Skip to main content

Full text of "Flora Londinensis, or, Plates and descriptions of such plants as grow wild in the environs of London : with their places of growth, and times of flowering, their several names according to Linnæus and other authors : with a particular description of each plant in Latin and English : to which are added, their several uses in medicine, agriculture, rural œconomy and other arts"

See other formats




Presented by 
Miss Elizabeth Marbury 
Jan. 1901 



1 ^ c 

■ v. 

-r^r^ *~^>-^^' 


To the Right Honourable 


Earl of Bute, &c. 

The MAECENAS of the prefent Age: 




Begun under His Aufpices, 

And encouraged by His Liberality, 

Is, with the fincereft Gratitude, 

Infcribed, by 

His moft obliged, 

Humble Servant, 






[ER Grace the Duch'efs Dowager of Alhol, near Farnham 
. i Surry 

Mr. Stanefby Alchorne, Tower, two Setts 
Richard Arkinfon, Efq Fenchurch-ftreet 
Mr. George Adams, Fleet-ftreet 
Jofeph Allen, M. D. Dulwich 
Edward Archer, M. D. Grays-Inn 
Mr. William Anderfon, Gracechurch-ftreet 
Mr. Thomas Armiger, Surgeon, Old Fifh-ftreet 
The Apothecaries Company 
William Allen, Efq. Davyhulme, Laacaihire 
Mr. John Aikin, Surgeon, Warrington 
Captain Anningfon 


The Right Honourable the Earl of Bute, South A udley- ftreet, * Setts 

Sir Jofeph Banks, Bart. Soho-fquare 

Sir Lambert Blaekweli, Bart. Endfield 

Mifs Banks 

William Laker, Efq. Hill-ftreet, Berkely-fquare, two Setts 

Mrs. Rac ael Barclay, Red- Lion- Square 

Mr. John Barclay, Queen-ftreet, Cheapfide 

Mr. Robert Barclay, Cheapfide 

J. Barclay, Efq. Urie, Scotland 

Mr Newton Bartlett, 1 mibs-Conduit-ftreet 

Mr. Uriah Briftow, Apotnecary, Clerkenwell-fquare 

Mr. James Bell, Montague- Clofe, South wark 

Mr. George Barrett, Loddon, Norfolk 

Mr. James Brougham, Apothecary, Afkrig, Yorkfln're 

Mr John Brown, Holborn 

Mr. John Beaumont, Holborn 

Mr. John Burr, Surgeon, Ware 

Mr. John Bradney, Apothecary, London -Street 

Mr. Jofeph Bradney, Tower Royal 

Mrs. Browning, Chelfea 

Mr. Burton, Hatton Garden 

Mr. Jofeph Beefely, Worcefler 

Rev. Richard Bluck, Cambridge 

Rev. Dr. Brooke, Cambridge 

Edmund Bott, Efq. Chrift-church, Hampshire 

Bath Society for promoting Agriculture, &c. 

John Baker, Efq. Princes-ftreet, Spittalfields 

George Buxton, M. D. Greenwich 

Rev. Mr. Bagfhaw, Bromley, Kent 

Eliftia Bifcoe, Efq. Sunning-Houfe, Reading 

Mr. Thomas Bowen Pulham near Harlefton, Norfolk 

Mr. William Boys, Surgeon, Sandwich 

Rev. Nicholas Bacon, Coddenham, Suffolk 

British Mufeum 

Jofeph Beck, Efq, Briftol 

Richard Bright, Efq. Briftol 

Mr. William Bent, Clerkenwell 

John Beevor, M. D. Norwich 

Mrs. Brown, Norwich 

Mr George Hollington Barker, Attorney, Birmingham 

Mr. Robert Beaumont, Surgeon, Litchfield 

Mr. Thomas Bond, Surgeon, Cambridge 

Mr, Thomas Baddely, Surgeon, Newport, Shropihir* 

Mr. Bowman r 

The Right Honourable the earl of Clanbraflil 

if d y Cl: l am P ne y s ' Orchardlev Houfe, Frome, Somerfetfhi re- 
Mr. Richard Cl?rk, Ifle of Wight -omerfetinire 

Samuel Crawley, Efq. Argyle-ftreet 

Richard Crawley, Efq. 

William Conftable Efq. Burton-Conftable, Yorkshire 

Mr. Charles Combe Apothecary, Bioomfbury-fouare 

Mr. John Church, Surgeon, Islington 4 

Mr. Jofeph Cockfield, Upton, two fetts 

Mr. John Chorley, Gracechurch-ftroet 

Mr. John Crowley, Gracechurch-ftreet 

Mr. Thomas Crowley, Camomile- ftreet 

Mr. Thomas Collinfon, Lombard-ftreet 

Mr. W. S.Cooper, Cierkenwell-fcm-^ 

Mr. Lbftus Clifford, Surgeon, Mansfield, Nottinghamshire 

Dr. Coyte, Yarmouth 

Mr. Cofens, Apothecary, Bagnio-court, Newgate-ftreet 

r l homas Gery ( ullum, Efq. "Bury St, Edmunds 

Rev. John Clowes, Redor of St. John, IVlanehefler 

George Cooke, Efq. Street Thorpe, near Doncafter 

Mr. Crifpin, Caftle-yard, Holborn 

Thomas Cornewall, Efq. Chart-Park, near Dorkino- 

Peter Calvert, LLD. Do&ors-Communs 

Mr. Carter, Halilead, Eflex 

A. Caldwell, Efq. Dublin 

R. M. Trench Chifwell, Efq. Portland- place 

James Crowe, Efq. Norwich 

William Cooper, D. D. F. R. S. Archdeacon of York 

Mr. R. Carpenter, Surgeon, Lyme Regis, Dorfet 

Mr. Chambers, Surgeon, Bromley, Kent 

The Honourable Baron T. Dirhfdale, Hertford 
The Honourable Baron N. Dimfdale, Red-lion-fauare 

. , Day, Efq. ESfex H 

Mr. Douglafs, Apothecary, Bedford-fquare 

Mr. Downing, Surgeon, Clapton 

Mr. Dru Dairy, Strand 

Mr. Philip Deck, Bookfeller, St. Edmunds Bury 

Rev. J, Davies I finity Colledge, Cambridge 

Rev. Mr. Davifon, Carlille 

Mr. John Dyer, Baiinghall-ftreet 

Rev. Mr. Drake, Grofvenor-fquare 

Dr. Dalling, Derby 

Phillip Du Val, D. D. 

Francis Dalling, Chiflehnrft, Kent 

Robert Dack, M. D. Norwich 

Rev. Mr. Davis, Fellow of Merton Colledge, Oxford 

Mrs. Egerton, Oulton Park, Chefhire 

Thongs Eyre, Efq. Haffop, near Bakewell, Derbyshire, two fetts 
Mr. William Eaton, Yarmouth s 

Thomas Frankland, Efq. York 
George Fordyce, M. D. Effex-ftreet, Strand 
Thomas Fonnereau, Efq. 
Mr. Field, Apothecary, Newgate-ftreet 
Mr. William Fothergill, Carr End, Yorkshire 
Mr. Francis Frelhfield. Colchefter 
Mr William Fowle Apothecary, Red Lion-fquare 
John toiler, Efq. Dublin 
John Ford, Efq. Briftol 
Major Ferrand 
William Frafer, M. D. 

Honourable Mr. Greville, Portman-fquare 

Sir John Griffin Griffin, Bart. Audley-End, Eflex 

Rev Samuel Goodenough, D. D. Ealing 

William Green, Efq Lewes, Suifex 

Mr. Chapman George, Clements -Inn 

Mr. James Gordon, Fenchurch-ftreet 

William Mann Godfchall, Efq. 

Mr. Gillman, Great Ormond-ftreet 

Mr. Bartlett Gurney, Norwich ' 

Rev. Mr. Goodinge, Leeds 

Ralph Grey, Efq. New Bond-ftreet 

H. Gnmfton Efq. Northampton 

Nich. Gwyn, M. D. Ipfwich 

Mr. William Green, Bury 

Captain Goflip 


Rt Honourable Lord Howe, Grafton-ftreet 

Lady Harris, Finchley 

John Hope, M. D Prof, of Bot. Edinburgh 

William Hunter, M. D. Great Wmdmill-ftreet 

Mr. John Hunter, Surgeon, Jermvn-ftreet 

Mr. Harris, Apothecary, Crutched' Friars 

Mr. Jonathan Hoare, Frederick's Place, Old Jewry 

Mr. Robert Haycock, Wells, Norfolk J 

W ^ h 2 iP r H V rl ° ck ' Sur g eon > St. Paul's Church Yard 
Jofeph Harford, Efq. Briftol 
Mr. Jacob Hagen, Dock-head 

Mr Jh° m u h 'r nry ' , A P°* ecai 7> Mancheftet 
Mr. John Harnfon, Apothecary, Derby 


Mr. Richard Haworth, Apothecary, Chancery-lane, two fetts 

Mr. Robert Holder, Apothecary, Strand 

Mr. Hoblyn, Chrift-church. Oxford 

Mr. Thomas Home, Peckham 

Mr. W. Henry Higden, Manchefter -buildings, Weftminftcr 

Mr. Hingefton, Apothecary, Cheapiide 

William Hird, M. D. Leeds 

Mr. Thomas Howard, Surgeon, Uxbridge 

Rev. Robert Harpur, Britilh Mufeum 

Timothy Hollis, Efq. Great Ormond-ftreet 

A. Hunter, M. D. York 

Head, Efq. 

Mr. John Hughes, Philpot-lane 

Thomas Horner, Efq. Mells-Park,Frome, Somerfet. 

Robert Banks Hodgkinfon, Efq. New Burlington-ftreet 

Dr. Hairby, Spilfby, Lincolnfhire 

Robert Haliifax, Efq. Apothecary, St. James's ftreet 

John Halliday, Efq. Queen Ann-ftreet, Cavendifh-fquare 

Rev. Mr. Holcombe, Pembroke, South Wales 

Rev. Mr. Hemming, Twickenham 

Jonathan Heywood, Efq. 

John Scanderet Haiford, Efq. Briftol 

Mrs. Harford, Briftol 

Mr. Robert Haynes, Briftol 

Leonard Troughear Holmes, Efq. Ifle of Wight 

Mr. Thomas Hunt, Harlefton 

Hillman, Efq. Eaft Clofe, Hampfhire 

Mr. Jackfon, Norwich 

Mrs. Jones, Hanover-fquare 

Robert Jenner, Efq. Dodtors Commons 

John Ibbettfon, Efq. Greenwich 

Mr. John Jones, Wrexham 

Mr. J. R. Jacob, Peterborough 


Right Honourable Lady King, Dover-ftreet, Piccadilly 
Rev. Dr. Kaye, Piccadilly 
Mrs. King, Blackheath 
Mr. Robert Kerby, Surgeon, Luton 


Right Honourable Lord Loughborough, Lincolns-Inn-Fields 

John Gideon Loten, Efq. 

J. C. Lettfom, M. D. Sambrook-Houfe, Bafinghall-ftreet, two fetts 

Rev. John Lightfoot, Uxbridge 

Mr. James Lee, Hammerfmith 

Mr. Longley, Apothecary, Broad ftreet 

Mr. 1 imothy Lane, Apothecary, Alderfgate -ftreet 

Rev. Mr. Lort 

Rev. James Lambert, M. A. Cambridge 

Abraham Ludlow, M. D. Briftol 

Mr. Laird, Tokenhoufe-Yard 

Mr. Levy, Lincolns-Inn-Fields 

Mrs. Mary Leech, Knutsford 

Mr. Charles Lightfoot, Surgeon, Whitby 

• M 
Right Honourable the Earl of Marchmont, Curzon-ftreet, May- Fair 
Right Honourable James Stewart Mackenzie 
Sir William Mufgrave, Bart, Arlington-ftreet, Piccadilly 
Mr. Daniel Mildred, Savage Gardens, Tower-hill 
Mr. Robert Maddocks, Witney 
Mr. Malcolm, Kennington 
Benjamin Mee, junior, Efq. Fenchurch-ftreet 
Edward Muflenden, Efq. 
Rev. Mr. Mills, Norbury, Derbyfhire 
Capt Manly, Woolwich 
Mr. Murrell, Cambridge 
John Monro, M- D. Bedford-fquare 
Mr. Matthews, Shelbnrne-Houfe 
Major Morgan, Litchfield 

His Grace the Duke of Northumberland 
Right honourable the Earl of Northington 
Dr. William Newcome, Bifhop of Waterford 
Mr. Robert R. Newel, Surgeon, Colchefter 
Rev. Mr. Newbery, Oxford 
William Norford, M. D. St. Edmunds Bury 
Mr. Nifbett, Surgeon, Great Marlborough-ftreet 

Mr. William Pennington, Kendall 
Rogers Parker, Elq. Peterborough 
Jofeph Pickford, Efq. Royton 


Craven Ord, Efq. 

Her Grace the Duchefs Dowager of Portland, Privy Gardens, 2 .fetts 

Right honourable the Earl of Plymouth, Bruton-ftreet 

Honourable Mrs. Pitt, Arlington-ftreet _ 

Sir James Pennyman, Bart. Park-ftreet, Weftminfter 

William Pitcairn, M. D. Warwick Court 

Mrs. Petit, Great Marlborough-ftreet 

Mr. Richard Prior, Budge-Row 

Mr. Giles Powell, Apothecary, South Audley-ftreet 

Major Thomas Pearfon 

Mr. William Parker, Fleet-ftreet, two fetts 

Rev. Mr. Pierfon Coxwold 

Mr. Patten, Surgeon, Ratcliffe- crofs 

Peachy, Efq. Wimpole-ftreet 

Mr. Payne, Pall Mall 


Sir Alexander Ramfay, Bart. Fafque, Scotland 

Sir John Ruffell, Bart. Checkers. Bucks 

Thomas Ruggles, Efq. Cobham, Surry 

Samuel Rudge, Efq. Elftree, near Edgwarc 

Cornelius Rodes, Efq. Barlborough Hall 

John Rawlinfon, M. D. Watling-ftreet 

Samuel Charles Reynardfon, Efq. Great Ormond-ftreet 

J. Rogers, Efq. Friday-hill Houfe, near Woodford 

Rev. Mr. Relhan, A. M. Cambridge 

Rev. Peter Rafhleigh, Maidftone 

Mr. Samuel Robinfon, St. Thomas Apoftles 

Mr. John Ruffel, Lewilham 

Colonel Ratcliffe 

Right Honourable Sir Thomas Sewel 

Honourable Lady Stapleton, Grays Court, near Henly 

Sir George Saville, Leicefter Fields 

D. C." Solander, M. D. Britilh Mufeum 

Mr. James Severn, Apothecary, Carnaby-market 

Mr. George Stacey, Holborn 

Thomas Sykes, Efq. Hackney 

Mr. James Smith, Surgeon, Ramfay 

Mr. Stevens, Stains 

Mrs. Stevenibn, Queen-fquare, Bloomfbury 

Richard Saunders, M. D. Spring Gardens 

W. Salkeld, Efq. Dorchefter 

Meffrs. Simmons and Co. Canterbury 

Mr. William Sole, Apothecary, Bath 

Mr. W. Shrive, Clare, Suffolk 

Mr. Robert Simpfon, Apothecary, Briftol 

Francis Skipwith, Efq. 

Dr. Shaw, Aylefbury, Bucks 

Mr. Sibthorpe, junior, Oxford 

Mr. Edward Sewel, Cornhill 

E. Snelfon, Nantwich 

Edward Salway, Efq. near Ludlow, Shropshire 

Mr. \\ illiam Staniforth, Surgeon, Sheffield, Yorklhire 

Honourable Mrs. Talbot, Little Hillingdon, near Uxbridge 

Honourable Wilbraham Tollemache, New Norfolk-ftreet 

Thomas Tofield, Efq. Wilfick, near Doncafter, Yorklhire 

Marmaduke Tunftall, Efq. 

Mrs. Towers, Weald-Hall, near Brentwood, Eflex 

Rev Mr. LaTrobe 

Mr. John Talwin, Surgeon, Royfton 

Mr. Travis Surgeon, Scarborough 

John Till Adams, M. D. Briftol 

Mr. Vickeris Taylor 

Mr. Torre, Market Lane, St. James's 

R. Tilden, Efq. Milfted, near Sittingboume, Kent 


Right Honourable Lady Vernon, Portman-fquare 

James Vere, Efq. Bifhopfgate-ftreet 

Mrs. Vafton, Clapton 

Mr. Francis Upham, Apothecary, Greek-ftreet, Soho 

Right Hon. Lord Wi Hough by de Broke, Hill -ftreet, Berkeley-fquarc 
Lady Vikountefs Weymouth 

Honourable and Reverend Mr. Wallop, Wallop near Andover 
William Weddel, Efq. Upper Brook-ftreet 
Thomas White, Efq. South Lambeth, two fetts 
Mr, William Wooton, Apothecary, Lower Brook-ftreet 
Mr. John Woodd, Apothecary, Old Burlington-ftreet < 

Mr, Thomas Willis, Wapping 
Rev. Mr. Wood, Iver, Bucks 
Mr. Walter Williams, Attorney, Apothecaries -Hall 
Mr. William Williams, Apothecary, Briftol 
Rev. Edward White, junior, Yarmouth, Norfolk 
W, Wooldridge, Efq. Bath 
Rev. Dr. Whitfield, Fulham 
Rev. Mr. Whitear, St. Clement Haftings, Suflex 

. Watfon, M.D. Bath 

1 homas Woodward, Efq. Bungay 

Rev. Mr. Woodford, Southampton 

Mrs. Walker, Southgate 

Mr. Wingfield, St. Thomas's Hofpital 

Mr. Winch, Chemift, Hay-market 

John Wightwick, Efq. Sandfgate near Chertfey 

Thomas Walford, Efq. Wifbich-Hall, near Saffron- Walden, Eflex 

Martin Wall, M. D. Oxford 

Mr. Benjamin White, Fleet-ftreet 

Mr. Luke White, Dublin 

Mr. William Wetherell, Surgeon, Hampftead 

Mr. Whiting, Ratcliffe-crofs 

Rev. Thomas Walker, L. L. B. Iflington 

The Honourable Thomas Wenman, Temple 

William Young, Efq. 
Rev. Mr. James Yonge, Purflinch, near Plympton, Devon, 


P R E F A C 

ALTHOUGH the Author does not here mean to give a Preface at large, refervine that until the firft 
volume containing thirty-fix numbers or two hundre! and fixteen plants, /hall be c"mp eated yet he nre- 
fumes it will be fafsfaftory to his ; fubforibers and the public, to be informed a little morefolly of fhe nan e 

bee d n d ma g d a e m £ pl°an ofl" ^ ^ ^ "" *" ^«"^ ° f ■*"■** &me few ohjeains tha" h^ 

«rWn p r imar y defi § n of ^ then, is to facilitate a knowledge of the plants of our own country, and eftablifh 
each and variety oil a firm bafis: this the Author confiders as the grand defideratum at prefen * thb 

sttu£ ^gasSr* a way wiU be opened '. and a foundatioa ifid * ^^ «5&SS 

h,T^,^. C r b l! ed ^ d0 ^ hb ' h ? me , a " S V^ e the S reateft P a;ns in the examination of thofe plants which 
he figures ; to have them drawn from hving fpecimens moft expreffive of the general habit or appearance of the plant 
as it grows wild ; to place each plant as much as is confiftentf in the moft pleafing point of view ; and to be very 

S£dp&1£jK and defa,Ptl0n ° f tHe f6Veral ^ ° { the fl — and ^ **' efpeciaftj where 

And in order that he may obtain a more perfeft knowledge of each plant; that he may fee it in everv 
ftage of its growth from the germination to the maturity of its feed ; that he may compare and contraft the feveral 
fpecies together ; that he may make experiments to elucidate the nature of fuch as are obfcure, or bring into more 
general ufe thofe which bidfa.r to be of advantage to the public; he is now cultivating each of them in afaiden i^r, mto which, by the kind affiftance of his friends, he has already introduced, !n the courfe of one fear about 
five hundred different fpecies, including fixty of that moft valuable tribe of plants the grades, 

Although the afeertaining and fixing of the plants will be his principle object, yet to make the Work more ufefnl 
o the public, as well as inftruawe and entertaining to the young bo'tanift his utmoft endeavour! will be uf do 
lay before ithem whatever may be found ufeful in old botanic writers; and here they muft not be fuTprized to find 
many of the numerous and imaginary virtues which they attributed to almoft every plant, putpofelyomitted the made by modern authors particularly relative to Agriculture and Rural Oeconomy, will be cLfullv attend! 
ed to ; as herefeems to be a field juft opening to view, from whence the public is likely to draw great and laftfol 
advan ages : and as a knowledge of the plants themfe ves is firft neceffary, and for want of which, indeed, he expef 
tinThTs 1 ^rm a r t p e uIt U good < : 0mmUmCate h ' S -P™" 5 ' he fi " d s J-felf peculiarly happy iu *£& 

He is neyerthelefs fenfible how inadequate his abilities, or indeed the abilities of any one perfon are, to render a 
work ofthis kind any ways compleat; he therefore refpeftfully folicits the affiftance of thofe, who whh well to the 
miprovement oi Engl.Jl, Botany and Enghfi Agriculture: any information they ihall be pleafed to common a (h^l 
with thofe favours he has already received from divers of his friends, be gratefully acknowledged; and to induce 
them the more readily to communicate he has fubjoined a catalogue of thofe plants which (with many other We 
already drawn, and which he intends lhall form the next Fafeiculus. "i.y otner»; „ie 

He is forry it has not been in his power to publifli his numbers fo faft as was originally propofed : the deliy hi, 
chiefly been occafioned by the loft of one of his principal artifts, whofe place is now fupplied by two others em„Nv 
eminent; fo that the drawing and engmving, which before fell to the thare of one perfon, b^ing now d tided t 
twat two, he flatters himfelf he fliall be able to publifli a number once a month, or fix weeks at &SX2 s hot" 
ever determined never to facrif.ce the accuracy or utility of the work to hurry-on this principle he has been a the ' 
expence of feme of h.s plates engraven twice, and even three times over before he could venture to ntiblim them 

tt*< 2 h3S ° nginated , m K th ' S *?""*!> ^1P eS n ° ne ° f his fubfaibers that h^ve hitherto fo genereuflfeontri-' 
£ w>h J fTS U n °r he W0 {- k ' ^.^thdraw that affiftance, which alone can enable him to profecu"e 
it with advantage to the public, credit to himfelf, and fatisfaction to them. Ptoiecute 

It now remains to obviate feme few objeflions which have been made to the plan of this work; and firft it has 
been fuggefted to the Author that it would have been better received, if, inftead ofpurfuing the prefen pi n he 
hadpubliftied thofe plants only which were not figured in the Flora Danica, a work now caf ry^offnX^ 
nndertheaufpicesofthe^: but a few moments refleaion, muft he prefumes be fumcient/to^onviiice em'v 
«..prejudiced perfon, how inadequate fuch a partial publication would have been to the making a Low X of rile 
plants of our country more general among ourfelves-at beft fuch a work could only anfwer fhe purnofe 8 of hofe 
few individuals who are in poffeffion of that part of the Flora Danica already publiihed ; and as that is ft.ll eo „f o, 
there is no doubt but the fame plants would be publiihed by both Authors f thus, the Butomusun elZ & sL«m 
Dulcamara ind Eryum hrfutum, have been publiihed in the Flora Danica fince they were publiflied m the fZ 
Londtnenfo, fo that in the end even thofe perfons would be obliged topurchafe duplicates of the fame plant 

Another reafon why the Author could not adopt the plan propofed to him, was the limited fcale of the Flora Danka 
which contains the figures and names of the plants only, but gives us no account of their properties no, reacts 'us 

^ZZt ' nfT' th r e d fr mit F Ia , ,? ° ne r ther ; Ae P' ates likewife being/^/Z/X, Lino aan it m»v of 
the plan s of their natural fize, feyeral of the grafles for inftance, as the Feftucajluitins and Jira aauatica are obh ed to 
be fo cutand diminiihed as fcarcely to be known. Many other obieaions 7 might be urged without any view to de- 
C w-i Zrtltt t^^l-l?^ '" fome <^ as ">°* be -flied, has g exceeding gtea^ n^t :-° 

ihefe will probably be deemed ihfficien7 PeUS ™ ^ ° 6 ""'^' h * S ^^ S re " meHt : ~ but 



The engraving of one plant only on each plate has been another objection which fome have ftrongly urged, while 
others have in as warm terms tefKfied their approbation of it. It may be proper to mention, that whether one or more 
had been engraven on a plate, the difference in the expence would have been trifling, and chiefly in the paper : as they 
now are, each is difHncl, and every one is at liberty to place them according to that fyftem which he moft 
approves of. 

The want of figures of reference to the plates, or letter-prefs, has been perhaps a more folid objection ; 
but the Author hopes, that by the ufe of the indexes defcribed below, this alfo will be obviated. 

Having now, fo far as he can recollecl:, anfwered every thing deferving the name of an objection, he willingly 
fubmits his performance to the judgment of a candid and impartial public ; confcious of having ufed his belt 
endeavours to be ferviceable in his department. 

XJfes of the Indexes, with Directions for Binding, 

In the firft Index the plants are placed according to the Syftem of Linn^us, with which it is prefumed, 
the greater!: part of his fubfcribers are beft acquainted* To find out any plant, even though the perfon 
be not acquainted with this mode of arrangement, look in the alphabetical Englifh or Latin Index, and you 
will find the figures correfponding with them as placed in the book: if for example I want to find Ivy, 
I look for it in Index, No. 3, where the Englifh names are alphabetically arranged, and find it to be the 16 
plate, as there are 72 plates in each Fafciculus, lean readily guefs within a few plates where it is placed : to 
thofe who have been accuftomed to look out plants in Linnjeus's works it will come eafier ; but if each. 
fubicriber will take the fmall pains of figuring the plates with a black lead pencil, any plant may then be im- 
mediately referred to. The Author could not hit on any mode more eligible, confident with the irregular 
order in which he has been obliged to publifh his plants. 

With every third Fafciculus will be given a general and more copious Index, with a GlofTary of the technical 
terms ufed in the work. 

He would recommend to his fubfcribers, that each Fafciculus containing twelve numbers, be bound in boards, 
and not cut at the edges ; the plates to be placed In the fame order in which they occur in the firjl Index ; taking 
care that each plate be put oppofite to the letter-prefs belonging to it, with a leaf of thin paper betwixt them. 
If any mould be at a lofs to have them properly done, they will be pleafed to fend them to Raham Reepe'Sy 
Bookbinder, in Crooked Lane, near the Monument, who binds the Author's. 

N. B. It may be neceffary to caution the Bookbinder againft beating the Numbers, as that operation would 
probably deftroy the beauty of the plates. 

Catalogue of thofe Plants which are intended 'to be Published in the next Fafciculus 

Anemone nemorofa 
Adoxa mofchatellina 
Ajuga reptans 
Aira praecox 
Arabis thaliana 
Arenaria tenuifolxa 
Achillea Ptarmica 
Briza media 
Corylus avellana 
Chserophyllum fylveftre 
Convolvulus arvenfis 
Circaea lutetiana 
Chenopodium Vulvaria 
Dipfacus fylveftris 
Epilobium. anguftifolium 
Epilobium ramofum 
Erica cinerea 
Fumaria officinalis 
Feftuca duriufcula 
Feftuca myuros 
Glechoma hederacea 
Geranium molle 
Geranium rotundifolium 
Geranium perenne 

Geranium Columbinum 
Hyacinthus non fcriptus 
Hyofcyamus niger 
Hypericum montanum 
Hypericum quadrangulum 
Hypericum hirfutum 
Ilex Aquifolium 
Iris Pfeudacorus 
Lamium amplexicaule 
Lyfimachia nemorum 
Lyfimachia nummularia 
Lyfimachia tenella 
Lyfimachia vulgaris 
Liguftrum vulgare 
Lotus corniculata 
Myofurus minimus 
Malva officinalis 
Malva minor 
Medicago lupulina 
Ofmunda fpicant 
Oxalis acetofella 
Orchis Morio 
Ornithopus perpufillus 
Plantago lanceolata 

Plantago major 
Plantago Coronopus 
Plantago media 
Poa rigida 
Poa comprefla 
Polygonum amphibium 
Polytrichum commune 
Ranunculus hirfutus 
Ranunculus Ficaria 
Sagina ere&a 
Saxifraga trida&ylites 
Spergula nodofa 
Sedum dafyphyllum 
Sedum reflexum 
Symphytum officinale 
Sparganium erettum 
Tufiilago farfara 
Tormentilla erecla 
Thymus ferpyllum 
Trifolium fragiferum 
Valeriana dioica 
Veronica officinalis 
Veronica hederifolia 
Veronica arvenfis 


In which the Plants contained in the firft Fafcieulus are arranged according to the 

Syftem of Linn^us. 

Lathi Name. 

i Veronica agreftis ■ 

2 Veronica * Chamaedrys — — 

3 Veronica ferpyllifolia 

4 Anthoxanthuni odoratum — 

5 Aira aquatica • 

6 Poa annua 

7 Feftuca fluitans 

8 Bromus mollis 

9 Bromus fterilis 

io Dipfacus pilofns — — 
ii Hottonia paluftris 

12 Anagallis arveniis — ; 

13 Convolvulus fepium 

14 Solarium Dulcamara 

15 Lonicera Periclyrrienum — 

16 Hedera Helix 

17 Conium maculatum ■ 

18 iSthufa Cynapium 

1 9 Scaridix Anthrifcus - 

2° Alfine media 

21 Erica tetralix — — ^ — 

22 Polygonum Biftorta 

2 3 Polygonum Perlicaria 

24 Polygonum "Penlylvanicum 

2 5 Polygonum var. caule maculato 

26 Polygonum Hvdropiper — 

2 7 Polygonum aviculare 

2 & Polygonum minus ■ 

2 9 Butbmus umbellatus 

3° SaxiFraga granulate 

3 1 Sedum album ' — > — » 

3 2 Sediim acre - - 

33 Lychnis Flos Cuculi * 

34 Cerafrium aquaticrim 

35 Euphorbia peplus 

36 Euphorbia Heliofcopia — - 

3 J Potentilla reptans 

38 Ranunculus bulbofus 

39 Ranunculus acris' • 

4° Caltlia paluftris * 

4 1 Verbena officiiialis ' 

4 2 Lamium rub rum < 

43 Thymus aciilos 

44 Euphrafia Odontites - 

45 Antirrhinum Cymbalaria 

46 Antirrhinum Elatine ■* — > 

47 Antirrhinum Linaria — — 
4B Digitalis purpurea 

49 Draba verna -* — 

50 Thlaipi Burfa Paftoris — 

51 Geranium Cictitarium 

52 Geranium robertianum • 

53 Orobus tuberofus . 

54 Ervum hirfutum . 

5$ Ervurn tetrafpermum 

,56 Hypericum pulchrum 

57 Hypericum perforatum — 

5$ Leontodon Taraxacum — 

59 Lapfana communis 

60 Erigeron acre — ■ — 

61 Senecio vulgaris — 

62 Bellis perennis -*- — 

63 Viola odorata — — 

64 Viola hirta 

65 Viola tricolor — — - 

66 Ophrys Apifera — 

67 Afplenium Scolopendrium 

68 Polypodium vulgare — 

69 Bryum fcoparium — 

70 Bryum undu latum — — 
7t Bryum lion mm —. - 

72 Hypnnm prollferum — * 


Clafs and Order, 

Diandria Monogynia. 
Diandria Digytiia. 

Triandria Digynia., 

Tetrandria Monogynid* 

F*en t A ndr i A Monogynia. 

' r Pentandria Digynia. 

PentAndria 'T'rigynia. 
OtTAMUKiA Monogynia, 


Octandria t>lgynla aut c trigynia. 

Enneandria Hexagynla. 
Decandria Digynia. 

Dec a ndr 1 A Pentagynia. 
De c andr 1 a Pentagynia. 

Dodecandria Trigynia. 
Icosandria Polygynia* 

Poly a ndr 1 a Polygynia. 
Didynamia Gymnofpermia. 

Did yn a mi a Angiofpermia. 

TETR ADYNAMIA Siliculofa, 

Monadelphia Decandria,- 
Diadelpaia Decandria. 

Polyadelphia Polyandria.- 
Syngenesia Polygamia Mqualis. 
Syngenesia Polygamia Superfiua* 

Syngenesia Monogamia. 
G YNANDR 1 a Diandria. 
Cryptogamia Filices» 

Cryptogamia Mufcl 


In which the Latin Names of the Plants 
are arranged Alphabetically. 

Anthoxanthum odoratum 

Aira aquatica . * 

Anagallis arvenfis . 

Alfine media 

Antirrhinum Cymbalaria 

Antirrhinum Elatine 

Antirrhinum Linaria 

Afplenium Scolopendrium 

iErhufa Cynapium 

Bromus mollis » 

Bromus fterilis 

Butomus umbellatus 

Bellis perennis 

Bryum fcoparmm » 

Bryum unduktum 

Bryum hornum 

Convolvulus Sepium 

Conium maculatum . 

Ceraftium aquaticum 

Caltha paluftris 
Draba verna 

Digitalis purpurea 

Bipfacus pilofus 

Erica tetralix . .. 

Euphorbia Peplus . . 

Euphorbia Heliofcopia 

Euphrafia Odontites 

Ervum hirfutum 

Ervum tetrafpermum 

Erigeron acre 

Feftuca fluitans ' . 

Geranium cicutarium 

Geranium robertianum 

Hottonia paluftris 

Hedera Helix 

Hypericum pulchrum 

Hypericum perforatum 

Hypnum proliferum 

Lonicera Periclymenum 

Lychnis Flos Cuculi 

Lamium rubrum 

Deontodon Taraxacum 

Lapfana communis 

Orobus tuberofus 

Ophrys apifera « . . 

Poa annua 

Polygonum Biftorta * 

Polygonum Perficaria 

Polygonum Penfylvanicum 

Polygonum var. caule maculato 

Polygonum Hydropiper 

Polygonum aviculare 

Polygonum minus 

Potentilla reptans 

Polypodium vulgare 

Ranunculus bulbofus 

Ranunculus acris 

Solanum Dulcamara 

Scandix Anthrifcus 

Saxifraga granulata 

Sedum album 

Sedum acre , 

Senecio vulgaris 

Thymus acinos 

Thlafpi Burfa Paftoris 

Veronica agreftis 

Veronica Chamaedrys 

Veronica ferpyllifolia 

Verbena officinalis 

Viola odorata 

Viola hirta 

Viola tricolor . 












7 1 
l 7 





5 1 

1 1 



2 5 




5 J 






J 9 









In which the Englifh Names of the 
Plants are arranged Alphabetically. 

Aira fweet tafted water i 

Brome-Grass foft • 

Brome-Grass barren 

Bryum broom . • • . . 

Bryum curled . . . 

Bryum fwanVneck 

Bistort common 

Crane's-bill hemlock-leaved 

Crane's-bill {linking or herb Robert 

Cymbalaria Ivy leaved 

Chickweed common 

Convolvulus large white 

Cinqtjefoil common « 

Crowfoot round-rooted . 

Crowfoot upright meadow • 

Daisy, common, 

Draba, vernal, 

Dead-Net tle purple 

Dandelion common . . 

Eyebright red % * 

-Erigeron purple 

"Flowering-Rush , 

Fools-Parsley . , 

Fluellin f harp-pointed 

Foxglove purple 

Fescue Grass flote 

Groundsell common , . . 


Hemlock « , , 

Heath crofs-leaved 

Hottonia water . » 

Hypnum proliferous , 

Honeysuckle common 


Knot-grass common . 

Mousear-Chickweed marfh 

Marsh-Marigold . 

Nipplewort common 

Nightshade woody 

Orchis Bee 

Pimpernel common 

Pink meadow . » 

Pea wood . 

Poa common dwarf * 

Per'sicaria fpotted leaved 

Persicaria pale flowered . , 

Persicaria ipotted ftalk'd 

Persicaria biting 

Persicaria fmall creeping 

Polypody common 

Pansie wild 

Spurge fmall garden 

Spurge fun 

St. John's -Wort fmall upright 

St. JohnVWort common 

Scandix rough-feeded 

Saxifrage white 

Stonecrop white flowered 

Stonecrop common yellow 


Speedwell procumbent garden 

Speedwell germander-leaved 

Speedwell imooth-leaved 

Tine-tare rough podded 

Tine-tare fmooth podded 

Teasel fmall 

Toad flax common yellow 

Thyme bafil 

Vernal-Grass fweet-fcented 


Violet fweet-fcented 

Violet hairy 






5 1 


l 3 




2 9 







J 5 

2 7 







2 3 




l 9 
3 1 




J 9 
6 2 



eronica agrestis. procumbent 
Garde n-S peedwell. 

VERONICA Lmnrn. Gen. PL Diandria Monogynia. 

Rail. Syn. Gen. 18. Herb,e fructu sicco singulari flore monopetalo. 

"VERONICA agrejlis, floribus folitariis, pedunculitis ; foliis cordatis incifis, petiolatis ; caule" procumbente. 

VERONICA agrejlis, floribus folitariis, foliis cordatis incifis pedunculo brevioribus. Linnai Svji. Vegetal, p. c6. 

VERONICA floribus folitariis, foliis cordatis incifis petiolatis. Hudfon FL Angl. p. 6. 

VERONICA caule procumbente; foliis petiolatis, ovatis,. crenatis, Haller, Hjft. V. i. n. 594. 

VERONICA agrejlis. Scopoli. FL Cam. p. 21 Diagn. Primiflora ; foliis ovato-cordatis, crenatis, pedun- 
culo brevioribus. 

VERONICA floribus fingularibus, in oblongis pediculis, Chamaedryfolia. Rati. Syn, p. 279. Germander- 
Speedwell or Chickweed. 
ALSINE foliis Triffaginis: Gerard, emac. 616. Parkin/on. 764. 
ALSINE Chamaediyfolia flofculis pediculis oblongis infidentibus. Bauhin. Pin. 250. Oeder. PL- Dan, Icon. 440,. 

RADIX annua, fibrofa. % ROOT annual and fibrous. 

CAULES plures, primum eretti, tandem procumbentes, | STALKS feveral, firft upright, then procumbent, about 

femipedales, fubvilloii, teretes. _ _ £ fix inches in length" round and fomewhat villous. 

FOLIA alterna, ovato-cordata, ferrata, petiolis brevibus | LEAVES alternate, of an oval-heart fhape, ferrated, 

infidentia, fubhirfuta. £ placed on fhort foot-ftalks and (lightly hairy. 

FLORES pedunculati, pedunculi axillares, longitudine i FLOWERS placed on foot-ftalks, which "proceed from 
fere foiiorum, poft florescentiam reflexi. | the Axillse of the leaves and are nearly of the 

% fame length; after the flowers are gone off 

I turning back. 

CALYX: Peri anthtum quadripartitum, laciniis lance- $ CALYX: a Perianthium divided into four lacimae', 
olatis, hirfutis, fubtortuofis, jig. 1. | which are lanceolate, hairy, and fomewhat 

* twifted, fig. 1. 

COROLLA monopetala, fubrotata, calyce brevior, Is- % COROLLA monopetalous, fomewhat wheel-fhaped and 

vitfimo fere taclu decidua ; tubus breviffimus ; | fhorter than the Calyx, falling off on the leaft 

lacini^ concavee, fubrotundae, nunc penitus | touch; the tube very fhort; the lacinije 

coeruleae, nunc venis cceruleis ftriatae, jig. 2. % concave, and roundifh, fometimes wholly blue, 

fometimes ftriped with blue, jig. 2. 
STAMINA: Filamenta duo, alba, medio cramora ; | STAMINA: two Filaments of a white colour and 
. Antherje ccerulefcentes, j%. 3. I thickeft in the middle; Anthers blueiih, 

T for, 2'. 

PISTILLUM: Germen mbcompreffum, hirfutulum,bafi f PISTILLUM^ Germen flattifh, a little hairy and fur- 

neclario cinctum ; Stylus viridis, apice incraffa- | rounded at bottom by a Neftarium ; the Style 

tus, ftaminibus brevior ; Stigma album, capi- | green, thickeft at top, and fhorter than the 

tatum, jig. 4. I Stamina ; Stigma roundifh and white, -fig. 4. 

PERICARPIUM Capsule Veronica ferfyllifolia fimi- | SEED-VESSEL a Capsule like that of the Veronica 

lis, at major rotundiorque, jig. 5. ^ ferpyllifolia, but larger and rounder, jig. 5. 

SEMINA pallide fufca, plerumque 6 in fingulo locula- | SEEDS of a pale brown colour, generally 6 in each cavity, 

mento, rngofa, hinc convexa, inde concava, jig. 6. * wrinkled, convex on one fide and hollow on the 

I other, fig. 6. 

THERE are few Botanifts but what are apt to confound this fpecies of Veronica with the Veronica arvenfis, 
' and this appears to arife in ibme degree from their fimilarity to each other, but more perhaps from tWb fimi- 
litude of their Latin, and the ambiguity of their Englifh names. To prevent in fome degree this confufion, 
I have taken the liberty of altering the Englifh name of Germander-Speedwell or Chickweed to that of 
procumbent garden Speedwell, in order that the young Botanift may thereby more readily diftinguifh it from the 
fpecies above mentioned. The ftalks of the Agrejlh are ufually procumbent, and it is found generally in Gar- 
dens ; whereas the Arvenfis has an upright ftalk, and with us is found moft commonly on Walls. Belides iuch obvi- 
oufly diftinguifhing characters, thele two plants differ confiderably in many other refpects. In the Arvenfis the 
leaves are fefTile, in this . they are placed on footftalks ; in the Arvenfis the flowers are feffile, in this fpecies 
they likewife, are placed on footftalks: and a difference ftill more remarkable, or at leaft more curious, exiils, 
which feems not to have been attended to, viz. the largenefs and roundnefs of the feed-veflels, and the particu- 
lar ftruclure of the feed. In moil of the Veronicas the feed-veflel is heart-fhaped, and even in this fpecies it re- 
tains fomewhat of that form, although each of the Cavities is large and' round; and if we examine the form 
of the feeds, we mail not wonder at this particular conftruclion, for each feed inftead of being final! and flat 
as in other Veronicas, is large, convex on one fide, hollow on the other, and wholly different in its appearance. 
This peculiarity of ftructuire, mows what inconftancy there is in the parts of fructification, and how improper 
, it would be to found a Genus on the particular form of any one of them, fince thole which are in general 
the moft uniform, are fometimes fubjecl to fuch uncommon variations. The number of feeds in each Capfule 
is generally about 12, Linn/eus fays 8, Scopoli from 16 to 20. 

This fpecies grows frequently in Garden's, and flowers through moft of the fummer months. No particular 
virtues or ufes are attributed to it. 

e//pn tea aaredMf . 

f h * 

2, '.* p 4 4 

l <p « <m 

Veronica Cham^drys, Wild Germander. 

VERONICA Linn^i Gen. PL Diandria monogynia, 

Rail Syn. Gen. 18. Herbje fructu sicco singulari, flore mqnopetalo. 

VERONICA Chama>drys racemis lateralibus, foliis ovatis rugofis dsitfatis . femlibus, caule hifariam pilofo. Lin, 
Syfl. Vegetab.p. $j, FL Suecic. p. 6. 

VERONICA foliis cordatis fubrotundis, hirfutis, nervofis, ex alis racemofa. Haller. hid. n. 06 

CHAMiEDRYS fpuria minor rotundifolia. 249, 

CHAMiEDRYS fpuria fylvefbis. Parkin/on, 107. 

CHA1VLEDRYS fylveftris. Gerard, emac. 657. Rail Syn. 281. Wild Germander, Hud/on. PL Angl.p. 5, 
Scopoli. FL Carniol.p. 15. (a) OEder FL Dan. Icon. 448, 

RADIX perennis, repens, nbrofa, ? ROOT perennial, creeping, and fibrous. 

CAULES numerofi,decumbentes, teretes, duri, tifariam | STALKS numerous, fpreading, round, hard hairy on 
denfe hirfuti, ramofi. | each fde , hairs vejy thkk — ^ ^^ 

FOLIA cordato-ovata, oppofita, nunc feffilia nunc petiolis | LEAVES of an heart fhaped oval form, oppofite <rene 
brevibus infidentia, ferrata, venofa, hirfutula. f rally femle, fometimes ftanding on fhort fooN 

I ftalks, ierrated, veiny, and flightly hirfute, 

FLORES numerofi, ad 20, caerulei, petiolati : Petioli | FLOWERS numerous, to ao, of a bright blue colour 

BRACTiEA lanceolata fuffulti ; racemi longi, | forming long racemi (which are fometimes 

nunc oppofiti nunc fohtarn. oppofite, fometimes iingle), ftandjng on foot, 

I fialks, each of which is fupported by a long- 

I pointed Bract^ea. 

CALYX Perianthium quadripartitum, perflftens, fo- | QALYX : a Perianthium divided into four ferments 
holis lanceolatis, brfrtulia,^ 1. f and continuing, the fegments lanceolate anj 

I flightly hairy, fig. 1. 

COROLLA monopetala, rotata, tubus breviffimus in- | COROLLA monopetalous and wheel fhaped the turp 

terne ad mfenorem partem villofus limbo qua- | very fhort, internally villous on the lowermoft 

dnpartito, piano, lacmiis fubcordatis ad bafin ( fide, the limb flat, and divided into four fei 

veins faturatioribus flnatis, mferiore anguftiore, t ^ ments, the fegments fomewhat heart-fhaped, 

■fig' *• I " ftriated at bottom with veins of a purple colour' 

f the lowermoft fegment narrower than the reft' 

STAMINA: Filamenta duo apiceincraffata, adfcen- | STAMINA: two Filaments, thickeft at top riW 

PISTILLUM: Germen compreflum glanclula neaari- f PISTILLUM: the Germen flattifh furrounded at ho, 
iera cmdum : Stylus deciinatus, C£ erulefcens, $ torn bv a nectariferom o-l ?H 7 a 1 c 

St.gma obt u f um , pur p Ureum , fg . s . I hangin y £££™ tuei/f ■ * s£~ 

blunt, and purple, fig, j f 

PERICARPIUM: Capsula cordate, fufcomprefa, | SEED-VESSEL: a Capsule, heart-fhaped Mtifh of a 
mud urn, M ' 7 ' I md flightly hairy at the edge, fig, Jf * 

SEMINA ; plura, comprefla, flavefcentia, fig. 8. J SEEDS feveral, flat, of a yellowim brown colour,/*. 8, 

The flowers of this Veronica are the largeft and molt fpecious of all the Plants of that Genus which grow wild in 
this Kingdom ; many plants with lefs beauty are cultivated in our Gardens with the greateft care. 

The leaves have been recommended by fome writers as a fubftitute for Tea. 

It bears a considerable refemblance to the Veronica Montana, but differs eflentially from that plant in the fize of It, 
Seed-veflels and the great number of flowers which it bears on its Racemi. See Jacquin. FlorSfiriaTvd. 2 

When growing wild the leaves are ufually femle or placed on very fhort foot-ftalks, when cultivated thev become 
larger and the foot-ftalks moderately long; a kind of rnonftrofity, which Linn^us ^ has likew [^0^1 is verv 
frequent on the leaves at the extremity of the ftalk ; which are coWted Into fl wre l^r\^t 1,1 \'' ** *?* 

m May and'jur^f ^™^ ^' ^ ^™ ^ C01WOn ° n d ^ banks > Under h ^ s > ™ d » shards ; it flower, 


< •. , . - 


Veronica serpyllifolia. little smooth Speedwell, 



VERONICA Liwhei Gen, PL Diandria Monogynia. 

Rail Syn. Gen. 18. Herbje fructu sicco singulari, flore monopetalo. 
VERONICA ferpylTifolia racemo terminali fubfpicato, foliis ovatis glabris, crenatis. Linrnei Syft. Vegetal, p, 

56. FI. Suecic. p. 6. 
VERONICA caule reclo, foliis ovatis, glabris, crenatis, petiolis ex alls uninoris, breviffimis. Holler hift.n* 546. 

VERONICA prateniis ferpyllifolia. Bauhin Pin. 247. 
VERONICA pratenfis minor. Parkin/on. 551. 
VERONICA minor. Gerard emac. 627. 

VERONICA foemina quibufdam, aliis Betonica Pauli Serpyllifolia. /. Bauhin. III. 285, 
VERONICA Raii Syn. p. 279. n. 3. Hud/on, FI. Angl. p. 4. n. 4 Scopoli FI. Carniol F.i. p. \2. n. 10 
OEder FI. Dan. icon. 492. 

RADIX perennis, nbrofiflima. | ROOT perennial, and very fibrous. 

CAULES numerofi, ad balin repentes, dein erecti, fim_ y STALKS numerous, creeping at bottom, then growing 
plices, palmares, teretes, laves. | upright, umple, three or four inches high, 

I round and imooth. 


FOLIA oppofita, fubconnata, fubrotundo-ovata, rariier | LEAVES oppofite, nearly uniting at bottom, ofi a round- 

et objolete [errata, glabra, trinervia. | i/h-oval jorm, here una 'there /lightly [err 'ated, fmooth 

t and trinervous. 

FLORES albi, venis cseruleis picti, fpicati, pedunculati, I FLOWERS white, coloured with blue veins or ftripes, 

alterni, Bracte.e magnae, ovatae. J growing in fpikes on foot-flalks alternately. 

I Floral leaves large and oval. 

CALYX: PERiANTHiuM.quadnpartitum, laciniis ovato- f CALYX: A Perianthium divided into four parts, 

acutis, glabris, jig. 1. f . tne Segments of an oval pointed fhape, and 

% fmooth, fig. 1 . 


COROLLA monopetala, rotata ; tubus breviffimus ; la- | COROLLA monopetalous, wheel-ihaped, the tube very 

cimfc fubcordatae, mfenoreangufhore ; fupenore % fhort, the fegments fomewhat heart-fhaped, the 

lacima finis aut veins purpuras odo notata, | lower one narroweft ; the upper fegment marked 

Jaterahbus venis duabus, mferiore penitus alba, J w j t h eight purple veins or itripes, the fide ones 

fig- 2 • I with two, and the lower one entirely white^. 2. 


STAMINA: Filamenta duo, alba, apice "incraflata, | STAMINA: two Filaments, white and thickifh to- 

fig. 5, 6. Anthers caerulefcentes. | wards the extremity; the Anthers blueifh 

PISTILLUM: Germen fubcompreflum Stylus albus, J PISTILLUM: the Germen flattilh, the Style white, 

apice paululum incraflatus, perfiftens. Stigma | a little thlcker towards the extremity, and con- 

capitatum, rubens, fig. 3. | turning. Stigma roundifh, and of a redifh 

I colour,^. 3. 

NECTARIUM ad bafin germinis, ut in Veronica Cha- | NECTARY at the bottom of the Germen as in the Ve~. 
maedrys. J ron i ca Chamsedrys. 

PERICARPIUM : Capsula fubcordata, fufca, pro | SEED-VESSEL ; a Capsule fomewhat heart-fhaped, 
magnitu dine plants» • magna, fig. 4. f of a brown colour, and large in proportion to 

| ^ the plant, fig. 4. 

ctt\ t $ SEEDS numerous, of a yellowiih brown colour, and 

bJ^MIJNf A plurima, 60 numeravi, e luteo-fufca, fub-ova- ? fomewhat oval fhape, fig. 8. We counted 60 

ta, fig 8. | I - m one ca pf u i e<i 

No t particular virtues are attributed to this little plant by Writers. 

It is one of the leaft of the Veronicas, and occurs frequently in Meadows and Fields, and fometimes in Gardens, 
flowering m the Spring and Autumnal Months. 

There is a great deal of delicacy in its bloflbms, but they are too minute to make its beauty confpicuous enough 
for the Garden. J r &> 

Its fmall, round, fmooth and mining leaves readily diftinguifh it from the other Speedwells. 

///ctr j c ?// // ////r /ur \ 

Anthoxanthum odoratum. Sweet-scented 

or Vernal Grass. 

ANTHOXANTHUM Linnai Gen. PL Diandria Digynia. 

Calyx. Gluma bivalvis, uniflora. Corolla. Gluma bivalvis, acu- 
minata. Semen unicum. 
Raii Synop. Gen. 27. Herbje graminifolije flore imperfecto culmiferje. 
ANTHOXANTHUM odoratum fpica oblonga, ovata, laxa. 
ANTHOXANTHUM odoratum fpica oblonga, ovata, flofculis fubpedunculatis arifta longioribus, Linnai Syjl, 

Vegetal, p. 67, _ Fl. Suecic. No. 33. 
AVENA diantha, folliculo villofo, calycis glumis inaequalibus, altera de imo dorfo, altera de fummb 

ariftata. Haller. hifi. heh. No. 1491. 
ANTHOXANTHUM odoratum Scopoli Fl. Carniol. No. 38. Hud/on FL Angl. p. ro. Stillingfieet mijeel 

t. 1. Schreber Gram, tab, 5. p, 40. 
GRAMEN pratenfe fpica flavefcente. Bauhin. Pin. 3. 
GRAMEN vernum fpica brevi laxa, Raii Syn. 389. Scheuch. hifi. 88. 

RADIX perennis, fibrofa. 

CULMT primum obliqui, demum erecti, dodrantales aut 

FOLIA inter digitos attrita odorem Afperulae odoratae 

fpargunt, plerumque pubefcentia, fepe leniter 

tortuofa, membrana ad bafin inftructa, Vagina 

ftriata, lasvis. 
SPICyE oblongo-ovatae, laxae. 
CALY3£ ; Gluma bivalvis, Valvulis inaequalibus, infe- 

riore dimido breviore, membranacea, acuta, 

fuperiore acuminata, nervis tribus viridibus ex- 

tantibus, jig. 3, 2. 
COROLLA : Gluma bivalvis, valvular fubaequales, mem- 

branaceas, piloja ariftatae, fufcae ; altera Arifta 

quae demum geniculate fit, prope bafin exlurgit, 

altera prope apicem, jig. 4. 

NECTARIUM s Glumul^e duae, pellucidae, nitidae, | 
ovatae, inaequales, germen includentes, jig. 5, 6. $ 


STAMINA: Filamenta duo praelonga ; Antherje | 
oblongae, purpurea, utrinque furcatae, jig. 5. % 

PISTILLUM : Germen minimum oblongo-ovatum ; % 
Styli duo filiformes glumi longiores, verfus a- | 
picem plumulofae, jig. 7. % 


SEMEN unicum, Neftario fufco, nitidp, inclufum,j^g- .8. | 

ROOT perennial and fibrous. 

STALKS at firft growing obliquely, finally becoming up-! 
right, ufually from 8 to 12 inches high. 

LEAVES, if rubbed betwixt the fingers, fmelling like 
Woodroff, generally pubefcent and often curled, 
fumifhed with a membrane at bottom ; the 
Sheath ftriated and fmooth. 

SPIKES of an oblong oval fhape and fmooth. 

CALYX : a Glume of two Valves, the Valves unequal, 
the lowermoft fhorter by one half, membranous 
and acute ; the uppermoft acuminated, with 
three ftrong nerves or ribs, fig. 3, 2. 

COROLLA : a Glume of two Valves, the Valves near- 
ly equal, membranous, hairy, of a brown colour, 
and furnifhed with Ariftae, one of the Ariftae, 
which finally becomes bent, fprings from the 
bafe of the Valve, the other almoft at the top, 

fig- 4- 
NECTARIUM : two fmall, pellucid, mining, oval, nn, 
equal Glumes or Valves inclojing the Qermen, 

fig- 5> 6 - 
STAMINA: two Filaments very long; Antherje 

long, purple, forked at each end, fig. 5. 
PISTILLUM : Germen very fmall, of an oblong oval 

fhape ; Styles two, jlender, longer than the 

valves, and towards the top a little feathered, 

fig' 7; 
SEED fingle, inclofed within its brown, mining Ne&a- 

x'mm, fig. 8, 

THE Anthoxanthum is diftinguifhed from the other GrafTes by a very fingular circumftance, viz. that of having only 
two Stamina, jig. 1. hence it is placed by Linn^us among the Diandrous plants, and feparated from all the other 
Grafles ; this peculiarity, although it occafions a feparation which does violence as it were to J^ature, yet it ferves in 
a very ftriking manner to difcriminate this Genus from a numerous and difficult tribe of plants : exclufive of this Angu- 
larity, it differs alfo very eflentially in the other parts of its fructification ; each of the Spicula3 contains in common 
with many other graffes, only one flower,^. 1 : one of the Gluma Calycina, or valves of the Calyx, is fmall and: 
membranous, fig. -\ ; the other is large, and jnclofes, or wraps up in it, as it were, the whole of the fructification, 
fig. 2 ; thefe glumes, fo far as I have obferved, do not open and expand themfelves in the manner obfervable in the 
Avena's, and many other graffes, were they feparate quite wide, and expofe their little feathery Styles ; but the Stamina 
and Piftilla appear to pum themfelves out, the glumes remaining clofed, fig. I, The Gluma Corollacea are very dif- 
fimilar to thofe of moft other graffes, being remarkably hairy, and having each of them an Arifta, the longeft of which 
fprings from near the bafe of the glume, is at firft ftraight, but as the feed becomes ripe, the top of it is generally bent 
horizontally inward ; the other Arifta arifes from near the top of the oppofite Glume or Valve, fig, 4. The Glu- 
mula NeSlarii or little Glumes of the Neclarium, differ no lefs in their ftructure, being compofed of two little oval 
mining Valves, one of which is fmaller than the other ; thefe clofely embrace the Germen, and cannot be feen but with 
great difficulty, unlefs they are obferved juft at the time that the Antherae are protruding from betwixt them, when 
they are very diftinct, fig. 6 ; as foon as the Antherae are excluded, they again clofe on the Germen, and continue to 
form a coat tq the feed which does not feparate. jig. 5, 8, 

The Farmer, or thofe who have not been accuftomed to examine plants minutely, may readily diftinguifh this grafs 
by its fmell ; if the leaves, are rubbed betwixt the fingers, they impart a grateful odour like that of Woodruff, — hence 
I have called it fweet-fcented. 

Like the "Trijolium repens or Dutch Clover, and many others of our moft ufeful plants, this Grafs grows on almoft 
every kind of foil, from the poo reft and drieft, to the moft fertile and boggy ; it feems however in general to prefer a 
foil that is moderately dry. It is fubject., like all other plants, to vary in its fize, according to the goodnefs of the 
ground it grows in : the leaves have a particular tendency to be curled if the foil he rich ; and when it grows in woods, 
the fpikes are often much fienderer and loofer. 

It has been called by fome Authors Vernal or Spring Grafs, from its coming into ear earlier than moft others ; towards the 
middle of May it is in full bloom, and about the middle of June the feed is ripe — and may be eafily feparated on rub- 

There is great reafon to believe, that this is one of our Graffes which might be cultivated with confiderable advan- 
tage : in the meadows about town it grows to a confiderable height, and forms a thick tuft of leaves at bottom ; but 
the circumftance moft in its favour, is its early appearance in the Spring : this feems to point it out as a proper grafs 
to fow with others in laying down meadow land, and probably the Poa trivialis or common Meadow Grafs, with the 
Fefiuca elatior or Meadow Fejcue joined to it, would form a mixture, the produce of which, would for this purpoie, 
be fuperior to that of moft others. 

t s 

.1 t f 

V <$•» ^d) 79 


AIRA Linnai Gen. PL Triandria Digynia. 

CaL 2 valvis, 2 florus. Flo/cull abfque interjedo rudimento» 
Rati Syn. Gen. 27. Herb.e graminifolije fXore imperfecto culmiferje. 

AIRx\ aquatlca panicula patente, floribus muticis lsevibus calyce longioribus, foliis planis. Lfonai Svfl. 
Vegeiab. p. 96. Fl. Sueclc. No. 68. 

POA locuftis bifloris ; glabris, florali gluma majori plicata, ferrata. Haller hlft. No. 1471» 

AlRA aquatlca Scopoti Fl. CarnioL 94. Hudfon FI. Angl. 29. 

AIRA culmo inferiore repente, flofculis muticis calyce longioribus, altero pedunculate Roy. lugdb. 6o* 

GRAMEN caninum fupinum paniculatum dulce. Bauhin Pin. 2. 

GRAMEN miliaceum aquaticum. Rati Syn. 402. Scheuz. agr. 218, 

GRAMEN miliaceum fluitans fuavis faporis. Merret. Pin. 

RADIX perennis, . % ROOT perennial. 

