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Columbus, O., March 25 r 1879. 
To Mis Excellency Rutherford B. Hayes, Governor ; 

In compliance with a resolution passed by the Senate, directing that certain portions 
of our Geological Report heretofore submitted should not await the engraving of the 
plates, but be published immediately, I have made the selection of the materials Called 
for by the resolution, and transmit them herewith. They consist of — 

I. A sketch of the progress of the Geological Survey, in 1869, by myself. 
II. A Report ou the Straitsville Coal Field, by Prof. E. B. Andrews. 
III. A Report on the Geology of Montgomery County, by Prof. Edward Orton. 
All of which is respectfully submitted. 

Your obedient servant, 


Chief Geologist. 






The first information obtained by the citizens of Ohio in regard to the 
geological structure and mineral resources of the State, was derived 
from the report of a committee appointed under a resolution of the Leg- 
islature, passed the 14th day of March, 1836, " To report to the next Leg- 
islature the best method of obtaining a complete geological survey of the 
State, and an estimate of the probable cost of the same." This commit- 
tee consisted of Dr. S. P. Hildreth, chairman, Dr. John Locke, Prof. J. 
H. Riddell, and Mr. I. A. Lapham. 

In the execution of the task assigned to this committee, geological re- 
connoisances were made during the succeeding summer, of the Coal 
Measures of South Eastern Ohio, by Dr. Hildreth, and of the western 
and northern portions of the State, by Prof. Riddell and Mr. Lapham ; 
while chemical analyses of various iron ores and limestones were made 
by Dr. Locke. The observations and conclusions of this committee were 
embodied in reports from all the members, which reports were submitted 
to the Legislature at their succeeding session, and were published by 
State authority. At this time the science of geology had nowhere at- 
tained anything like its present perfection, and very little was known by 
any one in regard to the structure of our own country. The geological 
survey of New York was then in progress, but the splendid results ac- 
complished by it had not yet been announced. As a consequence, the 
gentlemen who formed this committee prosecuted their investigations,, 
not only pa. an untried field, but with little that could serve to guid& 
them in observations made elsewhere by other geologists. At that time 
almost nothing was known in this country of palaeontology. No one- 
had learned what are the characteristic fossils of our formations, and,, 
consequently, the relative positions of the different strata met with wera 
to be painfully worked out by a careful examination of the rare expo- 


sares of their lines of contact. It was not easy nor even possible, in all 
instances, to identify any of the formations by their lithological charac- 
ters alone, for these are proverbially unreliable, and they are often found 
to change completely in going from county to county. It is now well 
understood, not only that fossils are safe and convenient guides in study- 
ing the relations and distribution of fossiliferous rocks, but that their 
assistance is indispensable, and that no conclusions can be regarded as 
accurate and trustworthy unless confirmed by their evidence. The well- 
read palaeontologist finds in every characteristic fossil an infallible record 
of the age of the rock that contains it, so that, when he can read the 
language, the fossiliferous rocks are all ticketed to his hand. Nothing 
can better illustrate the truth of these statements than the laborious and 
^inful efforts of our pioneer geologists to determine, without palseonto- 
logical data, the age and relations of our formations. After spending a 
summer in the study of the group of limestones which underlie the west- 
ern part of the State, Dr. Eiddell, with considerable hesitation and diffi- 
dence, announces the opinion that the blue limestone of Cincinnati un- 
derlies and is older than the buff limestone of Columbus. Even, two 
years afterward, when the Geological Board, subsequently created, had 
devoted two seasons of field work to the study of our geology, the exact 
geological ages of these formations were still undecided. 

Much valuable information was, however, contained in the reports of 
the special committee, especially in that of Dr. Hildreth, where the first 
glimpse is given to the public of the structure and richness of the south- 
em iron district — lying between Marietta and Portsmouth — where the 
Coal Measure ores exhibit a development equalled in no other part of our 
country, and where the iron industry of Ohio has, till lately, been mainly 

In obedience to their instructions, the committee submitted a plan for 
a general geological survey of the State, with an estimate of the neces- 
sary expenditure. The Legislature of 1836-37 at once acted on the re- 
commendation of the committee, and passed a bill on the 27th of March, 
1837, providing for a geological survey, appointing a corps of geologists, 
and voting an appropriation of $12,000 for the prosecution of the work 
during one year. 

The board then organized consisted of the following members : 

W. W. Mather, State Geologist. 
De. S. P. Hildreth, ") 

Dr. John Locke, 

Prop. J. P. KiRTLAND, , Assistants 

J. W. Foster, J- Assistants. 

Charles Whittlesey, 
C. Briggs, Jr. 


These gentlemen entered upon their duties during the following spring, 
and the results of their summer's work were embodied in the " First 
Annual lieport on the G-eology of Ohio,"' (8vo. pp. 134), presented to the 
Legislature at the ensuing session, and immediately publish^ . 

This report includes records of geological reconnoisances by Professor 
Mather, Dr. Hildreth and Mr. Briggs, and preliminary reports on zoology, 
by Prof. Kirtland, and on topography, by Col. Whittlesey. Prof. Locke, 
having spent the summer in Europe, took no part in the geological work 
of the corps during the first year, and made no report. 

In the succeeding summer, the work of the Geological Survey was con- 
tinued under the same organization. The observations made during this 
season were presented, and published in a report of 286 8vo. pages, en- 
titled " The Second Annual Eeport of the Geological Survey of the State 
of Ohio, Columbus, Ohio, 1837." This volume includes reports of W. W. 
Mather, pp. 30, Col. Whittlesey, pp. 32, Mr. Poster, pp. 36, Prof. Briggs, 
pp. 47, Prof. Kirtland, pp. 46, and Dr. Locke, pp. 86 ; and contains much 
valuable information in regard to tbe geological structure and mineral re- 
sources of the Stat.e. 

In consequence of the financial panic of 1837, and the paralysis of 
business that followed, it was considered necessary to diminish, in every 
possible way, the public expenditure, and, accordingly, the Legislature of 
1838-9 made no appropriation for the continuation of the Geological Sur. 
vey, and it was at once suspended. However plausible the arguments in 
favor of such a step may have appeared, there are comparatively few of 
our citizens who do not now feel that it was dictated by a short-sighted, 
policy. The benefit derived by the State from the geological reconnois- 
ance — for it was little more — made by the State Board, conclusively 
demonstrated that the Geological Survey was a producer and not a con? 
sumer ; that it added far more than it took from the public treasury, and 
therefore deserved special encouragement and support, as a wealth-pro- 
ducing agency, in our darkest financial hour. 

By the arrest of the work of the Geological Corps, the development of 
our mineral resources was not entirely stopped, but it was greatly retarded 
and thrown from public into private hands. During the thirty years that 
elapsed before a new Geological Survey was organized, much v&a* done 
by private parties in the investigation of the geology and economic value 
of certain tracts and districts of the State. Careful surveys of. mining 
properties, elaborate analyses of coal, iron, etc., etc., were made at private 
cost, and there is very little doubt that for such investigations,, in the 
long interval of time I have designated, more money was paid than would 
have sufficed to complete the pnblic survey begun in 1837, Ail the infer- 


mation thus gained was, however, monopolized by those who paid for it, 
and- instead of enlightening the landholder as to the abundance and 
value of the minerals his farm or tracts contained, it oftener served the 
purposes of the speculator only, guiding him in his purchases and plac- 
ing the farmer quite at his mercy. There are many who think the devel- 
opment of the mineral resources of our State should be altogether left 
to time and private enterprise ; but no one who has watched with any 
care the progress of events during the last twenty -five years, in this and 
other States, will have failed to notice that it very rarely happens that 
the owner of a farm containing coal, iron, clay, or any other useful min- 
eral, will, of his own accord and at] his own expense, have any or all of 
his subterranean treasures so far investigated as to learn with accuracy 
their value. To do this, he must invoke the aid of the geologist and 
chemist, personages with whom he is not only unacquainted — since they 
are probably residents of a distant city — but of whose professions he has 
in all probability only a dim and shadowy idea. He therefore holds his 
land at its agricultural value, and sells it at such valuation to the first 
speculator who suspects, tests, and theu discovers its hidden wealth. 

The publication of the reports of the First Geological Board did much 
to arrest the useless expenditures of money in the search for coal outside 
of the coal field, and in other mining enterprises equally fallacious, by 
which, through ignorance of the teachings of geology, parties are con- 
stantly led to squander their means. From the tendency which all min- 
ing schemes have to excite the imagination, it is scarcely less important 
to our people to know accurately what we have not, than what we have, 
among our mineral resources. 

During the last twenty years, efforts have been made by members of 
the Legislature who appreciated the importanee of a thorough investiga- 
tion of our mineral wealth, to have the geological survey resumed. For 
this end recommendations were made in several of the messages of our 
Governors, and bills were introduced by Dr. Jewett, Mr. Canfield and 
Mr. Scott, and by General Garfield ; but though the value of such inves- 
tigations to the credit and industry of the State was generally confessed, 
and there was no considerable opposition to either bill originating in 
doubt of the intrinsic merit of the measure, yet, at one time because the 
State Treasurer had appropriated to his own uses half a million of the 
people's money, and subsequently because the treasury was long kept 
empty by the expenditures upon the State House, it was thought by the 
majority wiser to defer making appropriations for this, as well as various 
other confessedly desirable objects, till the finances of the State should be 
in a better condition. In all these years, however, the State was suffering 


a positive annual loss, felt in both its industry and credit, for the want of 
the knowledge a properly conducted geological survey could not fail to 
impart. Every financial agent of the State, located in or visiting the 
moneyed centres of our country or the world; agents going abroad to 
effect loans with which to construct our lines of railroad, all took pains 
to gather information in reference to our geology, and all had to deplore 
the fact that this information was so meagre. 

Finally, the great rebellion came upon us with all its horrors, and its 
waste of life and treasure. For five years all the thoughts and energies 
of the people were turned to the arts of war, and the arts of peace were 
well-nigh forgotten. When, however, the struggle was over, and the 
nation's life, so eagerly sought and strongly imperiled, was saved, our 
citizens soldiers laid down their arms to return to plow and workshop, 
and once more the processes of creation and conservation succeeded to 
those of destruction. 

Among the methods suggested for repairing the breaches of war, and 
moving faster the retarded wheel of progress, was a geological survey ; a 
thorough investigation of the qualitj , quantity and distribution of each 
of our mineral staples, with a view to the expansion of all the wealth- 
producing industries based upon them. 

This measure was recommended to the Legislature of 1869, in the annual 
message of Governor Hayes, and was made the subject of a bill introduced 
into the House of Eepresentatives by Oapt. Alfred E. Lee, of Delaware 
county. This bill was subsequently passed in March, 1869, by a large 
majority, irrespective of party, in both branches, and became a law, of 
which the following is a copy : 


Section 1. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the Slate of Ohio, That the governor 
is hereby required to appoint, by and with the advice and consent of the senate, a chief 
geologist, who shall be a person of known integrity and competent practical and scien- 
tific knowledge of the sciences of geology and mineralogy ; and tipon consultation with 
said chief geologist and the like concurrence of the senate, the governor shall appoint 
one or more suitable assistants, not exceeding three in number, one of whom shall be a 
skillful analytical and agricultural chemist ; the said chief geologist and assistants to 
constitute a geological corps, whose duty it shall be to make a complete and thorough 
geological, agricultural and mineralogical survey of each and every county in the Btate. 

Sec. 2. The said survey shall have for its objects : 

1st. An examination of the geological structure of the state, including the dip, mag- 
nitude, number, order and relative position of the several strata, their richness in coals, 
clays, ores, mineral waters and manures, building stone and other useful materials, the 
value of such materials for economic purposes, and their accessibility for mining or 


2d. An accurate chemical analysis and classification of the various soils of the state, 
with the view of discovering the best means of preserving and improving their fertility, 
and of pointing out the most beneficial and profitable modes of cultivation. Also a care- 
ful analysis of the different ores, rocks, peats, marls, clays, salines and all mineral waters 
within the state. 

3d. To ascertain by meteorological observations the local causes which produce var- 
iations of climate in the different sections of the Btate. Also to determine by strict 
barometrical observations the relative elevation and depression of the different parts of 
the state. 

Sec. 3. It shall be the duty of said chief geologist, in the progress of the examinations 
hereby directed, to collect such specimens of rocks, ores, soils, fossils, organic remains 
and mineral compounds, as will exemplify the geology, mineralogy and agronomy of the 
state ; and he shall deposit said specimens, accurately labeled and classified, in a room pro- 
vided by the state board of agriculture, to be carefully preserved under the supervision 
of said board. 

Sec. 4. It shall be duty of the chief geologist, on or before the first Monday in Jan- 
uary of each year, during the time occupied in said survey, to make a report to the gov- 
ernor of the results and progress of the survey, accompanied by such maps, profiles and 
drawings as may be necessary to exemplify the same, which reports the governor shall 
lay before the general assembly. 

Sec. 5. When the said survey shall be fully completed, the chief geologist shall make 
to the governor a final report, including the results of the entire survey, accompanied by 
such drawings and topographical maps as may be necessary to illustrate the same, and 
by a single geological map showing by colors and other appropriate means the stratifi- 
cation of the rooks, the character of the soil, the localities of the beds of mineral deposits, 
and the character and extent of the different geological formations. 

Sec. 6. The annual appropriations which may be made by the general assembly for 
carrying out the provisions of this act, shall be expended under the direction of the gov- 
ernor upon the certificate of the chief geologist, approved by the governor, and the war- 
rant of the auditor of state, as follows : 

For salary of chief geologist, three thousand dollars. 

For salaries of assistants, not more than eighteen hundred dollars each. 

For chemicals, five hundred dollars. 

For contingent expenses of the survey, including actual traveling expenses of the geolo- 
gical corps and hire of local assistants, five thousand dollars. 

Sec. 7. No money shall be paid for the purposes of said survey, until the chief geolo- 
gist and his assistants shall have entered upon the discharge of their duties as prescribed 
by this act. 

Sec. 8. The survey shall be commenced by the first of June next, or as soon thereafter 
as practicable, and shall be completed within three years from and after the time of its 

Sec. 9. This act shall take effect and be iu force from and after its passage. 

In the performance of the duty assigned to him by this act of the 
Legislature, the Governor nominated the following persons members of 


the Geological Corps ; and these nominations were comfirmed by the 
Senate : 

J. S. Newberry, Chief Geologist. 

E. B. Andrews, ) 

Edw. Orton, > Asst. Geologists. 

John H. Klippart, ) 

In addition to those whose names are enumerated above, a number of 
persons were employed as local assistants, for whom also provision was 
made in the law, namely : 

Eev. H. Hertzer, Andrew Sherwood, 

M. C. Bead, E. D. Irving, 

Frederick Prime, Jr., W. A Hooker, 

W. P. Ballantine, W. B. Potter, 

G. K Gilbert, Henry Newton, 

H. A. Whiting. 

Of these, Mr. Hertzer, who had been for many years a diligent student 
of Ohio Geology, and had discovered the most interesting series of fossil 
remains yet found within our territory, was paid from the salary of the 
Chief Geologist; as a compensation to the State for any time devoted by 
him to other duties. Mr. Prime, a graduate of the School of Mines of 
Freiberg, in Saxony, was engaged for three months, at $50 per month. 
Mr. Eead, who had also had considerable geological experience, was paid 
$100, and Mr. Ballantine $50 per month, during the season when field 
work was practicable. Of the other members of the corps, Messrs. Gil- 
bert and Sherwood were geologists who had devoted much time to prac- 
tical geology in New York and Pennsylvania, and who, for the purpose 
of adding to their experience, volunteered their services for no other 
compensation than their traveling expenses. The five remaining names 
on the list are those of graduates of the School of Mines of Columbia 
College, who brought to our work a thorough preparation in chemistry, 
mineralogy and metallurgy, and who also gave their services during the 
summer, with no other compensation than their expenses. 

The law providing for the Geological Survey requires a careful agricul- 
tural survey to be made, and as Mr. Klippart, one of the Assistant Geol- 
ogists appointed by the Legislature, had for many years devoted himself 
to the study of agriculture, and since 1856 had filled the position of Sec- 
retary of the State Board of Agriculture, the agricultural department 
was committed to him. 

The purely chemical work of the Survey, a most important department, 
was committed to Prof. T. G. Wormley, of Columbus, one of the best 
chemists in the country. 


The law authorizing the Geological Survey provides that such survey 
should begin on the first of June, 1869, " or as .soon thereafter as practi- 
cable." In accordance with this provision, the members of the Geological 
Corps entered upon their duties at this date. 

The first duty required by law of the Geological Corps was the accurate 
determination of the geological structure of Ohio. This was a necessary 
prerequisite to all the subsequent work of the Survey. During the many 
years that had passed since the former Board was disbanded, geological 
surveys had been maintained, with more or less thoroughness, in New 
York, Pennsylvania, Kentucky, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Arkansas, 
Kansas, Iowa, Wisconsin, Michigan and Canada, and the observations 
made by the geologists of those States in different and widely-separated 
localities, had presented discrepancies that had given rise to long, earnest, 
and sometimes bitter discussions. Before the diverse conclusions of these 
various observers could be harmonized, and the succession and distribu- 
tion of the rocks represented in our geology be fully made out, it was 
necessary that these views should be compared in Ohio ; that observations 
made east, west, north and south should here be connected. Ohio thus, 
in some sort, formed the key-stone in the geological arch reaching from 
the Alleghanies to the Mississippi ; and for many years geologists in our 
own country and abroad had been looking forward with great interest to 
the time when the geological survey in Ohio should supply this key-stone, 
and render our whole geological system complete and symmetrical. It 
was also necessary that our work should be, first of all, blocked out in its 
generalities ; that we should learn precisely what formations were repre- 
sented in the State, their order of superposition, their mineral character 
and contents, their thickness and the geographical areas occupied by 
their outcrops. 

To accomplish this work, our field was divided into four districts, con- 
sisting of the north-east, the south east, the south-west and the north- 
west quarters of the State, all cornering at Columbus. The immediate 
supervision of the work in the north-eastern seetion was assumed by my- 
self; that of the south-eastern quarter by Prof. Andrews; of the south- 
western by Prof. Orton; of the north-western by Mr. Hertzer and Mr. . 
Gilbert. To Prof. Andrews were assigned Messrs. Ballantiue and Irving 
as assistants; to Prof. Orton, Messrs. Newton and Whiting. Messrs. 
Bead, Sherwood, Hooker and Potter were occupied in the northern half 
of the State, and Mr. Prime devoted himself to the duty for which he 
was especially qualified — the investigation of our mines, and manufac- 
tures based upon mineral staples. 

Fortunately for the success of our efforts in this portion of our duty, 
an excellent topographical map of Ohio had recently been made by my 


friend, Prof. Walling, and published by H. S. Stebbins, of New York. Of 
this map numerous copies, obtained in the sheets were placed in the hands 
of the members of the corps. To economize time, and secure the benefit 
of a division of labor, the different formations were assigned to different 
observers. The younger members were made each familiar with a stratum 
or formation, and then, with map in hand, they followed it wherever it 
led, carefully tracing its line of outcrop. They were also instructed to 
make observations and take notes on all the subjects we were required to 
investigate, with the injunction to so thoroughly perform their work along 
each line of observation that it might never be necessary to go over the 
ground a second time. The scope of the observation made by our corps 
will be best comprehended from the following schedule of instructions 
placed in the hands of all : 


1. Topography. — Note a. — Altitudes of important points, by barometer, or by refer- 
ence to railroad or canal levels. 

6. — Topographical features and cause of ditto. 

c. — Get railroad or canal profiles wherever possible. 

2. Soil. — Note character (sand, clay, loam, muck, wet, dry, etc.), depth, origin, rela- 
tions to underlying rock. 

3. Vegetation. — Note nature of vegetation and its relation to soil and geological 

4. Surface Geology. — Note a. — Superficial materials (clay, sand, gravel, etc.), of lo- 
cal or foreign origin 1 stratified 1 thickness ? fossils ? 

6. — Glacial surface — planed ? scratched ? furrowed ? direction of furrows ? 

c. — Terraces and lake ridges— Composition, extent, altitude. 

A. — Peat bogs and marl beds ; under former or present marshes. To be sought by bor- 
ing. Fossils are elephant, mastodon, etc. 

e. — Depth of rock-bottoms of valleys and stream-beds. Often 100 to 200 feet below 
present streams. 

5. Geological Structure. — Note lithological character, thickness, subdivisions, 
faults, dip, strike and fossils of each stratum. Trace geology on map. Take sections 
and sketches. 

6. Economic Geology. — Note — Iron Ore — Coal — Clay— Peat — Marl — Manganese — 
Phosphate of Iron — Infusorial Earth — Glass Sand— Building Stones — Stone for flagging, 
paving, furnace-hearths — Limestones — Hydraulic Limeston es — Gypsum — Petroleum 
(Wells, Springs, Sections of Wells) — Mineral Springs — Salt Springs, Licks, Wells — Gas 
Springs — Mineral Paint Calcareous Tufa. — Water Supply, Springs, Wells, (Sections of 
Wells) — Note quality, quantity and accessibility of all of the above economic minerals 
met with. If mined or manufactured, the quantity and quality of the mined or manu- 
factured article. 

7. Indian Relics. — Note mounds, earthworks, inscriptions — Excavate and survey — 
Collect arrow-heads, axes, spears, pottery, etc. 

8. Manufactures (of Mineral Staples). — Note source, quality and cost of material — 
Quantity, quality and price of product — Construction of works— Statistics of 1868, 1869. 
Get suits of raw and manufaotu red materials. 


10. Mines. — Note geographical position and accessibility — kind, quantity and quality 
of product — plan of mines and works. 

11. Collecting Specimens. — Of rocks of each formation and important stratum — 
■with and without fossils — collect ten sets 3x4x1 inch. Coal, iron ore, clay, etc., 3x4x1 
inch. Fossils, as many good ones as possible. 

Label or number each specimen in the field ; wrap in soft paper; pack in boxes, if 
possible, of not over two cubic feet capacity, flat specimens on edge. Fill the box. Tack 
on addressed card, with district, locality, and number of box, and name of collector. 
Ship by express or freight, taking receipt. 


The general results of our summer's work upon the geological structure 
of the State, are given in the map and section now published. In the 
section are represented all the formations yet recognized in the State, 
with the relative position of each; some such a section, in fact, as would 
be made by sinking a shaft about 4,000 feet in depth, on the eastern mar- 
gin of the State, where the highest members of our series form the sur- 
face rocks. To make this map and section intelligible, I will briefly re- 
view the different formations represented on them. 


Commencing at the bottom of the section, it will be seen that the first 
step in our geological staircase is formed by what is called the Cincinnati 
group, the Blue Limestone series of the former Geological Corps, and the 
equivalent of the Trenton and Hudson groups of New York. These lie 
near the base of the series of unchanged fossiliferous rocks found on our 
continent, and belong to the Silurian system. Below all these lies the 
great mass of crystalline rocks — once stratified sedimentary beds, but 
now upheaved and metamorphosed — which form the Eozoic system, com- 
posed of two groups, the Laurentian and Huronian. These rocks are 
exposed in a broad belt, extending from Labrador to Lake Superior, and 
thence north to the Arctic Sea; a portion of our continent not only com- 
posed of the oldest rocks of which we have any knowledge, but the oldest 
portion of the earth's surface known to us; one that has never been sub- 
merged beneath the ocean since a period anterior to the formation of our 
oldest palaeozoic strata. 

We have evidence that at one time a broad continental area filled a 
large part of the space now occupied by our North America, and was com- 
posed of the same rocks that now constitute the Canadian highlands. In 
process of time this continent began to sink, and the sea gradually en- 
croached upon its surface, ultimately covering all except the belt I have 
described. From this sea, in its various advances and retrocessions, our 


different geological formations have been deposited. These consist of 
sandstones, shales and limestones, or some commingliug of these different 
rocks. The mode in which these strata have accumulated may be described 
in a few words. All continental surfaces are constantly suffering erosion 
by the influence of rain, rivers and shore waves, and the material com- 
minuted by these agencies is carried into the ocean basin and deposited 
along the shore, frequently in distinct belts. The shore itself is com- 
posed of rocks undergoing processes of comminution, gravel or sand. In 
deeper water accumulates the finer material washed from the shore itself 
or contributed by rivers. This settles in a belt parallel with the first, and 
when examined is found composed of fine sand or clay. Outside of, this 
second belt, and beyond the point where the wash from the land reaches, 
there is constantly accumulating a stratum derived from the decomposi- 
tion of the various structures belonging to the animate forms inhabiting 
the ocean. Most of these organisms are provided with calcareous shells, 
and so their debris forms a calcareous mud — that which is known to 
sailors as ooze, and such as is brought up on the lead in all deep sea 
so .Hidings. Now it will be evident that when the sea invades the land, 
each of these belts will be extended inljand; the sheet of sand and gravel 
reaching continuously as far as the submergence progresses, the finer 
mechanical sediments nearly, but not quite, as far and overlapping the 
first; the organic sediments being deposited above the others and only in 
the open sea, or where it receives but little wash from the land. These 
strata, which we have thus seen forming, when consolidated by pressure, 
heat, and the deposit of soluble silica or carbonate of lime, are conglom- 
erate from gravel, sandstones from sand, shale from clay, and limestone 
from ooze. In just this way all the sedimentary rocks have been formed. 

In the State of Ohio, the first of the series of strata deposited on the old 
sunken continent, is not visible — as it is covered and concealed by those 
which overlie it — but going northward to the Canadian highlands, or the 
Adirondacks of New York, we reach portions of the old continental sur- 
face which, as I have said, have never been submerged. Here the series 
is complete ; the lowest, and that resting on the crystalline rocks, being a 
sandstone named the Potsdam sandstone. Above this occurs the forma- 
tion, composed for the most part of a mixture of lime, sand and clay, called 
from this fact the Calciferous sandrock. Over this again lies the great 
group of limestones, of which the Trenton limestone is the most conspi- 
cuous, which includes the Blue limestone, the lowest stratum exposed in the 
State of Ohio. 

From what has been said it will be apparent that these three groups of 
Lower Silurian strata are the products of the first invasion by the sea of 
the old continent. Each of them forms a sheet underlying the entire 


valley of the Mississippi. Of this we have evidence, not only in what we 
see in the Ozarksand Alleghanies — that have been upheaved in such a way 
as to bring up and expose the older rocks — but also in borings made at 
St. Louis, Louisville and Columbus. In all these wells the older Silurian 
rocks have been reached. Our Ohio well was sunk to a depth of 2,775 
feet 4 inches. I am thus accurate, because I was once called upon to 
report upon the probability of getting from the well the hoped for artesian 
flow of water. The boring was discontinued, perhaps at my suggestion* 
as it seemed to me that the structure of this portion of our State was not 
favorable to a flow of water to the surface, and as proved by the observa- 
tion of Dr. Wormley, the temperature of the well at the bottom was 91 
degrees — that of our hottest summer weather. The water was also salt. 
Hence had a water-bearing crevice been struck at a greater depth, the 
flow from it of hot and salt water could hardly have been suited to the 
purpose it was intended to serve — the supply of the. State House and 
Capitol grounds. 

However unsuccessful as regards the purpose for which it was bored, 
this well gave us interesting evidence of the nature of the strata under- 
lying those which are exposed to sight in our State. These were plainly 
the Calciferous sand rock (here containing much more lime and magnesia 
and less silica than in New York) and the Potsdam sandstone, which had 
not been passed through when the work was arrested. 


The Cincinnati or blue limestone group is exposed in the southwestern 
corner of the State (that surrounding the city of Cincinnati), and extends 
southward into what is called the blue-grass region of Kentucky. The 
reason why over this area the Lower Silurian rocks are exposed, while all 
the country about them is occupied by more recent formations, is that it 
lies on the line of a great arch or fold of the strata, which runs parallel 
with the folds of the Alleghany mountains, and was doubtless produced 
by" the same cause. Subsequently to the elevation of this arch, the rocks 
forming its summit were extensively removed by surface erosion, and 
thus the lower strata were exposed to view. 

The thickness of the Cincinnati group is about 1,000 feet. It is inter- 
esting both from the number and variety of the fossils which it contains 
(mollusks, corals, crinoids and Crustacea), and also for the fertility of the 
soil it has furnished. By reference to the map it will be seen that the 
margin of the blue limestone area is extremely ragged and irregular. 
This is an accurate representation of nature, however, for Prof. Orton has 
traced this line with the greatest care. Its sinuosities are due to the ex- 


cavation and removal of the overlying rocks by all the tributaries of the 
Little Miami ; thus the valley of each stream forms a narrow or wide pro- 
longation of the blue limestone surface, while the divides are composed of 
more recent rocks. 


These are parts of the Upper Silurian system, and are mostly limestones, 
the Clinton from 10 to 50 feet thick, according to the locality where it is 
observed, the Niagara about 200. The lines of outcrop of these rocks are 
nearly parallel with each other and to the margin of the Blue limestone, 
and along this line the Clinton makes its only appearance in the State, 
but the over -lying Magara, concealed in the central portion of the State 
by over-lying strata, presently to be mentioned, reappears on the lake 
shore, and forms the crown of the arch to which I have referred, down 
nearly as far as Bellefontaine. The Clinton group will be remembered by 
many when I say that it forms the cliffs bordering the Genesee below the 
falls at Rochester ; the Magara, that it composes the shelf over which 
the water pours in the great cascade from which it is named. 

The Magara limestone has considerable economic value, inasmuch as 
it furnishes much of the lime used in building in various portions of the 
State, and is the rock so highly esteemed in southwestern Ohio, known 
as the DaytoD stone. 


The Magara is succeeded in the ascending scale by the Salina and 
Water-lime groups which form the summit of the Silurian system. These 
strata are so named, because the first and lowest contains the salt and 
gypsum of central New York ; while the upper, as its name implies, is 
characterized by the presence of hydraulic lime, and is the formation 
which furnished the hydraulic cement manufactured in Western New 
York and Louisville, Kentucky. These two limestone beds, with two 
others and a bed of sandstone which overlie them, and the Clinton and 
Magara below, were united under the name of the Cliff limestone, in the 
reports of the former Geological Board. One of the results of our past 
summer's work has been to resolve this Cliff limestone into its compo- 
nent parts, and to show that it includes seven distinct formations, be- 
longing to two great geological systems. Up to the time of the organiza- 
tion of the present survey, it may be said that only one of the formations 
composing the "Cliff" had been distincly recognized — the Corniferous 
limestone, that of which the State House is constructed. Evidence of 
the presence of the Magara had been obtained, but nothing definite was 


known with regard to its geographical position, thickness, or relations 
to the associated rocks. 

The manner in which the Water-lime group was identified will serve to 
illustrate the way .in which the different members of our geological series 
have been investigated and their ages determined. It is now a well 
recognized truth, that paleontology is an indispensable aid to the study 
of our sedimentary rocks. Each formation is characterized by a greater 
or less number of fossils, which are found only in them. 

In the identification of the Water-lime group, I was guided entirely by 
its fossils. The most easterly of the islands in Lake Erie, Kelley's 
Island, was, I knew, composed of the Corniferious limestone, as it is full 
of fossils characteristic of that formation ; but the more westerly islands^ 
Put-in-Bay, North and Middle Bass, &c, are wrought out of a hard gray 
limestone, generally without fossils, and apparently quite different from 
any portion of the " Cliff," as seen in the southern part of the State. 
In this rock, after much search, I discovered a little bivalve crustacean, 
having the form and size of a bean. This was at once recognized as 
Leperditia alta, a fossil of the Water-lime portion of the Upper Silurian 
of New York. With the Leperditia at the East are associated two or 
three other fossils, found only in the Water-lime, and, for confirmation of 
the indication one of the group had afforded, the others were diligently 
sought, and at length were all found. Three of these are small shells, 
the fourth a very peculiar crustacean, (Uurypterus remipes) having some- 
what the form of a scorpion, but from 6 to 12 inches in length. In these 
fossils we have irrefragible evidence of the identity of the rock forming 
the islands I have named with the Water-lime of New York. Just 
beneath this stratum lies the Salina group, which contains the Onondaga 
gypsum and that of Sandusky. We subsequently found the water-lime 
to form the surface rock over a large area in the interior of the State; 
In several places it embraces strata that have hydraulic properties, and 
by an examination of its outcrops we shall hereafter doubtless find, if 
that has not already been done, an abundant supply of this useful min- 
eral, for which we now pav more than $100,000 annually to our neighbors. 

The Salina contains gypsum at Sandusky, and doubtless at other locali- 
ties ; though this formation is so generally covered by the Water-lime 
that the gypsum is less frequently accessible than could be desired. This 
is also a great salt-bearing stratum, and evidence has already been gath- 
ered which indicates that where not penetrated by surface water it will 
furnish brine of the requisite strength, and probably in sufficient quan- 
tity to make it an important item in our mineral resources. 



The great group of rocks represented in the geology of Ohio, is that 
called the Devonian system, — so named from its development ih Devon- 
shire, England, — and a group well known to most intelligent persons at 
the present day, through the glowing descriptions written by Hugh 
Miller, of one portion of it — the Old Eed Sandstone — and the wonderful 
fossil fishes it contains. In England fishes are first met with in the 
Upper Silurian — the equivalent of the Niagara lime-stone — but in this 
country no traces of vertebrates are found till we ascend to the Devonian. 
Here, however, they occur in large numbers, and the rocks of Ohio have 
furnished some of the largest and most remarkable of all these strange 
forms of ancient life. 


In New York, the lowest member of the Devonian System is the Oris- 
kany sandstone, a formation until the last year not recognized in Ohio, 
but one which we have now identified in a number of localities, princi- 
pally in the north-western quarter of the State. It is here represented 
by a white saccharoidal sandstone, not more than ten feet thick, gener- 
ally destitute of fossils, but furnishing a pure quartzose sand that is des- 
tined to be largely employed in the arts for the manufacture of glass, &c. 
Some of the characteristic fossils of the Oriskany, Spirifer arenosus, &c, 
have been found in Indiana, near the Ohio line. 


Above the Oriskany comes a stratum of buff limestone, fifty feet or more 
in thickness, generally crowded with fossils, corals, shells, crinoids, &c, and 
in some localities altogether made up of masses and branches of coral, 
representing, in fact, the coral reefs of the Devonian seas. Such is its 
character on the islands of Lake Erie, and at the falls of the Ohio. This 
formation is known to geologists as the Corniferous limestone, a name 
given to it in New York, from the nodules of flint or hornstone which it 
contains.- The Corniferous limestone forms two lines of outcrop in Ohio, 
one on each side of the great anticlinal axis to which I have before re- 
ferred. Of these outcrops, the most easterly includes Kelley's Island, 
Marble Head and the country about Sandusky ; thence running nearly 
southerly to the Ohio River, but in the central portion of the State ex 
tending toward the west so as to include the region around BeMbntaine. 
In the southern part of the State the Corniferous outcrop is, gradually 
2 — Geological. 


narrowed ; the formation diminishing in thickness as it approaches the 
Ohio, where it disappears altogether. 

On the other side of the anticlinal axis the corniferous belt crosses the 
State line at Sylvania, thence sweeps round to Port Defiance, and passes 
into Indiana at Antwerp. This is the rock upon which Columbus stands, 
and of which the State House is built. Its economic value is very great, 
as is the interest attached to its fossil remains. It is perhaps the most 
extensively employed for the manufacture of lime of all the rocks of the 
State, and in certain localities it furnishes a building stone not inferior 
in beauty and value to any other. The quarries of Mr. Clemens, on Mar- 
ble Head, and those of Mr. Clark, of Delphos, Paulding county, may be 
referred to as the source from which building stones are procured of spe- 
cial beauty and excellence.* 

The fossils contained in the Corniferous limestone are so varied and 
numerous that I can only mention a few of the most interesting, the fishes, 
to which I have already referred. These fishes form several genera and 
species, one of which, Macropetalichthys Sullivanti, was first obtained 
from the quarries of Mr. Joseph Sullivant, near Columbus, and was 
named in his honor. This was a large buckler-headed fish, of which the 
cranium, composed of articulated plates, was sometimes fifteen inches in 
length, and closely resembled that of the sturgeon. Another still more 
remarkable fish of the Corniferous limestone, is one of the many interest- 
ing discoveries made by Mr. Hertzer. . This I have called Onychodus, from 
the claw-like form of its teeth. The most striking feature in this great 
fish was presented by the under jaws, which were as broad as one's arm, 
and from twelve to eighteen inches in length, thickly set with teeth ; 
while enclosed between their anterior extremities — in what anatomists 
call the symphysis of the jaw — was a single crest of seven large conical 
hooked teeth, so set as to act like the prow of a ram. Like most of these 
ancient fishes it had a tessellated cranium, composed of plates covered 
with a beautiful tuberculated and enameled surface. The Corniferous 
limestone also containes some interesting fossil plants, among which are 
two remarkable tree ferns, the oldest land plants yet found on this con- 


In New York the Corniferous limestone is overlaid by the Marcellus 
shale, and a compound mass of limestones and shales of very consider- 
able thickness, to which the name of the Hamilton group has been given. 

*These and otter important building stones of the State are represented in the 
collections made by the Geological Corps daring the last summer, in blocks eight inches 
square and four inches thick. 


This formation is quite largely developed in Michigan, but has never been 
heretofore known to exist in Ohio. During the past summer, however, 
we have discovered its representative in a band of bluish, marly lime- 
stone, never exceeding twenty feet in thickness, resting upon the Cornif- 
erous limestone where that is overlaid by more recent rocks. From this 
marly limestone we have obtained many of the characteristic fossils of 
the Hamilton group, such as Spirifer mucronatus, Strophodonta demism^ 
Phacops bufo, etc. 


Above the Hamilton beds comes the great mass of black, bituminous 
shale, disignated by the former Geological Board as the " Black Slate." 
This is a very remarkable formation, not only from its wide distribution, 
but from its peculiar lithological character. Its outcrop forms a belt 
from ten to twenty miles in width, reaching from the Lake shore at the 
mouth of the Huron Biver, almost directly south to the mouth of the 
Scioto. It is every where a black rock, and by its resemblance to coal 
has given rise to innumerable mining schemes ; all of which, however, 
have ended in disappointment, as, though useful for the production of oil 
by distillation, it can never be successfully employed as fuel. The Huron 
shale is on an average 350 feet thick, and containing at least 10 per cent, 
of combustible matter, its carbon is equivalent to that of a coal seam 
forty feet in thickness ; a greater aggregate of combustible material than 
is contained in all the coal-bearing strata of the State. Doubtless the 
time will come when this great store of power will be in some way made 
available, but for the present its utilization seems for the most part be- 
yond our reach. By reference to the geological map, it will be seen that 
all the north-western corner of the State is colored with a dark tint, to 
correspond with that of the Black shale belt between the Lake and the 
Ohio. This is so colored, because we have lately learned that the Huron 
shale forms the surface rock in this region over an area of several coun- 
ties. In all geological maps made previous to the one now published, the 
Huron shale is represented as forming the Lake shore from near Sandusky 
to Conneaut, and it has generally been supposed to be the equivalent of 
the Hamilton group of New York. During the progress of the explora- 
tions of the last summer, however, we discovered that east of Avon 
Point, this black shale nowhere makes its appearance in the State, but 
that the shore of the Lake on the Reserve is composed of another and 
more recent group of shales. We have also obtained, in various localities, 
fossils which prove that this formation represents, in part at least, the 
Portage group of If ew York, and that . it is all more recent than the 


Much of the doubt which has hung around the age of the Huron shale 
has been due to the fact that it has been confounded with the Cleveland 
shale, which lies several hundred feet above it, and that the fossils (with- 
out which, as we have said, it is generally impossible to accurately deter- 
mine the age of any of the sedimentary rocks) had not been found. Yet, 
with diligent search, we have now discovered not only fossils sufficient to 
identify this formation with the Portage of New York, but the acute eye 
of Mr. Hertzer has detected, in certain calcareous concretions which 
occur near the base, at Delaware, Monroeville, etc., fossils of great scien- 
tific interest. These concretions are often spherical, are sometimes twelve 
feet in diameter, and very frequently contain organic nuclei around which 
they have formed. These nuclei are either portions of the trunks of large 
coniferous trees allied to our pines, replaced particle by particle by silica, 
so that their structure can be studied almost as well as that of the recent 
wood, or large bones. With the exception of some trunks of tree-ferns 
which we have found in the Corniferous limestone of Delaware and San- 
dusky, these masses of silicified wood are the oldest remains of a land 
vegetation yet found in the State. The Silurian rocks everywhere abound 
with impressions of sea-weeds, but not until now had we found proof that 
there were, in the Devonian age, continental surfaces covered with forests 
of trees similar in character to, and rivaling in magnitude, the pines of 
the present day.* 

The bones contained in these concretions are those of gigantic fishes, 
larger, more powerful, and more singular in their organization than any 
of those immortalized by Hugh Miller. These fishes we owe to the in- 
dustry and acuteness of Mr. Hertzer, and in recognition of that fact I 
have named the most remarkable one Binichfhys Hertzeri, or Hertzer's 
terrible fish. This name will not seem ill-chosen when I say that the fish 
that now bears it had a head three feet long by two feet broad, and that 
his under jaws were more than two feet in length and five inches deep. 
They are composed of dense bony tissue, and are turned up anteriorly 
like sled-runners, the extremities of both jaws meeting to form one great 
.triangular tooth, which interlocked with two in the upper jaw seven 
inches in length and more than three inches wide. It is apparent from 
the structure of these jaws that they could easily embrace in their grasp 
the body of a man — perhaps of a horse — and as they were doubtless 
moved by muscles of corresponding power, they could crush such a body 
as we would crack an egg-shell. 

* Prof. J. W. Dawson, of Montreal, has made known a very rich and interesting florae— 
similar to that of the coal period — found in the upper Deyonian rocks of New Bruns- 
wick ; and has described many other land plants, from New York and Canada, obtained 
from strata, some of which are of Hamilton age. 



The mass of shale to which I have referred as forming the Lake shore, 
is on the eastern border of the State, several hundred feet in thickness, 
but, like most of our rocks composed of mechanical sediment, it thins 
out toward the west, and in central Ohio has entirely disappeared. This 
formation also for many years formed debatable ground to geologists, but 
during the past summer we have been able to gather from it numerous 
fossils (Spirifer Verneuilii, Leiorliynchus mesacostalis, etc.) of species which 
prove the beds containing them to be the equivalent of the Chemung 
group of the New York geologists. The Erie shales are bluish or greenish 
in color, but, though in some places four hundred feet thick, they include 
less of interest or value than perhaps any other formation in our series, 
and therefore need not detain us. They form, as we now know, the sum- 
mit of the Devonian formation, and immediately underlie the most in ter 
esting and valuable division of our geology. 


As is known to most persons, the Carboniferous formation is so named 
from the beds of coal it contains in Europe and America, where our geo- 
logical nomenclature originated. Researches in other countries, made 
within a few years past, have, however, proved that more recent groups 
of rocks — as the Triassie in China, and the Cretaceous and Tertiary in 
our western Territories — include an equal amount of combustible matter, 
and perhaps as well deserve the name Carboniferous. 

In Europe, the Carboniferous formation is divided into three great 
groups ; the Lower Carboniferous or Mountain Limestone, the Carbonif- 
erous Conglomerate or Millstone Grit, and the Coal Measures, or the 
strata containing the workable seams of coal. In many parts of our 
country this is precisely the structure of the Carboniferous series, but in 
Ohio the Lower Carboniferous rocks consist mostly of mechanical sedi- 
ments — sandstone, shale, etc. — and the Mountain Limestone is almost 
entirely wanting. 

The lowest member which we possess of the Carboniferous group is 
that well known to most persons under the name of the " Waverly sand- 
stone," a name derived from the town of Waverly, in Pike county, where 
famous quarries are located upon it. By referring to the map, it will be 
seen that the south-eastern third of the State is colored of a uniform 
dark brown tint. This represents the Coal Measures. Parallel with the 
margin of this dark area is a narrow belt of red, which represents the 


Carboniferous Conglomerate. Outside of this a still broader belt of 
yellow occupies the position of the outcrop of the Waverly group — that 
which we are now considering. In southern Ohio this formation, accord- 
ing to Prof. Andrews, is 640 feet in thickness, composed mostly of sandy 
shales and ochery sandstone. Aside from the band of building stone to 
which I have referred, called the City Ledge, some five feet in thickness, 
and a stratum of highly bituminous shale just below it, sixteen feet thick 
(distilled for oil, and rich in interesting fossils}, the group here possesses 
few elements of economic value. In the northern part of the State, 
it is much less homogeneous, and is composed of the following elements : 

Cuyahoga Shale (dove colored shale and fine blue sandstone) - 130 

Berea Grit (drab sandstone) 50 

Bedford Shale (red and blue clay shale) 60 

Cleveland Shale (black bituminous shale) 20-60 

Of these the, Berea Grit is one of the most valuable elements in our 
geological series, inasmuch as, quarried at Amherst, Berea, Independ- 
ence, etc., it is a source from which we derive, in the form of grindstones, 
building stone, etc., at least a million of dollars annually. The value of 
this stone for the purposes I have enumerated is too well known to re- 
quire amplification. It is not only largely employed within our State, 
but exported both east and west, and is being used for the most beautiful 
and expensive public and private buildings in all our great cities. 

