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Full text of "Germenevtika teksta Rigvedasamhiti L.B.G.Tilaka"

CeMeHemco A. A. 

repMeHeBTHKa TeKcra 

PMTBeflacaMXKTbi 

JI.BT. THjiaKa. 



BopoHe>K 2002 



BEK 87.3(0) 
C30 



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PeueHXHTbi: k.(J>hjioc.i i. A.B. ApanoB 

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CeMeHeHKo A. A. repMeHeBTHKaTeKcra PHraeflaraMJurrbi 
JI.B.r.TiiJiaKa. Bopohok: KteflaTenbCTBO BopoHeaccKoro 
KOjme;i}Ka (TexHHKyMa) "Homoc", 2002. 1 56 c. 

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MCTOflHKH H MCTOflOJIOrHH repMeHeBTHKH CaKpaJIBHBDC MHCTHHeCKHX 
TeKCTOB. 



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ISBN 5-89541-008-1 



©CeiueHeHKO A.A., 2002 

© H3flaTe.ibCTBO "Homoc", 2002 



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Ha,o>KypBeAbi u ATxapBaBqm,i)//y3KH. Bbn. II. BopoH©K,2000. C. 1 14-121 h 127; ero »e: 

npHpofleapeBHeBeflHHecKoropaajKH.C.26-37. 

(^:OeMeHeHKDAAOnpHpqzs;]peBH^^ 
//Y3KH. Bbin. IV. BopoHOK, 2002. 




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HayHHOHceccHH<J)HnCHBry.Bbin.IV.BopoHe>K,2002C.62^3. 

6 



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7 



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8 



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h ,apyroro pa3HOHTeHnM, nocKOJibKy Ka>KAoe H3 hhx ocHOBbmaeTca Ha 

KaKOM-TO OJIHOM H3 CMbICJIOBbDt ypOBHeH H B JH060H MOMeHT MO)KeT 6bITb 

npoBepeHO cpeflcrBaMH oGteKTHBHoro Kompojia. JJjm ApeBHeBe^MHecKOH 

3K3ereTHKH TaKHMM CpenCTBaMH nOCTOHHHOH CaMOnpOBepKH 5ffiJI5KOTCa 

o6merepMeHeBTHMecKHe mcto^bi HCTOpHKO-KyjibTypHoro, jickcmko- 
CHHTaKcmecKoro h KOHTeKCTyajibHoro aHamca- nocKOJibKy HMeHHO ohh 
He no3BOJi5HOT 3K3ereTy b npouecce HCTOJiKOBaHHfl noAMeHHTb 
o6Hapy>KeHHe o6i>eKTHBHoro SHa^eHua TeKcra (3K3ere3Hc) co3flaHHeM ero 
BbiMbmuieHHoro noHHMaHHM (3H3ere3Hc). npeHMyuj;ecTBo Jiio6oro 
TOJiKOBaTejifl 3aKjnoHaeTC5i b tom, hto n npeaMeT, h o6lckt ero 
nccjieflOBaHHfl KOHeneH h mtokct 6brn> no3HaH. A oGiuerepMeHeBTHHecKue 

'CM.:SriAurobindo.TheSecretoftheVedaPondicherry,1993(AaneeSASV).P.30. 

Tkoo6ciBSHHbIMnpHMepoa3Iigi™ra«OT^^ 

pera-iniH: SASV. P. 3344..Hewo noao6HoenpoH3omiTOHC JT.B.r.TnjiaKOM, HcaBTopoM^aHHOH 
pefeiiL 



MeTO^bl 3K3ereTHKH flBJIflK)TCa eCTeCTBeHHHMH OrpaHHHMTeJIHMH 

cy6teKTHBHOCTH npn npHMeHeHHH 6yKBajiHCTCKoro, TeojionwecKoro h 
CHMBOJD«ecKoro aHamca. 

B 3aKJiK)HeHHe mm BbipKaeM niy6oKyio npH3HaTenbHOCTb 
k.(J)hjioc.h. AneKcaHflpy BjiaflnneHOBHHy ApanoBy h k.(})hjioc.h. Onery 
B5iqecnaBOBHqy MHpoHOBy 3a hx JiK)6e3Hoe coraacne BbinonHHTb Tpyn, no 
peueroupoBaHHio aaHHOH pa6oTbi. Mbi HCKpeHHe 6jiaroaapHbi 
3aB.ceKTopoM MBA 3HB BFV TajiHHe CepreeBHe KpeKOTeHb 3a ee 
npo^ojDKHTejibHbie ycnjiHa no c6opy MaiepnanoB, 6e3 KOTopbKjiaHHaa 
KHHra He Moraa 6bi noHBHTbCfl. 



I 



10 



rjianal. 

riojiiipiian Tcopiiii HinepnpeTauiiH 

PHrBCjiacaMXiiTbi Jl.B.r.TiiJiaKa. 

W i iammckmh y i ići ibiM JIoi<aMai ma Ban Tai irćvoxapTMJiai< ( 1 856- 
1 920) H3BCciei i icai< co3Aaienh opHrmianbuoM KOHuenuMM TOJiKOBaHHfl 
Aaiu n>ix pn/i,a naMMTHMKOB hi iAOHpaiiCKOH ^HTepaiypbi h oahoh H3 ee 
cocTaBJiMiotLi,HX 5iBJ»ieTC5i nojiapHafl hum apKTH L ieci<aa Teopnji 
repMeiieBTMKHApeBHeHUjeronnAoapHHCKoroTeKcra^PHrBeAacaMXHTbi 
(AćineePB)' , H3Jio>KeHHafl b cj)yuAaMeiiTajibHOM TpyAe "The Arctic Home 
m the Vedas, being also a new key to the interpretation 

1 Hci lOJibTOKUii Kb nqxBO^bi: Pi irae/ia. Mai uwibi HV. Maiiaajtbi V-VI II. Mat tnajibi IX-X. riqx 
TJI.Enin;paiKOBOii.M., 1989, 1995, 1999;Rira^iIij6iiaiiiii.ieniMiibi.nep.TiI.En)na}5eifKOBori. 
M., 1 972; Oiiginal Smiskrit texts on the origin and history of tliepeople oflndia, their religion and 
institutions. Collected, translated and illnstrated by J.Muir. Vol. I-V London, 1 858, 1 860, 1 86 1 , 
1 863 , 1 870; R lg-Veda Sanhita The sacred hymns of tlie brahmans translated and explained by 
F.Max Milller. Vol. 1. 1 lymns to the Manits or the stomvgods. London, 1 869; The hynins of the 
Rigveda translated with apopular commentaiy by R.T.H.Griffith. Third edttioa Vol. I-D. Benares, 
1 920 and 1 926; I Jymns to Indra by the Vasishthas (RV VII. 1 9-32) translated into English and 
bneflyairnotatedbyII.D.Velankm7/JoiniialoftIieUmvei^ityofBombay(flajieeJUB).Vol.Xiri. 
September 1944. Part 2. P. 1 6-25; Hymns to fndrain Mandala Vffl (Nos. 76-78; 80-82; 88-93;95- 
l()0)byH.D.Velaiikar//JUB.Vol.XYI.Septeniberl947.Part2.P.l-18.riojtCTpoqiii[Kp5wa 
cn kob Mbi 6para i b: Ssmaveda-Araiiyal<a-Sartuta J/fccjie/tOBain te ®.<£.<I>opTyHaTOBa. M., 1 875; 
Miuuiep B.O. OiepKi i api ihckoh mi i(jx)Jionn i b cbsbh cflpeBHefiuieii KyjtbTypofi. T.I. Acbi iHbi- 
j],itocKypbi.M., 1876; OBratiitKO-KyraiKOBCKi iti /4.H. Orib iTH3yHeHifflBaK>aiqecKi ix KyjibTOB 
iiHAoeBponeficKori itpeBHOCTii b cbsbh cpojiuo 3Kda3a na patim« cTynenjrx pa3BHTna 
oGmeciBciiHoai i. M.I. KynbT6o>KeciBa "Soma" BJtpeBnen Hitaj niB3noxy BeaOflecca, 1883; ero 
)Ke: KncTopi in i<yjibTa orray i itinycoB b 3noxy Be/i I. Tpii pa3tioBi umocn i CBauteHiioro oim 
Grhapati, Vikati, Vaiovanara. II. 3ni rrcrbi CBfltueHHoro orasi. Oitecca, 1 887; ero »e: Be/uiiicKue 
3Tio/iBi//>KypHajiMiiiiiCTepcn33aHapoi]jtoronrxraetij;eHiK. 1891.H.CCLXXiV.Otii,2.C. 1-17; 
Hillebrandt A. Vedische Mythologie. Rrster Band. Soma und venvandte Gotter. Breslau, 1891; 
BBeaeHCKiiriA.H.PejiiinicGHoeco3HaHiieH3biHecT^ 
perainifi.T.I.OcHOBHbiei30iTpocbicj)im^ 

M., 1 902; Kent R.G. The Vedicpath of the gods and the Roman pontifex //Classical philology. 
Volume VTII. Januarv-October, 1913. Chicago, 1 9 1 3. P. 3 1 7-326; On feum E.JI. CrpyKTypa 
mi icbojion i L iecKi i.KTeKCTDB "Pi trBenbi" . (BeanficKaa KOCMoroHiia). M., 1 968; EniBapeHKOBaT.il. 
Be4inicKiinjnbiK.M.,1987;eexe:il3bmiicTiiJibBeflitficKiixpiiiiJii.M., 1993;ee>Ke:CjiOBan 

11 




ofmanv VedicTexts and Legends" (1903).' B flopeBOJUOUHOHHbra nepHOfl 

CymeCTBOBaHMpOCCHHCKOH HHAOJIOrHH HHKTO H3 OTeneCTBeHHbIX 

repMeHeBTOBPBHeo6paTKnBHHMaHH5iHaBbi^BHHyTbieJI.B.r.THJiaKOM 
nojio>KeHHH, ho b to >Ke BpeMH ero B3nuiAbi nonyHHJTO npH3i-iaHne y 
aBTopHTCTHoro pyccKoro 6nojiora E.Enam-ma, aBTopa khhth "KpaHHHH 
CeBep KaKpoOTHa HejioBeqecrBa"(1910). Bcobctckhh nepHOAKranoTOe 
nojiapHoro npoHcxo»HeHHfl HHflOHpamjeB JI.BJ.TnnaKa o6paTimncb 

BH^HbiecneUHanHCTbI-B0CT0K0BeAbI-HpaHHCT3.A.rpaHT0BCKHHH 

HHaoJiorrM.BoHrapA-JIeBHH,o^-iaKOOHHJiHim(j)pameHTapH03aTpoHynH 
no^HHTbie hhahhckhm yqem>iM npo6neMbi npHMoro oipa>KeHHfl PB 
CBHflerejibCTB np&bmnm rrpaHHHoeBponeHCKroc Hapo^OB b npnnojropHbix 
h norapHbDC peraoHax. BbiBOflbi JLEJTraraKa norrnep>Kaji A.Cefi6ymc b 
CBoefi pa6oie "Murpaura noaiejie^HHKOBoro MenoBeKa KaK OTpa>KeH>ie 
H3MeHeHHH 3KOJiorHHecKOH o6cTaHOBKH" (1982). HaKOHeu, B 
nocTcoBeTCKHH nepnoA BbinjeHa3BaHHafl paSoia JI.B.r.TnjiaKa 6buia 
nepeBerteHa Ha pyccKHH jemk H3BecrHbiM OTenecrBeHHbiM HHAOJioroM 
H.PTyceBOH, KOTopaa b nperjjicnoBHH k npOH3Be,a;eHHOMy efi nepeBOAy 
yTBep»aaeT, hto ' Twm BCTan He tojtbko b nepBbra psa yneHbix CBoero 
BpeMeHH, ho h HaflecHTHjierHfl onepe^HJ! 3aKJTKweHra apxeonoroB, 

dpHJIOJlOrOB, (j)H3HKOB H aCTpOHOMOB". 2 /JeHCTBHTeJIbHO JTM 

repMeHeBTHHecKHH noflxoAJI.B.r.TnnaKaHBJuieTCJi He3acny>KeHHO He 

HCnOJIK30BaBIUMMCH nOTOI CrOJieTHeKJUOTOM K nOHHMaHHK) nOAJIHHHOrO 
CMblCJia PB H COAep>KHT JIH AaHHbIH HCT04HHK TOHHbie yKa33HH51 H3 

oSmraroie npeflKOB HHAoapHeB b norwpHbix o6jiacrax? OrBeroib na 3th 
ABa Bonpoca Mbi h nocrapaeMCH b xose AanbHeHmero H3Jio>KeHHfl. B to >Ke 
BpeM« oho 6yAer nocrpoeHO He npocro Ha conocraBJieHHH nojiapHOH 
napa^urMbi HHTepnpeTau,HH PB ceeTeKCTOM, ho h Ha cpaBHeHHH 

BauiiBRireeae.MJ999;rpi^epHn.Jpiffluq)nACTaHOBJieHnejiirrepaTypHoriTCopiiHB 
/IpeBHefirpeuimiiHHmni.M,2M0;iygVedaAphonedctranslitei^ 
Umveratyonowal998//http://www.PHILOSOPHYi-u/librayasiatica/indica/siiiti/rgs. ' 
'TilakS.L. The ArcticHomein(heVedas//TilakS.L.ColIeded\vorks. Volumen. TheOrion. 
The AirticHome in the Vedas. Vedic chronology and Olher Essays. Poona. 1 975 (uanee AHV). 
2 Qi.:ryceBaHT.OTnepeBOfl4iiKa//TiinaKB.r.ApicniqecKaapoj]jiHaBBeaa\/nep.caHrji. 
H.P.ryceBoilM,2001.C. 13;ryceBaHP.GiaBHHeiiapbii.nvrb6oroBiicnoB M 2002faanee 
TCA). 

12 



pa3penieHHMrepMeHeBTHHecKHXCHTyauHH 5 npeflnaraeMbixTeopHeH 
Jl.B.r.TiuiaKa c oahoh cropoi-ibi. h pa3fleJijieMOH HaMH Teopnefi 
ciiMBOJiM L iecKoroncHXOJiorHMecKoroHcrojiKOBaHMaPBLIJ.A.rxouja~c 



i 



ApyroM. 

Jl.B.r.TnnaK KaK/j,eHCTBirrejibi 10 opHTHHanbHbiH MbicnuTenb 
oTMenaerTOT c|)aKT (cnpaBeAiMBbifi Ana Bcefi AByxcoTJierHeH hctophh 
iiiyMeHHflAahiHbixPB) ; MTOBcepa6oTaioLni-iecnaM>iTHHKOMHccne/],OBaTejTH 
paccMaTpuBafOTero KaK hctohhhk nocmeAHHKOBOH 3noxH cymecrBOBaHHH 
MejioBeneciBa, co3AaimbiH B npiipoAHO-KJiHMaTMHecKOH 30He, 

XapaiCTepMCTHKH KOTOpOH npHHIJI-inHanbHO He M3MeH3JlHCb Ha npOT5DKeHHH 

nocjieAHHX qeTbipex TMCOTeneruH; no3TOMy 3acj)HKCHpoBaHHaa b PB 
pejiHrna ctohkh 3peHHa eeHaTypajiHCTHHecKoro noHHMaHra AO/i>KHa6biTb 
OTpa>KeHneM xapaKrepnbix a»i 3T0H 30Hbi ©KeAHeBHbK cojmpHbixjiM6o 

aTMOCCJ)epHbIX 51BJieHHH,TaKHX KaK ABH>KeHHeCOJlHUa MUH AO>KAb crpo3ofi 
HN-DnHHJlMH. 2 OAHaKO, KaK yKa3bIBaeT Jl.B.r.THJiaK, CTMCHHO C 3THX n03HUHH 

Hejib3finoH>iTbuejibiHpaAynoMHHaeMbixPBcK»KeroBHMM(jx3BHno3TOMy 
cropoiiHHKH "TeopHH rpo3 h paccBeroB" noAromnoTTeKCT ucroHHHKa 
noA Tpe6yeMWH hmh CMbicn nocpeACTBOM nepecj)pa3HpOBKH, 
nepecTaHOBKH hjih MCKa^euMJi 3Ha4eHH5i cnoB jih6o Ha3biBaK)T ero 

HCnOpHeHHbIMHnOTOMyHe3aCJiy>KHBaK)LUJ-IMHXBHHMaHlW. 3 lio MHeHHK) 

JLE. F.THJiaKa, 3tm npo6neMHbie nacra ApeBHeHiuHX BeAHHecKHx thmhob 
mo>kho npoHH'raTb, ecni-t pyi<OBOACTBOBaTbca n-inoTe30H o tom, hto 
npeAKH hx cocraBHTeneH oSmann b apKTMHecKi« npnnojiapHbix o6jiacrax 
nepeAnocjTeAHHMOJieAeHeHiCM 4 B pe3yj]bTaie ero Hacrynj[eHH5i HaqanMCb 
He6jiaronpMaT[ibie H3MeHeHna KUMMaia m ohh 6binH BbiHy>KAeHbi 
nepecejiHTbCH b K)ro-BocroHHyio EBpony h 3ateM b CpeAHiOK) h K)>KHyio 



Cm . : SAS V; r'\oiu III A. Co6pani le comi meni ih. T. VIII: OcHOBbi i mm ificKoii Kyjibrypbi. CFI6., 

1998(aajieeOMK);CeMeHeHKoAA.HHTepnpei , ^mpejiiinio3iTOHCiicreNai.C.57-68;ero)Ke:0 

npiipoae ApeBHeBe/u mecKi ix ">i<peuoB" . C. 1 1 4- 1 33; ero »ce: npi ipojieflpeBHeBefliiHecKoro 

pajcivi i. C. 2643; ero)Ke: OcuoBHbie no/KOflbi k repMeHeBTi iKeTeKcraPnrBeiiacaMXi rrbi; ero x<e: 

OnpnpofleflpeBHeBeanHecKoro5paxMaHa 

'aHVP.3. 

3 AHVP.4-5. 

-AHVP.5. 

13 



A3I1I0. 1 

Jl.B.r.Ti !JiaKyTBcp>ivfuici', mto o6i iapy>Ki ibćict b PB/tocraTOHiio 

n03HTHBHbIXCBHflCTeXlbCTB,HT06bIAOKa3aTb,HTO/J,peBlieMaiaJipOAHIia 

apneB JiOKana rae-To Boi<pyrCeBepi ioro nojuoca. 2 3roTpcrnoi i o5juwaer 
pe3KOOTjiHHHbiMHOTyMepeHHoroHTponHMecKoroxapain , epHcrHKaMH. 

OTJIHMaiOmHMHCM B 3aBI ICHMOCTH OT MCCTOHaXO>l<Aei \W[ ! ia6jl!OAaTCJI>I B 
TOHKenOJHOCaiIH60BKaKOH-HH6yAbTOMKe'Me>KflyHHMHnOJWpHbIM 

KpyroM. B nepBOM oivnac bocxoa cojii ma Becr Aa 6_vact nponcxoA iti> i la 
lore. 3B£3Abi ceBepnoH nacni HeoecHOH nonya))epbi 6yAyr bhahmbi boci, 
toji KaK nocTOHHHO BpamaiomMeoi na/j, rojioBofi no Kpyry b 
ropH30HTanbHOH nnocKocrH ccoBepmeHHeM noju ioro o6opora BTeneHi ic 
24qacoB,3Be3Abi kmhoh nacm HeoecHOH no;iya|)epbi Hi-iKor/ia i le nonauyr 

B 30HV BHAH MOCTH, TOR 6yACT COCTOMTb H3 Ofl) IOfO 1 UeCTl i MCC51 M 1 1 01 j{\ [51 
H OAHOH UjeCTHMeCOTHOH H0H1 1, COUHLje 6yACT BCXOAHTb H 3aX0AHTb 0/J.1 11 1 

pa3 b roA m no3TOMy Ka>KAbiH roA6yAYT Ha6juoAaTboi TOJibKo oaho yrpo 
h oahh Benep. yrpemm n Benepraa 3opn 6ynyT AJiHTbCfl no abći Meaiua n 
hx cbct 6yACT coBepujaTb nojinbiH o6opoT no He6eci ioiviy CB0Ay baojib 
ropH30HTa3a24qaraAOMOMeHTanojiHoronoaBJieHHacojiHeHHoroAHCKa, 
KOTopbiH 6_yact coBepiuaTb TaKHOKe e>KecyroHHbie 6e33aKaTHbie o6xoAbi 
Bcen ceBepnoH HeGecnon nonyccj)epbi Ha npoTJMeHHH 6 MecaueB. 3 Bo 
BTopoM cnyHae3Ha4HTenbHaa Hacrb3Be3A6yAeTBcerAa ABnraibca KpyraMH 
6e3 HCHe3H0BeHH>i 3a ropH30HTOM, Apyra5i >Ke qacrb 6yAer B0CX0AHTb h 
3axoAHTb no 6onee HaioiOHHbiM no cpaBnenuio c yMepenHOH 3onon 
op6HTaM, roA6yAer cocrosrrb 1-13 HenpepbiBHOH homh AAMTenbuocrbio ot 

24 HaCOB AO 6 MeCflUeB B 3aBHCHM0CTH OTTOHHOH J10KajlH3am-IH, 

aHanorHHHoro noBapHaraBHocrH AAHTenbHoroAHJ] u pa3JiHHHoro nnaia 

B3aBHCHM0CTH0TT0HH0HJT;0KaJIH3aAHHCMeHJlF0U4HXApyrApyraBTeHeHHe 

cyroK HepaBH0Mepnbix no AJitfrenbHOcm ahcm h i lonen, c npn6jiH>KenneM 
AO.nroro ah>i AnuTenbHOCTb o6biMHbK ahch 6yAer nocroHHHO B03pacrarb 
AO MOMema nepexoAa b nocTOJiHHbra AeHb h to >i<e caMoe 6yAeT 
npOHCxoA[Tbco6biHHbiMHH04aMi-iCHacTynjT:eHHeMAO.nroHHOHH,paccBer 

'AHV.P.15. 
2 AHV.P. 15-16. 
J AHVP.4S. 

14 



6yAer xcwiTb KpyraMH no roprooHrry c noBTopeHHeM cyroHHbix oGoporoB, 
noćne ajihhhoh hohh oh 6yAer pjmibcn pw AHen h Bce3TO BpeMfl CBer 
3apH 6yAeT B03pacTaTb, c npnxoAOM ajmhhoto aha cojmue 6yA6T 
coBepmaTb TaKHOKe nepeMemeHHfl 6e3 3ai<aTa HaicnoHHbiMH KpyraMH, b 
npoivie)KyT04HbiH nepHOAMe>KAy AAMTenbHbiMH ahčm h hohmo oho 6yAer 

BOCXOAHTb H 3aX0AHTb H HaXOAHTbCJI B He6epa3JIHHHOeKOJIHHeCTBO 
BpeMeHH B COOTBeTCTBHH CO CBOHM pacnOJIO^eHHeM. 1 Tlo CJlOBaM 

Jl.B.r.TnjiaKa, oh Haxo«HT ABa poAa cBHflerejibCTB onucaHna 
BbiiuenepeHHCJieHHbixxapaKTq)MCTHK u,npKyMnoJiJipHOH \\ nonapHOH 
o6nacTeH b PB - npaMbie yKa3aH m m Aonrne hohh h 3opw , a TaK>Ke 
noATBep>KAaK)Uj;He hx wm cooTBercTByioiHHe hm MH<j)bi h jiereHAbi. 2 T.o. 
aipa>KeHHaa b HCTOHHHKepenHTHfl ripeacraer y MHAHHCKoro HccjieAOBarejifl 

KaKnpOAyKTo6o6u4eHIW3HaHHHOnpHpOAHO-KnHMaTHHeCKl«HBJieHHHX 

HeTOJibKO yMepeHHoro HTponmecKoro, ho h nonapHoro h npHnonapHoro 
peraoHOB o6HTaHHM HHAoapHeB ~b 3-tom h 3aKinoMaeTca oco6eHHOCTb 
ero repMeHeBTmecKoro noAXOAa h ero OTJii«ne ot oGmenpHHHTOH 
Hai^paracn'i i m<fflHiiiqxTpeKUj}-mPR 

B nepByro onepeAb JI.E.r.TnnaK o6pamaeTca k paccMOTpemno 
coo6meHnfi HCTOHHHKao AJiHTenbHOCTHAra h hohh. MoacHocoraaarrbca 
c hh m b tom, hto no MeHbiuen Mepe b AByx Mecrax PB ynoMHHaeTCfl toa 
H3 12 MecHueB (rota^t maso dvddaga) (1.25.8) hjih 720 Ane« h Honen 

dvddacdram varvarti cakram pari dyam rtasyd a putra mithunaso atra 
sapta catdm umšattšca tastbuh) (1.164.11).' JLE.r.THJiaK npHSHaer, hto 
TaKOH KaneHAapb He xapaicrepeH aa« nonapHOH hjih u,HpKyMnoJWpHOH 
o6nacreH u mot 6biTb cocraBJieH TonbKO b yMepeHHOH jih6o TponHHecKOH 
30He c xapaKTepH3yK)ineH hx OKeAHeBHOH cmchoh aha m hohh. 4 OAHaKO 
VMeHbin He ocTaHaBJTHBaerc« na 3TOM b noncKe AOKa3aTejibCTB CBoen 
TeopHHHyKa3biBaeT,HToPB""3TaTaKHHra,BKOTopoHCTapbieAaHHbieo 

pa3Hbix nepHOAax HacranbKO cMeniai cm, hto Tpe6yera aojito h TepneiMBO 

'AHVP.4849. 
2 AHV.P50. 
3 AHV.P.52. 
4 AHVP. 52-53. 

15 



paGoraTb, Aa6bi nojiyHHTb B03M0>KH0crb pa3AenHTb u KJiaccHtjMUHpoBaTb 
ee coflep»:aHHe b xpoHonon«ecKOM nopaUKe. . . TaKas savana Tpy/ma h 
Aa>Ke neBbinoJiHHMa b HeKOTopux cjiyHaHx'V T.o. oh npH6eraeT k 
HcnbrraHHOMy mctojt/ HaTypajiHCTOTecKOH HHTepnperauHH PB - MeroAy 
Heo6ocHOBaHHoro xpoHOnorHHecKoro Apo&ieHM TeKcra, KoropbiH 3a 200 
ner cymecrBOBaHHfl HHAononra raK h ne nojr/MHn HanpKHOH ocHOBbi h 
npHHHHbi jpra CBoero npHMeHeHHfl b cj)opMe hctkhx h bccmh npH3HaBaeMbix 
KpHTepneB pa3AeJieHH5i TeKda Ha pa3HOBpeMeHHbie cjioh. 
HenocpeACTBeHHbix yKa3annH Ha HHyio i<ajieHAapHyio CHCTeMy b 
naivMTHHKeJI.B.r.THJiaK HenaxoAHTH no3TOMy npeAJiaraernoHCKaTb 
KOCBeHHbie-"BeAH^ecKHHKaneHAapb, HacKOJibKO i-iaM voBecrno, hjih »e 
BeAHHecKaa MH^ojiorna Moryr h He coAep>KaTb npaMbix coo6iu,eHHH, 
yKa3bmaiomHX Ha apKimeoo/K) poAHHy, ho noA hhmh npn TmaienbHOM 
H3yqemffi vamj&K CKa3aTb, p^AOM c hhmh mo>kho o6Hapy>KHTb c})aKTbi, 
KOTopbMM ao chx nop npeHe6perajiH, ho KoropbieB hobom CBere HaynHbix 

OTKpblTHH ^pHBOAflTKBa)KHe^ilIlHM3aK^KWeHH5^M' , . 

K hhcjt/ TaKOBbK JLE.r.TmiaK 0THOcnTynoMHHaHHH o tom, KaK 
HHApayAep)KHBaer cbocio chjtoio nopo3Hb He6o h 3eMjro Kax Koneca ocbio 
(qr si^r wtt sr^fct. iro^ a^FR tjmX^ wl yo akšeneva cakriya 
caclbbir vicvak tastambha prthivlm uta dydm) (X.89.4) H KaK oh 
0T0>KAecTBn5ieTC5i c Cypbeio (cojihucm) h HMeHyeTCH BpamaiourMM 
uiHpoKHe npocrpaHCTBa KaK Koneca KOJiecHHUbi (h^^ot^i^č^ 
^s^prcia survab paryum varamsyendro vavrtyad rathyevacakra) (X.89.2). 
Pio MHeHHK) yneHoro, 3th cthxh hbjihiotch 6yKBajibHbiM onucaHHeM 
Ha6moAaeMOH H3 tohkh nomoca ceBepnoH He6ecHOM nojryccj)epbi, 
nocKOJibKy TOJibKO b 3tom Mecre mo>kho BHAerb nojiHbiH KpyrBpam,eHHfl 
He6a h ero Ten Han, tojtobok) Ha6nioAaTejr>i, 6onee Bcero noxo>KHH Ha 
ABHKeHHe Koneca. J C tohkh 3peHHa cj)H3HHecKOH npnpoAH o6pa30B PB 
noirapHaa HHTepnpeTam-ia JLE.r.THjmi<aB Aai-iHOM cny^iaeAeHCTBHTenbHO 
no3BOJiaeT cAenaTb mar BnepeA no oTHOiueHHK) k rocnoACTByiomeH 
HaTVpajiHCTHHecKOH KOHuenunH, b KOTopofi noAo6Hbie coo6meHH* 



'AHV.P. 52-53. 

: AHV.P 53-54. 
-'AHVP.54-55. 



16 



pacueHHBaioTCfl Jiniub kek noA^epKHBaHHe nocpeAcreoM nepeHOCuoro 
CMbicna cpaBHeHHH moimh 6o>KecTBa. Ho ranoTe3a LU.A.rxoiua o 
ncHxojiorHHecKOM 3HaneHHM nepcoHa>KeH naMflTHHKanpHpa3pemeHHn 
3toh repMeHeBTHHecKOH cHTyauHH HHCKonbKO He ycrynaeT noflxofly 
Jl.B.r.TraaKa h xopomo corjiacyerca CAaHHbiMHTeKcroB Hora,BKOTopbix 
o6Hapy>KHBaeMbieB npouecce HHTeHCHBHofi HHTpocneKUHH ueHTpbi 
C03HaHHfl b ncHXHnecKOM cymecTBe qejiOBeica onHCbmaioTCH KaK 
Bpam,aK)LLiHec5i Koneca (=m cakra) hjih jiOTOCOBbie uBeren (gsR puškara). 
y>KeB PB mu HaxoAHM ynoMHHaHHeo nopo>KAeHMH HcnojiHeHHbiM 
IljiaMeHH BoroM (m^atloarvan) nbinaiomero {^m.aiharyiim) (VII. 1.1) 
orHfl («to athari) (IV.6.8) Co3HaHHH Bojih-Hctuhu i^m^^^agnikraUi 
rtadi) (1.77.3; IV.3.4; V.3.9; VI.9.5) H3 jiOTOca (^^mpuškarad adhi) 
rojioBbi ($Hmurc§xm) BCHKoro 3aHHMaioiueroca caMono>KepTBOBaHHeM 
EMy (m ?m-. vicvasya vdgbatab) (VI. 1 6. 13). ' Ho Ba)KHee AA« Hac tot 

(JHKT, HTO B OTKpblBaiOUUeMCfl HJIH TOHHee pa3BOpaHHBaK3m,eMCH B TOJTOBe 

nenoBeKa (#4^swa clršno dyauh samavartata) (X.90.14) Chhhhh 
Oma (vmjm^dyaus pitar) Čunu Ero CBeTa (^ deva) npeAdaiOT 
BpamaiomMMHCfl - TaK, Ta >Ke Bojm-HcraHa (* agm) j^nmerai KpyraMH 
(w^Hpmpian) (1. 1 1 2.4; 1. 1 27.2; EDL2.9), TaK >Ke i<aK Co3HaHHe-CHna(awRi 
agvind) (LI 17.6), 6ecnpeAejibHaa Bo^KecTBeHHaa Pe^b (smRd-i *maditya 
varuna) (1.79.3; X.93.4) c ynpaBJiHeMbiMH HecoMOH Eio Hcthhoh (=eaq. 
rtom) jieraiomHMH BOKpyr Hee (<M$JRtpan diyanti) (11.35. 14) noTOKaMH 
Ee3HeprHH (IL28.4). PBBOo6meoTMeqaerBKaqecTBeoAHoro H3 npHcymnx 
npnpoAe BojiH-HcTHHbi (a# agni) aTpH6yTOB KpyroBoe ABH)KeHHe (<#*h 
^m^panjmeva svadln gaydi) (VI.2.8). V Co3HaHM-CHJibi (^macund) 
nocrojiHHO noA l iepKHBaercH HajiHHHeBpaiueHHH upera3onoTa(R<«<wdH 
hiranjavartani) (VHT.8. 1) jih6o npoH3BOAAmnx peBym,HH 3ByK <^m 
rudravartam) (VDI.22. 1). CaM oSiUHpHbiH CToyMHbiH Thochc (?^^wg 
nsTTOn indra catakratu maha manasđ) (VL40.4) BOCnpHHHMaeTCfl KaK 
BepTHineecHKOJieco^^ifac^rarn na wtton)(IV.31.4)HCOTHa(5ra 
gata) Ero HAen ABHKerca coBMecrabiM BpameHHeM (mw\ Rd^i sarnanya 
vrtayd) (V.48.2) h pa3BOpaHHBaer CBepHyr/biH hjih npHcyTCTB0BaBiiiHH 

MMMaHeHTHOB HeJIOBeneCKOM C03HaHHH CBeT (wdVčil fk =?f ^m^STST 

'CeMeHei iko A A. npi ipoae.npeBHeBeHi«ecKiiX "»{peuofs" . C. 1 20-1 21 . 

17 



samvartayanto vi ca va.rtaya.nn aha) (VAS 3). 1 00 chji ;j,ymn (mm^ 
catdtman) (1. 1 49.3) Bojih Bora (magni) TCicyr no 1 00 KanajićiM (m&n 
(satanithd) (X.69.7) kek 1 00 KOJiec no ny™ cBoero ispaiueiiHM (j^?m 
gatacakrarh mrkim) (X. 144.4) ii no3TOMy Oi la cpani ii-macrai c coctohluhm 
H3 1 00 KonueiiTpiiHCCKi« KOJieu, yKpenjiciineM (g{5ra#: pir gatabljiijib) 
(VII. 1 5.14). ri03HaBiliHH Hc™ny-yM mhcthk (cara*? s^Mmm jagrabha 
riban) medhmn rtasyd) yTBep>KflaeT ; mo po>KAacTCM 3anoHO b (j)opMe 
cnaiomero EnocMca (^i^^m^aham ivdjani surja) (VIII. 6. 10), a 
nocneflHHH BbirriAAMT Kax Bpamaiomeecfl kojicco {^^^šwHsTnyasya 
cakrarii vartamdnam) (TV.28.2). ITocpeAcrBOM Ero JiyHen b qenoBeqecKyio 
JiHHHOCTb npH3biBaior npoHMKHyrb Ha npeKpacHO BepmueHCJi KonecHHue 
(srai W7 g%n^ ari m fra f^d^ft: ato rathena suvrtd na a gatam 
šakam suryasya racmibhih) Co3HaHHe-CHJiy (smmacvind) (1.47.7; cm. 
TaK>Ke 1. 1 83.3). Fhochc KaK HMny.nbc Ebiraa ($<$m^surya savitar) 
(TV.14.2) onucbrnaeroi KaKBpaiuaroLUHHCfl nepes Hepnoenpocrpancmo 
(an spnfa ^ra JRmnt a kršnena rajasa vartamdno) (1.35.2) He6biTHfl 
(pm^kršiiam abhvam) (1.92.5) Becco3naTenbHoro. 3tot BocnoAHu 
riopo>KfleHHHX Hm Cynj,ecTB faH ^ ^ mid : wm bhuvanasja prajdpatih 
sautd) (IV53.2) b HaHa^ecyti}ecTBOBaHH5! MHpapa3BopaHHBaerrra noAo6Ho 
cnupajiH H3 3ojioToro 3apoAbiuia (wmrn-- m < Mw hiranjagarbhah sam 
avartatdgre)(X.\2l.l u 10). 

lio aiOBaM JI.BJ.THJiaKa, B/i,pyroM Mecre (1.24. 10) hctohhhk 
oriHCbiBaeT noimjiHiomeecH ho^io bhcoko mj\ tojiobom HaSjuo^aienH h 
HCHe3aiomee ahčm (a He BocxoAflm,ee h 3axoAflinee) co3Be3AHe Eojibuioh 
MeABCAHUbi (^ ^ ^ ntsara: 3^ đmž ye rkša mhitdsah ucca),mo 
Mox<eT Ha6nioflaTbca TOJibKO b npHnojrapHOM peraoHe. OAHaKO b AaHHOM 
cn>'Hae noA MeABeAeM (ws> rkšal)) mtokct no,n,pa3yMeBaTbCH Chskdihhh 

(^5^)rHOCHc(^kfe)(IV.26.1;IV31.13-15;Vni.93.lH4) J nocKOjn>Ky 
HaTHCK nopo)KAaiouj,HX Ero (^¥^w^janayanta. indriyarii) (1.85.2) Mbicne- 
chji (w= gro marutah sumatim) (1. 1 66.6) cpaBHHBaeTca c MeABeAeM 
(^ f m irkT: uihicim strt rfeo «đ to marutah cimivdrii amo) (V.56.3), 
a b ApyroM Mecre cbinoM MeABeAfl (mdrkša) Ha3broaioT noMOiub Hi-iApu 
(i^ićf zWrota) hjth hhctvjo CHJiy bojim (^putakratu) (VIII.68.1 5-17). 



'AHV.P.55. 

18 



Ha3TOMnpHBOAHMbieJI.B.r.THnaKOMAOKa3aTejibcrBaHajiHHHH 
b PB npaMbix ynoMMHaHHH ceBepHOH He6ecHOM nojrycd>epbi HcnepnbiBaiOT 
ce6a h oh BbiHy>KAeH npH3HaTb, hto "b PnrBefle Mano TaKHX naccaaceH, 
KOTopbieonHCbmanH 6bi ABM>KeHHe He6ecHOH nojiycc})epbi hjim 3BČ3A Ha 
HeK". 

rio3TOMy yneHbiH o6paujaeTca k ap>toh rpynnecoo6meHHH 
naMATHMKa, KOTopue, no ero MHeHmo, CBMAeTejibCTByioT o tom, hto 

flpeBHeHllIHH H3BeCTHbIH BeAHHeCKHM TOA 6bIJl nOJIflpHbIM H n03TOMy 

AejiHJiCfl Ha CBerjibiH (^mdevaydna) H TČMHbiH i^mptrpm) nepHOAbi 
no mecTb MecflueBKa^AbiH. 1 OAHaKOTaKoe3aKmoHeHHeAeJiaeTCfl 
Jl.B.r.TRnaKOM Ha ocHOBe BecbMa cnopHbix CBeAeHHH - Beflt penb hašt 
JiHUib o IlyTH CBera (%rcw devaydm) h ITyTH Otuob hjih 3amHTHHKOB 
{np^ph-pia). HcaieAOBaTenb HCi<a>KaeTCMbicji CTHxaX18.1,BKOTopoM 
CMepTb (f% mrtyoh) npH3biBaioTyHTH no co6crBeHHOH o6paraoH no 
OTHOineHHio k E[yTH CBeTa Aopore (^ ^ %m \wwjas te sva itaro 
deiayand),-Mcfou 3Aecb peHb HAer o riyTH Otuob hjm yMepiUHX npeAKOB 
aBTopoB thmhob (f^mpipjdna) - ho BeAb AaHHbiH TqpMHH 3Aecb BOo6me 
HeynoMHHaerc5i. Bo btopom cjr/nae, KaK cnHTaer JI.E.r.THJiaK, no3T 
roBopHT o tom , hto CJiBnuan o AByx Aoporax - oahoh Ana 6oroB, a ApyroH 
j\nn otuob (g ^ra snVra n^th^ ^trft^či ^twm.dve sruti agrinavam 
pitrnam aharii devdndm uta martydndm)(X.i8.\5). Ho 3TO coo6meHHe 
MO>KeT6brrb nepeBeAeHopa3HHHHbiMH cnoco6aMH-yT^.EjM3apeHKOBOH 
roBopHTCH o AByx nyrax npeAKOB (tw^ld;ve sruti pitrnam) - 6oroB 
H CMepTHbix (<=ihih,3či HA\-\\\devdndm uta martjdndm) - hto 6onee 
tohho nepeAaer CMbicn opHTMHana, nocKOJitio/ b ornHHHe or JLErTroiaKa 
OTeHecrBeHHbiH nepeBOAHHK yHHTbiBaer eiue h cjiobo w^mman^amm 
"cMepTHbix". A y caMoro aBropuTeTHoro HeMeuKoro HHTepnperaTopa PB 
K.O.renbAHepaAaeTcacjieAyiomeeTOJiKOBaHHe"ZweiWege(5iicf l if« 
sruti), so horte lch (3ttVr ^ agrinavam aharfi) von den Vatern (ftrpT 
pitrnam), fur die Gotter und die Sterblichen (%hih3či ^An^devdndm 
uta martjdndm). B AByx nocJieAHHX BapnaHTax nepeBOAa haćt 
npoTHBonocraBJieHHe Chji CBera fa deva) h CBH3aHHbix co CMepTbio (*m 



'AHV.P.55. 
-AHV.P.61. 



19 



martja), a oraioAb He Otuob (ftg pitr), kćik 3to Ha6jiiOflaeTCH y 
JI.B.r.THJiaKa. A npn OTcyTCTBHH ormo3MUHH Mexpy n*yTeM CBera (^h 
devajma) h nyreM Otuob (n^h pitrjana) y HH^HMCKoro KOMMeHTaTOpa 
Hcnesaer ocHOBaHHe CHHTaTb nocjieAHHfi H3 roraTeMHUM. Hto >Ke ocraera 
ot npeano)KeHHOH hm peKOHcrpyKUHH roAa H3 AByx LuecTHMecflHHbix 
AHeBHOH (žgrndeuzjana) H hohhoh (i^m pitrjana) nojiOBHH? Hctomhhk 
HHHero HeroBopHT o tom, hto sto AeHcrBHTenbHO 6bmn nepHOAU BpeMeHH 
h hto ohh zpiHJTHCb no 6 MecjiueB, a TaK>Ke He npeflOCTaBjraeT AaHHux o 
tčmhoh npHpoAeft^H pitrjana. C yneTOM BbiiueH3no)KeHHoro mu He 

HaXOAHM B03MO)KHbIM npHHflTb TeOpHK) JI.B.F.THJiaKa KOCBeHHOM 

ynoMHHaHHH PB nojrapHbK aha h hohm , a caM oh nHiner, hto ' 'PHTBefla ne 
coAep>KHT neTKHx yKa3aHHH Ha AeHb h HOHb, AJi^iUHecji no mecTb 
MecHueB". 

JI.ET.THJiaK nonaraeT, mto buxoa MO>KeT 6biTb HafiAen 
nocpeACTBOM aHajiraaruMHOB KVujac, o6pa3 KOTopon jiko6u co Bcefi 
onperceneHHOCTbio roBopnT o MaTepHanbHOH npnpoAe onHCbmaeMoro hm 
cj)eHOMeHa - yrpeHHeH 3apn." Hmm *m.pišas nponcxoAHT ot niarojibHoro 
KopHfl^~ j iKs^HjrH3^-?6^"3a)KHraTbra" h b naMaTHHKeoHaHMeHyercfl 
jp/huihm H30 Bcex Cbctom CBeTa (?re *m\un\ ?wt. greštham jjotišatn 

jptr) (1. 1 1 3 . 1) - HO peHb Wffl He c})H3HHeCKOM chahhh, a GeCCMepTHOM 

h npHcyTCTByK)Uj;eM bo Bcex cymecTBax (j^^^frg^i/^oar amrtam 
■vicvajarrjam) (VH.76. 1) CBere hx ncHXHHecKoro cepAUa (^*mkjjrdaya 
jjotir) (VI. 9.6). Yujac He TonbKO nopo>i<AaeT Chjiu CBeTa (<4HiHHidi 
demnam mdtd) (1.113.19), ho TaioKe npHHOCHT c co6oio 6oraTCTBO Pera 
Bora (sm ; w^ x ^^ dravinah suvacah ušaso) (III.7. 1 0), Ero cnaAOCTb 
(r^t madhudha) (BJ.61.5), MHorne Hacjia>KAeHHJi {^m purubhojo) 

(VII.75.8), 3HepTHH H H306HJIHe AyXOBHOrO BHAeHHfl (^iciHHciiHHg^ 

ušo vajena vajini puramdhir) (HI.61.1). IIo3TOMy Ka>KAUH CMepTHUH 
>Ka>KAeT OTBeflaTb ymac (m$ ^- # ^ kas te ušah bhuje marto) 
(1.30.20) h xoHerpoAHTbC5i ot Hee KaK cbiH ot MaTepH (j^^^ matur 
na s'snaai)} (VE8 1 .4; cm. TaioKeIV.2. 1 5). Mu coraaiuaeMoi c JLE.r.TnnaKOM, 
Kor^a oh yKa3broaeT, mto nepcoHa>Kyiuac b ApeBHeBeAHHecKOH MH(jx)JiorHH 

■AHV.P.66. 
2 AHV.R67. 

20 



He Mor B03HHKHyTb h noJiyHHTb apKoe h BbicoKO xyAO>KecTBeHHoe 
Bbipa>KeHHe b 20 rHMHax h 6ojree qeM 300 ynoMHHaHHax b PB TOJibKO 
noTOMy, hto npe^KH apneB ncnbiTbiBajiH 6ecnoKOHCTBO no noBO,ny Toro, 
hto yrpeHHfl a 3apa He npHfler noćne npoAOjmaiomeHca HecKOJibKO nacoB 
hohh u hm HeneM 6yAeT ocBemarb cboh MecrooSHraJTHiHa. HccjieAOBarejib 
noflBOAHT nac k Heo6xoAHMOCTH noApa3yMeBaTb 6oneeAJiHTejibHbiH 
xapaKTep hohh h BHAerb b Yuiac AOJiryio apKTHHecKyro 3apio - no 
cpaBHeHHK) c o6biHHOH HaTypaJiHCTH<iecKOH HHTepnpeTauneH sto 
3HaMMTejibHoe ABH^eune BnepeA- Ho h npn pa3peujeHHH AaHHOH 
repMeneBTHqecKOH cHTyau,HH cHMBonHnecKaa ncHxonoraqecKaa 
KOHiienura lU.A.rxouja 2 HHqyrb HeycrynaeT noAXOAy JI.E.r.TnnaKa- 
neBHbi thmhob (?# rši) »a>KAyT BbiHTH H3 TbMbi Becco3HaTejibHoro (m-- 
mp tamab avayunam) (VI.21 .3) h yBHAerb BejiHKoe HCTHHHoe CHHHHe 
(^*m\¥\ satyd mahati devi) (VII.75.7) B03AK)6jieHHOH THoenca 
\^mim suryasya yošd) (VH.75.5), KOTopoe3acraBHT cKpbiTbca cHJibi 
JIkh TbMbi (pan drubastama) (VH.75. 1) H AacT 3HaHHe (^m vavimdni) 
(1.92.2) hjih HanojiHHT hm femjjayunavat) (IV.5 1.1). 

JLE.r.THjraK naxoAHT AOKa3aTenbcrBO npoflOJDKHTenbHOCTH 
ynoMHHaeMOH b PB 3apn (T.e. ee noJispHoro xapaicrepa) b coo6meHHH o 
pacuBeTaHHH no 3aBeTy BapyHbi Tpexyuiac (^roj^aremK&s tisro 
avardhayan) (Vffl.41.3) - *Ko6bi b stom cjiyqae peqb haćt o qacTHX 
apicrn^ecKoro paccBera/ 3Aecb mh Ha6jnoAaeM npHMeHeHHe mnpoKO 
pacnpocTpaHeHHoro b HaTypanHcrmecKOH uiKonerepMeHeBTHKH MCTOAa 
Bbi6opoHHoro aHanH3a TeKCTa - yqeHbiH flOjraeH 6biTb xopomo 
ocBeAOMJieH o tom, hto Bbipa^aeMaa pa3JMHHbiMH cnoco6aMH 
TpoHCTBeHHOCTb xapaicrepHa aah onncaHHH Chji CBera (fc dem) noBCfOAy 
b ncTOMHHKe-Ta ^eHcTHHHaa Penb (w varuna) onncbiBaeTca KaK 
BMeiHaioma« b ce6a TpH chmhh hjih TpH 3eMnn (ra#?MTHfena^^ 
arc^ra^^ tisro dydvo nibitd antar asmin tisro bhumi) (VH.87 '.5) H 
coBMecrrHO c JIio6oBbio Bora (ra mitra) HMeHyerca noAAep>KHBaK>meH 
TpH CBeTJlbix MHpa (*^ri trlrocand) hjih TpH chhhhh (iširci^mmr 



'AHV.P.67. 

2 SASV.P. 126-131,283-286,364,429433. 

3 AHV.P.69. 



21 






dyun) hjih TpH npocrpaHCTBa (hr^iito trini rajamsi) (V.69. 1 ). H b tom 
>KecaMOM r>iMHecynoMKHaHHeMTpexyLuacroBopHTca o npHHaj]jie>KaLiJMx 
Bapy He rpex 3eMJiax hjih Tpex bmcluhx o6HTejiax (šm ^K^m m : fX 
strjpt tisrv bhimiir adln kšitaJ] trtr uttardni) (VIH.41 .9). TaK>Ke H3Becrno, 
mto BMecre c ymac npHXO,raT ipn »capa (^q4e^<H<+^ trayo gbarmdsa 
iišasam sacante) (VH.33.7). HaTypariHCTHHecKHeTOJiKOBaTenH HHKaK He 
oOfcflCHflJOT 3Ty ocoSeHHOCTt PB, b to Bpetvia KaK III. A.rxoiH npe^naraeT 
norHHHoe o6LHCHeHHe - no/j, TpoHCTBeHHOCTbio Chji CBera (<& deva) 
nojipa3yMeBaeTca xapaKTepH3yfoinee hx Co3HaHHe Ejia>KeHCTBa Ebima (sg. 
ftč^3TH^ sat-cit-ananda) - sto oneHb H3BecTHafl đpopMyjia j\m 

0603HaHeHHM Bora B HHTJHHCKOM MHCTHUH3Me. 

JI.BTTnnaK npHBori,HT ara rj,0Ka3aTejibCTBa rjjiHTent»HOCTH 
npoTeKaHHa BocneBaeMOH b PB ymac eiue HecKOJibKO 6ojiee3HaHHMbix 
coo6meHHH - ee npocaT He3aTsrHBaTb Aonro co CBoefi pa6oTOH, HTo6bi 
cojiHue HecokT.no eeKaKBopan oGMaH^HKa^f^rc^arc: i^f^f^T 
*%^i m\ R3 5ma ^r sim ma cirarh tanutha apah / na it tvd stenam 
jatha ripurii tapati suro arciša) (V.79.9); 3a MeAJiHTejibHOCTb HHApa 
pa36HBaeT ee noB03Ky (**jim 3to= h Pm ?FS\vajrendna ušasah sam 
pipsša indras) (II. 1 5.6); onHCbmaeTCH ee Aonroe (w^cacvat) noaBJieHHe b 
npoinuoM (sra^c rjto^r cacvat pura vi uvdsa devi) (1.1 13.13) H ee 
caMaa 3aTH>KHafl npHpo/j,a (wsm cacvattama) (1. 1 1 8. 1)." B AByx nocneflHHX 
cjiyHajrxT^[.EnH3apeHK0Ba flaeTanbTepHaTHBHbiH nepeBonHTeM HeMeHee 

M.MoHbep-VHJlbHMC B CBOČM CJTOBapeyKa3bIBaeT Ha B03MO>KHOCTb 

noHHMaHHH cnoBa ^'s^cacvat KaK "perpetual/ continual/ endless". 
IIoAHepKHBaHHe npoAOJDKHTejibHOCTH ymac HariHup, mto AaeT 
npeHMymecTBa non^pHOH Teopnn repMeHeBTHKH no cpaBHeHHio c 
oSiHenpHHHTbiM HaTypajiHCTHHecKHM noAxoAOM. JI.B.r.THJiaK OTMenaer 
TaioKe, qTOHapafly CTepN4HHOM3^i/MijJia o6o3HaqeHHa CMeHbiTbMbi 
CBeTOM b HCTOHHHKeynoTpe6jiaerc5i noHHTue^^/ifoHJii-i "nonHbiH 
paccBer" - a sto roBopuT o AnHTenbHOCTH AaHHoro cjjeHOMeHa. 



SASV.P. 171,296,337-338. 

;AHV.R70. 

Wiier-Williams M. A Sanskrit-English Dicoonaiy. Delhi, 1 997 (najiee MWS ED). P. 1 060. 

4 AHV.P.70. 






22 



HccneAOBarejib Aanee noApo6no aHajiH3Hpyer B03MO>KHbie 
BapnaHTbi noHHMaHHa cn«al.l 1 3.10 h npHXOAHTK3aKJiioHeHMK), hto oh 
onHCbiBaerflOJTTHH BpeMeHHOH pa3pbiB wieyKpy mwn rpynnaMH HAymMx 
coBMecTHO (ffffl«M!K)K bljavdti) 30pb HJIH 6anbui0H npoMe)KyTOK 
hx o6-beAHHeHHoro npe6biBaHHfl b He6e - hto b jik>6om ar/nae mokct 
6biTb oGtacHeHO TOJibKO b paMKax nojiapnon, a He KaKOH-JinGo hhoh 
HaTypajiHCTHHecKOH HHTepnpeTauHH PB. Eirre oaho coo6meHHe 
naMJiTHHKa (VTL76.3) mo>kho noHJrrb b tom cMbicne, hto nepeABOCxoAOM 
cojiHua npoxoAMJio MHoro Anen, na npoTfl>KeHHH KOTopbK 6bUiaBHAHa 
3apa (diHi ^ i H =i^k^w<Mi4)HH^Rdi ?]jfp? ^\- m. ^ ^ tdni id abdni 
bakddni dsan prdanam id itd suryasya yatah pari mah dadrkše) - a TaKoe 
onHcaHHe noAXOAHT TOJibKO k apKTHHecKOMy perHOHy. To *e caMoe 
mo>kho CKa3aTb h 06 ynoMHHaHHH MHorax eme He nonHOCTbio 
nepeiuenmHX b paccBeT 30pb (aT^j^fiHHsTO;: avjušta bhujaslr ušdsab) 
(H.28.9). 

JT.B.r.TMJiaK b cbjoh c 3thm o6paw,aeT BHHMaHHe Ha ApyroH cpaicr 
- npn BocxBaneHHH ymac b oahhx h Tex >Ke rHMHax ynoTpe6ji5fiOTCfl h 
eAHHCTBeHHoe, h MHO>KecTBeHHoe hhcjto; nocneAHee BCTpenaeTCH 

AOBOJILHO HaCTO H npH 3TOM peHb HACT 06 OAHOBpeMeHHOM nOHBJieHHH 

MHorHX3opb(I.92.1-3;IV.51.2-6H8-ll;VI.64.1;VIL78.3;VE79.2),BqeM,no 
MHeHHTO yneHoro, AonycrHMO BHAerb onpeAeneHHe nojwpHOH 3apH xaK 
cocTOflineH H3 pw cyroHHO AOJirwx nacreH. Mbi modih 6m Ao6aBHTb or 
ce6a, hto noATaKoe onpeAeneHHe noflxoAHT h ynoMHHaHM nojiHbix 
paccBeTOB yTpeHHeH 3apH (mm^s^nšaso vyuštišu) (X.35. 1 h 5) hjih 
paccBeTOB hohh i^&im- vyuštm kšapJ?) (1.44.8). Jl.B.r.TmiaK HaxoAHT 
b PB cthx (1. 1 23.8), b KOTopoM, no ero MHeHmo, Aa>Ke Ha3bmaercfl TOHHoe 
hhctio cyTOHHO AOJum HacreH Kpy>i<eHHfl normpHOH 3apH no ropH30HTy- 
b hčm yKa3biBaeTC3, hto 30pH npoxoAHT KpyraMH (mw^pn yantt) 3a 
oahh AeHb TpHAuaTb tioA>KaH h npH stom Ka^aa cjieAyeT CBoeMy Kypcy 
hjih ruraHy (^ kratum) (aHTOT^mra ^^ht^^^s ^4, ^ ^ ^i : 

'AHV.P. 70-72. 
2 AHV.P. 72-76. 
3 AHVP. 76-78. 
4 AHV.P. 78-80. 



23 



anavadyas tnmgatam yojanany ekaika kratum pari yanti sadyab); 
i iccneflOBaTenb conocraRnaer sto coo6meHne c ynoMHHaroieM TpHAUa™ 
ctohhok hjih o6nTanHu; (*m dimna) cojfflua (** svali), b KOTOpbK oho 
\X2i^\\i zv[^\mtui^f^mn^mtriyngad dbama vi rdjati)(X. 189.1 h3) 
h MbMX-TO TpHAUaTH iuaroB (mm^^m^tnmgat pada nyakramlt) 
(VI.59.6) (no ero cjioBaM-3apH); oh npncoBOKyrui5ier k 3TOMy 3HaneHHe 
TepMHHa^}^w"ynp5DKKa" h orao/ia "npoflenbiBaeMbiH 3a Aenb Ha 
ynp«>KKe 0Tpe30K nyTH" h OTMenaeT, hto c ero noMombio MO>KeT 
onHCHBaTbCH h AHeBHoe ABH)KeHHe cojiHua ^%*mjiuryo yojanam) 
(V.54.5); HaKOHeu oh yKa3biBaeT Ha cpaBHeHneViuac c kojiccom (w^t 

^čW«ii fi«m IW VđOTtSXW)P.61.3)HHaOCHOBaHHH^BCeH 

cobokvtihocth AaHHbix 3aKJTKwaer, hto penb Hfler 06 apicrnnecKOH 3ape 
,AiiHTejibHOCTbK) 30 cyroK no 24 naca m ee CBeie, Kpy>KameM no ne6y Ha 
npOTH^eHHH Bcero stoto BpeMeHH. Ilo cnoBaM Jl.E.r.Tnjiai<a, aBTopbi 
n imhob onKCbmaiOT u o6bHHyro ©Ke«HeBHyio sapio k iory ot nonapnoro 
KpyTa h Ka»AbiHpa3 HaAorajarejibHO ro^-iaib BceflaHHbie, HTo6bi onenarb 

npaBHJIbHbIH BblBOfl. 

lIpH pa3pemeHHH BbiiueH3Jio>KeHHbix repMeHeBTHqeci<Hx 
CHTvauHM nonapHaa Teopna HHTepnperaunH naMHTHraca noBcrc>Ay 
0Ka3broaeTC« eonees^eKTHBHbiM nHcrpyMeHTOM ero noHHtviaHHH no 
cpaBHeHHK) c o6menpHH5rroH Hai^pamcranecKOHTOTKOH spenHA. OAHaKO 
ncHXOJioraMecKHH noAXOArepMeHeBTHKH lll.A.rxouja h b stom cnynae 
AeMOHCTpHpyeT cboio AeHCTBeHHOCTb h no3BOJwer 0XBaraTb m jioraHHO 
o6bacHHTb Bce aneMeHTbi o6pa3a Yiijac. TaM, rAe HaTvpajiHCTHMecKHe 

HHTepnperaTopbi roBopnT npuMHTUBHOM MarMHecKOM MbmureHHH 
ApeBHeBeAHHecKHx nosTOB h 06 hx Hai-iBHOH Bepe b to, hto ohh Moryr 

CBOHMH MOJTHTBaMH yCKOpHTb npHXOA3apH (6yAb TO ©KOTieBHOH HJIH 
apKTHHeCKOH),OHBIWn , npOUCCCB3paillI1BćlHH5IBAOXHOBeHI-IbIMHn03TaM^ 

nyTČM nOCTOflHHOH MblCJieHHOH KOHUČHTpaUHH (^^^^r^H 

to M nftPn^ devlm ušasam svar dvahantlm prati vipraso 
matiblnr jarante) (V.80.1 ; cm. TaK>Keffl.61 .6) nx BHyTpeHHero AJUieBHoro 
CBeTa (^^mhrdaya j)vhr) (cm. Bbime). M b OTBer tot npiixcwiT Kai< 

'AHV.P. 83-86. 
IAHV.P.87. 

