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Full text of "Fix-Your_Ford_"

FIX YOUR 

FSB© 



V8 *- 6" 

1963 TO 1954 



By 

Bill Toboldt 

Consulting Editor, Motor Service Magazine 
Member Society of Automotive Engineers 




HOMEWOOD, ILLINOIS 
THE GOODHEART-WILLCOX COMPANY, INC. 
Publishers 



Copyright 1963 
By 
THE GOODHEART-WILLCOX CO. INC. 



Previous Editions 

Copyright 1962, 1961, 1960, 1959, 

1958, 1957, 1955 



All Rights Reserved 

Printed in the United States of America 

Library of Congress Catalog 
Card Number: 61-9347 










INTRODUCTION 



FIX YOUR FORD is a handbook of time and money-saving 
information for Ford and Falcon owners, and mechanics. 

It describes simplified tune-up procedures; tells how to 
locate trouble and make many adjustments and repairs with- 
out the use of expensive equipment. 

FIX YOUR FORD covers shortcut methods of removing 
parts and replacing defective parts; tells you how to make 
emergency repairs if your car "conks out," and how to get 
better than normal Speed, Power, and Economy. It covers 
also, the use of Special Speed Equipment. 

In this book, when discussing service procedures, Ford 
engines are usually identified by displacement--390 cu. in., 
312 cu. in., etc., rather than by names such as the Galaxie 
and Fairlane. The names identify the complete chassis, which 
in most cases, is available with a choice of engines. For this 
reason, it is necessary to determine the displacement of the 
engine to be repaired, in order to select the repair procedure 
which is applicable. 

FIX YOUR FORD is based on material obtained from many 
sources, particularly from topflight Ford mechanics 
throughout the country, from the Ford Motor Co., and from 
many tool and equipment manufacturers. 



/3^ ~7WriC<t*^ 



Consulting Editor 

MOTOR SERVICE MAGAZINE 







Top, 1963 Ford Galaxie. Center, 1963 Ford Fair lane. 
Bottom, 1963 Falcon Futura. 



CONTENTS 



TUNE-UP TIPS 7 

IGNITION TUNE-UP 11 

CARBURETOR AND FUEL SYSTEM 
SERVICE 35 

SHORTCUTS ON ENGINE DISASSEMBLY ... 60 

SIMPLIFIED ENGINE REPAIRS 81 

ADJUSTING VALVE TAPPETS 117 

COOLING SYSTEM KINKS 123 

EXHAUST SYSTEM SERVICE 131 

QUICK TESTS ON BATTERIES 135 

SIMPLIFIED GENERATOR SERVICE 139 

KINKS ON STARTER TESTING 151 

LIGHTING SYSTEM SERVICE 156 

ACCESSORY AND INSTRUMENT SERVICE. .162 

OVERHAULING FORD CLUTCH 171 

FORD TRANSMISSIONS 176 

PROPELLER SHAFT AND UNIVERSAL 
JOINTS 197 

REAR AXLE SERVICE KINKS 200 

QUICK SERVICE ON SHOCK ABSORBERS 
AND SPRINGS 209 

SHORTCUTS ON WHEEL ALIGNMENT 215 

5 







Fix Your Ford 

QUICK SERVICE ON BRAKES 227 

LUBRICATION AND TIRES 255 

EMERGENCY TROUBLE SHOOTING 
AND REPAIRS 261 

TIPS ON BODY SERVICE 266 

HOPPING UP THE FORD 271 

TUNE-UP AND MECHANICAL 
SPECIFICATIONS 282 

INDEX 284 



TUNE-UP 
TIPS 



In order to get maximum performance and best fuel mileage, special 
care must be taken when doing a tune -up job. While accuracy and precision 
are required, doing a good tune -up job on a Ford car is not difficult. 

WHEN TO DO TUNE-UP JOB 

A tune -up job is needed when the fuel mileage and performance drop 
below normal. Because fuel consumption is so dependent on the type of 
driving, it is impossible to state what fuel mileage can be expected from 
the various Ford cars. Naturally, the driver who maintains a steady, con- 
servative speed will get many more miles per gallon of fuel than will a 
driver who is always driving as fast as possible, regardless of conditions. 

It will be found that cars used mostly in city type, stop-and-go driving, 
will require a tune-up job more frequently than cars used mostly on trips 
of ten miles or more. The reason for that is on trips of short duration the 
engine does not reach full operating temperature; consequently, valves will 
tend to stick, compression will drop, and operation of the engine will be 
rough. 

In most cases a tune-up job is advisable every 10,000 miles, or pos- 
sibly sooner if better performance is desired. Leavingthe tune-up job go 
for longer periods will usually result in hard starting, poor economy, and 
possibly roadside failure. 

FIRST STEP IN TUNE-UP 

The first step in atune-up job is therefore to make sure the valves are 
not sticking. Then check compression. 

The best way to make sure all valves are free and not sticking, is to 
use one of the special oils that is available and designed to free sticking 
valves. 

While instructions with different brands of such oils vary somewhat, 
one of the best methods is to bring the engine up to operating temperature, 
remove the air cleaner from the carburetor, and with the engine running 
at a fast idle, the content of the can of tune -up oil is poured slowly and 
steadily into the air intake of the carburetor. As this is done, it will be 
found necessary to speed up the engine. This can be done by moving the 
throttle rod. Huge clouds of smoke will come from the exhaust, so this op- 




A-J. Gouge used for checking compression 

eration must be done outdoors. It is advisable to use the tune-up oil when 
the car will not be needed for several hours. 

When the engine is started after having used tune -up oil, it will be found 
that the engine will idle more smoothly, and will have stepped-up perform- 
ance. A compression test can now be made, and it will be safe to assume 
that there will be no compression loss due to sticking valves. 

HOW TO MAKE A COMPRESSION TEST 

When making a compression test, first bring the engine to operating 
temperature, and then shut off the ignition. Remove the air cleaner, and 
block the throttle and the choke in wide-open position. Remove all the spark 
plugs, and then with the compression gauge, Fig. A-l inserted firmly in 
one spark plug hole, Fig. A-2, crank the engine to at least four compres- 




A-2. Making a compression test on a Falcon engine. 



Tune-Up Tips 

sion strokes to obtain the highest possible compression reading. 

Check and record the compression of each cylinder and compare it with 
*the specified value for that particular engine. 

COMPRESSION PRESSURES AT CRANKING SPEED 
AND FIRING ORDER 



Displace 


ment 


Year 


Compression 
Pressure 


Firing 
Order 


144 cu. i 


n. 


1963-1960 


170 lb. 


153624 


170 cu. ] 


n. 


1963-1960 


170 lb. 


153624 


221 cu. 


in. 


1963-1962 


150 lb. 


15426378 


223 cu. i 


n. 


1963-1956 


150 lb. 


153624 


239 cu. 


in. 


1954 


130 lb. 


15486372 


260 cu. i 


n. 


1963 


170 lb. 


153624 


272 cu. i 


n. 


1957-1955 


130 lb. 


15486372 


292 cu. 


in. 


1963-1956 


160 lb. 


15486372 


292 cu. 


n. 


1955 


140 lb. 


15486372 


312 cu. 


in. 


1957-1956 


160 lb. 


15486372 


332 cu. 


in. 


1959-1958 


180 lb. 


15426378 


352 cu. 


n. 


1963-1958 


180 lb. 


15426378 


390 cu. 


m. 


1963-1961 


180 lb. 


15426378 



If one or more cylinders read low or uneven, inject about a tablespoon- 
ful of engine oil on top of the pistons of the low reading cylinders. Crank 
the engine several times and recheck the compression. 

If the compression is higher than it was originally, it indicates that the 
piston rings or cylinders are worn and should be serviced. 

If the compression does not improve after putting the oil in the cylin- 
ders, it indicates that the valves are sticking, or are seating poorly. 

If two adjacent cylinders have low compression, and injecting oil in the 
cylinders does not increase compression, the probable cause is a defec- 
tive head gasket between the cylinders. 

A compression check is of value because an engine with low or uneven 
compression cannot be tuned successfully to give maximum performance. 
Therefore, it is essential that if the compression is not up to specifica- 
tions, the condition be corrected before proceeding further with the engine 
tune-up. 

If a weak cylinder cannot be located with a compression test, a cylinder 
balance test can be made which will help pinpoint the trouble. 



MAKING A CYLINDER BALANCE TEST 

It is often difficult to locate a weak cylinder, especially in an eight 
cylinder engine. The reason is that while a compression test will show 
cylinders that are low in compression, it will not show any of the other 



Fix Your Ford 

causes that might cause uneven firing. For instance, a compression test 
will not locate a leaking intake manifold, a valve that is not opened prop- 
erly due to a worn cam shaft, or a defective spark plug. 

A cylinder balance test will show the output of one cylinder as it is 
checked against another cylinder. This is done by means of grounding sev- 
eral spark plugs at a time, so that an engine will operate on only one or 
more cylinders at a time. 

The equipment used when making a cylinder balance test is shown in 
Fig. A-3. To determine which cylinders should be grounded first, the usual 




W 



*— II- 



w 



A-3. Method of making a cylinder balance test to locate weak cylinders. 

procedure is to divide the firing order in half, and arrange one -half over 
the other. For example, on a six cylinder engine with a firing order of 
1-5-3-6-2-4, place the numbers 1-5-3 over the numbers 6-2-4. The cyl- 
inders to be tested together appear one over the other, so you would first 
operate the cylinders 1-5-3 while the other cylinders are being shorted 
out by means of special wiring as shown in Fig. A-2. 

Ford uses two different firing orders for eight cylinder engines. One 
firing order is 1-5-4-8-6-3-7-2, and the other 1-5-4-2-6-3-7-8. In the 
case of the first firing order, the engine would first be operated on cylin- 
ders 1-5-4-8, while the cylinders 6-3-7-2 are shorted out. 

In the case of the engine with a firing order of 1-5-4-2-6-3-7-8, the 
engine would first operate on cylinders 1-5-4-2, and have the cylinders 
6-3-7-8 shorted out. 

After operating the engine on one -half the cylinders, the other cylinders 
are shorted out, and the engine will then be operated on the cylinders which 
were previously shorted. In that way, it is easy to determine in which half 
of the engine the weak cylinder is located. After going through that proce- 
dure, additional cylinders are shorted out until the weakest one is located. 



10 



IGNITION 
TUNE-UP 



The ignition system, Fig. B-l, is designed to supply the spark that ig- 
nites the combustible mixture in the combustion chamber. The ignition 
system is easily serviced. 

QUICK TEST OF SPARK 

T+iere are many types of expensive equipment available for testing the 
spark. However, a quite satisfactory method requiring no equipment, is to 
disconnect the high tension cable at one of the spark plugs. Then with the 
engine operating, hold the end of the spark plug wire about 1/4 in. away 



■ PRIMARY RESISTANCE WIRE 



SPARK 
PLUG 




B-l. Typical ignition circuit. 

from some metal portion of the engine, such as the exhaust manifold, or 
the cylinder block. A strong, steady spark should jump from the end of the 
wire to the engine. If the spark will not jump that distance, or is weak, thin 
or intermittent, the ignition system requires servicing. Do not make this 
test if there is any gasoline leakage present. 

Before disconnecting the wire atthesparkplug.be sure to observe the 
precautions given under the heading "Checks and Care of Ignition Cable." 

11 



Fix Your Ford 

WHAT TO DO ABOUT SPARK PLUGS 

Spark plugs should give at least 10,000 miles of satisfactory service. 
But it must be remembered that the continued use of old spark plugs re- 
sults in hard starting and increased fuel consumption. Also under wide- 
open throttle conditions maximum power will not be developed. 

Spark plugs that have a sooty insulator can easily be cleaned and put 
back into service. But plugs on which the electrodes are worn should be 
replaced with new ones. 

When spark plug insulators are covered with soot, it is an indication 
that the engine requires servicing of some sort, or the wrong type of spark 
plug is being used. The correct type of spark plug for use on Ford engines 
is given in the accompanying table. 

SPARK PLUG TYPES 
(Original Equipment) 



Year 


Displacement 


Plug make -model 


Gap 


1952-1954 


223 cu. 


in. 


Six 


Champion H-18Y 


.035 in. 


1954 


239 cu. 


in. 


V-8 


Champion H-18Y 


.035 in. 


1955-1957 


272 cu. 


in. 


V-8 


Champion F-14Y 


.035 in. 


1956-1957 


312 cu. 


in. 


V-8 


Champion F-14Y 


.035 in. 


1955-1957 


292 cu. 


in. 


V-8 


Champion F-14Y 


.035 in. 


1955-1959 


223 cu. 


in. 


Six 


Champion 870 


.035 in. 


1960-1961 


223 cu. 


in. 


Six 


Champion 860 


.035 in. 


1960-1961 


144 cu. 


Ln. 


Six 


Champion F-14Y 


.035 in. 


1960-1961 


170 cu. 


n. 


Six 


Champion F-14Y 


.035 in. 


1958-1961 


292 cu. 


n. 


V-8 


Champion F-14Y 


.035 in. 


1958-1959 


332 cu. 


n. 


V-8 


Champion F-11Y 


.035 in. 


1958-1961 


352 cu. 


n. 


V-8 


Champion F-11Y 


.035 in. 


1961 


390 cu. i 


n. 


V-8 


Champion F-11Y 


.035 in. 


1962-1963 


144 cu. ] 


n. 


Six 


Auto-Lite BF82 


.035 in. 


1962-1963 


170 cu. i 


n. 


Six 


Auto-Lite BF82 


.035 in. 


1962-1963 


221 cu. i 


n. 


V-8 


Auto-Lite BF92 


.035 in. 


1962-1963 


223 cu. i 


n. 


Six 


Auto-Lite BTF6 


.035 in. 


1962-1963 


292 cu. i 


n. 


V-8 


Auto-Lite BF82 


.035 in. 


1962-1963 


352 cu. i 


n. 


V-8 


Auto-Lite BF42 


.035 in. 


1962-1963 


390 cu. i 


n. 


V-8 


Auto-Lite BF42 


.035 in. 


1963 


260 cu. i 


n. 


V-8 


Auto-Lite BF82 


.035 in. 



When the correct type of spark plug is being used, and the insulator is 
covered with oily soot, Fig. B-2, it indicates that an excessive amount of 
oil is reaching the combustion chamber causing the plug to foul. 

If the soot on the plug is dry, as shown in Fig. B-3, then the carburetor 
has an excessively rich mixture. There is also a possibility that the spark 
plug used is the wrong type and a "hotter" type of plug should be installed. 



12 



Ignition Tune-Up 







B-2. When the spark plug insulator is covered with an oily soot, it 
indicates that excessive 01/ is reaching the combustion chamber. 



If the spark plug insulator has the appearance shown in Fig. B-4, and 
may also have pockmarks or blisters, the plug is too hot and a cooler op- 
erating plug should be used. 

The terms "hot" and "cold" as applied to spark plugs, indicates that 
the temperature of a certain plug is hotter than another plug. The higher 
the temperature of a spark plug, the less tendency there is for soot to col- 
lect on the insulator. 

The spark plugs listed in the accompanying table are for normal driv- 
ing. If the car is driven at high speeds for prolonged periods, a "colder" 







B-3. If the soot that collects on the spark plug insulator is dry, the carburetor is 
providing a mixture that is too rich. 

type plug should be used. Or if the car is used exclusively in slow speed, 
stop-and-go city driving, a warmer type plug may be used. 

The plug shown in Fig. B-5, is definitely worn out, as indicated by the 
eroded condition of the firing point or gap. The center electrode should be 



13 




B-4. This spark plug was too hot for the engine as in- 
dicated by the "burned" appearance of the insulator. 

flat with sharp edges, and the side electrode should not have a groove or 
show other signs of spark wear. In an emergency a plug with worn elec- 
trodes can be put back into service by filing the end of the center elec- 




B-5. When the electrodes are rounded as shown, the spark plugs 
should be replaced with new ones. 

trode, so that it is perfectly flat. If there is a groove worn in the side 
electrode, this should be removed with a file. 

When the spark plug insulator has a rusty, brown to grayish powder 
deposit, or when the insulator is light brown around the tip, the spark plug 
has the correct heat range, and is operating normally. 

CLEANING AND CHECKING SPARK PLUGS 

The only really satisfactory method of cleaning spark plugs is by means 
of special equipment, such as shown in Fig. B-6. If that is not available, 
the soot should be scraped from the insulator and from the interior of the 



14 



Ignition Tune-Up 

metal body of the spark plug as much as possible. After the spark plug is 
cleaned, it should be carefully examined to make sure that the insulator is 
not cracked at any point, or has other defects. In addition it is important 
to check the condition of the firing points, or gap, Fig. B-5, for an exces- 
sively worn gap will reduce the effectiveness of the plug, and it is usually 
advisable to install a new one. 




6-6. One method of cleaning spark plugs. 



ADJUSTING SPARK PLUG GAP 

When adjusting spark plug gap never attempt to bend the center elec- 
trode as this invariably results in breaking the insulator. In plug gap ad- 
justment, only the side electrode should be bent. Combination gauges and 
adjusters are available at nominal cost. Fig. B-7, shows one type of tool 
which also includes a file for filing the electrodes, as well as a gauge to 
use in adjusting the gap. It should be pointed out that by the time the elec- 
trodes are worn to a degree that filing is needed, it is advisable to install 
new plugs. Much higher voltages are needed to jump the gap of worn elec- 
trodes, and consequently misfiring and hard starting will result. 

The gap should be adjusted to the specified amount .035 in. and care 
should be exercised that this adjustment is made with accuracy. Either a 
round wire type gauge or a flat feeler type gauge can be used. The round 
wire type gauge is preferred when measuring the gap of worn firing points. 

INSTALLING SPARK PLUGS 

When installing spark plugs, first be sure that the area surrounding the 
spark plug hole in the cylinder head is clean and free from dirt. Also make 



15 



Fix Your Ford 




B-7. Truing the electrodes of o spark plug with a fin* file. Note the wire type gauges in handle 
of tool which are used for measuring the width of the spark plug gap. 

sure that the spark plug threads and surface contacting the head are clean. 
This is particularly important on Ford cars of recent manufacture, as no 
spark plug gasket is used. Any dirt will not only result in compression 
leakage, but will also tend to make the plug operate at higher than normal 
temperatures, with attendant misfiring and short life. 

When tightening the plugs, the factory specifies 15 to 20 ft. lb. torque. 
That is 15 to 20 lb. exerted at the end of a 1 ft. wrench or 30 to 40 lb. at 
the end of a 6 in. wrench. 

A 13/16 in. long socket wrench should be used when removing and re- 
placing spark plugs. Special long sockets with sponge rubber lining in the 
upper end, designed to grip the plug insulator, and also to reduce the pos- 
sibility of cracking the insulators, are available. 

REMOVING DISTRIBUTOR CAP 

In order to replace an ignition condenser, a rotor, or install new 
ignition breaker points, it is first necessary to remove the distributor cap. 

To remove the distributor cap, snap back the hold down clips, Fig. B-8, 
and the cap can then be lifted off the distributor body. 

Before examining the cap, clean it carefully and then check to make 
sure it is not cracked at any point. Particular attention should be paid to 
any evidence of charring between the firing points on the interior of the 
cap. Such a condition results from arcing of the spark. Also make sure the 
interior of the towers are clean, and are not corroded. If there is any evi- 
dence of corrosion, it should be removed. The easiest way of doing this is 
to roll some fine grain abrasive paper around a pencil, and use it as a hone 
to remove the corrosion, Fig. B-9. 

If the cap is cracked, or if there has been any arcing between points in 
the interior of the cap, or if the interior of the towers cannot be cleaned, 
a new cap should be installed. 



16 



Ignition Tune-Up 



With the cap removed, the rotor, Fig. B-8, can be pulled vertically 
from the top of the distributor shaft. If the spring contact on top of the ro- 
tor is defective, a new rotor should be obtained. Also if the firing end of 
the rotor is badly eroded, the rotor should be discarded. 



DISTRIBUTOR CAP 



COIL HIGH 

TENSION WIRE 

TERMINAL 



MOVEABLE 

BREAKER 

PLATE 




HOLD DOWN CLIP 

CONDENSER LEAD 

CONDENSER 
BREAKER POINTS 



PRIMARY LEAD I 



STATIONARY 
SUB-PLATE 



B1034-A 



B-8. Not* the different parts of this distributor. (Fair lane 1962-63). 



REPLACING BREAKER POINTS 



The ignition breaker point assembly on Ford cars consists of the sta- 
tionary point bracket assembly, breaker arm, and primary wire terminal. 
The assembly is mounted on the breaker plate as a unit, and can be re- 
placed without removing the distributor from the engine. The ignition 
breaker points, Fig. B-8 and B- 10, on Ford distributors, can be easily re- 
placed. New ones should be installed where the contacts are badly burned 
or when there is excessive metal transfer between points. See Fig. B-ll. 
Metal transfer is considered excessive when it equals or exceeds the set- 
ting of the gap. 

Burned points are generally the result of an accumulation of oil and dirt 
on the points. This is usually caused by oil bleeding from the distributor 
base bushing onto the points, by excessive or improper cam lubricant be- 
ing thrown onto the points, or neglect to clean the points periodically. 

Excessive metal transfer between the breaker points is generally caus- 
ed by incorrect point alignment, voltage regulator setting that is incorrect, 



17 



_ 



Fix Your Ford 

wrong type of condenser, a radio condenser installed to the distributor 
side of the coil, or extended operation at speeds other than normal. 
Breaker points that are still serviceable have a smooth, gray surface 
and will contact each other over the entire contacting area. 




B-9. Cleaning the towers of a distributor cap with fine emery cloth wound around a pencil. 



PRIMARY TERMINAL 



BREAKER PLATE 
CONDENSER 



DIAPHRAGM LINK RETAINER 
PRIMARY WIRE 
STATIONARY BREAKER POINT 



DIAPHRAGM 
ASSEMBLY 




GROUND WIRE 



ADJUSTMENT SLOT 
BREAKER ARM 
CONDENSER WIRE 1140-A 

B-10. Typical of the dual advance distributor used on V-8 engines 1957 - 1963. 



18 



Ignition Tune-Up 




B-ll . Note the pitted condition of these breaker points. Such points should be replaced. 

Ignition breaker points on Ford distributors can be replaced without 
removing the distributor from the engine. On the 223 cu. in. six, Fig. H-12, 
the distributor is on the right side of the engine, while on the Falcon en- 
gines it is on the left. On those V-8 engines which have the distributor 
mounted centrally at the front of the engine, Fig. D-7, there is little dif- 



IGNITION COIL 



AIR CLEANER 



OIL FILL 

AND 

BREATHER 




OIL CLEANER OIL DRAIN PLUG 

6-72. Side view of 223 cu. in. six. Note location of distributor. 



19 



Fix Your Ford 

ficulty, as the distributors are then readily accessible. On engines, such 
as the 292 cu. in. V-8, where the distributor is at the rear, the operation 
is a little more difficult. Insuchcases, some mechanics prefer to remove 
the distributor, as it is then easier toexamine the condition of the breaker 
points, and also to adjust the breaker point gap. 

Naturally, if the distributor is to be overhauled or tested on a distri- 
butor test bench, it will be necessary to remove the unit from the engine. 

In addition to examing the surface of the ignition breaker points, it is 
important to measure the gap or spacing of the points. 

HOW TO REPLACE BREAKER POINTS 

The procedure is to first remove the distributor cap and the rotor. 
Then disconnect the primary and condenser leads. Remove the screws that 
fasten the breaker point assembly to the breaker plate, Fig. B-13 and Fig. 
B-14, and lift the breaker point assembly from the breaker plate. Fig. 
B-13 shows a typical Loadomatic distributor and Fig. B-14 shows the dis- 
tributor used on the current V-8 engines, with the exception of the high 
performance 392 cu. in. engine. 



CONDENSER WIRE 



CONDENSER 



BREAKER PLATE ASSEMBLY 
PRIMARY WIRE 



SECONDARY 
SPRING 




B1328-B 

INSERT SCREW DRIVER BLADE 
TO ADJUST GAP 



B-13. The Loadomatic distributor as used on the 223 cu. in. six and on the Falcon models. 

To install the breaker points, place the primary and condenser leads 
on the breaker point assembly primary terminal. Install the lock washer 
and nut. Tighten the nut securely. 

Position the breaker point assembly on the breaker plate. Install the 
hold down screws. Make sure the ground wire terminal is on the screw 
farthest from the adjustment slot on the V-8 distributor, and to the screw 
nearest the adjusting slot on the Loadomatic distributor. Adjust the break - 



20 



Ignition Tune-Up 

er point gap. 

Make sure the breaker points are correctly aligned. The vented type 
breaker points used in Ford distributors must be accurately aligned and 
strike squarely in order to assure normal breaker point life. Any mis- 
alignment of the breaker point surfaces will cause premature wear, over- 






CONDENSER WIRE 



SPACING WASHERS 




B-14. Adjusting the vacuum advance on the dual advance distributor by the in 
stallation of shims in vacuum advance unit. 



heating of the points, and pitting. To align the points, first turn the distri- 
butor cam so that the breaker points are closed, and check the alignment 
of the points, Fig. B-15. Align the breaker points to make full face contact 
by pending the stationary breaker point bracket, Fig. B-16. Do not bend 
the breaker arm. After the breaker points have been properly aligned, ad- 
just the breaker point gap. 

Rotate the distributor cam until the rubbing block rests on the peak of 
the cam lobe. Insert a feeler blade of clean feeler gauge between the 
breaker points. The correct gap for Loadomatic distributors is .026 in., 
and for V-8 distributors, .016 in. Those are the specifications for a set of 
new breaker points. On used points the breaker point gap should be slight- 
ly less as there will be no further wear of the breaker arm rubbing lock. 
The breaker point gap is adjusted by inserting a screwdriver in the slot 
indicated in Fig. B-13 and Fig. B-14. 

Apply a very light film of high temperature, non-fiber grease, to the 
cam when new points are installed. Do not use engine oil for cam lubrica- 
tion. 

If a dwell meter is used to set the breaker point gap, the correct dwell 
for Loadomatic distributors is 35 deg. and for V-8 distributors is 26 deg. 



21 



Fix Your Ford 




CONTACT AREA 
CENTERED 



CORRECT ALIGNMENT 



CONTACT AREA 
NOT CENTERED 



MISALIGNMENT OF CENTERS 



CONTACT AREA 
NOT CENTERED 




MISALIGNMENT OF POINT FACES 
B-J5. Contact area of ignition breaker points should be centrally located. 



REPLACING DUAL BREAKER POINTS 

Dual sets of breaker points are used on the centrifugal advance distri- 
butor as provided for the high performance 390 cu. in. V-8 engine. 

To replace the breaker points on this distributor, first remove the dis- 
tributor cap and rotor. Disconnect the primary and condenser wires and 
remove the jumper strap, Fig. B-17. 

Remove the screws that secure the breaker point assemblies to the 
breaker plate, and then lift the breaker point assemblies from the distri- 
butor. 

When installing sets of new breaker points in this centrifugal advance 
distributor with dual breaker points, position the breaker point assemblies 
on the breaker plate and install the retaining screws. Place the primary 
end wire, one end of the jumper strap and the condenser wire in position 
on the primary terminals of the breaker point assemblies closest to the 
primary wire, Fig. B-17. Tighten the lock nut. Place the other end of the 
jumper strap to the primary terminal of the other breaker point assembly 
and tighten the lock nut. 

Align the points as described for the Loadomatic and dual advance dis- 
tributors, and then adjust the breaker point gap. To adjust the breaker 
point gaps with a feeler gauge, adjust one breaker point assembly at a 
time. Check and adjust, the breaker point alignment. Then rotate the dis- 
tributor cam until the rubbing block of the breaker point assembly to be 
adjusted rests on the peak of a cam lobe. 

Insert the blade of a .021 in. feeler gauge between the points, and ad- 
just the gap by loosening the stationary point lock screw and adjusting the 



22 



Ignition Tune-Up 

gap to the desired width of .021 in. The actual adjustment is accomplished 
by first loosening the screw which secures the breaker points to the 
breaker plate, and inserting a screwdriver blade at the point indicated in 
Fig. B-17. Then twisting the screwdriver will force the stationary plate to 
one side until the desired gap is obtained. After adjusting one gap on this 
distributor, the same procedure is followed on the other gap. 

If a dwell meter is used to adjust the new points, the dwell should be 
set to 33 deg. 



Too/-I2)50-D 



BEND STATIONARY BRACKET 







6-7 6. When aligning breaker points, only the stationary point should be adjusted. If a special 
bending tool as shown is not available, a pair of long nose pliers can be used. 



BREAKER POINT SPRING TENSION 



In order to obtain maximum breaker point life, it is essential that the 
breaker point spring tension be correct. If the tension is too great, rapid 
wear of the breaker arm rubbing block will result, causing the breaker 
point gap to close up and retard the spark timing. If the spring tension is 
too weak, the breaker arm will flutter at high engine speeds resulting in 
an engine miss. 

To check the spring tension, place the hooked end of the spring tension 
gauge over the movable breaker point. Pull the gauge at right angles to the 
movable arm until the breaker points just start to open. The correct ten- 
sion should range between 17 and 20 ounces for all distributors except the 
distributor with dual breaker points. In that case it should range between 
27-32 ounces. To adjust the spring tension, disconnect the primary and 
secondary leads at the breaker arm assembly primary terminal. Loosen 



23 



Fix Your Ford 



PKIMAKY WIKfc 



INSERT SCREW 
DRIVER TO ADJUST 
POINT GAP 




CONDENSER 
B1451-A 



6-77. Showing the slots in the breaker plate whereby the breaker 
point gap can be adjusted on the centrifugal advance distributor. 

the nut holding the spring in position. Move the spring toward the breaker 
arm pivot to decrease tension, and in the opposite direction to increase 
tension. 

SETTING VACUUM ADVANCE 

Setting the vacuum advance on the Loadomatic transmission distribu- 
tor, should be done on a distributor test bench. On the conventional Loado- 



Tool— 12I50-D 



ADJUSTING POSTS 




SECONDARY SPRING CONTROLS 
HIGH VACUUM ADVANCE 



PRIMARY SPRING CONTROLS 
LOW VACUUM ADVANCE 



6-78. The advance on the Loadomatic distributor is controlled by the tension of 
two springs. Late model cars with automatic transmission use only one spring. 



24 



Ignition Tune-Up 

matic with two coil springs on the breaker plate, which is used on cars 
with manual shift transmissions, the primary spring should be adjusted 
first, Fig. B-18, and the secondary last. If a distributor test bench is not 
available, an approximate setting can be made and checked by driving the 
car. The procedure is to start with little tension on the two springs. After 
each test acceleration, the spring tension is increased a slight amount, 
until the engine starts to "ping." On models starting in 1960, an additional 
adjustment is provided by means of washers behind the stop in the dia- 
phragm housing, Fig. B-19. The addition of a shim will retard the spark. 
On 1961 and later Loadomatic distributors used on cars with automatic 
transmission, there is only one coil spring on the breaker plate> The other 
adjustment is by means of washers and shims used to adjust the tension of 
the diaphragm spring, Fig. B-19. This controls the spark advance at high- 



RETURN SPRING 



CALIBRATION WASHER 




8-79. Loadomatic distributor as used on cars equipped with automatic transmission. Degree of 
vacuum advance is controlled by shims as indicated. 



er engine speed. Rotation of this distributor is clockwise as viewed from 
the top of the distributor. 

When the dual advance distributor, Fig. B-20, was first introduced in 
1957, the spark advance adjustments were limited tobending the two spring 
posts. Fig. B-21. In 1958, an additional adjustment was provided in the 
form of shims and spacing washers to control the compression of the vac- 
uum diaphragm spring, Fib. B-22. Bending a spring post (located below 
the breaker plate), Fig. B-21, away from the distributor shaft will de- 
crease the advance. When making an adjustment, identify each post and 
bend the post alternately until the correct degree of advance is obtained. 
Vacuum advance on this distributor is controlled by shims placed behind 
the vacuum diaphragm spring. The addition of a washer will decrease the 
advance. If a test machine is not available, an approximation can be made 
by road testing. The spark is advanced until a slight ping is heard. 

On the centrifugal advance distributor with dual breaker points, only 



25 






CONDENSER A. 




MOVEABLE 
BREAKER PLATE 



BREAKER POINT 
ASSEMBLY 



\a 



LUBRICATING WICK 

SPRING WASHER 
FLAT WASHER 
RETAINER 
GROUND WIRE 



_ DRIVE 
^*-GEAR 



t CLAMP — +*J » * ^ » 

DIAPHRAGM <, V>' 

EMBLY J^ f \ 

CALIBRATING 5> 

WASHERS S* 

VACUUM 
CONNECTION 



PRIMARY WIRE 



HOUSING, SEAL AND CLAMPS 
THUNDERBIRD 352 V-8 



B-20. Exploded view of dual advance distributor. 

centrifugal advance mechanism is provided. On this distributor, the cen- 
trifugal advance is adjusted in the same manner as is the distributor with 
only a single breaker point, and known as the dual advance distributor. 
This is illustrated in Fig. B-21. 

REPLACING THE CONDENSER 

The condenser Fig. B-17 and B-22, is mounted on the breaker plate 
and is easily replaced after removing the hold down screw, and disconnect- 
ing the wire connecting it to the breaker point. 

Mechanics will invariably install a new condenser whenever new break- 
er points are installed. This is good practice as the cost of the condenser 
is nominal, and in many cases a condenser is included with a set of points 
to form an ignition repair kit. 

Special equipment is available for testing condensers, but a defective 
condenser is usually indicated by a burned and smoky appearance of the 
breaker points due to excessive arcing. 

HOW TO REMOVE DISTRIBUTOR 

To remove a distributor, first disconnect the primary wire leading 
from the distributor to the ignition coil. Remove the distributor cap. Dis- 
connect the vacuum line at the distributor. 

Scribe a mark on the distributor housing indicating the position of the 
rotor. Scribe another mark on the distributor body and another mark on 
the engine block, indicating the relative position of the distributor and the 
engine. These marks are used when replacing the distributor. 

On the Loadomatic distributor, remove the screws and lock washers 
and pull the distributor from the engine. 

On the V-8 distributors remove the hold down cap screw and clamp. 



26 



Ignition Tune-Up 

The distributor can then be removed from the engine. 

Be sure not to crank the engine while the distributor is removed as it 
would then become necessary to completely retime the ignition. 

REPLACING DISTRIBUTOR 

If the crankshaft has not been turned (engine cranked), position the dis- 
tributor in the cylinder block making sure the rotor is aligned with the 
mark on the distributor body. Also make sure the distributor body is in the 




CENTRIFUGAL ADVANCE ADJUSTMENT HOLE 



8-2 J. Centrifugal advance is reached through hole in breaker plate in the 
dual advance and the centrifugal advance distributors. 



SPACING WASHERS 




IB1017-B 
6-22. Adjusting the vacuum advance on the dual advance distributor. 



27 



Fix Your Ford 

same relative position in the engine as it was originally. Lower the distri- 
butor into position in the cylinder block, meshing the gears. It may be nec- 
essary to rotate the rotor slightly in order to mesh the gears. When the 
distributor is in position, the rotor should be pointing at the mark made on 
the distributor body. 

If the engine was cranked, while the distributor was removed, rotate 
the crankshaft until No. 1 piston is at top center after completing the com- 
pression stroke. Both intake and exhaust valves will be closed at that time. 
Then install the distributor so that the ignition breaker points are just 
starting to open and the rotor is in position to fire No. 1 cylinder. 

TIMING THE IGNITION 

The ignition timing marks on the 223 cu. in. six are located on the vi- 
bration damper and the index or pointer is attached to the front cover, as 
shown in Fig. B-23. On other engines, the marks are on a plate or tab on 




B1378-B 

B-23. Timing marks on 233 cu. in. six. Typical. 

the timing case cover, and a notch is provided on the crankshaft pulley. 

Before attempting to time the ignition, the timing marks should be wip- 
ed clean so they are clearly visible. If necessary, chalk the proper mark 
so it can be easily seen. The engine is correctly timed when the ignition 
breaker points open, when the piston is at the end of its compression 
stroke, and the correct degree mark aligns with the index mark. 

The usual way of checking engine timing is to use a stroboscope type 
timing light, Fig. B-24. With this connected to the No. 1 spark plug, it will 
flash each time a spark occurs at the plug. With the engine operating at 
idle speed, and the vacuum line disconnected, the light is then directed at 
the timing marks, which will appear to stand still when the engine is op- 
erated. The distributor is then rotated in the desired direction until the 
correct mark and pointer line up. Under some conditions, particularly if 
premium fuel is being used, the initial ignition timing may be advanced ap- 

28 



Ignition Tune-Up 

proximately 5 deg. over the specified setting. To do this, road test the car 
and advance the timing progressively until spark knock is heard under hard 
acceleration. Then retard the spark until the knock disappears. 

If sub-standard fuels are used (as may occur while touring in other 
countries) the spark should be retarded from the specified setting, but this 
should not exceed 2 deg. before top center. 




B-24, Typical timing light used for timing ignition. 

To check the distributor to see if the advance mechanism is working, 
again direct the timing light at the timing marks and accelerate the en- 
gine. If the automatic advance is working, the timing marks will be seen- 
to advance. If there is no advance evidence, check the vacuum advance dia- 
phragm for leakage, or possibly the breaker plate may be binding. 

If a timing light is not available, another method can be used which re- 
quires no special equipment. Crank the engine until No. 1 piston is coming 
up on its compression stroke. Remove the sparkplugs, and the compres- 
sion can be felt by holding a thumb over the spark plug hole when the pis- 
ton is coming up on the compression stroke. Both intake and exhaust val- 
ves will be closed. Continue cranking until the desired timing mark lines 
up with the index. Connect No. 1 cable to the spark plug, and place the plug 
on some metal part of the engine. Then loosen the distributor hold down 
clamp and rotate the distributor body. At the same time observe the spark 
plug. Tighten the distributor in position when a spark jumps the plug gap. 
The timing will then be set at the correct position. 

DISTRIBUTOR SHAFT ROTATION 

The distributor shaft on all six cylinder engines, regardless of size, 
rotates in a clockwise direction. All V-8 engines, regardless of size, ro- 
tate in the counterclockwise direction. 

29 





Fix 


Your Ford 


FIRING ORDER 






DISPLACEMENT 


FIRING ORDER 


140 cu. 


in. 


1-5-3-6-2-4 


170 cu. 


in. 


1-5-3-6-2-4 


223 cu. 


in. 


1-5-3-6-2-4 


239 cu. 


in. 


1-5-4-8-6-3-7-2 


272 cu. 


in. 


1-5-4-8-6-3-7-2 


292 cu. 


in. 


1-5-4-8-6-3-7-2 


312 cu. 


in. 


1-5-4-8-6-3-7-2 


332 cu. 


in. 


1-5-4-2-6-3-7-8 


352 cu. 


in. 


1-5-4-2-6-3-7-8 


390 cu. 


in. 


1-5-4-2-6-3-7-8 


221 cu. 


in. 


1-5-4-2-6-3-7-8 


260 cu. 


in. 


1-5-4-2-6-3-7-8 



CHECKS AND CARE OF IGNITION CABLE 

When ignition cables are disconnected from spark plugs, or from the 
distributor, special care must be taken not to pull on the wires but only on 
the moulded cap. This applies particularly to radio resistor wire, which 
has been used on all Ford cars since 1958. These wires can be identified 




B-25. When insulation on ignition cable cracks when bent in a sharp arc, 
new cable should be installed. 

by the word "radio" stamped on the covering of each cable. The conduc- 
tors of these cables are made of fabric which is impregnated with graphite, 
or other material to make it a conductor of high tension current. Pulling 
on the cable may separate it from the connector at the end, or the weather 
seal may be damaged. Arcing within the cable will then occur and misfir- 
ing and hard starting will result. The resistance of each cable is approxi- 



30 



FIRING ORDER 
1-5-3-6-2-4 




B1008-B 



B-26. Care must be taken when replacing ignition cables to reinstall 
them in their original position. 

mately 24,000 ohms. When checking the ignition, these wires should not be 
punctured with a probe, as this may cause a break in the conductor. 

If there is any doubt as to the condition of radio type ignition cable, and 
there is noohmmeteravailableforcheckingresistance.it is always a safe 
plan to install new wire. Or, you can have the wire tested in a shop which 
has the necessary equipment. 

It is very important that the insulation on the cable from the distributor 
to the spark plugs and from the coil to the distributor be examined care- 
fully, because if this insulation has deteriorated, current will leak and 
misfiring will result. 

If this insulation becomes dry so it is cracked on the surface, or is oil 
soaked, new cable should be installed. A simple check is to bend the cable 
into a sharp arc, as shown in Fig. B-25. If cracks appear in the surface a 
new cable should be installed. 

When high tension cables are removed or disconnected, special care 
must be taken to replace them in their original positions. That applies not 
only to the actual connections from the distributor to the spark plugs, but 
also to their positions in their grommets and clips. Should they be placed 
in the wrong grommet or clip, cross firing from one cable to another will 
occur, causing misfiring. Fig. B-26, shows the arrangement of cable on 
the 223 cu. in. six, and Fig. B-29, shows the arrangement on the 352 and 
390 V-8's. 



IGNITION RESISTORS 

Prior to 1960 a block type resistor was used in the primary circuit of 
the ignition system. This had a resistance of 1.3 to 1.4 ohms, and was con- 
nected between the ignition switch and the coil. Since that time a resis- 
tance wire of approximately the same resistance is used in place of the 

31 



Fix Your Ford 

block type unit, Fig. B-l. This primary resistance is cut out of the circuit 
while the engine is being cranked, but as soon as the engine starts all the 
current for the ignition coil passes through the resistor. In that way, the 
full 12 volt current is supplied to the coil for easy starting. 



FIRING ORDER 
1-5-4-2-6-3-7- 




B-27. Location of ignition cabl* and firing order of 352 co. in. V-8. 

Should this resistance, either the block type or the wire type, become 
defective, engine misfiring and eventual complete failure of the engine will 
result. So be sure to check this resistance when an elusive misfiring oc- 
curs. 

CHECKING PRIMARY IGNITION CIRCUIT 

Except for defective resistors in the line from the ignition switch to 
the coil, trouble in the primary ignition circuits is usually confined to 
loose or dirty connections. Pay particular attention to battery and battery 
ground connections, making sure they are tight and show no evidence of 
corrosion. 

Make sure the terminal marked "D" on the coil, Fig. B-l, is connected 
to the distributor, and the one marked "B" is connected to the ignition 
switch. If this is not done, the polarity of the ignition coil will be reversed 
and misfiring, particularly at high speed, will occur. 

If a voltmeter is available, the voltage drop throughout the primary ig- 
nition circuit can be measured. This should not exceed 0.3 volts for any 
wire. 



32 









Ignition Tune-Up 

To check the voltage at the coil, connect a voltmeter to the "B" termin- 
al of the coil and the plus terminal of the battery. Also connect a jumper 
wire from the "D" terminal of the coil to the ground. Then with the ignition 
switch turned on, a voltage of 6.9 volts should be obtained, provided the 
battery is in a fully charged condition. 



IGNITION TROUBLE SHOOTING 

ENGINE CRANKS NORMALLY BUT WILL NOT START 

To determine if the trouble is in the primary or secondary circuit, pull 
the coil wire from the top of the distributor and hold it 1/16 in. away from 
the cylinder head. Then with the ignition on and the engine being cranked, 
check for a spark. If the spark is good, check the ignition timing. 

If the spark is good and the ignition timing is not at fault, the trouble 
may be in the distributor cap, rotor, or spark plug wires. 

If there is no spark or the spark is weak, the cause of the trouble is 
probably in the primary circuit. Check coil, coil to distributor high ten- 
sion lead, ignition breaker points, condenser. 

ENGINE STARTS BUT FAILS TO KEEP RUNNING 

Check the ignition breaker points, spark plugs and leaks in the high 
tension wiring. 

ENGINE RUNS BUT MISSES 

Misses steady at all speeds: If the miss is isolated to one particular 
cylinder, check spark at spark plug. If a good spark does not occur, the 
trouble is in the secondary circuit. Check sparkplug wire and distribuxor 
cap. 

MISSES ERRATICALLY AT ALL SPEEDS 

Check breaker points, condenser, secondary wiring, side play in dis- 
tributor shaft, coil, spark plugs. Check for high tension leakage across 
wires, coil, rotor and distributor cap. Make sure wires are correctly 
routed to plugs to avoid cross fire. 

MISSES AT IDLE SPEED ONLY 

Check: Coil, condenser, breaker points, rotor, ignition wiring, distri- 
butor shaft for side play, spark plugs, distributor cam for wear. 

33 



Fix Your Ford 
POOR ACCELERATION 

Check: Ignition timing, spark plugs, breaker points, distributor ad- 
vance, spark control valve. 

LACK OF POWER AND LOW TOP SPEED 

Check: Ignition timing, coil, condenser, rotor, distributor advance 
distributor shaft for excessive side play, distributor cam, spark plugs.' 

EXCESSIVE FUEL CONSUMPTION 

Check: Ignition timing, spark plugs, distributor advance. 
ENGINE OVERHEATING 

Check: Ignition timing. 



34 



CARBURETOR AND 
FUEL SYSTEM SERVICE 



The Ford carburetor and fuel system as a rule, give very little trouble 
and require a minimum of attention. The complete system includes: 

Fuel tank 
Fuel lines 
Fuel pump 
Carburetor 
Fuel filter 
Air cleaner 
Intake manifold 
Fuel gauge 

ADJUSTING CARBURETOR 

Adjusting the carburetor is not a complicated procedure, but it should 
be pointed out that the carburetor should be serviced and adjusted only af- 
ter the ignition and compression have been correctly serviced. Further- 
more in most cases of poor performance, misfiring and poor economy, 
the trouble will be found in the ignition system or in the engine valves. 

Carburetor adjustments include not only the adjustment of the idle mix- 
ture but also the idle speed, the accelerating pump, and the fast idle. In 
cars' equipped with automatic transmissions.the adjustment of the anti- 
stall dashpot is also included. 

In most cases all that is necessary in adjusting the carburetor is to 
adjust the idle mixture and the idle speed. The latter is important, for un- 
less the idle speed is correct, the engine may stall, or in the case of auto- 
matic transmissions, too fast an idle speed will cause the car to creep. 

BASIC ADJUSTING PROCEDURE 

Before adjusting any carburetor, it is essential that the engine be 
brought up to full operating temperature. The best way to do that is to 
drive the car for five to ten miles. In that way there is no chance of devel- 
oping sticking valves, which is apt to occur if the engine is idled for a pro- 
tracted period. If it is not convenient to drive the car a sufficient distance 
to bring the engine up to operating temperature, the engine should be idled 
at a speed of about 1200 r.p.m. for 30 minutes. 

35 



Fix Your Ford 

Then, with cars having a manual shift transmission, place the selector 
lever in neutral. On cars with an automatic transmission, place a block in 
front of the wheels, apply the parking brake, and place the selector lever 
in drive position. 

If a vacuum gauge or a tachometer is available, it should be used Such 
equipment is not absolutely necessary, but permits a more accurate ad- 
justment of the idle mixture, which is reflected in improved performance 



VENTURI VACUUM PORT 




DIAPHRAGM 



AUTOMATIC 
TRANSMISSION 



B1023-C 



C-1. Details of Loadomaiic carburetor and distributor system as used on 
Falcon and Ford six cylinder models. 

and economy. The idle mixture is adjusted to obtain the highest manifold 
vacuum at idle speed and without changing the throttle opening. Similarly 
he tachometer is used to obtain the highest idling speed without change of 
the throttle opening. Without such equipment, the mechanic will estimate 
changes in engine speed as he turns the adjustments on the carburetor 
On cars with vacuum type windshield wipers, the vacuum gauge is con- 
nected to the fitting provided for the windshield wiper. On cars with elec- 
tric windshield wipers, a pipe plug is provided in the intake manifold 
which can be removed and a fitting inserted to which the vacuum gauge is 
connected. 6 6 



36 



Carburetor, Fuel System Service 

Having brought the engine to operating temperature and connected the 
vacuum gauge or tachometer, if available, make sure the choke valve is 
fully open and that the fast idle lever is not contacting the fast idle cam. 
The various parts of the carburetor are identified in the illustrations of 
the individual carburetors. 

Adjust the idle speed stop screw to obtain the desired engine idling 
speed. 

ENGINE IDLING SPEED 



Year and Model 


Manual Shift 


Automatic 




Trans 


imission 


Transmission 


1963 Falcon 


500 - 


525r.p.m.. 


475 


- 500(D) 


1963 Galaxie 406 


675 - 


700r.p.m. 


475 


- 500(D) 


1963 Galaxie 223, 260 


500 - 


525r.p.m. 


475 


- 500(D) 


1963 Galaxie 352, 390 


500 - 


525r.p.m. 


475 


- 500(D) 


1963 Thunderbird 


475 - 


500r.p.m. 


475 


- 500(D) 


1963 Fairlane 


500 - 


525r.p.m. 


475 


- 500(D) 


1962 390 High Per 
1962 223, 292, 352 


675 - 


700r.p.m. 
525r.p.m. 






500 - 


450 


- 475(D) 


1962 Falcon 


500 - 


550r.p.m. 


475 


- 525(D) 


1962 Thunderbird 
1962 Fairlane 


475 - 


500r.p.m. 
550r.p.m. 






500 - 


475 


- 525(D) 


1961 390 


575 - 


600r.p.m. 


450 


- 475(D) 


1961 223,292, 352 


500 - 


525r.p.m. 


450 


- 475(D) 


1960 223 


475 - 


500r.p.m. 


450 


- 475(D) 


1960 292, 352 


500 - 


525r.p.m. 


450 


- 475(D) 


1959 All 


475 - 


500r.p.m. 


450 


- 475(D) 


1958 223, 292 


475 - 


500r.p.m. 


450 


- 475(D) 


1958 332, 352 


600 




500 




1957 All 


475 - 


500r.p.m. 


425 


- 540(D) 


1956 All 


475 - 


500r.p.m. 


425 


- 450(D) 



(D) - Automatic transmission shift lever in drive position. 
Idling speed should be increased 50 r.p.m. over specified 
value when engine is equipped with vent tube type crankcase 
ventilating system. 

If a tachometer is not available for measuring the speed, the speed of 
the engine should be adjusted to such a value that there is no danger of the 
engine stalling, nor so fast that it appears to be racing. The idle speed set- 
screw is indicated in the various illustrations of the individual carbure- 
tors. 

To adjust the idle mixture, the adjustment needle (see illustration of 
specific carburetor) is turned in to make the mixture leaner and out to 
make it richer. First turn the adjustment all the way in lightly, until the 



37 




C-2. Ford single barrel carburetor as used on 1963 six cylinder models. 

needle is seated. Then back out the adjustment 1-1 /2 turns. On 1963 single 
barrel Ford carburetor, initial adjustment is 3 to 4 turns open. Be careful 
not to turn the needle against the seat tight enough to groove the point. If 
the needle is damaged in any way it must be replaced. 

With the engine running and at operating temperature, turn the adjust- 
ment in until the engine runs rough because of the lean mixture. Turn it 
out slowly, until the engine begins to "roll** because of the rich mixture. 
Then turn it in slowly until the engine operates smoothly. If a vacuum 
gauge is being used, the mixture adjustment should be made to obtain the 
highest reading on the gauge. 

After adjusting the idle mixture, readjust the idle speed. 

TWO AND FOUR BARREL CARBURETORS 

The preceeding instructions apply to a single barrel carburetor such 
as is used as standard equipment on six cylinder engines. To adjust the 
idle speed and idle mixture on two and four barrel carburetors, the pro- 
cedure is similar, but there are two idle mixture adjustments to be made. 

The adjustment for idle speed on two and four barrel carburetors is 



38 



Carburetor, Fuel System Service 




ACCELERATION PUMP STROKE 

SUMMER-PUT ROD IN HOLE A 
WINTER-PUT ROD IN HOLE B 



IDLE MIXTURE 
ADJUSTMENT 



C-3. Adjustments on Holley single barrel carburetor which is used on six cylinder engines. 

made in the same manner as for a single barrel carburetor. 

To adjust the idle mixture, first turn both adjustments all the way in 
until they seat lightly. Then back out 1-1 /2 turns. Start the engine and turn 
one adjustment in until the engine falters, then back out until the engine 
runs smoothly. Follow the same procedure with the other idle mixture ad- 
justment. Repeat the procedure on both needles. The final setting may vary 
1/2 turn difference between the two adjustments. 

SPARK CONTROL VALVE 

Fig. C-l, illustrates the spark control valve and vacuum passages with- 
in the carburetor which are used to control the spark advance on the Load- 
omatic distributor used on Ford six cylinder engines and some of the early 
V-8 engines. It is important that these passages within the carburetor and 
the tubing leading to the carburetor be kept clean and unobstructed. In ad- 
dition, they must be kept tight so that no leakage of vacuum occurs. Should 
these passages become clogged, or the spark valve become defective, the 
spark will not be advanced sufficiently and performance will drop. 

A spark control valve is included in the kit of carburetor repair parts 
and should be installed whenever the carburetor is overhauled. A defective 
spark control valve will usually be indicated by severe "pinging" under 
acceleration. 

1963 FORD SINGLE BARREL CARBURETOR 

This carburetor Fig. C-2, is used on the six cylinder Falcon and other 
six cylinder Ford engines. The idle speed and idle mixture adjustments 
are made in the same manner as described under "Basic Adjusting Pro- 



39 



1 g 

ANTLSTALl DASHPOT- 

AUTOMATIC 

TRANSMISSIONS 

ONLY 



Fix Your Ford 



FIOAT 





MAIN WELL 8O0Y>. 



MAIN JET 




HINGE \ GASKET 
PIN 



FUEL INLET NEEDLE 
SEAT AND BRACKET 



ACCELERATING PUMP DIAPHRAGM 
AND OPERATING ROD 

FUEL INLET FITTING 



GASKET* 

SPARK CONTROL VALVE* 



•NOT APPLICABLE TO ECONOMY 
CARBURETOR 



T^~"~ SPRING 

V* IDLE MIXTURE NEEDLE 

C-4. Details of Hoi ley single barrel carburetor. 



110840 



cedure." Other adjustments that may be necessary are as follows- 
VENT VALVE ADJUSTMENT: Set the throttle linkage to the hot idle posi- 
tion. The groove in the vent valve rod should now be even with the open end 
of the vent valve rod retainer. Bend the arm on the vent valve rod actuating 
lever to align the groove with the edge of the bore 

ACCELERATING PUMP ADJUSTMENTS: For operation in temperatures 
of 50 deg. and lower, place the roll pin in the hole of the pump operating 
lever marked "HI." For best performance and economy in temperatures 
above 50 deg. and for high altitude operation, place roll pin in the "LO" 
(upper) hole of the lever. 

ANTI-STALL DASHPOT: Adjust the throttle position to the hot idle setting. 
Turn the dashpot adjusting screw in until it just contacts the dashpot plung- 
er assembly. Then turn the adjustment in 3-1/2 turns 

FLOAT ADJUSTMENT: Remove upper body from carburetor and hold up- 
Side down. Distance from gasket surface of the upper body to the extreme 
top of the float should be 1.0 in. Bend float arm tab to correct. 

HOLLEY SINGLE BARREL CARBURETOR 

The idle speed and idle mixture adjustments on the Holley single bar- 
rel carburetor, Figs. C-3 and C-4, are made in the same manner as de- 
scribed under the heading "Basic Adjusting Procedure." 



40 



Carburetor, Fuel System Service 



To adjust the anti-stall dashpot, turn the adjusting screw in or away 
from the dashpot plunger. Hold the throttle in the closed position and de- 
press the plunger with the blade of a screwdriver. Turn the adjustment 
screw out until the correct clearance is obtained. On single barrel Holley 
carburetors used prior to 1958, the clearance should be .055 in., and on 
later models, it is .075 in. 

As shown in Fig. C- 3, there are two positions for the accelerator pump 
link; one for winter driving, and the other for summer driving. Many driv- 
ers who wish maximum economy will leave it in the summer position for 
all seasons of the year. 

To check the fuel level of the Holley single barrel carburetor, remove 
the power valve diaphragm cover, Fig. C-4. Then place the gauge (supplied 
with kit of repair parts) which has two prongs in the opening. Start the en- 
gine. The fuel should reach the tip of the longer prong, but not the shorter 



W/UN »ODY COV6« 



&> 




\ to»hv> 

^^v N. [| PUMP PISTON 

Xk VAlV< 

7\ iU •»»«sr ,M j95 



l m ^m j amp xtiAincn 

¥ 





C-5. Details of Holley single barrel carburetor as used on six cylinder Fairlane engines. 