CULMUS bafi repit, furculofque emittit more Feltucze I STALK creeps at bottom > and fends out young moots 

fluitautis qui longe excurrunt et ad geniculos ■% like the Flote Fefcue grafs, which run out to 

radiculas plures albas dimittunt ; culmusdemum | a confiderable diftance, and fend down fmall 

erigitur, pedalis circiter, teres, ereclus, fiftulo- | white roots at the joints ; it then becomes erect, 

fus, tener. % grows to about a foot in height, is round, hol- 

I low, and tender. 

FOLIA la tiufcula, tenera, laevia, carinata, vaginae ftria- % LEAVES broadiih, tender, fmooth, carinated, the 

tae, ad bafin rubrae praecipue in furculis. fheaths Itriated, red at bottom, particularly 

* in the young moots, 

PANICULA ere&a, diffufa, laxa, racemi plures ex % PANICLE upright, fpreading, loofe ; branches feve- 

lino punclo, fepe flexuoli. I ral, proceeding from one point, frequently 

■% crooked. 

SPICULE plerumque biflores, flofculo uno feffili, alte- | SPICULE generally contain two flowers, one of which 

ropedunculato,purpurei, apicibus albidis,^. 1. | is ieffile, and the other ftands on a foot-ftalk, 

% purple, the tips white, fig. .1. 

CALYX: Gluma bivalvis, valvulis inaequalibus, pur- I CALYX: a Glume of two valvess the valves unequal, 

pureis, lsevibus, Corolla multo brevioribus,^-. 2. $ purple, fmooth, and much fhorter than' the 

I Corolh, fig. 2 

COROLLA : Gluma bivalvis, valvulis aequalibus, fub- J COROLLA : a Glume of two valves, the valves equal, 

* truncatis, plicatis five angulatis, fig. 3. as if cut ofFat top, folded or angular, fig. 3. 

STAMINA: Filamenta tria capillaria, longitudine I STAMINA: three capillary Filaments the length of 

Corollas; Anthers flavas, fig. 3. . $ the Corolla ; An therje yellow, fig. 3. 

PISTILLUM : Germen ovatum; Styli duo plumofi, | PISTILLUM : Germen oval; Styles two and fea- 

fig. 4- J thery, fig. 4. 

NECTARIUM _ Glumul^ duae minima? ad bafin ¥ NECTARY two very minute Glumes at the bottom of 

Germinis, fig. 5. | the Germen, fig. 5. 

SEMEN ovatum, intra Glumas arete claufum, fig. 7. | SEED oval, clofely contained within the Glumes, j%-. 7, 

The far-- foil and fituation which produces the Fejluca fiultans, is produaive alfo of this grafs ; they both grow- 
in gently flowing ftreams, or in wet boggy meadows ; this circumftance may ferve among others to diftbguifh the 
Aira aquatlca fromfomeof the Poas, with which at firft fight the young botanift might "eafily confound it: it has 
however befides this, many other charaders which point it out more obvioufly. The bottom of the ftalk ufually 
creepson the ground, and when it gets into the water, it runs out like the Fejluca fiultans to a confiderable diftance, 
throwing off roots and young fhoots as it pafles along, very much in the manner of that grafs : the ftalk grows about 
a foot or more in height, is hollow, and remarkably tender ; the leaves are broader than any of the Poo's, ex- 
cept the Poa aquatlca, which is in every refpea a much ftronger plant: but what more efpecially characterizes this 
grafs, is the purple or blueiih colour of the Panicles, which is difcernible even at a diftance; and the fweet tafte of 
the flowers if drawn through the mouth, whence this grafs has acquired the name of dulce. Its parts of fruaifkation 
likewife above defcribed, diftinguifh it very ftrongly : when dried and placed between papers, the flowers and feeds 
are very apt to fall off. 

It flowers in June and July, and may be found almoft every where in the fituations above-mentioned. 

With refpea to its ufes in rural oeconomy, it is in every' refpea inferior to the Flote fieficue grafs, confequently 
not worth cultivating for the ufe of cattle. y 

In a country like ours, where cultivation has made a confiderable progrefs, the water plants are confined to a finall 
fpace compared to what they occupied in a ftate of nature ; the draining of bogs and lakes has rendered many large 
traas in feveral parts of the kingdom, capable of producing corn and grafs adapted to the ufe of cattle, which were 
formerly inacceffible to man orbeaft. We ought not however to look on this or any other plant as made in vain, bc~ 
caufe we do not immediately fee the ufes they are applied to : feveral forts of water-fowl which abound in uninhabited 
countries, are expert gatherers of the feeds of the aquatic grafes ; and no lefs than five different fpecies of Mufci cr 
Flies, were produced from a few handfuls of the feeds of this grafs, which when I gathered it, were doubtlefs in their 
Pupa or Chryfalis Hate ; How little do we know of natures produa.ions ! 

Poa annua. Common dwarf Poa 

POA LirniaiGen. Plant. Triandria Digynia. 

Rail Synop. Gen. 27. Herb/e graminifolije flore imperfecto culMiferje. 
POA annua, paiiicula diffufa, angulis re£tis, fpiculis obtufis, culmo obliquo compreflb, Lin, Syfi. Vegetal i 

p. 97. Spec. Plant, ed. 3. p. 99. PL Sueck. p. 228. 
POA culmo infract-O, panicula triangularx, locuftis trifloris glabns, Plaller. hijl. Vol. 2. p. 22 J. 
GRAMEN pratenfe paniculatum minus. Baahhu Pin. p. 2 

GRAMEN pratenfe minimum album et rubrum. Gerard, emac. 3, Parkin/on. 11 $6. 
GRAMEN pratenfe minus feu vulgatimmum. Rail Synop. 408. Hudfon. Fl. Angl. p. 34. Scopoll. PL 
Carnlol. 71. Stillingfleet. tab. 7 

RADIX annua, fibrofiflima. | 

CULMI plures, cefpitofi, femiprocumbentes, in pratis * 

vero inter alias plantas crefcentes, fuberecti, £ 

paululum infracti, femipedales. 

VAGINAE compreflae, ancipites, laeves. i 

FOLIA plurima, brevia, carinata, glabra, faspe tranf- 1 

verfim rugofa, margine minuthTime aculeata. * 

flg.S- _ < I 

PANICULA triangularis, fubcompreffa, flores fubfe- | 

cundi. I 

PEDUNCULI unherfales ad bafin paniculas plerumque 1 

bint, altero breviore, in medio frequenter term, % 

apice vero folitarii ; anguli nunc recti, nunc | 

obliqui. * 

SPICULE ovato-acutae, compreflae, utrinque acutae | 

triflorae, quadriflorae. fig. 2. y 

CALYX : Glum a bivalvis, valvulis concavis, inaequa- i 

libus. fig. 1. I 

COROLLA bivalvis, valvulis villofis, margine mem- £ 

branaceis, albidis, una majore, concava, obtufi- | 

ufcula; altera minore, anguftiore. fig. 3. $ 

STAMINA : Filamenta tria capillaria ; Anthers y 

flavefcentes, bifurcatae. fig. 4. & 

PISTILLUM . Germen ovatum, Styli duo ramoliffi- I 

mi, pellucidi. fig. 5. 1 

SEMEN ovatum, corolla adnafcente te&um, ad bafin * 

villofulum. fig. 7. I 

ROOT annual and very fibrous. 

STALKS numerous, forming a turf, femiprocumbent, 
but in meadows when growing among other 
plants, nearly upright, a little crooked, and 
about half a foot high. 

SHEATHS flat, two edged, and fmooth. 

LEAVES very numerous, ihort, keel-fhaped, fmooth, 
frequently wrinkled tranfverfely, the edge very 
finely ferrated. fig. 8. 

PANICLE of a triangular lhape and flattifh, the flowers 
growing moftly to one fide. 

PEDUNCLES : the univerfal peduncles generally pro- 
ceed from the bottom of the panicle in pairs, 
one of which is fhorter than the other, from 
the middle often by threes, and at top Jingly ; form- 
ing angles fometimesflraight, fometimes oblique. 

SPICULtE oval and pointed, flatiin and fharp on both 
fides, containing three and four flowers, fig. 2. 

CALYX : a Glume of two valves, the valves hollow 
and unequal, fig. 1. 

COROLLA of two valves, the valves villous, membra- 
nous and whitifh at the edges, the,one larger, 
hollow and bluntifh, the other fmaller and 
narrower, fig. 3. 

STAMINA : the Filaments very minute, the Anthe- 
rs yellowifh and forked, fig. 4. 

PISTILLUM : the Germen oval, two Styles exceed- 
ingly ramified and pellucid, fig. 5. 

SEED oval, covered by the Corolla which adheres to it, 
at bottom {lightly villous, fig. 7. 

THE laudable Society eftablifhed in London for the encouragement of Manufactures, Arts, and Commerce, 
fenfible of the improvements which might be made in Agriculture, from a more general introduction of the moft ufeful 
Englifh Grajfes, have offered Premiums to fuch as mall give the bell: account of their cultivation, and the Poa Annua 
above defcribed, is one of thofe they have feledled, from its appearing to them to be one of the moft ufeful. 

Mr. Stillingfleet obferves that it makes the fineft turf, that he has feen in high Suffolk whole fields of it, without 
any mixture of other Graffes, and that as fome of the beft fait Butter we have in London comes from that County, 
he apprehends it to be the beft Grafs for the Dairy ; from obferving likewife, that this Grafs flourimed much more 
from being trodden on, he concludes that frequent rolling muft be very ferviceable to it: 

There is no Grafs better entitled to Ray's epithet of VulgatiJJimum than this, as it occurs almoft every where, in 
Meadows, Gardens, at the fides of Paths, and on Walls : when it grows in a very dry fituation, it frequently doth 
not exceed three inches, but in rich, meadows it often grows more than a foot in height. The panicle is frequently 
green, but in open fields it acquires a reddifh tinge ; it flowers all the Summer long, and even in Winter if the weather 
be mild. 

It appears to be the firff. general covering which Nature has provided for a fruitful foil when it has been difturbed ; for 
which reafon, in Walks, Pavements, or Pitching, it may be confidered as one of the moft troublefome of Weeds ; 
the moft expeditious method of deftroying it, would probably be by pouring boiling water on it. 

All the Authors that have defcribed this Grafs call it an annual, it differs however very confiderably from the other 
annual Graffes, they throw up their Spikes or Panicles, produce their flowers and feeds, and then die away ; this on the 
contrary keeps continually throwing out new moots, and producing new flowers, and feeds, and if the ground be moift, 
a Angle plant will remain growing in this manner throughout the year, fo that we generally find on the fame plant, 
young fhoots and ripe feeds. 

" Hie ver ajjiduum at que alienis menfibus afias." 

Perhaps this is the only vegetable we have that in this Circumftance imitates the Tropical plants. 

Although its feed may be gathered the whole fummer long, yet about the latter end of May, it will be found 
in the greateft plenty : Experience muft determine the beft method, in which this Grafs mould be cultivated, 
whether by fowing its feed, or dividing and tranfplanting the Grafs itfelf; as this feed would with more difficulty 
be procured in large quantities than that of many others, and as a fingle tuft of this Grafs may be divided into a vaft 
number of young plants, probably tranfplanting it in wet weather would be the moft eligible mode of cultivation. 

Thefe obfervations are fubmitted to the confideration of the Farmer and Gentlemen of landed property, who refide 
In the Country, and who have both leifure and opportunity to try experiments of this kind. Although the Authors 
province more particularly is to defcribe and figure thefe plants in fuch a manner as to make them as obvious as poffible, 
yet he would be exceedingly happy to communicate to the public, any improvements which may be made in this or 
any other branch of Agriculture, that he may be favoured with. 

. iJ&m&» ■ mm 

Festuca fluitans. Flote Fescue Grass. 

FESTUCA Linnm Gen. PL Triandria Digynia: 

Rail Gen. 27. Herb^e Graminifolije plore imperfecto culmiferje. 
FESTUCA panicula ramofa ere&a, fpiculis fubfeflilibus, teretibus muticis. Unnal Syfi. Vegetal, p. 102. 

FL Sueclc. p. 32. 
POA locuftis teretibus multifloris, glumis floralibus exterioribus truncatis, interioribus bifidis. Halkr. bjft. f. 

219. n. 1453. v ' 2 ' 
POA fluitans. Scopoli FL CarnloL p. 73. 
GRAM EN aquaticum fluitans, multipliei fpica. Bauhln Pin. 2. 

GRAMEN aquaticum cum longinrma panicula. i". Bauhin. II. 490. Rail Syn. p. 412. Flote-Grafs, 
GRAMEN fluviatile. Gerard emac, 14. Parklnfion. 1 275. Hud/on. FL Angl. p. 38. Oeder. FL Dan. U 237. 
Schreher. Gram. tab. 3. Stilling feet. ml/, tab. 10. 

RADIX perennis, in limum profunde penetrans. | ROOT perennial, ftriking deep into the . rnud. 

CULMUS pro ratione loci pedalis ad tripedalem, ball ^ STALK according to its place of growth from one to 

repens furculofque promens, dein fubere&us, i three feet in length, creeping at bottom and 

vaginis foliorum ad paniculam ufque ami&us. f fending forth young moots, afterwards nearly 

X upright; covered with the fheaths of the leaves 

I as far as the panicle. 

VAGINAE foliorum compreflae, fubancipites, ftriatae. ^ SHEATHS of the leaves, flattened, two edged,, anefc 

t ftriated. 

FOLIA latiufcula, kevia ; fureulorum eredt.a, carinata, | LEAVES rather broad and fmooth, thofe of the young 

breviufcula, caullna longiora, planiufcula, flac- $ fhoots upright, keel-fhaped, and lhortifh ; thofe 

cida, aquis tempore hyberno proftrata. | of the ftalk- longer, flattifh, weak, and hanging 

I down, in the winter feafon lying flat on the 


PANICULA longa, inclinata, nonnunquam fubfpicata i PANICLE long, generally inclined or bending down a 
fepius vero ramofa, ramis nunc cauli adpreffis. % little, lometimes forming a kind of fpike, but 

nunc diftantibus, Ut pinxit CI : Schreberus- | moft commonly branched ; the branches fome- 

I times prefled to the ftalk", fometimes diverging 

. I from itin the manner reprefented by Schreber. 

SPICULE tenues, teretes, unciales aut fefquicunciales | SPICULE flender, round, an inch or an inch and a 

9 ad 12 floras, rachi adpreflse. | half long, producing from 9 to 12 flowers.,, 

I preffed to the Stalk. 

CALYX : Gluma bivalvis, valvulis maequalibus, mem- | CALYX : a Glume of two valves, which are unequal 

branaceis. fig. 2. f and membranous, fig. 2. 

COROLLA bivalvis, valvulae longitudine aequales, ca- | COROLLA of two valves, which are of an equal length 
lyce majores, inferlore majore, concava, lineata, £ and bigger than the Calyx, the lower valve 

nervis apice fepe coloratis, apice membranacea, | largeft, concave and nervous, the nerves to- 

obtufiufcula, faepius erofa ; fiuperlarl lanceolata, | wards the top frequently coloured, at top mem- 

comprefla, bicufpidata. fig. 3. 4. £ branous, rather blunt with uneven points, the 

I upper valve more pointed, flat and bifid, fig. 3. 4. 

STAMINA: Filamenta tria capillaria, Anthers ^ STAMINA : three Filaments very flender, Anthers 

flavae aut purpuraicentes, oblongae, fig. 5. t oblong and yellow or purpiifh. fig. 5. 

PISTILLUM: Germen ovatum, Styli duo fubulati, | PISTILLUM ; Germen oval, Styles two, tapering and 
reflexi, Stigmata ramofiflima» fig. 7. 6. 8. £ bending back, Stigmata very much branch- 

^ ed. fio-. 7. 6. 8-. 

NECTARIUM Glandula fquamiformis, cordata, hori- f NECTARY a fmall heart-fhaped fquamiform gland, 
zontalis, ad bafm germinis. fig. 9. | placed horizontally at the bottom of the 

'% Germen. fig. 9. 

SEMEN oblongum, mtidum ohvaceum, bicornicula- t SEED blong, Ihining, of an olive colour, with two 

turn, nudum, fig. 10. n. | little horns, and naked, fig. 10. 11. 

FIG 12 Spicula morbo Ergot affecta. * Y1G 12 a Spicula arfeded with the difeafe called Ergot. 

IN fpeaking of the Bronws mollis, we had occafion to remark the very great variety of appearance to which the 
Grafles were fubject. from foil and fituation, and this obfervation is equally applicable to the Fefiuca fluitans. 

This Grafs appears to thrive beft in ftill waters, or gently running ftreams, where its numerous fibres penetrate 
eafily into the mud ; in fuch fituations it becomes very luxuriant, the leaves are large, tender and fweet, and the 
Panicle becomes very much branched; but in Meadows where it is deprived of its natural quantity of water, 
it becomes in every refpect. lefs, and the Panicle is frequently changed to a fimple fpike ; when it has nearly 
done flowering, the branches of the Panicle generally project from the main ftalk fo as to form an acute angle. 
In every fituation whether the Panicle be large, or fmall, the Spiculae are always prefled clofe to the ftalk or bran- 
ches of the Panicle, and this circumftance joined to the length, and roundnefs of the Spiculae, fufficiently cha- 
racterize this fpecies ; if- it fhould not however, its parts of fructification afford at once a moft p leafing and, 
fatisfaclory diftinction, vld. fig. 6. 9. 10. 


^^^e^ff^il^^flfe'fe^M^^^^^^^ ftft ®?Sfi loon after 'being gathered, expand its Glumes 
und expole its delicate yellow Stamina, unci ffill more 'delicate PifB'la, and in this expanded ft ate each Spicuh puts 
on a very different face, and feems to invite the Student to its inveftigation, and would he \vifh to become acquainted 

with the ftru&ure of this ufeful tribe of plants, he cannot feleft one more proper for his purpoie, as it may 
found inairablt every watery ditch, flowering from the beginning to Vh'e end of Summer, tind has all the parts 
fructification which are peculiar to the Grants, large enough to 'be diftihaiy dilce'riied eVen by the naked E 

and lb expofed as to be vifible without the trouble of difieclion. 


parts of 
the naked Eye, 

hcra in a much clearer point of view than has yet been done by any au'th6r. 

Profeffor Order i'h his Flora DanicA, andtlie celebrated Schrerer in his Agrostogr AphiA, have/both given 
a figure of this grafs. As we have not feen it growing either in Denmark or Germany we cannot lay that their figures 
dp not exnrefs fts particular mode of growth in " 1 
growing here ; ( in both their figures the Panicle 
inclined ; this however is a matter of no great m 
parts of the fructification is a matter of much greater confluence, and we are lorry to find that Mr. :k:-[ii^i;ER whole 
knowledge and accuracy can fieldom he called in queftion, has not been fiulliciently Attentive to all the parts which 
characterize this fpecies. He has reprefented the Styles as branched or feathered quite down to the Germen, whereas 
they are evidently naked at bottom and ihuc'h branched at top only ; the lingular Squnmula or Scale at the bale of the Ger- 
-men.he has properly noticed,, but the two little Horns at the top of the feed, which are tjhe remains of the Styles, and 
which in a peculiar" manner diftinguilh this important feed, he does not remark. In the 'Flora Danica the Styles are 
likewife feathered down to the Germen and the Squamula at the ba'fe of the Germen wholly omitted. 

This Grafs is found to he of cohiiderable importance in the ceconomy of Nature. 

ticular manner of finding it we lhall give under that grais. 

From the observations of late writers, it appears that fevefM loft's of Cattle are remarkably fond of this grafs, 
particularly Kine and Hogs, and that in the fpring time they are frequently enticed into bogs by endeavouring to get at 
its fweet young moots, which appear earlier than thofe of moit other Grarfes. 

iey ate it feemingly with as much appe 
" wet •arid fwampy places might be rendered ufeful, and a great deal of corn, &c. laved". 

He who Introduced the method of feeding hogs in fummer time on Glover, deferred very well of his country ; and 
if the hay of this grafs would keep them in heart during the winter, it might prove a very valuable difcovery. 


forms \ 

preffure bring the alimal meadow-grafs, fo flooding immediately begets the jlote jefcue. Thefe after tions of Mr. Kent 
befpeak neither the Phiiofopher nor the accurately fractal Farmer, they contain an exaggerated account ofimproying 
p ailute land by a particular procefs, but mow a great want of that minute attention which fb important a fubje£t required. 

From a long refidence in Hampfhire, we well know that the meadows in that county are confiderably improved by 
flooding them, that is flopping the water when there happens to be an unufual quantity from violent or long continu- 
ed rallYs, and by means of trenches or gripes, conveying the furplus water fo as to overflow them entirely if pofli- 
ble ; but we deny, that by this procefs all weeds are deftroyed, the life of manure fuperfeded, or that fate f e feu e graft 
is immediately begotten. Although it is a conftant practice with the farmers to flood their meadows in the winter, it 
is ho leis I conftant practice with fuch as wifh to have good crops of grafs to manure them with dung or allies 
Flooding can no otherwife deftroy weeds than by altering the foil in which they grow, and if it deflroys one fet of 
weeds, it muff certainly favour the growth of another : if thofe. plants which throve befit in a dry fituation are deftroyed 
by the alteration which now takes place in the foil, thofe which are fond of a moift fituation will proportionably flou- 
rilh If the jlote fejeue graft was immediately produced by flooding, we mould find all thofe meadows which have 
undergone this operation to contain nothing but this kind of grafs, whereas the richeft and bell meadows in Hampfhire 
contain fcarce a fmgle blade of it : the fact is, this grafs will not nonrifh |fi meadow land, unlefs you convert it into a 
kind of. Hog or fwamp^ and I believe few landed Gentlemen will think this an improvement, or thank Mr. Kent for 
giving them fuch a hint. 

"Mr. Stillingfleet informs us that Mr. Deane a very fenfible Farmer at Rufcomb, in Berkfhire, a'fiu red him, that 
" a field always lying under water of about Four acres, that was occupied by his father when he was a boy, was covered 
" with a kind of grafs that maintained five farm-horfes in good heart from April to the end of harveft without giving 
" them any other food, and that it yielded more than they could eat. He at my deiire brought me fome of the 
** grafs, which proved to bethejte jefcue with a mixture ofmarjh bent; whether this laft contributes much towards 
*' furhifhing fo good pafture for horfes I cannot lay, they both throw out roots at the joints of the flalks and therefore 
"likely to grow to a great length. In the index of dubious plants at the "end of Ray's S/nopfts, there is mention 
" made of a grafs under the name oi Gr amen cam num [upinum longijfimum growing not far from Saljbury twenty-four feet 
*' long ; this muff by its length be a grafs with a creeping ftalk : and that there is a grafs in Wiltlhire, growing in 
" watery meadows, fo valuable that an acre of it lets from ten to twelve pounds, I have been informed by feveral 
" perfons. Thefe circumflances incline me to think it mull be the fete fejeue ■; but whatfoever grafs it be it certain- 
" ly muff deferve to be enquired after". 

It may not be improper to add, that the account of the extraordinary long grafs above mentioned, was taken by 
Ray from the Phytographia Briiannica, which mentions the particular foot where it grew, viz. at Mr. Tucker's, at 
Maddington, nine miles from Salilbury ; it is alio remarked that they fat Hogs with it. 

As it is now above a century fince this enquiry was firft made, is it not furprizing that no fucceeding Botanic Wri- 
ter mould have acquired fatisfaclory information concerning it ? I am promifed ipecimen's of the roots and feeds. 


Upon the whole, from the obfervations which we ourfelves have made on this Grafs and from what is to be collected 
from Authors, it appears that if it be cultivated to any advantage it muft be in fuch meadows as are naturally 
very wet and never drained. . 

, The quickeft and perhaps the- beft method of propagating it would be by tranfplariting the roots at a proper 
featon, and if the foil prove fuitable,. from the quicknefs of its growth, and its creeping Stalk, it would foon exclude 
'moll other plants, and produce a plentiful crop. 

In foreign countries the feed of this Grafs feems to be an object of more, importance than the grafs itfelf, the 
following is the fubftance of what Mr. SchreIber has faid concerning it, (vid. Befchreibung der Grafer p. 40.) 
•" The feed has a fweet and pleafant tafte particularly before it comes to its full gfowth, whence the plant has 
" acquired the name of ffldnna U'rajs, Ducks and other water-fowl feed on it with much eagernefs (Linnteus has 
" remarked that the Water-fowl are very well acquainted with the method of collecting thefe feeds) it has been 
" obferved likewife that Fifli are fond of it, and that Trout in particular thrive in thofe rivers where this grafs grows 
" in plenty and fheds its feeds ; but it is not only for Birds and Fifli but alfo for Man a palatable and nutritious 
" food, and has for many years pail; been known at Gentlemens tables under the name of Manna-Grout. 

" The Manna Grafs is of two kinds the one Panlcum Jangu'inale or Cocks-foot Panic-Grafs the other Fe/lucajlultans 
" which we have now defcribed ; the former is cultivated in feveral parts of Germany, and its feed iomewhat refem- 
" bles that of Millet, the latter is collected in great' abundance from the plant as it grows wild in Poland, Lithuania, 
" the new Marche and about Franckfort and other places in Slkjla as alfo in Denmark and Sweden and hence exported 
"to all parts. 

" The common method they make ufc of to gather and prepare this feed in Poland, Prujjla, and the Marche is 
" as follows. At fun rife the feed is gathered or beat from the dewy grafs into a horfe-hair fieve, and when a 
" tolerable quantity is collected, it is fpread on a fheet and dried fourteen days in the fun ; it is then thrown into 
" a kind of wooden trough or mortar, ftraw or reeds laid betwen it, and beat gently with a wooden Peftle fo as to 
" take off the chaff and then winnowed. After this it is again put into the mortar, in rows, with dried Marygold- 
" flowers, Apple, and Hazel leaves, and pounded until the Hulk is entirely feparated and the feed appears bright, 
" it is then winnowed again, and when it is by this laft procefs made perfectly clean it is fit. for ufe. The Mary- 
" golds are added, with a view to give the feeds a finer colour. The moft proper time for collecting them is in July. 
*\ A Bufliel of the feed and chaff, yields about two quarts of clean feed. 

" When boiled with milk or wine they form an extremely palatable food, and are moft commonly made •ufe of 
" whole, in the manner of Sago to which they are in general preferred. 

In the month of October laft, I difcovered in a watery ditch, which runs through a meadow not far from Kent- 
Street Road an uncommon appearance in fome of the feeds of this grafs, and on a farther examination, I found 
whole Panicles the feeds of which were affected in a fimilar manner, inftead of being of their natural lize, and colour, 
they were enlarged to a very great degree, affumed externally a blackifti colour, and were more or lefs incurvated. 
Struck with the novelty as well as oddity of the appearance I conjectured at firft that it was a difeafe occafioned by 
lbme Infect, I examined it more attentively, but could not find the leaft caufe to fuppofe that an Infe£t had been 
concerned in it. The furface of fome of thefe feeds was rough, and chopped, they were light as to weight, inters 
nally of a whitiih colour, infiped in their tafte but not difagreeable. Having a little before this been favoured, with 
a light of fome homed Rie it now occurred to me that this was the fame difeafe which had been faid to affect the 
Rle only, and farther enquiry confirmed my conjecture. 

As this fingular difeafe of the Rie has firft been noticed by the French, and as fome very uncommon circum-. 
frances have attended it, it cannot fail of proving acceptable to our readers to lay before them the fubftance of 
what they have laid concerning it. In the Hijlolre de V Academle royale des Sciences there is an account given of a 
particular fpecies of Gangrene or Mortification which attacked- many perfons in fome particular provinces of France. 
'• It began generally at the toes and fometimes fpread as high as the thigh. Out of fifty people there was but 
" one that was attacked with this difeafe in the hands and what was equally remarkable there were no females 
" affected with it except fome little Girls. s 

" It appears that this fingular malady attacked only the lower fort of people, and that too in years of fcarcrty, 
" that it proceeded from bad nouriihment, and principally from eating bread made of a certain black and difeafed 
" corn called Ergot, from the grains affuming fomewhat of the form of a Cocks Spur. vid. fig. 12. 

" The manner in which this fingular monftrofity of the Com is produced is thus related by Monfieur Fagon, 

" There are certain mifts which prove injurious to the corn, and from which the greateft part of the Ears of the 
" Rie defend themfelves by their beards. In thofe however which this hurtful humidity can ftrike and penetrate, 
" it rots the fkin which covers the grain, blackens it, and alters the fubftance of the grain itfelf, the juices which 
" form the feed being no longer kept within their ordinary bounds by the Ikin, are carried hither in two great an 
u abundance and amaffing themfelves irregularly form this monftrous appearance. 

■" He obferves that it is only in Rle that the Ergot is to be found, that the poor people do not feparate this grain 
" from that which is good, that it was only in fuch particular feafons as favoured the growth of the Ergot that 
u this difeafe was prevalent, that the country people after eating bread made of this bad corn perceived themfelves 
"as if drunk, and after this the mortification generally took place, that ill fome provinces were there was but little 
" of this Ergot this fpecies of difeafe was not known, 

" From the obfervations made by the Farmers of that country it appears that this bad fpecies of grain is pro- 
" duced in the greateft abundance in fuch land as is wet and cold, and particularly in rainy feafons. The Poultry 
" refufed it when given them, neverthelefs if by accident they had eaten, it they did not appear to be hurt by it. 
" When fown (as might be expected) it did not vegetate. " 

A kind of mortification very fimilar to the above defcribed was obferved in this Kingdom fome years ago ; it 
affeded the fame kind of people and on enquiry it was found that they had fired very hard, and that the bread 
which they had eaten was made of tjie tailings or fcreenings of Corn, but it was not afcertained whether it contained 
any of the Ergot or not. 

From the infipid tafte of this corn, as well as from its not proving fatal Jo Poultry, it feems exceedingly probable 
that it is not in itfelf noxious, any otherwife than as it affords no nouriihment ; and that thofe people who have- 
eaten of this corn, have in fad been abridged of a proportionate quantity of food, hence from an impoverifhed 
ftate of the fluids and a weak adion of the vefiels this fpecies of Mortification might eafily be induced. 


BROMUS Zinna>iGen. PL Triandria Digynia. 

Rail Syn. Gen. 27. Herb^i Graminifolije flore imperfect© Gulmifer^:. 
BROMUS mollis panicula ere£tiufcula, fpiculis ovatis pubefcentibus, arifUs recYis, foliis molliffime villofis» 

Linnai Syjl. Vegetal, p. 102. Sp. PL p. 112. 
BllOMUS hirfutus, locuftis feptifloris, ovato conicis. Haller h'tft. p. 1504, 
BROMUS Polymorphus. Scopoli FL Carniol. p. 80. 

FESTUCA avenacea hirfuta, paniculis minus fparfis. Rati Sy nop. p. 413 Hudfon FL Angl. p. 39. n. 1. 
Secalinus. Schreber. Gram, pi. 6. jig* 1. 

RADIX biennis * 

CULMUS pedalis ad tripedalem, ere£his ; GENICULI 
tumidi, cylrndracei. 

FOLIA cum vaginis pilis mollibus veftita» 

PANICULA ere&Iufcula, nunc coarctatatiUnc diffufa. 

SPICULE ovato- acuta, turgidse, fubcomprerlae, ple- 
rumque villofe, octofloragy circa oras glumarum 
albidae. Jig. 1 . 

CALYX 1 Gluma bivaivis, -valvulis inasqualibus, muti- 
cis.flg. 2. 

COROLLA: Gluma bivaivis, valvula exteriore lata, | 
concava, ftriata, ariftata, Jig. 4. interiore plani- | 
ufcula, ciliata, lanceolata. Jig. 3. Arista val- | 
vulis paulo longior, fubrecta, Jig. 4. I 

NECTARIUM: Glumula bipartite, ad bafin petali in- | 
terioris* fig. 5, parum auct : 

STAMINA : Filameinta tria capillaria, AntHer^e \ 
primum flavae, oblongae, dein fufcae et bifurea- %■ 
tae. Jig. 7. 6. audi: : g- 

PISTILLUM: GERMENovatum,apioefubemarginatum, I 
fig. 8. Styli duo., ad baiin ufque plumofi, ex $. 
uno latere ger minis enati. fig. o/. 

SEMEN oblongum, concavum, calyci adnatum^g*. 10. | 
denudatum^. 1 1. | 

ROOT biennial * 

STALK from one to three feet high, upright ; the 
joints fvvelled and cylindrical. 

LEAVES together with their sheaths covered with 
foft hairs. 

PANICLE nearly upright, fometimes clofe, fometimes 

SPICULiE oval and pointed, turgid, flattifh, generally 
villous, containing eight flowers, whitifh about 
the edges of the Glumes. Jig. I. 

CALYX: a Glume of two valves, the valves unequal 
without any beard, or arifta, fig. 2. 

COROLLA : a Glume of two valves, the| outermofr. 
valve broad, hollow, ftriated, and bearded, fig. 
4 ; the innermofr. flattifh, ciliated or hairy at the 
edges and pointed, fig. 3; the Arista a little 
longer than the valves and nearly ftraight, 
fig. 4. 

NECTARIUM: a fmall kind of Glume deeply divided, 
placed at the bafe of the inner petal, fig. 5. a 
little magnified. 

STAMINA: three Filaments very fmall, Anthers 
firft yellow and oblong, laftly brown and forked 
at each end, fig. 7. 6. magnified. 

PISTILLUM: Germen oval, with a flight depreffion 
at top, fig. 8. two Styles feathery quite down 
to the bottom, proceeding Jrom one fide of the 
Germen, fig. 9. 

SEED oblong, concave, adhering to the Calyx fig'. 10. 
the Calyx taken off, fig; 1 1 . 

OUR Farmers in general are not very warm in their recommendations of this Grafs, neverthelefs it abounds in 
moft of our bell: meadows ; --it fp rings up early, and ripens its feed generally about the time of Hay-making. The 
feed is large, and each panicle contains nearly as much as that of a common Oat, indeed it feems to have more pre- 
tentions to the the name of Corn than of Grafs. 

Although Cattle may not be fo fond of the leaves, and panicle of this Grafs while green as of fome others, yet may 
it not (when cut down as it ufualfy is when the feed is nearly ripe) contribute to render the hay more nutritive ? and 
hence may it not be a proper Grafs to fow with others. ? It feems at leaft. to deferve the attention of the Farmer. 

There is perhaps no clafs of plants more affected by difference of foil and fituation than the Grafles, hence the fame 
plant has often been divided into feveral fpecies ; and to fuch Varieties is the prefent Plant incident, as to occafion 
Scopoli to give it the name of Polymorphus. 

When it grows on a Wall; or dry "Bank, the Spiculae are generally more upright, and clofer together ; when the 
foil is rich and moift, the Spiculae fpread out, and the whole plant becomes much larger; in Meadows the Spiculse 
frequently lofe their villous appearance and become perfectly fmooth. To determine this fpecies then with more 
certainty, recourfe muft be had to the parts of fructification. 

* According to Linnseuo, 

tyOremiuj* Wwum 

»..<?.. . . \ 

*r& i 

Bromus Sterilis. Barren Brome Grass. 

BROMUS Llnnrcl. Gen. PL Triandria Digynia. 

Rati Gen, '27. Herb^: graminifoli^, flore imperfecto culmifer^e. 

BROMUS prills, panicula patula, fpiculis oblongis diftichis, glumis fubulato-ariftatis. Lin. Syfl, Vegetab. p. 103. 

BROMUS panicula nutante ; locuftis feptifloris ; glumis argute lanceolatis, lineatis, fubhirfutis. Haller. 
hlfl. n. 1505. 

FESTUCA avenacea fterilis elatior. Bauhln. pin. 9. 10. 

BROMOS herba, five avena fterilis. Parkin/on, 1147. Bromos fterilis. Gerard, emac. Rail Synop. p. 412. 
Great wild Oat-Grafs or Drank. Hudfon. Fl. Angl. p. 40. Scopoll. Fl. Carnlol. p. 78. 

RADIX nbroia. % ROOT fibrous. 

CULMI pedales ad bipedales, fubere&i, tcretes, lasves, | STxALKS from one to two feet high, nearly upright, 
ad bafin infra&i; Geniculi tumidi. % round and fmooth, at bottom crooked or el- 

I bowed ; the Joints fwelled. 

FOLIA longa, plana, una cum vaginis molliffime vil- | LEAVES long and flat, covered, together with their 
lofa. I fheaths with foft fhort hairs. 

PANICULA magna, nutans ; Pedunculi plerumque I PANICLE large, and drooping, the Peduncles gene- 
fimplices, ad bap tumidi. % rally iimple, and fwelled at their bafe. 

SPICULE biunciales, fubcompreflae, apice divergentes, | SPICULiE about two inches long, flattifh and diver- 
Jlg. 1 . ^ ging toward the extremity,^. 1 . 

CALYX: Gluma bivalvis, Valvulis inaequalibus lineari- t CALYX: a Glume of two Valves, the valves inequal, 
lanceolatis, Jig. 2. | long and narrow,^: 2. 

COROLLA : bivalvis, Valvulis inaequalibus, exteriore ¥ COROLLA : compofed of two Valves, which are ine- 
longiore, concava, ftriata, apice membranacea, | qual, the exterior Valve longeft, concave, ftria- 

bifida, Arista recta Corolla duplo longiore f ted, at top membranous and bifid, terminated 

terminata,j^-. 3. Valvula interiore planiufcula, t by a ftraight Arista twice the length of the 

ciliata, fig. 4. I Corolla, Jig. 3. the interior Valve nearly flat, 

% and ciliated, Jig. 4. 

NECTARIUM: Glumul;e duse acuminata, ad bafm | NECTARY : two fmall long-pointed glumes with a 
biglandulofae, fg. 6. | fmall gland at the bafe of each, fg. 6: 

STAMINA: Filamenta tria, capillaria, Anther/e % STAMINA: three fmall Filaments: the Anthers 
flavas,/^. 5. I yellow, /#. 5. 

PISTILLUM: Germen oblongum, apice truncatum five % PISTILLUM: the Germen oblong, at top flat or (lightly 
emarginatum, pars inferior ex qua ftyli pro- | emarginate, the bottom part from whence the 

deunt et quod verum Germen effe videtur, | Styles proceed, and which feems to be the true 

nitida, ^ 7. pars fuperior albida, villofa 3J /^. 8. | Germen, is fmooth and mining, fg. 7. the 

Styli duo plumoii, patuli, fg. 9. I upper part white and villous, Jig. 8. two 

f Styles, feathery and fpreading, fg. 9. 

SEMEN ex purpureo-fufcum, oblongum, ariftatum, | SEED ofapurplifh brown colour, oblong, bearded, en- 
calyce te&um, fig. 10, denudatum, fig. 11. % clofed within the Calyx, fig. 10. the Calyx 

I ftripped off, fig. 1 1 . 

Much praife is due to the late ingenious Mr. Still ingfleet for his attempts to introduce, more generally among Far- 
mers, a knowledge of our moft uieful EnglifhGrafies : his obfervations on this fubjecl: are fo exceedingly pertinent that 
the infertion of them cannot fail to prove highly acceptable to fuch as have the promotion of Agriculture at heart. 

" It is wonderfull to fee how long mankind has neglected to make a proper advantage of plants of fuch importance, 
" and which in almoit every country are the chief food of cattle. The farmer for want of diitinguilhlng, and feledting 

by making a right choice, 
; land admits of. At prefent 
grafs, what does he do ? he either takes his feeds indifcriminately from 
" his own foul hay-rick, or fends to his next neighbour for a fupply. By this means, befides a certain mixture of all 
" forts of rubbifh, which muft neceflarily happen ; if he chances to have a large proportion of good feeds, it is not 
** unlikely, but that what he intends for dry land may come from moift, where it grows naturally, and the contrary. 
" This is fuch a flovenly method of proceeding, as one would think could not poffibly prevail univerfally ; yet this 
" is the cafe as to all grafles except the darnel grafs, and what is known in fome few countries by the name of the 
" Suffolk grafs; and this latter inftance is owing, I believe, more to the foil than any care of the hufbandman. 
" Now would the firmer be at the pains of feparating once in his life half a pint, or a pint of the different kinds of 
"grafs feeds, and take care to fow them feparately; in a very little time he would have wherewithal to ffock his 
" farm properly, according to the nature of each foil, and might at the fame time fpread thefe feeds feparately over 
" the nation by fupplying the feed-fhops. The number of grafles fit for the farmer is, I believe fmall ; perhaps half 
*' a dozen, or half a fcore are all he need to cultivate; and how fmall the trouble would be of fuch a talk, and how 
" great the benefit, muff be obvious to every one at firft fight. Would not any one be looked on as wild who mould 
* c fow wheat, barley, oats, rye, peafe, beans, vetches, buck-wheat, turnips and weeds of all forts together ? yet how is it 
*' much lefs abfurd to do what is equivalent in relation to grafles ? does it not import the farmer to have good hay 
*' and grafs in plenty ? and will cattle thrive equally on all forts of food ? we know the contrary. Horfes will 
** fcarcely eat hay, that will do well enough for oxen and cows. Sheep are particularly fond of one fort of grafs, 
" and fatten upon it fafter, than on any other in Sweden, if we may give credit to Linnaeus. And may they not do 
" the fame in England ? How fhall we know till we have tried ? Nor can we fay that what is valuable in Sweden 
" may be inferior to many other grafles in England ; fmce it appears by the Flora Suecica that they have all the 
" good ones that we have. But however this may be I fhould rather chufe to make experiments, than conjectures." 

The prefent Grafs is not one of thofe which are worth the Farmer's cultivation, but fo much the reverfe, that 
moft Authors have called it fierllls, not becaufe it is really barren but from its inutility with refpecl: to Cattle. 

It grows exceeding common under hedges and flowers in May and June. 

In order to have a clear idea of the ftrutture of the parts of fructification in the Grafles, they fhould be examined 
juft at tfie^time, or rather before the Anthers have difcharged their Pollen, a fmall fpace of time makes a coniiderable 
alteration in their appearance. 

In this fpecies of Bromus as well as in the Bromus mollis the Styles proceed from the middle of the Germen and not 
from the top, this is a peculiarity which feems to have efcaped the notice of Schreber who has written profefledly on 
the Grafles, and examined them with more accuracy than any preceding Writer. In his figures the Styles proceed 
always from the Apex of the Germen, 

_ y ] ///,;s/r//<> /u/ojao. 

Dipsacus piLosus. Small wild Teasel or Shepherd's 


DIPSACUS Linnai Gen. PL Tetrandria Monogynia. 

Calyx communis polyphyllus ; proprius fuperus. Receptaculum paleaceum. 
Rati Syn. p. 191. Herb;e Corymbiferis affines. 
DIPSACUS filofus foliis petiolatis appendiculatis. Linn. Syjl. Fegetab. p. 120. Spec. Plant. 141» 
DIPSACUS foliis biauribus, capitulis hemifphaericis. Haller. hift. heh. No. 199. 
DIPSACUS fyfveftris capitulo minore vel virga paftoris minor. Bauhin Pin. p. 385. 
DIPSACUS minor feu Virga paftoris. Ger. emac. 11 68. 
' VIRGA PASTORIS. Parkin/on 984. Rait Synop. p. 192. Hudfion. Fl. Angl p. 49. 

RADIX biennis. | ROOT biennial. 


CAULIS orgyalis, ere&us, ramofiffimus, pene teres, % STALK about fix feet high, upright, very much branch* 

aculeatus, fulcatus. | eel, nearly round, prickly and grooved. 

RAMI oppofiti, patentes, cauli fimiles. | BRANCHES oppofite, fpreading, like the ftalk. 

FOLIA ad hafin Cauli s, connata, ovato-lanceolata, % LEAVES at the bottom of the Stalk connate, ovato- 

ferrata, nervo medio fubtus aculeato, indhifa, | lanceolate, ferrated, the midrib prickly under- 

fuprema appendiculata ; ramorum ; /happen- | neath, undivided, thofe at the top dividing at the 

diculata, ferrata, fuprema margin© integerrima, | bale into two fmaller leaves ; the leaves on the 

lanceolata. I branches at bottom fimilar to thofe laft delcribed, 

y at top lanceolate, with the edges entire. 


PEDUNCULI eredi, longi, ex dichotomy caulis, fulca- | FOOT-STALKS of the flowers, upright, long, pro- 

ti, aculeati, apice fpinofiffimi, uniflori. | ceeding from the middle where the ftalks fepa- 

| rate, grooved, prickly, at top very full of 

$ {lender fpines, fupporting one flower. 

FLORES albidi, in capitulum hemifphsericum colleai, | FLOWERS whitifh, collected together in a fmall hemi- 
dum florent nutantes, poftea capitula eriguntur. | fphencal head, which, while the plant is in 

I flower, droops, and afterwards becomes upright. 

CALYX : Perianthium commune multiflorum, hexa- | CALYX : the common Perianthium fupporting many 
phyllum, foliolis longitudine florum, patentibus, % flowers, compofed of fix leaves, the length of 

lanceolatis, mucronatis, fig. 1 : Perianthium | the flowers, fpreading, lanceolate and pointed, 

proprium parvum, fnperum, concavum, cilia- ^ fig. 1. The Perianthium of each fioficule fmall, 

turn, fig. 5. lente auctum. % placed above the Germen, hollow, and ciliated, 

I Jg- 5> magnified. 

COROLLA propria monopetala, tubulofa, limbo qudri- | COROLLA : each fioficule monopetalous, tubular, the 
fido, lacinia inferiore longiore, fig. 3. | limb quadrifid, the lowermoft fegment longeft, 

STAMINA: Filamenta quatuor Corolla longiora ; $ STAMINA : four Filaments, longer than the Corolla; 
Anthers purpurea, fig. 3. | \ Anthers purple, /g. 3. 

PISTILLUM: Germen inferum, tetragonum ; Stylus ¥ PISTILLUM : Germen placed below the Calyx, qua- 

filiformis, longitudine Corolla;; Stigma fim- I drangular ; the Style filiform, the length of 

plex, fig. 6* i Corolla; the Stigma fimple, fig. 6. 


PERICARPIUM nullum. | SEED-VESSEL wanting. 

SEMINA fufca, fubtetragona. fig. 4. I SEEDS brown, nearly quadrangular. 


RECEPTACULUM commune hemifphamcum, paleace- t RECEPTACLE common to all the flowers paleaceous ; 

um, pars inferior palearum concava, alba, ca- | the lower part of the paleae hollow, white, and 

rinata, fuperior lanceolata, acuminata, fpinulis f angular behind ; the upper part lanceolate, 

obfita. fig. 2, I tapering to a point, and befet with little fpines 

I or hairs., fig., z, 

THIS fpecies of 'Teafiel may be confidered as one of our Plantae rariores ; hitherto I have found it only* 
in one place near town, viz. on the right hand fide of the Turnpike-road leading from Deptford to Letvi/Jjam 3 
not far from the latter : as it grows to a confiderable height, it ia confpicuous at a diftance : the flowers 
appear in July, and the feed is ripe in September : it continues to blow for a confiderable time, and did not 
the plant take up fo much room, there is beauty enough in its flowers to recommend it for the Garden,, 

Moths feem very fond of its blofioms, being found _on them in great numbers after fun-fet, 


or Water Violet, 

HOTTONIA Lin. Gen. PL Pentandria Monogynia. 

Rail Syn. Gen. 18. HerbjE fructu sicco singulari, flore monopetalo, 

HOTTONL\ pah.i/lris, peduncuiis verticillato-multifloris. Lin. Syfi. Fegetab. 164. 

HOTTONIA florum verticiilis fpicatis. Haller. h'fi. n. 632. 

MILLEFOLIUM aquaticum feu Viola aquatica, caule nudo. Bauhin. pin. 141. Parkin/on , 1256. 

VIOLA paluftris. Gerard, emac. 826. Rail Syn. p. 285. Hudfon. PL Angl. p. 72. Scopoli FL Carniol. n. 213. 
PL Dan. icon. 487. 

RADIX e plurimis fibrillis capillaceis albis conftat, qua % ROOT confifteof numerous white capillary fibres, which 

in limum profunde dimittuntur. | penetrate deep into the mud. 

CAULIS five Scapus floriferus, pedalis, fimplex, ere&us, | STALK or flowering Scapus, a foot high, fimple, up- 

multiflorus, verfus apicem glandulis fcabriufcu- | right, fuftainihg many flowers, towards the 

lus, ad bafm foliis plurimis inftrudtus, unde per % top roughifh with little glands, furnifhed at 

aquam longe excurrunt caules plures qui fibrillas I bottom with numerous leaves, from whence 

dimittunt. $ feveral ftalks proceed and run out to a con- 

I fiderable length through the water throwing 

I out numerous white fibres. 

FOLIA plurima, plerumque immerfa, pinnata, in api- | LEAVES numerous, generally under the water, pin- 

cibus caulium juniorum denfa, reflexa, Pinnis | nated, growing in tufts on the tops of the 

linearibus planis. ¥ young ftalks, bending downwards, the Pinnae 

I linear and flat. 

# % 
FLORES pallide purpurei, verticillati, fpicati, Pedunculi % FLOWERS of a pale purple colour, growing in whirls, 

ad. 10, Bradhea, ad bafin inftrucli, poft floref- f and forming a fpike. Peduncles to 10 in num- 

centiam reflexi. •% ber, furnifhed at bottom with a Bradhea, when 

I the flowers are gone off turning downwards. 

CALYX: Perianthium monophyllum, quinquepar- ? CALYX : a Peri anthium of one leaf, divided into five 

titum: l acini is linearibus, ereclo-patulis,^. 1. I segments, which are linear, upright and fome- 

y what fpreading, Jig. 1. 


COROLLA : monopetala, hypocrateriformis, tubus | COROLLA : monopetalous and falver-fhaped, the tube 

longitudine calycis, limbus quinquefidus, t * ne length of the calyx; the limb divided 

planus: laciniis ovato-oblongis, emarginatis, J into five fegments and flat; the segments of 

fig. 2. I an oval oblong fhape with a notch at the ex-? 

I tremity, Jig. 2. 

STAMINA: Filamenta quinque, fubulata, brevia, I STAMINA: five Filaments tapering, mort, and up* 
ereda. Anther je oblongae, flavae./^. 3. f right, Antherje oblong and yellow,^-. 3. 

PISTILLUM: Germen fubglobofum. Stylus filifor- t PISTILLUM: Germen roundim, Style thread-fhaped 
mis, brevis. Stigma globofum, fig. 4. | and Ihort, Stigma fpherical,/^. 4. 

PERICARPIUM : Capsula globofa, unilocularis, fob- | SEED-VESSEL : a round Capsule of one cavity, 
pellucida, Jig. 5. | Aightly transparent, fg. 5. 

SEMINA plurima, ovata, pallide fufca, fig. 7. recep- | SEEDS numerous, oval, of a pale brown qolour, fig. 7: 
taculo giobofo intra capfulam aflixa, fig. 6. I affixed to a round receptacle within the capfule, 

* fig* 6. 

This Angular plant abounds In moft of our watry Ditches, particularly in fuch as divide the Meadows, and flowers 
in May and June, continuing for a confiderable time in blofTom ; among a variety of other places it may be found in 
a ditch on the right hand fide of the Field Way leading from Kent-ft reet Road to Peckham. 

We do not find any author that mentions its pofMing any properties to recommend it but its beauty and Angularity, 
both of which it pofieiles in a degree fufRcient to command our admiration. 

The leaves generally grow beneath the furface of the water and afford a Nidus if not Nourifhment to the frefh- water 
Periwinkle and fome other fmall mell fiih. 

Antient Botanifts have given it the names of Millefolium aquaticum, and Viola aquatica \ the great numberof its 
leaves induced them, with fome propriety, to call it Millefolium, but why they mould call it a Viola feems difficult 
to determine, as the bloffom has nothing in its ftruct.ure fimilar to the flowers of that Genus, Boerhave afterwards 
called it Hottonia, in honour of Dr. Hotton, which name Linnaeus has continued. 

■■■..". ..'.,. , 


ANAGALLIS Linnai, Gen. Plant. Pentandria Monogynia. 

Rail. Syn. Gen. 18. Herbje pructu sicco singulari, flore monopetalo. 
ANAGALLIS foliis indivifis caule procumbente. Lin. Spec. Plant. 211. 
ANAGALLIS phoeniceo flore. Bauhln. Pin. 252. 
ANAGALLIS mas. Fufchil. 18. Gerard, emac. 617. Parklnfon. 558. Oeder. Flor. Ban. tab. 

Rail. Syn. 282. Hudfon. J 3. Haller. Hift. 621. 626. Scopoli. Fl. CarnloL 139. 

RADIX fimplex, fibrofa, annua. 

CAULIS ramofus, proftratus, quadrangularis, lasvis, 
fubtortuofus, fig. 1. 

FOLIA oppofita, feflilia, cordata, glabra, Julius ftunffls 
fufcls notata. 

PEDUNCULI oppofiti, foliis fere duplo longiores, 

CALYX perfiftens, quinquepartitus, fegmentis trian- 
gularibus, alatis, membranaceis, fig. 2. 

COROLLA monopetala, quinquepartita, laciniis ro- ¥ 
tundis, coccineis, ad bafin purpureis, mar- | 
gine crenatis, fubpilofis, fig. 3, 4. ■% 


STAMINA : Fil amenta quinque, erecta, pllofijfima, f 
(pill articulatl I) fuperne purpurea : Anthers % 
oblongae, biloculares, flavas, infidentes,;%\ 5, 6. I 


PISTILLUM : Geemen rotundum : Stylus filifor- | 
mis, obllquus, longitudine filamentorum : ¥ 
Stigma fubrotundum, extra clrculumjiamlnum. | 
locatum, fig. 7. % 


PERICARPIUM: Capsula rotunda, nitida, quin- | 

quenervis, fubdiaphana, circumciffa, fufca, y 

fig- 8- * 

,SEMINA plurima, angulofa, fufca, fig. 9. % 

ROOT fimple, fibrous, and annual. 

STALK branched, procumbent, quadrangular, fmooth, 
and a little twifted, fig. 1. 

LEAVES oppofite, feffile, heart-fhaped, fmooth, un- 
derneath dotted with brown. 

PEDUNCLES oppofite, nearly twice the length of 
the leaves, bending downwards. 

CALYX perfifting, divided into five fegments, the 
fegments triangular, and membranous at the 
edges, fig. 2. 

COROLLA monopetalous, quinquepartite, the lacinise 
fcarlet, purplifh at bottom, the edges flightly 
notched, and hairy, fig. 3, 4. 

STAMINA : five Filaments, upright, and very hairy, 
(the hairs , when magnified, jointed I) at top 
purplifh: the Anthers oblong, bilocular, 
yellow, and fitting on the filaments, fig. 5, 6. 

PISTILLUM : the Germen round: the Style filiform, 
thejlengthofthe filaments :|the Stigma round- 
ifh, placed without the circle of the Stamina, fig. 7. 

SEED-VESSEL, a Capsule, round, mining, brown, 
flightly tranfparent, having five nerves, di- 
viding tranfverfly into two equal parts, fig. 8. 

SEEDS numerous, brown, and angular, fig. 9. 


NATURE feems to have taken uncommon pains in the formation of the flowers of this little plant ; fewpofTefs 
ore livelinefs of colour, or greater delicacy of ftru&ure ; this muft be fufEciently obvious to every common ob- 
ferver ; but when its minute parts come to be viewed by the microfcope, we are charmed with beauties altogether 
novel and unexpe&ed ; we then find that the edges of the flowers, which to the naked eye appear a little uneven, 
or hairy, are furnifhed with a number of little glands, placed on foot-ftalks ; and that the hairs of the filaments, 
which partly tend to diftinguim^ this genus, are regularly jointed: the pifiillum, which generally rifes upright 

falls, or there be much moifture in the air, the flowers quickly clofe themfelves up, to fecure the inclofed anthers 
and ftigma, from having their functions deftroyed. From this property, which it has in common with many plants 
of the fame clafs, it has acquired the name of the Shepherd's, or Poor Man's Weather-glafs — They have remarked, 
that if the flowers be open in a morning, it will prove a fine day, if {hut, the contrary. 

The fmall Birds (Pafieres Linnet.) are fond of the feeds of this plant : and according to experiments made by 
fome of Linn;eus's pupils, it appears that Kine and Goats feed on it. 

It is very common in gardens and corn-fields, flowering all the Summer. 

A variety with four leaves at a joint, fometimes occurs in a rich foil ; but as it differs in no other part, and is a 
mere variety, it fcarcely deferves a diftincl: figure. It is alfo found with blue, and fometimes with white flowers : 
but we have not obferved either of thefe varieties near London. 

r ^///{///r/Y/frj f/r/ , e//rjrrj . 


Convolvulus Sepium. Large white Convolvulus 

or great Bindweed. 

CONVOLVULUS Linruzl Gen. PL PentandriA Monogynia, 

Rati Syn. Gen. 18. Herb^ FRtTCTt/ sicco singulAri flore monopetalOc 
CONVOLVULUS (fepium) foliis fagittatis, poftke truncatls, pedunculis tetragonis* unifloris* Linn. Syjl. 

Vegetab. p. 1 68. FI. Suecic. p. 64* 
CONVOLVULUS foliis fagittatis, hamis cmarginatis, angulofis, petiolis unifloris, ftipulis cordatis maximis. 

Halkr. hi/l. V. 1. p. 295. 
CONVOLVULUS Major albus. Bauhin. phi. 294. 

SMILAX liEvis major. Gerard emac. 861. Parkinfon. 163. Rait Syn. p>. 2j$, Great Bindweed. Hudfon. 
FI. Angl. p. 74. Scopoll. FI. Carnlol. 141. FI. Dan. icon. 458. 

RADIX perennis, cramtie pennse anferinae, alba, fub | ROOT perennial, about the thicknefs of & gbofe quill, 
terra reptans et late fe propagans, vix eradi- | of a white colour, creeping under the ground 

canda, Hortorum peftis. ¥ and propagating itfelf exceedingly, rooted out 

I with the greater! difficulty, and hence very 

I troublefome in Gardens. 

CAULES numerofi, volubiles, tortuofi, ftriati, orgyales, | STALKS numerous, twining, twifted, lrnated, gener- 

fubramofi. | ally about fix feet high and fomewhat branched. 

RAMI pauci, alterni, cauli fimiles. I BRANCHES few, alternate, like the Stalk. 

FOLIA altema, fagittata, poftice truncata, glabra, pe- | LEAVES alternate, arrow-ihaped, apparently cut off 

t j l ata I behind, fmooth, and placed on foot-flalks. 

PEDUNCULI uniflori, alterni, tetragoni. | FOOT-STALKS of the flowers, alternate, fupporting 

I one flower only, and four fquare. 

CALYX Involucrum biphyllum, foliolis oblongo-cor- j CALYX an Involucrum compofed of two heart-fhaped 

datis, fubcarinatis, venofis, purpurascentibus. | leaves, {lightly keel-fhaped, veiny, and pur- 

fip. 1. I plifh. j%". 2. 

CALYX Perianthium pentaphyllum, tubulofum, fo- % CALYX a Perianthium, compofed of five leaves and 

liolis ovato-lanceolatis, pallide virentibus. /#. 1. | tubular, the leaves of an oval pointed fhape and 

% pale green colour, fig. 1 . 

COROLLA monopetala, infundibuliformis, laftea, limbo | COROLLA monopetalous, funnel maped, of a white co- 
lato, obfcure divifo, paululum reflexo. | lour, the limb broad, obfcurely divided, and 

% turned back a little. 

STAMINx\- Fil omenta quinque, fundo corollae in- | STAMINA: five Filaments inferted into the bottom 
ferta hirfutula, alba, fubulata ; Anthers? of the corolla, (lightly hairy, white and taper- 

fagittata3, albae, infidentes. fig. 2 . f ing, the Anther je arrow maped, white, and 

I fitting on the filaments.^: 3. 

PISTILLUM: Geumen fubovatum; Stylus fubulatus f PISTILLUM : Germen fomewhat oval, Style taper- 
apice tortuofus ; Stigma bifidum. fig. 4- 5- I in'g» twifted at t0 P 5 the Stigma bifid, fig. 4 .5. 

NECTARIUM : Giandula crocea annuliformis ad bafin f NECTARY a yellow gland furrounding the bale of the 

Germinis. | Germen. 

PERICARPIUM : Capsula fubrotunda, fuliginofa, | SEED-VESSEL a roundifh Capsule of a footy colour 

mucronata fig. 6. 7. ¥ and pointed, fig, 9. 7. 

SEMINA ang;uloia, fuica, Cotyledonibus mire convolu- | SEEDS angular and brown, the Cotyledons folded up 
tis. fig. 8. 9. I in a vei 7 finger manner, fig. 8. 9. 

