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Full text of "Flora Londinensis, or, Plates and descriptions of such plants as grow wild in the environs of London : with their places of growth, and times of flowering, their several names according to Linnæus and other authors : with a particular description of each plant in Latin and English : to which are added, their several uses in medicine, agriculture, rural œconomy and other arts"

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Presented by 
Miss Elizabeth Marbury 
Jan. 1901 



& & & « 



* & * & & * & & & & & * 3? & & * ^ 


In which the Plants contained in the fecond Fafciculus, are arranged according to 

the Syftem of LinNvEus. 

Latin Name. Clafi and Order, 






Veronica hedaerifolia — 

Veronica arvenfis — — 
Veronica Becabunga — 

Poa rigida — - 

Poa pratenfis ■ 

Poa trivialis • 

Alopecunis myofuroides 

8 Bromus hirfutus > 

9 Galium Aparine 

io Plantago lanceolata — — 

1 1 Plantago major — — 

12 Sagina erecta ■ 

13 Convolvulus arvenfis — — - 

14 Solanum nigrum 

15 Chenopodium album — — 

16 Chenopodium vi ride 

1 7 Chenopodium polyfpermum 

18 Hyacinthus non fcriptus 

1 9 Juncus campeftris 

20 Rumex crifpus — 

21 Epilobium hirfutum ■ 

22 Epilobium villofum « 

23 Epilobium tetragonum 

24 Epilobium anguitifolium 

25 Erica cinerea 

26 Adoxa Mofchatellina 

27 Chryfofplenium oppofitifolium 
r,8 Saxifraga trydattylites 

29 Saponaria officinalis — 

30 Stellaria Holoftea 

31 Oxalis Acetofella — — 

32 Lychnis dioica — - — 
2,5 Ceraflium femidecandrum 

34 Ceraflium vulgatum — 

<$$ Ceraftium vifcofum — 

36 Geum urbanum 

37 Adonis autumnalis — 

38 Anemone nemorofa > 

39 Ranunculus Ficaria — — 

40 Ranunculus hirfutus — 

41 Ranunculus auricomus — 

42 Ranunculus fceleratus — 

43 Ajuga reptans ■ ■ 

44 Glechoma hederacea 

45 Lamium album 

46 Lamium amplexicaule 

47 Thymus Serpyllum 

48 Eryfimum Alliaria 

49 Arabis thaliana — 

50 Geranium molle — 

51 Malva fy lveftris ~ 

52 Fumaria officinalis 

$3 Trifolium ornithopodioides 

54 Trifolium fubterraneum 

55 Trifolium fragiferum 

56 Lotus corniculatus 

57 Medicago lupulina 

58 Sonchus oleraceus 

59 Tuffilago Petafites 

60 Tuffilago Farfara — 

61 Viola canina — — 

62 Orchis mafcula 

63 Arum maculatum — 

64 Poterium Sanguiforba 

65 Mercurialis perennis 

66 Atriplex haftata 

67 Ofmunda Spicant 

68 Polytrichum fubrotundum 

69 Hypnum fericeum 

70 Bryum truncatulurn 

71 Bryum viridulum , 

72 Agaricus ovatus 

73 Agaricus fimetarius 

Diandria Monogynla. 
Triandria Monogynla. 

> Tetrandria Monogynla» 

Tetrandria c fetragynla, 
\ Pentandria Monogynla* 

r Pentandria Dlgynla. 

f Hexandkia Monogynla, 
Hexandria Trlgynla. 

Octandria Monogynla. 

Octandria %etragynla f 
Decandria Dlgynla. 
Decandria Trlgynla. 

Enneandria Pentagynla* 

Icosandria Polygynla. 

j> Polyandria Polygynla, 

Didynamia Gymnofpermla. 


Monadelphia Decandria. 
Monadelphia Polyandria, 
Diadelphia Hexandrla. 

Diadelphia Decandria. 

Syngenesia Polygamla Mqualls. 

Syngenesia Polygamla Superftua. 

Syngenesia Monogamla. 
G yn A ndr i a Diandria. 
Gynandria Polyandria. 
Monoecia Polyandria. 
Dioecia Enneandria. 
Pol yg ami a Monoecia. 
Cryptogamia Flllces. 

Cryptogamia Mufcl. 

Cryptogamia Fungi. 



<y,-a, -— -st — a. ^-* — ^ — st — -ft —ft — -*. — -^ — •*. — -ft —ft — -ft —ft — f, ^--ft ^-•-ft^^-^r^-'osc.^: 

(j£ €2 & & &&*&&«& & & & & & & 41 & & 43 & & &&&&&&&& & 42 ft 42 ft ft ft ft «sj £j) 


In which the Latin Names of the Plants 

are arranged Alphabetically. 

'Arum maculatum 

Atriplex haftata 

Adonis autumnalis 

Adoxa Mofchatellina 

Arabis thaliana 

Anemone nemorofa 

Ajnga reptans 

Agaricus fimetarius 

Agaricus ovatus 

Alopecurus myofuroides 

Bryum truncatulum 

Bryum viridulum 

Bromus hirfutus 

Chenopodium viride 

Chenopodium album 

Chenopodium polyfpermum 

Ceraftium vifcofum 

Ceraftium femidecandrum 

Ceraftium vulgatum 

Convolvulus arvenfis . 

Chryfofplenium oppofiti folium 

Epilobium villofum 

Epilobium hirfutum 

Epilobium anguftifolium 

Epilobium tetragonum 

Eryfimum Alliaria 

Erica cinerea 

Fumaria officinalis 

Geum urbanum . • 

Geranium molle 

Glechoma hederacea 

Galium Aparine • 

Hypnum fericeum 

Hyacinthus non fcriptus 

Juncus campeftris 

Lamium amplexicaule 

Lamium album . • 

Lychnis dioica 

Lotus corniculatus 

Medicago lupulina . • 

Mercurialis perennis 

Malva fylveftris 

Oxalis Acetofella 

Orchis mafcula . • 

Ofmunda Spicant 

Poa rigida . , 

Poa pratenfis 

Poa trivialis 

Plantago major 

Plantago lanceolata 

Polytrichum fubrotundum 

Poterium Sanguiforba 

Ranunculus Ficaria 

Ranunculus hirfutus 

Ranunculus auricomus 

Ranunculus fceleratus 

Rumex crifpus 

Sonchus oleraceus 

Saxifraga tridaclylites 

Sagina ereda 

Stellaria Holoftea 

Solanum nigrum 

Saponaria officinalis 

Trifolium ornithopodioides 

Trifolium fubterraneum 

Trifolium fragiferum 

Tuffilago Petaiites 

Tuffiiago Farfara 

Thymus Secpyllum 

Veronica hederifolia 

Veronica arvenfis 

Veronica Becabunga 

Viola canina . . 











J 5 
l 3 

2 7 

2 3 

2 5 


l 9 


3 2 
5 1 

3 1 

6 7 












2 9 






I N D E 

In which the Englifh Nomes of. the 
Plants are arranged Alphabetically. 

Plate ' 

Anemone Wood 

Allfeed .... 

Avens common 

Birds-foot-Trefoil common 

Bryum brown 

Bryum green 

Butter bur 

Bugle common 



Brome-grafs hairy ftalk'd 


Convolvulus field 

Cranes-bill doves-foot common 


Campion red 

Crowfoot pale-leaved . * 

Crowfoot wood 

Crowfoot celery-leaved 

Cleavers common 

Dead-nettle white 

Dock curled 

Fumitory common 

Foxtail-grafs field 

Golden-Saxifrage common 


Goofefoot- white . ' i 

Goofefoot purple-jointed 
Henbit ► , 

Hypnum filky , 

Hyacinth englifh 
Heath fine-leaved 
Medick hop . * 

Moufear Chickweed leaft 
Moufear-Chickweed common 
Moufear-Chickweed broad-leaved 
Mofchatel tuberous 
Meadow-grafs hard 
Meadow-grafs fmooth-ftalk'd 
Meadow-grafs rough-ftalk'd 
Mercury dogs . • 

Mallow common 
Mufhroom egg 
Mufhroom puckered 
Nightfhade garden 
Orach fpear-leaved . , 

Orchis early fpotted 
Pearl wort upright , 

Pheafants-eye • . 

• Podded-moufear 

Plantain narrow-leaved 
Plantain common 
Polytrichum dwarf 
Rum hairy field * • 

Speedwell ivy-leaved 
Speedwell wall , 

Sowthiftle common- 
Saxifrage rue-leaved 
Spleenwort rough i ; 

Sauce-alone . . 

Stichwort greater 

Trefoil fubterraneous 
Trefoil birds- foot true 
Trefoil ftrawberry 
Thyme wild ; 

Violet dogs 
Wood- Sorrel 

Willow-herb large-flowered 
Willow-herb hoary 
Willow-herb fquare-ftalk'd « 
Willow-herb rofebay 




Veronica arvensis. Wall Speedwell. 

VERONICA Linnaei Gen. PL Diandria Mondgynia. 

Cor. limbo 4-partito, lacinia. infima anguftiore» Capfula bilocularis. 

RaiiSyn.Gen.18. Herbje fructu sicco singulari flore monopetalo. 
VERONICA urvenfis floribus folitariis, foliis cordatis incifis pedunculo longioribus. Lin. Syji. Vegetab. 

p. 5 j. Sp. PL /.18. 

VERONICA caule ere&o, foliis ovatis, fubhirfutis, dentatis ; petiolisbrevifiimis. Haller.hift.heh.n. 548. 

VERONICA arvenfis. Scopoli. Flor. Carniol. p. 18. 

ALSINE veronicas foliis, flofculis cauliculis adhaarentibus, Bauhin. Pin. 250. 

ALSINE foliis Veronicae. Gerard, emac. 613. 

ALSINE foliis fubrotundis Veronicae. Parkin/on. 762» 

VERONICA flofculis fmgularibus cauliculis adhaerentibus. Raii Syn. p. 279, Speedwell Chickweed, 

Oeder PL Dan. t. 515. 

Hud/on PL Angl. 6. ed. 2. 6. 

Lightfoot. PL Scot. p. 75. 

RADIX annua, fibrofa. f ROOT annual and fibrous. 


CAULIS palmaris, aut dodrantalis, ere&ns, plerum- ¥ STALK upright, from three to nine inches in height, 

que ramofus, fubinde funplex, (rami alter- | generally branched, now and then fimple, 

natim oppofiti, adfcendentes,) teres, purpuraf- $ (the branches alternately oppolite and afcend- 

cens, undique hirfutus. t m g0 round, purplifh, and hirfute on every 

I fide. 

■ t 
FOLIA inferiora petiolata, hirfuta, fubcordata, inferne | LEAVES on the bottom of the ftalk ftanding on foot- 
fa?pe purpurea, obtufa, planiufcula, incifa, ^ ftalks, hirfute, fomewhat heart-fhaped, often 

• quinquenervia, fuperiora feffilia, fubtortuofa. t purple on the under fide, obtufe, flattifh, 

I notched on the edges, having five ribs, the 

¥ upper ones feffile, and fomewhat twifled. 

FLORES pedunculis brevimmis infidentes, fpicati, f FLOWERS fitting on very fhort foot-ftalks, growing 
bradasa lanceolata fufFulti. | in a fpike, fupported by a lanceolate floral- 

I leaf 


CALYX : Perianthium quadripartitum, laciniis | CALYX : a Perianthium deeply divided into four 

ovato-lanceolatis, hirfutulis, hirfutie glandu- | fegments, which are oval, lanceolate, and 

lofa, duobus inferioribus duplo fere majoribus t hairy; (the hairs terminated with glands ;) 

et longioribus, fig. 1 . | the two lowermoft almofl twice as large and 

I long as the others, fig. 1. 

COROLLA monopetala, fubrotata, ccerulea, levimmo | COROLLA monopetalous, and fomewhat wheel-fhaped, 

tadu decidu'a, tubus breviffimus, albus, lim- t of a blue colour, falling off on the leaft touch; 

bus quadripartitus, laciniis ovatis, infima an- | the tube very fhort and white ; the limb deep- 

guftiore, fig. 2. • | ty divided into four fegments, which are oval, 

i the lower one narrower!:, fig. 2. 

STAMINA: Filamenta duo, alba, medio craffiora, t STAMINA: two white Filaments thicker!: in the 

corolla dimidio breviora : Antherje fubcor- | middle, half the length of the corolla : An- 

datas flavefcentes fi<r. q. | ther^e fomewhat heart-fhaped, and yellowifh, 

¥ fig- 3- 

PISTILLUM : Germen obcordatnm, comprefTum, | PISTILLUM : Germen inverfely heart-fhaped, flat- 

vifcofum, bafi glandula cindto : Stylus bre- | tened, and vifcous, furrounded at bottom by 

viffimus, albus, redus : Stigma crafTum fub- | a gland : Style very fhort, white, and ftrait; 

truncatum, fig. 4. J Stigma thick, with an appearance of being 

I cut off, fig. 4. 

PERICARPIUM: Capsula obcordata, comprefla, t SEED-VESSEL a heart-fhaped flattened Capsule, 
pallide fufca, fig. 5, continent | of a pale brown colour, fig. 8, containing of 

SEMINA circiter 14 ovata, comprefla> medio deprefla, | SEEDS about fourteen, which are oval and flat, with 
fig. 6, 7. I a depreffion in the middle, fig. 6, 7. 

AS the Veronica agrefiis grows chiefly in gardens and cultivated ground, fo this fpecies, which is nearly 
allied to it, is molt commonly found on walls, alfo in fallow fields, and on the borders of dry paftures. 

It flowers in April, and the feeds ripen in May. 

The old botanifts, inattentive to the parts of fructification, diftinguifhed this and fome other fpecies of Veronica, 
by the general name of Aljine. 

Students are apt, as we have before obferved, to confound it with the agrefiis, from which it differs in many 
refpeds: the ftalk in particular is upright ; the flowers are nearly feffile ; the feed-veffels are much fmaller, and 
when ripe form a fpike. 

It varies in fize from one to fix or eight inches : and on walls, the bottom leaves are frequently obferved 
to be purple. 




VERONICA L'mntei Gen. PL Diandria Monogynia^ 

Cor. limbo 5-partito, lacinia inflma angufKore. 
Raii Syn. Gen. 18. Herb^e fructu sicco singulari, flore monopetalo. 
VERONICA Becabunga racemis lateralibus, foliis ovatis planis, caule repente. Linn. Syfl. Vegetab. p. 57. 

VERONICA foliis ovatis, ferratis, glabris, ex alis racemofa, Haller hifl. n. 534. 
VERONICA Becabunga. Scopoli Fl. Carniol n. 11. 
ANAGALLIS aquatica minor folio fubrotundo. Bauhin pin. 252. 
ANAGALLIS aquatica vulgaris, five Becabunga. Parkin/on 1236. 
ANAGALLIS five Becabunga. Gerard emac. 620. 

VERONICA aquatica rotundifolia, Becabunga di&a minor. Rail Syn. 280, Common Brooklime. 
Hud/on FI. AngL p. 4. Oeder Fl. Dan. Icon. 511. 

RADIX perennis, fibrofa, fibris plurimis, capillaribus, t ROOT perennial, fibrous, the fibres numerous, very 

albis. I fmall and white. 

CAULES numerofi, repentes, teretes, lseves, craffi, | STALKS numerous, creeping, round, fmooth, thick, 

fucculenti, rubentes, ramofi. J fucculent, of a reddifh colour, and branched. 


FOLIA ovato-obtufa,utrinque glabra, fubcarnofa, oppo- I LEAVES oval and obtufe, fmooth on both fides, fome- 

fita, dentata, denticulis glandula terminatis. $ what flefhy, oppofite, indented at the edges, 

| each little tooth terminated by a gland. 


FLORES pulchre ccerulei, ocello albo, racematim dif- t FLOWERS of a beautiful blue colour, with a white 

pofiti, racemis ex utraque ala prodeuntibus. I eye, growing in racemi or branches which 

% proceed from the bofoms of the leaves on each 

f fide of the ftalk. 

CALYX : PERiANTHiuMquadripartitum, laciniis ovato- ¥ CALYX : a Perianthium dividedinto four fegments, 

acutis, lasvibus, corolla brevioribus, fig. 2. I which are of an oval pointed fhape, fmooth, 

% and fhorter than the corolla, fig. 2. 

COROLLA monopetala, fubrotata, coerulea, venis fa- | COROLLA monopetalous, fomewhat weel-fhaped, of 

tnratioribus ad bafin ltriatis, laciniis fubova- % a blue colour, ftriped at bottom with deeper 

tis, infima anguftiore, fig. 3. | veins of the fame colour ; the fegments nearly 

% oval ; the lowermoft narrower than the others, 

I fig- 3' 

STAMINA: Filamenta duo, alba, medio craffiora : ? STAMINA: two white Filaments, thickefl in the 

Antherje ccerulefcentes : Pollen album, | middle: Anthers blueifh : the Pollen 

fig. 4. ? white, fig. 4. 

PISTILLUM : Germen fubrotundum, didymum : | PISTILLUM : Germen roundifh, double : Style 

Stylus apice incraflatus, purpureus : Stigma I thickefl at top and purple : Stigma forming 

capitatum, fig. 5. | a llttle head > fig- 5- 

PERICARPIUM: Capsula fubrotunda, compreffa, | SEED-VESEL : a roundifh, flattened Capsule of 

bilocularis, quadrivalvis, fig. 6. | two cavities and four valves, fig. 6. 

SEMINA plurima, ovata, fufca, fig. 7, 8. | SEEDS feveral, oval and brown, fig. 7, 8. 

BROOKLIME grows very commonly in brooks and muddy waters, whence its name, and flowers in June 
and July. It is an officinal plant, and made ufe of in the fcorbutic juices of the London Difpenfatory, which 
feems to be the only purpofe to which it is applied. 


POA Linnaii Gen. PL Triandria Digynia. 

Raii Syn. Gen. 27. Herb^e graminifoli^e flore imperfecto culmiferje. 
POA rigida panicula lanceolata fubramofa fecunda : ramulis alternis fecundis. Linn. Syft. Vegetab. p. 98. 
GRAMEN panicula multiplied. Bauh'in. Pin. p. 3. 

GRAMEN exile duriufculum in muris et aridis proveniens. Rail Syn. 410, Small Hard Grafs. 
GRAMEN loliaceum murorum duriufculum fpica ere&a rigida. Hijl. Oxon. III. 182. t. 2. Jig. 9. 
GRAMEN minus duriufculum. Gerard. 

GRAMEN arvenfe, filicina, duriore panicula, gracilius. Barrel. Ic. 49. 

Scheuchz. Agrofi. ed Hatter, p. 271. t. 6. Jig. 2. 3. fpicuke tan turn. 
Hudfon PI. Angl. p. ^. ed. 2. p. 42* 

RADIX annua, paucis fibrillis inftru&a. | ROOT annual, and furnifhed with few fibres. 

CULMI plures, palmares, ere&i, ad bafin infracli, t STALKS feveral, about four inches high, upright, 
plerumque fimplices, laeves, binodes. | crooked at bottom^ generally fimple, fmooth, 

y with two knots or joints. 

FOLIA lanceolata, laevia, longitudme vaginae, fubere&a ; | LEAVES lanceolate, frnooth, the length of the fheath, 
Membrana brevis, obtufa, apice lacera; Vagina % and nearly upright; Membrane at the bafe of 

laevis, lineata. | the leaf fhort, obtufe, and jagged at top ; 

^ Sheath fmooth, and very finely grooved. 

PANICULA lanceolata, fefquiuncialis, paululum re- | PANICLE lanceolate, about an inch and a half long, 
curvata, rigida, fubfecunda. % bent a little back, rigid, the fpiculae in fome 

I degree growing one way. 


SPICULE lineari-lanceolatae, fuboaoflorae, acutae, % SPICULE of a mape betwixt linear and lanceolate, 

fubcompreffae, fig-. I . | containing for the mod part eight flowers, 

^ pointed and flattifh fig. 1 . 

CALYX : Gluma bivalvis, valvulae longitudine et | CALYX : a Glume of two valves, the valves unequal 

magnitudine inaequales, ad lentem fcabriuf- % in length and fize, appearing roughifh when 

culae, fig. 2. I viewed with a magnifier, fig. 2. 


COROLLA: Gluma bivalvis, valvulae fubaequales, | COROLLA: a Glume of two valves, the valves near- 

ovato-acutae, marginibus membranaceis,j%. 3. f ly equal, of an oval pointed fhape, the edges 

¥ membranous, fig. 3. 

STAMINA: Filamenta tria, capillaria. longitu- | STAMINA: three Filaments, fine, the length of 
dine Corollae : Anthers fiavae, minimae, | the Corollae; Antherje yellow, very minute, 

breves, utrinque furcatae, fig. 4, 5. | ihort, and forked at each end, fig. 4, 5. 

NECTARIA : Glumul^ duae, ovato-acutae, longitu- | NECTARIES : two fmall Glumes of an oval pointed 
dine Germinis, ope microfcopii vifibiles,/£\ 6. % mape, the length of the Germen, vifible by the 

help of a microfcope, fig. 6. . 

PISTILLUM: Germen turbinatum : Styli duo ad % PISTILLUM : Germen larger at top than at bottom : 
bafin ufque ramofi, fig. 7, 8. | Styles two, branched down to the bot- 

| torn, fig. 7, 8. 

SEMINA ovato-acuta, hinc convexa, hide concava. | SEEDS of an oval pointed mape, convex on one fide, 

I and hollow on the other. 

Neither Haller nor Scopoli make any mention of this grafs. According to Scheuchzer, it is common 
in Italy and France, in dry fields, and fometimes on walls : with us it is found more frequently on the lat- 
ter ; and though not fo common as fome of the grafles, yet it is to be found on molt of the walls about 
London, in May and June. 

In very dry and barren fituations, the ftalks fometimes are found fimple, the panicle alfo not branched, and 
the fpiculae, inftead of containing about eight flowers, which is the ufual number, have no more than three 
or four: in this ftate Scheuchzer makes another fpecies of it: this alteration, from an excefs or fcantinefs 

tions in which it occurs— Information obtained from any other fource is not to be depended on. 


OZort/ Ara^d??^^ 


POA Linnal Gen. Ph Triandria Digynia; 

Cal. 2-valvis, multiflorus. Spicule ovatae ; valvulis margine fcarioiis, acutiufculis. 

Rai Syn. Gen. 27. Herb^e GRAMiNiFOLiiE flore imperfecto culmifer;e. 
POA pratenfis panicula difFufa, fpiculis fubquinquefloris, cnlmo eredlo lasvi, membrana foliorum obtufo. 
POA pratcnfis panicula difFufa, fpiculis quinquefloris glabris, culmo eredlo tereti, hinncei Syji. Vegeiab.p. yy* 

Fl. Suede. 82. 
POA pratenfis, Scopoli Fl. Carniol. p. 70. n. 100. Diagn* Panicula difFufa fpicuke 2-3 florae. Glumis 

inaequalibus, lanugine nulla. 
POA panicula difFufa locuflis trifloris glabris. Haller hijl. n. 1465. fecundum Scopoli. 
GRAMEN pratenfe paniculatum medium. Rail Syn. 409, The greater or middle fort of Meadow Grafs. 
Bauhin Pin. 2. pratenfe minus. Gerard 2. Parkin/on 11 56, 

RADIX perennis, repens, intra terram finurafque mu- | ROOT perennial and creeping, eafily penetrating into 
rorum facile penetrans. | the earth and crevices of walls. 

CULMI plerumque pedales, erecli, laves, vix mani- | STALKS generally about a foot high, upright, fimooth, 

fefte ftriati. % fcarce perceptibly ftriated. 


FOLIA laevia, faturate viridia, fubinde glauca, mem- | LEAVES fmooth, of a deep green colour, fometimes 

brana brevi obtufa inftrudla, fig. 11. % blueifh, furnifhed with a JJjort blunt mem-> 

I brane, /g. 11. 

PANICULA ereda, difFufa. | PANICLE upright and fpreading. 


SPICULE ovato-acutae, plerumque quinqueflorse, etiam % SPICULE oval-pointed, generally with five flowers, 
biflorae, utrinque compreflae, fig. 1, 2. | fometimes only two, flattened on each fide, 

% fig- 2 - 


CALYX : Glum a bivaMs, valvulis inaequalibus, acu- | Cx^LYX a Glume of two valves, unequal, acumi- 

minatis, concave, fig. 3. % nated and hollow, fig. 3. 


COROLLA : Gluma bivalvis, valvube fubaequales, al- $ COROLLA a Glume of two valves, the valves near- 

tera concava, carina ad lentem vifa fcabriuf- | ly equal; the one concave, with the keel ap- 

cula, altera planiufcula, fig. 4 ; in fundo ca- | pearing fomewhat rough if magnified ; the 

lycis lanugo obfervanda, evulfis fioficulis., fig. 3, 5. % other flattifh, fig. 4 : in the bottom of the 

t calyx a filamentofe or wooly fubftance is ap- 

| parent when the flowers are drawn out of 

STAMINA: Filamenta tria, capillaria, glumis Ion- 2 STAMINA: three Filaments, thread-like, longer 
giora : Antherje utrinque bifurcae-, fig. 6. | than the glumes : Anthers forked at each 

J end, fig. 6. 

PISTILLUM : Germen ovatum : Styli duo, ad bafin | PISTILLUM : Germen oval : Styles two, branched 
ufque ramofi, fig. 7. % down to the bottom, fig. 7. 

NECTARIUM: Glumulje duae ad bafin germinis, | NECTARY : two little Glumes at the bafe of the 
fig. 8, audi. f germen, fig. 8, mgnified. 

r * 

SEMEN angulofum, acuminatum, bafi lanugine inftruc- $ SEED angular and pointed, at bottom wooly, of its 
to, fig. 9. nat. mag. fig. 10, audi. 3r natural fize, fig. 9; magnified, 7^ 10. 

THE Poa pratenfis and Poa trivialis approach very near each other in their general appearance, fo much fo, 
indeed, that the botanift who is intimately acquainted with them, cannot, if he fees them grow together, 
difcriminate them at a little diftance ; and the charadlers from which modern botanifts have drawn their fpe- 
cific differences, have been fo vague and indeterminate, that the ffudent is never able to fatisfy himfelf whether 
he has found the one or the other; yet there are not two grafles which afford more obvious or fatisfadlory 
marks of diftindlion. The difficulty which I have experienced myfelf in the inveftigation of thefe two plants, 
has made me exceedingly attentive to them; and what I relate is the refult of repeated obfervations, joined 
to a careful culture of them, 


Thefe graffes differ chiefly in the following particulars: the praterfis is m every part perfectly fmooth ; while 

in the trivially the ftalk, leaves, fheaths of the leaves, and branches of the panicle, all feel rough if the plant 

be drawn downward betwixt the thumb and finger : exclufive of this difference, which is a very good one for 

a common obferver, in the trivialis the fheath of the leaf is flatter and more deeply fluted : nor do the roots 

of thefe two plants differ lefs; the trivialis being limply fibrous; the pratenfis creeping, and fending out many 

white moots : but what diftinguifhes them mod fully and moft infallibly, is the difference in the membrane 

at die bottom of the leaf, where the {heath begins ; this in the pratenfis is very fhort and blunt ; in the 

trivialis it is long and pointed : and the beauty of this diftinction is, that it is obvious to the moll common 

jobferver; nor did_ I ever know it fail me, let the grafs vary ever fo much in fize and other particulars. 

They differ alfo with refpect to the fize of the fpiculae and the number of flowers contained in each : in the 

trivialis they are either biflorous or triflorous ; in the pratenfis they are moft commonly quinquejlorous. Such 

are the moft obvious diftinctions in the grafles themfelves : other circumftances contribute to render them ftill 

more fo. The pratenfis grows generally on walls; indeed there is not a wall in any of the villages around 

town on which it may not be found in abundance : it very frequently occurs on dry banks, and oftentimes 

in meadows. The trivialis is fcarce ever found on walls, feldom'on dry banks; but moft frequently in moift 

meadows, or the fides of ditches ; fo that the one grafs feems to delight in a dry, the other in a moift fituation. 

They differ fomewhat alfo in the time of their flowering ; the pratenfis flowering about the third week in May, the 

trivialis the firft week in June : and there is this remarkable with refpecl; to the flowering of the pratenfis, that after 

it has flowered in the Spring, it fhews no difpofition to flower during the Summer; while the trivialis is found in 

bloom, though not generally, during the whole of the Summer. Added to this, there is a firmnefs in the ftalk of 

the pratenfis not perceivable in the trivialis. By an attention to thefe remarks, I truft the young botanift will acquire 

a clear idea of them, without having recourfe to the pubefcence, &c. which, though laid fo much ftrefs on by 

Linnaeus and Scopoli, is by no means adequate to the diftinguifhing of them. Indeed' it is difficult to know 

rightly what they mean by fpkulis bafi puheficentibus* as no pubeicen.ce is perceivable in them outwardly; but if one 

attempts to draw the flofcules out of the glumes of the calyx, we perceive a filamentofe appearance, which feems 

to connect the florets and calyx together : but this appearance, which is indeed a very ftriking and lingular one, 

and which I have not yet obferved in any other grafles, takes place nearly in an equal degree in both : this fub- 

ftance adheres to the feed when feparated, and caufes them to hang to one another as if there were cobwebs 

among them; fo that a perfon ignorant of the caufe, from an examination of fuch feed, might conclude it old and 

good for nothing: this appearance is moft ftriking in the trivialis. Ray, whofe defcriptions always accord with 

nature, and are taken from the moft obvious characters of the plant, mentions the roughnefs, (Culmi jionnihil afiperi :) 

but the particular fliape of the membrane has not, that I know of, been noticed till now. 

The Poa pratenfis may be considered as a valuable grafs, and one of thofe which ought to enter into the 
compofition of a good meadow or pafture ; I fay compofition, becaufe I imagine every good meadow fhould be 
compounded of a variety of graffes, each having peculiar and valuable properties. We are not to expect all that 
can be wifhed in a meadow in one grafs ; fome are calculated to produce food, and carry a beautiful verdure even 
in the depth of winter : fome bring forth early fhoots, and make choice food for cattle in the fpring : 
fome produce a large quantity of fweet tender leaves at bottom ; others by the weight and height of their ftalks, 
and of their heads or panicles at top, encreafe the weight of the hay : fome fhoot ftrongly and produce a 
large aftermath : fome give a more agreeable fmell to the hay. So that to have a good meadow, we fhould 
have a variety of graffes ; and if we may argue from analogy, a variety of food may alfo be more grateful to cattle. 

The principal advantages of the Poa pratenfis are, that it is a fweet grafs, and eaten readily by cattle in 
general : it carries its verdure in the winter better than moft others, and throws out young and numerous 
moots in the fpring, fo as to make good fpring food. It produces a good crop of leaves at bottom, which 
make exceeding fine hay, and is fit for cutting early in the fpring. 

There is a glaucous or, blueifh variety of this grafs occurs frequently in meadows : it varies alfo in the num- 
ber of its flofcules, from three to five, or fometimes more: as likewife in its fize : when growing on walls or dry 
banks, it does not reach half the height which it does in fertile meadows. 


POA Lhincei Gen» PL Triandria Digynia. 

Cal. 2-valvis, multiflorus. Spicula ovata : valvulis margine fcariofis acutiufculls. 

Rail Syn. Gen. 27. Herbje graminifolije flore imperfecto culmiferje. 
POA trivialis panicula diffufa, fpiculis fubtrifloris, culmo credo fcabro, membrana foliorum acuminata. 
POA trivialis panicula diffufa, fpiculis trifloris bail pubefcentibus, culmo erecto tereti. Lmmti SyJ. 

Vegetab. p. 97. 
GRAMEN pratenfe paniculatum medium» Bauhin pin. 5. Rati Syn. p. 409. n. 2. 
POA trivialis. Scopoli Fl. Carniol. p. 69. n. 39. Diagn. Lanugo ad bafin petali exterioris. 
P(M panicula diffufa locuftis trifloris villofis. Holler h'fit. n. 1562. fecundum Scopoli. 
GRAMEN pratenfe minus. Parkin/on 11 56. Gerard emac. 2. Hud/on FL Angl. p. 33. 

RADIX fibrofa, capillacea. 


CULMUS ' eredus, pedalis ad bipedalem, ball repens, ¥ 

unde perenne evadit hoe gramen, ftriatus, | 

fcabriufculus, fepe purpureus. | 

Vagina fubcomprefla, ftriata, fcabriufcula : | 

Membrana ad bafin foliorum longa, acuminata, % 

Jig. 1 ; folia ipfa longa, fcabriufcula, fubtus | 

nitida, tenera. | 

I ROOT fibrous and capillary. 


STALK upright, from one to two feet high, creeping 
at bottom, whence this grafs becomes peren- 
nial, ftriated, rough, and often purple. 

LEAVES : the Sheath flattim, ftriated, roughifh ; 
the Membrane at the bafe of the leaf long, 
and pointed, Jig. 1 : the leaves themfelves long, 
fomewhat rough, mining underneath, and ten- 

PANICULA ereda, diffufa. 

$ PANICLE upright and fpreading. 

SPICULE parvae, biflorae, aut trifloras, (fig. 2. 2. magn. | SPICULE fmall, containing two or three flowers, 

nat. fig. 3. 3. lente aud,) nonnunquam etiam % (fig. 2 . 2. of their natural frze, fig. 3. 3. mag- 

quadriflorae, ovato-acuminatas, fubcompreflae. | nified) and fometimes even four" flowers, of an 

¥ oval pointed fhape, and flattifh. 

GLUM./E.calycinae bivalves, valvulis inasqualibus, a- I 

cuminatis, carinatis, carina fcabra, fig. 4. Si t 

giumae corollacese ex calycinis glumis extra- | 

hantur, lanugo (fig. y,) confpiciatur, huic et ^ 
Po<z pratenfi quoufque obfervavi propria. 


GLUMvE corollaceas bivalves, valvulis fubaequalibus, t 

acutis. I 


STAMINA: Filamenta tria capillaria, glumis paulo | 
longiora, fig. 6 : Antherje flavae aut purpu- | 
rafcentes, demum utrinque furcatae, fig. 6. 


PISTILLUM : Germen minimum, ovatum : Styli | 
duo ad bafin fere plumofi, fig. 7. | 


NECTARIUM : Glumule duae tenerse ad bafin ger- ! 

minis, fig. 8. ? 


SEMEN oblongo acuminatum, angulofum, bafi lanu- | 

gine inftrudum, fig. 10. ¥ 

GLUMES of the Calyx compofed of two valves, which 
are unequal, pointed, and have the keel, or 
rib on the back, rough, fig. 4. If the glumes 
of the corolla are drawn out of the glumes of 
the calyx, a wooly fubftance (fig. 9,) is ob- 
fervable, and which, as far as I have hitherto 
noticed, is peculiar to this Grafs and the 
Poa pratenfis. 


GLUMES of the corolla of two valves, the valves nearly 
equal and pointed, fig. 3. 

STAMINA : three capillary Filaments a little longer 
than the glumes, fig. 6 : Anthers yellow 
or purplifh, finally becoming forked at each 
end, fig. 6. 

PISTILLUM : Germen very fmall and oval : Styles 
two, feathered almoft to the bottom, fig. 7. 

NECTARY : two little tender Glumes at the bottom 
of the germen, fig. 8. 

SEED oblong and pointed, angular, and furnifhed with 
a woolly fubftance at bottom, fig. 1 o. 

THE means of diftmgmfhmg this Grafs from the Poa pratenfis, (for which it is the moft liable to be miftaken) 
with many other particulars relative to it, we have already given under the latter : confidered in an agricultural 
light, it is certainly one of our beft grafles, both for hay and pafturage ; indeed a good meadow can fcarcely be 
lormea without it Its chief qualities are, that it produces a large quantity of fweet tender leaves, which are 
preferred by cattle to moft others, and which are convertible into exceeding fine hay. It is an early grafs,* 
flowering about the beginning of June. It does not bear the frofts of the Winter fo well, nor does it moot 
lo early in the Spring as the Poa pratenfis-, but when the weather comes to be fo warm as to make the grafles 
thaxTmoft othe ^^ *' ^ pr ° dllCeS a & reater cro P of bottom leaves > ( the moft defirable- parts of grafles,) 

It grows belt in meadows that are tolerably moift : in dry paftures it is often found, but much fmaller 

Hints relative to the Culture of the Grqffes. 

When the advantages refulting to the community from the introduction of Wheat, Barley, Rye, Clover, tares, 
at. torn, Irejoil ' & c . many of which are natives of our own country, daily occur to us: when neither pains 
nor expence are ipared to improve our arable lands, it feems ftrange that fo little care mould be taken of the 
improvement of our meadows and paftures, which might doubtlefs be made to produce double or treble the crops 
they already do, by the judicious introdudion of proper grafles. 


If we examine our meadows, paftures, and downs, we mail find them pretty much in a ftate of nature, 
excepting thofe paftures which of later years have been fown with Rye Grafs and Clover, full of an indifcri- 
minate mixture of plants, fome of which afford good, others bad food ; fome good crops, others fcarce any 
crops at all. That I may not be thought to fpeak at random on this rnatter, I mail here mention a few 
fads to corroborate what I have aflerted. 

My very worthy and much efteemed friend Thomas White, Efq ; with a view to the afcertaining the 
produce of feveral downs and hilly paftures fed on by fheep, procured from each of the undermentioned different downs 
and commons, in Hampfhire and Suflex, a turf which, though not larger than about fix inches in diameter, 
and chofen as pure as any part of the pafturage, produced, on being planted in a garden, the following plants. 

Turf from Selborn Common. 

Plantago lanceolata. 
Agrojlis capillaris. 
Avena jiavefcens. 
Dadtylls glomeratus* 
Feftuca duriufcula. 
Poa annua. 
Cynofurus crlflatus. 

8 Trlfolium ripens. 

9 Crepis tedtorum. 

10 Achillea Millefolium. 

1 1 Galium verum. 

12 Hypochccris radicata. 

13 Hier actum Pilofella. 

14 'Thymus Serpyllum. 

Narrow-leaved Plantain. 
Fine panicled Agroftis, 
Yellow Oat Grafs. 
Rough Cocksfoot Grafs, 
Hard Fefcue Grafs. 
Common dwarf Poa. 
Crefted Dogs-tail. 
Creeping or Dutch Clover. 
Smooth Succory Hawkweed. 

Yellow Ladies Bedftraw. 
Long-rooted Hawkweed, 
Moufe-ear Chickweed. 
Wild Thyme. 

Turf from Oakh anger. 

Trlfollum repens. 
Holcus lanatus. 
Poa annua. 
Agrojlis capillaris. 
-—■ paluflrls. 

Creeping or Dutch Clover? 
Meadow Soft Grafs. 
Common dwarf Poa. 
Fine panicled Agroftis. 
Marfh Agroftis. 

Turf from Deortun, 

Ranunculus repens. 
Lollum perenne. 
PIolcus lanatus. 
Prunella vulgaris. 
Feftuca duriufcula. 
Agroflls paluflrls. 
Tr folium repens. 

8 Crepis tedlorum. 

9 Achillea Millefolium. 

Creeping Crowfoot. 

Ray Grafs or perennial Darnel. 

Meadow fofc Qrafs. 


Hard Fefcue Grafs. 

Marfh Agroftis. 

Creeping or Dutch Clover. 

Smooth Succory Hawkweed. 


Turf from Glynd Hill. 

1 Medlcago lupullna. 

2 Achilla a Millefolium. 

3 Poa pratenfis. 

Black-feeded Medick, Trefoil 

or Nonfuch. 
Smooth-ftalk'd Meadow Grafs. 

Turf from Glynd Hill. 

4 Avena Jiavefcens. 

5 Fefluca duriufcula. 
6 ovlna. 

7 Hler actum Pilofella. 

8 Agroftis capillaris. 

9 Trlfolium repens. 

1 o Thymus Serpyllum. 

Yellow Oat Grafs. 
Hard Fefcue Grafs. 
Sheeps Fefcue Grafs. 
Moufe-ear Hawkweed 
Fine panicled Agroftis. 
Creeping or Dutch Clover, 
Wild Thyme, 

Turf from Short Heath, 

1 Fefluca brom&ldes. 

2 Alra precox. 

3 Jumus campeftrts. 

4 Poa annua. 

5 Agrojlis capillaris. 

Barren Fefcue Grafs, 
Early Aira. 
Hairy Rufh. 
Common dwarf Poa, 
Fine panicled Agroftis, 

Turf from Mount Cabron. 

j Rumex acetofa. 

2 Daucus carota, 

3 Medicago lupullna. 

4 Poterlum fangulforb 

5 Fefluca duriufcula. 

6 Avena flavefcens. 

Common Sorrel Dock. 

Wild Carrot. 

Black-feeded Medick, Trefoil 

or Nonfuch. 

Hard Fefcue Grafs. 
Yellow Oat Grafs. 

Turf from Rlngmer Down. 

1 Linum cathartlcum, 

2 Scabiofa columbaria. 

3 Ornlthopus perpufihus. 

4 Avena flavefcens. 

5 Feftuca duriufcula. 

6 Trifollum repens. 

7 Hypochfsrls radicata- 

8 Crepis teStorum, 

9 Lotus cornlculata. 

10 Juncus campeftrls. 

1 1 Hleracium pilofella. 

1 2 Feftuca ovlna. 

1 3 c fhy mus Serpyllum. 

14 Poa pratenfis. 

Purging Flax, 
Sheeps Scabious. 
Yellow Oat Grafs. 
Hard Fefcue Grafs. 
Creeping or Dutch Clover. 
Long-rooted Hawkweed. 
Smooth Succory Hawkweed. 
Bird's-foot Trefoil. 
Hairy Rufh. 
Moufe-ear Hawkweed. 
Sheeps Fefcue Grafs. 
Wild Thyme. 
Smooth-ftalk'd Meadow Grafs- 

Thefe experiments prove that our downs and commons, which we in general confider as more free from 
weeds than moft of our paftures, are altogether an aflemblage of different plants ; and our meadows are much the 
fame. It muft be allowed that there is a confiderable difference in them ; one meadow, or tract of land, fhall 
naturally contain a greater number of good grafles than another ; another fhall produce little more than a mixture 
of unprofitable weeds, fuch as Crowfoot, particularly the creeping fort, Docks, Sorrel, Thlftles, Mallows, Tarrow, 
Knapweed, Nettles, Ragwort, &c. moft of which having ftrong perennial or creeping roots, continue in the ground, 
impoverifh it, and overun the few good graffes there are ; fo that the ground is very little worth. If the ground 
be manured, the unprofitable and noxious plants are thereby benefited as well asthegrafs ; for it is the extremity of 
folly to fuppofe that manure fliall produce good plants if the roots or feeds of them were not in the ground before. 
It muft be allowed, however, that if there be in the meadow any ftrong growing grafles, they may from manure 
overtop and deftroy many annual plants, but not thofe above-mentioned, which with many others, will grow with 
their growth and ftrengthen with their flrengtji. 

But it is not this kind of weed alone, which, perhaps, are the moft mifchievous ; thefe being vifible and 
known to the Farmer may be deftroyed ; but at the fame time the ground may be overun with bad grafles, 
which not being fo eafily diftinguifhed by the Farmer, cannot be fo readily deftroyed, Now grafles may be confidered 
as bad on feveral accounts : they may, though good in themfelves, produce fo fmall a crop as to be worth little or 
nothing, as the early and fiver Hair Grafs and Wall Poa : they may, either from their ranknefs, roughnefs, or fome 
other qualities not perceptible to us, be fuch as cattle are not fond of, as Cats-tall Grafs, Rough Cocks-foot and fome 
others : they may die on the ground, and give the meadows a dead and difagreeable appearance in the winter, as 
fome of the fpecies of Agroftis : or they may blow late in the fummer, and be not fit for cutting 'till moft of the 
good grafles are decayed and gone off: and thus a meadow may be fil}ed with noxious plants as effecliually as if they 
were more evidently fo. 

Surely then it muft be worth the perfons while, who would wifh to lay down his land for meadow or pafture, 
or improve what is already bad, to be at fome pains and expence about it, and fow it with as much caution asjie 
would to produce a crop of fine Wheat ; the more fo, indeed, as when his land is once filled with good grafles, 
it remains a good meadow, or good pafture for ever, which will always look pleafing, and if properly manured, and 
the feafon prove not remarkably unfavourable, will each year produce a plentiful crop, 

I have already obferved, in fpeaking of the Poa pratenfis, that a good meadow muft confift of a variety of grafles, 
which ought all to come into bloom nearly at the fame time; and if the grafles be of the right kinds, they will 
begin to blow, and the whole meadow be fit for mowing the laft week in May. The advantages of this early hay- 
making are very confiderable : this part of the year is very often extremely favourable in point of weather to the 
making of hay : it is not poftponed fo as to interfere with the harveft : cattle may be turned the fooner into the fields 
\q graze ; or another crop of hay be produced in good time for the fecond making. 

Alopecurus myosuroides. Field Foxtail Grass. 

ALOPECURUS Litmai Gen. PU Triandria Digynia. 

Cah 2-valvis. Cor, i-valvis; 
Rai Syn. Gen. 27. Herbje graminifolije flore imperfecto culmifErje. 

ALOPECURUS myofuroides fpica cylindrica longiflima, glumis glabris ; culmo fubere&o. Hudfon FL 
Anglp. 23. 

ALOPECURUS dgrefiis culmo fpicato eredlo, glumis laevibus. Lin» Syfi. Vegetab»p 93. Sp. PI. p, 80, 

ALOPECURUS culmo erecto, fpicato, calyce ciliato. Haller hi/l. helv. p. 249. 

GRAMEN Typhoides fpica anguftiore, Bauhin Pin» 4. 

GRAMEN cum cauda muris purpurafcente. I. Bauhin, 2. p. 473. 

GRAMEN fpicatum, fpica cylindracea tenuiffima longiore. Scheuch. Gram. 6g. 

GRAMEN myofuroides majus, fpica longiore, ariftis reclis. RaiiSyn, p. 397, The greater Moufe-tail Grafs. 

GRAMEN alopecuroides fpica longa majus et minus. Parkin/on n 69. 

GRAMEN alopecuroides minus. Gerard emac. 10. LightjootFl. Scot. p. 91. Schreber, Gram. 140./. 19. 

RADIX annua, fibrofa, fufca. | ROOT annual, fibrous, and brown. 



CULMUS pedalis, ereclus, ball faepe infractus, rigidiuf- J STALK a foot high, upright, often crooked at bot- 
culus, teres, geniculatus. | torn, ftiffifh, round, and jointed,; the joints 

$ fmooth and purple. 

FOLIA triuncialia, ad duas lineas lata, lsevia, ftriata, | LEAVES about three inches long and two lines broad, 
bali membrana obtufa inftruda. ' ¥ fmooth, flriated, furnifhed at bottom with 

I an obtufe membrane. 

SPKA longa, tenuis, fubcylindracea, purpurafcens. | SPIKE long, llender, fomewhat cylindrical, and pur- 

| plifh. 

SPICULiE uniflorae, ovato-acutae, in fpicam imbrica- I SPICULiE uniflorous, of a pointed oval fhape, lying 

tim congeftae, externe convexulae, interne $ clofely one over another in a fpike, externally 

planae, Jig. I. t roundifh, internally flat, jig. 1. 


CALYX : Gluma bivalvis, uniflora ; valvulae fubas- % CALYX : a Glume of two valves, containing one 

quales, muticae, nervofae, baji annulo cin&tf, | flower ; the valves nearly equal, not termina- 

fig, 2, 3. I te d by any fhort Arifta, ftrongly rib'd, and 

J fur rounded at bottom by a ring, jig. 2, 3. 

COROLLA univalvis, valvula calyce paulo longiore, % COROLLA of one valve, the valve a little longer 

membranacea, laevi, jig. 4, Arifta redta, e | than the calyx, membranous, and fmooth, 

bah* valvulae exferta, fpicula duplo fere Ion- | jig. 4, furnifhed with a ftraight Arifta, which 

giore inftru&a, jig. 5. % proceeds from the bafe of the valve, and is 

I nearly twice the length of the fpicula, jig. 5. 

STAMINA: Filamenta tria, capillaria, ereaa, val- | STAMINA: three Filaments, very fine, upright, 
vulis calycinis duplo longiora : Anthers f twice the length of the valves of the calyx; 

oblongae, utrinque furcatae, fig. 6. ¥ Anthers oblong, and forked at each end, 


PISTILLUM: Germen minimum, jig. 7: Stylus | PISTILLUM: Germen very fmall, jig. 7: Style 
brevis, bafi tumidus, jig. 8 : Stigmata duo, | fhort, fwelled at bottom, jig. 8 : Stigmata 

fetacea villofa apice reflexa, jig. 9. % two, tapering, villous, bent back at top 5j %. 9. 

SEMEN unicum, minimum, fubrotundum, corollae et | SEED one, very minute, enclofed by the corolla and 
calyce obveftitum, fig. 10. % calyx, fig. 10. 

THE Field Foxtail Grafs, with refpecl: to agriculture, may be confidered rather as a weed than as: an 
ufeful pafture grafs. 

It is very common in cultivated ground ; and often abounds fo much in corn fields, as to be prejudicial, 
among rubbifh, and on banks by the fides of fields, it is alfo frequently found ; but fcarce ever in meadows. ^ 

It flowers early, and continues to bloflbm till Autumn ; and comes into bloom the quickeft, after being 
fown, of any grafs that I have hitherto noticed. 

It is diftinguifhed from the other fpecies of the fame genus, by its long llender fpike, which tapers to 
a point, and has fome refemblance to a moufes tail, whence J. Bauhine's and Mr. Hudson's names. This 
fpike is generally of a purplifh colour, at leaft on that fide which is moft expofed to the fun; though 
fometimes the whole fpike appears of a whitifh colour. The form of the fpike, and its place of growth, will, in 
general, point out this fpecies plainly enough. But if thefe mould be found deficient, the iludent may have 
recourfe to the annulus or ring, which furrounds the bafe of each fpicula, vid. fig. 3. 

I have found this fpecies efFeded with the difeafe called Ergot, defcribed under the Flote Fefcue Grafs. 

~6M ' /???^7iJ^^r)-Uft:d 

Bromus hirsutus. Hairy - Stalk'd Brome- Grass. 

BROMUS Linnai Gen. PL Triandria Digynia. 

Cal. 2-valvis. Spicula oblonga, teres, difticha ; arifla infra apicem. 

Rati Syn. Gen, 2*j. Graminifoli^e flore imperfecto culmifer^e. 
BROMUS hirfufus panicula nutante fcabra, fpiculis teretibus fublinearibus decemfloris, ariftis recYis, 

vaginis foliorum hirfutis. 
BROMUS ramofus panicula nutante fcabra, fpiculis linearibus decemfloris, arifta longioribus, foliis 

fcabris. Hud/on Fl. Angl. p. 40. 
BROMUS foliis hirfutis, per oras afperrimis, locuftis glabris, teretibus, novemfloris. Holler hift, n. 1503. 
BROMUS giganteus. Scopoli Flor. Cam. var. 2. villofa et major. 
GRAMEN Avenaceum dumetorum panicula fparfa. Rail Syn. p. 415. Hift. Plant, p. 1289. Bum 

or Wood Oat-Grafs, with a fparfed panicle. 
GRAMEN Avenaceum dumetorum paniculatum majus hirfutum. H. Ox. 3. 213. 27. 

RADIX perennis, plurimis fibris, flexuofis, flavefcen- | ROOT perennial, furnifhed with numerous, crooked, 

tibus inftructa. I yellowifh fibres. 

CULMUS tripedalis, ad orgyalem aut etiam fupra, ? STALK from three to fix feet high, or more, upright, 

ere&us, tribus plerumque nodis articulatus, | confiding generally of three joints, ' folid and 

folidus, ftriatus. ^ finely grooved. 

FOLIA: Fagina ftnatz, pills longis, crebris, rigidiufculis, | LEAVES: the /heath flriated, covered with numerous long 

deorfum verjis hirfuta: Folia ipfa pedalia, fe- | hairs, which are fomewhat rigid, and bend back- 

muncialia, deflexa, ftriata, rarioribus et brevi- % wards : the Leaves themfelves a foot long, and 

oribus pilis iifque ad margines et mediam | half an inch broad, befet with fewer and fhor- 

coftam praecipue donata. $ ter hairs, and thofe chiefly at the edges and 

t midrib. 

PANICULA pedalis, fparfa, rami binati aut ternati, | PANICLE a foot long, fpreading, the branches grow- 

patentes, nutantes, fcabri, faspe flexuofi. % ing two or three together, hanging down, 

I rough, and often crooked. 