24 



nbinaiomee co3HaHHe (Ara ušo prema) (m.61 . 1) u JIhk HecBJBaHHOCTH 
BecnpefleiibHOCTH (^i^maditir anlkam) (1.113.19) H pacKpbmaer 
CMepTHbiM 6oraTCTBO MbicJiH (sri^raft^rra**^ vjdvar matim vi 
robni rmrtyU7yah)(}M.9.\6). IIpwiaraeMyio Jl.BJ.TnJiaKOMTpaicroBKy 
o6pa3a Yiuac Hejib3a npHHHTb eure u noTOMy, hto TorAa CTaHeT 
HeB03MO>KHbiM noHHMaHHeiaKHX coo6meHHH, rAepeqb Hn,er HeTOJibKO o 
C03flaHHH eio cBeTa h H3rHaHHH MpaKa («(^^iTk.^RHi a^rfra akar 
jyotir bddhamdm tamarim), ho h tom, hto BMecre c Heio npnxoAHT BpeMH 
3a>KHraTb oroHb (sp^mm^im^iablmd agnirii samidhe mdnušdnam) 
ii HanHHaeT ABHraTbca Bce >KHBoe (fttj sfcf r^rt! ^r vicvam jivarh 
prasuvanti c^^)(W77.1)-Hey>KejiH>KeHa npoTJDKeHHH HecKOJibKHX 
MecaueB aojitoh nojropHOH hohh jiioah HeocBemanH oraeM cboh munima 
u Bce >KHBoe He uieBejimiocb BOo6me? Tohho TaK>Ke b ApyroM Mecre 
yTBep>KAaeTca, hto Yiuac npo6y>KAaeT Bce cymecTBa (^ai^n^iH 
nmuša ajlgar bhuvandm vigud) (1.113.4) htm Bce>KHBoe Ana ABH>KeHHfl 
(fetiite^šm^ivigvath jlvam carase bodkajanti) (1.92.9) -3HaHHT 
jih aro, hto npeAKH HHAoapneB h Bce^cHBOTHbieBnaAajra b AJiHTenbHyio 
3HMHTOK) cn^HKy? H CHOBa npo6y>KAaiomyio ^m^\jaraymđ) (cm., Hanp., 
VII.75.5) yiuac npocHT pa36yAHTb aBTopoB thmhob (^ara^rag^t no 
adya bodhaya ^ )(V.79.1;cM.TaKKeVI.65.1).npHeenoHBJieHHHno3T 
npH3biBaer moAefi noAHHMaTbca (^^iudlrdl7vam)-T.e. tjmTHHecKH 
BOCKpecHyTb, nocKOJibKy yxoAHT TbMa (3wwh,w apa prdgat tamab) n 
npHX0AHT Cbct (an ;jwm a jjotir eti) h Ha hhx HaxoflHT J\ux&Em 
)Kh3HH (sftšt *m^ : ^^K fivo asur nab dgdd) hohh AOcraraiOT Mecra 
npOAneHM CBoero cymecTBOBaHHfl (sFi^'reRftraaflg: dganma yatra 
pratirante dyuh) (1.113.16). Yujac OTKpbiBaeT hm ABepn (ft pt * -<m-- vi 
duro nah dvah) (1. 11 3.4) CBera cbohm cmahmcm (rii ^ *ng^ ft sra^ 
sfiDKift^: ušo yad adya bhdnund vi dvdrdv rnavo divah)(lASA5)a 
npHHOCHT bcc Ero chjim (fk'mš^^^-zmšFi.vigvan devdn d vaha 
ušas tami) (1.48. 1 2). Cbomm 3£BKHraHHeM OHa nopo>KAaeT 3HaHHe h apKHM 
6jiecKOM npo6y>KAaeT mmcthkob Ana coBepiueHHOro MbiiujreHHfl (mmđi 
^p\ ^mft ftRičft mw srfrn: uša uchanti vayund krnoti vibhdtl 
saumanasdya ajlgah) (1.92.6). rHriOTraa ncHxonornHecKoro CHMBonraMa 
o6pa30B PB no3BOJi5ieTo6-bacHHTb Bceoco6eHHocTH nepcoHa>Ka^g.wiB 
(MbicneHHbiH nprobiB, AnHTentHOcrb nomnmm, BpaiAaioiiryioGi npHpoAy, 

25 



om-icaHi-ie oflHOBpeMeHHo KaK e^iiHCTBa u MHOKecTBeHHOCTH) h 
ynoTpe6jreHHe HapjiAy c hhm /u™ o6o3HaneHHH HacTynjieHH$i 
npocBeraeHHa neiiOBenecKoro C03HaHHM repumi&^kvyušti. Mu ne 
McmeM coraaarrbcs c Jl.B.r.TmiaKOM b ero noHHMaHHH csiOBa^fam 
Km Kypca hjih nnaHa,nBH>KeHHJi 3opb - 58 pa3 noBTopaioLHHHOi b PB snHTer 
rHocraHecKoroyMa (^s,mwmindra maha manasa)m^gatakratu 
T.^.EjiH3apeHKOBa nepeAaer KaK Ctoymhum h npHMepHo TaKoro >Ke 
TOJiKOBaHHH npH«ep»cHBaeTCfl n.A.rpHHuep, y m.A.rxoma oh 
HHTepnperHpyerca KaK croKpaTHas CHJia bojih (will-power). Mexjjy rtu 
Yiuac onHCbrnaeroi KaK caMaa HcnojiHeHHan Hmjpu fam mdratama) 
(Vn.79.3) h e^ymaa Ha Ero 1 00 CHJiax fra $&■■ ot gatom rathebhih ma) 
(1.48.7) h no3TOMy Oh cpaBHHBaeTCH c nero (^zm& indra uša iva) 
(X. 134.1). HtvieHHO Ero Bone fakratuin) cjieflyiOT TpH/j,naTb ee nađen b 
CBoeMKpyroBOM £BH>KeHHH b o^hoh BcnuuiKe CBera (wwpw^ 
^^TR^rafra: anavadjas tnmcatam yojandny ekaika kraturh pari 
janti. sadyxJj) (cm. Bume). I^Hcppa 30 noJi^aerca nyreM yMHO>KeHHaTpex 
Ha ziec^Tb. ymac-3TO coBepineHHaH PeHb Bora fan-. suvacah) (cm. 
Bbime) h KaK TaKOBaa OHa HcnojmeHa HcraHHoro Co3HaTejibHoro 
Bna)KeHCTBa h no3TOMy b hctohhhkc roBopHTca o Tpex yuiac (a^iaw 
ušas toro) (VHI.41.3) hjth o Tpex penax (Mmw tisro vdca) (IX.97.34; cm. 
TaioKeVIL 1 1 . 1 ; 1X33 .4; DC50.2). Ohh hhcxoaht b HenoBenecio/K) jmnHocTb 
nepea CBepKaromHe MbiciiH (fewm uvasmto dJxyo) (K.99.2), a hmchho 
nepe3 flec^Tb MUCJieH (s^fr^.- dacabbir vivasvatah) (Vm.72.8) Vuz 
CBera (Rarfeia manau vivasvati) (VHI.52. 1) h HanonHHioT hx co6oio - 
OTCiOAa h noHBjraerca hhcjio 30. 

H3jto)khb o6Hapy>KHBaeMbie hm b PB cBi^eremcrBa ynoMHHaHHa 
nojiapHOH 3apH, JI.B.r.TnnaK o6pamaera k aHanH3y CBefleHHH naMaronKa 
06 apKTinecKOH hohh b Mucjm o 6opb6e Hnnpu c pa3Jimofn>iMH BparaMH 
fa$dasyu)-cK>m yneHUH OTHOCHTynoMHnaHHeo /uiHTejibHOM (<(% 
aq dirgbam tama) (1.32. 1 0) hjih 6eccoiiHeMHOM MpaKe (a^aara asurye 
torm) (V.32.6); KpoMesToro JI.B.r.TnjiaK yKa3biBaer u na Apyrne flamobie 
-Ha npocb6bi k HHApe, Aahth, Mmpe h BapyHe noMOHb aBTopaM rnMHa 
AOCTHHb HJHpoKoro 6eccTpaiHHoro CBera h cnacro ot CMep™ b aojitoh 
TbMe (3im ww ^ikiR^ *n at &\ arm a^am^ urvacja amabhajam 



26 



rvotir indra ma no dtr&i abbi nagan tamtsrdb) (11.27. 1 4) h K An.BHHaM 
Aan, cHJiy flJia nepecenenH« Mpana (m * ftrcifeen **M ™< ; 
<m&mmčmy<i nah piparadagvina jyotiŠmatl tamastirab tamasme 
rasahamišam) (1.46.6), na coo6meHHH o cjimuikom ppnrou npe6biBanHH 
AniH b n poAOJi>KHTenbHoftTbMe(5^^^wairaftB:/)wgH« dirgbam 
tama dgaptialo) (X. 1 24. 1 ) h na ero CBeneune Hepra nenpepbiBHbie ura 
AnamHeca homh (wt^toh^ : feapo fei samjatab) (EL2.2), Ha MOJib6y 
k hohh craib jierKO npoxoAHMOH Ana moAeii (h«5w*h «4> *to« #uui) 
(X 127 6); mokho corjiacrnica c HCcnejjpBaTaieM btom, hto ©KecyroHHO 
naGjiioAa'eMafl h no3TOMy coBepujeHHO npeACKa3yeMafl cuemm u hohh 
b TponHMecKOH hjih yMepe H HOH 30He ne Moraa ciaib a^eKBaTHbiM 
nporoTMnoM noAo6Hbix MHc})OJiorHHecKHX cK)>t<eTOB. OAHaKO c 
ncmoJiormecKOH tohkh speHHH IlI.A.rxouia MpaK i^mjmus) h HOHb 
fa& ram) b no3THHecKOH penn ApeBHe B eAHHecKHX mmcthkob 
CHMBOJiH3H Pyi arnepHOAbi3aTeMHeHHorocymecmoBanHHHenoBeHecKoro 

co3HaHHa H-raKnenepHOAbi Moryr6biTbBecbMaAOJirMMH h y>KacHbiMH u 
Aarce npoAOJDKaibra bcio >KH3Hb HenoBeica- no3TOMy chjibi CBera (¥ 

flktt) npOCHT npHHTH H npeKpaTHTb HX. 

JT B r.THJiaK npMBOAHT HmepecHoe onHcaHHe jm u hohh (m 

mdjo-mm) KaK HM eiomHxpa3HbieTena-CHaK)meeH nepHoe-anoH h 

tcmhoh cecTep-6jiH3neuoB (jm ^ra w v® m^K^^ wm*^\ 

w^W=*^ nana cakrdte yamya vapumši tayoranyad rocate 

kršnamanyat I cydvl ca jadaruši ca svasdrau) (111.55. 1 1); ohh TaK>Ke 

HMeHyroTCH HMeromHMH pasnHHHbie o6jihkh (f^ ww/* hjih f^ 

^ (1. 1 1 3.3; 1. 123.7) - no ero cnoBaM, bo Bcex noAo6Hbix cjiyHaax 

penb hačt 06 MMeiomHX pa3Hyio fljmreUbHDcrb («*$ nana vapumši 

vumttbvirupemvi %& višurupe) nojra P Hbix h mpKyMnojiapHbix ah»x 

h HOHax 3 napa jw u hohh MornaonHCbiBaTbca h KaK TeMHbiH AeHb (** 

*/W?) h CBernb.H Aenb (^ *M0 (^^ W*SW^^ "H 

« b*i*n Ar «7HMm a « vartete) (VL9.1) h yHeHb>H o6pamaeT 

BHHManMe Ha ciiaicrpa3AenbHoro ynoMHHa H Ha 3apn h hohh (a«™ kss*- 

'AHV.P. 102-105. 

'SASV.P 21 5-225, 383, 405, 421. 

3 AHV.P.108-110andll2. 

27 



nakd) HflHa h hohh (kaljani) (IV.55.3)-no ero MHeuMio, nepeAHaiviH 
oriMcaroie AByx pa3JiHHHbix ranoB cyroK, o6bRHbix (morm itšdsd-nakto) 
h apKTHHecKHX (a^ doant) - HMeHHO no3TOMy b CTHxe III. 55. 1 1 Hapflfly c 
cecTpaMH (frora svasdrau) ynoMHHaK)TCH 6jiH3Heu,bi (q^rr yamyd). 
HaKcmeu, HCCJieflOBaTejibyKa3bBaeTHacpaBHeHHeriymaHacHe6oM (%, 
^ a# dyaur iva osi) c p,Byua. ero nonoBHHaMH cyTOK pa3Horo o6nHKa 
(rap^ mši višurupe ahant) - oahoh cbctjioh h oahoh aoctohhoh 
noKJiOHeHHH (tcmhoh) (^ a 3^<^d ^ w*xj;ukram te anyad jajatarii 
te arryad) (VI.58. 1) - Tro, no ero oiOBaM, o6o3HaHaer npoTHBonojio>KHbie 
Apyr Apyry hjih npHxoAfliHHecfl Ha nepnoAH JieTHero h 3HMHero 
cojmaecroHHHH AeHb h HOHb norapHoro rosa. 

O^HaKO u b 3tom cjiyHae ncHXOJiorHqecKafl reopna 
HHTepnperauHH PB III Arxoma no3BOjraeT npeano>KHTb anb r repHaTHBHyio 
peKOHcrpyKUHio BbimenpHBefleHHbix AaHHbix. Honb (Vi§t rdtn hjih to 
nakta), 3apn (tmjišas), nonHbifi bocxoa (wz vyušti) h AeHb (san aho) - 

3TO CHMBOJIbl pa3JIHHHbIX CTaflHH pa3BHTHfl HeJIOBeHeCKOrO C03HaHH51 na 

ny™ k npocBeTJieHHio, ot 6ecco3HaTejibHoro (*.m rdtri) k 
CBepxco3HarejibHOMy (maJ-jo) 6mthio c hx pa3JTHHHbiMH (JDopMaMH (hhi 
^jp na?2đ vapumši hjih Ptct w'r«pe hjih f%?q višurupe). Mbi He MO>KeM 
BCJieA3a JI.BT.THJiaKOM roBopHTb 06 onncaHHH hctohhhkom AByx 
H3BecTHbix hx aBTopaM cyTOK - o6biqHbix (s^rara^r ušdsd-naktd) u 
apKTHqecKHX (mšiahani) - Ha ocHOBaHHH Bcero jihiub pa3AejibHoro 
ynoMHHaHi« TepMHHOB b oahom CTHxe. BeAt eaiH ^ahanl (abohctb. 
tocjio)-3to cyrKH KaK cBerjian h TeMHaa qacra ahh (hjih 3aTeMHeHHoe h 
npo6y>KAeHHoe coctohhhh co3HaHH5i MHCTHKa), to Toro >Ke caivioro Hejib3a 
cxa3aTb nape ^rai^^i ušdsd-naktd, Bbipa^aiouaen jiniiib 
npoTHBonocraBneHHe3apH h hohh (hjih ripocunaiomeroca u cramero 
C03HaHi-m). J\mo b tom, hto BMecTO cjTOBOcoHeraHi-w w™ ušdsd-naktd 
b naMHTHHKe MOKer ynoTpe6jwTbCH cjiobo aro ušasau, o6o3Haqaiomee 
HOHbH3aproKaKABe3apH(nBOHCiB.qHCiTo)-aJI.Br.THnaKHeo6ocHOBaHHO 
yTBep^Aaer, hto 3apa b stoh nape 03naiaeT hmchho AeHb h TorAa 
AeHCTBHTejibno nojryqaercH npoTHBonocraBJienue oahoto BHAa cyroK 

'AHVP. 110-112. 

: AHV.P. 113. 

28 



(3mhi iišmau lum zm&m utesa nakta) ApyroMy (m$ ahani). Ho /ia>Ke 
ccjiHripHiiMTbraKoeiiaT>iiiyT()CT()JiKOBaiinc,iiHMTOiieyKa3biBaenia 

apKTH4eCKyiO npHpony ai^rf/.W?n' ■ yMCIIbIH ilC npMBOAHT HHKaKHX 

cneACiiHHHCTOMiii!Kao6Hxnpojioji>KMTtijibiioci'H.MbiTaK>KeHeMO)KeM 
coniacHTbca c Jl.B.r.TmiaKOM b ero nepeB6AeTepMHHate«ri?J*KaK 
''MMeioiuHepa3HyioAJiHTejibiiocTb'\ noroMy n-vommpdomma.ei 
coraacHO CJioBapio M.MoHbep-ymib$tMca "anyoutward appearance or 
phenomenon of colour, form^shape, figure", no HHKaK ne AJiHHy mjih 
npOTJRKeHHOCTb bo BpeMeim. 2 Mto »« KacaercH IlHTaiomero b&fi&m), 
to oh onHCHBaeTCfl ne kćik ne6o, a KaK CBer (m^djaur) BjiaAbiKH m 
rocnoAHHaABM>i<ymeroc$! h nenoABHKHoro MHpa (£m^*mj*iTO, 
qra iganam jagatas tasthušas patim) (1.89.5), ombjimioihhh AyxoBHoe 
BHAenHe nenoBeKa (M^ dhijamjinvam) (tom >Ke h VI.58.2) - noTOMy 
mto HBJisierca <-iyAecHO yMHOH (z&*^-- dasra mantumah) (VI.56.4) mjih 
coBepmei-iHOH noAKperuiflioineH Mbiciibio (^ srna pošnah sumatim) 
(VI.57.5). H 3tot CBer (mjyaur) MO>KeT npoHBJiHTbca b co3HaTejibHOM 
(gš gubom) u 6ecco3HaxeJibnoM hjih Tpe6yioujeM caMono)KepTBOBaHra 
^yapa>n) cocto5ihhhx nenoBeKa c hx pasAHHHHMH BapnaiflWMH (rs^ 

3&%t višuriipe ahani). 

KaK CHHTaeT JI.E.r.TmiaK, Han6oriee y6eAHTenbHbiM 
AOKa3aTeirbcrBOM ormcaHra PB apicn-mecKoro pm flBJiseroi ynoMHHa™e 
o pacnpflraHHH cojihucm KOJiecHHHbi nocpeAH He6a (ft^^aig^ 
mvisuryo madhye amucad ratham <M(X.138.3)-flKo6bi3flea>pe<n, 
haćt o nnmenbHOM npe6broaHHH cBermia naA ropH30HTOM bo BpeMfl 
nonapHoro Jiera; TaioKe HCcneAOBaTejib yKa3biBaeT Ha HMeHOBaHHe coiMua 
3onoibiMH KanejiHMH BapyHbi na He6e(=rCT^^q?w^lfe^iH^ 
varanog cakra etarh dm prmkhom biranyayam gubhe kam) (VH.87.5) H 
coo6meHHeo ero ABH)KeHHH na hhx (Vn.88.3)-5Hco6biB3TOMcnyHae 
H3o6pa>KaeTCH 6e33axaTHoe KpjoKCHHe cBeinna no He6ocBOAy Ha 
npoTfl*eHHH mhothx cyroK m ero nocTeneHHoe Hcqe3HOBeHHe3a 

ropM30HTOM C pflAOM e>KeAHeBHbIX BOCXOAOB H 3aKaT0B. OAHaKO c 

'AHV.P. 107. 
2 MWSED.P.885.Column3. 

3 AHV.P. 114-116. 

29 



ncHxo.noni4ecKOH tohkh 3peHHH pacnpsraHHe KOJiecHHUbi FiiocHca (^ 
surya) b cpeflOTOHHH CBeTa (^m^divo madbje) CHMBOJiH3HpyeT 
ycTOHHPffioe OTOKAecrBJieHHe c hhm HenoBenecKoro co3naHHH hjih ero 
npocBeuieHHe; hto >Ke KacaeTCH KanejieH $%prenkha) ^BH>KyineHCH 
KpyraMH (m^Hpmijman) Hcthhhoh Pe™ (^m vantna), to Jl.E.r.TmraK 
3a6biBaeT o tom, hto na hhx BMecre c Heio KanaeTCfl aBTop rHMHa (s% 
Wwkw^pra prerikba inkbayavabai cubhe kam) (VII.88.3)-3to 
roBopuT o MHCTHHecKOM xapaicrepe Aamroro CKmera w cocTaBJ«nouj,Hx 
ero 3neN4eHTOB. TIomhmo y>Ke ynoMHHaBiuerocH AyxoBHoro po>KAeHH5i 
HenoBeKaBKaHecTBecH5iioiJ4erorHOCHcaBpe3yi[t.TaTenojiyMeHHaoTOrua 
yMa-HcTHHbi (aii ife %\qR wn 5(ktftt ^m m. *p' ^trh abam iddbi 
pituš pari medham rtasyd jagrabha abam surya ivdjam) (VIU.6.\Q)?B 
coAep>KHT T3K>Ke oni-icaHHe nyTeiuecTBH5mejioBeHecKoro co3HaHH5i H3 
TbMbi Eecco3HaTejibHoro BBepx k Bbiciueivr/ HcroHHHKy HaAC03HarenbHoro 
CBeTa (^^q' ^thh^'tr ^rt\tw^ to?:hj j^t^ti ^5\aT^JT ^fira^ 
3wi\!id vajarii tamasas pari jyotiš pacjanta uttaram / devam devatrd 
siryam aganma jyvtir uttamam) (1.50. 1 0). TaK hto h npi-i pa36ope AaHHbDC 
repMeHeBTHHecKHx CHTyaunH chmbojihhcckmh noAxoA 111. A.rxoiua 
flBjwerot aoctohhoh ajibTepHaTHBOH KOHuenuroi Jl.B.r.TmiaKa. 

lio MHeHHK) HHflHHCKOrO HCCJieAOBaTeJM, flOnOJIHHTenbHbIM 

CBHaerejibCTBOM onHcaHra b naM^THHKe nojrapHoro BocxoAaffl3jraeTca 
HMeHOBaHHeCypbH cbiHOM^aKiui-iHbi hjto K»KHoro HanpaBJieHra (ara: 
S^^raajViTCT; antab putrac carati dakšinajah) (III. 58.1) H 
OTO>KBecTBJieHHe c /^aKiiiHHOH ymac (1. 1 23 . 1 h X. 1 07. 1 ) - Be«b TOJibKO b 
pafiOHeCeBepHoro nomoca cojinue noAHHMaercfl c rora; sto 3aMeqaHHe 

HBJIHeTCH OAHHM H3 HaH6oJiee Ba>KHbIX B CHCTefvie pei<OHCTpyKL(HH 

ApeBHeitaeHBeA^ecKOHpejiHi^n.E.r.T^ 

TepMHH ^pt dakšim co 3nmeHMMVi "npaBM cropoHa" h oflHOBpeMeHHO 
"ror" HMeer cooTBeTCTBHeB Apyrax HHAoeBponeHCKH.x ji3biKax -y3jibCKoe 
dehauHApeBHeHpnaHACKoedes. HoBCTHXe]H58.1 roBopuTCJiBcerojiHiiib 
o KaKOM-TO cbme/^aKiUHHbi (%mjwm\: putrac dakšinajah) h HeT 
ynoMHHaHHH HMeHHO CypbH. B JH060M cnyqae ncHxojioni necKaa TpaKTOBKa 
nepcoHa^a/^aKiiiHHbi no3BOJiaerjiorHMHO o&bacHKit, h HcromoBaTbBce 



'AHV.P. 118-119. 

30 



cnyHan ero ynoMHHaHHfl -/pio b tom, hto cjiobo <#&t dakšina poAcreeHHO 
OAHOMy H3 hmčh Eora-^ dakša, b nacraocTH Eo>KecTBeHHafl Bojia (s# 
đgra)Ha3biBaeTcaPa3yMOM(^(<aWšz)(III.14.7; IV.3.13; VI.48.1),HHCTbiM 
(ga^ pitadakšd) (III. 1.3) h coBepmeHHMM (gw sudakša) (H.9.1; HI.23.2; 
Vll.l;Vn.l.6;Vn.2.3;Vm.l9.13;X.91.3)Hnopo)i«aK)mHMeroBOBcex 
cyLuecTBax(>p^'n^?^i^£fei?2đm garbham dakšasja pitaram) 
(TII.27.9). Her HMcaKoro CMbicna OTO^ecTBJijrrb 3apio c roroM, nocKanbKy 
b 3tom cnyMae Hejib3fl norarb MHoroHHCJieHHbDC coo6meHHH Jlpmsmen 
rMMHe X. 107, h TaKHM >Ke o6pa30M hx 3HaneHHe HCKa^aerca npH 
Hcnojib30BaHHH flpyroro o6menpHH5rroro b Ha^ajmcraraecKOH imame 
HHTepnpeTauHH noHHMarow /JaiaiiHHbi KaK nepcoHHOpHKauHH rmarbi 3a 
npoBeAeHHe )KepBonpHHOiueHHH. Thmh HaHHHaeTca onncaHHeM 
npoaBJieHHfl BejiHKOH me/jpocTH (sm^^r^Ht n^ftn^ dvir abhun 
mdx masonom ešarh) hjih npHXOfla flapoBaHHoro OTuaMH BenHKoro CBera 
(m. ^m-. n<ir^č^3tftt^ mabi jyotih pitrbhir dattam dgdd) hjih 
o6H.apy>KeHHfl iiiHpoKoro nyra /JaKUiHHbi (^■■■^u^wm^Muruh 
panthđ dakširiayd adarci), b pe3yjibTaTe iero Bce KHBoe ocBo6o)KAaeTCH 
ot Mp aKa (fN #i a*ra rotr vigvarh jlvarh tamaso niramoci) ( 1 ) . y>Ke 
H3 AaHHoro crnxa bh/jjio, hto <$w dakšina HcxoflHT ot Chji CBera (^r 
deva), nocKOJibKy Ohh nacro HMeHyioroi OnuaMH hjih 3aiuHTHHKaMH (% 
pit?), h OTO>KHecTBJiHeTCJi cpacnpocrparaeMbiM Hmh moihhlim CnaiiHeM 
(^3w:w?^'^^).3Tono^TBep)KflaeTcaAaJibHeHiiiHMCoo6iJ4eHHeM 
npeSbroaHHH HcnojmeHHbrc /JaKiiiHHbi bhcoko b CBere (^^rskpti^ 
m^ucca divi dakšindvanto asthur) pa/jOM c Ero hctohhhkom (^*3$t 
šaha te suryena), r/je Ohh Hacjia>K#aK)TCfl 6eccMepTHeM (sppč^if^ 
amrtatvam bhajante) H npoftJieBaiOT >KH3Hb (snk^sng: pratiranta djuh) 
(2). Carvia npHpoAa,Z],aKiHHHbi KaK Mbicjie-BeinecrBa THOCHca (^ dakša) 
noATBep>KAaeTca noMHMO CMbicua ee HMeHH eme h xapaKTepHCTHKOH ee 
KaK Berpa b 1 00 noTOKOB h jryqanj(erocH rHMHa, HaxoAHiuero MHp BnecKa 
(^ra^jn^a^^f^ gatadbdram vajum arkom svarvidam) (4). /^aKUiHHa 
- 3to CBeTOHOCHaa Harpa^a h »epTBa Chji CBeTa (^^^mi^cti 
daivi purtir dakšina devayajyd) H OHa He jraerca sthmh My>KaMH (sm^ 
ww^miathd narah prayata dakšindso) ruioxo >KepTByioiiJ,HM CKynuaM 
(^ ^rtr^ nft ^ ttrt na kavaribhjo nahi te prnanti), ho Ohh m,eApo 
pa3AaiOT ee Jiniub H3-3a 6oa3HH ynpeKOB b cKynocrH (ammTs^TJjra 

31 



avadya bbiyd babavab prnanti) (3). M tot mcjiobck, KOTOpblH 3a CBOČ 
caMono>KepTBOBai-ine (v^yajfknya»'i), BOcneBai ine u BocxBajiei me Bora 
(um> \\H^mnm.sdmagdm uktba(dsam) nepBbiM nojiy i iaei")ry /l,aKiiiiniy 
(q:cmi^RFF?Twra yab prathamo dakšinayd rarddba) u no3iiaČT rpn 
CBepKaiO[i|HXTenaMcTHHHoroCo3HaTejibHoroBjia>Keiici'Ba(!3^p5?qrRt 
M fcfat sa f ukrasya tanvo veda tisro), MMenyeTC« BAOXHOBCiinbiM 
npoBHAUeM h HecymnM Cjtobo (čto ssm ag i(5JMH.aTT^ tameva ršitn 
tamu brabmanam abur) (6). Cmibl CBeTa (^r fl'ezA?) Ha3bmaiOTC5i 
AapHTenaMH Konen, 30JiOTa h OAe>KAbi (^aro^ wF^\^m\^- ye acvaddb 
\wairyadd vdsoddJj) (2) h b apyroM Mecre roBopHTca , hto ^aKuiHHa Aaer 
KOHH,KopoBy,5ipKoe30JiOTOH n h my (#ni aro č[fwT ni ^rra #u ^g 
3čt ^fe^i #ii ara dakšind acvaiii dakšind gdm daddti dakšind 
candram uta yad hiranyam /dakšind annam) (7). O^HaKO Hecne,nyeT 

3a6bIBaTb O CHMBOKHHeCKOH npHpO,He3THX AapOB-pOK^eHHblM H3 KOHSI 

(^^acvdd) hum H3 3neprHH yMa (a?i^ q^o/đ.so manyor) CMHTaeTCH 
Fhochc (ar^i^^rrara ^^^? afrani ^ra ^ *t^ qnHj h^\s*tf? 5^3 
a^ m-- w^ %^t stf^ ^ acvdd iyayeti yad vadanty ojaso jatom uta 
manya enam / manyor iydya bannyešu tastbau yatah prajajna indro asya 
veda) (X.73. 10) h Oh »e noflpa3yMeBaeTC5i non, KopoBaMH (m\gdw) (nra 
nni'TR^HsiiJH^^o bbago gdva indra me acbdn) (VI.28.5); caM Oh 
npeflcraeT KaK 30jiotoh (w?m biranyaya) (1.7.2; VHL66.3) HOCHTejib 
30HOTOH chjth (fm*w wz hiranyaya vajra) (1.85.9; VHl.68.3; X.23.3); 
OAeaHHeM (<m\ vdso) hjih lhhtom 3Haiomero 3to CTaHOBHTcn caMa 
/JaKLUHHa (čriwr^ffp \A^\\-\-\jdakšim varma kmute vijdnan) h riHmeH 
eMy CJiy>KHT Jiyx (ara ^ qfa an?m annam vanute yona dtmd) (7). 
BKymaK)Lu;HH AaKuiHHy HenoBeK 0C03HaeT ce6n KaK 6eccMepTHoe 
co3HaHHe h 6ojibiiie HHKorAa ne oGMaHbmaercfl no>KHbiMH ueraiviH fav&i 
T^^jmj^na bbojd mamrurna nyartbam iyur),Quy HeB03MO>KHO 

HaBpeflHTbHOHHHKOrAaHeTepjieTpaBHOBeCHH(^T^RT^IsWf^S^n: 

na rišyanti na vyatl)ante ba bhojdb), oh CTaHOBHTCa BceMH cymecTBaMH 
h Cbctom (^^^Jk^^^^^^idan) yad vicvan'i bbnvanam svacca 
etat) ~ bcč sto aaeT etviy /JaKiuHHa (stfčfišm <$*rr <^ira sarvam dakšina 
eUj)o daddti) (8). Tenepb o6HTajTHineM ero MHpoBocnpHai™ CTaHOBHTca 
apKO CBepKaiomHH jiotocobuh ueHTp THOCuca (hr^^ ^^ ^t 
sR^tci ^?hh ^ fen, bho]asya idam puškaranlva vecma pariškrtam 



demmđna iva atram)(\Q)-ioi c?LUhmo^im\\)HhmYu (^^brJoantath 
manom), KOTopbiH HBJifleTCfl >KHJiHmeM (iša grham te) caMOcymefi 
Hcthhhoh PeHH hjih CnoBa Bora (wifwi: varum svadhdvah) (VH.88.5). 
Eme oahhm Ba>KHbiM AOKa3aTejiBCTBOM onucaHHH nojiapHbix 
o6jiacreH JIE.E.THJiaK cmn-aer HMeHOBaHHe b caHCKpifre ceBepa BbicuiHM 
(kk uttara), a iora hm3Ujhm (sm odbora) - HKo6bi TaK 3th cropoHbi CBera 
MorjiH 6biTb Ha3BaHbi jTHiiib b panone io>KHeeCeBq)Horo nojiioca. O/JHaKO 
HccneAOBaTenb He npHBOflHT hm o,n,Horo coo6meHH5i co6ctb6hho PB b 
noffTBep>KfleHMeTaKoro BbiBOfla h, KpoMeioro, ceBep Mor6biTb Ha3BaH 
BbiciiiHM y>Ke Ha nojiyocTpoBe HHAOcraH b pe3yjibTaTe Ha6raofleHHH 

aBTOpaMH THMHOB 3aCHOKeHHbIX TOp (w®^jxrriawrii) BbICOTOH HeCKOJlbKO 

KHJioMerpoB-rHManaeB. 

JI.B.r.THnaK oopaiiperoi k aHariH3y ynoMHHaeMoro b hctohhhkc 
MH(jia o ceivin AAMTbax hjih hkoGu cojiHuax (*RT3fl%q sapta ddityd) h 
coo6ineHHH o CBH3aHHbix c coJiHueM (^surya) ceMepHMHbix o6pa3ax- 
ero Be3yT ceMb orHeHHo-KpacHbix hjim 30JioTHcro-)Ke]Trbix Ko6buiMu, (?ra 
^gKffl^^RT^^piđjDte tvd hartto rathe vahanti deva surya) (1.50.8; 
cm. TaioKe VH.60.3) hjih ceMb HHCTbix flcmepeH ero KOJiecHHHbi (ai^iFra 
W^ : W ^^ ^^'- ^Tft^^rra ajukta sapta cundhjuvah suro rathasja 
naptyab tdbbir ydti) (1.50.9) hjih ceMb KOHen (an^p^ig^ara: a suryo 
ydtu sapta acvalp) (V.45.9), b ApyroM CTHxe nepe i iHCJiiH0TCH ceMb oSjiacreH 
cpa3HbiMH cojiHuaMH (fra k# ^hi q^ sapta digo nana suryo) BMecTec 
ceMbio )KepTByromHMH b onpe/jgneHHoe BpeMJi npmbiBaioiijMMH (vR\im 
5d^R: sapta kotara rtvijab) h ceMbio CBeTOHOCHbiMH A/j,HTbflMH (^n 
3m^rqw^ deva ddityd ye sapta) (IX. 1 14.3), em,e b oahom Mecre roBopHTCfl 

O BOCbMH pOJJ,HBIUHXCa H3 Tejia AflHTH CbIHOBb3X (s^i^RTiaiR^siraRI. 

a^R^TO aštau putrdso aditer ye jdtds tanvas pari) - c ceMeptiMH OHa 
npHcoeAHHHJiacb k CBeTOHOCHbiM hjih k nepBOMy noKoneHHio (^n^tg. 
R^am; devdn upa prait saptabbib, hrtPi: af^arilH^^T^^I g^H, 
saptaUii}) putrair aditer upa. prait purvyam jugom), a MapTaHfly OT6pocHJia 
npoHb h CHOBa npHBejia k CMepTH u k noTOMCTBy (to HMWH^wwpard 
martdndam dsyat, wm ^m čm. s^ hmi^ siptc^ prajdjai mrtjave 
tvat punar martdndam dbbarat) (X. 72. 8-9); HCCJiejj,OBaTejib 



'AHV.P. 119. 

33 



conocraBJifleT 3HaneHHe hmchh MapiaH^a (MepTBoe nranbe hhuo) c 
HMaioBaHHeM koid-to (no ero cnoBaM-3axoAHinero cojiHna) yMMpaioinMM 
(mx mornara) (X.55.5) n onncaHneM hko6h CBeTHjia KaK ajion 
npeKpacHOKpbuiOH (^m- gro arunah suparnab) jjpmKy\i\zmn b nojiere 
(<mpatamga) nran,bi (V.47.3; X.55.6; X. 1 77. 1;X. 189.3); HaocHOBaHHH 

aHaJ!H3aBffiXBbimeH3JIO)KeHHBIXflaHHbIXyHeHbIHnpHXOAHTKBbIBO^,HTO 

ceMb AAHTbeB (?ra m&n sapta dditya) h ceMb Ko6bumu {w^ srči sapta 
hanta) cojiHua (^surya) h ceMb o6jiacTen c pa3HbiMH cojiHuaMH (w^r 
i^rm ^sapta difo ndnd suryo) o6o3HaqaK)T ceMb Mec$meB nojiapHoro 
JieracBapbHpyK)iiff[MHcaH3-3aKOHKperaoH o6jiacTH MecTOHaxo>KAeHra 
(ffidifo) TeMnepaTypHbiMH pe>KHMaMH, MapTaH^a >Ke npeflcraBJMeT 
co6ok) o6pa3 apKTHHecKoro Meoiua 3axoflflinero CBermia. QanaKO pjm 
Hac npeflcraBJiaerca 6ojiee npaBHJibHbiM BHflerb b ynoMHHaHHH ceMH 
MHpOB c pa3HbiMH HCTOHHHKaMH CBCTa (w* %$i mi 1$ sapta dico ndnd 
suryo) OTpa^eHHe He KajieHAapHbix, a ncnxoKocMorpacj)HHecKnx 
npeACTaBJieHHH aBTopoB ™mhob-b naMflTHHKe ynoMHHaiOTca ceMb 
MecTHOCTen 3cmjih <$m* wz wm-. prtbivydh sapta dhamabhih) (1.22. 1 6) 
h b to ace BpeMH orpoMHaa i^Mhhatlm) nopojKfleHHaji Hcthhoh 
(^fčmsričif rta-prajatam) ceMHroJiOBaa Hflea (fžtf h^KH dhiyam 
sapta^rmm) Orna (rai pita) (X.67. 1 ). H eme b oahom crHxe onncbiBaroTCJi 
ceMb noJiy3apoAbiiueH (*rt v^ sapta ardhagarbha) - HcnoJiHeHHbix 
B/i,oxHOBeHHoro co3HaHHH $wnm: te vipagcitah) h cbohm BH^eHneM h 
pa3yM0M (^vftrarorroT te dhltibhir manasa) npeB0CX0flHiHHX Bcex bo 
bcčm (qf^p: m vr#^ r TO : paribhuvah pari bhavanti vigvatah), - no 
npHKa3y Be3#ecymero pacnpeAejr>romHx ceMH Smthh (fmlM^ 
fčreras?fciiRWT bhuvanasja reto višnos tišthanti pradigd vidharmani) 
(1 164.36). B/iaHHOM aiyqae Mbi b o^epe/iHOH pa3 Ha6jiiQziaeM xapaicrepHbiH 
flnH HaTypajiHCTHHecKon uikojih repMeHeBTHKH MeTOA y3Koro 
Bbi6opoHHoro aHanroa coo6meHHH HcroHHHKa, nocKOJibKy b naMHTHHKe 
oqeHb MacTO ynoMHHaioTCH pa3JiHHHbie o6pa3bi c ceMepHMHOH 
chmbojihkoh u npeAJiaraTb OTAenbHoe3HaHeHHeflnji Ka>KAoro M3 hhx 6buio 
6bi onesHAHOH ouuh6koh- no mhchhio xe IlIAftonja, BceoHH oipa>Kaior 
oaho npeACTaBneHHeaBTopoB thmhob o ceMH ypoBHJix MHpconaumi KaK 



■AHV.P. 123-129. 

34 



cfiopMax npoaBjieHHH co3HaHHfl eAHHoro ncnxoKocMa: MaTepna (<jM 
prthivl), )KH3Hb (aFan^i antarikša), Ym (# dyau), Thocmc (f^srar) 
TpoHCTBeHHOCTb EbiTH5i-Co3HaHH55-Bjia)KeHCTBa (^t^RT fn rocand). 
Ka)KAbiH H3 3thx MHpoB 6eccMepTeH, b to BpeMa KaK Becco3HaTenLHoe 
fađpšHjmrtanilam) noflBep»:eHO H3MeHeHMHM po>KaeHHfl h CMepTH fam 
I F^ č^^K^HM\u^zmm^ prajayai mrtjave tvat punar mdrtdndam 
đtfazrđ). Ecjih mbi nocjieAyeM 3a JT.E.r.THJiaKOM b ero HHTepnperaij,MH 
ceMH o6jiacTeH cpa3HbiMH coJiHuaMH (wafččn^\?$ sapta digo ndnd 
suryo) KaK ceMH MecaueB nojrapHoro jieTa, to KaK Tor^a noHHMaTb 
ynoMHHaHHeTpHAUaTH HeTbipex CBeTHJi i^^m^mm catustrirhcatd 
jyotiša) OAHHaKOBOH (j)opMbi (wct<ji sarupena), ho c pa3HbiMH 
3aKOHOMepHOcrsiMH cyinecTBOBaHHM (rarH uuratena), qepe3 KOTopbie anaa 
npeKpacHOKpbiJiaa nrana (wi:gw' arunah suparnab) (t.c, no cjiOBaM 
Jl.E.F.THJiaKa, cojiHue) ocMaTpHBaer MHorHe Mecra {^nw^.pirudhd 
vi caki) (X.55.3 n 6)-BeAb ne MOKeDKeapKTHnecKMH ce30H nocroHHHoro 
CBera npoAOJDKaTbc« 34 Mecena? XoTejiocb 6bi TaioKe o6paTHTb BHHMaHHe 

Ha TOT (})aKT, HTO HH B OAHOM H3 yKa3bIBaeMbIX yqČHbIM CTHXOB c 

onHcaHHeM hkoom com-ma KaK nraubi (V47.3 ; X55 .6; X 1 77. 1 ; X 1 893) hct 
ero (3? surya) ynoMHHaHHH h b to )Ke BpeMfl opHHTOJionmecKHH 
CHMBOHH3M Hcnonb3yeTcaflici onHcaHHa HMMaHeHTHoro Bora-3HaiomHe 
(^ro= vedhasah) BAOXHOBeHHbie no3Tbi (Mm- ?m vipaccitah kavayo) 
hotjt (ibrt ichanti) no cne/jaM C0JiHeHHbix Jiyqen {^%w^mjnanandrn 
padam), pacno3HaK)T (<mra pacyanti) h bha^t (r ^m vi cakšate) cbohm 
yMOM h ncHXHHecKHM cepAUeM (i^t *fwt Irrdd manasa) ,n,BH}KymyK)Cfl b 
noJiere (^wn.patamgam) (X. 1 77. 1 ) Penb ,3,yLHH (^wr vdk ptamgdjd) 
(X. 1 893) h no OTTOKAecTBneHHH c Heio B3JieTaioT noAo6HO nrauaM 3a 
npeAenbi nbmaioinero pacKaneHHoro CBeTa (5jq?i^Rmi?t^l^:5i^T^ 
^mglmia tapantamati smjam parah cakund iva paptima) (IX. 107 .20); 
Fhochc (^ indra) o6Hapy)KHBaeT BTanHe cnpjrraHHbiH KJiaA CnflHHfl 
(aiR^^f^rt htI^t gn m' avindad divo mhitam guba nidhirn) 
3aiviypoBaHHbiM BHyipH 6ecKOHeHHon CKanbi Eecco3HaTejibHoro (hk&h. 
sRi^ipra 3i^i\aRj#i parivltam acmanyanante antar agmani) KaK 
3apo,n,t>mj nTHUbi (^ *v4 ver na garbham) (1.130.3). 

'SASV.P. 169, 171,271,275,277,296-297. 

35 



JI.B.r.THjiaK H3 euje oahoto coo6meHHH o Aecnra orHetmo- 
KpacHbix hjih 30JioTHcro->KenTbix Ko6biJiHHax cojihua (z&mudaca Imito) 
(DC.63.9) Aejiaer bmboa o tom, hto sto yKa3biBaer Ha AecHTHMecHHHbiii 
ceBepHbiH cBenibiH ce30H h hto Heo6xoAHMO aHanorHHHbiM o6pa30M 
HHTepnperHpoBaTb CBeneHHH o AByx rpynnax nepcoHa>KeH naMHTHHKa - 
HaBarea h flamarea; nepBbie Ha npoTJDKeHHM pecara MecnijeB BOcneBajiH 
rHMHbi (sTR^^^THrar^^fT: drcan yena daća maso navagvdh) (V.45.7) 
iuth c noMOinbio HaxoAameH cBer čunu BHfleram npoAep>KajiHCb AecHTb 
MecHueB (m?wiq^raT^^TiiT#^™: dhijam svaršdm yaydtaran daća 
maso muagvdh) (V45. 1 1 ), BTopbie cocraBjwiOT hhcjiom AecaTb h b coio3e 
c Hhapoh o6Hapy>KHnH CKpbiToe b TeMHOTe cbcthjio (i^^itol^pI: ^ 
ra^ otrt m^\ indro dacabhir dacagvaih suryam viveda tamasi 
kšiyantam) (IH.39.5), coBMecrHO »e Ha noBopoTe hjih ctviene ro^a o6e 
rpynnbi Hcthhoh pa36HHH 3aMt.iKaTe.riH (^^{^Rrc^^^rte??^ 
aHmdam panvatsave valom) (X.62.2), OTKpbiJiH 3aroH c KopoBaMH (^m-- 
^wm^i t^" f%^ 3^X 3t™^a čf fk^m- srercrci m £t^ navagvdsah 
dacagvdso gavyam od iirvam apidhdnavantam tom cin narah cacamdnd 
apa urari) (V.29.12) H BbirHajTH hx Hapyx<y (^a^iTm^^ uda ajan 
gomaya>n vašu) (X.62.2)-noAKopoBaMH, HecoMHeHHO, noApa3yMeBaiOTCH 
ncnycKaeMbie coJiHueM nyHH (rcm^H^fpinT: vi racmibhih sasrje 
surp gdJp) (VTL36. 1); boo coBOKynHOCTb BbimeH3Jio>KeHHbixAaHHbix yqeHbm 
noHHMaeTBTOM CMbicjie, hto HaBarea H/JaniareaKaK ABarana AnrapacoB 
(a 3t!w: *r^rra ^w^i ^m te angirasah sunavaste navagvo dacagvo) 
(X62.5-6) 6buiH ApeBHeniifflMH o6HTaBLiiHMH b UHpKyMnojiHpHOM pernoHe 
npeflKaMH aBTOpoB PB (>%#h: foro angiraso nah pitaro) (X.14.6) H 
npoBOAHJiH »epTBonpHHOiiieHHH BTeHeHHe 1 MecHueB cojmeHHoro CBera, 
HTo6bi noTOM Hmipa CMorBbwep>KaTb 6opb6y cflByxMeoraHOH nojinpHOH 
HOHbK)HBepHyTbAOJiroejieTO. 0/xAaKOTaKC>eTOjmoBaHHenrxACTaBJiHeTCH 
HaM KpaHHeHaTHHyrbiM h HCKa>KaioiitHM coo6iu;eHHH HcroHHHKa, KoropbM 
hbho yKa3brBaer Ha to, hto HaBarea h /Jamarea Bce Aeorrb MecnueB HCKarm 
cnpHTaHHoe b TeMHOTe cojiHue (^ ^im^^Fl: ^ f% ^m %q^ 
indro dacabhir dacagvaih smyam viveda tamasi kšiyantam) H sto ctohjio 

HM 60JIbLUHX yCHJIHH, nOCKOJIbKy OHH CMOTJIH npOAep>KaTbCH TOJIbKO c 

'AHV.P. 130-134. 
36 



iiOMo^iu,ioo6iiapy)!<iiBaioijp~oCBeTiMiyrpeHiiero3peiiHa(TORqw?R ; i 
EpT*ron;wT: dhijam svandm yaydtaran daća maso navagvah) - a caM 
JI.B.r.TiuiaK OTMenaer, hto nojiapHaa Howb He Moraa npoAOJDKaTbca TaK 
AOJiro - m imiub b koi i ije jroro ijHKJia Hcthhoh coKpyiunnH Ero nperpaAbi 
(^vft^im<m*wjtena abhindam panvatsare valam). He Menee 
yAHBHTenw io crpeMnei ine HccneAOBaTena nponrHopnpoBaTb /jpa Hero« 
yKa.3anHfl HaAecflTHMecjRHMH cpoK {^\^daca maso) (V.45.7 uli) 
»epTBonpHHou jeHHJi HaBaraa h BHAerb b hhx KaK/4>flTHKopoBHbix (m*v 
nava-gvd) AeBHTHMeoiHHbiH h cooTBeTCTBeHiio b /Jauiaraa KaK 

/],eCHTOKOpOBHbIx(^^^-gi^--^eCJlTHMeC}I4HbIHCOJlHeHHbiece30HbI 

h HcnojifMBiijHecfl bo BpeMa hhx pmyajibi. 2 Mbi ne uo^eu corjiacmbra c 
MHeHHeM Mccjie^OBaTejiii o qenoBeqecKOH npnpoAe 3T hx AByx rpynn 
nepcoHa»eH - Bo^ecTBeHHaa Bom (sira agni) nocrojiHHO HMeHyeTca 
AHrHpacoM(I.1.6;L31.17;L74.5;IV3.15;IV.9.7;V8.4;V107-V21 1VI2 10- 
VI. 16.1 1; VIII.60.2; VIII. 74.1 1; VIII. 84.4; VIII. 102. 17) h H aH6ojiee 
HcnojiHeHHbiM KaiecTBaMH AHrapaca (mmm angirastama) (1 75 2- 

m23.m;Vm ; 43.18H27;VIII.44.8) ) aHaBarBaHflaiijareanpoHcxo/wTOT 
ArHH (^ai^:qft3ri|ft^^^p^3« agneh pari jajnire navagvo dacagvo) 
(X.62.6), nepBbie j\xkz OTOKAecTBJiflioTCH c hcxoaaihhmh ot Hero 
chaioihhmh JiynaMH (^HTOT:i^i^n đgrae bhamasa}] divya navagvo) 
(VI.6.3). Mbi corjiamaeMca c MHeHHeM IU.A.rxouia o tom, hto HaBaraa h 
Aaiuaraa npeACTaBJiflioT co6oh jinujb ABe cTa«HH npoABH>KeHH5j k 
coctohhhio AHrupaca (Angirasahood) h nepBbie npeBpamaioTCfl bo 
BTopbix h 3aBepujaK)T cboh Tpy/i b pe3yjibTaTe npHcoe«nHeHHfl k hhm 
HeHCTOBoro (*wmayasya) - ohh onHCbiBaroTca KaK npHXOAfliHHe 
coBMecTHo B036y>KAeHHbie Ejia>KeHCTBOM (šmsoma) npoBHAHbi h 
AHrapacbi (^ i^^w: Hmferi 3tctftt a#wt ^w^\-. eha gaman ršayah 
somacito aydsyo angiraso navagvah) (X. 1 08.8)/ n A HeHCTOBbiM (amw 
aydsya) noApa3yMeBaerc5i Bhochc (r zWra) (1.62.7) c Ero HeyroMHMHMH 
(ararat aydso) Mbicue-CMaMH (*m-. marutah) (1.167.4; VI.66.5) hjih 
cocraBnaiomHfi Ero cymHocr b (K.63.9) 3KcrpaKTBna)KfiHcraa (Osorna) 

'AHVP.134. 

;AHVP. 135-136. 
3 SASV.P. 168-170. 



37 



(IX.44.1). B pe3y/ibTdTe Ero npHCoeAMi ici ihsi k HaBaraa 01 111 npeBpai i ihiotoi 
B^aiiiiiTBa hjih B iianoni imioihhc Ero i^w^¥imdra manttvan) wvinyjibcw 
H^eM (irki?5t^t: mamta dagagwf)) (11.34. ] E12)./],ec5iTHMecMMiihiH nepHOA 
(^ihiw daga masya hjih hiniti w//đfđ masan) no Jiymi0My Ka;ien;uipio 
CHMB0JlH3HpyeT nOJIHbIH U.HKJ] 3M6pHonajibiioro pa3BHTHfl H3 

cpaBHHBaeMoro c JiorocoBbiM npyn,OM i^^piškarinirri) 3apOAbiiua 
(mgarbba) MajibHHKa fem kumdra) (V.78.7-9) - a Be^b TaK Ha3braaera 
po^aioiiiaacH m JiOTOca fe^smpiškarad adi) (VI. 1 6. 1 3) Eo>i<ecmeHHći5i 
Bora (a# agni) (V.2. 1 h 2) h Ehochc (src zWra) po^aerca Kai< Majiei ibKHH 
ManbHHK (iprcst kumdrako) (VIII.69. 1 5). T.o. Mbi MO>KeM CAenaTb bmboa o 
tom, hto HaBaraa h /Jamaraa hbjihiotch o6pa3aMH He3aBepmeHHoro h 
nojrHOCTbio coBepinHBLijerocfl AyxoBHoro po>KAeHH5i HenoBena hjih Chji 
CBCTa (^r «W) B hčm. 

OnepeAHoe cBHAeTejibCTBo SHaHHH aBTopaMH thmhob o 
AJiameMCH AecaTb MecaueB cbctjiom ce30He JI.E.E.TmiaK bhaht b 
coo6meHHH o ^ojitom MpaKe ffikm dvtghatamd) - crapHKe b AecHTOM 
nepnoAe (^ngr dašame yuge) >kh3Hh, craBiueM HcnojiHeHHbiM CjiOBa 
(jistt brahma) h KOJiecHHHHM ABH)KyiHHXCH k ueJiH boa (fofcro ^i -t«^ 
5?[ w?M ztfPu ^n *mra mm- dirghatama jujurvdn dašame yuge 
apdmartham jatlndm bralma bhavati sarathth) (1.158.6); no MHeHHio 
HccneAOBaTenji, TepMHH gq }*§2AOJDKeH o6o3HanaTb Mecau, h bca Hcropra 
noBecTByer o bhahmom Ha npoTH>KeHHH 1 MecaueB apicrmecKoro Aera b 
OKpy>KeHHH aTMOccj)epHbix boa CTaperomeM CBeTHJie ? KOTopoe 3aTeM 
AOCTHraeT CBoen uenn h Hciesaer 3a ropH30HTOM. OAHaKO h npn 
pa3penieHHH AaHHOH repivieHeBranecKOH CHTyaiiHH o6T>HCHeHne 
JI.E.r.THJiaKaqpe3MepHO HCKa>KaeTCMbicjiTeKCTa: HaxoflHmeeca Ha 
He6ocBOAe Ha npoTO>KeHHH TaKoro 6ojTbiiioro npoMe>KyTKa BpeMeHH 
coAHiae He Moacer HMeHOBaTbca J\onr hm MpaKOM (sttror dirghatama) - 
BeAb paHee yqeHbiH caM HHTepnperHpyer ynoMHHaHHe o npdobiBaHHH 
Athh b AJMTejibHofi TbMe ($mm dlrgham tama) (X. 1 24. 1) KaK onHcaHne 
noJiHpHOH hohh; hma <{WcW dirghatama HaAO noHHMaTb icaK 
"npe6biBaioiniin b npoAOJDKi-iTenbHOH TbMe" u TaKoeTDAKOBaHHe 
noAKpenjiaeTca CBHAeTeAbCTBaMH o cnenote ^HprxaTaMaca (an^ 



'AHVP. 13S-144. 
38 



arakšan) (1.1 47.3; IVA 1 3); npeSumaHfte b BOAax 6bmo CB»3aH0 flna 
^HprxaTaMaca c onacHOCTbio norn6HyTb famisižrat na magaran 
nadyo) (1.158.5) h no9TOMy npoteomeameeBflecaTOM nepHOfle(^wyi 
dašame yug) co6biTHe c;ieAyeT paccMaTpmaTb KaK ero ocBo6o*fleHHe- 

BCe3TO JfflHO COOTHOCHTCfl CAeCflTHMeCJIHHOH AyXOBHOH 6epeMeHHOCTbK) 

u nocneAyK)meH TpaHolpopMauHeH ccoHaHra aBToparHMHa(cM. Bbime). 
Mbi HeMOKeM npHHHTb HHTepnperauHH JI.EJ.THJiaKOM CTHxa 
1. 1 64.12 c onHcaHHeM noMeiueHHoro Ha ceMHKOJiecHyro KOJiecHHuy c 
mecTbio cnHuaMM b HHKHefi dopoHe hjih nHTHHororo 
ABeHaAUaraHaCTHoro h HcnojmeHHoro Hcnapemffl (^m^pnšinam) 
m mnbum nonoBHHe He6a Oma- hko6h Tyr npMBO/yrTca Asa pa3Hbix 
B3riT5iAa Ha qjieHeHne nojiapnoro roAa H3 AseHaAUaTH MecaiieB: b oahoh 

06jiaCTH OH COCTOHT H3 nflTH COOHdB HJ1M AeCflTH MeCHUeB COJIHCTHOrO 

CBera h AByx He Ha3biBaeMbix MecHueB hjih OAHoro craoHaTbMbi h Bnarn 
(tffiimptnšinam) AOJiron hohh, b Apyron - H3 meč™ ce30HOB c ceMbio 
CBerabiMH MecauaMH.' flaHHoecoo6meHwecnHiiiKOMHenoHHTHOAJW 
TaKoro oAH03HaqHoro h k TOMy xe npoTHBopenHBoro TOJiKOBaHHH - 
noqeMy b cipoHHyro Kapnwy AeneHra A&eHaAUa™ Meomes roAa Ha naTb 

COBHeHHbK Ce30HOB H OAHH HOHHOH HJIH Ha UieCTb B UeJIOM Ce30HOB 

BMeiiiHBaeTCfl ynoMHHaHHe ceMH jicthhx MecaueB? 06"bMCHeHHe 
Jl.B.r.TnnaKa Mbi OTHraeM HeyAOBJieTBopHTejTbHbiM-5n<o6bi3Aecb HMeer 
MecTO MexaHHHecKH noBTopaeMaH h y«e He cooTBeTCTByiomafl 
Ha6jnoAaeMOH AeHCTBHTenbHOCTH dpopMyna (r.e. oh cjmKTHHecKH 
npeAJiaraeT npoHTHopHpoBaTb 3tot (j)parMeHTTeKCTa). 

Eme b oahom Mede onncbiBaeTCfl npH6nH)KeHHe qben-TO 
orpoMHOH kohcKoh ynpH>KKH (^^m^f^^^agvavad jojanam brhad) 
(VIII.72.6) h 3aTeM roBopHTCH, hto ceMepo aoht OAHy (ws^m^Mmti 
saptaikdm) h ABoe (noA)nyc K aiOT H5iTepbix hjih no HflTb (vrca««^ 
upa dva pfka srjatah) (Vffl.72.7), a HHApa AecHTbio CBepKaiomHMH (<?m 
x$*mdagabhir vivasvata) TpOHHblM pbiBKOM (^nft^i khedayd trivrta) 
noATarHBaeT 6aAbio (Ott koga) ne6a (an ** wi^ s^^te. a 
indrah kogam dimh cuxyavit) (Vffl.72.8). JI.B.r.TnjiaK yrBep>KAaeT, hto 
3AecbroBopHTca o noaBJieHHH KOJiecHHUbi cojiHuamiH 3apn (6),eeKTO-TO 

'AHV.P. 147-150. 

