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Full text of "GENERAL HISTORY of MUSIC"

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XHsauiHJi) pasBHBaexca b saBUCHMOcxM ox o6mHX ycflOBufi 
6bixa H HCH3HH flaHHOPO Hapofta H AaHHbix rpynn. B o6meM 
cjiynae Hano npHSHaxb, mxo npo4)eccHOHajin3M b cbohx pas* 
jiMHHbix (})opMax BcerjDia oKaawBajicH AOcxoHHHeH 6ojiee hjih 
MCHce npoJiexapMSOBaHHbix rpynn, xorAa kbk 
AHJiexaHXHsauHH 6biJia Bceraa xapaKxepna una 
KJiacca HMymnx ((|)eoAaflbHoro, 6ypa«ya3Hbix). Tlpo- 
jiexapH30BaHHbie KJiaccbi HacejieHHH mofjih 3aHHMaxbC5i My3bi- 
Kofi KaK peMCCJiOM, BHAH B Hcft HcxoMHHK 3apa6oxKa, 

HJIH pCAKO — KaK OXAblXOM, HO o6bIHHO B nOCJieAHCM cJiyHac 

MysbiKa npoAyuHposajiacb b MajioaKXHBHoft 4)opMe, ae kbk 
„npOH3BOACXBo". HanpoxHB, ajia odecneneHHoro KJiacca 
sanaxHe HCKyccxBOM BcerAa 6biJio b noJiowcHHH oxAwxaHJiH 
no6oHHoro saMJixHH. <l>opMOBaHHe npotJ)eccHOHajioB h3 cpeAbt 
KJiaccoB Hepa6oHHX hmcjio b hcxophh pasBHXHJi MyBbiKH Mecxo 
jiHUib xoFAa, KorAa b HAeoxiorHH HMymHX kjibccob My3biKa 
saHHMajia ywe BbicoKoe nojioMccHHe, kbk B03BbmieHHoe HCKyc- 
cxbO, h KorAa flBJisrjiocb xaKHM o6pa30M nonexHbiM nojiowe- 
HMBM nocBsixHXb ce6a HCKyccxBy. FIohxh bo Bcex cjiynaax Mbi 
BcxpenaeMCH c oSiuhm 4)aKxoM, mxo xhh sByKOBoro 
cosHaHHH y JiHU npoAyUHpyHDmnx My3biKy Bdo6ii;e Bbiiiie 
xHna coBHaHHH y ocxajibHbix, kohcmho, yHHXbiBafl hsbccxhuA 
ypoBeHb BKyca. Y A^'JiexaHxcxeyromero npoAyKxopa MyswKajib- 
Horo HCKyccxBa pa3HHua axa b cxeneHH SByKOBoA co3Haxejib- 
HocxH c co3HaxejibHOcxbK) Maccbi xoro JKe Kpyra He xaK 
BejiHKa. HanpoxHB, y npo^jeccHoaajioB OHa AOcxHraex npesBbi- 
MafiHoft BejiwMHHbi. ripH ycjiOBH«x, KorAa npo(|)eccHOHajibi 
OKasbiaaroxcd OMCHb MHoroMHCJieHHWMH, cocxaBJiJiiox y>Ke 






\ 



I 



noTpe6HTeAb 
Mys. BCKyccTBa. 



uejiyio rpynny b cocxaBe napoAa, mw Ha6jiK)AaeM o6biHHO 
^BjieHHe p a 3 p bi B a MeacAy BByKOBbiM coBHaHHCM npo(f)ec- 
CHOHajibHOM rpynnbi h Mace, npn mcm cosHAaexca KaK 6bi 
cneuH4)HHecKoe HCKyccxBO „AJia npocjjeccHOHajioB". Fpynna, 
6biBmaH npewAe npoAyKxopaMH MysbiKw, o6painaexcH caMa 
B „caMonoxpe6Hxejieft" h BbiAejiaex H3 ce6n eme 6ojiee KsaflH- 
4)HUHpoBaHHyK> roJioBKy, ecjiH xaK mowho BbipasMXbcsi — 
„npo(J)eccHOHajTOB Bxoporo nopsAKa". ' 

CpeAa HAH noxpedHTCAb My3bi- 
KaAbHoro HCKyccxBa ecxb coBOKynnocxb xex 
jiioAefl, Koxopbie aBJis]K>xcH naccHBHWMH ynacx- 

HHKaMH My3bIKaAbHOrO HCnOAHeHHSr, KOXOpbie COMyBCXByiOX 

AaHHofl MysbiKe. CoBepuienHO HanpacHO ao chx nop mbao 
o6pamaAH BHHMaHHH Ha orpoMHyK) cJjopMnpyiomyK) poAb sxofi 
cpcAbi B npouecce pa3BHXHSi cxhacK h cxaAO 6bixb h b hcxo- 
pHH HCKyccxBa. MysHKaAbHoe HCKyccxBO BOBce He ecxb nenxo 
CAHHoe, ueAbHoe, paBHbiM o6pa30M h ero noxpednxeAb 
BOBce He ecxb, KaK axo o6biMHO „noApa3yMeBaexcH", KaKoft-xo 
THnoxexHMecKHH „HapoA B ucaom" hah Aawe ..HeAOBenecxBo 
B ueAOM". KaK h bchkhK Apyroft npoAynx npoH3BOAcxBa, My- 
3biKaAbHoe npoHSBBAeHHe (KascAoe b oxACAbHOcxn) HMeex 
cBoft Kpy r c6bixa, saBHCHmMfi ox ero CBoftcxBj axo co- 

BOKynHOCXb AHU, KOXOpbIM AdHHOe npoHSBeAC- 
DKycoBue Kpyra , .. 

BAH rpynnu. ^^^' ^^^ npHHHXO BbipaMCaXbCSI, „HpaBHXCH . 

CymecxBOBaHHC noAo6Hbix KpyroB noxpedw- 
xeAeft o6ycjiOBAHBaex xnn npoHSBCAeHHA, cosAasaeMbix b pa- 
cHfixe Ha 3XOX Kpyr, HHorAa hhcxhhkxhbho h noAC03HaxejibHo 
(npbcxo BCACACXBHe xoro, mxo cbm aBxop npHHaAAewHX k 
axoMy Kpyry), HHorAa we coanaxeAbHo, kbk 6bi „yroMCAafl" 
BKycy (hxo 6biBaex nacxo, KorAa aBxop — caM nywoA b 9xom 
Kpyry). 3xh KpyrH BOBce He cosnaAaiox hh c ;,»lejioBe»ie- 
cxbom", hh AaM<e co BceA Maccoft Aannoro napoAa- Ohh o6biMHO 

OneHb SaMKHyXbl H AaM<e CpaBHHXeAbHO HCMHOrOMHC- 

AeHHbi: KawAbiB H3 HHX ecxb coBOKynHoexb ahu 6ojiee hah 

Meiiee oahopo BKycoBoro xnna, npn mcm caMbi^ xnn axox co- 

3AaexcH couHOJiOTHMecKHMH ycAOBHHMH BHyxpH rpynnbi 

M cxeneHbK) My3biKajibHoft (BByKOBoft) cosnaxejibHocxH. MMeH- 

Ho npHcyxcxBHe axoft cnoco6HocxH-^„3ByKo- 
SBTtcoBafl cosHa- „ „ 

' BOH C03HaxeAbH0CXH . X.-e., APyrHMH CJIOBaMM, 

TeAbROCTb. ' ^ 

yMeHHfl xaK hjih Hnane, c xoA hjih hhoh cxe- 



T'**f^ 



neHbK) ocxpoTbi H nojiHOTbi pa36HpaTbcJi B 3ByKOBbix cone- 

ij|-' ,, TaHHHX M KOMnjieKcax — o6ycjioBJiHBaeT tot (J)eHOMeH, mto b 

4';,; Bonpocax MyawKajibHoro HCKyccTsa, noacajiyft, a 6ojibmeH 

, /H CTCneHH, HCM B BOnpOCaX OCTaJIbHblX HCKyCCTB, Mbl BHflHM, 

• MTO KJiaccoBbie xapaKTcpHCTHKH BO BKycoBbix rpynnax 
MJiH B rpynnax „noTpe6HTeJieft" CTymcBbiBaioTCJi nepe^ xa- 

paKTCpHCTHKaMH, SaBMCflmHMH OT 3TOfl SByKOBOH COSHaTCJlb- 

■* V HOCTM. Hanp., b cpeae, cKaa<eM, KJiacca „6yp}Kya3Horo" mh 

MOM<eM HbiHe BCTpeTHTb npeflCTaBHTCJieft peiUHTejibHO Bcex 

; BKycoBbix rpynn, HaMHHaji, Hanp., ox jnodHTCJiefi HapoAHWx 

npHMHTHBOB HJIH UiaHCOHCTHOft JIHTepBTypbl M flO UeHHTeJIJI 

aKaflCMMHecKoft MysbiKH. ToMHO TaK we mm MoweM h b cpeae 
npoJiexapHaTa BCTpcTHTb noAo6Hoe we MHoroodpaswe npH- 
HaaJiewHocTefi k BKycoBbiM rpynnaw. M, o6paTHo, b Kawfloft 
BKycoBoft rpynne mw bhahm npeACTasHTeJieft pasHwx KJiaccoB. 

k XapaKXepHCTHKH „KJiaCCOBO-3KOHOMHMeCKan" H MHCTO „C03Ha- 

TejibHO-3ByKOBaji" He coBnajtaiOT, a KaK 6bi npoHHKarox flpyr 
npyra. Ten He Menee KJiacc, KaK counojioro-aKOHOMWHecKHft 
KOMnjiCKC, flaeT Bce we H3BecTHbifl OTnenaTOK na BKycoBbix 
rpynnax. EcTb rpynnw, b KOTopbix npeo6 Jia^aioT sjieMeH- 
Tbi onpefleaeHHoro KJiacca h, Hao6opoT, hohth OTcyTCTByioT 
sflCMeHTbi MHoro KJiacca. TaKOB 6biJi, HanpwMep, eBponeftcKnft 
Kjiacc noTpe6nTejieft cuMtjjoHHMecKoft hah KawepHoft MysbiKH 

B XIX M XX BCKaX, B HCM Mbl 6e3 Tpyaa MOWCM KOHCTaXH- 

poBaxb npeHMymecTBO HHTeJiJiHreHTCKO-6ypHcya3Hbix sJieMCH- 
TOB H noHXH nojiHoe oxcyTCXBHe pa6oMero npoflexapiiaxa. 

HpHCyXCXBHC 3ByKOBOft COSHaxejIbHbCXH, KaK HSBeCXHOrO MO- 

Menxa, „paccjioHK)mero" nexKHe KjiaccoBbie rpynnw Ha 6ojiee 
^ MeflKHe BKycoBbie, ocJioJKHHex Bonpoc o noxpe6MTejie MyswKH 

M SaCXaBJIHCX B UCJIHX CXpOroft HayMHOCTH OXHOCHTbCa B 
aXOft o6jiaCTH K BWBOaaM C doJIblUOfi OCXOpOWHOCTblO. To 

CBOftcTBO MysbiKaJibHoro HCKyccTBa, Mxo ero MaxepHaji — 
3ByK — coBepmeHHO Menaex cBoe ncHxcaornHecKoe Bosaeft- 

CTBHC B SaBHCHMOCXH OT CXenCHH 3ByKOBOrO 0C03HaHHH, H 

saBHCHMOcxb sxoro caMoro sByKOBoro oco3HaHHa ox xaKofl 
nepcMeHHoA h KanpHSHoft cnoco6HOCxH, BcxpeMaroineftcJi bo- 
Bce He y Bcex Jifoaeft, KaK „xopoiiiHA cjiyx", cxasHx nysbiKy 
', B HecKOJibKO oco6oe nojiowenwe cpaBHHxejibHO c hhumh hc- 
KyccxBaMH, B Kcxopbix couHOJiornHecKyjo rpynnHpoBKy no- 
Tpe6HxejiH MOWHO npoBecxH c Menbuieft HaxnwKofl. ycJiOBMH 



y 




CxiiAb (I BKycoBbie 
rpynnbi 



pasBHTHH npHpoAHbix saflaxKOB cjiyxa h BbipacxaioineA m3 
axoro 3ByKOBoft cosHaxejibHocxH saBHcsx ox couHOJiorHMe- 
CKHS npexf,nocbijiOK, ho caMwe sajiatKH 6ojiee ^HSHOJiorHM- 
Hbi H aHxponojiorHHHbi no npwpoAe. BcJieflCTBne couhojioph- 
MecKHx ycjiOBHH JiHUib MajioB KOJfiHHecxBO jnoflcii c saaaxKaMH 
3ByKOBoro cosHaHHH nonaaaex b rpynnbi noxpe6HTeJiefl 
BbicoKO AMc^epenuHpoBaHHoA MyswKM H3 npojiexapHSOBaH- 

HblX KJiaCCOB, HO CaMblB SaAaXKH, BHAHMO, y HHX BCTpCHaiOTCn 

^ He pewe h hc name mbm, y Apyroro KJiacca. 

T H n MysbiKH HJiH ee c t h Ji b ecTb co- 
BOKynHOCTb npH3HaKOB, OD eflHHHiomHX rpynnbi 

HBJieHHft B MySblKe. 3tOX CXHJIb HaXOAHTCH B TCCHeMIUefl 

, saBHCHMOCTH OT THtta Toft F p y n n bi, KOTopaa aBJisiexcH no- 
xpedHxejiCM AaHHOH MyswKH. Mbi mowcm CKa- 
' saxb, MTO rpynna o6ycJiOBJiMBaeT cxHjib n, 06- 
paTHo, CTHJib „noA6HpaeT" ce6e rpynny 
noTpe6HTejiefl. eMy cooxsexcxByiomyK). 3xo — npouecc B3anM- 
Horo OT6opa, ocHOsanHbiA na xom, 4x0 c;iymaxe;ib nesoJibHO 
Bbi6Hpaex HMeHHO xo, MXO eMy noAxoAHx, n HHHero hhofo- 
riocKOJibKy Ha CXHJIb BJiHfltox jiHHHbie xapaKxepHcxHKH xoro 
jiHLia, Koxopoe npoAyuHpyex My3biKy (KOMno3Hxopa h;ih hc 
nojiHHxejia), mh HMeew acao cocthjicm wHAHBHAyaflb- 
HbiM, OH ecTb B cyiuHocxH HeKOxopaji paB- 
HOAeflcxByioman HHAHBHAyajibHbix sanpocoB 
aBxopa viim HcnojiHHxejia h 3anpocoB rpynnw 
noxpe6Hxejiea. KoMno3Hxop h HcnoJiHHxejib, BOo6iue aKXHB- 
Hbift MysbiKaHx He Mowex 6bixb snojiHe CBo6oAeH b cbobm 
CTHJie, OH He Bbi6Hpaex ero h He „co3Aaex" He3aBHCHMO, a 
KaK 6bi coo6pa3yeT cBoe TBopnecxBO c 3anpocoM rpynnw. 
KaK 6w Majia axa nepBOHaHajibnaa rpynna hh 6biJia, OHa 
Bceraa AOJiwHa cymecxBOBaxb, h HHane wcKyccxBO 6yAex 

MepXBO, HeJIb35I HpeACTaBHTb KOMnOSHTOpa HJIH HCnOAHHTeJlH, 

cKOJibKO - HH6yAb Kpynnoro h „3HaHHTejibHoro", ccjih oh 
HH KeM He npH3Haexc3, KpoMe caworo ce65i, MyswKa Koxoporo 
HHPAe He HaxoAHT cnpoca. Ecjih mw HMeeM o6mHOcxb npHe- 
MOB xBopnecTBa b uejioft rpynne jihu, to mw TorAa hmbcm 

CTHJIb UIKOJIbi: TaKOBbI 6wJlH HSBeCTHWC 
CTHAb niKOAU. 

KCTOpMHeCKHe UIKOJIbi — HHAepjiaHACKafl, PMM- 

cKa», HeanojiHTaHCKaa, TaKOBw noAo6Hbie we o6pa30EaHH5! 

B HOBOe BpCMH: „pyCCKHft KyHKHSM", BarHCpHSM H HpOH. BcSI" 



HHABBBAyaAfcHblK 
CT^aAb. 






tiiiM 



.n 



Kaa uiKOJia, KorAa ona cKOJibKO-HH6yAb AeftcTBHTenbHO npefl- 
CTaBJiHer uejibHOCTb, oxpaacaeT Bnojine rpynnosoft BKyc onpe- 
aeneHHoft rpynnu- B cymHOCTH Bcerfla rpynna noTpe6MTeJiefl 
npeftcraBJiJieTCH m H p e HHflHBHAyajibHdro cthjih. Hh- 

flHBHUyaJIbHblft CTHJIb MOHCCT HMCTb c6bIT TOJIbKO B OftHOfi 

rpynne, ho OflHa rpynna noHxn HHKorAa He flOBOJibCTsyeTCfl 

KaKHM-Hn6yflb OAHHM HHflHBHJiyaJlbHblM CTHJICM, OHa o6'eAH- 

HacT HecKOflbKO cTHfleS, OHa coHyBCTByex HCKOxopoMy ..xene- 
HHH)", HanpaBJieHHK) hjih cxhjik). Tpyano npeacxasHxb ce6e 
Aaase oahofo neJioBeKa, Koxopbift 6bi „noxpe6jisiJi", cKaaceM, 
MysbiKy xojibKO BpaMca h 6oJibuie hhkofo, h eme xpyanee 
npeflcxaBHXb ce6e ueJiyio rpynny jiHJAeft co cxojib ysKHM SKy- 
coM. Ho eme lame rpynnoBoft BKyc noxpe6HxejiH o6'eAHHHex 
M 6ojiiee uiHpoKne cxnjieBwe rpynnHpoBKH: cxH,nb anoxH. 
Koxopwft 6ojiee hjih nenee sjpKO nposBJisiexca 

CTBAb anoXH. ^ cOHHHeHHHX BCaKHX COBpCMeHHUKOB. BbIBaK>X 

snoxH MysbiKaJibHoro pasBHXHa, KorAa ocodeHHaa nexKOcxb 
BKycoBbix rpynn h oco6eHHaa saMKHyxocxb MysbiKaJibHoro 
HCKyccxBa b 3xh BpeMena npHAasajiH homxh Bceft MyawKe 
onpcAejieHHbm oxnenaxoK, ho b cymHocxH sxo 6biBajio ao- 

BOflbHO pCAKO H BCe-XaKH XOJIbKO B XOXa H 04eHb KpynHbix, 

HO Bce me saMKHyxbix noxpe6HxejibCKHX rpynnax. KorAa 

06hHH0 HCXOpHKH FOBOpflX O CXHJIHX SHOX, XO pasyMClOX BCB- 
TAa XOAbKO OAHy JIHHHK) MySblKaJIbHOFO paSBHTHa, HMeHHO xaK 

Has. „KyjibxypHyKJ MysbiKy", Mysbmy, co3AaBaBUiyH)ca BcerAa, b 
cymnocxH. b pacnexe na OAHy onpeAeJienHyio. ho AOcxaxoMHO- 
xaKH ysKyiO b cpaBHenHH c napoAOM noxpe6HxeJibCKyK) rpyn- 
ny, B XO BpeMa KaK uejibie napoAHwe Maccbi npoAyunpoBa- 
jiH H noxpe6jiajiH nysbiKy cosepuieHHO hhofo xwna h cxHJia. 
BaaHMOAeftcxBHe cxHJia, npoHSBOAHxejin 
OseHKa TBopeHHH. ^ noxpe6iixeJia B cyiUHOCxH h cocxaB;iaex 
saAany paccMOxpenHa coanaxeJibHoft MyabutajibHofl HCxopHH. 
Bhc axHX ocHOBHbix nonaxHA HeMbicJiMMO roscpHXb hh o pas- 
BHXHH MysbiKH. HH o ec oucHKax. KaHCAaa oueHKa npoHBBe- 
ACHHa no Heo6xoAMMOCxH „oxKOcvixenbHa''. pejiaxHBHa — axo 
ecxboucHKaB AaHHoA hjih b onpeAe;ieHHoft rpynne, 
H He 6o;iee xoro. KorAa nacxo cxaBHJica Bonpoc 06 „a6co- 

J1K3XHOM AOCXOHHCXBe" XOrO HJIH HHOPO MySblKaJlbHOrO aBJIBHHa, 

XO HeMHorne saMenajiH, mxo caMbift Bonpoc ne npaBOMepeH, 
Mxo Hex xoro „a6cojnoxHoro" oueniUHKa, Koxopwft 6bi pac- 



ueHMJi AaHHoe npoHSBeAenvie c xohkh speHHa „Bcex". Mbi 

fflHpnHaoHeHKH. ^°'^^'' '^°'''*''° roBopHXb o 6o;ibmeS hah 
MeHbuieft uiHpHHe xoh noxpeSHxejibCKoft 
rpynnbi, Koxopofl yAOBJiexBopaex Aannoe xyAOwecxBeHHoe 
MysbiKajibHoe aBJiCHHe. HanpnMep, napoAnaa pyccKaa necna 
HMeex oneHb KOJiHHecxBeHHO Kpynnuft pasMep noxpednxejib- 
CKofi rpynnbi, HanpoxHB, nysbiKa KaKoro - HH6yAb Hoaaxopa, 
Hanp., llIeH6epra, HMeex onenb Majiwft pasMep rpynnw no- 
xpe6HxeJieH. 3xa KOJiMHecxBCHHaa o^eHKa o6bi4HO HMenyexca 
„AeMOKpaxHHecKoft": npoHSBeACHHe ren AeMOKpaxHwee, mcm 
6oAbmee KOJiHiecxBO ahu o6HHMaex ero BKycosaa rpynna 
noxpe6Hxejieft. FIpw axon hbao. BnponeM, Hwexb b BHAy. hxo 
Heo6xoAHMO oueHHBaxb He xojibKo noxpe6HxeJia AaHHoro 
MOMenxa, ho noxpedHxejia. xaK CKasaxb, bo BpeMCHw. 
„BbicoKHe" xyAOJKecxBeHHbie cosAaHna, KaK nx npHHHxo 
MMeHOBaxb, o6biMHO oxjiHMaioxca xeM cboAcxbom, hxo ohh 
oxBaxbiBaiox He xojibKo coBpeMeHHwe hm Kpyra noxpe6Hxejieft, 
ho coxpanarox h b 6yAymeM axH Kpyrw, HHorAa 
Aame pacuiHpaa hx. 06bi4Haa Hcxopna rcHHajibHwx 
cosAaHHft xaKOBa, hxo hx „npH jkhshh". KaK roBopax, ne no- 
HHMarox. a nanHnaiox ueHHXb nocjie cMepxH hjih Boo6me 
y«e B 6ojiee nosAHroio anoxy. Ohh, xaopubi sxhx npoMSBC- 
AeHHft, KaK 6bi npoBHAax BKycbi SyAymero h cosAarox 
MysbiKajibHbie npoAyKxw ne xojibKO b BHAax nacxosmero 
cnpoca, HO h 6yAymero, npw neM HHorAa h AaH<e nacxo npo- 
6jieMa „Hacxoamero cnpoca" Aaace cxymeBbiBaexca npcA 
npo6aeM0H 6yAymero cnpoca, hxo o6ycjiOBjiHBaexca xeM 
npocxbiM (|)aKxoM, hxo SByKOBoe coanaHHe axHx jihu onepe- 
waex cpeAHHfl BKyc BeKa 6ojiee snaHMxejibHO. Anajins Moacex 
ycxanoBHXb, hxo poMaHxwnecKaa HAea c a a b w 

^POAyKnHfl Ha 

Syflyiero no- ''y«o»«ecxBeHHOH, Koxopaa nrpaex b hc- 
Tpe6HTeAH. KyccxBe poAb cBoero poAa o6MeHHoft uchhccxk 
Ha paAy c hhcxo - sKOHOMHHecKHMH 6AaraMH, 
nopoHCAaeMbiMH uinpoKHM cnpocoM na MyawKaAbHbifi npoAyKx, 
HXO 9xa HAea mhofo noMora;ia b xaKoro poAa cxaBKe na 
SyAymee. UenHocxb nocMepxnoft cjiasbi OKaswBajiacb na- 
cxoAbKO SHaHHxejibHoA, HXO B yHexe ee mojkho 6biJio Bnonne 
HJIH oxHacxH HrHopHpoBaxb sanpocbi jkhehx rpynn noxpe- 
6HxeJiea H pyKOBOAHXbca xoAbKO cbohm jihhhwm nyBcxBOM. 
9xa MenoBaa uennocxb nocMepxHoft cjiaebj, Koxopaa npeA- 



'!l!i«ff;')ii)4^\^ 



*(i:l>r>f-i^.'>JW4t 




16 



CTaBJiHJiacb eme 6ojibuieft, hcm mach cjiaebi npuMCHSHeHHOH, 
pasBHBaexca h npoHSBOAHX cboh xapaKTepHbie ussieuvi^ 
rjiaBHbiM o6pa30M b anoxH no^'eMa HAeajiHCXHMecKoro MHpo- 
coaepuaHHH, b anoxw CBoero pofla „poMaHTHHecKHe", h roraa 
ine ecxecTBeHHO odnapywuBaexcH oco6eHHaH xHra k „HOBa- 
xopcxBy", x.-e. k xoMy, MXo6bi npoKJiaflWBaxb HOBbie MexojXbi 

BblCKaSblBaHHH B HCKyCCXBe, He CHHXaHCb C HenOHHMaHHCM 

coBpcMeHHHKOB. HanpoxHB, 9xa cxaBKa Ha 6yflymee h coox- 
sexcxBeHHO xoMy h HOBaxopcKHM MMnyjibc 6bicxpo 6jieKHyx 
B snoxH, KOFAa He omymajiocb xaKoft yBepenHOCXH b oucHKe 
6yaymHMM noKOJieHHSiMH. CaMO co6ok) pasyMeexcs, hxo 
HcnoflHHxejiH BOo6me na bccm npoxsweHHw MysbiKajibHoft 
HCxopHH OKasbiBaioxcH SHaHHxejibHO MCHee cnoco6HbiMH 6ec- 
KopbicxHO oxAaBaxbCH H^ee nocMepxHoft cjiaBbi, n6o hx wcKyc- 
cxBO, caMO no ce6e 3(|jeMepHoe h Hcnesaiomee c hhmh, Majio 
pacnojiarano k sxoh cxaBKe na 6yflymee. 

KaK JierKo BHAexb hs npeAWflywero, caMoe 
A6coAioTHa»oBeH- ^^^g^j^g ^ a6coJiK)XHOM ;iocxoHHCxBe H o „paH- 

Ka HenpaBOMcpHa. „ _ „..„ 

rax" npoHSBefleHHK MysbiKH HenpaBonepHO. 
Bee flejio b cosnanHH oxaejibHbix rpynn noxpe6Hxejiefl. Co- 
BepuieHHO BepHO, mxo ajih KpecxbHHMHa AeBHxasi cvim4)ohmh 
BexxoBena n ji o x a, KaK BepHO h o6paxHoe, hxo flJia chm(|)0- 
HHiecKofl rpynnw noxpe6nxeJieft njioxa 6yflex KaKa9-Hn6yflb 
npHMMXHBHaa neceHKa, HMeiomasi orpoMHoe npn3HaHHe b uim- 
poKofi Macce. flexajmsoBaHHaH ouenKa momccx HacxynHXb 
xojibKO, Korfia mw cxaHOBHMcn onpeffejieHHO Ha xOHwy spcHHw 
KaKoa - HH6yflb onpeAejieHHoft rpynnw. HaripuMep, ecJiH mw 
cxaneM na xoHKy speHHH rpynnw „npo4)eccHOHajiOB - Myaw- 

KaHXOB", XO nOJiyHHM MOflyC CUCHKH, OCHOBaHHwS Ha XOM, 

Mxo6bi npMAaHHOM ypoBHe cosnaxejibHOCXH b 
SByKe flocxHHb HaH6oJibmeft rapMOHHMecKOM nojiHorw SBy- 
Mamero odpasa. Ho cxohx nepeMSHHXb no3HUHK). Bsaxb 
HHyK) rpynny, nanpuMep, onepnyro ny6flHKy, h Bccb Kpwxe- 
pHft OKaacexca HecocxosixeJibHWM. 

JlerKO BHAexb, hxo b Hxore uinpHHa oueHKH, x.-e. 
KOJiHHecxBO flHU B rpynne noxpe6Hxejiefi[, Aasce bshxwx 
H cocHHxaHHbix no oxHOuieHHHJ K HacxoameMy, npomeauieMy 
H 6yflymeMy, Bce ace He Bwpawaex co6ok) HflCH ouchkh 
flocxoHHCxBa npoHSBefleHHH. KpoMe uihphhw, 
rAy6,.Ba ojseHKH. ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^ „r;iy6HHy", x.-e. cHJiy 



'.^T/ -V^Jti''.; -'Tg'V.yfel-'lbt. 



HHflHBHflya.iibHoro BnenaxfleHHsi, cBoero poAa CHjiy „xHroxe- 
HHji" K AaHHOMy npoH3BefleHHK). 3xo XHroxeHHe momccx 
oxBaxHXb 6ojibiiiHe Maccw, ho 6bixb bhjiwm, mojkbx oxBaxHXb 
MajivK) rpynny, ho 6bixb b nefi onenb HHxeHcHBHWM. Mcxopw- 
HecKasi npaKXHKa noKasweaex, mxo b aejie oueHKH cyme- 
cxBCHHefiuiee SHaneHHe hmbjih BcerAa HMenno sxh ajieMenxbi 
„Hanp5iaceHHocxH XHroxeHHn", a He mnpnHbi — hmchho ohh 
BcerAa conyxcxBOBajiw AeftcxBHxeJibHO 3HaMHxejibHbiM hbjic- 
HHHM, MXO .nerKO H noHHXb. HecKOJibKO ropnMHX npHBepwenueB 
B cyiuHocxH sHanax 6oAee Aawe ajisi caMoro npoAynxopa 
My3WKH, MeM BHJiaH Macca pasHOAymHO npHeMJiroinHX. Ho 
xoHHaa 4)opMyAa ouchkh snyxpn rpynnw xpe6yex yMexa 
uiHpHHbi H rAydwHw — ona ecxb HMeHHO npoi^3BeAeHne 
uiHpHHbi Ha rjiy6nHy y.nvi oC'en rpynnw. 
CKOJibKo Mce HH6yAb npaBOMepnaH, xoxh h ycjioBnast, ouenKa 
a6co;noxHoro AOcxoHHCxBa npoHSBeAeHHn MOJKex nojiyHHXbCH 
JiHuib xorAa, KorAa mw ynxeM eme cxenenb SByKOBoro co3HaHHsi 
(„cpeAHero 3ByKOBoro cosHaHHSi") BHyxpH rpynnw noxpe6H- 
xejieft. TorAa mw nojiynuM a6coAK)XHoe SHaMenne npoHSBe- 
y AeHHH, KaK „npoH3BeAeHHe iuhphhw rpynnw 

MyAa ogeHKH. "^ ^® rAydwHy h Ha cpcAHee SByKOBoe cosna- 
HHe", HAH Bee rpynnw. 

TaK KaK 3ByKOBoe co3HaHHe bo bccm npcAW- 
SsyKOBoe cosna- AyutCM Hrpaex, KaK BHAHO, 6oAbuiyK) poAb. xo Ae- 
HHe,KaK4iaKTop, jjaeTCH HCHo, MXO OHO BOo6me Hrpaex cepbea- 

BKycoBue rpyn- "V"* P^""** ^ HCXOpHH HCKyCCXBa SByKOB. OhO 
DM. BMeCXe C COUHOAOrHMeCKHMH MOXHBaMH (j[)op- 

MHpyex rpynnw noxpe6HxeAeft xoro hjih ifHoro 
THna. Ero pasBHXHeM o6ycAOBAeH Becb nporpecc HCKyccxsa, 
h6o nporpecc 9xox BWSBan He MeM hhwm, KaK HeyAOBAexBO- 
pcHHocxbK) npe»cHeft xexHHKoft npn hobom cosnanHH. Opo- 
oyMCAaiomHecji h pasBHsaiomHeca sjieMeHxw HOBoro coBHaHHsr 
H3MeHflK)x BKyc K npejKHHM npoAyKxaM H aacxa- 
BJifliox HCKaxb HOBoro BonjiomeHHH. 3xo HCKaHHe o6ok)aho: 

.yi CO CXOpOHbl nOXpe6HXeA5I H CO CXOpOHW npOHSBOAHXCAH, XOXH 

ODWMHO, KaK ysce yKa3WBaAocb, co3HaHHe npoMBBOAHxejia CHJibHO 
ynpcMCAaex b pasBHXHH BByKOBoe cosnaHHC noxpe6HxejiH. 
McxopHMecKHfi onwx hbm noKaawaaex, mxo sByKOBoe coBHaHwe 

paSBMBaeXCH o6bIMHO MaCXHMH, „A03aMH" B KaKOfl-HH6yAb 

MacxHoft o6jiacxH h aacxasAsiex HCKaxb hobhshw HMeHHo 

2 



■ /«iiMfi 






— 18 — 

Tyr. npH hcm HcpeaKO Apyrae aJieMBHTbi cthjim npw stom na- 
paJiMsyiOTCH B pasBHTHH. TaK, HanpHMep, rHnepTpo(J)M« pas- 
BHTHH co3HaHHH B o6;iacTH rapMOHHH CO BpeMBHH BaPHepa 
ocTaBHJia coBepuieHHO a xeHW o6jiacTii 4)opMbi h pHTMa m 
napajiHSOBaJia hx. ran mto mu hmbjih ryx ^awe HSBCCTHyio 
penyKUHK> no cpaBHCHHio c KJiaccHKaMH, BchkhS npupocT 
3ByKOBoro cosHaHHH B jiK)6oa o6jiacTH Bceraa cJiywuT k TOMy, 
HTo6bi nocne, BOSBpamascb k npoayKraM npoiujioro, boc- 

npHHHTb B HHX MHOPOe HO-HOBOMy, „B CBBXe HOBblX COSHa- 

hhh'. TaK, KJiaccHHecKaH rapMOHHH Baxa noJiy^MJia HOBwft 
BHfl H noHMMaHHe B CBexe MysbiKH KJiaccHMecKoft anoxH, TaK, 
B Hauie BpeMJi cTHJib Jle6ioccH cnoco6cTBOBaji npocBexjieHHio 
OTHomeHHfl K crapwM (JipaHuyscKUM KJiaccMKaw. Te hobwc 
ajieMCHTbi KOHTpacra. KOTopwe noTpe6HTeJib MysbiKW HanH- 
HaeT ouiymaTb b crapux npoayKTax. o6ycJioBJiHBaK)T HapasHe 
c eme „HenpeB30MiieHHbiMH" ajieweHTaMH hx 

»H3HeHH0CTb My- cTyjjjg aCHSHCHHOCTb npOHSBefleHHH, T.-e. TOT 

8HKaAi.Horo npo- ^^^^ ^ TCMeHHe KOToporo npoHSBeacHHe cno- 

HSBeAeBHSl. ^^g^^ B006llie BblSBaTb 3MOUHM H CHMnaTHH. 

cnoco6HO HMBTb Kpyr noTpe6MTefleft. CymecTBeHHoe cMcmeHHe 
B TeneHHC bckob sByKOBoro cosHaHHa MOMceT HacTOJibKO ysecTH 
ero OT npe^KHHX o6pa3UOB. hto MyswKa. npoayuHpoBaHHaa b 

npeWHCM 3ByKOBOM COBHaHHH. OKaMCeTCH coBepmeHHO JIHUieH- 
HOfl BCHKOfl fleScTBeHHOCTH Ha JHOACH C HOBbIM COSHaHHeM. 

TaKyio cyflb6y HMeex, nanp., Tenepb aHTHHHan MysbiKa hjih 
MysbiKa nepBbix bbkob cpeflHeBCKOBbJi. TaKHM me cboSctbom 
BcerAa OTJiwMaioTCH npoH3BefleHHH tbk Ha3. „BTOpocTeneHHbix" 
' aBTopoB. o6biMHO HHUiyutHX B pacMCxe Ha Menee ycToflMHBwe 
sjieMCHTbi sByKOBoro co3HaHHfl. noTOMy MTO HX Menee nyTKHft 
HHCTHHKT HB yKa3biBaeT HM 6ojiee npoHHbix. Hx npOHSBefleHMH. 

, KaK npHHHTO rOBOpHTb, „6bICTpO CTapeHJT" H HHOrfla CTaHO- 
BSTCJI BOBCe JlHUieHHblMH BCJIKOrO nOTpe6;ieHHfl hjih CHJIbHO 

cywHBaKJT 3TOT Kpyr noTpe6HTejiefl. panee Becbna mnpOKHfl. 
TaKOBbi, Hanp.. BHpTyosHbie npoayKTbi, paccMHTanHwe Ha ypo- 
BeHb BvipTyo3HOCTH flaHHOPO BpeMeHH, Boo6me Ha „BKycbi" 
BpeMeHH. KaK. nanp., npoHSsefleHHSi Tepua. KajibK6peHHepa. 
HMCBiuHe Kor^a-TO orpoMHbift c6biT H ycnex. SfleMCHTbi ny- 
MCAOCTH 3ByKOBoro cosHaHHH BCTpeMaK)TCH Bcerfta B npoHSBe- 
nenmx npeHCHMX snox. ho ohh y bbjihkhx KOMnosHTopoB 
pasdaBJieHbi 6ojibmHM KOJinnecTBOM MecT. KOTopbie BOcnpn- 



f 



" ■ *,"""^ ;«' V^AJffTTT'^' T^f :'^; 



— li) 



HHMajOTCH H TCKymHM COSHaHHCM. ToBOpHTb O BCHHOCTH 

npoHSBeAenfl HCKyccTsa BOo6me secbMa npc6;ieMaTHHHo: 
ropasflo 6oJiee BepoHXHO, mto BeMHOcTb ara secbMa othoch- 
TCJibHa. CpaBHHTejibHaH He BenHOCTb, a ..MCHBynecTb" npo- 
HseeAeHHfl b TeneHne bckob o6'HCHHeTcfl Ten, hto pa3JiHHHbie 
BKycoBbie rpynnbi, KOTopbie (|)opMHpyK>Tc« na npoTAMccHMH 
bbkob, BCTpenaioT a h^/x Te hjih HHbie sjieMenTbi, hm 6;iH3KHe 
H npHflTHbie, BxoAHmne a ccfjepy hx saywoBoro cosHaHHH. 

Ho OHCHb B03M03KHO. HTO 3HaHHTeJlbHafl HaCTb 3THX 3Jie 

MeHToa BOBce ne 6biJia b hhcjib tbx, KOTopbie aocnpHHHMajiHCb 
nepBOHanajibHbiMH rpynnawH noTpe6HTejieH h Aawe caMHM 
npoflyKTopoM AaHHofl MyswKH. Bojibjuofl Bonpoc — BOCnpHHH- 
MaeM jiH Mbi Tenepb, nocjie Barnepa, MouapTa, TaK, KaK boc- 
npHHHMajiH ero coBpeweHHHKH h oh can. Bojiee npaBAonoAo6KO. 
HTO HHHero o6mero a sthx BocnpnaTHsix hct h hto, o6paTHO, 
coapeMeHHHKH MouapTa BMecTe c caMHM MouapTOM npn hx 
eme He TaK noflpo6HO pacKpbiauieMCH BByKoaoM coanaHHH 
npHuiJiH 6bi a y«ac ot Barnepa. MouapT ceflnac WHaneHeH 
a Hac, 6biTb MOM«e r, kbk pa3 tcmh 3JieMeHTaMH. KOTopwx a hcm 
ero coapeMeHHHKH ne aocnpHHJiaH. „BeHH0CTb" hjih, tohhcb, 
..WHsynecTb" npoHsaefleHHJi, a cymnocTH. Towe bxoaht 
B oucHKy ero. ho OHa yjKe aouijia a nauiy „(f)opMyjiy" hmchho 
B BHue KOJiHHecTaa HHAHBHflyyMoa a rpynne noTpe6HTejieft, 
KaKoaoe KOJinnecTBO Heo6xoAHMO cHHTaTb He TojibKO b bhab 

COBpeMeHHHKOB, HO H B BHAB HOTOMKOB, npHeMJHOmHX AaHHOe 
TBOpneCTBO. 

PasBHTHe 3ByKo- SsyKoaoe co3HaHHe HMeeT cboh TaepAbie 

Boro COSBaHHH. ^S'^O"" paSBHTHH. 3tO paSBHTHe 06yCJI0BJieH0 

AaHHbiMH aHTponojiornnecKHMH, (j[)H3HOJiorHHe- 

CKHMH H COllHOJIOrHHeCKHMH. 

AHTponojioPHHecKHe cJiaKTopbi o6ycjiOBjiHBaK)T tot hjih 

MHOfl 4)H3HOJIOrHHeCKHH THH HO OTHOUieHHK) K BOCnpHHTHKJ 

3ByKa. Mbi BCTpcHaeMCH a hctophh c HauHHMH H pacaMH 
„My3biKajibHbiMH" (cjiaBHHe. eapen, repMaHUbi). cpeAHeMyaw- 
KajibHbiMH (4)paHuy3bi) h aoBce mbjio MyswKajibHWMH (anrjio- 
caKCbi, KHxafiubi). Ohcbhaho. hto b nauHHX Majio My3biKajibHbix 
MysbiKajibHaa npoayKUHH AOJiwna 6biTb Boo6me MeHbuieft, hbm 

B HaUHnX C 60JIbUI0H My3bIKaJIbHOCTblO. H HTO OHa y HHX 

AOJiacHa npHHHMaTb neKOTopwe cneuHcfjHHecKHe (JjopMbi. 3to 
TaK H ecTb. Mbi BHAHM. Hanp., a Ahtjihh npouBCTaKHe My- 



i :h'' 



■MiakiMiMihi 



■^ 



w 






— 20 — 

SbiKH TOJibKo B onpeaejieHHwft nepwofl (cTapoaHrflMftcKaa 
uiKOJia), Koraa eme caMoe noHflTwe MyswKH He bhojihc otavi- 
(jjepeHUHposajiocb ox pauHOHajibHoft wrpw b ssyKH, h saxeM 
HMeeM CJiyHafiiHyK) BcnbiuiKy HauvtoHajibHoro reHHH b jiHue 
OepceJiJia, nocjie nero tbm KOHCTaxHpyeTca orpoMHbifi npo- 
Baji B MysbiKe h n3o6Hnne nocpefl,CTBeHHoft nponyKUHH. Ha- 
npoTHB, MysbiKajibHOCTb CBpeficKofl HauHH, H npwTOM npe- 
MMymecTBeHHO b o6jiacTH HcnojiHeHHa, CKasajiacb b rpoMaa- 

HOM KOJIHMeCTBe CBpeftCKHX MySblKaHTOB-MCnOJIHHXeJiefl, KOXO- 

pbie ftaMce, b cyiUHOCxH, flOMWHHpyiox nan. ocxajibHoft Maccofl 
aKXHBHbix MysbiKaHXOB BO BCBM seMHOM uiapc. FIoCKOJlbKy 
■aHTponojiorHMecKHfi xhh ecxb nocJieflcxBHe couwajibHbix ycjio- 

BHft, nOCXOJIbKy H 3Xa MySblKaJlbHOCXb HauHH o6ycJiOBJieHa 

couMOJioraMecKHMH npuMHHaMH. TaK, HCMysbiKajibHocxb aHrjinfl- 

CKOft HaUHH. BMJIHMO, odyCJIOBJICHa OXHaCXH XCM, MXO npHuiefl- 

uiHe BMCCxe c BwnbrejibMOM SaBOCBaxejicM BOHHCxBCHHwe 
caKCbi 6biJiH KaK pas „ox6opoM" jihu no cBoefl BOHHcxBerf- 
Hoft npo4)eccMH wajio MysbiKaJibHwx. Tanaa Mce HCxopwH 6biJia 

B CXOJIb JKe BOHHCXBeHHOfl flpeBHCfl CoapXC (JlaKCAeMOH). 

Toace He ftaBuieft pacuBexa%iy3biKH, h b apcbhcm Phmb, co- 
BepiueHHo MyacAOM MysbiKajibHbiM omymeHnsM. llpaKTHHecKHft 
ox6op aneprHMHbix h nposaHnecKHX jiioAeft, ocHOBaBuiHX ane- 
pHKancKyK) kojiohhk) b HbmeiuHHX CoeaHHenHbix UJxaxax, 
6biJi npHMHHoft xoro, hxo MysbiKanbHocxb anepHKaHueB OKa- 
sajiacb oxcyxcxByiomeft na flBa bckb h ceAnac o6c/ryacHBaexcsi 
xoJibKO nprnujibiMH sjieMeaxaMH, r^aBKbiM o6pa30M eBpeflcKoro 
npOHCXOMCfleHHJi. FocnoACXByiomaH npocJ^eccHH h cnpoc na 
MysbiKy B HauHH o6ycJiOBJinBaK>x xox hjih vmoPi ee anxpono- 
jiorHMecKHft xHn MyawKajibHOCxH. Ecjih flocxaxoMHoro cnpoca 
He o6Hapy»{HBaexcH, MysbiKaJibHOCXb nauHH rjioxnex h bw- 

powAaexcH. 

OHSHOJiorHHCCKMe cjjaKxopw SByKOBOrO co- 

SHaHHSi CBOflaxcn K noHaxHK) c Ji y X a h ero cxe- 
ncHeft. HaH6ojiee pacnpocxpaneHHO BOcnpnH- 
XHO npocxefiuieft nepHoanHHOCXH 
CTaflHH sayKOBo- ggyj^ Q3 (nexpa, pHXMa). FIoxom npo- 

ro C03HaHHJl, MCT- jjgjjgg^j,^ B^yc K caMOMy BSyKy, KaK 3MOUHO- 

' HaJibHO pasApaa^atomeMy hjih B030y>KflaK)meMy 

sjieMCHxy. Oxxoro cnanajia BOcnpHHHMaHJxca, kbk wejiaxejib- 
Hwe, npHHXHbie, xeM6pbi HyBCXBCHHwe (rojioc hcjio- 



^HSHOAOrHieCKHe 

^aKTopu. 



1 



Bapxyoaiia. cxa- ^^^^' <=«P""^^)- ^ V^^ noxOM MBHCe MyBCXBCH- 

^^^^ Hbie (ayxoBbte, (J)opxenHaHo). Bjihsko k axoft 

cxafl,HH BocnpHaxHa yBJieneHHe BHpxyosHo- 

cxbio, x.-e. xexHHMecKHM yMCHbCM My3biKaHxa npeoAOJie- 

Baxb xpyAHOcxH. 3xo — scxexHMecKoe BocnpHaxae, poA- 

CXBeHHOe UMpKOBbIM OlUymeHHaM, HO BCeflCXBHe SJieMCHXapHOft 

„My3biKajibHofl" ycxanoBKH Bce ace npoaBJiaiomeeca b SByKO 

Boft (jjJopMe. 06biMHo cxaflHH MyBcxBeHHoro xewdpa h BHpxy- 

O3H0CXH coBnaflaiox b oahom jihuc, h rpynna nmx axcro 

SByKOBoro cosHaHna, oieHb MHoroHHcjiCHHaa, o6pa3yex xy 

BKycOByK) rpynny noxpe6HxeJieft, Koxopaa nasbiBaexca „mH- 

poKoft ny6jiHkoA" h nocemaex yace MHoro bckob onepy, kbk 

XHn HCKyccxBa, r^e MyswKa npenojiHOCHxca b yfl,o6onoHaxHoA 

(|)opMe BOKajibHoA MejiOAHH, SMOuna KoxopoA pacxojiKOBana 

cjioBaMH H spejiHutcM, c ynacxHeM saeMeHxa BHpxyo3HOcxH 

(KOJiopaxypa). Yace cjieayiomeA cxaaHeA aBJiaexca oco3HaHHe 

MeAo M e a o A H H, KaK xaKOBoA, c ee phxmom h hh- 

craABs. ^OHauHeA; Ha nocJiejiyHJiueA cxaflHH pa3BHXHa 

"SByKOBoro cosHanna noaBjiaexca nyBCXBO r a p- 

MOHHH. HocfleAyiomHe cxaflHH xapaKxepn- 

3yK)xca ycJioacHeHHCM BByKOBoro cosHaHna, 

x.-e. HaHHHaiox ocoBHasaxbca ne xojibKp 

npocxeAiuHe mcjioahh, pnxMbi h rapMOHHH, ho h 6ojiee cjioac- 

Hbie; yxo b sxom SByKOBOM MaxepnaJie yace pa36Hpaexca, KaK 

HaMHHaex pa36Hpaxbca h b cnjiexaHHH 

MeflOflHHeCKHX rOJIOCOB (nOJIH^JOHHMe- 

CKaa cxaflHa). Ha HaH6ojiee bucokoA cxyncHH 
cosHaHHa cxoHT BocnpnaxHe c;ioa<Hbix rapMonnA h opKecxpo- 
BblX xeM6poB. 

TakoBa cxeMa paBBHxna ssyKOBoro co3HaHHa. 06biMHO 
BcaKHA noxpe6Hxejib MysbiKH „BcnjibiBaex" b axoA cxcMe flo 
xoA KaxeropHH, flajibuie KOxopoA y nero Hex (})H3HOJiorH- 
necKHx flaHHbix Bcnjiwxb. Ho see ace nyxeM pa3BHXHa h ynpaac- 
HeHHa Koe-Mxo mowho cflejiaxb. M xyx ya<e HaMHHaex 
npoaBJiaxbca couHOJiorHiecKaa npHHHHa pasBHxna 3ByKOBoro 
co3HaHMa. 

_ 3xH npHMHHbi CBOflaxca k xoMy, hxo 

(j^aKTopu. BCJieflcxBwe couHOJiorHnecKHx MoxHBauHA ca- 

Moe pasBHXHC MysbiKaAbHbix cnocoSnocxeft 

H 3ByKOBoro cosHaHHH He y Bcex nocxaBJieno b pasHo 



FapMoaHHecKaii 
craABH. 



IIoAH^tOHHVeCKaH 
CTBAHH. 



•St- 



■MU 



22 

xopomne ycJiOBHH. 06ecneHeHHbie cjioh HacejicHMH 
oKasbiBajiHCb HaH6oJiee b cpeflCTsax passHsaTb csoe co- 
3HaHHe, HanpoTHB, b npoflexapHsupoBaHHbix cnonx Hacejie- 

HHH TOJIbKO HCMHOrae, COHeHb peSKO B bl p a »C CH H bl M 

HMnyjibcoM, npoTajiKHBajiHCb CKBOsb He6jiaronpHHTHbie 

yCJIOBHfl H BblXOaHJIH B npOtjjeCCHOHaJIbl HJIH AHJieTaHTbl. 

Kjiaccbi, nocxaBjiHiomHe MaKcuMajibHoe kojimmcctbo MyswKaH- 

TOB aKTHBHWX, B paSHblX CTpaHaX paSJlHMHbl. fi APSBHCM SjIJIBAe, 

noBHAHMOMy, TaKHM KJiaccoM 6biJiH p a 6 bi, cjiy- 



CpeASi nocraBAHio- 



H<HBiuHe nocTaBmnKaMH MysbiKajibHbix npo- 
AyKTOB AJI5I CBOHX rocnoA- B cpcAHHe BBKa — 

MOHaXH H MeJIKHe npHABOpHbie, KaK KOpMHUXVieCH 

OKOJio HaH6ojiee MorymecTBeHHbix roraa uepKBH h ^^eoAajib- 

HblX ABOpOB. 

SanaAHaji EBpona c ee paHO pacuBexuiHM npo4)eccno- 

HaJIH3M0M nOKaSblBaeT OrpOMHOe KOJlHHeCTBO MySblKaHTOB M3 

MejiKo6ypa<ya3HOM h nojiynpojierapcKoft cpeAw. 
HanpoTHB, PoccHH Aaer 6ojibuioe KOJiHnecTBO a b o p n h, 
KaK COCJIOBH5I Han6oflee 6jiaronpnflTHO nocTaBJiCHHoro 

B yCJIOBHH CB060AH0rp BpeweHH H OTHOCHTCJlbHOft KyjlbTypbl. 

KaK npaBHJio, momcho yKaaaxb, mto MysbiKaHTw o6biMHO o6pa- 
syioTCH 3m6o b aTMOC(|)epe MeueHaTcxBa (npn ABOpax, 
OKOjio MarHaTOB, okojio KpynHoft 6ypM<ya3Hn), jih6o b aTMo- 
c4>epe npo4>eccHOHajiH3Ma („ceMbH MyawKaHTOB" . Tyr 
onflTb-TaK« wrpaex pojib cneun(|)HHecKnft „ecTecTBeHHbifl ot- 

6op**, — pa3BHBaK)TC$I H CTaHOBSTCSI AeAcTBHTCJIbHO My3bIKaH- 

TaMH TOJIbKO HeMHorHC, nonaBiUHC b cjiynafiHyK) KOH'ioHKTypy 

6jiaronpHsiTHbix o6cT05iTe;ibCTB. ^ — _ 

BpocaeTCH b pjiasa b stom npouece, 
o6ycJiOB;iHBaK)meM b cymHOCTH HCTopnK> My- 
sbiKaJibHoro MCKyccTBa b ee ucjiom, orpoM- 

HOeCXOACTBO C eCTeCTBeHHO-HCTOpHHeCKHM 4)eHOMeHOM 

npoHCXOJKAeHHSi BHAOB nyxew ecTecTBCHHoro noA- 
60 pa. MoMCHO KOHcraTHpoBaTb, hto b ajicMCHTax pas- 
BHTHfl HCKyccTBa SByKOB cyinecTByhjT KaK pas Bce sjie- 

MeHTbl, o6yCJ10BJIHBaK)mHe B03M0)KH0CTb TaKOFO „ecTe- 

CTBeHHoro noA6opa". 3th ajieMCHTbi — npHcyTCTBvie Maflbix, 
HHorAa He3aMeTHbix „MyTauHfl", yKjioHSjromHX Twn wysbiKw 
H ncMxojiorHK) MysbiKaHTa ot ero MysbiKajibHwx npeAKOB, 
oKpywaiomaH cpeA?. KOTopaa pearnpycT Ha opraHH3M Myaw- 



EcrecTBeHHutt 
OT6op. 



I, 



— :is — 

KaHTa, sacTaBJiHH ero b HTore „npHcnoco6jiHTbCH" raK hjih 
HHane k sKycy h cnpocy 3Toft cpcAbi, cnoco6cTBy$i Bbi»<H- 
BaHHK) H yKpenjieHHK) Tex MysbiKajibHwx „bhaob", KOTopwe 
K 3Toa cpeAe npHcnoco6AeHbi, h yHMHTOMon b* cneu,H(|)MHe- 
CKofl „6opb6e 3a cymecxBOBaHHe" tc MysbiKanbHwe ..bhabi" 
M opraHMBMbi, KOTopbie K cpcAe Majio HAH BOBce He npHcno- 
<:o6jieHbi. EcJiH MysbiKajibHbifl opraHHSM (t.-c. caw MysbiKaHT, 
KaK HcnoAHHTejib, HAH ero TBopnecTBo) He HaHAeT ce6e noA- 

XOAHlUefl CpeAW AJIH TOrO, HTo6bI 6bIAO KOMy BOCnpHHHMaTb 

ero TBopnecTBO h ero ..npoAyKUHio" h eio HacAaMCAaTbca, to 
ero TBopnecTBO norH6aeT b 6opb6e sa cymecTBOBanHe- 
CpeAa 3Ta, na KOTopyro paccHHTWBaeT TBopnecTBo, ne aoam«- 
Ha HenpeweHHO HCMepnbiBaTbca MysbinaAbHoft „coBpeMeH- 
HOCTbK)": OHa MOMceT 6biTb H cBoero poAa „cpeAa 6yAy- 
mero" — B 3T0M HeKOTopoe OTAHMHe ecTecTBeHHoro OT6opa 
MysbiKaAbHbix opraHH3MOB OT ecTecTBeHHoro OT6opa 6hoao- 
THHecKHx HBJieHHH. Ho 3Ta „cTaBKa Ha 6yAymMH cnpoc" h Ha 
6yAymyio cpeAy He AOAJKHa 6biTb hh npesMepHoft, hh a6co- 

JIK)THOft — HCKOTOpblfl MHHHMaAbHblfl Kpyr HOTpe- 

6vLrenePi AOAMcen 6biTb npn cymecTBOBaHHH ca- 
Moro aBTop a — npoAyKTopa MysbiKH, HHane ero TBopnecTBo 
He BbiacHBer. Ecah MeHsieTca ot couHOAorHHecKHX ycAOBHft 
caMa BocnpHHHMatoman cpeAa, ecAH paspymatOTCH KAaccw 
H rpynnbi, CAyjKHBuine ao toA nopu noTpe6HTeAflMH Mysbi- 

KaAbHOrO HCKyCCTBa, to TeM CaMWM o6bIMHO yHHHTO»CaK>TCSl 
H MyablKaAbHbie OpraHHSMW, BOSHHKlUHe B 3T0fi 

rH6eAfc Mysu- j-pcAe H B pacMeTe na nee. TaKHM o6pa30M 

KaAbHux opra- ^ 

H3M0B nornOAa My3biKajibHaH Ky;ibTypa ApesHero 

MHpa, TaKHM o6pa30M norH6Aa MysbiKaAbnasi 

KyAbTypa uepKOBHoro cpeAHeBeKOBbH, BbiTecHenHasr hoboA 

(jjjopMofl noTpe6HTeAfl, KorAa uepKOBb ywe ne Bbipa»<aAa co6ok) 

coBOKynHocTH noTpe6HTejieft. TaKHM o6pa30M rH6HeT napoA- 

naa necHH, yTpaMHsaji cBoero noTpednTejisi, KOTopwft nepexoAHT 

Ha yp6aHH4ecKHe (|)opMbi MysbiKH. B aTMOc(|)epe MeueHaTCTsa h 

npo4>eccHOHa;iH3Ma MyBWKajibHbie opraHH3Mbi BbipaiUHBaioTCJ! 

jierne h Jiynme, MeM AHiuenHbie 3Tofi cpeAW. OpoueHT nona- 

AaHHH B 3TH 6jiarOnpHflTHbie yCJIOBHJI paSBHTHH OTACAbHblX 

Mej:oBe>^!ecKHX HHAHBHAyyMOB B cyiuHocTH OHeHb MaA. Ecah 6bl 

yCflOBHH pa3BHTH51 6bIJlH JiyMUie, TO B HaUHflX My3bIKaAbHbIX 
Mbl HMBAH 6bl OrpOMHOe KOAHHeCTBO aKTHBHblX MySblKaHTOB, 



■.#|!f^«0!»*-<«i^ 



■ ''i/^^\>. 



,>*.,,S!&»M,-^ 



— 24 — 

H yMHOMCCHHe 3TOrO MHCfla napajIHSOBajIOCb HCKJllOMHTeJlbHO 

ya«e sKOHOMwiecKHMH 4)aKTopaMH — OTcyxcTBHeM cnpoca m 
nepenpoMSBOflCTBOM. MMeHHO tot (jjjaKT, mto MysuKajibHue 
opraHMSMbi cnoco6Hbi .o6cJiyacMBaTb eAUHOJiHMHO orpoM- 
Hbie Maccbi noTpedHTeJieft, cnoco6cTByeT TOMy, mto Hacbi- 
uteHMe pbiHKa cnpoca HacTynaex a MysbiKajibHoS o6jiacTH 
MpesBbinaAHO dwcTpo, h 3to CHflibHO yMCHbiiiaeT TJiry k wy- 
sbiKajibHOMy npo4)eccHOHajiH3My h Aance h anjieTaHTHSMy 
B mtipoKMX Maccax. 

To pasBHTHe MysbiKaabHoro (sByKOBoro) 

SaBHCHMOCTb CO- g- 

cosHaHMH, KOTopoe ooycjioBjiHBaeT ABn?KeHne 

3HaHHfl OT CpeAU. V J r^ 

BnepeA CTHJia, KOTopoe cJiywHT k noaBJieHMio 
HMeHKO 3THX MCJIKHX „MyTauHfl", KOTopwe nocjic BbipaCTaiOT 

B HOBaTOpCKHe CflBHrH CTHJia H B SapOWflCHHe COBCeM HOBblX 

CTHjieft, — 9TO SByKOBoe co3HaHHe pasBHBaeTca hb kojijick- 
THBHoft nnocKOCTH (fljia Bceft Maccbi noTpedHTCJieft 
b uejiOM), H flJiH rpynn OTACflbHbix, h ajih Ka«AOro 
HHAHBHAyyMa nepcoHajibHo. Ka»:flbift MejioeeK a saBHCH- 
MOCTM OT CBoero sayKOBoro 4>^3*'^o^orHHecKoro cosHaHHa 

(OT MySblKaJIbHOH nOAapCHHOCTH") npOXOAHT paSHbie CTaflHM 

sayKOBoro cosKaHHa ao to ft, AaJibuie KOTopofl ero ne ny- 
cKaioT yace ^'^'SHOJiorHHecKHe ycJiOBwa. 3to npoxoMCAeHHe 
coaepmaeTca tcm ycneuiHee, mbm 6oJiee HHAHBHayyM norpy- 
jKCH B MysbiKajibHyk) cpcAy h mbm 3Ta caMaa cpe^a cosHa- 
TCflbHee a sayKoaoM OTHOiueHHH. JIioah mbjio MyswKajibHbie, 
HO apamaiomneca a cpefle npo4)eccMOHaJiOB, nacTO o6Hapy- 
wcHaaioT 6ojibiiiee sayKOBoe cosnaHHe, mcm oflapeHHbifl hcjio- 
BCK, MCHBymHft BHe MysbiKajibHbix BOcnpHaTMft. OKpyHcaromaa 
06 ma a MysbiKaJibHaa cpeAa KaKbft-TO arjiOMepaT h3 acero 
Toro, MTO MenoaeK MysbiKajibHO aocnpwHHMaeT KpyroM ce6a — 
npoABHracT ero cosnaHHe a sayKoaofl o6iiiacTH, ho He cpasy, 
a nocTencHHO. KaacAwft MHAHBHAyyM npoxoAHT npH6jiH3n- 
TeflbHO Te CTaflHHsayKOBoro cosh an Ha, KOTopwe 
npoxoAHJio MejioaeMecTBO a cbobm HCTopHMe- 

CKOM ityTH — npOXOAHT pHTMHMCCKyiO CTaAHK>, CTaAHK) npH- 
MHTHiSHO-MeJIOAHMeCKyH), CTaAHK> rapMOHHHeCKyiO H CTaAHK) 

nojiH(j[)OHHHecKyK). pHTMHHecKaa cTaAHa cooTaeTCTayeT njie- 
MeHHOMy 6biTy h aapaapcKHM ycAoanaM KyjibTypw (MysbiKa ahio- 
peft), fipHMHTHBHo-MCJioAHHecKaa cooTBeTCTayeT nepao6biTHOMy 
rbtyAapcTBy^ Bojiee KyjibxypHwe 4>opMbi rocyAapcTBeHHoro 



k 



2D 



ycTpoflcTaa o6biMHO nojibsyvoTca yM<e ne caMbiMH hphmhthb- 
HbiMH ^JopMaMH MeAOca (sAAHHCKaa MysbiKa, apa6cKaa, KHTaft- 
cKaa, no3AHee pnMCKaa), a necKOAbKO 6oJiee KOMnAeKCHWMH 
(HHCTpyMeHTaAbHoe conpoBOM<AeHHe, ycHamenne MeAOAHM 
yKpauieHHaMH). Jt^a eaponeftcKoro venoaeMecTaa xapaKTepHW 
eme ctbahh nojiH(|)OHHHecKaa, cooTaeTCTeytomaa pacuaeTy 
uepKoaHocTH H o6ycjiOBJieHKOMy eio „xopoaoMy naMaAy" 
co6opHOCTH. HaKOHeu, rapMOHHMecKaa CTaAwa pasBHAacb ana- 
Haae, KaK HsaecTnaa aeTKa „peAyKUHH" noAH4)OHHMecKoro 
CTHAa, 6AaroAapa npoaEHBuieMyca npoueccy AeMOKpaTHsauHM 
uiHpoKoft Maccbi noTpedHTBAeft sayKoaoro HCKyccTaa, a c Apy- 
roft cTopoHbi, 6biAa o6ycjiOBAeHa pasBHTHeM neKOTopwx sa- 
AaTKOB, xpanauiMxca a HapoAHoft nepBo6biTHOH necHe espo- 
neftcKHx KapoAoa. OcosnaHHe acex sthx sayKOBbix Mace cpa- 
sy 6biAO HeAOCTynHo Aa»ce cawbiM pAapennbiM 

yCK0peBHeSM6pH- Q SByKOBOM OTHOmeHHH AHUaM — 3TO SSyKO" 



OHaAbHMX CTaAHH 



aoe cosHaHHe pasanaaAocb aeKaMH. 



paSBHTBH B n03A- ^ 

HHc snoxH. "O Tenepb, KorAa ctbahh ocosnanHa npoft- 

AeHbi yjKC, KorAa aca nysbiKaAbnaa aTMOc(J)epa 

HanoAHena sayKOBbiMH SAeMCHTaMH, o6ycAOBAeHHbiMH caMW- 

MH nOCACAHHMH AOCTHWeHHaWH HCKyCCTBa, npoxowASHHe B 
HHAHaHAyaAbHOM SByKOBOM COSHaHHH BCCX 3THX CTaAWfl paS- 

BHTMa OMBHb ycKopaeTca, H Ty 3BOJiK)UHio, KOTopyK) MeAoaeMe- 
cTbo npoACAbiaaAO a TeMenwe HecKOAbKHX twcbm act, mw 
npoACAbiaaeM Tenepb a TeMeHne OAHoft »(hshh h Aance MacTH 

JKHSHH, HHOrAa MpeSBblMaftHO HeSHaMHTeAbHOft 

reKKCAeBCKBH (HaHp., y TBK Has. „My3biKajibHbix ayHAepKHH- 
oHaABHoro pasBH- ^°^ ^- ^^^'^^ noBTopaeTca H npHMenaeTca a 

THS. TOMHOCTH SaKOH „3M6pHOHaAbHOr6 paSBHTHfl", 

HeKorAa no OTHOuienHio k dnoAorHMecKHM 
opraHHSMaM ^^opMyjinpoaanHbift FcKKeAeM h rAacaiUMfi, 
HTo HHAHBHAyajibHbift opraHHSM npoxoAHT B cBoeM 3m6pho- 
HaAbKOM (sapoAbiuieaoM) pasBHTHH ace Te ctbahh, ko- 
Topbie npoiiiAH ero npeAKH a HCTopHMecKOM npouecce ecTe- 
CTBeHHoro oT6opa, ho npoxoAHT hx, TaK cKasaxb, kohchck- 

THBHO, 6bICTpO H HC BHOAHe TOMHO. B pCSyjIbTaTB 3TOrO 
Mbl AOA»CHbI KOHCXaTHpOBaTb, MTO, B CymHOCTH, MeAOaeMeCTBO 

B sayKOBOM OTHomeHHH HSMCHHAOCb 6AaroAapa naKonAe- 
HHK) noCTeneHHbix ocosHaHHft sayKOBOH o6AacTH, 6AaroAapa 
xpoHHMecKOMy npedbiBaHHK) npeAKOB b npcAejiax ece yc;io>K- 
HaKJineftca SByKoaofi axMoccJiepbi. 



■>■>' 



— 26 



9th 4)aKTOpW BSaHMOAefiCTBHH npOMSBOAHTejIH My- 

3biKH (KOMno3HTopa, HcnoJiHHTeJiH, MacTcpa HHCTpyMeHTa). 
noTpe6HTejiH unvi cpeflbi, (f)opMnpyK)mHecH b cHCTCMy ceoe- 
o6pa3HOft 6opb6bi sa cyiuecTBOBaHwe h ecTecTBCHHoro OT6opa 
Handojiee npHcnoco6jieHHbix h hpkhx jiBJieHMfi, o6ycjioBJiHBaK)T 

BCIO HCTOpHH) MySblKaJIbHOrO HCKyCCTBa. Bee SJieMeHTW 3TH 

npeflCTasJiHiOTCSi CBHsaHHbiMH B TecHeAiiiHM arjioMepax h bcc 
Apyr Ha jipyra bjihhhjt: KOMnosHTop Ha HcnoJiHHTCJiH h, o6paTHO, 
o6a BMecTe na cpe^y h, naoSopoT, h pasBHTHe KOHcxpyKUHH 
MysbiKaJibHbix HHCTpyMeHTOB, KaK opyAMtA npOH3BOACTBa H 4)H- 

SMHeCKHX npOAyKTOB TBOpMBCTBa, TaKMCe BJIHHCT Ha CyAb6bI 

TBopnecTBa h HcnojiHeHUH, mx o6ycJiOB;)HBaeT h cbmo noAJie- 
»HT CBoeMy ecTecTBCHHOMy OT6opy (|)opM. OncHb MacTO yAaercH 
npocJieflHTb, KaK MyrauHH b My3biKajibH0-3ByK0B0M MHpe, bw- 
pa»;aH>mancH b noHBJieHHH KaKoro-;iH6o HesHaHHTCJibHoro 
ycoBepmeHCTBOBaHHfl s MexaHHSMe MHCTpyMeHTa, — ycoBepmcH- 
CTBOBaHHH, Macro B CBOK) onepeAb CTonmero b cbhsh c tcx- 

HHHeCKHMH B03MOM<HOCTflMH SnOXH, — KaK 3X3 MyTaUHfl o6yCflO- 

BAHBaer orpoMHbie cABHra b tbophcckom Q6nxoAe h Bbi3biBaeT 
„HOBaTopcKHe" HBaevmn. Bch My3biKajibHaH mctophh ecTb 
HCTopHfl TaKMX He6ojibiiJnx MyxauHfl HJiH „ycoBepmeHCTBOBa- 

HHfl" TO B KOHCXpyKUHH HHCTpyMeHTa, TO B TeXHHKB TBOpHC- 

cTsa, B cnoco6ax BonjiomenHa, to b Manepe nrpbi, to b 3By- 

KOBOS SanHCH, npH MCM H3 MHOrOMHCJieHHblX MyraUHft „BbI)KH- 

BawT*' B npouecce nanpflMceHHoft 6opb6bi sa cymecTBOBaHwe 
TOJibKO Te 4'opMbi, KOTopwc TaK HJiH HHaMC OKawyTcsi „npHcno- 
co6jieHHbiMH" K cpeAe, T.-e. KOTopwe naxoAflT ajw ce6si no- 
Tpe6jisK)myK) cpcAy b HacToameM hjih b 6ah3kom 6yAymeM. 
OpraHHSMaMH, HaH6ojiee cnoco6HbiMH k BbiacHBanHK), 
OKasbiBaHJTCH BOo6me re (6e3pa3JiHMH0 — npo- 
ycAOBHs HaHAer- HSBeAeHHH, HcnojiHeHHa hah HHCTpyMeHTw), 

KOTOpbie AaiOT MaKCHMaAbHWe UiaHCbl 

npH HandoAee skohomhux ycAOBHax, KOTopbie 
B cBoefl opraHH3auHH ocymecTBAHioT npo6AeMy HaHMeHb- 
mero AeficTBHH. Flo oTHomenHK) k tbophbckhm npoAyK- 
TaM 3TO osHanaeT re npoHSBeAeHKH, KOTOpwe npn AannoM 
ypoBHC 3ByKOBoro co3HaHHa AaiOT MaKCHMaAbHoe BnenaTAe- 

HHe MHHHMaAbHblMH CpeACTBaMH, KOTOpbie H36eraK)T AJIHHHOT, 
TaBTOAOrafl, HaKOnACHMH OAHOoSpaSHblX MOMCHTCB, KOTopwe' 

ocymecTBAfltoT pa3HOo6pa3He h eAHHcxBO b oaho h to jkc 



qafimero BuacHsa- 

HHH. 



i?^yvK^-^ 



speMH H TeM cnoco6Hbi KHaH6ojiee AerKOMy BocnpHflTHio 

B AaHHblX yCAOBHHX SByKOBOFO C03HaHHH. TaKHMH aBflfllOTCH, 

B cymHOCTH, Bce TaK Has. „reHHaAbHbie" npoH3BeAeHHa — ohh 
KaK pas AaiOT peuicHHe stoA saAann na HaxoHCAeHHe HandoAb- 
uiero BneHaTACHHa npn MHHHMajibHbix cpeACTsax, hah, TOMHee, 
AaHHOro (sapanee saAaHHoro, saAyMannoro) BnenaTAeHHa/ 
npH HaHMeHbuiMx pecypcax- OrToro rcHHajibHbie npoHSBCAe- 
HHa npH npoHHx paBHbix ycAosnax name Bcero nasbiBaiOTca 

„BbIH<HBaH)lUHMH" B My3bIKaAbHOH CpCAC. HanpOTHB, TBOpMBCTBO 

j.^ „3nHroHHMecKoe", noApa»<aTeAbHoe, KaK 

annroRHHecKBe npeACTaBAHiomee B cymHOCTH nepejKHBaHHe 

Mya. opraHHSMM. ^ex M<e SABMeHTOB, HO ywe b Menee yAanno 

(JjOpMOBaHHOM BHAe, Bbl^HSaeT TOAbKO B 

onpeACAeHHbix ycJiOBHax, name Bcero onnpaacb na npHcyT- 

CTBHe B HBM HCKOTOpblX SJICMCHTOB, o6cAyHSHBaK)mHX TCKymnft 

cnpoc (BHpTyo3Hbix, anejiAHpyKJiuHX k moac h npoH.), h 
pcAKO BbiMCMBaeT Ha 6oAee npoAOAWHTeAbHwe cpoKH, He bw- 
AepacHBaa HHKorAa cTasKH Ha 6yAymero noTpe6HTeAa. 

Ho OTHomeHHjo k HcnoAHenHH) HaH6oAb- 
EcrecTBeHHMfi or- j^g^ npHcnoco6AeHHOCTb BbipaacacTCH b dbop- 

OOp B HCnOAHH- , T r 

TeASX. ^^ COeAHHeHHa MaKCHManbHOH BHpTy03H0CTH 

c HandoAbiuHM B03AeftcTBHeM Ha ncHXHKy, npH 

HeM CaMblft THH BHpTy03H0CTH AOA»<eH COOTBBTCTBOBaTb TCKy- 

meMy ypoBHK) HHCTpyMeHTaAbHoft tcxhhkh. TaK kbk b mchoa- 
HHTCAbHoft c(i)epe OTcyTCTByeT opranHnecKH „CTaBKa Ha 6y- 
Aymero noTpe6HTeAa", to TyT 6opb6a 3a cyutecTBOBanne 
npeACTaBAaeTca nandoAee ocTpo nocTaBACHHofi 
H KOHKypenuHa na Bbi^cHBanHe oco6eHHO pesKa. BTopocTe- 
neHHbie aBAenna b 3toh 6opb6e 3a cymecTBOBanHe 6e3- 
ycJiOBHo nom6aK)T, h aab MaKCHMaAbHbix luancoB Ha BbiTKHBa- 
HHe Heo6xoAHMa, homhmo nponero, eme H3BecTHaa h o b h 3 h a * 
noAXOAa K HcnoAHeHHK). McnojiHHTeAH, JiHuieHHbre opHrHnajib- 
Horo noAxoAa, KaK 6bi KooHpyioiuHe npewHHe THnbi BHpTyosHO- 
CTH, HMeKJT MeHbiue uiaHCOB Ha Bbi»CMBaHHe, mbm Te, KOTopbie 

3aKAK)HaK)T B Ce6e HeKOTOpwft 3JieMeHT HCnOAHHTCAbCKOrO HO- 
BaTOpCTBa, B MBM 6bl OH HH HpoaBHJICa. Te SAeMCHTbl, KOTOpbie 

6biAH B TeneHHe BpcMeHH ocHOBarejibHO 3a6biTbi, Moryr 

BCHAblBaTb B KaneCTBC pCTpOCneKTHBHblX HBAe- 

„.!J'^f"m™" "^^ BHOBb Ha noBepxHocTb, o6HapyMcHBaa jkhs- 
Hecnoco6HOCTb, paBHaiomyio hx b OTHomeHHH 



Hue asAeHBH h 
AereHepagHii. 



BblSCHBaeMOCTH C a6cOJlH)THO HOBblMH SBJICHH- 



HMH. KaK B TBOpneCTBe KOMn03HU,HH, TBK H B HCnOJIHeHHH AQH" 

Hasi cpeAa o6biHHO HMeex TeHAenuHK) AOBOJibHo CKopo Hacw- 
HacunjeHHe cpe- m a T b c H sBJiCHHHMH onpeftejieHHoro THna h ne- 
AM H nepeMCHa pecTacT o6HapyM{HBaTb Ha hhx cnpoc. 3x3 
BKyca. noTpe6HTejibCKaH cpeAa, KaKyro 6bi BKycoByio 

rpynny ona hh npeAcxaBJiMJia, Bceraa HMcex cxpeMJieHHe 
K nepcMene BKyca. Bee BpeMa ontio h xo a«e ee He 
yAOBJiexBopjiex, OHa Hmex h xpe6yex hobhshw. HpH axoM 
3XO cxpeMJieHHC k hobhshb xcm ocxpee HyBcxsyexca b cpeae 
noxpe6Hxeflfl, mcm oh Bbiiue cxohx bo BKycoBoft jiecxHMue, 
HanpoxHB, H3BecxHbifl xpa;iHUHOHaflH3M, o6ycjiOBJieHHbiH boo6- 
me saxpyAHeHHOcxbK) BOcnpHHXHa, xapaKxepen ajisi rpynn 
HH3Koro 3ByKOBoro cosHaHHJi. 3xo cxpeMJieHne k BocnpHHxmo 
HenpeMCHHo hobwx omyiueHwft o6ycJioBJiHBaex nporpecc 
HCKyccxBa H noaBJieHHe Bce hobmx h hobwx MyxauHft. 06biHHo 
Mbi Ha6flK)AaeM, mxo cHJibHoe pasBuxne b KaKoft-HH6yflb 
noxpe6HxejibCKOM cpe^e My3biKajibHbix opraHH3MOB c onpeAe- 
jieHHbiMH npn3HaKaMH HeMCffJieHHO nopoacftaex b sxoft »<e 

cpe^e cxpcMJieHHe k cmchc sneMaxjieHHfi, 
eaKgHH Bxyca. ^ noKpoBHxejibcxBOBaHHK) opraHH3Ma c npo- 
THBonojiowHbiMH xapaKxcpHcxHKaMH. TaKHM o6pa30M o6ycjio- 
BJiHBaioxcH BKycoBbie CMeHbi THnoB b oflHOft H xoft ace rpynne, 
H 9xa CMcna BKycoB OMenb xapaKxepHa jiJia My3biKajibHoS 
HCxopnH, Koxopaa bch npeftcxaBJiaex co6ok) kbk 6bi n e p h o- 

Abi, BanojiHeHHbie KOHxpacxwpyiomHMH opra- 
epHOAHBH eMCH. j^^3^a^j^ npH hbm b KaacflyK) siioxy ojsjm rvm 
Hweex npeflnoMXHxejibHbie mancbi Ha BbiJKHsaHHe nepefl. 
flpyruM, npxoM ycxynaex Mecxo apyroMy XHny, a no Hcxene- 
HHH HeKoxoporo npoMewyxKa BpeMenH BOSBpamaexca 
BKyc K npeacHBMy. 3xhmh nepwoflHSMaMH sKycoB, npo- 

JlHKXOBaHHblX CXpeMJieHHCM K pa3HOo6pa3HK), o6'HCHHK)XC« 

»BJieHMsi pexpocneKXHBHbix xeHe.HHfl, Korjota Boccxana- 
BflHBaexca b HecKOJibKo H3MeHeHHOM BHfl,e xeMCHHe, rocnofl- 
cxBOBaBuiee panee h BbixecHCHHoe b cBoe Bpewfl flpyrnMu/N 

TaK, Mbl HMCJIH Ha npOXSJMSeHHH MySblKaJIbHOfi HCXOpHH Bb!-- >• 

xecHeHne roMo4)OHHH nojin4)OHHefl, noxoM pecxaapauHK) 
nocJieAHeft cnanajia b XV*I BeKe (4)JiopeHXHftcKaH pe(|)opMa^ 
a saxewi nocjie hoboS bojihu nojin4)OHH3Ma (XVII — XVIII BeKa) 
Bo Bxopoft nojioBHHe XVIII BCKa onnxb pecxaBpauHK) roMO- 
(i)OHHH (KJiaccHMecKaa anoxa), Koxopaa BHOBb BbixecHHexca 



ay 



noflH4)OHHeft B cepcAHHe XIX BCKa, h x. h. Tohho xaK Mce 
CMCHHioxca (|)opMbi SByKocosepuaHua SMouHOHajibHoro h 
acxexHHecKoro (^aKaaeMHMecKoro"). Ox MysbiKH xo xpe6yK)x 
HaH6ojibuieA (|)opMajibHoA sawoHHeHHOcxH, — axo xpe6oBa- 
HHe xapaKxepHO fljia pa3BHXoro npotJieccHOHajiHSMa, h6o 
ueHHxejiaMH cJjopMajibHoS cxpoftnocxH o6biHHO Moryx 6bixb 

TOJIbKO BblCOKO paSBMXbie MySblKaHTbl. TaKwe anoxH mw 

Ha6jiK)flaeM, nanp., b apy pasBHXHa KOHxpanyHKxa cxpororo 
HHCbMa (HMaepjiaHflubi). 3xo Bbi3biBaex peaKUHio Ha MyswKy 
„3MOUHOHajibHyK)", BbipasHxejibHyK) B nepsyK) onepeAb (cna- 
Hajia B „pnMCKOM uiKOJie", noxoM 6ojiee ocxpo — b MyawKe 
<J)JiopeHXHflueB). Ho h Hosaa MyswKa, nanHcaHHaa b pacnexe 
Ha Bbipa3HxejibHocxb, CKopo Bbi3biBaex peaKUHK) b cxopony 
„aKaAeMH3Ma", xpe6oBaHHa mmcxo - 3ByKOBoft cxpoftHOcxH 
(XVIII BeK — pasBHXHe nojiHcf)OHHM B HHcxpyMeHxanbHOM My 
sbiKe). CxpeMJieHHe k HacbimeHHOMy 3MOUHOHajiH3My, sarjiox- 
uiee B KjiacGHHecKyK) spy, swcxynaex c orpoMHoft apKocxbio 
B ^BJieHHax poMaHXHHecKoft lUKOJibi (HaMHHaa c BexxoBena) 
H B CBOK) onepeflb BbiBbiBaex peaKUHK* aKaaeMHHecKoro xHna 
(MeHftejibcoH — BpaMc). Bca My3biKajibHaa »cH3Hb c sxhmh cMe- 
HaiomHMHca BKycaMH h xpe6oBaHHaMH npeACxaBJiaerca KaK 

6bl paAOM npHJIHBHblX H OXJIHBHblX BOJIH, npH HBM pHXMbI 3XHX 
anOX AOBOJIbHO OflHOpOAHW H npH6jlH3HXejIbHO COOXBeXCXByiOX 

30—40 roflaM - cpe^HeMy B03pacxy noKOJienwa. Ha bccm 

npOXHWeHHH My3bIKaJIbHOfl HCXOpHH MOHCHO npOCJieAHXb, HXO 

KawAOMy BKycoBOMy xpe6oBaHHK> b oahom noKOJieHHM 
npoxHBonojiaraexca npoxHBononojKHoe xpe6oBaHHe b nocjie- 
Ayroiueft cMene h b npeaejiax npH6jiH3HxeflbHo xofl «e co- 
HHajibHoA cpeAbi, Koxopaa 4}opMHpoBajia npcAbiAymyio BKyco- 
syio rpynny. 

B oxHomeHHH k xexHHKe HHcxpyMen- 

EcrecTBeHHbiH ot- _ „ 

^ xapna BbiWHsaeMOcxb Bbipa»«aexca b xom, 

6op B MySMKaAI.- ^ 

HMXHscTpyMeHTax.^"^" npHcnocoojieHHbiMH K cpeae OKaBWBaioxca 
xe XHHbi HHcxpyMeHXOB, Koxopbie Aaiox Ma- 
KCHMaJibHbie pecypcbi HcnojiHeHHa (b cMbicjie yAo6HocxH, Bbipa- 
SHxejibHocxH H npoH.) npH HaH6ojibiueS npocxoxe KOHcxpyKUHH 
H cooxBexcxBeHHOcxH ee ycjiOBHaM BKycoBofl cpeAW, Koxopaa 
onpeAeJiaex c6bix. B napoAHoA MysbiKe HHCxpyMenxapHfl — 
HaK6ojiee npocxoft h HaH6o.nee MeAJiHxejibHo nporpeccHpyro- 
uuhA. 3Aecb MM Ha6jnoAaeM, BO-nepBbix, o6mee aBJieHMe npoHc- 









i. 3 



— 60 — 
XOMCflCHMH MySblKajIbHblX HHCTpyMeHTOB H3 HSMeHeHVlft 

(Myraunfl) pasHwx npeAMCTOB o6HxoAa (TaKHM HSMeHeHHCM, 
MJiH MyrauHeM, nanp., HBHJiHCb crpyHHbie HHCTpyMCHTbi no otho- 
uieHHK) K BoeHHOMy annapary „JiyKy"), a Bo-BTopbix, crojib ace 
o6mee HBJieHne npocaMMsaHHH HHopoflHbix 4)opM, naK 6bi ropw- 
30HTajibHoe pacnpocTpaHeHne HHcrpyMeHTajibHbix bhaob no 

SeMHOft nOSepXHOCTH. OrpOMHOe doJIbUIMHCTBO OCHOBHblX 

THnoB HHCTpyMeHTOB 061HH noHTH BCCMy seMHOMy uiapy h npea,- 
craBJiJiiOT KaK 6bi poaoBwe THnw, ot Koxopwx OTCfloniOTCJi bhaw 
yace MecTHoro xapaKTcpa. MsMeHCHMJi ocHOBHbix TunoB o6ycjio- 

BJieHbl HaCTO KJIHMaTOMeCKHMH npHHHHaMH, MCCTHblM ypOBHCM 

rexHHKH. Te HHCTpyMeHTajibHbie Tunw, KOTopue TpyaHO bw- 
aejibiBaeMW, hjih Ha KOTopwx sarpyflHUTejibHO wrpaTb, hjih 

TaKHC, KOTOpwe o6Hapy>KHBaK)T MCHbUiyK) Cn0C06H0CTb K 3KC- 
IipeCCHH no CpaBHCHMK) C flpyrHMH, o6bIHHO He BblMCHBatOT 

B 6opb6e sa cymecTBOsaHHe m BbiMwpaiOT. MysbiKajibHaH hcto- 

PHH nOJlHa npHMCpOB TaKHX „BbIMepilIHx" THOOB HHCTpyMeHTOB, 

HeKOTopbie h3 hmx HMejiH KpaxKOBpeMeHHbift ycnex h pacnpo- 
CTpaneHHe, noKa He 6biBajiH BbiTCcneHbi HHbiMH. 6o;iee «H3He- 
cnoco6HbiMH. BbicTpoTa pa3BHTHfl MyTauHA HaxoAHTcn b npn- 

MOA SaBHCHMOCTH OT COBepUieHCTBa HJIH HecoBepmeHCTBa 
HHCTpyMCHTa. Mbl BHJIHM Ha npOTHMCCHMH HCTOpHH, KaK T p O- 

MOSAKHe THHbi HHCTpyMeHTOB ycTynajiH MecTO 6oJiee no- 
nyjiapHbiM, JierKHM (opraH-KJiaBHKopfly, hotom (|)opTenHaHo). 
KaK Bbipa3HTejibHbie no6e>KAaJiH Menee BbipasHTCJibHwe v t. a. 
MncTpyMeHTbi bwcoko coBepuiennbie b cBoeA KOHCTpyKUHH, 

KaK 6bl HHCTHHKTHBHO HaUieflUIHe CBOfil SaKOKHeHHbiS THtt, 

OKa3biBaM3TCH OHCHb ctoAkhmh (nanp., thh c k p h n k h, BbiTec- 

HHBUIHfl HeCKOJlbKO npOMeWyTOMHblX THnOB BHOfl). HanpOTHB, 

HHCTpyMehTbi, TaK HJIH HHane CTpaflaiomne jih6o OTcyTCTBHCM 

SByHHOCTH, JIh6o BbipaSHTCJIbHOCTH, o6Hapy?KHBaK)T TeHflCHUHK) 

K nocTOHHHoa MVTauHH THHa (cfjopxenHaHo). 

BAHflHHe AHXe- . , ^ 

paxypWHa bm- ^ HHCJiy npHHHH; cnOCOOCTByiOmHX BbI>KHBaHHK> 

XCBBaHBe HHCTp. HHCTpyMBHTajIbKblX BHAOB. OTHOCHTCH H o6'eM 

THHOB. HanHcaHHofi fiJi« hhx JiHTepaTypw, Tonnee — 

npHcymas aaHHOMy HHCTpyMCHxajibHOMy THny cnoco6HOCTb 

OnJlOAOTBOpHTb TBOpnecTBO KOMHOSMTOpa. MhOPHC AOBOJIbHO 

yaaMHbie MyTauHH HHCTpyMCHTajibHbix bhaob h oMCHb MHorae 
cOBepuieHHO HOBbie Twnbi HHCTpyMCHTOB He BbiflepacHsajiH 
6opb6bi 3a cymecTBOBaHHe hmchho noTOMy, mto ohh ne cosaa- 



,|v„u 



■■'^Ht^ 



/.iitt^m,iii^S0iiiiA)k: 



— 31 — 

BajiH 6ojibuioft JiHTepaTypbi. C apyroft CTopoHw, caMasi cno- 
co6HOCTb co3flaBaTb jiHTepaTypy ctoht b TecHeftuieM cbjish 
c THnoM HHCTpyMeHTa H c ero KaMecTBaMH. CoBepmcHHO 

H O B bl e THnw HHCTpyMeHTOB peflKO OKaBblBaiOTCH M«H3Hecno- 
C06HbIMH: o6bIHHO OHH BblMHpaiOT, TOFfla KaK npoHcuiefluiHe 

nyTCM nocTeneHHbix h MHTejibHwx MyTauHft 6biBaK)T 6ojiee 

«H3HeHHbI. HeKOTOpWe COBepiUeHHO BblTCCHSlOTCSI H OTMHpaK)T 

HacTHTOoeBw- ^^^ cojibHbie HHCTpyMeHTbi, npoaojiscaa 

acBsaHHe. M^^Tb B aHcaM6jiHX (ajibT, 6ojibuiaH nacTb ay- 

xOBbix, Bce yaapHbie), mto yace hohth Bcerjia 

o6ycJiOBjieHo thhom coBHaaeMofl p.aa hhx JiHTepaTypbi. My- 

TaUHa HHCTpyMCHTajibHbix THnOB JIBJIHeTCH OrpOMHbIM 4)aKTO- 

poM B noHBJieHHH HOBbix THHOB TBopMecTBa, y>Ke He roBopn 

06 HCnOJIHeHHH, KOTOpoe 6yKBaJIbHO UeJIHKOM OT HHX SaBH- 

CHT. 06biMHo noflBjieHHe noBoro THna HHCTpyMeHTa, cnoco6- 
Horo K BbiacHBaHHK), conpoBOMCflaexcH CHjibnefiiiiMM hoa'cmom 

ypOBHH TeXHHKH HCHOJlHeHMa Ha HBM, H 3TO nOflHHTHe TCXHHKH 

BbisbiBaeT cneuHc|)HHecKyio JiHTepaxypy h cosHflaeT b h p t y o s- 
HbieanoxHB ncKyccTse. BKyc k BHpTyos- 
TyosHUMHsno- "ocTH, KaK Bccrfla, 6bicTpo cMeHsieTcs! p e a K- 
xaMH. u H e fl npoTMB nee, mto cooTBeTCTByeT o6biiHo 
yxe ToA anoxe, Korjia k HOBOMy Tnny HHCTpy- 
MeHTa npHBbiKjiH H OH yace ne nopawacT. TaK pasBHTHe 

KOHCTpyKUHH CKpHHOK B XVII BCKe BbI3BaJI0 SIBJICHHe BHpTyOB" 
HOCTH B CKpHnHHHoA C(j|)epe (TapTHHH, BHTajIH H npoH.), 

a noTOM B BHjiy Toro, mto TexHHha KOHCTpyKUHH CKpnnoK 
He nporpeccHpoBajia, mw bhahm TOJibKO cnopaflHMecKwe 

HBJieHHH BHpTy03H0CTH 3 3T0A o6jiaCTH, HOpOMCAaiOlUMe TOJIbKO 

HsojiHpoBaHHbie siBJieHHH (IlaraHHHM). PaBBHTHe opraHHoA koh- 
CTpyKLiHH BbiSBajio SBJieHHe Baxa, PeHfleJiH h bck) opraHHyio 
JiHTepaxypy XVII Bewa, npn mcm rH6ejib oprannoA JiHTepaTypw 
b nocjieayiomeM o6ycjioBJieHa 6bijia HCKJiioHHTejibHO tcm, hto 
opraH B npouecce 6opb6bi c 4)opTenHaHO, kbk cbohm KOHKy- 

peHTOM B o6jiaCTM nOJIH4)OHHMeCKHX BByMaHHA, He BW- 

flep«aji 3ToA 6opb6w, 6yayMH rpoMOSflOK h cjihuikom nopor 

AJIfl MaCTHblX JJHU, KOTOpbie B 3Ty SnOXy CTaJlH flHKTOSaTb 
BKyCbl. PdSBHTHe (|)OpTenHaHHWX THnOB HHCTpyMeHTOB 6bIJIO 
OOyCJIOBJieHO HMenHO ?Ka?KAOH HMCTb nOJIH(|)OHHMCCKMA HHcxpy- 

MBHT KaMepHoro THna, nopxaTHBHwA h b to jkc Bpena moiixhwA 

B SByKOBOM OTHOUieHHM. KjiaBeCHHHblft THn BWSBaJI KJiaCCHMe- 



— 32 — 



33 






GKHft ™n MysHKH. 4)opTenHaHO-BeTXOBeHa. ycoBepuieHCTBO- 

^ BaHHe po.nH 3papoM-JlHCTa h UIoneHa. RoAodHBrn odpasoM 

M.. MO.<eM npoceAHTB. hto «so6peTeH.e xpoMaTHMecK«x 

Tpy6 Bbi3Ba;io HOByK> «HCTpyMeHTOBKy (Bepjinoa, BarHep). 

" ^" *' ' CKOJIbKO-HH6yflb npOCTaS! SaBMCMMOCTb 

; 3aBHCIIMocTI.BKy-„gJKJ^y THnoM BKycOBoft rpynnbi h ee couhojio- 
coBoS rpyiniM ox pj,^ecKofi xapaKTepHCTHKoft o6biHHO OTcyx- 

RAacca. cTByCT H BCe nOnWTKH CTHJlHSOBaTb 3Ty 3aBH- 

CHHOCTb OTHOC«TC5. K HHCfly He BHOJIHe npaBOMepHb.x HayMHb.x 

cx^MaTMsauHfi. Ho Bce Hce HeKOTopb,e KOHxypbi axofl saBHc^- 

/ MOCTM aaL npH COBpeMeHHOM COCTOHHHH HayKM o Mysb.- 

caMyraaBMCHMOCTb. Mbi no.HCHbi cHanana npoce^HTb caMbie 

TZbi BKycoBb.x rpynn. KOTopbie co6n>o«aK,T HeKOTopy>o 

' IdlocTb Aa«ce B pasflHMHbix h HCTopHnecKHX anoxax. Tho 

^ BKroBoT rpynnbi onpeAe.«eTC« non™ HCK.K>HHTe.bHO tcm 

Ha „MyBCTBo"-3MOUHK,. TO Mb. HMeeM BOo6me 
sMOUHOHajibHbie THnw rpynn. ecJiH am 
Hao6opoT, cTpeMJicHHe k ^opManbHoK aanoH- 

=bra:rr:^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

Tpe6HTen« cK^xoHHa k ^"^^^^"^"^"''r'yj""^^ 
BcflKHft paa, KorAa HCTopHMecKHM npouecc 
awoanoHaAfcHBifi g^HocHJi Ha aBaHCueny co6biTnA HOBwe. OoJiee 
AeMOKpaTHHecKHe cjioh. mh Ha6:iK>;iaeM ycH- 
^eHHe rpynn anouHOHa^bHbix thhob. TaKHMH u.pHOftaMH «bh- 
^arHlnpH... anoxaPeHeccaHca. BbiAB.HyBUia. HOBb.e rpynnb, 
Hace^ienl h OKpacHBUia« Myab.Ka«bHoe HCKyccTBO cTpeMne- 
HHeM K „B..paLHHH>" MyBCTB. Bnoc.e;.cTB™ TaKHM jKe 
xaZrepoM cTpeM^eHH« k aMOUMOHa.HSMy 6b,.a OKpainena 
3norpoMaHTH3L(py6e«c XIX Bena). Korja Ha cueny no«B- 
^HCb HapoAHO-HHTe.:iHreHTCKHe naccb,. HanpoxHB. «cT0PHMe^ 
ckS onbiT noKaabiBacT. hto bc^khR HOBbift couMO^oruHecK^fl 
ZeHT BOo6u;e cKnoneH noce nepBoro ^^^-o..o...^oro 
nepHOfta BOcnpHsiTHs. o6Hapy«HBaTb cKJioHHOCTb k paaBHT^K) . 
^ „acTeTHaMa". KaK cjieAytomeft 6o«ee pauMO- 

acTOTHMfiTHn. „aj,bHoA,M03roBoft.6ojiee„KyjibTypHoa cxaflMH. 



Tanu BKyco- 
nux rpynn. 



Menee HenocpeACTBeHHofl. OSbiwo couHo;iorHHecKa« mun^ 
BHaHa.e nepe^HBaeT nepno. aMouHoLl^r hotom oC 
pyjKHBaex cKiioHttocTb K acTCTHSMy B pasHbix B^Jv r 
3MouHOHa.K3Ma B HeKOTopb.x c/yna^r oTsbre^c^ .^^^^^^^ 
KeTHofi-3To 6biBaeT Tor;ia. Kor«a aMouHOHa.bHb,e BKvcb. 
^Ka3b,BaK,TC« B couHo.orMHecKofl rpynne HanpaB.eHHb,HH He „a 

CB«3T„be^T'M "''°^"'"' " no^)-rpynnb,.TaK™HHHa.e 

rZTZ My3b,KajibHb.M „npo*eccMOHa™3MOM''. T-e 

rpynnbi. npHHacTKb,e b toA h.h hhoA crenenH k canoA cpe^e 

AKa^eMB^ecKHe J'^™BHbix MyabiKaHTOB. o6Hapy>KHBaiOT Bcer^a 

rpynHM. OOJIblljyK) HJIH MCHbUiyiO TCHfleHUHlO K SCTC- 

L,^,." ^™^'^^ ^ *°P'^® »npo(|)eccHOHaflbHoro aKaae- 

MH3Ma . HTO o6yc.OB^eHo TeM. HTO HMeHHo B axHx npoAec- 
CKOHa.bHb,x rpynnax mh Ha6.K,;iaeM MaKCHMyM aByKCBoTo 
co3HaHHH. HeBo.bHo pacno.araK>mero k acTexHor TS 

BaHHH> CaMHMH 4,OpMaMH MyBb.KH. Mo«HO cKasaxb 6e3 OCO60A 

HuxeAAHreKTCKHe "^'^"'^K"' *JTo HHTeji;iHreHTCKHe rpynnbi Bcex 

rpynm.1. HaHMeHOBaHMft, o6bIHHO MCJIKO-eypwyaSHbie 

no KJiaccoBofl xapaKTepncTHKe. o6HapvJKH- 
n "^"«^"^r. "" -°«"0Ha.M3My H cBHsaHHOMy c Cm 
,poMaHTHMecKOMy« MHpoomymeHHK,. HanpoTHB. HHCTbiA npo 
(peccHOHajiHSM HMeer rjirv k aKanPMUQK,,, , 
TaK »«-A ^^^ . , aKafleMH3My h k acTercTBy, 

TaK >Ke KaK h Kjiaccw *eoflajibHbift h 6yp«ya3Hbifi c kdvh 
miMH HMymecTBeHHbiMH xapaKTepHCTHKaMH/oxTor; Mbi 'a- 

WeM nOHTM Ha BCeM npOTS..ceHMH My3bIKa.bHOrMCTOp„H 

^ anoxH CH.bHoro paSBHTHH KpynHo-t|,eo;ia«bHb.x h dyp^yat 

oaTHo^""*f ''"'''™"'^ "™'°' ^ ""^^"^ ^"-^^ o^-^^c™ « 06- 
paTHo, npotijeccHOHajiHSM o6biHHo o6Hapy>KHBaeT xecHyio 

CBaai. npofec- ^^SOCTb C HMymeCTBeHHO-MOryHHMH CflOSlMH 

cHOHaAH3Ma c "acejicHHs: npo(f)eccMOHan lOTHTCH oKOJio Map- 

«ro,:r ^ ^^^ HanpaB^5,eMb,fl ero BKycoM. MMyme- 

CTBeHHo-cMbHbie KJiaccbi Bcer^a o6Hapy«H- 

CT^l «3«e""0e „CnOKOfiCTBHe« MHpoco3epuaHH«, KOTopoe 

«T B HeKOTOpoA nCHXOJlOrHHeCKOA SaBHCHMOCTH OT THna 

mroZlT '"y"*""'"'" r"^-' *= ^yP'«y33Hb,MM rpynnaMH XIX BeKa b Pocchh, 
KOTOpue KaK 6bi .cpaay" nepemjiH Ha ,aKa«eMH3M«. 

3 






34 — 



..aKaflCMHSMa" wan acTeTHSMa; HanpoTHB, dypnafl peBOfliounoH- 
HocTb poMahTMSMa BOBce He cBoflcTBCHHa 3THM rpynnsM H CO- 
cTaBJiflCT npHHaAJieJKHOCTb HHTe;iJiHreHHecTBa h noHEJiflCTor 
o6bHHO B anoxH neperpynnHpoBKH KJiaccoBWX rercMOHHM. 
Boo6me xapawTepHO ajia (|)eoAanbHbix rpynnnpoBOK cTpeMJienne 
K acTCTHKe „reflOHMCTHHecKofl",— MysbiKa paccMarpHBaeTCfl. 
KaK yflOBOJibCTBue, KaK npHHTHoe omymeHMe. Bsrasifl. ua MyswKy. 
KaK Ha opraH BbiswBaHHfl „rjiy6oKHx" 3M0unfl. cBoflcTBeHeH 
HHTeJiJinreHTCKHM rpynnaM. npocJ)eccMOHajiM3M we odHapywH- 

BaeT CKflOHHOCTb K npHCBOeHHK) MySblKaJIbHOMy HCKyCCTBV 

B nepByH) onepeAb 4)yHKUMfl cTpyKTypnbix. 

B cBoefl rjiy6HHHofl ocHOBe MyawKa TCCHefl- 
Cbhsi. c 6uT0B». ^^^ o6pa30M CBSsana c 6biTOM: ona ecTb 
nacTb 6biTa. M noTOMy. ecrecTBeHHO. ona OTpawaer 6biTOBbie 
ycJiOBHfl Tex couHOJTorHHecKHx rpynn. Koxopwe oHa o6cflyjKM- 
saeT HoKa wysbiKa hc cxaHOBHTCJi b toA hjiw hhoA Mepe 
cpcTaBHoK MacTbio 6biTa. ona BOo6me He cymecTByeT b «aH- 
Hoa rpynne. CaMwe npHMHTOBHbie (JjopMW napoAHofl MysbiKw 
o6fl3aHbi CBOHM reHe3MC0M jih6o 6biTOBbiM sjieMeHxaMKyjibTa, 
nwdo o6p5iAa H o6biHaJi, avi6o HHCTO-SMOUHOHajibHbiM no6y- 
jKAeHHflM (necHfl. njiacKa. wrpa. cjiy«eHHe). Mysbma. y^e 

CTaBUiaS! KOflJieKTHBHbIM paSBJieHCHHeM H. KaK TaKOBan. BXO- 

A«mafl B MacTb 6biTa. xapaKxepHa ywe Ana 6ojiee m^eve»r 
HvipoBaHHbix couHOflorHHecKMX rpynnnpoBOK. CoBepuienHO 
pasHHHHbie Tpe6oBaHHH npefl*«BJi«K)TC9 k MysbiKe. cocra- 
B^iawmeft nacxb 6biTa flet^eBHH. hjih nacxb 6biTa uepKBH, hjih 
rtBopua, HJiH MacTHoro flOMa, hjih o6mecTBeHHoro Mecxa. 
3xHM rpy6biM couHOJiorHnecKHM xapaKxepHcxHKaM b o6mHx 
nepxax cooxBexcxByKJX ocHOBHbie jihhhh MysbiKajibHbix *opM. 
Bbixy jtepeBHH cooxBexcxByex Hapo^Has. MysbiKa. paccMn- 
xaHHaa na Kycxapnoe HsroxoB^ieHHe h Ha uihpokhh Kpyr 
noxpe6HTeflfl. npH oneHb MaJioS HHTencHBHOcxH caMoro npo 

M3BOflCXBa, B HHXeHCH4)HKaUHH KOePO HBT HyJKAbl- B bl X y 

u e P K B H cooxBexcxByex co6opHoe xopoBoe HaMajio. cxporocxb 
caMoro BBynaHMfl. c KOxopbiM ynopHO h hocxoshho 6opexcs. 
WHBoe My3biKa:ibHoe MyBCXBO-axo uepKOBnav. wysbiKa. koto- 
oafl cxojib Macxo jiaBajia JKWSHb rpoMaAHbiM s!B«eHH«M b xy- 
JowecxBeHHofl c*epe. ho cana b ce6e .Hiub onenb pe^KO 
lep>KHBa.a sth «BneHH«. Bbtxy ^Bopua cooxBexcxay^x 
MysbiKa napawafl. yBece;i«xeflbho xopacecxBeHHasr, BbiKpH- 



35 



cxafljiH30BbiBaiomaHCH b *opMbi cneuH(J)HHecKoro, ..(jjeoaajib- 
Horo aKaaeMHBMa 6;iaroiiapsi BosfleficxBuro pacuBexaromero 
oKOJio ABopuoB npo(|)eccHOHaflH3Ma. noAo6Hbifi ace npotfaec- 
cHOHajiHSM pacuBexaex h okojio uepKBH. xaK HeMHwyeMoe 
cJieacxBHe ycHfleHHoro cnpoca Ha nocxaBKy MyBWKH. HaKoneu 
6bixMacxHoro«OMa sbisbmaex HHXHMHwfi MysbiKajibHbifi 
cxH;ib (KaMepHoe nenne. KaMepnbift HHCxpyMeHxajiHSM h np ) 
3X0 ywe CBHsaHO c 6yp>Kya3HbiMn KJiaccaMw, Bn;iOTb ao mbjiko- 
eypHcyasHbix h HHxeJi;inr3HTCKHx. 06mecxBeHHbifl 6biT 
Bbi3b!Baex K «H3HH MysbiKy KOHuepxHbix H xeaxpajibHbix 3aji, 
My3biKy c 6o;ibmHM KOJiHHecxBOM HcnojiHHxeJiefi. MaccoBoe 
HCKyccxBo (onepa. cHMcfDOHHa). - ara wysbiKa o6pa3yexc9 
rjiaBHbiM o6pa30M b xaKHe anoxH. Koxopwe cBsaanbi c pac- 
UBexoM o6mecxBeHHoa >kh3hh (sJijiHHCKan Kyjibxypa. XIX BeK) 
BnyxpH 3XHX rpy6brx rpynnHpoBOK cymecxByiox onenb mhopo- 
HHCJieHHbie Me^iKHe BKycoBbie noflpasfle^eHHa. He Haao flynaxb. 
BeAOTHHa BKyco ''^° ^PV^'^bi noxpe6HxeJiefi Boo6me asjiHioxca 

BMX rpynn. ""OrOMHCJienHblMH. Ms HHX XOJIbKO lUHpOKO 

ACMOKpaxHwecKaH— „HapoflHaH"-HMeexBHymH- 
xeflbHyio MHcnoByio xapaKxepHcxHKy. ocxa;ibHbie b cymnocxH 

HaCXOJIbKO MajIOMHCJieHHbl. HXO OXBaXblBaiOX XOflbKO HHMXOMC- 

Hyro Macxb HacejieHHa. MysbiKa b sxom oxHoiueHHH — ncKyc- 
cxBo. onwpaiomeeca Ha HaH6ojiee saMKHyxwe cjioh. 06biHHo 
Kpyr c6bixa npeflcxasjiaexca oxBaxbiBaiomm xojibKo ropoa- 
cKHe c;ioH H xo B He3HaMHxe;ibHofi Mepe; xaKOBa bch „Kyjib- 
xypHaa MyswKa. HaH6ojiee KpynHWMH rpynnaMw ABJiaflHCb 
Bcema noxpe6HxeJiH „onepbi", Kan cMeuiaHHoA cjfiopMbi HCKyc- 
cxBa. He HHcxo-MyBbiKajibHoro, h poMaHca. KaK 6ojiee nonax- 
Horo. h6o xo«e onHpaiomeroca Ha xckcx h no33HK>. Ecjih 

paCCMarpHBaXb UIHpHHy c6bIXa B BbICOKOKBaJIH(f,H^HpOBaHHb.X 
V30r^r '^y^"'^^"''"''™ HCKyCCXBa, TO MO^HO HOpaBHXbCJ, 

co3nair''° ''^^'^^' ^°™P"^ flBJinexcsi noxpednxeJieM sxhx 
™^„«o °" cocxaBJiHCT He 6o;iee npouenxa Bcero nace- 

MAeojioi-HK My- Korfla roBopflx o6 „H«eojiorKH" MyBWKH, 

3WKH. »«aK Haxoflnmefica b KaKOM-HH6yAb oxHomeHHw 

K ee KjiaccoBWM h BKycoBWM xapaKxepHcxHKaM 

xoHaaooroBopHxbcs,, mxo no oxnomeHHK) k „4ncxoMy" sByKO- 

BOMy HCKyccxBy hsao Boo6m^ 6b,xb onenb ocxopojKHbiM b npH- 

MeHeHHHxepMHHa ,HAeo;.orH5,« noxofi npocxofl npHHHHe, hto 



— 3b 



d/ - 



■%>' 



MysbiKa. KaK sto cosepmeHHO jjcho, hc momcct cawa no ce6eHM- 

KaKOM HftCH BbipaSHTb. HeKOTOpbie aCTCTHKH OTpMUaiOT 3a Hefl 

jtajKe cnoco6HOCTb BbipameHHH MyscTB, ho ccjih nocJieflHee MHe- 
HHC H Heo6ocHOBaHO, TO HejibSH He npusHaxb, mto bo bchkom 
CJiynae re accouHauwH, Koxopwe BbipaMcavoxca MyswKofl. oneHb 
npHHyAJiHBbi. noABepM<eHbi coBepuieHHO erne HeHSBecTHbiM 
saKonaM h bo bcskom CJiynae ne Aaiox noBOAa roBopnTb 06 
opraHMHecKOM BHCflpeHHH B MysbiKy HfleoaorHH. MAeojiorHH 

npHBHOCHXCH B M y 3 bl K y XeKCXOM H CKjacexoM, 

x.-e. nocxopoHHHMHMysbiKesjieMeHxaMH. B axoM 
CMbicJie AJifl HCKOxopbix snox h KflaccoB xapaKxepHO cxpe- 
MJieHne K „npHBHeceHHK)" b MyBbixy HfleojiorHM, a jina apy- 
rax — HBJiHexcH xapaKxepHbiM cxpeMJieHwe k ocBo6o3KAeHHH> 

MySblKM ox BCflKHX Hfleojiornfl. PoMaHXHHeCKHe XeMeHHH, KO- 

Topbie o6biHHO o6yc;ioBJiHBaioxcH HHxejiJiHreHxcKHM h MejiKO- 
6ypM{ya3HbiMH t|)aKxopaMH. mmciox hmchho axy cKJiOHHOcxb 
K HfleojiorHsauHH MysbiKH, npo(|)eccHOHajiH3M h aKaaeMMSM 
jiHineHbi axoro cxpeMJienHH. CanaH cnoco6HOcxb MysbiKH sbi- 
paacaxb xe hjih hhwc ne HjieM. a smouhh, noBHAMMOMy, 
HaxoAHxcH B cHJibHeAuieft saBHCHMOCxw ox BKycoBofl rpynnw 
noTpe6HTejifl. OAHa h xa me wysbiKa HMeex ajih pasHbix no- 
Tpe6HxejTefl coBepuieHHO pasjiMMHbie sMOUMOHaflbHbie CMbicJibi 
H SHaMeHHH, Koxopbie oxMacxH o6ycJioBfleHbrxpaflH- 
UHeft (wanp., smouhh HapoAHbix neceH), oxnacxM npowHbiMH, 
Hcxopweft co3AaHHbiMH accouviauHaMH *), oxnacxM pacnpo- 
cxpaneHHOM b AaHHOM Kpyry h Aannoft BKycoBoft rpynne 
„3cxexMKoft". OpoclieccHOHajibHbie rpynnw hmciox HaHMCHb- 

UiyiO CKJlOHHOCXb K OCHaUieHMK) MySblKH KaKHMH 6bl TO HH 

6biJio 3MOUHHMH; HanpoxHB, KpaAnee ocHamenHe hmh xapaK- 
TepHO AJiH „flHJieTaHTCKHx" rpynn. Ho caMoe coAepacaHHc 

3MOUHfl[, CaMblft MX TOHHbia „CMbICJl" o6bIHHO COBCpUieHHO 

ycKOJibsaex ox perncxpaunvi b o6jiacxb MHAHBWAyajibHbix 
MyBCXBOBaHHH, FlosTOMy MOMCHO roBopHTb TOflbKO o6 o6meM 
TO He MysbiKH B AaHHoft couHOJiorHHecKoA rpynne, ho hc 
06 ee HAeojiorHH, Koxopan ^'aKxunecKH He cymecxByex, mbm 
MysbiKa cymecTseHHO oTJiHiacTCH ot Apyrnx HccyccxB, koxo- 



\ 



*) K HHonyTaKHx accouHa'jKfi, 6wTb MOMeT, oiHocaTca HaHSonee uiHpoKO 
pacnposTpaHeHHbie „3MounoHanbHbie CMuanbi" MyswKH, KaK, nanpHMep, coot- 
BeTCTBeHHO „Ma»sop — paflOJTb, MHHop — nenanb" m npon. 



B TeieHHe schshb 
DpoBSBeAeHHa. 



pbie HMetox BcerAa xy hjih Hnyio pauHOHajibHyio sauenKy. Ho 
H xyx HaAO 6bixb oneHb ocxopowHbiM, h6o OKasbiBaexcsj, hxo 
MysbiKajibHO-asyKOBoe cosepuaHwe na HcxopHMecKOM npoxH- 
«eHHH HacTOJibKO MeHsexcfl, HXO OAHa h xa ace 
*l*rfr!r.'!!l"!!.^'''^y^''"^^ ceflnacHaM npeAcxaBJiaexcH cHa6H«eH- 

HOfl COBCpmeHHO HHbIM SMOUHOHajIbHbIM COABP" 

HcaHHeM, MeM ona aeynajia ajih coBpeMeHHHKoe 
B snoxy ee coiHHeHnJi. KajKymaaca Haw cnoKoAHofl, ncHofl h 
ypaBHOBeuicHHoS Mysbina Mouapxa coBpeMeHHHKaw npcAcxa- 
BJiHJiacb nojiHoft poMaHXHMccKHx kojijihsmA h cxpacxH. CnOKOAHO 
„pejiMrno3Hbie" apwH FeHACJia 6biJiH mm b cBoe BpeMH cohh- 
HHeMbi AJia spoxHMecKHx xeKcxoB. Heo6biHaHHaH njiacxKHHocxb 
MysbiKajibHoro Maxepwajia coBepmeHHo jiHuiaex bo3moh<:ho- 
cxH roBopHXb xyx hxo-jih6o onpeACJieHHoe, ho ajih xomhocxm 
H HayHHOcxH Heo6xoAHMO oaho KOHcxaxHpoBaHHe, Mxo c a M a 
MysbiKa, BBflxaa ox xeKcxa h saraaBHH oxAejibHo, BOo6ineHH- 
KaKoA HAeoflorHH He Bupaacaex, ho cnaSwaexcH xoft hjih 
HHoft HAeojioraefl cbommh cjiyuiaxejiHMM (a wHorAa h aBxo- 
paMw) B saBHCHMOcxM OX xoM BKycoBoft fpynnbi, k Koxopofi 
OHH npHHaAJieacax. TenAeHUHio h HAeojioraro b MysbiKe „koh" 
KpexHo" MOJKHo ycMoxpeTb TOJibKo B TOM cjiyvae, KorAa ona 
xaK HJiH HHaie cesisbiBaeTCH c KOHKpexHbiM H3o6pa3HxejibHbiM 
MaxepnajiOM, b bhac jih nporpaMMbi, ooMcexa hjih xeKcxa, 
B 4)opMe JIH ..UHxax" Hs HapoAHbix neceH („HauHOHajiHcxH- 
MecKHe xeHAenuHn"). 

MysbiKajibHoe xBopnecxBo, KaK hhcxo aav- 

HHH H o6oraQeHH«. ^^^^^ CXMXHJ!, paSBHBaeXCH Bce BpeMSI B Ha- 

npaBJieHHH odoramennji xexHHMecKHx 
cpeACXB BbipaJKeHHH. Bce mcjikhc MyxauHH cthjih, Koxopbie 
o6ycJiOBJiHBaK)x ABH«eHMe BnepeA HcnyccxBa, cboahxcsi k 
BBeAeHHK) B o6hxoa HOBbix SByKOBbjx ajieMCHxoB. 3th 3Jie- ' 
Menxbi BBOAflxcfl nocxencHKO, nyxen He6ojibuiHx HSMeHenHfl, 
npH HCM Ka6j]K)Aaexc$! npcuecc nccxeneHKcfl npHBbiHKH 
noxpedHxejiH k sxhm HOBUiecxBaM. McxopHfl MyBbiKajibHwx 
(|)opK OMeHb MajTO pasBHxa h nccJieflOBana, xoxh HMCHHooHa 
6bi H AOJiJKHa 6biJia cocxaBJiaxb npeAMex nacxoHiuefl hcxophh 
MysbiKH. MsynaH HcxopHMecKMft onux BHeApeHHM b MysbiKy 

HOBblX SJICMenXOB, HfiAO npHSHaXb, MXO, nOBHAHMOMy, Hex 

HHKaKoro orpaHHHeHHH b BHeApeHHH B MysbiKy 
KaKHX yroAHO SByMaHMfi, hxo caMH no ce6e see SBy- 



**V>U*' ^' *'' > '♦YmV.wJt •.^,^^^'^■^■^^»■■ 



I'iirf'iytiiiMiiif > . 









— .m 



OpHBUHKa K SBy 
laHBHM. 



KOBbie KOM6HHauHH „paBHo AonycTHMbi". Ho noTpe6HTenb 
yHHTbiBaeT cbohd 6oJibuiyK> hjih MeHbuiyio „npHBbiMKy" k hum. 

To, MTO npMBblMHO, nCpCXOAHT B HJIOCKOCTb 6e3pa3JIH4Hn M 
CraHOBHTCH SCTeXMHeCKHM „KOHCOHaHCOM", eCJIH TaK MO»CHO 

BbipasHTbCJi. Bee ocrpoe, HenpwBbiHHoe aBJineTCH cnepBa 
jiHccoHaHcoM, nopawaer Boo6paM«eHHe, ho hotom k HCMy 
npHBbiKawT h oho cTanoBHTCH y>Ke npHBun- 

HblM K „KOHCOHaHTHblM", TCpJIfl CBOK) OCTpOTy. 

PasHHua B TCMne npHBbiKaHHH, o6ycJiOBjieH- 

HaH BByKOBbIM COBHaHHCM, CJIiMCHT npHHMHOft TOPO, HTO H 6e3 

Toro MeflKHe rpynnw noTpedHxejiefl (sKycoBbie rpynnw) 
eme 6o;iee paccjiaHBaioTcn. FIpH- 

PaccAoeHHe rpynn gj^,^^g o6flerMaeTCfl, eCJIH HOBOBBeflCHHe 

H HSMeAbHaHHe HX. ^ v 

oopaMJiHeTCH B yAoooycBaHBaeMyK) qpopMy, 
nanpHMep, Kor^a HeynoTpe6nTejibHoe paHbiue co3ByHne cna- 
najia npenoflHOCHTca b ^Jop^e „3aAepMcaHHJi" mjih npoxo- 
anmefl rapMOHHH. Koraa b xaKoft cMarneHHofl (jjopMe oho 
ycBoeno h k HCMy npuBbiKJiw, Toraa ywe ner npen^TCTBHA 
K ero cBo6oAHOMy ynoTpe6fleHHH3. HaM6ojiee 6bicTpo npHBw- 

KaroX K C03ByHHflM (rapMOHHSM), HaHMCHCe — K Me;iOAHHeCKMM 

odpasoBaHHiiM opMrHHa^bHoro THna. BcJicACTBHe Toro, hto 
MysbiKa Bce 6ojiee sacTasflneTCH xexHWHecKHMH AOCXHwe- 
HHflMM, Bce 6oAee xepnexca npHMHxuBHaH nepBo6bixHaa npo- 
cxoxa H qpKOcxb sByKOomymeHHa h Bce pasBHsaexcsi noroHH 

3a HOBblMH OCXpblMH CpCACXBaMH MySblKajIbHOFO B036yM«AeHHH. 

MysbiKajibhoe HCKyccxBO pasBHBaexca KaK 6bi ycKopennbiM 
xeMnoM. Hxo o6ycJiOBfleHo xcm, hxo njiacxHHHOCxb sByKOBoro 
MaxepMajia cana no ce6e, noBHAHMOMy, hhhcm ne orpanHneHa 
H cnoco6HOcxb K sByKOBoft npHBbiHKe npeAcxaBJiaexcM npes- 
BbinaflHO uiHpoKofl AJin oxACJibHwx jihu, cnocodnbix o6pa3p- 
Baxb BKycoBbie' rpynnw. HacxoHUUHft momchx b nacx- 
HOcxH xapaKxepusyexcsf orpoMHWM pasMepoM 

BKyCOBblX .AHCXaHUHfl" MCMCAy UIH- 

.HaepaBHmecTBo" po^HM n OX p e 6 Mxe Ji e M MysbiKH (Mac- 

Mya. nOTpe6HTeAH ^^j^. H MCMCAy KBaJIH 4)H U Hp O Ban- 

B HOBUe 90OXH. ' ' . 

HWMH UCHHXeJIflMH paSHblX HaHMC" 

H o B a H H fl. My3biKa, ywce Bnojine acnaa m noHflxnasi nocJiCAHHM, 
AOCxaBJisiioiuasi mm nojinoe scxexHMecKoe yAOBJiexBopeHHe, 
nepBbiMH cnjiouib h psiAOM ouenHBaexca KaK xaoxHMecKHM 
Ha6op SByKOB. B axoM cMabHefluieM paccnoeHMM u yBCJiHseHHM 









BKycoBbix AHcxanuHft KaK 6bi oxo6pa«aexcH coBepuieHHo 
noAo6Hoe we „3KOHOMMHecKoe" yBe^HHeHHe AHCxanuHft b kb- 
nHxaflHCXHHecKOM o6mecxBe. MyswKa h MysbiKanxw b cbohx 
BKycoBbix rpynnHpoBKax aHajiorHHHbi skohomh- 



AaaAorHX c 9xoho- 

MBHeCKBHH QeHHO- 



MCCKH MOmHbIM H 3KOHOMHHeCKH MBJIOMOlUHblM 

cTHMH H mx HaKo- KJiaccBM. SByKOBOB cosHaHne „caMO npcAcxa 



nAeaBem. 



06qBHB BsrAHA aa 

MBpOByiO MySMK. 
HCTOpHIO. 



BJinex KaK 6bi MSBecxHyro ucHHocxb, h 9xa 
UCHHOcxb „HaKonjiHexcH" B onpeAeneHHbix 
rpynnax b xo BpeMH, KaK ApyrHe rpynnbi, nonaAaroiitiie b ycjio- 

BMH HCBOSMOWHOCXH paBBMXMJI SHaMMXeJIbHOPO SByKOBOPO CO" 

sHaHMfl, OKasbiBaroxcn saMKHyxwMw b noxpedjicHKe npHMHXHB- 
Hbix 4>opM, B xo BpeMH, KaK xexHHMecKoe ycjiOM<HeHHe b cwjibHefl- 
uieft cxeneHH Kacaexca MysbiKajibHoA mhshh nepaoro xHna 
rpynn, rpynnw Bxoporo xwna hohxh ne HSMenaiox na hcxo- 
pHHeCKOM npOT$]>heHMH CBoero ochobhofo hphmmxhehofo 3By- 
KoomymeHMH. ^ ; -> , 

EcJIH MW OUCHHM BCK) HCXOpHH) My3bl- 

KajibHoro HCKyccxBa c xomkh speHHH yKasan- 
Hbix Bwuie npHHUHnoB: HBnenvifi MyawKajibHoro 
npoHSBOACxBa h yc;iOBHA ero c6wxa b co- 
BpeMCHHOCXH H B 6yAyiueM, BKycoBwx rpynn, na Koxopwe 
paccJioaexcn noxpe6HxeJibCKaH Macca, h xoro ecxecxBeHHoro 
ox6opa,.KOxopoMy noABepraexcsi BCHKoe MyawKanbHoe siBneHHe, 
nonaAafl b cpeAy c6bixa h naxoAH xaM mjih noAAepscKy m 
npHcnoco6jieHHe hjih, nanpoxHB, ne BWAepMCHsan 6opb6bi aa 
cymecxBOBaHHe c 6ojiee cxoAkhmh h cooxBexcxByioiUHMM 
c6bixy 4)opMaMH, xo xenenHe MyswKajibHoro paSBHxnn npHMer 
BHaHHxejibHO 6oJiee nponcneHHwA xapaKxep. McxopHHecKHfi 
npouecc xyx cboahxc^ k 45opMOBKe BKycoBwx rpynn, Haxo- 

AfllUHXCH B SaBHCHMOCXH OX (})H3HHeCKHX (aHxponojiorHMecKHx 
M 4)H3H0J10rHHeCKHX) yCJlOBHA H ox COUHaflbHblX OXHOUieHHft, M 

K ecxecxBCHHOKy ox6opy HaH6ojiee npHcnoco6jieHHbix cjjopM. 
Te MyawKajibHwe flBjienHn, KOxopwe o6HapywHBaHJx ckjioh- 
Hocxb „Bbi>KMBaxij" B xcHeHHe AOJirHx cpoKOB, Koxopwe Ha- 
xoAHT ce6e xox hjih vmoPi c6bix b pasjiHHHwe HcxopHnecKHe 
spw, o6wHHO o6o3HaMaK)xcH HecKOJibKO rHnep6o;iH4ecKMM 
xepMHHOM „BeMHbix" ueHHOcxcfi MyawKajibHoro 
HCKyccxBa. Ha caMOM Aejie axo — siBJieHHs. 
KOxopwe CBOH c6wx pacnpocxpaHjiiox na 
flOJirne BpeMena, HHorAa na bckb, xoxh MewAy npoMHM hcxo- 



^Be^Hue" geEBO- 

CTB. 






ttttiimm 



41 



PHH BPSIA JIW 3HaeT npHMepbl JKHSHCHHOCTH MySblKaJIbHblX 

opraHH3MOB B TaHeHHe 6ojiee 6 — 7 bckob. HanpoTHB, cyme^ 
CTByioT Mys'JKajibHbie opraHHSMw, KOTopwe o6HapyHCHBaK>T 
ToabKO KpaTKOspeMeHHyjo >KHByMecTb, HaxoAH noAXOanmyio 
fljiH c6biTa cpcAy TO^bKO B TeneHHc BpeMCHH, 6jiH?KaMiiiera 

K HK COBflaHHK). 3tO HB OBHaMaCT, MTO OHH HMCIOT Majlblft 

Kpyr c6biTa h Majibie BKycoBwe rpynnw, b cpejie KOTopux ohh 

HaXO;tSlT >KH3Hb, HanpOTMB, OHCHb HaCT 4>aKT, MTO HMCHHO TaKHC 

BBpeMeHHbie" hjih npexoAHiUHC sbjichmji KaK pas HMCior 
orpoMrtbie rpynnbi c6biTa, ho rpynnw HeycToflHHBbie, 6bicTpa 
pacnaftaiomHecfl. FIoTpedHTejib b asnenKax nepBoro THna 
pacnpcACJieH, xaK cKasaxb, „bo BpeMeHH", a b nepsoM — „b 
npocrpaHCTBe". BcJieflCTBHe aroro mw MorflH 6bi ycxaHOBHXb 
xepMHHbi „uiMpHHbi" cnpoca Ha pHAy c tcpmhhom „fljiHTejib- 
hocth" cnpoca, ero „rjiy6nHbi" hjih HHTeHCHBHocTH. Mcm bcc 
3TH KoopAHHaTbi 6o;ibuie. TBM BOo6iue npoHSBeflCHHe Haflo 
npH3naTb „reHHa;ibHee", ccjih nojibsoBaxbCH stum TepMWHOM 
a pacnpocTpaHCHHOM SHaneHHH. HeKoropwe MyswKajibHbie 
opraHH3Mbi opraHHMecKH Hecnoco6Hbi k annTeJibHOCTH cnpoca, 

KaK, HanpHMCp. MySblKaJIbHWe HCnOflHCHMH BCflKHX BMflOBt 

OHM cBflsaHbi c npexoflflineft HejioBenecKoA jiHMHOCTbio h no- 
TOMy MMCioT cyiijecTBOBaHHe cxporo orpaHMHCHHoe. Ho ecjiH ' 

OTHCCTHCb K BOnpOCy 60^66 CTpOFO, TO HeflbSH HC npH3HaTb, 
MTO H TC MySblKajIbHbie OpraHMSMbI, KOTOpbie 

HsMSHeHHe xBope- ^ 

„ npM3HaK>TC5I CnOCOOHblMH HMeTb-> 

HUB CO BpeHeBCM. '^ 

fljiHTCJibHoe cymecTBOBaHHC, na ca- 

MOM Jiene HMeiOTTaKOBOe TOJIbKO OTHOCHXeJIbHO. 
B CaMOM flCJie, BOCnpHHTMe MySblKaJIbHOA K0Mn03HU,HH CBHBaHO 

c ee HcnojiHeHHeM, a caMoe HcnojineHMe hmcct npexoASHUvfl. 
speMeHHbia xapaKTcp. Hb aroro jiorwHecKH cjieayer, hto 
B cyinHOCTH H caMoe BOcnpHJiTHe KOMnosHUHH HMecT nepe- 
M e H H bi fl xapaKTep, mto pasHwe noKOJieHHJi BOcnpHHHMaioT 

TO, MTO HaSblBaCTCJI „OAHHM H TCM JKC" npOHBBeACHHeM, CO- 
BepmeHHO nO-paSJlHHHOMy, B BaBHCHMOCXH or M3MeHeHHbIX> 

ncTopn4ecKHx ycjiOBHft H OT HBMeHeHHfl caMbix cnoco6oB 
HcnojiHeHHsi. npoH3Befl,eHHH, KOTopbie aBJiKK)TCH HaM Hawfio- 
Jiee AOJiro«n3HeHHbiMH, hjih. KaK hx HMenyioT, „BeMHbiMH", Ha 
caMOM AeJie cyxb raKHe, Koropwe Handonee yfl,o6HO n p h- 

Cn0C06jIJIlOTCH K HBMBHJIlOmHMCa yCJlOBHHM HCnOJlHCHHU. 

BpflA JiH HcnojiHCHHe {|)OHorpa4)HHecKH tomhoc xaKoro poaa. 



KaK 6btJio npHHaxo Bo BpeMcna Eaxa, AOcxasHJio 6bi xenepb 
xaKoft uiHpoKHA cnpoc 6axoBCKOMy XBopnecTBy, KaKoi) odna- 
pyjKHBaex ero xBopnecxBo, „npejiOMJieHHoe" . b cobpcmch- 

HOCXH. 

_ , nepBo6bixHbie anoxH xapaKxepnbi xeM, hxo 

DepBo6uTHoe kv- i- r , • 

cTapHH^ecTBo. BKycoBbie rpynnw eme ne paccflOHJincb. hxo 
„BKycbi 6onee hjih Menee odiuw" aawe y jihu, 

OXHOCfllUHXCH K 3KOHOMHMeCKH paBJIHHHbIM KJiaCCaM, CaMOe 
npOHSBOflCTBO MpeBBbinaflHO MBJIO HHTeHCH(|)HUHpOBaHO, hocht 

oxpwBOHHbift „KycxapHbifl" xapaKxep, KOMnoBHxop, a 
_ HacxoHHHCxpyMeHxajibHbifiiMacxep 

He oxACJiHJicfl eme ox HcnojiHHxejia, 
KoxopbiA npeflcxaBJiHex ueHxp xH>KecTH MyBWKaJibHoA npo- 
AyKUHH. OxcyxcxBHe npoHHofl BanHCH MyswKH cnoco6cxByex 
xoMy, HXO Kanaa 6bi xo hh 6biJio ..cxaBKa na dyAymero no^ 
xpednxejia", hjih, KaK xenepb npHH«xo BbipawaxbCH, Ha „no- 
CMepxHyio cJiaBy", oxcyxcxByex hjih npoHBJinexcH b caMofi 
MHi^HMajibHo^ cxeneHH. Bo bcsikom cjiynae caMaa npoAyKUHJj 
MysbiKH onpeACJieHHO paccMHXwBaexcsi na xeKymero, a 
He Ha rnnoxexMHecKoro 6yAymero noxpeGnxejiH h noxoMy 
xaK hjih HHaMe npHBOAHxcsi b cooxBexcxBHe co BKycaMH co- 
BpeMeHHHKa. B xaKHx ycAOBHsx cosHAaexcH xaK HasbiBaeMan 
Ha po AH a SI H nepBo6bixHO-KyjibxypHaj! MyawKa. BcjieACXBHe 
06QHocTb THHOB Sojibuiofi oSiuHocTH HX npoHcxowAeHHH rpa- 

BOCqpHHTBB H HHUW HX CXyiUeBWBaiOXCH, H Mb! MaCTO He 

eAUHCTBo BKyco- MOM<eM ycxawoBHXb, jiBJiJiexcH JiH AaHHoe npo- 

BUX rpynn. H3BeAeHHe XHHHMHO „HapOAHbIM", HflH iKQ OHO 

ecxb nepeM<HXOK Kyjibxypnoft MyawKH, cxaBUieA napoAHofl 
BCJiCAcxBHe o6mHocxH BKycOB. 3xox xapaKxep MyawKajibHofi 
npoAyKUHM MW Ha6jitoAaeM b cjiywanx HapoAHofl MyswKH, pac- 
cMHxaHHoft Ha lUHpOKoro noxpednxejiH, Bnjioxb ao Hauiero 
noHXH BpeMeHH h b ApesHHx Kyjibxypax, KorAa MyawKajibHoe 
HCKyCCXBO XOJIbKO HaHHHajIO BblXOAHXb H3 nepBo6bixHoft 

cxaAHH. 

CaMoe cneuH(|)MHecKH „HapoAHoe" ncKyccxBO oxjiHMaexcH 

OX npHMHTHBHO KyJlbXypHOFO TOJIbKO o6bIHHO aHOHHMHO- 
C X b K) CBOHX TBOpUOB, HMCHa KOTOpWX yTpaMHBaiOTCJI H 3a6bl- 

BaioTcn, jih6o npHHHMaioT neAOCTOBepHwe, JiereHAapHwe 

OTTeHKH. OxjIHHaeTCH OHO, XOXH TOJIbKO OTMaCXH, H CBOCH 

ciTocodHOcxbK) K MyxauHHM OAHOFO H xoro Mce xnna komrosh- 



UHw nyrew nocreneHMbix BapwaUHfl, npoHCXowjieHHe KOTopwx 
HHCTo-M MnpoBMsauHOHHoe, OHH cosflaioTCH B npoueccc 
xyflOMcecTeeHHoro HcnoJiHCHUH h OTMacxH o6yt;jiOBJieHbi OTcyr- 
CTBHCM sanHCH, BCJiejicTBHe Hero hct caMofl Haew 06 „aBtop- 
CKOM TCKCTe". OocTeneHHwe MyTauHW, BKjiKjnaeMbie b nepso- 

HaMaJIbHblfl KOHTeKCT B CBJISH M B COOTBCTCTBHH CO BKycaMH 

<:OBpeMeHHOc™, o6ycjiOB;inBaK)T HSMeHeHMe (J)opM, mx pasBw- 

THe M yMHOJKeHHe. MHorwe KyjibxypHbie KOMnosMUHH, nonaaaji 

B Kpyr HapoflHoro noTpe6jieHHH, noflBepraioTcn 

npespa^eFHe ^^^ cneuH(fanMecKOfl nepepa6oTKe, wHorfta 

B HaooAQVio 

MysMKv. peflyuHpoBaHHoft, h craHOBaTCH HapoAHbiMM 

HaneBaMH. 
PasjiHMHe B ycjioBHHX 6hiTa, Koropoe y»«e b caMoft 
paHHeft CTcncHH rocynapcTBeHHbix ycrpoflcTB conyTCTByex 
HenoBCHecTBy, HMceT cjie^CTBHeM to, mto b nepBo6biTHOM 
6biTy Bce - xaKH noflBnnioTCfl HCKOTopwe HaMCKH Ha „BKycoBbie 
rpynnw", KOTopwe b jiaHHOM cjiynae opraHHSOBaHw npocTo 

H SaBHCHT nOMTH HCKJlK)HHTejIbHO OT COUHOJIOrHHCCKHX 

ycjiOBHfl, a He OT creneHH sByKOBoro cosHaHWH, KOTopoe 
y Bcex HaxoAHTCH na 6onee wnvi Menee npHMHTHBHOfl cTaflHH 

paSBHTHH. HoSTOMy Ha TWn H Ha yCJIOBHfl c6bITa B 3TM 

anoxH couHonorHMecKHC ycJiOBHa OKasbiBawjT HaH6ojiee cyme- 
CTBeHHoe H apKoe Bnvismvie, ne saTyuieBaHHoe pasjiHMHaMM 
BByKOBoro cosHaHHa, nacTynaioiUHMH nosflHee. MysbiKa o6cfly- 
wHBaeT noTpe6HOCTH 6biTa napoaa (o6pnflbi, TaHUbi, Becejibe. 
Hrpbi H npoH.), Knu noTpe6HOCTH pejinrM03Horo KyjibTa (Hanajio 

„flyXOBHOft" MySblKM), HJIH nOTpe6HOCTH BblCUIHX KJiaCCOB (yBC 

cejieHHe, npocjiaBJieHHC, HHorfla arHTauHOHHO - nojiHTHnecKHe 
saAaHHH, noAHflTwe rpaH<AaHCKMX h BOHHCTsenHbix Ao6poAe 
xeneA H npoH.). Bee sxh ycnoBHfl cosHAaioT pasHwe xnnw 
MysbiKH H cnoco6cTByK)T pasBMTHK) cneuMtJjHHecKoro KJiacca 

npo(|)eccHOHaflOB — MysbiKa nepecxaex 
3apo»AeHHe npo- ^ cxaBuiH rocyAapcTBeHHofl Hec6xoAHMO- 

CTbK>, T.-e. o6cJiy>KMBaK)meM HHTcpecbi npaBn- 

lUHX KJiaCCOB, KyCTapHblM npOAyKTOM H HaMHHaeX npOHSBOAHXbCH 

MaccoBbiM nyxert. MysbiKa M<e. o6cjiywHBaK)maa HHxepecbi 
iuapoAHoft Maccbi, npoAo;iM<aex 4'aSp"'^OBaTbca nycxapHbiMM 
cncco6aMH mjih nojibsyexca cJiynaflHO AOCxaBJiniomMMHca b ee 
cpcAy o6pbiBKaMH nysbiKH cneuHaJiHcxoB, coHHHSiBUieflcfl ajih 
uejieft o6cJiyH<viBaHHSi Bbicuiero KJiacca. 






