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GEOLOG1CAL SURVEY OF OHIO.
REPORT OF PROGRESS FOR 1871.
PRINTED BY OEDER OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY.
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO.
REPORT OF PROGRESS FOR 1871.
FEINTED BY OEDEE OF THE GENEBAL ASSEMBLY.
Columbus, Ohio, February 28, 1872.
To (he General Assembly :■
I have the honor to transmit herewith Eeport of Progress for the year 1871, in the
matter of the Geological Survey of the State of Ohio.
In presenting this report, I desire especially to urge upon the Legislature, the propriety
of such legislation as will ensure the further prosecution of this work, now well ad-
vanced toward completion. The survey has already been of incalculable advantage to
the people, and promises much for the future. There ean be no wiser economy than in
judiciously appropriating whatever sums of money may be necessary for the development
of the material resources of the State, as it will add largely to the present value of what
we have, and will invite capital from distant parts of the country.
Your favorable consideration of this subject is respectfully solicited.
But one copy of the Eeport having been furnished this Department, it is sent to the
House of Representatives.
EDWABD F NOTES, Govmim:
REPORT OF PROGRESS OP THE GEOLOGICAL
SURVEY OP OHIO, POR THE YEAR 1871.
To His Excellency Edward F. Koyes, Governor of Ohio :
Dear Sir : I have the honor to submit herewith the following brief
Report on the progress of the Geological Survey of Ohio, for the year 1871.
As you are probably aware, the law authorizing the Geological Sur"
vey required that it should commence June 1st, 18G9 and provides for
its continuance during three years from that date, it also provides
that in January of each year, during the continuance of the Survey, the
Chief Geologist shall make to the Governor a report of progress; and
that " when the Survey shall have been fully completed " the Chief Geo-
1 ogist shall embody the results in a final Report and Geological Map.
In compliance with these requirements, I have preseuted two reports of
progress, with accompanying reports from the different members of the
Corps, and these reports have been published by the Legislature. It was
as I know, the intention of the framers of the organic law of the Survey
that these annual reports of progess should be brief business statements
of the progress and wants of the Survey ; such as conld be printed with-
out delay, and thus enable the Legislatures to which they might be pre-
sented to legislate intelligently upon this branch of the public service.
If the reports already published have not been of such character, but
have been voluminous documents of which the publication has been de-
layed for months by copious and expensive illustrations, it is but justice to
myself to say that the responsibility rests with others, and not with me.
My portions of these reports have been promptly prepared, brief, and
without illustration, except a single wood-cut engraved before the presen-
tation of the report.
Holding the same view as formerly, as to the proper scope and volume
of my annual report, I shall now offer a summary of our work of the past
year and of our plans for the future, so brief that it will not be a fair ex-
position of the duty done, yet such as I hope will contribute something
toward a better understanding on the part of those by whom the Survey
was created and is sustained, of what it has accomplished.
In my former reports, I have sketched the organization of the Geologi-
cal Survey and its history to the close of the year 1870. To avoid re-
petition, therefore, I will refer those not fully informed on this subject to
the historical portions of those reports, and confine myself now to such
statements as are necessary to convey an idea of the progress of our
work during the last year.
Id the law providing for the Geological Survey, the Geological Corps is
required : first, to determine the general geological structure of the State.
This, a necessary preliminary to our subsequent detail work, was mainly ac-
complished during the year 1869, and a summary of the results are given
in the Geological Map and descriptive text of our first Eeport of Progress.
We are also required to make a detailed Survey of each and every one of
the eighty-eight counties of which the State is composed. This is plainly
the most important and laborious duty to be performed by the corps, and
it has naturally occupied most of our time to the present date. All the
counties in the State have been visited. Of fifty-eight counties the surveys
have been completed, and so much has been done on the others that we may
fairly consider three-fourths of this part of our work as finished.
In continuing the surveys of counties through the past year, the plan
has been followed which was adopted at the beginning. I then assigned
the counties lying south and east of Columbus, seventeen in number, to
Prof. E. B. Andrews ; those lying south and west of Columbus, a nearly
equivalent area, to Prof. Edward Orton, while those counties lying north
of Columbus — forming three-fifths of the State — were left under my own
more immediate supervision.