The plant which produces the Scummy is a fpecies of Convolvulus, very fimilar to that which wekejw 
defcribed, hence Dr. Cullen and fome other Phyficians have conje&ired that our Convolvulus might poflef 
fim lar properties, but if it mould be found to contain fuch properties the fmallnefs of it roots ^prevent 
its iuice from being collected in the fame manner with that which flows on incifion from the large root 
of tL^ Scammony pfant, and which hardens and forms that, purgative fubftance. J^J*^_^ 
from the exprelfed f juice of the roots, or any other preparation of them might, poflefs a P™g*™ F Q PJ ^ 
or if it mould, whether, fuch a purgative would be fo far fupenor to any now in general ufe as to introduce 
k defervedly into prance, is what we cannot pretend to decide on. Hogs are faid to eat and even to be fond 

of the roots. 

ifgrowfexceedingly common in onr hedges, and flowers in. Auguft and September Wtereit to once 
gained ground it is with the greateft difficulty eradicated: was it not for this property and its being fo com- 
mon, it would doubtlefs be confidered, as it really is, a very ornamental plant. . , 

My ingenious Friend Mr. Church, Surgeon, at Iflington, (who has taken much pains te , coUefl ^ and ae- 
on re a knowledge of our Englifli InfeCts) informs me that the Caterpillar of the Ph^naV,b,ca,aor Bloody 
IZmoI (vU % Ckrc. PhalJ. pi. 3. fig.' ,.) feeds on this plant, and the Spbm* Co,™ fo, 1, «B «W» H,^k 
Moth, (vid. Roefil. CI. 1. }a}. nolf. t. 7 .) is well known to take its name from feeding on this plant alio. 


SOLANUM Linnai Gen. PI. Pentandria Monogynia. 

Rail Syn. Gen. 16. HerbjeBacciferje. 
SOLi^NUM Dulcamara caule inermi frutefcente flexuofo, foliis fuperioribus haftatis, racemis cymofis. 

Linn. Sp. PI. p. 264. 
SOLANUM Scandens feu Dulcamara, Bauhln. Pin. p. 176. Amara Dulcis, Gerard, emac. p. 350. 

Solanum lignofum, Parkin/on, p. 350. Rail Synopfis. p. 265. Hudfon. Fior. Angl. p. 78. 

Scopoli Flor. CarnioL p. 161. Halter, Hifl. Plant. Helv. p. 248. 

RADIX perennis. 

CAULIS fruticofus, fcandens, fifhilofus, ramofus, tu- y 
berculis parvis fubafper, leniter angulofus, or- t 
gyalis et ultra. | 

RAMI alterni, juniores purpurei. 


FOLIA petiolata, mollia, venofa, in caulem fubdccur- | 
rentia, z^r/Vtf ovata-lanceolata, integerrima; $ 
fuperiora trilobo-haftata. | 

FLORES in Cymas racemofas difpofiti ; pedunculi 
florales ad balin bulbofi, aut ex acetabulo quail 

CALYX : Peri anthium monophyllum, parvum, qnin- 
quefidum, purpureum, fegmentis obtuliufcu- 
lis, periiftens, Jig. 1. 

COROLLA monopetala, rotata : Tubus breviflimus ; 

Limbus quinquepartitus, Laciniis lanceola- 

tis, purpureis, reflexis ; Faux nigra, nitida, 

ad balin fingulae lacinias maculae dua?, virides, 

fig- 3> 2. 

STAMINA : Filament a quinque, breviffima, tubo 
Corolhe inferta, nigro purpurea. Antherje 
quinque, flavse, erectae, in tubum fubconi- 
cum coalitae, apicibus biforaminofis, Jig. 4, 5. 

PISTILLUM : Germen pyriforme : Stylus fubulatus, 
Staminibus paulo longior : Stigma limplex, 
obtufum, Jig. 6. 

PERICARPIUM : Bacca ovata, coccinea, glabra, bi~ 
locularis, receptaculo utrinque convexo, cui 
femina adnectuntur, Jig. 8. 

SEMINA plures, lutefcentia, comprena, fubrenifor- 
mia, pulpo odoris ingrati obtecta, Jig. 9. 

ROOT perennial. 

STALK woody, climbing, hollow, branched, thinly 
befet with fmall pointed tubercles, {lightly 
angular, and growing to the hight of fix feet, 
or more. 

BRANCHES alternate, the younger ones purple. 

LEAVES ftanding on foot-ftalks, of an oval pointed 
fhape, foft, veiny, running {lightly down 
the ftalk, the lower ones entire, the upper ones 
halbert fhaped. 

FLOWERS growing in branched Cymje, the proper 
peduncles of the flowers bulbous at their bafe, 
or growing out of a kind of focket. 

CALYX, a Peri anthium of one leaf, fmall, and pur- 
ple, divided into five fegments, the fegments 
bluntifh, perfifting, fig. 1, 

COROLLA monopetalous, wheel-fliaped ; the Tube 
very fhort ; the Limb divided into five feg- 
ments, the segments lancet-fhaped, purple, 
and turning back; the Mouth black and 
mining ; at the bottom of each fegment are 
two roundifh green fpots, Jig. 3, 2. 

STAMINA: five Filaments, very fhort, of a black 
purple colour, and inferted in the tube of the 
Corolla. Five Anthers, yellow, upright, 
and uniting into a tube, with two holes at the 
top of each, out of which the Pollen is dif- 
charged, fig. 4, 5. 

PISTILLUM: the Germen pear-fhaped : the Style 
tapering, a little longer than the Stamina : 
the Stigma fimple and obtufe, fig. 6. 

SEED-VESSEL : an oval, fcarlet, fmooth Berry, of 
two cavities, the receptacle to which the feeds 
is connected, is round on both fides, fig. 8. 

SEEDS feveral, flat, fomewhat kidney-maped, fig. 9, 
of a yellowifh colour, inclofed in the pulp, 
which has a difagreeable fmell, fig. 9. 

THE Woody Nightjhade has been commended as a medicine for many diftempers by the old Botanifts, in their 
ufually lavifh manner: but Parkinson fays, he found the juice of it prove a very churlifh purge. Linnjeus 
prefers an infufion of the ftalk of this plant to any of the foreign woods, as a cleanfer of the blood; and 
recommends it in inflammatory fevers, obftructions, the itch, and rheumatifm : and to render the knowledge 
of plants as extenfively ufeful as poffible, he does not think it beneath him to remark, that the Swedi/h 
Peafants make hoops of the ftalk of this plant to bind their wooden cans. Ray informs us, that the inhabitants 
of Wejlphalia, who are fubjedfc to the fcurvy, make uie of a decoction of the whole plant as their common 
drink, with fuccefs againft that diftemper. 

Floyer fays, that thirty berries of this plant killed a dog in lefs than three hours, and remained undigefted 
in his ftomach. As thefe berries, from their refemblance, may happen by miftake to be eaten for currants by 
children, it may not be improper to remark, that in luch a cafe, it is advifeable to pour down inftantly, as much 
warm water as poffible, to dilute the poifonous juice, and provoke vomiting, till farther affiftance can be had. 

Goats and fheep are faid to feed on this plant ; but our other cattle, viz. kine, horfes, and fwine, refufe it. 

It grows plentifully in moift hedges, and blows from July to Auguft. The berries are ripe in September and 
October. It is fometimes found with a white flower. 

/yn/O'/r/ Prr/'dvvte?iu?/L 

Lonicera Periclymentim* Honeyfuckle or Woodbine. 

LONICERA Ltmal Gen. PL Pentandria Monogynia. 

Rail Synopfs. Arbores et frutices fructu flori petaloidi contiguo» 
LONICERA capitulis ovatis imbricatis termmalibus,, foliis omnibus diftinctis. Lin. Sp. PL 247. 
PERICLYMENUM. PufchlU Icon. 646. 

PERYCLIMENUM non perfoliatum Germanicum. Bauhin. Pin. 302. 

CAPRIFOL1UM Germanicum. Dodon. Gerard, emac. 891. Parkin/on. 1460. RaiiSyn. 458. HadfonFL 80. 
Haller. Hift. 301. Scopoli. PL Carniol. p. 153. 

CAULIS lignofus, volubilis, orgyalis et ultra ; cortice $ STALK woody, twining, growing to the height of fix 
pallide fufco ; Rami oppofiti, purpurei. | feet or more, the bark a pale brown, the 

^ Branches oppofite and purple. 

FOLIA oppofita, ovata, glabra, fubtus caerulefcentia. t LEAVES oppofite, oval, fmooth, underneath of a blueifh 

I colour. 

FLORES terminales, verticillatim difpofiti, patentes, f FLOWERS terminal, growing in a whirl, and fpread- 
rubri, interne flavi, odoratiffimi. | ing, externally red, internally yellow, and 

I fragrant. 

CALYX: Perianthium fuperum, breviffimum, quin- i CALYX, aPERi an THiUMplacedaboveth'eGermen, very 
quepartitum ; legmentis ovato-lanceolatis, e-| fhort, divided into five fegrnents, which are of 

rectis, duobus inferioribus remotioribus, Jig. 1.? an oval pointed fhape, and upright, the two 

I inferior ones moft remote from each other, ^. 1 . 

BRACTEiE fubcordatae, fg. 8, germina imbricatim | FLORAL-LEAVES laying one over the other, and 

cingentes, ad marginem praecipue fcabras, ut J clofely embracing the Germina, reddifh at the 

iunt calyx, et tubi bafis pilis glanduliferis. | edges, and covered, as well as the Calyx and 

y bafe of the tube, with glandular hairs, fig. 8. 

COROLLA monopetala, tubulofa ; Tubus oblongus, | COROLLA monopetalous and tubular, the Tube long, 

fubinfundibuliformis ; Limbus bipartitus, la- 1 and fomewhat funnel-fhaped ; the Limb bipar- 

ciniis revolutis, fuperiore quadrifida, fegmentis ¥ tite ; the lacinias rolling back, the upper one 

fere sequalibus, obtufis, inferiore integra, ^. 2. 1 divided into four blunt and nearly equal feg- 

$ ments, the lower one entire, fig. 2. 

STAMINA : Filamenta quinque filiformia, corolla | STAMINA : five white Filaments, of an equal thick- 

longiora, alba, tubo corolla inferta, fig. 3 : An- | nefs throughout, longer than the Corolla, and 

THERiE dum pollinem involvunt oblongas, in- ¥ inferted into its tube, fig. 3 : the Anthers, 

cumbentes, poftea lunatse, fg. 4. | while they contain the Pollen, oblong, after- 

¥ wards femilunar, and of a yellow colour, fig. 4. 

PISTILLUM : Germen fubrotundum, inferum, fig,, 5. | PISTILLUM : the Germen roundifh, and placed be- 

Stylus filiformis, Staminibus paulo longior, | low the Calyx, fig. 5 : the Style filiform, a 

fg. 6 : Stigma capitatum, fubrotundum, tri- % little longer than the Stamina, fig. 6 : the 

fidum, viride, fig. 7. | Stigma roundifh, trifid, and of a green colour, 

PERICARPIA:BACCiEplures,fubrotundaB,rubraB, urn- | SEED-VESSELS feveral roundifh red Berries, ha- 
bilicatae, biloculares, omnes diftinctae, fg. 9. | ving the remains of the Calyx adhering to 

% them, and all diftindr, fig. 9. 

SEMINA plura, lutefcentia, hinc convexa inde plana, | SEEDS feveral, of a yellowifh brown colour, round 
fig- io. ^ on one fide, and flattifli on the other, fig. 10. 

THE early writers attributed virtues to this officinal plant, which the latter have been inclined to give up. As 
a medicine we muff not expect much from it : but the beauty, Angularity, and exquifite fragrance of its flowers, 
have long given it a place in our gardens. It is a climber, and turns from eaft to weft with moft of our other 
Englifh climbers, and in common with them, it bears clipping and pruning well : for in a ft ate of nature, thofe 
plants that cannot afcend without twining round others, are often liable to lofe large branches ; they have, therefore, 
a proportional vigour of growth to reftore accidental damages. This plant is fubject, when placed near buildings, 
to be disfigured, and injured, by fmall infects, called Aphides, or vulgarly blights : thefe animalcule were formerly 
fuppofed to be brought by the eaft wind, and confequently the mifchief was looked upon as inevitable ; but obfer- 
vation has of late years corrected that error : their *hiftory is well known ; but no effectual remedy againft them, 
is as yet difcovered. Thefe infects are not very numerous in fpring, but as the fummer advances, they increafe in 
a furprifing degree : to preferve the plant therefore from injury, it is neceflary to watch their firft attacks, cut off 
and deftroy the branches they firft appear on ; for when they have once gained ground, they are defended by their 
numbers. We have feen fmall plants cleared of them, by fprinkling Spanifh muff on the infected branches ; but 
for large trees, this remedy is fcarcely practicable. The leaves are likewife liable to be curled up by a fmall cater- 
pillar, (Phalcena *Tortrix^ Linncei.) which produces a beautiful little moth : fee Albin's hiftory of Englifh Infects, 
pi. 73. It is fed on by kine, goats, and fheep, but horfes refufe it. 

To mew the confufion of antient names it may not be improper to obferve, that this plant and Woodroffe, 
(Afperula odorata,) have been both called Matrijyha by the old botanic writers, Our poets aifo, have ftrangely 
confounded the names of this plant. Shakespear fays, 

" So doth the Woodbine the fweet Honeyfuckle 
" Gently entwift." 

Milton feems to call this plant Eglantine, although that is an undoubted name for the Szveet Briar. 

" 'Through the Sweet Briar, or the Vine, 
" Or the twifted Eglantine." 

We find it plentifully in woods and hedges, flowering from July to September. Such plants as grow in fhady 
places, produce bloflbms of a paler colour, and they univerfally fmell fweeteft in the evening ; at which time fome 
particular fpecies of Sphinges, (Linnai.)^ or Hawk Moths, are frequently obferved in gardens hovering over the blof- 
lbms, and with their long tongues, which are peculiarly adapted to the purpofe, extracting honey from the very 
bottom of the flowers. 

*Vid. Reaumur and Geoffroy. 

°/ y '// y /° 

H e d e r a Helix. Ivy. 

HEDERA Linntii Gen. PL Pentandria Monogynia. Petala quinque oblonga. Bacca quinquefpermn. 

calyce cincta. 
Rail Syn. Arbores et Frutices fructu flori fetaloidi contiguo. 
HEDERA Helix foliis ovatis lobatifque. Linn, Sfi. Vcgetab. p. 202. Sp. PL 292. FL Sueclc. p. 75* 
HEDERA foliis fterilibus triloba'tis, frtfctiferis ovato-lanceolatis. Haller hlft. helv. n. 826* 
HEDERA Helix. Scopoll FL Cdrniol. '&. 27 1. Hud/on FL Angl p. 85. 
HEDERA arborea. Bauhln. Pin. 305. 
HEDERA poetica. Bauhln. Pin. 305. 
HEDERA major fterilis. Bauhln. Pin. 305. 
HEDERA humi repens. Bauhln. Pin. 305. 

HEDERA arborea five fcandens et corymbofa communis. Parklnjbn 678. 
HEDERA Helix Ger. Em. 858. Rail Syn. 459. Climbing of Berried Ivy : alfo Barren or Creeping Ivy. 

TRUNCUS in arboribus hujusfpeciei fenefcentibus cor- f TRUNK; the trunk in trees of this fpecies, which 

tice rimofo cinereo veftitur, in novellis ramis | are old, is covered with an afh-coloured chop- 

viridis aut purpureas cernitur, fibrillas e la- | ped bark, in the young branches it is of a 

tere interiori exerit, quorum ope proximis | green or purple colour ; from the infide of the 

arboribus aut parietibus innixus alta petit. J trunk a great number of fmall fibres are thrown 

* out, by the afliftance of which, it fupports 

* itfelfonthe neareft walls and trees, and climbs 

TOLIA quam maxime varia, dumplanta fepit plerum- f LEAVES as various as poffible, while the plant creeps 

que trilobata, quinquelobata etiam occurunt ; * they are in general trilobate, fometimes quin- 

adminiculis derelictis, ovata hunt ; glabra, ni- | quelobate, leaving its fupporters, they become 

tentia, nunc rubedin'e ornata, nunc venis albis | oval ; fmooth, mining, fometimes tictured with 

picta, prefertim in ramulis junioribus; ^ fed, fometimes painted with white veiris.> par- 
ticularly in the young branches. 

FLORES lutefcentes, in fummitatibus caulium umbel- | FLOWERS yellcwifh, growing on the top of the fta Iks 

latim difpoiiti, Umbellje denfae, globofae. ^ in thick round Umbels, 

COROLLA: quinque, ovata, flavefcentia, patentia. | COROLLA: Petals five;, Oval, yellowifll and fpread- 

STAMINA :FtL Amenta quinque longitudine Corolla; I STAMINA: five Filaments the length of the Co- 

Anthers bafi bifidae, incumbentes, fig. 1. * rolla ; Antherte bifid at bottom, and incum- 

& beiit, fig. I i 

PISTILLUM: GerMen turbinatum ; Stylus fimplexj | PISTILLUM : Germen roundifh ; Style fimple and 

breviflimus ; Stigma fimplex, fig. 2. | very fhort ; Stigma fimple, fig. 2. 

PERICi^RPIUM : BaccA globofa,, nigra, intus purpii- i SEED-VESSEL: a round Berry, externally black, 

rea, quadrilocularis aiit quinquelocularis, coro- | internally purple, with four or five cavities each 

nata receptaculo et ftylo COnico brevi, loculis | Containing one feed, crowned with the recepta- 

monofpermis, fig. 3, 4. i , cle and Ihort conic Style, fig. 3, 4. 

SEMINA quinque, hinc gibba, ihde angulata, fig. 6. | SEEDS five, on one fide gibbous, on the other dngu- 

| kf,j%, 6. 

The Hedera Helix begins to blow in funny afpecls towards the end of September, and according to fituation bloA 
foms on through October, and November. This plant is one of the laft blowers, and is much reforted to by bees, 
and flies of various fpecies, which fwarm on its branches, and feed on its blofloms, making fuch a humming 011 
funny days as may be diftinguifhed at a considerable diftance. 

The berries encreafe in bulk gradually all through the winter months, and afe full formed by February ; in 
April they ripen and turn very black, and are eaten by fevefal fpecies of thrufhes, and wild pigeons; Thus does 
fructification manifeftly obtain in this inftance all through the winter months, as well as in the molTes and lichens. 

Sheep are very fond of Ivy, which in hard weather is a warm and wholfome food ; and therefore lhepherds 
in fnowy feafons cut down branches for their flocks tobrouze on. Cato directs that in a fcarcity of hay, cattle mould 
be foddered with Ivy. 

Profeflbr Kalm, in his travels through the greateft part of Ni America, faw but one plant of Ivy, and that was 
running up the walls of a man's houfe : this fpecimen was probably carried thither by forrie European, who perhaps 
was defirous of propagating in that new world, a plant that might ftill recall to his mind the pleafing Idea of his 
native cottage, tufted with the foliage of this beautiful Evergreen* 

The antieiits held this plant in great efteem ; their Heroes and Poets are defcribed as wearing garlands compofed 
of it* The fuppofition of its preventing intoxication is of very early date : Homer therefore mentions his Bacchus 
as Ivy-crowned, and often defcribes his Heroes drinking out of a Cup made of the wood of Ivy. (_kititvj3iov.) 
Cato tells us that with a cup of this kind we may diftinguifh wine that has been adulterated with water, for the wine 
will be difcharged and the water remain : to fuch an extravagant affertion has this grave author been probably led 
by relying on the fuppofed antipathy between the wine and ivy : This cup is ftill ufed in fome parts of the kingdom 
as a remedy for a trembling hand ; but rational practice has not admitted any part of the Hedera into the Materia 
Medica, Ivy4eaves however are faid to be fuccesfully applied to painful Corns. When it trails on the ground its 
branches are fmall and weak ; and its leaves are divided into three lobes ; but when it climbs walls or trees it grows 
much ftronger, and the leaf changes to an oval form: thefe different appearances induced old Botanifts to fuppofe 
there were two or three different fpecies. In its variegated ftate it fometimes appears almoft white, and may perhaps be 
the Hedera alba, and pallentes Hedera of Virgil. 

Few people are acquainted with the beauty of Ivy when fuffered to run up a ftake, and at length to form itfelf 
into a ftandard, the lingular complication of its branches, and the vivid hue of its leaves, give it one of the firft 
places amongft evergreens in a fhrubbery ; In woods when fuffered to groW large, and rampant, this plant by 
twining round their bodies does great damage to timber trees; and therefore mould be carefully deflroyed : but 
in ornamented Out-lets, where evergreens do not abound, a few trees covered with Ivy have a very pleafing 
effect, and moreover induce birds of fong to haunt thofe thickets for the fake of the berries and fhelter. 

In the Stump of Ivy many birds build their Nefts particularly the Black-bird. 

When Ivy is prejudicial, it may eahly be deftroyed, tho' it has fpread to a great height, by cutting through 
its TrUnk, and this fhows that the fibres which the Stalk throws out in fo lingular a manner ferve more to fup- 
port than nourifh it. 

The foft wood of Ivy is made ufe of by Shoemakers to give a fmooth edge to their cutting knives. 




CONIUM hlnnai Gen. PL Pentandria Digynia. 

Raii. Syn. Gen. n. Umbelliferje Herbje. 
CONIUM maculaium feminibus ftriatis. Linn. Syfil. Vegetab. p. 229. 
CICUTA Haller. hift. heh. n. y66. v. 1. p. 33J. 
CONIUM maculatum. Scopoli PL Carnlol. p. 207; 
CICUTA major Bauhin. Pin. 160. 
CICUTA Gerard emac. 1061. 

CICUTA vulgaris major Parkin/on 923. Ra" % n * f* 2I 5* H u 4f°n Fl. Angl. p. 100. Storck. Cicut. SuppL p. 7. 
t. 1. 

RADIX biennis, craffitudine digiti, longa ufque ad pe- $ ROOT biennial, the thicknefs of Ones finger, from fix 
daiem, iii crura faepe divifa, junior! Paftinaca* & inches to a foot in length, frequently forked, 

haud diftimilis, odoris gravis, etfaporis 'u'odul- | and not unlike that of a young Parfnep, of a 

cis : fecundo anno in caulefcente planta iucco % difagreeable fmell and fweetifh tafte : in th 

fere caret, firma folidiorque evadit; | cond year of its growth when the plant ha 

I flowering ftem, it becomes drier, more firm and 

? folid. 

CAULIS orgyalis, teres, nitidus, laevis, fiftulofus, ad I STALK about fix inches high, round, mining, fmooth 
bafin cramtie pollicis, rore glauco tcctus, et J and hollow, at bottom the thicknefs of ones 

maculis fanguineis pictus, verfus fummitatem | thumb, covered with a blueifh kind of powder 

ramofus, et {hiatus. * which eafily wipes off, and fpotted with red, to- 

ll wards the top branched and ftriated, 

FOLIA inferiora magna, etiam bipedalia, atro-virentia, | LEAVES. The bottom leaves large, even two feet long, 
nitentia, multiplicato-pinnata, pinnulis oblongis % of a dark green colour and mining, many times 

incifo-ferratis ; Spatha fulcata. | pinnated, the pinnulae oblong and iharply cut in; 

% the Spatha grooved. 

INFLORESCENTIA. Umbella uhfoerfdis Radiis .pliifi- ? INFLORESCENCE. The Univerfal Umbell is compofed 
mis patentibus ftriatis ; partialis confimilis. | of many {Mated and Spreading Radii ; the Par- 

£ tial Umbell fimilar to it. 

CALYX: Involucrum umverfale e foliolis 5—7 conftat, f CALYX • the Univerfal Involucrum con&fts of 5 or 7 leaves, 

- lanceolato acuminatis, reflexis, margine albidis, ^ which are lanceolate, turned back, and whitim 

fig. 1 ; partiale 3 aut 4 dimidiatis, extrorfum %. at the edges, fig. 1 : the Partial Involucrum is 

patentibus, fig. 2. . compofed of 3 or 4 leaves, which furround one 

I half of the ftalk only, and fpread outward, fig. 2. 

COROLLA: Petala quinque, alba, inaequalia, in- * COROLLA : Petals five, white, unequal, heart-fhaped, 

flexo-cordata, fig. 3. | and bent in at top, fig. 3 

STAMINA : Filament a quinque, alba, longitudine-t STAMINA: Filaments five, white, the length of the 

Corollas; Anthers albas, fig. 3. | Corolla; An t her m white, fig. 3. 

PISTILLUM : Styli duo, albi, filiformes, non admo- 4 PISTILLUM : Germen beneath the Corolla, ftriated, 
dum breves ; Stigmata fubrotunda ; Ger- f fig. 3, 4; Styles two, filiform and not very 

men inferum, ftriatum, fig. 3, 4. | fhort; Stigmata round, fig. 3. 

FRUCTUS fubrotundus, e binis feminibus fufcefcenti- t FRUIT is roundifh, and compofed of two brownifh feeds, 
bus componitur, hinc planivifculis, illinc gibbis, f flattifh on one fide and round on the other, with 

cum Jiriis quinque elevatis crenulatis, fig. 4, 5. | five notched and elevated ridges, fig. 4, r. 

THE powerfull deleterious properties of this herb have been long known and acknowledged by all botanic writers ; 
whence it has been commonly ranged in the clafs of Vegetable Poifons. And as fuch active principles under 
fkilful management, are likely to _arlord the molt efficacious remedies, this plant has been alfo admitted as an 
article of the Materia Medica. Until lately however, the ufe of it was chiefly confined to external applications, 
where its narcotic qualities may undoubtedly ailift in aflwaging pain, forwarding fuppuration, &c. But in the 
year 1760, Dr. Storck, a famous Practitioner at Vienna, publifhed a treatiie on Hemlock, recommending 
an extract made of the infpiflated juice of the herb to be taken internally, from four grains to fixty, or upwards, every . 
day, as a cure for the Schrophula, Cancer, and others of the moil terrible and inveterate diforders incident to 
the human body. 

Our Phyficians though laudably cautious of admitting or trufting to novelties, received Dr. Storck's publica- 
tion with uncommon ardour, and perhaps no new medicine was ever more immediately or generally tried than 
this Extrattum Cicuta. The fuccefs however not anfwering their expectation, led fome to think they had mifta- 
ken the plant. , The Author was applied to, and this produced a fupplement (printed 1764) wherein the fpecies 
is figured, and clearly fhewn to be the Conium maculatum of Linnaeus. It were to be wifhed this had cleared 
up all difficulties. In his firft treatife the Doctor tells us that the frefh root fliced, yielded a bitter acrid milk, of 
which a fingle drop or two being applied to the tip of his . tongue, prefently rendered it painful, rigid, and 
fo much fwelled that he could not fpeak, Yet it is certain that the roots of our Hemlock may be chewed 
and fwallowed in confiderable quantities without producing any fenfible effect. Mr. Alchorne (who I believe 
was the firft that laudably exerted himfelf in investigating this matter,) allures me that he has tried, this in 
every feafon of the Year, and in moll parts of our Ifland, without finding any material difference : and that 


he has alfo been well informed both from Berlin and Vienna, that the Hemlock Roots in thofe countries, are no more 
virulent than ours about -London. Mr. Timothy Lane informs me, that he alio with great caution made 
fome experiments of the like kind, and in a fliort time found he could venture to eat a confiderable part' of 
a root without any inconvenience ; after that, he had fome large roots boiled, and found them as agreeable 
eating at dinner with meat, as Carrots, which they in tafte fomewhat refembled : and as far as his experience 
joined with that /of others informed him, the Roots might be cultivated in • Gardens, and either eaten raw 
like Celery, or boiled as Parfneps or Carrots. That in Spring and Winter they are not woody as in Summer : 
that he ,has eaten them from different places and in all feafons ; and that he perceived iome roots were more 
pungent than others, but not in any degree worthy notice. 

The experiments of thefe ingenious Gentlemen fufficiently evince the innocence of the rooots of this plant, 
contrary to what has been anerted by Dr. Storck, and hence we may infer that whatever accounts have been 
related by_ Authors of their poifonous qualities, the Roots of fome other Plant muft have been made tife of. 
In the poifonous quality of the Herb however all Authors feem agreed, but with refpect to its efficacy as a 
medicine they very much differ. If we may believe Dr. Storck, there is fcarce a difeafe incident to the 
human body which it either does not cure, or relieve; but it is remarkable that a copious experience of 
fifteen years, as well in the great Hofpitals of this Metropolis as in the private practice of the whole King- 
dom, mould not have afforded one inftance of a perfect cure by the Extract, at leaft none fuch has appeared 
among the valuable collections of cafes publifhed by our College of Phyficians and other Medical Societies. Both. 
Dr. Fothergill of London, and the late Dr. Rutty of Ireland, men of the greateft eminence in their profeffion, 
have declared that the fuccefs attending it has not been equal to what they had reafon to expect, from Dr. Storck' s 
account of it ; (yid. medical obfervations and enquiries, vol. 3.) yet tho' it had failed them in the cure of many of 
thofe difeafes which unfortunately were the opprobia medicorum, it had proved beneficial in various obftinate com- 
plaints ; Scrophulous tumours were %q appearance diflolved by it ; the progrefs both of occult and ulcerated 
Cancers was retarded, the pain alleviated, 'and the difcharge changed for the better in every refpect ; divers pu- 
trid and fordid Ulcers were by the ufe of Hemlock remarkably mended in their difcharge, and difpofed to heal, 
in fome of which the Sublimate had been given in vain ; hence the Extract is frill frequently ufed, and will 
probably continue to be prefcribed, becaufe its effects as an Anodyne will often afford at leaft a temporary re- 
lief, and becaufe in defperate difeafes a doubtful remedy feems better than none at all. 

The taking of the Extract is generally attended with a giddinefs and often with a pain of the head, naufea, 
&nd other difagreeable fymptoms ; in fome however its effects, are apparently anodyne, as it eafes pain and pro- 
motes reft even where Opium has failed. 

Phyficians feem fomewhat divided about the bell: mode of exhibiting this medicine, fome recommending the 
extract, as being moil eafily taken in the form of pills, others the powder, as not being fubjeet to that varia- 
tion which the extract is liable to from being made in different ways. With refpect to the period likewife 
at which the plant fhould be gathered, they feem not perfectly agreed, fome recommending it when in its full 
vigour, and juft coming into bloom, others when the flowers are going off and the whole plant has acquired 
a yeilowiih hue. that the Extract might be at all times equally active, and uniformly prepared, Dr. Cullen has. 
for many years recommended the making it from theunripe feeds, and this mode the College of Phyficians at Edin- 
burgh has thought proper to adopt in their new Pharmacopoeia. 

Hemlock grows very frequently on banks by the fides of Roads, by hedge fides, and in Fields and Gardens, flower- 
ing in the month of July. 

We have a common Engliih Proverb that what is one Mans Meat is another mans Poifon, and agreeable to this are 
the'lines of Lucretius which relate to this plant ; 

ii Pinguefcere fepe Cicutd 
"Barbigeros pecudes homini qua ejl acre venenum. ,y 

That it affords nourimment to Birds hkewife there is fufficient evidence, our learned Philofopher and accurate Na- 
turalift Mr. Ray, found in the Crop of a Thrufh abundance of Hemlock feeds, at a time too when other vegetable 
food might be had in abundance. It appears to, be eaten by very few or no Infects, 

The dried ftems or Ibexes are ufed by Boys for various purpofes. 

The Hemlock is obvioufly diftinguifhed from our other umbelliferous plants by its large and /potted 'Jlalk, by the dark 
and Jhining green colour of its bottom leaves, and particularly by their difagreeable fmell when bruifed, and which accord- 
ing to Dr. Storck refembles that of Mice, The Fools Par/ley and Scandix with rough feeds are the moft likely to be 
miftaken for this poifonous plant, but may eafily be diftinguifhed if attention be paid to the defcriptions and figures w© 
fasaye already given of them. 

f <E//hm# Cyrmjbtum 

^Ethusa ctnapium. Fool's Parsley, 

.^ETHUSA Linnet Gen. PL Pentani>ria Digynia. 

Raii Syn. Gen. u. Umbellifer;e Herbje. 
j^THUSA (Cynapium) foliis conformibus. Lintuei Syfl. Ve^etab. p. 276. F/or. Sueck. t. o~ 
iETHUSA. Haller. h'jl.n. 765. * ^"' 

CICUTA minor petrofelino fimilis. Bauhin. Pin. p. 160. 
CTCUTARIA Apii folio. /. Bauhin. 
CICUTARIA tenuifolia Gerard, emac. 1063. 
CICUTA minor five fatua Parkinfon. 933. Ran Syn. p. 215. the leffer Hemlock or Fool's Parfley. Scopolt 

Fl. Carniol. p. 206. Hud/on Fl. Angl. p, I0 7. Hill's Britijb Herbal fmall Hemlock tab. 58. 

icon pejjima. 

!RADIX annua, fufiforrhis, albaj minimi digit i crajjitudine, ? 
paucis fibris inftructa. | 

CAULIS pedalis adbipedalem, erectus, ramofus, ftriatns, % 

fiftulofus, glaucus, verfus bafinfaepe purpureus, | 

non vero maculatus*. | 

FOLIA radicalia et ramea conformia, lzevia, fuperne % 

atro-virentia, inferne pallidiora, nitentia, dupli- I 

cato-pinnata, pinnis pinnatifidis, profunde in- £ 

cifis, pinnulis ovato-acutis, mucronatis. Vaginae | 

ad bafin petiolorum parvae, lasves, marginibus ^ 

membranaceis. t 

PETIOLI ere&i, fulcath * 

UMBELLA univerfalis patens, radiis interioribus per & 

gradus brevioribus, intimis breviffimis ; partialis | 

Univerfali fimilis. f 

INVOLUCRUM univerfate nullum, parti ale dimidiatum, t 

extus pofitum, foliolis tribus longijjimis linearibus | 

pendulis, Jig. 1 . * 

COROLLA: Petala quinque, alba, obcordata, in- J 

asqualia, apice inflexa, exteriora majora, Jig. 2. J 

STAMINA: Fil amenta quinque, alba, longitudine | 

corollae, inflexa: Ant her je albae,nonnunquam £ 

rubellar, Jig. 3. | 

PISTILLUM : Germen inferum, glandula virefcente | 

coronatum : Styli duo, primum erecti, dein t 
deflexi : Stigmata obtufa, Jig. 4. 

PERICARPIUM nullum : Fructus ovato-fubrotundus, & 

ftriatus, bipartibilis, jig. 5. 

SEMINA duo, pallide fufca, hinc convexa, profunde * 
ftriata, hinc plana, figura ovato-acuta notata, I 

ROOT annual, tapering, of a white colour, about the 
thicknejs oj the little finger, furnifhed with few 

STALK from one to two feet high, upright, branched, 
ftriated or (lightly grooved, hollow, covered 
with a blueifh kind of powder which eafily 
wipes off, towards the bottom frequently of a 
purple colour, but not /potted. 

LEAVES : the bottom leaves and thofe of the branches 
fimilar, fmooth, on the upper fide of a dark 
green colour, underneath paler and mining, twice 
pinnated, the leaves pinnatifid and deeply cut 
in, the fmall leaves or pinnulae oval and termi- 
nating in a fine point. The Sheaths at the 
bafe of the foot-ftalks fmall, fmooth and mem- 
branous at the edges. 

FOOT-STALKS of the flowers, upright and grooved. 

UMBEL: the univerfal umbel fpreading, the inner 
radii gradually fhorter, the inmoft very fhort ; 
the partial umbel like the univerfal. 

INVOLUCRUM : the universal Involucrum wanting, 
the partial one placed externally, and only 
furrounding one half of the umbel, compofedof 
three very long, linear, and pendulous leaves, fig. 1. 

COROLLA: five unequal, heart-fhaped, white Petals, 
bent in at top, the outer ones largeft, fig. 2. 

STAMINA : five white Filaments the length of the 
Corolla, bending in: Anthers white, fome- 
times reddifh, fig. 3. 

PISTILLUM : Germen placed below the corolla, and 
crowned by a glandular fubftance of a greenifh 
colour : two Styles firft upright, afterwards 
bending downward : Stigmata blunt, fig. 4. 

SEED-VESSEL wanting : the Fruit or unripe feed of 
an oval roundifh fhape, ftriated, and dividing 
into two parts, fig. 5. 

SEEDS two, of a pale brown Colour, convex and deeply 
ftriated on one fide, flat on the other, and 
marked with a figure of an oval pointed fhape, 

ONE of the principal advantages refulting to mankind from Botany, is the rightly afcertainirig thofe plants 
which are med for food, from thofe which are known to bepoifonous. It not unfrequently happens that both 
thefe kinds of Herbs grow in the fame foil, nay often in the fame bed together, and fo fimilar are they in their gene- 
ral appearance* that the indifcriminating eye of the common obferver readily miftakes the one for the other, and 
hence difeafes fatal in their confluences fometimes enfue. To point out then the moft obvious diftinetions between 
fuch kinds of plants, is not only our bufmefs but our duty. 

The FooVs Parjley feems generally allowed to be a plant which poflefTes poifonous qualities. 

Baron Haller has taken a great deal of pains to collect what has been faid concerning it, and quotes many 
authorities _ to fhew that this plant (on being eaten) has been productive of the moft violent fymptoms, fuch as 
anxiety, hickcou^a, and a delirium even for the fpace of three months, ftupor, vomiting, convuliions and death : 
He fufpects however that the common Hemlock may fometimes have had a fhare in producing thefe fymptoms, as he 
finds in authors that the Fool's Parfley had been u'fed by a whole family without any bad effect, although he ima- 
gines this might be owing to the fmallnefs of the quantity eaten. As a corroborating proof of its deleterious quality, 
LiNNiEus aflerts that itproves fatal to geefe if they happen to eat it. 

Altho' it feems rather ^ doubtful whether it be fo poifonous to mankind as is reprefented, yet it will perhaps be 
moft prudent fo confider it as fuch, until future experiments mail determine its effects with more certainty. 

The plants to which this bears thegreateft refemblance, are common Garden Parjley and common Hemlock, Conium macu- 
Iatum ', this fimilarity has been obferved by moft Botanic Writers, fome of whom have called it a kind ot Hemlock 
others a kind of Parfley ; it differs however confiderably from both thefe Genera. The colour of its leaves alone,' 
is nearly fufficient to diftinguifh it from Parfley ; thofe of common Parfley are of a yellowi/h green colour, thofe of Fool's 
Parfley of a very dark green, and much more finely divided ; the leaves of Parfley when bruifed have a /rong but not 
di/agreeable/mell, thofe of Fool's Parfley have very little fmell in them. Thefe marks if attended to are fufficient 
to diftinguifh the leaves of thefe two plants, and in the ftate of leaves they are moft liable to be taken for one ' another, 
as they grow together in Gardens. Where much Parfley is ufed, the Miftrefs of the houfe therefore would do' 
well to examine the Herbs previous to their being made ufe of; but the beft precaution will be always to fow that 
variety called curled Parfley, which cannot be miftaken for this or any other plant. 

It is diftinguifhed from Hemlock by being in every refpect fmaller, and not having that ftrong difagreeable fmell 
which characterizes the leaves of that plant; the ftalk likewife is not fpotted as in the Hemlock; and laftly it is 
diftinguifhed from all our umbelliferous plants by the three long, narrow, pendulous leaves which compofe its partial 
Involucrum, and which are placed at the bottom of each of the fmall Umbels. 

It grows very common in Gardens, and all kinds of cultivated ground, and flowers in July and Auguft. 

Qyazmfac ^Jnt/jrt/a/j 



Ma — f-*t .. la jfi 


SCANDIX 'Linnaei Gen. PI. Pentandria Digynia 
Rati Syn. Gen. n. umbelliferje herb^s 
SCANDIX Anthrlfcus feminibus ovatis hifpidis, corollis uniformibus, caule Isevi. tatim Syjl. Vegetal, p, 

237. Flor. Sueclc. p. 93. 
CAUCALIS vaginis lanuginofis, foliis triplicato-pinnati?, feminibus roftratis. Mailer lift. n. 743, 
MYRRHIS fylveftris, feminibus afperis. Bauhin pin. 160. Parkinfon 935. Ger. eniac. 1038. Rail Sym p, 
220. Small Hemlock-Chervil with rough Seeds. Hud/on FL Angl p. 108. Jaquin Flor,' 
Aujlriac Vol. 2. p. 35. tab. 154. 

RADIX annua, parva, albida, fubinfipida. | ROOT annual, final!, whitim, with little tafte* 

CAULIS pedalisad tripedalem, fsepe altior, fubere&us, f STALK from one to three feet high, frequently taller, 

teres, fiftulofus, Levis, ad genicula tumidus et | nearly upright, round, hollow, fmooth, fwelled 

fubftnatus, plerumque vmdis. and flightly ftriated' at the joints, and moft 

I commonly green» 

FOLIA. Vagina ad bafin foliorum magna, margini- f LEAVES. The fheaths formed by the bale of the leaves 
bus lanugmofis ; Folia mollia, tenera, multi- | are large and downy at the edges : the leaves 

plicate pinnata, hirfutula, ex luteo-virentia. | foftj tender, many times pinnated, fnghtly 

f hairy, and of a yellowim green colour. 

INFLORESCENTIA Umbella Umbell;e oblique, | INFLORESCENCE an ^^'the Umbel ls oblique, 
pedunculate: Pedunculus unlverfalis Radii s | ftanding on footltalks, ' the general or univerfal 

brevior Radii umverfales 3 -~ 5 . gkbn, partia- | footftalk fhorter than the RAdii ; the univerfal 

£S 2 t Radii from 3 -to 5, the partial Radii from 

I 2 to 6l 

CALYX : Involucrum univerfale nullum. Partiale plerum- | CALYX. 7he univerfal Invoke rum wanting, the Partial 
quepentaphylliim , fohohslanceolato-acuminatis, | one generally compofed of five leaves, which 

cihatis, perfiftentibusjfe. 1 .- are poilited} ha1ry £ ^ ^ .^ ^^ 

I * U 

COROLLA: PETALAquinque minima, fubequalia, | COROLLA: five Petals very minute near lv equal 
alba, fubcordata, apabus mflexis. fg. 2 . \ white? Wwhat hea A^^17^S 

white, lomewhat heart fhaped, the tips bending 

STAMINA: Filament a quinque, petalis paulo bre- f STAMINA: five Filaments a little fhorter than &„ 

viora ; Anther, pnmum virides, dein fufc* | Petals ; the An^M^^ 

6 3 ' I brown, Jig. 3. 

PISTILLUM: Germen oblongum, inferum, fubcOm- * PT^TTT T tta/t. .1, r> ,1 

preflum, hirmtum, Styli duo braves fi? < I PISTILL ™' ^e ^«men oblong placed beneath 

Dreves. jig. 5. * the Corolla, flattiffi. and roue-h. t-wn !^vt^ 

the Corolla, flattiffi, and rough, two Styles 
I very fhort^V. 5 . 

If 1 ^ O J 

SEMINA duo oblonga, e fufco-nigricantia, hific ful- f SEEDS two, oblong, of a dark brown colour on one 

hl°^ V C ° aVeX i' T ftrata ' piHs ri S idis I fide flat and S rooved ' * «*» other convex! 

hamatrs unique aspera^. 6. J runnings toa point, and prickly with ftiff 

? ; hooked hairs, Jig. 6. 

^^^^^^^^^^'^^f b ^ plants, frequently hath been 
is no clafs of plants which S r T. P , he health ot md ™ d uals- At the fame time that there 

there is none pe^^s ± ch affords mlr e'»E or 1" ^ ^f ^ '^^ ° f --«^tion than This 
diftinftions may be drawn from the 7 a /t Zft,Z T? T T,t- °r 8ene , nC ^ f P ecific diffe ™ce. Obvious 
more or lefs U^. hS t ta wffi^ft r0U S h ; -> d « others, 
parts of F™sjfcli afford the moft pTeafit anTfcie, tifir ^ ft 7 ^ ! an , d In °i,'? ers ' but coarfely fo ; but the 
general and partial 7» TO / a cr«« the dumber man/ Th <> ^ 1 ^!^ ma *s„ The abfence, or prefence of the 
pofe the umbell, ^eJ^^X!^.^^^^^^ the number of the Radii which com- 
a knowledge of 'theft plants ea% aTquired ' " ^ ***** ^^^^o( the W,, all unite to render 


In the firftlnd fecond volumes of h£ >Si ^™ ?? 1 , r^, h f C ^f^ f ° WeU aS the «kbnted Jacobin. 

to the Ifock of botanic >^*&£^&J^&£&g£r " """ ^ ^» 

the^edft ipTnrlu^ WcT!; tLts^n^ H ^lft ^^ '" ^ ^ rfM ^ - 
puts on fomewhat th e J appearan^aerf he Common Hemlori- h T P met ™ e | ^H .from growing in a moift fituation, it 
if attention be paid to the following Par?icXs The tw Tl* ^ ? d ! ftln S ul ' hed from that poifonous plant, 
flight hairinefsf are more finely dK nd o ^ pair \ een the fclJ^S " , P ? r ^ ^ 00 * ; thefe have * 
Hemlock has a general involucrumwhVht ,K i, S ; the fta! ;t °f the Hemlock is fpotted ; this is not; the 
are rough ; M^^^Tt^tr IF f u 'T"" 5 ; & leeds of the Hemlock are rm °°*, and heft 

its virtuts it flrould ftem , K a?eft aUied? 8 dlfa S reeaUe fme!1 ' thls » ct drfagreeable, but more like Chervil, t'o which la 








ALSINE Linnai Gen. Pi. Pentandria TrigyniA» 

Cal 5-phyllus. Petala ^-asqualia. Caps, i-locularis, 3-yalvis» 
Rail Syn. Gen. 24. HerR^: Pentapetal;e Vasculiferje* 
ALSIN& media* Linnai Syjl. Vegetab. p. 246. Flora Suecic. p. 37. 
ALSINE foliis petiolatis, ovato lanceolatis, petalis bipartitis* Hatler hijl. helv. m 88cu 
ALSINE media. Scopoti FI. Carn'wl. n. 376* 
ALSINE media. Bauhin pin. p. 250. 

ALSINE media feu minor. Gerard emac. 611. Rati Syn. f, 347, Common Chlckweed. Hudfon Ft. Angl 
p. 113. Oeder FI» Dan. 525, 438, 

RADIX annua, fibrofa, capillacea. 

CAULES plures, tenelli, teretes, fubrepentes, ramofi, 

viticulis geniculati, unifariam hirfuti, apicibus 

fenfim incrafiatis. 
FOLIA ovato-acuta, glabra, leviter ciliata ; inferiors 

petiolata, fuperiora ieffilia, connata. 

PETIOLI ad balm latiora, hirfuti. 

PEDUNCULI uniflori, axillares, hirfuti, perada floref- 
centia penduli, demum erecti. 

CALYX: PERiANTHiuivipentaphyllum, foliolis lanceo- 
latis, concavis, fubcarinatis, marginatis, hir- 
futis, Petalis longioribus, fig. 1 . 

COROLLA : Petala quinque, alba, nitida, ad bafm 
fere partita, fig. 3, 4, 5. 

STAMINA : Filamenta quinque, alba, inter Petala 
locata, Glandula ad bafin inftrucla ; Anthers 
fubrotundse, purpurafcentes, Jig. 5, 6. 

PISTILLUM : Germen fubovatum ; Styli tres fili- 
formes ; Stigmata fimplicia, fig. 7. 

PERICARPIUM : Capsula unilocularis, in valvulas 
fex dehifcentes, fig. 8. 

SEMINA o£lo ad quindecem, fubreniformia, afpera, e 
fufco-aurantiaca, pedicellis receptaculo connexa, 
- fig- 9> IO > aua - 

ROOT annual, fibrous, capillary. 

STALKS numerous, tender, round, ftrikiiig root here 
and there, branched, jointed and ftringy, hairy 
on one fde only, growing thicker towards the top. 

LEAVES of a pointed oval fhape, fmooth, (lightly hairy 
at the edges, the lowermoft {landing on foot- 
ftalks, the uppermoft feffile, connate» 

FOOT-STALKS of the leaves broadeft at bottom, and 

FOOT-STALKS of the flowers, each fuftaining one 
flower, proceeding from the bofoms of the leaves* 
hairy, when the flowering is over hanging- 
down, finally becoming upright. 

CALYX > a PERiANTHiuMoffive leaves, each of which 
is lanceolate, concave, nightly keel-fhaped at 
bottom, with a margin at the edge, hairy, and 
longer than the Petals, fig. 1. 

COROLLA confifts of five white mining Petals, di- 
vided nearly to the bafe, fig. 3, 4, c k 

STAMINA: five white Filaments, placed betwixt 
the Petals, furnifhed at bottom with a little 
Gland ; Antherje roundifh, of a purplifh. 
colour, fig. 5, 6. 

PISTILLUM : Germen fomewhat oval ; Styles three, 
filiform; Stigmata Ample, fig. 7. 

SEED-VESSEL a Capsule of one cavity, fplitting 
into fix valves, fig. 8. 

SEEDS from eight to fifteen, fomewhat kidney-maped, 
of a brownifh orange colour, with a rough fur* 
face, connected to the receptacle by little 
foot-ftalks, fig. 9, 10, magnified. 

CHICKWEED being a plant which will grow in almoft any fituation, is confequently liable to afliime many 
different appearances : when it grows in a rich foil, and fhady fituation, it will frequently become fo large as to 
referable the Cerajlium aquaticum ; while at other times, on a dry barren wall, its leaves and ftalks will be fo minute 
as to make the young botanift take it for fome fpecies different from the common Chickweed : happily however it 
affords marks which if attended to, will readily diftinguifh it from the Cerajlium, and every other plant • exclufive 
of its differing from the Cerajlium in its generic chafer, its Petals are fhorter than the leaves of its Calyx • while 
in the Cerajlium they are longer ; hence a considerable difference will be obfervable at firft fight in the fize'of the 
flowers of thefe two plants : and from all other plants related to it, it may be diftinguifhed by the fingular appear- 
ance of its ftalk, which is alternately hairy on one fide only. b 

The molt common number of its Stamina with us is five ; yet I have often feen it with lefs, and fometimes with 
more ; and this mconftancy in the number of its Stamina has been noticed by moft botanic writers : Gouan in his 
Flor.Monfpel. mentions from 3 to 10, with as many Piftilla ; this circumftance with refpeft to the number of its 
Stamina, unfortunately Separates it from other plants with which it appears to have by nature a very near relation • 
but as five Stamina appear to be its moft conftant number, Linn^us could not have placed it amongft thofe plants 
with ten Stamina, without doing violence to his fyftem. 

Of annual plants there are few more troublefome: it fows itfelf plentifully in the fummer, and remains green 
throughout the winter, flowering during the whole time, if the weather be mild: but its chief feafon for flowering 
is in the fpnng. In rich garden mould, where the ground is highly cultivated, and in the fields about town it 
does a dealofmifchief: by the quicknefs of its growth and the great number of its moots, it covers and choaks 
many young plants ; hence it mould be carefully weeded from dunghills. 

The feeds are very beautiful, and have the greateft affinity to thofe of the Cerajlium aquaticum. 

When the flowers firfr open, the foot-ftalks which fupport them are upright; as the flowers so off they 
hang down ; and when the feeds become ripe, they again become erected. 

LiNNiEUS has obferved that the flowers open from nine in the morning till noon, unlefs rain falls on the fame 
day, m which cafe they do not open : from what little obfervations I have made on this plant, it is not mbied to be 
affected precifely m the fame manner here, having feen in the month of March, the bloffoms continue rather widely 
expanded after repeated fhowers of rain. J 

It is considered as a wholefome food for Chicken and fmall Birds, whence, as Ray obferves, it has obtained its 
name : boiled it refembles Spinach fo exactly as fcarcely to be diftinguifhed from it, and is equally wholefome, being 
a plant which may be procured almoft any where very early in the fpring, it may be no bad fubftitute where 
Spinach or other greens are not to be had in plenty, and much preferable to Nettle-tops and other plants which the 
lower fort of people feek after 111 the fpring with fo much avidity. Swine are very fond it, and prefer it to Turnep-tops 
It is eaten by many Infects, particularly by the Caterpillar of the Phal.ena Villica or Cream [hot Tmer Moth and 
other hairy Caterpillars of the Tyger kind. 

. , As a medicine if contains no aftive principle; but is frequently applied to hot, painful, and infiamatorv fwellmgs 
either by itfelf, brmfed, or mixed with poultices, with good fuccefs, ' ° ' 


ss-leaved Heath. 

ERICA Linnai Gen. PL Octandria Monogynia. 

Cal. 4-phyllus. Cor. 4-fida. Filamenta receptaculo inferta» Anther* bifidse. 
Caps. 4-locularis. 

Rati Syn. Arbores et Frutices. 
ERICA tetralix foliis quaternis ciliatis, floribus capitatis imbricatis. 
ERICA tetralix, antheris ariftatis, corollis ovatis, ftylo inclufo, foliis quaternis ciliatis, floribus capitatis, 

Linn. Syjl. Vegetab. p. 302. Fl. Suecic. n. 32*7. 
ERICA ex rubro nigricans fcoparia. Bauhin Pin. 486» 
ERICA Brabantica folio Coridis hirfuto quaterno. /. B. 1.-358. 
ERICA pumila Belgarum Lobelio, fcoparia noftras. Parkin/on. 1482. 
ERICA major flore purpureo. Gerar d emac. 1382 Rati Syn. p. 471, Low Dutch Heath or Befome Heath* 

Hudfion FL Angl. p. 144. Oeder PL. Ban. icon. 81. 

CAULES fruticofi, dodrantales ant pedales, ramofi, | STALKS fhrubby, about nine or twelve inches high, 

fufci, fcabriufculi ex relictamentis foliorum. | branched, roughiih from the remains of the 

t leaves which have fallen off. 

FOLIA quaterna, ovato-linearia, patentia, prope flores $ LEAVES growing by fours, of an oval-linear fhape, 

cauli adpreffa,, marginibus infiexis, ciliatis, ciliis t fpreading, near the flowers prefled clofe to the 

glandula terminatis, fuperficie fuperiore plana, | ftalk, the edges turned in and ciliated or hairy, 

inferiore concava. % each of the hairs terminating in a fmall round 

| globule, the upper furface flat, the inferior 

I furface concave. 


FLORES fecundi, imbricati, in capitulum congefti, | FLOWERS hanging down one over another all one 

3: way, forming a little head, of a pale red colour. 


CALYX : Perianthium hexaphyllum, foliolis hirfu- 
tis, duo inferiora ovato-lanceolata, caetera li- 
-nearia,^-. 2. 

COROLLA ovata, monopetala, ore quadrifido, laciniis 
reflexis, fig. 3. 

STAMINA: Filamenta oclo, fubulata, alba, corolla 
breviora, receptaculo inferta ; Antherje fagit- 
tatae, conniventes, purpureas, biforaminofae, 
bicornes, fig. 4, 5, 6. 

PISTILLUM : Germen cylindraceum, fubfulcatum, 
villofum, glandula ad baiin cin£tum, fig. 7, 8 ; 
Stylus filiformis, purpurafcens, fig. 9; Stig- 
ma, obtufum, fig. 10. 

CALYX : a Perianthium of fix leaves, the leaves 
hairy, the two lowermoft of an oval-pointed 
fhape, the reft linear, fig. 2. 

COROLLA oval, monopetalous, the mouth divided into 
four fegments, which turn back, fig. 3. 

STAMINA: eight Filaments, tapering, white, fhor- 
ter than the Corolla, inferted into the recepta- 
cle ; Antherje arrow-fhaped, clofing together, 
purple, having two apertures for the difcharge 
of the Pollen, and two little horns, fig. 4, 5. 6. 

PISTILLUM: Germen cylindrical, flightly grooved, 
villous, furrounded at bottom by a gland, 
fig. 7, 8 ; Style filiform, purplifh, fig. 9, 
Stigma blunt, fig. 10. 

PERICARPIUM: Capsula fubrotunda, villofa, apice I SEED-VESSEL: a roundifh Capsule covered with a 
truncata, quadrivalvis, /g. 11, 12. $ kind of down, cut off as it were at top, hav- 

I ing four valves,^. 11, 12. 

SEMINA plurima, minuta, flavefcentia, fig. 13, 14. ¥ SEEDS numerous, minute, and yellowifti, fig. 13, 14. 

THIS fpecies of Heath, though not applicable to fuch a variety of ufes as fome of the ethers, is not in- 
ferior to any of them in the beauty and delicacy of its flowers, which in general are of a pale red colour, 
but fometimes they occur entirely white. 

It is obvioufly enough diftinguifhed from the reft, not only by its flowers growing in a kind of pendulous 
clufter on the tops of the ftalks, but by its leaves alfo, which growing by fours on the ftalk, form a kind of 
erofs ; thefe are edged with little ftiff hairs, each of which has a fmall globule at its extremity. 

At the latter end of the Summer it contributes its fhare with the others to decorate and enliven thofe large 
tracts of barren land which too often meet the eye in many parts of this kingdom. 

It delights to grow in a moifter fituation than fome of the others, and will thrive well enough in gardens, 
if taken up either in Spring or Autumn with a quantity of earth about its roots: this is neceflary, as the 
Heaths in general bear transplanting ill. 





Polygonum Bistorta. The greater Bistort or 

Snake-weed, f 

POLYGONUM VmnmGen. PL Octandria trigynia. 

Raii Synopfis, Genus quintum. Herbje flore imperfecto seu stamineo, (vel apetalo 


POLYGONUM Biftorta caule fimpliciffimo, monoftachyo, foliis ovatis in petiolum decurrentibus. Linnai 

Syji. Vegeiab. p. 311. 
POLYGONUM radice lignofa contorta, fpica ovata, foliorum petiolis alatis. Haller. Hifl. v. 2. 258. 
COLUBRINA Sen Serpentaria fcemina. Fufchii icon. 774. 
SERPENT ARIA mas five Biftorta. Fufchii icon. 773. 
BISTORTA major radice minus intorta. Bauhin. Pin. 192. 
BISTORTA major radice magis intorta. Bauhin. Pin. 192. 

BISTORTA major Gerard ' emac 399. major vulgaris Parkinfon 391. Raii Synopfs 147. Hudfon. Fl. Angl 
146. Flor. Dan. Ic. 421. 

RADIX perennis, craffitie digiti, plus minufve in- | ROOT perennial, the thicknefs of one's finger, more or 
torta externe caftanea, interne carnea, fibris | lefs crooked, externally of a cheinut, internally 

et ftolonibus plurimis inftructa. % of aflefli colour, furnifhed with numerous fibres 

I and creepers. 

CAULIS pedalis aut bipedalis, fimplex, fuberectus, fo- | STALK from one to two feet high, fimple, nearly upright, 
lidus, articulatus, (geniculi tumidi) teres, laevis. ? folid, jointed, (the joints fwelled,) round and 

I fmooth. 

STIPULE vaginantes, apice membranacse, marcefcentes, | STIPULE enclofing the Stalk as in a fheath, at top 

ore obliquo. $ membranous, withered, the mouth oblique. 

FOLIA cordato-lanceolata, undulata, fubtus caerulefcen- | LEAVES : _ the bottom leaves fomewhat heart fhaped and 
tia, glabra, inferiora in petiolos decurrentia, fu- % pointed ; waved at the edges, fmooth, under- 

periora amplexicaulia in ftipulas defmentia. | neath blueifh and continued down the footftalks, 

I the upper leaves embracing the ftalk, and ter- 

% minating in the ftipulae. 

FLORES fpicati, fpica oblongo-ovata, denfa. | FLOWERS growing thickly in a fpike, the fpike of 

% an oblong oval fhape. 

BRACTE/E membranaceae, marcefcentes, biflores, bi- | FLORAL LEAVES membranous, and withered, con- 
valves, valvula inferiore tricufpidata cufpide | taining two flowers and having two valves, the 
medio longiore quaii ariftata, flores pedicellati, % lower valve three pointed, the middle point 
pedicellis calyce longioribus. I running out into a kind of arifta or beard, the 

% flowers growing on footftalks which are longer 

I than the Calyx. 

CALYX ' live COROLLA fubovata, quinquepartita, | CALYX or COROLLA, of an oval fhape and flefh 
carnea, laciniis ovatis, obtufis, concavis. fig. 1.3.? coloured, divided into five fegements, which are 

I oval, obtufe, and concave, fig. 1. 3. 

STAMINA: Filamenta o£to, fubulata, alba, corolla | STAMINA : eight Filaments, tapering, white, and 
longiora, Antherte biloculares, purpurafcentes, % longer than the Calyx ; the Antherje bilocu- 

incumbentes. fig. 2. | lar, purplifh, and laying acrofs the filaments. 

? fig- 2 - 

PISTILLUM: Germen triquetrum, fangumeum, Styli | PISTILLUM the Germen three fquare, of a deep 

tres longkudine ftaminum ; Stigmata parva, | red colour, three Styles the length of the 

rotunda. fig. 5. 6. 7. f Stamina; the Stigmata fmall and round. 