— 43 — 

OxToro B 3XHX yHce 6ojiee nosAHHX anoxax mw BcerAa 
BHAHM, npM ycflOBHH Bce eme npoAOjracaiomeflcH o6mHocxH 
3ByKOB0ro co3HaHHJi, HapowAeHHe npoc|)eccHOHajiH3Ma h cne- 
^H4>HHecKHH „rocyAapcxBeHHbifl" xapaKxep HCKyccxBa. MyawKa 
o6cJiyMCHBaeT hjih AyxoBencTBO, am HMcex arnxaunoHHOe 
aHaneHHe, nan ynpoMatomaa cymecxByiomH/l cTpofi 
CHJiaMH HCKyccTBa. B cymnocxH xaKOBa 6biJia MyawKa 
Bceft AoxpwcxHaHCKoft apbi, Bceuejio HMeBuiaa uejibio nvi6o 
arnxaumo b nojibsy oxAenbHbix repoes cyiuedxByiomero couvi- 
ajubHoro cxpoH, flH6o Kyjibxypy CBoftcxBCHKbix axoMy cxpoio 
„Ao6poAexejieA", jih6o KyjibxoBwe saAaHHs, jin6o yBecejieHne 
xex rpynn, Koxopwe MwejiH rocnoAcxsyromee noflOJKeHHe 
8 rocyAapcxBe (repoHnecKHA anoc, no6eAHbie necHH, Ky^bxc- 
Bbie necHH, arHxauMOHHasr xparcAwa HpasoB h Kyjibxa, thmhw 
pejinrHOBHbie h nojiHXHHecKwe, ysecejiMxeflbHaa h jiHpHMecKan 
MysbiKa). HeMHorHM oxjiHiaflMCb h 4)opMbi MysbiKajibHoro 
6bixa B cxpaaax BocxoKa, tab npeo6jiaAaji BcerAa woMeHx 
pejiHrHOBHbiA (cBpeAcKaa MyswKa, erHnexcKan MyawKajibHavi 
Kyjibxypa). B xpHcxMaHCKyro apy coBepmeHHo xaKoA nue xHn 
HMejiH MysbiKaflbHbie (j[)opMbi b panneM rocyAapcxBeHHOM 6bixy— 
OHH xoJKe HMCflH arHxauHOHHoe sHaneHHe (6apAbi, cKajibAW,- 
pyccKHe neaubi) h 6biAH xecHeAuiHM o6pa30M cBflsanbi c MHxe- 
pecaMH rocnoAcxByiomero Kjiacca bohhob. rioHBJieHHe na cueny 
HOBoA couHajibHoA cHjibi B jiHue xpHCTHaHCKoA uepKBH cyme- 
cxBCHHeAiuHM o6pa30M nepeBeuiHBaex bch) MysbiKy b cxopoHy 
o6cjiy>KHBaHHH ee HHxepecoB. MyswKa cxanoBHxca araxaxHB- 
HbiM 3;ieMeHT0M AJIH HyjKA uepKBH. noxpe6HxefleM cxaHOBHxca 
ywe He napoA npocxo, a ..napoA npHxowaHHH", HapoA Kjie- 
pHKajibHO BocnHXbiBaeMbiA. MescAy 9xhm napoAOM h ero 
BKycoM, HacbimeHHbiM uepKOBHoA xpaAHUHeA, h napoAOM 
„Boo6me" Bce speMH ocxaexca HCKoxopoe oxjiHHHe, h mw 
MMeeM.xyx b cymnocxH abc pasHwe BKycoswe rpynnw: oAHy, 
cxpcMHiuyioca k BwpaweHHHJ MyswKoA B03BwmeHHwx peJiH- 
TMOSHbix HAeA, a Apyrynj — b Koxopyto HeMHHyeMO nonaAaex 
anxHxesa nepBoro — HweHHO o6jiacxb ysecejiMxejibHoro, nacxo 
rpy6oro h spoxHMecKoro. — xo, hxo He mofjio nonacxb b am- 
xaxHBHoe uepKOBHoe HCKyccxBO. Oxxoro b panHeM cpeAne- 
BeKOBbe Mbi HMeeM HapoAHyio MyswKy, bo BKycoBOM csoeM 
XHne CHJibHO npoTHBonojiaraioinyiocH uepKOBHoft MyawKe. 
3xo npoxHBonojioweHHe He weiuaex hm Apyr Ha Apyra BJiwaxb, 



f^-*m*^ifs0i^mf^ 



*4..i 



— - 4* — ■ , 

h6o HSBecTHaji nAn^^yavm" MyawKajibMbix ueHHOCTeft npoHcxo- 
jiHT Bcerfla, navKe MCMcay caMWMn necxoAHbiMH MysbiKajifaHbiMif 
opraHHSMaMH. 

OrpoMHaa opraHHsauHH uepKBH c ee cneuHajibHWM koaoc- 
cajibHbiM lUTaroM cJiyMtHTejiefl, ee Morywee aKOHOMMnecKoe 
nonoH<eHHe, ee nojiHTH^ecKan anacTb — Bce axo cnoco6cTByeT 
TOMy, MTO uepKOBHaa BKycoBaa rpynna HaHWHaeT 
onpejie JieHHO flOMHHHpoBaTb b SHaneHHH. Ona no- 
jiynaex Hawdojiee ueHHbift h KBajiHt|)HUHpoBaHHbiH KaAp npo- 
(fjeccHOHajiOB, oTMacTH H3 cJiyacHTejieft Kyjibxa (MOHaxos). 
OHa nojiynaeT uiKOJibHbiM annapax h xeM cnoco6cxByex orpoM- 
HOMy yBejiHHeHHK), Rame nepenpoHSBOACxBy npo4)ec- 
CHOHajibHoro MysbiKajibHoro ajieMCHxa h pasBK- 
THK> cneuH4)HHecKHx npo<|)eccHOHajibHbix (BHpxyosHwx m 
aKaaeMHMecKMx) BKycoBbix rpynn. HocxeneHHoe ycHJieHHC 
<|)eo;tajibHofl. ywe ueHxpaflHsyiomeficj!, BJiacxH h nepenoc 
3KOHOMHHecKoro MOrymecxBa a sxy rpynny sacxasjiHex h My-' 
3biKajibHoe HCKyccxBO nepeHOCHXb nocxeneHHO ueHxp xflMcecxw 
B o6cJiyH<HBaHne HHxepecoB BJiacxH (MysbiKa xopjKecxBeHHaa, 
KaHxaxbi, rnMHbi, MaapMrajibi, cJiy»aiJUHe k npocJiaBJieHHK) 
,H K yBeceJieHHK) jihu, BJiacxb HMymvix). PeaKUHsi npoxMB' 
uepKBH H nepeHOc sKOHOMHMecKHX ueHxpoB B 4'eoflajibHbie 
rpynnbi sacxaBjinex h caMoe HanpaBJieHMewysbiKH paflHwajibHOi 
MSMeHHXbCJi. nojin4)OHHHecKMM cxHJib, Koxopbifl cooxBexcxByex 
co6opHOMy HBMajiy uepKBH (xopoBoe neHHe), h 3mouhh, pac- 
TBopeHHaa b MHOwecxBe oxaejibHbix MejioflMnecKHx jiHHufl, 
ycxynarox Mecxo cxpeMJieHMK) k roMo4)OHHHecKOMy cxmJik) 
(MeJioAHfl c conpoBOHCfleHHeM), 6ojiee acHOMy h npocxoMy h 
6ojiee cnoco6HOMy k BbipasMxeJibHocxH. Xoa sxoA pecjiopMbi 
BcyiuHOcxH xopMOSHflcn HeKeM HHbiM, KaK npo^ieccMOHajiaMH, 
yace npHSbiKiiiMMH k onpeAeieHHbiM MexoflaM MysbiKajibHbix 
BonjiomeHMii, BCJieAcxBHe Hero b HOByK) ywe cBexcKyio nysbi- 
Ky nonaftaJiM HCMHHyeMO ajiCMenxbi us npcMCHero cxhjih, xoxa 
H pe(|)opMnpoBaHHbie. B axo xe Bpewa noHBraexcH one pa, 
KaK cjiCACXBue aHXHKJiepuKanbHofl peaKUHH, ksk 
onbix MysbiKajibHO-cueHHMecKoro npeflcxaBJieHHH, HMeiomero 
saMeHMxb BO BneMaxjieHMH Morynee BOSfleflcxBHe pnxyajTbHbix 
aKxoB.riocJie poaob KJiepMKajibHoro roHCHMH cBexcKoencKyccxBO 
xeM npne h iiiHpe pasjiHBaexcn cBo6oAHofl boahom m 6bicxpo 
noflynaex pacnpocxpaHeHwe. Pha npOHCUieAiuHX b 9to 



'M. 



-■45 - 

BpeMfl H3o6pexeHHft h yjiyMuieHHS b xexHHKe Mysw- 
KajibHoro npoHSBOflcxBa cnoco6cxByex aroMy lUHpoKOwy pac- 
uaexy h pacnpocxpaneHMK) — H3o6pexeHHe HdxoneHaxaHHH, 
nosBOJiHBUiee pacuiHpHXb Kpyr c6bixa ajih Ka>Kfloro npoHSBeAe- 
HHH,H3o6pexeHHeHycoBepmeHCXBOBaHHe HHcxpyMeHXOB (opra- 
Ha, KjiaBHUiHbix (l^opxenHaH, cKpHnoK, bmoji, jih>xhh h npoH.). 

PadJilBex B 3KOHOMMMeCKOM OXHOUICHHH 6yp>Kya3Hbix 3Jie- 
MCHXCB. 06yC;i0BJieHHblfi OXKpblXHeM HOBblX 

pwHKOB c6bixa M yjiyMuieHHCM nyxefi coo6me- 
H H H, BbisbiBaex cABHr MysbiKajibHoro MCKyccxBa yxe b cxo- 
poHy MHXMMHOCXH — 3XO yjKC HCKyccxBO. paccMHxaHHoe 
He Ha pe;iHrH03Hoe BOsaeficxBHe h He npocJiaBjiCHKe E^acxb 
j^MymKx, a MMcxoe „yBecejieHHe" b MHHyxbi oxflbixa. 3xo 
HCKyccxBO nopoflHJio roMO(|)OHHMecKyK). KaMepnyK) jiMxepaxypy, 
necHK) c aKKOMnaneMenxoM, oho >Ke nopoflHJio h onepy, kbk 
MaccoBoe npeAcxaBJicHHe ajih iuhpokhx cjiobb. ITocjie sxoro 
HaMenaioxcn onpeAejielHHO BKycoBbie rpynnu 
b caMbix pasjiHMHbix cxpaHax xaKoroxHna: 
rpynna KJiepHKajibHan, Am KoxopoK npoAOJiwaex npoHS- 
BOAMTbCH pHxyajibHan My3biKa, rpynna 4)eoAanbHaq co 

BKyCOM K MyBbIKe XOpMCeCXBeHHOft H nblUIHOfl, 

rpynna npo(|)eccHOHaflbHasi, Koxopasi b cymHocxH 
o6cjiya<HBaex o6e npeflbwymHe h cxpeMHxcn cboh jimmhuc 

BKyCbl, KJlOHSimHeCH K BblflBJieHHK) XeXKHHCCKHX CpCACXB 

HCKyccxBa, HaBHsaxb h xoA, h Apyroft, h, HaKoneu, rpynna 
„uiHpoKoft ny6jiHKH", Koxopan noxpe6;i5!ex rjiaBHbiM 
<36pa30M necHK) h onepy. Onepnbie xeaxpbi, KaK Aejio 3ko- 
HOMHHecKH BbiroAHoe, HaMHHarox pacnpocxpanjixbca 
no Mupy M co3AaH)x BOKpyr ce6a uiKoxibi KOwnosHxopOB 
(HeanojiHxaHCKaa, raM6yprcKaH h npon.)- K Konuy axoro Bpe- 
MeHH AOMHHHpyiomefl H 4)aKXHHecKH Ba»<Hefimefl 
rpynnoft cxaHOBHxca npotfjeccHOHajibHaa, h6o 
OHa KOHueHxpHpyex b ce6e cawoe npoHSBOACxBo, 
JiHuib coo6pa3yH ero c noxpe6HocxHMH roPi hjih hhoS BKyco- 
BOPi rpynnbi, h KaK 6bi coBMemaex b ce6e momchx p a 6 o h e r o 
npoH3BOACxBa c MOMenxoM naKonjieHHSi uchho- 
cTefi MHCxo-MysbiKajibHoro nopHAKa. Ona Ae;iaexca cBoero 
poAa „6yp«ya3Heft MyswKajibHbix ueHHOcxefl", 
coxpaHHH 3a co6ofi MaKCHMyM scxexHHecKoro BnenaxjieHHst 
H c6cjiy?KMBaH HMH Bce ocxaflbHbie rpynnbi. 3xa „BKycoBaa 



» j..Uli.'^.^fiLliMJI^i. L-Ji 



46 



6ypM<ya3HH" cocTaBJiaeT cymecTBeHHoe OTflHHne MysbiKajibHoro 
npoH3BOfl,CTBa OT flpyrnx. BHexyaoMcecTBeHHbix, hmchho tbk, 
HTO TyT pa6oHHH M tohkhSi nOTpe6HTeJIb COBMe- 
lUeHbi B OflHOM JiHue. Stoft rpynne MCKyccTBO o6H3aHo 

CBOHM nWUIHblM paCUBBTOM H paClUHpeHHeM 3MOUHOHaJlbHbIX 

M TexHHHecKHx pccypcoB. PeJinrH03Hafl pe4)opMaunH, koto- 
paH 6bina b Kopwe HBJieHneM sKOHOMUHecKHM h Hanpa- 

BJieHHblM npOTHB KaTOJlMMCCKHX UepKOBHblX BJIHHHHft, nOCJiy- 
WHJia K npOHHKHOBeHHK) B wySblKy HOBblX 9JieMeHTOB, CBflSaH- 

Hbix c HOBbiMH cjjopMaMH KyjibTa, H cosAajia CBofi npocJieccHO- 
HaJin3M, KaK panee KaTOJiHiecKHfl KJiepuKajiHSM cosjian cboB. 
M, KaK Bcerfla, npeodjiaaaHHe BKycoBbix rpynn KJiepHKajibHO- 
pejiHrH03noro THna h (|)eoAajibHoro bjihhjio Ha MyswKy 
B CMbicJie yBenHHeHHH b Heft noJiH^JOHHnecKMX ajieMeHTOB, 
TorAa KaK npeo6jiafl,aHHe b cnpoce rpynn MejiKo-6ypwya3Hbix 
BbisbiBajio Bcerjia crpeMJieHHC k roMo4)OHHOMy cKJiajiy (onepa, 
necHsi). • 

MoHyMCHTaflbHbie <J)opMbi, cos^aHHwe nporecTaHTCKUM pe- 
jimrHOSHbiM H 4>eoflaflbHbiM HCKyccTBOM, He BbiwHJiH B nocjieao- 
BaBuieft aTMOcc|)epe MejiKo-tJjeoflaJibHofl cpeAw, KOTopyK) npefl- 
cTaBJin;ia co6ok) AopeBOJHOUHOHHaa FepMaHHH XVIII BeKa. 
3flecb co3flajiacb BKycoBasi rpynna, npoMeMcyTOMHafli Mewjiy 
(|)eoaajibHbiM xHnoM H 6ypM<ya3HbiM. Ot nocJieflHcfl ona sbhm- 
cTBOBajia reflOHHCTHHecKyio scTCTHKy, ot nepBOft— KyjibT caMo- 

npOCJiaBJICHHH. 3tM (|)aKTOpbI o6yCJIOBHJIH „KJiaCCHMeCKHH" TMn 
MySWKH, KOTOpblft HOCHfl H B CBOCM npocfjeccHOHaJibHOM o6jIHKe: 

CMemaHHbie nepTbi (cMecb nojiH(j[)OHHH c roMo4)OHHeft) h hcc 
B TexHHHecKHX MBTOjiax BbipaweHMfl 3HaMHTeJibHoe ynpomeHHe 
no cpaBHCKHK) c KynbTypoft nporecTaHTHSMa (Bax, reH;tejib). 
B TO we BpeMH luupoKan ny6jiHKa npoAonwaeT flOBOJibCTBo- 
BBTbCH onepofl. . -'"ii : 

BbixoA Ha HCTopHHCCKyK) cueny HHTejinnreHTHbix. 
nojiynapoAHbix cjiocb, Bbi3BaHHbifl cjiBuraMH, o6ycJio- 
BJiCHHbiMH peBOJiiouHeft 1789 r., aaji HOByK) BKycoByro rpynny 
(npccBemeHHasiAeMOKpaTHH h3 MenKO-6ypM<ya3Hofl cpeflbi), ko- 
Topan cosAana nanpaBJieHHe „poMaHTH3Ma". 3thmh bjihhhhhmh 
n BKycoM STofl rpynnbi HanojiHCHO homth Bce XIX CTOJiexHe. 
PasBHTHe xexHHKH HHCxpyMeHTOB, B HacTHOCTH 4'opTenHaHO, 

OKOHMaTeJIbHOe naACHHe BHaMCHHH U,epKOBHOH MySblKH BCJie4- 

cTBwe naAeHMii asTopHTeTa uepKBH, ycHjienHC TexHHMecKMX. 



H 



pecypcoB MCKyccTBa (yMHowcHHe cocTaBOB, BOBJieneHHe ium- 
pOKHX Mace ACMOKpaTHH B cjiyuiaHHC MysbiKw), nepcHoc My3bl- 
Ka;ibH0fl npcAyKUHH h3 HHTMMHbix noMeiueHHA B o6mecTBeH- 

Hbie, pa3BHTHe lUKOJIbl H o6meCTBeHHOH MySblKaJIbHOfl 7K113HI1, 

o6flerHeHHe coo6iueHHft, o6ycjiOBHBiuee ycviJieHHe o6MeHa 
MysbiKajibHbix npoAyKTCB MeH<fly cTpanaMw (HHCTpyMCHTOB. 
MysbiKaHTOB, coHMHeHHfl), H, HaKOHCu, npouccc KanHTajiH- 

aaUHH B HCKyCCTBe, SaXBaTHBUIHM H MySblKy, — BCC 3TO Ha- 

jiaraeT na MysbiKy XIX BeKa oco6bifi OTnenaTOK, cosepuieHHo 
HenoxowHft Ha npeflbiayiuHe anoxH. XIX bck xapaKTcpHsyeTcn 
CHJibHefliiiHM paccJioeHHeM BKycoBbix rpynn, „3a- 
XBaTow" npo4)eccHOHajiaMH-My3biKaHTaMM h hx rpynnofl Haw- 
6oflee H3bicKaHHbix o6jiacTeft, orcnoflKOM sceA 6o;iee npocToft 

MyBbIKH B aeMOKpaTHMeCKHe Ct|)epbl. KyCTapHHMeCTBO HCMe- 

sacT noMTH 6eccJieAHO, npo4)eccMOHaji, KOTopuA BBOcnpMS- 
THH HCKyccTBa CBM a H a Ji o r H H 6 H KanHTa jiHCTy, a 
B 3KOHOMHHecKOM cMbicjie nocTaBACH caM B ycjioBHH o6mero 
KanHTajiHSMa, nanHHaeT nocTaBJinTb MysbiKy He TOJibKO ajih tcx 
rpynn, KOTopwe panee hm o6cJiy»<HBajiHCb (^jeoAaJibHofi, K^e- 
pHKajibHOH, HHTejiJiHreHTCKoA). HO H fljiH Bcefl Maccbi, flawe ajih 
Hapoaa, KOTopwA npoHHKacTCJi popoackhmw naneBaMH h yTpa- 

HHBaCT CBOft C06cTBeHHblfl KyCTapHblfi MeJIOC. C XIX BCKa 

HapoAHaH necHH cxaHOBHTca b cymnocTH ynpomeHHbiM HCKa- 
weHMCM ropoACKoA MysbiKw, npeviMymecTBeHHo TaK Ha3. Jier- 
Koro Hcanpa, KoxopbiA oQpasyex b ropoAckoA ACMOKpaTHM 
HaH6oJiee MHoroHHcnenHyK) BKycoByio rpynny (MyswKa pecTO- 
paHHaa, onepeTOHHan, TanuoBajibHan h npon.). KanHTa^Hsa- 
UHsi MysbiKH npoHBjineTCH B HapoMCAeHHH KanHTanHCTHHecKoro 
H3AeJiHn, B nosiBjieHHii HMnpeccapHO-KannTajiHCTa h c|)a6pH- 
KaHTa-KanHxaJiHCTa, KOTopwe CKynaHST pa6oHyK) CHJiy Mysbi- 
Kanxa - npo4)eccHOHajia h saxsaTbiBaroT puHOK HCKyccTBa, 

KOTOpblft AO TOrO BpeMBHH o6cjiy>KHBaflC5I KyCTapHblM o6pa30M 

caMHMH npo(j[)eccHOHajiaMH. BMecTe c HapowACHHeM KanwTa- 

;iH3Ma B HCKyCCTBe H C yCJIOJKHeHHeM TCMna M<H3HH nOUBJiSl- 

CTCfl B MysbiKe p e K JI a M a, xapaKrepnaq AJia KanHTajiHCTw- 

HeCKOrO CTpon H Heo6xOAHMaH, HT06bI o6paTHTb BHHMaHHe 

Ha AaHHoe co6biTHe b Macce Apymx co6biTHA, OeoAajib- 
Hasi H KJiepMKajibHan rpynn bi noHTH McnesaiOT 

B CBOCM CneUHCJjHWeCKOM BKyCOBOM o6jIHKe, OHH 

HaHHHaK»T B TBX CTpanax, pac OHH eme coxpaHHJiHCb, noJib- 



,*.-»;(*;■:>*•«<„ 



— 4S 



49 



sosaxbCJi npoflyKUHefi, CACJiaHHofl ajih flpyrHX rpynn, HHTen- 
jiHreHTCKo-MejiKO-6yp>Kya3HOH h KpynHo-6yp>Kya3Hoa, a xaKHce 
oTHacTH uiHpoKO-ropoACKofii. HpocjieccMOHajibHaH rpynna aa- 
XBaTbiBaer BJiacTb Han BKycaMM h HanpaBJiaex hx b pasHbix 
rpynnax. Ona nocTaBJiner MyswKy Ha Bce BKycw h wa Bce 
rpynnw or cawbix HSbicKaHHbix h ao caMbix uiHpoKHX, navKe 
Ao HapoAHbix Mace. B to TKe BpeMsi b cbsish c pasBHTneM 
KanHTajiHCTHHecKoro oTHOuienHH b ncKyccTBe pasBnaaHJTCfl h 
naHHHaioT npoJ!BJiflTbC5ico6biTn$i, KOTopbieBnpeac- 
HHx ycjioBHHX Hc BbiffCp^KajiH 6bi 6opb6bi 3a cy- 
mecTBOBaHwe. Mx noflflep»<HBaiOT KanHxaji h peKJiaMa, ho 
OHH racHyr oneHb cKopo. XIX seK HanojiHCH xaKHMH npexo- 

aHlUHMH HBJieHHHMH, KOTOpbie 6bICTpO CXOflHT C pblHXa 

cnpoca H 3a6biBaioTCH cobccm. 

TaKOBa o6maji KaprHHa xo^a pasBHTHH MyawKH h BKyco- 
Bbix rpynn.^KapTHHa, noapoSHee HSJiOMceHHan Aajiee. Sjiecb 
HSJioMceHbi TOJibKO caMbie o6mHe jihhhh 3Toro xoAa, xe, koto- 
pbie cnoco6cTByK)T ycBoeHHK) npHHMH h o6mHx ycjiOBnfl eos- 
HHKHOBeHMH pasHbix MysbiKajibHbix flBJieHiift. ^aKTopaMH, ro- 
cnoflCTByroiuHMH B3TOM npouecce, asnmoTca: sKycoBbie rpynnw 
pasHbix BHflOB H THnoB, odycflOBfleHhbie oxHacTn ^nsvionorvi- 

MeCKMMH OT6opOM, OTHaCTH COUHOflOPHHeCKHM, o6yCJIOBJieHHOe 

HX cymecxBOBaHHe, BbiwHBaHHe xex hjih hhwx MyBbmanb- 
Hbix flBJieHwa Ha 6ojiee mjih Menee npoAOJiwHxejibHbie cpoKH, 
cMeHbi axHX BKycoBbix rpynn h cooxBexcxBCHHO HBJieHHfl, hmh 
o6ycjiOBJieHHbix, m ABMraiomee 3xh cMenw cxpeMnenHe k hobwm 
omymeHHHM b HCKyccxBC, k cmchc omymeHufi, k HCKaHHK) 
HOBoro, K o6orameHHK) BsyKOBbix BOSMOMCHOcxefl. 9xo cxpe- 
MJieHHC K CMeHHOcxM, Koxopoe npoHBnnexcH ne xojibKO b hcxo- 
pHieoKOM uejiOMBcero MyawKaabHoro HCKyccxsa, 
Hio H B KawAOM oxACJibHOM npoMBBCfleHHn, npHjtaex KaK 
KawflOMy OTAejibHOMy npoHSBefleHHio, xaK h BceMy Hcropn- 
MecKOMy ueJiOMy pasBuxwH MysbiKH, axoMy ciiHxexHHecKOMy 
MysbiKanbHOMy opraHHsny, Koxopbift ecxb coBOKynHocxb Bcefl 
MyBbiKH, npH3HaKH nepHOflMMHOcxH: nysbiKajibHbie co6bi- 
THH noMBJiHKjxcJi nepHOAHMecKH, BOJiHaMH, ycxynavi 
Mecxo KOHxpacxHpyiomHM anHSoaaM c xeM, Hxo6bi noTOM 
BHOBb BepnyxbCH k npe>KHeMy, ho b HecKOJibKO npeo6pa3KeH- 
HOM BHfte, KaK 6bi luecTBya no neKOXopofl cnwpaJibHoft jihhhh 
MJiH no uenoft cHcxene cnMpajieft. Cxoacxbo MyawKajibHbix 



•siBJieHVifi c opraHHSMaMH yBejiHHHBaexca xcm, mxo h xyx h xbm 
b couHajibHOM BKycoBoft cpefle BOBHHKaiox OHCHb nacxo 
„napa3HXHpyiomvie" siBJienHH, Koxopwe nHxaiotcH coKaMH 
(MysbiKajibHbiMH) ApyrHx caMocxosixenbHbix opraHHSMOB h o6_ 
paayioT CHcxeMy „3nHroHHHecKHx" MyswKajibHbix co6brrHfl. 
PasHHua c opraHHMecKHM MHpoM xa, mxo aaecb, b opranHne- 
CKOM MHpe, napasHTHpyioiuwe opraHHSMbi npeacxaBJiaiox pefl,- 
Koe cpaBHHTenbHO HCKJironeHHe, xoraa KaK b MyswKajibHwx 
opraHH3Max napaBHXHSM KOJiHHecTBeHHO npeo6jiaflaex, o6pa3ys] 
HaH6ojibmyK) Maccy noxpedjiHeMoJt MyswKH. - ■ 

ripeflJiaraeMbiH Bsop Ha MysbiKajibHyio Hcxopwio Henpe- 

MeHHO BblBOBeX BOSpaMCeHHH CO CTOpOHbl xex, KXO npHBblK 

BHAexb B MysbiKC 330xepHHecKoe BanaxHe, cBHsanHoe xoJibKO 

C MHCXHHeCKHMH pOflHHKaMH, HO HHKaK He c rpy6bIMH (j[)eHO- 
MCHaMH COUHOJIOrHHeCKOH nJIOCKOCXH. MblCJIb O XOM, MXO 

rcHHajibHbie npoMBBeACHHa ne BeMHw, a xojibxo 6ojiee hjih 

MCHee „AJIHXeJIbHbl", MblCJIb O XOM, MXO rCHHH XBOpHX AJIH 

KaKoro-xo „Kpyra noxpe6Hxejiefl", a He ajih BeMHOcxH h hc 
Ana MeJiOBeMecxBa, MO?Kex noKaBaxbca mhophm yHHwaiomeft 
caMoe BHaMeHHc h cmwcji MCKyccxsa. Ho acjio b xom, mxo 
B paccMOxpeHHe HcxopHKa He bxoahx h ne MOH<ex Bxoanxb 

XOX „3M0U,H0HaJIbHblft XOh", KOXOpblft HenpeMCHHO o6yCJIOBJIH- 
BaeX XBOpMeCXBO. 3xOX XOH MOWeX 6bIXb CaMWM paSJIHMHbIM: 
MHCXHMeCKHM H 330XepHMeCKHM, H MHCXO-npaKXHMCCKHM, HO 

caM OH o6ycjiOBJieH b BnaMHxejibHoft cxeneHH rpynnoBofl 
npHHaAJieJKHOcxbK) aBxopa, ero counajibHoA cpeaofi. 3tox 

XOH 6bIBajI Mame BOSBbimeHHO-MHCXHMeH y XBOpUOB HHXejIJIH- 

renxcKOM AeMOKpaxHHecKofl rpynnu, oh cxanoEHJicH 6ojiee hjih 
Menee OKpameHHbiM b npaKXHMecKHe xona y onepHwx komho- 
SHxopoB paBHbix HanpaBjieHHii, oh o6pau;ajicsi b npocjjeccHO- 
HaJibHoe MacxepcxBO y xwnHMHbix aKaAeMHcxoB-npocJjeccHO- 
najiOB, y „pa6oMHx" MysbiKaJibHoro peMecJia. McxopHK He 
MHxepecyexcflf sxhm BonpocoM, oh HHxepecyexcji xojibKO 

CBJISbK) MySblKajIbHblX Co6bIXHfl MBJKAy C060K) H CO CpeAOK). 

HosTOMy HejibSH aaace sa^aBaxbca Mbicjibio o cxenenH „yHH3H- 
xeJibHocxw" AJia HcxopHHecKoro BsrjiHAa na MysbiKy, cooxeex- 

CXBWn MyBbIKH CO CnpOCOM, BaHCHO XOJIbKO ycxanoBHXb, HMeex 

jiH MecTO 3XOX c})aKx. CaMasr HaHBOSBbimeHHaa MysbiKa 6yAex 
o6peMeHa na 6bicxpyK) h BepnyH) rM6ejib, ecjiH OHa ne HaftAex 
cpeAbi cnpoca, ccah, BbipaHsaacb nonpocxy, „ee hhkxo He sa- 



HcTOpHA MySBIKH. 



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xonex cJiymaTb". FIocKOJibKy cnpaBeaJiHBo, mto reHnajibHOCTi> 
npoHSBeAeHHH odycJiOBJinBaer ero cjiasy h HSBecTHOCTb. no- 
CTOJibKy Mce cnpaBCflJiMBO h o6paTHoe npeflJioMccHHe, mto 
rcHHaJibHOCTb cawa ecTb He mto HHoe, KaK wsBecTHoe cootbct- 
CTBHe CO cnpocoM, c ero „uihphhom", ero „rjiy6HHOM" h „flJiH- 

TejIbHOCTbHj". Mbl, CaMH TOFO HC SaMeMaJl, B CymHOCTH HaSbl- 

BaeM reHKajibHbiMH Te tJ'fiHO'^SHbi h tb opraHwsMbi MyswKajib- 
Horo 6biTa, KOTopwe BbisbiBaiOT lUHpoKMi^, rjiy6oKHft h ajih- 
TejibHbifl cnpoc; nanpoTHB, npHSHaen 6ojiee hjih Menee 
6e3aapHbiMH Te, KOTopwe BbiSbisaioT cnpoc ysKHft, hjim MeJiKHH,. 

VmVI KpaTKOBpeMCHHblft, HJIH BCC 3TO BMCCte. FeHHajibHoe 

npoHBBefleHHe MO>KeT onpaBflaTb neflOCTaTOK ojihoA h3 3thx 
KOopflHHaT TOJibKO CHJibHbiM pasBHTHeM flpyrHx: HanpHMep^ 
OTcyTCTBHe uiHpHHbi — orpaHHMeHHbift Kpyr c6biTa - rjiy6HHoft 

B03fl,eflCTBHfl H MHTCJIbHOCTbH) BFO B pHAC nOKOJieHHfl. Ho 

npoHSBeflewe, KOTopoe Ma;io KOMy npaBHTca h Bnpeab ne- 
6yfleT HpaBHTbcH H caMO no ce6e oco6oro BOCTopra hh b kom 
He BbisbiBaeT, HHKoraa rcHHajibHbiM 6birb He MoaceT. Oo- 
CKOJibKy reHHajibHbie npoHSBeAeHHsi ojiHueTBopnioT co6ok> 
HaH6ojibuiHH cnpoc H c6biT, nocTOJibKy no hhm ecTecTBenno 

CMHTBTb H MepSlTb MySblKajIbHytO HCTOpHK), KBK 3TO ftO CHX 

nop H flejiajiocb b necKOJibKO HaHBHoA ^Jopne. Ho HHKorfla 
He Ha;io ynycKaTb hs BHfla, mto nauia ouewKa reHHajibnocTH 
poKOBbiM o6pa30M saMKHyTa B nauiy co6cTBeHHyK) BKy- 
coByK) rpynny, k KOTopoH mm npHnafljieMCHM, h mw ne momcbm 
HHKaK H3 SToA rpynnbi BbicKOMHTb H saxeM „cyflHTb o6'eK- 
THBHo". EcjiH HaM c TOMKH speHHM Haiucft BKycoBOH rpynnw 
noKaMccTCH KomyHCTBOM cMHTaTb Barnepa „HereHHajibHbiM" 

JIHUIb nOTOMy, MTO OH HHKaK HC BOCnpHHHMaeTCfl lUHpOMaft- 

uiHMH MaccaMH, „HapoflOM", TO He cTaHOBHTCH OT 3Toro Menee 

6e3yCJIOBHbIM tot (|)aKT, mto BCe-TaKH C TOMKH BpeHHH 3T0H 

uiHpoMafliiieA rpynnw MyawKa Barnepa hjih CKp5i6nHa — 
B jiyHuieM cjiyMae „hhmto", nycToe mccto, HHKaK scTCTHMe- 
cKH He oueHHBaeMoe. OTciofla cjienyeT npuHunn „othoch- 

TCJIbHOCTH reHHJl", flpyPHMH CJIOBaMH, MpeSBblMaAHO BaJKHbiA 

nocTyjiaT o tom, mto b Konue-KOHUOB rennajibHOCTb ecTb 
noHHTHe B npefl,ejiax BKycoBoA rpynnw, a o6'eKTHB- 
HbiA KpHTepnA reHnaJibHOCTH MO>KeT 6biTb ycTanoBJien TOJibKO 

MHCTO-HCKyCCTBeHHbiA H HHKaKOMy MCHBOMy BHeMaTJieHHK) He 

cooTseTCTByeT. KaM<Aaa rpynna HMeeT cboio nepapxHio rehneB, 



01 



H CpaBHHBaTb HX, B CyUtHOCTH, TBK JKB CTpaHHO, KaK CpaBHH- 

BaTb BCHKHe ABa HecpaBHHMbie npejXMeTa. Maea o „My3biKajib- 
HOM npoHSBOflCTBe" flo cHx nop npHMensiJiacb TOJibKo k Tex- 

HHKe MySblKaJIbHblX HHCTpyMeHTOB HJIH K MySblKB MaCCOBOFO 

c6biTa. K KOTopoA He npnjiarajiocb KpHTepnes xyaoHcecTBeH- 
HOCTH. Me>Kfly TeM cyiuecTBeHHoft h opraHHMecKoA pasHHuw 
TyT He OKasbiBaeTCH, hmbhho ccjih cMOTpeTb Ha Aejio c tomkh 

SpeHHH paSBHTHH Co6bITHJI, a He C TOMKH SpeHHH SMOUHOHaJIb" 

Horo renesHca. Mnnyjibc k TBopMecTBy. MoryMHA h, KaBajiocb 

6bl, HppaUHOHaJIbHbiA B BOSBblUieHHOM THHB TBOpMeCTBa, HpC" 

ojtoJieBaroiUHA npensTCTBHsi SKOHOMHMecKoro njiana BemeA, 

MaCTO paBBHBaromHAcJI BOnpeKH CaMbIM THJKejIblM yCJIOBHHM 

HCH3HH, Kasajica coBepmeHHO HecoHBMepHMbiM c no6yHCfleHHflMH 

K TBOpMeCTBy „npOH3BOACTBeHHOro" THna, BbI3Bc|iHHbIMH npH- 

MHTHBHbiMH 4)opMaMH cnpoca H npcAJioaceHHH. PaSJIHHVie 

B 3THX flByX THnaX MHCTO-3MOUHOHajIbHOe, nCHXOJIOrHMeCKOe 

H OTMacTH o6ycjiOBJieHO yKasaHHbiM Bbime coBMemenHew 
B JiHue My3biKaHTa-npo4)eccHOHajia sjicmbhtob pa6oMero-npo- 
HSBoaHTejiH H Handojiee HswcKaHHoro noTpe6HTejiq npoHSBO- 
AHMbix ucHHocTeA. Mbl CMHTaeM 3TO coBMemenne nacTOJibKO 

XapdKTepHbIM, MTO OHO flOJIJKHO 6bITb OnpeAeJiaHDUIHM 
CaMOe HCKyCCTBO. XyaOJKeCTBO C SKOHOMHMeCKOA TOMKH 

speHHa ecTb hmchho taKoe npoHBBoacTBO, r^e npo- 

HSBOflHTeJIb CaM eCTb rjiaBHblH H KBaJIH^JHUHpO- 

BaHHbiA noTpe6HTejib, scaKoe paccjioeHne KBajiHq[)HU,H- 
poBaHHoro noTpe6HTejia ot npoHseoAHrejia yMenbuiaeT 
H yHHMTOMcaeT xyxoHcecTBO. Mfleojiorna cpeAw, cosflaromeA 
AaHHyio BKycoByK) rpynny, cocTaBJiacT npwMHHy Toro, mto 
BHyxpH ee 3KOHOMHMecKoro nopaflKa uchhocth ycTynaiOT 
MecTO ueHHOCTaM Apyroro nopaflKa, HxeaM nocwepTHoA cjiaBbi, 

BBMHOCTH COBHflaeMOrO H T. H. 3tH HMnyjIbCbl OKa3bIBaK)TCa 

6ojiee MoryaiecTBeHHbiMH, MCM 3KOHOMHMecKHe, h HanpasjiaroT 
TBopnecTBO. TaKoro po^a nopa^OK mw BHfl,HM, nanp., b snoxy 
poMaHTHSMa, Koraa BbiflBHracTca na cueny MejiKO-^dypwyasnaa 
HHTejiJiHreHUHa. CoBepuieHHO noflo6HbiM we o6pa30M b cpeAHe- 
BeKOBbe Hflen cJiy?KeHHa KyjibTy, peJiHrna sacjionajia co6ok) 
MacTO BcaKHe apyrne no6y»cji,eHH9. 3to — ncHxojiorHHecKHA 
(|)0H, caM o6ycJiOBJieHHbiA cpeAoA h ee KoncTpyKUHeA. Ero 
Heo6xoflMMO yMHTbiBaTb H HpHflaBaTb eMy TO SHaMeHHe B npo- 
uecce pasBHTHa, KOTopoe oh b fteAcxBHTejibHOCTH HMeeT. 

4* 







A ero SHaHCHHe cymecTBeHHO b tom cMwcne, mto, nocKOJibKy 

MySblKaJIbHOe HCKyCCTSO CJiySCHT KQK 6bl npOBOflHHKOM 3MOUHH 

OTTBopua K cJiymarejiK), oho OKasbisaeTCH tcm aeftcxBeHHee 
H TCM aflCKBaxHee Bonjiomaer 3m:ou,hk) b SBynaHHH, mbm 6ojiee 
caM TBopeu norpya^CH a cbokj smouhk), mcm 6ojiee oh can 

SaHHT eK>, OTBJieKaHCb TCM CaMbIM OT BCeX HHblX HacTpoeHHM. 

B 3TOM cMbicjie norpyMceHHocTb TBopamero hjih 
HcnoaHHiomero MysbiKaHxa b cbok) smouhjo 
H ero TCM caMbiM „OTpeiiieHHOCTb" ox Mwpa 
peajibHbix sKOHOMHMecKHX ueHHOcxeft HMeex 
6ojibmoe3HaMeHHe, KaK c|)aKxop, o6ycjiOBJiHBaK)- 
utHfi HaH6ojiee KBajiH(|)iiu,HpoBaHHoe npoHSBOA- 
c X B o. Ho nocKOJibKy xaKoe HacxpoewHe HHcxo-SMOUHOHajibHO, 
OHO BaJKHO jiMiiib B MOMCHXbi caMoro XBOpHCCKOPO npouecca, 
• a BOBce He KaK KaKoft-xo o6mHM ncwxojiorHMecKHM xoh, 
conyxcxByiomHfi: bch> wnsHb MysbiKanxy. M MysbiKajibHan 
HcxopMH fl,aex nan psiA npMMepoB BbiflaiounHxcsi jiwHHOcxefl' 
Koxopbie BOBce He oKasbiBajiwcb 6ecnpepbiBHO norpyweHw 
b HfleajiHcxHMecKHe HacxpoenHH, a, nanpoxMB, aoBOJibHO oxner- 

. JIHBO CaMH COSHaBaJIH CBOK) CBH3b C 3KOHOMHHeCKHMH BOnpO" 

caMH c6bixa cBoero npoAyKxa. B Bn^y xoro, mxo caMwft x h n 
SMOUMft, KOxopwMH npeHMymecxBCHHO 6biJio saHHxo MysbiKaJib- 
Hoe HCKyccxBO flo cHx nop, npeHMymecxBeHHO Bpamajica 
B Kpyry jiHpHMecKHx HacxpoeHHft h a(J)(|)eKxoB, 
B BHfly xoro, Hxo caMaa cxhxhh MysbiKw, paccMaxpHBaeMasr, 

KaK npOBOflHHK 3MOUHH, Cn0C06Ha BblpaWCaXb HCKJIK>MHXeJIbHO 
SMOUHOHaJIbHbIM XOH, aHB MblCJIb H He HflBK), B MySbl- 
KaJIbHOe HCKyCCXBO OpraHHMeCKH OXCJiaHBajIUCb XOJIbKO 
HejIOBeMeCKHe HHAHBHAyaJIbHOCXW C 3MOUHO- 

HajibHbiM xHnoM M<H3HeomymeHHSi, mom MyBCXBa, 

a He MblCJIH H He aeftcXBHSI. ToJIbKO flJIH 3XHX JIHU, MySblKaJIb- 

. ■ Hoe HCKyccxBO Boo6ine HMeJio cmwcji h sHaMeHHC. Ms hhx 
c|)opMHpoBaJiHCb H Kaflpw noxpe6HxejieH h npoHSBOflMxejieft 
HCKyccxBa. Bch npoMaa nacca jhoacm, Koxopwe Myacflbi xaKoro 
npeo6jiaflaHH5i sMOUHOHajibHOcxH, b cymnocxH He nMCJia 
npocxo HMKaKoro oxnouieHHH k axoMy HCKyccxBy. Oho a^h 

HMX He 6bjnO HH B KaKOH CXCneHH Hy>KHO, SHaMm-eJIbHO 

B MeHbuieft, MBM, nanp., apynie c|)opMbi MCKyccxB, xaK hjih 
HHane cBHsaHHwe c HAeei^, c MWCJibio (jinxepaxypa, MCHBonwcb). 
TaKHM o6pa30M cymecXBeHHoe SHaneHHe sMouHonajibHoro 



— 03 — 

xoHa H 3acji0HeHwe hm, no KpaftneH Mepe b npeflcxaBjieHHM 
caMoro xBopHiuero, Bcero ocxajibHoro Mwpa Bemeft, b xom 

HHCJie M 3KOHOMHHeCKHX CBSISeA, B MySbIKe o6yCJIOBJieHO 

6biJio caMoft npupoAoft HCKyccxBa, ox6opoM b ero fleHxejieft 
XOJIbKO xaKoro xnna jihu. Ho 3x0 xojibKO yKpenjiaex no3HunM) 

HayHHOfl MblCJIH, KJIOH^meflcfl K XOMy, HX06bI o6'HCHHXb MS 

npeajiojKeHHH h cnpoca pa3Bnxne HCKyccTsa, noxony hxo 
HMeHHO b xaKOH oxo6paHHoft rpynne nviu, h cosjtaBajicH 
c n p o c Ha 3MOUHK) Boo6iu,e h b nacxHOcxH na smouhk), bko- 
BaHHyro b SByKOByfo cJjopMy, x.-e. b wysbiKy xoro hjih HHoro 
BKycoBoro xnna. MysbiKa b 3xhx Kpyrax jihu, MpesBbinaftHO 
MHoroHHCJieHHbix, B cyiuHOcxnJ ecTb He neKOxopoe ssyKOBoe 
HBJieHHe, a ncHXOJiorHMecKoe, aMOttHonajibHoe 
HBJieHHe, o6jieHeHHoe b ^JopMy SByKOB. Cnpoc Hflex 
xyx He Ha SByKH, a na caMyio hmh odycjioBJiHBaeMyio 3mouhh>. 
M Hex HHHero ysHBuxejibHoro, hxo Jiynuie Bcero ynejiw bkjik)- 
naxb B SByKH axy smouhk) jiioah cawH 3MOUHOHajibHoro xwna, 
K KOHM Bceraa oxhocaxch MysbiKanxbi. CaMwA c6bix aajieKO 
He Bcerfla Mweex HHCxo-3KOHOMHHecKHM cmwcji. Onenb nacxo 
3XO HMeHHO npocxo „c6bix", coBepmeHHO nesaBHCHMbift ox 

Bbipa»CeHHH ero B 3KOHOMHHeCKHX UeHHOCXHX. TBOpeU My3bIKH 

ee npoHSBOAHX, m axo npoHSBOACxao naxoAHx cnpoc, ero 
xpe6yex, b neM nyncAaexcsi oh caM — nepauA noxpe6H- 
xejib cBoeft MysbiKH — h sxo HpesBbinaMHO Bawno 

B CMblCJie OCJia6jieHHH SKOHOMHneCKHX peaJIbHblX CBHSeH. 

HyHCfla 3xa He Bceraa BwcKasbiBaexcH b 4'opMax EKJiionenHH 
B o6uihA SKOHOMHHecKHft noxoK ueHHOcxeA. Mbi snacM npH- 
Mepw, Koraa HywAa h cnpoc BbipawajiHCb npocxo b McejiaHHH 
cjiyuiaxb AaHHyio MyswKy, npn hcm oxcyxcxBHe MenoBbix uen- 
Hocxefl, Koxopbie 6bi BKJiHJHajiH 3XOX npouecc B o6myio ch- 

CXeMy 3K0H0MHHeCK0K MCH3HH, o6'HCH5ieXCH XeM, HTO AJIH 

caMoro npoH3BOAHxejiH no xeM hjih mhwm npHHHHaM skohomh- 
HecKHft c|)aKxop cxyuieBbiBajicH nepeA nepBHHHWM HBJieHweM 
HHcxo-„My3biKajibHoro cnpoca" h HenocpeAcxBCHHOH o6MeH- 

HOM UeHHOCXH B BHAS XBOpHCCKOrO yAOBJieXBOpeHHH, CJiaBbI, 

npH3HaHH5i H npoHHx 3JieMeHxoB, Koxopbie AajieKo He BcerAa 
ycneBarox 6bixb nepeseAeHnbiMH b peajibHbie ueHHOcxH. Ta-^ 
KHM o6pa30M ecJiH pacuiHpHxb o6menpHHHXoe noHHXHe „cnpo- 
ca" H „c6bixa" siBjieHHHMH xaKoro nopsiAKa, xo sHaneHHe 
axoro cnpoca hjih c5bixa b MyswKajibHwx SBjieHHHx cxanex 



a* 



■ ri.->f!v^'». 



MCHepnbiBaromuM h yjKC He BHyiiiaK)mnM HHKaKHx co- 
MHeHHft, KaK H pasBHsaiomaHCH Ha nonse axoro cnpoca 6opb6a 
3a cymecTBOBaHHe MyawKajibHbix opraHHSMOB, hx hhcthhk- 
THBHoe HCKaHHC cBoeft cpeAbi, cBoero Kpyra h BbincHBa- 
Hue rex, kto npHcnoco6jieH h naxoflHT una ce6a noAxo- 
flHUiyio ..HHTaTeflbHyK)" cpe;ty b HacToameM hjih b 6jih3kom 
6yAyweM. 



. .:3 II- — MysbiKa ApeBHHx Kyjibxyp. 

MysbiKa, KOTopyio mm momccm onpe«ejiHTb, 
DlysuKa neoBO- 
^ . KaK opraHHSOBaHHoe SByKOHSBJieMe- 

DUTHUX KyAbTyp. "^ ' 

HHe, sapoflHjiacb BMecre c MejioBeHecKofi 
Ky.nbTyppft h bocxoaht k oTflajieHHefiiuuM BpeMenaM. 

XOTH KOHKpCTHblX AaHHblX O COCTOHHHH MySbIKH BO BpCMeHa 

ilOHCTopHMecKHe y nac nex — coxpaHHJiHcb Jimub HCKoropbie 
HHCTpyneHTbi, jiereHAbi h cBcjieHHH o pHxyaJiax, b KOTopwe 
BXOAHJia MysbiKa, — ho 3th HeMHorne aaHHbie sacraBjiaioT npea- 

nOJIO«HTb HCKOTOpOe pOflCTBO MC^Kfly MysbiKoii 
JlOHCTOpHHeCKHX nJICMeH H MySblKOft cOBpeweH- 
Hbix flHKapeft, KaK 6bi aohccuimx nepBo6biTHyH} Kynhxypy 
no coBpeMeHHOcTH. MysbiKa sosHHKJia b npouecce phtmhib- 
CKOfl opraHHsauHH ecTecTBennbix SByKOB, nsflaBaeMbix hcjio- 
BCKOM H o6ycnoBJieHHbix ero (J)H3HOflorKeft (ssyKH rojioca, 

BblSBaHHbie SMOUHCft TOFO HJIH HHOFO BHfla, SByKH ftBHHteHHfi: 

TonaHbe, xoAb6a, 6HTbe b jiaAoiuH; SByKM pa6oTbi — y^apbi 
H T. n.). Ha 6ojiee nosAHcft CTaAWH pasBHTwa k 3thm bhojihc 
ecTecTBCHHbiM SByKaM npH6aBjiHK)TCH flpyrae, CTOJib Mce npw- 

MHTHBHbie, ho yM<e HCKyCCTBeHHbie, Cn0C06bI HSBJieMeHHH 

KOTopbix HeJiOBeK HaxoAHJi KpyroM ce6fl. Bee 3TH SByKw noA- 
BeprauJTCH npoueccy pHTMHHecKoft opraHnsauHH, HMeromeft 
uejibK) npHAaxb hm 6ojibiiiyio jierKOCTb HSBJieneHHsi (opraHH- 
soBaHHbie pHTMH»iecKne SByKM Jier^e npowsBOAHTb) h 6ojibiiiyio 
CHJiy BOSAeflcTBHH (hx jierne BOcnpHHHMaTb). TaKHM o6pa30M 

B03HHKaK)T nepBo6bITHbie tJDOpMbI MySbIKH „BOKaJlbHOH" H 
„HHCTpyMeHTaAbHOM", OCHOBaHHbie Ha 4'1^31'OJ'OrHH HCJIO- 

BCHecKoro opraHHSMa h na SByKOsoM Hcnojib30BaHHH npo- 
cTefluiHX npcAMexoB (nHCTpyMCHTbi) H o6HapyjKHBaiomHe qt 



I 



■■,w;,; . 



— 55 



■.■■'^V: 



Bcex nepBo6biTHbix 



Toro orpoMHyK) odmnocTb y 
Ji K) A e ft. 

My3biKa 3TOM 3pbi H cTaAHH HMeeT eme 

CHHKpeTHTOCKoe ^y oco6eHHOCTb, MTO OHa TCCHefllUHM o6pa30M 

COCTOfCHHe (CAHT- , r 

^^v CBasaHa co c;iobom (BOKajibHan MysbiKa, 

necHfl), jih6o c ranueM h AeflcTBHeM 

(xaHuoBajibHaJi, pHTyajibHaji, pa6oMasi MyswKa), jih6o c tbm 

H ApyrHM BMeCre. FIpOHCXOAHJJO 3T0 OT TOPO, HTO pHTMHMe- 

CKoft opraHHsauHH noABeprajicH Becb HejioseKBueAOM, 

CO BCeWH ero SByKaMH, ABHMCeHHSlMH H 6bITOM. 
CBHSaHHOCTb My3bIKH C APyFHMH o6;iaCT$IMH COXpaHHCTCSI BHJIOTb 

AO xpHCTHaHCKoft 3pbi, HO H HOCJic MysbiKa coxpaHsieT cno- 

CodnOCTb H CKJIOHHOCTb K o6pa30BaHHK) CJlHTHblX ^OpM (TaHeU, 

necHH, onepa) Bnjioxb ao Hauiero BpeweHH. 

CxpyKxypa nepBo6biTHoft MyswKH b ee ssyKOBOft nacTH 
o6ycJiOBAeHa SBJieHHAMH JierMaftmero SByKOHSBJieie- 
HHSi H jierMaftmero BocnpHarHH. M to h Apyroe 

npHBOAHT K CHJlbHOMy pa3BHTHK) (OTHOCHTeAbHO) yAapHblX 
HHCTpyMeHTOB, yCHJIHBatOIIlHX pHTMHMeCKOe BOCnpHHTHe 

(yAapHbie HHcrpyMeHTbi Jierne Bcero Aejiajorca h npome p.iia 
ynoTpel6jieHHsi), h k npocTeftuieft MeJiOAHnecKoft CTpyKxype, 

KOTOpaa, KaK TOJIbKO 3;ieMeHT 3ByKOBOfl BblCOTbl ocosHan, 

BbipajKaeTCH b crpoeHHH mbjioahh na ocHOBax hphmhthb- 
Hbix jiaAOB. 3th npHMHTHBHbie jiaAbi, o6mHe y Bcex Hapo- 
AOB Ha MX nepBonanajibHoft cTynenH pasBHTHsi, cboahtcji 
K KOMHJieKcy SByKOB, o6pasyK)mHX Me«Ay co6ofl 
TOflbKO npocTefliuHe (jierne ycBaHBaeMwe, Jierne HSBJie- 
KaeMbie) HHTepBaaw h, KpoMe Toro, sanojiHsitomnx SByKO- 
Boe npocTpancTBO AOCTaTOHHo hjiotho, 6e3 
Hero HCBosMOMCHa mcjioamh. 3th apxannecKHe 

JiaAbI nOMTH BCKJAy npHBOASITCJI K THny hhth- 
CTyncHHbix, npMMepHO hs SByKOs: 

c d f g a, 

o6pa3yK)mHx MewAy co6om KSHHTbi, KBapxbi, TepuHH H 6. ce- 
KyHAbi (ho He Majibie ccKyHAbi, eme ne ocosnaHHbie 

UpHMHTHBHblM CJiyXOM), H BCTpeMaK)TCH y CaMblX paSJIHHHblX 

HapoAOB B pasHbix KOHuax seMHoro mapa (KHTaftcKaa 
raMMa, apxannecKan HHAHftcKasi, „3HrapMOHHH" apxanMe- 
CKMX rpeKOB (IX— VIII bck ao P. X.); cioAa ace otho^ 



ApxaB<iecKHe 
AaAU' 



PasBHTBe 

OCOSHaHBfl 3ByKa. 



MHTHBHUX ^OpiH 

H npBHHHa ero. 



CHTCfl Jiaflbl lUOTflaHflCKHC, raflMHCCKHe, flpCBHe- 

pyccKHe). 

MysbiKajibHbift cjiyx b hctophhcckom 
npouecce sbipadaTbiBajica ftjiHTcabHO, KaK no- 
creneHHoe ocosHaHHC poACTBa tohob, 

H uieji Ha cMCHy nepBOObiTHOMy CJiyxy, ocHOBaHHOMy na npo- 

CTOM 0C03HaHHH paSHHUbl CMJI H BblCOT (KOJIMHCCTBeH- 

Hbifl cjiyx). Ha nepBOHanaflbMbix cTaflHHx npouecc ocosHaHMH 

BHAHMO CHJlbHO SaMCflJlSieTCH OTCyTCTBHCM CnOCo6oB 

3 a n H c H SByKOB — jiBJiCHHe, npHflaiomee Ha jiOJirHe BeKa 

MySblKe HeyCTOHMHBblft, HMnpOBHSaUHOHHblft, C OflHOfl^ 

CTopoHbi, xapaKTcp, a c apyroft — cnoco6cTByK)inHft TOMy, mto 
sanoMMHajiMCb, nepeaasajiHCb no cjiyxy h xaKUM o6pa30M 

BbI»{HBajIH TOJlbKO OieHb npHMHTMB- 
™™™™''*°^^r ""^ (JjOpMbI MySbIKH; BCe CKOJIbKO-HH6yab 

cjiOM<Hoe, BbixoAJimee sa npe^ejibi o6biAeHKoro 
H TpaflHUHH, Hecnoco6Hoe cpasy cxsaTHTbcs 

CJiyXOM, 6bIJIO MHMOJlCTHblM H o6peMeHO 6bIJIO Ha HCHeSHOBeHHe. 
B TaKOM nOJIOMCCHMH MySblKajIbHOe HCKycCTBO HaXOAHJIOCb BO 

BCK) snoxy flo 3JiJinHCKofi KyjibTypbi, — b raKOM ace coctohhhh 
OHO H noHbiHe HaxoflHtca xaM, rae eme ne BbiuiJio h3 stho- 
rpa4)HMecKofl cxaAHH, T.-e. b MyswKc HapoAHoft, nepe- 
AaiomeAcH 6e3 sanncH co cjiyxa h ottofo o6peHeHHoft na 

KOCHOCTb 450?^". 

nepBo6biTHbie craAHH MysbiKajibHoro co- 
OSqhocti. BKyca sHaHHH xapaKTepHsyHjTCfl, noMHMO nponero 

H eAHHCTBO BKV- 

eme H TeM, hto pa3JiHMHe ocosnaBaTejib- 

COBUX rpynn. "^ 

Hoft cnoco6HOCTH B pasHbix rpynnax 
H KJiaccax HapoAOHaceAeHHH BecbMa HeBHaMMTCJibHor 

nOMTH BCe HMCIOT OAHH H TOT JKC THH HyBCTBOBaHHH 

MysbiKH, H BKycoBbie rpynn bi BHyTpw HaceJieHHH hohth 
He HaMenaiOTCH, npotJieccHOHajibHaji AHCJjepeHUHauMJi OTcyx- 
cTByeT. MysbiKa, cosAaiomaacH coBepmeHHO ecTecTBCHHO 
B npouecce pHTMHsaunn 6biTa, KaK-TO: pejinrnosHbix 

pHTyaJIOB, BblCKaSblBaHHSI KOJIJieKTHBHOrO H HHAHBHflyaJIbHOrO 
Becejibfl HJIH CKOp6H, BOeHHblX ABHMCeHHM H CHPHaJlOB, 

co3AaeTCH BcerAa b pacneTe Ha to, HTo6bi 6wTb noHHTHoft 
H oueHeHHofl BceM HapoAOM. Ona cosAaeTca b pacHCTe na 
caMoro umpoKoro noTpe6HTejiH, mto o6ycjioBJiHBaeT h ee 
npocTOTy H ee MeAJieHHbift tcmh sbojikjuhm, ee opraHHHecKyH> 



IkK^ 



^^ iUS^AA---^ 57 



/ TpaAHu HOHHOCTb. HcT coMHeHHH, »rro 
HcnoAHRTeAB H ^ g nepBo6biTHyK) anoxy mm HweeM aBxopoB, 
aBTooM neoBo- ^^ 

fiuTHoK apw. KownoBHTopoB, ecjiH yroAHO. ho ohh ooesAH- 
MeHbi, Hx HMeHa HCMesJiH, MX TBopnecTBO noA- 
Beprjiocb BCKOBOMy BOSAeftcTBHK) Apyrwx JiHU— HcnojiHHTe- 
jiefi, nocTencHHO h nesaMeTHO Aa»ce AJia ce6ji bhochbuihx 

HSMeHeHHH B MCnOJIHHeMOe, TCM 6oJiee CHJIbHOe, mto He 6bIAO 
SaOHCH, COXpaHflBUieft HOAJIHHHHK. Ms BCeX 3THX HSMeHCHMft 

npHBHsaAHCb M coxpaHsiJiHcb ecTecTBCHHo Te, KOTopbie Hpa- 
BHJiHCb, 6biAH HO BKycy dojibuiHHCTBy. Mtth npoTHB BKyca 

MaCCbl 6bmO HCMblCJIHMO H 4)H3HMeCKH HeOCymCCTBHMO, 

H MaccoBbiA BKyc OTToro 3aneMaTjieBajicH b MyswKe anoxH 
noAHOCTbKJ. MsMeHCHHe BKyca b Maccax backjio HeMnnyeMoe 
HSMeneHHe MyswKH, CTnpajio cJieAbi npeAbiAymeS anoxH w 3a- 

MeHHJIO MX HOBblMH. 

OrpoMHoe pa3BHTHe yAapnbix HHCTpyweHTOB y nepBo6biT- 
Hbix HapoAOB CBHACTejibCTByeT o npeo6jiaAaioiueM BKyce 

K pHTMy, BblSBaHHOM MajIbIM 0C03HaHHeM CaMOFO 3ByKa, 

MpesBbinaflHO Kpynnoe 3HaMeHHe b pasBHTHH nepBoSwTHoft 

MySbIKH MMCJI SJICMCHT TeXHHHeCKHft, HMCHHO TOT KOM- 
nJieKC npeAMCTOB, CnOC06HbIX K 3ByKOH3BAeHeHHK), KOTOpwft 

6biJi noA pyKaMH. Becb nepsodbiTHbift HHCTpyMCHTapHft, noBH- 
AHMOMy, B03HHK 6jiaroAapsi CJiyMaro: nycTwe 

TpOCTHHKH ABJIH HaMaJIO AyXOBbIM HHCTPyMCH- 

Tan, HaTHHyTaH TeTHBa Jiyna — cTpynnbiM, hto 

AO CHX nop COXpaHHJIOCb B aTaBHCTHMeCKOfi 4)opMe caMbix 

MHCTpyMeHTOB. JJajibHcftuiee pasBHTne HHCTpyMCHTapHH o6y- 
cjiOBAeno 6biJ]0 paaom hphmhh: BbicoToft TexHHKH, jier- 

KOCTbK) HSrOTOBJieHHH AaHHOrO THna HHCTpyMBHTa 

H JierKOCTbK) SByKOHSBjieneHMn na hcm. B hctoph- 

MeCKOM OT6ope THHOB WHCTpyMeHTOB BblMCHBaJlH Te, Ha KOTO- 

pbix 6biJio Jierne Hrpaxb, KOTopwe AaBa;in 6ojibme SByKOBbix 
pecypcoB H npoiue H3roTOB;iHJincb. Y napoAOB MaJio wysbi- 
KajibHbix HHCTpyMeHTapHft paBBHBajicH B CTopoHy yAapHbix 

MHCTpyMeHTOB, y MySblKaJIbHblX B CTOpOHy MeAOAHHeCKHX/ 

Oco3HaHHe 6oAee ysKHx HHxep- 

OcosHaHBe ysKHx ^ 

BajioB HacTynaeT b ooAee hosahiok) snoxy 
HHTepsaAOB. r« V \ 

(bhahmo, He paHbuie a bbkb ao P. K.), KorAa 

ocHOBHbie HHTb CTyneHefi apxaHHecKoro jiaAa 6bi;iH nojiHOCTbio 

BOcnpHHHTbi MaccoBbiM coBHaHHeM. ToFAa JiaA o6oramaeTCH 



PasBHTHe 

B HCTpyHeHTapHS. 



^>y•■■**jfe1i?V■-4^!H|(«**%«^#"^W<tl|.■ 



4,-^tS^n^^ 



58 



«me TOHaMH e h h,: o6pa3yK>mMMH BMecre c apxawMecKHMM 
narbK) ceMMCTyneHHbift ssyKopnA: 

c d e f g a h, 

HfleHTHMHblM COBpeMCHHOMy MaWOp - MHHODy. 
,. , :: 1 lpHOJIH3HTejlbHO B 3TO WA BpCMH COSflaCTCa 

'^ - apxaHMecKajiTeopMHMy3biKH(y kh- 

i> TaflueB ee Hanajio othocht k 2000 r. no P. X., ho sxa uvi^ipa 

no Bcefl BepoHTHocTH MpesMepHa, y 3jijihhckmx HauHft — k 

X — -IX BCKy), KOTopasi o6Hapy?KHBaeT cpasy cKJiOHHOcxb 

K MHCTHHeCKOMy yKJIOHy, K CHMBOJIHSMy H KOCMHHCCKHM 

ajiJieropHHM (7 cryneHeft — 7 njianer — 7 ^Heft He^ejiH; npHnH- 
caHHe pHxyajibHbix SHaMeHHft h MarwHecKoro cMbicjia KawjxoMy 

SByKy M T, fl.), MTO o6'5ICHHeTCfl TCM, MTO TeOpCTHKaMH HBJIfl- 
JlHCb HBHSMeHHO fllOflH }lVl6o SKpeHCCKOrO COCJIOBHH (b ErHnTC, 

Xaflflee, KHTae), jih6o 6jiH3KHe k hhm 4'HJioco(][)bi. PHTyaji, 

BKAIOHaBUIMH B Ce6H MySblKy H CBOfiCTBeHHblft CMy TpaftH- 

u;H0HajiM3M, npHflaeT MysbiKajibHoft TeopwH eme apyroft xapaK- 
TepHbiA OTnenaTOK KpaflHeft kochocth h sawKHyTO- 

C T H B XpaflHUHK), K CBJJSblBaHHK) CBo6oAbI TB0p4eCTBa pHflOM 

orpaHHHeHHft. MnTepecHO, mto sth KanecTBa He noKHnyjiH 
My3bJKa;ibHyK> TCopHK) nojiHOCTbK) flawe flo XX BeKa. 

Bee Jiaflw, CBoflcTBeHHbie pasjiHHHbiM coBpeMeHHbiM Hapo- 
jiaM H BKjiroHaHJiuHe b ce6e tot hjih MHoft xpoMaTHSw 
{apa6cKaa My3biKa, eBpeAcKa», apMancKaji, BenrepcKaa). 
OTHOcsTCfl K HauieMy, nocJiexpHCTHaHCKOMy nepHoay. Apxan- 
HecKHe Jiaflbi He BHajiH xpoMaTHSMa, Kaw -oco3HaHHoro 
ajieMCHTa aafla — 3to mo>kho CKasaTb c flocTOBepHOCTbio, 

HO HeT HHHCrO HCBOSMOHCHOrO B TOM, MTO M B apXaHMBCKyK) 

anoxy nosiBJisiJiHCb b MyswKajibHOM o6iuecTBe 

HeOCOBHaHHbie XpOMaTHSMbI, B nopflfl- 
xpoBiaTHssi B ap- a .3 

Ke yKpauieHHH h yxniupeaHH cthjih, KaK Tcnepb 

y Hac HMeioTCH b MyswKe HeocosHaHHbie ajie- 

MCHTb! yjibTpaxpoMaTHSMa. HaAO saMeTHTb, hto, noBHWMOMy, 

BcerAa h bo Bce BpeMena MysbiKajibnasi npaKTHKa 

6biJia BnepcAH kochoA h MenjiHTCJibHoft TeopwH, 

h6o nepBBH COOTBeXCTBOBaJia MOMeHTy HHTyHTHBHOrO ocp3Ha- 

HHfl 3ByKa, a BTopan — pauHonaabHOMy ocoaHaHHK) ero. Ho h 

CaMbiA BKyc K CKOJlbKO-HH6yflb MSOmpeHHbIM 3ByHaHHHM He MOr 

noHBHTbca B apxaHMCCKHe anoxH oh conyTCTsoBaji yace 



HeocosHaHHuM 






oy - 



HSBecTHOMy KyjibTypHOMy pacuBCTy m Bceraa ~ H3BecTHOMy 
paccJioeHHio o6uiecTBa na SKycoBbie rpynnbi pasHbix ypoBHeA. 



KHTaffi. 



yKa3aHHbie . Buiue siBJieHH» conyTCTBOBajiH, noBHflHMOMy, 
BceM 6e3 HCKJiK)HeHHJi HapoAdM B MX apxaHHecKyK) spy My- 
sbiKaflbHoro pa3BHTHH. Mw Ha6jiK)AaeM b stom fiojibuiyio 

o6lHHOCTb B HCTOpHH paSBHTMH CaMHX MySblKaJIbHblX 4>OPM ^ 

B HCTopHH pasBHTwa apxaHHecKMx TeopHft MyBbiKH. 4to Ka- 
caexcH AO pasBHTHJi HHCTpyMCHTOB, TO OHH o6Hapya«HBaM3T 

y paBHblX HapOAOB CBOH 0C06eHH0CTH. HHKaKHX KOHKpCTHblX 

naM^THMKOB OT apxaMHecKoA snoxH b AeJie caMHX MysbiwaJibMbix 

4)OpM Mbl He HMeeM B BHAy OTCyTCTBHH SanHCefl MySblKH B 
Xe BpeMBHa; naMHTHUKH C HCTOpH4eCKHMH A^TaMH B BHAe co- 

xpaHHBiUHxcH HHCTpyMeHTOB H H3o6pa»:eHHfl cymecTByK)T B 
ocTaTKax KHTaflcKofi, erHneTCKoft, eBpeftcKofl (ac- 

CHpO-BaBHJIOHCKOfl) H aHTHIHOft KyjIbTyp. 

MySblKajIbHOCTb KHTaRCKOM HapOAHOCTH 

AOJiMCHa 6biTb OTHecena k HHCJiy ne OHCHb 
BbiAaroiuMxcsi, HTO BbipaiKaeTca peanbHO b tom, hto 3Ta 
ApeBHaH KyjibTypa ao chx nop He snaeT rapMOHHH, h b tom 
npeo6jiaAaHHH yAapnbix MHCTpyMCHTop, KOTopoe mm b Heft 
Ha6jiioAaeM Hbine. MyswKa KviTan, cBHsanHan c pejiHrnoaHbiM 
KyJibTOM, nepBaa b hctophh npjiynaeT xeopeTH- 
necKoe ocBemenHe (JlwHr-JlyHb, ok. 2600 r. ao P. X.). 
Ho, HecMOTpa na sto, ee nporpecc HpesBbinafiHO cn&6, h bh" 
AHMO ee BocnpnaTHe 6ojiee pauwoHajibHo, Hea^ejiH HHTyHTiiBHO. 
SnaHHTejibHO 6ojibme HCTopHHecKoro SHaneHHa HMeeT iriyBw- 
KajibHbift HHCTpyMCHTapHiS KHTaa, coAep»caiitviA npoTO- 

THnW MHOrHX COBpeMeHHblX HHCTpyMBHTOB, BOCXOAniUHe K 

OTAajieHHefliUHM BpeMcnaM. CpeAH hhx — TaM-TaM (ronr), jih- 
TaBpbi, 6apa6aHbi h ..THenr", no Bceft BepoaTHOCTM, no- 
aBHBiiiHfica eme panee X BeKa ao P. X. h cocTaBJiaroiuHft 
npoTOTHn o p r a H a, b KOTopwft oh pasBHjica, saneceaHbifi b 
AjieKcaHApMK) BO II seKe ao P. X. h npoHHKuiHft hotom b 

BHSaHTHH) H Phm. 

ErnneT coxpannji hbm naMaTHHKH MysbiKH, 
OTHOcamweca eme k XXX BCKy ao P. X., a 
BHAe H3o6pa»CeHHH HHCTpyMCHTOB — a p 4> H Ha6ji, nopoAHB- 
iiiHx Bce nosAHefluiHe CTpynnwe, „inHnKOBbie" HHCTpyMCHTbi 



Eraner. 



fcy.MM 



ou 



(ap4>bi, ;iK)THH, MaHAOJiHHbi, u,HTpbi H np.) Esponbi. C Hauie- 
CTBHH rMKCOB (XX bck) b Ernnxo noHBJineTCfi eme ji h p a, 
KOTopaa, no ecefl bcpohthocth, ceMHTHnecKoro npoHcxoMcae- 
HHu, a TaKMce ^nePiTbi pasHbix THnos m t p y 6 bi. MyswKa 
B ErHHTe 6biJia MpesBbiHaiiHO pacnpocTpaneHa, KaK .npHHafl. 
jiewHOCTb pHTyajia peJiHPHH, npH BoeHHbix onepauwax, npH- 
MeHsiJiacb, KaK pasBJieneHHe. CoxpaHHJiMCb cBefleHHn o tom- 
MTO cymecTBOBajiH cneuMajibHbie KaApbi npocjjeccHOHajib- 
Hbix MysbiKaHTOB, HTO yKasbiBacT yme Ha npoHCXOflviBiiiee 
paccAoeHHe o6inecTBa Ha BKycoBbie rpynnw b oTHomeHHH 
MysbiKH. CymecTBOBaJiM ui k o ji bi AJiH MysbiKaHTOB. Tew He 
MeHce oneHb Tpyano cKaaaxb, 6buia jih erarieTCKaa Mysbina 

CaMOCTOHXejIbHblM HCKyCCTBOM MJIH He BbllUJia eme M3 CHH- 

KpeTHHecKoro (cjiHTHoro) coctohhhji, siBJiflHCb jiHiub B coejiH- 

HeHHH C ;iBHH«eHHeM H TaHUeM HJIH CO CJIOBOM. To o6cTOH- 

TCjibCTBO, HTO rpeHCCKasi MysbiKaJibHan Teopna h npaKTMKa 
Bbipocjia H3 erHnercKoft, aoji»cho cnyacwTb noflTBcpjKAeHHeM 
cKopee nocjie^Hero mhchhji. CKJiOHHbte k TeopeTnaauHH 
erHHTHHe HMejiw, bhahmo, pa3pa6oTaHHyK) reopHto nyawKH, 
AOiuefluiyK) flo nac TOJibKO b ajiJiHHHSupoBaHHofl pejiaKUHH, 
npewMymecTBeHHO npea nH(j[)aropa. Ochobhwm cboActbok 

3TOfl TeopHH 6bIJI eeMHCTHKO-CHMBOJIHHCCKHfl yKJIOH, 

BOo6me cBoftcTBenHbift eraneTCKOMy c6pa3y mwcjih, a peajib- 
HbiMH flocTHweHHSMH — ycTaHOBJieHHc noHHTHsi TBTpaxopAa 
(KOTopbifl „cooTBeTCTBOBaji" HCTbipeM BpcMeHaM TOfla) M c e- 

MHCTyneHHOft raMMW (KOTOpOfi COOTBCTCTBOBajIO CCMb 

njiancT). HanMHasi c V BCKa ao P. X., ErnneT noABepraexcH 

BjiHaHHK) cHanajia npancKoA (nepcwflCKofi), hotom 3jijihhh- 

cTHMecKofl Kyjibxyp h xepaeT ywe cBofi cneuH4'*'''6CKHft My3bi- 

KaJibHbiA o6jimk. 

XajifleflcKO-eBpeficKaH Kyjibxypa, OTMeneH- 
EBoen. _ 

HaH cJiejiaMH bjihsihmm erHnercKHX h npaH. 

CKHX, OTJlMHaeTCH 6ojlbmofl pOJIbK) B Heft My3bIKajIbHOrO 
HCKyCCTBa, MTO CTOHT B CBflSH C MySblKaJIbHOCTblO CCMHTMHe- 

CKHX HauHft. JlereHflbi h HCTopHHecKne AaHHbie coxpaHHJiH 
cBCAeHHH o ApeBHe-eBpeflcKOM HHCTpyMeHTapwH, cpeflH Koero 

BbWeJlJUlHCt, BHAHMO, SaHMCTBOBaHHbie y erHRTHH Tpy6bi 

(iuo(|)ap) H ap4)bi (ncajiTHpb — rycjiH), a Tawace yflapHwe 
HHCTpyMeHTbi. My3biKa 6biJia nacTbio Kyjibxa h xyx AOCTHrana 

SnaHHTeJIbHOrO paSBHXHH. B XpaMOBOM nCHHW 6bIJIH ajieMCHTbl 






SisUiMm 



— 61 — 

cojio, xopa H aHTH4>OH"oro (nonepeMCHHoro) Hcno;i- 
nenna. CseTCKaji MyBbiKa, nepHOAHMecKn noABepraBuiaHCH 
roHeHHSM CO CTopoHbi pcjiHrHH, 6bijia nofl BJiHflHMeM upan- 
cKoro HCKyccTBa h MacxbK) HpaHCKHx oprnacTHHecKHx Kynb- 
TOB. HnKaKHx peajibHbix naMHTHHKOB OT Bcero 9Toro He 
coxpaHHJiocb. Bojiee no3AH5iH h coBpeMCHHaa MyswKa eBpeeB 
MMeer cosepuieHHo nHbie KopHM (apa6cKHe, eBponeAcKne) h 
no BCCM BepoRTHOCTH BOBce HC CBa3aHa reHCTHHecKH c apxaw- 

MeCKOft. 



in. — MyabiKa ajiJinHCKoii Kyjibxypbi. * 

OepBOHaMaJibHaH ajiJiHHCKasi MyswKajibHa;! 

9AABHCKaiI MVSU- ^ „ 

KaAMaHKyABxypa. ^yJibxypa o6jiaAajia BceMH CBOMCTBaMH apxaw- 

HeCKOM My3blKH, BnJIOTb flO HHTMCTyneH- 

Horo Jiaaa, MCKaMceHHbie cjieabi KOToporo coxpaHHJiMCb b 
BHAe TaK Has. „3HrapMOHH3Ma YjiMMna". My3biKa y»<e b flpCB- 
HefiuiyK) apy sjiJiHHCKofl ncTopHH BaHHMaer MpessbiHaflHO bha- 
Hoe nojiOHceHHe b 6biTy, Kyjibxe h npw boAhc, ho ona opra- 

HHHeCKH CJIMXa C n033Heft H C MCeCTOM (uiecTBHe, 

Taneu) h hc BWCTynaex oxAeflbHO. FpeHe- 
Cahthocti. c flpy- ^^^^ Mnd)OJiorHfi! HcnojiHeHa wysbiKajihHbix 

TBMH BO MCHHUMH ^ 

HCK ccTsaniB oopasoB, Mxo CBHACxejibcxByex o rpoMaAHOM 

npocxope MyawKajibHoro ncKyccxBa b apxan- 

MecKyK) spy, Koxopoe, bhahmo, pa3BHBajiocb He 6e3 bjihsihhh 

eranexcKO-KpHxcKHx Kyjibxyp n b nacxHocxH oxxy^a nojiyHHJio 

CBoa nepBOHanajibHbiA HHcxpyMCHxapHH (jiupbi, 

c|)OpMHHKCbI H KH({)apbI, npOHCUieAUIHe H3 a p (|), M 
aBJIOCbl MCMpHHKCbl H3 (JjJieHx). B ap- 

xawHecKyK) (BoeHHO-nacxyuiecKyK)) naxpnap- 
xa,i]bHyK> spy SjiJiaAW mw BcxpenaeMCH c CHJibHWM pa3BH- 
xneM My3biKajibHoro anoca, Koxopwft, noBHAHMOMy, nponsHO- 
CHJiCH HapacneB, 6biTb Moacex, nepBOHanajibHO b uen^x 
jiyHiuefi; cJibiuiHMOcxH. FIoasHsi anoca, ocywecxBJiJieMaa pa- 
ncoAaMH (jiereHflapHbie HMCHa FoMepa h PecHOAa', nMena. 
ywe noJiHoe pasBuxHe b IX bckb h axo ee paaBuxne, bhahmo, 
opraHHHecKH cBHsaHO c npoHcuieAuiHMH He- 
mhophmh BeKaMM paHee KpynHbiMw nojiH- 

XHHeCKHMH nOXpHceHHfl[MH CXpaHbl, nOBJieKUIMMH 

co3AaHHe KJiaccoB BJiaAWMecxByiomero h pa6cKoro. 3noc 6faiJi 



HHCTpyMeHTapatt . 



PancoAM- 






M 



63 



\i 



OopMU MyauKH. 



repoHHecKoft JiereHAofl, cosHAaeMofl b HauHOHajiHCTHnecKHx 
M MHHacTHHecKHX (MeJiKO-4)eoAaJibHbix) uejisix. Ero siBJieHHe 
CBHneTe;ibCTByeT o Toraa y>Ke cJio»cHBiueMCsi eneuH^JHHecKOM 
npo(|)eccMOHajiH3Me (pancoflbi), OTMacTH yMbiuiJieHHO 
OTHacTH cthxhAho opraHMsoBaHHOM B yKpenjiCHHe flecnoxH- 
MecKH-naTpHapxajibHoro nojiynjieMeHHoro 6biTa. HewsBecTHo b 
TOHHOCTH, conpoBOJKflajiocb Ji/i ncHHe pancoflOB HHCTpyMen- 
TajibHbiM aKKOMnaneMeHTOMi ho sto BepoHrae He hckjhomcho. 
3th JKe anocbi h apyrMC flpcBHHe naMHTHHKH CBHfleTeJib- 
CTsyioT o TOM, MTO y>Ke B apxaHHecKyK), naTpnapxajibHyK) 
anoxy nojiyMHJi pasBHTHC xaHeu (cseTCKHft h pejiHrHOSHbift) 

C MySblKaJIbHbIM COnpOBO»CAeHHeM (MHMHKa H 

rnnoKpHTHKa) h xopoBoft xaneu 
"■ (rHMHoneflHJi). OpranHMCCKaji cBHsaHHOcxb 
MCKyccxBa co BceA WHSHbio rocyAapcxBa b SjiJiaAe 6biJia 
npHHMHofi xoro, hto xeMn pasBHxnn MyawKH OKasajicsi SHann- 
xejJbHO HHxcHCHBHee, HCM B flpyrHX cxpaHax. MysbiKa, npaBAa, 
B coeAHHeHMH c ApyrHMH HCKyccxBaMH 6biJia npHsnana rocy- 

AapcXBCHHO BBMCHblM ACJIOM, 6AaropOAHbIM SaHHTHCM, MySbl- 

KaHT noJibsoBajicH noMexoM h HCKyccxBO mofjio cbo6oaho 
nporpeccHpoBaxb xexHHHecKH b o6ecneHeHHOM, HCTpyAOBOM 
KAacce. 06mecTBeHHbie cocxjisaHHH (wrpw — 0JiHMnHHCKne. 

nHcJjufiCKHe, HCXMHHCKHe, HCMefiCKHe) cnoco6cTBOBaJiH pasBH- 

THK) MnoompajiH xexHHKy HcnojiHeHHH — no6eAHxejiH 
B cocTsisaHHflx nojiynajiH sHaKH oxjihmhh (jiaBpoBbift bbhok). 
HaHHHaH c VIII — VII BCKa, na CMeny anocy pancoAOs no- 
SBJiHioxcsi Apyrne 4)opMbi SByKOBoro HCKyccxBa, BnponeM, Bce 
H Ao caworo nosAHero BpeMeHH HMeBuiHe xo cboAgxbo, mxo 
MejiOAHH MbicJiHxcH xojibKO yHHcoHHOH HJiH 3By4[ameft B OKXaBy, 
cymnocxb HHcxpyMeHxajibHoro conpoBOWAeHWH najio bwhc- 
HCHa, HO, noBHAHMOMy, ona cBOAHwacb jih6o k yHHCony c mcjio- 
AHeft (naneBOM), jim6o k npHMHXHBHWM j,opraHHbiM nyHKxaw''^ 
KaK xenepb b MyswKe apa6oB. CaMwft nancB, pas coHMHen- 
HbiH H nepeAaBaBUiHftcfl co cjiyxa, Hocvin hmji 

„HOMOC — „3aKOH . UXAeJlbHbie HOMOCbl HaSbl- 

BajiHCb pasHbiMH KJiHHKaMH. ^pcBHeAiUHMH cnaraxcjiJi mH ho- 
MocoB 6biJiH TepnaHAep (Vil b.), ApxHJiox (VII b.), 
KjioHac H CaKaAa (VI VII b.), h3 Koxopwix ApxH,nox 
nepBbiH BBCJi BMCCTO paHce eAMHCxBCHHO ynoTpednxejibHoro 
rcKcaMCxpa 6ojiee cBodoAHbift pHXM aM6a h xopea. 



B VII a«e BeKe cosAaroxcfl rjiasHbie oxpacJiH MysbiKaJibHO- 
noaxHiecKoro HCKyccxBa (anajiorHMHoro HbiHeuiHefl „BOKaJib- 
HoS My3biKe") — aBflOAHKa (acHHe c aKKOMnaHCMeHTOM 
<|)jieftxbi — aBJioca) h KHxapoAWKa (nenHe c KHxapofl). 
ricHHe 3XO, noBMAHMOMy, noxoAHJio Ha nojiypeHHxaxHB, 
BpamaBuiHftcH Ha SBynax, AOSBOflCHHbix HOMOcaMH, h bhahmo 

CBJiaaHHblfl XpaAHUHOHHblMH npHeMBMH. rio BCeft BepOHTHOCXH 

6oJibman CBHsaHHOcxb c penbio 6bina npHHHHoft xoro, mxo 
cpeAH ^JopMyioiuHX o6pa30BaHHe sxhx HanesoB mcxoaob yno- 
pHAOMeHHH BsyKOB (hhh xaK Has. ..HaKJIOHeHwA") OMeHb cKopo 
noHBJiaKixcH xpOMaxHSMbi H nojiyxoHHbie HHxep- 

B a JI bl, CHeBHAHO, HOApaMCaiOmHe HHXOHaUHHM 

noflB;ieHHe noAy- ecxecxBCHHoft peiH. ApcBHee AHaXOHHMe- 

TOBOB H XpOMa- 

CKoe HaKJlOHeHHe, ocHOBannoe Ha xexpa- 
xopAe 

h c d e 

cMenaexcfl b VI bckb xpoMaxHHecKUM (h c cis e)' 

c noHHHccHHbiM d M 3axeM SHrapMOHHHecKHM (hcc'e) 

c HHxepsajioM MeHbuie nojiyxona MescAy c h c'. 

Ecxb AaHHbie, yKaswBaiomHe, mxo cpoAcxBO 

Tiinu SByKopKAOB, -- ^... 

SByKOB no HHxepBajiaM ObiJio MyacAO omy- 

meHHK) 3JIJIHHOB — OHH paBflHHaJIH JIHlUb CXCneHb BblCOXbl 

M noMHHJiH lunpHHy HHTcpBaJia. XpoMaxHMecKoe H SHrapMO- 
HHHCCKoe HaKJioneHHa aojipo BWAepMCHBajiH 6opb6y c koh- 
cepsaxHBHoft TpaAHUHcft, BHAeBuieft b hhx paBBpamennocxb 
CTHJiH, xaK we KaK H B nosiBJisiioiJueiicfl okojio VI BCKa noA^ 
BJiHHHHeM Bce yxoHHaiomeftcji Kyjibxypbi mhctoR HHCxpy- 
MenxaabHOM MysbiKe (aBJiexH<<a h KHxapHCXHKa). 3ra 
nccjieAHHH,6t>icxpo BnaAaiomaH b BwpxyoB- 
noBBAeHHeaacTpy- „j^,j^ cxHJib. xapaKxepHbift A JI a 3nox 3 a- 

MeBXaAbHOH HV- 

3UKH BcpmeHHsi onpeaejicHHoro conMaJibHoro 

CKjiaAa (b AaHHOM cJiynae pecny6flMKaHCK0- 
BoeHHOfl ojiHrapxHH „cBo6oAHbix"), xaK ace KaK h noaBJimo- 
mwecn B 3TO BpeMH MHorocxpyHHbie H^cxpyMenxbi (MaraAHC, 
6ap6HTOH), KOHcraxHpyexcH KaK cHMnroM „BapBapcxBa", 
HeyMepeHHocxH. B aro we BpeMH OKOHMaxeJibHO cKJiaAbiBjexca 
HeH3BecxHO KBM ocHOBaHHaa H H3o6pexeHHaji rpenecKafl 
cKcxeMa sanwcH SByKOB (c e m h o r p a c}) h n) 

SailHCb 3BVK0B. ^ 

' oyKBaMH H SHawaMH — nepBaa h3 coxpannB- 



kiiuM 



im* 



i>,*i.v.-'. 



iii^l^ 



fTT*;^ 



64 — 



— 65 — 



UIHXCfl B HCTOpHH, flOBOJIbHO TOMHail, HO HC {j|)HKCMpOBaBUiafl 

TOHHO A^HHbi ssyKa, KOTopaH onpefleJiHJiacb phtmom TCKcra 
H HCMHorHMH ycjiOBHbiMH 3HaKaMH (naysbi, phtm). Sxa SanHCb 
nepeMBHsieT apxaHMecKHH nMnpoBHsauHOHHbift xapaKxep My- 

SblKH Ha 6oJiee yCTOftlHEWH H 06yCJ10BJIHBaeT BOSMOSKHOCXb 

TexHHMecKoro nporpecca cawoft ssyKOBOft cfjopMbi. 

BeKa pacusera anjiHHCKoft Kyabrypbi (VI -V bbk), sbi- 
sBaHHbie sKOHOMHHecKHM HpeycnejiHHeM ToproBO-BoeHHOfii 6yp- 
»cya3Mn, o6pa30BaBiiieft KJiacc xaK. Has. „CBo6oaHbix", conpoBO- 

JKaajIHCb paCUBCTOM B TOM HHCJie H MySblKaJIbHblX npOHBJieHHft — 

jiHpHKH, BbiABHHyBUieK HMeHa Ajikch, AnaKpeoHa, 
Catjjo, riHHAapa (VI — V Bena), h xparejiHH, pasBHBaBiueSca 

H3 BaKXMHeCKHX flHcJjHpaMSoB H THMHOB. rHMHbl — neCHH C 
nJIflCKOft H pHTyaJIOM — HMBJIH CWJIbHO AH(|DepeHU,HpOBaHHbie 

4)opMbi; pa3jiH4ajiHCb rwMHbi naaHbi (mo- 

™_„ ^ jiMTBa Dory), rHMeHew (opanHbie), qppeHOCbi 

(norpe6ajibHbie), napxeHHH (aceHCKHe), (J)ajiJin- 

HecKue (oprnacxHMecKne). TpareaHH, npoHcuieAuiaa m3 aho- 

HHCHHeCKHX npaS^HeCXB, COnpOBOHCAaJiaCb njIHCKOft h My3bl- 

Koft, npH MBM nocJiCAHHsi (JjHrypupoBajia b BMAax xopa, 
MOHo;ioroB, Koxopwe xo>Ke nejiMCb, MejiOAeKJiaMaunn c 
aKKOMnaHCMenxoM (fjjieftxbi (napaKaxajiore). BejiHKHe Apawa- 
xyprH-xparkKM 3cxhji, Co(|)okjih SspHnHA (VI— V b.) 
6biJiH no Bcefif BepoaxHOCXH h comuhmxcahmh 

MySbIKH K CBOHM HbecaM. B XparHMeCKOM ACH- 

cxBHH AonycKajiacb h3 HHcxpyMeHxoB OAHa jiHiub 4>Ji6i^'ra- — 
aBJioc, Koxopan no cBoefi 6oflbmeH cnoco6HOcxH k Bbipa^KeHHio 
H MyscxaeHHOcxH sByKa cHHxajiacb oprHacxwHecKHM HHCxpy- 
mbhtom, nocBnmeHHbiM JI,HOHHcy, xorAa KaK KHxapa 6biJia 
CHMBOAOM OAyxoxBopeHHoro npocBexjieHHoro 3By4aHHH H no- 
CBHiua^iacb AnojiJioHy. Ms KOMno3HUMfl axoft anoxn ao nac 

AOIUJIH OXpblBKH HSOAbI FlMHAapa, OXpblBOK H3 

„Opecxa" SBpHnHAa h HecKOJibKO 

KomeAHH. jipyrnx. BosHHKmasi xorAa Mce komcahji 

xoace conpoBOJKAajiacb MysbiKoft, ho xhh h cxHjib sxoro co- 

npOBOWAGHMH HeH3BeCTeH. 

OocjieAyJOiUHe seKa, cBHsaHHwe c nejionoHCccKofi boh- 
Hoft H c ynaAKOM xoproBOM ad[)HHCKofl 6yp>Kya3HH, xaK hjih 
HHaMe oxMeneHbi ynaAKOM XBopnecxBa, noflBJieHHCM sapBap- 

CKHX BJIM^HhA (nepCHACKHX, OXnaCXH ceMHXHHCCKHx) H pa3BH- 



TpareABH. 



PasBHTHe 

BBpTyOSHOCTH. 



THeM BKyca k BHpxyosHOcxH, cMeHsiHsmefi npcMCHioio 
cxporocTb H MHcxoxy HaneBOB h cxhjki. B sxy 
anoxy pasBHBaroxca opraHUKs, KHxapHCXHKa h 
aBJiexHKa, BOo6me HHcxo-HHcxpyMeHxa;ibHO- 

BMpxyosHan My3biKa, oxpwBaiomajicH ox neHHJi h ox xaHua, 

B 3TO TKG BpCMSI paSBHBaeXCfl XeopHH My3bIKH 

(rapMOHHKa), ocHOBaHwe Koxopoft noJiojKCHO FlHcJjaropoM 

{VI B.), BSHBiuHM 33 ocHOBaHHe ePHnexcKyio xeopHK) xex- 

paxopAa. TeopHH wysbiKH pa3AejiHjiacb y>Ke Ha co6cxBeHHo 

xeopHK) (rapMOHHKa h pHXMHKa) H Ha npaK- 
TeopeTHHecKan , r , t- 

snoxa. THKy (KOMnOSHUHJI — SpCCXHKOH H HCnOJl- 

HCHHe — SKserejibXHKOH), xaK mxo mw 
HMecM xyx yxe ^'skx cnjibHoi) AH(|)epeHUHauHH HCKyccxBa. 
TeM He Menee „rapMOHHHecKoro" b nauieM cmwcjic cjioea 
My3biKajibHoro cosepuannsi y 3;ijihhob hc o6pa30Ba;iocb — 3 b y- 

KOBbie KOMHAieKCbl HC 6bIJIH 0C03HaHbI H AO 

nosAHeft snoxH, hxo cxohx, bhahmo, b cbrsm c OTcyxcxBHCM 

MyBCTBa CpOACXBa TOHOB, HHCTO ..BWCOXHHm" HX BOCnpHHTHCM 
HXOpMOSSimHM BOSAeftCTBHCM XCOpHH, CMHXaBlIiefi 

xepuHK) AHCcoHancoM (mxo, 6bixb Mowex, 6biJio h neno- 

CpCACXBeHHblM XOFAa COSepuaHMBM, h6o JIHUIb OKXasa H KBHHXa 
6bIJIH 0C03HaHbI, KaK COSByMHJl) H XCM JIHUiaBUieA B03M0KH0- 
CXH 06pa30BaHHSI rapMOHHH H MHOrorOJIOCHH. 

riH^aropeftcKaH cHcxeMa, ocHOBaHnasi na 
erHnexcKoft h noAo6HO efl npoHHKHyxasi mh- 

CXHHeCKHMH npeACXaBJieHHHMH O CHMBOJIH'ie- 
1 
CKOM SHaMeHHH TOHOB H CBHSaHHblX C HHMH MHCJlOBblX OXHO- 

meHHft, BdHCHa b xom oxHouieHHM, MXO ona b cymnocxH co- 
cxaBHJia 6a3HC yMCHHSi o MysbiKajibHofi aKycxH- 
K e. riocpeACTBOM MOHOxopAa nH4)arop snepBbie ycxa- 

HOBHfl MHCJIOBbie XapaKTCpHCTHKH HHTCpBaJIOB H o6'jICHHfl 

ocHOBbi jiaAa nyxcM kbhhxobwx xoaob (xaK Has. nnc|)aropeficKan 
CHCxeMa). ITocjieAOBaxeJiH nn4)aropa (xaK. Has. KanoHMKH) 

CMHXajIH MHCJIOBbie COOXHOUieHHSI He3bl6jieMOM OCHO- 

Boft MysbiKH — H HanpaBJieHHe hx mwcjih xapaKxepnsoBajiocb 

MaxeMaXHMHOCXbK) H OXOpBaHHOCXbHJ ox XBOpMeCKOft HHXyHUHH. 
B npOXHBOBeC SXOfi lIIKOJie, BHAHeflUIHMH npCACXaBHXeJISIMH 

Koeft 6biJiH: ApxHnac, 3paxoc4)eH, JIhahm, Oxo- 
JiOMeft, Sbkjiha. noMTH Bce 6biBuiHe h MaxeMa- 
XHKaMH OAHOBpeMCHHO, BOSHHKJia uiKOJia rap- 



CBCTCMa 

IlH^iaropa. 



KaHOHHKH H 
rapMOHHECH. 



HcTOpBJI UV^lMlcii. 



■^ 



I ill 



MOHHKOB, BOSrJiaBJlHBlliaHCSI ApHCTOKCeHOM (IV! B.), 

yneHHKOM Aphctotcjih, KOTopaa CTasujia Ha nepBoe Me- 
CTO Tpe6oBaHHH cnyxa. Me»:fly sksynn uiKOJiaMn Boaro- 
pejiacb nojicMMKa, cyuiHOCTb Koxopoft b cBoeft rjiy6HHe He 

H3H«HTa flO CHX nOp, h6o COOTBeXCTByeT flByM OCHOBHbIM noA- 
XOflaM K MCKyCCTBy: paU,HOHaJIbHOMy H HHXyHTHBHOMy. 

OKOH^axeJibHoe c(|)opMHpoBaHHe Mysbi- 
PasBHTHe rpeie- ^^jj^^^^g; xeopHH Hacxynaex yace 6jiHMce ko 

CKOH TeOOHH 

AaAOB. " BCKy, npH Hen BascHoe b HayMHOM oxHoiue- 
HHM yneHHe o fleji'eHHH cxpyn, noBHflH- 

MOMy, HCXOflHX ox SBKJIHfla (III BCk). 06lHHe OCHOBaHH« 
XeOpHH 3JIJIHHOB CBOflSIXCJI K nOHHXHK) O MeXbipeX3By4HS!X — 

xexpaxopaax, coeflHHeHHeM kohx nojiynaioxcH xaK. nasbiB. 

rapMOHHM, X.-e. SSyKOBbie CHCXeMW, B KOXOpwX CXpOHAHCb 

MCAOAHH (npH6A. cooxBCXcxByex HOBOMy noHJixHK) o „naA&")- 
TexpaxopAbi pasjinnajiHCb no HaKJiOHCHHHM, npH hcm 
ocHOBHoe 6biJio 4 H a X o H H H e c K o e (h, c, d, e), a 6oJiee bh- 
MypHbiMH npeflcxaBJiHJiHCb xpoMaxHHecKoe (h, c, des, e) h 
sHrapMOHHMecKoe (h, c, c', e). CwcxeM hjih rapMOHHft 

HaCHHTblBaJIOCb OHCHb MHOrO, npH MCM MHOrHC H3 HHX, nOBHAH- 
MOMy, OXJIHMajlHCb XOJIbKO HaHMeHOBaHHHMH. OcHOBHaH CHCXCMa 

6biJia flopHflcKaa, cocxaejieHHaH us 4Byx flnaxoHH4e- 
CKHX xexpaxopflOB. FIpH ynoxpe6jiJ!BmeHcsi y 3jijihhob cHcxeMe 
HanHcaHHH csepxy bhhs ona npeAcxaBJiHexcH b bhrb 
3ByKopHji,a. 

edch agfe 



' ' I xexpaxopfl II xexpaxopfl 

FaMMa 3xa npeflcxaBJiHJiacb npoflOJiMcaHJiueftcH na a b e 
OKxaBbi (ox ei ao a_i), h K&iKHhiPi ee xexpaxopfl, h Kawflbift 
3ByK HOCHJi eme oco6oe sarjiaBwe. FjiaBHoA Hoxoft cHHxajiacb a, 
HrpaBiuaH pojib xohhkh h HasbiBaBiuaacH neca. JI,pyrne 
rapMOHHH (jiaflbi) 6biJiH b cymnocxH KaK 6bi oxpesKaMH wnvi 
nacxsiMH 3xoR ochobhoS cucxeMbi h, bhahmo, npoHSOUiJiH b 
npouecce npHcnoco6;ieHHJi sjieMenxoB Bapsap- 
cKoro (MyMcescMHoro), npeviMymecxBeHHo bocxomhofo, Ma- 
jioasHftcKoro MCJioca k sjiJinHCKOMy cosepigaHHK), na 

MXO yKa3bIBaK)X H HX HaSBaHHH: (|)pHrHHCKHft, JIHflHflCKHM H 

X. n. KaHiflOMy h3 sxhx jiaaoB npunncbiBajiocb oco6oe na- 
cxpocHne H ncHXHHecKoe BOSfleiScxBHe, hxo, no- 



— 67 



BHftHMOMy, o6'HCH$iexcsi 3XHorpa4)HMecKHMH pnxyajibHbiMH acco- 
UHauHaMH H ceftnac naMK xpyAHo npeflcxaBJiaexcH. Flepexoflbi 
H3 oflHoft cHcxeMbi B HHyK). aHajiorHMHbie Hauieft MOAyjisunH 
(nepeweHa Mecbi, hohc jiaaa), jionycKajiHCb h nMeHoeaJiHCb 
Mexa6ojiOH). TeopHH BOo6me oxjiHMaJiacb HecpaBHeH- 
KOM sanyxaHHOcxbK) h H3o6HJiHeM HanMeHOBaHHfi, mxo 
cxoHx B CBH3H c xapaKxepoM MbicjiH rpcKOB H c Majiofl cxe- 
neHbK) opHCHxauHH B sByKOBOM MaxcpHajic. MnorHe XepMHHbl 
xeopHH flo CHX nop eme HenoHHXHbi h BbisbiBarox cnopw 
cpeflH yneHbix. HecoMneHHO ohho, — mxo peajibnaH My- 
sbiKa 6biJia, noBHflHMOMy, MHoro cBo6oflHee m He3aBHCHMee 
H CBOHM xyflOMcecxBeHHWM BHaneHHeM, MCM rpoMosflkaa h xy- 
MaHHan xeopHJi; b nacxHocxH ona, bhahmo, lUHpoKo nojibso- 

BaJiaCb MHOrHMH XpOMaXHHeCKHMH CXyneHHMH H, 6bIXb 

MOJKex, HCKOxopbiMH nepBo6bixHbiMH (|)opMaMH MHororo- 

JI O C H JI. 

BAAHHHCTHHecKaH CMeHHBuiaH MHcxo - s^iJiHHCKyK) Kyjibxypy 
KyAbTypa. sJiJiHHHCXHHecKasi BocxoMHaji Kyjibxypa npH- 
Hecjia MHoro hobwx nepx (II bck ao P. X. — nep- 
Bbie eeKa nocjie P. X.), b nacxHocxH KpanHee cxpcMjieHne 
K xeopexHsauHH HCKyccxBa (ajiCKcaHflpHHusM) b ymep6 
^WBOMy XBopMecxBy, hxo cxohx b cbhsh c npeo6jiaflaiomefl 
KyjibxypoH MbicJiH npH sapoacflaioiueMCfl mhpobom HMnepwa- 
jiHSMe AjicKcaHApa MaKeaoHCKoro h noBflnee — phmjihh. MysbiKa 
xepnex BnoJine xox rpaM<flaHCKnft xapaKxep, Koxopbifl Hwejia 
B roflbi pacuBexa 3jijiaAbi, — OHa o6pamaexcH b opran yBece- 
JieHHJi M npoayKX noxpe6AeHHH orpaHHMeHHoro Kpyra jiioflefi, 
o6pa3yK)mHx HMnepHajiHcxHMecKyio apHcxoKpaxHK). B cbhsh 

C 3XHM npOHCXOflHX CHJIbHOe pacCJIOeHHe BKyCOBWX 

rpynn: HapoflHaa fleMOKpaxHMecKaa rpynna oxKajibiBaexcw 

ox yXOHHeHHOft H CXpeMflmeflcn K H3bICKaHHOCXH apHCXOKpaXHH 

BoeHHWx BejibMOJK H o6pa3yex, noBHflHMOMy, cbohj napoflHyK) 
MyBbiKy, a npocfjeccHOHajibHaji Macca MysbiKaHxoB naHMHaex 
nocxaBJiHXb HCKyccxBO cneuHajibHO no BKycy BJiaAbiMecxByio- 
wero KJiacca, ckjiohhofo k BHpxyo3HocxH h KOJiJieKUHonepcxBy. 
OftHOBpeMeHHO 3jiJiHHHcxHHecKa5i My3biKajibHa$3 Kyjibxypa pac- 
npocxpaHHCxca npn coaeKcxBHH o6jierHHBuiHxcsi CHomeHHS no 
BceMy npocxpancxBy orpoMHoft phmckoK HMnepHH, coaflaBan, 
MejKfly npoHHM, MyawKajibHoe HCKyccxBO caMoro PnMa, aoxojie 
noHXH a6cojiK)XHO HyM<Aoro MysbiKe. 



— 68 — 



69 — 



TojibKO HMnepaxopcKHft Phm c ero 
cxpeMaeHneM k nbiuiHOCTH h c ero HecoMHeHHO 
opHCHTanbHoft no xapaKxepy flecnoTHCH oKaaajicn CKOJibKO- 
Hwdyflb saMHTepecoBaH b MysuKajibHOM HCKyccTBe. 3to HCKyc- 
CTBO, npHHeceHHoe us SjiJiaflbi h oxMacTH c BocTOKa, nepBO- 
HanajibHO flBJiaexcsi (II — I ecKa) MHcxo-anMroHWHecKHM, h ero 
HOCHxejiHMH OKasbiaaioxcJi (JjwHHKHHHe, rpeKH, espeH h Apyrwe 
He pHMCKMe njieMCHa. McxopHH He coxpaHMJia HaM HHKaKHX ash- 
Hbix o HapoAHOM xBopnecxBe JiaxHHsiH h pmmjijih — bosmojkho, 
Hxo OHO BOBce OTcyxcxBOBajio y pauHOHajibHoft H cypoBofl BOeH- 
Hofi HauHH. HpHHeceHHoe c aocxoKa 3Ji;iHHH3HpoBaHHoe HCKyc- 
cxBO HMejio noxpe6HxeJieft b HapoMCAanjineftca HMnepaxopcKofi 
apHcxoKpaxHH H xoproBOM 6yp»ya3HH, KoxopaH caMa 6biJia 

HaCXbK) BOCXOHHOrO, HaCXbK) CeMHXHHeCKO-cJjHHHKHftCKOrO HpO- 
HCXOHCAeHHH. TaKHM o6pa30M Mbl HMeeM XyX npOH3BOACXBO 

MysbiKH AJia xapaKxepno-saMKHyxoro cjioa o6ecneMeHHbix nmx, 
HXO He 3aMeAJiHJio CKa3axbCJi na npcHMymecxeeHHO b h p x y o 3- 
HOM H oxiacxH AHJiexanxcKOM xapaKxepe My3biKH. Flpo- 
(f}eccHOHajibi siBJisiJiHCb npHABopHbiMH Bnpxyo3aMH, MarHaxbi — 
AHJiexaHxaMH, Ha3HaMeHHe My3biKn cxajio — BOcxBaaeHHe 
1/1 Jiecxb cHflbHbiM Mvipa HJiH JKC pasBJieMCHHe Ha nupuiecxBax. 
CaMH HMnepaxopbi na pstAy c ApyrwMH MarnaxaMw sannMajiHCb 
AHJiexaHXH3MOM B MHpc MysbiKH (HcpoH, KaflHryjia, Fcjiho- 
ra6a;i). B axy anoxy npoAOJiMcaexca paspadoxKa MysbiKajibHofl 
xeopHH, npH MBM BbiAejiaroxcn HMCHa nwcJiaropeflueB (KanoHH- 
kob) nxojiOMesi, KBHHXHJiHana, FayAeHUHH, BaKXHJia, 
HwKOMaxa (II bck), Iljiyxapxa (I bck) h Ap.. coimhcrhh 
Koxopbix, coxpaHHBiuMecsi noHbme, aohccjih ao nac cym- 
Hocxb aHXHHHoft MysbiKH H 66 x6opHH. IlocjieAHHfl xpaKxax, 
oxhocsiiuhAcsi k aHXHHHoA MysbiKe, HO yace no speMeHH nanH- 
caHHSi npHHaAJie^KamnA cpeAH6BeKOBbK>, npHHaAJieacnx phmjih- 
HHHy EoauHK) iVI b.). Canaa MysbiKa m ee HHCxpyMen- 
xapHft B 3XO BpeMH J^cHJibHeHuiHM o6pa30M BapBapMsvipyroxcfl; 
B o6hxoa6 noHBJiHHJxca MHoroMHCfleHHbie yAapHbie HHCxpy- 

MeHXbl, BSHXbie C BoCXOKa H H3 OprHaCXHMeCKHX KyjIbXOB, 

op ran, sanMcxBOBaHHbifl, noBHAHWOMy, H3 Kwraa h ycoBep- 

UieHCXBOBaHHblfi FepOHOM BO II BeKe, M6XajIJIHH6CKHe 

Tpy6bi H npoM. i' -' ' 



06q3Bii 

K O A O p H T. 



. -y 



; 



L 



IV*. — XpHCTwaHcka^ apa. 

riepBOHaiajibHoe xpHcxHancxBO 6bi;io xMnwH- 

HblM SJIJIHHHCXHieCKHM HBJICHHeM H AO 

,£ cBoero OKOHHaxejibHoro c(j|)opMnpoBaHHH, npo- 

MCuieAuiero h6 panee III BeKa, oho ne mopjio oKasuBaxb cyme- 
cxBeHHoro bjimhhmh hb MSMeneHMe npo(J)HJiH ajiJiHHHcxHMecKoft 
MysbiKH. HepBHHHoe xpHcxHancxBO, Bo6paBuie6 b ce6a AorMa- 

XHKy MeCCHaHHCXMHeCKHX 6BpeftCKHX C6KX H opweHxajiHSHpo- 

BaHHbie BexBH njiaxoHOBCKoA (|)hjioco(J|jhh, hmbjio npocxo 

CJIHIUKOM MajIO XOHeK COnpHKOCHOB6HH$[ C My3bIKajIbHblM HCKyC" 

cxBOM. CKopee scero AJia pannero xpHCXHancxBa xapaKxepno 
oxpHuaxejibHoe oxHouieHHe k Mysbixe, cxaBuiefii 

B 3XO BpeMH BCeueJIO CBCXCKHM HCKyCCTBOM. Ta XeMHOCXb 

H c6nBHHBOcxb HcxoMHHKOB, KoxopaH xapaKxcpHsycx paHHce 
xpHcxHancxBO, He nosBOJiaex c KaKofi 6bi xo hh 6biJio sepoax- 
HocxbKj cKa3axb, 6biJia jih MyawKa b pnxyajie nepBbix xpHcxwaH, 
H ecjiH 6biJia, xo KaKaa. C caMoro nanaJia b xpHcxHancxBe 

0603HaHaiOXCa ABC SeXBH — C OpHeHXaJlbHO-MHCXHHCCKHM yKJIO- 

HOM, acKexHMecKaa, pasBHBuiaaca Ha BocxoKe, tac 6biJio Mecxo 
H BOSMOWHdcxb oxiueJibHHHecxBa H TAe OHO 6biJio nocxoan- 

HblM aBJICHHeM H AO XpHCXHaHCXBa, H C aJIJlHHHCXHMeCKHM, 

o6mecxBeHHbiM yKJiOHOM, pa3BHBmaflca b cxpawax ajiJiHHHSMa 
(Phm, BwsaHXHa, M. A3hh, AfleKcanApHfl). FIocjieAHee Hanpa- 
BJieHHe ^jopMHpyexcH k III neKy h Biivixbisaex b ce6a Mysw- 
KaAbHbie pejiHrHosHbie pnxyajibi espeeB (aHxn(|}OHHoe nenwe, 
AeKJiaMauHOHHbifl pe^wxaxMB) h sjijihhob (rHMHbi). 3jijihhh3h- 
poBaHHoe xpHcxwaHcxBO HeMCAJieHHO (III— IV bbk) npHcno- 
codjiaex k ce6e aHXHHHyio xeopnio, KaK pas b axo BpeMa 
cKOHcxpyHpoBaHHyK) OKOHHaxejibHO xpyAaMH KanoHiiKOB, ho, 
B BHAy cpaBHHxejibHoft MajioKyjibxypnocxn xpHcxHancKoft Maccbi 
M xpyAHOcxH xeopHH, nocjiCAHaa noABcpraexca SHanHxejib- 

HOft peAyKUHH H OnpomeHHKJ. CKOflbKO-Hn6yAbBbIMyp- 

Hbie ..HaKJiOHCHHa", HaH6oJiee MOAHwe b asbinecKOM Mupe, 
6bHiH ox6pomeHbi, h MysbiKa Bepnyjiacb k AnaxoHHSMy, 
HXO 6biJio, no Bceft BepoaxnocxH, cxojibKO ace bwboaom H3 
j|pr>raxoB, xpe6oBaBiiJnx MaKCHMajibHoft npocxoxw c6cxaHOBKH, 
KaK H pesyjibxaxoM nepBo6bixHoro BKyca xpHcxHan- 
GKoft Maccbi, Ha KoxopyHj AOJiJKHa 6biJia axa MyswKa 
TipoHSBOAHXbca. HoBaa peJiHrna, KaK BcerAa, oxjiHHaaacb npn- 



r"i"3^ 



.<g(i ■<!■■» 5- 



HeBMbl. 



CTpacTHCM K flOrMaTHSHpOBaHVtK) H KaHOHHSaUHH nepBHHHblX 
4)OpM, TaK MTO H B OTHOUieHHH UepKOBHblX HanCBOB npcfl Heft 

HeweflJieHHO CTaji BajKHwft Bonpoc o 4'HKcauHH ysaKOHCH- 

HblX HaneBOB. HeCOMHCHHO, HTO HMCHHO 3TO o6cT09Te;ib- 

CTBo no6yAH.io xpHCTnaHCKHH MHp, c ero pHTyajibHOM Mysbi- 

KOft, BCHHeCKH CTpCMHTbCJI K TOMHeftUieft 3anHCH 

3 B y K o B, — aaftana, wenee HacyiuHaH a aHTHHHOM MHpe, rae 
pejiHrwosHaH xpaflHUHsi h florMaxHKa 6brjia MsirMe h rn6Me. 

IlepBOHaMajibHaH sanHCb 6biJia saHMCTBO- 
BaHa, noBHflHMOMy, c BocTOKa. 3to 6biJiH 
H e B M bi, 3HaKH, npH6jiH3HTejibHo yMa3biBaK)mne c|)opMy (npo- 
4)HJib) MejioflHH H o6pa30BaBiiiHecsi OTMacTH M3 rpenecKHx 

„aKyCHTOB", OTHaCTH H3 3HaKOB „XeftpOHOMHn", T.-e. Tex fl,BH- 
MCeHMft, KOTOpblMH ynpaBJIHJIH B TO BpeVlH XOpaWH, MTo6bI flaTb 

noHHTHe o flBHweHHH MejioflHH. ripHMHHa, noHeny xpHCTHaH- 
ckhR pHTyaji hc BocnojibsoBajicji 6ojiee coBepmeHHoft sjijimh- 
cKoft ceMHorpacjjjHeft, oneBHAHo, KpoeTCH b tom, mto nocjieflHHH 
no cBoeft cJiowHOCTH 6biJia He nofl cnjiy MaJiOHHTejiJiHrenTHoft 
xpHCTHaHCKoft Maccc, a HeBMbl HMCJiH npeHMymccTBo H a r Ji H fl- 
hocth; KpoMe Toro, ne jihiucho BepoflTHH, hto npw Toraaiu- 
HCM MajiOM pasBHTHM cJiyxa y xpncTHaHCKofl o6mHHbi B cpefl- 
HBM 6oflee flCTajibHaH sanwcb npocTO Morjia OKasaTbCH 
HSJiHuiHeftj Ha npaKTHKe. K IV — V BCKy HCBMOBoe nucbMO 
pacnpocTpaHHJiocb no Bceny BocTOxy xpHCTHancKoro MHpa, 
HO Ha Sanaae oho cTanoBHTCH npHHHTbiM JiHiiib nosAHee, 

K VIII BCKy. 

rio Mepe Toro, KaK xpHCTHaHCTBO 3axBa- 
TbiBaeT 6ojiee KyjibTypHwe cjioh HacejieHHSf 
H, HaKoneu,, CTanoBHTCH o(|)nunajibHOH pejiHraeft, b cpe^e 
ero BbipacTaeT 6ojibiiiaa Tpe6oBaTeJibHocTb k ypoBHK) pHTy- 
aJibHoft My3biKH. HaMHHaeTCJi npouecc cneuHajiHsauHn, 

4>OpMHpOBaHH5I KaflpOB HCnOJIHHTCJieft pHTyaJIbHOH MySblKH. 

AcKeTHMecKHH H HflcajiHCTHHecKHft xapaKTep pejiMrHH c caMoro 
HanaJia BbiKJiHjMHJi h3 o6nxofla HHCTpyMen- 

T bl. KaK CJIHUIKOM HCKyCCTBeHHbie.MyBCTBCHHbie 

H HanoMHHaBiuHe o aBbinecKOM 6biTe. TojibKo 
op ran coxpaHHJics( Ha npaKTHKe 3anaflHoft uepKBH, npw nen 
He jiHuieHO sepoHTHH, MTO OH 6biji TaM cnanajia noAco6HbiM 
HHCTpyMCHTOM npn o6yH[eHHH neHHK) MajiOMyBbiKaJibHbix B cpefl- 
HeM aaenTOB hobom pejinrHH, tbm 6ojiee, hto BOo6ine, bhahmo, 



IIpo^eccHOHaAu. 



HHCTpynieHTapHHi 
xpHCT. apbi. 



— 71 -- 

MyBblKajIbHOCTb pHMCKOFO HacejieHHH 6bIJia oneHb HeSblCOKa. 

Ha BocTOKe, r^e napofl 6biJi My3biKajibHee h xyflOMtecTBeHHan 
Ky;ibT.ypa npHBbinnee, opran He npuBHJicH, h6o b hbm He 

6bIJIO HyMCflbl. B BOCTOMHOft o6jiaCTH nepBblMH COCTaBHTejIHMH 

xpHCTwaHCKHx puTyajibHbix HaneBOB HBJiHioTcsf E(|3peM Cm- 
p M H H en. E p o c|5 e ft. a Ha Sana^e— M ji a p h u 



CAaraTCAH 

nepBUX THMHOB. 



yHHCOHBOe neHHe. 



H)6nAHHHH. 



(IV BCk). riOTOM B STOft o6flacTH pa6oTajiH 
MHorHe: Ha BocTOKe — MoaHH SjiaToycT 
<IV bck), PoMan C;iaflKoneBeu (V seK; na Sanaae ^e Bbwe- 

J1HJIC5I AMBpOCMft MHJiaHCKHM (IV BeK), yCTaHOBMBUIUft, HO 

npeflaHHK), uepKOBHbie Jiajibi Hanoflo6He aHTUHHbix, 
xoTH H He coBnaflaroiuHe c hhmh. BnpoMCM. ycTanoBJieHHe 

3THX JiaflOB, BHflHMO, npOHCXOJXHJTO BCCbMa flJIHTejlbHO H SaBCp- 

uiHJiocb JiHiub K XII BeKy, ncpBOHaMajibHO me mh HMeen 
npocTO flejio c npocTeftmeft 4)opMOH AHaTOHH3Ma. 

rieHHe BHanajie 6biJio HCKJiiOMHTejibHO y h h- 

C O H H bl M (hJIH OKTaBHbIM), XOpOBbIM H aHTH" 

4)OHHbiM (nonepeMeHHbiM) — KaacflOMy cjiory tckctb cooTBeT- 

CTBOBaJI 3ByK, H pHTM SaBHCejI OT TCKCTa. B BHAy TOrO, MTO 

B TO BpcMsr (h flaH<e mhofumh h noHWHe) c 

TpyAOM pa3;iHMaJIHCb aKUCHTbl AJlHTeJIbHOCTM 

(=yfljiHHeHHe 3ByKa) ot aKuenTa AHHaMHMecKoro (=ycHJieHKe 

3ByKa), BCCbMa TpyflHO CKasaTb, 6bIJIH JIH AJIHTeJIbHOCTH 3By- 
KOB OflHHaKOBbI HJIH paSJIHMHbl, HO BcposiTHee npeflnoJiOJKeHHe, 
MTO BHaMaJie pHTMHKa 6bIJia aOBOJIbHO pa3H0o6pa3HOft, HO 

neHHe yHHCOHOM Bceft o6mHHoft, Majio pa3BHToft b cjiyxoBOM 
OTHOUieHHH, Majio pa36HpaK)uueftcH b HMsancax pwTMa h 6ojiee 
aanHTepecoBaHHofl b TeKCTe, npHBejio k OKaMenenHK) 
pHTMa HaneBOB b paa poBHbix AJiHTejibHocTcft. B KOHuax 
4)pa3 AonycKajiHCb tbk Ha3. to 6 h ji h u h h, T.-e. cBo6oAHbie Me- 

JlOAHMeCKHe KOAbI, C TeKCTOM yiKG He CBSISaHHbie, SMOUHOHajIbHO 
COOTBeTCTBOBaBlIlHe BbipaJKCHHlO OMCHb CHJIbHblX MyBCTB — 

BOCTopra, 3KCTa3a. 

CTpCMJieHHC K AOrMaTHSaUHH, CBOftCTBeHHOe XpHCTHanCTBy, 
BbipaBHJlOCb BCKOpe B TOM, MTO HaneBbl, AOnyCTHMbie B uepK- 
BH, 6biJin orpaHHMeHbi b MHCJie h nonojiHsiJiHCb 6o;iee b nopsiAKe 
BapHHpoBaHHfl cTapbix, MCM cocTaBJieHHSi HOBbix. Flana Tpv- 

ropHft (VI — VII B.) COCTaBHJI H peAaKTHpOBaJI c6opHHK A03B0- 

jieHHbix HaneBOB — tbk Has. aHTHcfjOHapHM, h OAHOspeMeHHO 

6bIJIO ysaKOHCHO B uepKBH TOJlbKO ABa THna neHHJi: C O JI b H o e 



m 



72 — 



73 — 



4 



(cantus planus), npw mbm aonycKanHCb yKpaiueHHH 
B MejioflHH MejiHSMaTHMeckoro Tuna, h xopoBoe (cantus 
choralis), KOTopoe no Heo6xoflHMOCTH 6biJio 6ojiee npocToro 
pucyHKa. C V bckb ABHrarejisMH MysbiKajibHO-pHxyajibHora 
MCKyccTBa cTaHOBSTCH MOHacTbipH, Tfle cpaBHHTejibHoe cno- 

KOftCTBHe »CH3HH H HCaaHHTOCTb BpeMCKH AaBaJIH nOBOA K BHM- 

MaTCJibHoft KyjibType SByKOBWx KanesoB h k cBo6oAHOMy 

TBOpneCTBy B STOM o6;iaCTH. CBOftCTBCHHaH BCSKOMy HCKyc- 

cTBy flK)6oBb K nporpeccy npopbiBajiacb SAecb cKBOSb cypoBwe 
paMKH uepKOBHoro KanoHa. 3th npopuBbi cooTBeTCTBOBajiM 

KBK CTpCMJieHHK) K TBOpHeCTBy, TaK H CTpCMJieHMK) K BHpTy- 
03H0My CaMOnpOHBJieHHK) HCnOJIHHTeJIfl. K)6hJIHUHH, fl,03B0- 

jieHHbie cantus planus, 6biflH yAo6HbiM mcctom 
CeKBeHnHB. y~. 

fljifl TaKHx npopbiBOB. Ohh nocTeneHHO paciun- 

psijnicb H AOuiJiH MO pasMepoB caMocTOHTCJibHbix necHonennfl, 
KaK 6bi saKJiHjHaBuiHX HaneBbi aHTHtJDOHapHH hjih TaK Has. can- 
tus firmus (=„TBepflbift HancB"). 3th HOBbie cBo6ofl,Hbie 
necHoneHHH nojiyMHJin hmji ceKBCHUHft (sequere — cJieAOBaTb 
3a HeM-jiH6o). flaJibHeftiuee pasBHTne BbipasHJiocb b tom, hto 

H CaMbie CeKBCHUHH nOJiyHHJIH CBOfl TCKCT H BOBCe OTO- 

pBajiHCb OT aHTH(|)OHapHoro HaneBa (TaK Ha3. n p o 3 w — prosa^ 
coKpameHHO BMecTO pro sequentia, T.-e. „BMecTO ceKBenuHH) . 
3to 6bijio B cymHOCTH peaKUHeft npoTHs mhctoA wysbiKajib- 
HOCTH H AaHbK) acKeTHSMy, Tpe6oBaBiiieMy npeanoHTeHHS 

MOJIHTBCHHOrO TCKCTa CBo6oAHbIM MeflOAMSM. CeKBCHUHH pa3- 
BHJIHCb B 0C06eHH"0CTH B IX BCKC, H OAHHM H3 HX K0Mn03HT0- 

poB 6biJi HoTKep Baji6y;iyc (IX bck), xotb poflb ero 
6biJia B cymnocTH Jiniub KOMnn^iHTopcKan. 

Ha BocTOKe Ae^o, aHajiorHHHoe ACJiy rpHropwH, cBepiiiHfl 
cHpHeu MoaHH JlaMacKHH (VIII bck), co6paBuiHfl TaK Ha- 
sbiBaeMbifl Oktohx, t.-c. TaKoe H«e, kbk h aHTw^JOHapHfi, 
co6paHHe necHoneHHfi no nopHAKy BOCbMH jiaAOB,' aosbo- 
jiCHHbix B uepKBH, KOTopwe yH«e panee HaMenaflHCb h flAxe 
KaHOHHsnpoBaJiHCb b npaKTHKe boctomhoA uepKBH. Thh uep- 
KOBHoro ncHHsi BocTOKa H SanaAa 6bin, noBHAHMOMy, noHTH 
MAeHTHHen k VIII BCKy, h TOJibKO OKOHHaTenbHoe pasAejieHwe 
uepKBefl, Bbi3BaHHoe He CTOJibKO AorwaTHHecKHMH pasHorjiacH- 

HMH, CKOJIbKO OAHOBpCMeHHO npOHCmCAUIHM HapymCHHeM CBJI3H 

BocTOKa H SanaAa 6xiaroAapH saxBaTy ToproBbix nyrefi capauH- 
HaMH, noBACKJio nocTencHHoe pacxo»cAeHHe jihhhA pa3BHTHH. 



CocTaB Toft waccbi, AJiH KOTopoiK co6- 
HoBue pacu h aa- 
poAu a HCTopHw- CTBCHHO cymecTBOBajia MyswKa b sto BpeMn, 

cKot nepcneKTHBe. peiuHTejibHo MenneTca. Ha HCTopHMecKyio 

apeHy BbicTynaioT HOBbie pacbi, OBaaAeBaK)- 

mne paccjia6eBmHM opraHHSMOM pwMCKOft HMnepnH. 3;ijihhh- 

cTHHCCKaa KyjibTypa pacceHBacTca, HCHe3aeT, na CMeHy 

HBiTHJOTCfl HOBbie pacbi H njieMCHa, c coBepmeHHO hhwm 

THHOM HyBCTBOBaHHH: nJICMCHa rajIflO-KCIIbTHMeCKHe, repMBH- 

cKHe H cjiaBHHCKHe. 3th Maccbi nocTeneHHo BbiTCCHsiroT 
npeatHHe pacbi ■ — pHMCKO-JiaTHHCKyio h sjMHHCKyK). SanaA 
noABcpraeTCH 3axBaTy raAJibCKO - repMaHCKHMH njieMenaMH, 

BOCTOK CeMHTHHeCKHMH H HpaHCKO - apHflCKHMH, OTHaCTM 

TKjpKCKHMH. 3tH HOBbie HapOAbI HMCJIH CBOK) HaUHOHajIbHyK) 

MysbiKy, CBBsaHHyio c hhhm 6biTOM h coBepuieHHO hhwm 
3ByK0C03epuaHHeM. FlepBOHaHaAbHan xpHCTHancKaji MyBWKa 
6biJia HacjieAHCM ajiJiHHHCTHHecKoro Mnpa h KyjibTypw; b 
TaKOM BHAe OHa yMejia yAepacaTbca ao IX seKa, npoTHsocToa 

KaK BJIHHHHHM CBeTCKOft My3bIKH 3JIAHHH3HpOBaHHOrO MHpa, TaK 

H HapoAHoft MysbiKe hobmx njieMCH ccBepa. Ho 6ojiee aojifo 

HeJIb3a 6bIAO BblAepJKHBaTb CTHAb, yjKB CTaBUIHft MyWAbIM 

Macce, coBcpmeHHO HSMennBUieftca njieMennbiM cocTaBOM. 
Phmjiah h rpeKOB na SanaAe He CTajio, — noaBHJiHcb repManubi, 
rajiAbi, raJiJio-poMaHbi h Apyrwe, h mx BKyc cTaJi nocTeneHHO 

nOBOpaHHBaTb THH MySblKH B CBOK) CTOpOHy. HoBbie HaUHH 
6bIJIH B CymeCTBe MyBblKaAbHbl, H HX MyBWKajlbHOCTb OTJIHHa- 
JiaCb OT My3bIKaJlbHOCTH SJIJlHHCKOrO MHpa. OtTOTO THH 

MyBbiKH B SanaAHofl Espone nannHaeT 6mctpo 

H cymecTBCHHO Ae(|)OpMHpOBaTbCH; HanpOTHB, B 
BOCTOHHOft, 3AJIHHH3HpOBaHHOft Espone (BH3aHTHH, HOTOM 

Pycb), TAe Ha cueny He BbicTynnjiH HHKaKHe HOBbie napoAbi 
H njieMena, 3a HCKJiioHeHHeM apa6oB (VII bck), mw Ha6AK>- 
AaeM npocTo cnepBa KapTHHy yracaHHH My3biKajibHoro 3jijih- 
HH3Ma, a noTOM MomHoe. HO cneuHcJjHHecKoe h Herjiy6oKoe 
BJiHHHHe apa6cKoro ceMHTHSMa, norjiOTHSiuero My- 
sbiKy CHanajia BHsanTHH, hotom npancKHx h KasKascKHx 
nneMCH (apMHHe, nepcw) h, naKoneu, CBpeeB h hc ocTaB- 
uierocH 6e3 bjihhhhh Ha napoAHoe TBopnecTBO McnanHH, ne- 
nocpcACTBeHHO noABepruueflcH BOSAeftcTBHK) apa6cKoS Kyjib- 



\ 



....iiiitiiiiiiillii 



— 74 — 
riepBHHHaH xpHCTnaHCKan MyswKa cosAa- 

BKycosaH rpynna gajiacb B paCMCTe Ha nOTpe6HTeJIH-xpHCTHa- 
noTpeoHTeAH - npu- 

xo«.aHHHa.nepKOB- ™"^' "PeAaHHoro KyjibTy H pejiHraH, h 

Haft MySblKa. SBHJiaCb pesyJIbTaTOM, C OAHOS CXOpOHbl, 3TH- 

MeCKHX H aCTeXHHeCKHX Tpe6oBaHHfi KyjlbTa, 

a c flpyroft — pesyjibxaxoM HSBecxHoro cHHCxoMcfleHHH k ypoBHK) 
noxpe6Hxeji5i, mqjio acxexHMecKH pasBHxoro. Ho, bhahmo, y^ce 
K III seKy xpHCXHaHcxBO, npn3HaHHoe ocjjJHUnajJbHO, Bo6paB- 
luee B ce6ji Maccbi JKOfleft, HaHHHaex cHJibHO MensixbCH no 
xHny H no MHpoomymeHHK). OflHOBpeweHHO nepBHMHbie 
rpynnbi xpHcxHaH, He TipHSHaBaBiuHx HHKaKoro HCKyccxBa, 
KpoMe pHxyaJibHoro, h nocjieflHHM snojiHe yaoBJiexBopaBUiHxcji, 

3aMeHHK)XC5I HOBblMH XpHCXHaHCKHMH CflBa JIH HC XOJlbKO HO 

HaSBaHHK) MaccaMH, Koxopwx pejIMFHOSHaa MysbiKa 
BOBce He yAOBJiexBopsiJiaH flazKe 6bma hm no cyme- 
cxBy HyMCfla. Bnyc 9xnx Mace flOJiMcen 6biJi HemwHyeMO bm- 
3Baxb K 2KH3HH coOxBexcxBytoutee SByKOBoe xBopnecxBO, m 
ecxecxBCHHO, mxo oho mofjio B03HHKHyxb He B HBApax uepKBH, 
a B HapoAHoft xojime. 

CeeepHO-eBpcneftcKHe HapoAbi, BcxynHBUiwe b HcxopHHe- 
CKyK) poAb, npcMCAe Bcero hccjih b ce6e HCKoxopyK) ApesHiOK), 
xoxH H npHMHXHBHyK) MysbiKajibHyK) (neceHHyK)) Kyjibxypy. Ms 
HHx rajiJio-KCJibXHMecKHe njieMBHa h cjiasaHe HMejiM 
CJioJKHBiuyKJca B 6bixy npnBbiHKy k MHororoAOCHK), k no- 
JiHcjjOHHH, Ha Hxo yKasbiBaiox H HX HHCxpyMCHXbi (Hanp. 
opraHHcxpyM, a MajiopoccHH HbiHe HSBecxnaa noA Hwe- 
HBM jiHpbi, HjiH BOJibiHKa), a xaKMce MHororo;iocHbiM cKJiaA 
neceH („noAroAOCKH" — b pyccKoft necne). B axoM apxaHnecKOM 
MHOroroAOCHH JiK)6onbixHO ynoxpe6jieHHe xepuHH na npasax 

KOHCOHaHCa, HXO o6yCJIOBJIHBaeX B006me B03M0M<H0CXb 

MHororojiocHJi. Hanpoxus, repMaHO-cKaHAHHaBCKMe 
njieMena o6jiaAajiH b cBoeA MysbiKe CHJibHeftuiHM nyBcxBOM 
X o H H K H, opHenxHpoBKOM Bceft MejiOAHH KpyroM OAHoro rjiaB- 
Horo 3ByKa. M xo h Apyroe cboScxbo 6biJio Hy«AO aHXHMHOM 

My3bIKe, H aXH CBOflCXBa 6bIJlH KaK pa3 XCMH 3epHaMH, H3 

Koxopbix cMorjia pasBHXbca nwuiHaa eBponeflcKaji rapMOHHH 
H nojm4)OHHfl[. 

HjieMeHHofl 6bix apxaHnecKoft CeB. Esponbi 
apoAHan mysbiKa jjQpQj^j^jj Bi^j^mvio, eme saAOJiro AO aKXHBHOro 

6BpOn. IIACM6B. 

BbicxynjieHHH Ha HcxopuMecKyK) apeny repoH- 



Hapo^Hbie nesgu. 



— 75 - 
MecKyio cary -^CKasaHMe, anajiorHMHoe anocy rpeKOB, 

H BOHHCXBeHHyK) neCHK), BblSBaHHyK) nOCXOHHHblMH 

n;ieNeHHbiMH BoftHaMH. 9xo 6bi;ia wcKOHHasi „no33HH-My3biKa" 
ceBepHbix njicMeH, npw nen cbmh neBuw-noaxbi jiBJiHJiHCb 
HpesBbinaMHO ysa^aeMbiM cocjiOBneM, b nenoxopbix pacax 
HacjieAcxBeHHbiM (b FaAJiMH, y KeJibxoB, uioxjiaHAuea 

H B MpjiaHAHH, XaKMCe B CKaHAHHaBHH), H HOCHJIH HaHMCHOBa- 

HHH 6apAOB (b raflJio-KejibXHMecKHX cxpanax), CKaAbAOB 
(b cKaHAHHaBCKHx cxpanax), 6 a h h o b (y cAa- 
bhh); y repManueB ne 6biAO o6oco6AeHHoro 
cocjiobhs neauoB, ho cara h necHH cymecxBOBaAH. OeBUbi 
3XH conpoBOJKAajiH cBoe ireHHe, noBHAWMOMy, ocHOBaHHoe na 
apxaHHecKoft naxHcxyneHHoft raMMe, aKKOMnaHeMenxoM 
cxpyHHbix HHcxpyMeHxoB (y 6apAOB — Kpoxxa h ap(|)a, 
y CAaBflHCKHx nesUOB — r y c Ji h). Ha pHAy c 3xhm npHBMJiern- 

pOBaHHblM HCKyCCXBOM, HOBHAHMOMy, CymeCXBOBaJIO H 6bIXOBOe, 

6oAee npocxoe — MyawKa, conpoBOHCAaBuiasi pa6oxy h nAHCKy. 
3apo»«AaK)mHftcH tJjeoAajibHbift 6bix npoBCA neKOXopyK) 
rpaHb MewAy BKycoBWMH rpynnawH npHBHJierHpoBaHHbix 
KAaccoB H npocxoro napoAa — b axo BpeMH, noBHAWMOMy, sa- 
poacAaexcH h npHMHXHBHbiA npocHjeccHOHajiifSM b MysbiKe — 
cocAOBHe AKJAeft, nocBHinatoiUHX ce6si yBeceAeHHio ApyrHX. 
HapoAHan MyswKa, noBHAHMOMy, yHce 6biAa Bnoane pasBHxa 
BO BpeMH BbicxynjieHHS raAAO-repMaHCKHX n^e- 
MBH Ha MwpoByK) apcHy, ho npHo6meHHe Bcex axHx 
HapoAOB K xpHCXHaHCKOM Kyjibxype c ee HacAeAnew saahhh- 
cxH4ecKoro Mnpa h c ee acKexHSMOM b cMucAe xyAO»«ecxBeH- 

HOCXH, BHAHMO, CHAbHO SaAepMCaAO paSBHXHe 3X0H MySblKH. 

TeM He Mence yme c VII bbkb mw Ha6jiK)AaeM b a h a h h e 
BKyca HOBbix HapoAHbix Mace naajiJiHHHcxHHe- 
CKyio KyAbxypy uepKOBHoft MysbiKH. IlepBbie bbcx- 

HHKH aXOrO BAHSHHJI UIJIH H3 KeJIbXHHeCKHX CXpaH (CeB. 
OpanUHH. AhHAHH, IlIoXJiaHAHn) H 3aKJIK)HaAHCb HMeHHO b xom, 

HXO HapoAHbift BKyc ynopHO cxpeMHJicH npHAaxb 



MBororoAOCHue 

saiaTKH B KeAk- 

THieCKHX cTpaHax. 