41 



AIR CIEANER ANCHOR SCREW 



THERMOSTAT ClAMP 



PUMP DISCHARGE WEIGHT 
PUMP BAH CHECK 




HROTTIE PLATR 



C-6. Exploded view of Holley dual carburetor. 

prong. The float level is adjusted by bending the float arm tab after remov- 
ing the float from the float bowl. The float level on the Holley single bar- 
rel carburetor, Fig. C-5, as used on the 1962 Fairlane six, cannot be 
checked without disassembling the carburetor. No provision is made for 
checking the fuel level. 

HOLLEY DUAL CARBURETOR ADJUSTMENT 

The idle speed and idle mixture adjustments on the Holley dual carbur- 
etor, Fig. C-6, are made in the same manner as described under the head- 
ing "Basic Adjusting Procedure." When adjusting the fast idle speed stop 
screw, turn it in until it just touches the lowest step of the fast idle cam. 
Then back off the adjustment 1/4 to 1/2 turn. 

The top hole in the accelerating pump cam is for warm weather and ec- 
onomical operating, providing the minimum pump discharge. The bottom 
hole is for extreme cold weather operation and provides maximum pump 
discharge. 

To adjust the anti-stall dashpot, Fig. C-7, loosen the dashpot lock nut. 

42 



Carburetor, Fuel System Service 




PUMP' 
LEVER 
SCREW 



PUMP STROKE 
SUMMER- PUT SCREW IN HOIE I 
WINTER PUT SCREW IN HOIE 2 



C-7. Anti-stall dashpot, idle speed, idle mixture and accelerating pump 
adjustments on Holley four barrel carburetor. 

Hold the throttle in the closed position and depress the dashpot plunger 
with a screwdriver blade. Then turn the dashpot in its bracket to provide 
a clearance of .045 to .064 in. 

To adjust the float level, invert the fuel bowl and check the setting with 
the cardboard gauge provided in the overhaul repair kit of parts. The float 
should be set so there is .735 - .766 in. clearance between the bottom of 
the float and the fuel bowl with the fuel bowl inverted. 

FUEL BOWL EXTERNAL VENT ADJUSTMENT: With the throttle plates 
closed, the clearance between the vent button and the top of the fuel bowl 
should'be 1/16 in. To adjust the clearance, bend the horizontal arm on the 
accelerating pump operating lever. 

HOLLEY FOUR BARREL CARBURETOR 

Idling speed and idle mixture adjustments are made in the same man- 
ner as described under "Basic Carburetor Adjustments." The carburetor 
is illustrated in Fig. C-8. 

Accelerating pump is adjusted in the same manner as on the Holley 

dual carburetor. 

TO ADJUST THE FUEL LEVEL: Position the car on a level floor. Make 
sure the fuel pump pressure is correct, (four to six p.s.U. Bring the en- 
gine to operating temperature. Place a suitable container below the fuel 
level sight plug, Fig. C-9, to collect any spilled fuel. Check each fuel bowl 
separately With the engine stopped, remove fuel level sight plug and gas- 
ket and check fuel level, Fig. C-9. Fuel level should be at lower edge of 
the sight plug opening. If fuel level is too high, drain the bowl and recheck. 
Fuel level is adjusted by turning the adjusting nut, Fig. C-9. Turning the 
adjusting nut 1/6 turn will change level 3/64 in. After each adjustment, 
operate engine and recheck level. 

43 



CIEANER ANCHO* SCREW 

IEVH SIGHT PUIG AND GASKf 



SECONOARY 
FUEt »OWl 




RETAINING . 
SCPEW AND 
UXKWASHE8 



PRIMARY THROTTIE PLATES ' 

ACCELERATING PUMP CAM ' 



C-8. Details of Holley four barrel carburetor. 

FORD DUAL AND FOUR BARREL CARBURETOR 

Idle speed and idle mixture adjustments are made in the same manner 
as described under the heading "Basic Carburetor Adjustments." 

With the idle speed and idle mixture correctly adjusted and the engine 



■ Mil.) 




ADJUSTING 
NUT 



FUEL LEVEL 

SIGHT PLUG 

OPENING 



B 11 67- A 

C-9. Method of adjusting fuel level on Holley four barrel carburetc 



44 



Carburetor, Fuel System Service 

at normal operating temperature, loosen the anti-stall dashpot lock nut, 
Fig. C-7. Hold the throttle in the closed position and depress the plunger 
with a screwdriver blade. The clearance between the throttle lever and the 
plunger tip should be .060 to .090 in. Adjust by turning the dashpot in its 
bracket. 

TO ADJUST ACCELERATING PUMP STROKE: The over travel lever has 
four holes, Fig. C-12, and the accelerating link has two holes to control 
the accelerating pump stroke for different engine applications. Install the 
accelerating pump operating rod in the proper hole in the over travel lev- 
er. Install the accelerating pump operating rod in the inside hole in the 
accelerating pump link for all climatic conditions. 

The Ford dual carburetor is shown in Fig. C-10, and the four barrel 
carburetor in Fig. C-ll. 



HOT ENi 

SffEO ADJUSTING 
SCtEW AND SPUING 



OVft TtAVCl 
SMHNG 




C-10. Disassembled view of Ford dual carburetor. 

ANTI-STALL DASHPOT ADJUSTMENT 

On the internal type dashpot used in 1958, hold the primary carburetor 
throttle plates in the wide-open position. The distance from the top surface 
of the air horn on the carburetor to the top of the plunger shaft should be 



45 



Fix Your Ford 



LOOSEN NUT AND 
TURN DASHPOT 
IN BRACKET 
TO OBTAIN 
CORRECT 
CLEARANCE 




COLD ENGINE 
IDLE SPEED 



1 609-A 



C-ll. Location of adjustments on Ford four barrel carburetor. 

7/16 in. To adjust, bend the lug on the dashpot operating lever. On the ex- 
ternal type dashpot used from 1959 to 1963, Fig. C-12, the adjustment of 
the dashpot clearance is made as follows: After the engine idle speed has 
been correctly adjusted, bottom the dashpot plunger and the clearance be- 
tween the plunger and the throttle shaft lever should be as follows: 



Year 


Model 


Clearance 


1963-1960 


V-8's 


.060 - .090 in 


1963-1960 


223 Six 


.060 - .090 in. 


1963 


260 Six 


.060 - .090 in. 


1963-1960 


Falcon 


.120 - .150 in. 


1959 


All 


.035 - .050 in. 


1958 


Holley Carb. 


.045 - .064 in. 


1958 


Ford Carb. 


.060 - .090 in 


1958 


Carter Carb. 


7/16 in. 



AUTOMATIC CHOKE 

The automatic chokes used on the Ford dual and four barrel carbure- 
tors are similar and depend on both carburetor vacuum and exhaust heat 
for their operation. See Fig. C-13. When trouble occurs in the operation 
of this type choke, it is therefore important to check both the vacuum and 
the heat. In the case of the vacuum, this is supplied through passages in 
the carburetor. In the case of the heat, this is carried to the carburetor by 
a tube connected to a heat stove in the exhaust manifold. It is not unusual 

46 



Carburetor, Fuel System Service 

for the thermostatic coil in the choke to become rusted. This can be check- 
ed by removing the cover of the choke, Fig. C-13. The interior should be 
cleaned or a new unit installed if it is rusted, or has accumulated a lot of 
carbon. In addition, it is important to make sure that both vacuum and heat 
passages are clean and unobstructed. 

To adjust this type of choke, loosen the thermostatic spring housing re- 
taining screws and turn the housing 90 deg. counterclockwise from the in- 
dex marks in the rich direction. Move the choke plate toward the open po- 



PUT ROD IN 
OUTSIDE HOLE 



I UMP STRC 
SUMMER SI WINI 




C-12. Location of anti-stall dashpot, idle speed and accelerating pump 
adjustments on Ford dual and four speed carburetors. 

sition by pressing on the lower portion of the choke plate until resistance 
to movement is felt. At this point the clearance between the front edge of 
the choke plate and the air horn should be the diameter of a number 35 
drill on the 292 cu. in. V-8 engines, and the diameter of a number 28 drill 
on the 352 cu. in. and 390 cu. in. V-8 engines. Check clearance by placing 
drill of correct size between the front end of the choke plate and the air 
horn. If there is not enough clearance, remove the thermostatic spring 
housing. Hold the choke housing lever firmly against the stop from the 
choke housing, and press the choke plate open with enough force to bend 
the lever tang the required amount to obtain the desired clearance. If there 
is too much clearance, decrease the clearance to less than specified, then 
increase the clearance to specifications. To decrease the clearance, move 
the choke housing lever to the right as far as it will go. Hold the lever 
firmly in this position and move the choke plate toward the closed position 
with sufficient force to bend the lever tang. 

On a car with a manual shift transmission, except the 390 cu. in. V-8, 
align the index mark on the thermostatic spring housing with the middle 
index on the choke housing. On a car with an automatic transmission, or 
the 390 cu. in. V-8 engine, with manual shift transmission, set the index 
mark on the thermostatic spring housing two notches in the lean direction. 
Then tighten the retaining screws. 



47 




C-13. Details of automatic choke used on Ford carburetors. 

The automatic choke used on the Holley carburetor, Fig. C-14, uses 
both vacuum and heat. But the vacuum, in addition to drawing warm air 
from the heat chamber, acts on a small piston, which is linked to the choke 
plates in the carburetor. When servicingthisthermostat.be sure all car- 



CHOKE HOUSING 




PISTON AND LEVER 

ASSEMBLY 



VACUUM PASSAGE 



VACUUM PASSAGE 



C-14. Details of automatic choke used on Holley carburetors. 

bon and dirt are removed from the assembly, and that the piston works 
freely in its cylinder. Also be sure that all vacuum and heat passages are 
clear and unobstructed. To adjust the Holley automatic choke, loosen the 
three screws that retain the thermostatic spring housing in the choke hous- 
ing. Fig. C-15. The spring housing can then be turned to alter the adjust- 
ment. Turn the housing in a counterclockwise direction. This will require 
a higher thermostatic spring temperature to fully open the choke plate. 

48 



Carburetor, Fuel System Service 

Turn the spring housing in the opposite direction, or clockwise to cause 
the choke plate to fully open at a lower thermostatic spring temperature. 
This is the lean direction, as indicated by the arrows. Proper adjustment 
is one notch in the rich direction from the mid-position mark, as indicated 
by the division of the choke housing. 




^ . „ B1430-A 

C-15. Fast idle speed and choke adjustments on Holley four barrel carburetor. 



ADJUSTING CARTER CARBURETOR 

The Carter model AFB carburetor, shown in Fig. C-16, was used on 
some Ford models from 1957 to 1960. Idle speed and idle mixture adjust- 
ments are made in the same manner as was outlined under "Basic Carbur- 
etor Adjustments." 

To satisfy acceleration requirements, the accelerating pump operating 
rod can be placed in one of three positions in the accelerating pump arm. 
Placing the rod in the top hole will give the longest stroke and the richest 
mixture suitable for cold weather operation. 

To adjust the automatic choke on this carburetor, loosen the three 
screws that retain the thermostatic spring housing to the choke housing. 
The spring housing can then be turned in a clockwise direction, which will 
require a higher thermostatic spring temperature to fully open the choke 
plate. Normal adjustment is one notch in the lean direction from the mid- 
position mark, as indicated by the division on the choke housing. 

CLEANING THE AIR FILTER 

Cleaning the air filter is an important part of servicing the carburetor, 
and should be a part of every tune -up job. Several different types of air 
filters have been used on Ford cars. Currently the cars are equipped with 



49 



Fix Your Ford 

a dry type air filter that has a replaceable cellulose fiber filtering ele- 
ment, Fig. C-17. This type filter element should be cleaned every 4000 
miles and replaced every 24,000 miles. To remove the air filter, remove 
the wing nut which is at the center of the top of the unit. The air cleaner 
can then be lifted from the carburetor. After lifting the cover from the air 



COUNTERSHAFT IEVER 
ASSEMBLY 



VACUMETER CHAMBER COVER 
VACUMETER PISTON 



COUNTERSHAFT IEVER 

CHOKE PLATE UNK 




THERMOSTATIC 
SPRING HOUSING 



CHOKE HOUSING AND 
PlUG ASSEMBLY 



C-16. Exploded vfow of Carter four barrel carburetor. 

cleaner, the filtering element can be lifted out for cleaning. On some six 
cylinder models the air cleaner is mounted on the side of the engine, and is 
connected by a duct to the carburetor. 

Prior to 1957 an oil bath type unit was employed. This unit is attached 



50 



Carburetor, Fuel System Service 

to the carburetor in the same manner as just described. To clean the unit, 
empty the oil and clean out the accumulated dirt from the bottom of the 
pan. Then refill to the indicated level with heavy engine oil. The wire mesh 
element should be washed in kerosene and then dipped in light engine oil. 
It is important to keep the air filter clean. If it becomes clogged with 
dirt, the free flow of air is obstructed, resulting in an excessively rich 
mixture, loss of power, and greatly reduced fuel economy. 

CLEANING THE FUEL FILTER 

Prior to 1960 Ford fuel systems were equipped with a sediment bowl 
and fuel filter which formed part of the fuel pump. To remove this type 
unit, loosen the bowl bail assembly and remove the bowl and filter screen. 
Clean the bowl and screen in solvent and replace, using a new gasket be- 
tween the bowl and the fuel pump. After 1960 two basic type fuel filters are 
being used. One type known as the cartridge type, Fig. C-17, is screwed 



COVER 




REMOVABLE ELEMENT 



C-17. Sectional view of typical air cleaner. Removing wing nut 
at center, permits removal of element. 

into the fuel inlet of the carburetors used on the V-8 engines, and is con- 
nected in the fuel line of the 223 cu. in. six and Falcon engines. This unit 
is used in addition to the sediment bowl at the base of the fuel pump. When 
this cartridge type filter becomes clogged, as indicated by reduced fuel 
flow, it should be replaced with a new unit. 

A can-type filter was introduced in 1961 on the 390 cu. in. engine, Fig. 
C-19, and in 1962 its use was extended to all models, except the Falcon, 
which continues with the cartridge type and which is placed in the fuel line 
a few inches from the carburetor. 

In the case of the can type, it is mounted in different positions in the 
line, at the base of the fuel pump, Fig. C-23, and on a bracket. The filter 
element in this type unit is of the replaceable type, and should be replaced 
at 25,000 mile intervals, or when the flow of fuel is obstructed, as describ- 
ed in the section dealing with fuel pumps. 



51 



Fix Your Ford 



THERMOSTATIC 
SPRING HOUSING 


CHOKE 

HOUSING y 


j||^r^^5Si_^ 




CHOKE 
y PLATE 


HOUSING 
SHIELD-* 




^^5fcjy 




^n 




AIR HORN 
ASSEMBLY 

FUEL BOWL 
VENT 


t 


13 






kjl 








MAIN 
BODY 


•>& 




v«S 




u 


K^K 




FUEL 
FILTER 


ACCELERATING 
PUMP ASSEMBLY 


DASH POT 


ASSEMBLY 


B1360-A 



C-18. Note fuel filter, dashpot, automatic choke and accelerating 
pump assembly on this Ford dual carburetor. 



TIPS ON CARBURETOR SERVICE 

Most difficulties encountered in the operation of carburetors result 
from dirt and other foreign material that gets past the fuel filters and 
forms in the carburetor. It is important to make sure that the fuel filters 
are cleaned at least once each year. 

One of the major difficulties arises from moisture that accumulates in 
the system. This results from condensation, the difficulty, however, is 




~o 




C-79. Type of fuel filter used on some late model Ford fuel systems. 

52 



Carburetor, Fuel System Service 

easily overcome by using some of the special preparations that are de- 
signed to absorb moisture. The moisture will then pass through the fine 
mesh of the filters, and the tiny jets of the carburetor. Such chemicals 
have various names, and their descriptions imply that freezing of the fuel 
line will be prevented. Obviously if this moisture is allowed to accumulate 
in the fuel system it will freeze in cold weather, with the result that the 
car will not operate. In addition, the fuel pump, filter, and carburetor may 
be damaged. Moisture that collects in die cast fuel pumps and carburetors 
will cause corrosion, which will be a cheesy, light substance, which ef- 
fectively clogs the system. 

When overhauling the carburetor becomes necessary, this will be in- 
dicated, usually by poor fuel economy, rough running engine, and particu- 
larly a rough idle. In overhauling a carburetor the owner has the option of 
obtaining a rebuilt unit, or purchasing a kit of repair parts and installing 
them. One of the kits is shown in Fig. C-20. As shown in the illustration, 




C-20. Typical carburetor repair kit. 

the necessary instructions are included. 

Before installing any new parts in a carburetor, it is important the 
main body, float bowl, and air horn, Fig. C-8, be carefully cleaned, and all 
the internal passages cleared by blowing out with compressed air. A gum- 
my substance frequently forms in the carburetor. It is important that all 
of this is removed. This is most easily done by using a special solvent de- 
signed for cleaning carburetor parts. While this gummy substance is form- 
ed from the fuel, it is difficult to dissolve it with gasoline. 

Also before installing new parts in the carburetor, the mating surfaces 
of the main body and the air horn should be checked to be sure they are 
true and not warped. This is done with a straightedge, as shown in Fig. 
C-21. In addition, the two parts should be held together and checked. If one 
can be rocked on the other, a new unit should be obtained. 

Unless these two surfaces are true and flat, air leaks will occur and 
the carburetor will not operate correctly. 



53 



Fix Your Ford 

When disassembling the carburetor, carefully note the position of the 
various parts, and at the same time, study the illustrations included in the 
parts kit, and the illustrations in this text, so there will be no confusion 
when assembling the unit. Pay particular attention to the location of the 
ball checks. 




C-21. Checking surface of a carburetor to make sure it is not warped. 



QUICK SERVICE ON MANIFOLD HEAT CONTROL VALVE 



A valve is placed in the exhaust system to direct hot air around the in- 
take manifold and to aid in the vaporization of the fuel. The exhaust gases 
are directed into passages around the intake manifold by means of a ther- 
mostatically controlled valve. In the case of the V-8 engines, this is lo- 
cated at the outlet of the right exhaust manifold. On the six cylinder en- 
gines, the manifold heat control valve, Fig. C-22,is in the exhaust mani- 
fold directly below the carburetor. When the valve is closed, or in the 
"heat on" position, warm air from the exhaust is directed through the pas- 
sages provided around the intake manifold. After the engine reaches op- 
erating temperature, the valve is opened so the exhaust gases pass direct- 
ly to the muffler. 

It is important that this valve be kept free and in good operating con- 
dition. The shaft has an external extension or counterweight, which can be 
easily swung back and forth when the valve is in operating condition. If it 
is rusted and will not move freely, some penetrating oil should be poured 
on the shaft, and the ends of the shaft tapped back and forth until the shaft 
can be rotated freely. 

If this shaft is not free to operate, heat will usually be supplied all the 
time with the result that power and performance will not be normal. 

54 



Carburetor, Fuel System Service 



Kil* - CLOSED 

(HEAT ON 




1002-A 



C-22. Manifold heat control valve as used on Ford Six. 



QUICK SERVICE ON FUEL PUMPS 

Failure of the fuel pump, Figs. C-23 and C-24, is one of the major 
causes of roadside failures. It pays to check its operation at least once 
each year and particularly before starting on a long trip. Fortunately a 
fuel pump is easily checked. However, before checking the fuel pump, it is 
advisable to check the fuel filters to make sure they are free and not ob- 
structing the flow of fuel. 




C-23. Note fuel filter mounted in the base of this fuel pump. (Carter) 

If a pressure gauge is not available to check the operation of the fuel 
pump, the pump can be checked by measuring the quantity of fuel it pumps. 
Disconnect the fuel line at the carburetor, and place the end of the fuel line 
in a suitable container, Fig. C-25. Then start the engine. Note the time re- 
quired to pump one pint of fuel. Fuel pumps on 223 cu. in. and smaller en- 
gines should pump one pint of fuel every 30 sec, and on larger engines one 
pint in 20 sec. There will be ample fuel in the carburetor float bowl to op- 
erate the engine for a sufficient time to make such a check. 

If a pressure gauge is available to check the fuel pump, disconnect the 
fuel line at the carburetor and connect the fuel gauge (0 to 15 lb.) to the 



55 



Fix Your Ford 



VALVE BODY 
COVER 




VALVE 
BODY- 

VALVE BODY 
COVER SCREW 

AND 
LOCKWASHER 



DIAPHRAGM 
SPRING 



OIL SEAL J 5 

AND RETAINER <£ v 



WASHER 



FUEL PUMP 
BODY 



BUSHING 



'IN ,»^»*c- 

, \ i ' 

^> y \ busi 

{L r . >^/jA DIAPHRAGM 

m^My link 

B 1469- A 



C-24. Type AC fuel pump used on late model 292 cu. in. engines, al- 
so on 352 and 390 cu. in. engines not equipped with air conditioning. 



line. Start the engine. A pressure of 3-1/2 to 5-1/2 lb. should be obtained 
on engines of 223 cu. in. displacement or less. The fuel pumps on larger 
engines should have 4 to 6 lb. pressure. 



flOSt 








4 


fcSS^sgSfeifi 


smi 








ffiyMflpt 1 -JT4I Wr! 


81^ 

81 ' i/ 




\i- - A 












^KfbTb-t 



C-25. Method of checking operation of fuel pump. 



56 



Carburetor, Fuel System Service 

Incidentally, there are combination instruments for checking the intake 
manifold vacuum, and also the pressure of a fuel pump, which are avail- 
able and at a nominal price. 



FUEL SYSTEM TROUBLE SHOOTING 

Note: Also check symptoms listed in the Chapter on Engine 
Service. 

HARD STARTING 

On all V-8 carburetors check choke setting and linkage. Also check for 
restrictions or air leaks in the choke vacuum or hot air passages. Carbon 
or rust accumulation in choke housing indicates leak in heat tube. 
FORD CARBURETORS: Defective or inoperative choke plate. Binding choke 
housing baffle plate. 

HOLLEY DUAL CARBURETOR: Stuck choke vacuum piston or inoperative 
fuel bowl vent. Incorrect clearance at fuel bowl vent button. 
HOLLEY SINGLE BARREL CARBURETOR: Binding or broken manual 
choke linkage. 

ALL ENGINES: Improper starting procedure causing flooded engine. In- 
correct fuel level. Incorrect idle mixture adjustments. Sticking fuel inlet 
needle. Incorrect fuel pump pressure. Improper carburetor gasket and 
spacer combination. Vacuum leaks in carburetor or in intake manifold. 

POOR IDLE 

In addition to the items listed under the headings "Poor Performance 
Caused by Lean Mixture," or by "Rich Mixture," check the idle mixture 
adjustment. Also make sure idle needle is not grooved. Make sure idle 
discharge holes are not restricted. 

POOR ACCELERATION 

Accelerating pump diaphragm defective. Incorrect pump stroke. Fuel 
inlet ball check not seating on acceleration. Low fuel level. Discharge ball 
check or needle not coming fully off its seat, or failing to seat properly. 
Air leak between carburetor and manifold. Air leak at throttle shaft. Air 
leak at accelerating pump cover. Vent button on Holley dual carburetor not 
seating properly. High fuel level. Very dirty air cleaner. 

FLOODING OR LEAKING CARBURETOR 

Cracked main body (and/or fuel bowl on Holley carburetor). Defective 
main body gaskets. High fuel level. Fuel inlet needle not seating properly. 
Ruptured accelerating pump diaphragm. Excessive fuel pump pressure 

57 



Fix Your Ford 

POOR PERFORMANCE CAUSED BY RICH MIXTURE 

Excessive dirt in air cleaner. High fuel level. Fuel inlet needle not 
seating properly. Power valve leaking. Restricted air bleeds. Worn main 
metering jet. Accelerating pump discharge ball check not seating properly. 
Excessive fuel pump pressure. Fuel syphoning from secondary main fuel 
system. 

POOR PERFORMANCE CAUSED BY LEAN MIXTURE 

Low fuel level. Restricted main fuel passage. Sticking fuel inlet needle. 
Low fuel pressure. 

SECONDARY SYSTEM ON FOUR BARREL CARBURETOR 

Defective secondary diaphragm. Air leak where secondary vacuum 
pick-up tube fits into air horn, between air horn and main body, or between 
secondary diaphragm housing cover and housing. Secondary diaphragm re- 
turn spring stiff. Secondary throttle plates wedged in barrel. Bent second- 
ary throttle shaft. Secondary vacuum passage ball r heck stuck in seat. 
Secondary vacuum probe restricted or not properly positioned. 

LOW FUEL PUMP PRESSURE 

Diaphragm stretched. Spring weak. Excessive dirt in sediment bowi. 
Worn rocker arm. Excessive clearance between rocker arm, vacuum link, 
and fuel pump link. Fittings loose or cracked. Fuel line cracked. Leak in 
diaphragm. Valve seating poorly. Dirt in fuel tank. Fuel tank vent restrict- 
ed. 

HIGH FUEL PUMP PRESSURE 

Spring too strong or wrong type. Diaphragm defective. 

FUEL PUMP LEAKS FUEL 

Main body retaining screws loose. Diaphragm defective. Fittings loose. 
Body cracked. 

FUEL PUMP LEAKS OIL 

Pull rod oil seal defective. Fuel pump mounting bolts loose. Mounting 
gasket defective. 

FUEL PUMP NOISE 

Mounting bolts loose. Rocker arm worn. Rocker arm spring defective. 

58 



Carburetor, Fuel System Service 



LOSS OF BOOSTER PUMP VACUUM 

Vacuum pump cover retaining screws loose. Valves not seating prop- 
erly. Spring weak. Diaphragm defective. 



59 



Shortcuts on 
ENGINE DISASSEMBLY 



This chapter will deal with shortcut methods of removing different en- 
gine parts and their reinstallation. Details of servicing procedures for 
repairing these individual parts, together with further information on dis- 
assembling after these parts have been removed are given in the chapter 
on simplified engine repairs. 

HOW TO REMOVE CYLINDER HEAD 

223 CU. IN. SIX 1955-1963: To remove the cylinder head on this 6 cyl- 
inder engine. Fig. D-l, drain the cooling system and remove the air clean- 
er. Disconnect the radiator upper hose at the radiator, and the heater hose 




CRANKCASE 
VENTILATOR 



1804-A 



D-l. Sectional view of 223 cu. in. six cylinder engine. 



60 



Engine Disassembly 

at the coolant outlet housing. Disconnect the water temperature sending 
unit wire at the sending unit on the side of the cylinder head. Also discon- 
nect the battery ground cable at the cylinder head. 

Disconnect the carburetor fuel inlet line and the distributor vacuum 
line at the distributor. 

Disconnect the high tension lead at the coil and remove the coil from 
the cylinder head, moving it to one side. Also remove the distributor cap 
and the spark plug wires as an assembly. Remove the spark plugs. 

Disconnect the fuel inlet line and the distributor vacuum line at the car- 
buretor and remove the line as an assembly. 



REMOVE SCREW 




PRY UP Oil LINE WITH PLIERS 



D-2. Disconnecting oil line to rocker arm shaft on 223 cu. in. six. 

On engines with positive crankshaft ventilation, disconnect the exhaust 
tube at the regulator valve and the crankcase outlet. Remove the exhaust 
tube. 

Disconnect the choke control cable at the carburetor, and also discon- 
nect the accelerator retracting spring. Disconnect the accelerator rod as- 
sembly at the accelerator assembly. 

Remove the cap screw and bracket from the No. 4 valve rocker arm 
shaft support. Pull the oil inlet line out of the support, Fig. D-2, then pull 
the line out of the block with pliers, Fig. D-2. Discard the O-ring seal. 

Remove the cap screw from the No. 1 valve rocker arm shaft support 
and remove the oil outlet line and bracket. 

Loosen all the valve rocker arm adjusting screws to remove the valve 
spring load from the rocker arm. Loosen the cap screws two turns at a 
time in sequence. Then remove the valve rocker arm shaft assembly. 

Remove the valve push rods in sequence, and identify them so they can 
be installed in their original position. 

Remove the manifold to cylinder head bolts (two manifold bolts retain 
the radiator supply tank mounting bracket, and one bolt retains the oil lev- 
el dipstick tube bracket on late models). Pull the manifold assembly away 
from the cylinder head and brace the assembly, so the muffler inlet pipe 



61 



Fix Your Ford 

will not be damaged. 

Disconnect the radiator supply tank support at the water pump. Loosen 
the supply tank hose clamp at the coolant outlet housing, and remove the 
supply tank. 

If holding fixtures are available, install the holding fixtures on the cyl- 
inder head for convenience in lifting the head, and to protect the gasket 
surfaces, Fig. D-3. 



BOLT BRACKETS TO INTAKE PORTS 




TIGHTEN SCREW 
SECURELY 



D-3. Special fixture designed to aid in removing cylinder head. 

Remove all the cylinder head bolts and install cylinder head guide studs 
at each end of the cylinder head. Then lift the cylinder head assembly off 
the engine. 

Before reinstalling the cylinder head, make sure that all the gasket 
surfaces are clean and true, as explained in the chapter on Basic Engine 
Repairs, and tighten the cylinder head bolts to 65-70 ft. lb. torque, in the 
sequence shown in Fig. D-4. 



Q<) M> ST 



31 



0) CO Ofr" 



ir 



if 



lk@o®o^o @ oC @ o@o®oQo®o^o^l 



D-4. Cylinder head bolt tightening sequence on 223 co. in. six. Cor- 
rect torque at final tightening with engine hot is 65 to 75 ft. lb. 

144 AND 170 CU. IN. SIX: Drain the cooling system and remove the air 
cleaner. Disconnect the battery cable at the cylinder head. Disconnect the 
muffler inlet pipe at the exhaust manifold, Fig. D-5. Loosen the inlet pipe 
clamp and slide it off the support bracket on the engine. Pull the muffler 
inlet pipe down. Remove the gasket. Disconnect the accelerator rod re- 
tracting spring. Disconnect the choke control cable and the accelerator rod 
at the carburetor. 

Disconnect the fuel inlet line and the distributor vacuum line at the car- 



62 



Engine Disassembly 

buretor. Disconnect the vacuum line at the carburetor spacer or inlet man- 
ifold. 

Disconnect the carburetor spacer outlet line at the spacer. Disconnect 
the radiator upper hose at the coolant outlet elbow. Disconnect the heater 
hoses at the water pump and at the cylinder head. Disconnect the distribu- 
tor vacuum line at the distributor, the carburetor fuel inlet line, and the 
vacuum line at the fuel pump. Remove the three lines as an assembly. On 
an engine with positive crankcase ventilation, remove the exhaust tube at 
the regulator valve and the crankcase outlet. Remove the regulator valve 
and crankcase outlet adapter. Disconnect the vacuum line at the regulator 
valve fitting and fuel pump. Disconnect the spark plug wires at the spark 
plugs and the temperature sending unit wire at the sending unit. Remove 
the valve rocker arm cover. Loosen all the valve rocker arm adjusting 
screws two turns at a time in sequence to remove the valve spring load 
from the rocker arm. Then remove the valve rocker arm shaft assembly, 
Fig. D-5. Remove the valve push rods in sequence, taking care to identify 



,~v i _» .'*i "* 



INTAKE MANIFOLD 




D-5. Sectional view of 7960- 1963 Falcon engine. 

them so they can be replaced in their original position. 

Remove one cylinder head bolt from each end of the head and install 
cylinder head guide studs. Then remove the remaining cylinder head bolts, 
and remove the cylinder head, taking care not to pry between the cylinder 



63 



Fix Your Ford 

head and block, as the gasket surfaces may become damaged. 

When replacing the cylinder head make sure all the gasket surfaces are 
clean and the head is not warped, as described in the Chapter on Basic 
Engine Repairs. Tighten the cylinder head bolts to a torque of 65-75 ft. lb., 
in the sequence shown in Fig. D-6. 




D-6. On the 744 and 170 cu. in. Falcon engines, tighten cylin- 
der head bolts in the order indicated. 



221 CU. IN. AND 260 CU. IN. V-8 ENGINES: Drain the cooling system 
and remove the air cleaner, Fig. D-7. Disconnect the accelerator rod at 
the carburetor, and remove the accelerator retracting spring. Remove the 
bell crank assembly from the intake manifold and position it out of the way. 



IGNITION DISTRIBUTOR 



LOCATION OF COOLING 
SYSTEM THERMOSTAT 



AIR CLEANER 



HIGH TENSION LEADS 



ROCKER ARM 
-COVER 




OIL PAN 
VALVE LIFTER 

A 1616-6 

D-7. Sectional view of 260 cu. in. 1963 V-8 engine. The 221 cu. in. engine is similar. 

64 



Engine Disassembly 

On a car with an automatic transmission, disconnect the throttle valve vac- 
uum line at the intake manifold. 

Disconnect the high tension lead and wires at the coil and remove the 
coil from the intake manifold. Disconnect the battery ground cable. Dis- 
connect the spark plug wires and remove the wires from the harness 
brackets. Also, remove the distributor cap and spark plug wire assembly. 
Remove the carburetor fuel line and automatic choke heat tube. Disconnect 
the distributor vacuum line at the carburetor and remove the distributor 
hold down bolt, and remove the distributor and vacuum line. Disconnect the 
upper radiator hose at the coolant outlet housing, the heater hose at the 
carburetor spacer, and the water temperature sending unit wire at the 
sending unit. Loosen the clamp on the water bypass hose at the coolant out- 
let housing, and slide the hose off the outlet housing. 

Remove the crankcase vent tube retaining bolt at the intake manifold. 
Disconnect the engine ground strap at the block. Then remove the intake 
manifold and carburetor as an assembly. 

Remove the rocker arm covers. On a car with power steering, discon- 
nect the power steering pump bracket from the left cylinder head and re- 
move the drive belt from the pump pulley. Wire the power steering pump 
out of the way and in a position that will prevent the oil from draining out. 

Disconnect the wires at the generator and remove the generator mount- 
ing bracket bolts and remove the generator and bracket as an assembly. 

Disconnect the exhaust manifold at the muffler inlet pipes. 

Loosen the rocker arm stud nuts so the rocker arm can be rotated to 
the side. Remove and identify each push rod in sequence. 

Remove the cylinder head retaining bolts and lift the cylinder head off 
the block. 

When installing the cylinder head, the cylinder head bolts are tightened 
in three progressive steps. Torque all the bolts in sequence. Fig. D-8, to 



^f^fiS5Sf£S$ 



D-8. Cylinder head bolt tightening sequence for 1962- 
1963 Fairlane V-8 221 c«. in. and 260 cu. in. engines. 

50 ft. lbs., then to 60 ft. lbs., and finally to 70 ft. lbs. After the cylinder 
head bolts have been torqued to specifications, the bolts should not be dis- 
turbed. 

292 CU. IN. CYLINDER HEAD: Remove the intake manifold, carburetor, 
coils and, on recent models, the radiator supply tank as an assembly. Fig. 
D-9. 

Remove the valve rocker arm covers and the valve rocker arm shaft 



65 



Fix Your Ford 

assembly. Remove and identify each of the valve push rods so they can be 
replaced in their original position. 

Disconnect the battery ground cable and the oil level dip stick tube 
bracket. Loosen the generator mounting bolts and drive belt adjusting arm 
bolt at the generator, then pivot the generator and remove the drive belt. 



RADIATOR 
SUPPLY TANK 



AIR CLEANER 

CARBURETOR 

VALVE ROCKER ARM COVER 




FUEL PUMP 



D-9. Sectional view of 292 cu. in. V-8. 

Remove the generator bracket to cylinder head bolt, then remove the 
generator front mounting bolt and remove the generator out of the way. 
Remove the ignition harness bracket from the cylinder head. 

Disconnect the temperature sending unit wire from the left cylinder 
head and the ground strap from the head. 

Remove the distributor cap and position it out of the way. Disconnect 
the spark plug wires and the sparkplugs. Disconnect the muffler inlet pipe 
from the exhaust manifold. Remove the cylinder head bolts and lift the cyl- 
inder head from the block. The factory cautions against prying between the 
cylinder head and block as this would score the gasket surfaces. 

When replacing the cylinder head, install the gasket over the cylinder 
head dowel with the "front" toward the front of the engine, and tighten the 
cylinder head bolts in the sequence indicated in Fig. D-10. Be sure to in- 
stall the long bolts at the dowel location. The cylinder head bolts are 
torqued in three progressive steps. Torque all bolts in sequence to 55 ft. 



66 



Engine Disassembly 

lbs., then to 65 ft. lbs., and finally to 75 ft. lb. After the cylinder head bolts 
have been torqued to specifications, the bolts should not be disturbed. 

352 CU. IN. AND 390 CU. IN. V-8 CYLINDER HEADS: Drain the cooling 
system and remove the air cleaner, Fig. D-ll. On a car with a manual 
shift transmission, disconnect the accelerator rod at the carburetor and 
remove the accelerator retracting spring. 

On a car with an automatic transmission, disconnect the accelerator 
rod at the carburetor. Remove the accelerator cross shaft bracket from 
the intake manifold and position it out of the way. 

Disconnect the coil high tension lead and disconnect the primary wire 
at the distributor. Disconnect the oil pressure sending unit wire at the 
sending unit. 

Disconnect the spark plug wires at the spark plugs and remove the 
wires from the ignition harness bracket on the valve rocker arm covers. 
Remove the distributor cap and sparkplug wire assembly. Also disconnect 
the distributor vacuum line at the distributor. 

Remove the carburetor fuel inlet line and the automatic choke heat tube. 
Disconnect the brake vacuum booster line at the intake manifold and at the 
flexible hose. Remove the vacuum line. Remove the distributor hold down 
bolt and clamp, and remove the distributor. 

Disconnect the radiator upper hose at the radiator supply tank, the 
heater hose at the intake manifold, and the water temperature sending unit 
wire at the sending unit. 

Slide the clamp on the water pump bypass hose toward the water pump. 
Remove the automatic choke heat tube. Remove the valve rocker arm cov- 
ers, and position the wire loom attached to the left rocker arm cover out 



RIGHT AND LEFT HEAD, USE S-8677 Socket 




RIGHT AND LEFT HEAD, USE SS663-A Wrench 
RIGHT HEAD, USE S-8677 Socket with T Extension 
LEFT HEAD, USE S-8663-A Wr»nch 

D-10. Tightening order of cylinder head bolts of 292 co. in., 332 co. In., 352 co. In. and 

390 cu. in. engines. 

of the way. Remove the valve rocker arm shaft assembly and then remove 
the valve push rods in sequence, taking care to identify each one so they 
can be replaced in their original position. Remove the intake manifold re- 
taining bolts and lift off the intake manifold. 

Disconnect the exhaust manifold at the muffler inlet pipes. Remove the 
cylinder head bolts and lift the cylinder head off the block, taking care not 
to pry between the head and the block, as that may score the gasket sur- 



67 



Fix Your Ford 

faces and cause compression leaks. When replacing the cylinder heads, be 
sure to check the flatness of the cylinder head before installation and make 
sure all gasket surfaces are clean. On all engines except the 390 high per- 



[x CAMSHAFT 




CONNECTING RODS 



D-ll. Sectional view of 332, 352 and 390 cu. in. engines. Rocker arms are not adjustable. In- 
stead push rods .060 in. shorter than standard are available to compensate for changes resulting 

from servicing valves. 

formance V-8, apply sealer to both sides of the new cylinder head gasket. 
Note that the gasket is marked with the word "front" which should be 
placed, of course, toward the front of the engine. 

Torque all the bolts in sequence as indicated in Fig. D-10, first to 70 
ft. lbs., then to 80 ft. lbs., and finally to 90 ft. lbs. Do not change the torqu- 
ing of the bolts once they have been tightened to specifications. 



68 



Engine Disassembly 

272 CU. IN., 312 CU. IN. AND 292 CU. IN. V-8 ENGINES 1956: Drain 
the radiator and remove the air cleaner. Disconnect the windshield wiper 
hose, vacuum line at the intake manifold, the fuel line at the fuel pump and 
at the carburetor. Remove the vacuum lines from the fuel pump and re- 
move the three lines as an assembly. Disconnect the distributor vacuum 
line at the distributor, and disconnect the throttle linkage. Remove the 
throttle linkage bracket from the intake manifold. Disconnect the primary 
and secondary wires at the coil, and disconnect the heater inlet hose and 
heater vacuum control line at the water control valve. Disconnect the rad- 
iator upper hose and the water pump bypass hose. Remove the manifold 
retaining bolts, nuts and four clamps and then remove the manifold, car- 
buretor and coil as an assembly. Remove the valve rocker arm cover, the 
exhaust manifold and the sparkplugs. Remove the ignition harness bracket 
from the right cylinder head. When removing the right head from the 
Thunderbird, remove the distributor cap. When removing the right head 
from all other cars, disconnect the battery ground cable, and the oil level 
indicator tube bracket from the cylinder head. Remove the generator 
bracket to cylinder head bolt, remove the generator front mounting bolt 
and then move the generator out of the way. 

Release the spring tension on the rocker arm by loosening the adjust- 
ing screws, then remove the rocker arm assembly and oil baffle plates. 
Remove and identify each of the push rods so they can be replaced in their 
original position. Disconnect the wire from the temperature sending unit. 
Then after removing the cylinder head bolts, the cylinder head can be lifted 
from the cylinder block. When replacing the cylinder head, the bolt tight- 
ening sequence is performed in three progressive steps. First tighten the 
bolts to 35 ft. lb. torque in the sequence shown in Fig. D-8, then tighten to 
65 ft. lbs., and then after the engine has been started and operated for 30 
min., the bolts should be given a final tightening to 75 ft. lbs. 

239 CU. IN. 1954 V-8: To remove the cylinder head, first drain the 
cooling system and disconnect the upper radiator hose. Disconnect the 
ground cable from the right hand cylinder head. Remove the air cleaner 
and tape the carburetor air horn closed. Disconnect the choke control ca- 
ble at the carburetor. Disconnect the windshield wiper vacuum line. Dis- 
connect the accelerator linkage. Disconnect the vacuum line at the distri- 
butor. Disconnect the secondary and primary wires at the ignition coil. 
Disconnect the fuel line at the carburetor. Disconnect the intake manifold 
to vacuum booster line at the intake manifold. Remove the crossover pipe 
from the right and left hand exhaust manifolds. Remove the manifold heat 
control valve. Disconnect the spark plug wires and remove the spark plugs. 
Disconnect the muffler inlet pipe from the right hand exhaust manifold, 
then remove the manifolds. 

Disconnect the water bypass tube from the water outlet. Disconnect the 
carburetor and fuel pump line at the fuel pump, then disconnect the vacuum 
line at the fuel pump. Remove the intake manifold, carburetor and coil as 
an assembly. Clean the outside of the rocker arm cover, and then remove 
the cover. Loosen the rocker arm adjusting screws to relieve the valve 

69 



Fix Your Ford 

spring tension. Remove the rocker arm assembly and oil baffle plates. 
Remove the push rods in sequence. Identify the push rods so they can be 
replaced in their original position. Disconnect the wire from the tempera- 
ture sending unit. Remove the ignition harness bracket from the right hand 
cylinder head. 

Remove the generator bracket rear bolt. Disconnect the dip stick tube 
mounting bracket from the right hand cylinder head. Remove the cylinder 
head bolts, which will then permit the removal of the cylinder head. 

The tightening sequence of the cylinder head bolts when replacing the 
cylinder head is the same as shown in Fig. D-8. 

OIL PAN REMOVAL KINKS 

223 CU. IN. 1957-1963 SIX: Drain the crankcase and remove the fly- 
wheel housing inspection cover, and the oil level dip stick. On station wag- 
ons, remove the stabilizer bar lower control arm retaining nuts, washers 
and rubber bushings. Remove the stabilizer bar to frame rail retaining 
bolts and bracket. Position the stabilizer bar as far forward as possible. 

On an engine with vent tube type crankcase ventilation system, Fig. 
D-12, remove the crankcase ventilation tube assembly. 




VENT TUBE 
OIL PAN SCREWS 



D-12. Not* accessibility of parts on this 223 cu. in. six. 

Remove the oil pan retaining screws. Rotate the crankshaft as required 
to gain clearance to remove the oil pan, then remove the oil pan and gas- 
ket. 

1956 223 CU. IN. SIX: Drain the crankcase and remove the oil level in- 
dicator. Remove the engine left and right front splash aprons. Remove the 



70 



Engine Disassembly 

flywheel housing inspection cover. Then remove the oil pan retaining 
screws and remove the oil pan and gasket. 

1955 223 CU. IN. SIX: Drain the crankcase and remove the oil level dip 
stick. Drain the coolant from the engine and radiator. Disconnect the upper 
radiator hose at the engine, and remove the engine front support bolts. Re- 
move the engine steady rest. Raise the front of the engine about two in- 

PISTON, PIN, AND RETAINER ASSY.-6108 .I?!!ff,5I-c CHECK NUTS 

45218-S 




RINGS >*If BUSHING ^-»>V^ NU , T f 

6149 / "» 6207 CONNECTING ROD 6212 

' Sk d „ a1u „ ASSEMBLY— 6200 

PISTON PIN ^RETAINER 
6135 6140 

D-13. Typical piston and rod assembly. Instead of using spring retainers for the piston rings, 
some installations (Falcon and 1962-63 Fairlane) have the pin a press fit in the piston. 

ches. Remove the left and right engine front splash aprons. Block the en- 
gine and lower the engine on the block. Remove the flywheel housing in- 
spection cover, and then remove the oil pan retaining screws, and remove 
the oil pan and gasket. 

1952-1954 223 CU. IN. SIX: Drain the crankcase and drain the coolant 
from the engine and radiator. Disconnect the upper and lower radiator 
hose at the engine. Remove the bolts which attach the engine front supports 
to the frame. Raise the front end of the engine about two inches. Pull out 
the dip stick from the tube. Remove the oil pan retaining screws and re- 
move the pan and gasket. 

1960-1963 144 CU. IN., 170 CU. IN. SIX: Drain the crankcase and re- 
move the oil level dip stick. On a car with a manual shift transmission, 
remove the clutch retracting spring. Remove the cross member retaining 
nut and remove the cross member. Remove the stabilizer bar to under- 
body retaining nuts, and pull the stabilizer bar downward. 

Remove the oil pan retaining bolts and crank the engine as required to 
obtained clearance, and remove the oil pan. 

1963 260 CU. IN. V-8: Drain the crankcase, Fig. D-7, and remove the 
oil level dip stick. Disconnect the starter cable at the starter. Remove the 
starter. Remove the oil pan retaining bolts, and crank the engine as re- 
quired to obtain clearance and remove the oil pan. 

1962-1963 221 CU. IN V-8: Drain the crankcase, Fig. D-7, and remove 
the oil level dip stick. Remove the cross member retaining nuts and re- 
move the cross member. Remove the oil pan retaining bolts and crank the 
engine as required to obtain clearance, and remove the oil pan. 

1963-1959 292 CU. IN. V-8: Drain the oil from the crankcase and dis- 
connect the oil pump inlet tube at the oil pump. Remove the oil pan retain- 
ing screws, then remove the oil pan. 

71 



Fix Your Ford 

1958 292 CU. IN. V-8: Drain the oil from the crankcase. Remove the 
stabilizer bar. Disconnect the oil pump inlet tube at the oil pump. Remove 
the oil pan retaining screws, then lower the oil pan. 

1957 272 CU. IN., 292 CU. IN., AND 312 CU. IN. V-8 ENGINES: Drain 
the oil from the crankcase and remove the stabilizer bar. Disconnect the 
oil pump inlet tube at the oil pump. Then remove the oil pan retainer 
screws and lower the oil pan to the floor. 

1956-1955 292 CU. IN., 272 CU. IN., AND 312 CU. IN. V-8 ENGINES: 
Remove the oil level indicator and drain the crankcase. Remove the en- 
gine front splash pan (except on the Thunderbird). On Fordomatic equipped 
cars, remove the converter housing assembly cover. Disconnect the oil 
pump inlet tube at the oil pump. Remove the oil pan retaining screws and 
nuts, then lower the oil pan to the floor. 




D-14. The ridge at the top of the piston travel in the cylinders must be removed 
before removing the pistons. 

1954 239 CU. IN. V-8 ENGINES: Drain the crankcase and remove the 
engine front splash pan. Remove the oil pump to oil pan pipe. On Fordo- 
matic equipped vehicles remove the converter housing dust cover. Then 
remove the oil pan retaining screws, and lower the oil pan to the floor. 
No. 1 cylinder must be on top dead center before the oil pan can be re- 
moved. 

1963-1960 352 CU. IN., 390 CU. IN. V-8 ENGINES: Drain the oil from 
the crankcase and remove the oil level dip stick. Remove the flywheel 
housing lower cover. Remove the oil pan retaining screws, and lower the 
oil pan to the frame cross member. Crank the engine to obtain the neces- 
sary clearance between the crankshaft counterweight and the rear of the 
oil pan. If the oil pump, Fig. D-ll, is to be removed, remove the oil pump 
retaining bolts and allow the ofl pump and the driveshaft to fall into the oil 



72 



Engine Disassembly 

pan. If the oil pump is not being removed, loosen the oil pump inlet tube 
upper bolt and remove the lower bolt. Swing the inlet tube clear of the oil 
pan. Remove the oil pan by bringing it forward and titlting it down. 

1959 332 CU. IN. AND 352 CU. IN. V-8 ENGINES: Drain the oil from 
the crankcase and remove the oil level dip stick. Crank the engine until 
No. 1 piston is on top dead center to obtain the necessary clearance be- 
tween the crankshaft counterweight and the rear of the oil pan. Remove 
the oil pan retaining screws and lower the oil pan to the frame cross mem- 
ber. Loosen the oil pump inlet tube upper bolt and remove the lower bolt. 
Swing the inlet tube clear of the oil pan. Remove the oil pan by bringing it 
forward and tilting it down. 

1958 352 CU. IN. V-8 ENGINES: The procedure is the same as for the 
1959 model, except that it is also necessary to remove the stabilizer bar. 

1957 272 CU. IN., 292 CU. IN., 312 CU. IN. V-8 ENGINES: Drain the oil 
from the crankcase and remove the stabilizer bar. Disconnect the oil pump 
inlet tube at the oil pump. Remove the oil pan retainer screws, then the oil 
pan. 

HOW TO REMOVE CONNECTING RODS 

Before removing the connecting rod and piston assemblies, Figs. D-ll 
and D-13, it is necessary to first remove the cylinder head and oil pan. 
The procedure for removal of those units has just been explained. After 
removing the head and oil pan, the next step is to remove the ridge from 
the top of the cylinder bore. This ridge which has been worn by the piston 
rings is located about 3/8 in. below the top of the cylinder. The ridge must 
be removed, otherwise the ring striking the ridge will break the piston 
ring lands, as the pistons are pushed up through the cylinder bore. This 
would make it necessary to replace the pistons, which would be an unnec- 
essary expense. 

There are many types and makes of cylinder ridge removing tools on 
the market. One type is illustrated in Fig. D-14. The amount of the ridge 
will depend on the number of miles traveled since the previous overhaul, 
the tension of the piston rings, and also on the degree of lubrication. 

When removing the ridge at the top of the cylinder bore, first crank the 



CAMSHAFT SPROCKET 






TIMING CHAIN 



D-I5. Timing chain and sprocket installation on the 292 co. in. V-8. Typical of other engines. 

73 



Fix Your Ford 

engine until the piston in that particular cylinder is at the bottom of the 
travel. Place a cloth on top of the piston head to collect the cuttings. Re- 
move the cylinder ridge with a ridge cutter, following the instructions fur- 
nished by the tool manufacturer. Never cut into the ring travel areas in 
excess of 1/32 in. when removing the ridges. 

After removing the ridge from the top of the cylinder bore, examine 
the lower ends of the connecting rods and make sure that they are marked 
clearly. Every manufacturer marks the lower end of the connecting rod 
and the cap with a number corresponding to the cylinder in which the rod 
is installed. If the marks are not clear, it is advisable to mark each rod 
and cap with a prick punch, using one mark for each cylinder. In other 
words, mark No. 1 cylinder with one prick punch mark, and No. 2 with two 
marks, etc. This is absolutely necessary so that the connecting rods and 
pistons can be reinstalled in their original cylinders. 

After making sure that the connecting rods are properly marked, re- 
move the connecting rod cap bolts and shove the piston and rod assembly 
up through the cylinder bore and out of the top. After each piston and con- 
necting rod assembly has been removed through the top of the cylinder 
bore, replace the cap on the corresponding rod so it will not become mixed 
with the other piston and rod assemblies. Also make sure the bearing 
shells do not become mixed, but remain in their respective connecting rod 
bores. 

The connecting rod assemblies on all Ford engines are removed 
through the top of the cylinder block. 

When installing pistons and connecting rod assemblies, be sure the in- 
dentation on the top surface of the piston is installed toward the front of 
the engine. Also be sure to install the pistons in the same cylinders from 
which they were removed, or to which they were fitted. 

Make sure the ring gaps are properly spaced around the circumference 
of the piston, and install the assembly as described in the section dealing 
with piston rings. 

On V-8 engines the bearing lock slots on each connecting rod bearing 
should be placed to the outside of the engine "V." 

REMOVING TIMING CASE COVER 

In order to replace the timing chain, Figs. D-7 and D-15, or to stop a 
leak at the front end of the crankshaft, it is necessary to remove the tim- 
ing case cover. 

Instructions apply in general to all Ford vehicles as follows: Drain the 
cooling system and crankcase. Remove the air cleaner. Disconnect the 
battery ground cable. 

Disconnect the radiator upper hose at the radiator supply tank. Discon- 
nect the radiator lower hose at the water pump. On cars with an automatic 
transmission, disconnect the transmission oil cooler line at the radiator. 
Remove the radiator. Disconnect the heater hose at the water outlet hous- 
ing and at the water pump. Slide the water pump bypass tube clamp toward 

74 



Engine Disassembly 

the engine. 

Remove the fan, drive belt, pulley and spacer. On a car with power 
steering, remove the power steering pump pulley from the crankshaft 
damper. 

Remove the cap screw and washer from the end of the crankshaft. In- 
stall a puller on the crankshaft damper and pull off the damper. 

Disconnect the carburetor fuel inlet line and the flexible line at the fuel 
pump. Remove the fuel pump and gasket. 

Remove the oil pan and related parts by following the instructions given 
in the chapter on oil pan removal. 

On a car with power steering, disconnect the power steering pump 
bracket from the water pump and secure the power steering pump to the 
fender apron in a position that will prevent the oil from draining. 

Position the generator support bracket and adjusting arm out of the 
way. Remove the screws fastening the cylinder front cover to the block 



CAMSHAFT SPROCKET TIMING MARK 



12 PINS BfTWEEN MARKS 




CRANKSHAFT SPROCKET TIMING MARK 



DRIVING SIDE OF CHAIN 

D-16. Timing marks on 223 cu. in. six. 



and oil pan, then remove the cylinder front cover and the water pump as 
an assembly. On some models it is not necessary to remove the water 

pump as an assembly. 

On a car with an air conditioner, the compressor brackets are retained 

by the cylinder front cover screws. 

Discard the cylinder front cover gasket and remove the crankshaft front 

oil slinger. 

The timing chain and sprocket, Fig. D-15, can now be replaced. In- 
structions covering that operation are provided in another section. 



75 



Fix Your Ford 

FRONT OIL SEAL REPLACEMENT 

It is good practice to replace the oil seal each time the cylinder front 
cover is removed. A defective oil seal will permit oil to leak from the 
front end of the crankshaft, and naturally oil consumption will be material- 
ly increased. 

To replace the front oil seal, drive out the crankshaft oil seal from the 
front cover with a pin punch, then clean out the recess in the cover. 

Coat a new seal with grease, and drive the new seal into position by 
means of a drift of a diameter which will fit the oil seal. Make sure it is 
fully seated in the recess. Check the installation to be sure the spring is 
properly positioned in the seal. 

REPLACING TIMING CHAIN 

In order to replace the timing chain, it is first necessary to remove the 
radiator and timing case cover. The timing chain should be replaced when 
there is one half inch deflection of the chain midway between the sprockets, 




12 PINS BETWEEN MASKS 



D-17. Timing marks on 292 cm. in. V-8. 



Fig. E-32. Chains with excessive wear are apt to jump so the valve and 
ignition timing is destroyed. 

Before attempting to remove the timing chain and sprocket, it is first 
necessary to crank the engine until the timing marks on the sprockets and 
chain are positioned as shown in Figs. D-16, D-17 and D-18, for the re- 
spective engines. 

Remove the camshaft sprocket retaining bolt and washer, Fig. D-15. 

76 



Engine Disassembly 




TIMING MARKS 



D-78. Timing marks on 221, 260, 332, 352 and 390 co. in. V-8 engines. Timing 
marks for the 144 and 170 cu. in. six cylinder engines are similar. 

Remove the fuel pump eccentric. Slide both the sprockets and timing chains 
forward, and remove them as an assembly. 

When replacing the assembly be sure the engine has not been cranked 
or the camshaft rotated while the chain and sprockets were removed. If by 
any chance the crankshaft or camshaft was turned, it will be necessary to 
return, them to their original position so that the timing marks are cor- 
rectly aligned. 



