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Full text of "Freemasonry exposed by Freemasons"

ILLUSTRATIONS 



OF 



MASONRY 



BY 



ONE OF THE FRATERNITY 
Who has devoted Thirty Years to the Subject. 



God said, Let there be Light, 
and there was Light" 



-i 



Copyright Secured, 



ik 



Printed for the Proprietor, 

1827. 



CAPT. WM. MORGAN'S 



EXPOSITION OF 



FREEMASONRY, 

Republished with the addition of engravings, showing the 
Lodge-room, Signs, Grips and Masonic Emblems. 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



— OF — 



MASONRY 



ONE OF THE FRATERNITY 
Who has devoted Thirty Years to the Subject 

" God said, Let there be Light t 
and there was Light. ** 



Copyright Secured. 

Printed for the Proprietor, 

1827. 



CAPT. WM. MORGAN'S 



EXPOSITION OF 



FREEMASONRY, 

Republished with the addition of engravings, showing tbe Lodgc-roo» 

Signs, Grips and Masonic Emblems. 



OMNI PUBLICATIONS 

P.O. BOX 900566 
PALMDALE, CA 93590 




Northern District of New York to wit: 

Be it Remembered, That on the four* 
teenth day of August, in the fifty-first year of 
the Independence of the United States of Amer- 
ica, A. D. 1826, William Morgan, of the said 
district, hath deposited in this office the title 
of a book, the right whereof he claims as author, in the words 
following, to wit : — 

"Illustrations of Masonry, by one of the fraternity who 
has devoted thirty years to the subject 'God said, Let there 
be light, and there was light.' " 

In conformity to the act of Congress of the United States, 
entitled "An act for the encouragement of learning, by se- 
curing the copies of maps, charts and books, to the authors 
and proprietors of such copies, during the time therein 
mentioned," and also to the act entitled "An act supple- 
mentary to the act entitled 'An act for the encouragement 
of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts and 
books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during 
the time therein mentioned/ and extending the benefits there- 
of to the arts of designing, engraving, and etching historka! 
and other prints." 

R. R. LANSING, 

Clerk of the Northern District of N. Y. 



INTRODUCTION. 



(written for the original edition. 
By the Publisher, Col. David C. Miller, Batavia, N. Y.) 



In the absence of the author, or rather compiler of the fol- 
lowing work, who was kidnapped and carried away from the 
village of Batavia, on the nth day of September, 1826, by a 
number of Freemasons, it devolves upon the publisher to at- 
tempt to set forth some of the leading views that governed 
those who embarked in the undertaking. 

To contend with prejudice, and to struggle against customs 
and opinions, which superstition, time, and ignorance have 
hallowed, requires time, patience, and magnanimity. When 
we begin to pull down the strongholds of error, the batter- 
ies we level against them, though strong, and powerful; and 
victorious at last, are at first received with violence; and 
when in our conquering career we meet with scoffs and re- 
vilings from the beseiged partisans of untenable positions, it 
the more forcibly impresses us we are but men; and that in 
every work of reformation and renovation we must encounter 
various difficulties. For a full confirmation of our statement 
we might refer to the history of the world. It is not our in- 
tention, however, to give a full detail of the whims and ca- 
prices of man tc bring forth the historic records of other 
years as proof of the windings and shiftings of the various 
characters who have "Strutted their brief hour on life's 
stage" in order to convince that customs, associations, and 
institutions are like the lives of the authors and abettors, 
fleeting and fragile. Many of them rise up as bubbles on 
the ocean, and die away. Circumstances give them exist- 
ence, and when these causes cease to exist, they go into the 
same gulf of oblivion as countless exploded opinions and ten- 
ets have gone before them. The mind that formed and 
planned them, goes on in its dazzling flight, bounding over 
barrier after barrier, till it has arrived at the ultimate goal of 
consummation. 

The daily occurrences before us bring forth the full con- 
viction that the emanation from the God of light is gradually 
ascending to regions of greater intellectual brilliancy. 



IV 

When we view man, in the infancy of society, as in the 
childhood of his existence, he is weak, powerless and de- 
fenceless ; but in his manhood and riper years, he has grown 
to his full stature, and stands forth in commanding attitude, 
the favored and acknowledged lord of the world. For his 
comfort and well-being as a member of society, rules and 
regulations are necessary. In the various stages of his prog- 
ress, these systematic improvements undergo various changes, 
according to circumstances and situations. What is proper 
and necessary in one grade of society, is wholly useless, and 
may be alarming in another. Opinions and usages that go 
down in tradition, and interfere not with our improvements 
m social concerns, adhere to us more closely and become en- 
twined in all our feelings. It is to this we owe our bigoted at- 
tachment to antiquity — it is this that demands from us a su- 
perstitious reverence for the opinions and practices of men of 
former times, and closes the ear against truth, and blinds the 
eyes to the glare of new lights and new accessions of knowl- 
edge through which medium only can they break in upon the 
mind. 

We have within ourselves the knowledge ; and everywhere 
around us the proofs that we are beings destined not to stand 
still. In our present state of advancement, we lock with 
pity on the small progress of our fathers in arts and sciences, 
and social institutions ; and when compared with our elevated 
rank, we have just cause of pride and of grateful feelings. 
They did well for the times in which they lived, but to the 
ultimatum of perfectability we are nearer, and in the monu- 
ments we have before us of the skill and genius of our times 
and age. we have only fulfilled these destinies for which we 
were created; and we object to every obstacle that opposes 
or attempts to oppose the will of heaven. 

In the present enlightened state to which society has ad- 
vanced, we contend that the opinions and tenets and pre- 
tended secrecies of "olden times," handed down to us, should 
be fully, fairly and freely canvassed ; that from the mist and 
darkness which have hung over them, they should come out 
before the open light of day, and be subject to the rigid 
test of candid investigation. These preliminary remarks lead 
us to the main object of our introduction. 

We come to lay before the world the claims of an insti- 



tution which has been sanctioned by ages, venerated for wis* 
dom, exalted for "light;" but, an institution whose benefits 
have always been overrated, and whose continuance is not in 
the slightest degree, necessary. We meet it with its high 
requirements, its "time honored customs," its swelling titles, 
and shall show it in its nakedness and simplicity. Strip it of 
its "borrowed trappings" arid it is a mere nothing, a toy not 
now worthy the notice of a child to sport with. We look 
back to it as, at one period, a "cement of society and bond of 
union" — we view it as, at one time, a venerable fort*— but 
now in ruins — which contained within its walls many things 
that dignified and adorned human nature. We give it due 
credit for the services it has done ; but at present when light 
has eone abroad into the utmost recesses and corners of the 
world — when information is scattered wide around us, ana 
knowledge is not closeted in cloisters and ceils but "stalks 
abroad with her beams of light, and her honors and rewards," 
we may now, when our minority has expired, act up to our 
character and look no longer to Masonry as our guide and 
conductor; it has nothing in it now valuable that is not 
known to every inquiring mind. It contains, wrapped up 
in its supposed mysteries, no useful truth, no necessary 
knowledge that has not gone forth to the world through 
other channels and by other means. If we would have a 
knowledge of sacred history — of the religion and practices 
of the Jews, and the terms and technicalities of the Mosaic 
institutions, we can have recourse to the Bible. If we wish 
further communications from heaven, we have open to our 
view the pages of the New Testament. If we would "climb 
the high ascent of human science, and trace the mighty 
progress of human genius in every gigantic effort of mind in 
logic, geometry, mathematics, chemistry, and every other 
branch of knowledge," we ridicule the idea that Masonry, in 
her retirements, contains the arts and sciences. The sturdiest 
Mason in the whole fraternity is not bold enough to uphold 
or maintain the opinion for one moment in sober reality. The 
origin of the institution is easily traced to the rude ages of 
the world — to a body of mechanics, or a corporation of oper- 
ative workmen, who formed signs and regulations, the more 
easily to carry on their work, and to protect their order. 
[The very obligations solemnly tendered to every member. 



VI 

carry the strongest internal evidence of the semi-barbarity 
that prevailed at the time of the institution of the order,] 
In the course of time, as society increased, and knowledge 
became more general, it spread, and embracing in its grasp 
other objects than at first, it enrolled in its ranks men of the 
first respectability in wealth, talents and worth. But that 
there is anything intrinsically valuable in the signs, sym- 
bols, or words of Masonry, no man of sense will contend. 
That there is not any hidden secret which operates as a talis- 
manic charm on its possessors, every man of intelligence, Ma- 
son or no Mason, must candidly acknowledge. It is worse 
than idleness for the defenders of the order, at the present day 
to entrench themselves behind their outward show — the sem- 
blance before the world — and to say they are in possession of 
superior knowledge. 

We pretend not to act under a cover. We shall "tell the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth." Mason- 
ry, it is true, has long been eulogized in song — it has formed 
the burthen of the poet's theme, and been the subject of 
the orator's best performances. Fancy has been almost ex- 
hausted in bringing out "new flowers to deck the fairy 
queen;" but when we come behind the scenes, what is the 
picture we behold? Are we to rest satisfied with the ipse 
dixit of others, or to examine the truth for ourselves? The 
touchstone is before our readers in the present publication. 

Masonry is of itself naked and worthless. It consists of 
gleanings from the Holy Scriptures, and from the arts and 
sciences, which have shone in the world. Linking itself 
with philosophy and science and religion, on this it rests all 
its claims to veneration and respect. Take away this bor- 
rowed aid, and it falls into ruins. 

Much weight is still attached to the argument, that as a tie 
uniting men — that, as a significant speech, symbolically speak- 
ing every language, and at the same time embodying in its 
constitution everything that is valuable, it should command 
respect We meet this argument with facts that cannot be con- 
troverted. We put it on a basis that will fling into the back 
ground every quibble and artifice on the subject; and, in 
the language of a polemic writer, we challenge opposition to 
our positon. 

The religion inculcated by the Son of Man does all this; 



VII 

and in no possible situation can man be placed, that the be- 
nign influence of Christianity does not completely supersede 
the use of a mere human institution. Place a brother in a 
desert, unfriended and unknown, — leave him in a wilder- 
ness where human footsteps never printed the ground, the 
Divine Benefactor is at his side, and watches over him with 
parental guidance. Let him be driven on a barbarous coast, 
in the midst of savage men, and there it is that the breath- 
ings of the divine influence spreads around him its shield, 
brings him into civilized society — in the busy walks of men, 
and are we to be told, as members of community, sojourners 
on earth, and candidates for heaven, we must be taught our 
duty at a Mason's lodge? Wherever Masonry exercises its 
influence with success, there Christianity can have, or should 
have a more powerful effect. Whenever Masonry claims 
"kindred with the skies," and exalts herself above every liv- 
ing sublunary thing, then, with an unhallowed step, it ob- 
trudes on the sacred borders of religion, and decks itself in 
borrowed garments. 

Entrenched within these strong walls — decked with all the 
glitter of high sounding professions, claiming what does 
not belong to it, — it dazzles "but to bewilder and destroy." 
In its train, in these United States, are enrolled many period- 
ical works devoted to Masonry; and under the guise of pat- 
ronizing mechanics — the arts and sciences — lend their aid 
to carry on the imposing delusion. They take up the spe- 
cious title of throwing a little illumination on this benighted 
country, from their secret depositories. Arrogating to itself 
what should deck other's brows — assuming to be the parton, 
the life and soul of all that is great and valuable — it deceives 
many of its votaries, and from its gaudy premises the most 
untenable and onerous conclusions are drawn. 

Are we astonished at the wild and heedless manner in 
which many of the votaries of Masonry rush into every ex- 
cess, putting at defiance the laws of our civil institutions, 
which suffer no one to put in jeopardy, but by due forms, 
and disregarding the command of the Most High, which 

Says, "Thou shalt not kill?" we can readily trace the cause 

to the impressions and practices obtained from its false tenets 
and descriptive arrogance. Masonry is to the modern world 
what the whore of Babylon was to the ancient; and is the 



VIII 

beast with seven heads and ten horns, ready to tear out our 
bowels, and scatter them to the four winds of heaven. 

Masonry gives rogues and evil-minded characters an op- 
portunity of visiting upon their devoted victim, all the ills at 
tending combined power, when exerted to accomplish de- 
struction. It works unseen, at all silent hours, and secret 
times and places ; and, like death when summoning his dis- 
eases, pounces upon its devoted subject, and lays him pros- 
trate in the dust. Like the great enemy of man, it has shown 
jts cloven foot, and put the public upon its guard against its 
Secret machinations. 

This part of the subject requires no further discussion 
either by way of ridicule or downright sincerity, but the re- 
mark which cannot be too often reiterated, that the world, 
in its present advanced state, requires no such order for our 
social intercourse; and when the Masonic mania prevails as 
it now does in this country, we are exalting a mere human 
ordinance, with its useless trumpery and laughable accom- 
paniments, for the sublime and unadorned lessons of Heaven. 

To some men it is galling and mortifying in the extreme 
to give up their darling systems. With the increase of 
years their fondness becomes so great that they cling to 
them with wild and bewildered attachment. But we would 
ask them, where now are the Knights of Malta and Jerusalem, 
and the objects that called forth their perils and journeyings? 
Where are the crusades and excursions on which our Grand 
Commanders, Generalissimos and Sir Knights are to be en- 
gaged In no other excursions than Cer- 
vantes describes of his redoubtable hero Don Quixote, The 
days and occasions that called forth these deeds of chivalry 
and valor have passed like those before the flood; and the 
mock dignitaries and puppet shozv actions of Masons in their 
imitation call forth pity and indignation. When we now see 
the gaudy show in a lodge-room, and a train of nominal offi- 
cers with their distinction and badges, it may give us some 
faint idea of scenes that are past, and may gratify an idle 
curiosity, but produces no substantial good under heaven. 
When monasteries and cloisters, and inquisitor's cells and 
prisons have been broken up before the sweeping march of 
the moral mind, why this unnecessary mummery should 
be so much countenanced in this country, above all other 



IX 

countries in the world, is a matter of astonishment. 

The day we trust will never arrive here, when ranks in 
Masonry will be stepping-stones to places of dignity ami 
power — when this institution will be a machine to press 
down the free born spirit of men. We have now no tyrant 
to rule over us — no kingly potentate to move over our heads 
the rod of authority; but high in our elevation, and invincible 
in our strongholds, we put at defiance secret cabals and as- 
sociations. The public opinion is like a mighty river, and 
gigantic in its course it will sweep every interposing obstacle 
before it 

In the work which we submit to the public we have given 
false coloring to nothing; nor in these remarks have we set 
down aught in malice. In the firm discharge of our un- 
dertaking we have been stern and unbending as the rugged 
mountain oak; and persecutions, pains and perils have not 
deterred us from our purpose. We have triumphed over tu- 
mult, and clamor, and evil speaking. 

When our book goes out to the world, it will meet wkh 
attacks of a violent nature from one source, and men of 
mock titles and order will endeavor to heap upon it every 
calumny. Men more tenacious of absolute forms and prac- 
tice than they are attentive to truth and honor, will deny 
our expositions, and call us liars and impostors. 

Such is the treatment, however ungenerous and unjust, 
which we expect to meet, and for which we are prepared. 
Truth, we know, is majestic and will finally prevail. The 
little petty effusions of malice that will be thrown out, will 
die with their authors, whom this work will survive. 

We now aver, in defiance of whatever may be said to the 
contrary — no matter by whom, how exalted his rank— that 
this book is what it pretends to be; that it is a master key to 
the secrets of Masonry; that in the pages before him, the 
man of candor and inquiry can judge for himself, and then a 
proper judgment will be formed of our intention. 



ILLUSTRATION 

—OF— 

MASONRY, ETC. 

Description of the Ceremonies used in opening 
Lodge of Entered Apprentice Masons; which is the 
same in all upper degrees, with the exception 
of the difference in the signs, due-guards, 
grips, pass-grips, words and their sev- 
eral names; all of which will be 
given and explained in their 
proper places as the 
work progresses. 



One rap calls the lodge to order — one calls up the Junior 
and Senior Deacons — two raps call up all the subordinate 
officers, and three, all the members of the lodge. 

The Master having called the lodge to order, and the officers 
all seated, the Master says to the Junior Warden, 'Brother 
Junior, are they all Entered Apprentice Masons in the south ?' 

Ans. 'They are, Worshipful.' 

Master to the Senior Warden, 'Brother Senior, are they all 
Entered Apprentice Masons in the west?' 

Ans. 'They are, Worshipful* 

The Master then says, 'They are, in the east,' at the same 
time he gives a rap with the common gavel or mallet, which 
calls up both Deacons. 

Master to Junior Deacon, 'Brother Junior, the first care of 
a Mason?' 

Ans. 'To see the lodge tyled, Worshipful.' 

Master to Junior Deacon, 'Attend to that part of your duty, 
and inform the Tyler that we are about to open a lodge of 
Entered Apprentice Masons, and direct him to tyle accord- 
ingly/ The Junior Deacon then steps to the door and gives 
three raps, which are answered by three raps from without; 
the Junior Deacon then gives one, which is also answered by 
the Tyler with one; the door is then partly opened and the 
Junior Deacon delivers his message, and resumes his situation 



12 

and says, The door is tyled, Worshipful.' (at the same time 

giving the due-guard, which is never omitted when the Master 

is addressed.) 

The Master to Junior Deacon, 'Brother, by whom?' 

Ans. 'By a Master Mason without the door, armed with the 

proper implement of his office/ 

Master to Junior Deacon, 'His duty there?' 

Ans. 'To keep off all cowans and eaves-droppers, see that 
none pass or repass without permission from the Master/ 

(Some say without permission from the chair.) 

Master to Junior Deacon, 'Brother Junior, your place in the 
lodge ?' 

Ans. 'At the right hand of the Senior Warden in the west.' 

Master to Junior Deacon, 'Your business there, Brother 
Junior?' 

Ans. 'To wait on the Worshipful Master and Wardens, act 
as their proxy in the active duties of the lodge, and take 
charge of the door.' 

Master to Junior Deacon, 'The Senior Deacon's place in the 
lodge?' 

Ans. 'At the right hand of the Worshipful Master in the 
east.' [The Master, while asking the last questions gives two 
raps, which call up all the subordinate officers.] 

Master to Senior Deacon, 'Your duty there, Brother Senior?' 
Ans. 'To wait on the Worshipful Master and Wardens, act 
as their proxy in the active duties of the lodge, attend to the 
preparation and introduction of candidates, and welcome and 
clothe all visiting Brethren. [«. e,, furnish them with an 
apron.] 

Master to Senior Deacon, 'The Secretary's place in the 
lodge, Brother Senior?' 

Ans. 'At the left hand of the Worshipful Master in the east.' 
Master to the Secretary, 'Your duty there, Brother Secre- 
tary?' 

Ans. The better to observe the Worshipful Master's will 
and pleasure, record the proceedings of the lodge ; transmit a 
copy of the same to the Grand Lodge, if required ; receive all 
moneys and money bills from the hands of the Brethren, pay 

them over to the Treasurer, and take his receipt for the same.* 



13 

The Master to the Secretary, 'The Treasurer's place in the 
lodge?' 

Ans. 'At the right hand of the Worshipful Master.' 

Master to Treasurer, 'Your duty there, Brother Treasurer?' 

Ans. 'Duly to observe the Worshipful Master's will and 
pleasure; receive all moneys and money bills from the hands 
of the Secretary; keep a just and true account of the same; 
pay them out by order of the Worshipful Master and consent 
of the Brethren.' 

The Master to the Treasurer, "The Junior Warden's place 
in the lodge, Brother Treasurer?' 

Ans. 'In the south, Worshipful.' 

Master to Junior Warden, 'Your business there, Brother 
Junior?' 

Ans. 'As the sun in the south at high meridian is the 
beauty and glory of the day, so stands the Junior Warden in 
the south, the better to observe the time, call the crafts from 
labor to refreshment, superintend them during the hours there- 
of, see that none convert the hours of refreshment into that 
of intemperance or excess ; and call them out again in due sea- 
son, that the Worshipful Master may have honor, and they 
profit and pleasure thereby/ 

Master to the Junior Warden, 'The Senior Warden's place 
in the lodge?' 
Ans. 'In the west, Worshipful.' 

Master to Senior Warden, 'Your duty there, Brother 
Senior?' 

Ans. 'As the sun sets in the west to close the day, so 
stands the Senior Warden in the west to assist the Worship- 
ful Master in opening his lodge, take care of the jewels and 
implements, see that none be lost, pay the craft their wages, 
if any be due, and see that none go away dissatisfied.' 

Master to the Senior Warden, 'The Master's place in the 
lodge ?' 

Ans. 'In the east, Worshipful.' 

Master to the Senior Warden, 'His duty there?' 

Ans. *As the sun rises in the east to open and adorn the 



<»^P«t^H*l 



**m 



Lodge of Entered Apprentices, 

FELLOW CRAFTS, 



MASTER MASONS. 



wmt 



Treasurer. Worshipful Master. 



Secretary. 




Senior Deacon. ~~ 




Altar, 




Junior Warden. 




Senior Warden. Junior Deacon* 



M 



! 



U 



IS 

day, so presides the Worshipful Master in the east to open 
and adorn his lodge, set his crafts to work with good and 
wholesome laws, or cause the same to be done/ The Master 
now gives three raps, when all the brethren rise, and the 
Master taking off his hat, proceeds as follows: In like man- 
ner so do I, strictly forbidding all profane language, private 
committees, or any other disorderly conduct whereby the peace 
and narmony of this lodge may be interrupted while engaged 
in its lawful pursuits, under no less penalty than the by-laws, 
or such penalty as the majority of the Brethren present may 
see fit to inflict. Brethren, attend to giving the signs.' [Here 
lodges differ very much. In some they declare the lodge 
opened as follows, before they give the signs:] 

The Master (all the Brethren 

imitating him) extends his 

left arm from his body so as 

to form an angle of about 

forty-five degrees, and holds 

his right hand transversely 

across his left, the palms 

^thereof about one inch apart 
This is called the Due Guard, 
and alludes to the position a 

Due-Guard.Entered Peuai 1™ Candidate's hands are placed 
Apprentice, in when he takes the obligation 

of an Entered Apprentice Mason. The Master then draws 

his right hand across his throat, the hand open, with the 
thumb next to his throat, and drops it down by his side, 
This is called the penal sign of an Entered Apprentice Ma- 
son, (many call it sign) and alludes to the penalty of the ob- 
ligation. ( See obligation. ) The Master then declares the 
lodge opened in the following manner: 'I aow declare 
this lodge of Entered Apprentice Masons duly opened for 
dispatch of business/ The Senior Warden declares it to 
the Junior Warden, and he to the Brethren. 'Come, Brethren, 
let us pray/ — One of the following prayers is used: 

Most holy and glorious God ! the great architect of tke Uni- 
verse; the giver of all good gifts and graces: Thou hast 
promised that 'Where two or three are gathered together in 
thy name, thou wilt be in the midst of them and bless them/ 
In thy name we assemble, most humbly beseeching thee 
to bless us in all our undertakings; that we may know and 





ID 

serve thee aright, and that all our actions may tend to thy 
glory and our advancement in knowledge and virtue. And 
we beseech thee, O Lord God, to bless our present assem- 
bling; and to illuminate our minds through the influence of 
the Son of Righteousness, that we may walk in the light of 
thy countenance; and when the trials of our probationary 
state are over, be admitted into the temple, not made with 
hands, eternal in the heavens. Amen. So mote it be. 

Another prayer, as often used at opening as closing: 

Behold, how good and pleasant it is for brethren to dwell 
together in unity; it is like the precious ointment upon tht 
head, that ran down upon the beard, even Aaron's beard, 
that went down to the skirts of his garment; as the dew of 
Hermon, and as the dew that descended upon the mountains 
of Zion, for there the Lord commanded the blessing, even 
life forever more. Amen. So mote it be. 

The lodge being now open and ready to proceed to busi- 
ness, the Master directs the Secretary to read the minutes 
of the last meeting, which naturally brings to view the busi- 
ness of the present. 

