s9vi- 
Koi KoivoPou^tsuTiKoi), tk; KpaxiKs^ ypacpsioKpaxis^, xovq Ka- 
pispiGTS(; ypa(psioKpdTS(; tcdv Bpu^eXcbv, svdvxia oxa GU[j,(ps- 
povxa xcov 8pya(^0[j,sv(DV 6Xri(; xri(; Evp&)iir\q. 

Mia xsxoia «Eup(b7iri» 5sv TipoKsixai tioxs va cruyKivfiGSi, 
noXi) TispiGGOxspo, va KivrjxoTioifiGSi xovq supcoTUXiou^ tioM- 
xs(;. Kai av tioxs, xo 6pa[j,a [imq sviaia(; Eup(b7iri(;, yivsi guvsi- 
5riGri Kai TipaKxiKf) avdyKt] yia xotx; EupcDTiaioix;, xoxs, Tipo- 
(pavdx;, Ssv 9a sivai [im vso(pi}ts}tsi30spri Evp&)iir\. AXka Kai 
oijxs [j,ia «Eup(b7iri xcdv Xa(bv». 

H svspysia, oi kivtixotioitigsk;, xo [iejeQoq xodv aycbvrov nov 
9a a7iaixri9oi3v yia [im xsxoia TipooTixiKfi, 9a «s^avayKdGSi» 
7ipo(; xrjv ava(^fixriGri [imq aXkr\q Evp&)iir\q, nov 5sv f^Tiopsi 
Tiapd va KxiGxsi Gxa spsiuia xrjc; Grmspivf)^ E.E. Tr] Grmspivf) 
KaTiixaXiGxiKTi EupcDTiri 5sv ^iTiopsi Tiapd va xrjv avxiKaxaGxr)- 
GSi r\ EupcDTiri xrov Epya(^0[j,svcov, r\ EupcDTiri xr]^ d[j,SGri^ dr\[io- 
Kpaxiat; xcov Et)[j,pouMcov xcov Epya(^o[j,svcov, r\ EupcoTiri xri(; 
5ri[j,0KpaxiKfi(; iG6xrixa(; («vx67iicov» Kai [j,sxavaGxcbv) Kai xr]^ 
sipfivri(;. H EupcoTiri nov 9a 7ipoGavaxoM(^sxai gxtjv KdX,u\|/ri 
xcov av9pcb7iivcov avayKcbv, xrjv EupcoTiri aTr\v OTioia oi dv9pco- 
7101 9a sivai udvco and xa KspSr]. Fia [im xsxoia EupcoTiri 9a 
Kivrixo7ioiri9oi3v oi }taoi xri(;, Kai 6xi yia xrjv EupcoTiri xou vso- 
cpi>ts}tsu9spiG[j,oi3, xTjc; avspyiat;, xrjc; aPsPair]^ GUVxa^ioSoxr]- 
ar\c, OS riXiKisg X,iyo Tipiv xov 9dvaxo. . . 

noA,i3 Tipiv (pxdGOU[j,s, Xoinov, gxt] 5ri[j,ioupyia xou otioiou 
«supco7iaiKoi3 Ka7iixa}tiG[a^oi3», sivai a7ioA,i3xco(; Gacpst; 6xi r\ o^^ri 
5ia5iKaGia 9a 5is^dysxai (and xr] GKomd xcov KamxaXiGxcbv) 
avd[j,SGa gxt] SKuXa xcov avxixi9s[j,svcov s9viKcbv GU[j,(psp6- 



236 



VTCOV Kai TT] XdpupSri tt]^ xa^iKfig TidXrn;. Kdxco au' auTS(; tk; 
GUv9fiKS(; o «supco7iaiK6(; Ka7iiTa}tiG[j,6(;» 58v sivai aTi^^dcx; a- 
P8PaiO(;. MdX,}tov sivai to Xiyoxspo mGavo va 7ipay[j,aT07ioiri- 
Gsi. 

To Giyoupo 8ivai, oxi r| E.E. nov XTi(^STai, sivai r\ Evp&)iir\ 
Tcov KamxaXiGTiKcbv GU[j,(psp6vTC0v, nov (5Tr\ (5r\[i£piv(\ npaj- 
fj-axiKoxriTa, s^si5iKsi3sTai gttiv Evp&)iir\ xou vsocpiXs^^suGspi- 
G[j,oi3 Kai TTjc; i^TispiaXiGTiKTic; smPouXfic;. 



237 



K£(pd>uaio5 



H E.E. TOD ifi;rspia>^iofiOD, 
TT]^ aoTDV0fi0KpaTia(;, 

Kttl TOD paTOlOfiOD 

H E.E. GuyKpoTSi, oav Tipcbxo ^r\[ia Tri(; auxovo [x\q 5is- 
Qvonq i^TispiaXiGxiKfic; tt]^ Tiapouaia^, xr] Ai3va[j,ri Taxsia(; 
AvdTixu^ric; tiou api9[j,si 60.000 dv5ps(;. Ext] XaA,Ki5iKfi auo- 
(paoiGxriKs r\ 5ri[j,ioupyia, «xo apyoxspo and xov loijvio xou 
2004», [imq [lovadaq aspo[j,sxa(popd(; vno eupcoTiaiKfi Sioikti- 
GT], r\ OTioia 9a avaXa[j,pdvsi xrjv eKTekecr\ «supco7iaiK(bv Kai 
NATOiKcbv 5pdG8(DV». Envikeov, xrjv evicjpcr] xcov supcoTiai- 
K(bv 5uvd[j,scov S7iix6ipr|GiaKoi3 Gxs5iaG[j,oi3, xr] 5r|[j,ioupyia 
8up(D7iaiK(bv KsvxpcDV KaxdpxiGTjc; yia 7i}trip(b[j,axa s^^ikotixs- 
pcov Kai yia \na GSipd aXhx)V GxpaxicoxiKcbv siSiKoxfixcov.^'^'' 

SxT] XaX,Ki5iKfi o XaPis EoXdva, UTiaxog ap[j,OGxfi^ xri(; 
Koivfic; E^(i)TepiKr\q IloXniKr\q Ac^)akemq Kai A[j,uva(; (KE- 
IIAA), avxiypd(povxa(; xrjv a[j,spiKaviKfi Tio^tixiKfi, KaQopiGS 
Gav Kijpio d^ova xrjc; «supco7iaiKfi(; tioXixiktic; aG(pd}t8ia(;» xov 
«avxixpo[j,OKpaxiK6 ay(bva». Exrjv skGsgti xou ypdcpsi: 



238 



«H 5i89vfi^ Tpo[j,OKpaTia aTiOTsXsi GxpaxriyiKfi ausi- 
Xi] [...] H EupcDTiri aTioisXei Kai gtoxo Kai pdori tcdv 
Tpo[j,OKpaT(bv auTcbv. [...] ExeSidaxriKav - aXXd evTVx&iq 

aVTl[J,ST(D7llGTriKaV TipOTOt) SKTSXSGTOIJV - XpOfJ-OKpaXlKd 

7iA,fiy[j,aTa n8i(^ovo(; K}d\xaKaq Kaxd xou s5d(pou(; [j,a(;».^''^ 

Eivai oacpsig oi gtoxoi todv TiapaTidvcD ypa[j,[j,cbv. Acp' svog 
aTisiXowxai [j,8TavdGTS(; auo «i37107its(;» x^ps?, tt] GTiy[j,fi tiou 
«ri EupcDTiri aTiOTS^^si Kai pdGT] tcdv xpofa^oKpaTcbv)). Acp' sxs- 
pou, xpr|Gi[a^07ioi(bvTa(; avaTioSeiKxa «GT0ix8ia» (onrnq aKpi- 
Pdx; 01 KuPspvfiGSK; Mtioix; Kai Miikep yia va SiKaioXoyfiGOUv 
xriv sigPoXti gto IpdK), «Gxs5idGTriKav - aXXd sutuxgx; avxi- 

[J,STC07liGTriKaV TipOTOt) SKTS}^SGT0l3v - xpofj-OKpaxiKd Tikr\Y[ia- 

Ta», a7isi}tsi avoiKxd yia [j,8X,X,ovtiks(; S7is[j,pdGSi(;: 

«H supcoTiaiKTi 'EvcoGTi KivriTOTioisi ohx xa [j,8Ga tiou 
sxsi Gxr] SidGsGTi Tri(; GU^7ispiXa[j,pavo[j,sv(DV xcov Gxpa- 
xicoxiKcbv yia xrjv 7ip6}tri\|/ri xpo[j,OKpaxiKfi^ a7i8iA,fi(; gxo 
85a(pog xcov Kpax(bv-[j,8>^(bv». 

H skGsgti uioGsxsi xo i[j,7ispia}tiGxiK6 d6j[ia xou «iipoXr\- 
TixiKoij 7ioXs[j,ou», 710U 7ip(bxs(; siGTiyayav oi HQA. XpriGi[j,o- 
Tioisi xTjv i5ia (ppaGSoXoyia, [lovo nov xa «Kpdxri napieqyy [le- 
xaxpsTiovxai g8 «5iaA,u[j,sva Kpdxri». EiGrjysixai xo 56y[j,a xri(; 
«7ispiopiG[j,svri(; Kupiapxia(;», 5r|Xa5fi 6xi xa Kpdxr] 5sv sxouv 
a7i6A,uxri Kupiapxia gxo SGCOxspiKo xoix;, a^^M sivai «v6[j,i[j,ri» 
r\ TioXixiKTi f) GxpaxicoxiKTi 87i8|iPaGri GXO SGCDxspiKo xou^, av 
01 if^TispiaXiGxs^ GscopfiGOUv 6x1 7iapaPid(^sxai r\ «5isGvfi(; vo- 
[j,i[j,6xr|xa». Enniksov, aKoXouGsi xo a[j,spiKaviK6 56y[j,a, yia 
Suvaxoxrixa r\ E.E. va 5is^dysi 5i3o r\ TispiGGOxspou^ 7ioXs[j,ou(; 
xauxoxpova: 



239 



«Xp8id(^8Tai va ava7iTi3^ot)[j,8 [im GxpaxriyiKfi voo- 
xpoTiia nov va TipocoGsi xriv syKaipr], ypfiyopri Kai otiou 
Xpsid(^8Tai GTiPapfi STisfj-Paori. Aq sxot)[j,s iSiaixspa Ka- 

xd VOUXig 87llXSipflGSl(; OTIOU UTldpxSl GU[J,[J,SXOXn XOGO 

GxpaxicDxiKcbv OGO Kai [j,ri GxpaxicoxiKcbv iKavoxfixcov. 
[...] Ms xk; vss(; aneikeq nov s[j,(pavi(^ovxai, r\ Tipcbxri 
ypa[j,[j,fi df^uvat; 9a sivai GU^vd gxo s^coxspiKo. [...] Exa 
5iakv[iEva Kpdxr] f^Tiopsi va xpsiaGxoiJV GxpaxicoxiKd 
[j,SGa yia xrjv aTioKaxdGxaGr] xr|(; xd^rjc;. [...] 0a STipsTis, 
av xpsiaGxsi, va ^7iopoi3[j,8 va skxsXoi3[j,s 5i3o r\ TispiG- 
Goxspst; STiixsipfiGSi^ xauxoxpova. [...] OpiG[j,sv8(; x&ipeq 
8xot)v auxoxo7io9sxr|9si skx6(; xcdv opirov xrjc; 5is9voi3(; 
Koiv(Dvia(;. MspiKS(; sxouv enike^ei xrjv aTiofo^ovcoGri. 
'AXkeq 87ii[j,svouv va 7iapaPid(^ot)v xovq 5is9vsi(; Kav6vs(; 
GXO 87ii7i85o xri(; s9viKfi(; xotx; SiaKuPepvrjGric; f) xr]^ gu- 
H7ispi(popd(; xou(; gxo 5is9vs(; S7ii7is5o. Eivai S7ii9u[j,rix6 
auxs(; 01 xcbps^ va S7iavs}t9ouv gxt] 5is9vfi Koivoxrixa. 
Ek81vs^ 710 u apvoijvxai va xo Kdvouv 9a TipsTisi va Ka- 
xaMPouv 6x1 9a TiXripcDGOUv xi[j,ri[j,a yi' aux6»! 

H i^7ispia>uiGxiKfi GTjyK^^riGri E.E. - HQA, S7iiKup(b9riKS Kai 
GXT] 5iaP6rixri «xpo[j,OGt)[j,(pcovia», xr] GU[j,(pcovia yia xrjv sk5o- 
ar\ noXnchv Kai xrjv a[j,oiPaia «5iKaGxiKfi GUv5po[j,fi» [isTa^v 
HIIA Kai E.E. H GU[j,(pcovia S7iiKup(b9r|Ks Gxr| 5idpKsia xrjc; 
87iiGKS\|/ri(;, xou xoxs 7ipos5p8i3ovxo(; xr|(; E.E., KcDGxa Eri[j,ixr| 
oxriv OudGiyKxov gxk; 25 louviou 2003 . 

H GU[j,(pcovia TipopXsTisi xrjv skSogt] utiotixcov 6xi M-ovo auo 
«xpixs(;» x&tpeq, aA,}td Kai Tio^^ixcbv a7i6 Kpdxri-[j,sXri xr|(; E.E. H 
GU[j,(pcovia sxsi ava5po[j,iKfi igxp, TipoP^iSTisi 6xi «ri GU[j,(pcovia 
9a 8(pap[j,6(^sxai gs a5iKfi[j,axa nov sxouv 5ia7ipax9si Tipiv Kai 



240 



[lexa xriv svap^r] lajpoq Tri9>.^^^ E7iiGri(;, Ka9opi(^8i on aK6[j,a 
Kai av Kd7ioiO(; exei sktigsi xriv Tioivfi xou gttiv E.E. sivai 5u- 
vaxov va sk5o9si gtk; HQA Kai va (^ava)KaTa5iKaGTSi! IIpo- 
P>uS7iSTai S7iiGri(;, oi ^ugtiks(; U7iripsGiS(; HQA Kai E.E. va a- 
VTaX,}tdGGOt)v 7iXripo(popi8(; yia «7ipoGC07iiKd 5s5o[j,8va» vno- 
71TC0V. EnxKkeov, siGdysi «a7i6 xriv tiigo) 7i6pTa» xriv Tioivfi xou 
Gavdxou GXTjv E.E. Eivai Suvaxf) r\ skSogt] xo u «U7i67ixou», 
aK6[j,a Kai av gxk; HQA kiv5uvsi3si va KaxaSiKaGxei [is xrjv 
Tioivfi xou Gavdxou, r\ OTioia s^si Kaxapyr|9si gxk; x&ipeq xrjc; 
E.E. 

H Gt)[j,(pcDvia t)7ioypa[j,[j,i(^8i o^i [lovo xr] GK^fipuvGr] xcov a- 
Gxuvo[j,iK(bv [j,r|xaviG[j,(bv evzoq xr|(; E.E., aX,}td Kai xov svxs- 
Xdx; avxi5ri[j,0KpaxiK6 xpouo ^fi\|/ri(; xcov aTiocpdGsrov. H gu[j,- 
(pcDvia STiiKupcbGriKs Tiapd xo ysyov6(; 6xi xo EupcoTiaiKo Koi- 
voPoijXio s^scppaGS «auGxripfi KpixiKf)))^'*'' gxo Su[j,poi3Xio xcov 
Yuoupycbv nov xrjv sixs eiGtiyriGsi. Ta eGviKd KoivoPoijXia 
xcov Kpaxcbv-[j,s}t(bv anhhq «7iapaKd[j,(p9r|Kav». Exrjv EX,}td5a, 
o UTioupyo^ AiKaiOGUvrjc; O. nsxGdA,viKO(;, apvfiGriKs va (pspsi 
7ipo(; KijpcoGri XT] GU[j,(pcovia gxtjv eXkr[viKf[ Bou^^fi.^'*^ 

E.E. Ktti HHA 

Asv UTidpxsi a[j,(piPoMa, 6xi Tiapd xk; GuyK^fiGSi^ avd[j,SGa 
gxk; HQA Kai xrjv E.E., gxtjv 7ipay[j,axiK6xrixa UTidpxouv noX- 
'ke.q Kai [lejakeq 5ia(pops(; nov 9a xsivouv va o^vovxai gxo 
[leXkov. 

O GUGX8xiG[j,6(; oiKovo[j,iKfig Suva^irig s^si aXXd^si xk; xs- 
A,8uxaiS(; 5sKasxis(; gs pdpo^ xcov HQA. To 1945 gxk; HQA 
avxiGxoixoiJGS TidvcD a7i6 xo 50% xri(; 7iayK6G[j,ia(; uapaycoyfic;. 
Sxr] 5sKasxia xou 1980 xo tiogogxo sixs tisgsi gxo 25%. To 
2003o 7i}iri9uG[j,6^ xrjc; E.E. fixav Kaxd 1/3 fj.sya^tijxspof; xcov 



241 



HQA, svd) TO Gt)v5uaG[j,£vo AEII tt]^ E.E. sivai iGo5i3va[j,o 
Tcov HQA. Ilapd to ysyovo^ 6ti r| oiKovo[j,ia tcdv HQA gtti 
5sKasTia tou 1990 au^fiGriKs GUVo^^iKd KaTd 40% (svcb oi u- 
TioXoiTioi avTay(oviGTS(; Tri(; PpsGrjKav sits gs oiKovo[j,iKfi GTa- 
Gifj-OTTiTa [IttTicDvia] SITS [IE Tiohb xafj-rj^totx; pu9[j,oi3(; avduTU- 
^r\q [rsp[j,avia]), oi HQA 5sv susTUxav va auoKaTaGTiiGOUv 
TTjv nakm a5ia[j,(piGpfiTriTri oiKovofo^iKfi toix; riys[j,ovia. To s- 
7isv5u[j,svo KscpdXaio avd spya(^6[j,svo KaGdcx; Kai r\ Tiapayroyi- 
KOTTiTa TTjc; spyaGiat; avd (bpa spyaGiat; sivai xa^ri^tOTspa gtk; 
HQA au' OTi GTT] rsp[j,avia r\ tt] TakXia. H TiapayroyiKOTriTa 
avd spya(^6[j,svo gtk; HQA 7iapE[j,sivs u\|/riX6Tspri, [lovo 6[i(i)q 
Xdpi(; GTO ysyov6(; 6ti o STfiGiot; jpovoq spyaGia(; gtk; HQA 
sivai KaTd 25% [a^syaX,i3Tspo(; ([is akhx }t6yia oi spya(^6[j,svoi 
gtk; HQA 5ouXsi3ouv TispiGGOTspst; (hpeq and xovq supcoTiai- 
ovq). Oi HQA sxouv sva Tpo[j,aKTiK6 s^TiopiKo EKkei[i[ia nov 
TO 2002 scpTaGS to aGTpovo[j,iK6 tiogo tcdv 503 5ig. 5oXapi(ov, 
svcb avTiGsTa r| E.E- 15 TiapouGiaGS 7i>^s6vaG[a^a 58 5ig. 5o}ta- 
picov.^'*^ To sf^TiopiKo eXke.i\ji\jia tcdv HHA xpr|[j,aTo5oTSiTai 
a7i6 TTjv siGpof) KscpaXaicov and xiq x&ipsc, tt]^ E.E. Kai ttjv 
laTicDvia (akXd Kai ttjv Kiva Kai tk; a.Xkeq X^^ps? ttt; AGiat;). 

To TsXiKo a7iOTsXsG[j,a sivai s[j,7iopiKoi 7i6Xs[j,oi va spxo- 
VTai oAoEva Kai TispiGGOTspo GTTjv smcpdvsia [j,STa^i3 Tri(; E.E. 
Kai TCDV HQA. Oi 5aG[j,oi kov sixav smpdXsi oi HQA, yia 7ia- 
pd5siy[j,a, gtov supcoTiaiKo xdA.uPa, fiTav uriyfi svTdGSCov gti^ 
5ia7ipay[j,aTSi3GSK; gtov HayKOG^io OpyaviG[j,6 E^Tiopiou. 
Auto uupoSoTriGS sva [livi 5aG[j,o}toyiK6 n6'ke[io to 2003 Kai 
gtk; 5t)o nkevpeq tou AtAuvtikoij. 

Ettjv aypoTiKT) tioXitikti oi Siacpopsg sivai [isjakeq. Oi 
HQA KaTTiyopoiJV ttjv E.E. 6ti TipoGTaTSiJsi 5aG[j,oXoyiKd tov 
aypoTiKo TTjc; TOfo^sa «U7ispPoXiKd», [is a7iOTsXsG[j,a va uudpxsi 
«a9s[j,iT0(;» avTay(DviG[j,6(; yia Ta a[j,spiKaviKd TipoiovTa. H 



242 



E.E. avTiyupi(^si tk; Kaxriyopis^, U7ioypa[j,[j,i(^ovTa(; xi^ a[j,spi- 
KaviKS(; stiiSottigsk; 7ipo(; xov aypoxiKo TO[j,sa. npoKsixai, 
Tipocpavdx;, yia tk; aTidxs^ ttjc; «7iayKOG[j,i07ioiriGri(;», Kai xou 
«8A,8iJ08pou s^Tiopiou)). H «8}tsi39spri ayopd» sivai Kakr\ na- 
vxa yia. . . xovq akXovql Dxav 5ev GU[j,(pspsi xou^ Kamxa}^iGX8^ 
u\|/cbvouv 5aG[j,oAoyiKd xsixH- 

EmTipoGGsxa, oi 7ipoG7id9siS(; (Kaxd Kaipoug, opiG[j,8V(DV 
Kpaxcbv-[j,sX(bv) xTjc; E.E. yia xr] 5ri[j,ioupyia avs^dpxrjxou and 
xk; HQA supcoTiaiKoij Gxpaxoij, nov va f^Tiopsi va 7iaps[j,paivsi 
[j,6vo^ xou GS oXoK^ripo xov 7i}tavfixr|, o^ijvsi xi^ [j,8xa^ij zovq 
GX8G8i^. H E.E. Tipoxcopsi GXTjv uXoTioiTiGri sv6(; SUpCOTiaiKOlJ 
5opu(popiKoi3 GUGxfi[j,axo(; 7iAofiyr|Gr|(; Kai 7ipoG5iopiG[j,oi3 9s- 
Gri(; nov 9a sivai avxiTiaXo xou afo^spiKaviKot) GPS (Global 
Positioning System), guvo^^ikoij kogxoix; [j,sxa^i3 3 ^ Kai 3 ,6 
5iG. supd).^'*'* To Ilsvxdycovo 7iposi5o7ioiriG8 6xi xo supcoTiaiKo 
Gi)Gxri[j,a «^7iopsi va TipoKaXsGSi s^7iXok8(; Gxa Gfi[j,axa stio- 
[j,svri(; ysvidc; xou GPS, nou 7ipoopi(^ovxai yia GxpaxicoxiKf) 
XpfiGri». 

Ta TiapaTidvco, sxouv oSriyfiGSi xoix; SKTipoGcbTiou^ xri(; A- 
[j,8piKaviKfi(; dpxouGa(; xd^rjc; va 87iiGri[j,aivouv xi^ ausiXs^ nov 
avxi[j,sxco7ii(^ouv oi HQA and xrjv E.E. O KiGivyKsp sypacps xo 
1994: 

«0i Hvco[j,svs^ IloXixsist; 9a avxi[j,8xcD7iiGOt)v xsxoiou 
si5ou(; avxaycoviG[j,6 nov dev si^av avxi[j,sxco7iiGSi gxt] 
SidpKsia xou *Fuxpoi3 IIoXs^ou. [...] Sxa xpovia nov 
spxovxai r\ Evpchiu] 5sv 9a aiG9dvsxai xrjv avdyKt] xrjg 
7ipoGxaGia(; xcov HQA Kai 9a S7ii5i(bK8i xo 5ik6 xri(; oi- 

K0V0[J,Ik6 GU[J,(p8pOV Tiohb 7110 S7ii9sxiKd».^'*^ 

AvxiGxoixa o M7ips(^ivGKi s7iSGfi[j,avs: 



243 



«MaKpo7ip698G[j,a [...] [j,ia 7ipay[j,aTiKd Tio^^mKd 8- 
vo7ioiri[j,svri EupcDTiri 9a TipoKaXsosi [im PaoiKfi ^sxaxo- 
nicr\ Tcov GUGxsTiG[j,(bv 5i3va[j,ri(; 7iayK6G[j,ia, [is cvvenei- 
eq TOGO Ka0opiGTiKS(; 6go fixav r\ KaxappsuGri ttjc; SoPi- 
STiKTig At)TOKpaTopia(;». 

Qgtogo, Kai 01 5uo g7isi35ouv va tovigouv, 6ti gto opaxo 
Kai 7ipop}^8\|/i[j,o [leXkov, auxoi oi kiv5uvoi sivai sXaxiGxoTioi- 
r\[ievoi. O KiGivyKsp sx8i 87iav8i>^ri[j,[j,8va 5ri>ucbG8i oxi 58v ni- 

GX8l38l 6X1 Kd7lOX8 T] EupCDTiri Gtt 8VC098l OlKOVO[J,lKd Kai 7l0}tl- 

xiKd, 8ip(DViKd 58, 8X81 ll,r\Tr\cei «xo xrj^tscpCDVO xou vnovpyoi) 

XCDV 8^C0X8piK(bv f) XOU 7ip085pO U XTjc; E.E.». O M7ip8(^lVGKl 

98cop8i 6x1 xa avxixi98[j,8va 89viKd GU[j,(pspovxa xcov Kpaxcbv 
[j,8X(bv xT]^ E.E. 7iapa[j,svot)v x6go [lejahx, 8V(b xa Gt)[j,(p8povxa 
noXhhv and auxd 8ivai GX8vd 58[j,sva [is xiq HQA, g8 xsxoio 
Pa9[j,6 (bGX8: 

«'Lr\[iEpa, r\ EupcDTiri [...] 8ivai vx8 (pdKxo Gxpaxicoxi- 
k6 7ipox8Kxopdxo xcov HQA. [... ] Eivai a7ii9avo r\ Eu- 
pcDTiri va kX81g81 xo GxpaxicoxiK6 xdG[j,a [is xiq HIIA gxo 
opax6 [leXljovyy. 

Exov oikovo[j,ik6 xo[j,sa, ^7iop8i xa AEII xcov HQA Kai xrjg 
E.E. va 8ivai iGa, cdgx6go oi HQA 8ivai nohb mo iGXupst; yia- 
XI a7ioxs}toi3v sviaio Kpdxot; svcb r\ E.E. 7ioX.u5iaG7iaG[j,svo d- 
9poiGna 89vcbv. 

Ms 585o[j,sva 6Xa auxd, Kai gxt] pdGt] 6xi UTidpxsi (aK6[j,a) 
87iapKfi(; Koiv6xr|xa GU[a^(psp6vxcDV gs TioXXd l^r\Tr\[iaTa, do[iEi- 
xai xo Koiv6 s5acpO(; GUVsw6riGri^ avd[j,SGa gs HQA - E.E. H 
aXXriXs^dpxriGri xcov av87ixuy[j,8vcov x^pcbv Gxa uXaiGia xr]^ 



244 



7iayK6G[j,ia^ ayopd(;, [is Ksvxpo ttjc; HQA, sivai auxfi tt] axiy- 
[ir\ TOGO [lEjaXf], (DOTS r| UTioxcbpriGri as «oiKovo[jiKd oxupd» 
va 8ivai a5iav6r|Tri- KaxaGxpocpiKfi Kai yia tk; 5uo itkevpeq. 
To 2001 supcoTiaiKst; sxaipsisg s^ayopaoav sxaipist; gtk; HQA 
^o5si3ovTa(; guvoXikoi 126 5io. 5oMpia, Kai 8TaipiS(; tcdv 
HQA 42 5iG. 5oXdpia 8^ayopd(^ovTag 8upco7iaiKS(; STaipiS(;. 

Fia Tou^ Ka7iiTa}tiGTS(; ttjc; E.E. oi enevdvceiq Kscpa^^aicDV 
Gxriv Wall Street r\ xa a[j,spiKaviKd KpaxiKd o[j,6Aoya, auoxs- 
}toi3v Ksp5o(p6pa 5is^o5o [iEjakr\q Gri[j,aGia(;. Fia xrjv oikovo- 
[j,iKfi ax[j,0[j,rixavfi xrjc; EupcoTiri^, xr] Fspfa^avia, oi s^ay(Dys(; 
7ipo(; xk; HQA GuyKpoxoiJV eva GrmavxiKo oikovo[j,ik6 [leje- 
0O(;. 

EmTipoGGsxa, HQA Kai E.E. svouoiowxai gxov koivo xovq 
Gxoxo: xo xGdKiG[j,a xcdv avxayoDviGxcbv xou^ gxov avauxuG- 
g6[j,£vo KOGfo^o, Kai Gxo ^s(^oi3[j,iG[j,a xcov xcopcbv xou Tpixou 
K6g[j,ou: 

«H BpsxaviKT) s(pri[j,spi5a «rKdpvxiav» 5ri[j,OGi8i3si 
skGsgti xt]^ [lejakriq (piXavGpcomKfi^ opydvcoGrjc; «'0^- 
(pa[j,», Gi3[j,(p(Dva [IE xTjv OTioia r\ E.E. Kai oi HQA Ksp5i- 
C,o\)v 5iGSKaxo[j,^i3pia 5oXdpia sk; pdpo(; xcov (pxroxcbv 
xcopcbv, 5iaKripi3GG0vxa(; xo sXeuGspo s^Tiopio, aX,}td 
7ipoGxax8i3ovxa^ xk; 5iks(; xoix; ayopst;. [...] YuoGxripi- 
C,ovv xTjv aTisXsuGspcoGTi xcov (pxcoxcbv ayopcbv, aXXd 5ia- 
xripoijv u\|/ri}toi3(; 5aG[j,oi3(; gxk; siGaycoyst; and xiq i5i8(; 
X&tpeq [...] H «'0^(pa[j,» KaxaxdGGSi xrjv E.E. upcbxri gxov 
TiivaKa xcov xcopcbv nov uioGsxow TipoGxaxsuxiKd [lexpa 
Kai aKoXouGoiJV oi HQA, o Kava5d(; Kai r\ laucovia. E- 
7iipdX,Xouv xotx; mo u\|/r|Xoi3(; 5aG[j,oii; gs Pio[j,rixaviKd 
Tipoiovxa \jiEjcikr\q GtmaGiat; yia xa (pxcoxd Kpdxr], xa 
yscopyiKd Kai xa ucpavxoupyiKd. Auxo KOGxi(^si gxi^ 



245 



(pxroxsc; xcbps^ 100 5ig. 5oXdpia to jpovo, SiTiXdoio 710- 
06 a7i6 TT] PofiGsia nov siG7ipdTT0uv» 



246 



Stov nayK6G[j,io OpyaviG[j,6 E[j,7iopiot) UTidpxouv 142 %&>- 
pEq-[iekr\, 6[i(i)q [loXiq 21 ava7iTuy[j,svs(; x&tpeq exovv xriv 
7ipay[j,aTiKfi 5i3va[j,ri va xapaC,ovv xriv noXniKi] xou- Kaxd kij- 
pio Xoyo 01 HQA, r| E.E., o Kava5d(; Kai r| laTirovia. Avxeq oi 
X(bp8(;, Tiapd xi^ [j,sxa^i3 xoix; avxiGsosK;, [j,7iopoi3v va 5ri[j,ioup- 
yoijv [j,sxco7io svavxi «xpixcov». 

H Xsri^taaia xcov upcbxcov u^^cbv xou Tpixo u KoGfo^ou (tiou 
8K(ppd(^sxai Gfi[j,spa Kupi(D(; cd^ 7ipo(; xov sXsyxo xou usxpsXai- 
ou) Kai r| i^Tispia^tiGxiKTi aGxuv6[j,suGfi xou, sivai r| aixia nov 
E.E. Kai HQA sxouv GU[j,(pcovfiGSi gxtjv and koivoij Kaxoxn 
Tou AcpyaviGxdv (o'keq oi x&tpeq g^sSov xt]^ E.E. exouv gxsiAsi 
Gxpaxsi3[j,axa Kaxoxni;, GU^7ispi}ta[j,pavo[j,svri(; Kai xri(; EXXd- 
5a(;). H E.E., gs ayaGxr) GUVspyaGia [le xiq HIIA, ausi^tsi [j,8 

OlKOVO[J,lKS^ KUpCDGSK; (Kai SV5SXO[J,SVCO^) GXpaxiCOXlKTl 8718[J,- 

PaoT] TO Ipdv Kai xr] Bopsia Kopsa. 
O «EDpa)OTpaT6(g» 

H Gij^TiXsuGTi [IE tk; HQA, Tispav xcov koivcdv i^TispiaXi- 
GxiKcbv GU[j,(psp6vrcov, STiipdXXsxai Kai and xo ysyov6(; 6x1 r\ 
E.E. 5sv aTioxsXsi guvsktiko gijvoAo, aXXd d9poiG[j,a Kupiap- 
Xcov s9v(bv-Kpax(bv. Msxd xrjv siGPo^tf) gxo IpdK Kai xr|v o- 
Xosva Kai [j,8yaA,i3xspri xPTl<^i^^07ioiri gt] and xiq HQA xou 
GxpaxicoxiKot) xou(; [j,rixaviG[j,oi3 yia xrjv em^oXi] xcov a[j,8piKa- 
viKcbv GU[j,(psp6vxcov, STiavfi^^Gs [is 5pi^i3xriTa xo 98[j,a xri(; 5ri- 
[j,iot)pyia(; GxpaxicoxiKfic; [j,rixavfi(; auo xr|v E.E. nov va }t8i- 
xoupysi s^iGoppoTiriTiKd ausvavxi gxk; HQA. Qgxogo, otico^ 
Tispiypdcpsi o Chris Harman: 



246 



«noX?to{ EupcDTiaioi Tio^tixiKoi KaxaXfiyouv gto gu- 
[j,7i8paG[j,a 710U s^s(ppaG8 o Tipcbriv TaXk^q TipcoGuTioup- 
joq Aopsv Oa^Tiiotx;: «H Evpchiu] fixav aviKavr] va stii- 
Tijxsi (DGTS va aKouGTSi r\ (pcDvfi TT]^ a7i6 Ti^ HIIA yiaxi 
8ivai 5iaip8[j,8vri Kai Ssv 8X8i [j,ia 8vco[j,svri a^uvxiKfi 5i3- 
va[j,ri». O Andrew Moravcsik avacpspsi gtoix; Financial 
Times: «E7ii xpovia, oi tioXitikoi sxouv KaxaXfi^si gto 
GU^7ispaG[j,a OTi xa S7iixsipfi[j,aTa yia u\|/ri}t6T8ps(; supco- 
naiKsq GTpaTicoTiKS(; 5a7idv8<; sivai TisiGxiKd. H >uoyiKfi 
sivai aKaxafa^axnTTi: av oi HQA to [lovo nov GsPovxai 
8ivai r\ GxpaxicDTiKfi icypq, tots evaq EvpanaiKoq GTpa- 
t6(; Giyoupa 9a eni^aXksi GsPaG[j,6». 

Qgtogo 01 7ipoG7id9si£(; va GuyxcovsuQow oi Eupro- 

TiaiKOl Ka7llTaXlG[J,0l [J,S aUTO TOV TpOTlO [g8 8va UTisps- 

GviKo EupcoTiaiKo 7ip67iXaG[j,a KpdTOU^] TidvTa avTi[j,s- 
T(b7ii(^av syysvfi s^7i65ia. Oi smxsipfiGSK; KdGs supcoTiai- 
Kr\q xcbpat; s^ouv GTSVoijg 5sg[j,oi3(; [le to sGviko tou^ 
KpdTO(;, Kai (poPoiJVTai 6ti 9a xdGOUv auo toix^ avTayro- 
viGTS(; TOU(; auo dXA^g xcops? <3£ £va UTispsGviKo supcD- 
TiaiKo KpdTO(;. Ethti^^sov, noXkeq and avxeq s^ouv [j,syd- 
>uS(; S7isv5i3gsi(; svto^ tcov HQA Kai tk; 07ioiS(; dev 9s- 
Xouv va 5iaKiv5t)V8i3G0uv. To a7iOTsXsG[j,a sivai, o yaX,- 
Xo-y8p[j,aviK6^ d^ovat; va sivai TidvTa aGTa9si(;. MsTd 
TTjv sigPoXti gto IpdK, rsp[j,avoi S7iix6ipr|[j,aTi8(; 7iis(^av 
TT] ysp[j,aviKfi KuPspvr|Gr| va ausxei auo 5i7iXco[j,aTiKS(; 
GuyKpoiJGSK; [le xiq HQA. Kai, onmq TOvi(^si o Moravc- 
sik, Ka[j,id KuPspvrjGri Tri(; Eup(b7iri(; 5sv sivai 7ii9av6v 
va a7io5sx9si to k6gto(; Tr|(; 5ri[j,ioupyia(; «[j,ia(; guvtovi- 
(5[iEvr\q GTpaTi(DTiKfi(; 5i3va[j,ri(; [le SuvaTOTtiTa uayKo- 
G[j,ia(; SpdGTjc; nov va (pspsi gs Tispat; svav 7i6Xs[j,o u\|/ri- 



247 



X-^q T8xvo>uoy(a^, Kai xa[ir\koi) kogtoix; ce anco'keieq 
GxpaxicoTcbv)). Auto 9a aTiaixouGS and xouq EupcoTiaioix; 
va au^fiGOUv xiq GTpaTicoTiKS(; 5a7idv8^, nov PpiGKovxai 

Gfl[J,8pa GTO 2% TOU AEn, G8 TlSpiGGOTSpO ttTlO 4% 710U 
Sivai TO TIOGOGTO TCOV HIIA)).^'*'' 

H TipoGTidGsia oiKo56[j,riGrig at)T6vo[j,ou supoDTiaiKot) Gxpa- 
TicoTiKoij [j,rixaviG[j,oi3 TipoGKpousi Gxa avTiTi9s[j,sva sGviKd 
GU[j,(pspovTa. Aut6(; sivai o }t6yo(; nov Gxa (^riTfi[j,aTa s^coxspi- 
KTic; f) «a^uvTiKfi(;» TioXniKr\q 5sv igxusi t] «sviGxt)[j,svri iikei- 
o\|/ri(pia» Gxr] Xfi\|/ri tcdv auocpaGSCDV, aA,A,d aTiaiTSixai o[j,o(pco- 
v(a. 

Oi SiacpcDvis^ avd[j,8Ga Gxa KpdTri-[j,sXri ttjc; E.E. cdc; 7ipo(; 
Tig gxsgsk; [j,s to NATO (av 5ri}ta5fi oi 5uvd[j,si(; xou svSsxo- 
[j,8vot) supcoGxpaxot) 9a sivai «GU^7iXrip(0[j,aTiKoi» f) «auT6vo- 
[j,oi» a7i6 TO NATO [SriXaSf) xi^ HQA]) avxavaK^ouv, gttiv 
Tipayfj-axiKOTTiTa, tt] 98X.ri gt] tcov Kpaxcbv va sivai auxd nov 9a 
s^ouv vno Tov eXeyxo zovq ziq GxpaxicDTiKsg xoix; 5uvd[j,si(; Kai 
TT] SuvaxoTTiTa va gu^tiAsouv r\ va SiacpopoTioiowxai ano xiq 
HHA. 

Ms 5s5o[j,svri xriv a5uva[j,ia GuyKpoxriGri^ Koivfic; Gxpaxico- 
TiKr\q [ir\xavr\q an' o^^a xa Kpdxri-[j,sXr|, Kaxd Kaipotx; yivsxai 
7ipoG7id9sia yia xr] 5ri[j,ioupyia [j,ia(; «GU[j,[j,axia^ xcdv 7ipo9i3- 
[j,cov». Qgxogo 5sv sivai Ka96Xou Ga(pS(;, tiogoi Kai uoioi sivai 
01 «7ip69u[j,oi», svd) STimXsov, Kaxd tiogo ovxaq 9a s^ouv koi- 
voxrixa GU[j,(psp6vx(DV. 

Msxd xTjv sigPoXt) HDA-Bpsxaviat; gxo IpdK, avaKoivcb- 
9riKs r\ 7ip69sGri TEp[iaviaq - TaXkiaq - Aou^s[j,poi3pyot) - 
BsXyiou va TipoxcopfiGOUv Gxr| 5r|[j,ioupyia Koivcbv Gxpaxiroxi- 
K(bv 5uvd[j,scov, nov 9scopfi9r|Ks Gav Tipcbxo pfi[j,a 7ipo(; xrjv 
Kaxsi39uvGri xou supcoGxpaxoij. To gxs5io TipospXsTis sva 



248 



7iXfips(; Kai at)T6vo[j,o supcDTiaiKo smxeXsio, 8yKaT8GTri[j,svo 
otic; Bpv^eXksq Kai iKavo va cxedmC,Ei Kd9s si5ou(; smxsipfi- 
aeiq. Auto to «gxs5io eni xapTOU» avaTpduriKs oXoK^ripcoTi- 
Kd, TO AsK8[j,Ppio Tou 2003, OTav BpsTavia - TaXkia - Fsp- 
[lavia Gt)[j,(p(bvriGav gtt] 5ri[j,ioupyia Koivfic; GTpaTicoTiKfi(; 5i3- 
va[j,ri(;. E^' apxHi; 5isuKpiviGTriK8 6ti «o Kijpiot; poXo^, ce 6,ti 
acpopd Tr|v supcoTiaiKfi a^uvTiKf) 9copdKiGr|, 7iapa[j,sv8i gto 
NATO». ^"^^ 0a 5ri[j,iot)pyri9si sva stiitsXsio, 6xi at)T6vo[j,o, 
aXlA svt6(; tou apxnysiou tou NATO gto Mov(; tou BsX,yiot). 