This Waverly group is a vast s'torehouse of fossils, many of which, 
especially the fishes, are of great interest. These have beea collected in 
considerable numbers during the past season, and the study given to 
them has enabled me to decide the long-mooted question of the age of 
the formation containing, them. By most geologists, this has been con- 
sidered as a portion of the Devonian formation, and the equivalent ot 
the Chemung and Portage of New York ; but, as I have shown, these 
groups are represented by the Brie and Huron shales, which underlie the 
"Waverly ; and the fossils to which I have referred prove beyond all 
doubt that the latter group is a portion of the Carboniferous system. 

These fossils are Paloeonisms 2 species, Ctenaeanthus 3, Gyracanfhus 2, 
Orodws 2, JSelodus 2, Polyrhizodm 1, Cladodus 3 / all Carboniferous forms, 
with great numbers of mollusks and crinoids, of which many species 
have been found elsewhere in the Lower Carboniferous, and some in the 
Coal measures. Among the latter I may cite Spirifer cameratus, Produe- 
tns semi-retimlatm, Streptorhynchtts umbraculum, and others.* 

* Prof. Winchell, State Geologist of Michigan, who has studied the mollusks of the 
Michigan equivalent of the Waverly, has for some years asserted that it was. of Carbon- 
iferous age. 


We have also discovered that the species found in this formation, 
claimed by some geologists to be indentical with those characteristic of 
the Devonian of other States, have all been wrongly named, and that so 
far as now known, no Devonian species occur in the Waverly. 


This rests upon the Waverly and forms the floor of the Coal measures ; its 
line of outcrop forming a narrow belt, encircling all the coal area. It is 
generally a coarse sandstone interstratifled with beds of greater or less 
thickness, composed mostly of rolled quartz pebbles, and constituting a 
typical pudding stone. The average thickness of the Conglomerate is 
perhaps one hundred feet, and it contains large numbers of fossil plants, 
generally similar to those found in the Coal measures. In some localities 
it also furnishes very beautiful building stone ; perhaps the most beauti- 
ful in our country. The places where it exhibits its best phases, are 
Akron and Cuyahoga Falls, in Summit county^ and Mansfield, Eichland 
county. The rock quarried at the first-named place, is of a deep pur- 
plish red, and has been used in the construction of some of the finest 
residences in the State. 


The Coal measures consist of a series of sandstones, shales, limestones, 
fire clays and beds of coal, of which the latter are the most important 
and interesting. The geographical area occupied by the coal rocks, as 
has been stated, comprises the south-eastern third of the State. As the 
general dip of all our rocks east of the great anticlinal, is towards the 
east, the Coal measures, which form the highest member of our series, 
grow thicker in that direction. In the vicinity of Wheeling, near the 
centre of the Alleghany coal basin — of which our coal area forms a part 
— the Coal measures have a thickness of about 1,500 feet, and include, 
perhaps, ten workable seams of coal, under each of which is a stratum of 
fire clay. These latter also contribute their quota to the great ecomical 
value of this part of our geology. Many of the sandstones of the Coal 
measures furnish excellent building materal; the limestones are useful 
for quicklime, and in the localities where they contain an unusual per- 
centage of clay, they can be used for the manufacture of hydraulic; 

The coal rocks are full of the remains of animal and vegetable life.. 
In the many years which I have devoted to the study of the geology of 
the Coal formation in Ohio, I have collected several hundred species of 
these fossils, of which a large number are new to science. Some of the 


more interesting species are represented in the drawings which have 
been submitted with the other materials forming our first report. 

With the plants, which constitute the most characteristic fossils of the 
Coal measures, we have found many shells, fishes and amphibians, and 
it is apparent that in this group of rocks we have a store of material 
which in its richness is pretty certain to exceed our means of illustration. 

The economical value of the mineral staples contained in this portion 
of our geological series, is such as to demand somewhat fuller exposition 
than I have given of the other subjects touched upon in the preceding 
hasty sketch of the geology of our State. I shall therefore venture to 
devote several pages each in the chapter on Economic Geology, to topics 
so important as Coal and Iron ; since they constitute the Jcraft und 
stoff, the force and matter of modern material progress. 


The materials known as the Drift deposits, are beds of sand, gravel 
and boulders, which form the surface of a large part of our State, and 
which have received the name of Drift, because they are generally foreign 
to the localities where they are found, and have beentransported (drifted) 
sometimes hundreds of miles from their places of origin. 

In Ohio, we have no geological formations intervening between the 
Coal measure and the Drift, and therefore have no representatives of the 
Permian, Triassic, Cretaceous or Tertiary. The reason of this is simply 
that about the close of the Carboniferous period the Alleghany Mount- 
ains were raised, carrying up all the area lying between the Mississippi 
and the Atlantic. Since that time no considerable portion of this region 
has been submerged, and therefore no deposits were made upon it during 
the ages I have enumerated. West of the Mississippi, the land has been 
long and often below the ocean level since the Carboniferous period, and 
there all the newer formations are well represented. 

The phenomena presented by the Drift are very varied and interesting, 
and it is evident that the Drift period formed one of the strangest and 
most' important chapters in all our geological history. Like most of the 
formations enumerated in the preceding pages, the Drift deposits have 
been discussed at considerable length ; and while it is true of the other 
groups, that a few words may suffice to convey a clear idea of them, or 
at least of the new things we have learned about them, the Drift phe- 
nomena are too complicated, too little known and too interesting to be 
so summarily dismissed. Hence, I am compelledto quote considerably 
at length from my report in order to impart any definite conception of 
the subject, 


The most important facts which the study of the Drift has brought to 
light, are briefly as follows : 

1st. Over the northern half of North America, and down as low as 
Dayton, in Ohio, we find, not everywhere, but in most localities where the 
nature of the underlying rocks is such as to retain inscriptions made upon 
them, the upper surface of these rocks planed, furrowed or excavated in a 
peculiar and striking manner, evidently by the action of one great denuding 
agent. None who has seen glaciers and noticed the effect they produce 
on the rocks over which they move, upon examining good examples of the 
markings to which I have referred, will fail to pronounce them the tracks 
of glaciers. 

Though having a general north-south direction, locally the glacial fur- 
rows have very different bearings, conforming in a rude way to the 
present topography, and following the direction of the great lines of 

2d. Beneath the Drift deposits the rock surfaces are, in many localities, 
excavated to form a system of basins and channels, often cut several hundred 
feet below the lakes and rivers that now occupy them. 

These channels frequently exhibit traces of ice action, and we may say 
that they have generally been modified, if not produced by ice, and date 
from the Ice period, or an earlier epoch. 

These valleys form a connected system of drainage at a lower level 
than the present river system — lower, in many places, than the surface 
of the ocean — and hence lower than could be produced without a conti- 
nental elevation of several hundred feet. A few examples will suffice to 
show on what evidence these statements are based. 

Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, Lake Brie and Lake Ontario, are basins 
excavated in undisturbed sedimentary rocks. Of these, Lake Michigan 
is 600 feet deep, with a surface level of 578 feet above tides ; Lake Huron 
is 500 feet deep, with a surface level of 574 feet ; Lake Erie is 204 feet 
deep, with a surface level of 565 feet ; Lake Ontario is 450 feet deep, with 
a surface level of 234 feet above the sea. 

An old, excavated, nonfilled channel connects Lake Erie and Lake 
Huron. At Detroit the rock surface is 130 feet below the city. In the 
oil regions of Bothwell and Enniskillen from 50 to 200 feet of clay over- 
lies the rock. What the greatest depth of this channel is, is not known. 
At Toledo, the rock surface is 140 feet below the lake. An excavated 
trough runs southward from Lake Michigan to the north line of Iroquois 
county, Illinois ; thence south-west through Champaign county, beyond 
which point it has not been traced. Its western margin is very sharply 
marked at Ohatsworth, Livingston county, where it has a depth of 200 


feet, and reaches to the Cincinnati group. Farther north its bounding 
walls are composed of Niagara limestone, which forms buried shoulders 
on the Calumet and Kankakee rivers. At Bloomington this trough ac- 
quires a depth of 230 feet, and it there contains one or more strata of 
carbonaceous earth, with trunks of trees supposed to represent ancient 
soils. Where penetrated in other localities the depth of this channel is 
from 75 to 200 feet, and it is filled with clay, sand, gravel, etc., (Prof. J. 
F. Bradley.) 

The rock bottoms of the troughs of the Mississippi and Missouri, near 
their junction or below, have never been reached, but they are many feet, 
perhaps some hundreds, beneath the present stream beds. 

The borings for oil in the vallies of the western rivers have enabled me 
not only to demonstrate the existence of deeply buried channels of exca- 
vation, but, in some instances, to map them out. Oil Creek flows from 
75 to 100 feet above its old channel, and that channel had sometimes 
vertical and even overhanging cliffs. The Beaver, at the junction of the 
Mahoning and Shenango, runs 150 feet above the bottom of its old trough. 
The Ohio, throughout its entire course, runs in a valley which has been 
cut nowhere less than 150 feet below the present river. 

The Cuyahoga enters Lake Erie at Cleveland more than 100 feet above 
the rock bottom of its excavated trough. The Chagrin, Vermillion, and 
other streams running into Lake Erie, exhibit the same phenomena, and 
prove that the surface level of the lake must once have been at least 100 
feet lower than now. 

At New Philadelphia the Tuscarawas is running 175 feet above its 
ancient bed. At Cincinnati the gravel and sand have been found to reach 
over 100 feet below low water mark, and the bottom of the trough has 
not been reached. At the junction of the Anderson with the Ohio in 
Indiana, a well was sunk 94 feet below the level of the Ohio before rock 
was found, (Hamilton Smith.) At Steubenville the railroad bride across 
the Ohio is built on cribs, the rock bottom of the channel not being 
reached. One of the piers of the St. Louis bridge was sunk in sand and 
gravel nearly 100 feet below the bottom of the Mississippi. 

The falls of the Ohio, formed by a rocky barrier across the stream, 
though at first sight seeming to disprove the theory of a deep, continuous 
channel in our western rivers, really afford no argument against it ; for 
here, as in many other instances, the present river does not follow accu- 
rately the line of the old channel, but runs along one side of it. At the 
Louisville falls, the Ohio runs across a rocky point which projects from 
the north side into the old valley, while the deep channel passes on the 
south side, under the low lands, on which fie city of Louisville is built. 


The importance of a knowledge of these old channels in the improve- 
ment of the navigation of onr larger rivers and lakes, is obvious ; and it 
is possible that it would have led to the adoption of other means than a 
rock cutting for passing the Louisville falls, had it been possessed by 
those concerned in this enterprise. 

If it is true that our great lakes can be connected with each other, and 
with the ocean, both by the Hudson and Mississippi, by ship canals — in 
making which no elevated summits nor rock barriers need be cut through 
— the future commerce created by the great population and immense re- 
sources of the basin of the great lakes may require their construction. 

3d. Upon the glacial surf ace we find a series of unconsolidated materials, 
generally stratified, called the " Drift Deposits." 

Of these, the first and lowest are blue or red clays (the Brie clays of Sir 
William Logan), generally regularly stratified in thin layers, and con- 
taining no fossils but drifted coniferous wood and leaves. Over the 
southern and eastern part of the lake basin these clays contain almost no 
boulders, but towards the north and west they include scattered stones, 
often of large size, while in places beds of boulders and gravel are found 
resting directly upon the glacial surface. 

In Ohio, the Erie clays are blue, nearly 200 feet thick, and reach up the 
hill-sides more than 200 feet above the present surface of Lake Brie. On 
the shores of Lake Michigan these clays are, in part, derived from different 
rocks, and they there include great numbers of stones. 

On the peninsula between Lake Erie and Lake Huron, the Erie clays 
fill the old channel which formerly connected these lakes, having a thick- 
ness of over 200 feet, and containing a few scattered stones. 

Above the Erie clays are sands of variable thickness and less widely 
spread than the underlying clays. These sands contain beds of gravel, 
and near the surface teeth of elephants have been fouud, sometimes 
water-worn and rounded. 

Upon the stratified clays, sands and -gravel of the drift deposits, are 
scattered boulders and blocks of all sizes, of granite, greenstone (diorite 
and dolerite), siliceous and mica slates, generally traceable to some 
locality in the Eozoic area north of the lakes. Among these boulders 
have been found many masses of native copper, which could have come 
from nowhere else than the copper district of Lake Superior. 

Most of these transported stones are rounded by attrition, but the large 
blocks of Corniferous limestone scattered over the southern margin of the 
lake basin in Ohio, show little marks of wear. Some of these masses — 10 
to 20 feet in diameter — have been transported from 100 to 200 miles south- 


eastward from their place of origin, and deposited 300 feet above the 
position they once occupied. 

Above all these drift deposits, and more recent than any of them, are 
the "lake ridges" — embankments of sand, gravel, sticks, leavs, etc., 
which run imperfectly parallel with the present outlines of the lake mar- 
gins. Of these the lowest on the south shore of Lake Erie is a little less 
than 100 feet above the present level of the lake ; the highest some 250 
feet. In New York, Canada, Michigan, and on Lake Superior, a similar 
series of ridges has been discovered, and they have everywhere been 
accepted as evidence that the waters of the lakes once reached the points 
they mark ; that they are nothing else than ancient lake beaches I shall 
hope to prove further on. 

In the southern half of the Mississippi Valley, the evidences of glacial 
action are entirely wanting, and there is nothing corresponding to the 
wide spread drift deposits of the north. We there find, however, proofs 
of erosion on a stupendous scale — such as the valley of Bast Tennessee — 
which has been formed by the washing out of all the broken strata 
between the ridges of the Alleghanies and the massive tables of the 
Cumberland Mountains — the canons of the Tennessee 1600 feet deep, etc. 
Here, also, as in the lake basin, the channels of excavation pass below 
the deep and quiet waters of the lower rivers, proving by their depth that 
they must have been cut when the fall of these rivers was much greater 
than now. 

The history which I derive from the facts cited above is briefly this : 

1st. At a period probably synchronous with the glacial epoch of Europe 
— at least corresponding to it in the sequence of events — the northern 
half of the continent of North America had a climate comparable with 
that of Greenland ; so cold, that wherever there was a copious precipita- 
tion of moisture from oceanic evaporation, that moisture was congealed, 
and formed glaciers which flowed by various routes toward the sea. 

2d. That the courses of these ancient glaciers corresponded in a general 
way with the present channels of drainage. The direction of the glacial 
furrows proves that one of these ice rivers flowed from Lake Huron 
along the channel now filled with drift, and known to be at least 150 feet 
deep, into Lake Erie, which was then not a lake, but an excavated valley, 
into which the streams of Northern Ohio flowed, 100 feet or more below 
the present lake level. Following the line of the major axis of Lake 
Erie to near its eastern extermity, here turning north-east this glacier 
passed through some channel on the Canadian side — now filled up — into 
Lake Ontario, and thence found its way to the sea, either by the St. 
Lawrence or by the Mohawk and Hudson. 


Another glacier occupied the bed of Lake Michigan, having an outlet 
southward through a channel now concealed by the heavy beds of drift 
which occupy the surface about the south end of the lake, passing near 
Bloomington, Illinois, and by some route yet unknown reaching the 
trough of the Mississippi, which was then much deeper than at present. 

3d. At this period the continent must have been several hundred feet 
higher than now, as is proved by the deeply excavated channels of the 
Hudson, Mississippi, Columbia, Golden Gate, etc., which could never 
have been cut by the streams that now occupy them, unless when flowing 
with greater rapidity and at a lower level than they now do. Similar 
submarine troughs lead out from the mouths of the Chesapeake and 
Delaware Bays, showing that the Susquehanna, Potomac, York and James 
rivers were once branches of a single stream, which like the Schuylkill, 
had its mouth far to the east of the present coast line. 

The depth of the trough of the Hudson is not known, but it is plainly 
a channel of erosion, now submerged and become an arm of the sea. 
This channel is marked on the sea bottom ^for along distance from the 
coast, and far beyond a point where the present river could exert any 
erosive action, and hence it is a record of a period when the Atlantic 
coast was -several hudred feet higher than now. (J. D. Dana.) 

The lower Mississippi gives unmistakable evidence of being — if one 
may be permitted the paradox — a half-drowned river ; that is, its old 
channel is deeply submerged and silted up, so that the " Father of Wa- 
ters," lifted above the walls that formerly restrained him, now wanders 
lawless and ungovernable, whither he will, in the broad valley. 

4th. The Ice period — a period of continental elevation and of active 
erosion — was followed by a water period, when the continent was de- 
pressed live hundred feet or more below its present level ; when the cli- 
mate was much warmer than before, when the glaciers retreated north- 
ward and were gradually replaced, in tiie basin of the great lakes, by an 
inland sea of fresh water. In this period were deposited the fine, lami- 
nated clays (Erie clays) which cover so much of the glacial surface in 
the interior of the continent, and the " Champlain clays," that hold the 
same relative position on the Atlantic slope. The Champlain clays con- 
tain abundant marine, arctic shells, but the Erie clays are not certainly 
known to contain any fossils except floated trunks, branches and leaves 
of coniferous trees — pines and spruces — now growing on the northern 
part of the continent. 

5th. After the deposition of the Erie clays, sand, gravel and boulders 
in large were transported from the region north of the lakes, 
and spread over a wide area south of them. That these materials were 
not carried by currents of water or glaciers is certain ; as either of these 


transporting agents would have torn up the Erie clays, which now form 
an unbroken sheet beneath them. We are therefore forced to the con- 
clusion that they were floated to their resting places, and that by ice- 
bergs. Icebergs are always formed by the rupture of the end of a gla- 
cier protruded into the sea ; and they always carry boulders, gravel and 
sand from their places of origin, and deposit them when they melt. 
When our lake-basin glaciers had retreated to the highlands north of 
the lakes, icebergs were detached from them, and floated southward, 
sowing sand, gravel and boulders broadcast over the southern shallows, 
just as they are now doing over the banks of Newfoundland and the 
bottom of the Antarctic ocean. 

6th. During the water period, the old, deeply excavated channels of 
our river system were silted up — in many cases entirely obliterated — and 
up to a certain level all the asperities of the surface smoothed over by the 
Drift deposits, just as minor inequalities are effaced by a fall of snow. 

7th. Following the water period, ensued an era of continental eleva- 
tion, which progressed until the present level was reached, and the 
Champlain clays and the other Drift deposits were raised several hun- 
dred feet above the ocean level. By this elevation of the continent most 
of the old lines of drainage were re-established, and the rivers began 
the work of clearing out their old channels. In most cases this work is 
not yet half done, and in many — as the Genesee, at Portage, New York 
Eocky Eiver, in Cuyahoga county, O., and others too numerous to men 
tion — the line of lowest levels taken by the new streams did not follow 
their old routes, and new channels were formed. Some of these have 
been cut down one hundred feet or more in the solid rock, so that this, 
the last phase in the Drift phenomena, has consumed ages of time. 

8th. The last emergence of the continent took place slowly, as we 
know, and its progress was marked by periods of repose. In these in- 
tervals of rest our terraces, old shore-cliffs and lake ridges were formed, 
and this may be properly designated as the Terrace epoch. Local and 
minor terraces are formed by constantly deepening streams swinging 
from side to side in their valleys, but all the great and general terraces 
were formed by the arrest in dead water of the materials transported by 
flowing water. Old shore-cliffs are beautifully shown in many places 
along the lines of outcrop of the Conglomerate and Berea Grit in Lorain, 
Medina, Cuyahoga, Geauga, Lake, etc. The lake-ridges mark old shore 
lines, on a sloping surface composed of drift materials. Just such are 
now being formed around the south end of Lake Michigan, between 
Cedar Point and Huron, on Lake Erie, and in a thousand plaees along 
the Atlantic cost, especially in Virginia and the Carolinas. In the 


north-western portion of Ohio the lake-ridges form a series of curves, 
imperfectly parallel with each other and the present lake shore. From 
the nature of the material composing them, and their elevation above 
the surrounding surface, they are always well drained, so that the roads 
of that section are often located on them. The "ridge roads" are well 
known, and they mark the lines of the principal ridges. 

The formation of these ridges was the last act in the drama of the 
Drift. When the upper ones were formed, the whole lake basin and 
much of the country bordering the upper Mississippi was submerged by 
one great inland sea. Even when the ridge which ran through the city 
of Cleveland was formed, the water of Lake Erie stood one hundred feet 
higher than now, and all our great lakes formed a single sheet of water, 
broken only by a few scattered islands. The depression of the water 
level was apparently caused by the cutting down of the 'outlets. , That 
process is perhaps going on as rapidly now as ever. The last hundred 
feet of depression of the water surface, we know, has been effected by 
the cutting down of the Niagara barrier, and every day now must wit- 
ness something removed from it by the torrent that rushes over it. 
Larger lakes than those on which we now pride ourselves have been 
emptied, in the western part of our country, by the cutting down of 
the gorges of the Columbia, Klamath and Sacramento; and it is evident 
that, if present causes continue to operate, at no very remote period, 
geologically speaking, all our lake basins will be converted into vallies 
traversed by rivers. 

9th. In the retreat of the shore line from the contraction of the water 
surface to its present area, every part of the slope between the present 
and highest ancient lake levels — i. e., all within a vertical height of three 
hundred feet — must have been submitted to the action of the shore 
waves, rain and rivers, by which these loose materials were rolled, 
ground, sorted and shifted until little was left of the original bedding. 
The fine materials — clay and sand — must have been washed out and car- 
ried farther and still farther into the lake basin, to form, in short, the 
upper sandy layers of the Drift. 

In this " modified Drift," especially in the old river deltas, the remains 
of elephant and mastodon are frequently found; never, so far as yet 
known, in the older, true Drift. 

I have said that the erratic blocks, of northern origin, which stud the 
surface over so large a space south of the lakes, were the last of the 
Drift deposits. That the lake ridges are of later date is proven by the 
fact that; while the ridges often traverse strewed with boulders, 
none of these are ever found on them. 


In all the changes of elevation and climate which the valley of the 
Mississippi experienced during the Drift period, its general structure 
and main topographical features remained the same ; yet the character 
of its surface suffered very important modifications, and such as deeply 
affected its fitness for human occupation. Going back to the later Ter- 
tiary ages for a starting point, we find the following sequence of events 
recorded : 

a. In the Miocene and Pliocene epochs: The continent several hun- 
dred feet lower than now ; the ocean reaching to Louisville and Iowa ; 
great lakes in the country bordering the Upper Missouri ; a sub-tropical 
climate prevailing over the lake region ; the climate of Greenland and 
Alaska as warm as that of southern Ohio now, (palms growing as far 
north as Lake Superior) ; herds of gigantic mammals, elephant, masto- 
don, rhinoceros, &c, with great cats and other carnivorous animals cor- 
responding in size and numbers to their prey, the herbivorous, all now 
extinct, ranging over a fertile and beautiful surface. 

b. A pre-glacial epoch of gradual continental elevation, in which the 
erosion of our lake basins and river valleys, began long before, was 
continued with Increasing energy as the elevation of the surface became 
greater, giving greater fall to the streams, and supplying, by greater 
breadth of surface and better condensers, an increased flow of drainage. 
Accompanying this elevation and in part dependent upon it, but mainly 
due to astronomical causes, was a depression of temperature which cul- 
minated in the " Glacial Epoch," when the continent was many hundred 
feet higher than now, the climate of Ohio was similiar to that of Green- 
land at present, and glaciers covered a large part of the surface down to 
the parallel of 40 degrees. These glaciers planed down much of the 
more level surface, but along the drainage lines widened the valleys of 
the water- courses, and excavated the basins of our great lakes. By the 
cold of the " Glacial Epoch," the Arctic flora and fauna were brought 
down to our latitude ; the tertiary flora and fauna driven southward and 
to a great degree destroyed. 

c. The ice period was followed by another interval of continental sub- 
sidence, characterized by a warmer climate, by melting glaciers, by an 
inland sea of fresh water filling all the lake basins, and by the deposit 
of the clays, sands and boulders of the Drift (Erie clays, Ohamplain 
clays, &c.,) 

d. Another epoch of elevation, probably still progressing, in which 
the water surface has been much diminished, the silted-up valleys of the 
streams partly cleared, the terraces and lake ridges formed, and a wide 
territory, covered with the drift deposits, opened to human occupation. 


Much of the topographical monotony which characterizes the north- 
western part of the State, is due to the spread of the drift clays over all 
the irregularity of the underlying rocks. The system of agriculture 
pursued in all this region has followed as a necessity the deposition of 
these clays ; so that they have not only determined the occupation of a 
large portion of our people, but have affected all their modes of thought 
and action, and they may almost be said to underlie the manners and 
morals,' as they do the farms and towns, of all the dairy districts. 



Coal is entitled to be considered as the mainspring of our civilization. 
By the power developed in its combustion, all the wheels of industry are 
kept in motion, commerce is carried with rapidity and certainty over all 
portions of the earth's surface, the useful metals are brought from the 
deep caves in which they have hidden themselves, and are purified and 
wrought to serve the purposes of man. By coal, night is in one sense 
converted into day, winter into summer, and the life of man, measured 
by its fruits, greatly prolonged. Wealth, with all the comforts, the 
luxuries and the triumphs it brings, is its gift. Though black, sooty and 
often repulsive in its aspects, it is the embodiment of a power more 
potent than that attributed to the genii in oriental tales. Its possession 
is, therefore, the highest material boon that can be craved by a community 
or nation. Coal is also not ' without its poetry. It has been formed 
under the stimulus of the sunshine of long past ages, and the light and 
power it holds are nothing else than such sunshine stored in this black 
casket, to wait the coming and serve the purposes of man. In the pro- 
cess of formation it composed the tissues of those strange trees that 
lifted their sealed trunks and waved their feathery foliage over the 
marshy shores of the carboniferous continent, where not only no man 
was, but gigantic salamanders and mail-clad fishes were the monarchs of 
the animated world. 

On this picture, however, we have no time to dwell ; our present pur- 
pose is to consider coal in its utilitarian aspect, and to show what it is 
and for what it can be used. 

That the assertions I have made in regard to the economic value of 
coal are not exaggerations, will be apparent by a glance at the present 
material condition of the civilized,, world. 

Of all the nations of Europe, England is the most powerful, because 
she is the richest. Though occupying a group of islands insignificant in 
3 — Geological. 


area, she has spread her power over the entire globe, and it is her boast 
that the sun never sets on her possessions. It is well known to the 
political economist that the source of England's wealth has been her 
manufacturing industry; and the main-spring of her industry has been 
her stores of coal. In this respect , she enjoys a great pre-eminence over 
all the nations of Europe. The United Kingdoms have a coal area that 
has been reckoned at 10,000 square miles, while in round numbers 
Belgium has 500, France 2,000, Spain 4,000, and the other nations* of 
Europe still less. The annual coal production of Great Britain is now 
more than 100,000,000 tons, and a very short calculation will suffice to 
show what an important contribution this makes to her national' wealth. 
The power developed in the combustion of a pound of coal, is reckoned 
by engineers as equal to 1,500,000 foot-pounds. The power exerted by a 
man of ordinary strength during a day of labor is about the same ; so 
that a pound of coal may be regarded as equivalent to a day's labor of a 
man. Hence three hundred pounds will represent the labor of a man 
for a year. It has been estimated that 20,000,000 tons of the an- 
nual coal product of Great Britain is devoted to the development of 
motive power, and that this is equivalent to the labor of 133,000,000 of 
men. These men, in this calculation, are considered as exerting. merely 
" brute force ; " but since they may all be regarded as producers only, 
and not consumers — the profit on the balance of her coal product fully 
covering all expenses — we are safe in estimating the contribution made 
to the wealth of Great Britain, by her annual coal product, as equal to 
that of 133,000,000 of skilled operatives laboring for her enrichment. 

Such being the value to a nation or community of this combustible, 
let us see how our nation and our State have shared in nature's gifts. ~- 

The area of the coal field of Carboniferous age, laying within the 
limits of the United States, has been estimated at 150,000 square miles. 
The productive coal area of Ohio is not less than 10,000 square miles, or 
quite equal to that possessed by Great Britain, and far in excess of that 
of any other European nation. 

I have said that the annual coal production of Great Britain is over 
100,000,000 tons — a rate of expenditure of capital which is seriously 
alarming British economists. In Ohio the annual coal production is now 
about 3,000,000 tons. So it will be seen that we not only have an almost 
inexhaustible source of wealth in our coal fields, but that as yet we have 
scarcely begun to draw from this treasury. Hence I was justified in 
saying, as I did, that this promised to be by far the most important 
source of our power and material progress ; and one of the most import- 
ant duties pressing upon our legislators, and on us as geologists, is, by 


all means in our power, to promote the rapid and intelligent development 
of all the industries that are to spring from this source. 

In order that we may more clearly apprehend the nature and capabili- 
ties of the material which has such potency, and with which we are so 
richly endowed, I will briefly describe some of the varieties which it 
exhibits, and the uses to which they are adapted. 

Coal is now considered by all chemists and geologists of any standing, 
as of organic origin, and it may be easily demonstrated that It has been 
derived from the decomposition of vegetable tissue. As we find it in 
the earth, it forms one of a series of carbonaceous minerals which repre. 
sent but different stages in a progressive change from vegetable tissue 
as found in the living plant. In peat and lignite, we witness the first 
step in the formation of coal. Peat is bitumenized vegetation, generally 
mosses and other herbaceous plants, which under favorable circumstances 
accumulates in marshes, hence called peat-bogs. Lignite is the product 
of a similar change effected in woody tissue ; and because it retains, to a 
greater or less degree, the form and structure of wood, it has received 
the name it bears. Peat is the product of the present period, and lig- 
nites are found in deposits of recent geological age. In the older forma- 
tions, these carbonaceous accumulations, still further changed, are oitvr 
minous coal. Where special and local causes have operated to carry 
the change still farther, as where the beds of coal have been involved in the 
upheaval of mountains, and heat has acted upon it, it is converted into 
anthracite. Where this metamorphosis has been carried still farther, the 
result is graphite, or black lead. 

Most of the mineral fuels employed by the civilized nations of the 
world belong to the class of bituminous coals, but in our own country, 
up to the present time, by far the largest quantity of coal produced and 
consumed has been anthracite, because our beds of -coal which lie nearest 
the sea-board and have been longest worked, are of this character. 
These are, however, of the same age with our Ohio coal beds, and the 
peculiar phase which the coals of eastern Pennsylvania exhibit, is due to 
the fact that a portion of the great Alleghany coal-field was involved in 
the upheaval of the Alleghany mountains, and the coal, in common with 
the associated rocks, was greatly metamorphosed; its gaseous matter 
being nearly all driven off by the great heat which attended the eleva- 
tion of the mountains. 

The changes which vegetable tissue has suffered in passing through 
the various stages I have enumerated, are not only physical but chemi- 
cal. They have been carefully studied by several eminent chemists, and 
have been so fully explained, that they may be comprehended by any 
intelligent person. The rationale of this process may be seen at a glance 



by reference to the following formulae, taken from BischofiPs Chemical 
Geology : 

Wood. Loss. Feat. 

Carbon 49.1 — 21.50 = 27.6 

Hydrogen 6.3 — 3.50 ' = 2.8 

Oxygen 44.6 — 29.10 = 15.5 

Wood. Loss. Lignite. 

Carbon 49.1 — 18.65 = 30.45 

Hydrogen 6.3 — 3.25 = 3.05 

Oxygen.: 44.6 — 84.40 = 20.20 

Lignite. Loss. Bituminous Coal. 

Carbon 30.45 — 12.35 = 18.10 

Hydrogen 3.05 — 1.85 = 1.20 

Oxygen 20.20 — 18.13 = 2.07 

Bituminous Coal. Loss. Anthracite. 

Carbon 18.10 — 3.57 = 14.53 

Hydrogen 1.20 — 0.93 = 0.27 

Oxygen 2.07 — 1.32 0.65 

Anthracite. Loss. Graphite. 

Carbon 14.53 — 1.42 = 13.11 

Hydrogen 0.27 — 0.14 = 0.13 

Oxygen 0.65 — 0.65 = 0.0 

From this table it will be seen that the change from wood-tissue to 
peat or lignite, and from these to bituminous, thence to anthracite coal 
and plumbago, consists in the evolution of a portion of the carbon, hy- 
drogen and oxygen, leaving a constantly increasing percentage of carbon 
behind, until ultimately the resulting mineral consists of a portion of the 
original carbon of the plant with all its earthy matter. That portion of 
the original substance which is lost in the" progressive change, escapes 
in the form of some hydrocarbon, as water, carburetted hydrogen, car- 
bonic acid, petroleum, &c. The escape of these volatile compounds we 
see in the gases bubbling up from marshes where vegetable matter is 
undergoing decomposition ; in the gases generated in our coal mines, 
and, in my judgement, in our oil-springs, which always flow from strata 
charged with bituminous matter. By the application of heat, and with 
proper management, we can manufacture any of these mineral fuels from 
vegetable fibre at will. This has been done repeatedly, and although we 
eannot accurately reproduce the conditions under which these changes 
are effected in nature's laboratory, we can so closely imitate them as to 
demonstrate their character. 

We find also that, under peculiar circumstances, nature has departed 


from her usual routine, and has locally effected all the changes I haye 
enumerated, in a short space of time ; as at Santa ~Fe, New Mexico, 
where a trap dyke has cut through Cretaceous strata in which are beds 
of soft and nearly valueless lignite, and where over a large area this out- 
flow of melted rock has converted this lignite into a compact and valu- 
able anthracite. So at Los Bronces, in Sonora, Triassic coals are con- 
verted into anthracite by an eruption of porphyritic rock. On Queen 
Charlotte's Island, south of Alaska, is a Tertiary (?) lignite changed by a 
similar cause into the most beautiful and brilliant anthracite I have ever 

All the coals of Ohio belong to the group known as bituminous coals, 
but these exhibit very considerable diversity in their chemical and physi- 
cal characters, and the different varieties are adpated to very different 

Following an enconomic classification, our coals may be described as, 
first, dry, open-burning or furnace coal ; second, cementing or coMng coals ; 
third, cannel coals. 

The first of these includes those that do not coke and adhere in the 
furnace, and are such as may be used in the raw state for the manufac- 
ture of iron. 

The second group, to a greater or less degree, melt and agglutinate by 
heat, forming what blacksmiths term a "hollow fire." This property 
causes them to choke up the furnace and arrest the equal diffusion of 
the blast through the charge. Hence they cannot be used in the raw 
state for the manufacture of iron, but must be "coked." This process 
of coking consists in burning off the bituminous or gaseous portion; 
which leaves them in the condition of anthracite, except that, as this 
change is effected without pressure, the resulting material is cellular and 
spongy. Coals of this character, when free from sulphur — their great 
contaminating impurity — are used for the manufacture of gas ; the vola- 
tile portion, driven off in the retorts, serving the purpose of illumina- 
tion, while that which remains is coke, and may be used as fuel. 

The cannel coals have usually a more distinctly stratified structure, 
are more compact and homogenous in texture, and contain a larger per- 
centage of volatile matter than the others; also the gas they furnish has 
higher illuminating power. Hence they would be used, to the exclusion 
of all others, for the manufacture of gas, only that the coke which they 
furnish is of inferior quality. They are, therefore, for the most part, 
employed as household fuels — for which they are specially adapted — and, 
in small portions, for enriching the gas produced from cokiug varieties. 
The marked differences exhibited bv the kinds of coal I have enumer- 


ated, are doubtless due, principally, to the circumstances of their forma- 
tion. The furnace coals have generally a distinctly laminated structure, 
and are composed of bituminous layers separated by thin partitions of a 
material allied to cannel, which does not coke. Hence the bitumen in 
them is held in cells, and cannot flow together, and give the mass a pasty, 
coherent character. 

The cementing coals have few such partitions, but show, upon fracture, 
bread, brilliant surfaces of pitch like bitumen. Both these varieties are 
supposed to have been formed in marshes, where they were saturated, 
but not constantly covered by water. The cannel coals were deposited 
in lagoons of open water in the coal marshes, where the finely macerated 
vegetable tissue accumulated as carbonaceous mud. Hence they have a 
large percentage of hydrogen, and their gas has high illuminating power. 
Hence, also, the remains of shells, fishes, amphibians and Crustacea — all 
aquatic animals — so generally found in them. 

In Ohio, it chances that the lowest stratum in the series is generally a 
furnace coal. Along its northern line of outcrop this is known as the 
w Briar Hill coal." This coal enjoys a deserved celebrity for its adapta- 
tion to the manufacture of iron, and now furnishes the fuel by which half 
the iron produced in the State is made. In consequence of the structure 
of our coal basin, this coal stratum, underlying all the others, and dip- 
ping towards the south and east, is, for the most part, covered by the 
overlying rocks. As a consequence, up to the present time it has been 
worked only along its line of outcrop, and the great area it occupies below 
drainage is almost untouched. It is plain, therefore, that the time is not 
far distant when our people will be driven to reach and work it. by shaft- 
ing. In Ohio, we have as yet sunk but very few shafts, to reach seams 
of coal, and these to no great depth ; while nearly all the co'al mined in 
Great Britain is obtained by shafting ; sometimes to the depth of 2,000 
feet. By carefully studying the dip of the rocks (which is not uniform, 
but is frequently counteracted by folds that elevate or depress the coal 
seams from their normal planes,) we shall be able to do much- to guide 
the efforts soon to be put forth to reach it. Some localities are already 
known to me where this Briar Hill seam, far from its outcrop, rises much 
nearer the surface than it was supposed to be. Other like localities will 
doubtless be discovered, upon careful search. 

Another seam of coal which has this open-burning character is that 
known as the " Hocking Valley coal," found fifty or sixty miles south- 
east of Columbus, and over an area — estimated by Prof. Andrews, who 
has carefully studied that district — of not less th#n six hundred square 
miles, maintaining a thickness of from 6 to 11 feet, with a remarkable 


uniformity and purity of composition. Should this coal be capable of 
use in the raw state as a furnace fuel, it is destined to assume an impor- 
tance second to no other in the State, and to form a basis upon which a 
manufacturing industry will be established in its vicinity, by which not 
only that section but the entire State will be enriched. 

By far the greater portion of our coals are, however, of the coking 
variety ; and while these, up to the present time, have been little used as 
furnace fuels, it is certain that the general estimate of their value in this 
connection is a mistaken one, and that by proper management they can 
be so used as to accomplish all the purposes of the furnace coals, so 
called. In the Old World, three-fourths of the iron produced is manu- 
factured with coking coals; and it is only necessary that the processes 
followed there should be adopted here to insure an equally good result, 
except so far as affected by the difference in the price of labor. To inves- 
tigate the peculiarities of the different seams of coal included in this class, 
and prescribe the best method to be pursued in their use, is a great and 
important duty to be performed by this or some other Geological Board, 
and one that will add millions annually to the revenues of our people. 
In order to show how important this work is, I will only refer to the 
manufacture of iron in our south-eastern counties, until recently the most 
important centre of iron industry in the State. Here, there is an abun- 
dence of excellent ore, and forty furnaces that have been for years using 
charcoal for its reduction. But the supply of fuel afforded by the forest 
growth of a country is comparatively small, and it has there been already, 
to a large extent, exhausted. Now, this region abounds in coal, though 
mostly of the coking variety ; and it is evident that its prosperity and 
progress will hinge upon the intelligent adaptation of the coals found 
there to the purposes heretofore served by charcoal. If the mineral fuel 
of this portion of the State can be successfully employed in the reduction 
of its ores, the iron manufacture may be expanded to an indefinite extent; 
without this, it must not only cease to advance, but diminish. 

Already an exhaustive investigation into the properties and adapta- 
tions of the different Ohio coals, has been begun by the Geological Corps. 
This should be continned until every owner of coal lands, in every county 
in the coal area, shall know with accuracy how much and what kind of 
aoal he possesses, for what it is fit, how much it is worth, how it can be 
worked, and where it is to be marketed. It is not too much to expect, 
that, when this investigation shall have been completed, the industries 
of the State will be sensibly affected and very much expanded by it. 



While it is true that coal is, as we have called it, the main-spring of 
modern civilization, it is also true that much of its value depends upon 
its association with iron. In the few words I have devoted to our coal 
deposits, I have done nothing like justice to their richness and value ; 
and while Ohio cannot boast of an equal endowment in iron, it may at 
least be said that she has fully her share of this element of wealth. In 
most countries, certain varieties of iron ore are found associated with 
coal — blackband, clay-iron-stone, &c. — and in these ores Ohio is richer 
than any of those States that share with her our great Alleghany coal 
basin. Again, our coal field is so situated, and the coal it furnishes is 
of such quality, that a large part of the richer crystalline ores found in 
other States must inevitably be brought to our territory to be smelted 
and manufactured. 

In order that the conditions under which the production of iron is now, 
and is hereafter to be carried on in Ohio^ may be better understood, I 
will devote a few words to a description of the different varieties of iron 
ore found in our country, and their relation to the fuel with which they 
are to be smelted. 

The richest of all the ores of iron is the " Magnetic oxide," which con- 
tains, when pure, 72.4 per cent, metallic iron, and 27.6 oxygen. It con- 
sists of the protoxide and sesquioxide combined, and may be recognized 
by its black powder and its magnetic property. This variety of ore is 
found in great abundance in the crystalline rocks of the Alleghany belt, 
in the Aduondacks, and in Canada. It is the ore brought to us under 
the name of Champlain ore — from the fact of its occurrence on the 
shores of Lake Champlain — and is that mined so extensively in southern 
New York, New Jersey, and further south along the same line. Prom 
its abundance in the localities I have cited, and its proximity to the an- 
thracite coal of Pennsylvania, this ore has formed the basis of a very 
large manufacture in the Eastern States, and has furnished more of the 
iron produced in this country than any other single variety. 

As found in Canada, and along the Alleghanies, the magnetic ores are 
extremly prone to contain certain impurities, which injuriously afl'ect the 
metal produced from them. These are principally phosphorus in phos- 
phate of lime, and sulphur in the form of sulphide, or iron pyrites. Of 
these, the phosphorus renders the iron " cold short," or brittle when cold ; 
and the sulphur " red short," or tender at a red heat. Many of these ores 
contain also a large percentage of titanium, by which they are rendered 
refractory, and the iron made brittle. These defects in the eastern mag 


netic ores almost preclude their use for the finer qualities of iron and 
steel, and yet they are destined to form an important element in the man- 
ufacture of iron in Ohio. Iron making is, in one aspect, much like oil 
painting, for, as the painter gets his finest effects by skillfully blending 
many tints, so the ironmaker can only obtain his best results by using 
in the furnace several varieties of ore. The iron ores of Eastern New 
York and Canada, may, by the cheapness of return freights, be delivered 
within our territory at a price so low that they will continue to be used 
as they now are, in considerable quantities, by our iron smelters. Some 
of the Canadian ores can be. furnished on the Lake shore, at a very low 
figure, but these ores are so largely contaminated by sulphur or titanium 
that they are, at present, but little used. When, however, we shall have 
introduced the Swedish roasting furnace, which will remove, at little 
cost, three, and even four per cent, of sulphur, we may expect these 
ores to be much more largely imported than they now are. 

The ore next in point of richness to the magnetic, is that called " Spec- 
ular iron," which consists, when pure, entirely of peroxide. This is a 
crystalline ore, generally having a metallic appearance, and takes its 
name from the speculum-like reflections from its polished surfaces. 
When free from foreign matter, this ore contains 70 per cent, of iron, 
and 30 of oxygen. Most of the Lake Superior ores are of this character, 
as are also those of the Iron Mountains of Missouri. To us the Lake 
Superior ores are of immense importance, as will be seen from the fact 
that at least two-thirds of all the ore mined in the Marquette district are 
brought to our State ; and this ore constitutes the main dependence of all 
that great group of furnaces which have been constructed in the north- 
ern part of the State within the last twenty years. The product of the 
Lake Superior iron mines for 1868, was 507,813 tons, for 1869, 643,283 
tons, and of this, at least one-third is supposed to have been smelted 
with Ohio coal. The Lake Superior ores. are almost entirely free from 
phosphorus, sulphur, arsenic and titanium, the ingredients which so in- 
juriously affect iron ores elsewhere ; and the magnetic ores of Michigan, 
of which the supply is now known to be large, are the purest 'of which I 
have any knowledge. From these facts, it is evident that the Lake Super- 
ior iron ores are peculiarly adapted to the production of all the finer grades 
of iron and steel ; and indeed it is the opinion of our most accomplished 
metallurgists that the manufacture of steel in future years, so far as this 
country is concerned, will be based almost exclusively upon these ores. 

As I have before stated, the coals of the Alleghany coal field are supe- 
rior to those of the West ; and it is certain that nowhere can an abundant 
supply of mineral fuel suitable for smelting the Lake Superior ores be so 
cheaply obtained as in Ohio. Some portion of these ores are now, and 


will continue to be, smelted with charcoal on the upper peninsula of 
Michigan, but the supply of this fuel is so limited that it will play but 
an insignificant part in the iron manufacture of the future. 

I hare already referred to the iron ores of Missouri. These have be- 
come famous through the descriptions published of the magnificent de- 
posits of Iron Mountain, Pilot Knob, Sheppard Mountain, &c. These 
are specular ores of excellent quality, and are of importance to us, since 
.they are now used to a considerable extent in the southern part of the 
State, and still larger quantities are destined to be brought to our coals 
which outcrop on the banks of the Ohio. 