I fig- 5- 6- 7- 

NECTARIUM. glanduhe rubrae in fundo calycis, fig. 4. | NECTARIUM : feveral fmall red glands in the bot- 

t torn of the Calyx, fig. 4. 

SEMEN triquetrum, fufcum, mucronatum, nitens, ver- | SEED : triangular, brown, pointed, and mining as It 
nice quafi obducturn. fig. 8* | varnifhed. fig. 8. 

WHEN a Plant not intended to be cultivated, in any refpecl prevents the growth of one which is the objecl of 
Cultivation, fuch a plant, however beautiful, may with propriety be called a Weed ;' nor will the elegance or utility 
of the Biftort, fecure it in the eftimation of the Farmer, from that appellation. 

This Plant generally grows in moift Meadows, and flowers in May and June ; when it has once taken root, it 
propagates very faft, and frequently will form large patches, to the exclufion of a confiderable portion of the Grafs ; 
nor is it deftroyed but with the greateft difficulty. Happily, our Farmers about Town are pretty much ftrangers to 
this Plant, as it is met with but rarely. It grows plentifully in a Meadow by the fide of Bfijop'sstFbod near Hamjfiead y 
and my obliging Friend Dr. Allen informs me he has found it about Batterfea. 

As an aftringent Medicine, the Biftort appears to poflefs confiderable virtue, and as fuch may with propriety be 
made ufeof in all cafes where aftringents are required ; but more particularly in long continued evacuations from the 
Bowels, and other difcharges both ferous and fanguineous. It is recommended alfo to faften teeth which are loofe, and 
may be ufed either in powder, infufion, or extract. If it could be procured in fufficient quantity to make it anfwer, 
it might well be applied to the purpofe of tanning Leather. 

In fome parts of England the leaves are eat as a Pot-herb-, 

///r/f>/?M///z/Tersiraria . 


Polygonum Persicaria. Common spotted 

e r s i c a r i a. 

POLYGONUM Unmet Gen. PI. Octandhia Trigynia. 

Rail Syn. Gen. 5 Herbje flore imperfecto seu stamineo, vel apetalo potius. 

POLYGONUM Perficaria floribus hexandris femidigynis, pedunculis laevibus, ftipulis ciliatis, fpicis ovato- 
oblongis ereclis. 

POLYGONUM Ferficarla floribus hexandris digynis, fpicis ovato-oblongis, foliis lanceolatis, ftipulis ciliatis, 
Lin. Syji. Vegetab. p. 312. Flor. Sued c. p. 130. 

POLYGONUM foliis ovato-lanceolatis, fubhirfutis, fpicis ovatis, vaginis ciliatis. Hallcr. hiji. Heh. v. 2. p. 257. 

PERSICARIA mitis maculofa et non maculofa. Bauhin. Pin. p. 10 1. 

PERSICARIA maculofa Gerard, emac. 445. vulgaris mitis feu maculofa. Parkinfon. 856. Rail Syn. ed.y p. 145. 
n. 4. Dead or fpotted Arfmart. Hudfon Flor. Angl. p. 147. n. 4. Scopoli Fl. C.rniol p. 279. 

RADIX fimplex, fibrofa. | ROOT iimple and fibrous. 

CAULIS ereftus, ad bairn aliquando repens, pedalis ad | STALK upright, fometimes creeping at bottom, from 

tripedalem, ramofus, teres, glaber, ad genicu- | one to three feet high, branched, round, fmooth, 

los fenfim incraflatus, fsepe rubens : fub geni- | gradually thicker at the joints, often of a red 

culis punctaradicalia difcernantur quamvis huic | colour : a little beneath each joint fome radical 

fpeciei non propria. % points are obiervable, which however are not 

I peculiar to this fpecies. 

RAMI alterni, e fingulo geniculo prodeuntes, patentes, | BRANCHES alternate, proceeding from each joint, 

fepe diffufi. I fpreading, frequently very much fo. 

STIPULE vaginantes, liquore vifcido fsepe replete, | STIPULE embracing the ftalk, frequently full of a yif- 

ciliatae. IP cid liquid, and terminated by long cihaeor hairs, 

FOLIA lanceolata, fubpetiolata, margine nervoque me- | LEAVES lanceolate, with fhort foot-ftalks, the edge 

dio fubhirfutis, utrinque lsevia, macula ferrum % and midrib (lightly hairy, fmooth on both fides, 

equinum quodammodo referente fiepius notata. | in general having a large fpot on the middle of 

J the leaf fomewhat like a horie Ihoe. 

PEDUNCULI laeves. \ FOOT-STALKS of the flowers, fmooth. 

FLORESfpicati,rofei,SpicaBterminales,erecl:aB,fubovat£e. | FLOWERS growing in fpikes, of a bright rofe colour, 

J the lpikes terminal, upright, of a fomewhat 

\ oval lhape. 

CALYX: Perianthium quinquepartitum, coloratum, % CALYX: aPERiANTHiuM divided into five fegments, 

perfiflens, fegmentis ovatis obtufis, fig, 1, 2. | coloured, and periifting the fegments oval and 

™ROLLA nulla. _ _ | COROLLA wanting. 

STAMINA: Filamenta fex funao calycis inierta Ion- | STAMINA: fix Filaments iilferted into thi : 

gitudme corollas Antherje rubentes, /#. 2. ? of the Calyx, the length of the Corolla ; the 

I Anthers redifh, fig. 2. 

PISTILLUM: GERMENovatum, compreilum, aut trique- % PISTILLUM : Germen oval and flat, or three fquare, 

trum, fig. 3, 6. Stylus ad medium ufique bifidus | fig. 3, 6. Style divided down to the middle into 

' fiepe trfdus, fig. 5, 8. Stigmata duo aut . tria $ two, often into three parts, fig. 5, S. Stigmata 

fubrotunda, fig. 4, 7. | two or three, and round, fig. 4, 7. 

SEMEN unicum, nitidum, aut fubovatum, acuminatum, | SEED one, mining, either of an oval pointed fliape and 

ad unurn latus leviter convexum ; Jig. 9, 11, aut ? {lightly convex on one fide, fig. 9, 11. or 

tngonum, fig, 10, 12. * three- fquare, fig. 10, 12. 

The very great fimilarity which exiits between the feveral fpecies of the Polygonums, has occafioned no fmall de- 
gree of trouble to Botanifts, in rightly ascertaining the limits of each Species and Variety ; a difficulty not to be 
overcome while Books are confuked more than Nature. Senfible of the truth of this obfervation, and earneftly 
defirous of arriving at fome certainty on this iubje£t, we have examined a vaft number of all the different Species and 
Varieties of Polygonum which our neighbourhood affords, compared them with one another, fown the ieeds, and 
cultivated many of them ; and if we do not deceive ourfelves, have reduced fome of the more difficult ones to 
their true Species and Varieties. 

As what we relate concerning thefe plants is no more than the refultof the moll: accurate and repeated investigation, 
aflifted by the microfcope, we mail be the leis concerned becaufe we differ from Authors of the moll reipectable 

The writer who gives an account of all the known plants in the univerfe, cannot be fuppofed to have the oppor- 
tunity of being fo minute in his enquiries as one who defcribes the plants of a particular fpot, which as they grow 
are conitantly the objects of his attention. 

We have ventured to alter Linnaeus's Specific defcription of this plant, which ftands thus. 

Polygonum floribus hexandris digynis, fpicis ovato-oblongis, foliis lanceolatis, fiipulis ciliatis. to 
Polygonum floribus hexandris femidigynis, pedunculis lavibus, fiipulis ciliatis, fpicis ovato-oblongis ereftis. 

We have not made this alteration from an idle delire of differing from fo great a Man, whom, we truly reipecl and 
revere, but folely to make the diftinclions betwixt thofe plants more obvious, and thereby add our mite to the 
general flock of Botanic knowledge. In fpecific defcriptions, the diftinguilhing marks mould as much as poffible 
be contraiied or oppofed to each other, in thefe plants this does not feem to have been fafhciently attended to. What 
we have principally in view by altering the Specific defcription is to diftinguifh it from the Polygonum Penfylvanicum 
and its varieties, of which there are feveral, and to which the Polygonum Perficaria in its general habit is exceeding 
nearly allied. 

In all the flowers of this Species which we have examined, the Style has been divided juft half way down, 
hence we have called the flowers Semidigyni, had it been divided down to the bafe they would with propriety have 
been called Digyni. In moft of the flowers the Style is divided into two parts, and the Germen is a little convex 
on each fide, in fome of the flowers the ftyle is divided into three, hence thofe flowers might be called Semi- 
trigyni, and when this is the cafe the Germen is always triangular. In the Polygonum Penfylvanicum the Style is di- 
vided nearly to the bafe, this difference then in the divilion of the Style, is of coniiderable eonfequence in diftinguilh- 
ing the two Species and their varieties from each other. 

The footilalks which fupport the flowers in this Species, are quite fmooth, in the Polygonum Penfylvanicum, they 
are belet with a great number of minute glands, which gives them a manifeft roughnefs, and contributes to charac- 
terife that Species. 

The Stipuke are furnifhed with long Ciliae or Hairs, particularly towards the top of the plant, in the Polygonum 
Penfylvanicum thefe are wanting. Thefe two plants likewife differ much in the form of their feeds, of which we ihall 
fpeak more fully in our account of the latter. 

The flowers always grow in upright fpikes of an oval fliape more or lefs round; by thefe two characters this 
Species is at once diitinguiihed from the Polygonum Hydropiper,, the fpikes of which are fit 'form and pendulous. 

The leaves are moil commonly fpotted, but this is neither coiiftant nor peculiar to this Species, and difference of 
fize only forms the principle variety to which it is 'fubjecr.. 

It grows exceedingly common in ail our Ditches, and flowers in Auguft and September ; its biofToms are beautiful 
and lail a coniiderable time, was it not fo common, it would probably bethought worthy of a place in our Gardens. 

No particular virtues or ufes are attributed to it. 

Polygonum Pensylvanicum. Pale - flowered 


POLYGONUM Unnai Gen. PL Octandria Trigynia. 

RaiiSyn. Gen. 5. Herb;eflore imperfecto seu Stamineo(vel apetala potius,) 
POLYGONUM floribus hexandri?, digynis; flipulis muticis ; pedunculis fcabris ; feminibus utrinque 

POLYGONUM floribus o&andris digynis, pedunculis hifpidis, foliis lanceolatis, flipulis muticis. 

Linnxi Syjl. Vegetal. Sp. Plant, p. 519. 
PERSICARIA mitis major foliis pallidioribus. D. Bobarti, Dead Arfmart the greater with pah leaves. 
Rail Syn. ed. 3./. 145. Hud/on Fl. Angl. p. 148. 

RADIX fibrofa, annua. 

CAULIS tripedalis circiter, teres, glaber, fiftulofus, 

ramofus ; rami patentes, geniculis maxime in- 

FOLIA ovato-lanceolata, fupra glabra, fubtus glandulis 

punctata, fiepe pubefcentia, ciliata, nunc ma- 

culata nunc immaculata. 

PETIOLI fubtus hirfuti, fcabriufculi. 
STIPULE bafi nervofe, muticae. 

PEDUNCULI pilis brevibus glanduliferis fcabri.j%\ 1. y 

FLORES herbacei, pedunculis brevibus infidentes, denfe 
glomerati, fpicae ovatas, feminibus maturis fub- 


laciniis o- 

CALYX : PeriANTHIUM qumquepartitum 

vatis, obtuiis, fig. 2, 3. 
COROLLA nulla. 
STAMINA: Filamenta fex, fubulata, alba, Corolla 

paulo breviora ; Anthers biloculares ; Pol- 
len globofum, Jig. 4. 
PISTILLUM : Germen fubovatum ; Stylus fere ad 

bafin diviius ; Stigmata duo fubrotunda, 

Jig, 5, 6. 
SEMEN cordatum, acuminatum, comprefTum, medio 

deprefium, nitidum, Jig. 9, 10, magnit. nzt.jig. 

7, 8, lente audi, fubinde obtufe triquetrum, 


ROOT fibrous and annual. 

STALK about three feet high, round, fmooth, hollow* 

branched, the branches fpreading, and the 

joints very much fwelled. 
LEAVES of an oval pointed fhape, fmooth on their 

upper furface, underneath dotted with fmall 

glands, and often downy, edged with little 

hairs, fometimes with and fometimes without 

FOOT-STALKS of the leaves hairy underneath, with 

a flight roughnefs to the touch. 
STIPUL/E rib'd at bottom, and not terminated by any 

FOOT-STALKS of the flowers rough with little glands. 

fig- 1. 

FLOWERS of a greenifh colour, fitting on fhort foot- 
stalks, and growing thickly together ; fpikes 
oval, and when the feeds are ripe drooping 
a little. 

CALYX: aPERiANTHiUM divided into five fegments, 
which are oval and obtufe, fg. 2, 3. 

COROLLA wanting. 

STAMINA : fix Filaments, tapering, white, a little 
fhorter than the Corolla ; Anthers bilocular ; 
Pollen globular, J$g\ 4. 

PISTILLUM: Germen fomewhat oval; Style divi- 
ded, nearly down to the bafe ; Stigmata two, 
roundifh, fg. 5, 6. 

SEED heart-fhaped, pointed, flat, with a deprejfion in 
the middle, mining,^. 9, 10, of its natural 
fize, fig. 7, 8, magnified, fometimes obtufely 
triangular, fig. 1 2. 

it here figured, is the Perficaria mitis major foliis pallidioribus, D. Bobarti, and which is particularly 
the 3d. edition of Ray's Synopfis, p. 145 : from the confonancy of this defcription, with that which 

The plant 
defcribed in tr. 

Linnjeus had given of the Polygo?ium 'Penjyhanicum, in the 3d. edition of his Speices Plantarum, Mr. Hudson fet it 
down in his Flora as that fpecies : and Linnjeus, in the kit edition of his Syfiema Vegeiab. as a confirmation of our 
Englifn Polygonums, being the fame with his Penfylvanicum, quotes Bob arts's defcriptive name. 

By Ray^ Linnaeus, and Hudson, then, it is made a diitincl fpecies ; by Haller it is confidered as a variety 
of the Polygonum Perficaria ; but as the Baron forms his judgment from dried fpecimens that were fent him, in which 
many of the diftinguifhing characters of this plant would be unavoidably loft, he feems the moft likely to be miftaken : 
I fhall therefore join in making it a diftincl fpecies ; and I truft fhall give fuch ftriking additional characters, as will 
fettle this matter beyond difpute. 

The true Polygonum Penjyhanicum (for there are feveral varieties of it) has the greateft affinity with the Polygonum 
Perficaria, but differs from it in the following particulars, viz. place of growth, fize, ftipulae, leaves, foot-ftalks of 
the leaves, foot-ftalks of the flowers, ftyle, and feeds. 

While the Polygonum Perficaria ufually delights to grow by the fides of moift ditches, the Penjyhanicum prefers a 
richer and more luxuriant foil ; and fo common is it with us about town, that there is fcarce a dunghill on which it, 
may not be found : indeed in its attachment to this particular foil, it refembles many of the Chenopodiums or Oraches. 
Was it never to occur in other fituations, fome might be ready to fufpect. that it was a variety of the Perficaria anfing 
from richnefs of foil ; but it is frequently found in other places : and I remember once to have feen the Polygonum 
Perficaria, Hydropiper, and Penjyhanicum, all growing by the fide of a ftream within fix inches of each other. 

In its moft common ftate it is much larger than the Polygonum Perficaria, and its joints in particular are more fwelled ; 
its Stipule are much more ftrongly rib'd at bottom, and have no Cilias ; its leaves are broader, the veins fomewhat 
deeper, and more ftrongly marked ; the hairs on the edges of the leaves more vifible, but particularly fo under the 
foot-ftalk of the leaf, to which they give a manifeft roughnefs : in the uppermoft leaves the under fide is generally 
dotted with very minute glands, while in the lowermoft it is covered with a kind of down : this laft character, though 
contrary to what Linnaeus aflerts, is never feen in the Polygonum Perficaria ; but in this fpecies it is always more or 
lefs predominant. The foot-ftalks of the flowers are thickly befet with little yellowifh glands, ftanding on _ fhort 
foot-ftalks, which fometimes extend halfway down the plant ; this appearance never or exceeding rarely occurs in the 
Polygonum Perficaria: the flowers are of a pale or greenifh hue, and form thicker and largerfpikes than in the Polygonum 
Perficaria, and when ripe are fo heavy as frequently to hang down a little: the Style is divided very nearly down to 
the Germen, while in the Polygonum Perficaria it is divided only half way ; and this divifion of the Style, I look upon 
as one of the moft conftant and certain criteria of this fpecies : laftly the form of the feeds contributes not a little to 
the farther afcertaining and fixing it ; in the Perficaria the feeds are either triangular, or of a pointed oval fhape, with 
a little convexity on each fide ; in this fpecies it is in general flat, with a deprejfion on each fide ; it is alfo larger and 
broader ; now and then a feed occurs forming an unequal triangle, but thefe are very rare, while the triangular feed 
is moft frequent in the Polygonum Petficaria, 

Polygonum Pensylvanicum. var. caule maculato. 
Spotted-stalk'd Persicaria. 

PERSICARIA latifolia gemculata, caullbus maculatis. D. Rand, Rail Syt& p> 145. 
PERSICARIA maculofa procumbens foliis fubtus incanis. Rail Syn, p. 146. eadem eft planta folo 
autem minus lseto proveniens. 

Such then is the difference, which from repeated examinations, I have been able to difcover betwixt the Polygonum 
Perjicaria and the Penjylvanicum in its moil common ftate ; in this ftate however it does not always occur, but is fub- 
je& to more Varieties than any of our other Perfcaria s : without any defire of multiplying them, I make the follow- 
ing, having found them all about London: 

1 Polygonum Penjylvanicum, var. caule et jloribus rubris, 

2 . caule maculato. 

3 , foliis fubtus incanis* 

The nrft of thefe varieties is very often found with the true fpecies on dunghills, as alfo in corn-fields, and is like 
it in every refpecl: excepting its colour, the ftalks and flowers being' red, but not fo beautifully bright as thofe of the 

Polygonum Perfcaria, 

The fecond variety here figured, which indeed comes near to a diftincl: fpecies, grows much in the fame 
fituations, and oftentimes with the Polygonum Perjicaria in the ditches about St* Georges-fields, particularly in a 
large ditch on the right-hand fide of the road between the end of Blachnan-Street and Newington, where it is very com- 
mon in the month of September, It not only differs from the other in having its ftalk fpotted with red, a cha- 
racter which it keeps very conftantly, but its fpikes are much flenderer, rather more fo even than thofe of 
the Perfcaria, of a red colour, but not quite fo bright as thofe of that plant : the under fide of the foot-ftalk 
of the leaves is remarkably rough ; the little glands on the foot-ftalks of the flowers, and the parts ojf the 
fructification are fimilar to thofe of the true fpecies, but the feeds are fmaller : when this variety grows in the 
rich foil abovementioned, it is full as large as the Penjyhankum itfelf ; but when it grows in a different foil and fitua- 
tion, as on the watery parts of Blackheath and Peckham-Rye, it becomes much fmaller, generally has its leaves white 
underneath, and wilf certainly be taken for the Polygonum Perfcaria if not attentively examined : its fpotted ftalkand 
the roughnefs of the foot-ftalks of the leaves will however readily difcover it. 

The third variety, with leaves hoary on the under fide, is found here and there in corn-fields and other places, 
where the foil is not very rich, and is obvioufly enough diftinguifhed. 

Befides thefe ftriking varieties, it is fubjecT:, like all other plants, to vary infize according to the richnefs or poverty 
of the ground on which it grows, and like the Polygonum Perfcaria, its leaves are fometimes fpotted and fometimes not. 

This defcriptive account will perhaps appear tedious and uninterefting to fome ; if however by thefe practical ob- 
fervations, the obfcurity which has hitherto dwelt on this difficult Genus, lhall in fome degree be removed, and the 
road of inveftigation made eafier to the young Botanift, I lhall think my time ufefully employed ; I would not how- 
ever wifh him to take upon truft what is here advanced, but to examine each plant and its feveral parts for himfelf; 
thus he will become improved, and be able perhaps to throw a ftill greater light on the fubjecl. 

The Sparrow and other fmall Birds are very fond of the feeds of this fpecies and its varieties : but the 
Farmer ihould carefully weed them from his dunghills. 

Polygonum Hydropiper. Biting Persicaria or 

Water Pepper. 

POLYGONUM Linnai Gen. PL Octandria Trigynia. 

Cal. o. Cor. 5-partita, calycina. Sent. 1, angulatum. 

Ral Syn. Gen. Herbje flore imperfecto seu Stamineo vel apetalo potius. 
POLYGONUM Hydropiper floribus hexandris femidigynis ; foliis lanceolatis, undulatis, immaculatis ; 

fpicis filiformibus nutantibus. 
POLYGONUM Hydropiper floribus hexandris femidigynis, foliis lariceolatis, ftipulis fubmuticis. Linn. 

Syfi. Vegetab. p. 312. 
POLYGONUM foliis ovato lanceolatis, fpicis florigeris, vaginis calvis. Hatter, hlft. p. 256. n. 1 554* 
POLYGONUM Hydropiper. Scopoll FL Carnlol. n. 467. 
PERSICARIA urens feu Hydropiper. Bauhln. pin. 10 1. 
PERSICARIA vulgaris acris feu minor. Parkin/on. 856. 

HYDROPIPER. Gerard, emac. 445. Rail Syn. p. 144. Water-pepper, Lakeweed or Arfmart. Hudjbtr 
FL Angl. p. 148. 

RADIX annua, fibrofa. 

CAULIS erectus, ramofus, bail nonnunquam repens, 
pedalis ad tripedalem, geniculis incraifatis, de- 
mum ruberrimus. 

FOLIA lanceolata, undulata, e viridi flavefcentia, glabra. 

STIPULE ciliata?. 

FLORES fpicati, fpica tenues, demum nutantes. 

CALYX : Perianthium quadripartitum, glandulls mi- 
nimis adfiperfium, laciniis obtufis, concavis, Jig. 
1 ' 2 5« 

COROLLA nulla. 

STAMINA : Filamenta fex alba ; Anthers albae 
biloculares, jig. 3. 

PISTILLUM: Germen ovatum; Stylus bifidus, ad 
medium ufque divifus ; Stigmata duo, ro- 
tunda, fig. 4, 5. 

SEMEN ovato-acuminatum, caftaneum, fig. 6. 

ROOT annual and fibrous. 

STALK upright, branched, fometimes creeping at bot- 
tom, from one to three feet high, the joints 
fwelled, finally becoming very red. 

LEAVES lanceolate, waved, of a yellow iih green colour 
and fmooth. 

STIPULE ciliated. 

FLOWERS growing in fpikes, which are Jlender and 
finally drooping. 

CALYX : a Perianthium divided into four fegments, 
fiprlnkled with very minute glands, the fegments 
blunt and hollow, fig. 1, 2, 3. 

COROLLA wanting 

STAMINA fix white Filaments; Anthers white 
and bilocular, fig. 3. 

PISTILLUM: Germen oval; Style bifid, divided 
down to the middle; two round Stigmata, 

fg- 4, 5- 
SEEDS of an oval pointed fliape, and chefnut- colour, 

fg- 6. 

It is one of the maxims laid down by the Author of that fyftem of Botany which at prefent is fo defervedly held 
in efteem, and which I trufr. for the fake of this delightful fcience will for ever withftand the attempts of all thofe 
who frame fyftems merely to raife themfelves into confequence, that in all fpecific defcriptions tafte is to be ex- 
cluded : fome may perhaps be ready to treat this as too dogmatical, but when they come to find that both the 
Hydropiper and Sedum acre, plants which in general are very hot and biting, fometimes are found infipid, they will 
readily adopt it as founded in ftrict propriety. 

The prefent fpecies of Polygonum very properly receives its name of Hyaroplper from its hot and biting tafte, 
which appears to arife from its eflential oil difperfed in little cells or glands all over the plant, but more particularly 
obfervable on the Calyx with a fmall magnifier, and which, if tailed, will be found to be more biting than any 
other part of the plant : this quality which is peculiar to the Hydropiper, generally leaves a ftrong Idea of the plant 
on the mind of the Tyro : but it is has other more invariable characters whereby it maybe diftinguifhed. Notwith- 
standing its obvious difference from the other plants of this genus, apparent even to fuch as know very little of 
Botany, both Scopoli and Haller feem to entertain doubts whether it be really diftincl: from the P. Perficaria 
and P. minus. 

The three plants as they ufually grow, and I have feen them all three grow together, are certainly diftincT: enough : 
but there are fome intermediate varieties which bring them very near together, and perhaps juitify fuch fufpicions : 
a variety of the Hydropiper, fcarce differing in any other refpecl: but its infipidity, I have now and then met with 
in the fame fituation as we ufually find the true fpecies : from the P. Perficaria it differs principally in its leaves, 
fpikes, form and fize of its feeds ; and firfr. its leaves are of a yellower hue, more undulated, and never marked with 
any fpots ; its fpikes are (lender, and when the feeds are ripe they bend and hang down ; the feeds are much larger, 
more acuminated, and of a chefnut colour; its ftipuhe are very evidently ciliated ; though Haller makes their 
want of ciliae one of its ftriking characters; and Linnjeus alfo calls them fiubmutica, which certainly tends to 

It is the only Perficaria that has any pretenfions to be an active medicine : given in infufion or decoction it proves 
diuretic, hence it is made ufe of in the Dropfy and Jaundice; and the diftilled water of it is recommended by Boyle 
as efficacious in the Stone and Gravel: Linnaeus informs us that the plant will dye Woolen cloth of a yel- 
low colour. 

Although the herb is fo acrid, the feeds are infipid and nutritive. 

It is found in great abundance in all thofe places which lie under water during the Winter, flowers in Sep- 
tember, generally a month later than the P. Perficaria : in expofed places it becomes very red in going off. 

Vl/?M?Z/ Ifydropipcr. 

Polygonum aviculare. Birds Polygonum or 

Knot. Grass. 

POLYGONUM Linnai Gen PL Octandria Trigynia* 

CaL o. Cor, ^-partita, Calyclna» Sent. 1. dngulatum. 

Rail Syn* Gen. 5. Herbje flore imperfecto seu stamineo. (vel apetala pot rus.) 
POLYGONUM avlcuiare floribus octandris trigynis axillaribus, foliis lanceolatis, caule procumbent^. 

herbaceo. Linn. Syf. Vegctab. p. 312. Sp. PL 519. FL Sueclc. n. 339. 
POLYGONUM procumbens, foliis linearibus, acutis, floribus folitariis. Haller h'lfl, m 1560. 
• POLYGONUM aviculare. Scopoll FL Carnlol n. 471. 
POLYGONUM mas vulgare. Gerard emac. 451. 
POLYGONUM mas vulgare majus. Parkinfon 443. 
POLYGONUM feu Centinodia. /. Bauhin 3. 374. Rail Syn. p. 146. Hudfon FL Angl. p. 149. 

RADIX annua, fimplex, lignofa, multis fibris donata, 
terram firmiter apprehendensut extirpatu diffi- 
cilis fit, fapore adftringente. 

CAULES plures, plerumque procumbentes, interdum 
vero fuberectl, dodrantales, ramofi, tenues, 
ftriati, lasves, teretes, geniculati, ad geniculos 
paululum incraflati. 

FOLIA quam maxime variantia, ovata, lanceolara aut 
etiam linearia, alterna, lasvia, e vaginis ftipu- 
larum prodeuntia. 

STIPUL/E vaginantes, membranaceae, albidse, nitidas, | 
apice fibrofas. $ 


FLORES axillares, e vaginis ftipularum cum foliis I 

prodeuntia. % 


CALYX : Perianthium quinquepartitum, laciniis o- | 

vatis concavis, patentibus, dimidio inferiore % 

viridi, fuperiore albo, faepe colorato, fg. 1, 2. I 



COROLLA nulla. ! 

ROOT annual, fimple, woody, furnifhed with many 
fibres, taking ftrong hold of the earth, fo as to 
be with difficulty pulled up, and of an aftrin- 
gent tafte. 

STALKS feveral, generally procumbent, fometimes 
nearly upright, about nine inches in length, 
branched, {lender, ftriated, fmooth, round, 
jointed, the joints a little fwelled. 

LEAVES varying exceedingly, oval, lanceolate, or 
fometimes even linear, alternate, fmooth, 
proceeding from the fheaths of the Stipuke. 

STIPULiE forming a fheath round the joints, mem- 
branous, white, mining, at top fibrous. 

FLOWERS axillary, proceeding with the leaves from 
the fheaths of the Stipulae. 

CALYX : a Perianthium divided into five fegments, 
the laciniae oval, concave and fpreading, the 
lower half green, the upper half white and 
often coloured, fg. 1, 2. 

COROLLA wanting. 

STAMINA: Filamenta octo corolla breviora ; An- I STAMINA : eight Filaments morter than the Corolla, 

THERiE flavae, fg. 2, audi. % Anthers yellow, fg. 2, magnified. 


PISTILLUM : Germen triquetrum; Stylus longi- f PISTILLUM : Germen triangular ; Style the length 

tudine ftaminum, trifidus; Stigmata tria, t of the Stamina, trifld ; Stigmata three, round, 

rotunda, fg. 3, audi:. 

fg. 3, magnified. 

SEMEN triquetrum, nigricans, intra calycem, fig. 4. | SEED triangular, of a blackifh colour, contained with- 

| in the Calyx, fig. 4. 

Thofe plants which have been obferved to be eaten by cattle, have often obtained the name of Grafs, al- 
though they have not poflefied the leaft fimilitude to thofe which are real Grades, and the prefent plant is one 
of thefe. Cattle in general are fond of it, and hogs in particular eat it with great avidity. The feeds afford 
fuftenance to many of the fmall birds, whence it has acquired the name of aviculare. The Caterpillar of the *Phalama 
rumlcls (with us the Knot-grafs Moth,) I have frequently found feeding on its leaves, although it is by no means 
confined to this plant : in Sweden, Linnaeus informs us it feeds on the Dock (Rumex,) and Sow-fhlfk. 

This fpecies of Polygonum may be confidered as one of our moft common plants; it delights to grow in a 
fandy or gravelly foil, on banks, and by the fides of roads and paths, being of quick growth, and fpreading 
a great deal of ground ; it often covers whole fields, that by turning in of cattle, have had their natural coar. 
of grafs deftroyed. 

Where a plant of this fpecies happens to grow fingly in a rich foil, it will often cover the fpace of a yard 
or more in diameter, and the leaves become broad, and large ; but when it grows very thick together, by the 
fides of paths, it is in every refpedt fmaller, and the ftalks are more upright. It is fubjedr., like moft other 
plants, to feveral varieties, and of thefe are the Polygonum brevl anguftoque folio, and the Polygonum oblongo angiiflo- 
que folio of C. Bauhine. 

It has been confidered by antient writers, as poflefling fome medical virtue, particularly as an Aftringent, 
and is by them recommended in Diarrhaeas, Dyfenteries, Bleeding at the nofe, and other Hemorrhages ; but in 
the prefent practice, its ufe feems juftly fuperfeded by more efficacious medicines. 

*Vii> Dan, Faun. Sued?, p. $18, », 1200, Roefel, gl, z, Pap. AW?, t. 27. Albinlnfttt. pit 22, 

01/2/00- ?i uni sffu ?iu>j . 

2 S 

4 ♦ 


P E R S I G A R I A. 

POLYGONUM Linmci Gen. PL Octandria TrigyniA, 

Cat. o. Cor. 5-partita calycina. Sem. I, angulatum. 

Raii Syn. Getn 5. HERBiE flore imperfecto seu Stamineo vel apetala potius» 
POLYGONUM minus floribus hexandris, fubmonogynis, foliis lineari-lanceolatis, caule ban repente. 
POLYGONUM minus hexandris digynis foliis lanceolatis, ftipulis ciliatis, caule divaricate patulo. 

Hudfon Fl. Angl. p. 148. 
POLYGONUM foliis ovato- lanceolatis, glabris, fpicis ftrigofis, vaginis ciliatis. Haller. hifl. p. 257. 

»• 1555- 
PER SIC ARIA minor. Bauhin Pin, 10 1 4 ? anguftifolia. Bauhin Pin. 10 1. 3? 

PERSICARIA pulillarepens Ger. emac. 446. Parkin/on, 857. Raii Syn. 145.2. Small Creeping Arfmart. 
PERSICARIA anguftifolia ex fingulis geniculis florens. Mer. Pin. 90? Raii Syn. 145. 3. Narrow- 
leaved Lakeweed. 

RADIX annua, fibrofa. | 

CAULES plures, dodrantales, aut pedales, bafi repentes, | 

demum fuberecti, geniculati, (geniculis paulu- f 

lum incraffatis,) lieves, rubicundi. | 

FOLIA lineari-lanceolata, pene avenia, fupe-rne glabra. | 


STIPULE vaginantes, ciliatae. % 


• . i 

SPIC^E tenues, parum nutantes, e fingulis geniculis | 

prodeuntes. t 

CALYX : Perianthium quinquepartitum, perfiftens, | 

coloratum, laciniis obtuiis concavis,^. 1. ^ 

COROLLA nulla. | 

STAMINA: Filament a fex ; Anthers biloculares, | 

albae, intra Corollam. f 

PISTILLUM : Ger men ovatum aut triangulare ; Sty- | 

lus filiformis, apice bifidus aut trifidus ; Stig- f 

mata duo aut tria rotunda, renexa, fig. 2, 3. | 

SEMEN aut ovato-acutum aut triangulare, caftaneum, | 

magnitudinis fere et formae feminis Polygoni t 

Perficariae, fig. 4, 5^ | 

N. B. Omnes partes fructificationis lente augentur. ^ 

ROOT annual, and fibrous. 

STALKS feveral, about nine inches or a foot high, 
creeping at bottom, then becoming nearly upright, 
jointed, (the joints fomewhat thickened,) 
fmooth, of a reddifh colour. 

LEAVES betwixt linear and lanceolate, fcarcely any ap- 
pearance of veins, onthier upper furface fmooth. 

STIPULiE forming fheaths round the joints, and 

SPIKES flender and a little drooping, proceeding from 
each joint of the ftalk. 

CALYX : a P'erianthium divided into live fegments, 
which are obtufe and hollow, fig. r. 

COROLLA wanting. 

STAMINA fix Filaments; Anthers bilocular, 
and white, within the Corolla. 

PISTILLUM : Germen oval or triangular ; Style 
filiform, at top bifid or trifid ; Stigmata two 
or three, round and turned back, fig. 2, 3. 

SEEDS oval or triangular, of a chefnut colour, nearly 
of the fame fize and fhape as the Polygonum 
Perficaria, fig. 4, 5. 

N. B. All the parts of the fructification are magnified. 

If the opportunity of feeing this plant growing wild had ever occured to the celebrated Swedifh Botanift, he would 
doubtlefs have confidered it as a diftinct fpecies ; at prefent he has placed it in the laft edition of his works, the 
Syfiema Vegetabilium, as a variety of the Polygonum Perficaria, probably milled by dried fpecimens of the plant : 
thofe who truft to fuch are exceeding liable to deceive both themfelves and others, particularly in plants whole 
parts of fructification (from which it is fometimes neceflary to draw fpecific differences) are very minute — thofe in 
the living plants are with difficulty enough diftinguifhed, and in dried fpecimens not to be inveftigated. 

Whoever has obferved the appearance which the Polygonum minus and Perficaria ufually put on, mull have been 
ltruck with the great diffimiiarity of the two in their general habits ; and if they have taken the pains to examine the 
parts of fructification, they will, I am perfwaded, be convinced that both Mr. Ray and Hudson are juftifiable 111 
making them diftinct fpecies. 

It differs from the Polygonum Perficaria in its fize, growth of its ftalk, fhape of its leaves, form of its fpikes, and 
divifion of its Piftillum. In height it feldom exceeds a foot, whereas the Perficaria often occurs a yard high ; the 
ftalk of this fpecies creeps at bottom, in the Perficaria it never does : it is true in the Perficaria, and moit of the 
Polygonums, a number of little roots pufli themfelves out at the joints, which are next the ground ; but in this fpecies 
the ftalk at bottom is absolutely procumbent," whilft in the Perficaria it is always upright ; the leaves are much nar- 
rower, approaching rather to linear than lanceolate, and on their upper furface have much lefs appearance of veins, 
than in the Perficaria-, the fpikes, inftead of being oval or nearly round, and upright, as in the Perficaria, are {lender 

and a little drooping : the Piftillum, which is apart of very great confequence in determining many of the fpecies a 
varieties of this genus, is (lightly divided at top only ; while that of the Perficaria is divided halfway down ; her 



as I have called that fpecies femidigynous, I have called this fubmonogynws. 

Hitherto I have met with this, plant growing wild no where but in Tothill-fieUs i Wefiminjler, where it makes ample 
amends for its fcarcity elfewhere, being found in the greateft abundance in the watry parts of thofe fields, along with 
the Sifymbrium fiyhefire in the month of September, when it is in full bloom. 

At prefent it does not appear that it has any thing more than its fcarcity to recommend it to our notice. 

Butomus umbellatus. Flowering Rufil, or Water Gladiole. 

BUTOMUS Linnai. Gen. PL Enneandria Hexagynia, 

Raii Syn. Gen. 17. Herbje multisiliquje seu corniculatje. 
BUTOMUS umbellatus. Linn. Spec. Plant, p. 532. 
JUNCUS floridus major. Bauhin. Pin. p. 12. 
GLADIOLUS paluftris Cordi. Gerard, -emac. p. 29» 

Raii Syn. ed. 3. p. 273. Hudfon. Fl. Angl. p. 152. Scopoli Flor. Cam. 

Bailer. Hi ft. PL Heh. vol. 2. p. Si. 

2. p. 283. 

RADIX perennis, alba, tuberculofa, tranfverfa, edulis ? 
ex inferiore parte radiculas pradongas dimit- 

SCAPUS pedalis ad orgyaleixij teres, glaber. 

FOLIA triquetra, fpongiofa, fig. 1, fcapo breviora, ad y 
bafin fpathacea, apicibus comprems, tortuofis. | 


FLORES in Umbella, ad triginta; pedunculi digi- | 
tales, e vaginis membranaceis prodeuntes. % 

CALYX : iNVOLucRUMtriphyllum, foliolislanceolatis, 

COROLLA : PETALAfex, inaequalia, fubrotunda, con- 
cava, rofea, Jig. 2, alternis minoribus, acu- 
tioribus, fig. 3. 

STAMINA : Filamenta novem, fubulata,^. 4, 5. 
Antherje infidentes, dum pollinem involvunt 
oblongs, rubras, quadrifulcatze, mucrone brevi 
terminate, fig. 6, 7, emiffo polline iubcordatae, 
compreflae, bilamellofae, fig. 4 : Pollen fla- 

PISTILLUM : Germen fubtriangulare, latere exte- % 
riore latiore, convexo, fig. 9, 10 : Styli fex | 
fubulati, fig, 8 : Stigma canaliculatum. ^ 


ROOT perennial, white, knobby, tranfverfe, eatable* 
from its under lide fending down a great num- 
ber of very long fibres. 

STALK round, fmooth, from one to five or fix feet 
high, according to its place of growth. 

LEAVES triangular, fpongy, fig. 1, morter than the 
ftalk, at bottom fheathy, at top flat, and 

FLOWERS numerous, to thirty, each on a fingle 
peduncle of about a finger's length, forming 
an Umbell, furrounded at bottom by wither- 
ed membranous (heaths, 

CALYX : an Involucrum of three leaves, fpear fha- 
ped, and withered. 

COROLLA: compofed of fix Petals, which are 
foundifh, concave, and rnoft. commonly of a 
bright red, fig, 2 : the three exterior fmaller, 
and more pointed, fig. 3. 

STAMINA: nine Filaments, tapering,^. 4, 5. 
Antherje fitting on the filaments, before the 
fhedding of the Pollen, oblong, reddifh, ha- 
ving four grooves, and terminated by a fliort 
point, fig. 6, 7, appearing afterwards fome- 
what heart-fhaped, flat, and as if compofed 
of two lamellae, fig. 4 : the Pollen is of a 
bright yellow colour. 

PISTILLUM: the Germen nearly triangular, the 
outer fide broad and roundifh, fig. 9, 10 : fix 
Styles, tapering: the Stigma has a fmall 
channel in it, which afterwards fpreads into 
two lips, fig. 11, 12. 

PERICARPIUM: Capsule fex, oblongae, attenuate, | 
erectae, univalves, apice bilabiatse, introrfum f 
dehifcentes, fig. 11,12. ? 

SEMINA plurima, minuta, oblonga, fufca, fig. 13. % SEEDS numerous, fmall, oblong, brown, fig. 

SEED-VESSEL: fix Capsules, oblong, tapering, 
upright, of one valve, opening inwards, 
fig. 11, 12. 

l 5' 

WE find this ftately plant, in and by the fides of our watery ditches, flowering from July to September. A 
few years fince, it was found growing in St. George' 's Fields ; but the improvements making in that, and other parts 
adjacent to London, now oblige us to go farther in fearch of this, and many other curious plants. About the 
Ifland oi St. Helena, near Deptfiord, and in the Marines by Blackwall, it is found in great abundance, although very 
fcarce in many other parts of Great Britain. Fifh ponds, or other pieces of water, would derive great beauty 
from the introduction of this elegant native of our llle ; the handfome appearance of which, did not efcape our 
countryman, old Gerard, who defcribes it thus : " The Water Gladiole, or Grafly Rufh, of all others, is the 
" faireft and moft pleafant to behold, and ferveth very well for the decking and trimming up of houfes, becaufe 

,'•** of the beautie and braverie thereof." That accurate obferver Ray, defcribes its time Stamina, although in his 

time, they were not viewed in that confequential light which they are in our prefent Syilems of Botany. It is the 
only plant of the clafs Enneandria, which grows wild in this kingdom. If vegetables were clafled according to their 
natural affinities, this would rank among the Lilies. Cattle do not eat it. It is lo hardy a^ to bear the cold of Lapland. 




Saxifraga granulata. White Saxifrage. 

SAXIFRAGA Linnai Gen. PL Decandria Digynia. 

Calyx quinquepartitus. Corolla pentapetala. Capfula biroftris, unilocularis, 

Rail Syn. Herb^: pentapetala vasculifera. 

SAXIFRAGA granulata foliis caulinis reniformibus lobatis, caule ramcfo, radice granulata. Linn. Syfi. 

Vegetal \ p. 344. Fl. Suecic, n. 3J2, 
SAXIFRAGA foliis radicalibus reniformibus, obtufe dentatis ? caulinis palmatis. Haller. hijl. helv. n. 976. 
SAXIFRAGA rotundifolia alba. Bauhin Pin. 309. 
SAXIFRAGA alba. Gerard emac. 841. 
SAXIFRAGA alba vulgaris. Parkinfon 424. Rail Syn. 354. Hud/on FL Angl. p. 159. Oeder. Flor, 

Dan. 514. 

RADIX. Fibris hujus radicis glomeratim adnafcuntur ? RQQT. 

plurimi bulbilli, extus rubefcentes aut flavef- f 

centes, intus alhidi, faporis primum adftringen- $ 

tis, poftea amari et ingrati, | 

CAULIS plerumque fimplex, pedalis, fubramofus, teres, t STALK 

hirfutus, prefertim ad bafin, parum foliofus. 1 

To the fibres of the root of this plant, adhere 
in clufters a number of fmall bulbs, externally 
red or yellowiih, internally white, of a tafte at 
firft aftringent, afterwards bitter and difagreeable. 

generally fimple, about a foot high, a little 
branched, round, hirfute particularly at bottom, 
furnifhed with but few leaves. 

FOLIA radical/a petiolis longis, hirfutis, ban" latis inii- 
dentia, reniformia, hirfutula, Jobata, lobis ob- 
tufis ; caulina ficut adfcendunt petiolis breyiori- 
bus gaudent donee tandem feffilia fiunt, lobi 
foliorum acutiora evadunt, apicibus rufefcenti- 

CALYX "• Perianthium quinquepartitum, hirfutulum, 
fubvifcidum, laciniis ovato-acutis apice rufis, 

fg- *: 

COROLLA: Petala quinque alba, patentia, apice 
rotundata, bafi anguftiora et venisflavelcentibus 
notata, fig. 2. 

STAMINA ; Filamenta decern fubulata ; Anthers 
ovatas, compreflae, infidentes, rlavge, biloculares, 
quorum quinque Pollen primum emittunt, hinc 
longiores, fig. 3, 4. 

PISTILLUM : Germen fubrotundum, inferum, glandu- 
la faturate viridi cinclum, fig. 7; Styli duo 
Staminibus breviores, incurvati, fig. 5 ; Stigma 
concavum, fig. 5, demum expandens, fig. 6. 

LEAVES which grows next the root placed on long hairy 
foot-ftalks with a broad bafe, kidney-ihaped, 
flightly hairy, divided into obtufe lobes, thofe 
of the Jlalk, as they afcend, are furnifhed with 
fhorter foot-ftalks, 'till they gradually become 
feffile, the lobes more acute, and the tips of 
a reddifh colour. 

CALYX : a Perianthium divided into five fegments, 
hirfute and fomewhat vifcid, the laciniae of an 
oval pointed fhape, and red at the tips, fig. 1 . 

COROLLA : five Petals, white, fpreading, round at top, 
at bottom narrower, and ftriped with yellowiih 
veins, fig. 2. 

PERICx^RPIUM : Capsula fubovata, biroftris, 
laris, pallide fufca, fig. 8. 

SEMINA numerofa, rninutimma, nigra, fig. 9. 

% STAMINA : ten Filaments tapering ; Anthers oval, 

I flat, fitting on the Filaments, yellow, bilocu- 

I lar, five of them fhed the Pollen firft, hence 

? they become longer than the others, fig. 3, 4. 


f PISTILLUM : Germen roundifh, placed below the 

t Calyx, furrounded by a gland of a deep green 

X colour, fig. 7 ; Styles, two, fhorter than the 

$ Stamina, bending inward, fig. 5; Stigma hol- 

| low, fig. 5, finally expanding, fig. 6. 


? SEED-VESSEL: a Capsule of a fhape fomewhat oval, 

I and pale brown colour, having two beaks or 

$ horns, and two cavities, fig. 8 


I SEEDS numerous, very minute, and black, fig. 9. 

THE Root of this fpecies of Saxifrage, by means of which it is chiefly propagated, affords the young Botanift a 
very good example of the Radix granulata, being compofed of a number of little grains or bulbs, connected together 
in clufters by the fibres ; fome of thefe bulbs are folid and entire, not unaptly refembling in fhape the bulbs of Onions ; 
L^i.^~„ f^^^A r-^or-, nt- tv>n inJ fn^m <-o Kpmmnnfp^ r\f <n nnmKAr r\f frmci mnl^ nr leftp.r bulbs, thefie are offpn of nbriobf- 

. lu accompany molt of the plants of this Genus. The two Styles, 
which at 'firft are fhort, with a hollow Stigma, fig. 5, quickly grow much longer ; the Stigmata fpread open, fo that 
they referable in fome degree a pair of tea-tongs, fig. 6. 

This plant does not occur fo frequently with us as many others : according to Mr. Hudson, it is common about 
Wandfiworih ; I have frequently gathered it in the fields about PecBam, and lately have found it in great abundance 
much nearer town, viz. in the fields called Lock-fields, on the right hand fide of Kent-fireet Road, at the back of, and 
contiguous to Mr. Driver's Nurfery Gardens : it delights to grow in dry paftures which have a gravelly bottom ; 
flower's in May, and produces its feeds in the month following. When double, it ferves, with many other 
BritifiV plants, to ornament the gardens of the curious. 

Like many other plants, this feems to owe what little importance it has in medicine to the doctrine of fignatures, 
which has moft unphilofophically introduced a number of plants into our Materia Medica. As the root bore fa great 
a refemblance to little ftones, it was concluded it muft be efficacious in the ftone and gravel, for which difeafes it has 
been recommended, but there are no accounts of its fuccefs to be depended on. If it does poflefs any medical virtue, 
it mould appear from the tafte of the root to be that of an aftringent. 

-jmuxn.J%hr**f*fcaf t 

9 /<■> 

Sedum album. White-flowered Stonecrop. 

SEDUM Linmei Gen. PL Decandria Pentagynia. 

Cal. 5 fidus. Cor. 5-petala. Squamce nectariferas 5, ad bafin germinis. Caps. 5. 
Rail Syn. Gen. 17. Herbje multisiliqu^ seu corniculat^e. 

SEDUM album foliis oblongls obtufis teretiufculis feffilibus patentibus, cyma ramofa. Linn. Sjfi. 

Vegetab. p. 359. Sp. PI. p. 619. Fl. Suede. 153. 
SEDUM caule glabro, foliis teretibus ; umbellis ramofis ; floribus petiolatis. Haller hifi. heh. n. 959. 

SEDUM album. Scopoti Fl. Cam. p. 324. 

SEDUM minus teretifolium album. Bauhin. p. 283. 

SEDUM minus officinarum. Gerard emac. 512. 

VERMICULARIS five craffula minor vulgaris. Parkin/on 734. Raii Syn. 271. Hud/on Fl. Angl. p. 

171. Oeder. FL Dan. Icon. 66. 

RADIX perennis, fibrofa. J ROOT perennial and fibrous. 


CAULES flexuofe fuper muros repent, dein eriguntur, f STALKS creep on the walls in a crooked form, then 

triunciales circiter, foliofi, rubri. | grow upright, about three inches high, leafy, 

$ and red. 

FOLIA feffilia, oblonga et fere cylindracea, obtufa, non 1 LExAVES feffile, oblong and almoft cylindrical, obtufe, 

admodum conferta, patentia, carnofa, glabra, y but thinly placed on the ftalk, fpreading, 

faepius rubicunda. | flemy, fmooth, and generally of a reddifh colour. 

INFLORESCENTIA : Flores petiolati, in Cymam ra- ? INFLORESCENCE : _ Flowers minding on foot-ftalks, 

mofam confertam difpoiiti. | and difpofed in a thick branched Cyma. 

: ** 

CALYX: Perianthium pentaphyllum, foliolis brevi- t CALYX: a Perianthium of five leaves, which are 

bus, obtufis, Jig. 1. I fhort and obtufe, fig. 1. 


COROLLA: Petal a quinque alba, acuminata, linea | COROLLA: five white Petals, acuminated and gene- 

longitudinali rubra faepius notata, Jig. 2. y rally marked with a longitudinal red ftreak, 

I fii- 2. 

NECTARIUM glandula minima fquamiformis ad bafin ¥ NECTARY a very minute fquamiform gland at thebafe 

fmguli Germinis. fig. 6. I of each of the Germina, fig. 6. 

STAMINA: Filament a decern alba, fig. 2, 3; An- % STAMINA: ten white Filaments, fig. 2, 3; An- 
thers rubras. | ther^e deep red. 


PISTILLUM : Germina quinque, in Stylos totidem % PISTILLUM : five Germina, terminating in fo many 

acuminates definentia ; Stigmata fimplicia, | acuminated Styles ; the Stigmata fimple, 

fig- 4, 5- I fig- 4, 5- 

PERICARPIUM : Capsulje quinque minimae acumi- | SEED-VESSEL: five fmall acuminated Capsules, 

natae introrfum dehifcentes, fig. 7. % opening inwardly, fig. 7. 

SEMINi\ parva, oblonga,v%. 8. | SEEDS fmall and oblong, /3-. 8. 

The Sedum album may be confidered with us as rather a fcarce plant ; it is found here and there on the 

Walls about Town, particularly on the Chapel-wall in Kentj/h-Fown, where it has grown for many years ; alfo 

mould: in fuch a fituation it will grow, flouriih, and propagate itfelf very faft. 

It has been called album, from the colour of its flowers, which generally however have a tinge of red in them. It 
flowers in July. The round and oblong fhape of its leaves readily difringuifhes it from our other Stonecrops. 

Haller informs us that it pofiefles all the virtues of the large Houfeleek, and that he hasufed the juice of 
it in uterine haemorrhages, but does not inform us with what fuccefs. By way of cataplafm it is applied to the 
piles when in a painful ftate, and is faid to have fometimes been made the fame ufe of in cancers with fuccefs. 
By forne it is eaten as a pickle. 

SedumAcre. Common yellow Stonecrop, 

or Wall-Pepper. 

SEDUM. Lininei Gen. PL Decandria Pentagynia. 

Rati Synopjis Gen. ij. Herbje multisiliqu;e seu corniculatje. 

SEDUM acre foliis fubovatis, adnato-feffilibus, gibbis, ere&iufculis, altemis; cyma trifida. Lin. Sy/l. Vegetab. 
p. 3$<). Fl. Sueck. p. 153. 

SEDUM foliis conicis confertis, caulibus ramofis, fummis trifidis. Hatter, hiji. v. i.n. $66. 

SEMPER VI VUM minus vermiculatum acre. Bauhin. pin. 283. 

VERMICULARIS feu Illecebra minor acris. Ger.emac. 517. 

JLLECEBRA minor feu Sedum tertium Diofcoridis. Parkin/on 735. Raii Synop. 270. Hud/on. Pl.Angl.p. 171. 

RADIX perennis, fibrofa. % ROOT perennial, and fibrous. 


CAULES numerofi, caefpitofi, ramofiffimi, palmares, ad | STALKS numerous, growing in tufts, very much 

bafin repentes, dein ere&i, teretes, foliofimmi. ? branched, three inches high, creeping at their 

I bafe, but afterwards growing upright, round, 

I and very leafy. 


FOLIA alterna, conferta, imbricata, fuberecla, adnato- | LEAVES alternate, growing very thick together, and 

feffilia, ovata, obtufa, brevia, carnofa, margine % laying one over another, nearly upright, grow- 

paululum comprefla, glabra, Japore acri. fig. 1. | ing to the {talk, oval, blunt, ihort, flefhy, flat- 

I tened a little at the edges, fmooth, and of a 

I very biting tafie, fig. 1. 

FLORES feffiles, lutei, in Cymas fubtrifidas difpofiti. % FLOWERS feffile, yellow, growing in Cymse fome- 

f what trifid. 

CALYX: Perianthium quinquepartitum, perfrftens, f CALYX: a Perianthium divided into five fegments, 

laciniis craffis obtufiufculis, fig. 2. | and continuing, the fegments thick and 

y bluntiih, fig. 2. 

COROLLA: Petala quinque lanceolato-acuminata, | COROLLA: compofed of five long-pointed Petals 
plana, patentia, Calyce duplo longiora, fig. 3. % which are flat, fpreading, and twice the length 

I of the Calyx, fig. 3. 

NECTARIUM : Squamula minima, alba, ad bafin, % NECTARY : a very minute fcale or gland placed ex- 

iinguli germinis extrorfum pofita,^-. 7. | ternally at the bottom of each Germen,fig. 7. 

STAMINA: Filamenta decern fubulata, longitudine t STAMINA: ten Filaments, tapering, the length of 

Corollas. Anthers flav as, fig. 4. I the Corolla, the Anthers yellow, fig. 4. 


PISTILLUM: Germina quinque oblonga, flava, in | PISTILLUM : five Germina, oblong, yellow, termi- 
Stylos acuminatos defmentia. Stigmata | nating in five long-pointed Styles. The Stig- 

fimplicia, fig. 6. ¥ mat a fimple,^. 6. 

PERICARPIUM : Capsule quinque patentes, acumi- ^ SEED-VESSEL : five Capsules, fpreading, long- 
natse, compreflae, longitudinaliter futura intror- | pointed, flat, opening internally by a longitu- 

fum dehifcentes, fig. 8. | dinal future, fig. 8. 

SEMINA minima, ovata, rufa, fig. 9. t SEEDS very minute, oval, and reddifh brown, fig. 9. 

According to the account which fome medical Writers give of this Plant it appears to pofTefs considerable virtues, 
while others, from the durability of its acrimony, and the violence of its operation, have thought it fcarce fafe to be 
adminiftered. Chewed in the mouth it has a very hot and biting tafte, whence its name of Wall-Pepper. Applied to 
the fkin it excoriates and exulcerates it, taken internally it proves emetic and diuretic. 

The Difeafes in which it has been chiefly recommended are the Scurvy and Dropfy, in both of which, according 
to Linnaeus, it is an excellent remedy; and fome inflances are brought of the efficacy of its juice in Cancers, but 
thefe perhaps, ftand in need of farther confirmation. 

It grows very common on Houfes, Walls, and gravelly Banks, and flowers in June ; it continues but a fhort time 
in bloflbm, but while it lafts its lively yellow colour gives a very pretty appearance to thofe Houfes and Walls which 
are covered with it. 



///// ac 

YiU>/ ^ 


kit Wff 

7 J /■ 

Lychnis Flos Cuculi. Meadow Lychnis, 

LYCHNIS Linnai Gen. PL Decandria Pentagynia. 

Rail Synopfis Gen. 24. Herb.£ pfntapetal;e vasculIferje. 
LYCHNIS Flos Cuculi petalis quadrifidis fru&u fubrotundo. Lin. Sy/I, Vegeiab. p. 361. Sp. PI. tip 
LYCHNIS petalis quadrifidis. Haller. hifi. v. 1. n. 921. 

CARYOPYLLUS pratenfis, lacinkto flore fimplici, five Flos cuculi. Bauhin. pin» 2I0» 
LYCHNIS plumaria fylveftris fimplex. Parkin/on. farad, 253. 
ARMERIU3 pratenfis mas et fcemina. Gerard. Emac. 600, 

Raii Synopt ed. 3, 338. Hud/on. Fl. Angl 174. Oeder. Flor. Dan. tab. 590. Scopoli. Fl 

CarnioL ed. 2. p. 31 1< 

RADIX perennis, fibrofa, ex albido fufca, faporis fub- | ROOT perennial, fibrous, of a brownifh white colour, 
acris. £ and fomewhat biting tafte. 

CAULIS pedalis ad tripedalem, erectus, fulcato-angula- * STALK from one to three feet high, upright, fome- 
tus, articulatus, geniculi tumidi, fcabriufculus, £ what angular and grooved, jointed, the joints 

purpurafcens. fwelled, roughifh, and of a purplifh colour. 

FOLIA Caulis, oppofita, connata, lanceolata, carina- | LEAVES of the Stalk oppofite, connate, lanceolate, 
ta, fuberecta, la3via. | the midrib prominent underneath, upright and 

I fmooth. 

PEDUNCULI oppofiti, plerUmque unico intermedio. | PEDUNCLES oppofite, one generally intermediate. 

CALYX : Perianthium monophyllum, tubulatum | CALYX a Perianthium of one leaf, tubular, quinque- 
quinquedeutatum, decangulatum, purpureum^ £ dentate, having ten angles, or ridges, and of a 

perfiftens. fg. 1 . | deep purple colour. 

COROLLA Petala quinque, unguis longitudine caly^ t COROLLA : five petals, the claw the length of the 
cis, Jig. 2. limbus quadrifidus, laciniis exteri- | Calyx, fg. 2. the limb divided into four laci- 

oribus brevioribus, et anguftioribus, Jig. 4. $ nise, the exterior fhorteft. and narrower!:, Jig. 4., 

ad bafin limbi laminae duae erectae acuta?, fg. 3, & at the bottom of the limb are placed two imall 

I upright laminae, fg. 3. 

STAMINA: Filamenta decern, fubulata, quorum | STAMINA : ten Filaments, tapering, five long and 
quinque breviora, fg. ;, brevioribus ungui peta- £ five fhort, fg. 5. the fhorter filaments affixed 

lorum affixis. fg. 6. . IntherjE oblongae, bilo- | to the claw of each petal, fg. 6. the Anthers 

culares, fg. 7. incumbentes, purpurafcentes. | oblong, bilocular. fg. 7. laying acrofs the fila* 

t ments, and of a purplim hue. 


PISTILLUM Germen fubovatum, fg. 8. Styli quin- | PISTILLUM: the Germen fomewhat oval, fg. 8. five 
que fubulati, fubincurvati, fg. 10. Stigmata & Styles tapering and bending a little inward* 

fimplicia. fg. 10. J fg. I0 . Stigmata fimple. fg. 10. 

PERICARPIUM Capsula ovata, uniloculars, ore 1 SEED-VESSEL : a Capsule, oval, of one cavky, the 
qainquedentato, dentibus reflexis. fg. 9. | mouth having five teeth which turn back. fg. 9. 


SEMINA numerofa, fubcompreffa, fcabriufcula, ex ci- | SEEDS numerous, flattifh, rough, and of a brown afrl 
nereo-fufca. fg. 11. 12. ^ colour. /g. 11. 12. 