Eivai Ga(pS(;, 6ti av gtt] GUVo^tiKf) 9sG[j,iKfi XsiTOupyia ttjc; 
E.E. UTidpxouv [a^sydXs(; avTicpdGSi^ (710 u TipoKijTiTOUv and tt] 
SiaKpaTiKT) }tsiTOupyia Kai Ta avTiTi9s[j,sva 89viKd GU[j,(pspo- 
VTa), GTTjv TispiTiTCOGTi TTjc; s^ayys}t9siGri(; 7ipcoToPouMa(;, Ta 
7ipdy[j,aTa sivai 7ioA,i3 mo avTicpaTiKd. Es (^riTrmaTa s^cDTspiKfic; 
TioXniKr\q (akXd Kai GTa 9s[j,aTa ttjc; ysviK6T8pri(; 98G[j,iKfi(; 
XsiTOupyiat; ttjc; E.E.), rsp[j,avia - TaXkia gxs56v tiots dev 
sxouv GU[j,(p(DvfiGSi [j,s TT] BpsTavia. Ms 5s5o[j,£vo auTO to ys- 
yovo^, r\ XsiTOupyiKOTTiTa evoq koivoij GTpaTicDTiKot) Twpr\va 
[IE pdGT] auTS(; tk; xrops^, 7iapa[j,8vsi s^aipsTiKd a[j,(pipoXri 
(iioXi) TispiGGOTspo 7101) yia 07ioia5fi7iOTS SpdGT] aTiaiTSiTai 
o[j,o(p(Dvia). E7ii7ip6G9sTa, [iia TipcDToPouMa opiG[j,svcov [lovo 
Xcoprov, 9a fiTav s^aipsTiKd stiikivSuvti yia tt] guvoxh Tr\c, E.E. 
GS s^coTspiKd 9s[j,aTa, auo tt] GTiy[j,fi tiou 9a pd9aivs tk; avTi- 
9sGSi(; au^dvovTa^ 8K98TiKd ttjv Kaxu7io\|/ia ogodv (ri98A,ri[j,8va 
r| 6x1) 9a 7iap8[a^8vav 8kt6(; [iiaq cv[i(p(miaq. 

To T8}tiK6 a7iOTsX8G[a^a o^^cov auTcbv tcov avTicpdGSCDV, sivai 
OTi r\ 5ri[j,ioupyia [iiaq (7ipay[j,aTiKd) auT6vo[j,ri^ GTpaTicoTiKfi(; 
[j,rixavfi(; nov va SK(ppd(^8i Ta GU[j,(pspovTa tou guvoXou r\ [le- 
ydXou [j,spou(; tcov KpaT(bv-[j,sM)V (nohb uspiGGOTspo va sivai 
auT0V0[jr|[a^svr| and xiq HQA), sivai aPsPair] Kai ce Kd98 ne- 



249 



piTlTCOGTl SVa TSTOIO Sv5sx6[J,8VO, PpiGKSTai TloXi) PaGld GTO 

[leXkov. 

Ta TiapaTidvcD, PsPaia, 5sv arna^aivouv oxi r\ d[j,SGri upoo- 
TiTiKTi sv6(; SGTCD \|/su5s7iiypa(pou «supcoGTpaTOi3» 8ivai Xiyo- 
Tspo Tpo[j,aKTiKfi (i)q 7ipo(; tk; stiititcdgsk; Tri(; yia xriv sipfivri 
GTOV 7i}tavfiTri. riaxi auxo tiou gttiv Tipayfj-axiKOTriTa S7ii5i(b- 
Ksxai, sivai [im «psaXiGTiKfi» TipoGsyyiGr] Tri(; 5ri[j,ioupyia(; 
supcoGxpaxot). H upoGTidGsia svT07ii(^8Tai gxt] 5ri[j,ioupyia, s- 
GTCO avTicpaxiKd, evoq GxpaxicoTiKot) [j,r|xaviG[j,oi3, nov 9a exei 
Gav yv(b[j,ova xriv Koivf) GUViGTdfa^svri okov tcdv avTixiGsfo^svcDV 
sGviKcbv GU[j,(psp6vTC0v- Tou^ [j,ivi[j,ot)[j, «s(piKT0i3^ cTOxovqyy. 
Kai auTOi 5sv f^Tiopsi va sivai TiTioxa akXo, Tiapd r\ i^TispiaXi- 

GTIKTI S7llPo}tfl SVaVTl GTOXCDV TOGO GTr|V TlSpiCpSpSltt TTjc; E.E. 

(Tipcbriv FiouyKOG^tapia) 6go Kai nohb uspav xcov Guvopcov 
TTjc; (AcpyaviGxdv), gs GUVspyaGia [le xiq HQA. 

Eksivs(; 01 7ioXiTiKS(; 5uvd[j,si(; (togo gtti As^id 6go Kai 
Gxriv ApiGTspd) nov gxt] gtsvti GxpaxicoTiKTi GUVspyaGia HQA 
- E.E. (aX.M Kai gttiv avTicpaxiKfi Kai «a5i3va[j,ri» oiKo56[j,riGri 
auT6vo[j,ri(; supcoTiaiKf)^ GxpaxicoTiKfi^ [ir\xavr\q) 5iapXs7iouv 
KivSuvo yia xriv «sup(D7iaiKfi oXoKXfipcoGri», Kdvouv Xd9o(;. 
M8po(; xr|(; supcDTiaiKfic; oiKo56[j,r|Gri(; sivai Kai r\ TipocbGriGri 

xcov l^lTlSpia^tlGXlKCbv GU[J,(pSp6vX(DV, 710U GS auxf) XT] (pdGTI, 5sv 

sivai 6uvax6v va STiixsu^Gsi xcDpi(; xr] (gxsvt)) GUVspyaGia [j,s 
xig HQA. H «Eup(b7iri» nov xxi(^sxai sivai r\ E.E. xcov Kamxa- 
XiGxiKcbv GU[j,(psp6vxcDV, 710U avauoxpsTixa Gr^aivsi (Kai) xcov 
if^TispiaXiGxiKcbv GU[j,(psp6vxcov. Oi HQA auoxs^^ouv xo oiko- 
vo[j,ik6, GxpaxicoxiKo, 5mXco[j,axiK6, tioXixiko «KEVxpo» xou 
ava7ixuy[j,svou Ka7iixaXiG[j,oi3, Ka[j,id KamxaXiGxiKfi GxaGspo- 
xTjxa GS TiayKOGfj-io S7ii7is5o 5sv sivai 5uvax6v va smxsuxGsi, 
GXT] GT] [j,spivfi GuyKupia, xcopi(; xrjv r|ys[j,oviKfi xotx; TipcoxoKa- 
Gs5pia. Oi KaTiixaXiGxs^ xrjc; (5uxiKfi(;) Evp&)iir\q ^Tiopoijv va 



250 



5l8K5lKflGOUV XriV «lGOTl[J,ia» GS aUTTl TT] (pdGTl Kai [lOVOV, 6x1 

xriv a[j,(piGpfiTr| GT] tt]^ a[j,8piKaviKfi^ r[Ye[ioviaq. Kai auxo sm- 
5icbKouv, yv(opi(^ovTa(; oxi sivai to [lovo (sv5sxo[j,8vco(;) «psa- 
}tiGTiK6». ripoKsixai yia to «psaXiG[j,6» ttjc; GU[j,[j,STOxn(; otk; 
iH7ispiaXiGTiKS(; s^opfo^fiGSK; [le KaX,i3Tspou(; opoix;. 

SuvsTidx;, OGOi and xriv ApiGxspd, «7iapapXs7iovTa(;» to 
(ppiK(b58(; if^TispiaXiGTiKo TiapsXGov ttjc; Evp&)iir\q, aXXd Kai to 
ausiXriTiKo Tiapov ttjc; (otiox; TispiypdcpSTai auo tov SoXdva), 
7ipopdA,}touv TO «6pa[j,a» [imq «sipriviKfi(; E.E.», xtopi<; va 9s- 
Touv TO (^fiTri[j,a ttj^ avaTpoTific; Tri(; Ka7iiTaXiGTiKfi(; Ta^iKfi(; 
Kupiapxiat; gttjv E.E., aspoXoyow, r\ s7iixsipri[j,aToXoyia xovq 

GTSpSlTai 07lOlOu5fl7lOTS pSttXlGTlKOlJ GT01X810U. 

PaxoioTiKii ;ro>tiTiKfi 

H l^7l8pia>^lGTlKfl Kai apTiaXTlKT) TlO^tlTlKTl TTjc; E.E. SX61 Tig 

avd}toys(; cvveneieq Kai gto SGCOTspiKo Tri(;. EK(ppd(^STai gtt] 
paTGiGTiKT) TioXiTiKTi ausvavTi GTOU^ [j,STavdGTsg a7i6 TOV Tpi- 
TO K6g[j,o. O Miikep TipoTSivs gtt] XaXKiSiKf) to 2003 tt] dr\- 
[j,ioupyia (ri suysviKf) ovo[j,aGia fiTav «KsvTpcov 5isK7ispai(D- 
Gri(;») GTpaT07is5(DV GuyKsvTpcoGri(; «}ta9po[j,STavaGT(bv gtk; 
X&tpeq and xiq OTioisg s^op[j,oi3v 7ipo(; ttjv Eup(b7iri». H upoTa- 



AXJicooxe T] (luvepyaoia (j£ xi^ HTIA GEoixoGexelxai [isoco xou Tipoxeivo- 
[levou «(n)vxdy|iaxo9>: 

«H KolniKX] xri<;'Evcoori<; [. . .] 5ev 91yei xov eiSiKO xotpaKxiipa xri<; koIxxi- 
KX]q aocpoleiog Kai aimvac, opio|i£vcov Kpaxcbv [lekbv, oepexai xiq vko- 
xpecboeii; kov avioppeouv avio xt] ouvGiiicri xou Bopelou AxXocvxikoi) (NA- 
TO) yia opi(j|ieva Kpdxri lisXr] tiou Becopouv 6xi t] koivii d|iuvd xou<; ulo- 
Tioielxai oxo TiXalmo xou NATO, Kai ciuvdSei \ie xriv Koivf] tioXixikii aocpd- 
Xeia^; Kai a\mvac, kov Beomi^exai oxo TiXaimo axrz6» (Ex^Sio ouvBiiKrn; yia 
xi] BeoTiiori (ji)vxdy|iaxo<; xri<; EupraTirn;, Kecpdlaio II - Ei5ike<; 5iaxd^£i<;, 
dpGpo 40, oeX. 33). 

251 



or] a7ioppi(p9riKs yiaxi fixav avoiKxd paxGiGTiKfi Kai 9a «s^8- 
98T8» xriv E.E. Qgtogo, aTiocpaGiGxriKs r\ 5id9sGri 140 sKa- 
TO[j,^upi(DV eupd) yia «Triv a7iOTsXsG[j,aTiKfi (puXa^rj xcov 9a- 
XaGGicov Kai dr\ [j,8GoysiaK(bv Guvopcov ttjc; 'Ev(i)cr\q». Ta 
7iapa7idv(D Gri[j,aivouv gttiv 7ipd^r|, oxi 9a au^ri9oi3v KaxaKo- 
pDcpa xa vaudyia xcov GaTiioKdpaProv nov [j,sxa(pspouv «hx- 
9po[j,8xavdGX8(;», Kai xa OTioia fi5ri gxoixiCouv SKax6[j,ps(; a- 
9cbcov yuvaiKOTiaiScov. Fiaxi, PsPaiox;, xiTioxa 5sv [mopei va 
Gxa[j,axfiGSi xou(; 8Kaxovxd5s(; xikmdeq xcov KoXaG[j,svcDV, nov 
Kuvriyri[j,svoi and xr|v oiKovo[j,iKfi s^a9McDGri Kai xoix; tio^^s- 
[j,ou(; (tiou xoix; s^si KaxaSiKdGSi r\ TipoGxaxsuxiKf) 5aG[j,oXo- 
yiKT) Tio^tixiKTi xcDV avs7ixuy[j,svcov KamxaXiGxiKcbv xcopcbv Kai o 
avoixx6(; i^7ispia}tiG[j,6(; xou^) ava(^rixoi3v [im Kahoxepr] mjj] 
Gxig X&ipeq xcov SK[j,sxaX,}tsuxcbv xoix;. 

H paxGiGxiKT) TioXixiKTi GUVo5si3sxai Kai a7i6 xrjv avoiKxfi 
i^TispiaXiGxiKTi s7i8[j,paGri gxk; x&tpeq an' otiou upospxovxai oi 
[j,8xavdGxs(;. Exr] gi3vo5o Kpucpfic; xri(; E.E. gxt] 'Le^iXh] xo 
2002, o Icnavoq 7ipco9u7ioupy6(; A9vdp upoxsivs va smpd^^^^o- 
vxai oiKovo[j,iKS(; kupcdgsk; gxk; x&tpeq an' otiou Tipospxovxai 
01 «Xa9po[j,sxavdGxs9>. H TipoxaGf) xou a7ioppi(p9riKs coq 
«U7ispPo}LiKfi», aA,}td r| aTiocpaGr] xrjc; XaA,Ki5iKfi(; udvco gxo 
98[j,a, sMxiGxa gxtjv 7ipay[j,axiK6xrixa 5ia(pspsi. A7io(paGiG9ri- 
Ks va 5iaxs9oi3v 250 sKaxo[j,^i3pia supcb, «[j,s a7io5sKxs^ Kupi- 
co(; xi^ xcbps(; nov 9a eni5ei^ovv nveviia av)vepjaciaq».^^^ Ei- 
vai Ga(pS(;, 6xi xo tiogo auxo 9a sivai evaq Ka9ap6(; SKPiaG[j,6^ 
npoq x(bps(; xou Tpixou K6g[j,ou, oi onoieq 9a 5iayKcovi(^ovxai 
GS aGxuvo[j,iKd [j,8xpa yia xrjv siGTipa^ri xou avd^^oyou «[in6- 
vou9> a7i6 xTjv E.E. 

Auxf) r] 5o}tO(poviKd paxGiGxiKf) tio^^ixikti, sivai 7ipay[j,axiKd 
s^opyiGxiKT), auoxs^tsi xov opiG[j,6 xrjc; swoiat; «Gxuyvfi sk[j,s- 
xdA,XsuGri». Oi [j,sxavdGxs^ sivai [j,ia 7ipay[j,axiK6xrixa g8 oXt] 



252 



xriv EupcDTiri, r\ Tiapouoia tou^ sivai oiKovo[j,iKd avayKaia (Kai 
ETi(i)(pEkr\q yia xovq 8pya(^6[j,8vou(;). Oi KamxaXiGTSt; yia va 
98GOUV GS KivriGTi Tr|v TiapaycoyiKTi 5ia5iKaGia, xpsid(^ovTai 
spydxs^ Kai nohb cvjya oi vtotiioi spydxst; aiika Ssv STiap- 
KOTJV. iGTopiKd, ri avduTU^ri xou Ka7iiTa}tiG[j,oi3 sixs ox; «7iapd- 
Tikevpoyy a7iOTs}tSG[j,a tt] [j,STavdGTSUGri 8KaTO[j,^upicov av- 
GpcDTicov GS TspdGTia SKTaGT]. H [j,syaX,i3Tspri [j,STavdGTSUGri 
Xa&)V Gxriv iGxopia, syivs Gxa [j,SGa xou 1 ^" aicbva and [j,ia 
yiyavxiaia [j,8xavdGX8UGri supcoTiaicov spyaxcbv gxk; HQA, gxt] 
voxio Afo^spiKTi Kai GXTjv AuGxpaMa. Oi HQA sivai xo tiio xa- 
paKxripiGxiKo 7iapd5siy[j,a «s9vou(; [j,sxavaGX(bv». 

H siGo5o(; [j,sxavaGX(bv gxk; HQA Kaxd xrjv xs^^suxaia 8i- 
KOGasxia xou 20°" aicbva, aTioxsXsi xo 5si3xspo [lejako [j,sxa- 
vaGxsuxiKo KX)[ia auxoij xou aicbva Kai Gscopsixai 6xi aXhx^e 
XT] cpuGioyvcD[j,ia xrjc; xcbpat;. H guvGsgti xou 7iXri9uG[j,oi3 xcov 
HQA xo 1970 fixav 5% hxTiviK^q KaTaj(i)jr\q, 1% aGidxs(; Kai 
12% a[j,spiKavoi acppiKaviKfi(; Kaxaycoyf)^. Si3[j,cpcova [is xiq 
5ri[j,oypacpiKS(; npo^o'ke.q, xo 2050 xa avxiGxoi^a uoGOGxd 9a 
sivai 26%, 8% Kai 14%.^^^ 

Efi[j,spa GXTjv E.E. UTidpxouv 11 SKaxo[j,^i3pia spydxsg [le- 
xavdGxs(; gxt] Auxikti EupcbTiri (xo 10%) xou oiKovo[j,iKd svsp- 
you 7i}Lri9uG[j,ou). Suvo^^iKd yia xr|v E.E.-15, U7io}toyi(^sxai 6xi 
smpdXXsxai Tispi xovq 900,000 vsoi spydxs^ [j,8xavdGxs(; va 
siGspxovxai GXTjv ayopd spyaGia^ sxrjGicD^, anhhq yia va 5ia- 
xripri9si xo Gr|[j,spiv6 S7ii7is5o oiKovo[j,iKfi(; avaTnv^r\q Kai r\ 
5r|[j,oypacpiKfi iGoppouia (avaXoyia spya(^o[j,svcov 7ipo(; Guvxa- 
^louxou^) GXTjv ayopd spyaGia(;.^^'^ 

Fia xTjv EX,Xd5a (tiou oi [j,sxavdGX8(; U7ioAoyi(^ovxai gxo 
12%) xou 7iXri9uG[j,ou, TispiTiou sva SKaxofj.fo^upio)^^'* r| TipopXs- 
\|/ri sivai 6x1 xo 20 1 59a uudpxouv 3,5 sKaxo[j,[a^upia aX,}to5a- 
7101. Av aGCpaM(^ovxav oXoi oi [j,8xavdGxs(;, r\ gxsgti spya(^6[j,s- 



253 



vcov Tipo^ avvTa^iov/p and 2,1 :1 nov sivai ofmspa 9a [lexa- 
xpaTisi GS 2,8:1, [im gxsgti nov icxpe to 1982! Oi STfiGiS(; 
7ip6g9sts(; aG(pa}tiGTiKS(; siG(pops(; and xovq [j,STavdGTS(; 9a 
scpxavav xa 200 5ig. 5pax|J.6(;. 

Qgtogo, 01 KaTiixa^^iGTsg TTjc; E.E., 7ipoTi[j,oi3v va svxd^ouv 
Tou^ [j,STavdGTS(; Kdxco and Ka98GT(b^ 7iapavo[j,ia^, yia va a- 
TiOTsXoiJV (pxrivo spyaxiKo 5uva[j,iK6, xcopi(; ouGiaGxiKd 5i- 
Kai(b[j,aTa. 'H5ri gttiv E.E., [j,s xi^ aTiocpdGSi^ xou EupcDTiaiKot) 
Eu[j,pouMot), sxouv 5ri[j,ioupyri9si oi 7ipol)7io9sGSi(; yia xrjv 
ijTiap^ri evoq paxGiGxiKoij yKsxou nov 9a acpopd SKaxo[j,^i3pia 
av9p(b7iou(; and «xpixs9> x&tpeq. Ss auxo 9a TipsTisi va Tipo- 
Gxs9si r\ «C,&)vr\ U7iavd7ixu^ri(;», 5ri}ta5fi oi X&tpeq KsvxpiKfi(; 
Kai AvaxoXiKfi(; Evp&)iir\q, nou r\ sK[j,sxdX,XsuGri xcdv epjaCp- 
l^svrov xou(; GUVoSsusxai Kai [is avoiKxo paxGiG[j,6. 

Adxt) r\ paxGiGxiKT) noXniKi], 8v5t)va[j,(bvsi xou^ aGxuvo[j,i- 
Koix; KaxaGxaXxiKotx; [j,r|xaviG[a^oi3(;, nov uXfixxouv GUVoXiKd 
o'kjovq xou(; supcoTiaioix; noXneq. Ms TipoGxn^a xrjv avxi[j,sx(b- 
niar\ xri(; «Xa9po[j,sxavdGX8UGri9>, r\ Si3vo5o(; xr]^ XaX,Ki5iKfi(; 
5po[j,oX6yriG8 xr] 5ri[j,ioupyia vscdv «aG(paXsGX8p(DV supcDTiai- 
K(bv 5iaPaxripicov». Ta vsa 5iaPaxfipia 9a GU^TiXripcbvovxai, 
yia va [j,r|v sivai «5uvaxfi r\ Tiapa^dpa^f) xou(;», and «GSipd 
Pio[j,8xpiK(bv xapaKxripiGxiK(bv»! !^^^ 



254 



K£ 



(pdJ^aioO 



H ApioTEpd 

Ktti r\ EDpcojralLKfi 'Evcomi 

Atio xriv apiGTspfi Tixspuya xou ps(pop[j,iG[j,oi3 (gttiv EXkd- 
5a- KKE, SuvaG7iiG[j,6(;), r\ KpiTiKf) 7ipo(; xriv E.E. 7ispiopi(^STai 
GXT] v80(piXsXsi39spri KaxsuGuvGr] nov s^si Tidpsi r\ oiKo56[j,ri- 
GT) TT]^, KaGdx; Kai gto Kaxd tiogo r\ GU[j,[j,8T0xn gttiv E.E. 8i- 
vai «s9viKd S7ico(ps}tfi(;». To ts^^iko GU^7ispaG[j,a 5sv sivai r\ 
Gxpocpf) 7ipo(; xa xa^iKd GU[j,(pspovxa xcdv spya(^o[j,sv(Dv: Oi 
hbcEiq nov Tipoxsivovxai sivai sixs (KKE) r\ smGxpocpfi svxo^ 
xcov sGviKcbv Guvopcov - r\ STiavaPsPaicoGti xou sGvikoij Kpd- 
xou(; mq 9s[j,axo(pi3}taKa xcdv «s9viK(bv GU[j,(psp6vx(DV» Kai xri(; 
«auxo5i3va[j,ri(; eQviKr\q avd7ixu^ri^», nov 9a SKcppdGSi (utioxi- 
9sxai) xr|v avxi9sGr| Gxa «5t)xiKosup(D7iaiKd [lovoii&iXm Kai xo 
vso(piXsXsu9spiG[j,6». Eixs (EuvaG7iiG[j,6(;), r\ sk xcdv sgcd [ie- 
xappi39[j,iGri xr]^ E.E. 7ipo(; [im «Eup(b7iri xcdv hx&ivy) (swoia 
s^aipsxiKd GuyKsxu[j,svri, nov s^si co^ gxoxo va [j,riv 9sgsi 
GXTjv rifo^spfiGia 5idxa^r| xo (^fixri[j,a xri(; xa^iKfi(; Kupiapxia(; xou 
KscpaXaiou Kai xrjv nakf] yia xr|v avaxpoufic; xr|(;). 



255 



H «Evp(anr\ xcav AacDV» - 
Nso(piXsXsDGspion6<g Kai E.E. 

H GsGTi OTi sivai Suvaxov va Tipayfj-axoTioiriGsi [im «Eup(b- 
iir\ Tcov A,a(bv», xcopi(; aTiapaixriTa to GOGiaXiaxiKo fj-sxaoxn- 
fj-axiG^o xcov xcopcbv xrjc; E.E., gugkoxi(^si xtjv xa^iKf) stiiGsgti 
xou KscpaXaiou, nov 5iapKsi fiSr], 5do 5sKasxiS(;, g8 7iayK6G[j,ia 
KM[j,aKa. O vso(piXsXsu9spiG[j,6^ 5sv auoxs^tsi smXoyfi «Kd- 
7ioicov» GXTjv E.E., aXXd aTioxsXsi [j,ov65po[j,o yia xo KscpdXaio 
TiayKOGfj-ia. H TispiKOTifi xcov 5ri[j,6Gicov sX,X8i[j,[j,dxcov, r| Kaxs- 
SdcpiGT] xou «Kpdxou^ 7ip6voia9>, o 7ispiopiG[j,6(; xou KpaxiKoij 
xo[j,sa Kai 01 iSicdxikotioitigsi^, sXaPav xo xapaKxfipa ava- 
yKai6xrixa(; yia xo KscpdXaio [j,sxd xo xsXo^ xcov «xpuGcbv xp6- 
vcov» xou Ka7iixaXiG[j,oi3 (xtjc; a5idXsi7ixri^ oiKovo[j,iKfi(; stis- 
KxaGT]^ a7i6 xov B' nayKOGfj-io n6Xs[j,o |J,sxpi xa [leca xr]^ 5s- 
Kasxia(; xou 1970). O v80(piXs}tsu9spiG[j,6(; auoxsA^GS smXoyfi 
xou Kscpa^^aiou, cd^ o [j,ova5iK6(; 5p6[j,0(; yia va au^riGsi r\ Ksp- 
5o(popia xcov smxsipfiGSCov, [j,8gco xt]^ XsriXaGiag xrjt; 5ri[j,6Gia(; 
7ispiouGia(; Kai xri(; GU^TiisGrit; xcov [iicQchv Kai xcov koivcdvi- 
Kcbv 5a7iavcbv. 

Tr|v KpiGTi xou 1973-74, s^ouv aKo}tou9fiG8i xpsig ucpSGSig: 
gxk; apx8(; xcdv 5sKasxicbv xou 1980 Kai xou 1990, Kai r| txpSGr] 
nov ^SKivriGS and xo 2001 H aGxa9si(; uopsia xri(; 7iayK6G[j,i- 
aq Ka7iixaXiGxiKfi(; oiKovo[j,ia(;, sixs mq a7ioxsXsG[j,a xr] 5pa[j,a- 
xiKT) [iei(i)cr\ xcov KpaxiKcbv sg65cdv (fo^sicoGri xcov (popcDV, Aoyco 
xri(; [j,8ioi3[j,£vri(; oiKovo[j,iKfi(; avd7ixu^ri(;) svcb au^fiGriKav 5pa- 
GxiKd 01 KpaxiKS(; 5a7idvs(; xogo yia xr] Gxripi^r] xrjc; oiKovo[j,i- 
a(; (5idpa(^8 xcov Kamxa^^iGxcbv nov Kiv5i3vsuav va «pdXouv 
XovKEToyy Xoym xri(; KpiGri(;), 6go Kai oi koivcoviks(; 5a7idvs(; 
yia XT] Gxfipi^ri xcdv avspycov Kai xcov aypoxiKcbv 8iGo5ri[j,dxcov. 
Oi 5a7idv8^ au^dvovxav, svcb xa 8Go5a sPaivav [j,8ioiJ[j,sva. 



256 



'Hxav r\ Kpiori Tri(; Ka7iiTa>^ioTiKfi(^ oiKovo[j,iag nov SioyKW- 
V8 xa 5ri[a^oGiovo[j,iKd eXkei\ji\jiaTa Kai 6xi to otioio iicjiaxako 
KpdT09>. To pd9o(; ttjc; Kpiori^ fixav tstoiou [j,sys9ou(;, (dgts oi 
Ksl)VGiavs(; 7ioXitiks(; (au^riGri tcdv KpaxiKcbv Sauavcbv yia Tr|v 

TOVCDGTl TTjc; OlKOVO[J,ia(; [J,SGCO KpaXlKCbv sX,Xsi[J,[J,dTCOV) TO [j,6vo 

a7iOTsXsG[j,a 710U sixav fixav to KpdTO^ va GUGGCopsusi ek- 
Xsi[j,[j,aTa Kai o 7i}tri9(DpiG[j,6^ va... UTispiTiTaTai. A7iOTsXsG[j,a 
TT]^ KpiGrjc; fixav va KaTaxpscoGei to KpdTOt;. Ms auTOV tov 
TpoTio syivs siJKoXri }tsia GTa vij^ia tou xpri[j,aTiGTiKoi3 Kecpa- 
Xaiou. O 7iX,ri9(DpiG[j,6(;, nov sti^^titts tk; 5utiks(; oiKovo[is(; 
oXoK^^ripri TT] 5sKasTia tou 1970 Kai |J,sxpi Ta TEkr\ ttjc; 5sKas- 
Tia(; Tou 1980, sixs Gav a7iOTsXsG[j,a 7ioX,}toi Ka7iiTa}tiGTS(;, nov 
sixav S7isv5i3gsi gs KpaTiKd o[j,6Xoya, va 5ouv Ta Kscpd^^aid 
Tou^ va s^avs[j,i(^ovTai A,6yco tou 7iXri9(DpiG[j,oi3. MeTd and av- 
Tr\v TTjv sf^Tisipia, 01 xpTmoiTiGTr|piaKS(; ayops(; Kai oi Tpdus- 
C,eq, ETie^ahxv gtk; KuPspvfiGSK; auGTrjpst; avTmA,ri9copiGTiKS(; 
noXniKsq, yia va [j,riv 5iaKiv5DV8i)ODV oi 8718v5ijg81^ Kai Ta 
Ksp5ri Tou^: 

«A7i6 TT] 5sKasTia tou 1970 Kai [j,8Td o avaTiTuyfj-svot; 
k6g[j,0(; si5s S7ii[j,svovTa 5o[j,iKd EXke.i\ji\jiaTa Kai [j,ia gu- 
vaK6Xou9r| au^riGri tou 5ri[j,6Giou xpsoix; ce enmeda 
nov 7iporiyoi3[j,8va UTifipxav [lovo [j,STd and 7ioA£[j,ou^. 
Triv i5ia cTrf[V(\ oi enevdvTEq gs o[j,6Xoya nov si^av Kasi 
a7i6 TOV u\|/ri}t6 7iXri9copiG[j,6, Tcbpa Ti[j,copoiJGav tk; ku- 
PspvfiGSi^ [IE TO va S7iipd}touv uxj/riM aGCpd^tiGTpa kiv- 
5i3vou. Aut6(; o GUv5uaG[j,6(; [j,sicoGS ttjv SuvaTOTrixa tt]^ 
vo[j,iG[j,aTiKfi(; 7ioXiTiKfi(; Gav oiiko ava98p[j,avGri^ ttjc; 
oiKovo[j,ia(;. Atio auTO Kai r| apyf) avdKa[a^\|/r| and ttjv 
TjcpSGTi TTjc; 5sKasTia(; tou 1990, tiou 5is\|/sugs 7ioX,Xou(; 
avaXuTS^. [...] 'Onmq Kai gtov 1 9' aicbva, oi kukXiks^ 



257 



5iaKU[j,dvG8i(; xcbpa Ka9opi(^ovTai ano Tpa7is(^iKS(; Kpi- 
GSi^ Kai KaxappsiJGSi^ ayopcbv)).^^'' 

Msoa G8 GUv9fiKS(; oiKovo[j,iKfi(; smPpaSuvGrjc; (f) avai[j,i- 
Kcbv puG^icbv avaTnv^r\q), oi S7ii}toys(; xcov KaTiiTa^^iGTcbv o5ri- 
yoiJGav GS [j,ov65po[a^o. 'EupsTis va [j,81(d9oi3v xa 5r|[j,6Gia ek- 
Xsi[j,[j,aTa, va avaKd[j,\|/si to tiogogto Ksp5ou(;, va SKGuyxpo- 
viGTSi TO TiapaycoyiKo 5uva[j,iK6, sits [j,sg(d GuyxcovsuGSCov 

STllXSipflGSCOV, SITS f^S TO Va k}^SIGOUV 01 SmxSipflGSK; 710U Sl- 
XaV [J,S{VSI TllGCD GTTjV aVTayCDVlGTlKTl KOljpGa, aCpflVOVTa^ STGl 

Xropo GTig «uyisi(;» smxsipfiGSig. 

O vso(piXsXsu9spiG[j,6(; mq [j,ov65po[j,o^, s[j,(pavi(^STai gttjv 
oXri Tiopsia TTjc; E.E., nohb TispiGGOTspo, nov to 6Xo «syxsipri- 
[j,a» EupcoTiaiKTi 'Evcdgt], oxi au^tdcx; GTripix9r|Ks gto vsocpiXs- 
Xsu9spiG[j,6, odld Km /cop/? to vsofilslsvOspia/jo Ssv 6a v- 
TtrjpX^ V EvpconaiKrj Evcoarj. 

H svapKTTipia Tipd^r] 7ipo(; ttjv E.E. fiTav r\ Eviaia EupcoTia- 
iKT) Ilpd^ri (1986)jiou aixfJ-f) Tri(; fiTav, to dvoiy^a tcdv ayo- 
pcbv, r\ [leimcf] tt]^ KpaTiKfic; 7iaps[j,paGri<^, oi iSicdtikotioitigsi^. 
H GUv9fiKri Tou MdaGTpixT (AsKS[j,Ppiog 1991) opiGTiKOTioiri- 
GS OTi o 9s[j,sXiO(; M9o(; yia ttjv E.E. fiTav o vso(piXsXsu9spi- 

G[J,6(; GTTjV 7110 GK^tTlpfl TOU SkSoXH- 

To 6Xo «Gxs5io» sixs mq s^^c,: H «supco7iaiKfi svo7ioiriGri» 
9a 7ipay[j,aT07ioiri9si and ttjv ayopd Kai 5ia [j,sgou ttjc; ayo- 
pd(;. H iGoppoTiia avd[j,SGa gs «ayopd» Kai «KpdT09> Tpouo- 
7ioifi9riKs GS pdpo(; tou «KpdTOU(;», [le ttjv ^^oyiKf) 6ti r| «ayo- 
pd» 9a eni^aXkei ttjv oiKovo[j,iKfi oXoK>tfipcoGri, 7ipdy[j,a nov 
GTO TsXo(;, apyd Kai GTa5iaKd, 9a suicpspsi Kai ttjv tioXitikti 
«S[a^Pd9uvGr|». 

A7iOTsXsG[j,a auTT)^ TTjc; }toyiKfi(; (rj ayopd 9a 7ipay[j,aT0- 
TioifiGSi TO «sup(D7iaiK6 6pa[j,a»), fiTav acp' sv6(;, r] uXfipric; a- 



258 



TisXeuGspcDGri tt]^ ayopd^ (iSicotikotioitigsk;) Kai acp' sxaipou, 
r\ dypia smGsari svdvxia gtou^ 8pya(^6[a^svou(; (KaisSdcpiGri 
[Kai i5icoTiK07ioiri GT]] Tou KoivcoviKot) Kpdxoix;). 

Oi 7io}tiTiKoi 9sG[j,oi Tri(; «supco7iaiKfi(; svo7ioiriGr|9> gkotii- 
[la D7ioPa9[j,iG9riKav. AcpsGrjKav gtk; apys(;, 5ai5aX(b5si(; Kai 
svTsXcbg avTi5ri[j,0KpaTiKS(; [j,s965ot)g tcdv KpaxiKcbv ypacpsio- 
Kpaxicbv TCDV KpaT(bv-[j,s}t(bv. IlapaXkr\hx 5r|[j,ioupyfi0riKav 
\|/su5s7iiypa(poi «t)7isps9viKoi» oikovo[j,ikoi [j,rixaviG[j,oi, 5ioi- 

K01J[J,£V0l a7l6 [J,ri SKA£y[J,8V0U^ T8XVOKpdT8(;, 710U UTlOTlGsxai 

6x1 8X0W TT] 5i3va[j,ri va «S7iipd}touv» tt] Gs^^tigti tcov Kamxa- 
XiGTcbv (Kai tk; vso(piXsXsi3Gsps(; smXoys^ xoix;) gtk; «dpou}tS(; 
Kai d[j,oips(;» SKX8y[j,svs(; KuPspvfiGSK; tcov KpaT(bv-[j,sX(bv. 

IIspiGGOTspo an' 6}ta, o vso(pi}^sXsuGspiG[j,6(; mq avayKaio- 
TTjTa, Gfi[j,aivs STiiGsGr] GTa spyaTiKd 5iKai(b[j,aTa. Sfmaivs, 
KXsiGi[j,aTa STiixsipfiGSCov Kai KaTaKopucpr] dvo5o tt]^ avspyiat; 
(Kai [j,d}tiGTa GS [j,aKpoxp6via PdGr|), [o^sicoGri tcov Tipayfo^aTi- 
Kcbv [j,iGG(bv, «K0UTG0i3ps[j,a» tou «KpdTOD^ Kpovomqyy ([ieich- 
gsk; tcov S7ii5o[a^dTCOv avspyia^, au^riGri tod xp6v3uyia gu- 
VTa^ioSoTTiGTi K.Xn.). 

H STiiGsGTi GTa KoivcoviKd 5iKai(b[j,aTa todv 8pya(^o[j,8vcov 
s[j,(pavi(^STai Gav avauoTpsTiTri avayKaiOTriTa yia toix; supco- 
Tiaioix; Ka7iiTa}tiGTS(;. Oi koivcoviks(; 5a7idvs(; tt] 5sKasTia tou 
1960 (xpovia 5iapKoi3(; oiKovo[j,iKfi^ STisKTaGrjc;) avTrnpoGcb- 
Tisuav yia xiq x&ipeq Tri(; Grmspivf)^ E.E. to 5% emq 15% uspi- 
nov TOU AEn (Ta u\|/r|}t6Tspa uoGOGTd Ta sixav [Kai Ta sxouv] 
opiG[j,sv8(; x&ipeq ttjc; Popsiat; Evp&)iir\q). H e[i(pavicr\ Tri(; oi- 
Kovo[j,iKfi(; KpiGri(; tt] SsKasTia tou 1970au^riGS avxeq xiq 5a- 
naveq gto 8% sax; 22%tou AEII. H KaxsKTiKf) oiKo\o[j,iKfi 



259 



Tiopsia TT] 5sKasTia xou 1990 xi^ avsPaoav gto 19% sco^ 33% 
TO-uAEn*.^" 

KdiCD a7i6 xriv msori ttjc; oiKovo[j,iKfi(; S7iiPpd5uvGri(;, fi5ri 
a7i6 xa T8A,ri tt]^ SsKasxiat; xou 1970,ri Tipoooxn tcov Kamxa- 

XlGTCbv Kai TCOV KUPspvflGSCbv TO V[, [J,STa(pSp9r|KS GTTIV «a- 

Ka[j,\|/ia TTjc; ayopd(; 8pyaGia(; Kai gti^ vnep^o'ke.q tou KpdTOix; 
7ip6voia^».^^^ E7ii7i}tsov, TOViCpxav o (p6Po(; tou «koivcovikoi3 
VTd^7iivyK», 5riXa5fi o «a9s[j,iT0(;» avTay(DviG[j,6(; a7i6 KpdTt]- 
[j,sX,ri 710U sxouv xa[ir\ke.q koivcoviks(; 5a7idvs(;, Kai Ta OTioia 
PaGi(^ouv THV oiKovo[j,iKfi Tou^ avTaycDviGTiKOTTiTa GTOix; xa- 
l^ri^totx; [j,iG0oi3(; Kai gtk; KaKS(; guvGtiks^ 8pyaGia(;. H Fa^^Ma 
KaTsPa^ts 7ipoG7id9siS(; yia svap[j,6viGri Tri(; koivcoviktic; aGCpd- 
'kemq «S7isi5fi cpoPoTav 6ti oi 5iks(; Tri(; u\|/riXs(; aGCpaXiGTiKst; 
siG(pops(; 9a [leimvav ttjv avTayroviGTiKOTriTa tcov yaA,XiK(bv 

7ipOl6VTCOV».^^^ 

To AsK8[j,Ppio Tou 1989 \|/ri(piGTriKS gto ETpaGPoijpyo a7i6 
TO EupcDTiaiKo Eu[j,poi3}tio o «Koivotik6(; XdpTtjc; tcdv 0s[j,s- 
}^iaKcbv KoivcoviKcbv AiKaico[j,dTCDV tcov Epya(^o[j,£VCDV» (r\ 
BpsTavia fiTav r\ [lovadiKi] xcbpa nov 5sv \|/fi(piGS to XdpTTj). 
Sto XdpTT] 7ispiXa[j,pdvovTav KscpdXaia nov acpopouGav gttjv 
sXsu9spia 5iaKivriGri(;, a7iaGx6Xr| gtjc;, gtk; GUv9fiKS(; spyaGiat;, 
Ta iGa SiKaicb^iaTa av5p(bv Kai yuvaiKcbv, to guhPouA,8utik6 



Oi KoivcoviKeg 5a%&veq oo^dvovxai, Tiapd to veo(piXeXeu9epi(j|i6, yiaxl 
au^dvexai Kai t] [laKpoxpovia ocvepyla Kai t] yeviKoxepri koivcovikii cpxcbxia. 
EniKksov, TO eupcoTiaiKo epyaxiKo Kivri|ia exei KaxopBcboei va emTUxei 
liEyaksq KoivcoviKe<; KaxaxxrioeK; kov t] Kaxdpyrioii xoug eivai SuokoXt] Kai 
;ii)po5oxei koivcovikii evxaoi]. Mia (ji)yKpioii eivai avioKaluTixiKii: Oi Si]- 
|i6(jie<; 5a7idve<; yia koivcovikii vipovoia oxiiv E.E. iixav xo 1990 Kaxd [leoo 
6po oxo 22% xoi) AEn. Exig HTIA iixav nolxq 15% Kai Xiyoxepo avio 12% 
oxiiv lavicovia (Aouko; ToouKalin;, H vea eupcoTiaiKii oiKovojxia, oxo Ka- 
xcbcpk xoi) 21™ aicbva, eKSooeig IlaTiai^iioii, oeX. 182). 

260 



poXo Tcov 8pya(^o[j,£vcov Kai tt] GU[j,[j,STOxn Tovq gtt] Xr\\\fr\ a- 
Tiocpdoscov. 

Qgtogo, STipoKsiTO yitt noXniKT] SiaKfipu^ri [ir\ 5sg[j,suti- 
Koij xapaKxfipa. O ic/yoq koivotik6(; 7ipol)7ioAoyiG[j,6^ 58v 
STiixpsTisi 07ioia5fi7iOTS auoTisipa Koivfic; KoivcoviKfi(; noXni- 
K^q. 'Etgi Kai oxo (^fixrma aDxo ig^usi r\ «apxn xrjc; STiiKoupi- 
K6xrixa9>. H sQvikti vo[j,o98Gia xcdv Kpax(bv-[j,s}t(bv sivai auxf) 
nov UTispiGXUsi Kai o p6Xo(; xri(; 'Evcogti^ sivai 5sux8p8i3ov Kai 
[j,ri 5sg[j,suxik6(;. 