The ores which I have enumerated, constitute with our native ores, the 
main source of supply to our furnaces. I should add, however, to this 
list one other variety ; that which is known as the " fossil ore," a strati- 
fied red hematite, found in the Clinton group, and which forms a belt of 
out-crop extending, with more or less intermission, from .Dodge county, 
Wisconsin, across a portion of Canada, entering New York at Sodus Bay, 
passing through Oneida county, where it has received the name of the 
" Clinton ore," thence running . down, through central Pennsylvania, Vir- 
ginia and East Tennessee, into Georgia and Alabama. In this latter 
region it is known as the " Dyestone ore," from the fact that it has been 
employed by the inhabitants for imparting a reddish-brown tint to cloth. 
This Clinton ore is an anhydrous peroxide, containing from 40 to 50 per 
cent, of metallic iron, and generally a notable percentage of phosphorus. 
Its use in Ohio has depended . upon this latter quality, from the fact that 
it imparts a " cold-shortness" to iron made from it, and is supposed to 
correct the red-shortness of sulphurous iron. 

Within our own territory, we have all the varieties of iron that are ever 
associated with coal, viz : blackband, kidney ore, stratified ore — or, as it 
is called, block ore — and, in less abundance, brown hematite, the hydrated 
peroxide of iron. Of these, the blackband is a bitumous shale, largely 
impregnated with iron, taking its name from its stratificationand black 
color. In its natural condition, it contains from 20 to 33 per cent, of iron, 
but, by burning off the carbon, it becomes much richer. This ore is found 
and largely used in Mahoning and Tuscarawas counties, and is known to 
exist in Columbiana. Sought for by those who know it, it will undoubt- 
edly be discovered in many parts of the State. It smelts with great 
facilitj , making very fusible iron, and such as is especially adapted to 
foundry purposes. The kidney ore — an earthy carbonate of iron — gen- 
erally forms balls or concretions, lying in the shales of the coal forma- 
tion. Where these shales have been extensively eroded, the* ore is cheaply 
mined by "stripping;" and was the main dependence of most of our 
furnaces previous to the introduction of the crystalline ores. The yield 


of the kidney ore in the furnance will average about 33 per cent., or three 
tons of ore make one of iron. This ore is found, in greater or less abun- 
dance, in every country included with the coal area. The " block" ores 
of the coal measures vary much in purity and adundanee in different 
localities. They are generally strata of limestone charged with iron. In 
the southern portion of the State, ore of this character forms a large 
number of distinct beds, from two to six feet in thickness, and constitutes 
the principal source of supply of some forty furnaces now in blast in that 

In certain localities, some of these stratified iron ores near their out- 
crops are changed from their original condition, have lost their carbonic 
acid and have been converted into brown hematite. The average rich- 
ness of the stratified ores may be said to be about the same as that of 
the kidney ores — namely, 35 per cent, of metallic iron. The iron fur- 
nished by some of them is of very superior quality, as is proved by the 
reputation of the celebrated Hanging Rock iron made from these ores. 
Probably nowhere in the world are the ores of the coal measures so abun- 
dant and so rich and excellent as in the iron district of southern Ohio 
to which I have alluded. 


We have now considered, briefly, the principal elements — the coal and 
the ores — that are to form the basis of the great iron industry, which, in 
future years, is destined to be developed within our State. It is known 
to most persons that, with the fuel and ore, limestone is used in large 
quantity in the smelting furnaces; but, as this material is readily attain- 
able in all localities, it need not now occupy our time. I may say, how- 
ever, in passing, that a large amount of work needs to be done in our 
State in the investigation of the composition of our fluxes, and their 
adaptation to the ores we most use. In this part of the iron manufacture, 
our furnace men are working very much in the dark, and it is certain that 
they can receive important aid. 

The ordinary process of reduction of the ore in the blast furnace is so 
well known that I need not dwell on it in detail. All varieties of iron 
ore consists of a combination — sometimes exclusively, always mainly — of 
oxygen and iron. This oxygen, when brought in contact with earbon at 
a high temperature, unites with it, and passes off as carbonic acid or car- 
bonic oxide, leaving, as a result of this smelting process, cast iron. This 
is, however, not yet metallic iron, for it contains 4 to 5 per cent, of car- 
bon, and is a carburet of iron ; a hard, brittle substance, applicable to a 
thousand uses in the aits, but not yet malleable. The manufacture of 


bar iron consists mainly in the removal of this carbon. This change is 
effected by the agency of the " puddling process " as is it is called. In this 
proccess the cast iron, or what is termed " pig," is placed in a reverbera- 
tory furnace, and there exposed, at a high temperature, to the action of 
an oxidizing flame. This burns out the carbon and leaves the iron pure, 
except as it contains a small portion of silicon, sulphur, phosphorus, etc. 
As the iron in the puddling furnace approaches the malleable condition, 
it becomes adhesive and pasty, and is worked into balls ; these are taken 
out and passed through the squeezers and rolling-mill, where they become 
what is called " muck bar." Muck bar ordinarily requires still further 
refining, so it is cut into convenient lengths, piled, re-heated, re- rolled, 
and then comes out as " merchant bar." Thus we have cast iron and bar 
iron ; the two forms in which iron is mostly largely used by civilized man. 
This peculiar and protean metal is capable, however, of assuming still 
another condition, in which it supplies certain of our wants much more 
perfectly than do either of the forms before mentioned. This We call 
steel ; and steel differs from malleable iron only in containing from one- 
half to one and a half — say on an average one — per cent, of carbon. 
This carbon, though so minute in quantity, imparts to it peculiar pro- 
perties, rendering it capable of being cast like pig iron, without the loss 
of its malleability, and also communicates to it the all-important property 
of temper, by which its hardness is immensely increased, and it is fitted 
for many uses that no other material known to us can serve. 

The facts which I have detailed are known to most men at all educated 
in the iron manufacture. Hence, it may seem that this branch of indus- 
try is so simple and has been carried to such perfection that science can 
throw no new light upon it. And yet, as a matter of fact, there is scarce 
any art practiced by our people so eminently progressive, and so far 
from having reached perfection as this one. Indeed, our most intelligent 
furnace men have said to me, that there is no department of its work in 
which the Geological Survey is capable of being more useful to the peo- 
ple of Ohio, than by the assistance it can render to our iron manufac- 
turers in improving their process. 

To show the rapid changes that are taking place in the manufacture of 
iron, I will allude to one or two of the more important improvements 
that have been made in it within the last few years. 

Nearly all the iron used in the world, at the present time, is manufac- 
tured with mineral fuel, and yet if reference be made to the first report 
published by the former Geological Board — a little more than thirty 
years ago — it will be seen that the use of raw coal as a furnace fuel was 
then announced as a new and wonderful discovery ; and the first employ- 


ment of mineral fuel in Ohio dates from a period considerably subsequent 
to that. The old charcoal furnaces were thought to do well when they gave 
a yield of from thirty to fifty tons per week. Now there are several fur- 
naces in Ohio, each of which produces three hundred tons of pig in the 
same time, and some of the English furnaces are producing six hundred 
tons per week. 

Much of the improvement in our furnaces has been made within the 
last five or six years, and has consisted in increasing their dimensions, 
viz : the diameter, from ten to sixteen feet, and the hight, from forty to 
sixty feet, by adding to the force and temperature of the blast, by close 
top, &c. These improvements, so potent in their influence on the pro- 
ductiveness of the furnaces, are, however, not yet introduced by half of 
the furnace men in our State. By most of them, therefore, these steps 
of progress are to be made. 

Even our best furnaces are still behind the age, as in their productive- 
ness and economy they come far short of what is accomplished elsewhere, 
and what is attainable here. For example : the average consumption of 
our Briar Hill coal is two and a holf tons to one of iron. At Massillon, three 
and a half to four tons of coal are used to make a ton of iron. In con- 
trast with these figures, in the Cleveland district, in England, where 
coke is used, no better than some of our own, the furnace staeks are car- 
ried to a height of one hundred, and in some instances one hundred and 
two feet, and in them less than one ton of coke makes a ton of iron. 
With the resources at our command, and the ingenuity for which our 
people are celebrated, I think we may be sure that we shall not long re- 
main satisfied while such comparisons can be made. It is very certain 
that we have not yet reached perfection in the combination of our ores, in 
the choice of our fluxes, in the adaptation of our fuels, nor in the dimen- 
sions and models of our furnaces. The advantages which the foreign 
manufacturer possesses consists of improved processes, cheaper labor, 
and greater capital. To balance these advantages, we have better and 
more varied materials, three thousand miles less transportation, and a 
high tariff. By the aid of these, our furnace men, with little capital, 
dear labor, and wasteful methods, are able to maintain themselves in the 
competition, and are prospering. The time is not distant, however, 
when the protection to our industry afforded by our present tariff will be 
removed. I don't say it should be, for I don't believe it should, but sim- 
ply that it will. For this impending storm our iron men must trim their 
sails. All the light of foreign experience must be thrown on our pro- 
cesses, while the problems presented by the ores, fuels and fluxes of each 
locality are to be carefully worked out, and capital concentrated so that 
our furnaces may consist of several stacks, carried on by one set of ma- 


chinery, and one set of officials instead of several, thus simplifying and 
cheapening all branches of the art. When this shall be done, whatever 
political wind may blow, our iron industry will be always prosperous, 
ever expanding, and our greatest source of wealth. 


In the manufacture of bar-iron and steel, the evidence of progress is 
still greater than in the art of reducing the ore, and it is not impossible 
that our present methods of manufacture, in five years from this time, 
will be entirely revolutionized. In the manufacture of bar-iron, the most 
striking invention that has been introduced of late years > is that of the 
Ellershausen Process. This is due to a man by the name of Ellershausen; 
who was a lumber merchant in Canada. When he had nearly stripped 
his timber lands, and had acquired a fortune in so doing, his attention 
was attracted to the ledges of iron ore which his property contained, and 
abandoning the lumber trade, he went into the manufacture of iron. 
The ore he used, like so much of the Canadian ore, proved to be impure, 
and the enterprise was unfortunate and entailed the sacrifice of the for- 
tune he had acquired. In his efforts to surmount the difficulties he en- 
countered, Ellershausen thought and read widely on the subject of iron- 
making, and ultimately he devised a method by which, as he thought, 
the ordinary process would be greatly shortened. Going to New York 
with his plan, he there met with little encouragement, and thence turned 
his steps to Pittsburgh, the greatest centre of iron industry in the 
country. Here he fell in with my friend, T. S. Blair, of the firm of J. H. 
Shcenberger & Blair, one of the most intelligent and thoroughly-educated 
of our iron men. By him Ellershausen was given the opportunity to 
test his method, and the ultimate success he attained is due, in no small 
part, to the suggestions he received from Mr. Blair. 

The Ellershausen process may be explained in very few words. We 
have seen that pig-iron consists of metallic iron, with four to five 
per cent, of carbon,' while the richer iron ores consist mainly of iron and 
oxygen. Ellershausen's theory was that iron ore could be mingled with 
cast iron in such a way that the oxygen of the ore would unite with the 
carbon of the pig metal, and, passing off as carbonic oxide, leave the 
iron of both elements in the combination in the metallic state. The ex- 
periment was first tried by drawing a ladle of molten iron frqm the fur- 
nace, and stirring into it a quantity of iron ore. The change anticipated 
began at once, and the iron assumed a pasty condition, which rendered 
it impossible to stir it with a bar. Substituting a wooden rod, the mate- 
rials were mingled and were made to form a ball similar to that collected 


in the puddling furnace by the rabble. This ball heated, squeezed and 
rolled, was found to furnish a fair article of bar-iron. Subsequently 
there was substituted for the ladle a wheel, eighteen feet in diameter, 
bearing on its margin a series of boxes. This wheel was made to revolve 
beneath a stream of molten iron and pulverized ore that crossed each 
other at right angles. By the rotation of the wheel, the boxes were 
gradually filled with layers of iron mixed with ore. When each con- 
tained a sufficient quantity the sides were removed and the blooms tran- 
ferred to the puddling furnaces, these reheated until the slag they con- 
tain was " sweated " out, then squeezed and rolled into bars. These 
bars, without piling or re-rolling, are found to exhibit all the properties 
of first class iron. The Ellershausen process has now been in operation ' 
for a year in the establishments of J. H. Shcenberger& Co., and Lyon, 
Shorb & Co., in Pittsburgh, where it may be witnessed by any who have 
a desire to investigate it. 

Many other methods besides that of Ellershausen, have been devised 
for cheapening the cost of bar-iron ; consisting for the most part in 
efforts to reduce the time and expense of the laborious and costly pro- 
cess of puddling, as now practiced. Several of these methods promise 
well and deserve investigation, but I will only refer to a single one, the 
"Mechanical rabble," a device for performing the ordinary work of a 
puddler by machinery. This is now practiced in several foreign estab- 
lishments, and if it could be made generally successful, would be much 
more valuable in America than in Europe, as labor is so much dearer 
here than there. After all, it seems to me we should look for the great- 
est improvement in the manufacture of bar -iron, in a complete change of 
the process followed. All these to which I have alluded have been based 
upon a supposed necessity of first reducing the ore to the form of pig- 
iron, and then, by a second manipulation, obtaining malleable iron from 
this by eliminating the four or five per cent, of carbon which cast iron 
contains. But it is posssible to produce malleable iron direct from the 
ore. This is called, by metallurgists, the " direct process," because it 
follows a direct line and avoids the roundabout through the blast furnace. 
This is the method practiced in what is called the Catalan Forge; and 
many thousand tons of iron are annually manufactured by this forge in 
America and elsewhere, but by no plan yet devised, has iron been made 
more cheaply by this direct way than by the other. It is, however, by 
no means certain that the limit of possibility in this direction has been 
reached ; but, on the contrary, it is confidentlybelieved, by some metal- 
lurgists, that not many years will elapse till all our bar-iron is manufac- 
tured by some direct process. The ground of this confidence is the pe- 


culiar property that carbonic oxide has of reducing the oxide of iron at 
a comparatively low temperature. If we put a few grains of pulverized 
iron ore with some carbonaceous substance, in a test tube, and heat this 
over a spirit lamp to a red heat — 1000° or 1200° — the ore is immediately 
decomposed, its oxygen uniting with the carbon, and grains of metallic 
iron become visible. This is the theory of the Eenton process, the 
process of Dr. Smith, and what is known as Ohenot's process, but up to 
the present time all these methods have been practically unsuccessful, 
from a difficulty in regulating the temperature ; for it is a remarkable 
fact that when the temperature is raised above 1400° fusion begins, 
silicates are formed, and the mass is agglutinated together in such a way 
as to be unmanageable, while the access of the gas to the ore is pre- 
vented. Several eminent metallurgists are, however, at work on this 
problem, and it seems to me that their efforts must ultimately be crowned 
with success. I need not dwell upon the benefits that would accrue to 
society and civilization by a diminution of say one-half in the cost of 
production of bar-iron. So great would be this benefit that there is 
hardly a family in any civilized community who would not sensibly feel 
it. As we have seen, the great improvements that have taken place 
within the last twenty years in the manufacture of cast iron have cheap- 
ened this material to half its former cost. On the other hand, the 
Bessemer proccess has reduced the price of steel in an equal degree, and 
now the cheapening of bar-iron has become the great metallurgie desid- 
eratum. It would be very strange if when the inventive faculty of our 
people, combined with the experience of the world, are brought fully to 
bear upon the problem that its successful solution should not be reached. 



Perhaps the best illustration of the progressive character of the iron 
manufacture is furnished by recent improvements in the manufacture of 
steel. It will be rembered, that steel is iron with one per cent, of car- 
bon, or cast iron from which three-fourths of the carbon have been 
removed. Fifteen years ago all our steel was made by what is called the 
" cementation process," so well known that I need not describe it. About 
this time Mr. Bessemer, an English iron-master, conceived the plan of 
forcing common air into melted pig-iron, and thus, by bringing its oxy- 
gen in contact with the carbon, to induce the formation of carbonic acid, 
eliminate the carbon and produce malleable iron ; or, by arresting the 
process at a certain point, to leave the fluid metal in the condition of 


cast steel. Upon trial the injection of even cold air into molten iron, 
instead of chilling it, as many predicted, produced active ignition and 
intense heat. This was the germ of the famous Bessemer process for the 
manufacture of steel, a process by which fully one-half of the steel now 
made is produced, and by which, as has been stated, the cost of steel has 
been reduced at least one-half. Many years elapsed before Mr. Bessemer 
succeeded in overcoming all the mechanical difficulties which stood in his 
way, and in silencing the opposition which the conservatism of the iron 
manufacture offered. Now the process may be said to be not only a suc- 
cess, but a triumph; and its author deserves to be regarded as one of the 
greatest benefactors of the human race. For the production of steel, 
Mr. Bessemer first proposed to arrest the combustion of the carbon in 
the iron so as to leave about one per cent, unconsumed. This point was 
found difficult to hit, and he ultimately adopted the method of adding, 
after the process was complete, the requisite quantity of carbon in the 
form of spiegeleisen, a highly carbonized cast iron. This is the course 
now generally adopted ; and steel is being thus made in large quantities, 
not only in Europe, but in our own country and our own State. A very 
complete establishment for the manufacture of Bessemer steel has been 
erected by Messrs. Stone, Chisholm & Jones of Cleveland, and there this 
interesting and important process may be at any time seen in successful 

The objection has been made to the Bessemer process that it contained 
too many elements of uncertainty ; that it failed to give constant and 
uniform results. This objection has, however, been removed by a very 
simple method — suggested by my friend, Dr. Schmidt, and now con- 
stantly practiced at the Troy Steel Works — of dipping out and testing a 
sample from each five ton charge, then adding carbon or oxygen as 


This process, invented and largely employed in Prance, has lately been 
introduced into this country by Messrs. Cooper & Hewitt, at Trenton 
3f. J., and has proved here., as abroad, an entire success. It consists in 
melting down, in a Siemen's furnace, a quantity of pig iron, then adding 
to this sufficient malleable iron to dilute the carbon in the mass to any 
desired percentage, and thus produce any required grade of steel. The 
point aimed at is reached invariably, by testing, from time to time, the 
quality of the metal, and adding pig iron or bar iron as required. This 
is a simple and perfectly manageable method of producing steel, but it is 

4 — Geological. 


doubtful if it can rival in simplicity and cheapness the process of Mr. 

The two modes of steel making which I have briefly described are 
capable of producing, at a price scarcely greater than that of bar iron, 
steel adapted to all the coarser purposes for which steel is used ; and it 
is by one or the other, or, what is better still, both combined (one using 
up the other's scrap) that all the steel rails, now so largely substituted 
for iron, are made. But for all the finer grades of steel — that used for 
cutlery, &c. — we are still compelled to depend upon the old and expen- 
sive process of cementation. There seems to me, however, to be a strong 
probability that improved and cheaper processes will also soon supply 
us with our finer steels. 


This is a new method, and one perhaps not yet beyond the conditon of 
an experiment, but it has at least sufficed for the production of stegl of 
as fine a quality as has ever been made by any other means. The whole 
process consists in exposing malleable iron to the action of gaseous 
hydro-carbons at a temperature just below that of fusion. Under these 
circumstances the iron rapidly and regularly absorbs the carbon of the 
gas, and becomes steel. By the Barron process, shapes of iron are con- 
verted into steel without change of form, and this is the most satisfac- 
tory application of it I have seen. For example : tools or implements of 
any kind may be moulded and cast, these shapes made malleable by the 
ordinary process, and then, by impregnation, converted into steel, com- 
iug out as scissors, knives, axes, or other implements, of the very best 
quality, with no forging whatever.. Whether this method is capable of 
effecting cheaply the conversion of large masses of iron, is not yet de- 
monstrated, though it is claimed ; but from the fact that a piece of iron 
may by this means be covered with a sheet of enamel, or coated with a 
layer of any desired thickness of steel, while yet retaining all the tough- 
ness of its iron core, and that by a coating of clay the absorption of 
carbon may be limited to any portion of the surface acted upon, it is evi- 
dent that this method is destined to have extensive application in the 

The quality of steel made by this process is such as leaves nothing to 
be desired. With tailors' shears, cast in form, made malleable, and then 
converted by the Barron process, I have cut Florence silk so nicely as to 
prove the edge perfect ; then with these same shears have cut up sheets 
of tin and untempered steel; returning to the silk have found the edge 
wholly unimpaired, and this after a repetition, of the trial more than 
twenty times. 


There are various other methods of manufacturing steel, which, if I 
had unlimited space, it might be well to allude to; but I have already 
said enough on this subject to show what activity and progress there 
is in the improvement of the methods of manufacturing iron ; and I have 
been led to dwell upon the subject, perhaps even now longer than was in 
good taste, carried away by my sense of the immense importance this 
industry is to assume in our State, when our resources are properly in- 
vestigated and brought into use. 

There are many other mineral staples found in our State, to which, did 
time permit, I should be glad to call attention, citing the proofs we have 
gained of their existence, their promise as regards quality and quantity, 
and the investigations proposed for determining their abundance and 
value. But I have already passed the limits I had assigned myself. 
Within a few months a fuller report of our work will be published, and 
in that report will be given the details of such matters as are referred to 
now, as well as much information of interest in regard to some subjects 
not here alluded to. I have, in the preceding pages, attempted nothing 
more than an outline sketch of the duties assigned to the Geological 
Corps, and what has been done toward its performance. In order that 
this may be more clearly understood, I will very briefly recapitulate the 
work accomplished by the survey during the last summer and fall, and 
state what is our plan of operations for the future. 

In many instances it has happened that the first season's work of a 
Geological Survey has been mainly consumed in organization, and prepa- 
ration for the future. I think I have shown that we have accomplished 
something more than this. In addition to our organization, we have 
made a general, and, for the most part, thorough investigation of the 
geological structure of the State; have studied each of the formations 
found in our geological series, and have determined the relative position, 
age, thickness and lithological characters of each ; have settled the 
doubts that have long hung over some of them ; have added to the list 
several not before known to exist here, and have marked the areas occu- 
pied by the surface exposures of each on a geological map. This map 
has been made altogether from new and original observations, and may 
be accepted as far more minute and accurate than any geological map of 
Ohio before published. 

More careful studies have been made of certain districts : as that of 
the Straitsville coal-field, by Prof. Andrews ; of Greene and Montomery 
counties, by Prof. Orton; of Cuyahoga and Erie counties, by myself; 


thus beginning the detail work of the survey, which it is proposed to 
carry through all the counties and townships of the State. We have 
also idade a good beginning on our Economic Geology. Prof. Wormley, 
our chemist, has made a large number of very carefully conducted 
analyses of our coals, iron ores and limestones, earning many times over 
the small sum that we were able to appropriate to his department. I 
have also had made, at my own cost, a still larger number of analyses, 
and have had a dozen different varieties of hydraulic limestones not only 
analyzed but practically tested by special apparatus, which Gen. Gilmore 
was kind enough to loan me for the purpose. These investigations have 
been carried far enough to enable us to compare nearly all the varieties 
of lime used in the State, and to deduce from this comparison some con- 
clusions which will have a practical value to all our architects and build- 
ers. Most of our building stones have also been examined, the compo- 
sition and strength of some of them determined, and nicely dressed 
blocks of each placed in the State collection. Many of our clays have 
been collected, and investigations begun for the determination of their 
composition and their adaptation to the manufacture of pottery, fire- 
brick, common brick, &c. Already a great industry is based upon this 
material in our State — one that is capable of indefinite expansion, and 
one that especially needs the aid which applied science can afford it. In 
the article of fire brick alone, an immense gain would be secured to our 
furnace men by supplying them (as they may readily be supplied) with a 
good article of home manufacture at half the cost of the imported. The 
Amboy brick cost us $80 a thousand, and Mr. Alexander, of Akron, has 
demonstrated that an equally refractory brick can be made and sold here 
for $45. The imported Dinas brick cost in this country $100 a thousand ; 
we can make in Ohio an equally good brick for less than $50. 

The conditions of the iron manufacture in northern Ohio have been 
investigated with considerable care. All the furnaces in that region 
have been visited, and, in most instances, plans of the works, statistics 
of production, and suits of raw and manufactured materials have been 
obtained. I have already alluded to the evidence furnished by these 
investigations, of the necessity and possibility of improving this branch 
of industry. In another year it is proposed to carry this line of inquiries 
still further, and to extend the investigation to other parts of the State, 
where there is a still more important work for us to do. 

A State Cabinet has been not only begun, but has grown until it has 
filled the room assigned to it in the State House. Over fifty boxes of 
rocks, fossils, ores, coals, clays, oils, building stones, &c, have been un- 


packed there, and in the series of specimens are duplicates for onr col- 

In our examination of the geology of the State, large numbers of fos- 
sils have been found, many of which are new, and some are of unusual 
scientific interest. Of these, with others in my possession before, draw- 
ings have been made sufficient to form fifty plates ; these have been made 
without expense to the State, and are included in the material already 
submitted as our first report. 

And now a word in regard to our future, and I shall have done. 
Should the Geological Survey be continued under its present manage- 
ment, the investigations now begun will be extended until they shall 
have covered all our area, and have embraced the agricultural capabili- 
ties, the geological structure in all its details, and all the mineral staples ; 
determining their quality, quantity, distribution and adaptation. It is 
also hoped that, without any considerable expense to the State, experts 
in these departments shall give us fuller information than is now, pos- 
sessed by our people in regard to our plants and animals. My judgment 
is that all this information should be made as concise and practical as 
possible ; should be published in volumes of modest dimensions and 
moderate cost, so as to be brought within the reach of all those who can 
make intelligent use of them ; that they should be made of such a char- 
acter as to be of real utility to our people, and of greater value to those 
who pay for them than to residents in other countries. My idea of a 
geological report is, that it should be an embodiment of all the local 
facts in natural or applied science that immediately concern the inhabit- 
ants of the area it covers, so that it may be a book of constant reference 
to the manufacturer, the mechanic, the architect, the farmer, the teacher 
the parent; one that may always be at hand to answer any question 
that may be asked in regard to geological structure, economic ■ minerals, 
fossils, plants or animals. The investigations necessary to prepare such 
a report will require time and money ; but most of the nations of the Old 
World, and many of our sister States, have expended sums for such pur- 
poses which, if well directed, would more than serve our purpose. I can 
hardly think that Ohio, third in the Union, as she is, in wealth and 
population, and so rich in undeveloped resources, will rest satisfied with 
anything short of a full and through exposition of her gifts; such an 
one, in fact, as her pride and interest alike dictate. 



J. S. NEWBERRY, M. D., LL. D. 






















































Upper Cretaceous. 
Middle Cretaceous. 
Lower Cretaceous. 






Upper Coal Measures. 
Lower Coal Measures. 
Carb. Conglomerate. 

Upper Sub-carboniferous 
Lower Bab-oarboniferous 

(W. America.) 

Cave Deposits. 
Feat. Alluvium, 

Terraces. Alluvium 
Saxicava Sand. 
Champlain Clay. 
Glacial Drift. 

Sumter Beds. 

Torktown Beds. 
( Vicksburg Beds. 
< Jackson Beds. 
I Claiborne Beds. 

Fox Hill Group. 
Pierre Group. 

Benton Group. 
Dakota Group. 

(Wanting f) 

Jurassic Strata, 
Nebraska, Colorado, 
Utah, Nevada, 
California, Sonora. 

Triassic Sandstones, 
Marl, Coal, &c, 
Atlantic Coast, New Mexico, 
Arizona, California, 
Sonora, Ac. 

Permian Dolomites, 
Kansas and Nebraska. 

U. Coal Measures. 
L. Coal Measures. 
Carb. Conglomerate. 













£ Trenton. 


g, Calciferous. 













Sub-carb. Limestone 
Sub-carb. ■! 

Shales and 


Chemung Group. 
Portage Group. 

Genesee Shale. 

/ Tully Limestone. 

J Moscow Shale, 

J Encrlnal Limestone. 

I Ludlowville Sbale. 

Marcellus Shale. 


Peat. Alluvium. 

Terraces, Beaches. AIL 
Iceberg Drift. 
ForeBt Bed. 
Erie Clays. 
Glacial Drift. 






CT. Coal Measures. 
L. Coal Measures. 
Carb. Conglomerate. 

Sub-carb. Limestone. 
Waverly Group. 


Erie Shales. 
Huron Shale. 

Hamilton Group. 

j Corniferous Limestone. 
J Onondaga Limestone 
Schoharie Urit. 

Cauda-Galli Grit. 


Oriskany Sandstone. 

Upper Pentamerns Limestone. 
Encrlnal Limestone. 
Delthyris Shaly Limestone. 
Lower Pentamerus Limestone. 
Water-Lime Group. 

Onondaga Salt Group. 

I Leclaire, Guelph and 
< Niagara Limestones. 

( Niagara Shale. 
Clinton Group. 
Medina Sandstone. 
Oneida Conglomerate. 

Oriskany Sandstone. 

Water Lime Group. 

Onondaga Salt Group. 

Guelph Group. 
Niagara Limestone. 

Clinton Group. 

Hudson Eiver Shales. 
Utica Shales. 

[ Trenton Limestone. 
-< Black River Limestone. 
( Birdseye Limestone. 

Chazy Limestone. 

Cincinnati Group. 

Quebec Group. 
Calciferous Sandrock. 

Potsdam Sandstone. 
St. John's Group. 

Huronian System. 
Laurentian System. 

Not exposed. 

Not exposed. 

Not exposed. 


Lake and dove Peposite. 
Peat. Alluvium. 

Old Cave Deposit*. 

Marine Otayt. 
Glacial Drift. 


Molaeee, falunt, 
Oaleaire Grottier. 
London, Clay, Ac. 

Maettricht Beit. 
White dhatk. 

O halt Marl. 

Upper Greeneand. 

Gault \Bepoo- 

Lower Oreeneand. f mian. 

Wealden, Freeh Water Bed*. 

tt™,.- I Purbeck Bede. 
ri£££ 1 Portland Stent, 
voute, | xinmeridge Clay. 
Middle I Coral Baa. 
Oolite. \ Oxford Clay, 
Lower J Great Oolite. 
OoUte. 1 1nferior Oolite. 
Upper Mae. 
Middle IAae. 
Lower Liae. 





Bathe- Todt-Uegende. 

XT. Coal Measure). 
L. Coal Measure*. 
Millstone Qrit. 

Mountain Limestone. 
Lower Limestone Shales. 


Old Bed 


Devon & Eifel Limestones. 

U. Ludlow Bed. 
Aymestry Limestone. 
L. Ludlow Limestone. 

> Wenlock Limestone. 

U. Llandovery. 
U. Caradoe Sandstone. 
Conieton Grit. 
Lower Llandovery. 

L. Caradoe Sandstone, 
and Bala Beds. 

UandeSo Flags. 
Tremadoo Cfrottp. 
Lingula Flags. 

Cambrian Syetem t 
" Fundamental Gneiee.' 




By Peop. E. B. ANDEEWS, 




To Prof John S. Newberry, Chief Geologist of Ohio : 

Sir : In the organization of the Survey, the Second District was assigned 
to me. This District has for its northern boundary the line of the Central 
Ohio Eailroad ; for its eastern and southern, the Ohio river ; for its west- 
ern, the western limits of the Great Black Slate, extending from Colum- 
bus to a point on the Ohio river a few miles above Eome, in Adams county 
Nearly twenty-three counties are included within these limits. 

I entered at once upon my work. I have had for assistants William G. 
Ballantine, A. B., a graduate of Marietta College; Boland D. Irving, of 
New Brighton, Staten Island, N. T., a gradute of the School of Mines 
Columbia College, New York City, and Wm. Ward, of Marietta. Each 
rendered valuable service. Mr. Ward continued with me about two months, 
and rendered me much aid. Mr. Irving remained with me until about the 
1st of September. His labors were of great service, especially in work- 
ing out the sections of the Black Slate and Waverly sand-stone, along the 
Ohio river, in Adams and Scioto counties. These labors, and those of 
Mr. Ward, were none the less efficient, nor less cheerfully given, for being 
entirely gratuitous, the State only paying their necessary traveling ex- 
penses. Mr. Ballantine received a small remuneration. He remained 
with me until after the middle of November. A large numbef of the sec- 
tions taken in Perry county and portions of other adjacent counties, were 
the product of his indefatigable and skillful labor. 


The surface is generally hilly. The only exception to this is in the 
northwestern part of the District, where, in Franklin and Pickaway, and 
portions of Fairfield and Licking counties, most of the surface is com- 
paratively level and smooth. 

The whole district slopes to the south and southeast, and consequently 
the drainage is to the Ohio river. 

The Ohio river flows in a long, trough-like depression, made, doubtless 
at the time of the uplifting of the Alleghany mountains. This was sub. 


sequent to the formation of the coal-measures rocks, as these are lifted up 
and form the summit of the mountains in portions of Pennsylvania and 
West Virginia. The Ohio basin does not show a uniform slope towards 
its centre downward in the direction of its major axis. Its is undulating, 
and often exhibits areas of considerable extent, with a northern slope 
and drainage. In West Virginia, the Monongahela flows northward to 
meet ^he Alleghany at Pittsburgh. Jn the Second District, I find small 
areas with a similar slope and drainage. Several of the smaller tributa- 
ries of the Muskingum river flow in a northerly direction. The principal 
rivers in the District are the Muskingum, Scioto and Hocking, all flow- 
ing into the Ohio river. Between the Scioto and the Hocking are several 
smaller streams, the Little Scioto, Pine creek, Symmes' creek, Indian 
G-uyandotte creek, Raccoon creek, Leading creek, and Shade river, all 
emptying into the Ohio. Between the Hocking and Muskingum is the 
Little Hocking. Above the Muskingum, the principal tributaries of the 
Ohio are Duck creek, Little Muskingum river, Sunfish and Captina 
creeks. The Little Muskingum river flows, during its entire course, in a 
basin parallel to the Ohio river, and only eight or ten miles from it. The 
Indian Guyandotte creek, flows in a basin similarly parallel to the Ohio. 

In the northern part of the district there is a pretty large area, with a 
northwestern slope. This area is drained by Wills' creek, which flows 
northward through Noble and Guernsey counties, and then westward and 
empties into the Muskingum river above Dresden, near the north line of 
Muskingum county. 

The south fork of the the Moxahala creek drains a considerable valley, 
which slopes to the north. This fork rises in the high lands between 
Oakfield and Bristol, in the southern part of Perry county, and flows 
northward for twenty miles. The Moxahala empties into the Muskingum 
two or three miles below Zanesville. The south fork of the Licking 
river flows to the northeast. Wolf creek, which rises in the northern 
part of Morgan county, flows in a valley which shows a remarkable 
parallelism with that of the Muskingum. It maintains an average 
distance of five or six miles from the Muskingum for twenty miles, and 
then, as the Muskingum turns and flows northward, in Windsor township, 
Morgan county, it also bends to the north and northeast in Wesley and 
Palmer townships, Washington county, and enters the former near Bev^ 
erly, in Waterford township, in the same county. The south fork of Wolf 
creek rises within two or three miles of the Ohio river, in Warren town- 
ship, Washington county, and flows to the northward. Nearly all of the 
western part of Washington county is drained by that creek, and conse- 
quently slopes to the north. These facts are of great significance as 


showing original undulations of the surface, before the present work of 
drainage began. How far the underlying strata show corresponding 
undulations will hereafter be determined as the different parts of the 
District are studied in detail. Very limited observations made in the 
valley of the Moxahala appear to indicate that in portions of the val- 
ley, at least, the dip of the rocks is conformable to the original north- 
ern slope of the surface. 

It is an interesting fact that the Muskingum river, which drains no 
inconsiderable part of Eastern Ohio, has its bed during its whole course 
above the level of Lake Erie. The height of the surface of Lake Erie, 
at Cleveland, above tide water, as given by Col. Charles Whittlesey, 
is 564 feet, while the elevation of the mouth of the Muskingum is 
571 feet, as given by Col. Charles Ellet, Jr., in his contributions to the 
Physical Geography of the Mississippi Valley, published by the Smith- 
sonian Institution. This makes the mouth of the river 7 feet above 
the average level of Lake Erie. This is probably 4 or 5 feet too great. 

The mouth of the Scioto is 90 feet below the level of the Lake, while 
the Ohio river, at Wheeling, W. Va., at low water, is 56 feet above. 
Thus it will be seen that the plane of the surface of Lake Erie, if 
continued, will pass below the surface of nearly the whole area included 
in the Second District. 

Col. Ellet gives the fall of the Scioto, from Columbus to Portsmouth, 
to be 302 feet. This river would therefore pass below the level of the 
surface of the Lake at a point 27.8 miles above Portsmouth. This 
supposes, however, that the fall of the river is uniform throughout 
its course. The Muskingum river, according to Col. Ellet, falls between 
Zanesville and its mouth, at Marietta, 104 feet. This makes that river, 
at Zanesville, about 111 feet above the level of the Lake. The Scioto, at 
Columbus, is 212 feet above the level of the Lake, or 101 feet above 
the Muskingum, at Zanesville. 

, The valleys of all the principal streams in the District are generally 
deep and well defined, and the work of aqueous erosion has been im- 
mense. The immediate valley of the Scioto is the broadest, as it is 
the most fertile ; and nest to this, in width and fertility, is that of the 
Muskingum. All the streams have innumerable small tributaries, which 
have cut for themselves deep channels. A correct topographical map of 
Southeastern Ohio would present the peculiar and beautiful dendritic 
aspect belonging to all regions where the valleys are eroded and the 
drainage rapid. The erosion has been entirely produced by the flow 
of waters which have fallen upon the surface of the State, the only 
exception to this in the Second District being in the more level region in 


the northwestern part, where doubtless there have been at work, in the 
remote past, erosive agencies which have acted on a vast horizontal 
scale. As, in the course of ages, the Ohio deepened its bed, the largest 
affluents felt the effects of the increased declivity, and increased the 
depth of their channels, and with this came the gradual deepening of 
all their smaller tributaries. Hence, with ample time given for the 
work, we should expect to find, what we now see, the whole District 
completely eroded into a vast and wonderful system of ramifying val- 
leys. The hills and ridges are simply the remnants of what were once 
continuous rock strata. In many sections, the ever-toiling water, in 
rain drops, and streamlets and rivers, has sculptured the hills in rounded 
and graceful forms, while in others, the streams have cut for themselves 
channels with almost perpendicular sides, giving to the scenery, a bold 
mural character. The latter characteristics are more often seen where 
the streams flow over the heavy sand-rock strata. Between Lancaster 
and Logan, the Hocking river flows in a valley, bordered by high cliffs. 
Some of the tributaries have eroded channels so deep and narrow that 
they may be properly termed canons. The Licking river has excavated 
a similar channel in the vicinity of Black Hand. In many places we 
find a cliff on one side, and rounded hills on the other. This is well seen 
on the Marietta and Cincinnati railroad, in the vicinity of the Cincinnati 
Furnace, in Vinton county. 

In many sections we find the hills beautifully terraced. This is due to 
the different degrees of hardness in the strata. Shales are more easily 
disintegrated and removed than harder rocks, and the latter conse- 
quently show a more perpendicular front. Sometimes a highly soluble 
limestone dissolves away, leaving harder rocks in bolder front above. 
These terraces are often of great assistance to the geologist in enabling 
him to see at a glance the range of certain strata along the sides of 
distant hills. 


After the valleys were eroded as they now exist, many of them were 
filled with what -is geologically termed " drift ". materials, which are 
chiefly waterworn pebbles and bowlders, sand, and sometimes clays. The 
principal outspread of the drift is in the northwestern part of the dis- 
trict, in the Scioto Valley, and near the sources of the Hocking and 
Licking rivers. In this region, tfie surface of the earth is almost wholly 
covered with superficial deposits brought from the north. Some of the 
materials are not found in place within the State, but come from beyond 
the lakes. Limestone bowlders and gravel show, from their contained 
fossils and lithological character, that they originally came from the 


Corniferous limestone, a formation well developed in the northern part of 
the State. All the streams which have their sources within the great 
drift region of the central and northern portion of the State, have carried 
down more or less of the drift, materials, and deposited them in vast 
sandbars and sandy flats. These now constitute the well known terraces 
of the Scioto, Hocking and Muskingum rivers. The Ohio river is also 
bordered by these terraces, the materials having been largely brought to 
it by its northern affluents. The tributaries to the Ohio from the south, 
as the Little and Great Kanawhas, have no such terraces. The same is 
true of all the smaller Ohio tributaries, such as Eaccoon, Little Mus- 
kingum and Duck creek, which do not have their heads in the central 
drift region. 

In the terraced drift we find two classes of materials, the hard and 
the comparatively soft. The former is composed of diorytes and 
granitoid forms, quartzites and other metamorphic rocks, and the cherty 
portions of limestones. The latter is% made up of softer sandstones, 
slates and bituminous coals. I have found small bowlders of fine grained 
Waverly sandstones, which for fineness of texture, and softness under 
the chisel, and perfection of color, I have never seen surpassed. Their 
original home was in the Waverly formation, and not very far to the 
north, for such is the softness of the material, that they could not long 
have survived the friction of rolling in currents of water, surrounded by 
harder bowlders, much less the more wasting friction of propulsion by 
glaciers, under enormous ice-pressure. "We sometimes find similar soft 
material only very slighty eroded. 

In the large terrace formed at the confluence of the Muskingum and 
Ohio rivers, on which the town of Marietta is built, we often find large 
quantities of pebbles of bituminous coal. Bushels could sometimes be 
taken from a single spot, of all sizes, from four inches in diameter down- 
ward. Bituminous coal being soft and easily eroded, the coal of these 
pebbles must have been torn from its native seam at some point in our 
Ohio coal measures, but a short distance up the Muskingum, probably 
not above Zanesville. It has been estimated that lumps of coal of 
medium size, dropped into the Ohio river from steamboats and barges, 
are worn away to nothing in rolling on the bottom, a distance of from 
fifty to one hundred miles. Pebbles and bowlders of Ohio coal measure 
sandstone, are also often found in the drift terraces on the Muskingum. 
It will be remembered that this river holds its course chiefly within the 
limits of the coal formation. 

No careful instrumental surveys of the altitude of the terraces above 
the streams has as yet been made, but they probably range from 4=0 to 80 
feet above the present average level of the waters. The terraced drift 


is never found far up any of the tributaries of the streams which have 
carried down the materials. It is sometimes crowded a short distance 
into the mouths of tributaries. We sometimes, however, find the drift 
some distance from the present channels of the rivers, and back of the 
immediate river hills ; but in all the cases of the kind I have examined; 
the drift is in old channels, or in new ones formed at the time by very 
high water. An example of this may be seen in the so called " plains" 
between Saliiia and At'iens, in Athens county. Here an old channel, 
west of the Hocking river hills, was entirely choked up by the drift. 
Another and less marked exhibition of this is at Newport, Washington 
county, on the Ohio river. While the materials of the drift terraces are 
more often gravels and sand, we find sometimes layers of fine clay. A 
layer of fine blue elay is found in the terrace at Marietta. This was a 
fine sedimentary deposit from quiet water. From the location of this 
clay, it might have been dropped from the still water of an eddy made 
by the meeting of the two rivers. In the same terrace I have seen a 
large rounded bowlder of coal measures^ sandstone, twenty inches in 
diameter, imbedded in a fine yellow clayey sand. It was as much isola- 
ted, so far as other adjacent coarse material is concerned, as a granite 
bowlder on a western prairie. 

The drift in the northwestern part of the District, constitutes an almost 
continuous sheet, covering the whole surface, and in this unbroken con- 
dition extends itself for some distance down the valleys of the Scioto 
and Hocking rivers ; but as the valleys become more narrow, the con- 
tinuity is broken, and the drift is found only in isolated sandbars and 
drift plains. At no point in these valleys, nor in that of the Muskingum, 
do I find any striation of the underlying rocks, such as, in the more 
northern portions of the State, is attributed to the action of glaciers. 

The highest elevation on which I have found drift bowlders is on the 
summit of Flint Eidge, in Licking county, which is 170 feet above the 
adjacent valley. To this add 50 feet as the estimated elevation of the 
base of the ridge above Newark, and we have bowlders 220 feet above 
Newark, and 374 above Zanesville, and 490 above Marietta, and 729 
above Cincinnati. On the hills in Kentucky, in the neighborhood of 
Ashland, Greenup county, more than one hundred miles south of Flint 
Eidge, I saw drift bowlders 200 feet above the Ohio river, and, in one of 
the deep valleys of Scioto, Brush creek, in Adams county, Ohio, I have 
seen bowlders of Lake Superior rocks, which had evidently been brought 
over the high ground to the north. This high ground cannot be much 
less than 700 feet above the Ohio river, at Cincinnati. There will doubt- 
less be many similar examples of this kind brought to light during the 
progress of the survey. How came these bowlders to be thus left upon 


these high hills f If glaciers had reached such elevations, we should 
expect to find, large accumulations of glacier-worn materials, whereas, 
we find, in fact, only a very few isolated bowlders. More probably they 
were transported by floating ice, but we are yet to find corroborative 
proof of the existence of so vast a body of water, filling the Ohio Valley 
at Cincinnati, to the depth of at least 730 feet. Such a body of water 
must have constituted an arm of a gulf, filling the Valley of the Missis- 
sippi. It could have had little current, and contained little sedimentary 
matter brought in from rivers, since we find neither trace of current 
action, nor deposited sediments. The explanation of our river terraces 
requires the movement of strong currents along our valleys by which 
the gravel and sand were accumulated in vast sand-bars and flats. 
Water in the streams from 80 to 100 feet higher than at present would 
make the terraces. If we should accept the glacier theory to explain the 
spread of the drift over the central and northern part of the State, then 
the final melting of a vast body of ice would fill, with torrents, all the 
streams down the slope to the Ohio Eiver, and these sweeping currents 
would carry down the materials in the drift terraces. It would appear 
then, that it is possible to refer the origin of the drift terraces, and the 
deposit of occasional bowlders on high hills, to different and very distinct 

-The terraces in the olden time presented great attraction to the mound- 
builder race. We everywhere find on them earthworks, in the form of 
mounds, elevated squares, walls and ditches. Being dry and sandy, the 
surface could be easily removed and accumulated in their various struc- 
tures. To the profound questions of the ethnologist, who the mound- 
builders were, whence they came, and whither they went, we can only 
reply that they once lived here, here cultivated the soil, here worshiped, 
perhaps with the solemn rites of human sacrifice, here planned and exe- 
cuted mighty works of organized labor, and then passed away. We find 
their temples, and fortresses, and tombs. 