SPICULE plerumque binge, fefquiunciales, tenues, te- f SPICULiE generally growing two together, an inch 

retiufculas, re&ae, vix hirfutae, decemfloras, ad t and a half long, {lender, roundifh, ftraight, 

bafin annulo diaphano notztse, fig. 3 : Aristje | fcarcely hirfute, containing ten flowers, and 

breves, fcabrae, redtiufculae, Jig. 1 . t marked at the bafe with a pellucid ring, Jig. 3. 

I The Arista fhort, rough, and nearly ftraight, 

f fig* i- 

CALYX : Gluma bivalvis, Jig. 2 ; valvulis insequali- | CALYX : a Glume of two valves, Jig. 2 ; the valves 

bus, majore concava, interne nitida, trinerve, | -unequal; the larger one concave, and mining 

mucronata, nervis fcabris, minore unicarinata % within, having three ribs, and terminating 

acuminata. • | in a fhort point, the ribs rough ; the fmaller 

$ one having only one rib, and a more tapering 

f point. 

COROLLA: Gluma bivalvis, valvulis insequalibns, | COROLLA: a Glume of two valves, the valves une- 

exteriore trinerve, nervis exftantibus, nervo $ qual, the exterior one having three prominent 

medio in Ariftam rectiufculam Corolla brevio- | ribs, the middle one of which terminates in a 

rem definente, interiore planiufcula, ciliata, y ftraightifh Arifta, fhorter than the Corolla ; 

breviore, Jig. 4, 5, 6. | the inner one flattifh, edged with hairs, and 

I fhorter than the other, Jig. 4, 5, 6. 

NECTARIUM Glumulje duae ad bafin Germinis, t NECTARY; two little Glumes at the bafe of the 

fig. 8. I Germen, Jig. 8. 

STAMINA : FiLAMENTAtria, capillaria : xAnther^i % STAMINA: three Filaments, very fine: Anthers 

bifurcge, flavze, fig. 7. | ' forked and yellow, fig. 7. 

PISTILLUM : Germen fubovatum, bafi nudum, a- | PISTILLUM : Germen fomewhat oval, naked at bot- 

pice villofum : Styli duo, ufque ad bafin % torn, at top villous: Styles two, branched 

ramofi, fig. 10. I quite to the bottom, fig. 10, 

SEMEN planiufculum, ariftatum, glumis adhasrenti- $ SEED flattifh, terminated by an Arifta, the Glumes 

bus, fig. 11, 12, 13. * adhering to it, fig., 11, 12, 13. 

THAT the plant here figured, is not the Bromus ramofus of Linnjeus, I have learned from Dr. Sol ander 
and Mr. Banks, whofe authority in this matter will not be controverted. 

I have therefore called it hirfutus, from a wifh that a trivial name might be given it, which fhould not 
only characterize the plant, but at the fame time, diftinguiih it from a Grafs which is undoubtedly often 
miftaken for it, as it frequently grows with it, is nearly of the fame height, and flowers about the fame 
time: I mean the Bromus giganteus of Linnjeus, figured by Schreber, the leaves and ftalks of which are 
perfectly fmooth. 

The Bromus hirfutus is the talleft of our Englifti. graffes, often exceeding fix feet in height, which renders, 
it a very confpicuous grafs. The Fefiuca elatior, and Bromus giganteus, will however often grow nearly as 
high in particular fituations. 

It occurs in moft of our hedges in the environs of London, particularly about Hampfiead', abundantly alfo 
in Kent ; and flowers in June and July. 

Exclufive of its height before mentioned, it is difiinguifhed from all our other grafles by the hairinefs of its 
ftalk, or rather the fheaths of the leaves which cover it ; and this, fo far as 1 have hitherto obferved, is 
an infallible criterion. 

It appears to be too coarfe a grafs to be cultivated for cattle ; and we do not learn that it has been ap- 
plied to any other purpofes. 



GALIUM Linnaeu Gen. PL Tetrandria Monogynia. 

Cor. i-petala, plana. Sem. 2, fubrotunda. 
Ran Gen. 12. Herb^: stellatje. 

GALIUM Aparine foliis octonis lanceolatis, carinis fcabris retrorfum aculeatis, genicuiis villofis, fru&ibus 
hifpidis. Linntei Syfi. Vegetal, p. 127. Sp. PL 157. Flor. Suede, p. 45. 

GALIUM caule ferrato, foliis fenis, linearibus, lanceolatis, ferratis, petiolis unifloris. Haller h'fi, folv. 
n. 723. 

GALIUM Aparlne. Scopoli Fl. Carniol. n. 157. 

APARINE vulgaris. Bauhln Pin. 334. 

APARINE Gerard emac. 11 22. Parkin/on $6j. Pail Syn. p. 225, Cleavers or Goofe-Grafs. Hudfon 
FL Angl. p. 57. Oeder Flor. ~Dan. icon. 495. Lightfioot Flor. Scot. p. 117. 

RADIX annua, flbrofa. | ROOT annual, fibrous. •*. 

CAULIS tetragonus, angulis retrorfum aculeatis, de- | STALK quadrangular, the angles furnifhed with aculei 
bilis, fragilis, geniculatus, bafi articulorum % or prickles, which bend backward, weak, 

villofus, ramofifumus, ad quatuor et ultra pe- | brittle, and jointed ; the bottom of the joints 

des altus, proxima quseque fcandens, adhae- % villous, very much branched, growing to four 

refcenfque. | feet or more high, climbing and adhering to 

I every plant near it. 

RAMI oppofiti. t BRANCHES oppofite. 

FOLIA fena ad o£tona, lanceolato~linearia,.mucronata, | LEAVES growing fix or eight together, ofafhapebe- 
fuperne fcabra, inferne glabra margine et ca- $ twixt lanceolate and linear, terminating in -a 

rina retrorfum aculeatis. | point, rough on the upper fide, on the under 

^ fide fmooth, the edge and midrib, or keel 

f rough, with fharp prickles bending back- 

I wards. 

FLORES pauci, parvi, albidi, petiolis fcabris infiden- | FLOWERS few, fmall, and whitifh, fitting on rough 

tes. I foot-ftalks. 

CALYX nullus. | CALYX wanting. 

COROLLA minima, monopetala, rotata, albida, qua- ¥ COROLLA very minute, monopetalous, wheel-fha- 
dripartita, laciniis ovato-acutis, fg. 1. | ped, of a whitifh colour, divided into four 

$ oval pointed fegments, Jig. 1. 

STAMINA: Filamenta quatuor, brevia, alba : | STAMINA: four fhort white Filaments : Anthe- 

ANTHERiE luteee, fig. 2. | rje yellow, fig. 2. 

PISTILLUM: Germen didymum, inferum, villo- ? PISTILLUM: Germen double, below the Corolla, 
fum : Styli duo Corolla breviores : Stig- | villous: Styles two, fhorter than the Corol- 

mata globofa, fig. 4, 5, 6. ^ la: Stigmata globular, fig. 4, 5, 6. 

PERICARPIUM: Baccte duae, ficcae, globofae, coa- | SEED-VESSEL: two dry globular Berries, flightly 
litse, hifpidae, aculeis recurvis, fig. 7. | joined together, rough with prickles bending 

I back at the point, fig. 7. 

SEMINA folitaria, reniformia, magna. * SEEDS fingle, fomewhat kidney fhaped, and large. 

THIS plant has mofl probably obtained its name of Cleavers, from its cleaving or adhering to whatever it comes 
in contact with, which it is in a peculiar manner enabled to do, by its hooked prickles ; and that of Goofie-Grafis 
from its being a favourite food of Geefe. 

It abounds in all cultivated ground, and by its quick growth, is apt to overpower many plants both in the 
garden and field. Young quickfet hedges, in a particular manner, mould be carefully freed from it. It is an 
early blowing plant, and produces its feed from June to September. 

Dioscorides obferves, that the fhepherds made ufe of it as a ftrainer to filter their milk through. 

If the accounts given of it, by writers on the Materia Medica, are to be depended on, it is not without 
confiderable medicinal powers. 

The exprefl'ed juice of the feeds, ftalks, and leaves, are powerful againft the bites of vipers and fpiders ; and 
-the fame dropt into the ears, cures the pain of them ; Raii hifi, p. 484. 

The herb mixed with lard, diffolves fcrophulous fwellings; idem. 

The tops are an ingredient in fpring broth, for purifying the blood ; Rutty Mater. Med. 

The feeds have been made ufe of by fome inftead of coffee ; idem. 

A ltrong decoction of the herb, taken to the quantity of twelve ounces, morning and evening, has brought 
away gravel in many cafes ; idem. 

The root eaten by birds, has tinged their bones of a red colour, as in experiments made with madder ; idem. 

A decoction of the plant has proved highly ferviceable in a fimple gonorrhea; D. Palmer apud Dale. 

Of late this plant has been much celebrated in fcrophulous and cancerous fores : but experiments carefully made 
with it, in St. Thomas's Hofpital, have not turned out in its favour. 

It is eaten by horfes, kine, fheep, and goats, but refufed by fwine ; Linn. Amacn. Acad. 

The Catyx in this fpecies, is certainly wanting. 

Plant ago lancbolata. Narrow-leaved Plantain 







Linnm Gen. PL Tetrandria Monogynxa, 

Cal. 4-fidus. Cor. 4-fida: limbo reflexo. Stamina longiffima. Caps. 
2-locularis, circumfchTa. 

Rail Syn. Gen. 22. Herbje vasculifer^, flore tetrapetalo anomalje. 
lanceolata foliis lanceolatis, fpica fubovata nuda, fcapo angulato. Linn. Syjf. Vegetab. p. 131. 
foliis lanceolatis quinquenerviis, fcapo nudo, fpica ovata. Haller hijl. n. 656. 
lanceolata. Scopoli FI. Carniol. p. 108. n. 163. 

anguftifolia major. Baiihin Pin. 189. . 

qumquenervia. (jerard emac. 422. 

quinquenervia major. Parkin/on 495. Raii Syn. p. 314, Ribwort or Ribwort-Plantain» 

Hud/on Fl. Angl. p. $2. Oeder Fl. Dan. icon. 437. 

RADIX perennis, fufca, fibris multis inflrucla, per | 

astatem prasmorfa. | 


FOLIA longe petiolata, bafi purpurea, lanuginofa, Ian- | 

ceolata, quoad latitudinem infigniter variantia, % 

quinquenervia, rariter dentata, hirfutula, e- | 

recta, nonnunquam vero patentia. | 

SCAPUS foliis longior, fimplex, fulcato-angulofus,. 
fubtortuofus, ere&us. 

SPICiE ovato-oblongae, nigricantes. 

BRACTiEA fmguloflofculoimpofita, ovato-acuminata, 
concava, fig. 1 . 

CALYX: PERiANTHiUMtriphyllum, foliolis inasquali- 
bus, duo lateralia cymbiformia, acuta, fig. 3, 
dorfale ovatum, obtufum, emarginatum, lineis 
duabus viridibus notatum, fig. 2. 

COROLLA monopetala, tubulofa, membranacea, cy- 
lindraceo-globofa, limbus quadripartitus, la- 
ciniis ovato-acutis, patentibus, dempto calyce 
reflexis, fig. 4. 

STAMINA: Filamenta quatuor longiffima: An- 
thers albidae aut flavefcentes, fig. 5. 

PISTILLUM : Germen ovatum : Stylus filiformis, 
ftaminibus dimidio brevior : Stigma fimplex, 

PERICARPIUM : Capsula ovata, biloculans, cir- 
cumfcifia r diffepimento libero, fig. 7, 8. 

SEMINA duo, oblonga, nitida, fuccinei coloris, hinc 
convexa inde concava, fig. 9, 10, 11. 

ROOT perennial, of a brown colour, furnifhed with 
numerous fibres, when grown old appearing 
as if bitten off. 

LEAVES ftanding on long foot-ftalks, purple and 
woolly at bottom, lanceolate, varying remarka- 
bly in their breadth, having five ribs, and a 
few teeth at the edges, fomewhat hairy, up- 
right, but fometimes fpreading. 

FLOWERING-STALK longer than the leaves, fim- 
ple, angular and grooved, {lightly twifted and 

SPIKES of an oval oblong fhape and blackifh colour. 

BRACTE^E or floral leaf, placed under each flofcule, 
oval-pointed, and concave, fig. 1 . 

CALYX : a Perianthium of three unequal leaves, 
the two fide ones boat-fhaped, and pointed, 
fig. 3; the back leaf oval, obtufe, emarginate, 
fig. 2, and marked with two green lines. 

COROLLA monopetalous, tubular, membranous, of 

a form betwixt globular and cylindrical ; the 

limb quadripartite ; the fegments of an oval 

, pointed fhape, and fpreading, on the removal 

of the calyx turning back, fig. 4. 

STAMINA : four very long Filaments : Anthers 
white or yellowim, fig. 5. 

PISTILLUM : Germen oval : Style filiform, half 
the length of the ftamina: Stigma fimple, 

fig- 6- 
SEED - VESSEL : an oval Capsule of two cavities, 

dividing horizontally in the middle, the difie- 

pimentum or partition loofe, fig. 7, 8. 
SEEDS two, oblong, fhining, of an amber colour, 

convex on one fide and concave on the other, 

fig. 9, 10, 11. 

THE Farmers in general confider this fpecies of Plantain as a favourite food of fheep, and other cattle, hence 
it is frequently recommended in the laying down of meadow and pafture land ; and the feed is for that purpofe 
kept in the lhops. How far the predilection of cattle for this herb is founded in truth we cannot at prefent 
determine ; nor do we pretend to fay how far it is ceconomical (fuppofing the fa£l to be fo) to iubftitute this 
plant in the room of others which produce a much greater crop, and which they fhew no averfion to. We mould 
be rather inclined to think, that Plantain (or Rib-Grafis as it is called) mould be but fparingly made ufe of, 
particularly if the Farmers chief aim be a crop» 

When the Plantain grows among paiturage, its leaves are drawn up to a confiderable height : but when 
it occurs in a dry and barren foil, they are fhorter, broader, and more fpread on the ground; and fometimes 
they ailiime a filvery hue. 

It grows fpontaneoufly by the fides of roads, and in dry paftures ; flowering early in the fummer, 

Plantago major. common Plantain. 

PLANTAGO Linnai. Gen. PL Tetrandria Monogynia. 

Rati Syn. Gen. 22. Herb^: vasculifer^i flore tetrapetalo anomalje. 

PLANTAGO major foliis ovatis glabris, fcapo tereti, fpica flofculis imbricatis. Lin. Syjl. Vegetab. p. 131. 
Spec. Plant, p. 163. FI. Suecic. n. 129. 

PLANTAGO foliis petiolatis, ovatis, glabris ; fpica cylindrical Haller. hi/I. Heh* n. 660. 

PLANTAGO major. Scopoli. FI. Carniol. n. 161. 

PLANTAGO latifolia finuata. Bauhin pin. 189, 

PLANTAGO latifolia Ger. emac. 419. 

PLANTAGO latifolia vulgaris. Parkin/on. 493. Rati Syn. 314. Great Plantain or Waybread. Hud- 
fin FI. Angl. p. 51. ' Oeder. FI. Dan. ic. 461. Lightfioot* FI. Scot. p. 117. 

RADIX vetufta pollicaris, praemorfa, plurimis fibris t ROOT when old the thicknefs of ones thumb, ftump- 

. albidis alte demiflis, terram firmiter apprehen- | ed, laying ftrong hold of the earth by its fibres, 

dens. % which ftrike deeply into it and are of a whitifli 

I colour. 

FOLIA petiolata przemorfa, ovata, feptemnervia, glabra, | LEAVES ftanding on footftalks, oval, having feven 
juniora vero hirfutula, palmaria, margine mi- ? ribs, fmooth, but lomewhat hairy when young, 

nutim remoteque dentata. | about four fingers in length, the edge minutely 

% and remotely indented. 

PETIOLI longi, fubtus convexi, fupra concavi, bafi | FOOT-STALKS of the leaves long, convex on the 
fubvaginati. f under fide, concave above, each forming a kind 

¥ of fheath at its bafe. 

SCAPI teretes, ere£ti, pubefcentes, foliis longiores. | FLOWER-STALKS, round, upright, pubefcent, and 

I longer than the leaves. 

SPICiE cylindrical, longae, floribus undique imbricate. | SPIKES cylindrical, long, furrounded on every fide 

I with flowers lying one over another. 

BRACTEA lanceolata, concava, fub fmgulo flofculo. t BRACTEA lanceolate, and hollow, under each flower. 

fisr. 1. I fig' l ' •'■,., 

CALYX: Perianthium tetraphyllum, foliolis ovatis, % CALYX: a Perianthium of four leaves, which are 

concavis, obtufis, lsevibus, fubaequalibus, per- | oval, concave, obtufe, fmooth, nearly equal 

Attentions, fig. 2. I and continuing, fig. 2. . 

COROLLA monopetala, perfiftens, marcefcens ; Tubus | COROLLA monopetalous, continuing, of a withered 

cylindrico-globofus, brevis, laciniis ovato-acu- I appearance ; Tube of a cylindrical globular 

tis reflexis. fig. 0.. f . form, and fhort ; the Segments oval, pointed, 

t and turned back. fig. 3. 

STAMINA: Filamenta quatuor, capillaria, patentia, | STAMINA: Filaments four, very fmall, fpreading, 

corolla multo longiora ; Anthers purpureas, ? much longer than the corolla ; Anthers pur- 

biloculares, fmgulo loculo bafi mucrone termi- | pie, bilocular, each cell terminating at bottom 

nato fip 4. ^ in a point, fig. 4. 

PISTILLUM '• Germen ovatum; Stylus filiformis, | PISTILLUM: Germen oval; Style filiform, fhorter 

' ftaminibus brevior, villofus ; Stigma fimplex. | than the Stamina, villous ; Stigma limple. 

PER t CARPIUm' Capsula ovata, circumfciffa, fufca, | SEED-VESSEL: an oval Capsule, dividing horizon- 
continens Semina circiter 20 imequalia, fufca. | tally in the middle, and containing about 20 

fio- *\ 8. Q. 10. i unequal brown Seeds, fig. 7. 8. 9. 10. 

This fpecies of Plantain grows plentifully in Meadows, Gardens, and by the fides of Paths, and feems to nourifh 
molt in places moderately trodden on, whence perhaps its name of Way-bread. 

In rich ground the leaves often grow to an enormous fize ; and in gardens we often find cultivated a very fmgu- 
lar and monftrous variety of this plant, the Plantago rofia of fome botamfts, or Rofe Plantain of the Gardeners, in 
which the flowers appear to be converted into leaves, which fpread open iomewhat like a role. 

Cattle in general appear very readily to eat the leaves, and the feeds are well known to afford food to many 
of the fmall birds. 

It ufed to be held in confiderable efteem as a Medicine of the vulnerary kind : In the prefer* pra&ce the dril- 
led water is fometimes made ufe of, and chiefly in ulcerations of the Mouth and Throat. By the common peo- 
ple the leaves are often applied to frefh wounds, and burns. 

It differs remarkably in the number of its feeds from the Plantago lanceolata, in which we conftantly find two 
large feeds ; but in this I have moft commonly found about twenty fmall ones; yet what is very extraordinary, 
Ray and Scopoli mention its having only two. 

tawta&c- 77? a/c7' 


■42/z/ er^r/rr 

„„„ ,^„/, 

Sagina erecta Upright Pearlwort. 

SAGINA Linnai Gen. PL Tetrandria TetragyniA. 

Cal. 4-phyllus. Peiala 4. Caps. 1 locularis, 4 valvis, polyfperma. 

Raii$yn. Gen. 24. Herb^: pentapetal^ vasculiferje. 

SAGINA ereSta caule ereclo fubunifloro. Linn. Syfi. Vegetab. p. 142. Sp. PL p. i8c 4 

ALSTNELLA foliis caryophylleis. Cat. Gifis. 47. 

SAGINA fcapis unifloris. Guett. Stamp, p. 276. Dalib. Paris, p. 5 6. 

ALSINE verna glabra. Magn. Monfp. 14. Vaill. Paris. 6. t. ^ fig, 2 . R a ii Sym fig, 4. /. 15. p. 3Ui 
the leaft Stich-wort. 

Hudfon. FL Angl. ed. 2. p. 73. 
Lightfoot. F/. Scot. p. 125. 

RADIX annua, fimplex, fibrofa. | ROOT annual, Ample, and fibrous. 


CAULES plerumqueplures,/upraterrame X panfi, af- f STALKS for the moft part feveral, expanded on the 

C r2eT S ' 1 ^' tnU ™f S ? ter * es l P k Ur f l T I e ^th, and afterwards rifing upright, from two 

rafcentes, Ws, geniculate, uniflon, biflon | to three inches high, round, purplifh, fmooth, 

aut etiam tnflon. | jointed) fupportin | from on / to ^ flowerg ; 

FOLIA glauca inferiora linearia, feffilia, rigida, linea f LEAVES glaucous ; the lower ones linear, feffile, ri- 

reZv^, ma iV eXarata ' ? ""^*' fepe I gld ' S r ° 0Ved; th ^eonthe ftalk uniting at 

recuivata, latiora, magifque acuminata. their bafe, often bent back, broader, and more 

^ „ ■ t pointed. 

CALYX: Peri anthium tptraphyllum, perfiftens, fo- J CALYX: a Perianthium of four leaves, permanent, 

holla ovato acuminata, eredis, p erumque f the leaves oval and pointed, upright, P-eneral- 

claufis margme membranaceis albidis, W | iy dofed, membranous' and whitiih on the 

bus, ghucis, fig. 1. I edges? fmooth and laucouSt 

COROLLA: Petala quatuor calyce breviora alba, | COROLLA: four Petals (hotter than the calyx, 
oblonga, obtufa, fubftnata, a pl ce mdmfa, f white , obIong> obtufc> &mewha t ^J^ 

jig. 2, auct. I and un( ) lv ided at top, fig. 2. magnified. 

STAMINA: Filamenta quatuor, intra petala loca- I STAMINA: fonr F.laments plaeed between the pe- 
ta petahs paulo brev.ora fetacea : Anther* J ta l s> and , l Me fhorter than the petals, feta- 

fubrotund*. didymae, flavefcentes, fig. 3, 4. f ce0 us: Anther* roimdifh, double, ofayel- 

I lowifh colour, fig. 3, 4. 

PISTILLUM: GERMENovatum: Stylus breviffimus, f PISTILLUM : Germen oval: Style very mort the 
lorigitudme ftaminum : Stigmata quatuor, | length of the ftamina : Stigmata four,' vil- 

villofa, reflexa,/^. 5, 6. | lous? and turning back, j%. 5, 6. 

PERICARPIUM: Capsula oblongoovata, membra- J PERICARPIUM : an oblong, oval, membranous Cap- 
nacea,unilocularis,univalvis calyce paulo Ion- | sule, of one cavity and one valve, a little 

«or, ore plerumque decemdentato, fig. 7, 9 , | i onger than the cal the mouth ' . 

fig ' 8 ' aud - I nerally with ten teeth, fig. 7, 9 . fig.S, AL. 

SEMINA plurima, e fufco aurantiaca ; fubreniformia, | SEEDS numerous, of an orange brown colour fome- 
Icabra, fig. 10, 11. J what kidney-maped, and rough on the furface, 

¥ fig. 10, 11. 

t IN treating of this little plant, we have been rather at at lofs whether to confider it as a new genus, or arrange 
it with the Sagina of Linnaeus : for though it agrees with the Sagina in feme of its moft ftrikin| characters, mcli 
as having a Calyx and Corolla each confuting of four leaves, together with four Stamina and Piftiila, yet in its feed- 
venels which probably Linn^us might not have feen in a perfect, ftate, it greatly refembles a Cerajiium ; while 
the whole plant, in its habit and glaucous appearance, approaches nearly to the Stellaria Holoflea. As there are 
but few genera however, whofe fpecies do not vary confiderably in the parts of frudification, we have thought it 
molt eligible to continue it a Sagina ; efpecially as it retains thole characters, which obvioufly diftinP-iuih it from 
any of the Decandrous plants. ' & 

We meet with it abundantly on moft of the Heaths about London, particularlv on Black-heath. It flowers in 
April, and ripens its feed in May. The calyx never opens far, fo that the blonoms are not iufrered fullv to 
expand. J 

If the feafon prove dry, as hath been moft unufually the cafe this year, 1 779, the ftalk is generally fimple • but 
if the ground be moift, it throws out many ftalks, which firft fpread on the earth, and afterwards become uprioht 
as is reprefented in the middle figure, r x W xl > 

Convolvulus arvensis. Field Convolvulus. 

CONVOLVULUS Linnai Gen. PL Pentandria- Monogynia. 

Cor. campanulata, plicata. Stigm. 2. Caps. 2-locularis : loculis 

Raii Syn.Gen. 18. Herb^ frucTu sicco singulari flore monopetalo. 

CONVOLVULUS arvenfis foliisTagittatis utrinque acutis, pedunculis fubunifloris. Lin. Syft. Veget.p. 168. 

Sp, PL p. 218. F/or. Suecic. p. 64. 
CONVOLVULUS foliis fagittatis, latefcentibus, petiolis unifloris, ftipulis remotis fagittatis. Haller. 

hi/}* heh. n. 664. 

CONVOLVULUS arvenfis. Scopoli PI Cam. n. 219. 

CONVOLVULUS minor arvenfis. Bauhin. pin. 294. 

CONVOLVULUS minor vulgaris. Parkin/on. 171. 

SMILAX lasvis minor. Gerard emac» 861. 

Rail Syn. p. 275, Small Bindweed. 
Hudfon PL Angl. ed. 1. p. 74. ed. 2. p. 88. 
Lightfoot PI. Scot. p. 140. 
' Oeder Fl. Dan. icon. 459. 

RADIX perennis, craffitudinis pennas coracis, teres, | ROOT perennial, the thicknefs of a crow quill, round, 
albida, iadefcens, repens, vix extirpanda. | white, milky, creeping fo as fcarce to be 

I eradicated. 

Ci\ULES plurimi, tenues, tortuofi, procumbentes, | STALKS numerous, flender, twilled, procumbent, 
ramofi, plantas vicinas contorquendo adfcen- | branched, twining round, and often fuffocating 

dentes et faepe fuffocantes. | the plants growing near them. 

FOLIA alterna, haftata, bevia, poftice acute hamata. | LEAVES alternate, haftate, fmooth, running out into 

I two points behind. 

PETIOLI foliis breviores, : inferne convexi, fuperne | LEAF-STALKS fhorter than the leaves, on the lower 
canaliculati. I P art conve x, on the upper part channeled. 

PEDUNCULI uniflori, biflori aut triflori. | FLOWER-STALKS fupporting one, two, or three 

I flowers. 

CALYX: Perianthium quinquepartitum, mini- ? CALYX: a Perianthium deeply divided into five 
mum, perfiftens, foliolis ovatis, obtufiufcu- | fegments, minute and permanent, the leaves 

lis fig. i. I ova ^- anc ^ fomewhat blunt, fig. 1. 

COROLLA' monopetala, campanulata, patens, plica- % COROLLA monopetalous, bell-fhaped, fpreading, 
ta, albo et rubro eleganter pi&a, interdum | plaited, elegantly painted with red and white, 

penitus alba, fig. 2. % fometimes wholly white. 

STAMINA: Filament a quinque fubulata, alba, | STAMINA: five Filaments, tapering, white, about 
Corolla dimidio breviora: Anthers fubfa- | half the length of the Corolla ; Anthers 

gittatge, albse,J%-. 3. % fomewhat arrow-fhaped, and white, fig. 3. 

PISTILLUM : Germen fubrotundum, glandula cine- | PISTILLUM : Germen roundifh, furrounded by a 
turn: Stylus filiformis, Staminibus paulo | gland; Style filiform, a little longer than 

longior : Stigmata duo, oblonga, latiufcu- % the Stamina ; Stigmata two, oblong, and 

hi, fig. 4, 5, 6. I broadim./^. 4. 5. 6. _ 

PERICARPIUM: Capsula fubrotunda, mucronata. % SEED-VESSEL: a roundifh, pointed Capsule. 

SEMINA angulofa, fufca. * SEEDS angular, and brown. 

BEAUTIFUL as this plant appears to the eye, experience proves it to have a moil: pernicious tendency in 
agriculture: the field of the flovenly farmer bears evident teftimony of this; nor is the garden wholly exempt 
from its inroads. m .. . . 

The following experiment may ferve to mow what precaution is necefTary in the mtrodudtion of plants into a 
garden, efpecially when we want them to grow in fome particular fituation. 

Tempted by the lively appearance which I had often obferved fome banks to affume, from being covered with 
the bloflbms of this Convolvulus, I planted twelve feet of a bank, in my garden, which was about four feet in 
height with fome roots of it : it was early in the fpring, and the feafon was remarkably dry, fo that I fcarce ex- 
pected 'to fee them grow ; but a wet feafon coming on, loon convinced me that my apprehenfions were unnecenary, 
for they quicklv covered the whole furface of the bank, to the almoft total extirpation of every other plant. It 
being; a generally received opinion, that if a plant was cut down clofe to the ground, it would thereby be de- 
itroyed, or at leaft very much weakened, I was determined to try the validity of this opinion by an experiment, 
and accordingly, the whole of the Convolvulus was cut down fomewhat below the furface of the earth : m about a 
month, the bank was covered with it thicker than before. I then had recourfe to a fecond cutting, and afterwards 
to a third, but all thefe were infufficient ; for now at this prefent writing (Auguft) the bank is wholly covered 
with it; nor do I expea to deftroy it, but by levelling the bank and deitroymg its roots. _ 

This experiment feems to determine a matter of no fmall confequence in agriculture, viz. that the cutting down 
thefe plants which have creeping roots, rather tends to make them fpread farther than deftroy them; and that 
nothing fhort of actual eradication, will effect the latter. 

It is feldom that this plant is highly prejudicial to meadows, or paftures ; but many fields of corn are every year 
deftroyed by it, or rendered of little value. . . 

It flowers in June and July. The bloflbms vary confiderably in their colour, being fometimes quite white, 
but mod commonly painted more or lefs, with a lively red. ; 

LiNNiELs's character of this plant, pedunculis unifloris, does not always hold good; the flower.ftalks being 
freauently branched, and fupporting two or three flowers. ^ 

The leaves fometimes appear quite narrow, and the bloflbms have been obferved to be divided almoft to the bafe, 
vid. Ray's Synopfis, ed. 3, p. 276. 

wfammM/ ^ss/jY/my 


SOLANUM Limxi Gen. PI. Pentandria monocynia 

Soclris!' **"* fUbCMlitiE ' 3piCe POr ° S em! "° dehifceates. W 

SOLANUM nigrum/i^J F//cJw. ££& «>"** 7'- Haller. h,Ji. v . ,. f. H9 . n . 5?6 . 

SOLANUM officinarum. Boutin pin. p. 166 
SOLANUM vulgare. Parkinfon. 346 
SOLANUM hortenfe, Ger. emac. 339 . 
, ^ 7 " $*■ 2 5+- HudfinM. angl. /. 78. (W«-. £>«». 4 6o. 

Tota planta contufa tetrum odorem fpirat. * The ™h„l» 1 * l , ., , , ~ 

RADIX annua, ramofa, albida. P ! too 7° le P la f ^ he " b ™ fe d Smells very difagreeably. 

CAULIS pedalis ant bipedalis, ramofiffimus, fubamru I STAT K f ' br / nchcd > and whiti *- 

lolbs ex folds decurrentibus, fc br ufcufus I hZrT/T "T" fet , hi S h ' ™7 «* 

folidus, ad geniculos paulnlnm incrafl" u ' ! br h^> fomewhat angular from the leaves 

I or rather a purphih green colour, particularly 

RAMI alterni, cauli (mules. I BRANrHPS^T " «fNi™*»- 

FOLIA alterna, longe petiolata, iubdecurrentia, ovato- | LEAVES^alernat? ftandit o n ,r ^ <T n 

acuta, angulofo-dentata, hirfutie raolli. ? ^"g dSe^ i^S 

* of the flowers fpreading, *it& artfing from the 

CALYX: Perianths quinquepartitum fbliolls o^ ! C M YX -T P* ° f ^' a- m , ■ 

COROLLA «onopetala, fubrotata, alba, laciniis ovato | COROLLA £^?S£&^ .aped, of 

I a white colour, the fegments oval and pointed. 

WAW ^^;A2T3C^^ I STAMIN / : \—TflTOrt white hairy FlLAMENTS , 

;: al r ■*** *** W^SbS. 1 ^td^trfav^i^t^/s- 

PERICAfpib ; M. T BTcc fHbro t nm f m - * * • ■, I^aTu^Ts ^»^^ 

PERICA f ra nTnigfarbiLr4*. ^ ^ I ^™™ V"? ^ ft* *-< *•** 
SEMINA p.urima, reniformia, nafefc/ntia. * I0 . J SEEDS ^^Mfti&U ,. 

of a&rag&g taSte^tf Hofpital puhlhhed a treatlfe on the interna, nfe 

curld ~«*^^.f^*Ei^^ bt^Sattrf "fr TT ° f * ««* «* 

leaf, in^ednr about a™^^ 

hree grams feldom fa.fd either to vomit, purge, or fweat the patient moderately^ t £™& th ^quan'titv of ul/ 
It fometimes occafioned a head-ach, g ddinefs, dimnefs and / m «A, P f . w ; f «~„A "»-ieaie tne quantity of urine. 

1.1 which this medicine appeared to him to be efficacious: the principal of thel we« T two c a fo af ,* * ** 

rrei^trh"^,^^ 1 ^ 



eaies or uropiy ;-.n leverai cancerous cafes where it was made nfe of, very little advantage was reVnedT, 
of the above cafes the garden NJghylade was made nfe of, between which and the Th g he bund a , o Jb 
effects, very little difference: he found the medicine to afl differently on different coTfti'tut ons ana i , K ! 
praa.ce to begin with half a gram of the dried leaf in infufion, increafing the aoSKdS^ta efefls and « 
peating it every fecond or third night. & & Lb eu ^ Zs > and r€ 

About tne fame time, fome experiments were alio made bv Mr BROMirTFTn q„ W pn« ^ Qf- n j i 

lpedaon ; though the aofe of the garden Nightmade did not exceed one grain at a time 

After giving this account, we /hall leave it to our readers to determine with what propriety it is difearded in 
th prefent pradface : ; and would juft remark that from the apparently inconteftible proofs of itsVeleteriou g q^ ualities 
perlons cannot be too nice in feledhno; their Pot-herbs nartir.ilarlv t-bnf^ «rt>„ mn t r wisuciclciious qualities, 



Chenopodium album, white Goosefoot. 

CHENOPODIUM Lin. Gen. PI. Pentandria Digynia. 

Cal. 5 phyllus, 5 gonus. 
Cor. o. Sem. 1, lenticulare, fuperum. 
Rail. Syn. Gem $, Herb;e flore impe.rfecto seu stamineo vel apetalo potius. 
CHENOPODIUM album Mils rhomboideo-triangularibus erofis poftice integris, fummis oblongis, racemis 
creai Si Lin. Syjt> Vegetab. p. 216. Spec. Plant, p. 319. Fl. Suecic. p. 79 . 

CHENOPODIUM foliis fubtus farinofis, rhomboideis, dentatis, fuperioribus integerrimis. Haller. 
hljl. m 1579. 

CHENOPODIUM fylveftre opuli folio. Falllant, Paris. 3 6. t. ). fig. 1, 

BLITUM Atriplex fylveftris didum. Rail Sym p. 154, Common wild Orache, 

ATRIPLEX folio finuato cafidicante. Bauh. pin. ng. 

ATRIPLEX fylveitris vulgatior finuata major. Parklnjbm 74B, 

ATRIPLEX vulgaris Ger. emac. 3 z6. Hudfon. Fl. Angl p. 91. LlghtfiooU Flor. Scot. p. 148. 

n^T?c an T' * hr °h db ^ • 1 I ROOT annuaI ' fibrous and white. 

CAULIS ereftus, pedalis ad tripedalem, parum flex- | STALK upright, from one to three feet Wh, fliebtly 
uofus fubangulofus et ftnatus, folidus, ramo- | crooked, fomewhat angular and ftriated, fblid, 

fus,laevis, lubinde purpurafcens. Rami al- | branched, fmooth, fometimes of a purplifh 

rmTA I 6 " 11 ; , . . ? colour. Branches alternate. 

FOLIA rhomboideo-tnangulana erofa, poftice Integra, | LEAVES of a triangular rhomboid figure, deeply and 
fig.^ 7. glauco-vindia, fubtus praefertim fa- | irregularly indented, intire behind, fig. 7. of 

rina copiofe adfperfa, fummis oblongis minus * a blueifh green colour, plentifully covered par- 

profunde dentatis, aut etiam integris. | ticularly on the under fide with a mealy pow- 

3: der, the uppermoft leaves oblong, lefs deeply 

T?Ani?A/rT -ii a* r ■ • n -i i .1 indented or even entire. 

RACEMI axillares, eredh, fpicati, flonbus glomeratim | RACEMI axillary, upright, forming a fpike of flowers 

rATV Y i P , n m * growing in little balls or cluflers. 

CALYX Perianthium pentaphyllum, perfiftens, fo- | CALYX: a Perianthium of five leaves- and conti- 
liolis ovatis concavis, margine membrana- | nuing, the fegments oval, hollow, membra- 

ceis, pulverulentis fig. i, poftice vifum. au<3. ; nous at the edges and powdery £g. i. { QQn 

mDnTT . „ I on the back part, and magnified* 

£5?£™ ^ n ^ lla ' t COROLLA wanting. b 

SI AMINA : Fil amenta quinque, fubulata, alba, ca- | STAMINA : five white tapering Filaments oppofite 
lycis folns oppofita et paulo longiora ; An- | to and a little longer than the leaves of the 

ther* fubrotundae, didymse, flavse. fig. 2. | Calyx ; Anthera compofed of two roundifh 

T>TCTTT t TTTv/r ^ , • , I yellow cells, fig. 2. 

PISTILLUM: Germen orbiculatum ;fig. 3; Stylus f PISTILLUM : Germen orbicular; fa. *, Style 
brevis, bipartitus ; Stigmata obtufa. fig. 4 . | fhort, divided in two; StigmAta obtufe. 

SEMEN unicum, lenticulare, teve, caftancum. fig. 6. | SEED «Jnej le'ns-fhaped, fmooth and of a chefnut co- 

I lour, fig* 6. 

^n^^^f° {RSmeSt0mU ^ e tHem ' ratHer *- Option, itisfurely the different fpecies 
;^ y „f fi f r ^ Sthe0U , tiine °/ the ^ ^'^ °f *efe plants, we convey to the moft tranfient obferver, a perfect 

diffi^nfr' thCfe ?^ {eem n l{ ° t0 , re 1 ui "^ery other kind of elucidation; and if the altering and fixing 
diftmft enghfin names to different Genera, be m any cafe juftifiable, it muft be here, where three different Genera 
are called md.fcnmmately by the names of Orach, Goofefoot, and Blite. I have therefore prefumed to e7l the o"n 

genusTfT™. 7 PeC ' eS nrentmned Genus has been called, feems moft applicable to the 

TheCBnopodium album is the moft common with us of the whole genus; it occurs in every Garden, flourifhes on 

every Dungh.ll, and abounds m moft of our Corn-fields. To the Garfener it is aqnick growing troub efome Weed" 

o the Farmer ,t .s an nnunous one and generally introduced into his fields by that Qovenly g pXe rfffi^ 

every kind of weed to feed on his Dung-heap. J F lui^nng 

% Like the other fpecies of this Genusf it varies exceedingly in its appearance when younp-, and when in its feed- 
ing ftate. Indeed all thele plants require that the ftudent fhould notice them from the earl eft to the ^ a teft pe rods 
of their growth ; or he never can attain a perfeft knowledge of them P 

wi }. 1 tbT hlter il in -f Wh0l , e a PP. eara " ceth ^™ftofthe Chenopodium i the leaves being more ^nerally covered 
with thofe pellucid particles refembiing meal, which are charadteriftic of thefe Genera 
Mr. Lightfoot noticed its being eaten as a Pot-herb in fome parts of Scotland. 

. I 


CHENOPODIUM. Linnai Gen. PL Pentandria Digynia. 

Pall Syn. Gen. 5. Herbje flore imperfecto, seu stamineo, vel apeta- 


CHENOPODIUM viride foliis rhomboideis dentato-finuatis, racemis ramofis fubfoliatis. Linnai 
Syjl, Vegetab. p. 216. Sp. PL 319. Flora Suecic. p. 79. 

CHENOPODIUM foliis rhomboideis, dentatis, fubtus Sncajais. Haller. hijl. heh. p. 267. n. 1580. 
CHENOPODIUM virtde, Scopoli PL Carniol. n. 280. 

Hudfon PL Angl. p. 91. 

Lightfoot Flora Scot. p. 149. n. 6. 

I have been cautious in referring to the fynonyma of authors on this plant, feeing they differ fo much 
in their opinions refpecting it ; and have rather wifhed that the plate here given, might ferve as a recon- 
ciliatory reference. Linnaeus and Haller both feem to doubt its being a fpecies diftintt from the album, 
and it muff be confefled there is a great fimilarity betwixt them; yet if my obfervations are jufl, there is 
every reafon to confider them as two plants perfectly diftincl:. 

They agree in this, that they are both annual plants, both grow in the fame foil and fituations, are nearly 
alike in their fize an4 habit, and both flower about the fame time ; and yet they differ in many refpects 
very efTentially. That which in a more ftriking manner difHnguifhes the viride from the album, is the greener 
appearance of the whole plant, the bright red colour at the angles of the joints, which is confbnt, and the 
ihape of the leaf, fig. 1, which is always much longer than that of the album. The album is loaded with an 
appearance of meal, which gives it its white colour ; the viride, though not deftitute of it, has it not in that 
profufion. When the feed are ripe, the tops of the ftalks, in the viride, are more apt to hang down; the 
parts of the fructification,^. 1, 3, 4, 5, are very fimilar, but fmaller; and the calyx is not quite fo much 
covered with little globules : the feeds of each differs very confiderably, and affords a very curious and fatif- 
fa&ory diftinction : in the album it is perfectly fmooth, glaber ; in the viride it is fmallerj and reticulated with 
impreffed dots, reticulatus punftis imprejis, fig. 6. 

Like fome of the other {pedes of this Genus it is eaten as a pot-herb- 



ri£/?t s< '/? r t/tdiwi/ . i^r/a^/^' 

Chenopodium- Polyspermism. All-seed. 

CHENOPODIUM Linnai Gen. PL Pentandria Digynia. 

Cat. 5-phyllus, 5-gonus. Cor. o. Sem. 1. lenticulare, fuperum. 

Raii Syn. Gen. 5. Herb/efloreimperfectoseuStamineo(vel apetalopotius.) 
CHENOPODIUM Polyfpermum foliis integerrimis ovatis, caule ere&o, calycibus fructus patulis. 
CHENOPODIUM Polyfpermum foliis integerrimis ovatis, caule decumbente, cymis dichotomis aphyllis 

axillaribus. Lin. Syji, Vegetal, p. 216. Spec. Plant, p. 231. Fl. Suecic. p. 80. 
CHENOPODIUM caule erefto, foliis ovatis integris. Haller hift. heh. p. 266. 
CHENOPODIUM Polyfpermum. Scopoli Fl Carniol. n. 279. 
BLITUM polyfpermon a feminis copia. Bauhin pin. 118. 

Gerard emac. 325. 
Parkinfon 753. 
CHENOPODIUM Bete folio. Inf. R. H. 506. 

Rail Syn. p. 157. Upright Blite, or All-feed. 

Lightfoot Fl. Scot. p. 150. 

Hudfon Fl. Angl. ed. 1. p. 92. ed. 2. p. 107. 

RADIX annua, fibrofa, rubefcens. $ ROOT annual, fibrous, and reddifh. 


CAULIS plerumque fubereclus, pedalis aut bipedalis, | STALK in general nearly upright, about a foot or two 
tetragonus, lasvis ; Rami difFufi, longiffimi, t in height, four-cornered and fmooth ; Bran- 

cauli fimiles | ches far extended, and like the ftalk. 

FOLIA petiolata, ovata, integerrima, laevia, margine | LEAVES Iranding on foot-ftalks, oval, entire at the 
venifque rubro fepe tindtis. | edges, fmooth, the margin and veins often 

t tinged with red. 

FLORES axillares, fubcymofi, Cymis dichotomis, a- $ FLOWERS axillary, forming a kind of Cyma, which 
phylli?. I divides into two at bottom, and is leaflefs. 

CALYX: Perianthium pentaphyllum, concavum, ? CALYX: a Peri anthium of five leaves, concave and 
perfiftens, laciniis ovatis, viridibus, fig. 1. | permanent, the fegments oval and green, fig. 1. 


COROLLA nulla. f COROLLA wanting. 

STAMINA: Filamenta quinque bafi latiora, alba, % STAMINA: five Filaments, broaden 1 at the bafe, 
demiflb polline Calyce longiora ; Anthers | of a white colour ; the Pollen being thrown 

fubrotundas, didymae, fiavae, fig. 2. % out, they become longer than the Calyx : 

I Anthers roundiih, double, and yellow,/^. 2. 


PISTILLUM : Germen orbiculatum ; Stylus biparti- % PISTILLUM : Germen orbicular : Style divided into 

tus, breviffimus; Stigmata obtufa,j%-. 3, 4. | two, very fhort : Stigmata blunt, fig.%, 4. 

PERICARPIUM nullum. t SEED-VESSEL wanting. 

SEMEN orbiculatum, rufum, Calyci patulo innixum, f SEED orbicular, reddifh brown, fupported by the Ca- 
non vero inclufum, fig. 5. | lyx, which fpreads open, and does not cover 

? it* fig- 5- 

ALTHOUGH there are many of the Chenopodiums which are not to be diftinguifhed without much care 
and attention, yet fome are very eafily made out, of which number is the prefent fpecies. 

Its fquare ftalk, which is generally of a bright red colour, its long extended branches, and its reddifh 
feeds, which are numerous and ftrikingly vifible, from being only in part covered with the calyx, render 
this plant fufficiently obvious. 

Ji: is not uncommon in gardens and on dunghills, flowers in July and Auguft. To the gardener it is a 
troublefome annual, but fcarcely injurious to the farmer. 

fli are laid to be fond of it, Lin. Fl. Suecic. ex Loes, when thrown into fiih ponds. 



y/o . / 





non scriptus. English Hyacinth. 

Linnai Gen. PL Hexandria Monogynia* 

Cor. campanulata : pori 3 melliferi germinis* 
Rati Syn. Gen. 26. Herb^: radice bulbosa prjeditje. 

non fcriptus corollis campanulatis, fexpartitis, apice revolutis. Lin. Syft. Veget. p. 276. 
oblongo flore coeruleus major. Bauhin Pin. 43. 
anglicus. Gerard, emac. in. 

anglicus belgicus vel hifpanicus. Parkin/on. Par ad. 122. Rati Syn. p. ^Z-> Englifh 
Hyacinth, or Hare-bells. 

non fcriptus, Hyacinth. Diofcoridis. Dod. Ludg. 

Hud/on. Fl. Angl. 123. ed. 2. p. 141. Lightfoot. Fl. Scot. p. 183. 

RADIX: bulbus fubrotundus, magnitudine nucis my- 
rifticae, candidus, fucco vifcido repletus, ex 
ima parte plurimas fibrillas albidas dimittens. 

SCAPUS nudus, femipedalis aut pedalis, ere&us, teres, 
lsevis, folidus. 

FOLIA quatuor, fex, interdum plura, fcapo duplo 
breviora, femunciam lata, carinata, concava, 
laevia, nitida. 

FLORESo&o ad duodecem ; faspe plures, odorati, coe- 
rulei aut violacei, rarius carnei aut albi, fpi- 
cati, fecundi, nutantes. 

BRACTE^E binae, fubere&ae, lanceolate, fig. i„ 

ROOT a roundifh bulb, the fize of a nutmeg, of a 
white colour, and full of a vifcid juice, fend- 
ing down from the bottom numerous whitifh 

STALK naked, from half a foot to a foot in height, 
upright, round, fmooth, and iolid. 

LEAVES four, fix, fometimes more, twice as fhort 
astheftalk, about half an inch broad, keeled, 
hollow, fmooth, and fhining. 

FLOWERS from eight to twelve, often more, fweet 
fmelling, of a blue or violet colour, feldom 
flefh coloured or white, growing in a fpike, 
all one way, and hanging down. 

FLORAL-LEAVES two to each flower, lanceolate, 
and nearly upright, Jig. 1 . 

tis, fig. 

STAMINA : Filament a fex, tria longiora tubum 
corolla aequantia, inferne corollae adnata, fu- 
perne libera, fetacea, albida : Antherje e- 
re£tae, incumbentes, fubfagittatae, flavefcen- 
tes, fig. 4. 

PISTILLUM : Germen conicum, angulato-fulcatum, 
albidum : Stylus corolla brevior, apice vio- 
laceus : Stigma obtufum, villofum, fig. 5. 

PERICARPIUM : Capsula triquetra, trilocularis, 
trivalvis, valvis ovatis, mucronatis, fig. 6. 

COROLLA fubcylindracea, fexpartita, laciniis revolu- % COROLLA almoft cylindrical, divided into fix feg- 

ments, the tips of which turn back, fig. 2, 3. 

STAMINA: fix Filaments, the three longeft of 
which equal the tube of the corolla, below at- 
tached to the corolla, above free from it, ta- 
pering, and whitifh : Anthers upright, in- 
cumbent, fomewhat arrow-fhaped, of a yel 
lowifh colour, fig. 4. 

PISTILLUM: Germen conical, angular and grooved, 
of a whitifh colour : Style fhorter than the 
corolla, at top of a blueifh colour : Stigma 
blunt and villous, fig. 5. 

SEED-VESSEL : a three-cornered Capsule, of three 
cavities and three valves, the valves oval, and 
terminating in a fhort point, fig. 6. 

SEMINA plurima, violacea, nitida, fubrotunda, fig.y. | SEEDS numerous, of a fine blue colour, and roundifh 

¥ fliape, with a polifhed furface, fig. 7. 

THE Hyacinth is confidered by the Dutch Florifts, as the firft of flowers, and as fuch ranks in their catalogues; 
in one of which, viz. that of Meffrs. Voorhelm and Schneevogt, of Haerlem, for the year 1778, the Gloria So/is 
is marked at a 1000 guilders, eleven of which make one pound fterling. 

The fpecies which is the objecl of fo much care and cultivation, and from whence fuch numerous and beautiful 
varieties are produced, is not our Englifh Hyacinth, but the Hyacinthus oriental's ofLiNNJEUs: neverthelefs, the 
prefent fpecies is often to be met with in gardens, though in a ftate not much improved, being generally fingle, 
and retaining its character of drooping flowers, by which character it is obvioufly diftinguifhed from a plant very- 
fimilar to it, which is much more common in gardens, and flowers at the fame time ; a plant overlooked by 
LiNNiEus ; but named by Mr. Banks Scilla campamdata. 

Our meadows, woods, and hedge-rows, are beautifully decorated with the blofToms of this plant in the fprin? 
months. Its feeds are not ripened till the end of the year ; and thofe, on being fown, did not vegetate till the 
fecond year. 

The term of non fcriptus was applied to this plant by fome of the earlier! botanifts, as may be feen in Bauhin s 
Pinax, and Rays Hifi. Plant, and implies, that the flowers were not marked with any kind of character, which 
the Hyacinth of the antients is fuppofed to have been, vid. Bauh. Pin. p. 47. and Rati. Hift. p. 1155. 

The great uncertainty in which the antients have left us, by their vague and imperfedT: deicriptions, appears in a 
ftrong light, by what can be collected from their writings concerning the Hyacinth Flower. Since the revival 
of letters, commentators and botanifts, have taken great pains to afcertain the plant which the antient poets and 
naturalifts called by this name ; but with what fuccefs, may be eafily gathered, when we find them feverallv fixing 
upon flowers of fuch very different appearances as the Martagon, Larkfpur> and Iris, for the true Hyacinth. 

The Hyacinthine hair of the antients, has alfo engaged the attention of the inquisitive, fucceedirtg poets copying 
the expreffion from Homer, who defcribes UlyJJes thus, in Pope or Broome's tranflation : 

" Back from his brows a length of hair unfurls, 
" His hyacinthine locks defend in wavy curls. 
" As by fome art if, to whom Vulcan gives 
u His fill divine, a breathing fatue lives', 
" By Pallas taught, he frames the wond'rous mould, 
s ' And o 3 er the fiver pours the fufile gold; 
" So Pallas his heroic frame improves 
" With heavnly bloom, and like a god he moves." 