A variety of names hath been given to this Plant, as Meadow Pink, Cuckow Flower, Wild Williams, Ragged 
Robin, &c. Meadow Lychnis however feems to us the moft eligible, It abounds in moift Meadows, where it 
flowers in May and June, and is included amongft the great number of which our Meadow hay is compounded. 
Goats, Sheep, and Horfes are faid to feed on it. The ufe to which it is applied, feems to be chiefly ornamental ; 
the beauty of its flowers juftly entitles it (with many other neglected Britifh Plants) to a place in the Gardens of 
the curious : where it is frequently found with a double flower, making a beautiful appearance, and requiring little 
more care in its culture, than to be placed in a moift fituation : It may be propagated either by feeds or flips ; the feeds 
may be found ripe in the latter end of June, by the fides of ditches, where the Mower's Scythe has not reached 
them. We fometimes find the Meadow Lychnis growing wild with a double flower, and fometimes with a white 
one ; but this is altogether accidental. 

The agreement between the blowing of flowers, and the periodical return of birds of pavTage, has been attended 
to from the earliefl ages : Before the return of the feafons was exactly afcertained by Aftronomy, thefe obfervatioM 
were of great confequence in pointing out ftated times for the purpofes of Agriculture ; and ftill, in many a Cottage, 
the birds of paflage and their correfponding flowers affift. in regulating 

"%%e Jhort, and fimple Annals of the Poor* 1 

For this reafon, no doubt, we have feveral other plants that, in different places, go by the name of Cuckow Flower. 
Gerard fays, Cardamine pratenfis (Common Ladies Smock) is the true Cnckow Flower. Shakejpear's Cuckow 
Buds are of < s yellow hue." By fome the Orchis, Arum, and Wood-ibrrel are all called after the Cuckow, 

Jfbunt/rYi fvfe* 

Cerastium aquaticum. Marsh Cerastium or 
Mouse-ear Chickweed. 

CERASTIUM L'mnai Gen. PL Decandria Pentagynia. 

Rail Sy nop. Gen: 24 Herb^e pentapetalte vasculifer^:. 
CERASTIUM aquaticum foliis cordatis, feffilibus, floribus folitariis, fructibus pendulis. Linntei Syfi. 

Vegetal, p. 363. FL Suecic. p. 157. 
ALSINE foliis ovato-cordatis, imis petiolatis, tubis quinis. Mailer, hift. n. 885, 
STELLARIA aquatica. Scopoli FL Carniol. p. 320. 
ALSINE aquatica major. Bauhln. pin. 254. 
ALSINE major. Gerard emac. 611. maxima Parkin/on 759. RaiiSyn.p. 347. Hudfon FL AngL p. 177. 

RADIX perennis, rlbrofa, repens. ? ROOT perennial, fibrous, and creeping. 

CAULES bipedales, debiles, pene teretes, teneri, filofi, £ STALKS about two feet in length, weak, almoft round, 
hirfuti, ramofi, rami alterni. | tender, ftrin gy, hirfute, and branched, the 

I branches alternate. 

FOLIA Caulis feffilia, amplexicaulia, cordato-acumi- i LEAVES of the Stalk feffile, embracing the Stalk, 

nata, margine in fuperioribus prefertim undu- | fomewhat heart fhaped and acuminate, the 

lata, laevia, fubvifcida ; ramorum magis undu- f edge particularly in the upper ones waved, 

lata, petiolata. | fmooth, and fomewhat vifcid ; thofe of the 

branches more waved with fhort footftalks. 


CULI alterni, e dichotomia caulis, unifiori, t FOOTSTALKS alternate, from the forking of the 
poft jlorejcentiam penduli. | Stalk, uniflorous, after the blojfom is gone off 

I pendulous. 

CALYX: PERiANTHiuMpentaphyllum,perfiftens, folio- J CxALYX : a Prianthium of five leaves, perfifting, the 
lis lanceolatis, concavis, iubcarinatis, apice | leaves lanceolate, concave, (lightly keel-fhaped, 

obtufiufculis, hirlutis, margine membranaceis, I bluntifh at top, hirfute, at the edge membra- 

petalis paulo brevioribus. Jig. I. .| nous, and a little fhorter than the Petals, Jig. 1. 

COROLLA: Petala quinque alba, patentia, bipartita, | COROLLA: five Petals white, fpreading, divided 
laciniis oblongis, nervofis, divaricantes, fig. 2. 3. | almofl to the bottom, the laciniae or fegments 

f oblong, nervous, and divaricating, Jig. 2. 3. 

STAMINA : Fil amenta decern, fubulata, alba, re- f STAMINA : ten Filaments, tapering, white, fixed 

ceptaculo inferta, ad bafin et inter petala alterne % to the receptacle, placed alternately, one at the 

locata, fig. 4. qua? inter petala locantur paulo | bafe and one betwixt each petal, fig. 4 ; thofe 

longiora funt et glandula ad bafin inftruuntur | placed between the petals are a little longer than 

fig. 5. Anthers infidentes, biloculares, albae, % the others, and furnifhied at bottom with a gland, 

fin 4. I fig. 5. Anther/E white and bilocular, jig. 4. 

PISTILLUM: Germen fubrotundum, apice fulcatnm, % PISTILLUM : Germen roundifh, at top grooved, five 
Styli quinque albi, filiformes, longitudine | Styles thread-fhaped, white, the length of 

Germinis. Stigmata fimplicia, fig. 6. 4 the Germen. Stigmata iimple, fig. 6. 

PERICARPIUM: Capsula ovata, obfolete pentagona, | SEED-VESSEL: an oval Capsule, (lightly pentangu- 
ore quinquedentato. fig. 7. i lar, the mouth quinquedentate. 


SEMINA rufa, fubreniforrnia, fcabra, 60 numeravi, | SEEDS reddifh brown, rough, about 60 in each capfule, 
fig. 8. 9. i fig. 8. 9 . 

SOME of our modern and mod celebrated fyftematic Botanifls feem very much divided with refpecl to the Genus 
to which this Plant fhould belong. Haller makes it an Atfineox Chickweed '; Scopoli a Stellaria, and Linnjeus a 
Ceraftium. We fhall not pretend to decide who is moft in the right, but only obferve that its general habit or appear- 
ance, and the form of its feeds, might eafily induce Haller to conlider it as an Alfine ; the lhape of its petals, with 
the ftructure of its feeds, would juftify Scopoli in calling it a Stellaria, while the number of its (lyles might lead 
Linnjeus with propriety to place it among the Cerajliums. To us it appears to have the greateft natural affinity with 
the Alfine media or common Chickweed ; it is true Linn^us ranks that plant among thofe which have five Stamina, 
yet it is frequeutly obferved to have more, and the ftrufture of the flower evidently mows it to be formed for having 
ten, and thofe flowers which have not that number may be confidered as imperfect. The Seeds of thefe two plants 
are fo fimilar as fcarcely to be diftinguiflied from each other, and their fralks are procumbent, tender, brittle, and 
(Iringy, indeed they frequently fo much refemble one another, as to oblige the young Botanift to have recourfe to the 
very different fize of their flowers in order to difcriminate them. 

This Plant grows in moift places, on the banks of rivers and by (beams of water, it flowers in July rmd Auguft. 

Scopoli aflerts that the plants of this kind afford excellent food for Kine. 

Euphorbia Peplus. Small garden Spurge 

EUPHORBIA Linnai Gen. PL Dodecandria Trigynia. 

Rail Syn. Gen. 22. Herbje vasculiferje flore tetrapetalo anomalje. 
EUPHORBIA (Peplus) umbella trifida, dichotoma, involucellis ovatis, foliis integerrimis obovatis petiolatis» 

Linn. Syjl. Vegetab. p- 3JS' ^l. Suecic. p. 163. 
TITHYMALUS foliis rotundis, ftipulis floralibus cordatis, obtufis, petalis argute eorniculatis. Hatter, htfl. 

vol. 2. p. 9. n. 1049. 
PEPLUS five Efula rotunda. Bauhln pin. 292. Parlunfon. Gerard, emac. 503. 
TITHYMALUS parvus annuus, foliis fubrotundis non crenatis, Peplus di&us. 
Petty Spurge. Hudfon PL Atigl. p. 1 82. 

Kali Syn. p. 313. n. 9; 

RADIX annua, lignofa, fimplex, nbrofa, albida. | 

CAULIS, iuberettus, docirantalis, teres, glaber, ramo- f 

fu&, bail durior, tenuior, fubruber, foliofus, £ 

- laclifluus. I 

RAMI pauci, fparfi, inferioribus longioribus oppofitis. i 

UMBELLA trifida, dichotoma. I 

FOLIA obovata, petiolata, integerrima, fparfa, obtufius- * 

cula, inferioribus fubrotundis. | 



STIPUL^E umbella fres, ovato-aeutas, petrolis brevibus I 

miidentes, umbellula alterne oppoiitee, feffiles, % 

cordato-ovatae, inaequales, mtegerfknae, bail | 

qua tendit gcrmen quafi excavatae.. | 

CALYX ventricofus, perfiftens. Jig., k | 

COROLLA nulla. ? 

NECTAR I A quatuor blcornlculata, fig. 2. f 

STAMINA plerumque duo, aut tria, vifibilia, exfertat t 

Anthers didymae,. fubrotundae, fig. 3;. f 


PISTILLUMr Germex pedunculatum, nutans, tri- t 

angulare, anguiis longitudiiraliter fulcatis, jig. | 

4, 6 : Stigmata tria, apice bifida, fig. 5. f 

PERICARPIUM : Capsula trlcocca, triiocularls, tri- I 
valvis, valvulis Isevibus, et dum adhuc virides % 
diffilientibus, jig. 6. t 

SEMEN unicum in fingulo loculamento, ovatum, ea- I 
num, alveolatum, appendiculatum, fig. j. t 

N. B. Omnes partes fruclificatioms Iente augentur. | 

MANY of the Spurges confiderably refemble one another, and two of them that have this affinity, grow fre- 
quently together in Gardens, viz. the prefent Spurge, Euphorbia Peplus, and the Sun Spurge, Euphorbia Hello fcopia ; 
they may be difhngmihcd however by the flighteft attention. In the Hello fcopia the leaves are notched or ferrated zt 
the edges, m the Peplus they are entire, in the Hellofcofia the Petals or rather Nectaria are round and entire, in the 
Peplus^ each >s 1 urramed with two little horns, fig. 2 ; there are other marks of diftinction but thefe are the moil ftriking. 

This fpecies grows in Gardens aiid other cultivated ground, and flowers in Autumn. 

The milky fluid which it abounds with, is by fome applied to Warts, which it is faid todeftroy. 

Moil if not all the plants of this Genus contain in them this milky and gummy fubftance, which to the tafte is ex- 
ceedingly acrid ; and this lactifiuous property, joined to the peculiarity of its parts of fructification, point out almoft 
at firft fight tnis natural family of plants. But the botanic Student who would inveftigate this fpecies according 
to the principles of the Lrnnasan Syftem, not having thefe characteristics to affift him, finds a confiderable difficult? 
In learning even the C/afs to which it belongs, nor is it poffible for him to afcertain the Clafs by an examination of 
this or icarce any other Englifh Spurge : the Stamina in the firft place are very minute, it is feldom that more thai?, 
two or three protrude beyond the Calyx, all the reft lye concealed within it, they feldom amount to twelve in number, 
and even if they did amount to that exact number, their minutenefis and the milky juice which flows from the difTec- 
tion, render the enumeration of them fcarce practicable. The Student may however in a great degree furmount this 
difficulty, by an examination of fome plant of this genus, which is larger in every refpeft, and the Euphorbia Lathyris 
improperly called the Caper Tree, ( which is cultivated in many Gardens) will afford him a very good example, and 
tend to give him a clear idea of the flower and fruit of this Angular genus of plants. 

^ I would not be thought on account of this difficulty to inveigh °againft Linn^eus's- Syftem, being fenfible that 
difficulties occur, and muft occur in all botanic arrangements, and inftead of felecling faults infeparable from every 
mode of clafhfication, (which fceins to have been a favourite amufement of fome Authors, and forms indeed the 
greateft part of their writings) I would ufe every endeavour to make it more perfect. 

It is too much the fafhion how, as well as formerly, for every Botanift as foon as he thinks he has fome pretenfions to 
eminence, to fet about the arduous talk of framing a new Syftem ; he may by this means give the public fome idea 
of his felf-confequence, and be inrollcd in the Catalogue of Syftem-makers, but not one jot will he advance the 
fcienceof Botany. It is to be regretted that Botanifts will not be contented with a Syftem, a proof of whofe fupe- 
nority is the almoft general reception it has met with throughout Europe, and unite in their endeavours to render 
that Syftem more cornpleat, by giving us an accurate account of the hiftory of thofe plants not already given, their 
virtues and ufes ; this appears to me to be the true method of advancing this delightful Science, and makino- it ufe- 
full to Mankind. & 

When one Syftem of Botany is generally followed as is nearly the cafe at prefent, Botanifts in different kingdoms 
perfectly underftand each others language, but when each adopts a feperate one, (which is frequently dictated by 
Pride or Caprice) all becomes Babel ; and every one who wifhes to acquire a knowledge of the plants treated of, 
muft at confiderable expence both of time and labour, acquire firft the Authors new-created Syftem-laiiguage, a tax 
which it is hoped every true Botanift will unite to oppofe. 

PvOOT annual, woody, fimple, fibrous and whitifh. 

STALK generally upright, about nine inches high, 
round, fmooth, and branched ; at bottom har- 
der, more flender, and of a reddiih colour, leafy 
and milky. 

BRANCHES few, not growing in any regular order,, 
the lower ones longeft and oppofite. 

UMBEL firft trifid» then dichotomou&. 

LEAVES fomewhat oval, but narrower!: towards the 
bafe, having foot-ftalks, entire at the edges, 
placed in no regular order, fomewhat blunt, 
the lowermoft leaves almoft round. 

STIPULtE of the large umbel three in number, oval and 
pointed, placed on very fhort foot-ftalks ; of the 
jmall umbel alternately oppofite, feftile, of an 
heart-fhaped-oval form, unequal, and entire, 
at bottom on that fide to which the Germen 
tends as if cut away. 

CALYX bellying out and continuing, jig. 1. 

COPvOLLA wanting. 

NECTARIES four, each having two Utile horns, jig.21 

STAMINA feldom more than two or three, which are 
vifible, and placed without the Calyx r Anthe- 
rs two on each filament joined together, of a 
roundifh figure, fig. 3. 

PISTILLUM : Germen placed on a foot-ftalk, hang- 
ing down, triangular, the angles longitudinally 
grooved,^. 4, 6: Stigmata three,, bifid at 

t0 P> fig- 5- 

SEED-VESSEL: a Capsule of three cavities, and' 
three valves, the valves protuberant, fmooth, 
and fplitting with a kind of elafticity even while 
they are of a green colour, fig. 6. 

SEED one in each cavity, oval, grey, with numerous de- 
prejfwns on its jur face, and a little white button 
at one end, fig. 7. 

N. B. AM the parts of fructification are magnified. 


Euphorbia Helioscopia. Sun Spurge or Wart -Wort. 

EUPHORBIA Linnai Gen. PL Dodecandria TrigYNia. 

Cor. 4-f. 5-petala, calyci infidens. Cat. i-phylliis, ventricofus. 
Cap/. 3-cocca. 
Raii Syn. Gen. 22. HerBje vasculiferje, flore tetrapetaLo anomalje. 
EUPHORBIA umbella quinquefida : trifida : dichotoma, involucellis obovatis, foliis cuneiformibus ferra- 

tis. Linn» Syjl. Vegetal, p. 3JJ. Sp. Plant. 658. Fl. Suecic. p. 162. 
TITHYMALUS foliis petiolatis, fubrotundis, ferratis, ftipulis rotundis, ferratis. Haller hift. v. 2. 

p. 10. n. 1050. 
TITHYMALUS heliofcopius. Scopoli Fl. CarnhL p. 337. n. 579; 
TITHYMALUS heliofcopius. Bauhin Pin. 291. Gerard emac. 458. Parkinfm. 189; 
TITHYMALUS heliofcopius five folifequus. /. B. 3. 669. Rati Syn. 313. Hudfon Fl. Angl. p. 183. 

RADIX fimplex, fibrofa, annua^ ? ROOT fimple, fibrous, annual. 


CAULIS ere&us, teres, pilofus, inferne brachiatus, % STALK upright, round, (lightly hairy, below branch- 

brachiis oppolitis. | ed, the branches oppofite. 


FOLIA fparfa, pauca, glabra, ferrata, cuneiformia, in- | LEAVES growing in no regular order, few, fmooth, 
feriora petiolata, fuperiora feffilia. | ferrated, and wedge-fhaped, the lower ones 

% {landing on foot-ftalks, the upper ones feffile. 

UMBELLA quinqueflda, trifida, dichotoma, patens, % UMBELL dividing into five, next three, then two, 
faftigiata. ¥ fpreading, of an equal height at top. 

STIPUL^E minute ferratas, glabrae, Umbellje quinque, ¥ STIPULE minutely ferrated and fmooth, thofe of the 
obovatae, horizontales, aequales, Umbellulae tres, | Umbell five, fomewhat oval, fpreading hori- 

ovatae, inasquales, interiore duplo minore, quse % zontally, and equal; thofe of the fma/ler Um- 

fequuntur mucrone terminatae. | bell three, oval, unequal, the interior one 

J twice as fmall as the others; thofe which 

t follow terminating in a point. 

CALYX fubventricofus, flavefcens, fig. 1. J CALYX fomewhat fwelled, of a yellowifh colour, 

COROLLA nulla. ¥ COROLLA wanting. 

NECTARIA quatuor, fubrotunda, nuda, fig. 2. f NECTARIA four, roundifli and naked, fig. 2. 

STAMINA : Filamenta duo, tria, aut plura, vifi- | STAMINA : two, three, or more Filaments, vifihle 
bilia, exferta ; Anthers flavas, biloculares, % beyond the Calyx ; Anthers yellow, bilocu- 

loculis fubrotundis, fig. 3. | lar, the cavities containing the Pollen roundiih, 

% fig- 3- 

PISTILLUM : Germen pedunculatum, fubrotundum, | PISTILLUM : Germen placed on a foot-ftalk, round- 
nutan&; Stigmata tria, apice bifida, fig. 4, 5. t i*h> hanging down; Stigmata three, bifid 

I at top, fig. 4, 5. 

PERICARPIUM: Capsula tricocca, trilocularis, tri- ¥ SEED-VESSEL a Capsule of three protuberating 
valvis, fig. 6. 1 valves, and three cavities, fig. 6. 

SEMEN unicum in fingulo loculamento, ovatum, rugo- | SEEDS one in each cavity, oval, wrinkled, of a purp- 
fum ex purpureo fufcum, fig. 7. j liih brown colour, fig. 7. 

IN fpeaking of the Euphorbia Feplus, I had oceafion to take notice of the difficulty which Students in Bo- 
tany find in inveitigating the Clafs and Order of this Genus, and endeavoured to make it eafier to them : in 
this plant the parts of the fructification are fomewhat larger ; and it differs from the other Spurges in having 
its leaves finely ferrated. In its acrimonious quality it is inferior to none ; hence it has often been applied 
to Warts for the purpofe of deftroying them ; but even in this cafe, great care mould be ufed in its applica- 
tion. My, friend Mr, William Wavell lately informed me of a cafe which fell under his notice in the 
Ifle of Wight, where from the application of the juice of this Spurge to fome Warts near the eye of a little 
girl, the whole face became inflamed to a very great degree. 

It is very common in gardens and cultivated ground, flowering in Autumn,, 



POTENTILLA Llnncel Gen. PI. Icosandria Polygynia: 

Rali Gen. 15. Herbje semine nudo polyspermy. 
POTENTILLA reptans foliis quinatis, caule repente, pedunculis unifloris. Lin: SyJ. Vegetal, p. 398. PL 

Suecic. p. 178. 

PR AG ARIA foliis quinatis ferratis, petiolis unifloris, caule reptante. Haller hlfi. v. z. p. 47. 
QUINQUEFOLIUM majus repens. Bauhln pin. p. 325. Gerard emac. 087. 
PENTAPHYLLUM vulgatimmum Parklnfon 398. Rail Syn. p. 255. 
POTENTILLA reptans. Hud/on. FL Angl. p. 197. ScopoliPl. Carnlol p. 361 

RADIX perennis, fufiformis, paucis fibrillis inftructa, | ROOT perennial, tapering, furnifhed with few fibres, 

intra terram profunde penetrans, craffitie digiti | penetrating deeply into the earth, the fize of 

minimi aut pollicis etiam in annofis, externe t the little finger, or even of the thumb when 

fordide caftanea. J old, externally of a dark chefnut colour. 

CAULES numerofi, teretes, glabri, repentes, purpurei. f STALKS numerous, round, fmooth, and creeping. 

FOLIA quinata, etiam feptena occurrunt, ferrata, venofa, ' $ LEAYES quinate, or growing five together, fometimes 

inaequalia, parum hirfuta, petiolis longis infi- * even feven, ferrated, veiny, unequal in their 

dentia, per paria e geniculis caulium ad magna * fize, flightly hairy, fitting on long footftalks, 

intervalla prodeuntia. f which proceed in pairs from the joints of the 

I ftalks at confiderable diftances. 

STIPUL./E geminae, trifoliate, foliolis ovatis. | STlPULvE growing in pairs, compofed of three oval- 

* ihaped. leaves. 

PETIOLI uniflori, longi, fuberecti. f FOOT-STALKS of the flowers uniflorous, long, and 

I nearly upright. 

CALYX: pERiANTHiuMmonophyllum, planiufculum, | CALYX: a Peri an thium of one leaf, flattifh, divided 
decemfidum, laciniis alternis minoribus, faepe ^ into ten fegments, the fegments alternately 

' reflexis, fig, 3, 4, 5. | fmaller and frequently turned back, fig. 3.4.5. 



COROLLA : Petala quinque, fubrotundo-cordata, % COROLLA: five Petals of a roundifh heart-fhaped 

flava, unguibus calyci inferta, jig.. 6. | figure, and yellow colour, inferted into the Ca- 

% lyx by their Ungues or claws, fig. 6. 

STAMINA: Filament A viginti, fubulata, Corolla bre- | STAMINA twenty Filaments tapering: lhorter than 

viora, margini interiori glandulofae calycis in- i the Corolla, inferted into the inner edge of the 

ferta, in duas feries diftributa ; Anthers | Calyx, which puts on a glandular appearance, 

oblongas, compreflae, flavae, biloculares, loculae ^ and placed in two rows; Antherje oblong, 

membrana divifae, infidentes, fig. 7, 8. & flat, bilocular, the bags or cavities divided by 

I a membrane, fitting on the filaments, j£g\ 7, 8. 

PISTILLUM: Germina numerofa, in capitulum col- $ PISTILLUM : the Germina numerous, collected into 

lecfa ; Styli filiformes filamentis breviores, la- | a little head ; the Styles filiform, lhorter than 

teri Germinis inferti, perfiftentes ; Stigmata | the filaments, inferted into the fide of the Ger- 

minima, obtufa, jig. 9, 10. t men and continuing; the Stigmata very 

I fmall and blunt, fig. 9, 10. 

SEMINA numerofa, parva, fufca, ffylo perfiftente ter- ^ SEEDS numerous, fmall, brown and terminated by the 

minata, jg\ 11, 12. | Style, fig. 11, 12. 

The R.oots of Cinqiiejoll and many other plants of the Clafs Icofiandrla, poflefs confiderable virtues as aftringent 
medicines, and may be ufed in the fame Cafes in which Bjftort is recommended. 

It has like wife been ufed in fome places for the purpofe of tanning Leather where better materials for that 
pur pole are with difficulty acquired. 

A Tea or infufion of the leaves is in ufe among the Country People as a drink in Fevers. 

Mod forts of Cattle are fond of the leaves, but it does not appear to be a plant worth cultivating on that account. 

The Larva or Caterpillar of the PhaUnaRubi, vld, Roefiel, Suppl. tab. 69, Alb'miab. 81, feeds on the leaves 
in Autumn, although a plant to which that InfecT: is by no means confined. 

It grows very common in meadows and on banks by the road fides, and flowers in July, Auguft, and September. 

•It affords the botanic Student a very good example of the Caulk repens or Creeping Stalk. 



/lan/inculoLi /v//A 

^OdUJ . 

t fitrwf (fj-Cufrf 


u lb ous Crowfoot. 

RANUNCULUS Llnnael ' Gerti PL Polyandria Polygynia. 

Rail Syn: Gen. 15. Herb^e semine nudo polyspermy. 
RANUNCULUS bulbofius, calycibus retroflexis, pedunculis fulcatis, caule ere£lo multifloro, foliis compofitis, 

L'mncel Sy/l. Vegetab. p. 430. Sp, PL 778. Fl. Sueclc. 196. 
RANUNCULUS radice fubglobofa, foliis birfutis, femitrilobis, lobis petiolatis acute ferratis. Haller. hlfl. 

v. 2. p. 74. 
RANUNCULUS Scopoll FL Cant. v. 1. p. 400. Diagn. Radix globofa. Calyces reflexi. Squamula nec~ 

tarifera obtufe trig-ona. 


RANUNCULUS prateniis radice verticilli modo rotunda. Bauhln. pin. 179. Fufchll Icon, 160. Gerard. emac» 
953. Parkin/on 329. Rail Synop. 247. Hudfon FL Angl. 211. FL Dan. Icon. 551, 

RADIX perennis, fubrotunda, albida, folida, fuperne et 
inferne depreffior, hinc radicem Rapas quodam- 
modo referens. 

CAULIS pedalis, teres, ereclus, fiftulofus, hirfutus, ra- 

FOLIA radicalia petiolis longis, hirfutis, bail vaginan- 
tibus iniidentia, fubprocumbentia, hirfuta, ve- 
nofa, trilobata, lobo medio majori et longius 
petiolato, femitrifidd, fegmentis acute inciiis ; 
lobis lateralibus trifidis, fegmentis inferioribus 
profundius divifis ; caulina fubfeffilia in lacinias 
plures tenuiores divifa.. 

PEDUNCULI fulcaii. 

CALYX: Perianthium pentaphyllum, foliolis ova- 
tis, concavis, reflexis,, pilofis, apice obtufiufcu- 
lis, margine membranaceis, bail fubpellucldis, 
fig- I- 

COROLLA Pet ala quinque obcordata, flava, nitentia, 

NECTARIUM: fquamula flava fubemarginata ad bafin 

petal! Jig. 3. 
STAMINA : Filamenta plurima, receptaculo inferta ; 

Anthers oblongas, flavae, fubincurvatae, fig 4. 

PISTILLUM : Germina numerofa in capitulum collec- 
ta; Styli nulli ; Stigmata minima reflexa, 

. fig' 5; 
SEMINA plurima comprefla, fufca, mucronata, lsevia, 

arillata, fig. 6. 
Fig. 7, Arillus, fig. 8, femen denudatum. 

ROOT perennial, roundljh, white and folid, flattened d, 
little both at top and. bottom, hence fomewhat 
refembling a Turnep. 

STx\LK a foot high, round, upright, hollow, hairy and 

LEAVES : the radical leaves placed on long hairy foot- 
ftalks, which at bottom embrace the ftalk, 
fomewhat procumbent, hairy, veiny, and di- 
vided into three lobes ; the mid-lobe largefl and 
placed on a longer foot-ftalk than the others, 
divided half way down into three fegments 
which are fharply cut in ; the fide-lobes trifid, 
the lower fegments more deeply divided than 
the others; the leaves of the Jialk nearly feffile, 
deeply divided into numerous and narrower feg- 

FOOT-STALKS of the flowers grooved. 

CALYX: a Perianthium of five leaves, the leaves 
oval, hollow, turned back and hairy, bluntim at 
top, membranous at the edges, thin and .fome- 
what transparent at bottom, fig. 1 . 

COROLLA: five Petals, heart-lhaped, yellow, and 
mining,/^. 2. 

NECTARY : a fmall yellow fcale at the bottom of the 
petal, with a flight indentation at top, fig. 3. 

STAMINA; Filaments numerous and inferred into 
the receptacle ; Anthers oblong, yellow, and 
bending a little inwards, fig, 4. 

PISTILLUM : Germina numerous, collected into a 
little head; Styles none; Stigmata very 
fmall and bending back, fig. 5. 

SEEDS numerous, flat, brown, fmooth, pointed, and 
covered with an Arillus, fig. 6. 

Fig. 7, the Arillus, fig. 8. the feed taken out of it. 

THIS Crowfoot has been coiifidered by fome Authors as the fame Species with the Ranunculus refiens, but certainly 
without any propriety, for there can be no doubt but they are as diftinet as any two ipecies of Ranunculus whatever 
It is diftinguiftied from the repens by feveral peculiarities, the principal of which are, ill, itsrefiexed calyx, the turning 
back of which does not depend on any accidental circumftances, but ioiely on its particular ftrudure ; if it be plucked 
off, and held up to the light, the lower half of it will appear thin and almoft tranfparent, hence not having a fum- 
cient degree of fohdity to fupport itfelf upright, it is resetted downwards ;— 2 dry, the root in this fpecies is round 
and fiohd; m the repens it is fibrous : and 3 dly, (which perhaps may be coiifidered as the moft eflential difference) the 
ftalk of the bulbofus is never known to throw out any Stolonesor Creepers, which the repens always does in every foil and 
fit nation ' J 

This Species blows earlier than either the upright or creeping Crowfoot, and is the fecond flower, which next to 
the Dandelion covers our meadows and paftures with that delightful yellow, which almoft dazzles the eye of the 
beholder. J 

Like the reft of the Crowfoots it poffefles the property of inflaming and bliftenng the {kin, but more particularly 
the Root, which is laid to raife blifters with lefs pain and more fafety, than Spanifh flies ; and hence where Blifters 
have been thought neceflary, thefe roots have been applied for that purpofe, particularly to the Joints in cafes of the 
Gout. On being kept they loole their ftimulating quality, and are even eatable when boiled. 

Hoffman informs us that Beggars make ufe of them to blifter their {kins in order to excite companion. 

The Juice of this herb is laid to be more acrid than that of the Ranunculus feeler atus, and if applyed to the noftrils 

provokes fneezing. 

Hogs are fond of the roots and will frequently dig them up. 

It abounds in dry paftures, and flowers in May ; it is cultivated when double as well as the upright meadow Crow- 
foot, which laft occurs in almoft every Garden, under the name of Yellow Batchehrs Buttons. 


rsl szn/meMo ac&ts 

s\ ' 


RANUNCULUS LmnaiGen. PL INSlyandria Polygynia. 

Rail Gen. 15. Herb^ semine nudo, polyspermy* 

RANUNCULUS acrls calycibus patulis, pedunculls teretibus, foliis tripartito-multifidis, fummis linearibus. 
Linnai Syfi. Vegetab.p. 430. FL Sued c. p. 196. 

RANUNCULUS foliis hirfutis, femitrilobatis, lobis lateralibus bipartitis, foliis caulinis femitrilobis* Ratter* 
Fiji. n. 1 169. 

RANUNCULUS pratenfis erectus acris* Bauhin. pin. 178. Gerard, effldd. 951* Parkin/on 329. Rail Synopfis, 
p. 248. Hudfon.FL Angl.p. ill, Scopoli. FL CarnioL p. 398, 

RADIX perennis, e pluribus radiculis albidis conftans. t ROOT perennial, confiding of numerous white fibres. 

CAULIS bipedalis, erectus, fiflulofus, teres, fubpilofus, f STALK generally about two feet high, upright, hollow, 
apice ramofus. | round, fomewhat hairy, much branched at top. 

FOLIA Radicalia petiolis longis ere&is infidentia, tri- ■% LEAVES : Radical leaves {landing on long upright foot- 
partita, lobo medio trifido, lateralibus bilobis, | ftalks, tripartite, the middle lobe trifid, the fide 
omnibus acute dentatis aut incifis, fubhirfutis, | ones bilobous, and all of them fharply indented, 
fuperne ad bafin prsefertim fepe purpureis, venis % flightly hirfute, the upper furface particularly 
fubtus extantibus. I at the bafe frequently of a purple colour, the 
Caulina radicalibus fimilia, in lacinias tenuiores % veins underneath prominent 
vero divifa et petiolis brevioribus infidentia, | Leaves of the Stalk like the radical leaves, but 
tandem linearia, feffilia. ^ more finely divided, and ftanding on fhorter foot- 
Petioli cum vaginis hirfuti. ftalks, at top linear and feifile. The footstalks 

I with their flieaths hairy. 

PEDUNCULI teretes. I FOOT-STALKS of the Flowers round. 


CALYX : Perianthium pentaphyllum, patens, fla- y CALYX : a Perianthium of five leaves, fpreading, of 
vefcens, pilofum, foliolis ovatis, concavis, ob- | a yellow colour and hairy, the leaves oval, con- 

tufis, margine membranaceis, fg. 1. | cave, and membranous at the edges, jig. 1. 

COROLLA: Petala quinque flava, nitentia, fubcor- % COROLLA: five Petals, yellow and mining, nearly 
data nunc emarginata, nunc integra, fig. 2. | heart-fhaped, fometimes notched, lometimes 

% entire, fg. 2. 

STAMINA: Filamenta plurima, apice paululum di- | STAMINA: Filaments numerous, a little dilated at 
latata,j%. 5. 4. Anthers flava;, fubincurvatae, t top, fig. 5. 4. A nther.^e yellow, obtufe, bend- 

obtufae, fig. 4. I ing a little inward, fig. 4. 

NECTx^RIUM : fquamula emarginata, ad bafm petalo- t NECTARY : a fmall fcale, flightly notched at top, at 
rum, fig. 3. I the bafe of each Petal, fig. 3. 

PISTILLUM: Germina numerofa, in capitulum col- | PISTILLUM : Germina numerous, forming a little 
lecla, StylihuIH; Stigmata reflexa,j^-. 6. X head; Styles none, Stigmata reflex, fig. 6. 


SEMINA : plurima, fubrotunda, comprefla, fufca, apice | SEEDS numerous, roundifh, flat, of a brown colour, 
reflexa. fig. 7. I bending back at the tip, fig, 7. 

Moft of the Ranunculi or Crowfoots are acrid and in fome degree poifonous, and the fpecies above defcribed poflefies 
this property in a very confiderable degree ; hence Linnaeus has given it the name of acrh ; even pulling up the plant 
and carrying it to fome little diflance we have known fufficient to produce a confiderable inflamation in the palm of 
of the perfon's hand who held it. Cattle in general will not eat it, yet fometimes when they are turned hungry 
into a new field of Grafs, or have but a fmall fpot to range in they will feed on it, and hence their mouths, as we 
have been credibly informed, have become fore and bliftered. When made into hay it lofes its acrid property, but is 
too ftalky and hard to afford good Nourifhment. It mould feem therefore to be the interefr. of the Farmer as much 
as pofiible to root out this fpecies from his Meadows that its place may be fupplied with good fweet grafs. 

It grows too frequently in moft of our meadows, and flowers in June and July. 

The common people about Town and in many parts of the country call this and the other yellow Crowfoots by 
the names of Butter-cups and Butter-flowers, and this name feems to have originated from a fuppofition that the yellow 
colour of butter was owing to thefe plants ; that this mould be the cafe feems fcarce probable, certainly it receives 
no good tafle from it. 

Caltha palustris. Mars h-M a r i g o l d. 

CALTHA Linnal Gen. PL Polyandria Polygynia Cal. o. Petala quinque. Nedarla o. Capful* plures 


Rail Syn. Herb^e MULTISILIQUj£ seu corniculatje. 

CALTHA paluftris. Llnnai Syfl. Vegetab. p. 432. Flor. Sueclc. 198. 

CALTHA Bailer, hifl. heh. p. 32. n. 11 88. 

POPULAGO palujlris. Scopoll Fl. Camiol p. 404. 

CALTHA paluftris flore fimplici. Bauhln pin 276, 

POPULAGO. Tournefort. Tabernamont. 

CALTHA paluftris vulgaris fimplex. Parkinfon 1213, 

CALTHA paluftris major. Gerard, emac. 817. 

Rail Syn.2ji. Marfh Marigold. Hudfon FL Angl. p. 214. 

RADIX perennis, e plurimis fibris, teretibus, majufcu- i 

lis, albiqlis, conftans, | 

CAULES ex eadem radice nafcuntur plures, fubere£ti, f 

pedaies, fiftulofi, pene teretes, glabri, ramofi, | 

ad bafin purpurei. £ 

FOLIA radicalia petiolata, cordato-reniformia, glabra, f 

crenata, caulina fubfeffilia, ad apicem acutiora, I 

et acute crenata. %. 

STIPULE fufcae, membranaceae,- marcefcentes. 

RAMI dichotomi. 

PEDUN.CULI uniflorl, eredi, fulcati. 


CALYX nullus. 

COROLLA : Petala plerumque quinque, flava, mag- | 
na, fubrotundo-ovata, plana, patentia, -fuperne | 
non fplendentia, fig. 1 . $ 

STAMINA: Fil amenta numerofa, filiformia, Corolla £ 
breviora, Antherje oblongae, compreflie, in- $ 
curvatae, flavae, fig. 2. I 

PISTILLUM : Germina quinque ad decern, oblonga, & 
compreffa, erecta ; Styli nulli ; Stigmata | 
fimplicia, jig. 3. ^ 

PERICARPIUM: Capsule totidem, acuminata, pa- t 
tentes, futura fuperiore dehifcentes, fig. 4. | 

SEMINA plurima, fubovata, pulchra, inferne olivacea, | 
fuperne rafa, fig* 5. $ 

ROOT perennial, connfting of numerous, round, large, 
white fibres. 

STALKS : feveral arife from the fame root, almoft up- 
right, about a foot high, hollow, nearly round, 
fmooth, branched, and purple at bottom. 

LEAVES : the radical leaves placed on long foot ftalks, 
betwixt an heart and kidney ihape, fmooth, 
mining, and notched or crenated ; the leaves 
of the stalk nearly feffile, more pointed at 
top, and fharply crenated. 

STIPULiE brown, membranous and withered. 

BRANCHES dichotomous. 

PEDUNCLES fupporting one nqwer, upright, and 

CALYX wanting. 

COROLLA generally connfts of five large Petals 
of a roundifh oval fhape and yellow colour, 
flat, fpreading, and without anyglofs on the 
upper fide, fig, 1. 

STAMINA : Filaments numerous, filiform, fhorter 
than the Corolla ; Anthers oblong, flat, bend- 
ing inward, and of a yellow colour, fig. 2. 

PISTILLUM : Germina from five to ten, oblong, 
flattifh, and upright ; Styles none; Stigma- 
ta fimple, j%. 3. 

SEED-VESSEL: fo many Capsules as Germina, 
pointed, and fpreading, opening at the fuperior 
future, fig. 4. 

SEEDS numerous, fomewhat oval, beautiful!, at bot- 
tom of an olive, and at top of a reddiih colour. 

Linnjeus informs us that the Caltha is the firft flower which proclaims the Spring in Lapland, and that it begins 
to blow about the end of May, with us it ufually flowers in March and April, and laft Spring, 1775, this plant 
was found in Bloflbm in the month of February, fo remarkably forward was the Spring of that year. 

It grows in wet Meadows and by the fides of Rivers, where it makes a very noble appearance, and when dou- 
ble, is often cultivated in Gardens, where it will grow very readily if the foil be favourable. 

In the Country, Children collect, it to ornament their Garlands on May day. 

I fcarce ever obferved the leaves to be eaten by any animals, but the flowers are often deftroyed by a fpecies 
of Chrysomela. 

Haller fays that it is acrid and cauftic and yet that it is eaten by Cows, 

The flower Buds are pickled and ufed as Capers. 

i ff/ma '.Aau&tfr&f . 

J J? 

/vr/^y/// O, 

'/r/j/a//'' - 

Verbena officinalis. Vervain 

VERBENA Lin. Gen. PL Didynamta Gymnospermia. 


VERBENA officinalis, tetrandra, fpicis filiformibus, paniculatis ; foliis multifido-laciniatis, cauie folitario, 

Lin. Syji. Vegetab. p. 62. 
VERBENA foliis tripartitis rugofis, fpicis nudis graciliffimis Haller. hifl. v. I. p. 96. 

VERBENA communis casruleo flore. Bauhin, Pin. 269. mas, feu recta et vulgaris. Parkin/on 674. communis 
Gerard 664. Rail Syn. 2j6. Hudfon Fl. Angl. p. 505. Scopoli Fl. Carn'wl. p. 433. 

RADIX perennis, lignofa, craffitie digiti minimi, raro | ROOT perennial^ woody, about the thicknefs of the 
major, in terram profunde penetrans, fibrofa, | little finger, feldom larger, running deep into 

lutefcens, fapore fubamaro. the earth* fibrous, of a yellowiih colour, and 

I (lightly bitter tafte. 

CAULES plerumque plures ex eadem radice, erecti, pe- J STALKS: in general feveral arife from the fame root 
dales aut bipedales, quadrangulares, duo lateral upright, from one to two feet high, fourfquare, 

excavata, duo fubcorivexa, fulcata, idque alterne, | two fides hollowed out, two roundifh and groo- 

aculeis brevibus armaria, brachiati. % ved, and that alternately, armed with fhort 

I prickles, the branches alternately oppofite. 

FOLIA oppofita, femlia, venofa, profunde dentata, aut | LEAVES oppofite, feffile, veiny, deeply indented or cut 
incifa, ad bafin anguftiora. % in, narroweft at bottom. 

FLORES in fpicas longas, filiformes, ere&as difpofiti, | FLO WER. S difpofed in long filiform ereclfpikes, fuppor- 
bractea ovato-lanceolata, acuminata, calyce ^ ted by an oval pointed Floral-leaf fhorter 

breviore fuffulti, jig. 11. | than the Calyx, fg t ii. 

CALYX : Perianthium monophyllum, _ angulatum, | CALYX : a Perianthium of one leaf, quinquedentate, 
quinquedentatum, denticulo quinto minlmo, perfifi> $ the fifth tooth exceedingly minute, continuing,^, 

ens, fig. 1 2, 3. I r, 2, 3. 

COROLLA monopetala, inasqualis, purpurafcens, Tubus y COROLLA monopetalous, unequal, purplim, the Tube 
cylindraceus, incurvatus; Faux villofa, j%\ 5; | cylindrical and crooked, the Mouth villous, 

Limb, us quinquefldus, laciniis rotundatis, fub- | fig-, 5. the Limb divided into hvefegments, which 

aequalibus, fig. 4. y are round and nearly equal, fig. 4. 

STAMINA: Filamenta quatuor breviffima, vix con- | STAMINA : four Filaments very fhort and fcarce 
fpicua, Anthers quatuor, quarum duse brevi- | confpicuous, four Anthers two of which are 

ores reliquis, ejufdem formas cum Didynamiis ? above the others, of the fame form with thofe 

fig- 6. I of the Clafs Didynamia in general, jig. 6. 

PISTILLUM: Germen tetragonum, Stylus filiformis $ PISTILLUM: theGERMEN four fquare, the Style fill- 
apice paululum incraflatus ; Stigma obtufum | form, growing thicker towards the extremity, 

fig. 7 K $• the Stigma obtufe, fig. 7. 

PERICARPIUM nullum, Calyx continens Semina. t PERIC ARPIUM wanting, the Calyx contalningfhe Seeds. 

SEMINA quatuor, oblonga, obtufa, interne planiufcula | SEEDS four, oblong, obtufe, on'the iiifide fiatifh and 
alba, externe fufca, convGXZ, fulcato-reticulata fig. S,g, , o. f white, on the outfide brown, convex, grooved 

¥ and reticulated, fig. 8, 9, 10. 

The Vervain may be confidered as a kind of domeftic plant, not confined to any particular foil, but growino- 
by the road fides, pretty univerfally at the entrance into Towns and Villages. 

It produceth its bioiibms in the months of Auguft and September. 

There is only one Species of this Genus which grows wild in this country, but in different parts of the 
world the fpecies are numerous, and what is remarkable, fomehave four and others but two Stamina, hence Linnjeus 
ranks them among his Diandrous plants, making a divifion of them into fuch as have fiores Biandri and fiores 
Tetrandri. As our fpecies hath four Stamina, two of which are above the other two, as the Style proceeds from 

externally brown, and beautifully reticulated. 

The Plant which the Romans called Verbena, appears to have been ufed on particular occafions at a very early 
period, as a token of mutual confidence betwixt them and their Enemies. It was alfo conftant'y applied to the 

dry^harih nature of this herb, agrees but ill with the Pinguis Verbena of Virgil, perhaps it acquired that title from being 
anointed with the fat of the facrifice. 

In later times Vervain has been accounted a fovereign remedy in a multitude of diforders ; Schroder recommends 
it in upwards of thirty different complaints, on which Mr. Ray judiciouily obferves " Mirum tot viribus pollen plan- 
tain nulla infigni qualiiate fenfibili dotatam" ! ftrange that a plant which inherits no remarkably fenfible quality mould 
poffefs fo many virtues ! 

age of his Patients) tied with a yard of white fattin ribband round the neck, there to be worn till they recover. 

Thofe who know any thing of the effects of Medicines on the human body, will not eafily be perfwaded that fuch 
a kind of application can produce any very wonderful effecl: in this cafe, even making the greatelt allowance for 
the powers of the imagination; and Mr. Morley as if fenfible of the inefficacy of his Vervain Amulet, calls to his 
a ffiftance a number of powerful medicines, among others we find Mercury, Antimony, Hemlock, Jalap, &c ; and 
by a repeated and oftimes a long continued application of Baths, Cataplaims, Ointments, Poultices, Philters', &c. 
and the exhibition of gentle purges and alterative medicines, fome have been relieved and others cured; but' can 
any one hence infer with any degree of reafon that the Vervain Root had any mare in the cure ? certainly no; out of 
ali Mr. Morley' s cafes there is not one which proves it, and the virtues of this plant If ill remain to be afcerta'ined by 
rational experiments. 

It fhould be obferved that the Schrophula is a difeafe which at certain periods of life and at certain feafons of the 
year, is liable to be much worfe than at others, and frequently exceeding bad cafes of this kind have been cured by 
the moft fimple applications. 

Many people have no doubt applied to Mr. Morley from a fuppofition that his motives were perfectly difintereited, 
and it muff be confeiled that there are Empirics much more mercenary and infinitely more dangerous ; yet it does not 
appear but Mr. Morley ads nearly on the fame principle with other Praaioners in Phyfick, with this difference inr 
deed, that they receive their fees in fpecie, he takes his in kind. 

That we may not be thought to ad difingenoufly by Mr. Morley we fhall quote his own words— «'Many many 
Guineas have been offered me but I never take any money. Sometimes indeed genteel People have fent me fmall ac- 
knowledgements of Tea, Wine, Venifon, &c. Generous ones, fmall pieces of Plate or other little Prefents. Even 
neighbouring Farmers a Goofe or Turkey, &c. by way of Thanks. 


- . 

Lamium purpureum. Red Lamium or Dead Nettle. 

LAMIUM Llnntel Gen. PI. Didynamia Gymnospermia. Corolla labium fuperius integrum, fornicatum, 
labium inferius bilobum ; faux utrinque margine dentata. Lin. Deficrip. Gen. abbre-v. 
Rail Syn. Gen. 14. Suffrut.ices et herb^ verticillat^. 

3LAM1UM purpureum foliis cordatis obtufis petiektis. Llnnal Syfu Vegetal, p. 446. Sp. PI. 809. Ft 
Sueclc. 203. 

LAMIUM foliis cordatis, obtufis, "in fummo ramo congeftis. Mailer, viji. v. 1 . 118. 

LAMIUM purpureum. Scopoll FI. Carnlol. p. 40.7. n. *joi. 

LAMIUM purpureum fsetidum, folio fubrotundo, five Galeopfis Diofcoridis. Bauhln. pin. 230. Lamium ru- 
bru?n. Gerard emac. 70 3- Parklnfon. 604, Rail. Synopfis Small Dead Nettle or red Archangel 240» 
Mudfon. FI. Angl. 225. ©eder. FI. Dan. icon. 523. 

•RADIX annua, Ebrofa. | ROOT annual and fibrous. 

CAULES plures, ad bafin debiles, et ramofi, prope | STALKS feveral, at bottom weak and branched, near 

fummitatem fere nudi, et fsepe colorati, femi- t the top aknoft naked, and frequently coloured, 

pedales, quadrangulares, fiftulofi, fcrabiufculi. | fix inches -or more in height, quadrangular, 

3: hollow, and flightly rough. 

FOLIA oppofita, venofa, hnrfutula, inferiora fubrotun- X LEAVES oppofite, veiny, flightly hairy, the lower 

do-cordata, crenata, longe petiolata : fuperiora I ones of a roundim-heart fhaped form, notched, 

ovato-cordata, obtufe ferrata, petiolisbrevibusin- t and placed on footftalks, the uppermoft ones 

fidentia, alterne oppofita, reflexa, denfe etim- | oval-heart-lhaped, obtufely ferrated, with fhort 

bricatim congefta, etrubedine tincta. £ footftalks, alternately oppofite, growing thickly 

# together, bent back and laying one over another, 

I of a reddifh .colour. 

FLORES purpurei, in fummis caulibus verticillatim I FLOWERS purple, growing thickly together on the 

denfius ftipati .. Verticilli multiflori. | tops of the ftaiks in Whirls ; many flowers in 

£ each whirl. 

CALYX: PsRiANTHiuMmonophyHum, tubulatum, fu- £ CALYX: a Peri an thium of one leaf, tubular, at top 

perne patentius, quinquedentatum, fubftria- | fpreading, with five teeth, fomcwhat ftriated 

turn, hirfutulum, dentibus fubaequalibus, acu- | and hairy, the teeth nearly equal and long 

minatis. fig. 1. | pointed. j?g\ 1. 

COROLLA monopetala, ringens, palllde ^urpurea,^. 2 ; % COROLLA monopetalous, gaping, of a pale purple 

tubus brevis, cylindraceus, fig. 6; faux in- £ colour, fig. 2 -; the tube fhort and cylindrical, 

flata, margine utroquebideutata,^. 4; denticulo | fig- 6; the entrance of the tube inflated, 

fuperiori dpinse fimili, inferiore obtufiore, macula ? the margin on each fide furnifhed with two 

notatai labium fuperius,^. 3, ova turn, conca- * teeth, fig. 4; the uppermoft pointed like a thorn, 

vum, villofulum, integrum, labium inferms £ the lowermoft blunter with a fpot on it ; the 

hilobum, maculatum, lobis patentibus. fig. 5. | -upper lip fig. 3 ; oval, hollow, flightly villous, 

I entire, the under lip divided into two lobes, fpread- 

% ing a little from -one another, and fpotted, fig. 5. 

STAMINA: Filament a qnatuor, fubulata, alba, fub | STAMINA: four Filaments, tapering and white, hid 

labio fuperori tecla, quorum duo longiora, j%-. 7 ; ^ under the upper lip, two of which are longer 

Antherje oblongse, barbatae, polline croceo i than the reft fig. 7; the Anthers oblong, 

repletse. fig. 8. | bearded, and and full of a yellow pollen fig. 8. 

PISTILLUM: GERMENquadrifidum; Stylus filiformis, % PISTJLLUM : GERMENquadrifid; Stylus filiform, the 

longitudine et fituftaminum; St* gma bifidum, | length of the Stamina; Stigma bifid and 

acutum, fig.y, 10, 11. £ pointed^. 9, 10, 11. 

SEM1NA 4 in fundo calycis, palHda, triangularia, apiee | SEEDS 4 in the bottom of the Calyx, of a pale brown, 

•truncata, marginata^ fig, 1 2.. | triangular, cut off" as it were at top, with a 

£ margin found them, fig. 12. 

Although, this plant may perhaps with propriety be confidered as a Weed in Gardens, yet the bright colour of 
its tops and flowers, joined to its early appearance, contributes not a little to ornament our banks in the Spring, 
when few other plants appear in blohom. 

The Flowers are mod commonly of a bright red colour, fometimes white, and are much reforted to by Bees of 
various kinds. 

The Leaves and Flowers are thofe parts of the plant, which are ufed in Medicine, although in the prefent 
practice they are fcarce regarded. 

According to Linnjeus it is boiled in Upland, a Province of Sweden, as a pot herb. A Variety of this plant 
occurs not unfrequently about Town, which has its leaves more deeply indented. Ray calls it Lamium rubrum 
minus, Jollls profunde mclfis, I have found it growing on a bank on the right hand fide of the way between Plmllco and 

/ a ///////// //////?///r//j// ^ 

V* I 7 l $9 

Qsfoumt& t/r///vJ. 



A S I L 


H Y M E. 

THYMUS Lmnai Gen. PL Didynamia Gymnospermia» 

Calycis bilabiati faux villis claufa» 

Rail Synop. Gen. 14. Suffrutices et HeRb^e verticillat;e. 
THYMUS Acinos caulibus adfcendentibuSj foliis dentato-ferratis, calycibus bafi ventricofis* 
THYMUS Acinos floribus verticillatis, pedunculis unifloris caulibus ere&is fubramofis, foliis acutis, 

,ferratis. Linn. Syjl. Vegetab. p. 452. Flor. Suecic. p. 209. 
CLINOPODIUM foliis ovatis acutis ferratis, flore foliis breviore. Haller. hjl. heh. n. 237. 
THYMUS Acinos. Scopoli Fl. Carniol. p. 426. n. 735. 
CLINOPODIUM arvenfe ocimi facie. Bauhin. pin. p. 225. 
CLINOPODIUM minus five vulgare. Parkin/on. 21. 
OCYMUM fy lveftre. Gerard, emac. 6j$. 
ACINOS multis. Bauhin. hjl. 32. 259. Rati Syn. p. 238. Wild Bafil. Hudfon PL Angl p-. 236* 

RADIX annua, fimplex, fibrofa. 

CAULES adfcendentes, femipedales, tetragon!, ramofi, 

hirfuti, purpurafcentes ; Rami cauli fimiles 

longi, patentes, imi oppofiti. 

FOLIA oppofita, petiolata, ovato-acuta, medium interi- 
us petiolo proximum integrum, exterius mu- 
croni proximum dentatum, margines paululum 
reflexi, ciliati, nervo medio venifque fubtus 
hirfutis, fnperne vix hirfuta, impun&ata, ve- 
nis quam in ferpyllo profundius exaratis. 

FLORES pedunculati, verticillati, fpicati, plerumque 
fex in fingulo verticillo. 

CALYX : Perianthium monophyllum, tubulatum, 
bafi ventricojum, ftriatum, hirfutum, quinque- 
dentatum, dentibus tribus fuperioribus brevio- 
ribus, reflexis, inferioribus fetaceis, fauce villis 
claufo, fig. 1. 

COROLLA monopetala, tubulofa, purpurea, bilabiata, 
labium fuperius brevius, obtufum, reflexum, 
emarginatum, inferius trifidum, laciniis fubro- 
timdis, medio produdtiore fubemarginato, 'macula 
alba, lunulata, prominente, not at a, fig. 3, 4, 5. 

STAMINA: Filamenta quatuor, quorum duo lon- 

giora, Corolla breviora ; ANTHERiE parv^e, 

rubrae, fig. 6. 
PISTILLUM : Germen quadripartitum ; Stylus fili- 

formis longitudine Staminum; Stigma bifi- 

dum, acutum,.^-. 7. 
SEMINA quatuor oblonga intra Calycem, fig. 8, 9. 

ROOT annual, fimple and fibrous^ 

STALKS adfcending, about fix inches high, fquare* 
branched, hirfute, purplifh ; Branches like 
the ftalk, long, fpreading, the bottom ones 

LEAVES oppofite, ftanding on foot-ftalks, of a pointed 
oval fhape, the inner middle part of them next 
the foot-ftalks entire, the outer middle 'part 
next the point indented, the edges turned a little 
back and ciliated, the midrib and veins on the 
under fide of the leaf hirfute, the upper furface 
of the leaves fcarcely hairy, without any dots, 
the veins deeper than in the common Wild 

FLOWERS growing on foot-ftalks, in whirls, forming 
a fpike, generally fix in each whirl. 

CALYX: a Perianthium of one leaf, tubular, belly- 
ing out at bottom, floated, hirfute, having five 
teeth, the three uppermoft of which arefhorteir. 
and turned back, the lower ones flender and 
tapering, the moth clofed up with fhort hairs, 

fig- I- 

COROLLA monopetalous, tubular, purple, having two 
lips, the uppermoft of which is fhorteft, blunt, 
turned back, with a flight notch in it; the 
lowermoft divided into three roundifh fegments, 
the middle one of which is longer than the 
others, very flightly notched in, and marked 
with a raifed white femilunar /pot, jig. 3 , 4, 5 . 

STAMINA : four Filaments, two long and two 
fhort, within the Corolla ; Anthers fmall 
and red, jig, 6 . 

PISTILLUM: Germen divided into four parts ; Style 
filiform, the length of the Stamina ; Stigma 
bifid and acute, fig. 7. 


SEEDS. Four oblong feeds within the Calyx, fig. 8, 9. 

As there are only two fpecies of Thyme growing wild in this Kingdom, and thofe very different from each other, 
the young Botanift cannot be at a lofs in diftinguiihing them ; with the Thymus alpinus, (figured by that accurate 
Botanift Jacquin, in his Fl. Aujiriac, who has contributed much to the advancement of botanic knowledge,) 
this plant has a much greater affinity, but may be diftinguifhed by attending to the fize of the flowers and the fhape 
of the Calyx : the flowers of the alpinus are nearly twice as large as thofe of the acinos, and the Calyx of the latter has 
a protuberance at its bale which we do not find either in the alpinus or jerpyllum ; a white circular mark in the 
mouth of the flowers, makes the blofloms of this fpecies ftrikingiy different from thofe of Wild Thyme. 

The moft common place of growth for this plant is in uncultivated fields, particularly where the foil is chalky 9 
about Charlton it is found in abundance, flowering in July and Auguft. 

A variety with a white flower fometimes occurs. 

The fame agreeable aromatic flavour predominates in this fpecies as in the Wild Thyme, whence it is pro- 
bable that their virtues are very fimilar. 

~y ////// ;//,ua OdonUtej. 

Euphrasia odontites. TRed Eye -bright. 

ECPHRASIA Linnai (fen. PL Didynamia Angiospermia. 

Rail Syn. Gen. Herb;e fructu sicco singulari flore monopetalo. 
EUPHRASIA Odontites foliis linearibus : omnibus ferratis. hlnnal Syf. Vegetab. Sp. PL p. 841. PL 

Suecic. p, 213. n. 544. 
ODONTITES bra£teis ferratis hirfutis. Haiku hift. v. x. /.134. n. 304. 
EUPHRASIA Odontites. Scopoli FL CarnioL p. 435. 
EUPHRASIA pratenfis rubra. Bauhin Pin. p. 234. 
EUPHRASIA prateniis rubra major. Parkin/on 1329. 

CRATiEOGONON Euphrofyne. Ger. emac. 91. Rail Syn. p.* 284. Eye-bright Cow-wheat. Hudfon 
PL Angl. p. 234. 

RADIX annua, fimplex, fibrofa, lignea. | ROOT annual, fimple, fibrous, and woody. 

CAULIS ere&us, ramofiffimus, iemipedalis, ad bipeda- % STALK upright, very much branched, from fix inches 
lem, hirfutus, obtufe quadrangularis. I to two feet high, hirfute, and obtufely fquare. 

RAMI cauli fimiles, oppofiti. % BRANCHES like the ftalk and oppofite. 

FOLIA alterne oppofita, feflilia, lineari-lanceolata, re- % LEAVES alternately oppofite, feffile, betwixt linear 

flexa, rariter dentata, hirfutula, venofa, venis | and lanceolate, turning back, thinly indented, 

parvis, fubtus hirfutis. | flightly hirfute, veiny, veins few and hirfute 

% underneath. 


BRACTEiE lanceolate, fubere&ae, purpurafcentes. % BRACTEiE lanceolate, nearly upright, purplifh. 

FLORES fpicati, fecundi, fpicis apice fubnutantibus, f FLOWERS growing in fpikes of a red colour, incli- 

% ned all one way, the fpikes nodding a little at 

I top. 

CALYX : Perianthium monophyllum, tubulofum, % CALYX: a Perianthium of one leaf, tubular, qua- 

quadridentatum, hirfutum, dentibus aequali- | dridentate, hirfute, the teeth equal and fharp, 

bus, acutis, jig. 1. % jig. 1. 


COROLLA monopetala, ringens, labium fuperius con- £ COROLLA monopetalo us, gaping, the upper lip con- 

eavum, fubemarginatum, inferius tripartitum, % cave and flightly notched in ; the lower lip di- 

laciniis obtufis, aequalibus, jig. 2. | vided into three, obtufe, equal fegments,/^, 2. 