The character of the soil of the river terraces and plains depends upon 
the nature of the materials composing it. In the Scioto valley much of 
the gravel is of limestone origin, and hence the remarkable fertility of 
the Pickaway plains and the other terraced benches in that valley. The 
Hocking valley, below Lancaster, is generally narrow, but the soil of the 
terrace often contains much of the drift limestone. The Muskingum river 
terraces contain less limestone gravel, but the soil is generally fertile, 
and is much esteemed for ease of working and the earliness of its crops. 

The coarse gravel of the terraces is much prized 1 as a material for the 
making of railroads. The Marietta and Cincinnati Eailroad Company 


finds on its line, in Warren township, Washington county, on the Ohio 
river, a fine body of terrace gravel, which has been largely nsed as a 
ballast for the road-bed. After leaving the Ohio river, no more coarse 
gravel is found until the road enters the valley of the Hocking. Passing 
this valley, no more gravel is reached until the road enters the valley of 
the Scioto. Eailroads located longitudinally within these terraced val- 
leys have rare facilities for making a most perfect road-bed. The Hock- 
ing Valley Eailroad is thus located, and, although a new road, is one of 
the smoothest in the State. 


The rocks formed in the 2d District are in ascending order, the Great 
Black Slate, the Waverly Sandstones, the Conglomerate, and the produc- 
tive Coal-Measures. This is also the order in which they appear in the 
district, as we pass from the western line eastward. Each of these forma- 
tions dip to the east and south-east, and they consequently overlie each 
other as shingles upon a roof. 

The general outlines of these several formations have been studied and 
mapped. In the hilly region in the southern part of the State, it is most 
difficult to determine the outlines with entire exactness, without much 
longer time for the work than has yet been at my disposal. The general 
outlines, however, are given, and more minute details will be added here- 
after, as the several counties through which these lines pass are sepa- 
rately studied. As the Ohio river crosses the different formations, careful 
determinations have been made of the points where most of the forma- 
tions show themselves on its banks, and dip beneath its bed. 

The Conglomerate in my district is very uncertain. It is not often 
found in its true place, and instead of constituting a uniform and wide- 
spread floor, on which the coal measures rest, it is found only locally. 
In the provisional map of the outlines of the formations I have given a 
more continuous Conglomerate than the facts will probably warrant, 
rather out of a sort of geological courtesy and reverence for the "tra- 
ditions of the elders," than any other reason. 


The " Ohio Black Slate" is the lowest formation in the geological series 
found in the 2d District. It is finely exposed in Ohio river hills in the 
neighborhood of Eockville, Adams county, and in nearly all the hills 
which range to the north. The upper part of it is well seen in the hills 
at Chillicothe, underlying the Waverly Sandstone group. It spreads 
itself across the Scioto valley in its upper part, and is found resting upon 
the Corniferous limestone in the immediate vicinity of Columbus. 


Thickness. — -It was carefully measured by the barometer, in the Ohio 
river hills, near the mouth of Big Sulphur creek, Green township, Adams 
county, and found to be 320 feet in thickness. Here its limits were dis- 
tinctly seen, as it rested upon the limestone, the "Cliff Limestone" of 
Dr. Locke,* and upon it reposed the Waverly sandstone. This formation 
is probably less thick in its northern extension from the Ohio river, 
although no measurements have been made. Prof. Orton, pf the 3d Dis- 
trict, who has observed the Black Slate on the waters of Paint creek, 
west of Chillicothe, thinks the formation considerably thinner in that 
region than on the Ohio river. Although only half as thick as the 
Waverly, it often covers as much horizontal surface as the latter, some- 
times more. This is because the hills west of the Scioto project it west, 
and the valley throws it east. 

Bitumen. — The black color of this slate is derived from the large^ 
amount of bitumen it contains. Prof. Wormley, Chemist of the Geo- 
logical Survey, reports the volatile matter (bitumen chiefly) as 8.40 to 10 JO 
per cent. This is nearly one-fourth as much as, we And in some bituminous 
coals. We have, therefore, in the 320 feet of Black Slate, bituminous 
matter enough to furnish, with the requisite bitumen, a seam of coal 
nearly 80 feet thick. 

The conditions under which this formation was deposited, involved 
comparatively quiet waters, charged with a constant supply of fine sedi- 
ment, with which there was at all times commingled organic matter, 
which alone could have furnished the bitumen. The even distribution 
of the bitumen throughout the entire mass of the sediments, would imply 
that the water abounded with the minute forms, of vegetable or animal 
life. Thus far, search for their forms has been unrewarded. After a 
failure by myself, I placed samples of the slate in the' hands of Prof. 
Wormley, whose skill in microscopic researches is well known, and whose 
instruments are of the most perfect kind. Thus far his search for distinct 
organisms has been unsuccessful. It is reasonable to suppose that the 
organisms contained no silica or lime, and that in their decomposition 
and bituminization all organic structure was destroyed. 

Petroleum. — The Black Slate is an evident source of rock oil or petro- 
leum. It affords oil readily by artificial distillation, but we find abundant 
evidence that it is distilled naturally. At numerous points we find springs 
of oil at the top of the slate. Generally they are in the lowest layers of 
the overlying Waverly sandstone, as if the ascending oil (for oil being, 
lighter than water is upward in its tendency), had been intercepted by 
the sandstone and had flowed out between its more open layers. Such 

* Note.— Prof. Orton identifies this as the Niagara limestone. 

5 — Geological. 


oil springs abound in the western part of Scioto and eastern part of 
Adams counties. On Churn creek, a branch of Scioto Brush creek, is an 
oil spring affording a thick, heavy oil, from which more or less oil has 
been gathered in the summer time and used by the citizens for medicinal 
purposes. This is in the Waverly sandstone, only a few feet above the 
Black Slate. 

On the Eocky fork of Scioto Brush creek is a cluster of oil springs. 
The largest is called the Hazelbaker Spring, on a little tributary called 
Oil run. From this spring oil is constantly flowing. It is thick like 
most spring oil, the more volatile portion having been evaporated through 
surface exposure. This oil flows out from between layers of the Waverly 
sandstone only a few feet above the black slate. Around the points of 
the hills near this spring I found several places where the oil has once 
flowed out from crevices in the sandrock and become inspissated. The 
places of outflow had exactly the same stratigraphical position just above 
the Black Slate. On Bear creek, a tributary of the Scioto river, "in Scioto 
county, we found similar oil springs. Oil springs are found on the Kin- 
nickinnick creek, in Kentucky, in the same geological position. No one, 
after an examination of the various localities, can doubt that the oil 
originated in the Black Slate. Other interesting facts tending to verify 
this conclusion will be given in conection with the description of another 
black slate desposit found interstratifled with the Waverly sandstone. 

There are occasionally found interstratifled with the layers of slate 

thin layers of asphaltum. They have a highly resinous lustre. They are, 

however, very limited in extent, and appear to have spread themselves, 

as if at one time they had been pressed out of the slate in a viscid condi- 

In the Black Slate are often found septaria, or large concretionary 
forms, which are generally hollow and contain crystalized calcite and often 
shining globules of asphaltum. Similar concretions in the Black Slate, 
near Delaware, contain the remains of fishes of the most remarkable size 
and form. No search has yet been made for these strange fishes in the 
Second District, but scales of small ganoid fishes are abundant in the 
slates, especially in the upper part. 

Lingula sub-spatulata, M. and W. : Discina, capax? White, are also 
found, the Lingula in great abundance. Careful search has been made 
for other molluSca, but thus far in vain. 

Fire Clay. — Near Latham, on Sunflsh creek, Pike county,, was found a 
stratum of very hard fire clay, 1 ft. 2 in. thick, situated fifty feet above 
the base of the black slate, this is the only break in the continuity of 
the slate any where observed. It may be only local, but it indicates that 


for a short time the waters in that region were free from the usual or- 
ganic matter, while at the same time they dropped an exceedingly fine clay 

Uses of the Black Slate. — Oil is easily distilled from it, but the yield is 
not large, and such distillation will be unprofitable while the earth yields 
petroleum so bountifully. 

The slate, when burnt and pulverized, is said to answer an excellent pur- 
pose for roofing when mixed with coal-tar. Capt. James Patterson, of 
Eockville, has prepared the material, and it is said to be useful and dura- 
ble. The slate is first de-bituminized by heat and afterwards grbund into 
powder to be mixed with the tar. The process of baking the slate has 
hitherto been done in retorts. Should the slate be found capable of be- 
ing burnt in open heaps, a great expense would be saved. There is no 
limit to the supply of slate in the hills. 

The slate is also used for covering walks in place of gravel. It rapidly 
crumbles and covers the walk so compactly as to prevent the growth of 
grasses. The sulphate of iron from the decomposed sulphuret also tends 
to kill vegetation. The slate is largely used for this purpose in the ceme- 
tery at Chillicothe. In time it will disintegrate and form blue clay. 

Vertical Joints. — In the bed of Blue creek, Adams county, vertical 
joints in the layers of the black slate were well exhibited over a space 
some 60 yards in length. They were generally parallel and the small 
pocket compass showed their direction to be TS. 32° B. Two miles above 
Blue creek, another observation gave the same direction, viz : N. 32° E. 
In a stratum of the slate a little higher, the direction was H. 10° W. 


A group of sandstones and shales, measuring on the Ohio river, 640 
feet in thickness (from the Black Slate to the base of the Sub. Carbon- 
iferous Limestone in the Kentucky hills), rests conformably upon the 
Black slate. It takes its name from the town of Waverly, in Pike coun- 
ty, where the stone has been extensively quarried. It extends from the 
Ohio river in a somewhat northeasterly direction through the 2d District. 
Its lithological character changes greatly in its northern extension, it 
being much coarser to the north, A careful section was made of it on 
(he Ohio river, especially of those portions which are of the most econo- 
mic value. The best exposures are. in the river hills at Eockville, Adams 
county, and between that point and Portsmouth. For a section of the 
whole group, see map. 

"Note. — The existence of fire clay in the Black Slate is reported by Capt. Wykoff, as 
found on his land a few miles below Eockville. It may be the equivalent of the clay at 



The lower part of the section was taken at the cut of the inclined rail- 
way at the quarry of the Hon. W. J. Flagg, on Lower Twin creek, 
Scioto county. At this place the fifty feet directly above the Black Slate 
were not seen, but were found exposed at other points, although no mi- 
nute measurements were made. The shale partings are of a light bluish 
color, and are often quite arenaceous. There is a remarkable exception 
to the general character of the Waverly group, in a stratum of highly 
bituminous black slate, which is found about 137 feet above the base. 
It is 16 feet thick, and remarkably persistent in the Waverly, and is said 
by my associates to be found in the northern part of the State. It is not 
easily distinguished in appearance from the great Black Slate below. It 
is found to be richer in bitumen. Professor Wormley reports it to 
contain 21.40 per cent, of volatile matter. 

It contains the same mollusca, genera and species, as the Black Slate, 
viz: Lingula sub-spatulata, M. and W., and Discina capax. ? White. It 
also contains similar scales of small ganoid fishes. Besides these fishes 
there are remains of larger fishes. A collection of these larger fish remains 
was made from this slate, at Fairview, Ky., by Capt. Jas. Patterson, of 
Eockville, who takes an intelligent interest in all such matters. Through 
the generosity of Capt. P., I obtained some fine specimens this summer 
at Eockville. They are yet to be studied and described. This black 
slate in the Waverly is said to be a fish-bed throughout its entire extent 
through the State. 

The conditions under which this slate was formed must have been very 
similar to those existing when the great Black Slate was deposited, viz : 
quiet water and a commingling with the sediments of a vast amount of 
minute organic matter. Wo trace of bitumen is elsewhere seen in any 
other part of this great formation. 

This Waverly Black Slate is evidently a very wide-spread stratum. It 
is not only found extending through the Waverly formation to the north, 
but it evidently accompanies the Waverly rocks in their dip under the 
coal measures. I have little doubt that the deep oil wells in the West 
Virginia uplift pass through it. While this uplift is located in tlje 
center of the great coal basin, it brings to the surface the strata of the 
lowest part of the productive coal measures. No true conglomerate is 
found, but the sandstone and shales of the Waverly are considerably 
thickened, as we should expect in going from Ohio eastward. All the 
wells, so far as I can learn, which are sunk to the requisite depth, pass 
through from 15 to 20 feet of " black slate," which I cannot doubt is the- 



black slate of the Waverly. I give a section of a well bored at Burning 
Spring, by A. B. MeParland, Esq., an intelligent citizen of Parkersburg. 
(See Fig. 1.) 

.Lowest coal 

\=~S Sandy shale* 
8a nd rock 

=S Bluish shalf.% 

;•' Sand roek.Close grained 
•t very Hard 

■ White mntlnick 
^Ji'nok xlats- 
g Hard &iul-h Hand/, s^ale 

Pig. 1. 

Over tbe black slate we find, on the Ohio river, 1 ft. 7 in. of compact 
blue clay, upon which rest 3 ft. 9 in. of blue and drab shales imperfectly 
laminated. Then conies the famous stratum of sandstone called the 
il city ledge." It was first quarried nearly forty years ago by the late 
John Loughery, Esq., and the same stratum is still very largely quarried 
by Messrs. W. L. Oaden & Bro., Mueller, Adams, Flagg, and others, in 
vicinity of Bockville and Buena Vista, on the Ohio river. Mear Bock- 
ville the stratum is 3 ft. 5 in. thick. The same " city ledge," on W. J. 
Flagg's land, is 4 ft. 6 in., and at another place 3 ft. 11 in. At the latter 
place there is an under layer, 2, feet thick, separated by 3J inches of blue 
sandy shale. Here the lower layer is quarried. On Upper Twin creek 
the same stratum is found, although it is not here wrought. One-fourth 
of a mile east of Stony Bun, 3| miles below Portsmouth, the equivalent 


of the city ledge is quarried. Here are three layers, measuring 1 ft. 9 in. 
1 ft. 9 in., and 2 ft. 10 in., separated by thin layers of shale 3 inches thick. 
It is a fortunate fact that everywhere the rock over the city ledge is a 
comparatively soft shale. This greatly facilitates the work of stripping 
off the superincumbent material. These overlying clay shales afford a 
fine material for brick, and excellent pottery, it is said, can be made from 
^he finer parts of them. A section of the " city ledge" and the shales, is 
here given. (See Fig. 2.) 

: Thin layers ferruginous sandstone 

Fig. 2. 

The stone quarried at Buena Vista and neighborhood is remarkable for 
its durability and resistance under pressure, the ease with which it is 
wrought for all architectural purposes, and for its uniform and beautiful 
color— a delicate bluish drab, sometimes called " French drab." The 
stone in the quarry is remarkably even-bedded, and is split oat in blocks 
of a very uniform size, averaging about 45 cubic feet each. These blocks 
are sawed into slabs and pillars most economically. This stone is used 
in Cincinnati for all the finer architecture, and it has no superior in the 

The following table of results of tests of building stone, is taken from 
statement of W. Shippen, Assistant Commissioner for testing building 
materials for TJ. S. Capitol extension. These tests were made under the 
direction of the Smithsonian Institution •. 


Sandstone, of which the Old Capitol is built, sustains pressure to square 

inch 16,220 

Red Freestone, of which the Smithsonian Institution is built, sustains 

pressure to square inch 10,248 

Yellow Dolomite, of which the House of Parliament, London, is built, 

sustains pressure to square inch 8,569 

Brown stone of Connecticut, much used in New York, sustains pressure 

to square inch 8,259 

White crystalline marble, of which the Washington National Monument 

is built, sustains pressure to square inch 6,970 

West Stockbridge marble (Mass.) sustains pressure to square inch 10,382 

Baltimore marble, medium crystals, " " " 9,625 

Baltimore marble, large crystals, " " " 8,057 

Egremont marble, (Mass.) " " " 9,544 

Lenox " " " " " 7,153 

Montgomery county marble, (Pa.) " " " 8,950 

Bnena Vista freestone, (9cioto county, O.) " " 10,420 

The resistance under pressure was also tried by the Knap Fort Pitt 
Foundry Company, Pittsburg. Mr. T. L. Knap certifies to the following 
result : " Specimen 2£ in. by 2f in. by 5 in. ; force applied on the 2 J in. 
side; crushed with a pressure of 101,000 lbs." Mr. Knap reports the 
power of resistance greater than that of any stone ever tested by the 
K. F. P, F. Co. 

The following chemical analysis of the Buena Yista freestone was 
made by O. Wuth, a chemist of Pittsburg, Pa. : 

Silicic acid 90.22 

Alumina 6.25 

Peroxide and protoxide iron 2.37 

Lime 0.87 

Magnesia 0.26 

Alkalies 0.03 

Total 1 100.00 

The top of the "city ledge" layer is covered with Spirophyton cauda 
galli, and other species, and with innumerable stems and stalks of marine 
plants. Occasionally the leaf of a Spirophyton extends down into the 
stone, to the injury of its compactness and strength. These plants show- 
no carbonaceous structure. There is not even a black stain upon leaf or 
stalk, so completely have the carbon and hydrogen of the ancient plants, 
escaped. This escape was doubtless due to the fact that the plants were, 
only imperfectly submerged. The opinion has been expressed that petro*. 
lenm originated from marine vegetation. In the Waverly we have thft 


proof of a vast marine flora, but in no case do we find any oil traceable 
to this source, nor the slightest tendency to bituminization in any of these 
plants. What might have been the case had the fucoids been covered 
by clays or other impervious material, it is impossible to say. These 
Waverly plants are accumulated in comparatively shallow water, probably 
very near the surface, since we find on the under side of some of the 
sandstone layers casts of well-marked striae, such as might be made by the 
movement of shore ice along a muddy bottom. So far as could be ascer- 
tained, the casts of ripple marks run at right angles to the direction of 
the striae. This seemingly corroborates the supposition that ice causes 
the striae. Mr. John Miller, superintendent of Mr. Mueller's quarries at 
Buena Vista, thinks the striae lie in the direction of IsT. E. and S. W., 
while the ripple marks are from K W. to S. E. These striae are remark- 
ably uniform and parallel. The mud was often planed down quite 
smooth, and yet the tool-marks are ever discernable. Upon the mud 
thus prepared the sandy layers were deposited. If the different layers 
of the sandstone should generally be found to contain upon their under 
surfaces these casts, we might perhaps infer from this the periodicity of 
the winter ice, and the sueceeding deposits of the sandy sediment brought 
down periodically from the continent of that period. This would make 
the accumulation of the Waverly rocks a rapid one, yet there could not 
have been a very strong current to move the materials of the formation, 
as it is developed near the Ohio River, for they are too fine and too much 
mingled with clay. To the north, in Fairfield county, and in that region, 
the Waverly sandstone is very coarse, and required much stronger cur- 
rents for the accumulation of the materials. 

About 47 feet above the " city ledge " is a group of layers, lying so 
horizontally and so evenly bedded as to arrest attention. This group 
was named by Dr. Locke in the old reports, the " Beautiful Quarry." 
The position of these layers is indicated in the general section. They 
have never been quarried to any considerable extent, but doubtless the 
choicer layers will be wrought at some future day. The same group is 
well exposed on the road to the residence of Hon. Wm. J. Flagg, on the 
high hill between Upper and Lower Twin creeks. Although no other 

Note. — W. L. Caden &. Bro. quarry and sell annually 150,000 cubic feet of this stone 
taken from the city ledge stratum. Much of this is prepared for use in their large steam 
saw -mill. Mr. Mueller quarries about 200,000 feet, all, or nearly all, taken from the city 
ledge seam. Mr. J. W. Adams also quarries the city ledge stone largely. In addition to 
his own quarries, he rents those of Hon. W. J. Flagg, on Lower Twin creek, together 
with his railroad. It should be added, that Mr. Mueller has a fine railway to his quar- 
irfes, on which he uses locomotives. 


layer of sandstone than the " city ledge" is now wrought, to any extent, 
in the neighborhood of Buena Vista,.it is not because there is not a vast 
amount of excellent stone besides. The " city ledge " has a great repu- 
tation, and as it is easily wrought for all architectural purposes, it is in 
great demand. Such has been the competition among the owners of 
quarries, that they feel compelled to supply their patrons with the " city 
ledge " stone. Could the stone from other layers be once fairly intro- 
duced, I hare no doubt of its value and popularity. 

The stone of the '< city ledge" is sometimes contaminated with petro- 
leum, but this is in exceptional localities. Many of the large blocks of 
the stone used in the supension bridge over the Ohio river at Cincinnati, 
show the tarry oil, as the sun's heat has caused it to exude and run down. 
These were blocks not deemed worthy, I suppose, to be used in the finer 
stone works in the city. A limestone quarried in the suburbs of Chicago 
is charged, in a similar way, with petroleum. A Presbyterian church on 
Wabash avenue in that city, built of this stone, presents the appearance 
of having been covered *with dripping tar. The oil in the " city ledge '» 
stratum has evidently originated in the highly bituminous slate which im- 
mediately underlies it. In comfirmation of this supposition, the lowest 
sandstone layers of the Waverly group and which rest directly upon the 
Great Black Slate, contain oil and constitute a horizon of oil springs. 

The upper Waverly sandstone are nowhere extensively quarried along 
the Ohio river, so far as I could learn, except on Carey's run, between 
Stoney run and Portsmouth, where there is a pretty extensive quarry of 
Waverly layers, situated above the horizon of the " city ledge." No 
measured sections of the rocks were here made. The stone is now being 
quarried for the piers of the railroad bridge between Cincinnati and Cov- 
ington, Ky. Generally the upper Waverly layers are not sufficiently firm 
and durable for building purposes, and yet, upon more careful examina- 
tion, there will doubtless be found portions of the formation of excellent 

A careful examination of the quarries in the Waverly group in Pike 
county has not yet been made. Stone from the town of Waverly and 
vicinity is extensively used for building purposes in all the cities and 
towns on the Ohio Canal, at Chillicothe, Columbus, &c. A fine grained 
stone from Pike county, of a very rich, dark yellow drab, has recently 
been introduced into Columbus. The block of stores of Peter Hayden, 
Esq., on Broad Street, has its front of this stone. For large buildings? 
and especially for churches, this stone is admirably fitted to gratify the 
tastes of those who prefer rich dark hues in ecclesiastical architecture. A 
stone from the Waverly group, quarried at Newark, of a lighter yellow and 


much coarser in texture, is also prized ior building purposes. The new 
Eoman Catholic Cathedral at Columbus is being built of it. 

Quarries are opened in the Waverly rocks in the Hocking valley. The 
stratigraphical position of some of these quarries will be given hereafter. 

The upper Waverly sandstones on the Ohio river section contain less 
interstratifled shales than the lower portion. The whole rock is generally 
softer and of a more yellow color, due to the presence of iron. At many 
points, the iron ore, a hematite, forms a coating on the sandstone two 
or three inches thick. We have here the dawn of the coming iron ore 
period of the lower coal measures. The ore was nowhere seen of suita- 
ble thickness for practical use. 

Direction of Vertical Joints. — In the bed of Stony run, four miles be- 
low Portsmouth, vertical planes appear With unusual distinctness, divid- 
ing the horizontal strata into rhomboidal blocks* Directions of joints, 
N. 30 deg. B., and S. 82 deg. E. 

In the Waverly, in the bed of Pond creek, one mile from the Ohio 
Canal, vertical joints are very distinct, cutting the horizonal strata into 
triangular, trapezoidal and rhomboidal blocks. Directions, E". 38 deg. W., 
K 6 deg. W., X. 50 deg. B., N. 52 deg. B., and K 70 deg. W. 

In the Waverly just below the " 16 feet " or " Waverly black slate," on 
Eocky Fork of Camp creek, Camp Creek township, Pike county, the 
direction of joints is N. 32 deg. B. and K 68 deg. W. 

In the " Waverly black slate " at Patterson's quarry, below Eockville, 
the direction is N. 50 deg. W. In the " Logan sandstone," (upper Waverly) 
at Scott's Creek Falls, Hocking county, the direction of joints is N. 82 
deg. E. Also, in the same, below the bridge, in the bed of Hocking 
river, N. 86 deg. B. 

Vertical joints in the upper Waverly, top of Springville hill, Ky., op- 
posite Portsmouth, K. 84 deg. E. 

The vertical joints in the fire clay at Taylor's quarry, three miles above 
Portmouth, K 50 deg. E. This clay rests upon the top of the Waverly. 

The hills along the Ohio river, in the Waverly formation, are very 
high and steep. The following altitudes were taken by the barometer : 
Butterworth's hill, four miles north of Eome, Adams county, 543 feet 
above the bed of Stout's run. On the Loughery hill, east of the mouth 
of Eock run, at Eockville, Adams county, the stratam of foBsiliferoue 
sand rock is 440 feet above the bed of the run, and there are probably 
50 or 60 feet of the hill above that stratum, making the hill at least 500 
feet high. The altitude of the picturesque dwelling of Hon. W. J. Flagg, 
on the hill between the two Twin creeks, Scioto county, is 505 feet above 
the lower Twin creek bridge. This corresponds very nearly with an 
instrumental survey made by Mr. Flagg for the location of a road. 


Raven Rock hill, about three miles below Portsmouth, was found to be 
508 feet high. On the top is a cairn of stones. The highest point in the 
range of the high and picturesque hills in Kentucky, directly opposite 
Portsmouth, is 527 feet above the alluvial bottom as the base. 

The height of the first Ohio river hill on the Ohio side above Ports- 
mouth, is 402 feet. This is not high enough to take the coarse coal 
measure sandstone. On the top are the remains of an Indian or mound- 
builder lookout. On the next hill to the east, the coarse coal-measure 
sand rock shows at an elevation of 416 feet, where it is 15 feet ta'uJk. 
Forty-five (45) feet below the sand rock is a stratum of blue fire clay, 
from three to four feet thick. This is doubtless the equivalent of the 
seam of fire clay worked by Mr. Taylor, one mile further east. Mr. Tay- 
lor's hill is 388 feet above the alluvial bottom. His clay is one foot seven 
inches thick, and lies 22 feet below the top of the hill. This clay is 
doubtless the same in geological position with that extensively quarried 
on the hills near Sciotoville. The finer grained upper Waverly rocks 
show themselves 10 feet below Mr. Taylor's fire clay. 

The height of the hill back of Josiah Merrill's landing, in Kentucky, 
10 miles above Portsmouth, is 330 feet. The sub-carboniferous limestone 
is extensively deposited in the hill, and measures 46 feet thick. It is 215 
feet above the base of the hill. 


The Waverly group contains impressions of marine plants throughout 
its whole vertical range. They are the Spirophyta of Hall, in several 
species, and stems of numerous fucoidal plants. The Spirophyta abound 
in the productive coal measures, as will be shown hereafter. A small 
fragment of a Dictophyton Hall, was found at Buena Vista, in the " city 
ledge" sandstone. The upper Waverly contains several forms of marine 
plants as yet undescribed. The lower Waverly, on the Ohio river, is 
found to be very barren of animal fossils. Not a single one of any kind 
was found in the 137 feet ot sandstones and blue sandy shales lying below 
the Waverly black slate. The black slate contains, as has already been 
stated, two forms of brachiopoda, Lingula sub-spatulata and Discina 
capax, and fish remains. There are also great numbers of a minute fossil 
form, resembling the dental arrangements of gasteropoda. In the " city 
ledge" layer, a single indistinct form of a cyathophylloid coral was ob- 
tained. In the clay shale directly above the "city ledge," a fragment of 
a very indistinct form of goniatites was found. As this is probably the 
horizon from which Dr. Hildreth's specimens came, which were described 
by Dr. Morton, I searched the shales carefully, but found nothing except a 


mere fragment. Dr. Hildreth's goniatites came from a shaft, at Munn's 
run, above Portsmouth, sunk to the Waverly black slate, in expectation 
of finding it coal. Oue hundred and twenty-seven feet above the "city 
ledge" is a sandstone rich in fossils. About 114 feet above this is an- 
other stratum of sand rock covered with iron ore, also rich in fossils. 
This stratum was not found in place, but the fragments were found near 
the top of Mr. Plagg's hill, near Buena Vista, and the place of the 
stratum proximately estimated. Fossils were found in large iron-stone 
concretions in a sandstone near the mouth of the Little Scioto, at Scioto- 
ville, above Portsmouth. The collections of the Survey have not yet 
been studied. In a private collection made by myself some years since 
at Eockville (in the first fossiliferous sand rock stratum above the " city 
ledge"), and at Scioto ville, Prof. A. Winchell, of Michigan, has identified 
the following forms : 

SochnUe. — Fenestrella, sp ? ; Producta semi-reticulata, Flem. ; P. arcuata, Hall ; Cho- 
netes genicnlata? White; C. Minoisensis, Worthen; Hemipronites umbraculum, Sofa.; 
Orthis Michellini, Lev. ; Spirifera carteri, Hall ; S. biplieata ? Hall ; Spiriferina solidi- 
rostris, White ; Pleurotomaria vadosa, Hall ; Nantilus trisulcatus, M. and W. ; Phillipsia 
Doris, Hall, sp. ; Cythere crassi-marginata, Win. 

Sciotoville — Zaphrentis ida? Win.; Trematopora? vesiculosa, Win.; Trematopora ? 
Sciotoensis, n. s., Win. ; Crinoid stems, 2 species ; Fenestrella sp ? ; Producta semi-reticu- 
lata, Flem.; P. morbilliana, Win.; P. Cooperensis? Swallow; P. concentrica, Hall; P. 
gracilis, Win.; Hemipronites umbraculum, Sch.; Orthis sub-eliptiea ? M. and W. ; Spi- 
rifera Carteri, Hall ; S. Marionensis, Shumard ; S. subrotundata, Hall ; Spiriferina solidi- 
rostris, White; Syringothyris typa, Win; Spirigera Hanmbalensis, Swallow; S. Ohioensis, 
Win.; Khynconella Sageriana, Win. ; E. Missouriensis, Shumard ; Centronella ? flora, n. s., 
Win.; Aviculapecten caroli, Win.; Perno pecten lineatus? Win.; Sanguinolites Mar- 
shallensis, Win. ; Sanguinolaria, sp ? ; Pleurotomaria vadosa, Hall ; Murchisonia prolixa, 
M. and W.; M. quadricincta, Win.; Conularia Newberryi, Win.; Orthoceras Indianense, Hall. 


Hon. W. J. Plagg, who owns a large estate in these Waverly bills, and 
who has devoted much time and thought to fruit culture, as well as to 
the development of the building stone, has sent the following interesting 
and valuable statement relative to the region : 

Concerning the economic value of the hills of J dams and Seioto counties, in the neighborhood 
of the village of Freestone, which is on the Ohio river, near the point whsre the line dividing 
those counties touches it. 

These hills being steep and rough are hardly cultivated at all, except for fruit. The 
peaches from the orchards of Mr. Loughery, overlooking the villages, have a high reputa- 
tion in market, and what little wine has been prodaced from a few vineyards near by, 
has been of uncommon delicacy of flavor and richness. Without any analysis of the soil 
to inform us, we know that it abounds in silex, is deficient in lime, has some clay, and a 
good deal of iron, as well as potash. Comparing it with the soil of one of the best vine- 
yards in one of the chief wine districts of Europe, Lafitte in Medoc, we find the latter to 
contain — 


Silicions pebbles 629 parts. 

Fine sand 283 " 

Pure silex 63 " 

Humus 13 " 

Alumina 7 " 

Lime 40 " 

Iron - - 86 " 

In the limestone soil of the Burgundy wine district, the proportion of iron is from ten 
to thirteen per cent., and of silica about thirty per cent. These show that for the pro- 
duction of wines of fine, quality, lime in large quantity is not an essential constituent, 
and that in two, at least, of the great French vine districts, the soil, like that of the hills 
of Adams and Scioto, abounds in silica and iron. 

The timber is chiefly white oak, poplar, chestnut, beech, hickory, surgar tree and locust, 
of remarkable strength and durability, as compared with the growth of the plains and 

Ginseng, sarsaparilla and other medicinal plants of marketable value, are found in the 
woods, and are gathered and disposed of in considerable quantities. 

Mineral springs of real or supposed virtue in healing disease, issue in many places from 
the bases of the hills. One of these, in Adams county, has already become an established 
resort for invalids. 

The upper parts of the hills are formed of a very even and compact stratification of 
what are known as the Waverly sandstone, interlaid with clayey shales. Though cap- 
able of yielding an inexhaustible supply of very good building material, and though 
formerly quarried for that purpose, to some extent, these sandstones are now abandoned 
in favor of the harder and more beautiful ledge lying below them. 

Immediately beneath the Waverly ledges comes a very thick bed of fine bluish grey 
clay, excellent for brick, tile and potters' ware. An English potter finds in this clay the 
very material that has made Staffordshire what it is, the pottery of the world. It is 
not of such clay that the fine white ware and porcelain we get from Staffordshire are 
made, but those wares must be enclosed when baked, by a kind of matrix, to supply 
which so large a bulk of common clay is needed that the finer substances of which the 
ware itself is formed, and of which not a tenth as much is needed, can better be transported 
to it than it to them. Hence potteries are always established near the clay beds. The 
clay in question is quite pure and free of grit. 

Next below is the " city ledge," so called, a stratum of close-grained greyish-drab 
sandstone, from three feet to four feet thick, from which the fine building stone now 
generally used in Cincinnati and other cities of the valley is obtained. Usually no 
other is quarried, but lately a ledge, two feet thick, lying immediately under it, and of 
the same color and general composition, has been introduced to the market and been re- 
ceived with favor. 

The price of these stones at Cincinnati is fifty cents per cubic foot, less than one-third 
that of the brown stone so much used in New York and other eastern cities, but which is, 
nevertheless, no stronger, nor more durable, nor any easier worked, nor, in common es- 
timation, more beautiful than what is here so cheaply and abundantly afforded. Accord- 
ingly, in all buildings 6onstructed in Cincinnati, during the last fifteen years, where any- 
thing like elegance is attempted, whether public or private, for residence or business, 
the " Buena Vista Free Stone," so called, is the material used. And owing to its cheap- 
ness it is put up in more massive blocks, and forming thicker walls than is common in 
the East. 

Close below the city ledge comes a bed of black bituminous slate or shale, fifteen feet 


This in turn rests upon a series of layers, in all about 125 feet thick, of fine cream col- 
ored sandstone, separated by thin deposits of clayey shale. One or two of these layers 
near the bottom of the series are of beautiful appearance, quarry and work well, and 
seem well adapted to the finest building purposes, but as they are locked down by so 
heavy a mass of what has at present no merchantable value, they are not worked. 
Ultimately however, the whole must come into use to build up the great and beautiful 
cities, that are, and are to be, in the valleys of the Ohio and Mississippi. 

Next we come to a second bed of black bituminous slate of the thickness of from three 
hundred to three hundred and fifty feet, and known in geology as the Hamilton Shale. 
Like the upper bed, this slate is highly bituminous. Numerous issues of petroleum from 
its surface and above it, caused oil seekers to bore several wells in the neighborhood 
in question, during the years 1865 and 1866, but without valuable result. It is also 
rich in sulphur, and is said to contain, besides considerable lime, phosphorus and potash. 

In other countries much thinner and poorer beds of bituminous matter than these, 
have, for many years, been worked and distilled for the production of oil. And though 
at present all the distilleries that have been put up for that purpose in the vicinity of 
Freestone, are lying idle, or being dismantled, yet if ever the time shall come when a 
short supply or extended consumption of petroleum skall raise its price to double or 
treble what it now is, resort must be had to some such basis of supply as we find at the 
foot of the hills of Adams and Scioto counties, in that immense bituminous deposit. 

Many fruit growers and especially grape growers of the eastern shores of Lake Erie, 
and others on the borders of Crooked lake, New York, attribute their remarkable success 
to the presence in the soil of their orchards and vineyards of this same slate. To it they 
have lately been led to trace not merely the large and regular crops they have obtained — 
so abundant and so certain as to have run up the price of land to speculative rates — but 
also their very great immunity from the vine disease. They find in the slate an abun- 
dance of sulphur, which is the well known remedy for that disease. It is stated that 
vine growers in the north of France, who use as a manure a black earth highly charged 
with sulphur, also escape the ravages of the malady, and attribute their escape to the 
sulphur. Experiments are furthermore being made on an entensive scale to test the 
value of the slate when ground to a fine flour and applied in the same way as a substi- 
tute for ground plaster. 

The same flour mixed with coal-tar as a kind of mastic and applied on a sheathing of 
woolen paper, has of late been considerably employed for roofing. When well put on it 
makes a good roof, capable, possibly, of almost indefinite renewal of painting with a fresh 
coat of the mixture. 

Other elements of value are supposed to lie within the rich body of slate, among them 
the elements of sulphuric acid and alum. 

All which brings us down to the limestone at low water mark. Eicher hills there are, 
but where can any be found so thoroughly valuable from top to bottom as these ? 


The Waverly hills in Southern Ohio are heavily timbered, and the day 
is not far distant when all the accessible forests will be needed aud used 
as fuel for the production of iron. For many purposes, charcoal iron is a 
necessity, and it will always command an extra price. The number of 
charcoal furnaces is rapidly diminishing, while that of stonecoal fur- 
naces is increasing. Charcoal iron will, therefore, be relatively more val- 
uable in the future than now. There are, however, few districts in the 


State where woodlands can be obtained sufficiently cheap for furnace 
uses. This is not the case in the Waverly hills below Portsmouth, for 
lands are much cheaper here than in any other part of the State. Iron 
ores from Missouri are already largely used by furnaces higher up the 
river, and also limestone for flax is carried up the river from the Silurian 
limestone formation in the vicinity of Manchester, Adams county. Ores 
for mixture, or to be used independently, could be obtained on the line of 
the Portsmouth Branch of the Marietta and Cincinnati Eailroad. 

I have not been able to study the Waverly rocks carefully at points 
north of the immediate valley of the Ohio river, and nowhere have I 
made a complete section. 

On the Marietta and Cincinnati Eailroad, we pass, in going west, the 
base of the productive coal measures in the vicinity of the Cincinnati 
Furnace, five or six miles west of Hamden, in Vinton county. Here are 
ledges of coarse sandrock of great thickness, giving a picturesque mural 
character to the part of the " Hungry Hollow " valley. At the base of 
the coarse sandrock, I find in the railroad cuts to the westward, alternate 
layers of conglomerate and fine grained sandstone, the latter, however, 
greatly exceeding the former in thickness. Under these, the rocks become 
uniformly fine grained, and both in texture and color resemble the layers 
of the middle and lower Waverly strata, at Buena Vista, on the Ohio 
river. In the fine grained blue Waverly sandstone at the base of the 
conglomerate group, I find Producta semireticulata, Orthis Michelini 
Bhynehonella Sageriana, a Myalina, and several other undetermined 
species of fossils. 

In passing from the coal measures in Hocking county down to the 
Waverly, we find a group of comparatively fine grained buff colored sand- 
stones, one hundred and thirty-three and a half feet thick. These rocks 
contain marine plants, Syirophyton cauda-galli, &c.j Producta, 3 species; 
Ehynehonella, Orthis, &c. Below this group, which I have called, for 
convenience of designation, the Logan Sandstone, are eighty-five feet of 
alternate fine grained Waverly-like seams and conglomerate. The fine 
grained sandstone is often blue and rich in fucoids after the manner of 
the Ohio river Waverly. Beside the marine plants are Producta ; Chon- 
etes; Syringothyris, typa; Orthis, &c. Below this conglomerate group 
we find the coarse sandstone and conglomerate which form the chief 
Waverly in the hills in the Hocking Valley. The Waverly is found to be 
entirely changed in its lithological character. It is always coarse with 
the single exception of twelve feet of fine grained rock seen at the base 
of the hills near Sugar Grove, Fairfield county. Often it contains pebbles 
of the size of a hickory nut. At Mount Pleasant, a bold hill near Lancas- 



ter, some two hundred feet high (by estimate), there is a bluff exposure 
on the southwestern side. The rock here varies in no respect from a 
common coal measure conglomerate. It ranges all the way from a hard 
compact sandstone to a coarse conglomerate filled with quartz pebbles. 
In color it ranges from white through various shades of yellow, to dark 
ochre and even to lively brick red. Generally, however, it is a coarse yellow 
loose grained sandrock. There is much false bedding, and an exact sec- 
tion would be impossible. In many places the face of the cliff presents a 
curiously honey-combed appearance from unequal disintegration by weath- 
ering. The typical Waverly look was nowhere seen. If a layer of fine 
grained Waverly -like stone, seen between Sugar Grove and the mouth of 
Clear creek, continues to the north-west, its place would be in this hill. 
The Lancaster stone is quarried for building purposes, and the new court 
house now in process of erection at Lancaster, is being built of it. 

Four miles below Lancaster, in Berne township, the Waverly sandrock 
is quarried by Messrs. Sharpe and Carlisle. The quarry is something 
over a hundred feet above the Hocking canal, and is opened in a hard 
compact but coarse grained sandrock about twenty feet in thickness and 
of excellent quality. Above this were exposed about fifteen feet of loose 
laminated sandrock. 

Just below the village of Sugar Grove, on the east side of the canal, is 
the quarry of Eobert L. Sharpe, Esq., in the same geological range as the 
quarry last mentioned. Fossils are rare. I saw only an indistinct spiri- 
fer. The section is as follows. (See Pig. 3.) 

, t^SS^ Soil 

f^*- 7 Loosely laminaled a. atone 
My.'-:7iT Sand stone not used 

->;■;/■ Sand 8 tone Quarried 

Finely laminated sandstone 

■> >/* 
r J_ Coarse sandrocK 

/ / Wot seen 


Fia. 3. 



The stone from the two quarries last named has been principally used 
for locks and bridge piers, and is said to give good satisfaction. On the 
Ohio and Erie canal this stone was used in rebuilding locks at Lockbourn© 
and at Lockville, making about twenty-five locks in all. It was also used 
In the acqueduct and locks at Circleville. It has been also used at va- 
ious points on the Hocking canal. The stone has been thus used for some 
thirty years, and on the Ohio canal for fifteen years, and is reported i» 
stand the test admirably.* 

The following is a seetion showing the alternation of conglomerate and 
fine grained blue sandstone as we ascend in the Waverly series. Being 
taken in a deep railroad cut where no measurement could be made of the 
perpendicular sides, the figures are only estimates. The seetion was taken 
on the farm of James Francisco, Marion township, Hocking county. (See 
Pig. 4.) 

Sandstone, laminated 

'/: •'•'■/. Sandstone 

' ,,.'■,;■ -■ ; Buff eol'd sandstone 

,.>'=•*£. Skndstone interstralified xoith conglomerate 
9 " \i~^^ 

tt-. .' Blue sandstone 


c Blue clay 


Fig. 4. 

These layers, though generally fine grained blue sandrock, and much' 
resembling, lithologically, the typical Waverly of the Ohio river, show at 
nearly all the seams a tendency to the coarseness of conglomerate. There 
is the evidence that at times the water currents swept along with suffi- 
cient force to carry very coarse gravel, while, at other times, the waters 
were more quiet, and deposited fine sand intimately mixed with clay. It 
is in the finer material that the marine plants (fucoids) are found, 

*N©TiK-Mr. Sharps reports the gross Bale» : from the lower quarry last year at $12,006. 
The^preeent year will probably show $15,000 from the two quarries. 

6 — Geological. 


while the animal fossils, such as the Syringothyris, typa; are often 
found in the coarser deposits. Beautiful impressions of flexible stalks of 
fucoids are here seen. One species shows a peculiar system of transverse 
ridges much resembling those seen in the stems of the Eusophycus of 
the Clinton rocks. 

There are several distinct species of these curious flexible stems to be 
found in the conglomerate and Logan Sandstone groups. The same are 
found in the upper Waverly, in the one hundred and fifty feet of fine- 
grained sandstone lying next below the Sub- carboniferous limestone in 
the Kentucky hills, opposite Wheelersburg, Scioto county. 

Above the group of the last section come in the heavier beds of eon- 
glomerate, well exposed at the Falls of the Hocking, one mile above 
Logan. Here deep pot-holes have been worn in the conglomerate. There 
are probably twenty feet of the conglomerate at this place, although the 
bottom was nowhere seen. A mile below, at the mouth of Scott's creek, 
a higher layer of coarse conglomerate is well exposed, and above this 
several thin layers of conglomerate, alternating wit'i fine grained sand- 
stone. The following section shows these rocks. See Fig. 5. 