This paffage is thus imitated by Milton, in his defcription of the perfon of Adam. 

" His fair large front and eye fublime declared 

cc Abjolute rule ; and hyacinthine locks 

" Round from his parted forelock manly hung 

u Clufring, but not' beneath his fhoulders broad." 

It is furprmng that all the commentators mould agree, in fuppofing Homer means blackhair by his allufion to the 
Hyacinth, when he elfewhere in the Odyfley, defcribes Ulffes withjy ellow or golden hair : " AvQuq S*ex xsQaXris oXeera rpi^ag" 
which correfponds with the fimile in the above mentioned quotation, where the poet compares the hair flowing on 
his hero's fhoulders, to gold inlaid on fiver. But perhaps Homer did not intend to exprels any colour by alluding 
to the Hyacinth : this line in the original, " OvXag qx.s xopag vuxtvQivo uvQei opotug," may be literally translated thus : 

" She let down his hair curled like a Hyacinth fower." 

The Hyacinthus comofus, and its variety the Hyacinthus monfrofus, or feathered Hyacinth, bear a ftrong refemblance 
to curled hair, and are natives of the warmer parts of Europe. 

A defire to point out the connexion between botany and polite literature, has occasionally induced us to 
venture on hints and remarks of this kind, which the learned reader will, we hope, look on with an indulgent 
eye, and remember that our attempts, fuch as they are, add little to the bulk, and .nothing to the expence, of 
the work. 



JUNCUS "Llnnai Gen. PL Hexandria Monogynia. 

Cah 6-phyllus. Cor. o. Capfula i-locularis. 
RaiiSyn.Gen. 27. Herb^ graminifoli^ flore imperfecto culmiferje. 

JUNCUS campejlris foliis planis fubpilofis, fpicis feffilibus pedunculatifque. Lin. Syfi. Vegetab. f. 280. 
Sp. PL p. 468. 

JUNCUS planifolius; fpicis petiolatis, nutantlbus ; petalis ariftatis. Haller. hifi, 

JUNCUS campejlris. Scopoli PL Carniol. p. 258. 

GRAMEN hirfutum capitulis Pfyllii. Bauhin. Pin. 7. 

GRAMEN exile hirfutum. Gerard, emac. 17. 

GRAMEN nemorofum hirfutum minus anguftifolium. Parkin/on. 1185. 

Rati Syn, p. 416, Small Hairy Wood-Grafs. 

Hud/on. PL Angl. 132, ed. 2. p. 152. 

Lightfoot PL Scot. 186. 

^ »v,u U u.i lsjisvyx* ^uiwui, 11UL lUlllUUCU W1LU 

any membrane : two fmall, upright, unequal 
leaves, placed under the fpiculae, terminate 

RADIX perennis, craffitie pennae coracis, fublignofa, J ROOT perennial, the fize of a crow quill, fomewhat 
fibris plurimis nigricantibus inftru&a, repens. | woody, furnifhed with numerous blackifh 

% fibres, creeping. 

CULMUS fimplex, palmaris, aut dodrantalis, ere£tus, | STALK fimple, from three to nine inches high, up- 
foliofus, bafi tumidus, teres, Levis, enodis. | right, leafy, fomewhat enlarged at bottom, 

I round, fmooth, and without joints. 

FOLIA plana, pilofa, pilis e margine foliorum erum- | LEAVES flat, hairy, the hairs proceeding from the 
pentibus, acuta, apicibus faepe rufis, mern- f edges of the leaves, pointed, the tips often of 

brana deftituta, foliola duo erecla insequalia | a reddifh brown colour, not furnifhed with 

fpiculis fubjecla culmum terminant, | 

I the ftalk. 

SPICULE plerumque tres, fubovat£e, fig. 1. florefcen- $ SPICULvE, generally three, fomewhat oval, fig. 1, 

te planta ere6ta, pedicellis inaequalibus infi- | upright when the plant is in flower, fitting 

dentes, inferiore fubfeffili. | on uneven foot-ftalks, the lowermoft fpicula 

% nearly feffile. 

PEDUNCULI filiformes, e vagina ciliata prodeuntes. | FLOWER-STALKS thread-fhaped, proceeding from 

% a fmall fheath edged with hairs. 

FLORES decern aut duodecem circiter in fingula fpicu- % FLOWERS about ten or twelve in each fpicula 

la, feffile*. I feffile. 

CALYX: fquamulae plerumque quatuor, ovato-acutse, % CALYX: moil: commonly four fmall fcales, of an oval 

membranacese, inaequales, foliolis calycinis | pointed fhape, membranous and uneven, and 

multo breviores, fingulum flofculum ambiunt, % much fhorter than the leaves of the true 

fig- 2 - I Calyx, furround the bafe of each floret, fig. 2. 

CALYX proprius, hexaphyllus : foliolis lanceolate- | CALYX: the proper Calyx is compofed of fix leaves, 

acuminatis, patentibus, perfiftentibus, nitidis, % fpear-fhaped, with a long point, fpreading' 

carinatis, e fufco-purpureis, fig. 3. | permanent, mining, keeled, of a brownifh 

% purple colour, fig. 3. 

COROLLA nulla. % COROLLA wanting. 

STAMINA: Filamenta fex, fubulata, breviffima : | STAMINA: fix Filaments, tapering, and very fliort: 

Anthers oblongse, calycem asquantes, fla- % Anther je oblong, the length of the Calyx* 

vae, quadrifulcatae, bicufpidatas, fig. 4, 5, | yellow, with four grooves, terminating in 

demiffo polline tortuofae. % two points, fig. 4, 5 ; on fhedding the Pollen 

I becoming twilled. 

PISTILLUM: Germen viride, triquetrum, acumina- | PISTILLUM : Germen green, three-cornered, poin- 

tum : Stylus brevis, filiformis : Stigmata % ted : Style fhort, thread-fhaped : Stigmata 

tria, longa, filiformia, flexuofa, villofa, fig. 6. | three, long, thread-fhaped, crooked, and vil- 

I lous, fig. 6. 

PERICARPIUM : Capsula tefta, triquetra, unilocu- t SEED-VESSEL : a Capsule covered by the Calyx, 

laris, trivalvis, fig. 7, 8, 9. | three-cornered, of one cavity and three valves,' 

I fig- 7> 8 > 9- 

SEMINA plerumque tria, fubrotunda, olivacea, fig. 10, | SEEDS ufually three, of a roundilh fhape, and olive 
11. ¥ colour, fig, 10, 11. 

THE above defcription is taken from the Juncus campejlris when growing in its moft, ufual ftate in dry 
paftures ; in fuch fituations it has feldom more than three or four fpicuke ; in moifter and richer foils, par- 
ticularly on boggy ground, it will often have a much greater number : but though it varies in fize and the 
number of its parts, it Hill continues very diftincl from the pilojus, or Hairy Wood Rufij. 

It flowers in April and May, and ripens its feeds in June. 

The hairs of this, and fome of the other Junci, are of a very lingular kind ; a flranger to plants, would 
fuppofe that fome animal had been robbed of its hair by rubbing on it. 

The appearance of this plant indicates a dry, and confequently not very luxuriant pafturage. 


umex CRispus. Curled Dock. 

RUMEX Linnai Gen. PL Hexandria Trigynia. 

Cat. 3-phyllus. Petala 3-conniventia. Sem. 1, triquetrum. 
Rail Syn. Gen. 5. Herb^: flore imperfecto seu stamineo vel apetalo potius. 
RUMEX crifpus floribus hermaphroditis : valvulis integris graniferis, foliis lanceolatis undulatis acutis. 

Linn. Syjl. Vegetab. p. 284. Spec. Plant, p. 478. PL Suec'ic. p, 117. 
LAPATHUM foliis crifpis, imis ovatis, fupremis lanceolatis, calycibus verrucofis. Haller hlfi.n. 1589. 
LAPATHUM crijpum. Scopoli PL Carmol. p. 261. 
LAPATHUM folio acuto crifpo. Bauhln. Pin. 115. 
LAPATHUM acuti varietas folio crifpo. Ger. emac. 387» 
LAPATHUM acutum minus. Parklnfon. 226. 

Rail Syn. p 141. Sharp-pointed Dock with curled leaves. 
Hudfon Fl. Angl. p. 134. 
Llghtfoot Fl. Scot. 108. 

RADIX perennis, flavefcens, fufiformis, per aetatem ¥ ROOT perennial, tapering, of a yellowifh colour, be- 
fuperne ramofus evadit. 1 coming branched at top as it grows old. 

CAULIS bipedalis aut tripedalis, ere&us, ftriatus, lse- | STALK two or three feet high, upright, finely grooved, 
vis, ramofus. y fmooth, and branched. 

FOLIA lanceolata, undulata, acuta, fubtus venofa, pe- | LEAVES lanceolate, waved, pointed, underneath vei- 
tiolis fulcatis. y ny, the foot-ftalks grooved. 

FLORE S in fpicas denliffime glomerati, caulem peni- ^ FLOWERS crouded very thickly together in fpikes, 
tus fere occultantes. t and almoft entirely hiding the ftalk. 

CALYX: Perianthium triphyllum, foliolis cymbi- I CALYX: a Peri an thium of three leaves, which are 
formibus, corolla brevioribus, fig. 1. § boat-fhaped, and fhorter than the Corolla, 

I fig- 1- 


COROLLA : Petala tria, ovata, concava, demum I COROLLA : three oval, hollow Petals, finally be- 
conniventia, magna, granifera, venofa, reti- % coming clofed, and large; each bearing a 

culata, integra, Semen unicum, triquetrum, | ' grain, veiny, reticulated, entire at the edges, 

nitidum, pallide fufcum foventia, j%. 3, 7, 8, 9. | including a three-cornered, mining, pale brown 

I Seed, 3, 7, 8, 9. 

STAMINA : Filamenta tria, capillaria, brevia : f STAMINA: three very fine fhort Filaments : An- 
Anther^ flavae, fig. 3. | therje yellow, /^. 3. 

PISTILLUM : Germen triquetrum : Styli tres, ? PISTILLUM : Germen three-corner'd : Styles 
reflexi: Stigmata laciniata,^". 4, 5, 6. | three, turning back: Stigmata jagged, 

* fig- 4, 5> 6 - 

THE Docks, like the feveral fpecies of Goofefoot and Orach, are with difficulty diftinguifhed from each other. 

The fpecies here figured, is one of the moft common, as well as the moll injurious as a weed. It is 
found in almoft every kind of foil and fituation ; as in wet meadows, by the fides of roads, and in cultiva- 
ted ground, into which it is generally introduced with dung. I have remarked fpme Clover fields in which 
this plant formed nearly one half of the crop. 

It may be diftinguifhed from the other Docks by its yellow root, waved leaves, and large and numerous 
feed-coverings, which grow fo thick as almoft to hide the ftalk, and which are larger than in moft of the 
other Docks, of a roundifh fhape, with prominent veins, and an entire or (lightly waved edge. 

It flowers in June, July, and Auguft. 


*y\44rtnea> or^L^fvtu 




Epilobium hirsutum. Large-flower'd Willow-herb. 

EPILOBIUM hlnnal Gen» PL Octandria Monogynia. 

Cal. 4-fidus, Petala 4. Caps» oblonga, infera. Sent, pappofa# 

RaiiSyn. Gen. 22. Herb^ vasculiferje flore tetrapetalo anomalje. 
EPILOBIUM hirfutum foliis ovato-lanceolatis, femiamplexicaulibus, hirfutis ; caule ramofiflimo ; radice 


EPILOBIUM hirfutum foliis oppofitis lanceolatis ferratis decurrenti amplexicaulibus. Lin. Syfi. Vegetab. 

p. 471» Spec. Plant, p. 494. Flor. Sueclc. p. 123. 
EPILOBIUM Foliis femiamplexicaulibus, lanceolatis, hirfutis. Halter» hid. helv. p. 125. 
CHAM^ENERlON hirfutum. Scopoli Fl. CarnioL 270. 
LYSIMACHIA filiquofa hirfuta magno flore. Bauhin. pin. 245. 
LYSIMACHIA filiquofa,- Ger. emac. 476. 

Raii Syn. p. 311. Great hairy codded Loofeftrife or Willow-herb, called 
, alfo Codlings and Cream. 

Hudfon. Fl. Angl. p. 141. 3. ed. 2. p. 162. 3. 

Lightfoot. Fl. Scot. p. 197. 

Oeder. Fl. Dan. k. 326. 

RADIX perennis, furculofa, fibris cap'illata, e cujus 
capite erumpunt germina majufcula, rubentia, 
in fumma tellure reptantia, quibus fe late 
difFundit et propagat. 

I ROOT perennial, full of moots, with numerous fibres, 
I fending off from the upper part ftoles of a 

confiderable thicknefs, which creeping un- 
I der the furface of the ground, fpread widely 

and propagate the plant. 
STALK from three to fix feet high, upright, very 
much branched, round, fomewhat quadran- 
gular at bottom, hirfute, andpurplifh: Bran- 
ches like the ftalk, nearly upright. 
LEAVES betwixt oval and lanceolate, finely toothed 
at the edges, hirfute, half embracing the ftalk, 
veiny, thofe on the branches a little twifted. 
FLORES magni, fpeciofi, purpurei, fubcampanulati, f FLOWERS large, fhowy, of a purple colour, fome- 
paululum nutantes. | what bell-fhaped, and hanging down a little. 

CALYX; Perianthium fuperum, ere&um, quadri- | CALYX: a Perianthium placed above the Germen, 

CAULIS tripedalis ad orgyalem, ere&us, ramofiflimus, % 
teres, ad bafin fubtetr?gonus, hirfutus, pur- \ 
purafcens ; Rami cauli iimiles, adfcendentes. % 


FOLIA ovato-lanceolata, argute denticulata, hirfuta, fe- ^ 
miamplexicaulia, venofa, ramorumfubtortuofa. % 

partitum, bafiangulofum, laciniis ovato-acutis, % 
fundo villofo, fig. 1 . | 


COROLLA : Petala quatuor, obcordata, emargina- | 

ta, purpurea, ban albida, calyce duplo Ion- I 

giora,/g-. 2. I 

STAMINA: Fil amenta o&o, quorum quatuor lon- 
giora, alba, fubulata : Anthers oblongse, 
biloculares, flavefcentes, fig. 3. 

upright, angular at the bafe, deeply divided 
into four fegments, which are oval and poin- 
ted, the bottom in the infide villous, fig. 1. 

COROLLA : four Petals inverfely heart-fhaped, e- 
marginated, of a purple colour with a white 
bafe, and twice the length of the Calyx, 
fig- 2. 

STAMINA : eight Filaments, four of which are 
fhorter than the others, white and tapering : 
Anthers oblong, bilocular, and yellowiih, 
fig : 3' 

PISTILLUM : Germen oblongum, villofum, infe- | PISTILLUM : Germen oblong, villous, placed be- 

low the Calyx, four-corner'd and grooved, 
crowned with very minute glands : Style 
filiform, hanging down, and longer than the 
Stamina: Stigma thick, divided into four: 
fegments, which are villous and roll'd back, 
fig- 4, 5> 6 - 
SEED-VESSEL, a Capsule about three inches long, 
obtufely four cornered, and grooved, termi- 
nated as in the Germen with glands, flightly 
hirfute, having four cavities and four valves. 

rum, tetragono-fulcatum, glandulis minimis ^ 

coronatum : Stylus filiformis, declinatus, Sta- t 

minibus longior : Stigma crafTum, quadrifi- I 

dum, laciniis revolutis, villofis, fig. 4, 5, 6. y 

PERICARPIUM: Capsula triuncialis, obtufe tetra- ¥ 
gona, fulcata, ut in germine glandulis termi- | 
nata, leniter hirfuta, quadrilocularis, quadri- | 
valvis. t 

SEMINA ovata, pallide fufca, plurima, pappofa, len- ^ SEEDS oval, pale brown, numerous, downy, viewed 
te vifa hinc convexa, fcabriufcula, illinc com- ? with a magnifier on one fide convex, and 

preflb-fulcata, Receptaculo tetragono, libe- I roughifh, on the other, flattiih and grooved, 

ro, flexili feriatim affixa, fig. 7. $ affixed in rows to a four-cornered, loofe, flexi- 

? ble Receptacle,^. 7. 

THE Lyfimachia filiquofa hirfuta magno flore, and the Lyfimachia hirfuta parvo flore ofBAUHiNE, are con- 
sidered by Linn^us as the fame fpecies. 

Mr. Ray, both in his Hifioria Plantarum and Synopfis, confiders them as diftintl: fpecies ; and Mr. Hudson, 
viewing them in the fame light, gives a new name to the larger flowering one, calling it ramofum*, and retains the 
name of hirfutum for the fmaller flowering one : but as the larger flowering plant is the fpecies which Linnaeus 
has diftinguifhed by the name of hirfutum, there appears more propriety in adopting his name for the fpecies, and 
giving a new name to what he confiders as the variety. 

The fpecies here figured, grows very commonly in and by the fides of wet ditches, ponds, &c. rifing 
generally to the height of five feet. 

It flowers in July and Auguft. 

A variety with a white flower fometimes occurs ; and a fort with variegated leaves, is fold by the gardeners. 

Having a creeping root, it is very apt to increafe too much if not properly attended to. The leaves, when 
young, have a mining appearance ; and if bruifed, fend forth an agreeable fmell, whence its name of Codlings 
and Cream. 

Is it not a plant deferving the notice of the Farmer ? If cattle are found to eat it, either green or dryed, may it 
not be cultivated to advantage it wet fituations, where other ufeful plants will not grow ? 


EPILOBIUM lamue'i Gen. PI. Octandria Monogynia. 

Cal. 4-fidus. Petala 4. Caps, oblonga, infera. Sent, pappofa. 
Raii Syn. Gen. 21. Herb^e vasculifer^ flore tetrapetalo anomaly. 
EPILOBIUM villofum foliis oblongo-lanceolatis, dentatis, pubefcentibus, caule tereti villofo. 

EPILOBIUM hirfutum foliis lanceolatis ferratis fubdecurrentibus ; inferioribus oppofitis, caule fubiim- 
plici. Hudfon Fl. AngL ed. 2. p. 162. 

LYSIMACHIA filiquofa hirfuta parvo flore. C. Bauhin. pin. 245. Prod. 116. 

LYSIMACHIA filiquofa hirfuta flore minore. I. B. II. 906. 

LYSIMACHIA filiquofa fylveftris hirfuta. Parkin/on ? Pali Hfi. PL p. 861. Syn. ed. 3. /311. 

The leffer hairy codded Loofeftrife or Willow-herb, with fmall flowers. 

Lightfoot. Fl. Scot. p. 198. var. hirfut. 

RADIX perennis, fibrofa. ? ROOT perennial and fibrous. 

CAULIS pedalis ad tripedalem, fimplex, aut ramofus J STALK from one to three feet high, fimple or branch- 
pro loco natali, teres, villofus. | ed according to its place of growth, round, 

y hoary, and purplifh. 


FOLIA oblongo-lanceolata, connata, non vero decur- | LEAVES oblong and lanceolate, uniting at bottom 

rentia, rare dentata, dentibus glandulofis, t around the ftalk, but not running down it, 

moliia, pubefcentia, fubtus albida, patentia, | teeth at the edge few and glandular, foft, 

in locis ficcioribus faepe ere£ta. f downy, underneath whitiih, fpreading, but 

? in more dry fituations frequently upright. 

FLORES parvi, purpurei. t FLOWERS fmall and purple. 

CALYX: PERiANTHiuMtetraphyllum, fuperum, fo- % CALYX: a Peri anthium of four leaves, placed a- 
liolis ovato-lanceolatis, hirfutulis, Jig. 1. bove the Germen, oval, pointed, and flight* 

I ly hirfute, jig. 1 . 


COROLLA : Petala quatuor, obcordata, calycedu- | COROLLA : four Petals inverfely heart-fhaped, al- 
plo fere longiora, fig, 2. | moft twice the length of the Calyx, fig. 2. 


'STAMINA: Filamenta o£to ; fubulata, alterna | STAMINA : eight Filaments, tapering, the four 
breviora : Anthers ovales, compreffe, ob- y alternate ones morteft : Anthers oval, flat- 

tufie, fig. 3. I tened, and obtufe, fig. 3. 

PISTILLUM: Germen cylindraceum, longiffimum: % PISTILLUM: Germen cylindrical, very long: Style 

Stylus filiformis : Stigma craffum, quadri- | filiform: Stigma thick, divided into four 

fidum, laciniis vix vero revolutis, fig. 4. % fegments, which are fcarcely rolled back, 

I fig- 4. 

PERICARPIUM: Capsula prgelonga, rubefcens. ? SEED-VESSEL, a long Capsule, of a reddifh colour. 


SEMINA plurima, pappo coronata. ^ SEEDS numerous, covered with a pappus or down. 

IN three refpe&s does this plant particularly, and invariably, differ from the hirfutum; of which, as hath before 
been obferved, it is confidered by Linnjeus and other writers, as a variety only ; viz. in its blojfoms, root, and 
pubefcence ; either of which would appear alone fufficient to conftitute it a diitinct fpecies. 

The bloffoms in the firft place, are not in general more than one third as large ; the root does not creep ; and 
the ftalk and leaves, are covered with numerous foft hairs, which give the whole plant a whitiih or hoary appear- 
ance, that is particularly ftriking. 

Befides thefe characters, the plant is alfo much fmaller ; and in general, is not fo much branched. I have often 
gathered fpecimens of it not more than a foot in height, with a fimple flalk ; and have alfo frequently found it 
much higher, as well as much branched, when there was no reafon to fuppofe the plant had received any injury, 
which Mr. Hudson aflerts is always the cafe, when the plant occurs in the latter ftate. The Calyx and Stigma, 
differ alfo very materially in the two plants. 

It is very common with us on the banks of rivulets, and in watery places ; and flowers in July and Auguft. 
No particular qualities are afcribed to it. 

Jl c 26 




Epilobiiim tetragonum. Square - Stalk'd Willow - Herb. 

EPILOBIUM Linncei. Gen, PL OctandriA Monogynia, 

Cal. 4-fidus. Petala 4. Caps, oblonga, iftfera. Sem, pappofa. 
RaiiSyn.Gen. 22. Herbje vasculifer^e flore tetrapetalo anomalje. 

EPILOBIUM tetragonum Foliis lanceolatis denticulatis ; caule tetragono ; ftigmate integerrimo. 
EPILOBIUM foliis lanceolatis denticulatis ; imis oppofitis, caule tetragono. Lin. Syfi. Vegetab. p. 297. 
Sp. Plant. 495. 

EPILOBIUM foliis lanceolatis, glabris, dentatis. Haller. hift. p. 426. n. 99 7. 

CHAMiENERION tetragonum. Scopoli. Flor. Carn'wl. p. 271. 454. 

LYSIMACHIA filiquofa glabra media live minor. Gerard, emac. 479. 

LYSIMACHIA filiquofa glabra minor. Bauhin. Pin. 245. Rain Syn. p. 311. 5, Middle fmooth-leaved 

Codded Willow-herb, or Loofeftrife. 

Hudfon FL Angl. ed. 1. p. 141. ed. 2. p. 162, 

Lightfoot. FL Scot. p. 198. 

RADIX perennis, fibrofa, flbris albidis, ftolonibusquo- | ROOT perennial, fibrous, the fibres whitifti, repaired 
tannis reparata, non vero repens. | yearly by new fhoots, but not creeping. 

CAULIS erectus, fuperne valde ramofus, bipedalis, | STALK upright, at top much branched, about two 
rigidus, infernepurpurafcens, fubtetragonus, y feet high, ftiff, at bottom purpliih, fmooth, 

l^vis, ? and fomewhat fquare, 



FOLIA fubdecurrentia, unde caulis angulofus, inferi- % LEAVES fomewhat decurrent, whence the angular 

ora lanceolata, fuperiora lineari-lanceolata, | appearance of the ftalk ; the lower ones lan- 

ferrata, venofa, glabra. | ceolate ; the upper ones narrower, ferrated, 

t veiny, and fmooth. 

FLORES parvi, purpurea ¥ FLOWERS fmall and purple. 

.. * 

CALYX: Perianthium quadripartitum, foliis Ian- y CALYX: a Peri anthium divided into four fegments, 

ceolato-acuminatis, pubefcentibus, carinatis, ? which are narrow and tapering to a point, 

apicibus rufis, jig, 1. | downy, the midrib projecting on the under 

% fide, the tips reddifh, jig. 1. 
• t 

COROLLA: PeTala quatuor, purpurea, venis fa- y COROLLA: four Petals, purple, often ftreaked 

turatioribus faepe ftriata, calyce paulo longio- ? with veins of a deeper colour, fomewhat longer 

ra, emarginata, jig. 2. | than the calyx, with a notch at top, jig, 2. 


STAMINA: Filamenta o£to, quorum quatuor bre- | STAMINA: eight Filaments, four long and four 

viora: Anthers flavefcentes, fig. 3. % fhort : Anthers yellowifh, fig. 3. 

PISTILLUM: Germen tetragonum, pubefcens : Sty- f PISTILLUM: Germ en fquare, downy: Style fhort 
lus brevis, albus : Stigma craffum, album, y and white : Stigma thick, white, and per- 

integerrhnum, fig. 4. | ftftly entire, fig. 4. 

PERICARPIUM: Capsula longiflima, fere triunci- ¥ SEED-VESSEL a very long Capsule, approaching 
alis, pedunculis triplo brevioribus infidens. I to three inches, fitting on a flower-ftalk thrice 

$ as fhort. 

SEMINA plurima, pappofa. $ SEEDS numerous and downy. 

THE prefent fpecies of Epilobium, takes its name of tetragonum from the apparent fquarenefs of its ftalk, which 
however is not fo completely fquare as that of the Hypericum quadrangulum, but affumes rather an angular appear- 
ance, arifing as in many other plants, from projecting lines running from the leaves down the ftalk : this however 
is one of the moil ftriking characters of this fpecies : to which may be added the narrownefs of its leaves, the un- 
common length of its pods, and its undivided ftigma.* Thefe are the peculiarities by which this plant may rea- 
dily be diftinguifhed : but too much itrefs muft not be laid on fome of them. 

The breadth of a leaf, its being placed on a peduncle, or fitting clofe to the ftalk, are in general confidered as 
excellent fpecific characters; but in this plant, as well as fome others, we have a proof of their fallibility; the 
leaves being fometimes nearly as broad as thofe of the montanum, and placed on foot-italks of a confiderable length. 
When I firft accidently met with this variety, I was led to conclude it to be a dift-inct fpecies ; but a careful at- 
tention to it, afterwards convinced me it was only a variety. 

The Epilobium tetragonum is no uncommon plant with us ; but is generally to be met with in watery ditches, 
by the fides of roads ; and where it does occur, it ufually abounds. Among a variety of other places, I have 
obferved it in the Lane leading from Newington to Hornjey Wood. 

It flowers with the' other Willow-herbs. 

The farmer has no reafon. to complain of it : nor is it celebrated in the annals of phyfic. 

*Ttis chara&er feems firft to have been noticed by Ray : his words are Stylus non ut in precedent? quadrifidus eft, Hift. PI. p. 86 !« 



_N° 106 

(/O//?JJ0 //,,// /// a J/ a //^t/Jv iu/ M 

vSa»U*m <Au4* 


EPILOBIUM Linnai Gen. PL Octandria Monogynia, 

Cal. 4-fidus. Petala 4. Caps, oblonga, infers» Sent, pappofa. 
Rail Syn. Gen. 22. Herb^ vasculifer^: flore tetrapetalo anomaly. 

EPILOBIUM angujlifolium foliis fparfis lineari-lanceolatis, floribus inaequalibus. Linnai Syfi. Vegetab* 

p. 296. Sp. PI. 347. 
EPILOBIUM flore difformi, foliis lanceolatis, tranfverfim nervofis. Haller hift. n. 427. 
CHAALENERION angujlifolium. Scopoli PI. Cam. 

LYSIMACHIA fpeciofa, quibufdam onagra dicla filiquofa. Bauhin hift. II. 906. 
LYSIMACHIA Chamgenerion dicta anguftifolia. Bauhin. pin. 245. Rail Synop. 310. Rofebay Willow-herb. 

Hudfon Flor. Angl. p. 140. 

Li gh foot Flor. Scot. p. 197. 

Oeder Dan. k. 289. 

RADIX perennis, repens. | ROOT perennial and creeping. 

CAULIS ere&us, tripedalis, ad orgyalem, ramofiffimus, | STALK upright, from three to fix feet high, very 

teres, pubefcens, ramis alterne oppofitis. much branched, round, and pubefcent ; the 

I branches alternately oppofite. 

FOLIA lanceolata, alterna, fubdecurrentia, glabra, y LEAVES lanceolate, alternate, running flightly down 

margine minute remoteque dentata, nervo | the ftalk, fmooth, the edge minutely and 

medio albido. | rarely indented, the midrib whitifh. 

BRACTE^E foliis fimiies. .? FLORAL-LEAVES like thofe on the ftalk. 

FLORES purpurei, fpeciofi, fubfpicati, raro ultra f FLOWERS purple, fhowy, growing in a kind of 

quatuor aut quinque una in eadem fpica flo- y fpike, feldom more than four or five flowering 

rentes. | together on the fame fpike. 

CALYX: Perianthium tetraphyllum, fuperum, fo- | CALYX: Perianthium of four leaves, placed above 

liolis lanceolatis, coloratis, furfum curvatis, t the Calyx; the leaves lanceolate, coloured, 

Jig. 1. I and bending upwards. 

COROLLA : Petala quatuor, purpurea, patentia, y COROLLA : four roundifh Petals of a purple co- 

fubrotunda, emarginata, unguibus anguftis, | lour, fpreading, the claws narrow, fig. 2 ; the 

Jig. 2, duobus inferioribus remotioribus. I two lowermofl fomewhat remote from each 

% other. 

STAMINA: Filamenta o&o, fubasqualia, purpu- | STAMINA: eight Filaments, nearly of an equal 

rafcentia, primum deflexa, demnm fuberefta, ^ length, of a purplifh colour, at firft bending 

Piltillo breviora : Antherte rubne, bilocula- f down, finally becoming fomewhat upright, 

res: Pollen viride, Jig. 3, 4» | fhorter than the PifHllum : Anthers red, 

f having two cavities : the Pollen green, 

I fig- 3> 4- 

PISTILLUM : Germen inferum, oblongum, longi- f PISTILLUM : Germen below the Calyx, oblong, the 

tudine Styli, fubtetragonum, glandula coro- T length of the Style, flightly quadrangular, 

natum : Stylus filiformis, albus, prope bafin | crowned by a gland : Style filiform, white, 

villofus : Stigma quadrifidum, magnum, la- % . villous towards the bottom : Stigma large, 

ciniis villofis revolutis, fig. 5, 6, 7. | divided into four fegments, which are villous, 

I and turn back, fig. 5, 6, 7. 

PERICARIUM : Capsula cylindracea, incurvata, ¥ SEED-VESSEL : a Capsule of a cylindrical form, 

quadrilocularis, quadrivalvis. | fomewhat incurvated, of four cavities and 

$ four valves. 

SEMINA numerofa, ftriata, pappo coronata Recepta- t SEEDS numerous, flriated, crowned with a down, 

culo longiflimo tetragono, libero, flexili affixa, | and affixed to a very long, loofe, flexible Recep- 

fig. 8, 9. I tacle,^-. 8, 9. 

IN the third edition of Ray's Synopfis, this plant is faid to have been found growing wild near Alton,. 
in Hampjhire : in confirmation of this, I have myfelf found it growing in a wild unfrequented wood near the 
fame place. 

The fhowy appearance of its bloffoms, has long fince introduced it into our gardens; where, by means ©f 
its creeping roots, it is apt to increafe more than is defirable : and from the refufe of gardens, we fufpect 
thofe plants, which we have here and there noticed about town, have arifen. Mr. Hudson, in his Flora Anglic a, 
mentions its growing on Maize Hill, beyond Greenwich. 

It continues in blofTom through July, Auguft, and September. 

Haller, from feveral authors, mentions, that the young fhoots are eatable, although an infufion of the 
plant ftupifies ; that the pith alfo is eatable ; which when dried, is boiled, whence it becomes fweet, and by 
a proper procefs, affords good beer ; as alfo vinegar : that it is alfo added to the Cow Parfnep, to enrich the 
fpirit which is prepared from that plant : that it likewife affords good fodder for cattle ; and the down of 
the feeds, mixed with beavers hair, has been manufactured into feveral articles of cloathing. 

It is too diftinct to be miftaken for any of the other fpecies ; and is fometimes found with white flowers. 

Erica cinerea. Fine leaved Heath. 

ERICA Linnai Gen. PL OctAndria Monogynia. 

Cah 4-phyllus. Cor. 4-fida. Filamenta receptaculo inferta. Anthera bifida?. 
Caps. 4-locularis. 

Rail Sym Arbores et Frutices. 
ERICA cinerea foliis ternis glabris linearibus. 
ERICA cinerea Antheris criftatis, Corollis ovati9, Stylo fubexerto, foliis ternis, Stigmatc capitato. 

hinnai Syjl. Vegetal* p. 303. 
ERICA humilis, cortice cinereo Arbuti flore. Bauhin p. 486. 
ERICA virgata live VI Clufii. Parkin/on 1 483. 
ERICA tenuifolia Gerard emac. 1380. Rail Syn. p. 471, Fine leaved Heath. Hudfon Fl. Anglp. 144. 

Oeder Dan. icon. 38. 

RADIX perennis, lignofa. | ROOT perennial and woody. 


CAULES fuffruticofi, pedales, lignofi, cortice cinereo, ? STALKS fhrubby, about a foot high, woody; the 

ramofi, ramis oppofitis. | Dar k of an am colour, branched ; the branches 

y oppofite. 

FOLIA terna, linearia, patentia, fupra glabra, nitida, | LEAVES growing three together, linear, fpreading, 

tranfverfim rugofa, infra canaliculate, faturate % above fmoothandihining, tran verily wrinkled ; 

viridia, fig. 1, 2. I below hollow, of deep green colour, /g. 1,2. 


FLORES faturate purpurei, tadu fonori, fpicati, fpicis | FLOWERS of a deep ^ purple colour, fonorous when 

longis, verticillato-glomerati, terminalibus. | touched, growing in long, cluttered, whirled 

%, which are terminal. 

CALYX Perianthium tetraphyllnm, foliolis lanceo- f CALYX: a Peri anthium of four leaves, of a pointed 

latis, acuminatis, margine membranaceis, co- | oval fhape, membranous at the edge, coloured, 

loratis, perfiftentibus, foliolis duobus acutis | continuing, with two pointed and much fmaller 

et mu'lto minoribus ad bafin, fig. 3, 5. % leaves at the bottom of them, fig. 3, 5. 


COROLLA monopetala, ovata, ore quadrifido, laciniis | COROLLA of one Petal, oval, the mouth divided 

obtufis, fepe emortuis, perfiftens, fig. 4. into four fegments, which often occur wither- 

| ed, continuing,^. 4. 

STAMINA: Filament a odlo, fubulata, alba, Corolla | STAMINA: eight Filaments, tapermg, white, fhor- 

breviora, receptaculo inferta ; Anthers fub- | ter than the Corolla, inferted into the Recep- 

fagittatse cohserentes, biloculares, bicornes,' % tacle : Antherte fomewhat arrow fhaped, 

cornibus laciniatis, ad bafin rubris, biforami- | adhering together, with two_ cavities^ open 

nofe fig. 6, 7. % at t0 P> anc * two ntt ^ e horns which are jagged 

% and red at bottom, fig. 6, 7. 

PISTILLUM : Germen cylindraceum, fulcatum ; % PISTILLUM : Germen cylindrical, grooved : Style 

Stylus fubulatus, purpureus, Corolla inclu- | tapering, purple, inclofed within the Corolla, 

fus, Staminibus longior ; Stigma fubrotundum | but longer than the Stamina : Stigma roundifh, 

fig! %, 9, 10. I fig- 8 > 9> IO - 

PERICARPIUM Capsula fubrotunda, quadrilocula- % SEED-VESSEL a roundifh Capfule of four cavities and 

ris, quadrivalvis. | four valves. 


SEMINA plura, fubovata, fuperficie reticulata, Tetra- | SEEDS feveral, of an oval fhape, the furface reticulated, 

licis quadruplo majora. | four times larger than thole of the crofs leaved 

« Lbath. 

THIS fpecies of Heath, which produceth the moil; fhowy flowers, grows generally with the crofis-kaved and 
common Heath ; and flowers in July and Auguft. 

As it grows to a pretty confiderable height, it is applicable to the fame ufes as the common Heath. 

It is diftinguifhed from the crofis-leaved Heath, by the finenefs, fmoothnefs and deep green colour of its leaves ; 
its 'flowers alio grow more in fpikes, and are of a deeper purple colour. 


^/Uif-a4^~ '' 

Adoxa moschatellina. Tuberous Moschatel. 

ADOXA Linncei Gen. PI Octandria Tetragynia. 

Cal. 2-fidus, inferus. Cor. 4-£ 5-fida, fupera. Bacca 4-f. 5-locularis, ca- 
lyce coalita. 

RaiiSyn.Gen. 16. HerbjeBacciferjE. 
ADOXA Mofchatellina. Linncei Syjl. Vegetab. p. 315. Sp. PI. 527. Fl. Suecic. p. 132, 
MOSCHATELLINA HalJer hi/l. 429. 
MOSCHATELLA Adoxa. Scopoli. JF/. CarnioJ. p. 281. 
MOSCHATELLINA foliis fumarke bulbofae. LB. in. 206. 
RANUNCULUS nemorofus Mofchatella didus. Parkinfon 226. 
RANUNCULUS nemorum Mofchatellina dictus. Bauhin. Pin. 178. 
RADIX CAVA minima viridi flore. Gerard emac. 1091. Rati Syn. p. 268, Tuberous MofchateL 

Hudfon PL Angl. ed. 2. p. 172. 

Lightfioot Fl. Scot. p. 209. 

Oeder Fl. Dan. ic. 139. 

RADIX perennis, repens, dentata, alba. | ROOT perennial, creeping, toothed, and of a white 

I colour. 

FOLIA radicalia tria aut quatuor, tri-ternata, incifa, | LEAVES : radical leaves commonly three or four, 
glabra, lobis ovatis, mucronatis, caulina duo % triply ternate, deeply cut in, fmooth, and 

brevius petiolata, oppofita. | mining ; the fegments or lobes oval, with a 

J fhort point : thofe of the ftalk two in number, 

% ftanding on fhorter foot-ftalks, and oppofite. 


CAULIS folia fuperans, fimplex, fubtetragonus. ^ STALK fomewhat taller than the leaves, fimple, and 

I nearly fquare. 

PEDUNCULUS quadrangularis, nudus, terminahs. % FLOWER-STALK fquare, naked, and terminating 

I the ftalk. 

CAPITULUM tetragonum, ex quatuor flonbus verti- | HEAD fquare, from the union of four of the flowers, 
cillatis, quinto terminali. | and terminated by the fifth. 

CALYX: PERiANTHiuMinferum, faepius triangulare, | CALYX: a Perianthium placed beneath the ger- 
planum, perfiftens, fig. 1 . % men, moft commonly triangular, flat, and 

I permanent,^. 1. 

COROLLA monopetala, rotata, plana, quadrifida, % COROLLA monopetalous, wheel-fhaped, flat, divi- 

aut quinquefida, laciniis ovatis, acutis, caly- | ded into four or five fegments, which are 

ce longioribus, fig. 2, 3, 4. % oval, pointed, and longer than the calyx, 

I fig- 2, 3, 4- 

STAMINA: Filamenta o&o aut decern, fubulata, % STAMINA: eight or ten Filaments, tapering, the 
longitudine calycis : Anthers flavae, planze, | length of the calyx : Anthers yellow, flat, 

orbiculatae, fig. 5. % and round, fig. 5. 

PISTILLUM : Germen fubrotundum, calyce cinclum : | PISTILLUM : Germen roundifh, furrounded by the 

Styli plerumque quatuor, fimplices, ere&i, % calyx : Styles generally four, fimple, up- 

longitudine ftaminum, perfiftentes : Stigma- | right, the length of the ftamina, permanent : 

ta fimplicia, fig. 6. $. Stigmata fimple, fig. 6. 


PERICARPIUM: Bacca globofa, viridis, quadrilo- | SEED-VESSEL; a round Berry of a green colour, 

cularis, cum calyce coalita, fig. 7. % having four cavities, and united to the calyx, 

I fig' 7- 

SEMINA folitana, ovata, compreffa, fig. 8. % SEEDS Angle, oval, and flattened, fig. 8. 

SOME of the antient botanifts confidered this Angular plant as a Fumaria, others as a Ranunculus, from 
the appearance of its foliage; but an attention to its fructification, fhews it to be a plant altogether fui generis. 

It is one of the bacciferous plants of Ray, but its berries are rarely produced, and not to be difcovered 
without a nice examination. 

It varies much in the divifions of its Calyx, and Corolla, as well as in the number of its Stamina, even 
in the terminal flower. 

In Charlton Wood we find it abundantly, flowering in April and May. 

Chryfofplenium Oppofitifollum. Common Golden Saxifrage. 

CHRYSOSPLENIUM Unruel Gen. PL Decandria "Digynia. 

Cal. 4-f. 5-fidus, coloratus. Cor. o. Caps. 2-roftris, i lo- 
cularis, polyfperma. 

Rail Syn. Gen. 5. Herbje flore imperfecto seu stamineo vel apetalo 


CHRYSOSPLENIUM oppofitifollum foliis oppofitis. Lin, SyJ. Vegetab. p. 342. Sp. PL 569. 
CHRYSOSPLENIUM foliis conjugatis. Haller. Hifu No. 1549. 
SAXIFRAGA rotundifolia aurea. Bauhin. pin. p. 309. 

SAXIFRAGA aurea. Ger. emac. 841. Parkinfon 425. Rati Syn. 158. Golden Saxifrage. 
Hudfon PI. Angl. p. 156. 
Oeder PI. Dan. ic. 365. 
Lightfoot PL Scot, p, 220. 

RADICES perennes, fibrofae, capillares. | ROOTS fibrous,, capillary, and perennial. 

CAULES bafi repentes, quadrati, tenerrimi, ere&i, $ STALKS creeping at bottom, fquare, very tender, 
palmares et ultra, pilis raris hirfuti; ramoli, | upright, about four inches in height, befet 
luperne dichotomi. | with a few ftiffiih hairs, branched, and fork- 
s' ed at top. 

FOLIA oppofita, connata, petiolata, patentia, fubro- t LEAVES oppofite, connate, ftanding on foot-ftalks, 

tunda, pilis raris albidis hirfuta, dentato- | fpreading, of a roundifh figure, befet with a 

crenata, fubcarnofa, e flavo virefcentia, fubtus | few white ftiffiih hairs, indented or crenated 

albida, fuprema profundius crenata. t at the edges, fomewhat flefhy, ofayellowifh 

I green colour, but whitifh underneath ; the 

¥ uppermoft leaves more deeply notched. 

FLORES flavi, feffiles, fummis ramis infidentes, co- | FLOWERS yellow, feffile, fitting on the tops of the 
rymbofi, faftigiati. I branches, forming a corymbus perfectly flat 

¥ at top. 

CALYX: PERiANTHiuMquadripartitum, rarius quin- f CALYX: a Peri anthium divided into four fegments, 

quepartitum, patens, .flavum, perfiftens ; la- i feldom into five, fpreading, of a yellow colour, 

ciniis ovatis, fubaequalibus, fig. 1, 2. | and continuing; the fegments ovate, and 

% nearly equal 5 fig. 1,2. 

COROLLA nulla. | COROLLA wanting. 


STAMINA: Filamento odto, (in fupremo flore de- | STAMINA: eight Filaments, (in the top flower 

cem aliquando obfervantur,) fubulata, ere&a, % ten are fometimes obfervable,) tapering, up- 

longitudine fere calycis : Anthers didymas, | right, almoft the length of the calyx: An- 

fubrotundse, flavae, fig. 3, 4. f ther;e double, roundifh, and yellow,/^. 3, 4, 


NECTARIUM fquamula crenulata germen cingens, | NECTARY a fcale with a crenated edge, furrounding 

fig. 5. % the germen, fig. 5. 

PISTILLUM : Germen inferum, definens in Stylos | PISTILLUM : Germen placed below the calyx, end- 
duos, fubulatos, longitudine ftaminum : Stig- % ing in two tapering- Styles, the length of 
mata obtufa, fig. 6. I the Stamina : Stigmata blunt, fig. 6. 

PERICARPIUM : Capsula biroftris, bipartite, uni- | SEED-VESSEL ; a Capsule haying two beaks^ or 
locularis, bivalvis, calyce viridi cin&a. | horns, dividing in the middle, of one cavity, 

% and two valves, furrounded by a green Calyx. 

SEMINA plurima, minuta, aurantiaca. ? SEEDS numerous, minute, of an orange colour. 

THE antient botanifts fhewed no fmall botanic difcernment in confidering this plant as a Saxifraga ; and al- 
though in ftria propriety it may be neceffary to form a different genus of it, yet its affinity mufl be con- 
feffed to be very great. 

The part which Linnjeus calls the Receptaculum angulatum, appears to be more properly a kind of Necfarium ; 
the Stamina proceed from beneath, not out of it. 

As the terminal flower in this plant is rarely divided into more than four fegments, and has only eight 
Stamina, it would perhaps be more proper to place it in the clafs Octandria. 

It grows in great abundance in the boggy part of Charlton Wood', and flowers in April. The feeds ripen 
in May. 

Authors are filent as to its ufeful or noxious qualities. 

4//y l JOi)fi/£4iu</smy efe/i<frJMj£ouuym 



Saxifraga tridactylites. Rue-leaved Saxifrage. 

SAXIFRAGA himai Gen. PL Decandria Digynia. 

CaL 5-partitus. Car. 5-petala. Caps. 2-foftris* 1 locuiaris. polyfperma* 
RanSyn.Gen.24. He-rbje pentapetalje vasculiferje. 

SAXIFRAGA tridadlylites foliis caulims cuneiformibus trifidis alternis, caule eredto raraofo. Limuei 

Syjl. Vegetab. p. 344. Sp. PL p. 578. FL Sueck. p. 143. 
SAXIFRAGA foliis petiolatis trilobatis caule ereclo ramofo et foliofo. Hatter, bjft* heh. p. 422. n. 986. 
SAXIFRAGA tridaStylites. Scopoli. FL Carniol. p. 237. n. 500. 
SEDUM trida&ylites te&orum. Bauhln. Pin. 285. 
PARONYCHIA rutaceo folio. Gerard, emac. 624. 
PARONYCHIA foliis incifis. Parkin/on. 556. 

SAXIFRAGA verna annua humilior. L R. H. 252. Ran Syn. p. 354, Rue Witlow-grafs. 

Hudfon FL Angl. p. 159. ed. 2. 182. 
Lightfoot FL Scot. p. 224. 

RADIX annua, fibrofa. f ROOT annual and fibrous. 


CAULIS plerumque triuncialis, ere&us, teres, ruber- $ STAK generally about^ three inches high, upright, 

rimus, ramofus, pilis glanduliferis veftitus | round, of a bright red colour, branched and 

ut ut folia cum calycibus. % covered (as alio the leaves and calyx) with 

¥ hairs having glands at their extremities. 

FOLIA ima integra, fubrotunda, caulina ficut afcen- t LEAVES : the bottom leaves entire and roundim ; 

dunt bipartite, tripartita aut quinquepartita, | thofe of the ftalk as they aicend, are deeply 

fubcarnofa, rigida, patentia, petiolis foliis Ion- % divided into two, three, or five fegments, 

gioribus complanatis infidentia, fuprema feffi- | fomewhat fleflvv, rigid, and fpreading, fit- 

lia, bipartita aut fimplicia, ovato-lanceolata, | ting on flattened foot-ftalks longer thap the 

fubere&a. t leaves ; the uppermoft leaves feffile, divided 

I into two fegments, or intire, of an oval poin- 

| ted fhape, and nearly upright. 

FLORES albi, ere£ti, parvi. | FLOWERS white, fmall, and upright. 

CALYX: Perianthium monophyllum, quinque- | CALYX: a Perianthium of one leaf, fhort, and 

partitum, breve, laciniis ovato-acutis, fub- * divided into five fegments, which are oval, 

ere&is,fig. 1. | pointed, and upright, jig. 1. 


COROLLA : Petal a quinque exigua, laciniis calycis % COROLLA : five fmall Petals, a little longer than 

paulo longiora, ovata, obtufa, patentia, bafi | the fegments of the calyx, oval, blunt, and 

angufta, immaculata, jig. 2. \ fp reading, narrowed at bottom, and fpotlefs, 

I fig- 2. 

STAMINA: Filament a decern, fubulata -.Antherje | STAMINA: ten Filaments, tapering towards the 

fubrotundee, flav^e, jig. 3. | top : Anthers roundim and yellow, jig. 3. 


PISTILLUM : Germen inferum, calyce obtedum, % PISTILLUM : Germen placed below the calyx and 

fubrotundum, defmens in Stylos duos bre- | covered by it, of a roundim fhape, and termi- 

ves : Stigmata villofa, jig. 4. % nating in two fhort Styles : the Stigmata 

J villous, jig. 4. 


PERICARPIUM: Capsula fubrotunda, bilocularis, % SEED-VESSEL a roundifh Capsule of two cavities 

biroftris, ore aperto, ovato, integro, | and two beaks, the mouth oval, open, and 

% intire. 


SEMINA minima, nigricantia. | SEEDS very minute, of a blackifh brown colour. 

IN the months of April and May, this little plant fucceeds the Draba verna, and is no fmall ornament to 
the tops of our walls. Jt grows alfo on houfes, and among rubbifh. 

It varies in fize from one to fix inches, or even more in particular fituations : the larger it grows, the 
more branched it becomes, and the more numerous are the divifions of its leaves: on the contrary in its 
fmall ftate, the flalk is frequently fimple, and the leaves undivided. 

Its medical virtues, if any, are not fufficient to preferve it in the prefent practice. 


fa/?JMM m//0ffiUX#UUte 

Saponaria officinalis, Sopewort. 

SAPONARIA Linn. Gen. PL Decandria Digynia. 

Cal. i-phyllus, imdus. Petala 5, unguiculata. Caps, oblonga, i-locularis. 

Rait Syn. Herb,e pentapetal^ vasculifer^e. 

SAPONARIA officinalis, calycibus cylindricis foliis ovato-lanceolatis. Lin. Syfl. Ve&etab. p. 347. 
Spec. PL 584. ' ' ' 

SAPONARIA foliis ovato-lanceolatis, trinerviis; floribus tubulofis, umbellatis. Haller hijl. helv.'n. 980. 
LYCHNIS officinalis. Scopoli. FL Carniol. p. 303. ^510* 
SAPONARIA major laevis. Bauhin. pin. 206. 
SAPONARIA Ger. emac. 444. 
SAPONARIA vulgaris. Parklnfon. 641. 

LYCHNIS Saponaria dicta. Rail Syn. p. ^<). Common Sopewort. Hudfon FL Angl. p. 339. Oeder. 
FL Dan. Icon. 543. 

RADIX perennis, cortice rubente tecta, profunde de- ¥ ROOT perennial, covered with a reddifh coloured bark, 

fcendens, lateque reptans, gemmis vivacibus. | ftriking deep into the ground, . and fpreading 

inftrucla, hinc tritici repentis semulus, ex % wide, furnifhed with living buds, whence, 

hortis difficillime extirpatur. | like Couch-Grafs, it is wich the greatefl 

y difficulty rooted out of gardens. 

CAtJLES pedales et ultra, erecti, rigidi, teretes, fub- ? STALKS a foot or more in height, upright, rigid, 

rubenteSj geniculati, fuperne ramofi, ramis f round, of a reddifh colour, jointed, at top 

oppofitis. % branched, the branches oppofite. 

FOLIA ovato-lanceolato, connata, brachiatim oppofita, | LEAVES of an oval pointed fhape, connate, alternate- 

glabra, trinervia, patentia.' y ly oppofite, fmooth, with three ribs, and 

I fpreading. 

FLORES terminales, fubumbellati, carnei. | FLOWERS terminal, forming a kind of umbell, flefh 

% coloured. 

CALYX: Perianthium monopyllum, tubulofum, | CALYX: a PeriAnthium of one leaf, tubular, 

bali intropreffum, fcabriufculum, oblongum, ^ prefled in at the bafe, roughifh, oblong, with 

quinquedentatum, Jig. 1. | five teeth, fig. 1. 