39 



A0HT H OT 3TOrO pO>KflaiOTCH ABOe-AeHb H HOHb- OT AOeHH3 KOTOpbIX B 

cbok) onepe^b B03HHKaraT n^Tb ce30HOB (7) hjih Aecarb MeraneB (^IW V 
šmsadacabhir vivasvata) nojrspHoro aha (8), no okohhhhhh KOiopbix 
TpexHacTHbiH (^fifepi khedajd trivrtd) (yTpeHHHH (BeceHHHH)- 
nojiyAeHHbiH (jierHHH)-BeHepHHH (occhhhh)) conHeHHbiH CBeTHCHe3aer 
saroprooHTOM (8). OAHaKOBAaHHOHpeKOHcrpyKij,HH HaSinoAaercflflBHoe 
npoTHBopeHHe Me>KAyAecflTHpHHHbiM (^jPKm^d dacabhir vivasvata) 
u TpoHHHbiM (<+wi Rcjdi khedayd trivrtd) AeneHHMMH CBeraoro ce30Ha, He 
06i.MCHaeTca3HaHeHHeceMepKH {wz sapta) Romenm h, b jiio6om cnywae, 
ncHxojiorHHecKaH HHTepnpeTauHfl no3BOJiaeT npeAJio>KHTb 
ajibTepHaTHBHoe oGMCHeHHe 3Toro OTpbiBKa: b crHxe 1 6 Toro »e rHMHa 
ynoMHHaroTCH ceMb maroB (wm&{saptapadlm) h ceMb JiyHeH (*to*rjt 
saptarapm) h ohh hbho coothochtc3 c onncaHHeM Bo>KecTBeHHOH Bojih 
(srra agni) KaK BeAyinero »epTBonpHHOiueHHe (^hft^r yajnasya netari) 
nocpeACTBOM ceMH HaT5myTbix JiyHeH (<*qi^^*wrcijičTi a jasmin 
sapta ragmajas tata) BOCbMoro CBeTOHOCHoro Pa3yMa (Rgs^NHarcti 
manvšvad dawyam aštamarrt) (II.5.2)-t.o. nepeA HaMH onepeAHOH Bapnamr 
ncHXOKocMorpac}}HHecKHx npeAcraHneHHH ApeBHeBeAHnecKHx mhcthkob. 
/J,Ba no naTb (gj qu dva parica) hjih AecjiTb CBepKaiomHX (^aft^f^R^r 
dacaUnr vivasvata) - sto y>Ke ynoMHHaBUiHecH Bbime AecaTb CHflioiHHX 
HAen (wt^f^\ vivasvata dhijo) (K.99.2) YMa CBCTa {mwmamanau 
vamuati) (Vffl.52. 1 ), c noMOiutro KOTopbK Ihochc (^ vidra) KaK orpoMHbM 
{mpž^mi.mahantam kocam) (V.83.8) chhkdihhh (i^ divah hjih fcq 
šm^divjam kocam) cocyA (V.53.6; V.59.8) hhcxoaht b nejioBenecKoe 
C03HaHi-ie- noTOMy hto HMeHHO Ero HMeHyK)T nepenojmeHHOH 6necK0M 
KaKBOAOH (^^mnj^n^^itidneva kocam vasund nyrštam)(N.20.6) 
hjih nonHOH H3JiyHeHHa (^sfrR^^Ttsjsjn kocam na purnam vasund 
nyrštamd)(XA22)6^b'ću(vž^*$im^indram avate na kocam) 

(IV. 1 7. 1 6). Oh HH3BOAHT B HeJIOBeKa CBOH TpOJIKO pO>KAeHHbie MblCJIH (% 

3TOFTtRTO trnu jatasja mandrhsi) (VIII.2.21) hjih TpH >Kapa (m ™ 
trap gharmdsa) (VE.33.7) hjih Tpn CBeTOHOCHbie penn (iM^s^rai 
tisro vdcah jptiragrd) (VII. 101 .1) hjih Tpn chhhhh (M^tero djdvas) 
(VH.101.4) hjih rpn 6pbi3>KyiJj,He mcaoboh cnaAOCTbio 6aAbH (m- šem 

'AHVP. 155-156. 
40 



vJHM^Hi«! ^^c^ «JidM^ arrarT w«it traydh kogdsa upasecandso madhva 
ccotanty Mito urapgam) (VII. 101 .4) Co3HaTenbHoroBjia>KeHHoro Ebiraa. 
H3jio>khb o6Hapy)KeHHbie hm b PB coo6meHHa o 
^ecflTHMeca^HOM cojiHe^HOM ce30He, JT.E.r.TnjiaKyKa3biBaeT, ^to c 
HacrynjieHHeM TČMHoro nepnona noAnepKHBaioLiB-ie conHue (HHnpa) b 
ero 6opb6e c MpaKOM (Bajra) >KepTBonpHHOiueHH5i He npeKpamanHCb, 
nocKonb«y hciothmk hkoobi onucbrnaer ocoobm bha a™buihxch 1 00 cyroK 
hohhhx pHTyanbHbix uepeMOHHH - 06 stom roBopHT 58 pa3 
BcrpeHaiomHHai b naMHTHHKeanHrer Hnapu lilaTaicpar/, KoropbiH mj\o 
nepeBOAHTb hmchho KaK ' 'BnanbiKa cothh »eprBonpHHoiiieHHH", a He KaK 
"HMeromHH cto chji yMa hjih bouh"; t.o. Becb ron mo>kho pa3nenHTb b 
A2HH0M cjiyqae Ha ceMb MecHueB npjiroro nra, nBa Mecau,a cyMepeK h 
3opb h Tpn Mecaua AnHTenbHOH hohh. YHeHbiH yrBep>Kfl,aeT, mo^kratu 
He MO)KeT 03Ha^aTb HHHero, KpoMe^epTBbi, b CTHxe VTL32.26 c npocbOOH 
k HHApe noAAep>KaTb^ kratu CTeM, HTo6bi mom cmohih )KHBbiMH 
AOCTHHb CBeia (*m&.jyotir). lio mhchhio nccnenoBaTena, pe^b Hner 
HMeHHo o TeMHbix cyTKax, Korna ynoMHHaerroi pa3pyiueHHe Hhapoh 
AeBHHOCTa (^minavatim) (1.1 30.7), fleBHHOcro neBflTH (^t^^f nauatim 
ca navd) (II. 1 9.6) h CTa (m gatom) (II. 1 4.6) Bpa>KecKHX yKpermeHHH (g* 
pura). O^HaKO CTOHKH3peHic[ ncHXOJiormecKOH HHrepnpeTauHH nenoBeK 
o6pamaeTCfl k rHOCHcy (^smss^mindra maha manasd) (VI.40.4) c 
npocb6oH no/mep^KaTb b hčm Ero cmiy bojih fa kratu) h Torna oh CMO>KeT 
Aocnm ripocBerneHHH (^mjpzr). KpOMe Toro, Čuna rHOCHca coctoht 
H3 da HacreH (fflwwi vajrena cataparvand) (1.80.6; VHI.6.6; VH.76.2) 
u 3to hbho coothochtcji c HajmHHeM y Hero era yMCTBeHHbix SHepruH 
(m^, gatakratu) - Benb npHpon,y Ero Cnnbi (^ vajra) cocTaBjraiOT He 
)KepTBonpHHOiueHHi! ; aBOHHCTBeHHaa MbicjTb (^n^i ufa manp) (X83. 1 ; 
X.84.6) wnw apKaa u MomHafl caMocymafl Hnea (^^j^tri manyo 
svajambhur bhdmo) (X.83.4) nnn HHTeHCHBHoe CHaHHe (cp^ailaTRl 
manyo ugram te pup) (X.84.3) -- Haxon»mHHCfl bo Bcex cymecrBax (^m-- 
jdtaveddh) Cbct THOCHca (*i^5^a h^^^t manjur indro manyur 

'AHV.P. 175-180. 
2 AHVP. 179-180. 
3 AHV.P.180. 



41 






devo) h Ero HcraHHafl Penb (w^mhmanyur varimo) (X.83.2). BMecre 
c Hhm Ha oflHOH KOJiecHHue npne3>KaeT BeTep (^m^^i^H**; sn^ičf 
vdyav indrac ca saratbam a jatamHmvz^mžmnstm^indravaju 
sarđliam jatom arvdk) (NA7 3; W91.5),rHOCHCfla>KeonHCbiBaeTCHKaK 
KOJiecHHHHH hjih B03HHua nocjieflHero (^rnm--imindrasamthih vdjo) 
(TV.46.2 h IV48.2) - no lU.AJxoiijy, TaK Bbipa^aerca Heo6xoAHMoe ahm 
ycneuiHoro caMono3Ham<w e^HHCTBO MeHTajibHOH (^ rai>a) h BHTajibHOH 
(=ng i«)w) chji HenoBenecKoro cymecrBa- h hx csepKarouoro KOJiecHHuy 
(šm\ wiw vdjavd candrena ratlxna) (IV.48.1, 2, 3 u 4) H3 LUHpoKoro 
CBCTa (wf^w prtbupdjasđ) (PV.46.5) BneKyT 3anpjnraeMbie Mbicjibio 
fleBHHOCTO AeBSTb (gi^ č^t hhi^I g^rai ^fra^^f vabantu tvd manojujo 
jitktdso navatir nova) (TV.48.4) hjih >KecTO nbmaK)iHHX KOHeH (^M^rai^ii 
^*ft myo pz&ro banndth yuvasva)(NA8.5). UI.A.rxoiH npe/uiaraeT 
aneAyjomee B03MO>KHoe o6tacHeHne CHMBOJiHHecKoro cMbicjia 
BbimeynoM«HyTbix HHceii- 1+49+49+1=1 00: 1 ) ecrb ceMb ypoBHen 6bi™ 
(cm. Bbime) h xa>KHBiH coja,ep>KHT b ce6e ocranbHbie mecrb h t.o. oOmaa 
cyMMa nacreH MHpo3AaHHa cocraBnaer copoKfleBHTb, 2) yMHo>KeHHeM hx 
Ha/iBa CHMBomoHpyiOTC5i HHcxoAHiHeeB nenoBeKa MHO>KecTBo cnjiCBera 
(%r deva) h Bocxo£5iinee k HeMy MHO>KecTBO ajieivieHTOB nejiOBenecKoro 
cyu4ecTBa, 3) eflHHHijbi Ha npoTHBonono>KHbix CTopoHaxpaBeHCTBa 
o6o3HaqaroT TeMHoe h CBeTnoe Hanana hjih uejm BOcxo>K,n,eHHjj h 
HHCxo>Kn,eHHH (j»pM C03HaHH«. TaxaH HHTepnperauHa noj^rBep^aercM, 

B HaCTHOCTH, OTO^eCTBJieHHeM Berpa c/],bIxaHHeM )KH3HH (miuii^ i^ 

sm^prdnod vajur ajdjata) (X.90.13) h onncaHHeM ero KaK Tocnojj,HHa 
Hcthhm (^rq\^Fra vdjav rtaspate) (VIII.26.21), ynoMHHaHHeM 
nopo>Kji;eHHH hm H3 Tejia CBeTa Mbicjie-ctm (*m j^t 3w*ft fcr an 
^fttr: ajanajo mamto vakšandblrjo diva d vakšandbJjyah) (1.134.4) h 
nepeHHCJieHHeM TOCJia nocJie,njfflx KaK ceMH>KAbi ceMH (wawzsapta sapta) 
-T.e. copoKa AeB5rra (V52. 1 7). Mbi He uomu corjiacmtca c Jl.B.r.TnnaKOM 
b ero noHHMaHHH yKpermeHHH (gpurđ) KaK o6pa3Horo oriHcaHHH cyTOHHO 
Aojh?hx HacTefi nojiapHOH homh h cm-iTaeM, hto hx KOHKperaoe 
ynoMMHaeMoe hhcjio HBJiHeTca oro6pa>KeHHeM npHcym,HX 
CBepxco3HaTejibHOMy fHOCHcy (vs. indra) chji (g=g vajra) bojth (^ tow), 



'SASV.P. 301-302. 
42 



Ana Ka>KD,OH H3 KOTopbK b Becco3HaTenbHOM HMeerca cboh npoTHBHHK. 

/Janee JI.E.r.TunaK o6pauu,aercM k aHajM3y Bcero oahh pa3 
BcrpeMaiomeroca b Hcro'iHHKe TepMHHa s$m atirdtra(VJl.l03.7) h bhaht 
b hčm o6o3HaHeHHeTpaHC-HOHHoro {^mmđir-rdtra) mjih OTMenaiomero 

KOHeU TCMHOH apKTHHeCKOH 3HMBI >Kq)TBOnpHHOIIJeHM. OftHaKO TaKoe 

y3Koe BHeKOHTeKCTHoe TOJiKOBaHHe coBepmeHHO HCKaKaeT CMbion 
CBa3aHHbix CAaHHbiM cjiobom cooSineHHH naMWTHHKa-npe>KAeBcero, 
thmh c ero ynoMHHaHneM nocB5mj,eH onHcaHHio HcnojiH5nomHx Ha 
npoTa>KeHHH ro^a {wmi samvatsaram) o6eT HenoABH>KHOCTH (srrhi 
^■^iRui: cacajand vratacarinah) HcnoJiHeHHbix CjiOBa mhcthkob (mm\ 
brahmana) KaK 0>KHBJi5ieMbix rpo30BbiM AO>KKeM (<rf^Rratf parjanja 
jinvitam) h HaHHHaioiHHX npoH3HOCHTb PeHbjwryiiieK (^RnofsT3T3% 
vdcam pra manduka avddišuh) (VII. 103. 1); 3flecb Ha^o noMHHTb, hto 
Thochc (fs mira) mokct HMeHOBaTbCH HecymeH jipyKj#> rpo30BOM TyneH 
(*^wzmj<i parjanyo vrštimdn iva) (VHI.6.1), hto noAAO>KAeM (#s 
vrsti) mo>kho noHHMaib npocTO npHcymyio Eiviy chjt/ AeHCTBna (^ft 
svavrštim) (1.52.5) m hto hmchho Bo>KecTBeHHaji Pe^b fa%vdc) Hecer 
Thocuc (m^^wmaba?h indra £zMđ??ra)(X.125.1);acKeTbiCTpacTHO 
)KejiaK)T npwxoAa BpeMeHH ao>ka5i h OMBaior c ero HaciynjieHHeM ^m. 
3?iht art<mi^^iRH: w^ &?mm^yadimenan ucato ablryavaršlt tršjavatah 
prdvršya agatdjdm) (VII. 103.3); ohh CTapaiOTCa He nponycTHTb 
HacTynaiomHH b CBeroHOCHbiH ABeHaAuaTbiH Mecau ce30H Ao^efi %ms 
WM, &\<ww nž^mz i*HRT <^ devahitim jugupur dvadacasja rturh 
naro na pra minanti ete) h qepe3 toa oh npnxoAHT (h^5it^3tom 
sathvatsane prdvršya agatdjdm) h c hhm 3aKaHHHBaeTCJi nbmaioiHHH 3HOH 
(^mw^^^m^taptd gharmd acnuvate visargam) (VH.103.9);TorAa 
HcnojiHeHHbieCjioBa HaHHHaiOT npomHOCHTb nocsHiij,eHHyio HacrynneHHK) 
hoboto BpeMeHH Penb (si^m: *nM ar^a 3u ftnj?^ rr^h^Vth, 
bralmarjdsah vdcam akrata brahma krnvantd? panvatsafinam) (VH.103.S) 
h b KOHue hohh (sm&atirdtre), b npeABeujaioiHHH Habano AO>KAeH AeHb 
roAa (ftoR^r ^m-- tr b q^RT^k ^ samvatsarasja tad ahab pari 
šdxt yan prdmtncon baUmva) ohh craHOBATca npoBOAHHKaMH 3toh PeHH 
(=ii!H«ii-Hi^Ti: brdhmandso vadantah) (VH. 103.7). Pa3Be MOryT jipoah bo 

'AHVP. 184-185. 

43 



BpeMH narapHOH hohh crpaflaTb OTpacKanenHoro 3hoh (ww^te 
gharmdj! KaK ohh MOryT uejJbiH roA (mm. sariivatsaram) HcnbiTbiBaTb 
CHJibHyio >Ka>KAy (y*idl<^d: u^ato tršydvatah) h npH stom He yiviepeTb? 
KaK MO>KeT 3acyimiHBbiH ce30H npoAOJDKaTbca OAHHHaAuaTb MecaneB h 
me crojibKO Mo>KeT mmhcn TeivrnaH apKimeacaH 3HMa? Bce ara Bonpocbi 
JI.BrTHJiaKce6eHe3aAaCT,nocKOJibKyoHHTHopHpyercraBaii^HeMxcrHXH 
niMHa h Bbi6Hpaer vn, Hero oaho jiHLUb cjiobo - noTOMy mo oho caMO no 
ce6e mokct 6biTb Hcnojib30BaHo b cncreMe ero HHTepnperaij,HH TeKcra. 
OflHaKO aHariH3 nocne/mero noKa3biBaeT CHMBOJiHHeci<yio npnpoAy 
ynoMHHaeMOH b hčm hohh (im ratri) KaK BpeivieHH CTpaAaHHH 
^ejioBenecKoro co3HaHH*i b AyxoBHOH >Ka>KAe (^m\- tršyavatah) u aha 
3aBepiueHHa 3Toro roAHHHoro HcnbiTaHM (a<id^wrH<wč^,sii: qR s 
atirdtre samvaisarasya tad ahdo pm štha) KaK aha npoHHKHOBeHHfl b Hero 
CnoBa Bora (sn^mn: ^ spra w f^RT: 4R«ch(Iuih. brahmanđsak vacarh 
akrata brabma krnvantab panvatsarinam) h ero npo6y>KAeHHH ajw 
AyxoBHOH >KH3HH (fofcraf jinvitam). 

JI.B.r.THJiaKOTMeHaer, hto eiu,e3aHecKOJibKOBeKOB ao h.3. a™ 

06tHCHeHHH ApeBHeHIUeH BeAHHeCKOH MHđpOJlOrHH B ApeBHeHHAHHCKOH 
KOMMeHTaTOpCKOH TpaAHH,HH 6bIJIH Bbipa6oTaHbI ABe OCHOBHbie 

HaTypajiHCTHHecKne TeopuH ee noHHMaHHfl: hh6o c tohkh 3peHHfl 
OKeAHeBHofi no6eAbi CBeTa HaATeMHOTOH (cBeTOBaa hjih cojiflpHaa 
KOHuenL(Ha), jih6o KOH<J)JiHKTa Me>KAy rpo30H h yAep>KHBaiou4HMH 
AO>KneByK) BOAy h 3aKpbiBaiojJUHMH cojmeHHoe cmHm ^epHbiMH TfmAU 
(rpo30Baa hjih aTMoccipepHafl hjih MeTeopojiorunecKaa KOHU,enu,H5i); 
eBponeHCKMpHreeAOJiorHHXKBeKanepeHiuiao5e3THrepMeHeBTHHecKHe 
napaAHTMbi u Ao6aBHJia k hhm rHnore3y HcrojiKOBaHHji ApeBHeBeAHnecKOH 
pejmrHH nq) e3 npH3My e>KeroAHOH 6opb6bi Becubi c 3hmoio (ce30HHaji 
KOHuenuHa). 

HccneAOBarejib npeAJiaraeTpaccMOTpeTb bo3mo>khocth AaHHbK 
noAXOAOB ajik HHTepnpeiauHH catvioro HSBecTHoro MH(jm PB o 

npOTHBOCTOHHHH HHApbl M BpHTpbl HJIH pa3J7HHHbIX nepCOHHCJJHKaU,HH 

nocjieAHero; AaHHbiH kohcIjjihkt coctoht H3 Heibipex SJieMeHTOB - 
noKopeHHH BpHTpbl (sp gjf vrtra-turja) h boa On 3? ap-turya) h 



'AHV.P. 193-199. 
44 



nocnepyiomero o6peTerow KopoB (niši gaušti) h cBera (fc&fe divišti) - h 
3aBepuiaeTca HeibipbMH oAHOBpeivieHHbiMH pe3yjifaTaTaMH: 

0CB060>KAeHHeM KOpOB (ft go) M BOA (^đ/tts) H nOHBJieHHeM conHua 

(giw)w) h 3apH (^.j&ffi). 1 H3 3acny>KHBaroinMx BHHMamra KpmHqecKHX 
3aMenaHHH JT.BJ.THJiaKa no noBO«y BeafleRBaraocra npwiaraeMbix 

TpeMH BbIUieHa3BaHHbIMH TeopHMMH peKOHCTpyKUHH MH(pa HaAO 

OTMCTMTb b nepByio onepeAb HCKa>KeHHe H aTypajiHCTHHecKHMH 
HHTepnperaTopaMH3HaqeHH5iTepMHHOB,onHCbiBaiomnxBMecrMJiHma 

ocBo6o>KAaeMbix boa (vm^dpe), KopoB (ftgo), CBera (fadiv), corniua 
(t$tsurya) h 3apH (^u<šđ5) : CKajia (suft «&), ropa (ftft giri hjih ^ 
prvata), BbiMa {zmfidhan), hctohhhk (ara «&»), 6oHKa (*** kmmdixi) 
h 6aAbH(^i M -Bce noHHMaiOTca KaK o6pa3Hoe o6o3HaqeHHe o6naKa 
(^ ^4 A BCAb, KaK BepHO yKa3biBaeT yqeHbiH, b HcroHHHKe HHApa 
nponaMbiBaeT hmchho y3JTOBaiyio ropy (^i^^mR^ii^ tyam 
at parvatarh girtm vi rurojitba) (Vffl.64.5) hjih pa36HBaex Ha KycKH 
orpoMHyK) h iiJHpoKyK) ropy (q&>^3*q^wi parvatarii mahom 
ttrum parvacag cakartitba) (1.57.6) hjih B3pbiBaeT cxany (sm^adrim 
dardar) (IV. 16.8) hjih TBepAblHH ropbi (ra H=fdw iildi^RW parvatasya 
drmhitanj airat) (ILI 5. 8) h o H a xapaKTepn3yeTCH kek KaMeHHaa h 
6ecK0HeMHaH (ar^^sH^sR 1 ^ agmany anante acmani) (1.130.3); b 
cbhsh c3TOMr.OjibAeH5epr npeAJiaraerBHAen, BTaKM Mecrax6yKBajibHoe 
onncaHHe yAapa mojihhh b CKajiy (*mA%$$ atpnanam didjuto vi) 
(V.30.4) h npoHCXOA»mero b pe3yjibTaTe 3Toro o6pa30BaHHa HOBbix pycen 
Ana ropHbix peK, OAHaKO MMroJiJiep o6ocHOBaHHO He naxoAHT 
BepoaTHOCTHBTaKOM npeAHOJTOMMHH.' EmeoAHOBa>KHoe3aMeHaHHe 
JT.B.r.THJiaKa coctoht b tom, hto flowneBbieTyMH Moryr JMiiib BpeMeHHO 
3aKpbmaTb cojiHue h TeM 6ojiee CTpai-mo roBopHTb o hhx KaK 06 
yKpbiBa T ejiax sapn.' B craxe X.89.7 y6HHCTBO BpHTpbi onHCbrnaerca 
BMecre c nponaMbiBaHHeM KpenocreH ($.puru), pacKajibmaHHeM ropbi, 
npocBepiiHBaHHeM pycjia peK h koSuim cKOTa (s^r^^r^sr^ 

'AHV.P.200aiid203. 
: AHV.R203. 
'AHV.P.206. 
J AHV.P.204. 

45 






=#Fv^m? ptr m fŠt a^psa f^F^: jaghdna vrtrarh ruroja puro aradan 
nasindhun bibheda ginrh ga indro akrnuta svajugblnb) - a 3T0 AaeT 
ocHOBaHHe paccMaTpHBaTb bcc 3th co6birafl KaK 3JieMeHTbi oahofo h Toro 
>Ke CK»KeTa h 3Aecb Ba>KHoe 3Ha4eiiHe npHoGperaeT ynoMHHai-iHe 
pa3pyLueHHH Hhapok) oceHHMX yKpenjieHHH (^5^5TK^3wffR: /?wro 
indra gdradlr avdtvrdi) (1. 1 3 1 .4); yneHbiH OTMe^aer b stoh cbh3h, l ito 
rpo30Bbie AO>KflH H^yT b Hhahh b AO>KAJiHBbiH (w vario), a He b 
cne^yK)LUHH 3a hhm occhhhh (w^wad) ce30H h TeM 6ojiee Henb3a cKa3aTb 
OTponHnecKOH 3apeKaK o noflBJJiiioiHeHca Jiniiib oceHbio. 

JT.B.r.THJiaK yTBq)>KHaeT, hto o6 _ bflCHHTb OAHOBpeMeHHOCTb 
noHBJieHH^i boa (zzm^apas), KopoB (nigo), CBeTa (iH^), cojiHU,a (^ 

W)«) H 3apH (s^a&is) MO>KHO IIOCpeACTBOM npHHflTHfl THnOTe3 O TOM, 

hto 5opb6a Hhaph h Bpmpbi CHMBOJTH3HpyeT co6oio npoTHBOcroaHH.e 
chji CĐera h TbMbi h hto noABOAaMH noHHMaerca HeAo^eBa« BOAa, a 
3(})np hjih HanonHaiomaa Bce npocrpaHCTBO BceneHHOH TyMaiiHafl Macca 
MaTepHH. /JeHCTBHTejibHO, haba bojihoboh npHpOAbi cBera no3BOJiHer 
CBH3aTb BoeAHHO o6pa3bi boa {^tmapas) h CBera (mdiv) - b naMflTHHKe 
noBcrc>Ay roBopHTCH o CBepKaiomHX BOAax (*5#ftr K 3w svarvatir opak) 
(1. 1 0.8; V.2. 1 1) hjih o CHaioinefi BJiare (^rsh-. ddnuatrdlj) (V.3 1 .6), a BeAb 
ycHJiHBLUHHca cbohm 6necKOM (čft včft svena bhdmena) HHApa b 
pe3yjibTaTe y6HHCTBa BpHTpbi AenaeT BcecBepKaiomHe BOAbi TeKym,HMH 
no xopoiiiHM nyTHM (suj^r^si^t: gnr 3TC«m aharh etd vicvaccandrdb 
sugđ opat; atkara) (1. 165.8). H3 Gbiibero BbiMeHH HHApbi - cbina IlpaBAbi 
(^gsč^ sicnurii satyasya) (VDI.69.4)-BbiTeKaiOT HcnoJiHeHHbie IlpaBAbi 
AOHHbie KopoBbi (h g^ Hr^r fen 5? q^: $mš fi 3^R: ta tu te satyd 
vicvd pra dbenavah sisrate vršna udhnah) (IV.22.6) HcTHHbi (sisiFi^ 
rtasya dJoena) (1. 1 4 1 . 1 ) h oh yAep>KHBaer cnpaTaHHoe b BOAax hm a hjih 
CyLUHOCTb KOpOBbl (^^ I ggi fef gsi T^H^g 5^ ^ ??.đ»z<? go/? / guba 
hitam gubyam gillham apsu haste e^/;e)(III.39.6),nocKOJibKy ona 
cHMBOJiH3Hpyer BonHy h cbot OAHOBpeMeHHo - ee H3 CKpbiTbix ceren J1>kh 
(m jjp fda-d\3^pTq čct gd guba tišthantir anrtasja setau) (X.67.4) hjih 
H3 CKajibi (a^ai^ antar aanano) HHApa ocBo6o>KAaeT KaK BOAy h 

'AHVP. 205-206. 
2 AHVP. 207-209. 

46 






— • 



CHHHHe (i sfsrar 3^ r^ttt aTf^ yđ Ksrry<ž đ£yđ «ir ga akrntad) 
(DC.108.6). Bot noneMy 3apn HMeHyercfl 3a>KHraK)meHca KopoBOH (sfen 
ni: usnjd gauh) (IV. 5. 9) HJIH nopo^AaiomeH KOpOB (^^mgavaih 
janitri) (1. 1 24.5) hjih MaTepbK) KopoB (nični^t^l inata gavdm ušo) (TV.52.3; 
V.45.2) h b to >Ke BpeM3 MaTepbK) Chji CBeTa (m\'%ttmjriata deudndm) 
(1.113.1 9), aTe Ha3biBaK)TCfl po>KAeHHbiMH KopoBOH (™ gojila) (X.53.5). 
Ho hto Morao nocjiy>KHTb hctohhhkom npeflCTaBJieHHH o 
bojihoboh npnpoAe CBera (^Mmujptišdpas) (IV.38.10) b PB? BpflAJiH 

MO>KHOBCJieA3aJl.B.r.TnJTaKOMrOBOpHTbOTOM,HTOnOAHHMaBTOpbI 

naMHTHHKa AeHCTBHTenbHO noApa3yMeBajm hbjuiioii^ioch cymHOCTbK> 
(j)H3MHecKoro npocTpaHCTBa BceneHHOH TyMaHHyio Maccy MaTepHH. 
CneAOBaTenbHO, tukm reopna ABJKieTCfl OTpa>KeHMeM HenocpeACTBeHHoro 
ncHxoJiorHHecKoroonbiTaApeBHeBeAHqecKHxno3TOB-noAAapyeMbiM 
apKO CBepKaramHMH 3opHMH (:«i,wli,wt«i:/)ioftr jachantlr 
ušaso vibhdtih) (VII.78.3) H conHueM (^f^lkmm^z^đ jjotišdpas, ?j? 
^M^surye jyottr) (IV.38.10; X.12.7) Chmhhcm hmh noApa3yMeBaeTCH 
6nHcraTejibHbiH Cbct coBepmeHHoro njiaMeHHoro Pa3yivia (f^^^e: 
sragcHi svar na jyotih agne sumana) (IV. 10.3) h BHyTpeHHero cymecrBa 
nenoBeKa (^^imj7rdaya jyotir) (VI.9.6). 3th CBeTOHOCHbieBOJiHbi 
(arra s?Kdpo devir, sm\ t^t dpo divya) (VII.49. 1, 2, 3 h 4) conaTCH 
mSaom (vgw- rrutdhugcutah) (VH.49.3) h pacnpocTpaHseT hx Aaiomafl 
mča 3apa (zm h^ ušas madhudha) (III. 61 .5), a BeAb o TyMaHHOCTax 
MaTepMajibHofi SHeprnH hjih o conHeHHOM chjihhh hhkto He ci<a>KeT, hto 
ohm ciiaAKHe- ho c ncHXOJiorHHecKOH tohkh 3peHHa nepeA HaMH acHoe 
CHMBOJiHHecKoe yKa3aHHe Ha cnaAOCTb KOHraKra c BoKecrBeHHMM Cbctom 
(h^t^h madhund daivyend) (ILL8.1). 3th BOJiHbi Hecyr EeccMeprae 
(3^ 3m2vm.apsn antar amrtam) (1.23 . 1 9) H Bce HČ ueJiflJOiHH e cpeAcrea 
(ar^ sr^fl^gTH ^ji opsu antar vicvdni bhešajd) (1.23.20) h HBJiaiOTCfl 
poAHTejibHHHaMH Bcero HenoABH>KHoro h ABH>Kymerocfl (ms& mg?wši 
stM: vicvasya sthdtur jagato janitrik) (VI.50.7) hjih coAep>KaiH,HMH b ce6e 
Bce KaK 3apoAt>iLU (armi^re^srmjM^HT dpo ha yad vicvam dyan 
ga>bJwh dzBmd) (X. 121 .7). HaKOHeu, ohh Ha3biBaiOTOi nopo>WK)iJj,HMH 
Pa3yM(a™^f^iHiđ/w dakšam dadhdnd)(X.\2\.&). 

JI.B.r.THJiaK yTBep»AaeT, hto PB onHCbiBaeT uHpKyjwuHK> 
KOCMHHecKHx BOATOHKOMaTepHaiibHOH 3HeprHH b (popMe BOAHHbix napoB 

47 



H3 BepxHeH He6ecH0H nojiycdpepbi mjih cnaiomero OKeaHa (w*Jimptkram 

amo) (V.45. 10) B HeBHAHMyK) HOHbfO HH>KHK)K) HJIH B OKyTaHHbIM TbMOK) 

OKeaH (dH^i H(l<jd ai^te??M5a parivrtam amavam) (11.23. 18) h o6paTHO 
-no cjiOBaM yMeHoro, 3th ABa OKeaHa (f^ra samudrdvd) (X. 1 36.5) MoryT 
Ha3biBaTbca npocro AByM5i noiiOBHHaMH (s^aror ukhav ardhau) (11.27. 1 5) 
vam o6eHMH MecraMH (^^i «&foi yatrd) (HI.53.5).' Ho KaK CBeTOHOcHbifi 
OKeaH (^3Fi' 5«ro «m/j) onHCbrnaerca Eo>KecTBeHHafl Bora (a# đgm) 
(X.8.3) h Bce CHHbi CBeTa (^ deva) HMeHyioTca AapyiomHM 6jieci< 
BOJJFiOBbiMOKeaHOM(aTO^3TOR3RWđ/)5đ'yđOT amavam atrarddbd) 
(X.65.3) HBa>KHo to, hto ^aHHbiH OKeaH npoHBJMeTca H3 ncHXHMecKoro 
cep/ma HenoBeKaB npouecce MbicneHHOH KOHU,eHTpaujiH Ha hšm (i^tort 
»ronRW:fl^3RT: Arđfe pacjanti manasd vipacatab sarnudre antah) 
(X. 177.1) h caMo cepAue craHOBHTca OKeaHOM (mzjm\brdydt 
samidrac) (IV58.5). B TaKOM cnyMae noA chhioihhm (w^cukram) h 
OKjraHHbiM TbMOK) (jtot q%f tamasd parivrtam) OKeaHaMH (sm arnaua) 
aBTopbi HCTOHHHJKa noApa3yMeBaioT o6Hapy>KHBaeMbie b pesyjibTaTe 
caMono3HaHra cBepxco3HaTejitHyio h 6ecco3HaTeabHyio aj)epbi cBoen 

nOKHKH. 

JI.B.r.THjiaK CHHTaeT, hto HHApa i<aK 6o>KecTBo CBeTa 
o6ecneHHBajinoAHHTHe(^f^i^3TRtin:so^?7Cđm sindhum artndh) 
(U. 15.6) coiiHeqHbix boa H3 hhkhch hohhoh He6ecHOH nojiycc(jepbi b 
BepxHK)ioflHeBHyio nocpeACTBOM y6HHCTBa He nponycKaioinero hx BBepx 
H jie>Kamero na pa3AemnoiHHX nojryaj]epbi ropax ropraoma 3Mea (a#?# 
đ/;z??z ^ru^te) (1.32.2) -AeMOHaTbMbi BpHTpbi. 2 OAHaKoy6HHCTBO 
nocjieAHero b HCTOHHHKe BcerAa onHCbrnaerca b cbjbh cpa3pyiueHHeivi 
hjih Aa»e yHHHTO>KeHHeM rop - hx npo0HBaioT fafN^PiRftsilfSra 
tyam at parvatam ginm vi rurojitha) (VTH.64.5), npoJiaMblBaiOT (*mti 
Kmšagmdnam didjuto w)(V.30.4),pacKpbiBaiOT(n5Rm.^«^fft^ 
* mabdntam indraparvatam vi jad vab) (V.32. 1), pacKaJTbiBaiOT (ft^t 
bhinad adrim,fm<tfm bhinad ginm) (1.62.3; IV. 17.3), hm OTceKaroT 
BepxyuiKH (s^irag.^: ^m\jxvabl%nat kakubhab parvatdndm) (IV. 1 9.4) 
h pacceKaiOT Hpecna (si ^m arm^ *m*x\ pra vakšand abhinat 



'AHVP. 214-216. 

2 AHVP. 2 19, 223 and 239-240. 

48 



, 



parvatandm) (1.32. 1 ) hjih ohh caMH pacKpbiBaioT hx KaK po>KeHHHbi npn 
pOAax (sm v ^^wm ^ *rf s^-. abhi pra dadrur janayo na garbham 
adrayah) (IV. 1 9.5), HaKoneu, mx pa36HBaiOT no conjieHeHHHM (whšpi3* 
<*&^tim parvatam mahom urum parvacac cakartitha) (1.57.6) H Aa>Ke 
B3pbffiaK)T (s^^adrim dardar) (IV 1 6.8). 3HaHHT jm 3to, hto Ka>KAbiH 

BOCXOAOKeaHeBHOH JIH60 apKTMMeCKOH 3apH COnpOBO)KAaJICfl MOlJJHblMH 
ByjIKaHHHeCKHMH H3Bep>KeHH5!MH H BHAHMbIMH H3MeHeHMMH TOpHOrO 

pejibe^a Ha roprooHTe? Mo>Ker 6biTb, HaM cneAyeT npeAJKMHTb eine omy 
HaiypajiHCTHHecKyio KOHuenupo repMeHeBTHKH m$a o 6opb6e Hnnpbi 
cBpHTpoHKaK orpa^eHra npeSbiBaHra npeAKOB HHAoapneBBKaKOH-jiHOo 
noJTHpHOH jih6o unpKyMnorapHOH o6jiacra c TeKTOHHHecKOH 
aKTHBHocTbio? Ohcbhaho, mto npefliiojio)KeHHe -JI.B.r.THJiaKa He 
no3Boiwer a/ieKBaTHo HCTOJiKOBaTb coo6meHHfl naMHTHHKa h hto o6pa3 
ropbi (*&\parvata,fiiKgiri, sm^apnan) Hcnojib3yeTCfl aBTopaMH PB 
JiHnib b KanecTBe HaH6ojiee noAxoAflmero CHMBOJia j\m onncaHHfl 
CKpbmaiomero b Eecco3HaTejibHOM CBeTa THOCHca fc^3rejRyw 
yad<%mann)(yilM.2). 

Burne mw yxe HeoAHOKpaTHO npoAeMOHCTpiipoBajiH 
HeaAeKBaTHOCTb yTBep>KAeHHa JLE.r.THJiaKa no noBOAy apKTHHecKOH 
npnpoAbi ynoMHHaeMoro hctohhhkom t.h. KOHua roAa (^^pamrtsara, 
« &»/Kia&s-đ)-BpeMeHH, Koma Hnnpa no6e>KAaeT BpHipy hjih Bany. 

OAHaKOHCcfieAOBaTejibHACTe^eAajibmeHHaxoAmBnaM5nHHKeyKa3aH]-ie 
Ha TOHHbiH AeHb Hanana 6opb6bi Hhaph c eu\e oahhm acmohom TbMbi 

LIIaM6apoH ^ b croxe tt 1 2. 1 1 coo6u4aerca, hto 3to npoH30iujio b ^fei 
5RR; catvdnmcydm garadi (q: w^t w§ f^f ^ifc^ i 5top#^i m 
3TT5 3toh ^ig mri yah cambaram parvatešu kšijantarh catvdnmcydm 
garadyanvavmdat / yo Mm jaghdm ddnurii caydnarii)\ yqeHbiH CHHTaer, 
hto AaHHoe Bbipa>i<eHHe BonpeKH o6menpHHHTOMy MHeHHio HaAO 
nepeBOAHTb He KaK u Ha copoi<oByio oceHb", a KaK "na copoKOBOH (AeHb) 
oceHH"-BeAb HercMbicnaB coo6iu,eHHH o copoKanemeM nporaBocrosHHH 
cojiHeHHoro CBera h 3Hmh6h TbMbi. OAHaKO aBTopbi PB abho Hcnojib3yioT 
BpeMeHHyro chmbojihk)' ajw H3Jio^eraw cbohx ncHxojiormecKHx yneHHH 
h k ynoMHHaHHK) o : ?(oT[rw w$K catvdnmcydm caradi mo>kho 

'AHVP. 227-234. 

49 



npHCOBOKyriHTb aaHHbie o tom, hto 6o>KecTBo cBeia - HH/opa - 
BbiHauiHBanocb Ha npoTH>KeHHH tmc^hh MecaueB (raswpi#5WR; sahasram 
masojSnra) (IV 1 8.4). TaKOH cpaicr H/j,eT Bpa3pe3 co bccmh nocrpoeHHHMH 
JT.B.r.THJiaKa h no3TOMy oh npodo ne 3aMenaeT ero. 3/j,ecb Haao 
BcnoMHHTb o tom, hto Bo>KecTBeHHafl Bona (s# agrti) h Fhochc (^ mdrd) 
Ha3biBaiOTCH MMeioiHMMH TbicHHy moiuohok (m®^ sahasramuška) 
(VI.46.3; VHI. 1 9.32) c TbiaiHbio ceMflH (mwai saJjasratvtd) (IV.5.3) MbiaiH 
(*rato manaso retali) (X. 129.4), a o6HTajiHmeHcTHHHoro CnoBa {^m 
varuna) onHCbiBaeTCfl KaK orpoMHbin TbiCflHeABepHbiH pa3yM (^^qn 
*wn m&m li ct brhantarh mdnam varuna sabasradvdram grharii te) 
(VTL88.5). C yMeroM OHeBHflHOCTH ncHxonoraqecKOH npHpo/iti chmbothkh 
HHcen HHTepecHO OTMCTHTb, hto Eo>KecTBeHHaa Penb b PB Ha3biBaeTca 
HCTbipexHacTHOH (^mw^catvdn vdk) (1.164.45) hjih HMeiomeH nerbipe 
o6nHKa (^m\ -^<h1+ varuno caturanlka) (V.48.5), Fhochc (fs indra) 
ynpaBJ]«eT HeTbipbM« OKeaHaMH (^m&catub samudram) (X.47.2), a 
Bo>KecTBeHHbrH Bna/iLiKa (myama) oomaerB HerbipexyroJibHOH o6jiacrH 
(^q>j5 caturblorštim) (X.58. 1 -3). Bce sto HMeHa E/THHoro Bora (5^^^ 
3^ran, stigli Kr-^- b\ r^' *t^ nri ^gm ^čh stra^ *rnf arig: indram 
varunam agnim dhuratho divyah sa / ekarii sad viprd bahudhd vadanti 
agnim yamam dlmh) (1. 1 64.46) h Mbi BCJie/j, 3a LIJ. A.rxomeM bh/xhm b 
xapaKTepH3yroineM Hx neTBepHHHOCTH yxa3aHHe Ha npHcyurHe Hm 
KanecrBa HcTHHbi fa rta), EbiTHfl {mjai), Co3HaHHfl (feiai) h Ejia>KeHCTBa 
(v^dnandd). /Jajiee Ha#o BcnoMHHTb, hto TocnoAb imyama) HMeHyerc5i 
chhom CBepKaioiHero (fe^i^ vaivasvatam jamam) (Hanp.,X.14.1) 
Pa3yMa (^rt m^ra manau vivasvati) (VHI.52.1) c Ero AecflTbK) 
CHJiaMH MbicjiH (?5rm^ fa^^ra dacabhir 

vivasvata) (VHI.72.8), Ka>Kjia5i H3 KOTopbix b cbokd onepe/rb hbjimctch 
HerBepHHHOH - OTCio/ja h noflBjmercfl hhcjio 40. 

B naMMTHHKecooGmaercfl, w) o6"beKTOM >KepTBonpHHOiueHHa 
HBJiaeTCM oceHHHH nJiOA hjih 3apo/j,biiH 3eMHH (^^m^n ^^ : ^m\-. 
bharad garbbam a caradah £rt/;ri/yđ/:/) (1.173. 3)-3TO,HecoMHeHHO, 
3aMypoBaHHoe BHyTpn 6ecKOHeHHOH CKanbi Becco3HaTejibHoro (mšm. 
^hhh^i z*^x^ parivitam acmanjanante antar agtnani) KaK 3aposbiJU 
nTHHbi (^ mverna garbbam) (1. 1 30.3) BTaHHe cnpaTaHHoe coKpoBMine 
CBeTa (f^t ftm w ™ divo nihitarii guba nidhirii); H Kor^a stot 
50 



3M6pnoH co3peBaeT pjw 6jiaroro AeflHHH (w£^g#*T*fA^ asudajat 
sukne garbham adrdi) (ffl.3 1 .7) hjih craHOBHTCK oceHHMM njiOAOM {ws,- 
*vfojgaradal? garbham), to HaHHHaercfl npoueccAyxoBHoropo>KAeHH5i 
HeJiOBeKa(aimsia^3OTtm43TS I i: abhi pra dadrur janayo na garbham 
adra)al}) (IV. 1 9.5) h h-imh pacKpbiBaer yTpo6y ero co3HaHHa pjm nepBoro 
BOCXOAa BejiHKHX nyneH Jlyum (stftt ?wi <tcč^ ^ra uski ^ ^sfrr 
fl»?7i ukthaya parvatasya garblm malnndm januše purvyayd) (V.45.3). T.o. 

TepMHH W^pOTii?.03HaHaeT He Ce30H CMeHbl npnpOAHO-KJIHMaTHHeCKHX 

jiBJieHHH MaTepHanbHOH npnpoAbi, ho Bpe-Mfl 3aBepineHHH 
6ecco3HaTenbH0H craA^H cym,ecTBOBaHHfl HejioBenecKOH jihhhocth. 

H3BecTHO,HTOBpe3yjibTaTeo6Hapy>KeHHHAeMOHaTbMbi 
LUaM6apbi b ^ik^uhR catiumfiCfom caradi h nocjieAytoiu,ero y6HHCTBa 
nocneAHero HHApa ocBo6o>KAaeT cbohmh ceMbio nynaMH (w<rrh 
saptarapni) pjia ABH>KeHH5i ceMb noTOKOB (arercjjraj# wa ŠF^avasrjat 
sartave sapa smcBiim) (E.12.12). HejTb3H He corjiacHTbca c JI.BJ.THJiaKOM 
b tom, hto noA hhmh He MoryT noApa3yMeBaTbCH perai IlHrapenba hjih 
riaHA>Ka6a h hto ceMHpHHHoe noApa3AeJieHHe boa b PB otmctch 
cocraBjjjHomeH oGmero jjjm naMHTHHKa npuHunna rpynnHpOBKH o6pa30B; 
TaK>Ke HeT coMHeHHfl b tom, hto ceMb boa (^ m^sapta sindhiin) 

CHMBOJIH3HpyiOT CeMb CBeTOHOCHbK SHeprHH HJIH XOTH 6bl KaHajIbl AB3 HX 

ABH)KeHHfl (w^m saptaragni). Ho B TaKOM cnyHae He aojdkhm jih h ohh 
o6o3HanaTb ceMb Mec*meB nojiapHoro Jicra (cm. Bbime), KaK h 
ynoMHHaeMbie yneHbiM BMecre c hhmh pa3Hbie cojihua ceMH o6jiacreH 
(frai^Tt^Ri # sapta digo ndnd suryo) BMecre c ceMbio >KepTByroii],HMH 
B onpeAeneHHoe BpeMa npH3biBaromHMH (n^iraR^feT: sapta hotdra 
rtuijah) h ceMbio CBeroHOCHbiMH AAHTbflMH (^t štikli ^?ra deva ddityd 
ye sapta) (LX.l 14.3)? H noneMy HccneAOBaTejib HHKaK He HHTepnperHpyeT 
AaHHbie Apyrnx ceMHpHHHbix nepcoHa>Kax? Mbi 3Aecb Ha6jiK>AaeM 
npHMeHeHHexapaKrepHoro ajih HaTypajiHCTHHecKOH ujkojili repMeHeBTHKH 
PB MeTOAa Bbi6opoHHoro H3yneHHa AaHHbix HcroHHHKa. Ho eam ceMb 
boa (*ra m?^ sapta sindhiin) hjih ceMb JiyHeH (uwRh saptaragmi) 
AeHCTBHTejibHO HBJUHOTCH ceMbio MecHU,aMH cojineHHoro cBera, to KaK 

3TO MO>KHO COBMeCTHTb C }TIOMHHaHHeM pa3pymeHHH HHApOK) CeMH 



■AHV.P. 235-237. 

51 



oceHHHX KpenodeH (v^w^^: : m^i^tndra sapta purab giradir (krt) 
(1. 1 74.2; VI.20. 10) hjih npocTO ceMH yKpenjieHHH (^ g*= *ra^ indralp 
pura/] sapta darda/]) (VII. 18.1 3) -Bejrb Aa>Ke b tohkc nonioca hcbo3mo>kho 
nepeAOBaHHe ceMHMec$iHHbix nepnoAOB cojiHeHHoro CBera h TbMbi? T.o. 
noAxoA Jl.B.r.THnaKa He no3BOJwer HenpoTHBopenHBO HcrojiKOBarb bck) 
coBOKynHocrb ^;aHHbix o nepeHHcraeMbix b naiviaTHHKe ceMH3HaHHbix 
o6pa3ax. B to >Ke BpeMH rHnoie3a IU.A.rxoiua 06 hx 

nCHXOKOCMOrpa(]jHHeCKOH (jpyHKI4HH AaCT B03MO>KHOCTb BKJlIOMHTb HX B 

uejiocTHyfo CHCTeMy ncHxojiorHiecKoro CHMBOJiHnecKoro y^eHHH 
ApeBHeBeAHnecKHX nosTOB. Ecjih noA hhmh AencTBHTejibHO 
noApa3yMeBaK)Tra ceMb o6onoieK HejioBeqecKoro cym,ecTBa (cm. Bbime), 
to Tor^a noHHTHO, noqervty sth oceHHHe KpenocTH Ha3biBaioTCH 
yKpenjieHHbiMHpacmejiHHaMHTbMbi(gd?(P^3^^ro na bhido 
adevlr) (1.174.8) h y6e>KHiiJ,eM (wzmM'-^ , mfaM.sapta yat purah 
garma cdradir) (1.174.2; VI.20. 10) HcnojiHeHHbix JI>khboh Pcth cym,ecTB 
(mijH^H: viša mrdhravdcab) (1.174.2). Mx3aBoeBaHHe h pa3pyuieHHe 
HBJTiiioTca sneMeHTaMH npoTHBOCTOHHHH CnoBa JI)kh ($v^dmghavdc) 
(VH. 1 04. 14) h npHMoro GiOBa HcTHHbi (^^H^dK ^ tayor yat 
satyam jatarad rjiya) hjih >Ke Penen EbiTHH h He6biTHfl (wq^ m\^m^ 
i^-msac ca asac ca vacasl pasprdhate) (VII. 104. 12). Fhochcabh^hm (ais 
*rs.wma/)am indra bibharmi) CnoBOM Bo>KbHM (m\vdc) (X.125.1) h c 
Ero noMombK) Oh oahoh CBoen BcnbiuiKofi pa3pymaer bcc ceMb nperpa/j, 
Becco3HaTejibHoro (ra ^ fsra sfenn ^^^ %v- hcbi sra %(•. vi 
sadyo vicuž drrhhtani ešam indrah purab sahasd sapta darda/]), no6e>KAaeT 
Be/jOMbie JI>KHBbiM Cjiobom CHJibi {^w^mrdbravacam) h pacKpbiBaeT 
HMMaHeHTHoeEo^ecTBeHHoe^^^^' gayam /&g)AJWBOcnpH5iTM 
TpeTbeK 060.110TOH qejiOBeqecKoro cymecTBa hjih yMa (^ trtsave) 
(VE18.13). 

JI.B.r.THnaK yiBep>KAaeT, hto Hoqb b PB Ha3biBaeTca 3hmhch (8^ 
/a^) (1.34. 1), hto yKa3bmaeT Haee AJiHTenbHyio apKTHqecKyK) npnpoAy; 
OAnaKo b yKa3aHH0M CTHxeynoMHHaHHH hohh Boo6me hct h no3TOMy 
HccjieAOBa'rejib BbiAaer >KejraeMoe3a AeHCTBHTejjbHoe nocpeACTBOM 
^epeBOAaTq)MHHai^fe7z)t^"3HMHi^5^"KaK''3HMH>I5^(HOHb) ,, . /IpyrHM 



'AHV.P.231. 

52 



. 



AOKEBaraibciBOM 3HMHero xapaKrcpa hpothboctojihrh Hhaphh AeMOHOB 
TbMbi yqeHbiM CHuraer coo6w,eHHe 06 ncnojib30BaHHH hm b Kanecree 
CBoero opy>KHa t.h. xojioAa mjim 3HMbi hjih rnbi6bi JibAa (i¥w bimend) 
(VIII.32.26).' OflHaKO HOib3a noBepHTb b to, hto 6o>KecrBO CBera h Teiuia 
AeMCTBHTejibHO 6opojiocb npoTHB Mpaxa h ctjokh c noMorubio Mopcra. 
HHTepecHO, hto BpHTpaTo>Ke HcnoJib3yeT b 6HTBe npoTHB HHApbi t.h. 
TyMaH h rpaA^^fe 1 ^^«^^ na J d7il mihamakirad dhradunim 
cd) H B to we BpeMH t.h. mojihhk) h rpoM (^im^^l : ^ nasmai 
vidjim m tanpah s&dln) (1.32. 1 3) - xots nOBCK>fly b PB ABa nocjieAHHX 
c})eHOMeHa npHnHCbreaioTca HHApe; sto yKa3biBaer Ha cHMBOJiHHHOCTb 
n oAo6Hbixcoo6iAeHHHHHaHeaAeKBaTHOCTbHx6yKBaJibHoronoHHMaHHH. 

HaKoneu, Mbi He mokcm npHHSTb npoTHBopeHHBoro noaxoAa 
JLE.r.TnjiaKa k HHTepnperaijHH o6pa3a Hhaph -bhah b hčm no 
npeHMymeciBy 5o>KecrBO CBera, oh bto >KeBpe\w AonycKaeTB HeKOTopbix 
cnyna5ix noHHMaHne ero KaK 6o>KecTBa ao>kah h rpo3bi. 

H3Jio)khb cboč TOJiKOBaHHe mh(J)OB PB o 6opb6e HHApbi c 
AeMonaMH TbMbi, yneHbiH oGpamaerca k aHaJM3y cooSmeHHH ot.h. 
yrpeHHHX 6o>KeCTBax u b nepByio onepeAb 06 AuiBHHax. HccneAOBaTenb 

npHCOeaUHHCTCH K MHeHHIO OTOM, HTO OHH 0603H3Hai0TBHAHMyi0 ao 
HOHBJieHH« 3apM H COJIHUa 3Be3Ay HJIH napHbie 3Be3Abl H3 C03BC3AHH 

BjBOHeuoB (vw mifama)? JI.E.r.TnjiaK npHBOAHT AaHHbiencTOHHHKa 

TOM, HTO Ha KOJieCHHLie AUJBHHOB eACT AOHb COJlHUa(31T^^5ifeT^ 

Tm^ a vam radnih duhitd suryasya nasatya) (1.116.17; cm. TaiOKe 1.34.5; 
LI 17.13; LI 18.5) hjih hto bo BpeMfl hx nomimm noAHHMaercH cojihujs (^ 
m&^jma ud ea suryo) (1.157.1) hjih hto hx npnsbiBaiOTBO BpeM* 
npe6biBanHJi nepnon KopoBbi (hohh) cpeAH anbix KopoB (sapn) (^m^H 
*m\ kršna goru arunišu) (X.61.4) H n P HXOAHT K BbiBOAV 06 HX 
HecoMHeHHOH yTpeHHen npupoAe. OAHaKO KaK coBMecTHTb 3TO c 
yKa3aHHeM HaTO, HTO AlJJBHHbl npne3>KaiOTTpH)KAbi AHĆM HTPH3KAH 
HOHbio(m.TO^w.ft^3 3Twn fcn trir naktam ydtbas trir u acvina 



'AHV.P.227. 
2 AHV.P. 240-241. 
'AHV.P.243. 

4 AHV.P.244. 



53 






diva) (1.34.2) h b to >Ke BpeMa c hhmh BMecre na KOJiecHHiie HaxoAHTCfl 
AOHb cojiHua ($$msure ddntd) (1.34.5)? CoBeprneHHO ohcbhaho, hto 
Bce BbiiueynoMJiHyTbie cio>KeTbi h AeHCTByK)HiHx b hhx jihu, Hejib3a 
noHHMaTb 6yKBajibno h hto Bce ohh hmciot oco6oe CHMBOJMHecKoe 
3HaHerae. BflpyroM MeCTeiaiOKejTBep^aera, hto 6jiH3Heu,bi npnxoAHT 

B KOHUe/THJI HJIH flHČM H BeHepOM (fcr arwfq^ (foj a^fte) (V.76.2) HJTH 
paHOyipOMBOBpeM5! A06HHH KOpOB, B cepeHHHeflHJI H HaBOCXOflecOJIHqa 

(^^^m^anjts^gfor^ uta jatom sariigave fratar ahno 
madhycandine udita suryasya) (V.76.3). TojiKOBaHHe o6pa3a Auibhhob 
Jl.B.r.THjiaKOM jiBJiHeTca xapaKTepHWM ajm HaTypajiHcraqecKOH 
HHTepnpeiauHH TeKCTa PB b uejioM h He mtokct 6biTb npnraTo y>Ke 
noTOMy, hto maercu jmuib oahoh H3 aenoro pw ciia6o o6ocHOBaHHbix 
rnnoTe3 (He6o h 3eww,p,mb h ho%, npnxoA h yxoA ah* h how hjih yrpo 
h Benep, MOMeHT nepexoAa TbMbi b cbct, yrpeHHHe h BenepuHe cyiviepKH, 
cojimie h JiyHa, yrpeHHJw h mnepma hjih cyMepe™aa 3Be3Aa, co3BC3flne 

BjIH3HeaOB (%* ^^a), flBOHHOH H3TH6 MOJIHHH, M0JIHH5I B He5e, BCCHa 

h oceHb, BeceHHee h oceHHee paBHOAeHCTBHH, nepBbie jryqn cojimja, 
o6o>KecrBJieHHbieqapH) h k TOMy >Ke HrHopHpyer iwaccy OTHocsuierora k 
AamibiM nepconaacaM MaTepnajia. TaK, Aiubhhm HeTOJibKO npnxoAaT 

TpH>KAbI AHeM H HOHblO HJTH B MOMeHTbl TipOCBeTJTeHHfl H 

6ecco3Ha T ejibHoro 6htm (i^ ^m* an%n f^r tn > rc^tam 
3jafeo trir u agvmd diva) (1.34.2), ho h TpH^bi OKponjiaioT cjiaAOCTbio 
acepTBonpHHOineHHe HeJioBeKa (i^ara ^mj^i^vmpir adya jajnam 
mahma mmukšatam) (1.34.3), TpoHHbiM BpameHHeM TpH)KAbi noceujaiOT 
Bep H oroo6eTaM(iK^^i^^^ trir vartir jdtam trir 
anuvrate Jane) (1.34.4), Tpn>KAbi npHB03*T 6oraTCTBO (mjti wt^m\ 
aTO^Tgg trir no rayim vahatam acvina juvarh) (1.34.5) H TpH)KAbi - 
uejiHTejibHbiecHjibi cBeTa,3eMJin h BOACMaii^i^^frii&fem 
^čtrj^a^ii trir no agvind divjam bhešajd tnh pdrthivdm trn u 
dđkon adUrplp) (1.34.6), hx KoAecHHua HMeeT Tpn o6oAa h Be3CT mča (m 
q^rctn^^ trajah pavajo madhuvdhane rathe) (1.34.2). HecoMHeHHO, 
noATpoHCTBeHHOCTbio Aihbhhob noApa3yMeBaiOTca npHcym.He HM 
KaqecrBa Co3HaTejib H oro Ejia>KeHHoro BbiTHa (mm^sacadananda). 
HHKaKne (jjeHOMeHbi MaTepnajTbHOH npupoAbi ne Moiyr 6biTb Ha3biBaeMbi 
nopo>KAaioiJ4HM Mbiciibio EoraTcrao h HaxoAaiHHMH CHJioiOBHAeHHa Cbct 
54 



(j^rkt <41uiiH,ra^T ^n ^y,H<i manotara rajlndm dhiyd deva vasuvidd) 
(1.46.2) h ynoMHHaHMe b tom w:e craxe noroKa b KanecrBe hx MaTepu 
no3TOMy mbho chmbojimhho (=it ra^pčro yd sindljumatard), KaK h to, hto 
ohh HMeHjroTca HecymHMH 3Ty peKy (ra^pse sindhnvdhasd) (V.75.2) 
Cna^ocTH (j^^gFmsiridhum madhumantam) (1. 1 1 2.9). KaK h b or/nae 
c Fhochcom (%^ indra), npa TOJiKOBaHMM o6pa3a Aldbhhob xopomo 
pa6oTaer BOJiHOBaa Teopna ncHxaHecKoro CBera- hx KaK 3HaTOKOB 
HacryruieHH}i pm Bo>KecTBeHHoro ripHcyTCTBHa nprobiBatoTpacKpbiTb 
BpaTa nejioBenecKoro BocnpaaTafl a rojiHTb pjin nofln;ep>KKH mo,nea 

CH«K)lHHe peKH CBOHX CaJI (atf ^ Wq\ fq 3TT ra^STšHaj 3TC 5TC3 ^t= 

«ta no <&/)« iša uta stnSmnr aJoarmdd apa dvdreua vaiiaOndi) (VEL5.21). 
no3TOMy aer HHnero yAHBHTenbHoro b noAMeqaeMbix JLE.r.TaJiaKOM 
CBS3H AiiiBHHOB co CBepKaiomHM OKeaHOM (fct^t » divo arnava) 
(VEI.26.17) h oriHcaHHH ax HMeHaMH THoenca (jBuWra)-06naflaTejia 
cothh čun bojui (?t^ catakratu) (1.112.23) a JIyHUiae y6aaubi 
conpoTHBneHHH (=i=iewwi vrtrahantamd) (VIII.8.22). Kmohom k 

nOHHMaHHK) HX CaMBOJMHeCKOa npapOAbl HBJIHeTCH 3HaHeHHe CJIOBa 3P3 

agva, KOTopoe b MCTOHHHKe TpaKTyera KaK SHepnta (## ojaso) mu nbui 
pa3yMa (^^ manyor) (ara^^ra *K.3^č^3ifa^ ^xd ^ w^ ^žh, 
*&oK,agvad iydyeti yad vadanty ojaso jdtarh uta manja enam manjor) 
(X.73.10).T.o. y HacecTbBceocHOBaHMa npHHSTbranoTe3y LU.A.rxoiuao 

TOM, HTO AlIBHHbl CHMBOJIH3HpyK)TCl-ffly-Co3HaHHeHcTHHbI. 

JI.B.r.THJiaK o6ocHOBaHHO yTBep>K£aeT, hto HeKOTopbie 

CBH3aHHbieCAaHHbIMK nepC0Ha>KaMH Ma({)bl PB HeB03MO>KHO O&feHCHaTb 

nocpe^cTBOM Teopaa e>KeAHeBHOH 6opb6bi TbMbi a cBeTa hjih >Ke 
e>KeroAHoro npoTHBOCTOMHHM xojioAa 3HMM a Tenna BecHbi. 
^eacTBHTejibHO, c hx noMombio Hejib3fl aAeKBaTHO HCTOJiKOBaTb 
coo6m,eHHe o Pe6xe, KOTopua jxecwrb Honea a fleBHTb Aaea npojie>Kaji 
6poineHHbiM b BOAe, cBH3aHHbiH He/ipyroM, npoa3eaHbia a 
pa3Jio>KaBiiiaaca, a 6buiBbiHepnaH orvym AiiBaHaMaKaKcoMajioHCKOK) 

l AHVP. 244-245. 

'SASV.P 316-323. 
-'AHV.P. 247-249. 