If there are any candidates to be brought forward, that will 
be the first business to be attended to. I will therefore pro- 
ceed with a description of the ceremonies used in the admis- 
sion and initiation of a candidate into the first degree of 
Masonry. 

A person wishing to become a Mason must get some one 
who is a Mason to present his petition to a lodge, when, if 
there are no serious objections, it will be entered on the 
minutes, and a committee of two or three appointed to en- 
quire into his character, and report to the next regular com- 
munication. The following is a form of petition used by a 
candidate ; but a worthy candidate will not be rejected for 
the want of formality in his petition: 

To the Worshipful Master, Wardens and Brethren of Lodge 

No. — , of Free and Accepted Masons. 

The subscriber, residing in , of lawful age, and by oc- 
cupation a , begs leave to state that, unbiased by 

friends, and uninfluenced by mercenary motives, he freely 
and voluntarily offers himself a candidate for the mysteries 
of Masonry, and that he is prompted to solicit this privilege 
by a favorable opinion conceived of the institution, a desire 



of knowledge, and a sincere wish of being serviceable tr 
his fellow creatures. Should his petition be granted, he will 
cheerfully conform to all the ancient established usages and 
customs of the fraternity. 

(Signed) A. B. 

At the next regular communication, (if no very serious ob- 
jection appears against the candidate) the ballot boxes will 
be passed; one black ball will reject a candidate. The box- 
es may be passed three times. The Deacons are the proper 
persons to pass them. One of the boxes has black and white 
beans or balls in it, the other empty, the one with the balls 
in it goes before, and furnishes each member with a black 
and white ball; the empty box follows and receives them. 
There are two holes in the top of this box with a small tube, 
(generally) in each, one cf which is black and the other 
white, with a partition in the box. The members put both 
their balls into this box as their feelings dictate; when the 
balls are received, the box is presented to the Master, Senior 
and Junior Wardens, who pronounce clear or not clear, as 
the case may be. The ballot proving clear, the candidate 
(if present) is conducted into a small preparation room, ad- 
joining the lodge when he is asked the following questions 
and gives the following answers. Senior Deacon to Candidate, 
"Do you sincerely declare, upon your honor before these 
gentlemen, that, unbiased by friends, uninfluenced by unworthy 
motives, you freely and voluntarily offer yourself a candidate 
for the mysteries of Masonry.?" 

Ans, "I do." 

Senior Deacon to candidate. "Do you sincerely declare, 
upon your honor before these gentlemen, that you are prompt- 
ed to solicit the privileges of Masonry by a favorable opinion 
conceived of the institution, a desire of knowledge, and a sin- 
cere wish of being serviceable to your fellow creatures?" 

Ans. "I do." 

Senior Deacon to candidate, "Do you sincerely declare upon 
your honor before these gentlemen, that you will cheerfully 
conform to all the ancient established usages and customs of 
the fraternity?" 

Ans. "I do." 

After the above questions are proposed and answered 
and the result reported to the Master, he says^ "Brethren 



18 

at the request of Mr. A. B. he has been proposed and ac- 
cepted in regular form. I therefore recommend him as a 
proper candidate for the mysteries of Masonry and worthy 
to partake of the privileges of the fraternity and in conse- 
quence of a declaration of his intentions, voluntarily made, 
I believe he will cheerfully conform to the rules of the order." 

The candidate during the time is 
divested of all his apparel (shirt 
excepted) and furnished with a pair 
of drawers kept in the lodge for the 
use of candidates. The candidate is 
then blindfolded, his left foot bare, 
his right in a slipper, his left breast 
and arm naked, and a rope called a 
Cable-tow round his neck and left 
arm, [the rope is not put round the 
arm in all lodges] in which posture 
the candidate is conducted to the 
door where he is caused to give, 
or the conductor gives three distinct 
knocks, which are answered by three 
from within ; the conductor gives one 
more, which is also answered by one 
from within. The door is then partly 
opened and the Senior Deacon generally asks, 'Who comes 
there? Who comes there? Who comes there?" 

The conductor, alias the Junior Deacon answers, "A poor 
blind candidate who has long been desirous of having and 
receiving a part of the rights and benefits of this worshipful 
lodge, dedicated (some say erected) to God, and held forth 
to the holy order of St. John, as all true fellows and brothers 
have done who have gone this way before him." 

The Senior Deacon then asks, "Is it of his own free will 
and accord he makes this request? Is he duly and truly pre- 
pared? worthy and well qualified? and properly avouched 
for?" All of which being answered in the affirmative, the 
Senior Deacon to the Junior Deacon: "By what further 
righte does he expect to obtain this benefit?" 

Ans. "By being a man, free born, of lawful age. and unr 
der the tongue of good report" 




19 

The Senior Deacon then says, "Since this is the case, you 
will wait till the Worshipful Master in the east is made ac- 
quainted with his request, and his answer returned." The 
Senior Deacon repairs to the Master* when the same ques- 
tions are asked and answers returned as at the door; after 
which the Master says, "Since he comes endowed with all 
these necessary qualifications, let him enter this worshipful 
lodge in the name of the Lord, and take heed on what he 
enters." The candidate then enters, the Senior Deacon at 
the same time pressing his naked left breast with the point of 
the compass, and asks the candidate, "Did you feel any- 
thing ?" 

Ans. "I did." 

Senior Deacon to candidate, "What was it?" 

Ans. "A torture." 

The Senior Deacon then says, "As this is a torture to 
your flesh, so may it ever be to your mind and conscience 
if ever you should attempt to reveal the secrets of Masonry 
unlawfully." The candidate is then conducted to the cen- 
tre of the lodge, where he and the Senior Deacon kneel, and 
the Deacon says the following prayer: 

"Vouchsafe thine aid, Almighty Father of the universe, to 
this our present convention; and grant that this candidate 
for Masonry may dedicate and devote his life to thy service, 
and become a true and faithful brother among us. Endue 
him with a competency of thy^ divine wisdom, that by the 
secrets of our art he may be the better enabled to display 
the beauties of holiness, to the honor of thy holy name." So 
mote it be— Amen 1" 

The Master then asks the candidate, "In whom do you put 
your trust?" 

Ans. "In God." 

The Master then takes him by the right hand and says, 
"Since in God you put your trust, arise, follow your leader 
and fear no danger" The Senior Deacon then conducts the 
candidate three times regularly round the lodge, and halts 
at the Junior Warden in the south, where the same ques- 
tions are asked and answers returned as at the door. 

As the candidate and conductor are passing round tfie 
•room, the Master reads the following passage of Scripture, 



20 

rnd takes the same time to read it that they do to go round 
the lodge three times, 

"Behold how good and how pleasant it is for brethren 
to dwell together in unity! It is like the precipus ointment 
upon the head, that ran down upon the beard, even Aaron's 
beard, that went down to the skirts of his garment as the 
dew of Hermon, and as the dew that descended upon the 
mountains of Zion, for there the Lord commanded the bless- 
ing, even life for evermore." 

The candidate is then conducted to the Senior Warden in 
the west, where the same questions are asked and answers 
i turned as before, from whence he is conducted to the Wor- 
shipful Master in the east, where the same questions are 
asked and answers returned as before. The Master likewise 
demands of him from whence he came and whither he is 
traveling. 

The candidate answers, "from the west and traveling to 
the east." 

Master inquires, "Why do you leave the west and travel 
to the east?" 

Ans. "In search of light." 

Master then says, "Since the candidate is traveling in 
search of light, you will please conduct him back to the west, 
from whence he came, and put him in the care of the 
Senior Warden, who will teach him how to approach the 
east, the place of light, by advancing upon one upright reg- 
ular step, to the first step, his feet forming the right angle 

of an oblong square, his body erect at the 
altar, before the Master, and place him in a 
proper position to take upon him the sol- 
emn oath or obligation of an Entered Ap- 
Aita^* 1 "" prentice Mason." The Senior Warden re- 
ceives the candidate, and instructs him as directed. He first 
steps off with the left foot and brings up the heel of the 
right into the hollow thereof; the heel of the right foot 
against the ankle of the left, will of course form the right 
angle of an oblong square; the candidate then kneels on 
his left knee, and places his right foot so as to form a square 
with the left; he turns his foot round until the ankle bone 
is as much in front of him as the toes on the left foot, the 




it 

candidate's left hand is then put tinder the ttoty Bible, square 
and compass, and the right oh them* This is the position 
m which a candidate is placed when he takes upon him the 
oath or obligation of an Entered Apprentice Mason. As soon 
as the candidate is placed in this position, the Worshipful 
Master approaches him, and says, "Mr. A. B., you are now 
placed in a proper position to take upon you the solemn oath 
or obligation of an Entered Apprentice Masdn, which I as- 
sure you is neither to affect your religion or politics. If you 
are willing to take it, repeat your name and say after me:'* 
[And although many have refused to take any kind of an ob- 
ligation, and begged for the privilege of retiring, yet none 
have ever made their escape; they have been either coerced 
or persuaded to submit. There are thousands who never 
return to the lodge after they are initiated.] The following 
obligation is then administered: 

I, A. B., of my own free will and accord, in presence of 
Almighty God and this worshipful lodge of Free and Accepted 
Masons, dedicated to God, and held forth to the holy order 
of St. John, do hereby and hereon most solemnly and sin- 
cerely promise and swear that I will always hail, ever con- 
ceal and never reveal any part or parts, art or arts, point or 
points of the secret arts and mysteries of ancient Freemason- 
ry which I have received, am about to receive, or may here- 
after be instructed in, to any person or persons in the 
known world, except it be to a true and lawful brother Ma- 
son, or within the body of a just and lawfully constituted 
lodge of such ; and not unto him, nor unto them whom I shall 
hear so to be, but unto him and them only whom I shall 
find so to be after strict trial and due examination, or law- 
ful information. Furthermore, do I promise and swear that 
I will not write, print, stamp, stain, hew, cut, carve, in- 
dent, paint, or engrave it on any thing movable or immova- 
ble, under the whole canopy of heaven, whereby or whereon 
the least letter, figure, character, mark, stain, shadow, or 
resemblance of the same may become legible or intelligible; 
to myself or any other person in the known world, whereby 
the secrets of Masonry may be unlawfully obtained through 
my- unworthiness. To all of which I do most solemnly 
and sincerely promise and swear, without the least equivo- 
cation, mental reservation, or self evasion of mind in me 



whatever; binding myself under no less penalty than to 
have my throat cut across, my tongue torn out by the roots, 
and my body buried in the rough sands of the sea at low 
water-mark, where the tide ebbs and flows twice in twenty- 
ft>ui hours; so help me God, and keep me steadfast in the 
due performance of the same." 

After the obligation the Master addresses the candidate 
in the following manner: "Brother, to you the secrets of Ma- 
sonry are about to be unveiled, and a brighter sun never 
shone lustre on your eyes; while prostrate before this sacred 
altar, do you not shudder at every crime? Have you not 
confidence in every virtue? May these thoughts ever in- 
spire you with the most noble sentiments; may you ever feel 
that elevation of soul that shall scorn a dishonest act. 
Brother, what do you most desire?" 
Ans. "Light." 

Master to brethren, "Brethren, stretch forth your hands 
and assist in bringing this new made brother from darkness 
to light." The members having formed a circle round the 
candidate, the Master says, "And God said let there be light, 
and there was light." At the same time all the brethren 
clap their hands, and stamp on the floor with their right foot 
as heavy as possible, the bandage dropping from the candi- 
date's eyes at the same instant, which, after having been so 
long blind, and full of fearful apprehensions all the time, 
this great and sudden transition from perfect darkness to a 
brighter [if possible] than the meridian sun in a mid-summer 
day, sometimes produces an alarming effect- I once knew 
a man to feint on being brought to light; and his recovery 
was quite doubtful for some time; however, he did come to, 
but he never returned to the lodge again. I have often 
conversed with him on the subject; he is yet living, and will 
give a certificate in support of the above statement at any 
time it requested* 

After the candidate, is brought to light, the Master ad- 
dresses him as follows: "Brother, on being brought to 
light, you first discover three great lights in Masonry, by 
the assistance of three, lesser; they are thus explained: the 
three great lights in Masonry are the Holy Bible, Square 
and Compass, The Holy Bible is given to us as a rule and 
guide for our faitb and practice; the Square, to square our 



*3 

actions, and the Compass to keep us in due bounds with all 
mankind, but more especially with the brethren. The three 
lesser lights are three burning tapers, or candles placed on 
candlesticks (some say, or candles on pedestals) they rep- 
resent the sun, moon, and Master of the lodge, and are thus 
explained. As the sun rules the day and the moon governs 
the night, so ought the worshipful Master with equal regu- 
larity to rule and govern his lodge, or cause the same to be 
done; you next discover me, as Master of this lodge, ap- 
proaching you from the east upon the first step of Masonry, 
under the sign and due-guard of an Entered Apprentice Ma- 
son. (The sign and due-guard has been explained.) This 
is the manner of giving them ; imitate me as near as you 
can, keeping your position. First step off with your left 
foot, and bring the heel of the right into the hollow 
thereof, so as to form a square. [This is the first step in 
Masonry.] The following is the sign of an Entered Appren- 
tice Mason, and is the sign of distress in this degree; you 
are not to give it unless in distress. [It is given by holding 
your two hands transversely across each other, the right 
hand upwards and one inch from the left.] The following 
is the due-guard of an Entered Apprentice Mason. [This is 
given by drawing your right hand across your throat, die 
thumb next to your throat, your arm as high as the elbow 
in a horizontal position.] "Brother, I now present you my 
right hand in token of brotherly love and esteem, and with 
it the grip and name of the grip of an Entered Apprentice 

Ma?on." The rights hands are 
joined together as in shaking 
hands and each sticks his thumb 
nail into the third joint or upper 
end of the forefinger ; the name 

of the grip is Boas, and is to be given in the following man- 
ner and no other; the Master first gives the grip and word, 
and divides it for the instruction of the candidate; the ques- 
tions are as follows: The Master and candidate holding each 
other by the grip, as before described, the Master says, "What 
is this?" 

Ans. "A grip." 

"A grip of what?" 

Ans. "The grip of an Entered Apprentice Mason/* 




"Has it a name?" 

Ans. "It has." 

"Will you give it to me?" 

Ans. "I did not so receive it, neither can I so impart 

"What will you do with it?" 

Ans. "Letter it or halve it." 

"Halve it and begin." 

Ans. "You begin." 

"Begin you." 

Ans. "B-O." 

"A-Z." 

Ans. "BOAZ." 

Master says, "Right, brother Boaz, I greet you. It is 
the name of the left hand pillar of the porch of King Solo- 
mon's temple. Arise, brother Boaz, and salute the Junior 
and Senior Wardens, as such, and convince them that you 
have been regularly initiated as an Entered Apprentice Ma- 
son, and have got the sign, grip and word." The Master 
returns to his seat while the Wardens are examining the 
candidate, and gets a lambskin or white apron, presents it 
to the candidate, and observes, "Brother, I now present 
you with a lambskin or white apron. It is an emblem of 
innocence, and the badge of a Mason — it has been worn by 
kings, princes and potentates of the earth, who have never 
been ashamed to wear it. It is more honorable than the 
diadems of kings, or pearls of princesses, when worthily 
worn; it is more ancient than the Golden Fleece or Roman 
Eagle, more honorable than the Star and Garter, or any 
other order that can be conferred upon you at this or any 
other time, except it be in the body of a just and lawfully 
constituted lodge; you will carry it to the Senior Warden 
in the west, who will teach you how to wear it as an Entered 
Apprentice Mason." The Senior Warden ties the apron on, 
and turns up the flap instead of letting it fall down in front 
of the top of the apron. This is the way Entered Appren- 
tice Masons wear, or ought to wear their aprons until they 
are advanced. The candidate is now conducted to the Mas- 
ter in the east, "who says, "Brother, as you are dressed, it 
is necessary you should have tools to work with ; I will now 
present you with the working tools of an Entered Apprentice 



25 

Mason, which are the twenty-four inch gauge and common 
gavel ; they are thus explained : — The twenty-four inch gauge 
is an instrument made use of by operative Masons to meas- 
ure and lay out their work, but we as Free and Accepted Ma- 
sons make use of it for the more noble and glorious purpose 
of dividing our time. The twenty-four inches on the gauge 
are emblematical of the twenty-four hours in the day, which 
we are taught to divide into three equal parts, whereby we 
find eight hours for the service of God, and a worthy, dis- 
tressed brother, eight hours for our usual vocations, and 
eight for refreshment and sleep ; the common gavel is an 
instrument made use of by operative Masons to break off the 
corners of rough stones, the better to fit them for the builder's 
use, but we, as Free and Accepted Masons, use it for the 
more noble and glorious purpose of divesting our hearts and 
consciences of all the vices and superfluities of life, thereby 
fitting our minds as living and lively stones, for that spirit- 
ual building, that house not made with hands, eternal in 
the heavens. I also present you with a new name; it is 
CAUTION ; it teaches you that as you are barely instruct- 
ed in the rudiments of Masonry, that you should be cau- 
tious over all your words and actions, particularly when be- 
fore the enemies of Masonry. I shall next present you 
with three precious jewels, which are a listening ear, a si- 
lent tongue, and a faithful heart. A listening ear teaches 
you to listen to the instructions of the Worshipful Master; 
but more especially that you should listen to the calls and 
cries of a worthy, distressed brother. A silent tongue teaches 
you to be silent while in the lodge that the peace and har- 
mony thereof may not be disturbed, but more especially 
that you should be silent before the enemies of Masonry that 
the craft may not be brought into disrepute by your impru- 
dence. A faithful heart teaches you to be faithful to the 
instructions of the Worshipful Master at all times, but more 
especially, that you should be faithful, and keep and con- 
ceal the secrets of Masonry, and those of a brother, when 
tjiven to you in charge, as such; that they may remain as 
secure and inviolable in your breast as in his own, before 
communicated to you. I further present you with check- 
words, two; their names are truth and union, and are thus 
explained: Truth is a divine attribute and the foundation 



26 

of every virtue; to be good and true, is the first lesson we 
are taught in Masonry; on this theme we contemplate, and 
by its dictates endeavor to regulate our conduct; hence, 
while influenced by this principle, hypocrisy and deceit are 
unknown among us ; sincerity and plain dealing distinguish 
us, and the heart and tongue join in promoting each other's 
welfare and rejoicing in each other's prosperity. 

Union is that kind of friendship which ought to appear 
conspicuous in every Mason's conduct. It is so closely allied 
to the divine attribute, truth, that he who enjoys the one, 
is seldom destitute of the other. Should interest, honor, 
prejudice, or human depravity ever induce you to violate 
any part of the sacred trust we now repose in you, let these 
two important words, at the earliest insinuation, teach you 
to pull on the check-line of truth, which will infallibly direct 
you to pursue that straight and narrow path which ends in 
the full enjoyment of the Grand Lodge above, where we 
shall all meet as Masons and members of the same family, 
in peace, harmony, and love ; where all discord on account 
of politics, religion, or private opinion shall be unknown 
and banished from within your walls. 

Brother, it has been a custom from time immemorial to 
demand, oi» ask from a newly made brother, something of a 
metallic kind, not so much on account of its intrinsic value, 
but that it may be deposited in the archives of the lodge, a£ 
a memo/ial, that you were herein made a Mason; — a small 
trifle will be sufficient,— anything of a metallic kind will do; 
if you have no money, anything of a metallic nature will be 
sufficient; even a button will do." [The candidate says he 
has nothing about him ; it is known he has nothing.] 
"Search yourself/' the Master replies. He is assisted in 
searching, nothing is found. "Perhaps you can borrow a 
trifle," says the Master. [He tries to borrow, none will 
lend him — he proposes to go into the other room where his 
clothes are ; he is not permitted. If a stranger, he is very 
embarrassed.] Master to candidate, "Brother, let this ever 
be a striking lesson to you and teach you, if you should ever 
see a friend, or more especially a brother in a like penniless 
situation, to contribute as liberally to his relief as his situation 
naay require, and your abilities will admit, without material 
injury to yourself or family." Master to Senior Deacon. 



27 

"You will conduct the candidate back from whence he came, 
and invest him of what he has been divested, and let him 
return for further instruction." The candidate is then con- 
ducted to the preparation room, and invested of what he 
had been divested, and returns to the north-east corner of 
the lodge, and is taught how to stand upright like a man; 
when and where the following charge is, or ought to be de- 
livered to him ; though it is omitted nine times out of ten, 
as are near one-half of the ceremonies. 

Master to candidate, "Brother, as you are now initiated 
into the first principles of Masonry, I congratulate you on 
having been accepted into this ancient and honorable order; 
ancient, as having subsisted from time immemorial ; and 
honorable, as tending in every particular so to render all 
men who will become conformable to its principles. No 
institution was ever raised on a better principle, or more solid 
foundation, nor were ever more excellent rules and useful 
maxims laid down than are inculcated in the several Masonic 
lectures. The greatest and best of men in all ages have been 
encouragers and promoters of the art, and have never 
deemed it derogatory to their dignity to level themselves 
with the fraternity, extend their privileges, and patronize their 
assemblies." 

There are three great duties, which, as a Mason, you are 
charged to inculcate. To God, your neighbor, and yourself. 
To God, in never mentioning his name but with that reve- 
rential awe that is due from a creature to his Creator; to 
implore his aid in all your laudable undertakings, and to 
esteem him as the chief good — To your neighbor, in acting 
upon the square and doing unto him as you wish he should 
do unto you ; and to yourself in avoiding all irregularity, or 
intemperance which may impair your faculties, or debase the 
dignity of your profession. A zealous attachment to these 
principles will ensure public and private esteem. In the state 
you are to be a quiet and peaceable subject, true to your 
government and just to your country; you are not to coun- 
tenance disloyalty, but faithfully submit to legal authority, 
and conform' with cheerfulness to the government of the 
country in which you live. In your outward demeanor be 
particularly careful to avoid censure or reproach. Although 
your frequent appearance at our regular meetings is earnestly 



28 

solicited, yet it is not meant that Masonry should interfere 
with your necessary vocations; for these are on no account 
to be neglected; neither are you to suffer your zeal for the 
institution to lead you into argument with those, who, 
through ignorance, may ridicule it. At your leisure hours, 
that you may improve in Masonic knowledge, you are to 
converse with well-informed brethren, who will be always as 
ready to give, as you will be to receive information. Finally, 
keep sacred and inviolable the mysteries of the order, as 
these are to distinguish you from the rest of the community, 
and mark your consequence among Masons. If, in the cir- 
cle of your acquaintance, you rind a person desirous of being 
initiated into Masonry, be particularly attentive not to rec- 
ommend him, unless you are convinced he will conform to 
our rules, that the honor, glory, and reputation of the in- 
stitution may be firmly established, and the world at large 
convinced of its good effects." 

The work of the evening being over, I will proceed to give 
a description of the manner of closing the lodge. It is a 
very common practice in lodges to close a lodge of Entered 
Apprentices, and open a lodge of Fellow Crafts, and close 
that, and open a Master Mason's lodge, all in the same even- 
ing. 

Some brother generally makes a motion that the lodge be 
closed ; it being seconded and carried : — 

The Master to the Junior Deacon — "Brother Junior," 
[giving one rap which calls up both Deacons,] "the first as 
well as the last care of a Mason? 

Ans. "To see the lodge tyled, Worshipful." 

Master to Junior Deacon, "Attend to that part of your duty, 
and inform the Tyler that we are about to close this lodge 
of Entered Apprentice Masons, and direct him to tyle ac- 
cordingly." The Junior Deacon steps to the door and gives 
three raps, which are answered by the Tyler with three more; 
the Junior Deacon then gives one, which is also answered 
by the Tyler by one. The Junior Deacon then opens the 
door, delivers his message, and resumes his place in the lodge 
and says, "The door is tyled, Worshipful." 

Master to Junior Deacon, "By whom?" 

Ans. "By a Master Mason without the door, armed with 
the proper implements of his office." 



so 

Master to Junior Deacon, "His business there?" 