MHOrorOJIOCHbIM XHn UepKOBHOH My3bIKe, 

XHn, BHAHMO, cpoAHHBuiHHCsi c ec BKycoM HyxeM 

AJIHXeJIbHOA yHCe npWBblHKH K nOAH(|30HHH 

B napoAHbix MHCxpyMenxax h xopoBbix necnnx. 3rox nepBO- 
6bixHbifl BHA MHororojiocHH (BepHee, noKa „AByxrojiocHsi"), 
cooxBexcxBOBaBiuHfl nepBbiM po6khm nonbixKaM ocosHaHHS! 



■■■^•v: .,■' 



MHXepBajlOB BMX OAHOBpeMeHHOM3ByHaHMH, Bbl- 

.HHJICH B uepKOBHofl MysbiKe B (JjopMe opranyMa, T.-e. flByx- 
rojiocHoro neHHH, npH KOTopoM oahh rojioc HcnoJiHHJi cantus 
firmus, a flpyroft — MejioflHK) caMOCTonTejibHyio, Toro 
>Ke pHTMa, HO o6pa30BbiBaBuiyK> c nepBbiM pasHbie HHTepsajibi, 
MHOPAa CJiHBaBiuyiocsi c nepebiM (b KOHuax cjiob, b kohuc Bcero 
necHoneHHJi). 3tot opraHyM, o 6ojiee noApo6Hbix jterajinix 
KOToporo MHeHHH pacxoflHTCH (hc ycTaHOBJieHO,6biJi nvi oh hhcto- 

BOKajIbHblM HJIH JKC nOJiyHHCTpyMCHTaJIbHblM, B HaCTHOCTH 

c yMacTHCM „opraHa"), pacnpccTpaHsieTCJi k IX BCKy yace 
noBCCMecTHO, a nanajio ero bocxoaht, bhahmo, k VI BCKy. 

ripHJIHB HapOflHO-MySblKaJIbHOft SHepTHH B flyXOBHyK) 

MysbiKy BbipawajicH h b hhwx ^'opMax. 9jiJiHHncTHMecKajj 
ocHOBa aHTn4)OHapHH Bce BpcMsi noflBeprajiacb nanafleHHAM 
HapoflHoro MysbiKajibHoro coBHaHwa to co cxopoHbi BocTOKa 
(Chphh, EoArapKsi, Ohhhkh»), to co dxopoHbi SanaAa. FlepBO- 
HanajibHoe acKCTHMecKoe cTpoeHHC xpHCTHancKoft o6mHHbi 

npMBOAHJIO K SaTyUieBblBaHHK) SCTCTHHeCKHX 9Jie- 

MCHTOB, B THMHc H necHoneHHH ucKHJiocb „HacTpoeHHe" 
AyiuH, a He BHeuiHHH Kpacoxa, — sto HanpaBJienne c ApeBHeA- 
uiHX BpcMen BCTynacT b 6opb6y c 6onee MyBCTseKHbiM, 
McxoAfliUHM H3 nepH(|)epMH xpucTHaHCKoro MHpa. B uejiflx 

arHTauHOHHbix, KaK MCTOA nponaraHAbi hoboR 
"™™"„*!!f™ pe-iiMrHH, xpucTHancTBO BpeMa OT BpeMCHH 

ACJiajio ycTynKH, BbipaacaBiiiHecsi b accHMM- 



AHgHH BaneBOB 
HapOAHOCTblO. 



;i5iUMH uepKOBHOM cjiyac6oft napoA- 
Hbix HancBOB. SanacTyK) TaKoro poAa accHMHjiauHa nponc- 
xoAHJia caMonpoHBBOJibHO, HepeAKO CBsisbmasicb c cena- 

paTHMeCKHMH CTpeMJieHHHMH OTAe;ibHbIX HaUnA H MeCTHOCTeft 

OTAejiaTbCH OT rercMOHHH Phmb, b kotopom xpHCTHaHCKan 
uepKOBb BSflJia Ha ce6a npeeMCTBennocTb hach MnpoBoro 
rocyAapcTBa. 3th asTOHOMHwe npocanHBanHa napoAHoro 
MCJioca 6ojibiiieK> nacxbio ne KaHOHHsnpoBajiHcb ucHTpajibHoft 

BJiaCTbK) UepKBH, paCCMaTpHBaJIHCb KaK epeCb H OTKJIOHCHHe 
OT MHCTOTbl, nOABeprajIHCb rOHeHHflM, HO npaKTHHeCKH TaK 

MjiH HHaMe, nyTCM HacTHMHWx ycTynoK, npviBHBaAHCb. Eme 
apHancKaa epecb (IV bck) na BocTOKe 6biJia cBHsana 

C arHTaUHOHHbIM MCTOAOM BOSAefiCTBHH nyTCM HapOAHblX Ha- 

nesoB Ha uepKOBb, a na 3anaAe caMaa <|)opMa H>6MJinuHH 
6bijia B cymHocTH ycTynKoft napoAHOMy rcHHio, bwxoaom 



B HeKOTOpbIM npOCTOp TBOpHeCTBa M B TO JKC BpCMfl C03Aa- 

aacb noA HBHbiM BJiMHHHeM CBpcftcKoro cHHaroraJib- 
Horo neHHa. CBo6oAa „ajiJiHJiyMHbix" K)6MJiau,Mi) BbisbisacT 
HeMCAJieHHO onaceHne uepKOBHHKOB, AJia KOTopwx KpacoTa 

SByKa M 3MOUHH HHMCB JlOFOCa, CMblCJia, H HOTOMy HOBAHHe 

ceKBeHUHH, B KOTopbix K)6HJiauHa nojiynaeT tckct, AO,nM<- 
Hbi paccMaTpuBaTbca, KaK neKOTopoe peTporpaAHOe 
siBJieHHe, KaK CTpcMJieHHe k AeMy3biKajiH3auHH necHonenna. 
Pannee cpeAHeseKOBbe Bce npoHHKHyTo 

HapOABafl wysMKa g^^g KapTHHOft 6opb6bI, KOHTypw KOTOpofl 

npoTBB gepKOB ^jinBaiOTCH c 6opb6ofl HauHOHajibHoro 
HanaAa npoTHB Phmb, npn «ieM to Ta, 
TO Apyraa CTopona AOCTHrajia MacTHMHbix ycnexOB. Mhofo- 
MHCJicHHwe e p e c H^ BosHHKaBiuMe H pasBMBaBiuHeca Ha na- 
UHonaJibHoft noHBe, 6biJiH npHCTanHmeM una 6onee apbix 
BcnbimeK HapoAHOro MCJioca b peJiHrHOSHOM pwTyajie. Ho 
6opb6a 3Ta npoAOJi«aeTca Aaace h b nosAHCM cpeAneseKOBbe 
H saxoAHT B anoxy BoBpoacACHHa. FlecHa h Aa»<e njiacKa 
BTopraeTca b pHTyan, k yHcacy opTOAOKcajiHCTOB, h ne hchc- 
3aeT OTTyAa, Aawe noAseprnyTaa anacJjeMe, a TOJibKO npn- 
cnoco6jiaeTca. OoaBJiaroTca naneBbi, b KOTopbix 6e3 
TpyAa MOMCHO yjiOBHTb MCJiOAHH HonyjiapHbix napoAHbix necen, 
TaHueB H npoH. B pHTyan MCCTaMH npoHHKaiOT h h c t p y- 
MCHTbi, Hapyuiaa nepBo6biTHyK) BOKajibnyK) HHCTOTy cTwaa. 
OAHOBpeMCHHO pasBHBaeTca, b mhcto - 
npo(})eccHOHajibHofi cpeAe ncBuoB-cneuHajJH- 
CTOB, cneun4)HMecKoe CTpeMAenHe k BHpTy- 

03H0CTH, K MCeJiaHHK) 6jieCHyTb He TOJIbKO HyB- 
CTBOM, HO H TeXHHKOft. 

K)6H;iau,HH h MHoro4HcJieHHbie MeJiOAWMHbie yKpamenHa 
HaneBOB (MejiHSMbi), pacnpocTpanHBuiHeca yme b VIII — IX Be- 
Kax, aBMJiHCb B TaKoft me mepe ycTynKoft cBo6oAHOMy TBop- 
MecTBy H HapoAHOMy reHHH), KaK h nopoHCAeHwe BHpTyoBHO- 
CTH ncBuoB — npoaBJieHHeM HWCTO-MysbiKaJibHoro na- 
MaJia, npo4>eccHOHajibHoro acTeTHHecKoro SBy- 
KOCosepuaHHa, OAwnaKOBO OTKjionaiomeroca h ot Kyab- 

TOBblX SaAaHHfi, H OT HapOAHOFO MyBCTBa H paccMHTaHHoro 

Ha BKyc He6o;ibmoft rpynnbi npo4)eccHOHa;ibHbix uenHTeflefi. 
SaMena deccJioBecHO-BMpryosHoft K)6HJiauHH nosAHCHUieft ce- 
KBenuHeft c tckctom 6bina HMeHHO peaKUHen BKyca na- 



IIpo^ieccBOHa- 

AH3M. BHpTyOS- 
BOCTb. 



I 9 



— vy 



poflHOM Maccbi npoTHBBKycanpo4)eccHOHajiOB. 

PaHHHH noAH<bo- PaHHMM nOJlHC|)OHH3M HJIH O p r a H y M 6bIJI 

HHH. OpraHVM, HeCOMHeHHO TOHCe HC HCM HHbIM, KaK (^OpMOM 

KaK peaKgHH npo- HCKaHMH MOHyMCHTaJlbHblX, BeJlHMeCTBCHHblX, 

THB HSMCAbHa- cOOTBeTCTByHJmHX KyjlbTy 4)OpM, HO OflHOBpe- 

HHH CTHAH. mchho mcm - TO dojicc BneHaTJiHK)mnx, 6ojiee 

CJIOHCHbIM, HCM yjKC npHeBlUHftcH yHHCOH (m O H O fl H Si). MySbl" 
KajibHasr CTHXHH HHCTHHKTHBHO HLUCT paSBHTHH, BnHTbiBaex B 

ce6a Bce bosmomchoc, ho npn stom neMHHyeMO coBpamaeTcji 
c MOHyMeHxajibHofi npocTOTbi CTHJifl. B XI seKe b cbsish c 

paSBHTHCM KpeCTOBblX nOXOflOB, C OM<HBJieHHeM B CBH3H 

c 3THM opHeHTajibHoro BJ1H5IHHH, 3 OTHacTH M 6jiaroflap5i Mas- 

pMTaHHSaUHH McnaHHH Mbl BHflHM CHJIbHbie B03fleMCTBHSI 

apa6cKOH MejiHSMaxHKH (cxHJib neHHH c yKpaiiieHH5iMn) Ha 
MysbiKy uepKBH, KOTopan sapaMcaexcH cHjibHeMiuHM ycnoM<He- 

HHeM CHCXCMbl yKpaUieHHft B MeJIOJIHH, H 3XO HSMCJIbMaeX 

cxHJib, fl,ejia5i ero BbinypHbiM, He cooxBexcxByiomuM pejinrH- 
03HbiM HacxpoeHHSM. OflHOBpcMeHHO HBJiHexcji H opraHyM, 

flaiOmHM HeMTO HOBOe B MySblKaJIbHOM OXHOUieHHH, 

HO He o6najiaK>mv[Pi MnrKOcxbio scxexwHecKoro BneMaxjieHUH. 
JI,Ba xeMeHHH — Menv(3MaxH4ecKoe h nojiH4)OHHHecKoe — napaji- 
JiejibHo pasBHBajoxcH, see 6ojiee h 6ojiee ycjiOMCHHqcb, Ka>Kfloe b 
CBoeM ayxe, c IX no XIV bbk., h o6a Bce BpeMsi noflBeprawxca 
nocxoHHHbiM nonbixKaM uepKBH o6y3flaxb hx pocx h pasBuxne. 
9xox see pocx HauHOHajibHoro XBopnecxBa, 
apoABan mysbi- xBopnecxBa B HCflpax Mace, npHBOflHx k xowy, 

Ka B IX — XII BE. 

Mxo HapoflHaH MysbiKa, cHanajia npecJie- 
flyenas!, KaK rpexoBHoe 3aHaxHe, see we nocxenenno Kpen- 
Hex H pasBHBaexcH. Ecjih uepKOBHaa nysbiKa pa6oxajia 
Ha Maccbi, HO c H3BecxHbiM KyjibxoBbiM orpaHHMeHHeM, xo Hapofl- 
Ha» MysbiKa, oxKOJioBuiasicsi ox uepKOBHOH, pa6oxajia hckjikjmh- 
xejibHO flJiH caMoro lUHpoKoro noxpe6;ieHH5i 6e3 orpaHHHCHnft. 
BKycoBbie pasjinHHH BnyxpH napoaa b xy nopy paHHero 
c|)eoaajiH3Ma 6biJiH BbipasceHbi aoBOJibno cjia6o: Kopojib h Kpe- 
cxbstHHH B cymnocxH HMejiH xox Mce XHH MysbiKajibHoro BKyca, 

H nOHBHBlllHeCH B VIII B. 6pOflHMHe CKOMOpOXH H >KOH- 

r ji e p bi -~npo4>eccHOHaJibHbie My3biKaHXbi, xaH- 

UOpW H (fOKyCHHKH — B CyiJUHOCXH yflOBJICXBO- 

pHJiH BKycy xex h apyrHx. O cymecxBe hx 

MySbIKH MXO - HH6yflb CKBBaXb XpyflHO, HO HCCOMHeHHO, MXO 



i 



HioHrAepu h 
CKOMOpOXH. 



oHa cHJibHO sanenaxjiejiacb h b uepKOBHbix Mejioflwax — >koh- 
rjiepcKHH HaneB npoHHKaji b uepKOBb. B axy anoxy, momcho 
;;yMaxb, saKJiaabiBaexcH cfjyHflaMeHx Mawop-MHHop- 
Horo MysbiKajibHoro BOcnpHHxwH, KOxopoMy cy- 
>Kfl,eHO 6biJio no3nHee HecKOJibKHMUBCKaMH HaflOJiro 
oKpacHXb MysbiKy CBOHM KOJiopHXOM, npoxHBonojiowHbiM B cyinc- 

CTBe JianOBOMy SJIJIHHHCXHHeCKOMy SByKOCOSepuaHHK), H OflHO- 

BpeMeHHO npaBHJibHoro, CMMMexpH4Horo, „xaKxoBoro" nocxpo- 

eHHH MeJIOflHH, C SIBHOft nepHOftHHHOCXblO (KynJieXHOCTbK)) 

nancBa, HMeiomeft KopHH b xaHuoBajibHoft MysbiKe Hapofla. 

To o6cXOHXeJIbCTBO, MXO npOHCXOJKfleHHe MajKop-MHHopa 

recHeftiuMM o6pa30M cBsisaHO c HajiHMHeM HHcxpyMenxaJib- 
Horo conpoBOHCAeHHa necHH h mxo ero pasBHXHe 
cHJibHeftiuHM o6pa30M 3axopM03HJiocb B cxpaHax, rfle HHcxpy- 
MeHxapwft He sacjiOHHJi MHCxyro necHvo (nanp., b pyccKOH 
paBHHHe), yKasbiBaex Ha npnMHHbi ero B03HHKH0BeHHH. 9xh 

npHMHHbl CBOflHXCfl K XOHaJIbHOMy SByKOOmyiUeHHH), 

K npH3HaHHK) OAHOTO BByKB (xohhkh) rjiaBHbiM, ueHxpajib" 
HbiM, H apyrax rpynnHpyromnxca KpyroM Hero b nopHflKe 
cpoflcxBa. Bce ssyKH KaK 6bi 6oJiee hjih Menee „xHroxeK)x" 
K axoft xoHHKe, caMaa Hflesi Koeft no bcbh BeponxHOcxH aana 

npHMHTHBHblM nOCTOSIHHbIM HHCXpyMeHXaJIbHblM 6acoM 

(opraHHbiM nyHKXOM). flexajiwsauHH HHCxpyMCHxajibHoro conpo- 
BOWfleHHJi flo „rapMOHHH", npoHcuiefluiaH, bhahmo, nosflnee, 

nOpOflHJia HHeK) 06 OCHOBHOft rapMOHHH (MamopHOfl HJIH 
MHHOpHOH, KaK HaH6oJiee npOCXblx) XOHHMeCKOfi, H HeH36eM<- 

HbiM pesyjibxaxaM 3xo ro 6bi.;io noHBJieHHe BBOflHbix xohob, 
KaK HaH6oJiee JipKO XHroxeiomHX k xoHHKe. 

„ - MaHCOpHMHHOppaSBHBaJIHCbnOKaHCKJHOMH- 

iffllH HC3II H re Dbl 

H Tpy6aflypM. ^ejibHO B ccjDepe HapoflHofl MysbiKH, b xo bpcmh 

KaK CBexcKoe XBopnecxBO, ho npw- 

HaflflCMcamee 6ojiee npHBHJierHpoBaHHbiM KJiac- 

c a M, 6o;iee cBHsaHHoe c sjiJiHHHCxHMecKoA Ky;ibxypoft uepKBH 

H MeHee — c napoAHbiMH HHCxpyMenxaMH, odHapywHBajio 

CKJIOHHOCXb K TOpl HCflxpajIbHOM B CMblCJie 0603HaMeHHn XOHHKH 

My3biKe, KaKOK) «Bjisjjiacb uepKOBHaH. 3xo TBopMecxBO pbma- 
pefi-no3xoB (MHHHesHHrepw b FepMaHUH, xpy6afl ypw 
BO OpaHUHH H MenecxpeJiH b AnrjinH), pasBMBiueeca 
K XI BeKy, oflHOBpeMeHHO o6Hapy}KHBaex, Bwecxe c MejiH3MaxH- 
HecKoft Mejioaweft uepKBH, siBHoe BJiHsiHHe ceMHXHMecKoro 



80 



(apa6cKoro) BocTOKa (spoTHKa b noasHH, HHCTpyMCHTapHfi — 
jiHJTHSi, BSHTaa y apa6oB. n t. n.)- HaH6ojiee 6biCTpo npo- 
rpeccHpyer pasBHTHe Ma>Kop - MHHopa b crpanax c o6biHHbiM 

CXpyHHblM H flyXOBbIM HHCTpyMeHTapHeM M B njiqcoBoft 
TaHUOBaJIbHOfl. MySblKe. TaKHMH HBHJlHCb FepMaHHSI 

M HrajiMH B nepByK) onepeab, saxcM rorocjiaBsiHCKHe h cKan- 
AHHaBCKHe cxpaHbi (riojibiiia, HopBerHfl). B boctomhoS 
E B p o n e (b Pocchm) Ma>Kop-MHHop pasBHBaercsi xyro h mc- 
AJieHHO, H pasBHTHe HapoflHoro MCJioca, CHanajia coBnaaaiomee 
c o6mecJiaBHHCKHM, BCKope MBHsieT HanpaBJieHHe, hto ctomt 
B cBasH c HSOJiHUHeft PoccHH OT Sanafta, kbk o6menojiHTHHe- 

CKOM, TaK H pejIMrHOSHOft H 3KOHOMHHeCKOft, nocjic OTpesaHHH 

ToproBbix npsMbix nyrcM KOieBWMH MonrojibCKHMH nneMeHaMH. 

nojin(})OHHH, HanaBuiajicH c flByxroJiocHoro 

PasBHTHe MHoro- ^ ^^^ ^^ (VIII Ben). xapaKTepMsyercH cna- 

roAOCHH. OpraHVM. '^ ^ ^ 

najia ynoTpeojieHneM, b KanecTBe BToporo ro- 
jioca, MejioflHM, odpasyiomeft c nepsofl (cantus firmus) kohco- 
HHpyiomHe wHTepBajibi b npeftenax oKxaBbi h jiajia. B Ahfjihh 

OH B OflHO BpCMH BbipOflHJICSI B THMCJIb — neHHC napajijiejib" 
HbiMH ceKcxaMH (hjih xepuHaMH), Hxo ynasbiBaex ysce Ha oco- 
3HaHne B 3xy nopy xaM xepuHw, KaK KOHconaHca. Ha kohxh- 
HCHxe flOJiroe speMH xepuHH flonycKajiacb xo;ibKO nopoft na 
nojiOMceHHH npoxoflsimero co3By4HJi, mxo 6bmo cjienoM apes- 
Hero aHXHMHOrO B033peHHH Ha XepUHK) KaK AHCCOHaHC. CpeflH 

flpypHX 4)opM opranyMa mojkho oxMexHXb napaajiejibHwe, 
noHBHBUiHecsi B X BeKe h BwpaJKaBiiiHecH b napajiJiejibHOM 

CJieflOBaHHH HHCXblX KBHHX H KBapX (xaK Ha3. KBHHXOBaHHe), 

H saxeM 3M6pHOHa;ibHbie 4'<!'PMbi MHororoJiocHa, BaKJitonaB- 
uiHecn B npM6aBJieHHn eme k KBHHxoBaHMio BepxHeft OKxaBbi, 

XaK MXO nOJiynaiOXCH XOflbl nyCXWMH COSSyHUHMH H3 KBVIHXbl 

H oKxaBbi. Hpyrasi c|)opMa 3M6pnoHajibHoro MHororojiocHSi noa- 

BHJiacb xoM<e B AnrjiHH — sxo 6biJi 4>o6ypflOH 

(DoeypAOH H AHc- (XI — XII B.). o6pa30BaBmHft xoflbi napajiJiejib- 

KaHT. ■-, 

HbiMH ceKcxaKKopaaMH. 1 locxeneHHO coBepuien- 
cxByjicb, opranyM Bbipa6oxajicsi b AHCKanx (XI bbk), bko- 
TopoM BepxHHft roJioc nepBOHanajibHo HMnpoBH3npoBajiCH nes- 
UOM, npH HeM B xaK Ha3. cxporoM AMCKanxe aosBOJiajiHCb 

XOJIbKO COSByHHH OKXaBbI H KBHHXbl. BhAHMO, yM<e B XII BeKB 

AHCKanx BHUXbiBaex b ce6ji HCKOxopwe cBOftcxBa MejiviBMaxH- 
MecKoro neHHH; oh yMce HMnpoBHBHpyexca He „HOxa npoxHB 






^Hoxbi", a xaK, Hxo Ha OAHy Hoxy cantus firmus npHxoAHXcn 
HecKOJibKO Hox, o6pa3yK>mHX 6ojiee CBodoAHbie (cHanajia 
xojibKO npHxojtHmHe H BcnoMoraxejibHbie, KaK 6bi mcjihs- 
MaxHHecKHe) HHxepeajibi. FIpoHcxoacAeHHe xpexbero rojioca 
noBneKJio Heo6xoflHMOcxb 3 a n h c h bwgox 6ojiee xomhoA, HCMcejiH 
xa, Koxopasr Kasajiacb neBMaMH h sacxaBUJia Bbipa6oxaxb 
nocxencHHO MensypaJibHyK) cucxeMy 3anncH, b KoxopoM 
yM<e H Bbicoxa h fljiHxeJibHocxb xoHHO o6o3HaHeHbi. SjieMenxbi 
3XOH sanHCH BocxoflHX K X BeKy, nepBbiiR onwx 6biJi cAeJiaH 
ryK6ajibAOM'^) H3 OjiaHApHH (840 — 930), KOxopwM bbcji 

JlMHefifKH AJIH 0603HaHeHHJI BblCOX, SaMBHHB HMH 

HanaBuine 6biJio BBOAHXbCJi, b noMomb neBMaM, 6yKBeHHbie 
o6o3HaMeHHH sByKOB noMoinbK) JiaxHHCKoro aA4)aBHxa. Cjibaw 
€yKBeHHo& cHcxeMbi ocxajiHCb b MysbiKe ao chx nop b bhac 
HaHMeHOBaHHft xoHOB (c. d, e, f, g, a, h, b h x. a.), b BHAe 
sHaKOB 6eKapa h 6eMOJiH, Koxopwe nepBOHananbHo 03Ha- 
MajiH cH-6eKap h cH-6eMOJib, pasjinHaBuiHecsi eme rpene- 
cKoft Teopneft, npMneM nepsbiA oSoBHanajicfl KBaApaxHWM 
uipH(|)xoM (b-carre) a Bxopoft KpyrjibiM (b-molle — MarKHfl). 
HeBMaxHHecKHe cjieAbi coxpaHHJiHCb b BHAe BnaKOB rpynexxo 
M MopAeHxoB, xpeAeft h npoM. ByKBeHHoe o6o3HaHeHHe 6biA0 

HenpaKTHHHO, nOXOMy mxo He 6bIAO HarJIJlAHO, HCBMbl 6bIAH 

HarAHAHbi, HO He xoMHbi, xoxH, c Apyroft cxopoHbi, AonycKaAM 
oMBHb xoHKHe oxxeHKH (Aa»<e MexBepxH xoHa). FlepBOHaMaAbHo 
jimhcAkh nooiywHAH xoAbKO AJifl 4)HKcaunH onpeAeAeHHbix 
xoHOB, H Ha HHX HaHOCHACH HeBMaxHMecKHfl pHcyHOK. Flep- 
BOHaMaAbHbie ycoBepuieHcxBOBaHHfl b sanHCb 6biAH sBeAenbi 
aBxopoM xpaKxaxa „Musica Enchiriadis" (X bck), xaK Has. JI w e- 
PyKdaAbAaH saxeM Fbhao A'Apeuuo^) 

OanHCb 3BVK0B. /nnr ^ ncns 

{995 — 1050), KoxopbiH Bce we eme ne aouibji 
AO sanHCH AJiHxeAbHocxefi. — 

'■) ryK6anbA — MOHax MOHacTupji C- AMaH^a 6jih3 TypHa (poA. oKOno 840 r 
■yMep B 930 r.), asTop HecKonbKHx ipaKTaTOB o MyawKC, KOTopwe HBnaioTcn, 
HBHSonee cymecTBeHHWMH HCTOHHHKaMH HauiHx cBeACHMH 06 „opraHyMe". 
r. npHnHcbiBaeicfl HsoSpeTCHHe napannenbHoro opranyMa (ABHweHHe napaji- 
^enbHbiMH KsapTaMH h KSHHiaMH), HO BepHee, mto stot npweM 6bin Ha caMOM 

ABJie TOJTbKO OlIIH60MHbIM BblBOAOM nOCnCAyiOIHeH npaKTHKH H3 TCopeTHie- 

cKHx nocTpoeHHH F. Ewy we npHnHCbiBaercn ipaKiaT „lViusica Enchiriadis", 
B noAnHHHOcTH KOToporo cymecTByei pnA coMHeHHft. 

')rBHAo A'Apeuuo — SeHeAHKTHHCKHft MOHax (poA. OK. 995 r., yn. 
-OK. 1050 r.), BbiAaiomnficn MyawKaji'.HbiH y^eHbifl, npocnaBMBuiHAcn MCHtAy 

UcTOpHW wyriHffH. fi 



CHcxeMa sanHCH bwcot npoBejia pesKyio rpaHb MejKAy 
TCMH 3ByKaMH, KOTopbie nonajiH B nane a,efi[dTBHH aanwcH, 
H TCMH, KOTopbie BbinajiH H3 Hce, HO cymecTBOBajiH Ha npaK- 

THKe B HCBMeHHOM o6o3Ha'ieHHH. PaSBHBaBUiaHCa CHJIbHO BnjIOTb 

flo XIV" BBKa MCJioflHH c MejiHSMaMH flouijia flo ynoTpe6jieHHH 
HeTBepxeft h rpereft tohob, b mcm HCJibSH He ycMorpexb bjim- 
saHHH apa6cKoft xyjibxypw (kslk m b cxasuieM b axo bpcmh, 
nonyjinpHoft Ji k) x h e, saBeseHHoft c BocxoKa), k see 3th 
MejiKHe yKpameHHH cxajiH xeM caMbiM b HHyio nJiocKocxb,. 
HCM ocHOBHbie „3anHcaHHbie". Ohh 6bijiH OKpemeHbi o6mHM 
MMeHe^f „jio}khoPi MyswKH" (musica falsa hah ficta), ho neKO- 
xopwe nojiyxoHOBbie noBbiiiieHHH ochobhwx SByKOB nbixajiHCb. 
c|)HKCHpoBaxbcsi nyxeM snanoB b-carre h b-molle. CaKoe 
sHaieHHC oxflCJibHbix jiHHeeK ycxaHOBJiHJiocb SHaKaMH, h3- 
Koxopbix noxoM Bbipa6oxajiHCb coBpeMCHHbie „KJiK5Mn" nyxeM; 
MX HCKa}KeHH» H yKpauieHHH (opHaMeHXHpoBaHHsr) nepe- 

nHCHHKaMH; 

• ii;. < ' \ . ■ , •■ -^ ... .'■.-'. ^ 

V. — McHsypajibHaji iviysbiKa h crporHM cthjib. 
'1 ■ / KpynHaa petfJopMa sanHCH npoHsouiJia, Ko- 

SanBCfc AAHTeAb- j,^^^^ cxaJIO B03M0JKH0 XOMHO OnpejieflHTb }i,3in- 

xejibHOcxb 3ByKa. 3xo 6biJio caejiano b XII Be- 

Ke napHKCCKHMH OpraHHCXaMH (flHCKaHXMCXaMn) JleOHHHOMM 

riepoxHHOM, Koxop bie ycxanoEHJiH snaKH PAarpex o c h o b- 
Hbix flJiHxejibHOcxefi: longaXcaMaH ffJiMHHafl), brevis (baboc 
Kopone) H semibrevis (eme BflBoe Kopone), h cooxBCxcxBeHHO 
snaKH fljia nays— MOJinaHMM. 3xo 6biJi orpoMHwfl mar Bnepefl,. 
xoxfl B nojibsy xohhocxh aanHCH npHuiJiocb nepBOHaMajibHO 
nowepxBOBaxb HCKOxopoff ywe jiocxHrHyxoft b HCKyccxBC cbo- 
6ofloK pHXMa. Phxm nanesa 6biJi HopMnpoBan b AOBOJibHO 
ysKHe paMKH b uejisix y;io6cxBa sanncH, npw mbm oxnacxH 
B ocHOBy npaBHJi nerjia aHXMHHaa nosxHHCcKaa pHx- 
MHKa. rioBHflHMOMy, HepBOHaHajibHO MensypajibHaH cHCxeMa. 



npOHKM M306peTeHHeM HMHeftHOH CHCTeMbI fljia 0603HaHeHHH BblCOrW TOHOB.: 

r. ynoTpe6nnH neibipe flHHe&KM BuecTo ynoTpefiMHBiuHxcfl yme k ero spe- 
MeHH AByx nmiMS; oh nojibsoBanca fiyKseHHUM TOHonHcaHMeM. Eny we npH- 
riHCbiBaioT H3o5peTeHHe „conbMH3auHM" H yieHHe o MyiauHH. HaHMeHOBanMn 
TOHOB, npHnHCbSBaeMwe o6m<jho F. (uf, re, mi h t. n.), Ha cbmom flene spsA. 
nw npeflCTaBJiHKiT ero HaoSpeTCHHe. ., ,• •. . 



1^- 






-i^^jujM^uuJ^^-^-e/^ Ct4<^_ 



He npexeH;ioBaJia Ha nonnyK) xoMHOcxb sanHCH AJiHxejibHOCXH, 
a xojibKO Ha npH6iiiH3MxejibHoe o6o3HaHeHHe. flosxoMy 

CKOpO 6bIJIH BBeflCHbl HOBblC o6o3HaMeHHJ!: C O^HOft CXOpOHbl, ' 

rpynnnpoBKa MoxHBa na nepHOAHHecKHC fljiHxejibHocxH (xaK Has. 
modi), H3 Koxopwx noxoM o6pa30Bajmcb nauiH xaKxw, a c 
flpyroft eme 6ojiee flexajibHwe SHaKH njmxejibHocxeA (maxima= 
ase longae, minima, semiminima, fusa h semifusa, Bce 
6ojiee H 6oJiee MSJiKHe). Modi 6braH crpynnHpoBaHbi b abc 
6ojibmHe o6jiacxH — flByAOJibHwe (tempus imperf actum) 
V. xpexjtojibHbie (t. perf ectum — b cbhsh c flornaxoM o xpoHM- 
HOCXH 6oHcecxBa). HaH6ojibmero pacuBcxa MeHsypajibHan CH- 
cxeMa flocxHFJia B uiKOJie MeHsypajiHcxoB hjih c x a p o- 
4>paHuy3CKOM (Xll — Xlll bbk), npH hcm h3 hhx M o a h h 
fte FapjiaHflHa^) (XII b.) nepBwft ocjjJHUHaJibHO npHsnafl 
xepuHK) sa KOHCOHaHca ^paHKon CxapuiHK^) 

(XIIb.) H <I>paHKOH KeJIbHCKMM*) (XIIIb.) 

i(j[)opMyjiHpoBajiH xoHHO npaBHJia MCHsypaJibHoft 
sanwcH H HHCbMa. XlBHHceHHe MBHsypajiHSMa, BOSHHKUiee us 
opraHyMa, 6biJio b cymnocxH cymecxBCHHo hojih^'O"^^®' 
CKHM HBneHHeM, HanpaBJieHHbiM b cxopony npoxuBOflcftcxBHH 
MejiHSMaxHMecKofl mohojihh. B cbhsh c 3XHM xapaKxepHO xo, 
Hxo b axoft uiKOJie Bnepswe HaHHHaiox ocosHaBaxbca ycxoH 

nOflH^JOHHH, KaK rapMOHHHeCKOMHeaaBHCHMOCXH 

r o fl o c o B. ^paHKOHbi ywe b XII seKe sanpeinanjT KBHHxoBwe 
H oKxaBHbie napajijrejiHSMbi, sanoBCflH, coxpaHUBUiHeca ao no- 
ciieflHero BpeMCHH b KaxexHSHce nojiHtfjOHHH, a MapKex 
riaayaHCKHfi (XIII b.) peKoweHAyex pas- 

peUieHHJI flHCCOHaHCOB B KOHCOHaH- 

cbi, HXO Aaex xojimok k ocosnaHHKJ scxexHHe- 
CKoro SHaneHHSf xex h Apyrnx. ;..'<;'* 






d[>paHKOBU. 



Bupa6oTKa 

9AeineHT0B CTpO- 
roro CTHAH. 



HodHH fle TapnaHflHa (po«. b 1190 r., ro« cwepTH neHS- 
BecTCH) — OAHH H3 cTapeftiUHX MCHsypanbHbix nHcaieneM, ponHnca b AurnHH, 
WHH fiojibuieS HacTbK) bo OpanuHH, ero coMHHeHHfl coRepwai ueHHwe cbc-- 
fleHHn o MysbiKe ero BpeMeHH. 

-) OpaHKOH CiaprnHH Him IlapHVKCKHH — o«HH M3 nepBhix 
ycTBHOBHTenea npasHJi fliisi MeHsypanbHoft MysbiKM, eMy npHnHCWBaioTca ipaK- 
TaTbi „Ars oantus mensurabilis" h Hpyroft, KOTopbift npescTaBjraeT ko«h4>h- 
KauHK) Bcex npaBHn MyawKanbHoro HCKyccTBa b ero BpCMH. 

'O't'paHKOH MnaAuiHfl umi KejibHCKHft — asrop yieHHa o6 
HHTepBanax, CHnbHO flBMHyBiuHft Bnepefl MyawKanbHyio TeopHK); whji hc- 
cKOJibKO noajiHee nepsoro. 



.fu 



84 



HapoAHan Mysbtna h MysuKa cBercKasi 
HapoAHOH B cBex-g mnpoKOM cMbicjie B 3T0 speMS HaHHHaex 

CKBH MVSUKa B _ 

X— xn BB ynopHo BbicTynaTb Ha nepBbiH njiaH h cMeiuH- 
BacTCH c uepKOBHoA. KoMnosHTopw yme He pas- 
jiHHatOTCH Tax TOHHO: OHH pa6oTaH)T sapas h na uepKOBb, h Ha 
HapoA. H Ha (})eoflajibHyio SHaxb b oco6eHHOCTH. OeoaajiHSM Tpe- 
6yeT MysbiKH, kbk aTpH6yTa nbiuinocTH npH ABopax BaacTHTe- 
jiefi — OH Tpe6yeT necen, KaK BbipasHTeneA jiccth m yBaaceHHH. 
rioHBJiHeTCfl H npoMeacyroHHbift thh — MysbiKa pejiHrno3Horo 
coAep^aHHn, ho hc paccHHTaHHan Ha uepKOBHbi:^ pwryaji, 
npocTO 6jiaroMecTHBaH MysbiKa, Koropaa ne npcTeHAycT na 
KynbTOBoe SHaneHHe. B 3thx nonbixKax cKJiaAWBaioTcs ajie- 
MeHTbi MOHyMeHxaJibHoro pejiHrHOsnoro HCKyccTBa, KoxopoMy, 
6oJiee cBo6oAHOMy, hcm uepKOBHoe, cyMCAeno 6biJio bhocjica- 
CTBHH Aaxb HaH6ojiee apKHe AOCTnaceHHSj. B aro speMn 
saKJiaAbiBatoTCH ajieMeHTw hobmx (i)opM: MOTexra, poHAO 
H Ap., caMoe coAepacaHHC kohx AOSOJibHO HenocroHHHO 
H MCHHCTCH BO BpeMeHH, HO o6mee b hhx jih6o n o ji y- 

peJIHTHOSHblK, flH6o BOBCC CBeTCKHlM CK)HCeT TCKCTa. 

06paTHo, HapoAHbie wysbiKaHTbi, h b oco6eH- 
" HocTH Hapo»<AaH>ii(Hecn npn cjpeoAajibHbix abo- 

pax AHJieraHTbi, TO«e ne npoHb HHorAa 
OT pejiHraosHbix doacexoB. PbiuapcKaa noasHS MCHecxpejieft, 
xpy6aAypoB h MHHHesHHrepoB opraHHnecKH AHJiexanxcKoro 
npoHcxoMCAeHHH H noxoMy oxjiHHaexcsr snaHMxejibHoft cBo6oAoft 
cxHJia MysbiKH. Tyx xoace siBJiHK)xcfl noHCMHory xpaAHUHH 

H cJ)OpMbI npHBblHHOrO BOHJIOmeHMH. [MyBblKa 3XHX AHJlSXaH- 

xoB, hoa! BnHHHueM HapoAHOFO Mcjioca H apa6cKofi[ Kyjibxypbi, 
saneceHHofi h3 KpecxoBbix hoxoaob, cymecxBCHHO roMo- 
(|)OHH>iHa, ona — b npoxHBonojioacHOcxb naHHHaiomeMy pasBU- 
Baxbcsi B uepKBax h b npyrax cneuviajiHcxoB noflH(|)OHHMecKOMy 
cxHJiK) — pacnaAaexc« Ha mcjioahk) h conpoBoacAe- 

HHC na HHCxpyMCHxe h xcm saKJiaAbi- 
^ Baex ajieMCHXbi qpopM oyAymeM roMoqpoHHH. 

MMeHHO 3xa ee cxpyKxypa AeJiaex ee, b cbhsh 
c csexcKocxbK) xcKcxoB, OC060 jik»6hmoS[ h nonyA^pHoft, — 
ona pa6oxaex Ha uiHpoKHft Kpyr noxpe6HxejiH, xorAa KaK 
sapoHCAaroiuMAcsi npo(|)eccHOHajin3M pa6oxaex ajih nocxencHHO 
o6pa3yiomerocH Kpyra cneuHaAbHbix ueHHxejieft MysbiKH — 
SByKOBbix rypwanoB cBoero poAa. MnorHe pwitapH - ncBUW 



Tpy6aAypu 

H HHHHeSHHrepU. 



85 



ocxaBHJiH KpynHbie anHMecKne npoHSseAeHHa, ynoAo6jiHflCb 
xyx ApeBHMM 6apAaM, ho 6ojibuia« nacxb orpaHH4HBajiacb 
xBopnecxBOM necen KynjiexHoro cxpoeHWH, c HecpaBHeHHO 
apne, hbm b cneuHajibHoft MyswKe, sbipaaceHHbiM nepHOAHS- 
MOM MCxpHHecKoro c X p o e H H H H xeHAenuHeft K Mawop- 
MHHopy. XlHJiexaHxcKoe xeneHwe 4'eoAajioB co3Aajio (j[)opMbi 
KaHUOHbi, — JiH>6oBHoro coAepacaHHn hjih MHCXHHecKoro, 
cepeHbi, 6ajiAaxbi h x. n. CpeAH axHx 
My3biKaHXOB BbiAejiHJiHcb BwjibrejibM ac Flyaxbe 
(XII B.), UlaxejicH Ae KycH (XII), Kopojib HaBapp- 
ckhhTh6o(XIII), AAaa Ae Jia rajib(XIII), FHJibOM Maiuo (XIV) 
BO <l>paHUHH h rox4)pHA Cxpac6yprcKnfi[ (aaxop „TpHcxaHa 
H MsojibAbi"), Bajibxep (|)oh Aep OorejibBeftAe, Bojib^jpaM 
(|)OH-3iiieH6ax (aaxop „napcH(|)aAa") b FepMaHHH. HaH6o;iee 
o6pa30BaHHbie xpydaAypw noAbsosajiHCb h ncKoxopbiMH 
THnaMH MHororojiocHH h cocxaBAsjiM KaK 6bi nepexoA k npo- 
t|)eccHOHajiaM. i. 

rioMHMO AHJiexaHxcxBa BbicuiHx KJiaccoB (pbiuapeS), 
My3biKa, BOSHHKaBUian b caMoft HapoAHoft Macce, ecxe- 

CXBCHHO XO»Ce CKJIOHHJiaCb K r0M04>0HHH, MHcxpy- 

MCHxajibHOMy conpoBoaKACHHio. nepHOAH'ieckofl 
4)opMe. MnorHe necHH xpy6aAypoB cxaHOBHjiHcb, mnpoKo 
nonyanpusHpysicb, napoAHbiMW naneBaMH, noABeprasfCb hcko- 
xopwM nocxeneHHbiM HMnpoBHsauHOHHbiM H3MeHeHHsiM B npo- 
uecce HcnoAHCHMH. CocJioBMe npotjjeccHonajiOB - MysbiKanxoB, 
nocxaBJiHK>mHx MysbiKy ajih lUHpoKnx Mace, B03pacxaex, oco- 
6eHHO B MecxHOcxax, yAajiennbix ox bjihshmsi phmckofo npe- 

C rOJia, H B MeCXHOCXHX, OXBaMCHHblX e p e C H M H, MHOrOMHCJieH- 
HblMH B Xy SnOXy H o6bIHHO HMeBlUHMH HauHonaAbHyio, 

cenapaxHcxcKyK) noAKJiaAKy. FlofloaceHHe MyawKanxoB hs 
- HenpHBHJierHpoBaHHoro cocjiobha 6biJio Becb- 

OpraHHaannn mv- 
aMKaAl.lH..x gexOB. "^ yHMSHXeJIbHbIM — B CyUtHOCXH OHH 

6biJiH noHXH 6ecnpaBHbi, xoxh axo 6ecnpa- 
Bwe 6bmo o6mHM aB;ieHHeM ajih napoAHWx Mace. Oho 
6biJio npHHHHoft xoro, mxo y>Ke c XII seKa mw bhahm, hxo 
npo4>eecHOHajibHbie HcnojiHHxejiH h 6poAHHHe MysbiKanxw 
HaHHHaiox copraHHsoBbiBaxbcji b cboh ucxh 
B uejiflx oxpaHbi cBOHx npo4)eecHOHajibHbix 
HHxepecoB. 3xo cnocoScxsyex hx cnjioHCHHio h noAHHXHKJ 
cpeAHero xyAoatecxseHHoro ypoBHH, npH hcm oAHOBpeMeHHo 



mkim 



tan, 



^:11i^'^:-'^':M^t^''^''^'i^ 



— S(3 — . 

CHJIbHO COKpaTHflOCb H CaMOC „6pOflHJKHHHeCTBO" CpCflM 3TOrO 
COCJIOBMH MySblKaHTbl CTaHOBSITCJ! n p HK p 6 n JI 6 H H bl M H 

K oMHoft MecTHOcTH, CTporo H peBHHBO o6eperaK)T CBOft 

nOTpe6HTeJIbCKHft pWHOK OT BTOpJKeHHa HHOpOflHblX SJICMCH- 

TOB. C flpyrdft CTopoHW, opraHHsauHH HapoflHbix MysbiKaw- 
TOB OTaejiHna Hx OT Hapofla h cjiHJia hx c npo(|)eccHOHaJiaMM, 
pa6oTaBuiHMH Ha BHCuiHe KJiaccbi, BCJieflCTBHe Hero yMce 
c XIV BeKa Mbi Ha6jiK)flaeM b HapoflHofi: wysbiKe, b oco6eH- 
HOCTH bo 4>paHU,HH H FepMaHHH, cHJibHoc noHHH<eHMe TBopne- 
CKoro nyjibca. CHjibHoe cocjiobhc npoc|[)eccHOHajiOB, nocra- 
Bji5iK)iu;ee wyawKy Ha see BKycw, yHHMTOMcaex KycxapHoe 
npoHBBOflCTBO MysbiKH H odpaiuacT HapoflHyK) MysbiKy b arjio- 
Mepax HCKaHceHHbix BJiHsiHuft „ropoflCKo8 My3biKn", — aBJienwe, 
pano HJiH no3ftHO OKasbiearomeecfl bo bccx cxpaHax. 



AHJiexaHTHSM, paaBHBiuHflcH B 4'eoAaflb- 
HOM Kjiacce B BHjte Tpy6aflypoB, cKopo nepe- 
KHflbiBaexcH H B flpyrHC cocjiobhh — npewne 



^AeTaHTbl B 

6ypHtya3HoM cpeAe. 
MeMcTepsHHrepu. 

Bcero b ropoMcaH, HaMHnaiomHx, a cbhsm c po- 
cxoM xoproBJiH, 3KOHOMHHecKH KpeHHyxb bo Bceft EBpone. KaK 
o6biHHO B xHnH4HO-6ypa«ya3Hoft cpeae, yBJieMCHHe HCKyccxsoM 
HOCMAO HecKo;ibKo noKasHoA xapaKxep h pasBiixMe caMoro 

HCKyCCTBa BblJIHflOCb B (jjJOpMbl BHpTyOSHbie, XeXHHMeCKHC. 

MecxaMH, b FepMaHHH, axH flMJiexanxw hs mcjiko^ h KpynHoft 6yp- 
jKyasHH o6'eAHHHnHCb B cBoero pojia uexn, HMeauiHe ywe He 
npocjjeccHOHaabHoe, a MHcxo-pHxyajibHoe, noKaaaxejibHoe ana- 
MeHHe, HO HMejiH BHft H noflo6He HacxoHiuHx uexoB. B PepMa- 
HMH OHH nojiyHHflH HasBaHHe McflcxepsHHrepoB h paa- 
BHflHCb npeHMymecxBCHHO B Cxpac6ypre, Ayrc6ypre, MioHxeHe 
H HropeHfiepre. Hanesbi MeflcxepsHHrepoB 6biJiH noAo6Hbi 
MOHOflHMecKOMy MejiH3MaxHHecKOMy neHHK), HO conpoBOJKaa- 
jiHCb HHcxpyMCHxajibHbiM aKKOMnaHCMenxoM. HaH6ojiee 3Ha- 
MCHHTbiM MeftcxepsHHrepoM 6bia Pane CaKC hs HiopeH6epra 
(1494 — 1576), cano>KHHK no npo4)eccHH. 

CyAb6bi My3biKH B BocxoHHOM EBpone 6bUiM 

MysuKa Boctoh- ^ 

HoS Eb I HecKOJibKO HHbie. dJiflHHHcxHHecKaH Kyjibxypa, 

BnHxaHHaH uepKOBHWM pHxyajiOM, 3Aecb nocxe- 

ncHHo Bbipo»:AaJiacb h oxMHpajia, ne nafiAfl onjiofloxBopHxejib- 

Hux coKOB B HOBbix pacax, KaK 6bi;io Ha Sana^e. UepKOBHufl 

pwrOpHSM BOCXOHHOft UCpKBH 6bIJII CHJIbHCe BbipaJKCH, MCM 



i 



-B PHMe. Ho MHorwe Mepxw pasBHBajiwcb noflo6HO roMy, KaK 
Ha 3anaja;e. npoHUKHOBeHHe opMCHxajibHbix (chphhckofo, 
•eBpeftcKoro, apa6cKoro h ap-) mcjiocob b pHxyaji uepkBH 6biJio 
Tyx CHJIbHO 3aMexHO, HO nepBoe BpeMs eny npoxHBocxosiJi eme 
He CAaBuiHAcsi ajiJiHHHcxHMecKMiS Ayx uepKBH. BojiHa apa6H3Ma, 
BOSHHKUiaH B VI! BBKC 6jiaroAapH pejiHrHOSHOMy cABHry Maro- 
MexaHCTBa, OKaaajia cHJibHoe BJiHHHHe KaK HenocpeACXBen- 
HbiM BOSAeftcxBHCM cBoero MeJioca b cxpanax, noAnaBuiHx 
HCJiaMHSMy (ErHnex, Cupvia, HajiecxMHa, FlepcHsi, KasKas, Cea. 
A^jpuKa, McnaHHs), xaK h KOCBeHHbiM, h6o nepepesKa capa- 
UHHaMH MopcKoro xpaHSHxa MewAy BMsanxHeft h Phmom h30- 
jiHpoaajia hx Apyr ox Apyra h napyuiHaa cahhcxbo uepKBH, 
pacnaauieAcsi Ha socxoMHyK) h sanaAnyio. 

_ ^ BocxoMHaa uepKOBb, pacnpocxpanHBUiancsi 

BAHflBHe ooArap - J 

H MOHroAOB. "fepea 6 o JI r a p ao pyccKOH paBHHHw, xyx 

HauiJia nojie ajih pasBHXHH nysbiKH Kyjibxa. 

nepaoHanajibHO pyccKoe npaaocjiaBHe cjieAoaano 6ojirapo- 

BHSaHXHflCKMM o6pa3UaM, B3$1B OXXyAB HaneBbI OKXOHXa 

((.ocMorjiacHa") h cwcxeMy HeaMcnHbix sanHcefi, nojiyHHBuiHx 
HasaaHHe „KpK)KOBoro nncbMa", ho onenb CKopo, a BHAy 
nepepwBa cHomeHHii c BHsanxHeft BCJiCAcxBHe xaxapcKoro 
HauiecxBHH H sanojiHeHHH cxenefl nojiOBuaMH, pyccKoe uep- 
KOBHoe ncHHe o6pamaexcH a cBoero poaa „ocxpoaHoft", h30- 
jiHpoaaHHbiA BHA H HaHHHaex pasBHBaxbca caMocxoaxcjibHO. 
noAaepraacb cHAbHcAmeMy h y>Ke ne KOHxpojinpyeMOMy apa- 
,AeflcTBHK) HapoAHoro MCJioca, Koxopbift caM noABepraexcH 
a 9XO JKe apeMH bjihahhio xaxapcKofl mcjioahkh w ^vm- 
CKMX HaneBOB. r 

OxpeaaHHaa ox o6meHH5i c 3anaAOM uep- 

PaSDblB T-v 

' c San H KOBHafl MyabiKa PoccHH eiue noAMcpKHBaex 

ary oxopaaHHOcxb cbohm npeACxasjieHHeM 

-o SanaAe, kbk o epexHHCCKofi cxpane („JiaxHHCKaH epecb"), 

noHCMy OHa ocxaexcH, npn caoftcxaeHHOM uepKan KOHcepaa- 

*H3Me, MOHOAHHeCKOft (yHHCOHHOfl) TOpaaAO AOJIb- 

uie, HBM Ha SanaAe (ao XVI b e k a), h npn cHJibHOM 
aaxopHxexe uepKan AaMce cana bjihhcx na napoAHoe 
xaopiecxBO (AyxoBHue cthxh), nero na 3anaAe He Ha6jKo- 
Aaexca. IIoTOMy axox nepHOA pasBHTHH aoace ne hmcct mh- 
pOBOe, a JiHinb MecxHoe HcxopHnecKoe snaMeHHe. 



II III HI '11 Mil liaMlMifc^jaM*^ 



88 



89 



'\' 



BupoacAeaae 

MySUKH B BHSaH- 
THH B BOCTOHBOM 

./ Espane. 



Apa6cKaa 
MysbiKa. 



CaMa we BHsaHXHa 6bicTpo opHeHTajiHSH- 

PyCTCH B MySblKaJIbHOM CMblCae H BbipOJKflaeTCH^ 

B xyAowecTBeHHOM, oco6eHHO c XI seKa. UeHxp 

MySblKM eCTeCTBCHHO nepeHOCHTCH B MysbiKy- 

CBeTCKyK), KOTopaa bo bccm Boctokc paa- 
BHBaeTCH noff apa6cKHM BJiHaHweM. HauHOHajibHwe 
oco6eHHOcTH apadcKOi^ nysbiKH, cyiuecTBCHHO roMo4)OHHHe- 
cKoft H He 4y>KflaBmeficH HHCTpyMeHxajibHoro conpoBoacAC- 

HHa, CBOAaTCH K paHHCMy 0C03HaHHK) 

xpoMaTH3Ma. HsbicKaHHbiA cxHJib apadcKHx 

HaneBOB, C MHOrOMHCJieHHblMH MeJI03MaTHMe- 

CKHMH yKpauieHHHMH, oKasaji poKOBoe BJiKaHHe Ha Becb Ha- 
UHOHajibHbii^ Mejioc BocTOKa — eny noAnajiH h eBpeM, h apMane, 
H TiopKCKHe naeMCHa, h erHnTHHe, h nepcbi. MysbiKa a HCJia- 
MHTCKHx cTpanax, He bkjiiomhbuihx ee b pejinrHOSHbiA KyjibT. 

paSBHBaJiaCb HGK;iK)4HTeJlbHO B CBeTCKOft o6jiacTH. KaK: 

necHa h Taneu. OflHOBpeMCHHo nadjiioflaeTca b cTpanax 
MCJiaMa (npeHMym. b ApaBHH h FlepcHH) 6ojibmoe pasBHTHe 
reopHH MysbiKH, cosAaBuieAca ne 6e3 BJiHaniia sjijiHHHSMa. 
TonajibHaa cucxeMa apa6oB (raK. Has. Meccejib), pasBHraa 
Ca4)H3flAHHOM, Ajib(j[)apa6H(XB.)H nos^Hee M a x m y - 
AOM lUHpasH H A6AyJi KaAHpoM (JCIY B.), saKJironajia 
B ce6e17 tohob b oKxaBe h nojibsyexca HHTepBaJiaMH Menb- 
uiHMH nojiyxoHa, b p6iueM »e ona noiuJia no jihhhh passHXHa 
Aexajieft MCJioAHH m ne Morjia cosAaxb hh pamoJi npeAnocbuiKH 
MHororojiocua, noneMy nocjie pasjionceHHa McjiaMHSMa wysbiKa 
3xa ocxajiacb na bcbm Bocxokc b sxHorpacJjHiecKoft cxaflHw. 



/ 



HOHBAeHHe HOBUX 



4aCXHMHblft 



xawecTH 



nepeHoc uenxpa 
b MHcxpyMCHxaabHyK) MyBWKy Bbisbisaex na 

THDOB HHCTOVMeH- </TT VTTT «. 

" rpaHHue All — XllI BeKos SHaMHxejibHbiH n p o- 

rpecc caMoro HHCxpyMCHxapHH. yM<e 

B IX BCKe noaBflfllOXCH XHnbl CXpyHHblX CMblHKOBblX 

MHCxpyMeHXOB, BHOflbi (violla, vielle), Koxopwe OAHaKa 
pa3BHBaK)xca xojibKO K XVI BBKy nojiHocxbK) H npapoAHxe- 
JieM Koxopbix aBJiaexcfl repMancKaa cjj h a y ji a h KejibXHMecKaa 
K p o X X a. C XIII BBKa 3aHeceHHaa apa6aMM Ji lo x h a cxaHO- 
BHxca HaH6ojiee nonyjiapnbiM HHcxpyMenxoM b CBexcKofi Mysbme. 
OAHOBpeMCHHO pa3BHBaexcH opraH, Koxopu^ a o IX b e k a.. 



He AonycKaexca k uepKOBHofl MysbiKCH cJiyjKHx 
xoJibKO AJia paBBJieneHHa h AJia odyneHna nenHio. HepBHHHbie 
opraHbi 6biJiH c HedojibiuuM hhcjiom (|)jieMXOBbix xpy6 h onenb 
npHMHXHBHbiM MexaHH3M0M, Hxo saxpyAHajio Hrpy H ACJiaJio hc- 

B03MOH<HbIMM HH HMnpOBHBaUHK), HH nOJIHtJjOHHHeCKOe 3ByKO- 

HSBJieneHHe. HannHaiox b cbsi3h c paccJioeHHCM o6inecxBeHHbix 
BKycoB Ha pasHbie xohw naMenaxbca HHCxpyMeHXbi Bwciuero 
Kpyra (jiioXHa, opran) h AeMOKpaxHHecKHe, bhojihc napoAHwe 
MHCxpyMenxbi (^wpyna, opranHcxpyM h ap-). np^ ^©m ajih 
nepBbix cosAaexca jiHxepaxypa, a Bxopbie AOJiMCHbi 
AOBOflbcxBOBaxbca HapoAHbiM penepxyapoM. B npouecce 0x60- 
pa H cneuH4)HMecKoii 6opb6bi sa cymecxBOBanHe BbiwHsaiox 
xe xHnbi HHCxpyMenxoB, Koxopbie cnoco6Hbi k 6ojibuiHM ssy- 
KOBbiM pecypcaM h npome HsroxoBJiaicxca, a xaK»ce xe, 
cymecxBOBaHHe Koxopwx noAKpenjiaexca cosHAaHHeM 
MysbiKH AJia HHX. XIV H XV BeKa aB-naioxca apenoii HandoJiee 
aneprHMHofl 6opb6bi 3a cymecxBOBaHne xnnoB, ho b npeAe- 
jiax XIII Beica axa 6opb6a eme ne Aocxuraex BHanHxejibHofi 
cHJibi. CaMaa MysbiKa eme ne HacxojibKO pasBHxa, Hxo6bi 
cosAaxb caMOCXoaxeJibHbift HHCxpyMenxajibHbift cxhab— HHcxpy- 
MCHx eme He wMeex cawoAOBJieiomero sHaneHHa. . , 



„7\rs nova'' 

H CTpOrilfi CTHAfc. 



PaBBHXHe MeHBypajibHoft cHcxewbi He 3a- 
MeA^HJio cKasaxbca. Ee orpoMHoe BHaneHHe 
6biJio B xoM, Mxo nocJie xonnoft (|)HKca- 
UHH BByKOBoro o6pa3a aBHJiacb BOSMownocxb 

OCOSHaHHH SByKOBblX OXHOmeHHft, npHHUHnOB H 

peuenxoB 6jiaro3ByMHa. M mw bhahm AeHcxBHxeAbHo 
c XIII BCKa KOJioccaAbHyH) pa6oxy b 3xom oxhouichmh — My- 
sbiKa KaK 6bi BbipBajiacb b o6jiacxb, tac ona Morjia Hsyiaxb 
cbok> co6cxBeHHyK> npHpoAy. Ha nepBbix nopax axo 6biJio 
ocosHaHHe npHHunnoB nojiH4)OHHHecKoro 6;iaro3ByMHa, h xyx 
nepcneKXMBbi 6biJiH Hacxo;ibKO 6jiecxamH, hxo sacJioHHJiH Bce 
ApyrHC cxopoHbi MysbiKH (xeBXOHHHecKyio, ^JOpMajibHyio h 
npoH.). B 3XO BpewH BbiKOBWBaioxca npHHUnnbi xaK HaBbiBa- 
eMoro cxpororo cxHjia, o6ecneMHBaK)iUHe 6;iaro3ByHHe 

CaMbIM CJIOaCHbIM COMexaHHHM. 

HoBoe HanpaBJiCHMe nojiynaex HasBaHMC ars nova — 
HOBoe HCKyccxBO. HoBocxb arc b xom, hto oco3HaHHbifi 3By- 



immt 



mk 



mmttm 



yu 



KOBofi MaxepHaji noayMHJi BOSMOScHOCTb o{|)opMJieHHsi. SsyK 
cxaji rH6KHM h noAaxjiHBbiM, pecypcw ero BoajtePiCTBwsi 6ec- 

KOHeHHO yMHO«HflHCb, TaK HTO OrpOMHaH, AeftCTBHTCJIbHO, 

nponacTb JiewHT Meacfly SByKocosepuaHHCM npouijioro h sthm 
ars nova. B 3to speMH o6pa3yK)TCH npHHUnnw KOHTpanynKra 
H ero 4)opMbi — HMHTauHH, KaHOH (HasbieaeMbifl Toraa c})y- 
rofl) — noaBJiHCTca h caMoe cjiobo „KOHTpanyHKT". CaMaa ho- 

BM3Ha H M306MJIMe BOSMOMSHOCTCft HaCTOflbKO OCJienjKMH MySbl- 
KaHTa, MTO eCTeCTBeHHbIM HEJIHCTCH TOT CflBHP B CXewaTUHHOCTb 

M MaTCMaTHHHocTb, KOTopbiJ^ xapaKTepHsyeT nocjieayiomee 
HCKyccTBO. Mach HHTyHUHH no6;ieKJia nepeji owyiueHHCM peaflb- 
Horo xeopeTHHecKoro nosHaHHH saKOHoe djiarossyMHH h cjie- 
AOsaHHH HM. OocjieflyiomaH snoxa xapaKTepwayeTCJi SHanHTejib- 

HOft HCKyCCTBeHHOCTbKJ, yBJieneHHeM, XWTpOCTblO KOM6HHaUHfi, 

o6pamaK)mHx MyswKajibHyio KOMnosHUHio b poA uiaxMaTHofi 
saAaMM. havi6onee BbiAatouiHMHca KOMnoHHcxaMH SToro Bpe- 

MCHH, C03HAaiOU(HMH COCJIOBMe BbICOKO-KBajIH(|)HUHpOBaHHbIX 

npo(J)eccHOHajioB. HBflHKJTCH OwjiHnn ac Bhtph (1270 — 
1330), MoaHH Ae MypHc^) (1300 — 1370) h THJibOM 
Mauio (1284 — 1369). 

Crapo-aHrA. nncoAa. ^^°^ nepBbifl pacuBCT ars nova, HflH 

MHororojiocHoe npo4)eccMOHajibHoe TBop- 

MecTBO, o6pejio b rajiJio-KenbTHMCCKHx cTpanax h hochtc- 

JISIMHerO 6bIAH npeHMymeCTBCHHO aHPAHACKHe KOMn03HTOpbI 

(tbk Has. cTapo-aHrjiHflcKas! lUKOJia), mto cBflsaHo 
c BospacxaHMeM nbiuiHocTH npHABopHoA skhshh h c pacuse- 
TOM aHrjiHftcKoro MorymecTBa. npo4}eccHOHajibHoe MyswKajib- 
Hoe HCKyccTBO, KaK BcerAa, ckjiohho KOHueHTpHpoBaTbCH 

B KpynHblX 3KOHOMHHeCKHX H nOJIHTHHCCKHX UCHTpaX, HO paC" 

UBBT CTapo-anrjiHficKofi uikojiu 6biJi o6«3aH eme h TOMy 
ocjia6jieHHK> ucHTpajiHsyiomero m uensypyio- 
meroBAHflHHflpHMCKoro npecTOJia, KOTopoe cTaao 

CKa3bIBaTbCH C XIV BCKa, B CBH3H C yKpenJICHHeM nOSHUHft 

Kpynnoro 4)eoAajiH3Ma. UepKOBb yace He b cHjiax, Aawe ecjiH 
6bi xoTejia. npoTHBOCTOHTb Hanopy see ocjioacnaiomerocsi My- 
sbiKa^bHoro TBopnecTBa. B TBopnecTBe CTapo-anrflHftcKoft 
iDKOJibi xapaKxepHO uiHpoKoe yjKe h oTKpwToe npHMe- 

^) MoaHH AC MypHC (1300 — 1370) — aHrnwHCKMa TeopeTHK, asasi- 
ioiuhSch b cyiHHocTH ocHOBaieneM yneHun o „KOHTpanyHKTe". Ero TpaKiaTw 
coaepjKaT 3HUHKJionejiHio MyawKajibHtix npencTaBneHHji ero BpeMCHH. 






91 



HeHHCHapoAHbix HanesoB, b KanecTBe cantus firmus, 
M BKJiK)HeHHe HHCTpyMBHTOB B aHcaM6;ib (o p r a H a) yBJieHCHMe 
nojiH(|)OHHeK h rapMOHHeft, ecTecTBCHHoe BCJieACTBne HOBHSHbi 
H HenoMaTOCTH 3Toft o6jiacTH, saTyiueBbiBaeT BpeMeaHO y 

KOMHOSHTOpOB HHTepeC KaK KSByKOBOS 3MOUMH, TaK ^ 

AajKe KcaMOMy TCKCTy. MacTO Aaa«e tckct hc pacnpe- 

ACJIHJICSI K0Mn03HT0p0M HO HOTaM, 3 3TO npCAOCTaBJIHJIOCb 

HcnojiHHTejiflM. riepeHoc uenxpa THJKecTH b TCXHHKy kom- 
nosHUHH nopo«AaeT cneuHcfjHMecKyK) KOMnosHTopcKyio b h p- 
TyosHOCTb, KOTopaa, c oahoK cTopoHbi, o6oramaeT MysbiKy 
H ycKopHCT TeMH saBOCBaHHsi o6flacTH nojiH(|)OHHH, h6o kom- 
no3HTopbi KOHKypHpyiOT Apyr c ApyroM b npeoAOJiCHHH caomc- 
HefluiHX saAaHHfl, c ApyroS cTopoHw, Boo6me cooTBeTCTByex 
Tony sByKOomymeHMH y Kpynno-tl'eoAaAbHoro 
Kflacca, KoxopbiA, BbiABunyxbift na BepxH noJiHXHHecKOH 
»H3HH, CKAOHCH ywc MBueHaxcTBOBaTb H nooiupaxb paSBHXHe 
nbiuiHOcxH cjbopMbi, He acHO pa36Hpaacb b coAepaoHHH h ne 
MHxepecyacb hm. KoMno3Hxopbi aHrjinflcKoA uikoaw, Handojiee 
BbiAaiomMMHca H3 KOHx 6biJiH JtcHcxenjib^) (yM. 1458) h 
BcHuiya^) (1400—1478), a xaKHce pa6oTaBiiiHfl bo OpanuHM 

JXk)4)3^), 6bIAH nOCTaSUtHKaMH MySblKH (uepKOBHOft H KOH- 

uepxHofl) B eBponeflcKOM MacmTa6e. B vw pyKax o^opMHJica 
M cosAaJica cTporHfl cTHflb, BbiKOBaaacb Macxepcnaa, BHp- 
xyosnaa xexHHKa coHHHeHHa, co3Aaflncb HOBbie (j|) o p m bi, 
MacxbK) uepKOBHbie (Mecca, m o x e x), nacxbio CBexcKHe 
(waApuraji c flK)6oBHbiM ciOMcexoM), h o6pa30BaAacb 
uiKOJia npocJjeccHOHajiHSMa: KOMnosHxopbi-Macxepa 
cosAaBaAH yieHHKOB no cBoeMy o6pa3y h noAo6HK), noaBAe- 
Hwe KOMnosHxopoB nepecxaAo 6bixb cnacxjiHBoft cjiynafl- 

HOCTbK). 



fl ') H c T e n n b (yM. b 1453 r.) — aHrnHHCKHii KOHTpanyHKTMCT, aaiop 
MHoroMHcneHHbix KOMnosHUHM CTpororo CTHnfl, MHorHC H3 KOTopwx npeA- 
cTaanaioT Sonbmoe coBepmcHCTBO c tohkh spcHHji cnowHOCTM KOHipa- 
nyHKTMMecKoro nHCbita. Bonbiuaa MacTb mx flsnaiOTCH bobcc HeHanenaTaH- 
HHMH H xpaHHTcn B cnHCKax B pasHbix xpaHHHHmax Esponbi. 

-) BeHuiya (pofl. ok. 1400 r.) — KOMnosHTOp crpororo CTHns, MacTb 
ero COMMHCHMH HancMaxaHa b caMoe nocneflHee BpeMsi, npH mcm 6onbmaa 
nacTb oTHOCHTcs K THny MHororonocKbix neceH (uiaHCOHbi, poHflo), ho cpcAH 

HHX eCTb H uepKOBHbie K0Mn03HUHH. 

") JXio^3 (1400 — 1474) — MnaBiuHM h3 nnenflbi ciapiuHx KOHTpanyHKiH- 
CTOB (J^eHCTennb-^-BeHiuya— JI,io(})3), jkhii 6oiibiiieH MacTbK) bo <t>paHUMH. 



i 



93 



XtajibHeMuiee pasBMTue nepeHOCHT ucHxp 
HHAepAaBACKas u ^ 

TsijKecTH B riHAepjiaHflbi, ObiBuiHe Tor;ta 

CHJIbHblMH SKOHOMHMeCKM H llOaVt- 

THMCCKH. Mhcto - reorpa(|3H4ecKaH no3HuHH ryx Morjia 

6bITb B CyiUHOCTH CJiyHaftHa, h6o to HflH HHOe MeCTO- 

HaxoMCflCHHe MysbiKajibHoro uenrpa o6ycJiOBJiHBajiocb o6biH- 
Ho MecTOHaxowaeHHCM Kpynnoro MacTepa-yHHTCJiH, 
KpyroM KOToporo ecTecTBCHHO rpynnnposajiacb uiKOJia. 
B flaHHOM cjiynae raKHM ynviTeJieM HBunca Moxhm Okch- 
reflM (1430 — 1520)^), npw KoxopoM BHpTyosHOCTb tcxhhkm 
noJiH(|)OHHH flouifla ao Bbicmero npeflCJia h Hanajia ywe sna- 
AaTb B KapHKarypHbie (jjJopMbi, OTHromaHCb coBepuieHHO ny- 
>KflbiMH HCKyccTBy noflpo6HOCTHMn (nanp., KanoHbi c saraaKaMM, 
6ecKOHeHHbie, paKOxoAHbie h sepKajibHbie h t. n.). MyswKa 
OKOHHaTCJIbHO CTaHOBHTCfl paccyflOMHOM, HO 6jiaro3ByMHofi 

Hrpoft SByKOBblX KOM6HHaUHfl, nOAHHHeHHblX HCKOTOpblM BHeUI- 

HHM nojiyMaTCMaTHMecKHM sa^aHHaM. B stom CTHne, Haiuea- 
iiieM ce6e lUHpoHaAuiuft cnpoc b t|)eofla;ibHo-KJiepHKajibHbix 
Kpyrax OpaHUHH, AnrjiHW, McnaHHH, Mtsjimh h BnojiHe coox- 
BexcTBOBaBuieM BonjiomeHHK) hach nbiuiHocxH KopojieB- 
cKoro ABopa, ocBo6oAHBmeroca ox puropHcxHHecKHx 

npwxjisaHHfl uepKBH, nHcajiM MHorHe aaxopw^). 

rioHBJieHHe B XV" Bene neHaxaHHH h rpaBHpo- 
BaHMH Ha AocKax Aajio hoboa k H3o6pexeHHK) Hoxonena- 



HoTonenaTaHBe. 



HanHcan oneHb MHOro KOMnosHUHH, h3 KOTopbix flomno flo Hac CBWUie 150, 
B TOM iHcne Meccbi, MarHHcJjHKaTbi, MOTeibi, luaHcoHbi. H. cnenan MHoroMHC- 
jierfHbie ycoBepuieHCTBOBaHHsi b hothom nHCbMe, b tom MHcjie bbbji hotu 
c denbiMH ronoBKaMH, ynoTpe6nHK)iuHecsj noHWHe. 

^) OKeHrCHM (1430 — 1520), nposBaHHUit „naTpMapxoM MyauKH", — 
oflHH H3 KpyiiHeftuiHx npeflCTaBHTeneft HHflepjiaHflCKoft lUKonbi. B ero komho- 

3HUHSIX paSBHBaiOTCn ^lOPMW HMHTaUHOHHbie, B TOM HHCJIC KaHOH, HHOrfla B 

Bn«e KaHOHHHecKoft aaraflKH („3araflOHHbiH KaHOH"), rue BCTynneHHn rojiocoB 
He oSosHaHeHbi m hx Hano yraaaTb; jkhii fioiibuieft Macxbio bo OpaHUHH, 

asTOp MHOrOHMCneHHblX KOMnOBHUHH, MeCC, MOTBTOB, lUaHCOH, KaHOHOB. Ero 
IIOnHlflOHHHeCKHft CTHHb OTHHiaeTCSI fionblllOft CJIOaCHOCTbK) M SanyTaHHOCTbK), 

OH ynoTpe6nan MHorococTaBHwe xopu (36-ronocHbifl kbhoh), HeKOTopue hs 
HHx HanenaTaHbi b nosAHeftmee BpcMs. 

^) K MHcny flpyrHX KOMnosHTopoB FHAepnaHACKoft luKoiibi, KOTopwe 
BbiflejjHJiHCb CBOHMH TpyAaMH, Haflo OTHecTH: 5lKOBa 06pexTa (1430 — 
1505), AflaMa (J). -<l)ynb«a (1440—1495), BBCfliiiero noMemeuHe „C a n t u s 
f i r m u s" B BepxHHH ronoc, FenpHxa HcaaKa (yM. b 1517 r,), F e m p h x a 
0MHKa, BwHya (1440—1492), Hoanna THHKTopHca (1435—1510), 



xaHHSl, HTO OXpaSHJIOCb MpeSBblMaMHO CHAbHO Ha MaCCOBOM 

pacnpocxpaHeHHH HHAepwaHACKHx KOMnosHUHfl: ohh cxajiH 
npoH3BOAHxejiHMH MHpoBoro Macmxa6a. Ho oAHOBpeMCHHo 
B caMoft cpcAe noxpe6Hxejiefl, (jjeoAaJibHoft snaxH, aotojic 

OTHOCHBUieftCH K HCKyCCXBy XOJlbKO C XOHKH SpCHHS HblUI- 
HOCXH, KBK K ACXaJIH npHABOpHO-UepKOBHOPO 6bixa, HaHHHaex 
npo6yH<AaTbCH kbk 6bi HHAHBHAyajibHbiA BKyc, ecxecTBeHHO 

npHMblKaBUIHft K TOMy AHJiexaHXCKOMy, KOXOpbIM OXMCHeHO 
TBOpHeCXBO Tpy6aAypOB H MHHHeSHHrepOB. BjIHHHHe HapoA- 

Horo MCJioca h npHMHXHBHbix acxexHHecKHX BosspeHHfi Hajia- 
raexcfl na nwuiHoe sAaHwe nojiH(|)OHHH h cKasbiBaexcsi npewAe 
Bcero B peaKUHH npoxHB cjiomchocxh h 6e3AyiiiH0cxH 9thx 
nbiuiHbix SByKOBblX apxHxeKxyp. Ox wyBbiKH naMMHaiox xpe- 

doBaXb 3MOUHH K H 3 o6 p a 3HX 6 Jl b H O C X H, CymCCXBOBaB" 
UIHX B HapOAHOM HCKyCCXBC, H 6oJibuieH OpraHHMeCKOM 
CBeXCKOCXH. I '. - 

FlepBOHaMajibHo axo cKasbisaexcn b xom, 
CrpeHA. K BupasH- ^^^ cpejw npotJjeccHOHajiOB-MacxepoB hohbjisi- 
loxcsi JiHua, ACJiaiomHe ycxynKW BKycy: 
^pHu! BBOAsimne B MysbiKy, bmccxo cxporoft nojiHcJjo- 

HHH, SAeMCHTbl rapMOHMMCCKOrO, aKKopAO- 

B o r o HHCbMa, HacbiiuaromHe a6cxpaKXHyK) npeacAe MeAOAHio 
BbipasHxejibHocxbKJ. Mhofo Mepx xaKoro poAa Aaex 
xBopnecxBO Hawdojiee reHwajibHoro h3 HHAepjianAueB — ?Ko 
CKCHa flenpe (1450—1521)^), a b xbopchhhx nocjieAyiomHx 
KOMno3HxopoB nosiBJiaHJxcti 3M6pHOHbi nporpaMMHOM My- 



TeAbBOCTH. nOAy- 

cBCTCKfle B CBer 

CKBe 



KOTopbiM HanHcan TpaKiaT OMyawKe, O. UlTonbuepa (1430 — 1526). Bonb- 

maq MaCTb 3THX aSTOpOB CTpeMKHHCb K HaHBbtCmeH CnOJKHOCTH HHCbMa M K 
HanOJIHeHHK) MySbIKH „3araflOHHbIMH" 4)0pMaMH H yXHUipCHHSIMH B pofle 
SepKajlbHblX, OTpaJKCHHblX H HHblX HMHTaUHOHHblX ^JOpM- 

OJKocKeH Aenpe (1450 — 1521) — reHHanbHwS komhosmtop (ero 
HMH 6bino Ha caMOM flene Mochc}) Jlenpem), KOTOpwft BnepBbie Bnownn b 
4>opManbHoe coBepmeHCTBO MysbiKanbHwx cJjopM, Bbipa6oTaHHbix HHflepnaHfl- 
uaMH, ero npefluiecTBCHHMKaMH (OKCHreflMOM, BwHya, Thhktophcom), Kpacoiy 
SByKOEoro odpasa h SMOUHOHajibHyK) BbipasHTenbHocTb. O whshh ero homth 
HHHero HEHSBecTHO, KpoMC Toro, HTO oh jkhh bo OpaHUHH H OnaHflpHH H 6bin 

CBnmeHHHKOM nOH KOHCU >KH3HH. ErO KOMHOSHUHH, KOTOpwe HOMTH BCC Hane- 
MaTaHbl, COCTOBT M3 MHOrOMHCneHHblX MCCC, MOTBTOB, UiaHCOH. B COMHHeHHSX 

yK. Jl,enpe c«o»CHOCTb ({laKTypbi ycTynaeT mccto 6naro3ByHHK) h CTpeMneHMio 

BbXpaSHTb HeKOTOpue SMOUHOHajIbHbie ABHMeHHJI; TaKoK 3anyTaHH0CTH nHCbMai 

KBK y apyrHX HHAepnaHAues, b ero coMHHeHHJix He o6Hapy»cHBaeTCsi. 



iiiiiiiiiimitiii 



-I'htriri'iiiii frr 



-- 94 — 

3 bi K H ssyKOBoe H3o6paH«eHHe yjiMHHbix KpMKOB H uiyMa 
6HTBbi (y ?KaHHeKeHa ^). Motct BbiTecHsieTCH MaapHrajioM, 
noHBHBiuHMca, KaK c|)opMa cBexcKOM xopoBoft necHH, eme 

B Xin BCKe, KaK flaHb MySWKH B nOJlbSy JIHpHHeCKOft n093HH, 

pacuBeTUieft Toraa reHHajibHbiMH HMCHaMH flaHxe h OeTpapKH. 
MaflpurajibHasi (fiopMa b ocHosy Bsnjia Twn necHH Tpy6afly- 

pOB, HO OTJIHMaJiaCb nOJm4)OHHHeCKHM CTpOeHHCM H OTcyr- 
CTBHCM npaBHJIbHOfl KynjlCTHOfi nepHOAHHHOCTH; npoHCXoacACHHe 

me Maflpwrajia eepHee Bcero or xopoBbix nacxopajiefi Ha 

JIK)60BHbie TCKCTbl — MHCTO-HapOJlHOM {|)OpMbI, paSBHTOft B IlpO" 

BaHce. KaK BnoJine cBercKan MyswKa, 4)opMa MaApHrajia 
6bJCTpo cxajia saBoeBbiBaTb xe SByKOBbie pecypcw, Ha koto- 
pbie He noKymajiacb uepKOBHaa MysbiKa, kbk hc cjihuikom 
BbinypHbie h hc BHacymHecH co cthjibm. Tyx noflBJiHK)xcn 
B m3o6hjihh xpoMaxHSMbi (xaK Has. musica ficta), ox- 
KJioHCHUfl B oxflajieHHbie jiaflbi, HCHesaex cantus fir- 

mUS, SaMeHHHCb CB060AHbIMH MeJIOflHHMH, nOHBJIHK)XCH Bce 

6ojiee HCHbie HaMCKH na Maacop-MWHopHoe aaflOBoe cxpoeHwe, 

C HX XarOXCHHCM K XOHMKC, B npOXHBOnOJIOMCHOCXb HCfi- 

xpajibHbiM B CMbicjie xHroxcHHa uepKOBHbiM jiajiaM; HaKOHeu., 
B 6ojiee nosflHHx 4>opMax MaApwrajia HaMHHaex BbipucoBbi- 
BaxbCH rjiasHbift MejioflHiecKHft rojioc, a fl,pyrHe cxo- 
fl,nx ao poJiH rapMOHHMecKoro (|)OHa. MaflpHrajiw nHcajiHCb una 
KaMcpHoro xopa B 3 — 6 fojiocob — axo 6biJi kbk 6bi KaMep- 

HblK CXHJIb XOfl anOXH, B HBM KOMnOSHXOpbl CXpCMHJIHCb 

BonnoxHxb maximum HSbicKaHHOcxH h BKyca, b xo 
BpcMH KaK flpyrwe xopoBwe (JjopMbi, noHBHBiuHecH xoace 
B 3XO BpeMH (KanuoHexxa, t|)poxxoJia h np.). hbaihioxch 
6ojiee 6jih3khmh k HapoAHoA necne m cooxBexcxBeHHo 
npHMHXHBHbi no (jjopMC. MaflpHrafl c ero apoxHMecKHM 
coAepHcaHHCM aBHJicn oxpaaceHHCM cnpoca Ha ceexcKyio 
MysbiKy B Kpyry 4)eoflajibHoA apHcxoKpaxHH. B HHaepjiaHjicKyio 
snoxy nucaHHCM MaapHxajioB BWAeJiaflHcb: BKJiJiapx, ApKa- 
;iejibx, UnnpHaH PopcKHfi, Bepaejiox. OpjraHjxo Jlacco ^) 

^) Jl[o6onbiTHbie nporpaMMW cohmhchmh JKaHHCKeHa, kbk „La guerre",. 
,,J<'iloxisie", „OxoTa Ha saRua", „OxoTa Ha oneHn", „CojiOBefl" h t. a., HasBaHu 
HM Inventions, ho, bh^hmo, ohh HaoJiHpoBaHbi h b 6nH5Ka^iueM He BwawBaioT 
noRpawaHHsi. 

OOpnaHRo Jlacco (PonaHA fle JlaTp, 1532 — 1594) - HKAepnaHfleu 
no npoHCxoJKAeHHK) H MVSbiKanbHOMy oSpaaoBaHHK), ho tkha b caMwx paaHO- 






(PojiaHfl AC JIaxp) HBJiaexcH saBepiuHxejieM HHflepjiaHflCKoro 
nepHOfla vt caMWM MOHyMCHxajibHbiM ero npeacxasHxejieM, 
coeflHHHBinHM B cBoeft xexHHKe Bce flOCXHHteHHH npeauie- 
cxBeHHHKOB, BHJioxb flo xpoMaxH3Ma, AOc XHraiomero y Hero sna- 
MHxejibHoro pasBHXHa, xan hxo ero cxHJib ysce Bbixoflux sa 
xoMHbie paMKH „cxpororo cxhjih", npeflBapaa nocjieflyromvifi: 
nojiH(|)OHH»iecKHa„CBo6oflHbift CXHJIb". npoHcuieAuiHC Ha py6e- 
H«e BeKa Kpynnwe HCxopMMecKHe h sKOHOMHMecKHe co6bixH5i — 
oxKpbixHe AwepHKH, H3o6pexeHHe KHHronenaxaHHa, pejiHrHOs- 
naa pe4)opMau,H5i, eme ocjiadHBiuaa nosHUHK) phmckoS uep- 
KBH, — Bce 3XO yace OKpacHJio XBopnecxBO OpjianAO Jlacco 
B xoHe anoxH BospoMCflCHHa. HecMOxpa Ha cJiOHcnocxb ero 

KOMHOSHUHft, B HHX yWC HC HyBCXByCXCH CXDJiaCXHMCCKHft flyx 

cpeftHeBeKOBbH, cxojib apKHH B cxapoaHrnHftcKoft h paHneft hh- 
AepaaHACKOft lUKOJie, a HyBcxeyexca reHHi^, BfloxHyxbifi bbkom 
B BbicoKO - pasBHXbie H Bbipa6oxaHHbie npeflbiaymMM noKOJie- 
HMeM xexHHMecKHe ^'opNbi, Koxopbie b 3XO H<e BpeMa Haxo- 
flax ce6e xeopexunecKoe o6ocHOBaHHe b pa6o- 
npoxecT npoTHB Tax r ji a p e a H a 1). B eme 6ojiee apKoft 4)opMe 

CAOaCHOCTH. r> 

PHMCKas mKOAa ^^^""® BospOMCfleHHa CKasajIOCb B pHMCKOH 

ui K o Ji e, Koxopaa pasBHJiacb napajijiejiJibHO hh- 
AepjiaHflCKoft, HO cpasy cxajia bo BpaacAe6Hbie oxho^ 
uieHHH KcxojiacxHKe cxpororo KOHxpanyHKXHSMa. Cbo6oa- 



oSpasHbix CTpanax, o«hh h3 caMbix CHJibHbix MacTepoB KOHTpanyHKTa, rexHHKy 
KOToporo OH flOBen ao Bbicmeft cxynenH. Ero xapaKTepHUMH KanecxBaMH 

flSnaiOTCH rpaHAHOSHOCTb nOCTpOeHHH, nOnbSOBaHHC XpOMaTHSMaMH. 

BBeflCHHe TepuHH B saKjiioHeHHe Beineft, Tor^a KaK panee nojib- 
soBajiHCb TonbKO yHHCOHOM, OKTaBoft H KBHHToft. Oh jkc bbbj o6o3HaMeHHe 
xeMHOB B coMHHeHHH. Jl.nHcan syxoBHbie h csexcKHe coHHHeHHH, ero xBop- 
HecTBy npHHafljiejKax Meccw, Moxexbr, MaRpHranw (HeKoxopwe csexcKoro m 
flaace, b cooxBeicTBHH c HpasaMH snoxH, (jjpHBOnbHoro coflepwaHHa). OcoSoh 
HSBeciHocxbK) nojibsoBanHCb ero „noKaHHHbie ncannbi". 06mee HHcno ero 
KOMnosHUHH npeBbimaex 2.000 HaasaHHii. 

^) FnapeaH — BbiflaiomMftca xeopexHK HHAepnaHflcKoft uiKOjibi, o5o- 
CHOBaBuiHH ee npHHUHnw (J488 — 1563). Ero rnaBHan pa6oxa — „AofleKaxap- 
Aoa". B Koiopoft OH BnepBbie npHXOAHX k Hflee ABCHaAUaxH- 
cxyneHHoro ssyKopHfla h k mwcjih o CBoSoflHoft MOAynnuHH bo 
Bce cxyneHH axoro aByKopsiAa. P. ycTaHOBHn HaHMenoBaHHa nasoB, ynpo- 
MHBuiHeca B MyawKanbHofi xeopHH HaAonro, necMoxpa Ha hx HecooxBex' 
cxBHG HX nepBOHananbHbiM BHaMeHHJiM B rpeMCCKoR HOMCHKnaxype. F. npH- 
HaAJiejKaji k MHcny caMwx o6pa30BaHHbix nnu CBoero seKa, 6bin b ApystecKHx 
CHomeHHnx c SpaanoM PoxxepAaMCKHM, JlnncHycOM h ApyrHMH rymaHHCTaMH. 



^ltmimiikM 



ii^liiliiiiaiMliM*! 



Hoe neccHHoe Hanajio, sa^aBjieHHoe BCKOBbiM uep- 
KOBHbiM pHTyajiOM, noTOM norpe6eHHoe noA TJiwejibiMH no' 
cnexaMH nojiH(|)OHHn. c npKoft cvmoPi npo6yaHJiHCb Ha poflHHe 
PcHecaHca— B MrajiMH, b anoxy, Koraa BOCKpec HHAHBH^ya- 
JIM3M H BbipawaiomaH ero wHem Mejioara. MyawKa, ocbo6o- 

JKAeHHaH OT CXOJiaCTHKH, HO COXpaHHBUiaH A06bITbie B HCTOpH- 

HecKOM npouecce nosHaHra.— xaKOB 6brji Haeaji paHHefl phmckoK 
uiKOflbi. CHanajia pe4)opMa uiJia no jihhhh uepKOBHOft MysbiKH, 
nojibsyacb tcm, mto bbsihhji Penecanca saxBarHJiH h pHMCKyio 
KypHKJ. HaH6ojiee jipKHft npeflcraBHTejib phmckoA uikojiw 
6biJi n a ji e c T p H h a (1 526-1 594), cosAaBUiuft cTHJib. coeAH- 
HsiiouiHfi B ce6e sicHOCTb H Kpacoxy MHCTO-MysbiKajibHoro Bbipa- 
jkchhji c HAeaflbHofl KOHTpanyHKTHnecKoft TexHHKoft. B cbohx 

MHblX COMMHCHKHX OH yjKC HC HyMCflaJlCH nOHTH FOMO^JOH- 

Horo cTHjia. B aroM cMwcjie HajiecTpHHa npojiojiHcaex 

JIMHHK) npOCBeTJieHHH CTHJlflf, OHHmeHHJI ePO OT cxojia- 

CTHMecKHx saHocoB, HaMaxyK) ?KocKeHOM flenpe h Maapura- 

JIHCTaWH. MMeHHO B ero BpeMa CHHUIKOM CJIOJKHblft CXHJIb 

nojiHcfjOHMH craji snoBb BbiawBaTb HapeKaHHH uepKOBHHKOe 
KaK HecooTBeTCTBytomHft yfn.ee 6orocJiyjKeHHq. Jleno IlajiecT- 
PHHW, HCTopHMecKH npeAonpeAeJiCHHoe xoaom asnemiPi, OKaaa- 

JlOCb OTTOrO B CJiyiaftHOM COrJiaCHW C HCKOHHblMH UeHSypHblMH 

npHTHsaHHqMH KJiepHKajibHoft napxHH, mto ne mopjio He ycH- 
JiHTb nosHUHK) ero wcKyccxBa. 

') rianecTpHHa (;i,}KHHOBaHHH flbepnyHAJKH CaHTe FIpeHecTHHyc, 
■"^^^ 1594)- sasepmHTe Jib snoxH cipororo cthjih h OTHacTH ysce npH- 
MMKaioutHH can K pHMCKoK uiKOne. n. HanHcan orpoMHoe KonHMCCTBO npom- 
BefleHHft, rjiaBHbiM o6pa30M uepKOBHbix, b ne6onbmoft nacTH — CBercKHX. 
MwcTbift H jicHbiH, SHaiHTenbHo ynpomeHHbift no cpaBHCHHio c ero npefline- 

CTBCHHHKaMH CTHflb CrO KOMnOSHUHM SblJI npHHHHOft TOrO, MTO OH nojiyHHn 

MHpoByio cjiasy, h b MacTHOCTH Toro, mto ero MyawKa dwna npHsaaHa KaTO- 
jiHMecKoft uepKOBhK), KaK oSpaaeu uepKOBHoro CTHna nojiH^jOHHH, Ha KOTopyio 
K 3T0?<y BpeweHH b uepKBH oSpaaoeanocb roHCHHe, kbk na HecooiBeTCTBO- 
BaamyK) no CBoefi HSbicKaHHOCTH h cjiojkhocth Tpe6oBaHHaM KynbTa. Rane- 
cTpHHa nHcaji otmbcth ywe roMoqfjOHHO, kbk ronoc MenoflHH c conpoBOJK«e- 

NHOM rapMOHHMeCKHX rOnOCOB, ero MCJIOflHSI CTpOrO flHaTOHHMHa H nOMTH 

JiHuiena yKpauieHHH, xapaKTepHbix fljia npe«bwymHx HH«epnaH«ueB, ero 
rapMOHHn muieHa xpoMaiHSMa h ocHOBana na TpeasyMHsix. KoMnosHUHH 
rianecTpHHbi: Meccw (b tcm MHcne HaHSonee sHaMCHHTbie „nanbi Mapnenno" 
H „Prjmi toni"), MOTeibi, cBercKHe MaAPHrajibi, ^HMnponepHH", cocTasHBiiiHe 
€ro nepBOHaManbHyio cjiasy no CBoeMy sicnoMy ctmhio. Bee coMHHeHHa 
rianecTpHHbi HaneMaTanbi. 



I 

1 



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P 



•' ♦ 



la 



;l 



CTpeMJieHHe K CBHSM C aHTHHHOH KyjibTy- 

PeKOHcrpyKTHB- p^^^ xapaKTcpHoe A^n PcHecaHca, BJieneT aa 

Hbie CTpCMAeHHH. ^^g^j^ nOHblTKH peKOHCTpyKUHH aHTHH- 

Hbix THnoB MysbiKH. BoJiee cymecTBenHa b 3T0m OTHomeHHH 
nonwTKa peKOHCTpynuHn TparcflHH c MyswKOH, BbiJiHBiiiaHca 
B 4)opMy o n e p bi (cm. aajiee). Ho h b o6jiacTH ocosHaHnsi 
SByKOBoro MaTepnaJia jiio6onbiTHbi h xapaKTepnbi no- 
nbiTKH noAo6Horo pofla. 

K coM<ajieHHK>, nHTepec k anTHHHOMy Mwpy ne 6biJi noft- 
KpenjieH tofas 3HaHH9MH o cymnocTH aHTHMHoro HCKyccTsa, 

MTO 6bIJIO npHIHHOM TOrO, MTO peKOHCTpyKTHBHbie nonbiTKH 
HMeJlH AOBOJIbHO (JjaHTaCTHMCCKyK) (|)OpMy H 60JIbUieK) MaCTbK) 

BbipawajiH noA peKOHCTpyKTHSHbiMn 4)opMaMH MHCTO - coppe- 
MCHHyK) HACK) o6 odoramcHHH 3ByKOBOrO MHpa/ HO- 
B bi M H p e c y p c a M H. 

K MHCJiy TaKHx nonwTOK othochtch tcophh 

XpoMaTHKH, ^ npaKTHKa KOMnosHUHH Ehmbhthho 

<XVI bbk) h ero nocjieAOBaTejieft (fl,»«e3yajibAO AH-BeHOsa), 

BBOAHmUX AH(J)epeHUHpOBaHHblft XpOMaXHSM 
nOA BHAOM peKOHCTpyKUHH peCypCOB ApeSHHX XpOMaTHMC- 

CKHX H 3HrapM0HHMecKHX HaKJioHeHHfl. Ehmchthho, pasjiHMaB- 
uihA npaKTHMecKM Aviesbi ox 6eMo;ieft h BBOAWBiuHft ao 22 to- 
HOB B OKTaBe, coopyAHA AaJKe opraH h „MeM6aAo" (poA kab- 
BwaKopAa) c TaKHM cTpoeM, KOTopwft npaKTHMecKH, Bnpo- 
MBM, HenpHeMACM H3-3a ero a6cTpaKTHOCTH, a TeopeTHMC- 
CKoe ero o6ocHOBaHHe 6biAO onpoBeprayTO ApyrHMH xeope- 
THKaMH. TeM He Menee cASHr, „xpoMaTHKaMH" npoH3BeAeHHbift, 
6biA OMeHb cymecTBeHen, KaK bwxoa h3 chctcmm 

npOCTblX AMaTOHHMeCKHX JiaAOB M KaK 0C03HaHHe 3By- 

KOBoro MaTepnaaa b paMKax, otahmhwx ot cpeAHCBeKOBbix. 

AApnaH BHJiAapT (1480—1563) b 
CTapo-BeHegHaB- g^y anoxy aBAfleTca poAOHaMaAbHHKOM Apyroft 

GKBH mKOAa. luKOAbl— C TapO-BeHCUHaHCKOfi, paSBH- 

paromeflcH napaACAbHO c phmckoS h cTpeMameftca b nepByto 

OMepeAb K HCnOAbSOBaHHK) SByKOBblX KOAOpHTOB FOAOCa 

H BXOAsmero b ynoTpe6AeHHe uepKOBHOft npaKTHKH op ran a. 

ripeACTaBHTeAH BCHeUHaHCKOfi UIKOAbI KyJIbTHBHpOBaAH MHO' -, .- 

roxopHoe nncbMO h uiHpoKO HcnoAbsoBaAH ssyKOBbie pe- 
cypcbi opraHOB. mto o6'jicHJiJiocb npHcyTCTBHCM b Bene- • 
uHaHCKOM co6ope MapKa AByx opranoB H Asyx xopoB. Cxpe- 

1 

HcTopua My3HKH, V, 



^imit 



L 



nnevme k nofl;^ep3KKe xopos sByHHOCTbio 6ojiee MOUiHoft h 
nhiiBHoPi Bbi3Baflo BCKope no^BfleHHe uepKOBHux opKe- 
c T p o B, cHanafla cocraBJieHHbix h3 c m bi h k o b bi x, ycHJieHHbix 
Tpy6aMH (xpoMdoHaMH), 6oM6apAaMH (4)aroTaMH) w ^nePnoMK. 
Becb aHcaM6.nb cTaHosHJica opranoM. B 3tom noflyHHcxpy- 
MCHTajibHOM CTHjie nvican JJacnoBaHHH ra6pHeJiH (1557—1612), 

KOTOpblft OAHH H3 nepBblX BblCXynHJI H C HHCTO-HHCrpy- 
WeHTaabHblMH KOMnOSHUHAMH COHaraMH (OT 

tiJioBa suonare— SByiaTb), KOTopwe, noBHjxHMOMy. 6biJiM. cna- 
»iiajia npocTbiMH apaH»<HpoBKaMH flaa HHcrpyMeHTOB 

BOKa;ibHbIX KOMnOSHUHi^ H HHHeM OT HHX DO CTHmO He OTflH- 
MiajIHCb. 

B 3TO 2Ke BpeMH paBBHBaerca . m a a p h r a ji . 

HOflBAeHHe HOBUX 1 

.g nepeHeceHHbiH Ha HTajibsiHCKyro noisy h Tyr. 

aSHUX, meAKO-Ae- "^ pOflHHe SeJIHKMX JIHpHKOB, AOCTHratOUtMA 

oABAbBux) Ha CBoero pacusera h BbicuieK nonyjinpHOCTH. 
HCT. apesy. OcAa- kslk (|}opMa, HaH6ojiee OTBeHaBuiaH : CBeTCKQ^y "^ 
6AeHKe KAepBKa- HanpaBJicHHio PenecaHca. Ero nposyKTopaMH 
Anama. omo^oh- gj^,j,jj IlajiecTpHHa, nosflHce MoHTesepAfei h b 
Ban HvaMKa. Vi ».< ^ 

ocooeHHOCTH JlyKa napenuHO, HaHOonee 

xapaKxepHbiA b stom OTHOuieHHH. Maapwraji nonyMaer TonaJib- 
Hbifi OTTCHOK, conpHKacascb c HapoAHbiM HTajibHHCKHM Hane- 

BOM. K 3TOMy BpeMCHH yH<e OKOHHareJIbHO 0(|>OpMHBlIIHN CBOe 

Mawop-MHHopHoe cTpoeHHC Pha HBJieHHfi ycyry6afleT snaHH- 

MOCTb 3TOrO MOMCHTa B HCTOpHH MySblKH. FIoflBaaiOTCSr 

HOBbie HHcrp y M e h t w, saneceHHaH c socTOKa ;i mj x h h. 
BbipadoxaBuiaflCfl h3 {idul'a, cKpunKa h BHOJia w K^iaBecMH, 
npHMeMJiioxHH cxaHOBHxcfl HCKJiioHHTeabHO nonyjinpHoS 6fla- 
roAapa ;ierKocTH o6yMeHMa Ha Heft nrpe. MysbSKa abmo- 
KpaxHSHpyexcfl — hb uepKBH h ABopua nepeceJiHexc» b- 
npocxwe AOMa cpeAHMX rpaacAaH, npH nen acHO, mto ona He 
MOMcex yAcpacaxbCH Ha noflH4>OHHHecKofl Bwcoxe He xojibKo 
noxoMy, Hxo JiHMHoe, HHAMBHAya^bHoe MyabiKaJibHoe MyscxBO 
cxpeMMflocb onpeAejieHHO k aMpHnecKcft necne, ho m noxowy, 
H[Xo xopbi h opraHbi 6bijiM He no cpeAcxBaw b MacxHbix jionax. 
PasBHTHe HHCTpyweHxapHfl iiijio HaBcxpeMy sxowy AewoKpa- 
THMCCKOMy cABwry, o6ycJIOBJIeHHO^y tcm, mxo ocBo6cJKAeHHoe 
ox FHCxa uepKBH HacejieHwe pMHyjiocb b »:M3HeHHbie yAO- 
BOJibcxBMfl, B HacxHocxH — MysbiKy. Ho xo ocosHaHMe rap- 
MOHHH. Koxoporo AOCXHma Mtysbma 3a speMB cBOero noaH- 



() 



\ji,.W.il^..*LI. 



-■'-'iilMii 



^HHHCCKOrO paSBHXHfl, OCXaJIOCb npH HOBOft, MHCXpyMeHXaflb- 

Mofl^anoxe: oxhwhc jiwthh aKKoMnaHHpyex MeaoAMH ne npwMH- 
THBHQ]^ Hoxofi HJiH yHHcoHOM, a papMOHHeA, B Koxopyio pyAH- 
MeHXHpooajiHCb BxopocxeneHHbie rojioca MaAPHraaa. OrpoMnaH 
nonyaapHQcxb MaApnrajiOB sacxasAajia lacxo xpaHcnoHH- 
poBaxb Hx AJiH rojioca cojio c JiioxHeSf, npw nen 
3TH nepeAeJiKH o6jierHMJiM nepexoA k roMotjboHHw, k aKKopAO- 
BOMy conpoBOJKACHHK), y«e KaK caMOcxoaxejibHOMy xBopie- 

CKOMy flBJieHHK). B CBSSM C 3XHM paSBHXHeM aKKopAOBoro 

conpoBOSKAeHHH xeopexHK UapjiHHO^) (1517 — 1590), hah aa- 
Bcxpeny xpe6oBaHHK> »<h3hh, cosAaex yseHHe o rap- 

HOHHH, nOHaXHe O KOXOpoft BblKpHCXaJIJIHSOBblBaeXCH H3 

ocosHaHHH noJiH(|}OHHHecKHx coMexannft, h HOBaa Teopwa hact 
Ha CMeny ywe coBceM ycxapeBuieft h 6e3HaAeMCHO oxcxasmeft 
ox MysbiKaAbHOft npaKXHKM rpenecKoft xeopnH, a BHaAana 
(poA. 1564) BBOAHT ywe nenne c onpeAeJieHHWM rapMOHKMC- 
CKHM aKKOMnaHeMCHxoM op ran a. AajibHeftiUHe uiara Aejiaex 
xaK hQb- (j[}JiopeHXHftcKaa pe({)opMa, sapoAHBiuaaca, 
KaK V caeAyex o»<HAaxb, b AHJiexaHxcKoft MejiKo-4>eo- 
AaabHoft cpeAe h nepenecuiaa uenxp xawecxH h3 koh- 
xpanyHKxoB a xopoBux MaccHBOB b nenne cojio c 
aKKOMnancMenxoM, KaK 6oAee ecxecxBeHHoe, 6ojiee 
BbipaBHxejibHoe H Menee cBaBannoe c uepKOBHoft xpaAMUHeft, 
a KpoMe xoro, 6onee Aocxynnoe nacxHbiM AHuaM. s k o h o m h- 
»iecKH 6oAee HCHSHCHHoe. B hhcab AexaaeiR hobofo 
HanpaBACHHa, 6bicxpO pacnpocxpanaroiueroca,. h6o oho KaK 
pas cooxBexcTBOBaao uiHpOKOMy arodnxeAbCKOMy BKycy Maccbi, 
npcAnoHHxaiomeft CBo6oAHyK) necHio, libi naxoAHM waApM- 
rajiHcxoB JlyKy MapenuHo, nesuos FaMeaeHa, KaHHHHM. 

n03Xa PHHyHHHHH H ApyrHX, Xpe6oBaBUIHX ox MySblKM, B CBflSM 

c BanpocaMH CBoeft cpeAbi, BbipasHxeabHocxH h bobmojkhoA 
npocxoxbi conpoBOJKAeHHa, npH Koxopoft raaBHaa MeaOAHa He 



J: 



UapjiHHo (1517— 1590) — BbTAaiomHftcn TeopeTiiK, MTajibJiHeu. no 
npoHcxomAeHHK); co3Aan yMeHHe o rapMOHHH, HBHBiueecn Ha cMewy nojiHijjtmH- 
MeCKOwy Bsrnsifly Ha aKKopA, kbk Ha peaynbTax CTeneHHn Me.iio«H»«ecKHX 
.hhhhh. Oh BnepBbie ycraHOBHn ^HaiypanbHWH" cTpofi, ocHOBaHHwiS wa HHiep- 
najie ,6onbiHoft TepuHM*. UapnHHO uonbaoBancH MaieMaTHHecKHMH npeflno- 
cbinKaMH aKycTHKH b cboux nocTpoeHHflx. Ewy me npMnHCWBaioT ynpOHCHHe 
noHKTHH „reHepan-6aca" hbh uH4>poBaHHoro 6aca, xotji aro MHCHHe ocnapH- 

BSCTCn MHOrHMH. 

t 

7* . 



ifHkWMMBI 



■iMiilM 



— 100 — 

aarjiymainacb 6bi ApyrHMw rojiocanH. 06ihhhho - uepKOBHoe 
Hanajio, rocnoacTBOBasmee s scKa cpeAHeseKOBoft xeoKpaTHM 
H orpasHBUieecH CHawajia b paBHonpasHH fojiocob yHHcoHa, 
a noTOM B paBCHCTBe SHaneHHst rojiocoB nojiHtfjoHHH, ycry- 
nacT MecTO 6ypHOMy HHflHBHAyajiKCTHHecKOMy Hanajiy, oxo- 

6pa>KaKJmeMyC$I B npHCBOCHHH UCHXpa BHHMaHHH K OflHOMy 

MeJioAHHecKowy rojiocy h saTyuieBbiBaHHW Bcex ocxajibHbix, 

OAHOBpeMCHHO TeKCT HaMHHaex Hajiaraxb na MyawKy 
Tpe6oBaHHe cooxBexcxBHsi c co6oft, hxo . yace jiofh- 
HecKH BbixeKajio h3 Kyjibxa BbipasHxejibHOcxH. HoKa 
MysbiKa, cocxaBJisBuias! nacxb pnxyajia, flOJiHcna 6biJia BwcKa- 
sbiBaxb xojibKO a6cTpaKXHoe BOSBbiiueHHoe nyBcxBO, KorAa 

MyBCTBCHHOCXb MBJlOCa CMHXaJiaCb nOSOpOM, — BbipaSHXeJIbHOCXb 

He Morjia pasBHXbcw, m HyMtHO 6biJio Jina axoro KpymeHHe 
TeoKpaxHHecKoro MwpocosepuaHHfl. B cbsish c xpe6oBaHHHMH 
Bbjpa3Hxe;ibHOcxH b mcjioamh nosiBJiHioxcH 3KcnpeccHBHbie 
oxxeHKH AHHaMHKH H cnoco6cxByK>maH 6ojiee JiernoMy ycBoe- 
HHK) MOXHBa nepHOAH'iecKaH cxpyKxypa h3 nepBHHHbix phxmh- 
necKHX aneeK — xaKxoB. MyawKa pHXMHSupyexcH, nepe- 

HOCH UCHXp HHXepeca H3 OpraHH3aUHH H OCOSHaHHSI C03ByHHft 

B opraHHsauHK) h ocosnaHMe speMeHHoro xeneHHsi (4>opMbi. 

MeJIOflHw) SByKOB. 

riafleHHe HHxepeca k conpoBOWAaromuM MeJionviK) rojio- 

caM He 3aMeAJiHflo Bbipaanxbca BHemne b xom, mxo Tpe6o- 

BaHHe xoHHocxH Hx sanMCH noHHSHJiocb, B conpo- 

BWKfteHHH saMceH 6bm thh rapMOHHH, a hc 

l|H4>poBaaHi.iH ac. j^g^gjjj, ee rojiocoBeAeHHH. 3xo BwcKasajiocb 

B nosiBJieHHH bXVI BeKeuH<|)poBaHHoro 6aca (xaKHas. 
reHepaji-6aca), x.-e. coKpauxeHHoA sanHcii xHna rapMOHHw 
(o6o3HaHaJic9 xojibKO hhjkhhA rojioc h xhh rapMOHHH — mh4>- 
paMM), coxpaHHBiueftcH B MysbiKc BHJioxb Ao xoro BpeMCHH, 
Koraa pasBHXHe a AexajiHsauwH rapMOHHHecKofii 4)HrypauHH 
no6yAHjiH BHOBb K xoMHoS 3anMCM aKKOMnaneMeHxa (XVIII bck). 
UM(J)poB&HHbifii 6ac B03HHK, BHAHMO, B npoijiecce npaKXHKH, 
Korfla noxpe6oBa;iacb noAAepncKa opranoM aHca,M- 
6 ji e ft xopoBbix H 3apo»Aatoii(Mxcsi HHcxpyweHxaAbMbix. OapxHa 
axoro noAAepacHBaBiuerb H nrpaBiuero pojib AvipHM«HpyK)mero 
HHcxpyMeHxa oprana (hjih nosdHee — KflaBecHHa) nHcaAacb, 
KaK pa6oHafl. xexHHHecKaa napxHa, coKpaiueHHO, uyii^- 
paMM, H axo o6biKHOBeHHe ocxajiocb, KorAa ysKe He 6biJio HaAO^r 



r 



OpaTopBH. 



— 101 — 

HOcxH B noAAepiKKe aHcanSna, ho Korna noHMMceHHbifl hhxc- 
pec K nojiHcj[)OHHH HaBOAHJi Ha Mbicjib o coKpaiueHHOM sanMCH 
aKKOMnaHCMCHxa. 

Pa3BHXHe HOBbix sfleMCHXdB B MysbiKC nopoAHJio pasBK- 
xHe xoAa HOBbix (jjJopM MysbiKajibHoro BonjiomeHma 
H HOBbix HHCxpyMenxoB. B o6jiacxH ncjiyuepKOBuofi 
MysbiKH poHCAaexcH opaxopHs?, nponctueA- 
uiaa H3 6jiaroMecxHBbix pasBJieneHMft b bhac 
MxeHHH „cBHmeHHoro HHcaHHa". fljiH 6ojibmero BnenaxjieHMa 
paccKas noAarajica nacxbK) na MysbiKy. FlepBOHaHajibHaa 
opaxopHa He BbixoAHAa h3 axorp xHna. OAHOBpcMeHHo no- 
HBJiaexca onepa, KaK ApaMaxHMecKoe npeAcxasAe- 
HHe c MysbiKoft, BOSHHKUiaa H3 HapoAHbix H nojiyHapoA- 
Hbix ApaM (comoedia del arte, BOACBHAb h npon.), pasBHXwx 
eme panee, b XIII eeKe, h xoM<e conpoBO»<AaBuiHxca oxAeAb- 

HblMH MySblKaAbHblMH HOMepaMH (neCHBMH, HAaCKaMH). Ha 

4>opMOBaHHe onepbi He ocxaAocb 6e3 BAHSHHa yBAencHHe 

xoro BpeMCHH aHXHMHWM MHpOM H B MaCXHOCXH aHXHHHOft 

xpareAHeft, peKoncxpyKUHK) Koxopofl AyMasH BHAexb b 
onepe, mxo noBAeKAO odocHOBanne raaBHux SACMenxoB 
onepHoro ucAoro (apvift. o6pa30BaBUiHxca hs mohoao- 
roB, H xopoB, saMecxHBiiiHx xop aHXHMHoA xpareAHw); ho 
HpKa»ceHHoe npcAcxaBJieHHe XVI BCKa o cymecxBe anxMnnoft 
xpareAHH h camuikom xecnaa npeeMcxBennocxb ox cpeAHe- 
BCKOBbix 4>opM ApaMaxHMecKoro AeflcxBua (comoedia del arte. 
„BOAeBHAH" xpy6aAypoB, MHcxepHw) o6paxHAH onepy nepBwx 
BeKOB PenecaHca b MysbiKaAbnyio ACKAaMauHio, hjih 
peMHxaxHB, nepBOHanaAbHoe HasHaneHHe Koxopoft 6biJio 
npocxo HaH6oAee xonnaa 3ByKOBaa nepeAana ecxecxBennbix 
HHxoHauHft pcMH. SapoAHBuiaaca b ABopancKHX caAonax na 
noMBe MHcxo-xeopexHMecKoro nceAanna peKOHcxpyHpoBaxb b 
4)eoAaAbHbix ycAOBwax XVI BeKa xyAOHcecxBeHHyio nwuiHocxb 
SjiAaAbi, onepa, Koxopaa nepBOHanaAbHO HMenoBaAacb melo- 
drama, drama per musica h drama lyrica, poAHJiacb b cy- 
XHX H a6cxpaKXHbix {|)opMax, He npeAcxaBJinBuiHX cnanaAa 
xyAOMcecxBeHHOcxH. 3xo o6'acHHJiocb KaK xeopexHHecKHM ee 
npoHcxoMCAeHHCM B nojiyjiHxepaxypHofl cpeAe, xaK h oxcyx- 

„ cxBHCM apKoro AaposaHHa b o6jiacxH Mejio- 

UOHBAeHiie onepu. . n _ 

AHH y nepBbix ee npcAcxaBHxejieM. llepsaa 

onepa noaBHAacb b 1594 r. — axo 6biJia „flatj[)Ha" c wysbiKoft 



HobmM HHCTpy- 
steBTapuB. 



102 



riepH, H Bbissaaa rpoMa;tHbift sHTysHasM b tom cjioe, koto- 
pwft B anoxy B03po»<aeHHfl 4)opMHpoBaa o6mecTBeHHO-xyjto- 
McecTBeHHoe MHeHwe, — b MCflKoft ^JeoflajibHoS apHcxoKpaTHM. 
OftHOBpeMeHHo nojiynaeT cH^y h BHpTyosHoe TeneHMe, 
roHHMoe B uepKBH pHxyajioM h ysHfleBuiee b onepe noAxo- 
AHUiyio apeHy una pasBHTHH BOSMOHiHOCxeft 6jiecxHmero ne- 
HHH, mo 6biJio o6ycjiOBJieHo HajiHMneM SHanHxejibHoro 
KaApa neBuoB, HCKaBuiHx cjiynaa npoHBWXb cBoe BHeuiHee 
HCKyccxBO. PeHHxaxHBHbift cxHJib ycxynaex Mecxo KOJiopa- 
xypHO-BHpxyosHOMy h apHOSHOMy, b Koxopwx Ha nepsoM Mecxe 
y»«e HHCxo-3ByKOBoe OHapoBaHwe, a He ApaMaxHHecKwe aaaa- 
HMH — neseu HanHHaex nojiyHaxb npeo6flaji,aHHe naa aKxepoM. 
HoBbie xpe6oBaHHH k MysbiKe cosftaiOT 
HOBbie HHcxpyMCHXH, pasBMBatouiHecsi 
H3 npeJKHHx xHnoB nyxcM nocxeneHHoro ycaow- 
HeHHsi M ycoBepuieHcxBOBaHHH. B opraHe, ywe AasHo yno- 
xpedjiflBuieMCfl Ana noAAep»cKH xopoBoro aHcaM6jiH b uepKBM, 
BBOAHTCH xexHHHecKHe ycoBepiiieHcxBOBaHHH (yMeHbuieHMe 
pasMepa KJiaBMUi, 6onhmaa jierKocxb yAapa), o6jierMaK)- 
mHCHrpy Ha hcm h xcm cnoco6cxByH)mHe ero pacnpo- 

CXpaHeHMK}. B hcm HaHWHaexCH paSBMTHe KOJIHMCCXBa 

pasHbix perHcxpoB h yBejiMHCHMe ero SByKOBoro Bne- 

MaXJieHHH. B CBHSH C 3XHM HCMCAJieHHO yBejIHMHBaeXCa MHCJIO 

opraHHCxoB-BHpxyosoB H noHBaaexcH cneuwajibHaji 
JiHxepaxypa Jina oprana. OrpoMHoe SHaneHHe nonynun opraH, 
KaK MHCxpyMCHx, cnoco6Hbift K peajiMsauHH nonvi^o- 
HHH CHJiaMH OAHOrO flHLia H xeM cnoco6cxBOBaBUiHM 
paSBMXHK) HMnpOBHSaUHH B nOJlH^JOHMHCCKHX 4)OpMaX M 

rpoMaAHOMy uiary BnepcA b cosnaHMH My'swKajibHofl 

npHpOAbI aKKOpAOB H SByKOBblX coHexaHHfi, He- 
BOSMOJKHOi^, nOKa KOMnOSHXOp JIHlUeH 6bIJI a«HBoro WMnpOBH- 

sauHOHHoro conpHKOCHOBeHWH c nonvK^OHwePi- 
TpoMaAHoe sHaHeHne opran h poAcxBeHHbift 
CMy no noJiH(J)OHHHecKHM cnoco6HOCxaM KJiaBHKopA noJiyHHJi 
H3-3a xoro. Mxo eMy npHuiaocb nrpaxb ■ ecxecxBennyio pojib 
OpraHHCT-flnpaaiep AHpMJKHpyiomero HHCXpyMCHXa.— OH noA- 
H KAaBecHHHCT- Aep»<MBaji ncBUOB H aHcaM6jib HHcxpyMenxoB 
AHpH^ep. cAMHoft BOJieft apxHcxa m hc Aasaji hm pa- 
aoftxHCb. OxcHJAa »:e — xa 6ojibuiaa poab, Koxopyro o p r a- 

HHCX H KJiaBCCHHHCX CXaJl Hrpaxb B MySblKe, KaK TMP 



PasBHTMe opraaa. i 



JOS — 



"■'^^W 



k 



■ 



v,QV(6oaee KyabxypHoro h npo(j[)eccHOHajibHO pasBHxoro wy- 
sbiKaHxa. ^riepBonaMajibHoe ynpasjiCHHe eiHcaM6jieM n y x e m 
ycjiOBHbix ABMM«eHHfi pyK (xeApoHOMHn), pacnpo- 
cxpaneHHoe b snoxy hcbm h b nepHdA MyawKajibHoft 6e3rpa- 
MOXHOcxM, ycxynaex wecxo ynpaBJieHHio nyxeM Hrpw Ha 
KjiaBHuiHOM MHcxpyMCHxe. XefipoHOMHa, cjiywHBiuaH B cym- 
HocxH »<HBofi HeBMaxHMecKoii sanncbH), paccHHxaH- 
Hoft Ha caMyio HHSKyro sByKOByio cosHaxeabHocxb b cpeAe 
:«opa M HcnojiHHxeae^ HHcxpyMCHxanbHbix napxHiB, cxaHOBHXCH 
HeHyscHoft H ox Hee ocxaroxca b npaKxwKe ynpaBaenHa „op- 
KecxpoM" xojibKO ycjiOBHbie abhwchmh rojiosbi h pyK (wnorAa 
30opy»eHHbix najiKoi^ hjih CBasKoi^ hox), o6jierHaK)mMe ecxy- 
njieHHC roflocoB h Aaromne o6mHfi xenn h phxm. JXo Basa 
BKJiK>HHxeabHO noAAep»HBaH>iuHA opran (KaasecHH) 6bm ne- 
o6xoAHMbiM aacMenxoM aHcaM6flH, h xojibKO XVIII BeK BbiBo- 
jtHx ero H3 axofi pojiH. B axo BpcMH cosAaexca cBo6oAHbiM[ 
cxHJib KOHxpanyHKxa, b CHabHoK cxencHH CBa3aHHbil^ 
c KJiaBHUiHofii xexHHKoft oprana, necpaBneHHO 6oJiee 

nOABHHSHblfl, HCM BOKaJIbHblfi, CBa3aHHblfl B HOABHMCHOCXH 

CBo6oABuScTiiAb, ycjiOBHaMH rojiocoBoro annapaxa h hmhpobh- 

o6ycADBAeBHu% sauHOHHbiM nyxeM AocxHruiHfi snaMnxeJibHO 

HBcrpyMeHTaAHs- 5ojibiuefl uiHpHHbi B saKOHax 6aaro3ByHHa. 

'■"'"• B o6jiacxM oprana BHpxyoanocxb cosAaexca 

ywe K XVI BCKy, npH mcm OAHOBpeMenHO pasBHsaMsxca MMwxa- 

iiHOHHbie c|)opMbi B HHcxo-HHcxpyMeHxaJibHofl o6aacxH — (jj) y T a 

H KaHOH. PaaBHXHe opraHHoft KOHcxpyKuwH cosAajio 

MHCXO-HHCXpyMeHXajlbHblfi CXHflb, o6xoAHBmHAc« 

yM«e BOBce 6e3 BOKajibHoro aaeMCHxa h 6e3 cjiOBa, ao xex 
nop opraHH^ecKH cJiHxoro c MyswKoft. MHcxo-npo4)eccHOHaAb- 
Moe cxpewJieHHe k ycJiOMCHCHHK) cxhjm h k yMHOJKeHHJo 
B03MO«Hocxeft TexHHKH, y»<e He naxoAHBuiee onopu b Kano- 
HHHecKOM uepKOBHOM pHxyajie, HaroHaewoe hs cBexcKofl ny- 
sbiKH xeneHHeM roMOc|)OHH3Ma h MejiOAHsna, Koxopwe c hhm 
He 6biaH coBMecxHMbi, nauiao ce6e npHrox b HHcxpyMenxeuib- 
Hoft noflH(|)OHHH, cHanana b opraHHoft jiHxepaxype. B MxajiMM 
3XOX cxHJib pasBHBaexca 6ojiee cbo6oaho, b FepMaHHW ace, 
TAe peflHraosHaa pe(|)opManHa HaAOMcuaa neKOxopwi^ acKexM- 
HecKMft oxxcHOK Ha HanpaBJieHHe HCKyccxBa, pa3BHXHe npo- 
<|}eccHOHaAbHoA KOMnosHxopcKoft BHpxyosHOcxH o6jieKaexcM 
B 6ojiee cxporiite paMKH h npoxcKaex ne 6e3 bjihhhhh xpaAHUHft 



-^ 



iiii'iiiM' 



104 



— 105 



npewHero MysbiKajibHoro npocj[)eccHOHanH3Ma, BbiJiHBaacb b 
(^opny no;iH4'OHMMecKofl o6pa6oTKH xopajia, Koropbifi saMe- 
HHex npeacHHft KarojiMMecKHft cantus firmus. FIpeACTaBHTejiew 
HTajibHHCKoro opraHHO-nojiHcf)OHHMecKoro npo(|)eccHOHaflH3Ma 
HBJiHercH reHHanbHbifl OpecKo6ajibfl,H ^), KOMnosHTop vt 
BHpTyoa, cosflaBiUMft lUKOJiy opraHHon HMnpoBHsauHH; b Pep- 
MaHHH— ULIeftfliT H ero vhchmk Opo6eprep. 
KAaBHmHMe THUM OpraH He Mor, KaK HHcrpyMeHT nepec- 
BBCTpyMCHTOB. Myp TpoMosAKHft, BnojiHc yflOBjiexBO- 
pwTb cnpocy yMHO»«aK)mHxcfl npo(J)eccHOHa^ 
noB, — Tpe6oBajiocb HacTOHxejibHo noHBJieHHe iracTpyMeHTa, 

KOTOpblft, COXpaHHH BOSMOHCHOCTb HMnpOBHSaUHH H nO- 

HHtJjOHHHecKHe pccypcbi, Mor yMemaxbCfl b MCHbuieM o6'eMe 
H 6bixb nopxaxHBHee. 3xoMy xexHHMecKOMy saAaHHia 
yAOBJiexBopHJi KJiaBHKopA, H3o6pexeHHbift B Hanajie XVI 
BCKa, npH HCM ero npewMymecxBO nepcA opranoM eme 
6biJio B cnoco6HOcxH Aasaxb oxxchkh chjiu , hxo naxo- 
AHJiocb H B CBSI3H c xpe6oBaHHeM BCKa ox 3KcnpeccHH. 

BmCCXC C KJiaBHKOpAOM n09BflHK)XCH MHOrOHHCACHHWe XHHbr 
BHpHCHHaJieft, CnHHeXOB H KJiaBMUHXepHeB, Koxopbie Bce Bbipa- 

»caK)T OAHO H xo ace cxpeMJieHMe— cosAaxb He6ojibuioft, nop- 
xaxHBHbift, HO noJiH4)OHHMecKHft HHCxpyMCHX. B nocfleflyto- 
meS 6opb6e sa cymecxBosaHHC Bbi»<HBaK>x hs axoft nopoAw 
HHcxpyMenxoB xe xMnw, Koxopwe o6Hapy»cHBajiH Han6oAee 
3aAaxKM K 6erjiocxH h aKcnpeccHH. Eme 6oJiee AerKasi, new 
y oprana, KAaBwaxypa KAasHiuHbix cxpyHHWx HHCxpyMCHXOB 
nocAyjKHAa npnHHHOM AaAbHefiuiero o6Aer4eHHS[ cxhah komho- 

3HU,HH H npOHBAeHHKJ SJlCMeHXa XeXHHMeCKOS BHpXyOBHOCXH 

(6erA0Cxn). KaK h CACAyex o»:HAaxb, KAaBHUiHbie HHCxpy- 
MeHXbi pacnpocxpaHHK>xca CHa^ajia b mcjiko - (|)eoAaAbHbix h 
6ypM<ya3Hbix CAonx 6AaroAapH CBoeft cpaBHHxeAbHO AerKoK 
xexHHKC H roxoBofi: nacxpoflKe, ne xpe6oBaBmeft ox HcnoA- 
HHxeAM CAyxa b xaKoft cxenenH, KaK rpH(|)OBbie HHCxpyMenxw. 
OnaroM hx noHBAeHHH 6biJia A h r a h «, mxo CKasaAOCb na xom, 
HXO nepBOHanaAbHoe pacnpocxpaneHHe hx apMe Bcero cKa- 






O'l'pecKoeajibflH (1588—1653) — ocHoaaTejib opraHHoft TexHHKH 
H nepBbiH B CBoe BpeMsi BHpTyos Ha stom HHCTpyMeHre. Oh cymecTseHHO- 
paaBHJi ({lopMy (J)yrH h HanHcan MHoro cohhhchhh, h3 KOTOpwx BOKajibHue 
HMeioT cpaBHHxenbHO MeHbiuee 3Ha>!eHHe, a rnasHoe sHaMe'HHC npHHaflner- 
MtiiT opraHHbiM KOMnosHKHSM H coHMHeHHaM Ansi 4>opTenHaHOj 



f 



sanocb HMeHHO xaM, H npH ABope EAHcaBexbi (1558— 1603) 
BHpHCHHaAH HOAbsoBajiHCb yMce orpoMHoft nonyASpHOCXbK) H 
cosABAH cneitM^JHMecKyio Awxepaxypy (BepA, Mop a eft, 
XI, 3K. ByAAb XVI B.). OocxeneHHO akjxhh, 6biBuiaH b na^ 
HaAe PenecaHca MOAHbiM HHcxpyMeHXOM, ycxynaex Mecxo 
KJiaBHiuHbiM XHnaM, 6ojiee noJiHOSByHHWM h cnoco6HbiM 
K 6oAee AexaAHsoBaHHoft BupxyosHocxH, h, BbixecHeHHaa hs 
npoc|)ecGHOHaAbHofi MysbiKaAbHofi AHxepaxypbi, oxxoahx 
B HAocKOcxb AeMOKpaxHHecKHx HHcxpyMeHxoB, o6cAywHBaio- 
lUHX B CBOHX BapHexexax (rHxapa, ManAOAHHa) napoAHbie 
Maccbi, He CKAOHHbie K HHcxoMy HHcxpyMeHxaAMSMy H noxoMy 
He BaHHxepecoBaHHbie b KAaBnuiHbix HHcxpyMeHxax. 

B 3xy me snoxy pasBHBaioxcH xmhw cMWMKOBbix (bhoa). 
Koxopbie yace b XV Bene BbiAeAsroxcH cpeAH HHcxpyMenxoB 
HaH6oAbuieft sKcnpeccHBHOCTbK), 6AH30cxbK> K roAocy H CH- 
AOM SBynaHHa, Tnnbi ckphokh h ApyrHX cxpyHHbix BbiKpH- 

CXaAAH30BbIBaK)XCfl K XVI BeKy, KOPAa nosBAHioxca BeAHHafi- 

uiHe, AO CHX nop He npeB3oflAeHHbie Macxepa KoncxpyKUHH 
(xHpoAeu Tn(f)eH6pK)Kep, HxaAbflHuw Ambxh h CxpaAHBapH 
XVI— XVII BBKa). 

C noflBACHHeM KAaBHUiHbix HHcxpyMeHxoB Hacxynaex 
cymecxBeHHbift cabhf b 3ByKOBOM cosepuaHHH, saKAioHaio- 
lUHftca B xoM, Mxo nocxeneHHO ocosHaroxcsi xpoMaxH- 
MecKHe cxyneHH, ywe He b nopnAKe onopbi na xOHbi 

OCHOBHbie (BBOAHbie XOHa) H He B nopSAKe MOAyAHUHOHHblX 

cKBHroB. Kojib cKopo 3ByK cxaA cooxBexcxBOBaxb K A a B H m e 

H CXaA Cn0C06HbIM BbI3bIBaXbCH KOHAa yrOAHO C XOMHOCXbK) 

H 6e3 HanpnaceHHH cjiyxa, co6Aa3H 6oAee cBo6<3AHoro 
ynoxpe6AeHHfl xpoMaxHMecKHX 3ByKOB, hjih »mu- 
sica ficta", cxaA ropa3AO 6oAbme. OAHOBpeMCHHO BwnAbiAa 
npo6jieMa ynopjiAOHeHHH noAyHHBiueroca b paenopawe- 
hmh xpoMaxHHecKoro SByKOBoro MaxepwaAa, Koxopwfl cyanaAa 

6bIA aKyCXHHeCKH KOOpAHHUpOBaH XOJlbKO C OCHOBHOH XaMMOS 

AO-Ma»;op (6ejibie KAaBHUiH). B 6opb6e MCJKAy HceAaHweM co- 
xpaHHXb MaKCHMyM xpoMaxHHecKHX cxynenefl h xeXHHHecKHMM 
HeyAo6cxBaMH xaKoro MHorosByMHfl Bbipa6oxaAacb nocxeneHHO 
xcMnepauHa, nanajio Koeft oxhochxch 
cHnepagHH. ^ ^^qq roAy. KorAa xeopexHMecKH 6biAa oco- 
snana BOSMpJKHOcxb orpaHHHHXbca 12-k) sByKamw a oKxase 
AJiH odcAyMCHBaHHa 6AHJKaflmHX xoHajibHocxefl. h saBepuieHne 



y^M 



itiii&iki 



106 



Koelt cBepuiHJiocb B 1700 roay, Koraa 6biji Bbipa6oTaH pasHO- 
MepHbiA crpofs h3 1 2 n o ji y t o h o b, npH6jiK3MTejibHO coot- 
seTCTByiomHX HaH6ojiee nacTO ynoTpe6n$ieMbiM 3ByKa*i. Toraa 
3Ke c^'^P'^iJPOBajica h coBpeMeHHbift tsm KaaBHaTypw c 5 Mep- 
nbiMH IH 7^5enbiMH KnaBnm&nvi. noaBJieHHe KJiaBHuiHbix HHCTpy- 
MeHTOB cnoco6cTBOBajio b BbicuieA cTencHti nposrcHCHHio 
noHHTHH TOHaJibHOCTH M HACH MOflyjiHUHH, T.-e. nepe- 
HeceHHsi cxpoa na flpyrwe Bbicoxbi. OflHOBpeMCHHO 6bm Ha- 
HeceH peiuHTejibHbifl y^ap uepKOBHbiM jiajiaM, OKpeniuHM 
B c^epe TeopeTH3HpoBaHHH, m b MyswKe HaMMHaexca peuiM- 

TCJIbHOe TOpMCeCTBO ..eBponefiCKHX" JiaAOB C TOHWHeCKOft 
OpMBHTHpOBKOft H BBOAHblMH TOHaMH, HaXOAHMblMH HHTyHTHBHO 

H panee, ho b Gt|)epe nojiH4)OHHHecKoR HMnpoBHsauwoHHOft 

B03M0MCH0CTH Ha KJiaBHUIHblX MHCTpyMCHTaX Cpasy OKpeniUHMH. 

riepBOHaMajibHO, BnpoHeM, c MasKopoM m mhhopom ne CBsisbi- 

SaCTCH COBpeMCHHblX HBM HaCTpOCHMfl (MaM«op — paftOCTb 

MHHop — nenajib), m mx BBeAeHHe xapaKTcpno TOJibKo kslk 
BbipaMceHMe TfliroTeHHa k rapMOHWMecKOMy cossyKy (MawopHbiii 

M MHHOpHbIM aKKOpA)< TaKHM o6pa30M MHCTO-TeXHMleCKHft 

MOMeHT H3o6peTeHHH KJiaBHarypHbix HHcxpyMeHTOB nopoAHJi pflA 

xyAOHCeCTBCHHblX CABHrOB B 06jiaCTH npOHCHeHHfl SByKOBOrO 

cosHaHHH H yTBepa<AeHHH coBpeMeHHoro rapMOriHHecKOro cTpoa. 

TeM He Menee BHpryosHOCTb b axofl c(|)epe pasBMBaexcH 

nosAHee (XVII b.), a nepBOHavtajibHO ckphhkh h bhojiw, nopo- 

AHBui^e nosAHefiuiHe thhw BMOAOHMejiH h 6aca, npewMy- 

meCTBCHHO npHMCHHiOTCfl B HHCTpyMCHTaJIbHOM BH" 

caM6«e, noflB«eHne Koroporo b MysbiKe othochtch k 
XV — ^XVI Beny h KoxopwA annncsi kbk oaho hs BbipaaceHHfi 
Toro cxpeMJieHHa k HaMBbicme^ nbiiiiHocxH cxhjih, Koxopoe 
80o6M^e xapaKxepHO ma HCKyccxBa BoapoacAeHHsi h pacuse- 
xoM o6H3aHO pasBHXHK) npocBeiueHHoro MeueHaxcxsa b cpeAe 
4)eoAajioB, BHAeBuiHx b sxom yKpenjieHHe cBoeft KjiaccoBoft 
no3HUMM B npoxHBOBec KjiepuKaJiHSMy, pasrpoMfleHHOMy b 
6opb6e M ocfladeBuiewy ox aKOHOMWMecKHX npHHMH, nopoAHB- 
lUHX n pecJjopMauHK). MHCxpyMenxajifaHbie aHcaM6flM nepBoro 
BpeMeHH He pacnpeAejiJiiox MCJKAy oxAejibHWMH 
HHcxpyMeHxawM napxHt AexajibHO — nHcxpyMeHXbi 
yiacxByiox „en masse", nnea uejibK) ne KOJiopHcxHHecKne 
aaAaHHH, a npocxoe yBejiMHeHue MomHOCXH SBywa. OcHOBHyio 
Maccy HHCxpyMCHxcB cocxaBJiHrox BHanajie cMbiHKOBwe, HHorAa 



•MkMiaiMaiiikitedlia 



■■..•f^r/VH' ■■ 



^ 



197 



jiHJTHH, K HHM npH6aBJisiK)xcH BCK<3tpe «i,ep€BHH«bie AyxoBwe 
((|)jiafixbi8 c|)aroxbi, CBvipeflH), noxoM — xpoMSoHia m n^jsSiri. 
pasBHsaioutHecH k XVI BCKy. ' , ;^ ' 

C 3XHMH HHCXpyMeHXajIbHblMH H tfjOpMajlb- 

PasBHTHe paHHeii HbiMH pecypcaMH wysbiKa onepbi, nepBona- 
"^ HajibHO ocHOBaHHaa Ha hphmmxhehom peMwxa- 

THBe H cKyAHOM HHcxpyMCHxajibHOM aKKOMnaHeMCHxe, nocxe- 
neHHO ycjioJKHHexcH, BmaxbiBaa b c&6a npe»(HHe t|jopMbi MaA- 
pHrajia m xopoByio xexHUKy nojivi(|>OHHH. Vme nepBoe noKO- 
jieHHe onepHbix aBxopoB (FlepH, KaHMHHH) HMeex c|}opMbi 
peHHxaxHBa, apwoso— a«h nepeAanw ahphmcckhx Ha- 
cxpoeHHft, xopoB, Koxopbie MMCJiH eme roMOc|)OHHbiii cKjiaA. 
CHMCxoAfl K nojiyjiio6HxeAbCKOMy ypoBHio nepBbix onepnux 
HcnoAHMxejieft. MoHxeBepAe ^) (1561 — 1613) Aaex sna- 
MHxeabHbifl CABMT oncpc H MysbiKe Boo6me. 

BBOAH 6oJIb]IiyK> CBo6oAy rapMOHMH (cB060AHbIJA 

AOMHHaHxcKHft axKopA). pacuiHpHB npHMeHCHHe opKecxpa, 
H3o6pexH HeKoxopbie KOJiopHcxn^ecKne aclj^JeKXbi ApaMaxH- 
SMpoBaHMoA 3By4HocxH (xpeMOJio B cxpyHHbix), a rjiaBHoe— 

CyMBB BflHXb HCXHHHO BAOXHOBeHHOe COACpHCaHHC B AOXOJie 

MepxBwe, B cvmHocxH xoAbKO xeopexHMecKHe cxeMW drama 
per musica. Bwecxe c xpoMaxHKaMH b poAe BHieHXHHO h A»:e- 
syaabAO, pasdnBaBuiMMM nocAeAHHMH yAapaMw BeKOBwe xsep- 
AbiHH uepKOBHbix JiaAOB, MoHxeBepAC KJiaAex nepBbie cojiha^ 
Hbie KaMHH SAaHMH Mawop-MHHopHoro JiaAa. Ero nocJieAOsa- 
xejiH (KaBajMH, KapMccHMn, Mccxh) coBAaiox HacxoaiuHft cxHJib 
onepHoro npeACxaBJieHH». Koxopoe, kbk Bnojine oxBCHaBUiee 
daiipocaM BeKa h hobum KJiaccan, BHABwraeMbiM Ha asaH- 
cueny HcxopHMtecKoro npouecca — ropowaHaM, HaMHHaex, 



')1^0HTeBepfle (1588 — 1613) — ^ aaMenaTenbHWH HOBaxop CBOfiro 
BpeMCHH, BBe«uiHft CBoSoflHoe ynoTpe6neHHe jnoMHHaHTcenTaKKop«a, panee 
ynoTpe6nHBUieroca TortbKO KaK npHroTOBjieHHwK aKKopH, M3o5peTmnH paa 
opKecTpoBMx 34)4>eKTOB (xpcMono, nonb30BaHne TeM6paMH owenbHbix 
HHCTpyMCHTOB H T. fl.). MoHTeBepfle poMHncH B KpeMOHC; mtin b MrajiMH bckj 
>KH3Hb. Ero coMHueHHSi — rnaBHbiM oSpaaoM onepbi („0p4)eM" 1609, „ApHaHHa" 
1609, MyawKa k flpawe ^MaflftajieHa" 1627, „AHaioMefla" 1618, „11 combatti- 
meato del Taacredo e Cloriuda", 1624, nbeca HanojioBHHy npawa, HanonosHHy 
paccKas, „noxMmeHne npoaepnHHw" 1630, dajieTW „Ballo delle ingrate" h 
„Tirsi et Clori*). Ma Sonee no3«HHx onep M. p.o Mac floinnH ..Ulysses" m 
,Poppea'' (1641). KpoMe Toro, M. HanHcan pan mccc, motctob, ncaJiMOB, 
nHTaHHR. 