55 



. 



h^htrhjt?^ daga rđtrir aavend nova dyun avanaddham cnathitam 
apsv antah / vipmtam rebham udani- provrktamun ninjathuh somom iva 
srumia) (L 1 1 6.24). To »e caMoe mo>kho CKa3aTb o cnaceHMH hmh BaHflaHbi, 
KOTopbiH HMeHyercH 3acHyBuiHM BHe5biTHH (nm narti) u cpaBHHBaerca 

C HaXOAHmHMC5I B TeMHOTe COJIHUeM (gs^IH * H--MWW ^ q ^n gj# 

isra^Hj ^ 5W h ^ H^maii?^ toi ^^?m sušupvdmsam na 
nurterupasthe sitijom na dasrd tamasi kšijantam / cubhe mkmam na 
dargatarh nikhdtamudupatlmr aguvnd vandandja) (1.117.5), h Bxy^)KbK), 

KOTOporO OHH TpH J\m H TpH HOHH BMB03HJIH (fe STOJ^a^ ^mPTT * 

^m^^-. tisrah kšapas tnr aha ndsatjd bhujjum uhathuh) (1.1 16.4) m 
6e3AOHHoro MpaKa boa O^a^aHRo^aiira apsv antar andrambhane 
tamasi) (1.182.6). VneHbiH c^maer, hto BceBbiuienepeHHCJienHbie 
nepcoHa>KH nona/iaioT b m ww b TeMHyio He5ecHyio noJiyc4>epy, me Bce 
npeflcraBJMercfl aBTopaM thmhob nepeBepHVTbiM KBepxy HoraMH h r^e 
npeSbmaercojiHLieBOBpeMH noiwpHOH hohh. lio cnoBaM HcaieAOBarera, 

3T0T HH>KHHH MHp T04HO OnHCbIBaeTCH B CTHXe 1.24.7 C yiTOMHHaHHeM 

npe6biBaioinero b 6e3AOHHOM npocrpaHCTBe h flepacamero Bepxyuu<y 
AepeBa c HanpaBjieHHbiMH h TeKym.HMH bhh3 bctbhmh jiyqeH h c 
ocuoBanHeM HaBepxy BapyHbi (ar^ ^ ^rftt aisf ^ ^t hHIht *^ 
*w.w* r m\obudhne varimo vanasjo ardhvarii stupam dodate nicind 
sthur upan budhno ešdm). OflHaKO ncHXOJ7ormecKoe3HaqeHHecio>KeTOB 
o cnaceHHH Pe6xn h BaHAaHbi Bbwaer3HaqeHHe hx hmčh, nponcxoAtfiHHx 
OTraarojibHbix KopHefi'H-n^H "nerb, npoH3HocMTb, B3biBaTb" h ^ 
-vandr- "cjiaBHTb, XBajiHTb, BOCXBaraTb" - cjieAOBaTejibno, penb h^ct o 

AyXOBHOM OCB06b)KaeHHH MHCTHKOB, nOK>mHX (Vi ?afez) H CJiaBOCJIOB5imHX 

(^^t vandana) Bory. Mu TaK>Ke He MOKeM npHHHTb HHTepnperauMM 
JI.B.r.TnnaKOM crHxal24.7,KOTopbiH chjibho HCKa>Kaerca h HeB nojii-ioM 
o6beMe o6bHCHHeTca TOJiKOBaTeneM, nocKOJibKy b hčm onHCbiBaeroi 
o6HTaiomafl b 6e3AOHHOM Mope flyxa («g3 abudbne) CBepKaioinan 
HcTHHHaHPenb (^Ri^r^ TOwzo),yAep>KHBaK)iiJ(afl hhctoiocmjioio 
bojih ('p^: putadakšah) BepxyiuKy CBda hjih )KejiaHHH (jR^aief h$ 
^vanasjo ordhvom stupom dodate); EejiyqH HMeiOTOCHOBaHHeBBepxy 
H npH 3tom flBH5Kyrcfl BHH3 {^^^^m^^^njilclnd sthur upan 






'AHV.P.250. 
56 



budim ešdm), HTo6bi npoHHKHyrb b HenoBeica b c])opMe npocBeraromeH 
ero AyxOBHOH HHTyHLUffl (^aRt^ftiter^ 5 ^- asme antar mhitab 
ketavah syuh). Hto »e KacaeTCfl BxyA>Kbio, to oh tokč He MO>KeT 6biTb 
CKpbiBaramHMCH Ha npo-DDKeHHH Tpex cyroK nonapHofl hohh (te vra. 
mm tisrab kšapas trir aha) (1.116.4) cojmueM, nocKOJibKy Auibhhh 
BbiB033T ero H3 6e3AOHHoro MpaKa boa (ar^a^^RT^ ?nra apsv 
antar andrarnthtne tarm) (L182.6) HaTpex jreTaK)iHHXKpbiJiaTbix(*^ 
q# : ativrajadbbir patamgaih) KOJiecHHuax (M-- r% tnbhlh rathaih) c 
coTHero Hor (smfe gatapadbhilp) h o mecra kohhx (ia& šalagvaiJo) (1. 1 1 6.4) 
jih6o Ha HcnojiHeHHOM AyxoBHOH CHJibi (sm^š dtmanvantam) (1. 1 82.5) 
CTOBecenbHOM KOpa6jie i^mm ^m^atdntrdm ndvam) (1. 116.5) jih6o 
neTbipex Kopa6iiHX (^m^i catasro novo) (1.182.6). Bca 3Ta HH(j)poBaa 

CHMBOJIHKa He MO>KeT nOJiyHHTb aAeKBaTHOrO MCTOJTKOBaHH* BpaMKax 

HOJiHpHOHHHTepnpeTauHHPB-ecnHTpHKOJiecHHUbi {m--m trihbib 
rathaih) cooTBercTByiOTTpeM cyTKaM apKTHHecKofi TeMHOTbi (te?m. 
mm tisrdp kšapas trir aha), to b TaKOM cjiynae sto coo6meHHe BcrynaeT 
b npoTHBOpenHe c HerbipbMfl JiaABHMH (^te^rat catasro ndvo), mecrbio 
koh5imh (w^ šalaguaih), coTHeH BeceJi (srarfaf gatdntrdm) w coTHen Hor 
fanfe: ptepadbhih). Ctohkh »espeura ncnxonorHHecKOH KOHuenuHH 
repMeHeBTHKH naMHTHHKaTpH KonecHHUbi (M= w trittnh rathaih) Cmcbi- 
Co3HaHHM HcrHHbi (#*m apim) cHMB0JTH3HpyroT npHcymee Eh EblTHe- 
Co3HaHHe-Ejia>KeHCTBO (^ftaarFK sat-cit-dnanda), Tpn hoto h TpH 

AH51 (te imfr*& tlsrah kša P as tnr aha ) 03HaqaIOT ES n P HX0 « Ha 
noMOUTb HenoBeqecKOMy C03HaHffi0 b stom TpoHCTBeHHOM acneKTeB 
MOMeHTbi 6ecco3HaTenbHoro h npocBerneHHoro cymecrBOBaHHfl, mecrb 
KOHeR (w* šalagvaih) yKa3biBaiOT Ha HanojiHeHHe Ero sthmh TpeMH 
KanecTBaMH Tena h yMa HenoBeKa (wp* dymdprthivt), qerbipe KopaGna 
fratmti catasro ndvo) onHCbrnaiOT Ee KaK HcTHHy Co3HaTeJibHOH 
Ena>KeHHOH )Kh3hh (^^m^m^ m-sat-cit-dnanda), a cto Beceji 
(^rarferi gatdntrdm) h hop (?mw.-- gatapadbhih) HaMeKaiOT Ha cto chji 
EHOCHca (s^sra^ indra gatakratu). 

3areM JI .Br.TmiaK oopamaerca k hctophh o KpacHOKOHHOM hjih 
KpacHOM KOHe (wapa rjrdgva), KOTopbra 6b\n ocnenneH cbohm 
He6iiarocKJiOHHbiM otuom (aiftmmT acivena pitrd) h noBeprHyTBO 
MpaK (čw mm^tamab pranltam) 3a »epTBOBaHHe 100 (mm^gatam 

57 



mesari) (1.1 17.17) hjih 101 6apwa {m^^mi^catam ekaih ca mesari) 
(1. 117.18) BOJiHHue h KOTopoMy nyflecHbie uejiHTenH AuiBHHbi npoHHO 
BCTaBHJiH ma3a AAH 3peHH3 (w< ^^h ^s^to đ fta ar?q ^su i ^n ar^ft 
^rapnm^3TTvra^^m^n^ai^K'y.r'^)/e cakšaddnam rjrdcvam tam pita 
andham cakdra / tasmd akši ndsatyd vicakša adhattam dasrd bhišajdv 
amttvari) (1.116.16) hjih AapoBajiH eMy rjia3a, HTo6bi oh CMorBiwrb cbct 
(■snsft šifara arf^iT^ ar^ra ^tfX 3ii=qra =^g^ f^$ <ž&iž rjrdcve acvindv 
adhattam jjotir andhdja cakrathur vicakše) (1. 1 1 7. 1 7); HCCJieAOBaTenb 
nojiaraer, hto nepeA HaMH noBeciBOBaHHe o ArameHCH 1 00 cyrc>HHO aojithx 
Macren noJiJipHOH hohh h cneAyioiHHM 3a Hen noflBJieHHeM KpacHoro 
conHua Hajj, ropH30HTOM. IlpH TpaKTOBKe AaHHoro 3ni-i30Aa nojrapHaa 
Hi-rrepnperauHH OKa3biBaeroi 6onee aAeKBamoH no cpaBHeHHio c ceaoHHOH 
hjih BeceHHeil KOHuenuneH, ojJjiaKO c ncHxojiorHHecKOH tohkh 3peHHH 
KpacHOKOHHbiM (mx*i rjrdcm) HBJiiieTCH HMeHyeMbiH 6apaHOM (m mesa) 
Thochc (55 vndra) (1.5 1 . 1 ; 1.52.2), cjieimymnH b pe3yjibxaie HH3BeAeHHa 
Cbohx era chji bojih (sra^g catakratu) hjih craAa H3 era npHHaAJie>KamHX 
EMy 6apaHOB (stim^catam mesari) b Becco3HaiejibHoe (^ftvrki) h 
BHOBb oGperaiomHH BHAeHHe CBCTa (^mjyotir) npH jiomolum Chjim- 
Co3HaHH^ HcrHHbi (aiTOi acvim), TaioKe o6jiaAaioii4eH 1 00 cnnaMH yMa 
(wmpitab-atii) (1. 1 12.23) h Haue>KHBaioiii,eH hx w% HejiOBei<a b BHAe 1 00 
KyBmHH0BCjiaA0CTH(3T^raw^Hi^a#^ I ^pR.;đ^đ catam kumbhdn 
asmeatam madl?mdm) H3 Konbrra HcnoJiHeHHoro SHeprHH kohji (srojaroFi 
^ni gaphdd acvasja vdjind) (LI 17.6), T.e. H3 co6cTBeiiHOH CHJlbi (5i?r#: 
catapadbhih ara aevd) (cm. Bbime). 

KaK yKa3biBaer JI.BT.THJiaK, caMbiMH 3HaiHMbiMH b CHcreMe 
nojiapHOH HHTepnperauHH AaHHbix PB H3 mh(J)ob 06 AuiBHHax >bjmotch 
coo6meHHM 06 Aipn CarrraBaAxpH, AJMKOToporo 6jiH3Heu,bi xojioaom hjih 
CHeroM 3aAep)KajiH nbuiaiomee njiaMfl (wft aifa sranarerc^n' himena 
agnirii ghrainsam avarayetharh),wjm noAKpenjifliomyK) CHJiy (i%wK 
g^arFii s^m^pitumatlm urjam osma adattam) (1.1 16.8), CAeJiajra ero 
TeMHHuy b BHAepacKajieHHOH neiH hjih hmh Ana o6>KHra npHHTHOH (ft 
^m\ 3H a^ am 3rtrF^ ^g-. w^m juvarh rblsam uta taptam 
atraje omanvantarii cakrathuh saptavadhraje) (X.39.9) h 

'AHV.P. 252-253. 
58 






KOToporo 3aieM Boo6me H3bjickjih orryAa (mti srm^RT a^frag^ 

fp^: rblse atrim acvind avanltamun ninjatbuh) (1. 1 1 6.8) H H3 BeJiHKOro 

Mpaxa (hi^čtot mabastamaso) (VI.50.10); thmh V.78 npnnHCbiBaeTCfl 

caMOMy cnaceHHOMy m b hčm roBopHTca, hto AipH 6bui 3aKJQOHeH b AepeBo 

h Alubhhu ocbo6oahjih ero (r r^ ?hf^ «jčM arf*Hi ^ ^^m ^ 

g^ra /ifcVđ vanaspate crutam me acvind bavam saptavadbrim ca 

?nuncatam, m*ft sp:<rcsH} hrtpk. arPtRi 3^ \$ tf ^ f% =^8?: ršaye 

saptavadhraye mdjdbhir acvind juvam vrkšarh sam ca vi cacatbaJi) (5- 

6) h 3aTeM hact onncaHHe po>KAeHH5i MajibHHKa (furc kmđra) (^wrai^ 

S5WH: ^ 3# itor i% daća mdsdn cbacaydnab kumdro adhi maturi 

mraku) (9) noćne AecHTHMecHMHOH (gmmdaca mdsya\im^mmjaca 

mdsdn) (7, 8 H 9) 6epeMeHH0CTH; yHeHbiH bhaht b HOBopo^eHHOM (gm 

kumdra) yTpeHHee cojiHue, a oho Ha3biBaercfl peSeHKOM He5a {wmsm 

*t#q divas putrdja surydya) (X.37.1); Ha ocHOBaHHH Bcero 

BbimeH3Jio>KeiiHoro MccneAOBaTenL Aenaer BbiBOA tom, hto jierenna 06 

Atph CanTaBanxpH npeflcraBiraeT co6ok» onHcaHHe AecaTHMecHHHoro 

nepHOfla comenHoro cBera h AByxMecHHHoro nepnoAa npe6biBaHH5i 

coimnaB HTOKHeM MHpeTbMbi h Aa)KeyrBep}K3aeT ; hto "jraiib npn noMomn 

apKTHHecKon TeopHH yAOBJieTBopHTejibHo pa3-b3CHaeTca cyTb 

ynoMHHaeMbrx b rnMHe co6biTHM". 

OAHaKo TOJiKOBaHne Jl.B.r.THJiaKa 3HaHHTejibHO HCKa>KaeT 
coAep>KaHHeTeKCTa. TaK, roBecrao, hto b momcht naAeHHfl b HMy Atph 

B033Ban K AtHBHHaM (a^^^I^aR^^fl^ar^K đfnr yad vam 

azmv/mn dmm ajdmjin) w ohh npHMHajiHCb c CHK)MHHyTHOH CKopocrbio 
opna (^ft r^^ht ^m wm^^Rt cyenasya cij javasd nutanena 
agad jatom acvind) (4) -3HaqHT, He MO>KeT 6biTb peqn ero AByxMeoiHHOM 
npe6broaHHH b TeMHOTe. Kpy>Ka^ee b He6e cojmue TaioKe He mtokct 
onHCbiBaTbca KaK Jie^amee na npoTJDKeHHH AecaTH MecaueB (zmm^ 
vwm-- ^rr daća mdsdn cbacaydnah kumdro) (9) h eMy He ot nero 6biTb 
bo BpeMfl nojiapHoro Jiera HcnyraHHbiM h HiiryiHMM 3au4HTbi (*rww 
bhltaja nddhamdndya) (6). C ApyroH cropoHbi, nonaBuiee b tcmh)to 
He6ecHyio nonyc(j)epy cb6thjio ne Mo>KeT HMeHOBaTbca >KHBbiM h 
HeBpeAHMbiM (1% sf^T ar^RTi sM sftr^n zm mraitu jlvo akšato jlvo 

'AHVP. 253-260. 

59 



fivantyd- adloi) (9), nocKOJibKy BbimeyHeHbiH caM bh,h,htb coo6meHHH o 
HeKoeM yMHpaK>meM (^ mornara) (X.55.5) hmchho o6pa3 3axoA3mero 
cojmua. CaM Atpm ynoAo6ji5ieTCH Hinyiuefi 3amHTbi »eHiuHHe (3#c 
pfrain^ šm atrir nddhamdneva yošd) (4) H CKOBbmaioinee ero JiepeBO 
cpaBHHBaeTca c co6npaiomeHCfl po>KaTb (=n<-Md m\m-- tj^^i 53 vanaspate 
yonib siišyantyd rođ)(5),cjieAOBaxenbHO, AajieeonHCbiBaeTCfl ero 
co6cTBeHHoe BTopoe po>K7ieHHe hjih noHBJieHHe nero-TO b ero 
co6cTBeH-HOM cymecTBe. Mbi Bbiiue y>Ke roBopnjiH tom, hto 
AecHTHMecHHHbiH nepno/j; (<$miw daća ?ndsya hjih ^wwndaca masdh) 
no JiyHH0My KajieHJj,apio CHMB0JM3Hpyer nojiHbiH limkji 3M6pHOHanbHoro 
pa3BHTHH H3 cpaBHHBaeMoro c JioTocoBbiM npyAOM (^fwhpi-iškarinim) 
3ap07Jbiiua (q*f garbha) MajibHHKa (irtc kumdra) (V.78.7-9) - T.e. 
poK^aiOLueMCH H3 JiOTOca (s^K^arfa puškarad adhi) (VI. 16. 13) 
Bo>KecTBeHHOH Bojih (a# agni) (V.2.1 h 2) hjih THoenca (šfs indrd) KaK 
MajieHbKoro MajibHHKa (§rk£f kandrako) (VDI.69. 1 5). 3th jjgcsnrb MecameB 
6epeMeHHOCTH He mop/t 03HanaTb /jeorrHMeorHHbM nepno a cojmeTHoro 
CBera. H nojiapHaa 3HMa He MO)KeT xapaKTepH30BaTbca o/jHOBpeMeHHo 

HHTeHCHBHOHTeMHOTOIO(i15H™WMStoWđSo)(VI.50.10),nbIJTaiOLUHM 

3HoeM (^mn^agnitri gbramsam) (1.1 16.8) h y30CTbK) (sm- arhhasah) 
(1.117.3). HaKOHeu^eHbiH (j)aKTHHecKH HHKaKHeo6'b5iciweT3HaHeHHe 
BTOporo HMeHH ATpn - CeMH>KAbi KacTpaT {w<tm saptavadbri) - h 
orpaHHHHBaeTCM yKa3aHHeM Ha ero CBH3b c /j,pyrHMH ceMHpn^HbiMH 
o6pa3aMHPB,BT.q. h ceMHKOHeHcojiHua^^^praaTOđ suryo 
ydtii sapta acvah) (V.45.9) Kax CHMBona ceMH MecaijeB cojmenHoro CBera 
(cm. Bbinie). CneAOBaienbHO, CeMH>KAbi KacTpaT (w^msaptavadlm) 
AOJDKeH osHanaTb ceMb MecsueB apKimecKoro MpaKa- ho sto cj)H3mecKK 

HeB03MO)KHO. C n03HUHH )KenCHXOJIOrHHeCKOHTeOpHHrepMeHeBTHKH 

naMflTHHKa Ba>KHO HMeHOBaHHe BparoB PHoenca (^s. mdra) HMeiomHMH 
rojiocaKacTpaTOB (^mr^- vadlmvacah) (VH.18.9) HenojiHOueHHbiMH 
My)KHHHaMH (arc^ffcpr ardbarh vlrasjd) (VII. 18.16) h b TaKOM cjiynae 
CeMH)KAbi KacrpaT (w^m5aptawdlm) CHMBOJiH3HpyeT 6ecco3HaTejibHoe 
cyoiecTBOBaHHeHejiOBeKaKaKceMHCJiOHHOH3HepreTHHecKOHCTpyiaypbi. 
Bo>KecTBeHHaH Bojih (sira agni) h Thocmc (=fs indrd) hbjijiiotch 
o6jiarj,aTejiHMH tmcahm moluohok (trnt^ sabasramuška) (VI.46.3; 
VTH.19.32) CTbiCHHbio ceMHH (aM3i sabasraretd) (IV.5.3) mmcjih (wm\\- 
60 



manaso metal}) (X. 129.4); ho noMHMO storo ohh TaiOKe BocnesaiOTCH Kax 
npei<pacHopyKHe AuiBHHbi {smm ^w(\ acvmd supom) (1.109.4) h sto 
coniacyercfl c xapaKTepHCTMKOH Alubhhob i<aK KpenKOflnaHHbu (%n<ft 
vtlupdnt) (VII.73.4); Bo^ecTBeHHaa Bona (a#? agm) Ha3biBaeTcs kohčm 
(Račvam) (X.188.1) h kohhum (spftapri) (VII.1.12), T.e. cjmKTHHecKH 
OTO^ecraraerca c oahhm m Gjdohsjob, a Thocmc fe vidra) npoHCXOAHT 
H3 kohh hjih H3 anepraH ywia (aTO^i^Frra ^g^č^aifemt sto 3čT fPT 
Wj irtr,?^! m-. jru ^ 3^ M agvdd iydyeti yad vadantj ojaso 
jatom uta manja mom / manyor iydya yatah prajajna indro asya veda) 
(X.73.10); ao6 AuiBHHaxroBopHTCH, hto OHHBJiaraiOT3apoflbiuiBOBce 
KeHCKMe cymecTBa h BHyipb Bcex co3AaHHH (^5^=^)5^^^% 
i^Ka^: yuvam ha garbham jagattšu dhattho yuvam vicvešu bhuvanešv 
antal;) (1. 157.5). T.o., EoKecTBeHHaa Bojih (a# agm) h Thochc (55 indra) 
KaK CHJia-Co3HaHHe Hcthhh (airoi đm'?w) npHXOAflT k qejiOBeKy h 
onjioAOTBopaiOT ceMeneM CBoeH MbicjiH (iwi^: toot^o reta/?) Bce 
ceMb KacrpHpoBaHHbix Becco3HaiejibHbiM o6o;ioqeK ero 6bum (w^m 
saptavadhri); Hx 3apoAbim (q*f garM>đ) pa3BHBaeica noAo6HO 
HejiOBenecKOMy 3M6pHony Ha nporaaceHHH pecara jiyHHbix MecaneB 
(<^ihiw oacs. mdsya mm ^mm^daca mason) h hobmh (j)opMHpyK>mHHCH 
AVXOBHbiH nenoBeK (^hr kiimdra hjih ^tct kumdraka) 0C03Hae'T 
Heco3HaTenbHOCTb (čr tama) h y3ocrb (371«: amhasah) CBoefi 
npeHaTajibHOH >kh3hh h crpaAaeT ot nee KaK ot nbuiaiomero orm (a# 
■m^agmm ghramsam) b pacKaneHHOH nenu (^te^^^rtoa?« tap/sm); 
Torjj;a oh B3biBaeT k cbohm CBeTOHOCHbiM PoAHTejMM h Ohh TyT >Ke 
npHxoflHT k HeMy Ha noMoiHB (3nH^^H,3R^^%^3r%^5wq 
ft^3RH^^3TO5?^a#CTđfnr yad vam avarohann rblsam ajohavln 
cyenasya ci] javasd nutanena agachatam acvind) h noMOraiOT ero 
noflnHHHOMy po>KAeHHK) h OAHOBpeMeHHo CBoerviy co6cTBeHHOMy 
proKfleHHK) qepe3 Hero. 

PaccMOTpeB JiereHflBi 06 AuiBHHax, JI.BJ.TnnaK oopainaera k 
aHajiH3y flaHHbix naMsrraHKa noxjnmeHHM Hhapoh KOJieca hjih AHCKa 
coimua (^^m.suryam cakram) (1.1 75.4; IV.30.4;V.31.11);yHeHbiH 

OTKa3bIBaeTCfl BHACTb B 3THX C006lHeHHHX CBHAeTejTBCTBa 3aTeMHeHHfl 

CBeTHJiaTyHeH jth6o e>Kec)TOHHoro 3axoAa h o6pamaeT BHHMaHHe Ha 
napaAOKcajibHbie ynoMHHaHHa npe6biBaHHH CypbH bo TbMe (^ar# 

61 



m*H.suryarit tamasi fez)mton)(L117.5;III.39.5),KOTopbie, no MHeHHK) 

HCCJieAOBaTejM, HBJlHIOTCa npflMblMM OTpa>KeHHflMM nOHHpHOH homh; 

Jl.B.r.TnnaK yKa3bEBaer Ha cthx VL3 1 .3 c onncaHHeM noxHmeHHJi Hhapom 
cojinenHoro KOJieca (i%m^F^suryasya cakram) Ha HCXOAe AecaTH (^i 
m^dacaprapitue) h npHXOAHT k BbiBOAy o tom, hto 3Aecb roBopMTca o 
AecHTHMecaiHOM apKTHHecKOM neTe h HacTynaK)m,eH boka 3a hhm 
flByxMecaHHOH 3MMHeH hohh, Korfla npoHcxqnHT 6opb6a 3a ocBo6o>KAeHHe 
OKa3biBiuerocs[ bo MpaKe hhokhch He6ecHOH nonyaj)epbi cojuhua. O/maKO 
h npn pa36opeAaHHOH repMeHeBTHHecKOH CHTyau,MH yneHbiH AonycKaer 
3HaHHTenbHoe HCKa>KeHHeTeKCTa h nepeBopanHBaer ero cmhcjt c Hor Ha 
ronoBy, nocKonbKy H3 Hero c HecoMHeHHOcrbio cjieAyer, hto THOCHcy (^ 
indrd) yAaeTC5i Ao6biTb CKpbiToe bo TbMe Becco3HaienbHoro (čpto m^i 
tamasi kšijantam) CHHHHe,H,yiiiH (?$^m^suryam cakram) rnmib no 
3aBepineHHH AecflTH MecjiueB (^rsiftčl daća prapitve) - BeAb He MO)KeT 

6bITb H peHH O CTOJlb AOJirOM OTCyTCTBHH COJIHeHHOTO CBeTa H, 

cneAOBaTejibHO, nepeA HaMH o^epeAHOH BapnaHT H3Jio>xeHHfl npomecca 
AyxoBHoro po>KAeHHa HenoBeKa. 

Jl.B.r.TnjiaK nepexoAHT k HHTepnperauHH MMCj)a PB Tpex 
mHpoKHxmaraxBHUJHy (f^q^3^f5gf^w%wš?7M yasya urušu trišu 
w^?wKŠ«)(I.154.2;cM.TaK>KeI.22.17Hl8;I.155.4;VII.100.3;Vm.29.7); 

HCCJieAOBaTeJIb npHBOAHT C006meHHfl HCTOHHHKa TOM, HTO TOJIbKO ABa 

mara 3Toro BbimflAflmero KaK cojiHue nepcona>Ka bhaht ^hWiwSi 
mwm^idve idasya kramane svardršo abhikhyaya martyo) (1. 155.5) 
hjih 3HaK)T juoah (3*t I m T^m\ ira^ wm ubhe te vidma rajasl prthivja 
■usno) (Vn.99. 1), aTperHH ero mar HeAocryneH HHKOMy, Aa>Ke neraioinHM 
nraiiaM (^ft^arF? =#tct ^toh *wm Md^-d: ^ram; trtljam asya nakird 
dadharšati vajaccana patajantah patatmiab) (1. 1 55.5); b ApyroM MecTe 
roBopHTCH o qerbipe)KAbi AeBaHOcro noAo6Hbix Bpainaiom,eMycji Konecy 

HMeHaX BHIHHy, KOTOpbie ABH>KyT KOHHbIMH napaMH (^W:<HI+H=)id'^ 

^thPt^^ h ;p ^m\m\ ! m^caturbhib šakam navatim ca namabbic 
cakram na vrttcnh vyaSnrauupat) (1. 1 55 .6) - noA hhmh noApa3yMeBaK)TCH 
pa3AeneHHbie Ha HeTbiperpynnbi 360 ahch roAa h pm yneHoro aro MBraerca 
AOKa3aTenbCTBOM foaoboh npHpoAH CB«3aHHbix c Bnmny mm(J)ob; 

'AHVP. 261-266. 
62 



nocneaHHM HMenyerca 6jim3Khm ApyroM Hhapu (s^5^ ^ mdrasya 
ywh sMd) (122. 1 9), coBMecTHo c hhm y6nBaeT Bpnipy, ocBo6o>KAaeT 
noTOKH (m«w? R^r ra^L. sakbe višno handva vrtram 
nndcdva sindbun) (Vm. 100.12) h OTKpbmaersaroH CKopoBaMH (spt^fi-p 
flfeR^p^đm cd višnuh sakhivdnapornute) (1.1 56 .4); JI. .EJ.THJiaK 
Aaer cjieAyK)myio peKOHcrpyKLffiio Bcex Bbiuien3Jio>KeHHHX oohcctob: 
BHUiHy - 3to cojiHue, TpH ero mara o6o3HaHaK)T pasA&ieHHbra Ha ipn 
nacra roAOBOH conflpHbiH Kypc, Asa mara CHMBOJiH3npyiOT nepnoflbi 
npe6biBaHHacBeranaHaArx)pH3omx)M,TpeniH*eyKa3biBaerHaBpeMH 
ero Haxo>KAeHHa b tcmhoh mmm He6ecHOH nojiyc(|)epe - HMeHHO 
no3TOMy ero He Moryr yBHAerb cMepiHbie h nraubi. 

OAHaKO HHTepnpeTauHH JI.E.r.TroiaKa 3HaqHTenbHO 
HCKa>i<aeTcoAep>KaHHeTeKCTa.BHiiiHyAeHCTBHTejibHOBbiraJiAHTKaKCBeT 

(^msvardršo) (1.155.5) h ocnenHTejibHO CHner (wp^ viblmta dyumna) 
(1 1 56. 1), ho npn 3Tom AapyeMoe hm apKO csepicaiomee 6oraTCTBO (gea^R 
m-- pm%amdrasya. rdycfo) coctoht m npHHaflneKameH bccm cy mecTBaM 
coBepmeHHOH mucah (^M^fr^ 1 ^ tvarh višno sumahm 
vtcm m mi matirh ^)(W100.2)HHMe HH oee*a>KAyTBKycHTbJTiOAH 
(^i^^^FŠ te višno sumatim bhajdmahe) (1.156.3). BocnpHflTHe 
AByx maroB BHiiiHy sacraBJiaer CMepraoro 6ecnopflAOHHO MCTaTbca (s 
^ Wt ^ 3tw?tr ^ ^<*tri dve idasya kramane svardjšo 
abbikb)vya nmtp bhuranyati), m Tperran >Ke mar He MO>KeT 0TBa>KHTbC5i 
hhkto, Aa>Ke nTHUbi b noneTe (gčfan.^ ^m ^m *w*h to^ w^ : 
miyamasya nakird dadharšati vaya(cana ptayantJ) patatnmb) (1.155.5) 
~yxe3TO yKa3biBaer Hapacnono)KeHHeAaHHoro Mecra HeBHH3yHjm b 
HH)KHeH nojryccj)epe He6a, a k&k pa3 H ao6opoT - BBepxy. APY™e 
cooGmeHHH HcroHHHKaTonbKO noAKpenjraioTSTO npeAnoAOKeHHe-JTO 
3HaroT ABa ero npocTpaHCTBa (mžwv Tm\wm^ri ubhe te vidma 
rajaši pjthivyd ■višno) h JiHiiib TOJibKO caM CBeroHOCHbiH BHUffly 3Haer 

CBoeBbiciueeo6HTajiHme(i^T^^'w^ f ^ Vlšri ° deva Wam 
ft žra m^^)(Vn.99.1).EmeBOAHOMMecTeroBopmxaoTOM > HTOOH 

y craHaBJ]HBaeT6jiH)KHeeHAara 3 HeeHMeHaHTpeTbenoMemaeTB™meM 
npocTpaHCTBe CBeTa (^ira mt *rf m <[čfa^ ?to ft* đadferti 

'AHV.P. 266-268. 

63 



avaram param nama tr6.yam adhi rocane divah) (1. 155.3). Bo>KeCTBeHHa5! 
Bora (a# agu) npn OTO>KAecTBjieHHH c BHiiiHy HMeHyeTca 3HaiomeH h 
oxpaH5iK)LueH cBoe Bbicmee hjth Tperbe MecToo6HTajiHme (frn&s^tKUJi, 
ai^TO^^mragak^TO^z^r ittha paramam asya vidvan abhi pati 
trUyam) (X. 1 .3) h HMeHHO Ee qapyioiHee apKoe po)KaeHHe faja^m^ 
fcmjyat te janima caru atram) HBMeTCH BbiciHHM 3aneHaTJienHbiM 
BHiiiHy cJie^OM (qčf ^fm^gt^j wwt padam yad višnor upamam 
rvdm) (V3.3). HaOTOTBbiciiiHH cneAnocjieAHero KaK HanpoTKHyBiuHHra 
B He6e rna3 (^mw:<Twq^i^^3Tra^tart' višnoh paramam padam 
drum cakšur atatam) BcerAa CMorpjiT coBepiHaroiHMe KepTBonpHHOmeHHe 
(ag'mrap: sada pacyanti suvajah) (1.22.20) - oahhko sto He mcdkct 
6biTb (j)H3HqecKoe cojiHue, nocKanbKy b cjieAyK>meM c™xe roBopi-iTca o 
tom, hto HaxoAflmHeca b 3KCTa3e BfloxHOBeHHbie noćne paHHero 
npo6y>K7],eHH5i 3a>KHraiOT stot BbicuiHH cnzj\ BniHHy (referat i^rat 
3tfrto: hff^t Rw^q^tKir m> tad viprdso vipanyavo jagrvamsah 
samindl)ate višnor yat paramam podani) (1.22.2 1 ). TpH ero mara TaK>Ke He 
Moryr 03HaqaTB pa3Aene'HHbm Ha TpH nacra roflOBofi cojiapHbin Kypc, t.k. 

B OflHOM CTHXe CO,H,ep>KHTCa COo6lHeHHe TOM, HTO BHHJHy TpH)KAbI 

npomaran 3eMjno c cothcio BocxBaneHHfi (m,^ : <jmk,^ ^ ft ^ 
smmtrir devab prthivim eša etdm vi cakrame catarcasam) (YR. 100.3) 
- a 3to ne MO>KeT 6biTb HHKaK 06'bacHeHO b paMKax norunpHOH 
HHTepnpeTauHH PB. C rjpyroH CTOpOHH, stot 3nH30A noMaeTca 
aAeKBaTHOMy HcrojiKOBaHHK) c no3HHHH ncHxojiormecKOH HHTepnpeTauHH 
IU.A.rxoma, pjm KOToporo Tpn ujhpokhx mara BHUJHy (^gq^3?g% 
few% višnu yasya urušu trišu vikramanešu) aBJifliOTCfl o6pa30M Tpex 
Ten Be3AecyiHero - MaTepHanbHoro, BHrajibHoro h MeHTanbHoro - h nepe3 
hhx Oh npoBOAHT cothk) Mbicjie-Cnn PHOCHca (^w^wdra cđakrattj). 
JI.E.r.THjiaK o6Hapy>KHBaeT noATBep>KAeHHe CBoen 
HHTepnpeTauHH mh$ob PB o BnLUHy b ynoMHHaHHH Tpex He6ec, npa H3 
KOTopbix cny>KaT jiohom IIo6yAHTejTC (m^savitar), a oaho HaxoAHTca b 
MHpe HaMbi (™ ?ir: hr^si ^mi ^ m^ g^ tisro dyavah savitur 
dva upasthdni ekd yamasya. bt?iwane) (1.35.6) -T.e. ai<o6bi b HH>KHeM MHpe 
MepTBbix, boa h MpaKa. OAHaKO noAo6HoeTOJiKOBaHHeHraopHpyer(})aKT 

! AHVP. 271-272. 
64 



tofo, mto TocnoAHH (m yatm) npe6b,BaeT b Bb.cmeM ne6e («^w 
q^ro sam gachasva jamene parameuyoman) (X. 14.8). 

B 3 aKJiK)4eHHe aHamoa flaHHbix naMaraHKa o Bhujhv 
MCCJieADBaieiib o6pamaerca k o&mchchiiiđ oahofo H3 ero HMeH - 
UlHnHBHUira (ftttfc fi/Ktftf?*); n™ nepeBOAHT ero KaK 

"3anapiXJHBeBUiHH"MJlH"HMeK)mHHnO TC MHeBLUHeJiyHH HJIH BpeMeHHO 
CKp U TbIHBTeMHbIXnOKpOBax" ; XOT«yKa3b.BaeTHHaB03MO)KHOCTberO 

noHHMaHHHKaK"o6Ha fl aK)iUHHnpo 5 n M eHHbiMHJiyHaMH;HcnoffleHHbiM 

3HaHHH aBTOp FHMHa npOCJiaBJIHCT HMH IllHnHBHlIlTU N«WW 

(^^^^m-.^kšajantam asya rajasah pardke) (VKIOO 5) - W* 
JI B r.THjraKa otot cMBnaera onncaHHeM npe6biBaHH* no6neKiiiero 
C onHuaBHH>KHeMMHpe;AaJieeno3TroBopHTBHmHyoTOM,™eroHeiib3« 

vnpeKHVTb b npoBrarjiameHHH CBoero HMeHH IIlHnHBHiirra (*q**m-> 
l^ ^m^^kim it te višno paricakšyam bhut pra 

yd vauakše opušta asnu), h npocHT ero ne CKpbBaTb 3T0H CBoen 4>o P Mb, 
nocKonbKy b Apyron oh novaca b 6nT B e („jft *^j**£ 
******* ma varno asmad apa guba etad yad anjarupah samitbe 
babhuthd) (VIL100.6) - VHeHbm bhaht 3 fl ecb cBHflpraitcrBO 6opbOb, 
mHnHBHiim I cAeMOHaMHUMb 1 BHH>KHeHH^HOHnoJ]ya})epe.OwiaKO 

M3 AaHHoro crHxa cneAyer, mto Bhihh Y y.acTBOBan b 6H TO e b o&fflice 
OTJii^oMOTlIlMraiBHLJjrb^KpoMeToro^ocneAHHHoeKraeTHeBm^cHeM 

^peMpaKa^AaneKosanpeAmamnpoapaH^BKoropoMH^oAfflO! 

aBTop rHMHa, hjih *e Bbiuie nero {«™*m *m< wft W— ^ 
,»J* prtife); HaKoneu, »aM ne o6H3aTenbHO npHHHMffn, hmchho 
oTpHuatenbHbiH Bapnanr mvitmz HMeHH M^ 0j^-™J; * 
MMoHbep-yHJib5iMcaoHonepeBOAHTCMHeTOJibKOKaK bald-headed h 

"leprous"; ho h k & k "pervaded by rays" h "superfluous' , hto Bnorae 
cornacyeTCH c Apy™MH ncHxojrorHHecKHMH xapaKTe P HCTHKaMH 
Be3Aecymero (^«V T.o., nonapHa« Hirrepnperam« nepcona^a 
mHrJHinTb.Bb.rOTTnoMeHbU Je HMepeKaKAaneKOHey6eAHTeJibHa a H 

'AHV.P. 269-271. 
2 MWSED.P. 1072. Cokimn 1 . 

65 






ycrynaer no AOKa3aTenbHocrn noAXOAy III. A.rxoiua. 

Jl.E.r.TKnaK yTBep>Kaaer, hto npeAcraBneHHeoo" apKTHHecKOM 
roAe, cocroflineM H3 AByx CBernbix h oahoh tcmhoh HacreH no nerbipe 
Mecaua b xa>KAOH, coAep>KHTCH b nereHAe PB o TpeTbeM Boaahom (m 
an^t trita dptya); oh yna.n b HMy (m--?k ^^tritah vavre antar) (X.8.7) 
hjih B KOHOAeii (fer; ^ sraftaT tritab kupe avabito) h B033Ban OTTyAa o 
noMOiHH k CBeTOHOCHHM (^i^ra 3^ devdn bavata utaje) h ero 
ycnbimaji FocnoAHH MojiHTBbi (h^r^ri^ taccbucrdva brhaspatib) 
(1 105.1 7); bo BpeMfl npe6biBaHHfl TaM oh yKa3an neHHeM HacBoepoACTBO 
c ceMbK) jiyHaMH (m\ ^ wz ^h^črt h wi\3TraaT i rot,^,^ su^j-- 
e MHiHHWwi?r aml ye sapta racmajas tatrd me nabhir dtatd / tritas tad 
veda dptyab sa jdmitvdja rebhati) (1.105.9) -nofl HHMH yHeHBlfi 
noApa3yMeBaeT ceMb MecaneB HenpepbiBnoro cojine^Horo CBeTa; 
MecTOo6nTajiHine TpHTbi Ha3biBaeTC« TanHbiM h b stom MO>KeT 
coAep>KaTbCH HaMek Ha npHcyTCTBHe conHuaB CKpbnroM hcbhahmom MHpe 
(m^*M\<W{tritasya guba padam) (DC.102.2); TaK>Ke H3BecTHO, hto no 
no6y>KAeHHK) HHApbi oh no6eAHji h y6HH TpexrojioBoro cbiHaTBOpua 
i^m^tvaštar) h BbinycTHJi ero KopoB, T.e. jryqH CBera (i^roaint^aiKiga^ 
čreMcn mwhi<hi^w rm: Hq^ rbt *w- indrešita dptyo abhyayudbyat 
tnclršdnam jaghanvdn tvdštrasja annih sasrje trito gdh) (X.8.8)-3Aecb, 
ecjffl cneAOBaTb nornKe HccneAOBarejra, pacci<a3biBaeTCfl o noSeAe cojmua 
b HH)KHeH He6ecHOH nojiyccj)epe HaATpeMH MecjiuaMH HenpepbiBHofi 

nOJKpHOHHO'TO. 

OAHaKO HHTepnpeTauM JI.E.r.TnjiaKa HTHOpHpyeT HeKorapbie 
Ba>KHbie CBHAeTenbCTBa HCTOHHHKa, KOTOpbie coBMecTHO c y>Ke 
npHBeAeHHbiMH AaHHbiMH no3BOMK)T AaTb xopouio 060CH0BaHHyK) 
ncHxonoraHecKyrci peKOHcrpyKUHio mhcjdob oTpHre AnTbe. Tax, naMaiHHK 
roBOpHT o Tpex TpHTax (^m f^m trlm tritasja) (IX. 1 02.3) h TaKoe 
coo6iHeHHe onpoBepraeT Bce nocTpoeHH« apKTHHecKOH TeopiiH 
repMeHeBTHKH, nocKonbKy nepHOA OTcr/Tcrena conHna Ha He6e He Mo>KeT 
npoAOJDKaTbCH Becb ABeHaAuaTHMeoiHHbiH toa; noATpeMJi TpnTaMH (*r 
iwi trlni tntasya) 3Aecb Henb3fl noApa3yMeBaTb npocTO TpH 
HeTbipexMecHHHbie nacra roAa, nocKoiibKy m trita- sto nop^AKOBoe 

'AHV.P. 272-275. 
66 



™oiHTenbHoe h, KpoMeToro, b PB ynoMHHaeroj eme uJJpmaumi Biopofi 
(fšm dvitaja) (V.18.2) h k TOMy »e BMecie c TpHTOH (f^m ^ fem? 
tritdya ca dutdya) (VH47.16). CjapyroH cropoHbi, rHnoTe3alU.A.rxoiua 
o tom, mo Tpura CHMBOjrH3Hpyer TperbK) nooieiena h )kh3hh odojtohio/ 
HenoBCTecKoro cymecraa hjih yM , no3BOJiaer noHjrrb yKa3aHHe Ha Tpex 
TpHT (^t&t fstčjFT trini tntasyd) kslk onHcaHHe npHcyTCTBHH Co3HaHHa 
Bjia>KeHCTBa EbiTHfl (fraf^am^ sat-rit-anarula) b pa3yMe HejiOBeica. 
TaioKe Ba>KHO to, mo y6HBaeMbin TpHTOH cbiH TBanrrapa KBnaerca He 
TOTbKO TpexrojiOBbiM (Mimtj-igršdnam), hto eme Morao 6bi 03HanaTb 
Tpw Mecaua HenpepbiBHOH tbmli, ho h ceMHJiyqHCTbiM ( nwm 
saptaracmim) (X.8.8) - b TOJiKOBaHHH Jl.B.r.THJiaKa sto cymecrBeHHoe 
coo6meHHe npocro onymeHO, t.k. TorAa eMy npHiiuiocb 6bi o6tHCHaTb 
ero Kax ceMb MeoiueB MpaKa, hto cj)H3HHecKH HeB03MO>KHO Aa>se b TOHKe 
nonroca. C ncHxojiorHHecKOH >Ke tohkh 3peHHa TpexrojiOBbiH h 
ceMHJ7yqHCTbiH CbiH TBaiUTapa (MHm - hrtwt p?thj<r tnglršdnam 
saptaragiimitwštrasya) CHMBOJTH3HpyeTBecco3HaTejTbHoeB Tpex hjih ceMH 
Tenax HenoBeKa h pa3yM KaK nocjiaHHHK THOCMca noGe^aer ero (sžm 
s^isp^m^indrešita dptyo d>hyayudhyat) u ocBoftoKRazr nyw pyuM 
(m^mim-- sosrje trito gđh). TaKoe noHHMaHHe noATBep^aercfl eine h 

TeM, HTO BO BpeMJI HaX0>K£eHHfl B HMe TpHTa HCKajl C nOMOIHbK) CHJIbl 

bojth AyxoBHoe BHfleHHe (wm fer: spgRi ^ a^^tftra đ5jđ £n'ta£ 
kratund vaure antar icljan dktim) (X.8.7). TpHTa He TOJibKO pOflCTBeHHO 
CB5i3aH c ceMbio 3JieMeHTaMH HejiOBe^ecKoro cyiHecTBa h B3biBaer k hhm 

omi ye sapta rapnajas tatra me ndbhir atata / tritas tad veda dptyah sa 
]dmitvdya rebhati), ho b TaHHOH HCTHHe CBoero SbiTHfl TO)K#ecTBeHeH 
Bo>KecTBeHHOMy focnoflHHy (m yama) h Cnjie HecBjreaHHOcra 
BecKOHeHHOCTH (sm^r dditya) («m m\ 3tft sm^ćn s# rat ^r ^t 
asi yamo asya ddityo asi trito gubyena vratena) (1.163.3) hbcboćm 
BbicmeM MecTepo>KfleHHa paBH03HaneH Hcthhhoh Pe™ (bcB^ra?^ 
*m^3n§--*m*fam^uteva me varunaccantsy yatrd ta dhuh paramam 
janiiram) (1.163.4). 

JIErTmiaK nojiaraer, qro ynoMHHaHHa b PB flecmi Bbin»m#iHHX 

'SASV.P.387and403. 

67 



KaK 30J10T0 t.h. napeti ([i<u-M*H^<?l čt? # hiranjasandršo daša rajno) 
(VHI.5.38) hjih flecHTH o6TbeflHHHBiuHXCH He»:epTByK)UJiHXT.H. uapen fa 
trr: htot 3whr: daša rdjdnah samita ayajyavah) (VE.83.7), c KOTOpbiMH 
BoeBaji UJeApo AaiomHH fem&idas) h KOTopoMy noMoran PiHApa (#13 
^ sj^Tf g^ra ura^^ emz «« &đ??7 ddšardjne suddsam prdvad indro) 
(VII.33.3) h BapyHa, KorAa tot 6bm oca^eH (^^^rpri^^Rm^^i^ 
vwm s? ti<iMHi=fd indrarh ca varunam yatra rdjabhir dašabhir nibddhitam 
pra suddsamavatarii) (VE.83.6) hjih OKpy>KeH hmh co Bcex cropoH {^m 
Tfarara rijh: g^ra w4m\4\m<\H^dđšarajne pariyatttiya vicvatah suddsa 
indrdvarundvaakšatam) (VH.83.8), Ha^o noHHMaTb KaK coo6meHHe o 
OKeroAHOM UHKJie 6opb6bi cojihua h TbMbi b nonapHOM peraoi-ie c 
AecHTHMecflHHbiM CBerjibiM h AByxMeca i ffltiM tcmhmm ce30HaMH. Mbi 
CTHTaeM TaKoe HcrojiKOBaHHe rpy6biM HCKa>KeHHeM cMbicna TeKcra y>Ke 

nOTOMyTOJIbKO/ITOAeCHTbnpOTHBHHKOBffieroH(XHbK6o)KeCTB-HHApbI 

h BapyHbi - flOJDKHbi o6o3HaqaTb KaK pa3 Aeorrb MecnueB apKTHHecKoro 

MpaKa, HO 3TO CJ)H3HHeCKH HeB03MO>KHO. OflHO TO, HTO 6HTBafleCflTH T.H. 

uapen (zrmst ddšardjne) nponcxoAHT b yMe hjih b nejiOBeKe (g^ra^s: 
y^+HiH^H<-tjii<i^ suddsa indrah sutukanamitrdnarandhajan manuše) 
(VH. 1 8.9), no3BOjraer roBopHTb o ncHxojrorHHecKOH npHpoAecHMBonH3Ma 
Aamroro CKOKera h 0TKa3aTbca ot npHMeHeHHfl nQAX0Aa nojrapHOH uikojih 
rq)MeHeBTHKH npn ero o6tHCHeHHH. 

JT.B.r.THJiaK yTBep>Kn,aeT, hto tojtbko b paMKax npeAnaraeMOH 

HM KOHUenUHH B03MO)KHO nOHHMaHHe MHOJTOHHCJieHHbK o6pa30B 
naMHTHHKa C CeMepHHHOH, AeBHTepHHHOH H AeCflTepH'fflOH UH(j)pOBOH 

chmbojihkoh. O^HaKO mm b xofle npeAbiAymero H3no>KeHHfl y>Ke 

HeOflHOKpaTHO npOAeMOHCTpHpOBaJTH TOT OpaKT, HTO BbIBOAbl 

HccneAOBaTejT« npH pa3peuieHHH noAo6Hbrx repMeHeBTHHecKHX CHTyau,HH 

CTpaAaiOT npH6jTH3HTeJTbHOCTbK) H HeAOCTaTOHHOH 060CH0BaHH0CTbK) H 
CTpOaTCH Ha HCKa>KeHHH KITU BHeKOHTeKCTHOM H y3KOM aHaJTH3e AaHHbK 
HCTOHHHKa, HTO XapaKTepHO A™ HaTypaHHCTHHeCKOH LUKOJIbl 

repMeHeBTHKH b uejioM. Tansce mh noKasann, hto 3c|xjjeKTHBHbiM 
HHcrpyMeHTOM a™ aAeKBaTHoro noHHMaHHH Tarax Mecr b TeKcreflBJifleTca 

'AHVP. 282-283. 
: AHV.P. 277-282. 

68 



ranoTe3a UI.A.r.xoLLia 06 hx ncnxoKOCMOipacj)HHecKOH (J^hkuj-im. 

3aBepiuaer H3Jio>KeHHe nonapHOH HHTepnperanHH AaHHbix PB 
Jl.BJ.TmiaK yTBep>KAeHHeM tom, hto MHTpa h BapyHa M3HananbHO 
npeAcraBJiiuiH co6oh AJiHBuiHecH no nonroAa Ha poAHHe HHAoapHeB cbct 
h TbMy h hto b 3toh nape HMeHHO BapyHa KaK 0XBaTbiBaiomHfi hoih (a 
w- m ^ sa kšapah pari šasvaje) (VHI.41 .3) aBJiaeTCJi BJiaAbiKOH hohh 
h OKeaHaB hcbhahmom HH>KHeM MnpeMpaKa. OAnaKOKaK bitkom cnynae 
oh MO>KeT 6biTb BnAeH OTOBCK>Ay hjih BceM (?? fef qn#t= sa vigvam 
pan datiatdp) h w% ^ero oh 3acraBJiJieT cbohx B03Jiio6jieHHbix B3paiHHBaTb 
hjih yBejiHHHBaTb Tpn 3apH no CBoeMy 3aBeTy (aF?%Tkg^w.3^ra^T 
^m^tasya venlranu vrataru ušas tisro avardhayan) (VUlAl 3)111 K&K 
oh MOKerpacceHBaTb CBoeio jt/hhctoio hotoh hjutk)3HK) h noAHHMaTbca 
Ha He6ocBOA (fl t *™ ^^ 'Kj^prn^mm^sa mdyd arcind paddstrndn 
ndkarndnixtn) (VHI.41 .8) h yca>KHBaTbca TaM Ha CBoe npOHHoe CHAeHHe b 
Tpex BbiciHHX npocTpaHCTBax (^c.3trtfi wre^ gjf «<;: tnr uttardm 
varunasya dhruvam sadah) h ynpaBXWTb OTTyAa CBeroM ceMbio - T.e. , no 
TeopHH yneHoro, ceMbio MecanaMH cojmeHHoro nepHOAa (h^^hi^^m 
sa saptdmm irajyati) (VHI.41 .9)? Axax 6bnb c coo6ineHHeM tom, hto 
npoHHaa HcTHHa MHTpbi h BapyHbi 0KyraHa Hcthhoh b tom Mecre, rAe 
pacnparaioT AecHTb cotch kohch CypbH u rAa HaxoAHTC5i jryiuiee Gumne 

^ri ^h ^g^rn. rtercđ rtom apihitam dhruvam vam suryasya yatra 
vimucantj acvdn / daša gata šaha tasthus tad-ekam devdndm greštham 
vapHŠarn) (V.62. 1 )? CnncoK sthx B03pa>KeHHH mo>kho eme oneHb aojtto 
npoAOjmaTb,HOBceBbimenepeqHCJieHHbieAaHHbiexopomoo6MCHHKyrca 
cno3HUHH ncHXOJiormecKoroTOjrKOBaHHHlJJA.rxoiija: MHTpaHJiH,Z]pyr 
aBMeTca o6pa30M J1k)6bh h TapMOHHH Bora, a BapyHa npeAcraBJiaeT 
co6oio Ero HcTHHHoe Cjtobo, oAHOBpeMeHHO BceoxBaTbiBaromee (ot 
rjrarojibHoro KopHa ^-w-) h CBeroHOCHoe (ot raaroJibHoro KOpHfl ^ 
-svar-); Tpn 3apw (sroraši ušas tisro) hjih Tpn BbicnjHX Mnpa (m^rrrciPT 
tnr uttardm) - 3TO npHcyiHne Hm Kaiecraa Co3HaTeJitHoro Ejia>KeHHoro 
Bhthh (h^n^sth^ sat-cit-dnanda); ynpaBJiaeMbie Hmh CBeTOM ceMb 
o6jiacTen (wrnnj&&<m saptdndm irajyati) - 3TO Tena hjih o6ojiohkh 



'AHV.P.276and286. 



69 



HenoBCTecKoro cyuieciBaKaK MHKpoKOCMa h Mi-ipa KaK MaKpOKOCMa; Aearrb 
cOTeH KOHefi CHfliomero (fgfaTsraRć^srar suryasya agvan daša gata)- 
3TO TbiCHna Hflee-CeMMH FHOCHca («iiwdi htoučt: sabasraretd manaso 
retab). 

Kax )Ke no3BOJKieT npoiGBeAeHHbiM Bbime aHanH3 npeflncmeHHOH 

JI.B.r.THJiaKOM apKTHHeCKOHTeOpHH HCTOJIKOBaHHH COAep)KaHHfl PB 

OTBeTHTb Ha flBa nocTaBneHHbix b Hanajie HCCJieAOBaHM Bonpoca: 
AeHCTBHTenbHO jih nojiapHaa KOHuenuHfl flBJiflercfl He3acny)KeHHO ne 

HCnOJTb30BaBLUHMai nOHTH CTOJieTHeKJTKHOM K nOHHMaHHIO nOflJlHHHOrO 

CMbicna PB h coAep>KHT jih AaHHbiH hctohhhk TOHHbie cBHAerejibCTBa 
o6vnmm npeAKOB HHfloapHeB b o6nacrax 3a nojrapHbiM KpyroM? EyAy i oi 
npHBep>KeHuaMH CHMBOJwqea<oro ncHxonon«ecKoroTOJTKOBaHHa o6pa30B 
h mh(J30b PB, Mbi aojdkhh oTMCTHTb, hto ero co3AaTejib m.A.rxoiu 
3ano)KHJi b ochob]/ CBoen peKOHCTpyKUHH npHHUHn AByx ypoBHefi 
noHHMaHHS TeKCTa - 3K30TepHHecKoro h no 6onbiueH nacTH 
HaTypajiHCTHHecKoro - ajih HenocBameHHbix - u 330TepnHecKoro 
AyujeBHoro-AiwnocBaLueHHbix:nq)BoeBbinojTH{ier43yHKUHHCoxpaHeHHa 
u 3aiujrrbi CBsrmeHHoro 3HaHHH, BTopoe pacKpbBaer ero 3aiiiHcj)poBaHHoe 
3HaHeHMe/inH yMeiomHX noHHMaTbTaHHBiecnoBa, CKpbrrbieBbipaKenHM h 

nOSTHMeCKHe np03peHHH B MOJMTBaX H THMHaX (q? Rra R^ 5«? ^T 

^n^iV=fT wtim i h=mhi ^^ 3^n^ snfrcm, iricrffcR; w\ 3^h eta vigva 
■uiduše tubhyam vedbo nithdnj ninya vacamsi / mvacand kavaye kdvydny 
ašamsišam maubhtr upra ukthaih) (TV.3.16); npn 3tom ara H3Jio>KeHJW 
raHHoro BHyTpeHHero CMbicna Hcnonb3yeTC5i bch coBOKynHocTb 
Bep6anbHbix cpeACTB h mctoaob ormcaHMa BHeuiHero onbrra $H3HHecKoro 
cymecrBOBaHHfl HenoBeKaB ero oTHOiueHHJDC c npupoAOH, oSmecTBOM h 
6biTyiOLUHM b oGmecTBe KyjibTOM; noAAMHHoe coAep>KaHHe thmhob He 

OTpHUaeT CymeCTB.OBaHHH CBOHX BHeHIHHX cj)opM h b t.h. 

HaTypajiHCTHHecKOH pejmrHH b eerocnoACTByiomeM hjih nonapHOM 
BapnaHTax, ho bto »eBpeM« 6bmo 6bi oneBHAHOH oiuh6koh npHHHMarb 
4)opMy 3a coAep>KaHHe h 6yKBy 3a Ayx h CTHTaTb hx hcthhhmm 
o6Hapy>KeHneM 3HaHHfl PB. 



SASV.P.6and30;OHK.C. 144-149, 156,260-261,262-267. 
70 



III. A.rxoni BecbMa BbicoKo 0T3biBaeroi o TeopHH JI.B.r.TnnaKa, 
CHMTaa, hto ero pa6oTa MO>KeT nocjiy>KMTb HananoM hoboh BHeuiHeH 
nHTqpnpeTai;HH PB, no3BOJiHT o6i.flCHHTb MHoroe m Toro, hto ao Hee 
ocTaBanocb HenoHflTHbiM, h AononHHTb HMeiomnecfl y)Ke AaHHbie o 

npHpOAHO-KJIHMaTHHeCKHX yCJ10BH$IX OOHTaHHfl ApeBHeHIlfl« apHHCKHX 

nneMeH. Oh TaK>Ke He OTpHuaeT bo3mo>khocth MHrpairnH npeAKOB 
HHfloapMeB b IO>KHyK) A3HK) H3 6ouee ceBepHbix oGnacren h Aa)Ke 
apicrmecKoroperMOHa. Oh npH3HaeT, i rroTOJibKOBpaMKaxnojrapHOH,a 

He KaKOH-JIH6o HHOH HaTypaJIHCTHHeCKOH TeopHH MO)KHO nOHSTb 

cooGmeHHii naMHTHHKa 06 y6HHCTBe 3aMbiKaTejM b KOHue ro^a (^Ha#t 
^h.mR«mA 3^ rtena abhindam parivatsare valarri) (X.62.2) H 
Ha6jnoAeHHH MHoroqHCJieHHbix 3opb ao BocxoAa cojiHira ( dink^iH 
^grti^in^ m-4Wwi<di ?yfcq T?f: "tr 3^: z&§ tdnldabdni bahulanjasan 
praclnamuditd siiryasya yatah pari ušah dadrkše) (VII.76.3) . Mbi 
corjiaiuaeMca co III.A.rxoiiieM h JI.E.r.THjiaKOM b tom, hto PB 
AeHCTBHTenbHO coAep>KHTAOKa3aTejibCTBaocBeAOMJieHHOCTH eeaBTopoB 
o cymecTBOBaHHH ajmiuhxcm aojtto hjih no MHoro AHen nojMpHbK3opb. 
B to »e BpeMH III. A.Ixoiu npeAOcreperaeT ot OTO>KAecTBneHH5i 
ynoMHHaeMOH hctohhhkom TbMbi c Mpai<OM hhahhckoh hjih apKTmecKOH 
hohh. H Hejib3fl Hepa3AeJiHTb ero mhchhh o tom, to), "xot5i b Bbicinefl 

CTeneHH BepOJITHO, HTO BOCnOMHHaHHJl 06 apKTHHeCKOH poAHHe 

npHcyrcTByK)T bo BHeniHeM CMbicne BeAbi , caMa apicn«ecKa>i Teopra He 
Hcranonaer BHyTpeHHero CMbicna no3AAH b3hthx H3 npHpoAU apcbhhx 
o6pa30B h He ocBo6o>KAaeT Hac ot Heo6xoAHMOcra 6ojiee comacoBaHHoro 
h npjiMoro o6tflCHeHH}i thmhob k 3ape". Bca BbimeH3Jio>KeHHa5i 
coBOKynHocrb npHMeHeHHfi nojrapHoro h ncHxonormecKoro noAXOAOB 
npn pa3peiueHHH oahhx h Tex >KerepMeHeBTHMecKHX CHTyauHH y6e>KAaeT 

H3C B TOM, MTO HMCHHO BTOpOH H3 HHX flBJIfleTCfl nOAJIHHHMM KJIIOHOM K 

noHHMaHHio Hacroamero CMbicna ApeBHeHiifflx BeAHiecKHX tckctob. 