Sxo GT] [j,sio auxo 9a TipsTisi va U7ioypa[j,[j,iGX8i, 6xi xa Kpd- 
Tr\-[iEkr\ 5sv fiGav 5iaxs9si[a^sva va uapaxcopfiGOUv, gs otioi- 
ov5fi7ioxs Pa9[j,6, xrjv koivcovikti noXniKi] gxk; Bpv^eXkeq yia 
5uo PaGiKotx; Xoyotx;: Ilpcbxov, [j,8gco xtjc; KoivroviKfic; noXni- 
KT\q opyav(bv8xai r] KoivroviKfi GUvaivsGr] Tipo^ xo Kpdxot; Kai 
xTjv dpxouGa xd^T], Kai auxfiv xa s9vri Kpdxr] tiou aTioxsXow 
xTjv E.E. fi9sXav va xqv KpaxfiGOUv Kdxco and xov sXsyxo xoix;. 
Oi [j,rixaviG[j,oi xrjc; koivcdviktic; GUvaivsGrjc; aTioxs^^ow PaGiKo 
GX01X810 xrig eQviKr\q i5soAoyia(; Kai xcdv TisXaxsiaKcbv cxece- 
cov xcov KO[j,[j,dxcov [j,s xotx; \|/ri(po(p6pou^ xou^. Asmspov, Ka- 
[j,id dpxouGa xd^T] xrjc; E.E. 5sv r\QEke xrjv 8vap[j,6viGri xrjc; 
KoivcDviKTic; TioXniKr\q 7ipo(; xa udvco, 5r|Xa5fi 7ipo(; xo [o^sgo 
6po xcov xcDpcbv [le xiq u\|/r|}^6xsps(; koivcoviks(; 5a7idvs(;. Ak6- 
[la Kai 01 x&ipeq xou voxou [j,s GOGiaXiGxiKst; xoxs KuPspvfi- 
gsk;, 7101) TipcoxoGxdxrjGav gxtjv \|/ficpiGri xou Xdpxr] (iGTiavia, 
EX,}Ld5a), 5sv fi9sXav [j,s Kavsva xpoTio auxo va Grmaivsi xrjv 
au^riGri xcdv koivcdvikcdv xoix; Sauavcbv, yiaxi auxo 9a Gfi[j,aivs 
XT] «[iei(i)cr\ xr]^ s9viKfi^ oiKovo[j,iKfi(; avxaycDviGxiK6xrixa(;». 
Oi x&tpeq xou Poppd, [is v\\ir\ke.q koivcoviks^ Saudveg, fi98Xav, 
7ipopdX,}tovxa(; xo cpoPrixpo xou «koivcdvikou vxd[a^7iivyK», va 
xo xpTl<3i^07ioifiGOUv yia koivcdviks(; 7ispiK07iS(; Kai GuyK}^r| gt] 
7ipo(; xov supcoTiaiKo [leco 6po. 



261 



AuTS(; 01 avayKaioxriTSt; KaGopioav xi^ s^sM^si^ gtt] 5idp- 
K8ia TTjc; 5sKasTia(; xou 1990. H koivcdvikti SidaTaari Tri(; E.E. 
U7ioPa9[j,iGTriKs, acpsGrjKs evxehaq gtk; KuPspvfiGSi^ tcdv Kpa- 
T&)V-[iehhv. Qgtogo, UTifip^s [im 7ipay[j,aTiKfi 8vap[j,6viGri [le- 
xa^ij oXcov Tcov Kpaxcbv Tri(; E.E.: auxfi fixav r\ au^av6[j,£vri 
STiiGsGTi Gxa spyaxiKd 5iKai(b[j,axa. To svauG[j,a yia xrjv tiio 
GK}tr|pfi smGsGTi gxou^ 8pya(^6[j,8vot)(; xo s5cogs r\ vsa oikovo- 

[J,lKfl TJCpSGTl TlOU STiXtj^S XTjV E.E. 

Atio xo 200 It] E.E. (Kai S7iiGr|[j,a) [j,aGxi(^8xai auo txpSGrj. 
H EupcDTiaiKTi KsvxpiKTi Tpd7is(^a (EKT) 5iaxripsi «7iapd}to- 
ya» u\|/r|Xd xa STiixoKid xri(;, apvoi3[j,£vri va 5ri[j,ioipyfiGSi xrjv 
avayKaia psuGxoxrixa yia xo <<kad(i)[iay> xr|(; oiKovo[j,iKfi(; 5pa- 
GXT] pi6xrixa(;. O upcbriv 7ip6s5po q xri(; EKT, Bifj, Nxoi3i(^sv- 
I^TispyK, 5fi}t(Dvs [le GpdGO^: 

«0i KuPspvfiGSK; 58V i^TiopoiJV va Kpijpovxai ti^^sov 
TiiGCO a7i6 xrjv EKT, 7ipoKsi[j,svou va Kahbmovv xrjv a- 
Tioxuxia xoug va s(pap[j,6G0uv SiapGproxiKst; akhijeq».^'^'^ 

«AiapGpcoxiKS(; aXhrfEq»- 5idpa(^s: au^riGri xou opiou [la- 
(^iKcbv a7ioA,i3GS(DV, «s}taGxiKS(; gxsgsk; spyaGia(;», au^riGri xr]^ 
ri^tiKiat; yia GUVxa^io56xriGri k.Xti. 

Fiaxi, aXfiGsia, auxf) r\ «7iapd>toyri» GK^ripoxrixa;: 

«H EKT 5sv Kdv8i XdGo(;. Exrjv 7ipay[j,axiK6xrixa, 'kei- 
xoupysi mq SKTipoGOTiot; xcdv suKaxdGxaxrov tiigxcoxcdv, 
7ipoG(pspovxd(; xou(; aKOTiox; u\|/riXfi aTioSoGr], aXXd Kai 
xcov 7110 avxi5paGxiK(bv kijkXcov tiou smGu^ow xrjv Tikr\- 
pr| a7iopi3G[j,iGri xcov ayopcbv spyaGia(; Kai xr|v sXaxiGxo- 
TioiriGri xou Kpdxoix; 7ip6voia(;. Eivai r\ mo avxiSpaGxiKf) 
Kai 5oy[j,axiKfi [j,ovsxapiGxiKfi d7io\|/ri, nov 6[i(i)q vno- 



262 



KpijTiTSi TioXiTiKTi oKOTii^iOTriTa: H EKT (paivsiai va [laq 
Xeei OTi yia xriv avspyia oxri rsp[j,avia Kai oxri TaXkia 
(pxaivs aTioK^siGxiKd oi ayopst; spyaoiat; xotx; Kai yi' 
auxo 9a Kdvsi 6xi Tispvd a7i6 xo xspi xri(; yia va xk; ava- 
yKdosi va Tispiopiaouv xo koivcoviko zovq Kpdxo9>.^''^ 

'Hxav, aocpaXcbg, a7ioA,i3xco^ siXiKpivfig o Bifj, Nxoi3i(^sv- 
I^TispyK oxav Sfi^covs 6xi oi KuPspvfiGSK; «5sv f^Tiopow va 
Kpijpovxai Tikeov tiigco and xrjv EKT». 'Onmq r\dr\ sxot)[J,8 ne- 
piypd\|/8i, 5sv UTidpxsi Kavsv6(; 8i5ou(; «U7isps9viK6g» [j,rixavi- 
G[j,6(; Gxriv E.E. tiou va a7io(paGi(^si avs^dpxrjxa and xa Kpdxrj- 
[iekr\. OT^q oi a7io(pdG8i(; sivai SiaKuPspvrjxiKs^, vo[j,o9sxsi 
[j,6vo xo Eu[a^Poi3X,io xcov YTioupycbv xcov Kpax(bv-[j,s}t(bv. Ta 
vso(pi}tsXsi39spa [lexpa Kai r] GK^^ripfi >^ix6xrixa nov eni^akei xo 
Si3[j,(pcovo Exa9sp6xrixag xa sxouv GUvaTiocpaGiGSi oi KuPsp- 
vtigsk; xcov Kpax(bv-[j,8Xcbv. KuPspvfiGSK; nov 8K(ppd(^ouv xa 
GU[j,(pspovxa xcov «s9viKcbv» xoix; KamxaXiGxcbv. Eivai oi ku- 
PspvfiGSK; nov smpd^^ouv xa GK^^ripd vso(pi}ts}^8i39spa [lexpa, 
nov Xsixoupyoijv Gav SKTipoGCOTioi xou xpri[j,axiGxiKoi3 Kscpa- 
Xaiou Kai 5sv xoix; xa smpdXsi o Nxoi3i(^sv^7ispyK (f) o cr\[iE- 
pivo^ 7ip6s5po(; TpiGs) Kai r| EKT. 

Auxo sivai ^SKd9apo Gf^spa, nov gxo gijvoXo xoix;, oi 8U- 
pco7iaiKS(; KuPspvfiG8i(; rjyoTJVxai xr]^ vso(piXsXsi39spri(; XaiXa- 
naq. Oi 8pya(^6[j,8voi oXtj^ xt]^ Eupcb7iri(;, PpiGKovxai avxi[j,s- 
xcoTioi [j,8 XT] [j,8yaX.i3xspri s7ii98Gri Gxa 5iKaicb[j,axa xoix;, s5(b 
Kai siKOGi xpovia (and xrjv STioxn xr|(; ©dxGsp Kai xou Psi- 
yKav): 

Oi Ka7iixaXiGX8^ l^r\TOX)V (Kai oi KuPspvfiGSig Kaxapd- 
Xovv Kd9s 7ipoG7id9sia va xo smxijxouv) xo opio GUVxa^io56- 
xriGrjc; va au^ri98i Gxa 65 f) Kai Gxa 70 xpovia. 
MsicoGTi xcov GUVxd^scDV Kaxd 20-40%. 



263 



Apa[j,aTiKfi [j,sicoGri xcov S7ii5o[j,dTCOv avspyiat;, Spaoxi- 
KT) TispiKOTifi TTjc^ a7io(^ri[j,icoGri^ nov Kaxapd^touv xa acpsvxiKd 
oxav Kdvouv anohbceiq, sXaxioxoTioiriGri xou jpovov upoei- 
5o7ioiriGri(; nov aTiaixsixai Tipiv xrjv aTioXuari, aiJ^riGri xcov «8- 
7iixps7i6[j,8vcov» o^iaSiKcbv a7ioA,i)G8cov (5idpa(^s xcopi(; opio 
anohbcEiq). 

Kaxs5d(piGr| xcdv GUGxr^dxcDV vjeiaq. Euvxd^sig Kai 
laxpocpapfj-aKsuxiKT) 7ispi9aX\|/ri va i5icoxiK07ioiri9oi3v Kai xa 
KS(pd}taia xcov xa[j,sicov ouGiaGxiKd va xa 5iax8ipi(^ovxai i5ico- 
xiKsg aG(paXiGxiKS(; sxaipsist;! 

IIpoKsixai yia ^s5idvxpo7ir| xa^iKf) noXniKi]- TiXouGiOTidpo- 
Xa 5cbpa 7ipo(; xa acpsvxiKd. Exk; 13 Mdiou 2003 xo Ecofin (xo 
GU[j,poi3}tio xcov UTioupycbv oiKovo[j,iK(bv xri(; E.E.) auocpdGiGS 
XT] vo[j,i[j,07ioiri GT] xTjc; 7iav8upco7iaiKfi(; SpdGtjc; xcdv i5icoxiKcbv 
xa[j,sicov. Exo 8^fi(; 7ioX,u89viks(; aGCpaXiGxiKst; sxaipist; 9a 
I^TiopoiJV va 5iaxsipi(^ovxai xa GUVxa^io5oxiKd 5iKaicb[j,axa gs 
oXoK^tTipri xTjv Eupcb7ir|. IIpoGCpspovxai sxgi Gxa xprmaxiGxr)- 
pia Kai xTjv Ksp5oGK07iia GUVxa^io5oxiKd 5iKaicb[j,axa i3\|/ou(; 
2,5 xpiG. 8upcb, 710U iGo5uva[j,oi3v [is xo 30% xou supcDTiaiKoij 
AEII! Ti GT] [j,aivot)v auxd gxtjv Tipd^rj: Ta xpf^axa xcov 
xa[j,sicov, 710U Gxn^oixiGxriKav auo xo ai[j,a Kai xov i5pcbxa xcov 
8pya(^o[j,svcov xoix;, 7iai(^ovxai gxo xprmaxiGxripio Kai aKo^^ou- 
9oi3v xTjv dvoSo f) xrjv tixcdgti xoix;. Ms 5s5o[j,£vri xrjv tixcdgti 
xcov xpri[j,axiGxripicov auo xo 2001,xa xa[j,sia gxk; HQA (nov 
xo Gi3Gxr|[j,a s(pap[j,6(^8xai s5cb Kai xpovia) fi5ri [lexpovv anch- 
'keieq SKaxovxd5cov SiGSKaxofj-^iupicDV 5oXapicDv! EKaxofo^^upia 
dv9pco7ioi 8X0UV [j,8iv8i xcDpi(^ Guvxd^si^ Kai iaxpo(pap[j,aKsuxi- 
KT) 7ispi9aA,\|/ri... 

H «}a3Gr|» gxo 7ip6pXri[j,a xri(; avspyiat; Kaxd xr| vsocpt^^s- 
}^si39spri E.E., sivai oi «sXaGxiKS(;» gxsgsk; spyaGiat;. Qq 7ip6- 
XU710 TipopdXXovxai oi HQA. Dgoi gxi^ HQA 8pyd(^ovxai ce 



264 



[j,spiKfi f) TipoGCopivfi aTiaaxoXriGTi, Sev GU[j,7ispiXa[j,pdvovTai 
[lev cTOuq KaxaXoyoix; tcdv avspyrov (7ipdy[j,a tiou s[j,(pavi(^8i 
[j,si(D[j,svr| xriv smarno^ri avspyia), cdgtogo o [a^iG96(; nov 'ka[i- 
Pdvouv TOU(; KaxaidGGSi gs ogoix; 5iaPioi3v gto (KaxcDTaTo) 
opio TTjc; (pT(bxia(;. 'Eva(; gtou^ oktcd A[j,spiKavoi3(; (^si Kdxco 
auo TO «6pio TT]^ (pT(bxia9> (Kdxco and to 60%TOt) [j,8gou [ii- 
g6oi3) svcb 45 sKaT0[j,^i3pia sivai avaGCpd^^iGxoi. 'Eva(; gtoix; 
58Ka A[j,8piKavoi3(; (26 8KaTO[j,^i3pia) avayKd(^ovTai Kd9s xpo- 
vo va Kaxacpijyouv Gxa hxiKa GUGGixia Kai xa Ksvxpa 5iavo- 
[V[\q STiiGixiGxiKTic; PofiGsiat;. AIM Kai OGOtx; spyd(^ovxai oi 
Ka7iixa}tiGxs(; xoix; ^eC,ov[iiC,ovv. O [o^SGOt; A[j,spiKav6(; epjaCp- 
[levoq spyd(^sxai 40% uspiGGOxspo and xo TdXAo, 29% uspiG- 
ooxspo a7i6 xo rsp[j,av6 Kai 13%) auo xo Bpsxavo.^'''' 

AX}^d Kai Gxov... «7iapd5siGO» xr]^ EupcoXdv5ri(; xa Tipdy- 
|iaxa 7iXriGid(^ouv xo a[j,spiKaviK6 «7ip6xu7io». 'H5ri r\ avspyia 
Kai 01 5uo Kijpist; SKcppdGSK; xcov «susXikxcov» [j,op(p(bv aua- 
Gx6>^riGri(; (TipoGCopivf) Kai [j,spiKfi) avxmpoGCDTisiJouv xo 40%) 
xou spyaxiKot) 5uva[j,iKoi3 gxtjv E.E.! To 80%) xcov vscov TipoG- 
Xfi\|/8CDV gxk; FaXMa, Fsp^avia, Hvco[j,8vo BaGiXsio, avacps- 

pOVXai GS «SUsXlKXOU» 7lSpiSX0[J,SV0U aX0[J,lK8(; GU[J,pdGSl^. 

Kaxd xr|v TiepioSo 1994-2000 oi [o^spiKocx; aTiaGxoXoTjfo^svoi dv- 
dpeq Gxr|v E.E. au^fiGriKav Kaxd 830.000 svcb oi Tikr\p(i)q aua- 
GxoXoi3[j,svoi [j,6Xi(; Kaxd 260.000. AvxiGxoixco(; oi [lepiKchq 
a7iaGxoXoi3[j,£V8(; yuvaiKst; au^fiGriKav Kaxd sva SKaxo[j,^i3pio, 
svcb 01 Tikr\p(X)q a7iaGxoXoi3[j,8VS(; Kaxd 140.000.^'''* To xsXiko 
a7ioxsXsG[j,a sivai r\ Spafo^axiKfi au^riGri ogcov 5iaPioi3v Kdxco 
a7i6 xo «6pio xT]^ (pxcbxia(;» gxtjv E.E. (gxtjv EupcbTiri xcov 1 5 
xo TiOGOGxo auxo KU[j,aiv8xai and 15%) emq 25%)!). 

Oi «susXiKxs(;» spyaGiaKS(; gxsgsk; sivai [im d0}tia fJ-opcpf) 
Gxuyvfi^ SK[j,8xdA,XsuGri^ Kai 7ipoKa>uOi)v [j,sxa^i3 aXknv: 
AiG9fi[j,axa avaGCpdXsiac^ Kai SiapKoug dyxoug. 



265 



nspiopiG[j,svri a[j,oipfi as gxsgti [is xriv TiXfipri aua- 
GxoXriGri. 

nspiopiGfo^sva spyaGiaKd Kai KoivcoviKd 5iKai(b[j,aTa 
avdXoya [is to xpo^o aTiaGxoXri gtjc; (ti.x. d5sis^, koivcovikti 
aGCpdXiGTi). 

'E>^A,si\|/ri GUf^TiXfipcoGrig 7ipol)7io98GSC0V yia uXfipri gu- 
vxa^ioSoxriGri Kai a^i07ips7is(; S7ii7is5o Gi3vTa^ri(;. 

KaKS(; GUv9fiKS(; spyaGiat;. 
Asv 8ivai Tuxaio oxi gtti TakXia spsuva KaxsSsi^s oxi to 
50% OGCDV a7iaGxo}a3i3vTai [lepiKchq, S7ii(^r|TSi Gsgti u^^fipoix; 
a7iaGx6}triGr|(;. Eiinikkov, to xa[j,ri}t6 S7ii7is5o [j,iG9(bv gti^ 
«sus}tiKTS(;» spyaGiS(; 7iis(^si 7ipo(; Ta KdTCO xovq [j,ig9oi3(; ttjc; 
7i}tfipou^ a7iaGx6}triGr|(;. Ettiv 0X,}tav5ia, tiou UTidpxsi u\|/riX6 
S7ii7is5o [j,spiKfi(; aTiaGxo^tri GTjc;, Tr|v Tekevxaia 20sTia [j,si(b9r|- 
Kav KttTd 20% 01 KaTcbTttTOi [j,ig9oi uXfipotx; aTiaGxoXri gtjc;, 
8V(b au^fi9riKs KaTd 1 1 %r\ aviGOTtiTa gtoix; [j,ig9oi3(; tcov 
nkr\p(i)q aTiaGxoXoufj.svcov.^'''' 

AXM Ta TiapaTidvco iGXPOuv r\dr\ Kai yia ttjv EXMSa. Etoi- 
XSia TT]^ STaTiGTiKTic; YTiripsGiag KaTsSsi^av 6ti to 2001 Tispi- 
nov TO 30%) TCOV [j,iG9(DT(bv ([j,a(^i [j,s ttjv avspyia Kai ttjv tio- 
A,t)a7iaGx6XriGri) spyd(^STai gs «susXikts(;» [j,op(pS(; aTiaGxo^^ri- 
cr\q.^'^'' Oi U7i8pcopis(; sxouv SKT0^su9si GTa i3\|/ri (15%)-35%) 
TCOV [j,iG9coT(bv auaGxoXsiTai «U7ispcDpiKd») svcb sva [j,sydXo 
TiOGOGTO 8pya(^o[j,8vcov spyd(^STai gs 5uo 8pyaGis(; «yia va Ta 
(pspsi p6X,Ta» (to 20%) tou spyaTiKoij 5uva[j,iKoi3 7ioX,ua7ia- 
Gxo^tsiTai). 

Euvo\|/i(^ovTag: 

H vso(piXsXsi39spr| tioXitikti [ie Kavsvav Tpouo dev f^Tiopsi 
va avaTpausi [le GTa5iaKS(; «sk tcdv sgco [j,STappu9[j,iGSi(;», tt] 
GTiy[j,fi 7101) aTiOTsXsi avayKaiOTTiTa yia to KscpdXaio. Autti r\ 



266 



TioXnxid] i^Tiopsi [lovo va avaxpaTisi [is oK^ripotx; xa^iKoug 
aycbvs^ and xovq spya(^6[j,svou(;, nov «avayKaGTiKd» 9a 9s- 
Touv TO (^fiTr|[j,a [imq aXkr\q koivcdviktic; 7ipoo7iTiKfi(;, nov Tipa- 
KTiKd Gri[j,aivsi xou GOGia}tiG[j,oi3. Asv [inopeiq va koivsk; o[j,s- 
Xsxa, xcopi(; va gtioigsk; auyd! H E.E. [is Kavsva xpoTio dev 
[o^Tiopsi va [j,STaTpa7i8i gs «Eup(b7iri xcov Xa(bv». H EupcoTiri ttjc; 
E.E. Gr|[j,aivsi EupcDTiri xou KscpaXaiou, 710 u gtk; Gri[j,spivs(; 
Gt)v9fiKs^, GuyKSKpi[j,svo7ioisiTai G8 EupcDTiri Tou vsocpiXsXsu- 
9spiG[j,oi3. 

H pscpopfj-iGTiKTi ApiGTspd 710U avacpspsxai gttiv TipOOTlXl- 
KT) Tri(; «Eup(b7iri(; tcdv Xa(bv», gttiv Tipayfa^aTiKoxriTa, s^si a- 
7io5sx9si (xa aGxiKd) i58oXoyfi[j,aTa nou guvo5si3ouv ttiv oi- 
Ko56[j,riGri Tri(; E.E. npoG7ia9si va iGoppoTifiGSi avdfo^SGa gxt] 
vso(piXsXsi39spri Tiopsia ttjc; E.E. Kai xriv t)7iOTi9s[j,8vri («avTi- 
Ksi[j,sviKd 7ipoo58UTiKfi») 5ia5iKaGia nov o5riysi gto «^S7is- 
paG[j,a Tcov s9viK(bv avTi9sGSCov» gttiv supcDTiaiKfi fiTisipo, 
Tipo^ TTIV «supco7iaiKfi svo7ioiriGri». H E.E., u7iOTi9sTai, on Ka- 
xapysi Ti^ KaTaGTpo(piKS(; avTi7ia}t6TriTS(; xou 7iapsX96vTO^ 
(xovq 5uo riayKOGfj-ioix; noXs[j,ou^, xov *Fuxp6 no^tSfo^o), Kai 

mq SK TOlJTOt) «aVTlK8l[J,8VlKd» a7lOT8}t8l «7ip0058UTlKfl» E^skl- 

AuGTUxdx; 6[i(i)q, g' auxov xov k6g[j,o, TiTioxa 58v 8ivai Ka- 
X6 f) KaKo auTO Ka9at)T6. To (^fiTri[j,a Tri(; oiKo56[j,riGri(; Tri(; 
8viaia(; Eup(b7iri(; 58v 8ivai dG^sxo and to xa^iKo Tri(; 7i8pi8x6- 
[lEvo. AKpipdcx; 87i8i5fi r| E.E. nov oiKo5o[j,8iTai 8ivai r\ E.E. 
Tou K8(paXaiou, yi' auxo oi 89viks(; avTi7iaX6TriTS(; dev s^ouv 
^STispaGTSi (av Kai aGCpaXcb^ 5sv s^ouv udpsi aK6[j,a xi^ 5ia- 
GxdGSig Tou 7iapsX,96vTO(;). BpiGK6[j,aGTS gs aTiOGxaGri sxcbv 
(p(DT6(; aKOfo^a Kai and xri 5r|[j,ioupyia evoq (aGxiKoij) «sup(D7ia- 
iKoiJ kog[j,071o}litig[j,oi3». 'Onmq KaxsSsi^s r\ KpiGr] nov ^SGTia- 
GS [j,STd xriv sigPoXt) gto IpdK, [is tt] 5ixoT6[j,ri gt] Tri(; E.E.-15 



267 



avd[iEGa GTiq xcopsc, iiov fioav vnep r\ Kaxd ttj^ sigPoXtic;, r\ 
sGviKiGTiKTi paxGiGTiKfi 7ipo7iaydv5a s^aKo}tot)98i va PpiGKs- 
xai GTO OTiAoGTOiGio Tcov supcDTiaiKCDV apxouGCDV xd^scov oxav 
avacpspovxai as dXXoix; supcDTiaiotx; «Gt)va5sA<pou^». Ett] 
5idpKsia TT]^ siGPo}tfi(;, r] Daily Mail aTioKa^touGS to rdA,}to 
TipoeSpo EipdK «GC0[j,aTS^7iopa xou napiGioi3», svcb gs dpGpo 
Tri(; T] Guardian sypacps oxi «ri TaXkia sivai r\ UGispiKfi 7ipi[j,a- 
VTOva TTjc; psaX,7ioXiTiK [. . . ] r] rsp[j,avia sxsi GUVsiaipiGTSi [is 
xriv Koijpa Kai tt] AiPutj. IlapiGi Kai BspoMvo Ka9o5riyoi3v 
Tov d^ova TCDV deihhv Kai tcov K}ta\|ndpri5(DV». H akXr\ nXev- 
pd avTa7is5i5s xa Ssovxa, 9sT0VTa(; (^fixriia^a Kaxd tiogov t] 
Bpsxavia avfiKsi gxtjv «Eup(b7iri», u7i£v9t)[j,i(^ovxa^ xr] pfiGri 
xou Nxs rKo}^: «'0}tr| r] ouGia, oXr] r] do[V[\ Kai o^tr] r] oikovo[j,i- 
KT) Tio^tixiKTi xT]^ AyyMa(; 5ia(pspoDV piCpza and SKsivsg xrjg 
rjTisipou \jiaq, sivai vriGi Gxpa[j,[j,svo 7ipo(; xoix; (DKsavoi39>!^''^ 

H [j,sxaxpo7ifi xcov Xcopcbv xri(; KsvxpiKfi(; Kai AvaxoXiKfic; 
Eup(b7iri(; gs U7ioPa0[j,iG[j,svri «C,&)vr[» yia oiKovo[j,iKfi sk[j,s- 
xdX,}tsuGri, a7io5siKvi3si 6xi 6xi [lovo oi s9viks(; 5ia(pops(; 5sv 
sxouv UTioxcopfiGSi GXTjv E.E., aA,A,d 6a svxaGow xrjv STiofosvri 
7i8pio5o. 

Xsipoxspa Kai and xa TiapaTidvcD, r\ TipoGTidGsia [j,sxaxpo- 
7ifi(; xri(; E.E. gs 7iayK6G[j,ia U7i8p5i3va[j,ri (aK6[j,a Kai av sivai 
avxicpaxiKT) Kai a5i3va[j,ri, onmq 7ispiypd\|/a|is gxo 7iporiyoi)[j,s- 
vo KscpdXaio), sivai xo i5io aTisiXrixiKfi TipooTixiKfi yia xrjv av- 
GpcDTioxrixa, onaq Kai KdGs Kamxa^tiGxiKfic; U7isp5i3va[j,ri^. H 
ApiGxspd 7ia}tsi)si yia svav dX,}to k6g[j,o, o 07ioio(; 6xi M-ovo 
sivai scpiKxog, aXkd Giyoupa 5sv sivai Gxsvd supco7iaiK6(;, ak- 
Xd 7iayK6G[j,iO(;. H ApiGxspd 5sv TiaXsiJsi yia veeq 5iaipsGSi(;, 
akkd [lal^i [is xovq spya(^6[a,svou(; Kai xk; nXaiKeq}} xd^sK; xcdv 
xcopcbv xou Tpixou K6g[j,oi^ Tia^^sijsi yia svav svo7ioir|[a^svo 
TiXavfixri, yia xov 7iayK6G[j,io G0GiaXiG[j,6. IlaXsusi [j,a(^i [j,s 



268 



TOU(; spya(^6[j,8vou(; Kai xi^ avTioTdasi^ [leca gttiv «Kap5id 
Tou KTfivoug», tk; HQA, svdvTia gtti ^sxaxpoTifi xou Ti^^avfiTri 
G8 avTi[j,ax6[j,sva i[j,7ispiaXiGTiKd GxpaxoTisSa (E.E. svavxiov 
HQA), 8^07iXiG[j,sva |J,sxpi xa 56vxia (Kai [is TiupriviKd OTi^^a), 
nov 9a aTisi^touGav xrjv i5ia xrjv UTiap^r] xou uXavfixri. 

Eno[ikv(£)q, xo (^fixri[j,a xrjc; xa^iKfi(; Kupiapxiat; xou Kscpa- 
>^aiou Gxr|v E.E. oijxs f^Tiopsi va aTiOGicoTiriGsi, oijxs (xo I^^tt]- 
[la xTjc; avaxpoTif)^ auxfi(; xrjc; Kupiapxiat; and xovq 8pya(^6[j,8- 
vou(;) va [j,sxa(psp98i gxo a7i6[j,aKpo [j,sX.Xov. 

E;rioTpo(pfi GTiyv «aDTo8vvanii sOviKfj avd;rTD^ii»; 

H avakvci] [laq, [is'/pi xo Grmsio auxo, [laq sxsi o5riyfiGSi 
GXO GU[j,7ispaG[j,a 6x1 r\ E.E. sivai evaq vsocpiXsXsuGspot;, i^tis- 
piaXiGxiKo^ GUvaG7iiG[j,6(;, nov aneikei xovq Xaotx; xou nhxvi]- 
XT] [j,s xov i5io xpoTio onrnq Kai oi HQA. 

M' auxo xo 5s5o[a^£vo, xiGsxai xo sp(bxri[j,a: r| ApiGxspd 5sv 
9a enpene va sxsi Gav svav and xovq Kijpiou; gxoxoix; xt]^, 
xTjv Tid^^ri yia xr] 5idA,UGri xrjg E.E.; Dtiox; aKpipd)^ (Kai GOGxd) 
r\ ApiGxspd naksvei yia xrjv d[j,SGr| 5idXuGr| xou NATO, 5sv 
9a STipsTis va sxsi 7iap6[j,oia 9sGri Kai yia xrjv E.E.; 

Asv U7idpx8i Ka[j,id a[j,(piPoMa, 6xi r] ApiGxspd TipsTisi va 
sivai svdvxia gxtjv E.E. Kai va sxsi Gav 7ipoypa[j,[j,axiK6 xrjc; 
Gxoxo xTjv 5idX,UGfi xri(;. H E.E. 5sv [j,sxappu9[j,i(^sxai, [j,6\o 
avaxpsTisxai. To [leja 9s[j,a, cdgxogo, sivai iimq GuyKSKpifo^s- 
voTioisixai auxf) r\ TidXr] gxt] gt] [j,spivfi GuyKupia. Av r\ GuyKs- 
Kpi[j,svo7ioiri GT] Gri[j,aivsi, xrjv Tid^^ri yia d^iSGri 8^o5o, «85(b Kai 
x(bpa», a7i6 xrjv E.E. 

H 9sGri auxf) svsxsi sva 5mX6 kivSuvo: 



269 



ripcDTOV, o5riysi GTr\v ouxoma tt]^ «auTo5i3va[j,ri(; s9viKfi(; 
avd7iTU^ri9>. Kai Ssuxspov, KaGioxd StjgkoXti tti 5ia(popo7ioi- 
rjari and s9vikigtiks(; Gsgsk; as gxsoti [ie xriv E.E. 

Oi Gsgsk; tou KKE sivai noho svSsiktiks^ auxcbv xcov a5u- 
va^iicbv. Aiapd(^ou[j,s gtk; Gsgsi^ tou Komj-axot;: 

nTloXkeq (pops(; sxot)[j,s aKouGSi oxi av r\ EA,M5a 5sv 
sixs svxaxGsi gttiv E.E. Ga fixav Gf^spa xsipoxspa. [Av 
r\ EXlAda 5sv fixav gxtjv E.E.] Giyoupa r] KaxaGxaGT] 
5ev Ga fixav i5aviKfi, aA,A,d Ga fixav KaXuxspri. H EXkr\- 
viKfi oiKovo[j,ia E^si 5t)vax6xrix8^ yia KaX,f)xspri Gsgti gxo 
SisGvfi Kaxa[j,spiG[j,6, [is 7ipol)7i6GsGri 6xi sivai xcbpa nov 
Kivsixai GS 8va 5p6[j,o e^Eki^r\q auxo5f)va[j,o, nov 5iv8i 
Gxov hxo 5iKaicD[j,a s^^suGspri^ TioXniKr\q. [...] H EA,M5a 
5iaGsxsi TiXouxo, s^Tisipo spyaxiKo 5uva[j,iK6, TioXudpiG- 
[j,o Kai iKavo xo S7iiGxri[j,oviK6 5uva[j,iK6. AiaGsxsi KaXfi 
yscoypacpiKfi Gsgti, s^si 5riXa5fi sva [j,ivi[j,ou[j,, sgxco, 5u- 
vaxoxfixcov va 5isK5iKfiG8i va [o^sxdGxsi vno KaXuxspoix; 
6pou(; GXO SisGvfi Kaxafj.spiGfo^o)).^'''' 

H «auxo5f)va[j,ri sGviKfi avd7ixu^ri» 5sv sivai anhhq [im ov- 
xoTiia - sivai, yia xriv aKptpsia, [im avxi5paGxiKfi ouxoma. To 
IIAEOK TiaXioxspa (xri SsKasxia xou 1980), s7is5ico^s xriv 
«TiohbTikevpr\ s^cDxspiKfi 7ioXixiKfi», ava7ixf)GG0vxa(; oikovo- 
[j,iKS(; gxsgsk; xogo [is xiq xoxs x&ipeq xou KpaxiKof) Kamxa^^i- 
c[iot) («U7iapKxof) GOGia}tiG[j,of)»), OGO Kai [IE xa 5id(popa 5i- 
KxaxopiKd apaPiKd KaGsGxcbxa. Auxfi ri uoXixiKfi, 5sv Kaxop- 
GoDGS va PydXsi xov sXXriviKo Ka7iixaXiG[j,6 and xriv KpiGri nov 
xov [j,dGxi(^s SKsivri xriv 7ispio5o. 

Sxk; Gri[j,spivs(; GUvGfiKst; xa 7ipdy[j,axa sivai aK6[j,a x^i^po- 
xspa. BpiGK6[j,aGxs gs [iia STioxn «7ispi(pspsiaK(bv oXoK^^ripd)- 



270 



GSCOV», 67i(0(; r\ E.E., r\ NAFTA GTr\v a[j,8piKaviKfi fiTisipo yi3- 
pro a7i6 Ti^ HQA, r\ C,&)vr\ xou yisv yupro and xriv laTicDvia. 
ripdyfo^a 710U arno^aivsi, oxi oi U7iapKTS(; mGavoxriTSt; s^doKri- 
Gri(; «7ioX'U7iXsupri(; oiKovo[j,iKfi(; Kai s^C0TspiKfi(;» 7ioXiTiKfi(; 
8ivai 6vT(i)q s}taxiGT07ioiri[j,svs^. 

EnxKksov, av UTifipxs (oav utioGsgti spyaoiat;) r\ mGavoxri- 
xa va yivsi KaTopGroxfi [im noXniKi] auTo5i3va[j,ri(; avaTnv^r\q, 
Ga oSriyoiJGS as xsipoxspsuari tcdv ouvGriKcbv SiaPiroaric; xcov 
spya(^o[j,8VCDV. Av s^aKoXouGouos va UTidpxsi Ka7iiTa}tiG[j,6(;, r\ 
vso(pi}ts}^8i3Gspri tio^^itikti Ga S7iiPaA,}t6Tav aKOfo^a Kai av 5sv 
UTifipxs r\ E.E.(a7i6 tt] cTrf[V[\ nou aTioxsXsi avayKaiOTrixa yia 
TO KscpdXaio, 67i(0(; sxou[j,s a7io5si^si gttiv avdX,t)cfi [j,a(;). Kai 
[j,d}tiGTa, o vso(piXsXsuGspiG[a^6(;, Ga STiiPa^^Xoxav aKOfo^a mo 
8i3Ko>ta! Ev ov6[j,aTi Tri(; «sGviKfi(; oiKovo[j,ia(; Kai avs^apxriGi- 
aq», 01 spya(^6[j,£voi Ga KaXouvxav va utiogtow 5pa[j,aTiKS(; 
GuGis(;. Av viv(\pxE G0GiaXiG[j,6(; (iiohb TispiGGOxspo o «GOGia- 
XiG[j,6(;» 7101) STiayysXXsTai to KKE), Kai s[j,svs a7io[j,ov(0[j,s- 
voq, Kai 7id}ti oi spya(^6[j,svoi Ga avTi[j,ST(b7ii(^av TspdGTiS(; 5u- 
GKoMs(; Kai GxspfiGSK;. AXXcogts to KKE 5sv acpfivsi KaGoXou 
a[j,(piPoX,i8g Tispi auTOij: 

«[...yia xriv «auTo5i3va[j,ri avduTU^r] Kai avs^apxriGi- 



a»] auTO^ o aycbvac; a^i(^si kotioix; Kai GuGis(;»! 



,271 



To KKE aKo}touG(bvTa(; xriv tioXitikti tou «s5(b Kai xcbpa 
s^o5o(; and xriv E.E.», kiv5uv8i3si 5iapK(b^ va GuyKMvsi [is 
sGviKiGTiK8<; QecEiq. To KKE fixav Kaxd xrig 81g65ou xri(; voxi- 
aq KijTipot) GXTjv E.E. H avxiGsGfi xou 5sv fixav gxt] pdGt] xou 
5isGviG[j,oi3. Asv TV(\jaC,E, 5r|Xa5fi, and xo ysyov6(; 6xi o auo- 
K}tsiG[j,6(; xr|(; Popsiat; KijTipou and xr|v E.E. fixav gs pdpo(; 
xcDV ToupKOKUTipicov spya(^o[j,£V(DV, 7ipdy[j,a nov sixs Gav auo- 



271 



TEkec[ia xriv svioxuari xou EX,}^rivoKt)7ipiaKoi3 89vikig[j,oi3. H 
avTiGsGTi Tou KKE, sixs oav acpsxripia tt] Gsgti tou K6[j,[j,aT0(;, 
OTi r\ svxa^ri fixav as «pdpo(; Tri(; sviaiat; Kai avs^dpxriTri^ 

272 

KpaxiKTic; U7iOGTaGri(; ttjc; Kt)7ipou». npay[j,a tiou gtk; Gr\[ie- 
pivkq GUv9fiKS(;, gt] [j,aivsi ouGiaGxiKd xauTiGri [le xiq Gsgsk; 
TTjc; EA,}trivoKU7ipiaKfi(; dpxouGa(; xd^rjc;, tiod S7ii(^riTd [im «s- 
viaia KijTipo)) [j,s ic/ppi] KsvipiKfi KuPspvriGri, vno xov sXsyxo 
Tri(; «EX,XrivoKU7ipiaKfi(; 7iXsio\|/ri(pia(;», 5riXa5fi xcov EXXrivo- 

KUTipiCDV Ka7llTa}tlGT(bv. 

To KKE fixav svdvxia gttiv 81go5o tcov Xcopcbv Tri(; Ks- 
VTpiKfi(; Kai AvaxoXiKTic; Eup(b7iri(; (XKAE), [j,s tt] XoyiKf) oxi 
auTO sv5uva[j,(bvsi xovq i[j,7ispiaXiGTS(; Tri(; Sutiktic; EupcoTiric; 
(7ipdy[j,a 710U aG(pa>u(b^ sivai gcogto). Qgtogo, aSiacpopouGS 
yia TT] yv(b|j.ri xrov (5ia)v xcov ^^acbv xcov XKAE, nov gxt] [j,8yd- 
>^ri xoug 7iX8io\|/ri(pia fiGav UTisp xri(; sigo&u gxtjv E.E. Etii- 
7i>u80v, auxf) r] GxdGt] 5i8uk6X,uv8 6gou(; 5sv fiGsXav xrjv sigo- 
5o xcov XKAE (f) xrjv fiGsXav [is xovq xsipoxspoi); 5uvaxoi3(; 
opou^, onmq dXXcDGxs Kai syivs), yia va nrjv avxi[j,sxco7iiGSi o 
8X,>uriviK6(; Ka7iixaXiG[j,6(; oikovo[j,ik6 avxaycoviG[j,6 an' avxeq 
xk; xapeq. 

Ss KdGs TispiTixcoGTi, T] «auxo5i3va[j,ri oiKovo[j,iKfi avduxu- 
^ri», 7iriyaiv8i xspi-xspi [is xov oikovo[j,ik6 sGvikig[j,6, xa 5a- 
G^oXoyiKd xsixn, TTlv 7iap8^7i65iGri xrjc; sigoSdu «^svcov» s- 
^7iop8U[j,dxcov GS [j,ia xropa. Av r\ x^pa auxf) sivai avs7ixuy[j,s- 
vr| (onmq r\ EX,}td5a Kai oi aXkeq W>P^'i '^1'; E.E.), o oikovo[j,i- 
k6(; sGviKiG[j,6(; Gxpscpsxai evQemq Kaxd xcdv mo a5i3va[j,cov 
xcopcbv xou Tpixou K6g[j,ou (onmq Kai GU[j,paivsi [is xovq 5a- 
G[j,oi3(; xT]^ E.E. svavxi xcov vno avduxu^r] Kpaxcbv). 

Tr| ysviKoxspri smKsvxpcoGri gs «sGviKd Gs[j,axa» xr|(; Kpixi- 
Kfi(; xou KKE yia xrjv E.E., xrjv avixvsi3ou[j,s GUVO^tiKd gxk; 
GsG8i(; xou K6[j,[j,axo(;. KsvxpiKfi Gsgti gxtjv avxiGsGr] xou KKE 



272 



Tipo^ xriv E.E., 8X81 r\ 8KTi[j,riGri xou K6[i[iaToq, on r\ EX,Xd5a 
8vt6(; TTjc; E.E., 8Kx(Dp8i «KupiapxiKd 5iKai(b[j,aTd Tr|(;», Kai 
aKOfo^a OTi r\ «EXkada dev exei Pp8i to 5ikio Tri(; [sic] and xovq 
8Taipou(; Tri(; ogov acpopd xa ouvopa gto Aiyaio». 



©scopisig «OiKovoniKfi(g KaTaoTpo(pfi(g» 

Ktti ava8idpGpa)oii tod sHt]viKov Kanvzakmyioii 

Oi «89viKS(;» Gegsk; tou KKE aTioxs^^oiJV auvsxsia [j,ia^ 
[j,aKpd(; «7iapd5oGrig» ttj^ ps(pop[j,ioTiKfig ApiGxspdg gttiv E>^- 
Xd5a. Dxav r] EX,Xd5a UTisPaXs aixriGri yia svxa^ri gttiv EOK, 

T] peCpOpfJ-lGTlKTl ApiGTSpd TipOSpXsTlS TOV a(paviG[j,6 V(\C, «s- 

9viKfi(; oiKovo [ia(;», xriv aTioppocpriGri «6Xcov xcov sXXriviKcbv 

S7llX8ipflG8(DV» a7l6 Ttt 5uTlKOSUp(D7iaiKd [J,0V07l(bXia. O sX- 

XriviK6(; Ka7iiTaXiG[j,6(; 7iapouGia(^6Tav stoi[j,0(; va... auxoKio- 
vfiGSi sv(b T] xa^iKTi Tid^^ri ^sxaxpsTiOTav gs avxi9sGr| avd[j,SGa 
GS «s9viKfi aGxiKT) xd^T])) Kai GS «spco7iai65ouXot)9>. 