■?z -%■ Logan sandstone 

gj^T Conglovterule 
. .zc±- Mne' grained sandstone 
'^ytr° : Conglomerate 
\^~ Fine grained S.S. Cauda gnUi &u 
.. y, ._Hgfc * Conglomerate 

/Jyz~ -Fins grained S.S. Cauda gatti &e. 

'' Conglomerate 
Not teen 

■ JHlr''' : "'<J" ? uV' Conglomerate with pot holes 

Fig. 5. 
At Black Hand, near the east line of Licking county, the conglomerate 
is probably fifty or sixty feet thick, and over it lie, as we follow the dip 


to the south-east toward Zanesville, the Logan Sandstone group. The 
Logan Sandstone, with its characteristic fossils, is found to extend to a 
point between Pleasant Valley and Dillon's Falls, on the Baltimore 
and Ohio Bailroad, 0. O. Division. Many of the fossils of this group 
are identical with those of the upper Knobstone formation, proximate 
to' the sub-carboniferous limestone of Kentucky. This upper fine-grained 
sandstone was carefully measured near Logan, Hocking county, and 
found to be one hundred and thirty-three feet from the conglomerate 
below to the horizon of the Maxville limestone, which will be more fully 
noticed hereafter, and which everywhere rests upon the fine-grained 
sandstone of the upper Waverly. 

At the top of the Logan group of sandstones, not far from Logan, 
Hocking county, a seam of fire-clay is reported by S. Baird, Esq., a well- 
known iron manufacturer, who formerly had charge of the Logan Fur- 
nace. This fire-clay has the same geological position as the fire-clay at 
the top of the Waverly in the Ohio river hills above Portsmouth. It 
has been tested, and pronounced excellent in quality, and such it appears 
in the samples shown me. Over the fire-clay is a seam of siderite ore in 
nodules, imbedded in clay, as reported by Mr. Baird. 


There is above the Logan Sandstone group a limestone horizon, al- 
though the limestone is not everywhere persistent. It often gives place 
to sandstone of the usual coal measure grit. It was evidently formed on 
local basins occupied by quiet waters and cut off from the reach of the 
strong sand-moving currents. But as these limestones group themselves 
upon one geological horizon, and always rest upon the top of the Logan 
sandstone group, I have no doubt that they have the same geological 
age, and were formed at the same time. I have called it the Maxville 
limestone, from the village of that name in Monday creek township, in 
Perry county, eight or ten miles north-east of Logan, where it has been 
extensively burned into quicklime. 

The following is a section of this limestone, as seen in the land of 
James Tonnihill, Section 28, Green township, Hocking county. (See 
Fig. 6.) 

Mr. GL W. Smith is engaged in quarrying and burning this limestone 
at this place. He sells annually from 2,000 to 3,000 bushels of lime. 
The stone is also used as a flux at the Union Furnace. Mr. Smith knows 
nothing of the limestone west, nor, indeed, in any direction except to the 
north. It appears continuously northward for half a mile, and then is 
said not to be seen until within two miles of Maxville. It is probable 


^ sr; Yellow tkole 

~ ^^»<5 ^ A * n '<W S "vdulei oftron em 

4? l" 4itfi^£Mx£±i3 limestone in thick nodulei 


Bttff limestone 

= — Caicareous clay 

«- mm 

Green attietons mutter 
mired wtfA upper toners 


UJJ T^ flnrd eempadt limeitone 

Fig. 6. 

that a careful search for i t, at its proper geological horizon, would be re- 
warded in finding it at points nearer Union Furnace and on the Hocking 
river hills convenient to the canal and railroad. South and west of the 
Hocking river, it has not been noticed ; but from recollections of explo- 
rations made by me several years since, between Jackson and the Ohio 
river, I am led to think that, in a few places, I saw small developments 
of this limestone in its true geological horizon. The same horizon, con- 
tinued across the Ohio river, would strike the Sub-carboniferous limestone of 
Kentucky. I shall be able, next season, to settle this important point.* 
Like the Kentucky limestone, the Maxville seam generally carries a 
stratum of iron ore. 

The following section, taken on the farm of David Hardy, near Max- 
ville, shows the position of the Maxville limestone. (See Fig. 7.) 

The Logan sandstone below shows the usual lithologieal texture and 
the usual fossils — fucoids (Spirophyton, cauda galli), etc., Productua, etc. 
A collection of fossils was made from the limestone. They are generally 
indistinct, as if the shells had been acted on by some solvent before the 
limestone became solidified around them. 

Note. — The calcareous clay in above section is8 inches thick, not 8 feet, as given. 

* Note. — This has subsequently been verified, and the Maxville limestone will probably., 
prove to be the equivalent of the Cheater limestone of the Illinois reports. 




«£%£&*** MM sandstone 


* £ fiiTTT^ ^"'WWWm&A 

emit limestone 

~ with usual fostilt 

Fig. 7. 

The limestone here, as in Green township, Hocking county, appears to 
be of limited extent. In going south toward Logan, it is last seen in the 
road on Augustus Culver's land, some two miles from Maxville. Mr. 
Eobert Ashbaugh reports that, so far as he knows, it occurs not further 
than a fourth of a mile west, one mile north, and not at all east of Max- 
ville. As seen on Mr. Hardy's land, the lower five and a half feet are a 
bluish-gray stone, very hard and pure, breaking with a sharp, conchoidal 
fracture, and bedded in layers of eighteen inches and under. The upper 
three feet and two inches contain a little iron, which causes the rock to 
weather buff color. In many places the buff layers are beautifully mot- 
tled with large spots of different shades of blue and green. The lower 
portions are preferred for the lime-kiln, and the lime is said to be of su- 
perior quality. The stone has also been quarried, and used in the Logan 
Furnace as a flux, for which it serves an admirable purpose. Formerly 
this limestone was quite extensively burned into quicklime at Maxville, 
but the expense of transportation by wagon renders it difficult to com- 
pete with the product of other establishments more favorably located. 

At other exposures in the vicinity of Maxville, a black shale takes the 
place of the sandstone over the limestone, and also on the limestone 
there is often found a deposit of iron ore. 


Following the horizon of the Maxville limestone north through Perry- 
county, we find the stone finely exhibited in section 16, Madison township, 
Perry county, on the land of Edward Danison. Here the waters of Jona- 
than creek have excavated a deep channel, and the limestone, with per- 
haps fifty feet of the Logan sandstone, is exposed to view. The upper 
layers of the Logan sandstone are of soft sandy shales, but contain the 
usual fossils of the Logan or upper Waverly group. The following sec- 
tion shows the position of the limestone and the associated strata. The 
limestone is from this point often seen in the valley, and is well exposed 
at Newtonville, Newton township, Muskingum county, where it lies in the 
bed of the stream. At Newtonville, and in the vicinity, a fine collection 
of fossils was made from the limestones, all indicating the sub-carbonif- 
erous character of the rocks. Above Newtonville, on the stream on the 
land of J. H. Eoberts, the lower part of the limestone is buff colored. 
Prof. Wormley gives, of this, the following analysis : 

Silica 15.20 

Iron and alumina, chiefly iron 4.40 

Carbonate of lime 49.80 

Carbonate of magnesia 30.65 

Total 100.05 

This may prove a valuable material for a cement lime. 
Sec. Edward Damson's land, section 16, Madison township, Perry 
county. (See Fig. 8.) 




S j =s Sandy shales with indistinct coal plants 

28 6 

'« » ; 

j^rgggg ^" - Blue clay shales 

Not seen 

3 ff / cr>.<~— •> ^cZron ore, sideline 


Not seen 

Iron ore, siderite 

Blue or btacfc shale 

Iron ore, siderite 

Maxville limestone 

Sandy shales 

: ^ r ^pz __ Nodules siderite ore in clap 

Logan sandstone 
with usual fossils 

Fig. 8. 

In this section there are four layers of iron ore, all believed to be of 
the siderite group. The most promising is probably the one lying 



directly above the limestone. Of this, Prof. Wormley has made an 
analysis. This analysis will be found in tables on a subsequent page. 

On Mr. Danison's land, 58 feet ) above the top of the Maxville lime- 
atone, is a seam of coal three feet three inches thick, which has been 
mined to a limited extent. In the sandy shales over this coal are indis- 
tinct leaves and stems of coal plants. On the slope of the hill above 
the coal seam are fragments of flint in considerable number. 

On the farm of Joseph Eambo, section 14, Newton township, Mus- 
kingum county, a good section of the strata above the Maxville or Kew- 
tonville limestone was obtained, which is here given. (See Pig. 9.) 


' .Putnam Hill limestone, 78 ft. above Maxville limestone 

■''JwfSSfeS -Black sandy bituminous shale, full of fossil shells 

4" IBBMB Coal 
1'6" /=^==fr »zn/>fc clay shale 

I'^jf^S^ White clay 

89 6 

Sandy and slaty shale and thin layer* 
o/ sandstone 

Iron ore, sideriie 
Light coVd clay shale 
Iron ore, siderite 

3' /jg Shales black at bottom, light at top 

' • >~ -> — ^Dark blue limestone, fossiliferous 
Black sandy shales 
Light coVd sandy shales 

S' %■• Y?~j^r Black bituminous slate, finely laminated and tough 
Light blue clay shale 
Light colored sandy shale 

Very dark bluish shale with 
thin layers of sandstone 

Iron ore, sidertte 

Newtonville or Maxville limestone 

Fig.. 9. 

Here we have all the strata in detailed measurement up to a limestone 
which is generally persistent. It is 78£ feet above the great Maxville 
limestone. It is fossiliferous, and the sandy bituminous shales directly 
under it are also rich in fossils of the lower coal measure types. Although 
we have not traced it continuously to Putnam, opposite Zanesville, yet 
we are confident that it is the same as the Putman Hill limestone, and as 
such it was named by Mr. Ballantine, my assistant. 



In a section of the strata at Flint Ridge, made by Prof. Lesquereux 
and Dr. H. I. Salisbury, and quoted by Lesquereux in the Kentucky Re- 
ports, Vol. IV., we find a seam of coal 80 feet below the blue Flint Ridge 
limestone, which is supposed to be the equivalent of the Putnam Hill 
limestone. It rests directly upon the conglomerate, according to Mr- 
Lesquereux. It appears to be the general fact that along the base of the 
productive coal measures, wherever we find the Maxville hmestone, we 
find underneath the finer grained sandrock of the Logan group. The 
sandstones were accumulated in basins of comparatively quiet water, and 
in the same basins there was often deposited, on the top of the sandstones, 
the Maxville limestone. I have nowhere found the Maxville limestone 
resting upon conglomerate. 

The rocks at the base of the coal measures, near Newark, are given 
in the accompanying section. (See Fig. 10.) 

SS?Blue limestone, equivalent of Putnam Hill limestone 

Not seen 

Coal l f 8* reported once worked 
\q' Not seen 

Iron ore, sidemle, formerly used 

±o''. ^ ot seen 

t Coarse sandstone with conglomerate 
10 to 15 

78 Upper Waverly or Logan sandstone 

4 '..Brown sandy shales 

^~££p~ 15 Coarse sandstone 

f I Brown sandy shales 

40 Waverly 
( Quarries) 
p2S8 to 4 Conglomerate 

70 Waverly sandstone 

\H-S40 seen Slue arenaeeow shale 

Fig. 10. 


With the exception of the small deposits of conglomerate over the 
Waverly or Logan sandstone, at Newark, there is little true coal measure 
conglomerate in that part of the second geological district, extending 
from the Hocking river, near Logan, to Newark. The conglomerate is 
found chiefly in the Waverly group. 

The following is a section of the rocks in Kentucky, lying south of my 
district, as given by Sidney E. Lyon, Esq., in Vol. II. of the Kentucky 
Geological Eeports : 

100 ft. Soft beds at the base of the coal measures in Carter county. This member 
varies in thickness in different localities. 

75 ft. Seventy five to 100 ft. Millstone grit. This member, as well as the Sub-carbonifer- 
ous limestone,thms out toward the Ohio river, near the mouth of Tygert's creek, where 
this member forms a mass fourteen feet thick, and the Sub-carboniferous limestone is 
only twelve feet thick. 

100 ft. Calcareous muddy shale, with a few thin beds of limestone. 

350 ft. Sub-carboniferous limestone, thinning rapidly toward the Ohio river. 
20 ft. Twenty to seventy-five feet grindstone grit (upper part of Knob formation ?). 

725 ft. Knobstone (Waverly sandstone of Ohio). 

120 ft. Black (Devonian) slate, 100 to 150 feet. 

700 ft. Buff porous limestone of Lewis, Fleming and Bath counties. 
75 ft. Limestone producing red earth by disintegration. 

100 ft. Slaty mudstone, thin bedded. 

150 ft. Lower Silurian or Blue Limestone, forming the base of the Owingsville hill. 

In this section we find the Millstone grit, or conglomerate, in its true 
place above the sub-carboniferous limestone, separated only by calcare- 
ous shales and limestones, which may perhaps be properly included 
with the sub-carboniferous limestone group. But under the great lime- 
stone there are 20 to 75 feet of grindstone grit, which Mr. Lyon is in doubt 
about, whether or not to call it a part of the upper portion of the Knob 
or Waverly formation. 

The question at once arises whether the grindstone grit, which is prob- 
ably only in local developments, as I have never chanced to see it in my 
examination of the Knobstone formation of Kentucky, may not corre- 
spond with the conglomerate in my district, sometimes conglomerate in 
texture and sometimes a grindstone grit, and located statigraphically at 
different levels in the Waverly series ? Should the conglomerate and 
coarse sandstones, which I And so scattered in their vertical range through 
several hundred feet below the horizon of the Maxville limestone, prove 
to be no true and normal conglomerate of the coal measures, whatever, 
but simply coarse materials, whose location is due to the accidents of cur- 
rents, in other words, mere Waverly conglomerate, we shall be relieved 
from the embarrassment of finding the Waverly fauna and flora above the 


The following is a list of fossils found in the Waverly at Newark 
which have been identified by Prof. A. Winchell, of Michigan. A small 
part of these were sent by myself — but the larger part by Mr. Herzer : 

Froducta seinireticulata, Flem. ; Chonotes pulchella, Win. ; Hemipronites umbraculum, 
Sch. ; H. inequalis ? Hall ; Spirifera extenuata, Hall ; Spirifera Waverlyensis n. sp., Win. ; 
Spiriferina solidirostris, White ; Syringothyris typa, Win. , Conocardium pnlcheUum, M. 
& W. ; Pleurodictyum problematioum, Goldfuss ; Eliynohonella Sageriana, Win.; Avicula- 
pecten occidentalis, Win.; A Caroli, Win. ; A. Newarkensis, n. sp., Win., Pemo-pecten lim- 
atus ? Win. ; P. Cooperensis, Shumard; Sanguinolites n aiadiformis, Win. ; S. securis, n. 
sp., Win. ; Orthoeeras Indianense, Hall ; Phillipsia Missouriensis, Shum. ; Goniatites Mar- 
shallensis, Win. ; G. Shumardianus, Win. ; G. Ohiensis n. s., Win. ; G. Andrewsi n. sp., 
Win. ; Platyceras Herzeri n. sp., Win. ; P haliotoidee, M. & W. ; Cypricardia rigida., M. 
& W. ; Sedgwickia Hannibalensis, Shum. 

In the sandstone layers, interstratified with the shales below the "Put- 
nam Hill Limestone," were found on the land of Mr. Rambo, of which a 
section has already been given, fine impressions of Fucoids of the Spi- 
rophyton cauda-galli and allied species. 

This and similar facts noticed elsewhere, show a wide stratigraphical 
range to this group of marine plants. In New York, they are found in 
the Hamilton rockg. In Ohio, they are found in the lower Waverly in 
great abundance. 

At Gladstone's Mill, near Newtonville, Newton township, Muskingum 
county, we find a limestone in the bed of the North Pork of Jonathan's 
creek, which is believed to be the same as the Maxville limestone. The 
bottom of the stone was not seen, but a well dug in the village passed 
through 15 feet of limestone. The upper layer show a chocolate tint. It 
is reported that this limestone is seen for five miles in Jonathan's creek, 
above Newtonville, and disappears one mile below. On Kent's run, which 
joins the North Fork of Jonathan's creek at Newtonville, it is said to be 
seen for nine miles. 

About 50 feet above the limestone at Gladstone's Mill, was found a 
stratum of sandstone 15 inches thick, on which are very fine impressions 
of marine plants, Spirophyton caudi-galli, &c, &c, and mingled with 
these were well-defined stigmariae of the coal-measures plants. They had 
all been drifted together and embedded in sand. 

The upper limestone (" Putnam Hill") was also seen in its proper place, 
higher up the hill, with the usual coaly matter under it. 

This upper limestone has a pretty extensive range. It was seen in the 
Monday creek valley, on the farm of Henry Hazelton, Salt Lick town- 



ship, Perry county, where was obtained the following section. (See Fig. 

8 seen 


§S Blue limestone, Putnam Hill, (fossiliferous) 
Black sandy bituminous shale 

■ IAght blue clay shale 
with nodules of iron ore 

Black shale 

Fire clay 
Fire clay 

Blue clay shale 

Coaly streak 
Blue clay 

L-^z— White compact sandy shale 

==~ Blue slate 

Iron ore in shale 

b^j Iron ore in layers, the lower flinty 

Sandy bituminous shale 

Fire clay 

Fig. 11. 

Here the " Putnam Hill " limestone, although thin, preserves its usual 
characteristics in stone and fossils. There are several thin seams of coal 
revealed in this section. They are all too thin for profitable mining, 
especially^ as the great Kelsonville or Straitsville seam is well developed 
in all the surrounding hills. This coal will be noticed hereafter. The 
iron ore given in the section has been analyzed by Prof. Wormley, and 
the result will be found in the table on a subsequent page. 

There are, apparently, five different ore horizons between the top of the 
Logan sandstone group and the blue Putnam Hill limestone. Four of 
these are seen in the section on Edward Danison's land, given on page 87. 
Above them is a range of ore exhibited in the section on Henry Hazel- 
ton's land, already given. The latter is found at many points as shown 
by the large map of grouped sections. It is generally accompanied by 
limestone and often by a flint seam. At Haydensville, the group is seen 
in the hill directly oehind the old Hocking Furnace. Here the ore is ap- 
parently of excellent quality, but it adheres so firmly to the top of the 



limestone rock as to make the separation difficult. On the land of Samuel 
Thomson, near Maxville, Monday Creek township, Perry county our, 
measurement gave sixteen inches, to this ore, composed of three distinct 
layers. Here it rests upon an earthy blue limestone. Nearly three feet 
below the ore is a seam of coal twenty-two inches thick. By accident, 
no samples of this ore were obtained for analysis. Should the quality 
equal that of most of the ores of the lower coal measures in this region, 
the ore may prove very valuable. We did not see the stratum overlying 
the ore at this place. Should it prove of soft material, easily mined, this 
ore could be obtained by the usual method of mining. 

Between this ore horizon and the horizon of the Putnam Hill limestone 
is a seam of coal generally thin ; but on the land of Edward Danison, 
Section 16, Madison township, Perry county, it measured 3 ft. 3 in. It 
has been mined only to a limited extent. 

In addition to this seam of coal, there is another directly under the 
Putnam Hill limestone. It is generally very thin, but in the townships of 
Hopewell, of Muskingum, and Hopewell, of Licking counties, it reaches 
a good workable thickness, My assistant, W. GL Ballantine, spent much 
time in tracing the range of the limestone, and is confident that the 
cannel coal of Flint Eidge, and the coal of Joseph Porter, on 100 acre 
lot, No. 16, of Hopewell township, Muskingum county, are located directly 
below the equivalent of the Putnam Hill limestone. The following is a 
section of the coal on the property of Messrs. Bradford, Pollock & Co., 
Hopewell township, Licking county. (See Fig. 12.) 

13 to 24 

i ^~ '*7 T nark blue fossiWerous limestone, Putnntm B8li 
very rich in fossUs 

Coal, reported cannel by Dr. Salisbury 
Blue clay shale 

Cannel coal 

Slate reported 

Coal not seen, reported cannel by Dr. Salisbury 

Fig. 12. 


The cannel coal has been quite extensively wrought in former years for 
distillation into oil. The bank is now rented to Mr. Anderson, who sends 
a limited quantity to Newark, where it is used for the parlor grate. Prof. 
Wormley gives the following analysis of this coal : 

Specific gravity 1.298 

Ash 19.95 

Volatile matter 36.80 

Fixed carbon 43.25 

Total 100.00 

Sulphur 1.31 

Ash, dull white ; coke, pulverulent. 

At this point the cannel coal measures 3 ft. 9 in. Cannel coal is gen- 
erally only a local modification of bituminous coal. The Flint Eidge 
cannel appears to be no exception to the general rule. The following 
facts were reported, viz. : Six hundred yards east of the present mine 
the cannel was only 2 ft. 9 in. One-half a mile farther east, there are 
2 ft. of cannel, and a half mile still further, the coal is bituminous 2 ft. 
thick, while two and a half miles beyond the last point it is cannel again, 
L} ft. thick. There were, apparently, depressions or basins in which the 
cannel coal was formed. These basins were filled with water, as is proved 
by the abundance of the marine shell, Lingula. I obtained a specimen of 
Stigmaria, made up of coal itself, and still retaining its cylindrical form. 
The Lingula and Stigmaria are, however, most abundant in the lower 
part of the coal. 

The limestone at Flint Eidge is separated from the coal by 4 ft. of blue 
clay shale, 4 in. of bituminous coal, and 5 in. of bituminous slate. At 
the mine, the limestone is from 12 to 14 ft. thick. It is dark blue, almost 
black, thin-bedded, and contains some iron. The whole seam is highly 
fo&siliferous, and a handsome collection of fossils was made. 

The following is another section, showing the same limestone, with a 
similar general grouping of strata. It was taken on the land of Joseph 
Porter, 100 acre lot, No. 16, Hopewell township, Muskingum county. (See 
Fig. 13.) 



jjfeg L Coal, 3 ft. Tf ■ported, t ■nine formerly worked 

£%• * | Not seen, 43 ft. between com. and limestone 


J-^izjJL.'.'" - Tlie Flint fficlgr, Putnam Hill limestone 

Flint Ridge 

/ - Pizi^.-jz^EX jjwe rather a blue calcaremts slate 

seen. r^T?"":"^^ 'Lower part hard, nam e fossils as at Fl 


Blue xhale 
Slaty coal 

.* CoaJ 
.Fire clay 

Not well seen, but much sandrock 

A rough level makes it 65 ft. below other coal 

1' lo" VHHIF^^ Coal, reported 32 in. formerly wrought by stripping 

Fig. 13. 

The limestone here partakes more of the nature of a highly calcareous 
shale than toward the extremity of Flint Eidge, ten miles west, where 
the last section was made. The lower part is more compact than the 
upper. It is very rich in fossils, of the same species of mollusca seen in 
the Flint Eidge limestone over the cannel coal. The seam of coal under 
the limestone is 4 ft. 11 in. thick, including a parting 20 inches from the 
bottom, composed chiefly of pyrites. This parting varies from 2 to 8 
inches. The upper seam of coal, in the above section, which was reported 
to be 3 feet thick, was formerly mined. Mr. Porter reports the coal busi- 
ness of Hopewell township at 120,000 bushels per annum. 

The following is Prof. Wormley's analysis of Mr. Porter's coal : 

Specific gravity ._ 1.294 

Ash 7.70 

Volatile matter 38.60 

Fixed carbon 53.70 

Total 100.00 

Sulphur 2.74 

Ash, chocolate color. Coke, compact and of metallic lustre. 

A section of the rocks, taken near Cusac's Mill, on Jonathan's creek, 
Newton township, Muskingum county, showed an unusually bluish and 


fine-grained sandstone about 30 feet below the limestone, believed to be 
the Putnam Hill limestone. It has been much quarried and used, al- 
though it has not always weathered well. As a general thing, the shales 
largely prevailed, and it is in consequence of this fact that we so often 
find that where the streams have, in their work of erosion, succeeded in 
cutting down through the Putnam Hill limestone, they have, in all cases 
where the fall makes it possible, scored their way through the shales to 
the top of the Maxville or Newtonville limestone. This is very well seen 
in the neighborhood of Newtonville. 

By reference to the map of grouped sections, it will be possible to see 
at a glance the lower division of the productive coal measures of this 
part of Ohio, extending from the top of the Logan sandstone group to 
the Putnam Hill limestone. 

For the most part, the strata tell a story of comparatively quiet waters. 
At first we have a limestone-making period, during which, in limited, se- 
cluded basins, limestone gradually accumulated, while at the same time, 
in other places, the stronger currents carried sandy materials, which are 
now found reposing at the same level of the limestone. > ucceeding 
these, we have similar scenes of quiet, and also of moving waters, the 
former depositing fine shales and clay sediments, and the latter sand- 
stones and sandv shales. 

At a few points there were small basins in which thin layers of lime- 
stone were accumulated. There were also insular places on which the 
vegetation of the coal grew, which produced thin seams of coal. There 
was, doubtless, much vegetable matter carried into the waters, from 
which was evolved carbonic acid, which, uniting with the iron oxides' dif- 
fused in the waters and sediments, caused the formation of the common 
proto-carbonate or siderite ore of iron. Some of the ores constitute reg- 
ular layers, implying a regular deposition like other sedimentary strata, 
but for the most part the ores are in nodular form, often in large flattened 
discs, in which the well known laws of segregation came into play. 

The iron ores, so far as they have been examined, are of the siderite 
(proto-carbonate of iron) class, the exterior surfaces, which have been 
exposed to atmospheric agencies, only being changed to the sesqui-oxide 
of iron. 

The carbonic acid might, in some cases, have originated in marine veg- 
etation, which, in the form of Fucoids of the type of Spirophyton cauda 
galli, was very abundant at certain periods during the formation of the 
strata of this lower coal measures group. 

There was a tendency to the formation of flint in connection with the 
layers of iron ore found about 30 feet below the Putnam Hill limestone. 


This stratum is far below the flint or buhr of Flint Eidge. The flint of 
this lower stratum was used by the aboriginal inhabitants for their 
weapons, and pits whence the flint was dug are not uncommon. 

There is a thin seam of cannel coal a few miles south of Wolfe Station, 
in Perry county, on the Zanesville and Cincinnati Eailroad, which was 
formerly mined for distillation into oil. No measurements were made, 
the old workings having fallen in. It belongs to the lowest part of the 
coal measures, but its exact stratigraphical position is not known, but 
will be ascertained hereafter. 

Having thus given sections of the rocks of the lowest division of the 
productive coal-measures iu the north-western portion of my District, 
the way is prepared to consider the strata above the level of the Put- 
nam Hill limestone. It will be found that we have a second division 
with its upper member a seam of coal which is found very persistent 
over all the district examined. This coal is the " Nelsonville coal," the 
" Straitsville coal," tiye " Sunday creek coal," the " Upper New Lexing- 
ton coal," for by all these local names is the seam designated. 

The range of this coal is readily seen on the map of grouped sections. 
It is generally about 80 feet above the Putnam Hill limestone. In 
some sections, measured by the barometer, the distance was a little 
greater, but the instrument sometimes gave results too great. 

Another seam of coal will also be seen on the map, from 20 to 30 feet 
below the one last mentioned. Both of these seams have great economic 
value, and will hereafter be fully considered. 

Between the top of the Putnam Hill limestone and the lower of these 
two seams of coal, we have from 50 to 60 feet of sandstones and shales. 
At only a very few points could we find exposures where minute and ac- 
curate sections could be made. A few feet above the limestone, we find 
a tendency to the formation of iron ore. The largest development of ore 
on this horizon was seen on the branch railroad, leading from the Zanes- 
ville and Cincinnati Eailroad to the Miami Company's mines, about half 
a mile from the mines. These mines are in Newton township, Musking- 
um county. Here, 5 feet over the hard blue limestone, believed to be 
the Putnam Hill, were some large and very fine nodules of iron ore, 
doubtless of the siderite class. 

There are indications of coal at a few points, but nowhere was it found 
to be of practical value. At one place, a thin layer of limestone was 
seen, but sandstones and shales everywhere strongly predominate. 

At an elevation of from 50 to 60 feet above the Putnam Hill limestone, 
it appears that the bed of the shallow ocean was made comparatively, 

7 — Geological. 


even and level, and was then brought up from below the water. On the 
higher and probably better drained areas, coal vegetation took root, and 
grew, and we have, as the result, a seam of coal. This seam is not 
always persistent, for the conditions of accumulations did not every- 
where exist. This seam is seen at many places in the region of Nelson- 
ville. At the mines of the Hocking Valley Coal, Iron, Coke and 
Mining Company, on the land of J. W. Scott, York township, Athens 
county, this seam is found at a distance of 27£ feet below the main Nel- 
sonville seam. It was not measured, but is there popularly called the 
" three feet vein." 

Near John Fluhart's mill, Green township, Hocking county, it was 
seen about 25 feet below the main coal vein, but here it was much cut 
away by the sand rock over it. 

It was also seen near Horace Hazelton's, Salt Lick township, Perry 
county, about 30 feet below the main seam, which is here 9 feet 4 inches 
thick. But at this point, also, the lower coal is much cut away by the 
overlying sand rock, and presents a very singular appearance. One of 
the best exposures of the lower seam, in the south part of Perry county, 
was on the land of Thomas Barnes, on Lost run, Lick township. In the 
immediate vicinity of Straitsville, we found no exposure showing the 
lower seams. 

In the neighborhood of New Lexington, the lower seam is quite per- 
sistent, and has been considerably mined. At the mines of the Miami 
Company, on the branch of the Zanesville and Cincinnati Bailroad, the 
lower seam is 3 feet 10 inches thick, and is largely mined. It is 22 feet 
below the upper coal, which is here 4 feet thick, including an inch of 
clay, parting near the middle. 

Near the McLuney Station, Harrison township, Perry county, the upper 
seam, four feet eight inches thick, is mined in many places. 

On John Lyle's land, section 14, Newton township, Muskingum county, 
the lower seam, three feet ten inches thick, is extensively mined. By 
reference to the map of grouped sections, the general range of this coal, 
and its relation to the Putman Hill limestone below, and the coal seam 
above, will be readily seen. It is doubtless true that in places the seam 
is wanting, the conditions not having been favorable to its formation. 

Between this coal and the one above it, we find in places valuable clay 
shales. Of these much pottery is made at Roseville and vicinity. There 
is also, a few feet below the upper coal, a layer of nodular iron ore, which 
will be noticed hereafter. The ore is imbedded in fine clay shales, which 
are everwhere found below the ,upper coal. These were fine sediments, 
which, in their deposition, evened up the bed or floor on which the coal 
was to be accumulated. 




We now reach, in our upward progress, a seam of coal which will 
doubtless prove to be the finest in the State. The limits of its horizontal 
range I have not yet found, either in Muskingum county to the north, or 
in Athens county to the south. It is everywhere of good working thick- 
ness, and, over a large area, it measures from six to eleven feet. It is 
thinner on the north, but on Sunday and Monday creeks, in Perry 
county, it is eleven feet, and on the Hocking, in the vicinity of Nelson - 
ville, it is seldom less, than six feet. There is no doubt that it is one 
continuous seam, as it not only holds uniform relations to the lowei 
rocks, from the Logan sandstone up, but it has, moreover, been traced 
from hill to hill, throughout nearly the whole distance. A glance at the 
large map will be more convincing than any detailed description of this 

I have yet to trace the seam south of the Hocking hills, between them 
and the Marietta and Cincinnati Eailroad, but I know it to extend a con- 
siderable distance south of Nelsonville. It dips below the Hocking river 
not far from the mouth of Monday creek, but is reached by shafts at 
various points as far down the Hocking as Salina and Ohauncey. The 
description of its southern extension will be reserved until after more 
detailed examinations. 


At Nelsonville and vicinity, the coal measures from six feet to six feet 
four inches. The following are measured sections of the coal at the well 
known mines of W. B. Brooks, Esq., and of Peter Hayden, Esq. Sec. A 
is that of Mr. Brooks, and See. B that of Mr. Hayden. (See Pig. 14.) 

V'to 9 


Fin day 

(Sec. B.) 



The partings are essentially the same, and the coals show the same 
physical structure. The partings seen in the foregoing sections are gen- 
erally found to characterize the seam over a wide area. 

On the land of S. B. Westenhaver, Green township, Hocking county, 
near the north-western outcrop of the seam, the coal was a trifle thinner, 
measuring in total thickness five feet seven inches. Here the seam 
shows its usual subdivisions. The seam, in its northern and north-east- 
ern extension, grows thicker. 

At Straitsville, Salt Lick township, Perry county, the seam measures 
"eleven feet, and shows the following subdivisions, as seen at the Mc- 
Ginnis bank. (See Fig. 15.) 


thiclmess U 

The mine of Daniel Moore, near Straitsville, was not minutely exam- 
ined, but was thought to be a facsimile of the McGinnis bank, in quan- 
tity and quality of coal. 

In the same township we found the following measurements: On 
Thomas Barnes' land, nine feet ten inches (see section, Fig. 16); John 
Larue's, eight feet four inches ; at Mr. Turner's drift, nine feet four inches; 
Horace Hazelton's, nine feet four inches; Henry Hazelton's (not veil 
exposed), but seven feet or more. On the lands of J. Gordon and Henry 
Welch, the coal is very heavy, but the mines were so fallen in at the 
openings that no measurements could be made. 



9 10 i^ Nelsonville coal 

20 ft J 

Fire clay 

Light colored, shale 
=^>~~. n'ith nodules of iron ore 

Thin codl 

White fire clay 

Bituminous shale 

Compact ferruginous black clay 

Black ferruginous shale 

Coal, thin 

Wivite fire, elay 

Fig. 16. 

South of Straitsville, on tie Snow Fork of Monday creek and its trib- 
utaries, the coal is everywhere largely developed, indeed, throughout 
the whole of "Ward township, Hocking county, the coal is to be found. 
It is unnecessary to designate locations; every farmer who owns hill land 
possesses the coal. In the valley of the Snow Fork it dips below drain- 
age not far from the south-east corner of Ward township. The measure- 
ments on the lower part of Snow Fork showed six feet of coal. This was 
at James Hawkins', Sec. 3, Ward township. Higher up the stream the 
seam is said to increase in thickness, which I readily believe, although 
there were no good exposures for measurements. Near the head of the 
east branch, on the land of Alexander Marshall, in Sec. 35, Salt Lick 
township, Perry county, the " big seam" was seen largely developed. 
The opening was full of water, and no measurement taken. It was 
claimed to be eleven feet thick. From this point, crossing the high ridge 
to the north-east, we came down into the west branch of Sunday creel', 
where we found the coal in the low valley. Here it ranges from six to 
eleven feet in thickness. At Gaver's mill, and on the adjacent land of L. M. 
McDonald, Esq,, near the Coal Dale P. O., Salt Lick township, the seam 



measures six feet two inches. The following is a section taken at the mill. 
(See Fig. 17.) 

»'/SV:T : ' 

30>to40 /.Vv;.-.'> Heavy m*«£ 

Slaty cool 
Slaty with pyritei 


Black clay 
Black clay 

■ Total 6 9 

Fig. 17. 

Here there is a good slate roof, very rich in coal plants. At the Lyons 
bank, half a mile above, the coal is 7 ft. thick, and of very excellent quality. 
Lower down the stream the upper slate is gone, and the sandstone has cut 
away the coal. At one place the coal was only 3 feet 8 inches thick, and 
at other places it was entirely gone. In that neighborhood, over a limited 
area, the waters, in the coal measure era, took strange liberties with the 
coal after it had been deposited. This will be noticed more fully here- 

On the farm of Benjamin Saunders, Monroe township, Perry county, 
on the west branch of Sunday creek, the coal measures eleven feet. Here 
there are two slaty partings. See (Fig. 18.) 

Shales with coal plants 


Clay parting 

Fire day 

Fig. 18. 


The exposure shows a magnificent body of very superior coal. The 
coal shows Itself at other points on this branch, but no other measure- 
ments were taken. The coal in this valley generally lies low, but in 
mining it to the north and north-west, every advantage can be taken 
of the dip for easy mining and drainage. 

In all the tributaries of Sunday creek which have the requisite erosion, 
we find .the coal. In the branch which runs through the southeast sec- 
tion of Pleasant township, Perry county, we find the coal in full thick- 
ness, measuring at the bank of Joshua Sands, 11 feet 2 inches, with 
several clay partings. At the bank of William Bennett, a little above, 
it is probably as thick ; the water preventing, at the time of our visit, a 
full measurement In this neighborhood the coal lies too low for easy 
drainage, but the difficulty can be obviated. A vast body of coal in the 
hills to the north, can be mined up the dip from this valley. There is, 
scarcely, any limit to the coal, which is rendered accessible by the various 
branches of Sunday creek, in Pleasant, Monroe and Salt Lick townships. 
The great body of high lands which constitute the divide between the 
waters flowing south and those flowing north, through Jonathan's creek, 
into the Moxahala and Muskingum, and west through Eush creek, into 
the upper Hocking, is doubtless underlaid with this coal. The coal seam 
constitutes a vast sheet, of 11 feet in maximum thickness on the south, 
but gradually growing thinner, to 4 and 5 feet, in its northern out-crop 
along the Zanesville & Cincinnati Eailroad. The value of the upper 
Sunday creek valley as a coal field, cannot be over-estimated. 

North of Straitsville, the higher grounds take the coal. Two and a 
half miles east ot Maxville, on the land of Jared Danison, Monday creek 
township, Perry county, the coal measured to the roof of the entry, 7 
feet 8 inches. No opportunity presented itself for seeing whether there 
was more coal above. Here were seen the usual partings exhibited at 
Straitsville and Nelsonville. To the northeast, the coal extends through 
the hills, and was seen on the land of Levi Barick, not far from Bristol, 
in Pike township. Here the thickness was 4 feet 2 inches, and the seam 
showed the usual partings. The coal above the upper parting is not 
esteemed. About 18 feet below is another thinner seam, reported to be 
2J feet thick. If this is the usual lower seam, it is nearer the upper than 
is common. 

On James Clark's land, one half a mile north, the coal gives the s i m 
measurement. The seam is reported as worked all Ihe way down Mon 
day creek for some miles. From Mr. Clark's the seam was traced all the 
way to New Lexington, where it is the upper seam in that neighorhood. 

In Jackson township, north of Monday Creek township, the same seam 


was seen on the lands of Eli Bell and Leonard Bell, in sections 34 and 
35. Here the measurements were 3 feet 9 inches, exclusive of a* stratum 
of bituminous slate, in the top, from 7 to 9 inches thick. On Emanuel 
France's land, Sec. 16, Pike township, the coal measured 4 feet 3 inches, 
with the usual partings. The upper part is held in less esteem than the 
middle and lower parts. Thomas McClelland's bank showed the same 
' thickness. North of New Lexington, the mines of Judge B. E. Hnston 
were opened in this seam chiefly, but he has mined, somewhat, the lower 
seam 23 feet below. No measurement could be made. Judge Huston 
reports the upper seam to be 4 feet, and the lower 3£ feet thick Here 
the lower seam was found to be about 60 feet above the level of the rail- 
road. The railroad, with its ascending grade, gradually rises above the 
two seams of coal, and at the tunnel through the ridge which divides the 
waters of Bush creek from those of the south fork of Jonathan's creek, 
it has reached an elevation of from twenty to twenty -five feet above the 
upper coal. The upper seam is here 4 feet 8 inches, and was formerly 
mined quite extensively. 

On the land of Henry Jones, a little southwest of McLuney Station, the 
seam gives a total thickness of 4 feet 8 inches. The upper part, of 13 in., 
reported as not worked. Here, formerly, the coal was extensively mined. 

At the mines of the Miami Company, in Newton township, Muskingum 
county, both seams are now largely mined, and the coal shipped by the 
Zanesville and Cincinnati Bailroad. The upper seam measures 4 feet, 
and the other, which is 22 feet below, measures 3 feet 10 inches. Sam- 
ples of the coals of this enterprising company failed to reach our Chem- 
ist. The coal is largely used for domestic purposes, and for the genera- 
tion of steam, and is well spoken of. 

Near Boseville, Clay township, Muskingum county, an old coal-working 
was found to be 80 feet above the Putnam Hill limestone. This is 
the proper place for the Nelsonville or upper New Lexington coal. No 
opportunity presented itself for measurement. The citizens of Boseville 
believe that the lower seam is wanting in that neighborhood. It is pos- 
sible that the soft shales which generally overlie it, have become disinte- 
grated, and slipped down over the out-crop and concealed it, but it may 
be wanting altogether, as the seam is not always persistent. 

In the high ridge in Licking county, which is called Flint Bidge, we 
find near the top, and under the buhr or flint seam, a very thin ,coal 
seam, only 6 inches thick, which is, from its stratigraphical position, the 
equivalent of the Nelsonville coal. This gives us also the position of 
the buhr stratum. 

The flint or buhr stratum, on Flint Bidge, is not found to correspond in 


stratigraphical position with the other layers of flint found in the district 
especially examined. The flint in the valley of Bush creek, near New Lex- 
ington, Perry county, lies lower in the series, and the calcareo-silicious rock 
of Dr. Hildreth, in the old Geological Eeport, found high on the hills in 
Section 14, Clay township, Muskingum county, lies higher in the series, 
as shown on the map of grouped sections. It was found difficult to 
determine the exact stratigraphical position of the Flint Eidge buhr, 
as it lies upon the top of the ridge, more like a blanket than like a rigid 
stratum. It conforms more or less to the undulating surface of the 
general top of the ridge, and is at some points many feet higher than at 
others. The buhr is porous and often cracked, and water passing through 
may have carried away the soft shale below, and thus lowered the stratum 
along its border. 

According to a measured section at Flint Eidge, made by Leo Lesque- 
reux, Esq., and taken from the Kentucky report, there is a thin seam 
of coal (6 in.) with fire clay (2 ft.) beneath, lying directly under the flint 
or buhr. This coal has the stratigraphical position of the Nelsonville 
or Straitsville coal, being 77£ feet above the " Putnam Hill " limestone, 
which is found in unusual thickness above the cannel coal. This would 
make the place of the buhr just over the Nelson ville coai. 

The buhr is of variable thickness, its maximum being perhaps 8 feet. 
Formerly, millstones were made from the rock, but the quarries have 
been of late years abandoned. It is claimed that the purer portions of 
the flint, when crushed, will serve a valuable purpose for glass making. 

To the aboriginal inhabitants of the country, the layers of flint, inter- 
stratified with our coal-measures rocks, were of the highest economic 
importance, and much of the surface of Flint Eidge has been dug over 
by them in order to obtain flint of the requisite quality. 

These pits present a subject of great interest to all especially interested 
in the study of the Mound-builders. The same energetic industry which 
mark the building of the ancient earthworks of this mysterious race, 
characterize their labors on Flint Eidge. 

It will be seen that the Kelsonville seam of coal, which has been 
traced into Muskingum county, has a very extensive range. It has 
been already traced over a belt of country forty miles long, and aver- 
aging twelve miles wide. To the northwest, the coal rises in the hills, 
and disappears. To the east and southeast it dips below all the valleys. 
The deeper the valley the greater the southeastern extension of the 
coal. Before a perfect outline of this remarkable belt of coal can be 
made, it will be necessary to have a careful topographical map of the 
region prepared. Then a geologist could fill out the outlines of this 


and other seams of coal, iron ores, limestones, &c., so that every land 
owner might, by inspection, determine the probable mineral value of his 

A proximately accurate outline of the northwestern limit of the great 
Kelsonville seam in Perry county, will be made by drawing a line 
through sections 27, Madison ; 19, Clayton ■; 25, Eeading ; 35, Reading ; 
26, Eeading, and 13, Jackson townships. Thence the line is probably a 
little west of south, in Monday creek township, on to the Straitsville 
region. There must be, of course, out-liers of the coal in high hills, 
west and northwest of this line. Where there are no guides to be found, 
such as the Maxville or Putnam Hill limestones, the altitude of the hills 
or ridges must determine whether they take the coal. 

The geographical situation, as proximate to a vast coalless district, 
extending west and nothwest of it for hundreds of miles, its accessibility, 
its enormous quantity and superior quality, and the rare advantages for 
mining and draining, make this great seam of coal worthy the attention 
of the people of the State and of capitalists everywhere: 


The eoal is properly classed among the dry-burning coals. The ten- 
dency to melt and cake is slight, and the free circulation of air secures 
the best possible combustion. Although not as highly bituminous as 
some other varieties of coal, yet the flame is considerable, and the coal 
makes a very cheerful parlor fire. 

This coal, mined in the vicinity of Eelsonville, has been in use for a 
long time, and everywhere has the reputation of being a very superior 
coal for all the uses to which it has been applied. For household use it 
is very popular. The small percentage of ash, the unusually complete 
combustion, giving a fine blaze and little smoke, the large percent- 
age of fixed carbon giving great heating power, and the small amount of 
sulphur to create in combustion unpleasant sulphurous fumes, all com- 
bine to render the coal of this great seam one of the very best known 
coals for all household use. For the generation of steam it is highly 
esteemed. It has been used in rolling-mills at Columbus and Marietta 
with strong approval. Its value for smelting iron will be considered 

The following tables of analyses by Prof T. G-. Wormley, Chemist of 
the Survey, will reveal in minute detail the qualities and peculiarities of 
the coal. 