108 



c^JopMvrpoBaBuiHCb B HrajiMH, coeepmaTb nodejjHoe ujecTBHe 
no Bceft Espone. 

HBHWCHne PeHecaHca, cBsisaHHoe o bw- 



Pe^topmagBH h 



aBHraHHCM MejiKoro jpeoAajia h ToproBoft 



ee BOSAeHCTBHC. ^ 

6 y p JK y a 3 H H, BO Bcex cTpanax hmcjio npHMepHo 

TOT Mce npo(|)Hflb pasBHTHH, KBK H Ha pojiHHe y ce6si B 

HTajiHH. B TepMaHHH h OpaHUHH pejiHrHosnan pecfiopMauKH 
M CBnsaHHaa c Heu) 6opb6a Ha upnroe speMa 3aAep»<ajiH 

paSBHTHC HCKyCCTBa B TOft CTCneHH, KaK OHO pasBHBajiocb B 

MTajiHH. Pe(|)opMHpoBaHHaH uepKOBb 6bijia nopofl nacTpoena 
secbMa aHTaroHHCTHHecKH k cBCTCKOMy HCKyccTBy, HHoraa 
AOXOAfl AO npnMoro roHenHH (nypviTaHe), b o6,nacTH ace Kyjib- 
TOBOft MySbIKH OHd HC MBHCe KaTOJIHUH3Ma HaKJiaAbiBajia pH- 

TyajibHoe cTecneHHe na cBo6oAy TBopnecTBa. rioMHMO Toro. 
pe(|)opMHpoBaHHan uepKOBb 6biJia HOCHTCJibHHuefi MAeoJiorHH 
HHbix KJiaccbs, h6o b KopHe cBoeM 6biJia AeMOwpaTHHecKviM 
ABHWCHHeM, HanpaBAeHHbiM npoTHB 4>€0AaJibHbix ycToeB. 3th 
HOBbie KJiaccbi He MorjiH He hccth KyjibTypw Menee yTOHMeH-' 
HoS, Sojiee rpy6oA, neM b cbobm poAe HSbicKaHnaa (|)eoAajib- 
HaH KyjibTypa. fleMOKpaTHHecKasi uepKOBb 

flemoKpaTHiecKHe coSAaJia H AeMOKpaTHMeCKHe HaneBblAJIH CBO- 

BAHflHHH. , 

ero pHTyajia, npw MeM 3to cBepiUHJiocb b qpopMe 

npflMOrO 3aHMCTBOBaHHfl HapOAHblX mothbob 

AJiH HywA uepKBH, K necHsiM 6biJi noACTasJieH AyxosHbiA tckct, 
H CABa jiH 3TO He 6bijio cAenaHO B arHTauHOHHbix uensix. Ta- 
KHM o6pa30M cosAajica npoTecTanTCKHft xopaji, HweB- 
uiHft Bce o6mHe nepTW c HapoAHWM mbjiocom, 
B TOM MHCJie KynjieTHoe cTpoeHwe. IlpoTe- 
CTaHTCKaa uepKOBb, ne HMeBuiaa BHaiajie npoc|)eccHOHajibHbix 
ncBMHX, Bcefi o6iitHHoA neBiuaa xopajibi, cnoco6cTBOBaJia TOMy. 
MTO OMCHb cKopo xopaji npoTecTaHTCKHfl nocTHFJia Ta ace 
ynacTb. kbk h ApeBHne rperopnaHCKHe nancBbi — hx phtmh- 
MecKoe pa3Hoo6pa3He, ne OTpajKennoe b sanHCH (nejiHCb 
6oabiuefi nacTbio no cjiyxy, npw ycjiOBHn MajiOH My3biKajibHoA 
KyflbTypHOCTH ynacTHMKOB), nocTencHHO yTpanHBajiocb, h ot- 
AeJibHbie sByKH HweJiH TeHACHUHK) cTaTb paBHbiMH no A o JI- 
roTe. B Hiore k XVII BeKy xopaji BbipoAHJica b nocJiCAO- 

BaHHa pa3HbIX no AJlHTeJIbHOCTH TpHOB, HTO 



XopaA. 



PHTMHHeCKOe BU- 

poacfleBHe xopaAa. 



Aenajio ero yAo6Hee ajih HcnojineHna Majio-My- 
BbiKajibHoi^ TOJinoft, cjieAHBuieft TOJibKO sa 



! 



- -' " 



TeKCTOM H Majio saHHTepecoBaHHOH B KpacoTe SBynaHMa. Ho 
B CBasM c nojiH{|)OHHMecKHMH AocTHWCHHaMH npcAbiAymeft 
My3biKajibHoS KyjibTypbi npoTecTaHTCKHH xopaji aBHJica cyme- 

CTBCHHO MHOrorOJIOCbIM H npHTOM rapMOHHHeCKOTO 

CTHJia, h6o HapoAHaa necna yace ycBOHJia ce6e k XV BeKy 
rapMOHHKO-MeJiOAHHeGKHft CKJiaA. OpraH, KaK pHTyajibHbift hh- 
CTpyMeHT, nepemeji b npoTecTaHTCKyio uepKOBb, n6o HMenHo 
OH AOJiHcen 6biJi AaBaTb rapMOHHMecKHft dpon MejiOAHw xopajia, 
nesuieftca npHXOHcanaMH yHHCOHOM. OpraHHCT cTaji b uepKSH 
eCTCCTBeHHO eAHHCTBeHHbIM My3bIKajIbHbIM npotjjjeccHOHajioM 
CpeAM BCeX, H Mbl BHAHM (|) O p M H p O B aH H 6 UI K O JI My- 
SbIKH (nenna, Hrpu na oprane) hmohho KpyroM opra- 
H H c T a, nojiynaiomero orpoMHbift MopaJibHbift aBTopHTeT, h, c 
Apyroft CTOpOHbl, Mbl BHAHM, HTO eCTCCTBeHHOe B npo(|)eccHO- 

Hajie cTpeMJieHHe k BHpTyosHOCTH, ne Morymee OTpasHTbca 
B jiK)6HTejibCKoS cpcAB npHxoHcaH, BbmHBaeTca B 4>opMy pas- 
BHTHa xopajibHbix HMnpoBH3auHM H Boo6me BHpTyosHoro 
opraHHoro cTH^a, b kotopom pHTyajibHaa vinea, ojiHueTBopae' 
Maa xopajioM, noABepraeTca npotfieccHOHajibHoft nepepa6oTKe. 
9tot cTHJib, o6ycjioBaeHHbi0 cneuH(i)HHecKHM SHaneHHeM opra- 
HHCTa B npoTecTaHTCKOM KyjibTe, (|)opMHpyeTca b XVI h 
XVII BCKax (^po6eprep, Kepjib, naxe6ejib) h cosAaeT cJiasy 
repMancKOMy opranHOMy MacTepcTsy, b to me BpeMa o6pa- 
soBbisaa rtocTcneHHO ochobhwc jihhhh cBo6oAHoro koh- 
T p a n y H K t H M e c K o r o e t h Ji a, cymecTBenHO cBasaHHoro 
•c KflaBHiuHbiMH HHCTpyMCHTaMH (opraHOM). >^ - ;.• * t-". .';.» i; ' 
B cBasH c noBbiuieHHeM pejiHrnosHoro nyjibca, BbiSBaHHbiM 
pe^JopMauHeA, nojiynaroT pa3BHTHe (})opMbi nojiyuep- 

KOBHO^A My3bIKH My3bIKa K HCasHMaM, O p a T O p H H, KO- 

Topbie K 3TOMy BpcMeHM BaHMCTBOBajiH OT OHcpbi paA ApaMa- 

THMeCKHX HepT H HOHTH BCK) MySblKaJlbHyiO (|)OpMy, H a C G H- 

OHw — HacTHbifi BHA opaTopHft, pasBHBuiHilca H3 cpcAHeBe- 

KOBblX MHCTepWH, SaHMCTBOBaBUlHft H3 OpaTOpHH cJjOpMy, a H3 

pMTyajia uepKBH -^ yiacTHe xopajia. nepBOHaMajibHbie rep- 
waHCKHe KOMHOsHTopw nocjiepe^opMauHOHHoro BpeMeHH na- 
xoAHTca noA cHJibHeftmwM BJiHanneM HHAepjiaHACKoft 
liiKO'flbi, c OAHofl CTopoHbi, OTKyAa OHH 6epyT npo4)eccHO- 

HajIbHyK) BHpTy03H0CTb. nO;iH(|)OHHH, a C ApyrOfl CTOpOHW, 

pOACTBeHkblx HHAepjiaHAUaM HTajibaHues phmckoK uiKoabi m 
CTapo-BeHeuHaHCKoft, yneHHKaMH KOTopoft ohh asjiaJiHCb. Ms 



^^^^^^^^_^i^ii_,i_,^^ 



aXHX paHHHX KOMnOSHTOpOB HaH60Jiee SHaHHTCJieH FcHpHx 

llIioTU (1585 — 1672), cosHAaioutiig (fiopMbi naccHOH h opa- 

TOpHft. B TO «e BpCMH M B^HAHHe H O JI H 4l O H HI ec KO A 

MysbiKH, sapoAHBuieflca b MraaHH, CKasbmaeTca b cosHAaHHH 
tJiopMw KyjibTypHofi! necHH (poManca), Hflymefi na cMCHy 
ycTapcBuieMy KaMepHOMy MaflpHraay, Koropbift b FepMaHHH, 
rfle nocjie pe(j[)opMauHH BKycbi cHJibHo AeMOKpaTHSHpyroxcH, 
He Mor pasBHTbCH, a poMaHC (Lied) ycneiuHo npHBHEaexcH. 
HaxoflH xyjxoHcecTBeHHbifi c6biT nawe b HapoflHofi Macce. Co- 
saarejieM axoro acanpa Lied, HMeBiawM h hotom raKoe cyme- 
cTBeHHoe sHaneHHe b repMaHCKOw MCKyccTBe, HBjiaeTCfl TeH- 
pHx Ajib6epT (1604 — 1668), 6biBuinft h noaxoM, xan ixo 
ero flenxejibHocxb kbk 6bi npoAOJixcaex jimhhk} xBopnecxBa 
MHHHesHHrepoB, HO y«e 6e3 4)eoKajibHO-KJiaccoBoro xapaK- 
xepa, cBoftcxBCHHoro nocneAHHM. 



« . V ; . 



'VI, — CBoSoAHblil CTHJIb. 

CHAbBoe pa3BHTBe fla/ibHefiuiee pasBHXwe onepw o6ycJio- 

npof eccH0BaAB3i)ia BJieHO orpOMHblMcnpocOM, pOAHBUIHM- 

B XVII Bexe. cfl Ha 3XOX BHA HCKyCCXBa, COeflHHHB- 

uiHft B ce6e Bce bhau npHBaexaxejibHOCTH: h SByKOByio bw- 
pasHxeabHocxb, h ApawaxMHecKHfi MHxepec AeScxBHa h 
cMbicJia, H cnexxaKjiH. CpeAH KpynnoA xoproBO^ 6yp7Kya3wn 
M (|>eoAaabHoft 3HaxH onepa cxaJia HaK6onee nonyjiapHbiM 
THnoM MysbiKajibHoro xBopnecxBa, npH mcm to SHaHHTejibHoe 
_ pacnpocxpaneHH e BOKajibHoro npo- 

qpeccHOHajiHSMa, Koxopoe MMeJio mcgxo 
B MxajiHH, eiue ycHJiHJio ee sHaneHHe: b onepe neseu noay- 
Maa B03M09KHocTb HdHdoJiee pejibe(|}Horo h MHorocTopoHnero 
caMonpo9BAeHHa. 3to npeMMyutecxBO CKopo sacxaBHao ne- 
penecxH uenxp HHxepeca b onepe HMenno k nesuy, ero ro* 
aocy, ero BHpxyosHOcxH. XVII aen oxMeneH hmchho sthm xe- 
MCHHeM, rHnepxpc^JHefl BOKaabHoro npocfjeccMOHanHSMa h 
BJiHflHMeM ero na onepy. CaMuS npo(|)eccHOHajm3M npH cboA- 
cxBeHHOM BeKy »ecxoKocxH npaBOB npHo6pexaji MyAOBHUiHbiA 
xapaKxep h KapHxaTypHbie 4)opMbi. VBJieMeHHe BOKaabMoft 
BHpTyosHocxbK), B cBasH c xeM, 1XO ateHu^MHaMi B cneKxaK- 
aax He cHHxaaocb npHAHHHbiM Bbicxynaxb, noBaexao saposKAe- 




HMC HBJieHHH KaCTpaTOB-neBUOB, Bbipa6aTbIBaBmHX 

B ce6e BbicoKHe (wencKHe) roaoca orpoMHoA choiw h TexHHKw. 
FlepBOHaHaabHoe cxpeMneHHe b onepe k CHae ApaMaTHiecKOro 
BOSAei^cxBHsi ycxynaex Mecxo cxpeMaeHHto k HaH6oaee noa- 
HOMy npoflBaeHHK) BHpTyosHOCTH neBua. flpaMaTHMecKHfl aae- 
weHT H CMbica OTTecH$iK)xcH Ha saAHHA naan, h BOKaabnaa Bnp- 
xyosHOcxb, saBaaAeBaiomaa MyswKaabHWM pbiHKOM c6bixa, Aep- 
WHX KOMno3HxopoB B noAHHHeHMH CBOHM Tpe6oBaHHaM. Aae- 
KcaHAP CKapaaTTH'^) (1659 — 1725) siBa»- 

HeaBOABTaacKaa ^^^^ nepBbIM npOBOSBeCXHHKOM HOBOFO xeneHMH. 
mKOAa. "^ "^ 

ocHOBaHHoro Ha xyatxe sByKOBoro Ha- 

caajKAeHHH, Hoy nero xyAoacecxBeHHbiK xaKx sacTaBaaa 

eme AepacaTb b nexoxopoM paBHOBecHH oxAeabHwe sacMeHxw 

onepHoro ueaoro. Y ero yneHUKOB h nocaeAOBaxeaefl, o6pa- 

aoBaBuiHX xaK Ha3biBaeMyK> HeanoaHxaHCKyn) uiKoay, 

flypaHxe^), JTeo. Hopnopa^) h Tleproaeae*) BHp- 

xyosHOCXb Bce 6oaee BbinHpaex, sacaonaa cMWca h 

nacTO Aawe MysbiKaabHyio KpacoTy. MysbiKaabHoe pas- 

BHTwe, noMHMO MeaoAHH, cBOAHTca AO MHHHMyMa. Hea- 



OAncKcaHAp CKapnaiTH (1 659—1 725) - - ocHOBareja. Heano- 
JiHTaHCKOH uiKonw, poannca b Chuhjthh, jkhb bcc BpcMfl b MxanHH, ywep b 
Heanojie; MpeaBbiHaSno nnoaoBHTwft KOMnosHTop, HanHCaBuiHii 106 onep, 
oKono 200 Mecc h mhofo KaHiax ana ronoca cono c conpoBOJKHenweM h co 
cKpHnKoS, opaxopHH, naccHOHbi, ncanMW, MOTexbi, ManpHranw, cepcHaAW, 14 
KaMcpHwx ayaTOB, lOKKaTw una opraHa h 4)opTenMaHo. JiHuib HeaHaMHienb- 
Hoe KonHMecTBo H3 3Toro HeMMOBcpHoro MHcna 6bino HaneMaxoHO. Ha ero 
onep aacnyjKHBaiox ynoMHHaHHn „Po3aypa" (1690), jTeoAopa", (.FlMpp m 
JleMeTpHft", „THrpaH° (b Hcft BBCflCH noMXH KjiaccHHecKHfl y»te cocxaa op- 
KCcxpa), „rpHaenbfla". 

^) JlypaHxe (1684— 1755) — aaiop onep, b Koxopwx cxHJib Hcano- 
jiHxaHCKoft onepw (CKapnaxxn) coHcxaeica c KOHxpanyHKXBsecKHM HCKyc- 
cxBOM pMMCKott uiKonbi. Jl. HanHcan 13 Mecc, 16 ncanMOB, 16 moxctob, MaA- 
pHranw, rMMHbi h (|)opienHaHHbie coHaxbi. 

») Hopnopa (1686 — 1766) — aaxop onep „BepeHHca*,4„EBMeHa", 
„<}>apaMOHAo'", „A«enaHfla", ,AHHH6an" h .MHTpHflax"; Bcero onep on Hanu- 
can 46. KpoMe hhx, hm HanHcaHbi uepKOBHwe coHHHeHHa h opaxopHM, 
HHCxpyMeHTajibHbie KOMnoaHUHH (conaxbi «njt cKpHnKH c 6acoM, KaMepnaB 
cHM<J)OHHn ana flayx cKpHnoK, (jjyrH ajih 4)opxenHaHo). FI. HaaecxeH, Kan oahm 
Ma KpynHefluiHX conepHHKOB FeHAena b JIoHAOHe, Ky«a oh 6bin npwrna- 
uiCH, KaK npeacTaBHxenb HxanbSHCKOft onepbi. 

*) rieproneae (1710--1 736) — 6eBBpeMeHH0 cKOHHaBUiHiicn kompo- 
sHTop, aBTOp 13 KOMHHecKHX oncp H npocnaBncHHOH Ha Becb MHp „Stal3at 
mater'', . , ' . ■,..,,.-..■ 



jiul.ljdM-il^lM&i 



<&«tf^v 



nojiHTaHCKHe KOMnosHxopbi, npoflyuHpyromvre cneuwajibHO 
BHpTyosHyio onepy. pa6oTaK)T b KOHxaKTe co BKycoM 
BeKa H (j[)eoflajibHO - apMCTOKpaxHHecKofl cpeaw, b mh- 
poBOM MacuiTa6e. ■ nocTaBJina onepHyio MysbiKy bo Bce 
crpaHbi Esponw (OpaHUHH, PepMaHHfl, Ahfjihsi, Pocchh), kbk 
Heo6xoAHMbifl HHrpejiHeHT nbiuiHocxH ^BopoB Kopojieft, Be/ib- 
MOJK H 6ypacya3Hbix xyaoB (raM6yprcKaji onepa), npH nen 
^ocxe^eHHO BbipoMCflaroxca b KanecxBe csoeS MyawKajibHoft 
npojiyKinHH. Mx cxMjib sanexHo He MeHjiexcH AaM<e ao nopora 
XIX BCKa, Koraa yMepjiH nocJie^HHe npeflcxaBHxe;iH axoro 
HanpaBJieHHH, oKaaaBuiero orpoMHoe BJiHHHHe Ha MysbiKy 
noHXH Bcex cxpan, BKJuo^HxejibHO ao Pocchh. 

06paxHoe BOSAeftcxBue onepw na uepKOB- 
Hyio MysbiKy ne saMCAJiMJio cwasaxbCH b xofl jkb MxajinH, 
TAe cepbesHbift cxHjib MysbiKH, BocnHxaBiunficH b npo(})eccHO- 
HajibHbix xpaAMUMMx nojiM4)OHH3Ma, Bsaxoro no HacJieAHio 
pHMCKofi lUKOJibi, npexepneji CHjibHbiK cabhp b nojibsy 6ojib- 
meft MeJiOAHHHOcxH h ApaMaxHsauHH. Ox onepbi 
ciOAa nepexoAnx AOcxM*eHHJ? b c(|)epe SKcnpeccHH h kojio- 

PHCXHKH. C OAHOft CXOpOHbl, 3X0 CnOCo6cXBOBaJTO yCHfleHHK) 

xyAOJKecxBCHHbix pecypcoB BOSAeficxBHH, c -ApyroS we — 
„ AHUiajio cxporocxH cxhjih. KownosHxopbi sxoro 

mKOAa. HanpaBflCHMJi cdpasyiox tbk HasbiBaeMyio h o- 
BOBCHeuHaHCKyio uiKOJiy, h cpeAH hhx 
HaH6ojibuiee SHaneHHe noflyMHAH JIoxxh ^) (1667 — 17-40), 
M a p H e Ji Ji o (1 686 — 1 739), ."^K aji/b a a p a ^i (1 671 — 1 763) 
H FajiynnH ^) (1 706 — 1 784),- HacaAHBuiHM axox cxH^b 

B PoCCHH. 



"11 




■^iffl 




1 




1 




1 




:| 




'.(■ 


i 



JIoTTH (1667—1740) — oflHH H3 HaH6ojiee KpynHwx komhoshtopob 

KianbHHCKHX UIKOJI, aSTOp MHOrHX Onep H MHOFHX KOMnOSHUHfl UepKOBHOfl 

MyawKH; poflHHCH B FaHHOBepe h acwi 6onbmefl MacTbK) b HTanHH. Ero kom- 
nosHUHM oTMeneHbi nenaTbio CHJibHoii minuBHuyanbuozm kho chx nop cno- 
coShw npoH3BOflHTb cMnbHoe BneHaTJieHMe. Ero onepw: ^^MtHycTHHa", „AcKa- 
HHfl", „Teo(t)aH"; oSmee hhcbo hx 17. 

Kajibflapa (1671-1763) — KOMnosHxop, npoH3Be«eHHsr KOToporo b 
cEoe BpeMa cwTanHOb oSjiaflawmHMH MaKCMManbHoft „Bbipa3HTejibHocTbK)°. 
Oh HanHcan mho: OMHcjieHHwe onepw, opaiopMH h uepKOSHbie ccjHHeHHji, 

) Fa jiy n nH(1706 1734) - KOMnosHiop, OKasaBuiM^ CHnbHoe BJiwa- 
»4Me Ha pyccKyw. wyawKy, . xaK kbk 6wn flojiro b Poschh h ooTaBHn Tyr paa, 
yneHHKOB, b tom HHcne anaMeHHTOro BopTHHHCKOro. 



~ 113 
rioMXM BCe ABOpW Esponbl npCJIbCXHnHCb 

paHgyscKaa gj,gj,,^Q^ onepHoro HCKyccxBa MxaflMH. OepBO- 
HaiajibHO npHrjiaiuajiHCb npocxo HSBecxHbie 
MxajibHHCKHC aBxopbi suisi Kyjibxypw Ha hobmx Mecxax. TaK, 
BO <l)paHU,HK) 6biJia npHrflauiena MxajibHHCKan onepa Bl64r)r., 
B PoccHHj — noHXH BBKOM cnycxfl, B 1 735 r. Ho BcioAy Ha6jiK)- 
Aajiacb xeHACHUHH npexBopwxb b nauHOHajibHOM CMbicjie onep- 
Hoe HCKyccxBO. Bo (PpaHUHM, nepcMCMBaBiueA xorAa anoxy 
pacuBexa KopoACBCKofl BJiacxn, MxajibJiHeu J1k)jijih^) (1633 — 
1687) oKasbiBaexcH HacaAHTCJieM onepHoro HauMOHajiHSMa. 
Koxopbifl Mor nbiiuHo pacuBCCxH 6jiaroAapji cvuibHoft Meue- 
HaxcKoA noAAepwKe ABopa. Ha 4>pa"uy3CKofi noMBc h b cBnsM 
CO CBoftcxBeHHbiM cJjpaHuysaM pauMonaflHSMOM BHpxyo3Ho- 

MCJIOAHMeCKHfl CXHJIb XHnHHHOft HXajIbHHCKOft Onepbl HC MOF 

noJiyHHXb nonyjinpHOCXH. Jlnxepaxypa xoro BpeMenw BJiacxHO 
AHKxoBajia BKycbi KJiaccHUMSMa H cxporocxH cxhjih: 
ApaMaxHHecKaa np&BAa cxana na nepBOM Mccxe, n J1k>jijih 
HMcex dojibiiiyto sacjiyry HMeHHO b xom, mxo oh cyMCJi b onep- 
HbiA Mejioc BJiOMCHxb 3JieMeHXbi ACKjiaMaxMBHoro no 
cymecxBy Me;ioca (J)paHuy3CKofl napoAHoft necHW. Hacjjoc h xa- 
paKxepnaa pHXMMKa 4)paHuy3CKoro asbixa HajiowMJiH HeMC- 
AJieHHo Ha onepy CBoft oxtchok. ^panuysbi, no cymecxBy ne 
CKjiOHHbie K HaneBHOcxH, HsrHaJiH ns onepu w. AOMHHMpyiomyio 
MCJioAHK) H KOJiopaxypy, nepenecH ucHxp xHwecxn b pennxa- 

THB H XOpbl. LUeAlUHft HO CXOnaM JIlOJIJIH ?K. O. PaMO^) 

(1683 — 1764) ocxaflca Bepen sxhm npnHUHnaM b onepe, npo- 
AHKXoBaHHbiM BCBuejio BKycoM noxpe6jiHK)iuero npyra djjpaH- 
uyscKoft apHcxoKpaxHH. 

B PepMaHMH onepa cnanajia noHBJinexcH 
raM6yprcKaH onepa. ^ ^j,cxo-6 ypjKyaSHOfi cpeAC B CBfl3H 

^) JI K) Jiji M \1633— 1687) — MTanbSHeu no npoHCxoMCACHHK), aKKnHMaTH3M- 
posaBiuHfica bo «t>paHUHH, cosAan cJipaHuyacKyio cepbeaHyio onepy. Ero Han- 
6onee Bbi«aioinHecH coMMneHHa: „KaaM h FepMHona", „nepceft", „Oa3TOH", 
„AuHC H FanaTea". KpoMc onep, oh n»zan uepKOBHwe conHHCHHa. 

2) P a M o (1 683 - 1 764) — saMeMaTenbHbm KOMnosHTop, KOTopbift HHxepe- 

CCH H KBK TeOpeiHK, nOIIOMHBlUHft HaHaHO HOEOMy (coBpeMeHHOMy) yseKHM 
o rapMOHHH, ojHosaHHOMy Ha oSepionax. Ero onepw (mhojiom 22) cocia- 
BnniOT ucHTp ero TEOpHecTBa; cpeAH hhx HaHSonee HHTepecHw: „nHrManK0H , 
^AHaKpeoH", „KacTO? m OonnyKc", „MnnonHT h ApMKHa". KpoMC Toro, oh 
iiHcan co-iMHCHHa ajia cjjopTenHaHO, KaHTa-rw h motctw. Ero <})opTenHaHHwe 
coHMHeHHa cHa6aceHbi uienHbiMH npHMevaHHaMH no neflaroraKC, 

HcTOpHIX JlyOWKU. 



■MMUMlllllkHli 



— 114 — 



— 1];-) 



'^■f 



^V',T' 



c Tofl 3KOHOi^HHecKofi paspyxoft, KOTopaa nocTHrjia (|)eoAaflb- 
Hbie KpyrH nocJie pecjjopMauHH. B raM6ypre. b cpcAe KpynHoS: 
TbproBofl 6yp«ya3HH, sapojKnaeTcsi onepHoe acjio (1678), 
KOTOpoe noMTH Ha noJiseKa KOHueHTpupyer a 3tom mcctc 
nyjibc MysbiKaJibHofl mchshh BceA crpaHbi. raM6yprcKaH onepa 
pasBHJiacb Ha noApaM^aHnn MTajibancKoA onepe, ho BKyc 
noTpe6HTejiefi-rGpoM«aH najioacHJi Ha nee kojiopht 6ojibuieft 
npocTOBaTOCTH, rpy6ocTH cthah. HauHonajiHCTHHecKHe 
TCHfleHUHH repMancKoft MyswKH ne saMCAJinJiH npoHBHTbcH 
H tyT Mce CKasajiHCb b ciojKeTax h b thhc MCJioca. Keflsep 
H MaxTccoH' 6biJiH Handojiee SHaMMxejibHwe hs nocTaBUXH- 

KOB MySblKH AJIH 3TOS CUCHbl, KOTOpafl, EnpoMCM, 6bi;ia o6- 
ycJiOBAeHa cjihuikom cjiynaAHbiM h HenpoHHbiM orroro Mcue- 

HaXCTBOM H CKOpO yxpaXHJia CBOfl nepBHHHblft HaUHOHaJIbHbI& 

oxnenaxoK, ycxynwB Mecxo HxajibsiHCKofl onepe, cooxBex- 
cxBOBaBuieA BKycy 6ojiee o6iiiHpHbix Mace h eme paHbuie cbhb- 
iiieft ce6e ocejiJiocxb h o6ecneMHBuieft c6biT cbohx npo;iyKxoB 
b ApyrHx ropojiax PepMaHHH. HocxeneHHO KpennyiUHft repMan- 
CKHft MenKHM (]|)eofl,ajiH3M, xflHyBiuHflca sa mhpobwmh asopaMH 
EBponbi, He oneHb ckjiohhwA k nauHOHaflHSMy, odHapyacMBaa 

60JIbUiyiO CKJIOHHOCXb k MOftHOfl BO BceM MHpC HCanOJlHXaHCKOfll 

BHpxyosHofi onepe. no6eAa HxajibHHCKoft onepw Hafl HauHO- 
HajibHoA — raM6yprcKofl — 6biJia oxpa»;eHHeM no6eflbi ^^^OAa- 
jiHSMa nafl KpaxKOBpeMeHHbiM nojiHXHMecKHM sHaneHHeM xop- 
roBoA 6ypM<ya3HH. HauHonajibHoe we xeneHHe, onHpasuieecH 
Ha HapoAHbie npoxecxaHxcKwe Maccw, nauiJio ce6e BbipajKenwe 
B MoryncM pacuBexe nepKOBHoro cxmjia h ero oxBexBJieHHA^ 
B AnrjiHH onepa KyjibXHBHpyexcfl cnaMaaa 
reHwajibHbiM IlepcejiJieM (1 658 — 1 695) h 
6jiaroAap9 eMy aocxwraex HauHonajibHoro 3Ha- 
leHHH: OH HHUiex onepbi na aHraHflcKOM jiSbiKe h Ha anrjiMfi- 
CKHe CKWKexbi. FlocJie KJiaBecHHwcxoB BepAa, Mopjiea h Bynjia 
OH aBjinexcn HaH6ojiee npKHM h ywe nocncAHHM npeACxaBH- 
xencM caMo6bixHoro anrjiMflcKoro MysbiKajibHoro rcHMH. Pcjih- 
THOSHaH pe(|)opMau,HH, HajiOMCHBiuaa cbokj nenaxb na anrJiHS- 
ckhA xhh HyBcxBOBaHHH, 3Aecb He Morjia, KaK b FepMaHHii, 
b 9xy anoxy cosAaxb MonyMeHxaJibHoe AyxosHoe ncKyccxBO, 

HXO o6'flCHHeTCH B paBHOA Mepe KaK npOHHblM (|)eOAaJIbHbIM 
6bIXOM, XaK H CpaBHHXeJlbHO HeSHaHHXeJIbHblM HanpsiJKeHHeM 

caMoro XBopnecxBa. Ho o6iumA BKyc MysbiKajibHoro noxpe6H- 



AarABiicKan onepa 
XVII B. 



\x 



-,Mi 



EsponM nocAe Bo3- 
poacAeHHH. 



HexHH. BenrpHfl. 



Xejia, BHAHMO, CKJIOHSTJICfl, KBK H B FepMaHHH, HC B nOJIbSy 

HauHOHajibHoA onepw, a cKopee b noJibsy HauMonanb- 
Horo noAyuepKOBHoro HCKyccxBa, oxBeMaHDmero 
HCXopHHecKOMy cMbicAy pe^iopMHpoBaHHoA UepKBH, H B cxo- 
poHy noAy-yBeceAHxeAbHoA, noAy-sxHKexHoA HxajibHHCKoA 
onepw, Koxopaa 6biAa „npHHHxa" bo Bcex ABopax EBponw. 
ywe HeMCAJieHHo nocjie RepcejiJia HxajibancKaa onepa saxBa- 
XbiBaex aHFAHAcKyH) cueny, ocxaBaacb Ha neA noHXH ao Ha- 
uiero BpeMCHH. 

B BOcxoHHoA Espone xenn wysbiKaAbHoro pasBHXHJi 
cHAbHO oxcxaA. SanaAHo-CAaBHHCKaa o6Aacxb (FloAbuia, MexHsi), 
HaxoAHBiuaflcsi b HSBecxnoM KonxaKxe c Eapo- 
El!™!fr!y!T.*!f "°"' npoxoAHAa snHroHHHecKH npH6AH3HxeAb- 
Ho xe we cxaAHH pa3BHXH9. npH neM b MexHH, 
npH 6oAbuioA MysbiKaAbHOcxH nauHH, odna- 
pywHBaexcH BecbMa bwcokmA cpeAHwA yposcHb 
npo(|)eccHOHaAbHoro pa3BHXHH Aawe b XVI Bene. 
Pe(|)opMauHH, saxBaxHBuiasi Mexwio (rycHxw), 
nopoAHAa xyx mhofo xapaKxepnwx My3WKaAb- 
Hbix HBAeHHA, npH HeM MHorne cosAannwe rycHxaMH naneBw 
nepeuiAH, b Ka*iecxBe xopajios, b repwaHCKyio MyswKy. B na- 
poAHoA MyswKe CAaBSJH SanaAHoro Kpan nadAiOAaexcji b 9xo 
we BpeMa pha cneuH^JHMecKHX nepx, pasAejiaiouiHx hx ox 
BocxoHHoK rpynnw (pyccKwx) h ox iowhwx (6oArapw, cep- 
6bi). riocAeAHHe nonxn BOBce ne o6pa3yK)x KyAb- 
xypHoA MysbiKH, HXO o6'flCHHexcH 6eAHOcxbK) cxpaH H 
rnexoM HaBOAHHBUiHX KpaA xiopKCKHX HAeMeH saBoe- 
BaxeAeA BHsanxHH; HapoAHwA hx mcjioc oSnapywHBaex 
BAHSHHe HxaAbSHCKoro. HanpoxHB, y Me«xoB H no- 
AaKOB cHAbHee repMancKHe h BenrepcKHe BAHflHHH. 
riepBwe cKasbiBaioxcH b ynnnxowenHH napoAHUx AaAOB c 

AHaXOHHMeCKHM yKJIOHOM H B BOABOpeHMH MaWOp-MHHOpa 

c npasHAbHbiMH nepHOAHSMaMH, Bxopwe — B 6oAee ocxpoA 

pHXMHKe H B npeAnOHXHXCAbHO XaHUOBaAbHO-HHCXpyMCHXaAb- 

HOM yKAOHe cxHAH. CaMa BeHrpHH, cxonBuiaa b c(|)epe 
eBponeAcKHX KyflbxypHwx bosacAcxbhA, ho BecbMa oxAHnnaa 
ox coceAeA axHorpa^HHecKH (opnenxajibHwA pacoBwA xhh) 
H oieHb MysbiKaAbHaa no xwny, wMejia xy BwroAy b npo- 
4>HJie cBoero My3biKaAbHoro pasBHXHa, mxo uepKOBHOCxb, 
cxoAb cHJibHO OKasbiBaBuiaa BJiwaHHe Ha MyswKy SanaAa, 

8* 



X16 — 



117 — 



coBepmeHHO He Kocnyjiacb ee, h noxoMy ee MysbiKa pasBHBa- 
Jiacb B npe^ejiax roMO(|)OHHH h HHcxpyMeHTajiHSMa. no jihhhh 
HapoAHofi, BnMTbiBafl B ce6a see, mto nosiBjisjiocb Ha 3a- 
naae, ho He TopMosa cBoe pasBHTHe florwaMH, 
MyatjibiMH HCKyccTBy. 3thm o6'scHneTCfl to, hto ywe k XVI Be- 
Ky BenrepcKaH MyswKa npeflcxaBJiJieTCH oneHb cneuHcfjHHHoi^ 
KaK no xpoMaxMHecKOMy KOJiopHxy MCJioca, b hcm nejibssi He 
BHflexb BJiHSHHe BOcxoHHoro MysbiKajibHoro HCKyccxBa (apa- 
6oB H eBpeeB), xaw h no aaxefijiHBofl h cHHKonHpoBaHHoA pHX- 

MMKe, CBOHM paSBHXHCM o6fl3aHHOft 6oJIbUIOMy SHaMCHHK) 

xanua b Hapojie. Boaee Bcero bjihhhhc sxofl CBodoAHoi^i 
pHXMHKH H MCJioAHH cKasajiocb B HOJibCKoA HapoAHoA MysbiKe, 
KOTopaa saHMcxByex y BenrpoB h HHcxpyMeHxapHfl (b tom 
MHCJie cKpwnKy) h o6mH^ thh cBo6oAbi ox uepKOB- 

HOCXM. 

B 3XO JKe BpCMH B PoCCHH Mbl Ha6jI10- 
PoccBH. 3acHAi»e 

AaeM, nanpoxHB, CHJibHeHuiee sacHJibe B H 3 a H- 

XHAcKOA uepKOBHOCTH (cHCXCMa OKXO- 

Hxa HJiH ocMorjiacHn), Koxopoe HaHHHaexcH c MOMenxa sko- 
HOMMHecKorp H pejiHrH03Horo bjihakhm KoHcxaHXHHonojia. 9xo 
npe>KAe Bcero saAepwusaex pasBHXwe napoAHoro MCJioca, 
KoxopbiA nopofl noABcpraexcH npHMbiM roneHHaM co cxopoHW 
AyxoBencxBa, 6epymero My3biKy b noAHoe o6jiaAaHHe Kyjibxa 
H cxporo BbiAepjKHBaioiuero ee b npHMHTHBHO-MeJiOAw 
HecKOM cocToaHHH. PyccKaa MysbiKa b uepKBH b axo 
BpeMa ycBaHBaex ox BHsanxHn ne xojibKO ochobhwc HaneBw, 
HO H 6ojiee acKexHHCCKoe oxHomeHHe k HCKyc- 
cxBy, HCM Ha 3anaAe, h 6ojibiiiyH> pa3o6meHHOcxb c hohxh 
sarflymeHHbiM napoAHbiM poahhkom. Tcm hc Menee yjKe k 
XII BBKy pyccKaa napoAHOcxb owasbiBaexca b cocxoanHH 
HaaojKHXb HeKOTopwfi cboA cneuM(j()HHecKMfl oxtbhok Ha uep- 
KOBHbie HancBbi. JljiHrejibHoe sacHJibe mcjioahh, KOxopoe 
B PoccHH AJiHTca Ao XVI BeKd, o6'acHaexca eme MajiwM 
pasBMXHeM Kyjibxypbi b cxpane, pa3o6meHHoft ox EBponw 
HauiecTBHeM cxenHwx njieMen h oxnacxH co6- 

CXBCHHOft HaUHOHaJIbHO-pejlHrHOSHOSl saMKHy- 

X o c X b K), MeuiaBUiMMH odMBHy KyjibxypHbix ueHHOcxefl c Sana- 
AOM, 3to 2Ke o6ycjiOBJiHBaex xo, hto b Pocchh uepKOB- 
Haa MysbiKa pesKO oxpwBaexca ox HapoAHofl h 
oSpasyex BnoAHe aBXQHOMHyio jihhhk) pasBHXHS, Koxopaa ao 



V. 






XVII BCKa rjiyuiHx HapoAHoe xBopnecxBo, a nocjie naAeHHn 
uepKOBHoro sacHJiba h odpascBaHna cbssh c EBponoft ne 
HMeex cHJibi BAHaxb Ha HapoAHyK) h na Kyjib- 
xypnyK) MyswKy hh b KaKoft cxeneHH, oxnero h Kyab- 
xypHbie SHaMCHMa caMOft uepKOBHci^ MysbiKH cBOAaxca k mh- 
HHMyMy. :}■'■■ •'■..,■,''■'■■ ■:■' ^ .'■■;! :■'■"■';'. f-, - 

BARHHne ^HBcico- OxxecHaeMaa KoneBHHKaMH Ha ccBep, pyc- 
ro a TarapcKoro CKaa necHa B nepHOA XI — XIII BCKOB noABep- 
MCAoca. raexca cMAbHOMy B03AeftcxBH}o xaxap- 
cKoro H (|)HHCKoro MejiocoB, coo6iixaK)ii;Hx BejiHKopyccKoA 
necHe ee 6ojiee sayHbiBHbiA h MexpHnecKH cBo6oAHbifl, He»<ejiH 
y sanaAHbix cjiaBaH, Konopnx. noAo6HO MysbiKe Apyrwx espo- 
neAcKHX njieMCH, pyccKaa necHa c ApesHHX BpcMen o6Hapy- 
MCHBaex aanaxKH cneuH4)HMecKoro nojiH(K)OHH3Ma (xaK 
„ Ha3biBaeMbie noArojiocKH), Koxopbiii nanHHaex 

UOABdlOHHSM B OVC- 

-„„» _,r.^.Jl npOHHKaXb H B UepKOBHOCXb HOA HMBHeM 

CKOH MySnlKC yxjx nr 

cxpoHHoro neHHa (XVI seK). Ho MeAJieH- 
Hbift xcMn pasBHXHa xapaKxepcH AJia pyccKOfl MysbiKH Bnjioxb 
AO XVII BBKa, KorAa paA npenoH, oxAejiaBuiHx Pocchk) ox 
SanaAa, naAaex, b xom MHCJie cHJibHoe BJinaHMe pejiHrwos- 
Hoft yHHH c KaxoAHKaMH H HajiaAHBUiaaca xoproBO- 
3KOHOMHHecKaa cBa3b c Oojibmefi o6jierHaKJT nocxynjieHne 
B PoccHK) HBKOxopbix MysbiKaJibHbix npoAyKxoB SanaAa. 
Cnanajia BJiHaHHe EBponu cKasbmaexca b VKpaHHe 
(XVI — XVII BeK), 6ojiee xecno conpHKOcHyBUieAca c Ebpo- 
nofi — xyAa npoHHKaex Mensypajibnaa Hoxnaa rpa- 
Moxa H nojiHtjfjOHHHecKoe uepKOBHoe neHwe 
(napxecHoe neHHe — ox cjiOBa partes — napxHH, no koxo- 
pwM neAH\ AeJiaK)iueeca cKopo 66meynoxpe6nxeAbHbiM 
K XVII BeKy no Bceft Pocchh h JiHuib b cxapoo6paAHecKHx 
ceKxax He npHHaxoe, kbk oxMeneHHoe BJiHaHweM KaxojiHu,H3Ma. 
B 3XOM cocxoHHHH PoccHH> sacxaex eme 6ojiee xecHoe skoho-^ 
Cbhsi. c EBponoK MHHecKoe coo6meHHe c SanaAOM npH Flexpe I. 
B XVllBeKeHBM-KorAa MysbiKa c SanaAa HanHnaex ya<e 

nopT sarpaanqHoS H C K y C C X B e H H O H OXMacXH HaCHVIb- 

iwysMicn. cxBeHHO BBOSHXbca K pyccKHM B uejiax 
o6cJiyM<HBaHHa noxpe6Hocxeft h BKycoB cxpeMHBiuHXca 
K eBponeHsauHH ABopancKHX c(|>ep. flepsbie MysbiKaHxw 
H nepsaa My3biKa, BBesennaa b Pocchk), 6biJiH b cbash c hhcxo- 

XeXHHieCKHMH yCJlOBHftMH — ^^rOJiaaHACKMC H UIBeACKHe. 



118 



B pojiH HacaAHTejiefi aanaanoft MyswKajibHoft Kyjibxypbi ^JHrypw- 
pyiOT nepBoe BpeMsi lUBeACKMe njicHHbie h cjiynaflHo 3ae3»<He 
rocTH. 3to pasposHeHHoe BJiHSHHe ycxynaer mccto b XVIII Bene 
CHcreMaTHMecKOMy bjihhhhk) HeanojiHraHCKofl 
onepHofl uiKOJibi, BseaeHHOft b 1735 r. b neTep6ypr 
B jTHue 4) p. A p a ft a ^), no npwMepy cflCJiaBiUHx to ace 
HecKOJibKO panee flpyrnx CBponeflcKHx ABopoB, a hotom 

na33H3JlJ10^)HCapTH. 



HsMCAbiaBHe^iopM Hpouecc npoHMKHOBCHHS! MysbiKajibHoro 
B KpHGTaAAHsagHfl HCKyccTBa B cjioH 6ojiee mcjikmx 4}eoAajiOB 

"X- H 3a>KHT0MHbIX TpaWflaH, CMeHMBUIHX, B KaHC" 

CTse noTpe6nTejiefl, Kpyr uepKOBHoro pHTyajia, h saxcM 
KpynHbix BejibMO»t-(})eOAajiOB HeMor He OTpasHTbCH Ha H3Mejib- 

MaHHH caMblX (^OpM MySblKajIbHOTO TBOpMBCTBa. 

MacTHoe jihuo ne o6jiaAajio cpeACTsaMH flepwaxb opKecrpw 
H xopbi — ero ecxecTBeHHaa cKJiOHHOCTb 6bijia k KaMepnoMy 

CTHJIKJ, KOTOpblfl nepBOHanajIbHO BblJIHBaJICH B 4)OpMy JIK>THe- 

Boro aKKOMnaHeMCHTa h jiiOTHeBoft Hrpw, a hotom, c H3o6pe- 

TCHHCM KJiaBHKOpAa, KOTOpblft OTBCHaA nOAHcfjOHMHeCKHM B03- 

MoasHocTHM, CTaA npcHMymecTBeHHo BbipaacaTbca b ^JopMe 
pa3HOo6pa3HoA KAaBnuiHoA MysbiKH, K HanaAy XVIII Bewa 
nbiuiHO pacuBeriueft bo Bcefl EBpone, h b (Jjopne npocTefliuHx 

HHCTpyMCHTaAbHblX H HOAyBOKaAbKblX aHCaM6Aeft. B 3TO BpeMH 
C03AaeTCH PJIA HOBblX' HHCTpyMeHXaAbHblX CJf)OpM, 

npcHMymecTBeHHO BbipacxaromMx hs xaHuoBaAbHux (|)opM, 

panee 6bIBllIHX CAHHCTBeHHblM BHAOM HHCTO-HHCXPyMeHTaJIb- 

Hofl MysbiKM. Tanubi, oTHacxH MHcxo-HapoAHwe, oxnacxH 
^eoAajiH3npoBaHHbie („pbmapcKHe")i noAynHBuiHe HSBCcxHwe 
H3MeHeHHa bo BKycax ABopsiHCKoA H 6yp«ya3H0ft cpeAbi, 
6biAH nepBbiMM xHnaMH MHcxpyMenxanbHoft My3biKH h h3 hhx 

- -■■ ■ .r.'V 

A p a fi H (1700 ~ 1767) — KOMno3HTep, niodonbiTHbift tcm, hto HMen 
6onbmoe BnHSHMe Ha cyflb6bi paasHTHSi pyccKoft MyawKn, tbk kbk npHrjiamcH 
6biji K pyccKOMy AEOpy b 1737 rofly h, npoBCfluiH b neTep6ypre 24 ro«a, 
HanHcan ran pas, onep, MHOnie Ha pyccKHe ciojKeTbi h flawe leKCTU. 

-) nassHsnno (1741—1816) — 6bin npHflEopHbm KOMnosHTopoM npH 
pyccKOM flBope EKaTepuHW II tbk we, kbk Cap™ (1729—1802). 06a ohh 
MMenH CHnbHoe BjTHaHHe iia pasBHTiie pyccKoro onepHoro h uepKOBHoro 

HCKycCTBa. 



II 



i: 



liy 



pasBvr'AHCb (|jopMbi CO Max H CHJHT (napxHx). CoHaxa nepBO- 
^anajibHO o6o3HaMajia npo6HyK) HHcxpyMCHxajibHyio nbecy, 

JkJIH: KOTOpblX CymCCTBOBajIH XaK»<e H HaMMeHOBaHMH „CMM(J)0- 

hhh" h „KaHUOHbi". CioHxa npeAcxaBJiHAa cepnio xanueB 

AAH HHCXpyMeHTOB. CxHJIb 3XHX K0Mn03HU,Vlft 6bIA CMeUianHblS, 

MacxbK) noAH(|)OHHHecKMft (ajih 6ojiee Kpynnbix aHcaM6jiefi 

M AJIH KJiaBHIIIHblX HHCXpyMeHTOB). MaCXbK) TMnMMHO POMO- 

<|)OHHHecKHfl, B KOxopOM Asace rapMOHHH He BbinncbmaAacb, 
a xoflbKo HaMenajiacb („reHepaA-6ac")- B XVI BeKe mw MMeeM 
ywe CHJibHo pasBHxyro cwcxcMy HHcxpyMen- 
xaJibHbix (|)opM. CK)Hxa, nocxencHHo SBOAWUHOHHpyfl 
)/i ycjioa<Hasicb, Aaex nepBOXHn UHKJiHHecKHX (mhofo- 

"^aCXHblx) KOMnOSHUMM, COCXaBJieHHblX M3 pSIAa OXAeAbHblX 

nbec, conocxaBJiHeMbix no npHHUHny scxexHHecKoro KOHxpacxa. 
Ms Hee noxoM pasBHAacb nosAHefluiaa (MHoronacxHaji' coHaxa. 
KpynHbie ancaMdAH, cwHMasicb ao MWHHMyMa b npouecce 
npHcnoco6AeHHH k KaMepnwM ycAOBHHM, AaAH HanaAO cKpH- 
nHMHbiM coHaxaM H coHaxaM-xpMO, TAe oahh hah ABa raaB- 

;HbIX rOAOCa SBAJIAHCb KOHUepXHpyiOmHMH, a KAaBHUIHblfi 

HHcxpyMCHX HrpaA poAb axKOMnaHHaxopa. KAaBHiiiHbie wHcxpy- 
MeHXbi npH cBoefl cnoco6HocxH k MHororoAOCHio cyneAH yAep- 

MCaXb B HHCXpyMBHXaAbHblX 4)opMax KaK Ha- 

BBpTyosBocTfc B cjigjiHe HOAHcJjOHHH, xaK H npeHMyuiecxBa 
I' roMocpoHHMecKoro cAoweHHji. L> aVI Bena, 

BOB MysuKe. ^ 

B CBH3H C paSBHXHeM BWpxyOSHOCXH BO BCB 

pacxymefl npotjjjeccHOHaAbHofl cpeAe, axa BnpxyoBHOcxb naMH- 
Haex 3apaMcaxb h HHcxpyMCHxaAbHyH) ccjjjepy, b bhab 
CKpnnKH H KAdBHKopAa TAaBHbiM o6pa30M, H 3XOH pacxymcfl 

BHpxy03H0CXH o6H3aHbI Mbl nOflBACHHeM XHOa KOHUepXOB 

(cocxHsaHMfl) H KOHuepxHpyromHx conax b XVI h XVII 
BCKax. MncxpyMeHxaAbHbie (|)opMbi KaMepnoro xHna, BcioAy 

BblSBaHHbie K a<H3HH CXOAKblMH yCAOBHJlMH (yMHOJKCHHe H H3- 

MCAbHaHHe onaroB HcnojiHeHHH MysbiKn), pasBHsaioxca BcioAy 
B EBpone noHXH OAWHaKOBO, npn neM b cxpanax c npeo6AaAa- 
HHew KaxojiHUHSMa (OpanuHH, HxaAHH) sxo pa3BHXHe 
aacAOHflex pasBHXHe opranHoft iwysbiKH, 6ojiee Heno- 
AaTAHBoft K nporpeccy b ycAOBUHX KaTO.nHHecKoro pHTyaAa, 
H B repMaHHH, HanpoTHB, nepBoe Bpena mw Ha6jiK)AaeM 
orpoMHbift pocx HMeHHO opraHHoft jiHxepaxypbi, npouBexaBUieft 
noA rocTcnpHHMHOM ceHbK) nporecxaHTCKoro xopajia. B MTajiHH 



^.JilB^ 



KAaBeCRHHCTM. 



— 120 — 

HoMCHHKO CKapjiaTTH^) (1685— 1757), cwh 
AjicKcaHjtpa CKapjiaxTH.BrepMaHHvi — Ky nay, 
BO OpaHUHH — C>p. KynepeH (1668—1733), a Ampjihh eme 
panee Toro BepA, Mopjieft h flac. By;ijib (1563 — 1628) 

C03HflaK)T HHCXpyMeHTaJIbHblfi MHTHMHblfi CTHJIb, B TO BpCMSI 

KaK BHpTyosbi Ha cKpwnKe TaprwHw h Kopeji^H cosh- 

AaiOT BHpTyOSHblft CTHJIb CMblMKOBblX HHCTpyMeH- 
TOB. CTpCMJieHHC K BHpTyOSHOCTH BbTSblBaeX HOSiBJieHMe 

B MysbiKe 6bicTpbix nacca»<efi, a npeeMCTBCHHocTb ox 
jHOTHeaoro cxhjih wrpw b cbrsh c o6mHMH npHHHHaMH, xpe- 
6oBaBimiMH KaK ot jiwthh, xaK hox KjiasHKopjia c MXKpaT- 
KHM 3ByKOM KaKofl-jiH6o xyflOMcecxBCHHoS KOMneHcauHH sa 
axy KpaxKOcxb, BbisBajia k mchshh pacuBex MejiMSMaxHMecKHX 
yKpauieHHA (MopfleHTw, TpejiH. rpyneTbi), Koxopwe jiejiaioxcH 
xapaKxepHbiM axpH6yxoM KJiaBecHHHO-KJiaBUKOpAHoro cxMJin 
Bnjioxb no KOHua XVIII seKa. 

MysbiKa B 3xy anoxy BbtpaBHHBaexcn 

nOA BflHAHMCM TOPO, MTO, HaHHHaH C AV 1 BCKa, 

uepKOBHasi KOMnosHUHsi B cxporoM 
CMbic;ie cjiOBa (x.-e. wyabiKa jiJin uepKOBHoro ynoxpe6jTe- 
HHjj) oxpbiBaexcfl oxocxaJibHofl MyawKHH KaK 6h 
saMbiKaexcji b cbok> c(|)epy, tac noABepraexcH ywe xonbKo 
BJIH5IHH5IM xpe6oBaHHft pHxyajia HcpejiHero BKyca KJiepMKaJib- 
HoA Maccbi. NysbiKa xe b 6onee cneuHa;ibHOM cMucjie cjioBa, 
BKjitoMasi cioAa h MyswKy BnoflHe cBexcKyio (HHCxpyMeHxaflb- 
HaJi, BOKajibHan, onepa) h noflyayxoBHyK) ((JjopMbi, BOSHHKUiHe 
B jiOHe pHxyajia, ho b hbm He yTKHBuiHecn), b xom MHcyie 
opaxopMH, naccHOKbi, AyxoBHbie apHU, accHMHJiHpysi b ce6a 
y>Ke 6e3 Konxpojia co cxopOHw uepKBH Bce flocxHMcenHH 
xexHHKH H BbipasHxejibHoc I H, Bbipa6axbiBaexcH b neKoxopbiK 
cpeflHHfl CTHJIb, Koxopbifl efl,HHoo6pa3eH B npeftcjiax 

Ka>KAOA H3 BHOBb OXKpHCXaJIJlHSOBaBUIHXCH 4'OPM (spHH, CO- 

HaTa, TaHuoBajibHbie TMnw, nojiHcJjOHHHecKHe <|)opMbi), ho He 

OAoMCHMKO CKapnaTTK (1685 — 1757) snaMeHHT rnaBHhJM 

06pa30M CBOHMH (})OpTenHaHHbIMH KOMnOSHUHSIMH, B MaCTHOaTH COHaiaMH 
(OflHOHaCTHblMH), KOXOpblC npeABapSIJIH n03«HeKLUHa KnaCCHHeCKHB CTKHb 

MHCTpyMeHTanbHOH MyawKH. 06mee mhjko ero coHHHeHHH npojTHpacTCH cbw- 
lue 400. KpoMe 4>opi'enHaHHbix KOMno3HUHfl, oh HanHcaji opraHHwe h raKwe 
onepbi (HSBecTHefluiaa — „HapuHcc"). 






— 1-21 -- 






■ 



a 



MenneTCJi cymecTBCHHO npn nepcMene cBCTCKoro cioweTa Ha 
AyxoBHbiA H o6paTHo. He Ha6jiK)flaeTCH b STy anoxy h CKOJibKO- 
HH6yAb cymecTBeHHbix HauHonajibHux otjimmhA b o6jia- 
CTH KyjibTypHofl MyBbiKH, MTO o6'sicHneTCH 6ojiee hjih Mcnee 
HHTepnauHOHajibHbiM xapaKTepoM ABopsiHCKoro 
K Ji a c c a, jjBJijiBiiieroca BaKOHOAaTCJicM BKyca h noTpe6HTejieM. 
OopMbi pbmapcKHX xaHues (capa6aHAa, acwra, rasoT, MenysT. 
ajiJieMaHAa), BXOAHBiuHe b ciOHTbi, xoth h 6biJiH o6ycjiOBJieHbi 

BOSHMKHOBCHHeM H3 HapOAHblX TdHUeB, HO OHM 6bIJIH HaCTOJIbKO 
aCCHMHJIHpOBaHbl H npeodpaJKCHbl BKyCOM apHCTOKpaTHH, MTO 

coBepuieHHO yxpaTHJiH h HCKasHJiH nepBOTHnbi. PaBHCHHe 
BKycoB npoHcxoAHJio B c4)epe onepu na MTajibsnueB, b c(|)epe 
ace HHCTpyMeHTajibHofl Bbipa6oTajicH HCKOTopbifl HHTepnauHO" 

HaJIbHbiA CIHJlb KyjIbTypHOfl MyBblKM, KOTOpblft TOJIbKO B Fep- 
MaHHH noABcprajicsi HesHannTejibHOMy nauHOHajiHCTHHecKOMy 
BOSAeAcTBHK) B o6jiacTH pejiHrHOBHoro xopaJibHoro Hanesa. 

B BOKaJIbHOA MyBbIKe JIHUIb TCKCT H TCXHHKa npOCOAHH npH" 

AasajiH HCKOTopoe pasjinnne Manepe BOKajibHoro MSJio^KeHHn 
B pasHbix cTpaHax (naTCTHMecKaH HaneBHOCTb b MxajiHH, 
ACKjiaMauHOHHocTb BO ^panuHH). TaKHM o6pa30M nojiyMHJiocb. 

HTO H OnepHblft CTHJIb BbIKpHCTajIJIH30BbIBaeTC» B MHCTO- 
MySblKajIbHOM OTHOUieHHH B HCKOTOpwe TpaAHUHOHHWC (jJOpMbI 

H Manepbi, cxanoBsimHecsi KaK 6bi o6H3axejibHbiMH. TaKHM 
cxHJicM HHcajiHCb onepbi PajiJie m FpaynoM (1701 — 1759) 
B FepMaHHH, B Manepe h xpaAHunax HeanojiHTancKoft lUKOJibi, 
CKapjiaTTH, FcHAejieM b Ahpjihh, tac oh cTaji npeeMHHKOM 
cosASTejia nauHonajibHoA onepbi flepcejiJin. 

CymecTBeHHbiM MOMeHTOM anoxH siBJiaeTca npncBoeHHe 
3MOUHOHajibHbix xapaKTepHCTHK Maacopy m MHHopy, koto- 
pwe AO Tofl nopbi ne 6biJiH onpeAeJienbi. Ma«op CTanoBHTca 
CMMBOJiOM 6oAporo HacTpoeHHJi, MHHop ace — nenajibHoro. 
riepBoe BpeMsi npoBeAeHwe bthx xapaKTepHCTHK eme He ot- 
jiHMaeTCH nocjieAOBaTCJibHOCTbio, — nojiHoe nponcneHHe cthjih 
B 9TOM OTHOUieHHH coBepiuaeTCH JiHuib B KJiaccHHecKyio anoxy. 
Pacgser MysbiKH To oco6oe noJioaceHHe, b KOTopoe nonajia 

B TepMaBBH nocAc FepMaHHH c CHJibHO saxBaTHBUicft ee peJiH- 
SO-ACTBeH BOHBu. THOSHOM 6opb6oA, cnoco6cTBOBaBiiieA npo- 
ueccy ACMOKpaTHBauHH h o6MeHy MyBWKajibHbix BemecTB 
c HapoAHbiMH MaccaMH, c ee OKpenuieA b 6opb6e h xyAO- 
acecTBCHHO TepnHMoft npoTecxaHTCKoA uepKOBbio, HaKoneu,, 



•MMM 



■iMMlaMl 



m 



— 122 — '^S 

c ee cjia6oft GpaBHHTejibHo 4>^<^AajibHoA BjiacTbio, Heo6bi- 
HaflHO cnoco6cTBOBajio yKpenjicHHio Morynero MysbiKajibHoro 
npo^JeccMOHajiMSMa. FlpeKpameHHe 30-JieTHeH Boi^Hbi nocfly- 

MVinO KBK 6bl CMFHajIOM paCUBCTa, H B FepMaHMH Mbl HCMe- 
AJieHHO BHflHM 3apO»<AeHHe BCJIMKHX OpraHHCTOB H MacTepoB 

opraHHO-uepKOBHOM KOMnosHUHH, — PeftHKena (1623 — 1722) 
H ByKCTeryAe^) (1669 — 1707), KOTopwe cosMaiOT tmr h 
cTHJib xopajibHbix opraHHbix o6pa6oTOK H CB060AH0A nojiH- 

tJjOHHHeCKOfl OpraHHOft K0Mn03HUHH, He CMOrmeft paSBHTbCSI 

B poMaHCKHX CTpanax, rfle opraHHCT He HMeji raKoro npo- 
4)eccHOHajibHoro aHaneHHsi. 9th aBTopbi-BHpxyoabi npe^Ba- 
pHiOT noaB;ieHHe Baxa ^) (1685 — 1750) h FeHAejia '^) 

(1685 — 1759), EHHTaBlUHX B Ce6a BCe AOCTHaKeHHH nOJIH(j|)OHHH u 

roMO(j[)OHHH, Bbipa6oTaHHbie HxajibsiHCKHM, repwaHCKHM H HHjuep- 
jiaHACKHM HCKyccTBOM npoiujioro, H KaK 6bi saBepuiaroinHx 
OTToro anoxy pasBHTHJi cthjih My sbiKajibHoro 



■*) ByKCTeryfle (166B- — 1707) — oahh h3 BenHsattuiHx npefluiecTBeH- 
HHKOB Baxa, KOMnosMTop, Bbipa6oTaBuiHS opraHHbift ctHnb H opraHHyK) BHp- 
xyosHOCTb. Ero coMHHeHHst B o6u],Hx nepiax roxo^kh Ha 6axoBCKHe, ho othh- 
HaiOTcn 6ojibmHM flHaTOHHSMOM H HeKOTOpoft rpy6ocTbio cTpyKiypbi. Oh Hann- 
can MHoro KOMno3HUHft, b tom nucne h BOKanbHbie, ho coxpaHHJiHCb TonbKo 
5 CBaAe6Hbix neceH, coHaTw ^na cKpHnKH, opraHHwe KOMnoauuHH h 

KaHTaTbl. 

2)Bax, HoraHH-Ce6acTHaH (1685—1750) — jkhh see speMH b 
repMaHHH. KonHMCCTEO ero npoHSBefleHHH orpoMHo. Mm nanHcaHbi una 
(jjopTenHaHO „AVohltempi'riertes Clavier" m pHA cfiopHHKOB cioht, napiHT h 
ApyrHX KOMnosHUHii, opraHHbie o6pa6oTKH xopanoB, opraHHwe npenioflHH, 
TOKKaxbi H (i>ym (h3 hhx naHfionee sHaMeHHTW dpaHTasua h (fj""^ c-moll, 
npenioflHa h 4'yra a-moll, „naccKanna" h TOKKaxa d-moll), naccHOHbi no 
MaTtJjew H no MoaHHy (apyrHe naccHOHU ero, noBHflHMOMy, noiepaHbi), 
MHoro Mecc (HaHfionee sHaMeHHiaa — -h-moll-as!), pup. Kpynnux uepKOBHUx 
coMHHeHHft (cpeflH HHX HSBecTHw „PowflecTBeHCKaa opaTopHa" H „MarHH- 
(i)HKaT"), orpoMHoe mhcho KanTai (cBwme 200). 06mee coSpaHHe ero co- 
«iHHeHHft HSflano cnanana „06mecTB0M Baxa" („Bach-Gesellschaft"), a nosfl- 
Hee — BpeftTKoneJjOM. 

") FeHflenb (1685 — 1759) ponnncsi b Panne, >khji 6onbmeft Hacibw 
B JIoHflOHe, rfle h ynep, npH mbm anrnHHane CMHiaiOT ero sa CBoero nauHO- 
HanbHoro KOMnosHTopa. CoMHHeHHa FeHjiena onenb MHoroHHcneHHu, ohm 
OTHOcaTca k THny onep (b HCTopH«!ecKOM acncKie HMerox MeHbiuee sHane- 
HHe) H opaiopHH (b hhx — ueHTp ero komhobhuhh). Ero onepw, b ko- 
Topbix OH npoAonJKan nnHKK> TEOpMecTsa HTajibaHCKoro nncbMa, — ..PaflaMHCi". 
^Cuesona", „<DnopHflaHTe", „Ue3aph", „TaMepnaH", „[oflenHHfla", ..Aamct", 
„PHKKapflo I", „ToneMeo", „JloTapHo", „napTeHone", „CocapMa", „OpnaHao" 



■Mb 



123 



penecaHca. 06a — h Bax h FeHnejib — poBecHHKH no 
jieraM, npe>KAe Bcero BbicoKO-KBajiH4)HUHpoBaHHbie npoijiec- 
cHonaJibi MacTepa b ccjjepe MyawKH (06a — nepBOKjiaccHwe 

OpraHHCTbl H KJiaBeCHHHCTbl) H 06a Heo6bIMaAHO njlOAOBHTbie 

TBopubi. FeHACJib HBJineTCH MacxepoM 6ojiee HnxepHauHonajib- 
Horo KOJiopHxa h cBJiaaH b c4>epe CBoero MyswKajibHoro xBop- 
MecxBa c uiHpoKHM cBponeficKHM pbiHKOM cBexcKoro noxpe- 

dnxejin MySbIKH, ABOpOB KOpOHOBaHHblX JIHU, BeJIbMOHC H 

MarHaxoB. Oh nacxo Menaex cBoe nojiOMccHHe b EBpone, 
nepecejiaacb hs cxpaHbi b cxpany m BCK>Ay B6Hpafl b CBoe 
TBopnecTBO nocJieAHMC AOcxHweHHsi MysuKajibHux pecypcoB, 
npoAyuHpyn npeHMymecxBCHHo onepy, kbk nandojiee moa- 
Hbift npoAyKx, npH Men xyx oh naxoAHxca b npeHMymecxBeHHofi 
c4)epe BJiHsiHHa HeanojiHxaHCKoA uikojiw, — xopMcecxBCH- 
HyK) KaHxaxy, cosAasaeMyK) cnpocoM Ha axox xhh MysbiKH 
B BbicoKoapHcxoKpaTHMecKOM Kpyry, HopaxopHK>, B KOXO- 
pyK) nepcHocHX Bce onepHwe MysbiKajibHwe pecypcw. He- 
pecejiHBUiHCb B Ahtjihio, FeHACJib HacaacAaex xaM onepnbiit 
cxHJib, oxBeHaiouiH^ cnpocy Bwcmero Kpyra, a noA Koneu 
»<H3HH — MOHyMCHxajibHbiA cxHjib opaxopHH, pasBHXHe H cnpoc 
Ha Koxopbift o6ycjiOBJieH pe(|)opMauHOHHbiM cABwroM b Ahfjimh 
H xcM 6flaroHecxHBbiM H xop>KecxBeHHbiM HacxpoeHMBM, KOXO- 
poe b 3XO BpeMH pacnpocxpaHHJiocb b aHrjinflcKOM BwcuieM 
o6mecxBe h coxpannjiocb hohxh ao naiuHx Anefl. Mmchho 
BopaxopHaflbHOM cxHjie, TAB M MBJioAHKa H csexjiaH, 
xop«ecTBeHHaH, CBoi^cxBenHasi FeHAejiK>, nojiH4>OHHii mofjih 
naflxH nojiHoe CBoe npHMeneHHe, FeHACJib aocxhf cBoero 
KyjibMHHauHOHHoro nyHKxa xBopnecxBa, xoxh h ne MywAajica 

M HHXHMHblX, KdMepHblX (|)OpM (ciOHXbl, COHaXbl, KOHUepXbl) M 

MHcxo - HHcxpyMeyxajibHofl opKccxpoBoft c4)epbi (concerti 
grossi). Ero KOJioccajibHaa cjiaBa mhopo o6ji3aHa h xomv, hxo 
OH nonaji b cxpany, tab oxcyxcxBHe Kpynnoro MysbiKajibHoro 
TBopnecKoro Aapa omyiuajiocb xeM 6oAe3HeHHee, hxo B03pa- 



M flp. Ero opaTopHH oneHb MHoroHHCJieHHM M HanHcaHbi npeHMymecTBCHHo 
B nocJieaHHH, HaHfionee apenbiK nepnos ero hshshh. Ma hhx caMbiMH anaMe- 
HHTbiMH aBnawTCfl „MeccHa", „CaMC0H", ^Hncyc HaBHH*, „MeB(j|)aa". Kpone 
Toro, MM HanHcaHo MHoro HHCxpyMeHTanbHwx coMHHeHHfl flHH 4)opTenHaHo, 
O rana h cTpyHHWx, b tom MHcne eio opKCTpoBbie KOHuepibi, oprannbie koh- 
uepiH, <j|)aHTa3Hii h $yrH, 6 „KOHuepTH rpoccn", cKpnnHMHbie coHaiH h (Ipop- 
TennaHHbie bcuih. 3th coMHHeHHH fionbiueii HacTbio HanHcaHw ao 1740 roAa. 



124 



craiomaH nwiiiHOCTb ahhbcthh h KpennymaH b (|)eoflaJibHbix 
Kpyrax HauHOHajibHaa vinen HacTosTejibHo Tpe6oBajiH oTpaMte- 

HHH B TOpWeCTByiOineM H TOpMCeCTBeHHOM HCKyCCTBe. B COOT- 

BCTCTBHH c 3THM Ahfjihsi npHSHaJia repMaHua PeHflejtH cbohm 

KOMn03HTOpOM C TCM 6oJIbUIHM npaBOM, MTO OH flefiCTBHTCJlbHO 

oTflaji ePi 6ojibmyio MacTb jkmshh h noHTw Bce tbopmcctbo. Ho 
3TO npn3HaHMe He ycxpansieT xapaKTepHoro HHTepnauHO- 
Ha;iH3Ma PeHflejia, KOTopwft, KaK yKaaano 6biJio ywe Bbiuie, 
o6ycjioBJiHBajica BOo6me cthjicm anoxM h MajiwM pasjiHHHeM 
TnnoB cnpoca b pasHbix crpaHax h TOJibKO b HCKJiiOMHTejibHbix 
cjiynanx AaBaji saMexHbie HauHonajiHCTHHecKHe peayflbTaTbi. 
B npoTHBonojiWKHOcTb FeHAejiK), pa6oTaBiueMy Ha cnpoc 
uivipoKoro eBponeAcKoro pwHKa, MoraHH-Ce6acTbaH 
B a X pa6oTaeT BsaMKHyroM pbiHKe pejiHrHOSHoro 
HCKyccTBa, MspeAKa buxoasi h3 Hero ana npoAyKUHH na cxpo- 

ro npO(|)eCCHOHaJIbHbIJ% pblHOK KBa;iM4)HUHpOBaHHbIX 

MysbiKaHTOB, B BHAy Toro, MTO caMbifii pbiHOK noAo6Horo poAa 
6biJi HacbimeH BnojiHe, orpoMHaa nacca TBopeHHfl Baxa hbh- 
jiacb KaK 6bi nepenpoHSBOACTBOM, KOTopoe He hmcjio 
SHaneHHa ajih coBpeMCHHOCTH h mopjio Aaxb nacbimeHHe 
pbiHKa flHuib pacmnpeHHoro, 6ojiee uiHpoKoro, pbiHKa 6y- 
A y m e r o. OrpoMnaa npoAyKuwa Baxa c H36biTKOM noKpuBana 
TO, MTO Tpe6oBa;iH ox nero pejiHrHOSHbift KyjibT h neSojibuiaa 
npo(|)eccHOHaJibHaa cpeAa, ottopo Bax OKasajica oahhm h3 

nepBblX KOMHOSHTOpOB, COSHaTCJIbHO pa6oTaBmHx 

AJia 6yAymero, Aaa<e 6e3 HaAe»cAbi na nojiHyro oucHKy 
TBopMecTBa npw }kh3hh. TaKoro poAa opweHTauHa na 6yAy- 
mee, npw KOJioccajibHcA TexHHKe Baxa, no3BOflHJia eny pas- 

BHTb B CHJIbHOK CTenCHH XpOMaTH3M H 3HrapMOHH3M, 
BblTCKaBIIlM H3 XyAOWeCTBCHHO HCnOJlbSOBaHHOrO npH6jIH- 

»<eHHoro cTpoa KJiaBecMHHbix HHCTpymeHTOB (opraHa h 
KjnaBecHHa), KOTopbift He3aAOJiro nepeA tbm (b 1700) 6b«i 
npHHUHnnajibHO ycTanoBJien BepKMeftcTepoM noA HawMe- 
HOBaHHCM paBHOMepHofl TewnepauHH. FlaMaTHMKOM aroPi cjjaaw 
aBHJiHCb 48 npejiJOAHft h 4>y^ Baxa bo Bcex Tonax, cocTa- 
BMBiuMX TaK Has. „Wohltemperiertes Clavier" (xopouio 
HacTpocHHoe (j[)-nHaHo), KaK 6bi onwT xyAowiecTseHHoro 
aancMaTjieHHa hobofo CTpoa, AaBaBuiero BosMOMCHOCTb hhto- 

HHpOBaHHa C AOCTaTOMHOft TOMHOCTblO BO BCCX TOHaflb- 

HOCTax, MTO panee 6buio hcbosmojkho. PasHbiM o6pa30M 



:. i^iliS)iiitl)^i'M 



~ 125 — 

Bax oTMeTHJi h xyAOMsecTBCHHo saneMaTJieji „3 h r a p m ohm m e- 
CKHe bosmojkhocth", OTKpbiBaBuiHeca b hobom CTpoe, npn 
nepcMene BsrjiaAa na cosByMne. HaH6ojibmee BHHManMe Bax 
yACJiHJi KOHTpanyHKTHMecKMM (JjopMaM — (jjjyre, KanoHy m 
6ojiee cBo6oAHOMy MMHTauHOHHOMy cthjik), xoTa oh 
He MywAajica h MHCTbix roMo4)OHHMecKHX saAanHit. Ctfjepw. 
B KOTopbix OH pa6oTaji, 6biJiH npeAonpeAejieHbi ero pojibio 
uepKOBHoro opraHwcTa h cBOAvuiwcb k KanepnoMy cthjho 

(cOHaThI, ClOHTbl, TAB OH npOAOAHOeX CTHflb HTaJIbaHCKHX 

ocHOBaTejieft HHCTpyMeHTa^HSMa h Kynay), KOHuepTaM AJia 
KpynHbix aHcawdjieft, opraHHbiM coMHHeHHaM h npo- 
MSBeAeHHaM MOHyMenTaabHoro peJiwrHOBHoro ctmjih (naccHOHbi: 
„Matthaus-Passion" h „ Johannes-Passion", Meccw, b tom 
MHCJie reHHajibHaa h-moll-naa, KanTaTW h opaTopHw). BMecTe 
c FcHAejieM Bax aBnaeTca saBepuiHTejiCM CBo6oAHoro 
noJiH(|)OHHMecKoro cTHaa. Ocjia6jieHHe uepKOBHOCTH 
B cpeAe npoTecTaHTMSMa, pasBHTwe wejiKoro (|)eoAaflH3Ma 
B TepMaHHH H cBasaHHbii^ c nocjieAnefl tjjopMauHeft (jjjeoAa- 
flHSMa BKyc K MysbiKC yBeceJiHTejibHofl, npHaTHOft, Herfly6oKoft, 
Menee BO^Hyiomeft, MeM ycjiajKAaHJiueft, — BKyc, o6yc;iOBJieHHbift 
KJiaccoBOH scTeTHKofl (J)eoAaflbHbix rpynn, Tpe6oBaBmHx yro- 
MCAeHHa H yBeceJieHHa co cToponw HCKyccTBa, — Bce 3to Mpes- 
BbiMafiHO cHJibHO HOBJiHajio Ha cyAb6y 6axoBCKoro TBopMecTBa 
nocjie ero CMepTH. Oho bobcb He paccMHTaHo 6biJio na 3Ty 
aerKyK) scTCTMKy, h noTOMy cnpoc Ha Hero cpasy naji,— Bax 

B nOKOJieHHH. K0Mn03HT0p0B BTOpOft nOJlOBHHbl XVIII BQKSl 

BOBce He BBJineTca bwcoko ueHHMoft (jj)Hrypofi[. Bojiee sna- 
MBHHa coxpanaeT FeHAejib, pa6oTaBmnft b KOHTaKTC c BKy- 
caMH BBKa, OTMcro H ^JiHanwe ero na 6jin«afliiiee noKOJieHwe 
KOMnOSHTOpOB (KJiaCCMKH) 6ojibuie 6axoBCKoro. BospoMCACHHe 
Baxa, KaK npHsnaHHoro BJiacTHTejia MysbiKajibHbix AyM, mo^ 
a<eT cocTOHTbca SHUib ropasAO nosAHee, ysce b BeK poMaHTHSMa, 
KOPAa cosAaioTca HOBbie BKycoBwe rpynnw b cpeAe HHTeji;ieK- 
TyajibHoft 6ypH<ya3MH (XIX bbk). BjiMMcafiiUHe M<e k mchshh 
Baxa H FeHAejiH roAW npoxoAaT noA SHaKOM jiHKBHAauMM 
'mhctoS nojiH(|)OHHH, KOTopaa peiuHTejibHO BbiTecnaeTca hs 

CB3TCK0ft My3bIKH H COXpaHaCTCa (h to He nOJIHOCTblo) 
JIMlUb B UepKOBHO-OpaTOpwaJIbHOM CTMfle. 

flajibHefiiuee ocseMceHHe cthjib nacTynHJio b cymnocTH 
noA BJiHaHHeM pasBHTwa caMoft habh onepw. Onepa, HaMas- 



V 



\ 



'^:^4i^' 






.v.lvv 



— 126 — ■- A 

uiasicH KaK pecraBpauHH aHTHHHoft xpareflHH, coxpaHHJia 
B cBoefl oKOHHaTejibHofl ^'op'^fi HpesBbiMaftHO Majio o6mero 
c nocJieftHeft. CsHsyKJiUHM sbchom 6biJi npeHMymecTBCHHO 
jiereHAapH o-r epoHMecKufi ciOMceT, Koropbifl CHanaJia 

6paJICSI MS aHTHMHOfl MHCJJOJlOrHH, a nOTOM B BMfly My»CflOCTH 

nocJieflHeft BKycaM noTpe6MTejiH craJi ycxynaTb mccto nauH- 
OHaJibHoft JiereHfl,e, aaBaBiuefl, npoMe Toro, nHiuy h nauHOHajib- 
HOMynyBCTBy. BoBJieneHHeB Kpyr noTpe6nTejieft onepw MCJiKoro 
flBopHHHHa H 6ypM<ya-ropo>KaHHHa, jteMOKpaTHSHpoBaBuiee 
onepy, sbisBajio cMemcHvie BKyca b CTopony or repoMHecKoft 
aercHflbi, Koropaa n He Mor;ia BbisBaxb oco6oro coHyBCTBHH 
B-cpeae ropowaH, HacTpoeHHbix 6oJiee peajibHO, aa h y 4)eoAajib- 
Hbix rpynn ona, cjiynaHHO BOSHHKiuan Ha noHBe BOcnoMHHaHHfi 
06 aHTHHHofl TpareflHH, 6ojiee cyiuecxBOBaaa no HnepuHH. 
C apyrofl cTopoHbi, a6cTpaKTHOCTb jiereHAW h JKaM«fla wMCTb 
B onepe hcmto 6ojiee 6jiH3Koe k mchshh BbisbiBaer k mcmshh 

KOMHHecKyK) onepy. o6Hapya«MBaK>myK> 

KoMH^ecKaH npeeMCTBeHHOCTb He CTOJibKO or anTHMHOft 

onepa. «« » 

KOMeAHH, CKOJlbKO OT „BOAeBHJieH HapOAHOH 

flpaMbi. Kojibi6ejibK> KOMHHecKoft onepw 6bijia Ta »ce MTaJiHsi. 
H ee ocHOBaTeJiHMH 6biJiH KOMnoanTopw neanojiHTaHCKoS 
uiKOJibi (rieprojiese h JlorpoiuHHo), npn new nepBOHanaJib- 
HbiM HMnyjibcoM K ee cosAaHMK) 6biJia BeceJian napoflwa 
Ha cepbesHyio onepy, BbiAepwaHHaa b ronax napoAHbix cuenH- 
MecKHX npeACTaBJieHMfi[. HoBan onepa c BecejiwM ciomcctom 
H 6ofiKoft MysbiKoft, 6ojiee 6jiH3Kofl k npocTWM napoAHbiM 
HanesaM, 6biCTpo saBoeBbiBaex cHMnaTHH ny6jiHKH, noHHMa- 
HHK) cpeflHcro ypoBHa KoropoiS ropasflo 6jinM<e, neM TopjKe- 
CTBeHHO-ycJioBHaa cepbeanaa onepa. KoMnnecKaa onepa npoHH- 
KaeT B cpeAHHe XVIII Bewa bo OpaHUHio, rue OHa nopow^aer 
HCMefljieHHO noApawaHHa, npH mbm MysbiKajibHwe noTpe6HTeJiH 
pacnaflaroTca na abc spaatAyiomHe rpynnw — eytJjtIJOHHCTOB 

(CTOPOHHHKOB KOMHHCCKOA Onepbl) M aHTM6yCJJ3CJ|30HHCTv B (ijpH- 

BepaceHueB cepbesHoro cthjir). He yflHBMTejibHO, hto komh- 
MecKaa onepa OAepacajia b urore Bepx, h6o, BO-nepBbix, 
cepbesHaa onepa k TOMy BpeMeHH ycnejia cnjibHO ebipo-' 
AHTbca — OHa, HaBOAHeHHaa h HCKawceHHaa BHpxyosHbiMH 
TeHAeHunaMH nesuoB, coBepmeHHO nepecrajia 6biTb TearpoM 

H ApaMOfl, o6paTHBmHCb B KOCTKJMHpOBaHHblft KOHUepT, FAe 
CKJJKeT H3 aHTHHHOfl HJIH MHOfl repOHMeCKOfl H<M3HH 6bia JIHUIb 



— J27 —. J^- ' 

BHeiuHHM H cJia6biM npeAJioroM AJia npoaBjienHa BHpxyosHbix 
KanecTB hcbuob. <l>paHuy3bi c hx jno6oBbK) k Apane h k cJiOBy 
ecrecTBeHHO npeAnoMJiH 6ojiee ApaMaxHHecKH h jiophh iCKVt 
o6ocHOBaHHyK) KOMHiecKyK) onepy, ren Conee, hto OHa wMejia 
npeAKOB B caMofi OpanuHH b BHAe nojiynapoAHbix ..BOAeBHJieft" 
c BcraBHbiMH neceHKaMH h mto o6umPi BKyc anoxH (cospeBaHwe 
(|)eoAaflH3Ma) KJiOHHjica k neBeacecTBy pa3BJieKaTejibHOMy, 
a He cepbesHOMy, m xora onepa y«e CAejiajia ycTynKH aroMy, 
cTaB apenoA BRpxyosHocTH h npcAaB 3a6BeHHK) crower h jio- 
FHKy, HO KOMHMecKaa onepa 6biJia 6ojiee paAHKajibHWM peuie- 
HHCM. OepBOHaMajibHaa (j()paHuy3CKaa KOMHHecnaa onepa, homh- 
MO THna cjojKera, noAarajia cBoe paBJiHHHe ox cepbesHoft 
B xoM, Hxo peHHxaxHB B Hefi ycxynHJi Mecxo npo- 
CTOMy Awajiory, ixo npH6jiHJKajio ee k cxapowy BOAeBHjno. 
B 3T0M xoHe HHcajiH onepw Hynw (1709—1775), Ohjihaop ^) 

(1 726— 1 795). r p e X p H (1 741 —1 81 3) 2) h M o h- 

cDpaHgyacKaH ko- ^.j,„^j^ ,-,721 -1817). H B HX pyKax kommhc- 

XVIII H. ^^^^ onepa oopaxHJiacb b paA apwM h ancaM- 

6jieft, pasAejieHHbix pasroBopnbiM AnajioroM. 
rioaBHBUiHCb B FepManHH, HxajibancKaa onepa-buf f a 6bicxpo 
yHHHxoM«HJia HauHOHajibHyio „raM€iyprcKyK) onepy", npHiueA- 
uiHCb 6oJiee no Bxycy caMoft ny6jiMKe, cosAaBuieft raM6yprcKyK> 
cueHy, x.-e. xoproBoft 6ypM«ya3HJn:. HeneAJieHHO coBAaroxca 
noApa^Kanna na nauHOHajibHoA noMBe, noJiynaiomHe HasBaHHe 
Singspiel, xoace c AwajioroM BMecxo penHxaxuBa. Ha repMan- 
cKoft noHBe OMCHb cKopo Singspiel xepaex cBofl nepBOHanaAb- 
Hbifl xapaKxep KOMeAHH h naHHHaex npocxo o6o3HaHaxb 
(|)opMy onepbl c AwaJioroM. no3AHeflmHe KOMHHecKne 
onepw repMancKHx KOMnosHxopoB (A. P h jiji e p a, Xt h x x e p c- 
Aop{J)a, BeHAa h np.) Aa^eKO ne BcerAa 6biAH KOMeAHaMw, 
a Hacxo 3aKjiK)iajiH b ce6e xparHHecKHfi h JiereHAapHwft AaJKe 

CK)»«eT. 

MAeojiorwHecKaa nenpoHHOcxb nosMUHH cepbe3Hoft onepw 
HeMCAJieHHO AOJiJKHa 6wjia Bbissaxb nonwxKH ee pea6H- 



') OHHHflop (1726 -1795) — SHaMeHMTbiH eme KaK maxMaxHCT, asTop 
MHorHX KOMHiecKHx onep, cpeflH KOTOpbix ny<iuiHe „Le marcchal ferrant" (1761> 
H „3pHenHHfla" (1767), Bcero hx 23. 

^) FpeTpH (1741—1813) - asiop mhophx onep, npH6nH}KaiomHXCH yjKe 
K nosflHeftmcMy inny onepeTTW. Cpe^H hhx HaH6ojibuiyK) nonynjipHocTb. 
HMeeT „PHHapfl JlbSHHoe Cep«iie". 



4;,«a.-.-i**.-.p^*^4\V :V>> ^ 



;.iw.-^vii 



- 128 



JL'9 — 



Ji H T a u H H, KaK AocToflHoro Tuna MyawKajibHoro npoHSBefleHHH. 
BnpTyosHOCTb H npespcHHe k CMWcJiy cnosa 

TparHHCCKaH onepa g^^^^ rflaBHblMH npMMHHaMH BbipOMCflCHMH 

BO paHSHH. AyK. ^^gpj^j ^ g^j^ HMeHHO KanecTBa jiojiacHbi 6biJiH 
6biTb napajiHSOBaHbi h oT6poiiieHw. PeaKUHH b c4)epe cepbes- 
Hoil onepw b noflbsy ee peKOHCTpyKUHH b Kpamy Bon;iOTVi;iacb 
a 4)Hrype T Ji y k a ^) (1 714—1 787), KOTopwfl, HanaB nwcaTb b cth- 
~ jie HcanojiHTaHCKoft uiKOJibi, cKopo BbiHyscAeH 6biji nocxaBHTb 
nepefl onepofl npo6jieMbi cooTBeTCTBHH c xeKCTOM 

M nOAHHHCHHOCTH M y 3 bl K H fl p a M aXHH 6 C K O M y 3 a- 

jiaHHK). Cboh BsrjijJAbi OH BonjioTHJi B onepe „Op(jf)eft" 
M „AflbuecTa" (1767), o6HapyM{HBaiomeM B^HAHHe cthjis FeH- 
X e Ji n. TjiyK nepsbiA cTasMX coBHarejibHO Bonpoc o cootbct- 

CTBHHX HaCTpOCHHH MySbIKH C TeKCTyaJIbHblMH MOMeHTaMH, 

nofliepKHBasi tcm H3o6pa3HTeflbHbia momcht wysbiKH. 
BsrjisiAbi FjiyKa, mbjio uieauiwe ko BKycaM aBcrpHflcKHx 4)eofla- 
^OB, rfle OH no naMajiy pasBepnyji cbok> nesnenbHOCTh, sacTa- 
BHJiH ero HCKBTb npHMCHeHMH CBOHX HAeft B llapHJKe, rfle 
onepbi JliojiJiH H PaMO yace mmcjih cKJioHHOCTb k "npH6jiHM<e- 

HHK) K flpaMC H K nOAMMHCHHlO My3bIKH TeKCXy. M flCfiCTBH- 

lejibHO, ero onepa „HdpHreHwa b ABJiMne" (1 774) HMC^a orpoM- 
Hbifl ycnex h BwsBajia o6ocTpeHHe 6opb6bi flsyx yme panee 
HaMeHaBuiMXCH rpynn — CTopoHHHKOBMTajibflHHSMa h EHpryos- 

HOCTH H CTOpOHHHKOB nCCBJlOKJiaCCHHeCKOrO HanpaBJieHHH 

cepbesHoR onepw — JIiojijih h PaMO. riepBbie BbinHcajiH Aawe 
cneuHaJibHO HxajibflHua IImhhhhh^) b npoTHBOBec PjiyKy, ox- 
Mero 3xa 6opb6a b flanHoft cxaflHw nojiynmia HaHMCHOBaHHe 
pacnpH „rjiyKHCXOB h nuMHHHHCXOB". B cocxHsawMH Ha 
HanHcaHHC onepw „W^Hremn b TaBpwfle" T^yK nojiynHJi npH- 
sHaHHe no6eAnxeji5i, mto. BnponeM, 6ojiee o6'flCHSflOCb npeBOc- 
xoacxBOM ero jiMHHoro jxapoBanvtH. Bo bcskom cjiynae TayKy 



r n y K (1714—1787) ponHnca b TepMaHMH, ho ftenTenbHocTb ero rnaB- 
MbiM oSpasoM cBflsaHa c OpaHUHeft, r«e oh npoflonwan hkhhio cepbesHoft 
onepw sanoaceHHoa JlwnnH. Ero naHSonee BbwaiomHeca npoH3BeAeHHa — 
„0p4)eV', „AnbuecTaV(1767), „M<})HreHHa b Abjihac" (1774), „M4)HreHHH 

B TaapHrte" (177^0- ^ „ 

2) riHMHHHM (1728 — 1800) H3BecTeH, KaK conepHHK TjiyKa b ua- 
pMase, asTO? MHorHX komhhcckhx onep, b KOTopbix oh CHnbHO pacmH?Hn 
<|opMy. MeHee yflanHW ero onwTbi b oSnacTH cepbesHoa onepw („PonaHfl , 
„M(j)HreHH5i"). 



m 



yaajiocb flOKasaxb M<H3HeHHocxb onepbi-xpareflHH, 
04nmeHHoi^ ox BHpxyosKocxH H sacHJibH sayKOBoro afleweHxa. 
no ero cxonaM b cymnocxH noiiijia sea AajibHefluiaa onepnan 
MysbiKa, xorjia KaK KOMHiecKaa onepa bo OpaHuvm h MxajiMH 
noABeprjiacb cKopoMy BbipoHcaeHHio, CKasaBuieMyca ywe 
B cjieayiomeM cronernvi. 

^11. — 9noxa KJiaccHu,H3Ma. 

9m6phohm KAac- ^^ '"""*'*' nocxeneHHoro HSMejibnaHHa, 

cugHSMa. Koxopaa npoflHKxoBana 6bijia saMKHyxocxbio 
BKyca noxpe6Hxejia b (JieoAajibHwe paMKH, 
B cBasH c nepenocoM xexHHMecKH npo4)eccHOHajibHoro 
BHMMaHHfl Ha SByKOBoe OMapoBaHHe, BWBBajia aBJiCHHC Kjiac- 
CHUHSMa, cymecxBeHHO CBasaHHoro c npo(|)eccHOHajibHbiM 
6bjxoM MysbiKanxa b anoxy nepeA (J)paHuy3CKofl peBOjnounefi. 
Oahh h3 HH31UHX cjiyHCHxeJieft npHABopHoro mxaxa, npo4)ec- 
CHOHaji-MysbiKaHx, aojukch Chia nocxaBjiaxb onpeaeJieHHoe 
MHCJio npoHBBefleHHfi, yflOBjiexBopaioinHx xpe6oBaHHaM apwcxo- 
KpaxHHecKoro Kpyra. 9xh ycJiOBwa HHBejiHpoBajiH BKyc, npo- 

HHKaJlH C03HaHHe H OAHOBpeMeHHO 4>OpCHpOBajIH KOMnOSHXOp- 

cKyio xexHHKy. B cBaaw c sxhm naaaex uepKOBHwA h opaxopnajib- 
HbiflcxHJibHpacuBexaexKaMepHbiAaHcaM6jib, cojio no- 

JIH4>OHHHeCKHX HHCXpyMeHXOB XHna KJiaBeCHHa, KOXO- 

pbie OAHOBpcMeHHo cMJibHo c o B cp lue H c X B y K>x c B xex- 

HHnecKH, as 6ojiee KpynHwx uenxpax coBflaexca cBex- 

ckhA opKecxpoBwfl cxHJib. B Hanajie XVIII BeKa Kpwcxo- 

YcoBepmeHCTBo- *°P" H3o6pexaex (JiJopxennaHO cmojio- 

BaHHeKAaBHiHHHx TOMKaMH, Koxopoe. HocxeneHHo coBepmeH- 

HHCTpyMeaTOB. cxByacb, oxxecnaex KJiaBecHH c ero 

cfla6biM SByKOM, Hecnoco6HbiM k HioaHCHpoBKe. 

3to OKasbiBaex cymecxBCHHOe BJiHaKHe na cxHJib KOMno3HunH. 

CKOJibKO-HH6yAb KpynHbie MysbiKajibHue aBJienwa HeMMHyewo 

OKa3bIBaiOXCa CBaBaHHblMH C KpynnblMH CXOJIHHHblMH ucHxpawH, 

FAe MOJKex co3Aaxbca onepa, jih6o CHMc|)OHKHecKoe Mcnojine- 
HHe. npH HeM oienb mhofo 3aBHCHX npocxo ox cxeneaH Meue- 
HaxcxBa BJiHBxejibHbix jnoAeft b AaHHOM Mecxe, h6o b Hxore 
HHKaKaa KOHuepxHaa h MyBWKajibnaa Aeaxejib- 
Hocxb, KpoMe onepw, He onynajiacb HBceioxaMcecxbio 
jio»cHJiacb Ha MCueHaxa. B xeneHwe axoro BpeMeHH nojiynaiox 

McTopna MysfaiicH. 9 



'iM^ 



iMi^ 



'^it^^i<^:^-^vj' 



.■>y^v;V"- '^••■Ai'^f^-*- 



Bupa6oTKa 

COHaTM. 



— 130 — 

OTTOro npcHMymecTBeHHoe pasBHTwe MHCTO-HHCTpyMeHfaJib- 
Hbie <|)opMbi. noJiynaiomHe nocreneHHO Bce 6o;iee cjioJKHyio 
CTpyKTypy. npouecc ynpoweHHJi rapMOHUMecKoro MarepHajia 

H CBeAeHHH Ha hbt nOJIn430HHH KOMneHCHpyeTCH pasBH- 
THCM CTpyKTypW 4)0pM. nOCJieflHHC yBeJlHMHBaiOTCH 
B o6'eMe. nOJIBJIHlOTCH CJ10>KHbie (JjOpmbl C HeCKOJlbKHMH xeMaMH, 

HAymne Ha cMeny npocrofl neceHHOCTH nep- 

BblX COHaX H CK)HT H Ha CMeHy MMHXaUHOHHblM 

4)opMaM noJiH(J50HH3Ma. K cepcAHHe XVIII BCKa 
CKiiaabiBaercfl conaTHaj. ^opna, Bbipa6oTaBUiaflcfl nyrew 
conocTaBJieHHfl KOHTpacrnpyromvix anHSOAOB 
KaK BHyrpHMacTM (cxpoeHHe conaTHoro allegro), raK h b coem- 
HCHHH Me>Kfly co6oft MacTeft (4)opMa coHaTw: allegro-adagio- 
menuetto— finale-rondo, r^e HepeflyioTca h TeMnw. h Hacrpoe- 

HHH OT CepbeSHblX AO TaHUOBaJIbHblx). npHHUHn rOM04)OHH- 

MecKoft MHOroreMHOCTH OKasbiBaeTCH cnoco6HbiM cnaaxb bo- 
eftMHO OHCHb fljiHTejibHbie MysbiKajibHbie opraHHSMw. raK mto 
xoxa 3Ta anoxa xapaKTepHayercJi npoflHKTOBaHHbiM cnpocoM 
BCKa HSMCJibHaHHeM coAepwaHHJi, TO 3aTO npo4)eccnoHaJibHoe 
MacrepcTBO b 9to BpeMH KOMneHcupyex sto HSMCJibsaHHe 
pacuiMpeHMCM H yTOHMeHHCM 4)opMbi. CoHaTHaa 
43opMa. cosHAaiomaacH ycHJiHHMH 0.-3. Baxa^), M.-X. Baxa -). 
B-O). Baxa^) (1710 1884). BoKKepHHH, rafiftHa 
(1732 — 1809) H MouapTa (1756 — 1791), ucjimkom nepe- 



1) 0.-3. B a X (1714—1788; cmh HoraHHa-Ce6acTHaHa, coaftaTCJib KJiac- 
cHiecKoro cTHnn MucTpyMeHTanbHofl MyswKH („npHJiTHoa" hhh .ranaHTHofl"), 
nanHcan orpoMiioe KonHHecxBO npoHSBeAeHHH (cBbiiue 20 nbec Ana (t)0?Te- 
nuaHO-) nHcaji h b oSnacTH uepKOBHoS MysbiKH (naccHOHbi, KaHTaibi, opaTo- 
pHHi HO xyT fro TBopiecTBO HMecT MCHee SHaMeHH!.. Ero ti^opTenHaHMbie 
coHHHeHHa (coHarbi, KOHuepTW, OTRcnbHbie nbecbi) cocTaBHJiH ero cnasy m 
AO c«x nop He noxepflJiH sHaMeHHa, a ero xpaKrax o <j,opTenHaHHOH nrpe 
B CBoe BpeMa 6bin KnaccHHecKHM y. HCMepnbmawmMM co^HHeHHeM newarorH- 
necKoro xapaKTcpa. ^ 

^) MoraHH-XpHCTHaH Bax (1735-1782) MnaAUiHa cbiH Ce6a- 

cTHana, WHn npeHMymecTBeHHO b AnrnHH, nanHcan MHoro onep HTanbaHCKoro 

. ™na npH icm b CBoe speMfl nonbSOBancsi HSBecTHOcrbio 6onbu:efl, Men kto Sw 

TO HH 6bII,0 H3 BaXOB. Oh CnOCoScTBOSan paSBHTHK) HHCTpyMeHTanbHOrO 

cbHaTHoro cTHna Ha paay c FaSAHOM h Mo«apTOM. 

«) B H n b r e Ji b M-O p H A e M a H B a X (1710-1884) - HaHfionee aapo- 
BHTbiii H3 cbiHOBBH Baxa, cro KOMno3HHHH OTHOCHTCsi npeHMyiuecTBeHHO K 
oSjiacTH c{)opTenHaHHoA MysbiKH, fionbuiaji <«CTb hx yxepaHa, HSAaHW nmuf 






lai — 



HOCHTCH 



H B KaMepHbifl aHcaM6;ib (KBapreTbi, xpHo. 

K^accOTecKHfi <=°"^™) « ^ OpKCCTpOByiO o6;iaCTb (cHM(f)0^ 

nepeofl. ^^^' cJ)opMa KOTOpofl ycTaHOBJieaa BnepBbie 

T04HO TaftAHOM; AO Hero 3THM HMeHCM Hasbi- 

BajiHCb caMbie pasjiHiHbie (j[)opMbi. BnjioTb ao opxecTpoBbix 
HHTepjiwAHft B onepax). O. 3. Bax cosHAaer cthjib msjio- 
weHHH a;ih 4>opTenHaHO. HannHaiomero KOHKypHposaTb 
c KjiasecHHOM H BbiTecHfliomero hs o6HxoAa MyawKH rpoMosA- 
khA opraH. Oh nepBbift, KaK HBoKKepHHH, HanHHaer tomho 
BbinHCbJBaTb (JjHrypaTHBHbie sjiCMeHTbi rapMOHHMecKoro conpo- 
BOHiAeHHH. cTaBuiHe y>Ke cymecTBCHHbiMH npH pasBHBuieMca 
pa3Hoo6pa3HH (j[)HrypagHft h ycjiowHCHHH rapMOHHiecKofl 

TKaHH, MTO CTOHT B CBSISH C noCTCneHHblM HCHeSHOBeHHeM 

npHCMa H MeroAa continuo, T.-e. oprana hjih KjiaBecHHa, 
nocTOHHHO noAAepwHsaiomero aHcaM6jib. • r , ■• i 

B CBJI3H C 3THM COSHAaHHCM (JjOpMOBblX TMHOB H3 HHCTpy- 

MeHTajibHofi MysbiKH HCMe3aeT cnjiouiHoft HMHTauwoH- 
Hbifl cTHjib, ocTaBaacb TOJibKo AJia OTAejibHwx momchtob- 
BKyc anoxH AHKTyeT npHHTHoe pa3Hoo6pa3He. cMeny nacTpoe- 

HHH, pHTMOB. He AOHyCKaBUiyiOCa npw MMHTaUHOHHOM CTHJie 
KyjIbTypy KOHTpaCTOB. H B CBa3H C 3THM BblABHraeT CTpoft- 
HOCTb TeKTOHHKH H aCHOCTb BOCnpHflTHH UCJIOft (JjOpMbl. pa3- 

Jio>KeHHofi Ha pHAbi aHajioroB h KOHTpacTOB. CxpeMjicHHe 
K TOHHOCTH H flCHocTH cTHfla H Bcc pacTymec pa3Hoo6pa3we 
B (i)HrypauHHx noHCMHory BbiTecnaeT CHCTeMy uH4)po- 
BaHHoro 6aca, 3aMeHaK)meroca ACTajibHO BbinncaHHbiMH 
rapMOHHHMH H (|)HrypauHaMH. 3Ta snoxa bo mhofom anajio- 
rwMHa anoxe npoacHeHHa nojiHc{)OHHHecKoro cxHjia npw Ilajie- 
CTpHHe H BbiSBana cxoahwmh HSMeHCHHaMH BKycoBbix rpynn 
(h TyT H TaM cMena KJiepnKajibHO-uepKOBHbix BKycoB na 4)eo- 
AajibHbve). 

FafiAH ^), KOTopbift rjiasHbiM o6pa30M 

raSflH. HBHJICa C03HAaTeJieM BCeX 3THX KpHCTaJIJlH30- 

BaHHblX H npOHCHCKHblX (j[)OpM, KOCHyjICa, KpOMe TOrO, H a UHO- 

HCMHorHe. Ero 6poASi4HA o6pa3 jkhbhh 6bin npHMHHofl Toro, mto TEopMecTBO ero 
He Aajio Tex pesyjibxaTOB, na KOTOpwe Morno 6bi paccwTbiEaTb no CEoeMy 
KanpnaccHHio h AaposaHHio. 

) Tafl^iH (1732— 1809), npojKHBUiHfl 6onbiiiyio nacTb ?kh3hh b Bene, ho 
nosemaBiuHa m AnrnHio, ocTasHn KonoccajibHoe KonHiecTEo npoHSBeAeHHfi, 
nepBbie h3 Koropwx npeABapaioT Mouapia no cthhio, ho b nocneAHHX oh 

^ 9* 






■MaaMiM 



— 132 — 

HaJibHO-HCMeuKoro neceHHoro poflHHKa. 3to npo- 
M3011IJI0 Towe He 6e3 caHKunH npHflBopHwx BKycoB, o6Hapy- 

JKHSaBlUHX BO BTOpoft nOJIOBMHC BBKa THry K HaUHOHajlH3My, 

HO H He 6es BOSfleflcTBUsi HenocpeflCTBeHHOft napoflHoft cth- 

XHH, WHBlUeft B BblUieflUieM H3 npOCTOrO BBaHHH KOMHOSM- 

Tope. CBeacecTb MyswKH TaftflHa, ero lOMop h pHTMHMecKaji 
noflBMMCHOCTb o6Hapy»:HBaK)T caMoe 6flH3KoepoACTBO 
c HauHonajibHO-HeMeuKHM (bbhckhm) xnnoM necen- 
H o c T H. a cawoe nposicHeHHe 4>opMbi h cthjih, AerpaaauHH hmh- 
TaUHOHHOCTH H nOJlHcfjOHMHeCKHX HarpoMOMCfleHnfi, HaKOHeu, 
o6ycJiOBHBmHfl JKHBOCXb (|)opMbi KyjibT KOHTpacTOB npH 6jih- 

JKaHUieM paCCMOTpeHHH OKa3bIBaK>TCH TOJKe pOflCTBeHHbIMM 

c HapoAHbiMM npneMaMH TBopnecTBa. PasBHTwe opwe- 
cTpa y TaftflHa b KOJiHMecTeeHHOM OTHomeHHn ne cxojib 3Ha- 
MHTeJibHO, — ropasflo BaMcnee to npoHCHeHwe CTHJia h to ncHoe 
MecTO, KOTopoe OH flaji KaacflOMy HHCTpyMenxy b aHcaM6jie. 
3to oSycJioBJieHo tbm, mto cBeTCKHfl kojiopht hobo^ 
opKCCxpoBoft My3biKH, pa3BHBaK)meflcJi KaK 6bi H3 KaMep- 
Hoft CTMXHH nyxeM nocTeneHHoro ywHOweHHa aHcaM6ji«, 
yHHHTOJKacT o6jiHraTHyK) napTHK) noA«epM«M- 
Baiomero oprana (continuo), HenyjKHyio KaK b Bwy 
6ojibUiefl cosHaTejibHOCTH ancaMdnHCTOB, TaK h HeyAo6HyH3, 
; m6o uepKOBHbifl MHCTpyMCHT, opraH, ne 6biJi pacnpocTpaneH 
B MacTHbix AOMax, me sapoflHJica opKecxpoBbifl cTHJib chm- 
4)OHHn. 3to yHHHTO»«eHHe BecbMa cnoco6cTBOBaflo npH3Ha- 
HHK) sHaHeHMJi OTAejibHbix HHCTpyMeHTOB, panee HHBejiHpo- 
BaBUiHxcn MoryHHM tohom oprana. PoJib raftfl.Ha — npo- 
flCHHiomaH cTHJib. flaace npHKOcnyBuiHCb k o6jiacTH 
opaTopHH („CoTBopeHHe MHpa", „BpeMeHa rofl.a"). oh 



ywe caM OTHacTH cneflyeT no cTonaM paHce ero CKOHMaBUierocn MouapTa h 
Aaace paHHero BeTxoseHa. Oh imcan npewMymecTBeHno HHCTpyMeHxanbHyw 
MysbiKy, B TOM MHcne CBWuie 120 cHM(})OHHft, 83 KBapTera, okojio 70 rpHo, 
33 4)opTenHaHHbie coHaxh! h mhofo MenKHx HHCTpyMCHTanbHbix nbec (b tom 
MHcne MHoro Bemeft snn 6apHT0HH0H BHonbi, na KOtopofl Mrpan ero noKpo- 
Btrrenb KHsab ScrepraaH). KpoMe Toro, hm HanHcaHW 24 onepu, He MMeiomHe 
cepbCBHoro sHaHeHHsi, h ase opaxopHH — „BpeMeHa rofla" h „CoTEopeHHe 
MHpa", KOTopwe OTHOCHTCH K jiyMiueMy B ero TBopiecTBe, a TaKJKe HecKOflbKo 
uepKOBHbix co>iHHeHHfi. Ero HeKOTopbie chm4)ohhh no cHx nop coxpanHnHCb 
B penepTyape (b oco6eHHO=TH „OKc<i)opflCKaH", Es-dur'naa ..Meflseflb", 
C-dur'Hasi h np.), a ero KBapxeTW flo chx nop nocTOHHHO HcnonHnwTcsi bkoh- 
uepTax B KaMCCTBe ocHOSHoro KBapTCTHoro penepxyapa. 



cyMCJi flaTb o6pa3eu HecpaBHCHHofl hchocth HSJioaceHHH h onarb- 

xaKH npHMepw HeocnopHMoro bjihhhhh HapoAHoft mbjiojihkm. 

MouapT^) fliBHJicH 6ojiee nopowfleHHCM 

MogapT. KyjibTypHbix BsrjiHAOB Ha MysbiKy h HMecT 

MeHbmee conpHKocHOBCHHe c Hapoanoft cth- 

xHeft. B cooxBexcxBHH c 3XHM oh 6ojiee HHxepHauHo- 

H a Ji e H. Oh He nyw^ hh BJiHHHMft HxajibHHCKWx onepnux aaxo- 

poB, HH nojiH(|)OHHH FeHftejifl. Oh snanHxejibHo ycjiojKHsiex 

cnoco6 My3biKajibHoro HSJioacenHfl, aonycKaa CBo6o;ty rapMO- 

HHft, CMejiocxb nocjieaoBaHnS, ho ero ycjio»«HeHHe BcerAa 

Hflex no JIHHHH yxOHHCHHa. Oh JtOBOflHX MeJIOAHH) flO 

orpoMHoft BbipasHxejibHocxH, ocxaBnna ee b co3jiaHHoft Faflfl- 
HOM c4)epe pHXMH4ecKofl neceHHOcxH, a cxHjib — ao orpoM- 
Hofl H3biCKaHHocTn. UeHxpajibHafl ero pa6oxa — b onepe, 
rfle OH cHana^a cjie^yex HxajibancKHM odpasuaM, saxeM o6Ha- 
pyacHBaex neKoxopyio nyxKOcxb k hachm fjiyKa. Ho fljia 
Mouapxa Boo6me xapaKxepHo oxcyxcxBHe H^eojiorH- 
HecKHx npeflnocbijioK xBopnecxBa — oho npH npe- 



^IMouapx (1756— 1791) poflHacfl b 3ajibu6ypre, npowHn gonbuiyio 
MacTb HtH3HH B BcHe, OMeHb paHO BHKaaaji MyswKanbHbie cnocofiHocxH (yase 
Mexbipex nex, a nepsbie ero KOMnoBHUHH oxKocaxca k 6-neTHeMy Boapaciy), 
BbiflBHHyncH, KaK nnaHHcx-BHpxyoa h ksk KOMnoanxop, cHanana npeHMyme- 
cxBCHHO B ccjiepe onepw. TBopMecxBo Mouapxa Hocnno oneHb paanocxopoH- 
HHfl xapaKxep, hm HanHcaHbi 19 cueHHiecKHx npoHSBeflCHMfl (EOAeBHJiefi h 
onep, 3HaHHxenbHeflmHe h3 Koxopwx: „Xl,OH-^yaH", „Bonuie6HaH 4)neftxa" 
H „CBaAb6a Onrapo"; Bce HanncaHbi b Konue ero KpaxKoft mhshh). Meuee 
3HaMeHHa hmciox ero paHHHe onepw, cpeflH Koxopbix sbiflaioxca „noxHiueHHe 
H3 Cepana" h nHflOMeHefl". Jl,anee oh nanHcan MHoro uepKosHbix comhhc- 
HHfi, KOTOpbie, oahbko, He xapaKxepHbi b ero xBopMecxBe h Hocax o6biHHo 
3aKa3Hofl xapaKxep. SHaMHTenbHO gonbiuee SHaMCHHe npHHafljiewMx ero chm- 
(})0HHaM (Bcero 49), h3 Koxopbix xpH nooneflHHe (C-dur, Es-dm-, G-moll) 
no CHX nop MacTO HcnonHaraxca, a CHMtJjOHHa C („K)nHxep") no mhophm 
sneMeHxaM (j)aKxypbr npcflBapaex BexxoBena b ero CHMtjjoHHHecKOM cxhjtc. 
Bojibmoe snaneHHe HMeex KaMepnaa My3biKa Mouapxa (7 cxpynnbix kbhhxc- 
TOB, H3 KOTopbix HaHfioMce SHaMCHHx HCKnwHHxenbHbiH no Kpacoxe MenoflHH 
O-moU-HbiH, 26 KBapxexoB, b xom MHcne H3BecxHbifl C-dur'Hbift, saMCMaxenbHbiH 
no HBbicKaHHOcxH rapMOHHft BCxynjieHHa, pan komhoshuhh ana KEapxexa h 
^opxenHaHO , CKpHnn^Hbie h (jjopxenHaHHwe KOHuepxw, MHOrne h3 Koxopbix 
noHWHe yKpamarox penepxyap ((})opxenHaHHbia KOHuepx D), 17 (JjopxenHaH- 
Hbix coHax, MHoro BapnauHH una sxoro HHCxpyMCHxa, MenKHe bciuh, npoHs- 
BeacHHa fljia (JjopxenHaHo b Meibipe pyKn). Oco5HaKOM cioht ero snaMCHH- 
xeflmee coMHHeHHe „PeKBHeM'', KoxopuM oh ne ycnen saKOHMHTb h KOXopbiR 
OKOHMCH ero yvenHKOM SioccMafiepoM. 



134 



flenbHOM, BHpTyosHOM MacxepcTBe MAeajibHO HansHO h 
HcnocpeACTBeHHO. Oh bboaht b onepy xapaKxepM- 

CTHKy fleSCTByiOmMX JIHU SByKaMH. TCMnaMH H pHT- 
MaMH, HTO HBJIHeTCH peaJIbHblM paSBHTHCM HACK xyfloacecTBCH- 

Hoft npaBAbi Bonepe, AeTajiHsauHefii aKcnpeccHH. Ero onepHuA 
cTHJib cHanajia BpamaercH b HHCTO-nTajibHHCKofl c4)epe, aareM 
OH nepexoflHT k cMeuiaHHOwy Twny HeMeuKO-HTajibHHCKoft onepbi, 
TO npH6flHMcaHcb K THny Singspiera COoxHiueHHe hs Cepann", 
„XI.HpeKTOp Tearpa"). to k HTajibHHCKoft opera-seria („Mflo- 
Meneft", „MHJiocepflHe TuTa"). to k opera-buffa („CBaflb6a 
OHrapo", „II,OH-?KyaH"). FIpH oTcyTCTBHM pyKOBoaamHx BHeui- 
HHx HfleS TBopnecTBo Mouapxa opHCHTHpoBaJiocb rjiasHbiM 
o6pa30M Ha Ko;ie6jiiomyK)CH cthxhkj cnpoca h saKasoB, 
OH pa6oTaji ajih pasHbix cuch h pasHbix BKycoB, hcm o6'hc- 
HfliOTCH H pa3HOo6pa3ne cTH;iefl h HSBecTHaa 6ecnpHHUHn- 
HOCTb HanpaBfleHMft. FIocjieflHHe roAbi Ha TBopnecTBO MouapTa 
HaMHHawT HaKJiaflbiBaxbCH HecoMHCHHbie bjihhhhsi aapo- 
H«aaiomerocJi poMaHTvisMa, noKa eme TOJibKo Kan 
jiHTepaTypHoro TenenHH. 3tot poManTHSM sapowAaeTCSi, kbk 
HjieojiorHHecKHfi oT3ByKpa3JiaraK)m,eroca4)eoAajiH3Ma. Bcjimkhc 

POMBHTHKH 4)HJIOCO(|)HH, flHTCpaTypbl, nOHBJIJIlOmHeCH B 3TO MCC 

epcMH (UlHJiJiep. lUejiJiHHr h ^pyrHe), cjiywaT KaK 6bi ^JOKy- 
caMH Toro p6mero yKjiona, KOTopwA npoHBJineTCH b 3to BpeMji 
B TaK nasbiBacMOM „o6pa30BaHHOM" Kpyre, T.-e. b cpeae 
(J)eoAajibHoro jiBopaHCTBa h 6ypM«ya3HH. HaMHnaiomefi cosna- 
BaTb CBoe nojiHTHHecKoe 3HaHeHHe. BnnMaTejibKbift bspjisa 

MOWeT npOCJieflHTb SJieMCHTbl pOMaHTH3Ma H 4)aHTaCTHKH 

name b (|jaKType My3biKH MouapTa; bo bcsikom cjiynae aocto- 

BCpHO OAHO.— HTO B o6jiaCTH CKJMCeTa BJlHHHHe pOMaHTHSMa. 
OHCBHAHO („JI,OH-^yaH" C XapaKTepHblMH pOMaHTHHeCKHMH 

flexajiflMH M MHCTHMecKH-MacoHeKaa „BoJiuie6HaH <J);ieflTa"), 
H AJifl BOcnpHHHMawmeft Maccbi TBopnecTBO MouiapTa npe;i- 

CTaBflHflOCb B TO BpCMJI OnpCAeJICHHO OKpaUieHHblM 
B pOMaHTHHCCKHe TOHa, O MeM CBHfleTCJIbCTByiOT MHe- 

HHfl 6Horpa4)OB ero (O. Slna. yjibi6biiiieBa) h coBpemeH- 
HHKOB. Ho Aa»ce h b caMoS MyawKe no3AHero MouapTa (,,Boji- 
me6HaH 4);iefiTa", (j[)aHTa3Hfl C-moU h Ap.) mw, HecoMHCHHO. 
HaTajiKHBaeMCfl na 3M6pHOHbi tcx ajieMeHTOB, KOTopue coBAajiH 
BnocjieACTBHH 4)aKTypy „poMaHTHHecKoft" uikojim — xpoMa- 

TH3M, KyJlbT Heo6bI4HOCTH, H0BH3HbI rapMOHHfi, JKejiaHHC 



^i^viH-- 



— i;35 



co3AaTb HeBeflOMwe npeMcae 3ByMaHHH. B stom othouichhh 
Mouapx HBJiHCTcfl cKopee ocHOBaTeneM Hoeoro MHpocoBep- 
uaHHa B SByKax (b nocjieanefl 4>a3e CBoero pa3BHTHJi), mcm 
3aBepiiiHTeJieM KJiaccHnecKoro cthjih, KaKHM ero o6biHHO npw- 

HSTTO -CHHTaTb. 

B o6jiaCTH KaMepHOR H <:HM(J)OHHHeCKOft HHCTpyMeHTaJIb- 

Hoa MyawKH OH HABT HO CTonaM FaftflHa, ho bhocht cioAa 
Te M<e ajieMBHTbi HSwcKaHHocTH H yTOHHeHHH, KaKMMH ero 
cTMflb OTMewcBaflCH OT CTHJI9 onepbi ero npeamecTBeHHHKOB. 
B CBOHX KBapreTax, (JjopTenHannbix conaTax m chm(|)ohh$!x oh 
eiue AejiaeT mar k pacuiHpeHHio 4)opMbi h k Hcnojibso- 
BaHHio HHCTpyMCHTajibHbix pecypcoB (4)opTenHaHHO-BHpTy03- 
naa TexHHKa, 3ByHHocTb opKecTpa h np.), k hhahbm- 
AyajiHsauHH: HHCTpyMCHTa B TBopnecTBe. A6cTpaKTHbift 
BsrjiHA npe»cHeii[ anoxn na opKecxp, nan na cJiHTHyro SByn- 

HOCTb, H Ha KJiaBHUIHblS HHCTpyMeHT, KaK npOCTO Ha MBTOA 

HSBJieMeuHH noJiH(i)OHHHecKHx coMeTaHHfl, ycTynaeT MecTO 
Kyflbxy 3ByKa, co3HaHHK> MarHH KOJiopHTa. SaBepuiHxe- 
;ieM CTHJIH npeftbiAyutHx anox MouapT siBJiJieTcsi 6e3ycjioBHO 
JiHUib B o6jiacTH onepbi, rae oh CHHTe3HpoBaji MysbiKajibno- 
ApaMaTHHecKwe sfleMeHTw HeanojinTancKoft uikojiu, Sing- 
spiel'H, opera-buffa h rjiyKOBCKoS TpariiMecKOH onepw. Hoa 
ero BJinnuHeM OMyxHJicH noA Koneu mchshh m FafiAH, aawM- 
CTBOBaBuinA y Hero uiHpHHy pa3pa6oTKH h MeJiOAHHCCKyK) 

rH6KOCTb B CBOMX UOCJieAHMX KOMn03HUHHX. 

HoBan KOHCTpyKUHH 4>opTenHaHO cosAajia HOBbift thu tbx- 
HHKH, B KOTopoft ywe yTpaMCHa 6biAa npe»<Hasi pesKocTb 

CMBH OTTeHKOB, o6yCAOBJieHHbIX Majioft Cn0C06H0CTbK) HHjaH- 
CHpOBKH. HoBbie HHCTpyMCHTbl OKaSblBaiOTCH CnOCo6HbIMH 

K TOHKoft 3KcnpeccnH (ycoBepmcHCTBOBaHHe BpoAByAa), 
H 3TO cHJibHO BbiABHraex BnepeA 4)opTenHaHO, KaK bahh- 

CTBeHHblfl nOJIH(})OHHHeCKHft SKCnpCCCHBHblft HHCTpyMCHT. 

MouapT eiue AaAeKo ne McnojibsoBaA pecypcw ero, yBJie- 
MeHHbifii 6ojiee onepofl h cHMc})OHHeft. 3Ta pojib Bbina^a K a e- 

MeuTH (1752 — 1832), 3aMeHaTeAbHOMy kom- 
KAexenTH. no3MTopy, noAo6HO MouapTy, OTMeneHHOMy 

nenaTbH) poMauTHHecKHx bsfjisiaob na MyawKy. 
Oh bboaht psiA HOBbix npHenoB (uinpoKHe aKKopAW, KpaflHwe 
HOTbi 3ByKop$iAa, ABTajiHaoBaHHwe (JjurypauHw), Koxopwe 
HMCJOT sHaneHHe, KaK npeABapsiKJiuwe nocJieAytoiUHft 



— 136 — 

cTHJib BexxoBCHa, H Ha caMyK) MyawKy Koxoporo 
TajiaHT KjieMCHTH He ocxajicH 6e3 BJiMSHHst. Oh ocxa- 
BHfl orpoMHyK) no SHaneHHio luKOJiy nepnoKjiaccHbix nwa- 
hhctob (KpaMcp, Ohjiba, Mouienec, KanbK6peHHep h jip.) 
H B cymnocTH onpeAejiHJi HanpaBJieHHe cJjoprenHaHHoft My- 

SblKH B XIX BCKe. 

Snoxa KJiaccHHH3Ma, o6ycjiOB;ieHHasi nepexoflOM MysbiKa^b- 

HsMeHeHHe cocra- """^ UCHTpOB nOTpe6;ieHHH H3 uepKOBHbiX C(|)ep 

Ba noTpe6HTeAa H H3 KpynHO-(|)eoAaJibHbix ABopuoB B 6oJiee 

Ha pyCesae XIX b. MeJlKHe H COOTBeTCTBCHHO TOMy H3BeCTHblM 

H3MeflbMaHHeM caMoro CTHnaKOMnosHUHH, conpo- 
BO»«flaeTCH npocaMntBaHHCM h noTpe6nTejiH eine 6ojiee aeMo- 
KpaTHMecKoro, noTpe6HTe;isi H3MaccoBoro ropoMcaHM- 
H a, KOTopwA Ao Tex nop He npHHHMaji ynacTHa b MysbiKajibHoft 

}KH3HH, $IBJISI»Cb JIHUIb npHXOMOHHHOM B UepKBH H COOTBeT- 
CTBCHHO 3TOMy nOTpeSHTeJICM TOJIbKO UepKOBHOft MySblKH. Mh- 

Tepec K MysbiKc, o6'HBmHft c^epu KpennymeA ToproBoft 6yp- 
}Kya3HH, o6ycJiOBHBiiiHA ysce b anoxy PenecaHca cabhp 

BKyCOBblX UCHTpOB HS nOJIM4>OHHH H UepKOBHOCTH B o6aaCTb 

roModjJOHHH H onepbi, HaMHHaeT oxBaTbiBaTb eme 6oflee 
uiHpoKHe cjiOM MejiKofi dypwyasHH ropo^a. Kpynnaa 6yp}Kya- 
3HH H MejiKHM (|)eoAaa flajiw, Kan Tun CBoero noTpe6jieHHH, 
KaMepnyKJ wysbiKy h opKecTpoByio chm4)ohhk), KOTopwe no 
caMoK 4>opMe CBoero sonjiomenHJi 6biJiH npHcnoco6neHbi k 
HcnojiHeHHHM B cpaBHHTejibHO saMKHyTbix HHTHMHbix Kpyrax. 
Onepa, KOTopaa ^ajia nepsbifl tojihok MHTepecy k MyawKe 
B 6ojiee jieMOKpaTHHecKHX c^oax, nepsaa coaaaeT h uim- 
poKyro ayflHTopHK), h6o b nePi BnepBwe mh HMeeM flejio 
ywe c HacToameft KOMMep4ecKofl nocTanoBKofl My- 
3biKaabHoro fl,ejia b pacneTC na MaccoBoro noTpe6H- 
TCJiH. UepKOBb JKHJia BKycaMH CBOMx npnxoH<aH H KJiMpa — 
cneuHajiHCTOB; KaMepnu^ CTHJib, cosflaHHbift BoapowAeHHeM, 

TKVin HHTHMHblMH KpyJKKaMH aCTeTHMCCKH paSBHTblX JIlOfteA. 

Onepa me cTpoH^acb, KaK nacToaiuee ToproBoe npeAnpwaTHe^ 
B pacMCTe Ha ycnex cpeflH lunpoKOH waccw ropoHcan. Ona 

BbI3bIBaeT K »CM3HH UITaTbl pafiOTHHKOB npO{})eCCHOHaJIOB- 

opKecTpaHTOB H 6ojiee KBa:»i(j[}viu,HpoBaHHbix apTHCTOB h Ka- 
neJibMeftcTcpoB (KOHuepTMeHCTepoe). SaHHTepecoBawHbie b 
nocTanoBKe cneu,HajiHCTOB npo4)eccHOHa;ioB AJia HywA onep- 
Horo flejia, npaBHTCjibCTBa pa3Hbix crpan HaHHHaroT OTKpbi- 



T 



137 



M 



w 



■:~v>-- 



noflBACBHe Macco ^^"^^ My3biKajibHO-npocBeTHTejibHbie h yHe6Hbie 
Bo» ayAHTopHH H saBeneHHa (KOHcepBaTopHH, aKaji;eMHM)r 

npo^iecGBORaAb- TaKHMH 6biJiH OTKpbiTaa B FlapHMcc B 1794 ro- 
Hbix niKOA HCKy- ay „KopojieBCKaa uiKOJia nenwa h ACKJiaMauHH" 

cTapaoro rana. y^ oTKpbiTaa B 1790 r. B BepjiHHC ..AKafteMHa 
neHHa". KycTapHbiA cnoco6 nocTaHOBKH cneuHajiHCTOB AJin 
HyacA MysbiKH npHc6peTaeT b cbhsh c sthm 6ojiee opraHH30- 
BaHHbiA, KaK 6bi (|)a6pH4Hbift xapaKTep. PocKOuib coAepwaHHa 

XOpOB H OpKCCTpOB, Heo6xOflHMbIX fl,Jia npOAyUHpOBaHMfl My- 
SblKH, BblXOHfllUeft 3a npCACJIbl HHTHMHO-KaMepHOrO CTHJIH, MOrjIH 

nosBOJiHTb ce6e TOJibKO 6oraTbie KHasba-ijjeoAajibi, npw abo- 

paX KOTOpblX M KOHUCHTpHpOBaJiaCb MysbiKa CHMC|)OHHHeCKaa. 

OosTOMy poKAaromHflca Ha HOBbie thhw wysbiKH cnpoc b 
iiiHpoKHX cjioax AOJiMcen 6biJi HeMMHyewo o6paTHTbca k o n e p- 
HbiM npeAnpHaTHaM, KaK eAHHCTBennbiM, KOTopwe mofjih 

COAepMOTb OpKeCTp, COJIHCTOB H npOAyU^pOBaTb CHM^JOHHHe- 

cKyH) MysbiKy, kbk noAco6Hoe npH npoAyKUHH onepbi npon3- 

BOACTBO. M Mbl, AeftCTBKTCJlbHO, BHAHM, MTO HMCHHO BOKpyr 

onepHbix TeaTpoB saposcAaiOTca nepsbie lUHpoKO-ny- 
6jiHMHbie cHM4)0HHMecKHe H KOHuepTHbie Boo6ii;e ueHTpw, 
paccHHTaHHbie cbocm npoAyKuaefl Ha o6myK) Maccy MHTeaJiH- 
reHTHbix ropoMcan. 3Ta wacca HaMHHaeT 4>opMHpoBaTbca b 
KOHue XVII H B XVIII BeKax, cocTasjiaa rAaBHoro noTpeCnTeJia 

OnepHOVl CHM4)OHHMeCKOfl MySblKH. PaspOSHeHHbie JIK)6HTeJIH 

H (^opMa „Kpy>KKOBmHHbi" c opraHH3au,Heft H3HyTpH ycTynawT 
MecTO MaccoBOMy co6HpaHHK> ny6jiHKH Hsene nyTeM Mbefl- 
TO BHeuineft HHHUHaTUBbi. 3to Bnojine cooTBeTCTByeT nepe- 
xoAy c KycTapHbix (j[)opM npoHSBOACTBa na npoMbiuiJieHHwe, 
xapaKTepHOMy AJia XVIII BeKa h b ApyrHX o6AacTflx hchshm. 
B AnrjiMH, pac Toprosaa h ropoACKaa jKH3Hb pasBH^acb panee 
H FAe npoMbiuiJieHHaa HHAycTpna OKpenjia eme k XVH BeKy, 

Mb! COOTBeTCTBCHHO TOMy BMAHM SapO^KACHHC ^^OP^ "V" 
6jlHHHOfl KOHUCpTHOfi JKH3HH BHaMHTCJIbHO B 6ojiee paHHCC 

cpoKH. TaM eme b kohuc XVII BCKa 6biAH oJiaTHwe KonuepTW 

B ny6AHMHbIX MCCTaX, paCCHHTaHHbIC Ha MySblKaJIbHyK) 

opraHHsauHK) cSbiTa. Ha kohthhchtc ny6j(M4Haa MysbiKajib- 
Haa }KM3Hb saKJiaAbiBacTca TOJibKO K KOHuy XVIII BCKa (koh- 
UcpTbi FcBaHAxaysa b BepjiHHc b 1798 r., KonuepTW b Bene 
B 1782 r., KOHucpTbi FocccKa b TlapHMce b 1770 r.). 



138 



139 — 



3to HOBoe HBJieHne He Morjio He noBm/iarb 

HsBfleHGHHe TBna ^ 

Ha KaHCCTBO THna noTpeojienHJi MvsbiKH h na 
caMbie pecypcbi ee. C oahoh cxopoHbi, HOBa» 
nydjinKa BHOCHJia, HecoMHenHO, HOBwe BKycbi, ne coBnaAaBUiMe 
c BKycaMH npasflHHMHOfl abopuoboA TOflnw npw MeuenaTCKHX 
4)eoflajibHbix ueHxpax, b Koxopbix aTHKcr ABopa h TpaflHUHH 
6jiaroBocnHTaHHoro Bwyca AHKTOBajiH cxporHe KanoHUHecKHe 
paMKH HacTpoeHHft H 4)opM. HoBafl ny6jiHKa hs pasHOHHHucB 
H HHTejiJiHreHTHoft MejiKO-6yp»;ya3HOH Maccbi 6biJia HOCHTCJib- 

HHUefi HACOJIOrHH OCBo6o>KfleHHfl, CBOftCTBeHHOfi Bbl- 

cxynaHJiueMy Ha nojiMXHiecKyio apeny xpexbCMy cocjiobhk). 
M B c4)epe BKyca axa yijieonorvia „ocBo6oa«fleHHJi" He Morjia 

HO BbipaSHXbCH B CXpeMJICHMH K yHHHXOJKeHHK) XOft XHnHHHOft 

AJiH MarHaxcKHx C(|)ep rcAOHHCxMHecKoA 3cxexnKH, Koxopan 
nopoa^flajia MysbiKy HapoMHXo npHrjiaTKCHHyK), 6oflB- 
uiyrocsi BbiGKasaxb xawBuiyiocH b Heft rfly6HHy h cnjiy 3mo- 
UHonajibHoro BOSAeficxBMH, MyswKy, sacxaBJieHHyio Maccofi 
MeJiKHX noApo6Hocxefl h acxexunecKHX npusHaKOS, hmcbiuhx 
6ojiee reAOHHCXH*iecKoe, neMcejiH sMOUHOHajibHoe sHaMeHne. 
HoaaH Hfleojioras! h HOBbift BKyc nanpaBJiajicH, HanpoxHB, ox 
4)opMbi M ee acxexHHecKoft npwJixHocxH k rjiydwHe mwcjih 
M HyBcxBa, ; BbicKasbiBaxb Koxopbie wysbiKa xenepb npHsna- 
Bajiacb cnoco6HOM h AOJiJKHoft. OaHOBpeMeHHO MaccoaaH npo- 
AyKuvia MysbiKH b bmac ny6jiHHHbix KOHu,epxoB, na Koxopbix 
co6HpajiHCb ywe ne coxhh, a xwchmh jironefi, BbiawBajia paa- 
BMXHe SByKOBbix pecypcoB. KaMepHwfl ancaMdjib h HHXMMHasi 

CHN(J)OHHH. npeAHaSHaMeHHElH AJIH 3By4aHHft B ABOpUOBblX 

aaaax, 6biJia ywe HeflOCxaxoMHO MOiUHa Jiaa BOSfleftcxBHH na 
xbicHMHyK) xojiny b 6oJibmoft KOHuepxHofi sajie. M mw bhahm 
Ha nepejiOMC XVIII BeKa onpeaejieHHoe cxpeMJieHne k ycw- 

JieHHK) SByKOBblX pecypCOB MySWKH, KyMHOMCeHHlO 
OpKCCXpOBblX COCXaBOB, K OSByMHCHMK) OXfl,eJlbHbIX MHCXpy- 
MCHXOB. 

OpannyacKaH peBOJiHJUHH HBHJiacb xcm 
BAHflHHe pcBOAio- cflBHroM, Koxopwft npoHSBCJiH B o6mecxBeHHoft 

gHH 178!> r. < r « 

>KH3HH BbiflBHHyBmMecH HOBbie rpynnbi. UrpoM- 
Hoe couHanbHoe noxpacenne, ncnbixaHHoe OpaHUHefl.oxAajiocb 
TTo Bceft Espone, h bcjih b caMofl OpanuHH BOSfleftcxBHe 

peBOJlK)UHH B CymHOCXH 6bIJIO nepBOe BpeMH XOJlbKO MHCXO- 

oTpHuaxenbHbiM H BbipaHcajiocb B npocxoft aajtepMCKe xeMna 






ncKyccxaa — hxo h noHHxno, xaK kbk OpanuHH 6bijia caMa 
onaroM co6bixnM, aacjiOHHBUiHx ajih nee Bce ocxajibHoe, — 
xo B ocxajibHOM Espone rjiaBHbiM o6pa30M noHyBCXBOBaacji 
HMCHHO HAeojiorHMecKHft cflBHr, npoH3Bea,eHHbift peBOjiMJUHefi, 
H 3XO oxpasMJiocb nbiuiHbiM pacuBexoM TBopnecxBa, Koxopoe 

HHCXHHKXHBHO yMJIO HOBbie CBo6oflHbie HyBCXBOBaHHH H BOnjIO" 

xHflo Hx B 3ByKOBoft ccjfjepe. . 

HoBbiM cjiyuiaxejib h3 HHxejiJiHreHuWH 
^T^^^op^^' " MeJiKoft 6yp?Kya3HH h noBbift XBopeu, ywe 
He CB^saHHbift HAeoJiorHMecKH c BKycoM Marna- 
xa-MeucHaxa, He saMeflJiHji npoHBHXbca. Ecjih ao pcBOJiioutHH 
MAeojiorHH xyAOM<HHKa-xBopua jiBJisiJiacb npHHusceHHofi, b cym- 
HocxH 6ecco3HaxejibHo pa6cKoio, KOMnosHxop HanBHo npocJia- 
Bxiflji cBoero 6naroAexejiH h cxapaJicn nncaxb My3biKy b ero BKyce, 
xoxst 6bi H yflOBJiexBopHBiuyK) xyAOM<ecxBeHHbiM xpe6oBa- 
HHHM — xBopnecxBO 6biJio pesyjibxaxoM CBoeo6pa3Horo kom- 
npoMHcca Meacfly xpedoBaHHSMH xyAowecxBCHHoro HHCxHHKxa 
H MescAy BKycoM noxpe6flHK)mero, xo nocjie peBOJiiouHH 
Mbi BHAHM npewAe Bcero npo6yMCAeHHe xyAoacHnnecKoft rop- 
AOCXH. XyAOMiHHK co3Haex ce6fl HecymHM b mhp HOBbie, 
B c e M HyMCHbie ueHHocxH. PoManxHMecKaH HAeoAorHw, bwabh- 
Hyxasi HOBbiM KJiaccoM, HarpaJKAaex xyAOM<HHKa opeoflOM 
xaHHcxBeHHoft MHccHH, OH AejiaexcR B npeAcxaBJieHHH cBoeM 
H B npeAcxaBJiCHHH Kpyra noxpe6HxeAeft ero xBopMecxsa 
JTHUOM oco6eHHbiM HO 3HaHeHHK). 3xo npeMiAe Bcero Bwsbi- 
Baex xo, HXO oh Menee cMMxaexca c ochobhwm aaKasHHKOM, 
Koxopwfi caM B cyuxHOcxH yjKe HanojioBHHy xepaex CBOe 
SHaHeHne. Taopeu yate HyscxByex, mxo oh pa6oxaex xenepb 
He AJi« MarHaxa, a una KaKoro-xo Kpyra, 6ojiee uiHpoKoro, 
8ojiee SHaMHxejibHoro, Kpyra He cBn3aHHoro xaK xecHO c flH4- 
HocxbK), He cxojib HHAMBHAyajiHSHpoBaHHOFo. 9xo n03B0flfleX 
«My Aaxb 6ojibuiyK) cBo6oAy JiHHHOMy oxhouichmk) k HCKyc- 
cxBy. 3TO nosBOJinex eity, KaK neKorAa uepKOBHOMy komoo- 
sHxopy npoxecxanxcKoro nepwoAa, saMKHyxbcJi BHyxpH CBoero 
TBopnecxBa h xBopwxb js.jia 6yAymero noxpe6HxejiH, 
HrHopHpyw Hacxojimero, o6pa3 Koxoporo jihuihjich hhahbm- 
AyaJibHoft OKpacKH h pacnjibiJica b noHsixHH uejtoro Kaacca. 

HoBblft XBOpeU H HOBblfl cJiyuiaxcjib 
PosKflOTire^9MOgiao- 3 CBOBM XeCHOM opraHHHecKOM KOHXaKXe 

yjKC cMOxpejiH na Mysbiny npewMyinecxBeHHO 



isaAHSiaa. 