H EAA xapaKxfipi(^s xr] gtjvSsgti [j,8 xtjv EOK « cJ^sGpiov 
ysyov6g» Kai «7is>u(bpiov Kiv5t)V0V».^^'* H Guvxa^r] xr|(; Avyrjg 
(29.7.1959) 81X8 7ipo5iaypd\|/8i 8va 8^aip8xiKd 5ugoicovo [lel- 
Xov: 

«A7i6 xov avriX8fi avxaycoviG[j,6 58v 7ip6K8ixai va 87ii- 
(^fiG8i Ka[j,id 87iix8ipri GT]. 'Og8^ 58V a7ioppo(pri9oi3v and 



Oi 5ia7ipay(iaT8i3o8ii; yia tt] EuvSeori EXka5aq - EOK, apxioocv xov lou- 
h.0 xov 1959 Kai oXoK^iipcbBiiKav [isid aTio 5i)o TiepiTiou xpovia, oik; 30 
Mapxioi) 1961. H emoiniii UTioypacpii eyive oxiiv AOiiva oik; 9 louXiou 
1961, i] ETiiKupcooii Tii<; aTio mv e'k'h]viKX] Bovlx] to 3)ePpoi)dpio xou 1962 
Kai T] (ji)|i(pcovia opxioe va loxuei aTio mv V^ NoejiPpiou 1962. 

273 



xa xpaoT 9a [j,STaTpa7ioi3v as s^apTrmaTd tcdv, 9a s^o- 
VTa)9oi3v». 

Es avaKoivcDGTi tt]^ AioiKoi3Ga(; Ennpoivt\q Tri(; EAA, oxav 
syivs SsKTTi r\ aixriori ttjc^ EX.A,d5a(^ yia SijvSsori [is xriv EOK, 
5iapd(^ou[j,s: 

«E7ii9u[j,ia Kai smSico^ri xcov GUVsiaipcDV [laq gttiv 
Ayopd sivai va 7iapa[j,8ivsi r\ EX,}td5a xcbpa Ka9uGTspri- 
[ievr\ aypoTiKTi, uriyfi TipcbxcDV uXcbv Kai ayopd yia xa Pi- 
0[j,r|xaviKd xovq Tipoiovxa (...) Fia xr|v Ka9uGxspri[j,svri 
Kai 5aG[j,oPicoxri Pio[j,rixavia [laq (...) Grmaivsi a5uva- 
[lia S7iiPi(DGri(; Kaxd 75%7i8p(7iou» {H Avyfj 1.8.1959). 

275 

To Mdpxio 1962x0 HoXixiko Fpacpsio xr[c, KE xou KKE 
avaKoivcovs: 

«H Gi3v5sGri v(\c, 'EXhnbac, \ie xtjv Koivr) Ayopd sivai 
avxi9sxri iipoc, xo s9vik6 GU[j,(p8pov Kai aTioxsXsi 8va o- 
X89pio f)i\\ia [...] 9a o5riyfiG8i (5V(\ [j,ov67iXsupri avduxu- 
fy[ opiG[j,sv(DV kMScdv v(\c, Pio[j,rixavia(;, (5V(\\ uaps^Tio- 
SiGT] v(\c, oXoTiXsuprjc; avduxu^fi^ xr]^, i5iaixspa xr[c, Pa- 
pidg Pio[j,rixavia(; [...] EuvsTisia xri(; 87ii5po[j,fi(; xcov ^8- 
vcDV [j,ovo7icoMcov 9a sivai smGrjc; r| KaxaGxpocpf) f\ vno- 
xayf) g' auxd xcdv [j,iKp(bv, [j,SGaicov aK6[j,a Kai opiG[j,s- 
vcDV i^sydXcov smxsipfiGSCDV)).^''^ 

H 7ipo(pavfi(; Kai Kaxr|yopr|[j,axiKfi 5id\|/8UGri o^^cdv auxcbv 
xcov SKxi[j,fiGSCov v(\c, Gxa>^iviKfi(; ps(pop[j,iGxiKfi(; ApiGxspd(; 



274 



a7i6 xriv i5ia xriv laxopiKfi Tiopsia, sivai togo aTioXuxri, nov 
Gxs56v Kdv8i fj-dxairi xrjv TipooTidGsia avaGKsufi(; xovq. 

H npocdecf] xou sA,}tr|viKoi3 Ka7iixaXiG[j,oi3 Gxr|v «supco7iai- 
KT) 7iop8ia» UTifip^s yi' auxov (s^sxa(^6[j,£vri GUVoXiKd), s^aips- 
xiKd Ksp5o(p6pa. Kaxd xrjv 7i8pio5o 1960-1975 xo AEII xrjc; 
EX,Xd5a^ au^dvsxai Kaxd 8,5% sxriGiox; (svavxi 3,8% xr]^ x6x8 
EOK), 5iaxripsixai aXXd s^aG9svi(^si xrjv S7i6[j,svri 5sKasxia, 
UTioXsiTisxai xou [j,8G0U opou xri(; EOK xrjv 7ispio5o 1985-94, 
aX^M a[iec(i)q [lexa Kai |J,sxpi Gfi[j,spa r\ avduxu^ri xou sX,}trivi- 
KOTJ AEn sivai u\|/ri}t6xspri a7i6 xo [leao 6po xrjc; E.E. (4,1%) xo 
2001 svavxi 1,7%) xri(; E.E. Kai 3,8%) xo 2003 svavxi }^iy6xspo 
a7i6 1%) yia xrjv E.E.). 

Ms XT] GU[j,[j,sxoxn xou GXTjv «supco7iaiKfi o}tOKXfipcoGri» o 
eXXriviKog Ka7iixaXiG[j,6(; KaxopGcoGs: 

- Na 8KGuyxpoviG8i Kai va Kdvsi tiio a7ioxsXsG[j,axiK6 xo 
TiapaycoyiKo xou 5uva[j,iK6. 

- Na xPTl'^i^^OT'^oiil'^si^ TOt ocpeXr] xrjc; GU[j,[j,sxoxfi(; xou 
Gxrjv E.E. gxk; ysviKoxsps^ efy)p[V[\ceiq xou Gxa Ba>^- 
Kdvia Kai GXTjv avapd9[j,iGri xrjc; ysco7ioXixiKfi(; xou 9s- 
cr\q. 

AisuKoXuvs xTjv xa^iKT) Kupiapxia xou KscpaXaiou gxo 
SGCDxspiKo xTjc; xcopat;. Ta GK^ripd [j,sxpa Xixoxrixat; Kai 
xk; i5icoxiK07ioifiGSi(;, va xk; TiapouGidGSi r\ EXkr\viKr\ 
dpxouGa xd^T] Gav «avayKai6xrixa» yia va [j,riv xdGSi 
«r| xcbpa xo supcDTiaiKo xpsvo». 



Ha xriv 7ieplo5o 1974-1979 pu9|iol ovdTi-ru^rn; AEII: EXXdSa 3,7%, E.E.- 
12: 2,6%. 1980-1985: EUd5a 1,4%, E.E.-12: -1,5%. 1986-1990: EUd5a 
1,7%, E.E.-12: 3,1%. 1991-1994: EUd5a 1,1%, E.E.-12: 1,2%. 1994- 
2001: EXXd5a3,2%, E.E.-15: 2,5% (Aouko; TooukoIth;, H vea eupcoTiai- 
Kii oiKovo|ila, OTO Kaxcbcpk xou 21™ aicbva, eK56oeii; IlaTiai^fiori, oel. 45, 
Ktti Eurostat, yearbook 2002 Kai 2003). 

275 



Qgtogo, xa 7ipopXfi[j,aTa xou 8A,>triviKoi3 Ka7iiTaXiG[j,oi3, 
OTiaq r\ xa[j,r|X6Tspri TiapaycoyiKoxriTa ce gxsgti [j,s ti^ iGXups(; 
oiKovo[j,iS(; TTjc; P6p8ia(; EupcoTiric; f) xa (au^av6[j,£va) s^TiopiKd 
8X,>^8i[j,[j,aTa, STiavacpspouv xov 7ipop}tr|[j,aTiG[j,6 yia tt] Gsgti 
Tou Gxriv E.E. To KKE, xcopi<^ "^oi s^si 5i5ax9si otiStitiots and 

TT] 5ld\|/SUGr| TCDV 7iporiyOl3[J,£VCOV 7ipoPXs\|/S(bv XOU, S7ll[J,8V8l 

Gxriv KaxaGxpocpoAoyia: r\ «9sGri xr]^ x(bpa(;» t)7ioPa9[j,i(^sxai 
[j,sxaxps7i8xai ce «a7ioPio[j,rixavo7ioiri[j,svri C,&)vr[», ce STiapxia 
xcov avs7ixuy[j,sv(DV xcopcbv xou Poppd. 

Sxriv 7ipay[j,axiK6xrixa, r\ GUVo^tiKTi uopsia xou sXXriviKoij 
Ka7iixaXiG[j,oi3 gxtjv «8upco7iaiKfi oXoKXfipcoGri» s^aKoXouGsi 
va 8ivai GsxiKTi (yia xov i5io Kai xa xa^iKd xou Gt)[j,(pspovxa), 
7ipdy[j,a nov 5sv f^Tiopsi va avaipsGsi and xiq SugkoMsc; Kai xa 
7ipop}tfi[a^axa tiou avxi[j,sxco7ii(^si. 

To s^iTiopiKo eXkei\ji\jia au^dvsi [lev, aXkd [j,ia STimoXairi 
«avdyvcDGfi» xou, 5sv [inopei va avaipsGSi xo jejovoq 6xi r\ 
EXXd5a sxsi xa u\|/ri}t6xspa S7ii7i85a S7isv5i3gscov 7iayKOG[j,ico^, 
Kai nd^^iGxa i5icoxiK(bv, 6xi aTi^^dcx; 5ri[j,OGicov. 'Eva |i8ydA,o [le- 
po^ xou s[j,7iopiKoi3 EXkei[i[iaToq ocpsiXsxai gxo ysyov6(; 6xi r\ 
EXkr\viKr\ oiKovo[j,ia avauxuGGSxai xaxuxaxa (gs gxsgti [ie xo 
[j,SGO 6po xri(; E.E.), svcb xo [j,syaA,i3xspo x[j,fi[j,a xou [o^rixavoAo- 
yiKoij Efy)iikic[iox) xcDV smxsipfiGSCov siGdysxai (yiaxi 5sv 7ia- 
pdysxai gxtjv EX,Xd5a). E7io[asvco(;, xo s^TiopiKo EXkEi[i[ia 5sv 
sivai s^' oXoK^fipou svac; apvrixiK6(; Ssikxtjc; yia xrjv EXkr\viKr\ 
oiKovo[j,ia. AvxiQsxa, o [j,rixaviK6(; Kai xs^voAoyiKot; SKGuy- 
XpoviG[j,6(; xou TiapaycoyiKot) 5uva[j,iKoi3 xou sA,}^riviKoi3 Kam- 
xaXiG[j,oi3 a7iox8>^8i 6po yia va 7iapa[j,8ivsi r\ EXkd5a avd[j,8Ga 
gxk; 7110 ava7ixuy[j,sv8(; x^ps<^ '^^^ uXavfixri. H EXkada spxsxai 
58i3xspri ([j,sxd xr|v Ip}tav5ia) gxo puGfo^o au^riGric; xcov S7isv5i3- 
Gscov G8 [j,rixaviK6 s^07i}tiG[j,6 (12,4% sxriGi(0(; Kaxd xrjv STixa- 
sxia 1996-2002).^'''' To 2002ri a^ia xrjc; Pio[j,rixaviKfig Tiapa- 



276 



ycoyfi^ au^fiGriKs Kaxd 5,5%, xov svSsKaxo xaxuxspo pu9[j,6 
7iayKOG[j,ico^. Kaxd 4,9% au^fiGriKs Kai r\ a^ia xou kMSou xcov 
UTiripsGicbv (5sKaxri u\|/riX6xspri smSoori TiayKOGfj.ioD^).^''^ 

H oacpfic;, 5iapKfi(; PsX,xicoGri xou [j,rixavoXoyiKoi3 e^oiiki- 
o[j,oij, a7ioxs}tSi xr| pdori yia xrjv avxifa^sxcDTiiGri xou avxaycovi- 
GxiKoij EXkei[i[iaToq xou eXXriviKot) Ka7iixaXiG[j,oi3. Ildvco g' 
auxf) Gxr|pix9riKS r\ au^riGri xri(; 7iapaycoyiK6xrixa(; xrjc; spyaGi- 
aq GXTjv EXknda. Eivai r\ 5si3xspri [j,8yaA,i3xspri ([j,sxd xrjv Ip- 
hxvdia) Kaxd xrjv STixasxia 1996-2002 [j,s sxfiGio pu9[j,6 2,8%). 
H TiapayoDyiKoxrixa xrjc; spyaGia(; auo xo S7ii7is5o xou 65%) xou 
[j,SGOU opou xri(; E.E. xo 1990, avfi^^Gs gxo 85%) TispiTiou xo 
2002 (xo 2010 ava[j,8vsxai [av guvsxigxow oi i5ioi pu9[j,oi] va 
(pxdGSixo91%).^^^ 

YTidpxouv fi5ri xo[j,8i(; xou 8A,>uriviKoi3 Ka7iixa}tiG[j,oi3 tiou 
I^Tiopow [IE dvsGTi va avxi[j,sx(D7iiG0uv xk; 7110 avs7ixuy[j,svs^ 
Ka7iixa}tiGxiKS(; x&tpeq. 'Eva(; oX6KXripo(; xo[j,sa(; xr|(; oikovo[j,i- 
aq, 01 UTiripsGis^, GuyKaxaXsyovxai gxoix; mo avxaycoviGxi- 
Koi3(; Kai a7ioxs}tSG[j,axiKoi3(; xo[j,si^ 7iayK0G[j,i(D(;. H EXMSa 
Kaxsxsi xTjv Tipcbxri Gsgti [j,sxa^i3 xcov [j,iKp6xspcov xcopcbv xrjc; 
E.E., [IE iGO(^i3yio 710U avspxsxai gs 5 5ig. SoXdpia TispiTiou, 
TiOGO nov UTiepPaivsi aK6[j,a Kai xo avxiGxoi^o xr]^ OXhxvdiaq, 
r\ OTioia sxsi nohb Ka^tsc; stiiSogsk; gxo 5is9vs(^ s^Tiopio UTiri- 

' 280 
PSGICOV. 

AGCpaXdcx;, 6Xa xa TiapaudvcD Ssv avaxpsTiouv d[j,8Ga, sScb 
Kai xcbpa, xo avxayroviGxiKo EXkEi[i[ia avd[j,SGa gxov sX,}triviK6 
Ka7iixa}tiG[j,6 Kai xcov avxaycoviGxcbv xou gxo SGCOxspiKo xr]^ 
E.E. (xri^ SuxiKT)^ EupcoTirig). O sA,}triviK6^ Ka7iixaXiG[j,6^ Ppi- 
GKsxai GS [j,ia 7i8pio5o ava5idp9pcoGri(; xou uapaycoyiKoij xou 
5uva[j,iKoi3, Kai 7ipdy[j,axi xrjv xs^^suxaia suxasxia oi stiiSogsk; 
xou sivai Tidvco and xov supcoTiaiKo [ieco 6po. Qgxogo, 5sv 



277 



UTidpxsi Ka[j,id syyuriGTi oxi xa 7ipdy[j,aTa 9a s^sXixGoiJV gi- 
youpa [le suvoiko xpoTio. 

H sioaycoyfi xou supcb skGsxsi dfo^saa xov s^^^trjviKo Kamxa- 
}tiG[j,6 Gxov supcoTiaiKo avxaycDviGfo^o, 7ipdy[j,a tiou xov s^ava- 
yKd(^si va SKGuyxpoviGSi xo TiapaycoyiKo xou 5uva[j,iK6. Qgxo- 
GO, yia va 'kenovpjr\cEi npoq auxfiv xrjv KaxsuGuvGr] r\ o^uvgti 
xou avxaycoviG[j,oi3, TipoDTioGsGri sivai va o5r|yfiG8i gs [lal^iKsq 
S7isv5i3gsi(; gxtjv TiapaycoyiKfi 5o[j,fi Kai ce SpaGxiKf) PsX,xicoGri 
xT]^ TiapaycoyiKoxrixat; (Kai auxo [j,aKpoxp6via). npdy[j,a nov 
sivai 7ioA,i3 a[j,(piPoXo gs GUvGfiKst; 7iayK6G[j,ia(; aGxdGsiat; 
GXTjv oiKo\o[j,ia. Edv auxo 5sv GU[j,p8i, xoxs xa 7ipdy[j,axa yi- 
vovxai xsipoxspa. H tipogSsgti gs iGXPpd vo[j,iG[j,axa, Kdvsi 
ouGiaGxiKd xa Tipoiovxa [imq x(bpa(; aKpiPoxspa gxt] 5isGvfi 
ayopd Kai xi^ siGaycoys^ (pGriv6xsps(;. Auxo aKpipdcx; guvsPt] 
Kai GXTjv Apysvxivfi (r\ avacpopd gxtjv TispiTixcoGTi xri(;, 5sv cr\- 
[laivei 6x1 «ava7i69SUKxa» xo i5io Ga GU[j,p8i Kai gxtjv EXXd- 
5a, 01 GUvGfiKS(; gxk; 5uo x&tpeq sivai tioXij 5ia(popsxiKS(;). Evd) 
xo 1990ri Apysvxivfi, ^P^^ «5sgsi» xo v6[j,iG[j,d xrjc; gxo 5oXd- 
pio, sixs 7iXs6vaG[j,a g^sSov 8 5ig. SoMpia, xo 1998 si^s ek- 
Xsi[j,[j,a TispiTiou 9 5iG. 5oXdpia, Xoyco xrjc; TioXXau^dGiat; au- 
^riGrjc; xcov siGayroycbv gs gxsgti [j,s xk; s^ay(Dys(;. ^^^ 

E7io[j,sv(D(;, T] Tiopsia xri(; 7iayK6G[j,ia(; oiKovo[j,ia(; Ga Tiai^si 

KaGopiGXlKO poXo GXig [J,sX.>^OVXlKEg 7ip007lXlKS(; XT]^ S^XtlVlKTl^ 

oiKovo[j,ia(;. Mia stiiSsivcogti xou 5isGvoi3(; oikovo[j,ikoi3 uspi- 
PdX,}tovxo(;, Ga «(ppsvdpsi» xov TiapaycoyiKo SKGuyxpoviG[j,6 
xou sX,XriviKoi3 Ka7iixa}tiG[j,oi3, svcb Tiapd^Xri^^a Ga stiiSsivcdgsi 
xa 7ipopXfi[j,axd xou. EtiitiXsov, oi s^sM^si^ svxo^ xr]^ E.E. Ga 
Tiai^ouv KpiGi[j,o poXo. To F' Koivoxiko nXaiGio Exfipi^rjc; 
Xfiysi xo 2006, Kai avauocpsuKxa r| KdX,u\|/r| xou sfo^TiopiKou 
sX,}tsi[j,[j,axo(; Ga yivsi s^aipsxiKd tiio SugkoXt], okM. Kai oi 5ri- 



278 



[lOGlSq 8718v5i3g81^ (tIOU 7iai(^0UV KpiGl[J,0 poXo GXriV OlKOVOfJ,!- 

KT) [j,sys9uvGri) 9a [j,si(d9oi3v. 

Qgtogo, to nmq 9a e^ekixQovv xa 7ipdy[j,aTa svt6(; Tri(; E.E. 
5sv sivai 5s5o[j,svo. MTiopsi koitco and Tr|v tiiegti xcopcbv onoq 
r\ EA,Xd5a (aX,X,d Kai xou guvoXo u tcov [j,SGoy8iaK(bv xropcbv 
Kai TT]^ avaxo^^iKTig Evp&)iir\q) va uudp^si [j,ia vsa 5ia7ipay[j,d- 
TSUGT] Tiou va [o^sxacpspsi (Kd7ioiou(;...) koivotikoij^ Tiopotx; 
7ipo(; TOU(; 7110 a5i3va[j,ou(; Ka7iiTaXiG[j,oi3(;. 

YTidpxsi, Xomov, sva gtoixsio aPsPaiOTrixa^ ax; 7ipo(; tt] 
[j,sX,XovTiKfi Tiopsia Tou sA,}triviKoi3 Ka7iiTaXiG[j,oi3 (uTidpxouv 
TioXXoi Kai aGTd9[j,iGT0i TiapdyovTS^ tiou Ssv STiixpsTiouv [j,ia 
aGCpaXf) 7ip6pXs\|/r|). AXXa auxfi r] aPsPaiOTrixa, 5sv acpopd 
[j,6vo Tov sA,>uriviK6 Ka7iiTaXiG[j,6. O Ka7iiTaXiG[j,6^ sivai sva 
Gi3GTri[j,a avxayroviGTiKo, oi gugxstig[j,oi Swa^rjc; avd[j,SGa 
GTOU(; 5id(popot)(; Ka7iiTaXiG[j,oi3^ sivai SiapKcb^ [im [j,8TaKi- 
voTjfo^svri a[i[ioq [le aPsPaia KaidXri^ri. H Bpsxavia fixav r\ 
Tiproxri oiKo\o[j,iKfi 5i3va[j,ri xou TiXavfixri gxk; apxs(; xou 2CP" 
aicbva. Triv xs^^suxaia siKOGasxia avsPoKaxsPaivsi 5iapK(b^ 
avdfo^eGa gxtjv sP5o[j,ri Kai xrjv xsxapxri 98Gri. H rsp[j,avia Kai 
r\ laTicovia fiGav Kax8Gxpa[j,[j,svoi Kai rixxri[j,svoi Ka7iixaXiG[j,oi 
Gxo xsXo^ xou B' nayKOGfj-iou no}tS[j,ou. Sfmspa sivai oi [is- 
yaA,i3x8poi avxaycoviGxs(; xcov HQA. 

0a TipsTisi va sivai Kavsig s^aipsxiKd KaxuTiOTixo^ Gxa si3- 
KoXa KaxaGxpocpiKd Gsvdpia. Fia xov auXo Aoyo 6xi 5sv sivai 
Ka96}tou «a9(ba» aA,}td xa^iKd Kax8u9uv6[j,£va. Exr] rsp[j,avia, 
yia 7iapd5siy[j,a, oi S7ii9sg81(; svdvxia gxo GUGxrifo^a koivcdvikti^ 
Tipovoia^ (oi 7ispiK07i8(; Gxa S7ii56[j,axa avspyiat;, r\ au^riGri 
xou opiou GUVxa^io56xriGri^ k.Xti.) 7ipay[j,axo7ioioi3vxai, 5fi9sv, 
yia va [j,riv «U7iOGKsXiG98i r\ ysp[j,aviKfi oiKovo[j,ia and xovq 
avxay(DviGxs(; xri(;». AvxiGxoixa, gxtjv EX,}td5a o EEB Kai r\ 
Nsa Ari[j,oKpaxia KivSuvoXoyow 7ipopdA,Xovxa(; xrjv TipooTixi- 



279 



KT) TTjc; «a7ioPiO[j,rixavo7ioiriGri(; Tri(; x(bpa(;», tt] [j,sioi3[j,svri a- 
vxaycoviGTiKOTTiTa xri^ «s9viKfi^ oiKovo[j,iag», nov oSriysi acp' 

SV6^ GTO kXsIGI[J,0 TCOV 87llX6ipflG8C0V Kttl ttCp' 8T8pOU GTTIV ttlJ- 

^riGTi TTjc; av8pyia(; (o EEB [j,d}tiGTa «7ip6pA£\|/8» oxi to tiogo- 
gt6 av8pyia(; 8v5sx8Tai gto S7i6[j,svo 5idGTri[j,a va (pxdGSi to 
18%). Oi «hbcEiq» nov (Tipocpavcb^) Tipoxsivouv sivai oi yvco- 
GTS(; vso(pi}tsX8i39sps(; noXniKsq: (veeq) (popos^^acppwGSK; yia 
Tou^ Ka7iiTaXiGTS(;, TiapaTispa GU^msGri xcov spyaxiKcbv [j,i- 
gGcdv, sXaGTiKS(; g^egsk; spyaGiat; (au^riGri Tri(; [j,spiKfi(; aua- 
Gx6}triGri(;- dm^aC,e [iwbpr] spyaGia), «[j,STappi39[j,iGri» xou 
aGCpaXiGTiKot) K.Xn. 

Ev KaxaK^siSi, o 8A,}triviK6(; Ka7iiTa}tiG[j,6(; PpiGKsxai ce 
KpiGi[j,ri (pdGTi ava5idp9p(DGr|(;, otiou oi kiv5uvoi sivai tioX^^oi 
Kai i^syd^toi, aX,Xd 8^' igou [isjakeq sivai Kai oi suKaipiS(; yia 
xa xa^iKd xou Gt)[j,(pspovxa. Eivai evxehaq SiacpopsxiKf) Xoyi- 
KT), xo va a[j,(piGPrixsi Kavsi^ xrjv TipooTixiKfi xrjc; iac/pp^q EX- 
Xddaqyy gxtjv E.E. (i5soX6yr|[j,a nov xpriGi[j,07ioisixai and xoDq 
SK7ipoG(b7iou(; xou sA,}triviKoi3 Ka7iixaXiG[j,oi3 yia xrjv em^oXi] 
vso(piXsXsi39sp(DV [j,sxpcov), va a[j,(piGPrixsi xrjv U7ioxi9s[j,svri 
«Gi3yKXriGri» [is xovq iGXupoiJ^ Ka7iixaXiG[j,oi3^ xrjc; SuxiKfic; 
Eup(b7ir|(; (oiimq 5si^a[j,s gxtjv svoxrixa «Si3yKXriGr| r\ auoKXi- 
Gri»). Kai sivai svxs^^d)^ SiacpopsxiKf) }^oyiKfi xo va K}ta\|/oupi- 
C,Ei Kd7ioiO(; yia xrjv «KaxaGxpo(pfi Kai U7ioxayfi» xri(; «s9viKfi^ 
oiKovo[j,ia(;» (5riXa5fi xcov EXkr\v(i)v KaTiixaXiGxcbv!) gxoix; 
«^EVovq». H sX,}LriviKfi spyaxiKf) xd^r] 5sv s^si avdyKt] auo au- 
xoij xou 8i5ou(; xk; 7ioXixiks(; 5uvd[j,8i(;, aX,M oijxs Kai oi eXkr\- 
veq KamxaXiGxst;! 'Exouv xo s9vik6 xoix; Kpdxo^ va xoix; Tipo- 
GxaxsiJGSi a7i6 xotx; avxay(DviGxs(;, Kai xoix; TipoGxaxsiJsi aTio- 
xsXsGfo^axiKd. 

Ss xsXsuxaia avdX,UGr|, av enekQei oikovo^iikti KaxaGxpo- 
(pf), auxf) [laXkov 9a sivai xo a7ioxsXsG[j,a [imq ysviKsu[j,8vri(; 



280 



KpiGTic; 710U 9a TiXfi^si oXoK^ripo xov TiXavfiTri, otico^ (puoiKd 
Kai xriv E.E. Qgtogo, oi 7ipopXs\|/si(; yia [iia S7ispx6[j,svri Kpi- 
GTi xri^ sKxaaric; ttjc; 5sKasTia(; xou 1930sxouv mq ofmspa 5i- 
av|/suG9si, xcopi(; auxo, (puoiKd, va ormaivsi oxi sivai PsPaio 

OTl SSV TipOKSlXai 710T8 Vtt CTU[J,p8l KOITI aVTlGTOlXO (ttV Kttl T] 

iGTopia 710TS 58V 87iava>^a[j,pdv8Tai [le xov i5io xpoTio). Etii- 
7i>^sov, r\ iGTopia xou 7iayK6G[j,iou Ka7iiTaXiG[j,oi3 [is'xpi Gfi[j,8pa 
58V 8X81 va 87ii58i^8i ava7iTuy[j,sv8(; x&tpeq, Gav xriv EA,Xd5a, 
Tiou va [j,8TapXfi9r|Kav g8 U7iavd7iTUKT8(;, aTioPio^rixavoTioiri- 
]ieveq x&>peq. 

Oi noXiriKsq GWEnsisq xcav Gsoscov 
Tii(; ps(pop^ioTiKii(; ApioTspdug 

H GXa^ulVlKTl Kai p8(pOp[J,lGTlKfl ApiGT8pd GTTIV EX,}td5a 

7ipospX87i8 xriv T8>uiKfi KaxaGxpocpfi (a7ioPiO[j,rixdviGri) ttjc; «8- 
QviKr\q oiKovo[j,{a^», PsPair] oxi r] «87ii5i(D^ri Kai 87ii9u[j,ia» 
TCDV KaTiiTaXiGTcbv TTjc; 5uTiKfi(; Evp&)iir\q fixav r] EA,Xd5a va 
7iapa[j,8iv8i x^opot «Ka9uGT8pri[j,svri, aypoxiKfi, Tiriyfi TipcbxcDV 
vhhv Kai ayopd yia xa Pio[j,r|xaviKd xovq 7ipoi6vxa». 

To 7ip6p}tri[j,a 58v 8ivai auXdcx; 6xi oi 7ipopXs\|/8i(; xri(; Api- 
GX8pd(; a7io58ix9riKav 7iavx8X(b(; Xav9aG[j,sv8(;. To Kupio 7ip6- 
pXri[j,a PpiGK8xai gxo oxi oi avahbceiq xri(;, sxovxa(; udpsi opi- 
GxiKo 5ia(^i3yio [is xr|v xa^iKf) avdA,UGr|, o5r|yoi3Gav gxtjv s^d- 
Xsi\|/ri xcov xa^iKcbv avxi9sGSCov and xiq 9sa)pfiGSi(; xoix; yia 
xTjv EX,Xd5a, Kai svsxaGGav xrjv uopsia xou sXXriviKoij Kam- 
xa>^iG[j,oi3 GXO 5i7io}to: «s9viKfi oiKovo[j,ia Kai Koiva)via» svd- 
vxia Gxa «^8va GU[j,(pspovxa Kai xa vxoma av5psiKsM xou(;». 

To a7ioxsXsG[j,a auxf)^ xri(; GxpspXcoGrjc; xr]^ 7ipay[j,axiK6xri- 
xaq fixav dmXo: 



281 



A(p' 6v6(; o5fiyriGS gto (pavxaaiaKo 5iaxcopiG[j,6 vr\q eXkr]- 
viKr\q dpxouGa(; Td^ri(; as 5uo (uTiOTiGsxai) avTi[j,ax6[j,svs(; [le- 
pi5s(;: TOU(; «sup(D7iai65ouAou9> Kai xovq «a[a^spiKav65ot)Xo9>. 
Kaxd TispiTiTCDGri, auxfi r| «avdX,UGri» oSrjyoiJGS va Gscopsixai 
ax; «7ipoo 5Bt)TiKfi» tio^litikti r\ UTiOGifipi^ri tt]^ [imq [lepidaq 
svdvTia Gxriv dX,>^ri (Tipocpavcb^ Tidvxa gxt] (pavxaGia xcov «a- 
vakvT&)V»). 'ExGi, GTJVxofja r\ EAA (fi5ri upiv xr| 5iKxaxopia 
xou 1967) a7io(pdGiG8 6xi r\ uopsia 7ipo(; xrjv (xoxs) EOK sv5s- 
XO[iev(i)q va fixav ETi(i)(pekr\q yia xo... «}taiK6 Kivri[j,a» acpoij 
fixav, «avxiK8i[j,sviKd», «avxia[j,spiKaviKfi». Eav gs avxiKaxo- 
7ixpiG[j,6, [j,aoiK8(; opyavcDGSK; avaKdA,U7ixav 6xi r\ nakf] svd- 

VXia GXO «P(DGIk6 S7lSKXaXlG[J,6» svsxaGGS gxo «7ip0058t)XlK6» 

GxpaxoTisSo «supco7iai65ot)}tou9> Kai «a[j,spiKav65ot)Xo9>! 

A(p' sxaipou (Kai [is mo 5iapKsi(; cvveneieq): [J,8xsxps7i8 
xTjv ApiGxspd a7i6 5i3va[j,ri avaxpoufic; Kai GuyKpouGT]^ [is xov 
Ka7iixaXiG[j,6, GS 5i3va[a^ri xou «aGxiKoi3 SKGuyxpoviG[a^oi3». H 
ApiGxspd «fixav r\ [i6vr\ Guvs7ifi(;» 5i3va[j,ri, nov [iaC,i [is «[j,spi- 
5s^ xT]^ aGxiKTic; xd^ri(;» (xrjv «s9viKfi aGxiKf) xd^ri» Kai xoix; 
«[j,iKpo[j,SGaiou(;» Ka7iixa}^iGxs(;) 9a avsTixuGGS xrjv «s9viKfi 
oiKovo[j,ia» Kai 9a scpspvs xrjv «7ipay[j,axiKfi 5ri[j,0Kpaxia» (6xi 
Kai av auxo Grmaivsi, Giyoupa o^i xo G0GiaXiG[j,6). Auxf) r\ 
noXniKi] «avdA,UGri» o5fiyriGS xr|v EAA gxo va [j,8xaxpa7isi gs 
oupd xTjc; 'Ev(£)cr\q Ksvxpou, 7ipdy[j,a (nov [j,sxa^i) aXkmv) Ka- 
96Xot) 58V 8^7i65iG8 xTjv 7iop8ia Tipo^ XT] SiKxaxopia xou 1967. 
H i5ia Tio^tixiKTi o5fiyriG8 xo KKE, 7i8pv(bvxa(; [leca and tovc, 
5ai5a}tou(; xcov «avxi-i^7i8pia}tiGxiK(bv, 5r|[j,0KpaxiK(bv Gxa5i- 
cov», GXT] GUV8pyaGia [is xrjv Nsa ArmoKpaxia xo 1989, gxo 
6vo[j,a xou «5ri[j,oKpaxiKou SKGuyxpoviG[j,ou»! Kai auxf) r\ no- 
XixiKT) S7isxps\|/s PsPaia (yiaxi fixav a7i6 xr] cpuGr] xri(; svGCO[j,a- 
x(bGi[j,ri) GXT] «XsriXaGia» xcov i5so}toyr|[j,dxcov xrjc; ApiGxspd(; 
auo xo IIAEOK xou Av5psa IlaTiavSpsou. 



282 



To TsXiKo a7iOTsXsG[j,a oXcov Tcov (pavxaaiaKcbv iSsoXoyrj- 
[j,dTCOv sivai OTi TidvTOTS (pxdvsi r\ «(bpa ttjc; a>^fi9sia(;», r\ 
Tipayfj-axiKOTTiTa a7io58iKvi3si xriv 7i}taG[j,aTiK6TriTd xovq. Sfi- 
[j,spa TiXsov, TO £va T[j,fi[j,a ttjc; Apioxspdt;, avaKaXuTixovxat; to 
«psa}tiG[j,6», TipoopXsTisi Gxriv «E.E. tcov hx&ivy) (SuvaaTii- 
G[j,6(;). Auto o5fiyriG8 to K6[j,[j,a gto va \|/ri(piGSi vnep tt]^ v80- 
(piXs}tsi30spri(; GUv9fiKri(; tou MdaGTpi^T gttjv sX,XriviKfi BouXf) 
TO 1992. To dXXo Tri(; T[j,fi[j,a (KKE), Tiap' 6ti s[j,[j,svsi gto i5s- 
oX6yr|[j,a ttjc; «s9viKfi(; oiKovo[j,ia(;», sxsi tiXsov Scdgsi 5fiy[j,a- 
Ta ypa(pfi(; tou iSiotutiou «psa}tiG[a^oi3» tou: [j,STd ttjv tio^^iti- 
KT) KaTttGTpocpfi Tou «Pp6[j,iKou '8 9»(Tri GUVspyaGia [is ttjv 
Nsa Ari[j,iKpaTia), to KKE 7ispixapaK(b9r|Ks GSKTapiGTiKd gto 

SGCOTSpiKO TOU. AuTO (DGTOGO, 58V TO S[J,7l65lGS Vtt STllSsiKVlJSl 

«U7i8u9uv6TriTa» svavTi ttjc; «s9viKfi(; oiKov3[j,ia9>. To KKE, 
Tispa a7i6 prjTopiKst; 5iaKripi3^si(;, GTidvia 5iopyav(bvsi [lal^iKsq 
a7ispyiaKS(; kivtitotioitigsk;. To avTi98TO [j,dXiGTa, r\ GSKTapi- 
GTiKT) TispixapdKcoGTi Tou STiiTpsTisi vtt ttTiocpsijysi tk; «KaKO- 
Tonieqyy tt]^ oiKo56[j,riGri(; GUv9riK(bv 7ipay[j,aTiK(bv [lal^iKchv 
aycbvoDV. Eto tsAo^, to KKE 9a avayKaGTSi va stiiXs^si avd- 
[j,8Ga 81TS GTTjv STiiGTpocpfi gtk; GUVspyaGiS(; [IE tk; «7ipoo5st)- 
TiKS(; aGTiK8(; 5uvd[a^si(;» sits va 7iapa[j,sivsi 7ipoGKoX,}tri[a^svo 
GTT] GSKTapiGTiKT) aKivTiGia, T] OTioia o5riysi GTTjv, avaTiocpsu- 
KTT], apyf) (p9opd Kai 7iapaK[j,fi ttjc; noXiTiKr\q tou S7iippofi(;. 

TlaipvovTat; 5ia(^i3yio r\ pscpopfj-iGTiKf) ApiGTspd [is ttjv Ta- 
^iKT) avdA,UGri, SisukoXuvs tou(; KamTa^tiGTSt; (r\ EX,M5a 7ia- 
pouGid(^si sva a7i6 Ta uxj/ri^tOTspa uoGOGTd auoSoxfic; ttjc; E.E. 
GTOV 7iXri9uG[j,6 g' oAoK^ripri ttjv EupcDTiri). 

H Tipayfj-aTiKOTTiTa sivai 6ti r\ Evp&)iir\ nov xTi(^STai [j,sgco 
Tri(; E.E., sivai r| Evp&)iir\ tou Kscpa^taiou Kai yi' auTO s^UTiri- 
psTSi 6hy\)q xovq KamTaXiGTSt; avs^dpTtjTa and ttjv «s9viKfi» 
Tou^ TauTOTTiTa. Oi sv5o-aGTiKS(; avTi9sGSi^, nov avsKt)\|/av 



283 



Gxriv Tiopsia xou sXXriviKoij Ka7iiTaXiG[j,oi3 7ipo(; xriv «supco7ia- 
iKT) oXoKkr\p(i)cr[», 5sv 5ixoTO[j,oi3Gav xriv dpxouaa xd^ri as 
avTiTi98[j,svs(; [j,8pi5s(; [is 7ioXs[j,iks(; 5ia9sGSi(; r\ [lia ausvavTi 
Gxriv akXr\. Oi avxiGsosK; avxeq avsKUTixav sits gs gxegt] [j,8 
TO pu9[j,6 Tri(; £VGCO[j,dTCOGri^ gttjv «supco7iaiKfi oXoKXfipcoGri», 
SITS a7i6 TOU(; cpoPoix;, tcov tiio aSwaTCOv T[j,ri[j,dT(DV Tri(; dp- 
XOUGa(; Td^Tjc;, 6ti 5sv 9a [j,7iopoi3Gav va avTS7is^s}t9ouv gtov 
avTaycoviG[j,6 [is xovq mo iGXupotx; Ka7iiTaXiG[j,oi3(; ttjc; Sutiki^c; 
Evp&)iir\q. Qgtogo gtov Ka7iiTaXiG[j,6, sivai Ta mo iGXPpd 
KO[j,[j,dTia TTj^ dpxouGttt; Td^rjc; auTd nov o5r|yoi3v GUV0>^iKd 
TOU(; Ka7iiTaXiGTS(;, nov TS^^iKd svotioioijv ttjv Td^r] TOtx;, 7ipo(; 
tk; GuyKSKpi[j,svs(; iGTopiKS(; Tri(; smXoyst;. Kai r| smXoyfi auTf) 
(ttjc; 7ip6G5sGri(; gttjv «supco7iaiKfi o}tOK}tfip(DGri») a7io5six9ri- 
Ks, onmq si5a[j,s, 7ipdy[j,aTi S7i(D(psXfi(; GUVo^tiKd yia ttjv dp- 
XOUGa Td^Tj. Kai ttjv oiKovo[j,iKfi avduTU^ri tou sXXriviKoij Ka- 
7iiTaXiG[j,oi3 5iaG(pdXiGS Kai tou dvoi^s veeq 7ipoo7iTiKE(; stis- 

KTaGT]^. 

AuTOi 710D 7i>^fiTT0VTai ttTio tk; 5ia5iKaGiS(; ttjc; «sup(D7iaiKfi 
oAoKXfipcoGri» sivai oi spya(^6[j,svoi, [is ttjv smPoAri tou vso- 
(pi>^sXsu9spiG[j,oi3 Kai Tri(; XiTOTtiTa^ gto 6vo[j,a tou «supco7iai- 
KoiJ opd[j,aTO(;». Oi EA,}trivs(; spya(^6[j,svoi, aro ovojua amfjq rrjg 
EvpdiTtrjg, PpiGKovTai vno Guvsxn 7ipoypd[j,[j,aTa }tiT6TriTa(; Kai 

iSlCOTlKOTlOlflGSCDV aUO TO 1985! H STllGTpOCpfl GTTjV Ta^lKT) a- 

vdX,UGri, aTiOTsXsi 6po yia [im ApiGTspd nov Qekei Kai va na- 
Xs\|/si a7iOTs}tSG[j,aTiKd svt6(; tcov 89viK(bv Guvopcov, akin Kai 
va Guv589si [is ttjv EupoTiaiKfi AvTiKa7iiTa?tiGTiKfi ApiGTspd 
TTjc; FevoPat; Kai ttjc; OXcopsvTiat;. 