Analyses of Coal from Welsonville and Haydenville. 

No. 1. 

No. 2. 

No. 3. 

No. 4. 

: a*: 

No. 5. No. 6. 

No. 7. 

Specific gravity 





















Volatile matter 































Nature of coke 

Cubic feet permanent 

No. 1, sample of coal from mines of W. B. Brooks, Nelsonville. 

No. 2, " 

No. 3, " " 

No. 4, " " 

No. 5, " " 

No. 6. " " 

No. 7, " " 

il ' 11 

bottom layer of seam 

it tt 



il tt 



Peter Hayden 








Analyses of the same Seam at Straitsville, Perry County. 

No. 8. 

No. 9. 

No. 10. 

No. 11. 

No. 12. 

No. 13. 

No. 14. 

Specific gravity 









Volatile matter 





























ish gray- 







Sulphur . 



No. 8, coal from bottom layer, Straitsville, Perry county. 

No 9. 
No. 10, 
No. 11, 
No. 12, 
No. 13, 
No. 14, 


bottom of top layer, Straitsville, Perry county, 
middle " " " 

upper part " " " 

second sample of middle layer, Straitsville, Perry county. 
" bottom " " " 



Analyses of same Seam, on Sunday Creek, Perry County. 

No. 15. 

No. 16. 

No. 17. 

No. 18. 

No. 19. 

No. 20. 

No. 21. 

No. 22. 

Specific gravity.. 


















Volatile matter. . . 


Fixed carbon 




































Color of ash 










Character of coke 














No. 15, from Benjamin Sa 

anders' bank. 

No. 16, " Mr. Sands' ha 

nk : No. 1 from be 


No. 17, " " 

" 2 " 

No. 18, " " 

" 3 " 

No. 19, " " 

" 4 » 

No. 20, " " 

" 5 " 

No. 21, " " 

" 6 " 

No. 22, " 



7 " 

Analyses of the same Seam on Lost run, Ward township, Rooking County. 

No. 23. 

No. 24. 

No. 25. 

No. 26. 

No. 27. 

No. 28. 



















Volatile matter 


Fixed carbon 



11.05 • 







108 00 































Color of ash 



Sulphur in the coke of 
given weight of coal. . . 

Percentage of sulphur in 


Percentage of sulphur the- 
oretically required by 
the iron 

' 2.408 

Character of coke 



The samples of coal analyzed in the last of the above tables came from the 
same seam on Lost run, in Ward township, Hocking county. They were taken 
from two dfferent openings, but represent the seam from roof to floor. 

I have thus given twenty-eight different analyses, made with great 
care and scientific accuracy, all representing portions of the great Nel- 
sonville seam of coal. They are of the highest scientific interest, and of 
the utmost practical importance. 

(1.) Let it be first remarked, that they represent the seam of coal in 
locations of its best development, viz : at Nelsonville, Athens county, 
where it measures 6 feet 4 inches ; at Haydenville, Hocking county, near 
Nelsonville, where it measures the same ; at Straits ville, Perry county, 
where it measures 11 feet ; at two points on Sunday creek, where it also 
measures 11 feet ; and on Lost run, in Ward township, Hocking county, 
where it measures 10 feet 6 inches. The coal here represented is found 
in six different townships and in three different counties. The locations 
are all accessible, and they are either already reached, or soon will be, by 
railroads. Nelsonville and Haydenville mines already have the advan- 
tage of railroad and canal. 

(2.) Again, it is obvious that the coal in the seam is not homogeneous 
in quality from roof to floor. In the mine of Mr. Wm B. Brooks, near 
Nelsonville, the upper part of the seam is more earthy, giving by analysis 
9.05 per cent, of ash, while the average of the two analyses of the mid- 
dle and lower parts of the seam is only 2.30 per cent. 

In the mine of Mr. Peter Hayden, near Haydenville, the top coal gives 
9.36 per cent, of ash, while the ash of the middle and lower portions of 
the seam average only 1.67 per cent. 

The most earthy part of the coal in the Sands bank, on Sunday creek, 
• as shown by analysis, is that taken 2 feet 2 inches from the top, which 
yields 11.26 per cent, of ash, while a sample taken a little above, or 14 
inches from the top, gave only 3.44 per cent., and a sample taken 18 
inches below gave only 2.92 per cent. A sample 2 feet 6 inches from the 
bottom gave 7.07 per cent, of ash. 

Of the six samples obtained to represent the same seam of coal on Lost 
run, Ward township, Hocking county, that from the top contained 11.05 
per cent, of ash, and the one next below 7.63 per cent. ; while the average 
amount of the four remaining lower ones, representing about 8 feet of 
coal, is only 3.57 per cent. 

The Straitsville coal is divided into three layers ; and it is found that 
the largest percentage of ash is found near the top and bottom of the 
upper layer. This upper layer is 6 feet 10 inches thick in the McGinnis 
bank. Kear the bottom of it the ash was found to be 9.98 per cent., and 


on the very top the ash was found to be 9.35 per cent. The latter result 
is not given in the table, but conies from the analyses of a single inde- 
pendent specimen, sent to the laboratory by Mr. S. M. Baird. The sam- 
ple of the top coal, of the series given in the table for the Straitsville 
coal, afforded less ash, viz : 6.96 per cent. The average ash of all other 
samples taken elsewhere in the seam, is only 2.26 per cent. 

Thus it will be seen that this great seam of coal is not uniform in re- 
gard to the ash of its several parts. There are generally two sources 
from which the ash of our coal is derived ; first, from the inorganic mat- 
ter which belongs to all vegetation, and shows itself, for example, in the 
ash of our firewood ; second, from fine sedimentary matter brought by 
water and distributed through the coal marsh when the vegetation of the 
coal was growing. In regard to the first, it is difficult to ascertain the 
exact amount of inorganic matter properly belonging to the coal vege- 
tation. Different plants and trees yield different amounts of ashes, and 
different parts of the same plant or tree yield different quantities. 

The least ash thus far found in any coal in my district was from a coal 
in Jackson county, which gave 0.85 per cent. Whether in this we have 
more than the original vegetation of the coal would supply, it would be 
difficult to decide. When the Jackson county coals are hereafter studied 
some light may be thrown on this interesting problem. 

In regard to the second source of ash, viz : sediments intermixed with 
the vegetation, it is unnecessary to state, that we find no two seams of 
coal alike in the quantity of their earthy matter, and, indeed, no two por- 
tions of the same seam. Sometimes the sediments amounted to a de- 
posit of mud thick enough to make a clay or slate parting in the coal, 
but more often, a few inches of the coal are principally affected, and we 
simply find, on analysis, the coal to show an excess, of ash or earthy mat- 
ter. The great Nelsonville seam of coal illustrates both of these state- 
ments, for in it we find well-defined and continuous slate partings and 
also portions of the coal showing far more ash or earthy matter than 
other portions. 

(3.) Again, much of the coal of this great seam contains a small per- 
centage of sulphur. Nothing is so injurious as an excess of sulphur in 
coal. It unfits the coal for smelting iron, and for gas making. It attacks 
the iron grate bars when used for the generation of steam, and for all 
domestic uses a highly sulphurous coal is extremely disagreeable. 

By reference to Prof. Wormley's analyses, it will be seen that in the 
Nelsonville mines and at Haydenville, the most sulphur is found in the 
top of the seam, and next, in the bottom, while that in the middle layer 
of the seam has comparatively little. At Straitsville the most sulphur is 


found in the upper part of the seam. On the other hand, the most sul- 
phur in the seam, at the Sands bank on Sunday creek, is near the bottom, 
and next to this, in the third sample from the bottom, as given in No. 18, 
in the table of analyses. The other five samples, which represented the 
larger part of this great seam, revealed a comparatively small percentage 
of sulphur. 

On Lost run the analyses revealed more sulphur. As, however, there 
was very little visible sulphur in the usual form of bi-sulphide of iron 
in the samples analyzed, I was led to request Prof. Wormley to under- 
take some additional analyses, to see if there was in the coal as much 
iron as the revealed sulphur would require to form the bi-sulphide. Prof. 
Wormley undertook the careful examination of this question, and his 
results, which are altogether new to science, not only reflect upon him 
the highest credit, but promise to be of great economic value. 

All the authorities on the subject of coal have hitherto supposed the 
sulphur to be chemically combined with iron in the form of a bi-sulphide 
of iron (Fe S 3 .) Prof. Dana, in his recent great work on Minerology, 
expresses a doubt in regard to this in the following paragraph, page 756 : 

" Sulphur is present in nearly all coals. It is supposed to be usually combined with 
iron, and when the coal affords a red ash on burning, there is reason for believing this 
true. But Percy mentions a coal from New Zealand, which gave a peculiarly white ash, 
although containing from 2 to 3 p. c. of sulphur, a fact showing that it is present, not as a 
sulphide of iron, but as a constituent of an organic compound. The discovery by Church 
of the resin containing sulphur (see Tasmanite, p. 746), gives reasons for inferring that 
it may exist in this coal in that state, although its presence as a constituent of other or- 
ganic compounds is quite possible." 

By an examination of Prof. Wormley's table of analyses of the Lost 
run coal, it will be seen, that in no case is there iron enough in the coal 
to take up in combination all the sulphur. In No. 27, the sulphur is L01 
per. cent. Adopting for the combination of the bisulphide of iron, the 
proportion given by Prof. Dana, viz. iron 46.7, and sulphur 53.3, in 100 
parts, the sulphur in No. 27 would require 0.884 per cent, of iron, whereas 
Pro. Wormley finds only 0.09 per cent. This 0.09 per cent, of iron would 
only require 0.102 per cent, of sulphur to make the usual iron pyrites, 
and there are consequently 0.908 per cent, of sulphur elsewhere in the 
coal than in combination with iron. This excess of sulphur must be 
both in the volatile matter and in the coke. The coke retains 0.50 per 
cent, of sulphur. This shows that part of the sulphur is in permanent 
combination with the fixed carbon of the coal. 

The average loss of sulphur in reducing all the coals from Lost run to 
coke is 56 per cent. 


Another marked illustration of the disproportion of sulphur to the iron 
in a bituminous coal is found in the analysis of a coal from Washington 
county. The coal is a white ash coal, and the sample analyzed had been in 
the cabinet of Marietta college for fourteen years, and showed none of the 
usual tendency to disintegrate from a change of the bi- sulphide to the 
sulphate of iron, a salt which, in crystallizing, breaks the coal by its ex- 

The sample was found by Prof. Wormley to contain only 0.390 per 
cent, of iron, but 3.330 per cent, of sulphur. There should have been 
but 0.445 per cent, of sulphur, if the sulphur were limited to a bisulphide 
of iron. The coke retained 1.82 per cent, of sulphur. 

The analyses are of the highest practical importance. In coals for gas- 
making it is not enough to know the percentage of sulphur in the coal, 
but rather how much of sulphur passes into the gas. In the analysis, 
'So. 25, there is in the coal 1.42 per cent, of sulphur, while the coke re- 
tains but 0.51 per cent., nearly two-thirds of the sulphur having passed 
off in the volatile matter. In No. 24, of the 1.07 per cent, of sulphur, 
0.79 per cent, remains in the coke, or about three-quarters of the whole. 

In coals for smelting iron, it is most important that the coke be as free 
from sulphur as possible. The sulphur in the coke comes in contact with 
the melting iron in the lower portion of the furnace, and contaminates it, 
but the sulphur, which passes off while the coal is undergoing the process 
of coking in the upper part of the stack, dojes comparatively little harm. 
Hence, for the purpose of iron-making, the exact percentage of sulphur 
remaining in the coke should be carefully ascertained. It is, furthermore, 
evident that the popular method of determining the quality of a coal by 
the color of its ash will often prove fallacious. A white-ash coal may 
have an excessive amount of sulphur, and yet contain so little iron that its 
oxidation in the fire will not redden the ash. This will most certainly be 
the case where the amount of ash is large and the percentage of iron small. 

(4.) Again, the analyses of the great Nelsonville seam of coal, show a 
large percentage of fixed carbon, and consequent heating power. The aver- 
age fixed carbon for all the analyses of the seam at Nelsonville, and at 
Haydenville, is 56.59 per cent. The average of the seam, at Straitsville 
is 56-96 per cent. The average of seam on Sunday creek is 55.20 per cent. 
The average of seam on Lost run, excluding the very top coal, which will 
not be mined on account of impurities, is 54.43 per cent. The average 
of all in fixed carbon, is 55.79 per cent. 



For the purpose of comparison, I give, from. Prof. Wormley's records, 
the analyses ot several of onr best iron-making coals : 

No. 29. 

No. 30. 

No. 31. 

No. 32. 

No. 33. 

No. 34. 






1 173 












38 76 

53 99 








180 00 





* Fawn. 



Character of coke 




Very com- 



No. 29. Jackson shaft coal Jackson, Jackson Co.. 

20. Hillcoal " " 

31. Briar Hill coal Chestnut Ridge. 

32. Blue Chippewa coal Massillon. 

33. Cealton or Ashland coal Boyd Co:, Kentucky.. 

34. Brazil " " Clay Co., Indiana. 

The average of fixed carbon in the above coals, is 57.43 per cent. It will 
be noticed that the Briar Hill coal, from Chestnut Ridge, contains less 
than the average quantity of water, and this fact increases the percentage 
of the fixed carbon and other constituents. The Blue Chippewa coal, 
from Massillon, contains 6.95 per cent, of water,, and the quantity of fixed 
carbon is 57.49 per cent, which is a little less than that of the two Jack- 
son coals. 

The Ashland, or Coalton coal, (No. 33) is a very successful furnace coal, 
from Boyd county, Ky. Its percentage of fixed carbon is 54.28, while the 
average of the great Nelsonville seam, from all the localities' is 55.79. 
The proportion of fixed carbon in the Brazil coal, of Indiana, is less than 
that of the Ashland coal, being 53.99 per cent. 

In the light of all these facts, the very great excellence of the Nelson- 
ville seam of coal must be conceded. 

For the purpose of additional comparison, I give the results of the 
analyses of a large number of British coals, used in the manufacture of 
iron, taken from the Report of the British Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, for the year 1863. They are taken from a very elabo- 
rate paper on the " Manufacture of Iron in connexion with the Northum- 

*The sulphur in table doubtless too high for the average of the coal.— E. B. A. 

8 — Geological. 



berland and Durham Coal-fields," by Isaac Lowthian Bell, Mayor of 
Newcastle : 

















3 o 
3 o 







O - 





































Derbyshire- . 










In the above analyses we have all the different elements given sepa- 
rately. It will be noticed that the sulphur in the coals runs from 1.01 to 
1.43. This is in excess of our better Ohio coals, as will be seen by refer- 
ring to the analyses of Prof. Wormley. As the English iron manufac- 
turers generally coke the coal, used, in the blast furnaces, they expel, in 
coking, about one half of the sulphur. In,regard to the coke used in the 
celebrated Cleveland Iron District, England, Mr. Bell, from whom I have 
first quoted, writes : — " To form an idea of the extent to which ash and 
sulphur exist in the coke of the South Durham coal-field, the following 
analyses are extracted from the Clarence Laboratory journal : 

Ash, per cent. Sulphur, per cent. 

5.86 0.58 

5.79 0.68 

7.54 0.77 

9.00 0.44 

8.33 0.50 

"As a rule," he adds, "6 per cent, of ash and about 0.60 of sulphur 
may be considered as the average analytical results of the best coke of 
the district, just quoted." 

A more recent authority, Prof. H. Bauerman, of the Royal School of 
Mines, in a work on Metallurgy, published in London, 1868, says that 
" The Cleveland district is remarkable for the large size and height of its 
Jurnaces (from 70 to 102 feet high), which are entirely worked with hard 
eoke from the south of Durham, containing on an average from 0.60 to 
0.80 per cent, of sulphur, and from 4J to 8 per cent, of ash." 

In the examination of the analyses of coals made by Prof. Wormley, 
and the comparison of his results with most other analyses, it must be 

* I have added the fixed carbon, as ascertained by substracting the ash from the coke. 
The Welsh coals are partly anthracite, hence the large percentage of fixed carbon. 


remembered that the Professor makes a careful determination of the 
combined water. The samples analyzed are, of course, dry^ in the ordi- 
nary sense, to begin with. But if the temperature be kept at 212 deg. 
the coal continues to lose weight for a considerable time, after which, if 
the heat is continued, the weight begins to increase, doubtless from the 
oxidation of one or more of the constituents of the coal. After the loss 
of weight, if the coal be allowed to cool and remain for a time, it regains 
from the atmosphere moisture enough to restore its original gravity. 
The water thus lost is given by Prof. Wormley in the tables. It is not 
generally given in other analyses of coals, but clearly should be, not only 
because it is a constant constituent in Western coals, generally increasing 
in quantity the farther west we obtain the coal, but because it is a source 
of loss to the consumer, who not only buys water, but must use a part of 
the heating power of his coal to expel it. 

One of the most important of the practical questions connected with 
this coal, is its adaptation to the smelting of iron. It has been already 
seen that the percentage of sulphur is relatively small, that the ash is 
small, and that the amount of fixed carbon is large. It is also a dry- 
burning coal, and could be used in furnaces in the raw state. Where the 
seam is thickest, six or seven feet oft the coal can be obtained, which, in 
all the qualifications named, would be remarkably adapted to iron-mak- 
ing. Can there, then, be any reasonable doubt on this point ? I think 
not, unless it may lurk in the yet undetermined physical properties of 
the coke. Will the coke be firm and strong enough to resist, without 
crushing, the great burden which must necessarily come upon it in the 
furnace? Although a dry coal, and not needing to be coked beforehand, 
yet it will necessarily be changed to coke in passing from the top of the 
furnace down to the melting zone in the lower part of the stack. Should 
the coke, thus formed, be crushed by the imposed burden, the draft of the 
furnace will be choked, and the working of the furnace seriously hin- 

Some of the analyses show the coke to be firm and compact, while 
others indicate a pulverulent character. This question can best be solved 
by actual experiment. Should such a tendency to brittleness be found 
to exist, the difficulty can be obviated. While in the Cleveland iron dis- 
trict, in England, the coke used is so compact and firm that it supports 
an enormous pressure in furnaces (sometimes more than one hunered feet 
in height), yet elsewhere, as in Staffordshire, where the coke is friable, 
and the ore also, and in South Wales, where the anthracite used decrepi- 
tates to such an extent as to produce the same difficulty in the furnace, 
the furnaces are low, and the superincumbent weight of the "charges'' 


is distributed over a broader base. To secure combustion in such fur- 
naces, a larger number of twyers is used, and, that the blast may reach 
the center, the base is often made elliptical instead of round. The diffi- 
culty of soft coke being a physical one, it may be overcome by such me- 
chanical arrangements as suggest themselves to intelligent metallurgists. 

It might be found desirable to mix with the coal of the great Eelson- 
ville seam a portion of hard coke obtained from some other coal, although 
such necessity appears to me improbable. 

There are in places two seams of coal above the horizon of the Nelson- 
ville seam of workable thickness, the coke of which may answer such a 
purpose. The coal of one of the seams is reported by Prof. Wormley to 
make a very compact coke. 

That the time is not far distant when the coal of this greatest of Ohio coal 
seams will be largely used in the manufacture of iron, there can be little doubt. 

The coal is already shipped from Nelsonville and vicinity to Chicago, 
and to other points on the Northern Lakes, from which the rich Lake Su- 
perior ores could be brought back as return freight. Limited quantities 
of lower coal measure ores are to be found in the neighborhood of the 
coal, especially in the strata lying between the horizon of the Nelson- 
ville coal and the base of the coal measures, which could be used to great 
advantage as a mixture with the richer northern ores. Should these na- 
tive ores prove like those used in Jackson, Lawrence and other counties 
in our furnace district of southern Ohio, the mixture would tend to coun- 
teract the red short quality of the Superior ores. 

A large blast furnace is now in process of erection in Columbus, by S. 
Baird, Esq., and others, to use the coal from the great seam. * Lake Supe- 
erior ores are to be mixed with such native ores as can be the most conve- 
niently obtained from our lower coal measures.. Limestone for flux can 
be obtained in ample supply from the great quarries in the immediate 
neighborhood of Columbus. 

Should furnaces be erected in the immediate vicinity of the coal, lime- 
stone could be obtained from the "Maxville limestone" stratum at vari- 
ous accessible points. At Maxville, in Perry county, the limestone is 
well developed. It is also found near Logan. In the Sunday creek val- 
ley a white limestone of excellent quality is found on the highest hills, 
213 feet above the level of the great coal seam. Another limestone, more 
earthy in character, but which would doubtless answer for a flux, is found 
147 feet above the great seam. For furnaces located at Nelsonville, Hay- 

*Kote.— -The entire success of the Straitsville coal has been satisfactorily demonstra- 
ted by this furnace . E. B. A. 



denville, Logan, Straitsville, and other points on the Columbus & Hocking- 
Valley Railroad and its branches, limestone from the Corniferous beds at 
Columbus could be used. 


Having thus considered the Nelsonville seam of coal in its geo- 
graphical range, its geological relations, its quantity, its quality, and 
its adaptations, the way is prepared to notice in detail the rocks which lie 
above it, so far as yet observed. 

At Nelsonville, in the hill back of t'te village, we found the section as 
follows. (See Fig. 19/ 

o to 7 seen l^rr 

'^iiJjSaruirock irregularly bedded 
Coal very irregular 

Blue clay shale 
Bituminous shale 

Nelsonville coal 
Upper part seen 

Fig. 19. 

As a general rule, there are slates or shales immediately above the coal. 
Sometimes the sandrock, which is very heavy, lies directly upon the coal, 
although this, so far as we saw, was uncommon. In many places the 
sandstone is itself gone, and its place taken by yellow shales, in which we 
find coal seams. The changes from the sandrock to shales and back again, 
are so sudden and unexpected, that it is not strange that much confusion 
has arisen. Generally along the Hocking river we find the heavy sand- 
rock separated from the coal by a few feet of clay shales. This clay 
sometimes comes down into the coal, filling cavities. The following dia- 
gram exhibits two of these "clay veins." (See Fig. 20.) 

I Coal 

Fig. 20. 



On the west branch of Sunday creek, in Monroe township, I saw two or 
three places where the coal was entirely gone, and the vacant space filled 
with a yellow shale. At one point it is cut squarely off where it is 10 or 
11 feet thick. The sandy shales appear to have been shoved into the de- 
pression, and not to have accumulated by slow sedimentary increments, 
as there was little appearance of lamination. At another place, the coal 
seam grows smaller, and ends in a ball of coal, as seen in the accompany- 
ing figure. (See Fig. 21.) 

Yelloiv- Shales' 




Fig. 21. 

It is evident, from the study of the strata immediately over the Nelson- 
ville seam, that there were most remarkable changes in the conditions of 
deposition invery limited areas. While the strong currents brought in 
and distributed sands in many places, at the same time there were near 
by, comparatively still waters, where the finer sediments, which now con- 
stitute the yellow shales, were deposited. At times these shales were 
brought above the surface, and the growth of vegetation afforded seams 
of coal. At a subsequent time, there were current ways cut down through 
these yellow shales and coals, removing even the great seam below. This 
is seen on the farm of Benjamin Saunders, Monroe township, Perry county. 
Fortunately these breaks in the continuity of the Nelsonville seam are 
rare and of very limited extent. It should also be remembered as a part 
of the history, that in some places the currents which brought in the sand 
of the sandrock removed the top of the coal, sometimes the whole seam, 
and left sandstone in the place of it. Hence, while below the seam the 
strata are fine, quiet-water sediments, and are distributed with remark- 
able uniformity and evenness, above it we find evidence of just the oppo- 
site conditions of deposition. We should expect, therefore, that the seam 
of coal associated with the shales, above the main seam, would be limited 
in extent, and the work of grouping them into a system a difficult one. 

One of the best exhibitions of the- coal seams, above the great seam, is 
on the farm of Bayliss Glenn, on Snow Fork, Sec. 6, Ward township 
Hocking county. (See Section No. 8 on map of grouped sections.) Most 


of the section was made on Bear run, where the two upper seams of coal 
were seen. The lower, 3 ft. thick, is apparently poor in the upper half 
and good below. Twenty-nine feet above this seam are two or three feet 
of limestone, the lower part white and good, and the upper 10 inches 
apparently flinty and covered on the top with a little iron ore. On the 
limestone rests 5 ft. of shales, upon which is a seam of coal 4 ft. thick, the 
lower six inches of which is cannel. I had no opportunity to examine the 
quality of the coal, as no mine is opened. The cannel is rather heavy, 
with earthy matter. It contains fish remains. There is also in the hills 
bordering Snow Fork a seam of coal, reported to have been mined, situated 
a little higher than the seam last mentioned. 

Near the head of the East branch, Snow Fork, near Alexander Mar- 
shall's, Sec. 35, Salt Lick township, Perry county, there are seen in the 
shales above the Nelson ville seam, the two coals found on the farm of Mr. 
Glenn, farther down the ran. The coal over the limestone was reported 
2£ ft. thick. Near the top of the high hill separating Snow Fork from 
the west branch of Sunday creek, is another coal seam. Its exact height 
above the Nelsonville seani was not ascertained. 

On the farm of Benj. Saunders, on the west branch of Sunday creek, 
there are two seams of coal above the great seam. These seams are seen 
in Sec. 22 on Map of grouped sections. The thickness of the first one 
above the great seam was not ascertained. To the northwest it probably 
runs out, and its place is taken by heavy sandstone. Near Millerstown, 
on the land of Mr. Morris, it has an unusual development of 6 feet. On 
the Grigsby farm it measures 4 feet. 

The following are Prof. Wormley's analyses of two samples of the 

Grigsby coal : 

No. l. No. 2. 

Water 3.80 3.80 

Asli - 4.60 6.30 

Vol. matter 38.80 37.00 

Fixed carbon 52.80 52.90 

Total 100.00 100.00 

Sulphur 3.59 4.89 

Cubic ft. gas per lb 3.03 3.08 

The upper seam, called the Stallsmith seam, is more persistent, as it was 
found over a considerable area. It measures 4 feet, and, in quality, is 
highly esteemed in the neighborhood. Mr. Saunders obtains this coal (by 
stripping) for family use, preferring it to that of the great seam, which is 
11 ft. thick on his farm. 

Mr. George Stallsmith, in the same neighborhood, has taken out con 


siderable of this coal, for family and neighborhood use. Prof. Wormley 
has analyzed this coal, with the following results: 

Stallsmith's Upper Coal. 
Specific gravity 1.254 

Combined water 3.80 

Ash 4.14 

Volatile matter 40.21 

Fixed carbon 51.85 

Total 100.00 

Sulphur 2.62 

Permanent gas per lb. coal in cubic feet 4.69 

Color of ash Gray. 

Character of coke Compact. 

This coal is rich in gas. It makes also a very compact and durable 
coke. The amount of sulphur is considerable, and may interfere with the 
usefulness of the coal for gas and iron making. Should, on coking, a 
considerable portion of the sulphur be eliminated, the coke might, from 
its hardness, serve an important purpose for a mixture with the coal of 
the great seam for iron making. 

On the land of James Fowler, Pleasant township, Perry county, there 
are two seams of coal, as given on the Map of grouped sections, in Sec. 
No. 28. The lower seam was traced by Hon. Alvah Jones and my assist- 
ant, Mr. Ballantine, from Eoseville, where it is the upper Lexington seam, 
(the equivalent of the great or Nelsonville seam). The upper, 28£ feet 
above the lower, measures 4 ft. 10 in. The top 10 inches are not worked 
in the mine. No partings were seen. Mr. P. Yakey reported having 
mined the lower seam and found it 4£ feet thick, with a parting. On the 
land of Ebenezer Pyle, in the same township, there is a seam, 4 ft. 1 in. 
thick, which is believed to be the same as the upper one on Jas. Fowler's 
land. Mr. Pyle reports a seam below (probably the upper Lexington 
seam) and another above. 

Doubtless there will be found at other points seams of coal lying above 
the great Eelsonville seam, and more careful investigations will hereafter 
be made as we carry our sections upward, above the horizon of the great 
seam. It is however already evident that, in Hocking and Perry counties, 
the conditions of deposition were such that we can expect little uniformity 
in the strata for the 60 or 80 feet above the great Nelsonville coal. 



It is almost impossible to make a section of the lower strata of the 
Productive Coal Measures, at any place, in the field included in this 
report, without disclosing more or less iron ore. There are a few distinct 
and well-defined horizons in which the ore is almost always seen. This 
is rendered evident by an examination of the map of grouped sections. 

Beginning at the base of the coal measures, we find ore at a few points 
below the Maxville limestone. The best development was seen in Sec- 
tion 16, Madison township, Perry county, on the land of Edward Dani- 
son. Here upon the top of the Logan sandstone group, were seen nodules 
of siderite ore in clay, measuring from 4 to 8 inches thick, and overlaid 
by sandy shale. Mr. S. Baird, formerly in charge of the furnace at 
Logan, reports a layer of ore over a seam of fire-clay resting on the Lo- 
gan sandstone. This is not far from Logan, and is in the same geological 
horizon with the last mentioned. 

On the top of the Maxville limestone, iron ore was seen at several 
points. On the farm of Mr. Danison, previouslj alluded to, this ore 
was found from 4 to 8 inches thick. A sample of this ore was analyzed 
by Prof. Wormley, and the result given in No. 5 of the appended table 
of analyses. This ore is interesting, as containing 4.30 per cent, of man- 
ganese. No alumina was found, which is remarkable for a coal-measures 
ore, and one overlaid by a shale containing much clay. Of sulphur and 
phosphorus it contains only a trace. The percentage of metallic iron, 
38.87, added to the unusual purity, would make this a desirable ore for 
making iron, if it can be obtained in sufficient quantity. 

On Section 14, Newton township, Muskingum county, on the farm of 
Joseph Bambo, nodules of similar ore were found resting upon the great 
Maxville or Newtonville limestone. No analysis was made of this, but 
probably it is an excellent ore. 

In Section 28, Green township, Hocking county, on James Tannahill's 
land, is a very thin layer of nodules of iron ore, containing quartz pebbles 
resting upon the Maxville limestone. This ore is here the only represen- 
tative of the true coal-measures conglomerate. The place of the conglom- 
erate is above the Maxville limestone. Dr. Briggs, in the old Reports, 
observes the conglomeratic character of this ore. 

On Edward Danison's land, already referred to, there is a thin layer of 
siderite ore 13J feet above the limestone ore, and still another layer 
3 inches thick, 15 feet higher. 

In a section made by Dr. Hildreth, given in the old Geological Reports, 
and copied as c ec. 35 in my map of grouped sections, on Joseph Baird's 


land, Sec. 11, Hopewell township, Licking county, a layer of ore 1 foot 4 
inches thick, rests upon the Maxville limestone. This is thicker than I 
found it at any point. Ten feet higher up, Dr. H. reports a seam 8 inches 

At nearly the same geological horizon on the land of Joseph Bambo, 
Sec. 14, Newton township, Muskingum county, are two small layers of 
siderite ore, separated by 1 foot 7 inches of light blue clay-shale, the lower 
2 inches and the upper 3 to 4 inches thick. 

Near John Fluhart's mill, Green township, Hocking county, there were 
found nodules and thin layers of iron ore, in shales, the upper part black, 
and the middle white clay, and the lower bluish. There were nodules of 
ore in all these shales, but probably none were thick enough to work. 
Some of the ore was flinty. 

At Maxville, Perry county, a layer of siderite ore, 3 inches thick, was 
seen about 20 feet above the top of the Maxville limestone. 

These lower ores are found sweeping through the northern half of 
Perry county, but there was great difficulty in finding such exposures of 
the rocks as would enable us to determine their exact stratigraphical 
position. Near Wolfe Station, on the Zanesville and Cincinnati Bail- 
road, one of these layers of ore is somewhat largely mined and sent to a 
furnace at Zanesville. Mr. Baird, who first used this ore, thinks it is 
elsewhere represented by the ore resting upon the Maxville limestone. 
North of this,' in the Somerset region, excellent ores are found. Should a 
railroad be built through that part of the county, these ores could be 
profitably mined and sent to furnaces. 

Between 40 and 50 feet above the level of the Maxville limestone is a 
very well-marked horizon of ore. The ore is seen directly behind the old 
Hocking furnace at Haydenville, Green township, Hocking county, where 
the quality is good, but it adheres firmly to the sandstone below it. 
Where it could be removed from the stone it has been used in the fur- 
nace. Below the sandstone, which is 12 inches thick, is a stratum of 
earthy limestone 1 foot 6 inches thick. Both limestone and sandstone 
are highly fossiliferous. 

On the bank of Monday creek, opposite Henry Hazelton's, Salt Lick 
township, Perry county, this ore is well seen. Here there are three or 
four layers. The upper is in nodular masses imbedded in blue shale. 
The next below is an ore of good quality, and lies in one and sometimes* 
two layers. The lowest is rather a ferriferous flint. In all, there may be 
15 inches of ore. Three samples were analyzed by Prof. Wormley, and 
the results are given in table of analyses of ores. No. 1 was from the 
top, or nodular layer ; No. 2 the next below, and No. 3 the flinty ore. 


No. 1 is a rich ore, yielding 41.37 per cent, of metallic iron. It is chiefly 
a carbonate of iron (siderite), but a portion has been changed under at- 
mospheric agencies to limonite or the hydrated sesquioxide. It contains 
0.48 per cent, of sulphuric acid and 0.18 of phosphoric acid. No. 2 is 
also rich in iron, containing 37.59 per cent. The sulphuric acid is 0.75 
per cent., but there was no trace of phosphorus. No. 3 is poor, contain- 
ing only 17.99 per cent, of metallic iron. To what extent these ores 
could be obtained by " stripping," it is impossible to state without a 
special investigation. Mining by drifting would be very expensive. 

On the land of Samuel Thomson, near Maxville, Monday creek town- 
ship, Perry county, we find a compact iron ore in thin layers, the whole 
measuring sixteen inches. It rests on an earthy blue limestone six inches 
thick, which is separated from another seam of blue limestone, eight 
inches thick, by five inches of blue clay. Under the limestone are four- 
teen inches of black sandy bituminous shale, below which are twenty- 
two inches of coal, this with its under clay resting upon a sandrock. A 
section of this ore and associated strata is the Sec. No. 11 in the Map of 
grouped sections. No samples of this ore were brought away, but from 
the unusual thickness of the stratum it is worthy of investigation. 

A seam of ore six inches thick was seen near Cusac's mill, on Jona- 
than's creek, Newton township, Muskingum county. Sec. 30, on the Map 
of grouped sections, represents the position of this ore. 

On the land of John Lyle, Sec. 14, Newton township, a layer of no- 
dules of iron ore three inches thick was found, resting upon a stratum of 
calcareous ferriferous flint, which, in turn, rests upon, or rather, is 
cemented to a seam, fifteen inches thick, of blue limestone, under which 
are three inches of coal. The surface of the flint stratum is covered 
with impressions of the marine plant Spirophyton, cauda-galli, or allied 
species. Fifteen feet above is a thin layer of sandstone, with the same 
vegetable impressions upon it. A section of this group of strata is on 
the Map of grouped sections No. 33. 

Between this horizon of ore and the Putman Hill limestone above, no 
other range of ore was observed. 

Above the Putnam Hill limestone we find the first ore from five to 
eight feet over the limestone. It is seen on the Map of sections as Sec. 
36. Here the nodules of ore are often quite large, and the location is 
worthy of investigation. I have no doubt the ore is of good quality. In 
Section 40, on the same Map, is seen a layer of nodules of ore four inches 
thick, belonging to the same geological horizon. It is eight feet four 
inches above the Putnam Hill limestone, resting upon blue calcareous 
shales which are highly fossiliferous. 


At Flint Eidge, a layer of ore is reported resting upon the top of the 
Putnam Hill limestone, which here includes the calcareous shale seen at 
the last locality. The shales and limestone have the same fossils. 

Higher in the series, ore in considerable quantity was found on the 
land of Henry Welch, Salt Lick township, Perry county. No measured 
section was made, but its place, by estimate, is about 30 feet below the 
great Nelsonville seam of coal. It lies in layers of nodules in blue clay 
shale. One of the nodules was taken for analysis. Prof. Wormley re- 
ports, in No. 6. of the table, the metallic iron to be 27.04. The details of 
the analysis are not given. Should this ore be found well situated for 
easy stripping, it would doubtless serve a good purpose for mixture 
with other richer ores. 

Nowhere have we found so persistent a horizon of ore as that found 
a few feet below the great coal seam. Attention to this ore was called 
by Dr. Briggs, in the old Geological Reports. Scarcely anywhere was a 
section made of this part of the vertical range of strata without the dis- 
covery of this ore. It is in nodules, often small, but sometimes very 
large and heavy. Unfortunately, the nodules are generally too much 
scattered to make mining profitable, yet there are doubtless many places 
where this ore might be obtained by stripping, in sufficient quantity to 
serve a valuable purpose for mixture. A sample obtained on the land 
of James Hawkins, on Snow Fork of Monday creek, in Ward township, 
Hocking county, was analyzed by Prof. Wormley. The result is given in 
Nor 4 of the table. The ore is siderite or carbonate of iron, and yields 
31.50 per cent, metallic iron. It is often filled with beautiful impressions 
of coal plants, a collection of which was made for the State cabinet. 

On the farm of Benjamin Saunders, on the west branch of Monday 
creek, the stream has cut its way below the great seam of coal, and 
revealed the same range of nodular ores, found below the coal on Snow 
Fork and elsewhere. The ore is rich in iron, but the nodules are too 
much scattered to make mining profitable. Generally, in the upper 
Sunday creek valley, this ore would be several feet below the beds of 
the streams. 


The strata of rocks lying above the horizon of the great Nelsonville 
seam of coal are apparently less promising in iron ore than those below it. 

On the old Marietta road, one mile north-east from Nelsonville, two 
ranges of nodular ore were seen, and their places proximately given in 
No. 1 of the Map of grouped sections. 

A sandy ore (probably of little value) was seen on the hill near the 
village of Straitsville, Perry county. 


On the headwaters of Sunday creek there were seen at one place, where 
the shales are not cut away by the heavy sandrock, two lines of small 
blue kidneys of blue carbonate or siderite, one three and the other four 
inches thick. The lower line is fifteen feet above the great seam of coal, 
and the other six feet higher. At one place, near Millerstown, a deposit 
of five inches of blue carbonate of iron, four, feet below the middle or 
Norris coal, was seen. Whether this will ■ prove a continuous layer or 
only a local deposit, I had no means of ascertaining. Fifteen feet above 
the middle, or Norris coal, is a quite persistent deposit of ore of the limo- 
nite class. This seam can be traced through all the hills to New Lexing- 
ton, where it is found in its proper place above the upper New Lexington 
coal, which is the equivalent of the great seam of Sunday creek. It 
measures in one place thirteen inches in thickness. A few kidneys from 
three to four inches thick were dug out of this layer, which were rich in 
iron. One of them was analyzed by Prof. Wormley, and found to contain 
43.06 per cent, of metallic iron. If uncontaminated by phosphorus or 
sulphur, for which, as yet, no examinations have been made, this ore, if 
found in adequate quantity, will serve an admirable purpose for a mixture 
with the Lake Superior ores. 

Forty feet above this ore, or about fourteen feet above the upper or 
" Stallsmith " seam of coal, is a deposit, apparently in very large nodules, 
of an earthy blue carbonate of iron or siderite. On the Latta farm, 
near Millerstown (Perry county), the thickest nodule measured two feet 
in thickness. Here there was an evident slip, as the ore was imbedded 
in earth and not in stratified clays. At this place two or three smaller 
nodules of siderite, of a different lithological texture were seen, but 
their true place could not be ascertained. One was five inches thick. 
On the Eogers farm, in the same neighborhood, the same earthy blue 
carbonate of iron was seen, grouped in three layers of nodules, meas- 
uring respectively thirteen inches, fourteen inches, and six inches, 
making in all thirty- three inches. To determine whether these nodules 
will prove sufficiently contiguous to constitute regular seams, will re- 
quire additional excavation. 

As this was by far the largest development of ore seen above the 
horizon of the great seam of coal, samples for analysis were taken from 
both the Latta and Eogers farms. The sample from the Latta farm 
yielded, according to Prof. Wormley's analysis, 26.12 per cent, of metallic 
iron, and that from the Eogers farm 23.78 per cent. All the ores of the 
upper Sunday creek valley are given in Sec. 25 A, Map of grouped sec- 

A limestone sometimes found in large, scattered nodules, in the yellow 
clays from fifteen to twenty feet above the great coal seam, on the west 


branch of Sunday creek, contains a small amount of iron. A sample 
obtained by Gol. James Taylor, of New Lexington, and my assistant, Mr. 
Gilbert, from near the bridge on the road from Millerstown to the west 
branch, was analyzed for iron by Prof. Wormley, and found to contain 
2.52 per cent. 

For the purpose of general comparison, I give from Bauerman's Metal- 
lurgy of Iron the average richness in iron of the ores used in the famous 
Cleveland Iron District in England. This average, for four samples from 
different localities, is 35.79 per cent, of metallic iron, while the average 
,of six samples from our coal-field is 36.57 per cent. In this number I in- 
clude one sample of ore taken from above the great seam of coal on Sun- 
day creek. In freedom from the deleterious element, phosphoric acid, the 
Ohio ores are far superior. The Cleveland ores give an average of 1.905 
per cent, of phosphoric acid, while of the five samples, thoroughly 
analyzed, from our coal-field, one yielded 0.18 per cent., two gave a mere 
chemical trace, and two contained none whatever. The amount of sul- 
phur in our ores is small, not being found at all in some samples, and 
in others much of what is found will be removed in roasting the 
ore. There is therefore little difficulty to be apprehended from the ores 
of Hocking, Perry and Muskingum counties, in respect to quality ; the 
only question is the one of quantity. This question will be carefully in- 
vestigated, with respect to any given district, by all intelligent capitalists 
who propose to erect furnaces in such district and rely upon it for ores. 
They will not care to repeat the expensive blunders, in ill-judged reliance 
upon limited ores, which have been made both in the Coal Measures of 
England and of this country. In regard to the failure of many furnaces 
in western Pennsylvania, J. P. Lesley, Esq., one of the Geological Corps 
in the survey of that State, thus writes, in his " Manual of Coal": " In 
a majority of instances, the furnaces have been built in the neighborhood 
of very insufficient beds ; and a large proportion of those originally 
erected blew out for the want of ore, and form picturesque ruins in se- 
cluded glens among the mountains, and on the banks of the principal 
affluent waters of the Monongahela and Alleghany. This treachery of the 
beds of carbonate of iron (the ore is good enough), rather than an\ want 
of skill or capital or tariff, has been the secret cause of the periodical 
and almost universal failure of iron-making in western Pennsylvania, 
from the beginning until now." 

I do not apprehend that the better layers of ore in the counties I have 
explored will fail in persistency and prove treacherous. The question 
will be whether, when the more accessible and cheaply obtained ore has 
been removed by stripping, it will be found profitable to mine the ore by 



the process of drifting. This will depend upon the price of labor and 
the cheapness at which other competing ores can be obtained. One 
thing is very certain, that considerable ore can be obtained in the north- 
ern part of my district, which is excellent in quality, and which will 
prove valuable for mixing with the richer ores of Lake Superior. 

Before closing this subject of ores, it must be remarked that the sur- 
vey of 1869, did not extend to the iron region of Vinton, Jackson, Scioto 
and Lawrence counties. In that region the ores are generally richer and 
better than in the northern part of my district. 

I append a table of the analyses of ores from the district already 

Analyses of Iron Ores, by Prof. T. O. Wormhy, Chemist of the Geological 


No. 1. 

No. 2. 

No. 3. 

No. 4. 

No. 5. 

No. 6. 

No. 7. 

No. 8. 

No. 9. 














I 4.19 




37 36 














Organic matter 






inn on 



17.991 31.50 





Register of Analyses of Iron Ores. 

No. 1. Top of No. 1 layer of ore in. front of Henry Hazelton's, Salt Lick Tp., Perry Co. 

No. 2. Second layer of ore " " " " 

No. 3. Third " " " " " 

No. 4. Layer of ore in flat nodular masses, James Hawkins, Sec. 3, Ward township, 
Hocking connty, 9 feet under Nelsonville seam of coal. 

No. 5. Iron on top of Maxville Limestone, Edward Damson's, Sec. 16, Madison town- 
ship, Perry county. 

No. 6. Iron ore, SO or 30 feet below Nelsonville coal, Henry Welch's land, Salt Lick 
township, Perry county, second from bottom of 4 or 5 layers of nodules. 

No. 7. Limohite ore from seam 15 feet above the Middle or Norris coal, Latta farm, 
Sunday creek, Perry county. 

No. 8. Blue carbonate of iron, Latta farm. Sunday creek, Perry county. 

No. 9. Same seam as above, on Eogers farm. 