'SASV.P.29. 

'SASV.P.24. 

3 SASV.R170. 

'SASV.P. 188-189. 

'SASV.P.166. 

6 SASV.R123. 

71 



H b 3toh CB5BH B03HHKaioT Bonpocbi o tom, 6buio jih H3JiaraeMoe 
hmh MHCTHHecKoe yneHne co3^,aHO eme bo BpeMa npeObiBaHHS 
npeAKOBHHAoapHeB b ceBepHbix panoHax u cyii^ecTBOBana jih y)KeToraa 
pejiHrH03Haa o6iHHHa sm^m arjavarna BHyTpH hx o6mecTBa? OaKT 
Hcnonb30BaHH3 aBTOpaMH PB b KanecTBe cHMBOJTa ,n,yxoEHoro 

npOCBeTJieHH3 ABOHCTBeHHOIT) 06pa3a (|)H3HqeCK0H OKeflHeBHOH H 
nOJiapHOH 3apH MO)KCT 6bITb HCTOJIKOBaH BCJieji,3a JI.B.r.THJiaKOM B 

xpOHonorHqecKOM KJirone h Tor/ja oh 6yAer yKa3bmaTb Ha (jMKcauHio 
naMjrrHMKOM /jpyx pa3JiHHHbix nepno^oB oSnTaHHfl ero cocraBHTejieH (hjth 
cocTaBHTejieH h hx npe/XKOB) b jrByx pe3KO OTJiHTOiomMca no cbohm 
npHpoAHo-KjiHMaiHHecKHM xapaKTepHCTHKaM pa0oHax - 
nocjieij;oBaTejibHO ceBepHee h io>KHee nojiapHoro Kpyra. O/iHaKO 
HccneflOBaTejieM, npHn,ep>KHBaK)mHMC3 mhchhh o xpoHOJTonmecKOH 

OZIHOpOflHOCTH TeKCTa paCCMaTpHBaeMOrO HCTOHHHKa, TOT >Ke CaMbIH (j)aKT 

MO)KeT 6brrb HCTOJIKOBaH c Hcnojib30BaHHeM reoipa^HHecKoro Mero^a h 

TOrfla OH npHBOflHT K BbIBOAy 06 06HTaHHH C03AaTeJieH PB B TaKOH 

norpaHHiHOH o6jiacrH EBpa3HH, npeobmaHHeB kotopoh no3BOJiajio hm 
Ha6jiiojiaTb cTauHOHapHO jm6o nocpeflCTBOM coBepuieHHM nocHjibHbDc/Tjia 
hhx nyTeuiecTBHH xaK ©KcnHeBHbie, Tax h /rJTHTejibHbie nojiiipHbie Bocxo£bi 
cojiHua 

Ecjih b AopeBOjnouHOHHbiH nepnoA cyiHecrBOBaHHa pocchhckoh 
HHflOJiorHH npocjjeccHOHajibHbie OTeHecTBeHHbieTOJiKOBaTejiH PB He 
yn;ejiHnH npaiamecKH HHKaKoro BHHMaHra nperfjracHHOH JIBr.THJiaKOM 
TeopHH nojinpHOH repMeHeBTHKH flpeBHeHiueH Be/jHHecKOH pgjihthh, to b 
nocjiepeBOjnouHOHHbiH h nocTCOBeTCKHH nepHOAbi OHa 6bma hmh 
3aMeneHa h Bbi/iejiHJiHCb rr£a ochobhhx no/pcorja k ee BocnpHHTHio: 
KpHTmecKHH h anojiorerHMecKHH. OcHOBHbie nojio>KeHHa nepBoro 6bijm 
ajx)pMyjiHpoBaHbi H3BecTHbiMH BOCTOKOBe/jaMH HH^ojioroM r.M.EoHrapn,- 
JleBHHbiM h HpaHHcroM 3.A.FpaHT0BCKHM b hx coBMecTHOH pa6oTe "Ot 
Ckh(J)hh j\o PIh^hh. /^peBHne apnu: MHtpbi h ncTopna" . Ohh 
o6Hapy>raiBarorBTpyAeHHrjHHCKoroyHeHorouejibiHpHA''npeyBejiHHeHHH, 
ouih6ok h nojio>KeHHH, ot kotophx ceniac b CBA3H c ycnexaMH 



1 CM.:&Hrapa-JIeBiiHrM.XpaHroBCKim3A.Ch'CKii(j)HiwoHi™iii./]peBHiieapini:Mii(j]bin 
ncTopiM.M., 1983(aaneeBJTT). 

72 



coBpeMeHHOH HayKH npnxoflHTca OTKa3aTbca" ; KpoMeToro, no hx 

MHeHMK), MHOrHe H3 npHBOflHMHX Jl.EJ.THJiaKOM B THMHaX npflMHX 

cBHAerejibCTB o6MraHHH npe^KOB HHfloapHeB b apKTHHecKHx o6jiacrax 
cefrac noHHMaiOTCfl no-ApyroMy. 2 06uihh BbiBOA hx TaKOB: He mokct 
6brrb h pe™ hm o npe6biBaHHH npoToapHCB b HHpio/MnojiapHOM peraoHe, 
hh o 06 hx MHrpau,HH OTryfla c HacrynjieHMeM jicahhkoboh snom 3 

Mbi comacHbi c3.A.rpaHT0BCKHM h r.M.EoHrapn,-JieBHHbiM b 

TOM, HTO JI.E.r.TlUiaK AeHCTBHTeJIbHO HeOflHOKpaTHO HCKa>KaeT CMbICJI 

HcrojiKOBbiBaeMbix coo6meHHH jih6o rHnep6ojiH3Hpyer ero, aTaioKe 
cjihiukom cmoto m 6e3 ppcmroHHbK Ha to ocHOBaHHH Aarapyer C03AaHHe 
H3yHaeMoro naMATHHKa crojib oi^ajianaiM BpeMeHeM (cm. maBy II). Ho b 

TO )KeBpeM5J Mbi CHHTaeM HeAOCTaTO'ffiO OČOCHOBaHHbIMH H BbIABHHyTbie 

ero KpHTHKaMH apryMeHTbi. Ohh ccburaiOTca Ha TpyflHOCTb h 

npOTHBOpeHHBOCTb HCTOJIKOBaHHfl flaHHbIX HCTOTOHKa h cnpaBeAJiHBO 

yrBep>K7iaiOT, hto ynoMHHaeMoe ero aBTopaMH npH6jTH>KeHHe hjih Habano 
E[yTH CBera (^m deuoydna) BOBce He o6fl3aTenbHO aojdkho 03HaHaTb 
HMeHHo HacrynjieHHe nojiyro,oj™Horo nera. 

O^HaKO aHajiH3 CBe,n,eHHH ^rh devajdna h repn pitrjana 
OTHioAb HeflBuaeTCfl KpaeyrojibHbiM KaMHeM BbicrpaHBaeMOH hhahhckhm 
HccneflOBaTeneM cncreMbi apryMeHTaijHH. H3 Bcen Macebi co6paHHbix hm 

A0Ka3aTeJTbCTB 3 AFpaHTOBCKHH H r.M.EoHTapA-JIeBHH BMOHpaiOTflnfl 
KpHTHKH JIHLUb ABa caMbK CJTa6bIX H KOCBeHHbK-0 HieCTHMeCOTHbKAHeH 
HOHH B TOHKe nOJIKO H HMeHOBaHHH B CaHCKpHTe CeBepa BHCUIHM (3tR 

uttara), a iora hh3ujhm (w adlnra). BbmcHeHHio npnpoAbi nocne^Hero 
(j^aKTa KpHTHKH nocBamaioT 6ojibinyio MacTb cBoen pa6oTbi; ohh 
pa36HpaioT cxo>KHe npeAcraBneHHfl y Apyrax napoAOB HHfloeBponeHCKOH 
33biKOBOH ceMbH h, npHnep>KHBaflCbrHnoTe3bi JioKamoauHH apHHCKOH 
npapoAHHbi b npHHepHOMopcKHX h npHKacnHHCKHx crenflx, BbiaBJTaior/iBe 
cocTaB.rraK)mHe ero ochobm - noBbimeHHe b /jaHHOM pernone pejibe4)a 
MecTHOCTH c iora Ha ceBep h nanpaBneHHocTb Tevenm nepeceKaiou4HX 



BJTr.C.8-9. 

2 EJir.c. 10. 

3 BJF.C9. 
W.C. 11-12. 



73 



ero peK c cesepa Ha ror. Heo6xoAHMO OTMeraTb, hto hh Jl.E.r.TmTaK, hh 

erO KpHTHKH He npHBOAAT HH OAHOFO CBHfleTejlbCTBa M3 PB AJIH 

noATBep>KneHHa CBoero HcrojiKOBaHHH xapaKTepHCTHKH b caHCKpnTe 
ceBepa KaK Bbicmero (zm uttara), a iora KaK HH3inero (aro* adhard). 

BMecTo 3Toro r.M.EoHrap,n,-JIeBHH h 3.A.FpaHT0BCKHH 
o6paumaK)TBHHMaHHe Ha cthx c ormcaHHeM Toro, KaK B03BbiujaioiuHHai 
hjih npeBocxoAHbiH h lOHbiH Athh oxpaHfler >KeiraHHyK) HnH MHJiyio 
BepmHHy PHnbi (Riramf^T wipdti -prijam ripo agram), MecTO hjth 
cnefllTTHUbi (^h padam veh), nyn CeMHruaBoro (mftHTvn ti'-d^V 'i H , 
pati nabha saptaclršdnam) , nyTb cojfflua (<nra i^src^ ^4^ pati 
jajvaccaranam suryasya) H Beceube CBeTOHOCHbix (^rim^rtc^tok 
^■- agnikpdti devdnam upamddarij rivah) (HI.5.5); no MHeHrao yMeHbix, 
TepMHH mnpa o6o3Haqaer izumo h b TaKOM cnyHae noA BepiunHOH mjih 
HanajroM 3eMJiH (Msviripo agram) Ha^o noApa3yMeBaTb ropy, o6pa3 

KOTOpOH BOCXO£HT K oGlip^iPCEpOneHCKOH MHCJX>JIOrHH (ep. CBHliieHHbie 

ropbi Mepy y iipeBHi« HHflHHueB h Xapa Bepe3aHTH y apeBHHx HpaHueB h 
PHneHCKHeropbi y,opeBHHxrpeKOB); KpoMeioro, h Bce/ipyrHe3JieMeHTbi 
BbiiueH3no)KeHHorocK)>KeTaBOCxoAHTKOBpeMeHHcoBMecrHoroo6HTaHHa 
npe^KOB HHfloeBponeHneB b nppneMHOMopcKHX h npHKacnHHCKHX crenax 
h hmoot cboh aHanoraH b penHTH03HO-MH(jx)i[on«ecKHX npeflcraBJieHH5K 
hx noTOMKOB, a HMeHHO ynoMHHaHHa 06 oco6oh nTHue (5: veh), 
ceMHHJieHHOM AeneHHH MHpa fod&fonjaptapršanam) h ero ueHTpe 
(^mndbhd), nyTH conHua i^^mcaranarh suryasya), 06 onbflHeHHH 
CBeroHOCHbix <^m^¥^devdnam uparnadam), HaKOHeu, npHcyTCTBHH 
B3T0MMecTeArHH(3#[ agm). r.M.BoHrapA-JTeBHHH3.A.rpaHTOBCKHH 

yKa3bEBaiOTHapOACTBOTepMHHafe^MCHa3BaHHeMropbIBa3bIKexaHTOB 

- ' 'pen' ' - h pacueHHBaiOT stot cpaicr KaK ,a,OKa3aTenbcrBO cymecrBOBaHHfl 

TeCHbK KOHTaKTOB MOKny HHAOCBpOneHlJtaMH HflpeBHHMH CJ)HHHO-yrpaMH, 

o6HTaBuiHMH b o6jiacTH MOKjiy Bojitoh h 3aypanbeM. J 

C tohkh 3peHH5i ero HaTypajiHCTHMecKOH HHTepnperauMH cthx 
HL5.5 HeonpoBepraer, a, HanporaB, noflTBep>KsaeTBbiBO,flbi JLErTmiaKa; 

W.C. 151-153. 
W.C. 86-89. 
3 EJir.C90. 

74 



ho ero KpuTHKH b oHepeAHofi pa3 OTKa3bmaioTca ot aHanroa HaH6ojiee 
Ba>KHbix nyHKTOB ero peKOHCTpyKHHH, TaKHX KaK coo6meHHa o 

MHOrOHHCJieHHblX 30pflX AO BOCXOAa COJIHUa ( dlHV l H^ c M^I^H^Rd l 

W^^--m^:^tdnldahdni bahuldnjdsan prdclnamuditd suryasya 
yatah pari iišab dadrkše) hjth o fljiHTenbHOM TeneHHH 3apH (sraia* fratra 
§K gagvat pura vi uvdsa devi) h ee caMOH 3axji>KHOH npnpoAe (^^m 
cacvattama) hjth o mhothx eme He nojiHOCTbio nepeojeAiiJHX b paccBer 
3opax (a^^ »jjRfl^^ra: avjušta bhiijaslr ušdsah), o bhcokom 
pacnojio>KeHMH co3Be3AHJi Eojmhoh Me/jpeAHUbi b hohhom He6e (anfa 
w mm- 3^ aml ye rkša nibitdsah uccd); BMecTO stoto ohh o6paiiT,aioTCfl 

K H3yHeHHTOpeJIHTH03HO-MHCtx)J10rHHeCKHX npe/JCTaBJieHHH nOJIflpHbDC 
HBJieHHMX y CKH(j)OB, KOTOpbie AeHCTBHTejIbHO oSHTaJIH B B0CT04H0- 

eBponeHCKnx crerwx h jiecocTenax HenoAajieio/ ot cj)HHHoyrpOB, ho 4be 

MHpOB033peHHe He COCTaBJIJieT npeAMCT H3bICKaHHH HHAHHCKOrO 

TOJTKOBaTena. 3Aecb Hano HanoMHHTb o tom, tod r.M.EoHrapA-JTeBHH h 

3.A.rpaHT0BCKHH npHHep)KHBaiOTC}I MHeHHHOJlOKaJBCaHHH npapoAHHbi 

apneB b loro-BocTonuoH EBpone M©KAy /jHenpoM h ypajibCKHMH ropaMH 

C OAHOH CTOpOHbl, H M©Kfly JieCOM H HepHblM, A30BCKHM H KacnHHCKHM 

MopHMH-cApyroH.OAHaKOTaKoenpeAnojio>KeHHe}iBjraeTcajiHiiiboi^ 
H3 HecKOJibKHx h cpeAH hhx Aaneico He nocjieAffioro pout h oco6eHHO b 
Harne BpeMfl nrpaeT Teopna HopAH^ecKoro npoHcxo>KAeHHH 
HHAoeBponenueB. Ecjih npnraTb ee apryMeHTbi, to BoccraHaBJiHBaeMbie 
HccneAOBaTejiHMH KOHTaicrbi Me>KAy npeAKaMH HHAonpaHiieB h (})hhho- 

yropcKHxrOTeMeHMorjiHnpoHcxoAHTbHeKioryHioro-3anaAy,aKceBepo- 
3anaAy OTapeajiao6HTaHH5i nocneAHHX. 

BbinieH3JTo>KeHHoe coo6LneHHe PB xopomo HHTepnperHpyeTai c 
npHMeHeHHeM CHMBOJiHTecKoro ncHxojioir«ecKoro noAXOAaIIIArxoTHa: 
Bo>KecTBeHHa5i Bojtji (a# agni) HMMaHeHTHa no OTHOiueHHio k ceMH 
o6oji04KaM nejioBenecKoro cym,ecTBa (w^Mm^saptaciršdnam) u 
pacnojio>KeHa OAHOBpeivieHHO b hx cpeAOTOHHH (rmt ndbhd) H b BbicujeM 
uei-iTpeco3HaHH?i (mvtinpo agram) - He cjieAyeT 3a6bmaTb o tom, hto 



2" 



EJir.C.91. 



lUi[poKOBaH.C.KyjibTy]:aKenbT0BimopaiMecKaiiTpaaifUiraaHTimH0CTO CI16 2000 C 75- 
113. 



75 



Ee nopo^aior b jroioce (^^mpdkarod adbi) ronoBbi (^murdhan) 
(cm. Bbime) c noMombio n P HcymeH pa3yMy chjm bhachhh («^« 
m^^-agnimindbano manasd dbiyam saceta martyab) {Vm.\Q2.22); 
xaM BMede c Hero onbMHHK)TC$i Chjih CBeTa (^w^ devanam 
upamddam) h TaM «e npoxoAHT nyTb CH*romero THOCHca (^mj^ 
caranam suryasya)\ TaM saneHaraeH cneA nTHUbi hjih J\yum (^ ^ 
W?) hjih BTafiHe cnpaTaHHbiH kima Chhhha (stPk^ ftfei s*o ftft 
aundad divo nihUam gJn nidhmi), 3aMypo B aHHbiH BHyrpH 6eocoHeHHOH 
CKaiTbi Becco3HaTejibHoro (<mz\*vr^ «iw panvitam 
acmanjanante antar opnom) KaK sapetim nTHUbi ^ i*f w na 
^tham) (cm. Bbiiue). Taicaa HHTepnperauH« no/rrBep>^aeTCH eme oahhm 
cthxom naMHTHHKa c ynoMHHaHHeM TepMHHa m npa - b HeM 
yTBep)KAaCTCH, hto EcmecTBeHHaa Bona (*& agni) HaxoflHTCH b Jione 
3eMJiH (iw3^a^ : npa upasthe antah) (X.8.7). 

B KanecTBe AonojiHHTejibHoro cBHAerejibCTBa o6meHHH ffByx 
HapoAOBr.M.BoHrapA-JIeBHH H3.A.r P aHT0BCKHH npHBOffrrcoo6iupHne 
PB o HeKoeM UJapa6xe (nm caraUn), flJia KOToporo Thochc (^ indra) 
OTKpbm co6paHHbiH MHorHMH Cbct Bbicujero (mrt *ra$^*iFmfnt- 
nmmpdravatam yat pimi sambhrtam vasuapdvmoh carabfnya) H KOTOpbiH 
HMeHyeTCH poactbchhhkom BAOXHOBeHHoro (m^^ršibandhave) 
(VEL 100.6); cjiobom nm carabba b no3AHeHUieH ApeBHeHHAHHCKOH 
jiHTepaType HMeHyercfl h6khh CHJibHbiH h 6bicrpbiH MHoroHoraH JiecHOH 
3Bepb;TonKOBaTenHnpHBOAJrrB3TOH cbh3H MHeHHeE.MyHKaqH,3 JleBH h 
T.Bappoy poACTBe TepMHHa nm carabba c Ha3BaHHeM jioch y xaHTbi- 

MaHCHHCKHXnneMČH-ŠUOrp HJIHŠorp. 

r.M.BOHrapA-JIeBHHH3ArpaHTOBCKHHHeOAH0KpaTH0Cpa3HOK) 

creneHbio hchocth noffiepKHBaiOT, mto Becb KOMnneKC npeAcraBJieHHH 
06 apKTHqecKHX HBJieHH5ix h HeKOTopbie BaKnenuiHe ajieMenTbi cBoen 
pejmrHOSHO-MHCJKOTomecKOH cHcreMbi speBHHe apnn no3aHMCTBOBajiH 
y npeAKOB 4)HHHoyrpoB, b t.h. K yjibT onhHHsnomero 3Kcrpaiaa, npaKTHKy 
ujaMaHCKHXKaMJiaHHH h noJieTOBjMenHeo MHoroypoBHeBOM ycrpoHCTBe 
MHposAaHHH, npeAaHHa CBHmeHHbix ceBepHbix ropax h H eo6biHHbix 



EJTT.C. 104-107. 
76 



npHpoAHbix cpeHOMeHax HHpKyMnojwpHoro peraoHa. Mbi hh b KoeM 
cuyHae He mokcm corJiacHTbca c TaKHM noAHHHeHHbiM nono>KeHHeM 
ApeBHeBe^i-mecKOH penHTHH h BceAeno Momo o6croHTb KaK pa3 Hao6opoT, 
ecjiH TOJibKO HHAoeBponeHUbi h (j)HHHoyrpbi He 6buiH BeTBHMH HeKor^a 
eAHHoro Hapo^a. KpHTHKHJI.B.r.TnjiaKayrBep»aaK)T ) HTo"y»(ecaMO 
coAep>KaHHe "nojT^pHoro' ' srumecKoro umoia ckhcJx)b, ApeBHHx HHAHHueB 

H HpaHLieB CBHAeTeJIbCTByeT npOTHB TeOpHH apKTH^eCKOH pOflHHbl 

apiieB". O/maKO MbipcenpoAeMOHcrpHpoBanH, ™r.M.EoHrapA-JIeBHH 

H 3.A.rpaHT0BCKHH CpaKTHHeCKH Heo6paiU,aiOT HMKaKOrO BHHMaHHH Ha 

caMbie BaxHbie CBHAeTenbCTBa b nojib3y AaHHOH KOHU,enu,HH, 
coAep>KamHeca b caMOM ApeBHeM h HanGonee aBTopHTCTHOM 

HCTOpHHeCKOMAOKyMeHTe-PB. 

HanGonee H3BecrHbiM npeAcraBHTejieM anojiorerHHecKoro 
noAXOAa k HacjieAHio JI.E.r.TMJiaKa aBnaeTca nccjieAOBaTejibHHu,a 
HHAyH3MaH.P.ryceBa.OHacHHTaer,HTocoBpeMeHHaaHayKao6H3aHa 
HHAHHCKOMy TOJiKOBaTeniOAByMa ocHOBonojiaraioiuHMM OTKpbrraraMH: o 

HaiTHMHHB/]peBHeHUJHXBeAHHeCKHXTeKCTaXTOMHbD(OnHCaHHHnpHpOAHO- 

KJiHMaTHHecKHX HBJieHHH ujnpKyMnonHpHoro peraoHa h o 3apo>KAeHHH 
apHHCKOH penHTHH eine okojio 40000 r. ao h.3. CaMoro TOJiKOBaTena OHa 
Ha3biBaer "HenpeB30HAeHHbiM 3HaTOKOM, BocnpHHHMaBiiiHM rjiy6oKHH 
CMbicnrHMHOB"; roBopHT, mto oh o6i>HCHRn 3HaneHHe MHorax CKMeroB h 
o6pa30B PB h Boo6m,e AaJi kjhoh pjm o6Hapy)KeHHfl Mecra h BpeMeHH 
o6HTaHHH nneMeH ApeBHHX apHeB; npeAno>KeHHyK) hm CHCTčMy 
repMeHeBTOKH oueHHBaer b BbicmeH creneHH Jiecmo: ' 'Ero aHajn« raMHOB 
HCTOJibKO rJiy6oK h, niaBHoe, AOCTOBepeH, hto o noiwpHOH ranoTe3e 
cneAyeT roBopHTb TOJibKO KaK o TeopHH". H.P.ryceBa npHHHMaeT 
cjreAyioiAHe apryMeHTbi JI.E.r.THJiaKa o Hajra^HH b paccMaTpHBaeMOM 
hcto^hhkč CBHAeTejibCTB npeSbmaHHH ero aBTopoB b apKTH^ecKOH 
o6nacTH: o kpjokchhh 3Be3AHoro He6a no cBoefi och, o AeneHHH roAa Ha 



EJir.C. 107, 108-122, 147-149, 151-153. 

2 

Oboimcokhocti i 3Toro roBopi-rritfflecrnbifi caHCKpi rrojior BappoyT. CaHCKpirr. M., 1 976. C. 27. 
3 EJir.C91. 
rCA.C.5. 
rCA.C8n30-31. 

77 



AHeBHyro u HOHHyfo nonoBHHbi no mecTb MeoiueB, o CHMBOJiroauHH 6 u 7 
MecHueB CBeraoro ce30Ha cj)HrypaMH cowipHbix 6o>KecTB AAHTbeB h 
Mec^a 3axoAHinero conHua nepcoHa>KeM MapraHAbi, o MHorocyroHHOH 

3ape, O BbICOKOM pacnOJIO)KeHMH HaA IX)pH30HTOM C03Be3AH5I EoJlbIHOH 

MeABeAHUbi, o 6opb6e Hhapm h BpHTpbi xaK OTpa>KeHHH »KeroAHoro 
npoTOBOcrojiHHfl noirapHbK CBera u TbMbi, o crocyTOHHOH apicrmecKOH 
Ho™HaimpoTe3eMJiH(I)paHuaHocH(J3aHapxHnejiaroBCeBq)Haji3eMJ[a 
h UlnHuoepreH. IIporoBeAeHHbiH HaMH AerajibHbiH pa36op noJio>KeHHH 
HHTepnperaujffl PB JT.B.r.THJiaKa3acraBnHer ropa3AO 6ojiee ocropo>KHO 
oTHocHTbc« k npeAJiaraeMbiM hm BbiBOAaM, H3 KOTOpbcc uhlul yKa3aHHa 
Ha fljraiHHecfl no hcckojilko cyTOK h ao BocxoAa cojmua 3opn xa>KyTC5i 
hmooihhmh KpoMe ncrocHHecKoro eme h (})H3HHecKoe ocHOBaHHe. 

C 3TOH TOHKH 3peHHfl 6onee B3BemeHHOH BbirJIHAHT n03HHHJI 

em,e OAHoro npeAcraBHTejra anonoreimecKoro noAXOAa PB.EarAacapoBa, 
KOTopbiH pacneHHBaeT aoboam HHAHHCKoro TOJiKOBaTena Kax 
y6eAHTenbHbie h npocrbie h oopamaer ocoobe BHHMaHHe HaTpn H3 hhx: o 
pacnpnraHHH coirapHOH KOJiecHHUbi nocpeAH He6a, 06 yAep>KHBaHHH 
Hhapok) nopo3Hb He6a h 3eMJiH h BpameHHH hx kbk AByx Konec no CBoen 

OCH H O HaJIHHHH B MHCJ)e 6opb6e HHApbl H BpHTpbi ynOMHHaHHH 

AecflTHMecflHHOM cBernoM ce30He." 

B jho6om cnynae nono>KHTejibHbiM momchtom HBnaeTCH 
pe30HaHC, Bbi3BaHHbiH b OTeHecTBeHHOH repMeHeBTHKe TeKCTa PB 
noirapHOH TeopneH HHTepnperauHH, pa3pa6oTaHHOH JI.B.r.THJiaKOM, 
nocKonbKy OHa HHHyrb He ycrynaer jho6oh ApyroH HaTypanMcn«ecKOH 
KOHLjenHHH HCTOJiKOBaHHH coAep>KaHH5i naMOTHHKa h ee H3yqeHHe 
no3BonHT CAenaTb eme oahh inar k npaBHJibHOMy noHHMaHHio ero 
noAJiHHHoro CMticna. 



TCA.C. 33, 34, 36, 38, 39-40, 49-53. 

2 

BaraacapoB P.B. Cbecti n<a: cBameHHbiil ci iMBon. M., 200 1 . C. 60-6 1 n 65. 



78 



DiaBa n. 

AcTpoHOMHMecKan Teopi«! HHTepnpeTanHH 

PnrBeflacaMXHTbi JI.E.r.THJiaKa. 

JT.ErTraaKH3BecreHHeTOJibKOKaKCOT^TCnLnojiapHOHTCopHH 
HHTepnperauHH PB, H3Jio>KeHHOH b ero TpyAe "The Arctic Home in the 
Vedas, being also a new key to the interpretation of many Vedic Texts and 
Legends"(1903). Caivia3Tapa6oTapaccMaTpHBaeTC5i HMKaKnpoAOjmeHHe 
ero nepoH khhth "The Onon or Researches into the antiquity ofthe Vedas" 
(1 893) , b icoTopoH HccneAOBaTejib na ocuoBaroiH aHajiroa cpnjepKaiijroccH 

B HCTO^HHKe AaHHBK npHXOflHTK BbIB0Ay TOM, TO "3a(j)HKCHpOBaHHćW 

b PHraeAeTpaAHUHa 6c30ujm6ohho yKa3biBaeTHa nq>uojuieno3dnee 4000 
r. ao h.3, KorAa BeceHHeepaBHOAeHCTBne npHXOAHJiocb Ha co3BC3AHe 
Opnona ma, ppynma cjioBaMH, KorAa 3Be3Aa lica (hjih Rec, KaK 
yKa3biBaeTCH b PnrBeAe) HamiHajia paBHOAeHCTBeHHbiH roA" 2 'flra 
AOKa3aTejibCTBa 3Toro nojio>KeHHa yneHbiH npeAJiaraeT npHH$nrb 
pa3pa6oxaHHyio hm CHcreMy repMeHeBTHKH uenoro pw naMATHHKOB 
HHAoeBponencKOH JiHTepaTypbi, cocraBHOH nacrbio KOTopon h maerai 
Teopra acrpoHOMHHecKOH HHTepnperaHHH c»Aep>KaHiw PB. CtoHAHo, 
hto nocjieAHaa npeACTaBjiaeT co6ofi oahh H3 BapnaHTOB o6inero 
HaiypajiHCTHHecKoro noAxoAa k HCTOJiKOBaHHio TeKCTa PB h hto 
npoH3BOAHMaa c ee noMouibfOAaTHpoBKa naMOTHHKaBbiCTynaerKaK 
HacTHHH cjryqaH ee npHMeHeHHa. KaK h b ciryqae c hojmphoh Teopnen 
HHTepnperauHH PB, JI.B.r.TnjiaK 3aHBjraeT o cBoen HesaBHCHMocra ot 
cyLHecTBOBaBUiMAOHeroHaTypajTHOTwecKHXKOHi^enitHH repMeHeBTHKH 
HOTKa3biBaerao6LJicHmBceao>KeTbiHo6pa3binaMJnimanocpeAciBOM 

rp030BOH HJIH COJIHpHOH TeopHH, HOCKOJTbKy nOMHMO 3apH H ip03bl 

cyrnecTByeT Miroro ApyrHx npnpoAi ibix »BjieHHH, KOTopbie Moran craTb 

TilakB.G. Tlie Onon or Researches into the antiquities of the Vedas. Bombay, 1 893 (rrariee 
ORAV). Ccbmi<n aaiora no i naam tro: Tilak S.L. The Onon//TilakS.L. Collected Works 
Volume E: The Onon. The Arctic Home m the Vedas. Vedic chronology & other essays. Poona, 

2 ORAV.P.Vm. 



79 



cj)H3OTecKHM npoTOTHnoM ApeBHeBeAHHecKnx Jieren^. 1 Hnace mm 
nonbiraeMCfl OTBeTHTb Ha ABa raaBHbix Bonpoca - no3BOjr>ieT jih 
Hcnonb3yeMM JLE.r.THJiaKOM acrpoHOMHHecKaH TeopMJi repMeHeBTHKH 

npOHHKHVTb B nOAJIHHHbIH CMbICJT ApeBHefiujeH BCZJHHeCKOH peJIHTHH H 
MH(jX)J10rHH HAeHCTBHTeJTbHO JIH 0HaAaCTB03M0>KH0CTb OTHOCHTb BpeMH 

cocraBji;eHH5iPBKnepHOAypaHee4000r.AO h.3. JfonracbcropoHHHKaMH 

CHMBOJTHHeCKOrO nCHXOnorHHeCKOrO HCTOJIKOBaHHH HCTOHHHKa, 

pa3pa6oTaHHoro III A.rxomeM (cm. Bbime), Mbi nocrapaeMra TaK>Ke npn 
pa36ope xa>KAOH repMeHeBTHHecKOH CHTyauHH npeAJiaraTb ee 
ajitTepHaTHBHoe o6"bJicHeHHe. 

JI.E.r.TRjiaK b nq)Byio onepeAb aHajiH3HpyeT coo6meHH5i PB o 
cnoco6ax roMepeHra h noApa3AeneHHfl BpeMeHH apcbhhmh HHAoapuHMH 
m oTMenaeT, mto HecKOJibKO coAep«arij;HXCH b naMSTHHKe thmhob c 
onHcaHHHMH npHHeceHHH »epTB yKa3bmaioT Ha 3Ha4MTejibHyio crenenb 

pa3BHTOCTH H CJIOJKHOCTH }KepTBOnpHHOCHTeJTbHbIX uepeMOHHH; a -raK Kax, 

no ero MHeHHio, "hh OAHa cHcreMa »epTBonpHHOiueHHH He mokct 6biTb 
pa3BHTa 6es 3HaHH*i Meoujes, ce30HOB h roAa, He 6yAeT cjihiiikom cMenbiM 
npeAnono>KHTb, hto b BeAHMecKHeBpeMeHa AoiBKeH 6bm cymecTBOBaTb 
R-ajieHAapb AJMperyjmpoBaHH5i »epTBonpHHOineHHH" h npn H3MepeHHH 

BpeMeHH OCHOBHbIMH OpneHTHpaMH CJT/)KHJIM Cpa3t»I JT/Hbl, CMeHa BpeMĆH 

roAa h ABK*:eHHe cojmijia no ceBepHOH h k»khoh He6ecHbiM nojryaj)epaM 2 
HccjieAOBaTejib b stoh cbh3h ccbuiaeTCJi na tot cjjaKT, hto 
ApeBHeHiiiHe BeflimecKHe toa (item samvatsard) h >xepTBa (mjajiia) 
onHCbmaioTCH KaK oSjiaAarcnuHe o6ihhmh hjih TOHHee OAHHaKOBbiMH 
xapaKTepHCTHKaMH h no3TOMy MoryT paccMaTpHBaTbCH KaK 
B3aHM03aMeHHeMbieTepMHHbi-no ero cnoBaM, HMeHHOKTaKOMy BbiBOAy 
npHBOAHT H3yqeHHe coo6m,eHHH 06 HMHTHpyiomeM roAHHHbiH Kypc 
mvoKmm cojiHua h cocroameM H3 APyx nacreH no 6 TpHAuaracyTOHHbix 
MecHueB b Ka>KAOH KepTBonpHHOiueHHH (im sattra): t.k. KaneHAapb 
ncnojib30BajiCH Ara peryjrapHoro coBepmeHHs >KepTBeHHbix uepeMOHHH 
yipoM h BenepoM, c Hacr/ruieHneM hoboh h nouHOH jt/h h b Hanane ce30Ha 
u roAa, to ecrecTBeHHO C3aBepmeHHeM roAn L moro pi-iTyajibHoro uhkjki 



^Cm.:ORAV.P.79. 
ORAVP.8-9. 

80 



saBepmajioi h cooTBeTCTByiomHH e M y BpeMeHHOH npoMe>KyTOK u b 
peavjibTaTesToronpoHsoujjiooTo^eciBTOHHeroAaCfflč^^Ktt^a) 
h KepTBonpHHOuieHHfl (myajna). ' Oahhko TaKaa peKOHCTpyK U H* 

npoH3BOAi^a.yqeHbiMnoAaHHbiMropa3Ao5ojieeno3AHHxnocpaBHeHHio 
c PB naMMTHHKOB, hto nproHaer h ca M JI.B.r.TmaK. 2 Oh CTHTaer, hto 
paccMaTpHBaeMtiH hctohhhk tcm He Me H ee coAep>KHT KOCBeHHbie 
ynoMHHa H pw 06 h3bccthoh aBTopaM thmhob B3aHM0CB5i3H rofla (&m 
samvatsara) h ^epTBonpHHOiueHHa (m yajna), nocKOJibKy 
»epTBonpHHOcHTejiH 0603^^10x0* repMHHOM m^-. rtvijah 

06pa30BaHHWM ot m rtu "ce30H" HJIH "BpeMH roAa" H <R -^ 

">KepTBOBaTb" h nepeBO/mmHMra KaK "season sacrificers"; no3TOMy, no 
oioBaM HcoieAOBaTera b HnxHaflOBHACTb HeTojibKo^epraoBaraeH' no 
h xpaHnrejieH BpeMe™/ Cjtobo ^oopasoBaHo OTraarojibHoro Kop^ 
Mrar- wmn-r- "ABHraTb(ra)" nocpeAcreoM npHcoeAHHeHra cy(}x})HKca 

9 te H B 3TOM CMblCJieAeHCTBHTe^bHO MO>KeT HCHOJIb30BaTbCfl nm 
0603HaHCHHJI XOAaBpeMeHH, HO npH 3TOM HCJIfaM 3a6bffiaTb TOM, HTO OT 

Toro »eraarojibHoro ko P h* ^-ar- hjm n-r- o6pa30Ba H o npunacrae 
coBeprueHHoro bhaći m rta " H ewo 3anyme H Hoe b ABH>KeHHe/3aK0H/ 
nop^AOK/ HCTHHa". Mbi y>Ke HeoAHOKpaTHo b npeAbiAymeH raaBe 
npHBOAHJiHcrrocPB ccoo6me H HeM ero aBropa otom, htooh nojryHHJioT 
Bora hjih Onja (f^pituŠ) MyApocrb hjih Ym HcraHbi (^fw međm 
m$ HBpe3yjibTaTe 3 ToroAocrHrAyxoBHoro npocBeTAeHMHJiHpoAHjicH 
KaKCMiomHHrHOCHC^^^RH^m surya wdjam)(mm?m?K 
^^CT^^^^Am « ptftrf para tfzofa rtoyž 
;^A ^7j surya ivdjant) (VIH.6. 1 0) - a sto c HeonpoBepKHMOcrbio 
CBHAeTejibCTByeT ncHXOJionwecKOH npnpoAe^ rta h b TaKOM cjryroe 
OAHOKopeHHoe c hhm h poACTBeHHoe e M y noHarae m rtu 6yAe T 
o6o3HanaTb paajiHHHue 3Tanu H a ny T H k BoronoaHaHHio Hepes 
caMono3Ha H He h m^-. rtvijah mnniOTcn HcnojiHHTejiaMH 

,,ORAVP.9-10. 

ORAV P. 8. 

ORAVP. 10. 

EnmapeHKOBaTJI. rpaMMaraKai^nlcKorojBbiKa. M, 1982. C. 34;oHa»e:*btKHcnuib 

^miurirnv ninnri A/f inm r^ 1 ,i 



3 



BeaHficKiixpnuui.M., 1993. C 14 



81 



CaMOnO>Kq)TBOBaHH^ B COOTBeTCTBHH C 0C06eHH0CTHMH npOMBJieHHH B 

hhx (ssg rtu) Bo)KecTBeHHOH HcraHbi (5Ea rta). 

Jl.B.r.TunaK nepexoAHTAaJieeK H3yHeHMio ocHOBHbK nacreH rofla 
h HanHHaer c KajienaapHoro um fam sama); HCCJieAOBaTenb oTMenaer, 
hto h b 3tom cjT/nae 3THMOnorH5i oioBa em mana, rrpoH3BOAHMoro ot 
rnaronbHoro Kopra g-s^- ' '>KepTBOBaTb BbDKHMaHHeM' ' h nepeBOAamerooj 
hm xax ''»epTBeHHbiH aeHb", no/ijBep)Kn,aeT npaKTHKy ynoTpe6neHH« 
pHTyana ajm Ha6jnoAeHM 3aTeneHHeM BpeMenn h ero noflpa3AejieHMsi; 
yqeHbiM npHBOflHT cooGmeHHe PB o Konece c ABeHaAuaTbio KocaKaMH h c 
yKpenneHHbiMH b mu ipeMji cothhmh h mecTOAecflTbio ABH>KyiAHMHC5i h 

BTO >KeBpeM3 HenOflBH>KHbIMH KOJIblUIKaMH (šR5T W}«PfiH^ č#br,HRJ 

fcsraT h 5if^ 3ith%t : qfef ^Nriw : dvddaca pradbajagcakramekam tasrrnn 
šakam trigatd na cankavo arpitah šaštima caldcaldsah) (1.164.48) -oh 
bhaht 3«ecb yKa3aHHe Ha to, hto TpnAUATb KaneHAapHbix AHefi (hi^t 
&k*#m) o6pa3yioT Mecflu, h ABeHaAuaTb TaKHx MecflueB cocraBJisiiOT toa 
(mm. samvatsara) 2 Mbi B npHHUHne coraacHH c TeM, hto b AaHHOM 
CTHxe AeHCTBHTejibHO ynoMHHaeTca roA H3 ABeHaAUaTH 
TpHAU,a™cyTOHHbix MecHueB; OAHaKO b hčm He ynoMHHaercH TepMHH nm 
savana a Ha^o OTMerHTb, hto oh BOo6me He BCTpenaeTCfl b PB. B ee 
raMHax mo>kho o6Hapy>KHTb TOJTbKO poACTBeHHoe eMy cjiobo mn savana, 
npoHcxoAHmee ot toto >kc rjiarojibHoro Kop™ g-ša- u o6o3HaHaioinee 
npouecc BbiAbiBHHBaHHa hjih Bbi>KHMaHHH; OAHaKO h b 3tom cnynae 
B03MO)KHanry6HHHaH ncHxonoraHecKMTpaKTOBKa, nocKOJibKyTO >KecaMoe 
cjiobo wn savana MO)Ker 6biTb npOH3BeAeHO ot raarojibHoro Kopra ^~ 
su- h TorAa oho HeceT b ce5e 3HaneHHe ncHXHHecKoro B036yȣeHH$i hjth 
no6y«AeHHH; no i-iaiueMy MHeHHio,BOCHOBeo6oHXTpaKTOBOKJie>KHT 
noHHMaroieAyxoBHOH AeHTejibHOCTH KaK »epiBonpHHomeHHa. 

3aTeMJT.B.r.THHaKOTMeHaeT,HTOo6biHHoeo6o3HaHeHHeMec5!ua 
b caHCKpHTe (ura masa) h ApyrHX HHAoeBponeHCKHX 5i3biKax yKa3biBaer Ha 
ero j:yHHyio CHHOAHHecKyio npHpoAy; b TaKOM cjrynae oh He aojdkch 
coBnaAaTb c coctohuthm m TpHAUa™ KaneHAapHbix AHeft (hhh savana) 

CeMeHeHKo A A. npi ipoaeflpeBHeBe.ni mecia ix>KpeuoB. C. 1 1 9 1 1 1 29. 
^ORAV.P.ll. 
Era BapeHKOBaTil. rpaMMan -iKaBem mcKoro jDbiKa. C. 62. 

82 






cojiHeHHMM MecaijeM h TaKoe >Ke HecoBnaAeHHe 6yAeT Ha6.nK)AaTbCfl 
mok^/ conapHbiM roAOM H3 360 KanetmapHbK meti h jt/hhhm idaom H3 
354 KaneHAapHbK AHefi; no cnoBaM HccneAOBaTena, 3-th npoTMBopeHH« 
mo>kho 6bmo HcnpaBHTbTOJibKO nocpeACTBOM Ha6jTK)AeHMa Hanana 
roAOBoro ce30HHoro uHKJia h Ao6aBJieHHa oco6oro Mecaua M3 
AononHHTenbHbK KarreHAapnbix AHeH k JiyHHOMy roAy ; y neHbiM npHBOAHT 

B 3TOH CB33H CTHX PB C ynOMHHaHHeM ABeHaAHaTH MeCflljeB C nOTOMCTBOM 

h po>KAaioineroc5i BnpHAaMy (umi sr^t w^m-- q -^ i ^d maso dvddaga 
prajdvatah ya upajdjate) (1.25.8) - no ero MHeHHK), 3Aecb roBopMTca o 
npH6aBneHHH ocoSoro nepHOAa (q3wčr)tf upajayđe) Ana coraacoBaHHfl 
JiyHHoro h cojiHeHHoro c^eia BpeMeHH; k 3TOMy HCCJieAOBaTejib 
npHCOBOKynjiaeT coo6meHHe o ABeHaAiraTHAHeBHOM ycna>KAaK)ineM me 
PH6xy y rocrenpHHMHoro cojiHua (Aroxta) h hx pa6oTe no npoBeAeHMio 
peK h opomeHHto HM3HH,BbipamHBaHHiopacreHHH b nycTbiHHbix3eMrax m 
C03AaHHK) npexpacHbix nojien (si^i ^^sh^-m ^mž ot^ss^r: m^i-- 1 
g,^it u ^^3T^ra TH^^vjHiidu^aftTOKH^^stN: dvddaga dyun yad 
agolryasya atitlrye ranann rbhavah sasantah / sukšetrdkmvann cmajanta 
sindhun dhanvdtišthann ošadbir nimnam đpab)(W33.7)-nocnoB&M 
JIE.r.TnjiaKa, b AamiOM oipbiBKe onHCbiBaercH mctoa xpoHOJiorHHecKOH 
KoppeKTHpoBKH nocpeACTBOM npHcoeAHHeHHH k JiyHHOMy roAy H3 
HecKOJibKHxce30HOB(PH6xy)ABeHaA^aTHAo6aBoqHbixKaiieHAapHbix AHefi 
(354+ 1 2=366). /Jjih hoao6hoh peKOHcrpyKUHH cym,ecTBeHHO Ba>KHO 
npo^HO oSocHOBaTb rHnore3y o tom, hto Pn6xy AeHCTBHTenbHO mnmorcH 
b PB nepcoHMtJMKauMMH hum AyxaivtH BpeMeH roAa. C stoh uenbio yHekbiH 
yKa3biBaer Ha tot (JpaKT, mo b ApeBHeHuiHx BeAHHecKM rHMHax AaHHbie 
nepcoHa>KH CBJBaHbi c roAH^HbiM uhkjiom BpeMeHH (fteR samvatsara) - 
t&k, ohh b TeneHHe roAa oxpaHaioT KopoBy hjih .nyHH CBera (cm. nnaBy I), 
pe>KyT ee maco h bo3at HaB03 hjth KopM h 6jiaroAapn 3thm TpyAaM 
AOGTnraiOT 6eccMepTHa (^H'^^^55^ jth. sr^h, ig, h'^htu ?mš\ m 

3TN3HJ »Tč^ fl'^čtTH, «fflTgyTIHt 3R ifTfl^ 311*1 : 5T*ftf*I^ a^čTč^ 30^: jat 

samvatsam rbhavo gdm arakšan yat samvatsam rbhavo ma apimgan yat 
samvatsam abharan bhdso asyds tdbhih gamibhir amrtatvam đg-th) (IV. 3 3. 4) 
hjih >Ke 3a toa H3 CMepTHbix npeBpamaioTCfl b 6eccMepTHbix (*wra: ?f# 



ORAV P. 1 1-12; MullerM.F. Ahistoryof ancient Sanskrit literature. L, 1 859. P. 212-21 3. 

83 



^n^iHH^: 5(jv^: fRč# martdsah santo amrtatvamdnacuh rbhavah 
sanvatsare) (1. 1 10.4); cio/ja >Ke HcaieAOBaTejib othocht ynoMHHaHM o 
npe6biBaHHH PH6xy Ha npoTfl>KeHHH ABeHaAUaTH AHefi b j:octmx y 
HecKpbiBaeMoro hjih cojmija (sFnwq agoIryasya) HKo6bi b Konue hx 
roAHHHoro Kypca (sr^t ^^arnra^ simš vm^^m-. ^wd- dvddaga 
dyun jad agohyasya atitbye ranann rbhavah sasantdo) (cm. Bbiuie) m 06 hx 
onb^HeHHH BMecTe c ce30HaMH (w^K.^m\ m^m\rtubhir rbhavo 
nwdayadljmrn) (TV34.2); b hctomhhkc roBopHTCfl o Tpex Pn6xy (1. 1 6 1 .9- 1 0; 
IV.33.5) h o HeroepTOM »epTBonpHHOHieHHH nocpeAcraoM ce30HOB Ara 
AapHTejia 6oraTCTB (^?m gfri sEgf^jrf^ v^ yat tvd turijarh 
rtubhir draimodo yapmlx) (1.15.10); HaocHOBaHHH Bcefi BbnueH3Jio>KeHHOH 
HHCj)opMai|HHJT.B.r.THnaKAeiiaeTBbiBOAOTOM,qToPH6xyAeHCTBHTCnLHO 
smimoTCH nepcoHH(j)HKauroiMH rpex ApeBHeHiuHX H3 H3BecrHbix apraM 
BpeMeH roAa h hto nomFieHHe o6pa3a /JapHTejin 6oraTCTB (sm^t 
draimodo) yKa3broaeT Ha BbmeneHHe hmh b cbocm Kajiei-iAape eme OAHoro 
ceaoHa no MepenpoABroKeHHfl H3 CBoen nepBOHa^ajibHOH npapoAHHbi. ' 

OAHaKO noAo6Haa peKOHCTpyKjjH5i Bbi3biBaer MHoro^HcneHHbie 
Bonpocbi, nocKOJitKy ocHOBbmaerai Ha Hcnojib30BaHHH oahhx rHnoTe3 
Ara noATBep>KAeHHfl Apyrnx h y3KOM BHeKOHTeKCTHOM aHajiH3e AaHHbix 
naMOTHHKa, aTascKexapaKTepH3yerc5i HajmraneM npoTHBope^HH. 

TaK, y^eHbiH yrBep>KAaeT, hto aBTopbi PB 3HaAH KajieHAapb ro 
360 )KepTBeHHbix AHen (sm savana) h ABeHaAuara MeraueB ( hm sm 
maso dvddaca); Aanee oh roBopHT, hto Ara coraacoBaHHH conapHoro h 
JiyHHoro roAOBbK paccneroB BpeMeHH ohh AoracHbi 6buiH npHcoeAHHflTb 
12 AHeH fa&^dvddaca dyun) ko BTopoMy H3 hhx; b npHBOAHMOM 
HccnonoBaTeneM BbiHHcneHHH sth AonojiHHreJibHbie cyrKH npH6aBJTjnara 
k 354 cocraBJiaioiHHM jt/hhbm toa h b pe3yjibTaTe nojTyHaerc5i mhcjio 366; 
OAHaKO yneHbiH He npHBOAHT hh OAHoro A0Ka3aTejibCTBa H3 PB, 
yKa3biBaK)iij,ero Ha3HaKOMCiBo eecocraBHTejieH cKaneHAapeM H3 366 ahch. 
Ilo MHeHHio HccjieAOBaTejra, ABeHaAHaTHAHeBHbiH coh PH6xy b 
rocnix y AroxbH (gic^r ^^srntet^ s^m m^^y^- wra: dvddaca 
dyun yad agolryasya atidrje ranann rbhavah sasantah) o6o3HanaeT 
ABeHaAiWb CBflmeHHbK Ho^en hjih nepH0A3aMeAJieHH5i xoAa ce30Hnoro 

'oRAVP. 126-127. 
84 



UHKua; npHHČM cj^aKT hx CHa TecHO CBjnaH c hx AeMTejibHOCTbio no 

OpOliieHHK) HH3HH H BbipamHBaHHK) paCTeHHH B rr/CTbIHHbK MeCTHOCTJK 

h co3#aHHK) npeKpacHbix nonen b pe3yjibTaTe npoBe^eHHfl pex (gN?^ 
3Rxra RFv^yHi[d«^aii^ftc_Ri^jrR: sukšetrakrnvann anajanta sindhun 
dhanvatišthann ošadhr mmnam đ J pK^);BnepeBOfleJI.B.r.THJiaKaoHH 
AenaroT3Tonq)eAOTAbixoM,ayTiI.EnH3apeHKOBOH--noaieHero;oAHaKO 
Apyroe coo6meHHe nemo yKa3biBaeT Ha to, hto Pn6xy npOBenH BO/ry b 

HH3HHbI H BbipaCTHJIH TpaBy Ha B03BbIUieHHOCT$TX HMeHHO BO BpeMfl CHaB 
»HHHIHe ArOXbH (dfc+«N-HI 3)<J>ufidH <Ff H^c+-=)4: aPTfaP* ^tltcMI li im 

gt udvatsvasmd akrnotana trnom nivatsvapah agohyasya jadasastand grhe 
rtimo) (1. 1 6 1 . 1 1). Ha caMOM Aene coh Pn6xy »Biraera Jinuib CHMBonoM nx 
6ecco3HaTera»HOH }KH3HeAe5rrejibHoc™, nocKOJibKy b cne/ryioiujĐC CTHxax 
yT04H5ieTca, hto ohh c 3ai<pbiTbiMH raa3aMH ABHranHCb Haomynb no 
pa3JiHHHbiM MHpaM («^hM ^^ht toto sammllja yad bbuvand 
paryasarpatd) (1.161 .12)HHTOJiHLUbHepe3ro i i],OTKpbmHnia3a(wdH<^H'yi 
^r?w samvatsara vdamadjd vyakbyata) (1. 1 6 1 . 1 3). Uony naercfl, hto Pn6xy 

HaX0AHTCH B COMHaM6yJIHHeCKOM COCT05THHM B >KHHHIHe ArOXbH HeTOJIbKO 

12 flHen (?K5i ^dvadaga dyun), ho H Becb toa (*fartu samvatsara); 
mo>kho Aa>Ke npeAnouo)KHTb, hto nepBbie CHMBOJiH3HpyiOT,nBeHa#naTb 
MecaueB (rrMsi^i maso dvddaga) nocneAHero. B jik)6om CJiynae (J)aKT 
CHa Pn6xy Hejib3a ncnojib30BaTb KaK OTJiHHHTejibHbiH nproHaK 1 2 AHen 
(sić(5t ^dvddaga dyuri) h sto eme 6onee yMeHbiuaeT BepoflTHOCTb 

HfleHTHtj^HKaUHH HX KaK AOnOJIHHTeJIbHbIX U HCnOJIb3yeMbIX flJIH 

cornacoBaHra jryHHoro h cojrapHoro paccneroB BpeMeHH. 

B coo6meHHH o ABeHa^na™ HMeroin,HX noTOMcreo Mecfluax w 
poKAaiomeMCfl BnpHAany (*m\ stč^t •a^\\a<\\- h -j^i^d mđso dvddaga 
prajavatdh ya upajdjate) mo>kho BHAeTb ne TOJibKO ynoMHHaHHe o 
npn6aBJieHMH onpeAeneHHoro HHCJia cyTOK k jiyHHOMy roAy A-rca 
KoppeKTnpoBKH KanenAapfl, KaK 3T0 Ae^aioT JI.B.r.TnitaK h 
T.iI.EnH3apeHK0Ba; b maBe I mh y»e npoAeMOHCTpupoBajiH, hto toa 
o6o3HaHaer b PB npouecc AyxoBHoro po>KAeHna jimhocth KaK hochtcjw 

Bo>KeCTBeHHOH PeHH (h^oFTC SreFTRI mw\\ rRf^TR^: m*4 1&H RT^čri y 

mu-4+i 3Rrf=d : samvatsaram gagajdna brahmana vratacdnnah vdcarh 
parjanja jinvitdm pra mandukd avddišiib) (VEL 1 03. 1) n hto hmchho nepes 
ABenaAnaTb MecMueB (^rftfa ^ggg^sn^iR^ ^i ^n ^ q čhrt # devabitim 

85 



- 



jugupur dvddacasja rtum nam na pra minanti ete) (VII. 103.9) Ora Haniinaer 
roBopHTb Hepe3 Hero (maorm: ^ apra ^ fa^f: h R^i i " \\ brdhmandsah 
vdcam akrata brdima krnvantal) panvatsarinam H d i ^ i m i ^nH : braJmianaso 
vadantal?) (VII. 103.8 h 7); TaKHM >Ke o6pa30M h Bpo^aiomeMCfl BnpHAa 1 ^ 
(13^3^3« upjayate) mokho BHAeTb HOBoro CBepx- h BHeBpeMeHHoro 
AyxoBHoro HejioBeica. 

AHanonMHO h b Aroxbe hjih "Tom, Koro Hejib35i CKpbiTb" (A 
agoljya) Mbi bhahm He (})H3HMecKoe cojiHue, b AOMe KOToporo PH6xy HJIH 
BpeMeHa ro^a noneMy-TO cnann, a TmeTHO CKpbiBaeMyio 
Becco3HaTenbHbiM <iejioBeHecKyio /jyiuy, b coKae ckotopoh HcKycHbie 
(^m- rbbavalp) coBepiuaioT cboh MHoro^HCJieHHbieAesHra. 