BEARINGS 



SPACER 



THRUST 
PLATE 



t< 




CAMSHAFT REAR BEARING 
BORE PLUG 



CAMSHAFT 



1395-A 



D-19. Camshaft, timing chain and sprocket on Falcon engines. Typical. 



CAMSHAFT REMOVAL 

It is seldom necessary to remove a camshaft, Figs. D-ll and D-19, un- 
less one or more of the cams has become worn to such an extent it does 
not raise the valves as much as specified. In order to check the valve lift 



77 



Fix Your Ford 

a dial gauge is needed, Fig. D-20. On engines with hydraulic valve lifters, 
it is necessary to first install a solid tappet-type push rod in the push rod 
core of the camshaft load to be checked. The dial indicator should be in- 
stalled in such a manner as to have the actuating point of the indicator in 
the push rod socket and in the same plane as the push rod movement. Then 
turn the crankshaft slowly in the direction of normal rotation until the 
tappet or lifter is on the base circle of the camshaft lobe. At this point, 




D-20. Illustrating method of measuring lift of cams. Another method is to use a 
micrometer and measure height of cam. 

the push rod will be in its slowest position. Zero the dial indicator, and 
then continue to crank the engine slowly until the push rod is in the fully 
raised position. Compare the total lift recorded on the indicator with spec- 
ifications, or with the lift of other valves in that same engine. The varia- 
tion of valve lift between cam lobes on the same engine should not exceed 
.005 in. 

To remove a camshaft, first remove the timing case cover and the 
timing chain and sprocket as previously described. On V-8 type engines 
remove the intake manifold and oil pan, and also the grille and grille cen- 
ter support from the front of the vehicle. Remove the valve rocker arm 
covers and release the spring tension on the valve rocker arms by loosen- 
ing the adjusting screws. Loosen the valve rocker arm shaft support bolts 
in sequence two turns at a time, then remove the valve rocker arm as- 
semblies and oil tubes. Remove the push rods in sequence. 

Turn the camshaft until the tappets can be lifted with the fingers, or 
with a magnet, Fig. E-35, and then with the tappets raised clear of'the 
camshaft lobes, secure them in position with spring-type clothes pins. The 
camshaft can then be drawn forward and out of the cylinder block after re- 
moving the camshaft thrust plate and spacer. When pulling the camshaft 
forward, be careful to avoid damaging the camshaft bearings by striking 
them with the camshaft lobes. 

A typical camshaft and timing chain assembly is shown in Fig. D-19. 



78 



Engine Disassembly 

The above procedure, while applying particularly to the 292 cu. in. V-8 
Engine, applies also in general to other engines as well. 

When replacing the camshaft, be careful not to force the camshaft back 
against the plug which seals the bearing at the rear end. Too much force 
will tend to loosen this sealing plug with the result that an oil leak will 
occur. 

REMOVING THE ENGINE 

When the engine is badly worn, as indicated by excessive oil consump- 
tion and severe knocking, many car owners prefer to install a rebuilt en- 
gine rather than attempt to overhaul the original unit. Rebuilt engines are 
available at larger automotive parts jobbers, and also from Ford dealers. 

When removing an engine from a chassis, Fig. D-21, a chain hoist is 
needed. This hoist must be supported by a strong beam over the engine. 
It must be remembered that the engine will weigh approximately 500 lbs., 
and, therefore, the beam must be of sufficient strength to support such a 

weight. 

The following instructions while applying particularly to the 292 cu. in. 
V-8 engine will apply also in general to other engines built by Ford. 

First drain the cooling system and the crank system. Remove the hood 
and the air cleaner. Disconnect the radiator upper hose at the radiator 



7oo/-r53l-300 A 



Tool— T531 4000 8 




D-21. Lifting a V-8 engine from the chassis. 

supply tank, and the radiator lower hose at the water pump. On a car with 
an automatic transmission, disconnect the transmission oil cooler lines at 
the radiator. Remove the radiator and the fan. Disconnect the flexible fuel 
line at- the fuel tank line. 

On a car with an automatic transmission, disconnect the transmission 
vacuum shift control hose at the tube. Disconnect the engine ground strap, 
the temperature sending unit wire, and the oil pressure sending unit wire. 



79 



Fix Your Ford 

Disconnect the heater hoses at the intake manifold and water pump. On 
a car with a manual shift transmission, disconnect the accelerator rod as- 
sembly at the accelerator cross shaft. 

On a car with an automatic transmission, disconnect the accelerator 
rod at the carburetor, and the accelerator return spring at the accelerator 
assembly. Remove the accelerator assembly. On a car with power steer- 
ing, disconnect the power steering pump bracket from the water pump, then 
wire the pump to the fender apron in a position that will prevent the oil 
from draining out. 

Disconnect the battery ground cable at the engine, the generator wires 
at the generator, and the primary wire at the coil. Remove one coil re- 
taining screw, loosen the other screw, then swing the coil to one side. 

Remove the distributor cap and place it out of the way. Disconnects 
starter cable at the starter. Remove the flywheel or converter housing to 
engine upper bolts. Raise the front of the car. Remove the starter and dust 
seal and the automatic transmission fluid filler tube bracket. 

On a car with an automatic transmission, disconnect the transmission 
coil cooler line clamp from the engine. Disconnect the muffler inlet pipes 
from the exhaust manifold, and the engine right and left front support in- 
sulators at the frame. Remove the oil filter. 

On a car with a manual shift transmission, remove the flywheel hous- 
ing inspection cover, and the clutch pedal retracting spring. Disconnect 
the clutch release bracket from the engine. Remove the flywheel housing 
to engine lower bolts. 

On a car with an automatic transmission, remove the converter hous- 
ing lower inspection cover, and the cover assembly, and the flywheel to 
converter nuts. Secure the converter assembly in the housing. Remove the 
converter housing to engine lower bolts. Remove the vacuum shift control 
line from the cylinder block. 

Lower the car, then support the transmission with a jack. Attach the 
engine lifting hook and springs, Fig. D-21. Carefully pull the engine away 
from the transmission. Lift the engine out of the engine compartment. 

TROUBLE SHOOTING 

For engine trouble shooting see the end of the chapter on Simplified 
Engine Repairs. 



80 



Simplified 
ENGINE REPAIRS 



General repair work on a Ford engine is not difficult. In fact it is much 
easier than repairing most other parts of the automotive vehicle. In this 
chapter of "Fix Your Ford" detailed and simplified instructions, covering 
the different parts of the engine and applicable to all Ford engines, will 
be discussed. 

In order to recondition or replace an engine part, it is, of course, nec- 
essary to first disassemble the engine, either partly or completely. The 
procedure for such disassembly is discussed elsewhere in this book, while 
this chapter will be devoted exclusively to the servicing and repairing of 
the different parts after they have been removed from the engine. 

LOCKS 
SLEEVE v V 



VALVE 
SPRING - 




EXHAUST 
VALVE 



INTAKE 
VALVE 



A138S-C 
E-l . Typical valve assembly. 

WHEN SHOULD VALVES BE RECONDITIONED 

Due to incorrect valve tappet clearance, gummy valve stems, the use 
of low octane fuel, unequal tightening of the cylinder head bolts, etc., valve 
life will be materially shortened. As a result the face and seat of the valve, 
Fig. E-l, become burned and pitted, as shown in Fig. E-2. As a further re- 
sult, the compression of the combustible gases will not reach its maximum 

81 



Fix Your Ford 




E-2. Example of burned valves. 

value. In extreme cases it will be necessary to replace the valve and also 
the valve seat. In cases not so extreme, the valve and valve seat can be 
reconditioned to give many more thousands of miles of useful service. 

It is necessary to recondition the valves of the Ford engine when com- 
pression tests indicate that the valves are leaking. Leaking valves will also 
be indicated by loss of power and reduced fuel economy. 

HOW TO REMOVE THE VALVES 

Before removing the valves, it is necessary to remove the cylinder 
head. On all engines except the 221 and 260 cu. in. V-8 engines, re- 
move the rocker arm shaft. On those two engines remove the rocker 



ROCKER ARMS 
AND SHAFT 



VALVE 
LIFTER 




CONNECTING ROD 



CRANKSHAFT 



A1223-C 



E-3. Sectional view of 292 cu. in. engine. Note particularly, the location of the 
valves, rocker arms and valve lifters. 



82 



Engine Repairs 

arm stud nut from each of the rocker arms, and then lift the 
rocker arms. 

In case of the engine with conventional rocker arm and shaft construc- 
tion, Fig. E-4, remove the rocker arm support bolts, permitting the re- 
moval of the shaft and rocker arm as an assembly. 

Note: If it should ever be desired to remove the rocker arm shaft while 
-the head is still installed on the engine, loosen the bolts two turns at a time 
in sequence until all are loose. This procedure must be followed to avoid 
damage to the valve mechanism. 




ROCKER SHAFT 



E-4. Disassembled rocker arms and shaft assembly. Typical of 
all engines except 221, 352 and 390 cu. in. engines. 

After the rocker arm and shafts are removed, the valves can be re- 
moved from the cylinder heads. To remove the valves from the cylinder 
head, a C-type valve spring compressor is used. While it is possible to 
compress the springs by pressing down on the valve spring retainers with 
two screwdrivers, this is a difficult and tedious method. 

With the valve spring compressed, the valve locks and keeper are re- 
moved as shown in Fig. E-5. 

Any valve which has a bent stem, or requires refacing so that the edge 
of the face is less than 1/32 in. thick, should be replaced, Fig. E-6. 

After removing the valve from the cylinder head it must be thoroughly 
cleaned. All carbon and gummy varnish-like material must be removed 
from the valve and the stem, so that it can be inspected to determine if it 
is fit for further use. 

The easiest way to clean valves is to use one of the special cleaning 
compounds that is available. Or, if preferred, the valves can be held 
against a power driven rotary wire brush. If that is not available, the valve 
can be scraped with the blade of a pen knife and then finally cleaned with 
some extremely fine emery paper. Care must be exercised so that no met- 
al is actually removed from the valve stem. 

After cleaning the valves, the valve stems should be checked to see if 
they are bent or worn. Valve stems are sometimes bent if considerable 



83 



Fix Your Ford 

force is required to remove them from the cylinder head. To check for a 
bent valve stem, place the valve stem on the face of a surface plate or 
other true surface with the valve head over the edge. Then by rolling the 



Tool-6513-EE 




387-A 



E-5. Removing valve locks with valve spring compressor. 

valve along the surface of the plate, a bent stem which will not roll freely, 
will be quickly found. 

Micrometers are used to measure valve stem wear. Measure the di- 
ameter of the valve stem of a new valve, or the unworn portion of a used 
valve. This is then compared with the measured diameter of the worn por- 
tion of the used valve. The wear on the valve stem should not exceed .002 
in. 




E-6. Distance of 1/32 in. is usually regarded as minimum allowable width for 
valve thickness between seat and top surface. 

Greater wear will result in poor seating of the valve, plus the fact that 
air and oil will be drawn past the valve stems resulting in a weak fuel mix- 
ture and stepped up oil consumption. 

If the valve stem is not bent, nor worn more than .002 in., the valve 
may be refaced as shown in Fig. E-7. This is done on a valve refacing 
machine. Any automotive machine shop will perform this operation at 
small cost. 

After the valve is refaced, the valve head should be examined to make 
sure it is not too thin. If the edge of the valve head is less than 1/32 in., 



84 



Engine Repairs 

Fig. E-6, the valve should be discarded, as a valve in that condition will 
quickly warp and burn. 

In addition to refacing the valve, the valve seat must also be recondi- 
tioned. Special valve seat reconditioning equipment is available for such 
work. By using 30 deg., 45 deg., and 60 deg. seat cutters, the proper seat 
width can be obtained, and at the same time the seat can be raised or low- 
ered as desired, Fig. E-8. 

RECONDITIONING VALVES WITHOUT SPECIAL EQUIPMENT 

It is possible to recondition valves and valve seats without the use of 
special equipment, but the final job is not as satisfactory as is the case 
when special equipment is used. However, this procedure is often resorted 
to when an auto machine shop is not immediately available, or when repair 
costs must be kept to a minimum. 

The procedure is to use fine Carborundum powder, or special valve 
grinding compound and grind or lap the valves to the seat. A very light 
coating of the valve grinding compound is placed on the face of the valve, 
and the valve is then placed in position in the cylinder head. Using a valve 
lapping tool on the valve head the valve is rotated back and forth on its 




£-7. Refacing vo/ve on valve refocer. 

seat. The valve grinding compound grinds away the metal of both the seat 
and the valve until they are smooth, and without any pits or other defects. 

To keep the valve grinding compound evenly distributed, the valve 
should be raised occasionally from its seat and then given half a turn be- 
fore the lapping process is resumed. Only light pressure should be placed 
on the valve during the grinding process. 

The lapping is continued until all of the pit marks are ground away 



85 



Fix Your Ford 

from both the valve and its seat. If the valves are badly pitted, it will be 
found that a groove will be ground in the face of the valve during the lap- 
ping process. Such a condition is not desirable, as the valve will then 
quickly pit again, as the groove affords place for carbon and other combus- 
tion products to lodge. That is why refacing of valve and seat is the pre- 
ferred method. 

When the lapping process is completed, great care must be exercised 
to remove all traces of the grinding compound. Should any of the compound 
remain on the intake valve seat, it will be drawn into the engine, and cause 




E-8. Valve seats should not be more than .060 in. nor more than .090 in. wide. 

rapid wear of all parts. On the exhaust valve it will cause the stem to be 
worn, and in turn the valve will seat poorly, resulting in compression loss, 
followed by burning of the valve seat and face. 

The width of the intake valve seat should range from .060 in. to .080 in., 
while the limits for the exhaust valve should range from .070 in. to .090 in. 
This is important because if the seats are too narrow the valves will op- 
erate at too high a temperature and soon will become burned. If the valve 
seat is too wide, there is a tendency for carbon to lodge on the seat, and 
the valve will soon become pitted and not hold compression. 

The angle of the intake and exhaust valve seat on all Ford engines is 
45 deg., except the 332 cu. in. engine in 1958 and 1959 had intake valve 
seats of 30 deg. and exhaust valve seats of 45 deg. The 352 cu. in. engine 
in 1959 and 1960, also had intake valves of 30 deg. and exhaust valve seats 
of 45 deg. In order that the valves will seat more quickly, the face of the 
valve is often refaced to an angle of one degree less than that of the seat. 
In other words, if the valve seat is finished to an angle of 45 deg., then the 
valve face would be finished to an angle of 44 deg. 

The finished valve seat should contact the approximate center of the 
valve face. This can be checked by placing a slight amount of Prussian 
Blue on the valve seat, then set the valve in position and rotate the valve 
with light pressure. The Blue will be transferred to the face of the valve 



86 



Engine Repairs 

and show clearly whether it is centered or not. 

Another point to check on engine valves is the condition of the end of 
the valve stem. If the end of the valve stem is rough, it will make it diffi- 
cult to accurately adjust the valve tappet clearance. When necessary, the 
end of the valve stem can be ground on the same machine that refaces the 
valve face. 

As pointed out previously, it is possible to recondition valves by hand 
grinding, but a much better job can be done by using specialized equipment. 
Consequently, many car owners and operators of small garages, not having 
their own equipment, take advantage of the facilities of the automotive 
machine shop. This is particularly true in the case of the overhead valve 
type engine. 

In such cases all that is necessary is to remove the cylinder heads 
from the engine and take them to the machine shop where the heads are 
completely disassembled, cleaned and reconditioned. The charge will vary 
in different parts of the country, but it usually ranges from $12.00 to 
$15.00 for a six cylinder head, to $15.00 to $20.00 for the two cylinder 
heads on a V-8. 



Spring Tester 




E-9. One method of checking pressure of valve spring. 

QUICK CHECKS ON SPRINGS 

It is also important to check the condition of the valve springs, for if 
any of them are weak, full power will not be developed, particularly at 
higher engine speeds. Special testers are available for testing the com- 
pression strength of valve springs, Fig. E-9. However, a fairly accurate 
check can be made by comparing the length of a used spring with that of a 
new spring, as shown in Fig. E-10. The end of the valve spring must also 
be flat, and neither flatness nor length should vary more than 1/16 in. 



87 



Fix Your Ford 

After valves and seats have been reconditioned, the valve springs will 
not exert as much pressure as they did originally because the assembled 
height of the spring will be greater. In other words, it will not be com- 
pressed as much as it was originally. 

It is, therefore, necessary to measure the length of the valve spring 
after it is reassembled in the engine. If it exceeds a certain specified 




E-10. Checking valve spring for length and flatnees of end. 

amount, it is necessary to install spacers between the cylinder heads and 
the valve spring, in order to restore compression. Fig. E-ll shows a 
method of measuring the assembled height of the valve spring. The speci- 
fied valve spring height of various engines is shown in the accompanying 
table. 



VALVE SPRING ASSEMBLED HEIGHT 



Engine 
Displacement 



Valve Spring 
Assembled Height 



144 cu. 
170 cu. 
221 cu. 
223 cu. 
260 cu. 
292 cu. 
332 cu. 
352 cu. 
352 cu. 
390 cu. 
390 cu. 



in. 

in. 

in. 

in. 

in. 

in. 

in. 

in. 

in. 1961 

in. 

in. ml 



1 9/16 - 


1 39/64 in. 


1 9/16 - 


1 39/64 in. 


1 3/4 - 


1 25/32 in. 


1 3/4 - 


1 25/32 in. 


1 3/4 - 


1 25/32 in. 


1 3/4 - 


1 25/32 in. 


1 13/16 


- 1 27/32 in 


1 13/16 


- 1 27/32 in 


1 23/32 


- 1 3/4 in. 


1 13/16 


- 1 27/32 in 


1 5/16 - 


1 21/64 in. 



ml - mechanical lifters. 



88 



Engine Repairs 



UNDERSIDE OF SPRING RETAINER 




SPRING PAD SURFACE] 
E-ll. Correct valve spring height must be maintained if maximum power is to be obtained. 



WHAT TO DO ABOUT VALVE GUIDES 

Ford engines of the overhead valve type are not provided with remov- 
able valve guides. Instead, holes in the cylinder head are accurately ream- 
ed directly in the cylinder head. This has the advantage of cooler operat- 
ing valves. However when the valve guide holes in the cylinder head be- 
come worn, more than .0045 in., it is necessary to recondition the holes 
by reaming, installing new valves with oversize valve stems. As this is a 
precision operation, it is generally necessary to have such work done by 
an automotive machine shop. 

Fig. E-12 shows a guide being reamed. Valves with oversize stems are 
available in .003 in., .015 in., and .030 in. oversize. The stem to guide 
clearance should be .0010 to .0024 in. 

CLEANING CYLINDER HEAD 

Before assembling the valves to the cylinder head, the head should be 
thoroughly cleaned. Carbon and combustion deposits should be removed 
from the combustion chambers. This can be done by scraping with a putty 
knife, or by means of an electric drill equipped with a wire brush. Be sure 
all carbon accumulations are removed, as any particles remaining may 
result in preignition. All grease should be removed from the outside of 
the cylinder head, and the water jacket flushed thoroughly to remove all 
traces of rust accumulation. 

It is also important to check the surface of the cylinder head that mates 
with the cylinder block. This can be done with a straightedge and a feeler 
or thickness gauge as shown in Fig. E- 13. The straightedge should be held 
diagonally and then across the center while checking the clearance between 
the straightedge and the cylinder head at various points. Warpage should 
not exceed .003 in. in any six inches,, or .006 in. overall. In addition, the 
cylinder head should be carefully examined for any cracks, particularly 



89 



Fix Your Ford 




4 1007- A 

£-72. Reaming valve guide before installing new valves with oversize stems. 



around the valve seats, and around the water jacket. While the cylinder 
head is off it is also an excellent time to check and make sure the core 
plugs are tight and have not rusted. If there is any indication of rust around 
any of the core plugs they should be replaced, as explained in the Chapter 
on Cooling Systems. 




1 3)CHECK DIAGONAtlY 
(f)CHECK ACROSS CENTER 

E-13. Casket surface of cylinder heads must be checked for flatness both diago- 
nally and across the center. 



HOW TO INSTALL PISTON RINGS 

After the connecting rods, Fig. E-14, are removed from the engine, 
they should be thoroughly cleaned in a solvent designed for cleaning en- 
gine parts. If such special solvent is not available, kerosene can be used, 
but that is not as effective as commercial cleaning solvents. 

After the connecting rod and piston assemblies have been cleaned, the 
rings can be removed as they will not be used again. The usual practice 

90 



Engine Repairs 

is to grasp the end of a ring with a pair of pliers and pull out. In the case 
of cast iron rings, this will break the rings so that both parts are easily 
removed from the groove. Steel rings are removed in the same manner 
but instead of breaking, the ring can be easily worked out of the groove. 
Once one end is free the rest will easily spiral out of the groove. Always 
be sure to remove the steel expander ring from the bottom of each groove 
where such rings have been used. Then with the rings removed from each 



UPPER 

COMPRESSION 
RING 



LOWER 

COMPRESSION 

RING 



fef 




E-14. Typical piston, piston rod, bearing, piston pin and ring 
assembly. Some types use snap rings at ends of piston pins. 



piston, the grooves should be cleaned. The preferred method of cleaning 
is to use one of the special ring groove cleaning tools, such as is illus- 
trated in Fig. E-15. Such tools quickly cut the carbon from the groove 
without danger of scratching or otherwise damaging the sides of the ring 
grooves. 

If such a tool is not available, a substitute method is to use a broken 
segment of a cast iron piston ring. This is used as a scraper. However, 
this method is long and tedious and there is always the possibility of mar- 
ring the surface of the sides of the ring grooves. This would result in loss 
of compression, and also tends to increase oil consumption. 

It should be pointed out that if new piston pins are to be fitted, that most 
shops will not bother to clean the piston and rod assemblies. Instead, they 
send them to an automotive machine shop to clean the assemblies and in- 
stall the new pins and rings. Or, if desired, the ring installation can be left 



91 



Fix Your Ford 

to the mechanic doing the actual overhaul job. In general, whenever new 
rings are found to be necessary, it is advisable to install new piston pins 
at the same time. The reason being that the pins generally wear out at 




TOOL '6110 E 



E-1S. Using special tool to clean ring grooves. If tool is not available, use broken cast iron ring. 

about the same time as the rings. 

Before installing new rings on the pistons, or fitting new piston pins, 
the pistons should be carefully checked to make sure they are in good con- 
dition and are still serviceable. In addition, the clearance between piston 
and cylinder wall should be checked. 

When examining the pistons, make sure the ring grooves are in good 
condition, that the sides of the grooves are smooth, and without any 
grooves worn by the rings. The sides of the grooves must also be at right 
angles with the center line of the piston. A good method of checking 
grooves is to roll a new piston ring around the groove. It should roll free- 
ly, without binding and without any side play. If the clearance between the 
side of the ring and the piston groove exceeds .005 in., Fig. E-16, the pis- 



FEELER GAUGE 
COMPRESSION RING 




E-16. Using thickness gauge to check side clearance of piston ring. 

ton should be discarded. However, if desired, the pistons can be placed in 
a lathe, and the grooves trued. A spacing ring is then inserted to compen- 
sate for the amount of metal removed from the side of the groove. When 
checking the piston, also make sure there are no burned areas around the 
ring lands. In addition make sure that there are no cracks anywhere. If the 



92 



Engine Repairs 

piston is of the steel strut type, make sure the strut has not loosened. 

Spongy, eroded areas near the edge of the top of the piston are usually 
caused by detonation, or preignition. A shiny surface on the thrust surface 
of the piston, offset from the center line between the piston pin holes, can 
be caused by a bent connecting rod. Replace pistons that show signs of ex- 
cessive wear, wavy ring lands, fractures and/or damage from detonation 
or preignition. 

FITTING PISTON RINGS 

Replacement type piston rings are designed to compensate for a certain 
amount of wear in the cylinders. The claims made by some manufacturers 
are quite extreme, but in general replacement type rings should not be in- 
stalled in cylinders that have more than .010 in. taper or .005 in. out of 
round. For details on measuring cylinder wear see the paragraphs on that 
subject. 

When selecting a piston ring set for an engine, it is necessary to select 
the proper size. To do this, position the ring in the cylinder bore in which 
it is going to be used. Push the ring down into the bore area where normal 
ring wear is encountered. Use the head of a piston to position the ring in 
the bore so the ring is square with the cylinder wall. Be careful to avoid 
damage to the ring or cylinder bore. 

Measure the gap between the ends of the ring with a feeler gauge, as 
shown in Fig. E-17. The size of this gap is dependent on the make of the 
piston ring, and also on the diameter of the cylinder bore. In general, this 
gap should be .003 in. for each inch of diameter. In other words, the cor- 
rect ring gap for a 3 in. bore cylinder should be 3 times .003 in. or .009 in. 

Current specifications for the piston ring gap on Ford engines is as 
follows: 



Engine 



Compression Ring 



Oil Ring 



144 
170 
221 
223 
239 
260 
272 
292 
312 
332 
352 
390 



cu. in. 

cu. in. 

cu. in. 

cu. in. 

cu. in. 

cu. in. 

cu. in. 

cu. in. 

cu. in. 

cu. in. 

cu. in. 

cu. in. 



010 - 


.020 in 


010 - 


.020 in 


010 - 


.020 in 


010 - 


.025 in 


010 - 


.027 in 


010 - 


.020 in 


010 - 


.027 in 


010 - 


.027 in 


010 - 


.029 in 


013 - 


.030 in 


013 - 


.030 in 


015 - 


.025 in 



015 - 


.055 


in 


015 - 


.055 


in 


015 - 


.055 


in 


015 - 


.062 


in 


010 - 


.027 


in 


015 - 


.055 


in 


010 - 


.027 


in 


015 - 


.062 


in 


015 - 


.062 


in 


015 - 


.062 


in 


015 - 


.062 


in 


015 - 


.055 


in 



Those specifications apply to rings supplied by Ford. If rings of 
other manufacture are used, their specifications should be followed. 



93 



Fix Your Ford 

The side clearance of the piston rings in the grooves should not be less 
than .002 in. for the smaller engines, or more than .004 in. for the larger 
engines. The side clearance for oil rings should be a snug fit for all en- 
gines. 

Piston rings are easily installed on the pistons. Some mechanics use 
special ring spreader tools, which, of course, make the installation quite 
simple and without any danger of breaking the ring. Other mechanics will 
not use the special tools but will spread the rings by hand. On the cast iron 
type rings the procedure is to place a thumb on each end of the ring and 
spread the end of the rings apart. This will enlarge the diameter suffi- 
ciently so that it can be slid down over the piston to its proper groove. Be 
careful to follow the manufacturer's instructions so each ring is placed in 
the correct groove. With some make of rings it is necessary that one side 
of the ring be toward the top of the piston. If rings are not placed in their 
proper groove and with the right side up, excessive oil consumption will 
result. 

Instructions for installing the piston with its connecting rod in the cyl- 
inder bores are given in the paragraph entitled "Installing Connecting Rod 
Assemblies." 



FEELER GAUGE 




E-17. Measuring end gap clearance of piston ring. 



CHECKING PISTON CLEARANCE 

There are several ways to check piston clearance. An easy way is to 
use a half inch wide strip of feeler gauge approximately the same length 
as the cylinder. Place this strip on one side of the cylinder wall (not front 
or rear, but on one side), then insert the piston from the top of the cylin- 
der and slide it down by pressing on the connecting rod. The piston should 



94 



Engine Repairs 




£-78. Measuring piston clearance with thickness gauge and spring scale. 

not have the rings installed but should be inserted upside down from the 
top of the cylinder. Measure the pull required to pull the thickness gauge 
from between the cylinder wall and the piston. The method is illustrated 
in Fig. E- 18. The pounds pull required to remove the thickness gauge from 
between the piston and the cylinder wall, together with the thickness of the 
gauge, is given in the accompanying table. 

PISTON CLEARANCE TABLE 



Engine Width of 

Displacement Gauge Blade 



.50 in. 
.50 in. 
.50 in. 
.50 in. 
.50 in. 
.50 in. 
.50 in. 
.50 in. 
.50 in. 



144 


CU. 1 


n. 


170 


CU. 1 


n. 


221 


CU. 


n. 


223 


CU. 


n. 


260 


CU. 


n. 


292 


CU. 


n. 


332 


CU. 


n. 


352 


CU. 


in. 


390 


CU. 


in. 



Thickness 


Pull 


Piston 


of Gauge 


Required 


Clearance 


.0035 in. 


5.751b. 


.0018- 


.0036 in 


.0035in. 


5.751b. 


.0018- 


.0036 in. 


.0035 in. 


5.751b. 


.0018- 


.0036 in 


.0020 in. 


8.251b. 


.0008- 


.0026 in 


.0035in. 


5.751b. 


.0021- 


.0036 in 


.0020 in. 


8.251b. 


.0008- 


.0026 in 


.0025 in. 


4.001b. 


.0015- 


.0021 in 


.0025in. 


4.001b. 


.0012- 


.0030 in 


.0030 in. 


4.001b. 


.0017- 


.0035 in 



To measure the amount of wear use a dial gauge, Fig. E-19, and meas- 
ure across the piston as shown in Fig. E-19. To measure the amount of 
taper in the cylinder, first place the dial gauge close to the top of the cyl- 
inder so that it measures the diameter across the engine as shown as C 
and D in Fig. E-20. Then slide the dial gauge down to the bottom of the 
cylinder bore and note the difference between that reading and the reading 
made at the top of the bore. 



95 



Fix Your Ford 

To measure the amount of out-of-round of the cylinder, the dial gauge 
is first set to note the diameter across the cylinder, and is then rotated to 
measure the diameter parallel to the engine axis. The difference between 
those two readings is the amount of out-of-round. 

Another method of determining piston clearance is to use a microme- 
ter, Fig. E-19, and measure the diameter of the piston across the thrust 





r~?\ 



E-19- Left: Measuring the piston diameter with micrometer. 
Right: Measuring cylinder taper with a dial gauge. 

faces, that is, at right angles to the piston pin. Also an internal microm- 
eter or dial gauge may be used to measure the diameter of the cylinder 
bore. This diameter should be measured at a point approximately 2 in. 
from the top of the cylinder, and across the cylinders. Fig. E-20. The dif- 
ference between the diameter of the piston and the diameter of the cylinder 
is the piston clearance. 

If necessary automotive machine shops will send a mechanic to make 
these measurements for you. 

EXPANDING PISTONS 

Usually when an engine requires new piston rings, it is also necessary 
to expand the pistons so the clearance between the piston and the cylinder 
wall is not excessive. In the past various methods have been devised to 
expand the pistons. However, most of these methods have been virtually 
discarded in favor of one of the peening methods. This is done by using 
special equipment which will be found in any automotive machine shop. 

CHECKING PISTON PINS 

It is often difficult to determine whether a piston pin requires replace- 
ment. In general, a piston pin knock will sound very much like a loose 
valve tappet. In many cases it is worse when the engine is cold than after 
it has reached operating temperature. 

When a car has traveled a distance sufficient to require replacement 
of piston rings and bearings, it would be poor economy not to replace the 
piston pins also. Furthermore, when new piston rings have been installed, 
and particularly when pistons have been expanded, piston pins with only a 
slight amount of excess clearance will knock. This knock will in some 

96 



"C" AND "D" MEASUREMENTS 
MADE ACROSS ENGINE 



"A" AND "B" MEASUREMENTS 
MADE PARALLEL TO ENGINE AXIS 




TOP OF BLOCK 

MEASUREMENTS "A" AND "C" MADE BELOW 
RIDGE OR AT THE TOP OF RING TRAVEL 



■->->-'>-'-^»-»-'^~'-*- 



* > : 



MEASUREMENTS "B" AND "D" MADE 
AT BOTTOM OF RING TRAVEL 



E-20. Method of making measurements to determine amount of cylinder wear. 

cases disappear after the piston and rings have been run in. 

When examining the condition of piston pins any appreciable looseness 
or wear is sufficient cause for rejection. An inexperienced mechanic will 
sometimes confuse side play of the pins in the piston boss with pin wear. 

BE SURE TO CHECK ROD ALIGNMENT 

Along with the job of fitting the piston pin, is the job of checking the 
connecting rod for alignment. Obviously if the rod is bent or twisted, the 
piston will not move in a straight line at right angles to the center line of 
the crankshaft. Equipment for aligning connecting rods forms part of every 
well equipped shop. 

If the equipment is not available, an approximation of the trueness of a 
connecting rod can be obtained by viewing the movement of the upper end 
of the connecting rod as the engine is cranked. To do this, the oil pan is 
removed and the rod and piston assemblies are in position on the crank- 
shaft. While the engine is cranked by the starter, the mechanic underneath 
the engine views the movement of the upper end of the connecting rod. This 
should remain centrally located on the piston pin, with equal clearance on 
each side of the piston pin bosses, and the end of the connecting rod. If the 
upper end of the connecting rod moves back and forth between the piston 
bosses, or if it remains pressed firmly against one of the bosses, it indi- 
cates that the rod is bent. 

TIPS ON REPLACING ENGINE BEARINGS 

After the connecting rod has been removed from the engine, it is im- 
portant to check the rod bearings to determine whether they can be used 
again. It is often difficult to determine the condition of a bearing and many 



97 



Fix Your Ford 

bearings are discarded when actually they still retain many miles of use- 
ful life. First of all, the color of bearing surface is no gauge of the condi- 
tion of the bearing. 

In many cases the bearing surface will be stained a dark gray or black. 
Such bearings are still serviceable. However, if any of the bearing metal 
has dropped from the backing, the bearing should be discarded. Also if the 
bearing surface is deeply grooved, scratched or pitted, Fig. E-21, replace- 
ment is indicated. If the back of the bearing which contacts the connecting 
rod or cap shows areas that are black, it indicates that there was dirt be- 
tween the shell and the rod, and the bearing should be replaced. If there 
are groove marks on the back of the bearing shell, the shell has been slip- 
ping in the rod, and such bearing should also be replaced. Several types of 
conditions of bearings which have failed are illustrated in Fig. E-21. 

One of the best methods of determining the condition of a bearing is to 
make an oil leak test. This test is described later in this chapter. 




DIRT IMBEDDED 
SCRATCHES INTO BEARING MATERIAL 




SCRATCHED BY DIRT 



OVERLAY WIPED OUT 



LACK OF OIL 




BRIGHT (POLISHED! SECTIONS 



IMPROPER SEATING 






OVERLAY GONE 
FROM ENTIRE SURFACE 



TAPERED JOURNAL 



Mivn 




RADIUS RIOE 



CRATERS OR POCKETS 



FATIGUE FAILURE 



E-21. Showing different types of wear on engine bearings. 

CHECKING THE CRANKSHAFT 

Before replacing any connecting rod bearing, the connecting rod bear- 
ing journals should be carefully measured for wear and roughness. Ordin- 
ary 3 in. outside micrometers are used for measuring the connecting rod 
bearing journals. The throws or journals should be measured at several 
points along their length to check for any taper, and also measured at two 
points at right angles to each other to see if there is any out-of-round. 

Generally accepted limits for taper and out-of-round are .001 in. and 
0015 in., respectively. If the wear exceeds these values the crankshaft 
should be reground. If there is any roughness, as shown in Fig. E-22, the 
journal should, of course, be reground. When journals are tapered, out-of- 
round or scored, it will be impossible to fit a bearing correctly, with the 



98 



Engine Repairs 




E-22. Illustrating a badly scored crankshaft. 

result that the bearing will knock, and lose an excessive amount of oil, and 
will soon fail completely. 

Equipment is available for turning the connecting rod bearing journals 
without removing the crankshaft from the engine. 

RODS MUST FIT THE BEARINGS 

When overhauling an old engine, it is often found that a previous me- 
chanic has filed down the bearing caps in an effort to make a worn out 
bearing last a little longer. The result of this is that the end of the con- 
necting rod is no longer round, and it will be impossible to install a new 
bearing shell properly. When such a condition is found, new connecting 
rods should be obtained, or in some cases it will be possible to remachine 
the old connecting rod so that the big end of the connecting rod is round 
and can again receive a bearing shell. 

It is important that the bearing shell be a snug fit in the connecting rod. 
To insure such a fit in the conventional connecting rod, such as has been 
used in Ford engines since 1949, bearing manufacturers make the bearing 
half slightly higher than an exact half. Asa result the bearing half will ex- 
tend slightly beyond the edge of the bearing cap. This is known as bearing 
crush and is illustrated in Fig. E-23. 

HOW TO FIT THE ROD BEARINGS 

Conventional type bearings are keyed to the rod and are often adjusted 
by the feel or drag as the rod is swung back and forth on the connecting 
rod journal. 

Some mechanics use "Plastigage" for checking the fit of these bear- 
ings. Plastigage consists essentially of slender rods of plastic. A short 

99 



Additional height over full half to 




Housing 



E-23. New bearing shells should protrude approximately .00025 in. above bearing cap or housing. 

length of the Plastigage is placed between the bearing journal and bearing, 
and the connecting rod caps are tightened to approximately 45 ft. lb. ten- 
sion. The connecting rod is then removed and the width of the crushed 
Plastigage is compared with a gauge provided by the manufacturer. The 
gauge reading gives the clearance of the bearings directly in thousandths 
of an inch. 

Another method of fitting the connecting rod bearings is to place a 
piece of .002 in. metal feeler stock that is 1/2 in. wide and 1 in. long be- 
tween the bearing and the crank pin, as shown in Fig. E-24. 



TANG 




E-24. Piece of .002 in. shim stock may be used to adjust bearing clearance. 

Bolt the rod on the crank pin, but with the piston end down, instead of 
in the conventional manner. Then with the rod bolts tight, the piston end 
of the rod is swung back and forth presenting some resistance. If no re- 
sistance is felt, the clearance is excessive and obviously if the rod cannot 
be swung back and forth on the crank pin, the clearance is too little. The 
correct clearance is obtained when the piston is swung to an approximate 
horizontal position and then will gradually sink to a vertical position. 

USE TORQUE WRENCH ON ROD NUTS 

After all of the rod bearings have been adjusted, the bearing cap nuts 
should be tightened to 40-50 ft. lb. if they are of the castellated type. The 
self-locking nuts used after 1960 should be tightened to 40-45 ft. lb. with a 



100 



Engine Repairs 



torque wrench. If lock nuts are provided, these should be tightened to 3-4 
ft. lb. In the case of the Falcon and Fairlane engines, the connecting rod 
cap bolts should be tightened to 19-24 ft. lb. 

CHECKING AND REPLACING MAIN BEARINGS 

The main bearings used on all Ford engines are of the "slip-in" type. 
The crankshaft and main bearing as used in the 292 cu. in. Ford V-8 en- 
gine are shown in Fig. E-25. The basic construction of other engines is 



MAIN BEARINGS 



FLYWHEEL AND 
RING GEAR 




LOCKWASHERS 



JOURNAL SEAL 
TO SEAL 
RETAINER 



CAP TO BLOCK SEALS 



MAIN BEARING CAPS 



£-25. Crankshaft and bearings as used in 292 cu. in. V-8. Note rear main bearing oil seal. 

similar as they all use the slip-in type bearing. 

The usual procedure when replacing the main bearings, is to replace 
one bearing at a time, leaving the other bearings to support the shaft. Af- 
ter removing the bearing cap, the upper half of the bearing shell must be 
removed from the cylinder block. There are several ways in which this can 
be accomplished. A putty knife or some similar tool with a bent blade can 
be used to rotate the bearing shell around the shaft until it can be re- 
moved. Another method is to bend a cotter pin, as shown in Fig. G-26. 
Insert the eye end in the oil hole in the bearing journal. Rotate the crank- 
shaft and the bent end of the cotter pin will force out the bearing shell. 

After both halves of the bearing shell have been removed, the crank- 
shaft journal should be checked for wear. Special micrometers are re- 
quired to check these journals, one type being shown in Fig. E-27. Con- 
ventional micrometers cannot be used as they will not reach up and meas- 
ure the full diameter. 



101 



Fix Your Ford 



If the journal has more than .001 in. taper, or is more than .0015 in. 
out-of-round, the crankshaft should be reground. To do this it will have to 
be removed from the engine. However, if only the connecting rod crank 
pins require reconditioning, this can be done with the crankshaft in the en- 
gine. Special equipment is required to do this job. When the proper size 
main bearing shells are obtained, the upper one is slid into place on the 
upper half of the bearing journal. Then the lower half is placed in the cap 
and the cap installed. 

Main bearing cap bolts on the 292 cu. in. engine should be tightened to 
80-90 ft. lbs. On the 223 cu. in. 6 and other larger V-8 engines, they should 
be tightened to 95-105 ft. lbs., and on the Falcon and the Fairlane engines, 
they should be tightened to 65-75 ft. lb. On the 260 cu. in. V-8, they should 
be tightened to 60-70 ft. lb. 

After installing one main bearing, replace the others, one at a time. 

WHEN SHOULD MAIN BEARINGS BE REPLACED 

Main bearings should be replaced when they are worn to such an extent 
that the engine will knock. Such knocks will become most evident when the 
engine is under a heavy load such as when pulling a steep grade. Another 
method is to make a check and see how much oil they are leaking. 




E-26. Method of bending cotter pin to remove main bearing shells. 



HOW TO MAKE AN OIL LEAK TEST 

One of the best methods of checking the engine bearings for proper fit, 
and also to determine when they need replacing, is to make an oil pressure 
or oil leak test, as shown in Fig. E-28. This test will also show whether 
the entire engine lubricating system is clear and unobstructed. 

The equipment for making such a test is illustrated and is designed to 
supply oil under pressure to the engine lubricating system. 

Basically the equipment consists of a small tank of about 5 gal. capac- 
ity. This is partly filled with oilofSAE 30 grade. Compressed air is then 
applied to the tank until the pressure reaches approximately 25 lb. or the 
normal oil operating pressure. By means of suitable tubing the tank is con- 
nected to the engine oil system. The engine is then cranked slowly and at 

102 



Engine Repairs 




£-27. Special gauge used for measuring diameter of main bearing journals, with- 
out removing crankshaft from engine. 

the same time the engine bearings and the entire oiling system are care- 
fully observed. 

Under these conditions, copper alloy bearings in good condition will 
leak at a rate of approximately 50 drops per min. Bearings leaking oil at a 
faster rate, particularly those leaking in a steady stream have too much 
clearance. Bearings showing a slower leakage than 30 drops per min. may 
have insufficient clearance, or the oil line to bearing may be clogged. 
Babbitt type bearings should leak at a rate of 20 to 150 drops per min. 

In addition to the main and rod bearings, it is important to observe 
other bearings which may receive pressure lubrication, such as camshaft 
bearings and wrist pin bearings. It is also important to check the plug at 
the rear of the camshaft rear bearing. This plug will occasionally get 
loose and excessive oil leakage will occur. As this will drop down past the 
rear main bearing, it is often mistaken for a leaking rear main bearing. 

Instead of a pressure tank for making this test, some mechanics will 
use an oil pump. The intake of the pump is immersed in a pan of oil, and 
the outlet is connected to the engine oiling system. An electric drill is then 
used to drive the pump. 

Regardless of the type of equipment used in making this test, it is im- 
portant that the oil used is not heavier than SAE 30. In addition, it is im- 
portant that the oil is not cold. It should be at least 75 deg. F. 

REPLACING REAR MAIN OIL SEALS 

To prevent the leakage of oil from the rear main bearing out past the 
oil pan, the rear main bearing cap is provided with special seals. The 
seals used on the 223 cu. in. 6 cylinder engine, and the 292 cu. in. and 

103 



Fix Your Ford 

larger V-8 engines, are shown in Fig. E -25. The seals used on the Fairlane 
and Falcon engines are similar, except they do not have the cap to block 
seals. 

The usual method of replacing the seal in the crankcase is to remove 
the crankshaft. However, an alternate method is as follows: Use a pair of 
needle nose pliers to grasp the end of the seal. As pull is exerted on the 
seal, rotate the crankshaft slowly in the direction the seal is being pulled. 
To install a new seal, fasten a piece of strong string or thin wire to the 




E-28. Making an oil leak test on engine bearings to determine amount of bearing clearance. 

end of the new seal. Coat the seal with Lubriplate. Thread the end of the 
string up and over the crankshaft and in the groove provided for the seal. 
Then pull on the string and at the same time rotate the crankshaft in the 
same direction as the pull. This will pull the new seal into place. However, 
in most cases all that is necessary is to replace the lower seal which is 
in the retainer as shown in Fig. E-25. To replace the lower rear oil seal 
and side seal, first remove the oil pan and related parts. Then remove the 
rear journal oil seal retainer. Remove and discard the rear seal and side 
seals. Clean the rear journal oil seal groove. Install a new rear journal 
oil seal in the retainer. This should be driven into place with a piece of 
round stock or special tool, as shown in Fig. E-29. 

In regard to the side seals on the engines which use this design; they 
should first be dipped in light engine oil. Then they should be immediately 
installed in the grooves. Do not use special cement sealer on the side 
seals. The seals are designed to expand when dipped in oil. Using a sealer 
would retard this expansion. It may be necessary to tap the seals into 
place for the last half inch of travel. Do not cut the seal projecting ends. 



104 



Engine Repairs 

Check the retainer side seals for leaks by squirting a few drops of oil into 
the parting lines between the retainer and the cylinder block from the out- 
side. Blow compressed air against the seals from the inside of the block. 
If air bubbles appear in the oil, it indicates possible oil leakage. This test 
should not be performed on newly installed seals until sufficient time has 
been allowed for the seal to expand in the seal grooves. 

SHOULD CYLINDERS BE RECONDITIONED 

In most cases cylinders will require reconditioning only after 100,000 
miles of operation, when the cylinder is more than .003 in. out-of-round, 
or when the taper exceeds .006 in. 

It should be pointed out that when the car is used mostly in city driving, 
which consists of short trips of less than five miles, that engine wear in- 
creases much more rapidly than it does on long trips of many miles dur- 
ation. 

The most satisfactory method of determining the wear in a cylinder is 
to use a dial gauge. This was explained in a previous paragraph. 




E-29. Method of seating rear main bearing oil seal. 

Cylinders can be reconditioned either by means of a boring bar, or by 
means of a cylinder hone. Boring bars are usually used when considerable 
metal has to be removed. Final finish is usually secured by means of a 
hone. 

Automotive machine shops with the necessary equipment will often 
come to your garage and do the reconditioning. 

However, even when cylinder wear is not excessive the glaze should be 
removed from the cylinders before installing new piston rings. If the glaze 
is not removed from the cylinders, the engine will continue to use consid- 
erable oil. 

Removing the glaze is accomplished by means of a deglazing hone. 

105 



Fix Your Ford 

The hone is driven by an electric drill and all that is necessary is to move 
the rotating hone several times up and down the cylinder until the glaze is 
removed. 

Before deglazing the cylinders, cloths should be placed over each of 
the crankshaft throws so that abrasive particles from the hone will be 
caught on the cloths. 

If a deglazing hone is not available, it is advisable to use some rela- 
tively fine sandpaper or emery paper, and rub the surface of the cylinder 
to remove the glaze. The abrasive paper should be moved spirally around 
the cylinder bore when doing the deglazing by hand. 

INSTALLING CONNECTING ROD ASSEMBLIES 

After the proper size rod bearings have been selected, pins fitted, pis- 
tons expanded and rings installed on the pistons, and main bearings re- 
placed, the connecting rod and piston assemblies are ready to be installed 
in their original cylinders. To do this it is necessary to use a ring com- 
pressor, as shown in Fig. E-30. This is essentially a sleeve which com- 




MOWC 



E-30. Installing piston, rod and ring assembly in an engine. Note the ring compressor. 

presses the piston rings in their grooves, so that the pistons can be re- 
placed in the cylinders. Before compressing the rings, however, the piston 
and rings should be given a liberal coating of engine oil. Similarly, the 
cylinders should be covered with oil. With the rings compressed, insert 
the connecting rod and piston assembly in the top of the cylinder. The a 
sembly will be prevented from dropping through the cylinder by the pre 
sure of the expanded piston against the cylinder walls and by the ring com 
pressor. The assembly is driven the rest of the distance into the cylinder 
by tapping the top of the piston with the handle of a heavy hammer, Fig. 

106 



as- 

s- 



Engine Repairs 

E-30. Be sure that the indentation mark on the top of the piston is toward 
the front of the engine. When installing the rod and piston assemblies, one 
mechanic should be underneath the engine to guide the lower end of the 
connecting rod, so it does not strike and mar the connecting rod throw on 
the crankshaft. 



AIR CLEANER 
DISTRIBUTOR 




VALVE LIFTER 



A1616-A 



E-31 . Details of 1963-1962 Fairlane engine of 227 cv. in. displacement. Note 
location of timing chain and other parts. 

If it is difficult to force the piston fully into the cylinder, the trouble is 
probably caused by the piston rings not having been compressed into their 
grooves, with the result that the rings are extending over the edge of the 
cylinders. In such cases, remove the ring compressor, make sure that 
none of the rings have been damaged, again compress the rings carefully, 
and install the piston assembly in the cylinder. 

Not only must the indentation on the top of the piston be toward the front 
of the engine, but the oil squirt hole on the lower end of the connecting rod 
must be toward the right side of the engine. 

TIGHTENING CONNECTING ROD CAPS 

When installing and tightening connecting rod caps, it is important to 
place the caps on the rods from which they were originally removed. Be 
sure to apply a liberal coating of oil to the crankshaft throw before attach- 



107 



Fix Your Ford 

ing the connecting rod and cap. The socket used to tighten the nuts must 
be of the thin-wall type as there is very little clearance. The usual socket 
does not slide over the nut fully. Many mechanics will tighten these nuts 
as much as possible. This is poor practice as it distorts the bearings and 
connecting rod caps with the result that they are no longer round. Under 
such conditions, oil leaks from the bearings and their life will be material- 
ly shortened and oil consumption increased. 

A torque wrench should always be used to tighten connecting rod nuts. 
The correct tension on cars builtuptoand including 1960 is 45-50 ft. lbs. 
After that on the 223 cu. in. six, and the larger V-8's, it should be 40-45 
ft. lbs. On the Fairlane and Falcon 19-24 ft. lbs. is the correct torque. 

WHEN TO REPLACE TIMING CHAINS 

The life of a timing chain Fig. E-31, is normally in excess of 100,000 
miles. However, to determine when a timing chain should be replaced, first 
remove the timing chain cover to expose the chain, and then rotate the 
crankshaft in a clockwise direction to take up the slack in the chain on the 
left side. 

Establish a reference point on the cylinder block and measure from 
that point to the timing chain, Fig. E-32. Then rotate the crankshaft in the 



TIMING MARK 




KEYWAY TIMING MARK 

12 PINS BETWEEN MARKS 1111-A 



E-32. When timing chain deflection exceeds 1/2 in. it should be replaced. 

opposite direction to take up the slack on the right side of the chain. Force 
the left side of the chain out with the fingers and measure the distance be- 
tween the reference point and the chain. The chain deflection is the differ- 
ence between the two measurements. If it exceeds 0.5 in., the timing chain 
should be replaced. 

Timing chain should not be permitted to become so slack as they are 



108 



Engine Repairs 

apt to jump on the timing sprockets, and in that way alter the ignition and 
valve timing so that the engine will either stop completely or run at very 
reduced power. 

SERVICING OIL PUMP 

Two types of oil pumps have been used on Ford cars, the rotor type and 
the gear type. 

It is important that the oil pump, Fig. E- 33, develop sufficient pressure 
to force oil through the entire engine lubricating system, otherwise, bear- 



ROTOR AND SHAFT STRAIGHT EDGE 
ASSEMBLY , 




Oil PUMP 

HOUSING 



E-33. End play of oil pump rotor shaft should be .0011 -.0041 in. on all engines. 

ings will be burned. 

In the case of the rotor type pump, the end clearance of the rotor as- 
sembly should be .0011-. 0041 as illustrated in Fig. E-33. On this same 
type pump, the clearance between the outer race to the housing should be 
.006-. 012 in. 

On gear type pumps, the clearance between the face of the gears and the 
pump cover should be .001 -.003 in. This clearance is measured in the 
same manner as illustrated in Fig. E-33. 

SERVICING HYDRAULIC VALVE LIFTERS 

The hydraulic valve lifter seldom requires attention, particularly if the 
engine oil is changed at regular intervals. The type of valve lifter used on 
Ford engines is shown in Fig. E- 34. If the valve lifters are noisy, servic- 
ing is required. The easiest way to locate a noisy valve lifter is to use a 
piece of garden hose, approximately 4 ft. long. Place one end of the hose 
near the end of each valve with the other end of the hose being held to your 
ear. By following this procedure, noisy valve lifters can be easily located. 
Another method is to place a finger on the edge of the valve spring retain- 
er, on each valve in turn. Lifters not operating correctly will give a dis- 

109 



Fix Your Ford 

tinct shock each time the valve seats. 

The easiest method of removing the hydraulic valve lifter is by means 
of a magnet, as shown in Fig. E-35. To do this, remove the valve rocker 
arm covers and the valve rocker arm shaft assemblies, which will then 
permit reaching the hydraulic valve lifters with the magnet, as shown in 
Fig. E-35. 

Each hydraulic valve lifter is a matched assembly. If the parts of one 
lifter are intermixed with those of another, improper valve operation will 
result. Disassemble and assemble each lifter separately to be sure that 
parts are not mixed. Keep the lifter assembly in proper sequence so that 
they can be installed in their original bores. To disassemble, grasp the 
lock ring at the upper end of the lifter with a pair of long nose pliers to 



VALVE OPEN 



LIFTER BODY 




VALVE CLOSED 
" ■« LOCK RINGS 



DISC VALVE 




DISC VALVE 
RETAINER 





BASE CIRCLE 

A1245-A 
E-34. Details of hydraulic vo/ve lifters. Remove lock ring to disassemble lifter. 

release it from the groove. It may be necessary to depress the plunger 
slightly in order to release the lock ring. After removing the lock ring, 
the other parts should be easily removed from the lifter body. 

In general, when hydraulic valve lifters have seen enough mileage that 
they are no longer operating correctly, it pays to install complete new 
units rather than to attempt to salvage the old ones. However, in many 
cases by thoroughly cleaning the individual parts of the hydraulic lifter 
with solvent, they can be reassembled and placed back in service. 



no 



Engine Repairs 




£-35. A magnetic lifter may be used to lift hydraulic lifters from cylinder block. 

DON'T MIX PARTS 

Regardless of what part of the engine that is being assembled, it always 
pays to carefully observe the relative position of each part, and the parts 
should be marked so they can be reassembled in their original position. 
This applies particularly to such parts as engine valves, hydraulic lifter 
parts, rocker arms, piston and rod assemblies, etc. 



ENGINE 
TROUBLE SHOOTING 

ENGINE WILL NOT CRANK 

This type of trouble is usually in the starting system and the reader is 
referred to that chapter for additional suggestions. If the starting system 
is not at fault, check for a seized engine by removing the spark plugs and 
then attempting to crank the engine. If the engine now cranks, it indicates 
that water is leaking into the cylinders. Remove cylinder heads and check 
for defective head gasket or cracks in the water jacket. 

ENGINE CRANKS, BUT WILL NOT START 

Check the fuel supply. If there is sufficient fuel in the tank, the cause 
of the trouble is probably in the ignition system. To determine which sys- 
tem is at fault, check the intensity of the spark by disconnecting wire from 



111 



Fix Your Ford 

spark plug and holding wire 1 /4 in. away from exhaust manifold. If spark 
jumps ignition is OK, and trouble is probably in the fuel system. If spark 
is weak or no spark, then the ignition system should be checked as de- 
scribed in the Chapter on Ignition. 

Check choke system for binding. If engine is hot, choke plate should be 
in open position. If the plate is not open, the engine will load up due to ex- 
cessively rich mixture. 

To check the fuel supply at the carburetor, remove the air cleaner and 
work the throttle by hand. Each time the throttle is actuated, fuel should 
spurt from the accelerating pump discharge nozzles which can be seen by 
looking down into the air intake of the carburetor. If fuel is discharged, 
the engine is probably flooded and engine should be cranked with the throt- 
tle wide open. Or wait 15 minutes to give the excess fuel in the engine a 
chance to evaporate. For additional checks see the ignition and fuel sec- 
tions. 

ENGINE STARTS, BUT FAILS TO KEEP RUNNING 

Idle fuel mixture incorrectly adjusted. Idle speed set too low. Choke 
not operating properly. Float setting incorrect. Dirt or water in fuel lines. 
Clogged muffler. Carburetor icing. Clogged air cleaner. Leakage in high 
tension wiring. 

ENGINE RUNS, BUT MISFIRES 

Determine if the miss is steady or erratic and at what speed it occurs. 