Ans. "To keep off all cowans and eavesdroppers and iec 
that none pass or repass without permission from the 
chair/' 

Master to Junior Deacon, "Your place in the lodge, brother 
Junior?" 

Ans. "At the right hand of the Senior Warden in the 
west" 

Master to Junior Deacon, "Your duty there?" 

Ans. "To wait on the Worshipful. Master and Wardens, 
act as their proxy in the active duties of the lodge, and take 
charge of the door." 

Master to the Junior Deacon, "The Senior Deacon's place 
in the lodge?" 

Ans. "At the right hand of the Worshipful Master in the 
east." 

Master to Senior Deacon, "Your duty there, brother 
Senior?" 

Ans. "To wait on the Worshipful Master and Wardens, 
act as their proxy in the active duties of the lodge, attend 
to the preparation and introduction of candidates, receive and 
clothe all visiting brethren." 

Master to the Senior Deacon, "The Secretary's place in the 
lodge ?" 

Ans. "At your left hand, Worshipful." 

Master to Secretary, "Your duty there, brother Secre- 
tary ?" 

Ans. "Duly to observe the Master's will and pleasure; re- 
cord the proceedings of the lodge; transmit a copy of the 
same to the Grand Lodge, if required ; receive all moneys 
and money bills from the hands of the brethren ; pay them 
over to the Treasurer, and take his receipt for the same." 

Master to the Secretary, "The Treasurer's place in the 
lodge?" 

Ans. "At the right hand of the Worshipful Master." 

Master to Treasurer, "Your business there, brother Treas- 
urer?" 

Ans. "Duly to observe the Worshipful Master's will and 
pleasure ; receive all moneys and money bills from the hands 
of the Secretary; keep a just and accurate account of the 
same; pay them out by order of the Worshipful Master and 



«> 



Consent of the brethren." 

Master to the Treasurer, "The Junior Warden's place in the 
lodge ?" 

Ans. "In the south, Worshipful." 

Master to the Junior Warden, "Your business there, broth- 
er Junior?" 

Ans. "As the sun in the south, at high meridian, is the 
beauty and glory of the day, so stands the Junior Warden 
in the south, at high twelve, the better to observe the time; 
call the crafts from labor to refreshment; superintend them 
during the hours thereof; see that none convert the pur- 
poses of refreshment into that of excess or intemperance ; call 
them on again in due season, that the Worshipful Master may 
have honor, and they pleasure and profit thereby." 

The Master to the Junior Warden, [I wish the reader to 
take particular notice that in closing the lodge the Master 
asks the Junior Warden as follows : "The Master's place in 
the lodge?" and in opening he asks the Senior Warden the 
same question.] "The Master's place in the lodge?" 

Ans. "In the east, Worshipful." 

Master to Junior Warden, "His duty there?" 

Ans. "As the sun rises in the east to open and adorn the 
day, so presides the Worshipful Master in the east to open 
and adorn his lodge ; set his crafts to work with good and 
wholesome laws, or cause the same to be done." 

Master to Junior Warden, "The Senior Warden's place in 
the lodge?" 

Ans. "In the west, Worshipful." 

Master to Senior Warden, "Your business there, brother 
Senior?" 

Ans. "As the sun sets in the west to close the day, ^o 
stands the Senior Warden in the west to assist the Worship- 
ful Master in opening and closing the lodge; take care of 
the jewels and implements ; see that none be lost ; pay the 
crafts their wages, if any be due, and see that none go away 
dissatisfied." 

The Master now gives three raps, when all the brethren 
rise, and the Master asks, "Are you all satisfied?" They an- 
swer in the affirmative, by giving the due-guard. Should 
the Master discover that any declined giving it, inquiry is 
immediately made why it is so; and if any member is dtt» 



31 

satisfied with any part of the proceedings, o/ with any 
brother, the subject is immediately investigated. Master to 
the brethren, "Attend to giving the signs; as I do so do 
you; give them downwards" (which is by giving the last 
in opening, first in closing. In closing, on this degree, you 
first draw your right hand across your throat, as herein be- 
fore described, and then hold your two hands over each 
other as before described. This is the method pursued 
through all the degrees ; and when opening on any of the up- 
per degrees, all their signs, of all the preceding degrees, are 
given before you give the signs of the degree on which you 
are opening.) This being done, the Master proceeds, "I 
now declare this lodge of Entered Apprentice Masons reg- 
ularly closed in due and ancient form. Brother Junior War- 
den, please inform brother Senior Warden, and request him 
to inform the brethren that it is my will and pleasure that 

this lodge of Entered Apprentice Masons be now closed, 
and stand closed until our next regular communication, un- 
less a case or cases of emergency shall require earlier 
convention, of which every member shall be notified; during 
which time it is seriously hoped and expected that every 
brother will demean himself as becomes a Free and Accepted 
Mason." Junior Warden to Senior Warden, "Brother 
Senior, it is the Worshipful Master's will and pleasure that 
this lodge of Entered Apprentice Masons be closed, and 
stand closed until our next regular communication, unless a 
case or cases of emergency shall require earlier convention, of 
which every brother shall be notified ; during which time it 
is seriously hoped and expected that every brother will de- 
mean himself as becomes a Free and Accepted Mason." 
Senior Warden to the brethren, "Brethren, you have heard 
the Worshipful Master's will and pleasure, as communicated 
to me by brother Junior; so let it be done." Master to the 
Junior Warden, "Brother Junior, how do Masons meet?" 

Ans. 'On the level." 

Master to Senior Warden, "How do Masons part?" 

Ans. "On the square." 

Master to the Junior and Senior Wardens, "Since we 
meet on the level, brother Junior, and part on the square, 
brother Senior, so let us ever meet and part, in the name of 
the Lord." Here follows a prayer sometimes used. Master 



32 

to the brethren, "Brethren, let us pray." 

"Supreme Architect of the Universe! accept our humble 
praises for the many mercies and blessings which thy bounty 
has conferred upon us, and especially for this friendly and 
social intercourse. Pardon, we beseech thee, whatever thou 
hast seen amiss in us since we have been together; and con- 
tinue to us thy presence, protection and blessing. Make us 
sensible of the renewed obligations we are under to love thee 
supremely, and to be friendly to each other. May all our 
irregular passions be subdued; and may we daily increase in 
faith, hope and charity, but more especially in that charity 
which is the bond of peace, and perfection of every virtue. 
May we so practice thy precepts that through the merits 
of the Redeemer we may finally obtain thy promises, and find 
an acceptance through the Gates, and into the Temple and 
City of our God. So mote it be — Amen." 
A Benediction, ofiener used at closing than the preceding 

prayer. 
May the blessing of heaven rest upon us and all regular 
Masons; may brotherly love prevail, and every moral and 
social virtue cement us. So mote it be — Amen. 

After the prayer the following charge ought to be deliv- 
ered, but it is seldom attended to; in a majority of lodges it 
is never attended to. 

Master to brethren, "Brethren, we are now about to quit 
this sacred retreat of friendship and virtue to mix again with 
the world. Amidst its concerns and employment forget not 
the duties which you have heard so frequently inculcated, 
and so forcibly recommended in this lodge. Remember, 
that around this altar, you have promised to befriend and re- 
lieve every brother who shall need your assistance. You 
have promised in the most friendly manner to remind him 
of his errors and aid a reformation. These generous princi- 
ples are to extend further: Every human being has a claim 
upon your kind offices. Do good unto all. Recommend it 
more "especially to the household of the faithful." Finally, 
brethren, be ye all of one mind, live in peace, and may the 
God of love and peace delight to dwell with and bless 

you." 

In some lodges, after the charge is delivered, the Master 
says, "Brethren, form on the square." When all the breth- 



33 

ren form a circle, and the Master, followed by every brother 
(except in using the words) says, "And God said let there 
be light, and there was light." At the same moment that 
the last of these words drops from the Master's lips, every 
member stamps with his right foot on the floor, and at the 
same instant bring their hands together with equal force, 
and in such perfect unison with each other that persons sit- 
uated so as to hear it would suppose it the precursor of some 
dreadful catastrophe. This is called "the shack." 

Having described all the ceremonies and forms apper- 
taining to the opening of a lodge of Entered Apprentice 
Masons, setting them to work, initiating a candidate, and 
closing the lodge, I will now proceed to give th« lecture on 
this degree. It is divided into three sections. The lecture is 
nothing more or less than a recapitulation of the preced- 
ing ceremonies and forms, by way of question and answer, 
and fully explains the same. In fact, the ceremonies and 
forms (generally Masonically called the work) and lectures 
are so much the same that he who possesses a knowledge of 
the lectures cannot be destitute of a knowledge of what the 
ceremonies and forms are. As the ceremonies used in open- 
ing and closing are the same in all the degrees it is thought 
best to give the whole in one insertion; it being the sincere 
wish of the writer that every reader should perfectly under- 
stand all the formulas of the whole Masonic fabric, as he 
then will thereby be able to form correct opinions of the 
propriety or impropriety, advantages or disadvantages of the 
same. 

First Section of the Lecture on the First Degree of Ma- 

sonry. 

"From whence come you as an Entered Apprentice Ma- 
son ?" 

Ans. "From the holy lodge of St. John, at Jerusalem." 

"What recommendations do you bring?" 

Ans. "Recommendations from the Worshipful Master, 
Wardens and brethren of that right worshipful lodge, whom 
greet you." 

"What comest thou hither to do ?" 

Ans. "To learn to subdue my passions, and improve my 
self in the secret arts and mysteries of ancient Freema- 



sonry." 



''You are a Mason then, 1 presume.''' 

Ans. "lam." 
How shall I know you to De a Mason?'* 

Ans, "By certain signs and a token." 

"What are signs ?" 

Ans. "All right angles, horizontals and perpendiculars.'* 

"What is a token ?" 

Ans. "A certain friendly and brotherly grip, whereby 
one Mason may know another, in the dark as well as in *he 
light." 

"Where were you first prepared to be made a Mason ?" 

Ans. "In my heart." 

"Where secondly?" 

Ans. "In a room adjacent to the body of a just and law- 
fully constituted lodge of such." 

"How were you prepared?" 

Ans. "By being divested of all metals, neither naked nor 
clothed, barefoot nor shod, hoodwinked, with a Cable Towt 
about my neck, in whish situation I was conducted to the 
door of the lodge." 

"You being hoodwinked how did you know it to be a 
door ?" 

Ans. "By first meeting with resistance, and afterwards 
gaining admission." 

"How did you gain admission?" 

Ans. "By three distinct knocks from without, answered 
by the same within." 

"What was said to you from within?" 

Ans. "Who comes there ? Who comes there ? Who 
comes there? 

"Your answer?" 

Ans. "A poor blind candidate who has long been desirous 
of having and receiving a part of the rights and benefits 
of this worshipful lodge, dedicated to God, and held forth 
to the holy order of St. John, as all true fellows and broth- 
ers have done, who have gone this way before me." 

"What further was said to you from within?" 

Ans. "I was asked i-f it was of my own free will and ac- 
cord I made this request, if I was duly and truly proposed, 
worthy and well qualified, all of which being answered in 
the affirmative, I was asked by what further rights I ex- 

vltiree miles long 



35 

pected to obtain so great a favor or benefit." 

"Your answer?" 

Ans. "By being a man, free born, of lawful age and weU 
recommended." 

"What was then said to you?" 

Ans. "I was bid to wait till the Worshipful Master in the 

cast was made acquainted with my request and his answer 
returned." 

"After his answer returned what followed?" 

Ans. "I was caused to enter the lodge." 

"How?" 

Ans. "On the point of some sharp instrument pressing 
my naked left breast in the name of the Lord." 

"How were you then disposed of?" 

Ans. "I was conducted to the center of the lodge and 
there caused to kneel for the benefit of a prayer." [See page 

19.] 

"After prayer what was said to you?" 

Ans. "I was asked in whom I put my trust." 

"Your answer?" 

Ans. "In God." 

"What followed?" 

Ans. "The Worshipful Master took me by the right hancJ 

and said, 'Since in God you put your trust, arise, and fol- 
low your leader, and fear no danger.'" 

"How were you then disposed of?" 

Ans. "I was conducted three times regularly round the 

lodge and halted at the Junior Warden in the south, where 

the same questions were asked and answers returned as at 

the door." 
"How did the Junior Warden dispose of you?" 

Ans. "He ordered me to be conducted to the Senior 
Warden in the west; where the same questions were asked 
and answers returned as before." 

"How did the Senior Warden dispose of you?" 

Ans. "He ordered me to be conducted to the Worshipful 
Master in the east, where the same questions were asked 
and answers returned as before, who likewise demanded of 
me from whence I came and whither I was traveling/' 

"Your answer?" 

Ans. "From the west and traveling to the east" 



36 

"Why do you leave the west and travel to the east?* 

Ans. "In search of light." 

"How did the Worshipful Master then dispose of you?" 

Ans. "He ordered me to be conducted back to the west, 
from whence I came, and put in the care of the Senior War- 
den, who taught me how to approach the east, the place of 
light, by advancing upon one upright regular step to the 
first step, my feet forming the right angle of an oblong 
square, my body erect at the altar before the Worshipful 
Master." 

"What did the Worshipful Master do with you?" 

Ans. "He made an Entered Apprentice Mason of me." 

"How ?" 

Ans. "In due form." 

"What was that due form?" 

Ans. "My left knee bare, bent, my right forming a square; 
my left hand supporting the Holy Bible, Square, and Com- 
pass, and my right covering the same ; in which position I 
took upon me the solemn oath or obligation of an Entered 
Apprentice Mason. [See page 21.] 

"After you had taken your obligation what was said to 

you ?" 

Ans. "I was asked what I most desired." 
'Your answer?" 
Ans. "Light." 

"Were you immediately brought to light?" 
Ans. "I was." 

"How ?" 

Ans. "By the direction of the Master and assistance of 
the brethren." 

"What did you first discover after being brought to 
light?" 

Ans. "Three great lights in Masonry, by the assistance 
of three lesser." 

"What were those three great lights in Masonry?" 

Ans. "The Holy Bible, Square and Compass." 

"How are they explained?" 

Ans. "The Holy Bible is given to us as a guide for our 

faith and practice; the Square to square our actions; and 

the Compass to keep us in due bounds with all mankind, 

but more especially with the brethren." 

may know another in the dark as well as the light." 



37 

"What were those three lesser lights?" 

Ans. "Three burning tapers, or candle, on candle 
sticks." 

"What do they represent?" 

Ans. "The Sun, Moon, and Master of the lodge." 

"How are they explained?" 

Ans. "As the Sun rules the day, and the Moon governs 
the night, so ought the Worshipful Master to use his en- 
deavors to rule and govern his lodge with equal regularity 
or cause the same to be done." 

"What did you next discover?" 

Ans. "The Worshipful Master approaching me from the 
east, under the sign and due-guard of an Entered Apprentice 
Mason, who presented me with his right hand in token of 
brotherly love and esteem, and proceeded to give me the 
grip and word of an Entered Apprentice Mason, and bid me 
arise and salute the Junior and Senior Wardens and con- 
vince them that I had been regularly initiated as an Entered 
Apprentice Mason, and was in possession of the sign, grip 
and word." 

"What did you next discover?" 

Ans. "The Worshipful Master a second time approach- 
ing me from the east, who presented me with a lambskin or 
white apron, which he said was an emblem of innocence, and 
the badge of a Mason; that it had been worn by kings, 
princes and potentates of the earth who had never been 
ashamed to wear it ; that it was more honorable than the dia- 
dems of kings or pearls of princesses, when worthily worn, 
and more ancient than the Golden Fleece, or Roman Eagle, 
more honorable than the Star or Garter, or any other order 
that could be conferred upon me at that time or any time 
thereafter, except it be in the body of a just and lawfully 
constituted lodge of Masons; and bid me carry it to the 
Senior Warden in the west, who taught me how to wear it 
as an Entered Apprentice Mason." 

"What were you next presented with?" 

Ans. "The working tools of an Entered Apprentice Ma- 



son. 



"What were they?" 

Ans. "A twenty-four inch gauge and common gaveL 1 

"How were they explained?" 



3« 

Ans. "The twenty-four inch gauge is an instrument made 
use of by operative masons to measure and lay out their 
work, but we as Free and Accepted Masons are taught to 
make use of it for the more noble and glorious purpose of 
dividing our time; the twenty- four inches on the gauge arc 
emblematical of the twenty-four hours in the day, which we 
are taught to divide into three equal parts, whereby we find 
eight hours for the service of God and a worthy distressed 
brother, eight hours for our usual vocation, and eight hours 
for refreshment and sleep. The common gavel is an in- 
strument made use of by operative masons to break off the 
corners of rough stones, the better to fit them for the build- 
er's use, but we, as Free and Accepted Masons, are taught 
to make use of it for the more noble and glorious purpose of 
divesting our hearts and consciences of all the vices and su- 
perfluities of life, thereby fitting our minds as lively and liv- 
ing stones for that spiritual building, that House not made 
with hands, eternal in the heavens." 

"What were you next presented with?" 

Ans. "A new name." 

"What was that?" 

Ans, "Caution." 

"What does it teach?" 

Ans. "It teaches me as I was barely instructed in the ru- 
diments of Masonry, that I should be cautious over all my 
words and actions, especially when before its enemies." 

"What were you next presented with?" 

Ans. "Three precious jewels." 

"What are they?" 

Ans. "A listening ear, a silent tongue, and a faithful 
heart." 

"What do they teach?" 

Ans. "A listening ear teaches me to listen to the in- 
structions of the Worshipful Master, but more especially 
that I should listen to the calls and cries of a worthy dis- 
tressed brother. A silent tongue teaches me to be silent in 
the lodge, that the peace and harmony thereof may not be 
disturbed ; but more especially that I should be silent when 
before the enemies of Masonry. A faithful heart, that I 
should be faithful to the instructions of the Worshipful Mas- 
ter at all times, but more especially that I should be faith- 



39 

ful and keep and conceal the secrets of Masonry, and thos« 
of a brother, when given to me in charge as such, that they 
remain as secure and inviolable in my breast, as in his own 
before communicated to me/' 

"What were you next presented with?" 

Ans. "Check-words two." 

"What were they?" 

Ans. "Truth and Union." 

"How explained?" 

"Truth is a divine attribute, and the foundation of every 
virtue. To be good and true are the first lessons we are 
taught in Masonry. On this theme we contemplate, and by 
its dictates endeavor to regulate our conduct; hence, while 
influenced by this principle, hypocrisy and deceit are un- 
known amongst us; sincerity and plain dealing distinguishes 
us; and heart and tongue join in promoting each other's 
welfare, and rejoicing in each other's prosperity. Union is 
that kind of friendship that ought to appear conspicuous in 
the conduct of every Mason. It is so closely allied to the 
divine attribute, truth, that he who enjoys the one is seldom 
destitute of the other. Should interest, honor, prejudice, 
or human depravity ever influence you to violate any part of 
the sacred trust we now repose in you, let these two im- 
portant words, at the earliest insinuation, teach you to put on 
the check-line of truth, which will infallibly direct you to 
pursue that strait and narrow path, which ends in the full 
enjoyment of the Grand Lodge above, where we shall all 
meet as Masons and members of one family; where all dis- 
cord on account of religion, politics or private opinion shall 
be unknown and banished from within our walls." 

"What followed?" 

Ans. "The Worshipful Master in the east made a de- 
mand of me something of a metalic kind, which he said was 
not so much on account of its intrinsic value, as that it 
might be deposited in the archives of the lodge, as a memo- 
rial that I had therein been made a Mason." 

"How did the Worshipful Master then dispose of 
you ?" 

"He ordered me to be conducted out of the lodge and 
vested of what I had been divested, and returned for further 
instructions." 



4» 

"Atter you returned how were you disposed of.* 
Ans. "I was conducted to the northeast corner of th* 
lodge, and there caused to stand upright like a man, my feet 
forming a square, and received a solemn injunction, ever to 
walk and act uprightly before God and man, and in addi- 
tion thereto, received the following charge: [For this charge 
see page 27.] 

SECTION SECOND. 

"Why was you divested of all metals when you was 
made a Mason?" 

Ans. "Because Masonry regards no man on account of 
his worldly wealth or honors; it is, therefore, the internal 
and not the external qualifications that reeommcnd a man to 
Masonry." 

"A second reason?" 

Ans. "There was neither the sound of an axe, hammer, 
or any other metal tool heard at the building of King Solo- 
man's temple." 

"How could so stupendous a fabric be erected without 
the sound of axe, hammer, or any other metal tool?" 

Ans. "All the stones were hewed, squared and numbered 
in the quarries where they were raised, all the timbers 
felled and prepared in the forests of Lebanon, and carried 
down to Joppa on floats, and taken from thence up to Jeru- 
salem, and set up with wooden mauls, prepared for that pur- 
pose; which, when completed, every part thereof fitted with 
that exact nicety, that it had more the resemblance of the 
hand workmanship of the Supreme Architect of the Uni- 
verse, than that of human hands." 

"Why was you neither naked nor clothed?" 

Ans. "As I was an object of distress at that time, it was 
to remind me, if ever I saw a friend, more especially a 
brother, in a like distressed situation, that I should contrib- 
ute as liberally to his relief as his situation required, and 
my abilities would admit, without material injury to myself 
or family." 

"Why were you neither barefoot or shod?" 

Ans. "It was an ancient Israelitish custom, adopted 
among Masons ; and we read, in the book of Ruth, concerning 



41 

their mode and manner of changing and redeeming, 'and to 
confirm all things, a brother plucked off his shoe and gave 
it to his neighbor, and that was testimony in Israel.' This, 
then, therefore, we do in confirmation of a token and as a 
pledge of our fidelity; thereby signifying that we will re- 
nounce our own wills in all things, and become obedient to 
the laws of our ancient institutions," 

"Why were you hoodwinked?" 

"That my heart might conceive before my eyes beheld the 
beauties of Masonry." 

"A second reason?" 

Ans. "As I was in darkness at that time, it was to re- 
mind me that I should keep the whole world so respecting 
Masonry." 

"Why had you a Cable Tow about your neck?" 

Ans. "In case I had not submitted to the manner and 
mode of my initiation, that I might have been led out of the 
lodge without seeing the form and beauties thereof." 

"Why did you give three distinct knocks at the door?" 

Ans. "To alarm the lodge, and let the Worshipful Master, 
Wardens and brethren know that a poor blind candidate 
prayed admission." 

"What does those three distinct knocks allude to?" 

Ans. "A certain passage in Scripture, wherein it says, 
'Ask and it shall be given, seek and ye shall find, knock 
and it shall be opened unto you/ " 

"How did you apply this to your then case in Ma- 
sonry ?" 

Ans. "I asked the recommendations of a friend to be- 
come a Mason, I sought admission through his recommenda- 
tions, and knocked, and the door of Masonry opened unto 



me." 



"Why was you caused to enter on the point of some 
sharp instrument pressing your naked left breast in the name 
of the Lord?" 

Ans. "As this was a torture to my flesh, so might the 
recollection of it ever be to my heart and conscience, if 
ever I attempted to reveal the secrets of Masonry unlaw- 
fully." 

"Whv was you conducted to the center of the lodge, and 
tnere caused to kneel for the benefit of a prayer?" 



4* 

Ans. "Before entering on this, or any other great and 
important undertaking, it is highly necessary to implore a 
blessing from Deity." 

"Why was you asked in whom you put your trust?" 

Ans. "Agreeable to the laws of our ancient institution, 
no atheist could be made a Mason, it was therefore necessary 
that I should believe in Deity; otherwise no oath Or obli- 
gation could bind me." 

"Why did the Worshipful Master take you by the right 
hand and bid you arise, follow your leader and fear no 
danger?" 

Ans. "As I was in darkness at that time, and could 
neither foresee nor avoid danger, it was to remind me that I 
was in the hands of an affectionate friend, in whose fidelity 
I might with safety confide." 

"Why was you conducted three times regularly round 
the lodge?" 

Ans. "That the Worshipful Master, Wardens and breth- 
ren might see that I was duly and truly prepared." 