An examination was made of the Duck creek valley for the special 


determination of the position of the eoals. The principal seams of coal in 
the immediate valley of Duck creek are two ; the lower, generally thin, 
and associated with limestones, and the upper, much thicker, generally 
found below a heavy sandrock. The two seams are about 70 feet apart, 
in vertical distance. The general dip of the strata in this valley is to the 
south and south-east, except where there may be undulations, produced 
by the same causes which produced the Cow run and Jewell's run up- 

In ascending the valley, we first find the lower coal, with its associated 
limestone group, in the bed of the creek, near Mr. Flanders', about half a 
mile above the Cedar Narrows bridge, in the north part of Fearing town- 
ship. Here the coal was formerly obtained by stripping. Near the 
bridge, below, an oil well is reported to have passed through the lime- 
stone group, about 30 feet below the surface. This would indicate a 
pretty strong southern dip. Before reaching the mouth of Whipple's run, 
a mile above Mr. Flanders', the coal and limestones have risen well up in 
the bank, and from this point the group is everywhere seen, in going 
north. On Whipple's run the coal has changed into cannel, and, at this 
point, it was formerly distilled into oil. The cannel is of poor quality, 
very earthy, and leaves, on combustion, an excessive amount of ashes. 

On Pigeon branch of Whipple's run, on the farm of Moses Blake, a part 
of the limestone group was exposed and the following section made. (See 
Fig. 22. j 

/j? Soil 

i-y ---' Sandstones and shales 

JSji^S Limestone, laminated, shaly, 5' 

I~'*i i:\-~ Buff colored. limestone, 15" 
\ Not seen, 5' 

|hmb Coal, bituminous, JO" to IX" 
fij Bp Coal, cannel, HO" 
JSfWWB Under clay. 6" 
ajjjagsifrg? n;«<; slate, 10" 
jfe^, /i-J J !-. f t 1 - Limestone, bottom not seen 

Fig. 22. 

Here the lower 15 to 20 inches of the coal are cannel, and the 10 or 12 
inches above are bituminous. The bunvcolored limestone above the coal 
is everywhere persistent. I have traced it from the west side of the 
Muskingum river, on Wolf creek, through several townships. It is seen, 
with its associated limestone, in the hills in the vicinity of Beverly j at 
Coal run, where the associated coal is largely worked; on Bear creek;, 
extensively on Duck creek ; on the Little Muskingum ; in the uplift on 


Cow run ; and in a similar uplift in the Narrows, above the mouth of, 
Jewell's run, below the village of Newport. 

The following is an analysis, by Prof. Wormley, of this remarkable 
limestone, from a sample obtained on Whipple's run : 

Matter insoluble in acids...,. 19.10 

Carbonate of lime 47.70 

Carbonate of magnesia 19.40 

Alumina and sesquioxide of iron 2.50 

Undetermined 2.65 

This analysis shows the stone to be a double carbonate of lime and 
magnesia. It is worthy of investigation as a water lime. Should it 
answer for hydraulic purposes, its wide distribution would make it val- 

This buff limestone is an excellent .guide in the study of the geology of 
Washington county. 

The blue slate below the coal at Whipple's run, and at other points, is 
rich in fossil mollusca. 

At Salem village, the limestone group is seen, and the coal is reported 
to be from 20 to 30 inches thick. Here it has lost all cannel structure. 
The cannel coal on Whipple's run is only a local modification of a bitu- 
minous coal seam. This, so far as my observations go, is true of all 
cannel coals. 

At the head of Pigeon branch of Whipple's run we find, on the farm of 
Samuel J. Hazen, Salem township, a seam of coal in the hill, estimated 
to be about 70 feet above the limestone group. This coal is 4 feet thick, 
with 3 inches black slate under it, below which is the usual under clay. 
It has 10 inches of black slate over it, above which is a blueish clay, 
mottled with red. No heavy sandrock was here seen above the coal. 
The coal has much resemblance to the Bear creek coal, and in many re- 
spects is unlike its geological equivalent, the " sandstone coal" found higher 
up Duck creek. Prom a careful examination of the coal on Bear creek, 
made several years since, I was led to believe that that coal was found 
on the extreme southern edge of the great coal marsh, and was subjected 
to peculiar tidal inundations, which brought in water- worn or beach- worn 
sticks, and fragments of wood, which are now found intermingled with 
the coal. These overflows have doubtless modified the structure of the 
coal. South of Bear creek, and south of Whipple's run, this seam of coal 
entirely disappears, or is too thin to work. It is probable that the black, 
bituminous shales, under a heavy sandrock, seen on the plank road on 
New-Year's run, about half a mile from its mouth, is the equivalent, hi 

9 — Geological. 


.geological position, of the coal seam spoken of. In Salem township, and 
especially on the East Fork of Duck creek, the upper or "sandstone coal'' 
is well developed, and mines have been opened on 
the farms of Vincent . Payne, Moses True, Messrs. 
Hovey, Gould and others. On the farm of Mr. 
Hill, north of Salem village, the coal is well seen. 
On the land of Vincent Payne the annexed sec- 
tion of coal was made. (See Fig 23.) 

Sand rock 

Direction of vertical planes in this seam. S. 78i° E. The «"*> SO <J5gg§^ a< "» 
direction of same in the "limestone coal" onlfa. Payne's 
land, or near it, S. 80° E. z' 6 ' 

8"<lo 19"' 

On V. Payne's land, there is a seam of limestone 
144 feet above the sandstone coal, and another 56 * 7 
feet higher. These limestones are found on all 
the hills in that region that are high enough to Fie 23. 

reach them. They are remarkably soluble under atmospheric influences, 
and have a greater fertilizing power than any limestones I have seen 
elsewhere in the State. The farmers of Salem have hitherto received far 
more benefit from these limestones than they have from their abundant 
coal. There are no richer hill lands in the State. 

Explorations up the East Fork of Duck creek will hereafter be made. 
On. the West Fork, we found the upper, or sandstone coal opened on the 
farm of Hugh Jackson, in Aurelius township, Washington county. Here 
the fire-clay parting is thickened to 3 feet 4 inches, there being 3 feet 4 
inches of coal below it and 1 foot 9 inches above. Here the direction of 
vertical planes in the coal is N. 80° W. About 70 feet below this coal is 
the usual limestone group with the layer of buff limestone. No coal was 
here seen in the limestone group, but it may be present, as no good sec- 
tion of the group could be made. The group is thinner than in Salem. 
From this point northward-, the upper coal is found in all the hills and is 
mined for neighborhood use. The largest development seen was on the 
land of David McKee, on Buffalo run, near Newburg, Noble county, where 
the coal below the clay parting measured 6 feet 8 J inches. The clay 
above was reported to be about 2 feet thick, above which 2 feet more of 
coal were reported. This coal appeared to be pretty homogeneous in 
quality, and can be profitably mined when the Marietta and Pittsburg 
Railroad is completed. One hundred and thirty-five feet above this coal 
is a limestone seam, probably the same as the one found 144 feet above 
the sandstone coal on V. Payne's land, in Salem. Mr. McKee's coal is 
225 feet (by barometer) above the bank of Duck creek, near Newburg. 


The following is a section of Mr. McKee's coaL The vertical planes run 
east and west. (See Fig. 24.) 

Coal ». ■?, 
Fin day % 7' 

Fig. 24. 

On the west side of Duck creek, in the neighborhood of Newburg, the 
coal seam is thinner. The coal of John McGuire, in Jackson township, 
JSToble county, is 3 feet 6 inches below the clay parting, which is here 2 
feet thick. The coal above the parting is only 4 inches in thickness. 
Mr. McGuire produces about 200 bushels a day for the oil and salt works 
in the vicinity. Seventy feet below this coal is the limestone group with 
the usual buff-colored stratum. About 50 feet above McGuire's coal is 
another group of limestones, perhaps 6 feet thick, with one layer of porous 
buff-colored limestone. 

The height of the summit at the cross-roads, 2 miles west of Newburg, 
is 375 feet (by barometer), above the Duck creek bridge, at Newburg. 

On the farm of Mr. Leonard McKee, in Olive township, Noble county, 
the coal /the same seam as David McKee's), is 5 feet thick below, with 1 
to 1£ feet parting of clay and 8 inches of coal above. There are two seaujs 
of limestone above the coal, one 43 feet and the other about 60 feet above. 
The summit of the hill above Leonard McKee's house is 380 feet (by bar- 
ometer), above the floor of Blake's bridge, over Duck creek, Olive, town- 
ship. The seam of coal is 310 feet above the level of the bridge. On the 
hills west of Blake's bridge, the same seam of coal is found, but generally 
thinner. On the land of Aranda Woodford it is reported 3 feet thick. 
.Here the coal is, by barometer, 295 feet above Blake's bridge. As we go 
north from Olive township, in ascending the Duck creek valley, the coal 
gets higher and higher in the hills, and at last disappears. 

On the farm of Fulton Caldwell, in Olive township, about a mile 
below his house, we find 50 feet of sandy shales making cliffs on the im- 
mediate bank of Duck creek. Underneath these shales comes up, as we 
go north /for the dip is strongly to the south), a limestone 1 foot thick, 
rich in fossils, below which are 7 feet of blackish shales, also rich in fos- 
sils, and under the dark shales is a foot of coal with vertical planes, If .72° 
W. At " Soak'em" we obtain a section of strata 50 or 60 feet below the 
coal, composed of clay shales of different colors and one stratum of lime- 
stone in nodules. This lower coal under the fossiliferous limestone is, by 


barometer, 303 feet below the. "sandstone coal." The examination did 
Hot extend beyond the village of " Soak'em." 


The wells bored for oil in the valley have generally revealed brine. A 
deep well near Soak'ein, Olive township, Noble county, bored by the Ohio 
Valley Oil Company, struck a light colored sandrock at 763 feet, and con- 
tinued in it to the depth of 875 feet, when the boring stopped. This well 
has yielded a copious stream of strong brine which comes up from the 
bottom sandrock. If, as I have much reason to expect, the "sandstone 
coal," of the Duck creek valley, is the geological equivalent of the Pom- 
eroy seam, then the light colored sandrock which affords the brine at 
Soak'em is the equivalent of the saliferous rock reached by the salt wells 
at Pomeroy and on the Hocking river. The saliferous rock probably be- 
longs to the upper Waverly. The New Jersey Company's deep well on 
the Dearth farm, Jefferson township, Noble county, passes through the 
same sandrock as the Soak'em well and found in it abundant brine. 
While, therefore, we may infer that the great salt-bearing sandrock which 
underlies the coal measures in south-eastern Ohio is entirely accessible 
in the Duck creek valley, it is a matter of good fortune to this district 
that Strong brines can also be found in sandrocks much nearer the sur- 
face, as shown by the following interesting facts. Young's salt well, from 
which salt has been manufactured for several years, situated one mile 
aorth of Newburg, Noble county, obtains its brine in a white sandrock, 
19& feet below the surface. In the Eastwood and Parker well on the 
Isaac Davis farm, in Olive township, Noble county, a very large flow Of 
strong brine was obtained in a white sandrock 227 feet below the surface. 
The same sandrock yields oil. 

In the Diamond oil well, on David McKee's farm, at Newburg, Noble 
county, brine was struck in a white sandrock 236 feet from the surface. 
Brine was also found in the same well in a heavy white sandrock 107 feet 
below the one above mentioned. In David McKee's well, No. 2, brine 
was found in a white sandrock 347 feet below the surface. 

On the flats below Maxburg, Aurelius township, Washington county, 
abundant brine is found in a sandrock 308 feet below the surface. It will 
probably be found that the saliferous rocks of the Upper Duck creek val- 
ley will group themselves into three distinct horizons, two upper ones 
comparatively near the surface, and the other one, underlying the coal 
measure rocks. The brines, in strength and quality, will hereafter be 
studied. A little salt for local use has been made in the Upper Duck 
creek valley for many years, but the difficulty of transportation has pre- 


vented its exportation. The difficulty will soon be obviated by the Mari- 
etta and Pittsburgh Eailroad, which passes up the valley. Coal mines 
affording cheap fuel are found in all the hills bordering Duck creek, from 
Salem, Washington county, to Soak'em, Noble county. The Buck creek 
valley could easily supply the West with salt. 

Iron Ore from Duck Creek Valley. — This is a very superior ore. 

More or less iron ore, generally in nodular form, is found in the clay 
shales of this region. A sample from the Dutton farm near Maxbnrgh, 
was analyzed by Prof. Wormley, and gave — 

Specific Gravity 4.554 

Water combined 1.20 

Sesquioxideiron.... 78.90 

Alumina 7.70 

Silica and insol. matter 10.60 

Sulphuric acid 0.25 

Phosphorus 0.00 

Total 98.65 

Metallic iron 55.48 


Furnaces line the iron ore belt of the lower coal measures, from Logan, 
Hocking county, on the north, to the Ohio river on the south. This dis- 
trict is universally known as the " Hanging Eock Iron District," and has 
long been famous for the remarkably fine iron it produces. The ores 
hitherto used have been chiefly the native ores of the hydrated sesqui- 
oxide or limonite group. Of late, mixtures of Missouri and Lake Supe- 
rior ores have been introduced in a few stone coal furnaces. Charcoal is 
the principal fuel. 

The following is a list of the furnaces : 

I. Charcoal Furnaces. 

Name. Coitnty. Owners. 

Bloom Scioto J. Paull & Company. 

Buckeye Jackson Buckeye Furnace Company. 

Buckhorn Lawrence Charcoal Iron Company. 

Cambria Jackson ...D. Lewis &. Company. 

Centre ..Lawrence W. D. Kelley & Son. 

Clinton Scioto Crawford & Bell. 

Cincinnati Vinton Long & Smith. 

Eagle Vinton Eagle Furnace Company. 



Empire Scioto 

Etna Lawrence.. . 

Gallia Gallia 

Hamden Vinton 

Hecla Lawrence... 

Harrrison Scioto 

Hope : Vinton 

Howard Scioto 

Jackson Jackson ... 

Jefferson Jackson ... 

Keystone Jackson . . . 

Grant Lawrence. . 

Lawrence Lawrence.. 

Latrobe Jackson . . . 

Limestone Jackson ... 

Lincoln Jackson ... 

Logan Hocking ... 

Monitor Lawrence . . 

Madison Lawrence.. . 

Monroe Jackson ... 

Mt. Vernon Lawrence.. . 

Olive Lawrence.. . 

Ohio Scioto 

Pine Grove Lawrenee.. . 

Pioneer Lawrence... 

Scioto Scioto 

Union Hocking ... 

Vesuvius Lawrence . . 

Washington Lawrence . . 

Zaleski Vinton 

Total number, 38. 

. .James Forsythe <fe Company. 
..Ellison, Dempsey & Ellison. 
.Norton, Campbell & Company. 
..Hamden Furnace Company. 
. . Hecla Iron and Mining Company. 
. . Harrison Furnace Company. 
..Putnam, Welch & Company. 
. . Charcoal Iron Company. 
. . Jackson Furnace Company. 
. . Jefferson Furnace Company. 
. .E. B. Greene & Company. 
..W. D. Kelley & Son. 
. . Peters, Cole & Company. 
..H. S. Bundy. 

. . Limestone Furnace Company. 
-.Wm. McGhee. 
. . Ohio Iron Company. 
..Monitor Furnace Company. 
..Peters, Clare & Company. 
. . Union Iron Company. 
..Hiram Campbell. 
..Campbell, McGugin & Company. 
..Means, Kyle & Company. 
..Means, Kyle & Company. 
. . Eodgers & Swap. 
.-L. C. Robinson & Company. 
. .Hocking Valley Iron Company. 
. -Giay, Amos & Company. 
. . Union Iron Company. 
. . Zaleski Furnaee Company. 

II. Furnaces Using Bituminous Coal. 

Name. County. 

Belfont Lawrence.. 

Fulton Jackson ... 

Orange Jackson . .. 

Star Jackson ... 

Vinton Vinton 

Total number, 5. 

.Belfont Iron Works Company. 
.Fulton Furnace Company. 
. Orange Furnace Company. 
.Star Furnace Company. 
.Vinton Furnace and Coal Company. 

The following valuable statistics were kindly furnished by Col. Wm. 
M. Bolles, of Portsmouth : 

Amount of charcoal pig-iron made by 38 furnaces during the year 1869, 

about 90,000 tons. 

Amount of iron made with bituminous coal 16,000 " 

Total , 106,000 " 


Amount of native ore used, about 260,000 tons. 

Missouri and Lake Superior ores 15,000 " 

Total 275,000 " 

Amount of limestone used, about , 15,000 " 

Number of bushels bituminous coal used in smelting ores for pig-iron 1,400,000 

There are extensive rolling mills in the Second Geological District, at 
Portsmouth, Ironton, Pomeroy, Marietta, Columbus, Zanesville and 
Newark, but no statistics relative to them have been received. 

It is hoped that the work on the Second District will, during the 
coming season, extend to the great iron belt extending from the Hocking 
to the Ohio, when not only the stratigraphical position of the various 
ores, limestones and coals will be obtained and carefully mapped, but 
also all the ores will be carefully analyzed and studied, with reference to 
their " cold short " and " red short " and other properties, and the possi- 
bilities of combination in various mixtures with each other and with 
foreign ores, to secure desired results. At the same time all accessible 
bituminous coals of probable value will be analyzed to determine their 
fitness for iron making. 

There is a furnace at Zanesville in successful operation, using a mixture 
of foreign ores and native ores chiefly from Perry county. No statistics 
from it have been received. 

A large blast furnace is being erected at Columbus to use the stone 
coal from the Hocking Valley, and foreign ores chiefly, with a small 
admixture of Ohio ores. 


No full statistics could be obtained of the quantity of coal mined in 
the Second Geological District. The total annual production at Pomeroy 
and Syracuse, in Meigs county, is estimated at 9,000,000 bushels. Hon. 
V. B. Horton, of Pomeroy, gives the total production in the immediate 
neighborhood of Pomeroy (including the West Virginia side of the Ohio 
river) at between 11,000,000 and 12,000,000 bushels. In Athens county, 
coal is largely mined at Nelsonville. The leading producers of coal at 
Nelson ville are Messrs. Wm. B. Brooks, L. D. Poston, Ash ford Poston, 
T. Longstreth, James Herrold, Mr. Arnold and the Hocking Valley Coal 
Company, and the Columbus and Hocking Valley Mining Company. The 
production has been rapidly increasing since the completion of the Co- 
lumbus and Hocking Valley Railroad to that point. 

The extensive mines of Peter Hayden, are near Haydenville, Hocking 

Considerable coal is mined at various points on the Marietta and Cin- 


cinnati Eailroad, in Athens and Vinton counties. At Chauncey and Sa- 
lina, coal for the salt works is obtained by shaft from the Nelsonyille seam. 
At Jackson and vicinity, on the Portsmouth branch of the M. & C. B. B., 
eoal is largely mined for the blast furnaces. It is also shipped to a con- 
siderable extent, especially from the mines of the Petrea Coal Company. 
The coal used on the locomotives of the M. & C. R. E. is largely from 
Petrea mines. Coal is also mined largely at Oarbondale, Athens county, 
and at King's Switch and Moonville. 

Coal is mined for shipment, at the Miami Company's mines, on the line 
of the Zanesville and Cincinnati Eailroad, in Muskingum county, and in 
that vicinity. 

At Zanesville, and at various points on the Muskingum river, coal is 
extensively mined, but chiefly for consumption in the local manufacturing 
establishments and for domestic uses. Little is shipped away from the 
immediate valley. 

A considerable quantity of coal is mined at New Castle, near Pine 
Grove Furnace, and brought by a railway to Hanging Eock, Lawrence 
county, and shipped by the Ohio river. Extensive mining is done at the 
Sheridan mines, six miles above lronton, also on the Iron E. E., north of 

On Duck creek and Little Muskingum river, a limited quantity of coal 
is mined for local use, chiefly for the generation of steam at the oil wells. 
Octal is pretty largely mined and shipped in Guernsey county, near Cam- 
bridge, on the Central Ohio Eailroad. 

Of the coal mined in Monroe and Belmont counties, I have obtained 
little definite information. Belmont county has considerable coal. 


Fire clays are often found interstratified with our coal measure rocks, 
and although there has as yet been no time for their special investigation, 
yet it is believed that the district will prove rich in this important source 
of wealth. A seam of fire-clay of great purity and excellence is found 
at the base of the coal measures, in the vicinity of Sciotoville, Scioto 
county, and two extensive fire-brick and tile establishments are in suc- 
cessful operation at that place. The brick has proved to be of first qual- 
ity, and is rapidly superseding the Mount Savage and other foreign brick. 
They are already largely used in our furnaces and rolling-mills. 

In Muskingum and Perry counties, there are extensive potteries, using 
the clay found, in geological position, below the New Lexington or Nel- 
sonville coal. Hon. A. A. Guthrie, Collector of Eevenue of the 13th 


District, reports an annual production of stoneware of 1,800,000 gallons, 
valued at five cents per gallon, or $90,000. There are other pottery 
establishments in the district, but no statistics have been received in regard 
to them. 


The principal salt-bearing rocks in my district are the upper Waverly. 
In railroad cuts, on the Columbus and Hocking Yalley, and on the Mari- 
etta and Cincinnati Railroads, I find, in the dry weather of summer, a 
saline efflorescence on the rocks. Following these efflorescent rocks in 
their dip to the south-east, I find that, so far as the facts are yet gathered, 
the salt wells are bored down to them, and from them obtain their brine. 
Salt was formerly made near the mouth of Munn's run, on the Ohio river, 
between Portsmouth and Sciotoville, from wells bored entirely in the 
Waverly rocks. 

The wells of Messrs. Green and Gould, at Salina, Athens county, strike 
the, brine about 570 feet below the surface. It being 110 feet from the 
surface to the Nelsonville seam of coal, the salt-bearing stratum is 
reached at 460 feet below the coal. This coincides with the theoretical 
position of the saliferoas rocks of the upper Waverly, as indicated by 
the efflorescence seen upon the rocks in the railroad cuts above Logan. 
As we descend the Hocking river the Nelsonville coal dips, and the salif- 
erous strata are found at a correspondingly increased depth. There is 
an abandoned salt well, where salt was formerly made, on Monday creek, 
Salt Lick township, Perry county, but the depth of the well was not 

At Pomeroy, on the Ohio river, the principal sources of brine are found 
about 1,000 feet below the surface. Here the brine doubtless comes from 
the top of the Waverly. 

On the Muskingum river there are many salt wells. They increase in 
depth with the south-eastern dip of the rocks. 

On Duck creek, in Noble county, salt wells are found affording abund- 
ant brine, and some salt is made, to supply the local demand. Some of 
the abandoned oil wells yield a constant outflow of brine. Coal is 

East of Cambridge, in Guernsey county, salt is made from brine ob- 
tained about 800 feet below the surface. These wells are in immediate 
proximity to a valuable seam of coal from five to six feet thick. 

The wells bored for oil within the last few years have disclosed valuable 
brines in a large number of the counties in my district. Nor is the 
brine limited to one group of rocks in the geological series, but we find 


brine at different geological horizons, from the upper coal measures down 
to the great Devonian Black Slate. The brines of the district will 
hereafter be made a subject of special investigation, both in their geolog- 
ical relations and in their chemical constituents. The quantity of salt 
which can be made in south-eastern Ohio can hardly be computed. We 
can supply the Eepublic with salt. 

The production of salt in the Muskingum valley, from estimates ob- 
tained from Hon. A. A. Guthrie, Collector of Eevenue in the 13th Dis- 
trict, is from 45,000 to 50,000 barrels per annum. This is all made on 
the Muskingum river, in Muskingum and Morgan counties. 

The production of salt in Athens county, as given by Hon. Jos. L. 
Kessinger, Collector of Eevenue for the 15th District, for the year 1869, 
is 36,348 barrels. This product is made up as follows : 


M. M. Greene <fc Co. (two furnaces) 10,528 

Hocking Valley Coal and Salt Co. (two furnaces) 13,000 

James Herrold (two furnaces) 8,000 

PrudenBros. " 4,820 

In Meigs county (as given by Mr. Kessinger) the total production for 
1869, from nine furnaces, is 1,866,690 bushels of 50 lbs. each. 

The total production for 1869 from the Pomeroy neighborhood, includ- 
ing what is made on the West Virginia bank of the Ohio river, is esti- 
mated by Hon. V. B. Horton at about 3,750,000 bushels. 

The quantity made in Noble and Guernsey counties has not been defin- 
itely obtained, but it is relatively small. 

The three essential elements for profitable salt-making are, abundant 
brine of adequate strength, cheap fuel, and cheap transportation. All 
these elements are found in combination at a large number of points in 
the Second Geological District. 


Gold has been taken from the drift at several points in Licking county. 
In the summer of 1868, gold dust of the value of $17.00 was washed out 
of fine drift material, in a little gully well up the hillside, on the fa.rm of 
Daniel Drum, Bowling Green township, Licking county, not far from a 
mile north of the National Eoad, at Brownsville. The largest grains were 
reported to be the size of a whea,t grain. The above facts were reported 
by Wm. Anderson, who himself washed out a small part of the gold. 

I have no reason to doubt the above statements, as I have myself ob- 
tained gold at other points in Licking county. It should be noted, in 
connection with the gold field near Brownsville, that there are very high 


lands to the north-east, north, and north-west directions, from which the 
gold-bearing sands would naturally be brought, if brought by glacial 
action. The very high range of Flint Eidge, sweeps around the location 
on the northern side, over which the drift gravel must have been forced, 
if the gravel had been distributed by glaciers. On the top of Flint Eidge, 
one or two bowlders were seen, but they are very rare. These bowlders 
I had supposed to be dropped by floating ice, since no other drift material 
was found upon the top, or clinging to the slopes, of the ridge. At other 
places in the valley of the Moxahala, are found drift gravel and small 
bowlders, the locations of which are seemingly inexplicable, by the glacial 

Near Newark, and north of the high grounds which divide the waters 
of the Licking river from those of the Moxahala arid its tributaries, are 
other and larger deposits of gold-bearing sands. The place examined by 
me was one and a half miles south-east of Newark. Here is a range of 
drift terraces, about 50 feet above the bed of the Licking river. These 
terraces are cut through by small streams from the hills, to the south, 
and in the narrow ravines the gold is obtained, from the sands and clays. 
The terraces contain also bowlders of grantoid rocks, quartzite, and 
small pebbles, of white quartz. Bowlders, of limestone, containing fossils 
of the Niagara and Clinton groups, were also found in the terraces. The 
quantity Of gold is small, but, in my own experiments, nearly every pan- 
ful of dirt showed the " color." Mr. Jacob Schock, jeweler, of Newark, 
reports finding gold in small fragments of quartz. 


The map is intended to show the stratigraphical position and range of 
the lower strata of, the coal measures, extending from the north line of 
the 2d District to the neigborhood of Nelsonville, on the Hocking river. 
The distance is about 40 miles. 

The map is divided by horizontal lines into spaces, which represents 
10 feet, in vertical distance. The rocks in the hills are presented very 
much as a hay-stack would be, if cut through vertically by a hay-knife. 
As the rocks dip to the east and south-east, by going in those directions 
one is able to obtain the higher strata, and by measuring all the rocks, 
we are enabled to place them in order, in the vertical series. By bring- 
ing the many sections thus obtained, together in a systematic grouping, 
we obtain the map herewith presented. 

It is believed that this new plan of grouping sections, thus presenting 
at a glance the features of our geology, will be approved. The observer 
can see, from such maps, what strata are persistent and wide-spread, and 


what are merely local. He can go back in thought to the time of the 
deposition of the layers, and see where the stronger currents swept, car- 
rying and distributing coarse sands and gravels, which now form sand 
rocks, and also where comparatively quiet waters deposited the finer sedi- 
ments, which now constitute our clays and shales. He can almost see 
the ancient vegetation of the coal-measures, now growing in small insular 
patches, and now covering with its luxuriant growth vast savannahs, 
which stretched for miles and miles along the coast of an ancient ocean. 
He can see at what times the waters gave up, doubtless, oftentimes to 
the demands of organic life, its lime, and flint, and iron. 

For practical use, such a map is invaluable. For example, the intelli- 
gent farmer, if he finds upon his farm the so-called Putnam Hill lime- 
stone, knows that in his hills, about 80 feet higher, is the place for the 
Nelsonville or Straitsville seam of coal. In a similar way he obtains the 
position of other coals, and ores, &c, &c. If such maps can be constructed 
for my whole district, as they doubtless will be, there could be no 
greater or more useful contribution to our economic geology. They will 
be worth a thousand-fold the cost of the very great labor expended in 
their preparation. 


On the left side of the map are two independent sections, one a section 
of the Waverly rocks, from the top of the great Ohio Black Slate to the 
coal measures, taken on the Ohio river; and the other a section, taken 
in the Hocking valley, from the middle Waverly up to the horizon of the 
Maxville limestone, now ascertained to be a true lower carboniferous 
limestone of the age of the Chester group, of Illinois- In this section, 
directly under the Maxville limestone, and above the Waverly conglom- 
erates, is seen the place of the Logan sandstone group, every where rich 
in upper Waverly fossils. 

Sii/i/kisn I 

KiUeious Roek. 


MAI' Ofc. 




Alliens, Hocking, Perry, Licking 8l Muskingum Counties, 


r~ 1MU)F.E.R.AX])RF/\VS zr. 






net Seen . 


Yr/fim • 


/kit State 


S'tefen/e Orr 

/h/tr/ft/Mrr/, H Blueish 6 'hales. 
■ ff"; foal plant*. 

/«*/■»«/«■ '''gHp-.t/trrvifit/t 

'l/irfr//i/,/,v/,-<s " 

No. 26 

S'ttierUe Ore. 


No. 853. 

fr/'w/tr/ //.',, K 


No 23 



No. SO. 

r*~ or, 

\ No] 


! iMftre-fortf. 




mm tnt to tfir-S 'time 

tuAjfa/if: Ftsdtiletvus. 

/X ^//Em>rii: fositifavii.y 
rt "/ SaJiatstone fossilifrrotts: 

■ff/ Fin Clay. 


wrr/r » y j H,,i/r/ A'i*. 


''r /.//ne.ifo/te. 

Stair //.t/i/n/i Suad Stone fJ 



The horizontal lines indicate spaces 10 feet apart. 


1. Sec. near Nelsonville, on old Marietta road, on hill between the Hooking Eiver and 

Monday creek, Athens county. 

2. Sec. in hill back of old Hocking furnace, Haydenville, Hocking county. 

3. Sec. John Tannahill's, Sec. 28, Green township, Hocking county. 

4. Sec. of coal, Nelsonville seam, hill back of Nelsonville, Athens county. 

5. Sec. (composition) near Nelsonville, York township, Athens county. 

This includes a section of W. B. Brooks' coal. 

6 See. Peter Hayden's coal, Green township, Hocking county. 

7 See. James Hawkins, Snow Fork, Sec. 3, Ward township, Hocking county. 

8 Sec. Bayliss Glenn's, Sec. 6, Ward township, Hocking county, partly on Snow Fork 

and partly on Bear run. 
9. Sec. Position of coal blossom, James Hawkins, Snow Fork, Sec. 3, Ward township, 
Hocking county. 

10. Sec. showing position of fire-clay and ore, near Logan, as given by S. Baird, Esq. 

11. Sec. Samuel Thompson's, Monday Creek township, Perry county, near Maxville. 

12. Sec. Maxville Limestone, David Hardy's, Maxville, Perry county. Showing the 

position of limestone over Logan Sandstone group (Waverly.) 

13. Sec. Maxville, Monday Creek township, Perry county. Showing strata above the 


14. Sec. (composition) near John Fluhart's mill, Green township, Hoeking county. 

15. Sec. Horace Hazelton's, Salt Lick township, Perry county. 

16. Sec. John La Eue's, Salt Lick township, Perry county. 

17. Sec. on Mr. Harbaugh's land, on Monday Creek, 3 m. north Straitsville, Perry county. 

18. Sec. (composition). Henry Hazelton's, on Monday Creek, Salt Lick township, Perry 


19. Sec. Thomas Barnes,' Lost run, Salt Lick township, Perry county. 

20. Sec. Thomas McGinness,' Straitsville, Perry county, 

21. Sec. L. D. McDonald's Alderman farm, W. Br. Sunday Creek, Sec. 13, Salt Lick 

township, Perry county. 

22. Sec. (composition). Benjamin Saunders,' W. Br. Sunday Creek, Monroe township, 

Perry county. 

23. Sec. Gaver's Mill, Coaldale P. O., Salt Lick township, Perry county. 

24. Sec. William Bennett's, Sunday Creek, Pleasant township, Perry county. 
25a. Sec. Joshua Sands,' Sunday Creek, Pleasant township, Perry county. 
256. Sec. on Sunday Creek, Perry county. 

26. Sec. John Clark's, near Bristol, Pike township, Perry county. 

27. Sec. Eli Bell's, Sec. 34, Jackson township, Perry county. 

28. Sec. James Fowler's, Pleasant township, Perry county. 

29. Sec. Levi Barick's, near Bristol, Pike township, Perry county. 


30. Sec. near Cusao's mill, Jonathan Creek, Newton township, Muskingum county. 

31. Sec. G. W. Rankin's, Newton township, MuBkingum county. 

32. Sec. at Newtonville, Newton township, Muskingum county. 

33. Sec. John Lyle's, Newton, township, Muskingum county. 

34. Sec. Henry Jone's McLuney Station, Harrison township, Perry county. 

35. Sec. by Dr. Hildreth in old Geol. Report, on land of Joseph Baird, Sec. 11, Hopewell 

township, Licking county. 

36. Sec. i mile from Miami Company's mines, Newton township, Muskingum county. 

37. Sec. Edward Danison's, Sec. 16, Madison township, Perry township. 

38. General section, Eoseville, Clay township, Muskingum county. 

39. Sec. at Roseville, Clay township, Muskingum county. 

40. Sec. John Roberts' Newton township, Muskingum county. 

41. [Withdrawn.] 

42. Sec. Joseph Rambeau's, Sec. 14, Newton township, Muskingum county, near Perry 

county line. 

43. Sec. Miami Company's mines, Newton township, Muskingum county. 

44. Sec. Tunnel Hill, 3 miles east of New Lexington, Perry county. 

45. Sec. W. H. Wheeler's, Sec. 14, Clay township, Muskingum county. 

46. Sec. Joseph Porter's, 100 acre lot, No. 16, Hopewell township Muskingum county. 

47. Sec. Bradford & Pollock's mine, Flint Ridge, Hopewell township, Licking county. 

48. Sec. (composition) near McLuney 's Station, Harrison township, Perry county. 


BY edwaed oeton, 


Prof. J. 8. Newberry, Chief Geohgist : 

Sir : — As Assistant in the Geological Survey of Ohio, I beg leave to make the follow- 
ing report : 

My work during 1869 was confined to the Third Geological District of the State, "\ viz., 
South-western Ohio, having for its boundaries the Scioto River and the National Road. 

The intructions that I received from you, bearing date May 7th, 1869, required me to 
undertake for my first duty, " to trace the line of junction of the Blue Limestone and 
Cliff Formations — that is, to mark out the Blue Limestone area, and, at the same time, 
to collect materials for resolving the Cliff into its component elements." 

This work I entered upon June 1st, 1869, and continued to be engaged in it, without 
interruptioa, until November 20fch, 1863. 

The report which I herewith transmit treats of the Geological formations that are 
found along this important line of junction, together with their various economical pro- 
ducts and and their agricultural relations. 

I take great pleasure in ackowledging that I have derived very valuable assistance in 
my work from the Geological Report of Dr. John Locke, of the former Survey, upon this 
same portion of the State. 

I desire also to acknowledge the very competent and faithful services of Mr. Henry 
Newton and Mr. H. A. Whiting, volunteer assistants in my district. I am also indebted 
to Mr; T. J. Browne for important aid in mapping the isolated areas of the Cliff Lime- 
stone, in the southern part of Greene county. 

I have the honor to remain. 

With great respect, 

Very truly yours, 

Yellow Springs, Ohio, 

March 9th, 1870. 


The following named counties of South-western Ohio, viz., Preble^ 
"Warren, Montgomery, Miami, Clinton, Greene and Clarke, are composed 
of the same geological formations, and indicate substantially the same 
geological history. A report upon the geology of any one of the series 
would, in its general statements, apply to all the rest 

To exhibit the geological features of this portion of the State, and to> 
trace in general terms its history, the county of Montgomery is selected* 
for the following reasons: It occupies a central position in the series £ 
|he various formations are shown within it in very numerous exposure^, 
and with very great distinctness ; and its quarries are more widely cele- 
brated than any others in South-western Ohio, for the excellence and 
value of their products. 

Three geological formations are represented in the surface rocks of 
Montgomery county, viz., the Blue Limestone, the Clinton and the Ni- 
agara formations, enumerated in ascending order. Over them all are 
spread, in beds of varying thickness, the deposits of the Drift period, 
which/ include the superficial clays, sands, gravels and boulders. 

By reference to the tabular statement of the rocks of the State, which is 
given in the report of the Chief Geologist, it will be seen that all the for- 
mations which have been mentioned, as constituting the surface rocks of 
Montgomery county, are embraced in the Palaeozoic era — the Blue Lime- 
stone belonging to the Hudson Biver period, of the Lower Silurian agej, 
while the Clinton and Magara rocks represent epochs of the Niagara 
period, which is found in the upper division of the Silurian age. The beds 
of Drift, to which reference has been made, belong to the Human era. 

A few statements in regard to the topography of the county are also 
necessary, inasmuch as its topographical ieatures are incimately coa- 
nected with its geological formations. A geological map of the county 
is at the same time, to a good degree, a topographical map. 

The bed of the Great Miami river at the southern boundary of th« 
county, may be assumed to the be lowest point within the county limits. 
This point can not vary far from 250 feet above low water mark at the 
10 — Geological. 


Ohio river at Cincinnati. The highest land of the county is about 350 
feet above the bed of the river at the point named, or about 600 feet 
above low water mark at Cincinnati, which makes its elevation some- 
what more than 1,000 feet above tide water. 

As all the strata that are met with in the county are in the main undis- 
turbed, or very nearly horizontal, it is evident that the different levels of 
the county will be marked by different rock formations, or by differ- 
ent beds of the same formation. It is found accordingly that the Blue 
Limestone occupies all those portions of the county which are not more 
than 450 to 475 feet above low water mark at Cincinnati, While the Clin- 
ton and Niagara formations are confined to those limited areas which are 
more than 450 to 475 feet above this level, or in other words, to the hill- 
tops and highest table lands of the county. In many instances, however, 
these formations are themselves overlain with heavy beds of drift. Of 
the 350 feet extreme elevation above mentioned, it will thus be seen that 
the Blue Limestone series fills 225 feet, while the remaining 125 feet is 
divided among the Clinton, Niagara and Drift, in the following order : 
The Clinton holds an average of 20 feet, its thickness diminishing from 
30 feet in the uorthern portions of the county to 9 feet in the southern- 
most. The Niagara formation of the county has a maximum thickness 
of 50 feet, which however, it rarely attains, and it is sometimes found in 
beds the aggregate of which is not more than 5 feet. A vertical section 
in the vicinity of Centerville, Washington township, from the surface of 
the ground to the level of the river, would give approximately the fol- 
lowing results : Drift, 15 feet ; Niagara, 40 feet ; Clinton, 20 feet; Blue 
Limestone, 225 feet. Total, 300 feet. (See section No. 1, p. 169.) 

A section at Webber and Lehman's quarry, east of Dayton 2 miles, 
gives 8 to 20 feet of Drift sands or clays, 10 feet Niagara, 20 feet Clinton, 
and 150 feet Blue Limestone. Total 200 feet. (See section No. 2, p. 170.) 

A section at the Soldiers' Home, 2 miles west of Dayton, gives-^-Drift, 
10 feet; Clinton, 10 feet; Blue Limestone, 160 feet. Total, 180 feet. 
(See section No. 3, p. 171.) 

The last two sections are drawn to the level of the river at Dayton. 

The Clinton and Niagara groups are frequently united in popular lan- 
gauge under a common designation, viz: "Cliff Limestone." In the ac- 
companying map, the areas occupied by the Blue Limestone and Cliff for- 
mations respectively are indicated, the latter being designated by the light 
colored portion of the map, while the blue areas are to be referred to the 
former. By an examination of this map it will be seen that about thrtee- 
fburths of the surface of the county are occupied by the Blue Limestones, 
the remainder being taken up by the Clinton group, which is itself very 
frequently covered by the Niagara. 


We will now proceed to a somewhat more detailed account of these 
formations : 

I. The Bine Limestone formation is confined in its outcrops to South- 
western Ohio, and to the adjacent portions of Indiana, Kentucky and Ten- 
nessee, where it attains a thickness of certainly more than 500 feet. It 
is the geological equivalent of the shales and sandstones that are known 
as the Hudson River Group in the State of New York. Its name indi- 
cates the color and the composition of the rocks that belong to it. The 
Blue Limestone proper, however, is interstratified with beds of a blue cal- 
careous clay or marl, that constitute, in many localities, the largerportion 
of the system. The solid rock occurs in even layers that sometimes 
reach a thickness of 10 or 12 inches, but which generally vary from 3 to 
6 inches in thickness. Both limestone and marl abound in admirably 
preserved relics of the living forms that inhabited the ancient seas in 
which these beds were formed. These fossils belong exclusively to the 
lower divisions of the animal and vegetable kingdoms. No remains of 
any vertebrated animal, and no traces of land vegetation, have ever yet 
been discovered in the strata of this group. Sea-weeds and sponges, 
beautiful star-fishes and stone lillies at exquisite construction, corals in 
great variety and in infinite number, molluscan shells of all the great 
classes, so crowded as frequently to constitute the entire substance of 
the rock, and many species of trilobites, articulated animals of an order 
long since extinct, are found in all portions o f the bedded rock and in its 
weathered exposures. The general character of these fossils would indi- 
cate that the beds were formed at the bottoms of deep seas, and no mark 
of shore lines or other indications of shallow water ever occur to contra- 
dict this inference. 

This formation is undoubtedly coextensive with the limits of the coun- 
ty, for it is disclosed in ever portion where the channels of the streams 
have been worn deep enough to reach its proper horizon; and indeed in 
the valleys of the Great Miami and the Stillwater, it passes northward 
beyond the county boundary a score of miles. We are warranted, then, 
in concluding that the whole surface of the county was originally covered 
with unbroken horizontal beds of the Blue Limestone series, up to a level 
Somewhat more than 450 feet above low water mark at Cincinnati, the 
level which the upper beds of the formation now hold in all portions of 
the county in which they occur. 

The uppermost layers of the series-— from 6 to 20 feet— generally devi- 
ate in mineral character from the beds already described, in that they 
consist, for the most part, of red and yellow clays, though occasionally of 
a yellowish, arenaceous limestone, which is sometimes turned to account 


as a firestone or as a building rock. It is probable that this portion of 
the series will be hereafter identified as the representative of a distinct 
group of rocks, viz : the Medina Sandstone of the New York survey. 

II. Clinton. 

The Ginton formation is next met with as we ascend in the scale, and 
is as definitely characterized as the preceding group. It agrees, in strati- 
graphical position and in its fossil contents, with the formation of the 
same name in New York. In general terms, it can be described as a 
crinoidal limestone, of about 20 feet in thickness; the upper layers of 
which usually break with a crystalline fracture, and the lower beds of 
which have a distinctly sandy character. The recognition of this latter 
fact has given the local name of sandstone to the whole formation. The 
beds above mentioned fully deserve the name, if only it be remembered 
that they are composed of lime sand, and not silica sand, a substance 
which is almost wholly wanting in the Clinton rocks of this portion of 
the State. In color these' rocks have no uniformity, varying not only in 
different localities, but often, in closely adjacent beds, passing from a 
marble-like whiteness through various shades of gray, pink, yellow and 
red. The weathered surfaces have very generally a yellowish, rusty ap- 
pearance, due to the oxydation of the iron that the rocks contain. The 
crystalline beds take a good polish, constituting a marble of attractive 
appearance. The Harrisburgh and Ludlow " marbles " are examples of 
this quality of the formation. 

The rate of growth of this rock would seem to have been exceedingly 
slow, as no sediments have contributed to the growth of the strata, but 
they are generally composed, in every particle, of the broken stems and 
cups of crinoids or stone lillies. Sometimes, however, there are found asso- 
ciated with these fragments, representatives of the other groups of animals 
that were named in the Blue Limestone series. Two or more species of 
chain-corals are quite characteristic fossils of the upper beds. 

The Clinton group is known within the county by several local names, 
in additfon to that of "sandstone," already mentioned ; such as "Fire- 
stone," — " Fire-proof stone,"— " Eotten Limestone," — " Bastard Limestone." 
Among the quarry men it is sometimes called '< Pink-eye." 

-Between the Clinton group and the Magara, which immediately over- 
lies it, there is uniformly interposed a layer of very fine grained marl, 
from 2 to 6 inches in thickness, which is to be included with the former 
group. This marl abounds in the free, perforated, disc-like joints of cri- 
noidal stems of very large species, and certain shells occur here that have 
not been found elsewhere in the series. As a general rule the Clinton 


rock is not even-bedded, but where raised in the quarries, comes out in 
irregular masses. 