COROLLA: Petala quinque; ungues angufti, angu- | COROLLA: five Petals, the claws narrow, angu- 

lati, calyce paulo longiores, fig. 3, 4; llmbus % lar, a little longer than the Calyx, fig, 3, 4; 

planus, obcordatus, bafi bidentatus, fig. 3. | the limb flat, inverfely heart-fhaped, furnifhed 

I at bottom with two little teeth, fig. 3. 

STAMINA: Filament a decern, fubulata, longitudine % STAMINA: ten Filaments, tapering, the length 

tubi corollas, alterna unguibus petalorum in- | of the tube of the Corolla ; the alternate ones 

ferta : Anthers oblongas, pallida, fig. 5. % inferted into the claws of the petals : Anthe- 

| rje oblong, of a pale colour, fig. 5. 

PISTILLUM: Germen oblongum, 'teretiufculum, | PISTILLUM : Germen oblong, roundifh, tranverfly 

tranfverfe rugofum, viride : Styli duo, fu- % wrinkled, and green: Styles two, taper- 

bulati, albi: Stigmata fimplicia, &>-. 6, 7, 8. I ing, and white; Stigmata fimple, fig. 6, 

. I 7* 8. 
PERICARPIUM: Capsula oblonga, unilocularis, | SEED-VESSEL: an oblong Capsule of one cavity, 
longitudine calycis, ventricofa, calyce tecta, % the length of the Calyx, bellying out, cover- 
ore quadridentato, fig. 9. t ed with the Calyx ; the mouth having four 

I teeth, fig. 9. 

SEMINA plurima, nigricantia, reniformia, fuperficie f SEEDS numerous, blackifh, kidney fhaped, the fur- 

granulata, fig. 10, 11. * face granulated, fig. 10, 11. 

The name of Sopewort has been given to this plant, from its anfwering in a considerable degree, the purpofes of 
foap, forming like it, a lather with water, and taking out fpots of greafe, &c. from cloth in the fame manner ; 
whence it has alfo been called the Fullers-herb. 

Some botanifts are ready to doubt whether this herb be a native of Great Britain ; but the teftimonies of 
Gerard and Ray, appear fufficient to confirm it as fuch. Being often cultivated in gardens, on account of its 
beauty, it is no doubt often found among the refufie of gardens ; and the plants which we have here and there 
met with in a few places about town, may probably have been of this kind. 

It is faid naturally to grow in moifr. fituations ; and flowers during the months of July, Auguft and September. 

There are feveral varieties of it cultivated in the gardens, from the perfectly white to the deep purple blolfom'd, both 
fingle and double ; as alfo that fingular variety the Saponaria concava anglica of Bauhine and Morison, in which 
the leaves furround the ftalk, and the bloflbm becomes monopetalous, but generally fplit, and deftitute of the other 
parts of the fructification ; found originally by Gerard, in a fmall grove of a wood called the Splney, near Lich- 
barrow, in North amptonfinre ; where, according to the teftimony of Morton, hlfl. nat. agr. North, it is no longer 
to be found ; and which variety appears more like a lufus nature, as Ray confiders it, than a mule plant, produ- 
ced betwixt a Gentian and the Sopewort, as Linnjeus firft fuggefted. 

All thefe varieties are eafily cultivated : indeed much care is required, that they do not fpread too much 
in the garden. 

A decoction of the dried herb, does not form a lather fo well as that of the frefh herb. A decoction of the dried 
root, makes a lather exactly like a folution of foap, but not fo flippery ; Berg. Mat. Med. 

Greafe and dirt were warned out with it, but not ftains ; Idem. 

The root tafted not bitter, but fvveet ; afterwards warm and biting in the throat ; Rutty Mat. Med. 

The tafte of the leaves bitter, mucilaginous, nightly auftere, and acrid, and if chewed long, quite acrid : the 
decoction alfo bitter, and auftere ; but not changed by vitriol of iron ; idem. 

The watery infufion of the dried herb, fuddenly became of a blackifh green colour, by die addition of vitriol of 
iron ; but not the infufion of the root ; Bergius. 

In baths and lotions, it has been made ufe of to cleanfe and beautify the fkin ; Idem. 

Internally the decoction of the whole herb is fudorific, and promotes the menfes ; idem. 

If the decoction be very ftrong, it proves purgative ; idem, ex Mangeto. 

The leaves and root are made ufe of in the aflhma : half a dram of the root taken with honey, promotes 
expectoration ; Idem. 

In the jaundice, chronic difeafes, and obftrucYions of the vifcera, it has been recommended by Boerhave ; 
Haller hijl. helv. 

By others it has been recommended in venereal and fcrophulous*difeafes, particularly in the former by Stahl, 
who deemed it fuperior to Sarfaparilla ; Newman s Chem. by Lewis» 



STELLARIA Linnai Gen. PL DecAndria Trigynia. 

Cal. 5-phyllus, patens. Petal. 5. blpartita. Caps, i-locularis, polyiperr 
RaiiSyn.Gen.2A;.. Herb^e pentapetalje vasculiferje. 
STELLx^RIA Holojlea foliis lanceolatis ferrulatis, petalis bifidis. Lift. Syjl. Vegetal, p. 352. FL 

Suecica. p. 150* 
ALSINE foliis gramineis ciliatis. Holler hijl. No. 884. 
STELLARIA Holojlea. Scopoli Fl. Carniol. p. 314. 
. CARYOPHYLLUS holofteus arvenfis glaber flore majore. Bauhin pin. 210. 

GRAMEN leucanthemum. Gerard emac. 47. Pdrlinfion. 1325. Rail Syn-. 346, The Greater Stichworfr 
Hud/on Fl. Angl. p. 166. 

RADIX tenui et infirma radicula, fummo cefpite ge- | ROOT weak, {lender and jointed, creeps on the furface 

niculata reptat, demiffis tamen altius fibris. | of the ground, fending down fibres to a confi- 

% derable diftance. 

CAULES plures, denfe nafcuntur, erecti, pedales, qua- % STALKS feveral, growing thickly together, upright, 

drati, geniculati, fcabriufculi, fragiles, ball | a foot high, fquare, jointed, roughiih, brittle, 

pertenues. I very ilender at bottom. 


FOLIA lanceolato-acuminata, fubconnata, rigidula, in- I LEAVES narrow and pointed, at their bafes flightly 

feme carinata, ferrulata, feu potius fetis rigi- % uniting, fomewhat ftiff, underneath .keel-fiV.ped, 

diufculis ciliata, fuperiora adfcendentia, mar- | ferrated at the edges, or rather edged with very 

ginibus revol Litis, e coeruleo-virefcentia, infe- | fine itiffhairs orbrifdes ; the up per leaves grow- 

riora crebriora, breviora, deorfum flexa, flava. % ing fomewhat upright, the edg^s turning back, 

I of a bluifh green colour ; the lower leaves more 

sp numerous, fhorter, bending back, and of a 

% yellow colour. 


FLORES albi, longis petiolis fcabriufculis infidentes, e % FLOWERS white, ftanding on long rough foot-ftalks, 

dichotomia caulis prodeuntes. | and proceeding from the forked diviiion of the 

I fralk. 

CALYX: Perianthium pentaphyllum, foliolis ova- I CALYX: a PeriAnthitjm of five leaves, of an oval 

to-lanceolatis, concavis, marginatis, kevibus, % pointed fhape, hollow, edged, fmooth, fpread- 

patentibus, perfiftentibus, jig. 1. | ing and continuing, /g. 1, 

COROLLA: Petala quinque, magna, bipartita, ob- % COROLLA: five white Petals, large, divided at top^ 
cordata, alba, nervofa, bafi virefcentia, paten- | heart-ihaped, rib'd, green at bottom, fpread- 

tia, jig. 2. ¥ ing, fig. 2. 


STAMINA: Filamenta decern, alba, fubulata, cor- | STAMINA: ten white Filaments, tapering, fhorter 

rolla breviora, alterna glandula flavefcenti ad f than the corolla, the alternate ones furniihed 

bafin infhrucla : Anthers flavas, oblongas, I at bottom with a yellowifh gland : Antherjs 

infidentes, fig. 3. $ yellow, oblong, fitting on the filaments, fig. 3. 

PISTILLUM : Germen fubrotundum : Styli tres, | PISTILLUM : Germen roundilh : Styles three, 
filiformes patentes : Stigmata obtufa, fig. 4. % thread-maped, fpreading : Stigmata bluntifh, 

■ I fis- 4. 

PERICARPIUM: Capsula fubrotunda, membrana- | SEED-VESSEL a roundifh membranous Capsule, 
cea, unilocularis, fexvalvis, fig. 6. | of one cavity and fix valves, fig. 6. 

SEMINA plerumque quinque aut fex majufcula, auran- | SEEDS for the molt part five or fix, largeifh, of a deep 
tiaca, reniformia, pulchre crenulata, jig. 7. $ orange colour and beautifully notched, fig. 7. 

THE Stellaria Holojlea grows very common with us, and with its white delicate blofibms enlivens our 
woods and banks early in the Summer. Its feeds are very beautiful and like the Cbickiveed, but larger, 

A very pretty Moth, called by the Aurelians the leajl Yellow Underwing, whofe hiftory is unknown, is 
by them frequently caught hovering over the flowers of this plant when the fun fhines itrong. 

3 s 



OXALIS Linnai Gen. PL Decandria Pentagynia. 

Cat* 5-phyllus. Petala unguibus connexa. Caps. angulis dehifens, 5-gona. 
Rail Syn.Gen. 18. Herb^i fructu sicco singulari flore monopetalo. 
OXALIS Acetofella fcapo unifloro, foliis ternatis obcordatis, radice dentata. Linnai. Syji. Vegetab. p. 360. 

Sp. PL p. 620. FI. Suecic. n. 406. 
OXYS fcapo unifloro, foliis ternatis, radice fquamofo-articulata. Haller. hifl. p. 402. 
OXYS Acetofella. Scopoli PL Carnlol. n. 561. 

TRIFOLIUM acetofum vulgare. Bauhin. pin. 330. Parkin/on* 746. 
OXYS alba. Ger. emac. 1201. 

ACETOSELLA et Lujula feu Alleluja Offic. Rail Syn. p. * 2 8i, Wood-Sorrel. 

Hudfon. Fl. Angl. p. 173. 
Llghtfoot. Fl. Scot. p. 238. 

RADIX perennis, horizontalis, fquamofo-dentata, ru- 

FOLIA terna, obcordata, ex flavo-virefcentia, fubtus 

faepe purpurea, pilis raris adfperfa, petiolis 

longis infidentia. 

PETIOLI palmares, erectiufcufi, teneri, e bulbillo 
vaginante prodeuntes, ad bafin ruberrimi, te- 
retes, fuperne ad unum latus fulcati. 

FLORES albi aut carnei, venis rubris eleganter ftriati. 

SCAPI uniflori, longitudine foliorum, bra&aeis duabus 
ovato-acutis vaginantibus prope apicem in- 

CALYX : PERiANTHiuMquinquepartitum, breve, per- 
futens, maculis purpureis faepe notatum, laci- 
niis obtufiufculis margine membranaceis,^. 1 . 

COROLLA : Petala quinque, unguibus paululum 
incurvatis receptaculo afflxa, et paulo fupra 
ungues cohasrentia, obtufa, fubcrenata, ban" 
flavedine tin£la, fig. 2. 

STAMINA : Filamenta decern, erecla, alba, quin- 
que exteriora breviora, fig. 3, 4 : Anthers 
fiavefcentes, biloculares, fig. 5. 

PISTILLUM : Germen quinquangulare, viride : 
Styli quinque capillares, ftaminibus paulo 
longiores : Stigmata obtufa, fig. 6, 7. 

PERICARP1UM : Capsula fubovata, pentagona, 
maculata, quinquelocularis, angulis longitudi- 
naliter dehifcentibus, fig. 8, 8. 

SEMINA : tria in fmguio loculamento, cordata, per 
longitudinem itriata, utrinque convexa, rufa, 
Arillo nitido albo elaftico inclufa, quo dif- 
rupto ejiciuntur, fig. 9, 9. 

ROOT perennial, horizontal, fcaly, and of a bright 
red colour. 

LEAVES growing three together, inverfely heart- 
fhaped, of a yellowifh green colour, frequent- 
ly purple underneath, befet with a few hairs, 
and fitting on long foot-ftalks. 

LEAF-STALKS about three inches long, nearly up- 
right, tender, proceeding from a little bulb 
which forms a kind of fheath to it ; at bottom, 
very red and round ; the upper part grooved 
on ' one fide. 

FLOWERS white or flefh-coloured, and elegantly 
ftreaked with red veins. 

FLOWER-STALK, fupporting a fingle bloffom, the 
length of the leaves, furnifhed near the top 
with two oval pointed Bracteas, which partly 
furround it. 

CALYX : a Perianthium deeply divided into five {eg- 
ments, fhort and permanent, often fpotted 
with purple ; the fegments bluntifh, and 
membranous at the edges, fig. 1. 

COROLLA: five Petals, affixed to the receptacle 
by the claws, which bend a little inward, juft 
above the claws 'adhering together, blunt, 
fiightly crenated, and tinged at bottom with 
yellow, fig. 2. 

STAMINA: ten Filaments, upright and white, the 
five exterior ones fhorteff, fig. 3, 4 ; Anthe- 
rs yellowifh, and bilocular, fig. 5. 

PISTILLUM : a Germen, four corner'd and green : 
Styles five, very (lender, and a little longer 
than the Stamina : Stigmata blunt, fig. 6,7. 

SEED-VESSELL : a Capsule fomewhat oval, five 
cornered, fpotted, with five cavities, the an- 
gles burfting longitudinally, fig. 8, 8. 

SEEDS : three in each cavity, heart-fhaped, and 
grooved longitudinally, convex on both fides, 
of a bright reddifh brown colour, and inclofed 
within a fhining white elaftic Arillus, which 
burfting they are thrown out, fig. 9, 9. 

IN this little plant, there is a delicacy of ftrufture fuperior to what we obferve in moft : there are fome circum- 
ftances alfo in the oeconomy of the plant not lefs worthy our attention ; and which, I believe, have not hitherto 
been noticed. The firft of thefe is the fame procefs, with refpeft to the plants feeding, which we obferve in the 
Violets. If this plant be attentively obferved, it will be found to continue producing feed-veffels and feeds, during 
the greateff. part of the fummer, without any appearance of expanded blofloms, which are only obfervable at one 
particular feafon of the year. As foon as the plant has done flowering, the flower-ftalk, as in many other plants, 
bends down ; and when the feed is ripe, again becomes upright. The fecond is, if thefe feed-veffells, when ripe, 
are (lightly prefled, they open at the angles, and the feeds are thrown out at the apertures ; but not from any 
elafticity in the capfule itfelf, which continues unchanged : but the caufe of their propulfion is a ftrong white mi- 
ning arillus, which covers the feed, and which burfting, by its elafticity throws the feeds to a considerable diftance. 

There are but few woods about us in which the Wood-Sorrel does not occur. It will not grow in a garden unlefs 
it has (hade. 

April and May are the months in which it flowers. 

It is faid to vary with blueifh and purple-coloured bloflbms. 

The leaves in wet weather, are expanded ; but in dry weather they droop ; L'mnai Fl. Suecic. They are alfo 
faid by fome authors, to manifeft a degree of feufibility on being ftruck. Poflening a very grateful acid 
tafte, fuperior to common Sorrel, they have been ufed as an antiieptic medicine, in malignant fevers, the 
fcurvy, and all thoie difeafes in which acids are indicated. The only form at prefent in ufe, is a conferye of the 
leaves: but the fyrup, infufion, and juice of the leaves, and the leaves themfelves, have been ufed indifferently. 

The effential fait, extracted from it by chryfiallization, is made ufe of for taking out h-on moulds and fpots of 
ink from linen : for this purpofe, the ftained part is dipped in water, fprinkled with a little of the powdered fait, 
then rubbed on a pewter plate, after which the fpot is warned out with warm water ; Newmans Chem. by Lewis. 

Twenty pounds of frefh Sorrel leaves yielded fix pounds of juice ; from which were obtained two ounces, two 
drams, and one fcruple of chryftalline fait; ibid. 

According to experiments made by Dr. Lobb t a piece of human calculus was diflolved in the juice of this 
plant in nine days ; Ruttfs Mat, Med, 


Lychnis dioica flore rubro. Red Campion. 

LYCHNIS Linntfi Gen. PL Decandria Pentagynia. 

haec fpecies vero dioica eft. 

Cal. i-phyllus, oblongus, laevis. Petala 5 unguiculata. Limbo fubbifido. 

Caps. 5-locularis. 
Rail Syn. Gen. 24. -Herb^e pentapetal^e vasculiferje. 
LYCHNIS dioica floribus dioicis. Linntei Syft. Vegetab. p. 362. Fl. Suecic. p. 156, Sp. PL p. 626. 
LYCHNIS floribus fexu diftindls. Holier, hijl. n. 923. 
LYCHNIS dioica. Scopoli FL Carniol. n. 530. 

LYCHNIS fylveftris five aquatica purpurea limplex. Bauhin pin. 204. 
LYCHNIS fylveftris flore rubro. Parkinfion. 631. 

LYCHNIS fylveftris rubello flore. Gerard emac. 469. Raii Syn. ^^, Red Flowered Wild Campion. 
Hudfion Fl. Angl. 174. 

RADIX perennis, minimi digiti craffitudine, alba, fa- f 

pore fubacri et amaro, fibris multis donato. I 


CAULES ex una radice plures, ere&i, pedales, aut tri- | 

pedales -etiam, teretes, hirfuti, geniculati, pur- | 

purei, geniculis incraflatis, ramofi, ramis fu- I 

perioribus dichotomis. I 

FOLIA oppofita, connata, ovato-acuminata, hirfuta, y 

fubnervofa. | 

CALYX : Perianthium monopbyllum, tubulofum, | 

hiriutum, ftriatum, purpureum, quinqueden- f 

tatum, perfiftens, fig. 1 ; in feminea turgidior, | 

fig- 2. _ I 

COROLLA \ Petala quinque obcordata, purpurea, % 

patentia, fig. 3 ; ad baiin lamina, unguiculas f 

obtufae, bifida aut quadrifidae, fig. 4. % 

STAMINA : Filament a decern fubulata, alba, quo- | 
rum quinque longiora : Anthers flavefcentes, | 

fig- 5- * 

PISTILLUM : Germen ovatum: Neclario ad -bairn | 

cinclum, fig. 6 : Styli quinque longi : albi : •$ 

villofi : Stigmata fimplicia, fig. 7. f 

PERICARPIUM : Capsula unilocularis, ore decern- | 

dentato, fig. 8. % 

SEMINA plurima, cana, fcabriufcula, fig: 9. ? 

ROOT perennial, the thicknefs of the little finger, 
white, of a (lightly acrid and bitter tafte, fur- 
nifhed with numerous fibres. 

STALKS feveral from one root, upright, from one to 
three feet high, round, hirfute, jointed, pur- 
ple, the joints fwelled, branched, the uppermoft 
branches forked. 

LEAVES oppofite, connate, oval-pointed, hirfute, and 
flightly nervous. 

CALYX : a Perianthium of one leaf, tubular, hairy, 
ftriated, purple, having five teeth, and con- 
tinuing, fig. 1 ; in the female more turgid, 
fig- 2. 

COROLLA : fivepurplimheart-fhaped Petals, fpread- 
ing, fig. 3 : at the bottom of the lamina or 
broad part of the petal, are two or four fmall 
upright white blunt leaves, or additional petals, 

fig- 4- 
STAMINA : ten white tapering Filaments, of which 

five are longer than the others: Antherje 

yellowiih, fig. 5. 
PISTILLUM : Germen oval, furrounded by a Neffa- 

rium at bottom, fig. 6 : Styles five, long and 

white : Stigmata fimple, fig. 7. 
SEED-VESSEL a Capsule of one cavity, the mouth 

having ten teeth, fig. 8. 
SEEDS numerous, grey and rough, fig. 9. 

THE Lychnis tribe in general produce both Stamina and Styles in the fame flower; but in th^s fpecies 
we fee a remarkable inftance of the capricious inconftancy of nature, who feems to fpurn the fetters of fyfte- 
matic diftinction, and laughs at mans attempt of fubje£ting her to particular rules ; for here the Stamina and 
Styles grow on feparate plants ; yet they are placed by Linnaeus in his Clafs Decandria. What could he have 
done in this cafe ? had he placed it under Monoecia, he would have feparated plants evidently of the fame genus : 
ftill, however, it may be faid, he would have made the inveftigation of the plant eafier to the botanic ftudent ; 
nor would it have been the only inftance where plants nearly fimilar are difunited, as in the Anthoxanthum and 
Hokus, which evidently belong to the Graffes, yet are in feparate Claries. 

Exclufive of this fingular variation with regard to the fex, there is a no lefs remarkable difference with 
refpect. to the colour of the flowers in different plants ; fome being conftantly white and others as conftantly 
red :' this with fome other circumftances relative to the two plants, has led me to fufpecl that they are not varie- 
ties but diftinct. fpecies : cultivation and farther attention to them, will enable me to fpeak of this with more certainty. 

The red fort here figured, grows in great abundance in moift fhady ditches and by the fides of hedges, 
and fometimes in woods. It flowers in May and June. 

Both the white and red are cultivated when double, and called by the Gardeners about town Batchelors 
Buttons, a name which feems with more propriety to belong to fome of the double flowering Crowfoots, as 
the Ranunculus acris and aconitifiolius. 

The Aurelians, or thofe who collect Infects of the Moth and Butterfly kind, frequently catch the Sphinx porcellus, 
or fimall Elephant Hawk Moth, on the flowers of this plant in the evening, and where it grows in abundance. 

The feeds are liable to be eaten within the feed-veffel, in July and Auguft, by a Caterpillar which produces a 
browni/Jj coloured Moth, not figured, nor I believe hitherto noticed by any Entomologift. 

Ceraftium femidecandrum. Leaft Moufe-ear Chlckweed. 

CERASTIUM Linnai Gen. PL Decandria Pentagynia* 

Cal. 5-phyllus. Petala bifida. Caps, tmilocukris, Spice dehifcens. 

RaiiSyn. Gen. 24. Herb,e pentafetalje vasculifer,e. 
CERASTIUM femidecandrum floribus pentandris, petalis emarginatis. Lin. Syft. Ve«etab f) "6^ 

Sp. PL 627. FL Suecic. «.41.6. * l ° * " 

MYOSOTIS caule fimplici, foliis ovatis, hirfutis, tubis ternis. Haller. bill. n. 894. 
CENTUNCULUS femidecander. Scopoll FL Carniol. n. 549. 
MYOSOTIS arvenfis hirfuta minor. Vaillant. tab. 30. fig. 2. 
CERASTIUM hirfutum minus parvo flore. RaiiSyn.ed. 3./. xv. fig. 1, Hudfon. ed. 2. p. 200. Light f. p. 24 r. 

RADIX annua, fibrofa, albida. 

I ROOT annual, fibrous, of a whitifh colour. 

CAULIS in locis ficciflimis fimplex, biuncialis, erect-us ; | STALK in very dry places is fimple, uptight, and a- 

faepius vero ramofus, aut pluribus cauliculis ? 
compofitus, ficut in icone exprimitur ; primo ' 
vere cauliculi fupra muros aut terram expan- 
duntur, tandem fubere£ti, triunciales, aut 
etiam femipedales Hunt, colore purpurafcen- 
te, et pilis glanduliferis veftiti. 

bout two inches high ; but more commonly 

is branched, or compofed of numerous fmall 

ftalks, as expreffed in the figure : thefe early 

in the fpring, are expanded on the walls or 

earth, finally become nearly upright, three 

inches, or fometimes even fix inches high, of 

^ a purpliih colour, and covered with hairs 

t having glands at their extremities. 

FOLIA radicalia oblongo-ovata, prope apicem dilata- | LEAVES near the root of an oblong oval fhape, dila- 

ta, acuta, puncto rufo terminata, bafi anguf- | ted near the top, terminating in a fharp red 

tata, connata, leviufcula, medio per longitudi- t point, narrower towards the bafe, and uni- 

nem lulcata, caulina ovata, villofa. | ting around the ftalk, nearly fmooth, and 

$ grooved down the middle : thofe. of the ftalk 

i oval and villous. 

BRACTE^ duas, concavae, yifcofae, membranamar- | FLORAL-LEAVES two, hollow, vifcous, and edged 

? with a membrane, placed under each divi- 

| fion of the ftalk. 

I ELOWERS white, ftanding on foot-ftalks, and form- 
ing a kind of Corymbus. 
FLOWER-STALKS villous, and thickened a little 

ginatae, fub fingula dichotomia caulis. 
FLORES albi, pedunculati, fubcorymbofi. 

PEDUNCULI villofi, ad bafm paululum incraffati, 
florefcente planta longitudine calycis, erecti ; 
peracla florefcentia deorfum flectuntur, et du- 
pio longiores evadunt, demum eriguntur. 

CALYX : Perianthium pentaphyllum, foliolis lan- 
ceolatis, membrana acuminata Corolla lon- 
giore terminatis, vifcofis, fig. 1, 2. 


at bottom, while the plant is in flower the 
length of the Calyx, and upright, the flower- 
ing over they are bent backward, and become 
twice as long, finally they again become up- 

: a Perianthium of five leaves, lanceolate, 
vifcous, and terminated by a pointed mem- 
brane, which is longer "than the Corolla, 
fig. 1, 2. 

* jig . 1 , z » 

COROLLA: Petala quinque, oblonga, calyce bre- | COROLLA: five Petals, which are oblong, and 

viora, apice acute emarginata, faepe erofa, | 
fig- 3' 4- % 

STAMINA: Filamenta plerumque quinque, fubin- I 
de fex, raro plura, alba, Corolla bre viora 
Antherje fubrotundae, flavefcentes, fig. 5 

PISTILLUM : Germen ovatum : Styli quinque, 
capillares, albi, villofi: Stigmata fimpli- 
cia, fig. 6, 7. 

PERICARPIUM : Capsula membranacea, fcariofa, 
quinquenervis, ore decemdentato, fig. 8. 

SEMINA plurima, minima, ovata, flavefcentia,/^. 9, 

fhorter than the Calyx, fharply cut in at top, 
and often appearing jagged, fig. 3, 4. 

STAMINA : Filaments generally five, now and 
then fix, leldom more, white, fhorter than 
the Corolla : Anthers nearly round, of a 
yellowifh colour, fig. 5. 

PISTILLUM: Germen oval: Styles five, very fine, 
white, and villous: Stigmata fimple, fig. 6, 

SEED-VESSEL, a membranous Capsule, lbnorous 
when touched, having five ribs, the mouth, 
opening with ten teeth, fig. 8. 
SEEDS numerous, very minute, oval and yellowifh, 
fig- 9> 10 - 

MUCH praife is due to the great Linn^us, for the accuracy with which he has defcribed the more common 
Cerafiiums, and particularly the prefent fpecies. To Monfieur Vaillant the public are alfo much indebted, for 
the accurate and elegant figures, which he has given of them in his Flora Parifie?ifis. 

In the third edition of Ray's Synop/is, the femidecandrum is added by Dillenius, who has there given a figure 
of it, which, although expreffive of the plant as it commonly grows on heaths, yet tends to miflead the ftudent 
with an idea, that minutenefs is its chief charaaeriftic : the defcription alfo has a fimilar tendency. It fays, that 
the ftalks are not vifcous, and that it flowers fomewhat later than the vifcofum ; whereas in both, the ftalks are 
evidently vifcous towards the upper part ; the femidecandrum alfo flowers equally early ; and inftead of being lefs 
branched, as is there aflerted, it is in a common way more fo. It is true that both fpecies, when they grow in 
very barren places^ (and in which this fpecies feems chiefly to have been fought for,) have only a fimple ftalk, 
and often do not arife to the height of two inches. 

Thefemidecandrum is a much more common plant than is generally imagined ; and is diftinguifhed, particularly 
when in bloflbm, from all the other Cerqftiums with the greateft facility. 

There is fcarce a wall or heath around town, • on which this plant may not be found in abundance ; particularly 
about Hackney ; as alfo under Greenwich Park Wall, facing Black-heath, as well as on the heath itfelf. It comes 
into bloflom foon after the Braba verna, and, like that plant, foon difappears. 

It may be diftinguifhed from the Cerafiiums, when in bloflbm, by having only five ftamina, whence its name. 
I have fometimes found more ; but this number is fufficiently conftant to form a very good fpecific character. 
Linn^us remarks its having ten ftamina, five of which produce no Antherae : thefe I muft confefs never to have 
feen. ^ Scopoli obferves, that he always found it with ten ftamina, and attributes the want of Antherae in Lin- 
N^us's five, to the five exterior ones quickly lofing their Antherae. It is poflible that in Carniola, this plant may 
occur with ten ftamina; but here, like the Alfine, it certainly lofes one half of them. 

_ The petals form a more invariable character, being always fhorter than the calyx, acutely cut in at top, as if a 
piece had been taken out with a pair of fciflars, and frequently irregularly jagged or gnawed: they are alfo much 
broader than thofe of the Cerafiium vifcofum. 

The calyx too is often of confiderable ufe in determining this fpecies, (as it may be obferved when neither the fta- 
mina or petals are vilible,) at leaft from the vulgatum, its leaves being very thickly covered with hairs, having 
glands at their extremities, vid. fig. 1, 2. which glands are altogether wanting in the vulgatum. The membrane 
alfo, which terminates the leaves of the calyx, is remarkably long in this fpecies. 

Thefe xircumftances, if attended to, together with the remarks to be hereafter made on the Cerafiium vulgatum? 
will, it is hoped, enable the ftudent to inveftigate thefe plants, and fix them with certainty. 
No virtues are attributed to it : and it is too inconfiderable to be noxious in agriculture. 


jpmj&um/ ^mu/em/ru^ruonzfl 



Ceraftium vulgatuin* Common Moufe-ear - Chickweed 

CERASTIUM Linnau Gen. PL DecAndriA Pentagynia. 

Calyx 5-phyllus. Petala bifida. Caps, unilocularis, apice dehifcens, 
Pall Syn. Gem 24. Herbje pentapetal.#: vasculifer^e. 

CERASTIUM vulgatum foliis oblongo-ovatis, hirfutis, caulibus difFufis, hirfutie nuda. 

CERASTIUM vulgatum foliis ovatis, petalis calyci asqualibus, caulibus difFufis. Lln.Syfi. Fegetab.p, 362* 

Sp. PL p. 627. FL Suecic. n. 415. 
MYOSOTIS foliis ovato lanceolatis, petalis calycis longitudine. Haller. Hlft. Helv. p. 390. n. 893. 
MYOSOTIS arvenfis hirfuta, parvo flore albo* Falllant. Paris, 142. /. 30. f. 1. 
ALSINE hirfuta magno flore. Bauhln. pirn 251. 

AURICULA muris quorundam flore parvo, vafculo tenui longo. I. B. III. 359. 
ALSINE hirfuta my ofotis. Adv. 193. Rail. Syn. p. 349, Narrow-Leaved Moufe-ear Chickweed. 

Hudfon. FL Angl. p. 175. ed. 2. p. 200. 

Ltghtfoot. FL Scot. p. 240. 

RADIX perennis, fibrofa. 

CAULES plurimi, diffufi, teretes, purpurafcentes, hir- 
futi, ramofi. 

FOLIA hirfuta, inferiora oblongo-ovata, bafi angufta- 
ta, carinata, connata, fuperiora ovata, mar- 
ginibus fubrevolutis. 

CALYX : Perianthium pentaphyllum, foliolis ovato- 
lanceolatis, margine membranaceis,^ apice 
purpurafcentibus, hirfutis, hirfutie nuda fve 
glandulls deftltuta, fig. 1. 

COROLLA : Petala quinque, alba, obtufe bifida, 
calyce plerumque longiora, bafi flavefcentia, 
fig- 2. 

STAMINA : Filamenta decern, filiformia, corolla 
breviora; alterna breviora : Antherje fub- 
rotundas, flavas, fig. 3. 

PISTILLUM : Germen ovatum : Styli quinque, 
capillares, albi, ad bafm fenfim teuuiores : 
Stigmata fimplicia, fig. 4. 

PERICARPIUM : Capsul a ovato- cylindracea,mem- 
branacea, paululum recurvata, calyce duplo 
fere longior, ore decemdentato. 

ROOT perennial and fibrous. 

STALKS numerous, fpreading, round, purplifh, hlr- 
fute, and branched. 

LEAVES hirfute; the lowermofl of an oblong oval 
fhape, narrowed at the bafe, midrib projecl- 

¥ ing on the under fide, uniting around the ftalk ; 

I the uppermost leaves oval, the edges fomewhat 

^ rolled back. 

I CALYX: a Perianthium of five leaves, which are 

I oval and pointed, membranous at the edges, 

t and purplifh at top, covered with hairs which 

I have no glands at their extremities, fig. 1. 

I COROLLA: five white Petals, bluntly notched at 

J top, generally longer than the calyx, yellow- 

% ifh at bottom, fig. 2. 

STAMINA: ten Filaments, thread-fhaped, and 
fhorter than the corolla ; the alternate ones 
fhorteft; Anthers roundifh, and yellow, 
fig- 3- 

PISTILLUM : Germen roundifh : Styles five, very 
flender and white, gradually leflening to the 
bottom : Stigmata fimple, fig. 4. 

SEED-VESSEL : a Capsule ovally-cylindrical, mem- 
branous, turning up a little, almoft twice the 
length of the calyx, the mouth opening with 
ten teeth. 

SEMINA plurima, flavefcentia, ad lentem fcabriufcu- | SEEDS numerous, yellowifh, appearing roughifh when 

la, fig- 5? 6 - 

magnified, /£. 5, 6. 

THE Ceraftium vulgatum is often confounded with the two fpecies already figured in this work ; viz. the vifcofum 
and femldecandrum. The attentive botanift will, however, readily diftinguifh it ; particularly when affifted by the 
following obfervations. 

Firft, this fpecies is certainly perennial ; and although it has only a fmall fibrous root, it continues through 
the winter, and from the fame root throws out new moots; while the other two are ltri&ly annual. Secondly, the 
hairs on the ftalks, leaves, and calyx, are much longer and coarfer, than in either of the other two ; and what 
particularly deferves to be noticed, they are not terminated at the extremity by a vifcous globule, a character alone 
fufficient to diftinguifh it.— -And thirdly, it is not only a larger and more fpreading plant, but alfo with refpecT: to 
fituation more univerfally common. 

It is fubjecl to many variations ; fometimes being very hirfute, at other times but thinly covered with hairs ; 
and it is faid to have been found by Doody quite fmooth.t It differs in fize from an inch to two feet. In the 
breadth of its leaves alfo, like the Polygonum avlculare, it varies very confiderably. The bloflbms likewife are fub- 
jecl to vary in fize. In general, the fbonger the plant the fmaller the petals, and vice verfa ; hence by the fize of 
its petals alone, it is fufficiently diftinguifhed on heaths, where it frequently grows about two inches in height, 
and is often taken for the femldecandrum. 

The name given to this plant by Monfieur Vaillant, is certainly improper; the petals being often twice as 
large as either of the other two. There is one point alfo in which Linn^us's obfervation does not accord with ours : 
in comparing the leaves with thofe of the vifcofum, he fays they are minus lanceolata magifque ovata, the reverfe of 
which is generally obfervable in our plant. 

It comes fully into bloom about May ; but may be found in blofTom during the whole of the fummer. It grows 
not only on walls, but alfo by the fides of roads, iu meadows, and among rubbifh. Like the other Ceraftiums, it 
is not known to be particularly noxious in agriculture ; nor has it any virtues to recommend it. 

\Raii Syn. ed. 3. j>. 349, 

Cerastium viscosum. Broad -leaved Mouse- ear 

Chick weed. 

CERASTIUM Linnai Gen. P. Decandria Pentagynia. 

Col. 5-phyllus. Petala bifida. Caps, unilocularis apice dehifcens. 
Rat Syn. Gen. 24. Herb^: pentapetala vasculifer^:. 

CERASTIUM vifcofium eredum villofo-vifcofum. Urmai Syji. Vegetal, p. 362. FI. Suecie. n. 414. 
MYOSOTIS hirfuta et vifcofa. Haller hjft. n. 895. 
MYOSOTIS hirfuta altera vifcofa. Valll. Paris. 142. /. 30. fig. 1. 
ALSINE hirfuta altera vifcofa. C. Bauhin. pin. 251. 
ALSINE vifcofa. Parkin/on. 768. 

ALSINE hirfuta Myofotis latifolia praecocior. Cat. angl. 

ALSINE Myofotis humilior et rotundo folio. Merret. pin. The Broader-leaved Moufe-ear Chickweed, 
Rail Syn. p. 348. Hud/on. FI. Angl p. .175. 

RADIX annua, f ROOT annual, 

CAULIS palmaris ad pedalem, ball ramofus, medius % STALK from three inches to a foot in height, branched 

caulis eredus, laterales adfcendentes, dichoto- | at bottom, the middle flalk upright, the fide 

mus, pilis glanduliferis veftitus, unde fub vif- | ones bending upward, forked at top, covered 

cofus evadit. f with numerous hairs, each of which is termi- 

| nated by a gland, whence it becomes flightly 

I vifcid. 


FOLIA ovata, fubconnata, villofo-vifcofa, ad inferio- | LEAVES oval, flightly connate, hoary with a little 

rem partem caulis bail anguftiora, e fiaVo yi- % clamminefs, at the bottom of the ftalk narrower 

refcentia. I at tne bafe, of a yellowiih green colour. 

FLORES -in fummitatibus caulium planta adhuc in- | FLOWERS, while the plant is young, are clofely 

fantili arde ftipantur, ad quindecem aut plures. | crouded together on the tops of the ftalks to 

% the number of fifteen or more. 

CALYX Perianthium pentaphyllum, foliolis ovato- $ CALYX: a Perianthium of five leaves, which are 

acuminatis, longitudine petalorum, apice pur- | of an oval pointed fhape, the length of the 

purafcentibus, vifcofo-pilofis, Jig. 1. | petals, purpliih at top, and covered with vifcid 

% hairs, fig. 1. 

COROLLA: Petala quinque alba, oblonga, angufla, | COROLLA: five white Petals, oblong, narrow, at 

bail villofa, apice bifida, Jig. 2. t bottom villous, bifid at top, fig. 2. 


STAMINA : Filament a decern, fubulata, quorum ^ STAMINA : ten Filaments, tapering, of which five 

quinque longiora, bafi glandula inftruda, | are longer than the others, and furnifhed at 

fio-^ 06. I bottom with a fmall gland, fig. 3, 6. 

PISTILLUM: Germen ovatum : Styli quinque vil- | PISTILLUM : Germen oval: Styles five, villous, 
loii germine breviores : Stigmata obtufiuf- | , Ihorter than the germen : STiGMATAbluntim, 

cula, fig. 4, 5. I fig- A-> 5- 

PERICARPIUM : Capsula corniformis, ore decern- % SEED-VESSEL a Capsule, horn-fhaped, twice the 
dentato calyce dimidio longiore, fig. J. | length of the calyx, the mouth furniihed with 

I ten teeth, fig. y. 

SEMINA plurima, flavefcentia, fuborbiculata, crenu- ? SEEDS feveral, yellowifli, roundifh, and notched, 
lata, fig. 8, 9. * fig- 8, 9. 

AMONG the plants which are with difficulty diftinguiihed by the young Botanift, we may properly reckon 
three of our common Cerafiiums, viz. the vijcofium, vulgatum, and fiemidecandriwn, as all of them have fome 
fimilarity in their appearance, occur frequently in the fame fituations, and are fubjecl: to be much altered in 
their appearance, according to the foil and iituation in which they grow. 

The figure which is here given of the vifcofum, reprefents that plant in its medium ftate ; on walls it is 
found much fmaller ; in meadows it is found much larger ; and in both thefe fituations, as well as on dry 
banks and ant hills, it occurs very plentifully, and flowers in the months of April and May, being one of 
the earliefl: in bloom. 

It is diftinguiihed from the others by the upright manner of its growing, by its broad hoary leaves, the 
narrownels of its petals, and the crouded or cluftered appearance of its flowers before they blow : its leaves alfo 
in general are of a paler" colour than the reft. 

-It is not remarked for any particular ufe ; neither is it noxious to the Farmer or Gardener. 

Linnjeus obferves that the plant is liable to be much disfigured by a fpecies of Chermes. 


Geum urbanum. Common Avens. 

GEUM Linnai Gen. PL Icosandria Polygynia. 

Cat. io-fidus. Petala 5. Sem. arifla geniculata. 

Rati Syn, Gen. 15. Herb^: semine nitdo polyspermy. 
GEUM urbanum floribus ere&is, fru&ibus globofis villolis : ariftis uncinatis nudis, foliis lyratis. 

Vinncel Syjl. Vegetab. p. 399. Sp. PL p. 716. PL Suecic. p. iyg. 
GEUM foliis pinnatis, pinna ultima trilobata ; floribus patulis, tubis aduncis. Haller hiji. n. 1130. 

CARYOPHYLLATA urbana. Scopoli PL Carniol. p. 364. 
CARYOPHYLLATA vulgaris. Bauhin pin. 321. 
CARYOPHYLLATA Gerard emac. 995. Parkin/on 136. 

Raii Syn. Avens, Herb Bennet. 

Hud/on. PL Angl. /.198. 

Lightfoot FL Scot. ^.273. 

RADIX perennis, fibrofa, fufca, fapore et odore aro- % ROOT perennial, fibrous, of a brown colour, with 

matico Caryophyllorum. X the aromatic tafte and fmell of Cloves. 


CAULES plures, pedales aut bipedales, fubere&i, pa- | STALKS feveral, from one to two feet high, nearly 

rum flexuofi, fubangulofi, hirfutuli, ramofi. % upright, a little crooked, flightly angular, 

% hairy, and branched. 

FOLIA radicalia admodum variantia, plerumque vero ? LEAVES : radical leaves varying very much, mofl 
pinnata, petiolata, vagina petiolorum ciliata, | commonly pinnated, and ftanding on a foot- 
pinna extima magna, trilobata aut tripartita f ftalk, the fheath of which is edged with hairs, 
pinnis lateralibus paucis, parvis, inaequalibus, | the outermoft leaf or pinna large, divided a 
omnibus incifo-ferratis, venofis, hirfutulis, | little way down the leaf, or nearly to the bafe ; 
caulina tripartita aut tenia. ? the lateral leaves few, fmall and unequal^ all 

I of them deeply ferrated, veined, and hairy ; 

I the leaves of the ftalk deeply divided into three 

% fegments, or entire leaves. 


STIPULE duse, magnas, fubrotundse, foliis fimiles. | STIPULE two, large, of a roundifh figure like the 

I leaves. 

PEDUNCULI folitarii, fubere&i, teretes, hirfutuli. f FLOWER-STAKS fingle, nearly upright, round and 

I hairy. 

CALYX: Perianthium monophyllum, decemfidum, | CALYX: a Perianthium of one leaf, divided into 

patens, laciniis alternis minimis, acutis, hir- ^ ten fegments, and fpreading ; the alternate 

futis, demum reflexis ; laciniis majoribus in- % fegments very minute, pointed, hirfute, fi- 

terne villofis, margine craffis, Jig, 1. I nally turning back ; the larger fegments vil- 

¥ lous on the infide, and thick at the edge, 

I A- ?• 

COROLLA: Petala quinque rotunda, flava, longi- % COROLLA: five roundifh yellow Petals, the length 

tudine calycis, remota, unguibus breviffimis, | of the Calyx, at a little diftance from each o- 

jig. 2. % ther, having very fhort claws, jig. 2. 


STAMINA: Filamenta plurima, flavefcentia, fubu- | STAMINA: Filaments numerous, of a yellowifh 

lata, calyci affixa, primum inflexa, demum % colour, tapering, affixed to the Calyx, atfirfr, 

erecta : Antherje fubrotundae, flavae, de- | bending inward, laftly becoming upright : 

mum fufcas, jig. 3, 4. $ Anthers roundifh, of a yellow colour, fi- 

| nally brown, jig. 3, 4. 

PISTILLUM : Germina numerofa, in capitulum col- % PISTILLUM : Germina numerous, collected into a 

lecta, pilofa: Stylus medio geniculatus, a™ | head, hairy: Style jointed in the middle, a 

pice paululum incraflato : Stigma fimplex, ^ little thickened at top : Stigma fimple,^. 5. 

fig- 5- * 

SEMIN A numerofa, compreffa, hifpida, Stylo longo ge- t SEEDS numerous, flattened, hifpid, terminated by a 
niculato ariftata, jig. 6, receptaculo paleaceo | long Arifta, crooked near the extremity, 

infidentia, jig. 7. | fig, 6, feated on a hairy receptacle, jig. 7. 

THE Geum urbanum is a very common plant with us, in woods and hedges, flowering from May to September. 

The root pofferTes a degree of aftringency, joined to an aromatic flavour like that of Cloves, whence its name of 

Infufed in beer, it renders it more fragrant, and prevents it from foon turning four ; Linnai FL Suecic. 

Chewed in the mouth, it takes off from a difagreeable breath ; Rutty. Mat. Med. 

An infufion of the root in water, given in malignant fevers, has been attended with bad effects, producing deli- 
rium: but an infufion of the root in wine, ftrengthens the ftomach and bowels, and is fervioeable in the diarrhaea 
and dyfentery, wounds, chronic difeafes arifing from a laxity of fibre, and intermitting fevers ; Haller hijl.p. $$. x. 2. 

The root is faid to poflefs the mofl: virtue when it grows in a dry fituation. 

It is eaten by Kine, Goats, Sheep, and Swine ; but not readily by Horfes. 

It is diftinguifhed from our other Geum by its yellow flowers. 


13° J/3. 


ADONIS JJnnai Gen. PI. Polyandria PolygyniAo 

Cal. 5-phyllus. Peidla quinis plura abfque ne&ario, Bern. nuda. 
RaiiSyn. Gen. 15. Herbje semine nudo polyspermy. 

ADONIS autumnalis floribns octopetalis, fru&ibus fubcylindricis. L'mnai Syfi. Vegetal, p. 427. Sp. 
PL p. 771. 

ADONIS radice annua, flore octopetalo. Haller hiji. n. 11 58. 
ADONIS autumnalis, Scopoli Flor. Carniol. n. 677. 
ADONIS hortenfis, flore minore atrorubente. Bauhin Pin. 178. 
FLOS ADONIS Parkinjon Parad. 293. 

FLOS ADONIS flore rubro. Gerard emac. 387. Raii Syn. 251, Adonis Flower, Red Maithes. 

Hudfon PI. Angl. ed. 1. p. 239. 

RADIX annua, craffitie digiti minimi, fufiformis, % ROOT annual, the thicknefs of the little finger, ta- 
paucis fibrillis inftrucla. | pering, furnifhed with few fibres. 


CAULIS pedalis, erettus, fubangulatus, fiftulofus, | STALK about a foot high, upright, fomewhat angu- 
purpurafcens, villofus, ad bafin ufque ramo- y lar, hollow, purplifh, hoary, branched quite 

fus. % to the bottom. 



RAMI plurimi, fparfi, cauli fimiles, erecti, caulem % BRANCHES numerous, placed irregularly on the ftalk, 

primo florentem plerumque fuperantes. | which they referable, upright, and general 'y 

I taller than the ftalk producing the firft fiower # 


FOLIA alterna, e flavo viridia, infima petiolata, fu- | LEAVES alternate, of a yellowifh green colour ; the 

prema feffilia, pinnata, pinnis multifidis, ca- | lower ones (landing on foot-ftalks ; the upper 

pillaribus, acutis, fubtus nitidis. | ones feffile, pinnated; the pinnae divided in- 

| to numerous capillary fegments, pointed, and 

t mining on the under fide. 

CALYX: Perianthium pentaphyllum, foliolis fuh- $ CALYX: a Peri anthium of five leaves, which are 

ovatis, obtufis, inasqualibus, concavis, purpu- | fomewhat ova], obtufe, unequal, hollow, 

reis, deciduis, corolla brevioribus, apicibus | purple, deciduous, fhorter than the corolla, 

dentato-erofis, fig. r, 2. t the tips appearing as if bitten, jig. 1. 2. 

COROLLA: Pet alo o£to, raro plura, fiepe pauciora, f COROLLA: eight Petals, feldom more, oftener 

inaequalia, obcordata, coccinea, apice erofa, | fewer, unequal, inverfely heart-fhaped, fcar- 

bafi interne nigra, externe viridante,^. 3, 4 # y let, the tip irregularly notched, the bottom 

% internally black, externally greenifh, jig. 3, 4. 


STAMINA : Filamenta plurima, quadraginta cir- % STAMINA : Filaments numerous, about forty, 

citer, filiformia, alba; Anthers ovatse, ob- | thread-fhaped, and white : Anthers oval, 

tufae, incurvatas, compreffae, atropurpureae : | obtufe, bending inward, flattened, of a black- 

Pollen croceum, fig. 5. % ifh purple colour: Pollen of afafFron colour, 

I fig* 5- 

PISTILLUM : Germina plurima, in capitulum bre- | PISTILLUM : Germina numerous, upright, col- 

ve fubconicum imbricatim congefta, erecta: | lecled one over another into a fhort head, 

Stigmata acuta reflexa, fig. 6, 7. I fomewhat conical: Stigmata pointed, the 

I points turned back, fig. 6, 7. 

SEMINA fubangulata, acuta, reticulato-rugofa. ¥ SEEDS fomewhat angular, pointed, with a kind of 

* network wrinkled appearance. 

THE Pheajants-eye has a peculiar claim to an infertion in the Flora Londinenfis, as it is one of thofe plants 
which are annually cried about our ftreets, under the name of red Morocco : it may neverthelefs be doubted, 
whether it has not originally been conveyed from the garden to the dungheap, and from thence become 
an ornamental annual weed in many of the corn-fields in Kent, and other Counties adjacent to London, in which 
it feems as much at home, as the Ranunculus arvenjis, or Corn Crowfoot. 

There is no plant more variable in its Petals, both with refped to number and fize ; they therefore form 
a bad fpecific character. 

It flowers in May, and the feed is ripe in June ; hence there appears an evident impropriety in calling 
this fpecies autumnalis'. it will moft probably be found, that the autumnalis and ajlivalis are the fame. 

In the gardens, (where it is common,) it ufually flowers through great part of the Summer. 


C y/doMte ati/tet/ma/td 

Anemone Nemorosa. Wood Anemony. 

ANEMONE tJnnal Gen. PL Polyandria PolygyniA. 

Cal. o. Petala 6-9. Sem. plura* 

tUii Gen. 15. Herb;e semine nudo polyspermy. 
ANEMONE Nemorofa feminibus acutis, foliolis incifis, caule unifloro. Linncei. Syjl. Vegetab. p. 425. 

Flora Suecic. p. 190« 
ANEMONE feminibus nudis, caule .unifloro, jfoliis radicalibus nullis, caulinis quinque-partitis, lobis 

tripartitis inicifis. Haller. Hift. Heh. 2. p. 64. 

ANEMONE Nemorofa. Scopoli Fit CarnioL p. 383. n. 660. 
ANEMONE fylveftris alba major. Bauhin Pin. 176. 
ANEMONE nemorum alba. Gerard emac. 383. 

RANUNCULUS nemorofus albus fimplex. Parkin/on. 325. Rati Syn. 259, Wood Anemony. Hudfon 
FL Angl. 208. Oeder FL Dan. tab. 549. 

RADIX teres, per terram oblique repens, craffitie pen- % ROOT round, creeping obliquely under the furface of the 

nae coracis, externe cafr.anea,intusalba, fragilis, I earth, the thicknefs of a crow quill, externally 

fibrillis fufcis praedita. % chefnut colour'd, internally white, brittle, 

I furnifhed with brown fibres. 

CAULIS teres, fimplex, triuncialis circiter, purpuraf- j STALK round, fimple, about three inches high, pur- 
cens, pilis mollibus veftitus, trifoliatus. | plifh, covered with foft hairs, and bearing 

% three leaves. 

FOLIA terna, fubtus hirfutula, tripartita, lobis incifis, | LEAVES growing three together, {lightly hairy under- 
lateralibus fere ufque ad bafin diviiis. ¥ neath, formed of three fegments ; the fide 

1 lobes divided nearly down to the bafe. 

PETIOLI breves, vaginantes. | FOOT-STALKS of the leaves fhort, and forming a 

I kind of {heath. 

SCAPUS uniflorus, nutans. | FLOWER-STALK fupporting one flower, and droop- 

y ' ing at top. 

CALYX nullus. | CALYX wanting. 