"Why did you meet with those several obstructions on the 
way ?" 

Ans. "This and every lodge is, or ought to be, a true 
representation of King Solomon's Temple, which, when com- 
pleted, had guards stationed at the east, west and south 
gates." 

"Why had they guards stationed at those several 
gates ?" 

Ans. "To prevent any one from passing or repassing that 
was not duly qualified." 

"Why did you kneel on your left knee and not on your 
right, or both?" 

Ans. "The left side has ever been considered the weak- 
est part of the body; it was therefore to remind me that 
the part I was then taking upon me was the weakest part 
of Masonry, it being that only of an Entered Apprentice." 

"Why was your right hand placed on the Holy Bible r 
Square and Compass, and not your left, or both?" 

Ans. "The right hand has ever been considered the 
seat of fidelity, and our ancient brethren worshiped Deity 
under the name of Fides, which has sometimes been repre- 



stated by two -*v^*- »**'*> tomed together; at others, by two 
human figures molding eacn uthci by the right hand; the 
right hand, therefore, we ust in this great and important 
Hndei^Kine co signify, in the strongest manner possible, the 
sincerity of our intentions in the business we arc en- 
gaged. 

"Why did the Worshipful Master present you with a 
lambskin or white apron?" 

Ans. "The lambskin has, in all ages, been deemed an 
emblem of innocence; he, therefore, who wears the lamb- 
skin, as a badge of a Mason, is thereby continually reminded 
of that purity of life and rectitude of conduct which is so es- 
sentially necessary to our gaining admission into the celes- 
tial lodge above, where the Supreme Architect of the Uni- 
verse presides." 

"Why did the Master make a demand of you of some- 
thing of a metallic nature?" 

Ans- "As I was in a poor and pennyless situation at that 
time, it was to remind me if ever I saw a friend, but more 
especially a brother, in the like poor and pennyless situation, 
that I should contribute as liberally to his relief as my abil- 
ities would admit and his situation required, without injur- 
ing myself or family." 

"Why was you conducted to the northeast corner of the 
lodge, and there caused to stand upright like a man, your 
feet forming a square, receiving at the same time a solemn 
charge ever to walk and act upright before God and man?" 

Ans. "The first stone in every Masonic edifice is, or 
ought to be placed at the northeast corner, that being the 
place where an Entered Apprentice Mason receives his first 
instructions to build his future Masonic edifice upon." 



THIRD SECTION. 

"We have been saying a good deal about a lodge; I want 
to know what constitutes a lodge?" 

Ans. "A certain number of Free and Accepted Masons 
duly assembled in a room, or place, with the Holy Bible, 



44 

Square and Compass, and other Masonic implements with 
a charter from the Grand Lodge empowering them to 

work." 
"Where did our ancient brethren meet before lodges were 

erected ?" 

Ans. "On the highest hills, and in the lowest vales." 
"Why on the highest hills and the lowest vales?" 
Ans. "The better to guard against cowans and enemies, 
either ascending or descending, that the brethren might have 
timely notice of their approach to prevent being sur- 
prised." 

"What is the form of your lodge?" 

Ans. "An oblong square." 

"How long?" 

Ans. "From east to west." 

"How wide?" 

Ans. "Between north and south." 

"How high ?" 

Ans. "From the surface of the earth to the highest 
heavens." 

"How deep?" 

Ans. "From the surface to the center." 

"What supports your lodge?" 

Ans. "Three large coiumns or pillars." 

"What are their names?" 

Ans. "Wisdom, Strength and Beauty." 

"Why so?" 

Ans. "It is necessary there should be wisdom to con- 
trive, strength to support, and beauty to adorn all great 
and important undertakings, but more especially this of 



ours." 



"Has your lodge any covering?" 

Ans. "It has ; a clouded canopy, or a starry decked 
heaven, where all good Masons hope to arrive." 
"How do they hope to arrive there?" 
Ans. "By the assistance of Jacob's ladder." 
"How many principal rounds has it got?" 
Ans. "Three." 
"What are their names?" 
Ans. "Faith, Hope and Charity/' 
"What do they teach?" 



45 

Ans. "Faith in God, Hope in immortality, and Charity to 
all mankind." 
"Has your lodge any furniture?" 

Ans. "It has ; the Holy Bible, Square, and Compass." 
"To whom do they belong?" 

Ans. "The Bible to God, the Square to the Master, and 
the Compass to the Craft." 
"How explained ?" 

Ans. "The Bible to God, it being the inestimable gift of 
God to man, for his instruction to guide him through the 
rugged paths of life; the Square to the Master, it being the 
proper emblem of his office; the Compass to the Craft, by a 
due attention to which we are taught to limit our desires, 
curb our ambition, subdue our irregular appetites, and keep 
our passions and prejudices in due bonds with all mankind, 
but more especially with the brethren." 

"Has your lodge any ornaments?" 

Ans. "It has ; the mosaic, or chequered pavement, the in- 
dented tessels, the beautiful tessellated border which sur- 
rounds it, with the blazing star in the center." 

"What do they represent?" 

Ans. "Mosaic or chequered pavement represents this 
world, which, though chequered over with good and evil, yet 
brethren may walk together thereon and not stumble; the 
indented tessel, with the blazing star in the center, the mani- 
fold blessings and comforts with which we are surrounded in 
this life, but more especially those which we hope to enjoy 
hereafter; the blazing star, that prudence which ought to 
appear conspicuous in the conduct of every Mason, but more 
especially commemorative of the star which appeared in the 
east, to guide the wise men to Bethlehem, to proclaim the 
birth and the presence of the Son of God." 

"Has your lodge any lights?" 

Ans. "It has three." 

"How are they situated?" 

Ans. "East, west, and south." 

"Has it none in the north?" 

Ans. "It has not." 

"Why so?" 

Ans. "Because this and every other lodge is, or ought to 
be a true representation of King Solomon's Temple, which 



4 6 

was situated north of the ecliptic ; the sun and moon there- 
fore darting their rays from the south, no light was to be 
expected from the north; we, therefore, Masonically, term 
the north a plac±* of darkness." 

"Has your lodge any jewels?" 

Ans. "It has six; three movable and three immovable.'' 

"What are the three movable jewels?" 

Ans. "The Square, Level, and Plumb." 

"What do tfiey teach ?" 

Ans. "The Square, morality; the Level, equality; and the 
Plumb, rectitude of life and conduct." 
"What are the three immovable jewels?" 

Ans. "The rough Ashlar, the perfect Ashlar, and the 
Trestle-board/' 
"What are they?" 

Ans. "The rough Ashlar is a stone in its rough and 
natural state; the perfect Ashlar is also a stone made ready 
by the working tool of the Fellow Craft to be adjusted in the 
building: and the Trestle-board is for the master workman to 
draw his plans and designs upon." 

"What do they represent?" 

Ans. "The rough. Ashlar reoresents man in his rude and 
imperfect state by nature; the perfect Ashlar also represents 
man in that state of perfection to which we all hope to arrive 
by means of a virtuous life and ducation, our own endeavors, 
and the blessing of God. In erecting our temporal building 
we pursue the plans and designs laid down by the master 
workman on his Trestle-board; but in erecting our spiritual 
building we pursue the plans and designs laid down by the 
supreme Geometrician of the universe, in the book of Hfe, 
which we Masonically term our spiritual Trestle-board." 

"Who did you serve?" 

Ans. "My Master." 

"How long ?" 

Ans. "Six days." 

"What did you serve him with?" 

Ans. "Freedom, fervency, and zeal." 

"What do they represent?" 

Ans. "Chalk, charcoal, and earth." 

"Why so?" 



47 

Ans. "There is nothing freer than clutfk, the slightest 
touch of which leaves a trace behind; nothing more fervent 
than heated charcoal, it will melt the most obdurate metals; 
nothing more zealous than the earth to bring forth." 

"How is your lodge situated?" 

Ans. "Due east and west/' 

"Why so ?" 

Ans. "Because the sun rises in the east and sets in the 
west.' : 

"A second reason?" 

Ans. "The gospel was first preached in the east, and is 
spreading to the west." 

"A third reason?" 

Ans. "The liberal arts and sciences began in the east and 
are extending to the west." 

"A fourth reason?" 

Ans. "Because all Churches and Chapels are, or ought to 
be, so situated." 

"Why are all Churches and Chapels so situated?" 

Ans. "Because king Solomon's temple was so situated." 

"Why was king Solomon's temple so situated?" 

Ans. "Because Moses, after conducting the children of 
Israel through the Red Sea, by Divine command erected a 
tabernacle to God, and placed it due east and west; which 
was to commemorate, to the latest posterity, that miraculous 
east wind that wrought their deliverance; and this was an 
exact model of king Solomon's temple. Since which time 
every well regulated and governed lodge is, or ought to be, 
so situated." 

"To whom did our ancient brethren dedicate their lodges?" 

Ans. "To king Solomon." 

"Why so?" 

Ans. "Because king Solomon was our most ancient Grand 
Master." 

"To whom do modern Masons dedicate their lodges?" 

Ans. "To St John the Baptist and St. John the Evangel- 
ist." 

"Why so?" 

Ans. "Because they were the two most ancient Christian 
patrons of Masonry; and since their time, in every well 
regulated & governed lodge there has been a certain point 



48 

within a circle, which circle is bounded on the east and the 
west by two perpendicular and parallel lines, representing the 
anniversary of St. John the Baptist, and St. John the Evan- 
gelist, who were two perfect parallels, as well in Masonry as 
Christianity; on the vertex of which rests the book of the 
Holy Scriptures, supporting Jacob's ladder, which is said to 
reach the watery clouds; and in passing round this circle we 
naturally touch on both these perpendicular parallel lines, as 
well as the book of the Holy Scriptures, and while a Mason 
keeps himself thus circumscribed he cannot materially err." 

[Thus ends the first degree of Masonry, and the reader 
who has read and paid attention to it knows more of Masonry 
than any Entered Apprentice Mason in Christendom, and 
more of this degree than one hundredth part of the Master 
Masons, or even Royal Arch Masons; for very few ever 
attempt to learn the lectures, or even the obligations; they 
merely receive the degrees, and there stop, with the exception 
of a few who are fascinated with the idea of holding an office; 
they sometimes endeavor to qualify themselves to discharge 
the duties which devolve upon them in their respective offices 
The offices of secretary and treasurer are by some considered 
the most important in the lodge, particularly where there is 
much business done.] 




49 

SECOND OR FELLOW CRAFT DEGREE. 



I will now introduce the 
reader to the second degree 
of Masonry. It is generally 
called passing, as will be 
seen in the lecture. I shall 
omit the ceremonies of open- 
ing and closing, as they are 
precisely the same as in the 
first degree, except two 
knocks are used in this de- 
gree, and the door is en- 
tered by the benefit of a pass-word. It is Shibboleth. It 
will be explained in the lecture. 

The candidate, as before, is taken into the preparation 
room, and prepared in the manner following: 

All his clothing taken off, except 
his shirt; furnished with a pair of 
drawers; his right h.east bare; his 
left foot in a slipper, his right bare ; 
a cable-tow twice around his neck; 
semi-hood-winked; in which situa- 
tion he is conducted to the door of 
the lodge, where he gives two 
knocks, when the Senior Deacon 
rises and says: "Worshipful, while 
we are peacably at work on the sec- 
ond degree of Masonry, under the 
influence of faith, hope, and charity, 
the door of the lodge is alarmed." 
Master to Senior Deacon, "Enquire 
the cause of that alarm." [In many 
lodges they come to the door, 
knock, are answered by the Senior 
Deacon, and come in. without their 
being noticed by the Senior Warden 
or Master.] The Senior Deacon 
gives two raps on the inside of the 
door. The candidate gives one 
without; it is answered by the Se- 
nior Deacon with one, when the 
door is partly opened by the Senior 
Deacon, who enquires, "Who cornea 
Dress of Fellow draft here? Who comes here? 

Note.— In modern lodges both eyes are covered, and the 
cable-tow is put around the naked right arm, instead of around 
the neck, see cut 




SO 

The Junior Deacon, who is or ought to be the conductor, 
answers, "A worthy brother who has beei regularly initiated 
as an Entered Apprentice Mason, served a proper time as 
such, and now wishes for further light in Masonry by being 
passed to the degree of Fellow Craft." 

Senior Deacon to Junior Deacon. "Is it of his own free 
will and accord he makes this request?" 

Ans. "It is." 

Senior Deacon to Junior Deacon: "Is he duly and truly 
prepared?" 

Ans. "He is." 

Senior Deacon to Junior Deacon. "Is he worthy and well 
qualified ?" 

Ans. "He is." 

Senior Deacon to Junior Deacon. "Has he made suitable 
proficiency in the preceding degree?" 

Ans. "He has." 

[Very few know any more than they did the night they 
were initiated, have not heard their obligation repeated, nor 
one section of the lecture, and in fact a very small proportion 
of Masons ever learn either.] 

Senior Deacon to Junior Deacon. "By what further rights 
does he expect to obtain this benefit?" 

Ans. "By the benefit of a pass-word." 

Senior Deacon to Junior Deacon. "Has he a pass-word?" 

Ans. "He has not, but I have it for him." 

Senior Deacon to Junior Deacon. "Give it to me. H 

The Junior Deacon whispers in the Senior Deacon's ear, 
"Shibboleth." 

The Senior Deacon says, "The pass is right ; since this is 
the case, you will wait till the Worshipful Master in the east 
is made acquainted with his request, and his answer re- 
turned." 

The Senior Deacon then repairs to the Master and gives 
two knocks, as at the door, which are answered by two by the 
Master, when the same questions are asked, and answers 
returned as at the door, after which the Master says, "Since 
he comes with all these necessary qualifications, let him 
enter this Worshipful Lodge in the name of the Lord and 
take heed on what he enters." As he enters, the angle of 
the square is pressed hard against his naked right breast* 



Si 

t which time the Senior Deacon says, "Brother, when you 
:ntered this lodge the first time, you entered on the point 
)f the compass pressing your naked left breast, which was 
hen explained to you. You now enter it on the angle of the 
.quare pressing your naked right breast, which is to teach 
fou to act upon the square with all mankind, but more 
especially with the brethren." The candidate is then con- 
ducted twice regularly round the lodge, and halted at the 
] unior Warden in the south, where he gives two raps, and is 
answered by two, when the same questions are asked, and 
answers returned as at the door; from thence he is con- 
ducted to the Senior Warden, where the same questions are 
asked and answers returned as before; he is then conducted 
to the Master in the east, where the same questions are asked 
and answers returned as before; the Master likewise demands 
oi him from whence he came and whither he is traveling. 

He answers, "From the west, and traveling to the east." 

The Master asks, "Why do you leave the west and travel 
to the east?" 

Ans. "In search of more light." 

The Master then says to the conductor, "Since this is the 
case, you will please conduct the candidate back to the west 
from whence he came, and put him in care of the Senior 
Warden, who will teach him how to approach the east, the 
place of light, by advancing upon two upright regular steps 
to the second step [his heel is in the hollow of the right foot 
an this degree], his feet forming the right angle of an oblong 
square, and his body erect at the altar before the Worshipful 
Master, and place him in a proper position to take the solemn 
Dath or obligation of a Fellow Craft Mason/* 

The Master then leaves his seat and approaches the kneel- 
ng candidate [the candidate kneels on the right knee, the 
eft forming a square, his left arm as far as the elbow in a 
lorizontal position, and the rest of the arm in a 
vertical position so as to form a square, his arm supported by 
he square held under his elbow] and says, "Brother, you are 
low placed in a proper position to take on you the solemn 
>ath or obligation of a Fellow Craft Mason, which I assure 
'ou as before is neither to affect your religion nor politics; if 
rou are willing to take it, repeat your name an<J say after 



ne" : 



52 

*% A. R, of my own free will and accord, in the presence 
of Almighty God, and this worshipful lodge of Fellow Craft 
Masons, dedicated to God, and held forth to the holy order of 
St. John, do hereby and hereon most solemnly and sincerely 
promise and swear, in addition to my former obligation, that 
I will not give the degree of a Fellow Craft Mason to any 
one of an inferior degree, nor to any other being in the 
known world, except it be to a true and lawful brother or 
brethren Fellow Craft Masons, within the body of a just and 
lawfully constituted lodge of such; and not unto him nor 
unto them, whom I shall hear so to be, but unto him and 
them only whom I shall find so to be after strict trial and 
due examination or lawful information. Furthermore do I 
promise and swear that I will not wrong this lodge nor a 
brother of this degree to the value of two cents, knowingly, 
myself, nor suffer it to be done by others if in my power to 
prevent it. Furthermore do I promise and swear that I will 
support the Constitution of the Grand Lodge of the United 
States, and of the Grand Lodge of this State, under which 
this lodge is held, and conform to all the by-laws, rules, and 
regulations of this or any other lodge of which I may at any 
time hereafter become a member, as far as in my power. 
Furthermore, do I promise and swear that I will obey all 
regular signs and summonses given, handed, sent, or thrown 
to me by the hand of a brother Fellow Craft Mason, or from 
the body of a just and lawfully constituted lodge of such, 
provided that it be within the length of my cable-tow, or 
square and angle of my work. Furthermore, do I promise 
and swear that I will be aiding and assisting all poor and 
penniless brethren Fellow Crafts, their widows and orphans, 
wheresoever disposed round the globe, they applying to me as 
such, as far as in my power without injuring myself or 
family. To all which I do most solemnly and sincerely 
promise and swear without the least hesitation, mental reser- 
vation, or self evasion of mind in me whatever; binding my- 
self under no less penalty than to have my left breast torn 
open and my heart and vitals taken from thence and thrown 
over my left shoulder and carried into the valley of Jehosa- 
phat, there to become a prey to the wild beasts of the field, 
%nd vulture of the air, if ever I should prove willfully guilty 
of violating any part of this my solemn oath or obligation 



53 

of a Fellow Craft Mason; so help me God, and keep me 
steadfast in th; due performance of the same." 

"Detach your hands and kiss the book which is the Holy 
Bible, twice." The bandage is now (by one of the brethren) 
dropped over the other eye, and the Master says, "Brother [at 
the same time laying his hand on the top of the candidate's 
head], what do you most desire?" 

The candidate answers after his prompter, "More light." 

The Master says, "Brethren, form on the square and assist 
in bringing our new made brother from darkness to light. 
'And God said let there be light, and there was light' " 
At this instant all the brethren clap their hands and stamp 
on the floor as in the preceding degree. The Master says to 
the candidate, "Brother, what do you discover different from 
before?" The Master says after a short pause, "You now 
discover one point of the compass elevated above the square, 
which donates light in this degree; but as one is yet in 
obscurity, it is to remind you that you are yet one material 
point in the dark respecting Masonry." The Master steps 
off from the candidate three or four steps, and says, Brother, 
you now discover me as master of this lodge approaching you 
from the east, under the sign and due-guard of a Fellow 
Craft Mason; do as I do as near as you can and keep your 

position." The sign is given by drawing your 
right hand flat, with the palm of it next to 
your breast, across your breast from the left 
to the right side with some quickness, And 
dropping it down by your side; the due-guard 
is given by paising the left arm unt ; l that 
part of it between the elbow and shoulder is 
perfectly horizontal, and raising the rest of 
the arm in a vertical position, so that that 
part of the arm below the elbow and that 
part above it form a square. This is called the 
the due-guard of a Fellow Craft Mason. The 

FeUow G Craft. tw0 &i ven together, are called the signs and 

due-guard of a Fellow Craft Mason, and they 
are never given separately; they would not be recognized by 
a Mason if given separately. The Master, by the time he 
gives his steps, signs, and due-guard, arrives at the candidate 





54 

and says, "Brother, I now present you witb my right hand, 
in token of brotherly love and confidence, and with it the 
pass-grip and word of a Fellow Craft Mason." The pass, 
or more properly the pass-grip, is given by taking each 
other by the right hand, as though going to shake hands, 
and each putting his thumb between the fore and second 
fingers where they join the hand, and pressing the thumb 

between the joints. This is 

the pass-grip of a Fellow 

Craft Mason, the name of it is 

^\\\\ V B^ ^Z^^^lf* Shibboleth. Its origin will be 

-^J^^m^^saS^fX^ Ik explained in the lecture ; the 

pass-grip some give without 
lettering or syllabling, and others give it in the same way 
they do the real grip ; the real grip of a Fellow Craft Mason 
is given by putting the thumb on the joint of the second 
finger where it joins the hand, and crooking your thumb so 
that each can stick the nail of his thumb into the joint of 

the other; this is the real grip of a Fellow Craft Mason; 

the name of it is Jachin, it is giv- 
en in the following manner: If 
you wish to examine a person af- 
ter haying taken each other by 
the grip, ask him, "What is this ?'' 
Ans. "A grip." 

"A grip of what?" 

Ans. "The grip of a Fellow Craft Mason." 

"Has it a name?" 

Ans. "It has. 

"Will you give it to me?" 

* 

Ans. "I did not so receive it, neither can I so impart it" 

"What will you do with it?" 

Ans. "I'll letter it or halve it" 

"Halve it and you begin." 

Ans. "No, begin you." 

"You begin." 

Ans. "J A* 

CHIN." 




55 

Ans. ."JACHIN." 

"Right, brother, Jachin, I greet you." 