STAMINA: Filamenta quatuor, quorum duo paulo ?. STAMINA: four Filaments, two fomewhat longeft, 
breviora, alba ; Anthers bilobae, biloculares, | white; Anthers compofed of two lobes and 
apice filamentofae, ball fpinulis duabus termi- y two cavities, at top thready, at bottom termi- 
nate, deorfum ubi filamentum inferitur ap- t nated by two little fpines, and on the back part 
pendiculisclavatispluribusinftruclas,^-. 3, 4, j. I where the filament is inferted, furnifhed with 

£ feveral fmall club-fhaped threads or appendages, 

I fg- 3> 4, 5- 

PISTILLUM: Germen ovatum, hirfutulum ; Stylus ¥ PISTILLUM : Germen oval, hirfute ; Style filiform, 

filiformis, in flore nondum explicato fub labio | before the flower opens bent in underneath the 

fuperiore Corollas involutus, poftea Corolla f upper lip of the Corolla ; afterwards longer 

longior ; Stigma capitatum, jig. 6. | than the Corolla ; Stigmata forming a little 

J head, fg. 6. 

PERICARPIUM: Capsula ovato-oblonga, comprefla, | SEED-VESSEL an oval, oblong, flattifh Capsule, of 

bilocularis, fg. 7. t two cavities, fg. 7. 

SEMINA plurima, albida, ftriata, fg. 8. | SEEDS feveral, whitifh and ltriated, fg. 8. 

This fpecies of Eyebright, which is exceedingly different from the common fort, grows very common in 
Paftures, fometimes in Corn-fields, and flowers in July and Auguft : it differs very much in fize according 
to the place it grows in, and is now and then found with white flowers. 

It is not remarked either for its beauty or utility. 

Antirrhinum ctmbalaria. Ivy-leavd Antirrhinum. 

ANTIRRHINUM Lmnm Gen. PL DidynamiA AngiosPerMia* 

Rati Syn-. Herb^e fructu sicco singulari plgre monopetalo* 
ANTIRRHINUM Cymbdlaria folii's cordatis quinquelobis alternis, caulibus procumbentibus. Linnet 

S\ft, Vegetah p. 464. Sp PL p. 851. 
ANTiRRHINtJM Caule repente, foliis reniformibus, quinquelobatis* Hatter hjft, p. 146. n. 33$. 
ANTIRRHINUM Cymhalarla Scopoll FL Carniol. n. yjo. 
CYMBALARIA Bauhin pin. 306. 

LIN ARIA hederaceo folio glabra, feu Cymbalaria vulgaris. Tourn. 169* GarideL 287* Gouan. PL Monfp. 
p. 100. Gerard FL Galloprov. p. 292. Rati Syn. p.*2%2. HudfonFl. Angl. p. 237. 

Tota Planta glabra, cum odore ingrato* | The whole plant fmooth, with a difagreeable fmelL 


RADIX perennis, fibrofa, intra fiffuras murorum pe- \ ROOT perennial, fibrous, penetrating between the 

netrans ; eradicatione difficilis. ' | crevices of the walls, and fcarce to be eradi- 

| cated. 
CAULES plures, confertim nafcuntur, bafi repentes, I STALKS numerous, growing in a kind of tuft, creep- 
procumbentes, ramofi, teretes, glabri, purpu- ■% ing at bottom, procumbent, branched, round, 
rafcentes, nervo intus durioreet tenaciore ficut | fmooth, purplifh, and ftringy as in Chick- 
in Alfine. g weed. 

FOLIA quinquelobata, glabra, fubcarnofa, oppofita, | LEAVES quinquelobate, fmooth, fomewhat flefhy, 

aut alterna, fsepe purpu rafcentia, fig. 12. % fome of them oppofite, others alternate, fre- 

% quently purplifh, fig. 12. 


PETIOLI longi, fuperne fulcati. % FOOT-STALKS of the leaves long, on the upper part 

I grooved. 


PEDUNCULI teretes, petiolis paulo longiores. | FOOT-STALKS of the flowers, round, a little longer 

I than the foot-ftalks of the leaves. 

CALYX: Perianthium quinquepartitum, laciniis | CALYX: a Perianthium divided into five fegments, 
lanceolatis, perfiftentibus, fig. 1 . ^ which are lanceolate and continuing, fig. 1 . 


COROLLA monopetala, ringens ; Tubus brevis,^. 6 ; I COROLLA monopetalous, ringent ; the Tube fhort, 

Limbus bilabiatus, labium fupeiTus bifidum, % fig. 6 : the Limb divided into two lips; the 

reflexum, purpureum, venis duabus faturatiori- | upper lip bifid, turning back, and purple, ftri- 

bus flriatum, fig. 2. inferius trifidum, laciniis | ped with two veins of a deeper colour,^. 2 ; 

fubrotundis, albidis, fig. 3; Palatum promi- ■% the lower lip trifid, the fegments round and 

nens, bifidum, flavum, fig. 5, Faux villofum, | whitifh, fig. 3 ; the Palate prominent, bifid, 

croceum. % and yellow, fig. 4; the Mouth or entrance 

? into the tube villous and faffron-coloured. 



NEECTARIUM purpureum, conicum, longitudine $ NECTARY purple, conical, the length of the Calyx, 

calycjs, fig. 5. I fig. 5. 


STx^MINA: Filamenta quatuor, duo breviora ; t STAMINA: four Filaments, two fhort and two 

Anthers bilobae, albx, conniventes, fig. 7. | long; Anthers compofed of two lobes, 

I white and connivent, fig. 7. 

PISTILLUM : Germen fubrotundum, purpureum ; I PISTILLUM : Germen roundifh and purple ; Style 

Stylus filiformis ; Stigma obtufum, fig. 8. t filiform; Stigma blunt, fig. 8. 

PERICARPIUM Capsula fubrotunda, rugofa, femi- J SEED-VESSEL a roundifh Capsule, furface uneven, 
nibus protuberantibus, bivalvis, valvis apice J from the feeds protuberating, of two valves, 

in plures lacinias dehifcentibus, fig. 9, ia, | which open at top into feveral lacinis, fig. 

% 9, 10. 

SEMINA nigra, fubrotunda, rugofa, fig. 10. y SEEDS black, roundifh and wrinkled, /g. 10. 


This Species of Antirrhinum is fo perfectly diftinct from all the others which grow wild in this country, 
that there is no poffibility of mifiaking it. It is found in great plenty in all thofe parts near London, that lay 
within the reach of the Thames ; the feeds are carried by the flux and reflux of the tide up and down the. 
river, and left at high water mark in the crevices- of old walls, where they take root and eucreafe very faft. 
It is fuppofed to have been introduced to us from Italy, whether for the purpofes of ornament or medicine is uncertain. 

The Walls of the Phyfic Garden, at Chelfea, from whence it has probably originated in this country, are 
plentifully covered with it ; it may alfo be found on the 'Temple Walls, and at the fides of the ftream running 
under Vauxhall Turnpike. 

In fome fituations the leaves grow much larger than thofe of the annexed fpecimen. 

G ttwM/ CfyrrbbaZaria. 

Antirrhinum eljtine. Sharp-pointed Fluellin. 

ANTIRRHINUM Lin. Gen. PL Didynamia Angiospermia. 

Rait Syn. Gen. 18. Herbje fructu sicco sinculari, flore monopetalo irregu- 


ANTIRRHINUM fbliis haftatis alternis, caulibus procumbentibus. Linn. Sp. PL 85. 

ANTIRRHINUM caule procnmbente, follis haftatis, imis conjugatis, fuperioribus alternis. Haller hijl. v. 1* 

p. 14. 6. n. 340. 
ELATINE folio acuminata, in bafi auriculato, flore luteo. Bauhin Pin. 253. 
ELATINE folio acuminata. Parkin/on $53* 
ELATINE altera. Gerard emac. 623. 
LINARIA Elatine dict-a, folio acuminata. Rati Syn. *282. 
ANTIRRHINUMS/^. Bud/on FL Angt. p. 237. Scopoh 'PL CarnioL p. 444. OEder. PL Dan. Ic. 426. 


RADIX fibrofa, annua, albida, | ROOT fibrous, annual, whitifh. 

CAULES numerofi, teretes, fubramofi, in junioribus $ STALKS numerous, round, a little branched, in the 

plantis fuberecti, tandem procumbentes, ad duos | young plants nearly upright, in the old ones 

pedes et ultra faepe extenfi. | trailing on the ground, frequently to the dif- 

f tance of two feet or more. 

FOLIA petiolata, ima fubrotunda, oppofita ; proxima | LEAVES ftanding on foot-ftalks, the bottom leaves 

dentata, alterna ; quse fequuntur magna ex parte £ roundifh and oppofite, the next to thofe are in- 

haftata. I dented and alternate, and thofe which follow 

I are for the moll: part haftate. 

PEDUNCULI axillares, alterni, penduli, longitudine £ PEDUNCLES alternate, pendulous, the length of, and 

foliorum. | proceeding from the Alae of the leaves. 

CALYX: Perianthium quinquepartitum, perfiftens, ^ CALYX: a Perianthium divided into five fegments 

fegmentis ovato-lanceolatis acutis, Jig. 1 . | perfifting, the fegments lanceolate, Jig. 1 . 

COROLLA monopetala, ringens, flava; tubus breviffi- |. COROLLA monopetalous, ringent, and yellow; the 

mus ; limbus bilabiatus, labium fuperius bifi- | tube very fhort ; the LiM3 divided into two 

dum, fegmentis obtufis, inferne purpureis, in- * lips, the upper lip bifid, the fegments obtufe, 

ferius triiidum, fegmentis obtufis, medio pro- | and purple underneath ; the lower lip trifid, 

ductiore, et paulo minore ; palatum prominu- | the fegments obtufe, the middle one longeft 

lum, flavum. Jig. 2; Nectarium fubulatum, I and leaf!:; the palate prominent and yellow* 

flavum, longitudine fegmentorum calycis, jig. 3. % fig. 2; the Nectarium the length of the feg- 

| ments of the Calyx, fmall and tapering, fig. 

■ / f 3- 

STAMINA: FilAmenta quatuor, quorum duo paulo i STAMINA four Filaments, two of which are a little 
longiora ; Anthers purpureo-fulcae, coalef- | longer than the others; the Antherje pur- 

centes, fig. 4. f plifh-brown, adhering together, fig. 4. 

PISTILLUM : Germen fubrotundum, compreflum, a- * PISTILLUM : the Germen roundifh, flattened, at top 
pice villofum ; Stylus filiformis, longitudine £ hairy; the Style filiform, the length of the 

ftaminum, apice incraffatus, uncinatus ; Stig- t Stamina, thickened at top and hooked ; the 

ma fimplex, fig. 5, 6, 7. I Stigma fimple, fig. 5, 6, y. 

PERICARPIUM: Capsula rotunda, bilocularis, bival- £ SEED-VESSEL: a round Capsule of two cavities 
vis, valvis deciduis, foramine magno in utroque | and two valves, the valves round and concave, 

latere capfulae reliclo, valvae orbiculatas, con- ^ on falling off leaving a large hole in each fide 

cav£e, fig. 8, 9, 10. I of the Capfule, fig. 8, 9, 10. 

SEMINA nigra, rugofa, 8—10 in fingulo loculamento, | SEEDS black, and wrinkled, from 8 to 10 in each cavi- 

THIS fpecies of Antirrhinum grows generally in Corn-fields, and in fome parts of England is much more 
common than it is with us ; in the Corn-fields about Peckham I have generally found it in bloom in July, 
Augufl and September, and even later ; it very much refembles the Antirrhinwn Jpurhim in its general habit, 
but is readily diftinguimed by its pointed leaves. Some Writers have confidered it as pofleffed of healing proper- 
ties, and affirm that the exprefled juice of the plant, or its difiilled water taken inwardly and applied exter- 
nally, has checked and cured fp reading and cancerous Ulcers; and Ray relates a Story from Lobel of a poor 
Barber, who by the above ufe of this plant, faved his Nofe, which had been condemned to be cut off by fa* 
veral eminent Phyficians and Surgeons, 

'tfi/r/^mtimy2?7afme . 

Antirrhinum linaria. Common yellow 


ANTIRRHINUM Linncei Gen. PL Didynamia Angiospermia. 

Rail Syn. Gen. 18. Herbje fructu sicc© singulari flore monopetalo. 
ANTIRRHINUM Linaria foliis lanceolato-linearibus confertis, caule ere£to, fpicis terminalibus feffilibus, 

fioribus imbricatis. Linn. Syft. Vegetab. p. 466. Fl. Suecic. 217. 

ANTIRRHINUM foliis linearibus adfcendentibus congeftis, caule ere&o fpicato. Mailer, hi/l. V. 1. p. 145. 


LINARIA vulgaris lutea flore majore. Bauhin pin. p. 212. 

LINARIA lutea vulgaris. Gerard emac. 550. vulgaris noftras. Parkin/on 458. Rail Syn. p. *28i. Hud/on 
Fl. Angl. p. 238. Scopoli Fl. Carniol. p: 442; 

RADIX perennis, alba, dura, lignofa, per terram rep- ? ROOT perennial, white, hard and woody, creeping 
tando immenfum fe propagans. | under the earth, and propagating itfelf very 

£ much. 

CAULES plemmque plures ex eadem radice, eretli, | STALKS : generally feveral arife from the fame root, 
pedales aut cubitales, foliofiffimi, teretes, laeves. | upright, from one to two feet high, very full 

t of leaves, round and fmooth. 

FOLIA linearis., acuta, conferta, fparfa, glauca. | LEAVES linear, pointed, growing very thick together 

¥ on the ftalk without any regular order, fmooth, 

* and of a blueifh colour. 

FLORES lutei, palato croceo, in fummis caulibus in % FLOWERS yellow, with the palate of an orange or 
fpicas denfas imbricatim congefti. | fafFron colour, placed one over another in thick 

I fpikes on the top of the Stalks. 

CALYX: Perianthium quinquepartitum, breve, per- t CALYX: a Perianthium divided into five fegments 
fiftens, laciniis ovato-lanceolatis, fuperiore csete- J *h°/t and continuing, the fegments oval and 

ris paulo longiore, duabus inferioribus magis % pointed, the upper one a little longer than the 

dehiscentibus, fig. 1. | reft, the two inferior ones gaping wideft, fig. 1. 

COROLLA monopetala ringens, lutea, fig. 3. Tubus \ COROLLA monopetalous, ringent, and yellow, Jig. 3 ; 
brevis ; Limbus bilabiatus, fig. 4. Labium t the Tube fhort; the Limb compofed of two 

fuperius bifidum, laciniis primum deflexis, poftea t Lips, /^ 4 ; the upper Lip bifid, the fegments 

reftexis conniventibus, fig. 5 ; Labium infierius I firft. bending down, afterwards turned back and 

trifidum, laciniis obtufis, intermedio breviore | clofmg together, fig. 5 ; the lower Lip trifid, 

minore, fig. 6 ; Faux claufa Palato pro- % the fegments obtufe, the middle one fhorteft 

minente, bifido, croceo, ad bafin villofo,j%. 7. | ^nd leaft, fig. 6 ; the Mouth clofed by a Pa- 

I late prominent, bifid, of a fafFron colour, 

I and villous at bottom, fig. y. 

STAMINA: Filamenta quatuor, alba, fub labio fu- * STAMINA: four white Filaments, inclofed under 

periori inclufa, quorum duo breviora, ad balin | the upper lip of the Corolla, two of which are 

villofa, fig. 9; Anthers flavae, conniventes, t Ihorter than the other two, at bottom villous, 

fig. 10. J fig. 9; Anthers yellow, flightly connected 

& together, fig. 10. 

PISTILLUM: Germen fubrotundum, Stylus filifor- t PISTILLUM • Germen roundiih, Style filiform and 

mis, albus ; Stigma obtufum. I white; Stigmata obtufe. 

PERlCARPIUM : Capsula ovato-cylindracea, bilocu- f SEED-VESSEL a Capsule of an oval and cylindrical 
laris, apice in plures lacinias dehifcens, fig. 14, | Ihape, having two cavities, and fplitting at top 

15, 16. ^ into feveral d'ivifions, fig. 14, 15, 16. 

SEMINA numerofa, nigra, plana, medio extuberantia, ¥ SEEDS numerous, black, flat, protuberant in the mid- 
fig. 17. ' T &e,fig. 17. 

Mr. Ray in his Hifioria Plantarum has collected the Authorities of feveral writers who fpeak highly of the me- 
dical virtues of this Plant. At the fame time that we by no means believe in all the Virtues which are attributed 
to many plauts by the old Authors, we would be carefull of rejecting all their accounts, particularly when there 
is fome reafon to think they may be founded in Truth, the mention of them may at leaft ferve to excite fuch of the 
Faculty as have proper opportunities to give them a fair trial, and either reject them entirely, or bring them more 
generally into practice. 

According to fome it opperates both by Stool and Urine, and fo much by the latter, as to acquire among the 
Germans the name of Harnkrout. A fmall Glafs of the diftilled Water mixed with a drachm of the bark of the 
Ebulus or Water Elder in powder, powerfully provokes Urine, and is recommended in Dropfical Cafes. The diftilled 
water or juice of the Plant put in the Eyes, takes away the rednefs and inflamation of them, as Tragus afferts 
from his own long obfervation and experience. Made into an Ointment with lard and mixed with the yolk of Egg, 
it takes away the violent pain arifing from the Piles. 

The flowers of this plant are frequently found double with two or more Spurs, and a lingular variety of it which. 
Linnjeus calls Peloria, is faid by Mr. Hudson to grow about Clapham in Surry, this rare monftrofity we mail not 
fail to figure. 

In its common ftate, the Toad Flax grows very common on banks by the road fides, which it decorates not a 
little by its lingular and beautiful Flowers. It may with the greateft eafe be cultivated in Gardens, and raifed either 
from Seeds or Roots ; the Seed is ripe at the latter end of September, 

/ K ///// j //////////// J J, /ucinci . 



DIGITALIS Linnai Gen. PL Didynamia Angiospermia. 

CaL 5-partitus. Cor. campanulata 5-fida, ventricofa. Caps, ovatabilocularis* 

Pail Syn. Gen. 18. Herbje fructu sicco singulari flore monopetalo. 
DIGITALIS purpurea Calycinis foliolis ovatis acutis, corollis obtufis : labio fuperiore integro. Linn. Syft. 

Vegetal, p. 570. Sp. PL p. 866. 
DIGITALIS foliis calycinis ovatis, galea fimplici. Hatter, hifl. p> 143. ?u 330. 
DIGITALIS purpurea. Scopoli PL CarnloL p. 447. n. 780, 
DIGITALIS purpurea folio afpero. p. 243. 
DIGITALIS purpurea. Gerard, emac. 790. 
DIGITALIS purpurea vulgaris. Parkin/on 1653. Rail Syn. p* 283. Purple Fox-glove. PLudfor PL 

Angl. p. 240. Oeder PL Dan Icon. 774. 

RADIX biennis, fibrofa. * 

CAULIS tripedalis ad orgyalem, firnplex, erectus, fo- | 

liofus, teres, pubefcens. f 

FOLIA ovato-acuta, ferrata, venofa, fubtus albida, pu- | 

befcentia ; Petioli breves, alati. $ 

FLORES fpicati, nutantes, imbricati, fecundi. I 


PEDUNCULI uniflori, pubefcentes, apice incraffati, | 

peracta. florefcentia fuberecti. % 


CALYX: Perianthium quinquepartitum, laciniis o- | 

vato-acuminatis, nervofis, fuprema anguftiore, $ 

fg- *• I 

COROLLA monopetala, fubcampanulata, purpurea, y 

interne ocellata ; tubus magnus, patens, deor- t 

fum ventricofus, bafi cylindracea, arcla; limbus I 

parvus, quadrifidus,, lacinia fuperiore integra, $ 

quaii truncata, inferiore majore, inflexa. | 

STAMINA : Fil amenta quatuor bail Corollas inferta, 
alba, apice paululum latiora, bafi infracta, quo- 
rum duolongiora ; Anthers primum magnse, 
turgidae, ovatae, bafi coadunatae, lutefcentes, et 
fepe maculatae ; demum et forma et fitu mire 
mutantur, fg. 2, 3, 4. 

PISTILLUM : Germen fubconicum, luteo-virens ; 
Stylus fimplex ; Stigma bifidum, Jig. 5, 

6, 7- 
KECTARIUM Glandula bafin Germinis cingens, 

fg- 8. 
PERICARPIUM : Capsula ovato-acuminata, bilocu- 
laris, bivalvis, vaivula inferiore findente, fg. g. 

SEMINA plurima, nigricantia, parva, utraque extremitate 
truncata,^-. 10. 

ROOT biennial and fibrous. 

STALK from three to fix feet high, fimple, upright, 
leafy, round, and pubefcent or downy. 

LExWES of a painted oval fhape, ferrated, veiny, under- 
neath whitifh and pubefcent ; the Foot-stalks 
fhort and winged. 

FLOWERS growing in a fpike, pendulous, laying one 
over another all one way. 

PEDUNCLES fuftaining one flower, pubefcent, thick- 
eft at top, after the flower drops off, becoming 
nearly upright. 

CALYX : a Perianthium divided into five fegments, 
which are of an oval pointed fhape, and nervous, 
the uppermoft narrower than the reft, fq. 1 . 

COROLLA monopetalous, fomewhat bell-fhaped, pur- 
ple, and marked in the iniide with little eyes ; 
the tube large, fpreading, bulging out back- 
wards; the bafe cylindrical, and as if it had 
been tyedwith a ligature ; the limb fmall and 
quadrifid, the upper fegment entire and as if 
cut off, the lower fegment larger and bent in. 

STAMINA : four Filaments inferted into the bottom 
of the Corolla, white, a little broadeft at top, 
crooked at bottom, two long and two fhort ; 
Anther-E at firft large, turgid, oval, touch- 
ing at bottom, of a yellowifh colour and often 
fpotted ; laftly changing both their form and 
fituation in a lingular manner, fig. 2, 3, 4. 

PISTILLUM : Germen rather conical, of a yellow 
green colour; Style fimple; Stigma bifid, 

fg- 5> 6 > 7- 

NECTARY a Gland furrounding the bottom of the 
Germen, fg. 8. > 

SEED-VESSEL: a pointed oval Capsule, of two ca- 
vities and two valves, the lowermoft valve 
iplitting in two, fig. p. 

SEEDS numerous, blackifh, fmall, as if cut off at 
each end, fg. 10. 

Was it not that we are too apt to treat with neglect the beautiful plants of our own country, merely becaufe 
they are common and eafily obtained, the ftately and elegant Fox-glove would much oftener be the pride of our 
gardens than it is at prefent ; for it is not only peculiarly ftriking at a diftance, but its flowers and their feveral parts 
become beautiful in proportion to the nearnefs of our view : How Angularly and how regularly do the bloflbms hang 
onexwer another ! How delicate are the little fpots which ornament the iniide of the flower ! and like the wings of 
fome of our fmall Butterflies fmile at every attempt of the Painter to do them juftice : how pleafing is it to behold 
the neuling Bee hide itfelf in its pendulous bloflbms ! while extracting its fweets which furnim our tables with honey, 
and our manufacturers with wax : nor are the more interior parts of the flower lefs worthy of our admiration, 
orlefs adapted to the improvement of the young Botanift : here all the parts of the fructification being large, he will 
readily obtain a' diftinct idea of them ; but more particularly of the form of the Antherae, and the alteration which 
takes place in them, previous to and after the difcharge of the Pollen, vld. fg. 3, 4. 

The flowers of this plant are in general of a fine purple colour, and like all other purple flowers are liable to varia- 
tions ; fometimes we find the bloflbms of a milk white or cream colour, and fome other varieties of it are mentioned 
by Ray, but the white is the moft common. Such as would wifh to cultivate it, may raifeit either from feed, which 
is very fmall for the fize of the plant, or from young plants. It grows naturally in a dry and gravelly foil, and in iuch 
fituations is common enough over moft parts of England ; about Charlton-Wood it is very plentiful, and flowers in 
July and Auguft. 

According to the teftimony of many writers, the juice or decoction of this plant taken inwardly, acts as an emetic 
and purgative, and that too with confiderable violence; hence Mr. Ray very properly advifes it to be given to fuch 
only as have robuft conftitutions. Parkinson affirms that it is very efficacious in the cure of the Epilepfy ; but he 
unites with it in his prefcription Polypody of the Oak, fo that there is no knowing to which of the plants the merit of 
curing this ftubborn difeafe is due. 

The flowers or herb either bruifed or made into an ointment, are ftrongly recommended in Schrophulous tumours and 
ulcers ; and fo great an opinion have the Italians of its virtues as a vulnerary, that they have the following proverb 
concerning it. '* Arafda tutte le piaghe falda." Fox-glove cures all wounds. Pali Hi/l. Plant. 

OtasUiUij purpurm. 


DRABA liitmal Gen. PL Tetradynamia Siliculosa. 

Rail Synop. Gen. 21. Herbje tetrapetal^e siliquosje et siliculosa. 
DRABA verna fcapis nudis, foliis fubferratis. Lhintel Syji. Vegetab. p. 489. Flor. Suec. p. 223. 
DRABA cauliculis nudis, foliis fubhirfutis, fubdcntatis. Holler, hijl. helv. I. 215. 
BURSA PASTORIS minor loculo oblongo. Bauhin. pin. 108. 2. 
PARONYCHIA vulgaris. Gerar d emac. 624. Rail Syn. 292: Hudfion Fl. Angl. 243. Scopoli Flor. Car niol. n. 792 

RADIX fibrofa, annua. ? ROOT fibrous and annual. 

CAULES nudi, palmares, 1 ad 5 aut plures in folo | STALKS naked, about three inches high, one to five 
fertili ex eadem radice nafcuntur. % and frequently more, if the foil be rich, fpring 

f from the fame root. 


FOLIA ovato-lanceolata, bail anguftiora integra et | LEAVES of an oval pointed ihape, narrower at bottom, 

fabferrata, (ferra nili unica aut duo, raro plures) t fome of them entire, and others a little ferrated, 

fuper terram expanfa, fcabriufcula, hirfuta, pili f or indented, (feldom more than one or two in- 

bi-trifurci. f dentations in a leaf,) fpreading on the ground, 

I roughifh, hirfute, fome of the hairs bifurcate,, 

I others trifurcate. 

- PEDUNCULI alterni, uniflori. | PEDUNCLES alternate, uniflorous. 

CALYX: PERiANTHiuM tetraphyllum, foliolis ereftis, I CALYX: a Perianthium of four leaves, which are 

concavis, gibbis, obtufis, fubhirfutis.^. 1. | upright, hollow, gibbous, obtufe, and fome- 

* what hairy, fig. 1 . 

COROLLA tetrapetala, petala alba, calyce duplo longi- | COROLLA tetrapetalous, the Petals white, twice 

ora, bipartita. fig. 2. | the length of the Calyx, and bipartite, fig. 2. 

STAMINA: Fit amenta fex incurvata, quorum 4 \ STAMINA: fix Filaments which bend inward, 4 
longitudine Piftilli 2 breviora ; Anthers ^ long the height of the Piftillum, and 2 fhort ; 

flavas. fig. 3. 4. % the Ant herje yellow, fig. 3. 4. 

PISTILLUM : Germen ovatum, compreffum ; Stylus \ PISTILLUM : The Germen oval and flat ; Style 
vix ullus ; Stigma capitatum, planum.^-. 5. i fcarce any; Stigma a fmall head flat at top. 

PERICARPIUM: Filicula ovata, compreffa, brevi | SEED-VESSEL a fhort oval pod, flat, and terminated 
mucrone obtuib terminata, bilocularis, bivalvis, i by a fhort blunt point, having two Cavities and 

valvulis plano-concavis. fig. 6. & two Valves, the Valves {lightly concave, fig. 6. 


SEMINA plura, ovata, fufca, margini Dissephmenti | SEEDS feveral, oval, brown, fixed to the edge of the 
affixa. fig. 8. 9. I Dissepiment or Partition,^. 8. 9. 

ON Walls, dry Banks, and in barren Fields, the white bloflbms of this diminutive plant, are very confpicuous 
in the months of March and April, a feafon when any kind of bloflbm is viewed with pleafure, as it cannot 
fail to excite the pleafing reflection that the feafon is approaching when 

" All that is fiweet to fimell, all that can charm 
Or eye or ear, burjls fiorth on every fide 
And crouds upon the fienfies^ 

Linn-aeus informs us that in Smoland a Province of Sweden, they fow their Rye when this plant is in 
bloflbm, and that in the night time and in wet weather its flowers droop. 

Galen fays that Paronychia or Whitlow Grafs has its name from its properties, for it heals Whitlows ; but 
Commentators are much in doubt concerning the plant itfelf. From the account of the Antients, it appears 
that it is a different plant from what we are now defcribing; fome have fixed on Wall Rue, (Asplenium 
Rata muraria,) others on a plant refembling Spurge, fuch is the confufion that arifes from imperfecf. defcriptions. 

rmJrty vernas 

Thlaspi Bursa pastoris. Shepherd's Purse. 

THLASPI Ltntuei Gen. PL Tetradynamia Siliculosa. 

Sillcula emarginata, obcordata, polyfperma : valvulis navicularibus, margi- 

Rail Syn. Gen 21. Herb;e tetrapetalje siliquos^e et siliculosje. 
THLASPI Burfia pajlorls filiculis obcordatis, foliis radicalibus pinnatifidis. Linnai Syfi. Vegetab. p. 491* 

Spec. PL 903. FL Suecic. 227. 
NASTURTIUM filiqujs triangularibus, Hatter hlft. v. 1. p. 221 
P ASTORIA BURSA Fujchii Icon. 611. 

BURSA Px'VSTORIS major folio finuato. Bauhln Pin. 108. Gerard emac. 276. Parklnfionl Theat. 866. 

Rail Syn. 306. Hudfion. FL Angl. 247. Scopoll. FL CarnioL v, 2. 17. 

RADIX annua, fibrofa, albida. J ROOT annual, fibrous and whitim. 

CAULIS pedalis, ereftus, ramofus, teres, fubafper. $ STALK about a foot high, upright, branched, round, 

I a little prickly. 

FOLIA radlcalla hirfutula, pinnatifida, laciniis quoad % LEAVES : radical leaves flightly hirfute, pinnatifid, 
formam mire variantibus, caulina amplexicaulia, | the lacbias or jags varying exceedingly in 

dentata. % their form ; the upper leaves embracing the 

I ftalk, and indented at the edges. 


PEDUNCULI uniflori, demum fere horizontales. | PEDUNCLES, fupporting one flower on each, nearly 

I horizontal when the flowers are gone off. 

CALYX: Perianthium tetraphyllum, foliolis ovatis, | CALYX: a Perianthium of four leaves, the leaves 
concavis, fubpilofis, margine membranaceis, | oval, hollow, flightly hairy, and membranous 

fig. 1. I at the edges, jig. 1. 

COROLLA: Petala quatuor alba, calyce paulo Ion- $ COROLLA: four white Petals, a little longer than 
giora, apice rotundata, fig. 2. | the Calyx, round at top, fig. 2. 

STAMINA : Filamenta fex, alba, quorum quatuor ? STAMINA : fix white Filaments, four of which 
longitudine Styli, duo breviora incurvata ; An- f are of the fame length as the Style ; two 

therje flavae, fig. 3. $ are fhorter and bent a little inwards : An- 

t therje yellow, fig. 3. 

PISTILLUM: Germen oblongo-cordatum ; Stylus ? PISTILLUM :Germen of an oblong heart-map cjStyle 

breviflimus ; Stigma villofum, fig. 4. very fhort ; Stigma villous, fig. 4. 

PERICx^RPIUM : Silicula lzevis, obcordata, bivalvis, ¥ SEED-VESSEL; a fhort fmooth pod, triangular or 
fig. c. I heart-Jhaped, with two valves, fig. 6. 


pEMINA plurima, pedicellata, flavefcentia, margini | SEEDS numerous, of a yellowifh colour, ftanding on 
Diffepimenti affixa, Jig. 6. | little foot-ftalks, which connects them to the 

t edge of the Diflepimentum or Partition, fig. 6. 

PISSEPIMENTUM utrinque acutiirn Valvis contrari- y PARTITION pointed at both ends, placed crofs-ways 
um, f to the Valves, 

THE radical leaves of this plant differ fo exceedingly in their appearance, that the moil expert Botanirt is 
often obliged to have recourfe to its mo(l {Inking character, the Ihape of its Seed-veflels, before he can with 
certainty diitinguifh it. When it grows on walls and in dry filiations, the leaves are more deeply divided, and 
the Lacjniae become much narrower ; in cultivated ground they are broader and lefs jagged : It differs likewife 
no lefs with repeat to its fize, fometimes being not more than two or three inches high, and at other times 
as many feet. 

March and April are the months in which it is found; moft generally in blofTom, yet like the Groundfiel and 
Poa annua, it may be found in this ftate at almofr. any time of the year, 

It acquires its name of Shepherd's Pouch or Purfe, from the particular ihape of its pods, by which it is ob- 
vioufly diftinguhned from all our other Tetradynamous plants. 

The plant is collected and given to fmall birds, who appear to be very fond of the feeds, and this is the 
only ufe to which we at preient know of its being applied. 

Geranium cicutarium. Hemlock-lea vd Crane's-bill. 

GERANIUM Linnai Gen. PI, MonadelphiA Decandria. 

Monogyna. Stigmata quinque. FruBus roftratus, pentacoccus. 
Rail Synop. Herb.e pentApetal^ vasculifer.^. 

GERANIUM cicutarium pedunculis multifloris, noribus pentandris, foliis pinnatis incifis obtufis, caule ramofo. 
Linntzi Syjl. Vegetab. p. 90. Fl. Suecic. p. 243. 

GERANIUM petiolis multifloris, caule procumbente, foliis duplicato-pinnatis ; pinnulis acute incifis. 
Halle?' hijl. No. 944. 

cicutae folio minus, et fupihum. Bauhin pin. 319. 
cicutas folio inodorum album. Gerard emac. 945. 946* 



mofchatum inodorum. Parkin/on 1708. Raii Syn. 357* Field Crane's-bill without fcenfr 

Hudfion Fl. Angl. 262. 

RADIX annua, albida, fimplex, carne tenera, cum 
nervo intus duriore et tenaciore, paucis fibris 
inflrudla, craffiufcula, et in terram alte def- 

CAULES ex eadem radice nafcuntur plures, crafTmf- 
culi, teretes, hirfuti, procnmbentes, ramofi, 
varias longitudinis pro ratione loci. 

FOLIA pinnata, pinnis feffilibus pubefcentibus, pinnulis 
acute inciiis. 

STIPULiE ad exortum foliorum membranaceas, albidze, 
ovato-acutae, fuperiore integra, jig. 1 ; inferiore 
in duas divifae, fig. 2. 

PEDUNCULI axillares, alterni, hirfuti, multiflori, lon- 
tudine foliorum. 

FLORES umbellati, rofei, a tribus ad fex. 

INVOLUCRUM membranaceum, multidentatum, fig. % 

3 ; Pedicelli baficrafliores, deflexi et demum | 

affurgentes. I 

CALYX: Peri ant hium pentaphyllum, foliolis ovatis, % 

ftriatis, hirfutis, concavis, mucronatis, fig. 4. | 

COROLLA : Petala quinque, fubovata, plana» fubse- 
qualia, rofea, baii hirfuta, calyce longiora, 

STAMINA : Filament a decern, quorum quinque 
alterna Antheris carent^ 7 : Anthers fatu- 
rate purpurafcentes, fig. 6. 

NECTARIA : Glandule quinque fufcae circa bafin ttami- 
num locantur, fig. 9. 

PISTILLUM : Germen quinquangulare, villofum ; 
Stylus fubulatus, fnlcatus ; Stigmata quin- 
que purpurafcentia, paululum refiexa,^g-. 10, 11. 

PERICARPIUM nullum; Fructus pentacoccus, rof- 

SEMEN oblongum, laeve, fufcum, arillatum, fig. 14, I 
Arilla hirfuta ; Arista praelonga pilofa in- % 
ftrucla quae demum fpiralis evadit, fig. 12, 13. | 

ROOT annual, whitifh, fimple, tender, the firing or" 
nerve in the middle of it hard and tough, 
furnifhed with few fibres, large for the fize 
of the plant, and penetrating deep into the earth, 

STALKS : feveral ufually fpring from the fame root, thick- 
ifb, round, hirfute, procumbent and branched, of 
various lengths-according to their place of growth. 

LEAVES pinnated, the pinnae feffile and {lightly hairy* 
the pinnulae fharply indented^ 

STIPUL^E atthebafe of the leaves membranous, whitifh, 
acutelv oval, the uppermoft intire, fig. 1 ; the 
lowermoft generally divided into two, fig. 2. 

FOOT-STALKS of the flowers fpringing from the 
bafe of the leaves, alternate, hirfute, the length 
of the leaves, and fupporting many flowers. 

FLOWERS growing in an Umbell, from three to fix, 
of a rofe-colour. 

INVOLUCRUM membranous, with many teeth, fig. 3 ; 
the fmall foot-ftalks of the flowers thickeft at 
bottom, turning down, and laftly turning upward. 

CALYX : a Perianthium of five leaves, the folioli oval, 
ftriated, hirfute, concave, and terminating in 
a fine point, fig. 4. 

COROLLA : five Petals, fomewhat oval, flat, nearly* 
equal, of a rofe colour, hairy at bottom, fome- 
what longer than the Calyx, fig. 5. 

STAMINA : ten Filaments, five of which want the 
Antheras, the Anthers of a deep purple 
colour, fig. 6. 

NECTARIA : five brown Glands placed round the bafe 
of the Stamina, fig. 9. 

PISTILLUM: Germen quinquangularand villous, Style 
tapering and grooved ; Stigmata five, of a 
purple colour, bending a little back,^zg-, 10, 11. 

SEED-VESSEL none; Fruit as yet unripe, formed 
of five protuberating feeds, and terminating in 
a long beak. 

SEED oblong, fmooth, brown, inclofed within an A- 
rillus fig. 14, which is hirfute, and furnifhed 
with a long hairy Arista, finally becoming 
fpiral, fig. 12, 13. 

We have often had occafion to remark the very great difference in the appearance of plants arifing from foil 
and fituation ; of this the young Botanift cannot be too well apprifed, nor too often informed : from a want of 
attention to this circumftance, the plant which we have now defcribed, has been divided by different Authors 
into feveral fpecies. 

It feems worthy of notice, that the alterations which are produced in plants from growing in a richer foil, 
are chiefly thofe of encreafe of fize, and a multiplication of their parts; the minutiae of the fructification fuffer 
but little change in their form by culture, hence they are often moft to be depended on, even in afcertaining 
different fpecies. 

When the Geranium Cicutarium grows on a dry fandy bank, or wall, as it very frequently does, it is quite 
diminutive*, when it occurs in a moifter and more luxuriant foil, the branches extend often a foot or two in 
length, and the whole plant becomes fo altered in its general appearance, as readily to deceive the inexperienc'd 
Tyro ; but the long pointed fruit which occurs in both, and from whence this plant has obtained the name 
-of Cranes-bill, readily points them out to be the fame. 

The feeds of the Geraniums are, in general, enclofed within a membranous Arillus, which terminates in an Arijla or 
^Tail, of different lengths in different fpecies ; in fome of them, when the feeds are become ripe, they detach themfelves 
from the receptacle, to which they are affixed, with confiderable elafHcity, and the feeds being loofely contained with- 
in the Arillus are thrown out to a confiderable diflance. In the prefent fpecies, the feeds are more clofely invefted 
by the Arillus, which does not feparate itfelf with fo much force, and as foon as detached, the Arijla begins to be 
twitted up in a fpiral form. This may be very diftin&ly obferved if we feparate a feed, with its Arillus, as foon as ripe, 
and place it in the palm of the hand, the tail of the Arillus immediately appears in motion, as if endued^ with fome fen- 
fitive property, and continues uninterruptedly this motion, 'till it has aflumed the form of a fcrew, vid, fig. 13. The 
feed thus furnifhed with its twitted Aritta, is more liable to attach itfelf to anything which may come in contact, with 
it, by which means this plant is more univerfally difleminated. 

The Geranium mofichatum has a great affinity with this fpecies, that plant however has a ttrong fmell of mufk, 
which this entirely wants ; and has alfo many other peculiarities, which we fhall not fail to particularize when 
it comes to be treated o£ 

f/r////v/// c(cate?wm . 

Geranium Robertianum. Strong-scented 
Cranes-bill, or Herb Robert I 

GERANIUM Linnai Gen, PL Monadelphia Decandria. 

Stigmata quinque. Fruttus roftratus, pentacoccus. 
Rail Syn. 335. Herb^ pentapetal.e vasculifer^:. 
GERANIUM robertianum pedunculis bifloris, calycibus pilofis decemangulatis. Unmet Syjl. Vegetal, p. 

515. FL Sueclc, 241. n. 619. 
GERANIUM foliis duplicato pinnatis, pinnis ultimis confluentibus, calycibus fViatis, hirfutis. Halkr 

hifl. n. 943. 
GERANIUM robertianum. Scopoll FL CarnloL n. 845. Hudfon FL AngL p. 264. 
GERANIUM robertianum primum. Bauhln. Fin. 319. 
GERANIUM robertianum. Gerard, emac. 939. 
GERANIUM robertianum vulgare. Parklnfon 710. Rati Syn. p. 358. 

RADIX annua, fufca, fibris ramofis praelongis inftructa. ? 


CAULES plures, difFufi, ramofi, fanguinei ut ut tota ? 

planta haud infrequenter, geniculis tumidis, | 

piioli, praefertim in junioribus plantis. % 


FOLIA oppofita, pilofa, prascipue in umbrofis, unum- | 

quodque folium e tribus foliolis pinnatifidis bail f 

confluentibus componitur, foliolo medio longius * 

pedicellato, laciniis fpinula rubra terminatis. * 

STIPUL/E ad fingulum geniculum quatuor, utrinque 

bin as. 
PEDUNCULI biflori. 
CALYX: Perianthium decemangulatum, perfiftens, 

foliolis ovato-lanceolatis, nervofis, hirfutis, 

mucronatis, Jig. 1, 2. 
COROLLA : Petala quinque rofea, patentia, aequa- 

lia, lamina fubcordata, unguis linearis, medio 

prominulo fulcato in tres nervos albidos divari- 

cante. fig. 3. 
STAMINA: Filamenta decern fertilia, fubulata, 

plana, alba, bafi cohaerentia ; Antherje pur- 

purafcentes, pollinefiavo repletas, fig. 4, audi: 5. 

ISTILLUM : Germen quinquangulare ; Stylus fubu- | 
latus, villofus; Stigmata quinque, rubra, •% 
paululum reflexa, fig. 6. 
SEMINA quinque Arillata, laevia, ovata, fufca ad unum | 
latus compreffa, fig. 9 ; Arillus rugofus, % 
fig. j, 8. t 

ROOT annual, brown, furnifhed with long branched 

STALKS feveral, fpreading, branched, of a blood-red 
colour, as is frequently the whole plant, (the 
joints tumid,) hairy, particularly in the young 

LEAVES oppofite, hairy efpecially when growing in 
the made, each compofed of three pinnatifid 
leaves, uniting at the bafe, the middle leaf 
Handing on the longeft foot-ftalk, the lacinias 
or jags of the leaf terminated by a fmall red 

STIPULiE four at each joint, two on each fide of it. 

PEDUNCLES biflorous. 

CALYX: a Perianthium having ten angles, and con- 
tinuing, the leaves ovato-lanceolate, nervous, 
hairy, terminating in a point, fig. 1, 2. 

COROLLA: five rofe-coloured Petals, fpreading and 
equal, the lamina fomevvhat heart-fhaped, the 
claw linear, the middle part of it prominent, 
grooved, and fpreading into three whitifh nerves. 

STAMINA: ten fertile Filaments, tapering, flat, 
white, connected at bottom; Antherje pur- 
plifh, filled with a yellow Pollen, fig. 4, mag- 
nified, fig. 5. 

PISTILLUM : Germen having five angles ; Style 
tapering, villous; Stigmata five, red, a little 
turned back, fig. 6. 

SEEDS five, contained within an Arillus, fmooth, oval, 
brown, flattened on one fide, fig, 9; the A- 
rillus wrinkled,^. 7, 8. 

Although our Englifh Geraniums cannot boaft that grandeur and variety of fplendid colours fo confpicuous 
in many of the foreign ones, yet feveral of them are fufficiently beautiful to be entitled to a place in the- 
gardens of the curious, particularly the Bloody Cranes-bill, (Geranium Sangulneum ;) the Crowfoot Cranes-bill, (Ge- 
ranium Pratenfie ;) the Perennial Doves-foot Cranes-bill, (Geranium Perenne of Hudfon,) and the Herb Robert which we 
have now defcribed * the latter of thefe grows naturally in woods, but more particularly under the hedges which fur- 
round woods ; it likewife is frequently found in old hollow trees, and not uncommonly on the roofs of houfes not 
much expofed to the fun : it is an annual plant ; the feeds fow themfelves in Autumn, foon after the young plants 
come up ; flower the enfuing fpring, and continue to bloflbm the whole Summer long, if the plant grows in the 
made : towards the latter end of the year, both ftalks and leaves become of a deep red or blood colour. 

The whole plant has a difagreeable fmell when bruifed, by which it will be difb'nguimed from our other fpecies. 
It appears to grow all over Europe, and as a proof of its being full more univerfal, mentions its growing in 
Arabia fcehx. 

A variety with a white flower now and then ocurrs. 

If credit may be given to writers on the Materia Medlca, it is a plant of confiderable efficacy in medicine, particu- 
larly as an Aftringent, hence it is recommended in all kinds of Hemorrhages ; and thofe who have the management 
of cattle, arefaid to give them an infufion of this plant when they make bloody urine. — Has not this practice originated 
from the doclrine of fignatures ? It is alfo celebrated as a vulnerary in fchrophulous, cancerous and putrid Ulcers, 
to which either the juice is applied, or the parts fomented with a decoction of the herb ; as likewife in Contufions, 
diflblving the extravafated blood when applied in the form of a Cataplafm ; and laftly it is faid to be exhibited with 
good fuccefs in the Stone and Gravel. — How far it merits thefe encomiums future experiments rauft determine. 

The herb bruifed and applied to places infefled with Bugs, is faid by Linn-eus to drive them away. 

Orobus tuberosus. Wood Pea. 

OROBUS LinnceiGen.PL Diadelphia Decandria. 

Rail Synop. Gen. 23. Herb^ flore papilionaceo, seu legumxnosje. 

OROBUS tuberofus foliis pinnatis, lanceolatis ; ftipulis femifagittatis integerrimis, caule fimplici. Lm. Syft. 

Vegetab. p. 550. FL Suecic. n. 642. 

OROBUS caule firnplici ; foliis fenis ellipticis; radice tuberofa. Haller. hift. ».417. 

ASTRAGALUS fy lvaticus, foliis oblongis glabris. 351. Gerard, emac. 12 ^7. 

LATHYRUS fylveftris lignofior. Parkin/on, 107 2. Rail Synop'. p. 324. Wood-Peafe, or Heath-Peafe. Hud- 
/on, FL Angl. p. 274. Scopoli. FL Cam. n. 883. 

RADIX perennis, tuberofa. % ROOT perennial and tuberous. 


CAUL1S fimplex, ere&us, pedalis, alatus, fubtortuofus. % STALK iimple, upright, about a foot high, winged and 

I fomewhat twitted. 


FOLIA pinnata, Cirrho breyi re&o terminata, Pin- % LEAVES pinnated, terminated by a ihort ftraitCiRRHus 

narum paria duo, tria, elliptica, mucronata, | confining of two or three pair of Pinnae which 

glabra fubtus casrulefcentia. ^ are elliptical, and end in a fmall fharp point, 

% fmooth and underneath blueiih. 

STIPULiE femifagittatse, faepe integrae, faepius vero ad | STIPULE femifagittate, frequently entire but more 
balin hamatae, dente unico aut pluribus. often jagged at bottom, with one er feveral 

I teeth. 

RAMI florigeri, 1, 2, 3, aut plures ex foliorum alis, pri- | BRANCHES which fuitain the flowers 1, 2, 3, or 
mum nutantes, Flores pulchelli, ex rubro | more, fpringing from the bofom of the leaves, 

purpurei, demum caerulefcentes, % at firft drooping the Flowers beautiful, of a 

I reddifh purple colour, becoming blue as they 

I go off. 

CALYX Perianthium monophyllum, tubulatum v | CALYX : a Perianthium of one leaf, tubular, pur- 

purpureum, baft obtufum ; ore quinquedentato, $ pie, blunt at bottom, the mouth quinquedentate, 

denticulis tribus inferioribus acutioribus, duobus | the three lowermoft teeth fharpeft, the two 

fuperioribus breviorihus, obtufe divifis, fubaf- | uppermoft fhorteft, bluntly divided, and turned 

furgentibus, Jig. 1. ■ f a little upwards, jfir 1. 


COROLLA Papilionacea: Vexillum obcordatum, re- J COROLLA Papilionaceous: theVExiLLUM heart-fhaped, 

ftexum,j%*. 2. Alje conniventes, Carina con- | turning back, jig. 2. the Wings connivent 

nexae, Unguis linearis, fig. 5. Lamina obtufa. | and connected with the Carina, the Claw linear, 

Carina, fig. 7, acuminata, afliirgens, margi- % fig. 5. the Lamina obtufe, j%\ 6. the Carina 

nibus cavis ad Alas recipiendas, ^. 9. | or Keel acuminate, rifing upward, the edges 

I hollow for the reception of the Alas or Wings, 

I fig- 9- 

STAMINA: Filamenta diadelphia (fimplexet novem $ STAMINA: ten Filaments, nine united into one 
fidum) adfcendentia, fig. n, 17. Anthers | body below, and one feparate at toy, fig, n, 

flavae, fig. 12. ad bairn filamenti fimplicis et | 17. rifing upward, An t her je yellow, fig. 12. 

fhperioris, foramina duo obfervantur, fig. 16. $ at the bafe of the fimple and uppermost filament 

I two fmall holes are confpicuous, fig. 16. 

PISTILLUM: Germen cylindraceum, comprefTum, | 

Stylus nliformis, eredus, lateri interiori prope $ PISTILLUM: Germen cylindrical, and flattifli, Style 
apieem viilofus, fig. 13. | thread-fhaped, interiorly near the tip villous, 

PERICARPIUM Legumen teres, longum, primum ru- ? 

brum, demum nigrum, fig. 14. I SEED-VESSEL, a Legumen round, and long, firlt red, 

I when ripe black, fig. 1 4. 

SEMINA plura, fubrotunda, e luteo-fufca, fig. 1 5. | SEEDS feveral, roundifh, of a yellowifh brown colour, 

M- '5- 

This elegant fpecies of Orobus grows very -plentifully in all our Woods about Town ; it feems to delight in a 
ftrong clayey foil. It produces its blofloms in May and June and the feed is ripe in July. The root is large and 
tuberous, deeply fituated in the Earth and taken up with difficulty ; it is not made any particular ufe of with us, 
but is considerably efteemed in fome parts of Great Britain : 

My very worthy and ingenious Friend the Rev. Mr. Lightfoot, of Uxbridge, has favoured me with the following 
account of its ufes, which he obferved in his late tour through Scotland : 

" The Orobus tuberofus is very common in Scotland, both in the "Lowlands, Highlands, and the Hebrides. It is called 
m the Erfe Language Cor-meille. The Highlanders dig up the Roots and dry them in their pockets, and chew 
them like Tobacco or Liquorice Root, to relifh their Liquor, and to repel Hunger and Thirff. In Breadalbane 
and Rofs-Jhire they fometimes fteep them in Water, and make an agreeable fermented Liquor with them, which 
they eiteem to be good for Diforders of the Thorax. It has a fweetiih Tafte fomewhat like Liquorice Roots. Fond 
as the Highlanders were of this Root they frequently ufed to change it with me for fome Pig-tail Tobacco, their 
favourite Indulgence." 

•5 £ 7 

Ervum hirsutum. Rough-podded Tine-Tare. 

ERVUM Linneti Gen. PL Diadelphia Decandria. Calyx quinquepartitus, longitudine corollas* 

Rail Gen. 23. Herb^ flore papilionaceo seu leguminosje. 
ERVUM Urfutuni, pedunculis multifioris, feminibus globofis binis. Linn. Syjl. Vegeiab. p. 554. Spec. Plant* 

1039. PL Sueck. 255. 
VICIA foliis linearibus, filiquis racemofis, difpermis, hirfutis. Halter hifl. helv. n. 422» 
ERVUM hirfutum. Scopoti Ft. Carnlol n. 901. Hudfin PL Angl. p. 280, 
VICIA fegetum cum filiquis plurimis hirfutis. Bauhin. Pin. p. 345- 
VICIA fylveftris feu Cracca minima. Gerard, emac. 1028. 

ARACHUS five Cracca minor. Parklnfon 1070. Rail Syn. fmall wild Tare or Tine Tare. Mutter, Plor't 
Dan. icon. 639. 

RADIX annua, tenuis, praslonga, paucis fibrillis inttru&a. | 

CAULES pedales, aut bipedales, debiles, ramofi, qua- $ 
drangulares, tortuofi. * 

STIPULE in plures lacinias teniies divifas, fuperiore $ 
majore. | 

FOLIA pinnata, ad oclo aUt duodecem paria, oppofita, | 
aut fubalterna, lasvia, lanceolata, apice iruncata, I 
nervo medio in mucronem edu£lo y capreolo ramofo 1 
terminata* * 


PEDUNCULI longitudine foliorum, muttiflori. | 


FLORES a tribus ad o6to, pallide purpurei, racema- * 

tim, et imbricatim difpofiti. , | 

CALYX: PERiANTHiuMquinquedentatum, perfiftens, | 
longitudine fere Corollas, dentibus linearibus, I 
acuminatis, fubasqualibus, duobus ftiperioribus | 
more Orobi obtufe divifis, fig. 1 . ' % 


COROLLA papilionacea % Vexillum fubrotundum, | 
vix emarginatum, parumreflexum, fig. 2 ; Alje f 
Carinas adhasrentes, ovatas, obtufas, ad bafin li- * 
neares, fig. 3 ; Carina alis brevior, fig. 4, | 
interne macula purpurea utrinque not at a. 

STAMINA: FilamEnta decern affurgentia, fupre- 4 
mum brevior casteris, nee liberum, fig. § ; An- J 
THER^E fimplices, flavas. % 

PISTILLUM: Germen oblongum, Stylus (implex, % 
afliirgens, Stigma obtufum, villofum, fig. 6. I 

PERICARPIUM: Legumen breve, hirfutum, difpermum, % 

fig- 7- I 

SEMINA duo, fubrotunda. J 

ROOT annual, (lender, long, and furnifhed with feW 

STALKS from one to two feet high, weak, branch*, 
ed, quadrangular and twitted, 

STIPULiE divided into many (lender laciiiiaSj of which 
the uppermoft is the lafgeft. 

LEAVES pinnated, from eight to twelve pair, oppo^ 
fite, or nearly alternate, fmooth v lanceolate^ 
with the top cut off, and the midrib running 
out to a Jhort point, terminated by a branch- 
ed tendriL 

PEDUNCLES the length of the leaves, and fupport- 
ing many flowers. 

FLOWERS from three to eight, of a pale purple 
colour, difpofed in racemi, and laying one o-* 
ver another. 

CALYX : a Perianthium with five teeth, continu- 
ing, almoft the length of the Corolla, the 
teeth linear, and pointed, nearly equal, the 
two upper ones obtufely divided in the man- 
ner of the Orobus, fig. 1. 

COROLLA papilionaceous ; the Vexillum founding 
fcarcely nicked in, bending a little back, fig* 
2 ; the Wings adhering to the Carina, oval^ 
obtufe, at bottom linear, fig. 3 ; the Carina 
fhorter than the Wings, fig. 4, marked inter- 
nally 071 each fide with a purple fipot. 

STAMINA: ten Filaments which rife Upward, the 
uppermott connected with^and fhorter than the' 
others, fig* 5 ; the Anthers fimple and yellow. 

PISTILLUM: Germen oblong, StylE fimple and ri- 
fing upward, Stigma blunt and villous, fig. 64 

SEED-VESSEL a fhort hairy Legumen with two 
feeds, fig. 7. 

SEEDS two, and roundifh* 

This fpecies of Tine-Tare, which at firtt fight beats fo great a refemblance to the Ervum teirafpermum, grows 
like that, too frequently among Corn, to which it is in general more deftrudtive, as being a ftronger and more 
prolific plant. I have in wet feafons feen whole fields of corn overpowered and wholly deftroyed by this plant. 

It is eafily diftinguiihed from the Tetrafpermum ; in the firft place, the leaves are not pointed as in that fpecies, 
but appear as if cut off at the end, which although a material circumltance is not noticed by Muller in his figure 
of it, vid. Ft. Dan. icon. 639 ; fecondly the Stipulasare divided into many more lacinias; the flowers and confequently 
the Pods grow in a kind of Clutter, whereas there is feldom more than two grow together in the teirafpermum ; 
and lattly, which feems to be the beft diftin&ion, the Pods are rough and contain two Seeds in each, while in 
the Teirafpermum, they are fmooth and contain four Seeds. 

Ervum tetraspermum. Smooth -podded Tine Tare. 

ERVUM Linnai Gen. PL Diadelphia Decandria. 

Rail Syn. Gen. 23. Herbje flore papilionacEo self leguminosje. 

ERVUM (tetrafpermum) pedunculis fubbifioris, feminibus globofis quaternis. Linn. Syjl. Vegetab. p. 554. 

VICIA foliis linearibus, filiquis gemellis glabris.^ Haller hif. v. 1. p. 184. 

ERVUM tetrafpermum. Scopoll FI. Carniol. Diagn. Pedunculi fubbiflori. Siliqua glabra, obtufa, tetrafperma. 

VICIA fegetum fingularibus filiquis glabris* Bauhin Pin. p. 345, 

VICLE five Craccae minimse fpecies cum filiquis glabris. /. Bauhin. 

CRACCA minor filiquis fingularibus, flofculis coerulefcentibus. Floff. C. H. Alt. Rail Syn. p. 322. Tine- 
Tare with fmooth pods. Hudfon FI. AngI p> 280. OEckr FI. Dan. Icon. 95. 

RADIX annua, fibrofa. | ROOT annual and fibrous. 

CAULES in apertis locis laeves, tenues, debiles, inter fege- ^ STALKS in open places are (lender and weak, but among 
tes vero, (ubi fiepius invenitur) capreolis erecle i the Corn, f where this plant is moft commonly 

fe{e fuftentant, pedales et ultra. I found,) they fupport themfelves upright by 

I means of their tendrils, and grow to a foot or 

i> more in height. 

STIPULE ad_ bafin foliorum, duo, fimplices, utrinque | STIPULE at the bottom of the leaves, two, fimple, and 

acuminatse. _ > f pointed at each end. 

FOLIA pinnata, bevia, lanceolata-linearia, parium tri- | LEAVES pinnated, fmooth, lanceolate and linear, from 
um ad quinque ufque, capreolo ramolo termi- | three to five pair, terminated by a branched ten- 

nata. f dril. 

PEDUNCULI longitudine foliorum, plerumque biflori. | PEDUNCLES the length of the leaves, generally fuftain- 

& ing two flowers. 

CALYX Perianthium quinquedentatum, perfiftens, | CALYX a Perianthium having five teeth and continu- 

dentibus inasqualibus, acutis, duobus fuperiori- * ing, the teeth unequal and pointed, the two 

bus brevioribus, latioribus, furfum tendentibus, I uppermoft fhorteft, broadeft, and turning a little 

obtufe divifis, Jig. 1. I upwards, at bottom obtufely divided, Jig. 1. 

COROLLA papilionacea, fg. 2; Vexillum fubemar- $ COROLLA papilionaceous, j%. 2; the Vexillum flight- 

ginatum, limbus, venis purpureis pictus, | ly nicked in at top, the limb fomewhat turned 

fg.4; Alje albee, conniventes,^. 5 ; Carina | back and ftreakedwith purple, fg, 4; theALJE 

alis brevior, obtufa, fg. 6. % white and clofing together, j%-. 5 ; the Carina 

I fhorter than the Alae and obtufe /%•. 6. 

STAMINA : Filament a diadelpha (fimplex et novem- | STAMINA : Ten Filaments uniting into two bodies, of 
fidum) aflurgentia,7%-. 7,8, fupremum liberum, | which one forms the lowermoft, fg. 7, and 

fg. 8; Antherte fimplices. * ne the uppermoft which is free, fg. 8; An- 

& therje fimple. 

PISTILLUM: Germen compreffum ; Stylus aflur- | PISTILLUM: Germen flatten'd ; Style rifing up- 
gens ; Stigma capitatum, villofum, fg. 9. y ward; Stigma forming a little head and vil- 

I lous, fg. 9. 