III. Niagara. 

The Niagara formation has no such unifority of character as the 
groups already described. It consists in all cases of even-bedded lime- 
stones and marls, it is true, but the linistones have very different degrees 
of purity, while in hardness, compactness, color, and the presence or ab- 
sence of fossil contents, they have a very wide range. The celebrated 
Dayton stone — '' Dayton marble " it is sometimes styled — may be assumed 
as the standard of excellence in this series ; but different localities exhibit 
every degree of gradation, from the admirable qualities of this stone in 
compactness, durability and color, to the worthless " yellow back " of the 
quarrymen, or to the unconsolidated clays that are frequently found as 
its equivalent. In Montgomery county, the lower layers of the Niagara 
rocks are always the firmest and most valuable, the 5 to 10 feet immedi- 
ately overlying the Clinton, constituting in almost every case the sources 
from which the Dayton stone is derived. The varying thickness of the 
formation in different localities has already been noted, the limits having 
been given as from 5 to 50 feet. From the fact that so great variety in 
composition is found in these rocks, we are warranted in concluding that 
the Niagara strata were not originally of uniform thickness, as the beds 
of the previous groups seem to have been. It may be that the higher 
degrees of excellence in the stone were connected with a slower rate of 
growth. It is at all events true, that the most valuable deposits of this 
series in the county, are, in every case, shallow. 

The lower beds contain but very few fossils, some circular corals, and 
very rarely a bivalve or chambered shell making out the list, while in 
higher portions of the group, the strata are frequently crowded with fos- 
sils, which differ almost entirely in species from those that are found in 
the lower groups. One peculiarity of these fossils is that they occur 
almost always as internal casts, the outer shell or investment having 
been dissolved and carried away during the past conditions of the rock. 
One of the most noticeable of all these forms of ancient life is the large, 
bivalve shell — Pentamerus oblongus — known sometimes as the "deer-foot" 
shell, and quite frequently identified as a petrified hickory -nut. The sec- 
tions of a large chambered shell, of the genus Orthoeeras, are also fre- 
quently met with, and are sometimes mistaken by the ignorant for the 
back-bones of fishes or serpents. 

The area occupied by the Niagara rocks is not probably more than one- 
half of that which the Clinton covers. There seems, however, no reason 


to doubt that both of these members of the Cliff formation, were once ex- 
tended over the whole surface of the county, as their present distribution 
can be satisfactorily explained by reference to erosive agencies that are 
known to have been at work upon them — agencies, some of which are 
still continuing their destructive tasks. By referring to the map on page 
168, it will be seen that the Clinton and Niagara, in the eastern portions 
of the county, occur altogether in insulated masses or islands, on the 
ridge between the two Miamis, and all the water-courses that flow from 
these high grounds, have already worn their channels deep into these 
rooks, not unfrequently completely through them, into the underlying 
Blue Limestone series. There is, however, a manifest shallowing of the 
Cliff rocks as we go southward, the Clinton diminishing to 9 feet near the 
southern line of the county, apparently indicating that the Blue Lime- 
stone regions southward were, even at this early time, raised above the 
surface of the seas, or, in other words, that they were never covered by 
the limestones of the succeeding Cliff formation., 

IV. Drift. 

All of the formations above named are covered through almost their 
entire extent with the deposits of the Drift Period — miles, in some in- 
stances, intervening between the exposures of the rocky beds. These 
deposits vary very much in thickness, in the materials of which they are 
composed, and in the order in which their materials are arranged. No 
two sections of Drift-beds can be found that will agree in every particu. 

Before describing the leading characteristics of these beds, it will be 
proper to call attention to an interesting fact that must be referred to 
the same agencies by which the Drift itself is explained. Considerable 
portions of the rocky surface of the county have been planed, polished, 
striated and grooved by heavy masess of ice — inclosing sand, gravel and 
boulders — moving over them. These phenomena can be best observed in 
the firmer beds of the Niagara limestone, occupying as they do the high- 
est table-lands of the county, but they are by no means confined to them. 
The great belt of quarries south-east of Dayton, furnish fine exhibitions 
of this agency. Indeed these naturally planed surfaces are frequently 
turned to account for door-steps, flagging-stones and other similar uses. 
It is altogether probable that the whole surface of the county has been 
exposed to the abrading agencies of the glacial sheet, as we find the 
marks of these agencies at every point where the rocks are firm enough 
to retain them. The unconsolidated beds of the Niagara rocks have 
been in large measure removed by the same force that has planed the 


harder surfaces, as is evident from au inspection of those higher portions 
of the system that still remain. 

This polished surface of the Niagara rock is generally covered with 
yellow clays intermingled with gravel and boulders. Sometimes heavy 
granitic blocks have been left in the clay in almost immediate ,contac» 
with the bedded rock — their own surfaces having been planed and scored 
by the service to which they have been put. We see in them the imple- 
ments of abrasion — the graving-tools— left where the work was done. 
The thickness of these clay deposits varies from 1 foot to 30 fee^, and the 
upper portions are almost always freer from gravel than the lower por- 
tions. Occasionally a limited deposit of blue clay is found on the surface 
of the rocks, but for the most part these beds of blue clay when they 
occur, are found overlying yellow clays or beds of gravel, in pockets of 
small extent. Fragments of drifted coniferous wood are sometimes 
found buried deep in these deposits. 

Next in importance to the yellow clays, are the beds of sand and gravel 
of which the Drift-beds are largely composed. They sometimes overlie 
the clays — are sometimes interstratified with them, and sometimes they 
repose directly upon the surface of the rocks. The gravel contains repre- 
sentatives of all the formations that are found to the northward withra 
the limits of the State, viz: Blue limestone, Clinton, .Niagara, Water 
Lime, Corniferous and Black Slates, and a considerable part of it is de- 
rived from the metamorphic rocks of the Lake Superior region and from 
the Canadian highlands. To the same source must be referred the sand, 
as no silicious formation of any considerable extent occurs between 
these deposits and the line of the great lakes. The sand and gravel have 
a thickness of at least 100 feet in many instances. The deposits are 
always distinctly stratified, and exhibit many alternations of fine and 
cparse materials that betoken considerable changes in the conditions of 
their formation. They often show— especially in the beds that occupy 
the lower levels of the county — beach-structure or marks of the action of 
water that could only be impressed upon them while they lay at or neap 
the surface. 

The sand and gravel are sometimes cemented into massive blocks bjr 
the deposition of carbonate of lime from the spring-water that flows 
over and through them. Eecourse was formerly had to these conglom- 
erates for building-stone, but ifc was found that they were worthless for 
sueh purposes, as they cannot withstand the action of frost. 

The lost rocks— boulders, hard-heads, gray-heads as they are frequent^ 
designated — constitute too important a feature of the geology of th#! 
county to be omitted in this review. They are irregularly distribu$e*li, 


over the face of the country, sometimes thickly sown in belts of sev - 
eral miles iu length and breadth, with tolerably definite boundaries, and 
sometimes scattered singly at wide intervals. They occur through the 
whole range of the Drift-beds, but are far more abundant in the upper- 
most portions than in any other. As in the case of the gravel, they are 
all of northern origin, and by far the largest number have been brought 
from beyond the great lakes. These boulders weigh not less than 160 
pounds to the cubic foot, and the total weight of single blocks sometimes 
exceeds 10 tons. 

The economical values and the agricultural relations of the different 
formations, will be treated separately. The various products that fall 
ander the head of economical values will be taken up in the following 

1. Building-Bock. 

2. Brick, Draining-Tfle and Pottery. 

3. Firestone. 

4. Lime. 

5. Mineral Paint. 

6. Gravel. 

1. Building Rock. 

Each of the formations above enumerated furnishes products in abund- 
ance for this important use. 

The Blue Limestcn^ affords, in numberless exposures, a building stone 
that is accessible, easily quarried, even-bedded, of convenient thickness 
and very durable. It possesses, however, but little susceptibility of or- 
namentation. The thinness of its beds, its hardness and brittleness, 
stand in the way of its improvement by dressing, and its color is too 
dark to please the eye when it is exposed in large surfaces of masonry. 

The Clinton rock, in all of its beds, but especially in its upper ones, 
affords a building stone that would be highly valued were it not for the 
dose proximity, in most instances, of the quarries of the Niagara group. 
A similar statement can be made in regard to the products of the Blue 
limestone quarries of the county. 

When the Clinton stone is first raised from the quarry, it is frequently 
so soft as to be easily worked ; but when the water has escaped from it, 
it becomes a measurably firm and enduring stone. Some of its beds, in- 
deed, are crystalline or semi-crystalline in structure, and leave nothing 
J« be desired as far as durability is concerned. As already remarked, 
•tke Clinton group exhibits a great variety of colors, and some of these 
Shades are very pleasing to the eye — a fact which makes this stone sus- 
«3ptible of fine architectural effects, as can be seen to good advantage in 


the Porter's Lodge at the Soldiers' Home, west of Dayton. This build- 
ing is constructed of Clinton rock that was quarried upon the grounds. 
The greatest objection to this series is, that it is not generally even- 
bedded. The lower strata are very seldom so. 

The Niagara group furnishes, however, the best building stone, not 
only of Montgomery county, but of the whole Miami valley as well. In- 
deed, for manj purposes it is inferior to none. Occurring, as it does, in 
even bedded layers of from four to twenty inches in thickness, it is 
adapted to the purposes of both light and heavy masonry. It is homo- 
geneous in structure, has a beautiful color, takes ornamentation quite 
kindly, and is durable to any required degree. The value that is at- 
tached to it can be judged from the fact that, in some of the quarries 
nearest to Dayton, the stone sells in the ground at $17.50 per rod, or 
$2,800 per acre — the title to the land not being alienated. In these 
quarries there is less than five feet of workable stone, and this can only 
be reached by removing from five to twenty feet of Drift clays and 
sands. Five firms in and about Dayton are engaged in quarrying the 
stone, and the aggregate of their operations is very large. The firm of 
"Webber & Lehman handled more than 9,000 perches during 1869. The 
same firm is largely engaged in sawing and dressing the stone, and with 
admirable results. 

The supply of the rock, even in this, its best estate, is inexhaustible; 
but the expense of transportation shuts out. at present from the general 
market all the quarries that are more than three or four miles distant 
from Dayton. The quarries that lie outside of these limits, however, are 
invaluable for neigborhood supplies. 

The quality of the stone, when perfect in every other respect, is some- 
times injured by the occurrence of crystals of iron pyrites, which weather 
into brownish stains when exposed to the air, and disfigure the surface. 

In addition to the kind of rock already named, there is in the county a 
large supply of Magara rock that falls short of the typical excellence in 
hardness and color, but which still constitutes a very serviceable and 
valuable deposit. These beds of inferior quality are sometimes the precise 
stratigraphical equivalents of the true Dayton stone, as in the quarries of 
Hon. Peter Odlin on the Stillwater pike ; that is, they immediately over- 
lie the Clinton formation, but generally they occur at a, higher level in 
the series. The differences in color and hardness alluded to, seem con- 
nected with differences in chemical composition — the Dayton stone being 
a nearly pure carbonate of lime, while the inferior grades are composed 
of the carbonates of lime and magnesia. The color of these last-named 
beds is not constant, various shades of drab and yellow alterating with 


shades of blue, sometimes even in the same layer of rock. In durabil- 
ity they seem in no way inferior to the standard Dayton stone. 

The boulders of the Drift are also available for building purposes. 
They form, in some parts of the county, the main supply for foundations, 
and when treated with skill give excellent results. 

2. Brick, Draining-tile and Pottery Clays. 

There is scarcely a section in the county, outside of the alluvial bottom 
lands, that does not furnish, in its Drift beds, material from which 
bricks can be manufactured, but the yellow clays that cover the higher 
table lands (the Niagara rocks) are decidedly to be preferred for this 
purpose. In many instances the clay that is removed from a building 
site can be converted into bricks of the best quality, with which the 
walls of the dwelling can be constructed. 

Beds of blue clay are also abundant, generally at lower levels of the 
county, from which draining-tile and pottery can be made. For these 
purposes the blue and yellow clays are generally mixed, the blue clay 
imparting the necessary strength, and the yellow counteracting the tend- 
ency of the former to shrink and crack in the process of baking. 

The importance of drain-tile in agriculture begins to be understood. 
Hundred of thousands of tiles are now manufactured annually, with a 
steadily increasing demand. 

A third variety of clay is" found within the county, in quite limited 
deposits compared with the preceding. It, also, is called blue clay, 
but it differs from the ordinary blue clay in containing no iron. It is con- 
verted by burning into a cream-colored brick of the same general charac- 
ters as the the Milwaukee brick. It is generally very fine-grained, and 
has been quite largely used as mineral paint. In composition, it consists 
of little besides alumina, silica and lime. 

There is no doubt that these deposits will be regarded with increasing 
interest as their advantages for architectural purposes come to be recog- 

The heaviest accumulation of this clay now known in Southern Ohio? 
occurs near Springfield, Clarke county, and it has already been turned 
to good account in the manufacture of " Milwaukee " brick. 

3. Firestone. 

A stone that can endure the action of heat admits of many useful ap- 
plications. Two of the bedded rocks of the county have considerable 
local reputation as firestones, viz : the sandy limestones that make the 
uppermost beds of the Blue Limestone series and the Clinton Group. This 


latter rock certainly answers a tolerable purpose for chimney jambs and 
kindred uses. It is not easy to see what there is in its composition that 
enables it to resist unchanged the agency of fire, as the analyses appended 
to the following section show it to be a true limestone of a good degree 
of purity. Experience, however, abundantly demonstrates its value in 
this regard. Chimney-jambs can be shown that have stood for 50 years 
in service. Farmers are willing to transport it for miles to lay up the 
arches of their sugar-camps. It must be added that the different beds 
of the series have very different qualities in this respect, the middle and 
lower layers furnishing the best firestone, and there is no doubt that the 
quality in its highest exhibition is local. 

4. Limb. 

As lime is the great cement employed alike in nature and by human 
art, the sources of its supply are of more economical value to any com- 
munity than are the supplies of building-stone and brick-clay even. All 
the bedded rocks of the Miami Valley, and portions of the Drift as well, 
furnish materials from which excellent lime can be made. It is needful, 
however, to remark that the terms limestone and lime do not convey any 
precise information as to the chemical composition of the substances to 
which they are applied. Limestones always contain: carbonate of lime, 
it is true ; but besides this, they generally contain various compounds ' 
and various proportions of magnesia, alumina (clay), silica (sand) and 
iron. The limestones of this region that can be burned into valuable 
lime, may be divided into two classes, according to their chemical com- 

The first group comprises those rocks that consist mainly of carbonate 
of lime, or that contain at least 85 per cent, of this substance. 

The second group is made up of the dolomites or magnesian limestones, 
which have at least 40 per cent, of carbonate of magnesia in their compo- 
sition. Silica, alumina andiron are found in small and varying propor- 
tions in each division. 

The properties . of these limes . are very different. Those of the first 
class require to be submitted to a higher temperature in "burning 7 ' than 
the second. They slake promptly and thoroughly, and in the operation 
evolve a great degree of heat. From this last fact, they are termed 
" hot " or "fiery " limes. They " set" or harden so soon that but two or 
three bricks can be laid with one spreading of mortar, and walls that are 
made of them have a tendency to " chip-crack." It is quite likely that 
this last named property can be attributed, in some degree, to the silica 
and alumina which they contain. 


The second group contains those limes that are called " cool." They 
do not give out as much heat in slaking as the limes of the first class, 
nor do they " set" as soon. From 5 to 20 bricks can be laid with a single 
spreading of mortar, and in plastering a corresponding advantage can be 

On purely practical grounds, the builders of southwestern Ohio have 
come to recognize the greater desirability of the limes of the last-named 
class, and none others can now find a market in the cities and towns of 
this portion of the State. 

To the first series belong the Blue Limestones, the Clinton Group, and 
the Dayton beds of the Magara Group. 

The limes of the second series are all obtained from the upper, or 
Magara, division of the Cliff limestones, and the kind of rocks from 
which they are derived constitute almost the entire mass of this formation. 
Jt thus appears that the Niagara Group in Ohio is a true magnesian lime- 
stone, as all the members of this same great series through its wide 
western expansion — in Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, Iowa and Minne- 
sota — have uniformly been found to be. The only exception to these state- 
ments as to the composition of the Magara series, is found in some of its 
lowermost beds, where in limited and isolated areas, the Dayton stone 
and its equivalents occurs. This stone has already been referred to the 
true limestones, an analysis of it, made by Dr. Locke in 1835, showing 
that it contains 92 per cent, of carbonate of lime. 

While with this exception the whole Magara series consists of magne- 
sian limestones, it would be wrong to conclude that every portion of this 
series, taken indifferently, can be burned into valuable lime. The quar- 
ries that are worked for lime burning at Cedarville, Yellow Springs, 
Springfield, Moore's quarries below Springfield, Wilson's quarries north 
of Dayton, and a few others less widely known, furnish the most valua- 
ble limes of the Miami valleys, and largely supply the markets of 
Cincinnati, Dayton, Hamilton, Springfield, Xenia and the remaining 
towns and villages of this section. These quarries all lie in the same 
geological horizon, viz : between 50 and 100 feet above the base of the 
Magara rocks. They begin in or above the strata that contain the large 
shell Pentamerus oblongus, and generally include from 10 to 20 feet that 
overlie the Pentamerus beds — a series of thin and irregularly bedded 
strata — valueless for building stone, largely filled with crinoidal frag- 

The strata that underlie the Pentamerus beds consist of blue and drab 
•magnesian limestones whieh cannot be burned into a good article of com- 
mon line, but which there is good reason to believe, possess in greater 


or less degree the properties of hydraulic cement or water lime. A sam- 
ple from the quarries of W. Sroufe, Esq., Yellow Springs, when analyzed, 
was found to agree very closely with a magnesian limestone of France 
that is cited by Vicat as an excellent hydraulic cement. The same rock, 
when treated in laboratory experiments, indicates an eminent degree of 
hydraulic energy. The analyses are appended : 

Ma(jnesian Limestone, Yellow Magnesias Limestone, France. 

Carbonate of lime 50.60 

Carbonate lime i. , 51.10 Carbonate of magnesia 42.00 

Carbonate of magnesia 41.12 Silica 5.00 

Sand and bilica 5.40 Alumina 2.00 

Alumina with trace, of iron 1.40 Iron 40 

99.02 100.00 

A series of analyses of the various rock formations that have been 
treated of, is appended, from which these differences in composition can 
be noted and compared. The analyses are not confined to the rocks of 
Montgomery county, but various portions of the different series represen- 
ted ihere are included. These analyses, with two exceptions, were made 
by Dr. T. Gr. Wormley, of Columbus, Chemist of the Survey. The analy- 
ses will be grouped under two general classes according to the differences 
in constitution already noted ; the first embracing the true limestones, or 
those containing at least 85 per cent, of carbonate of lime, and the second 
class comprising the magnesian limestones. 

I. True Limestones Containing at least 85 pee cent, of Car- 
bonate of Lime. 

A. Blue Limestones. 

1. From Cincinnati. (Dr. Locke, 1838.) 

Carbonate of lime 90.93 

Carbonate of magnesia - 1.11 

Peroxide of iron 3.15 

Silica from solution 0.77 

Matter insoluble in muriatic acid 1.80 

Water expelled Dy rett neat i 1.13 

2. From Waynesville. 

Carbonate of lime 91.50 

Carbonate of magnesia .:... 5.06 

Residue contains iron 96.9 


B. Clinton Limestones. 

1. From Brown's Quarry, * New Carlisle, Clarke county. 

Carbonate of lime , 95.60 

Carbonate of magnesia 3.93 

Alumina and iron 0.40 


2. From Centerville, Montgomery county. 

Carbonate of lime 86.30 

Carbonate of magnesia 11.34 

Silica 0.85 

Alumina and iron 0.40 


3. From Halderman's Quarry ,t Eaton, Preble county. 

Carbonate of lime 85.21 

Carbonate of magnesia 13.56 

Silica 0.35 

Alumina and iron, chiefly iron 0.80 


4. From Lick Fork, Adams county, "Flinty Limestone " of Locke. 

Carbonate of lime 93.00 

Carbonate of magnesia : 3.04 

Silica and sand.... , 2.00 

Alumina and iron 1.60 

C. Niagara group. 

I. From Dayton Quarries. (Dr. Locke, 1835.) 

Carbonate of lime 92.30 

Carbonate of magnesia 1.10 

Matter insoluble in muriatic acid , 1.70 

Protoxide of iron j 0.53 

Silex from solution 0.90 

Water expelled by red heat 1.08 


II. Magnesian Limestones— Containing 40 pee cents ok more 

of Carbonate of Magnesia. 

1. From Yellow Springs — Sronfe's Quarries. 

Carbonate of lime 54.75 

Carbonate of magnesia.. 42.23 

Silica -. 0.40 

Alumina and iron 2.00 


* This is the purest lime found in south-western Ohio. 

t This is one of the divisions of the Clinton which has a local reputation as a fire 


2. From Hillsboro, Highland comity — Col. Trimble's Quarry.* 

Carbonate of lime 54.35 

Carbonate of magnesia 43.23 

Silica :.... .... 0.40 

Alumina and iron (trace) .-• 1.80 


3. From Thompson's Quarries, Springfield 

Carbonate of lime 50.90 

Carbonate of magnesia 39.77 

Silicates of lime and magnesia 7.07 

Sand 1.19 

Alumina ..'. 0.70 


4. From Moore's Quarries, below Springfield. 

Carbonate of lime 46.40 

Carbonate of magnesia 47.53 

Silica, iron and alumina/ — chiefly the last 4.90 


5. From Cliff Limestone, West Union, Adams county, t 

Carbonate of lime 42.80 

Carbonate of magnesia 34.79 

Silica and sand J . . 18.80 

Alumina and iron - 2.20 


6. From Bierley's Quarries, Greenville, Darke county, t 

Carbonate of lime 44 .60 

Carbonate of magnesia .-. 50.11 

Silica, iron and alumina — chiefly the last 4.60 


7. From Gard's Quarries, Greenville, Darke county. ( 

Carbonate of lime , 51.30 

Carbonate of magnesia 45.72 

Silica, iron and alumina — chiefly the last 2.20 


8. From Northrup's Quarry, New Madison, Darke county. $ 

Carbonate of lime 51.70 

Carbonate of magnesia 45.26 

Silica, iron and alumina — chiefly iron 2.70 


* Note. — This lime has a very excellent reputation in the region where it is pro- 
duced. It is said to be the " coolest " lime of this portion of the State. 

t This analysis would seem to confirm the suggestion of Dr. Locke, that the rock in 
question would yield hydraulic cement. 

$ Nos. 6 and 7 represent the only quarries in Darke county that have been extensively 
worked. The stone is of but little value for building purposes, but the lime obtained 
from it is counted excellent. The geological horizon of the three quarries represented 
in Nos. 6, 7 and 8 is the same, viz., the upper portion of tbe Niagara series. 



5. Mineral Paints. 

The minerals from which mineral paints have been manufactured in 
this portion of the State, are all obtained from the beds of Drift. The 
second variety of blue clay, already described, is principally used for 
this purpose. 

A company has been organized at Miamisburg for two years, for the 
manufacture of these paints, and their sales last year amounted to over 
100,000 lbs. A considerable proportion of lead, however, is included 
under this aggregate. The bed of clay which is turned to most account 
is situated on Hole's creek, at no great elevation above the Miami river. 
The clay is identical in composition with the heavy bank near Spring- 
field, and closely resembles the " Milwaukee brick " clay in composition^ 
As to the durability of these colors, it is too early to decide. It is sug- 
gested by painters in Cincinnati, where the coal smoke renders frequent 
re-painting necessary, that even if they are decidedly inferior to lead in 
respect to durability, they can still render very useful service because of 
their greater cheapness! 

Analyses of Hole's creek, Springfield and Milwaukee clays — made by 
Dr. Wormley, are here appended. 

No. 1. Hole's creek clay, used by Buckeye Paint Company, Miamis- 

No. 2. Springfield clay, burned into cream colored briek and tile, by 
Capt. Peter Schindler. 

No. 3. Milwaukee brick clay. 

Water in sample dried at 212° 

Organic matter 

Silica , i . 

Alumina as silicate 

Alumina soluble 

Sesquioxide of iron 

Carbonate of lime ........... . 

Carbonate of magnesia 

No. 1. 










No. 2. 










No. 3. 










Many of the gravel beds of the Drift contain accumulations of ochre 
more or less extensive, and occasionally deposits of the same substance 
are found unmixed with gravel. The ochre can be separated from the 
gravel by washing, and proves to be of fair quality. 

A large deposit of this bchreous gravel is to be found on the north 
bank of Twin creek, one mile east of Germantown, Montgomery county. 


It has been worked for two years, and a considerable quantity of the 
paint has been brought into market. A bed of brown coal, that occurs 
in the same gravel bank, has been turned to account for the manufacture 
of black paint. Mastodon remains, and phosphate of iron, are found 
also in this locality. Taking all things into the account, no more inter- 
esting section of the Drift is to be found in this region than the " Ger- 
mantown Ochre Bank." 

6. Gravel. 

It is not easy to set a proper estimate upon the beds of sand and 
gravel of the county, until a comparison is instituted between a region 
well supplied with such accumulations, and another which is destitute of 

The gravel knolls and ridges with which, in the southern and eastern 
portions of the county, almost every farm abounds, affords very desirable 
building-sites, and are generally selected for such purposes. 

Sand of the best quality, for mortar cement and brick making, is every- 
where within easy access. 

An inexhaustible supply of excellent materials for road-making — what 
is frequently designated "clean limestone gravel," though in reality 
largely composed of granitic pebbles — is found in the Drift deposits, 
from which hundreds of miles of turnpikes have been alread constructed 
in the county, thus affording free communication between farm and 
market, at all seasons of the year. The smaller boulders, of Canadian 
origin, are selected from the gravel banks for paving-stones, and trans- 
ported to the neighboring cities. 

In regions where stone suitable for macadamized pikes can be obtained, 
good roads can be had, even though gravel is wanting, but at largely in- 
creased expense above that of gravel turnpikes. The districts which are 
supplied with neither, can certainly never compete in desirability with 
these gravel-strewn regions. 

The Agricultural Relations of the different formations of Montgomery 
county, remain to be briefly discussed. Only those points will be touched 
upon which are especially noticeable. 

From what has been already said of the distribution of the Drift, it 
may be interred that this formation will conceal or obscure all the rest, 
and, to a considerable extent, this will be found to be the case. There 
are large areas in which the underlying rock seems to have no direct 
effect upon the superficial beds, further than to control the general fea- 
tures of their arrangement. In such cases, the soil depends directly upon 
11— Geological. 


the composition of the drift beds, and will be found light, warm and dry, 
or heavy, cold and wet, according as sand or clay predominates in these 

There are, however, several varieties of soil that receive their leading 
characteristics directly from the rock with which they are associated. 
The high table lands of the Niagara limestone, which are mostly confined 
to the northern portions of the county, furnish the first example. These 
limestones are often covered with but a shallow deposit of clay, yellow 
originally, but blackened by organic matter for a foot or two from the 
surface. These table-lands hold so nearly a horizontal position, that the 
streams that have their sources in them have but a sluggish flow. In- 
deed these districts, until they are cleared and ditched, are almost always 
marshy in their conditions, and though occupying the highest levels of 
the county, are universally spoken of as low-lying lands. They contain 
abundant elements of agricultural wealth, but demand a more pains- 
taking and scientific kind of treatment than our farmers are generally 
willing to bestow. In default of this, they are largely dependent on the 
seasons — favorable seasons bringing a large reward, and unfavorable ones 
being marked by failures, more or less complete. The water-supply in 
these locations is generally derived from drilled wells, which it is some- 
times necessary to carry to a depth of 60 feet, though one-third of this 
depth usually suffices. 

In their present condition, they constitute the lowest-priced lands of 
the county, unless, as in a few instances, their contiguity to markets has 
led to their thorough improvement. In these cases, they show themselves 
to be possessed of admirable qualities for farming lands, and also give 
examples of what may be hoped for from the remainder of this formation. 

A belt of still more pronounced character, in which the agricultural 
relations are still more closely connected with the geological structure, 
is furnished in the line of junction of the Blue Limestone and Clinton 
formations, or, what is the same thing, in the line of Junction of the Lower 
and Upper Silurian. 

It ^ill be remembered that the uppermost beds of the Blue Limestone 
series consists, for the most part, of unconsolidated clays, while the lower 
portion of the overlying Cliff formation, viz : the Clinton rock, is largely 
composed of beds a porous sandstone (lime-sand). The result of this 
order of sequence is, that the cla; s of the Blue Limestone series are the 
water-bearers of the region which they occupy, as was long ago pointed out 
by Dr. Locke. The strongest springs of South-western Ohio mark quite 
accurately this line of junction. The clays constitute a gradual slope — 
sometimes one fourth of a mile in breath — from the foot of the cliff. The 


springs that flow out along the line, gave, before the country was cleared, 
a marshy character to this belt, as is shown in the black and fertile loam, 
by which it is still marked. They also serve to distribute, to some degree, 
the waste of the cliff to the slope below. The early settlers located their 
homes in the vicinity of these perennial springs, and the prosperity which 
has attended the labors of husbandry upon these fruitful tracks, is wel 1 * 
attested in the comfortable and tasteful homes which mark the lowermost 
outcrop of the Clin 7 limestones. Perhaps no other geological boundary of 
the State is so definitely connected with human interests. 

The Blue Limestones give rise, in limited areas, to soils of great fer- 
tility. The rocks of this age, for the most part, are covered deep by beds 
of modified drift, lying, as they do, at a lower level than the other rocks 
of the county ; but occasionally a slope is found that is derived directly 
from the weathering of the Blue Limestone beds* The rocks of this series 
are rich in phosphates, a fact which accounts for their value in agricul- 
ture. An analysis by Dr. Wormley, Chemist of the Survey, gives 16 hun- 
dredths of one per cent, of phosphoric acid in the bedded clays. This 
proportion shows that a soil one foot in depth, formed from the weather- 
ing of these clays, would contain to the acre very nearly 7,500 lbs. of phos- 
phoric acid, a substance indispensable to the growth of the higher forms, 
of vegetation. 

The celebrated Blue Grass country of Kentucky, is derived direc$y 
from the rocks of this formation, without the addition of our Drift ©Jay*-, 
and sands. 

A discussion of the Drift in these connections, would be, under another, 
name, a treatise upon the general agriculture of the county, and cannot 
here he entered upon. Suffice it to say that the character of the Drift 
deposits, largely determines for each locality, the market value of its 
lands, the kinds of crops that can be cultivated with profit, the nature, 
and amount of its water-supply, the quality of its highways, its, degree, 
of healthfulness, and in short, its general desirability for human. oceur 

Attention will be called to but one more point in this connection. 

The river-valleys of South-western Ohio are known to have been deeper 
than they are at present. In other words, they are now partly filled with 
drift, and the streams no longer flow upon rocky beds. Nojb only is the 
absolute depth of the valleys diminished by these deposit?,; but the ab- 
ruptness of the declivity is greatly modified by them. Instead of a prer 
cipitous descent over the naked edges of the rocks, a well-graded slope, 
consisting frequently of the best road-gravel, leads from^ the high lands 
to the river-bettoms. The nature and order of succession of the forma" 


tioDS previously described renders it certain that were it not for the inter- 
position of the Drift, the line of junction of the Blue Limestone and Cliff 
formation would be an impassable belt of miry clay for one-third of the 
year, unless relieved by expensive artificial roads. A similar state of 
things would be found throughout much of the Blue Limestone regions. 

The leading points in the geology of the line of junction of the Lower 
and Upper Silurian formations of South-western Ohio, have now been 
briefly noticed. The attempt has beeu made to treat the subjects in such 
a way that they can be understood by any intelligent reader, even though 
he is entirely unacquainted with the technicalities of geological science. 
At the same time, many facts of interest to the geologist are here pub- 
lished for the first time. Among these facts may be named the probable 
identification of the Medina Sandstone in Southern Ohio, the first clear 
identification of the Clinton group within the same limits, the division 
of the Niagara formation into two well-marked varieties, viz : the Mag- 
nesian and Limestone varieties, and the connection of these differences in 
composition with equally marked differences in use, for lime and build- 

Among the points of economical interest may be mentioned the estab- 
lishment of the limits within which the Dayton stone is to be found, 
lying as it does at the very base of the Niagara series; the recognition 
of the fact that the best lime of this part of the State comes from an 
horizon about 100 feet higher in the series than that which the Dayton 
stone occupies, with the consequent knowledge of the areas within which 
it occurs ; and the discovery that certain beds of the same series afford 
hydraulic lime of excellent quality. 

The great value of the Dayton stone naturally leads to considerable 
interest in the discovery of new deposits of it. A safe guide for all fu- 
ture investigations will be found in the order of sequence of the great 
formations, which these pages have clearly stated, an order which prac- 
tical men, engaged for years in quarrying the stone, have generally failed 
to recognize. 

It remains but to add, in conclusion, that nothing more than a geologi- 
cal reconnoisance of South-western Ohio has been possible in the time 
that has passed since the survey was ordered. Many topics >are left for 
future investigation — such as the . accurate measurements of the forma- 
tions ; the determination of their dip ; the enumeration and description 
of fossils; the details of stratification generally; and all of these subjects 
possess a good degree of economical or educational importance. 


[Since the publication of this report, a more detailed study has been 
made of the Germantown Ochre Bank, noticed in the preceding pages, 
and the results of this study were made known in an article published in 
Silliman's Journal, July, 1870. By permission, this article is here repro- 

On the occurrence of a Peat Bed beneath Deposits of Drift in Southwestern 


A bed of peat has lately been found one mile east of Gerinantown, 
Montgomery county, Ohio, and twelve miles west of south from Dayton — 
in the occurrence and connections of which there are several facts of 
unusual interest. 

It lies in, and directly above, the channel of Twin creek, a tributary of 
the Miami river. The general course of the creek is southeasterly, but 
just above the point where the peat bed is exposed, it has made a sudden 
change in direction from east to west of south. Its northern and eastern 
banks for one-fourth of a mile in each direction from the point of deflec- 
tion, are precipitous walls of stratified clay and gravel, from 50 to 100 
feet in thickness ; kept nearly vertical by the constant undermining action 
of the stream. 

Beneath these heavy deposits and occupying 40 rods of the east bank 
of the creek, the peat bed is found, varying in thickness, in different por- 
tions of its extent, from 12 to 20 feet. The amount of the bed that is 
exposed depends upon the stage of water in the stream. The stream is 
bedded for 10 or 15 rods upon the peat, but in deeper portions of the 
channel, upon the eastern bank, an underlying formation of gravel can. 
be detested. The uppermost layers of the peat contain undecoinposecfc 
sphagnous mosses, grasses and sedges, but in other portions of the bed,, 
the vegetable structure is generally indistinct, with the exception of" 
abundant fragments of coniferous wood, which in many instances can be 
identified as red cedar (Juniperus virginianus.) At the southern extrem- 
ity of the bed in particular, there is a great accumulation of wood, in 
trunks, roots, branches, and twigs, much of which has been flattened by 
the pressure of the 80 feet of clay and gravel that overlie it. Branches 


that were originally two inches in diameter, now afford lenticular sections 
with no more than a fourth inch for the shorter axis, while many of the 
smaller stems have been compressed into ribbons. The berries of the 
eedar are abundant in the upper layers of the peat. At a point one half 
mile higher up the stream, trunks of cedar nearly two feet in diameter, 
have been taken from beneath these same drift beds and turned to ac- 
eount for fencing posts. 

There are indications that the peat bed has a considerable extent to the 
northward and eastward. A bed of "black earth" was found underlying 
day and gravel in digging a well If miles east of this locality. The bed 
occurred at a depth of 30 feet, and was itself from 10 to 15 feet in thick- 
ness. The waters of springs in the same neighborhood are discolored, as 
if by contact with such deposits. 

It may be added in this connection that there is a large amount of 
wood buried beneath the drift throughout this region generally. It is not 
a circumstance of infrequent occurrence to meet with it in the digging of 
wells. There is scarcely a square mile in the thickly settled portions of 
tfhe adjacent country in which instances of this kind cannot bd found, 
and three instances are on record within the limits of a single village. 

The wood is in great part coniferous, but not exclusively so ; for ac- 
cording to the testimony of intelligent and observing practical men, who 
deem themselves entirely competent to give a judgment in the case, ash, 
hickory and sycamore, together with grape-vines and beech-leaves, have 
been found covered with drift deposits. 

A stratum of soil, one or two feet in thickness, is often associated with 
these vegetable remains. The soil and the wood occur at various depths, 
tout in the cases already noted, between the limits of 10 feet and 90 feet. 
A large proportion, however, of the instances on record, have been found 
at about 30 feet in depth, immediately beneath the yellow clays that con- 
stitute the last of the drift series in this region. 

Through all portions of the peat above mentioned, sand and pebbles 
are scattered. The pebbles are mostly of small size, seldom larger than 
» pea, but occasionally three or four inches in diameter. They agree in 
general character with the gravel of the country. 

At the lower extremity of the peat bed, the formation thins out and the 
bottom layers are found above the water, resting upon a surface of gravel 
that slopes downward at an angle of about 30 degrees. All the limestone 
pebbles which the peat overlies at this point, appear to have been 
"burned." They are white and soft, as much so as they would have been 
if they had been converted into hydrates of lime by the ordinary pro- 
-eesses. Analysis, however, shows them to be in the state of carbonates . 


In the inclined strata, heavy beds of ochreous gravel occur. The 
ochre is easily separated from the gravel by washing, and furnishes a 
marketable paint of fair quality. The nature and arrangement of the 
materials of these inclined beds indicate that they were brought from the 
eastward by a torrent-like stream, and deposited over a precipitous bank. 

In pockets of the gravel and also in the clay that immediately covers 
the peat, small quantities of vivianite, " blue earth," or phosphate of iron, 
are found. From one of the largest accumulations of this substance, a 
tusk or tooth was taken. It was described as resembling a hog's tusk, 
except that it was much larger. It may also be added that two mastodon 
tusks, each measuring eight feet in length, were taken in the spring of 
1870, from the northern part of the same drift bed to which the peat 
belongs and at about the same level. 

The reference of the phosphoric acid of the vivianite to vertebrate 
bones, will, therefore, hardly be questioned. 

From the above named facts, we seem warranted in concluding that the 
coniferous wood in question grew in the region where we find it buried. 
The amount of the wood renders this probable, and the nature of the 
remains forbids any other supposition. In this connection, it is only 
needful to recall the facts, that cedar berries in notable quantity, and 
that branching twigs, the veriest spray of the cedar, sometimes still cov- 
ered with bark, are well preserved in the peat. 

We learn furthermore that the date, at which this vegetation grew, was 
in the closing or Ohamplain epoch of the Drift period, for it is underlain 
by stratified drift deposits. A subsidence of the continent below its 
present level had already occurred, during which these underlying beds 
were formed ; but there would seem to have been a restoration of this 
southern border of the drift-swept region at least, to dry land once more, 
and this restoration must have continued through a period of considera- 
ble length. It was followed by another movement of depression, during 
which the highest of the yellow clays, the latest formation of the drift, 
were deposited. There seem materials in this line of facts for a more 
orderly division of the later formed deposits of the post-tertiary than has 
heretofore been recognized. 

We also learn that mammalian life was associated with this intercalated 
period of vegetable growth. The mammoth and the mastodon subsisted 
on the coniferous wood which is represented so largely here. The series 
of changes in level already referred to, must have exterminated these 
earlier representatives of elephantine life, but we find the same species 
returning to their old dwelling plaees when the waters of the drift seas 
had finally abated. 

j €OtfNTY 




Section No. 1. 
Centreville, Montgomery Govmty. 

DRIF1 15 


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Section No. 2. 
Webber & Lehman's Quarry, east of Dayton, two miles. 


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Section No. 3. 
/Soldiers' Some, west of Dayton two miles. 






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Erkattjm. — The first note on page 84 should be omitted. 


Analysis of coals — by Bischoff 36 

" lignite " 36 

" wood " 36 

" Buena Vista freestone — by O. Wuth 71 

" -vineyard soil Medoe 77 

" Maxville limestone — by Wormley 86 

" buff limestone, Whipple's run — by Wormley 129 

" Cannel coal, Flint Ridge " 94 

" Porter'scoal " 95 

" coals — Haydenville '" 107 

" " Nelsonville " 107 

" " Straitsville " 107 

" " Sunday creek " 108 

" " Lostrun " 108 

" " Jackson "HU1" " 113 

" " Jackson " Shaft " " 113 

" " Briar Hill " 113 

" " Blue Chippewa " 113 

" '• Coalton, or Ashland " 113 

" " Brazil, Indiana " 113 

" " Durham and Northumberland 114 

" " Grigsby 119 

" " Stallsmith 120 

" Iron ore — Henry Hazelton 127 

" " James Hawkins 127 

" " Edward Danison 127 

" " Henry Welch J 127 

" " Lattafarm 127 

" " Rogertfarm 127 

" " Duck Creek Valley 133 

" Mngnesian limestone, Yellow springs 157 

" " ofFrance 157 

" Blue limestone, Cincinnati 157 

" " Waynesville 157 

174 rSTDEX. 


Analysis of Clinton limestone, Brown's quarry 158 

" " Centervffle 158 

" " Halderman '.., 158 

" " Lick Fork, Adams county 158 

" Niagara limestone, Dayton quarries 158 

" Magnesian limestone, Yellow Springs 158 

" Hillsboro 159 

" " Thompson's quarry 159 

" " Moore's quarry 159 

" (Cliff limestone) 159 

" " Bierley's quarry 159 

" " Gard's quarry 159 

" " Northrop's quarry 159 

" Clay, Hole's creek 160 

" " Springfield 160 

" " Milwaukie brick clay 160 

Appendix — Peat and forest bed in drift 165 

" Beautiful quarry " ■ 72 

Bitumen of Ohio Black Slate : 65 

Black Slate (Ohio) 64 

Brick clays 154 

Building rock, Montgomery county 152 

Building stone, tests of Buena Vista freestone 71 

Carboniferous system 21 

Cincinnati group . 15 

Clays — Fire-clays and others in 2d Geological District 136 

Clinton group 15 

Clinton formation 148 

Coals, general description of 33 

" Miami Company's mines 104 

" description of analyses of Ill 

" production of, in the 2d Geological District 135 

Coal-measures 123 

Coke, discussion of 115 

Conglomerate 23 

Corniferous limestone 17 

" fishes of 18 

Devonian system 17 

Directions for observing geological facts-' 11 

District, Second — outlines of geological formations 64 

Draining tile clays, Montgomery county j 154 

Drift, theory of 24 

" glaciers 29 

" icebergs 30 

" phenomena of, in 2d Geological District 60 

INDEX. 175 


Drift, modified and river terraces 61 

" of Montgomery county 150 

" peat beds in, and forest beds 165 

Elevations of surface of Second District 69 

Erie shale 21 

Fire clay 66 

Fire stone of Montgomery county ^ 154 

Flagg W. J., letter of 76 

Forst bed in drift 165 

Fossils of Waverly , 75 

Furnaces, list of charcoal do 133 

" " bituminous coal do 134 

" statistics of 134 

Geology of apart of Washington and Noble counties 127 

Gold, in Second Geological District 138 

Gravel, Montgomery county 161 

Hamilton group 19 

Historical sketches of former Geological Surveys 3 

Huron shale 19 

" " fishesof , 20 

Iron, general discussion of 40 

" the manufacture of -. 43 

" Ellershausen process 46 

" ores discussion of 121 

" " above Nelsonville coal -124 

" " of Duck Creek Valley 133 

" production of In Second Geological District 133 

Joints, vertical, in Ohio Black Slate 67 

" " direction of in Waverly 74 

Law, providing for Geological Survey 7 

" appointments under the law 9 

Lime — 155 

Maxville Limestone , — 83 

" " sectionof : 84 

« « " «, 85 

Map of grouped sections, explanation of - 139 

Mineral joints - 160 

Montgomery county, Geological Report of 145 

Mound builders 63 

Niagara groi^p 15 

" formation -. 149 

Nelsonville or Straitsville coal - 99 

" " " quality of 106 

176 INDEX. 


Oriskany Sandstone 17 

Peat beds in Drift 165 

Petroleum from Ohio Black Slate 65 

" oil springs 66 

Pottery clays — Montgomery county 154 

Sallna and Lower Helderberg 15 

Salt, production of, in Second District 137 

" in Duck creek valley 132 

Second Geological District, general features of 57 

" " " drainage of 58 

Section at Sugar Grove 80 

" James Francisco's 81 

" Falls of Hocking. .-.. 82 

" Edward Danison's 87 

" Joseph Rambo's , 88 

" ■ Newark 89 

" in Kentucky, by S. E. Lyon 90 

" at Henry Hazelton's 92 

" FUntRidge 93 

" Joseph Porter's 95 

" of coal at Haydenville 99 

" " Nelsonville 99 

" " McGinniss' bank, Straitsville 100 

" " Thomas Barnes' 101 

" " Gaver'sMill 102 

" " Benjamin Saunders' 102 

" " above Nelsonville coal 117 

" of clay veins in coal 117 

" coal at Moses Blake's, Whipple's run 128 

" on land of Vincent Payne 131 

" of coal at David McKee's . 131 

" at Centreville, Montgomery county 169 

" of Webber and Lehman's quarry 170 

" atSoldier's Home 171 

Silurian System 12 

Soils, from Silurian limestones 161 

" drift 163 

Steel, manufacture of ; 48 

" Bessemer process 48 

" Siemens-Martin process . 49 

" Barron process 50 

Sulphur in coal, not always a bi-sulphide , 110 

Waverly Sandstone 67 

" " section of, in W. Va 69 

" " " "cityledge" 70 

" " tests of " city ledge " building stone . ..... 71 

" " soil of Waverly hills 76 

" " timber of Waverly hills 78