140 



KaK Ha 3MOUMOHaJlbHOe HCKyCCTBO. OhBl AOJlMCHa 

6bijia npesKAe Bcero BbicKaaarb re HyBCTBa, KOTopbie Bbipw- 
BajiMCb Tenepb Ha CBo6ofly c KpyuieHHCM Mwpa (JjeoaajibHbix 

STHKCTOB. C flpyrOft CTOpOHbl, 3TH HyBCTBa, BblHOUieHHbie 

B HCflpax flpyroro, 6ojiee AeMOKpaTHnecKoro, Kflacca, hcmh- 
KyeMo flOJiMCHbi 6biJiM 6biTb MeHee yTOHMeHHbiMH, Menee 
„3CTeTHbiMH", ecJiH yroflHO 6ojiee rpy6oBaTbiMH h cootbct- 
CTBCHHO 6ojiee cHJibHWMH. YiKS FaflflH 6ecco3HaTejibHO npM- 
BHBaa apHCTOKpaTHMecKOMy Kpyry 6oflpbie h npocTwe napofl- 

Hbie MOTHBbI, HO HaCTOHlUHM BbipaSHTCJieM BKyca HOBOPO 

noTpedwTeJiH 6biJi poflUBUiHflcH b Bohhc, rojiJiaHAeu no npo- 
HCxowAeHHK), HO repMaHCu no Kyjibrype, JljoftBHr b a h- 
BeTxoBen^) (1 770—1 827), cbohm TBopnecTBOM OTBeTHBiuHfi 
Ha Bce sanpocbi hoboho noxpedHTejifl. 

ripewAe Bcero mw BwauM b hbm poMaHTHMCCKyio 
HAeojioTHio, xapaKTepnyK) AJifl MeJiKO-6yp»<ya3Hoft hhtcji- 

1) BeTxoBCH (1770—1827) po^Hncfl b BoHue, ynep b BeHe, r^e npo- 
?KHn 6ojibmyK3 nacTb whshh. Ero TEopMecTso 6Horpac()aMH pasflejinerca na rpM 
nepMOAa ine snonHe MOTHBHpoBaHHO, ho o6menpHH5iTO. riepBbiH nepHoa 
„no«paJKaTenbHbift" noA BnHaHHeM npeHMymecTseHHO raa«Ha, b sHaHHxenbHo 
MeHbuiefi Mcpe MouapTa: k sTOMy nepHOfly othochtch ero nepswe flse chm- 
(})OHHH, paHHHe 4)opTenHaHHbie coHaTw (b tom Hucne HaHfionee sHaMCHHTbie 
„naTeTHHecKaa" h „Quasi-faiitasi<a" op. 26, c noxopoHHbiM MapmeM op. 26), 
nepBbie cipynHbie KBapTCTw (op. 18), BOo6me npoHSBeAeHHH npH6nH3HTejibHO 
Ao 40 op. BTOpofl nepHOA nBiineTcsi eronHe caMOCTOHTenbHbiM (xoxa Hccne- 
AosaHHe oSHapyjKHBacT paA y«e inonHe caMoSbUHbix wepT h b nepEOM 
nepHOAe, pasHO h ocTaxKH BnHaHHft Aawe b nocneAHCM nepHOAe). K HCMy 
OTHOCHTca chm4)ohhh „repoHHecKaa" (3-a), 4-a, 5-a (HaMSonee nonynapHaa), 
„nacTopanbHaa" {6-a\ onepa „OHAejiHo", paA ysepTiop, b tom iHcne naa- 
donee SHaMCHHTbie ^KopHonaH" h „JIeoHopa" cnywamaa kbk ysepxiopa 
K onepe „cI)HAenno"), Mysbina k „3rM0HTy", abb ero HaH6onee SHaMeHHTwx 
tjjopTenHaHHbix icoHuepTa (4-h h 5-h) h reHHanbHwR CKpHnHHHwfl KOHuepT, 
cjjopTenHaHHwe conaTbi ao op. 90, b tom MHcne „ippassionatii"Ana (J)-n.H „Kpeflue- 
posa coHaxa" Ana CKpwnKH h (JjopxenHaHO. TpexHft nepviOA oxKOCHTca k tomv 
BpeMCHH, KOFAa BexxoBBH yase coBepmenHO noxepan cnyx; b 3to BpeMa ahs 
Hero xapaKxepKO MHCXHHecKoe HacxpoeHHe h cKnoHHOCXb k anHBHwaM apxaw- 
necKOH MysbiKH (Baxa, TeHAena h oxnacxH Jiame KOHxpanyHKXHCTOB npewHMx 
snox). K 3T0My nepnoAy oxHOcaxca 7-a, 8-a chmcjjohhh, 9-a CHM4)0HHfl 
c sopoM, CHHxaioiuaaca ero BenHMaHuiKM coHMHCHHeM, ..TopwecTseHHasi 
Mecca", KOTopyio oh caM cHHTan 3a CEoe caMoe BWAaiomeeca npoHaseAeHHe, 
nocJieAHHe KBapxexbi (HanwHaa c op. 95\ Koxopbie npcACxaBnaiOT EOoSwe 
ero nocneAHHe npoKsseAeHHa, ero nooneAHwe (JjopxenHaHHbie coHaxw. KpoMe 
xoro, OH HanHcan MHoro necen h MejiKHx ^jopxenHaHHwx seiueS, hs Koxopwx 
HaHfionbuiee SHaneHHe hmbiot BapnaiiMH Ana 4'opTenHaKO. . ^ 



jiHreauHH. BbiABHHyToft peBOjiiounefl. Xoth BerxoBena npwHHTO 
o6biHHO cMHxaTb „3aBepuiHTejieM" KJiaccHMecKoro nysbiKajib- 
Horo coaepuaHHSj, ho b cymnocTH sto He Bepno, h6o ero 
pasjiHHHe OT KJiaccMKOB no jiyxy h Aa»ce no (|)opMaM 6ojiee 
SHaMHxeflbHO, HejKCJm ero pasjiMMwe ot nosAHeflmefl poManTM- 
MecKoft uiKOJibi. Oh nepBbiA onpeAeaeHHo KyjibTHBHpyer crpacT- 
Hyto AHHaMHKy b MyawKe, KOTopofl ao rex nop BOBce He 6biJio 
TaM MecTa, h6o MonyMeHTaJibHaH KonuenuHsi h BwcoKHfl 3mouho- 

HaflbHblft CTpoft 6bIJIH CBOftCTBeHHbl TOJIbKO UCpKOBHOfi MySblKe, 

B KOTopoft cTpacTHocTb 6bijia opraHHiecKH HeyMecTHa, — 
TaM 6biJio uapcTBo cnoKOHHoft cosepuaTejibHOCTH, a b cbbt- 

CKOA MySblKe 6bIJ10 UapCTBO reAOHHCTHMeCKOft 3CTeTHKH. 

Ho HacjieACTBy ot uepKOBHoft snoxw nepeAaHHbift TsiJKeJibift 

H MaJlOnOBOpOTJIHBblfl pWTM paHee CMeHHflCfl TOJIbKO BHpTyOSHO- 
6paBypHbIM, HO He AHHaMHMeCKH-CTpeMHTeJIbHWM. BeTXOBeH 

nepBbift ocBo6ojKAaeT AHHaMHMecKyio h pHTMHHecKyio 
CTHXHio B MysbiKe OT ee BenoBbix okob h sthm coBepuiacT 
KOJioccaflSHbift uiar, KOTopbifl onpaBAbiBacT npHCBoennoe eMy 

MeCTO B HCTOpHM H KOTOpblfi o6'jICHHeT AJIH MHOrHX TCnepb 

HenocpeACTBeHHO ywe yTpanennoe to orpoMHoe BneMaTflCHHe, 
KOTopoe ero MysuKa, nojinaa necjibixaHHOft cH.nbi Bbipa»{eHH$i, 
npoHSBeJia na cOBpeMennHKOB. Oh bboaht HOBbie pecypcw — 
AHHaMHHecKHe SMOUHOHajibHbie aKueHTbi, HapacTaHHH, oh sane- 
HHeT rocnoACTBOBaBiuee panee nncbMO nocpeACTSOM Konxpa- 
cTHpyHJiuHx AHHaMH4ecKHx HHTeH (cMeHa i|)opTe — nuaHo) 
nHCbMOM, B KOTopoM Macca sByKOB npo6eraeT Bce HioaHCbi 

AHHaMHKH, HTO COOTBeTCTByeT 6oJiee JKHBOMy BOCnpHHTHlO 

3M0UHH. Oh coo6maeT phtmhkc cBo6oAy h sbipasHTejibHOCTb, 
ocBo6o^Aasi ee.OT n-nena b cxenax h BomeAuiHx b o6biKHb- 
BeHHe TpaAHUHOHHbix 4)opMyji. B TO Mce BpcMH He npHAaBan 

3TOft HOBOA nOABHMCHOCTH KOJIOpHTa BHpTy03H0H 6paBypbI. 

BeTXOBeH Boo6me cosHAaeT MysbiKy BbipasHxejib- 
Hyio, 3KcnpeccHBHyK) no npewMymecTBy. 
Ero nepBasi (^ynKUHH 6biJia b cyiUHOCTH OHHCTHTejibHoft: oh 
AOJi»ceH 6biJi ocBo6oAHTb MysbiKaJibHoe HHCbMO, npeAHasHa- 
HeHHoe OTHbine ywe ajih hhofo KJiacca, ot Bcex MejiKHx 
noApo6HocTefi: MysbiKajibHoro STHKCTa npouiJioro, KOTopbiM 
OHO sacTaBHJiocb Ha npoTHMceHHH XVIII BBKa. riosTOMy 
MysbiKa ero OKasbiBaexcsi b HeKOTopwx oxHoiueHHax 6oflee 
npocTOM, MBM, Hanp., MOuapTOBCKasi, AOCTHruiasi b CBoeM 



142 



1,43' — 



pofl,e npeAeJibHofl cxeneHH yTOHMeHHOcxH h aexajiHSHpo- 

BaHHOCTH. BerXOBCH, CXpeMHCb K BOflBOpeHHK) B MySblKC 
HyBCTB npOCTblX, rJiy60KHX H UIMPOKMX, nReMOKpaTHMeCKHx", 

BbiKHAbiBaex H3 MysbiKajibHoro jieKcuKona pflftbi 4'opMyJi 
KJiaccHUHSMa, npeHMymecTBCHHO xe, Koxopwe opraHnnecKH 
6bi^H cBHsaHbi c AyxoM npHABopHoro sxHKexa. B xo jkc bpcmh 
OH cxpewHxcH K ycHJicHHK) caMOH sByHHOCXH, peajibHoro flHHa- 
MH3Ma, ycHJiHsaH opKecxp, o6oramaH ero hobwmh HKCxpy- 
MeHxaMH. TexHHHecKHii nporpecc nomen HaBcxpeny sanpo- 
caM rcHHa BexxoBeHa h BKycy hoboR ny6jiHKH, cosjiaBaH 
6oflee ssyHHbie nHcxpyMenxbi; b axo speMa poacaaexca Haine 
coBpeMeHHoe ^JopxennaHO, c nojiHbiM SBynoM m 6ojibmnM 
o6'eMOM, yxe jimueHHoe xoS hhxmmhocxh, Koxopyio HMejiM 
cxapHHHbie KJiaBHKopAbi H nepBo6bixHbie (|)opxenHaHO, — 
HHCxpyMeHx, paccMHxaHHbift xoMce Ha SBynaHHe b dojtbuiHX 
aaaax una MHoroHHCJieHHbix cjiymaxejiefl. ynpomeHne MysbiKH, 
flOcxHrHyxoe BexxoBCHOM, h AeMOKpaxHsauHH ee, orpy6jieHHe 
BMecxe c ycHfleHneM o6ycjiOBJiHBaiomHX ee SMOUHfl 
c K36bixKOM KOMncHCHpyexcfl pasBHXHeM ee B flpyrax na- 
npaBfleHHHX, HeHcnoflbsoBaHHbix npewHefii MysbiKoft. Ynpo- 
maa rapMOHHK), BexxoseH AeJiaex ee 6ojiee BbipasHxejibHoft, 

AHHaMHHHOft H peSKOft. JlHlUafl MeJIOAHH) HSblCKaHHOCXH H npM- 

msaa efi jianHftapno-'cypoBbift oxxeHOK. — oh BKJiaflbiBaex 
B Hee rjiy6oKoe h cxpacxnoe nyBCXBO. Tox o6mHft BoeHHwfii 
KOJiopHx anoxH, Koxopwft sacxnr acHSHb BexxoBena, — apa 
HanojieoHOBCKHX boAh, Kor^a bca Espona 6biJia o6'axa noaca- 
poM 6hxb, — HajioMiHJi Ha MysbiKy BexxoBena xhh BOHHcxBeH- 
HOcxH, cypoBofl npocxoxbi vl repoHHHOCXH, OH >Ke sapasHJi 
ero MysbiKy Mapmeo6pa3HbiMH, pesKO oHepMeHHWMH pnxMaMvi. 
rjiy6oKoe cooxBexcxBHe ero pe(|)opMaxopcKHX njianoB h ero 
HosaxopcKHX HAeft HapojKAaiomeMyca BKycy HOBoro uinpo- 
Koro noxpe6Hxejia o6ycjiOBHjio ero 6bicxpoe cpaBHHxeJibHO 
H 6e3ycJiOBHoe npHsnaHHe kbk pas xeMH cJioaMH, KOxopwe 

BHOBb BblABHHyXbl Ha HCXOpHHeCKHfl TOpHSOHX, XOFAa KaK 

KpyrH npeacHHe, MejiKO-([|)eoAaJibHbie, noBHAHMOMy, AOJiro eme 
OGxaBajiHCb noA BJiacxbio CBoero npeacHero KJiaccunecKoro 
BKycoBoro xHna. npHsnaBaa Bexxosena sa AHKoro KOMnosH- 
xopa, HapyiuHBLuero 6jiaronpHcxoflHoe xeMCHHe HCKyccxBa. 
BoABopeHHe sByKOBOro AHHawHSMa h noJinoxw SBynaHuft 
6biJio xapaKxepHO AJia BexxoBeHa c nepBbix MowenxoB ero 



irt«"> 




nyxH, xaK tkc KaK » o6mvifi xparHMCCKHft h repoHMecKMft 
xapaKxep ero XBopnecxBa, npoAHKxoBaHHbifi b paBHoS Mepe 
ycjiOBHaMH snoxH h ero jimmhoA HHAHBHAyajibHocxbio, npn- 
uieAuiefica kbk pas no anoxe. flynaxb, hxo BexxoBCH peajibKO 
H cosHaxejibHO Bonjiomaji b wysbiKe habh cfjpaHuyscKoft peso- 
Jiiou,HH, dbijio 6bi HaHBHO H HeMOXHBHpoBaHHo: B HeM oxpa- 
3HJ1CH Boo6me xoH snoxH, coTKaHHbift cxojibKo ace H3 HAeii 
peBoarouHH. cKOJibKo H3 HanojieoHOBCKoro MH^HxapHSMa, 
KoxopoMy BexxoBen xo«e oxAaa Aanb noKfloneHHa, cKOJibKo 
H3 poManxHMecKHX npeAcxaBjieHHfi o cymHocxH nysbiKH, koxo- 
pbie HanajiH cBoe BOSAeficxBHe y«e b MysbiKe Mouapxa. 
TsopMecxBo BexxoBena oSwmho hcxophkh pasAejiaiox Ha 
xpH nepHOAa, h3 Koxopbix nepBbift — noApaacaxeflb- 
h bi fl, B ropoA—c a M o 6 bi X H b! fl, a xpexHft — pojKAen n o ji h bi m 
oxpemeHHeM ox MHpa. BwsBaHHbiM 6ojie3Hbio xyAOw- 
HHKa (ero rjiyxoxofi). Bepnee, noacajiyft, paccMaxpuBaxb abb 
raaBHMX nepHOAa y BexxoBena: nepHOA. KorAa oh 6bia eute 
Bo BflacxH KjiaccHHecKHx (j3opM H cQBepuiaji npouecc hx pas- 
pymeHHa. h nepnoA. KorAa oh yace paspyuiHa sxh ^jopMbi 
(naHHHaa npH6jiH3HxejibHO c 1802 r.). B cMbicjie pasBMXHR 
4> o p M BonjioiueHHa BexxoBen aBJiaexca b cymnocxH xhohh- 
HbiM roMO(|)OHHcxoM, He BHOJiHC ysepeHHo onepHpyto- 
lUHM c nojiH(|)OHHMecKoft o6;iacxbK), b Koxopoft OH nojiynaer 
TOJibKO SHaMHxejibHO no3AHee (ne 6e3 BJiwaHHa HsyienHa 
PeHAejia h Baxa, peneccaHC Koxopwx Hacxynnji b axy 
anoxy) no;iHoe MacxepcxBO, h b xo ace BpeMa xHnHHHWH 
HHcxpyMenxajiHcxoM, njioxo npHMHpaiomnMca c BOKajib- 
HoS o6jiacxbio. B axoM nocjieAneM cKasajiacb peaKuna 
npoxMB onepno-BOKajibHoro sacmiba npeacneA snoxH h b xo ace 
BpeMa axo 6bij]o npoAHKxosaHo MHcxo-xexHHHecKHMH coo6pa- 
aceHHaMH, h6o BonjiomeHHe npeAejibHoro AHnaMHSMa h cbo- 
6oAbi pHXMHKH, xapaKxepHoe AJia BexxoBena, Morjio c dojibuiuM 
yAo6cxBOM 6bixb peajiHSOBannbiM nMenno b HHcxpyMeHxajib- 
HoA c(|)epe, a ne b BOKaJibHoA, sacopennoA MHoacecxBOM xpa- 
AHUMM H BHpxyosHoA saKBacKOH HcnojiHHXcJieA. OxCHJAa H ero 
ecxecxBeHHoe npHcxpacxwe k 4'opxenHaHO, b KoxopoKOH 
Hameji rojioc cxhxhAhoA HHAHBHAyajibHocxH, BnepBbie nojiy- 
MaiomeA CBo6oAy BbipaacewHa cbohx Heo6y3AaHHbix nyBcxB, 
y K opKecxpy, B KoxopoM OH BHAeji njian AJia npoeKXHpo- 
BSHHa repoHKO-anHHecKHX HacxpoeHwA. Ero KawepHbie npo- 



Ji||g^g|^d|fe^ 



— 144 — 

H3BefleHH« noTOMy m6o npk6™«aK)Tc« k THny (J)opTenHaH- 
hukCtpmo. *opTenHaHHB,e KsapTe™). m;ih >Ke k THoy opKecTpa 
(cTpVHHbie KBapreTbi. y>Ke yrpaTHBiiiMe hhctwh raHAHO-MOuap 

TOBCKMft HHTOMHblfl CTH«b H CTaHOBSimHeCJI KaK 6bl HeAOpaS- 

BHBiiiHMHCH chm(|)OHH«mm). Bbicuice «e BbipaHceHHe ero Momn 
HacrynaeT b c*epe 4)opTenHaHHoft coHaxbi h b c*^P« "^J^ 
<|,ohhh; h -ryr. h ran oh cosAaex coBepmeHHO ho-"- ^^-^^J^^ 
Bon«outeHH«. CMM*oHHMecKa«-coHaTHas, c|,opMa y "^^-o Pf ^ 
uiHp«eTc« H cxaHOBHTC^ BonjiomeHHeM ^y^^'^^J'''"^^^^^""^^ 
MHSMa. Ka.K HeycxaHHoro ABH«eHH« Bnepe^. ^^ neceHHOCxb^ 
Koxopaa erne 6biJia cBoftcxBeHHa KJiaccHMecKon coHaxe h 
cm4)0HHH. Koxopas, B Hea no^B^acb. KaK »^<=^««"^ ^^ JJ' 
UOBa.bHoro npoHcxoHCAeHHH. y BexxoBena «--«-^fJ/^^;^: 
M OAHOBpeMeHHO 9xa 4)opMa no^ynaex y Hero Bbicmee Kyfto 
«cecxBeHHoepa3BHXHe.KaKBonJiomeHHe eAHHoro nopbiBa 

MenyBX-nepe^HxoK npeHCHefl cvouxbi-oH saMemaex capKa 
cxhLckhm cKepuo. nepBbift bboa« b MysHKy V-; - ™ 
HOBCKyK, MH.yK, myx.HBOcxb. a 3-yH>HacMemKy^Henp«H.xy^ 
B npLneM Kpyre MysbiKa^bHoro noxpe6Hxe.s. ne-e»«^'« 
AopMbi B coHaxe (awHCHO, poHAo) HcnesaKJx y "ero npe 
Bpama«cb on«xb-xaKH b A«HaMHHecKHe coHaxHoro xMna o6pa 
^LTru OAHOBpcMeHHO Ha™Haexc« cxpeM.eKKe K 3M u„^^^^ 
HaflbHoa cnaflHHOCXH Macxefl. Koxopan BbixpaBJiaex y coHaxbi 
Z:Z::cn..u c..xHOcx« H Koxopa. --/^"P-f-- 
iia«e B npflMoft cjihxhocxm Macxeft (nanp.. b 5-fl chm^ohhh 

vanaKXeOHO BBeftCHHe XeMaXMHCCKOM HO" 

xapaKxepnu i^dca „_„„„„ _^to cxohx b npHMoft cbhsh 

-rna TBODHSCKOrO npHJIOHCeHHH, 3TO Ciuni f 

c HreeTe«HHcxBa m cna«HHOcxH. - Bce npoK3Be;;eH«e 
o6"er«H«exc. o6mH0CXb>o xenaxMHecKoro naxepMa^a. Te 
^acxHAopMb,. Koxopbie aaK,x MaKcma.bHoe yK.OHeHHe ox 
neceHHOCTH h MaKCviMa^bHyu, cbo6ow m^ *aHxa3HM (paapa- 
6oxr KOAb" B coHaxax). no.yna^ox „aH6o.bmee pas- 

BHXH e OrpOMHOe KO^HCCXBO HOBHX XBOpMeCKHX B03MOHC- 

HOCxe^BC^epe AHHanuKH. phxm^kh. *opMbi. Koxopbie Bexxo- 
BLTnpH-ocbXBopMecKH npeo.o.eBaxb. e-ecxBeHHO o,k.o^ 
Ivum ero ox Kyjibxa cjiohchocxh rapMO^H. h b axofl c(J)epe 
SoBCH ocxL« npHMHXHBCH B 6o.bmeA cxe-H« Hen 
ero K^accMHecKMe npefluiecxBeHHHKH. He roBop« y«e o Baxe. 



- 145 — 

H KoxoDbr J '"^'" "°^"" c^yinaxe^ieM. Koxopbift Hapo;tH;,cH 

LnJe Zn ''^''°^™ '''"'""^ ^^'^''°^«"«' npoHcxoaHx Kpy- 
meHMe *eoAa;,bHofl reAOHHcxMHecKofi scxexHKH. ycxynaKJiueft 
Mecxo , , „ ,,p npe.cxaB.eH;ro7Hryc- 

<:TBe. 3to cKasbiBaexcsi y BexxoBena b xpaPHHecKofi 
KOHuenuHH 6o.bmHHcxBa ero npoH3Be;,eHHfi.'KoxopHe ne" 
CMoxpH Ha npeo6;,aflaHHe b ero MysHKe BHeuiHe-paAoc^oro 
Ma«<opa. npoH^KHyxbi Bcer^a 6o;;pocxbK>. ho HeTo^ 
Bece;iocxbio. Koxopofi 6jiHcxa;io HcnyccxBO KjiaccHKOB 
.ZVrT' ' "^f"""'' "^^-^ -^ ^°^^P^^ BexxoBeH pa";: 

4«eT C rafiflHOM J,H)60Bb K OCXpblM H rpy6oBaXb.M HaOOJlHMM 

MOXHBaM. KoxopbiMH Hacxo no.b3yexcs,/H 3XOT ^MOKpaxZ 
y«e He npHKpHTbift. Kaw y Tafl^^Ha. a Bno.He OTKpoBeHHB,ft 
eme CH.bHee no;iHepKHBaex npoMcxo;^«u,y„, cxaBKy Ha „oBrfl 
Kpyr My3b,Ka.bHoro noxpe6Mxe.H. Bb,pocLero ne h3 ^eoZ" 
«oft a h3 HapoflHoft cpe^b,. CxpeM^envfe k acxexHKe 
Be^HHecTBeHHoro. xapanxepnoe m^ hoboA apb- hLh! 
HyeMo sacxaBH^o o6paxMxb B3opbi BexxoBena k npom'biM 
spaM My3b,Ka.bHoro HCKyccxea. k anoxe npoxecraHxcKo^o 

BplMeHH t\ "°''""'""° 3a6blX MySMKaKXaMH KSTOMy 

BpeMeHH. He roBopn y«e o *eoflajibHb.x Kpyrax. 3xhm 
o6yc;iOB.eHo xo HB^ieHHe. hxo BexxoBen noM KOHeu CBoeft 
KH3HH. KOPAa o6mHfi xoH snoxH H MpaMHb,e HacxpoeHHrrn • 
Horo npoHcxo«.eHH«. Bb,3BaHHb,e ero r.yxoxofl. nZ"™ ero 

K MHCXHHeCKOMy MHpOC03epuaHHK>. 06pamaexCH K Ky.bXHBH^ 
pOBaHHK, BCBOeft My3b,Ke 6aXHHeCKHX nO.K*OHHHeCKHX JopM 

(ero 9.« cHM(f,oHHH, Mecca. noceAHne coHaxbi h KBapxL^) 
HepeAKO yB.eKa«cbxyx He xo.bKo MOHyMeHxa.bHocxbK> cx^^h. 
cxo^b HenoxoKero Ha K.accnwecKHft reA0HH3M. ho «aKe h 

™CXO.B„p.yo3Hb,MH KOMn03HropCKHMH 3a«aHHHM„ (6^^ 

?p 102 Tr °^- '''• ^*^''""P- ''' " ^ ^-'^^^•'"o^ <=OHaxe 

7'jf' " ''• '"'^^ '^""^e^Hpys, CBOft AHHaMH3M Mb.C;iH 

c Hy«Ab.MH eMy npe«cAe no;iH4>oHH.ecKHMH bo3mo«hocxhmh. 
HO M xyx ocxaBaacb. b npoxHBono;io>KHocxb Baxy. HHcxbiM 

JlHaTOHHKOM. HXO CXOHT R rROQw ^ ^^» IMCXbIM 

rxnTna r,o *^ ^°^ MSHanajibHofl npo- 

ZZ .T '"''' ''°''°''^" "^^"^ xapaKxepna A;rH Bexxo- 

leHHoTT"'"^''" HAeo^orHH AeMOKpaxHHecKoro K;,acca c ycH- 

JICHHOH, HO ynpomeHHOft nCHXHKOfi. 

B CBexe Aeaxe/ibHocxH BexxoBena nysbiKa cxano^HxcH 

HciVpHJEI tiJSUKB 

10 



J.^ 



J 



— 146 - 

B noflo«eHHe HCKyccTsa Bbicuieft aKcnpeccHBHOcra. KOTopoe 
crtoco6HO BonJiomaTb b SByKOBbix o6pa3ax caMbie OTBiieneH- 
Hbie H BbicoKHe noHflTHa h ao caMbix peaflbHbix. KaK Heco- 

MHeHHO npOHHKHyTblft pOMaHTHHeCKMMH BSPJISIAaMH. BeTXOBeH 
flBMJICfl CaM CTOPOHHHKOM MySblKH. HTO-fO BblCKaSbl- 

B a JO we a. 6yflb to HacTpoeHne KapTHH npHpoflbi (nacxo- 
pajibHaH chm*ohhh). :.h6o ;iHHHbie TparHMecKHe owymeHHH 
(coHara op. 27). j,h6o repoHMecKaa anoneH (3-fl h 7-si chm- 
Aohhm). m6o TpareAHH (5-h chm4)ohhh. ..KopHonaH", „9rM0HT ). 
m6o cTOJib cBHsaHHaa c peBOJiiouHOHHbiM MMpocosepuaHHCM 
wefl 6paTCTBa h cjiwnHHH Bcero HejioBenecTfea (9-ji chmc|)0- 
Hua) B 3TOM CMbicjie Mbi BHflHM TyT HC npocTofi nepexoft ot 

reflOHHCTMHeCKOft aCTCTHKH KJiaCCHUHSMa K HfleanHCTHMeCKOM 

scxeTHKe XIX BCKa, HO oflHOBpeMeHHoe yxBepacfleHHe coftep- 
waHHfl MysbiKajibHoro TBopnecTBa. KaK 6bi OTJiHHHoro or 
(bopMbi. x0T« eK> norjioweHHoro, h nepenoc uenrpa HHxepeca 
B 3TO coAepjKaHHe c caMHX sByKOB. B 3tom nyHKxe b jiesixejib- 
HOCTH BexxoBeHa 6e3 xpy^a mojkho npocjiewxb 3M6pHOHbi 
nosAHeftuiero poMaHXHMecKoroxeMeHHfl ..nporpaMMHoft MysbiKH . 
BexxoBeH nocxaBHJi *opMy coHaxbi h chm*ohhh Ha He^o- 
c»raeMyK> sbicoxy. B chm(})Ohhh oh npoflo^iacHfl nanaxyK) eme 
KiiaccHKaMH ;.HHHK> pasBHXHS, KO^iopHxa. xoxaxexHHHecKHe 
B03M0HCH0CXH BBKa xyx cxa^H MacxbK) Ha ny™^«''° ^^rrr 
(oTcyxcxBue xpoMaxHHecKHX xpy6 h Ba^xopn). B c^epe c})op- 
xenHaHO oh AeftcxBOBan ne 6e3 BflHaHH« cthjia KjieMCHXH. 
pacuiHpHB ero bosmojkhocth h coB^aB HacxosmyK) JiHxepa- 
Typy Am KOHuepxHoro ^opxenHano, npHMCM cawoe HB^eHHe 
ero cxh;ih b 6onbmeft Mepe o6yc;ioBJieHO bo3MO«hoct«mh 
HOBbix KOHcxpyKUMft HHCxpyMeHxoB. 3xox cxHiib yH<e BOBCe 

AHUieH HHXHMHOft KaMepHOCXH. CBOKcXBeHHOft K^aCCHKaM. OH 

paccHHxaH Ha CHflbnyK). apwyHJ sBynHocxb. Ha npefteabHbiM 
LnaMHSM. OwoBpeMeHHO BexxoBCH b cbobm nvim cosAaex 
H XHH HOBoro HcnoflHHxeaflAJiH 4>opxen«aHO.-HcnojiHH- 
rem ne MsamHoro. He HSbicKaHHoro, a Morynero. cxhxhmho- 
KHHaMHMHoro. npoHHKHyxoro apKHM xeMnepaMeHxoM, ao xoro 
BpeneHH HrpaBuiHM b HcnoJinenHH 4,opxenHaHHOM caMynj 
BxopoGxeneHHyH) pojib. Menee snaMHxejibHa pojib BexxoseHa 
K BOKanbHoa MysbiKe h b onepe. rAe oh. BnponeM. ocxaBHn 
naM«xHHK BBHAC ^OnAeflHo". Ero BOKaJiHBM ueneH JiHiiib, 
nocKOflbKy oh oxpaacaex ero chm^ohhsm (b ^OnAeJiHO . b mbc- 



— 147 - 



IIpoMeffiyToiBaH 
CTAfffttt noTpe6H- 

TCAH HySUKH B 
HSH. XIX B. 



BCH 



eme He yK;iaAbiBa;,HCb y "ero b paMKH xexHHHecKHx pecvpcoB 
caMoro opraHa. ^^-^n* pecypcoB 

BexxoBCH HBJinexcfl norpaHHHHoft cbHrypofi 
Me«Ay MysbiKoft XVII h XIX BeKOB. npH new 
nocjieAHflfl. npoHHKHyxaa HHAHBHAyajiHSMOM 

pOMaHXH3MOM H ApyPHMH nopOJKAeHHHMH HABO- 

JiorHH. BcnjibiBuieA nocjie peBojiiouHH 1789 r 
pasBHJiacb H3 HM sajioweHHMx H BnepBbie 
B o n ;i o m e H H bi X 3 a e M e H T o B. Ero KOMno3HxopcKa« pa6oTa 
ewjia paccHMxana Ha HHxe;ijiHreHXHbifl, AeMokpaxHHecKHft ho 
Ky:ibxypHo bwcokhS xHn noxpe6HTejiH. uieAuiHft Ha cMeHv 
(|)eoAajibHbMy KyjibxypnoMy Maraaxy. B cbhsh c xcm hto 
Bero BpeMHKpyrsTOTxojibKo hxo Hapo«Aa;icji 
nojiHoe npH3HaHHe ero MysbiKH Morjio HacxynHXb 
xojibKO no3AHee, hxo h npoH30in:io ynce. HpHMepHo. 
B 30-40-x roAax XIX BeKa. a ao xoro BpeMenn mh HMeeM 
npoMe>KyxoHHoe cocxosHHe, KorAa y«e 6biJi paspymen KPyr 
npewHHX noTpe6Hxejiefi. ho eme He ycxoHjica xHn hobopo 
Kpyra, cosHAacMbifl hs MejiKoft ropoACKofl dypwyasHH h HHxeji- 
JIH^eH^HH. Te cjioh nocacAHero. Koxopwe co3HAa;incb eme 
B npeAbiAymwe snoxw. 6bijiH BocnHxaHw eme b 6ojiee hphmh- 
xHBHbix KyabxypHbix paMKax, b hhcxo - MyswKajibHofl cdbepe 
Ohh eme He mofjih 6bixb nacxojibKo MysbmajibHo cosHaxeL- 

HblMH. MX06bI pa36HpaXbCH B MHCXOft HHCXpyMeHXaJIbHOA 

MysbiKe. oco6eHHo b cHMc|)OHHHecKofl. OHHflbHyjiH K onepe 
b Koxopoft OHH wienvi MysbiKy, KaK xojibKO noAcnopbe 
K X e K c X y H c n e K X a K Ji K). hxo 6bmo. KonenHo. jier^e ajih 
ycBoeHHH. HecoMHeHHo. mxo h b KOMnosHxopax-KJiaccHKax 
(Nouapxe. oxnacxH AajKe b caMOM Bexxo^eHe) HyBcxBO Majioft 
noHflTocxH B c*epe cHM(j[)OHH3Ma sacxaBjiHjio pa6oTaxb b o6jia- 
exH onepbi c BooAyuiesjieHHeM. nacxo sonpeKH CBoficxBaM 
AapoBaHHfl H cKflOHHOcxH. B oco6eHHocTH B xex cxpaHax • 
BKOxopbix o6cxoflxe;ibcxBa xaK h^h Hnane npensrcxBOBajiH 
C03HAaHHK> cnanHHoro h npoHHoro Kjiacca coswaxejibHoft 
B HCKyccTBe HHTeji;iHreHUHH. onepHoe BonjiomeHHe aojimcho 
6bijio Hrpaxb caMym saaMHxe^ibHyK) po^b. TaKMMH cxpanaMH 
OpaBgyackM aBHAHCb npewAc Bcero Ta caMaa OpanuHH. 
MysuKa noicAe KoxopaH coBepuiHJia peBOJirouHK), h6o ona 
ptBOAMBBH. saxBaMeHHan co6biTHflMH h b oco6eHHocxH Boft- 

10» 



148 — 



HaMH, nocjieflOBaBuiHMM sa pcBOJiiouvreft, He CMorjia o6pa- 

soBaTb HOBoro MysbiKajibHoro c^nyuiaxejiJi a c^Jepe chm(|)0- 

HKSMa, KOTopbift KaK-HHKaK 6biji opraHMHecKw CBflsan c ^eo- 

naflbHbiMH ueHTpaMH, h saxeM MTajiHa. Koropaa tojkc 

6biJia cHJibHO saxBaMCHa HanojieoHOBmHHOft h, KpoMe Toro, 

no caMOMy cBoflcTBy cBoero HacejieHHH, ckjiohhopo k bokb- 

jiHSMy, He HMCJia flocxaTOMHo uiaHcoB coa^aTb ny6jiHKy AJia 

MaccoBoro nHcxpyMeHTajiHBMa. B sthx cxpanax b xo apeMM. 

KaK B PepMaHHH spejio HBJieHMC BexxoBena, npoflo;i«a- 

jiacb cxapaa atHSHb MyswKHB 4)opMe npeHMyme- 

cxBeHHO onepw, xoxa a npouecc cJiymaHUH axofi onepw 

BOBJieKajiHCb Bce 6ojiee h 6oJiee KOMnJieKCHbie Maccw napofta. 

PasBHXMe onepbi a pcBOJiiouHOHHofl <l)paHU>iH uijio no jihhhh, 

HaMeneHHoft y»e panee JIkjajih h TjiyKOM, c oflHoft cxopoHW 

(xparHMecKaH onepa). h <l>njinfl,opoM h Tpexpn— c apyrofi 

(KOMHMecKaH onepa). B cymnocxH ona pasBHBaexcsi xoJibKO 

KOJIHHeCXBeHHO, WajlO HSMCHJISlCb KaMeCXBeHHO H He Bbwe- 

jiflH yjKe cxoJib KpynHbix hmbh, hxo c6'5icHJiexcH peBOJiK)- 
UHOHHo-BoeHHoft axMOC(]|)eFoft. He6jiaronpHJixHoa rah (})opmh- 
poBaHHH AapoaaHMft. fl'AjieflpaK i). Msyap 2), AftaM »), 
Byajibftbe*) KyflbXHBwpoBaAH jihhhk) KOMHuecKoft onepw. 
Meriojib 5) (1763—1817) h HxaJibSHCu Kepy6HHH «) 

1) A' A n e ft p a K (1753— 1809)— KOMnosHXOp EO«eBHneS, skhh b HapHMe, 
oTnHHancfl.KpaftHefi 6biCTpoToft pafioTbi; MHorne ero coMHHeHHn 6MnH b CBOe 
BpeMJi oneHb nonynnpHbi. - 

2) M 3 y a p (1 775—1 81 8)— HTanbHHeu no npoHCXowReHHio, asHn b napHwe, 
TKC cocTaBHJi ce6e cnasy, KaK KOMnosHTO? nerKoS onepw. Ms ero MHoroMHC- 
aeHHbix onep HaH^onee nposJiaEnnacb ^CaHspHnbOHa" (1810). 

s) ByanbAbe (1 775—1 834) — SHaMCHHTbia aBTop okhhmcckhx onep, 
B CBoe BpcMS! ogouiefliDHX Bce cueHH MHpa. B. JKHH B napH^e H netep. 
6ypre, me hc ocianca 6e3 Bnnmm Ha cyHb6y pyccKOft wysbiKH. Ha ero onep 
HaH6onee npocjiaBHnacb b CEoe BpeMsi ..Benan aaMa" (1825). 

*) A H a H ( A H a m) (1 803—1 856) — o«hh h3 nepawx cosAaxenett jierKoro 
asaupa KOMHHCCKoR onepw, npH6nHasaK)ineftcsr yase KonepexKe, HanHcanMaccy 
onep, H3 KOTopwx HaH6onee HSBecTna ..RoiTanbOH h3 JIohhswmo". Bcero hn 

HanucaHO 53 onepw. 

OMerwJib (1763— 1817) — aBTO? MHorHX onep, npeHMymecTBeHHo 
cepbesHoro cTMna, cpeflH Koxopwx HaHSonbinHft ycnes h nnHxenbHaa cnasa 
BbinanH Ha «onio „Ho3H4)a" (1807). 

«)Kepy6HHH(l 769—1 842)— KpynHwii komhoshto?, yEasKaBiuHMCst na- 
jKe BeixoseHOM, Hannoan MHOro uepKOBHWx KOMnosHUHii, b xom MHCne 11 Mecc, 
aaa peKBHeMa, opaxopHio, mho.o MOiexoa h rHMHoa, pw K?ynHWX KanepHbix 
H opKecxpoBMx Bemefl (b xom MHcne Ksapxexw h chm^ohha), (JjopienHaHHwe 



CnoHTHHH.raAeBH. (1769-1842). a no3flHee xoMce »ranbmeu 
merioAB. C noHXHHH i) (1774-1851) h TajieBH 2) 
(1799— 1862) — xparHHecKyH) onepy. Te afleMenxw. Koxopwe 
npHBHeceHw a MysbiKy BexxoBeHOM, pa6oxaBuiHM OAHoape- 
MCHHO, a HacTbK) panee h hx, 6biAH b o6meM wajio hm 
ycBocHbi H npexBopeHbi, xoxa HeKOxopaH dojibuiaji rH6Kocxb 
BbipaaceHHa, 6ojibuia5i CBo6oAa phxmhkh h flHHaMHKH aawexHa 
3Aecb, HO e^aa jih ne 6bijia ona npoAHKroBana o6mHM 
HacxpoeHHeM snoxH — cxpeMJieHweM k ocBo6o2{AeHHK) 

3KCnpeCCHBHOfl CXHXHH B MySblKe. CnOHXHHH H FaJieBH BBO- 

AHx a MysbiKy opKecxpoBbie 3(|)(|)eKXbi, HanpasneHnbie k 6ojib- 
uieft SKcnpeccHH („xaM-TaM" a „BecTajiKe" Chohxhhh), bbo- 
AHx rH6KyK) MejioflHio, cMenaiomyio cypoaue h ycjiOBHwe 
KOHxypw rjiyKOBCKoro Mejioca. B MxajiHH onepa pasBH- 
BaexcH oflHOBpeMeHHo KaK b HanpaafleHHw CBoAcxaeHHOfi 
HxajibSHCKofl ny6flHKe BHpxyosHocxH, xaK h b ApyroM, 
He Menee oxaeMaBuieM BKycy noxpe6nTeAH, HanpaBJieHHH. 
Koxopoe Ao M3BecxHoft cxeneHH ripoxHBonojiarajiocb nep- 
BOMy, — a HanpaafleHHH oxKpwToft h hchoS MenoAHiHocxH. 
Menee acero BKyc Maccw 6biJi Ha cxopone nojiH4)OHHH h 
cepbesHocxH, xaK qxo ne 6bijio HHKaKHx uiancoa o6pa3o- 
aaxbcn CHMcJjOHHHecKOMy cthjik). BonjioxHxejieM >KeaaHHfl h 
oacHAaHHfl noxpeSHxejiH sbhjich Pocchhh ^) (1792—1868). 



GOHaxw M 29 onep, 4)paHuy3CKHx h HxanbancKHx, cpem Koxopwx HaH6ojiee 
rionynnpHw 6wnH ..Mesea", „Bo«oeo3" h „JloflOHCKa". 

■') CnoHXHHH(1 774 — 1 851 ) — onepHwfl KOMnosHxop, oxMaciM cneflOEas- 
uiHfl HanpaBneHHK) FjiyKa.Ero HaHSonee HssecxHoe npon3Be;ieHHe — „BecTanKa" 
KOTopaa o«HO spcMa 6bma HpesBbiMaftHO nonynapna. Apyrwe onepw CnoH- 
THHH SHaHHienbHO yciynaioi aiOMy npoH3Be«eHHio („<I)epflHHaHfl Kopxeu", 
„OjiHMnHa''). 

^) TaneBH (1799 — 1862) (coSciBenHO npasHnbHee— AneEw)- ({jpanuys- 
CKHft KOMnosHxop, no npoHcxoMcfleHHio espefi. Cpefln MHoroMHjneHHWx ero 
onep BWflBHHynacb „?KHflOBKa" (1835), b Koxopoft HaHSojiee apKo CKasajiacb 
ero CKjiOHHOjXb k cypoEOMy cihjik) h k fl-iaMaxHMecKHM KOHxpaciaM. 06mee 
HHcno ero onep — 25, KpoMC xoro, hm HanncaHO neMano Kanxax, xopoB h flaace 
(JJopiennaHHaa coHaxa. 

Pocchhh (1792—1868) nanHcan 53 onepw b npoMeacyroK BpeMCHM 
or 1810 Ao 1829 r. Ms sxoro orpoMHoro KonHMecxEa HaHfionee SHaHHienbHw 
H osianHCb B noioMcxBe flo chx nop — „CeBHnbCKHR ubipiojibKHK" (1816) h 
„BHnbrenbM Tenjib" (1829), ocianbHwe xaK hjih HHane npeflanw 3a6BeHHK>. 
C 1829r. iBop^ecKoe BfloxHOBCHHe noKHnyno Pojchhh, h oh ao KOHua mchshm 
He Hanncan Hnnero b xeneHHe 38 jiex, KpoMe He6onbiiiofi BemH„Stubiit mater". 



150 



HTaA]>flBCKa« one- HanpaBHBUiH^ onepy B pycjio OHaposaTeflbHoA 

pa Ha^. XIX BCKa. MeJlOflHHHOCTH, CBJiaaHHOft c yMepeHHbiM H 
XyAOMCeCTBeHHbIM ^JOHOM BHpTyOSHOCTH, ^CM 

coBepuieHHO noKopHJi BKycw He tojibko iiTaJibsiHCKoft ny- 
6jihkh, ho h Bcefl Esponbi. Oh pa6oTaji kbk b o6jia- 

CTH KOMHMCCKOK oncpbl, Tfle CrO KyjIbMHHaUHOHHbIM flOCTHH<e- 
HHeM RBJineTCfl „CeBHJIbCKMft UbipHJflbHHK-' (1816), TaK H 

B o6jiacTM cepbesHoA onepw („BnJibrejibM TejiJib", 1829). Bjihh- 

HHe MCJIOJDIHKH PoCCHHH 6bIflO HeOTpaSHMO H . 6a3HpOBaJIOCb 
Ha npHSHaHHH MaKCHMajIbHO UIHpOKOfl ayftHTOpHH, nOSTOMy 

3KOHOMHMecKH cro MysbiKa OKasaJiacb 6ojiee . Moryme- 
CTBeHHoft, HCM Aa»ce MysbiKa reHnajibHoro BexxoaeHa. Te 
Kflaccbi, Ha BKyc Koropbix onnpaACH nocJieftHHfi, 6biJiH cpas- 
HHxeJibHO ewe cjia6bi, HeopraHjiaoBaHbi h HeMHoroHHCJieHHW, — 
ero HaACMCflbi 6biaH b cymnocTH b 6yaymeM, a Pocchhh 
6paji HacTOHiityio ayAHTopHio. CrHJib MejioanKH Poc- 
chhh no CBoefl cyiuHOCTH npoAOJiM<aJi. jihhhk) HTanbHHCKofi 
onepu HeanoflHTaHCKofl iukojiw h MouapTa, npn hbm BOSAeS- 
CTBMe ero na mnpoKHe naccbi odycjiOBJiHBajiocb cTonbKO jkb 

KpaCOTOfl MCJIOftHKH, CKOJIbKO H HenoMepHOft npOCTOTOft H 

pyflHMeHTapHOCTbK) conpoBOWflCHHH. Ero npHMep BbisBaji 
ecTecTBeHHbie noApaMcaHHa: h mh bhahm HapowjieHHe HMenHO 
B MTajiHH uejiofl njiesiAbi asTopoB onep, KOTopue crpeMHTCsi 
npoflyuHpoBaxb MejioAHMecKyio MyawKy b THne Pocchhh: Beji-. 
jiHHH 1) (1802—1835), HanHcaBiuMft „HopMy", 

UlKOAa Pocchhh: ^CoMHaM6yjiy" H Ap. Onepbl, J^OHHUeTTH^) 

BeAAHHH,flo- (']797_i848), HanHcaBuiHft CBbime 60 onep. 

H n n fi 1* T H 

y 3THX annroHOB Pocchhh MejioAHnecKoe 
H3o6peTeHHe yace OTnacTH BbipoacAaexcH b cnamaBOCTb npH 
eme 6ojiee yxpHpoBaHHoft hphmhthbhocth Bcero nponero Mysw- 
KaJibHoro aHTypawa; cuenHHecKaa xapaKxepHCTHKa, HMero- 
mancH y Poccmhh HajiHuo, ywe oTcyTCTByer, a sHpryos- 
HocTb He BcerAa ypaBHOBeuiHsaeTcsr BKycoM. TeM He Menee 

OHH OCTaiOTCH Ha OHCHb AOJirOe BpeMSt BJiaCTHTeJlHMH AyM 

3HaHHTejibHdft MacTH ropoACKoft MejiKO-6ypa<ya3Hoft ny6jiHKM 
H Bcex ApyrHX noTpe6HTejiea MysbiKH, Bnjioxb ao apHcxonpa- 



BennHHH (1802—1835) HanHcan Bcero 11 onep, H3 KOTopwx npo- 
cnasMnHCb h CTann iiiHpoKO nonynnpHw „CoMHaM6yjia" h ..HopMa". 

2) jtoHHucTTH (1 797—1 848) HanHcan Bcero 64 onepw, cpeflH KOTop wx 
6onee HSBecTHw: „<l)aBopHTKa", „J1iomh5i aH-JlaMepMyp", „AoHb nojiKa". 



THH Bcex CTpan. BjiaroAapsr roMy, mto HTajibHHCKaa onepa 
HMe^a pacnpocrpaneHHe hohth bo Bcex wpynnbrx crojiHuax 
Esponbi H PoccHH, BJiHSHHe uiKOJibi PoccHHH pacnpocTpaHH' 

JlOCb Hpe3BbI4aAHO UIHpOKO H HyBCTBOBaJIOCb OHCHb AOJIFO. 



VIII. — POMaHTHSM. 



\. 



PoMaHTHSM 

B repMaHnB. 



B repMaHCKHX crpaHax, ocTaBuiHxcsi cpaB- 

HHTCJIbHO B CTOpOHe OT peSOJIlOUHOHHblX 6ypb 
H nOCTHPHyTblX TOJIbKO BOeHHblMH 6ypilMH 

TiocflepeBOflH)UHOHHoa snoxH, HMejiHCb Bce AaHHbie una napo- 

^AeHHH HOBblX 'tHHOB ny6nHKH. CHJIbHO paSBHTO:^ B FepMaHHH 

MysbiKajibHbiA npo4)eccHOHcijiH3M (My3biKaHTbi-cneuHajiHCTbi, 
opKecTpaHTbi H np.) rpynnnpoBaji KpyroM ce6a onpeAeneHHyio, 
npeHMymecTBeHHo HHTefljiHreHTCKyio Maccy MysbiKajibHbix 
ueuHTeAeSi, KOTopue, OTjiHHascb ot roPi cpeAU, KOTopan 
•ocTaBa^acb no nacjieACTBy ot (|)eoAajibHO-K;iaccHMecKoA 3noxH. 
oraHMajiHCb CHJIbHO M OT pflAOBoro ropo»<aHHHa-noTpe6HTeAH, 
TOMce HHTenjiHreHTHOro b Macce, ho MysbiKajibHo nepasBH- 
Toro. Mmchho b aTofi cpeAe sapo^KAajiHCb KaApbi Toro, mto 
noTOM nojiyHHflo HaMMenoBaHMe cepbesnoi) nyS^HKH. 
OfiocTpHBiuHeca nocjie HanoJieoHOBCKHx boAh HauHonajibHbie 
^yBCTBa B 3TO BpeMs pasBHBajiHCb npeHMymecTBeHHo b 6o;iee 

AeMOKpaTHHeCKMX H HHTeJIJIHreHTCKHX CJIOSIX, 

llaHBAeHHeHHTeA- TOFAa KaK apHCTOKpaTHMecKHe rpynnbi 6ojiee 

AHreHgRH BAHTe- 6j,jjjj^ cKJlOHHbl K CBOMCTBeHHOMy HM HHTep- 
paxypHO-diBAOcoA- tt . ' 

CKOe TeneBHe. HaUMOHaflHSMy. npO(}jecCHOHaJIbHO-My3bIKaHT- 

CKHe rpynnbi 6biJiH xecHee cBnBanbi h c Kyjib- 
xypHoft HHTejiJiHrenuHeft, h c napoAOM, h hx naTpHOTHHecKoe, 
BsrpeToe BoAnaMH h noA^OApeHHoe tcophsimh poManrHSMa 
HacipoeHHe sacTasnano hx c ocodeHHofit ;ito6oBbio otho- 
cHTbCH Ko BceMy poAHOMy, repMaHCKOMy, HauHonajibHOMy, 
K cBoeA crapHHe, KOTopasi npeACTaBJisjiacb OKpyMceHHoA jieren- 
AapHbiMH HajieTaMH h ottofo Kpafine npHBJieKaTCJibHofi. MAea- 
jiHCTHMecKan ^uaoco^via Toro BpeMCHH, npoAHKTOBaHHan 
OTHacTH TeMH «e HacTpoeHHHMH H TecHeAuiHM o6pa30M cna- 
siHHasi c poMaHTHSMOM, cmc 6ojiee noAKpenjisiJia 3th nacTpoe- 
HHH, CHJIbHO pacnpocTpaKeHHbie hmchho b stom Kpyry, koto- 
pbiA . HesojibHO H HesaMeTHO AJM ce6» npcACTaBMJi kbhht- 
acceHUHK) repMaHM3Ma h ubbt KyjibTypw Toro BpeMeHH 



— 152 — 
(Ferenb, Uleji^HHr). Fpynna aBTopoB, KOTopux o6'eflMHHK>T 

nOA HMeHCM pOMaHTHKOB, B CyUtHOCTH 6bUia HMCHHO 

BonjiOTMTeJieM BKycoB aroS rpynnw, KOTopaa, KaK nepeAOBasi, 
OKpacHJia H TBopnecTBO cbohx rcHHCB B nepeAOBbie tohb. 
PoMaHTHSM nMTajiCH B paBHofl Mepe HacTpoeHHAMH HfteajiH- 

CTHHeCKOfl 4>MJ10C04)HH, HaUMOHaJIbHbIM MyBCTBOM H Bpa}KAe6- 
HOCTblO K HHOSCMHOMy. ErO o6mMfl TOH 6bIJI npOAHKTOBaH 

npeflCTaBJieHHCM o Mysbme, kbk o HaM6ojiee TaHHCTBCHHOM, 
o6anTeflbHOM h MoryseM h3 HCKyccTB. PoManTHSM CTasHji 
MysbiKy cpeflH Bcex ncKyccxB na HeAocnraeMyio Bbicory, npM- 
Aasan efl Meprbi BbicuieK uppauHOHajibHOCTH h mhctmmhoctm. 

XoTfl Mepxbl pOMaHTHBMa, B CBH3M C yWC TOrsa HaMeHaBUIH- 

MHCH rpynnHpoBKawH b o6mecTBe, aaMCTHbi w y MouapTa. 

H y BerxoBCHa, ho THnHMHbiM ocHOBareneM HeMeuKoro 

MysbiKaAbHoro poMaHTMSMa HBAO CMHTaTb nHcareflJi h KOMno- 

3HTopa 3. T. A. r o <J) M a H a 1) (1776 -1 822). 

9. ro^MaB. KOTOpbiA H B CBOHX nHCaHHflX nponoBeflbiBatt 
B033peHH$I Kpaflneft pOMaHTHKH H 4>aHTacTH«i- 

HOCTH H nwrajicH hx »e nposecTH b jKHSHb b My3biKajibHbix 
CBOHX onbirax. JlnHHOCTb rot{)MaHa h evo BHaneHHe hmchho 
jiJia MysbiKH Ao CHX nop ne 6biJiH AOCTaxoMHO oueneHM. 
B ero JiHue npewAe Bcero Heo6biHaflHO xapaKxepen KOHraKT 
aHTeparypbi h My3biKH, cTOJib xapaiKTepHbift Boo6me ajim poMan- 
TH3Ma, KOTopbifi BccrAB cTpeMHJicH K o6'eAHHeHHio c(i)ep 
HCKyccTB. Oh nanncaA MHoro onep, nacTbio KOMHnecKHXi 
Hac^bK) <|)aHTacTHMecKHX („yHAHHa", 1816), He Hy»<Aajicfl m 

CHMcJjOHHMeCKHX l^OpH H KaMCpHOft MySblKH. BblTb MOKCT, 

ero OHCHb paHHee noHBJieHHe na ropH30HTe MysbiKH h ero 
cJiHuiKOM pesKafl powaHTHHecKaji ycTaHOBKa, KOTopasi eme 
He cospejia b to BpeMH b wyawKe ajih CBoero noflHoro 
4)aHTacTHHecKoro acneKTa, cAejiajiH ero TBopnecTBO MCHee 



^) 3. PofJjMaH (1776 — 1822) — sHaMeHHTwR nHcaTejib-^aHxacr m xyAO- 
wecTBeHHbift MwcjiHTCnb, HaHHcan MHOro MysbiKajibHbix npoHSseAeHHA h 6bta 
KanejibMeflcxepoM. Ehiy npHHannewaT 4 BOAeeHnn h 7 onep, h3 KOiopux 
„yHflHHa" HpesBbiiaftHO HHiepecHa h sadbira HcaacnyaseHHO (1816), ojoSea- 
HO ecHH npHMsiTb Eo BKHMaHHC BpcMsi cc noaBncHHsi. KpOMB TOrO, OH HanM- 
caji Meccy, chm4)Ohhio, ({lopTenHaHHwe coHaTU h MHoro McnKHX Bcmeft. Ero 
jiHTepaTypHbie nHcaHHsi coflepwai Maccy saMeMaHHft o MyswKe, h nacto- 

ClOlKeTbl HX HaBeSIHbl MySblKOfi. 



saMeTHbiM a.na cospeMeHHHKOB, HewejiH oho 6bi roro 
CTOHJio. Bo BCSTKOM cJiyHac ero pa6oTbi Bnon^e npeA- 
BapnioT H 6e6epa, h llIy6epTa, h caworo LUyMana 
c BarnepoM. HecMorpH na KpaflnioK) opHrHHa^bMocTb cbohx 
Mbicjiefl o MysbiKe h na ocxpyH) ycTanoBKy Bcex sonpocoB, 
FocfJMaH B MysbiKe-CBoeft ne BbiAaercn snaMH- 
TejibHo hba KjiaccHHecKMM TOHoomymeHHeM, 
Bpamancb b c(|)epe npexcHHX 4)opM h rapMOHHfl h phtmob 
H Aawe noAABBaflcb Bnnanviio BerxoBena b cbmoA cjia6oA cre- 
neHH. Ero noTpe6HTejieM 6biJia b cymwocTH apTHCTHHe- 
c K a SI 6 o r e M a, cnaHBatoiiian bocahho npcAcxaBHTejiefl JiHxe- 
paxypbi, xeaxpa, JKHBonwcH h MysbiKH, h npHMbiKasmaa 
K HHM npojiexapHSHpoBaHHaa HHxejuiHreHitHji npo4)eccHOHajiOB. 
B 3X0M ace Kpyry boshhk h 111 y 6 e p x ^), Menee. 

HeM TocJjMaH, MblCJIHBUIHft B o6jiacxH 

pOManxHSMa, ho HaiueAuiHft b cBoeM HCKfljoMHxejibHO rcHHajib- 
HOM AaposaHHH cHJibi AJIH BonjiomeHHfl poMaHXHHecKMx nacxpoe- 
HHft B MysbiKajibHbie SByKH. LUy6epx ywe onpeAejieHHO habx 
no cxonaM BexxoBena, coeAHHsin ero AHHaMHnecKHe aocxh- 
MceHsin c orpoMHbiM Hanp5i}KeHHeM MeJioAHnecKoro AapoBaHHsr 

H C HOBblMH rapMOHHSIMH, KOXOpbie HpOAOJlWaHSX JIHHHIO 

ycjiOMCHeHHfl ncHxoAorHH rapMOHHA, HanaxyK) MouapxoM. 3xh 

HOBbie rapMOHHHeCKHe MHpW AaJlH My3bIKe B03M0>KH0CXb JKHBO- 

nHcanna 6ojiee yxoHHeHHwx, 6o;iee msfkhx h M3bicKaHHbix 
nepeMCKBaHMA, cpaBHHxejibHO c xeMH, Koxopue 6bi;iH eA 
xocxynHbi AO xex nop. Illy6epx nepBbift npoxHBonocxaBjinex 



niy6epT. 



') lIIy6epT (1797 — 1828) poflMncH h npownn bck) atHSHb sBeHe, Bpa- 
uiancb B Kpyry apiHCTHHecKofl fioreMW h CTy«eHT03; Sojibuiasi nacTb ero npo- 
HSBeAeHHft He 6bina npH khshh HSAaHa, a Kpynnue coHHHeHHs h ne Hcnon- 
HflnHCb. Oh HanMcan HsyMHTenbHoe una ero KpaxKofl h<h3Hh KonHvecTBo 

0O<IHHeHMS, B TOM HHSJIC HeCKOHbKO CHM4)0HHft (HaHOOnee HSBeCTHbl CHM({)0- 

HHn C, HaftAeHHaa yme no^ne ero CMepTH, h „HeoKOHMeHHaa chm(J)ohhh"), 
MHOro KaMepHbix npoHSBeAeHHft (KBapTCTOB, kbhhtctob, TpHo), paA onep 
(HMeioT BTOpojTeneHHoe snaieHHe), xoposbie coHHHeHHH, (])opTenHaHHbie 
semH. HaH5onbmee SHaneHKe sce-TaKH osTaeica sa necHHMH III., KOTOpux 
OH HanHzan CBbiuie 400 h KoropueAO chx nop cosTaBnaioT ochoshoS penep- 
Tyap KanepHoro neHHsi; HanSonee HSBecTHu: „JIecHoA uapb", „necHa Map- 
rapHTM.', necHH MnHbOHW, „^anoda AesymKH", „J1,bohhhk", uhkh jFIpeKpac- 
Han MenbHHMHxa" h ap- 



— 154 - •> 

no6eAOHOCHOMy poccHHweBCKOMy MCJioflHSMy 
HagHOHaAbHaa me- ^ g Q ^ H CM e UKO-se Hre p C KHft HaUHO- 

jiOAHKa H "*•=*■■ H a jj b H bl fl MeJIOAHSM, KOTOpblSl OKaSbl' 
HOCTb. PomaHTH- 

lecxaH necHH. BacTCfl He MCHee HTajibHHCKoro KpacHBbiM, 
HO B 3HaMHTejibHO 6ojibuiefl cTeneHH rfly6oKHM 
H HauHOHajibHo jieficTBeHHbiM. MflH no cTonaM Fa^AHa h Bct- 
xoBCHa, HO yMce fiojiee cosHarejibHO, hcm ohh o6a, llIy6epT 
onpefleneHHO cxanoBHTCJi Ha HauHonajibHyH) ycraHOBKy 
TBopnecTBa — oh cosAaer HCMeuKyK) necnio, MCJioAHHe- 

CKH pOACTBCHHyK) HapOflHOft, HO B3HBUiyK) y KyjibxypHbix 

AOCTHHceHHS MysbiKH cHJiy rapMOHHHCCKoro cpnpoBoacfleHHH h 
*[3bicKaHHOCTb MCJioca. llIy6epT ne o6jiaflaJi Mombio Berxo- 
aena b flCJie cxpoeHHfl uejibHbix, jihtwx (|>opM, oxroro oh He 

MMejI CKJIOHHOCTH paCUIHpflTb (|}0pMbl, OTTOPO OH npeAnoHHTaii 

neceHHbie, MHHiiaTiopHbie ^JopMbi, b KOTopux h HanHcana 
6onhmaa nacTb ero coMMHCHHfl, oxroro oh Aa>Ke b chm4>o- 
HHHX H B coHaxax cAeJiaJi mhofo uiaroa nasaA ox nyHKxa. 
AOCxHPHyxoro BexxoBCHOM, a cmhcjic paspyiueHHJi uejibHOcxH 
4)opMbi conaxbi h BKnioMCHHa B nee neccHHbix anHsoAOB, paa- 
pymaromHX ee AHHaMHHHOcxb. Ero xBopnecxBO, Hocnmee oaho- 
BpcMCHHO nenaxb npeAeabHofl reHwajibHocxH h Kpafinefi cneui- 
HocxH pa6oxbi. 6biJio HeodbinafiHO npoAyKXHBHo: aa cbok) 
OMCHb KpaxKyK) JKH3Hb OH HaHHcaji 6ojibme mhofhx ApyrHx 
KOMnosHxopoB. Kpyr ero noxpe6Hxejiefl 6bin b cyiuHocxH He 
AOcxaxoMHO umpoK, oh 6bi;i no Heo6xoAHMOcxH HHXHMeH, hxo 
H o6ycjiOBH;io ero opranHnecKoe npucxpacTwe k necne h 
K HHXHMHOMy cxHJiK). Bojiee MOHyMCHxajibHbie npoM3BeAe- 
KHH lJLIy6epxa (ero cmm(J)ohhh, onepbi) xaK h ne yBHAeJiH 
CBexa npH ero m«h3Hh — ohh AOMCHAajiHCb xoro apeMeHH, kopab 
pacusexaiomaH KOHuepxHaa }KH3Hb cACJiaex h hx AocxynnbiMH 
AJiH HcnoJiHeHHJi BO Bce lUHpameMcsi Kpyre hobux cjiyuiaxejieft- 
llJy6epx, noAo6HO panneMy BexxoseHy h b cooxBexcxBHH 
c BOKaflbHbiM xapaKxepoM, neceHHocxbio cBoero XBOpnecxBa, 
iiBJiHexca xHnHHHbiM H y6eHCAeHHbiM fomo^JOhhcxom; 
pecxaBpauHflf „6axH3Ma", nponBHsiuancsi b nosAweM Bexxo- 
Bene, ero ne Kocnyjiacb bobcc h ne Morjia Kocnyxbcfl, KaK 
BpamaiomerocH b Kpyre, AaJieKOM ox 6axoBCKHX HacxpoenHfi. 
Ta jiHHHH HeMeuKoro HauHOHajiH3Ma h xanuoBaflbHofl necen- 
HocxH, Koxopan sajioMcena 6bijia b llly6epxe, ocBo6oM<AeHHaH 
or ApyrHX CBOHX OKpyMceHHfl, nojiynnjia AajibHcflmee pasBH- 



THe B JiK)6onbixHOM h BwcoKO-xajiaHx^HBOM xBopnecxBe JI a h- 
Hepa (1801 — 1842), Koxopbifi cyMeji BAOxnyxb 

Ahbbh eoreMBve- aCMByiO MeJIOAHHeCKyiO JIHHHK) B HaUHOHaJlb- 

cKoro inyeepxHaH- „j,,g HeMCUKHft xaneu-Bajibc. JIaHHep naHH- 

CTBa — nAerKaaMV- ^ _ '^ 

3HKa«. AaHHep. ^^^"^ COOOK) Mpe3BbIMaHHO BajKHyro JIHHHK) 
UlTpaycCbi. paSBHXHH MySbIKH, HMeHHO flHHHK) XaK Ha3bl- 

BaeMoft „jierKOfii My3biKH", ocHoaaHHofl nacxbH) 
Ha xanuoBajibHbix (|)opMax, nacxbio na ^'opMax KOMHnecKoft 
onepbi, no cymecxBy 6jih3khx K xaHuoBajibHbiM. flo nanajia 
XIX BBKa pasAeJieHHsi jierKoft h cepbe3HoA MysbiKH eme ne 
cymecXBOBajio, ohh o6e cymecxBOBajiH BMCcxe, coBMemaacb 
HepcAKO B OAHHX AajKc asxopax. KoMHHecKaa onepa h cepbes- 
HaH onepa uijih phaom, xaK we KaKHxaneu h cHM(j|}OHHa. Ho 
CKopo HaMenaioxcfl paccJiosnouinecsi BKycoBbie rpynnw, h3 
Koxopbix OAHa, 6ojiee AeMOKpaxHiecKaa h 6o;iee mhofohhc- 
jieHHaR, B cymnocxH Menee MyswKajibHo pasBHxasi h noxoMy 

CKflOHHaH K npOCXblM nepHOAHHeCKHM, XaHUOBaJIbHbIM pHXMaM 

H K npocxoMy BOKa;ibHOMy cxhjiio c npocxefiiUHM aKKOMnane- 
MenxoM, cxaHOBHxcH npeHMymecxBeHHbiM h n.a»te hckjiiohh- 
xeabHbiM noxpe6HxejieM „jierKoro wanpa", ocBo6o»<Aaa Apyryio 
rpynny, koxopaa cxanosHxcH Aame b HssecxHbiiH aHxaroHH3M 
K nepBoft, oxpHuaa 3a neft xyAOwecxBCHHoe SHanenHe. 3xa 
rpynna noxpe6Hxe;ieM jierKoft MysbiKH neMeAJienno co3Aaex 
cnpoc H Ha KOMno3HxopoB HMeHHO xaKoro poAa cneunajiH- 
cxoB B 3xoS o6nacxH. JIaHHep HBjiHexcsi hx nepBbiM npeACxa- 
BHxeJieM, eme npHMbiKaiomHM k o6meMy pycjiy pannero Heweu- 
Koro poMaHXH3Ma. Ilocjie nero HAyx ywe 6ojiee cneuH4)HMe- 
CKHe, HO eme cansanHbie CHjibHUMH y3aMH c iiiy6epxOBCKOi^ 
MeaoAHKofl, — MoraHH lllxpaycc^), oxeu h cwh, co^ 
sAaiomHe cxhjib HeneuKoro ca;iOHHoro xanua h HCMeuKyio 



') UI T p a y c, H o r a H H (cTapuiHft) — nonynapHeftiuHft KOMnosHTop 
Ba.TihcoB (1804 — 1894), nocnyjKHBuiHx ochoeoh Bceft nocneayiomeJi „nerKOH" 
MysbiKHj KHji B Bciie, oTKyfla coBepmaji KOHuepTHwe noesflKH b HHwe ro- 
pofla CO CEOHM canoHHbiM opKCCTpoM, BhiCTynan b KaMCCTBe AHpHwepa. Erp 
cuH— Towe MoraHH LUrpayc (1825 — 1899)— npoAon wan jihhhk) TBopnecTBa 
oTU,a, npH MeM BwcTynan eme b KanecTBe asTopa onepeTOK, KOTopbix oh 
HanHcan 17 (h3 hhx HaH6onee nonynnpHbi 6binH b CBoe spcMa „UbiraHCKHii 
fiapoH", .jJleiynaa Mwuib" h up.)- HeKOTopwe ero sanbcbi cranH HapoflHWMH 
B I^epMaHHH H B AecTpirH. 



— 156 — 

onepcTTy, pasBHBaiomyK) sjieMeBTw, 6ojibuiaa MacTb KOTopbix 
HMeercH y Llly6epTa h jiaTKe eiue y MouapTa. 

Ta jiHHHSi 4'«^"TacTHHecKoro pOMaHTHSMa, 
PoMaHTHHecKan KOTopaa HaMBTHJiacb B Tpyflax H TBopnecTBe 
onepa. Be6ep. reHHajibHoro ro(|)MaHa, nojiynaeT jiajibHeft- 
uiee pasBHTHe b pa6oTax K. M. Be6epa ^) (1786—1826), 
KOTopbifl OKasbiBaeTca b cHJiax npMAaxb n^OTb h MyawKajib- 
HyK) KpoBb MHCTO - JiHTcpaTypHbiM nocTpoeHHJiM TocJjMaHa. 
B npoTHBOBec wTaJibJiHCKOfl BHpTyosHo-MejiOMaHHHecKoft onep- 
HOft MaHepe, repMaHCKMft poMaHTHSM BbiaejineT poMaHTHMC- 
CKyio, (JjaHTacTMHecKyio onepy Ha HauHOHaflbHWH jiereHAap- 
Hbift cioweT, B KOTopofl noJiynaiOT npHJioaceHHe h mmcto- 
repMaHCKHfl tho neceHHOCTH. h uiHpoKaH CHM(J)OHHMecKdH 
4)aKTypa MyawKH, yHacjieAOsaHHan ot KJiaccHKOB m BerxoBCHa. 
Sra onepa AOJiwHa oTTHHyxb nacxb KaapoB cJiyuiarejiefi or 
HTajibHHCKofl onepbi, mto ona h BbinojiHJieT, kbk Bnojine 
cooTBcTCTByiomaH pacxymeMy Ayxy HauHOHanHSMa no Bcefi 
EBpone M B TepMaHMH b HacxHOCTH. PoManxMHecKvift neren- 
aapHbifl flyx xpe6oBaji ({jaHxacxHMecKHX KpacoK suia cBoero 
BonjiomeHKH. Oh bjibcxho xpe6oBaji ocosHaHWH 
PoHaHTHSM ^g^ (|)aHxacTHHecKHX KpacoK, Koxopbie noreH- 
B opKecxpoBOM m,ajji,„o saKJiioMeHbi b MysbiKajibnoft rapMO- 
KOAopBTe. ^^^ ^ opKecxpoBbix KOJiopHxax. Eqih T^jiaccH- 
necKHft BCK H BexxoBCH ysKe o6paxHJiH BHHMaHHe na Kd^opH- 
cxHHecKwe bosmowhocxh opKecxpoBbix xeM6poB, nowa eme 
xoJibKO KaK caMOAOBJiewiuHX wysbiKajibHbix ucHHOcxeft. xo 
y Be6epa mw bhahm yHce HcnoflbsoBaHHC sxhx 
KOJiopHTOB Ma HJijnocxpaxHBHbix, fleKopaxHBHbrx cueHH- 
HecKMX uejieft, KaK chmbojiob onpeaejieHHbix nepeacHBaHHft h 
o6pa30B. UcHxp xsiMcecxH Be6epoBCKoro xBopnecxBa jicjkhx 
B onepe, r^e oh coaaaex cxHJib n HanpaBJieHne h tac oh 
pa6oxaex b Bwy xoro hobopo, nauHOHaflHcxHHecKH HacxpoeH- 



1) Be6ep (1786-1826) poAHnca H 6onbuiyio 4acTb kh3hh npowMn 
B FepMaHHH, nosTOsiHHO MeHfla mbcto acmenbCTBa. B. o:;TaBHn MysbiKanbHoe 
Hacne«He npeHMymecTBeHHO b bhab onep, cpenM KOTOpbix HaAO OTMCTHTb: 
.OpeflmioTu", .SBpnaHTa" h „06epoH", KaK HawSonee cMnbHwe h cymecTseH- 
Hbie Ana HCTopHH MysbiKH. SHaMMTenbHO MCHbuiee SHaieHHC HMceT Be6ep 
KaK 4)0?TenHaHHbiH kdmhoshto?, tab oh KyjibTHBHpoEan npCHMymecTBeHHo 
BHpiyoaHbift CTunb {nan6onee hsbccthw ero ^TlpHrjiaineHHe k laHuy" m „Koh- 

UepTUITlOK" C OpKCCTpOMj. 



JiiMm. 



— IQi — - 



Horo Kpyra nySjiHKH, Koxopwft cosaaexca b snoxy nocjie 
HanojieoHOBCKMX boAh, Kan peaKuwH npoxHB HanojieoHOBCKoro 
uesapHSMa. ..OpeAunou" (Bo;ime6Hwfi cxpejion), „3BpHaHxa" 
H „06epoH" cocxaBJiJiiox rJiaBHwe sxanw ero XBopnecKoro 
nyxH, Koxopbift uenen ma HcxopHH eme h xew, hxo ero xBop- 
HecxBo B cHJibHefluieft cxeneHH o6ycJiOBHJio BnocjieacxBHH 
TBopnecxBO P. Barnepa. FapMOHHMecKHx o6orameHni1 Be6ep 
He MHoro BHec b MyawKajibHwA jieKcuKOH, xoxh ero rapMO- 
HHHecKaji najiHxpa b Hxore CBo6oAHee h Mnrne gexxoseK- 
CKofi. B 3XOM cMbicjie OH HACx HapasHe c llIy6epxoM, npe- 
bocxoasi nocJieAHero b ocoswaHMH opKecxpoBoro KOJiopHxa, 
HO ycxynasi eny b 4)aHxa3HH. SnanHxejibHo Menbuiee SHaneHHe 
HMeex XBopnecxBo Be6epa b moahoh b ero anoxy 4)opxe- 
HHaHHoft o6flacxH, B Koxopofi CHHxajiM AOJiroM pa6oxaxb nonxH 
see KOMno3Hxopbi. Tyx Be6ep pa6oxaex Ha BKyc ero coBpe- 

MeHHHKOB, Ha BKyC XOft ny6jIMKH, KOXOpaSI B 3XO BpeMR UeHHX 

npeHMymecxBCHHo BHpxyosHocxb, Bbipa»caio- 

B0pTyo8HaHOToxa myiocH B 6paBypHOcxH naccaweft h b 6jiecKe 
B oDAacTH ^lopre- _ ^ 

iraaHo. SByHHOcxH. lojibKO HXO npoHsseAeHbi 6brjiH 

BawHbie yflyHuieHHH b MexaHwsMe (jiopxenHaHO; 

Hs HHcxpyMCHxa cjia6o3ByHHoro, noneBOJie khxhwhopo, oho 

o6paXHJIOCb B nOJIHOBByHHbiA KOHUepXHbiA HHCXpyMeHX. 3x0 
HCMeAJieHHO BbI3BaJIO HOBWe B03M0WH0CXH HCHOJIHeHHSI, HOBbie 

npeoAOJieHHH xcxkhkh k hobwA BHpxyosHbifi cxHjib, snaMeno- 
BaBiiiHfl npeoAoaeHHe sxhx hobmx saAaHHfl xexHHnecKoro 
coBcpiueHcxBa Hrpu. M 3xo Ke HeMCAJienHO cosAaJio cnpoc 
Ha BHpxyosHocxb CO cxopoHbi ny6jiHKH, Koxopan b Macce 
BcerAa b nepsyio onepeAb cnocoSna ucHHXb npoHBJieHMn 
xexHHHecKoro cosepuieHcxBa h 6jiecKa. Be6ep b pjiAy Apyrnx 

CBOHX COBpeMCHHHKOB — 4)0pxenHaHHbIX KOMnOSHXOpOB (FyM- 

Mejib, JlycceK H Ap.) co3Aaex jiHxepaxypy na axox Kpyr 

noxpe6MxejiJi, KOxopuA He Mor ouennxb xo, mxo 6biflO y>Ke 

coBAano AJiH HOBoro cj[)opxenHaHO, rjiy6oKoro, BexxoBenoM 

H3-3a orpoMHoft xpyAHOcxH ero nponsBeAeHMft h peAKoro 

oxxoro Hx HcnojiHeHMfl. 

Ycnex poMaHXHHecKofl onepu, cosAannoA 

DHTOHu poMan- Be6epoM, H opraHHMHocxb HauHOHa^bHoro na- 
TBiHecKoa onepu: ^ 

Mapmnep, npaBfleHHH, ooycJiOBJiCHHoro BanpocaMH anoxH, 

ni nop, A op- M'6 MorjiH He BbiBBaxb pjiAa noApawaHMA, 

HHHr, h6o xBopnecxBO oahofo Be6epa ne mofjio 



— 158 - 

HacbiTHTb noTpe6HTejibCKorp Kpyra, sKAaBuiero hobwx Ha- 
UHOHajibHbix onep. BcJieft aa Be6epoM noHBaaiOTCH ero 
nocJienoBaTCJiH, npoflOJiwaiomHe TBopMTb b tcx skc paM- 
Kax HCMeuKoro nauHOHajiMSMa. MapuiHep^) (1 795—1861 > 

HBHJICfl aBTOpOM MHOrHX OnCp, 060UieflUIHX BCe CUCHbl MHpa 

CBaMnHp". „raHC refl;inHr". „XpaMOBHHK h CBpeflKa"). vl 
THnHHHbiM noflpaacaxeneM poMaHTHnecKoro cthjih Be6epa. 
Ill no p^) (1781—1859) cosnaer npoHSBeAenHfl He TOJifaKO 
B o6flaGTH onepw, rae oh aanneTCH KpynHbiM aOHroHOM 
Be6epa („MeccoH«a", „<DaycT" h ftp.), ho h KpynHWM HHcrpy- 

MCHTaJIMCTOM, npOflOJiacaWmuM OTHaCTW JIHHHK) KJiaCCHKOB H 

BexxoBeHa, OTnacTH llly6epta, K stoS a«e jihhhh, ho y»ce 
B ee BbipoacflaiouieMca npoftoaweHHH, othochtch h Jlop- 
UHHT ^) (1801—1851), KOTopbifi pa6oTaJi y«e b 6onee nosft- 
HJOK) snoxy, KOrAa lepTW nepBo6biTHoro poMaHXHSMa yace 

HSMeHHJIHCb, H HOXOMy OH HBJlflJlCH CKOpCC nOCXaBlUHKOM 

MysbiKH flJiH oxcxaBUiHX cJioeB, Koxopbie erne ne ycnejiM 

yrnaxbca aa 6ojiee nepcAOBbiMH BKycoBWMH rpynnaMH. Okojio 

20— 30-x roflOB XIX BeKa noHEJieHwe orpoMHoro KOJiHHecxBa 

JiK)ftefl, HHxepecyHJiUHXCfl MysbiKofl, noBJacKjio 

nepenpoHSBOACTBo sa co6oio ^opMCHHoe x y a o m« e c x b e h h o e 

npo^eccHOBOAOB nepenpoHBBOACXBO wysbiKH. FlpeKpac- 

BTepMaHBH B30-x^^jg KjiacGHHecKHe o6pa3Ubi. coxBopeHHbie 

roAax. ^ 3TOMy BpeMCHH, H MOiUHasi npo4)eccHOHajib- 

HSH MysbiKaJibHaa Kyjibxypa FepMaHHW o6ycJiOBHJiH xo, hxo 



i)MapmHep (1795—1861)- oahh h3 anHroHOB Be6epa, CHnbHO yciy- 
naioiUHft eny b TanaHTC. Ero onep^', 6biBmHe b CBoe BpeMa MpeaBWHaftHo 
sHaMeHHTbiMH H nonyiiflpHbiMH, MHcnoM 11, ycTapenH ywe coBcpmeHHO. HaH- 
6onee SHaHHTenbHW no MyauKC „XpaMOBHHK" h „'iKmoBKa" 1828, ..BaMnHp* 
1828 H .FaHC TeHnHHr" 1833. Ero flOEonbHO MHorowcJieHHwe HHCTpyMCH- 
xanbHwe npoHSBeneHHH hc hmbiot SHaMCHHa. 

2) lllnop (1781—1859)- o«mh h3 nyninHx CKpHnaneft MHpa h saMCia- 
•renbHbift komhoshtop, npHMbiKaromHft b CHnbHofl cxeneHH k Be6epy (b onepe), 
HO eme 6nHH«e k my6epTy h MeHnenbcoHy (b KaMepHO-HHCTpyMCHTanbHOM 
CTHne). flnn ero npOHSBeReHHft xapaKiepHbi xpOMaTHSMW h HswcKaHHOcTb 
yKpauiCHHR. Ero coHHHeHHn: 10 onep (HaH6onee sHaMeHHTa „MeccoHAa"), 

ABBSITb CHM(})OHHft, CKpHHHHHbie KOHUCpTW, AO CHX HOp HOnyJISipHbie B repMaHHH, 
MHOrO CTpyHHblX KBapiCTOB H AEORhMX KBapTBTOB, 3 TaKHCe KBHHTeiOB H HpO- 

H3BeAeHHft Ana pasHbix KaMepHux cocraEOB c yMacxHeM AyxoBWX. 

■^y JIopuHHr (1801 -1851) ^aBTop onep „U,apb-nnoTHHK", „yHAHMa'V 
„BpaRbHbep" ha?., ihohom 17, KOTOpwe korAa-To saHHManH npoMHoe MecTo 
B onepHOM penepxyape, Hoceftnac Aaiorcn TonbKO b FepMaHKH. 



— 159 - 

KOJiHMecxBo npoHBBeaeHMft cepbesHofl MysbiKH cxajio npcBw- 
uiaxb HopMbi cnpoca, xcm 6oflee. hxo Kanecxso caMofi kom- 
nosHxopcKofl npoflyKUHH OKasajiocb cH^bHo ocjia6jieHHWK 
B BAoxHOBCHHH H B opwrHHajibHocxH. 3to 6bijia anoxa xaK 
HaauBaeMoft ..KanejibMeftcxepcKoft MyawKH", coHHHHBuieficjr 

6ec«lHCJieHHbIMH npo4)eCCHOHaJiaMH, HaBOJIHHBlIIHMH repMBH- 

CKwe cxpaHbi. MyawKa, hmh npoflyuHpyeMaa, oxjiHHaaacb 
rnaftKocxbK) cxpyKxypw h nojiHoft HecaMo6bixHocxbic, Kpaft- 

HHM 3nHrOHH3MOM CXHJIH, nOflpaMOBUierO KJiaCCMKaM H paHHHM 

poManxHKaM. IIohxh bcc axH KOMnoaHxopbi hmbjih mhofomhc- 
.ncHHwe onepu, chm4)ohhh, KBapxexbi h mp. conHHCHUH. OflHo- 
BpeMeHHo paaBHBajiocb BHpxyoanoe HanpasjieHHe b 4»opxe- 
nwaHHoft H CKpMnHHHoA MyabiKC h b neHHH, Koxopoe o6ycJio- 

BJIHBaJIOCb XCM, MXO UIHpOKHe CJIOH ny6flHKH B MHCXOM 

HHCxpyMeHxajiH3Me, r^e He 6biJio apejiwma h cnoaa na noA- 
Mory, oueHHBajiH xojibKo xexHHKy. Te rpynnbi, Koxopwe 
B neHHH ocxaaanHCb sepHbi Hxa;ib«HH3My h ero MejiOAHnecKH- 
BHpxyoanoMy cxhjih), BnojiHe cooxBexcxaoBajiH h b cymnocxH 
coBnaaaJiH co cjiohmh, Koxopwe HBJisijiHCb noxpedHxejiHMw 
6aecTflmefi BHpxyoaHocxn b od/iacxstx 4>opxenHaHO h ckphukh. 
^opxenHaHo, flSHHyxoe b cBoeM BHpxyoanoM paaaHXHW CHa- 
Haaa KjieMenxH, noxoM FyMMejieM h MomejiecoM, Koxopwe 
B cymnocxH HBjisrjiHcb anHroHHiecKHMH sBJieHHJiMH no oxho- 
meHHK) K noBAHeMy KJiaccHUHany (rjiaBHWM odpaaoM k Bex- 
xoBeny) h Aaace oxiacxH npHMWKajiH k „KanejibMeflcxepcKofi 
MysbiKe". Bbipa6oxajio uejiyio njiesiAy BnpxyoaoB, Koxopwe 

SBJIflJIHCb OAHOBpeMCHHO H KOMnOBHXOpaMH, H KyjIbXHBHpOBaflK 

xe HJiH HHbie BHpxyoaHbie ajieMenxw Mrpw, npn hbm Apyrwe 
KaiecxBa MyawKH — rjiy6HHa h cepbeanocxb, a nacxo h BKyc- 
ocxaBajiHCb B xeHH. 9xa uiKo;?a BHpxyoaoB rjiaPHbiM o6pa- 
30M KyjibXHBHpoBajia 6erflocxb h npoBopcxBo najibueBoft 

XeXHHKH, npH HCM 3JieMeHXbI CXHJIfl 6bmH B cymHocxH 

HeHBMeHHo xe a«e, KaK h y KJiaccHKOB c BexxosenoM. 
Tepu H KajibKdpeHHep flSHJiHcb HaH6ojiee bha- 
BBpTyosu-iiHaHH- ""MH H3 axHX BHpxyoaoB-KOMnoaHxopoB. npK 
cTw, o6ycAOBAeB- "^^M xecnaa aKOHOMHHecKasi cBHab hx c BKy- 
HMc npoMuniAeH- COM noxpe6HxejiH H c 6bixoM Bbipa»«ajiacb 

flUHH npcAnpHH- gpKo h B XOM (|jaKXe, MXO 6ojIbUiaH MaCXb HX 

™rHo» c*ep" (^^Pi^- KajibK6peHHep. rijiefiejib) 6biJiH oaho- 
' BpeMCHHo jih6o BaaACflbuaMH, flH6o naflmHKaMH 



■i^MiiMalk 



PeaKgHn 

HHTHMBOCTH 

B anoxy peaKQHH 

nOABTBHeCKOH. 

® n A b A- 



— 160 — 

KpynHbix cJjopTenwaHHbix c!pa6pwK. cjiywa kbk 6bi aKTHBHWMM 
pcKJiaMHCTaMH cBoero co6cTBeHHoro jtejia. CsHaaHHOcTb 9thx 
KOMnosHTopoB H BHpTyosoB c flpyroft. MeHee nepcAOBoft bo 
BKycax, 6oflee oTCTanoft rpynnoM noTpe6HTejieft, KOHrpyeHT- 
Hoft c ucHMTejiJiMH HxajibJiHMSMa, Bbipawajiacb h bo BHeuiHeM 
cxoflCTBe HXMysbiKH 6ojiee cKJiaccHKaMH (romhmo mhcto- 
BHpryosHbix ajieweHTOB). a He c poMaHTHKaMH. pa6oTaBuiviMH na 
MHbie. 6ojiee nporpeccHBHbie h HauiioHajiMCTHMecKHe rpynnw. 
Oco6HaKOM noflBMJiacb ^wrypa OnJibAa ^), 
nHaHHCTa h KOMnosHTopa, poflOM h3 AHrJiHH, 
HO 6onbiuyio nacTb mchshh npoMCHBiuero b Poc- 
CHH, rue on hmcji orpoMHoe sHaneHHe AJia 
pasBHTHH MysbiKH. OviJibfl ncpcHec ueHxp xsMce- 

CTH nHaHHSMa BHOBb B HHTMMHblft MMp, C KOH- 

uepTHoft 9CTpaAbi — B caflOHbi. Ero noaBfleHwe 6biJio b cym- 

HOCTH flBfleHMCM C O UH O Jl O T HM 6 C K H - p 6 a K UH O H H bl M,— 
OH BblCKaSblBajI C060K) H CBOMM TBOpMCCTBOM JIHHHtO 

pecxaBpHpyiomerocH apMCTOKpaTHBMa, Koropaa 
HaMCTHflacb B BbicuiHX Kpyrax o6mecTBa, b ocKOJinax 4)eo- 
AajibHbix rpynn, KaK noflMTHHecKuft nporecT npoTHB npoiueft- 
uiefi peBonrouHH h ee flCMOKpaTHHecKHX noBynroB. CaMoe 
noasjieHHC cDnjibfla cosnajio c pecTaBpauMefl KopojieacKofl 
BJiacTH BO OpaHUHH H c peaKUHOHHbiMH BenHHaMH no Bceft 
Espone, h He cflyHaflHO Owjibfl boshhk hmchho b apwcTOKpa- 
THwecKofl H ocTaBUieflca BCTcpoHe oxpeBOfliouHH h nanofleoHO- 
awsMa Ahpjihh h npo>KHfl >KH3Hb B caMOftepMcaBHoA h apwcTO- 
KpaTHHecKH-peaKUHOHHoa PoccHH, rae ACMOKpaTMa eme He 
ycnejia cxaTb b paftbi HHTejiJiHreHUHw w rjie oh cosaan uiKOJiy. 
OHJibfl cosftacT McaHp (jjopxenMaHHoft MMHwaxiopbi, npoHHKny- 
xoH xcM ate HsamecxBOM h KyflbxoM HswcKaHHOCXH omyme- 
HHft, Koxopbift xapaKxepen una paHHero KJiaccHUHSMa XVII! 
seKa. HO, KoneHHo, ywe cHa6weH xexHHHecKH bccmh ao- 

CXHWeHHflMH HOBblX, pOMaHXH3MOM H KJiaCCHUHSMOM npH- 

o6pexeHHbix rapMOHHnecKHX cosnaHMft h pecypcaMH hobwx. 
6oflee SByMHbix HHcxpyMeHxoB. BHpxyosHbift saeMeHx oxcxy- 



I 



"■ ') <t)HnbH (1782— 1837) — aHrjiHHaHHH, npojKHBUiHfl donbuiyio nacxb 
3KH3HH B Po3CHH, TflB osTaBMH uiKony H MKOfO yMeHHK03, noJibBOsanca cna- 
Boa senHKO-O BHpTyoaa CEoero BpeMCHH: ero wrpa 6bina Hemnaa h neBynafl, 
HBhicKaHHaa. Ero KOMnosHUHH: 7 KOHuepT0 3 una (jJOwenHaHO, HOKTwpHbi, 
4 coHaTbi, KBHHTCT H ApyrHC 4)opTenHaHHMe npoH3Be«eHH$i. 



BMCTynAeHHe 
Kpy DHGH iypxnya - 
SHH. M e B A e A b- 

COB. 



161 



Tiaex Ha Bxopoft njian nepejt saaaHHaMH Hsamecxsa h HSbicKan- 
Hocxw H nepefl npo6jTeMoft BonjiomeHwa jiHpHSMa b (fjopxe- 
nHaHHoft MysbiKe. OwjibA wbhjich nepsoft JiacxoHKofi xex 
BeaHHft. Koxopwe oh SHaMenoBaji. — BoccxaHOBjieHHH 
HSbicKaHHoro Kpyra yxoHHeHHwx uenHxejicH, 
Ha BpeMa cxyuieBanHbix pcBOJiHJUHeft h sacjioaeHHbix rpyn- 

naMH npHMHXHBHOft ACMOKpaXHH H ACMOKpaXHW HHTejIJICK- 

xyajibHOfi. Oh ace 6biJi nepsbiM sHaMeHeM npoxecxa npoxHs 
xoH aHXHxyAOJKecxBeHHOcxH, KOTopaa BOflBopHJiacb b Mysw- 
KajibHOM MHpe B <|)opMax KanejibMcftcxepcKoro snHroHHSMa 
(„Kane;]bMeHcxepcKoK MysbiKw") h eesyAepas- 
Hoft BHpxyosHocxH. Ero noflpajKaxejieM, ho 
B SHaHHxejibHO 6ojiee KpynHwx pasMepax, 
aBMJica O. MeHAejibcoH-BapxojibAH 1) 
(1809-1847), Koxopbifi, 6yflyMH can nopoacfle- 
HHeM caMOM KpynnoM 6ypM<ya3HoA cpeflw (cwh KpynHeAuiero 
6aHKnpa Esponw), cbohm asjieHHeM snaMCHyex hobmA cabht — 
npo6y>KaeHHe aKXHBHoro HHxepeca k HcxyccxBy b He;ipax 
3xoA 6yp)Kya3HH, Koxopaa xenepb (|)aKXHHecKH aBjiaexca 
rocnoacxByiomHMi KJiaccoM EBponw. He 6yflyMH HHKaK (jjHHaH- 
coBO H SKOHOMHHecKM sdHHxepecoBaHa B c6bixe cBoero HCKyc- 
cxBa, 3xa 6yp?Kya3Ha HMcaa b hcm saxo hhoA HHxepec — 
HCKyccxBO 6biJio CHMBOJiOM yxBepwfleHHa Kyjibxypnoro Bnaie- 
HHa 3Toa rpynnbi h 6bijio nyxeM cJiaBbi. Koxopaa Hrpana na 

*)MeHAenbooH (1809 -1847) pa6oTaji b pasHooSpasHbix oSnacxax 
MysMKanbHOro TBOpHecTBa. B o6nacTM CHM4)0HHMecK0H MyawKH ero npoHSBe- 
AChha: 4 CHM^OHHH, H3 KOTopbix HaHfionee nonynupHbi ..uioinaHACKaji" 
(a-moll) H ..HTanbHHCKaa", h HecKonbKO ysepTiop, us KOTOpwx caMan HSBecT- 
Hasi — „<t>HHraiiOBa nemepa". B oSnacTH BOKanbHO-HHCTpyMeHTajibHwx ^opM 
MM HanncaHO MHoro flyxoBHbix coHHHeHHft, ncannbi, opaTopwH („XpHCT0c" 
„naBen'', „MnHsi''), MyawKa k „CHy b neiHioio Hoib" (HaH6onee sipKoe h 
caMoa paHHee ero npoHSBBAeHHe, HanHcaHHoe lacTbio b EospacTe 18 nei) 
MyawKa K „AHTHroHe", „3AHny". B oSnacTH oqepw oh ocTaEwn HCOKOHMeH- 
Hbie Ha6pocKH onepM ..Jlopenesi". Oh HanHcan MHoro npoHSBefleHHfl una (jjop- 
TcnnaHO, h3 KOTopwx nonbsyioTcn MHpoEoS cnaEofl ^FlecHH 6e3 chob" 
a pauee nonbsoBanHCb 6onbuiMM pacnpocTpaneHHCM m ero „KanpHHHHO° hkoh- 
uepTbi. Ero cKpHnHMHbift KonuepT flo chx nop MpessbiMaflHO nonynqpeH. Mhofo 
npeKpacHbix semeft HanHcauo mm b oSnacxH KaMepHofl MyswKH (oKTex, abb 

KEHHTCTa, CeKCTBT C (jJOpTCnHaHO, ABd TpHO, CKpHMMMHasl M ABC B-MCnbHblX 

coHaTM H np.). M. bhctophh My3biKH eme 3aMeHaTejjeH, KaK oSmecTBeHHbift 
AesTejib, cosAaBuiHfl neflnuHrcKyio KOHcepBaTopHK) h cnocoScxBOBaBuuHfi 
pecTaBpai;HH npoMSBeAeHHfl M. C. Baxa. . .. , , 



W.V^/CM< «■ 



HcTOpDn MyarJKK. 



Hi 



':(■■ 



— 162 — 

9TOT pas. KaK H B pflfte HpyrHX cjiynaee. pojib. coBepmeHHa 
aHanorHHHVK) 9KOHOMHMecKHM CBH3«M. Ymcc b CHfly 3Toro McH- 
^^ejibcoH He Mor He tbophtb b pacneTe Ha mnpoKoe 
npnanaHHe b onpeae^eHHWx rpynnax h. cxano 6b.Tb b coot- 
BeTCTBHH c MX BKycaMH. Ho 3TH rpynHbi 6bmH 6o;.ee sa- 
MKHyTbi H 6o;iee KBaJiH^HunpoBaHbi b CHny Toro mto k hhm 
He npeA'flBJ«.Jiocb sKOHOMOTecKHX Tpe6oBaHHft. Kpynnaa 6yp- 
McyasMsi CO cbohm ypaBHOBemeHHbiM h no cymecTBy „3CTeT- 
ckhm" MHpocoaepuaHHeM necJia c co6oa cboh BKycbi: BKyc 
K scxeTHSMy H K cJjopMajibHofl saKOHHeHHOCTH. 3to o6yciio-- 
bh:io sapojKjieHMe sBJieHHs. aKaflCMHBMa, KaK KyjibTa *op- 

Ma;ibHblX 3CTeTH4eCKHX UeHHOCTCfl. HSBeCTHOrO CnOKOftCTBHW 

MHpocoaepuaHHH. npowKTOBanHoro aKOHOMHMecKHM 6jiarono- 
WHHeM sToft rpynnbi. B jihmhocth MeHAenbcoHa cKOHuenTpH- 
poBajiMCb cH;ibi peaKUHH npcTHB KaneflbMeScTepcKofl MysbiKH 
H caMOflOBJieK)meft BvipxyosHOCTH. HHCT0-6yp}Kya3Hbifl npo^ 
TecT npoTHB aeMOKpaTHMHOCTH BKycoB. BbWBHriyTbix npeftbwy 
mefl snoxoft pannero poMaHTvtsMa. h HOBoe TeMenne anafle- 
MHSMa, npojiHKTOBaHHoe sByKOOwymeHHeM Kpynnofl 6ypacya- 
3HH. Orroro b ReflreabHOCTH MeHjiejibcona 
PexpocneKTH- xapaKxepeH mombht peKOHCTpyKTHSHWH h pex- 

BHSM. Pecxaspa- pocnCKTHBHblft. Oh BblSblBaeT H3 3a6BeHHH 

gHsi Baxa. Ce6acTHaHa Baxa. MacxepcKoe coBepuieHcxBO 
TBopeHHft Koxoporo 6bmo HAeaJioM flflfl aKaaeMHSMa. oh Kyjib- 
xHBiipyex KnaccHMecKHe 4)opMbi chm^ohhh h KaMepnofl 
MVSbiKH H ftOK;iaccHHecKHe 4,opMbi opaxopHH. 3a6bixoft B anoxy 
peBonK,UKM; b «opxenHaHHoA nysbiKe °» /^^^-^^^^^Zl 

nom6HO (DHJIbfly. HSblCKaHHblft H yXOHMenHblft CXHJIb MHHHa 

"Zb. 6e3 pacMexa Ha 6bK,wyK> b rnaaa BHpxyoBHOCxb. 
OrpoMHoe .HHHoe ftapoBanne MeH;;e.bcoHa no3BO.H.o eny 
;;eLBHxe.bHo cxaxb 4)OKycoM Bon.omeHHH Bcex xex xpe6o- 
BaHv.fl. Koxopbie npea'«B«Jia k HeMy anoxa. CxHiib ero b cym 
HOcxH «Bn«excs, KaK'6b, ecxecxBennbiM paBBHxneM ^hhhh 
K^^LuHSMa H paHHcro poManxnsMa. - ^oro.on, era 06.^0- 
H npHHHCJi«K>x, HO cpo aKafteMHSM no6y5K;iaex ero cr;ia«H 
aax^B xBopMecxae Bce pesKne yr.bi h bcc ocxpb,e nyHKXbi, 
r„e Hosaxop. ho 3bo.k>u.ohhcx. ocxopo«<HO h 3aKO„H 
npo6HpaiomHflcH Bnepea b MysbiKaiibHwx pecypcax. 5Icho mxo 
c 3THM« 3a;;aHH«MH H cnpHpo;.Hoa M.rK0cxbK> ^^V^^l^^ 
;tapoBaH«H eMy ne no CHJiaM 6bma AHHaMHHecKaH *opMa 



163 --" 



■ !(f«^i«^",'*'r;ivT'».v»ji( 



^ CHM*OHMH. H Mbl BHAHM. MXO, AeftcXBHXejIbHO. CHM^OHHH ero 

3HaMHxejibHo ycxynaiox 6exxdBeHCKHM b flHHaMHSMe h aaeprHH 
BneMaT;ieHHH. HecMoxpa na to. mTq McHACJibcoH b cymnocxH 
pacnojiara^i SHanHxejibHo 6ojiee nbiiuHbiMH rapMOHHMecKHMH 
H MejiOflHMccKHMH pecypcaMH. C;iaBy MeH^ejibcoHa h nony- 
flHpHocxb ero ;xajieKO sa npeflejiaMH ero 6yp«ya3Horo Kpyra 
ms, KOToporo OH co3AaBa:i. cocxaBHjiH ero ^opxenHaHHbie 
MHHHaxiopb, („necHH 6e3 cjiob"). b Koxopwx oh npHcnoco- 
ejiHex. noAo6Ho 0H«bAy. neceHHyro (j[,opMy mh BbipanceHHa 
HHXHMHoro nepejKHBaHHH H MpesBbinaflHo o6oramaex BbipasH- 
xe;ibHbie pecypcw 4)opTenHaHo. XapanxepHbiM j^jui awa^e- 
MH3Ma MeHflejibcoHa npeflcxaBjiHexca HAeajibnaa saKOHnen- 

HOCTb (j[)OpMbr. B MBM OH npH6;iH«aeTCH K KJiaCCHKaM H 

sHaMHTejibHo npeBocxoflHx paHHHx poMaHTHKoa - Be6epa. 
lUinopa H llly6epxa. 

MeHAejibcoH BaKaHHHBaex co6oh} cepHw „paHHHx poMan- 
THKOB . KaK Hx npHHflxo HasbiBaxb. BnpoHeM. 6e3 oco6oro 
ocHOBaHHH. B cymHocxH rpynna Be6ep-UIy6epT-MeHAe;ib- 
coH H Hx 3nHroHbi HH B KaKOM cjiyHae He Moryx paccMaxpn- 
BaxbCH. KaK oepasyroiuHe KaKyro-xo HcxopHHecKyio hjih 
couHo;iorHHecKyK) ueflocxnocxb. Ohh - cjiy4aftHbie cospeMeH- 
HHKH H pa6oxa;iH b cymHOcxH wh pasaanHbix BKycoBbix 
rpynn: my6epx ~ ;ijis, 6oreMHHecKofl HHxe;iJiHreHUHH c HauHO- 

HajIHCXHMeCKHM OXXeHKOM. HO CKJIbHO AeMOKpaXHMeCKOft OKpa^ 

CKOH. Be6ep — Mfl naxpHoxHMecKH HacxpoeHHoft mnpoKofi ny> 
6JIHKH. He yAOBJiexBopjiBuiefica HxajibancKofl MHuiypHofi onepoft 
NeHflejibcoH-fljisi ny6jiHKH o6mecxBa npeMen peaKUHH. - ny- 
6;iHKH y«e acxexHoft. H3bicKaHHofi h He fleMOKpatHnecKoft. 
xoxH H yjKe He apHcxoKpaxHHecKoft. a xkhmmho 6yp«ya3Hoft. 
06mHocTb Hx ycMaxpHBaexcfl xo;ibKo b ysKOM 
acneKxe MysbiKajibHoro crvins,. KaK npHBHeceHHe 
BCCMH HMH HeKOTopoA. noKa eme oneHb He3HaMHTe;ibHoft h 
He OMeHb ocxpofl, aosu paciuHpeHHa rapMOHUMecKHx, mcjiow- 
HecKHx H pHXMHHecKHx BosMOHCHocxefl B MysbiKe HO cpaBHe- 
HHK) c KjiaccHKaMH H BexxoBeHOM. Bo BcaKOM cjiynae sxa 
rpynna BbisBana b jKHSHb ycJiOBHHMH. hmcbuihmh mbcxo h 

^OpMHpOBaBIUHMHCH HMeHHO B CBH3H C nOCJieACXBHHMH H 6^- 

«aMuiHMH peayjibxaxaMH peBOJiwunoHHoro cABHra. ho 
BcflCAcxBHe cJio«HocxH H cnyxaHHocxH couHo;iorH4ecKHX caa- 
rawm„x caMasi rpynna He Mor;ia nojiynHxb HHKaKoft nexKocxH 

11* 



1 



mysuKa BpemeBH 
pecTaBpagHB a 

noCACAyio^BH* 
anox. 



164 



o6pa3a, B 3T0M cMwcjie ona peiuHTejibHo OTJiHHaeTca ox 
rpynnw noswero poMaHXHSMa, Koxopbift o6Hapy5KV[Baex sna- 
HHxeJibHyio cnaflHHOCxb h b cMWCJie xex Kpyros, SKycbi koxo- 

PWX OHH 06cJiy>KHBajIH. M B CMblCJie o6mHOCXH HfleOJIOrHH. 

^paHuyacKaH MyswKa Hanajia XIX BeKa, 
B csasw. c KpaflHeft cnytaHHOCXbio noJiHxme- 
CKoro ropHSOHxa <t>paHUMH h c nocxoHHHO 
MCHJiioiHviMHca odpasaMM npaBJieHHH, hmccx 
necxpyK) h xpyflHO 4)opMyjinpyeMyio (|)H3hoko- 
MHK). BKycoBbie rpynnw njioxo HaMeneHbt, 
©rpoMHoe 6onbuiHHCxBO npoflOJiJKaex xy Mce jihhhk) pasanxMH, 
KaK H XVIII BeK. rjiasHasj Macca noxpe6Hxejiefi — see me 
onepHaa ny6jiHKa. ^flymaa MysbiKH xojibKO KaK onpaBbi 
K spejiumy h k cjioey. B axoM cKaSbiBaexcH ae cxojibKO hhcxo- 

BpeMCHHOe BJIHJlHHe peBOJlKJUHH. CKOJIbKO opraHMMCCKoe HaUHO- 

HajibHoe cBoficxBO (|)paHuy30B npHjiaBaxb ssyKy Menbuie SHa- 

MCHMH. MBM CflOBy. YjKe OXXOrO MMCXblft HHCXpyMeHXaJIHSM 

njioxo pasBHsaexca bo OpawuHH. HnMero noAo6Horo chm(|)o- 
HHHecKOMy CTUJiK) He cosflaexca, h6o poahhkh cuM^OHusMa— 
XBopubi (|)eoAaJioB — paspymeHbi peBO^iouHeft. a pcbojikjuhoh- 
HaH H HanoneoHOBCKaH anaxb. AHKxoBaBuiasi BKycw OJpaHUMM. 
6biJia B AOCxaxoHHofi Mepe npuMHXHBHa b cbohx Mysbi- 
KanbHbix BKycax h rjiy6oKO acMOKpaxuHHa. Ona MorJia 
noanepwHBaxb h (J)aKxnMecKM noflfl,ep«MBajia xojibKO onepy. 
XLame xe cjia6bie 3M6pHOHbi nHcxpyMeHxajinsMa, Koxopwe 
6biJiH cosjiaHbi MacxepaMH XVIII BCKa bo OpaHUHH (PaMO, 
KynepeHOM), ncHesaiox b Bonne peBOJiiouHH h ee nocaen- 
cxBHft. ¥i6o He HaxoAHxcH xoft cpe^bi, Koxopaa Morjia Ow 
KyflbXHBHpoBaxb 3XOX HHcxpyMenxaJiHSM, xpe6oBaBiiina hsbbcx- 
Hofi sHaMHxejibHOft yxoHHeHHOCxH BKycoB. riocjie Henoaa, CnoH- 
THHH H FajieBH (|)paHuy3CKaji onepa BWABHraex apKoe HBJienHe 
B flHue O 6 e p a 1) (1 782 — 1 868), pa6oxaiomero 
® * * •*' BceBxofl Mce c4)epe KOMHHecKoft onepw.KaK h ero 
'; npeAuiecxBeHHHKH— Msyap, FpexpH, Byajibflbe. CaMan aaaana 
axoa MyawKH 6biJia pwHOHHaa — ne cxojibKO ^axb Hosyio MysbiKy, 



1) 06ep (1782— 1871) — OHHH as naHdoflee flapoBHTWx KOMnosHTopoa 
KOMHHecKoa onepw. Mm HanHcano MHOro onep, h3 KOTOpbix HaH6onee «3BecTHbi: 
^KaMCHinHKH", „<I>pa-fl,HaEor.o" h cepbeaHan onepa „4)eHenna 0825). 
riocneflHHe npoH3BefleHH« O. oSHapyjKHBaiOT b hcm ynanoK AapoBaHHsi h 



165 



CKOJIbKO HOBbift cneKxaKjib. HOBbie AexajiH. HOBwe ne no cyme- 
cxBy. a no BHeuiHOcxH, MOXHBbi. Jlejio 6bmo xo;ibKo b 6oJib- 
uieM HJiH MeHbuieft cxeneHH oflapeHwocxH h jiHHHoro ocxpo- 
yMHH aBxopoB. oiKpoBeHHo pafioxaBuiHx fljiH ycnexa uiHpoKoft 
Maccbi. rioAJiHHHaH cxpyfl MyauKanbHoro' XBopMecxsa. bhahmo, 
MccsjKaex bo OpanuHH. Kojib cKopo nyawKa BcjiCAcxBue couho- 
JiorHHecKHx ycjioBHft jiHuiaexca xoro HCKatoHHxejibHoro Kane- 
cxaa. B KoxopoM 4)paHuy3CKHft MyabiKaJibHwfi reHHft 6biji 
CHjiea-BKyca. MysbiKajibHaa Kyjibxypa (DpaHUHH Morjia 
UBecxH xoflbKo B ycjiOBHsx cnpoca Ha BKyc. Koxopbifi cefinac 
nocxHrjia peayKUHji, h oh BbipoAHjica b c^epe KOMmecKoft 
onepM B nHKanxHocxb h ocxpoyMMe. h sxh AeMOKpaxHHecKHe 
JopMbi, HBH. BepHee, HaBpameHwa axoro noHHXHfl, o6ycJiOBHJiH 
6bicxpoe aajibHefimee nafleHne ^panuyscKoft KOMHMecKoa 
onepbi flo panra xan nasbiBaeMofl onepexxw. 

3noxa pecxaBpauHH h nocjieayiomHe saxeM noAHXH^ecKne 
co6biXHH BHOBb BbiABHHyjiH Ha cucHy WH3HH xpe6oBaHHfl nwiu- 
HOcxH, sjpKocxH; ACMOKpaxuHecKaH B cymnocxH o6cxaHOBKa 
HOBofl OpanuHH H o6mee naaeHMe BKycoB xpe6oBajiH ox 
onepw B03MOMCHO 6ojibmero naKonjieHHH 3(j[)(|jeKxoB. HHcxaa 
HxajibJiHCKaa nejiOAHKa h BHpxyosHocxb roJiocoB ne yaoBner 
xBopsiJia (|)paHuyaoB. Koxopbie ne ckjiohhw 6biJiH HMKor^a 
B Macce npHAaBaxb asyKy dojibuioe sHaneHHe: 3xh KanecxBa 
He 6bijm oxBeprnyxbi. ho k hhm npncoeAHHajiHCb xpe6oBaHH 
HenpeMCHHoft ApaMaxHMecKoft saBHSKH, onepw co cjiojKHoft h 
ApaMaxHMecKofi 4>a6y}ioPi (b sxom cKaaajiocb oxnacxn cneuH- 
tj[)HHecKM 4)paHuy3CKoe npejiOMjienne poMaHXHSMa), xpe6oBa- 
HHe ecxecxBCHHOcxH AeKJiaMauHH h BoanoMCHo fiojibuiero Kojm- 
necxBa cuenHnecKHX 3(|)c|)eKX0B — nuiuHocxH speflnma, mxo, na- 
BepHoe, oxMacxH AHKXOBajiocb npnBbiMKOM 4)paHuy30B nocJiCBO- 
eHHOH snoxH K MaccoBbiM xop»ecxBaM. yjKe CnoHXHHH nwxaJiCH 
yAOBJiexBopnxb sxhm xpe6oBaHHflM, npwMeHasi scHMecKHe 
34)4(eKXbi B CBOHX onepax, oxpaMcaBuiHx BOHHcxBenHbifl h 
nbiuiHbift Ayx snoxH HanojieoHHaMa, yjKe Pocchhh (b „Bnjib- 
rejibMe TejiJie", HanncaHHOM ajih ITapHjKa) nwxajica yroAHXb 
BKycy napHMccKHX noxpe6nxejieft repoHMecKHM croacexoM h 
Maccoft BOKajibHbix, ApaMaxHHecKHx h cuennHecKHx 3c|)tJ}eKxoB. 
Ho nojiHbiM oxpasHxejieM sxoro BKyca h KOMnosHxopoM, Bce- 
uejio oxBexHBuiHM Ha aanpocbi napnmcKoro noxpe6HxejiH 
onepw, 6biJi espeft h3 TepMaHMH, npoHcxoAHBiUHa Ha KJiacca 



ffleSepSep. 



— 166 — . 

KpynHoft 6yp>Kya3HH, noflo6HO MeHflejibcoHy — 

M e fl e p 6 e p ^) (1791-1 864), KOTopbifl. 6yflyHH 

BnojiHe JiHuieH aKOHOMHMecKHX sanpocoB ot caoero MCKyc- 

eTsa, B Bbicuieft cxeneHH 6biJi saHHTepecoBan b toB; cjiase. 

KOTopyro OHO hbcjio c co6oh>. h noTOwy TmaxeJibHO h ynopHO 

HCKaji Toro CTHJisi, B KOTopoM ero TBopnecTBO HauiJio 6bi 

ce6e MaKCHMajibHbift c6biT m npusHaHne. MeHfleJibcoH 6bm 

CHaexjiHsee Meftep6epa b tom cMwcne, hto oh cpasy Hamen 

CBOK) JiHHHio aKafteMHSMa. Sxy ace caMyio jihhhk), Bnojine 

dcxecTBeHHyK) ana npeflCTaBHTCJiH Kpynnoft 6ypacya3HH. bktmb- 

Ho BbicTynaMjmeft k TBopMecTBy. nbixajicji cHanajia bccth h 

MeHep6ep, ho ero onbixw b 3tom TpyjiHOM jiejie 6biJiH ne- 

yflaMHbi. rioTOM OH nbixaJicH nepenecTH cbok) c^epy b onepbi 

HxajibHHCKoro CTHJiH, KaK oTBenaBUiero HaH6oJiee uihpokhm 

rpynnaM noTpe6HTejiefii. ho w xyx He Mor BbwepsKaTb koh- 

KypeHUHK) c 6ojiee ero MejioflWHecKH oflapennbiMH HraJibSH- 

uaMH. Torm oh nepcHec cBofl BKycoBOiR uenxp b FlapHMc h 

TyT OKasajicJi KaK pas Ten KOMnosHTopoM, KOTopwft CMor 

yroAHTb BKycy 4)paHuy3CKofii TOJinw. Oh flosea nwuiHOCTb 

cneKxaKJiJi fto ero norwHecKHX npenejiOB h naace nepecTynHJi 

MaCTHHHO MX. Oh COeAMHHJI B CBOeft OHCpe HTaJIb^HCKyK) 

KaHTHJieny h sHpTyosHOCTb c 6oJiee cjioacHbiM rapMOHHiecKHM 
CTHJieM repMaHCKoro pannero poMaHTH3Ma, oflHOBpeweHHO Aas 
MecTO jiK)6HMOMy (IjpaHuysaMH fteKJianauHOHHOMy sjieMeHxy m 
saHMCTBOBas y Be6epa h CnoHTHHH hx ApaMaTHMecKwe m 
KOflopHTHbie opKecTpoBbie 34)4)eKTbi, KOTopwe OH pacuiHpHJi 



i)Meftep6ep (Akob Beep) (1791-1864) - h3 6oraToro eBpeftcKoro 
ceMcftcTEa 6aHKHpoB, CHa^ana cosflaBan ce6e Kapbepy, KaK nnaHHCT h kbk 
KOMnosHTop cepbesHoro aKa«eMHMecKoro HanpaBJiCHHsi. SaxcM, y6eflHBmMCb, 
HTO 9T0T CTHflb HB nonbByeTca cHMnaTHaMH mnpoKoft ny6nHKH h He ooemaeT 
cnaBbi, OH nepeMeHHn cHaMana cbok) c*epy na onepy HTanbflHCKoro Hanpa- 
BjieHHH (TaKHX HM HanHcaHO 7 B 6biTH0CTb ero B MianHH), a nosflHee-Ha 
onepy dnecTsimero, noMnesHoro xapaKTepa, cBflsaHHyw opraHHHCCKH c 6onb- 
fflOH napHKscKoft onepHoa cueHoft. ;i,iis! aToft cueHb. h Hna napHS^CKOH 
ny6nHKH M. HanHcan ceoh nyMUiHe coHHHeHHfl, o6ycnoBHBmHe ero MMpoByw 
cjiasy („Po6epT-Ab«Eon« 1831, „ryreH0Tb." 1836 h „npopoK" 1848). Hocne- 
flyroiuHe onepw M. HMenw y^^e MeHbuiHfl ycnex h hb^ ornHManMCb renu 
HOCTOHHCTEaMH (h3 hhx HaH6onee HssecTHM „J],HHopa" H „A4)pHKaHKa ). 
OrpoMHaa nonynapHOCTb onep M. «epasanacb b TeneHHe noHTu Bcero XIX b. 
H TonbKO K XX B. cTana c«aBaTb nofl HanopoM hobwx TeHeHBft-«-Ttofl sma- 
HHCM rH6enH cTapofl onepHoft EOKanbHoft tcxkhkh. 



— 167 — 

M yMHOMcnn. Ero HaH6ojibmee sHaneHHe, KaK (t)aKTopa b pas- 

BHTHH MySblKBJIbHOrO CTHJIH, TJiaBHblM 06pa30M B flpaMaXH" 

sauHH onepHOM mcjioahh h b KOJiopncTHHecKHx OTKpbiraax 
B opKecTpe, r^e OH npeaBapsieT Barnepa. „Po6epT flbjiBOJi", 
„ryreHOTbi'' H „r[popoK" cocTaBJiHK)T TpH TJiaBHbix STana ero 
TgopneCTBa, nocjie npoxojKaeHHH Koxopbix b ero TBopnecTBe 
saMeHaeTCH ocjia6jieHHe, a OAHOspeMeHHO bo BKycax napmn- 
CKoft ny6jiHKH — cMemeHne BKycoBbix TMnoB, KOTopoe orpasvi- 
Jiocb Ha npHCMC ero nocjieAHHx KOMno3HUMfl, TBopnecTBo 
Meaep6epa dwjio KyjibMHHauHOHHbiM nposiBjieHMeM on^pnofi 
xeaTpajibHOCTH, npn neM b noroHe sa nbiuiHOCTbK) o6mero 
BneMaTJieHHJi, pacciHTaHHoro na BocnpHsiTHe flOBOJibno wajio 
pa3BHToft Maccbi, ynycKajiHcb sjieMeHTbi noAJiHHHoro ApaMa- 

TH3Ma. KOTOpuft paCTBOpHJICH B 3(|)4)eKTaX BHpTVOSHOCTH M 

B TpaAHUHOHHoA MaHcpe onepHoro cthjih. Mefiep6ep HBJijieTCH 
noTOMy OTuoM Toro flOMcnoro ApaMaxHSMa, Koxopbift npHBeji 
onepy K KapmcarypHbiM siBJieHHSM h Bbi3Baji b cbok) omc- 
peAb peaKUHib b nojibsy BoccTanoBJieHMJi HCKOHHofi ApaMaxH- 
lecKoft npHpoAbi onepHoro cneKraKjin. 

B POCCHH, CTOHBlUeM B CTOpOHC OT 
MyaMKaaPoccHH. co6bi™ft B TCMeHHe XVIII BeKa, Mbl BHAHM 

c SanaflOM. cHana^a HCKjiKJHHTejibHo ..MMnopxHbie" HBJie- 

HHH, MySblKa BB03HTCJI H3-3a rpaHHUbl B ueflsx 

ynpoHCHMH nwiUHOCTH H HpecTHMca HMnepaxopcKoro ABopa, 
^TapaBiuerocH He OTCTaBaxb ot sanaAHwx. Ctpofhm abophh- 
cKO-4)eoAajibHbift 6biT o6ycjioBJiHBaji pasBHTue HcnojiHHTejib- 

•CKHX. a nOTOM H KOMHOSHTOpCKHX CHJI HCKJIK>HHTejIbHO H3 
COCJIOBHH KpenOCTHblX HJIH H3 MejIKHX pa3HOMHHUeB, KOTOpbie 

B nopaAKe MeuenaTCTBa, nacTO, BnpoMeM. AOBOJibHO comhh- 
xejibHoro, OTnpaBJiajiHcb Ha o6yMeHHe 3a rpaHHuy (npeviMy- 

meCTBCHHO B MTaJIHK>, nOCTaBJIHBUiyK) B POCCHIO MyBblKy 

rjiaBHbiM odpasoM) h, nojiynHs Tan TexHHHecKHfi uijiu^, npoAy- 
UHpOBajiH My3biKy a^h noTpe6jieHHH Bwcuiero Kpyra. KOTopbift 
HBJiHJicH njioxHM ueHHTCJieM HO HepasBHTOCTH. HO 3anpocbi 
KOToporo cBOAHJiHcb K BOSMOJkHO 6ojibmeMy noAo6iiro 3tom 
4)a6pHKyeMoft b Pocchh nysbiKH sanaAHoft. TaKHM o6pa30M 

pOAHJIHCb HTaJIbHHOBHAHbie pyCCKHe KOMHOSHUHH XVIII BBKa: 

MHorae onepbi, KaHTaTbi, poacAeHHbie cnpocoM na sth Tunbi 



v,^j-i^^-flf."'V . 



168.— 



MysbiKH npH flBopax. KoMnoanTopbi 3TH He 

HMCJIH CaMOCTOflTejlbHOrO SHaMCHMH H B cyiU" 
HOCTH HBJIHJlHCb 3nHrOHMMeCK«MH 3iieMeHTaMH 



KoMIIOSHTOpU- 

npo4>eccHOHaAi>i, 

BMy^eHHKH^HHo- g^^^g^^^^jj^ ^^^^ npeHMymecTBCHHO neanojiH- 

cxpaHBCB. ^g^^^j,^QJ^ (BopTHSHCKHfl. BepeSOBCKHft H flp). 

Ohm ace flBJiHJiHCb KOMnoHHcraMH h uepKOBHofl MyawKH, TO>Ke 
nHcaBiueflcH b tcx ace sanaflHwx 4)opMax, npHBHeccHHbix 
B PoccHK) HTajibHHuaMH (PajiynnH. CapTH h ap.). non™ bch 

MCTOpHH MySblKH B PoCCHH B XVIII BCKC npOTCKaeT HOfl 3Ha- 

KOM cHJibHeflmero HTajibaHCKoro sacHJiba. npH mcm, OflHaKO. 
eflBa JIM BKyc noTpe6HTejieft 6biJi bhojihc b cooxBeTCTBMH 
c 3TOM THnoM MysbiKH; cKopee Tyx wrpaji pojib HSBecTHWH 
cho6h3m, McejiaHwe 6biTb noAo6HbiM EBpone, cBoficTBeHHbift 
9Toft anoxe Pocchh h b apyrHX o6jiacTHx. MctohhwA BKyc 
flawe apHCTOKpaTHHecKHx c4)ep b cymHOCTw 6biji 6jih30k 
K rany Hapoaa, h HapoflHaH necHH h njiacKa ynoBJieTBopHJiH 
eMy B 6ojibiijeH creneHH. OxToro yate bo BTopofl noJiOBHHe 
XVIII Beka mw Ha6jiioaaeM cxpeMJieHHe k yxBepacixeHMK) 
„HauHOHajiH3Ma" b Mysbixe. k KyjibxusHpoBaHMio wapoAHbix 
HaneBOB. 6ojiee noHsixHbix h poflHwx npuMHTHBHbiM BKycaM. 
MAeojiorHHecKH 3Xo HaunonanbHoe HanpaBJieHwe dnpasAbiBa- 
.nocb pacxymHM nojiHXHHCCKHM sHaMeHneM Pocchh, KaK bcjim- 
Koa aepacaBbi. KaK 6bi xo hh 6biJio, ywe b1756 r. nojiBJiHexcfl 
onepa - BoaesHJib na HauHonaJibRbifi cK)»ex' 
PowAeBHe („TaHK)iua" BojiKOBa) na pyccKOM asbme h 

BagHOHaAfcHOro ^ pyccKHM 6bIXOBblM CKJHCeXOM, OMeBHflHO, 

BOfleBHAH. g^^^^ noHaxHbiM, HeaceJiH ciOHcexbi h3 aHXH4- 
Hofi MMfjboJiorHH, panee npHHaxbie b cepbCBHbix HxaJibJiHCKHX 
M MxanbHHOBHaHbix onepax. Ho pyccKaa necHH, noABeprHyxaa 
no Heo6xoAHMOCxH nepeaejiKe BbiynenHKaMH HxajibHHCKHX 
lUKOJi. oxHacxH B 3XHX npoHSBefleHHHX yxpaMHBajia cboh 
xapaKxepHbie nauHOHajibHwe . cBoftcxsa h hmchho xe. 

KOXOpbie MOrJTIM 6bIXb BaMCHeHW 6oJiee npHMHXHBHblMH H 

AocxynHbiMH 4)opMaMH H3 npaKXHKH sanaAHO-eBpone^CKofl 
MysbiKH. TaKHM o6pa30M ApeBHHe AHaxoHHHecKHe JiaAbi pyc- 
CKofi HapoAHOH necHH H ApeBHsiH accHMexpHHHaa pwxMHKa 

BblXeCHHlOXCH eBpOneftCKHM MaaCOp-MHHOpOM H MeXHblMH H 

xpoSiHaxbiMH pHXMaMH, B Koxopbie BxecHsexcH KOHxyp pyc- 

CKOft MCJIOAHH. TaKHM o6pa30M COSAaCXCfl CXHJlb „HXaJIbSlHO- 

pyccKoft" HJiH jfiojKHopyccKoft necHH, KOxopbiA uapHx B MysbiKe 



- 169 — 

Pocchh AOBOJibHo aojifo, h6o oh b cymnocxH snojiHe yAO- 
BjiexBopaex AHJiexanxcKHM BKycan noxpe6HxejibCKoi o Kpyra 
apHcxoKpaxoB. B cbhsh c 3anpocaNH npyra h HxajibHHCKHe 
aaxopw, npHrjiauieHHbie ajih pa6oxbi b Pocchio, nwxajiHCb 

HHCaXb MCJIOAHH B IlCCBAOpyCCKOM CXHJie, KOXOpblJS HMCJI 

AOBOJibHO Majio xyAoacecxBeHHbix onpaBAanHfi. Becb kohcil 
XVIII B. B Pocchh npoxoAHX noA snaKOM CHjibHefliiiero bjihhhhh 
sanaAHofi MysbiKajibHofi mwcjih h 6opb6b! c 3xhm nyxcM nacajKAe- 

KoMnosHTopti- ""^ HaUHOHaAbHOM MCJIOAHKH. KoMHOSHXOpaMH 

6apw. ^ KOHuy BBKa cxanoBsixcH, b cbhsh c necKOJibKo 
6oAee CBo6oAHbiMH npaBaMHsnoxH, h cbmh abo- 
PHHC. nopoacAaji xnnHHHoe aah Pocchh aBjienne 6apHHa-K0M- 
nosHxopa, KoxopbiA o6biMHo hbjihach AHAexaHxoM-caMoyHKoft, 
He jiHiueHHbiM HHorAa Kpynnoft MysbiKajibHOCXH, ho xexHHMe- 
CKH 6ecnoMomHbiM, Mxo no6ywAajio sxhx komhoshxopob ae- 
peAKO nopy4aTb AexaAbHyio o6pa6oxKy cbohx cosAaHHft cbohm 
KpenocxHbiM, o6yMeHHbiM 3a rpaHHuen MysbiKe. XVIII bck Aaji 
Pocchh yjKe MHoro hmbh BnpxyosoB h komhoshxopob kslk hs 
AHJiexaHxcxByiomnx 6ap, xaK h h3 pa3HOHHHueB h Kpenocx- 
Hbix (nanp., cKpHnan h komhoshxop XaHAOiiiKHH, Thxob h ap-). 
ripHMHxHBHbiH BKyc Kpyra noxpe6Hxejieft hobjihsji na xo, 

MXO paSBHXHK) HOAJlCWajIH B PoCCHH XOJIbKO (J)OpMbI pOMaHCa 

H onepbi, KaK HaH6ojiee Aocxynnwe Macce, KaK CBsisaHHwe 
CO cjioBOM H BpejiHuieM H oxxoro noHHXHbie. Ha pasBHxne 
poManca hobjihsijih caMbie pa3Hoo6pa3Hbie ycjiOBHa h npH- 
HHHbi: HapoAHaa HxajibsiHHBnpoBaHHaH necHH, uwraHCKHe 
MOXHBbi, nojibsoBaBuiHecH orpoMHofl nonyjisipHocxbK) b Pocchh 

B ABOpHHCKHX C^^epaX, KaK OXBeHaBIlIHe SpOXHMCCKOMy MO- 

Menxy, orcyxcxByiomeMy b pyccKoft HapoAHoii necne, 3anaAHa5i 
poMancHan hjih neceHHasi jinxepaxypa (IIIy6epx) — c XIX 
BCKa. 3xox CXHJlb npHMHXHBHoro poManca h onepbi nojlynnji 
Thtobm. BepcxoB- P*^^"™^ "^ XBopsecxBe THxoBbix (oxua H 
ckkH, AAH6i.eB. *^""^)' BepcxoBCKoro h Aji$i6beBa~ 

XHnHHHblX KOMnOSHXOpOB AHJiexaHXOB, OXJIH- 
MaBUlHXCH KpaWHefl npMMHXHBHOCXbK) (JjaKXypbl CBOHX KOM- 

nosHUHfl. BepcxoBCKHH 1) (1799—1862) HSBecxen, kbk aBxop 
onepbi „AcKOJibA0Ba Mornjia" h p^Aa Apyrnx Menee yAannbix 



') BepcroBCKHH (1799—1862) HanHcan 5 toAesHjiefi, onepw: 
„AcKoxfbAOBa MorHJia", „naH TEapAOBCKHft", „BaflHM", „TocKa no poflMne", 






1 ^u 



B KOTOpblX OH KyJlbTHBHpyeX CTHJIb BOAeBHflH C pyCCKHMH M 

pyccKoo6pa3HbiMM HancBaMH. An 91 6 la en ^) (1787 — 1851) 6biJi 
KOMnosHTopoM nonyjisipHbix poMancoB. OjiHOBpeMeHHO c hhmh 
noxBHsajica K a b o c — HxajibJiHeu, aKKJiHMaTHSHpoBaBiuHficM 
Ha pyccKoft noHBe h nbiTaBiuHflcn nHcarb nofl pyccKHft CTHJib 
(onepa „MBaH CycaHHH")- BesiHua jmrepaTypHoro poMan- 
TH3Ma, saxaaTMBUiMe Pocchk) b Hanajie XIX Bewa h cnjibHo 
pacnpocTpaneHHbie b sbiciueM HaH6oJiee KyjibrypHOM cjioe 

B CBSI3H C HanOJieOHOBCKOft BOHHOH 1 81 2 rORa. flaJlH CHJlbHblH 

HMnyjibc pasBHTi-K) 6ojiee opraHMnecKoro HauHonajiHSMa 
B MysbiKC. SnaMeHHe Pocchh, KaK BejiHKOft AepjKaBbi, Bosrjia- 
BJintoiueft peaKu,MOHHbifl KOHuepx esponeftcKHx AepHcas nocne 

BOHHbl, AOJI»<HO 6bIJIO 6bITb OTo6pa«eHO B C03JtaHHH HaUHO- 

HajibHO^ H naxpHOTviHecKofl onepw, npuxoM yace He BOflCBHJiJi, 
a cepbesHoft. SIsjicHHe 3to 6biJio Bnojine anajiorHMHo tcm 
(J3aKTopaM, KOTopbie b PepMaHHn Bbi3BajiH HBJieHHe Be6epa 
c ero poMaHTHHCCKH HauKonaJibHoA onepofl. Mto jiBJieHne 
pyccKoro MyswKajibHoro HauHonajiHSMa 6biJio b cyiUHOcTM 

fiBJieHMCM pOMaHTHMeCKHM H peaKUHOHHbIM, iiOKaSblBapTCSI KaK 

KJiaccoBbiM aHajiHSOM HOCHTejieft 3Toro HanpaBJieHHH (see — 
apHCTOKpaTHHecKHe ^annimn ABopsiHCTBa), xaK h o6iumm 
TOHOM HX TBopnecTBa. 

r Ji H H K a ^) (1 802—1 857) 6biJi nepsbiM pyc- 

CKHM KOMn03HTOpOM H3 JlBOpaH, KOTOpwft AO 



FAHHKa. 



„HypoBa MonHHa" h „rpoMo5oa"; b nocneflHHX oh ywe men sa FnHHKoJi, b 
nepBbix oTHacTH ero npeaBapsin. Ma Bcex ero onep ocianacb oTHOCHTenbHO 

>KH3HeHH0ft TOHbKO „AcKOnbflOBa MOrHJia". 

1) Aa5!6beB (1787— 1851) HanHcan MHomecTBO powaHCOB, nacTb koto- 
pbix CTana homth Hapo«HbiMH MOTHBaMH. MHpoByio nonynapHOCTb (6naroflapH 

HCnOnHeHHSM SHaMeHHTNX KOJlOpaxypHblX neBHU H TpaHCKpHnilHHM JiHCTa) 

nonyHHn ero „ConoBeH", ao chx nop eme HcnonHseMwA b KOHuepxax, kbk 
BHpTyosHaa semb. 

) ruHHKa (1802 — 1857) BHanajie nHcan komhoshuhh oSiueeBponefl- 
CKoro CTHns; b stot paHHHH nepHO« mm HanHcaHw HeHSftaHHwe flo chx nop 
cenTyop, chmcJjohhsi, n,Be yBepTiopw, KsapieT h np. FIotom oh yBneKanca 
HTanbHHCKHM neHHeM H cTnneM (b 30-x roflax). C „?Kh3hh sa u,apa" naHM- 
HaeTca nepHOfl nauHOHajiHSMa b ero wyawKe (1836), OKpenmnft k „Pycnany 
H JIwAMHjie" (1842). KpoMe 3thx ceohx (j^yHflaMeHTanbHMx cokhhchhA, npo- 
cnaBHBuiHx ero hmsi, FnHHKa Hanncan MyawKy k „KHfl3io XonncKOMy" (1840), 
CHMtjjOHMHecKHC ^jaHTasHH: „ApparoHCKaq xoTa", „Hpib b MaflpHfle", „KaMa- 
pHHCKaa", „Bajibc-({)aHTa3Ha" h mhofo poMancoB. Flofl KOHeu whshh FnHHKa 
pafioTan Haft pyccKHMH iiepKOBHUMH necnoneKHaMH. 



MSBCCTHOft CTeneHH OTKasajica ox AHJiexaHXCKoro cmna pa- 
6oxbi H peuiHJi npoflxH caM HeKoxopbiS Kypc MyswKaJibHbix 
HayK. ^BJiCHHe Pjihhkh, Ha nepsbift pas cxpannoe h Baesan- 
Hoe B MajiOKyjibxypHofl Pocchh, o6'jicHHexcH OHCHb jierKO, ccjih 

npHHflXb BO BHHMaHHe XO 3HaHHXeJIbHOe 0?KHBJieHHe CHOmeHHH 

c SanaAOM, Koxopoe oanaMeHOBajio nanajio XIX BCKa. Pyc- 

CKHe CXOJIHUbl CXajIH MHpOBblMH TOpOAaMH, B HHX 6bIJIH HMnOp- 

xHpoBaHbi caMbie HOBwe h cbc^khc aocxhjkchhh CBponeftcKoro 
BKyca. B 3XO BpeMa b EBpone 6biji Pocchhh, KjiaccHKH, Bex- 
xoBen. Illy6epx. Be6ep, pyccKyio cxojiwuy nocemajiH He xojibKo 
npejicxaBHxejiH HxajibHHCKofl onepw, hohxh hc noKHAaBiiiHe 
ee, HO H snaMeHHXbie BHpxyosw, h3 Koxopwx Onjibfl whji 

nOMTH BCK> JKHSHb B PoCCHH H XyX COSAaJI lllKO;iy HHaHHCXOB, 

H (jjpaHuyscKHC aBxopbi KOMHnecKofl onepw (nanp., ByajibAbe), 
Bee 3XH BHesanHO HaxJiwHyBUiHe sjiCMenxw ne mopjih ne 
OKasaxb B03fleficXBHa na MysbiKajibnyK) ncHXHKy, m FjiHHKa 

6bIJI JIHUIb cJjOKyCOM, B KOXOpOM OXpaSHJIHCb BCe 3XH BJIHSIHHJI. 