PERICARPIUM : Legumen lave, teretiufculum, te- | SEED-VESSEL : a Legumen, fmooth, roundifh, and 

trafpermum, fg. 10. f containing four feeds, fg. 10. 

SEMINA fubrotunda, fufcefcentia, nigro marmoreata, * SEEDS nearly round, brownifh and mottled with black, 
fg. 11. fg. 11. 

This fpecies of Ervum or 'Tine-Tare is found in moft Corn-fields, often to the Farmers forrow, as it frequent- 
ly proves very injurious to the Corn, laying hold of it by means of its tendrils, and if the feafon favours its 
growth quite overcoming it. Like moft plants of this kind it is exceedingly fertile ; on one plant which I cafually 
pulled up, I counted 220 pods, and as each pod contains four feeds, there muft have been from a fingle feed the 
amazing produce of 880. 

At firft fight this fpecies has a confiderable refemb lance to the Ervum hirfutum, but the flighteft attention will 
difcover the difference ; in the Ervum hirfutum the pods contain only two feeds and are hairy ; in the Tetrafpermum 
they contain four and are fmooth ; in the hirfutum the flowers grow in a kind of clufer, in this fpecies there is feldom 
more than two grow together. 

The figure which 1 have given is intended to reprefent the plant as it grows among the Com; when it is 
found by itfelf and in a poor foil it is often not lo large. 



' S 

6" 7 <$ K> n x 

rrum //Y/Y/ f ////'f//Y/Aw 

^V <#*""■ pi^r « «J/* 

ricum pulchrum. Small upright St. John's Wort, 

HYPERICUM Linnai. Gen. PL Polyadelphia Polyandria. 

Rail Syn. Gen. 24. Herb^e Pentapetal^e Vasculiferje. 
HYPERICUM fioribus trigynis ; calycibus ferrato-glandulofis, caule tereti, foliis perfoliatis glabris. 

Linn. Sp. PL 11 06. 
HYPERICUM pulchrum Tragi. J. Bauhin. Hi/i. III. 183. Rail Synop. 342. 
HYPERICUM minus, erectum. Bauhin. Pin. 279. 
HYPERICUM foliis amplexicaulibus, cordatis, calycibus ovatis, ferratis, glanduliferis. Hallerhifl. n. 1041. 

Gerard, emac. 540. Hudfon. PL AngL 290. Oeder. Plor. Dan. Icon. J$. 

RADIX perennis. * ROOT perennial. 

CAULIS pedalis ad bipedalem, ereftus, teres, fig. I, | STALK from one to two feet high, upright, round, 

glaber, fubramofus, geniculi diftantes. % fig- 1, fmooth, and thinly branched, the joints 

* remote from each other. 



RAMI oppofiti, breves, tenues, cauli fimiles. J BRANCHES oppofite, fhort, (lender, and like the 

I ftalk. 


PEDUNCULI teretes, plerumque triflori. | PEDUNCLES round, generally Tuftaining three flowers. 

\ y 

FOLIA C auli s cordato-triangularia,gkberrima, amplexi- ¥ LEAVES of the Stalk triangularly heart-Jhaped, fmooth, 

caulia, faturate vindia, patentia, quamin cae- I fining, embracing thefialk, nearly horizontal, 

teris Hvpericis folidiora, verfusmarginem per- % of a deep green colour, more folid to the touch 

forata, mferiora frequenter coccinea; Ramo- | than the other St. John's Worts, perforated 

RUMovata, caulis triplo minora ; Peduncu- | near the edge, and frequently of a bright red 

lorum ovato-lanceolata. J colom ' towards the bottom; thofe of the 

I Branches oval, three times fmaller than 

I thofe of the ftalk ; and thofe of the Pedun- 

t cles lancet-fhaped. 

CALYX : Perianthium quinquepartitum, laciniis ? CALYX : a Perianthium divided into five Segments, 

ovatis, acutis, ftriatis, margine ferratis, den- | the Segments oval, pointed, ftriated, fer- 

tibus glanduliferis, glandulis nigro runs, fig, 2. | rated, and edged with little glands of a blackifh 

¥ red colour, fig. 2. 

COROLLA : Petal a quinque, oblongo-ovata, flava, f COROLLA : five Petals, oblong, oval, yellow, 

contorta, leviter ftriata, fubtus aurantiaco line- | flightly ftriated ; on the under fide tinged 

ata, margine fubferrata, et glandulis cincla, f with a bright orange, flightly ferrated, and 

fig. 3. I ed g ed with glands, fig. 3. 

STAMINA: Filamenta triginta fex, nliformia, in ? STAMINA. The Filaments numerous, to thirty- 

tres fafciculos ad bafin coalita, in fmgulo faf- | fix, filiform, uniting at bottom in three Fafci- 

ciculo duodecim : Antherje biloculares, fub- f culi or Bundles, in each Fafciculus twelve : 

rotundse : Pollen miniaceum, fig. 4. I the Anthers roundifh and bilocular, fig. 4 ; 

i the Pollen bright fcarlet. 


PISTILLUM: Germen ovatum : Styli tres, longi- | PISTILLUM: Germen oval: three Styles, the 

tudine S erminis, divaricantes : Stigmata % length of the Germen, fpreading : the Stig- 

parva, fubrotunda, fig. 5. | MATA f mall and roundifh, fig. 5. 


PERICARPIUM: Capsula fubconica, trilocularis, % SEED-VESSEL ; a Capsule fomewhat conical, of a 

fufca fig. 6, 7. I brown colour, with three cavities, fig. 6, 7. 


SEMINA plurima, oblonga, fufca, fig. 8. * SEEDS numerous, oblong, and brown, fig. 8. 

THE antient Botanifts gave this plant the name of Pulchrum from its beauty ; and Linnaeus %as very properly 
continued it. Many will, no doubt, think it deferring of a place in their gardens. It is fond of a clayey foil, 
and woody fituation, and is found in all the woods about town ; as Hornfey Wood, beyond Ifimgton; Oak of Honour 

Wood, (as it is Penerally called,) a little beyond Peckham; Charlton Wood, by Greenwich; likewife on Hounflow- 
Heath. It flowers in the month of July, and continues but a fhort time in bloflom. 

Its virtues as a medicine, are probably the fame with the common St. John's IVorU 

m/m7/c(///i ■■/uur/t './'mm, 

/ (P 

^ * 

tMnt» «^'-/.^ 




HYPERICUM LinnaiGen. PL Polyadelphia Polyandria. 

Rail Synopfis Gen. 24. Herb^ Pentapetal^e Vasculifer.e. 
HYPERICUA1 perforatum, floribus trigynis, caule ancipiti, foliis obtufis pellucido-punctatis. Linnai Svfti 

Vegeiab. p. 584. Fl. Suecic. n. 680. 
HYPERICUM caule terete, alato, ramofiffimo ; foliis ovatis, perforatis. Hal/en hijl. vol. 2. p. 4. 
HYPERICUM vulgare Bauhin. Pin. p. 279. Gerard, emac. 540. Parkin/on 57 2. Rati Synop. 342. Hudfon F/. 

Angl. 290. Scopoli. F/. CarnioL n. 944, 

Tota planta glandulis nigris adfperfa. % The whole plant is fprinkled over with fmall black glands. 

RADIX perennis, lignofa, fufca. | P..OOT pereilnial, woody, of a" brown colour; 


CAULES plerumque plures ex eadem radice, bipedales, | STALKS feveral for the molt part* fpringing from the 
erecti, fublignofi, laves, teretes, altcrne ami- | fame root, about two feet high, upright, woody, 

piles fig. 1, ramofi. % finooth, round, alternately two edged, fig. 1, 

I much branched* 

RAMI oppofiti, fuberecli, ancipites, J BRANCHES oppofite, nearly upright, two edged* 

FOLIA oppofita, feffilia, ovato-oblonga, obtufa, per- $ LEAVES oppofite, feffile, of an oblong oval mape* 

forata five pellucido-pun&ata, heptanervia ex | obtufe, having the appearance of being all over 

luteo-viridia. fig. 2. I perforated, of a yeliowifh green colour, with 

£ feven nerves of ribs, fig. 2 



PEDUNCULI ancipites, multifiori. | PEDUNCLES two edged, fupporting many flowers. 

I ^ 
PANICULA denfa. | PANICLE bufhy, 

CALYX: Perianthium quinquepartitum, ftriatum, | CALYX A Perianthium divided into five fegnients, 
laciniis lanceolatis, acuminatis, nudis. fig. 3* | and filiated, the fegments narrow and pointed, 

I without any glands on them. fig. 3. 

COROLLA : petala quinque, flava, ad unum latus ere- | COROLLA: five Petals of a yellow colour, notched 

nulata, glandulis nigris adfperfa. fig. 4. | irregularly on one fide, and fprinkled over 

I with little black glands, fig. 4. 

STAMINA: Filamenta plurima, in tria corpora vix ^ STAMINA: Filaments numerous, uniting at bottom 

coalita. fig. 5. Anthers flavae, biloculares, t in three fcarcely diftincl bodies or faleiculi^. 5. 

loculis fubrotundis, inter quos glandula nigra f Antherje yellow and bilocular, each of the 

ponitur. fig. 6. * Cavities of a roundifh figure, and between 

I them is fituated a fmall black gland, fig. 6. 

PISTILLUM : Germen fubovatum, Styli tres diva- | PISTILLUM : Germen fomewhat oval, three Styles 

ricantes : Stigmata fimplicia. fig. 7. | which divaricate ; the Stigmata fimple, fig. 7. 

PERICARPIUM: Capsula fubtrigona fig. 3. trilocu- t SEED-VESSEL: a CapsuiE fomewhat triangular, fig. 

laris fig. 9. pallide fufca. " 8, of a pale brown colour, with three Cavities, 

i fig- 9- 


RECEPTACULUM feu Thalamus feminum foramine | RECEPTACLE : the Receptacle which is continued 

triquetro gaudet, quod in pericarpii immaturi $ through the Capfule, and connects the Cavities 

fectione tranfverfa clare diftingui poteft, ut * together, has a triangular hole in it, which is 

obfervavit CI. Scopoli. | very obvious in a tranfverfe fedlion of it before 

I it is ripe, — as the celebrated Scopoli has juftly 

I obferved. 

SEMINA plurima, oblonga, fufca. fig. 10. 11. ^ SEEDS numerous, oblong, and bfown, fig. 10. 11. 

It very often happens, that fome of the minute parts of the Flower, and Seed, afford a more obvious, certain, and 
conftant mark of fpecific difference, than any part of the plant befides, and we have a remarkable inft ance of the truth 
of this obfervation in the plant before us. A little gland, of a black colour, placed on the fuinmit of the Anthera, 
at one view difringuifhes this fpecies, without any farther investigation : did fuch obvious diitinctions prevail in all 
plants, a knowledge of them might with much eafe be acquired ; and fortunately we mail find, on examination, fuch 
marks more frequently occur than is generally imagined ; whenever they do, we fhall not fail to remark them. 

The apparent perforation of the leaves, from whence this fpecies is named, is not peculiar to it alone. 

Although in the prefent practice this officinal plant does not feem to be much regarded, yet its fenfible qualities, 
and the repeated teftimonies of its virtues, entitle it as Dr. Cullen * obferves to farther trials. To the tafte it is 
aftringent and bitter, and its effects feem to be chiefly diuretic. From polleffing properties which have generally been 
called balfamic, it has been ufed as a vulnerary in external wounds, and internal hemorrhages, for the former purpofe, the 
tops of the plant with the flowers are infufed in oil, and for the latter, an infufion of the plant is made in the man- 
ner of Tea. It has likewife been given in ulcerations of the kidnies, and has even been fuppofed to poflefs virtues 
as a febrifuge.- 

It has had the ill fate to be abufed by the fuperftition of the common people in France and Germany, who gather it 
with great ceremony on St. John's Day, and hang it in their Windows, as a certain charm and defence againfl Storms, 
Thunder, and evil Spirits ; miftaking the meaning of fome medical writers, who have fancifully given this plant 
the name of Fuga Damonumbecaufe they fuppofed, if given internally, it was a good medicine for maniacal and hypo- 
chondriacal Dilorders. 

The dried plant boiled with Allum dyes Wool of a yellow colour. It grows very common in hedges and fields that, 
are but feldom tilled, and flowers in Auguil and September. 

*Vid. Dr. Cullen's Materia Medica p. 206. 


ft / - 

^Lxenlciw-n 'Jam, 

vacum , 




LEONTODON LinnteiGen. PL Syngenesia. Polygamia ^Equalis. 

Rail Synopfis ed. 3. Gen. 6. Herbje flore composito, naturae pleno lactescentes; 
LEONTODON 'Taraxacum calycis fquamis inferne reflexis, foliis nmcinatis denticulatis laevibus. Limuei 

Syft. Vegetab. p. 596. Sp. Plant 1122. Fl. Suede. 270. 
TARAXACUM calycibus glabris, fquamis imis reflexis. Haller hifi. v. 1. p. 56. 

HEDYPNOIS Taraxacum Scopoli Flor. Cam. n. 957. 
HEDYPNOIS major Fufchil. 

DENS LEONIS latiore folio Bauhin. Pin. p. 126. Gerard, emac. 290, ParkinfonyBo. Rati Syn.ed. 3. p. 170. 
HudfonFl. Angl.p. 297. Oeder. Fl. Dan. Icon. 574. 

RADIX perennis, fubfufiformis, lactescens, externe 

pallide fufca. 
FOLIA laciniato-pinnatifida, plus aut minus profunde 

incifa, laciniis acutis et acute dentatis, plerum- 

que laevia, normunquam vero fubafpera. 
SCAPI nudi, nftulofi, lacteScentes, verfus apicem fub- 

tomentofi, uniflori. 

CALYX communis laevis 
reflexis, fig. 1. 

glaucus, fquamis inferioribus | 

COROLLA compofita, flava, corollulis hermaphroditis, 
numeroiis, asqualibus. Propria monopetala, li- 
gulata, truncata quinquedentata, fig. 2. 

STAMINA : Filament a quinque capillaria, brevimma, 
fig. 3. Anther je flavae, in tubum cylindraceum 
coalitae, fig. 4. 

PISTILLUM : Germen oblongum, fig. 5, Stylus lon- 
gitudine corolla, fig. 6. Stigmata duo re- 
volute, fig. J. 

SEMEN fubincurvatnm, fubcompreiium, fubtetrago- 
num, Striatum, apice cchinatum, pallide oliva- 
ceum, fig. 8, 9. Pappus Stipitatus, Simplex, 
ftipite brevior, fig. 1 o 

RECEPTACULUM nudum, alveolatum. fig. 11. 

ROOT perennial, tapering, milky, externally of a pale 
brown colour. 

LEAVES more or lefs deeply jagged, each jag or laci- 
nia pointed, and Sharply indented, generally 
fmooth, but fometimes a little rough. 

STALKS naked, hollow, milky, towards the top co- 
vered with a kind of down, fupporting one 
flower on each. 

CALYX : the common or general Calyx fmooth, glau- 
cous, the lower mo/l leaves or fquamce turning 
back, fig. 1. 

COROLLA : the flower compounded of a great num- 
ber of Corollul^e or letter flowers, which 
are yellow, hermaphrodite and equal ; each 
Corollula monopetalouS, tubular at bottom, and 
flat towards the extremity, the apex truncated 
and quinquedentate. fig. 2. 

STAMINA: five Filaments fmall and very Short, 
fig. 3. the Antherje yellow, uniting an j 
forming a cylindrical tube. fig. 4. 

PISTILLUM: Germen oblong, jig. 5. Style the 
length of the Corolla, fig. 6. Stigmata 
two, rolling back, fig. 7. 

SEED a little crooked, flattifh, and Somewhat four 
fquare, flriated or grooved, at top prickly, of a 
pale olive colour, fig, g, 9. the Down or pap- 
pus {landing on a footflalk, limple, not fea- 
thery, Shorter than the footflalk, fig. 10. 

RECEPTACLE naked, and full of little holes, fig. 1 1 . 

As a medicinal plant the Dandelion is thought to poflefs considerable virtues, and has been frequently made ufe of 
in obftrucfions of the Vifcera, particularly the Jaundice. Some recommend the juice, others a decociion of the whole 
plant. It appears to operate chiefly by urine, and from poiiefiing this property in a considerable degree it has acquired 
its vulgar name of Pifs-a-bed. Its other, and more common name, feems to be a corruption of the French term Dent 
de Dion. 

As a kind of fallad, this plant is by many prefered to any other, particularly by the inhabitants of Spitalfields, 
many of whom being defcended from French families, that forfook their native country for one more favourable to 
religious liberty, Still retain the peculiar cuftoms of that people in their diet, &c. They blanch, or whiten it as the 
gardeners do endive, and the inferior clafs generally ufe the Simple procefs of laying a tile on it, for whatever excludes 
the light from this or any other plant will make it become white, all plants deriving their colours from the fountain 
of light, the fun. And it is remarkable, that many plants containing bitter and acrid juices are rendered by this procefs 
mild, fweet, and agreeable : who, for inflance, could eat endive, celery, or even lettuce, in their wild uncultivated 
States ? 

The Dandelion grows in the greateft plenty in rich meadows, although it is very common on walls, and in courts 
and areas ; when growing in a barren foil or dry Situation the leaves become more narrow and jagged. 

It flowers in May, and is the SirSt. plant which covers our meadows with a beautiful yellow coat, a few weeks after- 4 
wards, when it produceth its feed, it changes this for a white one. 

Children frequently amufe themfelves with blowing off the feeds, which Stand naked on the receptacle or top of the 
Stalk, and the round white heads, formed by the expanfion of their pappus or down, they c^W clocks, 

The young botanift generally finds fome difficulty in acquiring a clear idea of the Structure of thefe compound 
flowers, occaiianed by the minutenefs of the parts of fructification, which however are much larger and more con- 
spicuous in this than in many others of the clafs Syngenesia, and therefore a proper flower for him to begin with; 

On examining the flower of the Dandelion he will find that it is not a double flower, properly fo called, as he might 
be led to think from its fullnefs, but that it is compofed of a great number of Flofculi, or lelier flowers placed clofe 
together on one common receptacle or bottom, and enclofed by one common or general calyx. On diflecting each of 
thefe Flofculi, he will find them to confiSt of a Corolla, or Petal jig-. 2, which at bottom is tubular, but towards 
the extremity Slat, that from the bottom or tubular part of the corolla, five filaments Spring, which are fmall 
and fhort, yet loofe and unconnected^. 3, that thefe filaments are furniihed with Anthers, which unite together 
and form a long flender tube fig. 4, beneath the corolla is placed the Germen, or future feedj^ 5, from whence 
the Style, or middle part of the Piftillum proceeds and panes up through the middle of the flower, betwixt the 
Filaments and through the tube formed by the union of the Antherae, fig, 6, and is furniihed at top with two Stig- 
mata which roll back, fig. 7, at a little distance from the Germen the lower part of the Stylus is Surrounded by 
numerous upright hairs which are the future Pappus or Down, fig. 10. 

This, then, he will find to be the appearance of the parts of fruclification in a full blown Slower. 

Thofe parts of the flower which were more immediately or more remotely neceflary to the impregnation of the Seed 
having now performed their office decay, the Corolla with the Stamina and upper part of the PifSillum drops off, the 
Seed becomes larger, the lower part of the Piftillum remains, is elongated and becomes the footStalk of the Pappus, 
and the Seed as yet immature with the Pappus as yet moift. are all enclofed and prefled by the Calyx into a conical 
form. This is its appearance in its fecond Slate. 

The fructification Still going forward the feed becomes ripe and brown, the Pappus now deprived of its rnpifture 
expands itfelf every way, fig. 1 o, pufhes back the Calyx, and aflumes a Spherical form. The feeds fitted for vegetation 
and thus expofed are carried away by the SirSt ftrongwind, and " a new race planted far from their native foil»*' 

Such then is the curious procefs which nature makes ufe of in the perfecting and dinemination of this plant. 

Lapsana communis. Nipplewort. 

LAPSANA Linnet Gen. PL Syngenesia Polygamia jequalis. 

Receptaculum nudum. Cal. calyculatus, fquamis fmgulis interioribus ca- 
Rail Syn. Gen. 6. Herbje flore composito natura pleno lastescentes. 
LAPSANA communis calycibus fru&us angulatis pedunculis tenuibus ramonffimis. Linnxl Syfi. Vegeiab. 

p. 602. Sp. ft. 1141. Fl. Sueclc. p. 277. 
LAMPSANA caule brachiato ; foliis ovatis longe petiolatis ; petiolis pinnatis. <Haller hlft. n. 6. 
LAMPS ANA communis. Scopoll Fl. Carnlol n. 988. 

SONCHO affinis Lampfana domeflica. C. Bauhln pin. p. 124. 

LAMPSANA Gerard, emac. 255. 

LAMPSANA vulgaris. Parklnfon 810. Rail Syn. 173, Hud/on FL Angl. p. 303. 

RADIX annua, (implex, fibrofa. t ROOT annual, fimple, and fibrous 

CAULIS ere&us, rigidus, bicubitalis, ftriatus, ramofus, ¥ STALK upright, rigid, about two cubits high, ftria- 
hirfutus. I ted, branched, hairy. 

FOLIA oppofita, hirfutula, ad radicem et in ima parte | LEAVES oppofite, fomewhat hairy, at the root, and on 

caulis uno vel altero pinnularum pari donata, | the lower part of the ftalk furnifhed with one 

fegmento terminali magno, ovato, dentato, fu- % or two pair of pinnulae ; the fegment which 

periora oblonga, dentata. | terminates the leaf large, oval, and indented ; 

y the upper leaves oblong and indented. 

CALYX : communis calyculatus, angulatus, laeyis^ X CALYX ; the common Calyx fmooth, and furnifhed at 

fquamae ad bafin minimae eretlae, fig. 1 . ? bottom with a few minute, upright fquamulae, 

COROLLA compofita, imbricata, Corollulis herma- t COROLLA compound, imbricated, the flofcules her- 

phroditis aequalibus ; propria monopetala, ligu- I maphrodite and equal ; each of them monope- 

lata, truncata quinque dentata, fig. 2. $ talous, ligulate, truncated, and having five 

I teeth, fig. 2, 

STAMINA: Filament a quinque capillaria,brevirTima; | STAMINA: five fmall and very fhort Filaments ; 
Anthers cylindracea tubulofa, /#. 2. J Anthers uniting into a tube, fig. 2. 

PISTILLUM : Germen oblongiufculum ; Stylus | PISTILLUM : Germen oblong ; Style filiform, the 
filiformis, longitudine Staminum ; Stigma $ length of the Stamina: Stigma bifid ami 

bifidum, reflex urn, fig. 2. | turning back, fig. 2. 

SEMINA circiter oclodecem, oblonga paululum incur- ? SEEDS about eighteen, oblong, a little bent in, with- 
vata, pappo deflituta, intra calycem, fig. 3,4. | out any down, contained within the Calyx, 

? Jg- 3> fa 

In gardens as a weed, this plant anfwers very well to the name of communis, being in general too common. 
Nature feems amply to have fupplied the want of pappus or down in the feeds, by the great number of 
them produced in each plant. It alfo occurs on the fides of banks, and in all cultivated ground ; flowering 
during moft of the Summer months. 

According to Ray it receives its name of Nipplewort from its efficacy in curing fore nipples : no other 
Virtues or ufes feem attributed to it. 

M/iM^ amtmwnto. 


(D/mJro/if ^frrr^. 

Erigeron Acre. Purple Erigeron. 

ERIGERON Linnal Gen. PL Syngenesia Polygamia superflua. 

Rail Synopfis. Herb^ flore composito, semine papposo non lactesckntes, flore 


ERIGERON Acre pedunculis alternis unifloris. Lin. Sp. PL 121 1. 

ERIGERON polymorphum ScopolL PL CarnloL Diagn. folia lanceolata, bafi et apice attenuata. Germina 

villofa. Pappus ruffus. 
ERIGERON caule alterne ramofo, petiolis unifloris, femiflofculis pappum aequantibus, et femiflofculis pap- 

pum fuperantibus PLaller. hlfl. n. 85. 86. 
CONYZA caerulea acris Bauhln Pin. 265. Gerard emac. 484. 
ASTER arvenfis cteruleus acris. Rail Syn> 175» Blue-flowered fweet Fleabane. 
CONYZA odorata caerulea Parklnfon 126. 
SENECIO five Erigeron coeruleus L B> II. 1043 Hudfon PL Angl. 314. Oeder PL Dan. Tab. 292. 

RADIX perennis, fibrofa, Abris pallide fufcis* t ROOT perennial and fibrous, the fibres of a pale brown 

t colour* 

CAULIS erectus, rigidus, pedalis, pupureus, ftriatus, $ STALK upright, rigid, about a foot high, purple, ftria- 
foliofus, hirfutus, in quibufdam vix ramofus in | ted, leafy, and hirfute, in fome fcarce branched 

aliis ramofiffimus. | at all, in others very much fo. 

FOLIA alterna, feffilia, hirfuta, inferiora obtufe ovata | LEAVES alternate, feffile, hirfute, the bottom ones of 
bafi anguffiora, fuperiora angufta, reflexa, tor- | a blunt oval fhape, and narrow at bottom, the 

tuofa, ramorum linearia, fuberedla. t upper ones narrow, turning back and twifted, 

I thofe of the branches linear and nearly upright. 

FLORET erecli, nunquam fefe explicantes ficut plerique f FLOWERS upright, never expanding themfelves like 

flores Clams Syngenefise, externi purpurei, in- | rnofr of the flowers of the Clafs Syngenefia, 

terni flavefcentes, cum cavitate in medio. ^ externally purple, internally yellow, with a ca- 

| vity in the middle. 

CALYX communis imbricatus, fquamis fubulatis, ereft- * CALYX : the common Calyx compofed of a number of 
is, purpureis, hirfutis, laxis, fig. 1 . | f ca i eSj wn i c h are narrow and pointed, upright, 

% purplifh, hirfute, and loofely connected Jig. 1. 


COROLLA com^ofita, radiata ; Corollula? hermaphrodite | COROLLA compound and radiated ; the hermaphrodite 

tubuloiae, numerofas in difco, fig. 2. feminea | flowers tubular and numerous in the middle, 

ligulatas, pauciores in radio, Jig. 3. Propria her- % fig. 2 . the female flowers ligulate, and fewer 

maphroditiinfundibuliformis, flava, limbo quin- | 'in the circumference, fig. 3 : each hermaphro- 

querido,/^. 2: F^w/W ligulata, linearis, erecla, \ dlte flofcule, funnel-fhaped, yellow, with the 

purpurea, hermaphrodita longior, fig. 3. | limb divided into five fegments, fig. 2 : each 

* female flofcule, linear, upright, purple, longer 

f l than the hermaphrodite flower, fig. 3. 

STAMINA hermaphrodltls : Filament a quinque, ca- | STAMINA in the hermaphrodite flowers: five Fila- 
pillana, breviflima : Anthers in tubum coalitae. | ments, very fmall and ftiort ; the Anthers 

I united into a tube. 

PISTILLUM Hermaphrodltls : Germen coronatum Pap- ; PISTILLUM of the hermaphrodite flowers ; the Ger- 
po corolla paulo longior, fig. 4. Stylus filifor- | MEN crowned with a Pappus or Down a little 

mis longitudine Pappi fig. 5 ; Stigma bifldum | longer than the Corolla*, /£. 4; the Style 

fig. 6 : P emmets : Germen tenue, Pappo Ion- % filiform, the length of the Pappus, fig. 5 ; 

gitudine fere Corollas, fig- 7; Stigmata | Stigma bifid, fig. 6: of the Pemak flowers ; 

duo, tenuiffima, fig. 8. ? t h e Germen flender, the Pappus nearly the 

I length of the Corolla, fig. y ; two Stigmata 

I very (lender, fig. 8. 

SEMINA oblonga, pallide fufca, hirfuta, lente audi : ? SEEDS oblong, of a pale brown colour, hirfute, magnvfi* 
fig' 9 : Pappus feffilis, lutefcens, fimplex, fig. | ed fig. 9 ; Pappus feffile, yellowifh and Ample 

10. I fig. 10. 

The Erigeron Acre is by no means a common plant in our neighbourhood, yet occurs very frequently 
on the hilly and chalky ground about Charlton Wood, particularly in the chalk pits on the left hand fide of 
the lane behind the Church. 

It flowers in the months of Auguft. and September, and is confidered as a pretty fare indication of a barren foil. 

It has a tafte fomewhat warm and biting, and hence has received its name of Acris. 

We have rather chofen to retain Linn^us's name of Erigeron than adopt Ray's name of Fleabane, which 
tends to confound it with the Genus Conyza. 

It frequently grows much taller, and is often found much fmaller than the fpecimen we have figured. 

Senecio vulgaris. Groundsel. 

SENECIO Linn&i Cen, PL Syngenesia Polygamia Superflua. Receptaculum nudum. Pappus fimplex. 

Calyx cylindricus, calyculatus ; fquamis aplce jphacelatis. 

Rati Syn. Herb;e fLore coMposito, semine pappqso non lactescentes, flore discoide. 
SENECIO vulgaris corollis nudis, foliis pinnato-finuatis amplexicaulibus, floribus fparfis. Linn. Syjl. Vegetab. 

p. 630. Sp. PL 1 21 6- PL Suecic. p. 290. 

SENECIO corollis nudis, foliis pinnato-iinuatis amplexicaulibus, floribus fparfis. Halter hijl. ».58. 

SENECIO vulgaris* Scopoli PL Carniol. p. 162. n. 1063. Hud/on PLAngLp. 315. 

SENECIO minor vulgaris. Bauhin Pin. 181. 
SENECIO vulgaris. Parkin/on 671. 

ERIGERON Gerard, emac. 278. Rail Syn. p. 178. Common Groundfel or Simfon* 

RADIX annua, e plurimis fibrillis albidis conflans. J ROOT annual, confiding of numerous white fibres. 

CAULIS fimplex, eredhis, pedalis, ramofus, faepe pur- | STALK fingle, upright, about a foot high, branched, 

pureus, fubangulofus, in junioribus plantis ver- * often purple, {lightly angular, in the young 

fus apicem fubtomentofus. | plants, towards the top, thinly covered with 

£ down. 

FOLIA obfcure virentia, glabra, amplexicaulia, pinnato- | LEAVES of a deep and dull green colour, fmooth, 

finuata, pinnis acute dentatis. | embracing the ftalk, pinnato-finuated, the pinnae 

t fharply indented. 

PEDUNCULI ftriati, uniflori, primum ere&i, pera&a J PEDUNCLES ftriated, fupporting one flower on each, 

florefcentia penduli, demum eredti. % at firft upright, when the flowering is ovef 

I they become pendulous, and laftly upright. 

CALYX: communis primu'rn cylindraceus, demum co- | CALYX; the common Calyx firft cylindrical and laftly 
nicus ; Squamis fubulatis, plurimis, in cylin- f conical ; the Squama fubulate, numerous, con- 
drum fuperne contracts parallelis, contiguis, * trailed above into a Cylinder, parallel, conti- 
asqualibus, paucioribus bafin imbricatim tegen- ^ guous and equal; thofe at the bafe of the 
tibus, apicibus omnium nigricantibuSj Jig, 1. * calyx fewer, lying one over another, the tips 

J of all of them blackifh, Jig. r. 

COROLLA Compojita, longitudine calycis ; Corollula her- % COROLLA Compound, the length of the Calyx ; the 

maphroditas, tubulofae, numerofae in difco, in- | Florets hermaphrodite, tubular and numerous 

fundibuliformes ; Umbo reflexo, quinquefido : | in the dilk or middle, funnel-lhaped, the limb 

Radio nullo, Jig. 2, 3. | reflex and divided into five fegments : the Ra- 

I dius wanting, jig. 2, 3. 

STAMINA: Filament a quinque, capillaria, minima; % STAMINA: Filaments five, capillary, and very' mi- 

Anthera cylindracea, tubulofa. | nute : Anthers united into a tube. 

PISTILLUM: Germen ovatum ;. Stylus filiformis, | PISTILLUM : Germen oval; Style filiform the length 

longitudine ftaminum ; Stigmata 'duo ob- % of the Stamina ; Stigmata two, oblong, and 

longa, revoluta. I bent back. 

SEMEN oblongum, ftriatum, fufcum ; Pappus fimplex, % SEED oblong, ftriated and brown ; the Pappus fimple, 

albus, femine triplo fere longior, jig. 4 ; Re- | white, almoft three times the length of the 

ceptaculum nudum* fcabrum. | ' feed, jig. 4; Receptacle naked, and rough. 

The Groundfel is a Plant which is well known to grow exceedingly common in Gardens, cultivated Ground, 
and on Walls, flowering all the year if the weather be mild. 

Although it is fcarcely ufed at prefent as a medicine, yet according to fome Authors it is not without con- 
fiderable virtues : thejuice, or decoAion of it taken internally, operates gently by vomit ; and the plant externally 
applied, is faid to be ufeful in inflamed Breafts, the Scrophula, and other Inflamations. 

Mr. Ray fufpe&s that it might be given with advantage in Worms, as Farriers and Horfe-dealers give the 
juice of it to Horfes that are troubled with thofe kind of Worms called Bottes, and to which it is prefently 

Birds of various kinds are fond of the feeds and tops of this plant ; and a great variety of Caterpillars par 
ticularly thofe of the Phaltzna Jacobetu eat it readily. 

a ; .- «^. 


BELLIS. Llmim Gen. PL Syngenesia Polygamia Superflua. 

Rail Synopfis Gen. 8. Herb;e flore composito discoide, seminibus pappo destitutis 


BELLIS perennis, fcapo nudo. Linntel Syfiem. Vegetab p. 640. FL Sueck.p. 296. Haller hijl. p. 30. Scopolu 

FL Carniol. v, 2. 146. 
BELLIS fy lveftris minor Bauhinp'm. 261. Gerard emac. 635. Parkin/on 530. Rail Syn. p. 184. Hudfon FL 

Angl. 320. OEder. FL Dan. Icon. 503. 

RADIX perennis, fibrofa. | ROOT perennial, and fibrous. 

FOLIA ovata, dentata, hirfutula, in petiolos longos | LEAVES oval, indented, nightly hirfute, running 
decurrentia ; difrupta iila trahentia. % down the footftalks, which are long and if broke 

I acrofs appear ftringy. 

SCAPI teretes, hirfuti, triunciales, uniflori, ad apicem $ STALKS round, hirfute, about three inches hio-h, fup- 

fiftulofi. I porting one flower, at top hollow. 

CALYX communis fimplex, foliolis sequalibus jig. 1. | CALYX the common calyx fimple, the leaves equal, /fo. r . 
apice membranaceis, hirfutis, obtufis /g. 2. lente % at the top membranous, hairy and obtufe,'^. 2. 

and". I one of the tips magnified. 

COROLLA compjl/a, radiata : Corollula hermaphro- y COROLLA Compound and radiated : the Corollula or 
ditas, tubulofie, numerofie in difco. Foeminina | flofculi in the difk or middle numerous, tubu- 

ligulatse, calycis foliis plures in radio. Flofculi | lar, and hermaphrodite, thofe in the radius or 

Hermaphrodlil infundibuliformes quinquefidi % circumference flat, more numerous than the 

flavi, jig. 3, 4. lente audi: : Fceminai ligulati, | leaves of the calyx, and jemale. the Hermaphro- 

lanceolati, al'bi,j%> 10. % dite Flofculi funnel fhaped, divided into five 

I fegments and yellow, ^jr. 3, 4. magnified. The 

I Female flofculi tubular at bottom, flat towards 

i the extremity, lanceolate, and white, fig. 13. 

STAMINA Hermaphrodltls: Filament a quinque I STAMINA in the Hermaphrodite flower: five Fila- 

breviffima, 7%-. 5. Anther a cylindracea, tu- % ments very fliort, jig-. 5. Antherje united into 

bulofa, jig. 6. | a tube, jig. 6. 

PISTILLUM Hermaphrodltls; Germen ovatum, 7^-. 9. | PISTILLUM of the Hermaphrodite flower: Germen 

Stylus filiformis, fig. 8. Stigma craffiuf- t oval, fig. 9. Style thread-fhaped, fi<r, g. 

culum, bifidum, fig. 7. Foeminea : Germen | Stigma thickifh and bifid, fig. 7. of the Fe- 

ovatiuri, fig. 13. Stylus filiformis. Stig- | male flower: Germen oval, fig. 9. Style 

mat a duo patula, linearia, fig. 1 1. | thread-fhaped, two Stigmata narrow and 

y fpreading,/g-. 11. 

SEMINA ovata, comprefla, marginata, pappo defli- ? SEEDS oval, flat, margin'd without any pappus or 

tuia, fig. 14. I down, fig. 14. 

RECEPTACULUM nudum, conicum, j%. 15. f RECEPTACLE naked and of a conical figure,/^. 15; 

The Daify has been recommended by fome writers to be given in hectic fevers, caufed by drinking cold water 
when the blood has been heated by exercife, either infufed in water or milk. 

In fome parts of Germany, it is faid to be boiled and eaten with meat as a pot-herb ; but it does not feem to promife 
much either as phyfic or food for man. Sheep and horfes refufe it, and it is very probable that none of our cattle eat 
it willingly ; if fo the owners of lands pay dear for their enamelled meads, and daified carpets, but this part of huf- 
bandry feems as yet littje underftood or attended to. As rural oeconomifts we have ventured to fay thus much in 
difpraife of this flower, notwithftanding the lavifh encomiums the father of our Englifh poets has beftowed on it : 

In fpecial one called Se of the daie 

The Dailie, a floure white and rede, 
And in french called La bel Margarete 

O commendable floure, &c. — 

- — ■ Above all flouris in the mede 

Than love I mofi: thofe flouris white and rede 

Such that men call in Daifies in our Town. 
Chaucer is perhaps the firfr. that takes notice of the Horologium Florae or opening and flmtting of flowers at a par- 
ticular time of the day. 

She that is of all flouris the floure, 

Fullfilled of all virtue and honoure ; 

And ever alike fair and frefh of hewe, 

As well in winter as in fummer newe, 

As foon as ever the Sunne ginneth Weft 

To fene this floure, how it will go to reft, 

For fear of night fo hateth fhe darknene 

Her chere is plainly fpread in the brightnefle 

of the Sunne. • 

Well by reafon men it calle maie 

The D'aifie, or elfe the Eye of the Daie 
And at the laft there tho began anon 
A Lady for to fing right womanly 
A Bargonet in praifing the Daifie 
For as methought among her notis fwete 
She faid Si douce ejl la Margarete 
Retuned by Dryden in his own numbers : 

And then the Band of Flutes began to play, 

To which a Lady fung a Virelay ; 

And frill at every clofe fhe would repeat 

The Burden of the Song the Daljy Is jo fiwett 

'the Daljy is jo jweet when fhe begun 

The troops of Knights and Dames continued on 

The Confort and the voice fo charm'd my Ear 

And footh'd my Soul that it was Heaven to hear. 

Etymologifts agree with the Old Bard in his derivation of the Daify, viz. Days Eye. Under the French name 
Margarette it is probable a compliment was intended to fome lady, but Critics are not agreed who this lady was. 

Like many other flowers the Daify becomes double by culture, and frequently prolijerous, in this ftate it is 
called the Hen and Chicken Daify. 


€ote ^fi.eremi£j . 


/Wttf oaomfa . 



W E E T 


VIOLA Linnet Gen. PL Syngenesia Monogamia. 

Calyx pentaphyllus. Corolla pentapetala, irregularis, poflice cornuta. Capfuld 

fupera, trivalvis, unilocularis. 
fcaii Syn. Gen. 24. Herbje pentApetAlje vasculifer;£. 
VIOLA odorata acaulis, foliis cordatis, ftolonibus reptantibus, bra&aeis fupra medium pedunculi. 
VIOLA odorata, acaulis, foliis cordatis, ftolonibus reptantibus. Linn. Syjl. Vegetab. p 668. 
VIOLA acaulis ftolonifera, foliis cordatis, Hal/er hift. heh. n. $$$ 
VIOLA odorata, Scopoli Fh CarnioL n. 1097. 

VIOLA martia purpurea ftore firriplici odoro. Bauhin Pin. p: 199. martia alba. p. 199. 
VIOLA nigra five purpurea. Ger. emac. 550* 

VIOLA fnnpiex martia. Parkin/on y$$\ Raii Syn: p. 364. Purple Sweet Violet, and White Sweet- 
fcented Violet. Oeder Fl. Dan. icon. 309. 

RADIX perennis, fibrofa, albida, in fenefcente planta 
baii petiolorum quotannis relicla pars fuperior 
radicis tuberculofa evadit, et fupra terram emi- 
net ; e firm riorum nodorum nafcuntur ftolones, 
qui humi repent, et foliis inftruuntur ftipulis- 
que ejufdem formae ac illae quae ad bafin plantae 

FOLIA fubrotundo-cordata, creriata, fuperne glabra, in- 
feme hirfutula, junioribus involutis. 

STIPULiE radicales, ovato-lanceolatae, membranaceas, 
ferratae, dentibus glanduliferis. 

PEDUNCULI radicales, infra Bracraeas quadrangulares, 
fupra Bractaeas dorib canaliculati, apice incur- 
vati, uniflori. 

BRACTEiE duae, lanceolate, plerumque oppofitae, ap- 
preflk,, fupra medium pedunculi 4 

CALYX : Perianthium pentaphyllum, perfrftens, fo- 
liolls oblongo-ovatis, obtufis, e viridi purpuraf- 
ceatibus. fig. 1. 

COROLLA pentapetala, irregularis, violacea, odorata, 
petalum infimum Netlario corniculato, obtufi- 
ufculo, apice comprellb inftru&um, Petala la- 
teralia prope bafin barbata, Jig. 2. 

STAMINA : Filamenta quinque breviflima aegre dif- 
tinguenda : Antherje fiavefcentes, biloculares, 
vix connexas, membrana ovato-acuta aurantiaca 
terminate ; e parte pofteriori duarum Anthera- 
rum exit Nedtariumque intrat appendicula 
viridis, linearis, compreffa, fig. 5, 4. 3. 

PISTILLUM: Germen fubrotundum ; Stylus bafi 
tenuior et paululum tortuofus ; Stigma unci- 
natum, Antheris paulo longius, fig. 6, 7. 

PERICARP1UM priufquam dehifcit, fubrotundo-tri- 
angulare, purpurafcens, villofum ; trivalve 
valvulis fubrotundis concavis, fig. 8. 

SEMINA plurima, rotunda, nitida, ftraminea, appendi- 
culata, fig, 9. 

ROOT perennial, fibrous and whitifh ; in trld plants 
the upper part of the root becomes knobby, and 
appears above ground, the knots or knobs being 
formed from the bottoms of the foot-ftalks of 
the leaves which are yearly left ; from the 
bo-foms of thefe knobs fpring the ftolones or 
moots which creep on the ground, and are. 
furnifhed with leaves and the fame kind of 
Stipulae which are obfervable at the bottom- 
of the plant. 

LEAVES heart-fhaped and fomewhat round at the tip, 
crenated, on the upper fide fmooth and mining,; 
underneath flightly hairy, when young rolled 
in at the edges. 

STIPULiE fpringing from the root, ovato-lanceolatej 
membranous, ferrated at the edges, each ferra- 
ture 6r tooth terminating in a minute gland. 

PEDUNCLES fpringing from the root, below the Bra&ea; 
quadrangular, above the Bra&ese grooved on the 
upper fide, at top incurvated, fupporting one 
. flower. 

BRACTEvE two, lanceolate, generally oppofite to each 
other, prefled to the ftalk, and placed above the 
middle of the Peduncle* 

CALYX : a Perianthiuw of five leaves, continuing, 
each leaf of an oblong oval fhape, obtufe at the 
tip, and of a greenifh purple colour, fig. r, 

COROLLA: of five Petals, irregular, ofabluifh pur- 
ple colour and fweet fmell,- the lowermoft ter- 
minating in a blunt horned NectaRium, a little 
flattened at the extremity, the two fide Petals 
bearded near the bafe, fig, 2. 

STAMINA : five Filaments fo fhort as hardly to be 
diftinguifhed ; Anthers yellowifh, bilocular, 
fcarcely connected together, terminated by an 
oval-pointed, orange- coloured membrane ; from 
the back of two of the Antherae, fprings a flend- 
er, flat, greenifh appendage, which enters the 
Neclarium, fig, 5, 4, 3. 

PISTILLUM : Germen roundiih ; Style flendereft at 
bottom and a little twifted ; Stigma hooked, 
and a little longer than the Antherae, fig. 6, 7. 

SEED-VESSEL, before it burfts, roundifh, rather ap- 
proaching to triangular, of a purplith colour, 
and villous appearance, fplitting into three round- 
ifh hollow valves, fig. 8. 

SEEDS feveral, round, mining, of a ftraw colour, ter- 
minated by a little appendage, fig. 9. 

The Viola odorata delights to grow under warm hedges, particularly near Woods ; if the Spring be favourable, 
it is generally in full bloom in the month of March, and towards the latter end of Summer ripens its feeds. 
A variety of this plant frequently occurs with a white flower, not inferior in its agreeable fcent to the blue one ; 
and fometimes this plant is found double, in which ftate it is often introduced into Gardens, and being furnifhed 
with abundance of creeping fhoots, it is by means of thefe propagated with the utmofr. facility. 

This fpecies of Violet bears a confiderable refemblance to the Viola hirta, the mode of diftinguifhing them 
we fhall point out when we defcribe the latter. 

A fyrup made from the flowers is ufually kept in the fhop, and frequently given to children where a gentle 
laxative is required : it is likewife in ufe as a tefi to try acid and alcaline fubflances. The 

The feeds are faid by Authors to poffefs a diuretic quality, and hence the powder of them has been recom ? 
mended in the ftone and gravel. 

The great Bacon, who frequently defcended from his fublimer ftudies, and amufed himfelf with enquiries 

into the qualities and properties of plants, has left us a curious method of preferving the fcentofthis flower. 

" Take Violets, and infufe a good pugll in a quart of Vineger, let them Jland three quarters of an hour, and take 

" them forth, and rejreflo the infufwn with like quantity of Violets f even times ; and it will make a Vineger fo frejh 

" of the flower, as if a twelve moneth after it be brought you in a faucer, you fhall fmell it before it come at you. 

""Note. It fmelleth more perfectly of the flower a good while after than at the flr/l." 

The illuftrious prefcriber has given no directions concerning the ufe of this preparation, but it appears to us 

to be one of the moft grateful prefervatives againft infection, efpecially if the ftrongeft diftilled vinegar which 

has been drawn over in glafs, be made ufe of. 

The Violet has been much complimented by the antjent Poets ; and our Shakespeare gives it a confpi- 
cuous place in his catalogue of flowers. 

Violets dim, 

" But fweeter than the lids, of Juno's eyes, 
" Or Cy there a's breath." 

The Commentators have not been fuccefsful in informing us how the " lids ofJuNo's eyes" bear any refemblance 
to " Violets dim " not recollecting that iofixscpugog (having violet eyelids) was a complimentary title with the Greek poets. 
This epithet alludes to a well known cuftom which ftill prevails in Greece, of colouring the eye lids blue. *" A 
It Grecian girl is painted blue round the eyes ; and the infides of the fockets, with the edges on which the 
<" lafhes grow, are tinged with black: For colouring the lafhes and focket of the eye, they throw incenfe or 
f< Gum of Labdanum on fome coals of fire, intercept the fmoak which afcends, with a plate, and collect the 
«foot: This I faw applied; a girl fitting crofs-legged, as ufual, on a fopha, and clofing one of her eyes, took 
" the two lafhes between the fore finger and thumb of her left hand, pulling them forward, and then thru/ting 
" in, at the external corner, a bodkin which has been immerfed in the foot, and extracting it again, the par- 
" tides before adhering to it remained within, and were prefently ranged round the organ, ferving as a foil' to 
," its luftre, befides contributing, as they fay, to its health, and ihcreafing its apparent magnitude," Chandler's 
Travels into Greece. 

Altho' the poet of nature has been rather obfcure on this fubject, where he copies the ancients ; he makes 
ample amends when he gives us the genuine effufions of his own imagination. With what precision and 
delicacy does he defcribe the foft enchantment of plaintive mufic, as refembling the fweetnefs of this flower ■ 
illuftrating in a beautiful fimile the object: of one fenfe by that of an other ! 

" That fir ain again ; // had a dying fall; 

" Oh I it came o'er my ear, like the fweet fouth, 
" That, breathes upon a bank of violets, 
"Stealing and giving odour 7" 

*A Greek poet fuppofed to be a Chriftian, from the feverity cf his manners and purity of his mftruftions, forbids this cuftom of painun^ tiie eve 
lids, in ihe rules of conduit which he addrefles to young women, ° \ 

It is probable tint the Greeks borrowed this fafhion from their Afiatic neighbours; Jezebel, a native of Zidon, put her eye: in painting as the 
tranflators tell us ia the margin of our bible ; the Prophets alf9 allude to and ce nfure this cuftom, fee Jeremiah iv. 30. Exekid xxiii 40'. '•' 

/ a. 







I O L E T. 

VIOLA Linntei Gen. Pk SyngeneSia MonogAmia; 

Calyx pentaphyllus; Corolla pentapetala, irregularis, poflice eornuta* Capfuld 
fupra, trivalvis, unilocularis. 


VIOLA hirta acatiliSj foliis petiolifqUe hirfutis, bractasis infra medium pedunculL 

VIOLxA. hlrta acaulis, foliis Cordatis pilofo hifpidis. Linn. Syjl. Vegetab. p. 668. 

VIOLA acaulis, foliis cordatis hifpidis. Haller hijl. helv. n. $59. 

VIOLA hlrla Hud/on Ft. Angl. p. 330, 

VIOLA martia major hirfuta inodora* Hijl. ox. IL 475» 

VIOLA trachelii folio vulgO; Rail hijl. 1651, Syn* p. 36$. Violet with Throat- wort ieaves; 

So great is the fimilarity betwixt this Species and the Viola odorata, that to defcribe it in the fame man- 
ner as I have that plant, would be to repeat nearly the fame words* To avoid this famenefs of expremon, 
I mall adopt a defcription in the way of contrail:, which will enable me to point out the differences of each 
in a manner more ftriking, and I hope equally fatisfactory to my botanic readers, 

I would firft premife, that as it is my greateft wifh to clear up every difficulty reflecting the fpecies and 
varieties _ of thofe plants xvhich come properly before me, fo I have with that view, not only examined this 
plant with the greateft attention, where it has grown wild, but alfo cultivated it in my garden along with the 
odorata, and hence, feeing and noticing its mode of growth throughout the year, have perhaps been able to 
obtain a clearer idea of its hiitory, than thofe who may have viewed it at one particular feafon only. 

The Viola odor at a throws out from the upper part of its root a number of ftolones or moots, which trail 
on the ground, and quickly take root at the joints, whereby it propagates itfelf very faft ; the hiria likewife 
encreafes itfelf by throwing out young ftalks ; but then they are not procumbent, nor do they ever ftrike root 
as thofe of the odorata do ; hence the hlrta does not encreafe fo faft, nor fpreadfo wide. Although Linnjeus makes 
a considerable difference in the form of the roots of thefe plants, yet from what I have obferved, this difference pro- 
ceeds chiefly from the age of the roots ; for in both fpecies, the older they are, the more full are they of tubercles or 
cicatrices, formed by the annual fhedding of the leaves. 

The radical Stipule are lanceolate and ferrated in both fpecies. 

The footftalks of the leaves form perhaps the moil obvious difference ; in the odorata they are nearly fmooth ; 
in the hirta they are very hirfute, and this hairinefs puts on a kind of filvery appearane in the young plants of this 
fpecies, where it is remarkably confpicuous. 

In the leaves themfelves the difference is for the moil: part, not very remarkable, for in both fpecies they are 
fomewhat hirfute underneath ; thofe of the hirta however, are fometimes remarkably fo, from growing in particular 
foils or situations : the leaves of the cerate have a more glofly appearance on their upper furface, but this fcarce 
diicriminates them unlefs they are contrafted. With refpect to fhape and fize likewife, the difference is not verv 
obvious ; both fpecies when in bloom are fmall, compared with the fize to which they afterwards gTow. In 
make they are fomewhat longer, and not fo perfectly heart-fhaped. 

In the fpecimens of this plant which I have examined, I could not perceive that fenfible difference which 
LiNNjEus^ notices (vid. Mantijf. Plant, alt. p. 483J in the fhape of the Peduncle above the Bractese ; in both fpecies 
they certainly are channeled at the back : in the Situation of the Bracteae, however, there is a very confiderable 
difference, which does not appear to have been taken notice of, and this feemed to me to be fo obvious a character, 
that I trait it will apologize for my altering its fpecific defcription : in the odorata, the Brattete are placed above the 
middle of the Scapus, or Peduncle ; in the hirta, they are fituate below it : but there is one caution neceffary to be 
obferved refpecting this chara&er, viz. that the Bradteas of each be obferved, juit when the flowers are fully expand- 
ed, for as that part of the Scapus, which is fituated above the Bractese, grows confiderably longer by the time 
that the_ flowers of the odorata are faded, fo they iliould both be examined when of an equal age, otherwife 
this diftinction will not appear fo remarkable. 

The flowers of the_ hirta, in general, appear about a week later than thofe of the odorata, are of a paler 

LiNNiEus in his Flora Suecica, n. 789, obferves that the flovvers which the Viola mirabilis firffc produces'' from the 
root, are furaiihed with Petals, yet that thefe for the moil part are barren, while thofe which blow later the fame 
Spring, and rife from the ftalk, although deilitute of Petals, produce perfect feed : and Jacquin, in his excellent 
work the Flora Aiiftriaca, where this plant is figured, (Vol. r. pi. iq.) confirms the truth of Linnjet/s's obfervations, 
and fays that the barrenefs of thofe flowers appeared to arife from a deficiency of the Stylus. Linnjeus in his va- 
luable treatife above quoted, obferves likewife, that the flovvers of the Viola montana, which appear firft, are furnimgd 
with Petals, but that thofe which arc afterwards produced have no Petals, yet neverthelefs are fertile ; and this I 
find, on repeated examination, to be the cafe with the Viola odorata and hirta, but more particularly the latter : they 
differ from the Viola mirabilis in this refpect, that all the flowers which are formed, both with and without Petals,, 
produce perfect feed. I was led to this difcovery from obferving a fmgle plant of the Viola hirta, to produce about the 
middle of Summer, ten or twelve capfules of ripe feeds, on which I was certain in the Spring no more than two or 
three blonoms had appeared : the next Spring I difcovered, that befides thofe perfed bloflbms which firft fpring up,, 
this plant continues for a month or more to throw out new flowers, which are entirely deftitute of Petals, or have 
only the rudiments of them which never appear beyond the Calyx ; but all the other parts of the fructification are 
perfect. The capfules in both thefe fpecies, when they become nearly ripe, lay clofe to the ground, fo that when 
they burft, the feeds have an eafy accefs into the earth. 

There is fome difference with refpect to the foil and iituation in which thefe two plant 
very generally under warm hedges, and in woods ; the other appears to be pretty much confined to a chalkv foil, and 
often occurs in more expofed iituation s, in the fields and on the banks about 


delight 5 the odorata grows 

nfined to a chalky foil, and 

t Charlton, it may be found in tolerabW 

Viola Tricolor. Wild P 


VIOLA tAnmzi Gen. PL Syngenesia Monogamia. 

Rail Synop. Gen. 20. Herb;e Pentapetal^e Vasculiferje. 
VIOLA tricolor, caule triquetro diffufo, foliis oblongis iucifis, ftipuiis plnnatifidis. Linn. Syft. Vegetab. p. 

668. Fl. Suecic. 307. t 

VIOLA* caule diftufo, lmnoib, foliis ovatis dentatis, flore calyce paulo majori. Haller. hi/1, torn, r. n. 569. 
VIOLA bicolor arvenlis. C. Bauhin. pin. ioOi 
VIOLA tricolor fylveftris. Parkin [on. 755. 
J ACE A bicolor frugum et hortorum vitium. /. Bauhin. III. 548. Raii Syn. p. 336. 11. Hudfon. PL 

Angl. p: 331. Scopoli. FL Carniol. p. 183. 

RADIX fimplex, fibrofa. 

GAULIS palmaris et ultra, plefumque diffufus, ramofus, 

angulofus, ad bafin fordide purpureas ; rami 

alter ill. 
FOLIA longe petiolata, elliptica, crenata, inferioribus 

fsepe minoribus, fubrotuhdis, fuperiofibus ah- 

guftis, fubdentatis. 
STlPULZE ad bafiii laciiiiato-pinnatifidae, laciniis linea- 

ribusj extrema oblonga, dentata; 

PEDUNCULI fubquadrangulares, alterni, apice iiicur- 
vati, dorfo canaliculati, ftipulis duobus^ par- 
vis, membranaceis, prope florem, inftru£li. 

CALYX : PERiANTHiuMpentaphyllum, perfiftens, fo- 
liolis acutis, tria fuperiora minora, ad bafin 
sequalia, fuprema erecta, petalis fuprefnis lon- 
giora, duo inferiora apice et bafi eaeteris longi- 
ora, bafiqiie latiora, petalis infimis breviora, 

■Pry f 1 
J'5' " 

COROLLA pentapetala, irregularis, duo fuperiora fub- 
rotunda, integerrima, albida, deorfum fpectantia; 
lateralium lamina ovata, obtufa. ad bafm bar- 
bata, lineaque brevi purpurea notata ; infimum 
latum emarginatum, ad bafmflavum,lineis quin- 
quepurpureispictum, calcare seu nectario 

KECTARIUM. terminatum, longitudine calycis, apiee 
violaceo, obtufo, fig. 3, 4, 5, 6. 

STAMINA: FiLAMENTAquinque, breyimrtia; Anthe- 
rs albidas, vix coadunatae, biloculares, mem- 
brana crocea terminate, e dubous inferioribus 
exeunt, neclariumque intrant, appendicular duse 
lineares, fg. 7, 8, 9, 10. 

PISTILLUM: Germen fubconicum, fg. 11 ; Stylus 
ad bafin tortuofus, ftaminibus longior, fg. 1 2 ; 
Stigma capitatum, oblique perforatum, per- 
fiftens, fg. 13. 

PERICARPIUM: Capsula ovata, glabra, uniloculars, 
trivalvis, fg. 14, 1 5. 

SEMINA plurima, ovata, fufca, nitida, appendiculata, 
valvis feriatim affixa, fg. 15. 

&OOT limple and fibrous. 

STALK about four or fix inches high, generally fpread- 
ing, branched, angular, at bottom of a dull pur- 
ple colour ; the branches alternate. 

LEAVES placed on long foot-ftalks, elliptical, crenated, 
the lowermoft often fmaller and roundifh, the 
uppermoft narrow and llightly indented. 

ST1PUL/E at bottom jagged and pinnatifid, the la'ci- 
niae or jags linear, that which terminates the 
Stipula oblong and indented.- 

FOOT-STALKS of the flowers, nearly quadrangular, 
alternate, bent in at top, channeled on the 
back, and furnifhed with two fmall membra- 
nous Stipuhe near the flower. 

CALYX : a Perianthium of five leaves and continu- 
ing, the leaves fharply pointed, the three Upper 
ones fmalleft, and equal at bottom, the upper- 
moft upright and longer than the uppermoft pe- 
tals, the two under leaves longer both at bottom 
and top than the reft, and at bottom likewife 
broader, fhorter than the lowermoft petals, fig. 2. 

COROLLA pentapetalous and irregular, the two upper- 
moft petals roundifh, entire, and reflected ; the 
lamina or broad part of the fide petals oval, ob- 
tufe, bearded at bottom, and marked with a 
fhort purple line ; the lowermoft petal broad, 
emarginate, yellow at bottom, and ftreaked 
With five purple lines, and terminated by a 

NECTARY. Spur or Nectary the length of the 
Calyx, with a blueifh and blunt point, fig. 3, 

4, 5> 6 - . 

STAMINA: five Filaments very fhort; Anthers 
whitifh, fcarcely united, bilocular, terminated 
by a faffron coloured membrane ; from the two 
lowermoft two linear appendages go off and 
enter the Nectary, fig. 7, 8, 9, 10. 

PISTILLUM : GerMen fomewhat conical, fig. 1 1 ; 
Style twifted at bottom and longer than the 
Stamina,^* 12; Stigma forming a little head, 
obliquely perforated and continuing, fig. 13. 

SEED-VESSEL: ah oval fmooth Capsule of one cavity 
and three valves, fig. 14, 15. 

SEEDS numerous, oval, brown and fhining, with a 
button to each, affixed in rows to the infide 
of the valves, fig. 15. 