/LnflJIE.r.THnaKaAonojiHHrejiiHbM^ 

npHpOJJ,bI Pn6xy flBJIfleTCfl HX TpOHCTBeHHOe MHCJIO, OflHaKO B PB 

ynoMHHaK)TC5i roiTb BpeMe'H roAa - BecHa (w^ vasanta) (X.90.6; X. 1 61 .4), 
Jiero (Smgrišma) (X.90.6),/j,o>KAJiHBbiH ce30H (w$ri prdvršinam hht^ 
prdvršya oi^varša) (VH. 103.3, 7 H 9), oceHb (magarad) (Hanp., 1.72.3; 
I86.6;I.89.9;I.179.1;n.l2.1;X.90.6)H3HMa(tH&wđHJiHi^/^n^to) 
(Hanp., 1.34.1; 1. 64.14; LI 16.8; 1.1 19.6; X.161.4).fla*eeaiHMMBcneH3a 
6onbniHHcrBOM HaTypanHCTHHecKHX HHTepnperaTopoB Hcnojib3yeM Meron, 
nceBAOxpoHOJiorHHecKoro jipodnmm TeKcra HcroHHHKa, to h b stom 
cjryqae 0/iHOBpeMeHHO (b X MaHAajie) 6yAyT ynoMHHaTbca nerbipe 
BpeivieHH roAa - BecHa (to^t vasanta), jieTo (#*r grišma), oceHb (m^ 
carad) h 3HMa (i^R? hemanta). H3 3Toro 3aTpyAHeHH5i mo>kho 6bmo 6bi 
BbiHTH nyreM npHCoeAHHeHHJi k TpeM Pn6xy flpaBHHOAaca hjih flppmem 
6oraTCTB, ho pjm stoto hco6xoahmo AOKa3aTb ce30HHyio npnpoAy 
noaie/jHero. JI.B.r.THJiaK HaxoflHTTaKoe AOKa3aTenbcxBO b coo6m,eHHH o 
HerBepTOM KepTBonpHHomeHHH 7JpaBHHOflacy nocpeACTBOM ce30HOB 
(^WK.rtubbir) (mjm gćH ^tgf^sf^f^i q^ror yat tvd turljam rtubhir 
dravinodo yajdmalx) (1.15.10), 0/THaKO Bhipa->Ke}me^^irtublnr mokct 
6brrb noHirro h Kax "b cooTBercrBHH co BpeM&ieM HcrHHbi"; h hto HMeHHO 
tek Ha/j;o noHHMaTb ero, noATBep^aioT MHoro™cneHHbie ynoTpe6jieHHfl 
btom »erHMHecHHOHHMHMHoro cnoBassp- rtwid u B npeAHa3HaHeHHoe 
Hcthhoh BpeMa" (l. 15. 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 1 1 h 1 2). To >Ke caMoe mo>kho CKa3aTb 
H 06 onbJiHeHHH Pn6xy (^K^\^wmjtub!%r rbhovo madayadhvam). 
OnjiaKo eme 6ojiee Ba>KHO to, hto /^apHTejieM GoraTcraa (si^fc dravmcda) 
86 



HMeHyerca He oaho H3 BpeMeH roAa, a HMMaHeHTHaji Bo^ecmeHHaj] Bora 
(a# wi agni draunodam) (1.96. 1,2, 3, 4,5, 6 H 7). Eh npeAHa3HaqeHO 
neTBepToe >KepTBonpHHOiueHHe (m^\ g*H ssgm^sR™^ *&mi yat tvd 
tunyam rtubhir dravinodo yajdmahe) h oho He MO)KeT 6biTb oahhm H3 
ce30HOB, nocKOJibKy b ApyroM cime/IpaBHHOAac nber H3Tpex Ky6KOB 
npH3biBaTejM (im hotra), OHHCTHTen« (%n potro) h npHBOAHTejifl (^ji 
rceftra) h 3aTeM ero npuraamaiOT HcnHTb H3 CBoero co6cTBeHHoro 
6eccMepTHoro h HenpHKOCHOBeHHoro Ky6Ka^apHTexw 6oraTCTB (mi. 

apddd hotrdduta potrddamattota neštrddajušata prayo hitam / turijam 
pdtramamrktamamartyam dravinoddh pibatu drdvinodasab) (R37 A). 
Heo6xoAHMO HanoMHHTb o tom, ™ cJ^hkuhh npM3biBaTejra (im^fntzr), 
OHHCTHTeji« (šm^potar) n npHBOAHTejifl (fa nestor) BbinojiHfler caMa 
Bo^ecTBeHHaa Bojw (zmagm) 1 h OHa^eBOcneBaercfl KaK ^apHTeJib 
6oraTCTB (mm draunodam). T.o. aBTop rHMHa npocHT Ee HacuaAHTbCfl 
CBoen co6cTBeHHOH AeaTejibHOCTbio no oHHineHHio HenoBe^ecKoro 
cymecTBa (mt potro), npH3biBy (im hotra) h npHBeAeHHK) £m neštra) b 
nero Chji CBeTa (^i deva) h HaAeneHHio ero SeccMepTHbiMH h 
HenpHKOCHOBeHHbiMH ("tt^hh^hmcm pdtrarnornrktamamartjam) 
BoraTCTBaMH #yxa (smm-- drdvinodo&ih). Ho noqeMy HMeHHO HerBepToe 
>KepTBonpHHOiueHHe npeAHa3HaqeHO Ana /JapifrejM 6oraTCTB (qg.^r^i 
^m^ an"!!^ " ! ^mi yat tvd turlyam rtubhir dravinodo yajdmahe) u 
noneMy hmchho qeTBepTafl qama HcnonHeHa 6eccMepTHbix h 
HenpHKOCHOBeHHbix BoraTCTB (i*W qi^^pwč^ strw(: turiyarh 
pdtramamrktamamartyam drdvinodasahf. OTBeraTb HaaTOTBonpoc 
noMoraer ranoraa III. A.rxoma o ncHXOKOCMorpatj)HHecKOM 3HaqeHHH 
MHcen b PB -b o6ohx cnyHaflx noflpa3yMeBaiOTCH ) no HameMy MHeHHio, 
nerbipe npHHOCHMbix b )KepTBy Eo>KecTBeHHOH BojreTena hjto oeono^KH 
nejioBeqecKoro cymecrBa: (}M3HHecKoe (#f) prtfdvt), >KH3HeHHoe (a^% 
antankša), MeHTanbHoe (€t dyau) h HaApa3yMHoe co3HaTeJibHoe (mjuar). 
Oahhm H3 nocaeAHHX apr/MetnoB nna ce30HHOH xapaKrepHCTHKH 
PH6xy y JI.EJ.THJiaKa ocraerca hx pa6oia, no BHeuiHeMy BHAy h npH 
6yKBajibH0M ee noHHMaHHH BbicTynaiomafl KaK onHcaHHe npHpoAHO- 

1 CM.:CeMeHeHKoAA.OnpiipofleflpeBHeBe^iMecKiix ">KpeuoB".C. 115-1 17. 







KiiHMaTHHecKi« MeraMop(J303 b pe3yjibTaxe cMeHbi BpeMeH roAa - peKH 

CTaHOBflTCa noJIHOBOflHbIMH H pa3JJHBafOTCfl B HH3HHax, paCTeHHfl 

noaBraioTca b nycxbiHHbix Mecrax h nojia noKpbiBaiOTCfl ipaBofi (**» 
W^s^i^g^^^\ft RI ^ TN: rhhava]? sukšetrdkrnvann 
anayanta sindhun dhanvdtišdnnn ošadhir mmnam dpab)-Ka3anocb 6bi, 
hct HHqero 6ojree HaTypajiHCTHqecKoro. OflHaico hcjma 3 a6biBa T b c 
ncHxojionfqecKOM chmbojihhcckom 3HaqeHHH o6pa30B h ookctob PB. TaK 
cjiobo fc kšetra npoHcxoAHT ot rjiarojibHoro Kopi« ft -kši- ">KHTb/ 
06HTaTb/npe6biBaTb' : h cooTBCTCTBeHHO MO>Ker6biTb nepeBeAeHO ne 
tojilko KaK il 3emmmj^mdnmdo6nacnJcrpaim", ho h KaK "mhp" hjth 
"MecToo6HTajTHine". HcKycHbie (*to rbbavah) cosAaioT b ^ejioBeKe 
CoBepuieHHbffi Mhp (wwm^sukšđrdkrnvann) hjih UIhpokhh Mhp 
Cmhhh (ŠK^^ratfft kšetram uru jjotlmsi) (IX. 9 1.6) ncHxnqecKoro 
cepAUa faf^kdaya jyotir) (VI.9.6) hjih Mh P C^acrba (^ w bbadre 
kšetre), iAe HaxoA*TCfl Jlio6oBb (m mitra) h HcrHHHa* Penb Bora (^ 
motot«) (V.62.7). TaM TeKy T boah CBera (h^n: suarvađr apab hjih 
^mm^otišaps) (1.10.8; V2.ll; IV38.10) h hotokh Cnaflocra {&&&^ 
srafe madhutmrami) (1.112.9). IIoAnoKpoBaMH HeBe^eHn« Haourynb 
M^^gsRT^^ sammllja yad bhuvand parjasarpata) m 3eMJiH 
Becco3HaTe;ibHoro po^aerra BH6pHpyiomHH ot SKcraTHHecKoro 
BAOXHOBeHH5i (šwr^rm^ra^ fe r ^ d viprarh janatho mpanyayd) 
(1.119.7) ^ejioBeKPacTeHHH^^^^ra&TO ošadhfnam) (X.51 8) 
hjih Bospacraiome npoHBjraoiuittc* Chji CBera (^n^ofaafe- fcr) 
(X97.4). T.o. BbipamHBaHHeHcKycHbiMH pacieHHH b nycrbiHHOH 3eMJie 
(^m-.^mm^^^K rbbavah dbanvdtišthann ošadhlr) o6o3HSmaeT 
AyxoBHyjo KonoHHsauHK) HecosHaTejibHOH MarepHH jrynaMH THocnca 
(^^npšadbir devi?) h npeBpameHHe ee b coBepmeHHyio cy6craHUHio- 
HOCHTejiH CBeTa (w^ sudhanvan) 1 , fleTbMH KOTopoH (šfta^rar 

.^^o^PH6xyHHBjJ5iK)TCHa.l61.2,7H8;IV35.lH8).npaBHjibHO CT b 
TaKOH HHTepnpeTauHH npoa H ajiH3HpoBaHHbix Bbiiuecoo6meHHH 
noATBep>KAaeTca h 6yKBajibHbiM SHaneHneM TepMHHa 4^ ošadhi 
KOTopbiH o6pa3yK)T raarojTbHb.e ko P hh a*-«*- "csepKanV chstb" h m 
-<fe- "noMemaTb/craBH Tb" h KOTopbiH nepeBOAHTca 6yKBajibHo Kai< 



1 Cm.:SASV.R326. 
88 



' 'BMecTHJiHina CBera' '. 

Eme oahhm nperaTCiBHeM ajci npHHjrraa ranoTe3bi JLErTmiaKa 
o ce30HHOH npnpque o6pa30B Pn6xy »Bnaerca tot cpaicr, hto y Ka>Kfl;oro m 
hhx ecrb CBoe HMa - oflHoro 30ByT ssg jhhu hjih HcKycHbiM, Apyroro w^ 
vibka HjroPacnpocTpaH5iTOiuMMCJi,TpeTbero^3i^ MJiHH3o6HJibHbiM 
(1.161.6; rV.33.3;IY34.1)-HBTO)KeBpeMaoHHBceBMecTe6e3pa3JiHHH5i 
Moryr HMeHOBaTbca HeTOJibKO HcxycHbiMH (ww- rUizvd)) (1.161.4, 1 1 m 
13;IY33.1-2,4-8h10-11;IV.34.2-4h10-11;IV35.1-7h9;IV36.1-9;IV.37.6; 
VH.48.2), ho h H3o6HJibHbiMH (fm* mjdlp) (IV34.3-5; IV.35.6; IV.36.24 m 7; 
IV.37. 1 , 3 h 7-8; VII.48.1), h TocnoAaMH HCKycHbix i^m]ihMano) (1V37.5 
m 7-8; VII.48. 1), h PacnpocrpaHfliomHMHCfl (favilhi) (VE48. 1-2); ho BpflA 
jih bo3mo>kho HMeHOBaHHe oAHoro BpeMeHH ro^a Ha3BaHHeM Apyroro 

BnJTOTbflO B3aHM03aMeHHeMOCTH. 

T.o. hhhto ne yKa3bmaeT Ha to, hto HaM ane,fl,yeT npuHHTb 

n-inoTe3y Jl.BJ.THJiaKa o Pn6xy KaK o nepcoHH(JMKaLj;Hflx ce30HOB ro^a. 

Mbi corjiaujaeMca c MneHneM lHA.rxoiua otom, hto ohh cHMBOJiH3Hpyior 

3HeprHH FHOCHca (f^wq?t5ra«tHwt indrasja suno gavaso napdto) 

(1V37.4), Koropbie npHHHMaior Ha ce6a CMeprHbie ooojiohkh HenoBenecKHx 

Teji h b pe3ynbTaTe roAHHHoro Tpy^a craHOBHTca 6eccMepTHbiMH (nm-- 

w^\ anp^RR^: ww. m^m martdsab santo amrtatvamdnacub rbhavah 
2 ' ' ' ' 

sarimfcare) (1. 1 1 0.4). B CBere BbinieH3jro>KeHHoro mo>kho npeflno>KHTb h 
0TjiHqHyK) ot noBepxHOCTHOH xpoHOJion«ecKOH HHTepnpCTauHio CKDKera 
o ABeHafluaTHAHeBHOM CHe HcxycHbix b 6jia>KeHH0M coi03e c 
HecKpbiBaeMOH j\yuioK) (st^i ^^ar%j^ srf^ ^=6*^: «h^= 
dvddaga dyiin jad agobyasya atitbye ranann rbhavdp sasantalp); o^hhm H3 
AeHHHH PH6xy aBji^eTCH co3flaHHeHa3aBHCTbTBopuy HeTbipexflpKO 

CBepKaK)U4HX n0A06H0 AHJIM Ky6KOB H3 OflHOrO (f ^MHHfej^Httia^ W< 

č^i ^ zčsm^vibbrdjamanamg camasam ahevavenat tvaštd caturo 
chdi-gm) (TV33.6)-no lll.A.rxoiiry,3TOTMH({) 0nHCbiBaerB03BeAeHHeHMH 
Ha 6a3e Tena (])H3MHecKoro co3HaHH*i ($&prtbiu) em,e Tpex - BHTarbHoro 
(ara% antankša), MeHTajibHoro (šn dyau) w Kay3aribHoro hhh 

' Cm.: HaOb F. TpeMecKM Mnc))OJion k u nosrnKa Ilep. caHni. TpHHuepa H.n. M., 2002. C. 1 4 1 
ii 199.n P ii,M. 16. 

2 Cm.: SASV.P. 326-330. 

89 



HHearibHoro (^svar hjth m rta) ; TpexKonecHaa KonecHHua PH6xy (^ 
m^: rathas tricakrah) (IV.36.1) abho cnMBOJiH3npyeT npHcyuu,He hm 
KanecrBa Co3HaTenbHoro Bjia>KeHHoro EbiTHfl (^s^^sat-dt-anandd) 
h b TaKOM cjryHae ABenaAuaTb AHen hjth BcnbiiueK fa&^dvadaip dyim) 
6y£yT o6o3HaMaib HanojiHeHHe sthmh KanecTBaMM Bcex neTbipex 
BbnueynoMHHyrbix oobnoneK nenoBenecKoro cymecrea. 

JI.B.r.TnnaK yiBep>Kn;aeT, hto npHHHHOH OTO^HecraneHM ro^a 
(othtc samvatsard) H )KepTBbi (^yajnd) b PB flBJmeTCfl hhcto BHemHee 
coBna^eHHe xoAa pHTyajia h acTpoHOMHHecKHX h cB5naHHbix c hhmh 

npHpOAHO-KJIHMaTHHeCKHX5IBJieHHH, (j)HKCHpyeMOe H 0(j)OpMJl}ieMOe 

KaneHAapeM. OflHaKO mli y>KeHeoAHOKpaTHO npofleMOHcrpHpoBanH §3kt 
6ojieenry6oKoro noHHMaHi-m BpeMeHH aBTopaMH naMOTHHKa-OHH He 
Tora>KO nocroflHHO Hcnojib3yiOT ero KaK chmboji npoTeKaHHfl npouecca 
AyxoBHoro pa3BHTH5i nenoBeKa, ho h caMO BpeMeHHoe TeneHHe ero 6brrra 
paccMaTpHBaiOTKaK §opuy »epTBonpHHomeHHH Bo>KecTBeHHOMy; 06 
3tom Harjcmpo CBHAerejibCTByeT cthx c oracaroieM Toro, hto KorAa CHJibi 
CBera (%i deva) >KepTB0Ban>i nocpeACTBOM HejioBenecKoro cymecTBa, to 
oho Bbicrynajio b Kanecree >KepTBbi, a BecHbi, jiera h oceHH ero >kh3hh 
cjTy>KHiiH hm cooTBercTBeHHO >KepTBeHHbiM MacnoM, MaTepnanoM AJia 

KOCTpa H B03JIHHHHCM (^55^ #(i ^fT ^ HdHd 1 TO^Tt s^KHU i ^ $m 

5wr: m^vri%: yat purušena bavišd deva yajnamatanvata / 
vasantoasyasl]djyaih grišma idhmah garad dhavih) (X.90.6). 

JI.ET.THJiaK CTaBHT aanee Bonpoc o tom, HBJiaeTCH jih 
onncbiBaeMbiH PB coirapHbiH toa (*čw samvatsard} TponnnecKHM hjih 

3Be3flHbIM; yHeHbIH OTMenaeT, HTO CMeHa Ce30HOB B 3aBHCHM0CTH OT 

npeueccHH paBHOfleHCTBHH b BbicmeH creneHH He3HaHHTem>Ha h 
CTaHOBHTca 3aMeTHOH JiHiiib no npomecTBHH cotch jreT; OTcioAa 
nccjieflOBaTejib AenaeT bmboa, hto aBTopbi tumi-iob onpeAeJianH 
nojiOKeHHe cojiHU,a c noMombio MeTOAa yTpeHHero HaGjnoAeHHfl 
pacnojio)KeHHOH p«n,OM c hhm šmmdMim 3Be3Abi; t.o. toa AOJmeH 6bur 
6brrb3Be3AHbiM,aHeTponHHecKHM,nocKOJibKyABH>KeHHepaBHOAeHCTBHH 
eiAeAOJiroeBpeMH He6bijro H3BecTHO ApeBHHM HHAHHuaM. 2 OAHaKO 



Cm.:SASV.P.329. 

m.:0 

90 



2 Cm.:ORAVR14 



Bce sto He HMeer HHnero o6mero c repMeHeBTHKOH TeKcra naMHTHHKa, 

T.K. OH He COAep>KHT KaKOH-JIH6o HHCf)OpMaUHH no 3TOMy nOBOfly. 

Jl.B.r.THJiaK yTBep)KAaeT, hto ApeBHeHiiiHH BeAHHecKHH tor 
AejiHJTCJi Ha ABe nojroBHHbi - OAHa cooTBercrBOBajia BpeMeHH ppmatHm 
cojiHua ot caMOH kd)khoh tohkh ero 3KJiHnTHKH b ceBepHyio He6ecHyro 
nojiyccj)epy hjth k ceBepy ot SKBaTopa h no3TOMy Ha3biBajracb 3tot=f? 
itttardyana hjih "BbicuiHH nyrb (roAa)", Apyrafl coBnaAana co BpeMeneM 
o6pa™oro nepeMemeHHfl CBeTHJia ot caMOH ceBepHOH tohkh ero 
SKJiHnTHKH b io>KHyK) He6ecHyio nojiyccj)epy hjih k iory ot 3KBaTopa h 
no3TOMy HMeHOBanacb <wim dakšindyam hjth "kdkhhh nyrb (ro^a)"; 
ho b paccMaTpHBaeMOM HcroHHHKe BbiiHeynoMaHyTbie TepMHHbi He 
ynoTpe6ji5iiOTca h yqeHMH yKa3biBaeT, hto hx SKBHBajieHTaMH b PB 
flBJUHOTCfl ^mn devaydna hjih IlyTb CBeTa H v^mpitjjdna hjth ITyTb 
OniOB HJTH 3aiTTHTHHKOB; npH 3TOM eMy npHXOJTHTCfl npH3HaTb, HTO AaHHbie 
nOHHTHJT He HMeiOT B PB xpoHOJrorH4ecKoro jth6o aCTpOHOMHHeCKOrO 
3HaneHH5i (cm. rjraBy I); opaKTHHecKH eAHHCTBeHHbiM AOKa3aTejibCTBOM 
rHnoTe3bi JLE.r.THjraKa cjt>okht coo6meHHe o tom, hto Eo>KecTBeHHa$i 
Bojm (a#đgra) 3Haer flopory hjih IlyTb CBeTa nocpeACTBOM ce30HOB 
(mj^^^i\^(^^ividvdn patha rtugo devaydrmn)(X.%.\\). OAHaKO 
cjiobo 5sšp rtugo Moacer 03HanaTb 3HaHHe Ero npaBHnbHoro BpeMeHH 
ABH}KeHHfl fašrtu) no IlyTH CBeTa (z$mdevaydna). OTcyTCTBHeKaKHX- 
nn6o noATBep)Kii,aK)jJT,HX ero Teopnio CBeAeHHH PB He 6ecnoKOHT 
JLE.r.THjraKa h oh npoAOJDKaeT y>Ke coBepuieHHO 6e3 onopbi Ha tckct 
naM5TTHHKayTBep>KAaTb,HTo;^H^m?)«ttđ hjih &mm uttarajana 
noHHManacbKaK cocroflinaa H3 uiecTH MecsmeB, 0XBaTbEBajiaBeceHHHH, 

JieTHHH H AOKAAHBblH Ce30HbI H ftJTHJiaCb B IiepHOA flBH)KeHH5I COJIHIia K 

ceBepy ot SKBaTopa Me>KAy TOHKaMH BeceHHero h oceHHero 
paBHOAeHCTBHH. 2 /j^anee HccjieAOBaTenb pa3BHBaeT CHCTeMy cbohx 
6e3AOKa3aTejibHbix npeAnojio>KeHHH h yKa3biBaeT, hto toa (*rk 
samvatsara), nepBoe nojiyroAHe (^mdevaydna hjth 3riwi uttardjaria), 
BecHa (Wa vasanta) H CHCTeMa »epTBonpHHomeHHH (hčst sattra) Bce 
HaHHHafiHCb b AeHb BeceHHero paBHOAeHCTBHH h hto AeHb oceHHero 



1 Cm.: ORAVP. 16-21. 
2 Cm.:ORAV.R19. 



91 



paBHOACHCTBHa 6biJi ueHTpajibHbiM AHeM roAa (j^H_višuvdn) h 
3HaMeHOBan co6ojo Hanajro BTopon nojJOBHHbi ro^a (#wi ddštm)ana 
hjih w^Rpitryana). Vte Bcero BbimenepeHHCJTeHHoro PB ynoMHHaeT 
TOJibKO cjiobo w^višiwat{\M.\0; 1.164.43) h b o6ohx cjiynaflx oho ne 
HMeer raccaKOH cbjbh c HJieHeHHeM roAa h 03HanaeT npocro "nocepeAHHe". 
PaccMOTpeB Bonpoc o BpeMeHH h cnoco6ax ero H3MepeHM 
ApeBHHMH HHAoapHaMH, JI.B.r.TmiaK nepexoAHTK noncKy b naMaramce 

AaHHbKOpa3JlHHHBIXaCTpOHOMmeCKHX06LaKTaXHH^ 

hto b pe3yjibTaie Ha6juoAeHHJi jmx.mw cojiHua no neoecHOH oporne h 
(jjHKcaHHH 3Toro npoijecca c noMomMo crau,HOHapHO pacnojio>KeHHbK 

P5IA0M C ABH)KyiUHMCH CBCTHJIOM 3BC3A aBTOpbl Befl pa3AeJTHJTH 

acrpoHOMHHecKHH nose BAOJib corapHOH SKJiHnTOKH Ha 27 OTpe3KOB no 
Haxo,HHmHMCfl Ha hhx C03Be3AH5iM (-m nakšatrd) 2 

yieHbiH yTBep>KaaeT, h b stom k HeMy npHcoeAHHjnoTra TaKHe 
HaTjpajiHcraHecKHe rorrepnperaTOpbi KaKTJLEnroapeHKOBa, hto b PB 
ynoMHHajorca co3Be3flHjj Arxa h ApA>KyHH (X.85. 1 3) u hto b tom >Ke raMHe 

TOBOpHTCH HaKUiaTpax B006uje H ABH>KeHHflX JiyHbI H COJTHUa KaK 

npHHHHax CMeHbi BpeMeH rw (X.85. 1-5 h 18-1 9) 3 O^HaKO coAep^aiHHecfl 
b 3thx CTHxax coo6ineHM5i mo>kho npoHHTaTb coBepiueHHO no-ApyroMy c 
yHeroM hx np^Moro CMbicna h CHMBOJiHHecKoro ncHxojioraqecKoro 
3HaneHHa. B caMOM Hanajie aBTop nuvrna 3a»BJKieT, hto 3eMJia 
noMep>KHBaeTCH IIpaBAOH hjih Hcthhoh (ra^?^ satpiottabhtd 
bhumih) (1), hto cpa3y aceAeMOHCTpHpyer HBHyio HeaAeKBaraocTb 
6yKBaiibHoro HaiypajmcrHHecKoroHCTonKOBaHHH. 3aTeMroBopHTai otom, 
hto Chjhoijjhh noMep>KHBaeT CBeT (^raroia: suryenottabhita dyaub) 
(1). IToa Chhioiiihm ($$surya) 3j\tch noApa3yMeBaeTCfl OTHio^b He 
(JDH3HHecKoe cojiHue, a CBeTOHOCHbra CBepxpa3yM (^^sm^^T 
aham mornar Soauarh sfnytc cd) (IV26. 1); h Ba>KHbiM MOMeHTOM jmjTHercfl 

TO, HTO HMeHHO Oh HMeHyCTCH CbIHOM IIpaBAM HJIH HCTHHbl (šR ^H«^ 

indrarh strnim stysya) (VHI69.4). T.o. b nepBOH crpoi<e craxa coAep>KHTCH 
onncaHHe Toro, KaK Fhochc ynpaBJiaeT MHpaiviH ^HnecKOH 



Cm.:ORAV.P. 16, 20 and 25. 

Cm . : ORAV. P. 26; Miiller M.F. A history of ancient Saiisknt literature. P. 2 1 2. 
m.:C 

92 



1 



3 Cm.: ORAV. P. 119 



npnpoAbi h CBeTOHOCHoro yiwa (qr arštfta ^feri sreti^R^ara^ imra, 
3^^3/0 akšeneva cakrijd gaclbhir vicvak tastambha prthivlm uta 
dym) (X89.4). Bo BropoH crpoKeyKa3biBaeTca, hto Hcthhoh cyiu,ecTByioT 
/Jera BecKOHeHHocTH h ycraHOBJieH b He6e yMa Bbi>KaTbiH ( ^niR^ i fcda Pd 
KR umi 3tn firčT: rtendditjdstišthanti divi somo adhi critah). O^eHb 
Ba>KHO ycraHOBHTb npHpo/ry nocjie^Hero nepcoHa>Ka - BbDKaToro (ata 
»wđ) - nocKOJibKy bo BTopoM cirae coo6inaerca, hto hm CHJTbHbi JJpm 

HeCBH3aHHOCTH M 3eMJW H OH >Ke HaX0AHTC5I B JIOHe C03BC3AHH (<HWlRc^l 

^fe^ ?TTO <jm1 H5t i ar^R^nuiiHtu^*-^ «m anfe: somenddityd batinah 
somena prthivi mahl / athanakšatrdndmešdmupastbe soma ahitak). 

Ho npoKfleBcero oSparaM CBoeBHHMaHHeHaTO,AeHcranTenbHO 
jih b PB TepMHH ^m nakšatraoiHSLHdLzr co3Be3flHe. Hctohhhk ynoMHHaer 
MoiHHoe He6ecHoe Teno Bcex Chji CBera h roBopHT o tom, hto oho Hx 
noroKOM 3anonHHJio 3eMmo Tena h He6o yMa (^^h^r^^rič^ 
sit whm: drlho nakšatra uta vigvadevo bhumimdtdn dydm dhdsandjoh) 
(VI.67.6). 3thm HeOecHbiM tcjiom aBJiaerca caMO JiyHam,eeca raMHaMH 
rHOCTH^ecKoe CBeTHJio (^ ^&n£hdj uryah nakšatramaravat) (VEL8 1.2). 
Ero noAHHMaeT b yMe Bo>KecTBeHHaa Bona h Oho Aaer Be^HbiH 
cynpaMeHTajibHbiH Cbct jiio/jam (srž ^sm^JTi 35 fi^i f^f% i 
^o^?qira5Rvq: agne nakšatramajaramd surjarh rohajo divi 
dadhajjyotirjanebhyah) (X.156.4). Ero npoTajiKHBaeTBBepx (q ^M^ ^^ 
fra rivam nunude nakšatram) HcTHHHaa Pe^b (*m vamna) (VTJ.86. 1). H 
b 3tom hct HHKaKoro npoTHBopeHHa, nocKOJibKy npn JTHHHOM KOHTaKTe c 
3thmh AByMH acneKTaMH BceBbHHHero aBTOp rHMHa oco3Haer hx 
HAeHTHHHOCTb (ara ^rfq w& ^MHiknk' 3^ipj nra adhd nvasya 
sandrgam jaganvanagneranlkarh varunasja mamsi) (VTI.88.2). Ho eme 
HHTepecHeeTO, hto He6ecHbiM toiom aBJiaerca HMMaHeHTHaa bosm jho/^m 
BoKecTBeHHaaBoJia^^tn^ćsrraH^ivđzrađnđram agnirh nakšatram) 
(X.88.13) h, 6oneeToro, hmchho EeGuibi CBera nopo>KHaK)TB He6eyMa 
(Ki%^twt ^vAH-AU^divi devdso agnimajljan) (XM. 10) KaK Cbctoh (fj^i, 
swyam) (X.88. 1 1) -po^eHHbin b ronoBe h BbiHomeHHbiH MbiiujieHHeM 
(#£ri ^ttčt wmw^giršato jdtaih manasdvimrštam) (X.88. 1 6). 

T.o. TepMHH ^^ nakšatra B H3ynaeMOM HCTOHHHKe MO/KeT 
o6o3HaHaTbpa3JTHHHbiecBeroHOCHbiecBepxco3HaTejibHbie3JieMeHTbi 
nejioBenecKOH ncnxHKH (bojho sira agni, HHTejuieKT ^surya, penb ?m 

93 



vantna) hjih hx coBOKynHOCTb (fc^* vigve devdb). Mbi ywe 3HaeM, hto 

B HX OCHOBaHHH HaX0AHTC5I HCTTO BbDKHMaeMOe (^ramTOigqWCTH3fflfe: 

nakšatrdnam&drnupastboe soma dbitalp). 3to He mokct 6biTb pacTHTejibHbiH 
SKcrpaKT h ero hhkto ne BKymaeT, ho 3Haior npocBerjieHHbie hocutcjih 
CnoBa Bora (hr i^ra m^, ^ HiH^iimj hW jp^trt %f a^n^ma 
*«h 5ow^m w?đ«)wte pđpK/đrc >«£ sampimšantyošadhim / somam 
jatbrdmdno viduma tasjdcndU kaccana) (X.85.3); ero He OTBeflaer hhkto 

H3 3eMHbIX HJIH TejieCHbIX CyUjeCTB (flfc H % aiOTH TTm: 50/?7đ na te 

acndti pdrdnvah) (X.85.4); b to ace BpeMJi reBecrao, hto KaK TOJibKo ero 
OTnHBaioT, oh TyT >Ke HanojiH5ieTC5i CHOBa {m^i^ Rrora m an -^m 
5^ jat tvd deva prapibanti tata a pjajase punah); Aanee roBopHTca, hto 
ero crpaaceM jmiMercH Berep h hto Mecaij; moraera ochoboh ro/ipB (^ 
hwf7 ^rar wmi mi ^-. vdjuh somasja rakšita samdnam masa 
dkrbh) pC.85.5); Bbi>KHMaeMoe (^Hsoma) CHHTaercfl omoti m Chji CBera 
C?f afe«). Ha ocHOBanHH Bcex BbiineH3Jio)KeHHbix AanHbix JI.B.r.THjiaK h 
Apyrne HaTypajiHcraHecKHe HHTepnpeTaTopbi «enaior bmboa, hto penb 
hact 06 yBejiHHHBaK)U4eMCH h yMeHbinaioujieMca Mecaue h AeneHHH 
ro/ja nocpeflCTBOM Ha6jnoAeHPW $a3 nyHbi. 

OAHaKo pa3Be TOJibKo 6paxMaHbi MoryT Ha6jnoAaTb HOHHoe 
CBerano h noneMy hmbhho Berep raraerai ero oxpaHHHKOM? KaK sto oho 
mohcct HaxowrEbca b JiOHe Apyrnx He6ecHbix Ten h b Hacmocm cojirma h 
noneMy b hžm 3aKjnoHaeTC5i cnjia 3eMjiH? H KaK oho mokct BxoAHTb b 
npocBeTjieHHbu rHMHOTBopu,eB (štosi ^jfT5MHTf^T somacca yo 
hdbnammvivega) (X. 1 6.6)? Cjiobo ^dkrti MO)KeT 6biTb nepeBefleHO 
Kax "cocTaBHaa HacTb/cJDopMa/oepas/acneKT/npojffiJTeHHe" 1 h mh y>Ke 
3HaeM (cm. maBy I), hto Meom. jmroiera chmbojtom oahoh H3 Bceo6mHocra 
m&<mTHomca (mm.mbsakasram maso (NA%A)-mm$sakasrareta 
(IV.5.3)-™t%: manaso retab(X.l29A)). IIo3TOMy BbipajKeHHe^Hi 
*to snfRT: samdnam masa dkrtih momo noHflTb t.o. hto o/j,Ha 
THocTHHecKafl Mbicjib npe£CTaBjiaeT C06010 h co/iep>KHT b ce6e bcio 
C0B0KynH0CTb (mR samdna) - ho coBOKyrmocTb nero? ^0 coBOKy nnoe 
THe3flo hjih o6HTejib HcTHHbi Co3HaHHH (mri ^Um^v; samdnam 
ralom rtasja padam) (X.5.2) b OKeaHe E/jHHoro hjih HameM ncnxHHecKOM 

1 CM.:MAVSED.P.127.Colimin2. 
94 



cepAUe - MecTonpe6biBai-iHH nTHUbi pyum (<&•■ ngsT srent^ r^ i 
g^a^ t ^nfeci ^ h ekab samndro asmad dbrdo vicašte / utsasja 
madhjenihitam padam veh) (X.5. 1). 3to Bceo6m,ee jioho {wm m^ 
samdnam jonimanu) (X. 1 7. 1 1) BnaAbiKH J\bixaHnn )Kh3hh (a^^ 
mn osurasya yonau samom) (X.3 1 .6) 1 hjih BbicmeH HcrHHbi (=fedWUHwitt 
m \ AM \ HHj tdsya sanavadhi samanaih yonim) (X.123.2 H 3). 3to xoflamaH 
KpyraMH coĐMecmafl TpexKOJiecHaH KOJiecHHua Co3HaxejibHoro 
Haaia>KAeHMa Bmtmh (w^^wi¥tt^Hti samdnamu tyam ratham 
tncakram panjmdnam) (X.41.1). 

YnoMHHaeMbiH PB 3KCTpaKT (šfa soma) He o6o3HanaeT 
c})H3MHecKoro (JjeHOMeHa u b to >Ke BpeMfl cocraBJiaeT KBHHTacceHUHio 
Chji CBeTa (^ deva) u Aa>Ke nopo>KflaeT Hx - Thochc («iP)d^w 
jamtendrasja) h Ero Chhhhc ^mm^mjanitd suryasya), Bojik) (^irara^ 
janitdgner), Be3AecyuiHOCTb (^čm$mi--janitd višnoh), Pa3yM (=ttott^t 
janita divo), Teno (stPrarjrasn: janitd prthivydh) H MbicjiH (^Trouraki 
pvia maSnah) (1X96.5). Mbi npHCoeAHHfleMCJi k MHeHmo lH.A.rxoma o 
tom, hto oh cMMroJiH3HpyeT3ajio>KeHHbiH b ocHOBy BcexBemeH npMHUHn 
Bna>KeHCTBa i^m^.sonwdnmckn) (DC. 1 1 3 .6). Ero oxpaHaer )Kn3HeHHoe 
,H,bixaHHe (m%:šp&m3mvayuh somasya rakšitd) (cm. rnaBy I). 

JI.B.r.TmiaK yTBep>KAaeT, hto HaxoAWTB pa36HpaeM0M rHMHe 
onHcaHHe ABH)KeHHs cojihua h JiyHbi xax npHHHHbi CMeHbi BpeMČH roAa: 
BHAHMO,TaK oh noHHMaer coo6uj;eHHe o Apyx ABHraiom,Hxca c noMoiutio 
B0Juue6Hbix chji Ty^a h cioAa no nyra >KepTBonpHHOineHHfl nrpaK)LUHX 
MJiaAeHuax fašm ^at hi^r^i RR^ffe^t <tk ^^Km^purvdparam 
carato mdyayaitau cicu knlantau pari jatoadhvaram) - oahh H3 hhx 
03Hpaer Bce cymecTBa hjih Mnpw, ApyroH npn noBTopHOM po>KAeHHH 
pacnpeAenaeT BpeMeHa (fwwii ^ifa^E ^š^r^sit^ <^-. 
vwvdnyanyo bbuvandbbicašta rtunranyovidad])ajjdyate punalj) (X.85.18); 

STOTBTOpOH Ka>KAbIH pa3 pO)KAaeTCH H CTaHOBHTCfl HOBbIM KaK CHMBOJ1 

hjih 3HaK AHeK bo rjiaBe yTpeHHHx 3opb hjih nepeA hhmh h no npnxoAe 
BbiAeJiaeT CnjiaM CBeTa hx aojuo hjih Kai< chhkhhhh (Mecan) «aneKO 
npocTHpaeT >KH3Hb (^ =# »rara ^i^mmi anf i^w^ra*i. i *iFi ^?r r 
^ I c^n< r ^^HiK-d<dc{l^ qg: navo navo bbavati ]dyamdno ahndrii 



1 Cm.: BBefleHCKiiii A.H. Pejinnio3Hoe co3HaHiie sobmecTBa. C. 281. llpiiM.3. 

95 



keturušasdmetjagram. / bhdgam devebhjo vi dadbdtydyan pm 
candrcmTMiratedlyghamayuh) (X.85. 1 9). 0/maKO mm He Mo>KeM npuHim, 
npe/viaraeMyio hhahhckhm TOJiKOBaTeneM h ApyraMH npeflcraBHTejiHMM 
HaTypa^HCTHHecKOM uikojim repMeneBTHKH HHTepnpeTaumo 
BbimeH3Jio>KeHHbix cio^ctob. noAAByM« MJiaaeHuaMH (iteisisu) mm 
noHHMaeM He coJiHU,e h Jiy H y, a Thochc fef sfr)*) h Ero Bojuo (magni) 
KaK npoTHBonocraBJieHHtie Apyr Apyi7 naccHBHoe TpaHcuo^armoe h 
aKTHBHoe HMMaHeHTHoe Bo>KecTBeHHMe Hanana cooTBercTBeHHo. PB 
roBopHTOTOM,qTorHocHcynpH H aAAe>KaTABaHcnycKaK)u^xjiyHaiuHra 
thmhm Mecaua hjih chjim (*m ^f^* htht ^ ^ đ5Wđ eto / 
fl&v)w^w w<«ž iWre nyaydmi) (VI.34.4) - A o chx nop 3 tot cthx He 
noJiywcKOJibKO-HM6yAbaAeKraTHoroH^ 
KOMMeHTaropoB. Eu4e5oneenapaAOKcajifcHbiMH pjm hhx mumoia cthxh, 
b KOTopbix Thochc oS-baBiMerca o6jiaAaTe;ieM jiy H Hbix MecaueB hjih 
rHOCTHqecKHx SHeprHH (»nifr q$ m.dseva suryo) (X. 138.4) h 

OTO)KAeCTBJIHK)TC5} Me)KAy C060K) CHfllOHIHH COJlHeHHMH MeC»U, H 

CBepKaromHH^yHHbiH M eom (^m\^msurydmdsd candramasd) 

(X.64.3), HTO C CHMBOJIHHeCKOH TOHKH 3peHHH flOJIHCHO 0603Ha4aTb 
HAeHTHHHOCTbnOBHAHMOCTH OTJIHHHbK AH6BHbIX HJIH C03HaTejIbHbIX H 

HOHHbix hjih 6ecco3HaxejibHbix H M nyjibcoB Tnocnca. II<w)6Hbie 

COo6lU,eHH3 HaTJMflHO fleMOHCTpnpyjOT HBHyiO HeB03MO)KHOCTb H 

ouih6ohhocii, 6yi<BajibHoro (|)H3HHecKoro HcrojiKo&aHHfl racra PB. Eine 

B^OAHOMMeCTeyraep)KAaeTra,qT05 I pKHHXOAHTHCMOTpHTHaBCeHOHbK) 

(tww^wipcWraw naktamed) (1.24. 1 0) h hto chaioih,hh 
h cBepKaiomHH abh^tc* nooqepeAHo M^sfero^te^^ 
š^acandmnasa azrato vitarturmn) - ho «ra Toro, HTo6bi aBTopbi rHMHOB 
BHAejiH Ehochc h BepnjiH b Hero (armč m^ij abhicakše graddhe 
kmmdro) (1. 1 02.2)-x.e. h b 3 tom oi^aepenb hact Ero npoHBJieHHOM h 
HenpoHBJieHHOM acneKrax. B nocnomeMcnj^aeOH onHamaeraiKaKapKoe 
njiaMH Bojih (*fRtfH candramagnim) (Hanp., ffl.3.5; V 1 0.4; VI.6.7) h KaK 
MJiaAeHeu (%p^) ( H anp., 1.96.5; 1. 140.3; 1. 145.3; EI. 1 .4; IV 15.6; VI. 16.40; 
VI.49.2; X 1.2; X4.3;X.5.3) h HMeHyerca 3HaK0M npH6mvmow,avaiiw 
npocBeraeHiM (^w%^w\agmm ketumdmdm) (X.88. 12) (cm. raaBy I). 
Ch-JiHHHeco3HaTejitHoroH6€cco3HaTejjbHorocynpaMeHrajibHbixo6jiHKOB 

CHMBOJIHHeCKH OHHCblBaeTCH KaK nOpO«HeHHe JlVHHOrO HJIH aDKOrO H3 

96 






yMa (5^m hh<hi ~4M*iamdrama manaso jatac), b to BpeMfl KaK coJiHeHHbiH 
hjih chhioihhh po>Kn,aeTcn H3 nna3a hjih ot HenoqxACTBeHHoro 3pHTeiibHoro 
KOHTaKTa (=#: g^ sRFra cakšoh suryo ajayata)(X..9QA3). HanoMHHM, 
hto nepBbiH acneKT THOCHca HaflerMer Chjim CBera oco6oh flojien (wl 
^rti r ^i\cM\M*^bbagam devebhjo vi dadbatyayan) - (j)aKTHHecKH Oh 
OTAaer Ce6fl, nocKOJibKy Eo>KecTBeHHaH Bojih (zm agni) h aBjmercfl stoh 
AoneH hjth H3o6nnHeM (Vi £fo§2) (111.7). Ocrajiocb paccMOTperb Bonpoc 
o tom, hto OHa pacnpeaejiaeT BpeMeHa (^^m^^jtunranjovuladhaj) 
- no mh y>Ke 3HaeM, hto 3/j,ecb mo^ct roBopHTbca o nepHO/i,ax 
nporpeccHBHoro h CKpbiroropa3BHTHfl Borono3HaHHfl (cm. Bbime). 

npoaHa;iH3HpyeM Tenepb coo6in,eHHe c B03M0)KHbiM 
ynoMHHaHHeM C03Be3#HH Arxa u Ap#)KyHH - noj\ nepBbiMH 3aKaribiBaioT 

KOpOB HJIH 6blKOB (BO BpeMfl CBaAeOHOH U,epeMOHHH), nOABTOpbIMH BBOAHT 

BHyTpb (AOMa My»a HeBecTy) (si^ugs^ J ini a#^ : ig^ aghdsuhanjante 
gauo arjnnydp prfijpe) (X.85. 1 3). O/rnaKO (J)aKTHHecKH 3^ecb roBopHTca 
o tom, hto 3Jibie hjih njioxHe y6HBaioT jiyHH CBeTa (srai^^% irat 
aglmiimijante gauo), b to BpeMa KaK CHfliouu,He hjih HHCTbie nponycKaiOT 
EroBHyTpb. 

Mbi y>KepaccMOTpejiH Bonpoc 06 ynoMHHaHHH b PB co3Be3,fl(Hfl 
EonbinoH MeflBeAHUbi (m-- rkšJj) (1.24. 10) (cm. rjiaBy I). Hhahhckhh 
HCCJieflOBaTejib nonaraeT, hto noA npHHaAJioKameii BapyHe coTiien 
H,ejTHTejieH hctohhhk noApa3yMeBaer cooTBeTCTByiouj;ee co3Be3AHe (sm 
imprn-- gataih te rajon bbišajab) (1.24.9) ; b AannoM cnynae nepeji, HaMH 
onepeAHOH npHMep BbiSopoHHoro BiieKOHTeKCTHoro Hcnojib30BaHHJi 

COo6lH,eHHH naMHTHHKa, nOCKOJIbKy H3BeCTHO, HTO HcTHHHafl PeHb (^ 

varuna) h Thochc (ira; indra) OTO)K,n,ecTBJi5iiOTCfl Me>Kjj,y co6oh (3ifq^st 
^m^aham indro varunaš) (IV.42.3) h nocueAHHH 58 pa3 Ha3biBaeTC5i 
o6jraflaTejieM 100 chji bojih (m^gatakratu). 

T.O.MbIHeHaxOAHMBHCTOHHHKeAOCTaTOHHbIXAOKa3aTeJIbCTB 

Ajth npHHiiTHa rnnoTe3 JT.B.r.THJiaKa o tom, hto y>KeB PB coAep>KaTC$i 
4jparMeHTbi 6yKBajibHoro onncaHHfl ^eJieHiia acrpoHOMHHecKoro noaca 
BAOJib cojiapHOH 3KJiHnTHKH Ha 27 OTpe3KOB hjih aomob no crai^HOHapHO 
npHcyrcTByioinHM b hhx co3Be3AHaM, hto aBTopbi ApeBiieHuiHX BeAHHecKHX 



1 Cm.:ORAVP.120. 

97 



rHMHOB onHCbBaioT co3Be3flHH Boo6iH,e h co3Be3,m™ Arxa, ApA>KyHH, 
EojibuiOH MeABeflHUbi h CTa JHeriHTejieH b HaciHOcra, a TaioKe hto ohh 
roBopaT o ABH>KeHHflx cojinna h Jiyiibi KaK npHHHHax CMeHbi BpeMeH ro/ra 
- ohh JiHLHb Hcnojib3yioT HeKOTopbie acrpoHOMHnecKHe noHSTHJi jym 

H3JIO)KeHH5I CBOHX CMMBOJIHHeCKHX nCHAOJIOTHHeCKHX yHeHHH. 

JI.B.r.THJiaK B pa3BHTHe CBOeH TeopHH 06 ynOMHHaHHH B 

H3yqaeMOM naMHTHHKe kocmhh6ckhx aBJieHHH o6pamaerc5i k (|)Hrype 
HeKoero 3Bep;i (ifi rmga) - aHTHnonbi hjih 6biKa - h bhaht b Hen HaMek H.a 
C03Be3/me TojiOBa AHTHJionbi (^mjnrgagras) b r/MaHHOCTH Opnona. l 
Oh npHBQ0HT coo6meHHH PB tom, hto bo BpeMH y(5HHCTBa yrHeraioLHero 
kocmoc BpHTpbi HHApa onHCbiBaercfl KaK chjiok) pa3py6aiom,HH eMy 
TOJiOBy (f*F7 q^^qn^ d^ft *mui[hhB*h.- vrtrasja yad badbadhdnasja 
vodaš gwasMxnmMrd?) (1.52. 10) hjih pa3/Tpo6jijnoiHHH ee CMepTejibHbiM 
opy>KHeM (f%d ?m^ mj^^fr chiro ddsasja sam pinak vadhena) 
(IV. 1 8.9) hjih npojiaMbiBaioiHHH ee CTOHacTHOH moihmo (RiHwrašrai 
^t ww 1 rera ra*^ vi ad vnrasya dodhato vajre?ia gataparvand / 
gro hibhedd) (VH.6.6); k 3T0My yneHbiH npHCOBOKynjweT AaHHbie tom, 
hto CMepTejibHoe opy>Kne c TbicaneH 3y6uoB HH/jpa nojiynaeT /jjih 
y6HHCTBa BbiuieynoMHHyToro 3Bepa (^^jpf ^ ^ hi H ^' *m, 
yad lm mrgdja hantave sahasrabhritim vadham jamat) (V.34.2) h hto 
nocJie/jHHH H/reHTHHeH BpHTpe (^^mrga vrtra) (1.80.5-7; V.32.3; 
Vffi93.14-15);HaciCHOBaHHHBbimeH3Jio)KeHHoroTOJiKoraTejibyTBep>KHaeT, 

HTO HCTOHHHK COflep>KHT HenpflMyiO HH(j)OpMaUHK) 06 OTpe3aeMofi 

PlH/jpoH rojiOBe aHTHnonbi h 06 o6o3HanaeMOM stoh cpHiypoH co3Be3/jjTH 
{H} \\k\iMjnrgag iras). 

Jlflu AajibHeHuiero H3Jio)KeHHfl cBoen peKOHcrpyKUHH hh/thhckhh 
HCCjieJTOBaTejibBHOBbB03BpaiHaeTCHKBbicKa3aHHOMyHMnpe/jJiojio>KeHHK) 
tom, hto HAea ^m devajana hjih IlyTH CBera h ^mpitrydna hjih 
IIyTH Oth,ob hjih 3amHTHHKOB oipa>KaeT b PB npeAcraBJieHHe AByx 
He6ecHbix nojiyalpepax h £Byx uiecTHMecHHHbix nepHOflax npe6bLBaHHH b 
hhx cojiHua. OTUbi nnpyioT b o6m,ecTBe CBoero rocno/XHHa (iqčp*mq 

1 CM.:ORAV.P.74and76-77. 

2 CM.:ORAV.P.75and89. 

3 Cm.:ORAYP.79-80. 

98 



a ^MKu^Pd pitfn yamena ye sadhamddammadanti) (X.14.10) hstot 
nocueAHHH HMeHyeTCH cbiHOM CBepKaromero ^^mvaivasvatam 
yamam) (X 14.1). B stoh cbjbh JIEPTiuiaK omenaer, hto Oh uapHT cbctom 
b 3aMKHyTOM npocTpaHCTBe He6a h ioHbix boa (*ra ^%^*wro^i 
t^t: ^ i h^hU ito. yatra raja vaivasvato yatrdvarodhanath divah 
yabmu^aljwSrdpas) (DL 1 1 3.8) - no mhchmio yHeHoro, penb HA&r o caMOH 
HH>KHeH hjih kokhom HacrH ne6ecHOH c$epbi; b to »e BpeMa HH/ipa 
po>KAaeTC5i b BbicoHaHiiieH BbiCH (to^^tot an^rai: paro yat tvam 
parama djaništlodh) (V.30.5), HaxoAHTCH HaA He5ecHbiM npocrpaHCTBOM 
(aw«wi« tvamasya pare rajaso vyomanah) (1.52.12) H npaBHT 
Bcen BbiciueH o6jracTbio (ftofi <wm ^m vicvasja paramasya rdjasi) 
(VII.32.16); b pe3yjibTaTe nonyHaeTCH, mto HHApa h #Ma hbjihiotcji 

60)KeCTBaMH COOTBeTCTBeHHO CeBepHOH CBCTJ10H H KOKHOH TCMHOH H 

bjudkhoh nonyccj)ep He6a u nojryroAHH; Mecra coeAHHeHHH 3Thx AByx 
ooriacren h nepnoAOB BpeMeHH npeAcraBJiaioT co6ok> to^kh BeceHHero h 
oceHHero paBHOAeHCTBHH u Ha3biBai0Tca BopoTaMH hjim ABepbMH He6a 
{m^^dvaro devlr hjih skrk^ dvardv divah hjih sra^t; dvdro 
deuh) (1.13.6; 1.48.15; n.3.5). 1 £opory b hhhchhh MiipilMbi oxpairaoTABa 
npoHCXOAaiAHX ot CapaMbi narancn,« 4erbipexrJia3bix nca (sfesKmr 
xjri ^gcw ?ra^ hi^tot đfr drava sdrameyau gvdnau caturakšau cabalau 
sddlzmdpatljd) (X.14.10); hhahhckhh HCCJieAOBaTenb 0T0>KAecrBJweT3THX 
AByx co6aK c ApeBHerpenecKHMH co3Be3AnaMH Eojibiiioro h Manoro IIcob 
(Kuon h Prokuon hjih Canis Major h Canis Minor) - ohh pacnojio>KeHbi 
HeAaneKO ot co3Be3Ara TonoBa AHranonu (^mmrgaaras} hjth OpHOH 
no o6e cropoHbi ot MjieHHoro nyra; KpoMeToro,3nMTer ncoB smahlau 
"nKTOHcrbie" oh boka 3a M.Mt0Jinq)0M 2 h ppymuu caHCKpHTonoraMH 
CHHTaer HAeHTHHHbiM hmchh oxpaHfliomero bxoab Aha nca L[ep6epa 
(Kerberos). 3 C sthmh co6aKaMH JLEJTHJiaK OTO>KAecrBJiJieT h hx Marb 
CapaMy, KOTopaH Bbicrynaer KaK oaho H3 AeHCTByioiiiHX mm b MHđpe o 
6opb5e HHApbi h FlaHu: ajih nepBoro OHa hihct CKpbiTbix BiopbiMH 

^M/ORAV.P^andSl. 

2 Cm. : Muller M.F. Biographies ofvvords and the Home oftlie Aryas. New Delhi. 1 985 (naJiee 

MBWHA).P. 195. 

3 Cm.:ORAV.P.82. 

99 



KopoB h Te nbrraioTca nepeMaHHTb ee na cbok) cropoHy c noMombro nacra 
KopOB(bero MOJiOKa) (s^^^i^mapa te gavdrh bhajdma) (X.108.9)-B 
hćm yneHbiH bhaht ranaKTHHecKoe mojioko wm cbct Mne^Horo Ylyiw} 
Eme oahhm CbiHOM CapaMbi aBrraeTCfl BacTOUina™ (gi^ri\qra vdstoš 

pati) (VII.55. 1) H OH OnHCbIBaeTCH KaK flpKHH H KpaCHO-KOpHHHeBbIH H 

ocKajiHBara^HH cBepKaraiiiHe KaK Konba 3y6bi (q#tHTw?^: mi^^OT 
i ^k otjrt 3jot ^ ^% iPTOi jadarjuna sdrameja datah picanga 
jacbase / vlva bhrdjanta rštaya upa srakvešu bapsato) (VII. 55.2) - 
Jl.B.F.THJiaK bhaht b AaHHOM nepcoHa>Kepacnojio>KeHHyK) b co3Be3,nHH 
EoJibiuoro rica (Kuon hjth Canis Major) 3Be3Ay CHpHyc B HcroHHHKe 
ynoMHHaerc5! napHbie o6pa3bi IUyHa h Cnpa, KOTopbK npoc5rr nporiHTb 
Ha 3eMJiio npoH3BOAHMoe hmh Ha He6e mojioko (^toto^j^ 1 ^ w 
i ^fcn^OT rmdH^cundsirdv yad divi cakratbub payab / tenemdm upa 
sirloaam) (IV.57.5) - hhahhckhh KOMMeHTaTop npHHHMaeT 3Aecb TOHKy 

3peHHfl M.MlOJIJiepa C03ByHHH HX HMĆH Ha3BaHHK) 3Be3flbI CHpHyc 

(Seirios) h bhaht b C03iiaBaeM0M hmh MOJiOKe (m- payab) CHHHHe 
MneHHoro IIyTH. Co3Be3,njie Bojibruoro Etca (Kuon hjw Canis Major) 
coctoht H3 Herbipex (bhahmlk rjia30M) 3BĆ3A h JI.E.r.TunaK cn-naer, hto 
HMeHHO no3TOMy CapaMen smjiaiOTca HeTbipexrna3biMH ( mm ^m 
sdrameyau caturakšau). MneMHbiH IIyTb HAer no 3KBaTopHanbHOH nonoce 
He6a h pasrpaHHHKBaer rjpeero nojryc(ipepbi h, no mhchhio hhahhckoto 
nccneflOBaTeiiii, HAeHTHHeH pa3Jj,eji5iK)ineH MHpbi >KHBbrx h MepTBbixpeKe 
Cthkc b jj,peBHerpeqecKon MHdpojiorHH; 6ojiee Toro, vneHbiH CHHTaeT 
pacnojTC»KeHHoe HeAaneKO OTTyMaHHOCTH OpHOHa h co3Be3AHH Bonbiiioro 
h Manoro IIcob co3Be3Ane ArgoNavis npoTOTnnoM jioakh XapoHa, 
nepenpaBJMOuj,ero Hepe3 Cthkc, h OTO>KAecTBJi5ieT ee c ynoMHHaeMbiM b 
PB He6ecHbiMKopa6jieM ^^mdaimn ndvam)(X.63A0) 5 

M.MiojTJiep OTO)K7iecTBJiHeTBeAHHecKoro Bpnrpy coxpaHflroinHM 
bxoa b Aha b JipeBHerpeHecKOH MHđpojiorHH ncoM (Orthros) h b to hkq 



1 Cm. 


:ORAV.R85. 


^Cm. 


:ORAV.P.S6. 


j Cm. 


:ORAVP. 85-86. 


4 Cm. 


:ORAVP.S7. 


5 Cm. 


:ORAYP. 83-84. 



100 



Bpeivw conocraBJiflCT snHTer creperyuj,Hx nyrb b hh>khhh MHp CapaMeeB 
iP&gabalau "nHTHHCTbie" c HMeHeM BToporo oxpaHHK>mero bxoa b 
uapcrBO MepTBbK nca L[ep6epa (Kerberos) ! ; ho JLE.r.THJiaK nonaraer, 
hto peHb hact o pa3ABoeHHM eflHHoro AeMOHHnecKoro o6pa3a 3Bepa (^ 
mrga) h b Kanecree AOKa3aTenbCTB npHBOAHTAaHHbie naMSTHHKa o tom, 
hto HHApa y6HBaeT BpHTpy BMecre c HaMyHH (*m ¥ ^ip^-Koljanca 
vrtram narrmdmutahan) (VII. 19.5) H hto hm o6ohm oh OTpe3aer roJiOBy 
(1.52.10; IV18.9;Vn.6.6;V.30.7;VI.20.6) 2 HHApayHHHTO)KaeTHaMy^iHB 
AaneKOH oSnacTH fcs q w Ei vh&\ h^m indra paravati nibarba)v namučim) 
(L53.7) - hto, no cnoBaM yneHoro, yKa3bBaer Ha MHp 5Imm; nocney6nHCiBa 
0HC03AaCTAJWHaAeneHH0ropa3yM0MyA06HLieHnpaMibienyTHKCHJiaM 

CBeTa (č3 3fStr«I ^H I tf =^«f mš pft^R. "TO! ^TUČ^RI^ Žf đ7?7 

jaghantba namučim / tvam cakartha manave syondn patho 
(kmm]mxcpmii) (X.73.7) - no mhchhio TOJiKOBarejM, 3Aecb roBopHTra 
o coKpymeHHH HaMynn y BOpoT (m^Kckmv deuir) ceBepHOH HeGecHOŽ 
no;iyccpepbi $^devayđna) 2 /JonojiHHTeJibHbiM noATBep>KAeHHeM 
HMCHHomoHJioKam3aijHHo6rcHaHaeMoro^ 

C03Be3AHii TonoBa AHTHJionbi i^mjnrgaciras) y JI.B.r.TmiaKa cjry>KaT 
HajiHHHe b BepxHen nacra nocneAnero hjih b noace OpnoHa Tpex 
BbicrpoeHHbix b jmhhk) 3B63AH ynoMHHaHHe PB o tom, hto MHApay6HBaer 
TpexroJiOBoro mecTHrjia3oro Bpara (?th ^safNsfHiof ddsam 
klakšanmammm) (X.99.6): npaMoro ynoAo6neHM nca fagmn) h 3Bepa 
(fi mrga) b ApeBHeHiiiHX BeAHHecKHX rHMHax hct, ho KOMMeHTaTop 
yKa3bmaer Ha to, hto co3Be3Ana Bonbiiioro h Manoro IIcob (Kuon h 
Prokiion hjih Canis Major h Canis Minor hjih Kerberos h Orthros hjih 
m$m^sarameyau cvanau) h ronoBa AHTHJionbi fa&mjnrgapras) 
pacnojioaceHbi TaK 6jih3ko Apyr k Apyry, hto hx noA L iac mokho 
nepenyTaTb 4 HHApa OTpbiBaer roiioBy HaMynn boa^hoh neHOii (mšm 
^mvšsz&i-apam phnena namuceb ara indrodavartayaIp)Q/]R.\A.\3) 

H B 3TOM 0py>KHH JLE.r.THJiaK BHflHT DTHpOKHH nOHC 

1 CM.:MBWHA.P.195andl97. 

2 Cm.:ORAV.PS8-89. 

3 Cm.:ORAVP.89. 

4 Cm.:ORAV.P.90. 

101 



MnOTHoronTTH. 1 

HO H3 3TOH aCTpOHOMHHeCKOH peKOHCTpyKU,HH HHAHHCKHH 

HccireAOBaTejiLAOTaero^oqeHbBa Mb mx P oHOJioraMecKHMBbiBO^Aeno 
btom, W)roflBPBonHCbiBaerraKaKpo)Ka3iomHHca n 3 0Keaua(«^^& 
^m^m^sanudradamavadadln samvatsaro ajajata) (X.190.2) h hmchho 
y nepcoHH4)HimpoBaHHoro b BH^e MonjHoro h onyxmero OKeaHa 3Mea 
(BpHTpu) HHApa OT P y6ae T rojio B y (^ m ^ l ^ k ^^ T ^^^^ 
zmmjndro malmd mdoato amavasya vi murdhdrianiabhinadarhidasva 
cibcmmlmi) (X.67. 12); t.o. ycraHaBJiHBaera CBssb M e>Kny npoxo>KAeHHeM 

cojm y anoKOCMmecKOMyoKeaHyMieworonyraBpaHOHe-iyMaHHOcrH 
OpHonan co3Be3AMH Kopa6jib Apro (ArgoNavis wmmdawnn mami) 
Bojibinoro h Manoro IIcob (Kuon h Prokuon hjih Cams Major h Canis 
Minor hjih Kerberos h Orthros hjih m^ ^ sarame^ c™« đ «) H 
1 OJiOBa AHTHJionbi {^mjnrgaaras hjih npocTO ip OT ^ hjih ft wira 
hjih ^ ™q) ^epes pasAeiMioii^K) ceBepHyio h K»KHyio nojiyc$ep b i 
He6a (^ Mflar*^ hjih ^tr ^^ H *m dakšindyana hjih 
KFRptivuna) TOHKy paBHOAeHCTBHa hjih He6ecHbieBpaxa (s^atera 
rfe^r) h Ha^ajioM hobofo ro A a (s WR ^ft ^^ ™a 
smtdradamauadadhi samvatsam ajdyata) 2 JIJEJ TnjiaK npHBOflHT eine 
OAHO C006meHHe HCTOHHHKa O TOM, HTO AyXH Ce30HOB (PH6xy) no 

HcreHeHHHroAaoTK P biBaK)Trjia3a( ? ^ 5 ^^ a samvatsam idamadm 
vyakhyata\ noTOMy ™ hx 6y/4HT nec (^ ^ ^^m^gvdnam 

^WV^7^^)(lJ61J3)- A pyrHMHcnoBaMH,ro/iHa 4 HHajic fl 
CMOMeHTH npox(TOHHa cojnma qepe3T0HKy BeceHHeropaBHOAeHcrsra 
(ms^dvaro devlr) mhmo 3 B e3Abi nca (Kuon hjih Canis Major hjih ^ 
pw» hjih mšx^ m^ vdstošpatt sarameya hjih ^^^gundstrdv 
hjih ^ wama hjih Seirios). 3tot BbiBOA yie H biH noAicpenjisei 
ynoMHHaHHe M PB HaxoAflineMC5i nocpeAH noAteMa na ne6o h 
nepenpaBJOTomeMra nepea lOHbieBOAbi bojikc, Koioporo nporonaioTco 
CBoero ny™ npeKpacHOKpbuibie (jiyqn cojmqa) tert^mčtm,*^ 
fcr< la^^^^^^^j eto dsate madhya dwdhme 



'CM..-ORAVP.92. 