284 



AvTiKa;riTa>wioTiKii Apioxspd 

H 5idX,t)Gri TTj^ KamxaXiGTiKfi^ E.E. sivai KaGfiKov guvo^^i- 
Kd Tou spyaxiKot) Kai ApiGxspot) Kivrmaxot; ttjc; Evp&)iir\q. H 
EupcoTiaiKTi AvTiKaTiiTaXiGTiKfi ApiGTspd, sGsGS sva Tl^iaiGlO 
apxcbv, Tiou 7ipdy[j,aTi sivai r] pdGt] yia [j,ia guvstiti 7idA,ri svd- 
VTia Gxriv E.E. tiou suayyeMCovxai (Kai TipayuaxoTioioiJv) oi 
Ka7iiTa}tiGTS(; : 

A) ndXri svdvTia gtov i^7ispia}tiG[j,6 togo tcov HQA, 6go 
Kai TTjc; E.E. Ilakr\ svdvxia gs KdGs TipoGTidGsia [o^STaxpoTifi^ 
TTjc; E.E. G8 «[j,sydXri 5i3va[j,ri». Ka[j,id au^riGri cuq Gxpaxicoxi- 
K8g 5a7idvs(; tcdv KpaT(bv-[j,sM)V. AidA,UGri tcov supcDGxpaxcbv 
(tcdv [j,ovd5cov xaxsiat; STisfj-PaGrjc; tiou sxouv 5ri[j,ioupyr|Gsi). 
ndXri yia d[j,SGri 8^o5o tcov xcopcbv Trjc; E.E. a7i6 to NATO Kai 
TidXr] yia tt] 5idX,t)Gfi tou. 

B) EvdvTia G8 [j,ia «Evp&)iir\ (ppoi3pio», tiou Ga Kupiapxsi- 
Tai a7i6 Ta GU[j,(pspovTa tou [j,syd}tou Kscpa^taiou Tri(; 5uTiKfi(; 



H 4'^ Aid(jKev|/ri TV\q Eupco7iaiiKfi<; AvTiKamxalioTiKrn; Apioxepdu; 5i£^fix6ri 
OTTi MaSplxri oxig 18-19 louvlou 2002. 'Hiocv Tiopouoeg oi e^fi<; opyocvcb- 
GSiq Kai K6|i|iaTa: KoKKivo-Tipdmvri Eu|i|iaxia (RGA - Aocvla), EKoxoei^i- 
Ko EomaXioTiKo K6|i|ia (SSP - EKoxla), EomolioxiKfi Eu|i|iaxia (SA - 
AyyMa), EomolioxiKO EpyaxiKO K6|i|ia (SWP - Meyolr] Bpexocvla), H 
Apioxepd (Dei Linke - Aou^eiiPoupyo), Ko|1|iouvi(jxik6<; ETiovaoxaxiKoi; 
Ei)v5eo|io<; (LCR - TaXkia), MtiXok xrig Apioxepd^; (BE - Ilopxoyalla), 
K6|i|ia xrig Ko|i|iouvioxiKfi<; ETiovlSpuorn; (PrC - Ixalla), Solidarites (El- 
Pexla), K6|i|ia xri<; AXXriXeyyurn; Kai xri<; E'ksvQspiac, (ODP - ToupKia), 
Espacio Altemativo (EA - loTiovia), Zutik (Xcbpa xcov BdoKcov). Kai cog 
Tiapaxiipuxet;: Corriente Roja (vipcbiiv Plataforma de Izquierda oxiiv Iz- 
quierda Unida - loTiovia), Kai Evcojxevii Apioxepd (Izquierda Unida - 1- 
ojiavia). To FepiiaviKo Ko|1|ioi)vi(jxik6 K6|i(xa (DKP) 7iapaPpe6riKe oxri 
ouvdvxriori, x'^PK 6|ico<; va |i8xexei oxt] AidoKevi/i]. To EomalioxiKo Kojx- 
|ia (SP - 0XXav5ia) eoxeiXe |ifivi)|ia, e^riycbvxog xo evSiacpepov xou yia xri 
Aid(jKev|/ri Kai xt] owexiori xri<; epyaoiog xou. 

285 



EupcDTiri^, [j,s d[j,8Ga 9i3[j,aTa xoix; [j,STavdGT8^ Kai tt] ^sxaxpo- 
Tifi Tcov Xropcbv TTjc; KsvTpiKfi(; Kai Avaxo^tiKfic; Eup(b7iri(; 
(XKAE) GS U7ioPa9[j,iG[j,svr| «7ispi(pspsia» 7ipo(; SK[j,STdX,Xsu- 

GTl. 

H AvTiKaTiiTaXiGTiKTi ApiGTspd TiaXsiJsi yia tt] vo[j,i[j,07ioi- 
riGTi oXcov TCOV [j,STavaGT(bv, svdvxia gttiv TioiviKOTioiriGri ttjc; 
[j,STavdGT8UGri(;. Eivai auapdSsKTO xriv i5ia (bpa nov [j,8i(bvo- 
vxai 01 GUVxd^sK; Kai au^dvouv xa opia GUVxa^io56xriGri(; ([is 
5iKaioXoyia xr] «yfipavGri» xou ■iikr\Qvc[iOX)), va tioivikotioisi- 
xai r\ [j,sxavdGxsuGri nov au^dvsi xov 7i>^oi3xo, [j,sgco xt]^ spya- 
Gia(; xcDV [j,sxavaGxcbv, Kai r| OTioia f^Tiopsi va Gxrjpi^si xk; koi- 
v(DviKS(; 5a7idv8(;. H EupcoTiaiKfi AvxiKamxaXiGxiKfi ApiGxspd 
nakevei yia xo SiKaicofo^a xri(; sXsi39spr|(; 5iaKivriGri(; Kai syKa- 
xdGxaGri(; xcov [j,sxavaGX(bv, yia xo 5iKai(D[j,a xou aGij^^ou, xo 
5iKaico[j,a va (^ouv Kai va epjaCpviai oi [j,sxavdGxs(; [is xa i5ia 
5iKai(b[j,axa [le xovq akXovq noXneq xri(; E.E. : «[j,s Mya }t6yia, 
avoiKxd Gijvopa Kai TiXfipri uoXixiKd 5iKai(b[j,axa yia 6Xou(;». 

Dgov acpopd xk; XKAE, xovi(^sxai 6xi r\ AvxiKaTiixa^^iGxiKfi 
ApiGxspd 58V 9a a7io5sx98i xrjv «ayopaia TipoGdpxrjGri xcov 
XCDpcbv xTjc; AvaxoXiKTic; Evp&)iir\q, [imq akr\Qivr\q «7i8pi(pspsi- 
aq» nov Kupiapxsixai and xrjv i^Tispia^^iGxiKfi E.E.»: 

«H E.E. 9a xou^ eni^akei xa vso(piXsXsi39spa yiaxpi- 
Kd xr]^, xcop{<; va s^aGCpaXiGSi xk; [j,8xaPipdGSK; uopcov 
nov U7iOGxs9riKs Kai nov sivai a7iapaixrixs(; yia va ava- 
Kd[j,\|/ouv auxs(; oi oikovo[j,is(; (xriv aypoxiKf) tioXixikti 
xT]^ E.E., 5iap9pcoxiKd xa|isia Kai ^sxaPipdGSig Tiopcov). 
EvauoKsixai Gxoug 7iXri9uG[j,oi3(; xcov xcopcbv xrjg Avaxo- 
XiKr\q Eupcb7ir|(; va auocpaGiGOUv av 9sXouv va svxa- 
x9oi3v [IE xsxoiS(; GUv9fiKS(; gs auxf) xrjv E.E. 



286 



E[iEiq, [leca Gvr\v E.E., 9a iiak£.\\fov[iE (dgts auxoi oi 
7i}tri9uG[j,oi va UTidyovxai gtoix; iSioug Kavovsg Kai va 
5ia9sT0uv xa i5ia KoivroviKd, oiKoXoyiKd, TioXixiKd Kai 
5r|[j,0KpaTiKd 5iKai(b[j,aTa. npoTSivou[j,s gtov k6g[j,o ttjc; 
spyaGiat;, gtk; yuvaiKs^ Kai gtoix; veovq va 8vco9oi)v 
GTOV (5io aycbva yia [iia dX.>^ri Et)p(b7iri». 

r) IlaXr\ evdvTia gto 5sg7iotig[j,6 (tk; avTi5ri[j,0KpaTiKS(; 
[j,s965ou(; ^fi\|/ri(; xcov aTiocpdGSCov) nov xapaKTripi(^8i tt] Xei- 
Toupyia TT]^ E.E. 'Onrnq GCDGxd Tispiypdcpsxai gto ksi[j,svo, t] 
avTi5ri[j,0KpaTiKfi Xsixoupyia Tri(; E.E., tiou 7iapa5i5si gtk; 
KpaxiKst; ypa(p8ioKpaTiS(; xov TiXfipri sXsyxo ttjc; E.E. aTioxs^tsi 
07iiG9o5p6[a^riGr| aK6[j,a Kai gs gxsgti [o^s Tr|v aGTiKf) koivoPou- 
X,8t)TiKfi 5ri[j,0KpaTia: 

«Ms auTOV Tov xpoTio r\ vso(piXsXs'u9spri EupcoTiri 5i- 
acpsijysi a7i6 xriv TiisGr] tcdv spyaxiKcbv xd^scov, nov Ti9s- 
vxai GS avTay(DviG[j,6 [j,STa^i3 xou^, and xcbpa gs xcbpa, 
[j,SGCO TT]^ aviGOTTixa^ Tcov GUv9riK(bv spyaGia(; Kai tt]^ 
KoivcoviKfi(; vo[j,o9sGia(;. Eivai [is auxo xov xpoTio nov 
7ipoG7ia9si va s^^sy^si -tiigcd and Kai udvco gxtjv nXaxr] 
xcov }ta(bv- xk; 7ioX,udpi9[j,S(; GuyKpouGSK; GU[j,(psp6vxcov 
avd[j,SGa gxk; Kupiapxs^ xd^sK;. [...] Aux6(; o KpaxiK6(; 
[j,rixaviG[j,6(; oijxs f^Tiopsi va xpriGi[j,07ioiri9si oijxs f^Tiopsi 
va [j,sxappu9[j,iGxsi 7ipo(; ocpsXot; xcov hx&iv r\ xou k6g[j,ou 
xTjc; spyaGia^. IIpsTisi va avaxpausi cdgxs va avoi^si [im 
pi(^iKd 5ri[j,0KpaxiKfi Kai and xa Kdxco GUVxaKxiKf) 5ia5i- 
KaGia. EvauoKsixai gxoix; Xaotx; Kai gxov k6g[j,o xtjc; 
spyaGiat; va aTiocpaGiGOUv gs Tioia EupcDTiri Qekovv va 
(^fiGOUv, [IE 7ioiS(; 9sG[j,o9sxri[j,svs(; gxsgsk; avd[j,SGa Gxa 
Kpdxri-[j,sXri Kai TidvcD gs 7ioiS(; koivcoviks(; Kai oikovo- 



287 



l^iKsc; pdosK;. [... ] to sXdxioTO nov TipsTisi va aTiaixfi- 
G0t)[j,8 8ivai 07ioia5fi7iOTS «vsa GUv9fiKr|» f) «Si3vTay[j,a» 
va UTiopXriGsi 7ipo(; syKpiori, g' sva 5r|[j,o\|/fi(piG[j,a nov 
9a opyavcoGsi xauxoxpova gs 6}ta xa Kpdxr|-[j,s}tri Kai xk; 
t)7io\|/fi(pi8(; x(bp89>. 

A) Ilakf] svdvxia gxo v80(piA,sA,su68piG[j,6- oi dvGpcDTioi na- 
vco a7i6 xaKspSr]. 

AGUfj-PtpaGxri Tid^^ri svdvxia gxt] 5idA.UGri xcov 5ri[j,6Gicov 
UTiripsGicbv Kai xrjv i5i(DxiK07ioiriGfi xovq (iisxacpopsg, svspysi- 
a, vspo), [IE xi^ KaxaGxps7ixiK8(; guvstisis^ xou^: au^riGri xcov 
xi[j,(bv, au^av6[j,svr| koivcovikti aviGOxrixa Kai koivcovikti ava- 
GCpdXsia: 

«E7i8i5fi TipoKsixai ma yia sva gugxt] [j,a, Ssv [^710- 
poi3[j,s va aXkxi^ov[iE auxf) xr] vsocpiXsXsijGepri 5uva[j,iKfi 
lie ri[j,i[j,sxpa. HpsTisi va akXat^oviie pi(^iKd xi^ Tipoxs- 
paioxrixs^: oi koivcdviks^ avdyKsc; xrjc; |j,d(^a(; xou Tikr\Qv- 
G[j,oi3 Tidvco a7i6 xa Ksp5ri xou [j,8ydAou KscpaXaiou. 

To svaXXaKxiKo [j,a(; 7ip6ypa[j,[j,a sivai xogo aiiko, 
siJKoXo Kai KaGapo 6go Kai xo vsocpi^^sXeuGspo xcov a- 
(psvxiKcbv: [j,ia Gsgti spyaGia(; 7iX,fipri(; Kai GxaGspf), svat; 
a^i07ips7isi(; [j,igG6(;, sva siG65ri[j,a avauXfipcoGric; tiou 
87iixps7isi va C,Eiq (gs TispiTixcoGri avspyiat;, aGGsvsia^, 
ava7ir|pia(;, GUVxa^ioSoxriGrjc;). ApaGxiKf) [leimcr] xou 
Xpovou spyaGiat; xcopi(; [j,iGGo}toyiKfi aucb^^sia, xcopi^ 
aij^riGri xcov puG[j,cbv spyaGiat;, [is avxiGxaG[j,iGxiKS(; 
7ipoG}tfi\|/si(;. AiKaico[j,a gxt] Gxsyri, gxtjv 7iai5sia Kai 
Gxr|v S7iayys}t[j,axiKfi sK7iai5suGr|, gxtjv 7ispiGaX,\|/ri, 6Xa 
auxd GS Kakr\ uoioxrixa. HpoGPaGri Gxa 5r|[j,6Gia [j,sxa- 
(popiKd [lEca. Auxd xa TioXixiKd Kai KoivcoviKd SiKaicb- 



288 



\iaTa 9a igxuouv yia oAoix; xoix; spya(^6[j,8vou^, auxo- 
xGovs^ Kai [j,STavdGTS(;, dv5ps(; Kai yuvaiKst;. 

H s(pap[j,oyfi xoix; aTiaixsi: Tr| pi(^iKfi STisKxaori xcov 
5ri[j,6Gi(DV UTiripsGicbv - xrjv avaSidpGpcoari xou Kpaxi- 
Koij 7ipol)7ioXoyiG[j,oi3 (Kai Kaxd ouvsTisia, xri(; cpopoXo- 
yiag) Tiou 9a au^dvsi SpaoxiKd xk; koivcoviks(; 5a7idvs(;, 
XT] SpaoxiKTi ava5iavo[j,fi xcov siGo5ri[j,dxcov xou Kscpa- 
hxiov 7ipo(; ocpsXxx; xrjc; 8pyaGia(;. Fia va yivsi auxo, 9a 
7ips7i8i va }tri(p9oi3v 6Xa xa avxiKaTiixa^tioxiKd [lexpa nov 
aTiaixoiJvxai, (dgxs t] iSicoxikti iSioKxrioia va ekeyxQei 
Kai, av xpsid(^sxai, va a7iaXXoxpico9si Kai va avxiKaxa- 
Gxa9si a7i6 xr] 5ri[j,6Gia Kai koivcovikti i5ioKxriGia». 

E) nd^^ri yia xr] 5ri[j,ioupyia [imq aXkr\q supco7iaiKfi(; Api- 
Gxspd^, a7iaX,Xay[j,svri(; ano xr] v80(piXsXsi39spri Gxpocpf) xrjc; 
G0GiaX5ri[j,0Kpaxia(; Kai xou p8(pop[j,iG[j,oi3 xcov K.K. Ilakr\ yia 
va 5ri[j,ioupyri9oi3v oi 7ipol)7io9sGSi(; yia [im GOGia^^iGxiKf) Eu- 
pcDTiri, 5r|[j,0KpaxiKfi, sipriviKfi Kai [is aA,A,ri}^8yyi)ri Gxa TiayKO- 
G[j,ia a7isXsu98pcoxiKd Kivfi[j,axa: 

«E\jiEiq, xa avxiKamxa^^iGxiKd K6[j,[j,axa Kai Kivf^axa 
xri<; Evp&)iir\q, nakevov^e svdvxia gxtjv E.E., gxod; 9s- 
G[j,oijg Kai gxk; 7ioXixiks(; xtjc;, o^i [is gxoxo xtjv UTispd- 
GTiiGTi xou s9viKoi3 [laq KamxaXiGxiKot) Kpdxou^, aX,Xd 
Gxo 6vo[j,a [j,ia(; Eupcb7iri(; 5ia(popsxiKfi(;: koivcovikti (;, 
5ri[j,0KpaxiKfi(;, sipriviKfi(; Kai aX^^ri^syyuat;. na}tsi3ou[j,s 
yia i^ia pi(^0G7iaGxiKfi avaxpoTif) xr]^ UTidpxouGat; tioXixi- 
KTig, yia xTjv TipooTixiKTi [j,ia(; 5ri[j,0KpaxiKfi(; GOGia^^iGxi- 
Kr\q KoivcDvia(;, xcopit; xr|v SK[j,sxdA,}tsuGri xr|(; spyaGia(; f) 
xTjv KaxaTiisGTi xcov yuvaiKcbv, nov 9a PaGi(^sxai ctt] 



289 



Pi(bGi[j,ri avdTiTU^ri- yia sva at)To5iaxsipi(^6[j,8vo ooaia- 
Xiaiio a7i6 xa KdT(D». 

Asv UTidpxsi a[j,(piPoMa, oxi r\ x)iiap^r\ ttjc; E.E. Sisupijvsi 
Ti^ SuvaxoTTiTSt; GUV8pyaGia(; Kai koivcdv aycbvcov oA6K}tripri(; 
TTjc; supco7iaiKfi<^ ApioT8pd(;. H KaxdpyriGri xcov SiaouvopiaKcbv 
sXsyxcov, aX,Xd Kai nohb TispiGGOxspo, r\ UTiap^r] evoq opaxot), 
Koivoij avxiTidXou (xcov iSirov xcov 9sG[j,cbv xr]^ E.E.) nov a- 
7i}tcbvsi xo vsocpi}tsXsu98piG[j,6, s^avayKd(^si xo spyaxiKo Kivrj- 
|ia Kai xTjv ApiGxspd xri(; EupcoTiri^ ce Koivf) SpdGTj. 

Qgxogo, xa Tiapaudvco Gsxouv sva PaGiKo spcbxri[j,a: H go- 

GiaXlGXlKT) TipOOTlXlKTl SlVai TlksOV SCplKXT) [J,6V0 GS TiaVSUpCO- 

TiaiKo S7ii7is5o; H GOGiaXiGxiKf) STiavdGxaGTi 9a TipoekBei and 
sva K6[j,[j,a (f) GUvaG7iiG[j,6 KO[j,[j,dxcov) xtj^ avxiKamxa^tiGxiKfic; 
ApiGxspd(;, 710U 9a sivai TiavsupcoTiaiKo Kai 9a acpopd [im na- 
vsupcoTiaiKTi GOGiaXiGxiKT) STiavdGxaGr] ; Ms aXkx Xoyia, r| 
«s9viKfi» GOGia^tiGxiKTi STiavdGxaGT], sivai avscpiKxr] gs [im 
[lovo supcoTiaiKTi xcbpa; 

To (^fixri[j,a sivai TipcoxapxiKfig GrmaGiat;, yiaxi r\ a7io5oxn 
[j,ia(; xsxoia(; 9sGri(; and xrjv ApiGxspd, 9a oSrjyoiJGS gxo sgco- 
xspiKo Kd9s Kpdxou(;-[j,sXou(; gs [im [j,sxappu9[j,iGxiKfi noXni- 
KT) ava[j,ovfi(; xrjc;... TiavsupcoTiaiKfic; STiavdGxaGTjc;. 

Asv UTidpxsi Ka[j,id a[j,cpiPoMa, 6xi r\ GOGiaXiGxiKf) koivco- 
via 5sv sivai scpiKxr) evzoq xcov s9viKcbv Guvopcov. O KamxaXi- 
G[j,6(; sivai sva 7iayK6G[j,io, «oikou[j,svik6» gugxt] [j,a. Ka[j,id 
oiKovo[j,ia, 6x1 [lovo 5sv sivai 5uvax6v va stiiPicogsi gxtjv a- 
7io[j,6vcoGri, aA,M Kai o 7iXoi3xo(; Kd9s Koivcovia^ s^apxdxai 
a7i6 xTjv Tiapaycoyf) g' 6X£(; xk; jmvieq xou TiXavfixri. Auxo cr\- 
l^aivsi, 6x1 Ka[j,id Koivcovia 5sv f^Tiopsi va avauxu^si [im «au- 
x6vo^ri» GOGia^tiGxiKTi oiKovo[j,ia, av oi 5is9vfi(; oikovo[j,iks(; 
gxsgsk; Kupiapxoijvxai a7i6 xk; Ka7iixaXiGxiKS(; gxsgsk; Tiapa- 



290 



ycoyfi^. AvaTiocpsuKxa auxst; 9a 5isig5i3gouv gto sacoxspiKo 
xrig Xcbpa(;, 9a aX^^OKbaouv to xapaKxfipa xou a7io[j,ov(D[j,svou 
spyaxiKot) Kpdxotx; Kai gxo xsAo(; 9a xo KaxaGxps\|/ouv. Auxo 
aKpipdcx; Guvepri Kai [is xr] Pcogikti ETiavaGxaGr] xou 1917, 
a7i6 XT] Gxiy[j,fi iiov aTisxuxs r] 7iayK6G[j,ia STiavaGxaGr] (apxiKd, 
aTisxuxs r\ TiavsupcoTiaiKfi STiavaGxaGr], nov PpiGKoxav gs s^s- 
}^i^ri |J,sxpi xa xsXri xou 1923). H oiKovofo^iKfi a7iO[j,6v(DGr| scps- 
p8 xTjv Tisiva, xTjv s^a9McoGri Kai xrjv oiKovo[j,iKfi KaxaGxpocpf). 
Auxd [IE XT] GSipd xou(; o5fiyriGav gxo GuyKsvxpcoxiG[j,6 xrjc; 
KO[j,[j,axiKfi(; Kai KpaxiKfig So^ifig gxt] PcoGia, gxo [j,ovoKO[j,[j,a- 
xiG[j,6, Kai xsXiKd STisPa^^av xr] 5iKxaxopia xou ExdXiv (1927). 
Atio xo Gri[j,sio auxo Kai [j,sxd, r\ 7ipoG7id9sia va (pxdGSi r\ Pro- 
Gia Kai va ^STispdGSi xi^ Ka7iixa}tiGxiKS(; x&ipeq xrjc; 5uxiKfi(; 
EupcDTirig (i5iaixspa f^TipoGxd gxov kivSuvo [imq GxpaxicoxiKfi(; 
avxmapd9sGri(;, nov TVt\pe GdpKa Kai OGxd [is xrjv dvo5o xou 
XixXsp GXT] rsp[j,avia), o5fiyriGS gxtjv KaxdpyrjGri oXcov xcov 
spyaxiKcbv 5iKai(D[j,dx(DV, xrjv dypia KaxamsGr] (Kai Kaxakr]- 
GxsuGTi) xcov aypoxcbv Kai xr] 5o}tO(povia oXcdv xcov iGxopiKcbv 
riysxcbv xou MtioXgsPikikou K6[j,[a^axo(;. Exo SGCOxepiKO xrjg 
PcDGia^, o GxaXiviG[j,6(; «svxuvs» xrjv avxsTiavaGxaxiKfi tioXixi- 
KT) xou [le GOGiaXiGxiKd GU[j,po}ta, svcb xauxoxpova 5iaGxps- 
P^tcovs xov STiavaGxaxiKo [j,ap^iG[j,6, «KaX,U7ixovxa(;» xo [leja- 

XopCDGlKO GCOPlVlG^lO XOU, [IE XT] 9sC0pia xou «GOGiaXlG[J,OU G8 

[j,ia [j,6vo xcbpa». 

Togo yia xov Map^ 6go Kai yia xov Asviv, o G0Gia}LiGxiK6(; 
[j,sxaGxn^iotxiG[j,6(; 5sv sivai scpiKxot; gs a7io[j,6vcoGri, gs [j,ia 
[j,6vo xropot- EtisiSti o i5io^ o Ka7iixaXiG[j,6(; 5ri[j,ioupyriGS [im 
oiKou[j,sviKfi oiKovo[j,ia, yi' auxo x6vi(^av xo 5is9vig[j,6, xtjv 
avdyKT] xri(; TiayKOG^iai; STiavdGxaGT]^. O G0GiaXiG[j,6(; 9a sk- 
KivfiGSi (avayKaGxiKd) and xo Grmsio 7iayKOG[j,i07ioiriGri(; xou 
Ka7iixaXiG[j,ou, svcb 9a xo auXcDGSi 7ioX,u uspiGGOxspo. H oiko- 



291 



vo fjiKTi Tou pdori 9a sivai 7ipay[j,aTiKd oiKot)[j,sviKfi, anekEV- 
GspcoTiKTi Kai 6x1 KaxaGxpocpiKfi Kai i^TispiaXiGxiKfi, onmq 
Gt)[j,paivsi Gfi[j,spa. 

IlapdSo^a (aX,Xd 6xi avs^fiyriTa) K6[j,[j,aTa, nov [isjpi Tipiv 
Mya xpovia fixav vnep xou Gxa^^iviKot) [j,ovxsXou xou «GOGia- 
XiG[j,oi3 GS [j,ia [j,6vo x(opot», tcbpa «a7io5sxovxai» xr] Gsgti xou 
STiavaGxaxiKot) [j,ap^iG[a^oi3, 6xi 5ri}ta5fi G0Gia}^iG[j,6(; gs [o^ia 
[j,6vov x^pot Ssv sivai 5uvax6v va smxsuxQsi. AX,Xd xo Kdvouv 
auxo, yia va Kaxa^^fi^ouv gxo avxsTiavaGxaxiKo GU^7ispaG[j,a 
6x1 r\ GOGiaXiGxiKT) STiavdGxaGTi 5sv sivai scpiKxr) ouGiaGxiKd 
GS Ka[j,id x^opot, oiv 5sv 7ipay[j,axo7ioir|9si TiavsupcoTiaiKd! Aia- 
Pd(^ou[j,s gxk; Gsgsk; xou npoypa[j,[a^axiKoi3 Euvs5piou xou Eu- 
vaG7iiG[j,oi3 (MdiO(; - Ioi3viO(; 2003): 

«H supcDTiaiKTi ApiGxspd sxsi anodexQei xr] 5ia5iKa- 
Gia xri(; supcoTiaiKfic; svoTioiri gtjc; yiaxi Gscopsi nmq auxf) 
SUV081 xou(; 5iKoi3(; xrjc; gx6xou(;. Acpoij r] iGxopiKfi 8- 
I^Tisipia 5i5dGKsi iioiq G0Gia}tiG[j,6(; 5sv f^Tiopsi va syKa- 
9i5pt)98( G8 |j.ia |j.6vri xff'pa, 7i6go [laXkov 6xav r\ x^pa 
8ivai [j,iKpfi Kai oiKovo[j,iKd a5i3va[j,ri, xo 7is5io xa^iKcbv, 
KoivcoviKcbv, Tio^tixiKcbv Kai i5soXoyiK(bv aycbvcDV nov 
avoiysi r\ uopEia xrjg 8upco7iaiKfi(; svo7ioiriGri(; GUViGxd 
xo 7ipay[j,axiK6 s5a(pO(; 6710U o KaxaGxaxiK6(; xrjc; gx6xo(; 
I^Tiopsi va auoPsi psaXiGxiKd 8(piKx69>.^^'' 

AvxiGsxa [le auxf) xr] Gsgti, o Asviv Kai o Tp6xGKi (nov ni- 
Gxsuav, aKpdSavxa, 6x1 G0GiaXiG[j,6(; gs [j,ia x^opot 5sv sivai 
5uvax6v va 7ipay[j,axo7ioiriGsi), 5sv KaxsXrjyav gxo GU^Tispa- 
G[j,a 6x1 r\ GOGiaX,iGxiKfi STiavdGxaGT] Ga fixav, xaux6xpova, 
7iayK6G[a^ia (f), gs Tipcbxri cpdGri, xaux6xpovri g' o}t6KX,ripri xrjv 
EupcDTiri). H aviG6[j,sxpri avduxu^r] xou Ka7iixa}tiG[j,oi3, o5riysi 



292 



08 5ia(popsTiKd STiiTisSa oiKovo[j,iKfi(; avdTiTU^ri^ xriv KdGs xcb- 
pa, [IE a7iOTs}tSG[j,a [im oiKovofo^iKfi r\ koivcovikti Kpiori, va sxsi 
SiacpopsTiKd a7iOTsXsG[j,aTa as KdGs xcbpa. To ysyov6(; auxo 
o5fiyriGS xov Asviv Kai xov TpoxoKi gxo GU^7ispaG[j,a, 6xi r\ 
GOGia^tiGxiKTi STiavdGxaGTi 9a ^skivoijgs avauocpsuKxa a7i6 
Kduoia xcbpa [j,8[j,ovcD[j,8va (and xov «a5i3va[j,o KpiKo»): 

«To 6x1 Ka[j,id xcbpa 5sv TipeTisi va «7ispi[j,8vsi» xk; 
aXkeq (5Tr\v TidXr] xri(;, auxo sivai [im gxoixsicdSsk; gks- 
\|/ri, nov 8ivai ')(pr\ci[io Kai avayKaio va xrjv STiavaXafj,- 
Pdvou[j,s, yia va [j,riv [mopei Kavsi(; va avxiKaxaGxfiGSi 
xTjv i5sa xTjc; 7iapdX,}tri}Lri(; SisGvigxiktic; SpdGTjc; [is xrjv 
i5sa xTjc; SisGvigxikti^ a5pdvsia(; [j,8Ga Gxr| GU[j,[j,axia. 
Xcopi(; va 7ispi[j,svou[j,s xoix; akXovq, apxiC,ov[iE Kai gu- 
vsxiCou|J.6 xTjv TidXr] udvcD gxo sGviko s5a(pO(; 8xovxa(; 
xTjv TiXfipri PsPaioxrixa 6xi r] TipcoxoPouMa [laq Ga Scdgsi 
[j,iav s^apGTi cvr[\/ naXt] xcov akhx)V 'ka&)V».^^'^ 

niGX8iJ0t)[j,8 6x1 auxf) T] xoTioGexriGTi 5iaxripsi xrjv 87iiKaip6- 
XTjxd XT]^ Kai Gfi[j,8pa. 

Ei5iK6xspa, gxk; Grmspivs^ GUvGfiKS(; xri(; E.E., sivai auo- 
Xmaq PsPaio 6xi r\ GOGiaXiGxiKf) STiavdGxaGT] Ga ^skivtigsi 
apxiKd a7i6 KdTioio Kpdxo^-[j,8Xog, 58v Ga sivai xaux6xpovri ce 
oA6KXripri xrjv EupcDTiri. Dtico^ 58i^a[j,8 gxtjv TiapouGa avdX,u- 
GT) [laq, r\ E.E. sivai GUvaG7iiG[j,6(; Kupiapxcov, avs^dpxrjxcov 
Kpaxcbv. Tlpdjixa iiov Grmaivsi xpia PaGiKd 7ipdy[j,axa: 

Ilpcbxov, r\ aviG6[j,sxpri oiKovo[j,iKfi avduxu^r] s^aKoAouGsi 
va 8XSI 7ioX,i3 5ia(popsxiKd a7iox8XsG[j,axa g8 KdGs Kpdxo(; - 
[lEkoq (xa «[j,ri GU[a^[j,sxpiKd gok» nov 7ispiypd\|/a[j,s Gxr|v 8v6- 
xTjxa «H Tiopsia xtjc^ oiKovo[j,iKfi(; oXoKXfip(DGri9>). 



293 



AsiJTspov, r\ oiKovo[j,ia s^aKo>^ot)98( va PpioKsxai koitco 
a7i6 Tov eXejxo xou sBvikoij Kpaxoug (Kai xcov KamxaXiGTcbv 
Tou), cruvsTidx; sivai to sGviko Kpdxot; auxo nov opyavcbvsi xriv 

OlKOVOfO^lKTl, KOIVCOVIKTI Kttl Ta^lKf) KUpiapXltt GTO SGCDTSpiKO 

KdGs KpdTOt)(;-[j,sAot)g. 

TpiTOV, r\ «KoivcoviKfi GUva(v8Gri», o Tp67iO(; [le tov otioio 
01 vnoTskeiq KoivroviKd xd^sK; (oi spya(^6[j,£voi Kai oi aypoxst;) 
svG(D[j,aT(bvovTai gttiv noXniKi] Tr\c, dpxouGa^ td^ri^, opyavcb- 
vsxai GS sGviKo S7ii7is5o. Oi 8KXoys(; yia to EupcoTiaiKo Koi- 
voPoTjXio, 5i8^dyovTai ano xa KOfj-fo^axa (g' oXoK^tripr] xriv Eu- 
pcDTiri) 6x1 8V ov6[j,axi Kduoiou «supco7iaiKoi3 opd[j,axo(;», aXXd 
yia xTjv UTispdGTiiGTi xou «s9viKoi3 GU[j,(pspovxo(;», 6x1 5ri}ta5fi 
01 SK7ip6GC07ioi nov 9a SK^^syoiJV 9a SKcppdGOUv xo «s9vik6 
GU[j,(pspov» GXTjv «Eup(b7iri». EnxKkeov, r\ GUv5iKa}^iGxiKfi 
ypacpsioKpaxia Kd9s xropa^, GU[j,pipd(^sxai (f) ^STiouXdsi) xoix; 
spya(^6[a^£vou(; 6xi gxo 6vo[ia xrjc; «Et)p(b7ir|(;», aX,Xd «yia xo 
GU[j,(pspov xTjc; s9viKfi(; oiKovo[j,ia9>. 

E7io[j,svcD^, 8ivai T] s^8}ti^ri xT]^ aux6vo[j,ri^ 5uva[j,iKfi(; Kd9s 
X&tpaq, nov Ka9opi(^si xoix; pu9[j,oi3(; xrjc; GUvaivsGrig r\ xrig pf)- 
^Tjc; [j,s Touq i5soAoyiKoi3(; Kai tioXixikoij^ [j,rixaviG[j,oi3g XSipa- 
y(byriGri(; xcdv utioxsXcdv xd^scDV. 



294 



K£(pd>uaio7 



O ASVIV Kttl TpOTOKl 

yia TTiv... EDpcojraliKfi 'Evcooti! 

O 7ipop}tri[j,aTiG[j,6(; (aXXd Kai oi TipooTidGsis^) yia xriv ni- 
GavoTTixa 5ri[j,ioupyia(; [imq svco[j,£vri(; Evp&)iir\q 5sv sivai Grj- 
[j,spivfi. Togo a7i6 xa As^id 6go Kai and xa ApiGxspd, r\ oXr] 
7ipop}tri[j,axiKfi Kopu(p(b9riKs gxt] 5idpKsia xou Ilpcbxou Ila- 
yKOGfj-iou noXs[j,ou, £V(b Kaxsixs gt] [j,avxiKfi Gsgti gxk; 5sKas- 
xi8(; xou 1920 Kai xou 1930. Ilap' 6xi sxouv TispdGSi apKsxst; 
5sKasxiS(; skxoxs, S7isi5fi oi anieq nov 5ri[j,ioupyoi3Gav xrjv o^^r] 
Gt)(^fixriGri sxouv o[j,oi6xrixa [is xiq gt] [j,8pivs(;, oi xoxs avxiTia- 
pa9sG8i(; sxouv s^aipsxiKf) STiiKaipoxrixa Grmspa. To (^fixri[j,a 
yia xTjv ApiGxspd sxiGsxo mq s^^q: ^iTiopouGav oi dpxouG8(; 
xd^sK; xcov 5ia(p6p(DV xmp&iv xrjc; Evp&)iir\q va ^suspdGOUv 
«sipriviKd» xi^ [j,sxa^i3 xoix; 5ia(pops(;, yia va uudp^si [im e- 
viaia supcoTiaiKTi oiKovo[j,ia Kai GxaSiaKd 8va supcoTiaiKo u- 
7i8pKpdxo(; f) jpemCpTav yi' auxo avaxpoTif) xou Kamxa^^i- 
G[j,oi3; Sxk; 5sKasxis(; xou 1920 Kai 1930, r\ pdGt] xrjc; GU(^fixri- 
GT]^, a7i6 xa As^id, fixav naq r\ Evpchiu] 9a ^STispdGSi xr] 
«PaA,Kavo7ioiriGfi» xr]^ yia va f^TiopsGSi va avxaycoviGxsi ce 
iG6xi[j,ri pdGT] xk; HQA Kai xrjv laucDvia (!) xcopig va KaxpaKu- 
XfiGSi, ^avd, GS KaxaGxpocpiKotx; oikovo[j,ikoi3(; avxaycovi- 
Gfo^otx; Kai TioXe[iovq [iSTa^i) supcoTiaiKcbv Kpaxcbv. 'Onrnq avxi- 



295 



Xa[j,pav6[j,aGT8, gtti pdori xou, to 7ip6pXri[j,a sivai to i5io Kai 
Gfi[j,spa. Sttiv Tipayfo^aTiKOTriTa, av «Kpi3Pa[a^s» Ta ov6[j,aTa 
Asviv, TpoTGKi, Mupidv, MaKVT6vaA,VT, ETps(^s[a^av kAti., Kai 
SKGuyxpovi(^a[j,s [j,STpia Ta Ksifo^sva, 9a sixa[j,s ttjv aiGGriGti 6ti 
T] GU(^fiTriGri 5is^dysTai gto uapov. 

ETa [lEca Tou IIpcbTOt) nayKOGfj-iou noXs[j,ou r\ apiGTspd 
TCDV GOGia}tiGTiK(bv KO[j,[j,dTC0v (Kai apxiKd Kai 01 MTlO^tGSpt- 
Koi) sixav uioGsTTiGSi TO Gi3v9ri[j,a tcov Evco[j,8vcov EoGiaXiGTi- 
K(bv rio^LiTSicbv TTjc; EupcDTiric;. Stti Guvsxsia o Asviv to ausp- 
pi\|/s. O >u6yog nov to a7isppi\|/s, 58v fiTav 'Xdjoi apxHi;, aX,M 
TaKTiKoi Xoyoi. ©scopouGS OTi 5sv UTifipxs T] avayKaia Gscoprj- 
TiKT) Gacpfivsia, svd) STim^^sov, «to Gi3v9r|[j,a tcov Evco[j,sv(dv 
rioXiTSicbv TTjc; Eup(b7iri(; [j,7iopoi3GS va o5riyfiGSi gs [j,ia avTi- 
Xri\|/ri Gi3[j,(pcova [is ttjv OTioia r] 7ipo>u8TapiaKfi STiavdGTaGri 9a 
STipsTis va apxiGei TauTOXpova to XiyoTspo g' oXoK^ripri ttjv 
8upco7iaiKTi ri7isipo». 

O Asviv 9scopoi3GS 6ti oi Evco[j,svs(; noXiTsis(; ttjc; Evp&)iir\q 
58V fiTav SuvaTOV va 7ipay[a^aT07ioiri9oi3v and xovq Kannaki- 
GTS(;. H pdGT] TT]^ s7iixsipri[j,aTO>^oyiag tou fiTav 6ti ce Guv9fi- 
K8(; Ka7iiTaXiG[j,oi3, sivai a5i3vaTri r\ iGOfj-STpr] oiKovo[j,iKfi avd- 
TiTU^ri [lexa^X) tcov 5ia(p6pcDV KpaTcbv. Auto GUVsudysTai 6ti 
Kd9s xojpa sxsi 5ia(popsTiKd S7ii7is5a oiKovo[j,iKfi(; 5i3va[j,ri^ 
Kai «G(paipcbv S7iippofi(;», Kd9s x^opot svTdGGSTai gto 5is9vfi 
KaTa[j,spiG[j,6 spyaGiat; [j,s SiacpopsTiKo Tpouo. Ka[j,ia dpxouGa 
Td^T] 5sv 9a 7iapaiTri9si tiots «oiKsio9s}tcb(;» and to [j,spi5io 
7101) Tri(; avTiGTOixsi Kai va to «[j,oipaGT8i» iGOTi^a [j,s aXkeq 
dpxoDGS^ Td^8i^, 8vcb avTi98Ta, 9a 7ipoG7ia9si va to stisktsivsi 
GS pdpo(; TCOV aXki)v. 

Fia Tov Asviv, r| 07ioia5fi7iOTS 7ipoG7id9sia Guvi37iap^r|(; tcdv 
Ka7iiTaA,iGT(bv gs Evco[j,svs(; noXiTsis(; ttjc; Evp&)iir\q, 9a TipsTisi 
va yivsi gtt] pdGt] [j,ia(; «[j,oipaGid(;» gs gxsgti [ie tt] 5i3va[j,ri 



296 



TT]^ Kd9s dpxouaa^ xd^ri^. Qgtogo, r\ [j,oipaGid «Gi3[j,(pcova [is 
TT] 5i3va[a^ri» sivai aSwaxri, yiaxi r\ «5i3va[a^ri» sivai SiapKocx; 
[j,STaPaX,}t6[j,svri. O Asviv avacpspsi oxi r\ Fspfa^avia Kai r\ la- 
Ticovia 5uvd[j,coGav noXkeq (pops(; TispiGGOxspo a7i' oxi r\ Ay- 
yMa Kai r\ TakXia Gxa xpovia nov [j-SGoMpriGav |J,sxpi xov A' 
nayKOGfj-io n6>u8[j,o. E7io[j,sv(d^, gs [iia 7ipoG7id9sia oiko56- 
[j,riGri(; [imq Ev(i)[ievr\q EupcoTiri^ and xa udvco, xo (^fixri[j,a xrjc; 
i8papxiKfi(; 9sGri(; xrjc; Kd9s dpxouGat; xd^rjc; 9a aTioxsXoiJGS 
Tiriyfi [i6vi[i(i)v 5ia(pcovi(bv Kai avxi7iapa9sGS(DV nov 9a 89sxav 
5iapK(b(; xo 6Ao oiKo56[a^r|[j,a gs a[j,(piGpfixri gt]. 