Few plants have acquired a greater variety of names than the Viola tricolor ; in different Authors and different 
counties we find the following, viz. Wild Panfie, Herb Trinity, Hearts eafe t Three faces under a hood, Cull me to you, 
Love in Idlenefs, &c. what has occafioned fome of thefe is the different appearance it puts on from cultivation and 
change of foil ; in a garden there are few flowers that can boaft a greater variety or richnefs of colour, few that 
continue longer in bloflbm, or are cultivated with more eafe ; it is probable that the large yellow Violet, Viola lutea, 
is no more than a variety of this fpecies. 

The Panfie in its wild ftate occurs very frequently in cultivated fields, and blofToira through moft of the fummer 
months. It is fo hardy as to appear in Lapland amongft the few other plants which ornament the waftes of 
that Country during its fhort fummer. It is eaten by Kine and Goats. 

The difference in the form of the Stigma feems to divide the plants of this Genus into two families^ viz. Panfies 
and Violets, in the former the Stigma is round, with a remarkable hole on one fide of it, in the latter it is hooked. 

Linnaeus remarks the black lines which fometimes appear on the Petals, Milton had obferved the fame, 
" Panfies freakt with Jet" In a poor foil the purple and yellow in the bloom of this flower frequently become 
very faint, and fometimes fade into a perfect white, this variation in colour gives a propriety to the Metamorphofis 
of this flower in which Shakespear pays an elegant compliment to his royal miftrefs. 

That very time I faw, (but thou could f not) 
Flying between the cold Moon and the Earth, 
Cupid all-arm d: a certain aim he took, 
At a fair Vefal, throned by the we/}, 
And loos' 'd his love-fijaft fmartly from his bow, 
As it fdould pierce a hundred thoufand hearts : 
But I might fee young Cupid's fiery fij aft 
^uench'd in the chafe beams of the watery moon, 
And the imperial votrefs pa/fed on, 
In maiden meditation fancy-free. 
Tet markka 1 I where the bolt of Cupid fell, 
It fell upon a little we/lern flower ; 
Before, milk-white-, now purple with Love's wound, 
And Maidens call it Love in Idlenefs, 

- J&fa* 

n /elh* ' r/ Jrti/ji 


OPHRYS. Linn. Gen. PI. ed. 3. Gynandria Diandria. 

ORCHIS. Rail Synopfis, ed. 3. 379. Herbje Bulbosis Affines. 

OPHRYS apifiera bulbis fubrotundis, fcapo foliofo, ne&arii labio quinqudobo ; lobis fubtus inflexis. 
Hud/on. Fl. Angl 340. 

ORCHIS, radicibus fubrotundis, labello holofericeo, emarginato, appendiculato. Haller. hifi. vol. 2. 1266. 
tab. 24. Duas fpecies apifieram et mufciferam Hudsonis et Halleri fub uno nomine 
Infedlijcrce conjungit Cl. Linn^us. Fufchii icon. 560. Bauhhi pin. 83. Gerard, emac.212. 

RADIX, Bulbi duo, fubrotundi, inaequaies, radiculis * ROOT, two roundifli unequal bulbs, furhifhed at top with 
longis vix fibrofis fupra inftructi. | a few fmall longifh fibres, but little branched. 

CAULIS femipedalis aut pedalis, teres, fig* 1, foliofus. J STALK from half a foot to afoot high, round,/^. 1, leafy. 

FOLIA vaginantia, ovato-lanceolata, fubtus fubargen- i LEAVES embracing the ftalk, of an oval pointed fliape, 
tea, fibris lineata, fepe mutilata et fufca. | underneath filvery, with linear fibres, frequently 

% imperfect, and of a brown colour. 

BRACTE^E magna, vaginantes> virides, longitudine | FLORAL LEAVES large, in the form ofafheath, green, 
floris; I and of equal length with the flowers. 

FLORES a tribus ad fex, fpicatL * FLOWERS from three to fix, growing in a fpike; 

COROLLA : Petal a quinque, tria exteriora reliquis f COROLLA : five Petals, the three exterior larger 

majora, ovata, concava, reflexa, purpurafcen- t than the reft, oval, concave, turning back, 

tia, ferioribus pallidioribus, fubcarinata, carina | purplifh, fomewhat keel-ihaped, the keel green, 

viridi, fig. 2 ; duo interiora exterioribus quadru- f fig. 2 ; the latter flowering paleft : the two in- 

plo minora, angufta, hirfuta, poftice canaliculata, * terior four times fmaller than the others, narrow, 

ad bajin laiiora, antrorfum extantia. f hairy, hollow behind, broadefi at bottom, and pro- 

% jecting forward. 

NECTARII Labellurri amplum, leniter cohVexum, t NECTARY. The Lip of the Nectary large, fomewhat 

fuborbiculatum, fufco-fericeum, maculis flavis | convex, roundifli, of a filky brown colour, fre- 

frequenter variegatum, quinquelobum, lobis in- I quently variegated with yellow fpots ; having five' 

fiexis,fig. 3 ; later alibusfubiriangularibus, hirfutis, k lobes, the lubes bending underneath, fig. 3 ; the two 

fig. 4; medio anteriorum produ&iore, apice re- | fide lobes fomewhat triangular and hairy, fig, 4; the 

curvato flavo, fig. 5 ; machina ftaminum five t middle of the anterior running out to a point, 

Stylus longa, fubere&a, apice incurvata et fur- | which turns back, and is of a yellow colour,^ 

fium recurvota, fig. 11, antice bilocularis, locu- | 5; the Style, which in this plant fupports the 

lis apertis, fig. 1 2, anguftis, marginibus albis, | Stamina, long, upright, at the tip bending down- 

membranaceis, fig. 13* | wards, and again upwards, fig. 1 1 , anteriorly, ha- 

% ving two cavities which are open and narrow, fig* 

I 11, the edges white and membranous, fig. 13. 

STAMINA : Filamenta duo, fig. 6, e fquamula necla- | STAMINA: two Filaments, fig. 6, anfing from the 
rifera ad bafm Styli exeuntia, nutantia, Stigma- | bottom of the Style out of a ne£t.ariferious fcale, 

ti frequenter adhaerentia, fig. 8, bafi glandula t hanging down, frequently adhering to the Stig- 

five globulo albo pellucido inftructa, fig. 7 ; | ma, fig. 8, furnifhed at bottom with a fmall 

Anthers fubrotundae, flavae fig. 9. tranfparent gland or globule, fig. 7 ; the An- 

i, therje roundifli and yellow, fig. 6. 

PISTILLUM : Germen oblongum, hexangulare, angu- | PISTILLUM : the GerMen oblongs having fix angles, 

lisobtufis retfis; Stigma, fig: 10, melleo li- * the angles obtufe, not twi/Ied; the Stigma, fig. 

quore obduaum, cui particulae Antherarum fre- | 1 o,_ covered with a vifcid fubftance like honey, to 

q uenter adhserent. f which fmall particles of the Antherag frequently 

* adhere - 

PER1CARPIUM : Capsula oblonga, fufca, Uncialis, * SEED-VESSEL: a Capsule about an inch in length, 

fig. 14, unilocularis, fig. 16, trivalvis, valvis | oblong, brown, fig. 14, of one cavity, fig. 16, 

carinatis fig. 15 | and three valves, the valves keel-ihaped,^-. 15, 


SEMINA plurima, minuta, oblonga, utraque extremi- I SEEDS iiumerousj fmall, oblong ; at each end membra- 

tate membranacea, pellucida; reticulata, fig. 18, | nous, tranfparent, and reticulated, fig. 18, mag- 

lente autta, interiori parti carinas longitudinaliter | nified, affixed lengthwife to the infide of the 

affixa, fig. 17. f keel of each valve, fig. ip 

Flowers in the Months of June and July, the Seed is ripe the latter end of August. 

Grows generally on chalky ground near woods, and fometimes in meadows ; is become fo rare about London*, as 
fcarcely to be found with any certainty. Mr. Alchorne informs me he has frequently gathered it in the pits behind 
Charlton-Church, and in the woods near Chifelhurfi in Kent : but it is often met with in plenty at a greater diftance from town. 

The root appears to pofiefs the fame virtues with thole of the Orchis from which Salop is made, but being much 
fmaller, is not worth cultivating on that account. The great refemblance which the flower bears to a Bee, makes it much 
fought after by Florifts, whole curiofity indeed, often prompts them to exceed the bounds of moderation, rooting up 
all they find, without leaving a fingle fpecimen to chear the heart of the Student in his botanic excurfions. 
The beft time of tranfplanting them is when they are in flower. This, with rnoft of the other Orchis's, was cultivated 
with the greateft fuccefs by the late Peter Collinson, Efq j (whofe memory will always be revered by e- 
very Botanift) in his garden at Mill-hill.— His method was to place them in a foil and fituation as natural to them 
as poffible, and to fufler the grafs and herbage to grow round them. 

Ihavenotjret heard of their being propagated by feed ; it is to be wifhed that fome intelligent Gardiner would 
exert himfelf in making fome experiments to raife them in this way. 

Botanifts have often been at a lols in claffing many plants, to find fome refemblance by which they might diftinguifh 
their particular fpecies ; but in this plant the cafe is otherwife, the flower is fo like theinfecl: that gives it its 
name, that it ftrikes every beholder with admiration ; what ufeful purpofe is intended by it, we do not at prcfent 
know : Some future Obferver may perhaps difcover, for they who will examine Nature herfelf, " have much to fee." 

t J 7c////rs/////// ScolopendHiim 


ASPLENIUM JJnnal, Gen. PI. Cryptogamia Filices. 

Rait, Synop. Gen. Herb,e capillares et affines. 
ASPLENIUM frondibus fimplicibus cordato-lingulatis integerrimis, ftipitibus hirfutis. Lin. Sp.Pl 1527. 
ASPLENIUM Frondes lanceolate, acuminate, bafi cordate, integerrimae, medio latiores. Scopoli.Fl. Cam. 
ASPLENIUM petiolis hirfutis, folio longe lineari-lanceolato, integerrimo, circa petiolum exfciffo. 

Bailer, Bifi. n. 1665. 
HEMIONITIS. Fufcbii. Icon. 294. 
PHYLLITIS vulgaris. Cluf. hift, 
SCOLOPENDRIA vulgaris Tragi. 

LINGUA CERVINA officinarum. Bauhin. Pin. 350. Gerard, emac. 1138. Parkin/on. 1046. Rail 
Synop. 116. Budfion. Fl. Angl. 384. 

RADIX perennis, fibrofiffima, fufca, fibris fibrillis | ROOT perennial, exceedingly fibrous the fibres 
tenuiflimis inftrudis. | brown, and furnifhed with other fibres, which 

I are very minute. 

STIPITES plures, pilofi. % STALKS numerous and moffy, or hairy. 

FRONDES cordato-lingulate, longitudine pedales, la- | LEAVES tongue-fhaped, at bottom cordate about a 

titudineferebipollicares,glabernmae,margine | foot in length, and one inch and 'a half in 

undulato, nervo medio inferne pilofo. | breadth, of a bright yellowifh green colour, 

X and mining, the margin a little waved, and 

I the midrib on the under fidd molly. 

FRUCTIFICATIO. Glomera linearia, obliqua, in pa- | FRUCTIFICATION placed in oblique lines on the 
gina wfenore frondis nervo medio utrinque | under fide of the leaf, on each fide of the mid- 

lenatim difpofita, fig. i, 2, 3. | nb, fig. j, 2, 3. 

INVOLUCRUM. Squama linearis, bivalvis, longitu- I INVOLUCRUM a linear membrane or cafe, of two 

r4pQTTT d i? allter dehifcens fig 2, | valves, opening longitudinally, ^. L 

CAPSUL^E numerole, fubg lobofie, uniloculars, pe- | CAPSULES numerous, ftandmg on foot Jalks nearly 

dicellaft* annulo elaftico cincle, fig. 5, 7, | globular, furrounded by an elaftic ring, and 

lente auctae. ^ having one cavity, as they appear magnified, 

I fS- 5> 7- 

SEMINA numerofa, fubrotunda, minutiffima, fig. 7, | SEEDS roundim, very numerous and minute /fr. 7 as 
lente valde audae, fig. 8. ¥ they appear through a great magnifier, fig. 8. 

THIS is one of thofe plants which fome botanic writers have called Epiphyllofperma?, from producing their feeds 
on the back of the leaves. Linn^us includes it in his clafs Cryptogamia, as neither ftamina nor piftilla have yet 
been difcovered on it. The firft appearance of frudification that we obferve, are fome little bags or cafes of a 
yellowifh or whitifh green colour, placed in rows on the under fide of the leaves, fig. 1, on opening of which 
almoft as loon as they become vifible, we find the capfules or feed-veffels, fig. 2, very numerous; ftandW upright' 
and dole together : at this time they appear of a green colour; as they approach towards maturity, they change 
this for a deep brown : the cafes then open lengthways in the middle, the two fides, by the protrufion of the can 
iules, are turned quite back, and wholly difappear, fig. 3. This membranous fubftance or cafe, may be confidered 
as fimilar to the cafyptra in Mofles, or calyx m other plants, and ferves to fecure and defend the tender feed and can- 
ities, which being now become ripe, exhibit a moft ftriking proof of that wifdom which the benevolent Author of 
Nature mamfefts in all the works of his creation. 

Each capfule or feed-veffel, confifts of three parts ; firft the foot-ftalk, fig. 4, which fupports and conneds them 
to the leaf ; fecondly, the jointed fprmg, fig. 5, which nearly furrounds the third part, or cavity containing the 

The feeds being ripe, the cavity containing them is forced open by the elafticity of the jointed fpring and the 
feeds fcattered and thrown to a confiderable diftance ; one half of the cavity remains connected to one end of the 
fpnng, and the other half to the other end, fig. 7. 

Some of the capfules being fooner ripe than others, difcharge their feed fooner, fo that it is a confiderable time 
before they all become empty. On applying an entire row before the microfcope for the firft time, I was immediatelv 
ftruck with the motion that appeared in them, and afterwards found that the warmth of my breath occafioned \ 
great number of the capfules to keep continually difcharging their feeds, fo as almoft to give them the appearance 
of fometmng ahve._ The clofenefs of the capfules one to another, affording me but a confuted idea of their ftrudure 
Ifeparatedthem with the point of a penknife, from their connedion to the leaf, and again placed them before the 
microfcope, which then gave me a very different, and, after a little examination, a very clear idea of their ftrudu re - 
many appeared with the ieeds drfcharged, feveral in the ad of difcharging them, and fome as yet entire- it fre- 
quently happened, that while I was intently looking at one which I expeded would open, at the inftant of difchan- 
mg it wou dbecarriedoutofmyfightbytheftrength and elafticity of the fpring ; and it was not till after repeated 
trials, that I was able clearly to oblerve the manner of their opening. The feeds are very numerous, and fcarcely 
vifible to the naked eye : when magnified, they appear of a roundiih figure, and full of little proiedino- points 

Both Grew and Swammerdam have given figures on this fubjed ; but thofe of Swammerdam are by much the 
moft natural As a great dea of the fatisfadion in viewing objeds of this kind, depends on the kind, as well as 
goodnefs of the microlcope, that none of my readers may be disappointed in the experiments they may make with 
this entertaining mftrument I may inform them, that the microfcope I make ufe of, is that which is fold in the 
fhops by the name of Ellis s Aquatic Microfcope, and which is made for this purpofe, with particular care and ac- 
curacy, by George Adams of Fleet-Street, Mathematical Inftrument Maker to his Maieity 
• This plant may be found in feed from September to November, in fhady lanes and on walls, and is frequently found 
growing withm-iide of old wells It is met w lt h but rarely abputtown, though cultivated inmoft of ourboLic fardens. 
1 he leaves are fubjed, from a nchnefs of foil, to be much divided at their extremities, and very much curled at the edge 

It is an officinal plant, and is recommended by Ray, from his own, experience, as a good medicine againft con- 


. c 



POLYPODIUM Llnncel Gem Ph Cryptogamia FiLifcES. 

Fruftific. in pun&is fubrotundis fparfis per difcum frondisi 

Rail Syn. HeRbjE capillAres et Affines. 
POLYPODIUM vulgare frondibus pinnatifidis : pinnis oblongis filbferratis obtufis. Linn, Syft. Fcgettih. 

p, 786. PL Sueclc. pi 2,1 Z* 
POLYPODIUM foliis pinnatis, lanceolatis, radice fquamata. Haller hlft. m 1696* 
POLYPODIUM vulgare. Scopoll FL Carnlol. m 1266« 

POLYPODIUM vulgare, Bauhln. pin. 359. 

POLYPODIUM vulgare. Parklnjon 1039. 

POLYPODIUM Gerard emac. 11 38. Rati Syn. p* 117, Polypody, Hudjon PL Angl. p. 387. 

RADIX oblique fub terrae fperficie reptat, fibras fuas 
ex tuberculis quibus plurimis fcatet demirtens, 
ad craffitudinem fere minimi digiti accedens, 
fquamis fufcis tecta, colore foris buxea, intus 
fere herbacea, fapore duki, tandem acerbo 
et aditringente. 

STIPITES laeves, interne fulcati. 

FRONDES femipedales aut pedales, pinnatifidae, pinnae 
oblongae, fubferratae, obtufie, inferne pallidiores. 

CAPSULE in acervulis, magnis, flavis, rotundis, ner- 
vo utrinque feriatim locatae, pedicellate, fub- 
rotundae, fuperficie granulata a feminibus pro- 
tuberantibus, annulo elaflico brevi inftructae, 
in valvulas duas dehifcentes, jig. 2, 3, 3, 5, 6. 

SEMINA plurima, ovata, aut fubreniformia flava, jig. 
7 ,8. 

ROOT creeps obliquely under the furface of the earth* 
fending forth a number of fibres from little 
tubercles, which are plentifully distributed over 
its furface, about the thicknefs of the little 
finger, fometimes flenderer, covered with brown 
mofly fcales, externally of a pale yellow colour, 
internally greeniih, of a tafte at firit fweet, but 
finally fowerifh and aftringent. 

STALKS fmooth, grooved on the inner fide. 

LEAVES from half a foot to a foot in length, pinnati- 
fid ; the pinnae oblong, (lightly ferrated, obtufe, 
paleifh underneath. 

CAPSULES placed in a row on each fide the midrib of 
the leaf, in large, yellow, round dots, ftanding 
on foot ftalks, of a roundifh fhape, with the 
furface granulated from the feeds protubera- 
ting, furniihed with a fhort elaftic fpring, and 
opening into two valves, fig. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. 

SEEDS numerous, oval or fomewhat kidney-fhaped, of 
a yellow colour,^. 7, 8. 

IN all thofe plants of the Fern 'Tribe which I have hitherto had an opportunity of examining, there appears to 
be much the fame mechanifm in their parts of fructification ; one of the moft linking and ufeful of which is the 
elaftic ring which furrounds the Capfules, by means of which they are forced open and the feeds difcharged. So 
neceflary a part one mould not conceive would be wanting in any of thefe plants, nor will it, I believe, be found 
to be fo : yet many Botanifts, and thofe too of eminence, not only deny its exiftence, but make the want of it a 
character to diftinguifh this Genus. Gleditch gives us the following as part of the generic character of the 
Poly podium ** Capjulx annulo defll-tuta." Adanson alfo gives it the fame character, "jam anneau" It will perhaps 
not be difficult to account for this miftake ; and at the fame time it will fhew us how injurious it is to fcience, for 
Authors to take things for granted without examining for themfelves. In Tournefort's elegant figures of the 
Genera, the Capfules of the Polypodium are reprefented without any ring : on the truth of thefe figures it is highly 
probable that thofe Authors have relied ; for had they made ufe of their own eyes, affifted by a fmall magnifier, they 
could not have avoided feeing what Malpighi long before their time delineated, though rudely, and Gleichen 
fince more elegantly figured. 

There is one circumftance attending this fpecies of Polypodium, which however does not run through the whole 
of this Genus, viz. the want of an Involucrum or Membrane ; the little dots or aflemblage of Capfules are not cover- 
ed with any membrane ; or if there be a membrane, it is very early deciduous, and not vifible when the Capfules 
have arrived at a tolerable degree of maturity. 

This fpecies of Polypody grows very common in woods and fhady lanes on the old flumps of various trees ; it differs 
much in fize : fometimes it occurs on the Oak, in which cafe its virtue as a medicine has been more celebrated. 

Its effects when taken inwardly are flightly purgative ; it has been recommended in various diforders of the Vifcera, 
in the Cachexy, fwelling of the Spleen, Jaundice, obftructions of the Mefenteric Glands, Hypochondriac Difeafe, 
Cough, Afthma, &c. but it has generally been given with fome other medicines» 

In the prefent practice it is but little regarded. 


Bryum scoparium. Broom Bryum. 

BR YUM Lirmai Gen. PL CryPtogamia Musci. 

Rail Syn. Gen. 3: Musci. 

BRYUM fcoparium, Antheris ereaiufculis, pedunculis aggregatis, foliis fecundis recurvatis, caule declinato. 

Litmai Syfi. Vegetab. p 797. 
HYPNUM foliis falcatis, heteromallis ; vaginis multifloris* Bailer hljl. n. 1777. 

HYPNUM fcoparium. Scopoll PL Cam. p> 334* Diagn, Florefcentia Hyemalis. Folia arcuata, fecunda, 

tenuia. Setse faspe plures. 
BRYUM fcoparium : furculo declinato, ramofo, foliis fecundis, recurvatis, primordialibus plumulofis. Neckef. 

method, mufc. p. 224. 
HYPNUM fcoparium. IVels. Cryptogam, p. 213. 
BRYUM reclinatum, foliis falcatis, fcoparum effigie; tfhe fickle4eafd bending Beafom Bryum. Dlllen. mufc, p. 

35 7. tab. 46. fig. 16 
BRYUM ere&is capitulis anguftifolium, caule reclinato* Cat. Glfs, 222. Rail Syn* t $$ t Hudfon VI. Angl. p. 406. 

CAULES unciales aut biunciales et ultra, fuberedti, ra- J STALKS from orte to two inches high and more, nearly 

mofi, in denfo caefpite collect, fordide rufi, | Upright, branched, growiug thickly together, 

infra multo tcmento fufco obfiti. § of a dirty red colour, and covered at bottom 

v I with a dark brown wooly fubftance. 
FOLIA caulem inaequaliter circumftant, hinc in quibuf- ^ LEAVES : the leaves cover the ftalk unequally, hence in 

dam locis nudiufculus relinquitur, in aliis foliis t fome places it is left rather naked, in others 

crebrioribus veftitur, praecipue ad apicem, longa, | more thickly covered with leaves, particularly 

linearia, acuminata, canaliculars, fig. 1, recur- f towards the top, are long, linear, pointed, groo- 

vata, fecunda. * ved, fig. 1 , bent back, and turning all one 

I way. 
PEDUNCULI unciales aut biunciales, ad bafra rubicun- X FOOTSTALKS an inch or two inches high, towards 

di, erecli, ex uno latere caulium plerumque ori- * the bottom reddifh, upright, arifing generally 

untur, aliquando vero ex apice, ut plurimum fo- % from the fide of the ftalks, but fometimes from 

litarii, fubinde vero duo ex eodem perieK'aetio t the top, moft commonly fingle, but now and 

proveniunt, bah bulbillo cylindraceo terminati, | then two proceed from the fame perichastium, 

fig. 7, qui foliis pluribus latiufculis, pilo termi- % furnifhed at bottom with a cylindrical bulb, fig, 

natis, acu facile feparabilibus includitur,^. 8, 9. | 7, which is inclofed by many broadifh leaves,. 

^ terminating in a hair, and ealily leparated by a 

t needle, fig. 8, 9. 
CAPSULiE oblong» et fere cylindraceae, nunc ere&ae, | CAPSULES oblong and almoft cylindrical, fometimes 

nunc paululum incurvatae, fig. 3 ; Operculum * upright, fometimes a little incurvated, fig. 3 ; 

roftratum, tenue, longitudine caplulaeet conco- i the Operculum the length of the Capfule, and 

•lor, fig. 4 ; Ora ciliata five denticulata, fig. 5 ; | of the fame colour, terminating in a long ilen- 

Calyptra ftraminea, longitudine Capfulae, y der point, fig. 4 ; the Mouth ciliated or furnim- 

poftquam medio difrumpitur, bah" fuo capfulam | e d with little teeth, fig. 5; the Calyptra 

ar&e cingit, fig. 2; Pollen viride, fig. 6. | ftraw-coloured, the length of the Capfule, after 

I burfting in the middle clofely embracing the 

I Capfule by its bafe, fig. 2 ; the Pollen green, 

DiLLENius very juftiy remarks, that this Mofs feems to partake of the nature of both Bryum and Hypnum, but in 
his opinion, it comes neareft to the Bryum, and of the fame fentiment appear to be Linnaeus and Necker, while 
Haller, Scopoli, and Weis, rank it among the Hypnums, and this they are led to, chiefly from the Peduncles 
being furnifhed at bottom with a kind of Perlchatlum ; butDiLLENius very properly obferves, that although the pe- 
duncle is furrounded at bottom by many fquamte or folloll, yet thefe are not fimilar to what occur in the generality of 
Hypnums, as they may with the point of a pin be ealily feparated from one another, and then the bafe of the peduncle 
appears to be furnifhed with a bulblllus as in moft of the Bryums : this circumftance added to its general habit, appears 
fully to juftify this moft excellent Botanift in placing it with the Bryums, from whence it ought not to have been fepa- 
rated without more weighty reafons than have been advanced. 

This Mofs diftinguifhes itfelf from moft others by its beautifull and lively verdure ; when young it puts on a very 
different appearance from what it has when farther advanced, being much lhorter and its leaves upright; and Dille- 
nius has fometimes remarked in this fpecies Steilula famines. 

It grows in very large Clumps or Patches forming a foft and delightfull Carpet, on the banks which furround 
woods, at the bottom of trees, and on heaths. 

It is found on fome parts of Hampftead heath producing its fructifications, in February and March.. 


> •;, ; 

. .- 

. . ■ . ' . ...... i 



BRYUM Linnm. Gen. PI. Cryptogamia Muscl, 
Rail Syn. Gen. 3. Musci.. 

BRYUM (undulatum) antheris ere&iufcitlis, pedunciilis fubfolitariis, foliis lanceolatis carinatis undulatis paten- 
tibus ferratis. Linn» «5V/?. Vegetab. p. 797* 

BRYUM foliis ianceblatis ferfatis, eapfulis cylindricis inciinatis ariftatis. Waller, hlji. torn. 2. 1S23, 

BR YUM phyllitidifolkm: fureuio fimplici, foliis undato^ferrulatis, primordialibus plurriulofis. Necker. method. 
muficor. p. 203. cur nbmen triviale a CI. Neckero rrmtaretur non video, cum analogia unde no- 
men ejus fumitur obfcura fit, obfervante CL ScopolL 

BRYUM Phyllitidis folio rugofo acuto, eapfulis incurvis. Billen mufc. 360. tab. 46 . fig. 18. 

undulatum. Scopoli. Fl. Carnlol n* 1361. Rati Syn. p. 95. 16. Hudfon Fl. Angl. 406. Weh 
Cryptogam.} $6* Oeder Fl. Ban. tah. 497. noftris duplo faltem minor, cum operculo nimis recto 
et acuto* 

SURCULI unciales, aut biunciales, plerumque fimpli- | STALKS from one to two inches high, generally fim- 
ces, eredi, foliofi. , | pie, upright and leafy. 

FOLIA lanceolata* undulata, carinata, ferrato-aculeata, t LEAVES lanceolate, waved, keel-fhaped, minutely and 
patentia, arefactione involuta, jig. 1 . | fharply ferrated at the edges, fpreading, when 

% dry curling in, fig. i. 

PEDUNCULI fimplices, (duo ex eodem furculononnun- | FOOT-STALKS of the fructification fimple, (fome- 
quam proveniunt) furculis plerumque longio- y times two proceed from the fame ftalk) gene- 
res, eredi, rubri, fig* 2. ? rally longer than the ffalks, upright, and of 

I a reddiih colour, fig. 2. 

CAPSULA live AnthEra cyliildracea, incurVataj lente | CAPSULE or Anthera cylindrical, incurvated, if 

vifa lubftriata, primum viridis, dein ex livido- * magnified appearing fomewhat lfriated ; firft 

fufca, demum rufa, fig. 3. Balis Operculi he- t green, then livid-brown, aud laftly of a reddifh 

mifphasrica, rubra, apex pallida, fetacea, obtu- | brown colour; fig. 3, the bottom of the Oper- 

fiufcula, fig: 5, Capfulae Ora ciliata Ciliis $ culum hemifpherical and red, the top paler, 

innexis,^-. 7 ; Annulus ruber, fig. 6; Pol- t very {lender and rather blunt; fig. 5, the 

len feu Semen viride, fig. 8. Mouth of the Capfule furnifhed with Cl'LlM 

which bend inward, fig. 7 ; the Annulus or 

I Ring ted, fig. 6 ; the Pollen or Seed green, 

I fig. 8. 

CALYPTRA palhde fufca, acuminata, primum erecta, f CALYPTRA of a pale brown colour, and terminating 

flexura capfulae difrumpitur, et recta manet, ba- | m a i ong point, firft upright, afterwards by the 

fique fua a Capiula fecedit, fig. 4. j bending of the Capfule it becomes burft at bot- 

I torn, and remains ftrait, with its bafe at fome 

I little difbnee from the Capfule. 

This fpecies of Bryum is one of the largeft we have in this Country, it produces its fructification from 
November to February and may be found in moft of the woods near Town, as well as on the heaths, but 
more particularly in Charlton Wood, where it abounds. 

As ail its parts of fructification are large and diftinct, the botanic Student who would invefUgate this difficult 
clafs of plants, cannot with this view, felect any mofs more proper for his purpofe. 

(7P / 

Bryum Hornum. Swans-neck Bryu 


MN1UM Llmal Gen. PL Cryptogamia Musci. Mafculus flos pedunculatms. Femineus flos m diftin&o 

faepius individuo. 

Rail Synopfis Gen. 3. Musci, 
MNIUM hornum antheris pendulis, pedunculo curvato, furculo fimplici, foliolis margine fcabria. Unnat Syft. 

Vegeiab. 796. 
BRYUM hornum furculo capitulifero ramofiufculo ; ftellifero fimplici, primordialibus pi umulofis. Necker. Method. 

Mufc. p. 21$. 
MNIUM follis lanceolatis, iinbricatis, capfulis pendulis cylindricis obtufis, Hal/er. hifl. heh. 3. p. 54, 
MNIUM hornum ferratifolium. Weis Cryptogam. 149. 

BRYUM antheris oblongis nutantibus, pedunculo curvato, foliolis ovatis, margine fcabris. Hudfion. FL 

Angl. p. 415. 
BRYUM ftellare hornum fylvarum, Capfulis magnis nutantibus. Dillen. mufc. 402. 

BRYUM nitidum capitulis majoribus reflexis, calyptra imum vergente, pediculis oblongis e cauliculis novis 
egredientibus. Rati Syn. p. 102. 51. 

Ad majores accedit hsec fpecies. | This fpecies comes near to the largeft fize. 

CAULES unciales aut biunciales, radiculis ferrugineis, y STALKS from one to two inches in height, furnifhed 

valde tomentofis inftructi, erecti, plerumque ra- | with roots which are of a ferruginous colour, 

mofi, pedunculiferi et ftelliferi, ad'bafin rubi- ^ and covered with a kind of wooly fubftance, up- 

cundi, Stellulje et Pedunculi, nunc feorfim, t right and generally branched, reddifh at bottom, 

nunc ex eadem radice proveniunt, unusque aut $ producing both Pedunculi and Stellula, 

plures Surculi e ban caulis femper fere naf- £ which proceed fometimes from the fame, fome- 

cuntur. I times from different roots, and one or feveral 

* Surculi ufually fpring from the bottom of the 
I ftalk. 

FOLIA faturate viridia, ovato-lanceolata, fubere&a, pel- | LEAVES of a deep green colour, of an oval pointed 
lucida, ad lentem minute /errata, fig. 1 ; nervo | fhape, nearly upright, pellucid, when viewed 

medio diftincto et in mucronem brevem educto, * with a glafs finely j'errated at the edges, fig. 1 ; 

in furculis fcemineis dictis apice ftellatim expan- | the midrib diftinct, and terminating in a fhort 

fa, et paulo latiora, in junioribus anguftiora et % point, on the tops of thofe ftalk, which are con- 

cauli magis adpreffa. | lidered as female, they are expanded like a little 

I ftar and fomewhat broader, in the young moots 

I they are narrower and prefled clofer to the ftalk. 

PEDUNCULI terminales, biunciales, rubrae, verfus a- | PEDUNCLES fpringing from the fummit of the ftalks, 

picem ut recte obfervavit Dillenius inftar £ about two inches in height, bent near the top 

colli olorini incurvati. J like a Swans Neck as Dillenius has properly 

y obferved. 

CAPSUL/E oblong*, tumidae, virides, nutantes, lente i CAPSULES oblong, tumid, of a green colour and droop- 
aucta, fig. 7; per longitudinem fecta ut Re- f ing, magnified,^. 7; cut longitudinally through 

ceptaculum confpiciatur,^". 9; Calyptra % themiddlethattheRECEPTACULUM maybe feen, 

longa, acuminata, caduca, fig. 6 ; Operculum | fig. 9; the Calyptra long, pointed, andfoon 

breve, fiavefcens, fig. 8; Ora ciliata. | falling off, fig. 6; the Operculum fhort, of a 

t yellowifh colour, fig. 3; the Mouth of the 

* Capfule ciliated. 

On examining with a Microfcope the tops of thofe Stalks which are called Stellula famine*, fig. 2, and which are 
•confidered by many as the female parts of the fructification in this Mofs, there appeared in the center of the 
Stellula, a great number of fmall upright bodies, or Corpufcks, of two kinds, fig. 3, the one white, pellucid, and 
jointed; the other of a greener colour, fhorter, and of an oblong oval fhape, vid. fig. 4, 5. They do not ap- 
pear to me to have any thing in their Structure, in the leaft fimilar to any of the parts of fructification in 
plants, what their real ftructure and ufes are, may perhaps be difcovered by future obfervations. 

This fpecies occurs not unfrequently on moift banks in Woods, as in Charlton Wood, and the Woods about 
Hampfiead, producing its Fructifications in February and March. 

As the Capitula pulvcrulenta of Dillenius, or Spharophylli as they are called by Necker, are entirely wanting 
in this Mofs, and as the extftence of thofe fingular little heads feems very obvioufly to diftinguifh the Genus 
Mnium, I have chofen rather to arrange it with Dillenius and Hudson among the Bryums, than with Linnjeus 
among the Mniums ; for if we make Mniums of all the Mofles which have Stellula, we fhall involve ourfelves 
in confiderable difficulties : many of thofe Stellula are indeed very obvious, as in the prefent one, but in others 
they are very obfcure, fo that it is difficult to fay whether they exift in them or not ; but if they were ob- 
vioufly to be diftinguifhed, there is not the leaft iikenefs between a Stellula and Spharophyllum, why then unite 
in one Genus plants which have fuch very different appearances ? Would it not be better to confider the Mofles 
which produce Spharophylli or little balls as Mniums, according to Dillenius, and divide the Bryums, if necef- 
iary, into two 1 families, viz- fuch as have obvious Stellula, and fuch as have none ? 

The name of rough Bryum, which Mr. Hudson feems to have given to this Mofs for brevity's fake, con- 
veys an idea with which this Bryum does not feem perfectly to correspond, it having no roughnefs except at the 
edges of the leaves, which are minutely ferrated: I have therefore adopted Dillenius's name of Swans Neck 
Bryum, as being juftifiable from the lingular fhape of the Peduncles, and being- more likely to be remember- 
ed from its ftriking analogy. 


HYPNUM Linnm Gen. PL Cryptogamia Musci. 

Rait Syn. Gen. 3. Musci. 
HYPNUM proliferum furculis proliferis, plano-pinnatis, pedunculis aggregatis. Lirmai Sy/l. Vegetab. p. 800. 
HYPNUM ramis teretibus pinnatis, pinnulis pinnatis, foliis adpreffis. Holler, h'ifi. 3. p. 22, 
HYPNUM filicinum, Tamarifci foliis minoribus, non fplendentibus. Dillen. p. 276. icon, 35. fig. 14. 
HYPNUM repens filicmum minus, luteo virens. Catal Gifs. 217. Raii Synop. p. 86. n. 36. Hudfon, Fl 
Angl. p. 422. Weis Cryptogam, p. 230. 

CAULES palmares ad dodrantales, repentes, hinc inde ? 

radiculas fufcas exferentes, fiaepe vero adeo in- | 

tricate connexi ut humi ferpere nequeant, £ 

foliis ovato-acuminatis, carinatis, mucronatis, f 

fparfe tectis, fig. 1 . horum foliolorum fuper- | 

ficies, microfcopio valde aucta granulofa apparet, £ 

RAMI pulchre pinnati, deflexi, virefcentes, ad luteum 
colorem plus minufve accedentes pro ratione 
fitus aut anni temporis, omni fplendore deftituti, 
rachis concolor, ad extremitatem plerumque 
incraflatus. Ramuli et Pinnule foliolis exi- 
liflimis, confertis, nudo oculo vix confpicuis 
imbricatim tecti ; e difco rami, aut frondis, 
novus caulis aut furculus plerumque exfurgit, 
unde plantula mire extenditur ac propagatur, 
et hinc Prolifer vocatur. 

PEDUNCULI fefquiunciales, rubri, plerumque quatuor | 
aut quinque, aliquando plures e caule aggrega- f 
tim affurgunt, et in quibufdam caulibus, Peri- I 
chastia plura aut potius eorum rudimenta occur- 4 
runt, e quibus Pedunculi fequente anno proba- f 
1 biliter nafcuntur. | 

Perichjetium fig. 3. aut bafis pedunculi, t 
ovatum, foliolis tenuibus pilo longo flexuofo I 
terminatis veftitum. Capsule five Anthers y 
fig. 4, quae Semen aut Pollinem continent, 
incurvatae, ex fufco aurantiacae. Operculum 
fig. 6, (quod collo cap fulae infigitur, et femine 
maturescente decidit ) breve, et acumina- 
tum. Orificium Capfulae duplici ferie Ciliarum 
inftruitur fig. 8. 9. Cili;e exteriores fig. 8. | 
aurantiacae, divergentes, apicibus aliquando f 
paululum inflexis, et cum aridae fint fragiles ; t 
interior es fig. 9, convergentes, membrana reti- | 
culata connexae, ad quam videndam microfco- * 
pio opus eft. Pqllen five Semen viride. * 
Calyptraj%. 5. qua anthera cum fuo Operculo | 
partim tegitur et quae primum decidit albida eft. % 

STALKS^ from three to nine inches in length, creep- 
ing on the ground, and here and there fending 
forth fmall brown fibres, but very often fo in- 
tricately connected together as to be hindered 
from creeping, thinly covered with leaves of an 
oval pointed fhape, having a ftrong midrib, 
which runs out to a fine point fig. 1 . when 
greatly magnified the furface of thefe leaves ex- 
hibits a granulated appearance fig. 2. 

BRANCHES beautifully pinnated, and bending down- 
ward, of a green colour, moreorlefs inclined to 
yellow, according to its place of growth, and 
the feafon of the year, 'without any glofis ; the 
midrib of the fame colour with the leaves and 
generally thicker at its extremity ; the fmall 
leaves, laying one over another, and fcarce dif- 
cernible to the naked eye. From the middle 
of the branch or Frons moft commonly arifes 
a new ftalk, or furculus, by which means this 
plant is Angularly extended and propagated, and 
from this circumftance it acquires the name of 

PEDUNCLES about an inch and a half in length, of 
a bright red colour, generally about four or five, 
fometimes more, fpring from the ftalk nearly to- 
gether, in fome of the ftalks there is the ap- 
pearance of feveral Perichatia without peduncles, 
which probably arife from them the next year. 
The PerichjEtium j?g-. 3. which is the bafe 
of the peduncle, is of an oval fhape, and co- 
vered with fmall leaves which terminate in a 
long flexible point. The Capsules or An- 
thers containing the pollen or feed^-. 4, are 
incurvated, and of a brown orange colour. The 
Operculum^. 6, (which fits on to the top 
of the Capfule, and when the feed contained with- 
in it, is ripe, falls off) is fhort, and pointed ; the 
mouth of the Capfule has two rows of Ciuje 
fig. 8. 9 ; the exterior row fig. 8, orange co- 
loured, and diverging, the tops of them fome- 
times bending a little inward, and brittle 
when dry, the interior row fig. 9, converging, 
of a membranous texture, and when very much 
magnified, appearing reticulated. The Pollen 
or Seed contained within the Capfules is green. 
The Calyptra^. 5. which partly covers the 
anthera and operculum, and firfts drops off is 
of a white colour. 

There is fcarce a Wood in the environs of this City, on the borders of which this elegant fpecies of Mofs 
doth not occur. 

It produceth its fructifications from December to February ; in this ftate however it is but feldom met with, 
yet may be found by diligent fearching. Linnaeus in one of his journies through Sweden, obferved this Mofs 
growing in the thickeft Woods, obfcured with perpetual made, and where all other plants perifhed. 

Moft of the writers who have made this clafs of plants more particularly the objeft of their enquiries, have gener- 
ally made two diftincl: Genera of the Hypnum and Bryum, yet fo great is the affinity betwixt them, and fo much 
do they run into one another, that what fome of thefe Authors call a Bryum, others denominate a Hypnum ; in- 
deed this divifion feems adopted more to facilitate the investigation of the plants of this numerous family, than from 
any real natural divifion which takes place between them. The difference between fome of theHypnums and fome 
of the Bryums is obvious to almoft every one, but to afcertain the limits where the one begins and the other 
terminates, feems a tafk too difficult for the moft accurate Botanift. 

The principal Charadteriftics of a Bryum according to Linnaeus, are, that the peduncle which fuftains the An- 
thera or Capfule, grows out of the top of the furculus or ftalk, and is furnifhed at its bafe with a little naked tuber- 
cle or bulb ; in the Hypnum on the contrary, the peduncle grows out of the fide of the ftalk and the tubercle at 
its bafe is covered with leaves and called a Perichaetium, 

y// /////// Ire/i/f /1/// 1 



In which the Plants contained in the Fourth Fafciculus are arranged according to 

the Syftem of L I n n m u s. 

Latin Name. Oafs and Order, 

i Hippuris vulgaris — 

2 Veronica montana — 

3 Valeriana dioica »- 

4 Scirpus maritimus — 

5 Panicum viride • " " - 

6 Panicum verticillatum 

7 Panicum fanguinale ■ 

8 Panicum crus galli 

9 Eriopliorum polyftachion 
io Eriophorum vaginatum 

1 1 .Holcus lanatus - — 

12 Milium effufum • 

13 Scabiofa arvenfis . — — 

14 Plantagq media — * 

15 Afperula odorata 

16 Cynogloffum officinale 

1 7 Menyanthes trifoliata 

18 Symphytum officinale 

1 9 Vinca major » 

20 Samolus valerandi . 

2d Campanula roturidifolia 

22 Chironia Centaurium 

23 Chenopodium hybridum . 

24 Bunium Bulbocaftanum 

25 ChaerophyHum fylveftre 

26 Myofurus minimus 

27 Peplis Portjila , — — 

28 Polygonum amphibium 

29 Polygonum Convolvulus. 

30 Silene anglica — — 

31 Aren,aria trinervia 

32 Arenaria ferpyllifolia 

33 Sedum fexangulare , •- 
34- nodo(a r— 
25 Spergula faginoides 

36 Euphorbia exigua , — - 

37 Clematis Vitalba — 

38 Ranunculus repens 

39 Ranunculus hederaceus 

40 Galeob.dolon Galeopfis 

41 Stacbys arvenfis , •-— 

42 Prupella vulgaris — 

43 Scutellaria minor — - 

44 Orobanche major — - 

45 Antirrhinum Qrontium 

46 Raphanus.Raphani'ftrum - 

47 Turrjtis glabra . — 

48 Caixkmine hirfuta — 

49 Geranium pratenfe 

5P Malva mofchata — 

5 i Trifolium gjomeratum 

52 Hypericum quadrangulum 

53 Sonchus arvenfis — 

54 Hieracium Pilofella 

55 Arctium Lappa «— — 

56 Cichorium Intybus . - 

57 Bidens tripartita — — 

58 Jafione montana — 

59 Ophrys fpiralis 

60 Carex riparia — — — • 

61 Carex acuta 

62 Carex gracilis 

63 Parietaria officinalis 

64 Equifetum arvenfe 

65 Bryum barbatum — 

66 Phafcum acaulon 

67 Phafcum fubulatum 

68 Jungermannia complanata 

69 Agaricus procerus 

70 Agaricus velutipes — 

7 1 Agaricus floccofus 


Monandria Monogynia. 
Diandrta Monogynia. 
Triandria Monogynia. 


Triandria Digynia. 

Tetrandria Monogynia. 

Pentandria Monogynia. 

■ Pentandria Digynia. 

Pentandria Polygynia. 
Hexandria Monogynia. 
Oct an dr 1 a Digynia. 
Octandria Trigynia. 

I Dec andr 1 a Tt igynia'. 

I Decandria Pentagynia. 
Dodecandria Trigynia. 
\ Polyandria Polygynia. 

£)idynamia Gymnojpermia. 


Didynamia Angiofpermia. 

Tetradynamia Siliquofa. 

MoNadelphia Decandria. 
Monadelphia Polyandria. 
Diadelphia Decandria. 
Polyadelphia Polyandria. 

Syngenesia Polygamia Mqualis, 


Syngenesia Monogamia 
Gynandria Diandria. 

Mqnoecia Triandria. 

Polygamia Monoecia. 
Cryptogamia Filices. 

> Cryptogamia MufcL 


Cryptogamia Fungi 


Phallus caninus 



Latin Names of the Plants in the Fourth Fafciculus,' 
arranged alphabetically. 


Afperula odorata 


Arenaria trinervia 


Arenaria ferpyllifolia . * 

3 1 

Antirrhinum Orontium 


Arctium Lappa 


Agaricus procerus 


Agaricus velutipes 


Agaricus floccofus 


Buaium Bulbocaftanum 


Bidens tripartita 


Bryum barbatum 

• 65 

Boletus lucidus 


Cynoglofium officinale 


Campanula rotundifolia 


Chironia Centaurium 

«, 22 

Chenopodium hybridum 


Chaerophylium fylveftre 


Clematis Vitalba 


Cardamine hirfuta 

. 48 

Cichorium Intybus 

- • 56 

Carex riparia 


Carex acuta 


Carex gracilis 


Eriophorum polyftachion 


Eriophorum vaginatum 


Equiietum arvenfe 

. . 64 

Euphorbia exigua 

. . ^ - § 

Geranium pratenfe 


Galeobdolon Galeopiis 

. . . 40 

Holcus lanatus 


Hypericum quadrangulum 

5 2 

Hieracium Pilofella 


Hippuris vulgaris 


Janone montana 


Jungermannia complanata 

. , m 

Milium effufum 


Menyanthes trifolia.ta 


Myofurus minimus 

. . 26 

Malva mofchata 


Ophrys fpiralis 


Orobanche major 


Panicum viride 


Panicum verticillatum 

... 6 

Panicum fanguinale 


Panicum Cras galli 

. . . 8 

Plantago media 


Peplis Portula 
Polygonum amphibium 


Polygonum Convolvulus 

2 9 

Prunella vulgaris 


Parietaria officinalis 
Phafcum acaulon 

. . 63 


Phafcum fubulatum 

. 6 7 

Phallus caninus 


Ranunculus repens 


Ranunculus hederaceus 


Raphanus Raphanirtrum 


Scirpus maritimus 
Scabiofa arvenfis 


Symphytum officinale 

' . l8 

Samolus valerandi 


Silene anglica 


Spergula nodoia 


Spergula faginoides 

. ... 35 

Sedum fexangulare 


Stachys arvenfis 


Scutellaria minor 


Sonchus arvenfis 


Turritis glabra 


Trifolium giomeraturn 


Veronica moo tana 


Valeriana dioica 


Vinca major '. * 




Englifli Names of the Plants in the Fourth Faf- 
ciculus, arranged alphabetically. 

Archangel yellow 
Bryum bearded 
Buckwheat climbing 

Broom-rape common 
Bell-flower heath 
Boletus lacquer'd 
Burdock . . „ 

Carex great or common 
Carex acute 
Carex (lender- fpiked 
Club-rush round-rooted or fea 
Cow-parsly common „ 

Chickweed plantain- leaved 
Chickweed thyme- leaved 
Catch-fly Englifh 
Cranes-bill crowfoot 
Crowfoot ivy-leaved 
Crowfoot creeping 

Comfrey . i 

Cotton-grass many-headed 
Cotton-grass fmgle-headed 

Goose-foot thorn-apple-leaved 
Hooded- willow-herb fmall 
Horse-tail corn . 

Hemp-agrimony trifid » 

Jungermannia fiat 
Ladies-smock hairy 1 

Ladies-traces . - 

Mouse- tail 

Mouse-ear -» - . 


.Mushroom fhaggy . 

Mushroom velvet-ftalked 
Mushroom tall 
Millet-gr-ass wood 
Mallow mulk 
Morell red-headed 
Purslane water 
Phascum common 
Phascum heath 
Panic- grass green 
Panic-grass rough 
Panic-grass loofe 
Panic-grass cocksfoot 
Plantain hoary . - . 
Persicaria amphibious 
Perrywinkle great 
Pellitory of the wall 
Radish wild . . ■ . 
Speedwell mountain 
St. John's- wort fquare-ftalk'd 

Selfheal— - 

Soft-grass -meadow - 

Snap-dragon fmall 

Scabious field 

Sowthistle corn 

Spurry knotted 

Spurry pearl wort * 

Stachys corn 

Spurge fmall * . 

Sheeps-scabious hairy 

Succory blue 

Stonecrop infipid. 

Tower-mustard fmooth 

Travellers joy 

Trefoil round-headed 

Valerian marm 

Woodruff . . 

Water-pimpernel round-leaved 




l 7 



2 5 

2 2, 




z 3 


5 l 




7 1 








l 9 








l 5 









Agrostis Sheep's fescue-leaved 



Aira sweet tatted water 






All heal 

55 • 


Anemone, mountain 



Anemone Wood 



Arhangel, yellow 



Avens, common 



Barley-Grass wall 



Bastard - Bolm 



Bedstraw, Yellow 



Bell-Flower, heath 



Betony wood 






Bird's-foot, common 



Bird's-foot -Trefoil, common 



Bistort, common 






Blite, stinking 



Blue-bottle Corn 



Boletus , lacquered 



Brome-Grass, barren 



Brome-grass, dianarous 



Brome-grass, hairy stalk' d 



Brome-Grass, soft 



Brome-Grass, tall 






Broom, common 



Broom-Rope, common 



Bryum, bearded 



Bryum, broom 



Bryum, brown 



Bryum, curled 



Bryum, Green 



Bryum, awl- shaped 



Bryum, matted 



Bryum, silvery 



Bryum, swan's neck 






Buckwheat, climbing 



Bugle > common 



Bugloss, field 











Burr-Reed, great 

Burr-Reed, small 

Butter beer 

Calamint, field 

Campion, red 

Carex, acute 

Car ex, great or common 

Carex, pendulous 

Carex, slender-spiked 

Carex, turgid 

Catch-Fly, English 

Cats tail, broaa-leavea 

Catstail, narrow-leaved 

Caucalis corn 

Caucalis hedge 


Chamomile corn 


Chickweed, common 

Chickweed, plantain-leaved 

Chickweed, thyme-leaved 

Cinquefoil, common 

Cistus, dwarf 

Cistus, spotted-flowered 


Cleavers, Common 


Clover, Dutch 

Clover, yellow 

Club-Rush (round-footed or fea) 




Convoloulus, field 

Convoloulus, large white 

Corn-ma ryg old 


Cotton-grass, many-headed 

Cotton-grass, single-headed 


Cow-parsly, common 

Cow-parsley, small 


Crane ' s-Bill , crowfoot 

Crane's-bill, dove »s-f cot common 

Crane's-bill, hemlock-leaved 

Crane's-bill, jagged 

Crane's-bill, mountain 





















































Crane's-bill, small-flowered 

Crane's Bill, stinking 

Crowfoot, celery-leaved 

Crowfoot, corn 

Crowfoot, creeping 

Crowfoot, ivy-leaved 

Crowfoot, pale-leaved. 

Crowfoot, round-rooted 

Crowfoot, upright meadow 

Crowfoot, wood 


Cymbalaria, Ivy-leaved 

Daisy, common 

Dandelion, common 

Dandelion, deficient 

Dandelion, rough 

Deadly Nightshade 

Dead-Kettle, purple 

Dead-Nettie, white 

Devil's bit 

Doek, broad-leaved 

Dock, curled 

Dock, narrow-leaved 

Dock, sharp-pointed 

Draba, verval 



Elder, dwarf 

Enchanters-Nightshade, Common 

Erigeron, purple 

Everlasting -Pea, Nar row-lee ved 

Eyebright, common 

Eyebright, red 

Fescue-grass, darnel 

Fescue-grass, flote 

Fescue-grass, meadow 

Fescue-grass, tall 

Figwort, water 

Flax, Common 

Flax, purging 

Flax, yellow 

Fleabane, common 

Fleabane , small 

Flowering -Rush 

■k'luellin, round-leaved 

Fluellin, sharp-pointed 


Foxglove, Purple 

Foxtail-Grass, field 

Foxtail-Grass, pointed 

Foxtail-Grass, meadow 

Fritillary, Common 
















































































































Fumitory, Common 



Fumitory, ramping 



Gallopsis, particloured 



Germander, Sage-leaved 



Golden-Saxifrage, Common 



Good King Henry 



Goosefoot, Nettle-leaved 



Goosefoot, purple- jointed 






Goosefoot, small-seeded 



Goosefoot, white 






Groundsell, common 



Hair-grass, early 



Hair-grass, silver 






Hawkweed, bushy 



Hawkweed, long rooted 



Hawkweed, small flowered 



Heath,. Common 



Heath .Croes-leaved 



Heath,- fine-leaved 






Hellebore, green 






Hemp-Agrimony Nodding 



Hemp-Agrimony, Trifid 






Honeysuckle, Common 



Hooded-Willow-Herb Common 



Hooded-Willow-Herb (small) 



Horned-Poppy, red 



Horse-Tail Corn. 



Hot tonia, later 



Hounds - Tongue 






Hyacinth , English 



Hydnum ear-picker 



Hypnum, meadow 



Hypnum, proliferous 



Hypnum, silky 






Jangermannia, flat 



Knot-Grass, common 



Ladies-Smock, common 



Ladies-Smock, hairy 



Ladies-Smock, bitter 



Ladies - traces 



Lathyrus, Crimson 

51 n 


Lettuce, Wild 





Lily of the Valley 

Lobelia, Acrid 

Loosestrife, purple-spiked 

Loosestrife, Yellow 

Lung-wort fea 

Mallow, common 

Mallow, musk 

Mallow, round leaved 


Marjoram, wild 


Mayweed, stinking 

Meadow-grass, hard 

Meadow-grass, procumbent 

Meadow-grass, reflexed 

meadow-grass, rough-stalk 1 d 

Meadow-grass, smooth-stalk' d 

meadow-grass, water 


Medick hop 

Melic-Grass, blue 

Melic-Grass, mountain 

Melic-Grass, Singlef lowered 

Mercury , Annual 

Mercury Dogs 

Millet-G rass-Wood 


Money wort 

Moneywort wood 

Morell, red-headed 

Morell, Stinking 

Moschatel, tuberous 


Mouseear-chickweed, broadleaved 

mousear-chickweed, common 

mouse-ear Chickweed, corn 

Mouse-Ear Chickweed, dwarf 

Mousear- Chickweed, least 

Mousear-Chickweed, Marsh 

Mousear-Chickweed, tetandrous 

Mousear-scorpion grass 


Mushroom, egg 

Mushroom, fleshy 

mushroom, orange 

Mushroom, oyster 

Mushroom, plaited 

Mushroom, puckered 

Mushroom, shaggy 

mushroom, slimy 

Mushroom, tall 

Mushroom, velvet stalk 1 d 

Mushroom, verdigris 













































































































Mushroom, warty 
Mustard, white 
Kettle, great 
Nettle, small 
Nightshade, garden 
Nightshade, woody- 
Nipplewort, common 
Oat«grass, tall 
Oat-grass, yellow 
Ophrys, man 
Ophrys, green winged 
Orach, spear-leaved 
Orchis Bee 
Orchis, butterfly 
Orchis, early spotted 
Orchis, great 
Orchis, marsh 
Orchis, meadow 

Oxeye, common 

Panic-grass, cocksfoot 
Panic-grass, green 
Panic-grass, loose 
Panic-grass, rough 
Pansie, wild 
Pea wood 

Pearlwort, Annual 
Pearlwort, procumbent 
Pearlwort, upright 
Pellitery of the Wall 
Penny-wort, marsh 
Perrywinkle, great 
Periwinkle, small 
Persicaia, amphibious 
Persic&fia, biting 
Persicaria, small and creeping 
Persicaria, spotted leaved 
Persicaria, spotted stalk 1 d 
Persicaria, palef lowered 
Phascum, common 
Phasuum, heath 
Pheasant» s-eye 

Pimpernel, bastard 
Pimpernel, bog 
Pimpernel, common 
Pink, meadow 
Plantain, common 
Plantain, hoary 
Plantain, narrow-leaved 

















































































































Poa, common dwarf 

Padded-mous ear 

Polypody, common 

Polytrichum, dwarf 

Pondweed, curled 

Poppy long prickly-headed 

Poppy, long smooth-headed 

Poppy, smooth round-headed 





Purslane, water 

Radish, wild 

Ragwort, hoary 

Robert, herb 

Rocket, London 

Rocket, Stinking 

Rocket, water 


Rose dog 

Rush, great hoary wood 

Rush, hairy field 

Rush, small hairy wood 

Sage, wild 

St. John' sWort, Common 

St. John's-Wort, Hairy 

St. John's-ttort, Small Upright 

St. John* s-Wort, square stalk' d 

St. John's Wort, trailing 


Saxifrage, Marsh 

Saxifrage, Purple 

Saxifrage, rue-leaved 

Saxifrage, white 

Scabrious, field 

Scandlx, rough-seeded 




Shepherd' s-Purse 

Sherardia, field 

Silver-is eed 

Snap-Drag on, small 


Snowflake, Summer 

Soft-Grass Creeping 

Soft-Grass , Meadow 






































































































Sorrel sheeps 

Sowthistle, common 

Sowthistle, Com 

Sow-thistle tree 

Spearwort, small 

Speedwell, bog 

Speedwell, germander leaved 

Speedwell, ivy-leaved 

Speedwell, male 

Speedwell, mountain 

Speedwell, procumbent Garden 

Speedwell, smooth-leaved 

Speedwell, trifid 

Speedwell, wall 

Speedwell, water 

Spleenwort, rough 

Spurge, fun 

Spurge, small 

Spurge, small garden 

Spurrey Corn 

Spurry, knotted 

Spurry, pearlwort 

Squill, Autumnal 

Stchys Corn 

Stickwort, bog 

Stickwort, Greater 

Stonecrop, common yellow 

Stonecrop, insipid 

Stonecrop, thick-leaved 

Stonecrop, white flowered 

Strawberry, barren 

Succory, blue 

Succory Hawkweed, smooth 

Teasel, Small 

Teasel, wild 

Thistle, cursed 

Thistle, marsh 

Thistle, milk 

Thistle, prickliest 

Thistle, slender-flowered 


Thyme, basil 

thyme, wild 

Tine-Tare, rough-padded 

Tine-Tare, smooth padded 

Toad F^ax, common yellow 

Toad-Flax, least 


Tower-Mustard, Smooth 

Travellers Joy 

Trefoil birds-foot true 

Trefoil, horsefoot 



IS (continued) 















































































































Trefoil, rough 

Trefoil, round-headed 

Trefoil strawberry 

Trefoil, subterraneous 



Valerian, Marsh 

Valenian, wild 

Vernal-Grass, sweet-scented 


Vetch, tufted 

Vetchling, yellow 

Vetchling yellow 

Violet bog 

Violet dogs 

Violet, hairy 

Violet, sweet-scented 



Water-Pimpernel (round-leaved) 

Water-Plantain, Greater 

Water-Plantain, Starry-headed 

Water-Radish, Annual 

Willow, bitter 

Willow, three-threaded 

Willow-herb, hoary 

Willow-herb wood 

Willow-herb, largeflowered 

Willow-herb, rosebay 

Willow-herb, squarestalk'd 



Yarrow, Common