2 CM.:ORAVP.91and94. 

3 Cm.: ORAV P. 84, 86-87, 126- 129 and 135. 

102 



divab / te sedbanti patbo vrkarh tarantam jahvatlrapo) (1.105.11) -no 
cnoBaM HCcneAOBaTejM, co6aKa (^s«) h bojik (?s vrba) TO>wecTBeHHbi 
Apyr Apyry m o6o3HaHaK>T 3Be3Ay lica, pacnoao>KeHHyio b Mede 
coeAHHeHH« ioHbix boa (^?i^t yalnjatlrapd) hjih HH>KHeH He6ecHofi 
noiiyccj}epbi (*re ^jnl^f^i ^mrro^ $&•■ ^\^Am^yatra raja vaivasvato 
jatravarodhanam divah yatrdmuryabvatlrapas) (cm. Bbime) c ceBepHOH, B 
KOTopoM conHue HaHHHaer cboh noAteM k BbicineH tohkc aes-okci-iha no 
3KJiHnTHKe(Fiwtaw^H%: madhja drodhane divah). EcjTH3aKJiK)HeHne 
Jl.B.r.TnjiaKa npaBHJibHoe h onncbiBaeMbin PB paBHOAeHOBeHHbiH toa 
na caMOM AeJie HaHHHaeTca b momcht npoxo>KAeHHfl cBerana mhmo 
TyMaHHOCTHOpHOHajonaMOTHmAencTBHTenbHOAOJmeHAaTHpoBaTbca 

nepnoAOM okojto 4000 r. ao h.3. 

KaK h b cjiyqae co cBHAeTenbCTBaMH npe6biBaHH*i apneB b 
UHpKyMiioJwpHbixMnojiapHbixo6nacTHX,npeAnaraeMMJI.E.r.THnaKOM 
HHTepnperauHH coo6meHHH o CapaMe h Tpex CapaMenx, o Bpmpe h 
Hawiy hh n o Mnpe ilMbi npeAcraBJifleT co6oh 3HaHHTenbHbiH mar BnepeA 
no cpaBHeHHio c o6menpHHHTOH HaTypajiHCTHnecKOH Teopnen 
repMeHeBTHKH TeKcra PB, pm kotopoh xapaicrepHbi npoTHBopeHHBOcrb 
noAxoAOBHOueHOKHOTcyTCTBHeeAHHoro MHeHHH-ee npeACTaBHTenH 
MaineBcero Aa>Ke He HMeiOTTaKOBoro n orpaHHHHBaroTCH npocTon 
KoncraTauneH HajiHHna b HcroHHHKepRAa HenoHaTHbixMH4x)B. Ho h hx 

acrpOHOMHHeCKOeTOJIKOBaHHeOCHOBaHO Hay3KOM-BHeKOHTeKCTHOM n 
Bbl5op04HOM - H SJCieKTHHeCKOM aHaiTH3eAaHHbIX H B CHJF/ 3TOrO He MO>KeT 

6biTb npHHflro. H b to >Ke BpeM>i CHMBOJTK^ecKHH noAXOA UJ. A.rxoma 
no3BOJiaeTAaTbxopoiiioo6bcHOBaHHoencHxojiormecKoeo6BacHeHHeBcex 
BbiuieynoivwHyTbix hhahhckhm yHeHbiM nepcoHa>KeH h ckmctob. 

B nepByto onepeAb oGparaM cboć' BHHMaHHe Ha $Hrypy 
rocnoAHHa h nnpyiomHX BMecTe c hhm Otuob (fepjm Sf ?ra^w^ra 
pitrn jamena ye sadljamddammadantt) (cm. Bbiine) - AeHCTBHTeAbHO jih 
noA hhmh noApa3yMeBaioTCH uapb MepTBbix h yMepnMe npeAKH aBropoB 
ApeBHeHuiHx BeAHHecKHx thmhob? Mbi )ok& roBOpHJTH (cm. raaBy ]) TOM, 
hto TocnoAHH (m yama) - sto Bcero Jinmb oaho H3 MHoroHHCJieHHbix 
hmćh Eahhoto CBeraCyHiero {^■■^^divyah ekam s^APiTHMH 

^M/ORAVRSćandllS. 

103 



HMeHaMH KOToporo jfflJULKjrca b HacTHOCTH Fhochc (55 indra), IlnaMeHHaa 
Bojw (ari* agni), J\K)6oBb (m mitra) h HcTHHHaa Penb (wi www) (** 
fosf ii^R, ajftH. «np«fi fij^T' Hl ^ ^1W »upi SRfNl alfo**'* 3111= 
zWram mztra?« varunam agmm dhuratho divjah sa / ' ekarh sad viprd 
bahudbd vodana agmm jarnam dhih) (1.164.46). locnoAHH HMeHyercH 
cbiHOM CBepKaiomero (^f 'rt vaivasvatam jamom) - ho ne cojihua 
hjih KOCMOca hjih MjienHoro nyTH, a YMa CBeTa (*rtt m^ra mi« 
to «(j) (VIII.52. 1). H to, 4to Oh uapcrayer cHHHHeM b 3aMKHyT OH 
ny t iHCTOH o6nacTH k)hbix boa (^ ^"^ft '^^M fa-. mv&đtmtk 
jatra raja vatvasvato jatrdvarodhanam divah yaMmilrjahvatlrdpas)vum 
6jincraTejibHbix noTOKOB SHeprafi (p**fa3w svarua&r apalp hjih ^mm^ 
jjotišdpas) (1.1 0.8; V.2. 1 1 ; IV.38. 10), a6coJiK)THO HHneM He yKa3biBaer Ha to, 
hto Ero o5Hroib mbjmctch hh>khhm MnpoM Mpaxan BJiarH. HanpoTHB, sto 
Bbicmee He6o (^m^m^m^jamene paramevjoman) (X.14.8) hb HeM 
HaxoflHTCH jryne3apHbiH MHp Bemroro CBCTa (^;?«r^ w^*w. 
jatra jjotirajasram jasmin loke svarhitam) (K.113.7) hjih «a>Ke 
HcnoJiHeHHbie chhhha MHpu (^i^^na^^i/ofe jatra jjotišmantas) 
(DC.1 13.9) h BbicoHaMiHH jiyne3apHbiH hctohhhk (^^mvmHyatra 
k^^2^M^mz)(IX.113.10);TaM,BTpoHCTBeHHOcrHCo3HaTaibHoro 
EjiarceHHoro BbiTHM BTperbeM hjih MeinanbUOM ne6enepeAKH>KenHe 
B03MO>KHO nOCpeACTBOM CMJlbl BOJ1H {m\^m =wf Pm% w f^ : 
jatrdnukdmam caranam tnndke tndive ^W?)(IX.113.9);TaMHBHbieH 
TaftHbie )KeJiaHHJi (m *m\ ferni«? jatra kdmd mkdmdgca) (IX. 113.10), 
paAocii,,Beceme, yBeceMeHHH H3Kcra^ 

wejiaHHH >KenaHHH (*raw^ra šm S^ : *S5 ^ < ; * TO *' q5IiraT: ^ H - 
yatrdnanddcca moddgca mudab pramuda dsate / kdmasja jatrdptdh 
kdmds) (DC.1 13.11). Hmchho B3TOT6eccMepTHbiH h HenpexoAfliHHH MHp 
aBTop rHMHa npocHT noMecTHTb ero (čri^nf Sft a^p št% a#ra tasnun 
mdm dbehi amrte loke akšita) (IX. 1 13.7) u tem cflejraTb ero caMoro 
6eccMepTHbiM (^m^fra tatra mdmamrtam krdhi) (IX. 11 3.8, 9, 1 h 
11). Mojkho 6buio 6bi npeAnojio>KHTb, hto no3T npocHT npni unb ero Aymy 
b pan pjih yMepiHHX, xoth crpanHbiMH Bbirn$i#rr TaKHe nacroHHHBbie 
npH3bmbi )KHBoro MenoBeKa; no TaKoe npeAnojio>i<eiiHC oTMeTaeTCfl 
coo6meHHCM tom , hto pa3yM hjih Mei rraribi ioc C031 uihhc MHCTHKayxoAHT 
BAaneKyio o6nacTb k CH5nomeMy rocnoAHiiy K^ mh^\ *rct wm 
104 



^m,yat te jamom vaivasvatam mano jogama durakam) - m crpeMHTCH 
BeHHO SbiTb TaM (^#h^^' qf| 3^ 55T% 3t%h tasiiun mom dhehi amrte 
loke akšita, ^ *m^ fro tatra mdmamrtam krdbi) (cm. Bbime) - ho 
Ha6jTK)AaioiJUHe3a 3Kcra30M coTOBapHmn npoH3HocflT cneuHajibHyio 
MOJiHTBy h ceenoMombiOB03BpamaK)Tero Ha3aAB HXApyraAJi5i o6ifraHna 
H >KH3HH B hčm (čt^či srRčfarofe wm sffrtf tat ta dvartajdmaslba 
kšajdja jivase) (X.58. 1). 

HanoMHMM, hto, coraacHO peKOHCTpyKUHn JI.B.F.THJiaKa, 
ApeBHeBeAHHecKHe ncOTbi paccMaTpHBajin OKp^aiomee Haiuy ruiaHery 
3Be3AHoe He6o KaK pa3flejieHHoe Ha ABe nojiycđpepbi - ynpaBJifleMyio 
HHflpoH Bbiciuyio CBeTJiyio oGjracTb SoroB (^r devajana) h 
noAHHHeHHyio ilMe hh>khk)io tcmhjto o6jiacTb yMqpniHX moAeH (%ih 
pbydnd). OAHaKO Mbi y>Ke 3HaeM, hto MHp ilMbi flBJMerca BbicuiHM He6oM 
(w? ^m^m\jamene paramevyoman) H Hauu naMHTHHK C0Aep)KHT 
Ba>KHyK) HH(|)opMaij,Kio no 3TOMy Bonpocy. IIpe>KAe Bcero, TaM 3ByHHT 
HenccKKaeMbiH thmh - HOCHTenb Bcex Chji CBeTa (5^ sw ^^rm^. 
#H?" ^ R^ fd% Tco akšare parame vjoman jasmin deva adhi 
vicve nišeduh) (1. 1 64.39); 3-tot thmh HBJiflercH cbctohochoh Bo>KecTBeHHOH 

MaTepblO H COCTOMT H3 TbICHHH HeHCHepnaeMbIX CJIOTOB (niKi^I^!^ 

^mgaioi sahasrdkšara parame vjomari) (1. 164.41) - hto abho coothochtch 
CTbiCHMbio ceMHH MbiCHH (^dwdi J^rto sabasraretd- manaso retah) (cm. 
Bbime); OHa - ocHOBa cymecTBOBaHH5i MHpa (d^rc^ =Mr tad vicvamupa 
jlvati) (1. 164.42). Paaom c Hen HaxoAHTca Ha6juoAaK>iHHH 3a BceM 
MHpo3AaHHeM FocnoAt (^ sictt^ri: m£ ciilM^o asjddbjakšah parame 
vjomari) (X. 129.7). BbicnieeHe6o-3TO Mecro coeAHHeHM hjih Hanana 
He6biTMH h BbiTHH h po>KAeHHH Pa3yMa n jioho HecBjnaHHOCTH 
BecKOHeHHOCTH (3T?ra h^ qw ^h^^ct ^-H^i<d*Mf^ asacca sacca 
prame vjoman dakšasja janmmtnaddaitpastlje) (X.5.7). Ot npe6biBaiomero 
HaBbicmeM HeoeBejMKoro CBerapoKAaerca ynpaBJKQomaH MOJiHTBaMH 
Ayma (<t4wid: ^mni hit ^m^. tw ^m^ brbaspatib jdjamdno mabo 
jjotišafj parame vjomaii) (TV.50.4) - 3aTeM paAH Chji CBeTa ona hi icxoaht 
b noABep>KeHHyio CMepTH TejiecHocTb, OTKa3biBaeTca ot 6eccMepTHa h 
CTaHOBHTca »epTBOH -tok FocnoAHH npoAneBaer Cboč MHJioeTeno (<žw- 
^PT^ifta Hj<i ^jppf^prTčr 1 ^5Ftfcf ^Ht^d mf^rod^i sittcMh, devebbjab 
kamaznvltđ mrtjurh ka?namrtarimdvputa / ' brbaspatim jajiiamakrnvata 

105 



piydihyamastanvarii prdnreat) (X. 1 3.4). B BbicmeM He6e oGmaiOT Bce 
CHJibi CBera (m^ra-- ww «4hh vicve devdsah parame vyomani) (VEL82.2) 
-cpe^H Hhx Jlro6oBt> H HcTHHHaa Penb Bora (m<^ ^imh fei=wjn parame 
vyomam irairdvaruna) (V.63. 1)- h po>KAaerca Eo>KecTBeHHaa Bona (^mn-- 
4<h 4wh : s\mjdyamdnah parame vyomam agnir) (1.143.2; VI.8.2; VH.5.7). 
Ho AJifl OKOHHaTejibHoro onpoBep>KeHHH peKOHCTpyHpyeMbix 
JI.B.r.THJiaKOM npeflcraBJieHMH aBTopoB PB o AByxHacrHOM ycrpoHcrree 
He6ecHofi c(})q)bi HaH6ojiee Ba>KeH (j)aicr npeGbiBaHra b BbicmeM He6e 
THOCHca i%F^^^mj-ndra parame vyoman) (1.62.7; 111.32.10). 

PaccMOTpHM Tenepb Bonpoc o npupo/je ynoMHHaeMbix b naiueM 

HCTOHHHKe OtU,OB HJIH 3amHTHHKOB (v^ipltr). ABTOpbl THMHOB 

yTBep>KAaiOT, hto hx nepBbie otuh (*■■ *%wk- nah purve pitaraJ?) npouuiH 
no o6Hapy>KeHHOMy ApeBHHM rbcnoAHHOM (^wt yamo) BbixoAy h hto 
po>KAeHHbie H^yT TyAa no cbohm nyTHM (mi ^ ^i smt f^ i w h- ^ 
tor; h^hi 5t^ht: qxqr srg f^T: yamo no gdtum prathamo viveda / yatrd 
nah purve pitarah pareyurend jajndndh padryd anu svdh) (X. 14.2) - ho b 
AaHHOM coo6meHHH He coAq)>KHTCH hm oahoid cnoBa o CMep™ h o ivinpe 
yMepmnx, ecrb JiHUJb onncaHHe o6Hapy»<eHHa h nyremecTBHH k 
H3BenHOMy BjiaAbiKe (wi5p-mt yamo prathamo). H Aanee yKa3biBaeroi, 
hto nepBbiMH OTuaMH no3TOB (*■■ <j!iw: nah purve pitarali) HBJiaiOTca 
H3HKH nnaMeHH (3#w^not angiraso nal? pitam) (X.14.6) pa3JiHHHbix 
acneKTOB TopHero Oraa - Eo>KecTBeHHOH Bojim (aira 3t%hw agni 
angirastama) (L31 .2; 1.75.2; VIII.23. 1 0; VIII.43. 1 8 h 27; VIII.44.8), iHoaica 
(<Fz.swzmindra angirastama) (1.100.4; 1.130.3) h IIpocBeTJieHHa (^ 
m^m ušas angirastama) (VII.75 . 1 ; VTI.79.3). 3tm Otum HMeHyiOTCH b 
Bbicmen CTeneHH ncnojiHeHHbiMH CBeTa {h- ^mi- tosi: nah purve 
pitaraJp vasištljdl;) (X. 15.8). T.o. Mbi HMeeM Bce ocHOBaHna yTBep>KAaTb, 
hto nofl nnpyK)mHMH b o6mecrBe rbcnoAHHa OmaMH hjih 3aiuHTHHKaMH 
(r^to q H^Hi<t-H4kd pitfn yamena ye sadhamddammadanti) 
noApa3yMeBaioTC5i Chjih Ero CBeTa (%n deva), a ne yMepuiHe 
o6o>KecTBJieHHbie npeAKH ApeBHeBeAMHecKHX mmcthkob. HMeerca eme 
oaho Ba>KHoe coo6meHHe, KOTopoe noATBep»AaeT Ham bhboa h 
nojiHocrbio onpoBepraer nocrpoeHHa JI .B.F.THJiaKa - noTOMy hto b hčm 
oGnTenb Rmu Ha3biBaeTca )KHJiHmeM CBeTOHOCHbix (^^tr^ct^j^rh 
%■*-& idarh yamasya sddanam devamdnam yaducyate) (X. 135.7). 
106 



ripoaHajM3HpyeM Tenepb cooSineHHa HCTOiHHKa o CapaMe hjih 
Ebicrpofi (ctott sarama). OHa^BH^eroi KaK nocnaHHHua THOCHca (?^p? 
•ylRiNdi =^m indrasja dutirišitd cardmi) (X.108.2; cm. TaK>Ke 3 h 4) no 
no6y>KAeHHK) Moluh CBera i^mmmm^?\prabdidl%td sahasd daivyena) 
(X.108.9) no 0CTaBJieHH0My cjieAy (<w**m padamalakanid) (X.108.7) K 
HcTHHe (immirtarii yatl) (V.45.7) no nyTH HcTHHbi (?mww rtasya 
paniku) (V45.8); CHanana ona JieraeTKpyraMH b He6eyMaB noncKax KopoB 
hjih JiyHen (sht tr: wot ^r ^ ik fs^\ 3^i^qčRft ima gdvab sarame yd 
aidjttli pari dzuo antan patanđ) (X. 1 08.5), 3aieM coBepuiaeT H3HypHTeJibHbiH 
6pocoK b OTflajieHHoe Medo (^js^sigR: wl: dure lryadbvd jagurib 
pardcaib), nepeSnpaeTCH nepe3 noTOKH BJiara (<u\mw- wm rasdydtarab 
pajdmsi H otm 3w<"wiw rasdyd atarampapmsi) (X. 1 08 . 1 H 2) n AOCTHraeT 
ocHOBaHna CKajibi h CKpbiToti b HeM h oxpan;ieMOH CKynu,aMH 
nepenojiHeHHon KopoBaMH hjih jr/miH, kohhmh hjih 3Hepnmm h Cbctom 
coKpoBHLUHHUbi (apj hw: arf^TT rjtf*R^ft^iH-{tf: i wra čf wtt ayam 
nidhih adnbudhno gobhiracvebbirvaspibhi?nyrštah / rakšanti tom panayd) 
(X.108.7). Hop, nocjieAHefi, HecoMHenno, no,n,pa3yMeBaeTCfl 
o6Hapy>KHBaeMbiH Fhochcom (5^; indra) 3aMypoBaHHbiM BHyTpn 
6ecKOHeHHon cKajibi Becco3HaTejibHoro (rM^^i^^^ «ra^3jw? 
parivitam aonanjanante antar aanam) KaK 3apoAbim nTHHbi (^jjpf 
ver na garbbani) TaHHO cnpaiaHHbiH KJia/j, Chhhhji /J,yuiH (3#^j^r 
nila^t™ avindad divo nilntaiii guba nidhim) (1.130.3). 3aieM Capatvia 
npoHHKaeT b Tpeiu,HHy hjih npoJiOM b stoh CKane ( \ ^<i.<i^m \ h'ml^ vidad 
sarama rugnamadrer) (III. 3 1.6) h no ycHJiHBaioineMycH CBeneHHK) 
o6Hapy>KHBaeT HCKOMbie JiyHH (a^qi sgft mfeHHi = hctt wk,^\- asyd 
vjuši mabindydl} sarama, vidad gdh) (V.45.8; cm. TaK>Ke V.45.7). CKynufc>i 
npe^naraioT en craTb nx cecrpon, ocraTbca c hhmh h B3HTb Hacib CBera 
ce6e fam. č^i f^rl m g^rfi arc % »ra mji svasdrath tvd krnavai ma 
punargd apa te gavani bbajdma) (X. 108.9). B OTBeT OHa C0BeTyeT hm 
y6Hpaxbca KaK mo>kho ,n,ajibuie h BbinycTHTb b cooTBeTCTBHH c Hcthhoh 
cnpHTaHHbie JiyHH fero wm ^m 3^>m q^g ProK^ w^-. durannta 
panayo vanya ud gdvo yantu minatlr rtena mgillah) (X. 108.1 1). OHa 
Haxo,HHT MomHoe h uiHpoKoe cHHHHe, KOTopbiM Hacna>KHaioTCH pa3yMHbie 
cymecTBa (r^ n?q w&\ t<sm$ ^3^ mg^t^ ra^ vidad gavyani 
sarama drlhamurvam yend nu kam manušibbojate vit) (1.72.8). OHa 

107 






B03raaBJiHeT nepeAOByro rpynny jiyqeH h nepBofi hact Ha peB (mw^ 
^^mmmj^^m^R^m^agrajn nayat supadyakšard?id?nachd ravam 
probama jdnoi gat) (EI.3 1 .6) o6Hapy>KMBaeMoro BHyTpH HenoBeKa hjth 
HMMaHeHTHoroeMypeBymeroCBepxpa3yMa(3RfePačt3^^(q^q^, T 
antanchanti tam jane rudram paro manlšaja) (VHI.72.3). KaKTOJibKO 
rHocHCB3pbiBaeTCKajiyBecco3Ha-raibHoro,nepBOHnepeAHHMB03HHKaer 
CapaMaHn|xxHTEroKaKBO>K^pa36HTb3anacHmH6jiecKaHOTKpbiTbHx 
3-HeprHK) (m\ x. s^H ^k. wm^ g^ mm ^% i h ^ ^t ^n^an # h 
j*%T?^đpo )W đi/nm iW«r «yir &&«#£ sarama puruyam te / sa 
no netd vajam a darši bhumii gotrd rujann)(W.l6.S). 

AcrpoHOMHHecKafl HHTepnperaara nepcoHaaca CapaMbi (mv 
sarama) ocHOBbmaerra imwh Ha BHeimreM co3BynHH ee hmchh Ha3BaHmo 
3Be3«bi CnpHyc (Seinos) h Ha Bbi6opoqHOM u BecbMa HenojiHOM aHanroe 
HeKOTopbK 3JieMeHTOB MH(j)a o IlaHH: JI.BJ.TnnaK HMaK He oGmomct 
npHpoAy o6pa3a ropbi (a# đ ^rz) - Ba>KHOH h HeoTteMJieMOH nacra 
AaHHoro MH(j)OJrorHqecKoro aoimra. C yneTOM BbiiuerojKmeHHoro mh 
coraaiuaeMca c MHeHHeM ILLA.rxoiiia o tom, hto CapaMacHMBOJM3Hpyer 

rHOCTHHeCKyiO mP/HUJOO. ' OcrajIOCb TOJIbKO BbMCHHTb, KaKHe nOTOKH 

BJiarH nepeceKaeT nocneflHHJi (mrni-. -wro rasdydtarah pajamsi h mm\ 
*mpmm rasdyd atarampajarhsi) w He no/rpa3yMeBaK)TC5i im noA hhmh 
ynoAc>6jiaeMbieBoz]aMBHxpHMneHHoron^ 

npHHaflJie>KameH OKeany (^ottth?t S: samudram rasajd sahdhuh) 
(X.121.4)-ho noAOKeaHOM (sgs samudra) aBTopti flpeBHeSiuroc 
Bqnj«ecKHX raMHOB JiBHO noHHMaioT npocrpaHCTBO CBoero noraunecKoro 
cyu4eciBa, b nry6HHeKOToporo ohh b 3KcraTi«ecK0M coctoshhh cep/^eM 
h pa3yMOM HinyT no cjieAaM ee Jiyqen yMame'HHyio HyAecHOH chjtoh 
BnaflbiKH )Kh3hh nap«myio ETHiry AyuiH ( <# ihthh^^ hpto i^t wtrt 
*rht mfarčr: i ^ 3f<t: ^ r =^t3 »rtHtau^flrefo t«m: 
patamgamaktamasnrasja mdyaya brda pazariti manasd viparatah / 
samudre antah kavajo vi cakšate marlclndmpadamichanti vedhasah) 
(X. 1 77. 1). 3Ta nraua Hecer b cbocm yMe cBepKajouryio h CBeroHocHyfo 
Hfleio(m^wHf^iHht tam djotamdndm svarjam manlšdm)nm 
Pmb(^?rtwmčwf3p atam g vdcam manasd bibharti)(XA77.2). 



1 Cm.: SASVP. 203-214. 
108 



OflHHM H3 noTOMKOB CapaMM aBJIfleTCfl BacTOUinaTH H 
JI.B.r.THJiaK nfleHTHCJDHU,Hpyer ero KaK 3Be3Ay CHpHyc, noTOMy hto oh 
HMeer 5enyK) h KpacHO-KopHHHeByio OKpacKy u npn ocKajiHBaHHH 3y6oB 
ohh CBepKaraT H3 ero nacrn noAo6HO KonbHM (^^^n^^rni?!^ 
i #r ai^Ri 5sot ot ^5 srt^) jadarjuna sdrameya datah picanga 
jachase / vlva bhrdjanta rštaya upa srakvešu bapsato). Mm He MO>KeM 
coraacHTbca CTaKHM HcrojiKOBaHHeM AaHHoro o6pa3a, nocKOJibKy oho 

OCHOBaHO HaBbl6opOHHOM H BHeKOHTeKCTHOM aHajiH3e coo6meHHH PB. 

ITpoKAeBcero, hhahhckhh yHeHMH HHKaK He o6 , bnctwsT3m'4mm HMeHH 
Bacromna™ - TocnoAHH )KnjiHiJj(a (rotira užstoš pati) - h coflep>KaHHfl 
ero oxpaHHTejibHOH AeflTejibHOCTH. Me>KAy TeM, aBTopbi thmhob npoarr 
ero npH3HaTb hx cbohmh (m^m^Kprati janllrfasmđri) (VH.54.1) H 
jiasTb Ha BopoB hjih rpa6HTejieH, a He Ha BOcneBaiomi« Thochc (fmm 
«tw? 3FR ^ i <rd\H^^ ^nra f%wiR. gjp^ stenam rdya sdrameya 
taskaram vd / stotrnindrasya rdjasi kimasmdn di{chundyase) Q/Ji.553). 
BacTOUinaTH 3Haer nyTH ('ii^mi gdtumatyd) (VEL54.3) h npoHHKaeT bo 
Bce cjiopMbi hjih Tejia (r^^mi^ii^i-i. točim rupdnjdvigari) (VH.55.1) - 
nocneAHee He corjiacyeTca c acrpoHOMHHecKOH HHTepnpeTarjHeH. 
TocnoAHHa )KHJiHiJj,a nopo>KAaioT Chjim CBera KaK xpaHamee o6eTbi 
CB^meHHOe cjiobo (sr^ta^ <=(Miwi>tw ^ra fom^ajanajan brahma 
deudvdstoš patim vratapdm ra?ata&đn)(X.61.7)-3TOCOo6ineHHeTaK}Ke 
AeMOHcrpHpyeTaBHyio HeaAeKBaTHOcrb juo6oro HaTypajiHCTHHecKoro 
o6i.HCHeHHH iJ3Hrypbi BacTOUinaTH hbtokc BpeMfl yxa3MBaeT Ha 
Heo6xoAHMOCTb ee ncHxojiormecKoro noHHMaHHH. Ba>KHbiM HBJiaeTCH 
ynoAo6neHHeee3y6oBKonbHM (^-^m datal) rštaya), nocKonbKy ohh 
CHMBOJiH3HpyiOT ocrpbie HMnyjiLCbi THOCHca (^^mjndra rštir) (1. 1 69.3). 

T.O. BCfl COBOKynHOCTb BbIUieH3J10>KeHHbIX AaHHbK n03BOJWeT BHAeTb B 

TocnoAHHe }KHJiHma (3imia<# vdstoš pati) HHTyHTHBHyio rHOCTHHecKyio 
Mbicjib (to sdrameyd), 3amHinaioinyio HMMaHeHTHoeBo>KecTBeHHoe 
noAo6HO CTopo>KeBOMy ncy. 

JJpym ap>thmh noTOMKaMH CapaMbi hbjmotch HeTbipexrjia3bie 
naTHHCTbie ncbi («kh<?i »$[h\ =^i\ ^rštt sdrameyau cvdnau caturakšau 
aibalaa). Mbi He MO>KeM cornacHTbca c JI.B.r.TunaKOM b tom, hto ohh 
ci-iMBOJiH3HpyK)T pacnoJiOKeHHbie no o6e cropoHbi MnenHoro FIvth 
PAAOM c TyMaHHOCTbio OpnoHa C03Be3AH« IIcoB (Kuon h Prokuon hjih 

109 



Canis Major h Canis Minor). Mu He bhahm bo3mo>khocth 
CKOHcrpyHrx)BaTbBpe3yribTaTeHXHa6jiio/ieHiwo6pa3biAByxoAHHaKOBbrx 
Herbipexr.na3bix (=^m caturakšau) >khbothmx -Aa>Ke b co3Be3AHH Bojibiiioro 
lica (Kuon nrw Canis Major) BH#HMbrx 6e3 Hcnojib30BaHHH cneuHanbHbu 

npHcnoco6jieHHH3Be3AXBaTaerTOJitKOHa3THMHoroHHcneHHbierjia3aH 
hct MaTepHana pjm nocrpoeHra ocrajibHbK ^acrefi Tena h hto ace TorAa 
roBopHTb o co3Be3AHH Manoro lica (Prokuon hjih Canis Minor)? 3th 
co6aKH npHHa/me)KaT IocnoAHHy h Ha3biBaroTca oxparaK)mHMH nyrb h 
Ha6;iK)AaiomHMH3ajTK)AbMH ieTbipexrjia3HMH cropoMcaMH (i?iwlw 
tfwra ^sm qm#p?wT jau te gvdnau jama rakšitdrau caturakšau 
pathirakšinrcakšasau) (X. 14. 1 1); ho b to xce BpeM« ohh 6poAflT cpeAH 
po>KAeHHbrxcy^eaBHnoxHi^aKn'>KH3HeHHoeAbixaHHeKaKEroBecr^ 
c UJHpoKHMH H03AP3MH (av^M^Hi *vm ^t wt ?RRg urmiasdvasutrpd 
jamasja dutau carato jandnanu) (X. 14. 1 1). Pemaiourj™ (Jurtom npH 
onpeAerreHHH npHpoAfei AByx CapaMeeB HBJMerca hx Herbipexma30CTb 
{^m\ caturakšau) (X. 1 4. 1 h 1 1 ) - BeAb hx Pochoahh TO>Ke HMeHyeTca 
HCTbipexHacTHbiM ^m^icaturang) jamo) (X.92. 1 1) h o6ht3ct b AaJieKOH 
HeTbipexHjieHHoii 3eMJie (m^% mTk&tf *ti ^mm šj^^ž >#i =^# 
^t^m^m^jat te jamom vaivasvatam mano jogama durakamjat te 
bhumirh caturbhntim mano jagama durakam) (X.58.1 h 3); 
naTypajiHCTHHecKHe HHTepnpeTaTopbi HHKaK ne o6i,hchhiot stot 

UH(})pOBOH CHMBOJ1, HO C n03HUHH CHMBOJIHHeCKOrO ncHxonornHecKoro 

HCTOJiKOBaHHH IH.A.rxoma oh 03HanaeT HcTHiiy Co3Harej7bHoro 
Hacjia>KAeHH« Cyu|ecTBOBaHHeM (^e^ari^ rta-sat-cit-dnanda). 
lio HameMy MHeHHio, H3 Tpex creperymHx noAo6HO cropo>KeBbiM ncaM 
Ihochc HHTyHTHBHBrx MbicneH 0flHđ3amnmaer Ero HMMaHeHTHbM acneKT 
h no3TOMy Ha3biBaeTCM PocnoAHHOM aCroraiua {^m^\ vdstoš pati), 
me Apyrae »e oxpaHjnoT Ero TpaHcueHfleHTHbiH oSjmk h no3TOMy hm 
npHcyiHH Ero BbicuiHe aTpH6yTbi (^ caturakšau). 

Mbi He o6Hapy>KHBaeM b PB hh OAHoro cnyqaa OTO^ecmneHHs 
co6axH {^\cvan) h BOJiKa fa vrka) h npHcoeflHHJieMCji k mhchhio 
LLI.A.rxonja o tom, hto hmh nocjieAHero 03Haqaer "Tep3aioiHero"' h 
HcnojTb3yeTca atm onncaHra yAep>KHBaK)mHx b Becco3HaTejibHOM cbct 






Cm.:SASV.P.51 
110 



TnocMca CKynuoB (<#i # panim vrko) (V.5 1.14)- hmchho no3TOMy 
nepenpaBJunomerocfl nepe3 noTOKH JiyHHCTbixBOAB cepeAHHe no/rbČMaK 
CBeTy BOJiKa nporoHHiOT npeKpacHOKpbuibie (iTO^am^^siKivre 
!&■■ i e ?ropa *w\ <pž a^a q|W šupama eta đsate madhya drodbane 
divah / te sedbanti patho vrkaih tarantam jabvatlrapo) (cm. Bbiuie) 
SHeprHH napamero noAoSHO nraije BjiaAbiKH Hctohhhkob )Kh3hm (gm 
&&■■ suparno asurab) (1.35.7). 

TperbHM npereHAeHTOM Hapanb3Be3AM CHpHyc(Seinos) noćne 
CapaMbi h Bacroiiinara y JI.B.r.THnaKaBbiciynaernapHbiM o6pa3 oopccflbi 
m njiyra (groki cunMra) Ha ocHOBaHHH noflMeneHHoro M.MioJinepoM 
C03ByHMH Ha3BaHHH h ynoMHHaHHH Toro, KaK UIyHa-«-CHpa npomBOAflT 

B CBeTOHOCHOH 06naCTH HeKHH HanHTOK H 3aTeM HH3BOAHT ero BHH3 

(jg^raki^^KR ^^j: w- \ žmH^&i imm^cundsirav yad divi cakrathuh 
payalp / tenemdm upa sincatam) (cm. Bbime). B AaHHOM ar^ae hhahhckhh 
HCCJieAOBaiejib b oHepeAHOH pa3 HHKaK He oG'bflCHfler 3HaneHHe hmčh 
nepcoHa>KeH h hx 3eMJieAeJibqecK0H npnpoAM, a Be/jb 06a opaicra CBjnaHbi 
cynoAC»6iieHHeMnaxoTbiAyxoBHOHAejn , ejibHCCTH-HcnoJiHeHKbieB{'U],eHHa 
noaTbi no OTAejibHocra HaiHraBarar Ha ce&i xoMyrbi h BnpflraioToi b nnyra 
AJifl nojiyneHHH ot Chji CBeTa coBepmeHHoro pa3yMa (atopra wqtg>n 
RfF^^pi^ i 4ki^5 g^raT sžra junjanti kavayo juga vi tanvate prtbak 
/ dblrddevešu sumnayd) (X. 1 1 .4), Thochc npoBOAHT 6opo3Ay (v=s.-- «Bi 
ft^mdralp sltdm ni grlmdtu) (IV.57.7) h 3aieM noAo6HO crycTHBUieHca 
B TyMaH SHeprnu hjih Tyie (h4ih-^i i afetT q4^i <{m\u\4 mabdnindro 
ya ojasd parjanyo vrštimdmva) (VHL6.1) opomaeT naiHHK) MeAOBbiM 
HanHTKOM Ha cnacrbe (i^r#^t^ ww cunam pa?janyo madhund 
pqdbfo)(N.57J&). 

Jl.B.r.THHaKBHAHTBynOMHHaeMbIXBHCTOMHHKeBpaTaximH 

ABepnx CBda (sm^k^dvdro devlr hjih srcraj^ dvdrdv divah hjih stct 
M : dvdro devlb) Mecra coeAHHeHHa b TOHKax BeceHHero h oceHHero 
paBHOAeHCTBHH AByx He6ecHbix nonyc(j)ep h nojryroAHHHbrx nepnoAOB 
BpeMeHH npe6biBaHHa b hhx cojiHHa. Mbi He molovi corjiacHTbca c TaKOH 
HHTepnpeTauHen, nocKOJibKy OHa ocuoBaHa Ha Bbi6opoiHOM 
BHeKOHTeKcrHOM aHamce AanHbK naMHTHHKa h HCKa>KaeT ero coAep>KaHHe. 
npe>KAeBcero,3THABepH3axBaHeHbiTbMOH(5rof™ifl'tKrfl tamaso hjih 
d*w i si<l tamaso dvdro) (III.5.1; IV.51.2) hjih Eecco3HaxejibHbiM (mis^ 

111 



- 



tamo avayunam) (VL21.3) u no3TOMy 3annpaiOT MbimneHne nejioBeKa 
(mv&^dvara maSnam) (IX. 1 0.6). Pa3yM yMaiuaeT hx cbohm BHAeHHeM 
(sra *whn m stfct ćtora ototmš pita dhiya dnaje) (VIII. 63.1) u B 
pe3yjitTaTeero noicnoHeHHfl ohh npeAocraBnaioT eMy ripnarabiH bxoa(sči 
%%•• ^ra*m m\m- dvdro devlh suprdyand namobhih) (II.3.5) b 
TbicaHeBpaTHbiH rHraHTCKHH Ym, KOTopbM ot/tkht mww$M caMOcyineH 
Bo)KecTBeHHOH PeMH (w<J ^ ^^ FW ^ : w4<?<ćk wm ^ ^ brhantam 
mdnam varuna svadhavah sahasradvdram jagamd grham te) (VH.88.5). 

Tenepb OHH CTaHOBHTCfl HaCTOflIHHMH OipOMHblMH 30JTOTbIMH ABepbMH 

CBda (f^5Rt¥Kft^ : brbad dvdro devlr biranyaylh) (IX.5.5). Hepe3 
3TH B3pamHBaioiHHe HcrHHy CBeTOHOCHbie (m^^m^tavj-dl^o dvdro 
devlr) (1.13.6) BpaTa HcTHHbi (sro^t^ dvdrdv rtasya) (VII.95.6) b 
HejiOBeMeo<oeco3HaHHenpoxoAaTCH}noiHHeCHJTbiCBepxco3HaTenbHoro 

(^q: ^ ^ # si^ ^rtđVM prayai deveblryo mahih dvdro 

devlr) (1. 142.6). 

IloAynoMHHaeMbiM b PB cBeroHOCHbiM Kopa6)ieM ^riton 
mami) (cm. Bbiuie) JLE.r.THJiaK noHHMaer pacnojio>KeHHoe HenoAaneio/ 
OTTyMaHHOCTH OpHOHa co3Be3Ane ArgoNavis. OftHaKO h b 3tom cjiynae 
yqeHbiH BbKBaTbmaer eAHHMHoe ynoMHHaHHe Kopa6jiH h HeyHHTbiBaer 
ApyrHeMHoroHHcneHHbiecoo6iHeHHaoHeM,KOTOpbieno3BOJiaioTCAenaTb 
BbiBOA o ncHXOJionwecKOH npHpoAe ero cHMBOJiH3Ma. TaK, 3Ta JioAKa 
COCTOHT H3 MbiuiJieHHfl aBTopoB thmhob (nto *ratoi no nova ma&ndrii) 
(1.46.7) h H3 HxpeHH (^m^mvdcam navam) (11.42. 1) h co3Aaerra hmh 
nocpeACTBOM Ha-rarHBaHHfl MbicjieH (m an čigsj *\\www\yi>?vi.dkiya 
a tamtdlTuam ndvamanmparanlmkpiudl7vam){X.\0l.2). HcnonHeHHbie 
BHAeHHH, ohh BeAyrKaK Kopa6jib no BOAeB3omeAUJHH b CMiomeM OKeaHe 

CBOerO CBepXC03HaHHJl CBeTOH (an *# SR^l^aml I 3St i ^^ 

^vfkfđ 5wryo đra/^c gukram đnzo / Mini rađ ra^TOJm anayanta 



3TFP7 



Ara) (V.45.10) h oTTOKAecTBjraoTca cHhm b MOMeHTCBoero AyxoBnoro 
po>KAeHHH h oco3HaHHH YMa HcTHHbi Oma (^^im'*^' 5 '"^ 
^s^s^mh^/mot ifMii pJtoš jwn medham rtasyd jagrabha aharii 
surya zvdjcmi) (VHI.6. 10). Ero HcrHHHaa Penb AeJiaer cHHiomero MHCTHKa 
BA0XH0BeHHbiM npoBHflueM h neBUOM h noMemaer Ha KopaGnb (ima 
TO^ RF^raT^^ft' =^R ^<n hšo^ i šatati raq: vasištham ha varuno 
ndvyddlodd rširn cakdra svapd mahobhih / stotdram viprah) (VE88.4) H 
112 



- 



ohh BMecre bhboaht ero Ha cepe»HHy OKeaHa co3uwm u KaHaioTca Ha 
ero BOJiHax KaK Ha Ka^eJiax (an ^m? ^fto *č s ^apkwwi i 
3#q^qtiwwra^silti^đ yad rukava vanmacca ndvam pra yat 
samudramlraydvamadJjyam / adhi jadapdm snubbiccardva pra prenkba 

lrikkayžvahai) (VEL88.3). 

Mbi HenocpeACTBe.HHO noAoinnH k HOTepripeTau,™ MH<J)a o 
6opb6eHHApw h HaMyHH. B HCTOHHHKeyTBep>KflaeTCH, hto Thochc 
BCTynaeT b 6oh 3a 6oeM m pa3py uiaeT yKpeimeHHe 3a yKpenJieHHeM h 
n o5UnaCTBAajieKOMKparoHaAera^ 

fon ^w* §^ ^^ I 3 U & R ^' ^^ ' "^ TO ^ ™^ ^' ^ 
mmydxi judboamupa gfnieši dJ7ršnuyd pura puran samidarii hamspjasd 
jadindra paravan mbarbap namučim nama mdjinam) (1.53.7). C MOMeHTa 
nposBJieHHH Oh cpa3y >Key»wro}Kaer npoTHBHHKOB w b lpihx noompeHHa 
>KepTByioiUMX EMy KopoBy hjth ny\ CBoeii jymw a noHCKa BbKOAa jm 
pa3yMa AapMTeiM nycKaer KaraTbc« rojioBy Bpa>KAe6Horo HaMy*m (š\ 
^ ^^1 sm^iF^s^'-Ri H'=^I^: i ^ ^^ *&■■ fm! ^»^ ^ 
jh^^to su mrdbo janušd ddnam invann ahan gavd samcakdnah / 
atrd ddsasya namuceb aro jad avartayo manave gdtum icban)(V30.1). 
Mbi y>Ke uHTHpoBajin coo6meHHePB o tom, «no b pe3ynbTaie y6HHCTBa 
HatviyHH rHOCHCOTKpbiBaeT Ana Mbiuura™ yAo6Hbie nyrn k CunaM CBera 
fe zw?v *$¥ i či =wf *pš m^H. w ^sna^iHH. tvam jagbantba 
namučim / 'tvam cakartha manave syondn patfjo devatrdfijasevaydndn). 
3HaneHHe immvi y6HBaeMoro AeMOHa xopouio BnHCbmaercfl b cncreMy 
ncHXOAormecKOH HHTepnpeTaipH CBJoaHHbK c hhm cio>KeTOB, nocKOJ&Ky 
oho MO>KeT 6biTb nepeBeAeHO KaK "He 0TnycKawiHHH" hjth "He 
ĐCBoGo^aroiAHM" (h-# na-muri). 1 CBepxpa3yM oTpbiBaerHaMjraH 
roJiOBy c noMombio neHbi boa l 3 ™ ^ ^ : ^- $■-*<&«*■ a P d » l pbenena 
namuceb ara indrodavartajah) (cm. Bbiuie), ho 3Ta caMan neHa ecTb hm 
4T0 HHoeKaKceMH Oma -Oh Bbi6pacbiBaer eeBTenecHOCTb h Chjih Ero 
Cmnm nopo^aroT ro Hee CBameHHoe cjtobo KaK xpaHHTejra o6ctob u 
MMMaHeHTHoe BoKecTBeHHoe hjih TocnoAHHa UKiVMim (cm. Bbime) (rat 

^ms^ pta kšmajd retah ni šiilcat ajanayan brahma devdvdstoš patim 

1 CM.:MWSED.P.528.Column2. 

113 



;no 



vratapam niratakšan //sa lm vrša na p/Knamasyaddjau)(X.6\.7-'$); . 
cBoefi npnpoAe OHa %Bmevcx Hcthhoh h nbuiaioinHM nanHTKOM ^s^m. 
W*wreta nam guci paya)(X.6\.\\). Mu coraaiiiaeMca CMHeHHeM 
JI.E.r.TnjiaKa o tom, hto BpHTpa h HaMynH hbjmkdtch AByMa cj)opMaMH 
OOToro h Toro >Ke AeMOHHHecKoro o6pa3a h He cnyqaHHO no3TOMy Phocmc 
&š. indra) y6HBaeT hx o6ohx nocpeACTBOM HaHeceHHa y«apa b rojiOBy 
hjih ee OTpe3aHH* (152. 1 0; IV 1 8.9; Vfl.6.6; V30.7; VI.20.6). 

MbipaccMorpenH no OTAeJibHocrHBceaneMeHTbi npeAnaraeMoro 

JT.B.r.THnaKOM CHCTeMHOrO aCTpOHOMHHeCKOTO HCTOJlKOBaHHfl 

ynoMHHaeMbix b PB o6pa30B Rmu h Oiijob, Bpmpbi h HaMynH , CapaMbi 
H Tpex CapaMees, IHyHM-H-CHpbi, cseroHocHbK BopoT h KopaSna, aiajoKe 

C06aKH H BOJKa H CBJBaHHbK C HHMH CKMCTOB KaK OHHCaHHfl npOTCKaHHfl 

(j)H3HHecKHxnpoueccoB HayqacTKe3Be3/iHoro He6aB o6jiacrHTyMaHHOCTH 
OpHOHa HflOKa3anH hx ncHxojrorHHecKoe3HaHeHHe. Tenepb mm mtokcm 
npHCTyrMiBKpacimi(j)poBKeKJiK)qeBoroHBeHHaoiJue^ 
HHHHHCKoro yMČHoro coo6iu;eHHa naM#raHKa, Korapoe raacHT o tom, hto 
KorAaHcKycHbienoCTeroz^HHorocHanrx)6yAHJiHCbHoiT<pbiJiHrjia3a,TO 
cnpocHjiH HecKpbiBaeMoro o BHHOBHHKe hx npo6y>KAeHHfl ( wcw»^ i 
c<4<5<w ' 93^'h ^RF^T^sHpftu ^ ^h\ ar^i^ samvatsara idamadjd 
vyakhyata / sušupvdmsa rbbavastadaprcbatdgoI?ya ka idath no abubudhat) 
- h 6apaH Ha3Ban nca npo6yAHTeJieM fon ;r# š bmtm i ^ gvanarn 
basto bodha}itdramabravit) (1. 1 61 . 1 3). lio mhchhio Jl.E.r.THJiaKa, 3Aecb 
roBopHTCH o tom, hto Ayxn OS30HOB (PH6xy) no 3aBqpmeHHn roAHHHoro 
nrauia cnpaiiiHBatoT y cojmu,a (Atoxbh) o MOMenre Hanana aiepyiomero 
ujncna h to OTBenaer hm, hto rofl HaHMHaerca b MOMem ero npoxo>KAeHPW 

MHMO 3Be3AbI ITca OKOJIO TyMaHHOCTH OpHOHa. OAHaKO mm y>Ke 
npOAeMOHCTpHpOBajIH, HTO HcKyCHbie CHMBOJIH3HpyjOT HHCXOAMmHe B 

HejioBenecKoeTejio Hflen THocuca (*3**?q?t srasti indrasja suno 
gaum napato) h b TeneHne o6o3HaHaroinero Ero AyxoBHoe HenpoHBJieHHoe 
hjih BHyTpHyTpo6Hoe pa3BHTne roAa AocrararoT 6eccMep™a (nčfa: h^ 
3iirtrtHMy:fflrfftm*^: martdsab santo amrtatvamdnagub samvatsare rbhavah); 
noA 'TeM, Koro Henb3fl CKpbiTb" (swmagjbya), mm noHHMaeM caM Thochc 
(^s. vidra), KOTopMH HMeHyerc3 b ncroHHHKe 6apanoM {m mesa) (1.51.1; 
I.52.1;VIII.2.40;VllI.97.12);HaKOHeH,nec(^fy^)cHMBOJ7H3HpyeT 
HcxoA5niryro ot Hero h npo6y>KAaiomyio nejiOBenecKoe co3naHne 
114 



HHTyMTHBHyK> MfleiO. T.O., Mbl He MO)KeM COrJiaCHTbCfl C BbIBOAOM 

Jl.B.r.THJiaKa o tom, mto b aHarrH3i-ipyeMOM coo6meHHH onHCbiBaercfl 
Hanano roAa b momcht npoxo>Kn,eHra ćorama mhmo TyMaHHOCTH OpHOHa 

OKOJIo4000r.AOH.3. 

VneubiH oopamaerai k HcrojiKOBaHHio rHMHa PB 06 06e3baHe- 
pa3Mq30M-c-6biKa (pq vršakap) (X.86) h hcxoaht H3 npeAnojio>KeHHfl 
tom, hto OHa npeAcraBJiaer conuije bo BpeMii BeceHHero h oceHHero 

paBHOAeHCTBHH. B nepBOM CTHXerOBOpHTCT (B03M0)KH0, ot JiHua >KeHbI 

HiTApbi -HnApaHH), mto npeKpaTHnncb >KepTBeHHbie BbDKHMaHHa h Hn/ipy 
nepecrajiH CHHTaTb 6oroM TaM, r#e ero Apyr BpHiuaKanH pa^OBanca b 
UBeTyiuHX BJiaAeHHHX apna (ft ft oraro^ra ^5 \<whm i wi^[miwf: 
^g »irwaT vi hi sotorasrkšata nendrarh devamamamsata / yatramadad 
vršdkapir aryah puštešu matsakJja); no CJiOBaM hhahhckoito TOJiKOBaTena, 
b AaHHOM OT/nae pe i ib haSt npeKpaineHHH npHypoHeHHbix k nepHO/ry 
nonyroAMHHoro npe6biBaHHfl cojiHua (froq vršakap) b BbicmeH He6ecHOH 
nonyc§e^t (s$mdevayaria hjih ^ri^r uttardjana) pHTyaJK)B b CBH3H c 
ero nepexoAOM b HH3iuyio He6ecHyio nojiycđpepy (ajspim dakširidyana 
hjih f^mpbjdnd) b jjSHb oceHHero paBHOAeHCTBHfl. /Janee b o6pameHHH 
k HHApeyTBep)KAaeTCfl, hto oh 6©KHTAaneKO mhmo 6yHCTBa BpHuiaKanH 
h ne cMO)KeT HaHTH b ApyroM Mecre SKCTpaKTa ajm nHTba (<roct^twra 
!wtra *m-- 1 =n sli: jfe^prn ?fwffew para hindra dhdvasi vršdkaperati 
vyathih / no aha pravindasyanyatra somapltaje) (2) - no MHeHHK) 
KOMMeHTaTopa, nepeA HaMH yKa3aHHe Ha onycKaHHe cojiHua (^mm 
vršakapi) AaneKO (<mpard) b hh>khk)io nonoBHHy 3Be3AHoro He6a h 
ABH)KeHHH BcneA 3a hhm TyAa ace Hhaph H3-3a >KejiaHHfl ncnHTb 

npOH3BOAHMBIX BO BpeMH >KepTBOnpHHOIUeHHH BbDKHMaHHH, nOCKOJTbKy B 

nepnoA nepeMemeHrai CBerajia no tć'mhoh nacro skjihhthkh npoBOAHTca 
TOJibKO C00TBeTCTByK)mHe 3TOMy BpeMeHH roAa (<wwm dakšinayana 
hjih f^mpitjjana) uepeMOHHH. B OTBeT HHApa cnpauiHBaer (cboio 
cynpyry), mto TaKoro CAenan en stot )KenTbiH 3Bepb BpHiuaKanH, hto OHa 
na nero Bce eure cepAHTca, hjih HBeTymee 6oraTCTBO apna (fom ?tf 



'Cm.iORAV.P.OO. 
2 Cm.:ORAV.P. 136. 
■'Cm.: ibidem. 



115 



- 



^refasj^R gfcfi mm : i ^jtrp^š ^ ^i iTCT^^g, kimayarh tvarh 
vj-šdkapiccakdra harito mrgah yasmdirasyasidu nvaryo vd puStimad vašu) 
(3); JI.B.r.THJiaK OTMenaer, mto b HcroMHHKe Be3yiHHe Cypbio Ko6burHUbi 
HMeHyiOTCH pbDKHMH hjih >KeJiTbiMH (st^stot: ?jfe acvd bantab 'suryasya) 
(1. 1 1 5 .3) h bhaht b 3tom ocHOBaHHe ahh H/i,eHTH(j)HKauHM BpHmaKanH KaK 
cojiHua. x BBHny 6e3AeHCTBH$i ivry>KaHHApaHH 3aflBJiaer, mto pa3 HnApa 
3aiHHin;aeT mhjioto (eMy) BpHinaKanH, to nycrb oxoTflin,a5icfl Ha Ka6aHa 
co6axa BnennTCfl TOMy b yxo (wi N ^m mw^A aifwH i •nr ^r 
^mj^R^\^s^yamima>h tvarh vršakapirh pnjamindra abhirakšasi 
cm nvasya jamblois adapi kome varahayur) (4) hjih Ke 3a to , mto o6e3bflHa 
HcnopTHJia ee moSHMbie Bemn, OHa caMa He Aacr Hacna)KHaTbCJi 3JiOAeio 
6jiaroM h pa3o6beT eMy ronoBy (fw čraft m -m<4-*>\ ^^< i rerd ^tfi 
TMi h g*i g*# *p pnyd taštini me kapirvjaktd vjadudušat / aro 
rtvasya rdvišaii na sugarii dtškrte bJ%mrii) (5); HCCJieAOBaTenb yTBep>K£aeT, 
mto co6aKa (^cvan) CHMBOHH3HpyeT 3Be3Ay lica H3 oAHOHMeHHoro 
C03Be3AH5i (Kuon hjih Canis Major) p»aom c TyMaHHOCTbio OpHOHa hjih 
C03Be3AHeM FojiOBa AHTHJionbi (^mrnrgaaras), KOTopoe npeAcraBJieHO 
b HameM niMHe rjpHrypaMH OTroKAecrBJiaeMoro c sthm KorrbrrHbiM »ejrroro 
BpHuiaKann («iM i w^Rdl tfi: vršdkapi hanto mrgah) h OTpe3aeMOH y Hero 
roJiOBbi (mirim); b noATBep>KAeHHe npeACTaBJieHHOH HHTepnperauHH 
o6pa3a Buenjiinouj^eHCJi b yxo oxoTHin,eHCfl Ha Ka6aHa co6aKH (^^r^im 
^3^ ot negira? nvasya jambhis adapi konje varabayur) TOJiKOBaTejib 
npsffiOAHT coo6meHHe naMOTHHKa o paHeHHH Ka6aHa BHiHHy noq)eAcrBOM 
BMCTpeJia Mepe3 CKajiy (f^g: ra^TO#čro z\wm\ višnuh vidhjad 
vardhantiro adrimasto) (1.61 .7) - ropa (srg adri) 3Aea, no ero unmmo, 
9s.no yKa3biBaer Ha MHctp o Bpmpe h no3TOMy caM xa6aH (^m. utroba) ecrb 
hh mto HHoe KaK BpHTpa hjih co3Be3AHe TojioBa AHTHJionbi (jjnfcrcs. 
??ngaaras) 2 Cthxh 6-13 h 15-17 JI.B.r.THJiaK CMHTaer He coAepacamHMH 
Ba>KHOH aCTpOHOMHMeCKOH HH(})OpMaUHH H nepexoAHTKynoMHHaHHio 
o6Hapy>KeHHfl 06e3b5iHOH-pa3MepoM-c-6biKa orjiHMHoro ot Hee yoHToro 
)KHBOTHoro (^i+ft: 4<H-d ?a f^ vršdkapib parasvantam batom vidat), 
a Tao<e HO>Ka, Kop3HHbi, hoboto cocyAa h rpy>KeHOH ApoBaMH noB03KH 



^M.iORAV.P.m. 

m.:OR 

116 



2 CM.:ORAV.P.135andl37-138. 



(arrafpi sr ^CTKa^H arrM asimsundm navam carumddedhasjdna 
datam) (18); coraacHO peKOHcrpyKip« yMeHoro, noA y6HTbiM ^hbothmm 
3Aecb noApa3yMeBaera HcnopraBLuaa jfio6tfMbieBemM KfcmpaHH o5e3b«Ha 
(f^mft§tm^*z^priyd taštdni me kapirvyaktd vjadudušat) H 
Bce nepenMcneHHbie npeAMeTbi aojdkhm Sbiib Hcnonb30BaHbi aj™ 
npHHeceHMH ee b >KepTBy b KaMecree oTJiHHHoro ot (w&žparasvantam) 
BpHiuai<anH m BTO>KeBpeMfl noAOOHoro eMy3aMeHHTem KaK nonaraer 
HccneAOBaTenb, mmchho Bpe3ynbTaTenpoH3BefleHHHTaKOH noflcraHOBKH 
HHApa Ha3biBaer ce6fl yMeromHM oraHHHTb Bpara ot apna (tom^ 
m*f^mm^ayamemi vicdkacad vianvan ddsamdryam)(\9). 3aTeM 
BpniuaKanH nprobiBaKrr npoHTH qepe3 MecTHOCTb c nycrbiHeH (^ 
dhanva) u o6pbiBOM (w& krntatram) HapaccTOimne HeKoroporo 
KOJiHMecTBa AHeBHbix nepexoAOB kohckoh ynp5DKKM b aom (a^ asta) h 
npHHTH aomoh (*wgrha) H3 Mecra, onucbiBaeMoro K&K^m.nediyas(^ 
=, ^;p^? ^ ^ra rF^čn i% ^3^1 i ^taiat ^wt sifčmft ^ict^ dhanva 
ca yat krntatram ca kati svit ta vi jojand / nedlydso vršakape astameh 
gJmupa) (20); JI.B.r.THJiaKOTMeHaCT, htob oahom coo6meHHH PB3eMiw 
c BOceMbio BepuiHHaMH (ara wi: <W^aštau kakubhah prthivyds) 
KOHTpacTHpyer c coctohlacm h3 Tpex AHeBHbK nepexoAOB 3anpa>KeHHOH 
noiiiaAbMH ynynKKi\^ dkanva(%^šft&\ tri dhanva jojand) (1.35.8) 
h no3TOMy Aai-iHoe cjiobo aoji>kho o6o3HaqaTb ne6o; nocneAHee 
HMeHyeTca 0Tpe3aHHMM (f^ krntatram) H no3TOMy, no cnoBaM 
TOJiKOBaiejia, HAeHTMHO o6nacrH 3aMKHyToro CBera h K)Hbix boa, rAe 

UapHT CHHHHeM #Ma (^ TRT %f^T *T5ffTO£R fa: ^i^oku«, ^t^ 

ra/đ vaivasvato jatrdvarodhanam divah jatrdmurjahvatlrapas) (cm. Bbiilie); 
T.o.cjiOBOcoHeTaHHeq^f^^nw kmtatrarh o6o3HanaeT caMyio 
hh>khioio HacTb HeSecHoft ccjiepbi hjih K»KHyio noJiyccj)epy ne6a(rapR 
/#r)i#w); yqeHbifi npHBOAHT ynoMMHaHHe naMHTHHKa o Tpex iiiarax BrauHy 
(^i^jf=^^nR^i^i^OT višnurvi cakrame tredhd ni dadhe 
padam) (1.22. 1 7) u paccMaTpHBaeT ero KaK AOKa3aTeJibCTBO n&nmm y 

aBTOpOBApeBHeHLUHXBeA^HeCKHXrHMHOBnpeACTaBJTeHHHOTpeXHaCTHOH 

CTpyKTypeceBepnoH HeGecHofl nojiyccj)epbi (^^'feni tri dhanva 

[ Cm.:OBJN.?. 138-141. 