In making this allotment of territory, I did not relinquish the responsi"
bility which I had assunied as Superintendent of the work in the entire
State ; but some division of labor was necessary, and this seemed the
most natural one, as Professors Andrews and Orton had resided for years
in the districts assigned to them, and had already acquired much know-
ledge that could be made available in the prosecution of their work. I
have given the Assistant Geologists as much honor and independence as
I could do consistent with my obligation to those from whom I have re-
ceived the trust I hold ; but I have made such visits to the different sec-
tions of the State as the interests of the survey seemed to require, and it
is my intention before the publication of a final report, and before accep-
ting the responsibility of the reports of other nembers of the corps, to
review their work, so far, at least, that I may intelligently endorse or
dissent from their conclusions.
During the past season of field work, my own time has been mainly
spent in the progressive southerly exploration of the coal field, alluded
to In my last report. la the prosecution of this work I have now made
surveys of all the coal producing counties lying north of those traversed
by the National Road, and I propose in the coming season to connect my
work with that of Prof. Andrews, and go through to the Ohio River.
In that part of the State where I have taken the immediate super,
vision of the survey, I have kept, during a part of the past season, a
larger force employed than heretofore, as there was here much the most
work to do. This force consisted of Prof. J. T. Hodge, Prof. J. J Ste_
venson, Mr. M. C. Read, Mr. F H. Winchell, Prof. W. B. Potter, and Messrs.
Henry Newton, Ogden Haight, H M. Smith, A. W Wheat, J. A. Gold-
smith and I. L. Lilienthal. Of these, Messrs. Eead, Hodges, Stevenson
and Winchell, were paid at the rate of $100 per month, besides traveling
expenses. Messrs. Potter, Goldsmith, Haight, Lilienthal and Smith — all
graduates of the school of mines — received no other compensation than
their traveling expenses, while Mr. Wheat and Mr. Newton received $50
and expenses, each, per month. The terms of service of these gentlemen
are as follows : Messrs. Eead and Winchell six months ; Messrs. Hodge,
Stevenson and Newton, three months; Mr. Wheat two months, and the
others one month each.
During the season, surveys were made or completed in the counties ot
Stark, Tuscarawas, Jefferson, Columbiana, Mahoning, Trumbull, Licking,
Richland, Knox, Coshocton, Harrison, Medina, Lorain, Ottawa, Sandusky,
Wyandot, Marion, Hardin, Hancock, Wood, Putnam, Allen, Auglaize,
and Mercer. Partial Surveys were also made of Portage, Carroll and
In the south-eastern section of the State Pro Andrews has, during the
past season, been engaged in the study of the counties lying eastward of
those which occupied his attention in the preceding seasons, and of which
descriptions are included in his contribution to the Reports of Progress,
for 1869 and 1870. During the last season, as before, he has been assisted
by Mr. W B. Gilbert — paid $100 per month and expenses — and has so
far progressed in the explorations of his field of labor as to be able, as he
informs me, to complete the work in another season in the manner in
which it has been hitherto done. I should also say, that Mr. W J Herd-
man, at my request, spent the month of September in tracing some of our
coal-seams into Prof. Andrews' district, at a cost to the State of $75, for
traveling expenses. Also that a considerable portion of the expense
account paid to Messrs. Newton and Smith was incurred in carrying
through the Southern iron region a careful review- of the iron industry,
which has now been extended over the entire State.
Prof. Orton has, during the past year, continued the work in his district
in the same thorough manner as heretofore. He was assisted by Prof. John
Hussey, Messrs. H. Herzer and Robert Warder, employed for different
terms and paid a gross sum of $675.
All the counties originally assigned to Prof. Orton have been surveyed,
except Madison, and the portions of Franklin, Pickaway, Ross, Pike and
Scioto, lying west of the Scioto river. In the latter three also, consider-
able work has already been done, so that in another season, if allowed the
same amount of assistance as during the past, he will not only complete
the Survey in his district, but be able to make and complete the surveys
of Shelby, Champaign, Logan and Union.
In our last report, Mr. Klippart sketches the plan he has adopted for
the Agricultural Survey required by the law, and reports the progress
made up to the date of publication of that volume. During the past
season, he has continued his investigations with commendable diligence ;
has now gone over about three-fourths of the State, and has gathered a
very large amount of interesting and important facts. As I have before
stated, I hope to be able to procure, without expense to the State, for pub-
lication in the Agricultural volume of our Final Report, descriptive cata-
logues of the plants and animals of the State. These have an intimate
relation with agriculture, and a better knowledge of them is earnestly
craved by a large number of our citizens.
The Chemist of the Survey, Prof. T. Gr. Wormley, has been constantly en-
gaged during the year past, in the examination of our coals, ores and
other useful minerals. He has kept two assistants at work in his labora-
tory One, Mr. Weber, paid $75 per month from the Geological fund-
the other paid by Prof. Wormley Already some 550 analyses have been
made for the Survey, and the report of Dr. Wormley, contained in the last
volume, gives abundant evidence of the care and accuracy with which they
have been performed.