IF THE MISS IS CONSTANT AND AT ALL SPEEDS: Isolate the miss by 
operating. the engine with one cylinder not firing. This is done by discon- 
necting the wire from one spark plug at a time until all the cylinders have 
been checked. Ground the spark plug wire removed. If the engine speed 
changes when a particular cylinder is cut out, that cylinder is delivering 
power. If no change in engine operation is noticed, then the miss is occur- 
ing in the cylinder that is cut out. 

If the miss is isolated in a particular cylinder, check the spark at that 
particular cylinder. If a good spark does not occur, check the spark plug 
wire and the distributor cap. If a good spark occurs, check the spark plug. 
If the spark plug is in good condition, a valve in that particular cylinder is 
sticking, or some other mechanical part of the engine is at fault. 

Perform a compression test on the engine to locate the cause. 

IF MISS IS ERRATIC AT ALL SPEEDS, CHECK THE FOLLOWING: 
Exhaust system restricted. Defective breaker points, condenser, secondary 
wiring, coil or sparkplugs. High tension leakage across coil, rotor or dis- 
tributor cap. Also check float setting and make sure fuel line and filter are 
clear. Check for leakage of water from water manifold into engine. 

IF MISS IS AT IDLING ONLY: Check carburetor adjustment. Check 
for excessive play in distributor shaft and for worn distributor cam. 

112 



Engine Repairs 

IF MISS IS AT HIGH SPEED ONLY: Check power valve in carburetor. 
Check fuel pump pressure which may below. Fuel filter may be restrict- 
ed. 

ROUGH ENGINE IDLE 

FUEL SYSTEM: Idle speed too low. Idle mixture incorrect. Float level 
incorrect. Air leaks between carburetor, spacer and manifold. Air leaks 
in accessory equipment that is vacuum operated. Fuel leakage at carbure- 
tor fuel bowl. Power valve leaking fuel. Idle fuel system air bleeds or fuel 
passages restricted. Fuel bleeding from accelerating pump discharge noz- 
zles. Improper secondary throttle plate stop adjustment, (four barrel car- 
buretor). Incorrect idle speed setting of the secondary carburetors on cars 
with more than one carburetor. Leaking fuel pump, lines or fittings. 

IGNITION SYSTEM: Defective breaker points. Defective spark plugs. 
Incorrect ignition timing. 

EXHAUST SYSTEM: Exhaust gas control valve inoperative or sticking. 

ENGINE: Loose engine mounting bolts or worn insulator. Cylinder head 
bolts not properly torqued. Valve lash too close on engines with mechan- 
ical lifters. Crankcase ventilation regulator valve defective. 

POOR ACCELERATION 

IGNITION SYSTEM: Incorrect ignition timing. Defective spark plugs. 
Defective breaker points. Defective automatic advance. 

FUEL SYSTEM: Inoperative accelerating pump. Fuel setting incorrect. 
Throttle linkage not properly adjusted. Leaking power valve. Distributor 
vacuum passages in carburetor blocked on Loadomatic carburetor. Re- 
stricted fuel filter. 

EXHAUST SYSTEM: Exhaust valve control valve stuck closed. 

BRAKES: Dragging. 

CLUTCH: Slipping. 

TRANSMISSION: Improper band adjustment on automatic transmis- 
sions. 

Also check converter one way clutch. 

DOES NOT DEVELOP FULL POWER 

FUEL SYSTEM: Restricted air cleaner or fuel filter. Clogged or under- 
size main jets. Low float setting. Clogged orundersize secondary jets on 
4-barrel carburetorjs. Power valve defective. Secondary throttle plates on 
4-barrel carburetor not opening. Fuel pump pressure incorrect. Distribu- 
tor vacuum passage in carburetor incorrect. 

IGNITION SYSTEM: Incorrect ignition timing. Defective coil, condenser 
or rotor. Incorrect distributor advance. Distributor cam worn. Excessive 
play in the distributor shaft. Defective spark plugs. Defective ignition 
breaker points. 

113 



Fix Your Ford 

EXHAUST SYSTEM: Clogged exhaust system. Exhaust gas control valve 
inoperative. 

COOLING SYSTEM: Thermostat defective. Check system for a condition 
that prevents engine from reaching normal operating temperature. 

ENGINE: Perform an engine compression test. Also check for worn 
cams on camshaft. 

EXCESSIVE FUEL CONSUMPTION 

Check tires for proper inflation. Front wheel alignment. Brake adjust- 
ment. Check for exhaust system restriction. Check exhaust gas control 
valve operation. Check ignition system and timing. Crankcase ventilator 
regulator valve and tubes. Fuel pump pressure. Engine idle speed. Idle 
mixture. Automatic choke. Accelerating pump. Anti-stall dashpot. Air 
cleaner for restrictions. Float setting. Jets for wear. Power valve opera- 
ation. Air bleeds for obstructions. Spark control valve for proper seating. 

IGNITION SYSTEM: Check spark plugs. Distributor advance. 

ENGINE: Check compression and valve lash. 

COOLING SYSTEM: Check thermostat 

TRANSMISSION: Check band adjustment. 

ENGINE OVERHEATS 

Check engine sending unit and gauge. Valve lash. Oil and oil level. 

COOLING SYSTEM: Insufficient coolant. Cooling system leaks. Drive 
belt tension. Radiator fins obstruction. Thermostat. Clogged radiator and 
water jacket. 

IGNITION SYSTEM: Timing. 

NOISY HYDRAULIC LIFTERS 

Noisy lifters usually caused by dirt or other foreign material in lifter 
or air bubbles in oil. 

SILENT VALVE MECHANISM 

To determine if eccentric is operating correctly, operate the engine at 
1000 r.p.m. Slowly vary the position of the adjustment screw to change the 
operating range of the eccentric. The eccentric should move in and out to 
compensate for the turning of the adjustment screw within 30 seconds. If 
not, check to see if the eccentric is properly installed and/or if it has 
reached the limit of its travel, with the eccentric against the stop on the 
rocker arm. When the screw is turned, the valve may be held open for a 
short period of time. This is normal. If it does not compensate in the spec- 
ified time, replace the eccentric. 

EXCESSIVE VALVE NOISE: Check the adjustment of the rocker arm 
eccentric. If the eccentric is out of adjustment, check the related parts for 
abnormal wear, then adjust the eccentric. 

114 



Engine Repairs 



ENGINE KNOCKS 



LOOSE CONNECTING RODS: A connecting rod bearing that is slightly 
loose will usually knock loudest around an engine speed of 45 m.p.h. and 
of greatest intensity just as the engine goes from a pull to a coast. A rod 
bearing in very bad condition will be heard at all speeds. 

LOOSE MAIN BEARINGS: A main bearing knock is more of a bump 
than a knock and can be located by shorting out the plugs. It is loudest when 
the engine is under heavy load at low speed. 

PISTON SLAP: Piston slap is usually worse when the engine is cold 
and will decrease in intensity as the engine becomes warm. 

LOOSE PISTON PINS: Using a stethoscope is sometimes helpful as a 
piston or pin may sound loudest when the instrument prod is placed on the 
cylinder block. The rod knock is usually loudest when the prod is on the 
crankcase. Shorting out the spark plug on one cylinder will change the in- 
tensity of the knock but will not always eliminate it completely. 

HIGH OIL CONSUMPTION 

Among the more important causes of high oil consumption are the 
following: Worn cylinder walls. Worn piston rings. Worn pistons. Incor- 
rectly installed piston rings. Worn connecting rod and main bearings. 
Worn crankshaft journals. Worn intake valve stems. Defective valve stems 
seals. Defective vacuum booster in fuel pump. Excessive oil pressure. 
Clogged oil return from valve chamber. Clogged crankcase ventilating 
system. Oil leakage. 



115 



Fix Your Ford 




Cutaway view of mechanical foe/ pump. 



116 



ADJUSTING 
VALVE TAPPETS 



Accurate adjustment of the clearance between the end of the rocker arm 
and the push rod, Fig. F-l, is very important if maximum performance 
and economy are to obtained. This clearance, known as valve lash, or tap- 
pet clearance, is measured with a feeler gauge of the proper thickness. 
An error of only one or two thousandths of an inch will result in consider- 
able loss of power, and if the clearance is more than specified, the valves 
will be noisy. If the clearance is less than specified, the valves will be 
burned, and soon will have to be replaced. 

The following Ford engines are equipped with mechanical type valve 
lifters, and it is therefore necessary to adjust the valve lash, Fig. F-l. 

239 cu. in. 223 cu. in. 

272 cu. in. 144 cu. in. 

292 cu. in. 170 cu. in. 

312 cu. in. 390 cu. in. (some models) 

The 332 cu. in., 352 cu. in., 260 cu. in., 221 cu. in., and some models 
of the 390 cu. in. V-8 engines, have hydraulic valve lifters which require 
a preliminary check adjustment after the valves have been reconditioned, 
and then require no further attention. 

In 1961 a "silent lash" adjustment was adopted on the 223 cu. in. six. 
This design requires special treatment, which will be described later. 

To adjust the valve lash on six cylinder engines with mechanical type 
lifters, first locate the timing mark on the vibration damper. Fig. B-23, 
at the front of the engine. Then make two chalk marks on the damper, 
spaced 120 deg. from the timing mark. This will divide the face of the 
damper into three segments, each 120 deg. 

Valve lash is adjusted by means of a setscrew and lock nut located at 
the push rod end of the rocker arm, Fig. F-l. The procedure is to insert 
the blade of the feeler gauge between the end of the valve stem, and the 
rocker arm, Fig. F-l, and turn the setscrew until the gauge is a snug fit 
between the valve stem and the rocker arm. The adjustment is then locked 
with the lock nut. 

Rotate the crankshaft until No. 1 piston is near top center at the end of 
the compression stroke, then adjust the intake and exhaust valve lash for 
No. 1 cylinder. This operation is done with the engine not operating, as it 
is much easier that way. Repeat this procedure for the remaining set of 

117 



Fix Your Ford 




F-l. Typical mechanical type valve rocker arm. If step-type feeler gauge is not 
available, a conventional type may be used when adjusting the valve lash. 

valves, turning the crankshaft one third turn at a time as indicated by the 
chalk mark on the vibration damper. Adjust the valves in the firing order 
sequence 1-5-3-6-2-4. 

To check on the adjustment, operate the engine for approximately thir- 
ty minutes, and then with the engine idling check the valve lash. This will 
not be too easy, because of the movement of the rocker arms, and if a 
change in adjustment is necessary, it is easier if one individual turns the 
adjusting screw while the other operates the feeler gauge to note the ad- 
justment. 

To adjust the valves on the V-8 engines, the procedure is similar ex- 
cept the order in which the valves are adjusted. In the case of the V-8, 
first locate the timing marks on the vibration damper, and make three 
chalk marks, each spaced 90 deg. from the timing mark, so that the damp- 
er is divided into four equal parts, Fig. F-2. 

On 272 cu. in., 292 cu. in. and 312 cu. in. engines crank the engine until 
No. 1 piston is near top dead center on the end of the compression stroke, 
and adjust the following valves: No. 1 Intake and Exhaust Valves. No. 2 
Intake. No. 4 Exhaust. No. 5 Exhaust. No. 7 Intake. 

Rotate the crankshaft 180 deg. and adjust valves: No. 4 intake. No. 5 
Intake. No. 6 Exhaust, No. 8 Exhaust. 

Rotate the crankshaft 2 70 deg., or three quarter turns from 180 deg., 
which will put No. 3 piston on top dead center, and adjust valves: No. 2 
Exhaust. No. 3 Intake and Exhaust. No. 6 Intake. No. 7 Exhaust. No. 8 In- 
take. 

On 332 cu. in., 352 cu. in., 390 cu. in. engines, crank the engine until 
No. 1 piston is on top dead center of its compression stroke, and adjust 
valves: No. 1 Intake and Exhaust. No. 4 Exhaust. No. 5 Exhaust. No. 7 In- 

118 



Tappet Adjustment 

take. No. 8 Intake. 

Crank the engine 180 deg., which puts No. 4 piston on top dead center, 
and adjust valves: No. 2 Exhaust. No. 4 Intake. No. 5 Intake. No. 6 Exhaust. 

Rotate the crankshaft 270 deg., putting No. 3 piston on top dead center, 
and adjust valves: No. 2 Intake. No. 3 Intake and Exhaust. No. 6 Intake. 
No. 7 Exhaust. No. 8 Exhaust. 

HYDRAULIC LIFTER ADJUSTMENT 

On the 332 cu. in., 352 cu. in., 390 cu. in. engines, there is no adjust- 
ment provided for the hydraulic lifters. Instead when the valves are ser- 
viced, a .060 in. shorter push rod may be installed to provide for means 
of compensating for dimensional changes in the valve mechanism. Valve 



SET NO I PISTON ON ID C. AT END OF COMPRESSION 
STROKE -ADJUST NO. 1, 4,5. EXHAUST & NO. I, 2. 7 INTAKE 




STEP 1 ADJUST NO. 6 & 8 EXHAUST & NO. 4 4 J INTAKE 
3 - A0JUST NO. 2, 3. 7 EXHAUST & NO. 3. 6. 8 INTAKE 

10*2-4 



F-2. Method of dividing the vibration damper on a V-8 engine when adjusting the valve lift. 
In this case the valves to be adjusted are for an engine with a firing order of 1-5-4-8-6-3-7-2. 



stem to valve rocker arm clearance should be .078 to .218 in. with the hy- 
draulic lifter completely collapsed. Repeated valve reconditioning opera- 
tions will decrease this clearance to the point that if not compensated for, 
the hydraulic valve lifter will cease to operate. To determine whether a 
shorter or a longer push rod is necessary, crank the engine until No. 1 
piston is on top dead center at the end of its compression stroke, then 
check the following valves: No. 1 Intake. No. 1 Exhaust. No. 3 Intake. No. 4 
Exhaust. No. 7 Intake. No. 5 Exhaust. No. 8 Intake. No. 8 Exhaust. 

Depress the valve spring by means of a special lever, as shown in Fig. 
F-3, which will bleed down the hydraulic lifter until the plunger is com- 
pletely. bottomed. Hold the lifter in the fully collapsed condition, and insert 
a feeler gauge between the valve stem and the rocker arm. If the clear- 
ance is less than .078 in., the .060 in. shorter, push rod should be used. If 



119 



Fix Your Ford 



the clearance is more than .218 in., the .060 in. longer push rod should be 
used. After checking the valves previously enumerated, position No. 6 pis- 
ton on top dead center and check the following valves: No. 2 Intake. No. 2 
Exhaust. No. 4 Intake. No. 3 Exhaust. No. 5 Intake. No. 6 Exhaust. No. 6 
Intake. No. 7 Exhaust. 



> \ 



-I54P6565 * 




F-3. Bleeding down and checking valve lash on hydraulic valve lifter. 

221 CU. IN. AND 260 CU. IN V-8 

The 221 cu. in. V-8 in the 1962Fairlane and the 260 cu. in. V-8 in the 
1963 models have hydraulic valve lifters, but with a different type of rock- 
er arm than the other engines. The construction is shown in Fig. F-4 and 
Fig. F-5. The adjusting procedure is entirely different than other models. 
First crank the engine to place No. 1 piston on top center at the end of the 
compression stroke, and adjust the following valves: No. 2 Exhaust. No. 1 




F-4. Adjusting valve lash on 1962-1963 Fairlane V-8 with hydraulic valve lifters. 



120 



Tappet Adjustment 

Intake. No. 5 Exhaust. No. 1 Exhaust. No. 7 Intake. No. 3 Intake. No. 8 In- 
take. No. 4 Exhaust. 

The procedure is to then loosen the rocker arm stud nut until there is 
end clearance in the push rod, then tighten the nut to remove all the push 
•rod to rocker arm end clearance. This may be determined by rotating the 
push rods with the fingers, as the stud nut is tightened. When the push rod 
clearance has been eliminated, tighten the stud nut an additional two turns 
to place the hydraulic lifter plunger in the center of its travel. 

Then crank the engine until No. 6 piston is at top center on its com- 
pression stroke, and adjust the following valves: No. 2 Intake. No. 6 Intake. 
No. 3 Exhaust. No. 6 Exhaust. No. 4 Intake. No. 7 Exhaust. No. 5 Intake. 
No. 8 Exhaust. 

Operate the engine and if there are any noisy lifters or if the engine 
does not idle smoothly, check lifters as follows: Adjust lifters in the same 
order as before. Apply pressure to slowly bleed down the lifter until the 
plunger is completely bottomed, Fig. F-5. While holding the lifter in the 




F-5. Bleeding down and rechecking valve lash on 1962- 1963 Fair lane V-8. 

fully collapsed position, check the clearance between the rocker arm and 
the end of the valve stem. Clearance should range between .082 and .152 
in. If clearance is not within specified value, rotate the rocker arm stud 
nut clockwise to decrease clearance and counterclockwise to increase 
clearance. Normally, one turn of the rocker arm stud nut will change 
clearance .066 in. 

SILENT LASH ROCKER ARM ADJUSTMENT 

Place No. 1 piston at top center at the end of its compression stroke 
and adjust the clearance of the rocker arms for that cylinder. The proce- 
dure is to push the eccentric toward the rocker arm until the plunger is 

121 



Fix Your Ford 



ADJUSTING SCREW 



ECCENTRIC 

■ 




ADJUSTMENT MARK ' A 1 2 3 1 -A 

F-6. Adjusting silent valve mechanism on 1962- 1963 221 cu. in. six. 

completely pushed into its bore in the rocker arm, Fig. F-6. Turn the ad- 
justing screw in until the eccentric and plunger are held in the depressed 
position. Slowly turn the adjusting screw out until the adjustment mark on 
the eccentric is centered over the valve stem. Tighten the lock nut on the 
adjustment. 

Repeat this procedure on the remaining rocker arms. Be sure to place 
each piston at top center on its compression stroke and in the firing order 
of 1-5-3-6-2-4. 



122 



COOLING SYSTEM 
KINKS 



Many of the troubles that occur in the engine cooling system, Fig. G-l, 
can be eliminated by draining and flushing the system in the spring and 
again in the fall, before anti-freeze is installed. In warm climates where 
anti-freeze is not needed, the system should be flushed once a year. 

When water without anti-freeze is used as the coolant a rust inhibitor 
should always be added to the system to prevent the formation of rust and 
also prevent the precipitation of any minerals that the water may contain. 



THERMOSTAT 




FAN 
WATER PUMP 



WATER JACKET 

A1358-A 



G-7. Direction of water flow in cooling system of Ford six. 



DRAINING THE COOLING SYSTEM 

In order to drain the cooling system, it is required that the drain cock 
located at the bottom of the radiator be opened and also the drain cock in 
the cylinder block. In the case of the V- 8 Engines, there is a drain plug on 
each side of the block, Fig. G-2. On the Ford Six, the drain plug is located 
at the left rear of the cylinder block, and on the Falcon it is located at the 
right rear of the cylinder block ahead of the starter. 



123 



Fix Your Ford 



After the system has been drained it should be thoroughly flushed in 
order to remove all traces of rust and old coolant. After flushing, clear 
water and rust inhibitor, or anti-freeze solution, shouldbe used to fill the 
system. All anti-freeze produced by reputable manufacturers contains rust 
inhibitor, so it is not necessary to add an inhibitor to the anti-freeze so- 
lution. 

It is desirable to remove the cooling system thermostat, Fig. G-l and 
D-7 from the system before flushing to insure a free flow of water. 

When the cooling system is extremely dirty, flushing should be done in 
the reverse to the normal flow. In other words the radiator should be 
flushed from the bottom to the top and the engine from the top to the bot- 
tom. To do that it is necessary to disconnect the radiator from the engine 
by removing the hose connections. The thermostats should also be remov- 
ed from the engine so that the free flow of water will be permitted. Also 
when flushing the radiator it is advisable to remove the radiator from the 
chassis and place it in an inverted position as this will help in flushing the 
accumulated dirt from the unit. 

HOW TO LOCATE LEAKS 

In many cases, leaks in the cooling system are easily located. Leaks 
in the radiator core will discolor the surface of the core and the water 
leaking from the hose connections and water pump will be driven back over 
the engine where it is easily noticed. Leaking core plugs in the cylinder 
block, Fig. G-2, are more difficult to spot (particularly on V-8 Engines) 
because they are frequently hidden from view by accessories and mani- 
folds. 




DRAIN PLUG B1196-A 

G-2. Drain plugs are located on each side of the engine block on the Ford V-8 engines. 

Internal leakage from defective head gaskets can be detected by oper- 
ating the engine at a fast idle, and looking for the formation of bubbles in 
the radiator upper tank. Oil in the upper tank may indicate leakage in the 

124 






Cooling System Kinks 



engine block, or a leak in the automatic transmission oil cooler. Water 
formation on the oil level dip stick could also be an indication of internal 
leakage. If there is any suspicion of coolant leaking into the engine oil pan, 
drain the oil immediately into a receptacle and examine it carefully for 
evidence of coolant. Remember that water is heavier than oil and will be 



." DEFLECTION WITH NORMAL THUMB PRESSURE 




WATER PUMP -FAN PULLEY GENERATOR PULLEY 1184-A 

G-3. Measuring fan belt tension on Ford six and Falcon. 

at the bottom of the container. If a permanent type anti-freeze was being 
used, it will be necessary to disassemble the engine and thoroughly clean 
all parts including the oil lines to remove all traces of the permanent type 
anti-freeze. 

Small leaks in the cooling system can be fixed by means of special 
preparations designed to stop such leaks. In the case of leaking radiator 
hose connections, these are repaired by installing new hose, or tightening 
the clamps if the leak is not severe. If a core plug is leaking, new ones 
should be installed. 

In the case of a leaking core plug, Fig. G-2, these are first removed 
by driving a screwdriver into the center of the plug, which then can be 
pried out. Clean the area to remove all traces of rust. Coat the new plug 
with litharge, or special cement designed for the purpose. Then drive it 
into position, using a round piece of metal the same diameter as the new 
core plug. 

CLEANING THE COOLING SYSTEM 

When the coolant in the cooling system appears rusty, it should be 
cleaned with one of the chemicals which are available for that purpose. 
Directions for using that particular cleaner should be carefully followed. 

In the event that no special cleaning preparation is available, oxalic 
acid in crystal form can be used, but special care must be taken to flush 
all traces of it out of the system, and then use a good rust inhibitor. 

In cases of persistent overheating it may be necessary to remove the 

125 



Fix Your Ford 

radiator and have it cleaned by a specialist in such work. In such cases, 
it is usually advisable to remove the cylinder head also and have it recon- 
ditioned, which includes cleaning the water jacket. While the cylinder head 
is removed, the water jacket in the cylinder block should be scraped as 
clean as possible and flushed repeatedly to remove as much rust as pos- 
sible. 

FILLING THE RADIATOR 

Filling the radiator of a warm engine presents no difficulty, but when 
the engine is cold, the thermostats are closed and little coolant will reach 
the water jacket surrounding the engine. It, therefore, becomes necessary 
to fill the radiator as much as possible. Then start the engine and when it 
reaches operating temperature, the thermostats will open permitting the 
coolant from the radiator to enter the water jacket. It will then be possible 
to add more coolant so that the system is filled to capacity. 

WHAT TO DO ABOUT THERMOSTATS 

Ford cars are normally equipped with poppet type thermostats, which 
are designed to open at 175tol80deg. and for use with water or perman- 
ent type anti-freeze. 

If it is desired to use nonpermanent or alcohol type anti-freeze, then 
thermostat should be changed to 157 to 162 deg. type units. 

Thermostats are located in the water outlet from the engine. Fig. G-l 
shows the thermostat in a six cylinder engine, and Fig. D-7 shows the lo- 
cation in a V type 8 cylinder engine. 

To remove a thermostat, first drain the system until the water level 
is below the thermostat. Then remove the water outlet elbow, or the elbow 
to which the radiator upper hose is connected. The thermostat can then be 
lifted from the engine. 

At room temperature the valve of the thermostat should be in the closed 
position. If there is any doubt regarding the condition of the thermostat, 
place it in a pan of water. Heat the pan. The thermostat should open when 
the water reaches the specified temperature. 

Thermostats are stamped with a number indicating the temperature at 
which they are designed to open. 

CHECKING THE FAN BELT 

Fan belts, when properly adjusted, should operate for a least 25,000 
miles without giving any trouble. But it is well to anticipate their failure 
as the belt not only drives the water pump, but also the generator. As a re- 
sult, should the fan belt break, not only will the engine overheat, but the 
battery will soon become discharged. 

To adjust the tension of the fan belt, first loosen the generator mount- 
ing bolts. These are located underneath the generator, one at each end. 

126 






Cooling System Kinks 

Then loosen the generator adjusting arm bolt. Swing the generator about 
its mounting bolts to obtain the desired belt tension. In most cases it is 
desirable to use a pry bar between the generator and the engine to obtain 
the desired tension. When the tension is correct, Figs. G-3 and G-4, tight- 
en the mounting bolts and the adjusting bolt. In general a socket wrench and 
a ratchet handle are used to loosen and tighten the mounting bolts. 




NWARO OfFlfCTION . 

G-4. Measuring fan belt tension on 292 cu. in., 312 cu. in. and 352 cu. fn. V-8 engines. 

WHICH TYPE ANTI-FREEZE 

Because of the claims made by the various manufacturers of anti- 
freeze, it is a difficult task to select the best type. All of them protect the 
system from freezing when used in the specified amounts. In general the 
alcohol type does an excellent job, and is the lowest in price. However, 
because of its lower boiling point, it must be drained at the end of the sea- 
son. 

The permanent type anti-freeze has a higher boiling point, but it is 
more expensive. However because the inhibitor is not permanent, this anti- 
freeze also should be drained at the end of the season. 

The new completely permanent type of anti-freeze which the manufac- 
turer states can be left in the system all year, is the most expensive. It 
should be pointed out that some car manufacturers recommend that this 
type should also be drained at the end of the season. This type anti-freeze 
does not conduct heat as readily as does water, with the result that en- 
gines tend to operate at a higher temperature. As a further result engines 
will tend to ping and develop spark knock on acceleration when the perma- 
nent type anti-freeze is left in the cooling system during warm weather. 

KINKS ON WATER PUMP SERVICE 

Water pumps, Fig. G-5, give good service for many thousands of miles 
of operation and need replacement only after they start to leak as a result 
of failure of the seal coupled with scoring of "the shaft. 

127 



Fix Your Ford 

Replacement parts are available for rebuilding water pumps and in 
most cases all that is necessary is to replace the seal, shaft and bearing. 
However, most mechanics prefer to install a new or rebuilt pump rather 



SHAFT AND 
BEARING 



\ 



HUB 




PUMP BODY 










GASKET 



GASKET 



BACK 
PLATE 



B1199-B 



G-5. Disassembled view of water pump used on 332 cu. in., 352 
cu. in. and 390 cu. in. V-8 engines. Typical. 

than take the time to rebuild the worn unit. 

To disassemble a water pump requires a puller to remove the hub and 
drive pulley from the shaft, and a press to push the shaft from the im- 
peller. 

The procedure for removing the water pump from the Falcon is as fol- 
lows: Drain the cooling system. Disconnect the radiator lower hose at the 
water pump. Remove the drive belt, fan and water pump pulley. Disconnect 
the heater hose at the water pump. The water pump can then be removed. 
This is typical of the procedure on other engines. 

CHECK RADIATOR CAP 

It is important that the radiator cap be checked at least once each year 
to be sure that it is operating correctly. The radiator caps used on Ford 
cars are of the pressure type. The caps used in 1953 and 1954 were de- 
signed to open at 71b. pressure. Since that time 12 to 15 lb. pressure caps 
have been used. Most service stations have the necessary equipment for 
checking these caps. 

Unless these caps open at the specified value, the pressure may become 
so great that the radiator may burst. This usually occurs at the seams of 
the radiator tank. If the caps open at a pressure lower than the specified 
value, coolant will be lost and overheating will then result. 

HOW TO REMOVE THE RADIATOR 

Before removing the radiator, the cooling system should first be drain- 
ed. Then disconnect the radiator hose connections. On cars with automatic 
transmission, disconnect the automatic transmission fluid cooler lines at 



128 



Cooling System Kinks 

the radiator. Remove the radiator retaining bolts at the upper supports and 
loosen the bolts at the lower supports. Remove the fan guard upper retain- 
ing bolts, permitting the removal of the radiator assembly. 



COOLING SYSTEM 
TROUBLE SHOOTING 

ENGINE OVERHEATS 

Insufficient coolant. Loss of coolant. Belt tension incorrect. Radiator 
fins obstructed. Thermostat defective. Cooling system passages blocked 
by rust or scale. Water pump inoperative. 

ENGINE FAILS TO REACH OPERATING TEMPERATURE 

Thermostat inoperative or of incorrect heat range. Temperature send- 
ing unit defective, causing gauge to indicate low temperature. Temperature 
gauge defective, not indicating true engine temperature. 

LOSS OF COOLANT 

Leaking radiator. Loose or damaged hose connections. Water pump 
leaking. Cylinder head gasket defective. Improper tightening of cylinder 
head bolts. Cylinder block core plugs leaking. Cracked cylinder head or 
cylinder block. Warped cylinder head or block surface. Radiator cap de- 
fective. 



129 



Fix Your Ford 




Vacuum crankcase ventilation system. Engine vacuum draws crankcase fumes 
through pipe into intake manifold and on to cylinders where they are burned. 



130 



EXHAUST SYSTEM 
SERVICE 



The exhaust system includes not only the mufflers, but also the exhaust 
manifold and connecting pipes. A typical six cylinder exhaust system 
(Falcon) is shown in Fig. H-l, and a V-8 system is shown in Fig. H-2. 

The life of mufflers and pipes is dependent largely on the type of ser- 
vice in whichthe vehicle is used. If it is used mostly in city type stop-and- 




H-l. Exhaust system on Falcon six. 

go driving with few trips exceeding 5 miles, the muffler will soon be rusted 
out. In most cases, on dual muffler installations on V-8 engines, the max- 
imum mileage under such conditions is seldom in excess of 10,000 miles. 
On single muffler jobs, 20,000 to 25,000 miles may be expected. The rea- 
son for such short muffler life is that on short trips, condensed moisture 



131 



Fix Your Ford 

from the engine exhaust gases, collects in the mufflers and pipes. As a 
result the pipes and mufflers are soon corroded and have to be replaced. 
If the car is driven mostly on longer trips, the muffler and pipes will 
get hot enough to evaporate this moisture. Consequently, corrosive action 
is retarded and exhaust system parts will last longer. The mufflers and 
pipes used on a single exhaust system will last much longer than a dual 



EXHAUST MANIFOLD 
HEAT VALVE 




INLET PIPES 
H-2. Typical exhaust system on Galaxie V-8. 

muffler installation, because all the exhaust gases pass through the single 
system and as a result the temperature reaches a higher value more 
quickly. Consequently the corrosive moisture will be evaporated sooner. 

On dual muffler systems, during the warm up period, the exhaust gases 
from one exhaust system are deflected around the carburetor. As a result 
the temperature of that one muffler system will take longer to reach op- 
erating temperature. 

Mufflers and pipes should be replaced before they are rusted complete- 
ly through for if there are any leaks in the system, the exhaust gases which 
are poisonous will escape into the interior of the car where they may cause 
the death of the occupants or a serious accident when the driver becomes 
affected by the gas. 

Before mufflers and pipes are completely rusted through they will feel 
soft to the touch and will tend to bend when pressed. In addition, leaks in 
the system will often give a whistling sound, while a clogged system will 
give a hissing sound. 

When the exhaust system becomes clogged with rust, it prevents the 



132 



Exhuast Systems 

free escape of exhaust gases and consequently economy and performance 
are greatly reduced. In fact when a system becomes sufficiently clogged, 
the engine will stop completely. 

Exhaust system vibration is usually caused by a broken or improperly 
aligned clamp. 

The different sections of the pipes and mufflers are telescoped together 
and supported by brackets as shown in Figs. H-l and H-2. While the dif- 
ferent sections are telescoped together (with the exception of the connec- 
tion between the exhaust manifold and the inlet pipe, which are bolted to- 
gether), they cannot be pulled apart because of accumulated rust. 

To disassemble the system so that replacements can be made, it is 
usually necessary to cut them apart with a hacksaw, or by means of special 
cutters which are available. The procedure for replacing mufflers and 
pipes is as follows: 

First apply penetrating oil to all the bolts and nuts of the support 
brackets and clamps. 

Remove the inlet extension pipe clamp at the muffler. Then remove the 
bolts which attach the rear end of the muffler assembly to the frame 
mounted bracket. Separate the muffler from the inlet extension pipe and 
remove the muffler and tailpipe assembly. In order to separate the muffler 
from the inlet extension pipe, it may be necessary to cut this with a hack- 
saw, or, in many cases, it can be separated by driving a screwdriver be- 
tween the two pipes until the rust is broken and the muffler can be separ- 
ated from the pipe. 

The new muffler and tail pipe assembly can then be slid on the inlet 
extension pipe. Position the inlet extension pipe clamp. Position the muf- 
fler and outlet pipe assembly to the frame mounted bracket and install the 
retaining bolts. Tighten the inlet extension pipe clamp. Check the exhaust 
system for leaks by operating the engine. 

The other pipes in the system can be replaced in the same manner, but 
in each case it will be necessary to first remove the muffler and tailpipe. 
This work is greatly facilitated if the rear end of the car is raised by a 
bumper jack to provide maximum clearance between the car body and the 
axle. 

It is generally advisable to use new clamps when replacing the muffler 
and tailpipe. When replacing the muffler, slide it forward until the slots 
in the muffler extension are blocked. Do not slide the muffler on the ex- 
tension more than 1-3/4 in. Always check for possible interference be- 
tween the kick-up of the outlet pipe and the floor pan and fuel tank. Re- 
position the outlet pipe if necessary and retighten all clamps. 

Always make sure that the exhaust manifold heat valve, Fig. H-2, is 
free and operating correctly. 



133 



Fix Your Ford 




Cutaway view of power steering pump. 



134 



Quick Tests on 
BATTERIES 



When head lamps do not light to normal brilliance (when engine is not 
running) or when the engine is not cranked at normal speed, the first point 
to check is the starting battery. 

First of all, the battery connections must be clean and tight. Corroded 
terminals or loose connections provide a high resistance in the circuit, so 
that full voltage is not available for light starting and ignition, Fig. J-l. 

CORRODED LOOSE, BROKEN 
TERMINALS -^ OR FRAYED 




J-l. All connections to the starting battery must be clean and tight. 

The battery terminals and cable connections should be cleaned by 
scraping with a knife, or brushing with a wire bristle brush. 

The top surface of the battery must alsobe kept clean and dry, as any 
moisture and/or dirt will permit current leakage. This is a major cause 
of discharged batteries. 

The level of the electrolyte should be checked every thousand miles and 
should never be permitted to get below the top of the battery plates. Use 
clean water, distilled if possible, to bring the electrolyte level up to the 
bottom of the filler necks. 

HOW TO TEST THE BATTERY 

There are many different types of equipment available for testing the 
condition of a starting battery. One of the most reliable tests is made with 
a hydrometer. This low priced instrument can be obtained for less than 

135 



Fix Your Ford 

$2.00. The hydrometer can be used only when there is sufficient electro- 
lyte above the battery plate to fill the hydrometer tube. Do not take hydro- 
meter readings immediately after filling a battery with distilled water. In- 
stead place the battery in operation for several hours and normal battery 
activity will then disperse the water in the electrolyte. 

To check the condition of a battery with a hydrometer, the tube of the 
instrument is placed in the opening of the filler plug, and electrolyte is 
drawn into the instrument by means of the suction bulb, as shown in Fig. 
J-2. 

Draw the electolyte into the tube and force it out several times to bring 
the temperature of the hydrometer float to that of the electrolyte. Then 




DO NOT SUCK 

IN TOO MUCH /^\ 

ELECTROLYTE / A 



W 



HOLD 

TUBE 

VERTICAL 



FLOAT MUST 
BE FREE 





TAKE READING 
AT EYE LEVEL 



J-2. Checking the condition of a starting battery with a hydrometer. 

draw in just enough electrolyte to lift the float. Read the specific gravity 
of the electrolyte on the float, Fig. J-2. A specific gravity of 1.275 to 1.285 
indicates a fully charged battery. A reading of 1.230 to 1.240 indicates ap- 
proximately 60 per cent charge. If the specific gravity varies more than 
.025 between cells of the battery, the battery should be replaced. 

Some batteries supplied to warm climates have a specific gravity read- 
ing of 1.260 when fully charged. In such cases the battery is plainly mark- 
ed. 

As the specific gravity of the electrolyte will vary with the temperature 
of the solution, many hydrometers are provided with a built-in thermom- 
eter so that the necessary correction is easily made. For temperatures 



136 



Batteries 

above 80 deg. add .004 to the specific gravity reading for each 10 deg. that 
the battery temperature exceeds 80 deg. For temperatures below 80 deg., 
subtract .004 from the specific gravity reading for each 10 deg that the 
battery temperature is below 80 deg. 

Batteries that are not fully charged will freeze at low temperatures, 
while a fully charged battery will not freeze until the temperature reaches 
-90 deg. 

Specific Gravity Freezing Temperature 

1.280 -90 deg. 

1.250 -62 deg. 

1.200 -16 deg. 

1.150 + 5 deg. 

1.100 +19 deg. 

BATTERY VOLTAGE 

The light load battery test is an in-the-car test designed to quickly de- 
termine the condition of the starting battery. To make this test, a volt- 
meter having a .01 volt division is required. Some mechanics claim that 
this type test is more conclusive than the hydrometer test. However, the 
cost of the instrument is a great deal more than that of a hydrometer. 

To check the condition of a battery, first place a load on the battery by 
closing the starter switch for approximately 3 seconds. It does not make 
any difference whether the starter turns the engine or not. However, if the 
engine starts turn off the ignition immediately. 

Turn on the headlights and after one minute, with the lights still on, 
read the individual cell voltages of the battery with the voltmeter, Fig. J-3. 
Inasmuch as the connections between the individual cells of the battery are 
covered with insulating material, it is necessary to pierce this material 
with the prongs of the ends of the voltmeter leads so as to contact the con- 
nectors between the battery cells. 

If any cell reads 1.95 volts or more, and the difference between the 
highest and the lowest cell is less than .05 volt, the battery is in good con- 
dition. 

If all cells read less than 1.95 volts the battery is too low to test prop- 
erly and the battery should be given a quick charge and the test repeated. 

If any cell reads 1.95 volts or more, and there is a difference of .05 
volts or more between the highest and lowest cell, the battery should be 
replaced. 

Another quick test of the battery is to turn on the headlights and they 
should burn steadily and with normal brilliance. Then with the lights burn- 
ing operate the cranking motor. The lights should stay bright or dim only 
slightly when the engine is cranked at normal speed. If the lights go out, 
or the lights dim considerably, the battery is probably in need of charging 
or replacement. 

137 



Fix Your Ford 



CHARGING BATTERIES 



If the car owner lives in an isolated area, where service stations are 
at some distance, it pays to have a battery charger of some type available 
for charging batteries in an emergency. 

Battery chargers suitable for charging a single battery are available 
from approximately $15.00 up. Instructions for charging the battery ac- 
company the charger, and these should be carefully followed. 



BLACK PROD ON NEGATIVE 

TERMINAL OF CELL 

(FORCE TERMINAL 

THROUGH TAR SEALER! 




J-3. A voltmeter having 0.01 volt division can be used to 
check the condition of the starting battery. 

EVIDENCE OF OVERCHARGING 

If it is necessary to add water to the battery at frequent intervals, it 
is usually an indication that the battery is being overcharged. In such 
cases, a careful check of the voltage regulator should be made to make 
sure it is correctly adjusted. 

BATTERY TROUBLE SHOOTING 

If head lamps dim considerably when engine is cranked, battery needs 
recharging or replacing, or there may be a high resistance in battery 
circuit. Check all connections carefully. 

Undercharge of battery may be caused by incorrect adjustment of volt- 
age regulator, or excessive use of electrical accessories. When it is nec- 
essary to add water to battery frequently, trouble is probably caused by 
charging rate being too high, or battery cells may be cracked. 

Early battery failure may be caused by charging rate being too low. 
Too high a rate will also cause early battery failure. 

Overcharging for a considerable time will cause the end covers of the 
cells to push up, indicating positive plates have swelled. 



138 



Simplified 
GENERATOR SERVICE 



As most of the readers of this book do not have elaborate testing equip- 
ment, the following instructions are limited primarily to determining 
whether trouble exists in the battery, generator or regulator. Knowing the 
location of the trouble a new unit can then be obtained and installed. If 
more detailed tests are desired, the instructions accompanying the testing 
equipment should be followed. 

Before making any tests on a generator, when trouble is suspected, the 
battery should be checked thoroughly as outlined in the chapter on Starting 
Batteries. If the battery proves to be in good condition, then tests on the 
generator and regulator should be made. 

Until recently Ford used only one basic type of generator, Fig. K-l. 

BRUSH END PLATE GROUP 



FRONT END SEARING BEARING 
PLATE v \ STOP RING 



■ARM" TERMINAL SCREW 

BRUSH / Oil CUP 

BRUSH SPRING N 



THROUGH BOLT 

L 




LOCKWASHER PULLEY 



"FIELD" TERMINAL, 

INSULATOR, 

WASHERS AND NUT 



M«t 



GRD" TERMINAL NUTS 
AND WASHERS 



"ARM" TERMINAL INSULATOR, 
WASHERS AND NUTS 



K-l. Typical Ford 12 v. generator. 

These generators had the field coils grounded within the generator, Fig. 
K-2. Recently some Delco generators were used as special equipment, 
which have the field coils grounded through the regulator. As testing pro- 
cedure differs with these two types of generators, it is important to check 
the name plates on the generators to make sure of the type. 

FORD GENERATOR TESTS 

When the generator does not supply current, the difficulty may be either 
in the generator or in the regulator. The problem then is to determine 
which unit is at fault. 



139 



Fix Your Ford 

If the battery tests satisfactorily, run the engine at approximately 1500 
r.p.m. and check the charging voltage at the battery terminals. The volt- 
meter should read 14 to 15 volts. If a voltmeter is not available, note the 
brilliance of the lights, and if they are up to normal brilliance it can be 
assumed that the generator is operating correctly. 




— BATTERY 



#10 Black 

TO OTHER - 
CIRCUITS 



K-2. Schematic diagram of typical Ford generating circuit. Note generator field is grounded with- 
in the generator. This is a 12 v. system with negative terminal of battery grounded. 

If generator indicator light comes on only at slow idle, generator sys- 
tem is normal. However, if generator indicator light comes on with the en- 
gine running faster than idle, the generator is not putting out sufficient 
voltage. 




K-3. Testing output of Ford type generator. The same circuit, hut without the ammeter is used to 
check whether the generator or regulator is defective as described in text. 

The generator indicator light should come on when the ignition is turn- 
ed on, and before the engine is started. If light does not come on, check 
light bulb or complete indicator circuit as necessary. 

On cars equipped with an ammeter, a charge rate of approximately 25 
amperes will be indicated by the ammeter on the instrument panel as soon 
as the engine is started, and when it is at a fast idle. At slow idling speed 



140 



Generator Service 

the reading will be approximately zero. However, if the car is driven for 
approximately five miles and the battery is in good condition, the ammeter 
reading will drop from its high reading and indicate a charge of about 2 to 
5 amps. Turning on the headlights should result in only a reduction in the 
current indicated on the dash ammeter. 

Those are the characteristics of a system in good mechanical and elec- 
trical condition. If maximum readings are not obtained, or if no charge is 
indicated, the first point to examine is the belt driving the generator. A 
loose belt will cause a generator to give erratic readings on the ammeter, 
or cause the indicator lamp to go on and off. And, of course, an extremely 
loose belt or one that is broken will result in no current being produced 
at all. 

To determine whether the trouble is in the standard Ford generator, or 
in the regulator, connect a jumper wire between the armature and the field 
terminals on the regulator, Fig. K-3. With the engine running, if the indi- 
cator on the dash shows full charging current, then the generator is in good 
condition, and the regulator is defective. If no charge is indicated, then the 
generator is defective and the regulator is probably in good condition. This 
test should not be used on Delco generators which are used as special 
equipment on some recent model Ford cars. 

Another way to check a generator is to remove the steel band which 
surrounds the generator (early models only) and examine the inside of the 
band. If the inside of the band is speckled with drops of solder, it indicates 
that the generator has been overloaded and resulting high temperatures 
have melted solder used to connect ends of armature winding to the com- 
mutator. When that condition is found, the entire generator should be re- 
placed, or overhauled. 

On generators that are not fitted with a steel band around the commu- 
tator end, solder will be found spattered on the interior of the generator 
housing. This is difficult to see unless the unit is disassembled and clean- 
ed. A dental mirror can be used to observe the interior of the generator 



NEGATIVE LEAD 




GENERATOR 



2HP*tf 



- BATTERY J 
CARBON PILE RHEOSTAT 



REGULATOR 
OTHER 
CIRCUITS 

5024-A 



K-4. Circuit used to check regulator. 

141 



Fix Your Ford 

in some instances. 

Also examine the commutator and brushes. Commutators in good con- 
dition will have a slightly purplish color and will be smooth and without 
ridges. Commutators that are slightly scratched should be sanded with fine 
sandpaper. To do this, pass a strip of sandpaper over the end of a flat 
piece of wood. Then with the armature revolving, the sandpaper is pressed 
against the commutator. Do not use emery paper for this operation. 

The brushes should be pressed firmly against the commutator. If they 
are worn to half their original length, they should be replaced. 

CUTOUT 

CURRENT RE ) AY 
UMITER f 




£'—} Ad m t, nq 

*-V TO 

DECREASE 



ADJUSTING ARM 



K-5. Adjusting the voltage limiter on a Ford regulator. 

DELCO GENERATOR TESTS 

To determine whether the cause of no generation is in the generator or 
the regulator on Delco generators, use a large gauge wire and connect the 
field terminal of the generator to the ground. Then operate the engine at a 
speed of approximately 25 m.p.h. If the generator is in good condition the 
ammeter or the charge light on the instrument panel will indicate the bat- 
tery is being charged. In that case the voltage regulator is defective. If no 
charge is indicated with the field terminal grounded and the generator op- 
erating, the voltage regulator is satisfactory but the generator is defective. 

If the actual output is to be measured, the ammeter is connected in the 
same manner as shown in Fig. K-3, but instead of connecting the ammeter 
and field terminals with a jumper wire, the field terminal should be 
grounded. 

TESTING GENERATOR WITH VOLTMETER AND AMMETER 

To make an accurate and conclusive test of a Ford type generator, an 
ammeter should be employed. Connect a jumper wire from the armature 
terminal to the field terminal of the generator. The armature terminal on 



142 



SLIP RING END 
HOUSING 



DIODE RECTIFIER 
ASSEMBLY -, 



STATOR 



PULLEY 




BRUSH 
CONNECTOR 



BRUSH TERMINAL 
INSULATOR 



PULLEY 
SPACER 



ROTOR 



K-6. Disassembled alternator as used on 1963 Ford cars. 



J1030-D 



the generator is located on the generator end plate, while the field termi- 
nal is the upper terminal on the side of the generator housing. The lower 
terminal on the housing is the ground connection. 

With the jumper wire inplace, remove the wire from the armature and 
F terminals at the regulator. Connect an ammeter in series between the 
armature terminal at the generator and the positive terminal of the start- 
ing battery, as shown in Fig. K-3. Then operate the engine at approximate- 
ly 1500 r.p.m. The ammeter should show more than 35 amp. .for passenger 
car generators, and more than 40 amp. for truck generators. 

On the other hand, if the reading of the ammeter is less than the spec- 
ified amount, the generator should be overhauled or replaced. Usually if 
the reading is steady, but only a small amount of the specified amount, the 
trouble is caused by a dirty commutator. 

DELCO REMY TEST: Disconnect the field lead from the generator. 
Connect a jumper wire from the generator field terminal to the ground and 
the positive lead of a 0-100 ammeter to the generator armature terminal. 
Start the engine and while it is idling, connect the ammeter negative lead 
to the positive terminal of the battery. The generator output should reach 
or exceed 40 amps. Disconnect the test leads as soon as the test is com- 
pleted to prevent overheating the generator, then stop the engine. 

TESTING AND ADJUSTING GENERATOR REGULATOR 

Adjusting a voltage regulator to maintain a battery in a charged con- 
dition requires special equipment and should not be attempted unless such 
equipment is used. In general a voltage regulator is set too high when wa- 
ter has to be added to the battery at very frequent intervals. 



143 



Fix Your Ford 

In most cases when tests show that a voltage regulator is defective in 
some respect it is advisable to install anew voltage regulator rather than 
repair the old one. 

If it is desired to test and adjust the Ford regulator, the following 
equipment is needed: 0-50 ammeter, 0-25 voltmeter, 50 ohm field rheostat, 
and a large heavy duty carbon pile rheostat. Connections are as shown in 
Fig. K-4. 

CUTOUT TEST: Start the engine and run it at approximately 1500 
r.p.m. for 30 minutes under a load of approximately 10 amp. Decrease the 
resistance in the field circuit, and the voltage output of the generator will 
increase until the cutout closes. This will be indicated by a rise of the am- 
meter needle, and a dip in the voltage. This is the closing voltage of the 
cutout, which on Ford regulators of 30 amp. capacity should be 12.0-12.8 
volts, and on cutouts of 40 amp. capacity should be 12.4-13.2 volts. 

VOLTAGE LIMIT TEST: Reduce the resistance in the field circuit to 
zero. The ammeter should show an approximate 10 amp. load. With the 
temperature close to the regulator of 75 deg., the voltmeter should read 
14.6 to 15.4 volts for the standard Ford or Bosch Regulator. At higher 
temperatures surrounding the regulator, the voltage readings will be less. 
If voltage reading is not correct, remove the cover from the regulator and 
adjust the spring tension of the regulator. Bending the adjusting arm up- 
ward will increase the voltage setting, Fig. K-5. 

CURRENT LIMIT TEST: Connect the carbon pile rheostat across the 
1-1/2 ohm resistor, Fig. K-4. With the engine speed at 1500 r.p.m., slowly 
increase the resistance of the rheostat until the voltage reading drops to 
13 volts. The ammeter will show the setting of the current limiter. The 30 
amp. Ford unit should have a reading of 28-32 amp. The 40 amp. Ford sys- 
tem should have a reading of 38-42 amp., and the 60 amp. Ford system 
should have a reading of 58-62 amp. If the current limit on the radiator is 
less than specified, increase the spring tension by bending the adjusting 
arm upward. 



VOLTAGE LIMITER 




CHARGE INDICATOR 
LIGHT TERMINAL 



BATTERY TERMINAL FOR 

FIELD SUPPLY VOLTAGE J1J14-A 



K-7. Type of regulator as used with the alternator. 

144 



BATTERY TERMINAL ACCESSORY CHARGE 
OF STARTER RELAY TERMINAL INDICATOR 

^ ' ir.NmoN .rr 



T BATTIRY 



'SJRS'trWv' U> 




K-8. Wiring diagram of 1963 Ford alternator system. 

EXTERNAL CIRCUIT RESISTANCE TEST 

When making these tests, there should be approximately 30 amp. flow- 
ing in the circuit. To obtain such a load, crank the engine for about 30 sec. 
with the high tension lead pulled from the ignition coil. This will partly 
discharge the battery. Then start the engine and turn on the head lamps. 
Connect the positive lead of a voltmeter (12 volt systems) to the armature 




K-9. Connections {or making a current output test on the 1963 alternator. 

145 



Fix Your Ford 



terminal of the generator. Then touch the negative lead of the voltmeter to 
the center of the battery positive post. Voltage readings should be less than 
.07 volts. If the voltage exceeds that value, leave positive voltmeter lead 
connected to the generator armature post and proceed as follows to locate 
the trouble. Connect the negative lead of voltmeter to armature terminal 



Ck 



CONTACT 

EACH 

DIODE PAIR 

WITH SHARP 

Prob< 




J1211-A 
K-10. Checking a positive Diode. 



of regulator. Voltage should be less than 0.2 volts. Connect the lead to the 
battery terminal of regulator and reading should be less than 0.4 volts. If 
those readings are within the specified limits, the excessive resistance is 
in the regulator to battery wires, or their connections. Connect the battery 
to generator ground circuit by connecting the negative lead of the voltmeter 
to the ground and the positive lead to the negative terminal of the starting 
battery. The voltage reading should be less than 0.1 volt. 

In most cases where the voltage exceeds the specified values, it will be 
found that the trouble is caused by loose or dirty connections. 

ALTERNATOR 

In 1962 an alternator, Fig. K-6 and Fig. K-7, was made available as op- 
tional equipment on Ford cars. In 1963 it was standard equipment on all 
models except the Falcon. The alternator, rectifier system produces power 
in the form of alternating current. This alternating current is then recti- 
fied to direct current for use in charging the battery and supplying power 



146 



Generator Service 

to the electrical system. A two element voltage regulator, Fig. K-7 and 
K-8, controls the output of the regulator by controlling current from the 
system to the alternator field. 

The mechanical construction of the alternator, Fig. K-6, differs from 
a direct current generator in that the field rotates and the armature wind- 
ings are stationary. Energy is supplied from the system to the rotating 
field through two brushes to two slip rings. The slip rings are mounted on 
the rotor shaft, Fig. K-6. 

To make an output test on the 196 3 alternator, make the connections as 
shown in Fig. K-9. Be sure the field resistance control is at the off posi- 
tion at the start of the test. Close the battery adapter test. Start the engine 
and then open the battery adapter switch. Increase the engine speed to 2900 




J1212-A 
K-ll . Checking a negative Diode. 

r.p.m. Adjust the field resistance control until the voltmeter reads exactly 
15 volts. Note the ammeter. Add 5 amp. to this reading to obtain the total 
output. 

To test the positive Diodes, make the connections shown in Fig. K-10. 
Contact the probe of the tester to each diode lead, making sure the probe 
penetrates the varnish at the terminal. To test the negative Diodes, make 
the connections as shown in Fig. K-ll. Good diodes will show a reading of 
two or more amperes. 

If no ammeter is available, the Diodes can be simply tested for current 
flow. Diodes will pass current in one direction only. 

147 



Fix Your Ford 



tATTBY — 




to STA.TH \ L ^nmr L 



DIOOf IECT1FIWS 



ION 




K-12. Diagram of the alternator used on 1962 models. 



LOAD RELAY 



VOLTAGE 




CURRENT LIMITER J1029-A 

K-l 3. Three element regulator used on 1962 alternators. 

GENERATOR TROUBLE SHOOTING 
BATTERY LOW IN CHARGE 

Indications of a battery low in charge are slow cranking, hard starting 
and headlights dim at idle speed. Causes are: 1.- Generator belt worn, or 
loose and slipping over generator pulley. 2.- The battery in such poor con- 
dition it will not hold or take a charge. 3.- The generator not producing its 
rated output. 4.- Regulator units out of adjustment. 5.- Excessive resist- 
ance in the generator battery circuit or in the battery to ground circuit. 



148 



Generator Service 



HIGH CHARGING RATE 



Indications of this symptom are: 1.- Generator, lights or fuses burn 
out repeatedly. 2.- Battery requires frequent refilling. 3. -Ignition breaker 
points are burned. 

Make sure that all connections are tight, including the regulator ground. 
Check the voltage regulator and replace if the contacts are burned. If the 
contacts are in good condition, adjust the regulator to the correct limits. 
In cases where the generator itself burns out, in addition to the high volt- 
age, a high setting of the current limiter could account for the failure. 



149 



Fix Your Ford 



CARBURETOR 



CYLINDER 
COMBUSTION CHAMBER 



CONNECTING ROD 



CRANKSHAFT 
COUNTERWEIGHT 



FLYWHEEL GEAR 



ROCKER ARM 
ROCKER ARM SHAFT 




DISTRIBUTOR 



OIL INTAKE 



Front section view. Falcon, 144 cu. in. 6 cyl- 
inder engine, with principal parts identified. 



150 



Kinks on 
STARTER TESTING 



Heavy cables, connectors and switches are used in the starting system 
because of the high current required by the starter while cranking the en- 
gine. The amount of resistance in the starting circuit must be kept to an 
absolute minimum to provide maximum current for the starter operation. 
Loose connections, corroded relay contacts, and partly broken or under- 
sized cables, will result in slower than normal cranking speed, and may 
even prevent the starter from cranking the engine. Fig. L-l gives the fun- 
damental diagram of the Ford starting circuit. 