As the signs, due-guards, grips, words, pass-words, and 
their several names comprise pretty much all the secrets of 
Masonry, and all the information necessary to pass us as 
Masons, I intend to appropriate a few passages in the latter 
part of this work to the exclusive purpose of explaining 
them; I shall not, therefore, spend much time in examining 
them as I progress. After the Master gives the candidate 
the pass-grip and grip, and their names, he says, "Brother, 
you will rise and salute the Junior and Senior Wardens, as 
such, and convince them that you have been regularly passed 
to the degree of a Fellow Craft Mason, and have got the sign 
and pass-grip, real grip and their names." [I do not here 
express it as expressed in lodges generally; the Master gen- 
erally says, "You will arise and salute the Wardens, &c, and 
convince them, &c, that you have got the sign, pass-grip, and 
word." It is obviously wrong, because the first thing he 
gives is the sign, then due-guard, then the pass-grip, real 
grip, and their names.] While the Wardens are examining 
the candidate, the Master gets an apron, and returns to the 
candidate, and says, "Brother, I now have the honor of pre- 
senting you with a lambskin or white apron as before, which 
I hope you will continue to wear with honor to yourself and 
satisfaction to the brethren; you will please carry it to the 
Senior Warden in the west, who will teach you how to wear 
it as a Fellow Craft Mason." The Senior Warden ties on 
his apron and turns up one corner of the lower end of the 
apron and tucks it under the apron string. The Senior 
Deacon then conducts his pupil to the Master, who has by 
this time resumed his seat in the east, where he has, or ought 
to have, the floor carpet to assist him in his explanations. 
Master to the candidate, "Brother, as you are dressed, it is 
necessary you should have tools to work with. I will there- 
fore present you with the tools of a Fellow Craft Mason. 
They are the plumb, square, and level. The plumb is an 
instrument made use of by operative Masons to raise per- 
pendiculars, the square to square their work, and the level to 
lay horizontals, but we, as Free and Accepted Masons, are 
taught to use them for a more noble and glorious purpose; 
the plumb teaches us to walk uprightly in our several stations 



56 

before God and man, squaring our actions by the square of 
virtue, and remembering that we are traveling on the level of 
time to that undiscovered country from whose bourne no 
traveler has returned. I further present you with three 
precious jewels; their names are Faith, Hope, and Charity; 
they teach us to have faith in God, hope in immortality, and 
charity to all mankind." The Master to the Senior Deacon, 
w You will now conduct the candidate out of the lodge and 
invest him of what he has been divested." After he is 
clothed and the necessary arrangements made for his recep- 
tion, such as placing the columns and floor carpet, if they 
have any, and the candidate is reconducted back to the lodge; 
as he enters the door the Senior Deacon observes, "We are 
now about to return to the middle chamber of King Solo- 
mon's temple" When within the door the Senior Deacon 
proceeds, "Brother, we have worked in speculative Masonry, 
but our forefathers wrought both in speculative and operative 
Masonry; they worked at the building of King Solo- 
mon's temple, and many other Masonic edifices ; they wrought 
&ix days; they did not work on the seventh, because in six 
days God created the heavens and earth and rested on the 
seventh day; the seventh, therefore, our ancient brethren 
consecrated as a day of rest, thereby enjoying more frequent 
opportunities to contemplate the glorious works of creation 
and to adore their great Creator." Moving a step or two, the 
Senior Deacon proceeds, "Brother, the first thing that attracts 
our attention are two large columns, or pillars, one on the 
left hand and the other on the right ; the name of the ane on 
the left hand is Boaz, and denotes strength ; the name of the 
one on the right hand is Jachin, and denotes establishment; 
they collectively allude to a passage in Scripture wherein 
God has declared in his word, 'In strength shall this House 
be established.' " 

These columns are eighteen cubits high, twelve in circum- 
ference, and four in diameter ; they are adorned with two 
large Chapiters, one on each, and these Chapiters are orna- 
mented with net-work, lily-work, and pomegranates; they 
denote unity, peace, and plenty. The net-work, from its con- 
nection, denotes union, the lily, from its whiteness, purity 
and peace, and the pomegranate, from the exuberance of its 
seed, denotes plenty. They also have two large globes or 



57 

balls, one on each ; these globes or balls contain on their con- 
vex surface all the maps and charts of the celestial and ter 
restrial bodies; they are said to be thus extensive to denote 
the universality of Masonry, and that a Mason's charity ought 
to be equally extensive. Their composition is molten, or cast 
brass; they were cast on the river Jordan, in the clay ground, 
between Succoth and Zaradatha, where King Solomon or- 
dered these and all other holy vessels to be cast; they were 
cast hollow, and were four inches, or a hand-breadth, thick; 
they were cast hollow better to withstand inundations and 
conflagrations, were the archives of Masonry, and contained 
the constitution, rolls, and records." The Senior Deacon hav- 
ing explained the columns, he passes between them, advanc- 
ing a step or two, observing as he advances, "Brother, we 
will pursue our travels; the next that we come to is a long, 
winding staircase, with three, five, seven steps, or more." 
The first three allude to the three principal supports in Ma- 
sonry, viz.: wisdom, strength, and beauty; the five steps al- 
lude to the five orders in architecture, and the five human 
senses; the five orders in architecture are the Tuscan, Doric, 
Ionic, Corinthian, and Composite; the five human senses are 
hearing, seeing, feeling, smelling, and tasting, the first three 
of which have ever been highly essential among Masons — 
hearing, to hear the word; seeing, to see the sign; feeling, to 
feel the grip whereby one Mason may know another in the 
dark as well as in the light. The seven steps allude to the 
seven sabbatical years, seven years of famine, seven years in 
building the temple, seven golden candlesticks, seven wonders 
of the world, seven planets, but more especially the seven 
liberal arts and sciences, which are grammar, rhetoric, logic, 
arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy; for this and 
many other reasons the number seven has ever been held U 
high estimation among Masons. Advancing a few steps, tin 
Senior Deacon proceeds, "Brother, the next thing we come U 
is the outer door of the middle chamber of King Solomon's 
lemple, which is partly open, but closely tyled by the Junior 
Warden." [It is the Junior Warden in the south, who repre- 
sents the Tyler at the outer door of the middle chamber of 
King Solomon's temple], who on the approach of the Senior 
Deacon and candidate enquires, "Who comes here? Vviio 
comes here?" 



5» 

The Senior Deacon answers, "A Fellow Craft Mason." 

Junior Warden to Senior Deacon, "How do you expect to 
gain admission?" 

A.ns. "By a pass, and token of a pass." 

junior Warden to Senior Deacon, "Will you give them to 
me?" 

The Senior Deacon or the candidate (prompted by him) 
gives them; this and many other tokens and grips are fre- 
quently given by strangers, when first introduced to each 
Other. If given to a Mason he will immediately return it; 
they can be given by any company unobserved, even by Ma- 
sons, when shaking hands. A pass and token of a pass; the 
pass is the word Shibboleth; the token, alias the pass-grip is 
given as before described, by taking each other by the right 
hand, as if shaking hands, and placing thumb between the 
forefinger and the second finger at the third joint, or where 
they join the hand, and pressing it hard enough to attract 
attention. In the lecture it is called a token, but generally 
called the pass-grip; it is an undeniable fact that Masons ex- 
press themselves so differently, when they mean the same 
thing, that they frequently wholly misunderstand each other. 

After the Junior Warden has received the pass, Shibboleth, 
he enquires, "What does it denote? 

Ans. "Plenty." 

Junior Warden to Senior Deacon, "Why so ?" 

Ans. "From an ear of corn being placed at the water 

ford." 

Junior Warden to Senior Deacon, "Why was this pass in- 
stituted?" 

"In consequence of a quarrel, which had long existed be- 
tween Jeptha, judge of Israel, and the Ephraimites, the latter 
of whom had long been a stubborn, rebellious people, whom 
Jeptha had endeavored to subdue by lenient measures, but to 
no effect The Ephraimites, being highly incensed against 
Jeptha for not being called to fight and share in the rich 
spoils of the Amonitish war, assembled a mighty army and 
passed over the river Jordan to give Jeptha battle; but he, 
being apprised of their approach, called together the men of 
Israel, and put them to flight; and, to make his victorv more 
complete, he ordered guard* to be olaced at the different 



passes on the banks ot :ne river Jordan and commanded, if 
the Ephraimites passed that way, that they should pronounce 
the word Shibboleth, but they, being of a different tribe, pro 
nounced it Seboleth, which trifling defect proved them spies, 
and cost them their lives; and there fell that day at the dif- 
ferent passes on the banks of the river Jordan forty and two 
thousand. This word was also used by our ancient brethren 
to distinguish a friend from a foe, and has since been adopted 
as a proper pass-word, to be given before entering any well 
regulated and governed lodge of Fellow Craft Masons/' "Since 
this is the case, you will pass on to the Senior Warden in the 
west for further examination." As they approach the Senior 
Warden in the west, the Senior Deacon says to the candidate, 
"Brother, the next thing we come to is the inner door of the 
middle chamber of King Solomon's temple, which we find 
partly open, but more closely tyled by the Senior Warden," 
when the Senior Warden enquires, "Who comes here? Who 
comes here ?" 

The Senior Deacon answers, **A Fellow Craft Mason." 
Senior Warden to Senior Deacon, "How do you expect to 
gain admission?" 

Ans. "By the grip and word." 

The Senior Warden to the Senior Deacon, "Will you give 

them to me?" 

They are then given as herein before described. The word 
is Jachin. After they are given the Senior Warden says, 
"They are right, you can pass on to the Worshipful Master 
in the east." As they approach the Master, he enquires, 
"Who comes here? Who comes here?" 

Senior Deacon answers, "A Fellow Craft Mason." 

The Master then says to the candidate, "Brother, you have 
been admitted into the middle chamber of King Solomon's 
temple for the sake of the letter G. It denotes Deity, before 
whom we all ought to bow in reverence, worship and adore. 
It also denotes Geometry, the fifth science, it being that on 
which this degree was principally founded. By Geometry we 
may curiously trace nature through her various windings to 
her most concealed recesses. By it we may discover the 
power, the wisdom, and the goodness of the Grand Artificer 
of the universe, and view with delight the proportions which 



6o 

connect this vast machine. By it we may discover how the 
planets move in their orbits, and demonstrate their various 
revolutions. By it we may account for the return of seasons, 
and the variety of scenes which each season displays to the 
discerning eye. Numberless worlds surround us, all formed 
by the same Divine Architect, which roll through the vast 
expanse, and all conducted by the same unerring law of na- 
ture. A survey of nature, and the observations of her beau- 
tiful proportions first determined man to imitate the divine 
plan, and study symmetry and order. The architect began to 
design ; and the plans which he laid down, being improved by 
experience and time, have produced works which are the 
admiration of every age. The lapse of time, the ruthless hand 
of ignorance, and the devastations of war have laid waste 
and destroyed many valuable monuments of antiquity on 
which the utmost exertions of human genius have been 
employed. Even the temple of Solomon, so spacious and 

magnificent, and constructed by so many celebrated artists, 
escaped not the unsparing ravages of barbarous force. The 

attentive ear receives the sound from the instructive tongue; 
and the mysteries of Freemasonry are safely lodged in the 
repository of faithful breasts. Tools and implements of 
architecture, and symbolic emblems, most expressive, are 
selected by the fraternity to imprint on the mind wise and 
serious truth; and thus, through a succession of ages, are 
transmitted, unimpaired, most excellent tenets of our institu- 
tion." Here ends the work part of the Fellow Craft degree. 
It will be observed that the candidate has received, in this 
place, the second section of the lecture on this degree. This 
course is not generally pursued, but it is much the most in- 
structive method, and when it is omitted I generally conclude 
that it is for want of a knowledge of the lecture. Monitorial 
writers [who are by no means coeval with Masonry] all 
write and copy very much after each other, and they all in- 
serted in their books all those clauses of the several lectures 
which are not considered by the wise ones as tending to 
develop the secrets of Masonry. In some instances they 
change the phraseology a little; in others, they are literal 
extracts from the lectures. This, it is said, is done to facili- 
tate the progress of learners or young Masons when in fact it 
has the contrary effect. All lecture teachers (and there are 



6i 

many traveling about the country with recommendations from 
some of their distinguished brethren) when they come to any 
of those clauses, will say to their pupils: "I have not com- 
mitted that; it is in the Monitor; you can learn it at your 
leisure." This course of procedure subjects the learner to the 
necessity of making his own questions, and, of course, answer- 
ing monitorially, whether the extracts from the lectures are 
literal or not. Again, there is not a perfect sameness in all 
the Monitors, or they could not all get copyrights ; hence the 
great diversity in the lectures as well as the work. The fol- 
lowing charge is, or ought to be, delivered to the candidate 
after he has got through the ceremonies ; but he is generally 
told, "It is in the Monitor, and you can read it at your 
leisure." 

"Brother, being advanced to the second degree of Masonry, 
we congratulate you on your preferment. The internal and 
not the external qualifications of a rr.:\n are what Masonry 
regards. As you increase in knowledge, you will improve in 
social intercourse. It is unnecessary to recapitulate the duties 
which, as a Mason, you are bound to cl^harge, or enlarge on 
the necessity of a strict adherence to them as your own 
experience must have established their value. Our laws and 
regulations you are strenuously to support and be always 
ready to assist in seeing them duly executed. You are not to 
palliate or aggravate the offences of your brethren, but in the 
decision of every trespass against our rules you are to judge 
with candor, admonish with friendship, and reprehend with 
justice. The study of the liberal arts, that valuable branch of 
education, which tends so effectually to polish and adorn the 
mind, is earnestly recommended to your consideration; espe- 
cially the science of geometry, which is established as the 
basis of our art. Geometry or Masonry, originally synony- 
mous terms, being of a divine moral nature, is enriched with 
the most useful knowledge ; while it proves the wonderful 
properties of nature, it demonstrates the more important 
truths of morality. Your past behavior and regular deport- 
ment have merited the honor which we have now conferred ; 
and in your new character it is expected that you will con- 
form to the principles of the order by steadily persevering in 
the practice of every commendable virture. Such is the 
nature of your engagements as a Fellow Craft, and to these 



6a 



duties you are bound by the most sacred ties. 1 

I will now proceed with the lecture on this degree. It Is 
divided into two sections. 



SECTION FIRST. 

"Are you a Fellow Craft Mason?" 
Ans. "I am — try me." 

"By what will you be tried?*' 

Ans. "By the square." 

"Why by the square?" 

Ans. "Because it is an emblem of virtue." 

"What is a square?" 

Ans. "An angle extending to ninety degrees, or the fourth 
part Ox a circle." 

"Where were you prepared to be made a Fellow Craft 
Mason?" 

Ans. "In a room adjacent to the body of a just ana law- 
fully constituted lodge of such, duly assembled in a room or 
place, representing the middle chamber of King Solomon's 
temple." 

"How were you prepared?" 

Ans. "By being divested of all metals; neither naked nor 
clothed ; barefoot nor shod ; hood-winked ; with a cable-tow 
twice round my neck; in which situation I was conducted 
to the door of the lodge, where I gave two distinct knocks." 

What did those two distinct knocks allude to?" 
Ans. "The second degree in Masonry, it being that on 
which I was about to enter." 
"What was said to you from within?" 
Ans. 'Who comes there? Who comes there?" 

"Your answer?" 

Ans. "A worthy brother who has been regularly initiated 
as an Entered Apprentice Mason, served a proper time as 
such, and now wishes for further light in Masonry by being 
passed to the degree of a Fellow Craft." 

"What was then said to you from within?" 

Ans. "I was asked if it was of my own free will and 



03 

accord I made this request ; if I was duly and truly prepared 
worthy, and well qualified, and had made suitable proficiency 
in the preceding degree; all of which being answered in the 
affirmative, I was asked by what further rights I expected to 
obtain so great a benefit." 

"Your answer ?" 

Ans. "By the benefit of a pass-word.* 

"What is that pass- word?" 
Ans. "Shibboleth" 

"What further was said to you from within?" 

Ans. "I was bid to wait till the Worshipful Master in the 

east was made acquainted with my request, and his answer 

returned." 

"After his answer was returned what followed?" 
Ans. "I was caused to enter the lodge." 
"How did you enter?" 

Ans. "On the angle of the square, presented to my naked 
right breast, in the name of the Lord." 

"How were you then disposed of?" 

Ans. "I was conducted twice regularly round the lodge 
and halted at the Junior Warden in the south, where the 
;,ame questions were asked and answers returned as at the 
door. 

"How did the Junior Warden dispose of you?" 
Ans. "He ordered me to be conducted to the Worshipful 
Master in the east, where the same questions were asked and 
answers returned as before, who likewise demanded of me 
from whence I came and whither I was traveling." 

"Your answer?" 

Ans. "From the west, and traveling to the east." 

"Why did you leave the west and travel to the east?" 
Ans. "In search of more light." 

"Hew did the Worshipful then dispose of you?' 
Ans. "He ordered me to be be conducted back to the 
west, from whence I came, and put in care of the Senior 
Warden, who taught me how to approach the east, by advanc- 
ing upon two upright regular steps to the second step, my 
feet forming the right angle of an oblong square, an** «■* 
body erect at the altar before the Worshipful Maste». 



64 

"What did the Worshipful Master do with you.'* 
Ans. "He made a Fellow Craft Mason of me/' 

"How?" 

Ans. "In due form." 

"What was that due form?" 

Ans. "My right knee bare, bent, my left knee forming a 
square, my right hand on the Holy Bible, Square and Com- 
pass, my left arm forming an angle supported by the Square, 
and my hand in a vertical position, in which posture I took 
upon me the solemn oath or obligation of a Fellow Craft 
Mason." [See page 52 for obligation.] 

"After your oath of obligation what was said to you?" 
Ans. "I was asked what I most desired." 

"Your answer?" 
Ans. "More light." 

"On being brought to light, what did you discover different 
from before?" 

Ans. "One point of the Compass elevated above the 
Square, which denoted light in this degree, but as one point 
was yet in obscurity, it was to remind me that I was yet one 
material point in the dark respecting Masonry." 

"What did you next discover ?" 

Ans. "The Worshipful Master approaching me from the 
east, under the sign and due-guard of a Fellow Craft Mason, 
who presented me with his right hand, in token of brotherly 
love and confidence, and proceeded to give me the pass-grip 
and word of a Fellow Craft Mason, and bid me rise and salute 
the Junior and Senior Wardens, and convince them that I had 
been regularly passed to the degree of a Fellow Craft, and 
had the sign, grip, and word of a Fellow Craft Mason." 

"What did you next discover?" 

Ans. "The Worshipful Master approaching me a second 
time from the east, who presented me with a lambskin or 
white apron, which he said he hoped I would continue to wear 
with honor to myself, and satisfaction and advantage to the 
brethren." 

"What were you next presented with?* 

Ans. "The working tools of a Fellow Craft Mason r 

"What are they?" 



85 

Ans. "The Plumb, Square, and Levei. 

'"'What do they teach?" [I think this question ought to be 

"How explained ?"] 

Ans. "The Plumb is an instrument made use of by 
operative Masons to raise perpendiculars, the Square to 
square their work, and the Level to lay horizontals; but we, 
as Free and Accepted Masons, are taught to make use of 
them for more noble and glorious purposes: The Plumb ad- 
monishes us to walk uprightly in our several stations before 
God and man, squaring our actions by the square of virtue, 
and remembering that we are all traveling upon the level of 
time to that undiscovered country from whose bourne no 
traveler returns." 

"What were you next presented with?" 
Ans. "Three precious jewels." 

"What were they?" 

Ans. "Faith, hope, and charity." 

"What do they teach ?" 

Ans. "Faith in God, hope in immortality, and charity to 
all mankind." 

"How were you then disposed of ?" 

Ans. "I was conducted out of the lodge, and invested of 
what I had been divested," 



SECTION SECOND. 

"Have you ever worked as a Fellow Craft Mason?" 
Ans. "I have in speculative; but our forefathers wrought 
both in speculative and operative Masonry." 

"Where did they work?" 

Ans. "At the building of King Solomon'* temple, and 

many other Masonic tdifices." 
"How long did they work?" 
Ans. "Six days." 

"Did they not work on the seventh V 
Ans. "They did not" 

"Why so ?" 

Ans. "Because in six days God created the heavens an* 



6fi 

the earth, and rested on the seventh day; the seventh da>, 
therefore, our ancient brethren consecrated as a day of rest 
from their labors; thereby enjoying more frequent oppor- 
tunities to contemplate the glorious works of creation, and 
adore their great Creator. 1 * 

"Did you ever return to the sanctum sanctorum, or holy of 
holies, of King Solomon's temple?" 
Ans. "I did." 

"By what way?" 

Ans. "Through a long porch or alley." 

"Did anything particular strike your attention on your 
return ?" 

Ano. "There did, viz.: two large columns, or pillars, one 
on the left hand and the other on the right." 

"What was the name of the one on your left hand?" 
Ans. "Boaz, to denote strength." 

"What was the name of the one on your right hand?** 
Ans. "Jachin, denoting establishment." 

"What do they collectively allude to ?" 

Ans. "A passage in Scripture wherein God has declared 
in his word, 'In strength shall this house be established/ " 

"What were their dimensions?" 

Ans. "Eighteen cubits in height, twelve in circumference, 
and four in diameter." 

"Were they adorned with anything?" 

Ans. "They were, with two large Chapiters, one on each." 

"Were they ornamented with anything?" 

Ans. "They were, with wreaths of net-work, lily-work, 
and pomegranates." 

"What do they denote?" 

Ans. "Unity, .peace, and plenty." 

"Why so?" 

Ans. "Net-work, from its connection, denotes union; lily- 
work, from its whiteness and purity, denotes peace; and 
pomegranates from the exuberance of its seed, denotes plenty." 

"Were those columns adorned with anything further?" 

Ans. "They were, viz.: two large globes or balls, one or 
<tach." 



07 

"Did they contain anything?" 

Ans. "They did, viz.; All the maps and charts of the 
celestial and terrestrial bodies." 

"Why are they said to be so extensive?" 

Ans "To denote the universality of Masonry, and that 
a Maseru's charity ought to be equally extensive." 

"What was their composition?" 

Ans. "Moken or cast brass." 

"Who cast them?" 

Ans "Our Grand Master, Hiram Abiff." 

"Where were they cast?" 

Ans. "On the banks of the river Jordan, in the clay 
ground between Succoth and Zaradatha, where King Solomon 
ordered these and all other holy vessels to be cast." 

"Were they cast sound or hollow?" 

Ans. "Hollow." 

"What was their thickness?" 

Ans. "Four inches or a hand-breadth." 

"Why were they cast hollow ?" 

Ans. "The better to withstand inundations and confla- 
grations; were the archives of Masonry and contained the 
constitution, rolls and records." 

"What did you next come to?" 

Ans, "A long, winding stair-case, with three, five, seven 
steps or more." 

"What do the three steps allude to ?" 

Ans. "The three principal supports in Masonry, viz. : 
wisdom, strength and beauty." 

"What do the five steps allude to?" 

Ans. "The five orders in architecture, and the five human 



senses." 






"What are the five orders in architecture?" 

Ans. "The Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian and Com- 
posite. 1 

"What are the five human senses? 

Ans. "Hearing, seeing, feeling, smelling and tasting, the 
first three of which have ever been deemed highly essential 
among Masons: hearing, to hear the woi*d; seeing, to see 
the sign, and feeling, to feel the grip, whereby one Mason 
may know another in the dark as well as the light. 



<58 

"What do the seven steps allude to?" 

Ans. "The seven sabbatical years, seven years of faming 
seven years in building the Temple, seven golden candle- 
sticks, seven wonders of the world, seven planets ; but more 
especially the seven liberal arts and sciences, which are gram- 
mar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, geometry, music and astrono- 
my. For these and many other reasons the number seven 
has ever been held in high estimation among M^s^ns." 

"What did you next come to ?" 

Ans. "The outer door of the middle chamber of tLin® 
Solomon's Temple, which I found partly open, but closdiy 
tyled by the Junior Warden." 

"How did yoju gain admission?" 

Ans. "By a pass and token of a pd 

"What was the name of the pass?" 

Ans. "Shibboleth." 

"What does it denote?" 

Ans, "Plenty." 

"Why so?" 

Ans. "From an ear of corn being placed at the water ford." 

"Why was this pass instituted?" 

Ans. "In consequence of a quarrel which had long ex- 
isted between Jeptha, judge of Israel, and the Ephraimites; 
the latter of wjiom had long been a stubborn rebellious 
people whom Jeptha had endeavored to subdue by lenient 
measures, but to no effect. The Ephraimites being highly 
incensed against Jeptha for not being called to fight and 
share in the rich spoils of the Ammonitish war, assembled a 
mighty army and passed over the river Jordan to give Jeptha 
battle, but, he^ being apprised of their approach, called to- 
gether the men of Israel, and gave them battle, and put 
them to flight; and, to make his victory more complete, he 
ordered guards to be placed at the different passes on the 
banks of the river Jordan, and commanded, if the Ephraim- 
ites passed that way, that they should pronounce the word 
Shibboleth; but they, being of a different tribe, pronounced 
it Seboleth; which trifling defect proved them spies, and 
cost them their lives: and there fell that day at the different 
passes on the banks of the river Jordan, forty and two thou 
sand. This word was also used by our ancient brethren to 



6p 

distinguish a friend from foe, and has since been adopted 
as a proper pass- word to be given before entering any well 
regulated and governed lodge of Fellow Craft Masons." 

"What did you next come to?" 

Ans. "The inner door of the middle chamber of King 
Solomon's Temple, which I found partly open, but closely 
tyled by the Senior Warden." 

"How did you gain admission?" 

Ans. "By the grip and word." 

"How did the Senior Warden dispose of you ?" 

Ans. "He ordered me to be conducted to the Worshipful 
Master in the east, who informed me that I had been ad- 
mitted into the middle chamber of King Solomon's Temple, 
for the sake of the letter G." 

"Does it denote anything?" 

Ans. "It does. Deity, before whom we should all bow 
with reverence, worship and adore. It also denotes geom- 
etry, the fifth science; it being that on which this degree 
was principally founded." 

Thus ends the second degree of Masonry. 



THE THIRD, OR MASTER MASON'S DEGREE. 