COROLLA : Petala fex aut feptem, oblongo-ovata, | COROLLA : fix or feven Petals, of an oblong oval 
alba, fubtus incarnata, patentia, fubemargi- % fhape, white, underneath purplifh, fpreading, 

nata, fig. 1. | {lightly notched in at top, fig. 1. 

STAMINA: Filamenta numerofa, inaequalia, ca- ? STAMINA: Filaments numerous, unequal, very 

pillaria, filiformia, alba : Antherje flavaa | fmall, thread fhaped and white : Antherje 

fubrotundae, biloculares, compreflae : Pollen ■% yellow, roundim, of two cavities, flattifh, 

album, /3% 2, 3. I Pollen white, fig. 2, 3. 

PIST1LLUM: Germina in capitulum collecta, ovata, % PISTILLUM : Germina collected into a little head, 
villofa : Styli fubulati, incurvati : Stigma | oval, villous: Styles tapering and bending 

fimplex, /3-. 4, 5. I downwards: Stigma fimple, fig. 4, 5. 


SEMINA plurima, nuda, oblonga, hirfuta, mucrone | SEEDS feveral, naked, oblong, hairy, the top bending 
incurvo, fig. 6, 7, auct. % downwards, fig. 6, 7, magnified. 

FROM the obfervations of feveral Authors, the Wood Anemone may be considered as a poifonous plant. 
According to Linnjeus, Cattle which have been brought from open to woody paftures, and have eaten of this 
plant, have been affected with the bloody Flux, and have made bloody Urine. Haller informs us, that in 
Kamtfchatka, the inhabitants are faid to poifon their Arrows with a fpecies of Anemone, the wounds from 
tvhich produce certain death. 

The Wood Anemone produces its flowers early in the Spring. In molt of our Woods the ground is nearly covered 
with them, in the months of April and May. In fine clear weather the bloflbms are expanded, and become fo erect 
as to face the fun % but in the evening, and in wet weather, they are. clofed and hang down, whereby the delicate 
parts of the flower are fecured from injury. 

The chief variation obferved in it, is the colour of its Petals, which are fometimes quite white : and ac- 
cording to MerreT, they occur in Devon/hire wholly red : both forts, particularly when double, are cultivated 
by the Gardeners: and were the fame pains to be taken with it, as with fome of our foreign Anemonies, it 
might probably be very much improved in the eye of the Florifh 

The leaves of divers plants, particularly the Euphorbia Heliofcopia, are fubject to be covered with fmall yel- 
low dots, the effects of fome Infect:- this alfo fometimes happens to the Wood Anemone. InC. Bauhine, we 
find it mentioned under the name of Anemone nemorofa fterilis fillis pun Slat is. This variety is fomewhat un- 
fortunately figured in Dillenius's edition of Ray's Synopjh, and defcribed as a Fern, to which it certainly 
has no pretentions, as is evident from the irregularity of its dots. 

H i» TifflJ"(D 

i^ 1><? 

wuvnorte nem^o&as. 


tammcultte , - Arana/? 


RANUNCULUS Linnai Gen. PL Polyandria Polygynia. 

Cat, 5-phyllus. Cor. 5-petala. Sent, plunm. Petala ungue nedarifero, 

Raii Syn. Gen. 15. Herb^e semine nudo Polyspermy. 
RANUNCULUS Ficaria foliis cordatis angulatis petiolatls. Linnet Syjl. Vegetub. p. 428. Ft. Suecic. p. 195, 
FICARIA Haller hijk hefo. n. 11 60. Hud/on Ft. Jtngl. p. 213, 
RANUNCULUS Ficaria. Scopoli Fl Carniol p. 395* 
CHELIDONIA rotunclifolia minor. jBauhin Pin. 309, 
CHELIDONIUM minus. Gerard emac. S16. Parkhifon 617. Rait Syn. 24.6, Pilewort or the leiter 

Celandine; Oeder Fl. Dan. icon. 469. 

RADIX tuberofa, tuberibus numerofis, congeftis, pal- | ROOT tuberous, the knobs or bulbs numerous, croud- 

lidis, fubpyriformibus, modo brevibus, modo | ed, of a pale colour, fomewhat pear-fhaped, 

longe protenfis ; e fummo tuberum oriunttir fl- % fometimes fhort, fometimes extended to a con- 

brillge plurimae. f fiderable length ; from the top of them arife 

f . many fmall fibrous roots. 

CAULES plures, palmares et ultra, teneri, glabrij ad | STALKS numerous, four inches or more in length, 

baiinrubri, ramofi,decumbentes, nonnunquam | tender, fmooth, red at bottom, branched^ de- 

etiam repentes, bulbillis , in axillis foiiorum % cumbent, fometimes even creeping, from little 

radicantibus. | bulbs in the bofoms of the leaves taking root. 

FOLIA radicalia fubrotundo-cordata, variantia, longe $ LEAVES next the root of a roundifh heart-lhaped figure, 

petiolata, maculis albis interdum notata, gla- X variable, ftanding on long foot-ftalks, fometimes 

bra, venis fuperne impreffis, fubcrenata, caulina | fpotted with white, imooth and mining ; the 

fubtriangularia, angulofa. % veins on the upper fide of the leaf prefied in, 

% differently notched in different leaves ; thofe 

I of the ftalk triangular with an angular mar- 

% . gin. 

PEDUNCULI uniflori, fulcati, perada florefcentia re- | FOOT-STALKS of the flowers fuftaining one flower 

curvati. | on each, grooved, when the bloflbrh is fallen 

% bending backwards. 

CALYX: Perianthium triphyllum foliolis concavis, | CALYX: a Perianthium of three leaves, which are 

deciduis, bafi fua caule'm amplecl:entibus,/o-. 1. % hollow and deciduous, and embrace the top of 

I the MKfig> I- 

COROLLA: Petala plerumque o£to, quoad formam | COROLLA: generally eight Petals, which vary ex- 

valde variantia, plerumque vero ovato-lanceo- t ceedingly in their form, moft commonly of an 

lata, lutea, nitida, fig. 2, 3. | oval-pointed lhape, yellow and mining,^. 2,3. 

STAMINA: Filament a numerofa; ANTHERiEflavae, $ STAMINA: Filaments numerous; Anthers yel- 

oblongas, compreffe, fig. 6, 7. I ' low, oblong and fkt, fig. 6, 7. 

PISTILLUM: GERMiNAnumerofa,incapitulumcollec- | PISTILLUM : Germina numerous, forming a little 

ta; Stigmata parva,^. 8. | head; Stigmata very fmall, fig. 8. 

SEMINA plurima fubovata fa^pius abortiva, fig. 9. | SEEDS numerous, fomewhat ova], moft commonly 

f abortive, fig. 9. 

KECTARIUM fquamtila ad bafm petalorum, fig. 4, 5. I NECTARY a little fcale at the bafe of the petals, 

t fig- 4, 5» 

BOTANISTS feem very much divided in their opinions reflecting the genus of this plant, fome making it 
a Ranunculus, others a genus diftina from it. Thofe who object, to its being a Ranunculus urge its not having the 
charafters of that genus ; that the Calyx, inftead of having five leaves, has only three, while the Petals are more 
numerous than in the Crowfoots : this is granted : but is a deficiency in, or an addition to any of the parts of the fructifi- 
cation, a fufflcient reafon for founding a new Genus ? I mould apprehend not ; for fuch'initances we meet^ with in 
plants'almoft every day : habit and peculiar charact-eriftics are more to be attended to : and in this cafe, its glofly 
Petals, with its fquamula or fcale at the bafe of each ; its grooved peduncles joined to its general appearance, feem 
fully to juflify the great reformer of Botany in making it a Ranunculus. 

Although the Calyx in general has only "three leaves, it fometimes occurs with four and five. | 

As th.e*P/lewort blows earlier than any of our other Crowfoots, it- is liable to have its parts of fructification injured 
by the inclemency of the weather, to fecu re it from which, it has a power of clofing it Petals in a much greater 
decree than the others, and in this ftate we ufually find it in the mornings and evenings, and in wet weather ; and 
may not nature to produce this effecr. deviate from 'the ufual ftru&ure of the flowers of this genus ? Is not the Calyx 
by being in three leaves ftronger than if it had been in five ? And will not the Petals by being more numerous make 
lefs refinance to the clofing power of the Calyx ? 

hi itsfirft appearance in the Spring, this plant is fmall and extends but little ; but in the month of May, parti- 
cularly by the fides of moift ditches, it grows much more luxuriantly, and in this ftate, fmall bulbs, like grains of 
wheat, are obfervable in the bofoms of the leaves, which, as the ftalks lie on the ground, get into the earth, and 
become the tuberous roots of young plants : this proviilon of nature for its encreafe, feems the more neceffary, as it 
is butfeldom that its feeds come to perfection. Now and thenahead with perfect, feeds is obfervable, and when the plant 
ftands fingly, the ftalk fupporting them bends towards the ground, fo that the feeds may infinuate themfelves : thus 
nature appears to have been abundantly careful in its prefervation. 

The Roots, like thofe of the Orchis and other bulbous plants, are renewed every^ year. 

In fome Meadows, Paftures and Orchards, it very much abounds, to the exclufion of more ufeful plants : as 
Cattle do not appear to eat it, it would be good huibandry to dig it up, and fow the ground with fuch plants as are 

more beneficial. ........... 

The particular form of its roots feems firft to have introduced it as a medicine for the Piles, m which diford 
like many other remedies more rationally recommended, it irny palliate, but will fcarcely effect a. cure. 

It is cultivated in Gardens with a double flower. 


Llyi^M^tcuuM ///rj/ut/J . 

Ranunculus hirsutus. Pale -leaved Crowfoot. 

RANUNCULUS hirfutus radice fibrofa annua, caule hirfuto, calycibus papillofo-hifpidis acuminatis, 

demum reflexis* 
RANUNCULUS rectus foliis pallidioribus hirfutus. J, Bauhin. in. 417. Rail Syn. p. 247, Upright 

pale-leaved Crowfoot. Rait Hifi. Plant, p. 5S2. 

FROM having repeatedly obferved, and carefully cultivated this plant, I find it to be perfectly diftinct 
from the bulbofus, of which it is made a variety by fome authors; 'though Ray and Bauhin e long fince 
confidered' it as diftinct* 

As its ftiff hairs are one of its characteriftics, and conftitute a part of its name in Bauhine, I have 
made that its trivial name ; and mall by way of contraft, enumerate the feveral particulars in which it differs 
from the bulbofus^ to which in its general appearance it is nearly allied. 

The root of the bulbofus, which forms one of the chief characters of that plant, is round and folid like a 
fmall turnip, remaining in the ground from year to year, and annually fending up new flowering items i 
the root of the hirfutus on the contrary is fimply fibrous and annual. 

The ftalk of the hirfutus is generally more branched and Spreading, producing a greater number of flowers, 
and covered with ftiffer and longer hairs, than in the bulbofus: the hairs indeed in the latter plant are more 
numerous and foft, approaching to pubefcence or downinefs, while in the former they are more rigid, or ap- 
proaching to hifpidity. The foot-ftalks of the bottom leaves in the hirfutus are hollow, and if cut afunder, 
the nerves appear projecting into the infide of the tube; the leaves themfelves are more perfectly trilobate 
than in the bulbofus ; the middle and outermoft lobe rounder, and lefs deeply divided at the edges. From 
the inner edge of each of the two fide lobes a bit appears as if cut away. Thefe leaves are frequently of a 
white or pale colour, in irregular fpots, not unlike what we fometimes meet with in the Ranunculus "Ficaria ; 
and the upper furface is full of little projecting points, from whence the hairs ifTue. 

We come now to a chara&er which this plant has in common with the bulbofus, viz. its reflexed calyx : 
this has been the caufe of its having been confidered by moft botanifts as the bulbofus : not finding in Linnjeus 
any other Ranunculus with a reflexed calyx, without any farther examination they concluded this to be the fame; 
But although the calyx when turned back refembles that of the bulbofus, yet before the opening of the flower 
it is eflentially different, being much more pointed, or as if it had been fqueezed to a point with the fingers ; 
and the outfide of it is very vifibly covered with little papillae or projecting points, from whence the hairs proceed. 

The flowers of this plant, as well as the feed, are alfo fmaller than thofe of the bulbofus. 

Such are the characters whereby thefe two plants may with attention be diffinguifhed. 

Nor do they differ lefs "in their places of growth and times of flowering. The bulbofus grows in dry paftures, 
and flowers in the month of May. The hirfutus flourifhes more by the fides of roads, in gardens, and rubbifh,. 
flowering from June to the end of the year. 

I have obferved this plant growing in great plenty by the fide of the road betwixt Croydon and Mitcham ; 
and I remember to have feen it near Gravefend; and plentifully by the fea-fide ; on the gravelly banks about 
Southampton ; alfo in various places near London : and there is no doubt but it is a much more common plant than 
botanifts may imagine. 

No particular ufes have been attributed to it. 



RANUNCULUS Linnai Gen. pi. Polyandria Polygynia. Cal. 5 phyllus. Petala 5 infra ungues 

poro mellifero. Sem. nuda. 
Rati Syn. G n. 15 Herbje semine nudo polyspermy. 

RANUNCULUS aurkomus foliis radicalibus fubreniformibus, tripartitis, acute crenatis, caulinis digitatis 

RANUNCULUS aurkomus foliis radicalibus reniformibus crenatis incifis, caulinis digitatis linearibus, 
caule multifloro. Linn<sei Syjl. Vegetab.p. 429. Fl. Sueck. 194. 

RANUNCULUS foliis radicalibus integris et femitrilobatis rotunde crenatis, caulinis multipartitis lineari- 
bus integerrimis. Haller. hifl. n. 1 1 77. 

RANUNCULUS aurkomus. Scopoli FL Cam. «.687. ' 
RANUNCULUS nemorofus vel fylvaticus folio rotundo Bauhln pin. 178» 
RANUNCULUS aurkomus Ger. emac. 954. 

RANUNCULUS nemorofus dulcis fecundus Tragi Parkinfon 326. Fufchii Icon. 156. opt. Rait Syn, 
p. 248. Sweet Crowfoot or Goldilocks. Hudfon. FL Angl. p. 211. 

RADIX perennis, fubpraemorfa, mitis, fapore fubdulci | ROOT perennial, fomewhat flumped, mild, with a tafte 
Glycyrrhizae accedenti, fibris multis capillar!- | fomewhat refembling liquorice, furnifhed 

bus inftructa. % with many fmall fibres. 

CAULIS pedalis, ereclus, dichotomus aut trichotomus, | STALK about a foot high, upright, dividing into two 
teres, glaber, ball purpureus. % or three branches, round, fmooth and purplifh 

% at bottom. 

FOLIA lama, radicalia petiolis longis infidentia, fubreni- | LEAVES at the bottom of the ftalk fmooth, fitting on 
formia, mire variantia, integra, tripartita aut % long footftalks, fomewhat kidney fhaped, vary- 

etiam quinquepartita, plerumque vero tripartita | ing exceedingly, being fometimes entire, fome- 

lobis acute crenatis, caulina inferiora pedata, | times divided into three, or even five lobes, 

lobis latis, tripartitis aut quadripartis, dentatis, | but moll: commonly tripartite ; the lobes acute- 

fuperiora feffilia, linearia, fubintegerrima, am- | ly crenated ; the leaves towards the bottom di- 

plexicaulia. % vided nearly to the bafe, with three or four 

I fegments, indented; the uppermost leaves 

£ fertile, linear, almofl entire, and embracing 

t the {talk, 

PETIOLI teretes, pubefcentes. I FOOT-STALKS of the leaves round and pubefcent. 

CALYX : Peri an thium pentaphyllum, foliolis ovatis, ¥ CALYX; a Perianthium of five leaves, the leaves 
cbncavis, flavefcentibus, patentibus Jig. 1. | oval, concave, yellowim, and fpreading. /g. 1. 

COROLLA: Petala quinque, fubrotunda, flava; % COROLLA five roundim yellow petals, with fmall un- 
unguibus parvis. jig. 2. | gues or claws, jig. 2. 

NECTAR1UM : fovea fine fquamula ad bafin petalo- | NECTARY : a depreffion without any fcale, at the 
rum fupra ungues. t bottom of the petals above the Claws. 

STAMINA: Filament a plurima, baft* anguftiora; | STAMINA: Filaments numerous, narrow at bot- 
Ant her je oblongae, flavae, compreflae, incur- $ torn; Anthers oblong, yellow, flattened,, 

vatse ; duas aut tres vidi connatas. jig. 3. 5. | and incurvated. I obferved two or three grow- 

au£t. I in S together, jig. 3. 5. magnified. 

PISTILLUM: Germina numerofa in capitulum col- t PISTILLUM: Germina numerous, collected into a 
lecla; Stigmata reflexa, minima, jig. 4. | little head ; Stigmata fmall and reflexed./g. 4. 

SEMINA, fufca, compreffa, apicibus reflexis. jig. 6. % SEEDS brown, flat with a reflexed point, jig. 6. 

Diftinguimed from the other Crowfoots by its growing in Woods ; (though I have fometimes found it in boggy 
meadows,) by its Calyx being nearly as yellow as its petals, and not turning back as in the bulhojus ; the Nectary 
at the bottom of the petals a fmall oblique hole running downwards, not cover'd with any fquamula ; the bottom 
leaves of the plant more entire, and thofe at the top narrower than in moft of the other Crowfoots; the footftalks 
of the flowers not grooved ; the Petals often wanting, particularly when cultivated in Gardens, or not fheltered by 

It flowers in April and May ; and is not particularly diftiuguifhed for its Ules or Beauty. 

(/La/Ji6{/ncu/u*j tJy^t 

((r/co/nttsf . 


RANUNCULUS Lin. Gen. PL Polyandria Polygynia. 

Rail Syn. Gen. 15. Herb^e semine nudo polyspermy. 
RANUNCULUS fceleratus foliis inferioribus palmatis ; fummis digitatis, fructibus oblongis. Lin* SyJ. 

Vegetab. p. 429. Sp. PL p. 776. FL Suecic. p. 194. n. 499. 
RANUNCULUS foliis levibus, femitrilobatis, rotunde ferratis, fru&uovato. Haller hift.p, 74. n, 11 75, 
RANUNCULUS fceleratus. Scopoli PI. Carniol. n. 688. 
RANUNCULUS paluftris apii folio laevis. Bauhin. pin. 180. 
RANUNCULUS paluftris rotundifolius. Ger. etnac. 96 z. 
RANUNCULUS paluftris fardonia laevis. Parkin/on. 121 5. Rail Syn. p. 249. Round-leaved Water 


Hudfon FL Angl. p. 212. 

Oeder Dan. icon. 570. 

Llghtfoot FL Scot. p. 291. Celery-leaved Crowfoot. 

RADIX annua, fibrofiffima, fibris albidis. f ROOT annual, exceedingly fibrous, the fibres whitrfh. 

CAULIS ereaus, pedalis ad bipedalem, infigniter craf- % STALK upright, from one to two feet high, remark- 
fus, fiftulofus, laevis, ramofus. | ably thick, hollow, fmooth, and branched. 

FOLIA radicalia longe petiolata, nitida, fubcarnofa, | LEAVES : radical leaves fitting on long foot-ftalks, 

trilobata, lobis trifidis rotunde crenatis ; cau- ! Aiming, fomewhat flemy, divided into three 

lina fubfeffilia, palmata; fuprema elliptica. % lobes ; the lobes trifid and roundly notched; 

% ftalk-leaves nearly feffile, and palmated ;. up- 

I permofl leaves elliptical. 

FLORES exigui, flavi. | FLOWERS fmall and yellow. 

CALYX: PERiANTHiuMpentaphvllnm,foliolisovatis, | CALYX: a Perianthium of five leaves, the leaves 
concavis, flavefcentibus, deciduis, jig. 1. | oval, hollow, yellowim and deciduous, fig. u 

COROLLA: Petala quinque, parva, ovata, flava, | COROLLA : five fmall, oval, yellow mining Petals, 

nitida, magnitudine calycis, decidua, fig. 2. f the fize of the Calyx, and deciduous, fig. 2. 


NECTARIUM: Fovea marginata, ad bafin cujufvis | NECTARY, a depreffion or pore at the bafe of each 

„^-1: fo % Petal, furrounded by a prominent margin, 

petali, M . 3. * fi g . 3. 

STAMINA :Fil amen T A plurima, ram ultra viginti, | STAMINA: Filaments numerous, feldorr t more 
bafi tenuiora : Anther* flavae, compreflb, | than twenty, {lender at bottom : Anther* 

biloculares, fig. 5. | 7 ellow > flat and Jocular, J%. 5. 

PISTILLUM: Germina numerofa, in capitulumob- | PISTILLUM : Germina numerous colleded toge- 
lonP-um, colleda: Stigmata minima, ger- f ther into an oblong head : Stigmata very 

minibus infidentia. | minute, fitting on the Germina. 

SEMINA plurima, compreffa, ovato-acuminata, par- | SEEDS numerous, flat oval and pointed, fmall, affix- 
va, receptaculo oblongo affixa, fig. 6. f ed to an oblong receptacle, fig. 6. 

THIS fpecies is diftinguhned from the other Crowfoots, by its growing in or near the water, by its broad 
mining bottom leaves, thick ftalk, fmall yellow flowers, and fmooth oblong feed-heads 

The leaves and flowers poffefs a confiderable degree of acrimony, fo as even to bhfter the fkm if applied to 
it: chewed in the mouth, they inflame and chop the tongue : nor have their effects been .Ids violent when taken 
into the ftomach. It is fufpeded to have proved poifonous to flieep. Haller hifl. helv. p.p. 

It begins to flower in May and June, and continues in bloffom all the Summer by the fides of pond, and ditches, 

It is eaten by goats, but refufed by kine, fheep, and horfes, Lmn, Amam. Acad. 

ajt/^i&uit^ ^j-e^6er-6/2y/^f 


AJUGA Linnai Gen. PL Didynamia Gymnospermia, 

Corolla labium fuperius minimum. Stamina labio fuperiore longiora. 
Rail Syn. Gen. 14. Suffrutices et Herb^: verticillat^, 
AJUGA ftolonibus reptantibus. Linnai Sp. PL f. 705. 
BUGULA foliis ovato dentatis, flagellis reptans. Holler hijl. n. 282. 
BUGULA reptans. Scopoll Fl. CarnloL n. 716. 
CONSOLIDA media pratenfis coerulea. Bauhln. pin. 260. 
BUGULA vulgaris. Parkin/on 525. 

BUGULA Gerard emac. 631. Rail Syn. p. 245, Bugle. Hudfon FL Angl. p. 219. 

RADIX perennis, fibrofa. 

% ROOT perennial and fibrous. 

1 STOLONES plurimae, repentes, ex fuperiore parte ra- % 
dicis nafcuntur. f- 

CAULIS erectus, femipedalis, quadratus, hirfutus, pre- I 
fertim inter flores, purpureus. % 



FOLIA oppoiita, ovata, bafi anguftiora, connata, den- % 
tata, venofa, faspe purpurea et nitida ; Bradteae | 
purpurea, foliis fimiles at minores et breviores. % 

FLORES ccerulei, fpicati, verticillati. 

CREEPERS or moots, in great numbers fpring from 
the upper part of the root, and creep on the 

STALK upright, about fix inches high, fquare, hairy, 
particularly among the flowers, of a purple 

LEAVES oppofite, oval, narroweft at bottom and join- 
ing together, indented at the edges, veiny, 
often purple and mining ; Floral-leaves like 
the others, but fmaller and fhorter. 

FLOWERS blue, growing in whirled fpikes. 

CALYX a Perianthium of one leaf, half divided in- 
to five fegments, hairy, nervous, blueifh ; the 
fegments nearly equal, fharp ; the twolower- 
mofl approaching nearer! together, fig. 1 . 

CALYX : Perianthium monophyllurri, femiquinquefi- ^ 

dnm, pilofum, nervofum, ccerulefcens, laci- % 

niis fubaequalibus, acutis, duobus inferioribus | 

magis approximatis, fig. 1. % 

COROLLA monopetala, ringens, tubus cylindraceus, y COROLLA of one Petal, gaping, the tube cylin- 

inourvus, labium fuperius breviffimum, bi- t drical, bent downward ; the upper lip very 

dentatum,inferiustriridum,fubtushirfutulum, | lhort, with two teeth; the lower lip trifid, 

cceruleum, vents albis piclum, fig. 2, 3. ? a little hairy underneath, of a blue colour, 

I painted with white veins, fig. 2,3. 

STAMINA: Filamenta quatuor alba, recta, labio 
fuperiore longiora: Antherje flavae, fig. 3. 

PISTILLUM : Germen quadripartitum : Stylus fi- 
liformis, fitu etlongitudineStaminum : Stig- 
ma bifidum, minimum, fig. 4, 5, 6. 

NECTARIUM Glandula flava ad bafm Germinis unde 
Calyx fubventricofus fit, fig. 7. 

SEMINA quatuor, ovata in fundo Calycis, fig. 8. 

STAMINA : four white Filaments, ftrait, longer 
than the upper lip of the Corolla : Anther je 
yellow, fig. 3. 

PISTILLUM: Germen divided into four parts: Style 
thread-fhaped j the length of and in the direc- 
tion of the Stamina : Stigma bifid and very 
• fmall,j%\ 4, 5, 6. 

NECTARY a yellow gland at the bafe of the Germen 
which makes the Calyx protuberate, fig. 7. 

f SEEDS four, of an oval fhape in the bottom of the 
¥ Calyx, fig. 8. 

THE Bugle is another of our Englifh plants which may be recommended as an _ addition _ to our gardens. 
It is fond of a fhady and moift fituation, and readily propagates itfelf by means of its creeping (hoots. -. 

According to Ray, a variety with red flowers grows plentifully in the fecond field on the left 'hand going 
from Wejlon Green to Eltbam ; and with white flowers it has been found in Charlton Wood. The leaves in the 
Winter are often of a beautiful purple colour. It flowers in all our woods about town from May to July. 

The chara&er of this genus is taken from the mortnefs' or rather want of the upper lip of the flower : 
exclufive of this mark, it is very nearly related to the genus Glechoma or Ground Ivy. It has a confiderable 
large gland at the bafe of the germen in the bottom of the calyx, which occaiions the latter to protuberate. 
This gland, however, is not peculiar to this genus, but occurs in mofl of the plants of the fame clafs, from 
whence the bees colled a great part of their honey. 

It has been conficlered by the old writers as an excellent vulnerary, applied both inwardly and outwardly, 
particularly fo in France, where, according to Ray ? it is common for them to fay that thofie who have Bugle 
and Sanicle need no Surgeon. 



Ct/6u/a ^teA£a?2,j 

Glechoma hederacea. Ground-ivy. 

GLECHOMA Linnaei. Gen. PL Didynamia Gymnospermia. 

Antherarum fingulum par in formam crucis connivens. Calyx 5-fidus. 
Raii Syn. Gen. 14. Suffrutices et Herb^e verticillatje. 

GLECHOMA hederacea. Lin. Syji. Vegetal, p. 445. foliis reniformibus crenatis. Spec. PL p. 807. 
PL Suecic, p. 202. 

CHAMiECLEMA caule procumbente radicato, foliis reniformibus rotunde crenatis. Haller hijl. n. 245. 

CALAMINTHA hederacea. Scopoli. FL Carniol. p. 423. 

CALAMINTHA humilior, folio rotundiore. Tourn. Infi. R. H. 194. 
HEDERA terreftris. Bauhin, Pin. 306. 
HEDERA terreftris. Gerard, emac. 856. 

HEDERA terreftris vulgaris. Parkin/on. 6j6. Rati Syn. p. 296, Ground-ivy, Gill-go-by-ground, 
Alehoof, or Tunhoof. Hudfon. FL Angl. p. 224. 

RADIX perennis, fibrofa. 

CAULES feu potius Flagellar plures, tetragoni, humi 
repentes et late fe diffundentes, unde exfur- 
gunt caules floriferi palmares aut femipedales, 
quadrati, hiriuti, (pilis deorfum verfis,) e- 
recti, infirmi, geniculati, geniculis pilofis. 

FOLIA oppofita, longe petiolata, fubreniformia, cre- 
nata, venofa, petiolis fuperne fulcatis. 

FLORES purpurei, verticillatim circa caulem difpofiti. 

PEDUNCULI triflori. 

INVOLUCRUM univerfale et partiale, jig. 2, 3, di- 

phyllum, fetaceum, fed in flofculo interme- 

dio, jig. 4, partiale defideratur. 

CALYX: Perianthium monophyllum, tubulofum, 
quinquedentatum, dentibus fubasqualibus, a- 
cuminatis, hirfutum, ftriatum, jig, 5. 

COROLLA monopetala, tubulofa, ringens, tubus tenu- 
is, fuperne compreffus, labium fuperius erec- 
tum obtufum, femibifidum, inferius patens, 
majus, trifidum, lacinia intermedia majori, 
emarginata, ad bafin hirfuta et maculis fa- 
turatius purpureis notata, jig. 7, 8. 

STAMINA : Filament a quatuor fub labio fuperiore, 
quorum duo breviora: Anthers conniven- 
tes in formam crucis, albae, jig. 9. 

PISTILLUM ; Germen quadrifidum, fig. 11, glandu- 
la cinctum, jig. 10. Stylus filiformis, corol- 
la longior : Stigma bifidum, acutum. 

PERICARP1UM nullum, calyx in finu fovens 
SEMINA quatuor, ovata. 

ROOT perennial and fibrous. 

STALKS, or rather Shoots, numerous, fquare, creep- 
ing on the ground, andfpreading wide, from 
whence arife the flowering flalks, which are 
from four to fix inches high, fquare, hirfute, 
(the hairs turning downward,) upright, weak, 
jointed, the joints hairy. 

LEAVES oppofite, ftanding on long foot-ftalks, fome- 
what kidney-fhaped, notched, veiny, the 
leaf-ftalks grooved on the upper fide. 

FLOWERS of a purple colour, difpofed in whirls a- 
round the ftalk. 

FLOWER-STALKS fupporting three flowers. 

INVOLUCRUM both univerfal and partial, jig. 2, 3, 
each compofed of two fine pointed leaves, 
which however are wanting in the middle 
flower,^. 4. 

CALYX: a Perianthium of one leaf, tubular, with 
five teeth, (which are nearly equal, and long 
pointed,) hairy, and finely grooved, jig. 5. 

COROLLA monopetalous, tubular, ringent, the tube 
{lender, and compreffed above ; the upper lip 
upright, obtufe, divided half way through ; 
the lower lip larger, fpreading, divided into 
three fegments, of which the middle one is 
largeft, with a flight notch, hairy at its bafe, 
and marked with purple fpots of a deeper co- 
lour, fig. 7, 8. 

STAMINA : four Filaments placed under the upper 
lip, two fhort and two long : Anthers 
white, forming a crofs, fig. 9. 

PITSILLUM : Germen divided into four,^-. 1 1, fur- 
rounded by a gland, jig. 80 : Style thread- 
fhaped, larger than the corolla : Stigma 
bifid, and pointed. 

SEED-VESSEL none, the calyx in its cavity contain- 
ing four 

SEEDS of an oval fhape. 

GROUND-IVY has an aromatic, though not very agreeable fmell; and a quick, bitterifh, warm tafte. This 
herb is an ufeful corroborant, aperient, and detergent ; and hence ftands recommended againfl laxity, debility, 
and obltruclions of the vifcera. Some have had a great opinion of it for cleanfing and healing ulcers of the inter- 
nal parts, even of the lungs ; and for purifying of the blood. It is cuftomary to infufe the dried leaves in mak 
liquors ; a practice not to be commended, though it readily communicates its virtue, and likewife helps to fine 
them down : fcarce any other herb has this erTect more remarkably than Ground-ivy . Lewis' 's Dijp. p. 150. 

From the latter ufe, the plant has obtained the names of Alehoof 'and Tunhoofi. Rail h'ifl. p. 567. 

The juice of the plant drawn up the noftrils, not only mitigates, but totally removes violent and inveterate 
headachs. Ibid. 

Notwithftanding the credit which this plant has obtained with former writers on the Materia Medica, the 
modern practice holds it in little eftimation. 

Red hairy tumours are frequently found on it, which are occafioned by the Cy mips Glechoma, Linnati Faun. 
Suecic. n. 1520. 

It flowly expels thofe plants which grow next it, and hence impoverifhes paftures. Lin. FL Suecic. p. 202. 

Cattle are not fond of it, and horfes are faid to be hurt by feeding on it: to make amends for this however, the 
juice of the herb, mixed with a little wine, and applied morning and evening, is faid to take away the film on 
horfes eyes. Linn. FL Suecic. ex Loes. 123. 

The plant is well known to grow under hedges, in woods, on banks, and fometimes in dry paftures. It 
varies in fize according to its fituation ; the flowers alfo vary in the degrees of purple; and make their 

. .arance in April, May, and June. 

Lamium album. White Dead-Nettle. 

LAMIUM Linnai Gen. PI. Didynamia Gymnospermia. 

Corolla lab. fup. integrum, fornicatum ; lab. inf. 2-lobum, faux utrinque 
margine dentata. 
RaiiSyn. Gen. 14. Suffrutices et Herbje vertictllat^:. 

LAMIUM album foliis cordatis, acuminatis, ferratis, petiolatis, verticillis vigintifloris. Lin. Syjl. Vegetal» 
p. 446» Sp. pi. p. 446. Flor. Suecic. p. 203. 

LAMIUM foliis cordatis, acutis, ferratis, verticillis multifloris. Haller. hifi. helv. n. 271. 

LAMIUM album, Scopoli FL Camlol. ?u 700. 

LAMIUM album non foetens folio oblongo. Bauhln. Pin. 231. 

LAMIUM album. Gerard emac. 782. 

LAMIUM vulgare album live Archangelieum flore albo. Parkin/on. 604. 

■Rati Syn. 240. White Archangel or Dead-Nettie. 

Hudfon, Fl. Angl. ed. 1. p. 225. ed. 2. 255. 

Lightfoot Fl. Scot. p. 308. 

RADIX perennis, alba, geniculata, repens. | ROOT perennial, white, jointed, and creeping. 

CAULES plurimi, pedales, fuberecli, fimplices, bar! | STALKS numerous, a foot high, nearly upright, un- 

tenuiores, quadrati, fiftulofi, hirfutuli, in a- % branched, flender at bottom, fquare, hollow, 

pricis ex rufo-purpurafcentes, furculi debiles, | and {lightly hairy ; in expofed fituations, of a 

adfcendentes. % reddilh purple colour : the young moots weak 

t and riling upward. 

FOLIA petiolata, cordata, acuta, deflexa, maequaliter | LEAVES ftanding on foot-ftalks, heart-fhaped, point- 

ferrata, apicibus denticulorum rufis introrfum % ed, hanging down, unequally ferrated ; the 

verfis, venofa, fuperne et inferne hirfutula, | tips of the little teeth red and turned in- 

fummis ut caules fsepe coloratis, circa radi- y ward, veiny, above and beneath fomewhat 

cem folioli etiam occurrunt fubrotunda, ere- % hirfute ; the uppermoft leaves, as well as the 

nulata. I ftalks, frequently coloured ; the leaves about 

^ the root are often fmall, round, and crenated. 

FLORES verticillati, majufculi, albi ; haud infrequenter f FLOWERS growing in whirls, largifh, of a yellowiih 

etiam rubore quodam tincti ; verticilli decern | white colour, not uncommonly tinged with, 

quindecem aut vigintiflori. % red ; the whirls having ten, fifteen, or twen- 

| ty flowers in them. 

CALYX: PerianthiUM monophyllum, tubulofum, | CALYX: a Perianthium of one leaf, tubular, feflile, 

femle, nervofum, quinquedentatum, denti- ¥ rib'd, hirfute and continuing, having five 

bus fetaceis, hirfuturn, perfhtens, inferne ad | teeth, which are fetaceous ; on its lower fide, 

bafin maculis purpureis notatum et brac~bea ? at bottom, marked with purple fpots, and 

brevi lineari furTultum, jig. 1, 2. | fupportedbyafhort linear bradealleaf,^. 1,2. 

COROLLA monopetala, ringens; tubus longitudine | COROLLA monopetalous and ringent ; the tube 

ferelabii fuperioris, curvatus, antice inferne \ nearly the length of the upper lip, andcrook- 

prominulus, fuperne intropreflus, faux inflata, | ed, anteriorly prominent below, and preffed 

margine utraque denticulis duobus plerumque ^ in above ; the mouth inflated, and marked 

notata, labium fuperius fornicatum, pilofum, | generally on each fide with two little teeth; 

emarginatum, aliquando etiam dentatum, li- | the upper lip arched, hairy, with a flight 

neis duabus elevatis ad verticem coadunatis % notch, and fometimes indented, difHnguifhed 

notatum, labium inferius bifidum, reflexum, | by two elevated lines, which unite at the 

crenulatum, ad bafin maculatum, fig. 3, 4. % crown ; the inferior lip bifid, turned back, 

t flightly notched, and fpotted at bottom, 

I fig- 3-> 4« 

STAMINA: Filamenta quatuor, filiformia, alba, * STAMINA: four Filaments, filiform, white, the 

apicibus villofis, paululum incrafiatis et in- | tips villous, a little thickned and bent in- 

curvatis: Anthers purpurea, hirfute ; | ward : Anthers purple and hairy ; Pollen 

Pollen flavum, fig. 5. f yellow, fig. 5. . ,'' 

PISTILLUM: Germen quadrifidum, fig. 6, glandu- | PISTILLUM : Germen divided Unto four, fig. ,6 fur- 
la cinaum, fig. 7: Stylus filiformis longi- * rounded by a gland, fig. 7. Style filiform, 
tudine et fitu Staminum: Stigma bifidum | of the fame length and fituation as the Stami- 
acutum,j%". 8, 9. | na : Stigma bifid and acute, fob, 9. 

SEMINA quatuor, in fundo calycis, trigona, appendi- | SEEDS four, in the bottom of the Calyx, three corner- 

culata, fig. 10, Y ed, with a little appendage at bottom,/^-. 10. 

THE White Dead-Nettle or Archangel, is one of our earlieft fpring plants, ornamenting our banks in April 
and May ; and is much reforted to by Bees for the fake of its honey, which is fecreted into the bottom of the tube 
in confiderable plenty, by a little gland furrounding the bafe of the germen. , 

' The flowers have been particularly celebrated in uterine fluors, and other female weakneffes ; as alio m diiorders 
of the lungs ; but they appear to be of very weak virtue : Lewis s Difp. part. 2. f. 163. 

The bruifed leaves are recommended to difcufs tumours, even of the fchrophulous kind ; Rutty s Mat. Med p.iyi, 
but very little dependance is to be placed on fuch recommendations. There is fcarce a plant but what (if we may 
believe the antients) poflefles fome wonderfully healing power of this kind. 

Like the other Lamiums, it has a difagreeable fmell when bruifed. 

Boys make whiffles of the ftalks. . " . , ., , 

In the fouth of France, it is faid to occur with a purple flower. I have frequently found it flightly tinged with red. 

The Phalana Chryfiiis, BurniJJjed Brafs Moth, Lin. Faun. Suecic. p. 311. Albin. Inject, tao. p, feeds on it : and in 
Sweden the leaves are eaten in the fpring as a pot-herb ; Lin. Flor. Suecica. % 

Having a ftrong creeping perennial root, and being a plant which cattle diflike, it fliould be extirpated by the 




^/*a/("/// '^'ci. 

Lamium amplexicaule. Henbit Dead -Nettle. 

LAMIUM Linruel Gen. Pi Didynamia Gymnospermia. 

Corolla lab. fuper. integrum, fornicatum ; lab. inf. 2-lobiim ; faux utrinque 
margine dentata. 

RaiiSyn. Gen, 14. Suffrutices et Herbae verticillatae. 
LAMIUM amplexicaule foliis rloralibus feffilibus amplexicaulibus obtufis. Linnet Syjl. Fegetah p. 446. 

Spec. Plant, p. 203. Flor. Suecic. p. 809. 
LAMIUM foliis radicalibus petiolatis, lobatis, fuperioribus caulem ambientibus, rotunde incifis. 

Hatter hift, n. 273. 
LAMIUM amplexicaule. Scopott Fl. Carniol. n. 702. 
LAMIUM folio caulem ambiente majus et minus. Bauhin pin. 231. 

ALSINE hederula altera. Gerard, emac. 616. 
ALSINE hederula folio major. Parkin/on 762. 

Rail Syn. p. 240. Great Henbit. 
Hudfon. M. Angl. p. 225. 
Lightfoot FL Scot. p. 309. 

RADIX annua, fibrofa, albida. t R°°T annual, fibrous, and of a whitifh colour. 

CAULES ex una radice plures, dodrantales, aut peda- | STALKS, Several from one root, nine inches or a foot 

les, fuberecti, quadrati, laeves, ramis paucis $ high, nearly upright, fquare, fmooth, with 

oppofitis. 5 a few oppolite branches. 

FOLIA oppofita, inferiora petiolata, fubrotundo cordata, | LEAVES oppolite, the lower ones landing on foot- 

incifo-crenata, venofa, hirfutula, petiolis fu- $ ftalks, of a ronndifh heart-fhaped figure, 

perne concavis foliis longioribus, fuperiora | deeply crenated, veiny, flightly hairy; the 

feffilia, femiorbiculata, incifa, laciniis obtufiuf- | foot-ftalks grooved on the upper part, and 

culis. t longer than the leaves ; the upper ones femi- 

| orbicular, cut in at the edges, the fegments 

y fomewhat blunt. 

FLORES verticillati ad 15, duorum generum, manci | FLOWERS growing in whirls to 15, of two kinds, 

fcilicet et perfe&i, manci breves, calycibus ^ perfect and imperfect ; the imperfect ones 

paulo longiores, apicibus ruberrimis hirfutis ? fhort, a little longer than the Calyx, the tips 

claufis, fig. I, 2; perfecti calyce quadruplo | very red, hairy, and clofed, fig. 1, 2; the 

longiores, purpurei, e fummitatibus caulium % perfecl; ones four times the length of the Ca- 

utplurimum erumpentes, fig. 3. | lyx, of a bright purple colour, and generally 

I breaking out from the tops of the flalks,^. 3. 

CALYX in perfects, Peri anthium quinquedentatum, % CALYX in the perfect ones, a Perianthium with five 

tubulofum, vix manifefte ftriatum, dentibus | teeth, tubular, fcarce manifeftly ftriated ; the 

jequalibus, acuminatis, hirfutis, fig. 4. % teeth equal, acuminated, and hirfute, fig. 4. 

COROLLA : Tubus praslongus, cylindraceus, fub- % COROLLA : the Tube very long, cylindrical, nearly 

erectus, faux inflata, margine reflexa maculata, | upright, the mouth inflated, the edge turned 

denticulis duobus notata, collum prominulum, % back, fpotted, and marked with two little 

labium fuperius fornicatum, hirfutum, fub- | teeth ; the neck a little prominent ; the up- 

integrum ; labium inferius deflexum, bilobum, y per lip arched, hirfute, and nearly entire ; 

maculis purpureis notatum, fig. 5, 6, 7, 8. ? the lower lip turning down, having two lobes, 

I which are fpotted with purple, fig. 5, 6, 7, 8. 

STAMINA : Filament a quatuor, quorum duo Ion- % STAMINA : four Filaments, two long and two fhort, 

giora, alba, fub labio fuperiore : Anthers | of a white colour, placed under the upper lip • 

pilofie, polline croceo refertas, fig. 9. | Anthers hairy, filled with a faffron- colour- 

% ed pollen, fig. 9. 

PISTILLUM : Germen quadrifidum : Stylus fili- | PISTILLUM : Germen divided into four parts : 

formis, longitudine et fitu ftaminum : Stig- ^ Style filiform, of the fame length and fitua- 

ma bifidum, acutum, fig. 10. | tion with the Stamina: Stigma bifid and 

I acute, fig. ic. 

SEMINA quatuor in fundo calycis, appendiculata, % SEEDS four, in the bottom of the Calyx, with a lit— 

pun£tis albis notata, fig. n, 12. | tie appendadge to each, furface covered with 

I white fpots, fig. 11, 12. 

IN the flowering of this plant, there are fome circumftances well deferving of attention. 

Two kinds of bloffoms are obfervable on it ; the one a very fmall fhort one, like the rudiments of a flower, a 
little longer than the Calyx, with the mouth clofed, very hairy, and of a bright red colour ; the other a flower like 
that of the Lamium purpureum, but much longer. 

The firft of theie blonoms, which fo far as refpecls the Corolla, are evidently imperfect, appear very early in 
the Spring, in February and March ; the long and perfecl: blonoms do not make their appearance till May or June, 
when they are obfervable on the tops of the flalks : and if the progrefs of the flowers be watched, the Corolla will 
be found to be gradually -enlarged in different blonoms, till the weather being fufficiently warm, they come forth 
fully formed. 

Thofe who have attended to the changes of Infects, muft have obferved, that if a Caterpillar has, previous to 
its changing into the chryfalis or pupa ftate, been deprived of its proper quantity of food, the Fly has come forth 
perfecl in all its parts except the wings, which are crumpled up, and never expand ; fo this plant, for want of 
a fufncient degree of warmth, is not able to pufh forth an expanded Corolla ; yet being perfecl: in every other part, 
the fpecies fuffers no diminution. 

I had for feveral years imagined, that the imperfecl: flowers were the rudiments of the long bloffoms ; but on a 
more minute enquiry, I found that they never grew any longer, but decayed. I was then ready to fuppofe that 
they were barren flowers ; but on differing them, I found that each had both Stamina and a Piftillum. 

Since the above obfervations were made, I find, on looking into the Flora Suecica, that Linnjeus takes notice of 
its fcarce ever producing perfecl: bloflbms in Sweden. 

Here then is a procefs fomewhat fimilar to what we obferve in the Violet and fome other plants, where perfecl; 
feed is produced, although the Corolla be not perfectly formed. 

It grows with us frequently on walls ; and in the greatefl abundance in the fields and gardens about Batierfiea and 
Lambeth, where the foil is light. 



^mwm/d ^r/iifUumA 

Thymus Serpyllum. Common Wild Thyme. 

THYMUS Linnai Gen. PL Didynamia Gymnospermia. 

Calycis bilabiati faux villis claufa. 
Rail Syn. Gen. Suffrutices et herbje verticillatte* 

THYMUS Serpyllum floribus capitatis, caulibus repentibus, foliis planis obtufis, bail ciliatis. hinn&i 
Syji Vegetab. p. 452. 

THYMUS foliis ovatis ad bafin ciliatis. Haller hifi. n. 235, 

THYMUS Serpyllum Scopoli Fh Carniol. n. J36, 

SERPYLLUM vulgare minus. Bauhin Pin. 220. 

SERPYLLUM vulgare. Gerard emac. 570. 

SERPYLLUM vulgare minus. Parkin/on 8. Rail Syn. p. 230, Common Mother of Thyme; Hud/on 
Fl. Angl. p. 229. 

RADIX lignofa, fibrofa, fufca, perennis. 
! ULES numerofi, quadrangulares, duriufculi, pro- 

cumbentes, ramofi, ramis alternis. 
FOLIA ovata, petiolata, integerrima, plerumque lse- 

via, glandulis punctata, petiolis ciliatisj%. 1, 2. 

FLORES in fummitatibus caulium verticillatim dif- 
pofiti, etin capitulis fubrotundis congefti. 

CALYX: Perianthium monophyllum, tubulatum, 
ftriatum,. fauce villis claufo, fig. 9, femibiii- 
dum in duo labia, labium fuperius latins, tri- 
dentatum, dentibus reflexis ; inferius bifetum 
dentibus ciliatis, fig. 3, 4, 5. 

COROLLA monopetala ; Tubus longitudine fetarum 
calycis, labium fuperius reflexum, emarginatum, 
obtufum, inferius trifidnm, longius, laciniis 
obtuiis medio longiore, fig. 6. 

STAMINA: Filamenta quatuor inaequalia ; An- 
therje minimae, fig. 7. 

PISTILLUM : GERMENquadripartitum ; Stylus Co- 
rolla longior, recurvatus ; Stigma bifidum, 
acutum, fig. 8. 

SEMINA quatuor, parva, fubrotunda, fufca, fig. 10, 11. 

ROOT woody, fibrous, of a brown colour, and perennial. 

STALKS numerous, fquare, hard, procumbent, and 
branched ; the branches alternate. 

LEAVES oval, ftanding on foot-ftalks, entire at the 
edges, generally fmooth, dotted with little 
glands; the foot-ftalks furniihed with long 
hairs, fig. 1,2. 

FLOWERS placed in whirls on the tops of the ftalks, 
and forming fmall roundiih heads. 

CALYX : a Perianthium of one leaf, tubular, ftriated, 
the mouth clofed up with hairs, fig. 9, divided 
into two lips ; the uppefmoft having three 
teeth which bend back ; the lowermoft two, 
much longer, narrower, and edged with hairs, 

fig- 3> 4, 5- 

COROLLA monopetalous : the Tube the length of 
the Calyx ; the upper lip turning back, notch- 
ed in and blunt ; the lowermoft longer, divi- 
ded into three fegments, the fegments obtufe, 
the middle one longeft, fig. 6. 

STAMINA : four Filaments of unequal lengths : 
Anthers very minute,^. 7. 

PISTILLUM : Germen dividing into four parts ; 
Style longer than the Corolla, and turning 
upwards ; Stigma bifid and pointed, fig. 8. 
? SEEDS four, fmall, roundiih, of a brown colour, 
* fig. 10, 11. 

FEW Plants are fubjecl to fo many varieties as the Wild *fhyme. In its molt natural ftatej when found 
on dry expofed Downs, it is fmall and procumbent : when growing among Furze or other plants, which afford 
it fhelter, it runs up with a (lender ftalk to a foot or more in height, and aflumes an appearance which might 
puzzle the young Botanifl. It differs alfo very much in the fmooth nefs and hairinefs of its leaves : and there 
is a lingular variety of it, remarked by Linnjeus, with woolly heads, (Capitulis tomentops) which are the nidus 
of fome Infect. We have feen whole banks covered with this turgid variety. The Veronica Chameedrys, Glechoma 
hederacea, Valeriana Loctpa, and other plants, are frequently diftorted, and appear under the fame difguife 
from a fimilar caufe. 

On dry chalky Downs the Wild *thyme abounds all over England ; flowering in July and Auguft. 

It has been a received opinion, that Thyme and other aromatic herbs, give a flavour to the flefh of Sheep 
that feed where thefe plants are found : but curious obfervers have remarked, that Sheep neither eat Thyme 
nor any other aromatic herb when they have a free choice of pafturage.* 

The Antients planted Thyme for the fake of their Bees, who colled Honey very largely from it ; which 
at that period was of more value than at prefent : the cultivation of Sugar in the Weft India Iflands, has 
contributed much to reduce its confequence in domeftic ceconomy. 

Theophrastus relates, that 'Thyme produced no feed that could be difcovered ; but that the plant might 
be encreafed by fowing its flowers. Pliny copies this paffage from Theophrastus ; and inftead of doubting 
the fact, remarks " quid non tent 'aver -e homines?" What experiments have not mankind tried? The credulity of 
the Antients is very wonderful ! Whatever one Author advanced, the next took for granted, to the great de- 
triment of natural hiftory. — Inveftigation was never thought of ! 

Dr. Armstrong, in his elegant and claffical poem on health, recommends the foil where this plant 
(Thyme or Marjoram) abounds, as particularly healthful and proper for habitations* 

Mark where the dry Champaign 

" Swells into chearful hills ; where Marjoram 
" And Thyme, the love of Bees, perfume the Air. 
" There bid thy roofs , high on the bajking fieep 
11 Afcend : there light thy hojpi table fires". 

ee account of Sheep-walks in Spain, Gent. Mag. 1764. 

to nid i mum muana. 

Erysimum Alliaria. Sauce-alone. 

ERYSIMUM Linnai Gen. PL Tetradynamia Siliquosa. 

Siliqua columnaris, exadte tetraedra. CaL claufus. 
Rail Syn. Gen. 21. Herb^e Tetrapetalje Siliquosa et Siliculos^:. 
ERYSIMUM Alliaria foliis cordatis. Linntei SyJ. Vegetal, p. 499. Sp. PL p. 923. FL Suecic. n. 600» 
ERYSIMUM Haller H'fi. p. 208. n. 480. 
SISYMBRIUM Alliaria. Scopoli FL Cam. n. 825. 
ALLIARIA Bauhin Pin. no. Gerard emac. 796. Parkin/on 112. 
HESPERIS allium redolens. Rati Syn. 293. Jack by the Hedge, or Sauce-alone. 

Hud/on. FL Angl. ed. 2. p. 286. 