When the starter will not crank the engine there are a number of tests 
which should be made before removing the starter for detail examination. 
Starting motor trouble is usually shown by failure of the starting motor to 



BATTERY J_ 



TO GENERATOR 
REGULATOR 



STARTER RELAY 




BATTERY J_ 



TO GENERATOR 
REGULATOR 



( J* j RadBlu* Strip* 

/■-/- AUTOMATIC 

d / TRANSMISSION ONLY 
T/ STARTER NEUTRAL SWITCH 
\ CLOSED WITH SELECTOR IN 
N OR P POSITION 

/ STARTER SWITCH 

4 ION IGNITION SWITCH) 

1 « iaith* Strip* 

TO BATTERY TERMINAL 
OF GENERATOR REGULATOR 




TRANSMISSION ONLY 
STARTER NEUTRAL SWITCH 



STARTER SWITCH 

(ON IGNITION SWITCH) 



TO BATTERY TERMINAL OF 
GENERATOR REGULATOR 



L-l. Left. Typical starter circuit. On 1 960 and earlier cars, the line shown connecting to the bat- 
tery terminal of generator regulator, was connected to the battery terminal on the headlight 
switch. L-2. Right. Illustrating circuits used checking operation of starter and circuit. 



151 



Fix Your Ford 

crank the engine, or when the starting motor spins but does not crank the 
engine. 

If the starting motor does not crank the engine, when the starting but- 
ton is pressed, the starting motor and starting circuit may be in good con- 
dition, but the battery may be discharged. The first point to be checked, 
therefore, is the condition of the starting battery, as outlined in the 
Chapter on Batteries. 

If the engine cranks but will not start, the trouble is in the engine, fuel 
or ignition system and not in the starting system. If the engine will not 
crank even with a booster battery connected, engine parts may be seized, 
or the starter may be faulty. If the engine cranks but cannot be started with 
a booster battery connected, attempt to start it by pushing the car. If it 
still will not start, push or tow the car to a place where a complete exam- 
ination can be made. 



STARTER FRAME 



DRIVE GEAR 
HOUSING 




BRUSH 
COVER 
BAND 



STARTER DRIVE 
ACTUATING LEVER 



COVER 




1G LEVER \ 



ACTUATING LEVER 
RETURN SPRING RETAINING 
CLIP 



J1089-A 



L-3. Disassembled viow of typical starting motor. 



Do not push or tow a car equipped with an automatic transmission for 
more than 12 miles, without raising the rear wheels off the ground, or dis- 
connecting the drive shaft. 

If the engine will not crank and the starter relay does not click when 
the starter is turned on, the battery may be discharged, or the ignition 
switch, starter neutral switch, or starter relay, may be inoperative. In ad- 
dition the circuit may be open or contain a high resistance. 

To check the starter relay, disconnect and ground the high tension lead 
from the spark coil so the engine cannot start. 

Then with a fully charged battery, operate the starter to crank the en- 
gine. If the engine will not crank and the relay does not click, connect a 



152 



Starter Testing 

jumper lead from the battery terminal of the relay to the starter switch 
terminal of the relay, as shown in 2 of Fig. L-2. If the engine does not 
crank, the starter relay is probably defective. On cars with automatic 
transmission, if the engine cranks with the relay shorted as just described, 
connect a jumper lead from the battery terminal of the relay to the relay 
side of the neutral switch, Fig. L-2, connection 2. If the engine does not 
crank, the wire or a connection between the neutral switch and the relay 
is loose or broken. 

Also on cars with an automatic transmission, if the engine cranks under 
the conditions just described, connect the jumper lead from the battery 
terminal of the relay, to the ignition switch side of the neutral switch, Fig. 
L-2, connection 3. If the engine still does not crank, the neutral switch is 
out of adjustment, or defective. 

If the engine cranks in the preceding steps, there are three possible de- 
fects: The wire from the battery terminal of the regulator to the ignition 
switch is loose or broken. The ignition switch starter terminal is defec- 
tive. The wire from the starter switch to the automatic transmission neu- 
tral switch, or to the starter relay, is loose or broken. 

If the engine will not crank but the starter relay clicks when the igni-. 
tion switch is operated, connect a heavy jumper from the relay battery ter- 
minal to the relay starter motor terminal, Fig. L-2, connection 4. If the 
engine cranks, replace the relay. If the engine does not crank, observe the 
spark when connecting and disconnecting the jumper. If there is a heavy 
spark, check the engine and starter drive. If the spark is weak, or if there 
is no spark at all, proceed as follows: 

Inspect the battery starter cables for corrosion and broken conduc- 
tors. Also check the ground cable to see if it is broken, or badly corroded. 
Inspect all cable connections and clean and tighten if necessary. 

If a heavy spark is obtained when the jumper wire is connected, remove 
all the spark plugs and attempt to crank the engine with the starter. If the 



— BATTERY 




L-4. Connections for making a starter no-load tost. To make this 
test, engine must be running at idling speed. 



153 



Fix Your Ford 

engine cranks with the spark plugs removed, water has probably leaked in- 
to the cylinders causing a hydrostatic lock. The cylinder heads must be 
removed and the cause of the internal coolant leakage corrected. 

If the engine does not crank, rock the car back and forth with the trans- 
mission in high gear, or in the case of an automatic transmission, loosen 
the starter mounting bolts to free the starter pinion. 

If the starter pinion, Fig. L-3, is locked, remove the starter from the 
engine and repair the starter drive. Also examine the teeth on the fly- 
wheel, ring gear, for wear and replace the parts necessary. 

If the starter drive is not locked, remove the starter from the engine 
and check it thoroughly. 




RELAY DOES 
NOT CUCK 



TEST AND RECHARGE 
OR REPLACE BATTERY 



I » CHECK STARTER RELAY 



RELAY CLICKS] 



CHECK IGNITION SWITCH 
AND STARTER RELAY AND 
INSPECT WIRING. REPAIR 
OR REPLACE. 

* 
TROUBLE OVER 



STARTER 
SPINS 



CHECK STARTER DRIVE 



1 



TROUBLE OVER 

I » CONNECT JUMPER ACROSS 
STARTER RELAY 



ENGINE DOES 
NOT CRANK 



ENGINE 
CRANKS 



CHECK CONNECTIONS AND CABLES, 
CHECK FOR LOCKED STARTER-DRIVE 
OR HYDROSTATIC LOCK. 
REPAIR OR REPLACE. 



( I REPLACE 
RELAY 



* 
TROUBLE OVER 



TROUBLE OVER 



L-5. Starter trouble shooting. 

If the starter spins but does not crank the engine when the starter 
switch is operated, the starter drive is worn or dirty and is sticking on the 
starter shaft, or is broken. It will then be necessary to remove the starter 
and replace the starter drive, or repair it. 

If the engine cranks slowly when the ignition and starter switch is op- 
erated, several things may cause this condition. The battery may be low in 
charge, there may be excessive resistance in the starter circuit. The 
starter may be faulty, or there may be excessive friction in the engine. 

In addition to checking the battery, carefully examine and check the en- 
tire starter circuit. 



154 



Starter Testing 

MAKING A STARTER NO-LOAD TEST 

To make a starter no-load test on the engine, the engine must be run- 
ning at idle speed to prevent the starter drive from engaging the flywheel. 
With the engine idling, make the ammeter connections as shown in Fig. 
L-4. The no-load current draw on the ammeter should be 110 amp. max- 
imum. 



155 



LIGHTING SYSTEM 
SERVICE 



A typical wiring circuit diagram for the exterior and instrument lights 
is shown in Fig. M-l. A complete electrical wiring diagram is shown in 
Fig. M-2. 

AIMING THE HEADLIGHTS 

All headlight adjustments are to be made with a full fuel tank, 'an empty 
car and recommended pressure in all tires. Before each adjustment, 
bounce the car by pushing on the center of each bumper to level the car. 

To align the No. 1 headlights, (inboard lights) by means of a wall 
screen, Fig. M-3, select a level floor. Establish the headlight horizontal 
center line by subtracting 20 in. from the actual measured height of the 
headlight lens center from the floor and adding this dimension (dimension 
B, upper diagram, Fig. M-4) to the 20 in. reference line obtained by sight- 
ing above the uprights. Draw a horizontal line 2 in. below, and parallel to 
the headlight horizontal center line. Then draw the headlight vertical cen- 
ter lines on the screen as measured on the car, (dimension A, upper dia- 

M-7. Diagram of exterior and instrument light circuit. 



RIGHT OUTER HEADLIGHT 



TO MAIN WIRING 
ASSEMBLY 



Block Blu* Band 



RIGHT REAR 

LIGHT 
Gr««n 




>.d Block Bond 
■ LEFT OUTER HEADLIGHT 



Lighting System Service 



J* <frl 



M M !! 
HmSli 




157 



Fix Your Ford 



.ESTABLISH VERTICAL CENTERLINE ON WALL 

.POINTS. ARRIVED AT BY SIGHTING OVER 20" 

UPRIGHTS. REPRESENT THE 20" HEIGHT 

REGARDLESS OF ACTUAL 

DISTANCE FROM FLOOR 



PLACE WHERE CENTERLINE OF FRONT AXLE 
WOULD BE. WITH VEHICLE IN POSITION 



PLACE WHERE CENTERLINE OF REAR AXLE, 
WOULD BE. WITH VEHICLE IN POSITION 



20" HIGH, 

AND BOTH 

EXACTLY 

THE SAME 




M-3. Floor plan used when aiming headlights. 

gram Fig. M-4). 

Adjust each No. 1 headlight (inner light) beam as shown in Fig. M-4, 
covering the No. 2 lights when making the adjustment. Each headlight is 
adjusted by means of two screw located under the headlight trim ring as 
shown in Fig. M-5. Always bring each beam into final position by turning 
the adjusting screws clockwise so the headlights will be held against the 
tension springs when operation is completed. 



-DIMENSION "A' 



LINE OF ADJUSTMENT 



<t OF LEFT NO. 1 — •" 
HEADLIGHT 



X 



<t OF VEHICLE 



HORIZONTAL <t 
OF HEADLIGHTS 



<t OF RIGHT NO. 1 
HEADLIGHT 



HEADLIGHTS 25 FEET 
FROM WALL 



NO. 1 LIGHT HIGH BEAM DIAGRAM 

DIMENSION "A" 



<t OF LEFT NO. 2 
HEADLIGHT 



LINE OF ADJUSTMENT 
AND HORIZONTAL 
t OF HEADLIGHTS 



■<tOF VEHICLE 



-<t OF RIGHT NO. 2 
HEADLIGHT 



20" LINE 



NO 2 LIGHT LOW BEAM DIAGRAM 
M-4. Light patterns for headlight aiming. 



158 



■ INTERMEDIATE AND HIGH SHIFTER FORK 

-LOW AND REVERSE SHIFTER FORK 
,CAM AND SHAFT ASSEMBLY 
GASKET 



HOUSING ASSEMBLY 
LOCK WASHER 
SCREW 




SPRING 

LOCK PLUNGER 



LOCK WASHERS NUT 

P-3. Gear shift housing, all models except Fair/one and Falcon. 



dummy countershaft, and the cluster gear will drop into the case. Remove 
the extension housing and output shaft from the case as a unit. Some of the 
output shaft roller bearings may fall into the bottom of the case when the 
shaft is pulled to the rear. Take care not to lose any of the bearings. Re- 
move the snap ring from the forward ring of the output shaft, and slide the 
synchronizer, the intermediate gear and the low and reverse gear, from 
the shaft. 

Disassemble the synchronizer by sliding the sleeve off the hub, and re- 
moving the three inserts, the wave washer and the spring. To remove the 
output shaft and bearing from the extension housing, remove the snap ring 
that holds the bearing outer race in the housing, then tap the bearing and 
shaft out of the housing together. The bearing can be removed from the 
shaft by removing the speedometer gear snap ring, the gear and the driving 
ball, and then pressing the gear off the shaft. 

Remove the input shaft bearing retainer from the case. If the input seal 
is to be replaced, a special puller is usually employed. Tap the input shaft 
and bearing out the front end of the transmission case, using a soft ham- 
mer. Remove the pilot roller bearings. If the input bearing is to be re- 
placed, it should be pressed from the shaft with a press. If the bearing 
does not have a built-in shield, a baffle is used at the rear of the bearings. 
It spins with the input shaft. It must be installed with the dished side away 
from the bearing so the baffle does not rub the outer race of the bearing. 

With a brass drift, drive the reverse idler shaft out of the rear of the 
case. Remove the cluster gear from the case. Push the dummy shaft, rol- 
ler bearings, flat washers and bearing spacer out of the cluster gear. 

Reassembly of this transmission is done in the reverse order. 

TRANSMISSION DISASSEMBLY (144-170-221 CU. In.) 

Transmission disassembly of transmission used on 1960-1962 Falcon 
and 221 cu. in. Fairlane cars, Fig. P-4, is as follows: Remove the trans- 
mission cover and gasket. Remove the extension housing. To prevent the 



178 



Ford Transmissions 

In the case of the 1963 four speed, floor shift transmission, Fig. P-l, 
it is also necessary to remove the gear shift selector lever boot retainer. 
Also working under the boot, remove the shift lever retaining bolts and re- 
move the selector lever from the shift assembly. 

Disconnect the parking brake cable. Support the engine with a jack. Re- 
move the bolts that attach the extension housing to the engine rear support. 
Raise the rear end of the engine and remove the engine rear support and 
frame cross member. Support the transmission on a jack. Then remove 
the bolts that attach the transmission to the flywheel housing. Install guide 
pins in the two lower bolt holes. Move the transmission to the rear until 
the input shaft clears the flywheel housing. On some models it may be nec- 
essary to lower the engine slightly to get sufficient clearance. 

On Thunderbird models it is also necessary to remove clutch pedal 
linkage. On 1958 to 1960 Thunderbird models, it is also necessary to re- 
move the exhaust pipe. 



— -si' c k\ 



/ READING RETAINER £ 

/ ' 



■V 







BUSHING 
EXTENSION HOUSING 



INPUT SHAFT 

SEAL CASKET 



CASE 
INTERMEDIATE ANO HIGH SlEEVE 



LOW AND REVERSE GEAR 

DRIVE BALI 



SLOCKING RING 



J >. BEARING ROL 



' / HUB ,\ 

SN *\" N0 / INSERTS / / >\5fe If 

i £()*¥ ^<^ § M/ blocking RING 



THRUST WASHER 



INSERT SPRINGS MAR 

CLUSTER GEAR 



/' \ T$**^ 



- COUNTERSHAFT 
RETAINING RIN 



FLAT WASHERS 



THRUST WASHER - 



-BEARING ROLLERS 



REVERSE IDLER GEAR 



P-2. Typical of 1955-1963 three speed conventional drive transmission. 



THREE SPEED TRANSMISSION DISASSEMBLY 1963-1956 

This description applies particularly to Galaxie and similar models, 
Fig. P-2. It also applies in general to models built previous to 1956. In- 
structions covering 1963-1962 Fairlane and Falcon models are given later. 

After draining lubricant from the transmission, remove the gear shift 
housing, Fig. P-3, and the shifter forks from the transmission. Remove 
the bolts that hold the extension housing to the transmission case, Fig. 
P-2. Drive the countershaft out through the rear of the case with a pilot or 



177 



FORD 
TRANSMISSIONS 



TRANSMISSION REMOVAL 1963-1955 

Raise the car on jacks or on a hoist. Disconnect the drive shaft from 
the rear universal joint flange. Then slide the drive shaft off the trans- 
mission output shaft. To prevent lubricant from leaking from the trans- 
mission, the transmission should be drained. Disconnect the speedometer 
cable from the extension housing. Also disconnect shift and interlock rods 
at the transmission. 



REVEKSE SHIFTED 

LOCK PIN EXTENSION 

HOUSING 




FRONT REVERSE 
IDLER GEAR 



P-l. Details of 1963 four speed transmission. 

176 



Overhauling Clutch 

CLUTCH NOISY WHEN PEDAL IS THREE-QUARTER 
TO FULLY DEPRESSED 

If noise occurs only when pedal is three-quarter to fully depressed 
with the engine running, the probable cause is misalignment between the 
engine and the flywheel housing, friction between pressure plate lugs and 
the openings in the cover, or a loose or worn pilot bearing or bushing. 

CLUTCH DOES NOT ENGAGE OR DISENGAGE PROPERLY 

If the clutch slips, chatters, or grabs, check and, if necessary, adjust 
the clutch free travel. Inspect the clutch facings for oil or grease, and cor- 
rect any grease leaks from the release bearing, pilot bushing, release lev- 
er pivot, transmission or engine. If the clutch disk does not slide freely on 
the input shaft, replace disk and shaft. Check for loose, worn, or damaged 
parts, and replace any part that is not operating properly. 



175 



Fix Your Ford 

the flywheel housing. Then remove the pressure plate and disassembly 
from the flywheel. Note that the release bearing on this clutch is pre- 
lubricated and should not be cleaned in solvent. 

INSPECTING CLUTCH PARTS 

Inspect the surface of the pressure plate for excessive score marks, 
burned areas or ridges. If any of these conditions are present, replace the 
pressure plate. Slight scratches, burned areas or ridging may be removed 
with fine emery cloth, provided the surface flatness is maintained. If there 
is evidence of heat damage to the pressure plate, replace the release bear- 
ing as well as the pressure plate. 

Replace the clutch disc if it is greasy or oily. Check for possible 
sources of the grease or oil. Excessive transmission lubricant, or a plug- 
ged transmission vent, can force lubricant along the transmission input 
shaft and onto the clutch disc. Excessive lubricant on the pilot bushing, 
release bearing, or bearing hub, may also reach the disc, during operation. 

Inspect the clutch disc for worn and loose facings, loose rivets at the 
hub, broken springs, rusty or burred splines, and distortion. If any of these 
conditions are present, replace the disc. Loose disc springs will not affect 
the efficient, quiet operation of the clutch disc. 

Check to make sure the bushing in the end of the crankshaft is tight. 
Also check for excessive wear and out-of-round condition. 



CLUTCH TROUBLE SHOOTING 
CLUTCH NOISY, ENGINE STOPPED 

Noise that occurs when the pedal is moved up and down with the engine 
stopped is probably in the clutch linkage, or in the pressure plate and cov- 
er. If the linkage needs lubrication, use engine oil SAE 10W. If the pres- 
sure plate lugs squeak, they need lubrication. Use a lithium-base grease 
between the driving lugs and the edges of the pressure plate opening. 

CLUTCH NOISY WHEN PEDAL FREE TRAVEL IS TAKEN OUT 

With the engine running, depress the clutch pedal until all free travel 
is taken out. This brings the release bearing in contact with the release 
fingers, and causes the bearing to spin. If noise occurs at this point, the 
clutch release bearing has probably failed and must be replaced. Bearing 
failure may be caused by improper travel adjustment, flywheel housing 
misalignment, or improperly mounted bearing or release lever. Be sure 
to correct trouble in order to prevent future failures. 

174 



Overhauling Clutch 



the rearward nut. 

Because of the centrifugal action of the weighted clutch fingers, the 
free travel of the clutch will decrease with the engine's speed. The travel 
should therefore be measured with the engine idling. Also at speeds of ap- 
proximately 3000 r.p.m. the clutch pedal free travel should be at least 1/2 
in. 



rtESSUK WATt 
AND COVE* 




0-4. Clutch mounting and linkage. Typical. 

CLUTCH REMOVAL 

On 1963 to 1957 Ford models remove the transmission as outlined in 
the Chapter on Transmissions. Then remove the flywheel housing cover or 
inspection cover as the case maybe. Remove the release lever retracting 
spring. Then slide the release bearing and hub off the release lever. Loos- 
en the cover attaching bolts evenly to release the pressure plate spring 
tension. If the same pressure plate and cover is to be reinstalled, mark 
the cover and the flywheel so the pressure plate can be replaced in its 
original position. Remove the cover and pressure plate, and the clutch disc 
through the opening at the bottom of the flywheel housing. Remove the 
clutch release lever. 

To remove the clutch on the 1960 to 1963 Falcon car, first remove the 
transmission, as described in the chapter on transmissions, and discon- 
nect the retracting spring and release rod. After removing the flywheel 
housing dust cover, remove the hub and release bearing assembly. Remove 



173 




0-2. Falcon and Fairlane clutch details. 

The method of making the adjustment varies slightly in different in- 
stallations. However on most installations it is made by adjusting the 
length of the clutch pedal to equalizer rod shown in Figs. 0-3 and 0-4. To 
increase the free travel, loosen the rearward adjusting nut and tighten the 
forward nut. To reduce the free travel, loosen the forward nut and tighten 



HIGH ANO-tNTERMEDIATE 
CONNECTING HOD 




0-3. Clutch and transmission linkage. Note pedal-to-equalizer 
rod which controls pedal free play of clutch. 



172 



Overhauling the 
FORD CLUTCH 



The clutch used in Ford cars is of the Long type and is noted for giving 
exceptionally long life. The type illustrated in Fig. O-l used on the 1963 
Galaxie models has been used for many years on both six and eight cylin- 
der models. The type illustrated in Fig. 0-2 is used on the Falcon and 
1963-1962 Fairlane models. 

Freedom from slipping and maximum clutch life can be obtained only 
if the clutch pedal is given sufficient free play. Free play in the clutch ped- 
al should be maintained between 1 in. and 1-1/2 in. To check the amount 
of free play, depress the clutch pedal by hand, and measure the distance 
the pedal pad moves before the beginning of clutch disengagement is felt. 



TRANSMISSION 
INPUT SHAFT 



RELEASE BEARING 

i RELEASE BEARING HUB 



INPUT SHAFT 
SEAL 




RELEASE 
LEVER 



CLUTCH DISC 



C1133-A 



0-7. Details of Ford clutch as used on 223 co. In. six and V-8 models 



171 




Top, 1962 Ford. Center, J 96? Ford, Bottom, 1960 Ford. 



170 



Accessory, Instrument Service 

the thermostat switch set for maximum cooling, and the blower on high. 
Flow in the sight glass indicates an undercharge of refrigerant. 

All compressor service operations, except belt replacement, can be 
performed only after the unit has been isolated from the rest of the sys- 
tem. 

To isolate the compressor from the system, turn both the high and the 
low pressure service valve to the extreme clockwise position. Loosen the 
cap on the high pressure service valve gauge port, and allow the gas to 
escape until the compressor is relieved of refrigerant pressure. Loosen 
the cap a small amount only, and do not remove it until the pressure is 
completely relieved. 

To connect the compressor back into the system, evacuate the com- 
pressor at the high pressure service valve gauge port, close the vacuum 
pump valve, turn both service valves to the maximum counterclockwise 
position, and cap the high pressure service valve gauge port as service 
valve stems. 

The oil level in the compressor should be checked after the system has 
been charged, and has been operating at an engine speed of 1500 r.p.m. for 
15 minutes at 60 deg. F. Turn off the engine and isolate the compressor, 
as described above. Remove the oil filter plug from the compressor, and 
insert a flattened 1/8 in. diameter rod in the oil filter hole until it bot- 
toms. The rod should show 3/4 in. of oil. This is equivalent to 9 oz. of oil. 
If additional oil is needed in the compressor, add Suniso 5G, or Capella D 
refrigerator compressor oil, or equivalent. 



169 



Fix Your Ford 

Since the wiper motor is serviced as an assembly, it is recommended 
that no further disassembly of the motor be attempted. Before removing 
the motor, make sure that all vacuum lines to the motor are clear and un- 
obstructed, as most of the trouble experienced with this type wiper results 
from broken vacuum lines. 

TIPS ON AIR CONDITIONING 

The refrigerant used in Ford air conditioner systems, Fig. N-7, is non- 
poisonous, nonflammable, noncorrosive, and has practically no odor. It 
is also heavier than air. While it is classified as a safe refrigerant, cer- 
tain precautions are necessary when servicing the system. 



EXPANSION VALVE 



IOW PRESSURE 
SERVICE VALVE 




HIGH PRESSURE LIQUID 
LOW PRESSURE LIQUID 
HIGH PRESSURE GAS 
LOW PRESSURE GAS 



RUPTURE 
DISC 



RECEIVER 



CONDENSER 
N-7. Schematic drawing of air conditioner system. 



The factory states that only refrigerant 12 should be used. This evap- 
orates so quickly that it tends to freeze anything that it contacts. There- 
fore, extreme care must be taken to prevent any liquid from coming in 
contact with the skin or eyes in the event that some emergency makes it 
necessary to service the system. 

The refrigerant is readily absorbed by mineral oil and it is recom- 
mended that a bottle of sterile mineral oil be kept available. 

While the refrigerant is nonpoisonous, the discharge of the refrigerant 
near an open flame can produce a very poisonous gas. 

Because of the expense of obtaining tanks of refrigerant, it would not 
pay an individual to attempt to service the air conditioner. However, to 
tell whether there is sufficient fluid in the system, a sight glass is pro- 
vided. When observing the sight glass, run the engine at 1500 r.p.m. with 



168 



Accessory, Instrument Service 

shield. Fine adjustment of the blade part position on the single speed elec- 
tric wiper may be made by moving the switch contact plate slightly. 

REMOVING THE WIPER MOTOR 

To remove the electric wiper motor, Fig. N-6, from a car with air con- 
ditioning, remove the glove box liner, radio speaker assembly, radio and 
right defroster nozzle to instrument panel brace, if so equipped. Remove 
the wiper motor to the radio speaker opening. To remove the wiper motor, 
proceed as follows: First remove the two bolts retaining the wiper motor, 
and lower the motor. Disconnect the motor wire at the bullet connector. 
Loosen the screw retaining the wiper control table at the motor, and dis- 
connect the cable. 

Place the new wiper motor under the instrument panel, and connect and 
adjust the wiper control cable. 

Connect the motor wire to the bullet connector. Install the wiper motor 
retaining bolts, and check the wiper operation. 




TESTING CONNECTIONS ring GEAR 

TO PARK RETAINER 

B TERMINAL TO VOITAGE SOURCE 

C TERMINAL TO Blue AND Red 

Yellow TO While 

Block TO GROUND 
TO OPERATE AT LOW SPEED 

Red AND Yellow TO VOLTAGE SOURCE 

Blue TO While 

Black TO GROUND 

■ AND C TERMINALS NO CONNECTION 
TO OPERATE AT HIGH SPEED 

Te//ow TO VOLTAGE SOURCE 

Blue TO While 
Block TO GROUND 

■ AND C TERMINALS AND Red NO CONNECTION 



GEAR 
HOUSING 



CAM RETURN 
SPRING ASSEMBLY 



N-6. Two speed electric windshield wiper motor. 

VACUUM WINDSHIELD WIPER 

If service is required on the motor assembly, control assembly or piv- 
ot shaft assemblies, they may be removed separately. 

To remove the motor and mounting plate assembly, first remove the 
cowl top ventilator grille, and weatherstrip assembly. Then disconnect the 
pivot shaft assembly links from the motor shaft arm. Remove the two mo- 
tor mounting plate bolts. Drop the motor down and disconnect the vacuum 
line and control cable. 



167 



Fix Your Ford 




IGNITION SWITCH 



-^^X.JJ' CHARGE INDICA' 



INWCATOR UGHT 
ON INSTRUMENT PANE! 



N-5. Generator charge indicator light circuit. 

minal of the generator regulator and the coil terminal of the ignition 
switch, Fig. N-5. This actually places the light in parallel with the regu- 
lator cutout contacts. If the ignition switch is on, and the cutout contacts 
are open, the charge indicator light will light up, indicating that the gen- 
erator is not connected to the battery. The circuit for the light is from the 
battery, through the light, and through the generator armature to ground. 
As soon as the generator comes up to speed, the cutout contacts close. 
This bypasses the warning light, which then goes out and indicates that the 
battery is connected to the generator. 

To test the charge indicator light, turn the ignition switch on with the 
engine stopped. The light should come on. If it does not, the light is either 
burned out or the wiring to the light is defective. 

SPEEDOMETER SERVICE 

Trouble with the speedometer will be caused by a defective speedom- 
eter instrument itself, or by breakage of the flexible shaft which connects 
the instrument to the transmission. 

To remove the speedometer on all models except the Falcon, it is nec- 
essary to remove the instrument cluster assembly. Then remove the 
speedometer assembly retaining screws, and remove the assembly from 
the instrument cluster. Remove the speedometer assembly to housing re- 
taining screws and remove the speedometer head. 

To replace the speedometer drive cable, disconnect the cable housing 
at the speedometer, and pull the cable out of the housing. If a speedometer 
cable is broken, it will be necessary to disconnect both ends of the cable 
housing in order to remove the broken sections. 

Always lubricate the cable before installing it in its housing. 

WINDSHIELD WIPER BLADE ADJUSTMENT 

Turn the ignition switchto the accessory position momentarily with the 
wiper control off. After bringing the pivot shafts to their rest positions, 
install the wiper blades so they lie flat against the lower edge of the wind- 



166 



Accessory, Instrument Service 

HEAT INDICATOR SERVICE 

The temperature gauge, Fig. N-4, consists of a sending unit mounted in 
the engine cylinder head, and the gauge or remote register unit mounted 
on the panel. The principle of operation is the same as the fuel gauge, and 
the test procedure is also the same. The sending unit can be tested as fol- 
lows: Start the engine and bring it up to operating temperature. If no read- 
ing is indicated on the gauge, check the sending unit to gauge wire by re- 
moving the wire from the sending unit, and momentarily ground the wire. 
If the gauge still does not indicate, the wire is defective. If the gauge now 
indicates, the sending unit is defective. 

On all recent models it is necessary to remove the instrument cluster 
from the panel to replace the temperature gauge remote register unit. 

OIL PRESSURE INDICATOR 

All models are equipped with a red indicator light which flashes on 
when the oil pressure is below a safe value. The light should come on when 
the ignition switch is first turned on and it should go out when the engine 
comes up to speed. The light is connected between the oil pressure switch 
unit, and the coil or ignition terminal of the ignition switch. 

To test the oil pressure switch on the engine, turn the ignition switch 
on, with the engine not running. The indicator light should come on. If the 
indicator light does not come on, short the terminal of the oil pressure 
switch unit to ground. If the light now comes on, the oil pressure switch 
is defective. If the light does not come on, the bulb is burned out, or the 
wires from the bulb to the ignition switch and oil pressure switch are de- 
fective. 




HEAT ' TEMPERATURE 
CONDUCTOR SENSING 
DISC ELEMENT 



TO GAS 
GAUGE 



N-4. Temperature gauge circuit. 

CHARGE INDICATOR LIGHT 

A red light is used to indicate whether the generator is charging. This 
light flashes on if the battery is discharging, and the generator is not sup- 
plying current. The indicator light is connected between the armature ter- 



165 



Fix Your Ford 

other Ford models, and the procedure is as follows: Disconnect the battery 
cable, then remove the steering column cover plate. Disconnect the speed- 
ometer cable at the speedometer head. Disconnect the instrument cluster 
wiring harness from the retaining clips at the rear of the instrument panel. 
Then remove the panel retaining screws which will permit the panel to be 
pulled out. 

On the Falcon models, it is not necessary to remove the entire instru- 
ment cluster in order to remove the individual instruments, as the instru- 
ments are mounted on the outer face of the cluster. To remove any instru- 
ment on this car, remove the cluster lens retaining screws and remove the 
lens. Remove the instrument retaining screws, pull the instruments away 
from the panel, and disconnect the wires or cables. 




TO OTHtt GAUGfS 



~i TOIGMmON 
.»'*' SWITCH 




N-3. Fuel gauge circuit. 



HINTS ON SERVICING FUEL GAUGES 

The system for measuring the amount of fuel in the tank consists of two 
units, one in the tank and the other on the instrument panel, Fig. N-3. A 
constant voltage regulator of the vibrating type, Fig. N-l , is used to main- 
tain the voltage at an even 5.0 volts. When the fuel tank is empty, the 
grounded sliding contact in the tank sending unit is at the end of the re- 
sistance wire, so that only a small amount of current will flow through the 
coil in the gauge unit. The gauge unit will then deflect the pointer to the 
empty position. When the tank is filled, the float rises, moving the contact 
arm, cutting out resistance so that more current will flow to the gauge 
unit. The gauge will then indicate full. To test the accuracy- of the gauge 
unit, place the ignition switch in the off position. Connect two flashlight 
batteries in series, and connect them to the gauge unit. Approximately full 
scale reading should be indicated on the gauge. After checking the gauge 
unit, the sending unit in the tank should be checked. If the gauge unit checks 
correctly with the battery test, but is inaccurate when the ignition switch 
is turned on, the tank unit is defective and should be replaced. 

164 



Accessory, Instrument Service 

when the brake is applied, check the lamp bulb, socket and wiring. If both 
stop light bulbs fail to burn, also check the stop light switch and wiring. 
If stop light burns when pedal is released, check the stop light switch. Also 
check brake pedal clearance. Make sure compensating port in master cyl- 
inder is clear, also that it is not obstructed by piston primary cup. 

TURN SIGNAL INDICATOR 

The usual trouble encountered with turn signals is burned out bulbs. 
This condition is indicated by a change in the rate of clicking of the flash- 
light unit, as well as the failure of the bulb to burn. If trouble is found to 
be in the switch, it is necessary to remove the steering wheel and horn 
contacts ring. The horn button or ring can be removed by pressing down 
evenly on the button, and turning the button counterclockwise until it lifts 
out. Then remove the nut from the end of the steering shaft. The steering 
wheel can then be pulled from the shaft. The turn signal is then accessible 
and can be adjusted or removed as needed. Make sure that the cancelling 
cam on the steering wheel makes contact with the cancelling pawls on the 
switch. The clearance between the steering wheel hub, and the steering 
shaft housing flange should not be more than 1/16 in. for proper switch 
cancelling. Reposition the steering shaft housing if necessary. 

The flasher unit for the turn signal is located on the back of the instru- 
ment panel as shown in Fig. N-l,andthe wiring diagram in Fig. N-2. 

INSTRUMENT PANEL 

The reverse side of the instrument panel used on the 1962 Galaxie Mod- 
el, showing the wiring and location of the various instruments is shown in 
Fig. N-l. The instrument cluster can be removed as a unit on this and 



FLASHER 

Oronge Ve/low / 




Orange Blue Stripe G< 



TURN SIGNAL SWITCH V — 



Orange Blue Strip* 



. While Blue Stripe 




0- 



LEFT REAR LIGHT, 



/ Gfn 

Green Orange Stripe 



NOTI: 4 18 Wire Size THROUGHOUT 



KUH-i 

N-2. Wiring diagram of turn signal indicator (1962 Galaxie). 



163 



ACCESSORY AND 
INSTRUMENT SERVICE 



CIRCUIT BREAKER AND FUSES 

The electrical circuit is protected by circuit breakers and fuses, Figs. 
N-l and N-6. The circuit breaker protects the headlight circuit, and to- 
gether with the fuse panel forms a single unit with the headlight switch, 
which is mounted on the instrument panel. 



-Red-Whrte Slripe__ TEMPERATURE GAUGE CONSTANT HIGH BEAM 

Block-Green VOLTAGE ""'INDICATOR-. 

Strip* REGULATOR Green-Block Orange- Vel/ow 



TURN SIGNAL FLASHER 



Black -Green Stripe 
LIGHT* 




' LIGHTS Blue-Red Stripe 



ACCESSORY TERMINAL " A "'■' I 



N-l. Rear view of typical instrument panel. Note turn signal flasher. 



STOP LIGHT SWITCH 

The stop light switch is located at the end of the brake master cylinder 
as shown in Figs. U-21 and U-22. It is easily replaced by first discon- 
necting the wires and then turning | the unit out with a wrench. Care should 
be taken not to apply the brakes while the stop light switch is removed, as 
it will then be necessary to bleed the brake system. 

In most cases, trouble will be found to be in a burned out light bulb, 
rather than a defective stoplight switch. If only one stop light fails to burn 

162 



Lighting System Service 

Turn the knob clockwise as far as possible and pull it out of the switch. 
Unscrew the mounting nut, remove the bezel and switch and remove the 
fuse panel from the switch. To replace the unit, install switch, connect the 
fuse panel to the headlight switch, insert the switch in the instrument pan- 
el, and install the bezel and mounting nut. Install the knob and shaft assem- 
bly by inserting it all the way into the switch until a distinct click is heard. 
In some instances it may be necessary to rotate the switch slightly until 
it engages the switch contact carrier. 



161 



Fix Your Ford 



INSTRUMENT LIGHTS 



The instrument panel light bulbs can be replaced by pulling out the in- 
dividual light sockets from the rear of the instrument panel, Fig. N-l. 

DOME LIGHT 

To replace a dome light bulb, remove the two screws retaining the 
dome light lens and bezel. Remove the lens and bezel, which will permit 
the removal and replacement of the light bulb. 

HEADLIGHT BEAM SELECTOR SWITCH 

To replace the headlight beam selector switch, lay the floor mat back 
from the area of the switch and remove the mounting screws. Disconnect 
the wire terminal block from the switch. The new switch is installed by 
reversing the procedure. 

HEADLIGHT SWITCH 

A combination headlight switch and fuse block is shown in Fig. M-6, 
which is typical of those used on recent model Ford, Falcon and Fairlane 
cars. To remove the switch, first remove the control knob and shaft by 
pressing the release button on the side of the switch housing, Fig. M-6. 



RADIO 

TERMINAL, 

7.5 AMPERE 

FUSE 



TURN SIGNAL 

TERMINAL, 

Orange-Yellow 

Band 

7.5 AMPERE 

FUSE 




Black Green \ "* Yellow 

HEATER TERMINAL Band CLOCK TERMINAL, 

grown 1 AMPERE FUSE 

14 AMPERE FUSE 



M-6. Details of typical headlight switch and fuse block. 

160 



Lighting System Service 

After adjusting the No. 1, headlights, the No. 2 (outer lights) are ad- 
justed. To do this, a new diagram is needed, lower diagram Fig. M-4. 
Dimension B for the No. 2 lights is the same as B for the No. 1 lights. 
Dimension A is as measured on the car. Note that the line of adjustment 
of the No. 2 lights is the horizontal center line of the No. 2 lights. Turn the 
headlights to low beam, and adjust each No. 2 light as shown in diagram 
Fig. M-4. 

Some states may not approve of the 2 in. dimension for No. 1 head- 
lights. Check with the state motor vehicle department as possibly they may 
require a 3 in. dimension. 

HEADLIGHT BULB REPLACEMENT 

To replace the headlight bulbs which are of the sealed beam type, re- 
move the retaining screws and headlight trim ring. Loosen the retaining 
ring screws Fig. M-5, rotate the retaining ring counterclockwise, and re- 

BULB VERTICAL 

RETAINING SCREWS ADJUSTING SCREW 




HORIZONTAL 
ADJUSTING SCREW KU53-A 

M-5. Adjusting headlights. 

move it. The headlight bulb can now be pulled forward far enough to dis- 
connect the wiring assembly plug. Plug in the new sealed beam light, mak- 
ing sure it is the correct type. Also be sure the locating tabs are placed 
in the positioning slots. Install the headlight bulb retaining ring and trim 
ring. 

WHEN LIGHTS ARE DIM 

When lights are dim, check the voltage at the lights. With the engine 
not running and after the lights have been burning for approximately 5 min- 
utes, the voltage at the headlights should not be less than 11.25 volts for 
twelve volt systems and 5.25 volts for six volt systems. If the voltage is 
less than specified, there is probably a loose or dirty connection some- 
where in the circuit which must be corrected in order to have lights op- 
erate at maximum brilliance. Also check the battery, paying particular 
attention to the battery and ground connections. 

159 



Ford Transmissions 

output shaft from following the housing (with resultant loss of needle bear- 
ings) tap the end of the output shaft with a soft hammer while withdrawing 
the extension housing. Remove the speedometer drive gear snap ring, the 
gear and drive ball from the output shaft. Remove the retainer for the idler 
shaft and countershaft, Fig. P-3. Drive the countershaft rearward out of 
the cluster gear and transmission case. Then carefully lower the cluster 
gear to the bottom of the transmission case. 

After removing the input shaft bearing retainer end gasket, remove the 
input shaft assembly and front synchronizing blocking ring from the trans- 
mission case. Remove the synchronizer retaining snap ring from the out- 
put shaft. Then, while holding the synchronizer assembly together, pull the 
output shaft out of the transmission case. Lift the synchronizer assembly, 
intermediate, low and reverse sliding gears out of the case, and remove 
the two shifter forks. For reference in assembly note which synchronizer 
hub end faces forward. 







COUHTBVUFT ^ my 

JQ^F mat shwt 



■tvani Bta oui 



P-4. Exploded view of Falcon and Fair lane transmissions, 1960-1962. 

Using a soft drift, drive the reverse idler shaft out of the transmission 
case. Lift the reverse idler gear, the idler shaft and the cluster gear out 
of the case. Remove the shift levers. From the underside of the case, use 
a punch to drive out the tapered pins that hold the cams and shifter shaft 
assemblies. Use a good firm blow. Then using a plastic hammer, drive the 
intermediate and high cam and shaft toward the outside of the case, and 
separate the balls and spring from the plunger. Push out the cam and shaft 



179 



Fix Your Ford 

assemblies and remove the plunger. Remove the snap ring securing the in- 
put shaft bearing, and press out the input shaft from the bearing and oil 
slinger. Remove the snap ring securing the output shaft bearing and press 
the shaft from the bearing. 

Remove the synchronizer blocking ring, inserts, and retainers from 
the synchronizer hub. Remove the flat washers, dummy shaft, spacer and 
needle bearings from the cluster rings. 

Assembly of this transmission is accomplished by reversing the above 
procedure. 

TRANSMISSION INSPECTION AND REPAIRS 

After the transmission has been disassembled, soak all the parts, ex- 
cept the bearings, in a cleaning solution until all the old lubricant is dis- 
solved or loosened. Brush or scrape all foreign matter from the parts. Be 
careful not to damage any of the parts with the scraper. 

Wipe or blow compressed air on the parts until they are completely 
dried. To clean the ball and roller bearings, rotate them in solvent until 




P-5. Checking runout, face of flywheel. 

all the old lubricant is removed. Dry these bearings with compressed air, 
but do not spin the bearings by means of the compressed air. Turn the 
bearings slowly by hand, and direct the compressed air at right angles to 
the assemblies. When the bearings are dry, lubricate them immediately 
with transmission lubricant. Then cover them with a dry lint-free cloth 
until ready for reinstallation. 

Inspect all parts carefully to see which can be used again. Use a mag- 
nifying glass if necessary and check for cracks, wear, chipped gears, gall 
marks, spline wear. Examine bearings for looseness, rough rotation, chip- 
ped rollers, cracked balls. 

180 



Ford Transmissions 



TRANSMISSION ALIGNMENT 

Alignment of the transmission, or flywheel housing bore, should always 
be checked as a possible cause of the transmission jumping out of gear, 
excessive transmission gear wear, vibration of the drive line, excessive 
pilot bushing wear, noisy release bearings, or excessive clutch spin time. 
To make a check, a dial gauge and a dummy pilot shaft and an adaptor plate 
are needed, Fig. P-5. 

Face alignment can be changed by placing U-shaped shims between the 
flywheel housing and the engine. No more than .010 in. shim thickness 
should be used. Shims may also be placed between the transmission and 
the flywheel housing. The limit here is also .010 in. 

FORD AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS 

The Fordomatic and Cruise-O-Matic transmissions require very little 
attention. Service and external adjustments are usually all that are re- 
quired. The Cruise-O-Matic transmission is shown in Fig. P-6, and the 
1959 to 1963 Fordomatic in Fig. P-7. The Cruise-O-Matic differs from the 
1958 Fordomatic in clutch and hydraulic control system. External adjust- 
ments and basic overhaul procedures for the two transmissions are, how- 
ever, the same. 

Usually all that is required is adjustment of the external controls. In 
the event major work is required, it is advisable to have the work per- 
formed by a shop having the necessary special tools and equipment; or if 
preferred, a complete rebuilt unit can be installed. 

Work that can be done which does not require special equipment in- 
cludes: Engine idle speed, maintaining fluid at correct level, and linkage 
adjustment. Normally the foregoing operations will serve to keep the auto- 
matic transmissions in good operating condition. 

HOW TO CHECK TRANSMISSION FLUID LEVEL 

The fluidlevel should be checked every 1000 miles. With the handbrake 
applied and the selector lever in the neutral position, run the engine at idle 
speed for approximately four minutes. 

With the hand brake still applied, and the engine idling, move the se- 
lector lever to the "park" position. When the engine and transmission 
reach normal operating temperature, move the selector lever through all 
its positions. This will insure full distribution of fluid throughout the 
transmission. Then place the selector lever in the "park" position. Clean 
all the dirt from the cap of the fluid level dip stick. The dip stick is then 
removed. Fluid level must be maintained at the full mark. 

Up to and including the 1961 model, Ford recommended that transmis- 
sion fluid be changed every 15,000 miles on early models, and every 24,000 
miles on later models. In 1962 the recommendation was that periodic 
changes were not necessary. 

181 



Fix Your Ford 




182 



Ford Transmissions 




183 



CARBURETOR CONNECTING LINK 

9 



ACCELERATOR 

BELLCRANK 

ASSEMBLY 




ACCELERATOR RETRACTING SPRING 

/ 

ACCELERATOR CONNECTING LINK 

DOWNSHIFT CONTROL ROD ' 

352 V-8 AND 390 V-8 

FLOOR MAT AND INSULATION — ""*\ 

P-8. Cruise-O-Matic throttle linkage on 1963-1960 models. 

To drain the fluid from the Fordomatic unit when required, remove the 
cover from the lower front side of the converter housing. Remove one of 
the converter drain plugs. Rotate the converter 180 deg. and remove the 
other plug. When the fluid has stopped draining from the converter, remove 
the transmission oil pan bolts, and loosen the front end of the oil pan care- 
fully to allow the oil to drain. Then remove the oil pan and screen and 
clean them thoroughly. 

To drain fluid from a Cruise-O-Matic transmission; after draining the 
fluid from the converter, as described for the Fordomatic, disconnect the 
fluid filler tube from the transmission oil pan. Then when the fluid has 
stopped draining from the transmission, remove and thoroughly clean the 
oil pan and screen. 

When refilling with fluid: Add 4 to 5 quarts of transmission fluid 
through the filler tube. Run the engine at idle speed for two minutes, then 
add additional fluid, 4 quarts. Run engine at fast idle until it reaches oper- 
ating temperature. Shift selector lever through all positions, place it in 
"P." Add enough fluid to bring level to full mark on dip stick. Total capac- 
ity of Cruise-O-Matic is 10 quarts and the Fordomatic ranges between 9 
and 10-1/2 depending on engine size. 

ADJUSTING THE IDLING SPEED 

Adjustment of the engine idling speed is of great importance for cor- 
rect operation of the automatic transmission. Complete details covering 
the adjustment of the engine idling speed are given in the chapter on Car- 
buretor and Fuel systems. 



184 



Ford Transmissions 



ANTI-STALL DASHPOT ADJUSTMENT 

To prevent engine stalling when the throttle is closed quickly, an anti- 
stall dashpot is provided on cars equipped with an automatic transmission. 
Details for adjusting this unit are given in the chapter on Carburetion. 

STARTER SWITCH ADJUSTMENT 

The starter neutral switch electrical circuit should be opened in all po- 
sitions of the transmission shift lever except "N" and "P." To adjust, 
loosen the neutral switch to steering column attaching screw. Then position 
the switch so the starter switch is closed when the transmission selector 
lever is at "N" and "P." 

THROTTLE LINKAGE ADJUSTMENT 

The object of throttle linkage adjustment is to adjust the linkage so 
there is correct relationship between carburetor throttle openings and the 
movement of the transmission throttle lever. If the linkage is correctly 
adjusted, the carburetor and transmission will combine to provide smooth 
shifting at proper speed. If not, slippage, bunched shifts, and rough shifting 
will result. 

PRELIMINARY STEPS 

The following steps or operations should be taken on all cars before 
making the actual adjustment of the throttle linkage. 

Apply the parking brake and with the selector lever in neutral, bring 
the engine up to operating speed and adjust the idle speed. The carburetor 
throttle lever must be against the idle adjustment screw with the engine 

at idle speed. 

Adjust the anti-stall dashpot clearance, as was previously described. 

1963-1960 CRUISE-O-MATICS: Disconnect the carburetor connecting 
link from the accelerator bellcrank assembly. Insert a gauge pin 1/4 in. 
in diameter through the gauge pin holes, Fig. P-8. Lift the carburetor con- 
necting link to its normal operating position. Maintain forward pressure 
on it so the carburetor throttle lever is held solidly against the idle adjust- 
ing screw. With forward pressure on the link, adjust its length so that the 
sleeve can be freely fitted into the accelerator assembly lever. From this 
free -fit position, rotate the sleeve one full turn counterclockwise to 
lengthen the link. Remove the gauge pin and connect the link to the accel- 
erator assembly lever. 

Check the alignment of the gauge pin holes. Open the throttle and permit 
the throttle linkage retracting spring to return the linkage to the hot idle 
position. Now the gauge pin must enter freely. If necessary, readjust the 
carburetor connecting link to obtain free entry for the gauge. 

Adjust the accelerator connecting link to obtain a pedal-height of 

185 



ACCEIEHATOR KUCKANK ASSEMWY 



ACCEIERATO* CONNECTING UNK 




FIOOR MA! AND INSUUTION - 



P-9. Throttle linkage as used on 223 co. In. six with Fordomatic. 

3-11/16 in. on the 1962 and 1961 models. On the 1960 models it should be 
3-1/2 in. Measure from top corner of the pedal to the floor mat, Fig. P-8. 

1963-1962 223 CU. IN. FORDOMATIC: After making the usual prelim- 
inary adjustments, adjust the accelerator connecting link length to obtain 
an accelerator pedal height of 3-11/16 in., Fig. P-9. Measure from top 
corner of the pedal to the floor mat. Adjust the down shift control rod so 
that 1/4 in. gauge pin will fit freely and repeatedly into gauge pin hole. 

1962 V-8 FORDOMATIC: After making the usual preliminary adjust- 
ment, adjust the accelerator connecting link to obtain a pedal height of 
3-11/16 in., Fig. P-9. Disconnect the carburetor connecting link from the 
carburetor. Insert a 1/4 in. gauge pin through the holes in the bellcrank 
assembly. Adjust the carburetor connecting link so the gauge pin will re- 
peatedly slide in and out of the holes when the carburetor link is connected 
to the linkage. 



186 



ACCtlBATO* CONNKIWO UNK 




ROOIPANUNf 



P-10. Method of making throttle linkage adjustments on 1962-1963 Fairlane. 

1963-1962 FAIRLANE V-8: After making the usual preliminary adjust- 
ments, adjust the accelerating connecting link to obtain an accelerator 
pedal height of 3-15/16 in., Fig. P-10. A quarter inch gauge pin should 
freely enter the gauging holes, Fig. P-10. Remove pin and road test car. 
If down shift problems still exist, check for bent linkage. 

1963-1962 FAIRLANE 170 SIX: Make preliminary adjustment then ad- 
just Tinnerman spring type nut on the down shift adjustment rod to obtain 
a dimension of 2-5/16 in. at B, Fig. P-10. If this dimension must be re- 
duced more than 1/4 in. to obtain a kick down shift, check for bent linkage 
and incorrect pedal height. 

1961-1958 FORD 223 CU. IN. SIX: On Fordomatic after making prelim- 
inary adjustments, and with the engine stopped and the carburetor at its 
hot idle position, remove the lock from the turnbuckle on the upper end of 
the throttle control rod, Fig. P-ll. Loosen the turnbuckle lock nut. Dis- 



187 



Fix Your Ford 

connect the turnbuckle at the lever and pull the throttle control rod upward, 
to hold the throttle lever against the stop inside the transmission. Turn 
the throttle rod turnbuckle until the pin enters the hole in the lever 
Lengthen the throttle rod 3-1/2 turns except on 1959 models, lengthen 
throttle rod 3-1/8 turns and on 1958 models 2-1/2 turns. Secure throttle 
rod. Adjust accelerator pedal height by turning trunnion on accelerator 
connecting link to 3-1/2 in., except 1959 and 1958 models which should 
be 3-1/8 in. 

1961-1959 FORD V-8: On Fordomatic, after preliminary adjustments 
and with the engine stopped, disconnect the carburetor connecting link from 
the accelerator assembly. Insert a 1/4 in. gauge pin through the gauging 
hole, Fig. P- 11. Lift the carburetor connecting link to its normal operating 
position. Maintain forward pressure on it so the carburetor throttle lever 
is held solidly against the idle adjusting screw. With forward pressure on 
the link, adjust its length so the threaded sleeve can be freely fitted into 
the accelerator assembly lever. 

Check the alignment of the gauge pin holes. Open the throttle and per- 
mit the throttle linkage retracting spring to return the throttle to the hot 
idle position. Now the pin must enter freely. If necessary, readjust the 
carburetor adjusting link to obtain free entry of the gauge pin. 

Remove the gauge pin and adjust the throttle control rod. Pull upward 
gently to hold the transmission lever against the internal stop. Rotate the 
turnbuckle or clevis until the pin freely fits the accelerator assembly lev- 
er. Lengthen the throttle control rod by rotating the turnbuckle 3-1/2 
turns to obtain an approximate setting. Connect the throttle control to 
the accelerator assembly lever. 

Adjust the accelerator assembly connecting link to obtain a pedal height 
of 3-1/2 in. Measure from the top of the pedal to the floor mat, Fig. P-ll. 

HOW TO ADJUST CRUISE-O-MATIC BANDS 

Under ordinary conditions front and rear bands on the Cruise-O-Matic 
transmission require adjustment at approximately 15,000 miles. Toadjust 
the front band, Ford recommends a special tool. However, the following 
procedure is satisfactory. All that is needed is a 1/4 in. wide metal block 
and conventional box or end wrenches. Remove the transmission oil pan 
and back off adjusting screw lock nut and screw far enough to permit the 
1/4 in. metal block to be inserted between the servo piston rod and the ad- 
justing screw. Turn the adjusting screw until it contacts the quarter inch 
block. Tighten the adjusting screw to 10 in. lb. torque. Then back off the 
screw exactly one full turn. Severe damage may result to the transmission 
if the adjusting screw is not backed off exactly one full turn. Hold the ad- 
justing screw stationary and torque the lock nut to 20-25 ft. lb. torque. 

To adjust the rear band, loosen the lock nut and tighten adjusting screw 
to 10 ft. lb. torque. Then back off exactly one and one-half turns and tighten 
lock nut to 35-40 lb. torque. Rear band adjustment is reached through ac- 
cess hole under floor mat. 

188 



ACCtlMAIC* CONNKTING IINK 



MMSSUtf TISTMG UNI 




P-ll. 1961 -1958 Fordomatic throttle linkage. 

HOW TO ADJUST FORDOMATIC BANDS 

To adjust the front band on the Fordomatic transmission, Fig. P-7, the 
low band adjusting screw is threaded through the front left side of the case. 
Loosen the lock nut several turns. Tighten the adjusting screw to exactly 
10 ft. lb. and then back off exactly two turns. Hold the adjusting screw in 
this position and tighten lock nut to 35-40 ft. lb. If torque wrench is not 
available, turn adjusting screw in until resistance is felt indicating that 
band is snug against the drum, then back off two full turns. To adjust re- 
verse band a special tool is required in order to make the required accur- 
ate adjustment. 

MANUAL LINKAGE ADJUSTMENTS 

The basic procedure for adjusting the manual linkage on the Ford auto- 
matic transmissions, is to place the manual lever at the transmission in 
one of the drive positions, then adjust the connecting linkage so the selec- 
tor lever at the steering wheel indicates the same speed or drive. 



189 



Fix Your Ford 

HOW TO REPAIR FLUID LEAKS IN FORDOMATIC 

Leakage of transmission fluid at the rear end of the Fordomatic trans- 
mission is easily repaired by replacing the oil seal at the rear of the unit. 
Leakage at the various cover plates can be overcome by installation of new 
gaskets. 

To replace the oil seal at the rear of the transmission, first disconnect 
the propeller shaft at the rear axle end, and pull the shaft to the rear. Then 
by means of a puller, remove the seal from the transmission extension 



GOVEtNCM DDIVEN GtA« 




P-12. Disassembled overdrive unit. 



housing. To replace the seal, first position the seal in the bore of the ex- 
tension housing with the felt side of the seal to the rear. With a circular 
drift of the correct diameter, drive the seal in until it is firmly seated. 
Complete the job by replacing the drive shaft. 

190 



Ford Transmissions 

SHORT CUTS ON OVERDRIVE SERVICE 

Details of the overdrive unit, as used on Ford cars, are shown in Fig. 
P-12, and the wiring diagram is shown in Fig. P-13. 

MECHANICAL CHECKS: Raise the car and check the position of the 
overdrive control lever at the overdrive unit housing. The lever should 




iGNmoNCot 



P-13. Wiring diagram of 1963- 1961 overJr/ve unit. 



rest firmly against its stop at the rear. If the lever is not all the way back, 
the overdrive shift rail may be locking the pawl and preventing it from en- 
gaging the balk ring gear. With the engine stopped and the clutch engaged, 
shift the transmission to second or third gear, and shift the overdrive con- 
trol lever to automatic position. The drive shaft should then turn freely in 
the clockwise direction but should lock up when turned counterclockwise. 

With the transmission still in third or second gear, shift the overdrive 
control lever to the locked out position. The drive shaft should now lock up 
when turned in either direction. 