The traditional ac- 
count of the death and 
several burials, and res- 
urrection of Hiram 
| ^iff, the widow's son 
as hereafter narrated], 
^ idmitted as facts, this 
degree is certainly very 
interesting. The Bible 
informs us that there 
was a person of that name employed at the building of 

King Solomon's Temple; but neither the Bible, the writings 
of Josephus, nor any other writings, however ancient, of 
which I have any knowledge, furnish any information re- 
specting his death. It certainly is very singular, that a 
man so celebrated as Hiram Abiff, was an arbiter between 
Solomon, king of Israel, and Hiram, king of Tyre, nniver- 




70 

sally acknowledged as the third most distinguished man 
then living, and in many respects the greatest man in the 
world, should pass off the stage of action in the presence of 
King Solomon, three thousand three hundred grand over- 
seers, and one hundred and fifty thousand workmen, with 
whom he had spent a number of years, and neither King 
Solomon, his bosom friend, nor any other among his nu- 
merous friends even recorded his death or anything about 
him. I make these remarks now, hoping that it may induce 
some person who has time and capacity to investigate the 
subject, and promulgate the result of his investigation. I 
shall let the subject rest where it is, at present; it is not 
intended that it should form any part of this little volume. 
The principal object of this work is to lay before the world 
a true history of Freemasonry, without saying anything for 
or against it 

A person who has received the two preceding degrees, 
and wishes to be raised to the sublime degree of a Master 
Mason, is tthe lodge being opened as in the preceding de- 
grees] conducted from the preparation room to the door, 

[the manner of preparing him is 
particularly explained in the lec- 
ture] where he gives three distinct 
knocks, when the Senior Warden 
rises and says, "Worshipful, while 
we are peaceably at work on the 
third degree of Masonry, under the 
influence of humanity, brotherly 
love, and affection, the door of our 
lodge appears to be alarmed/' 

The Master to the Senior Dea- 
con, "Brother Senior, enquire the 
cause of that alarm." 

The Senior Deacon then steps to 
the door and answers the three 
knocks that have been given by 
three more: [these knocks are much 
louder than those given on any 
occasion, other than that of the admission of candidates in the 
several degrees] one knock is then given without and 




71 

answered by one within, when, the door is partly opened 
and the Junior Deacon asks, "Who comes there? Who comes 
there? Who comes there?" 

The Senipr Deacon answers, "A worthy brother who 
has been regularly initiated as an Entered Apprentice Ma- 
son, passed to the degree of a Fellow Craft, and now wishes 
for further light in Masonry by being raised to the sub- 
lime degree of a Master Mason." 

Junior Deacon to Senior Deacon, "Is it of his own free 
will and accord he makes this request?" 

Ans. "It is." 

Junior Deacon to Senior Deacon, "Is he duly and truly 
prepared." 

Ans. "He is." 

Junior Deacon to Senior Deacon, "Is he worthy and well 
qualified?" 

Ans. "He is." 

Junior Deacon to Senior Deacon, "Has he made suitable 
proficiency in the preceding degrees?" 

Ans. "He has." 

Junior Deacon to Senior Deacon, "By what further rights 
does he expect to obtain this benefit?" 

Ans. "By the benefit of a pass-word." 

Junior Deacon to Senior Deacon, "Has he a pass-word?" 

Ans. "He has not, but I have got it for him." 

The Junior Deacon to the Senior Deacon, "Will you give 
it to me?" 

The Senior Deacon then whispers in the ear of the Junior 
Deacon, "Tubal Cain." 

Junior Deacon says, "The pass is right. Since this is 
the case, you will wait till the Worshipful Master be made 
acquainted with his request and his answer returned." 

The Junior Deacon then repairs to the Master and gives 
three knocks as at the door; after answering of which, the 
same questions are asked and answers returned as at the 
door, when the Master says, "Since he comes endued 
with all these necessary qualifications, let him enter this 
worshipful lodge, in the name of the Lord, and take heed 
on what he enters." 

The Junior Deacon returns to the door and says, "Let 



72 

him enter <his worshipful lodge, in the name of the Lord, 
and take heed on what he enters." 

In entering, both points of the compass are pressed against 
his naked right and left breasts, when the Junior Deacon 
stops the candidate and says, "Brother, when you first entered 
this lodge, you were received on the point of the compass, 
pressing your naked left breast, which was then explained to 
you; when you entered it the second time you were received 
on the angle of the square, which was also explained to 
you ; on entering now you are received on the two ex- 
treme points of the compass, pressing your right and left 
breasts, which are thus explained: As the most vital parts 
of man are contained between the two breasts, so are the 
most valuable tenets of Masonry contained between the two 
extreme points of the compass, which are virtue, morality, 
aiid brotherly love." 

The Senior Deacon then conducts the candidate three times 
regularly round the lodge. [I wish the reader to observe, that 
on this, as well as every other degree, that the Junior War- 
den is the first of the three principal officers that the can- 
didate passes, traveling with the sun when he starts round 
the lodge, and that as he passes the Junior Warden, Sen- 
ior Warden and Master, the first time going round, they 
each give one rap, the second time two raps, and third 
time three raps each. The number of raps given on those 
occasions are the same as the number of the degree, except 
the first degree, on which three are given, I always 
thought improperly.] During the time the candidate is trav- 
eling round the room, the Master reads the following pas- 
sages of Scripture, the conductor and candidate traveling 
and the Master reading so that the traveling and reading 
terminate at the same time : 

"Remember now thy Creator in the days of thy youth, 
while the evil days come not, nor the years draw nigh 
when thou shalt say, I have no pleasure in them while 
the sun or the light, or the moon, or the stars be not 
darkened, nor the clouds return after the rain ; in the day 
when the keepers of the house shall tremble, and the strong 
men shall bow themselves, and the grinders shall cease be- 
cause they are few, and those that look out of the windows 



73 

be darkened, and the doors shall be shut in the streets.; 
when the sound of the grinding is low, and he shall rise 
up at the voice of the bird, and all the daughters of music 
shall be brought low. Also, when they shall be afraid of that 
which is high, and fears shall be in the way, and the almond 
tree shall flourish, and the grasshopper shall be a burden, 
and desire shall fail; because man goeth to his long home, 
and the mourners go about the streets ; or ever the silver 
cord be loosed, or the golden bowl be broken, or the pitcher 
be broken at the fountain, or the wheel at the cistern. Then 
shall the dust return to the earth as it was; and the spirit 
shall return unto God who gave it." 

The conductor and candidate halt at the Junior Warden 
in the South, where the same questions are asked and an- 
swers returned as at the door. He is then conducted to" the 
Senior Warden in the west, where the same questions art 
asked and answers returned as before ; from whence he is 
conducted to the Worshipful Master in the east, who asks 
the same questions and receives the same answers as before, 
and who likewise asks the candidate from whence he came, 
and whither he is traveling. 

Ans. "From the west, and traveling to the east." 

"Why do you leave the west, and travel to the east?" 

Ans. "In search of more light." 

The Master then says to the Senior Deacon, "You will 
please conduct him back to the west, from whence he came 
and put him in care of the Senior Warden, and request him 
to teach the candidate how to approach the east, by advancing 
upon three upright, regular steps to the third step, his feet 
forming a .square, his body erect at the altar, before the 
Worshipful Master, and place him in a proper position to 
take upon him the solemn oath or obligation of a Master 
Mason." 

The Master then comes to the candidate and says, "Broth- 
er, you are now placed in a proper position [the lecture 
explains it] to take upon yon the solemn oath or obligation 
of a Master Mason, which I assure you, as before, is neither 
to affect your religion or politics. If vou are willing to 
take it, repeat your name and say after me :" 

I, A. B., of my own free will and accord, in the presence 



74 

of Almighty God, and this worshipful lodge of Master Ma- 
sons, dedicated to God, and held forth to the holy order of 
St John, do hereby and hereon most solemnly and sincerely 
promise and swear, in addition to my former obligations, 
that I will not give the degree of a Master Mason to any of 
an inferior degree, nor to any other being in the known 
world, except it be to a true and lawful brother or brethren 
Master Masons, within the body of a just and lawfully con- 
stituted lodge of such; and not unto him nor unto them 
whom I shall hear so to be, but unto him and them only 
whom I shall find so to be, after strict trial and due examina- 
tion, or lawful information received. Furthermore do I prom- 
ise and swear, that I will not give the Master's word which 
I shall hereafter receive, neither in the lodge nor out of 

it, except it be on the five points of fellowship, and then 
not above my breath. Furthermore do I promise and swear, 
that I will not give the grand hailing sign of distress except I 
am in real distress, or for the benefit of the Craft when at 
work; and should I ever see that sign given or the word ac- 
companying it, and the person who gave it appearing to be 
in distress I will fly to his reliet at the risk of my life, should 
there be a greater probability of saving his life than losing 
my own. Furthermore do I promise and swear that I will not 
wrong this lodge, nor a brother of this degree to the value 
of one cent, knowingly, myself, or suffer it to be done by 
others, if in my power to prevent it. Furthermore do I 
promise and swear, that I will not be at the initiating, passing 
and raising a candidate at one communication, without a reg- 
ular dispensation from the Grand Lodge for the same. 

Furthermore do I promise and swear that I will not be at 
the initiating, passing, or raising a candidate in a clandestine 
lodge, I knowing it to be such. Furthermore do I promise 
and swear that I will not be at the initiating of an old man in 
dotage, a young man in nonage, an Atheist, irreligious liber- 
tine, idiot, mad-man, hermaphrodite, or woman. Further- 
more do I promise and swear that I will not speak evil of a 
brother Master Mason, neither behind his back nor before 
his face, but will apprise him of all approaching danger, if in 
my power. Furthermore do I promise and swear that I will 
not violate the chastity of a Master Mason's wife, mother. 



75 

sister, or daughter. I knowing them to be such, nor suffer it 
to be done by others, if in my power to prevent it. 

Furthermore do I promise and swear that I will support the 

constitution of the Grand Lodge of the state of , under 

which the lodge is held, and conform to all the by-laws, rules, 
and regulations of this or any other lodge of which I may at 
any time hereafter become a member. 

Furthermore do I promise and swear that I will obey all 
regular signs, summonses, or tokens given, handed, sent, or 
thrown to me from the hand of a brother Master Mason, or 
from the body of a just and lawfully constituted lodge of 
such, provided it be within the length of my cable-tow. 

Furthermore do I promise and swear that a Master Ma- 
son's secrets, given to me in charge as such, and I knowing 
them to be such, shall remain as secure and inviolable in my 
breast as in his own, when communicated to me, murder and 
treason excepted; and they left to my own election. 

Furthermore do I promise and swear that I will go on a 
Master Mason's errand whenever required, even should I 
have to go bare-foot and bare-headed, if within the length of 
my cable-tow. 

Furthermore do I promise and swear that I will always 
remember a brother Master Mason when on my knees offer- 
ing up my devotions to Almighty God. 

Furthermore do I promise and swear that I will be aiding 
and assisting all poor, indigent Master Masons, their wives 
and orphans, wheresoever disposed around the globe, as far 
as in my power, without injuring myself or family materially. 

Furthermore do I promise and swear that if any part of 
my solemn oath or obligation be omitted at this time, that I 
will hold myself amenable thereto whenever informed. To 
all which I do most sincerely promise and swear, with a fixed 
and steady purpose of mind in me to keep and perform the 
same, binding myself under no less penalty than to have my 
body severed in two in the midst, and divided to the north 
and south, my bowels burnt to ashes in the center, and the 
ashes scattered before the four winds of heaven, that there 
might not the least track or trace of remembrance remain 
among men- or Masons, of so vile and perjured a wretch ac J 



76 

should be, were I ever to prove willfully guilty of violating 
any part of this my solemn oath or obligation of a Maste* 
Mason. So help me God, and keep me steadfast in the due 
performance of the same. 

The Master then asks the candidate, "What do you most 
desire?" 

The candidate answers after his prompter, "More light" 

The bandage which was tied round his head in the prepara- 
tion room is, by one of the brethren who stands behind him 
for that purpose, loosened and put over both eyes, and he is 
immediately brought to light in the same manner as in the 
preceding degree, except three stamps on the floor and three 
claps of the hands are given in this degree. On being 
brought to light, the Master says to the candidate, "You first 
discover, as before, three great lights in Masonry, by the 
assistance of three lesser, with this difference : both points of 
the compass are elevated above the square, which denotes to 
you that you are about to receive all the light that can be 
conferred on you in a Master's lodge." The Master steps 
back from the candidate and says, "Brother, you now dis- 
cover me, as Master of this lodge, approaching you from the 
east, under the sign and due-guard of a Master Mason. "The 

sign is given by raising both hands and arms 
to the elbows, perpendicularly, one on each 
side of the head, the elbows forming a 
square. The words accompanying this sign, 
in case of distress, are, "O Lord, my God ! is 
there no help for the widow's son?" As the 
last words drop from your lips, you let your 
hands fall, in that manner best calculated to 
indicate solemnity. King Solomon is said to 
have made this exclamation on the receipt of 
the information of the death of Hiram Abiff. 
Grand HMiinff Masons are all charged never to give the 
tress. words except in the dark, when the sign can- 

not be seen. 

Here Masons differ very much ; some contend that Solo- 
mon gave this sign and made this exclamation when in- 

HNot*. — The sign as now given Is shown on the next nage. 





77 

formed of Hiram's death, and work accordingly in their 
lodges. Others say the sign was given and the exclamation 
made at the grave, when Solomon went to raise Hirain, and, 
of course, they work accordingly; that is to say, the Master 
who governs the lodge, holding the latter opinion, gives the 
stgn, etc., at the grave, when he goes to raise the body, and 
vice versa. 

The Due Guard is made by holding 
both hands in front, palms down, as 
shown in cut, and alludes to the manner 
of holding the hanas while taking the ob- 
ligation of Master Mason. 

The Penal Sign is given by putting the 
right hand to the left side of the bowels, 
the hand open, with the thumb next to 
the belly, and drawing it across the belly, 
and letting it fall; this is done tolerably 
quick. This alludes to the penalty of the 
obligation : "Having my body severed in 
twain," etc. See page 75. After the 
Master has given the sign and due guard.. 
tw_ r, a p on «i ^.o-n which does not take more than a minute, 

Doe Guard. Penal fcsign. ((T ^ . T A . . 

Master Mason, he says, Brother, I now present you with 
my right hand, in token of brotherly love and affection, and 
*rith it the pass-grip and word." 

The pass-grip is given by 
pressing the thumb between the 
joints of the second and third 
fingers where they join the hand; 
the word or name is Tubal 
Cain. It is the pass-word to the 
Master's degree. The Master, after giving the candidate the 
pass-grip and word, bids him rise and salute the Junior and 
Senior Wardens, and convince them that he is an obligated 
Master Mason, and is in possession of the pass-grip and 
word. While the Wardens are examining the candidate, the 
Master returns to the east and gets an apron, and, as he re- 
turns to the candidate, one of the Wardens (sometimes 
both) says to the Master, "Worshipful, we are satisfied that 

Bro. is an obligated Master Mason." The Master 

then says to the candidate, "Brother, I now have the honor to 
present you with a lamb- skin or white aprcn, as before, which 
I hope you will continue to wear, with credit to yourself and 
satisfaction and advantage to the brethren; you will please 
carry it to the Senior Warden in the west, who will teach you 
how to wear it as a Master Mason. 
Th<* Senior Warden ties on the apron and lets the flapa 




78 

fall down before, in its natural and common situation.^ 

The Master returns to the seat and the candidate is con* 
ducted to him. Master to candidate, "Brother, I perceive you 
are dressed, it is of course necessary you should have tools 
to work with. I will now present you with the working tools 
of the Master Mason, and explain their use to you. The 
working tools of a Master Mason are all the implements of 
Masonry indiscriminately, but more especially the trowel. 
The trowel is an instrument made use of by operative masons 
to spread the cement which unites a building into one mass, 
but we, as Free and Accepted Masons, are taught to make 
use of it for the more noble and glorious purpose of spread- 
ing the cement of brotherly love and affection; that cement 
which unites us into one sacred band or society of friends 
and brothers, among whom no contention should ever exist 
but that noble contention, or, rather, emulation, of who can 
best work or best agree. I also present you with three 
precious jewels; their names are Humanity, Friendship, and 
Brotherly Love. 

Brother, you are not invested with all the secrets of this 
degree, nor do I know whether you ever will be until I know 
how you withstand the amazing trials and dangers that await 
you. 

You are now about to travel, to give us a specimen of 
your fortitude, perseverance, and fidelity in the preservation 
of what you hr.ve already received. Fare you well, and may 
the Lord be with you and support you through all your trials 
and difficulties." [In some lodges they make him pray before 
he starts.] The candidate is then conducted out of the lodge, 
clothed, and returns ; as he enters the door his conductor 
says to him, "Brother, we are now in a place representing 
the sanctum sanctorum, or holy of holies, of King Solomon's 
temple. It was the custom of our Grand Master, Hiram 
Abiff, every day at high twelve, when the Crafts were from 
labor to refreshment, to enter into the sanctum sanctorum, 
and offer up his devotions to the ever living God. Let us, in 
imitation of him, kneel and pray." They then kneel and the 
conductor says the following prayer: 

"Thou, O God, knowest our down-sitting and up-rising, 
and understandest our thoughts afar off, shield and defend 



79 

us from the evil intentions of our enemies, and support us 
under the trials and afflictions which we are destined to 
endure while, traveling through this vale of tears. Man that 
is born of a woman is of few days and full of trouble. He 
cometh forth as a flower, and is cut down, he fleeth also as a 
shadow, and continueth not. Seeing his days are determined, 
the number of months are with thee, thou hast appointed his 
bounds that he cannot pass; turn from him that he may rest, 
till he shall accomplish his day. For there is hope of a tree, 
if it be cut down, that it yiill sprout again, and that the 
tender branch thereof will not cease. But man dieth and 
wasteth away; yea, man giveth up the ghost, and where is he? 
As the waters fall from the sea, and the flood decayeth and 
drieth up, so man lieth down and riseth not up till the 
heavens shall be no more. Yet, O Lord, have compassion oo 
the children of thy creation; administer unto them comfort in 
time of trouble, and save them with an everlasting salvation. 
Amen, so mote it be." 

They then rise, and the conductor says to the candidate: 
"Brother, in further imitation of our Grand Master, Hiram 
Abiff, let us retire at the south gate." They then advance to 
the Junior Warden [who represents Jubela, one of the ruf- 
fians], who exclaims, "Who comes here?" [The room is 
dark, or the candidate hoodwinked.] The conductor answers, 
"Grand Master, Hiram Abiff." 

''Our Grand Master, Hiram Abiff!" exclaims the ruffian; 
"he is the very man I wanted to see." [Seizing the candidate 
by the throat at the same time, and jerking him about with 
violence.] 'Give me the Master Mason's word or I'll take 
your life I" The conductor replies, "I cannot give it now, but 
if you will wait till the Grand Lodge assembles at Jerusalem, 
if you are found worthy, you shall then receive it, otherwise 
you cannot." The ruffian then gives the candidate a blow 
with the twent3'-four inch gauge across the throat, on which 
he ilecl to the west gate, where he was accosted by the second 
ruffian, Jnbelo, with more violence, and on his refusal to com- 
ply with his request, he gave him a severe blow with the 
square across his breast, on which he attempted to make his 
escape at the east gate, where he was accosted by the third 
ruffian, Jubelum, with still more violence, and on refusing to 



8o 

comply with his request, the ruffian gave him a violent blow 
with the common gavel on the forehead, which brought him 




to the floor; on which one of them exclaimed, "What shall 
we do ? We have killed our Grand Master, Hiram Abiff !" 

Another answers, "Let us carry him out of the east gate, 
and bury him in the rubbish till low twelve, and then meet 
and carry him a westerly course and bury him." 

The candidate is taken up in a blanket, on which he fell, 
and carried to the west end of the lodge, and covered up and 
left; by this time the Master has resumed his seat [King Solo- 
mon is supposed to arrive at the temple at this juncture] and 
calls to order, and asks the Senior Warden the cause of all 
that confusion. 

The Senior Warden answers, "Our Grand Master, Hiram 
Abiff, is missing, and there are no plans or designs laid down 
on the Trestle-board for the Craft to pursue their labors." 

The Master, alias King Solomon, replies, "Our Grand Mas- 
ter missing! Our Grand Master has always been very punc- 
tual in his attendance; I fear he is indisposed; assemble the 
Crafts, and search in and about the temple, and see if he can 
be iound. 

They all shuffle about the floor awhile, when the Master 
?a!1s them to order and asks the Senior Warden, "What sue- 



8i 

cess?" He answers, "We cannot find our Grand Master, my 
lord." 

The Master 'then orders the Secretary to call the roll of 
workmen and see whether any of them are missing. 

The Secretary calls the roll and says, "I have called the 
roll, my lord, and find that there are three missing, viz.: 
Jubela, Jubelo, and Jubelum." 

His lordship then observed, 'This brings to my mind a 
circumstance that took place this morning. Twelve Fellow 
Crafts, clothed in white gloves and aprons, in token of their 
innocence, came to me and confessed that they twelve, with 
three others, had conspired to extort the Master Mason's 
word from their Grand Master, Hiram Abiff, and in case of 
refusal to take his life. They twelve had recanted, but feared 
the other three had been base enough to carry their atrocious 
designs into execution." 

Solomon then ordered twelve Fellow Crafts to be drawn 
from the bands of the workmen, clothed in white gloves and 
aprons, in token of their innocence, and sent three east, three 
west, three north, and three south in search of the ruffians, 
and if found to fetch them forward. 

Here the members all shuffle about the floor awhile, and fall 
in with a reputed traveler, and inquire of him if he had seen 
any traveling men that way; he tells them that he has seen 
three that morning near the coast of Jop^-. who from their 
dress and appearance were Jews, ancr who were workmen 
from the temple, inquiring for a passage to Ethiopia, but 
were unable to obtain one in consequence of an embargo 
which had recently been laid on all the shipping, and had 
turned back into the country. 

The Master now calls them to order again, and asks the 
Senior Warden, 4 'What success?" He answers by relating 
* what had taken place. 

Solomon observes, "I had this embargo laid to prevent the 
ruffians from making their escape," and adds, "You will go 
and search again, and search till you find them, if possible, 
and if they are not found the twelve who confessed shall be 
considered as the reputed murderers and suffer accordingly." 

The members all start again and shuffle about awhile. 



until one of them, as if by accident, finds the body of Hiram 
Abiff, alias the candidate, and hails his traveling companions, 
who join him, and while they are hammering out something 
over the candidate the three reputed ruffians, who are seated 
in a private corner near the candidate, are heard to exclaim in 
the following manner: 

First, Jubela — "O that my throat had been cut across, my 
tongue torn out, and my bodv burled in the rough sands of 
the sea, at low water mark, where the tide ebbs and flows 
twice in twenty-four hours, ere I had been accessory to the 
death of so good a man as our Grand Master, Hiram Abiff!" 

The second, Jubelo — "O that my left breast had been torn 
open and my heart and vitals taken from thence and thrown 
over my left shoulder, carried into the valley of Jehosaphat, 
and there to become a prey to the wild beasts of the field and 
vultures of the air, ere I had conspired the death of so good a 
man as our Grand Master, Hiram Abiff !" 

The third, Jubelum — "O that my body had been severed in 
two in the midst, and divided to the north and south, my 
bowels burnt to ashes in the center, and the ashes scattered 
by the four winds of heaven, that there might not the least 
track or remembrance remain among men, or Masons, of so 
vile and perjured a wretch as I am; ah, Jubela and Jubelo, it 
was I that struck him harder than you both. It was I that 
gave him the fatal blow; it was I that killed him outright;" 

The three Fellow Crafts who had stood by the candidate 
all this time, listening to the ruffians, whose voices they rec- 
ognized, say, one to the other: 

"What shall we do ; there are three of them, and only three 
of us?" 

"It is," said one, in reply ; "our cause is good, let us seize 

them." 

On which they rush forward, seize and carry them to the 
Master, to whom they relate what had passed. The Master 
then addresses them in the following manner [they in many 
lodges kneel or lie down, in token of their cjuilt and oeni- 

tencel : 

"Well, Jubela, what have you got tc >ay to. "oursdf, 
guilty or not guilty ?" 



Ans. "Guilty, my lord" 

"Jubelo, guilty or not guilty?" 

Ans. "Guilty, my lord." 

"Jubelum, guilty or not guilty?" 

Ans. "Guilty, my lord." 