Lightfoot FL Scot. 186. 

RADIX biennis, albida, fufiformis, plurimis fibrillis 

CAULIS ereftus, bi aut tripedalis, teres, laevis, fubftria- 

tus, inferne purpureus, villofus, fuperne ra- 

RAMI pauci, alterni, erecti. 
FOLIA alterna, petiolata, cordata, venofa, fubrugofa, 

inferiora longius petiolata, rotundata, fuperi- 

ora acuta, inaequaliter dentato-ferrata. 

FLORES nivei, terminales, ere&i, pedunculis longi- 
tudine florum infidentes. 

CALYX: Perianthium tetraphyllum, foliolis oblon- 
gis, pallide virefcentibus, obtufis, deciduis, 
apice interne concavis, externe gibbis, fig. 1. 

COROLLA: Petal a quatuor, obovata, unguiculata, 
unguis erectus, linearis, limbus patens, venis 
paucis exaratus, fig. 2. 

STAMINA : Filament a lex, fubulata, alba, duo bre- 
viora incurvata, quatuor longiora erecla, lon- 
gitudineStyli,/g\ 3, 6: Anthers oblongae, 
cOrdatae, flavas, incumbentes, erecras, fig. 4, 5. 

NECTARIUM : glandula rotunda folitariautrinque ad f 
bafin Staminum longiorum, bafis vero Stami- I 
num. breviorum glandula cingitur. y 

PISTILLUM : Germen obfcure tetragonum, oblon^ 
gum, fig. 7 : Stylus breviffimus, fig. 8 
Stigma capitato-truncatum. 

PERICARPIUM: Siliqua biuncialis, teres, fubte- 
tragona, lineata, bilocularis, bivalvis, fig. 9 

SEMINA plurima, oblonga, fufca, nitida, ftriata, u 
traque extremitate oblique truncata, diffepr 
mento utrinque nidulantia,j%\ 10. 

ROOT biennial, of a whitifh colour, tapering, and 
furnifhed with numerous fibres. 

STALK upright, from two to three feet high, round, 
fmooth, fomewhat ftriated, at bottom purple, 
and flightly hoary, at top branched. 

BRANCHES few, alternate, and upright. 

LEAVES alternate, {landing on foot-ftalks, heart- 
fhaped, veiny, and fomewhat wrinkled ; the 
lower ones ftanding on long foot-ftalks, and 
round at the tips ; the upper ones pointed, 
and unequally toothed or fawed. 

FLOWERS white, terminal, upright, ftanding on 
fblks the length of the flowers. 

CALYX: a Perianthium of four leaves, which are 
oblong, of a pale green, obtufe, the tips in- 
ternally concave, externally gibbous, fig. 1. 

COROLLA : four Petals, inverfely oval, and claw- 
ed ; the claw erect and linear ; the limb 
fpreading, and grooved with a few veins, fig. 2. 

STAMINA : fix Filaments tapering, and white ; 
the two fhorter ones bending inwards ; the 
four longer ones upright, the length of the 
Style, fig. 3, 6 : Anthers of an oblong heart 
fhape, yellow, incumbent, and upright, 

fig- 4, 5- 
NECTARY, a fmall round fmgle gland, placed on 
each fide at the bafe of the longeft Stamina ; 
but the bafe of each of the fhorteft Stamina, 
is wholly furrounded by a glandular fubftance. 


PISTILLUM : the Germen obfcurely four corner'd, 
and oblong, Jig. 7 : Style very mort,^g\ 8 : 
Stigma, forming a little head, appearing 
as if cut off. 
SEED-VESSEL : a Pod about two inches long, round, 
obfcurely quadrangular, with a fine prominent 
line between each angle, of two cavities and 
two valves, fig. 9. 
- t SEEDS numerous, oblong, brown, mining, finely 
I grooved, obliquely cut off at each end, and 

¥ partly buried in the diffepimentum on each 

I fide, fig. 10. 


THE whole of this plant, on being rubbed, difcovers a ftrong fmell of Garlic, whence its name of Alliaria. 

Medicinally, the leaves are recommended internally, as fudorifics and deobftruents, fomewhat of the nature of 
Garlic, but much milder ; and externally, as antifeptics, in gangrenes and cancerous ulcers : Lewis's ' Difp. p. 78. 

Dietically it is ufed in fauces ; and by the country people eaten with bread and butter : Rati Hijl. PL et Syn. 

The feeds bruifed, and put up the noflrils, are faid to promote fneezing : Rail Hijl. PL p. 792. 

The Curculio Alliar'm ', Linn. Faun. Suecic. n. 580, perforates and dwells in the ftalks of this plant : FL Suecic. 

If eaten by Cows, which it appears to be from Linnjeus's experiments, it will be liable to give a difagreeable 
tafte to the milk ; mould this happen, the Farmer will eafily deftroy it, as it is a biennial. 

It grows very common by hedge fides ; flowers in April and May. 

Scopoli obferves that it does not retain the generic character of an Ervfimum, wherefore he arranges it as 
a Sijymhium. 

Arabis thaliana. Podded Mouse-ear. 

ARABIS Llnnai Gen. PL Tetradynamia Siliqxjosa. 

Glandule ne£tariferae-4, lingular intra Calycis foliola, fquamse inltar reflexae, 
Rail Syn. Gen. 21. Herb^: tetrapetal^e siliquosa et siliculosje, 
ARABIS thaliana foliis radicalibus ovato-lanceolatis, dentatis, pun&ato-fcabris. 

ARABIS thaliana foliis petiolatis lanceolatis integerrimis. Linn. Syjl. Vegetab. p. 501. FL Suecic. n. 605. 
ARABIS foliis radicalibus petiolatis, ovatis, dentatis caule fubnudo ramofo. Hatter hijl. n. 452. 
TURRITIS vulgaris ramofa. Rait Syn. 294, Moufe-ear. 
BRASSICA fpuria minima, foliis hirfutis et glabris. Rail Syn. ed. 2. 166. 
BURSiE paftoriae fimilis filiquofa major et minor. Bauhin Pin. 108. 
PILOSELLA filiquofa. fhal. tab. 7 
PARONYCHIA major et altera minor. Parkin/on 556. Hud/on Fl, Angl. p. 255. 

RADIX annua, fimplex, fibrofa, albida. | ROOT annual, fimple, fibrous, whitifh. 

FOLIA radicalia oblongo-ovata, petiolata, dentata, pre- $ LEAVES of an oblong oval fhape, {landing on foot-ftalks, 

fertim prope bafin, hirfuta, utrinque fcabra | indented, efpecially near the bafe of the leaf, 

pundlis prominulis, caulina feffilia dentata, | hairy, rough on each fide, with little promi- 

fig. 1, 2; hirfuties ad bafin foliorum fimplex, % nent points; leaves on the ftalk feffile and 

ad marginem et fuperficiem bi et trifurcata. | indented, Jig. 1 2 ; the hairs at the bafe of 

I the leaf fimple, thofe at the edges and on the 

, t furface dividing into two or three forks. 

CAULIS femipedalis ad pedalem, ere&us, fubramofus, | STALK from fix to twelve inches high, upright, fome- 

teres, rore glauco te&us, hirfutus, ramuli 3 what branched, round, crooked, covered with 

alterni, nutantes. * a bloom, hairy, the little branches alternate 

X and drooping. 

CALYX: Perianthium tetraphyllum, foliolis ovatis, | CALYX: a Peri anthium of four leaves, which are 

concavis, hirfutulis, Jig. 3. auft. | oval, concave, and {lightly hairy, Jig. 3, mag. 

COROLLA: Petala quatuor, calyce duplo longiora, | COROLLA of four Petals, twice the length of the 
apice dilata, Integra, obtufa, jig. 4. auft. | Calyx, dilated at top, entire and obtufe, jig. 4. 

STAMINA -Filamenta quatuor fubulata quorum duo | STAMINA: four tapering Filaments, two of which 
breviora, fig. 5 ; Anther je flavae, parvas. ? are morter than the others, fig. 5; Anthers 

I fmall and yellow. 

PISTILLUM: Germen oblongum, tenue ; Stylus | PISTILLUM: Germen oblong, (lender. Style very 
breviffimus longitudine Staminum ; Stigma | ihort, equalinheight to the Stamina ; Stigma 

obtufum, fig. 6. I blunt, fig. 6. 

PERiCAPPIUM: filiqua tenuis, femuncialis, bivalvis, f SEED-VESSEL: a fmall .(lender pod about half an 
fig. 7, 8, continens | inch long, of two valves, fig. 7, 8, containing 

SEMINA plurima, flavefcentia, fig. 9. * SEEDS. Several yellowim feeds, fig. 9. 

AT firft fight this little plant, in its larger ftate, forms fome refemblance to the Shepherds Purje ; and 
when fmall, may be overlooked or miftaken for the Br aba verna, particularly as it grows in fimilar fituations ; 
but by its ilender pods it may readily be diflinguifhed. _ j ^ 

We have it frequent enough on our walls, and fometimes on dry ground, about town : and it may be found 
in great abundance on the fouth fide of Greenwich Park Wall, the top of which, facing the late Sir Gregory Page's, 
is in particular parts almoft covered with it ; while the bottom of it, is at the fame time, beautifully orna- 
mented with the Geranium Cicutartum. 

It flowers in March and April, and the feed is ripe in May. 

No particular virtues or ufes are afcribed to it. . # - . 

Like all other plants (which is a circumftance that cannot be too often inculcated into the mind ^ot the 
young Botanift) it varies very much in fize; fometimes being not more than an inch or two in height, and 
at other times more than a foot. p . 

The Glandula Ne5iarifer<z, often found at the bafe of the Stamina, in the plants of the Clafs Tetradynamia, 
and which according to Linnjeus form the character of the Genus Arabis, are in this fpecies fo very minute, 
as fcarcely to be difcerned with a magnifier 


i-l \,3 



t , 7 



miaafta ? 


Geranium molle. Common Doves-foot Cranes-bill. 

GERANIUM L'mnai Gen. PL Monadelphia Decandria. 

Monogyna. Stigmai. 5. Fruffus roftratus, 5-coccus. 
RanSyn.Gen.2Jb Herb^e pentapetal^e 

GERANIUM molle pedunculis biflorls, foliifque floralibus alternis, petalis bifidis, calycibus muticis, 
caule erectiufculo. Linnai Syjl. Vegetab. p. 515. Sp. PL p. 955. Fl. Suede, p. 577. 

GERANIUM foliis . molliffimis, hirfutis, reniformibus, femiquinquefidis, lobis femitripartitis, obtufis. 
Haller hifl. n. 939. 

GERANIUM molle. Scopoli Fl. Carniol. an noftra planta ? 

GERANIUM columbinum villofum, petalis bifidis purpureis. Vaill. Paris, yy. t. 1$. fig. 3. 
GERANIUM columbinum. Ger. emac. 938. 

GERANIUM columbinum vulgare. Parkin/on 706. RailSyn. p. 3 5 9, Doves- foot, orDoves-foot-Cranes-bill. 
GERANIUM folio malvze rotundo. Bauhin. Pin. 318. 

Hudfon Fl. Angl. p. 265. 

Lightfoot Fl. Scot. p. 370. 

RADIX annua, fufiformis, fimplex. % ROOT annual, tapering, and fimple. 



CAULES plures, utplurimum procumbentes, teretes, $ STALKS feveral, procumbent, round, of a reddifh 

rubicundi, dodrantales aut pedales, villofi, | colour, from nine inches to a foot in length, 

ramoii. | villous, and branched. 


I LEAVES : thofe next the root fitting on long, round, 

FOLIA radicalia petiolis longis, teretibus, villofis, in- ^ villous foot-ftalks, of a roundilh form, hoary, 

fidentia, fubrotunda, villofa, fubtus venofa, % and veiny underneath, deeply divided into 

feptemflda, laciniis incifis, caulina alterna in | feven fegments, which are jagged : the leaves 

lacinias pauciores, anguftiores et acutiores % on the ftalk alternate, divided into fewer 

divifa. | fegments, which are narrower and more poin- 

| ted. . 

J STIPULiE four at each joint, membranous, and wither- 

STIPULiE ad fingula genicula quaternse, membrana- y ing. 
ceas, marefcentes. | 

I FLOWER-STALK : general flower-ftalk the length 

PEDUNCULI longitudine et forma petiolorum iifque % and form of the leaf-ftalks, and growing op- 

oppofiti, bifidi, biflori : pedicelli pedunculo | pofite to them, bifid, and fupporting two 

triplo fere breviores, ftipulis minoribus ad $ flowers : partial flower-ftalks nearly three 

bafin cinctis, adlentem fubvifcofis. | times fhorter than the general one, furround- 

y ed at their bafe by fmaller ftipulae, fome of 
the hairs on which appearing glandular if 

I viewed with a glafs. 

CALYX: PERiANTHiuMpentaphyllum, foliolis ovato- % CALYX: a Perianthium of five leaves, oval, poin- 

acutis, trinervibus, pilofis, inrequalibus, brevi | ted, having three ribs, hairy, unequal, and 

mucrone, rufo, non admodum acuto, termi- $ terminated by a reddilh and fomewhat blunt 

natis, fig. 1. I point, fig. 1. 

COROLLA: Petala quinque purpurea, obcordata, % COROLLA: five purple Petals, inverfely heart- 

calyce paulo longiora, unguibus parvis, utrin- | Ihaped, a little longer than the Calyx, the 

que ciliatis. j claws fmall, and edged on each fide with hairs. 


STAMINA: Filamenta decern, alba, aequalia, bafi | STAMINA: ten white Filaments, of an unequal 
lata, vix coalefcentia : Anthers ccerulea?, * length, broad at bottom, but not perceptibly 

fig- 2. I united : Anthers blue, fig. 2. 

PISTILLUM: Germen quinquangulare : Stylus ¥ PISTILLUM : Germen five-cornered : Style taper- 
fubulatus, vifcofus : Stigmata quinque, | ing, with glandular hairs : Stigmata five, 

rubra, reflexa, fig. 3, 4. ¥ of a red colour, and turning back, fig. 3, 4. 

SEMINA quinque, ovata, glabra, fig. 5, 7, 8. Arillo f SEEDS five, oval and fmooth, fig. 5, 7, 8, covered 
rugofo teda, fig. 6. % with a wrinkled Arillus, fig. 6. 

THE Geranium molle is the moft common of all our Geraniums, and one of the earlieft in bloffom, beginning 
to blow in April, and continuing through the Summer. Its moll natural fituation is on a dry bank ; yet it 
very often is found in paftures, and under walls. If growing by itfelf, the ftalks are ufually procumbent; 
among other plants it is often drawn upright. 

It varies very much in fize; the flowers alfo vary much both in fize and colour. In the Lawn before 
Chelfea Hofpital, I have noticed this plant almoft as large as the pyrenaicum of Linnjeus. Its flowers are 
fometimes white, fometimes pale red, with many gradations of purple. 

It is molt likely to be mifiaken for the rotund/folium and pyrenaicum, neither of which are common plants 
with us: in what refpecl it differs from thefe, we fhall mention when they come to be defcribed. 

We may remark here, that the Arilli, or coverings of the feeds, fig. 6, are curioufly wrinkled ; but the feeds 
themfelves are perfectly fmooth. 





MALVA Llnntel Gen» PL Monadelphia Polyandria. 

CaL duplex : exterior ^triphyllus. Arilli plurimi monofpermi. 

Rail Syn, Gen. 15. Herbje semine nudo polyspermy. 
MALVA fyhejlris caule erecto herbaceo, foliis feptemlobatis acutis, pedunculis petiolifque pilofis. JJnnal 

Sy/l. Vegetab. p. 520. 
MALVA caule erecto ; foliis lobatis : lobis ferratis, quinis et feptenis. Haller hlft. n. 1069. 
MALVA fyhejlris. Scopoll Fl. Carnlol «.859. 
MALVA fyhejlris folio finuato, C. Bauhln. pin. 314. 
MALVA vulgaris Parklnjon. 

MALVA fyhejlris Gerard. Rail Syn. p. 269, Common Mallow. Hudfon Fl. Angl. p. 268. 

RADIX perennis, albida, craffitie digiti, in terram aire ¥ 

defcendens, fibris paucis majufculis inftructa, I 

fapore dulci et vifcido praedita. t 

CAULIS plerumque eredtus, pedalis ad tripedalem, % 

teres, pilofus, ramofus. | 

FOLIA petiolis praelongis hirfutis infidentia., quinque I 

aut feptemlobata, ad b'afin macula purpurea t 

iaepe notata, fubplicata, crenata, fuperne laevia, I 

fubtus hirfutula. ± 

FLORES ampli, purpurei, axillaris, fubumbellati, 
venis faturatioribus picTti. 

STIPULiE duse ad bafin cujufvis petioli. 

CALYX : Perianthium duplex, perfiftens, hirfutum, 
exterius triphyllum, foliolis lanceolatis, fig. 1 ; 
interius femiquinquefidum, majus, laciniis 
ovato-acutis, fig. 2. 

COROLLA : Petal a quinque, obcordata, praemorfa, 
bafi coalita, plana, fig. 3. 

STAMINA: Filament a plurima in tubum purpu- 
rafcentem coalita, fig. 5, fuperne laxa, reflexa :, 
Anthers reniformes, albidae, fig. 6, audi. 

PISTILLUM: Germen orbiculatum : Stylus cylin- 
draceus, brevis : Stigmata plurima, fetacea, 
rubicunda, longitudine Styli, jig. 7, 8, 9. 

SEMINA plurima reniformia Arlllo introrfum dehifcen- % SEEDS 
te tecta, fig. 10, 11. ^ 

ROOT perennial and whitim, the thicknefs of ones 
finger, itriking deep into the earth, thinly 
furnifhed with large fibres, and having a 
fweetiih vifcid tafle. 

STALK generally upright, from one to three feet high, 
round, hairy and branched. 

LEAVES {landing on long hairy foot-ftalks, having 
five or feven lobes, often marked at bottom 
with a purple fpot, fomewhat folded, crenated 
or notched at the edges, fmooth above and 
flightly hairy beneath. 

FLOWERS large, purple, growing in a kind of um- 
bell in the bofoms of the leaves, painted with 
deeper veins of the fame colour. 

STIPUL^E two at the bottom of each foot-ltalk of the 

CALYX : a double Perianthium continuing, and 
hairy ; the outer one compofed of three leaves, 
which are narrow and pointed, fig. 1 ; the 
inner one larger and divided into five fegments, 
which are broader and pointed, fig. 2. 

COROLLA : five Petals heart-fhaped, a piece of the 
apex as if bitten out, uniting at bottom, and 
flat, fig. 3. 

STAMINA : Filaments numerous, uniting into a 
purplifh tube, fig. 5, above unconnected and 
turning back : Anthers kidney- fhaped, and 
whitiih, fig. 6, magnified. 

PISTILLUM: Germen orbicular : Style cylindri- 
cal, andfhort: Stigmata numerous, thread-, 
fhaped, of a red colour, the length of the 
Styles, fig. 7, 8, 9. 

numerous, kidney- fhaped, covered with an 
Arlllus which opens inwardly, fig. 10, 11. 

EVERY part of this plant, but more particularly the root, contains within it a juice fomewhat mucilaginous, 
hence it has been ranked by writers on the Materia Medlca among the emollients, and considered as ferviceable 
in all cafes where emollients are proper : but it has more particularly been ufed in difeafes of the urinary 
pafTages, where the parts have been either injured by calculous concretions, or inflamed from other caufes ; as 
in the ftone, gravel, bloody urine, ffrangury, gonorrhaea, &c. In cafes of cough, hoarfnefs, roughnefs of the 
fauces, &c. it has alfo been recommended. Its ufe however has been much fuperfeded by the MarJIimallow, 
which pofleffes all its valuable qualities in a fuperior degree. The method of uiing it is by making a decoction 
of the leaves or root : or it may be made into a fyrup in the manner of Marfijmallows. In fomentations and 
clyfters the leaves are alfo not unfrequently ufed. 

Mallows were formerly eaten as food by the Romans ; not the fpecies here figured however ; but according 
to Haller, the Maha rotundlfolla Italic a fore amplo of Tournefort was ufed for this purpofe. This author 
alfo informs us, that a tree of trie Mallow kind is in like ufe with the Fgyptlans ; and that the Chlnefe mix dried 
Mallow leaves with their food. 

Cattle do not appear to be fond of it ; and as it is a ltrong growing plant, it often does much harm in good 
rich ground : the root however, though perennial, is not of the creeping kind, and confequently is eradicated 
without much difficulty. The beff. inftrument will be found to be what is called a docking-iron, of which we fhall 
give an account in defcribing fome one of the Docks ; and the beft time for taking them up is late in the Autumn, 
when the herbage being eat down pretty clofe, the leaves of the Mallow are eafily difcerned, and the herbage fuffers 
little from the operation. 

The Mallow flowers from June to the end of Summer. The Antheras before the opening of the flower, 
while they are yet entire, afford a very pleafing fpectacle, and are figured by Grew, in a magnified ftate, in 
his Anatomy of Plants. 



JUtma^&z/ ofp^r/JiMJj^ 


FUMARIA Llnau Gen, PL Diadelphia Hexandria. 

Cal. diyhyllus, Cor, ringens. Filamenta 2, membranacea, fingula Antherh 3. 
Rati Syn. Gen. 10. Herbje flore perfecto simplici, seminibus nudis solitariis seu 


FUMARIA officinalis pericarpiis monofpermis racemofis, caule diffufo. Linnai. Syji. Vegetal, p. 43?. 

Sp. PL p. 984. Fl. Suecic. p. 245. 
FUMARIA foliis multifidis ; lobis fubrotimde lanceolatis ; frudtibus monofpermis. Holler, hift, helv. n. 346. 
FUMARIA officinalis. Scopoli FL Carniol. p. 47. 
FUMARIA officinarum et Diofcoridis. Bauhin pin. 143. 
FUMARIA purpurea. Gerard, emac, 1088. 
FUMARIA vulgaris. Parkin/on. 287. Rail Syn. p. 284, .Fumitory. 

Hudfon FL Angl. p. 270. 

Lightfoot FL Scot. p. 3? 9. 

RADIX annua, fibrofa, ex flavo-fufca. 

CAULES dodrantales aut cubitales, diffufi, angulofi, 

geniculis tumidis, ramofi, glabri, teneri, fub- 


FOLIA alterna, petiolata, duplicato-pinnata, glauca, 
pinnulis trilobatis, mucronatis, lobis extimis 
bifidis aut trifidis. 

FLORES racemofi, purpurei, racemi erecti, multiflori, 
floribus fparfis, pedunculatis, pedunculis clava- 

BRACTEiE lanceolate, apice purpurea, fingulo pedun- 
culo fubjectze, jig. 1 . 

CALYX : PERiANTHiuMdiphyllum; foliolis oppofitis, 
aequalibus, lateralibus, acutis, denticulatis, 
deciduis, fig. 2, 3. 

COROLLA oblong'a, ringens, palato prominente fau- 
cem claudente. Labium fuperius apice dilatatum, 
carinatum, fubtus concavum, margine paulu- 
lumreflexa, bafiobtufa, incurvata. Labium infie- 
rius longitudine labii fuperioris et fimile quoad 
apicem, caeteroquin lineare, ball paulo latiore. 
Petala lateralia five alas apice cohasrent fau- 
cemque tetragonam efformant fupra infraque 
tridentatam, fig .4, 5, 6, 7. 

STAMINA : Filamenta duo, alba, membranacea, 
bafi lata, germen ampleclentia : Antherje 
tres, flavefcentes in fmgulo filamento, termina- 
les, fig. 8. 

PISTILLUM : Germen ovatum : Stylus filiformis 
longitudine ftaminum, adfcendens : Stigma 
compreflum, villofum, fig, 9. 

PERICARPIUM Silicula uniloculars, fubcordata, fig, 

SEMEN unicum, fubrotundum, fig. 1 \, 

ROOT annual, fibrous, of a yellowifh brown colour. 

STALKS from nine to feventeen inches in height, 
fpreading, angular, enlarged at the joints, 
branched, fmooth, tender, and fomewhat bend- 

LEAVES alternate, ftanding on foot-ftalks, twice pin- 
nated, of a blueifh green colour, the pinnule 
or little leaves trilobate, terminating in a fhort 
point, the outermoft lobes bifid or trifid. 

FLOWERS growing in a kind of fpike, of a purple 
colour ; fpikes upright, fupporting many flow- 
ers, which are placed, without any regular 
order, on foot-ftalks, thickeft at the extremity. 

FLORAR-LEAF lanceolate, and purple at top, placed 
under each flower-ftalk, fig. 1. 

CALYX : a Perianthium of two leaves, the leaves 
oppoiite, asqual, lateral, pointed, with little 
teeth at the edges, and deciduous, fig. 2, 3. 

COROLLA oblong, ringent, the palate prominent, and 
clofing the mouth : upper lip dilated at the 
tip, keel-fhaped, hollow beneath, the margin 
turning a little upwards ; the bafe obtufe, 
and curled inward: the lower lip the fame 
length as the upper one, and fimilar as to the 
top, in other refpecls linear ; the bafe a little 
broader : the lateral Petals, or wings, cohere 
at top, and form a four corner'd mouth, in 
which there are three divifions on the upper 
and lower part, fig. 4, 5, 6, 7. 

STAMINA: two white Filaments, membranous, 
broad at bottom, and embracing. the germen : 
Antherje three, of a yellowifh colour, fitting 
on the tops of the filaments, fig. 8. 

PISTILLUM: Germen oval: Style thread-fhaped, 
the length of the ftamina, riling upwards : 
Stigma compreffed, and villous, fig. 9. 

SEED-VESSELL a fmall Pod of one cavity, fomewhat 
inverfely heart-fhaped, fig. 1 o> 

SEED one, of a roundifh figure, fig. 1 1 . 

FUMITORY in its flower and fruit, has certainly a confiderable affinity with the papilionaceous plants, although 
that affinity is not very obvious at firft fight : and at the fame time, fome parts of its ftructure feem altogether 
peculiar to itfelf. The poflerior part of the corolla terminates in a kind of nectarium, like what weobferve in the 
Violet. But the part in which it differs moil from the papilionaceous flowers, is its calyx, which coniifts of two 
fmall lateral leaves, more like ftipulae than a calyx. The filaments, as in papilionaceous flowers, are diftindtly 
divided into two bodies, on the top of each of which, in a very Angular manner, are placed three antheras, each 
ffanding on a little footftalk. The feed-veflell in this fpecies, has not much refemblance to thofe of the papiliona- 
ceous tribe ; but in fome of the other fpecies it has a very confiderable one, as in the Clavtculata. This difference 
offfruclurein the feed-veffells, caufedRAY to divide the plants of this genus, and place them in different clailes : 
but by LinntEus they are claiTed together with the diadelphous plants. 

When this plant grows luxuriantly, and near other plants, the leaves acquire a power of acting as tendrils, and 
fupporting the plant : this is the principal variety to which it is fubjec"t. 

It grows very commonly in corn-fields, gardens, and on the fides of banks ; flowering from April to July. 

The juice of it given to two ounces, with whey, gently opens the body, purifies (as it is called) the blood, refills 
the fcurvy, removes eruptions of the ikin, and a too great rednefs of the face, if exercife in the fpring be joined 
with it. The extract., or infpiffated juice of it, appears to be the mofl eligible form, of which one dram loofens 
the belly;- Haller. hifl. helv. p. 150. 

Kine and Sheep eat it ; Goats not readily ; Horfes and Swine not at all, 

Trifolium ornithopodioides. Birds-foot Trefoil. 

TRIFOLIUM Linttai Gen. PL Diadelphia Decandria. 

Flores fubcapitati. Legumen vix calvce longius, hon dehifcens, decidiium. 
Rati Syn. Gen* 23. Herbje flore papilionaceo seu leguminos,e. 

TRIFOLIUM ornithopodioides leguminibus nudis o&ofpermis fubternis, calycibus duplo longioribus, 
caulibus declinatis» Linntei Syjt. Vegetal, p. 571. Sp. PL 1078. 

MEDICAGO leguminibus ternatis, eredtis, recUrvis, defcendentibus, pedunculo communi. Hort. Cliff. ^6. 

TRIFOLIUM filiquofum loto affine filiquis ornithopodii. Pluk. phyt. t. 68. fig. 1. 

FiENUMGRJECUM humile repens, ornithopodii filiquis brevibus ere&is. Rail Syn. p. 331, Fenu* 

greek with Birds-foot Trefoil Pods, tab. 14. fig..i. Hudfon FL Angl. p. 282. 

Oeder FL Dan. icon. 368. 

Llghtfoot FL Scot. p. 403. 

RADIX fimplex, albida, fibrofa, tuberculis obfita, t ROOT fimple, whitifh, fibrous, and befet with little 

I knobs or tubercles. 

CAULES plures, procumbentes, in humidiore aut pin- | STALKS numerous and procumbent, in a moift of 

guiore folo palmares aut fefquipalmares alias $ rich foil from four to fix inches in length, 

vix quandrantales, crafliufculi, et fubrigidi. "| but moft commonly from two to three, thick- 

| ifh for thefize of the plant, and fomewhat rigid. 


FOLIA perexigua, terna, obcordata, profunde denti- | LEAVES very fmall, growing by threes» inverfely 

culata et veluti erofa, laevia, venis reclis non % heart-fhaped, deeply notched, fo as to appear 

ramofis, j^. 7. t as if gnawed, fmooth, the veins ftraight, and 

I not branched, fig. 7. 

STIPULiE ad bafin foliorum binae, magnse, venofae, | STIPULE at the bafe of the leaves two, large, veiny, 
acuminata^, y and pointed. 

FLORES axillares, carnei, pedunculis breviffimis in- | FLOWERS axillary, pale fed, fitting on exceedingly 
fidentes, terni, bini aut etiam folitarii. ? fhort foot-ftalks, growing three or two toge- 

| ther, fometimes fingly. 

CALYX: Perianthium tubulofum, quinquedenta- | CALYX: a Perianthium which is tubular, with 

turn, perfiftens, laeve, ftriatum, dentibus a- | five teeth, permanent, fmooth, itriated, the 

cuminatis, nudis, duobus fuperioribus longi- t teeth acuminated, naked, the two uppermofl 

oribus, fig. 1. I longeft, fig, 1. 

COROLLA papilionacea : Vexillum reflexum : Alje | COROLLA papilionaceous; the Standard turning 
divergentes, fig. 2. | back; and the Wings feparating, fig. 2. 


PISTILLUM : Germen oblongum, villofum, fig. 3. | PISTILLUM : Germen oblong and villous, fig. 3. 

PERICARPIUM: Legumen magnum, calyce duplo | SEED-VESSEL, a large Legumen, twice the length 
longius, apice mucronata incurva, in duas val- f °f the Calyx, the tip ending in a point and 

vulas aegre dehifcens, fig. 4, 5. ? bending downward, with difficulty fplitting 

I into two valves, fig. 4, 5. 

SEMINA fex ad decern, difFormia, pallida, maculata, | SEEDS from fix to ten, irregular, pale and fpotted, 
fig- 6. J fig. 6. 

THIS little plant is perhaps more common in this country than is generally imagined, and has probably 
been overlooked from its minutenefs. 

. It appears to delight in a dry, expofed, gravelly or fandy foil, in which the Arenarla rubra, Trifolium fub- 
ierraneum, Fejiaca ovina, and Sagina eredia ufually grow. 

I have found it _ plentifully in Tothill-fields, Wefiminfler, and on Blackheath. Mr. Hudson mentions its grow- 
ing near Penzance, in Cornwall ; and Mr. Lightfoot in Scotland. 

This plant is not like the Trifolium fubterraneum, ftrikingly vifible at a diftance, but is to be discovered 
only by carrying the eye near the ground. When once found, there is no difficulty in diftinguiftung it from 
the other fpecies. Its leaves are fmooth, and much notched or gnawed at the edges ; its flowers are pale red ; 
its feed-veflels remarkably large, and growing mofr. commonly two or three together, in which ftate they 
fomewhat referable a_ bird's claw, but not in fo great a degree as the Ornithopus, or true Birds-foot does : the 
feed-veffels are fometimes fingle. 

Cultivated in a garden, it grows to a much larger plant than is reprefented on the plate» 

< k -f 


3 \ 

■J/rcfouwm. y />rmiUw/wio^d 


Trifolium subterraneum. Subterraneous Trefoil. 

TRIFOLIUM L'mncei Sen. Ph Diadelphia Decandria; 

Flores fiibcapitatu Legumen vix calycelongius, non dehifcens, deciduum; 
RaiiSyn.&en. 23. Herbje flore papilionaceo seu legumpnosjE. 

TRIFOLIUM fuhterraneum capitulis villofis fubquinquefloris, coma centrali reflexa rigida fruci:um 
obvolvente* Linncei Syjl. Vegetah. p. 572. Sp. PI. p. 1080. 

TRIFOLIUM pumiiurri fupintira, flofculis longis albis. Ph. Brit. Rail Syn. p. 327. tah. xiii. jig. 2. 

TRIFOLIUM parvum MonfpefTulanum album cum paucis floribus. L Bauhin. 11. 380. 

TRIFOLIUM album tricoccum ftibterraneurh reticulatum. Morifon. Hifl. Ox. n. 138. s. 11. t. 14. /. 5. 

TRIFOLIUM fuhterraneum feu folliculos fub terram condens. Magnol. Botam Monfp. 265. Gouan Fl. 
Monfp. p. 198. 
Hud/on. Fl. Angl. p. 286. ed. 2. p. 328. 

RADIX annua, fimplex, fibrofa. | ROOT annual, Ample, and fibrous. 

CAULES teretes, crafliufculi, rarriofi, procumbentes | STALKS about three inches in length, frequently 
et terrse velut apprefli, villofi; % much longer, round, thickifh, branched, pro- 

I cumbent, and as it were prefled to the ground j 

I covered with foft hairs. 

STIPULiE ovato-ianceolatze, nervofej* | STIPULIE oval, pointed, and ribbed. 

PETIOLI pedunculis paulo longiores, denfe pilofi. | L&AF-STALKS a little longer than the flower-flalks, 

¥ and thickly covered with hairs. 

FOLIA terna, obcordata, mollia, villofa* integerrima, | LEAVES growing by^ threes, inverfely hearr-fhaped, 
maculis purpureis faepe variegata. $ foft, villous, intire at the edges, and frequent- 

f ly variegated with purple fpots; 

PEDUNCULI triflori aut quadriflori, peratla floref- | FLOWER-STALKS fupporting three or four flow- 
centia verfus terram inflexi. ? ers, and bending towards the earth as they 

I decay. 

FLORES albi, longi, procul confpicui. | FLOWERS white, long, and confpicuous at a dif- 

f tance. 

CALYX: Perianthium oblongum, tnbulatum, fu- | CALYX: a Perianthium oblong, tubular, on the 
perne rubrum,quinquedentatum, dentibus fe- % upper part red, having five longflender hairy 

taceis, pilofis, longitudine tubi, Jig. 8, audi. | teeth the length of the tube, fig. 8, mag. 

COROLLA oblonga, calyce duplo longior, alba : | COROLLA oblong, twice the length of the calyx, 
Vexillum venis dilute purpureis ftriatum : % white: Standard ftriped with faint purple 

ALiEConniventes, vexillo breviores: Carina | veins: Wings clofing, fhorter than the 

parva, brevis, alis inclufa, fig. 1. % ftandard : Keel fmall, inclofed within the 

I wings, fig. 1. 

PISTILLUM: Germen ovatum: Stylus longus, f PISTILLUM: GERMENoval: Style long, flender, 
tenuis, adfcendens : Stigma fubrotundum, | afcending: Stigma roundifh, fig. 9. 

jig. 9. I 

PERTCARPIUM: Legumen fubrotundum, mono- % SEED-VESSEL : a roundifh Pod containing one feed, 

fpermum, fig. 6. 1 fig- 6. _ 

SEMEN magnum, nitidum, fpadiceum, fig. 7. ■% SEED large, mining, of a purpliih colour, fig. 7. 

OBS. peradta florefcentia, pedunculi verfus terram de- ¥ OBS. The flowering being over, the flower-ftalks are 
fle&untur, et filamenta alba radiculis aemula | bent towards the earth, and from their extre- 

extremitatibus fuis exferunt, jig. 2. has vero % mities put forth white filaments like roots, 

terram nequaquam penetrant, at furfum eri- | fig. 2. thefe do not however penetrate the 

guntur, mox apices ftellatim expanduntur, $ earth, but rife upwards, their tips foon ex- 

fig. 3. et demum pericarpia obvolvunt, fig. 5. | panding into little flars, fig. 3* and finally 

* inclofe the feed-veflels, fig. 5. 

NOTWITHSTANDING this plant appears to have obtained its name of fuhterraneum from a mifapprehenfion 
of its oeconomy, we have chofen to retain it, rather than introduce confufion by altering a name fo long eftablim- 
ed, efpecially as it has a tendency to excite an enquiry into the hiftory of the plant. 

Ray, in his Hifl. PI. has given a very accurate defcription of this plant, and related every circUmftance which 
takes place in its oeconomy with his ufual precifion, except the following; " Flofculis delapfis aut marcefcentibus 
" calices ad pediculum reflec~tuntur et capitula fub terra condunt" Here he afTerts, that the capituli or little heads, 
are buried in the earth by means of the calyces or flower cups, but does not explain in what manner. In the 
third edition of his Synopfis, publiihed by Dillenius, in a note added to this plant, contained in a parenthefis, the 
following account occurs : " Calices flofculis exaridis deorfum tendunt, radicefque extremitatibus fuis agere vi- 
" dentur, mox vero laciniis eorum furfum verfis pecuiiarihus jihris humo affiguntur^ quo tempore unum alterumve 
" femen terreni humoris beneficio intumefcit, novasque plantas produ&ioni infervit." Here is an attempt to ac- 
count for the manner in which the heads are buried, founded however on a miftaken obfervation ; for notwith- 
standing what authors have related, the feeds are not buried in any unufual way, nor is there any apparatus to efFetl it. 

It muft be allowed, that on the firft examination of this plant, one would be tempted to think that young roots 
did a&ually fpring from fome part of the feed as it lay on the ground connected with the plant ; but a more ftridt 
obfervation would difcover, that thofe white filaments which have the appearance of roots, were not roots in reali- 
ty ; that they fprung from the end of the foot-ftalk which fupports the flowers, and not from either the calyx or 
feed ; that inftead of penetrating into the earth, they foon turned upward, put on a ftar-like appearance at their ex- 
tremities, and finally inclofed the feed-veflels in a kind of prickly head. 

There is certainly fomething very extraordinary in this procefs of nature, yet it does not appear to be ufeful in 
any other way, than as affording fome kind of fecurity to the feeds, which have not that thick coriaceous covering 
afforded to many of the Trefoils. 

This fpecies, from thefe Angular circumftances, is eafily diitinguifhed from the others. It is not mentioned ei- 
ther by Haller, Scopoli, or Linnaeus in his FL Suecic. but occurs in Gouan's Fl. Monfpeliac. 

It grows with us in expofed gravelly fituations, particularly on heaths, and is diftmguifhable even at a diflance 
by its white bloflbms. It occurs on manv parts of Black-heath ; and flowers in June, July, and Auguft. 






Linnai Gen. PL Diadelphia Decandria. 

Plores fubcapitati. Legumen vix calyce longior, non dehifcens, deciduurru 
Raii Syn. Gen. 23. Herb^ flore papilionaCeo seu leguminosje. 

fragiferum fpicis fubrotundis, calycibus inflatis bidentatis reflexis, caulibiis repentibus* 
Linnai Syfi. Vegetal p. 574. Sp, PL p. 1086. PL Suecic. p. 26. 

caule repente ; fpicis glabris ; calycibus fericeis, ampullafcentibus. Haller. hijl. n. 370. 

fragiferum Scopoli PL Carniol n. 933. 

fragiferum frificum. Bauhin pin. 329. 

fragiferum Gerard, emac. 1208. 

Raii Syn» 329. Strawberry Trefoil. 
Hudfon PL Angl. p. 286. 

RADIX perennis, fimplex, alba, granulis obfita. 

CAULES repentes, purpurafcentes, in longum exten- 
fi, ramofi, teretes, laeves. 

STIPULiE ovato-acuminatas, reticulata^. 

PEDUNCULI folitarii, longi, teretes, lasves, erecliuf- 

CAPITULI floriferi parvi, fubrotundi, Trifolii repen- 
tis aemuli, at minores, et magis purpurei ; his 
fuccedunt Capituli frucYiferi, rotundi, carnei, 
magnitudine nucis myrifticas parvas, Fraga- 
riis mentientes. 

FOLIA tenia, petiolis hirfutulis infidentia, obovata, 
laevia, juniora vera leniter hirfuta, acute fer- 
rata, mucronata, venis ad marginem divarican- 

CALYX : Involucrum polyphyllum, foliolis fetaceis, 
Perianthium tubulofum,villofum,fupra gib- 
bofum, quinquedentatum, dentibus tribus in- 
ferioribusasqualibus acuminatis viridibus, duo- 
bus fuperioribus paulo longioribus, fubulatis, 
rigidulis, apicibus rufis, fig. 2. 3. 4. pars gib- 
boia calycis demum mire mutatur, augetur, 
inflatur, reticulata fit, et pericarpium obtegit; 
dentes vero retinet. fig. &. 

COROLLA papilionacea, purpurea ; Vexillum Alis 
longior, compreflum, lineis rofeis pictnm ; 
Alje breves, minimse ; Carina Alis brevior; 
fig. 2 : unufquifque flofculus palea concava, 
fubulata, fufFulcitur. fig. 1. 

STAMINA ut in plerifque hujus generis ; Anthers 

flavae. fig. 6. 
PISTILLUM : Germen ovatum: Stylus longitudine 

ftaminum : Stigma capitatum. fig. 7. 
PERICARPIUM : Legumen ovatum compreffum dif- 

permum aut monofpermum, calyce inflato ob- 

teclum. fig. 9. 10. 
SEMEN ovato-reniforme, nitidum. fig. 11. 

ROOT perennial, white, befet with little grains. 

STALKS creeping, purplifh, extending to a confiderable 
length, branched, round, and fmooth. 

STIPUL./E oval, with a long point, and reticulated. 

FOOT-STALKS of the flowers, fingle, long, round, 
fmooth, and nearly upright. 

HEADS of the flowers fmall, roundifh, like thofe of the 
Creeping or Dutch Clover, but fmaller and 
more purple : to thefe fucceed the heads con- 
taining the fruit, which are round, flefh co- 
loured, the fize of a fmall nutmeg, and very 
much refembling Strawberries. 

LEAVES growing three together, fitting on foot-ftalks, 
nightly hairy, inverfly oval, fmooth; the 
younger ones fometimes hairy, fharply fer- 
rated, and terminating in a fhcrt point ; the 
veins divaricating at the margin. 

CALYX : Involucrum confuting of many fetaceous fo- 
lioli or little leaves : Perianthium tubular, 
villofe, gibbous above, having five teeth, the 
three lowermoft. of which are equal, with 
long green points, the two uppermoft a little 
longer, with tapering rigid reddifh points, 
fig. 2. 3. 4. the gibbous part of the calyx at 
length becomes wonderfully changed, increa- 
fed, fwollen, reticulated, and covers the peri- 
carpium ; ffill however retaining its teeth. 
fig. 8. _ 

COROLLA papilionaceous, and of a purple colour; 
the Vexillum longer than the Alas, flat and 
flreaked with rofe-coloured lines ; the Wings 
ihort and very fmall ; the Keel fhorter than 
the Wings, fig. 2. each flofculeis fupportedbya 
fmall, tapering, hollow leaf, or palea. fig. 1. 

STAMINA like moft of thofe in this genus : Antherje 
yellow, fig. 6. 

PISTILLUM : Germen oval : Style the length of the 
Stamina: Stigma forming a little head. fig. 7. 

SEED-VESSEL : an oval, flatten'd Legumen, con- 
taining one or two feeds, and ccver'd over 
with the inflated calyx, fig. 9. 10. 

SEED of an oval kidney fhape and mining, fig. 1 1. 

The beautiful Strawberry like appearance of the capituli or little heads, containing the feed of this plant, and 
which arife from a very peculiar circumftance, the inflation or enlargement of the calyx after the blofiom is over, 
in a very ftriking manner diftinguiihes this fpecies from the c Irifio!ium repens, to which in its general habit it is very 
nearly allied. It differs from the repens alfo in feveral other refpects ; the whole plant is fmaller ; the bloffoms are 
of a more purple hue ; its place of growth is alfo fomewhat different : the repens feems to delight in a dry gravelly 
foil, the fragiferum on the contrary, moft ufually occurs in a moift fituation ; nor is it fb common a plant as the 
repens ; yet it abounds in many places about London. I have obferyed it plentifully in the lanes about Hornfey, 
alfo near Pancras, and in many other parts. It flowers and produces its feeds in Auguft. 

It may with great eafe be cultivated in a Garden, if it mould be thought worthy a place there. 

Haller quotes an Author, * who fays, they have begun to cultivate it in Ireland for Cattle, and that when fown, 
it has grown to the length of feven feet: without controverting this fad, which borders a little on the incredible, 
we would obferve, that the Dutch Clover is certainly a much ftronger plant, and to be preferred in a dry fituation : 
in moift fituations, there are many of the Grafles which may be cultivated to far greater advantage, as neither of 
thefe Trefoils produce much of a crop 'till late in the Summer. 

* J3AKER Expcrim. p 98. 


Lotus corniculatus. Birds-foot Trefoil. 

LOTUS Linnai Gen. PL Diadelphia Decandria. 

Legumen cylindricum, itrictum. Ala furfum longitudinaliter conniventes* 
Cal. tubulofus. 
Rail Syn. Gen. 23. Herbje flore papilionaceo seu leguminosje. 

LOTUS corniculatus capitulis depreffis, caulibus decumbentibus, leguminibus cylindricis patentibus, 

Lin. Syjl. Vegetab. p. $j6. 
LOTUS floribus umbellatis ; filiquis cylindricis; re&iffimis. Hatter, hijl. hefo. p. 572. n. 3. 
LOTUS corniculatus. Scopoli Fl. Carniol. p. 86. 

LOTUS five melilotus pentaphyllos minor glabra. Bauhin Pin. 332. 
TRIFOLIUM fiUquofum minus. Gerard, emac, 1191. Rati Syn. 334, Birds-foot Trefoil. 

Hud/on Flor. Angl. p. 288. 

Lightfoot Flor. Scot, p. 411. 

RADIX perennis, fubfufiformis, in terram alte defcen- t ROOT perennial, tapering, {hiking deeply into the - 

dens. I earth. 

CAULES plurimi, tenues, procumbentes, fubquadrati, % STALKS feveral, {lender, procumbent, fomewhat 

pedales, ramofi, | fquare, afoot in length, and branched. 

FOLIA terna, ovata, mucronata, foliolo medio bafi ^ LEAVES growing three together, ovate, terminating 

anguftata, glabra aut hirfutula. % in a fhort point, the middle leaf narrowed at 

I its bafe, lmooth or (lightly hirfute. 

STIPULiE duae, foliis quodammodo fimiles at magis % STIPULiE two, in fome degree like the leaves, but 

latae et acuminatae. | broader, and more pointed. 

FLORES fubumbellati, ad 12, petiolis nudis longis | FLOWERS growing fomewhat in the form of an urn- 

inlidentes. I bell, to twelve, fitting on long foot-ftalks. 

CALYX: Perianthium tubulofum: infra medium 1 CALYX: a Perianthium tubular, below the mid- 

annulo prominulo cinclum, quinquedentatum, % die furrounded by a prominent ring, having 

dentibus fetaceis, hirfutulis, duobus iuperio- | five teeth, which are fetaceous and a little 

ribus furfum tendentibusl, tribus inferioribus | hairy, the two uppermoft rifing upward, the 

reflexis, fig. 1. % three lowermoft. bending back, fig. 1. 

COROLLA papilionacea, flava : Vexillum reflexum, 1 COROLLA papilionaceous and yellow : the Vexil- 

fuperne aurantiacum, interne ad barm lineis % lum turned back ; on its upper part of an o- 

ocra circ'iter notatum : Alm duse, flavae, api- t range colour, underneath, at its bafe, marked 

cibus obtuiis : Carina in feme gibba, adfcen- | with about eight lines : Wings two, yellow 

dens, acuminata, fig. 2. ¥ and blunt at the tips : Keel gibbous below, 

I rifing upwards, and pointed, fig. 2. 

STAMINA: Filamenta decern, novem in tubum $ STAMINA: ten Filaments, nine uniting in a tube; 

coalita, fimplici libera, apicibus omnium di- | the fingle one loofe ; the tips of all of them 

latatis, albis : Ant'hekje parvae, flavae,^. 3, | dilated, and white: Anthers fmall and 

4, 5> 6 - I yellow, fig. 3, 4, 5, 6. 

PISTILLUM : Germen tenue, teretiufculum, incur- | PISTILLUM : Germen flender, roundiih, and bent 

vum : Stylus adfcendens, rectus: Stigma $ downward: Style rifing upwards, and 

minimum,^. 7, 8, 9. ftraight : Stigma very minute, fig. 7, 8, 9. 

PERICARPIUM : Legumen cylindricum, bivalve, | SEED-VESSEL: a cylindrical Legumen of two valves, 

ilthmis quafi interceptum, more raphani, J divided into a kind of cells, fomewhat in the 

fig. 10. I manner of the Radifh, fig. 10. 

SEMINA plurima, ultra xx, parva, mbreniformia, ^ SEEDS numerous, more than twenty, fmall, fome- 

maculata, fig. 11, 12. ? ' what kidney-fliaped, and fpotted, fig. 11, 12. 

THE following extract relative to this plant, is felected from the firft volume of Mr. Anderson's Ejfays 
relating to Agriculture and rural affairs, page 419. 

While the practical remarks, and judicious hints, fcattered through this performance, mew the author to be a 
man of real genius, and far fuperipr to the common run of writers on thefe fubjects, we cannot but regret, that a 
want of botanic knowledge pervades the whole, and in fome degree, defeats the laudable defign of the ingenious 
effayift. In no one plant, is this inaccuracy more obfervable than in the prefent, which we mall point out ; 
hoping, that as the author has in fome parts of his work, fhewn himfelfwell acquainted with chemical know- 
ledge, fome future edition may demonftrate, that he thought Botany equally worthy of his attention. 

" 'Milk-vetch, liquorice-vetch, or milk-wort, as it is differently called, — the *Afiragalus glycyphyllos of Hudfon, 
" is a plant common in every part of the iOand; although it has never yet, that I have heard of, been attempted 
" to be cultivated." 

" The general appearance of this humble plant, is, in fome refpedts, very like that of the common white- 
" clover ; although its leaves upon a nearer examination are not exactly fimiiar to them. From the top of the 

" root 

*It is very evident, from the whole tenor of the authors defcription, that he has given a wrong name to the plant he wifhed to recommend. 
The plant he defcribes, is the Lotus corniculatus of Hudson, or Birds- foot Trefoil, and not the AJtragahs Glycyphyllos, or Liquorice-Fctcb^ 
which is by no means a common plant. 

" root there comes out in the fpring a great number of fmall moots that fpread along the furface of the ground 
" every way around it ; from which arife a great many clufters of bright yellow flowers, exactly refembling thole 
" of common broom in mape, fize and colour ; which are fucceeded by hard round pods, filled with fmall kidney» 
" fhaped feeds. And as three or four of thefe pods ufually adhere to one foot-ftalk, from which they fpread open 
" at the points, a little refembling the fingers of an open hand ; they have from this circumftance been by the vul- 
" gar in fome places called ladies-fingers ; while others more (truck with the refemblance that thefe pods bear to 
"" the foot of a bird, have diftinguifhed it by the name of crow-toes ; and others from the appearance of the blof- 
* 4 fom and the part where the plant is found, have called it Jeal, or by corruption fell broom. It is found plenti- 
" fully almoft every where in old grafs-fields ; but as every fpecies of domeftic animal eats it, almoft in preference 
"to every other plant, it is feldom allowed to come to flower in pafture grounds, unlefs where they have 
'■' been accidentally faved from the cattle for fome t^me ; fo that it is only about the borders of corn-fields, or the 
*' fides of inelofures to which cattle have not accefs, that we have an opportunity of obferving it. As it has been 
" imagined that the cows which feed on thefe paftures where this abounds, yield a great quantity of rich milk, 
* c the plant has from that circumftance obtained its moft proper Englifh name of milk-vetch."' 