Ero cxHjib 6bi,ii paBHOfleflcxByromeft cxhjih (j)paHuy3CKHX kom- 
, nosHxopoB, Be6epa, oxnacxH BexxoBena h Mouapxa. . Ho 
K axoMy 6biJi npHAan eiue saHMcxBOBaHHwft y Be6epa h 
poManxHKOB HauHOnajiHSM, BbipaBMBuiHAcn B Kyjibxype Ha- 
poflHoro Mejioca, Koxopaa 6bi;ia Hanaxa ya<e npefluiecTseH- 
HHKaMH Fjihhkh. PadoxaBuiHH Ha BKyc xojihko mxo o6pa30Bbi- 
BaBiueAcH rpynnw HHxejiJiHrenxHbix nauHOHajiHcxoB (cosep- 
uieHHo KaK H Be6ep), FjiHHKa ne Mor He cHHxaxbcn c ypoBHeM 
H sanpocaMH axoft rpynnw. Oxxoro oh ne Mor poAHXb hh 
(jjopxenHaHHoro cthjisi, ajih Koxoporo b Pocchh eiue ne 6bi;io 
HcnoJiHHxefleft, h Aawe nocxoHHHoft KOHuepxHofl scrpaflw, hh 
CHM(J)OHH3Ma, Koxopwft 6biJi ciue xpyAeH AJiH nocxHraHHsi. 
Ero onepHbiH cxHjib abhjich cymecxBeHHO HauHonajibHWM, m 
B MexKOM yraAaHHH oco6eHHOcxefl xapaKxepHwx ana pyccKoro 
MCJioca cocxoHX FJiaBHasi aacjiyra Fjihhkh, onpaBAWBaroman 
ero npHsnaHHoe BHaneHHe b pyccKofi MysbiKajibHOH HcxopHH. 
Oh nepBbiA nanocHX yaap JiOM<HopyccKOMy necennoMy cxhjikj. 
Ho ero ocxajibHwe KanecxBa KOMnosnuHH AajieKH ox caMO- 
6bixHOcxH H o6Hapy>KHBaK>x caMbie pasHoodpasHwe bjihsihhsi, 
HcxoAsnuHe h3 SanaAa (BexxoBCH, Mouapx, Be6ep, ByajibAbe. 
OnjibA. Meflep6ep), h, cxoah c HauHonajibHofl noMBw, oh hx 
o6HapyMCHBaex oco6eHHO sipKO. EcxecxBenHO, mxo ero opKe- 
cxpoBaa MyawKa, b Koxopoft oh b cymHocxH hbhjicsi b Pocchh 



.■jk:iil»0iii^vi- 



nwoHepoM, o6HapyM?HBaeT cKjiOHHOCTb k pancoAHMecKHM ^op- 
MaM, H OH opraHHMecKH Hywfl, Kyjibxype conaTHbix (Jjopw 
MHCxpyMeHTajiHSMa. PyccKaa MysbiKajibHaa KyabTypa, boshhk- 
uiaji B HHTHMHbix 6apcKHX Kpyrax, a He npw fl,Bope MarHara, 
KaK cHMc|)OHHHecKaH KyjibTypa KJiaccHMCCKOfl anoxH, anejifln- 
poBasmasi ko BKycy eme HeycxaHOBUBmeMycH h njioxo pa36H- 
paiomeMycH a MHCXoii MysbiKe, h3 MHCTpyMeHTajibHwx 4)opM 
Morjia OAo6pHTb Ha nepsbix nopax TOJibKo „H3o6pa3HTe;ib- 
Hbie"* (|)opMbi, KOTopbie npH6jiH}KajiHCb K onepe h poMancy, 
H ecjiH He flasajiH nojiHocTbio „coAep>KaHHfl" MyswKH, to xoth 
6bi HBMeK Ha nee b bhac 3arjiaBHH unvi b bhac TanuoBaflbHofi 
npHpoflbi Bcero coHHHeHHa („ApparoHCKafl xora", „HoHb b Maa- 
pHAe", ..KaMapHHCKaa", „BaJibc-(|)aHTa3nfl" h npoH.). Onepw 
FjiHHKH, 6biBiiiMe rjiaBHofl ero MysbiKajibHofl sacjiyrofl, HanwcaHbi: 
nepBan— „MH3Hb sa uapn" — no peuenraM Be6epa h HTaJibHH- 
ueB.BTopaa— „PycjiaH h JIiOAMHJia"— He 6e3 bjihhhhh wOdepoHa*^ 
Toro M«e Be6epa, ho eme c cHJibHWM BJiHaHHCM Meflep6epa. 
Ho caMo6biTHbiM B FjiMHKe ocraeTCH ero HauHOHajibHbift Me- 
jioc, rjiaBHbiM o6pa30M pyccKufi, KOTopbift h npujiaeT ero 
TBopnecTBy cseMcecTb h opHrwHajibHOCTb no cpaBHeHHio 
c sanaAHbiMH ero o6pa3U,aMH. 

B cpeae HHTCJiJiHreHTHOM HauHOHajibHO HacrpoeHHOM 

MaCCbl, TOJIbKO HTO pOHCAaBUieftCJI B POCCHH, Onepbl FflKHKH 

MMejiH orpoMHbift ycnex, roraa kbk apHcroKpaTHHecKHe BepxH. 
MCHee noABMHyxbie b sByKOcosepuannH aa h b o6meM 
pasBHTHH, coBepmeHHO KaK h b SanajiHOfi: EBpone, npcAno- 
MHxajiH HxajibHHCKyio MysbiKy 6ojiee flCMOKpaxMHecKoft fjimh- 
KHHCKOH. TeM He MeHee, xaK Kan nepsaa rpynna 6biJia 
MHxeJiJieKxyajibHo Becne, xo npHMep FjinHKH HCMeflJieHHo 
BbisBaji anHroHHHecKHe asjieHMa, nacxb Koxopwx najia na ero 
npefluiecxBeHHHKOB — BepcxoBCKoro Hfl,p., koxo- 
pwe HanajiH nncaxb noA CHJibHbiM ero BflHHHHeM. 



dDHFOBbi Faiihkh: 
^aprOMbiaccKHH. 



Hawdojiee hpkhm annroHOM Fjihhkm aBHJica 
J3,aproMbi»ccKHA ^) (1813 — 1869), Koxopbift pa6oxafl noff 
BJiHHHHeM ^Jpa^uyscKoft onepbi (FajiesH — 06ep), sawMcxBOBaB 
y nee cxpeMJieHwe k apaMaxMHecKoil aeKJiaMauHH h k peajiHSMy 

M ^aproMbiJKCKMM naiiHcan onepw „3cKepanbfla", „TopKecTEO 
BaKxa", „PycajiKa" (1855) h „KaMeHHbia rocTb" (1867), KpoMC Toro, MHoro 
poMaHCOB, KOTopbie noiOTca no chx nop b Pocchh. Ma ero onep b penep- 
Tyape yfl.ep>Kanacb TonbKO „PycajiKa". 



■•■■ ■-■'■■'"■ 



173 



AHKUHH. Ero xBopMecxBO (onepa „PycajiKa", AeKJiaMauHOHHo 
peHHxaxHBHaa onepa ..KaMeHHbift rocxb" h poMancbi) mmcjio 
B BHfly Bce xy Mce cpe^y HauHonajiHcxMHecKH HacxpoeHHbix 
cjiyiUdxejieft h oxKpwxo npoxHsonojiarajio ce6a HxajibHHHSMy; 
B 3XOM CMbicjie flaproMbia<CKHfl npoAOJiMcaJi h yKpenjiHJi aejio 
H HanpaBJieHHe Fjihhkh, o6jiHHaa, BnponeM, SHaHnxejibHo 
MeHbuiHe pa3Mepbi AapoBanna. FjiHHKa h flaproMbiHccKHH 
cocxaBJiaiox paHHHft nepcMCHXOK pyccKoro MysbncajibHoro po- 
MaHXHMecKoro nauHOHaiJiHSMa, o6ycj(iOB;ieHHoro sapoMcfleHHeM 
KyjibxypHoro KJiacca HHxejiJiHreHxoB — abophh, Koxopbifl co- 
cxaBHJi KaApbi noxpe6Hxejieft nepBwx axanoB cepbesHOft 
MysbiKH. riocJieflyiomHe KOMnoBHxopw b Pocchh pa3BHBajiHCb 
y^e noA Bfl:HaHHeM no3AHero sana^Horo poManxHSMa. 

3xoT no3flHHft poMaHXH3M Ha Sanaae 6biJi 
nosAHBS poMAH- Bi,i3BaH HacToamHM pacusexoM xoft HHxeji- 

TH3IM B B&nafiso& . _ ' ^ 

Espone. JiHreHXCKOH, KyjibxypHOM rpynnw noxpeOHxejia 
MysbiKH, Koxopoft Hanajio mojkho npocjieflMxb 
yM<e c nepsbix toaob XIX sexa h Koxopaa o6ycjioBHJia m 
poH<fleHHe paHHero poManxHSMa. Ho b xy anoxy xapaKxe-^ 
pHcxHKH axoft rpynnbi He 6bi;iH eme AOcxaxoHHO apKH h 
utejibHbi, h6o cawoe HanpaBfleHwe h xwn sKyca aaHHoH rpynnw 
He npescxaBJiajiHcb ycxanoBMBiHHMHca. Xoxa HfleojiorHnecKHe 
npeanocbijiKH poMaHXHSMa — <|)aHxacxHMHOcxb, nyjibx cxapwHw, 
HauvioHa;ibHaa OKpacKa, HfleajiHCXHHecKH-4>HJioco45CKHft Bsrjiaa 
Ha cymnocxb HCKyccxBa h xa oco6eHHaa pojib, Koxopaw 
B MHpe HCKyccxBa oxBOflHjiacb MysbiKe, — xoxa Bce axo 6biflO 
AaHO eme JiHxepaxypHbiM xBopnecxBOM 9. Fo4>MaHa, ho can oh 
■6bM HeflocxaxoHHO eme 3peji AJia Bonjiomenwa b Mysbiwe 
noAo6Hbix HacxpoeHHfl nojiHocxbio, a panHHe poMaHXMKH dbijiw 
B cMJiax BonJiOTHXb flajieKO ne Bce cxopoHW poMaHXHHecKoro 
KaxexHSHca w MacxbK) Aance cjieAOsajiH coBepmenno 6ecco- 
3HaxejibHO npocTO BKyeoBOwy XHny cBoeft rpynnw, KaK 
llly6epx. Oahhm m3 xapaKxepHeMuiHX cboAcxb nosAnero po- 
MaHTHSMa BBHjnocb ocosnaHHoe cxpeMJieHHe 



HoBaTOpCTBO. 

K HOBaXOpCXBy, HeHaBHCXb K snHroHHSMy, 

Hxo oxMacxH o6ycjiOBJieHO 6biJio 4>aKXHHecKHM sacHJibeM b axo 
BpeMa KanejibMeftcxepcKofi MysbiKw, cxojib nywAofl Ayxy ho- 
BHSHbi. 3xo sacHJibe Bbi3biB£uio b jiyniuHx MyswKanxax MyBCXBO 
npoxecxa h nacxo M<ejiaHHe noA'iepKnyxb h o6ocxpHXb 
HOBaxopcKHe mrpHXH. B axoM CMWCJie anoxa nosAnero po- 



— 174 — 

MaHTH3Ma npHHOCHT HCHTO OpraHHHeCKH HOBOe B HCKyCCTBO: 

KOMno3HTop yBJieKaercsr H^eeft TBopeHHH HOBbix ssyKOBbix 

MHpOB, HCBeflOMOCTb H nblUIHOCTb KOTOpblX CTdEHJia MX B HO- 

jiowcHMe saraAOHHbix poMaHTHMCCKHx sjieMeHTOB. HosaTopcTBO 
npe?KHMX aBTopoB, Aaace BeTXOBeHa, 6biflo b cymnocTH 
ropasflo MeHee cosHaTejibHbiM, noMTw HMnyjibCHBHbiM, TorAa 
KaK nosflHMft poMaHTHK onpe^ejieHHO craBHJi ce6e nenvi — 
cosflasaTb HOBbie nyxw b MCKyccTBe, OTpnitaTb cbohm TBop- 
MecTBOM npouijioe, flBwraTb MyawKy Bnepex. SjiCMeHTW npecM- 

CTBeHHOCTW H MaCTCpCTBa, CTOJIb BaWHbie B npOUIJIOM, Tcnepb 

Tepj!K)T CBOK) ocTpoxy H MacTO Aaine coBepuieHHO cryuie- 
BbiBatoTCH nepcA H^eeft „BjioxHOBeHHfl", KOTopoe onpaBjibiBaeT 
Bce. MHTeJiJieKTyajibHbie Kpyra ny6jiHXH, npoHUKHyxbie H^esiMH 
HfleajiHCTHHCCKoft (J3HJioco4>HH (lUeJiJiHHr, Fereflb h flp.). opra- 
HHMecKH cooTBexcTBOBajiH 3THM HaMepcHKHM, OHH TOMce a<a- 
atflaJiH B MysbiKe h b HCKyccTse Boo6me HOBbix omymeHHft, 
xapaKTCpHbix BOo6iiie ajia hobopo KJiacca, ho b cufly hhtcji- 
jieKTyajibHocTM nocjicAHero npHo6peBuinx nporpeccHBHwft 
xapaKTep. 

KpoMe Toro, nepefl MysbiKoft crajia bo Bceft uiHpoTe h 
ocrpoTC crapaH npo6jieMa „Bbipa3HTeJibH0CTn" h „coAepMca- 
Hwa". EcjiH MysbiKaHT KJiaccHHecKofl anoxH m cjiymaTCJib ^eo- 
jtajibHoro Kpyra BOo6iiie Mano 3aayMbiBajic» nafl tcm, mto h 
noMeMy AOJiMCHa Bbipaacaxb My3biKa, to (|)hjioco4)ckh HacxpoeH- 
HBH ayflMTopHJi Hanaaa 30-x foaob 6biJia k axoMy BOBce ue 
6e3pa3JiHMHa. JlnxepaxypHbie npeAnocwjiKH pcManxuKH h xec- 
Hefiiuan csasb ee c (J[)mjiococJ)ckoA Mwcjibio xpe6oBajiH xoro, 
HXo6bi MysbiKa nepecxajia oKOHiaTeJibHO 6bixb HCKyccxBOM 
B c e 6 e, HTo6bi OHa BbicxynHJia h3 cbohx lyBcxBeHHbix pawoK 

J1h6o B CXOpOHy CBa3H C MblCJIbK) H C HfleOJlO" 

lIporpaMMHocTt., pHHecKofl nflocKOCTbio, nyi6o b cxopony cbs[3h 
KaK anore bm- ^ H3o6pa3HTejibHOcxbK). MysbiKa ftOJiMCHa 6biJia 

paSHTeAIiBOCTH. '^ ' „ 

MXO-XO BblCKaSblBaXb, nOMHMO CBOeM HHCXO- 

3ByKOBofl cyiuHOCTH. M cjiyuiaxeJib, h KOMnosHxop b nefi ncKajiH 
KOHKpeTHoro cMbicJia, KOTopbifl Mor 6biTb BbipajKeHHbiM nvi6o 
B HaMCKax 3arJiaBHS, jih6o b 6ojiee noapo6Hoft, flexajiH- 
soBaHHOfl BnporpaMMe", x.-e. aHxepaxypHOM H3JioaceHHK 
CMbicJia MysbiKH. 3to xpeooBaHHe HfleojiorHnecKoft cojiepMca- 
xejibHocxH HaKJiaflbiBaex oco6eHHbii) xapawxep Ha Bce XBop- 
MecTBo „no3AHero" poManxHSMa. OAHOBpeMCHHO c 6ojiee 



— 1/0 

o6mHM xpe6oBaHHeM coAepM<axejibHocTn ox My3biKH ocosHaexca 
eme cnoco6HOCxb MysbiKH b spKofl cxeneHH »<MBOnHcaxb 
sBynaMH co6bixnH h o6pa3bi. 3to KanecxBO 6biJio ocosnaHO 
6jiaroAapH onepe, b KOxopoA My3biKa xaK h^h HHane BcerAa 
H aaBHO yMce cocxoHJia b poJiH H3o6pa3HxejibHHUbi onpeae- 
jieHHbix nepex<HBaHHA h co6bixHft. HoBaH ny6jiHKa, npoHHKHy- 
TaH KyjibxypHbiMH HAeajiaMH, BnHxajia b ce6a h onepnyio 
acxexHKy; xe BbipasHxejibHbie KaHecxaa, Koxopwe AOcxHrnyxbi 
6bmH onepHbiM HCKyccxBOM, uiHpoKO nonyjiapHbiM, h Koxopwe 
eme ne ycnejiH b anoxy paHnero poMaHXH3Ma nepcHecxHCb 
B njiocKocxb MHCToro HHcxpyMeHxaJiHSMa, xenepb bhocaxcs 
b nocJieAHioK). TaKHM odpaaoM powAaexcsi xox SByKOBofl hjih 

MySblKaJIbHblfi CHMBO;iH3M, KOTOpblfi o6'eAHHHeX HACK) co- 

AepwaHHH B My3biKe c HAceft nporpawMHOcxH. TpyAHO npo- 
aecxH rpaHHuy MeacAy My3biKofl, nMeromeft uejibio h BaAaneS 

MXO-XO BbipaSHXb, H MCMCAy MyBblKOft npOPpaMMHOft; H 

B Tofl H B ApyroH MyBbiKa aBJJsexcH B poAH CHMBOJia, H rpa- 
HHUbi npHMeHHMOcxH 3xoft cHMBOAHKH HeonpeAeJieHHbi. B 6ojiee 
yMepeHHbix CJiynanx h nanpaBJieHviHX axox chmboahsm npo- 
HBJiflexcH xojibKO B cxpeMncHMH aBxopa yKaBaxb o6uxhA xoa 
HacxpoeHHH cBoero coMUHenHH, HCMHorHMH anxepaxypHbiMH. 
o6biMHO noaxHMecKHMH uixpHxaMH Aaxb caymaxejiK) no- 
MOHb pa3o6paxbCH B MHpe ssyKOBbix omymeHHft H, AaB eMy 
3XOX ncHxojiorHHecKHfl KaMepxoH, xeM caMbiM o6oraxHXb 
BocnpHHXHe MyBbiKH, Koxopaa yjKe AeMcxByex ne xojibKo 

CHJIOft CBOHX SByKOBblX pCCypCOB, HO COBMCCXHblMH yCHJIHflMH 

HAen H SByKa. B 6o;iee xpaflHHx cjiynasix MyBbiKaxtbHaa chm- 
BOJiHKa npocxupaexcH Aa>Ke ao CHMBOJiH3auHH sByKaMH koh- 
KpexHbix o6pa30B, HAeft, noHsixHft h Aa»ce npocxo Bemefl, ne 
roBopa yM«e o co6bixnHX, npH hbm HHorAa xyx My3biKa noab- 
ayexcH MexatJjopvwecKHMH anajiorHAMH cBoero 3ByKOBoro 
«3biKa c pasHbiMH HBJieHHflMM (sByKonoApaMcaHHe, noAo6He, 
MeTa4)opa AHHaMHKH h ABHSceHHa), HHorAa we coBepmeHHO 
CB060AH0 cosAaex sByKOBbie 4'opMt>i-HAen c ycjioBHbiM chm- 
BOJiHHecKHM coAepscaHHeM. 

FlepBOHaHajibHbiS nMnyjibc wyBbiKajibHofl 

OAVXCTBOpeHHaH » i_ ^ 

^ *^ poMaHXHKe noBAHCM cbopMauHH ObiJi AaH pac- 

BHpTyOSHOCTb. '^ Tr r >- r 

UBCXOM HCnOJIHHXeAbHOrO HCKyCCXBa, HarJlHAHO 

AeMOHcxpHpoBaBiuero cpaBHHxeJibHO iiinpoKHM MaccaM orpoM- 

HOCTb nCHXHMeCKOrO B03AeficXBHH HCKyCCXBa. 9tO 6blfl, xaK 



J^AKJjg^ 



^MiUjki-riniiSm^ii 



lUi 



CKasaTb, nepHOfl, O^y XOTBOp CH HOM BHpTyOSHOCTK, 

mcAuieft Ha cMCHy npezKHefl — nojiyMexaHMMecKOH. HoBoe 
(J)opTenHaHO, rexHHHecKHMH pecypcamH KOToporo ywe OBJia- 
aejiH BHpryosbi . npcMCHero noKOJieHHH, JKaMcaex nojiyMWTb 
B npeflCJiax 3thx hobwx pecypcoB xyflOwecTBeHHoe rsop- 
necTBO. ny6jiHKa, He yaoBJieTBopjjiomaJica mhctom BHpryos- 
HOCTbto, T.-e. KaK pas Te cjioh noTpe6HTejieH, b Koropbix 
HflCH poMaHTHSMa >KHJia H Kpenjia, Tpedosajia ot HOBoro 
KOMnoBHTopa BHHMaHHH K HOBbiM pccypcaM HHCXpyMeHTa. 
To, HTo 6biJio flocTHrnyTo b cMwcjie TexHHMecKnx cpeACTB, 
aojiJKHO 6biJio nojiyHHTb xyflOMcecTBeHHoe onpaaaaHHe. B caMoft 
cHJibHofl CTcncHH 3TO CKasajiocb B c})opTennaHHOH o6;iacTH, B KO- 
TOpoS HOBHSHa KOHCXpyKUHH HHCTpyMCHTa 6biJia no6yflHTejib- 
HbiM noBOAOM, a HesaBHCHMOCTb caMoro HHCxpyMeHTa ox apyrux, 
ero caMOAOBJiCHHe, kbk HHCxpyMeHxa nojimfjoHMMecKoro, ca- 
Moro BMeui,aK)iuero SByKosoft Mwp, h cpaBHHxejibHasi flocxyn- 
Hocxb McnojiHeHHJi, cxaBHJiH ero b oco6o BbiroAHoe nojioHceHwe, 
Koxopoe KOMnencHpoBajio HeKOXopyro a6cxpaKXHOcxb ero 

■SByMHOCXH H OXCyXCXBHe B HCM MyBCXBeHHOfi SKCnpeCCHH, 

HoBoe xBopnecxBO hmchho aojijkho 6biJio Aaxb c|)opxenHaHO 
HyBcxBeHHOcxb 3ByKa H SKcnpeccHK) B ero c4)epe. B 9xy 
anoxy KOHuepxHan mchshb Hi\MHHaex ywe pasBHBaxbCH, lUHpoKwe 
Maccbi npHyMHJiHCb k KOHuepxaM. cnpoc Ha KOHuepxaHxoa 
BCflKHX HanMeHOBaHHfr H HanpaBJiennfl Boapacxaex, h hcmc- 

AJieHHO OHH CaMH HaMHHaVOX nOHBJiaXbCH B SHaMHXeJIbHOM KO- 

jiHMecxBe. B sHanHxenbHo MCHbuieft cxenenH oKasbiaaex 
BjiHjiHHe Ha MysbiKajibHyK) KOMnosHumo BHpxyosHOCXb b Apy- 
THx ctjjepax, m6o xaM caMbifi HHCxpyMCHx (neHHe, cKpHnna) 
HHCKOJibKO He coBepuieHCXByexca h noxoMy cymecxBenHo 
HOBbix xexHHMecKHx B03MO>KHocxeft He o6Hapy>KHBaex. TeM 
He MeHce HMeHHO Hanajio XIX Bena Aaex BepeHHuy MvipoBbix 
BHpxyosHbix HMBH, cosAaHjiuHX BMpxyosHyK) JiHxepaxypy aji« 
neHHH H AJis CKpHnKH. B o6jiacxH neHHH axo, KaK h cJiCAyex 
OMCHAaxb, xecHeftuiHM o6pa30M cBHSbiBaexcji c onepHofl m 

HMeHHO MXaJIbSHCKOft UIKOJIOfl, B KOTOpoK 6bIJI HaJIHUO KyJlbX 

BHpxyosHOcxH c AaBHHX BpcMeH (TaM6ypHHH, MapHO, JIa6jiam, 

KaxajiaHH, Sonxar h Apyrwe); b o6jiacxH ckphhkh Bhoxxh h 

B oco6eHHOcxH riaraHHHH co3AaK)x coBep- 

"^'^uiTreB^'"''^' ™e"«o oco6bift MHp BMpxyosHO xexHunecKHx 

B03MO>KHOcxefi, HO 3XH HMeHHO HBfleHHa Mano 



OKasbiBarox B03AeHCTBHH Ha KOMnosMUMK), h6o hx noxpe6H- 
xejieM B cyiuHocxM ocxaexcH mhoA Kpyr — Kpyr onepHoft 
ny6jiHKH, coBnaAaK)m,ei! c jiK)6Hxe;iflMH hvlctoPi BHpxyosHOCXH. 
HanpoxHB, siBJieHHe OpaHua Jlncxa (1811—1886) 6biJio 
B BbicuieA cxencHH BaMCHo ajih 4)opMHpoBaHHH AajibHeftuiero 
pasBHXHji MysbiKH BOo6me, xaK me KaK HBJieHHe 111 o n e h a- 
HMaHHcxa H 6ojiee wejiKHx, yxe HHcxo-nHaHHcxHiecKHx asjie- 
HHft (Kjiapa Bhk, Tajib6epr h oxnacxH (PujibA, oxhocjiiuhimch 
K HecKOJibKo 6ojiee pawHeMy BpeneHH). Bee axw nwaHHcxbi 

COSHAatOX CXHJIb 3KCnpeCCHBHOiT, BblCOKOSMOUHOHaJIbHOft Hrpbi 

Ha 4>opxenHaHO h cosAaiox HcnojibajBaHwe ero SByKOBwx h 

KOHCXpyKXHBHblX CBOficXB B XyAOMCeCXBeHHblX UeJlHX. B hx 

pa6oxax h b hx nrpe BnepBbie HaMHHaex cosnaBaxbCH cxHJib 

t|)opxenHaHo, KaK HHcxpyMCHxa „apc|)HMecKoro" xMna. h uenxp 

HsMeHCHHe koh- THHcecxH c 6er;iocxH h naccajKCH nepcHOCHxca 

cTpygHH ({lopTenH- ^ 6jiecK 3ByHHocxH, B xyAOHcecxBeHHoe Hcnojib- 

ano, KHK npHHHHa SOBaHHC KOJIOpHXa pasHbix perHcxpoB. Cwjib- 

,«acsBeTa anp- hoc HSMeneHHe H cABHr, npoHcmeAuiHfi; b 3xy 

xyosHocTH. 3noxy, o6ycjiOBJieH He xojibKo cjiynaftHbiM 

HanJIblBOM HHaHHCXHMeCKHX AapOBaHHM, HO rJiaBHblM o6pa30M 

xeM, Mxo B 1823 roAy cj[)a6pHKaHx 3 p a p H3o6pexaex „ABOHHyK) 
penexHUHK)" b poanax, nosBojiHromyio AocxHPHyxb 6ojibuiero 
6jiecKa B HcnojiHeHHH h b SByKe, a wyryHHaa pana Ba6KOKa, 
H3o6pexeHHaH b 1825 roAy, b orpoMHOH cxeneHH ycHJiHJia 
3By4Hocxb HHcxpyMCHxa, Hxo HeMBAJieHHo B CHJibHeftuieft cxe- 
neHH noBbicHJio 3HaMeHHe panee Majio cymecxBeHHoft n e a a Ji m 
H nocjiyjKHJio K cosAaHHK) neAajibHbix xhhob SByMaHHft na 
4)opxenHaHO, xapaKxepnbix ajih bcbh noBoft 4)opxenHaHHoft 
MysbiKH. B c{|)epe sxmx hobmx cf^opxenHannbix B03MO>KHocxeft 
paBBHJiocb TBopMecxBO KpynHefluiHX reHHeB noBAHero poMan- 
xn3Ma, M3 Koxopbix xpoe (UlyMaH, llIoneH, JIhcx) b cBoeft 
pa6oxe, KaK nHaHHcxbi, 6biJiH opranHnecKH CBsisanbi c 4>op- 
xenHaHHbiM MHpoM BBynaHnft. • 

„ HoBoe noKOJieHwe komhobhxopob nepBoft 

HOBaTOpCTBO 3By- „ „ , „ 

HaHHH. KpaHHHfl ^^°^^ JiacxoMKOH HMBAO (fjpaHuysa— F e k x o p a 

nporpaMMHocTB. BepjiHosa ^) (1803 — 1869), y Koxoporo see 

EepAHos. cBoftcxBa poMaHXHSMa nocxaBJieHbi naHdojiee 

r. BepnMoa (1803—1859) paSoran MCKnioMHTejibHO TOJibKO soSna- 

CTH KpynHblX OpKeCTpOEO-EOKanbHMX M HHCTO-OpKeCTpOBblX (fiopM- Hm HanH- 

caHbi: fljis! opKecTpa — ..OanTacTHSiecKaa chm(})0HH5!" (1830), ...IlenHo", „Phm- 



KcTopnji MyatiKi:. 



la. 



Jiiiiihi 



pesKO H — BCJieflCTBue ero 6ojiee paHHero noHBJiCHHH — eme 
He BnojiHe xyfloacecTBeHHO. BepjiHOs, caM Bceuejio npH- 
HaflJiCMcaBiUHft K rpynne HHTejiJiHreHUHn, poMaHTHHecKH Ha- 

CXpOeHHOfl H He yflOBJieTBOpHBUieflCfl MHUiypHblMH MyswKajib- 

HbiMH yBecejieHHHMH TorAauiHefl (|)paHuy3CKoft onepw (Pa- 
JiCBH, MeHep6ep h npon.), He HaxoflHa noflAepacKH b cBoen 
poAHoft ctpane, r^e ara rpynna 6biJia npesMepHO MajioMnc- 

JieHHa, H 3TO o6yCJ10BMJIO TO, HTO ero C06cTBeHH0e TBOP" 

HecTBO, He HaxoflJ! noTpe6HTejia, jiHuiHJiocb neTKoro h sicHoro 
nyTH, xoTH eny HHKaK nejibsn OTKasarb b xapaKxepHocxH. 
PoMaHTHSM BepjiHOsa, ocrpaa ycranoBKa hm ochobhux bo- 
npocoB ero hobofo MysbiKajibHoro KarexHSHca 6biJiH npo- 
jiBJieHbi rjiaBHbiM o6pa30M b ero aapoBHTbix kphthhcckhx 
CTaxbHx, rae oh h hbhjich cosHAaxejieM roPi caMofl poMaHXH- 
MecKOH rpynnbi noxpedHxejieft, yjKe cymecxBOBaBiueft b Pep- 
MaHHH, oxcyxcxBHe KoxopoM B ero cxpane nocjiyacHJio xaKHM 
cymecxBeHHbiM xopMOSOM AJijr ero jihhhofo xBopnecxBa. Oaho- 
speMeHHO OH Bbicxynaex, kbk KOMnosuxop MpeaBbiMaftno jipKO 
BbipaaceHHoro nporpaMMHoro HanpaBJieHHH. MysbiKa y 
Hero He xojibKO AOJiacHa HMexb onpenejienHoe coAepacaHHe 
HAeflHoro nopHAKa, ho cnoco6Ha h AOJiHcna cxpeMHxbCH Bbipa- 
M<aTb Aa»<e aBsieHwa h co6bixHfl — acHBonHcaxb sByKaMH. 
MpesBbiHaftHO pesKasi nocxanoBKa hm Bonpoca o nporpaMM- 
hocxh, B03M0JKH0, o6ycJiOBJieHa 6biAa HMeHHO HenoAroxo- 

BJieHHOCXbH) B KyjIbXypHOM OXHOUieHHH SHaMHXeJIbHOft MaCXH 

MysbiKajibHoft ny6jiHKH OpanuHH, oxcxaBuieft sa BpeMa nojiH- 
THMecKHx noxpaceHHH ox ApyrHX cxpan. Bo OpaHUHH — b cxpaHe 
onepbi H B cxpane, rAe MysbiKa BcerAa cjiywHJia noAcnopbeM 
K cJiOBy, K MbicjiH — MpesBbiiaflHO ecxecxBeHHo 6biJio noHBJie- 
Hue KOMHOSHxopa, cxpeMHBuierocH nepenecxH axy MbicAb bo 
Bceft ee JiorHHecKofl KOHKpexnocxH h b njiocKocxb hhcxofo 
CHM(J)OHH3Ma. Ho nporpaMMHOcxb He Meiuajia BepjiHosy 
oxnecxHCb neoMCHAaHHO 6epe?KHO k KJiaccHMecKofl c|)opMe 



CKHft KapHasan", „rapojibfl b MTanHH", „PoMeo h lOnHq" (neMTO b pofle chm- 
(})OHHH c xopaMH H neHHeM); flna cucHbi — „TpoflHUbi", „B3aTHe Tpon", „BeH- 
BCHyTO MenjiHHH", „BeaTpHca h BeHeflHKi"; opaiopHH „JI,eTCTBo XpncTa" 
K- ^PeKBHew", ApaMaTHHecKan nercHfla „OcyacfleHHe Oaycia" h flpyrne npo- 
HSBCAeHMH. Oh pa6oTan h KaK BbiflawiuHHCJi AHpnasep, h KaK MyawKanbHWH 
nHcaiejib, ocTaBHB newfly npoMHM ueHHbm „Kypc HHCTpyMeHTOBKn" h pyKO- 

BOflCTEO „J3,MpHJKep OpKCCTpa". 



179 



CMMqpoHHH H Hc paspyuiaxb ee: ero KpynHbie nporpaMMHwe 

K0Mn03HUHH HanHCaHbl n04XH B BblAepMOHHOM CHM(|)OHH4eCKOft 

(BHeuiHHM o6pa30M) (jjopMe („4>aHxacxHMecKaH chm4)Ohmh", 
„PnMCKHfl KapHaBaji", „rapojibA e MxajiHn", „Jlejino"). OAHOBpe- 
MeHHO OH npo6oBaji cboh cnnbi b onepe (nTpoHHUbi", „BeHBe- 
Hyxo MejiJiHHH" h ap-). tab oh, oAHaKO, ne Mor noAHqxbcsf naA 
cxHjicM Meiiep6epoBCKOM onepbi, m b opaxopnH („JI,excxBO 
XpHcxa", „OcyM<AeHHe f&aycxa"). BbipociiiHH na nenoAXOAameft 
noHBe, OH pa3BMBajic5i HenpaBHJibHO, m oxAejibHwe sjieMenxbi 
ero MysbiKajibHofl oAapeHHOcxH ne OKasa^Hcb y Hero b naAAe- 
>Kamefl rapMOHHH. Majio cnoco6HbiH k MCJiOAHKe, oh OKasw- 
BaexcH apKHM HosaxopoM h cMCJibiM npojiaraxejiCM hobwx 
nyxeft b rapMOHHH h eme 6oJiee b opKecxpoBOM KOJiopwxe, 
nxe OH cosAaex coBepmeHHO nosbift noAxoA k opKecxpoBOMy 
Maxepwajiy. CweJiocxb yl AeKopaxMBHaa rpaHAHOSHOcxb ero 
nocxpoeHHfii — ero caMbie xapaKxepHwe cBoftcxBa: oh aneji- 

JlMpyeX K OrpOMHbIM MaCCaM, oh, BHOCSI B My3bIKy HOBbie 

aaeMenxbi, xonex cACJiaxb hx AOCxynHWMH ajih uiHpo- 

KHX Mace HCKJIH)MHXejIbHO MOHyMeHXajlbHblM, KOJIOCCaJIbHHM 

Macuixa6oM hx BbinoJineHUH. B sxom cKasbiBaexcH He 

XOJIbKO XO, MXO BepJlHOS B cymHOCXH HBHJICa aBXO" 

poM, pa6oxaBii]HM ajih coBepuieHHo HeBWJicHeHHoro una 
Hero caMoro Kpyra noxpe6HxejieM, ho k xo, hxo 
B ero acxexHKy npoKpaAwsajiHCb rommmo ero bojih MHorwe 
xapaKxepHbie ajieMcnxbi MHcxo-(|)paHuy3CKoro MyswKajibHoro 
MHponoHHMaHHH, yHacjiCAOBaHHwe ox roAOB peBOJiiouHW, 
BoeHHbix 6ypb, BeHHwx nepeBopoxoB h ox BKycoB napHMccKoft 
xoAHbi. K axoMy naAO oxnecxH ero rpaHAHOSHwe nonbixKH, 
ero cxpeMJieHHe saAaBHXb cflymaxejiH He cxojibKo KanecxBOM, 
cKOJibKO KOJiHMecxBOM MysbiKajibHbix 3JieMeHxoB, epo npo- 
rpaMMHan acxexHKa, paccHHxaHHan b Hxore Ha cpaBHHxeJibHO 
Majibift MysbiKajibHbifl ypoBCHb BOcnpHHHMaiomeft ayAHTopiw. 
HecMoxpsi Ha Bce nonbixKn xaK hjih HHane cKJiewxb cBoe 
XBOpnecxBO c sanpocaMK KaKoro-HH6yAb Kpyra, xBop- 
MecxBO BepjiHosa bo OpanuHH peiuHxejibHo He npHBH- 
jiocb H MMejio 3HaHHxejibHo dojibiiiee BJiHMHHe 3a npeAejiaMH 
ero cxpaHbi, b FepMaHUH h b Pocchh, rAe oho AeflcxBHxejibHO 
OKasajiocb cnoco6HbiM cosAaxb HanpaBJienwe rJiy6oKoe h 

OpraHMHCCKOe. FlpHHHHbl 3XH KpblflHCb, OMeBHAHO, B XOM, HXO 

B 3XHX cxpaHax yace hmcjich c;io>KHBiiinftcH Kpyr noxpe- 

12» 



L 



j^.....^..^^^^. 






6HTejiH Ha MysbiKy HOBaxopcKoro HanpasjieHMsi c nopbiBOM 
K HOBbiM 6eperaM — HMenHO HHTejiJiMreHTCKwe rpynnbi. Hanpo- 

THB, BO $paHU,HH BBCb XOA .MySblKaJIbHOFO paSBHTHH lUeJI 

B CTopoHy OT Hjieft BepjiHOsa vi HaMenaJica b HanpaBjieHHH 
K AsrpaflauHH MysbiKH b poa yBecenenmi, c oahoA CTopoHw, 
a c Apyroft — K HapoM^AeHHKJ aKaAeMHswa, cxoAb npoTHBono- 
jiOHCHoro depjiHOSOBCKMM ycTpeMJieHHHM H AHKTyeMoro Bbicry- 
njieHHCM Ha couHOJiorHMecKyK) apeny rpynn npoMbiuiAeHHofl 
6ypM<ya3HH c ee acTeTHMecKHMn MHpoomymeHHHMH. 

MysbiKa BepjiHoaa b cyiUHocTH xaK h He nauijia HHKorAa 
umpoKoro noTpe6HTejifl, OHa wajio npHiujiacb KOMy no BKycy, 
sa MCKAK>HeHHeM HesnaMHTeAbHbix rpynn MysbiKanxoB-cne- 
UHajiHCTOB PepMaHHH H PoccHH, FAB OHa HocjiyMCHAa 6ojiee 
onjioAOTBopjnomHM ^JepMSHTOM AJiH co6cTBeHHoro TBopnecTBa 
npeACTaBUxejiefl axHX rpynn, a ne aji« pacnpocxpaHeHHH 
B uiHpoKHX Maccax. H^ea KpaftHefl nporpaMMHOcxn ne MorJia 
cpasy HaMXH Aocxyn b cjioe HHxejiJiHreHXHoro cjiymaxeAH, 
h6o cBoefl npHMOAHHeftHocxbK) BbisbiBajia na acxexHMecKHe 
BOspajKeHHH. Ho xcm He Menee HHxepec k MysbiKe, oxmc- 
HeHHOH KaKMM-xo „onpeAejieHHbiM coAepMcaHneM". noHUMa- 
CMbiM B MHCxo-HAeoAorHHecKOM AHXcpaxyp- 
HoBaTopcTBo pwt- j^Qf^ acncKxe, poc m uiHpMJicsi. Ha mhcto- 
repMaHCKOH noHse axox HHxepec ewsBan 
K JKH3HH rcHHaAbHoe wBAeHHe III y M a H a '■) 
(1810 — 1856), Koxoporo MOM<Ho cMUxaxb ecxecxBeHHbiM npo- 
AOJiJKaxejieM sjienenxoB, sajioaceHHbix LQydepxoM h Bexxo- 
BeHOM. EcJiH BepjiHOS b cymHOcxH He hmcji HHKaKoro oxho- 
meHHH K HCxopnH pasBHXHflf xexHHKH HOBoro c|)opxenHaHO M 
CKopee 6bm cBHsan c onepHbiMn kophhmh, xo lllyMaH, nanpo- 



IIIyMaH. 



1) lllyMaH (1810 — 1856) SHaMCHHTHKaK KOMnosHTOp, h kbk MyswKanb- 
Hbift MbicHHTenb H KpHTHK, OflHH MS nepBbix cosHflaTeneS cepbesHOH xyflOs«e- 
CTBCHHOH npeccbi. liiyMaH nanHoan 4 chmcjjohhm, KOTOpwe, OflHaKO, cnnbHO 
yMe ycTapenH, hSo oh He oSnanan cnocoSnocTbio k opKecipoBOMy KOJiopHiy, 
MysbiKy K „MaHq()peHy" BaflpoHa, opaTopMM (HanSonee HSBecTHaa „Paft m 
riepH"), KOHuepTbi RHH BHOHOHHejiH H flna cjiopTenHano c opKeoTpoM, OKono 
300 necen una ronoca (naHfiojiee HSEecTHH nuKnu „MHpTbi", „JlK)6oBb n03Ta" 
H „JIw6oBb H jKHSHb jKeHinHHbi"), MKoro (jjopienHaKHbix npoHSBefleHHit, Meji- 
KHX H itpynHbix, H3 KOTopbix iiaHSonee Kpynnoe sHaMeHHe HMeiOT flne conaTbi 
(fis-moll H g-moU), „KpeficnepHaHa", „CHM(|)OHHHecKHe sTroflbi", „KapHa- 
Ban°, (fiaHTasHn C-dur, „Papillons". nooneRHHe roflbi jkhshh LUyMaH 6biji 
ncHXHMecKH 6oneH h ywep b ncHXHaxpHMecKoB SonbHHue. 



. 



— 181 — . ■ 

XHB, B cymHocxH Bccb cBsisaH c (|)opTenMaHo: Aa»ce 
B cBoeM opKecxpe h b KawepHOM aHcaM6jie oh — cKpbixwfl 
(|)opxennaHHCx, rAy6oKO nonyBCXBOBaBiUHH khxhmhwh Ayx 
axoro HHcxpyMeHxa. PoManxuMecKaH xeHAenuHH y BepjiHosa 

BbipaMOJiaCb B CXpeMJieHHH K HMnOHHpOBaHHK) rpaHAHOS- 

HocxbK) EonjiomeHHH, y LUyMaHa ona BbicKasajiacb b o6pax- 

HOM B CXpCMJieHMH K HHXHMHOfl MHHHaXK)pHOCXH, 

H 3XO HaxoAnJiocb B sHaHHxejibHo 6ojiee xcchom KOHxaKxe 
c HacxpoeHHCM xex KpyroB, k KoxopbiM anejiJiHpoBajio xBop- 
HecxBO IlIyMaHa. Ysce oaho xo, mxo KOJioccajibHbie Hcnoji- 
HeHHH xpe6oBajiH cpeACXBAJia cbohx ocymecxBJieHHM, Koxopbie ■ 
xpyAHO 6bi;!o Aocxaxb, xorAa KaK HHXHMHbiH cxnAb (|)opxe- 
HHaHO 6biJi BcerAa Aocxynen h AeroK, xaK me Kan h hb Menee 
HHXHMHaH c£|)epa BOKajibHoft MHKHaxropbi - necHH, TAe llly- 
MaH c xaKoA Hce saeprHefi pa6oxaji, — oaho axo AejiaAo 
MysbiKy LUyMaHa, nanHcaHHyio b pacMexe na bosmomchocxh 
Macxbix HcnojTHeHHM, 6ojiee AOcxynnoH h noxoMy 6ojiee 
npoHHO oucHHBaeMoft, AajKe ecjiH 6bi ona OKaaajiacb b Mysbi- 
KajibHOM oxHouieHHH 6ojiee xpyAHoS h cjiowho^, kbk axo h 
6biJio. lllyMaH BMecxe c MeHACJibcoHOM (h noxoM c lllone- 
hom) co3Aaex JiHxepaxypy xyAOJKecxBeHHoro cfjopxenwaHO m 
BMecxe c lUy6epxoM — ^jinxepaxypy xyAOMcecxBenHoS necHH. 
HaMeHaBuiHHCH ynce panee npoxecx npoxHB sacHJibH snHronoB 
M npoxHB caMOAOBJieromefi EwpxyoBHOcxH b ero XBopnecxBe 
nojiynaex HOBbift, MorynHM HMnyjibc. Oh cxpeMHxcH npHAaxb 
MysbiKajibHcii MHHHax>ope, cxHjib Koxopoft npoHHKaex y Hero 
AaH<:e KpynHbie cj[}opMbi (chmc|)ohhk), conaxy), rjiy6oKoe haso- 
jioPHMecKoe 3HaMeHHe h cmwcji. B 3xom CMwcjie oh uieji na- 
Bcxpeny o6meMy xeMeHwro, Koxopoe b pesKoft, ypoAJiHBoft 
4>OTpne BbipasHJiocb b bhac KpaHHero „nporpaMMH3Ma" Bep- 
jiH03a, a y LUyMaHa, b cbhsh c ero 6ojiee HSbicKanHOH h 4>h- 
jioco4>cKH yxoHMSHHoft opraHM3auHeH, OHO BbipasHJiocb B 4>opMe 
xoHKHX nporpaMMHbix HaMCKOB Ha cymecxBo ero moxhbob 
xBopnecxBa. Oh bhochx h bboahx b MysbiKy CHCxeMy sarjia- 
bhh, HMnpeccHOHHcxHMecKH yKasyroiUKX o6mMPi xoh MbicJiefl 
aBxopa, Koxopbift oh npes cbok> MysbiKy jKejia'ji 6bi BosdyAHXb 
B cjiyuiaxejiax. Oh noMoraex nocjieAHUM, wAex hm naBcxpeny. 
A6cxpaKXHbie sarojiOBKH b poAe „coHaxbi", „chm(|)ohhh", AaM<e 
„necHH 6e3 cjiob" ycxynaiox wecxo HMnpeccHOHHcxHMecKHM 
„Moxxo" yme HecpaBHeHHo 6ojiee KOHKpexHoro coAepMcanHSf, 



yittwiiiiiliiiiiuttt 



t:J^\'f',i^'J-4.^;if,>..fi,\^-^,-^'-'ji-', 



.imiS^i^i-i cM i M U t * 



'■i'<*"ift.- 



i»j: 



XOTH He HaCTOJIbKO OnpeAeJICHHbJX, MT06bI MOatHO 6bIJ10 HX 

CMCCTb 3a TOHHyK) npoppaMMy MysbiKH UlyMaHa — sa „H3o6pa- 
sHTejibHyio". Oh Becb HaxoAHTcn— kbk h Kpyr ero noTpe6n- 
TCJieft — B c4)epe xex 4)aHTacTH4ecKHx npeanocbiJiOK o 
cymecTse MysbiKajibHoro sbjichmji, KOTopwe bbcji Bnepswe 
9. ro(|)MaH. To, MTO He cMor sbicKaaaTb b cbohx co6cTBeHHbix 
3ByKax 6ojiee JiHTepaxop, HeM<ejiH MyawKaHT roc|)MaH, to 
HMeHHO BbicKasaji LUyMan, Koropbift Bce speMH hmcji tcc- 
HeftuiHft KOHxaKT HacrpoeHHfi: c HflCHMM H MbicjisMH rotfjMaHa, 
HaMHHaM OT o6iu,ero cjjjaHTacTMHecKH rpoxecKHoro HacxpoeHMH 
ero xBopnecxBa m KOHnasi xaKHMn aexajiHMH, KaK npsiMoe 
HanHcaHHe MysbiKw, HjiJHocxpHpyiomeM npoMSBefleHHH Vo^- 
MaHa (..KpeHCJiepHana"). B cbhsh c sxhmh „ro4)MaHCKHMM" 
HacxpocHHJiMH B MysbiKy lllyMaHa Bxopraexcji sjieMCHx koui- 
MapHoft (jbaHxacxHKH, ocxpoM cKaaoHHocxH, oKpameHHOft 
B repMancKHe JiereHflapHwe xona, rapMOHHH h phxmh ero 
nojiynarox xapaKxepHcxHKM nero-xo npHspanHoro, nojiy6ec- 
njioxHoro, coHHoro. Bce sxh sjieMenxbi srBHJiwcb cymecxBeHHO 

HOBblMH B HCKyCCXBe, OHH 6bljm fl,aM<e HaCXOJIbKO HOBbI, HXO, 

KaK noKa3biBaex HccJieAosaHHe, b cymnocxH xojibKo Hesna- 
HHxejibHaa nacxb hx 6b!Jia oueHena npw mchshh m b anoxy 
UJyMaHa, 6ojibiiiasi nacxb ocxajiacb Ha npHsnaHMe 6yji,ymero, 
H MHxerpaJibHoe npHSHaHwe h cnpoc Ha UlyMana b ero BpeMsi 
o6ycjiOBJieH 6biJi 6ojiee xeri, mxo b ero MysbiKe, hommmo ocxpo 
HOBaxopcKHX ajieMenxoB, 6biJiH b SHaHMxejibHOM KOJiHMecxBe h 
xaKHe, Koxopbie 6bijiH Briojiwe no njieny ero npHBbiHHoft 
ayfl,HxopHH. Cnpoc axox 6biJi pacmnpeH h o6nerHeH cymecxBO- 
BaHHeM B eroanoxy orpoMHbix nHaHHCxMMecKnx chji (ero >KeHa 
Kjiapa Bhk, JIhcx, nosflHee Py6HHiuxeftH), Koxopwe cxBaxH- 
JiHCb sa ero XBopnecxBO, KaK sa yflo6HyK) Kansy una cbohx 
co6cxBeHHbix nwaHHcxMHecKHx 3aflaHHft. Ocxpan 4)aHxacxH- 
MecKaa pHXMHKa, orpoMHoe nanpsiMceHHe JiHpn3Ma m CHJia 
3KcnpeccHH, coBepmeHHO noBwe ajienenxbi rapMOHHH — box 
MXO npejibjuajio b lUyMane, oxKpwxo BbicxynHBiueM He xojibKO 
B cBoeft MysbiKC, HO H B CBOHX jiHxepaxypHbix HHcaHHHX npo- 

XHB pyXHHbl H MySblKaJIbHOft CXOJiaCXHKH, OXHaCXH flaJKe H 

npoxHB xoro HapoMCflaiomerocsi b JiHue MenAejibcona aKaae- 

MH3Ma, KOXOpbIM 6bIJI lIlyMaHOM BepHo y4xeH, KaK XOpMOS 

AJiH pasBHXHvi HOBaxopcKHX 3JieMeHxoB HCKyccxBa. C flpyroft 
cxopoHbi, lUyMaH 6biJi BonjioweHHeM eme apyrHX cxpeMJieHHM 



183 



B coBpeMeHHOM CMy MysbiKajibHOM Kpyry. AKaaeMHSM MeHfleJib- 
coHa, nocxaBHBUiHft Hj];ea:iOM coBepuiencxBo BHeuiHeft (JjopMW 

] H3JIO»<eHHH, HeBOJIbHO o6paXHJI CBOH BSOpbl K npOUIJIOMy 
\ MySblKM H HMeHHO K SnOXe MOHyMCHXajIbHOfl nOJIH(})OHHH, 

\Korfla MacxepcxBo flocxHrjio Bbicmero pacuBexa b sfsjieHUHx 
\Baxa H TeHflejiH h nie 6bijio npessoAfleHo flaace KJiaccH- 
i^aMH H BexxoBCHOM, h6o TBopnecxBO nocjieflHHX pa3BHBa;iocb 
B HHbix couHOJiorHHecKHx ycflOBHHx H B pacMexe Ha HHbie 
rpynnbi cJiyuiaxeaeft. MeHflejibcoH pecxaBpHpyex Baxa 
B 1829 rofly, h npacoxa axofi cxapofl MysbiKH, ee HOBHsna 
fljiM MyBbiKajibHoro co3AaHHsi, npHBbiKuiero k coBepuieHHO 
HHbiM KpacKaM B MysbiKe, 6biJia nacxojibKo nopasuxejibna, 
MXO BbiBBajia HCMeAJieHHbie noflpaMcaHHsi. TaKHM o6pa30M 
CBepuiaexcH penecanc nojiH4)OHHH XVIII BCKa b ycjio- 
BHHx BBKa XIX. FoMocljoHHMecKoe HanpaBJieHHe, yxBcpacAeHHoe 
BexxoBBHOM, cJia6o noKOJie6jieHHoe hn b ero nocJieAHHX npo- 
HSBeAeHHHx, Majio HBsecxHbix no cBoeA HeBepoaxnoft xpyAHO- 
cxH, npoAOJiaceHHOH panHHMH poMaHXHKaMH, Majio ckjiohhwmh 
K MHororojiocHK), BnepBbie KOJie6AexcH llIyMaHOM, Koxopwft, 
EnpoMBM, He HAex no npsiMoft Aopore pecxaBpauwH nonw^o- 
HH3Ma B nojiHOM o6'eMe, a ocxopowHO peKOHCxpynpyex MoinHbift 
H BAyMMHBbift cxHJib B a X a KaK B ero nojiHcjjOHHMecKOM, xaK h 
B ero roMO(|)OHHMecKOM h cMeuiaHHOM acneKxe. 

pomaTHSM rap- g CBJISH C 3XHM Ha6jIK)AaeXCH H HHOC HEJICHHe, 

oujyiseHHH. BbiSBaHHoe xeM Mce yBJieMenneM BaxoM — HweHHO 

KpymcHHe npeiKHcro, no cymecxBy a h a x o h h- 

MecKoro, 3ByK0C03epu,aHHsi h HapoH<AeHne cosepuaHHJi 

XpOMaXHMeCKOrO, OCHOBaHHH KOXOpOrO 6bIJlH KOPAa-XO 

nojiOH<eHbi BaxoM, b xeMenwe bckob 6bijiM 3a6bixbi h norpe- 
6eHbi BMecxe c ero npoHSBCAeHUHMH, ne HaxoAHBuuHMH cnpoca 
b ny6jiHKe npoMejKyxoMHbix snox, h xenepb MorjiH 6bixb BHOBb 
xyAOJKecxBeHHo onjiOAOXBopeHw. LUyMaH aBJiaexcJi nepBbiM 

CymeCXBeHHbIM XpOMaXHKOM HOBOft MySbIKH, OH BBOAHX B MySfal- 
KaJIbHblft CXHAb 6AyjKAaK)myK) MOAyAHUHK), SHFapMOHHSMbr, 
OH o6HAbHO yCHamaeX CBOft MCJIOC XpOMaXHMeCKHMH XOAaMH, 

OH co3Aaex ocHOBHwe xnnbi rapMOHHH na ochobb xpoMaxHKH. 
OrpoMHoe HanpnjKeHHe b Hen MHcxo-MysbiKaAbHoft cxmxhh h 
Majioe BHHMaHwe k BHeuiHeft o6ojiOMKe, k rpanAHosHocxH hjih 
AaHce npHHXHOCXH BHeiiiHero H3.(iOH«eHHJ! ASAaiox ero peuiH- 
xejibHbiM anxHnoAOM BepAH03a. 3xo — ABa nojiioca ponaHXH- 



184 — 



185 



MecKoft rpynnw aBTopoB, oflHH — secb b 3(|:4'eKTe h BHeuiHeft 

nOpaSHTCJIbHOCTH, COSflaKJUHHH OpKeCTpOBbie SByMHOCTH, HO 

( Majio cosnaTejibHbifl b Han6ojiee mhthmhom, a jipyroft - Becb 

BO BHyTpeHHeM, 6eCKOHeMHO HHTHMHbIM K JIHlUeHHblH OpraHH- 

necKH rpaHflHOSHOCTH, MHHHaTK)pncT no npWSBaHHK), He| 
nocTHraBUiHft kojiophcthkh opKecrpa, B,aMce b chmc|)ohh5i;( 
MHHHaTKjpHbix, H HO cpaBHeHHK) c BeTxoBeHOM HecpaBHeHb 
Menee flUHaMUHHbiM b caMoft c|)opMe, pacna^aiomeftcJi y Hero 
Ha neceHHbie oTAejibHOCTH. MejKAy stmmh KpaftHHMH npoasjie- 
HHHMH poMaHTMSMa pacnojiaraK)Tc$i flpyrae HBJieHUfl, npbMe- 
JKyxoHHbie, KOTopbie He MyjKflajiHcb hh BHemnero 6jiecKa, hh 

rpaHAHOSHOCTH 4)0pMbI, HH OHapOBaHHSI SayKa, MTO OTHaCXH 

■ ' o6ycjiOBJieHO 6biJio tcm, mto ohh noHTH Bce BbipocJivt KaK 

pesyjibxaTbT He TOJibKo oahoS no cymecxBy BecbMa hhthmhoS 

repMancKoii poMaHTHMecKoft Kyjibxypw, ho KaK 

ApncTOKpaTHsaguH paBHo;ieMcxByK)mHe MHorux HauHonajibHbix 

ajicMenxoB — Barnep,, LUoneH h JIhcx. Ill o- 

nen ^) aBwnca poManxHKOM na cMeiuaHHoft 

noMBe H3 3JieMeHxoB nojibcKoro, repMancKoro 

H 4)paHuy3CKoro. Ero HBJieHne bo mhofom anajiorHMHO HBJieHMio 

rjiHHKH, xoxH HeoM<HflaHHOcxb ero noHBJieHHSi B riojibiue, 

,.6ojiee PoccHH npHodmcHHoft xorfl,a k Kyjibxype, Sujia Menee 

nopasHxejibHa, xew 6oJiee, hxo bck) WHSHb oh npoBeji b EBpone 

H 6biJi nocxaBJieH b opranHnecKyK) CBHSb co bccmh fl,ocxH- 

. HCCHHsiMH eBponeficKOH MysbiKajibHOH Kyjibxypbi. Ero oco6eH- 

HaH caMo6bixHocxb 6biJia o6ycjioBJieHa xeM, hxo oh, noflo6HO 

PjiHHKe, npHMCHMJi eBponewcKyK) MysbiKajibnyio Kyjibxypy h 

xexHHKy BonjiomeHHM k xyfloacecxBeHHOMy npexBopenHK) cBoeft 

poflHofl nojibcKoA HaneBHOCxH, Koxopasi npH^ajia ero MysbiKe 

KOJIOpHX HCKJIlOHHXejIbHOM opHPHHajIbHOCXH. CaM OflHH US 

BejiHHafluiHX nwaHHcxoB MHpa, llloneH orpaHMMMJi cBoe xBop- 
' HecxBO cxHXMeft MHcxoro HHaHHSMa, HH pasa ne BbixoflH sa ee 



pOMaHTBSMa. lUo- 
nCH— pOMaHTHSM 

BKyca. 



') LUoneH (1809 — 1849) nHcaji HCKnWMHTenbHO flna 4)opTenHaHO. Ero 
necHH npHHaflJieKaT k nocMepxHbiM, hm Heony6jiHK0EaHHbiM npOHSBeflCHHHM, 
a ero BHOnoHMenbHaa coHaxa coHHHeKa hm b HeKOTopoM coTpyflKHHecTse 
c ero flpyroM OpaHiuoMOM. Ero coMHHeHHa: 4 6annaHbi, 2 KOHuepra una (Jiop- 
TenHBHO, 3 coHaTW, 19 hoktiophob, 4 CKepuo, SapKaponna, 6epce3a, 4)aHTa- 
3Hn, 13 nonoHcaoB, 25 npejiK)AHH,'P54 MasypKH, 14 sanbcoB, 27 9tk)«ob, TapaH- 
Tcnna h necKonbKO OTpbiEOMHWx npoHSEeAeHHH xapaKTepa 4>aHTa3Hfi. LUoneH 
poflHncfl B riojibme (e „?KejiH30Eofl Eojie"), ho bcio WHSHb npoJKHn bo OpaH- 

UHH.'^nOfl KOHeu JKH3HH 6bIJP B AHmMH. 



c4)epy. BpamaBiUHflcH b HSbicKaHHOM nojiyapHcxoKpaxHMe- 
CKOM, nojiyBbicoKo6ypM<ya3HOM Kpyry, oh HCBOjibHo paccMM- 
xbiBaji cBoe xBopnecxBO na noxpe6HxeJi5! axoro KJiacca, mxo 
odycJiOBHJio H ero npncxpacxHe k 4)opxenHaHo — axoMy cne- 
UHajibHO cajioHHO - apncxoKpaxHHecKOMy HHcxpyMenxy, xaK 
H nojineMiUHft aflCMOKpaxHSM ero xBopnecTBa. Ero nauHOHajiHSM 
H ero ocxpo BbipawcenHbifl nojibCKHfl naxpnoxHSM 6biJi cymecx- 
BeHHO apHcxoKpaxHMecKHM (KaK H noflo6Hbift »ce naxpnoxHSM 
rjiHHKH, flaproMbiHccKoro H nosflHeftuiHX pyccKHx aBxopoB). 
3xo He 6biJio HapoflHHHecxBO, a apHcxoKpaxHMecKoe c^iaKOBaHne 
KpacoMHOcxH H scxexHHecKofl ueHHOcxH CBoero poaHoro 6bixa, 
BOcnpHHHMaeMoro couHOJiorHHecKH, KaK HSBecxnaH nauHOHajib- 
Hasi cymnocxb, h acxexHMecKH, kbk apKHft xyaoMcecxBenHbiM 
H caMo6bixHbiH 3JieMeHx. FleHajibHaji nojinxuHecKaji cyflb6a 
riojibuiH (kbk pas xo 6biJia anoxa no;ibCKnx BOccxanHft, no- 

AaBJieHHblX, KaK H3BeCXHO, C HeBepOHXHOfi MCeCXOKOCXbK)) 

BbisbiBajia B xo BpeMa bo Bceft EBpone, npaB^a, njiaxoHMne- 
cKHe, HO cHJibHO BbipaMceHHbie cHMnaxHM K nojibCKOMy Hapofly 
H K no:[ibcKOMy Hau,noHaJibHOMy caM0JiK)6HK), ysjSBJieHHOMy 
noxepeA poAHHbi. OxnacxH k axoMy npuMeuiHBajiacb n ecxe- 
cxBeHHan b apucxoKpaxHMCCKMx c^jepax HenaBHCxb k Pocchh, 
Koxopaa 6biJia chjioh) BoenHbix o6cxoaxejibcxB h 3kohomh- 
MecKHX npHHHH HocxaBJiena b rocnoflcxByK)ui.ee nojioMcenHe 
B Espone, AMKxoBajia eft cboh xpe6oBaHHH. KaK 6bi xo hh 
6biJio, ho b ysKOM H OAHaKO Mpe3BbiHaftHO BecKOM Kpyry apn- 
cxoKpaxHM, h6o sa hhm xanyjiHCb n HHxexuiHreHXHbie cjioh, 
LQoneH nojiynnji npHSHanne, h6o oh KaK pas yflOBJiexBopnji h 
poMaHXHMecKOMy HA.eajiH3My h 6biJi npeflcxaBHxejicM yrne- 
xeHHoft H apHcxoKpaxHMecKOH HauHH, H, KpoMe xoro, MysbiKa 
ero o6jiaflajia HCKjnoMHxejibHbiM yxoHMenvieM h HSbicKanHocxbio, 
poflHHBuieft ee c sxhm KpyroM. Ecjih LUywan pa6oxaji na 
repMaHCKoro nHxejiJinreHxa, c|)HJioco4>a, yneHoro, cxyaeHxa, 
apxHcxa, xo lUonen pa6oxaji na yxoHneHHoro apHcxoKpaxa 
EBponw peaKUHOHHoft snoxH, Kor^a dypMcyasHH b coiose 
c ocKOJiKaMH cfjeoflajibHOM apHcxoKpaxHH MyBcxBOBajia ce6n 
oco6eHHO npoHHO h bwcoko b MopajibHOM oxHomeHHH. Oh 
CO CBoeft yxoHMeHHocxbK) npHUiejicH KaK pas no BKycy xoft 
cpcAe t|)paHuy3CKoft anaxH, Koxopaa BHOBb nannHaJia b sxo 
BpcMH yxpaneHHyio 6biJio Kyjibxypy BKyca, CBOHCXBeHHyK> 
npeMCHeft KopojieBCKofi OpanuHH, h Koxopoft He Mor npHx- 






mmttm^ 



1S() 



TKCb no BKycy opraHH4ecKH JiHUieHHbiH HsautecTBa h BKyca 

JlHKHft H HeUCTOBblft B CBOHX aCTCTHMeCKHX CMMnaTHHX Bep- 

JIH03. PoMaHTH3M llIoneHa, c ero npejiOMJieHHocTbio b m3h- 
mecTBe h b JiercHAapnoM HfleajinsMe, 6biJi npMeMjieM fyr, a 

pOMaHTHSM BepjIHOSa, C ero BblSblBaiOmHMH AeMOKpaXHHeCKHMH 

?KecTaMH H cxpeMJicHHeM K BceHapoflHOCTH, nyraji h KasajicH 
He6jiaroBocnnTaHHbiM. HeyAHBHTejibHw h ecxecTBeHHbi h tc 

BJIHHHHJI, nOfl, KOTOpblMH o6pa30BajIOCb apHCTOKpaTHHeCKOe 

TBop^ecTBO LUoneHa: sto 6biJiH, kohcmho, MeHACJibcoH c ero 
scxeTHHecKHM aKaAeMH3MOM H c ero (|)opMoA cjjopxenHaHHOM 
MHHHaxK>pbi, cxapbie KJiaccwKH H HxajibJiHUbi (KynepeH, PaMo, 
PoccHHH, Mouapx), BonjiomaBuiHe b MysbiKe Hfleio HsamHoro 
H Bce eme HMeBiuHC oneHb cymecxBeHHoe BHaneHHe bo BKy- 
cax xofl cpeflbi, rue opraHMsoBWBajicH reHHft llIoneHa, HaKo- 
Heu, apxHcxoKpaxHHecKHH ^HJibfl c ero KyjibxoM khxhmhofo 
4)opxenHaHo h flaHce roxoBbiMH <|)opMaMH „hokxk)phob". Cy- 
poBbift H cxpacxHbifl BexxoBeH 6biJi Majio npHHHMaeM b 3xom 
Kpyry sa cbok) aeMOKpaxHMHOcxb h rpy6ocxb Bbipa>KeHHsi, m 
caM llIoneH pasflejisiJi axy aHXHnaxmo k Heny, xoxh b psiAe 
Mepx onpeAejieHHo HaxoaHJicn noa BjiHJiHHeM xoro »e Bexxo- 
Bena. ApvrcxoKpaxHHHOcxbK) Kpyra LlIoneHa h npeAejibnoft 
H3bicKaHHOcxbH) cro HacxpoaHHft o6'flcH$iexcH H ero aHXH- 
naxHsi K lUHpoKoft KOHuepxHoft acxpafle: llIoneH peKOHcxpy- 
Mpyex npeMCHHM (|)eoflajibHbiH xwn HHXHMHoro saMKnyxoro 
KOHuepxa B H3bicKaHH0M Kpyry uennxejieft. Tyx co6npaexc5i 
UBex KyjibxypHoft apucxoKpaxHH m npeacxaBHxejin Bcex apxH- 
cxHHecKHX HSbicKaHHbix npocjjjeccHH, pa6oxaK)iuHe na sxox Mce 
Kpyr. Ta cpaBHHxeJibHO BbicoKaa MysbiwanbHasi KBajiH4)nu,H- 
posaHHOcxb, Koxopan b 3xom Kpyry rocnojicxBOBajia, nosBo- 
;iHjia lUoneny cxaxb b MHCxo-My3biKajibHOM oxHOiuenHH Han- 
6ojiee nepeflOBbiM, coeflwHHXb saaaMn BKycosoft yxoHHeHHOGxw 
c npo6jieMOH) MysbiKajibHoro HOBaxopcxsa. llIoneH onpeae- 
.neHHO BnnxaJi b ce6ii MHCxo-xexHHHecKne flocxH>KeHHH MysbiKH 
Bcex npeflbiAyiUHX anox — ox KJiaccHKOB h BexxoBena ao coBpe- 
MeHHbix eny lUyMana h Jlncxa. Ero rapwoHMHecKoe 6oraxcxBO, 
ero H3bicKaHHbiH Mejioc, apKaa aKcnpeccMst — see axo, o6pa- 
MjieHHoe B paMKy HSMCKaHHoro BKyca, cxaHOBHXCH aocxoh- 
HHeM apHcxoKpaxHH;ecKoro Kpyra noxpe6Hxejiefi[, sa KoxopbiMH 
xanexcH h caoH HHxe;iJiHreHu,Hn, xoxsi rjiaBHbiM o6pa30M yjKe 
B FepMaHHH n b Pocchh, a ne b poMancKHx cxpanax. KaK 



— ibv — 



nepaoKJiaccHbiM nHaHMcx HBbicKaHHO-HHXHMHoro cxHJiJi, LlIo- 
neH co3Aaex cBoft 4)opxennaHHbift cxHJib, cxojib >Ke yxoHHen- 
Hbift H He Menee noJiHOBBynHbiM, hcm y LUywaHa, cxojib xe 
paccMHxaHHbift Ha HOBbie AOcxHMceHHH (jjjopxenHaHHoro anna- 
paxa, M 3XOX cxHJib onpeACJiaex (fiopxenHaHHyK) JiHxepaxypy 
anjioxb AO nocJieAHero BpeMeHH. 

He cxoJibKO yxoHHeHHocxb h HsamecxBO m rjiy6oKHe Kane- 
cxBa uioneHOBCKoro xBopnecxBa o6ycjioBHJiH ero npoHHKHO- 
BeHKe sa npeAenw HSWcKaHHoro apncxoKpaxnMecKoro cajiona, 
TAe 3XO xBopnecxBO poAHjiocb, cKOJibKO npMcymaji, Ha paAy 
c ApyrHMH ero caoMcxBaMn, nysbiKe lUonena MeAOAHMfecKaa 
npHBJieKaxeJibHocxb w oxnacxH canxHweHxajibHOCXb, Koxopan 
Aejiaex HCKOxopwe ero coMHHeHHsr (b oco6eHHOcxn 6ojiee npo- 
cxbie no cfjaKxype — xanubi) uiHpoKO nonyjiapHbiMH b cpcAe 
lUHpoKoro o6biBaxeJiH, KoxopwH, KoneMHo, He 6biji b cocxos- 

HMH OUeHHXb MHbie OCo6eHHOCXH 3XOM MySblKH. CaHXHMeHxa- 
JIH3M BOo6me 6xHK>Ab HC 6bIJI HyJKA pOMaHXHMeCKOMy MHpo- 

cosepuaHHK), M B ero nepHtjjjepHMecKHX npoHBJieHHsix oh oxna- 
cxH AOMHHHpoBaji. BcKope Hlonen, 6oJiee MnrKuft h npocxo 
MejioAHMHbiM, MCM LUyMaH, 6ojiee jierKnft b neKoxopbix co4h- 
HeHHHx, caHXHweHxajibHbiH H HeMCHbiM, AeJiaexcH JlK)6nMefluiHM 
KOMnosHxopoM lUMpoKHx HHxejiJiHreHxcKHx cjioes, npHMBMnpH 
3XOM OH HesaMexHo npoBOAHx B MysbiKajibHoe cosepua- 
HHe AaM<e cpaBHHxeJibHO oxcxajibix Macxefl sxoro Kpyra 
cosHBHwe rapMOHHMecKHX nepcneKXHB, ocosnaHne hobmx wejio' 
AHMecKHx jiHHHfi, Koxopbie ycBaHBaioxcH BMecxe c o6meAO- 
cxynHOcxbK) ero BneiuHeH 4)opMbi. 

TaK Mce, KaK LUoneH, nywA Hncxo-rep- 
PoMaHTHSM MancKOMy MnpocosepuaHnio OpaHu, JIhcx^), 
Benrepeu, no npoHcxoHCAeHHK). Te xe npHHHHbi, 
Koxopbie BbisBajiH HOJiBJieHHe Ha pyccKoft noHBe 
rjiHHKH, a Ha nojibCKOH — LUonena, BbissajiM noHBJieHHe h3 



BHpTyOSHOCTH. 

Ahct. 



^ O. Jl H c T (1811 — 1886) — BBHrepeu no npoMcxoMfleHHio, npowHJi 6onb- 
ujyK) MacTb 5KM3HH B FlapHwe H B BefiMape. BnaMane Bbicrynaji npcHMyme- 

CTBeHHO, KaK BMpTyOS, COCTaBMB Ce6e MHpOByro HSBeCTKOCTb. K STOMy JKC 

nepMOfly othochtch 5onbiiiHHCTBO ero BHpTyosHbix K0M^03H^H^i (TpaHCKpwn- 
UMH, pancoflHH H np.)- KoMnosHTopcKHH nepHOfl b ero jkhshh Ha^anca no3H- 
Hee H CB5i3an 6Horpa4)HMecKH c ero npe6biBaHHeM b BeiiMape. Jl. oTJiHMancH 
Heo5biHaHHOH npoflyKTHBHOCTbK). KpoMe Maccbi npoHSBeaeHHH nnn cEoero 
HHcrpyMeirra — AopTenHaHO (coHaia, axiOAbi, TpaHCKpi-inuMn, pancoAHii m 4)an- 
lasHH, „MeijjHCTOBanbCbi"— HHCiioM xpH, Tpw KOHuepra c opKecTpoM, „CoHeTbi 



18S 



BCHrepcKOH noMBbi TOH<:e Bceuejio HaunoHajibHoro nBnenvm — 
JlHcxa. BjiecTHmHft nwaHHCT, Koxopbift AO CHX nop HMcer 
cjiaay HenpeasoflfleHHoro HHKeM hs apyrnx, JIhct HaMHHaji 
CBOK) MysbiKajibHyK) Kapbepy, kbk BHpTyoa, b hoboii; o6cTa- 
HOBKe, BbisBaHHOM yjiyMuieHHeM MexaHHSMa (|5opTennaHo h 
o6jierMeHHeM nepeflBHMceHHH no EBpone, mto cBHsano 6biJio 
c cHJibHbiM yBejiMMCHHeM nyjibca KOHuepTHOft mchshh. Ero paH- 
HHe coHHHeHHH HocHT TJiaBHbrM o6pa30M BHpTy03HbiM xapaK- 
rep, KOTopbiH npoffOJiMcaex jihhhk} BHpxyosHbix KOMnosMxopoB, 
HO xojibKO c 6ojibmHM 6jiecKOM flapoBaHMSi H c 6ojibiiieft 
cooxBexcxBeHHOcxbK) npHpofle MHcxpyMeHxa, b KoxopoM JIhcx, 
KaK BeHrepeu, reHwajibHO npospeji neprbi Hau,HOHajibHbix bbh- 
repcKHx „UHM6aji". BenrepcKHft HauHOHajibHbift Mejioc, He 
Menee pyccKoro n sHaMHxejibHo 6ojiee nojibCKoro xapaKxep- 
HbiH, onjioAOxBopsiex ero BupxyosHoe xBopMecxBO h coo6meex 
eMy nepxbi necjibixaHHoft npewcfle ocxpoxbi. JIhcx nepBona- 
HajibHO pa6oxaex fl;iH lUHpoMaMUiero npyra noxpe6HxejieH — 
fljiH Kpyra „BHpxyo3Hoft MysbiKn", ho oh yMcex BMecxe c 3Jie- 
MenxaMH hhcxoh BHpxyosHOcxM, npHHXHOH lUHpoKOH Macce 
noTpe6Hxeji$i, npHBHocHXb h sjieMenxbi HOBbix rapMOHHfl, 
HOBbix Boo6me SByKOBbix omymeHHft, Heo6biHaftHOM phxmhkh, 
HOBbix jiaflOBbix cxpoeHHM, noHcpHHyxbix M3 npospeHHM B HapoA- 

HblM MeJIOC H rapMOHHK). KoHeHHO, HMeHHO 3XH SJieMeHXbl He 

6biBanH [oueHeHbi uiHpoKOH Maccoft noxpe6Hxejisi, Koxopasi 
ecxecxBeHHO Bn^ejia b Jlwcxe xojibKo BHpxyosHoro aBxopa, 
Mxo H 6biJio npHMHHoft xoro, Hxo 3XO npeflcxaBJieHHe o neM 
ocxajiocb Haflojiro b Maccax h aajKe cpeflH MysbiKanxoB. Ho 
Ha caMOM aejie JIhcx, noflo6HO llIoneHy, pa6oxaex fljisi jiBoft- 
Horo Kpyra noxpe6HxejiH: OflHoro — 6oJiee HSbicKaHHoro h Kyjib- 
xypHoro, flpyroro — 6ojiee mnpoKoro. PasHHua b xom, mxo 
cooxHomeHHe axwx flByx KpyroB y Jlncxa h LUoneHa npoxM- 

nexpapKH", uHKJibi nbec noR HaHMeHOBaHHCM „rofl,bi CTpaHCTEOBaHHfi" H np.', 
JIhct Hanncan eine psi;; Kpynnbix opKecipoBbix KOMnosHUHH (chm4)ohhs! 
„$aycT", „JI,aHTe", 12 CHMdboHHiecKHX nosM, ^Ba snHSOfla hs „OaycTa" JleHay) 
M pn« KpynHbix opaTopHanbHO-uepKOBHbix KOMnosHUHw, b tom MHcne oparo- 
pHM „XpHCTOc" H „EnHcaBeTa", Heibipe Meccw h ncanMM. riocjieflHHe lonu 
.Ohct npHHaji flyxoBHbift caH, mto o6ycnoBH3io h npcHMymecTBeHHo flyxoBHbift 
yKnoH ero TEopnecTBa b nocjiefluHe roflbi. B 3to ?Ke speMH oh OKOniaTenbHo 
oTKaaanca ox EHpTyosHoft Kapbepu. Jl. HH-repeceH eme KaK 3HeprHHHbift npo- 
naraHfl,HCT MysbiKH HOEoro HanpaBJieHHsi (BepjiHOs, Barnep, pyccKasi HOEasi 
liiKOjia). 



;£ii!.^L^: 



BonojiOMCHoe. illoneH pa6oxaji rjiaBHbiM o6pa30M p^nsi H3bicKaH- 
Horo apHcxoKpaxHMecKoro Kpyra h ^,Jm KyjibxypnoH Mysw- 
KajibHOH ny6jiHKH H nepHcfjepuHecKH, BCJieACXBHe cbohcxb 
cBoero flapoBaHHH, saxBaxHJi mnpoKHe Kpyrn. JIhcx jKe pa6o- 
xaji ftjiH lUHpoKoro BKyca noxpe6HxeJia BHpxyosHocxH, ho 
saxBaxHji, BCJieACXBHe ocxpoxbi cBoero reHHSt, nonyxHo m 
KyjibxypHbie ajieMenxbi noxpeoHxejiR, h aaace H3bicKaHHyK> 
apHcxoKpaxHMecKyio cpeay. CaMbiM xapaKxepHbiM npoHBJie- 
HHCM uiHpoKoro nHaHH3Ma JlHcxa 6bi;io ero BKJiHjMeHHe 
B (|3opxenHaHO sjienenxoB opKecxpnajibHocxH, HcnojibsoBaHHe 
ero KOJiopHcxHMecKHx B03MOMCHocxeH H BOo6me KyJIbX sByKa 
B 4)opxenHaHO, k Koxopowy ao xoro BpeMenH oxHocHJiHCb 
AOBOAbHO a6cxpaKXHo. Oh 3aHHMaexcH AesixejibHO yBejinne- 
HHeM (|)opxenHaHHoro penepxyapa nyxeM MHoroHHCJiennbix 
BHpxyosHbix nepejioH<eHHM onepnbix oxpbiBKOB HapoAHwx 
necen (npeHMymecxBCHHo BenrepcKHX — „BeHrepcKHe panco- 
Ahh"). pOMancoB, He pas xeM cnoco6cxBysi nonyjinpHocxM 
AaHHbix npoHSBeaeHMH. MpesBbinaHHO MHorHe npoHSBeAeHna, 
6jiaroAapsi ero xpaHCKpHnuHHM, no;iyMHjiH uiHpoKyto orjiacKy 
H pacnpocxpaneHHe (LUydepx, BarHep, FjiKHKa). Ero 6necTii- 
mee xBopiecxBO xeMH hjih khmmh cbohmh cxoponaMH Haxo- 
AHJio c6bix B JiK)6oM Kpyry, Bnjioxb ao caMoro lUHpoKoro, na 

KOXOpblH OH AGHCXBOBaJI CBOeH CXHXHHHOM BHpXyOSHOCXbW. Ho 

sicHo 6biJio, HXO HaH6ojiee rjiy6oKoe h HHXHMHoe, hxo hccjio 
c co6oK> ero xBopHecxBo, 6biJio cosHAaeno b pacnexe Ha 
sHaHHxeJibHo 6ojiee nosAnero noxpe6HxejiH. JIhcx flBJiHJica 
HoeaxopoM b o6jiacxH rapMOHHH h jiaaa, hcxkhhob snaneHHe 
Koxoporo BbipHcoBbiBaexcH jiHuib B nocjieAHHe roAw, 6jiaro- 
Aapa xoMy, hxo mm o6ycJiOBJieHHbie npesBWHaHHO KpynHbie 
HBJieHHJt (Barnep, Ckpsi6hh h ap-) sacxaBHJiH h Maccw ny6AHKH 
npoHHKaxb AO nocxHraHHSi Kopnen Bcero axoro b Jlncxe. JIhcx 
noHeMHory oxxoahx ox saAan npHMofi BHpxyosHOcxH h nepe- 
xoAHx K KOMno3HUHH, yxQ He cBssaHHOH xaK xecHO c c})opxe- 

HHaHHblM MHpOM. FIpH 9XOM OH peUIHXeJIbHO npHMblKaSX 

K cawoMy nepcAOBOMy xeneHHK) b HCKyccxBe, k JiesoMy 
4)JTaHry powaHXHSMa. Ox LUoneHa oh 6epex HswcKaHHOcxb 

CXHJISl H XOHKOCXb HSJIOHCeHHH, OXHaCXH OCHOBHbie SJieMeHXbl 

HHaHHSMa, OX BexxoBena — chm4)ohh3m tf^aKxypbi h cxpeMJie- 
HHe K MOHyMeHxajibHO-repoHHCCKOMy, ox Baxa — Kyjibx AyxoB- 
Hbix rpaHAH03Hbix opaxopnajibHbix cljopf^ (ero Meccbi h opa- 



iii.\>iMUAuML 



190 — 



TopHH), OT BepjiHOsa — ere KOJiopHTHyioopKecTpoByK) najiHxpy. 

By^yHH XyaOMCHHKOM HCKJIJOMHTeJIbHOrO y M a, JIhCT COeAHHSJI 

B CBoeM TBopnecTBe nyxH MHTyHUHH h yMospeHwa, flOCTHraw 

MX COBMeCTHblMW yCHJIHSMH KOJIOCCaJIbHblX peSyjIbTaXOB. B CHM- 

4)OHH3Me OH peiUHTejibHO npHMKHyji K nporpaMMHoft 
MysbiKe, xoTH H He npoBOflHJi ee naeH c raKoft KpaHHOCTbio, 
KaK BepjiHos. Ero nporpaMMHocxb a 6o;ibuinHCTBe cjiy^aeB — 
TOJibKo 6o;iee noApo6Haa „HaflnHcaHHOCTb" ero KpynHbix npo- 
HSBefleHHM („npeJiK>flbi", „Op(})eft", „BHTBa ryHHOB" h np.!; 
OH cosflaex pofl nporpaMMHoft CHMtfjoHHHecKOM „no3Mbi", pofl 
CBo6ofl,Hoft cHMcfjoHHH, MeHcc 6epjiM030BCKOH nporpaMMHO- 
AexajiMSHpoBaHHoft, ho sHanHxcnbHO 6ojiee cbo6oji,hoh b cMwcJie 
tfjopMbi, KOxopaH npHo6pexaex cBoftcxBenHbm Jlwcxy kojio- 

PHX panCOflHHHOCXH. 3XH CHM4)OHHHeCKHe nOSMbl HBHJIHCb 

flajibHeHuiHM maroM no nyxH pasBuxHsi 4>opM cmm4)ohhm, saee- 
maHHbix BexxoBenoM. CHM(|)OHHHecKaH KOHuepxnaji «H3Hb 
Bce pasBHBajiacb h xpe6oBajia HOBbix Kf)acoK h hobwx xBop- 
MecKHx flocxHsceHHH. AKafleMUHCCKaH c|)opMa chm4)ohhh He 
yaoBJiexBopaJia oxhwhc poManxHMecKOMy flyxy, xpe6oBaBiiieMy 
MfleojiorHHecKoft hchocxh. FIporpaMMHafl chm4)ohhh JlHcxa 
aaex 3XOT 3JieMeHx b cbhsh c hoewmh sjieMenxaMM cbo6oa- 
HOM (|)opMbi. Ona BbiBOAHX poManxMHecKyio „HaflnHcaHHOcxb" 
npoHSBeffeHHft hs MHpa hhxhmhwx o6pa30B llloneHa h LUyMana 
B MHp MOHyMeHxajibHoro CHM(|)OHH3Ma, rue 3xa no3Ma npo- 
HHKaexcfl y Hero BejiHHecxBennbiM nojiexoM hach, poflHameft 
ee c 6exxoBeHCKHMH chm(|)ohhhmh, ho 6ojiee nocJieflHHx koh- 
KpexH3HpoBaHHbiMH. MysbiKa peajibHO cxaHOBHxcsi snunecKHM 

H3WKOM, nOBeCXByiOlUHM O C06bIXHHX B H^eaJIbHOM MHpe. 

K xoMy me xnny nporpaMMHbix cHM^iOHHfl oxhochxch ero 
chm4)ohhh „<Paycx" m „J3,aHxe", nanHcanHbie b 6ojiee cxpo- 
roft cHMc|)OHHMecKOM (|)opMe, HO Heo6bi4aflHo pacuiHpeHHofl. 
noflo6HO LlIyMaHy w UloneHy, JIhcx HBJisiexcw wsbicKaHHbiM 

XpOMaXHKOM, CKJIOHHbIM K KyjIbXype OCXpblX SHrapMOHHMeCKHX 

coHexaHHfl, HO b 3XOH o6;iacxH oh necpaBHeHHO nepeaoBee 
H npsiMOJiMHeflnee o6ohx npeflbiflymnx. Oh bhochx, b coox- 
BexcxBMH c HOBbiMH cpeacxBaMH BbipaM<eHHH, B MySblKy 3:16- 
NteHXbi H SMOUHH „caxaHH3Ma", capflOHHiecKoro CMexa, CMe- 
HHKJmero y nero rpy6oBaxbiM lOMop BexxoBeHa, oh bboahx 
B MejiOflHK) H rapMOHMK) HecjibixaHHyK) ocxpoxy H ajicMenxbi 
3poxM3Ma, nopoft cMeHHiomero y nero JiMpHKy h cfiaHxa- 



cxHKy LUoneHa h LUyMaHa. KaK h mo>kho 6biJio oacHflaxb, us 
ero XBopnecxBa cnpoc h ycnex npH m<h3hh m b 6jin>KaHU]ee 

BpeMH B006lHe HMCJIH BHpxyOSHbie K0Mn03HU,HH H OXHaCXK 

ero KpynHbie CHM(|)OHMHecKHe nosMW, ho opraHHMecKoro 
nocxHMceHna ero MyswKH HeJib3H[ KOHcxaxwpoBaxb cpaBHH- 
xejibHO flOJiro ^aMce xor^a, Koraa yme psifl ero sjieMenxoB 
XBopnecxBa Bbi3Baji Ha noapajKaHnji h Ha 3nnroHHMecKHe 
SBJiewnH. ■ ': . ' ' ■ . 

Ta orpoMHaa cjioscnocxb h Aaace neKOxopaji xyaowe- 
cxBeHHafl pasposHCHHOcxb HBJieHHH JlHcxa, Koxopan BbipaSH- 
;iacb B coBMemeHHH b hcm xyflOJKHHKa, pa6oxaK)mero na caMwe 
pasjiHHHbie rpynnbi MysbiKajibHoro noxpe6HxeJiH, o6yc;iOB;ieHa 
6biJia pa3Hoo6pa3HeM couHOJiorHnecKHx ycjiOBuft, ero nopo- 

flHBlUMX. C OflHOfl CXOpOHbl, caM — llBMOKpaX, npHMblKaBUIHM 

K Hapofly H HyBcxBOBaBiUHfl o6asiHHe ero Nejioca Henocpefl- 
cxBeHHO, JIhcx hbhjicji ecxecxBennbiM npoBoaHHKOM b Mnp 
KyjibxypnoM MysbiKH HauHonajibHoro BenrepcKoro Mejioca. 
C flpyroft — npHSHaHHbiM BcecBexHo nHanHcx-BHpxyoS; cbohm 
BHpxyosHbiM KCKyccxBOM no6eflHBiuHft KaK pas xe cjioh 
ny6jiHKH, Koxopbie 6biJiH HaH6ojiee BocnpHMMMUBw k npocxeft- 

UUHM SIBJieHKHM XyflOMCeCXBeHHOH njIOCKOCXH (BHpxyOSHOCXH H 

npocxofi MejiOflHKH); HaKOHeu, c xpexbeft cxopoHbi — caM — 
r;iy6oKHH H H3bicKaHHbiM poMaHXHK, HO Kpyry co6cxBeHHbix 
omymeHHfi Bceuejio npHHafljie»caBUiHM k apwcxoKpaxMHecKHM 
cjiHBKaM o6mecxBa, JIhcx oxJiHHajicH xeM, mxo cxpeMHjica ne 

CneUHaJIHSHpOBaXbCH B KaKOM-JlH6o OAHOM H3 3XHX CBOft- 

cxBeHHbix eMy xmhob 3ByKoco3epu,aHH5i, a cHHxesHpoBaji Bce 
BMecxe. ricHxoJiorHH Jlncxa, ccjjopMHpoBaHHaq ero MCHSHbK). 
npoxeKuieft b CMene caMbix H3biCKaHHbix h ocxpbix Bnena- 
xjieHHft, no6yMcflajia ero xBopnecxBO k xoMy, Mxo6bi bchj 3xy 
Maccy omymeHHft nepeaaxb b xonax xoro Kpyra, KoxopwM 
CMy 6biji Hawdojiee 6jih3khm, — apHcxoKpaxHiecKH-yxoHHen- 
Horo Kpyra. Ho b xo Mce BpeMS oh ne acejiaji ynycKaxb hs 
BHfla H MHbie rpynnw bosmojkhmx noxpeSHxeJiefl ero xBopne- 
cxBa, 6ojiee flCMOKpaxHwecKHe m 6ojiee xHnHHHo HHxejiJiHreHx- 
CKHe. B Hxore rpaHflHOSHwe h fleMOKpaxHHecKHe H^eH b ero 
XBopnecxBe noflBepraioxcH HSBecxHOMy npou,eccy ..cajioHnsa- 
Uhh" b pacMexe na BKyc Bbicmero o6iuecxBa, h, nanpoxHs, 
H3bicKaHHbie HacxpoeHHH HepeflKO nojiynarox AeMOKpaxHSupo ■ 
BaHHoe H3.iio»<eHHe, fleKopaxHBHoe,. jibho paccHHxaHHoe Ha 



nonyji9pH3auHH> cpeAH uiHpoKoft ny6jiHKH. BjiHsiHHe Ulonena 
Ha JlHcxa HeocnopuMO, kbk h BJiHHHne Ha nero ero Bupxyoa- 
Hbix npeflKOB, HO He B MeHbiiieft cxeneHH stot komhoshtop 

OKaSajlCJ! Cn0C06HbIM K BnHTblBaHHlO B Ce6si SJieMCHTOB 

UlyMana, BexxoBena, Baxa. ObiiuHbift BHpxyosHbifi Hapjiji ero 
4jopxenHaHHoro xBopMecxBa 6biJi xcm npoBOflHHKOM ero 
B Maccbi noxpe6HxejiH, Koxopbifl cyMeji caejiaxb JIhcxb, Boo6me 
MpesBbiHawHO xpyflHoro n^a uiHpoKoro noHHMaHHKt, nonyjiap- 
HbiM H snaMeHHXbiM B caMOM uiHpoKOM Kpyre noxpe6Hxejis(, 
nonyjinpHbiM b SHaMHxejibHO 6ojibuieH cxeneHw, nen ero 
CBepcxHHKH no „poMaHXHMecKOH" rpynne, necMOxpsi na xo, 
Mxo opraHHHecKH MX XBopnecxBO 6biJio AocxynHee h npome 
ncHxojiorHiecKH. FIocjieaHHe roflw m<h3hh jiHcxoBCKoe xBop- 
HecxBO pasBHBaex xy jihhhk) pexpocneKXHBHoro poManxHSMa, 
Koxopaa 6biJia HaMeieHa eme xpyaaMH awaAeMHcxa MeHACJib- 
coHa H pecxaBpauHOHHbiMH nonbixKaMH lUyMana. JIhcx HaMH- 
Haex KyjibxHBupoBaxb cpaBHHxejibHO Majio pac- 
KAepHKaAbHbie npocxpaHeHHyio AO xex nop b XIX Bene tJiopMy 
P*" MonyMeHxajibHoft uepKOBHoft MyawKH, npH6e- 

ra$I K BHyUIHXeJIbHOfl nOJIH(|)OHHH. HpHMMHOft 

xaKoro pexpocneKXHBH3Ma crnna. asHJiocb pas- 
BHxne B cpeAe xoro apucxoKpaxHHecKoro Kpyra, Koxopbift 
BocnHXbiBaji xBopnecxBO JlHcxa, — cMJibHbix KJiepHKaJib- 

HblX BJIHJlHHft C SjpKO BbipaJKeHHbIM KaXOJIHHeCKHM OXXeH- 

KOM. KAepHKajibHasi rpynna ecxecxseHHo 6biJia saMKHyxa 

M HCMHOrOHHCJieHHa, HO nOJIbSOBaJiaCb KpynHbIM BAHHHHeM. 
BuOrpa^JHHeCKH BJIHHHHe KJiepHKanH3Ma Bbipa3HA0Cb B JiHcxe 

xeM, MXO OH (})aKXHHecKn caM cxaji KJiepuKajiOM, BcxynHB 
B AyxoBHoe 3BaHHe eme sa 20 Jiex ao cBoeft cMcpxn. Hpn- 

KOCHOBeHHOCXb erO K KaXOJIHHeCKO-KJiepHKaJIbHOMy MHCXHUHSMy 

Bbipa6axbiBajiacb roAaMH, c xoro BpeMCHH, KorAa BOo6me ycHJiH- 
jiHCb peaKUHOHHbie xeMeHMH B BbicmeM aBcxpHftcKOM H repMan- 
CKOM o6mecxBe, ho rjiaBHWM o6pa30M axo ero nacxpoeHHe 
KpenHex c MOMenxa nocejienHH ero b Phmb, b uenxpe nan- 
CKoro KJiepHKajiHSMa (1861 — 1870). HacxpoenHsi KJiepHKajib- 
Horo xHna Bbipa^cajiHCb Aa>Ke b ero cbcxckhx KOMno3HUHflx 
b pMAe oxxeHKOB: xo KaK npHMeneHHe x o p a ;i a h ApeBHeft 
ceKBCHUKH B BHpxyo3HOM o6pa6oxKe („njiflCKa CMepXH", 

.,4)paHUHCK, XOAMIUHM HO BOAaM*', H Hp.), XO KaK o6mHM XOH 

•.lOMnosHUHH — co3epuaxejibHO - canxHMeHxajibHbiH, npoHHKny- 



BAHSHHn H 

cTaapagHH apxa- 

HHCCKHX ^OpMc 



KOBHoro „ .o.y„ep™rr™"„7°™:rr "^^--^ -^i'- 

KHyxOrO, ySKOro KDvra « „ T ^^^°^™ TOJIbKO H3 SaM- 

C3THM Kp'yPOM a He 6brno.'n "™''° ^"°"^"- ^— • 

6m h KaxoLnecKo" Z "mlT ""'°'°^ "^'=^°«' — 

KOMn03HUHH. KpOMe xoft 1x1 "^^^^^^^^ ^ cneuHa^bHofl 

H cxa.a KaHoUecKo7-3rTcxo'°'°'^^ ^"^ ^°^"-- 
K TOMy. Hxo B Hxore He "^/^'^^^^^^^'^^'^bo noc^y^n^o 

HB.X no Bbrno.„eH J npo:33eAe^^^^ " MOHyMenxa.b- 

UepxHb,x noAnocxKax KaK „ BcT KvT"'"''' "^ '^°"- 
MysbiKa nocjie Baxa. "'^V^'-'rypHo-uepKOBHasi" 

PoMaHXH3M _ nocjicAHMft H3 KpynHbix npeAcxaBHxejieu 

') B a r H e p (1813 ISSS) 

oTHoc«xc. ero paH„„e onepu ( JeT," 3'^^'- ^ ^''"^ P^^-^'V "^PHo^y 
c „PHe„UH« (1840) Bar„ep BbrcT^arTUr'""'"""'^ '"°^°'^'^" ^«36). y«e 
UaM „6o«.u,ofl onepu" MeZZZ T "''"■ °'"""" '^'^^V- oSpaa- 

CBOK, xeopHK, MyaMKa„.Ho./paMLrecKoro „ ™" "" '''^"^ °" -^«-- ' 
.Mya^^a 6y,y.;ero", „ HcKycc oTpeHoI'L"'?^ "n"^"^ " «P^"^"' 

;;ho3hok TexpanomH (MyawKMKHa^ n! "^°"^«a HM6e«yHroB", b rpaH- 

HaoxH KoxopoK, ,,Pe Joi rriLS::;,:: ''-"P-^ cn:KxaK„.x), „epL,e 
HeHHH ,.H„5e„yHroB" BCKop^ Hac;'vn„rnenon ' "°''^™^'='' '^ ^855 r. B co.„. 
Han„ca. „Tp„cxa„a h Hsol."-' 1^9)7 S' '^ --«- -™Poro Bar„ep 
PHx ero cx«„. npexepnenaex cy^efxBeHH^f " '''™"''°' ^''''^' "^ '^''- 
TexpanopHH ..Konbua" „ co3fla« b 1869 . ^""^^ ««P«y"=« « co™„e„HK, ' 

-1874. 3aK0„,„„ ee ,,rreir5„r-?T3r;; ^ " ''n''"^^"' 
"c.™p„„ ,,,„,, " ""°"y -^P^^eHH BarHep 



13 



^ 



HBJieHne no oTHomeHHto k paHHeMy poMaHXHSMy (Ulydepr, ho 
npenMyiuecTBeHHo Be6ep h M a p ui h e p). Cpefla, nopoAHB- 
uiafl BarHepa, 6biJia jinxepaTypHO-apTHCTMHecKaH 6oreMa. 
KyjibxypHafl, HHTejiJinreHTHaH, npoHMsaHHaa 4)hjiococ})ckhmh 

nOCTpoeHHHMH HAeaJIHSMa H MHCTO-JlHTCpaTypHblMH BeHHHJIMM 

poMaHTHKOB. BarHcp B eme 6ojibmefi[ h opraHHHecKofi Mepe. 
MCM llIyMaH, cosHflajicH JiHxepaTypHbiMM HfleaMW TotfiMaHa, 
M B ero co6cTBeHHbix ^iHTeparypHbix nucaHrax MoacHO 6es 
Tpyfla ycMorpeTb BJiHHHue TnnHHHOM roc^jMaHOBCKOH Manepbi. 
nepBOHanajibHoe cxoactbo Barnepa c ro4)MaHOM ycyry6j]jj- 
• jiocb ero 6poflflHHM, Heo6ecneMeHHbiM 6biTOM h ero MHoro^ 
cTopoHHefl oflapeHHOcTbKJ (waK MysbiKanT. no3TH JiHTepaxop, 
noBMflHMOMy, H KaK aKxep). 3to M<e npeAonpeflejiHJio ero 
MysbiKajibHOCTb, KaK TearpajibHyK). KaK cueHMnecKyro no 
npewMymecTBy h flance HCKJiiOHHTejibHO. B paHHioK) snoxy 
CBoeft AeflTejibHOCTH Baraep sbicTynaeT. KaK omn h3 noflpa- 
acaxeJieR cthjih nauMOHajibHoft poMaHxuHecKoA onepw, npH- 

BHBUiefiCJ! B Tex HHTeJIJIHreHTCKHX KpyraX. K KOTOpbIM caM OH 

npHHaflJieJKaji. 3tot nepBbift nepwoA xapaKTepMsyercH toS 

. paCTepHHHOCTbK) H OTCyTCTBHeM TBepflOFO HanpaBJieHMSJ, 
; KOTOpbie OMeHb THnWHHbl ttJIH JIHTepaTypHO-apXHCTHHeCKOH 

6oreMbK Barnep eme He sHaex, b KaKOi^ c4)epe oh 6yfleT 
' pa6oTaTb, — KaK noar h ApaMaxypr HJiHKaK MysbiKanT— kom- 
no3HTop onep. Vcnex 6ojibmoft onepbi napn>KCKoro ctmjisi 
(CnoHTHHH, Meftep6ep) BbWBHHyji npeji hhm bo bcbm 6jiecKe 
saaaMH onepbi h yKaaaJi Ty rpynny noTpe6HTeJiefi. k KOropofi 
oh AOJiM<eH 6bw6bi anejiJiHpoBaTb. — uiHpoKyK) ny6jiHKy, MCAy- 
myio spejiHiua. od'acHHiomero eft 6ojiee rjiy6oKoe, sanoweHHoe 
B ApaMaTHHecKOM H B MysbiKajibHOM o6pa3e. Ho cTHJib 6ojib- 
moPi onepbi, paccMHTaHHbifi na npMMHTHBHbift, rpy6bia BKyc, 



nonyMHn anmcimo h Mor BCpHyTbcn Ha po«HHy, rae oh 6bin BCTpeneH, kbk 
HauHOHanbHbiH reHHfi, h CNor, npa ynacTHH yBneMCHHoro ero tbophcctbom 
6aBapcKoro Koponsi, ocymecxBHXb cboh rpaHflHOSHwe nnaHw o cosAaHHH cne- 
wanbHoro TeaTpa «ji5i cbohx «paM b r. BaflpeKTe, KOTopwR craji c rex nop 
ueHTpoM „BarHepH3Ma". B 1881 r. B. aaKOHHHji csoe nocneflHee npoHSseae- 
Hwe „napcH4)anb". KpoMe sthx Kpynnbix npoHSsefleHHR, Baraep uanHcan pjifl 
MCHe'e KpynHbix, hs Koxopwx cymecTaeHHoe sHaneHHe HMeei ysepTiopa 
OaycT" (1840, BnocneflCXBHH nepepa6oxaHa), naxb poMaHCOB na cboh 
coScxBeHHbie xckcxw (1858), oxnacxH nocnyMHBUiHe MaxepHanoM una 
.JpHcxana". Barnep noMHMO xoro, mxo 6bin KOMnosHiopoM, HBnancfl eme. 
nepBOKnaccHbiM noaxoM, nHcaBuiHM xeKcxw «na cbohx npaM. 



l»0 



He Mor nojiHocTbH) yaoBJiexBopHTb Barnepa. oh oTAaex eft 
AO;ir B CBOCM „PHeHUH", HanHcaHHOM b MaHepe CnoHTHHH h 
Mefiep6epa. h ryr me y6eH<flaeTcsr. hto ero crajib, HaxoAH- 
lUHftcH B opraHHMecKoS cBflsaHHOCTH c nopoAHBUieft ero cpe- 
Aoft HHTenjieKTyajibHoA 6oreMbi, aojijkch 6biTb KaKoft-xo hhoS. 
Bpamaacb coBepmenHO a npyrax c(j[)epax, nen poManxHKM 
no3AHeft (i)opMauHH HHxejiJieKxyajibHoro Tuna (UlyMan h 
llioneH), Barnep KcnbixuBaji cpaBHHTejibHO Majio HenocpeA- 
CTBeHHbix bjimhhhh ot hhx, k TOi^y Mie ero pacneT 6bifl coBep- 

lUeHHO HHOfl. Oh H ne WMen B BHAy HHTHWHblft-MHHaHTlOpHblft 

CTHJib M Te Kpyra noTpednxejieft, Koxopwe axoro wajKAajiH: 
c caMoro Hanaaa h ao KOHua jkhshh P. Barnep xsepAO Aep- 
masica iiiHpoKoro h MOHyMenxajibHoro, rpaHAHosHoro pycjia 
HCKyccxBa. Ha Hero mofjih BOSAeftcxBosaxb npsiMo h neno- 
cpeAcxBCHHo: Be6ep — co cbohm HauHonaAbHbm ApaMaTH3- 
MOM^ H HapoAHbiM MejiocoM. llIy6epT — C CBOefl HHCXO-repMBH- 
CKoft MejiOAHKofi, BexxoBeH — CO cbohm AHnaMHiecKHM h 

repOHieCKHM CHMtj[>OHH3MOM, BepjIWOB — CO CBOeft nblUIHOCXblO 
H HOBHSHOft KpaCOK OpKCCXpa, CO CBOHM HCCTynjICHHblM pOMaH- 
TH3MOM, HaKOneU. JIhCT- CO CBOea MOmbK) H CTpCMJieHHeW 

K MOHyMeHTaJibHocxH. MAeojiorHHecKHe npeAnocbiJiKH xBopMe- 
cxBa BarHcpa KpbMncb e HAeajiHcxHHecKofi 4)hjioco4)hw. kbk 
H y Bcex poManxHKOB, a cxHjib BonjiomeHHa 6uji o6ycjioBJieH 
ero ocoBHaHHbiM cxpeMJieHHeM cosAaxb MOHyMenxajibHoe 
M HauHOHaflbHoe repMancKoe HCKyccxBO. B sxom 

CMblCJie OH HBHJICJJ OXSByKOM TBX TeieHHft H COUHOJIOrHHCCKHX 

ycTanoBOK, KOTopwe rocnoACTBOBajiH b ero anoxy b repMan- 
CKOM HHTejijiHreHXHOM MHpe. 3xo 6biJia anoxa peBOjnouHOH- 

HblX 6pOWeHHfl H CABHFOB, 6opb6a 3a MAeOJIOrHH) HOBblX 

couHajibHbix <|)opM (1848 roA — sapowACHHe couwajiHSMa, anap- 
xHMecKaH nponaraHAa ero Apyra BaKyHHHa h np.). llpeJKHHft 
HauHOHajiHBM B AOMauiHHx, HHXHMHbix paMKax y«<e He yAOBJie- 
TBopjijr, HHxejiJieKxyajibHaa Mwcjib FepMaHWH Tpe6oBajia MHpo- 
Bbix nepcneKXHB, ona BbiKOBwaajia b axo Bpewq HAeK) MHpo- 
Boft rereMOHHH FepMaHHH, a pacxyiuaa 3KOHOMHMecKa« woiub 
cosAaaajia MorynHft KJiacc npoMbiiiifleHHofi 6ypM«ya3HH, koto- 
paa cosAaaa b cKopoM BpeweHH repMaHCKMft HMnepHajiHSM. 
Oxxoro Barnep, cwh hoboA anoxH HauwoHaflHSMa. yjKe He 
Mor Menxaxb o TBopnecxBe b paMKax Be6epa, oh MyscxBO- 
Baji, MTO HOBoft TepMaHMH, b pacMexe na Koxopyio oH 



/4iiiMii)<Mte 



:><iri>frii^^'H>iii^"liiWf I ir 



cTaBHJi npodjieMy xBopMecxBa, HyjKHo 6o;iee rpaHAwosHoe 
HCHTO, 6o;iee opraHHHecKw TecHO cnanHHoe c nauHOHaJib- 

HblMH pOflHHKaMH. 3KCKypCHH B o6jiacTb MCHepQepHSMa, CnOH' 

TH3Ma H anejiJiauHH k cthjik) c|)paHu,y3CKO]M[ „rpaHji,-onepa" 

6bIJIH B CymHOCTH TOJlbKO HCKaHHHMH 3TOH TpaHJl,H03H0H 
4)0pMbI, HCKaHHHMH, 0T6p01UeHHbIMH Sa HeflOCTaTOMHOCTbK), 

HO TeM He Menee HajioM<nBiiiHMH HSBecTHWH OTnenaTOK wa 
Bce TBopnecTBO BarHepa. PpaHflHOBHaH cfjopna HaflACHa 
6biJia BarHepoM, Koraa ero Mbicjib o6paTHJiacb k vp,ee Bce- 
HapoAHoft ApaMbi H K ee npoTOTKnaM — aHTMMHbiM xp a re- 
Ana m. Tyx OH He Mor ne HaxojiKHyxbcsi BHOBb na xy HAeio, 
Koxopan KorAa-xo BwsBaAa k »ch3hh siBJieHHe FjiyKa. Bojibuiasi 
onepa o6AaAaJia nbiuiHOcxbK) cneKxaKjiJi, ho He o6jiaAaJia 
aAeKBaxHbiM coAepJKaHHeM, ueJibHocxbio ero. Ohb, 6jiaroAapfl 

HSBCCXHOMy CXOACXBy BHeUIHHX, ee o6yCJ10BJIHBaK>mHX npHMHH, 

nonajia npHMepHO b xe Mce ycjiOBVin, b KaKwx naxoAHAacb 
4)paHuy3CKa5i cepbeBHaa onepa ao FjiyKa: uejibHocxb ApaMw 
Hapyuiajiacb HacjioeHUHMK anxHApaMaxHHecKoro xapaKxepa. 
fiBJieHHe Barnepa 6biJio b sxom cMwcjie b cHJibHOH cxenenn 
anajiorHMHO aBJiennK) FjiyKa. PasHHua, EnponeM, xoMce 6bKa 
eymecxBeHHa, h6o cpeAH npHHHH, BbisbiBaBuiHx sjBJieHHe FflyKa, 
He 6bi.io HauHonajibHoro ycxpenjieHHa, cxojib xapaKxepnoro 
AJiH Barnepa. Barnep cosHAaji MOHyMenxajibHyK) Apany ajih 
napoAa (hjih, KaK eny npeACxaB;iH.nocb, AJia HapoAa, a Ha 
Aeae — AJia HauHOHajiHcxwHecKoA rpynnw noxpe6nxejieH, koxo- 
paH AOJiJKHa 6biJia 6bixb, no ero mwcjih, MaKCHMajibKO 
uiHpoKoft, H noxoMy OH anejiJiHpoBaji k HAee napoAa)- 
lllHpHHa XOH njiocKocxH, AJiH Koxopoft OH npoeKXHpoBaji CBoe 
XBopMecxBO, xpe6oBajia pacuiHpeHHH pecypcoB HCKyccxBa. 
C OAHOH cxopoHbi, 9XO 6bijio BOo6me cxaBKa na MaKCHMajib- 
HyK) rpaHAHosHocxb, Koxopoft MoacHO 6biJio noKopaxb Maccw, 
c ApyroH cxopoHbi, 3XO 6bi;io pacuiHpeHMe cawoK c(|)epbi, — 
onepa AOJiJKHa 6biJia nepecxaxb 6bixb onepoft, KaK Mysbi- 
KajibHbiM aKxoM, OHa AOflJKHa 6biJia cxaxb eme n ApaMoft, 
Mxo6bi BOBJieHb B HHCJio cBoero noxp66Hxejia eme m ApaMa- 
xH4ecKH saHHxepecoBaHHbie Kpyrw. Barnep npeAnojiaraA pa6o- 
xaxb AJiH ayAHxopHH h3 MysbiKanxoB, noaroB h xeaxpajios, 
a He xojibKo AJia MyswKaHxoB oahhx — AJia „MejiOMaHOB". 
OxcK)Aa H ero MonyMeHxaJibHaa ycxanoBKa xBopnecxBa, h 
ero HACH cHHxeaa HCKyccxB b MysbiKajibHofl Apane. 



— ]97 — 

Koxopast y Hero saneHHex mask) onepw. B aHXHMHofi xpa- 
reAHH OH BHACJi npoo6pa3 BceHapoAHoro MOHyMenxajibHoro 
MCKyccxBa, paccMHxaHHoro xaK, Hxo6bi npoHSBOAHxb mbkch- 
MajibHoe xyAO>KecxBeHHoe BOSAeflcxBue Ha MaKcuMajibHO uiHpo- 
KyK) njiomaAb HacejieHHH. HapoAHbie HauHonaAbHbie m h 4) bi 

AOJlHCHbl 6bIJlH 6bITb HCXOAHbIM nyHKXOM SXOrO BCJIKKOrO Hau,no- 

HajibHoro HCKyccxBa, Koxopoe hmbjio uejibio nocxaBHXb b njiane 
HCKyccxB FepMaHHK) npeBbiiue Bcex cxpan, npw new kbk 
b o6jiacxH xpaKxoBKK MHc|)a, xaK h b oSjiacxn MysbiKajibHoro 
BonjiomeHHH BarHep npH6er k MexoAe, y«e mhophmh aBxopaMH 

HHTyHXHBHO npOBefteHHOft, KOXOpyK) MO^HO 0603HaMHXb, KaK 

„9cxexHHecKn-HepapxHHecKyK>". Ona saKJuonajiacb b xom, mxo 
B cc|3epy noxpe6nxejiJi HCKyccxsa BOBJiewajiHCb MaKcuMajibPO 
lunpoKMe KpyrH jihu. xeM, hxo npeAcxaBHxejm pasKbix BKyco- 
Bbix rpynn, KajKAaa b oxAejibHOcxH HaxoAHJia b sxom HCKyc- 
cTBe HyHCHbie hm sjiewenxbi. Rjia KBajinc|)HLi,vipoBaHHoro 
MysbiKaHxa xaM 6biJia HOBHsna MyBWKajibHwx Mbicjiefl h HOBa- 
xopcxBO B MHCxo- xexHMMecKOH o6jiacxH, AJI5J nHxejiJivireHxa- 
iiauHOHajiHcxa — uiMpoKan HauHOHajibnan xpaKXOBKa rcKyc- 
cxBa, AflH 4)HJioco4)a-HHxejiJiHreHxa — CHMBOJiuMecKoe ocBeme- 
HHC MH(|)a, AJia uiHpoKoft ny6.jiHKM — HMnoHHpoBaHHe o6mefl 
Heo6biMHOcxbio H rpaHAHOSHOcxbK) KOHuenuHH, cxasKa Ha Bce 
HCKyccxBa sapas. B noMCKax (|)opMbi, cooxBexcxBOBaBuiCM 
3XOH MOHyMenxaJibHOH HAee, Barnep peiUHxejibHO cxaHOBHxcH 
K p a fl H H M K o B a X o p o M, c HCcpaBHeHHO 6ojiee pCBKOft 
HOBaxopcKOM ycxaHOBKOM, HCJKCJiH y LUyMaHa, Jlncxa m 
lUonsHa. Oh npH6eraex k HosbiM MysbiKajibHWM pecypcaM, 
KaK K cpcAcxBy npeAeJibHOM BbipasuxejibHOcxw m KaK k cpeA- 
cxBy, npHKOBbisaiomeMy 3cxexH4ecKoe BHUMaHvie Heo6biH- 

HOCXbK). Oh, CXpeMJICb K HaHBblCmeH rpaHAHOSHOCXH cfJopMbi, 

yHMHxoM^aex npaBvuibHwe MexpMMecKne o6pa30BaHH5i b wysbme, 
Ny3biKa.nbHaa Macca, Koxopaa ao nero ABuraJiacb npepw- 
BMcxo, b paccpOMKy, KaK 6bi JKCJiaji Aaxb opHeHXMpoBaxbca 
cjiyuiaxe,iiK) b AexajiHx, paccMOxpexb hx npHcxajibnee, y Hero 
HaHHHaex ABHraxbca Bceft Maccol^ cnjioiub, n6o uejib ee y^ce 
HHasi — noKopHXb cjiymaxejM cxhxhmhoh rpaHAHOsHOcxbto Bne- 
HaxjieHHH H nojiHoft HOBHSHoft cro, AaBaa OAHOapeMeHHO noji- 
Hyto cBo6oAy 3KcnpeccHH. OxcKJAa ero HAesi h npaKXHKa 
6ecKOHe4HOH MejiOAHM; KOTopaa He pa36HBaexcH na 
cfjopMajibHbie sjieMeHXb! h oxAe.nbHocxM, OTCKJAa ero cucxeMa 



^imitiSbSk 



UmHHM 



■.'^istai iii itil( B>»i ^ W 



— 198 



199 



JieftTMOTHBOB, HJIH MySblKajIbHbJX XapaKTCpHCTHK, HJIW 
MySblKaJIbHblX „CJIOb", CHMBOJIOB, KOTOpbie o603HaMaK>T HACH 
H aCTCTHHeCKH CJiywaT JtJIH TOrO, MT06bI BCe-TaKH AaTb OpHBH- 

THposaTbcH B arofi Macce Heo6biHHbix BneHaTJieHHfl, KaKHw-ro 
o6pa30M ypasHOBecHTb He6biBajiyK) xaoTHHHOCTb Bnenaxjie- 
HMH. Ms Toro ace cTpeMJieHwa k rpaHflwosHOMy saxBary cJiy- 
marejiH nponcTCKaeT ero nbiuiHOCTb opKecxpoBKH, b KOTopoft 
OH npessomeji h JIncTa, h BepjiHOsa, h ero xpoMaTHSM, 
KOTopbifl HaHHHaex cocpeAOTOHHBaTbCJi B ero TBopnecTBe 

HMCHHO K MOMCHTaM CrO nOJIHOPO OCOSHaHHH. BsHB y CBOHX 

npeauiecTBCHHUKOB Bce, hto 6bijio rpaHAHosHoro b hx mcto- 
flax BotuiomeHHsi, Barnep aoboaht 3th pecypcw ao Bbicmefi 
cxeneHH. B 9tom othouichhh ero ponb HHorAa anajiorHMHa 
BexxoBCHy, Koxopbift bbcji b MyswKy AMHaMHSM; Baraep 
ace BBOAHx cjieAyiomyK) cxbahk) axoro AHHaMHSMa — cxwxHfi- 
Hocxb, Koxopas! y Hero npoHHKaex c{|)epy ApaMaxHnecKofi 
MysbiKH xaK we, KaK y Bexxosena AHHaMHMHOcxb npoHHsajia 
CHM(|)OHHK). Oxxoro MOMCHO cKasaxb, Mxo Barnep SBJisjexcH 
chm4)ohhcxom b MHpe MysbiKajibHoR ApaMbi, h6o oh Aa;i 
onepe MyawKajibHyio cxHXHftnocxb, panee eft nywAyio. B xo 
ace BpewH Barnep b cBoeft norone sa MOHyMCHxajibHocxbio 
He Mor npofixH mhmo yace pecxaspHpoBaHHoro oxnacTW npea<- 
HHMM poMaHXHKaMH Baxa c ero rpaHAwosHbiM cxHJieM. Xpo- 
MaxMSM Baxa h ero HacbimeHHast nojiH4)OHHHecKaH Manepa 
HaMHHaiox BJiacxHO noKopHXb renvtPi Barnepa, h oh b cym- 
HocxH oKasbiBaexca HaH6ojiee cymecxBeHHbiM pecxaBpaxopoM 
nojiHtfjoHMH B XIX BSKe, npn MBM ero noflm|)OHH9 ya<e He 
opHCHXHpyexca Ha oxKpbixyio h HaHBayio nMHxauHOHHyio 
4>opMy ((jjjyra, KanoH), a Bbipa6axbiBaex HOBbie, CMe- 
uiaHHbie <|)opMbi, nojiyroMo4)OHHMecKHe, nojiy- 
nojiH4>OHHHecKHe, Koxopbie c xex nop cxaHOBHXCH 

HaH6oJiee npHHSCXblMH e CMMt|)OHHHeCKOM CXHJie. 

C „Kojibua HH6e;iyHroB" (Han. b 50-x roAax) Barnep 
ocosHaex cboh saAanH h cboA: MAeaJi, a c „TpHcxaHa m 
MsojibAbi" (1856) OH Bbipa6axbiBaeT cboK cxHjib, ya<e Hacw- 
meHHbift H nojin(|)OHHeft, h HOBbiM rapMOHMHecKHM Maxepwa- 
jioM H xewH npHeMaMH, Koxopwe mm BnepBbie BHecenbi b Mysbi- 
KanbHoe HCKyccxBO. Tox powanxwHecKHM HauHOHajmsM, koxo- 
pbifirocnoAcxBOBaJi b neMeuKOM o6u3;ecxBe Hanajia 50-x toaob, 
KOFAa 4»opMHpoBajicH BarHep h ero HanpaBfleHne, sa sxo 



BpeMH ycnejl CHJIbHO HSMeHHXbCH H HaCXbK) BOBCe HCHeSHyXb. 

FepMaHMH 60-x h b oco6eHHOcxH 70-x toaob 6bijia yace cxpa- 
HOH c onpeAejieHHbiM yp6aHHH[ecKMM, npoMbiuiJieHHbiM xeMnoM 
pasBHXHSf, c HapoAHBiueflcH oneHb KpynHOft dypacyasHeft, 
c onpeAejieHHbiMH HMnepHajiHCTHMecKHMn xeHAeHUHHMH. McKyc- 
cxBO cxaHOBHxcH BOcnpHHHMaeMbiM Hc xoJibKO B acncKxe 
nHAHBMAyajibHoro nepeacHBaHHJi, ho h kbk MSBecxHoe arHxa- 
XHBHoe cpeAcxBO, KaK MexoA BOSAeflcxBUJi Ha Maccbi. McKyc- 
cxBO Barnepa a axoM CMbicjie Morjio siBMXbca snaMeneM 
o6'eAHHeHHH repMaHCKOH Kyjibxypbi, 6jiaroAapH cBoeMy 
apKO HauHOHajibHOMy xony, xew sjieweHxaM cymecxBeH- 
Horo repMaHHSMa, Koxapwe b hcm 6biJiH sajioacenbi, h ero 
MOHyMenxajibHoA xeKxoHHKe. Barnep, cxasumfl ms ponaHXHKa h 
Heo6y3AaHHoro cwna doreMW (3xhm 6oreMH3MOM b cyinHOcxH 
onpeAejiHJica h ero „peBOJiK)u;HOHH3M" b 48 roAy, sa Koxopwft 
OH noABeprcj! HsrHanHJO h3 FepManHH) — snaMeneM nauHOHajib- 
Horo o6'eAHHeHHa FepMaHHH a o6jiacxH HCKyccxBa, cxa- 
HOBHxcH conpHHacxHbiM xoMy apHcxoKpaxHMCCKOMy Kpyry, 
Koxopbifl panee, b snoxy ero „Be6epn3Ma" ii nepBbix MeMxanMft 
o nauHonajibHOM wcKyccxBe, 6bin eny snojine nyacA- Oh sna- 
KOMHXcfl c JIhcxom, Koxopbift noAAepacHBaex ero XBopnecxBO 
H ero caMoro nyxen nponaraHAw ero coHMneHHw, xpaHc- 

KpHnUHHMH H APyrHMK nyXHMH, OH BXOAHT B HSblCKaHHblfl 

Kpyr Bbicuieft HHxejiJieKxyajibHofi apwcxoKpaxMH. HecoMHeHHO, 
MXO Barnep, KaK KpynneKmaH arHxaxuBHasi CH,iia, 6biji yHxen 
B 3XOM acneKxe HauHOHajibno-HMnepHajiHcxHHCCKHMH Kpyrarw 
repManwH, Koxopam b axy anoxy nanajia no6eAOHOCHO o6'eAH- 
iH5iTbCH B uejibHyio H BCJinKyio HMRepHK). H npurjiaujeHMe 
Barnepa 6aBapcKHM Kopojiew ajih opranMaauMH cBoero MOHy- 
Menxa^ibHoro HCKyccxBa b HaM6ojiee KoncepBaxHBHoA h KJie- 
pHKajibHO nacxpoennoft nacxH FepManHM (BaBapHw) 6biJio ne 
cjiynaftHbiM HojicHHeM: oho 6biJio o6ycJiOBjieHO hmchho mhcthhk- 
xHBHbiM ynexoM ero snaMeHHJi, KaK xyAoacHMKa. FlonaAaJi b 3xot 
Kpyr, Barnep He Mor ne noAflaxbca hhcxhhkxhbho neKoxopbiM 
oco6eHHOcxsjM ero SByKOcosepuanHsi h ero B0o6me xyAoace- 
cxBennoro MnpoBosspeHHs. OHJioco4)CKHft nAeajiH3M Mnpo- 
omymenHH, xapaKxepnbifi ajisi Barnepa, kbk h ajis Bcex poMaH- 
XHKOB, B Hanajie ero AeaxejibHocxH oneHb 6jiH3KHft k poMaH- 
THSMy ro(|)MaHa, noneMHory AecfcopMHpyexca: b snoxy ero 
MsraaHHsi H BbiHyjKAeHHoro oxpbiBa ox HauHonajibnocxM oh 



— 2UV — 



— 201 — 



cflaeTCH noa HanopoM BoaspeHuft uioneHrayepoBCKoro neccn- 
MH3Ma, a noTOM MSMeHHexcji B onpeflejieHHbift mhcthuhsm, 
KOTopwft npHTOM HBJiHeTCH OKpauieHHbiM B xapaKTepHbie K a T o- 
jiMMecKHe TOHa, KaK h y JlwcTa. B 3toh 3bojik)iihh, 6ec- 
cnopHO, CKasbieaexcH nyxb hsnc leHHH Toro Kpyra noTpedHxejiJi, 
Ha KOTopbifl ormpajica hhcthhkthbho BarHep, KOTopbifi CHa^ajia 
pHcoaajicH CMy, kbk neMeuKHft napofl e ocsemeHHH HAeajiH- 

CTHHCCKOM (^JHJlOCOcfjHH, a nOTOM KaK TOT »<€ KapOfl — B H3JIO- 

>KeHHH KjiepHKajibHoro HMnepnaJiH3Ma; nofl, caMWH jkC kohcu 
M<H3HH eflsa jiH BarHep He saMKHyjica b HepaTHMecKOM Kpyry 
„HeMHorHx", cosAaBan y^ce KCKyccTBO, KOTopoe TOJibKO noreH- 
UHajibHO npeflHasHanajiocb juih „HapoAa", a b cyiUHocTvi 6biJio 
rJiy6oKo sawKHyibiM h AocxynHbiM xojibKo HeMHorHM nocBa- 

meHHblM XyflOJKeCTBeHHOft riJIOCKOCTH. TaKHMM HacxpoeHHHMM 

npoHHKHyTbi nocjieaHHe coHMHeHHH Barnepa, MHCTHMecKHe 

ajieMCHTbl B KOTOpWX HaMMHaKJT AOMMHHpOBaTb. HaMMHaH 

c „TpMCTaHa" (nepHOja, yBJieMeHHH uioneHrayepoBCKOM (|)hjio- 
cocfjucM), H K OKOHMaHHK) „HH6ejiyHroB" 3TO HacTpoeHMe 
KpenneT, Bbipaxcasjcb b MyswKajibHOM njiane, bo Bce pacTymeS 
cjio^KKOCTH MysbiKajibHoft TKaHM, B nojiHcfjOHHH, Bcepfla conpo- 
BOHCAaBiueft MHCTHUVI3M B MysbiKC, M 3aBepuiaeTCH nosfsjie- 

HMCM y>Ke OTKpOBeHHO MHCTHHCCKH nOCTpoeHHOPO „napCM- 

4)ajiH", B KOTopoM MOHCHo BHfleTb saBepuieHHe Tex KJiepH- 

KaJlbHblX HaCTpOeHHfi, KOTOpbie nOMTH B TO 
nHnmepsiaAHSa- jq<e BpCMH COSHflaJlH B TBOpHeCTBC JIhctB 

ero cTpeMJieHHC k uepKOBHOM MOHyMeHTajibHO- 
cth. OxopBaHHOcTb nocjieflHHx npoHSBefleHKfl 
BarHepa, cTOJib ^e, ecjiH He 6ojiee npewHux, 
MOHyMeHTajibHbix no 4)aKType, h orpaHHHeHHe ero npyra 
noTpe6nTe.neH cneuM4>HMecKHM KpyroM jihu oxnacTH 

H3 apHCTOKpaTHHeCKHX SiieMeHTOB, OTHaCTH H3 BblClUeil HHTeJI" 
JIHreHUHH, OTMaCTH H3 CHOdnHeCKOM MHPOBOM 6ypjKya3HH, 

CTpeMHBUieficH npHBCTCTBOBaTb BarHepa, KaK Bce apnoe h 
CHJibHo aefiCTByiomee, 6biJiH npHHHHoft Toro, hto b cymno- 
CTH ero nocjieflHwe npoHSBefleKKH ujhpokmmh MaccaMH „npH- 
SHSHbi" He 6biJTH, MTO OHH ocTajiHCb AJiH HepaTHHCCKoro Kpyra 

MySblKaHTOB H XyXOWHHKOB 6ojiee BblCOKOM KBaJIHCfjHKaUHH, 

npnTOM Kpyra OMCHb opHrwHajibHoro, He coBnaAaBuiero c Kpy- 
roM npodjcccwoKajiOB, jijih KOToporo CTH,iib BarHepa 6biJi 
cjiMUJKOM HOB H ABKopaTHBHO Heo6biHeH, a CKopee 6biBmero 



gHH" {lOMaHTHSMa 

B QOSARCM Bar- 
Hepe. 



KpyroM BbiciueH MHTejiJiHreHUHH „HeMy3hiKajibHoro THna. 
Chmbojiom 3Toro cneuH4)HHecKoro Kpyra noTpe6nTejieH mbhjicsj 
BarnepoBCKuft „BaMpeMT", cBoero pofla cBHineHHasi MeKKa 
BarHepHCTOB, Ky^a ohm cTeKajiHcb cjiyuiaTb npoHSBefleHvu? 
BejiHKOro yMHTejiH, b rennajibHbix pasMepax AaposaHHsi koto- 
poro, B MysbiKajibHoft HCTopHH 6ecnpnMepHbix, HexpyAHO yjio- 

BHTb MepXbl CXOACTBa C BBJIUKHMH yHHXeJlJIMM HeJIOBCHeCXBa 

B o6jiacxH pejinraosHOH mwcjih. Y^Ke oaho xo, mxo Barnepy, 
npH Heo6bi4HOcxH ero MysbiKajibHbix 4>opM hjih 6jiaroAapji hm, 
yAajiocb nocxaBHTb cbom aBxopHxex xaK 6ecnpHMepHO BbicoKO, 
noKasbiBaex, mxo b ero JiHue mu nMeeM Aejio c hckjihjhm- 
TCJibHOH reHHajibwocxH JIMUOM, Koxopbift 6jiHcxaxejibHo sasep- 
maex h ncMepnbiBaex co6ok) snoxy poMaHxHSMa h KOTopbift 
OKasbiBaeT necJibixaKHO cHJibHoe BOSAcftcTBHe na Bcto MysbiKy. 
B caMoft JKe FepMaHMn HBJieHHe Barnepa OKasajiocb eABa n\\ 
ne poKOBbiM, n6o HanpHHceHne Tex napoAHbix chji, KOTopwe 
cosAaAH 3Ty AHHHOCTb, KaK 6yATO oKa3ajiocb nocjie ero cnepxH 
HCHepnaHHbiM, h NysbiKajibHaa Hcxopusi repMaHwn ao Barnepa, 
HCKJiK)HHxejibHO 6;iecxHmaji, cosAaBuia^ FepMaHMM cjiaBy Mnpo- 
Boro MysbiKajibHoro uenxpa h rereMOHHsvipyiomeM b My3biKe 
HauHH, nocjie BarHepa naMMHaex 6jieKHyxb h Aafiaib xojibKO 
3nnroHHMecKHe hjih rpoxecKHbie 4>opMbi. B Barnepe, 6biBUieM 
onepHbiM KOMnosHxopoM M MysbiKajfbHoft ApaMe oxAaBuieM 
Bce xBopnecxBO, xapaKxepeH xeM ne Menee MOMeHx hcxhh- 
Horo CHMc|)OHH3Ma. HccMOxpH Ha xo, MXO saMbiceA ero 
npcAonpeAeAflJi nyBbiKC xojibKO necxo „Ka pHAy" co cjiobom 
H o6cxaHOBKoii b xeaxpe, 4)aKTHMecKH ero MysbiKajibHbift 
reHMM AOMHHHpoBaji, 6bixb MOM<ex, 6oJiee, MeM bo Bcex npeAWAy- 
uiHx HBJieHHHX MysbiKajibHO-ApaMaxHMBCKoro cHHxesa. Rocjie 
Hero, BHecmero b JKHSHb onepw xaK mhopo hobhx Mepx, noji- 
Hbift BOBBpax K MysbiKajibHOMy HHCbMy npe^cHero cxaA neMbic- 
jiHM, H Bce onepHoe h cHM450HHMecKoe HCKyccTBO nosAHefi- 
luero BpeMeHH cxohx noA TeM hjih hhwh BJiHHHHeM Barne- 
pH3Ma. MxorH AeaxejibHocxn Barnepa bo MHoroM 6b!JiH HeosKH- 
AaHHbi AJiH Hero caMoro: axa KOJioccajibHaa bojih, cxpeMHB- 
luasca noBepnyxb HcxopHio MyBbiKajibHoro HcwyccxBa, Bce ?Ke 
caMa xaK hjih HnaMe noABepraJiacb njiacxHMecKHM BOBAefi- 
cxBHHM OKpyjKaiomeft o6cxaHOBKH. rioaxoMy, MceJiaBuiHH npo- 
BecxH pe(|)opMy „onepbi", cacjisb hb nee MysbiKajibHyro ApaMy, 
BarHep axoro-xo b cymnocxH h ne AOcxHrnyji: oh xoJibKo 



i m. 



— 202 - 
onepHOMy MOHyMeHxajibHOMy HCKyccxBy npHftaji HecjiwxaHHO 

rpaHflHOSHbie t^^OpMbl H COSaaJI HOBbie TeXHHMeCKHC Meroflb! 

npefl,ejibHoft SKcnpeccHW. TKenasmviPi cosAaxb HCKyccxBO e c e- 
HapoflHoe, OH cosAaJi HCKyccTBO, TOJibKO HMnoHHpyromee 
BO BceHapoBHOM MacmTa6e, a no cymecTBy — wcKyccxBO 
HepaxHHecKoro Kpyra, Mano Aocxynnoe Macce. Ero JiHxepaxyp- 
Hbie nHcaHHH, a Koxopwx oh cxapajicsi noflBecxH Mfleojiorw- 
necKHft (t>yHflaMeHx nofl CBoe HCKyccxBO („Onepa h apaMa", 
„My3biKa 6yAymero" h np), nacxuMHO lunpe ero peajiHsauHH, 
MacxHHHo 7Ke OH cflCJiaji 6ojibuie, mcm xoxeji, m b coBepmeHHO 
HHbix o6jiacxflx. Ero cosAanHH, ms KOxopwx paHHwe 
<„MopjiK-cKnxajieu" 1840. .JaHreflaep" 1843. „Jlo9HrpHH" 184i) 
AO CHX nop o6cJiyM«HBaK)x BKycw uinpoKoS onepHofl Maccbi, 
a nosAHee („HH6eflyHrH" 1852—1876, ..TpHcxan" 1856. „MeM- 
cxepsHHrepw" 1862, „napcvi£|f)aJib" 1881) — npeflcxaBJwnox flo 
CHX nop JiHuib yaeji neMHorHx h AeficxByrox Ha uiHpoKyio Maccy 
xoflbKO ajiCMeHxaMH CBoeft rpaHAHOSHOcxH, — ero cosflaHwa 
He B xaKoft Mepe oxpaMcaiox ero xeopHw, Koxopwe npe^Ba- 
pHJiH ero npaKXHKy, CKOJibKO o6HapyM<HBaK)x pasBHXHe ero 

XBOpneCXBa B SaBUCHMOCXH ox CXHXhShO MCHJIBlIieflCJI COUHO- 

jiorHHecKoS axMOC(|)epbi ero coBpeMenHocxH h b cBoew Mony- 
weHxajibHOM. Bbicuieft HanpsiaceHKOcxH acncKxe xohho oxpa- 
acarox KapxHHy xofi Moryneft bojih. Koxopaa oflHOspeMeHHO 
c 3XHM cosHAajia repMancKoe rocyjxapcxBO. 



Kaa OpaHuyscKasi MysbiKa nocjie HopMajibHoro 

onepa BTopoS no- ftjia ^jpsHuyscKoro BKyca flBJieHHS Meftep6epa 

AOBBHuXIXseKa. H y^e yKJIOHSK>meMCJ! ^'opMbi BepjiHOsa KaK 
6bi pasABoaexcH. C oahom cxopoHw. npoAOJiacaexcH npeacHHW 

H 06bIHHaH AJIH 4'PaHUy30B JIHHHH onepHOTO HCKyCCXBa. 

KOMnoHHpyeMoro b pacnexe na uiHpoKHft Kpyr 
noxpe6HxefleH. CHJibnaa HHAHBHAyajibHocxb Mefiep6epa 
HajiOHCHjia HaAOJiro cbom oxnenaxoK Ha onepy bo Opan- 
UHH. H nacxo 3XOX oxnenaxoK, cxo^ib JiHUieHHbifi: b ocHose 
sjieMBHxoB BKyca, K KOxopoMy Bce M<e Hauna 6biJia cKJioHna 
He xojibKO B CBOHX apHcxoKpaxHHecKHx npcAcxaBHxejinx, 
cjiyacHA He k nojib3e HCKyccxBa. Mefiep6ep, Pocchhh, Bep- 
JIH03 H BarHep — box xa AOBOJibHO necxpaw rpynna, noA 
BjiHHHHeM Koxopofi pasBHBajiacb djipanuyscKaa onepa XIX 



Fyao, ToHa. 



— 203 — 
BBKa. K onepHoPi Mysbiwe see we He npeA'siBJiJiexcsi b cym- 

HOCXH HH 60JIbUIHX Xpe6oBaHHft, HH KaKHX-HH6yAb oco- 

6bix acxexHHecKHX saAaHHfl: axo o6pa3yex KaK 6bi Ha^a- 
MceHHyH) o6jia:cxb xpaAHUHOHHoro „npoM3BOAcxBa". HMeiomero 
onpeAeneHHbift c6bix, h xojibxo b nopjiAKe HesHaMHxejib- 
Hbix yAyMuieHHfi nponsBOAcxBa. Konnpyromero h sawMcxBy- 
romero xo xy, xo Apyryio nepxy h3 AeKCHKona Apyrwx 

HHOCXpaHHblX aBXOpOB. rioA BAHHHHeM OXMaCXH PoC" 

CHHH, oxnacxH npesKHcfl c|)paHuy3CKOH onep- 

Hoft lUKOJibi (FajieBH, Meflep6ep) pa6oxa;i 
Fyno ^) (1818 — 1893), aBxop nonyAJipHoft onepbi „Oaycx", 
Koxopasi, KaK h onepa MeHep6epa. 6biAa paccHHxana Ha caMwe 
uiHpoKHe Maccbi noxpe6HxeAeM, npHSAeKasj rAaBHbiM o6pa30M 
npocxoxoft <J)aKxypb!, npHMHXHBHbiM MeflOAH3MOM H ApaMa- 
XH3MOM. Bahsko. cK>Aa npwMbiKaex AM6pya3 Towa ^) 
(1811 — 1896), B onepHofi (jjjaKxype Koxoporo sanexHO BAHHHHe 
poMaHXHHecKHx rapMOHHfl H oxHacxH paHHero Barnepa, HHKa- 
KHx. BnpoHeM. opraHHHecKHx cabhpob b cMbicae saAan onepbi 
HAH b cMbicAe pMXMHMecKoft cxpyKxypw He o6HapyM<HBaK)mee. 

BarHepHSMBO <I>paHUHH npexepnen coBep- 

BaraepasH meHHO oco6oe npeAOMAeHwe, xaK KaK opraHH- 

Bo OipaBpHH. lecKH repMaHCKHH Ayx seAHKoro KOMnosHxopa 

6biA MaAO cosByncH 4)paHuy3CKOMy Mwpocosep- 
uaHHK). Hh na(|)oc Barnepa, hh ero cxpeMAenHe k MHcxHKe h Ae- 
reHAapnocxH, hh UHKAonHnecKaH cxpyKxypa ero My3biKa;ibHoft 
XKaHH, hh HacbimeHHOcxb ero rapwoHMfl. — Bce 9xo HHKaK He 
MOFAO „HpaBHXbca" onepnoft ny6AHKe OpanuHH h Aawe He 
MorAO no cymecxBy HpasHXbCH m BOo6me 4)paHuy3aM npn 

MX paUHOHaAbHOM, aCXeXHHeCKH CyXOBaXOM My3bIKaAbHOM 



') Fyno (1818 — 1893) Hantican MHoro coMHHeHHH, KOTOpbie see He 
HMeiOT sHaHCHMq H He nojibsoEanHCb pacnpocTpaHeHMCM, KpoMC ero „<t>aycTa" 
(1859), KOTopbiH 3HaMHTenbH0 OTnHMaeTCH no 4iaKType m CTHnio ot Bcex ero 
coiHHCHHfi, npeflbiflyuiMX H nocneflyrouiHX, mto noflano noEOfl k rnnoTese 
o TOM, MTO „<l>aycT" HanHcaH He FyHO, a HeHSBCCTHbiM aBTopoM. Kpowe 
„0aycTa",HM HanHcaHO „PoMeo m AwynteTTa" (1867) h eme 9 onep, a TaKMce 

MCCCb), nepKOBHbie COHHHeHHn paSHblX HaHMeHOBaHHfi, KaHTaTbl H MHoro Men- 
KHX COMHHeHHfi. 