Much new material, illustrative of the Palaeontology of the State, has
been gathered during the past year, among which, I may mention, a fine
suite of the bones of the great ganoid fish, Dinichthys, obtained by Mr.
Wheat, in Sheffield, Lorain county ; fishes and reptiles from the coal rocks
at Clinton, Jefferson county, &c. I should also mention that the Cincin-
nati Geologists, Messrs. Dyer, James, Miller, Shaeffer, and others, have
kindly given us the use ot their splendid collections of fossils, the fruits
of many years labor among the rich deposits of the hills bordering the
Ohio. These, with much other material, have been caretully studied by
Mr. Meek. He has described the new species, and had them drawn in a
manner that can hardly be surpassed in this country, or abroad. Mr..
Meek has given us about half his time for the past year, at $150 per
month, and has furnished me twenty-five beautiful plates for our
The first and second of the four volumes composing our final report,
are devoted to geology and palaeontology ; that is, the geology of counties,
with figures and descriptions of the new species of fossil plants and ani-
mals, found in the different formations. Each of these volumes is to be
illustrated by fifty plates.
The third volume of the series, is devoted to Economic Geology, and
will contain the results of our examinations of our coals, iron ores, clays,
limestones, marls, &c, &c. In this volume, will be found a complete re-
view of our iron industry, already finished, embracing statistics of con-
struction and production of every furnace in the State, and comparisons
of these with the materials, methods and results of the iron manufacture
in Europe. I may say, in passing, that this review demonstrates that our
iron industry is altogether behind the age ; that now, a removal of the
duty on foreign iron would blow out every one of our furnaces ; but that
with the abundance and excellence of our materials, if our iron men will
introduce improvements, now generally adopted in the best iron smelting
establishments of the old world, they can protect themselves against all
changes of legislation, and defy foreign competition.
The fourth volume of our final report, will be devoted to Agriculture,
Zoology and Botany
Of the volumes I have enumerated, the first is ready for publication,
the other three are more than half done.
We are required by law to collect specimens of our rocks, fossils, ores,
&c, to form a State Cabinet. In compliance with this requirement, over
one hundred and fifty boxes of specimens have been collected and sent to
Columbus. These specimens have been stored and partially displayed in
room 100, in the State House. No suitable provision can, however, be
made in the Capitol for the Cabinet, and it is hoped that it will be pro-
vided for in the new building of the Ohio Agricultural College. Much of
the material collected is of great interest and value, and is no less worthy
01 preservation and exhibition, than that for which the State of New
York has appropriated an entire and expensive building, and Illinois is
making ample provision in her new State House.
As the best specimens in room 100, were being injured by dust or rap-
idly evaporatirjg, I have had them placed under glass in cheap cases,
where they can be seen and yet be safe. These cases are made portable,
so that they may be transferred to another room, when that shall be
COMPLETION OF THE SURVEY
When the law providing for the Geological Survey was passed, and the
term of three years fixed for its continuance, it was not supposed that it
would be possible to complete the work within the specified period. Prom
the very beginning, however, I have had the hope and purpose to finish
the survey at or soon after the expiration of the allotted time. To ac-
complish this, I have asked for, and received a somewhat larger annual
appropriation than that granted during the first year, and have put as
large a force into the field as could be judiciously employed. By all the
means at my command, the work has been pushed forward with the
greatest possible rapidity, consistent with thoroughness, and I am happy
to be able to state, that so good progress has been made, that if the ap-
propriations asked from the present Legislature be granted, not only the
field work of the Survey will be completed, but the Final Eeport required
by the organic law, (though as something additional to, and to be pre-
pared after the completion of the Survey,) will be ready for publication
within the present year.
COST OE THE SURVEY.
The entire sum paid from the State treasury for the field and office
work of the survey to January 1, 1872, is $51,000, with an unexpended
balance of appropriation of $1,050. I have asked for an additional ap-
propriation of $13,900 for the current year. As provision has already
been made by the Legislature to carry on the survey to May 15, 1872, the
additional amount which is asked, is $10,000. With this appropriation,
it will be possible to complete the examination of every county of the
State on the same scale on which the work has thus far been carried on.
Should this be granted, the entire cost of the field and office work of the
survey — all for which the corps is responsible, — will be $65,900.