Kaxd xov Asviv, xa uapaTidvco 58v avaipouGav xrjv 7ii9av6- 
xTjxa va UTidp^si [im «7ipoG(Dpivfi Gt)[j,(pcovia» avd[j,SGa Gxa 
supcDTiaiKd Ka7iixa>uiGxiKd Kpdxrj. Qgxogo, auxf) 9a fixav s^' 
apxHf; S7iiG(paX.fig (auxo nov s[j,si(; ovo[j,dGa[j,s gxtjv avdXuGri 
nov 7iporiyfi9riK8 «aGxa9si(; iGoppo7iia»), 8V(b 9a fixav avxi- 
SpaGxiKT) Gxo 7ispisx6[j,sv6 xTjc;. 0a i^xav [im i^TispiaXiGxiKfi 
Gt)[j,[j,axia nov 9a ausi^touGS xrjv av9pco7i6xrixa, 9a eixe Gav 
Gxoxo XT] [j,syaA,i3xspri sK[j,sxdA,?tsuGri xcov spya(^o[j,£vcov xr]^ 
EupcDTiri^, xTjv KaxdTuvi^ri xrjc; GOGiaXiGxiKf)^ S7iavdGxaGri(; gs 
Kd9s supcoTiaiKTi xojpa, svcb o Asviv Kdvsi xrjv sktiXtikxikti 
7ip6pXs\|/ri 6x1 9a «Gfi[j,aivs oiKovofo^iKfi GxaGi[j,6xrixa» (gu- 
yKpivsxai xr] [j,sxa-MdaGxpixx E.E. [j,s auxf) xrjv 7ip6pXs\|/ri). 
To TiXfips^ Ksi[j,svo xou Asviv xo 7iapa9sxou[j,s gxo xeXx^q av- 
Toi) xou KscpaXaiou. 

Ms XT] GuX,}tOyiGXlKfl xou Asviv, O TpOXGKl GU[J,(p(DV0l3GS 

a7ioA,i)xco<;: 

«H GxsxiKd TiXfiprig oiKovo[j,iKfi svoDGT] xTj^ EupcDTirit; 
a7i6 xa Tidvco, tiou 9a i^xav xo a7ioxsXsG[j,a [j,ia(; GU[j,[j,a- 
Xia^ avd[j,SGa gxk; Ka7iixa}tiGxiKS(; KuPspvfiGSi^, sivai 
[j,ia ouxoTiia. 'Exgi xa 7ipdy[j,axa 5sv f^TiopoiJV va Tidvs 



297 



7110 [j,aKpid a7i6 87ii[j,spou(; GU[j,piPaG[j,oi3^ Kai ri[j,i[j,STpa. 
Kaxd GUVSTisia r\ i5ia r\ oiKovo[j,iKfi svcoori Tri(; Eupcb- 
iir\q, 710U UTiOGxsTai Tspdaxia 7iXsovsKTfi[j,aTa gtoix; 7ia- 
paycoyotx; Kai xovq KaxavaXcoxs^, onmq Kai gttiv avd- 
TiTU^ri ysviKd ttjc; KouX,TOi3pa(;, yivsxai to STiavaGxaxiKo 

KaGflKOV TOU SUpCOTiaiKOlJ TipoXsTapidlOU TIOU 7iaX,81J8l 

SVdVTia GTOV If^TlSpia^tlGTlKO 7ipOGTaTSUTlG[J,6 Kttl TO 6p- 

^ r 286 

yavo Tou to [j,iMTapiG[j,o». 

Tcbpa, 5iapdGTS TipoGSKTiKd to TiapaKdTO ksi[j,svo tou 
TpoTGKi (nov avacpspsTai gttjv TiiGavoTriTa sipriviKfi^ svotioi- 
riGrjc; ttjc; Evp&)iir\q and xovq KamTa^tiGTSt;), 9au[j,dGTS ttjv 
KpuGTdXXivri }toyiKfi tou, Kai GuyKpivsTai tk; Gsgsk; Kai auo- 
\\ieiq Tou [le xa Grmspivd 7ipop}tfi[j,aTa ttjc; E.E.(sP5o[jfiVTa o- 
XoK^ripa xpovia [j,8Td!): 

«nco<g n;ropsi va svcoGsi r\ Evp(anr\; 
(4 OKTCDppti 1929) 

O Mupidv* vicbGsi ttjv avdyKt] va Ps^tTicDGSi ttjv iGTopiKf) 
[j,oipa 350 sKaTOfj-i^upicov EupcoTiaicov, nov sivai oi (popsit; tou 



* ApioxelSrn; Mxpidv (1862-1932), TolXot; TiokxiKOt;, ISpuoe tt] oomali- 
oTiKJi e(pri(xepl5a L' Humanite. EKXexxriKe PouXeuxfn; xcov Eomalioxrav xo 
1902, cooxooo fi5ri avio xo 1906 aXkai^e xooo tioXu xi<; koIixikeq xou avio- 
v|/ei<; cboxe SiaypdcpxriKe avio xo EomalioxiKo K6|i|ia. AiexeXeoe 1 1 cpopei; 
TipcoGuTioupyog, Kai xo 1909 \ie xt] xpiior] piag oxaiidxrioe xriv aviepyia xcov 
m5ripo5po|iiKcbv. Atio xo 1915 jisxpixo 1917, oxr] SidpKeiaxou A' Ila- 
yKooiiioi) IloXeiioi), iixocv emKecpolfn; KuPepvriorn; ouvaomoiioi). Exr] 
SidpKEia xrig SeKoexiou; xou 1920, co<; uvioupyoi; e^coxepiKcbv, epydoxriKe |i£ 
xov Fouoxdpo Expe(^e|iav, UTioupyo e^coxepiwav xri<; repiiocvioi;, yia xtj 
yolXoyepjioviKfi eviavaTipooeyyiori. Ilfipav Kai oi 5i)o xo PpaPeio NojiTieA, 
yia xnv eipiivi] xo 1926. To 1927 oe 0|iiA,ia xou oxiiv Koivcovia xcov E6vcbv 

298 



u\|/riX6Tspou 7ioXiTiG[j,oi3, aXXd 5sv Kaxacpspvouv va l^^covv 
8GTC0 Ki sva [j,6vo aicbva xcoplt; [iia 5co5sKd5a Tio'ke.[iovq Kai 
STiavaoTdGSi^. Fia xdpri ttjc; sipfivsuGric; xou TiXavfiTri [j,a(;, o k. 
MaKVTOvaXvT* 5isgxigs tov Ax^^avTiKo CDKsavo. Exriv r\[ie- 
pfiGia Sidxa^ri PpiGKovxai oi Ev(0[j,svs(; noA,ixsiS(; xtjc; Eupcb- 
Tiri^, o a(p07iXiG[j,6(;, r\ ekevQepia xou sfo^Tiopiou, r\ sipfivri. Ha- 
vxoij, 01 dxKki)[iaTeq xcov Kscpa^^aioKpaxcbv [j,aysip8i3ouv [im 
(piXsipriviKTi GOiJTia. Aaoi xri(; EupcDTiri^, Xaoi oXou xou k6- 
G[j,ot), 7idpx8 oXoi xk; Kouxd}t8g Ki sxoi[j,aGxsixs va (pdxs. 

Fiaxi 6}tri auxf) r\ (paGapia; Exo xsAo(;-xsAo^, oi gogi- 
a}^iGxs^ 58V 8ivai auxoi nov PpiGKovxai gxk; KuPspvfi- 
gsk; xcov 7110 Grifa^avxiKcbv xcopcbv xr|(; Evp&)iir\q ki, av 5sv 
8ivai SKsi Ki6Xa(;, 58v sivai auxoi nov sxoi[j,d(^ovxai v' 
avsPouv; Nai, yi' auxov aKpipdx; xov }^6yo! Eivai Ki6}ta(; 
(pavspo 6x1 xo Gxs5io xou Mupidv Kai xo g^sSio xou 
MaKvx6vaX,vx S7ii5i(bKouv xrjv «8ipfiv8UGr|» xri(; avGpco- 
7i6xrixa(; and 5ia[j,sxpiKd avxi9sxs(; Kaxsu9i3vGSi(;. O 



oxri revEUTi Kolsoe xi^ Xtt)pe<; xrig EupcoTirn; va Tipoxcopiioouv oe eva «el- 
5ou<; o|io(j7iov5iaKoi) 5e(j|ioi)». 

'' MaKVTOvalvT (1866-1937), o Tipcbxog Bpexovog 7ipco6u7ioupy6<; aTio to 
EpyaxiKO K6|i|ia. Atio tou<; iSpirrei; xov EpyaxiKoi) K6\i\iaxoq |i£ to OTioio 
eK^exSriKe PouXeuxfn; to 1906. 'Eyive TipoeSpog xou K6\i\iaxoq xo 1911 
aXka e^ovayKdoxriKe, xpla xpovia apyoxepa, oe Tiopalxriori oxocv opviiBriKe 
va UTiooxripl^ei xrjv elooSo xri<; Bpexocvlag oxov A' IlayKooiiio n6Xe|io. To 
1922 ^ocvdyive 7ip6e5po<; xou K6\i\iaxoq. To 1924 eyive KpatOvKOvpyoq, 
cooxooo T] KuPepvriofi xou Kaxeppeuoe avio Kaxriyople<; 6xi iixocv koIv cpik- 
Kii Tipoi; xriv EoPiexiKii 'Evcoor]. To 1925, oxo cjuveSpio xou EpyaxiKou 
K6(X(xaxo<;, cruvepode aviocpamoxiKd oxo va avioKripu^ei xo K6|i|ia xov ko|i- 
|iouvi(j|i6. To 1929 ^avdyive 7ipco9u7ioupy6<;. To 193 l(evcb elxe ^eoTidoei r] 
Meydlr] 'Ycpeor]) TiapaixiiGriKe oxav apviiBriKe va ecpapiiooei xo oikovo|ii- 
k6 Tipoypajxjxa xou K6(X|iaxo<;. Havaoximotxioe, aiizccoq, KuPepvriori jxe xrjv 
UTiooxiipi^ri xou EuvxriprixiKoi) K6|i|iaxo<; Kai xcov 3)iXeA£u6epcov. To Ep- 
yaxiKo K6|i|ia xov KaBalpeoe avio 7ip6e5po xou K6|i|iaxo<;. 

299 



MTipidv 98^81 va 8V07i0ifiG8i xriv EupcDTiri oav [j,STpo 
df^uvat; ausvavTi gttiv A^spiKf). O MaKVTOvaXvx Qekei 
va Ksp5iGSi xriv suyvco^oouvri xri^ A[j,spiKfi^ Sivovxdt; 
Tri(; TT] PofiGsid xou yia va Kaxamsosi xriv EupcoTiri. Auo 
xpaiva nov xpsxouv [is iXrfji&)dr\ xaxuxrixa xo sva Kaxa- 
Tidvco Gxo aXk) [is gkotio va gcdgouv xovq smpdxs^ and 

XT]... GTjyKpOUGTl. 

'EcpxaGS va GOUcppcoGOUv oi Hv(D[j,£VS(; noXneieq xa 
(ppi35ia xou(; yia va aKupcoGsi r\ ajj'kojakXiKr] vauxiKf) 
GU[j,(pcovia xri<; 28 louXr]. To S7isig65io auxo [laq deijyEi 
7i8vxaKd9apa 7ioiO(; aKpipdcx; sivai o gugxsxig[j,6^ 5uvd- 
[j,scov GXO GT] [j,spiv6 k6g[j,o . «Mriv Gat; TispaGS auo xo 
HuaXo 6x1 sifo^ai 5iaxs9si[j,svri va GU[j,[j,op(p(D9(b [is otioi- 
sgStitioxs 5ia7ipay[j,axsi3G8i(; 5is^dysxs sg81(; gxk; o^Qsq 
xTjc; Mdxn<;;» 6GX8i}^s xo [j,fivt)[j,a r] A[j,spiKfi. «Av gko- 
Tisijsxs va GU(^rix8iGxs GoPapd, xoxs va f^Tisixs gxov kotio 
va' p9sixs a7i6 xr] Sikt) [laq [lepm xou AxXavxiKoi3». Ki o 
MaKvx6vaA,vx xGaKiGxriKs va k>u81g81 5cD[j,dxio as a^iepi- 
KaviKo ^8vo5ox8io. Auxo a7io58ix9riK8 Gav xo nio npaj- 
[j,axo7ioifiGi[j,o [j,spo(; xou 7ipoypd[j,[j,axo(; xrjc; sipfivsuGric;. 

Sxr| Fsvsijri, oi S7ii5o^oi «svo7ioirixs(;» xrjc; supcDTiai- 
Kr\q r|7isipou 5sv aiG9dv9riKav mo dvsxa and xouq Xoi)- 
Gxpotx; xcov a[j,spiKaviK(bv GxiPavicbv gxtjv avxiTispa 6- 
x9ri xou coKsavoij. Ta [laxm xovq aA,Xri9(bpiGav Ka9(b(; 
5sv xoX[j,oi3Gav va xa udpouv and xov A[j,spiKdvo xcopo- 
(pijXaKa. O Mupidv dpxios Kai xsXsicovs xoix; Xoyoix; 
xou [IE 5iaKripi3^si(; 6xi r\ svoTioiriGri xr]^ Evp&)ivr\q 5sv 
TipsTisi GS Ka[j,id TispiTixcoGTi Kai yia Kavsva Xoyo va 
Gxpacpsi svdvxia Gxr|v A[j,spiKfi. (deoq (puM^si! Aiapd- 
C,ovTaq auxotx; xoix; opKoix; tiigxtic;, oi A[j,8piKavoi tioXi- 
xiKoi 9a TipsTisi va svicoGav 5uo Xoyicbv iKavo7ioifiG8i(;: 



300 



O Mupidv [laq (popdxai. . . aXXd 5sv ToX[j,dsi oijts va [laq 

TO 7l8l». 

E7iavaXa[j,pdvovTa(; xa Xoyia xou Mupidv g8 gxsgti 
[j,8 xriv A[j,spiKfi, o Exps(^s[j,av* s^a7i6X,UGS xauxoxpova 
[j,ia KaX,t)[j,[j,svri 7ioXs[j,iKfi svavxiov xou. O XsvxspGOV 
SKav8 7ioXs[j,iKfi svdvxia Kai gxoix; 5uo Kai TiepiGGOxspo 
Gxo TaXko 7ipco9u7ioupy6. Na, gs xi s^sMxGrjKs r\ Te- 
vsijri: 

MTipidv: «Ss Ka[j,id TispiTixcoGri svdvxia cziq Hvro^s- 
veq IloXneieq xrjc; A[j,spiKfi9>. 

Exps(^s[j,av: «E8 Ka[j,id, a7ioX,i3xcDg. MspiKoi, 6[j,cog, 
8X0UV GXO i^ua^to xou(; ki akin nov 5sv xa Xsvs avoiKxd. 
Movo GXT] rsp[j,avia ^iTiopsi va 8X8i s^TiiGxoGiJvri r| A- 
^spiKfi». 

MaKvxovaXvx: «OpKi(^o[j,ai gxt] BtpXo 6xi r\ vo[j,i[j,o- 
(ppoGUvri [j,sxa^i3 (piXrov sivai auoKXeiGxiKo xdpiG[j,a xcdv 
Bpsxavcbv Kai [j,d}tiGxa xcov Sk(dxgs(^(dv». 

Na, TicD^ 5ri[j,iot)pyfi9riKs xo «V80 5i89v8^ KXi[ia» xrjt; 
Fsvsijri^. 

H aSuvafo^ia xri(; EupcoTirig xcdv rmspcbv [laq aTioppssi 
Tipcbxa Kai Kijpia and xov oikovo[j,ik6 xtjc; 5ia[j,s}tiG[j,6. H 
5i3va[j,ri xcdv Hvcd[j,£vcdv IloXixsicbv auoppssi, avxiGexa, 
ano XTjv oiKovo[j,iKfi xrjc; svoxrixa. To (^fixri[j,a sivai: IIcd^ 
9a pt)9[j,iGxoi3v xa 7ipdy[j,axa sxgi tiou va \x{\ Gxpacpsi r\ 
svoTioiriGTi xri(; Evp&)iir\q svdvxia gxtjv Afo^spiKTi, xtopi<;, 



* rouoxdpot; Expei^eixocv (1878-1929), rep|iav6<; TioXmKot;, eyive PouXeu- 
Tfi<; TO 1907 Kai oxri 5iapKeia xou A' IlayKooiiioi) IloXeiioi) UTiooxfipi^e to 
yepjioviKo i|i7i£piali(j|i6. 'Eyive KayKeXdpiog \na£, PpaxuPiOi; KuPepvriorn; 
TO 1923. Atio to 1923 ecog to 1929 UTiiip^e i)7ioi)py6<; tcov e^coTepiKcbv Kai 
(loi^i (18 Tov Mvipidv dvoi^ocv to 5p6(xo Tijg (PpaxuPiag) yolXoyepjioviKin; 
eTiovaTipooeyyioin;. 

301 



5riXa5fi, va akM.t,Ei to gugxstig[j,6 tcov 5uvd[j,8cov ce 
Pdpog TTjc; A[iEpiKr\q. 

H 8(pr|[j,spi5a «NTairiXi XspaX,VT», to [j,iGOS7iiGr|[j,o 
opyavo Tou MaKVT6vaA,VT, gto (pvXko Tri(; 10 Ss7iT8[j,Ppri 
1929, xapaKTTipiGS ttjv i5sa tcov Ev(D[j,svcov IloXnei&)V 
TT]^ Evp&)iir\q Ga «xovTpoKO[j,[j,£vri», aK6[j,a Kai TipoKXr]- 
TiKT). Av auTT) T] (pavTaGicoGTi Tijxaivs va Tidpsi GdpKa 
Kai OGTd, coGTOGO, 01 Ev(i)[iEVEq UoXneieq ttjc; Evp&)iir\c, 
9a i3\|/(Dvav sva TspaT(b5s(; 5aG[j,oXoyiK6 t81xo(; ausvavTi 
gtk; HQA, STGi sypacps to [j,iGOS7iiGri[j,o opyavo tou 
MaKVTOva^o'T, fj,' a7iOTsXsG[j,a va GTpifo^coxGsi r\ M. Bps- 
Tavia avd[j,SGa ce 5uo rjTisipoix; Gav GdvTOUiT^. Ki r\ 
«NTairiXi XepakvT» guvsxi(^s Tiapauspa: Ilax; va Tispi- 
[j,svou[j,8 a7i6 TTjv A[j,spiKfi va [laq PoriGfiGSi, acpoij s[j,8i(; 
01 i5ioi aKoXou9oi3[j,s TSTOia Tiopsia 7ipo(; ttjv svoTioiriGri 
Tri(; Evp&)iir\q; «H svspysia auTT) sivai KaGpf) uapacppo- 
Gijvri Kai aK6[j,a x£ip6T8pri». 

A5i3vaTOV va siticdGsi GacpSGTspa. 

Kavsig 58V ^spsi ti aKpipdcx; UTiOTiGsTai 6ti gt] [j,aiv8i 
r\ 5ri[j,iot)pyia Evco[j,sv(dv rioXiTSicbv ttjc; EupcoTiric; gttjv 
Tipd^rj. O STps(^s[j,av [j,iKpuvs 6)^0 to (^fiTrma, KaTavTcb- 
vzaq TO [j,ia auXfi vo[j,iG[j,aTiKfi [j,ovd5a Kai ...Koivd 
ypafj.naTOGriij.a. Ea va TiapaTiscpTSi Myo. O Mupidv 7ip6- 

T81V8 TT] «[J,sXsTri» TOU (^riTfl[J,aTO(;, 710U TO 7ispi8x6[j,8v6 

Tou Kavsi(; Ssv yvcopi(^si. 

To PaGiKo KaGfiKov ttjc; svoTioiriGri^ upsTisi va s^si 
oikovo[j,ik6 xapaKTTipa, 6xi [lovo [is ttjv s^TiopiKfi, akXd 
Kai [IE TTjv TiapayroyiKTi swoia. Eivai aTiapaiTriTri r\ dr\- 
[j,ioupyia evoq KaGsGTWTOt; nov Ga KaTapyfiGSi Ta TEjyr]- 
Td Gijvopa avd[j,SGa gto supcoTiaiKo KdpPouvo Kai to 
supcoTiaiKo GiSspo. Eivai aTiapaiTtiTO va 5oGsi r\ 5uva- 



302 



TOTrixa OTO ci)CTr\\ia ri^^sKxpoSoxriGri^ va STisKxaGsi 6go 

TO 8711TP8710UV 01 (pUGlK8(; Kttl 01K0V0[J,IKS(; GUvGflKS^ Kl 
6X1 OGO TO STllTpSTlOUV Ttt GUVOpa 710U KaGopiGS r| Suv- 

GfiKTi Tcov BspGaA,}Li(bv. D^^oi oi Gi5r|p65po[j,oi Tri(; Eu- 
pcDTirig TipsTisi va 8vcoGoi3v Kai v' aTiOTsXsGOUv sva [lo- 
vaSiKo 5iKTt)o Kai to i5io TipsTisi va GU[j,psi fj,' 6}a Ta 
7ipdy[j,aTa Kai va GUVsxi(^STai to i5io [j,otiPo SGasi. OXa 
auTd, eivai a5iav6riTa xtopi<; t^IV KaTaGTpocpf) tou gu- 
GTfi[j,aTO(; Tri(; apxaia(; Kivat; tiou Gf^spa gttivsi 5aG[j,o- 
>uoyiKd Gijvopa KO[j,[j,aTid(^ovTa^ ttjv Evp&)iir\. Auto, [j,8 
TT] GSipd Tou, GT] [j,aivsi [j,ia [j,ova5iKfi TiavsupcoTiaiKfi s- 

VCDGT] SVdVTia GTTjV A^SpiKf). 

Asv i^Tiopsi va UTidpxsi r\ 7iapa[j,iKpfi a[j,(piPoMa 6ti 
av GapcoGow Ta SGCOTspiKd 5aG[j,o}^oyiKd TSixn, ^1 Kam- 
TaXiGTiKT) EupcDTiri Ga scpTavs, [j,STd and [im 7ispio5o 
KpiGSCDV ava5i7i}t(DGri(; Kai ava7ipoGap[j,oyfi(;, gs u\|/r|}t6 
enmedo gtt] pdGt] ttjc; Kaivoijpyia^ KaTavo[j,fi(; tcdv 7ia- 
payroyiKcbv 5uvd[j,s(DV. Auto sivai togo a5ia[j,(piGpfiTriT0 

OGO Kai TO OTl, [lECa GTl^ KaTdX^rj^S^ 01K0V0[J,IK8(; GUV- 

GfiKS(;, 01 [iEjakeq STiixsipfiGSK; UTispsxouv aTiocpaGiGTi- 
Kd Tidvco gtk; [iiKpeq. AXXd tiots [laq 5sv aKoi3Ga[j,s Ka- 
vsva [j,iKpospyoXdpo va uapaiTriGsi Gs^^rmaTiKd and tt] 
douXem tod yia xdptj auTf)^ tt]^ aXfiGsia(;. Fia va cpTd- 
Gouv va s^avT^fiGOUv Ta opia, oi [j,sydXoi KauiTaXiGTS^ 
sivai UTioxpscofo^svoi va KaTaGTps\|/ouv TipcDTa toix; [ii- 
Kpotx;. To i5io GU[j,paivsi Kai [is xa KpdTTj. Ta 5aG[j,oAo- 
yiKd Tsixn u\|/(bvovTai aKpipdcx; xo^Pil ^'^^ Ksp5ri nov 
(pspvouv Kai yi' auTO sivai auapaiTriTa gttjv KdGs aGTi- 
KT) Td^T] GS pdpo(; Kd7ioia(; aXkr\q, ave^dpTrjTa and to 
jejovoq OTl Ta Tsixn auTd KaGuGTspow ttjv avcuiTV^r] 
TTjc; oiKovo[j,ia^ GUVoXiKd. [...] Av o [j,sydAo^ KauiTa^^i- 



303 



GTTi^ sivai U7ioxpsco[j,svo(; va Kaxaaxpsxi/si xov [j,iKpo, to 
(5io DTioxpscDfo^svo 8ivai 8va icxppo KpdTO(; va KaxaM- 
Psi xa aoGsvsGxspa, 7ipoK8i[j,8vou va Kaxapyfiosi xa 5a- 
G[j,oXoyiKd xotx; xsixn- 

SuyKpivovxa(; xrjv EupcDTiri xou Gf) [j,spa [is xrjv Fsp- 
|j,avia xou Tia^^ioij Kaipoij, otiou UTifipxav 5sKd5s(; and 
[j,iKps(; ysp[j,aviKS(; 7iaxpi5s(; Kai KdGs [im eixe xo 5ik6 
xTjc; xsXcovsio, o Exps(^s[j,av TipooTidGriGS va avaKaX,i3\|/8i 
Gxriv oiKovo[j,iKfi svoTioiriGri xrjc; Fspfa^avia^ xov Tipody- 
y8>uO xr|(; oiKovo[j,iKfi(; o[j,OG7iov5o7ioiriGri^ xr]^ Eup(b7iri(; 
Kai xou k6g[j,ou. O ■iiapaXkr\kic[i6q Ssv sivai KaGoXou 
KaK6(;. AXXd o Sxps(^s[j,av 7iapsX8i\|/s va tisi 6xi, yia va 
STiixsuxGsi auxf) r| svoTioiriGri - Kai, [lakicTa, auoK^si- 
GxiKd G8 sGviKTi pdGT] [lovo - T] Fspfj-avia UTioxpscbGriKs 
va TispdGSi a7i6 [im STiavdGxaGri (1848) Kai xpsi^ no'ke.- 
[j,ou(; (1864, 1866 Kai 1870) - yia va [j,ri [j,iXfiGOU[j,s yia 
xou(; Tio'ke.[io vc, Tr\c, Msxappi3G[j,iGri(;. Kai, gxo [j,sxa^i3, 
[isjpi Kai xi^ r\[iepeq [laq, [lexa xr] «5ri[j,0KpaxiKfi STiavd- 
GxaGri» (1918), r\ yspfj-aviKf) AuGxpia 7iapa[j,8vsi aK6[j,a 
8Kx6^ Fspfj-avia^ .[...]». 



Mexd Tr|v fixxa xou NaTioIeovxa, xo EuveSpio xri<; Biewri<; (1814-1815) 
eTiovaxdpa^e xo x^P^^ ''^^Q EupcoTirn;. 'Eva aTio xa a7ioxeXeo|iaxa xri<; cjuv- 
9fiKri<; fixav t] avxiKaxdoxaori xri<; Aylog Pco|iaiKfi<; AuxoKpaxopla^; (oxriv 
OTiola UTiiipxav Tispioooxepa avio 240 KpaxlSia!) avio xr] (xalapii) Fepiia- 
viKii Euvo|io(j7iov51a xcov 39 Kpaxcbv xa OTiola eKTipoocoTiowxav oe |iia 
avioxupil 2uveA£U(jri. H Ilpcoola riyfi9riKe xrig xeXcoviaKiig evcoorn; xcov 
Tiepioooxepcov yep|iaviKcbv Kpaxcbv, eKx6<; xri<; Auoxplai;. 
Oi ETiavaoxdoeK; xou 1848, kov owxdpa^av xi<; EupcoTiaiKeg X'^P^Q^ ^t^- 
Kxd9riKav Kai oxt] Fepiiavla. E^eyepoen; eyivav oxt] Bauapla, xriv Ilpcoola 
Kai XT] voxioSuxiKii Fepiiavla. H xpo|ioKpaxri(i£vri apioxoKpaxla ouiicpcb- 
vrioe va aviooxalow avxiTipoocoTioi oe jiia oweXeuori oxt] 3)pavKcpoi)pxri 
oxTjv OTiola v|/ricpioxriKe eva cpiXeXeuBepo owxayiia yia (iia evoTioirmevri 
Fepiiavia vko ouvxayfiaxiKii jiovapxia. £2ox6oo t] e^eyepor] Kaxsoxdlri 

304 



AtIO TTIV apxn TO K8{[J,8VO TOU TpOTGKl [J,a(; ...7iapa7l8^7l8l 

GTO Tiapov. H GU(^fiTr|Gri [isTa^i) Mupidv, STps(^8[a^av, Kai 
MaKVTOvaXvT 9u[j,i(^ouv svxova tk; StiXcdgsi^ tcov MuXsp, 
SpsvTsp, SipdK Kai OiGsp, oxi T] E.E. dev 9a fj-sxaxpaTisi gs 
avTaycDviGxfi tcov HIIA. Kai tots, onrnq Kai Gf^spa, fiTav r] 
TaXkia r\ nkeov ...«avTia[j,spiKaviKfi». Kai tots, otigx; Kai cr\- 
[j,spa, r\ BpsTavia (poPoTav 6ti t] «supco7iaiKfi oXoKXfipcoGri», 
sv5sxo[j,svco(;, 9a ttjv a7io[j,6vcovs and tov «a[j,spiKdvo (piXo», 

I^E TOV 071010 EXEl KoXkA Kai KOlvd GU[J,(pSpOVTa. 

H ouGia Tr|^ GKs\|/rig tou TpoTGKi, sivai 6ti [im svo7ioir|[j,s- 
vr\ KamTaXiGTiKTi Evp&)iir\ 7ipol)7io9ETSi tt] 5r|[j,ioupyia [imq 
sviaiac; oiKovo[j,ia(;, x<J^pi<^ dTUTioix; r\ tutiikoix; 5aG[j,oi3(;, xcopi(; 
Ta 89viKd KpdTT] va f^TiopoiJV va 7iaps^7io5i(^ouv ttjv Tiavsupco- 

OTTiv Auoxpla, T] OTiola apviiGriKe tt] (ju|i|i£TOxil xrig oxri yepiiocviKfi evo- 
Tioiriori. H e^eyepor] xeXiKd Kaxeoxalri Kai oxt] repiiocvla. H evoTiolriori 
xri<; repixavlrag eyive vko xov «(n5rip6» KayKeXdpio M7ilo|iapK Kai tx] 
oxpaxicoxiKii Swaiiri xrig Ilpcoolai; vko xov rouXieXiiog A' (evoTiolriori |i£ 
«al|ia Kai (Ji5ripo»). O Tipcbxog no'ksnoq eyive xo 1864- t] Ilpcoaia \iai^i (j£ 
xriv Auoxpia, evdvxia oxt] Aavia Kai xa eSdcpi] tiou Kaxeixe oe yep|iaviKd 
Kpdxi]. Oi Siacpcovfeg Ilpcooiai; Kai Auoxpia^; yia xo |ioipa(j|ia xcov Kaxa- 
Xxiiiievcov eSacpcbv, oSiiyijoe oxo 5ei)xepo 7i6Xe|io, [isxa^y Ilpcooiag- 
Auoxpiog xo 1866, oxov otioio ijxxiiBiiKe i] Auoxpia (o n6Xe|io<; xcov ETixd 
Ep5o|id5cov). riavai)7iepviKii9oi)v oi cpopoi xcov voxicov yep|iaviKcbv Kpa- 
xcbv |iiag TipcooiKin; ijyeiioviai;, o MmoiiapK aveXaPe xo xpixo Pii|ia, xov 
7i6Xe|io evdvxia oxiiv TaXkia xo 1870. O xoxe TaXkoq auxoKpdxopai; Na- 
TioXecov r' 7iie(^e xov Ilpcboo iiye|i6va roi)A,ieX|io<; A' va «i)7io(Jxe6ei» oxi 
Sev 9a 5ieK5iK0i)o8 xov (xoxe) xiipeuovxa 9p6vo xijg loTiaviai;. TeXiKd i] 
TaXkia Kiipu^e xov Tiolejxo oxnv Ilpcooia. O MmoiiapK eK|iexalXei)xiiKe 
xijv Kiipu^i] xoi) 7ioXe|ioi) aTio xi] TalXia yia va TipoKaleoei yepiiaviKo 
«e9viK6» ^e(jiiKco|i6. H evcojievi] Fepiiavia vko xijv Ilpcooia KaxaviKijoe 
xoix; rdlXoix;- xo Ilapioi KaxeXii(p9ii xo 1871. Exig BepoalXiei; xo 1871 o 
rouXieXjxoi; A' oxe(p9iiKe auxoKpdxopa^; xiji; FepjxaviKin; AuxoKpaxopiai;, 
xoi) Aeikepoi) Pdix. 

305 



TiaiKTi STisKTaari xou KscpaXaiou. H STisKTaori xou KscpaXaiou 
va i^Tiopsi va 5ri[j,ioupyfiGSi svav TiavsupcoTiaiKo Ka7iiTa}tiG[j,6 
X(Dpi(; GuyKSKpi[j,svri sGvikti pdori- «6go to smxpsTiouv oi cpu- 
GiKS(; Kai oiKovo[j,iKS(; GUv9fiKS(; ki by\ 6go to smxpsTiouv xa 
Gi3vopa». Muopsi Gfi[j,spa va \v(\v UTidpxouv xa 5aG[j,oAoyiKd 
xsixn, CDGXOGO, biKnc, si5a[j,s, UTidpxsi sva gijvoXo dxuTicov s- 
I^TioSicov, OGO Kai o KupiapxiK6(; pokoc, xou sGvikoij Kpdxotx;, 
710U 7iaps^7io5i(^ouv XT] 5ia[j,6p(p(OGri [j,ia(; 7ipay[j,axiKd Tiavsu- 
pcoTiaiKTic; oiKovo[j,ia(;. 

Kaxd xov TpoxGKi, av STiixuyxdvovxav g' oXoK^ripri xrjv 
EupcDTiri Gt)v9fiK8^ «x8Xsiou avxaycoviG[j,oi3», x6x8 avaTiocpsu- 
Kxa biuac, xo [j,sydXo KscpdXaio Kupiapxsi gxo [j,iKp6, xo i5io 9a 
Guvspaivs Kai [j,s xa sGviKd Kpdxr] nov auoxsAow xrjv Kamxa- 
}tiGxiKfi EupcDTiri. Ta iGXupoxspa Kscpd^^aia, xcdv [j,syaA,i3x8p(DV 
Kai iGXupoxspcov Kpaxcbv, 9a KupiapxouGav stii xcov [j,iKp6x8- 
prov. Auxf) T] ava5idp9pcoGri xou KscpaXaiou, g8 [j,ia sviaia Ka- 
Tiixa^tiGxiKTi EupcDTiri, 5sv i^Tiopsi va yivsi siprjviKd, auxo sivai 
xo v6ri[j,a xr[c, xzkzvxaiac, uapaypdcpou, \\.z xo 7iapd5siy[j,a xri(; 
yspfj-aviKTi^ svo7ioiriGri(;. H 5ia5iKaGia auxf) Ka9auxfi {v(\c, 
«supco7iaiKfi(; oXoKXfipcoGri9>), 9a aTiaixouGS ■!i6hz\iovc, (sixs 
GxpaxicoxiKotx; sixs oikovo[j,ikoi3(;) Kai suavaGxdGSK;. 0a Tipo- 
KaXoiJGS avauocpsuKxa, (5V(\v i5ia v(\c, xrjv s^sXi^r|, xspdGxiS(; 
avaxapd^si^, nov Kd9s Gxiy^f), 9a s9sxav xo oko syxsiprma 
U7i6 a[j,(piGpfixri GT] (Kai Tipo xou «Kiv5iJvot)» v(\c, spyaxiKT)^ s- 
7iavdGxaGri(;). 

Tzkoc,, a^i(^si va ava(psp9si, 6xi r] Ko[j,[j,ouviGxiKfi Ais9vfi(; 
xo 1923 uio9sxriGS xo Gi)v9ri[j,a xcov Evco[j,svcov EoGiaXiGxiKcbv 
rioXixsicbv v(\c, EupcDTiric;, [j,s PaGiKo UTiOGxripixxfi xov TpoxGKi. 
AK6[j,a Kai xo 1926 (uap' 6xi fi5ri si^av apxiGSi oi 5i(b^si^ xcov 
«xpoxGKiGX(bv») r] Ko[j,[j,ouviGxiKfi Ais9vfi(; u7iOGxfipi(^s: 



306 



«Eivai TioXi) ormavTiKo oxi [j,6vo va sxod^s ^iia Kpi- 
TiKTi GTdari ausvavTi gto aoxiKo - GOGiaXiaxiKo GUvGrj- 
[la («nav-Eup(b7iri») Guvxpipovxat; xo auaxriXo siprjvi- 
GxiKo xou 7ispisx6[j,svo, aXXd Kai va xou avxixd^ot)[j,s, 
xauxoxpova, sva svepyrixiKo Gi3v9r|[j,a nov va f^Tiopsi 
7ipay[j,axiKd va sivai sva TispisxxiKo tioXixiko cx)vQr\[ia, 
yia xa [j,sxaPaxiKd [j,a(; aixfuo^axa. Trjv S7i6[j,svri 7ispio5o, 
xo Gi3v9ri[j,a xcov Evco[j,svcov EoGiaXiGxiKcbv rioXixsicbv 
xTjc; Evp&)iir\q, TipsTisi va xpriGi[j,si3GSi Gxa supcoTiaiKd 
Ko[j,[a^ouviGxiKd K6[j,[j,axa, Gav TispisxxiKo tio^^ixiko gijv- 
0ri[j,a».^^^ 

H s7iixsipri[j,axoAoyia xou TpoxGKi (vnep auxoij xou GUvGr)- 
[j,axog) fixav r\ aKoXouGri: 

«ria va U7ispaG7iiGOU[j,8 xo Gi3v9ri[j,a xcov Evco[j,svcov 
EoPisxiKcbv rioXixsicbv xri(; Evp&)iir\q gt] [j,si(bva[j,s Gxa 
1915 nmq o v6[j,0(; xrjc; aviG6[j,spri(; E^eki^r\q 5sv aTioxs- 
Xsi a7i6 [j,6\0(; xou sva 87iix8ipri[j,a svdvxia ce auxo xo 
Gi3v9ri[j,a. npay[j,axiKd, r\ aviGOxrixa xr]^ iGxopiKfic; avd- 
mv^r\q sivai [le xr] GSipd xri(; dviGt] gs gxsgti [j,s xa 5id- 
(popa KpdxT] Kai rjTisipoix;: oi supco7iaiKS(; x&ipeq ava- 
TixiJGGOVxai GuyKpixiKd dviGa r\ [im [is xrjv aXkr\, cogxo- 
GO, i^Tiopsi Kavsi(; va tisi [j,s aTioXuxr] PsPaioxrjxa tico^ 
a7i6 iGxopiKT) d7io\|/ri dev UTidpxsi 7ipor|yoi3[j,svo, xouXd- 
XiGxo Gxr| 5idpKsia xr]^ iGxopiKfic; STiO')(j(\q nou f^Tiopsi 
Kavsi(; va s^sxdGSi, nov [im an' avxeq xiq x&tpeq va ^s- 
TispaGS xk; aXkeq xogo 6go r\ A[iEpiKr\ ^suspaGS xrjv 
EupcDTiri. Yudpxsi [im KM[j,aKa aviGOxrixat; yia xr|v A[j,s- 
piKT) Kai [j,ia dX,A,ri yia xrjv EupcDTiri. Oi iGxopiKst; Kai 
ysroypacpiKs^ GUv9fiKS(; KaGopiGav ano xa Tipiv avd[j,SGa 



307 



otk; xcbps^ Tri(; EvpG)Tir\q [iia opyaviKf) ouvdcpeia togo 
0UGicb5ri (DGTS 58V i^Tiopow [IE Kttvsva xpoTio va ^S(pl3- 
youv an' avxi]. Oi Gr|[a^spiv8(; aGxiKst; supco7iaiKS(; ku- 
PspvfiGSi^ [iomCpvv [IE 5oXo(p6vou(; 5s[j,svou(; gto i5io 
dp[j,a. Dtiox; sxou[j,s Kiohxq tisi t] STiavaGxaGri gttiv Eu- 
pcDTiri 9a sxsi gs TsXeuxaia avdX,UGri [j,ia aTiocpaGiGxiKfi 
GTiouSaioxriTa yia xriv A[j,spiKfi. Ma d[j,SGa, [ie tov mo 
KovTivo iGTopiKo t)7ioXoyiG[j,6, T] STiavdGTaGTi Gxri Fsp- 
[j,avia, 9a sxsi 7ioX.i3 mo [iejoXt] GTiouSaiOTrixa yia tt] 
raX,Ma Tiapd yia xiq Hvcd[j,8V8^ noXiTSiS(; Tri(; Bopsiat; 
Afo^spiKTic;. Atio auTTi tt] gxsgti tiou 5ri[j,ioi3pyr|GS r| I- 
GTopia, Pyaivsi r\ noXniKi] (^cDTiKoxriTa xou GUv9fi[j,aT0(; 
Tri(; 0[j,OG7iov5(a(^ xcov SoPisx ttjc; Eup(b7iri9>.^^^ 

To Gi)v9ri[j,a ttjc; 0[j,OG7iov5ia(; xcov SoPisx Tr\c, Evp&)nr\q 
l^sid TO 1925 dpxiGS Giyd-Giyd va syKaxaXsiTiSTai. EyKaxa- 
A,s((p9riK8 Gav «tpotgkigtik6» and xovq Gxa^tiviKoij^, aX^A Kai 
58V uTiopsGS va «pi(^(bGSi» GTO TOTS spyaTiKo Kivri[j,a. O Xoyog 
fiTav r\ UTioxcbpriGri tou spyaTiKou Kai STiavaGTaTiKoij Ki3[j,aT0^ 
nov KaxEKkvC^E [lE^pi t6t8 TTjv EupcDTiri. YuoxcbpriGri, nov e- 
cpsps smuXsov, Kai ttjv syKaTdXsi\|/ri tcov GUv9ri[j,dTC0v «7iou 

290 

TipsTisi va TiporiyouvTai a[j,SGa Tri(; s7iavaGTaGri(;». 
AKoX,ot)9si TO apiGTOupyrmaTiKo Ksi[j,svo tou Asviv: 

«ria TO ovvGima xcov 

Evconevcov IIoXitskdv Tr\q Evpuinryq 

(23 Adyovotod 1915) 

Stti «SoTGidX-NTS[j,OKpdT», ap. cpuX. 40, avaKoivcb- 
Ga[j,s OTi r\ Suv5idGKs\|/ri tcov T[j,ri[j,dTCOv s^coTspiKou tou 
K6[j,[j,aT6(; [j,a(; auocpdGiGS va avapd^tsi to (^fiTri[j,a tou 



308 



GUv9fi[j,aT0^ «Eva)[j,8V8g no>^iT8i8^ TTjc; Eup(b7iri(;», cdgo- 

TOU GU(^riTri98l GTOV TIJTIO r\ OlKOVO[J,lKfl 7l}t8Upd TOU. 