") To Ma (1811 — 1896) — asTop MHorHX npoHSBCfleHMH, b tom MHcnewecc, 
pcKEHCMa, KaMepHbix H . (jjopxenMaHKbix Bemefl. FnaBHyro cnaBy ero cocTa- 

BHJIH onepbi, HHCnOM 19, H3 KOTOpWX SHaneHHe HMBCT TOJIbKO „MHHbOH" (1866) 

H ..FaMneT" (1868). 



.mtimtUiiiMiiiiituf 



204 



cosepuaHHH. jCl,aa<e xaKoft BbiflaiomnftcH h vkjiohmjoiuhhcsi ot 
HopMajibHoro THna 4)paHU,y3, kbk Bepjinos, — h tot ocTaaca 
rjryx k Han6o;iee u,eHHOMy m xapaKTepHOMy b TBopnecTBe 
BarHepa. TeM He MCHee BHeuiHce cTpeMJieHne k sanMCTBO- 
BaHHK) HCKOTopbix dco6eHHOCTeH cTHJiJi BarHcpa, B MaCTHO- 
CTH ero xpoMaTH3Ma h rapMOHHHecKOM nbiuiHOCTH, 6biJio oneHb 
saMCTHo BO OpaHUHH nocjie 60-x roflOB. BarHepusM npHo6pe- 

Tajl, B CBHSH C o6mHM THnOM MyBCTBOBaHHH (|)paHUy30B H 

B CB93H c BnojiHe c4>opMHpoBaBmnMCH TOHOM cnpoca ny6;iHKH, 
HCKOTopbie „o6e3BpeMceHHbie" (fjopMbi, jiHiuasfCb KaK pas 
caMoro B HCM cymecTBeHHoro. M to sth BarHepHSHpoBaHHbie 

c|)OpMbI 6bIJIH B CymHOCTH HenpOHHbl H My«<flW c|)paHu,y3- 

cKOMy flyxy h noTOMy 6bicTpo BbiswBajiH peaKu,HK> He TOJibKO 
B ny6jiHKe, ho h b cpeae caMHx NysbiKaHTOB. 
AKaaeMHSM K. CeH-CaHC ^) (1835—1922) hbhjicsi nan- 
Bo ii>paHiiHH. 6ojiee xapaKTepnbiM h3 sthx nceBflOBarnepH- 
CeH CaHc. IT V 

CTOB. Ma caMOM aejie, b sto Bpewa bo qppaH- 

uyscKOM MysbiKajibHOM MHpe spejiH KopHH Toro caMoro aKa- 
aeMMSMa, KOTopbiH B FepMaHMH HecKOJibKO paHbuie nopo- 
flHJi yiBJicHne MennejibcoHa , FIpHMHHbi aKaaeMHSMa 6bijiH 6ojiee 
opraHHHHbr: ero noRBJieHHC Bbisbmajiocb hmchho pocTOM Kpyn- 
Hofi 6ypjKya3HK h cBOMCTBenHbiM STOMy KJiaccy cnoKoflnbiM 

3CTeTHHeCKHM MHpOCOSepUaHHeM, MyWflblM „6ypb M HaTHCKOB", 
nOHTHTeJIbHO OTHOCHBIIIHMCH KO BCBMy BCJlHKOMy npOlIIJIOMy 

M He HaMepeBaBiUHMCH npoHSBOflviTb KaKHe 6bi to hh 6bi;io 

peBOJllOUMH B HCKyCCTBe. 3tO 6bIJI Tun paSyMHO-SBOJIlOTHB- 

noro acTBTHSMa. M CeH-CaHC, KOTopbift BHemne nepBoe speMJi 
KasajicH BarHepHCTOM h KyjibXHBHpoBaji cBo6oAHbiM THn onepbi 
(„CaMCOH M JUajiMJia"), ne MyacaajicH h nporpaMMKoft MysbiKu 
(„njijicKa cMepTH", ..OpsfjiKa OMcjjajibi" h np.). Ha nene 6biJi 
HMCHHO nposiBJieHHeM TunHMHoro aKaRCMHHecKoro BsrjiHfla Ha 
MysbiKy, — Toro sarnsfjia, Koxopbiw naxoAMfl noAAepacKy B Kpy- 
rax KpynHofl 6yp>Kya3HH, cxaHOBHBUieftca bo OpaHUHH BpeneH 
BTopoft HMnepHH Handojiee neTKO BwpaHceHHoft h Momnofi 
couHajibHOM rpynnnpoBKOH. B 3tom aKaaeMHHfecKOM acxeTHSMe 

') CeH-Canc (1835 — 1922) HanHcan orpoMHOS KOJiHHecxso komhoshuhh, 
H3 KOTOpbix sHaMenHS HMBiOT onepa „CaMCOH H JlajTHjia" (ecero hm aanH- 
caHO 10 onep), rpn chmcjjohhh, c[)opTenHaHHbie KOHuepxbi (Han6onee iisse- 
CTCH 5-h), cHM(|)0HH4ecKne no9Mbt „njiHCKa CMcp™", „hOHOCTb FepKyjieca" 
H „npsijiKa OM(|)anbi".. . 




200 



aaKJiaftbiBajTHCb ajieMewTbi pcKOHCTpyKUHH cTapHHHoro 4)paH- 
uyscKoro BKyca, noKOJie6ji-eHHoro snoxofi peBOJiiouHH h BoftH. 
Hn4ero MpeswepHoro — TaKOB jioayhr sToro HOBoro Bxyco- 
Boro acxexHSMa; Bce noBbie pecypcbi npneMJiioTCjj, ho b o6e3- 
BpeMceHHOM BHfle, CHHTesHpyncb c MyapbiM npeKjioneHMeM 
npefl npeKpacHofl cTapHHofi. OxcHJAa — Kyjibx npeKJioHeHwa 
nepcA KJiaccMKaMH, nepea BaxoM, u b cbhsh c sthm pecxa- 

BpaUHJJ CTapHHHblX. apXaHMeCKHX 4)OpM MySblKH, B MaCTHOCTH — 

uepKOBHbix. CeH-CaHC He MyMcaaeTcn opaTopwajibHux 4)opM. 
HHiiieT opraHHbie BeiHH, hohth 3a6biTbie h Jiwuib JImctom 

BblSBaHHbie BHOBb K KH3HH. B TO MCe BpeMH OH, KBK THOMM- 

HbiH aKafleMHCT, o6jiaAaeT bcbm coBepmeHCTBOM tcxhhkh h 
4)opM, HanoMHHaH 3thm cBofl aKafleMHMecKKM npoTOTHn — Mch- 
fleJibcoHa, KOTopoMy oh ycTynaji b AapoBaHHH, m OT^aeT noHe- 
MHory floJiHCHoe bc e m o6;iacTHM MyswKH. C TeMewHeM BpeMCHH 
OH fla»«e caw cTanoBHTcsi jiBHbiM aHTHBarHepucTOMH y^Ke 
OTKpbiTbiM KOHcepBaTopoM, npH HeM 3Ta snoxa ero noBopoTa 
cosnaflaeT c tcm nojiHTHnecKHM momchtom, Kor^a FepMaHMsi 
HaHOCHT noJiHTHMecKHft yAap OpaHu,nH (1870 r.). 

KAepHKaAHSM. T, 

Heaapi. ©paBK. *° ^^ TCMeHHe aKaACMHSMa nopoAWJio 

6ojiee apKoe h CHJibHoe sBJieHHe 11, e 3 a p Ji 

OpaHKa^) (1822 — 1890), Koxopbift TOJKe nepBOHanajibHo KaK 

6bi npHMbiKacT BHeuiHHM o6pa30M K Barnepy, BanMCTsysi y 

Hero He TOJibKO c})opMbi My3biKajTbHoro BbicKasbiBanHH, ho h Ayx 

HX, He MyjKAblft H JlnCTy, HO Ha ACJie OTBeSfaBlUHil CnOKOMHbIM 

scTCTHHecKHM HacTpoeHHHM 6ypM<ya3Horo Kpyra h oTHacxH 
noBbimeHHOMy pejiHrHOSHOMy HacTpoenHio naMHHaBiuHx hoahh- 
MaTb rojioBy bo OpanuHH K^epMKajibHbix KpyroB. B stom 
CMbicJie OH npoAOJiMcaeT jihhhk) JlHcxa, cosAaBasr MOHyMCH- 
TajibHbie (|)opMbi BAyxe peKoncTpyHpoBaHHoro cthjih XVIII BeKa 

(Bax), B KOTOpblX OH MBJlHeTCH nOJm4)OHHCTOM H KpynHbIM 

MacTepoM cTMJia. Ero Kpyr noTpe6HTejieH, a cbjish c ero 

KJiepHKaJIbHOft OKpaCKOii 6bIJI UepKOBHblft H BbICOKO-6yp- 

Ueaapb OpaHK (1822—1890) — 6ejibrHeu no nponcxo7KfleHHK), coeah- 
HHn B ce6e cepbesHOCTb repMaircKOH pacbi c H3siLuecT£0M (JjpaHuyacKo; o renMn. 
Ero KOMnosHUHH OT>iacTH npHMbiKaioT K BarHepy, oxHacTH k BpaMcy h natKC 
Baxy. Ms khx KaHfionee nH-repecHbi: CHMcfjOHUHecKaa nosMa „npoKn5iTb»i 
oxothhk", opa-iopHajibRoro THna coHHHeHnsi („3ano2e;iH 6jTaM«eHCTEa", „Py4)b" 
H flp.), npcKpacHas! chm4)ohh!T, itaMepHwe co-jHHeHHsi, Mecca, mhoio opran- 
Hbix KOMnosHUHH H nonyiisipHasi CKpiinHHHaa conaTa. 



■ -,*>'■ 



MsyasHbiH; caM opraHHcx, oh ocxaBHJi 6oflbuioe KOJiviHecTBO 
opraHHofl JiHTeparypbi, b KOTopofl MOAepHHSHposaji cthjib 
Baxa. Ero THnnHHbifi: aKaflCMHSM, xoth h npoHHKHyTWH ceofl- 
cTBeHHbiM (|)paHuy3CKoft pace crpeM-neHHeM k onapoBaHHio 
sByMHOCTH H BKycoM, noA KOHeu, ero hchshh yrpaHHBaeT bch- 
Kne CBH3H c poMaHTH3MOM. Ucsapb OpaHK, X0T5I H HanHcaji 
HecKOJibKO onep, b cymHOcxH yMce cocTaBJineT nepexoA k hh- 
cTpyMeHxajibHOMy aKaAeMHSMy, xaK h Cen-CaHC, Ana Koxoporo 
xoH<e onepnaa cxhxhh y»ce hc xapaKxepna. Ecjih BKycw noxpe- 
6nxejieft onepbi 6biJiH b flOcxaxoHHoft nepe HeHSMeHHW, to 
BKycbi 6ojiee KsajiHcfJHitHpoBaHHbix KpyroB HcnbixbiBajiw hsbccx- 
Hbie cflBwrH, H b MacxHOcxH aKaflCMHHecKoe xeMeHne c 70-x rr. 
HaMajio Bce 6ojiee h 6oflee Kpennyxb bo OpaHunw, nopoMcaaH 

P5?fl,bl KOMnOBHXOpCKHX H THnHMHO-aKafleMHHeCKHX „HCnOJIHH- 
XejIbCKHX" flBJienuft (peKOHCXpyKUHH CXapHHHWX HHCXpyMeHXOB, 

Kyjibx KJiaccHKOB, .opranHoft MyswKH, noHBJieHHe BupxyosoB- 
opraHHcxoB— BHflopa h apyrux). OxnacxH aKaAGMHHecKHe 
xeneHMH, nepcHOCHBUiHe xaK hjih HHane ueHxp HHxepeca 
B 4)opMy H B npoiujioe MysbiKH, 6biJiH o6ycflOBJieHbi h xbm, 
Mxo naxpHOXHHecKoe MyBcxeo OpaHUHH, ocKop6jieHHoe cbohm 
BOcxoMHbiM, coceflOM— FepMaHMefit, hhcxhhkxhbho HCKajio My- 

SblKajIbHblX HCXOMHHKOB B H 6 COBpeMCHHOft FepMaHMH H HaXO- 

flHJio o6oflpeHHe b oxpnuaHviH Barnepa h b Kyjibxe npeacHHx 

HCMUCB H BejIHKHX npeMCHHX (jjpaHU.ySCKMX KOMnOBHTOpOB. 

BjiHHce npHMbiKaex k nanpaBJieHHK) Bepjinoaa 

annroBu Bep- (D. flaBMA^) (1 81 0— 1 876), nbixaBuiHflcH pa6o- 

xaxb B jiyxe nporpaMMHofi cmm4)Ohhh h onepw. 

B BHAy xoro, Hxo caMo nanpaBJieHHe BepjiHOsa hmcjio b cym- 

HOCXH MajIO npHSHaHHH H KOpHeft BO OpaHUHH. XBOpHeCXBO 

aBxopoB, no oxHOUieHHio k Heny anwroHMHecKHX, Morjio pac- 
cMHXbiBaxb xojibKO Ha eiuc MeHbuiyK) nonyjiapHOcxb h 3Ha- 
Menne. M SHaneHHe flasHAa OKasaJiocb hhcxo, mbcxhwh, 4)paH- 
uyscKHM npH new h xyx oho 6biflO aoBO^ibHO npexoaamiiM, 
n6o ero onepHbift cxHJib ne Mor saBOCBaxb onepnoro pwHKa, 



^') AaBMfl (1810 — 1876) HanHcan pBA KOMnosHUHK, b CBoe Bpena oieHb 
nonynapHbix h flawe HauiyMeBuiHx. Ero nepy npHHafljiCMtaT 4 onepw, h3 koto- 
pbix HMeex SHaHCHHe „JIanna Pyn", opaTopHH „MoHceH" h „3AeM" h „chm4)0- 
HHH-KaHTaTbi", H3 KOTopbix HaHSonbuiyK) nonynnpHocTb cHHCKana „nycTbiHa . 
SHaHCHHe J3,aBHAa 6brcTpo noMepKJio, sacnoHeHHoe 6ojiee npkHMH nsneHHSiMH 

COBpeMeHHOCTH. 



^ zvt — 



KaK cxHflb FyHO, a ero chmcJjohhsm 6biJi, KaK npoMeacyxoHHoe 
flBflCHHe, B cKopoM BpcMeHH sacjiOHeH 6ojiee apkhnh aKaae- 
MHHecKHMH sBjieHHSiMH CeH-CaHca H U. OpaHKa. 

CnacxjinBee OKaaanacb jihhhh onepnoro HCKyccxBa 
BO OpanuHH, coaepiueHHo ne cBasaHHan c BarnepHSMOM h c po- 

MaHXHHeCKOM 6epJIH03H3M0M, He HMeBlliaH, CXaJIO 6bIXb, HHKa- 

Koro oxHOuieHHsr k HHxejiJiHreHxcKHM Kpyran, h xcm caMbiM h 

K 6ypH«ya3HOMy aKaAeMHSMy, a noKOHBU]a»c» Ha npoHHOM h 

HauHOHajibHOM 6a3Hce cfjpaHuyscKcft KOMHMecKoii onepbi. 

x.-e. nonpocxy onepw 6bixoBO&, c CHJibHoA ApaMaxHMecKofi 

aKueHxyauneH h c MysMKoft no bosmoh^hocxh jicfkoA. Vxe 

PyHO meji oxnacxH no axoMy nyxH, xoxsi oh 

^"^*Bhm**"''" 6biJi eme 6jih3ok k cxapofl onepe FajieBH h 

]^eAep6epa, saHMCXBya MeJioflHKy y Pocchh) 

Ho 6ojiee aaposHx b sxom oxHomeHMH OKaBajica Bhsc ^- 

(1838 — 1875), AaBUJHfl a ..KapMen" xmh xapaKxepno 4)paHU,y3- 

CKOH onepbi, B KoxopoH «HJiKa noAJiHHHoro peajiHcxHMecKoro 

ApaMaxHSMa He sacjiOHaexcsi 6ecBKycHbiM HarpoMoacASHHeM 

awcecyapoB h nbiiuHocxH. SjieMcnxw nojioacHxejibHwe b cxHJie 

Mewepdepa h FajiesM bmccxc c dojibuicM jierKocxbK) 

MySbIKH H C SHaHHXejIbHbIM BKyCOM o6yCJIOBHJIH MHpOBOft 

ycnex axoft onepbi, cosAaHHOH cneuHajibHO ajih noTpe6nxejifl 
onepnoro xnna XIX BCKa c 6ojiee noBbimeHHWMH ApanaxH- 

MeCKHMH Xpe60BaHHJIMH, HO C HpCHCHHM CXpeMJieHKeM K CpaBHH- 

xeAbHOH npocxoxe MejiOAWKw h k AOcxynHOcxH MSJioaceHHH. 

OAHOBpeneHHO c 3xhm xa jihhhji (JjpaHuyscKoft KOMHHe- 

CKOH onepbi, KOTopaa pasBHBajiacb O 6 e p o m m lujia no 

HacJiCACXBy ox cxapwx aBXopoB, HaMHHaex CHJibHO AeMOKpa- 

xHsnpoBaxbCH. Ms KOMHHecKoft onepbi, KaK 

fflyaMKaxeKy^erOQj^gpj^j ^^^ peajIHCXHHeCKHfl CHJMcex C HeKO- 
XOpbl-n KOJIHHeCXBOM AeflcXBHXeJlbHO KOMHHe- 

cKoro sjieweHxa, ho ox 6ojibuioft onepbi, rjiasHbiM o6pa30M, 
oxjiHHaBuieftcji xoJibKO oxcyxcxBHeM HapoMHxoft nbiuiHOcxH 3pe- 

JIHma, 0XKpHCXaJIJIH30BbIBaeXCSI XHn CneUH^JHHeCKH KOMHHeCKOfl 

6yc})4)OHaAbi c MysbiKoft, AaiomnH HBJieHHe onepexKH. Mcjiko- 
6yp>Kya3HaH ny6;iMKa onepHbix cneKxaKJieft e anoxy xpexbeft 
HMnepHH, KOFAa Bce couwoJiorMHecKMe ycjiosHH coeAHHsiJiHCb 

^y Bhsc (1838 — 1875) npocjiaEHnca HCKniOHHTenbHO CEoefl onepofl 
„KapMeH" (1875), o'ouieflineH see cueHbi MHpa h nonynnpHofl ro chx nop. 
Ha flpyrux ero coHHHeHHfi SHaHHxejibHa no MysbiKC „Apne3HeHKa" (1874). 



iU» 



AJia Toro, HTo6bj Aaxb nepeBec Bsrjiflfly Ha HCKyccTSO, r-naa- 
HbiM o6pa30M, KaK Ha yeecejieHHe, sxa ny6jiHKa Tpe6oBaJia 
OT onepbi KOMMSMa nojiOMceHHft, nHKaHTHOCTH, MHorfla AaJKS 
npocTO nopHorpa(|)HH, or MysbiKH ?Ke Tpe6oBa;ia mchbocth m 
MaKCHMajibHOM HecJiOHCHOcTH. noKo6HO TOMy, KaK B FepMaHMM 
OT my6epTOBCKOM neccHHocTM oTKpHCTajiJinsoBajiacb sno- 
cjieflCTBHH TaHuoBajibHasi „jierKaH" nysbiKa (LLlTpayc), tqk h bo 
4>paHUHH BTopoft HMnepHH Ha (f)OHe pasBpameHHOM h npe- 
cbimeHHOft ropoACKoft MejiKoft 6ypacya3HH nbiuiHbiM ubc- 
TOM H cTpeMHTCJibHO pasBHJiacb cBoeo6pa3HaH jierKaji MysbiKa, 
BbjpocuiaH M3 KOMHHecKoft onepbi CTHJiH 06epa. riepBbiMM 
HHOHepaMM ee 6biJin FepBe, 04)c|)eH6ax^)H JleKOK"), 
co3flaK)mHe cTHJib onepeTKH, kbk spejiHina b BbicoKofl Mepe 
TearpajibHoro, HcnojiHeHHoro cBoeo6pa3Horo BKyca, jierKOCxvi, 
HO ojiHOBpeMCHHO 3apajKeHHoro nouiJibiM tohom, HHorAa nop- 
Horpa4)Heft h OMCHb Macro 3Jio6oflKeBHOH nojiHTHHecKoft caxH- 
poH, KOTopaH B 3TH BpcMeHa MCKajia cjiynan 6ojiee hjih neHee 
aaoBHTo, HO 6e3o6HflHo npopBaxbCfl CKBOSb ueHsypHbie ycJiOBHH, 
KaK rojioc nporecxa npoxHB nanojieoHOBCKoro poKMMa. One- 
pexKa, cosflaBUiHCb Ha napnJKCKoft noHBe, naxoAMT KOJiocajib- 
Hbie Kajtpbi c6biTa, m6o ajih csoero BOcnpHHXHS MaccawH ona 
o6jiaflajia BceMH npeHMymecxBaMH: MyBWKajibHO OHa 6biJia 
o6meflocxynHa, cueHHHecKM yBJieKaxeJibna, ne 6yjwjia hmkb- 
KMx BonpocoB H MMpoBbix npo6jieM, Boo6me BnoJiHe coorsex" 
cxBOBajia xoHy MyBcxBoaaHHJi ropoACKoft MCJiKoft 6yp«ya3yin. 
Ona c axofi nopw coBepmaex ceoe no6eAHoe luecxBue no 
Eapone, BCioAy HaxoAfl c6bix h cnpoc, ho BCKope me oneHb 
cneuHajiHSHpyexcH h b cBoeft cJjaKxype 6bicxpo oxKajibisaexcsi 
ox o6iuero pycjia MysbiKH. Te Maccw h xe noxpe6HxejiH. 
Koxopbix c6cj]yjKHBajia onepexKa, b HTore OKaBajincb cosna- 
AaiomnMH Boo6iue c „HeMy3biKaj]bHbiMH" cnoHMH o6mecTBa, H 

1) 04)4)eH6ax (1819 — 1880) — coaflaTenb Msanpa HacxogineM onepeiKH, 
CHaMana BWCTynaji kbk KOMnosHXop cepbesHoft MysuKH, ho CKOpo namen ceoh 
McaHp B BHfle KOMHHecKOH Onepbi, KOTopyio OH OKOHMaTejibKO npespaTHJi 
B cospeMeHHyio (t^opMy onepexKH. Bcero mm HanncaHO 102 oncpexKH, us khx 
MHorHe 6unvt b cBoe apeMs HpesBbiMaHHO lunpoKo nonynapHbi, hohth 
HapoAHbi; HaHgojibuiee MCTopHMecKoe SHaneHHe HMetox „ripeKpacHan Enena" 
(1864). ..OpcJDeH" .1858), „riepHK0Jia" (1880). 

'■*) JlcKOK (1832 — 1918) - aBXop oKono 50 onepexoK, hs Koxopux MHorae 
nojiyMHJiH MiipoHyio cjiaBy h n33ecxHocxb („II,0Mb Anro", ,,?KHpo|(ne->KHpo- 
<i>na" H ap.). 



M<M 



— 209 — 

KOMnosHxopbi „;ierKofl" MysbiKu cxaHOBaxcsi nacxoHiuHMH m 
y>Ke MaccoBbiMH nocxaBmHKaMH xoaapa Ha axy orpoMHyio 
Maccy. y^ce c 60-x foaob axa KOMnosHxopcKasi nacca comh- 
HHxejieA BCHKHx flocxynHbix xanueB h MOAHbix necen, paccHM- 

XaHHblX Ha CaMblfl UIHpOKHM c6bIX, CXaHOBHXCJI COBepmeHHO 
CneUH(J)HMHOM H JIHUIb C HaXflMCKOH nOAJICJKHX paCCMOXpeHHK) 

B o6meM KOHxeKcxe HcxopnH MysbiKajibHoro HCKyccxBa. Flofl- 
pajKaxejibHwe HBJieHMJi axoro xnna ne saMeAJiHJiH noHBuxbcsi 
B ApyrHX cxpanax, npw hqh JierKOMbicJieHHaa h Han6ojiee Hano- 
MHHaroiuaa FlapHJK no yKJiaAy m«h3hh Bena cxajia cBoeo6pa3- 
HbiM ucHxpoM onepexoHHoro HCKyccxBa, Koxopoe npoayuH- 
pOBaJtocb xaM ywe yKasaHHWM lUxpaycoM-cbiHOM h saxeM Menee 
•ero AapoBHXbiMH 3ynne, MwjieKKepoM h JlerapoM. 

B MxajiHH nocjie npeACxaBHTejieft poc- 

„ CHHHeBCKOft UIKOJIbl, CMeHMBUiefi B HCXOpHH 

MysbiKH cjiaBHyHJ ..HeanojiHxaHCKyK)" — npew- 

HHH MeJIOAHKO-BHpxyOSHbIM CXHJIb HC MOF yJKB COXpaHHXbCM. 
KaK HH BeJIHKO 6bIJIO CXpCMJieHHe HXaJIbHHCKOfi ny6;iHKH K MC- 

jiOAHHHOcxH H K KOJiopaxype, HO Bce JKe BBK 6paJi cBoe h npn- 
xoAHJiocb AGJiaxb EMy ycxynKH. FlbimHocxb h 3(K)(})eKx 6ojib- 
luoft napHMCCKoft onepw HesoJibHO aojijkhm 6biJin Bbisaaxb 
Ha noApaMcaHHe h Tpe6oBajiocb KaKoe-xo cJiHsiHHe cxhjih, 
THnHHHoro AJiH HxaflbHHHSMa c 6ojiee a4)(|)eKTHoft (jjjaKxypoM 

HOBOfl onepbi. BepAH-'^)(1813 — 1901) — OAWHHSHCKJIHJHHXeJIbHO 

KpynHbix no AapoBaHHio KOMnosHXopoB, b Hanajie cBoero 
KOMnosHxopcKoro nyxH b cymnocxH npoAOJiacaji cxHJib poc- 

CHHHeBCKOH UIKOJIbl, KOXOpyK) OH o6oraXHJI Cpasy 60JIbIIIMM 

3HaMeHHeM, Koxopoe oh yjienan cuene, h xcm noBbima;i hhxc- 
pec onepw KaK cncKxaKjiJi. Ho cKopo oh sawMcxByex y Mefiep- 
6epa AeKopaxHBHbie npHCMW onepnoro nHCbMa h 6jiecx9mHf( 
cneKxaKJib, BOo6me pacnex na BHeiuHocxb, Koxopyro oh coe- 
AMHHex B BOKajibHbiM 6flecKOM. BjiMsiHHe Meftep6epa ycxynaex 
Mecxo HOBOMy BeflHHH) B a r H e p a — Boo6me, BepAw cxpeMHxcH 
Bce BpcMsi 6paxb ox MyawKajibHoft mchshh MaKCHMajibHoe kojih- 



) BepjiM (1813 — 1901) Hanncan Bcero 28 onep, pasHoro AOCxoHHcxaa 
H pasHoro ciHJia, b Hanane CBoefl paSoxw (ao ^Ahah") npHMWKaa k uiKone 
PoccHHH, a noxoM, nOABeprruHCb KOCBCHUbiM BnHsiHHSiM 6onee cpBpeMeHHOii 
MysbiKH (Barnepa h poMaHTHKOs). HaH6onee SHaMeHHTbi h uiHpoKO nonynsipHN 
ero onepu: „Tpy6aflyp« (1853), „PHronexTo" (1851), „AHAa" (IS'/I), .Oienno" 
(1887), H3 KOTopbix nyMiuee npoHaseAeHHe npeACxannjieT ,OTenjio". 



ii^i 



a^.fc 



•'teb' 



.-i;^:.^<M^Uai>4«ftw 



210 



HecTBo HOBbix BnenaTJieHMH — b stom cMbicjie oh OTJiHHaeTcsi 
pejiKoPi HyTKocTbK). Ho, He sanaBancb HHKaKHMH acTexHMe- 

CKHMH TeopHHMH, HC CTpCMHCb HHHerO pe{|)OpMHpOBaTb, OH 

B cymnocTH He cosnaer HWHero KpoMC HecKOJibKnx pacuiH- 
peHHbix (|>opM npeacHefl onepw. FpoMaAHbift ycnex conpoBO- 
jKflaex ero TBopnecTBO, npnuieAineecn b BbiciueA creneHH no 
BKycy Toft uiHpoKoft Macce noTpe6HTe;iH, Koxopaa HBjiHJiacb 
panee cJiyuiaxejieM Pocchhh h ero uiKOJibi. rioBopoxHbift 
nyHKX b xBopnecxBe Bepaw nacxynaex c „ Aviflbi" , 

pi,sMaHano3flHero'^°^^^ o" ^°^e® peiUHxejibHo cjieflyex flpaMa- 
Bep^H. xHMecKHM saBexaM h oxnacxH rapMOHHnecKHK 
HOBOBBefleHHHM BaFHepa, ho jierKO npe^BH- 
;texb, Mxo XHHHMHO HeMeuKoe HBJieHHe Barnepa HHKaK hc 
Morjio BOcnpHHHXbca Ha HxajibaHCKoA noMBe, 6bixb Mowex 
eme B MeHbuiefl cxencHH, mbm bo <l>paHu,HH, h sarHepHSM: 
nosflHero Bepji,n ecxb nenxo oneHb oxHOcuxejibHoe h ne opra- 
HHMecKH nepeBapeHHoe. 

B PoccHH MysbiKa, nocjie Tjiuhkh, KcnwxbiBaex 6yfiHbi^ 
npMJiHB 9Heprnw. YcHJieHMe h o6jierHeHHe CHOuieHHH c Sanaa- 
Hofi EBponofi:, BbiSBaHHoe npoBeflenneM JKejiesHwx flopor h co- 

OXBeXCXBCHHO — paSBHXHeM H HHXeHCHBHOM KOHUepXHOfl WM3HH, 

HapoKACHHe HOBoro „HHxeJiJiHreHxa-cJiyujaxejiJi",KOxopbiflHflex 
Ha cMeny cJiyuiaxcjiio h3 flBopjiHCKofi apncxoKpaxnH, Bce axo 
B BbicoKoft cxeneHH noflHHMaeT nyjibc XBopnecxBa b cxpaHe, 

XOflbKO MXO BblflBHHyXblH Ha nyXb MySblKaJIbHOS Kyjibxypbi. 

BosHHKHOBeHHe KOHuepxHofi: MCH3HH, nepexofl MysbiKajibHbix: 

HcnoJiHeHHit H3 flBopuoB B o6meflOcxynHbie sajiw, Bbi3biBaex 

CHJibHbift HHxepec K BHpxyosHoft o6jiacxH, KaK 

SapoacACBHe npo- j^ HaH6ojiee flocxynHoft a MyswKajibHOM oxho- 

AeccHonaAHSMa r> „ 

B P HH A P - ^^^^^- ""^O BpeMH, KaK HHXHMHblH CXHJIb HH- 

6HHniTeiiH. cxpyMeHxajibHofl MysbiKH, npenMymecxBeHHO b- 
flBopHHCKoft cpeMe — HacaMCAaexcH aHrjiMHaHn- 

HOM <t> H JI b Jl, O M, CBHBUIHM OCeJlflOCXb B PocCHH — KOHUepXHbIM 

lUHpoKHft CXHJIb HOJiyiaex HeoJKHflaHHbiBi pacuBex 6jiaroAapKr 
noaBJicHHio HsyMHxeJibHoro miaHHcxa Ahx. Py6HHUixe ft h a ^) 



') Py6HHmTeHH, Ahtoh (1829 — 1894) poflHjica b eBpeRcKOfi ccMbe Ha 
wro-sanajie Pocchm, CHaiana nonyiHn HSBecTHoeTb, kbk HCKJnoiHTejibHwil 
BHpTyos, KOHuepTHpoBaBuiHW no BceK EBporie c paHHHx nei. B 1859 roay' 
P. opraHHsoBan PyccKoe MyawKajibHoe oSmecxBO, KOTOpo^ nonynnno BCKope 
THTyn „HMnepaTopcKoro" h cyocHflHpoBanocb npaBHTenbCTBOM h 6ypwya3- 



-iii 



1829 — 1894), roxopwft b KpaxKoe Bpewa cocxaBJiaex ce6e 
MHpoBoe HMa H sacxaBjiaex roBopHx o ce6e Espony. Pocchh 

B JIHU,e CBOHX KpynHblX nCHXpOB CXanOBHXCa H3JIK)6jieHHbIM 
pblHKOM AJIH c6bIXa SarpaHHMHblX BHpxy03HbIX XOBapOB, KOXO- 

pbie xyx HMeiox cnpoc n xopomo onjiaMHBatoxca. K pyccKHM 
eflyx Bce SHaMemixbie BHpxyosbi h Aasce KOMnosHxopbi (UJyjib- 
ro(|>. KajibKdpennep, JIhcx, Kji. llIyMa;H, Po6. UlyMan, BepjiHOs, 
no3fl,Hee Barnep), hxo o6'acHflexca oxnacxn oxKpwxHeivt 
Mcejie3HOji,opoM<Hbix nyxeft b flaaeKyio Pocchk) h B03M0»«H0cxbio 
oxHbiHe KpaxKOBpeMeHHbix HaesflOB b Hee, B xo xe BpcMa 
pacuBexaiomaa KOHuepxHaa 5KH3Hb cxasHx nepea pyccKHM 
o6mecTBOM yHce flasHO paspeuieHHyio na Sanaae aaflany 
MysbiKaJibHoro npo(|)eccHOHajiH3Ma, 3aa,a4y cosaaHHa 
KaflpoB My3biKaHXOB, cnocodnbix o6cjiyH<HBaxb pacxymwft cnpoc 
Ha MysbiKy. 3xy 3afl,aHy Bbinojinaex xox jkc A. Py6HHiiixeftH 
H ero 6pax — HnKOJiaH PydHiuxeftH, Koxopue cosjiaiox 
B MocKBe H nexep6ypre cHanajia My3biKajibHoe o6mecxBO 
fljia nponaraHflbi h noAn,epM<KH KOHuepxHofl pa6oxbi, a noxoM 
npw HHX — KOHcepBaxopHH AJia o6pa30BaHHa KanpoB cneuHa- 
jiHcxoB. Tox M<e Py6HHmxeMH Bwcxynaex n KaK KOMnoSHr 
xop, cxpeMaiuHMca npHo6mHxb pyccKHX k MysbiKajibHoft Kyjibxype 
sanaflHoft EBponw.Tox Kpyr, Ha KoxopwA onHpajiocb HcnojiHeHHC 
Py6HHUixeHHa, KaK nwaHHCxa, 6biji MpesBbiMaftHO uiHpoK, kbk 
H BOo6iue Kpyr noxpe6Hxejieft BHpxyosHOcxM, ero cxapaHHawH 
PoccHa 6biJia HpesBWHaftHO 6bicxpo pacnponaraHAHpoBaHa 
B MyswKajibHOM oxHoineHHH H cxajia b Kypce Bcex co6bixHft 
Sanaaa. Ho Kpyr, Ha KoxopoM 6a3HpoBajiacb jteaxeJibHocxb Py- 
dHHiuxeftna, kbk ocHOBaxejia MysbiKaJibHoro o6mecxBa, none- 
BOJie onwpajica yxe ne Ha am mnpoKHe cjioh, a na apncxo- 
KpaxHHecKHC H KpynHO-6yp}Kya3Hbie ciil'epbi, Koxopbie MorJiH 

HMMH KpyraMH. ripH oSinecTse opraHHSosanHCb cHM^JOHHMecKHe KOHuepTw h 
KOHcepBaTopnH (e 1862 r.). Iloajie Toro.P. Ebiciynan KaK nHaHHCT h KaK 
SHpHatep, B pasHwx ropoRax Esponw h AnepHKH; oflHOBjjCMeHHO saHHManca 
KOMnosHUHeS, oSHapyatHisaa HeoSbwaflHyio nnoflOBHTOCb. Hm HanHcaHw 
15 onep (hs hhx HaHfionee nHTepeceH ,,JI,eMOH", flo chx nop ocTasiiiHftcfl 
B penepiyape), HecKOJibKo flyxoBHwx onep" opaxopHanbHoro THna (jiyMuiHe — 

„MaKKaBeH" H „BaBHnOHCKOe CTOJinOTEOpeHHe"), 6 0HM4)OHHfl, CHM(|)OHHMe' 

CKHC KapiHHbt („HBaH rposHbift" H „J],oh-Khxot" h «?.)> pJifl yBepTiop, MHOrO 
npoHSBefteHHfl KanepHoa MyawKH, 5 KOHuepioB Ana (jio.ri'enHaHO c opKe- 
crpoM (h3 hhx coxpaHHJiCH B penepiyape 4-ft, D-moll), nnoro necew (poMaH- 



cob) h wenKHx tfJopTenHaHUMx Bemefl. 



W.' 



Zl'l 



OKasaTb (JoKTHHecKyto (jbHHaHCOByio noAflepacKy 3thm HaHM- 
HaHHJiM, oTToro flenTejibHocTb Py6HHiuTeMHa, b 3tom cMbicjie 
OKasajiacb cBHsaHHoA BKycawH aroro npyra h OTHacxH ero 

Co6cTBeHHbIMH, npHMblKaBlUHMH K HHM, h6o nO CBOCft Kyjlb" 

Type Py6MHuiTefiH 6nvi>Ke Bcero conyBCTBOBaji wanpaBJieHHio 
paHHero powaHTHSMa h KJiaccHUHSMa. TaKHM o6pa30M no Tuny 

CBOeft HHflHBHflyajIbHOCTH H TIO npeeMCTBeHHOCTH CBOeH Kyjlb- 

Typbi, a xaKJKe no THny Toro Kpyra, cpejiH Koroporo eny 
npHuiJiocb pa6oTaTb, Py6HHmTeftH HeMHHyeMO aojimcch 6bin 
cflejiaTbcn aKafteMHCTOM. Oh ^ h cAejiajicH hm, noMHMO 
Bcero nponero eme hs MHCTO-neflarorHHecKHx coo6paM<eHHiR, 
h6o ero mhccmsi 6bi;ia — HacaMcaeHHe MysbiKajibHoft KyjibTypw 
B PoccHH, HTO ywe caMO no ce6e 6biJio aKafleMHMecKoft aa- 
aaMCM. BnepBbie b Pocchh oh HaMHHaex KyjibTHBHposaxb sanaa- 
HO-eBponeMCKHe HHCTpyMeHxajibHbie (|)opMbi, ubjimkom nepeHOCH 
Hx Ha pyccKyK) noHsy, npeHMymecTBCHHO npH6jiHHcasicb k TOMy 
HanpaBJieHHH), Koropoe boshhkjio hs TBopMecTsa MeHAejibcona 
H OTHacTH BeTKOBena, xoth hs arHTaxHBHbix coo6pa>KeHHK, ne 

HyaCAanCb npH 3T0M H HHCTO-pyCCKHX 3JieMeHTOB, b Koxopwx 

OH uieji no cTonaM Pjikhkh h JlaproMbiMccKoro. HocKOJibKy 
ero TBOpMecTBO asHJiocb MexaHHMecKHM nepenocoM 4'opM 3a- 
naaa na pyccKyK? noMBy, Py6HHiiiTeSH npOAOJiMcaji b cymHOCTw 
Ty flHHHHJ TBopMecTBa, KOTopyH) paHce, B XVin BeKe, npo- 
AyuHpoBajiH HTajibfliHCKHe KOMHosHTopbi, h6o opraHHHecKofl 
CBflSH c HapoAOM He o6pa30BbiBajiocb — pasHHua 6biJia jiHiub 
B TOM, MTO BMecTO HTajibMHCKoro BJiHHHHe o6pa30Bajiocb rep- 
MancKoe. B TaKOM cthjic nanncaHO doJibuiHHCTBO conHHennfi 
Py6MHmTeftHa, 6biBmero HacaAHxejieM npo(|)eccHOHajiHSMa b 
PoccHH H nepBbiM npotjjeccHOHaAOM b SToft cTpane b o6jiacTM 
MysbiKH. B cymHOCTH ero TBopnecTBO OTMeneHO nenaTbH} 
Kpaftnero annroHHSMa h xoJibKO ero orpoMHoe counajibHoe 
snaneHHe ajih pyccKoft MysbiKH nosBOJiaex craBHTb ero Boo6me 
B paAbi snaHHTejibHbix komhoshtopob. 3to 6biji TnnHHHbift 
„KanejibMeflcTepcKHft nHcarejib", cTpaAaBUinft KpaftHHM mho- 
roHHcaHHeM h Hecnoco6HbiM k AexajibHoK oxAejiKe cbohx 
coMHHeHHfi:. Oh nonpo6oBaji cmibi peiUHxejibHO bo Bcex 
o6jiacTHx (onepbi, hs Koxopbix „XleMOH" hagx ao chx 
nop, chm(|[)ohhh, KawepHbie npoHSBeAeHHH, poMancbi, chm- 
4)OHHHecKHe KapxHHbi, He JiHUieHHbie, Aasce 3jieMeHxa npo- 
rpaMMHOcxH, npoxHB Koxopoft OH, OAHaKO, B xeopHH 6opOJICH 
H npoH.), HO HHPAe He cosAaJi HHnero apKoro. 



^ujtjd^ll^^ 



213 



SiBJieHHe Py6HHmxefiHa, kbk anHroHHHecKoro sjieMCHxa no 
oxHomeHHK) K 3anaAy. kbk sjieweHxa cymecxBCHHO aHXHHa- 
utHOHaAbHoro, h6o oh 6bw h no nauHH cBoefl HyM<A Pocchh, 
KaK BOSBpainaBiuero Pocchh> ko BpeweHaM noApaacaxejibHOcxH 
nocjie 6jiecxHmero HanaJia caMo6bixHOcxH FjinHKOio, — HeneA- 
jieHHo BbisBaJio conpoxHBJieHHe h 6ypHyK> peaKUHio, hcxoahb- 
luyK) H3 xex KpyroB, Koxopwe cosHAann AHAexaHxcKyio MysbiKy 
npeacneft snoxH h b ee HeApax poahjih sBJienne Fahhkh. Kan 
3XO Macxo dbiBaex, npnBXOA^uiMe o6cxoHxenbcxBa (AHJiexanxHSM, 
oxcyxcxBHe cxporoft iukojiw, Bbipa«eHHbifl momchx nauHOHaab- 
Horo MCfloca) 6biJiH npHHStxbi sa cymecxBeHHoe, noHeny o6pa30- 
Baaacb onpeACJieHHaa 6opb6a Asyx HanpaBJienni), hs KOxopbix 
OAHo 6bmo couHOJiorHMecKH 6oAee nepcAOBoe (Py6HH- 
uixeflHOBCKoe „aKaAeMMMecKoe" h „npo(|)eccHOHajibHoe"). a 
Apyroe couHOAorHHecKH peaKUHOHHoe (AHJiexanxcKoe, 6ap- 
CKoe, HauHOHaAbHoe h caMo6bixHHHecKoe), Koxopoe xen ne 
MCHee, KaK axo nacxo 6biBaex, xyAOMcecxBCHHO OKasaAocb 
SHaMHxejibHO 6oAee nepeAOBWM. Bopb6a sxhx AByx rpynnn- 
poBOK, HS Koxopbix OAHa onpeACJieHHO CMHxaAa ce6H (ahab- 
xaHxcKafl) HacACAHHueA h npeeMHHuen FAHnKH, AAHAacb ao 
Toft nopbi, noKa HSMeHHBUiHecn couHOAorHMecKHe ycAOBHa 
He npHxynHAH ocxpoxy caMofl nocxanoBKH Bonpoca. 

9xo AHJiexaHxcKoe HanpaBAenne siBHJiocb 

4HAeTaHTU-6apM. AeflcXBHXeAbHO MOry4HM npOXHBHHKOM He 

KomnosHTop. cXOJlbKO CHAOft CBOeft HAeOAOPHM, CKOAbKO 
„iHory*ieii kvikh". 

pasMepaMH npeACxaBACHKbix hm AapoBaHHH. 

Kpyr, nopoAHBuiHH sxhx AeaxeAefl, 6biA y>Ke snaKOMWH npea^HMH 

Kpyr npocBemeHHoro AHAexanxcxByiomero 6 a p c x b a. Ppynna 

3xa, oxHOCHBUiasicJi K BepxaM HauieH cfjeoAajibHOw apHcxoKpa- 

XHH, 6biAa ecxecxBeHHO npoHHKnyxa HAeoAorHefl sxoro KJiacca, 

KOXOpaa BbipaSKJiaCb BCJiaBHHO(|)HJIbCKOft OKpacKe XBOp- 

MecxBa H B cxpeMJieHHH K cBoeo6pasHOMy sByKOBOMy h 6bixo- 
BOMy scxexHSMy. BonpeKH yxBepwAeHHK), AOBOAbuo o6me- 
npHHflxoMy, 3xa rpynna KOMnosHXopoB ne HMejia HHKaKHX 
HapoAHH4ecKHx o6ocHOBaHHfl, H HHKaKoro oxHomeHHJi K „o6me- 
cxBeHHbiM ABHJKeHHaM" Hc HMBJia, OHa 6biJia nojiHXHHecKH rycxo 
peaKUHOHHofl. Ee cocxaBAHAH BajiaKHpeB^) (1835 — 1910), 



^) BanaKHpee (1835 — 1910) Hanncan HeMHoro: MvauKy k „KopoJito 
Jlnpy , ysepTiopy „Pyci,", vsemcKyK) yBcpTiopy, HcnaHCKyfo. CHMtJjoHHMecKyw 



— 214 - 



— 215 — 



PHMCKHft-KopCaKOB ^) (1844 — 1908), BoponHH ^) 
(1834 — 1888) H MycoprcKMM^) (1835 1881). K hhm npn- 
MbiKajieme Kk)h*) (1835— 1918), KOxopbiM, EnponeM, npeflCTa- 
BHJi coBepuieHHO cjiyMaftHoe, b cymHOCTH nyaceseMHoe h shh- 
roHHHecKoe HBJieHHC, noneMy, cxporo roBopa, 
Khjb, kek annroHgpQ Heo6xoAHMO OTACJi^Tb OT 3TOK rpynnbi, 
ApaHnyscKoii oneH 

w H HI nojiyHHBiueH HaHMCHOBaHHe „hobom pyccKOM 

uiKOJibi" HJiH „MoryHeii[ KyMKn". KiOH 6biJi KOMno- 

3HTopoM nojiyno^bcKoro, noJiy^jpanuyscKoro npoHCXostaeHUJi, 

erO CTHJTb MySbIKH 6bIJI OT3ByKOM CTHJIH 6oJIblIIOM (|)paHU,y3CKOS 

onepbi (FajieBH, ToMa, MeMep6ep, OTHacxH Buse) h b hckoto- 
poK crencHH lUyMaHa h mcjikhx poMaHTHKOB. Kpyr ero norpe- 
6HTeJiefl 6biJi npenMymecTBeHHO MHOCTpaHHbifi, h6o 6ojib- 
maa nacTb ero onep yBH^ajia cbbt sa rpaHHueft. B hctophh 



no3My „TaMapa" (1867 — 1882), Rse chm4)0hhh (nepByw oh nHcan 40 jict), 
ftaiiee flna ^'opienHaHo qjjaHTasHK) „Hc3iaMea" h poMancbi, 5. eme ocHosan 
6ecnnaTHyio uiKony Ann MyawKH BMecTe c F. JloMaKHHbiMi. 

^) PHMCKHft-KopcaKOB (1844 1908) — Hawfiojiee nHOflOBHTWM h3 „KyHKH", 
nanHcaji 15 onep: „ncKOBHTaHKa", „MaftcKa5i HOHb", „CHerypoMKa", „Mnafla", 
„HoHb nofl PoiK«ecTHo", „Ca«Ko", „MouapT h CanbepH", „BoapbiHa Bepa 
UJenora", „UapcKa5i HesecTa", „CanTaH", „CepBHnHa", ,,KaiJnefl", „naH 
BoeEORa", „KHTeas", „3onoTofl ncTymoK", 3 chm(J)ohhh, yaepTiopbi, chm4>ohh- 
MecKHe KapTHHbi „LUexepe3aHa", „CKa3Ka", „CaflKo", HcnaHCKoe KanpHMiHO, 
pafl KaMepHbix npoH3Be;ieHHfl, poMaHCbi,HecKOjibKO Bemeft fljia neHwa c opise' 
CTpoM („AHMap", „necHb o BcmeM Onere"). 

-) BopoflHH (1834 — 1888) — no npo(j[)eccHH xhmhk, HanHcan oieHb HeMHoro, 
OTsneKaeMbiH ot My3biKH cBoeS cneuHanbHOCTbK). Ero coHHHeHHa'. 2 chm4io- 
HHH (aaMeMaiejibHa 2-a H-moll, nposBanHasi „6oraTbipcKOH"), CHM^JOHHiecKaa 
nosMa „B cpeflHeft Ashh", onepa „KHa3b Mropb", hc OKOHieHHaa aBTopoM, 
flBa KBapiCTa h poMaHCbi. 

■) MycoprcKHft (1835 — 1881) — reHHanbHeJimHa hs aBTopoB „Ky>!KH", 
HanHcan onepbi: „>KeHHTb6a" (1868), „BopHC FoflyHOB" (1870), „XoBaHinHHa" 
(1881) H HeoKOHieHHwe Ha6pocKH „CopoHHHCKOft apMapKH", Ms ero flpyrHx 
^poH3Be;^eHHH HaHSonee ueHHbi: „HoMb na JIwcoh rope" (opKecxpoBaHa h 
flOKOHMeHa P.-KopcaKOBbm), xopw („nopa}KeHHe CeHHaxepH66a", „HHcyc 
HaBHH), MHoro poMaHcoB, cpeflH hhx peanHCTHHecKoro coflepasaHHa („PaeK", 
„JleTCKaa", „KnaccHK", „03opHHK"), cM^a me oiHOCHTca nocne«HHe npoHs- 
BeflcuHH Mycop CKoro — ero necHH h3 uhkhob „Be3 conHua" h „n)iacKH h 
necHH CwepTH". 

*) Kk)h (1835 — 1918) — BbicTynaji, KaK MysMKanhHbw nHcaTenb (kphtmk), 
3au;Hii;aBuiHH HfleH HOBOft nysbiKu, no npo4)ecGHH BoennbiM HH»<eHep. Ero 
KOMnosHUHH — 9 onep (HaH6ojiee HBBecTHbi: „AH!Kei[o", „KanHTaHCKaa 
flOMKa" H „BHJibaM PaTKHHijj^)", a laKate „A'I-llo Om4>h"), Kpoite Toro, MHoro 
poMancoB H MenKHX (JjopTenHaHHWX seineH. 



BeTBb nosABero 
poMaHTHsma. 



pyccKOM MysbiKH OH HMcer HCKOTopoe sHaneHHe xojibKO, KaK 

SBTOp pOMaHCOB, B KOTOpWX paSBHJI HCKOTOpbie AeKJiaMaTHBHO" 

MejioAHHecKHe HaMepeHnsi JlaproMbiHccKoro. 

Hto KacacTCH ocrajibHbix mjichob KpywKa, to bcc ohm 

•OTHOCHJIHCb HO npOHCXO»<JieHHK) K pOAOBHTOMy flBOpHHCTBy, a 

no HanpaBJieHHio — k KOHcepBaxHBHbiM rpynnHpoBKaw. Mx HapoA- 

HHMeCTBO 06yCJl0BJlHBaJI0Cb HX naTpMOTMSMOM M TCM MHCTO" 

acTercKHM KOJiJieKitHOHepcxBOM HaH6ojiee npKHX cxopoH 6biTa, 
KOTopoe xapaKxepHo ajijj pT»HBaK)iUHx KJiaccoB. 

OxCHJAa HX JIK)60Bb K pyCCKOM anHMeCKOft 

KyiKHSM, KaK cxapHHe, K pyccKoft HancBKOcxH, k noApo6HO- 
cxHM 6bixa, K jjereHAe. Hau,noHajiH3M BcerAa 

6bUI OMCHb 6j1H30K pOMaHXH31viy M HCJIbSJI OX- 

pHuaxb, Mxo B cyiUHOCTH, BOo6me, rpynna r;iHHKa-JlaproMbiM<- 

CKHM B POCCHH BHOJlHe aHaJlOPHMHa paHHCMy pOMaHTHSMy 

FepMaHHH (Be6epy h Ulydepxy), xorAa KaK „KyHKa" anajiorHMHa 
noBAHCMy poMaHXHSMy (lilyMan, BepjiHos, JIhcx, LUoneH). 
PoMaHTHMecKoe MHpocosepuaHHe, HecKOJibKo HSMCHeHHOe 6jia- 
roAapsi MecTHbiM ycjiOBHHM (h6o xHnHMHbift poManxHSM ecxb 
cymecxBCHHO repMaHCKoe sBJienHe), xapaKxepno ajih Bcex 
^jienoB 3TOH rpynnbi; oho Bbipa>KaexcH b xex »<;e cxpcMJie- 

HHHX K HaUHOHajIbHOfi JICreHAC, K KpaCOMHOCTH, (|)aHTaCXHKe, 
CKaSOMHOCXH, K KyjlbXy H306pa3HTeflbH0CXH B WyBblKC. M He 
yAHBHXejIbHO, MTO Sa 06pa3IJ,bI SXH KOMnOSHXOpbl B3HJ1H HMCHHO 

KOMnosHxopoB HeopoMaHXHMecKoro HanpaBJieHHH (lIIyMaH, Bep- 
.JIH03, JIhct, otnacxH lUoneH), Koxopwe h Hrpaiox no oxHOuieHHK) 
1^ HHM xy me pojib, KaK BexxoBCH h ULIy6epT c Be6epoM no 

OXHOmeHHK) K rjIHHKC. Ox HeOpOMaHXHKOB OHH B3HJ1H JIK)6oBb 

K opKecxpoBOMy KOJiopHxy (JIhct h BepjiHOB), k npjiHOMy ahc- 
coHancy h ocxpoft rapMOHHsauHH (llIyMaH, JIhcx, llIoneH), k 
HSbicKaHHoft pHTMHKe (UJyMaH), KyjibT nporpaMMHOCTH i^Bep- 

JIH03, JIhCt), KyjIbT CB060AbI TBOpHCCTBa H HOBaTOpCTBa 

(BepjiHos, JIhct), (|)opMy cHM4)OHHMecKoft nporpaMMHOft nosMbi 
(oHH JKe). 9th sanaAHbie npoxoTHnw 6bijiH jiHiiib norpyMceHbi 
B CTHXHK) HapoAHO - pyccKoro Mejioca, coBepuieHHO noAo6HO 
TOMy, KaK TjiHHKa norpysHA npncMbi PajieBH, BeTXCBCKa m 
Be6epa b jy jkc cxhxhk) — h xaKHM 3Ke nyxeM nojiynnjiHCb 
pesyjibxaxbi, opnrHHajibHbie HacxojibKo, hxo mofah axon 
CBoeft opHPHHajibHOcxbio HMnoHHpoBaxb sarpaHHMHOMy My- 
sbiKajibHOMy MHeHHK). OTAeJibHbie MneHbi KyMKH o6HapyM<K- 



^^i.:-.^lu0i„- '.'^uaufiiiiiii. ■•]t!i(^m$6:'^''i-"-''- i- 



■.SI' 



— 216 



'-£«,)• 



BajiH Me>Kfly co6ok) HpesBbinaMHoe BHyxpeHHee cxoactbo My- 

SblKajlbHOrO CTHJIH, npOflHKTOSaHHOe o6mHOCTbK) BKyCOB H 

o6mHOCTbK) npouecca h bjihshhh, ho tcm mc Menee Kancflbift 
H3 HHX HMeer h cbok> co6cTBeHHyK) xapaKTepHCTHKy. J1k)6o" 
nbiTHO, HTo BarHep npomeji hohth 6e3 cJieaoB opraHHHe- 
cKoro BJiH^HHSi Ha HHX, 6ojiee roro, — oh name onpejteJieHHO 

BbI3bIBaJI aHTHnaTHK) CO CTOpOHbl MJieHOB KyMKH. FlpMHHHbl 

KpblXIHCb nOBHAHMOMy B TOM, HTO naHrepMaHHCTHHecKHC npH- 
*iHHbi, nopoAHBUiHe Barnepa, 6biJiH OMCHb nywAbi pyccKOMy 

COSHaHHK) — 3TO C OflHOfl CTOpOHbl, a C ApyrOfl — TO, MTO MySblKB 

ero, HMeBuiaH KopHH b rjiy6MHax repMaHCKoft KyjibTypw, b Eaxe,. 
B BcTxoBene, b roTHHecKofi: MysbiKajibHoft mhcjih, He MorJia 
opraHHMecKH cooTBexcTBOBaTb pyccKOMy MysbiKajibHOMy 
cosnaHMK), CABa BbiiueAuieMy h3 nejienoK h b cyiUHocTH npKo 
BOcnpHHHMaBuieMy b sanaAHOft KyjibType TOJibKO BHeuuHtoK) 
o6ojiOHKy, KOTopaH y pawHero b oco6eHHOCTH Barnepa Bosce 
He 6bijia npHBJieKaTejibna. rjiy6nHbi ero cHMBOJiMSMa m 3Ha- 
HeHHH ero cthjia pyccKHe KOMnoswTopbi TorAa He nonanw, 
OHH 6pocHJiHCb Ha 6ojiee AOCTynnbie ubctw poMaHTHSMa b 
BHAe 6jiecTsnuero JlncTa, jiHpHHecKoro h npnHoro UlyMaHa 
M KpacoHHoro BepjiHOsa. 

Ms Bcex MJieHOB hoboK. pyccKoft iukojiu, 
PeaABSM. TparB- nocTaBHBiiieM ce6e .nosyHrH — HapoAHOCTb 
(TOHHee HauHOHajiHSM), cBo6oAa h xyAoa<ecTB,eH- 
HaH npaBAa (tohhcb H3o6pa3HTejibHOCTb), 
HaH6ojiee xapaKTepHbiM h sipkhm OKasajicH MycoprcKHfl, 

KOTOpblft B CyiUHOCTH H 6bIJI HCrjiaCHblM BJiaCTHTCJICM AyM' 
„KyHKH", XOTH npHSHaHHbIM pyKOBOAHTeJICM CHHTaJICH BajiaKH- 

peB, KaK 6oflee cTapuiH^. B MycoprcKOM HaH6ojiee netKO 
OTo6pa3H/iacb HAeojiorna KynKH, npoHHKHyTaa xapaKTepHbiM 
BapaapcKHM acTeTCTBOM, cTpeMJieHHCM k HaHBbicmeft KpacoM- 
HocTH H xapaKTepHOCTH B MysbiKC. Bce «pKoe, Bce KpacoMHoe 

CoSHpajlOtIb C JJK»6oBbK) H CTaHOBHJIOCb MaTepHajIOM, npM MBM 

KyHKMCTbi AOBOJibHO paBHOAyuiHo OTHOCHJiHCb K njiaPHaTy Ha- 
poAHbix TCM, npeAnoHHTaa nacTO 3tot npHCM co3AaBaHHio co6- 
cTBeHHbix, Tot Kpyr HauKOHajiHCTHMecKoA HHTeji;iHreHUMH h3 

MCJIKOrO ABOpSlHCTBa H OTHaCTH yHCe H3 paSHOMHHUeB, KOTOpwft 

sapowAajica b 60-x roAax b Pocchh, 6biJi tom cpeAofii, b koto- 

poft TBOpneCTBO HOBOft UIKOJIbI opHSHaBaJIOCb HOBbIM OTKpO- 

BCHHeM. MycoprcKHft b cbobm cTpeMJieHHH K xyAoacecTBeHHOH 



qecKan onepa. 
MycoprcKRH. 



— 217 — 

npaBAe, KOTopaa y Hero cnyTbieanacb c peajiwsMOM h koto- 
paa 6biJia npoAHKTOBana moahmmh b to BpeMa b Pocchh 

HaTypaJIHCTHMeCKHMH TeHAenUHHMH B HCKyCCTBe ^ BeaHHeM 

MaTepnajiHCTHHecKofl c})hjioco4)hh, KOTopaa AJia pyccKoro 
HHTeJiJiHrcHTa 60-x toaob 6biJia cBoero poAa ..pejiHrHefl". 
AOXOAHJI Ao rpaneft xyAO>KecTBeHHOfl npneMJieMOCTH. Oh 
CTpeMHflca AOBecTH MejiOAHMecKyK) jihhhk) ao tohhom 

KOHMH pasrOBOpHOrO MHTOHHpOBaHHa, MTO eMy H yASJIOCb 

B ero HaTypajiHCTHMecKHX ponancax, KOTopwe b stom 

OTHOlUeHHH ACHCTBHTejlbHO HpeSBblHaftHO CaMo6bITHbI. Ho 

TaKoft KpaflHHft HaTypajiHSM ne Mor AOJiro AepxcaTbca, Ten 
6oAee, HTO ywe b 70 roAax HyBCTBOBanwe Toro JKe Kpyra 

CHJlbHO yJKe HSMCHMJlOCb, H HaTypaJIH3M CTaJI CHJIbHO cAasaTb 

noA HanopoM mhux TeneHnft {{)HJioco(})CKoft mwcjih. FIoaTOMy 
j,BopHC FoAyHOB" HanHcaH MycoprcKWM ysce b HAeajiHCTHne- 
CKHX Tonax h Aa^Ke ne 6e3 ynacTHa MHCTHUHSwa, KaK sjie- 
MeHTa HacTpoeHHa. MncTHHecKHM 3JieMeHTOM eme 6ojiee 
npoHHKHyTbi ero nocneAHHe conHHCHHa — „XoBaHmHHa" 
M nocJieAHHC UHKjibi poMancoB, rAe ywe ot naTypajiHSMa hc 
ocTaeTca cneAOB. FpoMaAHoe, renHajibHoe AapoBaHne Mycopr- 
CKoro Bce BpeMa 6opojiocb c KpaunHMH npoasjieHHaMH ero 

AHJieTaHTH3Ma H COOTBCTCTBeHHO 3TOMy c Hecnoco6HOCTbK) 

ero aACKBaTHO CBoeMy »:e saMbicjiy BonjiOTHTb cbok) MysM- 

KaJIbHyK) MblCJIb. OrpOMHOe KOJIHHeCTBO ero KOMnOSHUHfit OCTa- 
JlOCb B TOPl HJIH HHOH CTCneHH HesaBepUieHHblM H nOTOM 

AOACJibiBanocb ero ApysbaMH. Tcm hc Menee Aaxce h b 3thx 
CBOHX, B cyunHOCTH He coBepuieHHbix, nonbiTKax oh AaJi orpoM- 

HOe COKpOBHlUe AJ13 pyCCKOft H MHpOBOft MySbIKH, B MaCTHOCTH 

asHBUiHCb poAOHanajibHHKOM coBepmeHHO noBbix HanpasjieHHft 
MysbiKajibHoft MbicflH He TOJibKO y nac, ho m sa rpanMuefl 
(OpanuHa). HawdoJiee ero CHJibnaa cTopona — pacKpwTMe b 
SByKax ncHXOJiorHH MejiOBCKa, — hto ctomt b cbhsh c peajiHs- 
MOM ero 3CTeTHKM H c rocnoACTBOBaBiuHM B ero BpeMa HaTy- 
pajiHCTHHecKHM ncHxojiorHSMOM B jiHTcparype. Ho HMeHHO 
3Ta acecTKOCTb h BHemnaa HecKJiaAHOCTb MHorHX npoaBJieHHft 
ero TBopnecTBa OTBopanHBaJia ot nero uiHpoKHe KpyrH ne 
TOJibKO noTpedwTejieft wysbiKH, ho b eme 6ojiee cHJibHoft m 
saMCTHoft cTeneHH MysbiKanTOB-npo^'eccHOHajioB, cpeAH koto- 
pbix nonaAajiHCb AajKe HJienbi caMoft „KyHKH", He AepsaBUiHe 
mttm 3a npaMOJiHHeflHbiM MycoprcKHM xaw AaJieKO. ao „KOHua". 



'^i&M:;. 



!,'j/Ji^V'j^..;"'V.],: 



^*lJm^i,]|iil^m!''' ' .^ ■■ 



.mM 



218 



HanpoTHB, B TBopnecTBe Phmckoto- 
a)aBTacTHKa h KopcaKOBa MM HMeeM Tun npoTHBono- 

KOAOOBT. 

P KopcaKOB JTO^HbiM H B cymHOCTH yyKG B caMOM npupofle 

CBoe8 He coBceM HHCTbifl THn MysbiKajibHoro 

AHJiexaHxa - 6apHHa. ypaBHOBemeHHbiii h cnoKoflnbift, acxex 

apHCTOKpar, PHMCKHfi-KopcaKOB B cBoeM TBopnecTBe o6nio- 

60BaJI MHp CBeTJIOft H o6'eKTHBHO CnOKOHHOft CKaSOMHOCTH. 

B npoTHBonojioJKHOCTb MycoprcKOMy oh bobcb hc sJEJifleTcn 
ncHx,OJioroM b TBopneGTBe, ho aaxo c caMbix paHHHX nop 
o6HapyMCHBaeT cxpeMJiCHHe nepecxaTb 6bixb ji.n.'iexaHXOM m 
npoftxH xox caMbiH HCKyc npocJjeccHOHajiHSMa, KoxopbiM xan 
nyraji Kynny. M b pesyjibxaxe oh cxaHOBHXCH nocxencHHO na- 
cxoautHM npo4)eccHOHa;iOM, o6jiaaaK)iHHM orpoMHoft xexHHKoft 

H MaCXepCXBOM, H KOJIOpHCXMMeCKHe CXpeMJieHHSI, 

xapaKxepHbie ajih Ky^Kw, b ero xBopnecxBe noJiynaiox nojiHoe 
pasBHXHe. KaK h CBOftcxBeHHO npo4)eccHOHajiy, PhmckhS- 
KopcaKOB OKasbiBaexca HpesBWMaflHO njioflOBHxwM h ecJiH 
ero apysbH no rpynne BOo6me oxJiHMaJiHCb peji,Koft wajionpo- 
AyKXHBHOcxbK), xo OH HanpoxHB, KBK HacxoHiUHfl CBponeft- 
CKHft Maacxpo, pa6oxaJi, He noKJiafl,aH pyK. Ero c4)epa, kbk m 
y MycoprcKoro, Bce ace rjiaBHWM o6pa30M onepa, b o6jiacxH 
Koxopoft OH He co3Aaex hobhx (})opM, HecKo;ibKo xojibKO mo- 
AHcfjHUHpyex cxapwe, cMHxaacb xyx HHxyHXHBHO c sKycoM no- 
xpe6Hxeji9 onepu, Koxopwft yace HeoAHOKpaxHO Aasaji nonyB- 
cxBOBaxb HenpHHXHe BarnepoBCKHX npHCMOB cnjiomnoro 
MvsbiKaJibHoro onepnoro nncbMa. Oh Hanncaji uejibix 15 onep, 
M3 Koxopwx 6ojibmaa nacxb cocxaBJiarox noHbine HaH6ojiee 
ueHHoe, Mxo co3flaHO b axoft o6jiacxH b Pocchh ("CnerypoHKa", 
„MaflcKa5i HOMb", „CaflKo", „UapcKa9 HeBecxa", „Kamefl", 
„KHxe>K" H flp.). Ho cHM{|)OHHHecKoro cxHJiH OH, xoxH H cxpe- 
MfliuMflcH K npo(|)eccHOHajTH3My, He co3fl.aex, orpanHMMBaacb 
B SToii o6jiacxH pancoAMHecKHMH (fjopMawH („lllexepa3afla", 
„CKa3Ka", „AHxap") — h sxo kbk pa3 cxohx b opraHHHecKofi 
CBH3H c ero HSHanajibHofl, cymecxseHHO anxHaKafleMHHecKoft 
ncHxojiorHeft, o6ycjioBJieHHofi ero npoHcxosK^tenHeM. 

Chm4)ohh3n, Koxopbift xmexHO nbixajicH 
KoBTaKT HacaflHXb y Hac Py6HHUixeHH, ho KOxopwR b 

c npodbeccHOBaAHS- „ „ 

MOM Booo H TaKOM oxKpoBeHHO aoHroHCKOH peaaituHH He 

Mor npHBHXbcji, yflaflocb BnepBbie xyAO»;e- 

CXEBHHO BOnJlOXHXb BopoflHHy, KOXOpblft OKasaJiCH HaH6o~ 



! 



219 



jiee AHHaMHHHbiM H3 Bceft KyHKH H HaH6ojiee opraHHHecKHM 
HHCxpyMeHxajiHcxoM. Ho h ero chmc|)ohhh hochx h3 ce6e ne- 
Maxb pancoAHSMa h fl,ajKe onepnoft Manepw nHCbwa. BopoAHH 
uenen xeM, mxo homhmo pycCKoro HauHonajibHoro inejioca, oh, 
MftH no cxonaM Fjihhkh, cyMen xyaoMcecxBenHo npeo6pa30Baxb 

H BOCXOMHblfl (KaBKaSCKHft), npM MeM xyx OH 6bIJI eABa JIH He 

6ojiee npoK, xaK mxo flpyrHe KyMKHcxbi ewy xojibKO noflpaacajiH. 
UeHxpajibHbiM xBopeHHBM ero MajionjioflOBHXoro KOMnosHxop- 
cxBa 6biJia onepa „KHJi3b Hropb" — oaho hs renHajibHbix co-. 
sflaHHfl pyccKoft MysbiKH, npH MeM BOo6ine b ero xBopMecxse, 
CHJibHee, MCM b ApyrHX, cKasajiocb cxpeMJienne k MejioflHMHocxH 
H K rapMOHHMecKOH HacbimeHHocxH, o6Hapy)KHBaK)meft 6o;ib- 
lueK) Macxbjo BJiHHHHe lIIyMaHa h oxMacxH JlHcxa. 

ripoMeMcyxoHHoe nojioJKeHHe a „KyMKe" 
aAaKHpes, sgHHMaex MBHee apyrnx oflapifeHHbift Ba;ia- 
K H p e B, KoxopbiM, 6yAyMH yMHxcjieM Bcex ocxajibHbix, Han- 
Menee xapaKxepen b CBoew xBopMecxBe, npeBBcflfleft cbohmh 
ApysbHMH-yMeHHKaMH. Ero coMUHenHsi co3AaHbi b xom me pan- 
coAHMecKoft (jjJopMe („TaMapa", (^opxenHaHHaa (jjjaHxaBHn „Mc- 
jiaMeft", chm4)ohhh h yBepxropw ajiji opK.). 

CBasb HapoAHoro Mejioca c eBponeiicKofi (|)aKxypofl 6bi;ia 
BO Bcex 3XHX aBxopax 6oJiee hjih Menee BHeuineft. Y Mycopr- 
CKoro H y BopoflHHa cJiHHHHe 6biJio 6ojiee npoMHbiM h opra- 
HHMecKHM B BHfly 6ojibmeft cxhxhAhocxh hx XBopMecxBa. Ohm, 
M npexBopsiH B ce6e BepjiH03a h LUyMaHa c JIhcxom, Kax-xo 
yMejIH AOCXaXOMHO SeCKO BWSBHXb h cboh co6cxBeHHbift MHp 
Mejioca, o6ycjiOBHBmHH h rapMOHHio. Ho y PHMCKoro-Kopca- 
KOBa Ha6jiK)Aaexcsi b cymHOcxH paccjioenHe cxhjih: ero na- 

neBHOCXb o6bIMHO He OpHrHHa-HbHaJI, npHMO 3aHMCXBOBaHHa5I H3 

HapoAHbix MoxHBOB, HJIH SKB npocxo He xapaKxepHaji, KorAa 
oHa nBnaeTca ero co6cxBeHHOft KOMnosHUHeft, — o6jieKaexc5i 
B Hapflflbi rapMOHHH napoMHxo npHMHXHBHbie H 6jiH»:e Bcero 
poAcxBeHHbie KJiaccHUHSMy. HanpoxHB, 4»aHxacxHKa h KpacoM- 
Hocxb HM nepeAaexca o6biMHO b xepMHHax jihcxobckopo rap- 
MOHHMecKoro cjiOBapH. MeacAy sxhmh AByMH cxhjihmh Hex 
paBHOBecHH, H xojibKO 6oJibmoii: acxexHMecKHft BKyc aBxo'pa 
sacxaBJiaex cnaHBaxb hx b opraHHSM. CyAb6bi, nocxHruiHe 3B0- 

JltOUHK) BKyCOB KyMKH, 6bIJIH paSJlHHHbl AJIH pa3HbIX aBXOpOB. 

KorAa HaxypajiH3M MHHOBaji h o6mecxBO, k KoxopoMy anejiJiH- 



220 



pOBaJlO TBOpneCTBO KyMKH, CHJIbHO MSMeHHJIOCb B aCTBTH- 

necKHx ocHOBax — mto cjiyMHJiocb k Hanajiy 80-x toaob — to 
crajio 3aM3THO paccJiocHHe Ky4KH. npo(|)eccHOHajiH3M, npcA- 
cTaBJieHHbift panee PydHHUixeflHOM, ho cKopo HameAuiHft noA- 
Mory B npKOM aBsiemm MaftKOBCKoro, HaHMHaer no6e- 
MCAaxb, KaK couHo;iorHMecKH 6ojiee nosAHee odpaaoBanHe, 

Ta,naHTJIHBblft, ho OTCXajIblft COUHOJlOrHMeCKH AHflexUHTHSM. 

K 80-M roflaM AHJiexanxHSM, OKpy»eHHbift npo(|)eccHOHa- 
jiaMH CO Bcex cxopoH, coBepiueHHO no6eMCfleH, nacxb ero 
co6cxBeHHbix aaenxoB HSMeHJiiOT eny (PHMCKHft-KopcaKOB) 
H oxKpbixo nepexoAMx na cxopoHy BparoB, hjih me npHdera- 
K)x K corjiaiuaxejibcxBy, HyBcxBya, mxo HHane no^e 6HXBbi hc 
ocxanexcsi sa hmmh (Bopoahh). flpyrae, 6ojiee ynopHbie h 
npHMonHHefiHbie, HaMMHaiox 6jiyM<flaxb, cBopaMHBaiox ace ace 
c nepBOHanajibHofl aoporH h hjih norH6aK)x b »<H3HeHHoA 
6opb6e, KaK ocxaxKH KJiacca, BBeprnyxoro yme b coBepmcH- 
Ho HHbie couHajibHbie ycJiOBHH (MycoprcKHfl), jih6o saMWKa- 
K)xcH B ce6a h yxoa^x b njiocKOcxb MepnocoxeHHoro mhcxh- 
UH3HMa, Koxopbift ccxecxBeHHO BbixcKaex H3 nepBHHHoro HX 
cjiaBHHO{|)HjibCKoro B033peHHSi (BajiaKHpeB). 

HaH6ojiee ciacxJiKBoe noJio«eHHe oKasbiBaexcH y „H3Me- 
HHBUiHx" CBoewy SHaMCHH (PHMCKHft-KopcaKOB). CaMasr H3MeHa 
6biJia B cymHOcxH npoHEJieHHCM rH6KocxH h nyxKOcxH. HoBbift 
KJiacc npoMbiuiJieHHoft 6ypM<ya3HH, BbiAEHnyxbift Hcxopneft Ha 
Mecxo noMeiUHHbero KJiacca c coBepuieHHO hhoS, hc cosepua- 
xei[bHoK, flejioBOH h yp6aHH4ecKOH ncHxojiornefl, — npesBbi- 
HaflHO CHJIbHO Mensiex nojioaceHHe acji b wysbiKe. YjKe Hejib3H 

XaK CnOKOHHO COMHHHXb, KaK paHCC, Xenn »«H3HH HSMeHHCXCa, 

HaAo yAOBJiexBopsixb cnpocy Ha wysbiKy h flBHraxb axox ca- 
MbiH cnpoc. Heo6xoAHMO ne ocxaBaxbca co cxapbiMH n^eo- 
jiorH«MH, a cjiCAHxb sa seKOM h npHCJiyuiHBaxbcsi k hobwm 

OXKpOBeHHHM B My3bIKe. M flefiCXBHXeJIbHO, MM BHAHM, MXO H3 
KyMKH PHMCKHft-KopcaKOB OKaSblBaCXCH HaH6ojiee MyXKHM K 

nepeMCHaM b MysbmaJibHOM 3ByKoco3epuaHHH h HaH6oflee 
npHcnoco6;iHiUHMC9 k xeMennaM BCKa. HaMaBiuH AHjiexanxoM, 
npoHAH HCKyc npo4)eccHOHajiH3Ma, oh OKaswBaexcH cnoco6eH 
eme nepecxpoHXb cBoe xBopMecxBO, ya«e b cxapocxH, na xohm 
HOBoro HMnpeccHOHH3Ma H OKasaxbCH MyBcxBHxejibHbiM Aaace 

K SaAaHHHM HOBblX TapMOHHMeCKHX OXKpOBCHHft XX BBKa. 



. 



..#fs^,: 



AKaAeMHSM. 
CepoB. 



i2l 



rH6ejib MycoprcKoro, cMepxb BopojiHHa h BbixoA b c|)aK- 
THMecKHft xHpaMc BajiaKHpeBa sasepiiiaiox pacnas npeJKHefi 

KyMKH. PHMCKHH-KopcaKOB B CBOCft HSMCHeHHOft HOBOH npO" 

4)eccHOHajibHOH ncHxojiorHH B cyiUHocxH npHHaAJieacHx yxe 
HHOH rpynnHpoBKC. '•!'• ' '; 

OflHOBpeMeHHO c KyMKOH, KaK aHXHxesa 
eft, BOSHMKaex aKaAeMHMecKaa napxHM, KOTopaa 
cHaMajia 6opeTC5! npoxHB KyMKH b jihuc oahopo 
PydHHUixeHHa, chjiw Koxoporo cjimuikom c;ia6bi. He noMoraex 
H coMHHxejibHaH noMOinb C e p o B a ^), Koxopbift paHee 6biJi xojib- 

KO KpHXHKOM, SaiUHUiaBlUHM B HeMaXH HfleH NySblKaJlbHOrO 

peajiHSMa, anajiorHMHwe JiHxepaxypnbiM nocxpoeHHHM B e ji h h- 
cKoro H HM me HaBesiHHbie. CepoB, BbicxynHBiuHH hosaho, 

KaK KOMHOSHTOp, OKasaJICSI He HaCXOJIbKO XajianXJlHBblM, MT06bI 

npoxHBOcxoHxb KyMKC, H K xoMy JKB caM, 6yAyMH no y6ejKAe- 
HHK) aKaAeMHCxoM H sanaAHHKOM, Ha abjic 6biJi Bce see cjjaKXH- 
MecKHM AHJiexanxoM h ne Mor conepHHMaxb c reHHajibHbiMH 

SJieMCHXaMH KyMKHSMa. 

TojibKO, KOFAa no$iBJis?exc5i, KaK pesyjibxax 
HacaHCACHHoro npocj[)eccHOHa;iH3Ma M a h k o b- 
c K H fl ^) (1840 — 1893), xorAa aKaACMHSM h npoc|)eccHOHajiH3M 
HOJiyMaex nacxonmee noAKpenjieHHC. MafiKOBCKHft siBnmercn 
yace xHnHMHbiM npo4)eccHOHajiOM co cBOHcxBeHHWM axoMy 
KJiaccy jiK)6oBbK) K MysbiKajibHOMy npouiJioMy, c orpoMHoft 



HaiiKOBCKHK. 



MytaaiM 



^) CepoB (1820—1871) — wsBecTeH, KaK MysMKajibHbifi; nnoflOBMTWM KpH- 
THK peajiHCTHMCCKoro HanpaBJiCHHH, B HacTHOCTH npHBeTCTEOBaBiuHH Barne- 
PH3M. KaK KOMnosHTop, OH BwcTynHn nosflHo, HO ero onepw hmcjih ycnex u 
HCKOTopoe BpeMa sHHanH na penepxyap („K3flH(jf)b" 1863, ,,PorHefla" 1866 h 
HeoKOHHeHHaa „BpaHSba CHna" 1871). 

^) MaflKOBCKHH (1840 — 1893) — njiOflOBHTbiK KOMnosHTop, HanHcan 6 chk- 
<})OHHH (HaH6onee Bbiflaroica nocneflHHe ipH, ocoSchho mecTaa, „naTeTHHe- 
CKaa", nocjiennee npoH3BeHeHHe M.), pan cioht flna opKecxpa, CHM^JOHHHe- 
CKHe KapTHHbi HHH yBepTKDpbi: „PoMeo H XtatyjibexTa" (1 870), „raMneT" (1888), 
„<I>paHHecKa ^a-PHMKHH" (1876), „Bypsi" (1873), necaxb onep, hs KOTopwx HaH- 
6onee SHaMeHHTw: „EBreHHR OnerHH" (1877) h „nHKOBaa AaMa" (1890); sth 
onepw oSoiujiH see MMpoBwe cueHW, flpyrne („BoeBOfla", „yHflHHa", „OnpHM- 
hhk", „BaKyna", „OpneaHCKaa flesa", „Ma3ena", „MapofleftKa", „MojiaHTa") 
MCHee yflaHHbi. SaieM hm HanHcaHW: SHaMeHHXbiB (JjopienHaHKbifi: KOHuepx 
(B-moll), ciaBiuHH KJiaccHMecKHM B penepiyape nwaHHcxoB, 6ajiexbi „Cnfl- 
waa KpacaBHua" h „ne6eflKHoe oaepo", „mejiKyHMHK", CKpHnHMHbiK KOHuepi, 
cxojib me KjiaccHMecKHfi b cKpHnHHHoa jiHxepaxype, kbk h q[)opxenHaHHbia - 
B nHaHHCXHMecKOM, pan MCJiKHX Bemefl flna (jjopxennaHO h mhofo poMaHCOB. 



■ilMaibMi 



wiili 



TpyAOcnoco6HOCTbK) H npo;i,yKTMBHOCTbK), HO OH eui,e He TK- 
nMMHbift aKafleMHCT, h no Kpyry CBoero MHpoomymeHHq oh 
OTHOCMTCH Bce scc K fleKJiaccHpoBaHHOMy ABopsHCTBy. 9tot 
THn ero MHpoomymeHHH, KOTopwH no Heo6xofl,HMOCTM 6biJi 
neccHMHCTHHecKHH H MHHopHbift, h6o MyHCflocTb 3Toro Kjiacca 
Hapo»c;;aK)meMycH 6yp»cya3HOMy cosHaHHK) AOJiMCHa 6bijia 
6ojie3HeHHO MyBcxBOBaTbCH, a HenpHcnoco6jieHHOCTb ero 
npeflCTaBHTCJiefl k hobmm ycjioBHHM «h3hh flOJiMcna 6bijia ycy- 
ry6HTb 3TO ocHOBHoe HacxpoeHHe. Ho stot KJiacc aeKJiac- 
cHpoBaHHbix 6bm B TO BpeMH, HeMeflJieHHO nocjie ocBo6oMCAe- 

HHH KpeCTbHH H yHHHTOHCeHHH pa6cTBa, OCO60 MHOrOHHCJieH. 

Ero JKe HajiHMMe sbisBajio b cBoe BpeMsi pacnaa Ky^KH, cocxa- 

BJieHHOft H3 ABOpHH, npHHyMCACHKblX CXaXb pa3HOMHHUaMH H 

jih6o norH6uiHX b 6opb6e, jih6o npHcnocodHBiuHxcsi k HOBbiM 
ycjiOBHMM. Tenepb xe nesuoM KacxpoenHH axoro K,;iacca, 
BbicoKO HMxejiJieKxyajibHoro, pasBHToro, no-CBoewy nepej^oBoro 
H MHOroMHCJieHHoro, B cyiUHOCXH cocTaBJiHBiiiero rjiaBHyio 
Maccy MysbiKaJibHofi ny6jiHKH, — cxanoBHxcH MaflKOBCKHft. 

3tom npHMacxHocxbK) Mafl[KOBCK0ro no cBoewy ayxy k 
6ojibmHHCTBy HHxejiJiHreHTHOfl ny6jiHKH odycjiOBJiHBaexcH ero 
dbicxpasr h MpesBbinaHHO npoHHaa nonyjinpHOcxb. Oh He OKa- 

SaJICH, KaK XHnHHHbie KyHKHCXbl, BaMKHyXblM B cneuH(|)HHe- 
CKHX, HaU,HOHaJIbHO-CJiaBSIHOt|)HJIbCKHX, couMOJiorHHecKH-aHaxpo- 
HHCTHMeCKHX HaCXpoeHHJIX. HoBblft pyCCKHM MHp H HOBaH 

HHxejiJiMreHTHaH ny6jiHKa bobcc ne dwjiM xaK ckjiohhw ^k scxe- 

THMeCKOMy „KOBbipS!HHK)" B KpaCOMHOM 6bixy apxaHHeCKOft HJIH 

jiereHflapHoft Pocchh. Ona «a»:fl,afla dwxb esponeHCKoR. M sxot 

eBpOneHSM BHeUIHOCXH, C C06jIK)fleHHeM, OAHaKO, H HSBeCXHOft 

yMepeHHOft aojih HauHOHajiH3Ma, RaBaji eft MaftKOBCKHft Kak 
B CBOHX onepax, xaK h b poMancax, xaK h b CBoeA HHcxpy- 
MenxajibHOH MysbiKe. > ; , 

3xa ny6jiHKa Tpe6oBajia npeacae Bcero oxKpbixoft, srcHOft 

H HyBCXBHXeJIbHOft, TyCXO SMOUHOHaJIbHOH MejIOJlHKH, — ajieMCrt- 

xbi KoxopoH 6biJiH yjKe b FaHnKe h flaproMwaccKdM, ho MafJ- 

KOBCKHH ycyrydnJI MeJIOflMMHOCXb H MyBCXBUXeJIbHOCXb My3bIKl|, 

BnHxaB B ce6a aaewenxw uiyMaHHSMa h b oco^eHHOcxH hc- 
Koxopbie MyBcxBeHHbie oco6eHHOcxH nonyjiapnoro b pyccKoft 
HHxejiJiHreHUHH cxhjih „ubiraHCKoro" HancBa. 3xox HaapbiB 
H MyBcxseHHbifi ubiraHHSM, b jik)6bh k KOxopoMy oxpaM<aJiacb 
xpoHHHecKaa HeyflOBJiexBopeHHOcxb pyccKoro o6inecxBa, npo- 



223 



pwBaexcH y nero b onepe, KoxopaH b cymnocxH jiHUiena 6biJia 
HacxoHiUHX ApaMaxHMccKHX ajiCMeaxoB h CKopee HanoMHnajia 
cepHK) poMaHcoB B KOcxioMax (xaK Has. „JiHpHHecKaH onepa"). — 
H AaMce B cHM(|)0HHM, FAC, OflHaKO, MaftKOBCKMft yMcex 6bixb no 
cBoeMy cMjibHO AHHaMHMHbiM H HOTOMy e^Ba jiH HC BnepBbie 
nocJie BexxoBena Aaex HacxoHUXwft h caMo6bixHbift cMMt|)o- 
H H 3 M, Koxopbift ycxynaex 6exxoBeHCKOMy b cxpoftHocxH 
(|)opMbi, HO noMXH He ycxynaex b eAHHCxse jihhhh h b AHHa" 
MHHecKOM nopbiae (KyjibMHHauHOHHbiMH nyHKxaMH axoro chm(|)o- 

HMSMa SBHJlHCb QVO XpH nOCJIBAHHe CHM(|)OHHH — 4, 5-5! H 6-h). 

B o6jiacxH poMQHCHOM neceHHOcxH oh cosAaex orpoMHwe 
ueHHocxH, Koxopbie HaxoASfx 6oJiburoft c6bix b pyccKOM 06- 
mecTBe m dbicxpo cocxaBJiaiox MaftKOBCKowy nonyAapHocxb. 
He MCHee yAannw 6biJiH ero BbicxynjiCHHsj b o6jiacTH Kawep- 
Horo cxHJiH (sHaMCHHxoe „xpHo" M Ksapxexbi). KaK xMnMMHbm 
npo4)eccHOHaji, oh cMHxaji aojifom nonpo6oBaxb nonxH Bce 
4)opMbi H MexoAbi BonjiomeHHH (onepa, chm4)ohhh, 6ajiex, 
cKJHxa, conaxa, Konuepx, KaMepHaa Mysbma, poMaHc, MHHua- 
Tiopa). KoHCMHO, HaH6ojiee lUHpoKOH nonyjinpnocxbio nojibso- 
BajiHCb ero cueHHMecKHe BemH, ho h chn4johh3m ero cyMCJi 
cxaxb npHBJieKaxejibHbiM una uiHpoKHX cAoeB ny6jiHKH h no- 
jiyMHTb orpoMHbift cnpoc BnepBbie b Pocchh, Koxopan b Macce 
cBoeft MysbiKaJibHOH ny6jiHKH ao xex nop 6biJia AOBOJibHd 
paBHOAyuJHa K CHM^JOHHMecKOMy cxHJiK). 3xoft eBponeficKoft 

BHeUJHOCTbK), HpOCfjeCCHOHajIHSMOM CBOHM H OXHaCXH pOA" 
CTBCHHOft repwaHCKofl KyJIbXype 3MOU,HOHaj7bHOCXbK) — MaftKOB- 

cKHfii OKasaJicH 6jiH»;e Espone, b oco6eHHOCxM repMaHCKoR 
EBpone, MCM jik)6oh h3 npe>KHHx pyccKHx aBxopoB. Oh ox- 

TOrO SIBHJICH nepBbIM H3 pyCCKHX aBXOpOB, nOJiyMHBUlMX 

HacxoJiinee peajibHoe, a He xeopexHMecKoe xojibKo npHsnaHHe 
3a rpaHMueft. Oh nepsbift naMMHaex co6ok> cxpanHuy c6bixa 
pyccKoft MysMKH 3a rpaHHuefl. PyccKaa MysbiKa na- 
MMHaex xenepb paccHHxbiBaxb ne xojibKO Ha cboh wecxHbift, ho 
Ha MHpoBOH pbiHOK, KBK yjKB ABBHO cjiyMHJiocb c sanaA" 
Ho - eBponeftcKOH MysbiKoft. M HaM6ojiee c6biT axox npon- 
BJiaexcH B FepMaKHH h Ahfjimh, oxnacxH AMepHKe; co 3HaMH- 

XeJIbHO 6oJIblIIHM Xpy40M H npenHXCXBHMMH 3xa MysbiKa 

npoKJiaAHBaex ce6e nyxb bo ^pakuHH, HecMoxpsi na xo, mxo 
no BHeiuHHM npMBHaKaM cthjih b cBoeft onepe MaflKOBCKHft 
6jiHH«e Bcero onepHbiM (I'paHuyaaM — Meftep6epy h BHse;, 



i^^U 



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ripHHMHbl XyT 6bIJIH, OHCBHAHO, B TOM 3MOUHOHaJIbHOM HaCbllUeH- 
HOM H ryCTO JIHpHHeCKOM Tone, KOTOpblfil He COOTBeTCTBOSaJI 

MysbiKajibHbiM omymeHHaM o6me(|)paHuy3CKoro p.yxa. 

MaMKOBCKHfi: JiBMJi C060K) MorynyK) aHTuresy KynKH, h xotji 

OH 6bIJI B TeXHHMeCKOM OTHOUieHHH, KaK cneuHajibHO MySblKaHT- 

CKOM, ropasAO CTapoMOflHee KyMKH, ho oh — couHOJiorHMecKM 
6ojiee cBoeBpeMCHHWH h cospeMenHbiH — oaepjKaji b o6me- 
ctbchhom MHeHHH no6eji,y. Ero SBJiCHHe SHaMenyex co6ok) 
no6efl,y npo4)eccHOHajiH3Ma, HacajKfleHHoro Py6nHii]TefiHOM, 
naji AHJieraHTCKHM HanpaBJieHweM, Koxopoe BbipbwAaeTcsi m 
HCMesacT BMecTe c xeM, KaK Mcneaaiox nocJieaHHe peaJibHwe 
cJieflbi npocBemeHHoro 6apcxBa, Hbme AeKJiaccHpoBaHHoro m 
cjiHBaiomerocH c HHTejiJiHreHXHOM Maccoft. OAHoepeMenHo 
HHxepHaitHOHajibHbiH XHn MysbiKH HaHHHaex oflep«HBaxb xoxh 
6bi BpeweHHyK) no6efly Haa cxporo nauHOHajiHCTHHecKHM. 
MnocTpaHHbie eBponeHCKHC (|)opMbi chm(|)ohhh naMHHaiOT 
npeo6jiaAaxb Hafl npHMHXMBHbiMH nepBOHaMajibHbiMH 3M6pHO- 
HaMH pyccKoro cHMcJDOHHSMa pancoflHMecKoro xnna. Te 6yp- 
McyasHbie cjioh, Koxopbie Kpennyx b Pocchh k 70 — 80-m roflaM, 
o6ycJiOBJiHBaK)x SMecxe c o6mHM sanaflHHMecKHM HacxpoeHHew 
Maccbi HHxejiJiHreHUHH xary k HHxepHau,HOHajiH3My r o p o a- 
CKoro (yp6aHHHecKoro) xMna, cxaHOBamerocsi Ha Mecxo co- 
sepuaxejibHO HauHonajibHOM KpacoMHOcxH, npoAHKxoBaHHoK 
yKJiaaoM cejibcKoro noMeiuHMbero 6bixa. MaMKOBCKMft saKanMH- 
Baex C060K) HaMajibHyKJ anoxy pyccKoro npo(|)eccHOHajiH3Na, 
pasBHBUierocH b cxopone ox bjihhhhh no3AHeft repMaHCKOM 
MysbiKH. CjieflyjomHe, xoxh h aKaAeMHHecKHe, o6pa30BaHHH ysce 

OXHOCHXCH K Apyroft anoxe, m6o npOAHKXOBaHbl HOBblMW 
BJIMHHHHMH. 

B repMaHHH poMaHXHHecKaH BcnbiuiKa 
Bbi3Bana Maccy 3nnroHHMecKHx HBJieHHft, koxo- 

nosAHero poinaH- , ^ 

-rHBMaBrepMaHHH.P"e "P" pasBMxoM npoc|)eccHOHajiH3Me B Tep- 
MaHHH cxajiH o6Hapy»«HBaxb see npH3HaKM 
nepenpoH3BOAcxBa. OrpoMHoe 6ojibU]HHCXBO axHX komhoshxc- 
poB pa6oxaex noA npHMbiM B03AeftcxBneM MeHASJibcoHa, 
LUyMaHa m ox4acx.H lHonena. K hx MHCJiy oxhochxch m 
nojiypyccKHH Py6HHmxeftH, KoxopbiM 6e3 cbohx npocBexHxejih- 

HblX c|)yHKUHa, HCnOJlHeHHblX B PoCCMH, BpjIA JIH 6bl BblABHHyJICH 

xaM Bbiuie axoro 3nHroHH4ecKoro" ypoBHH. FIocjieAOBaxejiH b 
CHjibHoft cxeneHH o6e3BpeAH;iH cxHjib My3biKH cbohx poAOHa- 



SnHroBbi 




MaJIbHHKOB M o6oCXpHJIH aHXHTCSy MCMiAy pOMaHXM KaMH-npO" 

rpaMMHHKaMH H pesKHMH HOBaxopaMH (BarnepoM— JIhcxom, Bep- 
jiho30m) h poMaHXMKaMM - sKcnpeccHOHMcxaMH Menee pesKCM 
HOBaxopcKoft ycxanoBKH ([UyManoM, llioneHOM), Koxopan b 

CymHOCXH MCHCAy HHMM CaMHMH H B HX Co6cXBeHHON COS HaHHM 

BpsiA JIH cymecxBOBajia. 3nHroHbi LUyMaHa h Ulonena, boc- 
npHHHMa^ hx KaK 6bi b acneKxe npeMtneft MysbiKH h hc 
HyBCXByji HX opraHHMecKOH H0BH3Hbi, o6e3BpeHCHBajiH HX Hoaa, 

XOpCKHe 3JieMeHXbI H CBOAHJIH HX CXH.IIb K MeHAeJIbCOHO-(|)HJIbAOB- 

cKOMy. HanpoxHB, nocjieAosaxeAH HeopoMaHXHKOB-nporpaMMHH- 

KOB o6oCXpS!JIH BHCUUHHe MepXbl HOCJieAHHX H KOnHpOBajIH HX 

cxHjib, cxpeMHCb K 6ojibuieMy paspwBy c npescHeft JiHHHeft 

pOMaMXHSMa, HO B BHAy MCHbllierO AapOBaHHH — HM H 3XO HJIOXO 

yAaBaAocb. TaKHM o6pa30M cosHAaJiacb Macca MyswKH Bxopo- 
cxeneHHOH, HanncaHHOH b KpynHOM h b mbakom cxHJie, nasoA- 
HHBUieH TepMaHMK) H cxpaHbi ee KyAbxypw (PeflneKe, MenceH 
H Ap.. npHMbiKaBiune k LUyMaHy, Bk)Aob, BeftHrapxHcp, PyM- 
nepAHHK — K Barnepy — JlHcxy). CioAa we oxhochxch XBopne- 
cxBO 3HaMeHHxoro nnaHHcxa A'Ajib6epxa, nanHcaBiuero mhofo 
onep B cMemaHHOM BarHepo-MapuiHepoBCKOM- cxHJie, h Apyrne 

KOMHOSHUHH. ' 

B 3xy 3noxy, oAHOBpeMeHO c pasBHxncM 

KanuTaAHCTHie- JierKocxH coo6meHHft, HaHHHaex Ha6jiK)Aaxb- 

cKHe BeHHHfl B cH cHAbHoe H cxHXHftHoe ABHce pac mnpcHHe 

MysMKe. yp6aHH- ^ysbiKaAbHoro pbiHKa. MysbiKa nanHHaex 3Hep- 

sanHH MvauKaAfc- 

- rHHHO SKcnopxHpoBaxbca no bccm cxpanaM, 

Horo noTpeoAeHHH. r r r 

HsAaTeAbCTsa, '^^^ OKOHMaxejibHO AHuiaexcH MecxHoro sHane- 
KoHyepTHUH Kann- HHsi H npHo6pexaex SHaneHHe MnpoBoro npo- 
TaAHSM. AyKxa. Oa6pHKaxbi EBponw pasBOsaxca no Bce- 
Ny MHpy H o6Hapy»:HBaK)x xaM cHAbHbift na 
ce6a cnpoc. B xo jkb BpeM« KanHxajiHcxHHecKaa Kyjibxypa 
HaKjiaAbiBaex Ha bck) MCH3Hb cboh oxnenaxOK yp6aHH3Ma, 
noBbimeHHoK HepBHoft m«h3hh, HanpwjKeHHOH 6opb6bi aa cyme- 
cxBOBanne. OxAeAbHbie npo4)eccHH MysbiKajibHoft o6AacxH cne- 
UHaAH3HpyK)xcsi, KazKAaji rpynna noxpe6HxeAeft nojiynaex CBoft 
oco6bift Kpyr nocxaButHKOB MaxepnaAOB a^hh hx pbiHKa. OxAe- 
JiHCxcJi BexK? „AerKoft nysbiKH", onepexxbi h xanuoBaxejibHofi, 
Koxopaa nojiynaex cboS, coBepuieHHO no KanHxaAHcxHMecKH 
opraHH30BaHHbiii[, annapax npoAyKUHH. CoBepuienHo oxAeJibHO 

060C06AHeXCH BeXBb MySbIKH „cepbe3HOft" CHMCif)OHHHeCKOft H 

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onepHOM, McnojiHHTeflK MyswKH nojiynaiOT TO>Ke cbok) CHCTeMy- 
KanHTajiHsauHM. HapoflHBuiHecH yM<e b rHraHTCKHX pasMcpax 
MSflaTCJibCTBa HaHHHawDT cKynaTb KOMno3HTopcKyH5 pa6o- 
nyio CHJiy, odpamasi ee b opyflne HSBJieMeHHH floxoAa h b cbhsh 

C 3THMM yXCe HCKyCCTBeHHblMH MCpaNH HaMMHaiOmHe BSflyBaTb 

cnpoc Ha MysbiKy Bcex HaHMeHoaaHHH, nojibsyncb y>Ke xHnHHHO 
ToproBbiMH npHCMaMH, peKJiaMoft H npoM. MeueHMpyioiuee Hsna- 
TCJibCTBO coxpaHHercH TOJibKO B OTcxajibix cxpaHax (Pocchh), h 
TO B BH^^e HCKJiK)HeHHH, a BCH EBpona oxBaneHa KanHxajiHCTH- 

MeCKHM MeTOflOM SKCnjIOaxaUHH pa6oHeH CHJIW KONnOSHXOpOB. 

ripH orpoMHbix CBH3HX c ToproBoft 6yp»cya3HeH h npH xexHUKe 
HajiaMceHHH xoproBoro annapaxa He cocxaBJinex xpyaa pas- 
MecxHXb npoHSBejteHHfl jiK)6bix KanecxB h nanpaBJieHMH na 
MHpoBOM pbiHKC. 3to OflHO y»ce HSMeHHex npocJSjHJib MysbiKajib- 
HOM JiHxepaxypbi, MHoroe h3 xoro, mxo panee HHKorfla 6bi He 
yBHflejio CBexa, xenepb bhahx ero 6e3 saxpyflHCHMH m flasce 
pacnpocxpaHSiexcH.B ihmpokmx Kpyrax, no cymecxBy jiHuieHHbix 
CBoero BKyca. Cdbix k cnpoc My3biKajibHO-KOMno3HxopcKoro 
TOBapa xenepb b BHaMHxejibHoft cxeneHH HaMHHaex o6ycJio- 

BJIHBaXbCH He CXOJIbKO BHyxpeHHHM KaMBCXBOM CaMHX npOHSBS- 
fleHHft H KBajIH4>"KaUHefi; HX KOMnexeHXHblMH MyBblKaHXaMM, 

cKOJibKO CHJIOH xoproBOH o6cxaHOBKH, yMejioft peKJiaMOM, 
OflHHM CJIOBOM, MySblKa.lbHblH XOBap CXaBHXCH B paBHbie ycjio- 
BMH C npOHHMH HpOflyKXaMH KanHxajiHcxHHecKoro npoHSBoa- 
cxBa c xofl jiHiub HesHaMHxejibHoft pasHHueft, mxo Ha pajxy c 
onjiaxoft xpyfl,a b HopwiajibHbix aeneMCHbix eflHHHuax xyx Ha6mo- 
;i,aexc5i CBoeodpasnaa onjiaxa xpyaa apxHcxa nyxew mchobom 
efl,HHHu,bi „MHpoBOH" MJiH „MecxHoft" cjiaBbi, KoxopaH flaex 
6oJibmoft MOXHB H noBOfl flJiH sKcnjioaxauHH co cxopoHbi npefl- 
npHHHMaxejiR, yace ne Meuenaxa, a xHHHHHoro KanHxajiHcxa, ho 
Macxo npHXBopaiomerocsi MeuenaxoM. 

KanHxajiHSHpyexcH h o6jiacxb MysbiKajibHoro HcnojiHeHWH, 
panee 6a3MpoBaBiiia5ic5i Ha cjiynaftHbix Kycxapnoro XMna 
opraHHsauHHx, nocjie xoro, kbk (|360AajibHoe MeuenaxcxBo 
Mcnesaex. rioHBJiflexcH MaccoBwft cKynmHK HcnoJiHHxejibCKoro 
xpyaa, KanHxanMSHpyiomHfl KOHuepxHoe npeflnpujixHe h pas- 
BHBaromMft ero b mhpobom Macuixa6e. FIosiBJiaioxcji KOHuepx- 
Hbie ftHpeKUHH, ycxpaHBaiomHe KOHuepxbi bo BceM MHpe. 
KanHxajiHcx, BaHHxepecoBaHHbift b c6bixe h b HSBJieMeHHH ao- 
xofla H3 cBOHX HcnojiHHxejieft, peKJiawnpyex mx h tbm xoMce 



Hapyiuaex npe«fle cymecxBOBaBuiyro HopMaJibHyK) acxexMHe- 
cKyro oueHKy HcnojiHHxejibHoro HCKyccxsa. CoBMecxHbiMn 
ycHJiHHMH o6eHX rpynn KannxaJiHcxoB npoHSBOAHXca CHJibHbiM 
cflBHr B ncHxojiorHH noxpe6HTejibCKoro KJiacca. PasBHXHe 
KpHXHHecKoft jiHxepaxypbi h ouenoK, Macca npoxMBope-- 

MHBblX NHeHHfl H BKyCOB, BblCKaSblBaeMblX npH 3TOM, yH«e 

poMaHXHMecKOH uiKOJioft BajioaicHHoe cxpeMJieHHe k opwrH- 
HajibHocxH, K HenpeMeHHOfi caMo6bixHoCxH — Bce axo cHJib' 
HO cnyxbmaex o6mecxBeHHoe MnenHe My3biKajibHoro noxpe- 
6HxejiH H ero oxACJibHbix rpynn. FlpejKHee npocxoe HawBHoe ' 
oxHomeHHe b noxpe6Hxejie k HCKyccxBy HCHesaex, — oho saMe- 
HHexcq oxHomeHHCM cjiomchmm, ocHOBannbiM ne cxojibKo na 

HOpMaJIbHOM 3CXeXH4eCKOM BneHaXJieHHH, CKOJIbKO Ha CJIOJKHOM 

cooxHomeHHM MejKAy jiHMHbiM BKycoM, cxeneHbH) KyjibxypnocxH 
H nocxojiHHOM orjiHflKH Ha „ocxaxo'iHoe o6mecxBeHHoe MHe- 
HHe". KojioccajibHan peKJiana, ywenbe sacxaBHXb o ce6e 
roBopHXb, oneHb Macxo HaMHHaKjx CMymaxb HcxHHHbie ouchkh 
M noxpe6MxeJib, KoxopwH panee 6ojiee scero AOBepaji cBoeny 
jiHMHOMy BKycy, xenepb yace ne ckjiohbh xan ewy flOBepsxb h 
cxpoHX CBOK) oneHKy H cBoft cnpoc Ha cjioa<Ho;w koh'kjhk- 
xype CBoero BKyca h MyncoS peKjiaMbi. KanHxajiHSM HMeex h 
CBOH xopoiiiHe cxopoHbi B MysbiKaJibHOM 6bixy, oh o6jierMaex 
B BbicoKofi cxeneHH BbmBJieHne mhophx flapoBanHft, oh Heo6bi- 
MaftHO ycHJiHBaex nyjibc MysMKajibHOM hchshm. KoJiHHecxBO 
KOHuepxoB pacxex, m MysbiKa .eflBa ycneBaex yaoBjiexBopHXb 
Bce Kaflpbi noTpe6nxejiH. KojiHMecxBO HBflaBaeMbix coHHHeHnft 
xoMce yMHOMcaexcsi, npn MeM o^HOBpeMenHO Ha6jiK)flaexcji h 
yMHOMceHHe caMoro KanecxBa b h e lu h e ft npo^yKUHH, nsfla- 
HHa HaMHHarox BbmrpbiBaxb b KaMecxBe h b pocKOuiH, hchoji- 

HHXejIbCKHe Kaapbl B XeXHMMeCKOM OTHOmCHilH BbIfl,BHraK)X 

paa saMCMaxejibHbix MacxepoB, c Bbipa6oxaHHoft „cpeAHea" 
xexHHKoft, KaK 6bi 4)a6pHKaxbi HcnojiHHxejibCKoft cHJibi. Bhp- ; 
xyosHocTb, KBK xaKOBBH, 6bicxpo cxaHOBHxcH pacnpocxpaHeH- 
HbiM HBJieHHeM, H xa xexHHKa, KoxopaH Bocxoprajia b BHpxyo- 
sax npeMCHeft snoxH, cxaHOBHxcH ywe pHflOBWM ABJieHHeM. B 
3XOM TOJKC B Kxore Kpwjiacb xopomasi cxopona, h6o npecw- 
meHHasr BHpxyosHocxbio Macca noxpefiHxejieft xew oxoxnee 
o6pamajia cbom Bsop k HcxHHHOMy flaposaHHio Ha (|)OHe sxoft 

BHeillHeM BHpxyOSHOCXH. 9xO BpeMM BblABHraeX BO BceM MHpe 

Maccy ABJieHHft HcnojiHHxeJibCKoro xwna, nepeflKo MpesBbiMaftno 

15* 



22S — 



BbiflaiomMxcjr, KOTopbie no pofly cboch fleHxejibHocTH y»<:e He 
MoryT 6biTb B cymHOCTM OTHeceHbi k KaKOM-jiH6o OAHoft cTpaHe 
HJiH rocyflapcTBy h npeKcxaBJiHirOTCH cymecxBeHHo h h t e p h a- 
UHOHajibHbiMH. XapaKTepHbiM ajih 3T0S[ 
SnaMeBHe gnoxH npejicTaBJWieTCJ! HapoH«.neHne THaa mh- 
pHMcepaopKecxpa, KOTopwH panee oowh- 
HO coBnaxaJi c KOMnosHTopoM, h caMbm tho xexHHKH KOTOporo 
onpeAeJiHJicH TOJibKo k 30-m roflaM XIX Bexa. C aroro BpeMeHH 
flwpMJKep craHOBHTCH H3 KOHuepTMeMcrepa h aKKOMnaHwa- 
lopa, Beflymero opKCcrp sa gbohm HcnojiHeHHeM, HeaaBHCHMbiM 
BOM<AeM opKecxpa, KoxopwH sacxaBJiaex ero cjieflOBaxb 
cBoeny MyauKajibHOMy XHny McnoJiHCHHSi, can He Hrpaa hh Ha 
KaKOM HHcxpyMenxe. Barnep, JIhcx h BepjiHOs cawM 
6biJiH nepBbiMH BbiflaioinHMMCH AHpMJKepaMH xaKoro THna, 
Koxopbift CKopo BbisBaji pa3HOo6pa3Hbie noflpaMcanHH. Bo bxo- 
poft nojiOBHHe XIX Bena MBJieHHe flHpHHcepa cxaHOBMXCH 
MpesBbinaftHO pacnpocxpaHenHbiM m moahmm, anpHMcep ywe He 
npe6biBaex npHKOBaHHWM k onepnoMy nyjibxy, KaK panee, a 
Bbicxynaex Bce name caMOcxoHxeJibHO b cneuHajibHbix chm- 
c|)OHHMecKHX KOHuepxas. rioflBJiJiexcH xtin anpHSKepa „HeKOM- 
nosHXopa", xojibKo HcnojiHHxejisi, panee oxcyxcxByiomHM. 3xox 

BHpxy03-ftHpMM<ep BHOCHX B CHM4)OHHMeCKyK) MyBblKy CXpCM" 

jieHHC K BHeuiHeft 3cj[)c|)eKXHOcx«, K „6jiaroflapHOcxM" ajih 
McnojiHMxejiH flHpHMsepa m 3xhm xojKe oxnacxH fl,e(|)opMHpyex 
xHn My3biKajibHoro BocnpnsixHH. 

B xo BpcMH, KaK xaKHM o6pa30M lUHpOKaa BOJiHa o6ocxpeH- 
Hoii MysbiKajibHOM a<H3HH Ha KanHxajiHCXHHecKOM 6a3Hce npo- 
HHKaex BCK) EBpony h oxnacxH vi AnepHKy, My3biKajibHoe 
HCKyccxBO HaHMHaex npo6y»<flaxbca BCJiea 3a PoccHcfl b apy- 
THx cxpaHax, aoxojic He saxponyxbix bobcc hah mbjio saxpo- 
Hyxbix My3biKa,nbHbiM xBopnecxBOM. Flpe^Kfle Bcero npo6y}Kfle- 

HMe MysbiKajibHocxM B 3XMX cxpaHax AHKxyexcsr 

npo6yiKAeHHe ^g^j^ jj^g coo6paMceHHaMH HauHOHajiHSMa, 

MysMKH B flpyrax ^Q^^pj^jg nopoflHJiH npo6yM«fl,eHHe pyccKoft My- 

sbjKH. OKpenmee caMoco3HaHHe HHxejiJiHreHUHH 
B KaMCflOH HauHH BJiacxHO xpe6yex, Hxo6bi 6biJia co3fl,aHa 
HauHOHaflbHaH MyswKa, Hxo6bi flaHHa« HauHa xcm caMbiM He 
6biJia nocxaBJiena b njioxoe nojioxceHHe cpaBHHxejibHO c Apy- 
THMH, He oxcxajia ox hhx. Flocjie Pocchh OMepeflb b nepByro 
rojiOBy Hflex sa cxpanaMM sanaflHO-CJiasHHCKHMH, Koxopbie na- 



MexHH: CMeTaua, 

^BOpiKaK. 



XOAHJlHCb, KaK H BeHrpHH, nOA CHJlbHeHlUMM BJlHHHHeM pepMaH" 

cKofl Kyjibxypbi, xoxH MHxejiJiHreHUHH 3XHX cxpaH H HaXOflH- 
.nacb bo BpajKAe6Hbix oxHOiueHMHx k repMaHCKowy sacHJibK). 
Ta BOJiHa HauMOHajiMSMa, Koxopaa poflHJiacb b poManxHie- 
cKcfl FepMaHHH, npoKaxMJiacb npes BenrpHio (JIhcx), ricjibmy 
(LUoneH), PoccHto (PjiHHKa), a xenepb cKaBbi- 
BaexcH B cJiaBHHCKMX seMJiJix M e X H H. Tyr 
noHBJiHexcH npeM<Ae Bcero flapoBHXbiii Cne- 
X a H a (1 824 — 1 884), Koxopbift 6biJi 6hi nano 3aMexeH Ha 
esponeftcKOM ropHBOHxe (kbk m FjiHHKa na Hen, ho b eine 
MCHbuieft cxeneHH), ho b cBoeft poflHoft cxpane oh cocxaBJiJiex 
co6bixHe Kpynnoro Maciuxa6a. CwexaHa coeji,HHsiex b cbocm" 
xBopHecxBe repMaHCKyK) Kyjibxypy c|)opMbi c nauHOHajibHbiM 
MeJiocoM, coBepmeHHo kbk h FjiKHKa, ho y Hero axo BbixojiMx 
snaMHxejibHO MCHee opHrMHajibHo npocxo noxoMy, mxo xapaK- 
xepHbie Mepxbi HapoAHO-Memckoro Mejioca 3a AOJirHe roflbi 
repwaHHSMa cMJibHO yxpaxMjiH cbok) cneuHc})HMHOcxb h cxyuie- 
BaJiHCb. B o6meM see nojiyHHJiocb, hxo no cxhjik) h cjjjaKxype 
CMBxana npH6jiHa{ajicfl k repMancKHM anHronaM pannero 
poManxHSMa, npH6,nH3HxejibHO b xex xe xonax xBopMji h Jl, b o 
?KaK, KoxopbiM cocxaBHji ce6e ewe dojibuiyio nonyjispHocxb, 
h6o oh aneJiJiHpoBaji k 6ojiee fleMOKpaxHHecKHM BKycan. B 
jiHue CwexaHbi h Jl,BopjKaKa MeuicKaji HaijHH, panee 3HaBiiiaa 

XOJIbKO HCnOJlHHXeJIhCKHe BeJTHHHHbl, HpHoSpexaeX H KOMnOSH- 

xopcKHe. 

CjieAyroiUMM axanoM npo6yM<AeHH5i HauHonajTHSMa HBMJiHCb 

cxpaHbi CKaHflHHaBHH (HopserHH, flanKH, lUBeuHn). Ms 

HHX panee Bcero Bbicxynnjia na nyxb HauHOHajiHSMa flannji, 

Koxopaa B jiHu,e AapoBHxoro, ho ne caMo6bix- 

CKaHflHHaBHn: ^^^^ T a A e AaJia nepBbiM onwx MysbiKajibHoro 

Fafle, CseHAceH, 

HopAPaaK, FoKr CKaHAHHaBHSMa, KOXOpblH B CyiUHOCXH OKaSaACH 

He 6oAee, KaK annroHMHecKHM aAewenxoM no 
•oTHouieHHK) K MeHAeAbcoHy H^oxnacxH UlyMany. 

Bojiee cymecxBeHHoe 3HaHeHHe hmbao aaa cKaHAHHasMSMa 
noHBJieHHe b HopBerHH CseHAceHa^), Koxopbift hbhach 
KpynHbiM H speAbiM KOMnosHxopoM, cjieAOBaBUiHM b o6meM 
no cxonaM poManxHKOB h oxnacxH Barnepa b ero o6e3Bpe- 

') CBeHflceH (1840 — 1911) HanHcan 2 cHMcfjoHHH, noaMbi „napH?KCKHH . 
KapHaBaji", „3oparaHfla", psfl KaMepHUx coHHHeHHM, cKpHnHMHuK KOHuepr, 

BHOnOHMejIhHbtH KOHUepT H Spynie KOMnOSHUHH. 



^Miiik 



tUiit 



^glgH 



230 



jKCHHoft (|)opMe. Bee me 3th aBTopw 6biJiH TOJibKo npMroTO- 
BJieHMHMH K nosiBneHMH) HacTOHUiero HauMOHajibHoro reHHfl, 
KaKHM nepBOHanaJibHO hbhjich 6e3BpeMeHHo yMepiuHfl P. H o p 3," 
paaK, a noTOM 3. FpHr^). 

HopApaaK H 3a hhm PpHr BnepBwe cyMCJiH onjiofloxBo- 

PHTb MySblKy CKaHfl,HHaBHH pOflHbIM HOpBCMCCKHM HdneBOM, 

cjieayn coBepmeHHO roMy Mce npHHUHny, KaKOMy cjieAOBajiH 
FjiHHKa H KyHKHCTbi B PoccHH. C KyHKoft y HHX emc TO o6mee, 

MTO MJ: HCXOflHbie nyHKTbl, HX o6pa3UbI 6bIJIH OAHM H Te »e 

H no KpaflHefl wepe mbcthmho coBnaAajiH (lUoneH, llIyMaH 
OTMacTH Barnep). Ot llIyMaHa FpHr 3aHMCTBOBaji c|)opMajib- 
HbiA MHHHaTK)pM3M H neccHHocTb, OT BarHcpa HflCT ero 
cTpeMJiCHHe K nbiuiHOCTM M ocxpoxe rapMOHHH, OT JIhctb 
HauHOHaJibHbie npHeMbi o6pame.HHH c jia^oM. HopBeMccKHM 
MCJioc 6biJi HacTOJibKO xapaKTepeH, hto cpasy OKpacHJi 
MysbiKy HopApaaKa, h b oco6eHHOCTH FpHra, b cTOJib «e 
xapaKTCpHbie Tona, KaK HeKorAa nojibCKHft mcjioc oKpacMJi 
uioneHOBCKyK) wysbiKy. Ho ajieMCHT HHTHMHoft cajioHHocxH 
M apHCTOKpaTHMHOCTH, cBOHCTBeHHbift UIoneHy, y FpHra, pOAMS- 
merocJi b aeMOKpaTHHecKofl CTpane, o6pamaeTCJi b „hhthm- 
Hbifl AeMOKpaTHSM", — OH T0M<e paccHHTbiBaeT Maccy cbohx 
KOMnosHUHft Ha cnpoc cpeftH mhthmhofo Kpyra, cpeflM HHTeji- 

JlHreHUHH, naUHOHajlHCTHHeCKH HaCTpOeHHOft,, ho B 3TOS Ny- 

3biKe HH na MHHyxy He npocbinaeTCH yTOHMenHocxb apHCTO- 
KpaTHHecKoro cajioHa. 3to — homtm MHCTo-HapoflHaH MyawKa, 
KOTopyio BKyc KOMHosHTopa cHa6AHJi ocTpoft H npHHoK rap- 
MOHHeft. SnaMeHHe FpHra, BnpoMeM, ne HCMepnbiBaeTCH 3thm, — 
OH cyMe.n cACJiaxb HeHTo ya«e He TOJibKo b HauHonajibHO 
HopBewcKOM, HO H b o6iueeBponeficKOM h mhpobom Maciuxade — 

3TO ero HMnpeCCMOHHSM, BblXeKlUHft H3 
HivinpecciiOHHSM. „ 

poACTBeHHoro pyccKOH KyiKe HOBaTopcTBa 

H npHHUHna hojihoh cBo6oAbi TBOpiecTBa. Y KynKH 3tot npwH' . 

nvm BbicKa3a.ncsi bo bshtmh ce6e b npHMep caMwx HOBaxop- 



^) PpHr (1843 — 1904) nanMcan Mnoro 4)opJ^enHaHHbix Bemeii, 6onbmeH 
MacTbio MHHHaTiopHoro THna (ho cpeflH HHX ecTb coHaia), KaMepHwe npoHS- 

BCfleHHSI (KEapTeTbl, COHaTbl flJia CKpHnKH''(3) H flJlSI BHOJIOHMCnH (1), (})opTe- 

imaKHbift KOHuepT (a-moll), cTaBiUHH aHaMCHHTbiM, MysbiKy K „nep Fmht" 
HScena, h3 KOTopott rpoMaAHOH nonyjiapHOOTbw nonbayexcs! nepaan ciOHTa, 
cueHbi H3 „Ona!|)a TpHrBaaoHa" h psra, poMancos, cpe^H KOTopwx jiyMuiMC 
nepnbi ero 3ja,oxHOBeHHH. v ■ ^ . ■., 



— 2t!l — 
CKMX o6pa3MHKOB 3anaAHoft MysbiKH, y FpHra oh BbipasMJica 

B HSBeCTHOM npOABMJKeHHM BHCpeA CaMOH TeXHHKH MyBblKajlb" 

Horo BonjiomeHMfl, b 3HaHHTejibHO 6ojibmeft cBo6oAe rapMo- 
HHH, HeM y ero npoxoTHnoB (LUyMaH, LUonena), b ynoTpe6jieHHH 
CB060AHbIX, HHKaK He 6a3HpyK)mHxcs! Ha TeopHH rapMOHHMeCKHX 
M MejioAHHecKHx KpacoK. MysbiKa ero cTanoBHTCH npHcnoco6- 

JICHHOft K TOMy, MT06bI BbipaSHTb MMMOJICTHbie HaCTpoeHHH, 

AaTb KaK 6bi cjienoK MHnyTHoft smouhh— b 3tom oTHomeHHH 
OH 6jih3ok k lIlyMaHy. Ero cneuH4)HHecKofl 3acJiyroft siBJiHexcH 
cMemeHHe rapMOHM4ecKoro cosHanHH c HopwajibHo m TpaAH- 
UHOHHo o6pa30BaHHbix co3ByHHH Ha HHbie, 6ojiee ocTpbie 
H npHHyAJiHBbie. M3 sthx sjicmchtob EnocjieAcxBHH Bbipocjia 
BCH HOBasi MysbiKa. 

KpyroM noTpe6HTejiefl Fpwra Ha KOTopbm oh nncaji. 6biJia 
HopBe»ccKaH HauHOHajiMCTHHtecKaa h b to ?Ke BpeMa Becbwa 
jieMOKpaTHHecKaH HHTejiJiHrenuHH. Ho poACTBCHHOCTb ero 
My3biKH uiyManoBCKOft m luonenoBCKoft, ee MejioAHMecKaa 

HCHOCTb H npOCTOXa CKOpO COCTaBHJIH BMy c6bIT B MHpOBOM 

MacmTa6e, h FpHr cTaHOBHTCH ne MecTHbiM, a eBponeficKHM 

KOMnOSHTOpOM, OKa3bIBaK>mMM BJIHSHHe CBOHM TBOpHeCTBOM 

sa npeACJiaMH CBoeft cTpaHbi. 

KaK H cjieAOBajio'ojKHAaTb, HBJieHne Fpnra, apKoe h cseMcee, 
BbisBajio ceflnac tkg njieaAy noApaMcaTejieft, CTpenHBiuHXca 

KyjIbTHBHHpOBaTb CTaBlIlHH HeMCAJieHHO MOAHbIM ePO CTH,n[b. 
K MHCJiy 3THX MHOrOHKCJieHHblX HOpBeMCCKHX H CKaHAMHaBCKHX 
KOMHOSHTOpOB OTHOCHTCH Kbepyjlbcf) H COSAaBUiaSfCH HOA HeHO- 

cpeACTBeHHbiM BosAeHCTBHew Fpnra lUKOJia 4)hhji5Ihackhx 
KOMHOSHTopoB (CH6ejiHyc, MejiapTHH, KaH- 

^''^mKOJuT^" "y^)' BblABHHyBlUHX pHA CBCJKHX AapOBaHHH, 
HCnOJlb30BaBmHX HaUHOHaJIbHblft cf^HHCKHft Mejioc 

H oT4acTH npHMbiKansmnx ytue k MOAepHHCTHMecKoft rpynne. 

4>paHuy3CKa5i MysbiKa bo BTOpyio noJioBMHy XIX acKa 

o6Hapy»;HBaeT ya«e onpeAejieHHyro xeHAeHUHH) k o6pa30BaHHK) 

aKaAeMHHecKoro nanpaBJieHHsi, cBsisaHHoro c 

BO^aWnra yp6aHH3aUHeM M«H3HH H C nOJIHXMHeCKOft MOUHbtO 

HOBoB 6ypM<ya3HH. Cen-CaHC hbhjicm nepsoft 
jiacTOHKOH 3Toro HanpaBJieHHH, acKope oho aecKOJibKO moam- 
(|)HUHpyeTCH, npHHHMaa b ce6a sjieMeHTW BarHcpMSMa, Koxopbie, 
BnpoHeM, Bce me ocxaioTCJi TOJibKo BueuiHe BocnpHHnTWMH, 
KaK 6bijio H y Cen-CaHca, m y OpaHKa. Bo.!ee MOJiOAoe noxo- 



i_ 



:..*f^^_. 



iJfc^ilVj: 






232 



— 233 — 



jieHMC aKafleMHCTOB oripeAejieHHO HMeex, hommmo Bcero, eme 
HauHOHa-nHCTHHecKHe reHfleHUHH, BbipawaiomHecH b xeope- 
TMHecKOM oTBpameHMH OT TepMaHCKoA KyjibTypbi. flajKe caMbift 
BarHepHSM stom rpynnw npeAcxaBJiHeTCH OKpameHHbiM 

B HaUHOHaJIbHbie TOHa: OHH, 3TH KOMnOSHTOpbl, WCJiaiOT fleMOH- 
CXpHpOBaXb, HTO H B pOMaHTHKO-nOJIH4)OHHMeCKOM CTHJIC 

OpaHUHS cnoco6Ha flaxb smneiwa, noflo6Hbie Barnepy. Tcm 
He MCHee caMbiM BarHepHSM, KaK cTMJib, oKasbiBaexca cyme- 
cxBeHHo MyjKflbiM 4)paHuy3CKOMy MHpocoaepuaHMK). HaH6oiiee 
BMflHbie KOMnosHXopbi sxoft nojiyaKafleMHMecKoft, nojiycfjpaHKO- 
pomaHXHHecKOM njieaflbi, cxpeMHBuiHecH oxnacxH nepeHecxw 

Ha (jjjpaHuyscKyK) noMBy poMaHXHHecKHe usexbi 
^'^^^J *°***' BarnepHSMa — cyxb B e h c a H-fl'3 hah/) npH- 

6jTH?KaK)iu;HMCH K BarHepy cbohm xpoMaxHSMOM. 
HO oxjiHHaiomHHCH ox Hero chhuikom aKaAeMHHecKoft 6ecKpoB- 
HOCXbK), H ra6p. O o p e, ysce 6ojiee mhctmh aKaaeMHcx, 
pa6oxaK)mHM Ha HSbicKaHHO acxexHbift BKyc „6oabuioft" ny6jiHKH. 
Bojibiiioe snaneHHe nojiyMMJi bo $paHUH mbjio, BnponeM, pac- 
npocxpaHHBiiiHflcH 3a ee npeaejibi KOMnosHxop HI a 6 p h e, 
Koxoporo 4)paHuiy3bi cMHxaiox KaK 6bi cbohm ..lUoneHOM" 
HO Koxopbift B cBexe o6'eKTMBHOcxn npeAcxaBJiJiexcH nsjieHHeM 
cymecxBeHHO anHroHHHecKHM. B new xaK we, KaK h b xBop- 
MccxBe r. LlIapnaHxbe, Ha6jiK)AaexcH cHHxes BJiHHHHft 
ULIoneHa, JIhcxb, BOo6me repMancKOH Ky^bxypw KOMnosHXopoB, 
pa6oxaBUiHx Ha cfjpaHuyscKofl noMBe, c bjih^hhsmh npewneft 
cfjpaHuyscKOH nysbiKH h c oxxeHKawH BarHepH3Ma. B sxom 
aKafleMHHecKOM Kpyry cnpoca Bbipa6axbiBaexcH noHCMHory 
Kyjibxypa BKyc a, cBoftcxBeHHoro BOo6me bwciuhm KJiaccaM 
c|)pahuy3CK0M HauHH; — BKyca, KaK cxpeMJiCHHH K acxexHoft 

saBepiueHHOcxH c|DOpMbI H K uejiOMyflpeHHOH 
„„.f!^Il^?*5^,f„„ „Mepe" BO BceM, Aawe b caMoft smouhh, Aawe 

B caMoA HpKOcxH MysbiKaJibHOfi XKBHH. FlocJie 
poMaHXHHecKoro 6e3yMHJi Bep;iH03a h ero BbisoBa BKycy, 
nocjie ero cMejibix h npHMonHHeflHbix bhojihc peBOJiiouHOHMbix 
BbicxynjieHHft npoxMB Bcex ycxoeB MysbiKH, npaBMJi h KaHOHOB 
BCH 3xa HOBaH njiejifla KOMnoswxopoB 6jiHcxajia MynpoH yne- 

') JI'Shah (pofl. B 1851 r.) HanHcaji jijHoro KOMnosHUHH, h3 Koiopbix 

HMeioT HaHfiojibiuee SHaneHHe': onepa „<l>epBaanb" h cHM(|)OMHMecKHe npoHS- 

seAeHHa (.jBanneHiuTefiH", 3 chmcJjohhh). KpoMe Toro, hm HanMcaHo mho-o 
KaMepHoro Tuna coMHHCHMfl. 






pcHHOcxbK) H 6ypH<ya3HbiM 6jiaronojiyHHbiM cnoKoflcxBneM.KOxo- 
poe 6biJio BOSBCAeHo b csoero poaa npMHUHn acxexHKH. Mmchho 
B axoft Kyubxype BKyca h b Myapoft „30Jioxofi 
•^ cepeflHHe b hsbccxhom pauHonajiHSMe Mysbi- 

KaJibHbix nocxpoeHHft acxexMKa dypscyasHoft OpaHUHH 80~x 
roflOB HaMMHajia sMaexb xo cymecxBeHHoe oxjimmhc ox rep- 

MaHCKOft MyBbIKH, KOXOpbIM flOJIWHa 6bIJia BblfleJIHXbCa . 
OpanUHM. SMOUHOHaflbHOCXb H ndidpOC 6bIJIH npHBHaHbl flypHbtM 

xoHOM, H BarHep Bwecxe c BepflH cAanbi nofl nofl03peHMe; 
HanpoxHB, cxapbre KjiaccHKH TepMaHHH h OpanuHH 6biJiH 
B3HXbi nofl oco6oe noKpoBHxejibcxBO, KaK o6jiaflaBiiiMe HBsime- 
cxBOM BKyca. Fpynna aKajieMHcxoB OKa3ajiacb MHoroMHCJieH- 
Hoft H o6Hapya{HBajia cxpeMJienwe k HeyKOCHHxejibHOMy yMHO- 
weHHK). Ohh cbhjih ce6,e xoMKy HfleojiorHMecKOH onopbi 
B KOHcepBaxopHH riapHwa, h xaM 3aHHjiM flOMHHMpywmyio 
nosHUHK) B 6ypw;ya3HOM (|)paHU,y3CKOM o6mecxBeHHOM MHenHH. 
Bnjioxb fto rpaHH XX seKa axa rpynna cfjaKXHMecKH BMecxe 
c yace npecxapejiwM CeH-CaHcOM ynpaBJisrjia h jiHKxoBajia 
BKycbi ny6jiHKH. 

MysbiKaJibHaa a<H3Hb OpanuHH xaKMM o6pa30M oKasbi- 
BaexcH B 3XO BpcMH KaK 6bi pesKO paccJioeHHoft na ase 
KaxeropHH — Ha wyBbiKy onenb ne cepbesnyio (onepexKy), paB- 

BMBUiyiOCH H3 KOMHHeCKOH Oncpbl, H Ha My3bIKy CJIHUIKOM 

cepbCBHyK), Hxo6bi flawe ne cKasaxb cKyHHyro, passHBiiiyrocsi 
H3 aKafleMH3Ma. Onepa, kbk poft HCKyccxBa, HesojibHO nona- 
Aajia oxHacxH MeMcjiy sxhmh rpynnaMM, npHHCM HHor^a OHd, 
KaK B npoHBBeaeHHflx JX'B hah hjih lllapnanxbe nocHJia 6o;iee 
cepbesHbiH, xapaKxep, ho HHoraa saHHMaJia npowewyxoMHoe 
noflOwcHHe. B sxo Bpenji Hapowaaexcn b cbhsh c o6mHM 
HaxypajiHcxHHecKHM B3rjiflAOM cjjjpaHuyscKofl; iiiHpoKoft Maccw 
Ha HCKyccxBO— cneuHajibHbifi pofl cepbesnofl naxypaJiHcxHHe- 
CKOH onepbi, 6ojibmefl nacxbio no ciowexy BSMXoft h3 cospe- 
MeHHoft m«H3hh. B axoft Manepe nwcaji onepw lllapnanxbe 
(ero „Jlyn3a"). h k sxoMy we nanpaBfleHHio npHMbiKaer 

HecKOJibKO 6oJiee JierKOBecHbift, ho HBjnuHbift 
'^T^^^g'"''*' n flapoBHXbifl JI, e Ji H 6 0, b wysbiKe Koxoporo 

MOHCHO HaftxH 3jieMeHXbi, nojiyHHBUJHe Bnocjiea- 

'•) JXeim6 (1836 — 1891) i-ianncan mhofo onep, n3 KOTopbix HaH6onee 
3HaMeHHTbi „JlaKM3" H „TaK cicasan Kopojib", a TaKJKe psifl SafiexoB, b tom 
MHcne „CH)ibBHn" h ..KonnenHH". 



^ttm 



234 



CTBHH paSBMTHe B HOBOtfjpaHUySCKOft lUKOJie. B 3TO JKe BpCMH 
H THnHHHO SnHrOHHHeCKHe aflCMeHTbl nOHBflHlOTCH B 6ojibmoM 

KOJiHHecTBe, HaBOflHHs o6;iacTb onepbi h HHCTpyMCHTajibHOM 

. MysbiKH CBOHMH npoflyKxaMH. Cpe^M noflo^Hbix MaccHa^) 

saHHiyiaeT ^OBOJibHo BHflHoe nojioweHHe He 

onepa Maccena. ^TOJIbKO no KaneCTBy COMHHeHHft, CKOJIbKO HO 

o6'eMy Toro pbiHKa, b KOTOpoM ohm nojiyHHAH 

■cnpoc. Ero bnepbi Hapsifly c onepaMH TyHO h Ease o6xoAaT 

. Becb MHp, coeflHHHH B ce6e Bce KanecTBa pwHOMHoro (|)a6pH- 

, Kara — H 6ofi[KocTfa spejiHiua m cKWKeTa, h flOcrynHOCTb 

MySbIKH, H HeHyJKAOCTb ee MHOrHM npHMHXHBHSHpOBaHHblM 
JlOCTHH<eHHSIM COBpCMeHHOCTH. 

MTajibHHCKafl MysbiKa npoaojiJKaeT m nocJie B e p a m 

CBOK) npejKHjoK) HHCTo-onepHyK) jihhhh). 3a- 

BepHCTHiecKoe poAHBUiasfCH B cymHOCTH BO OpaH^HM onepa 

HanpaBAeHHe b ^ "^ ^ '^ 

HxaAHH. ^ OblTOBbIM CKJMCeTOM, „peaJIHCTHMeCKaH" c My- 

3biKoft pbiHOHHoro xapaKTcpa, He HyMi^aK)- 

mCHCH, HOBblX MySblKajIbHblX AOCTHJKeHHft, — SfleCb UIHpOKO 
npKBHBaeTCJI, OMBBHAHO, COOTBerCTByH OCo6eHHOCTHM HaUHO- 

HajibHoro Ayxa. VjKe b onepe BepAH momcho 6bijio ycMoxpcTb 
HaMeKM Ha 3to HanpaBAeHHe, ho b oco6eHHOCTH sipKO oho 
crajio npoHBJiHTbCH b Tsop^ecTBe MacKaHbH (onepa „Cejib- 
cKaa MecTb") h JleoHKaBajijio, („naHUbi")- 3to nanpasjie- 
HHe no Ayxy CBoewy h TMny 6bijio poACTseHHO b cyiuHOCTH 
MCKyccTBy KHHeMaTorpacjjja, c KoxopbiM ero c6jiH»:aji m cHJacex, 
BcerAa BbisbiBarome, 6yjibBapHO HTpKuPi h rpy6biM, co mhojkc- 
CTBOM rpy6o MenoApaMaxMHecKHX nojio^CHMft, h MysbiKa, npH- 
odpexaKJmasf xapaKxep HMnpoBHsauHOHHOcxH h HCKOxopoft 
B 3XOM CMbicjie cBo6oAbi, HO 6ojiee ox 4)opMbi H BKyca, 

HeZKCJIH ox KaKHX-J[H6o OpraHHHeCKHX 3;ieMeHXOB. BxOX CXHJIb, 

nojiyMHBiiiHft HaMMeHOBSHHe „BepH3Ma" (ox KopHH verum — 
„npaBAa" b cMbicJie „HaxypajiHcxHHecKoe HanpasjieHHe"). no- ' 
Jiyiaex cpaBHHxejibHo xajianxjiHBOe npoAOJiaceHHe b onepnoM 
TBopnecxBe SHaMeHHxoro h nonyaapHoro IlyHMHHH („TdcKa", 
„MaHOH", „BoreMa", „M-m Byxxep<|3Jieft" h npon. onepbi), koxo- 
pbiflycneuiHo conepHHHaex c MaccHs b nocxaHOBKc onepHo- 

pblHOMHblX npOAyKXOB. 

^) MaccH3 (1842 — 1919) — 3HaNeHMTbm KOMnoamop, sojiroe BpeMH nocra- 
EJiaBuiHft onepw na mnpoKHe Maccoswe BK>'Cfai. Ms ero MHoroHHcneHHwx onep 
HaHfionee HseecTHbi „MaKOH" h „BepTep". 