The Master, to the three Fellow Crafts who took them: 

"Take them without the west gate of the temple and have 
them executed according to the several imprecations of their 
own mouths." 

They are then hurried off to the west end of the room. 
Here this part of the farce ends. The Master then orders 
fifteen Fellow Crafts to be selected from the bands of work- 
men, and sent, three east, three west, three north, three south, 
and three in and about the temple, in search of their Grand 
Master, Hiram Abiff [in some lodges they send only twelve, 
when their own lectures say fifteen were sent], and charges 
them, if they find the body, to examine carefully on and about 
it for the Master's word or a key to it. The three that travel 
a westerly course come to the candidate, and finger about him 
a little, and are called to order by the Master, when they 
report that they had found the grave of their Grand Master, 
Hiram Abiff, and, on moving the earth till they come to the 
body, they involuntarily found their hands raised in this po- 
sition (showing it at the same time; it is the due-guard of 
this degree), to guard their nostrils against the offensive 
effluvia which arose from the grave, and that they had 
searched carefully on and about the body for the Master's 
word, but had not discovered anything but a faint resemblance 
of the letter G on the left breast. The Master, on the receipt 
of this information (raising himself), raises his hands three 
several times above his head (as herein before described) and 
■exclaims, "Nothing but a faint resemblance of the letter G! 
That is not the Master's word nor a key to it, I fear the 
Master's word is forever lost! Nothing but a faint resem- 
blance to the letter G! That is not the Master's word nor a 
key to it. I fear the Master's word is forever lost! [The 
third acclamation is different from the other two; attend to 
it. It has been described on page 76.] Nothing but a faint 
resemblance of the letter G! That is not the Master's wonjl 



84 

dor a key to it. O Lord, my God, is there no help for the 
widow's son?" 

The Master then orders the Junior Warden to summon a 
lodge of Entered Apprentice Masons, and repair to the grave 
and try to raise their Grand Master by the Entered Appren- 
tice's grip. They go to the candidate and take hold of his 
forefinger and pull it; return and tell the Master that they 
could not raise him by the Entered Apprentice's grip ; that 
the skin cleaved from the bone. A lodge of Fellow Crafts 
are then sent, who act as before, except that they pull the 
candidate's second finger. The Master then directs the Senior 
Warden (generally) to summon a lodge of Master Masons, 
and says, "I will go with them myself in person, and try to 
raise the body by the Master's grip, or lion's paw." [Some 
say by the strong grip, or lion's paw.] They then all assem- 
ble round the candidate, the Master having declared that the 
first word spoken after the body was raised should be adopted 

as a substitute for the Master's word, for the government o^ 
Master Masons' lodges in all future generations. He pro- 
ceeds to raise the candidate, alias the representative of the 
dead body of Hiram Abiff. He (the candidate) is raised on 
jvhat is called the five points of fellowship, which are fool to 

foot, k'-re to knee, breast to breast; hand to back and mouth 

to ear. This is done by putting the 

inside of your right foot to the inside 
of the right foot of the person to whom you 
are going to give the word, the inside of your 
knee to his, laying your right breast against 
his, your left hands on the back of each 
other, and your mouths to each other's right 
ear (in which position alone you are per- 
mitted to give the word), and whisper the 
word Mahhah- 

bone. The Mas- 
ter's grip is 

given by taking hold of each 

other's hand as though you 

were going to shake hands,, and 

sticking the nails of each oi 1 your fingers iuto the joint of the 

other's wrist where it unites with the han& In this position 





85 

the candidate is raised, he keeping his whole body stiff, as 
though dead. The Master, in raising him, is assisted by 
some of the brethren, who take hold of the candidate by the 
arms and shoulders ; as soon as he is raised to his feet, they 
step back and the Master whispers the word Mah-hah-bone 
in his ear, and causes the candidate to repeat it, telling him, at 
the same time, that he must never give it in any manner other 
than that in which he receives it. He is also told that Mah-; 
hah-bone signifies marrow in the bone. They then separate, 
and the Master then makes the following explanation respect- 
ing the five points of fellowship : 

Master to candidate. "Brother, foot to foot teaches you 
that you should, whenever asked, go on a brother's errand, if 
within the length of your cable-tow, even if you should have 
to go barefoot and bareheaded. Knee to knee, that you 
should always remember a Master Mason in your devotions 
to Almighty God, Breast to breast, that you should keep the 
Master Mason's secrets, when given to you in charge as such, 
as secure and inviolable in your breast as they were in his 
own before communicated to you. Hand to back, that you 
should support a Master Mason behind his back as before his 
face. Mouth to ear, that you should support his good name 
as well behind his back as before his face." 

After the candidate is through with what is called the work 
part, the Master addresses him in the following manner : 

"Brother, you may suppose, from the manner you have 
been dealt with to-night, that we have been fooling with you, 
or that we have treated you different from others; but I 
assure you that is not the case. You have this night repre- 
sented one of the greatest men that ever lived in the tragical 
catastrophe of his death, burial, and resurrection; I mean 
Hiram Abiff, the widow's son, who was slain by three ruf- 
fians at the building of King Solomon's temple, and who, in 
his inflexibility, integrity, and fortitude, never was surpassed 
by man. The history of that momentous event is thus related: 
Masonic tradition informs us that, at the building of King 
Solomon's temple, fifteen Fellow Crafts, discovering that the 
temple was almost finished, and not having the Master Ma- 
son's word, became very impatient and entered into a horrid 
conspiracy to extort the Master Mason's word from their 



86 

Grand Master, Hiram Abiff, the first time they met him alone, 
or take his life, that they might pass as Masters in other 
countries, and receive wages as such • but, before they could 
accomplish their designs, twelve of them recanted, but the 
other three were base enough to carry their atrocious designs 
into execution. Their names were Jubela, Jubelo, and Jube- 
lum. It was the custom of our Grand Master, Hiram Abiff, 
every day at high twelve, when the Craft were from labor to 
refreshment, to enter into the sanctum sanctorum and offer 
up his devotions to the ever-living God, and draw out his 
plans and designs on the trestle-board, for the Crafts to pur- 
sue their labor. On a certain day (not named in any of our 
traditional accounts) Jubela, Jubelo, and Jubelum placed 
themselves at the south, west, and east gates of the temple, 
and Hiram, having finished his devotions and labor, attempted 
(as was his usual custom) to retire at the south gate, where 
he was met by Jubela, who demanded of him the Master 
Mason's word [some say the secrets of a Master Mason], and 
on his refusal to give it Jubela gave him a violent blow with 
the twenty- four inch gauge across the throat; on which Hiram 
fled to the west gate, where he was accosted in the same 
manner by Jubelo, but with more violence. Hiram told him 
that he could not give the word then because Solomon, king 
of Israel, Hiram, king of Tyre, and himself had entered into 
a solemn league that the word never should be given unless 
they three were present; but, if he would wait with patience 
till the Grand Lodge assembled at Jerusalem, if he was then 
found worthy he should receive it, otherwise he could not. 
Jubelo replied, in a very peremptory manner: 'If you do not 
give me the Master's word I'll take your life* ; and on Hiram's 
refusal to give it Jubelo gave him a severe blow with the 
square across the left breast, on which he fled to the east gate, 
where he was accosted by Jubelum in the same manner, but 
with still more violence. Here Hiram reasoned as before; 
Jubelum told him that he had heard his caviling with Jubela 
and Jubelo long enough, and that he was still put off, and the 
temple was almost finished, and he was determined to have 
the word or take his life. 'I want it so that I may be able to 
get wages as a Master Mason in any country to which I may 
go for employ, after the temple is finished, and that 1 might be 



87 

able to support my wife and children.' Hiram persisting in 
his refusal, he gave Hiram a violent blow with the gavel on 
the forehead, which felled him to the floor and killed him. 
They took the body and carried it out of the east gate and 
buried it in the rubbish till low twelve at night (which is 12 
o'clock), when the three met, agreeable to appointment, and 
carried the body a westerly direction, and buried it at the 
brow of a hill, in a grave dug due east and west, six feet 
perpendicular, and made their escape. King Solomon, com- 
ing up to the temple at low six in the morning (as was his 
usual custom), found the Crafts all in confusion, and, on in- 
quiring the cause, was informed that their Grand Master, 
Hiram Abiff, was missing, and there were no plans and de- 
signs laid down on the trestle-board for the Crafts to pursue 
their labor. Solomon ordered immediate search to be made 
in and about the Temple for him ; no discovery being made, 
he then ordered the Secretary to call the roll of workmen, 
to see if any were missing; it appearing that there were three, 
viz : JubeJa, Jubelo and Jubelum, Solomon observed : 

"This brings to my mind a circumstance that took place 
this morning. Twelve Fellow Crafts came to me, dressed in 
white gloves and aprons in token of their innocence, and con- 
fessed that they twelve with three others had conspired to 
extort the Master Mason's word from their Grand Master, 
Hiram Abiff, and in case of his refusal to take his life; they 
twelve had recanted, but feared the other three had been 
base enough to carry their atrocious design into execution." 

Solomon immediately ordered twelve Fellow Crafts to be 
selected from the bands of the workmen, clothed in white 
gloves and aprons in token of their innocence, and sent three 
east, three west, three north and three south, in search of 
the ruffians, and if found to bring them up before him. The 
three that traveled a westerly course, coming near the coast 
of Joppa, fell in with a warfaring man, who informed them 
that he had seen three men pass that way that morning, who, 
from their appearance and dress, were workmen from the 
Temple, inquiring for a passage to Ethiopia, but were unable 
to obtain one in consequence of an embargo which had recent- 
ly been laid on all the shipping, and had turned back into the 
country. After making still further and more diligent search. 



88 

■and after making no further discovery, they returned to the 
Temple and reported to Solomon the result of their pursuit 
and inquiries. On which Solomon directed them to go and 
search again, and search until they found their Grand Mas- 
ter, Hiram Abiff, if possible, and if he was not found, the 
twelve who had confessed should be considered as the mur- 
derers and suffer accordingly. 

They returned again in pursuit of the ruffians, and one of 
the three that traveled a westerly course, being more weary 
than the rest, sat down at the brow of a hill to rest and re- 
fresh himself; and in attempting to rise caught hold of a 
sprig of cassia, which easily gave way and excited his curi- 
osity, and made him suspicious of a deception, on which he 
hailed his companions, who immediately assembled, and on 
examination found that the earth had been recently moved; 
and, on moving the rubbish, discovered the appearance of a 
grave; and while they were confabulating about what measure 
to take, they heard voices issuing from a cavern in the clefts 
of the rocks, on which they immediately repaired to the place, 
where they heard the voice of Jubela exclaim, "O ! that my 
throat had been cut across, my tongue torn out, and my body 
buried in the rough sands of the sea at low water-mark, 
where the tide ebbs and flows twice in twenty-four hours, ere 
I had been accessory to the death of so good a man as our 
Grand Master, Hiram Abiff." On which they distinctly heard 
the voice of Jubelo exclaim, "O ! that my breast had been 
torn open, and my heart and vitals taken from thence and 
thrown over my left shoulder, to the valley of Jehosaphat, 
there to become a prey to the wild beasts of the field and 
vultures of the air, ere I had conspired to take the life of so 
good a man as our Grand Master, Hiram Abiff. When they 
more distinctly heard the voice of Jubelum exclaim, "O ! 
that my body had been severed in two in the midst, and di- 
vided to the north and the south, my bowels burnt to ashes 
in the center, and the ashes scattered by the four winds of 
heaven, that there might not remain the least track or trace 
of remembrance among men or Masons of so vile and per- 
jured a wretch as I am, who wilfully took the life of so good 
a man as our Grand Master, Hiram Abiff. Ah ! Jubela and 
Jubelo, it was I that struck him harder than you both! It 



(-i. 



was I that gave him the fatal blow! It was I that killed him 
outright!" On which they rushed forward, seized, bound, 
and carried them up before King Solomon, who, after hear- 
ing the testimony of the three Fellow Crafts, and the three 
ruffians having plead guilty, ordered them to be taken out at 
the west gate of the Temple and executed agreeable to the 
several imprecations of their own mouths. King Solomon 
then ordered fifteen Fellow Crafts to be selected from the 
bands of the workmen, clothed with white gloves and aprons, 
in token of their innocence, and sent three east, three west, 
three north, three south and three in and about the Temple, 
in search of the body of their Grand Master, Hiram Abiff, 
and the three that traveled a westerly course found it under 
that sprig of cassia, where a worthy brother sat down to rest 
and refresh himself; and on removing the earth till thej 
came to the coffin, they involuntarily found their hands raised, 
as herein before described, to guard their nostrils against the 
offensive effluvia that arose from the grave. It is also said 
that the body had lain there fourteen days, some say fifteen. 
The body was raised in the manner herein before described, 

carried up to the Temple, and buried as explained in the 
closing clauses of the lecture. Not one third part of the 

preceding history of this degree is ever given to a candidate. 
A few general, desultory, unconnected remarks are made to 
him, and he is generally referred to the manner of raising, 
and the lecture, for information as to the particulars. Here 
follows a charge which ought to be and sometimes is de- 
livered to the candidate after hearing the history of the de- 
gree. 

An address to be delivered to the candidate after the history 

has been given. 

"Brother, your zeal for the institution of Masonry, the 
progress you have made in the k mystery, and your conform- 
ity to our regulations, have pointed you out as a proper ob- 
ject of our favor and esteem. You are bound by duty, honor 
and gratitude to be faithful to your trust, to support the 
dignity of your character on every occasion, and to enforce, 
by precept and example, obedience to the tenets of the order. 
In the character of Master Mason, you are authorized to cor- 
rect the errors and irregularities of your uninformed breth- 



9° 

ren, and to guard them against breach of fidelity. To pre* 
serve the reputation of the fraternity, unsullied, must be your 
constant oare — and for this purpose it is your province to 
recommend to your inferiors, obedience and submission ; to 
your equals, courtesy and affability; to your superiors, kind- 
ness and condescension. Universal benevolence you are al- 
ways to inculcate; and by the regularity of your own behavior, 
afford the best example for the conduct of others less in- 
formed. The ancient landmarks of the order, entrusted to 
your care, you are carefully to preserve; and never suffer 
them to be infringed, or countenance a deviation from the 
established usages and customs of the fraternity. Your vir- 
tue, honor, and reputation are concerned in supporting with 
dignity the character you now bear. Let no motive, there- 
fore, make you swerve from your duty, violate your vows, or 
betray your trust; but be true and faithful, and imitate the 
example of that celebrated artist whom you this evening rep- 
resent; thus you will render yourself deserving the honor 
which we have conferred, and merit the confidence that we 
have reposed." 

Here follows the lecture on this degree, which is divided 
into three sections. 



SECTION FIRST. 

"Are you a Master Mason" 

Ans. "I am— try me, prove rne — disprove me if yoh can." 
"Where were you prepared to be made a Master Mason?" 
Ans. "In a room adjacent to the body of a just and law- 
fully constituted lodge of such, duly assembled in a room rep- 
resenting the sanctum sanctorum, or holy of holies, of King 
Solomon's Temple." 
"How were you prepared?" 

Ans. "By being divested of all metals; neither naked nor 

clo.thed; barefoot nor shod; with a cable-tow three times about 

my naked body; in which posture I was conducted to the 

door of the lodge, where I gave three distinct knocks." 

"What did those three distinct knocks allude to?" 

Ans. "To the third degree of Masonry; it being that on 



91 

which I was about to enter." 
"What was said to you from within?" 
Ans. "Who comes there? Who comes there? Who comes 

there ?" 

"Your answer?'' 

Ans. "A worthy brother who has been regularly initiated 
as an Entered Apprentice Mason, passed to the degree of a 
Fellow Craft, and now wishes for further light in Masonry, 
by being raised to the sublime degree of a Master Mason." 

"What further was said to you from within?" 

Ans. "I was asked if it was of my own free will and accord 
I made that request ; if I was duly and truly prepared ; worthy 
and well qualified, and had made suitable proficiency in the 
preceding degrees; all of which being answered in the affirm- 
ative, I was asked by what further rights I expected to obtain 
that benefit." 

"Your answer?" 

Ans. "By the benefit of a pass-word." 

"What is that pass- word?" 

Ans. "Tubal Cain." 

"What next was said to you?" 

Ans. "I was bid to wait till the Worshipful Master in the 
east was made acquainted with my request and his answer 
returned." 

"What followed after his answer was returned?" 

Ans. "I was caused to enter the lodge on the two extreme 
points of the compass, pressing my naked right and left 
breasts, in the name of the Lord." 

"How were you then disposed of?" 

Ans. "I was conducted three times regularly round the 
lodge, and halted at the Junior Warden in the south, where 
the same questions were asked and answers returned as at 
the door." 

"How did the Junior Warden dispose of you?" 

Ans. "He ordered me to be conducted to the Senior War- 
den in the west, where the same questions were asked and 
answers returned as before." 

"How did the Senior Warden dispose of you?" 

Ans. "He ordered me to be conducted to the Worshipful 
Master in «the east, where by him the same questions were 
asked, and answers returned as before, who likewise de- 



92 

manded of me from whence I came, and whither I was 
traveling." 
"Your answer?" 

Ans. "From the east and traveling to the west" 

"Why do you leave the east, and travel to the west?" 

Ans. "In search of light." 

"How did the Worshipful Master then dispose of you?" 

Ans. "He ordered me to be conducted back to the west, 
from whence I came, and put in care of the Senior Warden, 
who taught me how to approach the east, by advancing upon 
three upright, regular steps to the third step, my feet form- 
ing a square and my body erect at the altar before the Wor- 
shipful Master." 

"What did the Worshipful Master do with you?" 

Ans. "He made an obligated Master Mason of me." 

"How ?" 

Ans. "In due form." 

"What was that due form?" 

Ans. "Both my knees bare bent, they forming a square; 
both hands on the Holy Bible, Square and Compass ; in which 
posture I took upon me the solemn oath or obligation of a 
Master Mason." 

"After your obligation, what was said to you?" 

Ans. "What do you most desire?" 

"Your answer?" 

Ans. "More light." 

[The bandage round the head is now dropped over the 
eyes.] 

"Did you receive light?" 

Ans. "I did." 

"On being brought to light on this degree, what did you 
first discover?" 

Ans. "Three great lights in Masonry, by the assistance of 
three lesser, and both points of the compass elevated above 
the square, which denoted to me that I had received, or was 
about to receive all the light that could be conferred on me 
in a Master's Lodge." 

"What did you next discover?" 

Ans. "The Worshipful Master approaching me from the 
east, under the sign and due-guard of a Master Mason, who 
presented me with his right hand in token of brotherly love 



93 

and confidence, and proceeded to give me the pass-grip and 
word of a Master Mason, [the word is the name of the pass- 
grip] and bid me arise and salute the Junior and Senior 
Wardens and convince them that I was an obligated Master 
Mason, and had the sign, pass-grip and word. [Tubal Cain.] 

"What did you next discover?" 

Ans. "The Worshipful Master approaching me the second 
time from the east, who presented me with a lamb-skin or 
white apron, which he said he hoped I would continue to 
wear, with honor to myself, and satisfaction and advantage to 
the brethren." 

"What were you next presented with?" 

Ans. "The working tools of a Master Mason." 

"What are they?" 

Ans. "All the implements of Masonry indiscriminately, but 
more especially the trowel." 

"How explained?" 

Ans. 'The trowel is an instrument made use of by opera- 
tive masons to spread the cement which unites a building 
into one common mass, but we, as Free and Accepted Masons, 
are taught to make use of it for the more noble and glorious 
purpose of spreading the cement of brotherly love and affec- 
tion, that cement which unites us into one sacred band or 
society of brothers, among whom no contention should ever 
exist, but that noble emulation of who can best work or best 
agree." 

"What were you next presented with?" 

Ans. "Three precious jewels." 

"What are they?" 

Ans. "Humanity, friendship and brotherly love." 

**How were you then disposed of?" 

Ans. "I was conducted out of the lodge and invested with 
what I had been divested, and returned again in due season." 

SECTION SECOND. 

"Did you ever return to the sanctum sanctorum or holy of 
holies of King Solomon's Temple?" 

Ans. "I did." 

"Was there anything particular took place on your re- 
turn?" 



94 

Ans "There was, viz.: I was accosted by three ruffians* 
who demanded of me the Master Mason's word." 

"Did you give it to them ?" 

Ans. "I did not, but bid them wait with time and patience 
till the Grand Lodge assembled at Jerusalem ; and then, if they 
were found worthy, they should receive it; otherwise they 
could not." 

"In what manner were you accosted?" 

Ans. "In attempting to retire to the south gate, I was 
accosted by one of them, who demanded of me the Master 
Mason's word, and on refusing to comply with his request 
he gave me a blow with the twenty- four inch gauge, across 
my breast, on which I fled to the west gate, where I was 
accosted by the second, with more violence, and on my re- 
fusing to comply with his request he gave me a severe blow 
with the square, across my breast, on which I attempted to 
make my escape at the east gate, where I was accosted by 
the third, with still more violence, and on my refusing to 
comply with his request he gave me a violent blow with the 
common gavel on the forehead, and brought me to the floor." 

"Whom did you represent at that time?" 

Ans. "Our Grand Master, Hiram Abiff, who was slain at 
the building of King Solomon's Temple." 

"Was his death premeditated?" 

Ans. "It was, by fifteen Fellow Crafts, who conspired to 
extort from him the Master Mason's word; twelve of whom 
recanted, but the other three were base enough to carry their 
atrocious designs into execution." 
"What did they do with the body?" 

Ans. "They carried it out at the east gate of the Temple 
and buried it till low twelve at night, when they three met, 
agreeable to appointment, and carried it a westerly course 
from the Temple, and buried it under the brow of a hill in a 
grave six feet due east and west, six feet perpendicular, and 
made their escape." 

"What time was he slain?" 

Ans. "At high twelve at noon, when the Crafts were from 
labor to refreshment." 

"How come he to be alone at this time ?" 
Ans. "Because it was the usual custom of our Grand 
Master, Hiram Abiff, every day at high twelve, when the 



95 

Crafts were from labor to refreshment, to enter into the 
sanctum sanctorum or holy of holies, and offer up his adora- 
tions to the ever living God, and draw out his plans and de- 
signs on his trestle-board, for the Crafts to pursue their 
labor." 

"At what time was he missing?" 

Ans. "At low six in the morning, when King Solomon 
came up to the Temple, as usual, to view the work, and found 
the Crafts all in confusion, and on inquiring the cause, he 
was informed that their Grand Master, Hiram Abiff, was 
missing, and no plans or designs were laid down on the 
trestle-board for the Crafts to pursue their labor." 

"What observations did King Solomon make at that time?" 

Ans. "He observed that our Grand Master, Hiram Abiff, 

had always been very punctual in attending, and feared that 

he was indisposed, and ordered search to be made in and 

about the Temple, to see if he could be found." 

"Search being made and he not found, what further re- 
marks did King Solomon make?" 

Ans. "He observed he feared some fatal accident had 
befallen our Grand Master, Hiram Abiff; that morning 
twelve Fellow Crafts, clothed in white gloves and aprons in 
token of their innocence, had confessed that they twelve, with 
three others, had conspired to extort the Master Mason's 
word from their Grand Master, Hiram Abiff, or take his life; 
that they twelve had recanted, but feared the other three 
had been base enough to carry their atrocious designs into 
execution." 

"What followed?" 

Ans. "King Solomon ordered the roll of workmen to 
be called to see if there were any missing." 

"The roll being called, were there any missing?" 

Ans. "There were three, viz,: Jubela, Jubelo, Jubelum.* 

"Were the ruffians ever found?" 

Ans. "They were." 

"How ?" 

Ans. "By the wisdom of King Solomon, who ordered 
twelve Fellow Crafts to be selected from the band of the 
workmen, clothed in white gloves and aprons in token of 
tb*ir innocence, and sent three east, three west, three north 



96 

and three soutW in search of the ruffians, and if found to 
bring them forward." 

"What success?" 