PAWL ENGAGEMENT CHECK: Check the mechanical engagement of 
the pawl with the balk ring gear, using the following procedures, turn on 
the ignition switch and raise the car. Shift the overdrive control lever to 
the locked out position and shift the transmission to neutral. Turn the 
drive shaft clockwise, and at the same time ground the white governor 
wire with a jumper. The solenoid should click indicating that it is ener- 
gized. 

Keep the solenoid engergized and shift the transmission to third or sec- 
ond gear to lock the transmission output shaft against rotation. Shift the 
overdrive control lever to the automatic position. Turn the drive shaft 
clockwise. At less than one quarter turn of the drive shaft, the pawl will 
engage the balk ring gear and lock the drive shaft against rotation in both 

191 



Fix Your Ford 

directions. If the pawl does not engage the balk ring gear, replace the sole- 
noid and repeat this test. If pawl still does not engage, remove the over- 
drive unit for inspection and repair. 

ELECTRICAL CHECKS: Turn the ignition switch off and on and listen 
for the relay or solenoid to click. If either clicks as soon as the switch is 
turned on, the governor circuit, Fig. P-13, is grounded or the relay is de- 
fective. To determine which condition is present, remove the wire from 
the TH-SW terminal on the relay and turn on the ignition switch. If the re- 
lay clicks, the relay is defective. If it does not click, the governor circuit 
is defective. 

SOLENOID CIRCUIT CHECK: With the engine stopped and the ignition 
switch on, ground the TH-SW terminal on the relay. If the relay and sole- 
noid click as the ground is made and broken, the solenoid circuit is work- 
ing properly. If the relay does not click as the TH-SW terminal is ground- 
ed, check the relay ignition terminal with a test lamp. 

INTERRUPTER CIRCUIT CHECK: If the interrupter circuit does not 
ground the ignition circuit momentarily when the accelerator pedal is de- 
pressed to the floor, the overdrive unit cannot shift from overdrive to di- 
rect. The first check of the ignition interrupter circuit is at the ignition 
coil. The black wire which runs from the ignition coil to the kick down 
switch must be connected to the dist. terminal on the coil not the bat. 
terminal. 



TRANSMISSION TROUBLE SHOOTING 
FOUR SPEED TRANSMISSION 

TRANSMISSION NOISY IN ALL SPEEDS 

Low lubricant level. Incorrect lubricant. Cluster gear bearings worn 
or damaged. Input shaft bearings or gear worn or damaged. Output shaft 
bearing worn or damaged. Transmission misaligned or loose. 

NOISY IN FIRST THROUGH THIRD SPEEDS 

Synchronizers worn or broken. Cluster gear worn or broken. Gears 
worn or broken. 

NOISY IN FOURTH SPEED 

Synchronizers worn or broken. 

NOISY IN REVERSE 

Reverse idler shaft worn or broken. Reverse sliding gear worn or bro- 
ken. Shift linkage improperly adjusted. Bent, damaged or loose shift link- 
age. 

192 



Ford Transmissions 



HARD SHIFTING 



Clutch improperly adjusted. Clutch parts worn or damaged. Shift link- 
age out of adjustment. Synchronizers worn. Shift levers or forks worn or 
bent. 

JUMPS OUT OF GEAR 

Shift linkage out of adjustment. Shift lever shaft or forks worn. Detent 
springs weak. Detent notches worn. Shift cover loose. Transmission mis- 
aligned or loose. Synchronizer worn or broken. Input shaft bearing retainer 
loose or broken. Input shaft bearing worn. Worn clutch pilot bearing. Worn 
output shaft bearing. 

LUBRICANT LEAKS 

Excessive lubricant. Incorrect lubricant. Vent plugged. Input shaft 
bearing retainer loose, cracked or gasket damaged. Shift cover loose. 
Worn shifter shaft seals. Shift cover bolts not sealed. 



Cru/se-O-Motic trouble diagnosis guide. 



Trouble Symptom 


Items to Check 
Transmission Transmission 
in car out of car 


Probable Trouble Sources 


Rough Initial Engagement in Dl or D2 


K B WFEG 


A. Fluid Level 


1-2 or 2-3 Shift Points Incorrect 


A BCD WEL 


B. Vacuum Diaphragm Unit or Tubes 


Rough 2-3 Shift 


BG FEJ r 


C. Manual Linkage 


D. Governor 


Engine Overspeeds on 2-3 Shift 


BG E F r 


E. Valve Body 


No 1-2 or 2-3 Shift 


DECG J bef 


F. Pressure Regulator 


No 3-1 Shift 


K BE 


G. Front Band 


No Forced Downshifts 


LWE 


H. Rear Band 


Runaway Engine on Forced Downshift 


GFEJ c 


1. Rear Servo 


Rough 3-2 or 3-1 Shift at 
Closed Throttle 


K BE 


J. Front Servo 


K. Engine Idle Speed 


Creeps Excessively in Dl or D2 


K 


L. Downshift Linkage 


Slips or Chatters in First Gear. Dl 


ABWFE acfi 


M. Converter Drain Plugs 


Slips or Chatters in Second Gear 


ABGWFEJ ac 


N. Oil Pan Gasket. Drain Plug or Tube 


O. Oil Cooler and Connections 


Slips or Chatters in R 


AH WFE 1 bef 


P Manual or Throttle Lever Shaft Seal 


No Drive in Dl 


(t i 


Q. It-inch Pipe Plug in Side of Case 


No Drive in D2 


G E R acf 


R. Perform Air-Pressurc Check 


Np Drive in 1 


CHIER cf 


S. Extension Housing to Case Gaskets and 
Lock washers 


No Drive in R 


H 1 E R hs f 


T. Center Support Bolt Lockwashers 


No Drive in Any Selector Lever 
Position 


AC WFER c 


U. Extension Housing Rear Oil Seal 


Lockup in Dl 


CI J bgc 


V. Governor Inspection Cover Gasket 


W. Perform Control Pressure Check 


Lockup in D2 


CH 1 bgci 


X. Speedometer Driven Gear Adapter Seal 


Lockup in L 


GJ E bgc 


a. Front Clutch 


Lockup in R 


G J age 


n Rcir Clutch 


Parking Lock Binds or Does Not Hold 


C g 


c. Leakage in Hydraulic System 


Engine Does Not Start by Pushing Car 


ACFE ec 


d. Front Pump 


Transmission Overheats 


OF n 


e. Rear Pump 


Maximum Speed Too Low, 
Poor Acceleration 


n 


f. 1 luid Distributor Sleeve in Output Shaft 


g. Parking Linkage 


Transmission Noisy in N 


F ad 


h. Planetary Assembly 


Transmission Noisy in First, 
Second, Third, or Reverse Gear 


F ha bd 


i. Planetary One-Way Clutch 


j Engine Rear Oil Seal 


Transmission Noisy in P 


F d 


m Front Pump Oil Seal 


Transmission Noisy During Coast at 
30-20 mph in N, Engine Stopped 


e 


n. Converter One-Way Clutch 


p. Front Pump to Case Gasket 


Fluid Leak 


MNOPQSTUVX jmp 


r. Rear Clutch Piston Air Bleed Valve 



193 



Fix Your Ford 



Trouble Symptoms 


Items to Check 


Transmission 
In Car 


Transmission 
Out of Car 


Harsh initial engagement in 
D, Land R 


DBE 




Slips or chatters in D or L 


A BC EHFK 


aeh 


Slips or chatters in R 


ABGCEIFK 


bfnh 


Creeps excessively in D 


D 




Engine Overspeeds (Buzz-Up) 
During 1-2 Shift 


ALBEHFG 


Ij 


Momentary Lockup During 1-2 Shift 


AEGH 


*jk 


Severe 2-1 Shift During Coast-Down 


DBGEH J 




No 1-2 Shift in D 


ALBCJQG 


cdjp 


Delayed or severe 1-2 Shift 


BJGE 


d m 


Slips Continuously After 1-2 Shift 


LAEFG 


jf 


No 2-1 Forced Downshift (Kickdown) 


GS 


d 


No 2-1 Shift During Coast-Down 


GJ 




Fluid Forced Out Vent 


APMNO 




Transmission Overheats 


AENiPM 


i 


Acceleration is Normal — 
Maximum Speed About 30 mph 


i 


i 


Acceleration Very Poor — Normal 
Operation Above 30 mph at 
Steady Throttle 


i 


i 


Engine Does Not Start by Pushing Car 


ACGHm 


c d aem 


Parking Lock Doe* Not Hold or Binds 


c 


o 1 


No Drive 


ACHT 



OY TO MAONOMS OUIDf 



A 


Fluid Level 


B 


Vacuum Diaphragm or Line '«*s-H^g 


C 


Manual linkage 


D 


Engine Idle Speed 


E 


Control Pressure Check 


F 


Air Pleasure Check 





Control Valve Body 


H 


Low Band Adjustment 


I 


Reverse Band Adjustment 


J 


Governor 


K 


Engine— Transmission Mounts 


L 


Fluid Odor Check for Burned dutch Plates 


M 


Transmission External Vent 


N 


Cooler Flow Check 





Fluid Aeration Check 


P 


Fluid Check for Engine Coolant Contamination 


Q 


High Clutch Piston 


S 


Downshift 1 tnlr«sj» 


T 


Convener 



a 


Low Servo and Band 


b 


Reverse Servo and Band 


I 


Rear Pump 


d 


If kage in Control Pressure Main Circuit 


e 


Leakage in Low Servo Apply Circuit 


f 


Leakage in Reverse Servo Apply Circuit 


( 


leakage in Clutch Apply or Low Servo 
Release Circuit 


h 


Planetary Gears 


i 


Converter One-way Clutch 


J 


High Clutch 


k 


Low Servo Piston Return Spring 


1 


Parking Linkage 


m 


Low Servo Piston Ball Check Valve 


n 


Cracked or Broken Rear Band Anchor 





Front Band Installed Backwards— Strut out of 
Position 


P 


High Hutch Piston 



Fordomatic trouble shooting diagnosis guide. 

THREE SPEED TRANSMISSION 
JUMPING OUT OF GEAR 

Shift linkage out of adjustment. Weak detent springs. Misalignment or 
loose transmission case and/or clutch housing. Worn input shaft pilot 
bearing. Bent output shaft. Defective synchronizer. Worn clutch teeth on 
clutch shaft or synchronizer sleeve. Bent shifter fork or shaft. End play 
in input shaft. Not enough overshift travel in column. 



194 



Ford Transmissions 



STICKING IN HIGH GEAR 

Clutch not releasing fully. Worn teeth on synchronizer sleeve or input 
shaft. Frozen synchronizer blocking ring on input shaft gear cone. Stuck 
shifter plunger. Lack of lubrication. Incorrect lubricant. Corroded trans- 
mission levers or shaft. Defective input shaft pilot bearing. 

JUMPING OUT OF SECOND GEAR 

Shift linkage, worn, loose or out of adjustment. Weak detent springs. 
Worn input shaft bearing. Bent output' shaft. Worn clutch teeth on second 
gear or on synchronizer sleeve. Bent shifter fork, lever, or shaft. Exces- 
sive end play in output or input shafts. Clutch teeth not engaging properly. 
Excessive end play in cluster gear. Not enough overshift travel in column. 

STICKING IN SECOND GEAR 

Clutch not releasing fully. Worn teeth on synchronizer sleeve. Worn 
teeth on intermediate gear. Frozen synchronizing blocking ring on inter- 
mediate cone. Stuck shifter plunger. Lack of lubricant. Incorrect lubricant. t 
Corroded transmission levers. Second speed gear seizure on shaft. 

JUMPING OUT OF LOW GEAR 

Shift linkage out of adjustment. Weak detent springs. Misalignment or 
loose transmission case and/or clutch housing. Bent output shaft. Worn 
clutch teeth on low gear. Worn clutch teeth on reverse sliding gear. Bent 
shifter fork, lever or shaft. End play in output shaft. End play of low gear. 
Clutch teeth not engaging properly. Not enough over-shift travel on column. 

STICKING IN LOW GEAR 

Clutch not releasing fully. Worn teeth on synchronizer sleeve and on 
low gear. Frozen synchronizing blocking ring on low gear cone. Stuck 
shifter plunger. Lack of lubrication. Corroded transmission levers or 
shaft. 

GEARS SPINNING WHEN SHIFTING FROM NEUTRAL 

Clutch not releasing fully. Binding input shaft pilot bearing. Synchro- 
nizers not functioning. 

LOW, SECOND AND HIGH GEAR CLASH 

Worn blocking rings and/or cone surfaces. Broken blocking rings. Ex- 
cessive output shaft end play. Weak detent springs. Dragging clutch plate. 
Excessive rock of synchronizer on output shaft. 

195 



Fix Your Ford 

REVERSE GEAR CLASH 

Transmission gears can be made to clash by shifting into reverse gear 
too quickly after clutch pedal is depressed, even though clutch is in perfect 
working order. 

GEAR NOISE 

Some gear noise is to be expected in all except high speed gears. 

NOISY IN ALL GEARS 

Low lubricant level. Incorrect lubricant. Cluster gear bearings worn 
or damaged. Input shaft bearing or gear worn. Output shaft bearing worn. 
Transmission misalignment or loose. 

HARD SHIFTING 

Clutch improperly adjusted. Clutch parts worn or damaged. 



196 



PROPELLER SHAFT 
AND UNIVERSAL JOINTS 



Power is transmitted to the rear axle by means of an open propeller 
shaft and two universal joints. The propeller or drive shaft is attached to 
the transmission and rear axle by means of the universal joints with a 
splined or slip joint at the transmission end. 

The universal joints are provided with needle bearings and are retained 
on the universal joint spiders by means of snap rings, Fig. Q-l. At 10,000 
mile intervals, the universal joint should be lubricated, and at the same 
time the grease seals should be replaced. 

To replace a universal joint, first remove the snap ring, Fig. Q-l, from 
under the yoke and around the needle bearing races. Then with a drift of 



UNIVHSAL JOINT KNUCKLE 







Q-l. Typical drive shaft and universal joint assembly. 



approximately the same diameter as the needle bearing race, press one 
bearing race through the yoke. Using a pair of pliers, remove the opposite 
bearing, which is partly pushed out of the yoke. The spider can then be re- 
moved from the yoke. Repeat the same procedure on the other pair of 
bearings. To install the bearings, first pack the bearing and the holes in 
the end of the spider with universal joint grease. Place the spider in the 
yoke and press the bearings in place. Install the snap ring. 

To replace the propeller shaft, remove the cap screws and lock plates, 

197 



Fix Your Ford 

which secure the rear universal joint to the universal joint flange. To pre- 
vent loss of the bearings, tape the bearings to the spider. Then pull the 
propeller shaft assembly toward the rear of the car, which will disengage 
the forward end from the transmission. Installation is accomplished by 
reversing the procedure. 

After installing a new joint, check it for freedom of movement. If a bind 
has resulted from misalignment, tap the ears of the drive shaft sharply to 
relieve the bind. Do not install the drive shaft unless the universal joints 
are free of bind. 

If the rubber seal installed on the end of the transmission extension 
housing is damaged in any way, install a new seal. 

On a manual shift transmission, lubricate the yoke spline with conven- 
tional transmission lubricant. On an automatic transmission, lubricate the 
yoke spline with special spline lubricant. This spline is sealed, Fig. Q-2, 
so the transmission fluid does not "wash" away the spline lubricant. 

UNDERCOATING 



If the car is undercoated, be sure that none of the undercoating gets on 
the propeller shaft as this would result in an unbalanced condition and pro- 
duce severe vibration. 



-OIL SEAL 




SNAP RING (WRAP TYPE 



Q-2. Output shait spline seal. 



TROUBLE SHOOTING 

CLICKING NOISE 

A sharp click or knock as the clutch is let in on starting the car, will 
result from worn universal joints. 

VIBRATION 

A vibration that gets worse as the car speed increases, will be caused 
by an unbalanced propeller shaft. Check for accumulations of road dirt, 
or undercoating on the propeller shaft. 



198 



Propeller Shaft, Universal Joints 



RAPID WEAR 



Rapid wear of the universal joints may result from misalignment of 
the rear axle assembly or engine. 




Note the three carburetors and magneto on this 390 cu. in. Ford which was driven by Don Ray, 
former champion of San Diego Racing Association. Photo by Bob Hardee, Hot Rod Magazine. 



199 



REAR AXLE 
Service Kinks 



AXLE SHAFT AND OIL SEAL REPLACEMENT 

The procedure for replacement of the axle shaft, wheel bearing, and oil 
seal, is the same on all models, andean be accomplished without removing 
the differential assembly from the car. 

The rear axle assembly used on the larger V-8 and the 223 cu. in. six 
cylinder cars is shown in Fig. R-l, and Fig. R-2. The Fairlane rear axle 
is illustrated in Fig. R-3, and the Falcon assembly in Fig. R-4. 

The procedure for removing the rear axle shafts, wheel bearings and 
oil seals, on these models is as follows: First remove the wheel and tire 
from the brake drum. Remove the Tinnerman nuts that secure the brake 
drum on the axle flange, and then remove the drum from the flange. The 
Tinnerman nuts are of the flat steel spring type, and can be pulled directly 
off the studs. 

Working through the hole provided in the axle shaft flange, remove the 
nuts that secure the wheel bearing retainer. Then by means of a puller, 
pull the axle shaft assembly out of the axle housing. The brake carrier 
plate must not be dislodged. Install one nut to hold the plate in place after 
the axle shaft is removed. 

If the rear wheel bearing is to be replaced, loosen the inner retainer 
by nicking it deeply with a cold chisel in several places. It will then slide 
off easily. 

Remove the bearing from the axle shaft. Inspect the machine surface 
of the axle shaft and the axle housing for rough spots or other irregular- 
ities that would affect the sealing action of the oil seal. Carefully remove 
any burrs or rough spots with an emery stone. Also make sure that the 
splines at the inner end of the axle shaft are not damaged in any way. 

DRIVE PINION OIL SEAL REPLACEMENT 

The replacement of the drive pinion oil seal is the same on all recent 
model Ford cars. It can be replaced without removing the differential as- 
sembly from the axle housing. First soak the new seals in SAE 10 oil for 
at least one half hour before use. 

Disconnect the drive shaft from the drive pinion flange. Remove the 
universal joint yoke from the transmission extension housing. Install the 
seal replacement tool in the" extension housing seal to prevent lubricant 

200 



Rear Axle Service 

leakage. 

Mark the pinion shaft nut, the end of the pinion shaft, and the pinion 
flange splines for realignment. Next remove the pinion shaft nut and wash- 
er. Remove the pinion flange carefully to avoid later misalignment of the 
drive shaft. The pinion oil seal can then be removed. After cleaning the oil 
seal seat examine the lubricant return passage, which must be clear. Coat 
the outer edge of the new seal with oil resistant sealer, and install the 
seal. 



AXLE HOUSING 




SEAL FLANGE 



R-l . Details of rear axles as used on 223 cu. in. Ford six and Ford V-8 with the exception of the 

1962-1963 Fairlane. 



REMOVING THE DIFFERENTIAL CARRIER 

V-8 AND 223 CU. IN. MODELS: First place a drain pan under the car- 
rier and housing, Figs. R-l and R-2, to catch the old lubricant when the 
carrier is separated from the housing. Carefully clean the area surround- 
ing the carrier and housing, mating surfaces. Remove the axle shafts and 
also the drive shaft. The drive shaft is removed by first disconnecting the 
rear universal joint from the drive pinion flange. Pull the drive shaft 
toward the rear of the car until the front universal joint yoke clears the 
transmission extension housing and the seal. Remove the nuts which at- 
tach the differential carrier to the housing. These are on the front face of 
the rear axle housing. Then remove the carrier from the housing by pulling 
it forward. 



201 




R-2. Assembled rear axle shown in Fig. R-l . 

FALCON: To remove the differential carrier from the Falcon, Fig. 
R-4, first remove the axle shafts. Disconnect the drive shaft at the trans- 
mission end. Place a pan under the center of the rear axle and then remove 
the rear axle cover. 

Remove the differential bearing adjusting nuts, Fig. R-4. Mark one 
differential bearing cap and the case, to help position the parts correctly 
during reassembly. Remove the differential bearing cap bolts and bearing 
caps. Then remove the assembly from the housing. Hold the drive pinion 
flange and remove the pinion nut. Remove the flat washer and the pinion 
flange. With a soft hammer, drive the pinion out of the front bearing cone 
and remove it to the rear of the carrier housing. 

Drive against the pinion front bearing cone and drive the pinion flange 
seal and the bearing cone out of the front of the carrier casting. 

If the pinion bearing cups are to be replaced, drive them out of the car- 
rier casting with a drift. Install new cups. Make sure the cups are properly 
seated in their bores. If .0015 in. feeler gauge can be inserted between a 
cup and the bottom of its bore at any point around the cup, the cup is not 
properly seated. Remove the pinion rear bearing cone. Measure the shim 
which is found under the bearing cone, using a micrometer. 

INSPECTING DIFFERENTIAL PARTS 

It is good practice to check the mesh of the gears and inspect the parts 
before removing the pinion shaft and gear and engagement from the ring 
gear. In the case of the Falcon, this must be done before the assembly is 



202 



Rear Axle Service 

removed from the axle housing. 

The usual procedure for making such an inspection is to first clean the 
assembly with solvent or kerosene, making sure all traces of lubricant are 
removed. Immediately after the inspection, be sure to lubricate the bear- 
ings and gear teeth to prevent any rust from forming. 

Inspect the gears and other parts for wear or damage. Rotate the gears 
to see if there is any roughness which would indicate defective bearings or 
chipped gears. Check the gear tooth for scoring or signs of abnormal wear. 
Check the backlash of the gears which should be .008 to .010 in. This 
should be measured with a dial guage if available. 

To check the gear tooth contact, paint the gear teeth with a suitable 
gear marking compound such as paste made of dry red lead and oil. A mix- 
ture that is too wet will run and smear. Mixtures that are too dry cannot 



AXl£ HOUSING 




FLAT WASHED 
DRIVE GEAR ATTACHING BOLT 

DIFFERENTIAL CASE COVER 
DIFFERENTIAL PINION GEAR 

THRUST WASHER 
ADJUSTING NUT 

CARRIER HOUSING 



CUP 
CONE AND ROLLER 



PILOT BEARING 




SLINGER 

DEFLECTOR 



R-3. Details of rear axle used in 1962-1963 Fairlane. 

be pressed out between the teeth. The procedure is to paint the gear teeth 
with the mixture, and then rotate the gears until a clear tooth contact is 
obtained. The correct and incorrect patterns are shown in Fig. R-5. If the 
pattern is not correct, adjust the gears as indicated in Fig. R-5. 

If adjustment is needed, the ring gear or drive gear is adjusted by 
means of the bearing adjuster shown in Fig. R-2. Loosening the adjuster 
on the right and tightening the one on the left, will move the gear to the 
right and vice versa. Naturally if any of the gear teeth are chipped or 
scored a new pinion and ring gear should be installed. Similarly if the 
bearings show signs of being chipped, or show any defects, these should 
also be replaced. 



203 



Fix Your Ford 

NEW PINION AND RING GEAR INSTALLATION 

If either the pinion or ring gear are damaged, both gears will have to 
be replaced as these gears are sold only in matched sets. At the same 
time, obtain the correct shims for installation of the drive pinion for that 
particular set of gears, together with the necessary instructions for its 
installation. Pinion gears are marked with the size shim that is needed. 

With the pinion correctly installed, the proper mesh is then obtained by 
adjusting the position of the ring gear to right or left as required. When 
adjusting the position of the ring gear, wipe a thin coating of lubricating oil 
over the bearing bores so the differential bearing cups will move easily. 

Place the cups on the bearings and set the differential assembly in the 
carrier. Slide the assembly along the bores until a slight amount of back- 
lash is felt between the gear teeth. Set the adjusting nuts in the bores so 
that they just contact the bearing cups. The nuts should be engaging about 
the same number of threads on each side. 

Carefully position the bearing caps On the carrier. Match the marks 
made when the caps were removed. Install the bearing cap bolts and alter- 
nately torque them to 70-80 ft. lb. 

If the adjusting nuts do not turn freely as the cap bolts are tightened, 
remove the bearing caps and again inspect for damaged threads or incor- 



COVE! ANO GASKIT 



AUNG AOJUSIING NUT 




R~4. To remove differential from Falcon rear axle, it is first 
necessary to remove the axle shafts. 



204 



Rear Axle Service 

rectly positioned caps. Tightening the bolt to the specified torque is done 
to be sure that the cup and adjusting nut are seated. Loosen the cap bolts 
and torque them to only 20 ft. lb. before making adjustments. 

Loosen the right nut until it is away from the cup. Tighten the left nut 
until the drive gear is just forced into the pinion with no backlash. Re- 
check the right nut at this time to be sure that it is still loose. The left 




A SHOWS CORRECT CONTACT 

GEARS SET UP THIS WAY GIVE KST RE 

SUITS FOB NOISE AND WEAK 



1 SHOWS HEAVY CONTACT ON HEEl Of 1 

TOOTH. 

GEARS SET UP THIS WAY Will EVENTUALLY 

UEAK OFF AT THE HEEL TO CORRECT. 

MOVE KING GEAR TOWARD PINION RUT 

MAKE SURE THERE IS RACK LASH AS GEARS 

CAN NOT RUN TIGHT 



C SHOWS HEAVY CONTACT ON TOE Of 

TOOTH 

GEARS SET UP THIS WAY Will EVENTUAllY 

WEAK Off AT THE TOE TO CORRECT, 

MOVE RING GEAR AWAY fROM PINION 



D SHOWS HEAVY CONTACT ON FLANK Of 
GEAR TOOTH. 

GEARS SET UP THIS WAY ARE NOISY, TO 
CORRECT. MOVE PINION OUT UNTIl CON- 
TACT COMES TO THE PUll WORKING DEPTH 
Of GEAR TOOTH WITHOUT LEAVING LOW 
EST POINT Of CONTACT SEE A 



I SHOWS HEAVY CONTACT ON PACE Of 
GEAR TOOTH 

GEARS SET UP THIS WAY ARE ALSO NOISY. 
TO CORRECT. MOVE PINION IN UNTIl CON. 
TACT REACHES LOWEST POINT ON GEAR 
TOOTH. SEE A 




THE HEEl OF GEAR TOOTH IS THE 

LARGE ENO AND THE TOE IS THE 

SMALL ENO 



WORKING DEPTH 




R-5. How to obtain correct gear tooth contact of pinion and rear gear. 

adjusting nut is on the drive gear side of the carrier. The right nut is on 
the pinion side. Tightening the left nut drives the drive gear into the pinion 
to decrease backlash, and tightening the right nut moves the drive gear 
away. 

Tighten the right nut two notches beyond the position where it first con- 
tacts the bearing cup. Rotate the drive gear several revolutions in each 
direction while the bearings are loaded, to seat the bearings in their cups. 
This step is Important. 

Again loosen the right nut to release the preload. If there is any back- 
lash between the gears, tighten the left nut just enough to remove this 
backlash. Carefully tighten the right nut until it just contacts the cup. Set 
preload of two to three notches tight by the right nut. As preload is applied 
from the right side, the drive gear is forced away from the pinion, and 
usually results in the correct backlash, which shouldbe .008 in. to .012 in. 
Torque the differential tap bolts. 

Measure the backlash on several teeth around the drive gear. If the 
measurements vary more than .003 in., there is excess run-out in the 



205 



Fix Your Ford 

gears or their mountings, which must be corrected to obtain a satisfactory 
unit. If the backlash is out of specification, loosen one adjusting nut and 
tighten the opposite nut an equal amount to move the drive gear away from 
or toward the pinion. When moving the adjusting nuts, the final movement 
should always be made in a tightening direction. For example, if the left 
nut had to be loosened one notch, first loosen the nut two notches, then 
tighten it one. After making these adjustments, recheck the mesh of the 
gears by painting them with red lead as described previously. 

EQUA-LOCK DIFFERENTIAL 

A constant friction Equa-Lock differential is used as optional equipment 
on some models. This unit, Fig. R-6, employs automatic transmission type 
clutch plates to control differential action. Under conditions with one or 



BELLEVILLE SPRINGS 



DIFFERENTIAL 
CASE 




BONDED PLATES 
CLUTCH HUB 



SIDE GEARS 

LOCK PIN 




STEEL PLATES 
DIFFERENTIAL 
LUBRICATOR 
USED WITH 
EQUA-LOCK 
UNITS ONLY 



R-6. Details of the Equa-Lock differential. 

both wheels on icy surface, the friction between the clutch plate will trans- 
fer a portion of the usable torque to the wheel with the most traction. For 
that reason, care must be exercised when one wheel is jacked up as the 
car can be driven off the jack by power on the other wheel. To disassemble 
the Equa-Lock differential, first mark one differential bearing cap and the 
mating bearing support to help position the parts properly during assembly 
of the carrier. 

Remove the adjusting nut locks, bearing caps, and adjusting nuts. Then 
lift the differential assembly out of the carrier. Remove the differential 
bearing, Fig. R-6. Loosen alternate drive gear attaching bolts evenly to 
release the spring pressure between the differential case and cover. A 
hydraulic press may be used to contain the spring pressure while the bolts 
are removed. Apply one ton pressure across the case bearing hubs while 
the drive gear bolts are removed. 

Remove the differential case cover, then remove the drive gear. Re- 
move the two Belleville springs. Remove the spring and bonded clutch 
plates. Remove the differential clutch hub, side gear and thrust washer. 



206 



Rear Axle Service 

Remove the drive gear from the differential case. Drive out the differen- 
tial pinion shaft lock pin. With a punch, drive out the differential pinion 
shaft. Then remove the pinion gears and thrust washers. The remainder 
of the unit is disassembled in the conventional manner. 



REAR AXLE 
TROUBLE SHOOTING 

EXCESSIVE REAR AXLE NOISE 

Before road testing the car, make sure the tire pressures and the rear 
axle lubricant level are normal. Then drive the car far enough to warm the 
rear axle lubricant to its normal operating temperature. 

With the car stopped and the transmission in neutral, run the engine at 
various speeds. If the noise still exists during this test, the noise probably 
comes from the engine or from the exhaust system. 

To determine if the noise is being caused by the rear axle or the tires, 
drive the car over several different types of road surface. Smooth asphalt 
or black-top roads minimize tire noises. Tire noises may be changed and 
sometimes eliminated by cross-switchingthe tires. Snow tires often cause 
noises not heard from conventional tires. 

Noise caused by a worn or damaged wheel bearing is often the loudest 
when the car is coasting at low speed, and it usually stops when the brakes 
are gently applied. To find the noisy bearing, provided the car is equipped 
with a conventional differential, jack up each wheel, and check each bear- 
ing for roughness while the wheel is rotating. 

If all possible external sources of noise have been checked and elimin- 
ated, and the noise still exists, road test the rear axle under all four driv- 
ing conditions of drive, cruise, float, and coast. Then remove, disassemble 
and inspect the axle. 

EXCESSIVE REAR AXLE BACKLASH 

Excessive backlash in the axle driving parts may be caused by worn 
axle shaft splines, loose axle shaft flange nuts, loose universal joint flange 
mountings, excessive backlash between the drive pinion and drive gear, 
excessive backlash in the differential gears, or bearings, which are worn, 
or out of adjustment. 

DRIVE LINE NOISE OR VIBRATION 

Excessive noise or vibration may be caused by lack of lubrication, 
worn universal joint bearings, missing drive shaft balance weights, and 
sprung or damaged drive line. 

207 



Fix Your Ford 



ONE WHEEL SPINS 



This applies only to Equa-Lock rear axle: If the torque required to ro- 
tate one rear wheel is less than 100 ft. lb., the differential is not function- 
ing properly. To repair the unit, it must be removed from the housing. 

HIGH PITCHED. CHATTERING NOISE 

Drive the car in a fairly tight circle, making five circles in one direc- 
tion and five in the opposite. If noise continues, drain and refill with ap- 
proved type of lubricant. 



208 



Quick Service on 
SHOCK ABSORBERS AND SPRINGS 



It is very important, both from a standpoint of safety and comfort, that 
the shock absorbers be maintained in good condition. Unless the absorbers 
control the rebound of the car, steering becomes hazardous, tire wear is 
increased, chassis spring life is shortened, and riding comfort is sacri- 
ficed. 

A quick test of the condition of the shock absorbers can be made by 
grasping the bumper and jouncing the car up and down. If the shock absorb- 
ers are in good condition, the car will immediately settle to a normal 



FRONT SHOCK ABSORBER 




UPPER ' 
SUSPENSION ARM 



LOWER RETAINING NUTS 



S-l . Front spring and shock absorber assembly on 1963 Galaxie. 
Other V-8 models and 223 cu. in. six are similar. 



position after the bumper is released. If the car contihues to bounce, or 
remains displaced, remove the shock absorbers for further testing. If 
shock absorbers show signs of oil leakage they should be replaced. 

To further test a shock absorber, remove it from the car and proceed 
as follows: Hold the shock absorber in the vertical position with the lower 
end up, and pull out the piston and rods until the shock absorber is ex- 
tended to its full length. 

With the shock absorber held in the same position, push in the piston 
and rod until the shock absorber is compressed to its shorter length. Re- 



209 



Fix Your Ford 

peat this operation several times to be sure all air is expelled. 

Then clamp the lower end (small diameter) in a vise in a vertical po- 
sition. Extend the shock absorber to its full length, and then compress it 
to its shortest length. There should be a constant drag during the complete 
cycle. Any sudden loss of drag indicates air in the system or faulty inter- 
nal valve operation. Replace faulty shock absorbers. 

All shock absorbers are non-adjustable and non-refillable and cannot 
be repaired. 

SHOCK ABSORBER REMOVAL 

To remove the front shock absorbers, Fig. S-l, on the 223 cu. in. six 
and all the V-8 cars, except the 221 cu. in. V-8, and 260 cu. in. V-8, first 
raise the front of the vehicle and place supports under both suspension 
lower arms. Be sure the lower end of the shock absorber remains acces- 
sible. Remove the retaining nut and bushing from the upper end of the 
shock absorber shaft. 

Remove the retaining nut, washer, and rubber bushing from the upper 
end of the shock absorber shaft. Remove one lower bushing mounting bolt, 
and loosen the other. Slide the bushing assembly off the loosened bolt, then 
lower the shock absorber through the hole in the suspension arm. If the 



•STAINING NUT 



OUTf « BUSHING 




STIUT »O0 
WASHft STAMLZf* IMC IOIT 

IUI nSWATOt (USMNG 



UPPf« BALI JOIN! 

MTAINM PLATE 
MAI 



S-2. Front spring and shock absorber installation on 1962-1963 Fairlane. 

210 



Shock Absorbers, Springs 



SHOCK ABSORBER ■>. 
UPPER MOUNTING \ 
BRACKET 




- SHOCK ABSORBER 


SPRING ~. 


Jfl# 


, BUMPER 
-UPPER BALI JOINT 


UPPER ARM-, - rf-v. 


/fc« H 








*^E^|( 


SPINDLE / 


STABILIZER 
BAR 




STABILIZER1 
M6 llNK ' 





$$^ 



5-3. Front suspension system on Falcon. 

shock absorber is serviceable and the bushing requires replacing, remove 
the old bushing from the lower end of the shock absorber. Apply a rubber 
lubricant to the replacement bushing, and install the bushing on the shock 
absorber. 

To remove the rear shock absorbers on these same cars, first remove 
the nut that retains the shock absorber assembly to the spring clip plate, 
and remove the lower washer and rubber bushing. 

Remove the self-locking nut and washer that retains the upper end of 
the shock absorber to the mounting stud on the cross member. Compress 
the shock absorber to clear the hole in the spring clip plate, and remove 
the assembly from the mounting stud. 

To remove the front shock absorbers on the 221 cu. in. and 260 cu. in. 
Fairlane, first raise the car and install safety stands. Remove the shock 
absorber lower retaining nut and washers, Fig. S-2. Raise the hood and 
remove the shock absorber upper mounting bracket retaining bolts. Re- 
move the mounting bracket to dash panel brace to one side, then remove 
the mounting bracket and shock absorber as an assembly. 

To remove the rear shock absorbers on the Fairlane, Fig. S-5, first 
open the luggage compartment door and remove the spare wheel and tire. 
Remove the shock absorber access cover from the floor pan, and remove 
the nut outer washer, and rubber bushings that retain the shock absorber 
to the upper mounting in the floor pan. 

Raise the car and remove the retaining nut, outer washer, and bushing 
from the shock absorber and the spring clip plate. Compress the shock 



211 



Fix Your Ford 

absorber and remove it from the car. 

To remove the front shock absorber from the Falcon cars, Fig. S-3, 
first raise the front end of the car and place supports under both suspen- 
sion arms. Be sure the lower end of the shock absorber remains acces- 
sible for servicing. Disconnect the shock absorber lower retaining nuts 
from the spring lower seat. Remove the shock absorber upper mounting 
bracket retaining nuts. Lift the bracket and shock absorber from the car. 

To remove the rear shock absorbers from the Falcon, Fig. S-4, dis- 
connect the shock absorber from the spring clip plate. On the passenger 




PARKING 
BRAKE CABLE 



FRONT HANGER 



^J*£P 



S-4. Typical rear suspension system. (Falcon) 

car, remove the shock absorber access cover from the luggage compart- 
ment. On the Ranchero model, remove the retaining screws and lift the 
forward half of the floor panel from the body; then remove the access cov- 
er from the opening in the floor pan over the shock absorber. On station 
wagons, remove the access cover from the opening in the seat riser over 
the shock absorber. 

Remove the shock absorber retaining nut. Compress the shock absorber 
and remove it from the car. 

The installation of new shock absorbers is accomplished in the reverse 
manner. 

REAR SPRING SERVICE 

Rear springs seldom have to be replaced, provided the car is not over- 
loaded, and the nuts on the U-bolts are kept tight. Fig. S-5 shows a typical 
rear spring and shock absorber assembly. Fig. S-4 shows the same units 
installed on a car. 

If the front bushings or front hanger are to be replaced: Remove the nut 
from the spring mounting bolt and tap the bolt out of the bushings and the 



212 



. ■/. x .s 

HUT 




SPRING CLIP HATE 



FKONT HANGEH 



S-5. Details of rear spring and shock absorber installation. 

front hanger. Remove the bolt retainer from the hanger and withdraw the 
inboard bushing from the spring front eye through the opening in the hang- 
er. 

Disengage the spring front eye from the hanger, then remove the out- 
board bushing from the front eye. 

Install the outboard bushing in the front spring eye and position the 
front eye in the hanger. Install the inboard bushing through the opening in 
the hanger into the spring eye. Install the bolt retainer in the hanger. In- 
stall the spring mounting bolt, lock washer and nut. 

REMOVING FRONT SPRING 

To remove a front spring, first raise the front of the car so that the 
front wheels are about 8 in. from the floor. Place supports under both 
frame side members just back of the lower arms. Remove the wheel and 
tire assembly. Disconnect the stabilizer assembly. Disconnect the lower 
end of the shock absorber and push it up in the retracted position. 

Loosen the nut on the lower ball joint stud, until nut covers the ends of 
the threads. Place a jack under outer end of lower control arm. Strike nut 
on lower ball joint stud with hammer to free it. Then remove nut, and low- 
er jack slowly to release pressure of spring until spring is fully extended. 
Apply foot pressure to the lower suspension arm to push the arm inward 
so that spring can be lifted from car. 

On the Falcon car a special tool is required to compress the spring so 
that it can be removed, Fig. S-3. 



213 




Top, 7959 Ford. Center, 7958 Ford. Bottom, 1957 Ford. 

214 



Shortcuts on 
WHEEL ALIGNMENT 



To do an accurate job of aligning front wheels requires specialized 
equipment. Accuracy is a must iftirewearis to be kept to a minimum. In 
an emergency, however, approximate adjustments can be made without 
such equipment. 

Before altering the alignment of the front wheels, it is important to 
make sure what is causing the tire wear, or other steering difficulties. In 
many cases the difficulty results from some simple, easily remedied con- 
dition. 

First of all, make sure that all tires are correctly inflated as this is a 
major cause of tire wear. Many authorities recommend that the tire pres- 
sure be maintained two pounds higher than the specified value. This not 



NEGATIVE CASTE* 

ANGLE 



| POSITIVE CASTE* 
ANGLE 




T-7. Caster is the angle the king pin or the ball joints ore tilted to the front or to the rear. 

only increases tire life but also makes the car steer easier, but at a slight 
sacrifice of riding comfort. Further in regard to the tires, make sure that 
the tire valve cap is in place, as it is the cap that seals the valve and pre- 
vents leakage of the air. 

Next, jack up the front of the car using a bumper jack. Shake each front 
wheel grasping it at the top and bottom. Any looseness indicates the front 
wheel bearings need adjusting. Also it may indicate that the ball joints need 
replacing. Also check the front suspension ball joints and mountings for 
looseness, wear and damage. Make sure there is no looseness or wear in 



215 



Fix Your Ford 



BAll JOINT INCLINATION , CAMBER ANGLE 




T-2. Camber is the angle the ball joints are tilted inward toward the center of the car. 

the tie rod ends. Check the brake backing plate for looseness. Make sure 
the steering gear housing is bolted tight to the frame. The wheels should 
be balanced and the shock absorbers should be in good condition. 

After all of these points have been checked and corrected, if necessary, 
the alignment of the wheels should be checked. 

CASTER, CAMBER AND TOE-IN 

The conditions that are included in wheel alignment are caster, Fig. 
T-l; camber, Fig. T-2; toe-in, Fig. T-3; and ball joint inclination, Fig. 
T-2. 

Caster, Fig. T-l, is the angle the ball joints are tilted to the front or 
rear. Tilting to the front is called negative caster, and tilting to the rear 



FRONT OF CAR 

I 




T-3. Toe-in the difference between dimension A and B. 

216 



Wheel Alignment 

is positive caster. 

Camber is the angle that the wheel is tilted to the side, Fig. T-2, or the 
angle between the center line of the wheel and the vertical. 

Toe-in, Fig. T-3, is the difference between the dimension A and dimen- 
sion B. This is a most important factor controlling tire wear. 

Ball joint inclination is the angle the center line of the ball joints make 
with the vertical, Fig. T-2. 

Before attempting to align the front wheels, the car should always be 
rolled forward several feet to place the wheels in normal straight ahead 
running position. 

Caster and ball joint inclination cannot be measured accurately without 
special equipment, but an approximation of the camber angle can be made 
by placing the car on a level floor and then placing a large carpenter's 



CASTER ADJUSTMENT — REMOV€ OR 

INSTALL SHIMS AT 

EITHER FRONT OR 

REAR BOLT 

CAMBER ADJUSTMENT REMOVE OR 

INSTALL EQUAL SHIM 
ADJUSTING THICKNESSES AT 

SHIM STACK BOTH BOLTS 




MAXIMUM DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SHIM 

STACK THICKNESSES- '/, INCH 
MAXIMUM THICKNESS AT EACH SHIM 

STACK -y 8 INCH FT 061 A 

7-4. Location of shims used in adjusting caster and camber. 



square against the hub and tire rim. Then measure the distance from the 
square to the rim at the top and also at the bottom. The difference between 
these measurements is the camber in fractions of an inch. Unfortunately, 
there are no factory specifications available for camber measurements of 
this type. However, the difference in the measurements should be not less 
than 1/32 in. nor more than 1/16 in. It must be emphasized that checking 
camber by this method is an emergency method only. 

A quite accurate method of measuring toe -in without the use of special 
equipment is as follows: With the car on a level floor, jack up the front 
wheels, and with the wheels spinning, hold a piece of chalk against the tire. 
Then with the wheels still spinning, hold a pointed tool, such as an ice pick, 



217 



Fix Your Ford 

against the chalk mark to scribe a fine line. Do this to both front wheels. 
Lower the car from the jacks and roll the car forward several feet. Then 
suspend a plumb bob from the scribe line at the rear of the tire and make 
a mark on the floor where it is contacted by the point of the plumb bob. 

Repeat this operation at the front of the wheel and also on both wheels. 
Measure the distance between the two marks at the front of the tires, and 



WASHER- 
OUTER BUSHING 



INNER BUSHING 
WASHER 



SHOCK ABSORBER 




RETAINING NUT 



SHOCK ABSORBER 
UPPER MOUNTING BRACKET 



SPRING UPPER SEAT 



SPRING UPPER INSULATOR 



LOWER ARM PIVOT BOLT 



■3SV 





SEAL \ UPPER ARM 

LOWER ARM 

\ 

LOWER BALL JOINT 



REAR INSULATOR BUSHING 



UPPER BAIL JOINT 

££?''' RETAINER PLATE 

**• SEAL 

I 



T-5. Front suspension system on 1962 and 1963 Fairlane. 

also at the back of the tires. "The difference between these two measure- 
ments will be the toe-in, and obviously these measurements should be 
made with a high degree of accuracy. Toe-in for the various models is 
given in the specification pages of this book. 

CASTER AND CAMBER ADJUSTMENTS 

Caster and Camber on the Ford and Galaxie models is adjusted by re- 
moving or installing shims between the inner shaft of the front suspension 
upper arm, and the mounting bracket on the frame. The adjusting shims 
are located on the fender side of the bracket, Fig. T-4. 



218 



Wheel Alignment 

Falcon caster and camber adjustments are made in a manner similar 
to the Galaxie, except that the shims are between the front suspension up- 
per arm and the under body. 

On the Thunderbird, adjust camber by removing or installing shims 
between the pivot bracket of the lower control arm and the mounting brack- 
et on under body in the engine compartment. Caster adjustment is made by 
repositioning strut on lower control arm. Loosen rear retaining bolts and 
lift strut so that strut serrations will be free from serrations on lower 
arm. 

On the 1962-1963 Fairlane, Fig. T-5, caster and camber can be adjust- 
ed by loosening the bolts that attach the upper suspension arm inner shaft 
to the under body, and moving the arm assembly in or out in the elongated 
holes. 



WHEN TOl-IN 
IS COftMCT: 

TURN BOTH 
CONNECTING ROD 
SLEEVES UPWARD 
TO ADJUST 
SPOKE 
POSITION 




TURN BOTH 

CONNECTING 

ROD SLEEVES 

DOWNWARD 

TO ADJUST 

SPOKE 

POSITION 



LENGTHEN L.H. ROD 
TO INCREASE TOE-IN 

SHORTEN R.H. ROD 
TO DECREASE TOE-IN 

ADJUST BOTH RODS EQUALLY TO 
MAINTAIN NORMAL SPOKE POSITION 



SHORTEN L.H. ROD 
TO DECREASE TOE-IN 

LENGTHEN R.H. ROD 
TO INCREASE TOE-IN 



T-6. Toe-in and steering spoke adjustments. 

TOE-IN ADJUSTMENT 

Toe-in is one of the most important factors in the control of tire wear 
and adjustments must be accurately made. The procedure on all models 
is to first roll the car forward two or three feet on a level floor, with the 
wheels in the straight ahead position. The steering wheel spokes must also 
be in the position for straight ahead driving, Fig. T-6. If the spokes are 
not in the normal position, they can be properly adjusted while toe-in is 
adjusted, Fig. T-6. 

Loosen the two clamp bolts, Fig. T-7, and Fig. T-8, on each spindle 
connecting rod sleeve. Adjust toe-in in accordance with the specifications 
on page 283. If the steering wheel spokes are in their normal position, 
lengthen or shorten both rods equally to obtain the correct toe-in, Fig. 
T-8. If the steering wheel spokes are not in their normal position, make 
the necessary rod adjustments to obtain correct toe-in and steering wheel 
position, Fig. T-6. 

Be sure to tighten clamp bolts after obtaining the correct adjustment. 



219 



Fix Your Ford 



SPINDLE ARM 



SLEEVE SPINDLE CONNECTING ROD 




CLAMP BOLTS 4011 -A 

T-7. Typical tie-rod end used when adjusting toe-in. 



TURN 
DOWNWARD 
TO INCREASE 
ROD LENGTH 




TURN TURN UPWARD 

TURN UPWARD DOWNWARD TO INCREASE 

TO DECREASE JO DECREASE r O d LENGTH 

ROD LENGTH RO D LENGTH 



#^0^ 




LEFT-HAND SLEEVE RIGHT-HAND SLEEVE 

T-8. Illustrating how sleeves should be adjusted to adjust toe-in. 

STEERING LINKAGE HINTS 

As the result of long service, spindle connecting rod ends, pitman arm 
ends and idler arm bushings have to be replaced, Fig. T-9. A typical spin- 
dle connecting rod end, or tie rod end, is shown in Tig. T-10. 

The spindle connecting rod ends which are threaded into the outer ends 
of the rod sleeves, have non-adjustable ball studs. These ends should be 
replaced when excessive looseness at the ball stud is noticed. To replace 
a spindle connecting rod end, first raise the front end of the car and install 
safety stands. Remove the cotter pin and nut from the rod end ball stud. 
Loosen the connecting rod sleeve clamp bolts, and remove the rod end 
from the spindle arm. 

Special tools are available for this purpose, however, the operation can 
also be accomplished by loosening the nut several turns so that it extends 
beyond the stud threads. Then while striking the nut with one hammer, hold 
another hammer at the opposite side of the rod to absorb the force of the 
blow. As the rod ends are unscrewed from the rods, the number of turns 
required to remove the end should be counted. The new rod end should then 
be turned in the same number of turns. This will eliminate the necessity 
of adjusting toe-in. Discard all rod end parts that are removed from the 
sleeve. All new parts should be used when a spindle connecting rod end is 
replaced. 

Other rod ends are replaced in a similar manner. 



220 



Wheel Alignment 

HOW TO ADJUST STEERING GEAR 

The steering gear used on Ford, Falcon and Galaxie models is of the 
ball bearing type, Fig. T-ll. There are two adjustments to be made on 
this gear, which are made as follows: 

Disconnect the pitman arm, Fig. T-9, from the sector shaft. On Falcon 
models loosen the steering gear housing attaching bolts at the under body 
side rail. Loosen the steering column bracket screws at the instrument 




T-9. Steering linkage on Galaxie. Others are similar. 

panel. Partly tighten the steering column bracket screws. Torque the 
steering gear housing attaching bolts. On cars with power steering, dis- 
connect the arm from the control valve stud. 

On all models, loosen the nut which locks the sector adjusting screw, 
Fig. T-12, and turn the screw counterclockwise. 

Measure the worm bearing preload by attaching an inch-pound torque 
wrench to the steering wheel nut. Read the pull required to keep the wheel 
moving for at least one complete return. On manual steering cars, preload 



221 



Fix Your Ford 

should be 2 to 7 inch-pounds, and power steering 3 to 5-1/2 inch-pounds. 
Only a slight effort is required to keep the shaft turning. If the torque or 
preload is not correct, adjust by loosening the sector shaft bearing adjust- 
ing lock nut, and tighten or back off on the adjustment to bring preload 
within the specified adjustments. Then tighten steering shaft bearing lock 
nut and recheck preload. 

Turn the steering wheel slowly to either stop. Then rotate the wheel 




T-10. Typical tie-rod end. 



SECTOR SHAFT -^^ . SECTOR . GEAR 
ADJUSTING ^Lj| / 

SCREW / BAU NUT 


STEERING SHAFT BEARING 
ADJUSTER LOCK NUT 

/ 


SHIM-^^Jjk / /^ 


&&& 






k\^H^^^^^ STEERING 
^SBm^I^^ SHAFT 


^/^J^^pgBOT^ 


SBrJdAl^^ STEERING SHAFT 
WKP&W BEARING ADJUSTER 








UPPER STEERING 
S. SHAFT BEARING 


/I 

SECTOR / ^J 
SHAFT / /ll, rt 




^""baU RETURN 
GUIDES 

folOWER STEERING 
SHAFT BEARING CUP 


BAU RETURN 
GUIDE CUMP 


h±^ 




^ V W 


J SECTOR SHAFT 

fM BUSHING 





T-I I . Details of circulating ball type of steering gear. 

222 



Wheel Alignment 

back one -half of total travel to center the gear. 

Turn the sector adjusting screw clockwise until there is no preceptible 
backlash at 30 deg. on either side of the center position. 

Tighten all lock nuts. On the Falcon, also tighten the steering column 
bracket bolts. On all models, connect the sector shaft arm to the sector 
shaft, and tighten the lock nut. 

SECTOR SHAFT 
ADJUSTING SCREW 




FILLER PLUG LOCK NUT G1039-B 

7-12. Showing location of steering gear adjustments. 



POWER STEERING TIPS 

Before proceeding with any work on the power steering unit, Figs. T-13 
and T-14, there are some preliminary checks that should be made. 

First of all, make sure the pump belt is in good condition and properly 
adjusted. On eight cylinder models do not attempt to increase belt tension 
by pulling on the fluid reservoir. To adjust tension, loosen the power 
steering pump bracket adjusting bolt and the pivot bolt. Then adjust pump 
position to obtain the desired belt tension. 

To check the fluid level, start the engine and turn the steering wheel to 
left and to right several times, then shut off engine. Check fluid level, 
which should be 1/4 in. from the top of the reservoir, or to the F mark on 
the dip stick. 

TO CHECK FOR FLUID LEAKS: If the fluid does not already have red 
dye, premix one teaspoonful of oil soluble aniline dye with two pints of 
automatic transmission fluid. Then refill the reservoir with dye solution. 
With the engine running at idle, turn the steering wheel to full right, and 
to full left, several times to distribute the dye solution. Then hold the 
wheel against each wheel stop for 20 seconds. Shut off the engine and check 
for leaks. 

Most leaks occur at the fittings, and connections. The leak can be more 
easily detected if all surfaces are wiped clean. Leakage may occur at the 
O rings in orifices at the top of the pump body, Fig. T-13. The reservoir 
should be removed from the pump to replace these O rings. Other pumps 
leaks at the shaft seal at the front of the pump, the pump housing O ring, 

223 




PUMP AND RESERVOIR 
T-13. Layout of typical power steering system. 

and the flow director O ring, between the two halves of the pump, and the 
relief valve retainer O ring. If the control valve, Fig. T-14, is leaking 
(somewhere other than the tube seats) replace all the seals, using a control 
valve seal kit. 

The power cylinder may leak at the piston rod seal. A power cylinder 
seal kit is available for correcting the condition. 



RING / \ 



SPRING 
CAP ADJUSTING 

NUT 






CENTERING \ 

SPACER 








VAIVE \ 

SIEEVE ft \ 

V 



T-14. Disassembled power steering unit. 

224 



Wheel Alignment 

It is important to remember that trouble may originate in the steering 
gear housing, its adjustment, in the steering linkage, and such points 
should be checked before overhauling any of the power steering units. 

POWER STEERING FLUID 

When filling the power steering gear system, only automatic transmis- 
sion fluid type A, Suffix A, should be used. 

HOW TO BALANCE WHEELS 

If specialized wheel balancing equipment is not available, a normally 
satisfactory job can be done by mounting the wheel to be balanced on the 
front wheel spindle. The procedure is to first back off on the brake adjust- 
ment until the wheel rotates freely. If the wheel bearing adjustment is 
tight it might be necessary to loosen that adjustment also. 

With the wheel in position on the spindle, allow it to rotate until it 
comes to a stop. The "heavy" area of the wheel will be at the bottom. Tem- 
porarily attach a wheel balance weight to the rim at the top. Again allow 
the wheel to rotate. If the weighted area of the wheel now stops at the bot- 
tom, the weight is too heavy. Change the weight until the wheel always 
stops in a different position. 



TROUBLE SHOOTING 

CAUSE OF EXCESSIVE TIRE WEAR 

Under inflation. Worn king pins and bushings or ball joints. Loose tie- 
rod ends and steering rods. Overloaded car. High speed driving. Wheel 
balance. Tire balance. Incorrect toe-in or toe-out. Unequal brake adjust- 
ment. Spring sag. Bent or shifted rear axle housing. Bent frame. Dragging 
brakes. Incorrect camber. Incorrect caster. Defective shock absorbers. 

STEERING DIFFICULTIES 

Steering difficulties, including wander, wheel tramp, road sway, shim- 
my, hard steering, may be caused by the following: Incorrect tire pres- 
sure. Tight spindle bearings, or ball joints. Loose spindle bearings or ball 
joints. Loose connecting rod ends and connectings. Broken chassis spring. 
Loose steering gear mountings. Wheels and tire assemblies out-of- 
balance. Incorrect caster, camber and toe-in. Incorrect king pin angle. 
Dragging brakes. Steering gear off center. Spring sag. Loose or worn 
shock absorber. Tires of unequal sizes. Bent rear axle housing. Tight 
wheel bearings. Loose or worn stabilizer. Bent frame. 



225 




Top, 7956 Ford. Center 7955 Ford. Bottom, 1954 Ford. 



Quick Service on 
BRAKES 



A typical Ford brake system is shown in Fig. U-l. 

Brake adjustment and brake relining on Ford cars are relatively sim- 
ple. To make a major adjustment of the brakes on the 1949 to 1954 models, 
which have an adjustable anchor pin, requires approximately 2 hours. On 
other types only one half hour is needed. To install relined shoes, about 
three hours is required on all types. 