2. So 



riocjie PMraHxcKoro aBJieHHH Barnepa 
KaAeMHSM B ep- ^yg^j^g g FepMaHHH KaK 6bi Bca KOHuenxpH- 

MaHRH. bpaMC. ' 

pyexcH Ha HHxepece k sxoMy BenHKOMy HBJie- 
HHK). FaydoKO poMaHXHHecKoe H HauHOHajibHoe no cymecxsy, 

OHO SaCJIOHHJIO CBOeft HHXeHCHBHOCXbK) HHbie SIBJieHHH, CXOflb >, 

ace couHOJiorHHecKH o6ocHOBaHHbie, MMeHHO o6mHe c apyrnMM 
cxpanaMH, h b FepMaHHH Aaace oco6eHHO cHJibHO AOJiHcencxBO- 
BaBiuee npoHBHXbCH HBJieHne MysbinajibHoro aKaACMHSMa- 
AKaAeMHSM, KaK conyxcxByKJmee ponanxHSMy HBJieHHe, kbk 
ero B HSBecxHoft cxenenn anxHxesa, kbk acxexHHecKoe sBy- 
KocosepuaHMe, CBOftcxBeHHoe HMeHHO KJiaccy KpynHO-6yp- 
a<ya3HOMy h k HCMy npHMbiKaromMM cjiohm, ywe 6biJi sajiowen 
B TBopnecxBe MeHAejibCona, sjiCMenxbi ero MyBcxBOsanHCb 
B o6meM xoHe anHroHHnecKHX siBJienHfi, HaBOAHHBuiHx FepMa- 
HHH) nocjie lilyMaHa. 3xo nocxenenHoe npoHSJieHne aKaAe- 
MH3Ma H nepBOHanajibHaH ApannpoBKa ero b annronHHecKHe 
OAesHHH 6biJia hphhhhoh xoro, mxo mhofhmh sa annronHHecKoe 
?Ke HBJieHHe 6biJio npnHHxo no ouiH6Ke MOHyMenxajibHoe h 
MpesBbinaHHO xapaKxepnoe, HMenno ana patfjHHHposaHHoro 
aKaAeMHSMa xBopnecxBO Horanna B p a m c a^) (1 833 — 1 897). 
riosHUMH aKaAeMHSMa 6biJia b FepMaHHH xpyAHce hmchho 6Aa- 
roAapa cjihuikom spKowy BbiflBAenHU) poManxH^ecKH - nauHO- 
HajibHbix ajicMeHxos xBopnecxBa Barnepa. M axo poManxHHe- 
cKoe sacHJibe 6biJio nacxojibKO cHjibwo, mxo h aKaaeMHSM (KaK, 
BnponeM, h bo OpanuHH, b Jinue pannero CeH-Canca) 6bia 
npHHy»;AeH ApannpoBaxbcn b xory ycjiOBHoft poMaHXHKH. KaK 
THnHHHO aKaAeMHHecKoe siBJieHne, BpaMc AOJiM<eH 6biA ecxe- 

CXBeHHO HBHXbCH CHHXeSOM pexpOCneKTHBHblX CXpeMJICHHii: 

H yMepeHHOro aBOAWUHOHHSMa. AKaAeMnnecKHe MOMenxw, sa- 
flOMceHHbie MCJKAy npoHHM H B xBopHecxBe nocjieAHero Bex- 
xoBena (cm. BexxoBen), ne mofjih ne OKasaxb na BpaMca • 

BJiHHHMSi, xaK M<e KaK acxexHHecKH pasBMTOH BKaAeMHSM Men- 



^) BpaMC (1833—1897) nepBOKnaccHbift nHaHHCX h komhoshtop, iipo- 

JKHJl BCW JKHSHb B rCpMaHCKHX CTpaHaX M TeCHeftlUHM 05pa30M CnaHH C HCMCU- 

Koft KyjibTypoH. Ero KOMnosHUHH HpesBbiiagHO MHoroMHcneHHbi; m3 hhx naH- 
6ojiee HMeioT sHaMCHMe „HeMeuKHa peKBHCM", 4 chm4)0hhh, pan, KsapieTOB 
'crpyHHbix H ^opienHaHUbix, coHaTU «jin CKpHnmi (3) h flJin BHonoHiejiH (2), 
pap, (})opTenHaHHbix BemeM (b tom MHcne ipn coHaibi, BapHauHH Ha xeny 
LilyMaHa, FeHflensi h naraKHHH, BenrepcKne TaHUbi h rip.), MHoro neccH, 
npHHaflneatamux k nyMuueMy, mto co3«aHO nocne UlySepia m LUywaHa b Tep- 

MaHHH, H flp. ,.- N.' •.' 



■^.■t 



;» ..^SfeSsr^v.-. ':'>^iScM>^'MiiM^:':aii>iim- 



— 236 — 

ACJibcoHa H apKHfl cTMJib HfywaHa. Ero cxHJib 6biJi paccHHraH 
^Ha BbicoKO-n.po(|[)eccHOHajibHbift ypoBeHb. 3to— My- 
sbiKa fljifl MysbiKaHTOB H ftjiji Kjiacca ucHHTejieft, h6o oHa He 
MMceT HH OAHoro KanecTea, Koxopoe c^eJiaflo 6bi ee 
cnoco6HOM, noflo6Ho Barnepy, BbiflepMcaxb, hommmo flpyroro, 
craBKy na fleMOKpaTHMecKyio HMnosaHXHOcTb, B cbh3h c sthm 
BbicoKo npoc|)eccHOHajibHbiMypoBHeM,noTpe6HTeji5i,Ha Koxoporo 
paccHMTbisaji BpaMC, ero MyawKa npeacTaBJiHeT kbk 6bi pac- 
iiiHpeHHe H pacuBBT KaMepHoro cthjisj, KOTopwH H panee 
Bcerfla 6biji rjiaBHofl cc|)epoft noTpe6;ieHHH cneuHaJibHO npo- 
c|)eccHOHanbHoro KJiacca. flaH<e cnMc|)OHHHecKoe TBopMecTBO 
BpaMca (ero 4 chm4)ohmh, opK. BapwauHH, yBepTiopw h npoH.) 
M opaTopHajibHoe (HeMeuKHfl peKBHew) — b cymHOCTM hbjih- 
K)TCH paciiiMpeHHeM flo CHM(|)OHHHecKoro pasMepa KaMepHoro 
CTHJiH, npoflOJiacaioiuerp cepbCSHbift m BjiyMMHBbift cTHJib no- 

CneflHHX 6eTXOBeHCKHX COMMHCHMft. B CBJI3H C erO THnHHHbIM 

npo4)eccHOHaj]bHbiM aKaaeMnsMOM HaxoflHTCH h 6ecKOJiopHT- 
HOCTb ero TEopnecTBa, KOTopoe KOHueHxpHpyeTCH Ha cbmom 

MySblKajIbHOM SSyKOBOM pMcyHKe H HyMCAaexcH KpaCOMHblX 

HapflAOB, KaK saxeMHJiiomHx HcxHHHyio npHpofly sByKOBoro 

pMCyHKa. B 3XOM CMblCJie BpaMC SIBJIJieXCH MySWKajIbHWM 

rpa(|)HKOM B 6ojibiiiOM cxencHH, hcm kto 6bi to hh 6biJi jipyroH 
M3 ero npeftuiecxBeHHHKOB. AKaaeMHHecKoe JiBJieHHe BpaMca 
6oJiee MHcxoe, neM Cen-CaHca, opranHHecKH, Mymflo onepnoMy 
cxHJiKJ. HanpoxHB, wanp n e c h h ^jih Hero xapaKxepeH, h b 
HCM OH npoflOJiMcaex jihhhk) MeHflejibcoHO-uiy6epxoBCKoro m 
uiyMaHOBCKoro poMaHXHSMa. ByayHH ecxecxBCHHO sjBJieHHeM 
KOHcepBaxHBHbiM HO oxHOiueHHK) K MysbiKajibHOMy MaxepHajiy 
H ero B03MO»cHbiM Hcrio;ib30BaHHHM, 6yfl,yMM oxMacxH AajKe 
HB.neHHeM p e x p o'c n e k x h b h w m, KaK sxo cBoficxBeHHo 
riOMXH BCHKOMy aKaflCMHSMy, BpaMc, ecxecxBeHHO, b cKopoM 
BpeMCHH CTan kbk 6bi SHaMeneM acxexHHccKOH rpynnw, npo- 
XH BonojiaraBuieHCH Barnepy h hobom/ HCKyccxBy HOBaxo- 

pOB-pOMaHXHKOB (JIhCT — BepjlHOs). ripOXHBHHKH HOBblX flOCXM- 

MeBHPi B HCKyccTBe, KOHcepBaxopbi, rjiaBHbiM o6pa30M hs 
Kpyra npo(|DeccHOHajiOB, rpynnnpoBaBiuHxcJi KpyroM KpynHOft 
6ypM<ya3HH, Bocnojib30BajiHCb mm fljia AOKasaxejibcxBa xoro, 
Hxo H cxapbie tjf^opMw cnoco6Hbi k jKHEOMy XBOpnecxBy. FIpo- 
TMBonojioacHaa rpynnnpoBKa — BarHepHCXHMecKan, 6biBuiaH 

OXpaSHXeJIbHHUeH Hami0Ha,IIHCXH4eCKHX Hfleft H ao HSBeCXHOfi 



— io I — 

cxeneHH aHXHnpo4>eccHOHaJibHa5i, yKaawBajia na MHorne anw- 
roHHiecKne Mepxbi b xBopnecxBe BpaMca (nBHasi npeeMcxBeH- 
HOCTb ox EexxoBena, LUyMaHa, MeHAejibcona). MejKay jiByMH 
rpynnHpoBKaMH BOSHMKJia Jiio6onbixHaH 6opb6a, b npouecce 
KoxopoM oxKpHCTajijiM30Bajiocb HacxoHiuee oxHomeHHe k xBop- 
MecxBy KaK Barnepa, xaK h BpaMca. Hex comhchmh, mxo npo- 
cJjeccHOHajibHbiH aKaaeMHSM BpaMca hochji b xo Tue BpeMH Bce 
xapaKxepMcxHHecKHe nepxbi noflJiHHHo HauHOHajibHoro 
cxHJiH, HXO o6jierHajio npHSHaHHe 3xomV xBopnecxBy, cxo^b 
cypoBOMy H acKexHHecKOMy no t^opne n cxojib jiHiueHHOMy 
o6biHHbix AJia lUHpoKHX Macc npuBJieKaxejibHbix pecypcoB. 
rionyjiHpHbiM aBxbpoM BpaMc b cymnocxH xaK h He cxaji, ero 
Kpyr noxpe6Hxejieft b cKopoM BpeMeHii paspoccsi, ho HHKoraa 
He nepexoflHJi rpaHeft aKaAeMHHecKoft cdpephi, x. - e. Kpyra 
npo(|)eccHOHajioB h KpynHO-6ypHcya3Hbix acxexoB c npHMbiKaio- 
mHMM K HHM no6oHHbiMH rpynnnpoBKaMM. 

B'a r H e p H 3 M, KaK HanpasjieHHe, OKa3ajicfl ropasflo Menee 
npoflyKXMBHbiM, HCM KaK o6Luee BJiMsiHHe, nayKQ B caMOfl Fep- 
MaHHH. Opewae Bcero mom<ho nocjie Barnepa KoncxaxHpoBaxb 
BOo6iu,e Heo6bi>iaftHoe naaeHHC nyjibca xBopnecxBa b o6;iacxH 
KanecxBeHHofl h HeBepoaxHoe yMHOHccHHe ero b o6;iacxn 

KOJIHMeCXBeHHOft. ripHMHHbl SXOPO nepCnpOHSBOflCXBa KOMHO- 

sHxopcKHx (|)a6pHKaxOB cpeflHero flocxoHHcxsa JieHcajiH b 
nepepa3BHxnH KanHxajiHcxM^ecKoro xo35iflcxBa, BxoprHyeiue- 
rocH H b c4)epy MyswKK, h na Koxopwe 6bijio ywe yKa3aHo. 
Hocjie BarHepa m BpaMca KOMnosHxop.cKaH pa6oxa oKOH4a- 
xejibHO yxpaHHsaex Kycxapnyio o6oco6;ieHHOcxb h cxanoBHTCJi 
KanHxajiH3HpoBaHHoft, OAHHOKo-coMHHJJiomMft KOMnosHxop cxa- 

HOBHXCa peflKHM HCKJHOHeHHeM, HOpMaJIbHblft KOMHOSHXOp 

oxKpoBeHHO nocxaBJiJiex My3biKy AJia onpeaejieHHoro KanHxa- 
jiHCTHHecKoro npeflnpHflXHS! h ajir onpeaejiennbix rpynn noxpe- 
dnxejieH, c KOxopbiMM oh siBJiaexcJi MxeojiorHviecKH cBasaHHbiM. 
Kpyr noxpe6HxejieM BOo6iij,e cepbCBHoft MysbiKH Kpaflne 
paciUHpnexcH k nanaJiy XX eeKa: KOHuepxHbift nyjibc ycujiw- 
BaexcH flo npeflCJibHbix pasMepoB, b Kpynnbix uenxpax Fep- 
MaHHH KOHuepxbi npoHcxoAHT no HecKOJibKy AecHXKOB e»<e- 

AHCBHO. B CBSI3H C HaUHOHajIbHbIM o6'eflHHeHHeM FepMaHHH H 

c nbiiiiHbiM pacuBexoM HH^ycxpHajibHOcTH aocxMJKeHHH nauHO- 
HajibHoro HCKycGXBa cxanoBaxcH npeAMexoM ocoSenHoro 
Kyjibxa H noxpe6jreHMn. Hawe xe MysbiKajibHbie npoAyKxti 



KOTOpbie no CBOeM CJIOMCHOCTM B CyiUHOCTM He MOFJIH 6bl 6bITl 

OTHeceHbi K Kpyry h Tuny HyacTBOBaHMM mnpoKoro KJiacca, 

CTaHOBHTCH aOCTOHHHeM UIHpOKMX MBCC M3~3a COo6pa?KeF^^Hft 

„naTpHOTHHecKoro" xapanrepa. OflHOBpeMCHHO omymaeTca 
HacTOSfTejibHaH noTpe6HocTb b tom, MTo6bi rereMOHHS? b Myaw- 
KajibHOM HCKyccTBe, ynpoMHBuiaHCH' B FepMaHMH CO BpeneHM 
KJiaccHMecKofl apbi, He 6biJia eio yxpaMeHa, CMMnxoMbi HeKO- 
Toporo HauHOHaJibHoro ocjia6jieHHn yme saMCMeHbi 6biJiH pa- 
Hee — sapowfleHHe MdJiofloft HopBeM<cKoft uiKOJibi, crojib apKO 
M 6jiecTS[me HanaBmeft cbok) padory (FpHr), 



HeoBarHepHSM h 
ero KOHTaKT c 



jtajiee, nosBJieHwe cwjibHoro MysbiKajibHoro co- 
aKafleMH3MOM. "epHMKa Ha BOCTOKe. B PoccHH(HOBaH pyccKaH 

iiiKOJia, MaflKOBCKMM), HaKoneu, npo6y}KfleHHe 
aKaACMHSMa m cHM(|)0HH3Ma BO <I>paHUHH. riepBoe BpeMK nocjie 
BarHepa 6biJio MpesBbiHaiiHo cMJibHO o6anHHe BHeuiHHx 4)opM 
ero MysbiKajibHoft MbicJiw: hach ero MyawKajibHoft flpaMbi, 

JIHCTHaHCKHe ^'OPMbl CBo6oflHOft H nporpaWMHOM CHMqjJOHHH 

jiOMHHHpoBajiH. OAHOBpeMeHHO B KyjibT H B cBOcro poAa Barne- 
poBCKyio „TpaflHunK)" BBefleHbi 6bi;iH rapMOHHnecKHe Maxe- 
pHajibi, npHBHeceHHbie b MyswKy BarnepoM h nosflHHM poMaH- 

TH3MOM. Ms COBOKynHOCXH 3XHX yCJlOBMft C03flajiaCb UIKOJia 

HeoBarHepHSMa, Koxopaa npoxHBonojiarajia ce6H Bpancy, 
nepeMCHBUiCMy BarHepa na 15 Jiex. Ho k axoMy BpeneHH nauHO- 
HajibHoe o6'eflHHeHHe h poMaHXMHecKan BOJina, ero nopoflUB- 
uiaH, 6biJin y»e HcnepnaHbi h saBepmeHw, aKafleMHSM h ero 
npoAyuHpoBaBuian h noompHBUian Kpynnan 6yp>Kya3Ha okoh- 
naxejibHO BOSAOMHHHpoBajiH B o6mecxBeHHoft SCH3HH, — H xe 
npoxHBonojioM<eHHH Mewfly aKaASMnsMOM h „HeoBarHepH3MOM", 
Koxopbie xeopexHHecKH nocxyjiHpoBajiHCb, KaK HSBecxnaH npo- 
t|)eccHOHaJibHasi HHepuHsr, na nenvi 6biJiH y>Ke ne MoxHBHpoBaHbi 
couHOJiorHHecKH. Oxxoro b xBopnecxBe HeoBarnepHSMa mw hc 
MOMceM KOHcxaxHpoBaxb npKOcxH HanpaBJieHHH 
H CBeMCeCXH, H B HCM coBMeuxaioxcJi HeOM<H- 
naHHo una caMHX HeosarHepHcxoB c poMaHXHnecKHMH 4'OP" 
MaMH xnnHHHo „aKafleMHMecKHe" Mepxbi. B xaKOM cxHJie, npo- 
MejKyxoMHOM H oxxoro opraHUMecKH Majio xapaKxepHOM, nwcajiH 
BeftHrapxHep, Bkjjiob h Ahxoh BpyKHep^) (1 824 - 1 896), koxo- 

"^1 A. BpyKHep (1824 — 1896), Hanncan 8 chm4)ohhh h oflHy He ycneji 
KOHHHTb (HanHcaHbi xpH »!acTH), opraHHbie coMMHeHHa, TpH meccbi h 150 
ncanMOB, pajs. iiepKOBHHx KOMnosHunft, MyM<cKne xopw c opKecxpoM h crpyHHWH. 



-; 



pbift HaH6onee sipKO eonjiomaji b cbobm xBopnecxBe nocxeneHHoe 
o6e3BpeHCHBaHHe sarnepHSMa naQjioeHHen b hbm sjicMenxoB 
xHnHHHoro aKafleMH3Ma. Car-tasi Hflea BpyKHepa — nepeHecxH 
BarnepoBCKHe npHHUHnw b cjjaopMy cvv«|)ohhh — 6bijia ywe ana- 
jieMHSMOM. OxcyxcxBHe b HeM hcxhhho poMaHXHHecKoro xeM- 
nepdMCHxa, 6ecKonopHXHOcxb MysbiKH, poflHamaa ero c BpaM- 
COM, H cxpeMJieHHe k KjiaccHnecKoft saBepmeHHocxH (|)opMbi 
flenaiox BpyKHepa xHnMHHbiM aKaASMHCXoM na BarnepHaHCKoft 
noHse. BpyKHep pa6oxaji na noMBe chm4)ohhh h oxnacxH na 
noMBe uepKOBHoft MyswKe, mxo yKaswBaex naMce Ha HSBecxHbie 
„pexpocneKXHBHbie" xeneHHsi b ero ncHxoJiorHH. HaH6oJiee 
BbiflBHHyjicsr H3 rpynnbi HeosarnepHcxoB PycxaB Majie p^) 
(1860 — 1911). Majiep nwcaji y>Ke b aKaaeMMHecKoft (fjopMe, npn 
MCM oxpbiJKKa poMaHXHSMa H THraHxcKHX sByKOBbix nepcneKXHB, 
CBoftcxBeHHbix BarnepHSMy, BbipasHJiacb y Hero xoJibKo b 
orpoMHOM yBeJiHMeHHH BHeuiHefl rpaHflHOSHOcxH. MMne- 
pHajiMcxHHecKaH PepMaHHa cxpeMHxca k cosaaHMK) HCKyccxBa 
MaccoBoro, rHranxcKoro no BnenaxjieHHK), Bnenaxjiaiomero- 

He CXOJIbKO KaneCXBOM, CKOJIbKO KOJIHHSCXBOM, HCKyCCXBa BnoflHe 

fleMOKpaxHMecKoro. Bhciuhmm o6pa30M axox fl,eMOKpa- 
TH3M npoaBJiaexca b BKpanjieHHH b CHM(|)OHHHecKyio MysbiKy 
HapoflHbix xeM, B cxpewjieHHH k npocxoxe xpacoK h k aeft- 
cxBHJo Ha uivipoKyK) Maccy nyxeM HaKonjieHna ssyMHOcxefi. 
B VIII cHM(|)0HHH Majiepa flejio floxoaHx ao 1000 ynacxKHKOB, 
caMoe HcnojiHCHHe npHo6pexaex xapaKxep ..npasAHecxBa", B- 
MCM HCJibsa He BHuexb nepeneceHHa napoAHO - xyAOMcecxBCHHWX 
MaaHHfl BarHepa b o6jiacxH onepw — b CHM(|)OHHMecKyH> ctjjepy.. 
BoJiee cHacxjiHBbiM h3 HeoBarnepHaHueB oKasajica Ph- 
xapA III X p a y c ^) (poA. 1 864), — pa6oxaK)mHH 
Ha xHnHMHbift AJia HMnepHajiHCXHHecKOM Fep- 



Ulrpayc. 



KBHHTei. npoHSBefleHHSi BpyKHepa cianH nonynnpHbi nocne hx nponaraHflu 
HnKHiueM (c 1884 r.), ho h to lonbKO b FepManHH; npyrne CTpaHw Majia 
sHaKOMbi c TBOpMecTBOM 9Toro KOMnosHTopa, Kpyr cSbixa npoHSBeneHHfl ko- 
Toporo orpaHHHHBaeTca repMancKHMH CTpanaMH. 

^) r. Manep (1860 — 1911) nanHcan 9 chm4)ohhh, h3 KOTopwx HaH6o- 
jiee rpaHRHOBHa no BHeiuHOOTH VHi (1910) ..flecHsi seMnH" «jifl opKecxpa 
xopa H oprana, h pan 6oiiee MenKHx npoHSBefleHHS. Majiep nonbsyeTcn 
orpoMHbiM' pacnpocTpaneHHeM cpeflH noTpe6HTeneK KOHuepTHofi MyawKa 
B FepMaKHH, HO B flpyrHx cxpaHax ero TBopiecTEO Menee HssecTHO. 

^) LLlTpayc PHxapn (pofl. 1864 r.) nHcan CHanana b aKaji;eMHMecKOM 
cTHne BpaMca h snHroHos poManTHSMa (ero nepBbie npoHSBCfleHHa, b tom 



\ •,.,.- 



iriteA^' 



MaHHH Kpyr noTpedHTeaeH H3 scTeTHOH 6yp>Kya3HH h Hau,MO- 
Ha,nHci HHCCKHX sjieMeHTOB, nocjie Barnepa npHUieAiuHx b cjimt- 
Hoe cocTOHHMe. Tenepb sto — oana rpynna, coeAHHaromaH 
M ajieMCHTbi scTeTHHecKoro aKa^eMHSMa, h poMaHTMHecKoe 
HcicJieflHe. EcjiH fljia FepMaHHn snoxH Barnepa pyKOBOflsmeft 
HfleojiorneM 6biJia HfleajiHCTHHecKaji (|5Hjioco(|)hh, BCKopMHBUiaH 
H eecb poMaHTMSM, H BbiuieauiaH hs, nee weraclJHSHKa llloneH- 
rayepa, to Tenepb BbicoKo6ypM<ya3Hbie KpyrH oxBaMeHW y)Ke 
4>njioco(|)HeM HHUUieeiHCTBa, npeflCTaBJiHiomeft co6oio paa- 

HOBHJiHOCTb pOMaHTHSMa. B TO HCe BpeMH KanHTaJIHCTHHeCKHfi 

cTpoH cTpaHbi, nbiuiHbiH pacuBCT HHflycTpnajiH3Ma H o6mHft 
npoMbiiuJieHHbifl TOH, saxBaTHBUJHfi: H MysbiKy, cMemaeT ncw- 
xojiorHK) TBopnecTBa b c4)epy HapoMHTo KpHKJiHBoro, — 6bh3- 
mero Ha. 3t|){|)eKT. HenpeneHHO paccHHTaHHoro va lUHpoKyio 

nOnyjIHpHOCTb KaKHMH 6bl to HH 6bIJIO CpeaCTBaMM. CBOftCTBeH- 

Haa poMaHTHMecKOMy TeHeHHH) h pa3BMBmaHCH yace b Majiepe 

CKJIOHHOCTb K rHnepTpO(|)HH 3By4aHHfl . npOSBJIHeTCSt M B 

lllTpayce— OH KOJioccaJibHO ycHJiHsaeT opnecTp. Oh tks bboawt 
HOByio flCKopaTHBHyio Manepy nwcbMa, oTBeHaBiuyio 

npo6jieMe HOBHSHbl H CJIOMCHOCTM My3bIKH, H B TO JKC BpeMR 

pacMBTy Ha ee MaKCHMaJibHyK) BnenaTJiHeMOCTb b Maccax. Co 
BpeMCHH lIlTpayca opKecTpoBoe nHCbMO y>Ke ne 3a6oTMTCH 
o TaKOM MHCTore roJiocoBeAeHHH, KaKOBaa 6biJia npe)Kji,e, — b 
Macce opKecTpoBoft BBynHOCTH hobopo opKecTpa TaKan hhctotb 
M He HyMCHa 6ojiee, ona Bce paBHO McnesaeT. lllTpayc bboaht 

B MyBblKy KOHTpaCTHOCTb, flVTHaMH^ieCKHe 3c|)c|)eKTbI, OH 

pa3BHBaeT nporpaMMHyio, H3o6pa3HTejibHyK) CTopony, npn mbm, 
BCJieftCTBHe sHaHMTCJibHO ynpocTHBUieflcji ncHXOJiorHH komho- 
SHTopcKoft H noTpe6jiHiomeH cpeflbi, 3Ta nporpaMMHOCTb HacTO 

BbipOJKflaeTCH flO HJIJlK)CTpaTHBHOCTM („AoH KhXOt", „AjIb- 

nHficKast chm4)ohhh"), a MejioflHHecKoe flapoBanne, CBCJKecTb 
KOToporo y Hero OTcyTCTByeT, 3aMeHfleTCH MacTepcKoft nrpoH 
opKecxpoBbix SByHHOCTeH. Bce TBopnecTBO lllTpayca — apKoe 



MHone coHdTa ann CKpHnKn), noxoM pa6oTan b flyxe HeosarHepHSMa. Ero 
KOMno3HUHH „H3 MTanHH", „floH'}KyaH" (1889), „CMepTb h npocBeTJienHe" 
(1890), „THJiJib aftneHuinMrejib" (1895), „3apaTycTpa" (1895), „JI,oh-Khxot" 
(1898), „>KH3Hb repoa" (1889), „n,OMamHHn chmi|)Ohhh" (1907), ..AnbnMft- 
cKaa CHMifioHHH" (1914), onepbi „CanoMea" (1902), „3neKTpa" (1907), „KaBa- 
ncp Pos" (1909) M flp. Oh HBnaexca oflnoBpeMaHHO ohhhm h3 KpynHSfiiUHX 

AHpHJKepOB COSpeMeHHOCTH. 



OJIHUeTBOpeHHe PepMaHMM MMnepHajIHCTMHCCKOrO BpCMeHM; 
B HeM CKaSblBaeTCH H CTpeMJieHHe K BejIHHeCTBeHHOCTH h BHeui- 

Hefl noMne, h k npoHSBefleHHio AeMOKpaTH3MpyK)mero BHem- 
Hero B03AeMCTBHH, H noroHa sa ncMxojiorHHecKHMH acfjcfjeKTaMM, 

M flaHb MOflHblM TeMeHHHM MblCJIH, OpM o6meM 06blBaTejIbCK0M 

KOJiopHTe. rapMOHHHecKHH MaTepHdJi H pHTMHKa lllrpayca, 
npH Bceft ee HOBHsne,— ropaBflo npHMHTHBHee BdrnepoBCKoft— 
BCH MysbiKa ero npaflCTaBJineTca nocTpoeHHoft hb BHeuiHe 
BocnpHHHToro MaTepMdjia. FpoManHbift peKJiawHSM h CTpeM- 
jieHHe K cJiaBe, ynce HMMeN He npHKpbiToe, KoncTaTHpyeT npn- 
KOCHOBeHHOCTb lllTpayca k HOBOMy MysbiKajibHo - KanHTaJiH- 

CTMHeCKOMy MHpy, KOTOpblH HMeHHO B FepMaHHH flOCTHP 
MaKCHMajIbHOH npoaBJieHHOCTH CBOHX nOJIOJKHXeJIbHblX H OTpH- 

uaxejibHbix cTopoH. 

EcjiH Ulxpayc nocTaBjiaji HCKyccTBO ajia lunpoKHX Mace 
CO CTaBKoft Ha MysbiKQJibHbiH „HMnepnajin3M", KaK 6hi aBJiaacb 

„ HaCJieaHMKOM B 3T0M OTHOUieHHH BaPHepOBCKHX 

aKaflCMHaM-Perep."^"^^^"' "^^ P e r e p ^ (1873-1916) aB^iaerca 
npoAOJiH^axejieM jihhhh 6paMCH3Ma — T.-e. jihhhm, 
nocTaBjiaiomeft nysbiKy AJia AoeojibHO orpanHMeHHoro otho- 
CMTejibHO, HO Bce pacxyiuero b HHjiycTpHajibHOM TepMaHHH 
Kpyra MyBWKajibHO-npotjbeccHOHaJibHoro aKajieMMSMa. Ana- 
AfcMHBM Perepa, KOTopbifl Bce «e aBH-nca Handojiee rAySoKHM 
MacTepoM H3 MHc;ia BbiABMHyxbix FepMaHHefl sa nocjieAHHe 
roAbi,— yMce 6ojiee iiiHpoK m 6ojiee npeflBsaT, yMbiuiJieHeH,. 
MCM aKaACMHBM BpaMca. Perep— yMbiuijieHHUH peTpocneKTH- 
BHCT, OH BoccxanaBJiMBaeT nojiHcfjOHMHecKHH cTHJib Baxa, kohh- 
pya ero aajKe bo acTajiax h b BHeiiiHHx cfjopMax (opraHHwe 
coHHHeHHa, 4)yrHpoBaHHbie sjieMeHTbi, apxaH3npoBaHHbie CTpyK- 
Typbi), HO B ary peKOHcxpyKUHK) nojiH4)OHHH XVIII BeKa oh 
BKJiaflbiBaeT mhopo 3,neMeHTOB nocjieBarnepoBCKoro xpowa- 
TH3Ma. EcJiH lUrpayc, 6yjiy4H b macc npoflOJi?KaTejieM Bar- 
Hepa, OKasbiBaexca Ten ne Menee flHaTOHHKOM b rapMOHHH 
H 6nn7Ke K „aKafleMMCTaM" THna MenAejibcoHa b cbohx ochob- 



^) MaKS Perep (1873 — 1916) Hanncan HpesBbiiaHKO MHoro coHiiHeHHii, 
M3 KOTOpbix HaHoonee ueHHbi ero KaMepHbie npoHSBefleHHfl (coHarw «nsi 
CTpyHHbix HHCTpyMeHTOB c (fJopTenHaKO, TpHO, (j^opTenHaHHbie Bsmw), opraH- 

Hbie KOMnOSHmiH H OpKBCTpOJbie CO>lHHeHHa (b rOM HHJJie „n .'OEOr K Tpa- 
rC«HH", „CHM4)0HH^eCKHe EapnaUHH", CHMtjflOHHeTTa), K0MnO3HlJ,HH OpaTO' 

pnanhHOJO THna („PeKaHeM") h sp. 



Meioplia jiyrihiKB. 



id 



aiiw 



■dtaa 




Hbix KOHTypax. TO Perep, KOTopbiR oJiMuexBopsieT Hoeyio 
apy aKaflCMMSMa, OKasbiBaeTca b rapMOHHMecKOM o6jiacTH 
6jiMH<e K JiHHMM BarHepMSMa. KaK THnHHHbifl aKaAeMMCT h awa- 

AeMHCT HapOHHTblM, PcPCp KyJIbTHBHpyeT aKaAeMHMecKHe 

cjjjopMbi KaMepHoro aHcaM6ji5i, peKOHCxpyHpyeT BapnauHOHHbie 

(jJDOpMbl H HMHXaTHBHblA CXMJlb M o6Hapy>KMBaeX njlOAOBHXOCXb, 

HanoMHHawmyK) npe»HMx MacxepoB. Ho KaK aKaaeMHcx we, oh 
padoxaex b cpaBHeHHH co llIxpaycoM Ha snaMMxejibHo 6ojiee 
orpaHHHeHHbift Kpyr, npoflOJiHOioinMM coBnaAaxb — KaK h bchkhPi 
aKaaeMHHiecKHH Kpyr— c rpynnoft CHo6nHfcCKOH 6yp?Kya3HH 
H npo(|)eccHOHajiOB MysbiKanxoB. 

KaK pasHOBHAHOCxb aKaaeMHSMa, Bospocuian Ha noHBe 
npeKJioHCHHH nepen BejinHHCM nauHOHajibHoft repmaHCKOM 
lUKOJibi MysbiKH, B03HHKJIO H $jB,neHHe F. B o ji b (|) 3 ^j, cne- 

UHaJlbHO KOMnOSHTOpa neCHH H BOKaJIbHOfi 

IleceBHocTb Ha MHHHaxtopbi. Fyro Bojibcf) o6ycjioBJieH BOKajibHO 
„ ^ neceHHOM jiMHHew bpaMca, KaK Ferep— ero 

HHCXpyMeHXaJIbHO-CHMCpOHHHeCKOH JIHHHCH. 1 IC" 

CeHHaH cxHXKH PepManHM, npoHEjiHsuiancfl b llly6epxe, lUy- 
Mane m BpaMce, BOCKpecaex b Bojibcfje, npn mcm ee BOCKpeca- 

HUe CBHSanO C nblUlHblM paSBHXHCM KOHUepXHO-BOKaJIbHOH 

9 c T p a fl bi, cosAaeiueft wanp KanepHoro neHHH, oxHbine 
saHHMaioiuero paBHonpaBHoe nojio>KeHne c newHeM onepnbJM 
H HaMHHaK)iu,ee saxeMHnxb KOHuepxHoe neHne. Kanepnoe 
neHHe 6biJio no cymecxBy aKaAeMHMecKHM HBJieHHeM, 
nopo?KAeHHbiM KyjibxoM cxapoft necHH, ero aKaAeMMSM BbicKa- 
sbieaJicH B XOM, Hxo ueHxp HHxepeca 6hiii nepenocHM b Ae- 
xajiH HcnojiHeHHH, a Bbipa6oxKy MejioMeft m xyAOHcecxBenHbix 

OXXeHKOB, B HHXHMHOM, HapOMHXO SaMKHyXOM, 3CXeTHOM 

xapaKxepe ayAMXopHM, cocxaejieHHoft H3 npocjjjeccHOHaJiOB 

H KBaJiH(|)HU,HpoBaHHbix scxexoB 6yp>Kya3Horo MHpa. HecHJi, 

HaHBHo H KycxapHO npoAyunpyeMaa paHee, bo BpeMena poMan- 

TMSMa B anoxy lUy6epxa h llIyMaHa, xenepb cneunaJiMSM- 

pyexcH, ee HcncnHeHHe o6cJ7y?KHBaexcH cneu,HajibHbiMH 

KaflpaMH ncBUOB, Koxopbie KyjibXHSMpyiox 
KaniepRoe nentie. ^ 

ocoobie oxxeHKH HcnojiHeHHH, — caMoe KOHuepx- 

^) Bojibcj} (1860 — 1908) nHcaji noHTH HCKJiiOMHTenbKO necHH (poMaHcw) 
Ha KOTopbix MHorHe iionyHHnH uiHT'OKyio nonynapKOcxb, ho TonbKO d npe^e- 
.max I'epMaHHH. Hs ero 6onee KryniioVo MacmxaSa Eemefl HanSonee HHTepe- 
CCH „OrHeBecTHHK" ana xopa m opKCcrpa. 



1 



4 



HCKyccTBE sarpa- 
HHHy. 



Hoe np0H3B0AcxB0 noflc6Horo poAa pasBHBaexcn b rpoMaAHbix 
Macujxa6ax. npM hcm npocxoxa caMoro xexHHHecKoro o6cJiy- 

MtHBaHHH nOAodnblX KOHUepXOB 06yCJI0BJIHBaeX HX MCHSHCHHOCXb 

H 3KOHOMH4ecKyK> BbiroAHOcxb. Bojibc}) co3Aaex necHK), anajio- 
rHHHyto luySepxoBCKofl — na nopore XX BCKa, npH nen ecxe- 
CXBCHHO OH ycxynaex b mcjioah^hocth h HaHBHOcxn paHHWM 

pOMaHTHKaM. 

C 80-x roAOB, KorAa c ropMSOHxa Mc^esaex reHMft Bar- 
Hepa, rereMOHHH My3biKajibHoro MHpa HanHnaex peuiHxejibHO 
CKJioHHXbCH B cxopoHy TOJibKOHxo Bwcxynaiomeft Ha Mysw- 
KajibHoe nonpHiue Pocchh. MMena PKMCKoro-KopcaKOBa, My- 
coprcKoro, Fjihhkh, BopoAHHa, MaftKOBCKoro sacxaBJiniox roBO- 
pHXb o ce6e MHp, b cbpsh c HaMMHaBuiHMCJi SKcnopxoM pyc- 
CKOft MysbiKH 3a rpaHHuy nocpeACXBOM Kpynnbix HcnojiHHxejiefl 

H AHpH>KepoB. b oco6eHHOcTH (Hhkhui). Oaho- 
^^^a^l.fJ'a'^V^ BpcMeHHo PoccHH o6HapyM<nBaeT Bce npMSHaKw 

My3b!Ka;]bHoro opraHHSMa, Aoronnromero b pas- 

BHXHH couHajibHbix cfjopM My3biKH 3anaAHyK> 
Espony. Flocjie xoro KaK 6opb6a naiuero paHHero MysbiKajib- 
Horo npo4)eccHOHajiH3Ma h npe>KHero 6apcKoro AHJiexan- 
xHSMa KOHHHjiocb B HOiibsy cou,HOJiorHHecKH 6ojiee nepcAOBoro 
npoc|)eccHOHajiH3Ma, nocjie xoro KaK KOHcepBaxopHH, ocko- 
BaHHbie Py6HHUixeflHaMH h nopoMcAeHHan hmh cexb MyswKajib- 
Hbix uiKOJi Aajia Pocchh Maccy npo4)eccHOHajiOB — opKecx- 
paHxoB, neAaroroB, HcnojiHHxejieA h KOMnosHXopoB-cosAajicH 
rpoMaAHbiH Kpyr HOBbix noTpe6HTejieH MysbiKH, HHxeji;iHreHx- 
Hbix npo4)eccHOHajiOB h noAflepMCHBaHJmero hx SKOHOMHHecKH, 
Kpyra sapoAHBiueMca e Pocchh, npaBAa, eme He OMCHb MHoro- 
MHCJieHHOH, HO yTKe counajibHo-CMJibHofl KpynHOH 6yp>Kya3HH. 
Byp>Kya3H5i HaMHHaex Bbicxynaxb Ha oSmecxBeHHyio apeny 
B KanecxBe Kyjibxypnofi cHJibi, 6ojiee nepeAOBofl, ecxecxEeHHO, 
MeM npe>KHHfl (JieoAajibHan 6apcKaH apHcxoKpaxHH, npoHHKHy- 
TOH HAenMH JiH6epajiH3>ia. y>Ke nepBbie cocxaBbi MySbiKajib- 
Horo o6mecxBa, opraHHSOBanHoro Py6HHUixeKHaMH, noKasajin 
3HaHHxejibHoe npoucHXHoe coAep»caHHe b hhx sjieMeHxa mhcxo- 
6ypH<ya3Horo, Koxopbiil cKopo peuiHxejibHo oxxcchhji na bxo- 
BbicT}inAeBKe Po^ njiaH M scxexHHecKH 6oJiee oxcxajjbifl 
6ypiKya3iia B pOAil B Macce ABOpHHCKHft KflaCC H Ha4HHaex peiiiH- 
MeseHaTaHxyfloas-xejibHO Bbicrynaxb B po.nM Meuenaxa. Ho 

kScnM npejKHHH abophhhh, komhoshxop h My3bi- 

1G» 



^tfik 



KBHT, 6bIJI o6bIHHO „CaM Ce6e MeUCHaTOM". to HOBblft 

6yp»ya2Hbift MeueHar ywe sBjiJieTCJi jihuom, no^flep- 
»HBaK)mHM MHbie HHopoAHbie ajieMCHTbi. MeueHaTCTByroiuaH 
6yp»ya3HJi, BHanane nponBJiHBUiajicfl B6ojiee naccHBHofl 4>opMe 
MJieHOB MysbiKajibHoro o6m.ecTBa, nojuep^KHBaBiiiMx eme Majio 

SKOHOMHHeCKH M<H3HeHHOe KOHUepTHOC H npOCBeTHTCflbHO- 

MysbiKajibHoe acjio b Pcccmh, c 60-x toaob ywe HaMHHacT 
6biTb 6ojiee caMOcrosiTejibHoft. 3to coBnaAaer c KpyiueHMCM 

flBOpSHCKOrO BJIHHHHJI B CBJISH C yHHHTOWeHHeM KpenOCTHOFO 

npaBa h Hapo»AeHHeM npoMbim^ieKocTH. OAHOBpeweHHO h b 

PoCCHH HaHHHaiOT SaMCMaTbCH— XOTH 61116 B 3K6pHOHaJIHOM 
COCTOJIHHH— 3;T6MeHTbI HHflyCTpnajIbHOCTH B HCKyCClBe. flo- 
SIBJT5)K)TCSI HHCTpyMCHTaJIbHWe (|)a6pHKH, MSflaTejIbCTBa, 

CKynaremne KOMnosHTopcKyio pa6oMyK) CHJiy, nonejifleTcs! 

HacTHbift npeflnpHHHMaxejib b o6jiacTH npocse- 
PacnaA kvikh. o nn 

mcHHsi MysbiKajibHoro. h> 70-x roflax jieconpo- 

MbiujjieHHHK B e A H 6 B ^j opraHHsyeT HSAarejibCTBO h rpynnH- 

pyromMficsi KpyroM Hero KpyM<eK KOMnosHTopoB, OTviacTM 

npHMKHyBiiiHX cK)Aa H3 CTapbix rpynnHpOBOK, OTMacTH Hce 

coBepmeHHO HOBbix. BnaBuiHH b npo4)eccMOHaJiH3M P h m c k h fi- 

KopcaKOB, OTHaCTM B O p O A H H, BOo6lHe OCTBTKH KyMKH 

H B jiKue CEOvx anHroKOB (KpynKeSuiHfl ms hkx JIsiaob), 

H HOBOe nOKOAeHH6 KOMnOSMTOpOB, yjJ'e BbipOCUJHX B HCBblX 
npO(J)6CCHOHa;ibHblX TpaAMUHSIX, 4>OpMHpyK)T 3TOT „6ejIJ?eBCKHfi 
Kpy?KOK", CMCHHlOmVlfl B pyCCKOH HCTOpHH np6»HK)K) 6aJiaKH- 

peBCKyK) „KyMKy" HoBbifi KpyMccK, KaK thohmho 6yp»ya3HbiM 
no couHOJiorMMecKOMy xapaKTcpy, KaK Bbi3BaHHbift k m<h3hh 

HOBblMH yMCfc npOMblUIJieHHblMH yCJIOBHHMH mM3HH, HeMHHyeMO 

AOJiJKeH o6jiaAaTb h 6ojibU]eH BepoTepnHMOcxbK) bspjihaob, 

dojlbUieft 3KJieKTHMHOCTbK) H Henp6M6HHbIM aKaASMMBMOM, 

CBoficTBCKHbiM npoc|)6ccHOHajibHGMy H 6ypjKya3HOMy Kpyry. 
M Mbi AeficTBHTejibHO BMAHM, MTO B 3TOM Kpyry speex pyc- 
CKHH aKaACMMSM B BMAe nosAHero PHMCKoro-KopcaKOBa, 

eme OAHHM 60KOM npHHacTHoro k npeHCHewy 
""''avHor 6apcKOMy Mnpoco3epuaHnk) — H yMce coBep- 

uieHHo THnHHHO-6ypHcya3Horo rjiaayHOsa), 



ayaoB. 



') BenacB, M. FI. (1836 — 1904) — neconpoMbiuineHHHK-MeucHaT, osKoaan 
„M3flaTenbCTEo BenncBa" b JlefinuHre (1885), pyccKHC cHM^iOHHMecKHe koh- 
uepTw flnsj nponaraHAbi npoHSBCAeHHA pyccKHX aBtopoB e JleHHHrpafle 
(c 1885) H c;tenan orpoMHoe saBemanHe b nonbsy 3thx ocKosaHHbix hm 



- 



't>' 



4 



245 



HBJieHHe KOTOporo B PoccHM anajiorHMHO nsjieHHio MeHAeJib- 
coHa B repMancKoft hctophh MysbiKH. Can OTHOcnmHftcH 
K KpynHoft 6yp>Kya3viH h pasAejiaiomviH ee THnnHHyK> mabo- 

JIOPHK), FjiaSyHOB ^) BnHTWBaeT B Ce6H 3KJieKTHMeCKM nOHTH 
BCe AOCTHMCCHHH CBOCft COBpCMeHHOCTH (nOSAHHfl pOMaHTKSM 

BaTHepa, aKaAGMHSM BpaMca, OTHacxH HauMOHajibHwe bjimjihhji 
pyccKoft lUKOJibi H npo4)eccHOHann3M MaHKOBCKoro), - npw mcm 
o6e3Bpe>KH8aeT, crjiaJKHsaex Bce pesKwe nepxbi xapaKxepHbix 
HanpaBJieHHft. B ero xBopnecxBe, boshmkiucm npeeMcxseHHO 

H3 HCAP »pyCCKOH lllKOJIbl", XapaKXepHO BnOCJieACXBHH O X p H- 

uaHHe Bcero xoro, m6m acHJia pyccKaa uiKOJia, xapaKxepno 
npHBeACHHe ee HAeojiorHH k npoxnaonojioJKHOMy no;iK)cy (hh- 
cxpyMeHxannsM BMecro onepnocxH, chmcj()ohh3m, oxcyxcxewe 
nporpaMMHOcxH — Kyjibx HHcxofl MysbiKH, oxcyxcxBHe Ko;iopnT- , 

HOCXH — H306pa3MXeJIbHOCXH, nOJIM4)OHM3M CXHAH H npOH.)- 

THnHHHbift HHcxpyMeHxajiHcx, PjiasyHOB KyjibxHBHpyex (|)opMbi 
CMMCJ30HHH H ApyPHe aKaAeMHHecKne 4'opMbi; Aa»e b npeAe- 
flax nporpaMMHOcxH oh npHAepatHsaexca cxporHX (JjopM, oh . 
bboahx noJin(J)OHHbiH cxHJib, HaBeHHHbift 6oflbiiieK) MacxbK) Bar- 
HepoM, HHorAa — BpaMcoM. PjiaayHOB cxanoBuxca HAeojiorHne- , 
CKHM ueHTpoM BejiHe3CKoro KpywKa, KaKHM 6biJi BajiaKHpes 

AJIH HOBOft pyCCKOH UIKOJIbI, H B 3X0H 4)yHKUHH OH 6oJiee 

xapaKxepeH, mbm PHMCKWH-KopcaKOB, xowce npHMbiKaiomviH 
K 6eJisieBuaM, HecMOxpa Ha CBoft npocJjeccHOHaAHSM m Aaste 
aKaAeMHSM, see me coxpaHaioiUMM mhopo nepx npeeMcxBen- 
HocxH OT cxaparo aaKajia „6aJiaKHpeBiieB", b xom mhcjic 
HeycxaHHoe cxpeMJieHHC k BnHxbisaHHKJ b ce6a Bcero Hosoro, 

nOrOHK) 3a nOCJieAHMMH AOCXHMCeHWHMH HCKyCCXBa, HXO 6bmo 

opraHHsauHH. KpymoK BejiaeBa, coSpaBiuHflcsi KpyoM Hero, cocTonn h"3 
Phmcko o-KopcaK03a, BopoflHHa, Jla^OBa, OTHacTH Kk)h, rna3yH0;a h 6ojib- 
moro KOnHHecTBa BiopojTeneHHwx asTOpoa, k hhm npHMuKaniuHX (lHep6a- 
HCB, BHTOJib, SonoxapeB h np.). CpeflH ero aacnyr Ha^o OTMCTHTb npHSHa- 
HHC C. TaHeesa, rjia3yH03a h CKpaSHHa, npw hbm no orHomeHHio k nocnefl- 
HCMy OH HBHJica nponaraHflHCTOM h ero coMHHeHHfl, h ero HcnonneHHSi. 

') PnaayHoa (pofl. b 1865 t.\ BbicxynHn oneHb pano (16 nei) h onenb 
6necTflm,e. Mm HanHcaHw 8 chm^johhm, pa^ opKacTpoBux KOMnosHUHft (yaep- 
Tiopa „0t MpaKa k CBexy", ..TopatecxBeHHaa ysepxiopa", cHM4>0HHMecKHe 
no3Mbi „BecHa" h „CieHbKa PasHH"), 6anexbi „PaBM0Hfla" h ..BpeMcna rofla 
MysbiKa K „UapK) Hy«SHCK0My" h „CajiOMee", 3 (j)opxenHaHHbix KOHuepxa? 
CK^HnHHHbiS KOHuepx, MHO o 4'opTenHaHHbix nbec. r. cocxoaji c 1906 roHa 
flHpCKXOpOM JieHHHrpajlCKOH KOHcepBaxopHH. 




- 246 — 



247 



TaneeB. 



npHKUMnHaJibHO HyjKflO r;ia3yHOBy. Ho KpyMcoK 
dnaroBHHecKHH BgjjjjeBa 6bi;i xapaKxepcH He oahhm FjiasyHO- 

xapaKTep 6eAHeB" „ „ 

BbJM, HO erne h orpoMHOH MaccoH Bxopo- 

CKoro KpyiKKa. > -^ r I- 

CTCneHHblX aSTOpOB, K HCMy npwMbi - 

KaBuiHX H o6pa30BaBiiinx snHroHHHecKHft 4)0H K rjiaanbiM 

AeaTCJIHM Kpy>KKa, KaKOBblMH 6bi;iH PHMCKHH-KopcaKOB 

H FjiaayHOB, oxHacTn JIhaob. 3to HSoSmiHe snHroHHHecKHx 
aneneHTOB, CTOJib npoTMBonojiOM<Hoe saMKHyToft orpanHneH- 
HOCTH rpynnbi „KyHKH" xapaKxepno hmchho, kbk npHMoe 
nocjieflCTBHe 6ypM<ya3Horo xHna MeuenaxcxBa: KpyroM Kpyn- 
Horo H3flaxeji5i rpynnHpoBajiHCb JiMua, skohomhwcckh ox nero 
saBMCMMbie H nocxaBJiHBii]He My3biKy, xaK hjih MnaMe Haxo^HB- 
luyiocH B cooxBexcxBMH c BKycaMH flaHHoro Kpyra. Bojibuiaa 
Hacxb-axHX aBxopoB 6biJiH xo>Ke aKaneMHCxaMH, h bo bchkom 
cjiynae ne 6biJiH cnoco6Hbi k nosaxopcKHM MbicJiHM. 

B xo 7Ke caMoe apeMH aKajicMHSM, Koxopbift, 
oneBHAHo, 6biJi b sosAyxe speMeHH, iok cnoco6 
BbipawcHHH HaH6ojiee 6jih3khh k BKycaM xoro Kpyra, Koxopwft 
HBJinjicH rjiaBHbiM noxpe6HxejieM MysbiKH ..cepbesHOH", Bwpa- 
3HJICH eme b sBJieHHHH C. M. TaneeBa^) (1856—1915), bo 
MHoroM 6jih3kom k TjiasyHOBy. TaneeB, c oflHOH cxopoHW. 
xHroxeK)mHft BecbMa HCflBycMbicJieHHO k pexpocneKXHBHOcxM, 

K pCKOHCXpyKUHH CXapHHHblX 4'OpM (HMHXaUHOHHbie cfjOpMbl, 

KOhxpanyHKx, opaxopnajibKbiH cxHJib, HapoHMXbiH Kyjibx Kawep- 
Horo aHcaM6jiJi) h xcm o6Hapy>KHBaK)mHS cbom xHnHHHbift 
aKaftCMHSM, c flpyroH cxopoHbi, 6biJi HecBo6oAeH ox HeKOxopwx 
B-UHHHHfl noj]y6apcKoro npo4)eccHOHa;iH3Ma anoxH 70-x roflOB 

H OHCHb CHJIbHO HaXOflHJICSI HOA BJIMJIHHCM MaMKOBCKOrO. EpO 

aKaAeMH3M Bwpoc H3 npo4)eccMOHa:iH3Ma MaMKOBCKoro. Ho 
BMecxe c XCM oh onpeaejieHHO nHUiex b pacnexe Ha xox, b 
ero BpeMH eme xojibKO dpoTpMapytommcn b cymnocxH, „6yAy- 
mvLpi" Kpyr bmcoko pasBHxoro npo4)eccHOHajiH3Na, KOHcepBa- 
xHBHoro H pexpocneKXHBHoro no cymecxBy, m cHo6MMecKH 

') C. H. TaHeeB (1856—1915) HanHcan. xpH chmcjjohhh (HSflana oflHa), 

6 CXpyHHblX KBapTBTOB, CTpyHHblH KBHHTCT, (JjOpTCnHaHHbie TpHO, KBapTCT M 

KBHHTCT, CKpHnHHHyK) cKJHTy c opKCCTpoM, onepy „OpecTea" (1894), KaHTaTbi 
„HoaHH flaMacKHH" (1888) h „no npoMreHHH noanMa" (1910), psiA poMancoB 
H xopoB. . Oh HanHcan Kpowe toio jpyfl no KOHTpanynKiy, KnaacHMCCKHfi 
B CEOBM pofle („KoHTpanyHKT cTpororo nHCbMa" h HeHsnaHHwK „KaHOH") h 
co3nan CBOK) reopmo cTpororo KOHxpanyHKTa. 



1- 

A 

■■i 
'i 



I.- 



'' 



6yp>Kya3Horo acxexHSMa, Koxopbift xan XMnnneH unn scflKoro 
aKaaeMHHecKoro ncKyccxBa. FIocjieflHHe cjieAbi poMaHXHSMa, 
BbipajKaromHCCfl y FjiasyHOBa eiiie b HCKOxopbix nauMOHajib- 

HblX BJIH51HHHX KyMKH H BO BJIHHHHSIX BaPHepHSMa, yHHHXOHCa- 

loxcH y TaHceBa, Koxopbift Bonjiomaex co6ok> xo caMoe, mxo 
Bonjiomaji B FepManHH BpaMC, m npoAyUHpyex xBopnecxBO 
AJiflf aHajiorHHHoro Kpyra. C BpaMcoM ero cSjiHjKaiox h h3jiio- 
6;ieHHbie o6jiacxH 4)opMbi: poManc, paccHHxaHHbiM na „KaMep- 

HblM CXHJTb neHKH", KOXOpbIM B CyiUHOCXM nepBbIM B MMCXOM 

BHAe C. TaneeB h KyjibXHBypyex, h6o npeH<H«a poMancKan 
neceHHOcxb MaiiKOBCKoro h ero npeAuiecxeeHHHKOB b cym- 
HocxH 6biJia HCKoxoporo poAa KOHuepxHoft; saxen chm4)o- 
HMH, KaMepHbift aHcaM6jib, oparopHajibHwe (jjJopMbi (abc 
KaHxaxbi „MoaHH XlaMacKHH" h „no nponxeHMH ncajiMa"). 
a paBHO c6jiH5Kaex h aHXHnaxHji k My3biKaj]bH0M HOBHSHe. 
THnHMHbie aKaACMHcxbi — Fjia3yH0B h TaneeB — hbjihjoxcji h 
HaH6ojiee CHJibHWMH (jjjHrypaMM BpeMeHH, h6o ApyrHe, BbipocuiHe 

B xo JKe BpeMH H M3 nOAo6HbIX Me HCXOMhHKOB, nOMHMO 6ojib- 

uiCH cjia6ocxHAapOBaHH9 oxjiHwaroxcn eme MeHbiuefl nexKO- 
cxbK) B opweHXHpoBKe xBopwecTBa, Koxopoe noxoMy OKasbi- 
Baexcq HanpasjienHbiM no neonpeAejieHnoMy aApecy. Ha xaKoft 
cMemaHHbiS h noxowy HexapaKxepHbiM Kpyr noxpe6Hxejieft 
pa6oxaK)x onenb MHorMe, ho XBopnecxBO Bcex 
HOCHX onpeAejienHbiH anHroHHHecKMH xapan- 
xep. CK)Aa oxHOcnxcH aoHroHbi KyMKH (Ka- 
jiHHHHKOB^), FpenaHHHOB ^), oxnacxM MnnoflHXOB- 
MBaHOB), anHPOHbi MaftKOBCKoro (nandojiee CHJibHWH hs hhx 
ApencKHH^), KOxopbiM B xo «e BpewH coBnemaex b ce6e 
HCKoxopbie Hepxbi aKaAeMH3Ma, npHr;noco6jieHHoro k BKy- 
caM HecKOJibKO Menee KBajinc|)HUHpoB3HHbix KpyroB m noxoMy 
HOCHiuHH B cymHOcxH ca.iioHHbiH oxneHaxoK). 

") KanHHHHKOB (1866 — 1901) HasecTeH, rnaEHbiM oSpasoM, cBoen 
MenoflHMHofl cHMcjjOHHeH, KOTOpasi 6biCTpo CTana nonynapHoii He TOJibKO 
B Po:;cHH HO H sa-rpaHHiiefi. 

-) rpeMaHHKOB (pofl. B 1864 r.) uanHcan mhofo poMaHCOs, abtckhx 
neccH, uepKOSHbie KOMnosHUHH (r^e oh HanSonee CHJieH), TpHO, 2 KBapTexa, 
chm4)ohhio, onepy „J],oSpbiHa Hhkhthm" h np. 

•■) ApeHCKHH (1861 — 1905) nanHcaji onepbi „Pac[)a3nb", „Coh hb 
■BoJire", KaMepHbie npoHSBeflfiHHa (xpKO, nonbsoBaBuiHeca orpoMHoS nony- 
napHOGTbio, KEapreTbi, (fioprenHaHHbie ooHTbi ajia AByx poanei-i), mkoto 4:op- 
TenuaHHbix Meno^eft h poMancoB. 



BnHroHbi 
npoij[ieccnoHaAH3- 

Ma H KyiKH. 



liiifeiiWMMalilliliHB 



— 248 



— 249 



3x3 anoxa, coBnaBuia?! c paspyuieHHeM 
Pacgsex hcuoa- , 

AHJieraHTHSMa h vKpenjieHHeM npoqpeccHOHajib- 

Horo HCKyccTBa, BbiflejiHex Maccy BHpxyosoB 

pasHbix cneuHajibHocxeft, Koxopwe oxnacxH cnoco6cxByK>T 

nponaraHfle n aKcnopxy pyccKoro HCKyccxBa sa rpaHMuy. 

HHpH»cepbi (Ca4»OHOB), nHaHHCXbi (TaHeeB, EcnnoBa), CKpHnaMH 

(rieHHMKOB, BpoflCKHw) H flpyrHB npo4)eccHOHajibi cnoco6- 

cxByhox xoMy, mxo pyccKHe McnojiHHxeJiH, y>Ke c Py6HHUjxeftH0B 

npOHHKlllHe B eBpOneftcKHM npo4)eCCHOHaJIbHbIM MHp, OKOH- 

MaxejibHO B HCM yKpenjiHioxcH. 



IX. — HoBa>i MysbiKa. 

Bo OpaHUHH aKaACMHSM, onHparomHflcji Ha 
PeaicgHH npoTHs Kpyn^o 6ypM<va3Hbie KpyrH, nocxenenHO HaMH- 
Haex BbisbiBaxb K ce6e peaKuviio bsxom 
7Ke caMOM Kpyre hjih, roMHee, b hckoxo- 
poii, eme 6ojiee ysKOH ero nacTHf, Koxopaij ne xaK xecHO cnanHa 
c NysbiKaJibHbiM npoc|3eccHOHajiH3MOM. 3xn BepxHHe cjiOH Kpyn- 

KOfl 6yp>Kya3HH, BOCnpHHSIBUIHe B Ce65I flOCTHJKeHHH H BKyc 

MysbiKaJibHOM Kyjibxypbi, o6HapyH<HBaK)x onpeflCJieHHbie cxpe- 
MJieHHH K 6ojibuJOMy yxoHMeHHHJ BnenaxjieHHM ox HCKyccxBa. 
OjiHO acxexHoe npcKjiOHCHHe nepefl BCJinHHeM naMsxHHKOB 
HCKyccxBa — npeKJiOHCMHe, m3 Koxoporo b cymHOcxH hcxoahx 
aKaaeMHSM, Kan HBJieHne, — axo npeKJioHCHHe cxaHOBHXcfl hc- 
flOcxaxoMHbiM. MsbicKaHHbiM Kpyr 6ypjKya3HH, BnHXbiBarouiMfl a 
ce6H M Bce Handojiee yxoHMeHnoe us MMpa xyaoMCHMKOB, 6naro- 
aapji aaKOHy SKOHOMMMecKoro mpwrsuKenva, coaaaex cxpe- 
MJieHne K paspymcHMio okob aKaaeMH3Ma, k co3MflaHMK) HCKyc- 
cxBa KOBoro, Henoxo>Kero Ha npeMcnee, 
BMcoKo-6yp3Kya8- o;ihhm cjiobom, b cpeftc 6ypM<ya3HH 3apo>K;iaexcJi 



aKaAeiHRsma bo 
4)paHgHii. 



HUH noTpe6HTeAi>- v 

cKHii a npcMCAe yM<e nepcMcnxoe cpeoflajit-ibiM poMan- 

XM3M0M cxpeMJieHHe K HOBaxopcxBy B MCKyc- 

cxBe. Ho 3XO HOBaxopcxBO OKpameHo, b BH^y HHoro KJiaccoBoro 

ero npoHcxoH<aeHHsi, b necKOJibKO 6ojiee acxexHbie h noxoMy 

cnoKoflHbie xoHa. Bo OpawuHH, r^e HapoA BOo6me ckjiohbh k 

Kyjibxype, BKyc a, axo aojijkho 6biJio 6bixb oco6eHHO sanex- 

HbiM. PaccaAHHKOM HosaxopcxBa HBjiaexca canoH noaxa Maji- 



I 

I 



JiapM3, o5'ej;viH5noiii,Hft noaxoB, xyAOM<:HHKOB h MysbiKaHXOB. 
B Heapax axoro cajioHa sapoMcaaexca xeneHHe, paccMHxariHoe 
BOBce He Ha uihpokhm, ho na npesBbiMaMHO BecKHft Kpyr 
noxpe6nxeJisi. MCKyccxao xnnHMHO saMKnyxoe, roflnoe una 
HCMHorMX M36paHHbix, Koxopbie MorjiH 6bi BocnpHHSixb ero 

CBOHMH yXOHHeHHblMH OpraHaMH. MhOPO SIBJieHHH o6'eAHHH- 

Jiocb flJiH o6jierHeHn$i hobopo HanpaBJieHviJi. MeMc^y npoHHM 
nojiMXH^ecKaa BcxpacKa, HcnbixaHHan OpanuHeft b 1870 roay, 
He npomjia 6e3 nocjiefl.cxBHM. AKaflCMHSM, caw B03HHKmnH na 
jione HeMeuKoro poManxusMa h niwae 6biBiiiHM nepBoe BpcMsi 
BarHepucxHHHbiM B ;iHu,e CeH-Canca, flo:i>KeH 6biJi, b cHJiy 
HauMOHajibHbtx coo6pa>KeHHH, npuxxHK caMOoxpnuaHHK). Opan- 
uyscKan Kyjibxypa flo;i>KHa 6bi:ia poflHXb HOBbie HBJieHHH b 
MysbiKajibHOH c(|)epe, SKBHBajieHXHbie BejiHKOMy ncKyccxBy 
FepMaHHn, KOTopbie cmofjih 6bi KOHKypnpoBaxb c hhm na 
MHpoBOM pwHKe. Mbi npHcyxcxBycM xyx npH cBoeo6pa3HOM 
MysbiKaJibHOM HMnepHajiHSMC, npH copeBHOBanHH rocyAapcxseH- 
Hbix opraHH3MOB B o6jiacxH MysbiKajibHoA rercMOHMH. Flocjie 
BarHepa MysbiKajibHbiH nepB FepManHH KOHcxaxHpyexcw, KaK 
ocjia6eBiiiHH; oflHOBpeMeHHO Hapo?KAaexcsi b HopBerviH FpHr, 
a B PoccHH pyccKafl lUKOJia, n;ieHfliomne cbohm HanpsjKeHHeM 

H MSbFCKaHHOCXbK) XBOpMCCTBa. OpaHUHJ! HeMHHyeMO flOJI»<Ha 

saHqxbcH cosMAaHHeM Hosoro xo?Ke no cymecxBy Hauno- 
HajibHoro HCKyccxBa, Koxopoe oho mofjio 6bi npoxuBono- 

CXaBHXb Ha MHpOBOM pblHKB BCCM 3XHM HOBbIM KaHflMflaxaM Ha 

MHpoByK) rereMOHHK) b My3biKe, h b oco6eHHocxn cBoeny 
nojiHTHwecKOMy Bpary — FepMaHHH. FepMaHCKne bjihjjhhsi xaKHM 
o6pa30M HCKJiiOHaioxcn npH o6pa30BaHHH HOBoro HCKyccxBa 
H HanpaBJieHHH. HanpoxHB, Bsopbi c neKOxopbiM ecxecxBeHHbiM 
jiK)6onbixcxBOM o6pamaK)xcH na lOHyK) Pocchh), Koxopaa b 
3xy Mce anoxy saKjiujMaeT h nojiHXHMecKn- aKOHOMHMecKMft 
coK)3 c OpaHuneH. Hex HHHero yflHBnxe,iibHoro h b xom, mxo 
cxapeK>mnM MysbiKajibHbiH reHHH C>paHU,HH HMCHHo B BapBap- 
CKoft H CBeweM HHxejiJieKxyajibHOH Pocchh B3flyMa;i hhcxhk- 
XHBHO noHepnHyxb OMOJiajKHsaioiUHx cokobajiji cBoero flpnxjieK)- 
mero opraHH3Ma, HSMyneHHoro MHoroBeKOBoft Kyjibxypoft. M Mbi 
Ha6jiK)AaeM, AeAcxBHxejibHO, mxo hmchho h3 Pocchh h h3 nan- 
"SoJiee ee nepeAOBon h cneuvic|>HMecKOH MacxH b xyAOJKecxBeH- 
HOH o6;iacxH, h3 „6aJiaKHpeBCKoro Kpy>KKa" H^yx HMnyjibcw 

K C03HflaHHK> HOBOfi lUKOJIbl BO OpaHUHH. TBOpMeCXBO 



250 



K. Jle6K)CCM') HBMJlOCb BCKOpMJICHHblM CO- 

KaMH MycoprcKoro h KopcanoBa. Kohchho, He 

HX OpraHHHeCKHH HaUHOHajIHSM, HyjKflblM H HeHy»<Hblft BO OpaH- 
UHH, — OHO SaHMCTByeT BapBapCKM CBe»He SJieMCHTbl rapMOHHH H 
PHTMHKH, BOCnpHHHTbie B THnHHHO 4)paHUy3CKOM, nO-CBOCMy 

rjiy6oKO nauHOHajibHOM HanpaBJiei.HH. Ho arony HauHonajiHSMy 

COBepmCHHO My»A HapSA 3THOrpac|)HMHOCTH, CTOJlb SaMCTHblfl 

B pyccKoft uiKOJie. fledioccH pasBHBaeTcsi no cymecTBy, kbk 
oxpocTOK npe>KHero aKaACMMHecKoro £|)paHuy3CKoro flpesa 
MysbiKH. JXna Hero, BOcnHTaHHoro b pannax TpaflwuHOHHoro 
aKaaeMHSMa, rapMOHHMecKasj cBo6oAa MycoprcKoro noKasa- 

JiaCb HOBbIM OTKpOBeHHCM, a TO, MTO fleKJiaMaU,HOHHbm MOMeHT 

B MycoprcKOM cymecTBeHHO OTJinMaji h Aa>Ke npoTHBonocra- 
BJiHJi ero Barnepy, to, hto BOo6me pyccKasi uiKOJia HMenHO k 
repMaHH3My h k Barnepy OTHOcHAacb c HecKpwBaeMbiM ne- 
Ao6poM<e;iaTejibCTBOM, xoTH h HeaopaayMeHHbiM b KopHe,— bcc 

3TO B CB»3H C 6jIH30CTbK> (JjpaHUySaM ACKJiaMaTHBHOCTH B 
MySbIKe H C TCM. HTO CaMaH AeKJiaMaTHBHOCTb B pyCCKOM 

uiKOJie 6biJia b cymnocTH hhhcm hhwm, Kan oTpaMceHMCM 
(jt)paHuy3CKoro MyBbiKaJibHoro cthjih (Mpe3 flaproMbiHccKoro) — 
pacnojio^HJio HosyK) ^'PaHUyscKyio MysbiKajibHyho Mbicjib k 

BOCnpHHTHK) pyCCKHX BJIHSHMM. MmH flCJlO, KOHeHHO, He OPpa- 

HMHHJiocb, xoTH MCJioAHKa fle6K)ccH {JjopMBJibHo noxo>Ka Ha 
Mejioc MycoprcKoro, a opKecTpoBKa ero hbho Bbipocjia hs 
opKecTpoBKH KopcaKOBa. TyT bjimhah h npeacHwe (j[)paHuy3- 
CKHe aKaAeMHCTbi h aajKC cTapbie aBTopbi XVIII Bena. Ma 

3TOrO BSaHMOfleflCTBHH pOflHJIOCb OAHO H3 HaH6ojiee HSblCKan- 
HblX SByKOBblX HCKyCCTB Ha npOTH>KeHHH HCTOpHH My3bIKH — 

MCKyccTBO, paccHMTaHHoe Ha orpaHHHeHHbm Kpyr bochphhh- 

MaTCJieft, HCKyCCTBO apHCTOKpaTHMeCKH-3aMKHyTOe, pa4)HHH- 

poBaHoe. 6ypjKya3HO-3CTeTHoe. MAeojiorHHecKH oho oxpasHJio 



') J],e6K)ccH (1862 — 1918) HanHcan ne oMCHb SHaiHiejibHoe KOJiHHe- 
OTEo npoHSBCAeHMfl, cpeflH Koiopbix nepBwe HaMenanH eine nHHHW noAia- 
maHHH („L'(!uf;iiit prodiguo" 1884). BcKOpe oh BbiCTynaex Ha nyrb HOBaxopcrna 
{..La DaiBdisi'llc eluu" 1887). Ero Han6onee SHaMHTejibHwe npoHSBeflCHHSi: aji^ 
opKCcipa -- „nocneo5eAeHHbm OTAbix (jjaBHa" (1892), „HoKTiopHbi" (1905). 
.,O6pa3bi".(1909), onepa ..Flejieac h MenHsanfla" (tbkct MexepjiHHKa, 1902), 
MHCTepHS „Cb. Ce6acTHaH" (1911), 6ajieT „Mrpbi" (1913), MenoflpaMa „fliuHK 
c HrpyiuKaMH", chmijiohhm „Mope" (1905), psiA ifopTenHaHHbix nbec („Jiii;igc's", 
.,npeniOAHH" h np.) h necHH (via TCKCTbi BepjiCHa, MannapMC, Boflnspa, 
ribepa JTIioHca). 



^, 



-f 



251 — 
8 ce6e MOflHyK) b Kpyry 6yp>Kya3HH Tor^a 3CTeTHKycHMBO- 

JIHSMa M HMnpeCCHOHH3Ma. <J>paHU,y3CKHM CHMB0JIH3M , 

boshhkuihA Ha hohbc 6opb6bi npoTHB aKaAeMHSMa, hochji hc- 

CKOJIbKO HHOM XapaKTCp, MeM nOSflHefllUHH pyCCKHH, BOSHHKIUHM 

B o6paTHOM npouecce 6opb6bi npoxHB flMJiexaHTusMa h noTOMy 
HMeBuiHH M aKSAeMMHecKHe HcpTbi B ce6e. Oh (4)paHuy3CKHM 
CHMB0J1H3M) 6biji K TOMy JKC cymecTBeHHO cB5i3aH c HMnpec- 

CHOHH3MOM HJIH C SCTeTHKOH „HaCTpOeHMfl", HTO COOTBeTCTBQ- 

BaJio 6yp>Kya3HOMy MHpoco3epuaHHK) H3bicKaHHoro Kpyra, 
nor,nomeHHoro b co3epuaHHe mcjikhx ottchkob cBoefi hchxojio- 

THH. B Kpyry HMnpeCCHOHHCTOB-CHMBOJIMCTOB, n03T0B H XyflOMC" 

HHKOB MysbiKa HPpajia orpoMwyK) po.nb, anajiorHHHO TOMy, kbk 

B SnOXy pOWACHHH HAeaJIMCTHHeCKOft 4)HAOC04)HH B I'epMaHHM, 

npH HapowAeHHH MejiKo6ypM<ya3Hcft MHTejiJiHreHu,HH, nrpajia 

pOJIb My3bIKa B (fjHJIOCOCfiHH pOMaHTH3Ma. ChMB0J1M3M b cyiU" 
HOCTH H JlBM.nC5! HHHeM HHbIM, KaK BOCKpeUICHHeM B HBCKOJIbKO 
H3MeHeHHOM BHAC CTapOH pOMaHTHHeCKOH HAeOJIOrHH M HAca- 

jiHCTHHecKOft {J)i^'"Ococ|)HH HCKyccTBa. MHO)KecTBO HcpT o6'eAM- 

HJIJIO CHMBO.nHCTOB C pOMaHTHKaMH H HAeaJIHCTaMH - ^JUJIOCO" 
4)aMH, B naCTHOCTH — npHCTpaCTHe K MHCTMneCKOft KOHUenUHM 

H (|)aHTacTHMHOCTb o6mero HacTpoenwH. PasHMua 6bijia tjibb- 

HblM 06pa30M B TOM, HTO B TO BpeMJI, KaK HOCHTeJIbHHUCft 

TorAaiuHefi poMaHTHnecKOH HAeojiorHH 6biJia 6breMHaH hhtcji- 
nHreHUHji BwcoKoro yxoHHeHHJi, B03HMKiiia5i oKOJio 4>eoAa- 
jiHSMa H nepBbix npojiBJieHHfl 6ypM<ya3Horo cTpoji, — 
HOCHTejibHHuefl TenepeiuHero cHMBOJiHHCCKoro Mnpoomyme- 

HHH flBHJiaCb Ta JKC 6oreMHa5I MHTeJIJIHreHUHH BblCOKOrO yTOH- 

HeHHH, HO yM<e pasBHTaa na 4)bHe bwcoko An4>epeHUHpoBaH- 
Horo yp6aHMHecKoro CKJiaAa »:h3hh, o6ycnoBJieHHoro pa3BHTHeM 
HHAycTpHajibHOCTH H KpyHHOH 6yp?Kya3MH. Ottofo o6mnft 
nyjibc ee omymeHHsi 6biJi oAHeBpeneHHo Menee HpoK, >KH3He- 
HCH, 6o,nee yxoMJienHbiM h b to we speMsi 6onee nepBHbiM, 
Aawe HCBpacTeHHHHbiM, 6oJiee yTOHneHHbiM. 

JI,e6K)i.cn BBBA B MysbiKy nojiyTOHa HacTpoeHuft, HSbiCKan- 
HOCTb rapMOHHH. B03HHKaK)mMX coBepuieHHO H3 ApyroFO 
3ByKoomymeHH5i, neM rapMOHHH npeMCHeft MyswKM. CABHr 
ero SByKocosepuaHHSf npeACTaBJineTcn CABa jth He HaM6o;iee 
cymecTBeHHbiM b pHAy co6biTHH XIX BCKa B MysbiKe. Cosep- 
uaHne rapMOHHH, nan pesyAbTaTa roJiocoBeAenHH, nan pesyAb- 
TaTa cnAeTCHHH oTACAbHWx MCAOAHMecKHx cTpyfi, saMemaexcw 



■i& 



— 252 — 

cosepuaHHCM rapMOHHH b caMoR ce6e, kbk saKonMenHoft 3By- 
KOBOH KpacKH. Jle6K)ccH BRHCbiBaeT nocjie Barnepa h Phm- 
cKoro-KopcaKOsa HOByio 6jiecTflmyK) cxpaHHuy b HCTopnio 
opKecTpoBoro KonopHxa, Koropbift oh pasBHBaex He KaK 
P. Ulrpayc — b cTopony ycvuieHHH, a b cxopoHy yTOHHeHHH 
sByiaHvift. Ho poMaHTHK, E03HHKmHH Ha noMBe aKa^eMHSMa, 
He6ioccn coxpaHHex ox aKaacMHSMa cBoe wacxepcxBO m cboc 
cnoKOMCxBue, cbok> HeBOsnyxsiMOcxb. 3xox scxcxhsm HMenHO 
H oxjiHHaexcsi ox xapaKxepnoro poMaHXHSMa Hanajia XIX BCKa 
CBoefl cnoKOMHoft oKpacKOH, CBoeft BKycoBofl ycxanoBKOM 
MysbiKajibHoro BnenaxjieHHa. Xoxh bjihahmh KyHKHsna h cviJibHW 
B J^e6K)ccH, ho ero reHHM npexBopHJi hx b coBepmeHHo opH- 
PHHajibHbie MysbiKajibHbie co6bixHH, hxo 6biJio CMy xcm 6oJiee 
jierKO, HXO, HecoMHCHHO, opraHHHecKH OH, KaK H BOo6me 4)paH- 
uysbi, 6biJi nyjKfl xoro HaH6ojiee MHXHMHoro h cymecxRCHHoro, 
HXO xapaKxepHO b pyccKOM sByKOCOsepuaHHH, cxojib AajienoM 
aa>Ke B cBOHx acxerHHecKHX npoasjieHMnx ox xHnnHHoro 
H 6e3ycJiOBHoro scxexHsna JI,e6hoccH. B J],e6K)ccH oxpasvrjivtcb 
H cKOHuenxpHpoBajiHCb Bce 6yp>Kya3Hhie MenxaHHJi b Mysbwe 
xoro BpeMeHH, see cxpenjieHHsi k HcnojibsosaHHio hobwx ssy- 
HaHHft, cKonMBUiHecH K 3X0MI 9noxe — cxpeMJiennH k ocbo6o- 

?KfleHMnM ox BCflKHX xpaAHUHOHHOCXeM, K nOJlHOfi CBo6ofle 

xBopnecxBa — nopoflHBUiHe pannee MHorHe siBJieHHH ypoflJivi- 
Boro xHna, xaK Has. ..flCKafleHcxBo", noxoM M<e norjiomcHHwe 
HBJieHweM JXe6ioccH, B KOHxypax xBopnecxBa Koxoporo mo«ho 
eme ycMOxpexb h rapMOHHHecKoe BJiHHHHe camoro nepBoro 

M3 „MMnpeCCHOHMCXOB" — TpHPa. 

5lBJieHHe JXe6K)ccvi ne ocxajiocb oahhokhm, h kbk xojibKO 

BblHCHMJIOCb, HXO HOBOC MCKyCCXBO npHHSlXO B H3bICKaHHOM 

Kpyry, kbk c hum cJiynnJiocb xo me, hxo c monenoBCKHM 
HCKyccxBOM,— eny cxajiH noApasoxb, h noHBWJiocb npoABH>Ke- 
HHe cnpoca b rpynnw snanHxeJibHO 6oJiee mnpoKHe. Toro 
uiHpoKoro cnpoca, KoxopwH BbisBaJio BCKope HB;ieHHe lUoneHa, 
fle6K)ccH He nor peajin30Baxb, h6o ero MysbiKa 6biJia 
CJIHUIKOM cneun4)HHHa H xpyflHa ji,jih HcnoJiHeHWH, — ho no- 
nyjiapHocxb ero yMH0M<HJiacb djiaroflapa xony, hxo ero oue- 
HHJiH, KaK jlBJienne HaunoHajiHcxMHecKoro nopHAKa, KaK ajieMenx. 
Morymnft 6bJXb npoxMBonocxaBfletiHbiM FepMaHHH h Mysbiwanb- 
HOMy repMaHM3My. BjiKMcaftiiiMe nocJieflOBaxejiw Jl.e6K)CCH, 
BnponeM, ecxecxBCHHO 6biJin JiwmeHbi ero 6oJiee hcxkhx h pesKO 



nocxaBJieHHbix nepx, ohh Bce siBJiHJiHcb b xoft hjim hhoh Mcpe 
corJiauiaxeJibCKMMM c npe?KHMMH aKaflCMMHecKHMH, eme 
AajieKo He HsscHXbiMH xeneHHHMH, xeM 6ojiee ne H3?KHXbiMM, 

HTO H CMMEOJ1H3M H aKajieMHSM B CyiUHOCXM 6bIJIH MHp0C03epUa- 

HHJiMH o a H o r o Kpyra, o;iHoro KJiacca, xonbKO b AByx ero mojim- 
4)MKau,H«x, M3 KOTopbix oAHa 6bijia cKJioHHa HCKaxb omymeHHH 
b cxapHHe, a Apyraji b KpaftneA noBHSHe. BbiJi BOswoMceH h xen 
caMbiM HaMcnajicH h ecxecxaeHHbiH chhxcs o6ohx, — b HBJieHHM 
aKaAeMHHecKoro HMnpeccHOHHSMa, Koxopbift 3aHMCXByH cBo6ofly 
XBopnecxBa ox HMnpeccHOHHCxHHecKOH na;iHxpbi,. cocauhjiji 
ee c KyjibxoM cxapHHbi h Aa>Ke npnMbiM pexpocneKXHBHSMOM. 
3jieMeHXbr axoro CHHxesa 6bi;iH saJiOKCHbi yjKe b xBopnecxBe 
caMoro J],e6K)ccH. 

_ „ , Pasejib^) HBMJicsi Havi6ojiee hpkmm hs HBJie- 

PaBCAb *^^^ anHroHHMecKHx no oxHOUienHK) k JJ,eoK)ccH, 

3xo HBJieHHe Hacxcji^KO apKO, hxo b cymno- 
cxH xpyAHO flaace roBopHXb o nen.KaK o anwroHe, CKopee axo 
npoAOJiJKaxejib HanpaBjieHHH. Ho y PasejiJi Hex xoro xhhh- 
HHcro HMnpeccHOHMCTHMecKoro B3rji5!Aa Ha sByKOBbie KpacKH, 
KaK y JI,e6K)ccM; oh 6ojiee CKJionen k neKOXopbiM (JjopnaM 
npcMCHero MysbiKajibHoro JieKCHKOHa, b nacxHOCXH ero rapMO- 

HHHeCKHA MMp 6jIH«e K HpOUlJIOMy, HCCMOXpH Ha HSblCKaHHOCXh 

oxAejibHbix 3ByHaHMH. Kpyr noxpe6Hxe;ieH ero nysbiKH — xox 
xe caMbiH MHp n3bicKaHHoro xyAo^ecxBeHHoro acxexcxBa. 

TOX XeCHblH COK)3, KOXOpblH 6blJI 3aKJIK)HeH C pyCCKHM HCKyC- 
CXBOM M KOXOpblft BbipaSHJlCH B reHeXHHCCKOft CB5I3H HOBO- 

(jbpaHuyscKOM iiiKOJibi c pyccKOH, noJiyHHJi AaJibHenmee paBBW- 
XHe B xoM xecHOM KOHxaKxe, B KaKOM HOBO(|)paHuy3CKaa iiiKo;ia 
npoAo;i?Kajia pa6oxaxb b coxpyAHHHCcxBe c pyccKUM HCKyc- 
cxBOM HOBoro HanpaBJieHHH, xoxH y?Ke h HeBo6jiacxH MysbiKM. 
PyccKMH 6ajiex, KoxopbiA b 3xo Bpena coKepiuaex xypna 
no EBpone, npuBHBaexca b napH>Ke, bmccxc c pyccKoft hoboA 
}KMEonHcbK) OAepjKHBaex no6eAbi na HSbicKaHHOM scxexMne- 
CKOM (JjpoHxe H onjioAOXBopaex aBxopoB HOBO(|)paHuy3CKoft 
iiiKOJibi Ha p^A MysbiKajibHbix npoHSBeAeHHH xopeorpa^JHHe- 

') Pasenb (pofl. 1875) Hanncan pjtA ^lopxenHaHUbix Bemeft (..Gaspard de 
uuit", „Miroirs'HA>),flnnopKecTpa:„McnaHCKaa pancoflMn", „Ma more loye", 
6aneT „Aa4)HHC h Xnoa", cHM(J30HHiecKyio KapraHy „Banbc", opaxopmo 
..OpaHUHCK A:;cm3ckhh", kjomb toio pan KaMepHwx Bemeft (coHaTbF, TpHO, 
KEapreT, coHaxy ajih ckphrkh c aHOJiOHMenbJo h ap.). 



cKoro TMna. Apyrne, KpoMe PaeeJiH, nocJieAOBarejiH JI,e6K>ccM 
OKasbieaioTCH eme 6ojiee 6jih3khmh KnpeMCHHM 

KoHTaicT c aKaAe- , JT 

MH3M0M. /tioKa. ^"""*"^ cppaHuyscKOFo aKaflCMHSMa. PoMce- 

Po3Ke-/liOKaGC. fllOKaCC^), HB OCo6eHHOCTH O O JI b fl lO K a") 

yjKe noMTH THnnHHbie aKa^eMHCTbi co bccm, 
xapaKxepHbiM jina aroro po^a KOMnosHxopoB perpocneKTH- 

BHblM B30pOM HB MySblKy. Mx CBSISb C HMnpecCHOHMSMOM, MaCTO 
TOJIbKO BHeiUHHq H OHeHb CKpOMHaJI, BbipaMCaeXCJ! B CTpCMJie- 

HHH K SByKOBOMy KOJiopHTy H B ynoTpe6jieHHH HOBbix rapMO- 
HHHecKMX KpacoK. Tbm He MeHee xapaKxepHO, mto hmchho 

CHHTCS aKaflCMHSMa C HMnpeCCMOHHSMOM B CaMOM HBJieHHM 

nepBHHHoro HMnpeccHOHHSMa nopoAHJi to, mto THnMMHbifl awa- 
ji,eMH3M OKasajicH 6eccHJieH Ha (|)paHuy3CK0H noHBe h ne jian 

HHKaKMX flaJIbHCHUIMX pOCTKOB, KaKHB OH flajl H Ha repMaHCKOH 

M Ha pyccKOH noHBe y>Ke b XX Bewe. 
„ ^ PyccKHH aKajieMHSM jiosiTKen 6b!Ji tojkc 

BbicoKOoypiKyas- 

HMg uoTpeSHTeAb nopoRHTb nporecT, KoxopbiM 6biJi BbicKasan 
B PoccRH. B 6ojiee stpKOM cfjopMe 6naroflapH couMOJiorH- 

HeCKHM yCJlOBHHM pyCCKOM JKH3HH. B PoCCMK 

Mhi npewAe Bcero HaxojriKHyjiHCb Ha cwjibHoe pasjiHHHe BKy- 
coBbix XHnoB y npeflcxasHxejiefl paHHefl h nosAHeft Kpynnoft 
6yp>Kya3HH, tJ)opMHpoBaBiiieM KaApu MysbiKajibHbix noxpe6n- 
xejiefl. P£»,HHHq 6ypM<ya3HH, Koxopaa 6biJia b cyiUHOcxn nno- 
nepoM 6ypMcya3Horo Mwpa (HHAycxpHajibHOcxn), 6bifla xhhmh- 
HO co6HpaxejibcKa5r, ee MnpoomymeHvie 6bmo cnoKoflHoe 
H ypaBHOBeiueHHoe, ee oxHOiueHne k KyjtbxypHbiM ueHHociKM 
6biJio depexKHoe h noMXHxejibnoe, KaK Bnepsbie npHo6meHHofi 

K HHM. K 3XOM KaxerOpHH OXHOCHJIHCb HaUlH KariHXaJlHCXbl 

70-x roflOB, 3XOH me HAeojiorHcft, cxojib xopomo oxo6paM<eH' 
Hoft B aKaaeMHSMe, hchji h 6e;iHeBCKMft KpyncoK. HanpoxHB, 
Bxopoe noKOJieHHe ox nee pesKo oxjiHHajiocb. B Pocchm Mpes- 
BbivaftHO pacnpocxpaHMJiCH cneuMcJ)HHecKnft xnn KanHxa;incxa- 
pacTOMMxeJiH, y^ce BKycuBuiero ox 6,iiar unBMJin3au;HH, y?Ke 
npecbiineHHoro h noxoMy MpeBBbiMaflHO ckjiohhopo k MBbicKaK- 

') rionb J],iOKa {pofl. B 1865 r.) HanKcan MHoro cdHneHHfl, us koto- 
pbix HaHfionee HHTepecHw: CHMcJjOHHa, CKepuo Ana o jKecxpa j.VHeHHK napo- 
n.ea", 6aneT „nepH", onepa ..ApnaHHa h Cvmaa Bopofla". 

'') Pome ' JiiOKacc (poA. b 1 873 r.) — aaxop xpexaKTHoii MHMOA'saMbi 
„Op4)eH", nanHcan eme CTpyHHwft KBapxer, ({jopxenHaHKbiii Kaapxex, „4)paH- 
. uyacKyK) CKJHxy" h psifl flpyrnx KOMnosHUHH. 



HACOAOrHH poMaK 

THSma. 



HocxH. AxMoc(|)epa, cosAaBUiasicji b 3xom Kpyry, 6bina b o6- 
mux Hepxax noAo6Ha xoh, Koxopaa cosAaBajiacb bo (t)paHUHH 
B H3biCKaHH0M Kpyry 6yp>Kya3Hbix acxexoB h BWcmeH dorcMbi, 
3KOHOMHMecKn CB5i3aHHOH c 6ypM<ya3MeM. 

Ho B PoccHH 3T0X Kpyr 6brji pa3Hoo6pa3Hee no cocxaBy 
H oxJiHHajicH B AexajiHX HAeojiornH. KaK h bo OpanuHH - 9xo 
6bijio b cyiUHOcxH pecxaBpauHeft poMan- 
PecTaspasHH x H 3 M a HaMajia XIX BBKa c ero 6oreMHHecKo- 
6yp»<:ya3HOM SKOHOMHHecKOH 6a30H h c ero 
HAea;iHcxH4ecKoft (|)HJioco4)HeM, KOxopaH peKOH- 
cxpyHpoBajiacb b bhas HHuuieaHcxBa, MHcxunecKHX h oKKyjib- 
XHMecKHX yneHMft, xorAa KaK caMbift poManxHBW peKOHcxpyn- 
poBajicH B odpase yBJieMeHHsr Heo6biMaHHbiM, He6biBaAbiM, 
CBepxecxecxBeHHbiM. B axo BpeMJi, noAo6HO xoMy, KaK cajioH 
MajrnapMS, hs Koxoporo boshhk JI,e6joccH, o6'eAHHjiJi b cede 
no3TOB, 4)h;iococ|)ob m HSbicKaHHyK) 6ypM<ya3HK), xaK b Poc- 
CHH o6pa30BajiHCb ueHxpbi H Kpy>KKH nojiy^JHJiococJjcKHe, nojiy- 
MHcxHHecKHe, nojiyxyAo>KecxBeHHbie, nacxbH) peKOHcxpyHpo- 
BaBiuvie repMaHCKHfl poMaHXHSM h HAeajincxMHecKyio c|)h;io- 

COcfjHK) B HOBblX npejlOMJieHHJJX (HHUllieaHCXBO, MHCXMKa 

repMaHCKoro cpeAHeBeKOBba), oxntacxH pecxaBpHpoBaBUine y>Ke 

3a6bIXbie 6bIJIO CJiaBHHOCJjjHJlbCKHe HaH,HOHajlHCXHHeCKHe MeMXbl. 
B CBOe BpeMH XOWe BOBKHKUIHC H3 pOMaHXHSMa (KpyMCOK KH. 

Tpy6euKoro, HeoxpHcxnaHCTBo PoBaHosa h MepewKOBCKoro, 
(|)HJiococ|)Hfl CojiOBbeBa). 06mHM najiex NHcxHUHSMa h >KaM<Aa 
KaKoro-xo neodbiHtaftHoro siBJieHHSi, AOJUKeHcxBOBaBuiero npo- 

M30MXH HMeHHO B PoCCHH (cXapaJI CJiaBS[Ho4)HJlbCKaiI MCMXa), 

6brjia CBOHcxBCHHa bccm 3xmm KpyM<KaM, Koxopwe o6'eAWHViJin 
B ce6e cjiHBKH HHxejiJiHreHUHH, KpynHeHiueM 6ypH<ya3viH h oxna- 
cxH HaxoAHJiHCb noA BJiH9HneM cneuHcfjHHecKoro KJiepHKajIHSMa, 
KoxopbiM 6biJi B cymnocxH onnosHUHOHeK rocyAapcxBeimoH, 
pejiHrHH, HO HMeji c Heio Maccy o6mHx xohck conpviKOCHOBe- 
HHfl. 9xH Kpy>KKM H ppynnbi 6biAH B cBoe BpeMa 06'eAMHeHbl 
noA 6bixoBbiM o6biBaxe;ibcKHM sarojiOBKOM „AeKaAeHTOB", ce6fi 

■mo. OHM CKJIOHHbl 6bIJIH B CEOeft XyAO?KeCXBeHHOH MacxH HMe- 
HOBaXb CMMBOJIHCXaMM. 

B 3XOM Kpyry, KoxopwH yHce no cymecxsy He 6biji onno- 
3HUHOHeH K rocyAapcxBy. Koxopbin Aa>Ke ao HSBCcxHofl cxe- 
nenvi ycBansaji ce6e opHPHHajibHyK) nojiycfjeoAajibHyio nosnuHio, 
ynacJieAOBaHHyio ox poMaHxunecKoro cjiaBHHo4)M;ibcxBa, aKa- 



- 257 — 



H npHSHaHHe 

„KyHKH" 



AeMM3M 6biJi y>Ke He b xaKOH moac. Tyr uapHJia McaMCAa hobofo, 
Heo6biHHoro. Ho Hejibsn cKasaTb, HTo6bi aKaaeMHHecKHe ajie- 
MeHTbi 6biJiH BOBce OTciofla HsrHaHbi, cKopee Hao6opoT, 
HCKOTopaji HacTb Hx HMeHHo TyT nojiyHajia cBoe nojiHoe Bbipa- 
jKCHHe, h6o, KaK HH cTapajiacb Pocchji ypHaTbcn sa TCMnoM 
M<H3HH EBponbi, HO OHa Hc ycneBajia npoflxH kbk cjieayex 
MHorHe craflHH pasBHTna h noroMy noBTopsjia mx c onosAa- 
HHCM. AKaaeMHSM eme He 6biji Bno,nHe ocymecTBJien b xBop- 
MecTBe nepexoAHoft anoxn: b o6jiacTn m y 3 w k h. PjiasyHos 
H TaneeB eme ne aaJiH ero KpHCTajijiHsauHM h noroMy noBbie 
rpynnbi ecTecxBeHHo aojijkhm 6bi;iH saHSJTbCH OAHOBpeMCHHO 
H AOBepuieHHCM aKaACMMHecKOM npo6jieMbr, h pasBHTHeM 
npoTMBonojioHCHOH npo6jieMbi — coBHAaHHa HoeaxopcKoro Hcnyc- 
CTBa. Oahhm h3 nepBbix npoHB;ieHnft 3toh ABoficxBeHHoft b cyiu,- 
HOCTH saAaMH 6biJio cTpewneHHe b h o b b b bi- 
PecTaspa^RH ABHHyTb Ha nepBbiH njiaH 3a6biTbix 6biJio 
H OTMacTH aaxepTbix nocjieAyromHM passHTHeM 
pyccKoro .npo4)eccHOHajiH3Ma cAaBHHOtfjMJiOB- 
KOMnosHTopoB, HaiuHX „KyHKncTOB". Ohh, noHBHBui ecH B3noxy 

OTMHpaHHH nOpOAHBlUefl HX 3KOHOMHMeCKOH Cy6cTaHUHH, 

B CBoe BpeMH He cmopjih BbiAepjKaTb Hanopa TCMeHnfl, koto- 
pbie 6biJiH couHOJiorHwecKH Heo6xoAMMbi (npo(|)eccHOHa;iH3M, 

aKaACMHSM), HO OHH BOBCe He 6bIJIH eme BOCnpHHHTbl BHe 

ysKOH 6apcKoft cpeAbi npocBemeHHbix AHjieraHTOB, o6pa30- 
BBBrnHX paHHHe KaApbi MHTejiJiHreHUHH. Tenepb Aomjia one- 
peAb B HX npH3naHHfiAO 6ypM<ya3Hbix KpyroB hao hoboh, 6yp- 
>Kya3Heft o6ycjioBJieHHofl, HHTCJiJiHreHUHH. MycoprcKvift, Phm- 

CKHft-KopcaKOB H BopOAMH BHOBb CXaHOBHTCH BHaMeHeM 
MySblKaflbHOH HOBHBHbl H HOBblX FOpHSOHTOB B HCKyCCTBe. 

B MocKBe, KbTopan 6biJia ao chx nop ohjiotom npoc{)eccHO- 

Ha.nM3Ma, coBHAaercH „Kpy«oK KepsHHa", Koropbifl craBUT 

uejibK) nponarawAy HMeHHO asTopoB HOBoft pyccKoA lUKOJibi, 

OAHOBpeMCHHO Tofl TKG HBbicKaHHO 6yp«ya3Hoft cpeAOH o6yc- 

jiOBJieHHoe jiBfleHwe BaMenaTejibHOM Kawep- 
KaMepHoe neHHe. „ --^ ■, n.» .. 

HOHneBHUbi UjieHHHoft XlAflbreHM — cno- 

coScTByex orpoMHOMy pacnpocxpanenHK) HMenno MycoprcKoro 

B ero HaH6o;iee paHee HeouenenHbix MOMenrax TsopnecTBa. 

HaMMHaeT coBAasaTbca Kyjibx rex aeneiMiPi sanaAHofl Mysbi- 

KanbHOi^ MblCJIH, KOTOpbie AO CHX HOp 6bIJlM HaHMeHCC OUC" 

HCHbi H AaMce oxpMuajiHCb B PoccHH — KyjibT B a r H e p a, PpHra, 



BaraepHSM. 




yKpenjiflercH noneMHory b tom jkc Kpyry xa- 
paKxepHaH „MMnpeccHOH^icTHHecKaji" scxeTHKa, 
B HTore BecbMa poACTBenHaH acrerHKe cJiaBHHO(j[)HJibCKoro 
KyHKMSMa (ho 6e3 ee HauHonajibHoro orxeHKa h 6e3 cjimui- 
KOM oTKpoBeHHOfl nporpaMMHocTw). riporpaMMHOCTb 3aMe- 
HHeTCH „H3o6pa>KeHHeM HacrpoeHMfl", a HauHOHajiMBM, kbk 
ywe He opurHHaJibHWH hh b KaKoft Mepe, KaK McnepnaHHbift 
KyHKoft H noTOMy He yAOBjieTBopjiiomMH ocHOBHOMy sanpocy 

K OprHHaJlbHOCTH, OT6paCbIBaeTCH. 'B CBflSM C HHTMMHbIM 

CTHJieM MBblCKaHHblX KpyJKKOB yKpcnjiHeTCH MMHHaxiopHbifi; 

MCaHp MCKyCCTBa, KyjIbT MejIKHX, MSblCKaHHblX „KyCOHKOB Ha- 
CTpoeHHft". B 3TOM Ayxe OAHHM H3 nepBblX HHOHepOB Tai oft 

yxcHMeHHofl 6ypM«ya3HOCTH 6biJi P e 6 m k o b ^), KOMnosKTop 
He CTOAb Kpynnoro AapoBanHH, cKOflbKO npn- 

MnpecCHOHHSM. mgjj^mjij^j-j, j^a^ pa3 Ko BpCMeHM — THnHMHblft 

„nMnpeccHOHHCT", KOTopbifl Bbipa6oTaA ce6e 
cneu,Hc})HMecKyK), OMenb npsMOAHHeftHyio MMnpeccMOHHCXMHe- 

CKyH) 3CTeTMKy, CBOeft npHMHTHBHOCTblO HanOMMHaBUiyX) 

peajiHCTHHecKyio scTexHKy paHHero MycoprcKoro. Oh 6biji 
AJia CBoero BpeMCHH (py6eM< XX Bewa) CMe;ibiM noBaropoM, 
HQ eMy Meiuaji MHHHaTiopHSM saMwcJia h Boo6me MejiKOCTb 
ncHXOAorHH. TcM He MBHee nejibBH He oxMexHTb Toro, hto 
MHorwe rapMOHHiecKHe HOBOBBeAenHH, Koxopwe oxHacTM na- 
BeflHbi paHHHM MMnpeccHOHHSMOM CpHFa, y Pe6HKOBa npeA- 
BJCXHiuarox oxKpbixHH JXedKJccM (ueJioxoHHwe nocxpoeHHH, 
KBapxoBbie rapMOHHH H npoM.). HecpasneHHo 6ojiee snaMvi- 
xeJibHyK) 4)Mrypy, cxonmyio y>Ke na rpann 

^ 5 reHHaAbHOCXH, OOpaByeX nOHBHBlUHHCH b sxom 
HaBTHSM. CxpHDna. '^ ' 

Mce cpeA© H ee HAeOAorMeft BOcniixaHHbiM 
A. CKpa6HH^) (1871— 1915). 



') PeSHKOB (1866 — 1921) HanHcan onepu „EnKa", „B rpoay", „Tea", 
„Be3«Ha" (no AHflpecBy), MysbiKanbHo-ncHxonorHHecKHe KapTHHW „Anb(J3a 
H OMcra", „HapuHCc" h flp., a TaKJKe psifl poMaHCOB h mchkhx (j]oprenHaH- 
Hbix aeiueft. 

■) A. CKpa6HH (1871—1915) b nepabift nepKOfl 6b!Ji no« BnHnHHCM 
lUoneHa, c 1900 r. — nofl BJiHsiHHeM JlncTa h Barnepa, c 1906 r. BWcrynaeT 
Ha cEoft caMOCTOaienbHbift nnojiHe nyib, HCCKOnbKO cBHsaHHbift 4'°?ManbHo 
(rapMOHHHecKH) c flocTHMtCHHsiMH JI,e6K)ccH. Ero coMHHCHHa — npeHMyme- 
cTBeHHo ana (jjopTenHano. Una opnecTpa hm HanHcaHo ipH chmcJjohhh (E-moll 
^1900), C-mull ,190i)H C-iniill (1904)— ..BoasecTBCHHaa noaMa"), „no3Ma aKCTasa" 
(1907) H „npoMeTefl" (1911), a Tanace Hefionbuiaa „Revc'rie" (1899) h ^opie- 

lIcTopun MysuKn. 17 



— 2S8 — 



Ckph6hh yHacjieflOBaji ox cBoero Kpyra, Bwuie OMepieH- 
Horo, cxpeMJieHHe k HSbicKaHHocTH H opraHHMecKOMy hhthm- 
HOMy MHHMaTK>pH3My, KBK npoAHKTOBaHHOMy ycjiOBMHMH Hcno;i- 
HeHHa (visbicKaHHbift apucTOKpaTHMecKHft hjih bwcoko 6yp- 
wyasHbiH cajiOH — tot caMbift, KOTopbiS panee b aHajiorHHHbix 
ycJioBHHx nopoflHJi jJBJieHHe lUoneHa). XlaHb 3T0My HHTHMHOMy 
MHHnaTiopM3My y CKpH6wKa ocTajiacb Ha bccm npoTHMcenHH 
ero TBopnecTBa, ho b nepBoe BpeMH oho BHemne nposBHjiocb 
jiame bo BHeiUHMx (|)opMax „iiioneHH3Ma", k KOTopoMy npw- 
6erajiH Bce KOMnosHTopbi, xaK hjih Mnane nocTaBJieHHwe 

B Heo6xOfl,HMOCTb BOnflOmaTb B SByKC HHTHMHblfl MHp. Ho 

BCKope Ckph6hh bxoamt b Kpyr Tex cTpeMJiewMft k „^nnoco(p- 
CTBOBaHHio" B ccjjepe HCKyccTBa, KOTopaa 6bijia tbk xapaK- 
Tepna flJia chmbojihctob. Oh nonaaaeT b Kpyr BJiHHHHft moa- 
Horo HHumeaHCTsa h saxeM -MHCTHMecKoft (|)h;iococ|3hh (xe- 
ococJi)HH). Ero TBopnecTBO b cHJibHefluieft Mepe OKpauiHBaeTcsi 

TCMH SCXaTOJIOrHHeCKHMH TCOpHSIMH, KOTOpblB XapaKTCpHbl 

6biJiH flJia HeKOTopbix THHOB BOCKpecuiero B HeOXpHCTHaHCTBe 

H MHCTHHeCKOK CnaBJJHO(|)HJlbCKOft d[)H;iOCO^HH (CoJIOBJjeB, 

BepflneB, ByjiraKOB) HAsajiHSMa. B to Mce BpeMH cTapan cJia- 

BnHO(|)HJIbCKaSI MCHTa O HCKOeM, BCJIHKOM CBepiUeHHH, AOJIHCCJI- 
CTByKDlUeM np0H30KTH H3 PoCCHH HMeHHO, KaK H3 CTpaHbl 

c ocoSoft npoBMAenuHajibHofl MHCCHeft, coeAHHHflcb co CBoft- 

CTBeHHblM BCeM CHMBOJIHCTaM CTpeMfleHHCM K rpaHflHOSHOMy, 
HOBONy, Heo6bIHHOMy H K CaMOBOSBCJlHHeHHK), HOpOAHJia B HCM 

oprHHajibHyK) habk) o mhctcphh, KOTopaa ctoht b 6jiH}Kaft- 

JUeM pOACTBe C MHOPHMH pOMaHTHMCCKHMH MCHTaMH npOlUJIOFO 

(MejKAy npoHHM c aHajiorHHHbiM acxaTOJiorHMCCKHM npeACTa- 
BJieHHCM HoBajiHca), ho ot hhx otjik laeTca 6ojibmeft npji- 

MOJIHHeHHOCTbK) H CXeMaTHHHOCTbK). MHCTCpHH nO MblCJIH 
CKp5l6HHa AOflMCHa 6bIJia 6bITb rpaHAHOSHbIM „CHHTeTHHeCKHM**^ 

xyAOJkecTeeHHbiM i^poHSBeAeHHeM, Koxopoe aojimcho 6biJio bws- 

BaTb HJIH o6yCJIOBHTb KOHCU, MHpOSAaHHH. MppaU,HOHaJIbHOCTb 

MeHTaHHfl cTaBHJia ero y>Ke Ha rpaHb 6e3yMHH, sjieMCHTbi 

KOTOpOrO MOMCHO nOCTyjlHpOBaTb B CKpndHHe. B CBa3H C 3THMH 



nHaHHbiH KOHiiepT. Ero 4>opTenHaHHbie KOMnosHUHH: 10 conaT, (JwHTasHsi, 
nosMbi (HaH6onee Kpynubie — „caTaHHMecKaa", „TparHMecKaa", „no3Ma-HOK- 
TiopH" „K nnaMeHH"), Mnoro MenKHx Bemeft (sanbcw, nasypKH, no9Mbi, npe- 
]iK)iD(HH). CkpaShh 6bin TaKJKe nepEOKnaccHWM h opHrHHanbHWM nHaHHcroM, 

HCnOnnnBlUHM BnpOMCM TOJIbKO CEOH COMHHeHHSI. 




.iii 



rpaHAH03HblMH SaAaHHHMH, CTOJlb KOHTpaCTHpOBaBUIHMH C HCp- 
BOHanajIbHblM HSblCKaHHO - HHTHMHbIM MHpOM CKP$)6mHCKHX 
BAOXHOBeHHfl, ero TBOpneCTBO HaiHHaeT HCnblTblBaTb BJIHHHHH 
H BOSAeftCTBHH TeX SJieMCHTOB MySblKaJIbHOH COBpeMCHHOCTH 

SanaASi KOTopwe npeACTaajwjJiHCb b ero BpeMH nandojiee 

HOBblMH. TaKHMH 6bIJTH npeWAC BCePO BarHep (h OTMaCTH 

JIhct b ero cHMcfjoHHMecKOM, HeBHpryoaHOM acneKTe), koto- 

pblfi COOTBCTCTBOBaJI CKpn6HHy H BeJlHMHCM HOJiexa MblCJlH. 

Ho He TaK-TO JierKO 6biJio xyAO«HHKy, BocnnTaHHOMy h Bspa- 
meHHOMy HHTHMHO-cajiOHHOft cpeftcj^, cTaTb cpa3y peajibHO, 
a He B MeMraHHHx Ha noMsy „rpaHAH03Horo" MOHyMenTajib- 
Horo HCKycGTBa. M bch TBopneeKaa »«H3Hb CKpH6HHa npeA- 
CTaBJiaeTCH ottopo, KaK 6opb6a MescAy ochobhwm hhtmm- 
HbiM cTHJieM, o6ycflOBJieHHbiM ero couHOJiorHMecKoft npHHaA- 

JieXKHOCTbH) K HSblCKaHHOMy Kpyry, H rpaHAHOSHblMH Me4Ta- 
HHSMH. 06yCJI0BJjeHHbIMH TCMH MHCTO - MblCJieHHblMH 06pa3aMH, 
KOTOpbie BHTaJIH B TOM TUB Kpyry, B CyUXHOCTH paSAeJlHBUieM 
3Ty OCHOBHyK) ABOflCTBeHHOCTb. Be3yCJ10BH0e HOBaTOpCTBO 

6bi;io nocTaBjicHo ycJioBHeM, h Ckp5i6hh Bce speMa moaho 

HCKaJI HOBblX (fopM, HOBblX BOnJlOmeHHH. KoFAa TB SJieMCHTbl 

HOBHSHbi, KOTopbie OH Hauieji y BarHepa h neopoMaHTHKOB, 
OKaaajiHCb HcnepnaHHbiMH h yM«e npHTynjiennbiMH b CBoeft 
ocTpoTe, TorAa eny npniiiJiocb HCKaTb eme 6ojiee ocTpbix 

(jjJOpM, KOTOpbie OTHaCTH 6bIJlH HBl^AeHbl HM B TBOpMeCTBC 

{|)paHuy3CKHx HOBaTopoB (Jl,e6K)ccH), .BJiHanne KOToporo na 
CKpa6HHa 6biJio 6bi Tew 6ojiee neocMOTpHTejibHO OTpHuaTb, 
HTO CKpa6HH KaK pas 6biJl bo OpanrtHH b tg roAW, KorAa 
TBopnecTBO fle6K)ccH Bnepsbie pacuBexajio, h oh He Mor ero 
He snaTb. OrciOAa y CKpa6HHa cTpeMJienne k MHoro3ByHHbiM 

rapMOHHaM H CaMbiA THH STHX CapMOHHfl, OTnaCTH BOSHHKlUHflf 
irtS nUeJIOTOHHOft" TaMMbl. KpOMe TOFO, 3TOT CTHAb HaXOAHJICa 
B rJiy60K0M COOTBeTCTSHH C OCHOBHbIM HHTHMHbIM H H3bICKaH- 
HblM TOHOM CKpa6HHCKOrO TBOpMeCTBa. 

MncTepHH, caMO co6ok) pasyMeeTca, CKpa6HHy HanHcaTb 
He yAajiocb, ho nonwTKH co3AaHHe hm „rpaHAH03Horo" cTHJia 
6brjiH cAeJiaHbi b bhac ero wpynnbix cwMcfjoHHMecKMX npoHs- 
BeAeHHft (3 chm4)ohhh, „no3Ma SKCTasa", „npoMeTeft"). B hhx, 

KaK H B 60JIbUieft naCTH CBOHX COHHHeHHft, CKpa6HH OKaSbl- 
BaeTCa HMftpeCCHOHUCTOM, pOUCTSeHHalM pOMaHTHKaM, C TH- 
nHHHblM AJia HHX CBOflCTBOM HJIH CKJIOHHOCTbK) AaBBTb CKpbl- 



■^w 



261 



TyK) MJIH TOJIbKO OTHaCTH npOHBJieHHyH) npOPpaMMy CBOMM 

KOMno3HUHHM (..TpaPHHecKaa no3Ma", „CaTaHMHecKaH noana" 
H nponee), npH hbm caMoe Hueftnoe coxiep>KaHHe ero coHHHeHHft 
noMTH Bcerjia OKasbiaaeTCJi 4'mjioco4)ckhm, oxBJieMeHHbiM, mto 
poflHHT ero 6oJiee Bcero c JIhctom, c KOxopbiM ero c6jiM>KaK>T 
H MHorwe MejiKHe ncflpo6HOCTH cranw. Ho CKpfl6MHy raw 
H He yaajiocb npeoflOJieTb visHaHajibHoft MHHHaTKjpHoft npH- 

pOflbl CBOerO TEOpHeCTBa, H B CBOMX 6oJIblIIHX TBOpeHMHX OH 

6oJiee xoHer 6biTb, newejiH fleAcTBHxejibHO flOCTHraer rpan- 
AHOSHOrO 6bITHM. ErO TBOpMeCTBO npoHMKHyro Heo6biHaflHoft 
OCTpOTOfl H HSBeCTHOM „OTpaBJieHHOCTbK)" 3MOU,HH, MTO MCHtfly 

npoHMM cHjibHO OTjiHHaeT ero ot acxeTHMecKoro poMaHTwsMa 
JleotocoH H npH6;mH<aeT k JlwcTy. Ero CTHJib wcnbiTbiBaeT 
CMnbHbift cflBHr nofl bjihahhiimh 4'paHuy3CKoro HMnpeccwo- 
HHSMa (nanajio XX eeKa), h ero BTopati nojiOBHHa TBopMecTBa 
npeflCTaBjiweTCH Majio noxoateA Ha nepsyK). Bee 6ojiee pacxy- 
mee yBjieneHHe CBoeA Hfleeft mmctcphh h nocTonHHaa pa6oTa 

MblCJIH Han STUM BHeMySblKaJIbHblM BOHpOCOM B HTOFC npH- 

AaJia npoHSBefleHHHM CKpp6HHa 6ojiee nosflnero nepviofla 

KOJIOpMTMSBeCTHOA „CXeMaTHMHOCTH", KOTOpaH HBHJiaCb pCSyjlb- 

TaroM 6opb6bi Me>Kfly ero KpaftHHM HOBaxopcKHM cxpeMJie- 
HHCM H ero npHpoMCfleHHoA ocTopoJKHOcxbK), Koxopasi nopoM 
npo$3BJij?jiacb flajKe b 4>opMax, poflcxBeHHbix aKafleMnsMy. 

CkpaSkh 6biJi nopOMcflCHHeM HSbicnaHHo - 6ypM<ya3Hoft 
cpeflbi, HMeHHo ee pa^JHHHpoBaHHoro, npecumeHHoro cjioh. 
JXnn Hero xapaKxepen cBOMcxBeHHbiM aToft cpeae cHHxes 
HOBaxopcxBa h aKaaeMHSMa, cJiHHHwe rpaHAHOSHOcxH h mhhh- 
axKjpHocxH H B HTore Hecnoco6HOCTb K HacxosmeA rpanflH- 
03H0CTH. Ckps)6hh, KaK aBxop, anejiJiHpoBaji k oneHb saMKHy- 
TOMy Kpyry ny6jiHKH, k ny6jiijKe HswcKaHHoro cajiOHa, a cym- 
HpcTH' K Toft me, KOTopaa cocxaBJiJiJia Kpyr noxpe6HTeJTeS 
TBopnecxBa JXe6ioccvi bo OpanuMM. H fleficxBMxejTbHo, sHe 
axoro ysKoro Kpyra, Koxopbift Aawe He noKpbiBajica 6ypH<y- 
asHbiM, KOTopbiA cocxaBjisjfl KaK 6bi ocxpoBOK B 6ypM<ya3Hofl 
cpeae, ero TBopnecxBo OKasajiocb coBepmeHHO HeoueHeHHbiM. 
M xaK M<e, KaK y JIe6K)ccH, ero TBopnecTBO 6biJio 6;iaroflapH 
CJiynaHHOcxH BbusHHyxo 3a npeaenbi axoro Kpyra. y Jle6K)ccH 
3XO cjiyHHjiocb 6;'aroAapH anxHrepMaHCKoA ycxaHOBKe ero 
pa6oTbi, a y CKpji6HHa 6jiaroflapH ero MHcxo-xexHHHecKOMy 
HOBaxopcTsy, Koxopoe 6biAO CMeiuano c peBOflK)UHOHH3MOM 




B HCKyccxBe H oxcfoaa c peBOJiiouHOHHSMOM Boodme. Hex, 
KoweHHO, HHHero 6ojiee npoxHBono;ioM<Horo, KaK Ckp«6hh h 
pa6oHaji peB0JiH)UHH, oxpHuaiomasi ece to, h3 nero Ckph6hh 
H ero Kpyr hcxoahjih MHcxHKa, cJiaBHHOcjjJHJibCTBO, HepapxHji, 
KyjibT mhthmhocth, acxaTOJiorMa). Bjiaroflapsi TOMy, hto Ckph- 
6hh 6biJi no oiuM6Ke npHHST sa peBOJUouvtonepa, ero TBop- 
HccTBO nojiyMHvio HccKojibKo fiojiec lUHpoKoe pacnpocTpaHCHHe, 
MeM OHO 6bi HMejio HopMajibHO, HO 6jiaroflapH Tony, mto opra- 
HHMecKH OHO 6biJio coBepiiieHHO MyMcflO HOBOMy (nocJiepeBO- 
jiK)UHOHHOMy) co3HaHHK), OHO He ycneJio npoHSBecxH bjimmhhh. 
Ha KOxopoe Mor;io 6bi npw HHbix o6cTOHxe.iibcTBax 6biTb cno- 

Co6hO, H CkPJi6hH 6bIJI 4)OpMajlbHO KaHOHH3HpOBaH KaK reHH- 
aJIbHblfl KOMnOSHTOp, HO HyTH HCKyCCTBa yAaJIHJIHCb B HHyK) 

ox Hero CTOpony BHyTpw Pocchh. Mto KacaeTcn flo SanaAHoft 
Esponbi, TO TaM ero xBopMecTBo ne Morjio HaflTH cTOJib Kpyn- 
Horo npn3HaHna, KaK tbopmbctbo xoth 6bi KyMKHCTOB H Maft- 
KOBCKoro noTOMy, mto BoflHa BbiSBana 3HaMHTejibHoe orpydenne 
BKyca H CTpeMjieHHe k hhmm THnaM My3biKH, a yTOHMeHHbift 
CTHJib MysbiKH CKpsdHHa OKasajicH cJivmiKOM TOHOK flJiH rep- 

MBHCKOA MyBblKajlbHOfl MblCJIH H CJIHUIKOM flpKO SMOUHOHaJIBH 
H CflHllIKOM npOHHKHyT pOMaHTH3MOM — flJIH (|)paHUy3CK0H. 

HonyTHO h napajiJiejibHO co CKpHdHHWM, 

BAHHHtie BOBbix KaK npoHBJieHHe HaMHHaiouxeA rocnoacTBOBaTb 

TeiesHH Ha ffpyrHx gjjygQgQj^ ncHxojiorHH 6yp«<ya3Horo Kpyra, 

aBTopOB npeHtHett . 

^ HaMHHaeTfl,eqpOpMHpOBaTbCHTBOpMeCTBO Hflpy- 

THX KOMn03HXOpOB, OXHOCHmHXCJI HO CyiUBCXBy, 

K npewHHM anoxaM. OpeHCfle Bcero nojiaaexcH BesiHHK) spe- 
MeHH rH6KnA K noftaxjiHBbiA PhmckhA - KopcaKOB, yjKe pas 
ycneBiuHH ciaennxb flHJiexanxcKoe MMpocosepuaHwe Ha npo- 
4)eccHOHajibHoe h naxe aKaaeMHMecKoe. Tenepb oh npHMw- 
Kaex K HMnpeccH0HH3My, h npuMbiKaex OMCHb yaaMHO. B hoboh 
Manepe, rn,e oh npuMeHHex ace saBoeaaHUH hoboA MysbiKH, 
cao6oflHbie rapMOHHH, Kyjibx AHCconaHca h npoM. — nanHcanbi 
ero „KameA" „KHTe»c" h „3ojiotoA neTyiuoK", npH Men opu- 

THHaJlbHblM ABJlHeTCJI COMBTaHHe H3bICKaHHOCTH H paCMeTB HB 

HOBbie BKycbi c ocTaaiuHMCH OT npeHCHero cTpcMJieHHew k 

HaUMOHaJIbHOA CKaBOMHOCTH, HO 3Ta CKaSOMHOCTb yJKC He MO»eT 

ocTaTbCH npcHCHeA HanBHoA, ona npMoSpeTaeT cjjjopMbi jih6o 
ajiJieropHH („Kamefl")> jih6o caTHpbi („3ojiotcA neTyuiOK"), j]h6o 
oHa OTBCMaeT rocnoACTayroincMy MHCTHMecKOMy HacxpoeHHK) 



1^ 



. > 



— 202 — 

B BbicoKO 6ypH«ya3HOM Kpyry (..KHTew")- Mah enepefl a cMbicjie 
cpeflCTB BbipaweHHH h Bce 6ojiee otxoaji ot npewHero CBoero 
CTHJia, PHMCKHfl-KopcaKOB B TO Mcc speMH npoHBjisieT Heo6bi- 

HdflHyiO MHCTO-npOc{)eCCHOHaJlbHyK) OCTOpOWHOCTb H HHKOrfla 

He oKasbiBaeTCJi „peBOJiK)UHOHepoM", a TOJibKO bbojiiouhohh" 
CTOM. Sra ocTopoJKHOCTb npHBOflHT cro, KaK M CKp5!6nHa, 

K CHJlbHO BbipajKCHHOfl CXeMaTHHHOCTH TBOpMeCTBa, KOTO" 

paa nporpeccHpycT k ero nocJieflHHM TBopeHMHM h noAHac rpa- 
HHMHT c HacToameft „reoMeTpH4HOCTbK)" My&biKH B TO we 
BpeMH rocnoflCTByiomee TeneHHe, KOTopoe OTMacTH Bwpa- 
McacTCH B yHHHToaceHHH npKoro nauHOHajiHSMa, KaK ywe npH- 
cKyiHBUiero, sacTaBJiaeT ero, THnMMHo-HauHOHanbHoro asTopa, 
Bce name npuderaTb k cxofly c HauHonajibHoft nosHUHH (Kan- 
TBTa „M3 FoMepa", HeoKOHneHHaa „He6o h seMJin"). 

Bjih3ko k HCMy OKasbiBaeTCfl JIhaob^), panee Bceueflo 6biB- 

UlHfl B o6jiaCTH HaCTpoeHMfl KyHKH3Ma H OTpawaBuiHft cMew- 

Hbie c KyHKH3MOM BJiHaHHsi llIoneHa H LUyMaHa. Tenepb oh 

OTpawaCT BJIHHHHH CKpH6HHa H HOBblX 4)paHi;y30B, KOTOpbie • 

HaH6ojiee 6jih3kh ero TunHHHoft MUHHaTHjpHCTHMecKoft Manepe 
HHCbMa. JlpflOB coxpaHHCT HaH6oflee flOJiro o6jihk 6apHHa- 

JiMJICTaHTd B pyCCKOfl HCTOpHH MySbIKH — KOMnOSHTOpa CO 

cneuHtjjjHHecKHM, ho ysKUM MacTepcTBOM. Bce sth bjihhhhh oh 
yneeT coeflHHHTb c gchobhwm ot KynKw HcxoAsimuM HauHona- 

JIVI3MOM H B 3TOM OTHOUieHHH TOWC 6jIH30K K KopcaKOBy. 

B 3TO Mce BpeMH ocTajibHaa Macca noTpe- 
niiroHM 6nTeJieft MysbiKH, KOTopaH 6biJia BbiKJironeHa h3 

MaHKOBCKoro. - ' 

Cpeflbl 3aB3flTbIX SCTCTOB H MHCTHKOB BblCOKO 

dypwyasHoro Kpyra, npHnywAcna dujia flOBOJibCTBOBaTbca 
HBjieHHHMH npcjKHero npo(J)eccHOHajiH3Ma h 6ojiee no3flHero 
aKaaeMHSMa. RBJisiJiacb tcm hc Menee HacTOHTejibnaa noTpe6- 

HOCTb B HapOBaHHH, KOTOpOC 6bl COSHflaJIO HB TOJibKO 3nnrO- 

HHHecKHe 4)opMbi MysbiKH fljiH noTpedjiCHMH 3THX rpynn: Bojiee 
lUHpoKaji ny6flHKa 6bijia 6ojiee paBHoayuiHa k snHroHHSMy h 

nOTOMy ftOBOJIbCTBOBajiaCb npOMeacyTOHHblMH SJBJieHHHMH, KOTO- 



') JIhaijb (1865 — 1914) HanHcan mhojO mbjikhx MHHHaTiop ana ^opie- 
nnaHO, OTMacTH noflpaJKan lIloneHy, OTMacTH pyccKoft uiKone. FloaflHee 
(c 1905 r.) OH numeT nofl BJiHsiHHeM (JjpaHuyaoB-HMnpeccHOHHCTOB h CKpsi6HHa. 
K 3T0My nepHOwy othochtch ero „opKecTpoBbie MHHHaTiopbi": „Ba6a-Hra", 
„Boime6Hoe oaepo", „KHKHMopa", „M3 AnoKanHncHca" h np., a TaKwe 
nocjieflHHe (JjopTcnHaHHwe KOMnosHUHH. 



■m. 



pbie 6binH B TOM HJIH HHOM OTHOUieHHH K TJiaSHblM aBTOpaM 

aKaAeMHMecKoro Tuna. HaHdojiee apKHM m3 noapajKaTejieft h 
npoAOJiHcaTejiefl MaftKOBCKoro sibhjich C P a x m a h h h o b^), 
KOfopbifl HHcaji MysbiKy na noTpedy tcx caMbix KpyroB, koto- 
pwe Tpe6oBajiH npewfle Bcero apKofl h otkputoA smouho- 
HaflbHoft MeJiOflHKH. 3to 6bijia Hawdojiee lunpoKan h HaHMenee 
HHTejiJieKTyajibHO paBBHTaa ayflHTopna. B cbsish c sanpocaMW 
BpeMeHH ona Bce Mce TpedoBajia HBBecTHoro, xoth 6bi h mhhh- 
MajibHoro, pacuiHpeHHH 3ByKOBbix pecypcoB. TaKOBbie sBHJiHCb 
B BHfle cjieflOB BarHepH3Ma b TBopnecTBe PaxMannHOBa, ko- 
Topoe noBTopsieT cymecTsenHbie nepTbi TBopnecTBa MaflKOB- 
cKoro, 6yflyHH ycjioacenHee no rapMOHHH, ho 6eAHee no mcjio- 
flHH H HHCKOJibKO HC iHHpe, a cKopce yM<e no AwanasoHy. 

TeneHHe KpaAnero aKaaeMHSMa, KOTopwfl 

DpaMCH3M B ^ ^ 

PoccHH ^"^® "® ''" ^'3*^"'''' ^ KOTopoe caMo coocho- 
BbiBajiocb Ha rpynnax Toro we Kpyra, KOTopuft 

nOpOJKflajI K MHCTHHeCKHft OprHaBM, H HMnpeCCHOHMSM CHMBO-' 

flHCTOB, BbisBajio K WH3HH yBjieMeHHe panee coBepiueHHo 
HeBeflOMbiM B PoccHH BpaMcoM H opnrHHajibHoe HBjieHHe 
M e T H e p a ^), KOTopwft sibhjich KaK 6bi pyccKHM BpaMcoM, 
H, KaK TaKOBoft — npoflOJiHcaioinHM jiHHMK) BKafleMHSMa TaneeBa. 
B TBopHecTBe MeTHepa xapaKTepno to, hto oh He TOJibKo 
Hywfl HauHOHajiH3Ma, ho oh homth THnnnno repMancKHfi KOMno- 

3HTOp. PeaKUHJI npOTHB KpaflHOCTCfi HMnpeCCHOHHBMa, npOTHB 

ero HecKOJibKO luyMjiHBoft h caMonaaeaHHoft sctcthkh h neyro- 

MOHHOfi norOHH 3a HOBblMH „CpeACTBaMVl" B MyBbIKe — BblSBajIO 

B 6ypwya3Hbix Kpyrax STy Tjiry na CTporafl aKajacMHSM, 

HapOHHTO-CypOBblft, HapOMHTO-peTpOCneKTHBHblft.HmymHflcBOMX 

coKpoBHut He BnepeflH, a nosaAH, MywxaiomHflcH bchkopo ho- 



^) PaxMaHHHOB (pofl. B 1872 r.) nanHcan onepbi „AjieKo", „<|)paHMecKa 

fla-PHMHHH" H „CKynOH pbiuapb", TpH (})0pTenHaHHbIX-K0HUepTa, H3 KOTOpblX 

flsa nocjieflHHX MpesBbiMaMHO nonyjiapHbi h hmbiot MnpoEoe npHSHaHHe, KaH- 
Taibi „BecHa" h „KojioKona", flse chm(})ohhh (HanenaTaHa lonbKO BTopan, 

CHM^JOHHMeCKHe KapTHHbl „OcTpOB MepTBblx" H uVTec", MHOFO (jjOpTenHaHHblX 
KOMnOBHUHH H pOMaHCOB, H3 KOTOpblX 6oiIbma5I MaCTb HpCSBblMaftHO Hony- 

nnpna, Tor^a KaK ero (JjopTenHaHHwe KOMnosHUHH cnHuiKOM TpyflHW flnn Toro, 
MToSbi cTaTb nonynnpHbiMH. 

') MeTHep (pofl. B 1879 r.) HanHcan mhofo neeeH Ha xeKCTu Flyiu- 
KHHa, Fere, TioxMeBa h flp., CKpHnHnnyio coHaty, necKOnbKO (})opTenHaHHbix 
coHax, MHoro MejiKHX 4'OpTenHaHHbix seineK (b tcm mhcjic, xaK HasbiBaeMbie^ 

„pKa3KH ) H (j|)OpTenHaHHbIM KOHljepT C OpKCCTpOM. 



— i^ 



— 264 



— 265 — 



ropcTBa. 3to TeneHHe 6bijio oxHacTH, xota ywe He enojiHe 
-^'h He flpyJKHO, nofliiepMcaHO npo(|)eccnoHajibHbiMH KpyraMM. 
KOTopwe K 3TOMy MOMBHTy caMH yjKe 6buivi AOCTaroHHo npo- 

HHKHyTbl HOBaTOpCKHMH TeHAeHUHHMH. B CB^SH C npMHHHaMH, 

ero o6ycJiOBHBmHMH, MexHep nwuieT MysbiKy cKpoMnyK) no 
(jjjopMe H ofleHHHfliM (necHH, 4"opTenHaHHbie eemn, npoAOJiwa- 
lomHe <|)opMbi iiiyMaHOBCKoft poMaHTHKM), HB npeTeHfl,yK)myK» 
HH Ha HTO, KpoMe BHyxpeHHefl rjiy6HHbi, ho nysbiKy no cyme- 

CTBy HeCKOJIbKO nOCTHyK), HTO o6'aCHSieTCH KaK KpaflHOCTHMH 

» HAeoflorHH, TaK h xapaKxepoM JiHHiHoro AapoBannsi. Oaho 
BpeMH MexHcp cxaji SHaMeneM napxHH, npoxnBonojiOM<HOH 

CKpH6HHy, KaK CHMBOJI HHCXOft MySbIKH npOXHB MySblKH — 

cpeACXBa flJia mhcxmhcckhx onepaawft, KaK cmmboji cKpoMHoro 
xyflOHCHHKa — npoxHB MeraJiOMaHHHecKoro xBopua 6e3yMHbix 
MHcxepMft. Ho 3XO npoxHBonojiOH<eHHe 6biJio 6bicxpo saflBH- 
Hyxo MHpoBbiMH co6bixHHMH, 3aKJiK)HaK)mMMn npcAuiecxByiomyK) 
anoxy, h He cmopjio pasBHXbca. 

MnpoBaH BoAna h pyccKaa peBOJirouHa co- 
cxaBJiflK)x ecxecTBeHHyK) rpanHuy hcxophhc- 
cKoro H3JioM<eHHH. SiBJieHHH, HaMexHBuiHecH noxoM, erne He Moryx 
6bixb oueneHbi kbk cjiejiyex, h6o eme xpyflHo ynecxb Bce 
odcxoHxejibCTBa, hx o6ycflOBHBmne, h cjihuikom 6jih3K0 sxo 
BpeMH k HaM, Hxo6 ero oueHHBaxb o6'eKXHBHO. MHorne h3 

KOMHOSHTOpOB, 0XMe4eHHWX B npOUIJlOM HSJIOWeHHH, ClUe MCHByX 

noHbiHe, eme ne saeepiUHJiH 4)aKXH4ecKH Kpyra CBoefl aeg- 
xejibHOcxH, xoxji H saBepuiHJiH ero HcxopHnecKH, h6o ox kx 
TBopnecxBa yace 6ojiee nenero waaxb hobwx oxxenKOB hjih 
HSMeneHHfii. TaKOBbi: Ulrpayc— b FepMaHHK, TjiaBynoB h anii- 

rOHbl KyHKH3Ma — B POCCHH, PjBBJIb — BO $paHUHH. Ho BCeX 

ocxajibHbix, Koxopbie HacxbK) o6ycJiOBjieHbi eme npHHUHaMH, 
KM2BUIHMH Mecxo B flOBoeHHyK) snoxy, Heo6xoAHMO OXHeCXM 
K paapHfly xaKnx, koxopwe AonycKaiox xojibKO KpMXMHecKyK), 
HO He HcxopHHecKyio oueHKy. OrpoMHbift cflBwr ncwxojiorHH 

H SKOHOMHHeCKHX OXHOUieHnfl, o6yCJIOBJieHHbIX BOAhoA, ee KOJIOC- 

canbHbie nocjieflcxBHH ajih Bcero MHpa, — Bce sxo He Morjio 
He oxpaBHXbcH Ha coBepmeHHOM h opranHnecKOM MBMene- 
HMH KJiacca noxpedHxejieft MysbiKH, na fle(|)opMauHH BKyco- 
Bbix rpynn h BKycoB BHyxpvi caMHX rpynn. 06'eKTHBHo see 
3TO oueHHBaxb eme paHO h juance neBOSMOWHO, xaK KaK euj,e 
xpynHO pa3o6paxbca b cJiOM<Hbix cuenjieHHSix npHHHHHOcxeft, 



MX o6ycJiOBHBUiHx. IloaxoMy name HSJiOMcenne mw saKanHHBaeM ■ 
Ha py6eMce boAhw. npn Men mw npHHyacAeHW oxnecxH k nocjie- 
flyromeft snoxe h see najieHHa, Koxopwe c(jt)opMHpoBaflHCb 
OKOHiaxejibHO b nocjieBoeHHyjo snoxy, xoxa HaMeneHbi eme 
panee. K HMCJiy tbkhx aBnevmPi oxhochxcst siBJieHHsi Kpafinero 
„MOAepHH3Ma" B MysbiKe, HBJiatomerocH MOfl,H4)HKauiHefi yp6a- 

HMCXHHeCKOrO 3ByKOC03epiI,aHHH. 9XH HBJieHHfl 6blJIH 3ajio»ceHbi 

oxnacxH b SByKocosepuaHHW HOBo4)paHuy3CKOft lUKOJibi h 

CKpH6HHa, npOHBJIHJIHCb H B HCKOXOpblX 3JieMeHXaX MySblKaJIbHOfl 

MbicJiH FepMaHHH. ^aAHaa noroHa sa hobumh SByHaHwaMH, 
3a HOBH3Hoft MaxepHajia xapaKxepna ajih sxhx rpynnH- 

POBOK, B CymHOCXH o6'eflHHaK)mHX pa3HOo6pa3Hbie HBJieHHH. 

BMecxe c sxhm napoMCflaexcH aBJienne sapBapHsauMH b 
MysbiKe, KaK peaKUHH npoxHB npeabuymefl MpesMepHoft yxoH- 

HeHHOCXH. Ms aBXOpOB, 06yCJI0BJ[eHHbIX 3XMMH HOBblMH HaCXpO" 
eHHHMH, BOSHHKIUHMH BCe B XOft TKC XHnHMHO-yp6aHHCXHHeCKOft, 

BbicoKO-6ypMcya3Hoft cpeae. nHxaBuieAcn noronefl sa hobumh 
omymeHHflMH, b flOBoeHHyio 3noxy ysce C(|}opMMpoBajiHCb 
xaKHe, KaK MoaepHHcx llIeH6epr, BsenuiviPi b Mysbmy rap- 

MOHHH Heo6bI4aHHO MHOFOSByHHOrO COCXasa H COSAaBUIHM 

Aawe HanpaBJicHHe, b KoxopoM xapaKxepHbiM HBJiHexcfl oxcyx- 
cxBHe npewHcft ouenKH cosByHHft c xohkh speHHH hx ahcco- 

HaHXHOCXH HJIH KOHCOHaHXHOCXH — BCC C03ByHHfl npHSHaKJXCH 

KaK 6bi pasjiMHHbiMH, HO paBHonpaBHbiMH, KaK 6bi pas- 
HbiMH KpacKaMH SByKOBoA najiHxpbi, HO 6e3 ncHxojiorHMecKoro 
HX oueHHBaHHsr. Bo ^panrtHH h Ha (|)paHuy3CKoft noHBe pa6o- 
raex CxpaBHHCKJtfl, cnaMaJia npsMoft npoAOJiHsaxe^b Kyn- 
KHSMa, nOxoM Bnaflaiomuft BsapBapHSM, ho 6e3ycjioBHa 
HpKHft, KaK opKecxpoBbifi: KOJiopHcx. B PoccHH OAHMM H3 6ojiee 

JJPKHX HBJieHHft, Cc|)OpMHpOBaBUlHMGH emC ^.0 BOAHbl, HB.lIHexCH 

npoKO(j()beB, TOHce npHMbiKaiomHft K rpynne BapBapHSMa 
HO B ero rpa(|)HHecKoft, 6ecKOflopHXHofl h noxoMy HecKOJibKO 
aKaACMHSHpoBaHHoA BapwauHH. Bce ocxajibHbie MysbiKajibHbie 
HBjieHHa KOMnosHxopcKoro njiana c(|}opMHpoBajiHCb ywe b 
nocjieBoeHHyK) anoxy h noxoMy He noAJiewax paccMoxpeHHio 
B npeACJiax nacxosimeft khhph. 



i**i««>n, 



OrjlABJlEHME. 



ripeAHCJioBHe ■ > ■ • » - ^ 

I. BieAeHHC B HCTOpHK) MySbIKH ...... 

II. MySblKa RpCBHHX KyjibTyp 

in. MysbiKa ajiJiHHCKoS Kyjibxypbi 

IV. XfHCTHaHCKaH spa 

V. MJsHsypaflbHaH MyswKa h cTpomft cTHJib 

VI. C$o6ofl,HblM CTHJlb . . . • 

I ■_ V- - 

VII. Bilioxa KJiaccnu,H3Ma . •• ■ • • • ' • 

Vni. PpMaHTHSM ........ - ■ ' • - • 

■1 1 

IX. Hi^Basi MysMKa . , . ....••■■■ 



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„PA50THHK nPOCBEiyEHHH" 
MocKBa— 1925 



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