Ans. "The three that traveled a westerly course from the 
Temple, coming near the coast of Joppa, were informed by a 
way-faring man that the three men had been seen that 
way that morning, who from their appearance and dress 
were workmen from the Temple, inquiring for a passage to 
Ethiopia, but were unable to obtain one in consequence of 
an embargo, which had recently been laid on all the ship- 
ping, and had turned back into the country." 

"What followed?" 

Ans. "King Solomon ordered them to go and search 
again, and search till they were found, if possible, and if 
they were not found, that the twelve who had confessed 
should be considered as the reputed murderers, and suffer 
accordingly." 

"What success?" 

Ans. "One of the three that traveled a westerly course, 
from the Temple, being more weary than the rest, sat down 
under the brow of a hill to rest and refresh himself, and in 
attempting to rise caught hold of a sprig of cassia, which 
easily gave way, and excited his curiosity and made him 
suspicious of a deception, on which he hailed his compan- 
ions who immediately assembled, and on examination found 
that the earth had recently been moved, and on moving 
the rubbish discovered the appearance of a grave; and 
while they were confabulating about what measures to take, 
they heard voices issuing from a cavern in the clefts of the 
rocks; on which they immediately repaired to the place, 
where they heard the voice of Jubeia exclaim, 'O that my 
throat had been cut across, my tongue torn out, and my 
body buried in the rough sands of the sea, at low water- 
mark, where the tide ebbs and flows twice in twenty-four 
hours, ere I had been accessary to the death of so good a man 
as our Grand Master, -Hiram Abiff V On which they distinct- 
ly heard the voice of Jubelo, f O that my left breast had been 
torn open, and my heart and vitals taken from thence and 
thrown over my left shoulder, carried into the valley of Jehos- 
aphat, and there to become a prey to the wild beasts eft 



97 

fhe field, and vultures of the air, ere I had conspired the 
death of so good a man as our Grand Master, Hiram Abiff !' 

The third, Jubelum, *0 that my body had been severed 
fn two in the midst, and divided to the north and south, my 
bowels burnt to ashes in the centre, and the ashes scattered 
by the four winds of heaven, that there might not the least 
track or remembrance remain among men or Masons of so 
vile and perjured a wretch as I am; ah! Jubela, and Jubelo, 
it was I that struck him harder than you both — it was I that 
gave him the fatal blow — it was I that killed him outright!' 

On which they rushed forward, seized, bound and carried 
them up to the Temple of King Solomon. 

"What did King Solomon do with them?" 

Ans. "He ordered them to be executed agreeably to the 
several imprecations of their own mouths." 

"Was the body of our Grand Master, Hiram Abiff, ever 
found?" 

Ans. "It was." 

"How?" 

Ans. "By the wisdom of King Solomon, who ordered 
fifteen (in some lodges they say twelve) Fellow Crafts to be 
selected from the bands of the workmen and sent, three 
east, three west, three north, three south and three in and 
about the temple, to search for the body." 

"Where was it found?" 

Ans. "Under a sprig of cassia, where a worthy brother 
sat down to rest and refresh himself." 

"Was there anything particular took place on the dis- 
covery of the body?" 

Ans. "There was, viz. : on moving the earth till we came 
to the coffin, we involuntarily found our hands in this posi- 
tion, to guard our nostrils against the offensive effluvia which 
arose from the grave." 

"How long had the body lain there?" 

Ans. "Fourteen days." 

"What did they do" with the body?" 

Ans. "Raised it in a Masonic form and carried it up to 
the temple for more decent interment." 

"Where was it buried?" 

Ans. "Under the Sanctum Sanctorum, or holy of holies 
of King Solomon's Temple, over wHich thev «r«tcted a mar- 



08 

Lie monument, with this inscription delineated thereon: A 
virgin weeping over a broken column, with a book open be- 
fore her, in her right hand a sprig of cassia, in her left an 
urn. Time standing behind her, with his hands infolded 
in the ringlets of her hair." 

"What do they denote?" 

Ans. "The weeping virgin denotes the unfinished state of 
the temple; the broken column, that one of the principal 
supports of Masonry had fallen ; the book open before her, 
that his memory was on perpetual record; the sprig of cassia, 
the timely discovery of his grave; the urn in her left 
hand, that his ashes are safely deposited under the Sanctum 
Sanctorum, or holy of holies of King Solomon's Temple, 
and Time, standing behind her, with his hands infolded in 
the ringlets of her hair, that time, patience and perseverance 
will accomplish all things." 



SECTION SECOND. 

"What does a Master's lodge represent?" 

Ans. "The Sanctum Sanctorum, or holy of holies of King 
Solomon's Temple." 

"How long was the temple building?" 

Ans. Seven years, during which it rained not in the 
day-time, that the workmen might not be obstructed in their 
labor." 

"What supported the temple." 

Ans. "Fourteen hundred and fifty-three columns and tw3 
thousand nine hundred and six pilasters, all hewn from the 
finest Parian marble." 

"What further supported it?" 

Ans. "Three grand columns, or pillars." 

"What were they called?" 

Ans. "Wisdom, strength and beauty." 

"What did they represent?" 

Ans. "The pillar of wisdom represented Solomon, King 
of Israel, whose wisdom contrived the mighty fabric; the 
pillar of strength, Hiram, King of Tyre, who strengthened 
Solomon in his glorious undertaking; the pillar of beauty, 
Hiram Abiff, the widow's son, whose cunning craft and CU; 



99 

rious workmanship beautified and adorned the temple." 

"How many were there employed in the building of King 
Solomon's Temple?" 

Ans. "Three Grand Masters, three thousand three hun- 
dred Masters, or overseers of the work, eighty thousand 
Fellow Crafts, and seventy thousand Entered Apprentices; 
all those were classed and arranged in such a manner by the 
wisdom of Solomon that neither envy, discord nor confusion 
were suffered to interrupt that universal peace and tranquillity 
that pervaded the work at that important period/' 

"How many constitutes an Entered Apprentice lodge?" 

Ans. "Seven ; one Master and six Entered Apprentices." 

"Where did they usually meet?" 

Ans. "On the ground floor of King Solomon's Temple." 

"How many constitute a Fellow Craft's lodge?" 

Ans. "Five; two Masters and three Fellow Crafts." 

"Where did they usually meet?" 

Ans. "In the middle chamber of King Solomon's Tem- 
ple." 

"How many constitute a Master's lodge?" 

Ans "Three Master Masons." 

"Where did they usually meet?" 

Ans. "In the Sanctum Sanctorum, or holy of holies of 
King Solomon's Temple." 

"Have you any emblems on this degree?" 

Ans. "We have several, which are divided into two 
classes." 

"What are the first class?" 

Ans. "The pot of incense, the bee-hive, the book of con- 
stitutions, guarded by the Tyler's sword, the sword pointing 
to a naked heart, the all-sedng eye, the anchor and ark, the 
forty-seventh problem of Euclid, the hour-glass, the scythe, 
and the three steps usually delineated on the Master's car- 
pet, which are thus explained: The pot of incense is an em- 
blem of a pure heart, which is always an acceptable sacrifice 
to the Deity and, as this glows with fervent heat, so 
should our hearts continually glow with gratitude to the 
great and beneficent Author of our existence for the manifold 
blessings and comforts we enjoy. The bee-hive is an emblem 
of industry, and recommends the practice of that virtue to all 
created beings, from the highest seraph in heaven to the 



IOO 

lowest reptile of the dust. It teaches us that, as we came into 
the world rational and intelligent beings, so we should ever 
be industrious ones, never sitting down contented while our 
fellow-creatures around us are in want, when it is in our 
power to relieve them without inconvenience to ourselves. 
When we take a survey of nature, we behold man, in his 
infancy, more helpless and indigent than the brute creation; 
he lies languishing for days, weeks, months and years, total- 
ly incapable of providing sustenance for himself; of guarding 
against the attacks of the wild beasts of the field, or shelter- 
ing himself from the inclemencies of the weather. It might 
have pleased the great Creator of heaven and earth to have 
made man independent of all other beings, but, as depend- 
ence is one of the strongest bonds of society, mankind were 
made dependent on each other for protection and security, 
as they thereby enjoy better opportunities of fulfilling the 
duties of reciprocal love and friendship. Thus was man form- 
ed for social and active life, the noblest part of the work of 
God, and he that will so demean himself, as not to be en- 
deavoring to add to the common stock of knowledge and 
understanding, may be deemed a drone in the hive of nature, 
a useless member of society, and unworthy of our protection 
as Masons. 

The book of constitutions, guarded by the Tyler's sword, 
reminds us that we should be ever watchful and guarded in 
our thoughts, words, and actions, particularly when before 
the enemies of Masonry, ever bearing in remembrance 
those truly Masonic virtues, silence and circumspection. 
The sword pointing to a naked heart, demonstrates that 
justice will sooner or later overtake us; and although our 
thoughts, words and actions may be hidden from the eye of 
man yet that all-seeing eye, whom the sun, moon and stars 
obey, and under whose watchful care even comets perform 
their stupendous revolutions, pervades the inmost recesses 
of the human heart, and will reward us according to our 
merits. The anchor and ark, are emblems of a well grounded 
hope and a well spent life. They are emblematical of 
that Divine ark which safely wafts us over this tempestuous 
sea of troubles, and that anchor which shall safely moor us 
in a peaceful harbor, where the wicked cease from troubling, 
and the weary shall find rest. 



IOI 

The forty-seventh problem of Euclid : This was an inven- 
tion of our ancient friend and brother, the great Pytha- 
goras, who, in his travels through Asia, Africa and Europe, 
was initiated into several orders of priesthood, and raised to 
the sublime degree of a Master Mason. This wise philosopher 
enriched his mind abundantly in a general knowledge of 
things, and more especially in Geometry, or Masonry, on 
this subject he drew out many problems and theorems; and 
among the most distinguished he erected this, which, in 
the joy of his heart, he called Eureka, in the Grecian lan- 
guage signifying, I have found it; and upon the discovery of 
which he is said to have sacrificed a hecatomb. It teaches 
Masons to be general lovers of the arts and sciences. The 
hour glass is an emblem of human life. Behold! how 
swiftly the sands run, and how rapidly our lives are draw- 
ing to a close. We cannot without astonishment behold the 
little particles which are contained in this machine; how they 
pass away, almost imperceptibly, and yet to our surprise in 
a short space of an hour they are all exhausted. Thus 
wastes man ! To-day, he puts forth the tender leaves of hope ; 
to-morrow, blossoms, and bears his blushing honors thick 
upon him; the next day comes a frost, which nips the root, 
and when he thinks his greatness is still ripening, he falls 
like autumn leaves, to enrich our mother earth. The scythe 
is an emblem of time, which cuts the brittle thread of 
life, and launches us into eternity. Behold! what havoc the 
scythe of time makes among the human race; if by chance 
we should escape the numerpus evils, incident to childhood 
and youth, and with health and vigor come to the years of 
manhood, yet withal we must soon be cut down by the all- 
devouring scythe of time, and be gathered into the land where 
our fathers have gone before us. The three steps usually 
delineated upon the Masters carpet, are emblematical, of the 
three principal stages of human life, viz.: youth, manhood 
and age. In youth, as Entered Apprentices, we ought in- 
dustriously to occupy our minds in the attainment of useful 
Icnowledge ; in manhood, as Fellow Craft, we should apply 
our knowledge to the discharge of our respective duties to 
God, our neighbors, and ourselves, that so in age, as Master 
Mason, we may enjoy the happy reflections consequent on a 
yrtll spent life, and die in the hope of a glorious immortality. 



102 

"What are the second class of emblems?" 

Ans. "The spade, coffin, death-head, marrow-bones; and 
Sprig of cassia, which are thus explained : The spade opens 
the vault to receive our bodies where our active limbs will 
soon moulder to dust. The coffin, death*head, and marrow- 
bones, are emblematical of the death and burial, of our 
Grand Master, Hiram Abiff, and are worthy of our serious 
attention. The sprig of cassia is emblematical of that im- 
portant part of man which never dies — and when the cold 
winter of death shall have passed, and the bright summer's 
morn of the resurrection appears, the Son of Righteousness 
shall descend, and send forth his angels to collect our ransom- 
ed dust; then, if we are found worthy, by his pass word, 
we shall enter into the celestial lodge above, where the 
Supreme Architect of the Universe presides, where we. 
shall see the King in the beauty of holiness and with him 
enter into an endless eternity. Here ends the three first 
degrees of Masonry, which constitute a Master Mason's 
Lodge, A Master Mason's Lodge and a chapter of Royal 
Arch Masons, are two distinct bodies, wholly independent 
of each other. The members of a Chapter are privileged to 
visit all Master Mason's Lodges when they please, and may 
be, and often are members of b*th at the same time; and 
all the members of a Master Mason's Lodg^ who are Royal 
Arch Masons, though not members of any Chapter, may 
visit any Chapter. I wish the reader to understand that 
neither all Royal Arch Masons nor Master Masons are mem- 
bers of either Lodge or Chapter ; there are tens of thousands 
who are not members and scarcely ever attend, although 
orivileged to do so. A very small proportion of Masons, 
comparatively speaking, ever advance any further than the 
third degree, and consequently never get the great word 
which was lost by Hiram's untimely death. Solomon, king 
of Israel ; Hiram, king of Tyre, and Hiram Abiff ; the 
widow's son having sworn that they nor neither of them 
would ever give the word except they three were present; 
[and it is generally believed that there was not another per- 
son in the world at that time that had it], consequently the 
word was lost, and supposed to be forever; but the sequel 
will show ft was found after the lapse of four hundred and 
seventy years; notwithstanding the word Mah-hah-bone, 



103 

which was substituted by Solomon, still continues to be used 
by Master Masons, and no doubt will be as long as Masonry 
attracts the attention of men ; and the word which was lost is 
used in the Royal Arch degree. 

What was the word of the Royal Arch degree before they 
found the Master's word which was lost at the death of 
Hiram Abiff, and was not found for four hundred and seventy 
years? Were there any Royal Arch Masons before the 
Master's word was found? I wish some Masonic gentleman 
would solve these two questions. The ceremonies, historv, 
and the lecture, in the preceding degree, are so similar, 
that perhaps, some one of the three might have been dis- 
pensed with, and the subject well understood by most read- 
ers, notwithstanding, there is a small difference between the 
work and history, and between the history and the lecture. 
I shall now proceed with the Mark Master's degree, which is 
the first degree in the Chapter. The Mark Master's degree, 
the Past Master's, and the Most Excellent Master's are called 
lodges of Mark Master Masons, Past Masters, and Most Ex- 
cellent Masters; yet, although called lodges, they are a 
component part of the Chapter. Ask a Mark Master Mason 
if he belongs to the Chapter, he will tell you he does, but 
that he has only been marked. It is not an uncommon 
thing, by any mean?, for a Chapter to confer all four of the 
degrees in one night, viz. : The Mark Master, Past Master, 
Most Excellent Master, and Royal Arch degree. 



104 

FREEMASONRY AT A GLANCE. 

ENTERED APPRENTICE DEGREE. 

The Holy Bible on the altar 
is usually opened at the 123d 
Psalm and the square and com- 
pass placed thereon, the latter 
open and both points placed be- 
low the square. 




Preparation of Candidate En- 
tered Apprentice Degree. — He is 

ushered into the "preparation room," 
where he meets the Junior Deacon and 
Stewards who divest him of all his 
clothing except his shirt. He is then 
handed an old pair of drawers which 
he puts on; the left leg is rolled up 
above the knee; the left sleeve of the 
shirt is rolled up above the elbow, a 
hoodwink is fastened over both eyes, a 
rope, called a cable-tow, is put once 
around his neck, and a slipper (witn 
the heel slip-shod) is put upon the 
right foot. 




Preparation In Entered 
Apprentice Degree. 




Penal Sign. Due Guard. 



Due guard of an Entered Ap- 
prentice: — Hold out the left 

hand a little in front of the body 
and in a line with, the lower button 
of the vest, the hand being open 
and palm turned upward. Now 
place the right hand horizontally 
across the left and about two or 
three inches above it. 

Penal Sign of an Entered Ap- 
prentice. — Made from the due- 
guard by dropping the left hand 
carelessly; at the same time Taise 
the right arm and draw ^ne hand, 
still open, across the throat, thumb 



105 



next the throat, and drop the hand perpendicularly by 
the side. These* movements ought to be made in an off hand 
manner, without stiffness. 

Sign without Due-guards — (The usual way outside the 
lodge.) Simply dra*' the open hand carelessly across the 
threat and let it fall down by the side* 




Candidate taking Entered Apprentice Obligation. 

Worshipful Master to Candidate: — ''You will advance to the 
altar, kneel upon your naked left knee, your right forming a 
square, your left hand supporting the holy Bible, square and 
compass, your right resting thereon, in which due form you will 
say, I, with your name in full, and repeat after me." 

Gkip of an Entered Ap- 
prentice. — Take bold of each 
other's hands as in ordinary 
hand-shaking and press the top 
of your thumb hard against the 
first knuckle-joint of the first 
finger near the hand. If the person whom you are shaking 
hands with is a Mason, he will generally return a like pressure 
on your hand* 




Entered Apprentice Word — Boaz. It is the name of this 

grip- 

Entered Apprentice Step. — Step off one step with tlie left 

foot and bring the heel of your right foot to the hollow of youi 
left 




Thef Holy Bible ought to 

be opened at the 7th chaptti 

of Amos and one point of 

the compass elevateu above 

the square. 




Preparation of Candidate Fellow 

Craft Degree. — He is ushered into the 

"preparation room" as before, and divested 

of all his clothing as in the preceding de- 
gree. In this case the right leg of the old 

drawers is raised up above the knee, the 

right sleeve of the shirt is rolled up above 

the elbow, the slipper is now put upon the 

left foot> the left heel being slip shod. The 

hoodwink is again put over both eyes and 

the cable-tow is put twice around the naked 

right arm and an apron tied on, in which 

condition he is "duly and truly prepared" 

and led by the Junior Deacon to the door 

of the lodge as before. 



tores* of Fellow Graft* 



L07 




Worshipful Mastei to 
Candidate: — You will ad- 
vance to the altar, kneel 
upon your naked right 
kned, your left forming 
a square, your right 
hand resting on the 
Holy Bible, square and 
compass, your left form- 
ing a right angle Sup- 
ported by the square in 
which due form vou will 
sa J% "I/* with your 
name in full, and repeat 
after me. 

Candidate taking Fellow Craft Obligation. 

IThe left arm should l»« perpen- 
dicular.] Due guard of a Fellow Cbaft. — 

Hold out the right hand a little from 

the body and on a line with the lower 

button of the vest, the palm being 

open and turned down- ward ; also raise 

the left arm so as to form a right angle 

at the elbow, from the shoulder to the 

elbow being horizontal and fore-arm 

perpendicular. 

Sign of a Fellow Craft. — Made 
from the due -guard by dropping the 
left hand carelessly to the side and at 
jthe same time raise the right hand to 
Due^Guard. tne left breast, with the palm towards 
the breast and the fingers a little crooked; theft, 
draw the hand smartly across the breast from left 
to right and let it drop perpendicularly to the side. slRn 

Sign without Due Guard. — The usual way outFtellow Craft 
side the lodge ) . Draw the right hand, palm open and fingers a 
little crooked, smartly across the breast from left to right and 
drop it carelessly by your side. 

Pass grip of a Fellow Craft. 
— Take each other's hands as in or- 
_ ^ ^^f ^ >^ ■ dinary hand-shaking and p«ress the 
^^^Ah^Z^^Sy3^Ew top of your thumb hard against the 
""■"■""""•s^^^S^"^ Qgp&t space between the first and second 
knuckles of the right hand. Should the person whose hand you 
hold be a Fellow Craft, he will return a like pressure on your 
hand, or else mar jrive vou the flrio of an Entered Apprentices 






108 




Pass of Fellow Craft— Shibboleth. It is the name of this 

grip- _ 

Real Grip of a Feixow Craft. 

— Take each other by the right 
hand as in ordinary hand-shakinj 
and press top of your thumb har< 

against the second knuckle. Should 

the man wuo&e hand you shake be a Fellow Craft, he will re- 
turn a similar pressure on your hand, or may possibly give you 
any one of the two preceding grips. 

Word of Fellow Craft — Jachin. It is the name of this 
the real grip. 

Fellow Craft or Second Step. — Step off one step with the 
right foot and bring the heel of the left foot to the hollow of 
the right; your feet forming the angle of an oblong square. 

MASTER MASON'S DEGREE. 

The Holy Bible 
ought to be opened at 
the 12th chapter of 
Ecclesiastes and both 
points of the com* 
pass elevated above 
the square. 




Preparation of Candidate Master 
Mason's Degree. — He is conducted 
into the preparation room as in the 
preceding degree. All his clothing is 
removed as before; both legs 
of the drawers are tucked up 
above the knees, both sleeves of 
the shirt are tucked up above the el- 
bows, both breasts of the shirt are 
turned, making both breasts bare, 
The hoodwink is again fastened over 
both eyes and the cable-tow is put 
three times around his body. No 
slipper is used in this degree. Should 
the shirt be closed in front, it must be 
taken off or turned front backwards* 
as both breasts must be bare. An 

apron is then tied on and worn as a ^_ 

Fellow Craft, and thus he is M duly~J ^^TT 7 « «, * . 

ftiut tnil v nrAnaroH » Preparation of Candidate la 

ana truly prepared. Master Mason* Degree. 




10» 




Worshipful Master 

to Candidate, "Toll 

will advance to the al* 
tar t kneel upon both 
your naked knee3 # both 
hands resting n the 
Holy Bible, square and 
compass in which doe 
form you will say, "I," 
with your name in fall 
and repeat after me " 

Candidate taking Master Mason's Obligation* 

Due-guard of a Master Mason/— E*» 
tend both hands in front of the body on a 
line with the lower button of the vest with 
the palms open and turned downward, 
both hands being close together, thumbs 
nearly touching. 

Sign op a Master Mason.— Made from 
the due guard by dropping the left hand 
carelessly and drawing the right across 
the body from left to right side on a line 
with the lower button of the vest, the 
__ 4 _ ^mLu hand being open as before, palm down» 
nmSwr t>J5iafeL * ar<1 ftnd the thumb towards the body. 
wSSS a £&% Then drop the hand perpendicularly to 

Mason. eon. the side. 

Sign without Due-guard.— (Ordinary manner outside the 
lodge*) Simply draw the right hand as above described, care- 
lessly across the body and drop it by the side. 

Pass-grip of a Maoteb Ma- 
son —Take hold of each other's 
hands as in ordinary hand shak- 
ing and press the top of your 
_ thumb hard against the space 

between the second and third knuckles. Should the man 
whose hand you shake be a Mason he may return or give 
any previous grip. 

Pass op MASTmMABoa— Tubal Oaln. It Is the name of this 






no 




Strong Grip or a Master 
Mason ob Lion's Paw. — Grasp 
each other's right hands very 
firmly, the spaces between the 
thumb and first finger being in- 
__ terlocked and the tops of the 

fingers being pressed hard against each other's wrist where it 
joins the hand, the fingers of each being somewhat spread. 




Candidate as Hiram Abiff falling into the Canvas, hav- 
ing been struck in the forehead by the setting maul of the sup- 
fc :wsed third ruffian, Jubelum. 

Five Points op Fellowship. 

Worshipful Master: — Which are the five 
points of fellowship? 

Senior Deacon: — Foot to foot (Master and 
candidate extend their right feet, placing the 
inside of one against that of the other). Knee 
to knee ( they bring their right knees togeth- 
er ) ; breast to breast ( they bring their right 
breasts together) ; hand to back (Master pla- 
ces his left hand on the candidate's back, 
the candidate's is placed by the Deacon on 
the Master's back ) ; cheek to cheek or mouth 
to ear (Master puts his mouth to candidate's 
right ear thus bringing the right cheek of 
each together. See figure). 

Master's Words — (whispered in the ear of the candidate), 
Mah-hah bone, after which the candidate whispers the same 
Word in the Master's ear. 




Five Points of 

Fellowship.