" But the circumftance that firft recommended it to my notice, was the having obferved that- it grows and flou- 
" riihes in poor barren ground where almoft no other plant can be made to live. I have feen it in the midft 
s ' of a barren moor, where the foil was fo poor that even heath, or ling (erica communis) could hardly grow, and 
" upon bare obdurate clays where no other plant could be made to vegetate ; infomuch that the furface remained 
*' entirely uncovered, unlefs where a plant of this kind chanced to be eftablifhed ; yet even in thefe unfavourable 
*'■ circumftances, it nourifhed with an uncommon degree of luxuriance, and yielded as tender and fucculent, though 
*'■ not fuch abundant moots, which alfumed as fine a verdure as if they had been reared in the richeft manured fields, 
& I have likewife feen it in dry and barren fands, where almoft no other plant could be made to live; and there alfo 
« i.t fends out fuch a number of healthy moots all round, as covers the earth, with the clofeft arid moft beautiful 
" carpet that can be defired." 

W The ftalks of this plant, as has been faid, are weak and {lender, fo that they fpread upon the furface of the 
" ground, unlefe they are fupported by fome other vegetable. In ordinary foils, they do not grow to a great length, 
",nor produce a great many flowers, — branch out a good deal, but carry few or no flowers or feeds : and as I firft 
" took notice of it only on poor foils, it was purely with a view to pafture that I firft refolved to cultivate it ; and 
" with this intention fowedit with my ordinary hay- feeds, expecting no material benefit from it till I defifted from. 
'* cutting my field ; but found myfelf agreeably disappointed, as it grew the firft feafon as tall as my great clover, 
" and formed the fineft hay I ever faw ; it being fcarce diftinguifhable from Lucerne, but by the flendemefs of the 
"• ftalk and proportional fmallnefs of the leaf." 

" It is nearly allied to Lucerne in its botanical characters; and refembles that valuable plant in many other ref- 
" peels. Like it, it is perennial, — fends down a long root to a great depth in the foil, which is at firft fmall and gra- 
64 dually increafes with age, till it at length becomes, of a very confiderable fize; fo that it is feveral years after it 
" is firft lowed before it attains its full perfection : but when it is once eftablifhed, it probably remains there for a 
"- prodigious number of years in full vigour, and produces annually a great quantity of fodder. In autumn J "73* 
" I cut the ftalk from an old plant of it that grew in a very indifferent foil ; and after having dried it thoroughly, 
" found that it weighed fourteen ounces and a half. Like. Lucerne, it is never affeded with the fevereft droughts 
" that we experience : but it does not referable it in delicatenefs of conftitution, as it thrives in the ftiffeft clays, 
" and is able to ftand its ground among grafs or any other weeds." 

" As this plant only produces feeds in abundance upon poor hungry foils that could hardly afford nourishment to 
ci any other, and as the ftalks fpread out clofe upon the furface nf the ground, It feems to me, that the greateft bar 
" to the cultivating thereof, will be the difficulty of obtaining the feeds in abundance ; as in thefe circumftances they 
c< muft always be gathered by* the hand : but as it is an abiding plant, thofe who have fuch foils as moft ftand in 
" need of having plants of this fort fowedupon them, may be at a little trouble and expence to get them once properly 
«* laid down with this grafs, as it will be only once that they will need to do it. But it is poffible, that future ex- 
< c perience may difcover fome eafier way of procuring the feeds than hath as yet occurred to me. 

li The ftalks of this plant die down entirely in winter, and do not come up in the fpring till the fame time that 
" clover begins to advance ; fo that it can never be of ufe hut as a fummer pafture : — Neither does it advance very 
" faft after it is cut down, or eat over even in fummer. — But the great clofenefs of the fhoots may probably counter- 
" balance that defect." 

Whether this plant be deferving of the encomiums here beftowed on it, the practical farmer muft determine. 
There appears no reafon why feed might not be obtained from it, as well as from any of the other papilionaceous 
plants ; and it mould feem, that thofe forts of land which are not rich enough to bear Clover and other ftrong 
growing plants, might be much improved by the introduction of the birds-foot Trefoil, 

In wet and boggy fituations this plant grows much taller and becomes very hairy. 

The infect called by 'LiyxMVs'thrips glauc : a, fometirnes renders the flowers tumid and monitrous. Light/. Fl. Scot, 



Medicago lupulina. Hop Medic k. 

MEDICAGO Limai Gen. PL Diadelphia Decandria. 

Legumen comprefTum, cochleatum. Carina corollas a vexillo deflectens. 
Raii Syn. Gen. Herbje flore papilionaceo seu leguminos;e. 
MEDICAGO lupulina fpicis ovalibus, leguminibus reniformibus monofpermis, caulibus procumbentibus. 

Linn. Syft. Vegetal, p. 577. Flor. Suecic. n. 678. 
MEDIC A caule diffufo, capitulis hemifphaericis, filiquis reniformibus. Haller hifl. No. 380. v. 1. 
ME DIC A lupulina. Scopoli Fl. Carniol. No. 940. 
TRIFOLIUM pratenfe luteum, capitulo breviore. Bauhin. pin. 328. 
TRIFOLIUM luteum iupulinum. Gerard emac. 11 86. Rail Syn. 331. Melilot Trefoil. 
TRIFOLIUM montanum Iupulinum. Parkin/on 1105. 

Hud/on. FL Angl. ed. 1. p. 282. ed. 2. p. 330. 
Lightfoot. Fl. Scot. 

RADIX biennis, fufiformis, paucis flbrillis inftructa, | 

profunde penetrans. | 

CAULES procumbentes, numerofi, pedales, fuban- t 

gulofi, hirfutuli, ramofi. | 


FOLIA tenia, obcordata, aut obovata, obtufiufcule t 
dentata, mucrone brevi lata terminata, mol- | 
lia, pubefcentia, averfa praecipue parte. $ 

STIPULE duse, ovato-lanceolatse, acuminata?, den- ^ 

ticulatae. t 

SPICULES primum fubrotundae, poftea ovales, apici- | 

bus fubincurvatis, bafi ad unum latus nudis. $ 


CALYX : Perianthium monophyllum, fubpilofum, | 

quinquedentatum, dentibus inaequalibus, tri- f 

bus inferioribus longioribus, duobus fuperio- | 

ribus brevioribus, remotis. y 

COROLLA lutea, parva, Calyce longior ; Vexillum | 

reflexum, emarginatum, inferne patens ; Al^e | 

et Carina minimae, fubasquales. ¥ 

STAMINA : Filament a connexa : Anthers lu- ^ 

teae. % 

PISTILLUM : Germen fubovatum compreffum : I 

Stylus longitudine Staminum, craiTum, fur- $ 

fum curvatum : Stigma capitatum. | 

PERICARPIUM : Legumen reniforme, compreffum, i 

rugofum, nigrum, fpiraliter cochleatum, fub- | 

villofum, fig. 1 . % 

SEMEN unicum, ovatum, laeve, flavefcens, Jig. 2. | 

ROOT biennial, tapering, furnifhed with few fibres, 
and penetrating deep into the earth. 

STALKS procumbent, numerous, about a foot long, 
fomewhat angular, (lightly hairy, and bran- 

LEAVES growing three together, inverfely heart or 
egg-fhaped, fomewhat bluntly indented, ter- 
minated by a broad fnort point, foft, pubefi* 
cent, particularly on the under fide. 

STlPULiE two, ovato-lanceolate, acuminated, notch- 
ed with little teeth. 

SPICULES, firft. roundifb, afterwards oval, the tips 
fomewhat incurvated, and naked at bottom 
on one fide. 

CALYX a Perianthium of one leaf, fomewhat hai- 
ry, having five teeth, which are unequal J 
the three lowermoft longefr. ; the two upper 
ones fhorter, and remote from each other. 

COROLLA yellow, fmall, longer than the Calyx : 
Standard turning back, with a flight notch, 
fpreading below : Wings and Keel very 
fmall, and bending below. 

STAMINA connected by the Filaments : Anthe- 
RtE yellow. 

PISTILLUM : Germen fomewhat oval and flat i 
Style the length of the Stamina, thick, and 
bending upwards : Stigma forming a little 

SEED-VESSEL: a kidney-fhaped Legumen, flat, 
wrinkled, of a black colour, fpirally twilled, 
and flightly villous, fig. 1 . 

SEED fingle, oval, fmooth, and of a yellowim colour 9 
fig. 2. 

MANY of our Trefoils bear a considerable affinity to each other, and the prefelit plant is often confounded with 
fome of them : but fimilar as it maybe in its leaves, its parts of fructification will always direct the ftudent aright 
in his inveftigation of it ; its feed-veffells in particular, being totally different from thofe of the Ire/oils, vid.fig. 1,2. 

The leaves and ffalks of this plant are frequently more hairy than thofe "Trefoils for which it is liable to be 
rniftaken, except the fubterraneum, which is ufually fmaller ; and in general the more barren the foil in which this 
plant grows, the more downy does it appear : by culture it grows much larger and becomes frnoother. 

Its flowers are fmaller and more clofely compared than thofe of the Trifolium agrarium and procumbent, to both 
of which it bears a great fimilarity ; nor are the fpikes fo exactly round as in thofe plants, but ufually of an oval, 
or oblong fhape, particularly when fomewhat advanced ; and when the feeds are ripe, the plant is diftinguifhed at 
firft fight, by its black feed-veflells. 

The Hop Medick has of late years, been much cultivated in different parts of the kingdom ; and in different 
counties, it has been diftinguifhed by different names, as thofe of Trefoil, Black Seed, and Non-fuch. 

As the name of Trefoil tends to confound this plant with the true trefoils, or Genus Trifolium, I have ventured 
to call it Hop Medick, there being already a plant called Hop Trefoil, viz. Trifolium agrarium, which though not at 
prefent in culture, may perhaps be introduced at fome future period. 

The Hop Medick is often fown by itfelf, and often with Ray Grafs ; and though it does not produce fo large a 
crop as the Broad-leaved Clover, it is fuppofed to afford a fweeter one, and a food particularly adapted to Sheep. 

Its natural fituation is a dry one, and its foil fandy, hence we find it wild on dry banks and on hilly paihires, 
flowering in June and July. Its feed is ripe in Auguff, 

*ycm£/i/J>j (?L&racei{j 


SONCHUS Linnai Gen. PL SYngenesiA Polygamia ;equalis. 

Recept. nudum. Cat imbricatus ventricofus. Pappus pilofus. 
Rali Syn. Gen. 6. Herbje flore composito, natura pleno lactescentes. 
SONCHUS okraceus pedunculis tomentofis calycibus glabris. Linnai Syji. Vegetab. p. 594. Flor. Suecic* 

p. 269. Sp. Plant, p. 1 1 16. 
SONCHUS Foliis amplexicaulibus, dentatis, integns pit femipinnatis, calycibus lasvibus* Haller. hjft, 

p. 10. n. 21* 
HIERAC1UM oleraceum. Scopotl PL Cdrniol p. \io, 
SONCHUS laevis laciniatus latifolius* Bauhin. Pin. 124* 
SONCHUS laevis. Ger. emac. 292. 
SONCHUS vulgaris. Parkinfon. 805. 

Ran Syn. 162. Hudfon* PL Angl. p* 294* ed. 2. p. 336. 
Lightfoot PL Scot. p. 428. 

RADIX annua, fimplex, fibrofa, albida, ladefcens* 

CAULIS pedalis ad tripedalem, laevis, purpurafcens, 
tener, nftulofus, ad bafin teres fuperne fub- 
aiigulofus, ramolus* 

FOLIA amplexicaulia, laevia, glauca, nervo medio 
purpurafcente, inferiora pinnatifida, pinnarum 
paria duo aut tria, pinnis dentatis fpinulo ter- 
minatis, lateralibus ovatis, terminali magno 
triangulari, Juperiora integra, ovato-acuta, 
bali lato. 

PEDtJNCULI tomentofi, per aetatem nudL 

CALYX communis ante florefcentiam cylindraCeus, 
et quali truncatus, poftea ventricofo-conicus, 
fquamis plurimis, insequafibus, hevibus, a~ 
cuminatis, jig. 1, z* 

COROLLA compofita, imbricata, uniformis : Flos- 
culis monopetalis, ligulatis, quinquedenta- 

STAMINA, in cylindrum coalita : Antherje flavae, 
apicibus nigricantibus. 

PISTILLUM: Germen fubovatum : Stylus filifor- 
mis, ftaminibus longior : Stigmata duo^ 
tenuia, patentia. 

SEMEN obiongum, comprefTum, fulcatum, fcabriuf- 
culum : Pappus feffilis, fimplex, tenuifiimus, 

RECEPTACULUM nudum, punftis prominulis fca- 
brum, lucidum, fig. 6. 

ROOT annual, fimple, fibrous, whitifh, and milky. 

STALK from one to three feet high, fmooth, purplifh, 
tender, hollow, at bottom round, towards 
the top fomewhat angular, and branched. 

LEAVES embracing the ffalk, fmooth, glaucous ; 
the midrib purplifh ; the lower ones pinnatifid, 
confifting of two or three pair of pinnae, 
which are indented, and each terminated by 
a little fpine ; the fide ones oval, the end one 
large and triangular ; the upper leaves intire, 
oval, pointed with a broad bale. 

FLOWER-STALKS downy, but becoming fmooth 
by age. 

CALYX : the common Calyx before the flowering, 
cylindrical, and as it were cut off at top, af- 
terwards bellying out, and forming a cone, 
covered with numerous fmooth, unequal, 
pointed fcales, fig. 1, 2. 

COROLLA compound, imbricated and uniform ; the 
Floscules monopetalous, the upper part flat, 
with five teeth, fig. 3. 

STAMINA uniting into a cylinder i Anthers yel- 
low, the tip blackifh. 

PISTILLUM : Germen nearly oval : Style filiform, 
longer than the Stamina: Stigmata two, 
{lender and fpreading. 

SEED oblong, flattened, grooved, roughifh : Down 
feffile, fimple, very fine, fig. 4, 5. 

RECEPTACLE naked, rough with little prominent 
points, and mining, fig, 6. 

THE Sowthtftle is fubjedT: to many varieties, fome of which have differed fo much from the common appearance 
of this plant, as to have occafioned them to be confidered as diftin£l fpecies. Thus Haller makes the Sonchus afper, 
on prickly Soizthi/ile, a diftincT: fpecies : and the old Botanifts formed feveral other fpecies of it from different cir- 
cumffances; as fize, breadth, divifions of its leaves, &C. But the generality of Botanifts feem now difpofed to 
coniider them all as the fame, varying from foil, fituation, &c. The prickly variety feems to be the only one that 
has any pretentions to be confidered as diitinct : but if any perfon will be at the pains to examine a garden overun 
with thefe plants, he will readily trace it into the fmooth. 

This plant appears to have been little regarded as a medicine ; but as a favourite food of Hares and Rabbits, it is 
collected with great avidity. 

It abounds moil: in gardens and cultivated ground ; yet is fometimes met with on walls. 

Being a large plant, and of quick growth^ it is one of thofe which ufually appear in neglected gardens, 
overuuning mojft others, and proving more injurious to the flovenly gardener than the farmer. 

It flowers chiefly in July, Auguft, and September. 

According, to the experiments made by fome of Linn jfius's pupils, and publiflied originally in the Amanitates 
* Academics, it appears that it is eaten by -Goats, Sheep, and Swine, but not relifhed by Horfes. 

The young tender leaves are in fome countries, boiled and eaten as greens ; Lightfoot Fl. Scot. 

*-In the 2d, vol. of Effays relating to Agriculture and rural affairs, by Mr. Andee.son, there is a tranflation of thefe experiments. 


TUSSILAGO Lin. Gen. PL Syngenesia Pol yg ami a Superflua. 

Recept. nudum. Pappus fimplex. CaL fquamae asquales, difcum gequantes, 
RaiiSyn.Gen.^. Herb m flore composito, seminepapposonon lactescentes flore 


TUSSILAGO Petafies Thyrfo ovato, flofculis omnibus hermaphroditis. Lin, Sp. PL p. 1215. 

FL Suecic. n. 746. 
PETASITES fioribus denfe fpicatis, flofculis androgynis. Batter hij. n. 143. 
TUSSILAGO Petafites. Scopoli FL Cam. n. 1058. 
PETASITES major et vulgaris. Bauh. p. 197. 
PETASITES Gerard emac. 814. 
PETASITES vulgaris. Parkin/on. 419. Raii Syn. p. 179, Butterbur, Peftilent-wort. 

Budfon. FL Angl. 351. ed. 2. 364. 

Lightfioot. FL Scot. 477. 

RADIX perennis, repens, albida, craffitie digiti, mul- 
to etiam major in adultis plantis, horizontalis, 
fibras plurimas praelongas dimittens, verfus 
apicem fenfim incraflatas. 

PETIOLI radicales, teretiufculi, ftriati, villofi, cana- 
liculati, ball vaginati, purpurafcentes. 

FOLIA cordata, rotundata, margine inaequaliter den- 
tata, denticulis rufis, inferne fubtomentofa, 
deflorata planta increfcentia, tandem ampliffi- 

SCAPUS radicalis, fpithamaeus, teres, fiffulofus, albi- 
dus, tomentofus, adfperfus fquamis lanceolatis, 
purpurafcentibus, nervofis, inferioribus folio- 
lo crenulato terminatis. 

THYRSUS primum ovatus, dein oblongus, demum 
fubconicus, pedunculis imifloris, bra&aeatis. 

BRACTEiE ad bafin pedunculorum lanceolatae, apice 
purpurafcentes, delicatulae, longitudine pe- 
dunculi, Jig. 1. 

CALYX communis, turbinates, laevis, fquamis fub- 
asqualibus, lanceolatis, apice fubincurvatis, 

fig- 2 - 

COROLLA compofita; coro/Z^omnes hermaphroditic, 
tubulofae, propria pallide purpurea, infundi- 
buliformis, tubo filiformi, elongato, limbo 
campanulato, quinquefido, laciniis reflexis, 

fig- 3- 

ANTHERS purpureas, in tubum coalitae, fig. 4. | 

PISTILLUM: Germen teres, nudum: Stylus albi- y 
dus, antheris longior : Stigma craffum, al- | 
bum, bifidum, Jig. 5. | 

SEMINA oblonga, marcida, nigricantia, fterilia, pap- •$ 
po fimplici coronata, fig. 6. f 


ROOT perennial, creeping, whitifh, the thicknefs of 
ones finger, or much larger in full grown 
plants, running horizontally, and fending 
down numerous long fibres, which grow 
thicker towards the extremity. 

LEAF-STALKS proceeding from the root, roundifh, 
ftriated, villous, hollow on the inride, form- 
ing a fheath at bottom, and purpiifh. 

LEAVES heart-fhaped, rounded, the edge unequally 
indented, the teeth reddifh, underneath fome- 
what woolly, growing very large after the 
plant has flowered. 

SCAPUS proceeding from the root, about feven inches 
high, round, hollow, whitiih, woolly, co- 
vered _ with lanceolate fcales or leaves of a 
purpiifh _ colour, ribbed, the lower ones of- 
ten terminating in a fmall notched leaf. 

THYRSUS firft oval, then oblong, laftly nearly coni- 
cal : the flower-ltalks fupporting one flower 
each, and furniihed with floral-leaves, 

FLORAL-LEAVES at the bafe of the flower-ltalks 
lanceolate, purpiifh at top, delicate, and the 
r length of the flower-ftalk, Jig. 1. 

CALYX common to many florets, broad at top, and 
fmall at bottom, fmooth, the fcales or leaves 
nearly equal, lanceolate, and bending in fome- 
what at top, fig. 2. 

COROLLA compofed of many florets, all of which 
are hermaphrodite and tubular, of a pale 
purple colour, and funnel-fliaped ; the tube 
long and flender ; the brim bell-fhaped, divi- 
ded into five fegments, which are turned back, 

fig- 3- 
ANTHERiE purple, united into a tube, fig. 4. 
PISTILLUM: Germen round and naked: Style 

whitifh, longer than the Stamina : Stigma 

thick, white, and bifid, fig. 5. 
SEEDS oblong, withered, blackifh, fterile, crowned 

with fimple down, fig. 6. 

THE Butterbur though differing widely from the Coltsfoot in the appearance of its bloom, yet agrees with it in 
many particulars ; the root efpecially, poffeffes the fame power of increafing the plant, by creeping under the 
earth to a very great diftance ; hence when once introduced into a garden, it is fcarce to be rooted out, efpecially 
if the foil be a moift one. Was it not for this pernicious effect, the beautiful mode of its flowering, joined to its 
early appearance, would entitle it to a place in the gardens of the curious. 

The bloflbms, like thofe of the Coltsfioot, make their appearance before the leaves. If the fpring be mild 
the fpike will be formed by the middle of March ; but April is the month in which it oftener blows. 

It does not, like the Coltsfioot, expand its pappus or down, but the flowers change to a dirty brown colour; 
and the feeds on examination, appear altogether barren. It appears difficult to account for the caufe of this fterility, 
as the parts of the frudtification feem evidently perfect. 

This lofs is however amply fupplied in another way, as will be evident from the following experiment. 

April the iff.. 1778, I planted in my garden apiece of the Butterbur root, two inches long, the thicknefs of the 
little finger, with a tuft of leaves to it. November the 3d. 1779, this root with its increafe, was duo- up, many 
of the fhoots had extended themfelves to the diftance of fix feet, and penetrated two feet in depth ; the whole 
wafhed from the furrounding dirt, weighed eight pounds. 

A very ingenious Swedifn botanift informed me, that theearly appearance of this plant, induced the rural oecono- 
mifl in Sweden, to plant it near their bees, who refort much to its bloflbms. The above experiment mews that this 
cuff om fhould be adopted with caution, fince where this plant abounds, the ground is ib fhaded with its ample 
leaves, as to produce few others. 

The foil in which it flourifhes molt is a moift one, hence it is moft commonly found on the banks of rivers and 
ffreams. Near London it grows on the north fide of the River Thames, betwixt Wefiminjler Bridge and ChelJea. 

Formerly it was a medicine of great repute in pert ilential and other fevers ; but in the modern practice it is but 
little regarded. 


TussilagoFarfara. Coltsfoot. 

TUSSILAGO Lirmai Gen. PI. Syngenesia Polygamia Superflua, 

Recept. nudum. Pappus fimplex. Cal. fquamae aeqUales, difcum eequantes, 
Rati Syn. Gen. ij. Herbje flore composito, Semine papposo non lactescentes, 


TUSSILAGO Farfara fcapo unifloro imbricato, foliis fubcordatis angulatis denticulatis. Lirmai Syft. 

Vegetab. p. 629. Spec. Plant, p. 1214. Fl. Suecic. n. 743. 
PETASITES fcapo unifloro; flofculis in ambitu lingulatis. Hatter hift. n. 143, 

TUSSILAGO Farfara. ScopoliFL Carniol. n. 1059. 

TUSSILAGO vulgaris Bauhin pin. 197. 

TUSSILAGO Gerard emac. 811. 

TUSSILAGO Parhinfon 1220. Rail Syn. p. 173, Common Coltsfoot. HudfonFl. Angl. p. ^i$.Oedef 

Fl. Dan. icon. 595. 

RADIX praslonga, craffitie minimi digiti, albida, fub 
terra reptans et late fe propagans, ex una parte 
folia ex altera flores emittens. 

FOLIA fubrotundo-cordata, angulofo-dentata, inferne 
tomentofa, albida, fuperne viridia faspe cum 
tantillo tomenti. 

SCAPI uniflori, ftriati, tomentofi, foliofi, foliolis lan- 
ceolatis, adpreffis, rubicundis, peracta floref- 
centia nutantes, demum erecti. 

CALYX (communis) cylindraceus ; fquamis oblongis, 
acutis, alternis anguftioribus, jig. 1, 2. 

COROLLA compofita, Corollul.ze in difco herma- 
phroditae, tubulofse, flavae ; limbo quinquefi- 
do, acuto, reflexo, fig. 4; Anthers in tu- 
bum coalite, apicibus acutis, fig. 5 ; Germen 
breve, fig. 8 ; Stylus filiformis, Antheris 
longior, fig. 9; Stigma capitatum, fig. 10. 

COROLLULiE in radio feminese, flav^e, bafi tubulofas, 
limbus linearis, fig. 3 ; Germen oblongum, 
fig. 6; Stigma bifidum, tenue, fig. 7. 

SEMEN oblongum, pallide fufcum ; Pappus feffilis, 
fimplex, fig. ii. 

ROOT Very long, the thicknefs of ones little finger, 
whitifh, creeping under the ground, and pro- 
pagating itielf far and wide ; from one part of 
it fending forth leaves, from another part 

LEAVES of a roundimheart-fhaped figure, angular and 
indented, underneath downy and whitifh ; 
above green, oftentimes covered with a little 

STALKS fupporting one flower, channeled, downy, 
covered with leaves, which are lanceolate, 
prefled to the ftalk and reddifh, upright, when 
the blofibms are over hanging down, finally 
becoming upright. 

CALYX (common to all the florets) cylindrical ; the 
fquamse or little leaves oblong, pointed; the 
alternate ones narroweft. 

COROLLA compound : the Florets in the center 
hermaphrodite, tubular, yellow ; the limb di- 
vided into five fegments, which are pointed 
and turn back, fig. 4 : Antherje uniting into 
a tube, the tips pointed, fig. 5 : the Germen 
fhort, fig. 8 : the Style filiform, longer than 
the Anthers, fig. 9 : the Stigma forming a 
little head, fig. 10. 

FLORETS in the circumference yellow, at bottom tu- 
bular, the limb very narrow, fig. 3: Germen 
oblong, fig. 6: Stigma bifid, (lender,^. 7. 

SEED oblong, of a pale brown colour ; Down {bind- 
ing on the feed, not feathered, fig. 1 1 . 

NEXT to the Hazel, the Coltsfoot is the firft flower which appears with us in the Spring ; and there is this remark- 
able circumftance attending it, that its bloffoms come up generally at fome diftance from, and before its leaves: 
thefe are gathered by many perfons who make a Syrup or Tea of them when dried, which is generally confidered 
as a Pecloral, or ufeful in disorders of the Lungs. The leaves make a principal ingredient in the Britim Herb Tobacco. 

As foon as the flowers are out of bloom, and the feeds with their Pappus or Down, as yet moiff, are inclofed with- 
in the Calyx, the heads hang down as reprefented in the figure : as the moifture of the feeds and pappus evaporates, 
in ripening, they become lighter, and are again erected ; and now the Pappus fully expands, and puts on 
fomewhat the appearance of the Dandelion puff. I have noticed this peculiarity, as the like does not take place in 
the generality of compound flowers. 

In Charlton f and pits, and many other places about Town, the Coltsfoot is plentiful enough ; flowering in February 
and March. 

Farmers are difpleafed with the appearance of this plant on their ground, as it not only indicates a poor, cold, 
and impoverifhed foil ; but is with much difficulty, from the length of its creeping roots, effect-ually deifroyed. 


The cuftom of fmoaking this plant, which ftill prevails, is of antient date : Pliny directs the dried leaves and 
root of Coltsfoot to be burned, and the fmoak drawn into the mouth through a reed and iwallowed, as a remedy for 
an obftinate cough ; the patient hpping fome raifin wine with each draught of the fmoak : " Hujus arida cumradice 
" fumus, per Arundinem hauflus et devoratus, veterem fanare dicitur tujfim ; fed infngulos haujius paffum gufandum eft." 
This is the only account amongft the antlents, that we have hitherto been able to difcover, which tends towards 
the practice offmoaking: but we cannot acquiefce in the common opinion, that fmoaking of Tobacco, or at lean: 
fome kind of plant, was unknown in the old word 'till Sir Walter Raleigh brought it from America. Is it 
probable that the inhabitants of Africa mould fo foon have univerfally adopted a cuftom from Europe that was unknown 
two centuries ago ? Or that the Ajiatics, fo tenacious of their own manners, cuftoms and habits, mould in fo fmall 
a time, have agreed to extend this uncouth kind of luxury over a vaft continent, from the confines of Conftantinople 
to the extremities cf China ? 

Countries thinly inhabited are much molefted with Gnats. Travellers tell us, that the Northern Afiatic 'Tartars 
conftantly carry on their arms, during the Summer, a pot of burning Touchwood, fometimes prepared from the 
root of this plant, to defend themfelves by the fmoak, from the annoyance of thefe infects. It is probable one more 
ingenious than the reft contrived to keep this fire alive, by a communication with his breath ; and this expedient by 
degrees produced a Tobacco-pipe. A propensity to intoxication, fo natural to mankind, would give a preference to 
Tobacco before moft other vegetable fubltances ; and thus acuftomthat in the beginning was taken up for felf- defence, 
at laft might become a luxury. 

The firft difcoverers of America probably found the natives fmoaking Tobacco : but might they not bring this 
practice with them from the northern parts of Europe or Afia, which were never penetrated by the Roman arms ; from 
whence it appears probable that America was peopled ? 

A room or bed-chamber may at any time be cleared from Gnats, by fetting the windows open, and fmoaking or 
burning fome Tobacco, from which the infects are obliged immediately to efcape. Thofe that are offended by its 
fmell, may fubftitute this plant in its ftead. But cultivated and inhabited countries are in a great meafure defended 
from infupportable fwarms of Gnats by a provifion of nature little attended to. Of the four kinds of Swallows which 
frequent this ifland, whofe food confiirs intirely of flying infects, three of them are domeftic, and could with diffi- 
culty find fuitable conveniencies for building their nefts, without attaching themfelves to the habitations of men, 
around which they are perpetually hawking for their prey : hence it is apparent why deferts particularly abound 
with Gnats. 

The Poet obferves that the Martin or Martlet, one fpecies of fwallow, choofes a delicate air for its refidence. 
Who then can fufFer its neft to be difturbed after reading the following lines ? efpecially fince this bird pays fucha. 
compliment to the fweetnefs of the fituation ? 

This gue/i of fummer, 

" The temple-haunting Martlet, does approve, 

ct By his lov'd manfionry, that heavens breath 

" Smells wooingly here: no jutting frieze, 

ei Buttrefs, nor coigne of vantage, but this bird 

" Hath made his pendent bed and procreant cradle. 

" Where they mofl breed and haunt, I have obfervd 

*- The air is delicate." 

Although we have wandered from our fubject, the candid and humane will forgive our interceding for a vifitor, 
who claiming the rites of hofpitality, places unreferved confidence in us, and feems directed by providence to attend 
on mankind for purpofes the moil friendly and beneficial. 



Viola canina. Dogs Viol e t. 

VIOLA Linnai Gen, PL Syngenesia Monogamia. 

Calyx pentaphyllus* Corolla pentapetala, irregularis, poftice cornuta. Capfula 
fupera, trivalvis, unilocularis. 

Rail Syn. Gen. 24.. Herb^: pentapetala vasculiferje. 
VIOLA canina, caule adultiore adfcendente, foliis oblongo-cordatis. Linnai Syfi. Vegetal, p. 6684 
VIOLA caule procumbente, ramofo, foliis petiolatis cordatis. Haller hifil. heh. m 563. 
VIOLA canina, Scopoli FL Camiol n. 1098* 
VIOLA martia inodora fylveftris. Bauhin. pin. p. 364. 
VIOLA canina fylveftris* Ger. emac. 85 1. 
VIOLA fylveftris. Parkin/on 755. Rati Syn. p. 364, Wild or Dogs Violet, Viola canina minor* 

Rail Syn. 364. /. 2^. fig. 1... Hud/on FL Angl. p, 331. 

RADIX perennis, crafiitie pennae coracis, obliqua, fi- ? ROOT perennial, about the thicknefs of a e row quill, 

bras longiufculas; ttnaces dimittens, fuperne | oblique, fending down fome longtfh. fibres of 

fubdentatus ex reliquiis petiolorum. % a toughifh fubftance, on the upper part fome- 

I what toothed or knobbed, from the remains 

I of the leaf ftalks. 

' . ? 

CAULIS fubere&us, triuncialis, fubangulofus, lavis, | STALK nearly upright, about three inches high, fome- 

■ folia fiorefque ferens, % what angular, fmooth, bearing both leaves and 

f flowers. 

FOLIA cordata, lasvia, crenata, fubtus faepe purpuraf- ? LEAVES heart-fhaped, fmooth, crenated, and often-' 

centia, fuperiora oblongo-cordata. | times purplifh underneath ; the upper leaves 

y of a longer mape. 

STIPULiE caulinae lanceolate, pilis rigidiufculis cilia- | STIPULE of the_ ftalk lanceolate, and edged with 

t£e. I itiffifh hairs. 


PEDUNCULUS tetragonus, bra&aeis duabus fetaceis | FLOWER-STALK fquare, furnifhed with two nar- 

inftructus. % row pointed floral-leaves. 


FLOS purpureus, inodorus, majufculus. | FLOWERS purple, fcentlefs, and rather large, 


GALYX : Perianthium pentaphyllum, foliolis Ian- | CALYX : a Perianthium of five leaves^ which are 

ceolatis, acuminatis, nervofis, bafi dentatis ; % lanceolate, pointed, rib'd, and indented at 

tribus fuperioribus fuperne tuberculofis, api- | the bafe ; the three uppermoft a little uneven 

cibus recurvatis, duobus inferioribus longiori- | on their upper furface, the points bending 

bus Jig. 1. % upward; the two lowermofl longer, fig. 1. 

COROLLA, ut ut Stamina cum Piftillo, a duabus fpe- | COROLLA, as well as the Stamina and " Piftillum, 

cibus jam defcriptis (vid. odorata et hirta) t differ very little from the two fpecies already 

vix difcrepant, petala lateralia bafi barbata | defcribed, (viz. the fweet-fcented and hairy) 

funt, fig. 2, petal umque inferius ad bafin li- J having the lateral petals, bearded at the bafe, 

n'eis faturate purpureas pingitur. | fig : 2 ; and the bafe of the lowermofl petal, 

I painted with deep purple lines, 

CAPSULA oblonga, trigona, trivalvis, valvulis cym- | CAPSULE oblong, three cornered, having three 

biformibus, fig. 3. y valves, which are boat-fhaped, fig. 3. 

SEMINA plurima, glabra, pallida, flavefcentia, in | SEEDS numerous, fmooth, of a pale yellowifh colour, 
fingula valvula, 7, 9, fig. 4. $ in each valve 7 or 9, fig. 4, 

THE Dog Violet differs from the Sweet Violet in many particulars; the chief of which are, 

Firfi, The flowers have no fmell. 

Second, The flowers grow on foot-ftalks which fpring from the ftalk, and not the root, and are in general of 
a larger fize. 

fthird, The flipulas, next the root and on the ftalk, are very ftrongly edged with ftiff hairs. 

Fourth, The fegments, or leaves of the calyx, are pointed. 

Fifth, The feed-venel is oblong and three corner'd. 

It differs from the hairy Violet alfo, in all thefe refpecls except the firfh 

The fame peculiar circumftance of producing feed during the fummer months, without any expanded corolla, 
takes place alfo in this fpecies. 

It grows with us in greater abundance than either the Viola odorata or hirta, in our woods, and under hedges ; 
and begins to flower in April, when both the others are going out of bloom. 

It varies in colour, being fometimes found with white blofloms- ; in fize alfo, according to the expofed or fhel- 
tered fituation in which it grows, it differs very much : and there is little : doubt, but the Violet reprefented in 
Ray's Synopfis, pi. 24, fig. I, is the Viola Canina in its fmail itate, though the figure be imperfect as to its 

.Haller obferves, that thofe who collect Violet bloffoms for making the fyrup, are apt to fubftitute this fpecies : 
but this cannot often happen : fhould thefe flowers alone be expofed for fale, they may be detected by their want 
of fmell ; mould they be mixed with a few of the fweet ones, they may be difcovered by the pointed mape of the 
Laves of the calyx. 




Orchis Mascula. Early Spotted 

ORCHIS Linnai Gem PL Gynandria Diandria. 

Neffarium corniforme pone fiorem. 

RaiiSyn.Gen. 26. Herb^ radice bulbosa PRiEDiTiE; 
ORCHIS mafcula bulbis indivhis, nedtarii labio quadrilobo crenulato : coriiu obtufo petalis dorfalibus 

reflexis. Lin. Syfi. Vegetab. p. 674. FL Suede, p. 319. n. 795. 
ORCHIS radicibus fubrotundis ; petalis lateralibus reflexis ; labello trifido ; fegmento medio longiori, 

bifldo. Haller hift. n. 1283. tab. 33. 
ORCHIS mafcula. Scopoli FL Carnlol. n. 11 lU 

ORCHIS morio mas foliis maculatis. Bauhin. pin. 81, Parhinfion. 1346. 

CYNOSORCHIS morio mas. Gerard, emac. 208. Rati Syn. p. 376. ft. 3, The Male Fool-ftones. 
Hud/on. Fl. Angl. p. 3,33' Oeder. Fl. Dan. t. 457. Llghtfoot* Fl. Scot. p. 515. 

RADIX Bulbi duo fubrotundi, majufculi. % ROOT : two Bulbs of a roundifh form, and fome- 

| what large. 

CAULIS pedalis, erectus, teres, folidus, fuperne pur- ^ STALK a foot high, upright, round, folid, above na- 

purafcens, nudus, inferne foliis vaginantibus | ked and purplim, below cioathed with fur- 

veftitus. I rounding leaves. 

FOLIA latiufcula, maculis atropurpureis plerumque % LEAVES broadifh, moft commonly marked with dark 

inlignita, inferne carinata. | purple fpots, the midrib projecting fharply 

% on the under fide. 

SPICx^ longa, fpeciofa, laxa. | SPIKE long, fhowy, loofe. 

BRACTEtE purpurea, lanceolate, fubmembrana- | FLORAR-LEAVES purple, lanceolate, fomewhat 

ceae, genuine paulo breviores, apicibus pau- % membranous, a little fhorter than the Germen, 

lulum contortis. | the tips a little twifted. 

COROLLA: Pe tal a quinque purpurea; duo ovato- g COROLLA: five purple Petals, two of which are 

acuta, ere£ba> carinata, apicibus incurvatis, | of an oval pointed fhape, upright, with a 

tria conniventia in galeam : Labellum am- | projecting rib, the tips bending inward ; the 

plum, trilobum, medio productiore, omnibus % remaining three form the galea or helmet : 

acute crenulatis, et bafi maculatis : Faux | the Lip large* with three lobes, of which the 

alba. $ middle one is the longeft, all of them fharply 

I notched, and fpotted at the bafe : Mouth 

I white. 

Explic. Fig, | Explanation of the Figures. 

Fig. — i, Braftaea. % Fig. — 1, The Floral-leaf. 

2, 3, Petala. | 2, 3, The Petals. 

4, Labellum. * 4, The Lip. 

5, Nectarium, nat. magnit. I ' 5> The Ne & al 7 of their natural fize. 

6, Glandula ad bafin.Filamenti. | 6, The Gland at the bafe of the Filament.- 

7, Filamentum. % 7, The Filament. 

8, Anthera. | 8, The Anthera. 

9, Receptaculum glandularum Filamentorum. ^ p, The Cavity containing the Glands of the 

10, Theca Antherarum claufa, % Filaments. 

1 1 , Eadem aperta. | 1 o, The cafe containing the Anthene clofed. 

12, Anthera extenfa. % 11, The fame opened. 

13, Stigma, I 12, The Anthera ftretched out. 

14, Germen, au£t» ^ 13, The Stigma. 

t 14, The Germen, magnified. 

STUDENTS in general* find a difficulty in obtaining a clear idea of the parts of fructification in the Orchis 
tribe. There is a peculiarity of ftructure runs through the whole of them, very different from what we meet 
with in plants in general. 

The greater part of this genus have bulbous roots, which are yearly renewed ; fome have fibrous roots, which 
alfo partake of the fame nature. As a proof of their being yearly renewed, we always find, when there are two 
bulbs, that one of them is in a more withered ftate than the other ; and if we take the roots up in Autumn, we 
find one bulb only. 

Thefe plants multiply themfelves very little. The fmall increafe they make, appears to be from off-fets. Hi- 
therto we have no fatisfaclory proof of their being propagated from feed ; yet the feed-veffels in many of them, 
are large, well formed, and filled with feeds ; which though extremely minute, appear perfect. 

The fmallnefs of the feed is, however, no argument againft its vegetating : fome of the Ferns, whofe feeds are 
much fmaller, are well known to fome ingenious nurferymen near ^London, to be propagated from feed, and to 
come up fpontaneoufly in their hot-houfes, where the original plant has fcattered its feed : and it is moft probably 
owing to a want of minute attention, that theprogrefs of the Orchis feedlings has not yet been obferved. 

Were we however difpofed to doubt the vegetative power of thefe feeds, we might urge, that their barrennefs 
was owing to their not being properly impregnated ; the Antherae in the Orchis tribe, appearing to be totally dif- 
ferent in their ftructure, from thofe of plants in general ; and not containing, fo far at leaft, as I "have yet been able 
to difcover, any fimilar pollen, or impregnating duft. 

Each flower has two ftamina, whofe ftrucTure is well deferving the attention of the curious ; each of thefe fta- 
mina is contained within a bag or cafe, the edges of which fold over each other, and open anteriorly, as the plant 
advances toward maturity, fig. 10, 1 1. At this period, in many of the Orchis tribe, they hang down out of their 
cafes towards the ftigma, and are particularly vifible in the Bee Orchis, and fome others : on the flighteft pull they 
are drawn out, and then at the bafe of each filament, we difcover a fmall tranfparent globule, fig. 6 ; and at the 
top a club-fhaped fubftance, moft commonly of a yellow colour, and granulated furface, which mult be consider- 
ed as the Anthera, fig. 8. On ftretching this fubftance before the view of a microfcope, it appears to be compofed 
of a number of cubic or irregularly fquare corpufcles, united together by fine elaftic threads, fig. 12 : that thefe 
corpufcles produce the effect of Pollen feems highly probable, though in a manner, at prefent unknown to us. 

There is no difficulty in diflinguifhing this fpecies from all our other Orchis s : its fpotted leaves and early bloom, 
will in general be fufficient. 

The beauty of its leaves and flowers, juffly intitle it to a place in the gardens of the curious ; and in which, if 
planted in a fhady fituation, it will readily grow. 

It flowers in April and May. 

About London it is become fomewhat fcarce ; but in the woods and meadows in moft parts of England, no plant 
more abounds. 

Should it ever be found practicable, as well as profitable, to cultivate this genus of plants, for the purpofe of 
making Salap, this fpecies appears as likely to anfwer as any of them. 

The extraordinary invigorating powers of the roots of thefe plants, have been handed down to us with ceremo- 
ny, by many great names amongft antiquity : but we readily fubferibe to the opinion of MonfieurGARiDEL, who 
in fpeaking of the Orchis, fays that great names have introduced many abfurd medicines. 

*Mefirs. Lee and Gordon. 

Arum maculatum. Cuckow-pint. 

ARUM Linnet Gen. PL Gykandria Polyandria. 

Spatha monophylla, cucullata, Spadix fupra nudus, inferne femineus, medio 

Rail Syn.Ger. 16. HERBiE baccifer;e. 

ARUM maculatum acaule, foliis haftatis integerrimis, fpadice clavato. "Lin. Syfi. Vegetal, p* 690. 

ARUM foliis fagittatis ; fpatha recta : clava cylindrica. Holler, hijl. helv. n. 1302. 

ARUM maculatum. Scopoli Fl. Carnlol. n. 1138. 

ARUM vulgare maculatum. Bauhin pin. 195. 

ARUM vulgare. Gerard, emac. 834. 

ARUM maculatum et non maculatum. Park 373. Rail Syn. p. 266, Wake- Robin, Cuckow-pint. 

Hudfon. Fl. Angl. p. 342. 
Lightfoot Fl Scot. p. 528. 

RADIX perennis, tuberofa, albida, magnitudine nucis 
myrifticae majoris, tranfverfa, fibras plurimas, 
fimplices undique in terram demittente, fa- 
pore acerrimo, tuberculis e lateribus egermi- 
nantibus fe propagante. 

FOLIA : ex una radice duo tria vel quatuor, rarius 
plura exeunt, fagittata, petiolata, nitida, ve- 
nofa^ venis intra marginemterminatis, maculis 
purpureis faspe notata. 

PETIOLI bafi vaginantes, fubtriquetri, externe con- 
vexi, interne canaliculati. 

FRUCTIFICATIO fpatha inclufa. 

CALYX ; Spatha monophylla, maxima, oblonga, bafi 
convoluta, apice connivens, ventre comprefla ; 
Spadix clavatus, fimpliciffimus, fpatha paulo 
brevior, purpureus aut albidus, inferne ger- 
minibusobvallatus, marcefcens fupra germina, 

fig- 4. 

COROLLA nulla. 

STAMINA : Filamenta nulla : Anthers plurimae, 
fefliles, tetragonal, purpureas, fpadici adnata?, 

fig- l - 
NECTARTA corpufcula plurima, baficrafla, definentia 
in cirrhos nliformes fupra et infra ftamina, 

fig' 3- 
PISTILLUM : Germina plurima, bafm fpadicis vef- 
tientia, infra ftamina collocata, obovata: Styli 
nulli : Stigmata villis barbata, fig. 2. 

PERICARPIUM : Bacc^e totidem, coccinese, globo- 

fae, uniloculares, fig. 5. 
SEMINA plurima, fubrotunda. 

ROOT perennial, tuberous, whitifh, about the fize 
of a large nutmeg, growing tranfverfely, fend- 
ing forth on every fide a great number of 
fingle fibres, of a moft biting tafte, propaga- 
ting itfelf by little tubercles, fpringing from 
its fide. 

LEAVES : from one root two three or four, feldom more 
proceed, arrow-fhaped, ftanding on foot-ftalks, 
fhining, veiny, the veins terminating within 
the margin, often marked with purple fpots. 

LEAF-STALKS at bottom forming a fheath, three- 
cornered, externally convex, internally chan- 

FRUCTIFICATION inclofed in a fheath, 

CALYX : a Jheath of one leaf, very large, oblong, 
the edges wrapping over each other at bot- 
tom, at top clofing, the middle part com- 
pr^ffed, the tongue club-fhaped, fingle, fhor- 
ter than the fheath, purple or of a whitifh 
colour, below furrounded by the germina, 
and withering above them. 

COROLLA wanting. 

STAMINA : Filaments wanting : Anthers nu- 
merous, feffile, four cornered, purple, grow- 
to the tongue, fig. 1. 

NECTARIES feveral roundifh bodies, terminated by 
a tapering thread, placed above and beneath 
the ftamina, fig. 3. 

PISTILLUM : Germina numerous, furrounding the 
bafe of the fpadix or tongue, of an oval fnape, 
placed beneath the ftamina : Styles wanting : 
Stigmata bearded with little hairs, fig. 2. 

BERRIES correfponding in number with the germina, 
fcarlet, round, of one cavity, fig. 5. 

SEED numerous and roundifh. 

BOTANISTS who have noticed the hiftory of this plant, well know that it appears under two very different 
forms in the fpring and autumn : but the generality of people are not aware, that the naked" clu flier of fcarlet 
berries, fo confpicuous in the hedges at the clofe of the fummer, is the produce of what are ufually called Lords 
and Ladies, which attract the notice of children in the fpring, and which are obfervable under moll; fhady hedges. 

The leaves of the Cuckow-pint are fubjeft to vary very much in their fhape, and often appear fpotted with purple, 
as fometimes does the fheath : the tongue within the fheath varies alfo much in its colour, from a yellowifh green to 
a fine purple. 

All authors agree, that the root of the Arum, in its recent ftate, is extremely acrimonious ; but they in general 
agree, that it lofes its biting quality when dried, and with it its medicinal powers. 

Miller obferves, that thefe roots are generally gathered in the fpring, when the leaves are in full vigour, fo 
that the roots fhrink, and foon lofe their pungent quality ; but thofe which are taken up when the leaves decay, 
will continue good a whole year, and retain their pungency the fame as when firft taken up ; Gard. Ditl. /\.to. ed. 5. 
The fame mode is recommended by Bergius, in his Mat. Medic. 

When dried and powdered, they become eatable, and afford nourifhmentfomewhatfimilarto fago or falep. 

The diftilled water of the root, as alfo a powder prepared by drying its juice, have been in uie as cofmetics. The 
root alfo, like that of the Sopewort, has been occafionally fubftituted for fope ; Ray, Rutty. 

Many of the Arums have mild roots, which are eaten by the inhabitants of all the hot countries, where they grow 
naturally: and fome of the forts are cultivated by the inhabitants of the fugar colonies as efculent plants; the 
leaves of one of the fpecies of them, called Indian Kale, are boiled, and fupply the want of other greens; Miller's 
Gard. Diet. 

The berries are equally acrimonious with the roots ; Scopoli. 

When ftimulating medicines are proper, which at the fame time increafe the fecretions, as in fome fpecies of 
afthma and dropfy, the Arum may probably be found ferviceable : at prefent however it is not much in uie. 

If my memory does not deceive me, the roots in the woods are eaten by divers Birds, notvvkhfhnding their 
pungency, particularly the Pheafant. 


'^&ttiwm >j(ci*^J>. 

'^ferit/m' e/a/i&aitier&a/ 





POTERIUM Linnai Gen. PL Monoecia Polyandria. 

Rail Syn. Gen. 10. Herb^ flore perfecto simplici, seminibus nudis solitariis 


POTERIUM Sanguiforba inerme caulibus fubangulofi?. Lin. Sp. PL 141 1. 

PIMPINELLA polyftemon. Bailer hijl. n. 706. 

Sx^NGUISORBA minor. J. Bauhin III. 2. 113. 

PIMPINELLA Sanguiforba minor hirfuta. Bauhin pin. 160. 

PIMPINELLA vulgaris minor. Parkin/on 582. 

PIMPINELLA fylveftris. Gerard emac. 1045. &"' fy n ' P- 20 3> Burnet. Bud/on. FL Angl. p. 358. 

RADIX perennis, fimplex, albida,, in terram alte de- ¥ 

fcendens. | 

CAULES plures, fuberecti, dodrantales aut pedales, % 

ramofi, ftriati, fubangulofi, rubicundi, laeves, | 

ad balin hirfutuli. ^ 

' % 

FOLIA alterna, pinnata, pinnis inferioribus fubrotun- | 

dis, plerumque oppofitis, ferratis, laevibus, :fr 

fubtus ccerulefcentibus, nervo medio hirfutu- | 

lo, caulinis ovatis et ovato-acutis. * 

STIPULE dentate. 

FLORES in capitulis fubrotundis congefti, fuperiores 

feminei, inferiores mafculi, faepe etiam her- 

CALYX : Perianthi-um triphyllum, inferum, folio- 

lis membranaceis, marcefcentibus, fig. 1. 

COROLLA quadripartita, laciniis ovatis, faepe colora- 

tis, concavis, patentibus, bafi coalitis, fig. 2 : | 

in flore mafculo feu hermaphrodite» et calyx et % 

corolla majores funt. j 

, I 

STAMINA : Filament a circiter triginta, longa, t 

pendula, rubra : ANTHERiEflavae, biloculares, | 

loculis femilunatis, fig. 3, 4, 5. f 

PISTILLUM in flore femineo : Germen quadrangu- | 

lum : Stylus capillaris : Stigma ruberri- J 

mum, penicilliforme, fig. 7, 8, 9, au6t.' Styli f 

et Stigmata duo faepe occurrunt : in flore her- | 

maphrodito Styli duo breviores, Stigmatibus ^ 

minus expanfis, fig. 10. ? 

PERICARPIUM Bacca exfucca, tetragona, lateribus I 

rugofis, continens Semina duo, pailide fufca, $ 

fig. ii, 12. % 

ROOT perennial, fimple, whitifh, penetrating deep 
into the earth. 

STALKS feveral, nearly upright, from nine inches to 
afoot in height, branched, ftriated, fomewhat 
angular, of a reddim colour, fmooth, but 
ilightly hairy at bottom. 

LEAVES alternate and pinnated ; the lowermoft pinnae, 
or fmall leaves, roundifh, generally oppofite, 
ferrated, fmooth, underneath blueiih ; the mid- 
rib Ilightly hairy ; the leaves of the italk oval 
and pointed oval. 

STIPULE indented. 

FLOWERS growing in little round heads, the upper- 
moft female, the lowermofr. male, and often- 
times hermaphrodite. 

CALYX: a Perianthium of three leaves, placed be- 
low the Germen ; the leaves membranous and 
withering, fig. 1 . 

COROLLA divided into four fegments, which are oval, 
often coloured, concave, fpreading, and uni- 
ting at bottom, fig. _2 : in the male or her- 
maphrodite flower both the Calyx and Cor- 
rolla are larger. 