The cost of the publication of the results of the survey will rest with
the Legislature, and will depend on the style and size of the editions of
the volumes printed. Whatever it may be, to some persons it will seem
large, but the expenditure will bare been distributed through a number
of years, and I have no hesitation in saying will be repaid a hundred
fold to the people of the State in the revelation it will make of the qual-
ity, quantity and uses of our mineral staples.
Illinois and California are spending much more than we shall do, on both
tbe field work, and publications of their Geological Surveys, and the
survey of New York has cost that State more than $050,000.
In conclusion, I may say tbat this report would have been prepared at
an earlier date if I had not been for a time disabled by chills and fever
contracted in the service of the State.
Tour obedient servant,
J. S. NEWBEEEY,
Columbus, Ohio, February 15, 1872.
PAPER PROM PROP E B. ANDREWS.
Columbus, O., February 1, 1872.
Hon. Edward F. Noyes, Governor of the State of Ohio ,•
Dear Sir : — In accordance with your request for information relative
to the work already done and yet to be done, upon the Geological Survey
of the State, I have the honor to give the following statement of facts
concerning the Second Geological District, to which my own personal
labors have been confined.
The Second District includes the south-eastern portion of the State,
bounded by the Central Ohio Bailroad on the north, by the Ohio river on
the east and soutb, and, approximately, by the Scioto river on the west.
The larger part of the district is within the limits of the productive coal
measures. The work of the survey began in June, 1869. In 1809, prox-
imate outlines of the various formations were run, and a good beginning
made upon the detailed study of the stratigraphical and economic geology
of the coal measures. The survey of that season covered parts of Lick-
ing and Muskingum counties, all of Perry, and portions of Hocking and
Athens, the plan of investigation being to follow the strata of the lower
coal measures from the north to the south line of the district. These in-
vestigations, in 1869, proved to be of great value to the State, by authen-
ticating the quantity and quality of coals, thereby contributing to an
enormous advance in the market values of large areas of coal lauds, and
giving stimulus to mining industries, and to the building of several rail-
In 1870, investigation extended from the vicinity of Nelsonville, along
the lower coal measures, through Hocking, the western part of Athens,
through all of Vinton, all of Jackson, all of Lawrence, all of the mineral
portion of Seioto, and a part of Gallia. The results of this work are
embodied in the Eeport for 1870. They are of the highest economic value
and importance, and reveal many facts of great scientific interest. The
counties above named contain the finest iron-ores of the State, and sus-
tain a large number of furnaces.
In 1871, my investigations extended through nearly all the remaining
counties of the district lying within the limits of the coal field. They are
Meigs, Athens, Morgan, Muskingum, Xoble, Guernsey, Belmont and
Monroe. It has been my aim to carry on my work with such minute ac-
curacy of detail, and so to exhibit it in my reports, by maps and sections,
that the reports shall serve as a guide and hand-book for tbe people of the
several counties. Generally, each town in every county has been visited.
I have also, so far as possible, gathered representative samples of coals,
iron-ores, lire-clays, limestones, hydraulic limestones, etc., etc., for chem-
ical analysis by Prof. Wormley, and many of the results already reached
by him are of the highest value.
There remains to be done : —
First. More stratigraphical icork in a limited portion of the district,
In Washington county there are some well-marked uplifts, along the axis
of which much petroleum has been obtained. A careful and accurate
determination of the positiou and dip of the strata along these lines of
disturbance is very desirable, and will require considerable field-work.
The counties situated upon the "Waverly formation will require additional
investigation in regard to the building stone they may contain.
Second. There must be special investigations made of the coals, ores,
limestones, including hydraulic limestones, fire-clays, brines, petroleum,
building stones, sand-rock for glass, etc., etc., before the work of the dis-
trict may be said to be complete in its economic aspects. For this work
a chemical department of the survey will be imperatively needed.
Third. There should be carried on, at the same time, the work of col-
lecting and investigating the various extinct forms of animal and veget-
able life, which lie buried in the rocks of the district. To many, this work
possesses peculiar interest, and the survey would be very incomplete
without it. For this part of the work in the Second District, there has
been, as yet, very little time devoted, except in making a few collections
of fossils, most of which are in the very competent hands of Mr. F B.
Meek, of Washington, for examination and description.
In conclusion, I may state that to complete the work of the survey in
the Second District, with that fullness and entire accuracy of details
which should characterize all scientific work, and which alone will com-
mand the confidence of scientific men, on the one hand, and of the intel-
ligent capitalist on the other, will require two or three years more of
time, and this time to be devoted exclusively to the work. For such de-
votion and labor the geologist should be paid an adequate compensation.
I am, with great respect,
Very truly, yours,
E. B. ANDKEWS,