In general, Ford brakes require adjustment when the pedal goes to 
about 2 in. from the floor when the brakes are applied. New brake shoes 
should be installed when the lining is worn to 1/32 in. of the rivets in the 



MASTER CYLINDER.^ 


l ■ "1 


RELEASE HANDLE 


^rjf. -^-- "EAP. BRAKE ASSEMBLY 


FRONT BRAKE ASSEMBLY * 


MS i 




J 


f BRAKE IH 
PEDAL 1 


wWk parking / 

1 BRAKE /U ■ 

[ 1 PEDAL / 

\j / / 


-j PARKING BRAKE S 

f CABLES ^ ^*" 



PARKING BRAKE PEDAL CABLE 



U-l. Typical hydraulic brake system as used on Ford cars. 

case of riveted lining, and to 1/16 in. of the brake shoe when cemented 
lining is used. Brake shoes with new lining attached to the shoes are read- 
ily obtained from the Ford dealers or from auto parts jobbers on an ex- 
change basis. 

When new shoes are installed, the hydraulic system should be flushed 
and refilled with new fluid. Details on servicing the hydraulic system will 
be given later in this chapter. 

REMOVING FRONT BRAKE DRUMS 

To remove the front brake drums on Ford cars, remove the hub cap or 
wheel cover then remove the grease cap from the hub, Fig. U-2. Remove 
the cotter pin, nut lock, adjusting nut, and flat washer from the spindle, 

227 



Fix Your Ford 

then remove the outer bearing cone and roller assembly, Fig. U-2. Pull 
the wheel, hub and drum assembly off the wheel spindle. In some cases 
when the brake drum has become severely worn, it will be necessary to 
readjust the clearance of the shoes before removing the drum so that the 
shoes are contracted within the drum. To do this see the instructions on 
brake adjusting. 




HUB AND BRAKE 
DRUM ASSEMBLY 



BEARING 
OUTER CUP 

BEARING 
CONE AND 
ROLLER 



COTTER j 

PIN -+M NUT 

RETAINER 



INNER GREASE 

BEARING 
CUP 




WHEEL 
ASSEMBLY 



U-2. Front wheel hub and bearing. Note nut retainer and adjusting nut used on 1961 to 1963 
models. Earlier models used only a castellated nut {or adjusting. 



ADJUSTING WHEEL BEARINGS 

When replacing the front brake drums, it is necessary to adjust the 
wheel bearings. This should be done with care. The procedure is as fol- 
lows: After installing the drum, and the bearing and the adjusting nut, ro- 
tate the drum and wheel assembly, and turn the adjusting nut to 15-20 ft. 
lb. to seat the bearings. This should be done with a torque wrench. Loosen 
the nut lock on the adjusting nut so the castellations on the lock are aligned 
with the cotter pin hole in the spindle. Then using a 1-1/8 in. box wrench, 




MOVE HANDLE 
UPWARDS 



U-3. Backing off brake adjustment on self-adjusting brakes. 



228 



Brakes 



PRIMARY SHOE TO-ANCHOR 
SPRING 



SHOE 

HOiD DOWN 

SPRINGS 




U-4. Details of self-adjusting brakes as used on 1961 - 7963 models. 

back off both the adjusting nut and the nut lock together, until the next 
castellation on the nut lock aligns with the cotter pin hole in the spindle. 
Install a new cotter pin to complete the job. 

On older models which do not have a separate adjusting nut and lock 
nut the procedure is to rotate the wheel, and at the same time turn the 
nut until a slight resistance to rotation of the wheel is felt, then back off 
on the adjustment until the cotter pin hole in the castellated nut line up 
with the hole in the spindle. 

HOW TO REMOVE THE REAR BRAKE DRUMS 

With the car raised from the floor remove the hub cap and wheel and 
tire assembly, remove the three Tinnerman nuts and the brake drum. The 
Tinnerman nuts are flat spring type nuts, which can be pulled off of the 
studs. The brake drum can then be removed by pulling directly out. 

If the brake drum will not come off easily, turn the adjusting wheel to 
bring the brake shoes together. On brakes of the self-adjusting type, in- 
sert a narrow screwdriver through the brake adjusting hole in the carrier, 
or backing plate, and disengage the adjusting lever' from the adjusting 
screw, Fig. U-3. While thus holding the adjusting lever away from the ad- 
justing screw, back off the adjusting screw with the brake adjusting tool. 
Back off the adjustment only if the drum cannot be removed. Be very care- 
ful not to burr, chip or damage the notches in the adjusting screw, other- 
wise the self-adjusting mechanism will not operate correctly. 



229 



Fix Your Ford 

ADJUSTING SELF-ADJUSTING BRAKES 1963-1961 

With the exception of the Falcon models, self-adjusting brakes are in- 
stalled on all models since 1961, inclusive, (on the Falcon, the self- 
adjusting brake was adopted in 1963). These brakes require adjustment 
only after new brake shoes have been installed, or when the length of the 
adjusting screw, Fig. U-4, has been changed while performing some other 
service operation. 

The procedure is as follows: Remove the adjusting hole cover from the 
backing plate and turn the adjusting screw upward to expand the shoes, 
Fig. U-5. Expand the shoes until a slight drag is felt as the brake drum is 




Brake Shoe Adjusting Too/ HI 1 53-A 

U-5. Method of expanding the brake shoes of self-adjusting brakes. 

rotated. Then remove the brake drum and while holding the adjusting lever 
out of engagement with the adjusting screw, Figs. U-3 and U-4, back off 
the adjusting screw 3/4 turn with the fingers. If finger movement will not 
turn the screw, free it up by lubrication, otherwise, the self-adjusting le- 
ver will not be able toturn the screw. The screw should be lubricated with 
engine oil and the adjusting wheel coated with wheel bearing grease. 

BRAKE ADJUSTMENT 1956 to 1960 

Raise the car until the wheels clear the floor. Remove the adjusting 
hole cover from the bottom of the brake backing plate, and turn the adjust- 
ing screw inside the hole to expand the brake shoes until they drag against 
the brake drum, Fig. U-7. 

When the shoes are tight against the brake drum, back off the adjusting 
screw until the drum rotates freely without any drag. If the drum does not 
rotate freely, first remove the wheel and drum, then blow out the dust and 
dirt from the lines. Apply a small quantity of special brake lubricant, to 
the points where the shoes contact the backing plate, being careful not to 
get the lubricant on the linings. Reinstall the wheel and drum and adjust 
the shoes again. 

230 



Brakes 

When all the brake shoes have been properly adjusted, check the oper- 
ation of the brakes. 

Details of the brakes used on the 1956 to 1960 Ford cars are shown in 
Fig. U-6. 



ANCHOR PIN PLATE 



RETRACTING 
SPRINGS 



\ / _ 



V BRAKE 
LINING 




HOLD DOWN 
SPRING 



PRIMARY BRAKE 

SHOE AND 

LINING 



FRONT OF CAR 



ADJUSTING SCREW 



ADJUSTING 
SCREW SPRING 



4063-A 



U-6. Showing the construction of the J 956 to 1960 Ford brakes. 
Anchor pin on this model was not adjustable. 



ADJUSTING 1955 FORD BRAKES 






Adjustment of these brakes differs from the others because of the ec- 
centric adjustment as shown in Fig. U-8. To adjust these brakes, expand 
the brake shoes by turning the adjusting wheel until the shoes contact the 
drum. Then back off the screw 10 to 12 notches to establish the drum-to- 
lining clearance. Turn the eccentric cam on the front wheels in the direc- 
tion of forward wheel rotation until a slight drag is felt, then back off the 
cam just enough to have a free rotating drum. 

Rotate the brake drum until the adjusting slot is opposite the upper end 
of the primary shoe. Check the clearance between the drum and the upper 
end of the shoe with a feeler gauge. If the clearance at the upper end of 
the primary shoe is less than .010 in., cr greater than .015 in., a major 
brake adjustment should be performed. Check for clearance at both ends 
of the primary and secondary shoe. Check the anchor pins, lock nuts, and 
the eccentric lock nut for tightness, then rotate the brake drum and check 
for lining drag. If the wheel does not turn freely, remove the wheel and 

231 



Fix Your Ford 

drum and blow out the dust from the linings. 

At the rear wheels remove the adjusting hole cover from the backing 
plate and turn the adjusting screw as shown in Fig. U-7, using a screw- 
driver, or brake adjusting tool, toward the axle, until the brake drum can 
just be turned by hand. Then back off 10 to 12 notches, moving the handle 
of the screwdriver away from the axle until the wheel turns freely. 

Apply the brakes and measure the distance from the pedal pad to the 
floor. If this distance is less than one -half the total travel, there is too 
much clearance between the shoes and the drum, and either further adjust- 
ment is necessary, or the brakes require relining. 

To make a major adjustment on these brakes, raise the car and re- 
move the front wheels. Insert a. 010 in. feeler gauge through the adjusting 
slot in the brake drum, while the slot is opposite the lower end of the pri- 
mary brake shoe. Rotate the eccentric, in the direction of forward wheel 
rotation, until the feeler gauge fits snugly between the drum and the lower 
end of the shoe. Remove the feeler gauge. 

Rotate the drum until the adjusting slot is opposite the upper end of the 
primary shoe. Check the clearance between the drum and the upper end of 
the shoe with the feeler gauge. If the clearance at the upper end of the pri- 
mary shoe is less than .010 in., or greater than .013 in., loosen the anchor 
pin nut one full turn. Rotate the eccentric as noted above to obtain .010 in. 
clearance at the lower end of the shoe. Tap the anchor pin lightly with a 




Broke Shoe Adjusting Tool 



U-7. Adjusting 1956 to 1960 Ford brakes. Earlier models were similar, except 
some had an eccentric adjustment, and also the anchor pin was adjustable. 

soft hammer, either upward or downward, to obtain a .010 in. clearance at 
the upper end of the shoe. Tighten the anchor pin nut securely. Recheck 
both clearances to be sure that tightening the anchor pin nut did not change 
the adjustment. 

Remove the adjusting hole cover from the brake backing plate. Insert 
a .010 in. feeler gauge through the drum slot opposite the lower end of the 
secondary shoe. Expand the shoes by turning the adjusting screw with a 

232 



Brakes 

screwdriver or an adjusting tool, until the clearance at the lower end of 
the secondary shoe is .010 in. It is important to check the clearance at 
both ends of the primary and secondary shoes for proper adjustment. 

Rotate the brake drum and check for lining drag. Install the adjusting 
hole cover. Make the adjustments and check the other front brake assem- 
bly. Adjust the rear wheels in the same manner as indicated for a minor 
adjustment. Be sure the parking brake cables are properly adjusted. 







U-8. Front brake assembly used on the 1955 models. Note eccentric adjustment. Anchor pin on 
this model is also adjustable. Rear brakes on this model do not have eccentric adjustment. 



ADJUSTING BRAKES PRIOR TO 1955 MODELS 

These brakes have an adjustable anchor, as shown in Fig. U-9. To make 
a minor adjustment, jack up all four wheels. Be sure the parking brake 
lever is in the fully released position. Check the cables to the rear brakes 
to make certain the cables have not been adjusted, so the shoes have been 
moved off their anchor pin seat, that is partly applied. 

Check the anchor pin nut with a 16 in. wrench. If the anchor pin nut is 
found to be loose, a major adjustment is necessary. 

Remove the adjusting hole cover from the backing plate, and expand the 
brake shoes by turning the adjusting screws, as shown in Fig. U-7, using a 
screwdriver or an adjusting tool. Raising the handle of the tool upward, 
will expand the shoes in the drum. Expand the shoes until the drum can 
just be turned by hand. Then back off the adjusting screw, moving the han- 
dle of the tool away from the axle, until the wheel turns freely without 
drag. Make this adjustment at all four wheels. If a drag is still noticed on 

233 



Fix Your Ford 



T* * 7 rJOtl 



PARKING 
BRAKE 

iever 



1x103— RH RETRACTOR SPRINGS C 

J IttM-L.H. 




1041 ADJUSTER 
t04l 



U-9. Brakes on 7955 one/ earlier models. Note slotted hole for 
anchor pin, permitting vertical adjustment. 



the drum, reset the anchor pin. 

To make a major adjustment, first remove all the brake drums. Clean 
the brake assemblies. Lubricate the surfaces of the backing plate contacted 
by the shoes and the adjusting screws, with special brake lubricant. 

Then with the drums installed, proceed as follows: Insert a .010 in. 
feeler gauge in the adjusting slot in the drum while the slot is opposite the 
lower end of the secondary or rear shoe, Fig. U-10. Move the feeler gauge 
upward along the secondary shoe until the shoe assembly is wedged for- 
ward as far as possible. 

Expand the shoes by turning the adjusting screw until the primary shoe 
contacts the drum securely, and the secondary shoe is snug against the 
feeler. Back off the adjusting screw enough to establish a clearance of .010 
in., 1-1/2 in. from each end of the primary and secondary shoes. This ad- 
justment provides correct operation clearance for both primary and sec- 
ondary shoes. 

If the .010 in. clearance cannot beobtainedat both ends of the second- 
ary shoe by rotating the adjusting screw, the anchor pin must be adjusted. 
To adjust the anchor pin, loosen the anchor pin nut just enough to allow the 



234 



Brakes 

pin to move up or down, then tap the nut with a soft hammer until the pin 
is properly positioned. Do not back the nut off too much, or the shoes may 
move out of position when the nut is tightened. To reduce the clearance be- 
tween the lining and the drum at the anchor end of the secondary shoe, 
move the anchor pin away from the center of the axle or spindle. To re- 
duce the clearance at the adjusting screw end, move the anchor pin toward 
the center of the spindle. After the proper clearance is obtained, tighten 
the anchor pin nut to 65 to 85 ft. lb. torque. Recheck the shoe clearance, 
after tightening the nut, to insure having the. 010 in. operating clearance. 




FtELtR GAUGE 



U-10. Checking shoe clearance on 1955 brakes. 



BRAKE PEDAL ADJUSTMENT 

On models up to 1959 an adjustment was provided for the brake pedal 
free play. When the free play of the brake pedal is less than 1/4 in. or 
more than 7/16 in., the need for brake pedal adjustment is indicated. The 
pedal free play is considered to be the movement of the pedal before the 
push rod touches the master cylinder piston, and may be checked by hand 
pressure on the brake pedal pad, Fig. U-ll. 

Brake pedal free play adjustment is accomplished by rotating the ec- 
centric bolt which attaches the brake pedal assembly to the master cylin- 
der push rod assembly. Loosen the lock nut, then rotate the eccentric bolt 
until the pedal free play is within specified limits. Hold the eccentric bolt 
and tighten the lock nut to 25-30 ft. lb. torque. 

WHEN TO RELINE BRAKES 

Just how often brakes should be relined depends largely on the driver 
of vehicle, the rate at whichthe car is stopped, the frequence of stops and 
the quality of the brake lining. If the car is frequently driven through wet 
gravel, or sandy roads, brake lining wear will be more rapid. 

235 



Fix Your Ford 



It is necessary to reline brakes when the lining has become worn to 
1/32 in. of the rivet heads, or to 1/16 in. of the brake shoe in the case of 
cemented shoes. Brakes should also be relined when the lining becomes 




U-l 1. There should be 1/4 to 7/16 in. pedal free travel. 

grooved, as shown in Fig. U-12, and when the brake drums have become 
scored, as shown in Fig. U- 13. Another reason for relining brakes is when 
the lining becomes soaked with oil, grease, or brake fluid. 

When the drums are scored or become out-of-round, or bell-mouthed, 
they should be reconditioned, but in no case should more than .060 in. of 
metal be removed from the drum. Fig. U-14, illustrates the diameter of a 
drum being measured to determine whether it is too thin for further use. 
Falcon brake drums are 9 in. in diameter, Galaxie drums 10 in., and 11 
in. drums are used on other Ford models. 

Most automotive parts jobbers and Ford dealers have the necessary 
equipment for reconditioning brake drums, and will also supply relined 
brake shoes, and other brake parts. 

HOW TO REMOVE BRAKE SHOES 

Brake shoes are easily removed after the removal of the brake drums, 
which has been previously explained. To simplify the job of shoe removal 
a pair of brake pliers or a tool, as shown in Fig. U-l 5, can be used for 
removing the retracting springs. If neither type tool is available, a heavy 
screwdriver can be used, but this requires considerable dexterity and 
some strength. 

After removing the wheel and drum, disconnect the brake shoe retract- 
ing springs with a pair of brake pliers, or as shown in Fig. U-15. Remove 
the hold-down spring cups and springs, Fig. U-6. This is done by press- 
ing in on the spring cups, andgivingthe cup a half turn, which will permit 
it tobe released. At the same time, the end of the pin which passes through 
the backing plate, should be held while the cup is being pressed in. On rear 

236 



Brakes 




U-12. When brake lining is badly grooved as shown in the illustration, it should be replaced. 

brakes remove the parking brake lever, link and spring, Fig. U-4. Grasp 
the shoes at the top and pull them apart, which will then permit their re- 
moval. 

Be careful not to press the brake pedal down while the brake drums 
are removed. Remove the adjusting screw parts and lower spring and sep- 
arate the brake shoes. 

Clean the backing plate and other brake parts. Examine the wheel cyl- 
inders to see if they need reconditioning. Examination and rebuilding of 
the wheel cylinders will be described later. 

After cleaning all brake parts, the new shoes can be installed in the 
reverse manner. 




t/- 73. Example of a badly scored brake drum. Such drums should be recon- 
ditioned, but in no case should more than .060 in. of metal be removed. 






On brakes of the self-adjusting type such as are used on 1961 and later 
models, the procedure differs slightly from the foregoing. First, disengage 
the adjusting lever from the adjusting screw by pulling backward on the 
adjusting lever. Move the outboard side of the adjusting screw upward and 
back off the pivot nut as far as it will go. 

Pull the adjusting lever, cable and automatic adjusting spring down and 
toward the rear, to unhook the pivot hook from the large hole in the sec- 



237 



Fix Your Ford 

ondary shoe web. Do not attempt to pry the pivot hook out of the hole. 

Remove the automatic adjuster spring and adjusting lever. The sec- 
ondary and primary retracting springs can then be removed, as described 
for the conventional type brake. 




U-14. Checking the diameter of a brake drum with a special gauge. 



HOW TO INSTALL BRAKE SHOES 

Never reline the brakes on one wheel only. Rejine both front wheels, 
or both rear wheels, or all four wheels, but never one wheel at a time. 

The installation of brake shoes is done in the reverse manner to their 
removal. 

Before installing the brake shoes on the backing plate, lubricate the 
areas on the backing plate which are contacted by the brake shoes, using 
special brake lubricant. 

Position the brake shoes so that the secondary shoe will be at the rear 
when placed into its proper position against the backing plate. Insert the 
brake adjusting screw between the lower ends of the brake shoes, so the 
adjusting or star wheel will be directly opposite the adjusting hole in the 
carrier plate. Install the adjusting screw spring. Attaching the ends to the 
secondary and to the primary shoes. The shoe assembly can then be placed 
in position against the backing plate with the upper end of the shoes in line 
with the anchor pin, and the brake cylinder links in their appropriate slots 
in the shoes. Secure the assembly with the hold down pins, springs and 
cups. On rear brakes, install the parking brake lever, link and spring to 
the assembly. 

Place the anchor pin plate over the anchor pin, install a primary shoe 
retracting spring, then the secondary shoe retracting spring, as shown in 
Fig. U-15. After installation of the drums and wheels the hydraulic system 
should be bled and the shoe clearance adjusted. 



238 



Brakes 



INSTALLING SHOES ON SELF-ADJUSTING BRAKES 

In the case of the self-adjustingbrakes, before installing the rear brake 
shoes, assemble the parking brake lever to the secondary shoe and secure 
with the spring washer and retaining clip. Apply a light coating of high 
temperature grease at the points where the brake shoes contact the back- 
ing plate. 

Position the brake shoes on the carrier plate, and install the hold down 
spring, pins, springs, and cups. On the rear brake, install the parking 
brake link and spring. Connect the parking brake cable to the parking brake 
lever. 




U-15. Removing a brake retracting spring with a special tool. A heavy screwdriver can be used 
to ory the spring off the anchor pin, if a special tool is not available. 

Install the tension spring on the anchor pin with the concave side of the 
spring toward the shoes. Install the anchor pin plate on the anchor pin 
against the tension spring. Place the cable anchor over the anchor pin, 
with the crimped side toward the carrier plate. 

Install the primary shoe to anchor spring, as shown in Fig. U-16. In- 
stall the cable guide on the secondary shoe web with the flanged hole fitted 
into the hole in the secondary shoe web. Thread the cable around the cable 
guide groove. It is imperative that the cable be positioned in this groove, 
and not between the guide and the shoe web. 

Install the secondary shoe to anchor spring. Be certain that the cable 
end is not cocked, or binding on the anchor pin when installed. All parts 
should be flat on the anchor pin. 

Apply high temperature grease to the threads and the socket end of the 
adjusting screw. Turn the adjusting screw into the adjusting pivot nut to the 
limit of the threads and then back off one -half turn. 

Interchanging the brake shoe adjusting screw assembly from one side 
of the car to the other would cause the brake shoes to retract, rather than 
expand each time the automatic adjusting mechanism operates. To prevent 

239 



Fix Your Ford 

installation on the wrong side of the car, the socket end of the adjusting 
screw is stamped with an R, or an L. The adjusting pivot nut can be dis- 
tinguished by the number of lines machined around the body of the nut. Two 
lines indicate a right hand nut, and one line indicates a left hand nut. 

Place the adjusting socket on the screw, and install this assembly be- 
tween the two ends with the adjusting screw nearest the secondary shoe. 

Hook the cable hook into the hole in the adiusting lever. The adjusting 




H1217-A 



U-16. Installing a refractor spring with a special tool. Note that the tool is being 
used as a lever. A heavy screwdriver can be used in the same manner. Also note 
the clamp on ends of the wheel cylinder used as a precautionary measure to pre- 
vent pistons and cups being pushed out of the cylinders. 

levers are stamped with an R or an L to indicate their installation on right 
or left hand brake assemblies. 

Position the hooked end of the adjuster spring into the large hole in the 
primary shoe web, and connect the looped end of the spring to the adjuster 
lever hole. 

Pull the adjuster lever, cable and automatic adjuster spring down, and 
toward the rear to engage the pivot hook in the large hole in the secondary 
shoe web. 

After installation, check the action of the adjuster by pulling the section 
of the cable between the cable guides and the adjusting lever toward the 
secondary shoe web far enough to lift the lever past a tooth on the adjusting 
screw wheel. The lever should snap into position between the next teeth, 
and release of the cable should cause the adjuster spring to return the lev- 
er to its original position. This return action of the lever will turn the ad- 
justing screw one tooth. 

If pulling the cable does not produce the action described, or if the lev- 
er action is sluggish instead of positive and sharp, check the position of 
the lever on the adjusting screw toothed wheel. With the brake in a ver- 
tical position the lever should contact the adjusting wheel 3/16 in. above 
the center line of the screw. If the contact point is below this center line, 
the lever will not lock on the teeth in the adjusting screw wheel, and the 
screw will not be turned as the lever is actuated by the cable. 

To determine the cause of this condition, check the cable end fittings. 

240 



Brakes 

The cable should completely fill, or extend slightly beyond the crimped 
section of the fittings. If it does not meet this specification, possible dam- 
age is indicated, and the cable assembly should be replaced. 

Check the cable length, which should measure 11-1/8 in. from the end 
of the cable anchor to the end of the cable hook. Also check the cable guide 
for damage. The cable groove should be parallel to the shoe web, and the 
body of the guide should lie flat against the web. Replace the guide if it 
shows damage. 

Self-adjusting brakes require a manual adjustment only after the brake 
shoes have been relined, replaced, or when the length of the adjusting 
screw has been changed by performing some other service operation. After 
the shoes have been installed, or the adjusting screw has been turned, in- 
stall the drum, be sure all excess grease, oil and any other foreign ma- 
terials are wiped off the breaker plate and drum. Remove the adjusting 
hole cover from the breaker plate. From the breaker plate side, turn the 
adjusting screw upward to expand the shoes. Expand the shoes until a slight 
drag is felt when the drum is rotated. Then remove the drum. While hold- 
ing the adjusting lever out of engagement with the adjusting screw, Fig. 
U-3, back off the adjusting screw three-quarters turn with the fingers. If 
finger movement will not turn the screw, free it up, otherwise the self- 
adjusting lever will not turn the screw. Lubricate the screw with oil and 
coat the wheel with bearing grease. 

TIPS ON SERVICING HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 

Various parts of the hydraulic brake system will last much longer and 
greater safety will be promoted, if the hydraulic system is flushed once a 
year, or every ten thousand miles, and then refilled with new fluid. Only 
fluid meeting the specifications of the Society of Automotive Engineers 
should be used, as inferior fluid will tend to vaporize, become gummy, and 
earlier brake failure will result. 




PISTON 



PISTON 
ILEEDER SCREW 






U-17. Details of typical wheel cylinder. 

HOW TO BLEED BRAKES 

"Bleeding Brakes" is the process whereby any air in the hydraulic sys- 
tem is removed. It is very important that there be no air in the hydraulic 
system as such air would be compressed instead of transmitting the motion 

241 



Fix Your Ford 




U-18. Sectional view of brake bleeder valve. 

of the fluid. When there is air in the system, the brake pedal will have a 
spongy feel, instead of the normal feel when the brakes are applied. This 
spongy feel results from the air being compressed. 

To bleed the hydraulic brake system, a small valve is provided at each 
of the wheel cylinders, Fig. U-17, and details of the valve are shown in 
Fig. U-18. This bleeder valve is reached and operated on the back side of 
the backing plate, as shown in Fig. U-19. 




U-19. Method of bleeding brakes. Note bleeder hose carrying brake fluid to glass container. End 
of hose must remain below surface of fluid in container. 

Brakes should be bled whenever any part of the hydraulic system has 
been disconnected, or when, on brake application, the pedal has a spongy 
feel. The master cylinder must always be kept full of new, clean fluid dur- 
ing the bleeding process. The left rear wheel cylinder should be bled first, 
then the right rear, right front and left front, in that order. Attach a rub- 
ber drain tube to the end of the bleeder screw at the wheel cylinder, Fig. 
U-19. The tube should fit snugly around the screw so that no air can enter. 
The free end of the tube should be submerged in a jar or container, partly 
filled with clean brake fluid. Then loosen the bleeder screw with a 3/8 in. 
open end wrench. Push the brake pedal down slowly by hand and allow it to 
return slowly to the fully released position. Repeat this operation until air 
bubbles cease to appear at the submerged end of the tube. When the fluid 
is completely free of air bubbles, close the bleeder screw and remove the 
drain tube. 

During the bleeding operation, the level of the fluid in the master cyl- 



242 



Brakes 

inder reservoir should be observed and should not be permitted to reach 
the bottom of the reservoir. 

After bleeding one wheel cylinder, proceed to the next in order. After 
bleeding the last cylinder, make sure the master cylinder is filled to with- 
in 3/8 in. of the top of the reservoir. Obviously this operation requires two 
people, one to operate the brake pedal, and the other to observe the fluid 
leaving the bleeder tube. Pressure type bleeders which permit one man to 
do the operation are available, but are relatively expensive. 

FLUSHING THE BRAKE SYSTEM 

The hydraulic system should be flushed annually, or every 10,000 
miles, and the procedure is the same as bleeding. However sufficient fluid 
should be bled from each line until the color of the fluid is clear, and the 
same as new fluid. When flushing a brake system it is generally advisable, 
to draw approximately one pint of fluid from the first cylinder bled. This 
will insure that all of the fluid contained in the master cylinder has been 
drained. On subsequent cylinders it is then necessary to drain the line un- 
til clear fluid is obtained. 

QUICK SERVICE ON WHEEL CYLINDERS 

The life of wheel cylinders can be prolonged by more frequent flushing 
of the hydraulic system, and by the use of quality brake bluid, meeting the 
S.A.E. specifications. It is necessary to service the wheel cylinders when 
they start to leak fluid. This becomes apparent when the brake pedal grad- 
ually goes to the floor when the brakes are applied, and "pumping" the 
pedal becomes necessary in order to stop the car. 

The condition of the wheel cylinders can be partly checked by pulling 
back the boots from the ends of the cylinder, as shown in Fig. U-20. If the 




U-20. If brake fluid has leaked into the cups on wheel cylinders, 
the cylinders should be overhauled or replaced. 



243 




STOP LIGHT SWITC 



U-21. Installation of master cylinder on dash panel. Level of the brake fluid must be maintained 
within 3/8 in. of the top of the filler neck. 

inside of the boot is wet with fluid, there is leakage present, and it will be 
necessary to recondition the cylinder. 

Kits of the necessary parts are readily available and their installation 
is not difficult. The procedure, after removing the brake drum and shoes, 
is to pull off the boots from each end of the wheel cylinder. After that the 
pistons, cups, and springs, Fig. U-17, can be pushed out either end. 

It is necessary to carefully examine the interior of the wheel cylinder 
to make sure it is not scored, pitted, or colored with gummy fluid. To ex- 
amine the wheel cylinder it is generally advisable to first clean the interi- 
or with a cloth moistened with clean brake fluid, making sure that all gum- 
my fluid is removed. 

If the cylinder is found to have pit marks and is scored or grooved, it 
can be reconditioned by means of a small hone. If the hone is not avail- 
able, new wheel cylinder assemblies containing all new parts can be ob- 
tained. 

In regard to the pistons, these should be smooth and not show evidence 
of any scoring or pitting. However in most cases it is advisable to install 
all new parts. 

Each wheel cylinder is attached to the backing plate by means of two 
cap screws which can be removed with a 1 /2 in. wrench. Before removing 
the cap screws, disconnect the flexible brake line from the wheel cylinder. 

Before installing new parts in a wheel cylinder, the interior of the cyl- 
inder should be smeared with clean brake fluid, and before installing the 
parts they should be dipped in fluid. Be sure the individual parts are in- 
stalled in their correct relative position as shown in Fig. U-17. 

MASTER CYLINDER TIPS 

The master cylinder is mounted under the hood on the dash panel, or 
firewall, Figs. U-21 and U-l. On power brake cars, it forms part of the 
piston type power brake unit, and on the bellows type, it is mounted along- 
side of the powerbrake unit. Basically the operation of the master cylinder 
is the same in all cases. 

Details of the master cylinder are shown in Fig. U-22. In general, 

244 



Brakes 

master cylinders require servicing when one of the following conditions 
occurs: 1. All brakes drag. 2. Pedal gradually goes to the floor on brake 
application. 3. Brakes do not apply. 4. Fluid is found in boot on cylinder. 
In order to overhaul a master cylinder it is first necessary to remove 
it from the dash panel, or from the power brake unit, as the case may be. 
In the case of the conventional master cylinder, mounted on the firewall, 
proceed as follows: Disconnect the rubber boot from the rear end of the 
master cylinder in the passenger compartment. Disconnect the brake line 
from the master cylinder. Disconnect the stoplight switch wires from the 
switch, Fig. U-21. Remove the bolts that secure the master cylinder to the 
dash panel, and lift the cylinder out and away from the push rod. Remove 
the rubber boot from the push rod. 

MASTER CYLINDER DISASSEMBLY 

Clean the outside of the cylinder and remove the filler cap and gasket. 
Pour out any brake fluid that may remain in the cylinder or reservoir. Re- 
move the stop light switch and fitting from the forward end of the cylinder, 
Fig. U-21. Remove the snap ring from the bore at the rear of the cylinder, 
Fig. U-22. The piston cup spring and seat can then be withdrawn from the 
cylinder bore. 








Trouble Symptoms 


Possible Causes of 
Trouble Symptoms 


I 

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Pedal Improperly Adjusted 




X 
























Damaged Linkage 






X 










X 












Brake Line Restricted 


X 


X 


X 




x 


















Leaks or Insufficient Fluid 








X 








X 


X 








X 


Improper Tire Pressure 










X 










X 








Improperly Adjusted or Worn Wheel Bearing 


X 








X 


















Distorted or Improperly Adjusted Brake Shoe 


X 


X 


X 






X 




X 






X 


X 




Faulty Retracting Spring 


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X 


















Drum out of Round 


X 








X 




x 














Linings Glazed or Worn 






X 




X 




x 


X 






x 


X 


X 


Oil or Grease on Lining 










X 


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X 




X 


X 


Loose Carrier Plate 












X 


X 














Loose Lining 














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Scored Drum 




















X 




X 




Dirt on Drum-Lining Surface 
























X 


Faulty Brake Cylinder 


X 








X 


X 












X 




Dirty Brake Fluid 


X 


X 
















X 






X 
X 


Faulty Master Cylinder 




X 














X 








Air in Hydraulic System 


X 






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X 



Broke trouble shooting symptoms and possible causes. 



245 



Fix Your Ford 



TIPS ON POWER BRAKE SERVICE 

Several different makes of power brake units have been used on Ford 
cars. In some instances two different makes were used in a single year. 
So it will be necessary to note the type installed before attempting any re- 
pairs or trouble shooting. 




U-22. Disassembled master cylinder, I960 to 1963 models. 



1961-1963 POWER BRAKE 

This is a Midland type unit, and is shown in Figs. U-23 and U-24. To 
remove this unit, work from the inside of the car below the instrument 
panel. Disconnect the booster valve operating rod from the brake pedal 
assembly. To do this remove the nut and eccentric shoulder bolt. Remove 
the rubber boot from the valve operating rod. Disconnect the wires from 
the stop light switch at the master cylinder. Disconnect the brake line at 



VACUUM SOURCE 



CHECK VALVE 



ATMOSPHERIC 
SOURCE 



H VACUUM 
Q3 ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE 



VACUUM PORT 
CLOSED 




U-23. Sectional view of power brake unit used in 1962. 

246 



Brakes 

the master cylinder outlet fitting. Disconnect the manifold vacuum hose 
from the booster unit. Remove the four bracket to dash panel retaining 
bolts. Remove the booster and bracket assembly from the dash panel, slid- 
ing the valve operating rod out from the engine side of the dash panel. 

Replacement parts in kit form with complete instructions are available 
for this unit. In addition, rebuilt units are also available. 

To adjust the brake pedal with this type of power brake, loosen the lock 
nut on the eccentric bolt, and rotate the bolt until the pedal height is ap- 
proximately 1-7/16 in. above the accelerator pedal. Hold the eccentric bolt 
securely and tighten the lock nut. Recheck the pedal height to make sure 
the adjustment did not change when the lock nut was tightened. 

The push rod on this power brake unit is provided with an adjustment 
screw which is needed to maintain the correct relationship between the 
booster control valve plunger and the master cylinder piston. Failure to 



MOUNTUG VACUUM MANIFOID 

KX-T . _ ^^^ CHKK IOOSTW tODV 



•UUSt REACTION ING ■ 




PUSH iOOUNK 
SMMNG WASMBtS 



U-24. Disassembled view of power brake unit, 1962. 

maintain this relationship will prevent the master cylinder piston from 
completely releasing hydraulic pressure, and can cause the brakes to drag. 

To check the adjustment of the screw, fabricate a gauge of the dimen- 
sions shown in Fig. U-25. Then place the gauge against the master cylinder 
mounting surface of the booster body. The push rod screw should be ad- 
justed so the end of the screw touches the inner edge of the slot in the 
gauge. In other words, the head of the screw will be .995 to 1.005 in. from 
the surface of the booster body. 

There is no bleeder valve on the power brake unit. The bleeding pro- 
cedure is therefore the same as with conventional brakes. 



247 



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U-25. Gauge used for adjusting brake push rod. 



TROUBLE SHOOTING 1962 POWER BRAKES 
HARD PEDAL 

Check as follows to see if the power unit is operating: With the engine 
stopped, depress the brake pedal several times to eliminate all the vac- 
uum from the system. Apply the brakes, and while maintaining pressure 
on the pedal, start the engine. If the unit is operating, the brake pedal will 
move forward slightly when engine vacuum is added to the foot pressure 
on the pedal. If the unit is not operating, there will be no pedal action. 

If this check shows that the unit is not working, check for the following: 
Brake pedal linkage sticking. Faulty vacuum check valve. Collapsed or 
leaking vacuum hose. Leaking vacuum chamber. Vacuum check valve stuck 
in closed position. Leak in bellows assembly. Diaphragm assembly out of 
place in housing locating radii. Vacuum leak in automatic transmission 
throttle valve vacuum line connection or fitting. Vacuum leak in forward, 
vacuum housing. 

BRAKES DRAG 

Sticking valve plunger. 
BRAKES GRAB 

Sticking actuating valve assembly. 
SELF APPLICATION OF BRAKES 

Leak in rear housing. Diaphragm out of place in locating radii in hous- 
ings and allowing atmospheric pressure into rear chamber. Sticking or 
unseated atmospheric valve. 



248 



I 



Brakes 



1960-1961 POWER BRAKE SERVICE 

This type of brake is shown in Figs. U-26 and U-27. The procedure to 
be followed when removing this type of unit is as follows: Disconnect the 
wires from the stop light switch at the brake master cylinder. Remove the 
brake line from the master cylinder outlet fitting. 

Loosen the clamp that secures the manifold vacuum hose to the power 
unit. Remove the hose from the unit. Loosen the clamp that secures the 
vacuum reserve tank hose to the power unit, and remove the hose. 

Now working inside the vehicle under the instrument panel, remove and 
discard the horseshoe type retaining clip. Push the retaining bolt through 
the brake pedal and power brake push rod link. Remove the retaining nuts 
from the four mounting bolts. The assembly can then be removed from the 
dash panel by sliding the push rod link out from the engine side of the dash 
panel opening. 



POPPET VAIVE 



VALVE PLUNGER 







U-26. Sectional view of power brake unit us*d in 1960-1961. 

The master cylinder can be removed from the power brake unit by re- 
moving two attaching nuts and washers, and lifting off the master cylinder. 

The push rod is designed with a self -locking adjustment screw to pro- 
vide the correct relationship between the booster piston and the master 
cylinder piston. To set this adjustment screw at the correct height, make 
a gauge similar to that shown for the 1962 power brake. However, the 
screw should be .962 to .967 in. from the end of the adjustment screw to 
the mounting surface of the booster body. This adjustment screw is cor- 
rectly set at time of manufacture, and should not require further adjust- 
ment unless a new push rod is installed. 

Kits of complete parts needed for rebuilding are available with the nec- 
essary instructions. 

249 



Fix Your Ford 



TROUBLE SHOOTING 

Check to make sure that the power brake unit is operating by depres- 
ing the brake pedal several times to eliminate all vacuum from the system. 
Apply the brakes, and while maintaining steady pressure on the pedal, start 
the engine. If the unit is operating, the brake pedal will move forward 
slightly when the engine vacuum is added to the foot pressure on the pedal. 
If the unit is not operating, there will be no pedal action. 

If this check shows that the unit is not operating, remove the hose from 
the power unit and check the vacuum source by placing a thumb over the 
hose. Remove the thumb and note the volume of suction. If no trouble is 
found in the vacuum source, install the hose, making sure there are no 
kinks. Check the power unit. 

Check the air cleaner to make sure that it is clean and free of restric- 
tion. Remove the booster unit from the car. Remove the booster body from 
the end plate and inspect the internal vacuum hose to see that it is proper- 
ly installed, and is not restricted. If the hose is faulty, replace it. Also, be 
sure the inside of the body is clean. Inspect the booster piston for faulty 
packing and replace, if necessary. Also check the piston to make sure it 
is not jammed. 

In case of slow brake pedal return or failure to release, it is important 
to check the air cleaner to make sure it is not clogged. Also check for cor- 
rect adjustment of the master cylinder push rod. Internal causes may be 
a restricted air passage, sticky valve plunger, broken return spring, or the 
atmosphere poppet valve stuck in a closed position. Lack of lubrication at 
the leakage pivots may also cause a bind in the linkage. The air passages 
should be checked for restriction, and blown clear. The valve plunger may 
be touched up lightly with crocus cloth. Do not use oil. Replace if neces- 
sary. 

If the return spring is broken, weak, or distorted, it should be replaced. 
The booster piston must be disassembled to locate and correct the cause 
of a sticking poppet valve. If the poppet valve appears faulty, it should be 
replaced. 

1959-1957 POWER BRAKE KINKS 

As shown in Fig. U-2 8, this type brake has an eccentric adjusting lever. 
This requires accurate adjusting to avoid chattering when the pedal is de- 
pressed. To make the adjustment, start the engine. Turn the valve adjust- 
ing eccentric until the unit chatters when the pedal is depressed in an ap- 
plying movement. Then turn eccentric until the chatter disappears. Do not 
turn the eccentric more than necessary, or unit "cut-in" will be excessive- 
ly high. 

To adjust the master cylinder push rod length, loosen the push rod ec- 
centric lock nut enough to rotate the eccentric. Rotate the eccentric in a 
clockwise direction to its maximum travel. This will shorten the push rod 

250 



POPPET RETURN SPRING 



VAIVE RETURN 



RETAINER RING 




VACUUM CYLINDER 



U-27. 1960-1961 disassembled power brake unit. 

and let the master cylinder piston return to the fully unapplied position. 
Rotate the eccentric in a counterclockwise direction until the master cyl- 
inder piston starts to resist movement of the push rod. Hold the eccentric 
and tighten the lock nut. 

Check the master cylinder at the compensator point for bubbles or 
spurt, which indicates the push rod is properly adjusted. Check the fluid 
level. Add fluid needed. 

To remove this unit, disconnect the vacuum hose at the top of the power 
unit. Remove the nut from the valve adjusting eccentric, remove the flat 



MOUNTING HACKET 



MOUNTING HU» 




■mows 

RING 



x SPRING RETAINER 
' 1ALANCING VA1VE DIAPHRAGM 
^•ALANCING VAIVE WASHER 
1 VACUUM VAlVt SPRING 
WASHE«\ \ DiA^fluyy, DETAINER 
* \ WACUUM VAIVE 

Ail VAIVE CONTROL SPRING 



VAIVE HOUSING iUSHI 



U-28. Details of 7957 to 1960 power brake unit. 

washer, spring and bushing, and remove the valve adjusting eccentric. Re- 
move the nylon bushing from the power unit valve housing. Remove the two 
units and two screws that retain the mounting bracket to the dash panel, 
and remove the power unit from the car. 



251 



Fix Your Ford 



TROUBLE SHOOTING 
1959-1957 POWER BRAKE 



HARD PEDAL 



With the engine stopped, depress the pedal several times to eliminate 
all vacuum from the system. Apply the brakes. While maintaining pressure 
on the pedal, start the engine. If the unit is operating, the pedal will move 
forward slightly when the engine vacuum is added to the foot pressure on 
the pedal. 

If this check shows that the unit is not working, remove the hose from 
the power unit, and check the vacuum source by placing a thumb over the 
hose. Remove the thumb and note the volume of suction. If no trouble is 
found in the vacuum source, install the hose and check the unit for vacuum 
leaks. 



MASTER CYLINDER. 




BOOSTER HOSE 



U-29. In 1956 and earlier, the power brake unit was mounted on the fender panel. 

If no vacuum leaks are found, check the valve adjusting eccentric ad- 
justment. Remove the master cylinder. Let the master cylinder push rod 
hang free in the dash panel opening. 

Loosen the valve adjusting eccentric nut so the eccentric can be turned. 
Turn the eccentric until the unit chatters when the pedal is applied. Then 
turn the eccentric until the chatter disappears. If the power unit eccentric 
adjustment does not correct the trouble, check for a bent pedal trigger. 

PEDAL CHATTERS 

This condition indicates incorrect adjustment of the valve adjusting 
eccentric, or push rod eccentric, or both. 

252 



Brakes 



SLOW PEDAL RETURN 



This condition results from a clogged air filter, or incorrect master 
cylinder push rod adjustment. To remove the air filter, remove the power 
unit mounting bracket from the dash panel. Then pull the pedal and power 
unit toward the front seat until there is enough clearance to remove the 
air filter. Check and adjust the master cylinder push rod. 

1956 POWER BRAKE KINKS 

To bleed brakes on 1956 cars, which are equipped with power brakes, 
Fig. U-29, first shut off the engine, and depress the brake pedal several 
times to eliminate the vacuum in the system. Keep the master cylinder 
reservoir filled with fluid during the bleeding operation. In this installation 
the master cylinder is mounted on the dash pedal, and the booster or power 
brake unit is mounted on the left front fender panel. The power unit is pro- 
vided with a bleeder screw, and the unit should be bled first before at- 
tempting to bleed the wheel cylinders. The procedure is the same as for 
bleeding wheel cylinders, but, as just pointed out, the power brake unit 
should be bled first. 

Installation of the power brake system on the 1956 cars is shown in 
Figs. U-29 and U-30. 

To remove the unit from the panel, first depress the brake pedal sev- 
eral times to remove all vacuum from the system. Disconnect the hydrau- 
lic lines and the vacuum hose at the power brake unit. Disconnect the stop 
light switch wires at the switch, and then remove the booster from the 
mounting bracket. 

As in the case of other power brake units, repair kits are available 
which contain all the necessary parts. 



RETAINING PLATE 




U-30. Disassembled view of J 956 power brake unit. 



253 



Fix Your Ford 

ADJUSTING PARKING BRAKES 

Adjustment of the parking brake linkage should be attempted only after 
the service brakes have been satisfactorily adjusted. Then check the park- 
ing brake cables when the brakes are fully released. If the cables are 
loose, they should be adjusted so all slack is removed. 

The procedure for removing the slack varies slightly in different cars, 
but in general the procedure is as follows: 

Loosen the lock nut on the equalizer rod, Fig. U-31, and turn the nut in 




(7-37. Details of parking brake adjustment used 
on 1962 Thunderbird. Typical of other models. 

front of the equalizer several turns forward. Turn the lock nut forward 
against the equalizer until the cables are just tight enough to remove the 
slack. Excessive tightening may pull the brake shoes off their anchors. 
When the cables are properly adjusted, tighten both nuts against the equal- 
izer. 

Check the cable between the equalizer lever and the parking brake con- 
trol pedal. If the cable is loose, turn the equalizer lever nut forward far 
enough to remove the slack in the cable without moving the equalizer lever. 



254 



LUBRICATION 
AND TIRES 



TIPS ON LUBRICATION 

Latest Ford recommendations covering the engine oil, is that the oil 
be changed in the crankcase every 6000 miles and at the same time the 
oil filter should also be changed. However, if all of the driving is of the 



AIR CLEANER 




FUEL FILTER 



ROAD DRAFT TUBE 



A1352-A 



V-J. Side view of Falcon engine showing location of oil and fuel 
filters and the road draft tube for ventilating the crankcase. 



short trip type, with each trip of less than five miles, some authorities 
advice changing the oil more frequently, if valve and valve lifter sticking 
is to be avoided. 

The Ford recommendations for type of oil are as follows: 

SAE 30 or 10W-30 for prevailing temperatures of 90 deg. F. 

SAE 20, 20W, or 10W-30 between 20 deg. F. and 90 deg. F. 

SAE 10W, or 10W-30 between -10 deg. F. and 20 deg. F. 

SAE 5W, or 5W-20 for prevailing temperatures below -10 deg. F. 



255 



Fix Your Ford 

OIL FILTER REPLACEMENT 

A typical oil filter installation is shown in Fig. V-l. On the 223 cu. in. 
six cylinder engines, the filter is located on the right side of the engine 
and on V-8's and Falcon it is on the left. 

Instructions for removing and replacing the oil filter element are as 
follows: Raise the car on a jack or hoist and drain the oil. Unscrew the 
filter element from the cylinder. On all of the 352, and 390 cu. in. engines, 
check to see that the filter adapter plate is properly positioned, Fig. V-2. 




V-2. W/ien replacing the oil filter cartridge, make sure the filter 
adapter plate is correctly positioned. 

Clean the cylinder block filter recess. Coat the gasket on the new filter 
with oil, and position it on the cylinder block. Hand tighten the filter until 
the gasket contacts the adapter face, then advance it one -half turn. Fill the 
crankcase with the required amount of oil. Then operate the engine at a 
fast idle and check oil pressure. Also check for oil leaks around the filter. 
On the 390 high performance, and super high performance engines, the 
engine oil cooler should be cleaned every 24,000 miles. 

TRANSMISSION LUBRICATION 

The current recommendation for lubrication of the automatic trans- 
mission is that the level be checked every 6000 miles and additional lubri- 
cant added as required. Automatic transmission fluid type A, Suffix A 
should be used. 

On manual shift transmissions, the level should be checked every 6000 
miles and SAE 80 gear lubricant should be used to maintain the level. 



256 



NECTION 

REGULATOR VALVE 
EXHAUST TUBE 




CRANKCASE VENTILATION OUTLET 

A1636-B 

V-3. Positive crankcase ventilating system as installed on the 260 co. in. V-8. 



REAR AXLE LUBRICATION 

Check the level of the lubricant every 6000 miles and add lubricant as 
required to maintain the level. Use SAE 90 gear lubricant for temperatures 
above -25 deg. F., and SAE 80 for temperatures below -25 deg. F. 

LUBRICATING WHEEL BEARINGS 

The front wheel bearings should be lubricated each t^me the brakes are 
relined. When removing the bearings, care must be taken that no dirt or 
grit gets on the bearings. Only new bearing grease should be used. This 
should be worked around the rollers with care. Do not apply any grease to 
the wheel spindle. It is only necessary to apply grease to the rollers of the 
bearings. 

CARBURETOR AIR CLEANER 

Ford cars are equipped with a dry type filter that has a replaceable 
cellulose fibre filter element, Fig. V-l. This element should be cleaned at 
6000 mile intervals, or oftener if a car is operated in a dusty atmosphere. 
To remove the element, remove the wing nut from the center of the pan 
covering the cleaner. The pan and element can then be lifted out. To clean, 
direct clean compressed air against the element in the opposite direction 
from normal flow, that is from the inside out. Before replacing the ele- 
ment, start the engine, then as the filter is placed in position, note if en- 
gine speed is materially reduced. If it is, install a new element. 

CRANKCASE BREATHER CAP AND FILTER 

These should be cleaned every 6000 miles, by washing in solvent. 

257 



Fix Your Ford 



CRANKCASE VENTILATION 

In order to reduce the formation of smog, some cars are equipped with 
crankcase ventilating systems. Installation on the 260 cu. in. V-8 is shown 
in Fig. V- 3. The system should be cleaned every 6000 miles, or more often 
as the engine becomes worn and blow-by increases. 

To remove valve and other parts for cleaning, disconnect the crankcase 
ventilation exhaust tube from the regulator valve assembly. Remove the 
exhaust tube retaining nuts at the crankcase outlet, and remove the exhaust 
tube and gasket, Fig. V-3. Remove the crankcase ventilation oil separator 
element at the crankcase outlet. Slide the clamps on the hose connection 
toward the center of the hose. Remove the regulator valve from the hose 
connection and the hose connection from the carburetor spacer. Clean the 
exhaust tube and crankcase ventilation oil separator element in clean car- 
buretor solvent and dry with compressed air. The breather cap located on 
the oil filler tube should also be cleaned in solvent. The regulator valve 
is assembled as shown in Fig. V-4. 




V-4. Details of the regulator valve used on fhe positive crankcase ventilating system. 

BODY HARDWARE 

Door latch striker plates should be lubricated with stick wax. Door 
hinge pivots, latch rotors, deck ledge hinge pivots, tail gate hinge pivots, 
hood hinge pivots should be lubricated with SAE 10W oil. Locks should be 
lubricated with special lock oil. Hood latches should be lubricated with 
special lubricant such as Lubriplate. 

WHAT TO DO ABOUT TIRES 

In order to get maximum mileage from tires, they must be correctly 
inflated to the specified amount, driving speed must be conservative, 
brakes applied gently and the acceleration must be conservative. 

258 





. .If PI 




— 100 — m 








■ - 90 a ^ S 




1 -J ^ 




80 -£. J 












c:-f- -/ Mil iiii r 




> x — 1 








^ 50 .r %v 




u_ | y -L^Ts. 




O-40 -^LLOSS OF SERVICE DUE 





*-— |— f- TO UNDERINFLATION 





ixi-30 yf 


— 







£-20 





o--f- . ... 




10 — 













— -40 ... 60 80 100 120 140 








rcn\_crNi v -'~ KtLUMMtNDbD INFLATION 
1 ' ' ' 1 ' - 1 i i i i i i i i i i , , 



EFFECT OF INFLATION ON TIRE SERVICE 

The graph shows the effect of inflation on l,re m.leage. Note that lire mutt 

be run exactly at recommended ,nf)at,on for the recommended load ,n order 

to secure 100% service from the tire. 



VS. Effects of inflation on tin I if: 

Rapid tire wear results when tires are operated in an under-inflated 
condition, Fig. V-5. Many authorities advise operating the tires at two 
pounds more than the specified amount in order to obtain better than aver- 
age tire life. It is also important that the valve caps always be installed, 
as it is the cap which seals the air in the tire. 

By rotating tires regularly, every 5000 miles, tire life will be materi- 
ally increased. Rotation of tires should be made as shown in Fig. V-6. Also 
regularly inspect the tire treads for cuts and bruises and remove all 
stones, nails, glass and other objects from the tread. 




V-6. Rotating tires as indicated every 5000 miles will materially prolong their life. 

Leaks in a tire can be located by immersing the tire in a tub of water 
The leaks will be indicated by a stream of air bubbles. Small leaks can be 
repaired without removing the tire from the rim by inserting special plugs. 
Instructions accompanying the repair material should be followed. 

If special equipment is not available for loosening the tire from the rim 
a bumper jack can be used. The procedure is as follows: Place the tire and 



259 



Fix Your Ford 

wheel on the ground under the car bumper. Place the base of the bumper 
jack on the tire close to the rim and the head of the jack under the bumper 
of the car. Then as the jack is raised, the tire bead will be forced from the 
tire rim. Tire irons used to pry the tire from the rim must be smooth so 
that the rim will not be marred in any way. 




Falcon, 144 cu. in., engine lubrication details. 



260 



Emergency 
TROUBLE SHOOTING AND REPAIRS 



When the engine suddenly stops, or the brakes fail, or the horn contin- 
ues to sound, or some similar trouble occurs, the situation may range 
from extreme danger to one of annoyance. What to do in such emergencies 
is described in the following pages. It is, of course, impossible to describe 
all possible emergencies that may occur, but the more usual ones are list- 
ed here, together with suggestions on ways and means of overcoming the 
trouble. For complete details on diagnosing troubles and making perman- 
ent repairs, the car owner is referred to other chapters in this volume. 
In presenting this material it is assumed that the car owner has become 
familiar with automotive terms by studying the other chapters in this vol- 
ume, and which will also discuss ways and means of effecting permanent 
repairs. In addition, more complete trouble shooting directions are given 
in the individual chapters. This chapter deals only with emergency con- 
ditions. 

ENGINE STOPS SUDDENLY 

This condition often described as the engine "conking out," usually is 
caused by running out of fuel, and the first check to be made is to note the 
fuel indicator gauge or light on the instrument panel. Another reason is 
failure of the fuel pump, and still another reason is known as vapor lock. 
This latter is caused by the fuel vaporizing in the fuel lines, fuel pump, or 
float chamber of the carburetor and is most apt to occur during the spring 
or summer months. The remedy is to wait until the engine has cooled and 
then it will start easily. 

To check for the failure of a fuel pump, takes a little bit longer, as it 
is necessary to disconnect the fuel line from the carburetor, and then with 
the end of the fuel line directed into a container, crank the engine for sev- 
eral revolutions. If the fuel pump is working, fuel will spurt from the end 
of the fuel line in a strong stream. 

A loose connection in the primary circuit of the ignition system will 
also cause the engine to "conk out" suddenly. A defective switch or a burn- 
ed resistor are possible causes of this trouble. Wiring around the switch 
will permit the engine to start incase the switch is defective. If the resis- 
tor, or resistor wiring, is burned out, running a wire from the switch C 
connection to the B terminal on the coil will permit the engine to start. 

261 



Fix Your Ford 

This should never be done except in the case of extreme emergency, as 
this will place full battery voltage on the coil, and operation for more than 
a short time will ruin the coil and ignition breaker points. 

ENGINE WON'T CRANK 

Most usual trouble is a defective starting battery or corroded battery 
connections. 

Another cause is a defective starter relay. Connecting a heavy wire 
from the B terminal of the relay to the starter terminal of the relay will 
permit the engine to start after the ignition switch is turned on. 

ENGINE CRANKS BUT WON'T START 

No fuel in the fuel tank. Defective fuel pump. Check by disconnecting 
fuel line at carburetor and with the line directed into a container crank the 
engine. A pump in good condition will deliver a strong stream of fuel. 

Excessive moisture on the ignition wiring and/or in distributor. Mop 
up excess moisture with cloth and then spray with carbon tetrachloride 
from a fire extinguisher to hasten drying. 