H Gt)(^fiTriGri nov syiV8 TidvcD g' auxo to (^fiTrna^a gxt] 
GUv5idGKs\|/fi [laq n^pe [lovonXevpa 7ioA,itik6 xapaKxfi- 
pa. Auto sv [lepei iGCog va 0(psiA,8Tai gto ysyo\6g on 
GXT] SiaKTipu^ri Tri(; KsvTpiKfi(; ETiixpoTific; to Gi3v9ri[j,a 
auTO 5iaTU7i(bvsTai KaGapd Gav tioXitiko («to d[j,SGO 
TioXiTiKo Gi3v9ri[j,a»-X8si r\ SiaKfipu^ri) Kai xauxoxpova 
5sv 5iaTU7i(bvsTai [lovo to Gi3v9r|[j,a tcdv 5ri[j,0KpaTiK(bv 
EvcDfo^svcov rioXiTSKDV TT]^ Eup(b7iri(;, [la Kai U7ioypa[j,[j,i- 
(^sxai si5iKd OTi «xcopi^ xriv STiavaGTaxiKfi avaxpoTifi ttjc; 
ysp[j,aviKfi(;, ttjc; auGxpiaKfic; Kai Tri(; pcoGiKfic; [j,ovapxi- 
a(;» TO Gi3v9ri[j,a auxo sivai Tiapd^^oyo Kai aTiaxri^to. 

Asv 9a fixav Ka96Xou gcdgto va (pspsi Kavsit; avxip- 
pfiG8i(; Gxriv xsxoia xo7io98xriGri xou (^rixfi[j,axo(; [j,SGa 
Gxa TiXaiGia xr]^ 7ioXixiKfi(; sKxi[j,ri gtjc; xou GUv9fi[j,axo^ 
auxou - Xoyouxdpri and xrjv d7io\|/ri 6xi S7iiGKid(^si f) a- 
5uvaxi(^8i k.Xti. xo Guv9ri[a^a xri(; GOGia^tiGxiKfic; STiavd- 
GxaGTjc;. Oi 7io?tixiKoi [j,sxaGxri[j,axiG[j,oi iipoq [j,ia Tipay- 
[j,axiKd 5ri[j,0KpaxiKfi Kaxsu9uvGri ki aK6[j,a TispiGGOxspo 
01 7io}tixiK8(; STiavaGxdGSK; 5sv f^Tiopouv gs Kafo^id Tispi- 

TlXCOGTl 710XS Kai KdxCO a7l6 07lOlSG5fl7lOXS GUv9flKS(; ouxs 

va STiiGKidGOUv, ouxs v' aSuvaxiGOUv xo Guv9ri[j,a xrjc; 
GOGiaA,iGxiKfi(; STiavdGxaGT]^. Avxi9sxa, xr] cpspvouv na- 
vxa 7110 Kovxd, TiXaxaivouv xr] pdGT] xri(;, svxdGGOUv gxo 
GOGia^tiGxiKo aycbva vsa Gxp(b[j,axa [j,iKpoaGX(bv Kai [j,i- 
GOTipoXsxapiaKcbv [j,a(^(bv. Kai auo xo dXAo [j,8po(; oi tio- 
XniKsq STiavaGxdGSi^ sivai avaTiocpsuKxsg gxtjv Tiopeia 
xri(; GOGia}tiGxiKfi(; s7iavdGxaGr|(;, tiou 5sv ^Tiopoufo^s va 
XT] p}t87iou[j,s Gav [j,ia [j,6vo 7ipd^r|, [j,a TipsTisi va xr| ^Xe- 

7lOU[J,8 Gav STlOXn 9usX,Xco5(bv TIoXixIKCDV Kai OlKOVOfJl- 



309 



K(bv kXovic[i&)V, oav STioxn Tri(; mo ofy)[iEvr\q xa^iKfi^ 
7id}tr|(;, 8[j,(puMou 7io}tS[j,ou, STiavaaTdascov Kai avxsTia- 
vaaxdascov. 

Av 6[i(i)q TO Gi3v9ri[j,a xcov 5ri[j,0KpaTiK(bv Evco[j,£vcov 
rioXiTSKDV Tri(; Evp&)iir\q, ce GUv5uaG[j,6 [le xriv STiava- 
GTaxiKTi avaxpoTifi tcdv xpicbv avTiSpaGxiKOTaxcDV [lo- 
vapxicbv Tri(; EupcoTiri^, fj,' STiiKscpa^^fic; tt] pcoGiKf) [j,ovap- 
Xia, sivai Tskeimq d\|/oyo Gav tioXitiko cx)vQr\[ia, cogto- 
GO [j,svsi aKOf^ri sva GTiouSaioxaxo (^fiTri[j,a, to (^fiTri[j,a 

TOU 0lK0V0[J,lK0l3 7lSpiSX0[J,SV0U Kttl Tri(; OlKOVO[J,lKfl(; cr\- 

[j,aGia^ auTOij xou GUvGrmaxo^. A716 xriv d7io\|/ri xcov oi- 
Kovo[j,iK(bv opcov xo u i^7i8pia}tiG[j,oi3, 5ri}ta5fi xr|(; s^a- 
ycDyfi(; KscpaXaicov Kai xou [j,oipdG[j,axo(; xou k6g[j,ou and 
xk; «7iporiy[j,svs(;» Kai «7io}tixiG[j,svs(;» a7ioiKiaK8<^ 5uvd- 
[lEiq, 01 Ev(i)[iEVEq noXneieq xr]^ Evp&)iir\q [leca ce Kam- 
xa^tiGxiKo KaGsGxdcx; sixs sivai a7ipay[j,axo7ioir|xs(;, sixs 
8ivai avxi5paGxiKS(;. 

To KS(pd}taio syivs 5is9vs(; Kai [j,ovo7ico}tiaK6. O k6- 
c\jioq sivai [j,oipaG[j,svo(; avd[j,8Ga ce [j,ia xotxpxa i^syd- 
Xeq Auvd[j,si(;, 5riXa5fi Auvd[j,si(; nov s^ouv ennvxieq gxt] 
[j,sydXri KaxaXfiGxsuGri Kai KaxamsGr] xcdv sGvcbv. Tsg- 
Gspic; [j,sydXs(; Auvd[j,si(; xri(; Evp&)iir\q: r\ AyyMa, r] Fa^t- 
A,ia, r\ PcoGia Kai r\ Fspfj-avia, [is 7iA,ri9uG[j,6 250-300 s- 
Kaxo[j,^i3pia Kai [j,s SKxaGT] TispiTiou 7 sKaxo[j,^i3pia xsxp. 
Xi}ti6[j,sxpa, sxouv a7ioiKis(; [le 7i}Lri9uG[j,6 gxs56v [j,ig6 
5iGSKaxo[j,^i3pio (495,5 sKaxo[j,^i3pia) Kai [is SKxaGT] 
64,6 sKaxo[j,^i3pia xsxp. x^^i^o^STpa, 5riXa5fi gxs56v xt] 
[j,iGfi u5p6y8io GCpaipa (133 sKaxo[j,^i3pia xsxp. x^^i^o^s- 
xpa, xtopi<; Ti<; 7io}tiKS(; 7ispioxs(;). IIpoGGsGxs g' auxd xa 
xpia aGiaxiKd Kpdxrj: xrjv Kiva, xrjv ToupKia Kai xrjv 
rispGia, nov xcbpa xa 5ia[j,8M(^ouv 01 XriGxs(; nov 5is^d- 



310 



youv «a7isXsu9spcoTiK6» 7i6Xs[j,o, 5riXa5fi: r\ laTicovia, r\ 
PcDGia, r\ AyyMa Kai r\ TaXkia. Auxd xa xpia aoiaxiKd 
Kpdxri, 710U [a^7iopoi3[j,s va xa ovo[j,dGOt)[j,s [j,iGoa7ioiKiS(; 
(gxtiv 7ipay[j,axiK6xrixa sivai xcbpa Kaxd xa 9/10 aTioiKi- 
8^) 8X0UV 360 sKaxo[j,^i3pia 7i}tri9uG[j,6 Kai SKxaGT] 14,5 
8Kaxo[j,^i3pia xsxp. xiXi6[j,sxpa (5riXa5fi gxsSov 1 Vi cpo- 
pd [j,8yaA,i3x8pri SKxaGT] and xrjv SKxaGt] o^trjc; xri(; Eupcb- 

Ss Guvsxsia: r] AyyMa, r\ TakXia Kai r] Fsp^iavia s- 
Xouv xotioGsxtigsk; gxo s^coxspiKo 6xv ^iKpoxspsg auo 
70 5iGSKaxo[j,^i3pia poijpXia. Fia va siGTipd^ouv xo «98- 
[j,ix6» siGo5r|[j,axdKi xovq and xo GxpoyyuXoiJXGiKo auxo 
TiOGO - sva 8iGo5r|[j,axdKi nov ^STispvdsi xa xpia 5iGSKa- 
xofj-^upia poi3p}tia xo xpovo - UTidpxouv oi sGviks^ sm- 
xpoTisg xcDV SKaxo[j,[j,upioi3xcov, nov ovo[j,d(^ovxai KuPsp- 
vtigsk;, nov 5ia9sxouv Gxpaxo Kai 7ioXs[j,ik6 gxoXo Kai 
«xo7io9sxoi3v» gxk; a7ioiKis(; Kai gxk; [j,iGoa7ioiKis(; xa 
Xaide[iEva 7iai5id Kai xa aSsXcpia xou «Kupiou 5iGSKa- 
xo[j,^upiou» Gav avxiPaGiXsi(;, Tipo^svou^, TipsGPsuxs^, 
Kd9s Xoj^q VTiaXk^Xovq, 7ia7id5s(; Kai aXkeq ^deXkeq. 

'ExGi sivai opyavco[j,svri gxtjv stioxh Tr\c, av(bxaxri(; 
avduxu^rjc; xou Ka7iixa}tiG[j,oi3 r\ Kaxa^^fiGxsuGri evoq ne- 
piTiou 5iG8Kaxo[j,^upio u 7i>uri9uG[j,oi3 xrjc; jr\q and [im 
Xoijcpxa [iEjakeq Auvd[j,8i^. Kai sivai aSiJvaxo [leca gxov 
Ka7iixaXiG[j,6 va uudp^si SiacpopsxiKf) opydvcDGT]. Na 
7iapaixri9oi3v and xiq auoiKis^, and «xi(; GCpaipst; smp- 
pofi(;», a7i6 xTjv s^aycoyf) KscpaXaicov; To va GKscpxsxai 
Kavsi(; sxgi, gt] [j,aivsi 6xi KaxsPaivsi gxo enmedo evoq 
nana, nov Kd9s KupiaKf) KrjpijGGSi gxoix; nkovciovq xo 
[lejakeio xou xpiGxiaviG[j,oi3 Kai xoix; GUfj-Pou^^susi va 
5(Dpi(^ouv Gxou^ (pxcoxotx;... av 6xi [j,spiKd 5iG8Kaxo[j,ni3- 



311 



pia, TOuXdxiGTO [j,spiKS(; SKaxovidSst; poijpXia to xp6- 
vo. 

Ol EVC0[J,£V8(; noXlT8l8^ TTjc; EupCDTiri^ GTl^ GUv9flK8(; 

Tou Ka7iiTaXiG[j,oi3 9a iGo5uva[j,oi3Gav [j,8 GU[j,(p(ovia yia 
TO [j,oipaG[a^a tcov aTioiKicbv. Stov Ka7iiTa}tiG[j,6 6[i(i)q dev 
H7iop8i va U7idp^8i aXkr\ PaGt], dX,Xri apxn |J,oipaGid(; 8- 
kt6(; a7i6 tt] 5i3va[j,ri. O 5iG8KaTO[j,^upioi3xo(; 58v ^7iop8i 
va [j,oipdG8i [j,8 07ioiov5fi7iOT8 dXXov «T0 89vik6 8lG65ri- 
[j,a» [j,ia(; KaTiiTa^tiGTiKfic; xd)pa(; Tiapd [j,6vo: «avd}toya 
[j,8 TO K8(pd}taio» (ki aK6[j,ri 7ips7i8i va 7ipoG9sGOU[a^8 6ti 
TO [j,syaA,i3Tspo Kscpd^^aio 9a Tidpsi TispiGGOTspa au' OGa 
Tou avaXoyoiJv). O Ka7iiTa}tiG[j,6(; Grifo^aivsi aTO[j,iKfi i5i- 
OKTrjGia GTa [j,SGa Tiapaycoyf)^ Kai avapxia gttjv Tiapa- 
ycoyf). To va KtipijGGSi Kav8i(; [im «5iKairi» [j,oipaGid 
Tou siGo5fi[j,aTO(; gs [im TSTOia pdGt] sivai TipouvTOVi- 
G[j,6^, GTSVOKscpaXid [j,iKpoaGTOi3 Kai (piXiGTaiou. To 
[j,oipaG[j,a 5sv f^Tiopsi va yivsi 5ia(popsTiKd Tiapd «gi3[j,- 
(pcova [IE TT] 5i3va[j,r|». H 5i3va[j,ri 6[i(i)q aXkdC,ei [is ttjv 
Tiopsia Tri(; oiKovo[j,iKfi(; E^Eki^r\q. 'YGTspa auo to 1871 
r\ rsp[j,avia 5uvd[j,coGS 3-4 (pops(; mo ypfiyopa auo ttjv 
AyyMa Kai tt] FaXMa. H laTicDvia 5uvd[j,coGS 58Ka cpopst; 
7110 ypfiyopa and tt] PcoGia. Fia va sXsyx9si r] 7ipay[j,aTi- 
KT) 5i3va[j,ri sv6(; KaTiiTaXiGTiKoij KpdTOtx;, dev uudpxsi 
Kai 5sv [j,7iopsi va uudp^si dXXo [j,sgo skt6(; and tov tio- 
}tS[a^o. O ■ii6'ke[ioq 5sv avTicpdGKsi gtk; pdGSK; ttjc; aTO[j,i- 
KTic; i5ioKTriGia(;, aA,}td sivai r\ d[j,SGr| Kai avauocpsuKTri 
avduTU^r] auTcbv tcov pdGSCov. Etk; GUv9fiKS(; tou Kam- 
TaXiG[j,oi3 sivai a5i3vaTri [im iGOfj-STpr] oiKovo[j,iKfi avd- 
TiTU^r] TCOV 5iacp6pcov oiKovofo^icbv Kai tcov 5iacp6pcov 
KpaTcbv. Etk; GUv9fiKS(; tou Ka7iiTa}tiG[j,oi3 5sv ^iTiopsi va 
UTidpxouv aXka [j,SGa yia ttjv aTioKaTdGTaGT] aiio Kaipo 



312 



G8 Kaipo TTjc; 7iapaPiaG[j,svri(; iGoppo7iia(;, skto^ and xi^ 
KpiGSK; Gxr] Pio[j,r|xavia Kai xovq Tio'ke.[iovq gttiv tio^^iti- 

KT). 

OuGiKd sivai 5uvaT8(; 7ipoGCopivs(; GU[j,(p(DviS(; avd[j,s- 
oa GS Ka7iiTa}tiGT8g Kai avd[j,SGa gs Kpdxri. M' auxfi xriv 
8woia i^Tiopsi va 5ri[j,ioupyri9oi3v Kai oi Evco[j,£VS(; IloXi- 
T8i8^ TTjc; EupcDTiric;, Gav GU[j,(p(Dvia tcdv supcDTiaicDV Kam- 
xaXiGTcbv... [IE 71010 GKOTio; M6\o [j,s TO GKOTio va TZVi- 
^ouv a7i6 Koivoij TO G0GiaXiG[j,6 GTTjv EupcDTiri, va Tispi- 
(ppoupfiGOUv a7i6 KOIVOIJ tk; }triGTS[a^svs(; a7ioiKiS(; svd- 
VTia GTTjv laTicDvia Kai gttjv A[j,spiKfi, nov Gscopow tov 
sauTO TOU(; gto STiaKpo a5iKr|[j,svo [is tt] gt] [j,spivfi [loi- 
paGid Tcov aTioiKicbv Kai nov tov TsXsuTaio [iico aicbva 
5uvd[j,coGav aGuyKpiTa mo ypfiyopa an' 6ti r| KaGuGTS- 
pri[j,svri [j,ovapxiKfi EupcDTiri, nov dpxiGS va Ga7ii(^si and 
xa yspd[j,aTa. H 5ri[j,ioupyia tcov Evofo^svcDV noX,iTSi(bv 
TTjc; Evp&)iir\q [is tt] Grmspivf) oiKovo[j,iKfi pdGt], 5riXa5fi 
gtk; GUvGfiKs^ Tou Ka7iiTaXiG[j,oi3, Ga Gfi[j,aivs opydvcoGT] 
TTjc; avTi5paGri(;, yia va 7iaps^7io5iGTsi r\ mo ypfiyopr] 
avduTU^T] TTjc; A[iEpiKr\q. IIspaGav yia udvTa oi Kaipoi 
7101) r| UTioGsGTi Tri(; 5ri[j,0KpaTia(; Kai r| utioGsgti tou go- 
GiaA,iG[j,oi3 GUvSsoTav [lovo [is ttjv Evp&)iir\. 

Oi Ev(D[j,sv8g no>uiT8is(; TOU k6g[j,ou (Kai o^i tt]^ Eu- 
p&)iir\q) 8ivai r] KpaTiKf) sKsivr] fj-opcpf) sv(DGri(; Kai sXsu- 
Gspiat; tcdv sGvcbv, nov s[j,8i(; tt] guv5sou[j,s [j,s to GOGia- 

XlG[J,6 - CD(; TOTS 710U T] 7lXflpr|(; VIKT] TOU KO[J,[J,OUVlG[J,OU 

Ga oSriyfiGSi gttjv opiGTiKf) s^acpdviGT] KdGs KpdTOU^, 
[lal^i Kai TOU 5ri[j,oKpaTiKou. Qgtogo to GUvGr^a tcov 

EVC0[J,£VC0V IIoXlTSlcbv TOU k6g[J,0U, Gav aUTOTS^tS^ GUV- 

Qr\[ia, sivai a[j,(pipoXo av Ga fiTav gcdgto , TipcDTO yiaTi 
Guyxcov8U8Tai [j,8 TO GoaaXiG[j,6 Kai, 5suTspo, yiaTi Ga 



313 



I^TiopoiJGS va npoKokecei tt] Xa9s[j,svri sp[j,rivsia oxi 8i- 
vai aSwaxri r\ vbo] xou GOGiaXiG[j,oi3 ce [im [j,6vri xcbpa, 
TT] Xa9s[j,8vri sp^rivsia yia tt] GxdGri auxfi^ tt]^ X^'pot'^ 
ausvavTi gtk; U7i6Xoi7iS(;. 

H aviGOfj-sxpri oiKovofo^iKfi Kai tio^^itikti avdTiTU^ri si- 
vai a7i6X,UTO(; v6[j,0(; xou Ka7iiTaXiG[j,oi3. A716 5co Pyaivsi 
nmq sivai Suvaxfi r] vikti tou GOGiaXiG[j,oi3 gttiv apxn g8 
Xijeq f) aK6[j,ri Kai gs [j,ia [j,ovdxa, xcopiGxd 7iap[j,svri Ka- 
TiiTaXiGTiKTi xcbpa. To viKrjcpopo TipoXsTapidxo auTfi(; 
Tri(; x(bpa(;, a7iaA,>tOTpicbvovTag xoix; Ka7iiTaXiGTS(; Kai 
opyavcbvovxat; gxt] xcbpa xou tt] GOGia^tiGTiKf) Tiapayco- 
yf), 9a op9(Dv6Tav svdvxia gtov utioXoitio k6g[j,o, Tiaip- 
vovxat; [j,a(^i xou tk; KaTamsGfo^svst; xd^sK; xcov aXhav 
Xcoprov, ^SGrjKcbvovTat; gtk; xo)p£<; auxst; s^syspGSK; svd- 
VTia GTOtx; KamxaXiGTS^, 5p(bvTa(; gs TispiTixcoGri avd- 
yKTjc; aK6[j,ri Kai [is GxpaxicDTiKfi 5i3va[j,ri svdvxia gxi^ 
SK[j,sxaX,Xsi3xpiS(; xd^sK; Kai xa Kpdxr] xovq. IIoXixiKfi 
[j,op(pfi xT]^ Koivcoviat;, otiou viKdsi xo Tipo^^sxapidxo, a- 
vaxpsTiovxat; xrjv aGxiKf) xd^r], 9a sivai r\ XaoKpaxiKf) 
5ri[j,0Kpaxia, nov 9a GuyKsvxpcDGSi 6X0 Kai TispiGGOxspo 
xk; 5uvd[j,si(; xou Tipo^tsxapidxou xou 5og[j,8vou eOvovq r\ 
xcov 5oG[j,svcov s9v(bv gxtjv Tid^^ri svdvxia Gxa Kpdxr| nov 
58V 9a 8XOUV aK6[j,ri uspdGSi gxo G0GiaXiG[j,6. Asv sivai 
Suvaxf) r\ e^akei\\ir\ xcov xd^scov xtopi<^ tti SiKxaxopia xr]^ 
Kaxa7ii8(^6[j,svri(; xd^ri(;, xou Tipo^^sxapidxou. Asv sivai 
5uvaxfi r| sXsi39spr| evcogti xcov s9vcbv gxo G0Gia}tiG[j,6 
Xcopit; Xiyo-7ioX,i3 [j,aKp6xpovri, s7ii[j,ovri nakf] xcov GOGia- 
>uiGxiKcbv 5ri[j,0Kpaxicbv svdvxia Gxa 07iiG9o5po[j,iKd 
Kpdxr|. 

Na yia tioioix; Xoyovc, UGxspa and S7iavsiXri[j,[j,svs(; 
GU(^rixfiGSi(; xou (^rixfi[j,axo(; gxt] Suv5idGKs\|/ri xcov x[j,ri- 



314 



[J,dTCOV S^COTSpiKOlJ TOU SAEKP Kai [IETO. TT] Suv5idGKs- 

\|/ri, r\ Suvxa^ri xou KsvxpiKot) Opydvou KaxdXri^s gxo 
Gt)^7i8paG[j,a 6x1 8ivai Xa98[j,svo xo GUvGrma xcov Evco- 
[j,svcov rioXixsicbv xri(; Eup(b7iri(;». 



315 



IlapdpTTma: OiKovojiiKd 
Ktti oTaxioTiKd oTOi/sia 

AkoXouGsi TiapdGsGTi koitioicov oiKovo[j,iK(bv GTOixsicDV yia 
6Xs(; Ti^ xcbp8(; Tri(; E.E.-15 yia GuyKpixiKotx; 'Xjojovq (xa Tiood 
sivai GS 5oXdpia xou 2002):^^^ 

rspfiavia 

mrjevajuog: 82,398,326. 

AEII: 2 xpiG. 5oXdpia. 

ZvvOsarj AEII: 

Fscopyia: 1% 

Bionr\xo.via: 31% 

Ynrjpsoisi;: 68% 

n}tri9(DpiG[j,6(;: 1.3%) 

Avspyia: 9.8%) 

E^aycoysc;: 608 5ig. 5oMpia. 

EiGaycDysc;: 487.3 5ig. 5oXdpia. 

E^ayroys^ gs: EaUia 11.1%, HHA 10.6%, Bpsxavia 8.4%, 
0X,Xav5ia 6.2%), AuGxpia 5.1%); BsX,yio 4.9%), iGTiavia 4.5%), 
E}.psxia 4.3%. 

EiGay(Dys(; a7i6: EaUia 9.4%, OUavSia 8.4%, HHA 8.3%, 
Bpsxavia 6.9%), IxaMa 6.5%), BsXyio 5.2%), laTicovia 4.1%), 
AuGxpia 3.8%). 

Bpsxavia 

mr/evajudg: 60,094,648. 
AEII: 1.6xpiG. 5oXdpia. 
ZvvOsat] AEII: 



316 



rscopyia: 1.4%% 

Bionr\xo.via: 24.9% 

Ynrjpsoisi;: 13.1% 

nXri9copiG[j,6(;: 2.1%) 

Avspyia: 5.2%) 

E^ayroys^: 286.3 5ig. 5oXdpia. 

EiGaycDys(;: 330.1 5ig. SoMpia. 

E^aycoys(; g8: E.E. 58.1%) (rsp[j,avia 12.5%), FaXMa 
10.2%, 0Uav5ia 7.7%, Ip}.av5ia 7.3%), HHA 15.4%. 

EiGayroysg auo: E.E. 51.1% (rsp[j,avia 12.7%), raA,Ma 
8.6%, 0Uav5ia 6.7%, Mtisvs^.oij^ 5.1%), HHA 13.2%. 

mrjevajuog: 60,IS0,529. 

AEII: 1.4TpiG. SoXdpia. 

UvvOsorj AEII: 

rscopyia: 3% 

Biojurjxo-via: 26% 

YTtrjpsaisg: 71% 

nXri9copiG[j,6(;: 1.8%) 

Avspyia: 9.1%) 

E^aycoys(;: 307.8 5ig. 5oXdpia. 

EiGaycoyst;: 303.7 5ig. SoMpia. 

E^ayroys^ gs: E.E. 61.3%) (rsp[j,avia 14.7%), Bpsxavia 
9.8%, iGTiavia 9.6%, IxaMa 8.8%), HTIA 8.7%. 
EiGaycoys(; a7i6: E.E 58.6%) (rsp[j,avia 16.7%), M7i8V8>^oi3^ 
7.0%, Ixa^tia 9.1%, Bpsxavia 7.5%), HTIA 8.9%. 

IxaXia 

mrjevajuog: 57,998,353. 
AEII: 1.2xpiG. SoMpia. 



317 



LvvOsorj AEII: 

Fscopyia: 2.4% 

BiOjurjxotvia: 30% 

YTtrjpsaisg: 67.6% 

mrie(DpiGn6(;: 2.4% 

Avspyia: 9.1%) 

E^aycoys(;: 259.2 5ig. 5oXdpia. 

Eiaayroyst;: 238.2 5ig. SoXdpia. 

E^aycoys(; as: E.E. 53.8%) (rsp[j,avia 14.5%), raX,Ma 
12.2%, Bpsxavia 6.7%, loTiavia 6.1%), HHA 9.7%. 
Eioayroyst; and: E.E. 56.5%) (rsp[j,avia 17.7%), TaXkia 11.1%), 
0Uav5ia 6.2%, Bpsxavia 5.1%), HTIA 4.9%. 

lojravia 

m;/6'»o-//o?: 40,217,413. 

AEII: 649.8 5ig. 5oXdpia. 

LvvOsorj AEII: 

Fscopyia: 4% 

Bionr\xo\>ia: 31% 

YTzrjpsoisi;: 65% 

nA,ri9(DpiG[j,6g: 3%) 

Avspyia: 11.3%) 

E^ayroysg: 122.2 5ig. 5oXdpia. 

EioayoDys^: 156.6 5ig. 5oXdpia. 

E^aycoys(; as: E.E. 71.3%) (raX,Ma 19.5%), rsp[j,avia 
11.8%, nopxoyaMa 10.0%, IxaMa 9.0%, Bpsxavia 8.9%), 
AaxiviKT) Af^spiKTi 6.1%), HTIA 4.4%). 

Eioayroyst; auo: E.E. 56.5%) (rsp[j,avia 17.7%), FaXXia ll.P/o, 
0Uav5ia 6.2%, Bpsxavia 5.1%), HTIA 4.9%. 

OXXavSia 



318 



mt^OvajUog: 16,150,511. 

AEIJ: 413.7 5ig. SoMpia. 

LvvOsarj AEU: 

rscopyia: 3.1% 

Bionr\xo.via: 25.7% 

Ynrjpsoisi;: 71.2% 

nA,ri9copiG[j,6(;: 3.4%) 

Avspyia: 3%) 

E^aycoys(;: 243.3 5ig. 5oMpia. 

Eiaayroysg: 201.1 5ig. 5oXdpia. 

E^aycoys^ as: E.E. 77.1%) (Fspia^avia 25.7%), M7isvs}toi3^ 
12.5%, Bpsxavia 10.5%, TaXkia 10.0%, IxaMa 5.9%). 

EiGay(Dys(; auo: E.E. 53.1%) (rsp[j,avia 17.6%), MtisvsAoij^ 
9.6%, Bpsxavia 6.7%, EaUia 5.5%), HHA 8.7%. 

BsXyio 

mrjevajuog: 10,289,088. 

AEII: 247.6 5ig. 5oMpia. 

LvvOsorj AEU: 

Fscopyia: 1.3% 

Bioj^rjxo-via: 24.4% 

Yntjpsoisq: lA3Vo 

nA,ri9(DpiG[j,6(;: 1.7%) 

Avspyia: 7.2% 

E^aycoys(;: 162 5ig. SoMpia. 

EiGaycoysc;: 152 5ig. SoMpia. 

E^aycoyst; gs: E.E. 73.3%) (rsp[j,avia 18.9%), FaXMa 
16.3%, 0Uav5ia 1 1.7%, Bpsxavia 9.8%), HHA 7.7%. 

EiGay(Dys(; anb: E.E. 1\A% (Fspfo^avia llAVo, 0X,}tav5ia 
15.6%, EaUia 12.6%, Bpsxavia 7.2%), HHA 6.3%. 



319 



llovr\6ia 

mj^evajuog: 8,878,085. 

AEU: 229.8 5ig. 5oXdpia. 

UvvOsorj AEII: 

Fscopyia: 2% 

BiOjUtjxavia: 29% 

Ynrjpsaisg: 69% 

mrieropiG^ioc;: 2.2% 

Avspyia: 4% 

E^ajmjeq: 80.6 5ig. 5oMpia. 

EiGaycDys(;: 68.6 5ig. 5oMpia. 

E^aycoys(; gs: E.E. 54.6%) (rsp[j,avia 10.6%), Bpsxavia 
.8%, Aavia 6.1%, Oiv}iav5ia 5.7%), HHA 10.5%, NopPriyia 
.6%. 

EiGaycoy8(; a7i6: E.E. 66.3%) (Fspfj-avia 17.8%), Bpsxavia 
.7%, Aavia 8.2%, 0Uav5ia 6.9%, EaUia 6.5%), NopPriyia 
.5%, HnA6.7%. 



ADoxpia 

/7A;/6'»o-//o?: 8,188,207. 
AEII: 203 5ig. 5oXdpia. 
EvvOsorj AEII: 
Fecopyia: 2% 
Bionr\xo.via: 33% 
Ynrjpsoisi;: 65% 
nXri9copiG[j,6(;: 1.8%) 
Avspyia: 4.8%) 
E^aycoys(;: 70 5ig. SoMpia. 
EiGay(Dys(;: 74 5ig. SoMpia. 

320 



E^ayroysc; as: E.E. 63% (rsp^avia 35%, IxaMa 9%, Yak- 
Ma 5%), EXpsTia 5%, HHA 5%, Ouyyapia 4%. 

Eiaayroyst; a7i6: E.E. 68%) (rsp[j,avia 42%), IxaMa 7%), 
YaXkia 5%), HTIA 6%, EXpsxia 3%, Ouyyapia 2%. 

Aavia 

mrjevajuog: 5,384,384. 

AEII: 174.8 5ig. 5oXdpia. 

EvvOsorj AEII: 

rscopyia: 3% 

Bionr\xo.via: 26% 

Ynrjpsoisi;: 71% 

n}tri9copiG[j,6g: 2.3%) 

Avspyia: 5.1%) 

E^ayroyst;: 56.3 5ig. 5oXdpia. 

EiGaycoys(;: 47.9 5ig. 5oXdpia. 

E^aycoys(; gs: E.E. 64.7%) (rsp[j,avia 19.6%), Eouri5ia 
11.8%, Bpsxavia 9.5%, TaXkia 5.1%, 0Uav5ia 4.5%), HHA 
6.9%,NopPriy{a5.5%. 

EiGay(Dys(; auo: E.E. 69.9%) (rsp[j,avia 21.9%), Eouri5ia 
12.1%), Bpsxavia 7.5%), 0A,}tav5ia 7.1%), raX,Ma 5.7%), IxaMa 
4.5%), HnA4.2%. 

EUd8a 

mj^evajuog: 10,665,989. 
AEII: 132.8 5ig. 5oXdpia. 
LvvOsorj AEII: 
Fsmpyia: 8% 
Bionr\xoyia: 23% 
Ynrjpsoisi;: 69% 
nA,ri9copiG[j,6(;: 3.6%) 



321 



Avspyia: 10.3% 

E^ayroysg: 12.6 5io. SoMpia. 

Eioaycoys^: 31.4 5ig. 5oXdpia. 

E^aycoyst; oe: E.E. 51.6% (rsp[j,avia 15.9%), IxaMa 13.5%), 
Bpsxavia 6.4%), HHA 5.7%. 

EiGaycoys(; auo: E.E. 66.2%) (IxaMa 15.6%), rsp[j,avia 15%), 
YaUia 9.2%, 0Uav5ia 6.4%). 

OivXavSia 

mrjevajuog: 5,190,785. 

AEII: 130.8 5ig. SoMpia. 

HvvOsorj AEII: 

rscopyia: 4% 

Bionr\xo.via: 34% 

Ynrjpsoisq: 62% 

nX,ri9(DpiG[j,6g: 1.9%) 

Avspyia: 8.5%) 

E^aycoys(;: 40.1 5ig. 5oMpia. 

EiGaycoys^: 31.8 5ig. 5oXdpia. 

E^ay(Dy8(; g8: Fspfj-avia 12.4%), HQA 9.7%), Bpsxavia 
9.6%, Eo-uriSia 8.4%, PcDGia 5.9%, EaUia 4.6%. 

EiGay(Dys(; auo: Fsp[j,avia 14.5%), Souri5ia 10.2%), PcoGia 
9.4%, Bpsxavia 6.4%, FaUia 4.5%, HHA 4.2%. 



nopToyaXia 

mj^evajuog: 10,102,022. 
AEII: 121.3 5iG. 5oXdpia. 
LvvOsorj AEII: 



311 



rscopyia: 3.6% 

Bionr\xo.via: T&.l^/o 

Ynrjpsoisi;: 67.7% 

nXri9copiG[j,6g: 3.7%) 

Avspyia: 4.7%) 

E^ayroysg: 25.9 5ig. 5oMpia. 

EioaycDys^: 39 5ig. 5oMpia. 

E^ayroyst; as: E.E. 19.1% (rsp[j,avia 19.2%), loTiavia 
18.6%, EaUia 12.6%, Bpsxavia 10.3%, Muevs^oij^ 5.4%), 
HnA5.8%. 

EiGay(Dys(; auo: E.E. 74.2%) (loTiavia 26.5%), rsp[j,avia 
13.9%, TaXkia 10.3%, IxaMa 6.7%, Bpsxavia 5.0%), HHA 
3.8%, Ia7i(Dv(al.9%. 



IpXavSia 

/7A//6'uo-//o?: 3,924,140. 

AETl: 119.9 5ig. 5oXdpia. 

Zvvdsarj AEII: 

rscopyia: 5% 

Bioj^rjxo-via: 46% 

YTtrjpsaisg: 49% 

nXri9copiG[j,6(;: 4.6%) 

Avspyia: 4.3%) 

E^ay(Dys(;: 86.6 5ig. 5oMpia. 

Eioayroyst;: 48.6 5ig. 5oXdpia. 

E^ajmyeq as: Bpsxavia 23.9%), HQA 18.1%), rsp[j,avia 
7.2%), FaXMa 5.0%), laucDvia 3.6%), 0}^}tav5ia 3.3%). 

EiGay(Dys(; and: Bpsxavia 35.9%), HQA 15.8%), BsXyio 
14.4%, Esp^iavia 6.4%, EaUia 4.1%, IxaMa 3.8%. 



323 



AoD^sfiPovpyo 

mt^OvajUog: 454,157. 

AEII: 20.1 5iG. 5oMpia. 

LvvOsorj AEII: 

Fscopyia: 1% 

Biojurjxo-via: 30% 

YTtrjpsaisg: 69% 

nX,ri9copiG[j,6(;: 1.6%) 

Avspyia: 4.1%) 

E^ay(Dys(;: 10.1 5ig. 5oXdpia. 

EiGaycoys(;: 13.25 5ig. 5oXdpia. 

E^ay(Dys(; gs: E.E. 85.6%) (rsp[j,avia 23.3%), raX,Ma 
20.1%, B%io 10.5%), HnA2.6%. 

EiGay(Dys(; auo: E.E. 78.6%) (BeXyio 28.5%), Fspfj-avia 
22.0%, YaXkia 13.2%), HHA 3.9%. 

Fia Xoyoix; GuyKpiGrjc;: 

HHA 

mrjevajuog: 290,342,554. 
AEII: 10.4 xpiG. 5oMpia. 
LvvOsofj AEII: 
Fscopyia: 2% 
Bionr\xo.via: 18% 
YTzrjpsoisi;: 80% 
nA,ri9copiG[j,6(;: 1.6%) 
Avspyia: 5.8%) 
E^aya)ys(;: 687 5ig. 5oXdpia. 
EiGay(Dys(;: 1.165 xpiG. 5oMpia. 



324 



E^ayroysc; os: Kava5d^ 22.4%, Ms^iko 13.9%, laTicovia 
7.9%), Bpsxavia 5.6%), rsp[j,avia 4.1%), FaXMa, 0X,Aav5ia. 

EiGay(Dy8(; and: Kava5d(; 19%), Ms^iko 11.5%), laTicovia 
11.1%), Kiva 8.9%), rsp[j,avia 5.2%), Bpsxavia, Taipdv. 

lajTCDvia 

mrjOvaiudg: 127,214,499. 

^E/J: 4 xpiG. SoXdpia. 

EvvOsorj AEII: 

Fscopyia: 1.4% 

BiOjurjxotvia: 30.9% 

YTtrjpsaisg: 67.7% 

mrieropiGnog: -0.9% 

Avspyia: 5.4%) 

E^ay(Dys(;: 383.8 5ig. 5oMpia. 

EiGaycoys^: 292.1 5ig. 5oXdpia. 

E^aycoys(; gs: HTIA 28.5%), Kiva 9.6%), Nona Kopsa 
6.9%, Taipdv 6.3%, XovyK-KovyK 6.1%. 

EiGaycoys(; a7i6: HTIA 18.3%), Kiva 17.1%), Nona Kopsa 
4.6%, IvSovTjGia 4.2%, AuGxpa^^ia 4.2%, Taipdv 4.0%. 

Kiva 

mj^evajuog: 1,286,975,468. 
AEII: 1.2xpiG. 5oXdpia. 
ZvvOsarj AEII: 
Fscopyia: 15.2% 
BiOjurjxotvia: 51.2% 
YTtrjpsaisg: 33.6% 
n}tri9(DpiG[a^6(;: -0.8%) 
Avspyia: 10%) 
E^aycoysg: 325.6 5ig. 5oXdpia. 



325 



Eioaycoys^: 295.3 5ig. SoMpia. 

E^ajojeq as: HnA21.5%, XovyK-KovyK 18%, laTicovia 
14.9%, Nona Kopsa 4.8%. 

EiGaycoys(; and: laTicovia 18.1%), Taipdv 10.5%), Nona Ko- 
psa 9.7%, HHA 9.2%, rsp^avia 5.6%. 

H EupcoTiaiKTi EmxpoTifi siGriysixai vsocpiXs^tsuGspa [lexpa 
7i8piK07i(bv KoivcoviKcbv 5a7iav(bv yiaxi, UTiOTiGsxai, on r\ E.E. 
8XSI [j,sivsi TiiGCO a7i6 tk; HQA Kai xriv laTirovia as pu9[j,oi3^ 
au^riGri^ ttjc; 7iapaycoyiK6TriTa(; (Kai dpa r\ E.E. yivsxai >^iy6- 
Tspo avTaycoviGTiKTi). YTiOTiGsxai on oi HQA sivai r\ Tikeov 
avTaycoviGTiKTi oiKovo[j,ia xou k6g[j,ou. Qgtogo, Gi3[j,(pcova [le 
Tov OOEA (Kai auTO KaxaSsiKvusi tiogo oi 5sikts(; avxaycovi- 
GTiKOTTiTat; sivai TSxviKd KaTaGK8udG[j,aTa nov TispiGGOxspo 
s^UTiripsTOiJV i5soAoyiKoi3^ gkotioix;) oi HQA sxouv sva xpo- 
[j-aKTiKo sf^TiopiKo eXkei[i[ia nov to 2002 ecpxaGS to aGxpovo- 
[j,ik6 tiogo tcov 503 5ig. 5oXapicov svcb avnGsxa r\ E.E.-15 na- 
pouGiaGS 7iX86vaG[j,a 58 5ig. dohxpicov .^^^ Ermsicoxsov, r] E.E. 
sivai 7110 «avoixxfi - 7iayKOG[j,i07ioiri[j,svri» oiKovo[j,ia and xiq 
HQA. Sxriv E.E. oi s^aycoyst; avxmpoGCOTisiJouv xo 17%) xou 
AEH svcb yia xk; HQA xo tiogogxo sivai 1 P/o. 

Oi e^ajcojeq xrjc; E.E.-15 (1999) s^ouv (dc, e^^q:^^"^ 



Ev5oKoivoxiKS(; avTaXkajec, 


62,1 


E^(DKoivoxiKS(; avxaXhrfsq 


37,6 


EupcoTiaiKfi Zcbvri 
EXsijGspou Ef^Tiopiou 
(EXpsxia, lcXav5ia, 
Ai^vsvGxdiv, NopPriyia) 


4,7 


'AXT^q supco7iaiKS(; x&tpeq 


5,7 


AcppiKT) 


2,3 



326 



A[J,8piKaVlKfl fl7l8ipO(; 


15,2 


HHA 


11,5 


Aoia 


8,2 


laTicovia 


2,0 


Xmpeq OOEA 


85,9 


oriEK 


2,7 


PCDGia 


0,6 



To 1991 TO SoMpio aTiOTsXoiJGS to 70% tcov cvvaXhrf[ia- 
TiKcbv a7io9s[j,dT(DV 7iayKOG[j,ico(; Kai to supcb (ECU) to 10%, 
svd) Gfi[j,spa TO SoXdpio sivai gto 61%)Kai to supcb gto 15%). 
Kav8i(; 5sv iGXupi(^STai 6ti to supcb 9a Tidpsi ttjv TipcoTOKaGs- 
5pia a7i6 to 5oMpio, aA,}td r| GTiouSaiOTriTd tou au^dveTai. To 
yspfj-aviKo [j,dpKo Kai Ta UTioXoiTia vo[j,iG[j,aTa tiou avTiKaTa- 
GTdGrjKav auo to supcb dev sixav (pTdGSi, co^ gwoAo, Tidvco 
a7i6 13%) TCDV TiayKOGfj-icov GUvaX,Xay[j,aTiK(bv a7io9s[j,dT(DV. 
npop}tS7iSTai OTi Gi3vT0[j,a TO supd) 9a (pTdGSi to 20%).^^^ 

H sDpco;raiKfi Koivcovia 

H [j,8TavdGT8UGri (a7i6 TpiTS^ X(op£<^) GU[j,pdXsi Ta xekev- 
Taia 5sKa xpovia KaTd 2/3 f) aK6[j,a Kai KaTd 3/4 gttiv au^riGri 
Tou 7iXri9uG[j,oi3 TTjc; E.E. Xropic; tt] [a^sTavdGTSUGri 9a Tiapou- 
Gia(^6Tav [j,sicoGri tou 7iXri9t)G[j,oi3 gti^ Fspfj-avia, EA,Xd5a, iTa- 
Ma Kai Eouri5ia svcb o 7i}tri9uG[j,6(; tt]^ AuGTpia^ 9a e[ieve 
GTdGi[j,0(;. 