STAMINA : Filaments about thirty, long, pendu- 
lous, and of a red, colour : Antherje yellow, 
bilocular, the cavities femilunar, fig. 3, 4, ^ 

PISTILLUM in the female flower : Germen quadran- 
gular : Style capillary : Stigma very red, 
and pencil-iliaped, fig. 7, 8, 9, magnified. 
Two Styles and Stigmata often occur : in the 
hermaphrodite flower the Styles are fhorter, 
and the Stigmata lefs expanded, fig. 10. 

SEED-VESSEL a juicelefs Berry, having four wrink- 
led fides, and containing two pale brown 
Seeds, fig. ii, 12. 

BURNET is one of thofe plants which has for fome years pair, been attempted to be introduced into agriculture, 
but not anfwering the farmers expectations, is now in a great degree laid afide. Cattle are faid not to be fond of it ; 
nor is its produce fufficient to anfwer the expence attending its culture. It is to be lamented that perfons do 
not pay a little more attention to the nature of plants before they fo warmly recommend them. It fhould 
feem very unlikely a priori^ that a fmall plant, fcarce ever met with but on hilly and chalky ground, and to which 
cattle in fuch fituations do not fhew any particular attachment, fhould afford better, or more copious nourifhment, 
than the Clovers and other plants already in ufe. It is not meant by .this, however, to difcourage that laudable 
fpirit of improvement which fo happily prevails at prefent ; but to caution fuch as introduce any new plant, to make 
themfelves thoroughly acquainted with its natural hiftory. 

The leaves of this plant, when bruifed, fmell fomewhat like Cucumber ; and are ufed by fome as a fallad ; and 
by others added to cool tankard to give it an agreeable flavour. 

LiNNiEus places it among his Monoicous plants, the flowers on the top of the heads being female, and thofe at 
the bottom male, contrary to what occurs in moft plants of that Clafs : but it happens very frequently, that the 
bottom flowers have likewife in them two Piftils, although not fo confpicuous as in the female flowers, the Stigmata 
being not fo much branched ; hence there being female and hermaphrodite flowers on the fame plant, it would 
perhaps with more propriety be placed in the Clafs Polygamia. Do not thefe obfeure hermaphrodite flowers con- 
tribute to the fertility of the plant ? 

Q^zefVMPzaakf /A&re/mM 


ogs Mercury. 



Vinntfi Gen. PL Dioecia Enneandria* 

Masc. Cah 3-partitus. Cor. o. Stam. 9-s. 12. Anthers globoid, didymaeo 
Fem. CaL 3-partitus. Cor. o. Styll 2. Caps dicocca, 2-locularis. i-fperma. 

Rail Syn. Gen. 5. Herb^e flore imperfecto seu stamineo vel apetala potius. 

perennis caule fimpliciffimo foliis fcabris. hinnai Syji. Vegetab. Sp. PI. 1465. 

caule perenni fimplici, foliis ovato-lanceolatis hirfutis. Bailer h'ifi. helv. m 1601 * 

Cynocrambe. Scopoll Fl. Carniol. p. 266. n. 1225. 

perennh repens Cynocrambe di£ta, Rati Syn. p. 139. Hudfion FL Angl. p. 371* 

montana tefticulata et Mercurialis montana fpicata. Bauhin. pin. 123. 

fy lveftris Cynocrambe di&a vulgaris mas et fernina. Parkinjon 295,- 

mas et fernina. Gerard emac. 333. Oeder Fl. Dan. 400. 

RADIX perennis, repens, alba, fibrofiffima. 

CAULIS' ere£tus, fimplex, pedalis, foliofus, in feme 
nudus, teres, alterne anceps. 

FOLIA oppofita, ovato-acuta, petiolata, hirfutie feabnU 
ufcula, ferrata, ferraturis obtufiufculis, glandula 
alba ad lentem confpicua terminatis. 

STIPUL-^E duae, parvce, acutie, caulis utrinque ad ba- 
fin petioli. 

PEDUNCULI verfus fummitatem eaulis prodeunt, op- 
pofiti, axillares, hirfuti, in maribus caulem fu- 
perant in feminis intra folia reconduntur. 

FLORES feminei pauci, mafculi plures, feffiles, glome- 
ratim et verticillatim quafi caulem femiamplec- 


CALYX: Perianthium tripartitum, laciniis ovato- 
lanceolatis, fuberectis, jig. 1 , 2. 

COROLLA nulla. 

NECTARIA acumina duo fubulata ad Unguium latus 

germinis fingula. 
PISTILLUM : Germen fubrotundum, compreffum : 

Styli feu potius Stigmata dua, acuta, re- 

flexa, fig. 4. 
PERICARPIUM: Capsula fubrotunda, didyma, bi- 

locularis, fig. 5, 6. 
SEMEN folitarium, fubrotundum, purpureo-fufcum, 

fig- 7« 

M A S. 

CALYX: Perianthium ut in femina. 

STAMINA: Filamenta novem plerumque, capilla- 
ria, recta, longitudine calycis : Anthers 
globofae, didymae, primo flavae, mox ccerulef- 
centes, fig. 3. 

ROOT perennial, creeping, white, and very fibrous. 

STALK upright, fimple, a foot high, leafy, naked 
below, round, (lightly winged alternately. 

LEAVES oppofite, oval,, pointed, ftanding on foot- 
ftalks flightly hairy and rough to the touch, 
ferrated; the teeth bluntim, and terminated 
by a whitifh gland, vifible only by a magnifier. 

STIPULE two, fmall, pointed, on each iide the ftalk 
at the bafe of the foot-ftaik. ' 

FOOT-STALKS of the flowers proceed from the bo- 
foms of the leaves near the top of the ftalk, 
are oppofite and hairy ; in the male plant they 
are longer than the ftalk ; in the female they 
are hid among the leaves. 

FLOWERS in the female few ; in the male numerous, 
feflile, growing fomewhat whirl-like in little 
clufters, and half furrounding the ftalk. 


Ci^LYX : a Perianthium divided into three fegments, 
which are oval, pointed, and fomewhat erect, 

fig- *> 2. 

COROLLA wanting. 

NECTARY two fmall pointed filaments, one on each 
fide the germen. 

PISTILLUM : Germen roundifh and fomewhat flat- 
tened : Styles, or rather Stigmata, two, 
pointed and turning back, fig. 4. 

SEED-VESSEL : a roundifh double Capsule .of two 
cavities, fig. 5, 6. 

SEED : one in each cavity, roundifh, of a brownifh 
purple colour, fig. 7. 

M A L E. 

CALYX : a Perianthium the fame as the female. 

STAMINA-: nine Filaments, for the moft part, ca- 
pillary, ftrait, the length of the calyx : An- 
ther7E round, double, firft yellow, afterwards 
becoming bluifh. 

IN the .third edition of Rays Synopfis, Sir Hans Sloane communicates a very particular account of the 
pernicious effects of this plant. It was, as it appears from thence, gathered by the miftrefs of a family, 
in the fields, (in agris are the words,) fried with bacon, and eaten for fupper by the wife, the hufband, and 
three children ; the children in about two hours awaked out of their fleep violently fick ; on being removed to 
the fire they both vomited, and purged, and in about half an hour afterwards they again fell a deep : two of them 
continued in this irate of ftupor for twenty-four hours, when they awaked, and after more copious evacuations re- 
covered. The third child awaked not till the third day, and then juit opening its eyes, was feized and carried off 
by convulfions. The man being of a robuft conftitution was not fo violently affected ; but after a longer deep 
than ufual, went about his bufinefs, feeling no other inconvenience than a burning heat in his chin, to affuage 
which he was obliged for the whole day to apply cold water. The woman, after being more than ufualiy op- 
preffed with deep, found her felf ill, and did not recover for feveral days, 


From fo circumftantial an account, it would appear that there was little doubt of the noxious quality of this 
plant to the human fpecies ; yet it is remarkable, that this mould be the only inftance of fuch effe&s mentioned by 
authors, when the plant has by many been recommended as a pot herb : fuch violent effects do not appear to have 
been known to the antients, by fome of whom it is recommended as a laxative medicine. 

It appears to be well worth afcertaining whether it really poffeffes thofe poifonous qualities ; whether it be nox- 
ious early in the fpring, or later in the fummer ; and whether it lpofes them in boiling. 

LiNNiEUS, in his Flora Suecica, mentions it as being hurtful to Sheep. Thefe ufeful animals are ibmetimes 
found to all appearance poifoned by eating fome particular plant, which the farmer would do well to difcover. 

As many poifonous plants, under proper management, prove highly beneficial to mankind, fo it is not impro- 
bable but this plant alfo might make ample amends. 

It has been obferveo! by many, that thofe plants which change blue in drying, will generally dye blue : this is re- 
markably the cafe with this plant, nearly as much fo as with the Polygonum TmUorium, lent to England from 
China by the late ingenious and indefatigable Mr. Blake, whofe untimely death every fmcere friend to this 
country muft deplore : and was it to undergo a proper management, it is probable that it would produce an In- 
digo fomewhat fimilar,, 

The Dogs Mercury grows plentifully in moil: woods and under hedges, flowering from the end of March to the 
middle of May. It has a ftrong creeping perennial root like Couch-grafs, whereby it may be readily diftinguifhed 
from the annual French Mercury. 

The antients have taken notice that this plant was of two fexes ; but they miftook the female for the 
male. The cultivation of the Date-bearing Palm furnifhed the Egyptians with the nrft obfervations on the 
fexes of plants. The fruit of the female was of the utmoft importance, as it fupplied many of them with 
the principal part of their food. The inhabitants of countries where Palms grew naturally, might eat the 
fruit regardjefs of their manner of fructification ; but when other countries, that were deft itute of this ample 
provifion of nature, attempted to tranfplant and cultivate Palms, they muft necefTarily have been obliged to 
attend to the two kinds, the male and the female, as the nrft bore no - fruit, and the latter would prove 
barren if it was removed top far from the male. 

It does not appear that the Jews were acquainted with the fexes of Palms, although they are often men- 
tioned in the Bible as growing in Judea : but it was well known to Theophrastus, who defcribes the method 
of impregnating the female bloom with the farina of the male, in the fame manner as modern travellers have 
feen it performed.* But although it is now two thoufand years iince this author wrote, yet no progrels was 
made in demonftrating the fexual fyftem of plants until this prefent century; before which time, all the writers 
on botany, inftead of afcertaining what plants were of different fexes, mention male and female oaks, and 
other kinds of trees, that have both male and female bloom, on the fame plants. 

The utility of this kind of knowledge appears in the management of the Date-bearing Palm : for want 
of attending to it, the cultivators of hemp frequently meet with confiderable difappointments : and it is pro- 
bable that the planters of hops, by their cuftom of deftroying the male plants, may alfo be fufferers. 

We do not remember that any of the early poets have mentioned the different fexes or mutual love of 
trees. Claudian, who was well acquainted with Egypt, has very happily introduced it in his defcription 
of the beautiful retreat of Venus in the I/land of Cyprus. 

" Vivunt in Venerem frondes, omnifque vicifjim 
f* Fcelix arbor amat, nut ant ad mutua palmce 
H Feeder a, populeo fufpirat populus iSlu 
t" Et platana platanis, alno affibilat alnus." • 

" Branches on branches twirfd compofe the grove, 
fi And Jhoot, and fpread, and blojfom into love: 
" 'The trembling palms their mutual vows repeat, 
*' And bending poplars bending poplars meet: 
" The di/iant platanes feem to prefs more nigh, 
l l And to the Jighing alders alders flgh." 


The reader will determine how far this tranflation deferves the cenfure that it lies under, and whether 

the following paflage that accompanies it is worthy of its author: " As flowers, which are the lowejl of 'vege- 

" tables, are the mqji gaudy, and do many times grow in great plenty at the bottom of ponds and ditches" Art 
of finking in Poetry, publifhed by Pope. 

*Vid. Hasselquist. 

QjyifaAc&xy sJurjhfJa-/ 

Atriplex hastata. Spear-leaved Orach. 

ATRIPLEX Ltnrusu Gen. P/. Pol yg ami a Monoecia. 

Hermaphrod. Cal. 5-phyllus. Cor,o. Siam. 5. Stylus 2-partitus. Sem. 1, 

Fem. Cal 2-phyllus. Cor. o. Stam, o. Stylus 2-partitus. Sem, 1, com- 
Rail Syn.G-en. 5. Herbje flore imperfecto seu Stamineo (vel apetalo potius.) 
ATRIPLEX hajlata caule herbaceo, calycis valvulis femineis magnis deltoidibus finuatis. Lintuei. Syfi. 

Vegetal? . p. 764. Sp. pi. 1494. Fl. Sueck. n. 921. 
ATRIPLEX foliis triangularibus, bafi produ&a, valvulis triangularibus, fubafperis. Hatter hift.n* 161 J. 
ATRIPLEX fy lveftris folio haftato feu deltoide. RaiiSyn.p. 151, Wild Orache with a fpear-pointed leaf, 
Hudfon Fl. Angl. ed. 1. p. 337, 
Lightfoot Fl Scot. p. 636. 

RADIX annua, fimplex, fibrofa, albida. 

CAULIS plerumque ere&us, pedalis aut tripedalis, te- 
tragonus, angulis obtufis, lateribus fubfulca- 
tis, ad geniculos tumidiufculus, laevis, pur- 
purafcens, ad bafm ufque, ramofus ; Rami 
oppofiti, inferiores longiffimi, caulem ipfum 
interdum aequantes, utplurimum procum- 

FOLIA ima triangularis, margine plus minufve den- 
tata, farina fubtus copiofe adfperfa, faspe ve- 
ra penitus glabra, oppofita, petiolata, fuperio- 
ra ovato lanceolata, integerrima, alterna. 

FLORES in fummis caulibus et ramulis, in fpicas an- 
guftas rubentes, digefti. 

Flos hermaphroditusfterilis. 

CALYX: Perianthium pentaphyllum, foliolis ova- 
tis, concavis, marginibus membranaceis lace- 
ris, fig. 1. 

COROLLA nulla. | 

STAMINA : Filamenta quinque, calyce paulo Ion- | 
giora : Antherje iubrotundse, didymje, ru- % 
brae, fig. 3. | 

PISTILLUM : Germen in centra flofculi minimum ^ 
fterile. t 

Flos femlneus. | 

CALYX: Perianthium diphyllum, foliolis ovato- | 

acutis, eretlis, granulis diaphanis obduclis, % 

fig. 2. I 

PISTILLUM: Germen ovatum, fig. 6 : Styli duo, f 

etiam tres, filiformes, albi, fig. 4, 5. | 

PERICARPIUM nullum. Calycis valvae magnse, cor- | 

datae, afperae, inter fe includentes (emen, fig. % 

78 ' 

/' . * 

SEMEN unicum, orbiculatum, compreffum, fig. 9. $ 

ROOT annual, limple, fibrous, and of a whitilli colour. 

STALK generally upright, from one to three feet in 
height, four cornered, the angles obtufe, the 
fides fomewhat grooved, a little fwelled at the 
joints, fmooth, of a purplifh colour, and 
branched quite to the bottom : the Branches 
oppofite ; the lowermoft very long, fome- 
times almoft equal with the fialk itfelf, and 
for the moft part procumbent. 

LEAVES on the lower part of the ftalk triangular, 
with the edge more or lefs indented, fprink- 
led plentifully on the Under fide with meal, 
fometimes quite fmooth, oppofite, and ftand- 
ing on foot-ftalks ; the upper leaves oval, 
pointed, intire, and alternate. 

FLOWERS difpofed on the tops of the fialks and bran- 
ches in narrow reddifh fpikes. 

Hermaphrodite Flower Jlerile. 

CALYX: a Perianthium of five leaves, which are 

oval and concave, the edges membranous and 

jagged, fig. 1. 
COROLLA wanting. 
STAMINA ; five Filaments a little longer than the 

Calyx ; Anthers roundifti, double, and of 

a red colour, fig. 3. 
PISTILLUM : a very minute barren Germen in the 

center of the flofcule. 

Female Flower, 

CALYX : a Perianthium of two leaves, which are 
oval, pointed, upright, and covered ov r 
with tranfparent grains or globules, fig, 2. 

PISTILLUM: Germen oval, fig. 6. Styles two, 
fometimes three, filiform and white, fig. 4, 5. 

SEED-VESSEL none. Valves of the Calyx large, 
heart-fhaped, rough, including the feed, fig. 
7, 8. 

SEED fingle, orbicular, and flattened, fig. 9. 

BOTANISTS have happily divided the plants of this tribe into two Genera, each ftrikingly diltinguiihable by 
the particular form of its leed-verTells : without this divifion, great indeed would be the difficulty of inveftigating 

The Chenopodium has hermaphrodite flowers only, which produce a feed contained within the calyx, compofed 
of five leaves, which as the feed ripens, does not inlarge itfelf . 

The Atriplex produces female blouoms, and male or hermaphrodite ones ; the feed is contained within the calyx 
of the female blofTom, which is compofed of two leaves or valves, which increafe as the feed becomes ripe ; and in 
this ftate only, is it obvioully diftinguifhable from the Chenopodium ; for at the time of its flowering, fo fmall are 
the female bloflbms, as fcarce to be diftinguiihed without a magnifying glafs. 

The plant here figured, is one of the moil common of this genus, and one of the moft: variable in nature. Firfr, 
it varies exceedingly according to its age, the perfon who had been accuitomed to gather it in its young ftate, would 
fcarce recognize it when far advanced : fecondly, it varies according to its fituation ; on dunghills it grows very 
ftrong and luxuriant ; by the road fides, it is a much weaker plant, and its branches long and procumbent ; in wet 
places, it is apt to become much more upright, the leaves fometimes are very mealy on the under fide, particular- 
ly when it grows on the fea fhore ; at other times they are altogether fmooth : in general, the broad triangular 
leaf readily diftinguifhes this fpecies : but on dunghills, a variety fometimes occurs with leaves not exactly corres- 
ponding to this figure, but approaching more to an oval, with an intire edge. 

In its young ftate, this plant is frequently gathered under the name of Fat-hen, Lambs-quarters, &c. and eaten 
in lieu of Spinach and other greens. 

Birds, particularly that mifchievous one the fparrow, are very fond of the feeds of the Orach's, I have frequent- 
ly had a plant of this Genus, itript of its feeds by them in a very fhort time. 

Cattle do not feem to be fond of it. 

In the garden and cultivated ground, it is a very troublefome annual. 
The farmer, as we have before hinted,, would do well to weed his < 
which are equally noxious. 

dung-heap of this and the other fpecies, 


OSMUNDA Litmai Gen. PL Cryptogamia Filices. 

Spica ramofa : Fructific. globofis. 
Rail Syn. Gen. 4. Herb^ capillares et affines. 

OSMUNDA Spicant frondibus lanceolatis pinnatifidis : laciniis confluentibus mtegerrimis parallelis. 
Linntei Syji. Vegetab. p. 780. Sp. Plant. 1522. FL Suecic. n. 936. 

STRUTHIOPTERIS, Haller. hifi. n. 1687. 

STRUTHIOPTERIS Spicant. Scopoli Flor. Carniol. n. 1258. 

STRUTHIOPTERIS frondibus fterilibus pinnatifidis, pinnulis denfis, oblongis falcatis ; fru&ificantibus 

majoribus, laxius pinnatis, anguftioribus. Weis. Cryptog. p. 287. 
SPICANT Tragi et Germanorum. 
LONCHITIS afpera minor. Bauhin Pin. 359. Parkinfon 1042. 

LONCHITIS afpera. Gerard emac. 1140. Rail Syn. p. 118, Rough Spleenwort. 
Oeder FL Dan* ic. 99. 
Hud/on FL Angl. 382. ed. 2. ^.450. 
Lightfoot FL Scot. p. 634. 

FRONDES fteriles plures ex una radice fibrofa, in or- % LEAVES: feveral barren leaves proceed from one fi- 

bem difpofit^, femierectae, aut reclinata;, fpi- | brons root, orbicularly difpofed, either half 

thameae, immo pedis longitudinem aequantes, % upright or reclining, from three inches to a 

Polypodio vulgari fimiles, fimplices nempe et | foot in length, fomewhat like the common 

pinnatifidae, pinnis denfis, alternis, lanceolatis, | Polypody, viz. fimple and pinnatifid ; the pin- 

oblongis, 2 lineas circiter latis, integerrimis, % nas let clofely together, alternate, lanceolate, 

furfum curvis, mediis maximis, (uncialibus, I oblong, about two lines broad, perfectly en- 

fefquiuncialibus,) fupernis et infernis brevio- % tire, bent upwards ; the middle ones largeft, 

ribus, nervofis, margine cartilagineo, fubcre- | (even an inch or an inch and a half in length;) 

nato, retrorfum flexo. | the upper and lower ones fhorter, ribbed, the 

% edge cartilaginous, very flightly notched, and 

I bent backward. 


STIPES five nervus medius inferne fufcis fquamulis | STALK or midrib, befet on its lower part with fmall 

obfitus. I brown fcales. 

E medio centra barum frondium furgunt frondes fruclri- % From the center of thefe leaves arife other leaves bear- 

ficantes alias, etiam pinnatas, at duplo illis | ing the fructifications, which alfo are pinna- 

longiores, graciliores, atro purpureas, pinnis % ted, but twice as long, and more (lender, of 

laxis alternis, lineam latis, mediis quoque | a dark purple colour ; the pinnae loofely fet, 

longioribus, fuperioribus et inferioribus fen- ^ and alternate, a line in breadth, longeft alfo 

fim decrefcentibus, capfulis refertis. % in the middle, the upper and lower ones gra- 

I dually decreafing, filled with capfules. 


CAPSULiE denfe coagmentatae, duas lineas diftinctas, | CAPSULES clofely crouded together, forming two 

marginibus parallelas efFormant, et ab initio | diftincl: lines parallel with the edges of the 

coloris furit lutefcentis, fenfim per maturita- f leaf, at the beginning of a yellowiih colour, 

tern fufci. I becoming brown as they ripen. 


Fig. 1, Foliolum feu pinna cum capfulis au&. I Fig. 1, one of the fmall leaves or pinnae, with the 

y capfules magnified. 

Fig. 2, Capfula difrupta, cum annulo. % Fig. 2, a capfule burft open, with its ring. 

BOTANISTS appear much divided as to the genus of this plant ; fome confidering it as an Ofmunda, among 
whom isLinn;eus ; while others of great eminence contend for its being a Struthiopteris ; of the latter opinion 
are Haller, Scopoli, and Weis. 

The divifion of the Ferns into diftant Genera, is perhaps as difficult a tafk as any in Botany. From the mecha- 
nifm of the frudifications little is to be expected, as a great fimilarity feems to pervade the whole. The various 
modes in which the capfules are placed on the plant, in fome of them are ftrikingly different, and appear to form 
very diftind and fatisfadory charaders ; but when as a tribe, they come to be more minutely inveftigated, the 
characters of one are frequently loft in thofe of another, and a precife generic charader is in vain fought for. 

In the prefent doubtful cafe we have adopted the name of Linn^us. 

The defcription of this plant given by Weis, in his Plant. Cryptog. is fo very accurate, that defpairing of abet- 
ter, we have in the prefent cafe adopted it ; not however meaning to eftablifh it as a precedent : .from onginahty 
we'mall never fwerve in our figures, nor in our defcriptions, but as feldomas poffible; taking care that whenever 
we do, it fhall not be to the prejudice, but rather advantage of the work. 

The Ofmunda Spicant grows plentifully in the environs of Caen Wood, near Hamppad-Heath, the feat of 
Lord Mansfield ; and produces its -fructifications in July, Auguft, and September. 



UJinu/siaa ^itca/it' 








//■-, /2- 

; ^ 

V7 fj" 




%- 1 

*J< o-uu/t/w. cAiu?i vf-av-rfriu ? i du mfi 

,A,^n JU 


POLYTRICHUM Linnai. Cryptogamia Muscr. 

Calyptra duplex, interior membranacea, laevis, exterior floccida. 

Rail Syn. Gen. 3. Musci. 

POLYTRICHUM fubrotundum caule fimplici anthera fubrotunda. Hudfon FL Angl. p. 400. 

MNIUM Polytrichoides calyptra villofa. Lin. Syji. Vegetab.f. 796. Sp. PL p. 1576. FL Suecic. p. 385. 

MN1UM calyptra villofa, acaulon, foliis ferratis, capfulis cylindricis ere&is. Halkr. hifi. n. 1837. 

POLYTRICHUM Aloefolium. Scopoli FL CarnioL p. 309. n. 1290. 

POLYTRICHUM nanum, capfulis fubrotundis galeritis, aloes folio non ferrato. The dwarf round- 
headed Aloe-leaved Polytrichum, Dillen. Mufc. 428./. $$.f. 6. 

POLYTRICHUM nanum capfula cylindrica erecta; furculis fimplicibus, breviffimis, foliis ferrulatis. 
Weis Plant. Cryptogam, p. 173. 

MUSCUS capillaceus minor, calyptra tomentofa. Vaill. paris. 131. t. 26. f. 15. 

ADIANTUM aureum medium, in ericetis proveniens. Vaill. paris. 429. /. 5$. f. 7. 

MUSCUS coronatus rigidus minor et humilior capitulis villofis brevioribus. Moris, hift. 3.^. 630. /. y.f. 7. 

POLYTRICHUM minus capfulis fubrotundis, calyptra quafi lacera coronatis. C. G. 221. Raii Syn. 
p. 91. 

RADIX tomentofa. | ROOT woolly. 

CAULIS breviffimus, vix ullus. | STALK very fhort, fcarce any. 

FOLIA brevia, rigida, intus concava, extus convexa, % LEAVES fhort, rigid, hollow within, round with- 

acuta, margine minutimme ferrata, bafi lato | out, fharply pointed, the edge very finely 

membranaceo caulem ample&ente, ficcata in- $ ferrated, embracing the ftalk by a broad mem- 

curvata teretiufcula, fig. 1. branous bafe ; when dried bending inwards, 

I and of a roundifh form, fig. 1 . 

PEDUNCULIfimplices,unciales,rubicundi,fubdiapha- % FOOT-STALKS fimple, an inch high, reddifh, fome* 

ni, flexuofi, fig. 3, demum tortuofi, fig. 21. | what tranfparent, crooked, fig. 3, finally 

I twifted, fig. 2 1 . 

CAPSULE fubrotunda, fig. 4. | CAPSULES roundiih, fig. 4. 

Fig. . 2, Folia per lentem vifa. | Fig. 2, The leaves viewed through a magnifier. 

5, Calyptra exterior magn. nat. $ 5, The exterior Calyptra of its natural fize. 

6, Eadem magn. aud. | 6, The fame magnified. 

7, Eadem inverfa ut Calyptra interior f 7, The fame inverted, that the inner 

appareat. t Calyptra may appear. 

9, 9, Calyptra interior in fitu naturali. | 9, 9, The inner Calyptra in its nat. fituation. 

10, 10, Eadem auda. ¥ 10, 10, The fame enlarged. 

li, Calyptra interior feparata ab exteriore | 11, The inner Calyptra feparated from the 

et feorfim exhibita. $ outer one, and ihewn by itfelf. 

12, Eadem in fitu naturali cum exteriore ? 12, The fame in its natural fituation, con- 



neded with the outer one. 

13, Capfula magn. nat. nuda. ¥ 13, The Capfule of its nat. fize uncovered. 

14, Eadem aud. | 14» Tne fame enlarged. 

15, Eademadmaturitatemmagisaccedens. | 15, The fame approaching more to maturity 

16, Operculum. * 16, The Cover. 
17, 17, Ciliae. I 17* *7> The Ciliae. 

18, 18, 18, Membrana mucronata in fummo cap- * 18, 18, 18, A pointed Membrane at the fummit 

fuhe cui adneduntur ciliae. | of the Capfule, to which the Cilia; 

* are connected. 

19, 19, Cilige in fedione longitudinali Capfula | 19, 19, The Ciliae mewn in a longitudinal fec- 

exhibitae. I tion of the Capfule.^ 

20, Receptaculum feminis. ¥ 20, The Receptacle to which the feeds 

t are connected. 

ABOUT two years ago, (1776) on examining the ftrudure of the Polytrichum commune, in a very young ftate, 
I found one of the heads, (Anthera Linn.) after I had diverted it of its woolly Calyptra, covered with a membra- 
nous mining fubftance, and which 1 had no fooner feen, than I judged it to be a Calyptra, being fo very fimilar 
to the Calyptra's of fome MofTes I had juft before been examining; and on a more minute^ inveftigation, I 
found it to be a real Calyptra, not accidental to the plant then under examination, but occurring In_ all thofe 
which I, at that time, had an opportunity of diffeaing ; and afterwards found to be in the dwarf variety of the 
fame fpecies, growing on heaths, and in the prefent plant. 

Thofe who mail take the pains of investigating the ftrucl:ure of thefe MofTes, will think it ftrange that a part 
fo very obvious to the naked eye, mould not have been noticed before; but this is eaflly accounted for. 

No one, when he fits down to examine thefe MofTes, conceives a priori, that they have any more than one Ca- 
lyptra ; finding that which is peculiar to this Genus, he refts fatisfied, pulls it off, and proceeds to the examination 
of the remaining parts, not imagining that a membranous Calyptra is clofely conneded by its apex to the woolly 
one, pulled off with, and covered by it, and fcarce difcovered but by totally inverting it : but that this is a&ually 
the cafe, any one may fatisfy themfelves in the courfe of this and the fucceeding months, February and March. ^ 

This inner Calyptra differs very little from the Calyptra of other MofTes ; at firft it wholly furrounds the unripe 
Capfules, as they increafe in fize it fplits at bottom, and finally becomes very fhort. 

I was the more pleafed with this difcovery, as I conceived hopes it would place the genus Polytrichum in a more 
pleafing and fatisfadory point of view ; and I have accordingly ventured to alter its generic character as above : by 
this alteration it is brought from the Mniums, among which it is placed by Linnjeus and Haller, and arranged 
with the Polytrichums of Dillenius, Hudson, Scopoli, and Weis, to which its habit alone certainly entitles it, 
was it not found to accord with the Polytrichum in the efTential character now difcovered. 

Why nature mould have been thus careful in covering this genus of plants with a warm additional coat, while many 
of the other MofTes, at the fame time of the year, are thinly clad with a fingle membranous veil, does not appear. 
In the ftrudureofthe two Calyptra's, there is amoft eflential difference ; the outer one being a woolly fubftance clofely 
matted together, without any conneding membranous fubftance ; the inner one confifting wholly of membrane. 

The plant here figured, is the Polytrichum capfulis fubrotundis of Dillenius, and of which that, with the capitulis 
cblongis, feems to be only a variety growing in warmer and lefs expofed fituation s. 

It is by no means an uncommon Mofs on our heaths, and expofed hilly and fandy places about town. It 
throws out its ftalks in November and December^ and ripens its Capfules in January and February. 





1 1 r 



\-6-yl ' i-*/ 


'M/m///?i ^fertcewt/i/? 


HYPNUM Linna'l Gen. PL Chyptogamia Musci. 

Anther a operculata. Calyptra levis. Vilamentum laterale ortum e perichgetio» 
Raii Syn. Gen. 3. Musci. 

HYPNUM fericeum furculo repente, ramis confertis eredis, foliis fubulatis, antherls eredis. Lin. Syfi, 
Vegetal* p. 801. Sp. PL p* 1595. PL Suecic. n. 1036. 

HYPNUM fericeum. Scopoli. PL CarnioL p. 340, 

HYPNUM ramis teretibus ; foliis pilo praepilatis ; capfulis cylindricis, eredis, ariftatis. Haller. hifii n. 1 750. 

HYPNUM vulgare fericeum recurvum, capfulis eredis cufpidatis. Dillen, Mufc. 323. A 42. fi $y. 

MUSCUS terreftris luteo-viridans fericeus repens. Moris* hijl. 3.^. 626. f. 15. /. 5. fig* 25, 

MUSCUS arboreus fplendens fericeus, Valll. Paris. 132* t. 27. fig* 3. 

HYPNUM repens trichoides terreftre luteo virens vulgare majus, capitulis eredis* Rail Syn. p. 84, 
Hudfon. FL Angl. ed. 1. ■p. 428. 
JuightfooU FL Scot, v, 2. p. 762. 

CAULES live viticuli longi, repentes, fibrillis copiofis, ¥ STALKS, or moots, long, creeping, adhering by nu- 

tomentofis adhaerentes, valde ramofi, in den- I merous fmall, woolly fibres, very much 

fos csefpites congefti, ramis creberrimis, fur- $ branched, and forming clofe tufts ; branches 

redis, brevibus, fubteretibus, inficcitate in- | numerous, upright, ihort, and roundifh ; 

curvis, fig. 1, tadu rigidis, in humiditate y when dry, bending down at top, and fome.- 

redis moliibus. , | what ftiff, fig. 1 ;°wheii moift, upright and 

I foft. 


FOLIA ovato-lanceolata, fig. 2, in pilum longum | LEAVES oval and pointed, fig. 2, terminating in a 

terminata, denfiffime imbricata ; in liccitate f longhair, lying clofelv one over the other, 

appreffa, capillaria ; humida latiora, patula, | when dry prefled together, and very fine ; 

ex obfcuro viridia, cum fericeo fplendore ad | when moift broader, and more fpreading, of 

luteum vergente, f a dullifh green, inclining to yellow, with a 

I mining filky appearance. 


PEDUNCULI femunciales, unciales, purpurea, pe- f FOOT-STALKS an inch and a half or an inch long, 

richastio fquamofo cindas, fig. 3, confertas, | purple, at bottom covered with a fcaly peri- 

circa medium furculi ortas. ¥ chastium, fig. 3, arifing from about the mid- 

| die of the moots. 

CAPSULE oblongee, teretes, eredas, inferne paulu- | CAPSULES oblong, round, upright, fomewhat en- 

lum incraffatae, ex livido fufcag, fig. 6, 7, | larged at bottom, of a livid brown colour,-' 

per medium difcifla, fig. 10. % fig. 6, 7 ; cut down the middle at figi 10. 


CALYPTRA pallida. f CALYPTRA pale brown, 


OPERCULUM breve, roftratum, miniatum, fig. 8. | OPERCULUM Ihort, ending in a beak of a bright 

% red colour, fig, 8. 

CILIiE albidae, eredas, una tantum ferieSj fig. 9. 1 CILLE or hairs whitifh, upright, and one row only, 

¥ M 9- 

THE Hypnum fericeum is one of our moil common, as well as one of our earlieft MoJJes, producing its 
Capfules from September to February. 

It generally puts forth its frudifications in the greater!: plenty, on the tops of old walls. It creeps alfo 
on the ground, as well as on the trunks of trees. 

None of our MoJJes afford a more beautiful carpet ; it frequently exhibits all the richnefs and foftnefs of 
filk, particularly when dry. But thofe patches of it, which put on this yellow and mining appearance, by 
which it is fo readily diftinguimed, do not always produce frudifications in the greater!: abundance. 

It may be diftinguimed from the Hypnum rutabuium, which often occurs with it, by having longer and more 
upright Capfules. 

Dillenius has defcribed this Mofs with his ufual accuracy, which is modernized, and fomewhat im- 
proved by Weis, from whom our defcription is almoft literally taken. 




2 3 

8 S // Jo & lK&> 5 

'riMt//n/ /vindu/u//i 


\3 %4 

\ i < 

$ ,J> JO 

J J . J 2 /3 

Omajjj /j'ju/aj/ji/jjJJi 


BRYUM Llnnal Gen. PL Cryptogamia Musci. 

RaiiSyn. Gen. 3. Musci. 
BRYUM truncatulum antherls eredtis fubrotundis, operculo mucronato. Lin, Syjl. Vegetab. p. 798. 

Sp. PL 1584. PL Sueclc. 391. Dillen. Miifc. 347. /. 45. fig. 7. Rail Syn. 94. Hudfon Fl. 

Angl. 408. ed. 2. p. 477. Llghtfoot. PL Scot. p. 730, 

CAULES fimplices, breviffimi, lineas tres raro fupe- t STALKS fimple, very fhort, feldom exceeding three 
rantes, casfpitofi, fig. 1,6. | lines, growing in tufts, fig. 1, 6. 

FOLIA ovato-lanceolata, mucronata, fig. i^, fplen- t LEAVES oval, lanceolate, terminating in a point, 

dentia, carinata, fuperiora majora, in ftellu- I fig. 13, mining, with a projecting midrib; 

lam expanfa. f thofe on the top of the ftalk largeir, with a 

I ftar-like expanfion. 

PEDUNCULI fimplices, fubinde bini, trium quatu- t PEDUNCLES fimple, fometimes growing two toge- 
orve linearum, purpurafcentes. | ther, three or four lines in length, of a pur- 

¥ plifh colour. 

CALYPTRA pallida, obliqua, acuminata, fig. 7, 8, ^ CALYPTRA pale, oblique, and terminating in a 
9, io. I long point, fig. 7, 8, 9, 10. 

OPERCULUM primo roftratum, obliquum, delapfa I OPERCULUM, at firft having a beak, placed oblique- 

calyptracontrahitureredtumqueevadit,^. 11, | ly on the capfule, on the falling off of the 

12. I calyptra becoming fhorter and upright, fig. 11, 

¥ 12. 

CAPSULA primo ovata, fig. 8, 9, flavefbens, demum y CAPSULE, at firft oval, fig. 8, 9, of a yellowifh co- 

rufa, truncata, annulo ciliifque deftituta, | lour, finally of a reddifh brown, as it were 

fig. 11, 12. I cut off at top, and deftitute of both ring and 

I clli2e,fig. 11, 12. 

Plantula microfcop. audi:, fig. 14. | The whole plant magnified,^. 14. 

THE Bryum truncatulum is one of the leaf! of our Mofies, and diftinguifhable at firft fight by the great number 
of its little brown heads, which, when the operculum falls off, have their margin entire, fo that they appear as 
if cut acrofs, whence its name of truncatulum. 

It is very common almoft every whereon banks, producing its fructifications from September to February. 

It varies much in fize. 

Hasselquist, in his journey to Pale/line, finding the Walls of Jerufalem covered with this little plant, calls it 
Hyffopus Solomonls, from a fuppoiition that it was the plant which Solomon meant, when he fpake of trees from the 
Cedar in Lebanon to the Hyflbp which fpringeth out of the wall. 


BRYUM viridulum antheris eredtis ovatis, foliis lanceolatis acuminatis imbricato-patulis. Limtcei Syjl. 
Fegetab. p. 798. Sp. PL 1584. PL Sueclc. 1002. Dillen. Mufic. 380. /. 48. j%. 43. 2?<w7. 
/Sy«. 97. Hudfon. PL Angl. 408. ^. 2. 487. Llghtfoot. FL Scot. 731. 

Expl. Fig. t Explan. of Fig. 

Pig. 1, 2, 3, 4, Plantae nat. magnitud. ¥ Pig. 1, 2, 3, 4, Plants of their natural fize. 


F%. 5, 7, Plantae audt. $ i%. 5, 7, Plants magnified. 

Fig, m . 6, Folium audi:. | Fig. — - — 6, a Leaf magified. 

jRg*. 9, 10, 11, Capfulae cum Calyptra. | i 7 ^. 9, 10, 11, Capfules with the Calyptra. 

Fig. 8, Calyptra feorfim exhibits, ¥ Pig. 8, The Calyptra exhibited feparately. 

THIS fpecies differs from the above in many particulars. It grows in clofe foft tufts, which are in general 
larger, and of a more yellow hue ; the ft alks are frequently branched ; the leaves are much finer, being nearly 
capillary; the mouth of the capfule, when the operculum falls off, is narrower than the middle, hence it bears a 
greater refemblance to an egg, with the extremity cut off; while the truncatulum approaches more to the form of 
an urn. In the viridulum, the mouth is alfo very finely ciliated. 

The viridulum grows in great abundance on the banks furrounding Charlton Wood; and produces its fructi- 
fications with the truncatulum. 


N 101 







AGARICUS Linnai Gen. PL Cryp tog ami a Fungi. 

RaiiSyn.Gen. i. Fungi. 
AGARICUS ovatus pileo ovato fubplicato, ftipite nudo ad bafin attenuato fcabriufculo ; lamellis creber- 

rimis fubcoalefcentibus. 
AMANITA pileo ovato ftriato, cinereo, annulato, fugaci. Holler hjjl. helv. ?i. 2479. 
AGARICUS ovatus. Scopoli Fl. CarnioL n. 1579- Diagn. Albus, cefpitofus; vertice rufefcente ; Jlipite cy~ 

lindrko et -annulo fugaci cinfto. 
AGARICUS ; volva exceptus, pileo campanulato, ftriato, vertice laevi, petiolo annulato, cylindraceo, 

fiftulofo, in balm roftratum definente. Gleditch, Method. Fungor. p. 89. 
FUNGUS, qui volvam vix egreuus in atramentum refolvitur, pileolo campanulato, plumbeo, vertice 
laevi, reliqua parte ftriato, pediculo cylindrico, albo, fiftulofo, radice roftrata. Michel. N- 
PL G. 189. /. 80./. 5. 
FUNGUS multiplex ovatus cinereus. VailL p. 73. /. 12. jig. 10, 11. 
FUNGUS fuperficiei murini coloris, lamellis albicantibus. Raii Syn. p. 5. 21. 
AGARICUS plicatus, ftipitatus, pileo ovato ftriato plicato cinereo, vertice laevi, ftipite annulato fiftulofo, 

baft fubulato. Pucker'd Agaric, Lightfoot Flora Scotica. p. 1023. Schafifer. icon. tab. 17, 

67, 68. 
1, - 

STIPES: Stipites plures e terra aut ligno femiputrido t STALKS, generally fpringing from the earth, or de- 
aggregatim afmrgentes, inferne extra pileum | cayed wood, in clufters ; the lower part, 
fcabriufculi't ad bafin attenuati,fufci, fupernein- f without the cap, roughifh, of a brown co- 
ntra piieum albiffimi, fubfulcati, ad apicem | lour, and tapering to the bafe ; the upper part, 
fenfim attenuati, in adultis ftipes femipedalis, y within the cap, very white, (lightly grooved, 
fubcylindricus, laevis, craftitie minimi digiti ¥ and tapering gradually to the top ; when full 
aut major evadit, modice firmus et carnofus, I grown, it becomes fix inches high, nearly cy- 
fiftulofus, nudus ; tranfverfim fectus circulos ¥ lindrical, fmooth, and the thicknefs of the 
in carne exhibens. | little finger, or larger, moderately firm and 

% flefhy, hollow and naked, and cut through 

¥ the middle fhews circles in the flefhy part. 

VOLVA nulla. . | RING wanting. 

PILEUS primum ovatus aut obtufe conicus, circa orem f CAP Jirjl oval or obtufely conical, the mouth contraet- 

contraclus, et fubplicatus, folidus, pondero- | ed, and puckered around the ftalk, folid, 

fus, pallide fufcus ; in adultis fubcampanula- ^ heavy, and of a light brown colour ; in the 

tus latitudine ad tres uncias accedens, muri- % full grown ones, fomewhat bell-fhaped, about 

nus, maculis umbrinis aut ferrngineis praeci- I three inches in breadth, of a moufe colour, 

pue ad verticem notatus, vertex faturatius co- % marked with umber coloured or ferruginous 

lora'ta, Levis, fubinde vero fubfquamofa ; late- | fpots, particularly at the top ; the top of a 

ra plus minufve fulcata, demum fere planus, y deeper colour, fmooth, but fometimes {lightly 

margine revoluto. t chopped ; the fides more or lefs deeply grooved, 

I becoming finally almoft flat, the edge curling 

% up. 

LAMELLAE creberrimx, compaUce, latae, filamentis | GILLS very numerous, compact, and broad, connected 

tranfverfis nudo oculo inconfpicuis connexa, unde, ^ together by tranfverfe filaments, inconfpicuous to 

ita coalefcunt (prefertim in junioribus) ut la- % the naked eye, whence they fo coalefce, that 

mellam integram vix feparare queas, primum | it is difficult to feparate a fingle gill entirely ; 

alba;, mox pars inferior dimidia nigrefcit, et % at firft white, quickly the lower half becomes 

tandem totae lamellae in liquamen atramento- | of a blackifh colour, and laftly the whole of 

fum refolvuntur ; fuperficies interna pilei in | the gills diflblves into a black inky liquid : the 

junioribus farina fubtiliffima cana adfperfa. internal furface of the cap, in the young ones, 

T is fprinkled over with a very fine grey powder. 

IT appears to be a matter of much doubt, whether this Fungus, common as it appears to be in moft parts of 
Europe, be defcribed by Linnaeus. Certainly there are none of his Agarici, which accord exactly with ours : 
neither do Haller, or Scopoli, quote Linn jeus in their defcriptions of it. Sch^effer, who appears to be too 
fond of multiplying plates, has given it in no lefs than three. It is true, by this means, the plant is reprefented in 
its various ftates ; but, perhaps, thefe might have been fatisfa&orily exhibited in a fingle one. — If plants are thus to 
be delineated in all their varieties, natural hiftory muft fink under its own weight. 

I fufpeet this fpecies to be the Fungus fuper fide murini coloris lamellis albicantibus of Ray, p. 5. n. 21. but cannot 
fix it with certainty. Scopoli has given it the name of ovatus, which I have retained, with Mr. Lightfoot's 
En&lifh name, who has very accurately defcribed it. I agree with him entirely in confidering it as a fpecies diftintt 
from the fime tar ius, and with which, in my opinion, it has but little real affinity. The defcription and figure here 
ffiven, when contrafted, will make it unnneceflary to particularize the peculiarties which diftinguifh each. But 
there is a Angularity of ftru&ure, occuring in the ovatus, which feems worthy of remark. The Gills are connected 
together by numerous tranfverfe bars or filaments, difcoverable only when greatly magnified : the ufe of thefe ap- 
pears to be to keep the Gills at an equal diftance from each other, and thereby prevent the fructifications which are 
fituated on the flat furface of the lamella?, from being prefted on, and deftroyed, by their very great clofenefs. I 
have not hitherto obferved this peculiarity of ftructure in any other Fungus: in the fimetarius it certainly does not 
exift. .Thefe connecting filaments in the ovatus, make it exceeding difficult to feparate one of the lamellae entire. 

Thefe Fungi are very common with us in the borders of wet meadows, near the roots of willow trees, in gardens , 
alfo, near houfes, and by the fides of roads. They are found in the greateft plenty, from the beginning of Sep- 
tember to the end of October. I have alfo found the fame fpecies in July. From the time of their fpringing up, 
to the time of their beginning to decay, is about five days. Their manner of decaying is fimilar to that of the 
fitnetarius, and feveral others ; the gills diftblving into a very black liquor, like ink, which dropping, carries with 
~it the feed of the Mufhroom, which is obfervable in the liquor if greatly magnified. 

It varies in fize, and alfo in colour, chiefly from a lighter to a paler brown. 

The Gills are often found full of little maggots. 

There isnoreafon to fufpect its being poifonous, nor yet can it be recommended as eatable. 


Agaricus fimetarius Egg Mushroom. 

AGARICUS Linnai Gen. PL Cryptogamia Fungi. 

Fungus horizontalis fubtus lamellofus» 

Raii Syn. Gen. i. Fungi. 
AGARICUS fimetarius ftipitatus, pileo campanulato lacero, lamellis nigris lateraliter flexuofis, ftipite 


Lin. Syjl. Yegetab. p. 820. Spec. Pi. p> 1643. &' ^ ec ' iC - n > l%1 %* 

AMANITA albus, campanulatus, fquamofus, nigrefcens. Haller. hifi. heh. p. 157. n. * 2357, 

AGARICUS fimetarius. Scopoli PI. Carniol n. 1484. 

AGARICUS pileo campanulato, contracto, ftriato et villofo, lamellis tenuimmis ; petiolo cylindraceo, 
annulo fugaci, diftin&o, vel nullo. GleditCh. Fung. p. 122. 

FUNGUS albus ovum referens. Buxbaum. Cent. 4. /. 27. fig. 1. Rail Syn. p. 5. ft, 22. Hudfon. Fl, 
AngL p. 493. Lightfoot. PL Scot. p. 102 1. Schaffir tab. 7, 8. 46. 47. 100. 

Gregatim plerumque nafcuntur hi Fungi, fubinde vero | 

folitarii inveniuntur. | 

STIPES primum pileo penitus obtegitur, mox femipe- % 

dalis, evadit, cylindricus, fiftulofus, albiffimus, | 

medulla filiformi, intra tubum libera. y 

VOLVx^ nulla, fed margo inftar volvas ex margine pi- 
lei lacero ftipitem cingente infra laminas. 

PILEUS albus, in junioribus oblongus digitalis, mox 
fubcampanulatus, demum fere planus ; Caro 
tenuis, Cutis in fquamas fufcas laciniatas furfum 
revolutas feparans, qua ccelo intempeftivo pluviis 
faepe abluuntur, pileo decorticato albo relicto. 

LAMELLA numerofae, lineas tres late, primum albif- 
fimze, farina quaft adfperfae, in adultis laxae, 
flexuofe cum ruboris tinftura, demum nigri- 
cantes, in liquorem atramentofum difHuentes. 

Thefe Mufhrooms ' moft commonly rife out of the 
ground in clutters, fometimes they growfingly. 

STALK at firft is wholly covered by the Pileus or Cap, 
but foon grows to the height of fix inches, is 
cylindrical, hollow and very white, the pith 
within the tube isjhaped like a thread and loofe. 
I RING proper, none, but a flight edging like a ring from 
the torn edge of the cap furrounds the ftalk 
below the gills. 

CAP white, in the young ones oblong, the length of 
the finger, prefently becoming fomewhat bell- 
fhaped, finally almoft flat; the Flesh thin; 
the Skin feparating into brown flakes which curl 
upwards, and which in fhowery weather are 
often warned off by the rains, leaving the Cap 
naked and white, 

GILLS numerous, three lines broad, at firft exceeding 
white and covered as it were with powder, 
when full grown they are loofely connected 
and waved, with a tinge of red, finally they 
become black and diffolve into an inky liquor. 

The Fungi, generally known in Englifh by the names of Mufhrooms and Toad-flools, are a tribe of plants, which, 
while they have afforded abundant matter of curious inquiry to the philofophic naturalift, have hitherto eluded the 
moft unwearied attempts of the Botanift to reduce them to their feveral fpecies and varieties. 

Although, in point of Utility to mankind, they may not compare with many other families of plants, yet are 
they by no means without their importance in the general ceconomy of nature. Whatever is not immediately ap- 
plicable to our own wants, we are apt to think too lightly of; forgetting, that the infinitely more numerous Inha- 
bitants of this terraqueous Globe, are equally the objects of the care of an all bountiful Creator. 

A great variety of Infects feed on the different fpecies of Fungi, particularly the larva or maggots, of many of the 
Fly kind, Mufca Linn. 

In fome Countries, Mufhrooms are made much more an object of food than with us; this prompts the inhabitants 
often to eat fuch as are in their natures poifonous, whence direful effects have too often proceeded. With us 
they are ufed more as an article of luxury, and the markets being chiefly fupplied by the cultivators of them, who 
propagate one particular fpecies, thefe fatal accidents fcarce ever happen here. 

To prevent, however, any accidents of this kind, perhaps the beft advice would be to caution perfons in general, 
to meddle with no other fort than the common field Mufhroom, which is generally cultivated ; and rather to pro- 
cure fuch of thofe who cultivate them, than of thofe who may occafion ally offer them to fale : and to render a know- 
ledge of this fpecies more obvious, we propofe, in a future number, to give a figure of it in all its ftates, and mail 
endeavour to diftinguifh it from the others in the plaineft manner. 

_ From the obfervations already made on this Genus, we are led to think, that the feveral fpecies of them are more 
dift ind, and lefs liable to thofe amazing alterations, which Botanifts inform us of, and which indeed, are fufficient 
to intimidate the Student, and deter him, from entering on a field, where he is to expect nothing but confufion, and 
be loft in the perplexing mazes of endlefs varieties. There is one pleafing circumftance attends the Fungi: they 
make their principal appearance in Autumn, at a time of the year, when the Botanift is moft at leifure to obferve 
them^ and when fcarce any other plants engage his attention. Next fucceed the wintry Mofles : and thus the 
Botanifts perpetual fummer is rendered compleat. 

The fpecies here figured is not eaten with us ; yet there appears no reafon to fufpect its being in any degree 

It occurs very frequently, towards the end of September, by the fides of Roads, growing out of the ground, 
probaly where there has been fome dung intermixed. 

It isdiftinguifhed from the other Fungi by its oblong oval fhape ; and in a more particular manner, by the ragged- 

nefs of 


like many others of the fame kind. 

of its outer coat, which curls up in flakes-, but it is apt to be wafhed off in heavy rains. The gills are large, nu- 
merous, and waved, _ at firft of a reddifh purple colour, and often white, finally difolving into a black liquid,