Loose or defective connections in primary ignition system. The remedy 

is to tighten connections. 

Burned out primary resistor or resistor wire. Cut unit or wire out of 
circuit as an emergency measure only. Prolonged operation will ruin coil 
and breaker points. 

Worn or badily adjusted breaker points. Points should be smoothed with 
a file and cleaned. Correct gap on V-8 engines is .015 in. and on six is 
.025 in. If points are severely pitted, the condition can be improved by 
filing. A nail file can be used in an emergency. 

Dirty or incorrectly adjusted sparkplugs will also prevent engine from 
starting. Correct gap is .034 in. 

A flooded carburetor will prevent engines from starting. In most cases 
a strong odor of fuel will be noted. The best procedure is to wait for 10 
minutes and then try again. Or depress accelerator to floor and hold it 
there while engine is started in usual manner. In some cases it may be 
necessary to remove air cleaner and note position of choke plate in the 
carburetor. If it is in closed position, work carburetor linkage to make 
sure choke valve will open. 

If engine is cranked at lower than normal speed, most likely cause is 
partly discharged battery or loose or corroded battery connections. 

SUDDEN BRAKE FAILURE 

If brakes fail suddenly while car is in motion, shut off ignition, apply 
hand brake, and leave transmission in gear or in drive position, as the 
case may be. Sudden and complete failure of brakes is caused by a break 
in the hydraulic line or leakage of fluid at some other point. The only rem- 
edy is replacement of defective parts. 

262 



Emergency Trouble Shooting 

SPONGY BRAKE PEDAL 

If. when pressing on the brake pedal it has a spongy feel, there is air 
in the hydraulic line, and it is necessary to bleed the system to remove 
the air. 

Complete instructions for bleeding the brake system are given in the 
chapter on brakes. 

BRAKE PEDAL SINKS TO THE FLOOR 

If the brake pedal sinks to the floor when the brakes are applied, the 
trouble is caused by a defective master cylinder. The only remedy is re- 
placement of parts. 

BRAKES WILL NOT HOLD 

If this condition occurs suddenly and the brakes have been operating 
satisfactorily before that time, the condition may be caused because of 
having driven through puddles of water or because of a prolonged rain. 
Condition can be minimized by driving with the brakes lightly applied for 
a short distance. 

BRAKES GRAB 

When brakes tend to grab for several applications after the car has 
been parked for several hours, the trouble is probably caused by moisture 
absorbed by the brake lining and is a characteristic of many different 
makes of lining. There are many other causes of grabbing brakes, which 
are discussed in the chapter on brakes. 

NOISY BRAKES 

Brakes will make many different types of noises, but all are an indica- 
tion that the brakes need servicing of some kind. 

GENERATOR FAILURE 

When the generator fails as indicated by the ammeter or the generator 
light on the instrument panel, the first point to check is the belt which 
drives the fan and generator. Ifthisbeltis loose or broken, the generator 
will not be driven at sufficient speed to generate current. As a result the 
battery will quickly become discharged. If the same belt is driving the 
water pump the engine will overheat with probable damage to the engine 
bearings, pistons and cylinder walls. The remedy is to tighten the belt by 
means of the adjuster, or install a new belt as needed. 

263 



Fix Your Ford 



RADIATOR BOILS OVER 

This condition is usually caused by insufficient water in cooling system 
and is indicated by the temperature gauge, or the temperature warning 
light, on the instrument panel. Trouble can be caused by leaking radiator, 
water pump, hose connections, defective core plugs in engine water jacket, 
or loose or broken belt driving the water pump and fan. The best proced- 
ure is to shut off engine and let it cool. While it is cooling look for leaks 
in the system. Tighten hose connections if necessary, then place cloth over 
radiator cap and remove the cap. Cap must be removed slowly to avoid 
burst of steam in high pressure system. Start and idle engine and add wa- 
ter slowly, until system is full. If leaks have been noted in radiator core 
or core plugs, special radiator sealing compounds can be used to stop the 
leak. 

HIGH PITCHED SQUEAL 

A high pitched squeal when engine is first started and apparently com- 
ing from front of engine is often caused by a worn or glazed fan belt, or 
a water pump seal that needs lubrication. The fan belt can be silenced by 
applying belt dressing or in an emergency soap can be used. For a com- 
plete cure the belt should be replaced. In the case of the water pump seal, 
it can be lubricated by adding a water pump lubricant and rust inhibitor to 
the coolant in the radiator. 

HARSH RATTLE 

A harsh rattling noise at the front of the engine can be caused by a dry 
or defective fan belt. To check, stop the engine and press together belt on 
both sides of pulley. A harsh rasp or creaking noise will be made if the 
belt is dry. Laundry soap can be used as a lubricant on the belt in an 
emergency. 

THROBBING ROAR 

A throbbing roar coming from under the car is caused by muffler and 
pipes that have rusted through, permitting the escape of poisonous gases. 
Defective parts should be replaced immediately, as the escaping exhaust 
gases are highly toxic and lethal. Noise is usually accompanied by odor 
of exhaust gases in the car. 

NO LIGHTS 

When lights in one circuit, such as headlights, will not light, the trouble 
is usually caused by a burned fuse, or defective circuit breaker. On late 
models the fuses are located on left hand air duct, and circuit breaker is 
built into headlight switch. On older models, headlight switch assembly 
includes fuses and circuit breaker. 

264 



Emergency Trouble Shooting 



NO OIL PRESSURE 



If no oil pressure is indicated by the oil pressure gauge or tell-tale 
light on the instrument panel, the difficulty is most likely caused by in- 
sufficient oil in the engine crankcase. Stop the engine immediately and fill 
the crankcase with the specified amount of oil. If the gauge or light still 
fails to indicate pressure, the difficulty will be caused either by a defective 
gauge or light, or the oil pump is defective. If the failure occurs at a dis- 
tance from a shop where repairs can be made, add an extra quart of oil and 
drive slowly to the nearest shop where repairs can be made. If overheating 
is also indicated, stop the engine until it is cool, before starting again. 
Without oil pressure there is every possibility of burning out the engine 
bearings and scoring the cylinder walls so drive the car only if there is 
no other alternative. 



265 



Tips on 
BODY SERVICE 



The outside finish of the body should be washed frequently. Never wipe 
the painted surfaces with a dry cloth, as that will scratch the surface and 
quickly remove its high luster. To keep the finish bright and attractive, 
and eliminate the necessity of using polish, wash the car whenever it has 
accumulated a moderate amount of dirt and road salt. 

The bright metal parts of the car ordinarily require no special care. 
Periodic cleaning will preserve the beauty and life of these finishes. Wash 
with clear water, or if the parts are very dirty, use a mild soap, or special 
cleaning preparation designed for automotive bodies. Do not scour chrome 
finished parts with steel wool, or polish them with products containing 
abrasives. 

CLEANING THE INTERIOR 

Use a broom or a vacuum cleaner to remove dust and dirt from the up- 
holstery or floor covering. Vinyl and woven plastic trim that is dusty can 
usually be cleaned with a damp cloth. 

Dirty or stained upholstery can be cleaned with special cleaners de- 
signed for the purpose. Some special cleaners are available which can be 
used on leather, plastic, vinyl, imitation leather, fabric upholsteries, rub- 
ber mats, and carpeting. However, if such special cleaner is not available 
to remove grease stains, a volatile type of cleaner, such as carbon tetra- 
chloride or benzine can be used. 

HOW TO REMOVE SPOTS 

In case battery acid gets on the upholstering, immediately apply ordin- 
ary household ammonia, saturating the area thoroughly, permitting the 
ammonia to remain on the spot so that it will have ample time to neutralize 
the acid, then rinse the spot by rubbing with a clean cloth, saturated with 
cold water. 

In the case of chewing gum, first harden the gum with an ice cube and 
then scrape off the particles with a dull knife. If the gum cannot be re- 
moved completely by this method, moisten it with benzine or carbon tetra- 
chloride and work it from the fabric with a dull knife while the gum is still 
moist. 

266 



Body Service 

Fruit stains and stains from liquor can usually be removed with very 
hot water. Wet the stain well by applying hot water to the spot with a clean 
cloth. If the spot and stain is an old one, it may be necessary to pour very 
hot water directly on the spot, and then follow by scraping and rubbing. 
However, care must be exercised as hot water in many cases will discolor 
the fabric. 

To remove blood spots, wash the stain with a clean cloth saturated with 
cold water until no more of the stain can be removed. Then, if necessary, 
apply a small amount of household ammonia, using a brush or cloth, then 
rub the stain again with a clean cloth saturated with water. Do not use hot 
water or soap on blood stains as they will tend to set the stain, thereby 
making it practically impossible to remove. 

Candy stains, other than stains made from chocolate candy, can be re- 
moved by rubbing the area with a cloth soaked with very hot water. This, 
if necessary, can be followed with a volatile type of cleaner. In the case of 
stains made from chocolate candy use a cloth soaked in luke warm soap 
suds, and scrape while wet using a dull knife. 

WHAT TO DO ABOUT RATTLES 

Most rattles are caused by a loose bolt or nut. Objects such as bolts, 
or small pieces of body deadener in door well, pillars and quarter panels, 
often cause rattles. Door wells can be checked by striking the underside 
of the door with a rubber mallet. The impact made by the mallet will in- 




QUARTER PANEL 
7083-A 



W-J . Drain holms in the body panels must be kept open to prevent rusting. View of underside of 
quarter panel and door, showing location of drain holes. 

dicate if loose objects are in the door well. 

All bolts and screws should be tightened periodically. In the event that 
tightening the bolts and screws located on such assemblies as the doors, 
hood and deck lid does not eliminate the rattles, the trouble is probably 
caused by misalignment. 



267 



HACK CAULK AND SCALSt 




HACK CAULK AND SIALB 



HACK CAULK AND SEA1BI 



W-2. Showing location of sealers in typical front floor pan, cowl side and dash panel. 

Rattles and squeaks are sometimes caused by the weather stripping and 
antisqueak material that has slipped out of position. Apply additional ce- 
ment or other adhesives and install the material in the proper location to 
eliminate this difficulty. 

HOW TO KEEP BODIES FROM RUSTING 

One of the major causes of bodies rusting is failure to keep open the 
drain holes located on the underside of each rocker panel, quarter panel, 
and door, Fig. W-l. These drain holes are provided so that water will not 
accumulate within the panels. When the drain holes are not open, the ac- 
cumulated water will soon rust the body panel from the inside. 

The drain holes soon become clogged with road dirt and will then not 
drain the water completely. 

FIXING DUST AND WATER LEAKS 

The forward motion of the car creates a slight vacuum within the body, 
particularly if a window or ventilator is partly open. Any unsealed crevice 
or small opening in the lower section of the body will therefore permit air 
to be drawn into the body. If dust is present in the air, or moisture, it will 



268 



Body Service 

follow any path taken by the air from the point of entry into the passenger 
and luggage compartments. Opening the ventilator air ducts, will equalize 
these pressures. Dust may work its way into the hollow, box-type rocker 
panel, which extends along the edge of the floor, below the doors. Dust 
accumulates in the rocker panel and may eventually work its way into the 
kick-up, or the rear body pillar, and follow the contour of the wheel house 
into the luggage compartment. 




SOIDEB 
SEALER 






W-3. Typical body pillar, cowl and dash. In case of water or 
dust leaks, check sealer at points indicated. 



The point of dust entrance can usually be determined by careful obser- 
vation, noting the trail which will be heaviest at point of entrance. 

Under certain conditions, water can enter an automobile body at any 
point where dirt or dust can enter. Any consideration of water leakage 
must take into account all points covered under dust leaks. 

The location of dust and water leaks can be greatly facilitated by re- 



269 



Fix Your Ford 



moving interior trim, including the quarter trim panel, rear seat back and 
seat cushion, luggage compartment floor mats, spare wheel and side trim 
panel. After removing the trim, the location of most leaks will be readily 
evident. These leaks should be sealed with cement, or sealer. The entrance 
of the dust is usually indicated by a pointed shaft of dust, or silt at the 
point of entrance. If necessary the car can be taken on a road test with the 
interior trim removed. While the car is driven over a dusty road, the dust 
leaks can usually be observed. 

Similarly water leaks can also be spotted in the same method, but in 
such cases it is often easier to apply a stream of water to the exterior of 
the vehicle and have an observer on the inside to note where the water is 
entering. 

In most cases such leaks can be remedied by installing new weather 
stripping or sealer. 

Some of the points where leaks usually occur are shown in Figs. W-3 
and W-4. 



OUtSW TOF MOULDING 



SIOC UPPfD MOULDING 
WUIHBST»1P 




StCTIONAl VIIW-A* 



HCTIONAL VIEW-CC 



W-4. Note location of weather strip and sealers used to prevent dust and wator leakage. 



270 



HOPPING UP 
THE FORD 



With the stepped-up interest on the part of the Ford Company in high 
performance cars, it is possible to obtain stock engines of high power. 
For example, the 390 cu. in. V-8 with special equipment, Fig. X-l, devel- 
ops 401 HP at 6000 r. p.m. That is better than 1 HP per cu. in. of displace- 
ment, and, as a result, many men who formerly developed their own en- 
gines, are now using such power plants instead. 




Don Ray, former champion of San Diego Racing Association is the owner and 
builder of this Ford powered job. Photo by Bob Hardee of Hot Rod Magazine. 



For those who wish to improve the performance of their own engines, 
there is a large variety of special equipment available from specialists in 
the field. Special equipment includes such equipment and parts as: 



Special camshafts 
Special intake manifolds 
High lift rocker arms 
High compression pistons 
Superchargers 
Injectors 
Lightweight flywheels 



Stroked crankshaft 

Special exhaust manifolds 

Magnetos 

Race type spark plugs 

Carburetors 

Lightweight connecting rods 

High pressure valve springs 



271 



Fix Your Ford 

The basis of improved performance, better acceleration, and high top 
speed is precision workmanship. Every effort must be made to reduce 
friction. It must be remembered that extreme accuracy in setting ignition 
and carburetion, together with a good valve job, will give better than usual 
performance. 



primary carburetor 



WIDE-OPEN THROTTLE STOP 



OVERDRIVE KICKDOWN SWUCH 




X-J. A single air cleaner is provided for the three carburetors. 

FIRST STEPS IN BETTER PERFORMANCE 

Before buying any special equipment, or making alterations to the en- 
gine, it is imperative that valves, pistons, rings, cylinders, connecting 
rods, main bearings and crankshaft be in perfect condition. Tapered and 
out-of-round cylinders waste power through compression losses. Similarly 
valves that are burned, sticking or otherwise seating poorly, will also re- 
sult in lower compression. Too much emphasis cannot be placed on the 
necessity for accurately setting valve tappets. 

Worn crankshafts and poorly fitted main bearings and rod bearings will 
throw excessive amounts of oil, and as a result will soon fail. 

Rust accumulations in the engine water jackets will also cause over- 
heating and distortion of the cylinders, which, in turn, will increase fric- 
tion and compression losses. 

When preparing an engine for increased performance, piston clearance 
in the cylinders should be approximately .005 in. to .008 in. Rod and main 
bearing clearance should be increased approximately .0002 in. over stand- 



272 



Hopping Up the Ford 

ard. 

Care must be exercised in the selection of piston rings to avoid those 
having excessive wall tension. Regardless of the make selected, the rings 
must fit the piston grooves and have sufficient end gap so the ends will not 
butt after the engine reaches operating temperature. 

In regards to the valves, race mechanics recommend that the valves 
be carefully lapped or ground after refacing to insure a good seat. The seat 
should then be checked by rubbing a light coat of Prussian blue on the 
valve. The valve is placed in position and rotated 90 deg. If the valve has 
been properly ground, a coating of the Prussian blue will be found on the 
entire circumference of the valve seat. Care must be exercised that the 
original coating of Prussian blue on the valve be extremely light. 

HINTS ON RAISING COMPRESSION 

The answer to the question of how high compression should be raised, 
depends largely on the compression ratio of the original engine, also on 
the fuel that is to be used, and the type of racing or driving in which the 
car is to be used. In general, it is seldom advisable to use a compression 
ratio of over 1 1 to 1. The usual method of increasing the compression ratio 
is to plane the gasket surface of the cylinder block, or cylinder head. In 
most cases with Ford overhead valve engines, race mechanics prefer to 
p^ahe the cylinder head on those engines where the combustion chamber is 
in the head. 

An alternate method is to install "higher" pistons, that is the piston 
with a greater distance from the center of the piston pin to the top of the 
piston. However, before raising the compression of an engine, always 
check to be sure there is ample clearance between the piston when it is at 
the top of its stroke and the valve heads, when they are in the fully open 

position. 

In order to calculate how much the volume of the combustion chamber 
should be reduced, in order to obtain the desired compression ratio, use 
is made of the following formula: 

A * 



C - 1 



Where A is the volume of the combustion chamber, B is the displace- 
ment of the cylinder, and C is the desired compression ratio. For example, 
if it is an eight cylinder engine, with a total displacement of 320 cu. in. 
(40 cu. in. per cylinder) and the desired compression ratio is 11 to 1 then 

40 . 
A = — — - = 4 cu. in. 

The volume of the combustion chamber should then be 4 cu. in. In the case 
of a flat top piston, which at the top of its stroke is flush with the top of the 
cylinder block, all the combustion chamber will be in the cylinder head. 
To measure the volume of the combustion chamber, place the cylinder head 

273 



Fix Your Ford 

on a work bench with the combustion cnamber up. Then with a spirit level, 
make sure that the gasket surface is perfectly level. Using a chemist's 
graduate calibrated in tenths of a cubic inch, see how much fluid is re- 
quired to fill the combustion chamber. The job will be simplified if a piece 
of clear plastic is clamped firmly to the top face of the combustion cham- 
ber. Fluid such as brake fluid or kerosene is then poured through a hole 
in the sheet of plastic. 

Reboring the cylinders will also increase the compression ratio. The 
accompanying table shows the increased compression ratio resulting from 
reboring the cylinder .060 in., which is about the maximum the cylinder 
can be rebored without danger of breaking through into the water jacket. 



Engine 


Bore 


Stroke 


Comp. 


Comb. 


Recond. 


Resulting 


Displace- 






Ratio 


Chamber 


Bore 


Compression 


ment and 






Std. 


Volume 


Diameter 


Ratio 


Model 














223 


3.625 


3.6 


8.4 


5.03 


3.685 


8.61 


292 


3.75 


3.30 


8.8 


4.68 


3.810 


9.06 


352 


4.00 


3.50 


8.9 


5.56 


4.060 


9.15 


390 


4.047 


3.78 


9.6 


5.67 


4.107 


9.82 



While working on the combustion chamber it is important to check the 
volume of each to be sure they are identical. Any variation in volume will 
result in a rough running engine, and accompanying vibration and loss of 
power. Usually all that is necessary can be accomplished by careful pol- 
ishing of the surface of the combustion chamber, including the top of the 
piston. 

Before deciding on raising the compression of an engine, it is important 
to decide what fuel is to be used. Commercial high test gasoline can be 
used in engines up to approximately 10-1/2 tol. For higher compression 
ratios, it is necessary to use special racing fuels. 

POINTERS ON PORTING 

On engines built prior to 1956, considerable improvement and perform- 
ance can be obtained by "porting" the engine. That process increases the 
diameter of the exhaust and intake valve ports in the cylinder head, to- 
gether with larger diameter valve heads. After that date, the factory used 
that method of improving the performance of their engines. While the valve 
ports on stock engines since that time are about as large as possible, some 
work can still be done on the ports. This is in the form of polishing and 
making sure that the ports are as much alike as possible. 

The procedure is much the same as was used in the porting of the en- 
gine. That is, a fine emery wheel is used on an electric drill and flexible 
drive shaft. The wheel must be of fine grit, as the object is to polish rather 
than remove metal. Most mechanics use a pair of inside calipers to check 

274 



Hopping Up the Ford 

the size of the ports to make sure all intake ports are of equal size and 
that all exhaust ports are of the same size. In some instances a mechanic 
will fashion a plug-type gauge for checking the size of the ports. 

Closely associated withportingis work tobe done on the manifold, both 
intake and exhaust. Because of its complex shape there is not much that 
can be done to polish the interior of a manifold. The important point to 




X-2. Special race-type manifold designed to use three dual carburetors. 

check is how the openings in the manifold check up with the openings in the 
cylinder head. To do this, coat the gasket surface of the manifold with a 
light coating of Prussian blue and then bolt it in position. When the mani- 
fold is removed, some of the blue will have been transferred to the cylin- 
der block clearly indicating if there is any offset. 

If the ports do not match up, it will be necessary to enlarge the bolt 
holes in the manifold so that it can be shifted to the desired position. Or, 
if not all the ports are misaligned, the edges of the ports in the manifold 
can be ground away until there is no overlapping of the ports. 




X-3. Race type manifold for use on six cylinder Falcon. 

Further in connection with manifolds, many mechanics take advantage 
of the special speed manifolds that have been designed by speed specialists 
for Ford engines. Fig. X-2 shows one design for three dual carburetors 
for a V-8 Ford, while Fig. X-3 shows a manifold designed especially for 
the Falcon engine. 



275 



Fix Your Ford 



TIPS ON CARBURETION 



To get maximum performance from an engine a richer than normal 
mixture is required, plus perfect distribution of the fuel. The distribution 
is taken care of by the manifolds, the number of carburetors used, and the 
porting in the cylinder head. For road and drag work, many mechanics 
recommend a three carburetor manifold with 1-3/16 in. venturi. A broad 
recommendation is 1 sq. in. of venturi area for each 40 cu. in. of engine 
displacement. But detailed specifications for carburetors have to be work- 
ed out on trial testing of each engine, manifold, valve and cam set up. For 
super-drag and road racing, six two barrel carburetors on a log manifold 
gives excellent performance. 

When using multiple carburetors, it is essential that all jet and venturi 
sizes be the same in each carburetor. Of equal importance is the necessity 
of having the linkage so adjusted, that all the throttle plates are closed at 
the same time, and fully opened at the same time. Any variation will have 
some of the cylinders trying to run away from the others. 

FUEL TIPS 

While many speed contests are restricted to gasoline, some contests 
permit special fuels among which are included methanol, nitropropane, 
benzine, nitrobenzene, and benzol. Nitropropane is used extensively at the 
Indianapolis 500 mile race, but for passenger engine work straight pump 
gasoline is virtually standard, but in some cases mixtures of methanol and 
gasoline or benzol and gasoline are also used. 

In the case of nitropropane, it is often used with 50 per cent of a base 
fuel, such as benzine. In most cases, such fuel is used with injectors rath- 
er than a carburetor. However, such fuel is very hard on the engine. 

WHAT TO DO ABOUT RODS AND PISTONS 

Special lightweight aluminum connecting rods accurately balanced are 
available from race specialists. However, those not wishing to go to the 
expense of aluminum connecting rods, should carefully polish and balance 



BEARINGS 



SPACER 



•CAMSHAFT REAR BEARING 
BORE PLUG 



CAMSHAFT 



THRUST 
PLATE 




X-4. Standard camshafts are reground to change length of time 
valves are open, thereby increasing performance. 



276 



Hopping Up the Ford 

the connecting rods that are standard equipment with the engine. Pistons 
should also be accurately balanced, as any variations in the weights of the 
pistons and rod assemblies will result in vibration and stepped-up bearing 
loads. 

Special lightweight race type pistons are also available. These can be 
obtained with higher compression ratios than standard. For higher engine 
speeds it is necessary to increase the clearance of the pistons in the en- 
gine. In general such clearance is approximately .005 in. to .008 in. 

VALVES, SPRINGS, CAMS 

Valves, springs and cams play an important part in speed and perform- 
ance. Valve head diameter should be as large as possible, and in older 
engines particularly, great improvement in performance could be obtained 
by cutting larger diameter seats in the cylinder head and installing larger 
diameter valves. On more recent model engines (since 1956) engines are 
designed with large valves and not much more can be gained in that re- 
spect. However, heavier valve springs which will reduce the tendency of 
valves to bounce at high speeds are used extensively. 




X-5. Special magneto designed to replace conventional distributor. 

Solid, adjustable valve lifters are used in place of hydraulic lifters, and 
these lifters are usually of the roller type. The roller type has the advan- 
tage of greatly reducing the amount of wear on the cams. The rollers are 
especially heat treated to withstand the higher load of stiffer valve springs, 
and higher speed. Along with the stiffer springs, special heavy duty valve 
spring retainers are also used. 

In order to get greater valve lift, rocker arms with increased ratio 
such as 1.5 to 1, or 1.75 to 1, are available. 

Installation of a special camshaft, Fig. X-4, is important if increased 
performance is to be attained. Racing cams, lift the valves higher and hold 
them open longer, than stock camshafts. In that way more gas-air mixture 
is drawn into the cylinders. In addition, a larger portion of the burned 
gases will be expelled from the cylinders. However, the installation of such 
a camshaft results in extremely rough idling. There are several different 
types of cams, each designed for a specific type of operation. No one par- 

277 



Fix Your Ford 

ticular cam provides all desirable characteristics. The generally recog- 
nized types of cams include road or semi-race, three-quarter grind, full 
race, and super. 

The road or semi-race provides good acceleration with good idling. In 
fact such cams are virtually standard stock design on present passenger 
cars. The three-quarter grind will not idle as well as the semi-race, but 
will provide better acceleration and more top speed. 

The full race cam gives more top speed and acceleration, while the 
super cam gives still more of the same, but both idle very poorly. 

Naturally as valves are kept open longer, improved carburetion is a 
must to take full advantage of the faster cam. Also different rear axle 
ratios are needed to take advantage of the higher engine speeds. 

If the car is to be used for conventional transportation, as well as 
speed, the road or semi-race cam should be used. 

WHAT TO DO ABOUT IGNITION 

For sustained high speed driving many mechanics prefer the use of a 
magneto. Such magnetos are available in a type that can be substituted 
directly for the original equipment distributor, Fig. X-5. If the decision is 
made to stick with battery ignition, a double breaker arm distributor, such 
as is used as standard equipment on the 390 high performance V-8 engine, 
can be used. Normal specifications for this distributor call for a breaker 




X-6. As compression is increased, colder type plugs are needed. 

spring tension of 17 to 23 ounce. However, a slightly higher tension spring 
can be used if the car is to be used mostly for high speed work. Special 
double breaker arm distributors designed especially for high speed racing 
are also available. 

The selection of correct type of spark plug for sustained high speed 
driving is critical. The standard equipment spark plug is too "hot" for such 
work, Fig. X-6. For example, the AutoLite BF42 is standard equipment in 
the 390 V-8 engine, with 9.6 to 1 compression ratio. In the higher perform- 
ance model, with a compression ratio of 10.6 to 1 compression ratio, the 
BF32 spark plug is recommended. 

278 



Hopping Up the Ford 

Examination of the spark plug insulator after the plug has been in op- 
eration will disclose whether it is of the correct heat range. If the insula- 
tor is white to a light amber in color, it is correct for that engine in that 
particular type of work. However, if the insulator has blistered or is pock- 
marked, the colder plug should be substituted. See chapter on ignition. 

TURNING DOWN FLYWHEELS 

The flywheels used on conventional passenger cars are designed to 
provide smooth, low speed idling. As a result they are made relatively 
heavy and their greater inertia reduces acceleration. To overcome this, 
race car mechanics usually reface the flywheel to reduce its weight. The 
amount of metal to be removed depends on how much of the smooth idling 




X-7. The use of lightweight flywheels improves acceleration. 

the owner wishes to sacrifice. In general, the maximum that is removed is 
one-third of the total weight. However, many mechanics will remove less 
than one -quarter of the weight. When refacing a flywheel the metal should 
be removed from the forward face, in order not to change the surface con- 
tacted by the clutch plate. Metal should not be removed from the area of 
the flywheel contacting the crankshaft flange, as this would affect clutch 
operation. The starter ring gear should also be left intact. Fig. X-7, shows 
a special lightweight flywheel designed by race specialists for use on 
Ford cars. 

MORE HIGH SPEED TIPS 

The cooling fan consumes a lot of power. At high speed, up to 5 HP is 
required to drive a fan. At road speeds above 35 m.p.h. the action of the 
fan is not needed to cool the radiator. Consequently, fan blades can be re- 
moved unless the car is to be driven in traffic. 

Additional savings in power can be made by reducing the battery charg- 
ing rate to a minimum. If the car is fitted with a magneto and desired to be 
used for racing only, the battery and generator can be removed. Anything 
that can be done to reduce the weight of the car will aid in materially im- 

279 



Fix Your Ford 

proving acceleration, top speed and economy. In this connection many me- 
chanics will drill 1 in. holes in the frame. Spare tires and wheels are 
eliminated. Magnesium wheels are also available. 

Shock absorbers are of extreme importance, both from the standpoint 
of speed and from control of the car. Leaks or defective shock absorbers 




X-8. Supercharger installation designed for use on Ford V-8. 

will permit the driving wheels to spin and increase steering difficulties. 
For high speed work, different shock absorbers are therefore used. On 
race cars it is customary to install additional shock absorbers to get the 
amount of control desired. 

SUPERCHARGERS AND TURBOCHARGERS 

Superchargers and turbochargers are designed to force more of the 
air-fuel mixture into the combustion chamber, than will be drawn in by the 
normal suction of the pistons. In that way the performance of the engine is 
increased. Both devices are essentially blowers. The supercharger is 
driven mechanically by gears or chains, while the turbocharger is driven 
by the force of the exhaust gases. Superchargers have been used for many 
years, while the turbocharger is a more recent development. The super- 
charger frequently used on stock engines is the unit developed for the 
General Motors Diesel, and is of the Rootestype, Fig. X-8. When used in 
the Ford V-8 engines it is mounted between the banks of cylinders, and is 
driven by a chain belt from a sprocket on the front end of the crankshaft. 
The manifolds used with such superchargers are usually designed for use 
with dual quad, four carburetors, six carburetors, or eight carburetors. 

One of the disadvantages of the supercharger is the power required to 
drive the unit. This naturally cuts down on the power available to drive the 
car. The turbocharger does not have this difficulty, as it uses the pressure 
of the exhaust gases to rotate the vanes of the blower. 

One type of turbocharger developed for passenger car engines is shown 
in Fig. X-9. Exhaust gases drive the turbine wheel which turns the com- 



280 



Hopping Up the Ford 




X-9. One type of turbocharger being used to srtep-up engine performance. 

pressor fan up to 90,000 r.p.m. at maximum engine speed. With increased 
compression pressures resulting from the supercharging effect of the tur- 
bocharger there is a tendency to detonate. To overcome this condition 
some designs include alcohol injectors. When alcohol is injected into the 
manifold, the octane rating of the fuel mixture in increased and detonation 
is thereby reduced. 




Jim Wood's 390 cu. hi. Ford. Note special exhaust manifolding also 
the ignition system. Photo by Bob Hardee of Hot Rod Mogoz.ne. 



281 



Jond 7uHe-7tfr Z><zt* fan 



Number of 

Cylinders 

Bore and Stroke 



£ c 

It 



B H 
O * 

> ° 

a a 

S S> 



Operating 
Tappet 
Clearance 



98HA 1949 

98BA 1949 

6, OHA 1950 

V-8. OBA 1950 

V-8 1951 

Six 1951 

V-8 1952 

Six 1952 

V-8 1953 

Six 1953 

V-8 1954 

Six 1954 

V-8 1955 

V-8 Thunderbird 

Six 1955 

Six 1956 

Eight 1956 

Thunderbird 1956 

Thunderbird 1956 

Six 1957 

V-8 1957 

V-8 1957 

V-8 1957 

Six 1958 

Y -V-8 1958 

Interceptor 1958 

Thunderbird 1958 

Six 1959 

292 V-8 1959 

332 V-8 1959 

352 V-8 1959 

430 V-8 1959 

Six I960 

Eight 292 2vc 1960 

Eight 352 2vc 1960 

Eight 352 4vc 1960 

Eight 430 I960 

Falcon I960 

Six 1961 

Eight 292 1961 

Eight 352 1961 

Eight 390 1961 

Falcon 1961 

Falcon 1961 

Falcon 1962 

Falcon 1962 

Fairlane 1962 

Six 223 1962 

Eight 292 1962 

Eight 352 1962 

Eight 390 1962 

Six 223 1963 

Eight 260 1963 

Eight 352 i9 6 3 

Eight 390 1963 

Eight 406 1963 

Six 144 1963 

Six 170 1963 

Eight 221 1963 



6-3.3 x 4.4 
8-3 3/16 x 3.75 
6-3.3 x 4.4 
8-3 3/16 x 3.75 
8-3 3/16 x 3.75 
6-3.3 x 4.4 
8-3 3/16 x 3.75 
6-3.56 x 3.60 
8-3 3/16 x 3 3/8 
6-3.56 x 3.60 
8-3.5 x 3.10 
6-3.62 x 3.60 
8-3.62 x 3.2 
8-3.75 x 3.3 
6-3.62 x 3.60 
6-3 5/8 x 3.609 
8-3 5/8 x 3.297 
8-3 3/4 x 3.297 
8-3.797 x 3.437 
6-3.62 x 3.60 
8-3.62 x 3.30 
8-3.75 x 3.30 
8-3.80 x 3.44 
6-3.62 x 3.60 
8-3.75 x 3.30 
8-4.00 x 3.30 
8-4.00 x 3.50 
6-3 5/8 x 3 19/32 
8-3 3/4 x 3.30 
8-4.0 x 3.30 
8-4.0 x 3.50 
8-4.3 x 3.70 
6-3.625 x 3.60 
V8-3.75 x 3.30 
V8-4.00 x 3.50 
V8-4.00 x 3.50 
V8-4.30 x 3.70 
6-3.50 x 2.50 
6-3.62 x 3.60 
V8-3.75 x 3.30 
V8-4.00 x 3.50 
V8-4.05 x 3.78 
6-3.50 x 2.50 
6-3.50 x 2.94 
6-3.50 x 2.50 
6-3.50 x 2.94 
V8-3.50 x 2.87 
6-3.62 x 3.60 
V8-3.75 x 3.30 
V8-4.00 x 3.50 
V8-4.05 x 3.78 
6-3.62 x 3.60 
V8-3.80 x 2.87 
V8-4.00 x 3.50 
V8-4.05 x 3.78 
V8-4.13 x 3.78 
6-3.50 x 2.50 
6-3.50 x 2.94 
V8-3.50 x 2.87 



226 

239 

226 

239 

239.4 

226.0 

239.4 

215.3 

239.4 

215.3 

239 

223 

272 

292 

223 

223.0 

272.0 

292.0 

312.0 

223 

272 

292 

312 

223 

292 

332 

352 

223 

292 

332 

352 

430 

223 

292 

352 

352 

430 

144 



223 
292 
352 
390 
144 
170 
144 
170 
221 
223 
292 
352 
390 
223 
260 
352 
390 
406 
144 
170 
221 



26.1 

32.5 

26.1 

32.5 

32.5 

26.13 

32.5 

30.4 

32.5 

30.5 

32.5 

31.4 

42.0 

45.0 

31.4 

31.5 

42.0 

45.0 

46.2 

31.5 

42.0 

45.0 

46.2 

31.5 

45.0 

51.2 

51.2 

31.54 

45.00 

51.20 

51.20 

59.17 

31.5 

45.0 

51.2 

51.2 

59.2 

29.4 

31.54 

45.00 

51.20 

52.49 

29.4 

29.4 

29.4 

29.4 

39.2 

31.5 

45.0 

51.2 

52.5 

31.5 

46.2 

51.2 

52.5 

54.5 

29.4 

29.4 

39.2 



.011 
.011 
.011 
.011 
.014 
.014 
.020 
.013 
.020 
.013 
.015 
.013 
.015 
.016 
.013 
.019 
.019 
.019 
.019 
.016 
.015 
.015 
.015 
.016 
.015 
.017 
.002 
.016 
.016 
.002 
.002 

.019 

.019 

HL 

HL 

HL 

.016 

.019 

.019 

HL 

HL 

.016 

.016 

.016C 

.016C 

.016C 

SL 

.018 

.018 

.025 



11B 
TC 
11B 
TC 
5B 
11B 
24B 
18B 
24B 
23B 
8B 
23B 
8B 
12B 
23B 
24B 
12B 
12B 
12B 
17B 
18B 
18B 
18B 
17B 
18B 

21B 

17B 

17 

12 

17 

22 

22 

17B 

12B 

22B 

26B 

22B 

15B 

17B 

12B 



15B 
15B 
15B 
15B 

17B 
12B 
22B 

23B 
21B 
22B 
26B 

15B 

15B 
15B 



Abbreviations: 



.one 
.one 
.one 
.one 

.014 
.014 
.014 
.015 
.014 
.015H 
.019H 
.015H 
.019H 
.018H 
.015H 
.019H 
.019H 
.019H 
.019H 
.019H 
.020C 
.020C 
.020C 
.019C 
.020C 
.026C 
.026C 
.019C 
.019C 
HL 
HL 
HL 
.019H 
.019H 
HL 
HL 
HL 
.016 
.019 
019 
HL 
HL 
.016 
.016 
.016C 
.016C 
.016C 
SL 

.018H 
.018H 
.025H 



.015C 
.015C 
.015C 
.015C 
.014 
.018 
.018 
.013 
.018 
.01511 
.019H 
019H 
.019H 
.018H 
.019H 
.019H 
.019H 
.019H 
.019H 
.019H 
.020C 
.020C 
.020C 
.019C 
.020C 
.026C 
.026C 
.019C 
.019C 
HL 
HL 
HL 
.019H 

.019a 

HL 
HL 
HL 
016 
.019 
.019 
HL 
HL 
.016 
.016 
.016C 
.016C 
.016C 
SL ] 

.01811 ] 
.018H 1 
.025H 1 



SL 
HL 

HL 

HL 

.025H 

HL 

HL 

HL 



.025H 
HL 



I 44 
44 
45L 
45L 
45L 
45L 
85T 
85T 
85T 
85T 
85T 
85T 
85T 
85T 
85T 
85T 
85T 
85TS 
85TS 
84TS 
84TS 
85T 
85TS 
84TS 
84TS 
84TS 
85T 
85TS 
84TS 
84TS 
84TS 
85TS 
85T 
85TS 
84 TS 
84 TS 
85TS 
85TS 
85TS 
85TS 
84TS 
84 T 
85TS 
84TS 
84TS 
84 T 
85TS 
84TS 
84TS 

85TS 
85TS 
85TS 



TC - Top Center 

B - Before TC (Timing) 

C - Cold (Valves) 

A - Above (Rods Removed From) 

H - Hot 

HL - Hydraulic Lifters 

R - Necessary to remove engine before removing pan. 
Rods then removed through top of block. 



282 



Se&t penpyuHOMce. Sco****t 



a o 



ffS 



a u 
E u 



E M 
U Q 



el 

31 



H10 

H10 

H10 

HIO 

H10 

HIO 

HIO 

HIO 

HIO 

HIO 

HIO 

HIO 

870 

870 

870 

870 

870 

870 

870 

870 

870 

870 

870 

870 

F14Y 

F11Y 

F11Y 

870 

FMY 

F11Y 

F11Y 

F11Y 

870 

F14Y 

F11Y 

F11Y 

F11Y 

F14Y 

860 

F14Y 

F11Y 

FMY 

FMY 

F14Y 

F14Y 

F14Y 

F11Y 

860 

F14Y 

F9Y 

F9Y 

860 

F14Y 

F11Y 

F11Y 

F14Y 
F14Y 
F14Y 



AL-7 

AL-7 

AL-7 

AL-7 

AL-5 

AL-5 

AL-5 

AL-5 

AL-7 

AL-7 

AL-7 

AL-7 

BF-7 

BF-7 

BF-7 

BF-7 

BF-7 

BF-7 

BF-7 

BF-7 

BF-7 

BF-7 

BF-7 

BF82 

BF82 

BF42 

BF42 

BRF82 

BRF82 

BRF42 

BRF42 

BRF42 

BF82 

BF82 

BF42 

BF42 

BF42 

BF82 

BF82 

BF82 

BF42 

BF42 

BF82 

BF82 

BF82 

BF82 

BF92 

BTF6 

BF82 

BF42 

BF42 

BTF6 

BF82 

BF42 

BF42 

BF32 

BF82 

BF82 

BF82 



.032 
.032 
.032 
.032 
.030 
.030 
.030 
.035 
.030 
.035 
.035 
.035 
.035 
.035 
.035 
.035 
.035 
.035 
.035 
.035 
.035 
.035 
.035 
.034 
.034 
.034 
.034 
.034 
.034 
.034 
.034 
.034 
.035 
.035 
.035 
.035 
.035 
.034 
034 
034 
034 
.034 
034 
034 
.034 
.034 
.034 
.034 
.034 
.034 
.034 
.035 
.035 
.035 
.035 
.035 
.035 
.035 
.035 



TC 

2B 

TC 

6B 

TC 

6B 

6B 

TC 

4B 

3B 

3B 

3B 

4Ba 

3Ba 

3Ba 

3Ba 

4Ba 



.025 

.015 

.025 

.015 

.015 

.015 

.015 

.025 

.015 

.025 

.015 

.025 

.015 

.015 

.025 

.025 

.015 

.015 

.015 

.025 

.015 

.015 

.015 

.025 



36 1/2 
28 



3Ba .015 
3Ba .015 



3Ba 
4 BE 
3Ba 



4Ba 
3Ba 
3Ba 
3Ba 
4Bt 
2Ba 
4Bb 
3Bb 
3Bb 
3Ba 
2Bc 
2Bc 
6 Be 
6 Be 



17.3 
22 

17.3 



.015 
.025 
.015 
.015 
.015 
.015 
.026 
.015 
.015 
.015 
.015 
.025 
025 
.015 
.015 
015 
.025 
.025 
.025 
.025 
6B .015 
6Be .025 
5Be .015 
5Bf .015 
5Bf .015 
4Bb .025 
6Bb .015 
3Ba .015 
6Ba .015 
8Bf .015 
8Be .025 
6Be .025 
4Be .015 



28 
28 

36 1/2 
27 1/4 
27 1/4 
27 1/4 
37 

27 1/4 
27 1/4 
27 1/4 
27 1/4 
36 1/2 
27 1/4 
27 1/4 
27 1/4 
27 1/4 
36 1/2 
36 1/2 
27 
27 
27 

36 1/2 
36 1/2 
36 1/2 
36 1/2 
27 1/4 
36 1/2 
27 1/4 
27 1/4 
27 1/4 
36 1/2 
27 
27 



110 
110 
110 
110 
110 

no 

110 



5 23 1/2 
3 1/2 9.7 



5 20 
5 20 
3 1/2 9.7 
3 1/2 9.7 
3 1/2 9.7 

3 1/2 9.7 

4 14.5 

4 16.0 

5 20.0 
5 20.0 
5 20.0 
4 15 

4 14 



150 
155 
155 
160 
150 
160 
160 
160 
150 
160 
180 
180 
150 
160 
180 
180 

150 
160 
180 
180 
180 
170 
150 
160 
180 
180 
170 
170 
170 
170 
150 
150 
160 
180 
180 
150 



36 1/2 
36 1/2 



180 
170 
170 



2.298 

2.14 

2.298 

2.14 

2.138 

2-!298 

2.138 

2.298 

2.138 

2.298 

2.187 

2.298 

2.187 

2.188 

2.298 

2.2984 

2.1884 

2.1884 

2.1884 

2.2984 

2.1884 

2.1884 

2.1884 

2.298 

2.188 

2.438 

2.438 

2.2984 

2.1884 

2.4384 

2.4384 

2.298 

2.188 

2.438 

2.438 

2.599 

2.123 

2.2984 

2.188 

2.438 

2.438 

2.123 

2.123 

2.123 

2.123 

2.123 

2.986 

2.188 

2.438 

2.438 

2.298 

2.123 

2.438 

2.438 

2.438 

2.123 

2.123 

2.123 



1.4 

1.75 

1.4 

1.75 

1.75 

1.4 

1.75 

1.004 

.75 
1.0 

.718 
1.0 

.718 

.711 



1.0 

1.244 

0.872 

0.872 

0.872 

1.244 

0.872 

0.872 

0.872 



1.034 
.741 
.741 
.741 
.861 



-3/4 


1/2 


1/16 


5 1/2 


-3/4 


1/2 


1/16 


5 1/2 


-3/4 


1/2 


1/16 


5 1/2 


-3/4 


1/2 


1/16 


5 1/2 


-1/4 


+ 1/2 


1/16 


5 1/4 


-1/4 


+ 1/2 


1/16 


5 1/4 


-1/4 


+ 1/2 


1/16 


5 1/4 


-1/4 


+ 1/2 


1/16 


5 3/4 


+ 1/2 


+ 1/2 


3/32 


5 1/4 


+ 1/2 


+ 1/2 


3/32 


5 1/4 


+ 1/2 


+ 1/2 


3/32 


7 1/10 


+ 1/2 


+ 1/2 


3/32 


5 1/4 


+ 1/2 


+ 1/2 


3/32 


7 1/10 


+ 1 


+ 1 


3/32 


7 1/10 


+ 1/2 


+ 1/2 


3/32 


5 1/4 


+ 1 


+ 1 


3/32 




+ 1 


+ 1 


3/32 




+ 1 


+ 1 


3/32 




+ 1 


+ 1 


3/32 




+ 1 


+ 1 


3/32 




+ 1 


+ 1 


3/32 




+ 1 


+ 1 


3/32 




+ 1 


+ 1 


3/32 




+ 1 


+ 1 


1/18 




+1 


+ 1 


1/16 




+ 1 


+1 


1/16 




+ 1 


+ 1 


1/16 




+ 1/2 


+ 1 


1/16 




+ 1/2 


+ 1 


1/16 




+ 1/2 


+ 1 


1/16 




+ 1/2 


+ 1 


1/16 




+ 1/2 


+ 1 


1/16 


6 3/4 





+ 1 


3/32 


6 3/4 





+1 


3/32 


6 3/4 





+ 1 


3/32 


6 3/4 





+ 1 


3/32 


6 3/4 


+ 1 


+ 1 


3/32 


6 3/4 


1/2 


+ 1/2 


3/16 







+5/8 


1/4 







+5/8 


1/4 







+ 5/8 


1/4 







+ 5/8 


1/4 




1/2 


+ 1/2 


3/16 




1/2 


+ 1/2 


3/16 




+ 1/2 


+ 1/2 


1/4 




+ 1/2 


+ 1/2 


1/4 







+ 1/2 


1/8 







+5/8 


3/16 







+5/8 


3/16 







+5/8 


3/16 







+5/8 


3/16 







5/8 


3/16 







5/8 


3/16 







5/8 


3/16 







5/8 


3/16 







5/8 


3/16 







1/2 


1/8 







1/2 


1/8 







1/2 


1/8 





Spark advance, cars with conventional trans. 
Fordomatic cars, breaker points open 6 deg.BTC. 
Spark advance, cars with conventional trans. 
Fordomatic cars, breakerpoints open-10 deg.BTC 
Cars with conventional trans. For cars with auto 



latic trans, breaker points should open 10 deg.BTC SL- Silent lash tappets 
Cooling system capacity of Thunderbird 20 qt. 



e - Cars with conventional transmission. For cars 
automatic transmission points open 12 deg.BTDC. 

f - Cars with conventional transmission. Cars with 
automatic transmission, points open 8 deg.BTDC. 

E - Applies to conventional trans. For automatic trans, 
breakerpoints open 3 deg.BTC. 



th 



283 



INDEX 



Accessory service, 162 

Air conditioning, 168 

Air filter, cleaning, 49 

Alternator, 145, 146 

Antifreeze, 127 

Anti-stall dashpot, adjusting, 45 

B 
Balancing wheels, 225 
Battery 
trouble shooting, 138 
voltage, 137 
Batteries, 
charging, 138 
testing, 135 
Bleeding brakes, 241 
Brake 
failure, what to do about, 262 
pedal, adjusting, 235 
shoes, installing, 238 
shoes, removing, 236 
system, flushing, 243 
Brakes, 
adjusting, 230, 231, 233 
bleeding, 241 
hydraulic, 241 
parking, adjusting, 254 
power, 246 to 253 
relining, 235 
self-adjusting, 228, 230 
servicing, 227 
Brake drums, 
removing, 227 
rear, removing, 229 
Breaker point 
contact, 22 
gap, 283 
Breaker point spring tension, 23 
Breaker points, 
dual, 22 
replacing, 17, 20 



Body 

hardware, 258 

leaks, fixing, 268 

service, 266 
Bolt, cylinder head tightening 
sequence, 62, 65, 67 



Cam angle, 283 
Camber, 206, 283 
Cams, measuring lift of, 78 
Camshaft, removing, 77 
Carburetor, 
adjusting, 35 
air cleaner, 257 
and fuel system service, 35 
Carter, 49 
Ford, 39, 44 
four-barrel, 38 
Holley, 39 to 43 
repair kit, 53 
service, tips on, 52 
trouble shooting, 57 
two-barrel, 38 
Carter carburetor, 49 
Caster, 216, 283 
Charge indicator light, 165 
Chassis, photo of typical, 199 
Choke, automatic, 46 to 48 
Clutch, 
overhauling, 171 
removing, 173 
trouble shooting, 174 
Compression, 
checking, 7 
pressures, 9 
raising engine, 273 
test, making, 8 
Condenser, replacing, 26 
Connecting rod 
alignment, checking, 97 



284 



Index 



assemblies, installing, 106 

bearings, fitting, 99 

removing, 73 
Connecting rod caps, 

tightening, 107 
Cooling system, 

capacity, 283 

cleaning, 125 

draining, 123 

kinks, 123 

leaks, locating, 124 

trouble shooting, 129 
Crankcase 

breather, 257 

ventilation system, 116, 258 
Crankshaft, checking, 98 
Cruis-O-Matic transmission, 182 
Cylinder 

balance test, 9 

bore and stroke, 282 

brake master, 244 
Cylinders, reconditioning, 105 
Cylinder head, 

cleaning, 89 

bolt tightening sequence, 62,65,67 

removing, 60 

D 

Dashpot, anti-stall, adjusting, 45 
Differential 

carrier, removing, 201 

Equa-Lock, 206 

parts, inspecting, 202 
Displacement, engine, 9 
Distributor, 

Loadomatic, 20, 24, 25 

removing, 26 

replacing, 27 

shaft rotation, 29 

cap, cleaning, 18 

cap, removing, 16 
Dome light, 160 
Drive pinion oil seal, 

replacing, 200 
E 
Electrical system wiring 
diagram, 157 



Emergency trouble shooting, 261 
Engine 
bearings, replacing, 97 
disassembly, 60 
Falcon, section view 

of, 63, 150 
Ford, section view 

of, 60, 62, 64, 66, 68, 82 
idling speed, 37 
idling speed, adjusting, 184 
ignition trouble shooting, 33 
removing, 79 
repairs, simplified, 81 
trouble shooting, 111 
Equa-Lock differential, 206 
Exhaust system service, 131 
External circuit resistance, 
testing, 145 
F 
Fairlane transmission, 179 
Falcon 
engine, section view, 63 
photo of 1963, 4 
transmission, 179 
Fan belt, checking, 126 
Filter, 
air, cleaning, 49 
fuel, cleaning, 51 
Firing order, engine, 9, 10, 30 
Flywheel, turning down, 279 
Ford carburetor, 39, 44 
Ford cars, photos of 
1963-4 1962-170 

1961-170 1960-170 
1959-214 1958-214 
1957-214 1956-226 
1955-226 1954-226 
Fordomatic transmission, 183 
Front oil seal, replacing, 76 
Front suspension system, 211 
Fuel 
consumption, excessive, 114 
filter, cleaning, 51 
gauges, servicing, 164 
pumps, servicing, 55 
pump trouble shooting, 57 
system service, 35 



285 



Fix Your Ford 



Gap 
breaker point, 283 
spark plug, 283 
Gauge, compression, 8 
Gauges, fuel, 164 
Generating circuit, 140 
Generator 
service, 139 
testing, 140, 142 
trouble shooting, 148 
H 
Headlight bulb replacement, 159 
Headlights, aiming, 156, 158 
Heat control valve, manifold, 54 
Heat indicator service, 165 
Holley carburetors, 39 to 43 
Hopping up the Ford, 271 
Horsepower, taxable, 282 
Hydraulic brakes, servicing, 241 
Hydraulic valve lifters, 
adjusting, 119 
section view, 116 
servicing, 109 
Hydrometer, using to check 
battery, 136 
I 
Idling speed, engine, 37 
Ignition, 
cable, 30 

circuit, checking, 32 
circuit, typical, 11 
timing, 28 
resistors, 31 
trouble shooting, 33 
tune-up, 11 to 34 incl. 
Instrument panel, 163 
Instrument lights, 160 
Instrument service, 162 
Intake valve opens, 282 
Interior, cleaning, 266 

K 

King pin inclination, 283 

L 
Light, 

charge indicator, 165 
dome, 160 



patterns for headlight aiming, 158 
Lighting system service, 156 
Lights, instrument, 160 
Loadomatic distributor, 20, 24, 25 
Lubrication, 255 

Falcon, 260 

M 

Magneto, replacing distributor 

with, 277 
Main bearings, 101 
Manifold heat control valve, 54 
Manifolds, race type, 275 
Master cylinder, brake, 244 
Mechanical tune -up 

specifications, 282, 283 



Oil 

consumption, high, 115 

filter, replacing, 256 

leak test, making, 102 

pan, removing, 70 

pressure, failure, 265 

pump, servicing, 109 

seal, front, replacing, 76 

seals, replacing rear main, 103 
Overdrive service, 191 
P 

Parking brakes, adjusting, 254 
Piston 

and rod assembly, 71 

clearance, checking, 94 

displacement, 282 

pins, checking, 96 

rings, installing, 90 

rings, fitting, 93 

rings, types to use, 93 

ring side clearance, checking, 92 
Pistons, 

expanding, 96 
high speed, 276 
Porting, pointers on, 274 
Power 
brake service, 246 to 253 
steering, 223 

steering pump, section view, 134 



286 



Index 



Propeller shafts, 197 

Pump, fuel, trouble shooting, 57 

Pumps, fuel, servicing, 55 

R 
Radiator, 
filling, 126 
overheating, 264 
cap, checking, 128 
Rattles, correcting body, 267 
Rear axle, 
lubricating, 257 
servicing, 200 
trouble shooting, 207 
Regulator, 
checking, 141, 143 
type used with alternator, 144 
Repairs, engine, 81 
Rocker arm, adjusting, 121 

S 
Shock absorbers, servicing, 209 
Signal, turn, indicator, 163 
Spark, checking, 11 
Spark plug gap, 283 
Spark plugs, 
adjusting, 15 
checking, 12 
cleaning, 14 
cold, 13 
hot, 13 
installing, 15 

types to use, 12, 278, 282, 283 
Speed, stepping up, 271 
Speedometer service, 166 
Spots, upholstery, removing, 266 
Springs, 
front,213 
rear, 212 
servicing, 208 

Starter, 

testing, 151 

no-load test, 153 

trouble shooting, 154 
Steering difficulties, 225 
Steering gear, adjusting, 221 
Stop light switch, 162 
Superchargers, 280 



Switch, 
headlight, 160 
stop light, 162 

T 
Tappets, valve, adjusting, 117,283 
Taxable horsepower, 282 
Temperature gauge circuit, 165 
Thermostats, checking, 126 
Three speed transmission, 177 
Throttle linkage, adjusting, 185 
Timing 
case cover, removing, 74 
chains, replacing, 108 
ignition, 28 
marks, 75, 76, 77, 283 
Tires, 255 
getting maximum mileage 

from, 258 
rotating, 259 

wear, cause of excessive, 225 
Toe-in, 206, 283 
Torque wrench, using on 

rod bearings, 100 
Transmission 
bands, adjusting, 188 
fluid leaks, repairing, 190 
fluid level, checking, 181 
inspection and repairs, 180 
lubricating, 256 
trouble shooting, 192 
Transmissions, removal and 

servicing, 176 
Trouble shooting, 
emergency, 261 
engine, 111 
Tune-up, 
ignition, 11 

specifications, 282, 283 
tips, 7 
Turbochargers, 280 
Turn signal indicator, 163 

U 
Universal joints, 197 

V 
Vacuum 
advance, 21, 24 



287 



Fix Your Ford 



windshield wiper, 167 
Valve 

clearance, 283 

guides, 89 

lifters, hydraulic, servicing, 

spring height, 88 

springs, checking, 87 

tappets, adjusting, 117, 282 
Valves, 

checking, 7 

hydraulic, adjusting, 119 

reconditioning, 82 

removing, 82 

W 

Water pump service, 127 



109 



Wheel, 
alignment, 215 
base, 282 

bearings, adjusting, 228 
bearings, lubricating, 257 
cylinders, servicing, 243 

Wheels, balancing, 225 

Windshield wiper 
blade adjustment, 166 
vacuum type, 167 
motor, removing, 167 

Wiper motor, removing, 167 

Wiring diagram, electrical 
system, 157 

Wrench, torque, 100 



288