H [iecr\ 5idpKsia C.m^q gttjv E.E. sivai 8 1 ;2 xpovia yia tk; 
yuvaiKs^ Kai 74,9 yia toix; dv5ps(; (yivsTai a[iec(i)q Ka9ap6 ti 
Gri[j,aivsi r\ [s7ii5i(DK6[j,svri and tt] vso(piXsXsi39spri tioXitikti] 
au^riGri tcdv opicDV GUVTa^io56TriGr|(; GTa 65 f) Kai Ta 70 xpo- 
via). 



327 



To 2000 xa oiKovo[j,iKd svspyd dTO[j,a [iSTa^i) 15 Kai 64 
Xpovcbv fioav to 6 3 %tou 7i}tri9uG[j,oi3 (HQA 7 4 % laTicovia 
69%). H aTiaoxo^^riGri gtk; U7iripsGiS(; avxiTipoacDTisiJsi xa 2/3 
TTjc; GUVoXiKfi(; aTiaaxoXriGTic; (yia tk; yuvaiKS^ xa 4/5). H avd- 
TiTU^ri TT]^ [j,spiKfi(; a7iaGx6)tr|Gr|(; UTifip^s pay5aia Tr|v xekev- 
xaia SsKasTia. Evcb oi yuvaiKst; s^ouv 1 gtk; 3 spyaGisc;, exovv 
8 GTi^ 1 TT]^ [j,spiKfi(; a7iaGx6)tr|Gri(;. H 0X,}tav5ia sivai r\ %&>- 
pa [j,s TT] [j,syaA,i3Tspri avaXoyia [j,spiKfi(; aTiaGxoXri gtjc;. H a- 
vspyia Kai oi 5uo Kijpist; SKcppdGSK; xcov «8us}tiKT(DV» [j,op(p(bv 
a7iaGx6}triGrig (TipoGCopivfi Kai [j,spiKfi) avxiTipoGCDTisiJouv to 
40%TOU spyaxiKot) 5t)va[j,iKoi3 gttiv E.E. tcov 15.^^'' H GxaGs- 
pf) Kai 7i}Lfipri(; aTiaGxo^tri gt], Tiap' 6}ta auxd, s^aKoXouGsi va 
aTiOTsXsi xriv Kupia fJ-opcpf) a7iaGx6}tr|Gri(;. A;iaGxo)tsi to 55% 
«7iou S7ii[j,spi(^STai GTO 68,3%) xcov a7iaGxoXoi3[j,8vcov av5p(bv 
Kai [j,6}ti(; GTO 50,5%) tcdv yuvaiKcbv, ysyov6(; tiou KaxaSsiKvusi 
TT] GTSvfi GxsGTi [lETa^i) yuvaiKsia(; a7iaGx6}triGri(; Kai sus^^i^i- 

297 

a9>. 

H avspyia and to 1993 |J,sxpi to 1997 fiTav [j,6vi[j,a 5i\|/fi(pi- 
a, 7iapouGid(^si 5riXa5fi GTaGepd u\|/ri}t6 tiogogto. Oi x&ipeq [is 
TTjv u\|/riX6Tspri avspyia to 2000 fiGav: iGTiavia (14,1%)), EX- 
Xd5a (11,1%), iTaMa (10,5%)<Div}.av5ia (9,8%), TaUia 
(9,5%)). MsTd TO 1998 r| avspyia TiapouGiaGS [j,iKpfi Kd[j,\|/ri 
yia TO GiJVoXo ttjc; E.E.-15 (to 2000 PpiGKOTav gto 8,2%)^^^) 
aXXd a7i6 to 2003 7iapouGid(^si au^riTiKfi TdGt] udXi (8,8%)). 

Ei3[j,(p(Dva [j,s GTOixsia Tri(; Eurostat (ttjc; supcDTiaiKfic; GTaTi- 
GTiKTic; U7iripsGia(;) nov 5ri[j,OGi07ioiriGS gtk; 12/4/2003, to 
15%)TC0V KaTOiKcov TTjc; E.E.-15 (yijpco GTa 56 sKaT0[j,^i3pia 
dvGpcDTioi) 5iaPioi3v KdTCO and to «6pio (pT(bxia(;» (KdTCO and 
TO 60%)TOU [j,SGOU sGviKoij siGo5fi[j,aTO(; KdGs xropon;). To [ii- 
KpoTspo TIOGOGTO sivai GTT] SoutiSia (9%)), aKoXouGoiJV Aavi- 
a, rsp[j,avia, 0A,Xav5ia, OivXavSia (6Xs^ 11%)), Kai Ta u\|/riX6- 



328 



Tspa TiOGOGid 7iapouGid(^ouv EX,Xd5a Kai nopxoyaMa (Kai oi 
5do 21°/^. H KoivcDviKTi Tipovoia sivai auxfi nov [j,si(bvsi to 
TiOGOGTO OGCDV 5iaPioi3v Kdxco a7i6 TO «6pio (pT(bxia(;», nov 
SVG) KavoviKd 9a fixav 24% to pixvsi gto 15% AXIA UTidp- 
Xouv [lejaksq 5ia(pops(; avd[j,SGa gti^ Sidcpops^ X^ops?- 2^tti 
Souri5ia and 28%)ri titcdgti [j,8Td tk; koivcoviks^ [j,8TaPipdGSi^ 
8ivai 19 [j,ovd5s(; (stgi r\ Souri5ia s^si 9%)), gtt] Aavia auo 24 
r\ TiTCDGri [lExa xiq koivcoviks(; [j,STaPipdGSi(; sivai 13 [j,ovd5s(;, 
svd) GTTjv iTaMa r\ titcdgti sivai [loXiq 3 % (and 2 1% ce 1 8%) 
Kai oTTiv EA,M5a 1% (and 22%) gs 21%))! ! AvTiXa[a^Pav6[j,aGT8 
TiOGO 9a ai)^ri98i r] cpTcbxia [j,s tk; 5paGTiKS(; TispiKOTis^ tcov 
KoivcoviKcbv Tiapoxcbv nou siGriysiTai r\ EupcoTiaiKfi EmTpoTifi 
([IE tk; su}^oyiS(; tou Ais9voi3(; No[j,iG[j,aTiKoi) Ta^isiou Kai ttjc; 
nayK6G[j,ia(; Tpd7is(^a(;). 

To 9%) (KdTiou 33 sKaT0[j,^i3pia) ogcov 5iaPioi3v KdTOD and 
TO «6pio (pT(bxia(;» PpiGKSTai g' auTf) ttjv KaTdGTaGt] yia 5i)o 
GDV8x6[j,8va xpovia g8 5idGTri[j,a Tpicbv stcdv. 

To 2001 TO 3%) TOU oiKovo[j,iKd svspyoij 7i}tr|9i)G[j,oi3 fiTav 
GTTjv avspyia yia touMxigtov 1 2 [V[\veq. H avspyia cpUGiKd 
87irip8d(^8i oXoK^ripri ttjv oiKoysvsia tou (ttjc;) avspyou. E' 
oAoK^ripri ttjv E.E.-15 to 12%) tou 7iXr|9uG[j,ou 5iaPisi gs oi- 
Koy8V8i8(; avspycov. 



329 



Bip>^ioypa(pia 

H 0}tOK}tfipcoGri TT]^ Eupco7iaiKfi(; 'Ev(i)cr\q, cvXkijr] ksi[j,s- 
vcDV, skSogsk; 08[j,sA,io, 1999. 

O Nso(; EvpanaiKoq x(bpo(;, ouXXoyfi ksi[j,sv(ov, skSogsk; 
©s^sXio, 2000. 

EupcDTiaiKTi St)V8>uSUOTi, SxeSio yia tt] Gsamari Guvxayfa^a- 
TO^ TTjc; Eup(b7iri(;, Bpu^eXXet;, 18 louMou 2003. 

To [leXkiv Tr|(; Et)p(b7iri(; Kai r\ EX,}td5a, EX,}tr|viK6 Ksvxpo 
EupcoTiaiKcbv MsXstcdv (EKEM), skSogsk; Avt.N. EaKKou^^a, 
AGfiva - Ko[j,OTrivfi 2002. 

EupcDTiaiKo Ei3vTay[j,a, poXo^, armaaia, 7ispi8x6[j,£vo, ouX- 
Xoji] Ksi[j,8vcov, 8k56gsi(; Avt.N. EaKKoi)>ua, AGfiva - Ko[j,o- 
xrivfi 2002. 

KcDGxac; BspyoTiouXot;, Iloiot; (popdxai xriv EuproTUi, ava- 
xo[j,ia 8v6(; |iijGou, 8k56gsi(; Aipdvri, AGfiva 2000. 

Klaus Busch, H Kpiori xcov supcoTiaiKcbv KoivoxfixcDV, sk56- 
gsk; Epaxd), AGfiva 1986. 

Klaus Busch, H EupcDTiri [lexa xo 1992, oikovo[j,iks(;, oiko- 
>uoyiKS(; Kai koivcdviks^ TipooTixiKs^ xri(; 8viaia(; socDxspiKfic; 
ayopd(;, EkSogsk; KpixiKfi 87iiGxri[j,oviKfi PipXioGfiKri, AGfiva 
1992. 

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XpfiGTO(; M7idyKaPo(; - AsGTioiva na7ia5o7iof)>^ou, Msxa- 

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Ari[j,fixpri EapXfi, Oi 7ioXixiKS(; Tikevpeq xric; svxa^ric; xri(; EX- 
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AioviJGio^ Sxpa^TioyXric;, 2003 r\ sA,A,riviKfi 7ipos5pia Kai to 
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EA,XriviK6(; aypoxiKoc; TO[j,sa(; Kai aypoxiKfi noXniKi], ONE, 
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H sX,Xr|viKfi oiKovo[j,ia Kai r| aTiaGxo^tri gt], sxfiGia skGsgti 

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H 8X,}triviKfi oiKovo^iia Kai r\ a7iaGx6}tri gt], ExfiGia skGsgti 

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H sA,}tr|viKfi oiKovo[j,ia Kai r\ aTiaGxo^tr] gt], ExfiGia skGsgti 

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H OXoKlfipcoori Tri<; EupcoTiaiicfu^'Evcoorn;, cvlXayi] k81(J£VC0V, 
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" NxavieX Kov MTievxlx Kai Okpie NxuaiisX, MiKpo Xe^iKo xou 

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^ O Neo<; EupcoviaiKog x^POQ, duXXoyii Kei|ievcov, eKSooeig 0e|ie- 

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^ BamXelou Ilavdyou, Kcovoxocvxlvou Toowxa, AiaKpaxiKii Kai 

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" Chris Harman, The Common Market, International Socialism 49, 

1971. 

^' Klaus Busch, H EupcoTiaiicri Koivoxrixa oe Kplor]. Ta alxia xri<; 

anoxvxiaj^ xrn; oiKovo(iiKfi<; Kai vo|rio|raxiKri<; evcoorn;, 0eoei<;, loykoi;- 

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^^ Kcboxrag Kd7i7io<;, EupcoTiaiKii 'Evcoor] evocvxlov xcov eupcoTiaiKcbv 

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^'' Gughelmo Carchedi, H ONE, or vo|rio|raxiK8<; Kpioen; Kai xo 

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^^ Chris Harman, The Common Market, International Socialism 49, 

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" EleDGepoxraia, 7/5/2003. 

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H OXoKlfipcoori xrig Eupa)7iaiiKfi<;'Evco(jri<;, cjuHoyfi Keijxevcov, 
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'" Hkiac, KaXkidypac^ Eupcb:EoK Kai Aeo<;, eKSooen; Aipdvri, oeX. 

325. 

'^ Hkiac, KaXkvhpac^ Eupcb:EoK Kai AeoQ eKSooen; Aipdvri, oeX. 

326. 

"" H OXoKlfipcoori Tri<; EupcoTiaiicfu^'Evcoorn;, ciuHoyfi Kei|ievcov, 

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■'' Klaus Busch, H Kplor] xcov EupcoTiaiKcbv KoivoxfiTCOV, eKSooen; 

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^ Klaus Busch, H Er)pco7iai:Kf] Koiv6xr]xa oe Kplor]. Ta aixia xr\q 

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^^ Bernard Connolly, H odma KapSid ■a]q Evp(hTa]q, ekSooek; Nea 

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^^ H OXoK^iipcoor] xr]<; Ei)pco7iaiKf]<;'Evcoor]<;, ouIXoyf] Keijievcov, 

8k56o81<; ©eireXio, 1999, oeX. 375. 

^" H OXoK^iipcoor] xr]<; Ei)pco7iaiKf]<;'Evcoor]<;, ouXXoyf] Kei|revcov, 

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Financial Times, 6 October 1989, ocvacpepexai aiio xov Alex Cal- 
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21° aicbva, eKSooeig IlaTiai^fiori, oeX. 138. 

^' Alex Callinicos, Europe: The mounting crisis. International So- 

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""^ H OXoKlfipcoori xri<; EupcoTiaiKTH^'Evcoarn;, uvlloyi] Keijxevcov, 

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''^ H OXoKlfipcoori xri<; EupcoTiaiicfu^'Evcoorn;, cjuXXoyfi Kei|ievcov, 

eKSooeig 0e|i£ko, 1999, oeX. 375. 

"*" NxocvieX Kov Mvievxlx Kai OXiPie NxuaiisX, MiKpo A£^ik6 xou 

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''^ H OXoKlfipcoori xri<; Eupco7iaiiKfi<;'Evco(jri<;, cjuXXoyfi Kei|ievcov, 

eK56(jei<; ©e^isko, 1999, oeX. 378. 

""^ H OXoKlfipcoori xri<; Eupco7iaiKfi<;'Evcoori<;, cjulloyfi Keijxevcov, 

eK56(jei<; ©ejisXio, 1999, oeX. 379. 

"'^ Gughelmo Carchedi, H ONE, oi vo|ii(j(xaxiK8<; Kpioen; Kai xo 

eviaio supcoTiaiKo v6|ii(j(ia, Oeoen; xeijxog 68, ATipiXioi; - lowiog 1999. 
'^^ Gughelmo Carchedi, H ONE, oi vo(iio|iaxiKe<; Kpioen; Kai xo 

Eviaio eDpcoTiaiKo v6\n(5\ia, Oeoen; xevxoq 68, A7ipiA,io<; - lowioi; 1999. 
"*' Gughelmo Carchedi, H ONE, oi vo|ii(j|iaxiKe<; Kpioen; Kai xo 

eviaio eDpcoTiaiKo v6\ii(5\ia, Oeoen; xeuxog 68, AvipiXiog - lowiog 1999. 
* Paul De Grauwe, Ta oiKovo|iiKd xri<; vojiiojiaxiKfn; evcoorn;, ek- 

56(jei<; IlaTiai^fiori, A9fiva2003, oeX. 113-114. 

^^ ndwrig MriA,i6<;, H vo|ii(j|iaxiKfi evcoor] oe vee<; TiepiTiexeiEQ 08- 

oeig, loi)A,io<;-Ee7ixe|iPpio<; 1997. 

^' The Guardian, 28/5/1997, avacpepexai oxo Alex Callinicos, Eu- 

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^'' NxovieX Kov MTievxix Kai Okpie NxuaiisX, MiKpo Xe^iKo xou 

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^^ Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe edition. 

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^' Ari|ifixpri<; Todxoog, EupcoTiaiicfi EujxTiokxeia, eKSooeii; Kaoxa- 

vicbxr], ael. 69. 

^^ EupcoTiaiKo Eyvxayiia, p6Xo<;, orniaoia, 7iepi£x6|ievo, EXXtiviko 

Ksvxpo EupcoTiaiiKcbv MeA^xcbv, oeX. 31. 

^' Ari|ifixpri<; Todxooi;, EupcoTiaiicri EujiTiokxeia, eKSooeii; Kaaxa- 

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''^ ndvo<; Koi^dKoi;, To apepaio (xeXXov xri<; eupcoTiaiicric; evrooric; Kai 

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''^ U.K. lcoaKei|il5ri<;, H owBiikti xri<; NiKairag Kai xo (isXXov xri<; 

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''' H OXoK^fipcoori xri<; Eupco7iaiKfi<;'Evco(jri<;, uy)'k'koY^ Kei|ievcov, 

eKSooeig 0e|i£Xio, 1999, oeX. 74. 

™ U.K. lcoaKei|il5ri<;, H owBiikti xtji; NiKaiag Kai xo [isXXov xri<; 

EDpcoTirn;, eKSooeig 9e|ieA,io, oeX. 62. 

^^ U.K. lcoaKei|ii5ri<;, H oDvBfiKri xri<; NiKaiog Kai xo [isXXov xri<; 

EDpcoTirn;, eKSooeig 9e|ieA,io, oeX. 64-65. 

''' U.K. lcoaKei|ii5ri<;, H owBiiKri xtji; NiKaiog Kai xo (leXXov xri<; 

EupcoTirn;, eKSooeig 9e|ieA,io, oeX. 63. 
" EXeueepoxraia, 6/10/2003. 



339 



Ari|ifiTpri<; Todxoog, Eupco7iaiiKf| EuiiTioXixeia, eKSooeig Kaoxa- 
vicbxT], oeX. 93-102, Kai n.K. IcoaKei|il5ri<;, H cruvGfiKri xri<; NiKaiou; Kai xo 
LieXXov xri<; Eupcbvirn;, eKSooen; 6e|i£ko, oeX. 83-98. 
^ Ari|ifixpri<; Todxoot;, EupcoTiaiicfi Eu|i7ioXixeia, eKSooeii; Kaoxa- 

vicbxTi, oeX. 99-100. 

^'' Euvevxeu^ri xou A. Mocvixdicri, KaOriyrixfi xou EuvxayjxaxiKoi) 

AiKaiou, EXeuBepoxuTila, 23/6/2003. 
" Auyii, 24/10/2003. 

^^ Atio xriv o\iikia xou Avxcovr] Mocvaxdicri oxriv Exaipeia Melexrav 

«N1ko<; nouXaxCo;)), H Etioxii, 26/10/2003. 

^' Atio xriv 0(xiA,la xou Avxcovr] Mocvixdicri oxrjv Exaipeia Melexrav 

«NiKO<; HovXaxQaQ}, H Etioxii, 2/11/2003. 

^° EupcoTiaiKo Euvxayiia, p6Xo<;, orniaoia, Tiepi8x6|ievo, EXXriviKo 

Ksvxpo EupcoTiaiKcbv MeA^xcbv, oeX. 37. 

^' Euvevxeu^r] xou Arnifixpri Todxoou, eupcoPouXeuxfn; xou IIA- 

EOK, EXeuBepoxuTiia, 23/6/2003. 

**- H Kaeriiiepivii, 22/6/2003, Kai EXeueepoxraia, 22/6/2003 . 

^^ Kaeriiiepivii, 12/10/2003. 

^^ Kaeriiiepivri, 12/10/2003. 

^^ XeX|ioi)x E|iix, H awxo5i)va|iia xri<; EupcoTirn;, TipooTixiKSi; yia xov 

21° aicbva, eKSooeig IlaTiai^fiori, oeX. 153. 
^"^ EXeueepoxuTiia, 1/6/2003. 

^' Bernard Cassen, EuvxaKxiKf] EuveXeuor] yia xo xiTioxa, Le 

Monde, avaSruiooieuori EXeuBepoxuTiia, 24/8/2003. 
^^ BamXeioi) Ilavdyoi), Kcovoxavxivou Toouvxa, AiaKpaxiKf] Kai 

i)Tiepe9viKfi Ewepyaoia, eKSooeig IlaTiai^fiori, A6fiva 2002, oeX. 777. 
^' Aoi)Kd<; ToouKalrn;, H vea eupcoTiaiKfi oiKovo|iia, oxo Kaxcbcpk 

xoi) 21™ aicbva, eKSooeii; IlaTiai^fiori, oel. 289. 

^° MavoXr] ApexxdKq, Aieupujievr] E.E. \ie 5ia(pope<; 5i8Dpi)(i£V8<;, 

EleuGepoxuTiia, 2/5/2003. 

^^ ©eoScopog K. neXayi5ri<;, KaxaxoviKii oiKovojiia, eKSooen; Ila- 

Tiai^Tlori, oeX. 35. 

'- EXeueepoxuTiia, 17/12/2003. 

'^ Kcboxog BepyoTiouXog, Iloiog cpopdxai xr|v EupcoTiri, avaxojiia 

evog |ir)9oi), eKSooen; Aipdvr], A9fiva2000, oeX. 115-116. 
''' Atio xo cite www. CIA - The World Factbook - yia xrjv Fepjiavi- 

a. 

340 



HXloi; IcoaKel|ioyXou, H ONE, oi |ii(j9o1 Kai \\ ocvepyla, Ivoxixoi)- 
TO Epyaoloig TEEE-AAEAY, oeX. 60-81.Aidpo«^e emorn; ©eoScopot; K. 
neXaylSrn;, KaxaxoviKfi oiKovo|ila, eKSooeii; IlaTiai^fiori, oel. 19-41. 
'^ Kaeriiiepivri, 10/7/2003. 

^' Kaeriiiepivri, 12/11/2003. 

"^ Kaeriiiepivri, 31/12/2003. 

^ ©eoScopog K. neXayi5ri<;, KaxaxoviKfi oiKovo|ila, eKSooen; Ila- 

Tiai^iiori, oeX. 29. 

^°° ndvo<; Kai^dKot;, To apepaio [leXXov xri<; eupcoTiaiicric; evcootic; Kai 

T] ToupKia, eKSooen; IlaTiai^fiori, oeX. 122. 

^°^ Hkiac, lcoaKel|ioyXou, H ONE, oi (iioGoi Kai rj avepyia, Ivoxixou- 

xo Epyaoiog TEEE-AAEAY, oeX. 80. 
^°- EXeueepoxmia, 6/7/2003. 

'"^ AouKOi; Tooi)Kalri<;, H vea eupcoTiaiKfi oiKovojiia, oxo Kaxcbcpli 

xoi) 21™ aicbva, eKSooeig IlaTiai^fiori, oeX. 320. 
^°'' Kcboxog BepyoTiouXot;, noio<; cpopdxai xriv EupcoTiri, avaxo|iia 

evoq (ii30oi), ekSooek; Aipdvi], A6fiva 2000, oeX. 107. 
'°^ Kcboxog BepyoTiouXot;, noio<; cpopdxai xriv EDpcbviri, avaxojiia 

Evoq (ii)9oi), EKSooeig Aipdvri, A6fiva2000, oeX. 107,109. 
^"•^ EXeueepoxraia, 12/10/2003. 

^"^ To Biiiia, 4/10/2003. 

'°^ HKaeriiispivri, 10/7/2003. 

^°^ Kaerinepivii, 21/9/2003. 

"° Kaerinepivii, 28/9/2003. 

"^ EXeueepoxmia, 6/10/2003. 

"" G. Buster, EU enlargement: from poverty to misery. Internation- 

al Viewpoint 340, May 2002. 

"^ O Neo<; EupcoviaiKog x^POQ, (mlloyi\ keijievcov, eK56(jei<; 0e|i£- 

Iio, 2000, oeX. 146. 

"'' O Neo<; EupcoTiaiKog x^POQ, duXXoyii Kei|ievcov, eKSooeig 0e|ie- 

Xio, 2000, ceX. 163. 

"^ Aiovi3(Jio<; ExpaiiTioyXrig, 2003 t] eXXriviKfi 7ipoe5pia Kai xo lisX- 

Xov xri<; EupcoTirn;, eK56(jei<; Aipdvr], A6fiva 2002, oeX. 100-101. 
"^ G. Buster, EU enlargement: from poverty to misery. Internation- 

al Vie\vpoint 340, May 2002. 
"^ ADyii, 4/10/2003. 

"^ EleuGepoxuTiia, 20/4/2003. 

341 



' ' ^ EXeueepoxmla, 6/7/2003 . 

^-° EXeueepoxmla, 9/7/2003. 

'^' EXeueepoxmla, 27/6/2003. 

'^^ EXeueepoxmla, 16/5/2001. 

'^^ Mario Monti, H Eviala ayopd Kai r] aupiocvfi EupcoTiri, eKBeor] 

7ipo65ou EKTiovriBeloa avio xriv EupcoTiaiicfi EmxpoTifi, eKSooeig IlaTiai^fiori, 
ABiiva 1998, oeX. 23. 

^'"^ MocvoXri ApexxdKTi, npay|iaxiKT| aTiOKliori ocvxi xri<; oiryKXiorn;, 

EleuGepoxrala, 4/8/2003. 

^'^ AouKou; ToouKolrn;, H vea eupcoTiaiicfi oiKovo|ila, oxo KaxcbcpXi 

xou 21™ aicbva, eKSooen; IlaTiai^fiori, oeX. 302-303. 
^''^ MocvoXri ApexxdKTi, Elvai ecpiKxr] r] duyKXiori co<; xo 2008;, EXeu- 

eepoxmia, 18/9/2003. 
^-^ EXeuBepoxmla, 1/6/2003. 

^"^ AouKo; TooyKolrn;, H vea eupcoTiaiicri oiKovo^ia, oxo Kaxrocpli 

xou 21™ aicbva, eKSooen; IlaTiai^fiori, oeX. 61. 

^"' H ellriviKTi oiKovo|ila Kai r] aviaoxo^TioTi, Exiima eKBeor] 2002, 

Ivoxixouxo Epyaolai; FEEE-AAEAY, oeX. 118-119. 
^ ^° EXeuBepoxmla, 2 1/6/2003 . 

^^^ AouKo; ToouKalrig, H vea eupcoTiaiicfi oiKovo^iia, oxo Kaxracpli 

xou 21™ aicbva, eK56oei<; IlaTiai^fiori, oeX. 122-123. 
^^' AouKo; TooyKalrig, H vea eupcoTiaiicfi oiKovojiia, oxo Kaxcbcpli 

xou 21™ aicbva, eK56oei<; IlaTiai^fiori, oeX. 309. 
^^^ H KaeTiiiepivii, 12/1 1/2003. 

'^'' NxavieX Kov Mvievxix Kai Okpie Nxua|ieX, MiKpo Xe^iKo xou 

eupcb, eKSooeig IToXk;, A6fiva 1988, oeX. 220. 

^^^ NxavieX Kov Mvievxix Kai Okpie NxuajieX, MiKpo Xe^iKo xod 

eupcb, eK56oei<; rioXig, A9fiva 1988, oeX. 113. 

^^'^ Paul De Grauwe, Ta oiKovo|iiKd xrig vo|iio|iaxiKfi<; evcoorig, eK- 

56oei<; na7ia{;rioTi, ABiiva 2003, oeX. 246-252. 
^^' NxavieX Kov Mvievxix Kai Okpie NxuajieX, MiKpo Xe^iKo xou 

eupcb, eKSooeig rioXig, A9fiva 1988, oeX. 114. 

^^^ Kcboxog BepyoTiouXog, Iloiot; cpopdxai xrjv Eupcbviri, avaxo|iia 

evoc; jiu9ou, eK56oei<; Aipdvri, A9fiva 2000, oeX. 258-59. 
^^^ Alex Callinicos, Europe: The mounting crisis. International So- 

cialism issue 75, July 1997. 



342 



H OXoKlfipcoori xrig Eupco7iaiiKfi<;'Evcoori<;, m)XkoYr\ Keijxevcov, 
eK56(jei<; 0e|i£A,io, 1999, oeX. 262. 

^''^ Mario Monti, H Eviala ayopd Kai r] aupiocvfi EupcoTiri, eKBeor] 

7ipo65ou EKTiovriGeloa avio xriv EupcoTiaiicfi EmxpoTifi, eKSooeig IlaTiai^fiori, 
ABiiva 1998, oeX. 38. 

^'*' Bernard Cassen, EuvxaKxiKfi EuveXeuori yia xo xlvioxa, Le 

Monde, ovaSruiooleuori EXeu9epoxu7ila, 24/8/2003. 
^''^ Mario Monti, H Eviala ayopd Kai t] aupiavf] EupcoTiri, eKBeor] 

7ipo65ou EKTiovriBeioa avio xriv EupcoTiaiicfi EmxpoTifi, eKSooeig IlaTiai^fiori, 
ABiiva 1998, oeX. 71. 

^'''' AouKOi; ToouKalrn;, H vea eupcoTiaiicfi oiKovojxia, oxo Kaxracpk 

xou 21™ aicbva, eKSooeig IlaTiai^fiori, oeX. 178. 

^''^ ©eoScopog K. neXaylSrn;, H EupcoTiaiicfi ucpeori Kai t] mlh] ko- 

A,ixiKTi», eKSooen; IlaTiai^fiori, ABiiva 1977, oeX. 35. 
^'^ ©eoScopog K. neXayi5ri<;, H EupcoTiaiicfi ycpeor] Kai t] mlh] ko- 

A,ixiKf|», eKSooen; IlaTiai^fiori, A9fiva 1977, oeX. 35-36. 
^''^ Dusan Sidjanski, H ojxooTiovSicoori xri<; Eupd)7iri<;, EkSooek; Ila- 

Tia^fioTi, ABiiva 1999, oeX. 220. 

'''^ Mario Monti, H Eviala ayopd Kai t] aupiavf] EupcoTiri, eKBeOT] 

7ipo65ou EKTiovriBeioa avio xtjv EupcoTiaiKii EmxpoTifi, eKSooeig IlaTiai^fiori, 
ABiiva 1998, oeX. 151. 
^ "' EXeueepoxraia, 2 1/6/2003 . 

^^° Mario Monti, H Eviala ayopd Kai r| aupiavf] EupcbTir], EKGeOT] 

7ipo65ou EKTiovriGeioa avio xtjv EupcoTiaiKii EmxpoTifi, eKSooeii; IlaTiai^fiori, 
ABiiva 1998, oeX. 151. 

^^^ AouKo; ToouKalrn;, H vea eupcoTiaiKfi oiKovojxia, oxo KaxcbcpXi 

xou 21™ aicbva, eKSooeig IlaTiai^fiori, oeX. 148-149. 
^^' AouKo; TooyKalrig, H vea eupcoTiaiKri oiKovojiia, oxo Kaxracpli 

xou 21™ aicbva, eKSooeig IlaTiai^fiori, oeX. 149. 

^^^ AouKo; ToouKalrn;, H vea eupcoTiaiKr] oiKovojxia, oxo Kaxcbcpli 

xou 21™ aicbva, eKSooeig IlaTiai^fiori, oeX. 137. 

^^'' Chris Harman, Analysing imperialism. International Socialism 

issue 99, Summer 2003. 
^^^ EXeuBepoxuTiia, 7/8/2003. 

''* HKaeTiiiepivii, 19/9/2003. 

'^' HKaeriiiepivri, 19/9/2003. 

'^^ HKaeriiiepivri, 23/9/2003. 

343 



Ava5ri|iooleu(jri oxriv Ka6ri|iepivfi, 4/10/2003. 
^^° H Kaeriiispivri, 25/1 1/2003. 

^^^ EXeueepoxmla, 6/8/2003 Kai Kaerniepivri, 28/9/2003 . 

^^^ Kaeriiiepivii, 13/9/2003. 

'*^ AvaSriiiooleuori oxriv Ka9ri|iepivfi, 28/9/2003. 

^^'^ ElevQepcnmda, 24/8/2003. 

'*^ AouKOi; ToouKolrn;, H vea eupcoTiaiicfi oiKovo|iia, oxo Kaxcbcpk 

xou 21™ aicbva, eKSooeig IlaTiai^fiori, oeX. 172. 

^'^'^ ndvo<; Kai^dKot;, To apepaio (xeXXov xri<; eupcoTiaiicric; evcootic; Kai 

T] ToupKio, eKSooen; IlaTiai^fiori, oeX. 122. 

^^' Paul De Grauwe, Ta oiKovo|iiKd xri<; vo|ii(j(xaxiKfi<; evcoOT]?, ek- 

Sooeig IlaTiai^fiori, ABiiva 2003, oeX. 300. 

^'^^ Kcboxrag BepYOKOvloq, Iloiog cpopdxai xriv EupcoTiri, avaxo|ila 

£v6q [vbQov, eKSooeig Aipdvri, A9fiva2000, oeX. 361-363. 
^''^ NxocvieX Kov Mvievxix Kai Okpie Nxua|ieX, MiKpo Xe^iKo xou 

eupcb, eK56(jei<; noXig, ABiiva 1988, oeX. 174. 

"" Paul De Grauwe, Ta oiKovo|iiKd xri<; vo|ii(j(xaxiKfi<; evcoOT]?, ek- 

Sooeii; na7ia{;ri(jTi, AGiiva 2003, oeX. 296-297. 

"^ Paul De Grauwe, Ta oiKovo|iiKd xri<; vo(xi(j(xaxiKri<; evcoOT]?, ek- 

Sooeig IlaTiai^fiori, A9fiva2003, oeX. 313. 
"- Kaeriiiepivii, 26/11/2003. 

'" EXeueepoxrala, 27/7/2003. 

'^^ EXeueepoxrala, 27/7/2003. 

'" HKaeriiispivri, 28/8/2003. 

"* HKaeriiispivri, 21/9/2003. 

'" HKaeriiispivri, 16/9/2003. 

'™ HKaeriiispivri, 20/9/2003. 

"^ HKaeriiispivfi, 17/9/2003. 

^ '^^ Eleueepoxrala, 3 1/7/2003 . 

'^^ Paul De Grauwe, Ta oiKovojuKd xrig vo|ii(j|iaxiKri<; evcooriQ 8k- 

56(jei<; IlaTiai^fiori, ABiiva 2003, oeX. 299. 
^ ^- EXeueepoxraia, 3 1/7/2003 . 

'^^ HKaeriiispivri, 3/10/2003. 

'^^ HKaeriiispivri, 4/10/2003. 

'^^ BamXelou Ilavdyou, Kcovoxavxlvou Toowxa, AiaKpaxiKii Kai 

U7iepe9viKfi Ewepyaoia, eK56oei<; naTiai^fjori, ABiiva 2002, oeX. 682-684. 



344 



BamXelou riavdyou, Kcovoxavxlvot) Toowxa, AiaKpaxiicfi Kai 
VKspeQviKX] Ewepyaola, eKSooen; IlaTiai^fiori, A6fiva 2002, oeX. 689. 
^^^ BamXelou riavdyou, Kcovoxocvxlvou Toouvxa, AiaKpaxiKii Kai 

UTiepeGviKii Ewepyaola, eKSooen; IlaTiai^fiori, A9fiva2002, oeX. 683. 
^^^ BamXelou riavdyou, Kcovoxocvxlvou Toowxa, AiaKpaxiKii Kai 

VKspeQviKX] Ewepyaola, eKSooeig IlaTiai^fiori, A9f|va 2002, eel. 690. 
^^' O Neog EupcoTiaiiKot; x^P^Q, (luXXoyfi Keijxevcov, eKSooeig 0e|i£- 

Xio, 2000, oeX. 279. 

^'° O Neo<; EupcoviaiKog x'i'PO?' (mlloyi\ k81(18vcov, eKSooen; ©e^is- 

ko, 2000, oeX. 280. 

^'^ O Neo<; EvpaiKdiKoq X'^POQ, (mlloyi\ Keijxevcov, eKSooen; 0e|i£- 

ko, 2000, oeX. 284. 

^^' Klaus Busch, H Kplor] xcov eupcoTiaiKcbv koivoxtixcov, eKSooeii; 

Epaxd), oeX. 33. 

^^^ BamXelou novdyou, Kcovoxocvxlvou Toowxa, AiaKpaxiKii Kai 

UTiepeGviKii Ewepyaoia, eKSooen; naTiai^fjori, ABiiva 2002, aeX. 739. 
^''' EXXriviKot; aypoxiKot; xoiieog Kai aypoxiKii xokxiKri, ONE, avxa- 

ycovioxiKoxrixa Kai 5iap6pcoxiKe<; aXkaytq, (rnXkoyx] Keijievcov, Ivoxixomo 
Epyaoiog TEEE - AAEAY, oeX. 69. 

^'^ O Neo<; EupcoviaiKog x^POQ, (mlloyi\ k81(18vcov, eKSooen; ©ejis- 

Xio, 2000, oeX. 292. 

^''' O Neog EupcoTiaiKot; x'i'PO?' cruJi^oyfi k81(18vcov, eK56oei<; 08(i8- 

Xio, 2000, oeX. 285. 
^'^ EXeuBepoxmia, 12/11/2003. 

'^^ O Neo<; EupcoviaiKog x^POQ, (mllxiji] k81(18vcov, eKSooen; ©ejie- 

Iio, 2000, oeX. 294. 

^'^ EXXriviKog aypoxiKog xo|ieag Kai aypoxiKfj TiokxiKii, ONE, avxa- 

ycovioxiKoxrixa Kai SiapBpcoxiKeg aXkayeq, (mHoyx] k81(isvcov, Ivoxixomo 
Epyaoiog EEEE - AAEAY, oeX. 67. 

"°° O Neo<; EupcoviaiKog x^POQ, duXXoyii Keijievcov, eKSooeig 0e|ie- 

Xio, 2000, oeX. 291. 

'"^ O Neo<; EupcoviaiKog x^POQ, duXXoyii Kei|ievcov, eKSooeig 0e|ie- 

Xio, 2000, oeX. 297. 

'"' O Neog EupcoTiaiKot; x'i'PO?' cruJiJioyfi k81jisvcov, eKSooen; 0e|i£- 

Iio, 2000, oeX. 305. 



345 



EXkfiviKoq aypoTiKog xoiierag Kai aypoxiKfi TioXmicfi, ONE, ocvxa- 
ycovioTiKOTTiTa Kai 5iap6pcoTiKe<; aXkaysc,, cruXXoyfi Kei|ievcov, Ivoxixomo 
Epyaoloig FEEE - AAEAY, oeX. 74. 

^°'' BamXelou novdyou, KcovotocvtIvou Toowxa, AiaKpaxiicfi Kai 

UTiepeBviKJi Ewepyaoia, 8K56aei<; naviai^fiori, ABiiva 2002, oeX. 694. 
^°^ HKaeriiispivfi, 27/6/2003. 

^°^ KcboTog BepYOKOvloq, noio<; cpopdiai xriv EupcoTiri, ocvaxoiila 

Evoq [vbQov, eKSooeig Aipdvri, A9fiva2000, oeX. 114-115. 
'"^ EXXriviKot; aypoxiKog xo\ieac, Kai aypoxiKfi TiokxiKfi, ONE, avxa- 

ycovioxiKoxrixa Kai 5iap9pcoxiKe<; aXkayeq, cruXXoyfi Kei|ievcov, Ivoxixouxo 
Epyaoiog EEEE - AAEAY, oeX. 87. 

'°^ EXXriviKot; aypoxiKog xo|ieag Kai aypoxiKii tioXixikii, ONE, avxa- 

ycovioxiKoxrixa Kai 5iap9pcoxiKe<; aXkayeq, cruXXoyfi Kei|ievcov, Ivoxixouxo 
Epyaoiog EEEE - AAEAY, oeX. 88. 
-°^ HKaeTi^ispivri, 27/6/2003. 

'^° E'k'h]viK6q aypoxiKog xo|ieag Kai aypoxiKfj koIxxikx], ONE, avxa- 

ycovioxiKoxrixa Kai 5iap6pcoxiKe<; aXkayeq, cmllxiyi] Keijievcov, Ivoxixouxo 
Epyaoiog EEEE - AAEAY, oeX. 90. 

'^^ E'k'h]viK6q aypoxiKog xo|ieag Kai aypoxiKfi ;ioA,ixiKri, ONE, avxa- 

ycovioxiKoxrixa Kai 5iap6pcoxiKe<; aXkayeq, cjuXXoyfi Keijievcov, Ivoxixouxo 
Epyaoiog EEEE - AAEAY, oeX. 93. 

'^' ndvo<; Kai^dKot;, Avdiieoa oe Kpdxo<; Kai ayopd, eKSooen; Ilaxd- 

KH, AOiiva 2001, oeX. 415. 

'^^ E'k'h]viK6q aypoxiKot; xo|ieag Kai aypoxiKii tioXixikii, ONE, avxa- 

ycovioxiKoxrixa Kai 5iap9pcoxiKe<; aXkaysq, cruXXoyfi Keijievcov, Ivoxixomo 
Epyaoiog EEEE - AAEAY, oeX. 95 

"^'' Aiovumog ExaiiTioyXriQ 2003 rj eXXriviKfi TipoeSpia Kai xo (leHov 

xri<; Ei)pd)7ir|<;, eKSooen; Aipdvri, A6fiva 2002, oeX. 97. 
-'^ To Biina, 28/9/2003. 

^'* H Kaeriiispivii, 25/9/2003. 

'" BamXeioi) Ilavdyoi), Kcovoxavxivou Toowxa, AiaKpaxiKii Kai 

i)7iepe9viKfi Ewepyaoia, eKSooen; IlaTiai^fiori, A9fiva2002, oeX. 709-710. 
-^^ To Biina, 28/9/2003. 

'^^ Mavolri ApexxaKi], E.E. : 'EXXei|i|ia Kai \ie Ewxayiia, EleuGepo- 

xDTiia, 8/7/2003. 

''° NxavieX Kov Mvievxix Kai Okpie NxuajisX, MiKpo Xe^iKo xou 

eupcb, eKSooeig rioXig, A9fiva 1988, oeX. 188. 

346 



N1ko<; Koxi^iOi;, EupcoTiaiicri 'Evcoor]: eva cruo-cri^ot ev xco ylyve- 
(j6ai, eK56(jei<; SeXcplvi, oeX. 39. 

""" Francois Vercammen, Pseudo debates, capitalist offensive. Inter- 

national Viewpoint, July 2001. 

''^ ndvog Kai^dKog, To apepaio [leXXov xrn; eupco7iaiKfi<; evcoorn; Kai 

T] ToupKio, eKSooen; IlaTiai^fiori, oeX. 71. 

""'' Ari|ifiTpri<; Todxoot;, EupcoTiaiicfi EuiiTiokxeia, eKSooeig Kaoxa- 

vicbxT], oeX. 94. 

""^ Bernard Connolly, H odma KapSid xn<; EupcoTrrn;, eKSooen; Nea 

Euvopa - A.A. Aipdvr], oeX. 608. 

'-'^ Francois Vercammen, The EU and America's war. International 

Viewpoint 337, January/February 2002. 

'"^ Chris Harman, Analysing imperiahsm. International Socialism 

issue 99, Summer 2003. 

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