2 Cm.:ORAVP. 141. 

117 



■mu)- ho b to >Ke BpeM. ohm H e HMefor npe/icraBjieHH* o crpvKTvpe 

K»KHOHnojiyc(j)epB,He6aHHMeHHono3TOMy3aAaK)TBonpocoTOMH3 
CKonBKHXHacreHHiiKAHeBHb ! xnepexo^oBKOHCKOHynp ra <KHOHacocroHT 
^^^^te^miki^dhanva ca yat kmtatram ca kati 
sat ta u yopnd); b OTjii«HeoTApyrHx HHTepnperaropoB PB JI B T TniiaK 

nepeBo^TTe P MHH^^ W a^HeKaK''nearer/verynear''',aKaK''neath/ 
beneath/ nether" h 3 to R m H ero cjiy>KHT flonojiHHTejiBHMM 
roarejitcreoM roro, hto 3a ea roBopmts o hh™ nacra »efemoH 

a})epBi;HaKOHeu,OHo6pamaerBHHMaHHeHaTO,HToBpHUia]<anHyxo/ I HT 
b 3a6pomeHHB,H (thrown) mu (^ usta) h 3a T eM ero npH3UBaioT 

BepH y TBCHB>KH OT meHH fl pH( IK g ? -M-T.e.nepeAHaMHynoMHHaHHe 
HromeroHBBicmeroMecronpeebnBaH^CBeT^aBnpoueaeeroflBH^eHK« 
no SKJiHnTHKe; H a ocnoBaHHH B cex B MU ieH3Jio*eHHwx /xa H HB.x 

HccneAOBaTenB m eTBB.Boz l oTOM,™BaHaj m 3H P yeMOMcoo6^eHHH 
oimcHBaerai yxo fl coji H qa (B P Hiua K anH) h 3 ceBepnoH hojiobhhb: 
3Be 3đ Horo He6a b K»KHyio c MOMema oceHHero P aB H o A eHCTBH a H o 
nocjiez^eM B03B P ameHHH OT T y A a. 2 B cjie A yK)iH,eM c™xe CHosa 
HnweroB(mm Bffl ) A oMHy fl H^o)KaK)^erocoHBpHmaKanHnpH3BiBaiOT 

orarB BepHTiLCH h BMecre c oGpaujatomHMc« k H eMy coBepiiiHTB 6jiarHe 
flena (s^r ^ ^ ^q^| , „ ^^^ ^^ ^ s«^«Ai 

oTifrf r ? W ^^ z y« ^Pnanamcano astamdt ' patha pune) 
Ul),Jl.b.r.THjiaKpaccMaT P HBaeT3Tocoo6meHHeKaKonHcaHHe 

B0306H0BJieHra >Ke P TBOn P HHOUieHHH, n P Hy P O^HHBIX KO BpeMeHH 

Haxo>K» cojimja b cesepeon nojiyccjiepe H e6a (^r rkm^ hjih 
^muuarayam). 3a T e M y Hh^b, h BpHinaKariH cnpauiHBaiOT Kvna 
flenc« B03MymaK)mMH cymecrBa h tbopsihhh mhofo 3Jia hjih HMeioin™ 

ohh ornpaBHjiHCB B B epx hjih na cesep b m m,e Hh AP b. (^^ 

^■Wr^^ đ / ^ puh ^ )omr ^, kamaga ~ jam J 
(22); no MHeHHio hh^hckofo Hccjie A OBaTeji*, BBiHieynoMSHyTbiH 3Be P b 



* Cm.: MWSED.P. 569. Oduran : 
Cm.: ORAVP. 141-145. 

3 Gm.:ORAYR145. 
118 



(*Fi mrga) o6o3iia i iaeT3Be3Ay Oca u ona hcmcuict hjih crantOBHTca 

neBHAHMOii b Jiy i iax HaMHiiaiomero CBoe BOcxo>KAeiiHe b ceBepnyio 
ne6ecnyio nojiyc<l)cpy hjih oGmejib Mnnpbi cojinua b AeHb Becemiero 
paBi lOAei ictbha. ' Bce cthxh paccMaTpuBaeMoro rHMHa 3aKaH4HBaioTca 
OAHnai<OBbiM pa))pci ioM cyKa3anneM na-ro, mto Hi wpa naxoAHTCH Bbime 
Bcero (iwwT^£^ : vigvasmad indra uttarah) H yMČHbiH bhahtb 3T0M 
Aoi<a3aTejibCTBO ero ynpaBJieHHfl Bbiciuefi hjih ceBepHOH no/iOBHHOH 

cc|)epbi ne6a. 

HacKOJibKO i iaM H3Becn io, JI .B.r.THJiaK flBJiaeTCH eAHi iciBeiiiibiM 

cpeAH Bcex naTypajiHCTHHecKHx HHTepnpeiaTopoB PB, kto MO>KeT 

npeAno>KHTb CK0JibKO-HH6yAb CBM3Hoe HCTOAKOBaHHeraMHa o BpHUJaKanu; 

BceocranbHbie orpaHHHHBarorcji npocrbiM nepecKa30M AaHHoro ooKera. 

Ho b to >Ke BpeMH HCJib35i He oTMeTHTb, HTO ero aCTpOHOMHHeCKafl 

peKOHCTpyKU,HH necerB ce6eBa>KHoe npoTHBopenHeB noHHMaHHH o6pa3a 

BpHUjaKanH, KOTopbiH y hhahhckok) yHeHoro npeACTaBAHerr KaK3Bepb 

(fi mrga) OAHOBpeMeHHO co3Be3AHe TonoBa AHTHjronbi (^mjnrgagras) 

BTyMaHHOCTH OpHOHa h npoxoAfliAeeMHMO Hero H3Be3AM Tlcd^gvan) 

bahh BeceHHero h oceHnero paBHOAeucrBHH cojinue. BpHiiiaKann 

AeHCTBHTejibHO HasbiBaercH pbi>KHM hjih »ejiTbiM hjih 6yjraHbiM hjih 

nJiaMeHHbiM 3BepeM (^raft d^t ^371= vršakapi hanto mrgab) h 3to 

no3BOJi5ieT roBopHTb ero cBeroHOCHOH npnpoAe, ho mm He mokcm 

corjiacHTbca c JI.B.r.TnjiaKOM btom, hto HMeH0BaHHe3BepeM cjry>KHT 

AocraTOMHbiM ocHOBaHHeM ajw 0T0)KAecTBneHH5i c aHTOJionoH (jp mrga) 

mah c HMeioiJTHM TaKOH >Ke3nHTeT BpHTpOH (fi?i mrga vrtra) (1.80.5-7; 

V.32.3; VIII.93. 14-15). Tai<oe noHHMaHHe 6a3HpyeTca Ha y3KOM 

BHeKOHTeKdHOM HCTOAKOBaHMH o6pa3a >KHBOTHoro (ff mrga) B PB: OH 

HcnoJTb3yeTCHAna onncaHHa HCTOJibKO hjih HCKTfjronHTejibHO AeMOHmecKHX 

nepcoHa)KeH Beeco3HaTenbHoro, ho h nocroaHHO Ana xapaKTepHCTHKH 

BoenpHHTHfl nejioBeKOM Chji CBera CBepxco3HaTejibHoro (^n deva)- 

BoMcecTBeHHOM Bojih (a# agni) (I. 145.5 ; 1. 1 73.2), THOCHca (^s indra) 

(VIH.l .20; V1II.2.6; Vffl.33.8; X. 180.2) c Ero Thcbom fa rudra) (11.33. 1 1) h 



1 Cm.: ORAV.P. 86 and 145-147. 
2 Cm.:ORAVP. 136. 
3 Cm.: ORAV.P. 148-149. 

119 






(X40.4), Hcthhhoh PeHH (fmvmd (VH^.^ajouiero H M nynbc Ebn™ 
ocnoAHHa MojiHTBbi (w^m^M^m sautar) (1. 1 90.2-3), BnaKeHcma 
(m saw) (1X32 .4) h Bey*ecymHOCTH (^ušiiu) (1. 1 54.2). Hmchho Bropaa 
HHTepnperauHa HMeHOBaHM BpHuia K ann ssepeM (^ wr *«) 
noATBep^aerc« ap^hmh ero xapaKrepHCTHKaMH. Thk oh «B/ra 

n»HHM HJTH >KeilTb.M HJIH P b.)KHM (^/m/o) ; a Be/tb 3TO THnHHHblH 

UBer SnaroAaiHbK h h P khx Konefi hjih jiy^H CBerona Pa 3 yMa (^ ^ 
srh: ^ m W« ^ đ - /«,/, 5^^ atrd) (Li 15.3; cm. TaKtte 
I.1154H5;I.121.13;Y29.5;Y45.10;X112.3) HJ1 HrHocHca(^3 ra ^^ 
mndra a tva jacbantu korito na suryam) (1.130.2; cm. TaK>Keffl44 1 h4- 
X.3 1 .8; X33.5) hjih uapamero cbctom Tsopua (g««^*™ W TO 
ham rat* tvaštSn rdjati) (VA7 .9)-EMy n W cy m unmm^mmrom 
frzn&nmnmmtindre ni rupa kanta mimikšire) (X 96 3) KpoMe 
toro, He^HaHHbiMHBJisercs h onHcaHHeo6e3bHHbi (w kap) K ax 6biKa 
(^ w&0, nocKojibKy nocJieflHHH CHMBOjiH3H P yeT Momčio CHjiy b 
yacTHocrHyMaCBeTa(55OTfi6B)(cM.Hanp.I.7.6H8;L9.4;1 10 10-132 3 H 
7; 1.33.6, 1 h 1 3 h t. A .). Bojiee toro, xa K Ke Ka K o6e3b* H a (w kapi) 
HasbmaeTCH 6b>Kono£o6 H b,M nbuiarom™ 3BepeM (^ w . ^ }Jito 
mrgab) 1 hochc (^ mdra) xapaKTepH3yerc* Kax 3Be P b ( m mrm) (cm 
Bbime) h njiaMeHHbiH 6mk (nM^ kanto vrša) (JH.44.4). T.o Haralo 
cvmHocTHoepoflcreo Me>KD,y sthmhj^m* nepcoHa«aMH. 

B 3toh cbhsh o6pamaioT Ha ce6« BHHMaHHe ABa cooemeHi« 
naMiTTHHKa. B nepsoM Troep^aercs, hto hckto o6jiaAaiomHH nBeTOM 

Obe3b»HbI HJIH KOpHHHeBaTO-pbDKeBaiblH - OflHH H3 /iec«TH H B TO >Ke 

BpeMH o6ihhh nm Bcex- no6y>weTCH KflocrHkeHHio Bb.cmeH chjib. 

BOJiHHeroKaKxopomoycTpoeHHbiHByTpo6eHHeyMeK)04HHpa3JiHHaTb 
aapoflbmi BbmauiHBaeT h Jiejieer Marb (zmfcž *m ^ t ^^ 

^mm i ^ nrar gfef w^^ft wm dagdndmekam kapilam 
sarnanam tam kinvanti kratavepdrydya / garbham mdtd sudhitam 
vaksmmxrmimtma&ymti bitom) (X.27.16). Bobto P om npn onncaHHH 
nopoMwaK)mHx rHOCHC (^^mymaymta rndn^n) (1.85.2) chji mhcjih 
(^^^n^5w^'m)(I.166.6)HX3axBaTbiBaioiHa5inoTOK(CBeTa) 
CBe P Kaiom M To. m a3HaTOKOBcpaBHHBae T c5 I c(onycromaK)u 4 eH) A epeBo 
*™ kapana (srarfž, ^ ^ ^^K^tw tf ^ ^ *^ r *;7 



gordim mamto jad amasam mošathd vrkšam kapaneva vedhasdS) (V.54.6); 
mh no3BOJiHM ce6e He cornacHTbca c o6inenpHHHTbiM b 
HaTypanHCTHHecKOH TeopHH HHTepnpeTauiHH nepeBOAOM cjiOBa^nt 
kapana KaK "ryceHHua/ HepBb" KaK npomBOAHoro ot ^\~kamp- 
u Apo>KaTb/ TpflCTH(cb)" ; no HameMy mhchhio, penb 3Aecb hact o 
nHTaroineHCfl ApeBecHbiMH ruiOAaMH o6e3b«He (m kapi) h hmchho en 
ynoAo6jTaFOTffl Mapyrbi. 

T.o. c})Hrypa OKpameHHoro noAo6HO o6e3MiHe3apoAbiLua (ws 
M kapUaii garbham) cny>KHT CBa3yiomHM 3BeHOM Me>KAy oracbiBaervf mmh 
KaK o6e3WiHa hjih o6e3baHbi Hfl,ee-CHJiaMH (5$mfrwČ8 gardbo mamto 
kapaneva) h 6biKonoAo6HOH o6e3b«HOH (?wr zmkapi) h CHMBOJiH3Hpyer, 
Ha Ham B3rji5m, noTeHHHajibHO coAep>KaiiryK) b ce6e bcio coBOKynHocrb 
rHOCTHqecKHx MeHTajTbHbix3Hepr™ Mbicnb.TaKOHBbiBOflnoAKpeiuraeroi 
uentrM pmou coo6iipihh naMjrniHKa. Kamina HBjraerca oahhm H3 Aeorr h 
(^ihih* daganamekatn), ho npn 3tom o6ihhm /jjm Bcex (mri samdnam) 
hjih Bbipa>KaiomHM b ce6e Bce AecaTb CBepKaioiij;HX (^m^^dagabfir 
vivasvata) (Vin.72.8) Mbianen (mFČnf&ii vivasvata dhiyo) (LX.99.2)YMa 
CBda (^m^manau vivasvati) (VTII.52. 1 ) - ero BKJiaAbiBaiOT KaK 
3apoAbiiu b HenoBeHecKyio JiHHHOCTb h 3aieM no6y>KAaioT k AOCBĐKeHHK) 
B HeH BbiciueH HMMaHeHTHOH Bojth (a ft^ra w«r ith ton hinvanti 
kratavepdrydya garbham). CBepKaiomHH jTocnoAHH (k^mvazvasvatatn 
jamom) (cm. Bbiuie) H jThochc (^ indra) -3T0 oaho h to >Ke EAHHoe 
Bo>i(ecTBeHHoe Cymee (vt aniwi i^ h i ^ ^™ ^ ^rt *m ^g- 
indram dhuratho divjaJj sa / ekarii sad viprd bahudhd vadanti jamom 
dhuh) (1. 1 64.46), h b to >Ke BpeMa mo>kho HAeHTHcjjHunpoBaTb AecaTb 
npHcym,HX EMy CH5nouiHX HAen 0?^m^raiw dagabhir vivasvata 
dbijo) c AaiomHMH AecaTb KopoB hjih McnycKaiomHMH AecHTb jiyqeH 
Md^yidMW^^^[-maruta dacagvdb)(U34.\ 1-12). EAHHOcymHOCTb 
Kannjibi h MapyroB noATBep^Aaerca eme oahhm c]bktom: KaK nepBoro 
npoH3BOAaT KaK HaxoAfliu,HHca b yTpo6e MaTepn 3apoAbuu (m^m §fo{ 
^mwm garbham mdtd sudhitarh vakšand bibharti), TaK >Ke h BTopbie 
nopo>KAaiOTca H3 yTpo6 MeHTajibHoro CBeTa (ai^mtJ^s^am^i^an 
?mw-ajanayo mamto vaksandbhjo diva a vakšandbhjah) (1.134.4). 

1 Cm.:MWSED. P. 250. Column 1 ; P. 252. Columns 2-3. 

121 



B cboko onepeAt. Ba^HenmHe xapaKTepHCTHKH MapyTOB 
coBna/raioT c TaKOBbiMH BpnniaKanH. llpe>KAe Bcero, ohh HMeHyK)Tca 
6biKaMH(iT5r(:iwt marutah vršano) (1.165.1 ; 13.33. 13; VIH20. 12 h 19) H 
cpaBHHBaiOTCfl co 3BepeM (fi mrga) (cm. Bbiuie). /Jauee, ohh HMeiOT 
cym(HOCTHyio cBa3b c Fhochcom - He mnbKO co3flaiOT Ero {wp^ wsž 
janayanta indrijam) (cm. BbiHie), ho h hbjuhotch Ero C0Aep>KHMbiM (^s. 
^č^zWra??7^&K?7f)(I.20.5;I.23.7;I.80.11;1.100.1-15;I.101.1-8;I.142.12; 
m.4.6; m.35.7; m.47. 1 h 5; H150. 1 ; ni.5 1 .7; IV21 .3; VI. 1 9. 1 1 ; VI.47.5; VHI.36. 1 ; 
Vm.76.1; VIH.76.4-8; LX.64.22; LX.65.10; DC.107.17) h b to >KeBpeMfl 
C0Aep>KaT Ero b ce6e (*m- 1^^ : marntd) vndravantdp) (V.57. 1); 0flHa)K£bi 
Oh Aa>Ke Ha3biBaerc5i Bcero JiHmb crapujHM H3 hhx («^hwi indrajpđoa 
marudgana) (1.23.8). KpoMeioro, hx HMeHyfOTEro Apy3b»MH (nanp., tm 
šv^Fimš^mmaruta ine indrdja sakbye sakhaya) (1.165.1). 

B PB ot HMeHH caMoro EHOcnca (fs indra) npoB03rjiamaeTca, 
hto Pa3yM h Cbctoh npeAcraBJiHiOT co6oh /ipa Ero npoaBJieHHa (aissps, 
^^^l^^iabam manur abhavarh surjac ca aharh) (IV.26.1). Mbi 
corjiamaeMC« c rHnoTe30H III.A.ExoiHa o tom, hto MapyTbi 

CHMBOJIH3HpyK)T HHCTbie CHJIbl MeHTaUbHOCTH HJTH nepBbIH H3 

BbiLueynoMiiHyTbix rHocraHecKHX acneKTOB h nonaraeM, hto thmh o 
BpHuiaKanH mo>kho npo^HTaTb b TepMHHax ncHxojiorHqecKOH 
HHTepnperaLiHH nyreM conocraBJieHHfl ero c,npyrHMH ynoMHHaiomHMH 
MapyroB h ikkohcjmhktcHhapoh rHMHaMH naMATHHKa. 

B oahom H3 hhx nepBbie cnpauiHBaioT BToporo, 3aqeM oh xohct 
y6HTb hx - cbohx 6paTbeB - h npocHT ero He y6HBaTb hx b crojiKHOBeHHH 
h oSpauraTbCH c hhmh xopomo (š h ^ Pwi«w grad hmw i ctft= 
+cmh ht^it ht *■■ ?iwt ^f[: kim na indra jighdmsasi bhrataro marutastava 
tethih kalpasva sadl}uya ma ruh samarane vadhh) (1. 1 70.2). Tohho TaK >Ke 
Croia rHOCHca (?si°Tt indrdm) nprobiBaer npecjiejryioiiryK) Ka6aHa co6aKy 
BuenHTbCH b yxo BpHtuaKann (^^R^sjf^a^^fsRi^cTO nvasja 
jambhis adapi kame varahayur) - co6aKa 3flecb 03naHaer rHOCTH l iecKyro 
HHTyHUHK) (cm. Bbiuie), a noA y6eraiomHMH ot nee Ka6aHaMH 
noflpa3yMeBaiOTC5i HHcrbie SHeprnu yMa hjih Mapy™ (^4™^ *m^ 
^\^^WL.mamto gotamo vab pacyan vidhdvato vardhun) (1.88.5)- 

1 Cm. i iHrepnperam no o6pa3a MapvroB hi« kohcjuii iicra c Hunpoii: SASV P. 254-262. 
122 



hjih >Ke rpo3HTca caMa pa36HTb eMy tojiob]/ (ftra^p? w dro nvasya 
rdumn). Ka6aHaMH mhcjih (MapyTbi) HMeHjrorcH, no-BHAHMOMy, H3-3a 
hx BpeMeHHoro noAHHHeHna Becco3HaTejibHOMy, Hb$i HHepuHH 
conpoTHBJieHH« CBepxpa3yMyTaK>KeHa3biBaeTC5i Ka6aHOM (fR^im 
vrtram vardbum) (1. 1 2 1 . 1 1 ). 

Thocmc (^5 indra) OTBenaeT CHJiaM pa3yMa (*m-- marutah) H 
npeflcraBJWK)meMy hx mhcthio/ Aracrbe, hto tot - Ero 6paT h Apyr - 
Mano Ero yBa>KaerHBMbiaiHXCBOHXHe)KeraCT 
(f¥ h! «ra^?^ a^i ^TvifcT t^š i ™ ft ži*n ihi aren^mH, * ftčnra 
fe no bhrđtaragastya saklod sannati manyase / vidmd hi teyatbd mano 
cmiabhyamin na <&as)(L170.3).ToHHOTaK»e3HeprHHrHOCHca(55i<ift 
indrdni) yrpo>KaeT BpHUiaKanH H3-3a Toro, hto oh AonycxaeT b cbožm 
noBeAeHHH OTKnoHeHHfl (s#t: vyathib) u HenpaBmibHbieneHCTBHH (^ 
duškrte), a hmchho emuoiimm Hacna^aerca pacrymHM Cbctom 
ncHXMHecKorocyiMecTBanpoH3BOflHii^erocaMono>KepTBOBaHHeqenoBeKa 
(awt^3fe^^đryo vd puštimad vašu) 1 H B cbočm reAOHHCTHHecKOM 
Hacjia>KAeHHH He BcnoMHHaeT 06 HcronHHKe h npHHHHe CBoero 
6jia>KeHHoro coctohhm - CHniomeM Jloroce- h y)Ke He >KepTByeT EMy (i 
ft đčrt«l$ra fo{ M«a i 'ra'^ITOft^' $3. vi hi sotorasrkšata 
nendram devamamamsata / jatrdmadad vršdkapir aryab puštešu);B 
pe3yjibTaTerHOCHCAaJieKO yxoAHTOT Hero (to^™^^* 
para kndra dhdvasi vrsdkaperati vyatbih) h oh HCKa^aer y>Ke c03AaHHbie 
Ero Chjioh h mo6HMbie Eio TBopeHHH (m\ mft *t +n4*i *zg^pnyd 
taštdni me kapirvyaktd vyadudušat). 

AracTbJi BbiHy>KAeH Tenepb o6paraTbCfl k CHJiaM CBoero yMa c 
npocb6oH npocTHTb ero 3aTO, hto npHTOTOBneHHbiH pm hhx nprobiB- 
BbiToneHHoe ncn XM4ecKHM cepAueM u mucjmo BOCXBaneHHe (wh*wh 
^i^m^imstomo namasvdn hrdd tašto manasd dhdyi) (l.ll \ .2) - on 
o6pamaeT k ri-iocHcy, Aa6bi He HcnbuaTb Ha ce6e AeHCTBHe Ero raeBa 

(3WHT<?Š ami^HTiT %fKl^ fali Htt\ }=WR: I %***** 5^1 R^ČU^m^ 

čTF*nt ^™ »pa *■■ asmddabam tavišddlšamdna indrdd bhiyd maruto 
rejamdnah yušmabJjyath havyd nidtdnjdsan tdnjdre cakrmd mrlata nah) 
(1.171 .4). Tenepb yMy nenoBeKa hco6xoahmo 3aBoeBaTb pacnono>KeHMe 

1 Cm. 03naMCiiiiiiTepMiniaa*iBPB:SASV.P. 461462. 

123 



3HeprnH FHOCHca (wm\ indrdni) hjim HHaqeBcrynHTb c Hero b nro6oBHyro 
CBA3b - Koma Fhochc fes. hidra) cnpauiHBaer Ee o npuHHHe Ee Hana,n,eHra 
Ha npHHaflne>KamHH Hm yM HenoBeKa (=[wr vršakapi) (rei -i<-ow^4)fa 
ffrarc £z>?? rwstuamaUjyam&i ■vršdkapim) (X.86.8), OHa OTBenaeT, hto tot 
HauejrHBaeTCfl Ha Hee Kan Ha 6e3My>KHroK) >KeHmHHy ( ^jk i ^HM ^m^M 
wm aviramiva mdmajam cardrurabhi manjate) (X.86.9). Fhochc 
cJ3aKTHqecKH 3acTaBjiaer Ee BcrynHTb b CB*i3b cpa3yM0M, t.k. 6e3 Hero Ero 
cymecTBOBaHMe HenonHoueHHO h no3TOMy 6e3pa^ocTHo h ero 
AeHCTBeHHbiH npH3biB EMy npHSTeH h AOCTHraer Chji CBda (^Pk i ni 
x\m H^m^H i i(^<m-^ 5R; f?pq ^| 3 r[vfa ndhamindrdm rdrana 
saklmvršdkaper te / yasyedamapyam havih pijani devešu gad)att) (X.86. 1 2); 
KpoMe Toro, HHrae b ApyroM Mecre Oh He HaHAeT BbDKHMaeMoro EMy 
noAHonieHHH (ht an rPr^j^j swW no aha pravinda.syanyatra 
somaplta)?) (X.86.2). Tohho Tax >i<e jijm ,zryxoBHoro nporpecca nejroBeKa 
Heo6xoAHMo, HTo6bi flBe (}x)pMbi npoHBJieHHJi THOCHca b ero cymecTBe - 
mcrbiM yM (Mapyrbi) h ch5TK)iij,hh CBepxpa3yM (HHflpa) - B rapMOHHH 
npHHHMajiH ero mojihtbm Orc rt to^: đ ^rw širih ^gsu s^ira mafra 
to« marudbhih sam vadasvddha prdgdna rtutha havlmši) (1.170.5). CHJia 
nocne^Hero (s^pft indrdni) b npou,ecce nroGoBHoro coeflHHeHHH c 
nejioBeqecKHM MbmiJieHHeM (iwr vršakapi) AejiaeT ero 6eccMepTHbiM 
(?^5MtaT^ ^tr§ ^Tm^n*^ i ^u?w ^r 3rhi *rra w^ indrdnima.su 
ndrišu subhagdmabamacravam / nabyasyaparam cana jarasd morate 
patir)(XM.n). 

TaKaa HHTepnpeTauHH B3aHM00TH0iueHHH Hnaparoi (HHjrobi) c 
BpHuiaKanH (MapyTaMH) no^iBep^aeTCfl coo6meHH5iMH HcroHHHKa o 
tom, hto b o6m;ecTBe SHeprafl mmcjih nocTOHHHO npHcyTCTByeT 
PoKOHyLU,aa Cnna CBera (*r^ rodaši devi) (V.50.5); OHa npeKpacHa h 
norj;o6Ha coriHeHHOMy cBeTy h mojthhh h HaxoflHTOi na c\\j\tm\^x nx 
KOJiecHHU, (sit ^^toch č^fer ra?pi^ sra ?&%?■■ d vandhurešv ornatima 
darcatd vudjim na tasthau mantto rathešu vab) (1.64.9; cm. TaK)KeV.56.8- 
9); OHa npeSbroaer cpe/rn hhx KaK HcnycKaroin,HH co6cTBeHHoe CHSHHe 
HCTOHHHK CBeTa (aro *% ^ft ^n^rih^ čtctt ^ te adha smaišu 
7vdasi svacoardmavatsu tasdoau na rokah) (VL66.6);B30JiOTbixo,n,e$iHHflx 
h yMaiu(eHHa5! MacnoM, OHa JiacTHTca k hhm KaK npn6jiH)KaiomeecH ocrpne 
hjih KaKTaHHO wyu\d& Ha cBHflaHHe *eHa Ha^enenHoro MbiuineHMeM hhh 
124 



kuk oGpai i p n ioc iccoGpai ihio hach u oMi^ahi ihioi i iee nx Cjiobo Bora (frk*i 
^3 <*ćiH1 ftx t mfti & f»rrei h sets; i 351 ^ai h^mI q ira fmračfi fo^n? h ^i^ 
mimyakša yešu gbrtda Lnranjamrmgupard na lilib / gitln carariG manušo 
na yošd salMvati vidalbycva sarii vdk) (1. 1 67.3); b cboio OHepe&b 3HeprHH 
Mi>icni<i coeAHiiiiioTOi c Heio Kai< co ciioeio iohoio »enoio (wbwiwi 
m^vm^-yavyd sddbdranyeva maruto mimikšub) (1.167 '.4). 

Oi lajuirmera npnHćwie>KaineH BnaAMKeHcTOHHHKOB )Kh3hh hjih 
CymeMy m Cmjihmcm moujjioh Mbicnn (s^\w^\^m-^asuryd rodasl 
mmanah stojeću) (1. 1 67.5) h /i,ani ićui xapaKTepHCTHKa n03BOJwer c6ojibwoH 
creneHbK) AOCTOBepHocrn 0T0>KAecTBHTb Ee c Chjioh FHOcnca (s^mt 
indrdni), nocKOJibKy Oh (<&. tndra) nocTOMHHO onHCbiBaeroi KaK EocnoAHH 
>Kn3HeHHoro j\h\v&nwA hjih CymHH (3^ ama) (1. 1 74. 1 ; VHI.90.6; X.96. 1 1 ; 
X.99. 1 2; cm . raioKe IV. 1 6.2; VI.20.2; VI.30.2; VI.36. 1 ; VII.21 .7; VH.22.5; 
X.50.3; X.54.4; X.99.2; X. 1 05. 1 1 ) h bto »<e BpeMH KaK Cbctoh (*$ sinja) 
(cm. Bbime). HeMeiiceBa>i<iio B3TOH gbsoh h coo6mennenaMHTHHKao 
tom, hto HCTHHHoe BejiHHHe MapyTOB 3aKJiK)HaeTC5i b tom, hto cpeAH HHX 
npeGbiBaer o&iaAaiomaa MoryneH hjih 6biHbefi Mbiaibio croHKaa u ropAaa 
PoAacH (q ^i im\ m^ ^ ^fca i ^ ^a ww sm fcm ya ešdrh 
marutdm mabimd satyo asu / sacd yadlrh vršamand abamyu sthird) 
(1. 1 67.7) - noTOMy hto hx co3HaHHe cocraBUHer oaho uenoe (n*di<l<^ 
M : mamto ivdasi samanasah) (1.186.8). EmeoAHHM noAT"Bep}K&aK)mHM 
OTTOKAecTBJieHHe HHApaHH h PoAacn {jmKTOM HBJiaercH ynoMHHaHHe o 
AapeHHH nocjieAHen CKOTa H3 KopoB, kohch h OBeu, hhcjiom b cothk) (?ra, 
frc^iHAm.^ *wi w wHjanat sdcvjam pacum uta gavyam gatdvajam) 

(V.61 .5); O CHMBOJIHHeCKOM 3HaqeHHH AaHHbIX >KHBOTHbIX B PB Mbl y)Ke 

roBopHJTH Bbime (cm. niaBy I), a hhcjio 1 00 hbho yKa3biBaer Ha npHcyn(He 
FHOCHCy cto chji bojih (^^ič^g^i^T^Rn indra gatakratu rndid manasa) 
(VL40.4). CTaKHM noiiHMaHHeM o6pa3aPoAacn nojmocrbio corjracyeTca 
coo6meHHe HCTOHHHKa o tom, hto oHaBbiHCKMBaeT AyxoBHO >Ka>KAyiJ4ero 
h rojioAaioiuero h »enaioinero Ee nenoBeKa h HanpaBJiaer ero pa3yM Ha 
AOCTH>KeHHe Chji CBeTa (t% **r ^m ^iw? r čp^a ft *imn i ^m f# 
ih:w yd janati jasurirh vi tršyantam vi kaminom / devatrd krnute 
monah) (V.61. 7). 

CraB B03Jiio6jieHi ioh ĐprauaKaim hjih nenoBenecKoro pa3yMa, 
3Heprna E-iocnca hjih PlHAparoi nopo>KAaeTB hčm npeKpacHoenoTOMCTBO 

125 



B BHJje My>KCKHX (CbEHOBbfl) H >KeHCKHX (HeBeCTKH) rHOCTHHeCKHX HMTF/JIbCOB 

h 3aTCM AapMT CBoeMy nojjjiHHHOMy cynpyry - CBepxpa3yMy hjih HHjjpe 

- npHJITHblH H StjpđpeKTHBHbIH npH3bIB H 6bIKOB HJIH JiyHH (<jm+mfa«id 

^% ang g^g^ i sih^čt 5^ ^oj: m ot%c^;' ^^vršdkapdji revati 
suputra adu susnuše / ghasat ta indra ukšanah prijam kdatkaram havir) 
(X.86.13). 

OGpaTHMCfl Tenepb k aHajiH3y flaHHbix tom, hto 06e3b5iHa- 
pa3MepoM-c-6biKa HaxoflHT OTJiMHoe ot Hee y6HToe >KHBOTHoe (f*raw 
H<H-d sčt rač^ vršdkapih parasvantam hatarh vidat), aTaiOKe ho)K, 
Kop3HHy, HOBbiH cocyA h rpy>KeHyK) /npoBaMH noB03Ky (arof^f ^ 
•^hkm^h snrof asimsundm navarh carumddedhasjdna acitam). Mbi He 
MO)KeM comacHTbCH cnpomBOjiHMbiM JI.Br.THJiaKOM aro>Kn,ecrBneHneM 
y6HToro >khbothoj:o (si &rfaw?) c caMOH o6e3bSHOH (sfo kapih). TaiOKe 
Mbi HeMO)KeM npHHjrrb npejjjiaraeMoro yneHbiM nepeBOAa oiOBaTO^i 
parasvantam KaK ",upyroH/ otjihhhbih" h CHHTaeM, hto oho aojdkho 
nq)eBoziHTbC5i KaK "flajieKHH". Mbi He CTHTaeM ii;oKa3yeMOH Teopnio 

HHflHHCKOrO HCCJie^OBaTeJI« O npOH3BOJJ,HMOH Hh^poh noflMeHe 

BpHmaKariH Ha noAo6Horo eMy h b to >Ke BpeMJi orjMHHoro ot Hero 3Bepa. 
IIoAo6Hapy)KHBaeMbiM pa3yM0M (cm. Bbime) y5HTbiM AajieKHM >KHBOTHbiM 
(^mn- "TO^rJCčf ra^L vršdkapih parasvantam hatarh vidat) Mbi nOHHMaeM 
yHHHTO>KeHHyK> Thochcom (^5 indra) HHepunio Eecco3HaTejibHoro (?t 
vrtna). Uo npoHHKHOBeHHH b Hero yw AoGbBaer ho>k hjih KHH>Kaji hjih Men 
(a# osim), Kop3HHy (*p sundrh), HOBbiH cocy,u, (j^l^mjiavam carum) 
H rpy>KeHyro /ipoBaMH noB03Ky (a#iwR 3#?čf ddedhasjdna acitam); Bce 
3TH HaXOflKH CHMBOJU/RHbl H HMeiOT ncrocojiorHiecKoe 3HaqeHHe- MeHOM 
hjih htokom b PB HMeHyiOTca Eo)KecTBeHHaH Bona (w^A agne iva 
asih) (X.79.6) h CBepxpa3yM (^s#rt?i indra asir na) (X.89.8), noA 
cocyjj,OM noApa3yMeBaercM BMecTHJiHiue ,napyeMOH Thochcom jryxoBHOH 
nHiun (h Ht ^wg ^ <h=ikn?rt ffa 5đ wo vršannamurh carum 
satrdddmrmapd vrdhi) (1.7.6), Kop3HHa HcnoJib3yerc5i cynpaMenTajibHbiMH 
3HeprnaMH (^m: rbhavah) pm o6pa6oTKH KopoBbi hjih jryna CBera (*&■■ 
tom ^m^H^ekah pimgati sunajdhhrtam) (1.161.10) , noneHbH jijih 

1 Cm.:MWSED.P. 589. Column 1. 

2 Cm. 3Ha i reHHH,naHHoro Mi-ii^a: SASV P. 328. 

126 



pa3>KHraHHfl njiaMeHH Eo>KecTBeHHOH Bojim (smagm) 03HaHaiOTTpH 
Bbipa)KaromMX Co3HaHHe Ejia>KeHHoro CymecrBOBaHHfl (fHmsifR sat- 
at-ananda) CTHXOTBopHbix pa3Mepa (nrnF? iiw gdyatrasya 
samidbastisra) (1. 1 64.25). 

PeKOHcrpyHpyeMoe Jl.B.r.TnjiaKOM nyreiuecTBHe BpninaKanH b 
hh>khhh MHp (ffimi 3&<\ nedlyaso asta) c nocjie/ryK)iHHM B03BpaT0M b 
Bbicujyw o6jiacrb (*wgrha) npe6biBaHMfl Hn/jpbi He npoTHBOpenHT 
ncnxojiorHHecKOH HHTepnpeiauHH (n^ ^ isjfčr ^ ^ ferajn ft *trrt 
i ^#ttht ^mn 3R?Rt ifigr dbanva ca jat krnta.tr arh ca kati svit ta vi 
jojand / nedžjdso vjidkape astamdn gilmiupa). Fhochc (HnApa) 3MaHHpyer 
cboio CHJiy b (})0pMepa3yMa (BpHiuaKanH) b Eecco3HaTejibHoe hjih 
3a6poiueHHoe )KHJiHiu,e {^m asta) pjm npocBerjieHHfl nocueAHero h 3aieM 
ona AOJDKna BepnyTbca aomoh hjih BoccoeAHUHTbCJi c Hum /uia 
coBepmenMHApyrHx6narHXAeJi(3?ftft^raq#ai^Pii4 i q ^hvh^h i 
nmn\k m^Kpunarehi vj-šdkape suuta kalpajdvahai ya ešasvapnanariicano 
astameši padu punar). lio BbinojiHeHHH 3toh 3&iwm ohh oO'beflHHJTHDTCH 

H nOAHHMaiOTCa B BbICIHHH LjeHTp C03HaHHM, TBOpflinerO MHOrO 3Jia H 

B03Mymaiomero cymecrBa 3Bep5i hjih Becco3HaTenbHoro 6onbine Her h 
no3TOMy aBTop rnMHa 3ajj,aer ecrecrBeHHbiH Bonpoc - me >Ke oh h k KOMy 
yujeji hjih Koro Tenepb no/riHHfleT ce6e (^^ ^H^in^H'kdH i wt 
bt g^tw5jt: ^ipt^mm^mhi jadudanco vršdkape grbamindrdjagantana / 
kva sya ptdvaghomrgab kamagan janajopano)! 

JT.B.r.THjiaK3aTpyAHHeTCfl KaK-Jin6o HHTepnpeTHpoBaTb 

nOCJieAHHH CTHX THMHa BpHiuaKanH, B KOTOpOM roBopnTca 06 

OAHOBpeMeHHOM nopo)KAeHHH A0 l iepbK)pa3yMa (w mdnavi) no HMeHH 
Cepn hjih H3orHyTbiH KnH)Kaji hjih CeKnpa (^parcu) /jpanuam Aeren 
(^i<(^mw^m^m^m\]m^parcurha nama mdnavi sdkam sasuva 
virim tim) (23). Y Hac hct HHKaKoro coMHeHHa b tom, hto 3/j,ecb roBopHTOi 
06 oahoh H3 rHOCTHHecKHx n/ien, nocKOJibKy Thockc (šfs indra) 
npoHBjuieTca b BH/re yMa (a^n^am aham manur abhavarh) (IV.26. 1) 
u xapaKTepH3yerca KaK Aaromafl aBTopy rnMHa Tbicaqy ccmah Mbicjin 
(«<iwdi jhht *čf: sahasraretdmanaso retah) (cm. Bbiine) CeKnpa (aisai^i 
tprnišaharn sahasrarii parcdvd dade) (VIH.6.46). Hto )Ke KacaeTCH 



1 Cm.: ORAV.P. 147-148. 



127 



;u«wi uitkm (mmjArii(a tim),ro mokiio npeAnojio>KHTb, mto baćihiiom 

ai3AiaeroBopH-rcaopeByjibraTConHci ) iiacMOi-OB'i 1 x;xnpc;u,i;iyiuHxcrHX<ix 
(20-22) BOCcoeflHHeHM flec$?TH Tpancu,eiiAeiiTi!bix (Mn/ipa) h accm tu 
HMMaHeHTHbix (BpHiiiaKanH) HAee-cwi Ym CBCTa (^mm^dagab/jir 
vivasvata (VIII.72.8) ~ww^m mt vivasvato dhijo (K.99.2) -rniR^črra 
marim vvvasvati (VIIJ.52. 1 )). 

T.o. mh(J) o BpumaKanH ne MOKer 6biTb afleKBaTHO o6'bjici ien b 
paMKax npeAnaraeMOH JT.B.r.TnjiaKOM acrpoHOMunecKOH HHTepnperaijHH 
PB h b to »e BpeMa xopoiuo HHTaerčM c no3HHHfi pa3pa6oTaHHOH 
III. A.rxomeM noKOJiormecKOH Teopnu HcronKOBaHHJi naMaronKa 

YHeHbiH ymep>KAaeT, hto BeAmecrae oo^ecroa BraiiHy h PyApa 
annaioTCH nepcoHHcJ3HKaiAiHMH MflrKoro u y)KacHoro acneicroB KJiHMara b 
Ahh BeceHHero h ocemero paBHOAeHCTBHH. ' OAHaKO oh ne hphboaht 
HmcaioK noATBep>K5aK)iAMx ero cnoBaAaHHbK naMflTHHKa h mm HeHaxoAMM 

OCHOBaHHH COrjiaLUaTbCH C HHMH. 

B noHCKax coAep^ameMCfl b HCTOHHHKe HHcpopMauHH 06 
acTpanbHbK sw\tmm. hhahhckhh HccneAOBaTejTb yTBep>KAaeT, hto Bapyna 
HMeHyeTca co3AaroiAHM 30AHaKajibHbiH noac (^ ^sj^r ^ q^ 
urum ucrunagcakam s?0^/^^)(I.24.8) 2 -HOBAaHHOMCOo6iAeHHH 

rOBOpHTCT JTHIIJL TOM, HTO HcTHHHM PeHb C03AaCT LlIHpOKHH nyTb flJBl 

Gcnomero Vms.. JI.B.r.TmiaK ororaer, hto tot »e 30AHaKanbHbifi noac 
noApa3yMeBaeTM noACraeH Hcthhm (m^^tpanthd nam, mt^š 
nam jati, m^^i rtasya pantha) (1.41 .4; V.45.7; V.45.8) 2 -ho yqeHblH 
HenpiffiOAHTHH oAHoro CBP«eTejibciBa3Be3AH0H npHpoAti o6pa3aHcrHHti 
(m rta) h no3TOMy Mbi ne HaxoAHM ochobhhhh coraaniaTbca c ero 

MHeHHeM. 

JI.B.r.THjiaK CTHTaer, hto aBTopu ApeBHeHiuroc BeAHHeci<Hx 
niMHOB ynoMHHaK)T TaroKe HeKOTopbie rmaHerbi cojihcthoh cHcreMbi: 
ABa>KAbi npeAJiaraeMbifi lHOCHcy (** truba) 3KCTpaKT (m soma) 
Ha3biBaeTca cobmcctho hhcthm (mctikra) hjih CMenianHbiM (^ 
marmn) (HI.32.2; DC.46.4) - no cnoBaM HHAHHCKoro Hi-rrepnperaTopa, b 
o5ohx coo6iAeHHKX coAep>KHTC5i eaMČK Ha raBecTHbieBTo BpeMfl nnaHCTbi; 

1 CM.:ORAVP.130anđ97. 

2 Cm.:ORAV.R120. 

128 









Aanee HMeercfl lpiuh tmmh b necrb HeKoero JboGainero (^ vena) (X. 1 23) 
- no MHeHHio yneHoro, ero mmh HMeer ApeBHHH MHAoeBponeHCKHH Kopenb 
h no3TOMy ero o6pa3 poAcreeHeH phmckoh 6orHHe jhoobh h Ha3BaHHOH b 
ee necTb njiaHeTe Benepe (Venus); 6onee Toro, ApeBHerpenecKoe 
HaHMeHOBaHHeBeHepbi Kupris HAeHTHHHO BTopoMy HMeHH BeAHHecKoro 
BeHbi -LLIyKpa (w P<M; TaKoe noHHMaHHe npHpoflu nepcoHama Benu 
noATBep>KAaeTCH yKa3aHHflMH Ha to, hto oh jmimera cbiHOM cmnomero 
(coJiHLia) (i?™ ?ffi ?£fcq ra^ imamapdm samgame sftryasya acum 
na) (1), pacnojio^en Ha BepiiiHHeHcTHHU (30AHaKairbHoro nosića) (sf«w 
m^mrtasja sdndvadhi) (2 u 3) h Bbixo«HT noflo6HO BOjme H3 
(KOCMMHecKoro) OKeaHa («^wrof samudrddilrmimudijarti) (2). Y 
coBpeMeHHbix HaTypanncTHHecKHX HHTepnperaTopoB BeHa CHHTaerca 
OTO»&eCTBJKeMUM cCypbefi b o6pa3eraHAxapBu Comoh h pce b cHJiy 
ero npoTHBopeHHBOCTH TaKoeTOJiKOBaHHe He mokct 6biTb npHH$rro, a 
BeAb b HeM eme npncyTCTByeT nepexoA c HaTypaiiHCTHHecKOH na 
a6crpaKTHyio no3HtiHK> o6tacHeHHa. HHKaKaa njiaHera hjih 3Be3Aa He 
MO)KeT Ha3biBaTbCH mčaom BeccMepTHH (^s^F? madljuo amrtasya) 

(3) H HHKaKOH 0nbflH3K)IHHH HJIH raJTJIK)LIHHOreHHbIH HanHTOK He MO)KeT 

HMeTb cbctohochoh o6ojiohkh (^\MA<\yyotirjardyfi) (1). IlepeAHaMH 
eiyeoAHOonMcaHHerHOCncaKaKJIio6BH(§Rim2)-OHnpe6biBaeTB 

BbiciueM He6e (tot mm^parame vyoman) (5) KaK CBeT c hhctum 
nnaMeneM (p® #n bhdnuh akrena) (8) b OKpy»eHHH npnflTHbix hmčh 
(ftoik sto m\m svarnandma janata prijam) (7). Hhahhckhh 
HCcneAOBaTenbTaioKe HeyKa3bmaeT, KaKyro nnaHery ofosHaHaer MaHTXHH 
h He npeAOcraBJiaeT HHKaKHX AOKa3aTejibCTB b noATBep«AeHHe CBoen 

TOHKH 3peHHfl. Mbl He HaXOAHM B03MO)KHOCTH COrJiaCHTbCfl C HHM BTOM, 

hto PB onucbiBaeT BeHepy hjth KaKne-iraSo Apyrne nnaHeru coJiHeHHOH 

CHcreMbi. 

JI .B.r.Ti'UiaK oopaiuaerefl k aHaxiH3y coAep^aiiieroca b HcroHHHKe 
mhcjb o AeMOHe CBap6xany, KoropuH noBpeAHJi MpaKOM CypbK) h H3-3a 
3Toro Bce cymecTBa 03HpanHCb, cjtobho c6HTbie c To;rKy m He y3Hafom.He 

MeCTa (*ra^T *$ MJI^fllR^ail^: I 3?JNfa5_q*fJ %«ft ^F\ 

ar^jgt yat tvd surya svarbbdnus tamasdvidhjad dsurab / akšetravid 



[ Cm.:ORAV.P. 122-125. 



129 



yatlja mug$x) /V;;i'tt7?M>?}'rt^/M}'/^)(V.40.5;cM.'i'aK>KeV.45. l ));i;cj[CM3a 
Apyn<iMH HaTypajincTHHecKHMH MHTepnpeTaropaMH 'lOJiKOBaTCJii, 
paccMaTpHBaeTAaHHoecoo6ineHHeKaKonHcaHHenojinorocoJiiieHiioro 
3aTMeHH5i; OAHaKO ero BHHMaHHe npHBJieKaer ynoMHnai ine o tom, hto 
mhcthk Atph name/i Cypbio (T.e. coJiHiie) nocpeACTBOM pm;« 
turf.yena brahmana (^^tm-^^m a#^3#: surya?fi turljena brahmana 
auindad atrilj) (V.40.6); BonpeKH o6menpHHflTOMy mhchhio Jl.B.r.TmiaK 
nepeBO^HT 3to cjioBoconeraHHe He KaK "qerBepTafl MOJiHTEa", a KaK 
"AeHCTBHe fam brahmana) noAo6Horo KBaApaHTy HHCTpyMeHTa AAfl 
H3MepeHH« BbicoT He6ecHbix CBeTHJi Ha/i,ropH30HTOM (gfi^r twiyena)"\ b 
pe3yjibTaTe yqeHbin AenaeT bhboa o tom, hto b PB roBopuTCfl o 
Ha6raoji,eHHH nonHoro coiiHeHHoro 3aTMeHHa npH noMOiHH oco6oro 
acTpoHOMHHecKoro npHcnocoGneHHH. Ohcbhaho, hto npnHMTb 
npeAnaraeMbiH JT.B.r.TunaKOM 3KcrpaBaraHTHbiH nepeBOABbipa^enHfl 
r^ur it^t turljena brahmana Hejib3H no npHHHHe ero hbhoh 
HaAyMaHHOCTH h Heo6ocHOBaHHOCTH. OnHaKO Mbi HecorjiamaeMCH u c 
o6meH HaTypajiHCTHHecKOH peKOHCTpyKHHeH BbiiueyKa3aHHoro cioKera 
h bhahm b HeM H3Jio>KeHHe ncHxonorHHecKoro npouecca noniomeHHfl 
AeMOHOM TbMbi Becco3HaTejibHoro h nocjieAyiou4ero ocBo6o>KAeHHa c 
noMom,bK) cynpaMeHTanbHOH hjih HeTBepTOH (^m turijena) (noćne 
(j)H3HqecK0H (^f^ekata), BHTanbHOH (m duta) h MemrajibHOH (m trita)) 
4)yHAaMeHTanbHOH cocraBTiflioiueH HenoBenecKoro cyu4ecrBa CH5uomero 
YMa Hcthhm ^n^tčR^^fi^ medhdrh rtasyd surya iva) (VIII. 6. 10). 
HasTOM apryMeHTbi b nonb3y pa3pa6oTaHHOH Jl.B.r.TmiaKOM 

aCTpOHOMHHeCKOH TeopHH HHTepnpeTarftfH peJTHrHH H MH(j)OJTOrHH PB 

HCHepnbmaioT ce6a . Ha ocHOBaHHH hx aHarnca mm MO>KeM Tenepb OTBeTHTb 
Ha ABa nocTaB.neHHbix b Hanane HccneAOBaHHfl Bonpoca. BbirjBHHyTaM 
hhahhckhm yneHMM repMeHeBTHnecKafl napaAHrMa ne no3BOJiJieT 
pacKpbiTb cHMBOJinqecKyK) cymHOCTb ynoMHHaeMbix b naMarnnKe 
o6pa30B h 3HaneHHe H3JiaraeMbix hm cro>KeTOB. OHa raK>Ke ne Aaer 

B03MO)KHOCTH HHTepnperapoBaTb KaKMe-JTn6o COAep)KaiHHeCH B 

hctohhhkc cooGujeHHfl KaK yKa3aHHe Ha npe6biBaHHe b momcht hx 
cocTaBJieHHH coriHua b AeHb BeceHHero paBHOAeHCTBHM b paHOHe 






■Cm.:ORAV.P. 120-122. 
130 



TyMaHHOdH OpnoHa h co3Be3AHH Bojibiiioro h Manoro FIcob m 
cooTBeTcraeHHO AaTHpoBaTb ApeBHeHLUHe BeflH necKHe raMHbi BpeMeneM 
He no3AHee 4000 r. ao h.3. 

HacKOJibKO HaM H3BecTHO, npoaHajw3HpoBaHHafl pa6oTa 
Jl.BT.THJiaKa HHKoraa b ucropHH OTenecrBeHHOH repMeHeBTHKM TeKcra 
PB He CTaHOBHJiacb npeAMeTOM nayHHoro H3yMeHHJi; jiHiub 
A.H.BBeAeHCKHH BCKonb3b ynoMHHaeT o Heft b CBoeM oSuiHpHOM 
HCcneAOBaHHH (1902). Mex<Ay TeM acrpoHOMHHecKaaTeopHJi HH^ioi, He 
ycTynaerApyrHM HaTypaJiHCTHnecKHM KOHuenijHflM HCTOJiKOBaHHH 
naMATHHKa h 3acjiy>KHBaeT 6biTb OTMeneHHOH KaK cMenasi nonbiTKa 
TartaHTjiHBoro MbicjiHTejia nocTHHL ero noAnnuHbiH CMbicn. 



1 Cm.: BBefleHCKiin A.H. Peni in i03Hoeco3Ham iesnbi i ieaBa. C. 738. npiiMenaHHe 14. 

131 



DiaBa III. 
Teopim KyjibTypHoro o6MeHa Me5K«y miBHJiioamiHMii 

imfloapneB ii Me>KflypeHb5i JI.E.r.TiuiaKa icaK 
HHCTpyMeHT HHTepnpeTauHii TeKda PnrBeAacaMxiiTbi. 

B repMeHeBTHnecKOM HacneAHM H3BecTHoro HHflHHCKoro 
ToiiKOBaTCJiH^eBHeHiiiHXBeflmecKHxrHMHOBJI.B.r.THJiaKaecrbOflHa 
He6ojibma5ipa6oTa noAHa3BaHHeM "Chaldeanandlndian Vedas" (1904- 
1917). 1 HecMOTpa Ha cboh He3HawrenbHUH o&beM, OHa mjiaraer ueir/ro 
cHcreMy nojioHeHHH opnrHHajibHOH Teopra HcronKOBaHra penHrHH h 
MH(Jx)JiorHH HHfloapHeB nepnofla cocraBJieHHH PB Hepa conocraBJieHHe 

HX CpeJWrH03HO-MHd30J10rHHeCKMMH H MaTHMeCKHMM npefl,CraBJieHH5IMH, 
OTpa*eHHbIMHBTmraxUHBHJIH3a^ 

aBiraera jiormecKHM pa3BwrneM pa3pa6oTaHHbix hhahmckhm ynei ibiM n 
P a3o6paHHbix HaMH b npeflUflymHX rnaBax apKTHHecKoro u 
acrpoHOMmecKoro noflXOAOB. C hx noMombK) nccneflOBaTenb AOKa3biBaeT 

CJmT3HaqHTCJIbHOH/]peBHOCIWBeAHHeCKOH UHBKJDCaUHH H OTHOCHTBpeMfl 

cocraBJieHi-ia caMoro paHHero co6paHHS ee thmhob - PB - k nepnoAy 
paHee4000r.AOH.3. 

^ajiee mm paccMOTpHM ocHOBHbie sneMeHTbi TeopHH 
K7JTbiypHoro o6MeHaHp5wnpoBOflHMbix JI£.r.TnnaKOM conocrameHHH 
pejiHrao3Ha-MH4)oi[on«ea<tixo6pa30B h ckkkctob h orAenbHbK noHjrrroi. 
B HeKOTopbix cjiynaax npOH3BOAHMbie hm bhboah hbjihiotcji 

HeOAH03HaHHbIMH, nOCKOJIbKy H3-3a OTCyTCTBHH AOnOJTHHTenbHOH 

HH^opMauHH hx Hejib3H onpoBeprHyTb jm6o npHMTb h b to »eBpeMH 
ohh AeMOHcrpHpyK)TyAHBHTenbHyio cMenocrb MbimJieram craKimero hx 
yneHoro; hx mo>kho CTecrb npo^yicroM HenpocrHTenbHO noBepxHOCTHoro 
yniy6neHHH b npeAMer HCcneflOBaHKH - ho TaKoe MHeroieTaioKe 6yAer 
npeAcraBJiHTb co6oh cy6i>eKTHBHyio oueHi<y no npuMHHe otcvtctbhh na 
HacrojimeM 3Tane p^fewraa HayKH KaKHx-jin6o no3BOJifnoiUHX CAenaTb 
OKomaTenbHoe3aKJiioMeHHeAaHHbix. BiaKHx cnjras« mbi orpaHOTHMca 

1 TilakB.G. Chaldean and Indian Vedas //TilakS.L Collected Works. VolumeII: Tlie Orion. Tlie 
ArcticHome in the Vedas. Vedic chronology & other essays. Poona, 1 975 (flanee OV). 

132 



JMiub H3Jio>KeHHeM BbiABHraeMbix TOJiKOBaTeneM apr/MenTOB, bo bcčx >Ke 
ocTajibHbix CHTyauHax nocrapaeMoi conocraBHTb hx c coAep>KaHHeM 
aHajiH3HpyeMoro HcroHHHKa h npeflocraBHTb B03HHKWHe b xoAe stoh 
npoBepKH pe3ynbTaTbi. 

JIET.TMJiaK nojiaraer, hto npii occ>3HaHHH o/moBpeMeHHOcni 
cymeciBOBaHHH aKKaACKOH (y Hero - xanAeHCKOH) h bcaiihckoh 
UiiBH^H3auHH b IV-VTbic. p,o H.3. ecrecTBeHHO npeAjiojiaraTb HajiHHHe 

Me>KAy HHMH B3aHMOOTHOUieHHH no MOpK) HJIH CyilJeH H 06MeHaCJI0BaMH 
H HA651MH. TaKHeKOHTaKTbl CJX)pMaJIbHO AOI<a3bIBaiOTCfl AByMfl (JBKTaMH: 

b ApeBHeHmeM naMaraHKe HHAoapHHCKOH JiHTepaTypbi - PB - 
ynoMHHaercHo6o3HaqaioiiJ[ee30JiOToeyKpauieHHeBbipa»eHHewawqr 
mana lmwiyaya(Vmj&.2)-J[.W.TmaK cooraocHTero CHa3BaHHeM 
AeHe>KHOH eAHHHUbi b aKKaACKOM H3biKe mana h pacijeHHBaer Taicoe 
coBnaAeHne KaK CBHAereribCTBO 3aHMCTBOBaHHa HHAoapnaMH AaHHoro 
cnoBa y >KHTejTeH Me>KAypeHba; yKa3aHHeM na ABH>KeHHe b o6paraoM 
HanpaBJieHHH Ana HeroaajwercH noAMeieHiioe A.Cshcom ynarpe6jieHHe 
cjioBa sindhu aKKaAuaMH hjih xajiAeaMH Ana onncaHHa ocoSoro BHAa 

TKaHH. 

Hhahhckhh yqeHbM hact AaJibine m yKa3biBaer Ha onncbiBaeMbiH 

ApeBHeHlUHMH BeAHHeCKHMH THMHaMH BHA3JIbIX AyXOB HJIH ro6jIHHOB- 
KHMHAHHOB: OHH XapaKTepH3yiOTCH KaK HeHaBHCTHHKH MOJIHTBbl H 

no>KHpaTejTH cbiporo Maca co cTpaujHbiM b3j:jmaom (t^^^r^ 
foW$ brahmadviše kravjdde ghoracakšase kimidine) (VII. 104.2) h 
coeAHHeHbi napaMH (i%u ir fMfcrr mithund yd kimidind hjih r%n 
i^tfcrr mithund kimidind) (VH.104.23; X.87.24); JT.B.r.TMJiaK CHHTaer 

4>aHTaCTHieCKHM BbIABHHyTOeApeBHeHHAHHCKHM ipaMMaTHKOM ilCKOH 

o6"b5icHeHHe hmchh fm\m.kimidin nepe3 Bbip&yKmne vmM^kim 
iddmm u hto rmepbT-T.e. htoohh ripeAcraBiraiOTCoSoH npHBHAeHra, 
KOTopbie6poAHTno3eMJieBnoHCKaxToro,HTOHrAeBHacroaiiiHHMOMeHT 
npoHcxoAHT; BMecTo stoto HcciieAOBaTeitb CTHTaeTAaHHoecjiOBO 
3aHMCiBOBaHHeM H3 aKKaACKoro »3biKa: ekimmu h dimmeB hčm o&GHanaiOT 
AyxoB h no3TOMy cjioKiibiH TepMHii kimm-dimm Bnomie mcokct 



C,M.:CIVP.86-87and97. 
2 Cm.:CIV.P.87. 



[33 



ncnojiMOBaTbCfl ara nepe/iaHH npeflcraBJieHra o,nyxax vam npHBnneHHJK 

BCeXBHflOB. 

B apeBHeeBpeHCKOiM jabiKe ceKperHbiM HMeHeM Bora HBJiserca 
Jehovah h oho bocxoaht k 4»pMe Jahve b aKKajiCKOM JBbiKe; ho JI.B.r.TnaaK 
o6Hapy>KHBaeT ero Hanano b PB-TaM 3nnTeTqi}w/wđynoTpe6jiaeTCH 
npHMeHHTeuibHO k Athh (1.36. 1 ; IH. 1 . 1 2; m.2.9; IJJ.3.8; UI.5.9; EI.28.4; IV.5.2; 
IV7.11;V.16.4;X.92.2;X.110.3),HHApe(Vm.l3.24)HCoMe(IX.75.1)HB 
Apyrax CHTvaujm eine He MeHee 5 pa3; KpoMeToro, Gojiee neu b 20 cjr/Haflx 
Hcnonb3yK)TCH poflCTBeHHbie cnoBa mgt yal?u h wt jabvati; Henb3H He 
corjiacHTK;5icyqe^iMBTOM,HTOBceBbimeynoMaHyTbieTepMHHbiHMeKDT 
caKpajibHoe3HaHeHHe; Ha ocHOBaHHH BbiineH3Jio>KeHHoro hh/ihhckhh 
HccneflOBaTejib nprocoijHT k BbiBO£y o tom, hto H3Hai-iajibHO Be/ii«ecKoe 
cjiobo ^ y^xaw npoH3BOiiHbie ot Hero 6buiH no3aHMCTBOBaHbi >KHTenaMH 
MeconoTaMHH bo BpeMfl KOHTaKTOB Me>Kjry npe/icTaBHTe;raMH AByx 
HapoAOB^^Bbipa>KeH>iaHxpejTHrH03HbixnpeACTaBJieHHH." 

JI.B.r.THjiaK o6painaerca k aHajiH3y aKKAucKoro noiun™ Apsu 
hjth ABZU, o6o3HaHaioinero nepBo6bnmiH xaoc hjih Bo^myio 6e3flHy h 
My^ca AeMOHHUbi Tiamat; c hhmh o6ohmh cpa>KaeTC5J 3a cnaceHHe 
yAep>KPffiaeMoro hmh CBeraGor Map/ryK; nojiHyio napajrjiejib ,naHHOMy 
MH(jx)Jion«ecKOMy CK»KeTy yneHbiH HaxoflHTB ronaraeMOH PB hctophh 
6opi^biIfc2pbicBpHTpoHcuej^^ 

ciOTomj« bo/j, (cm . niaBy 1). B pe3ynbTaTe CBoefl nooe/ifci Hnapa HecKOJibKO 
pa3 xapaKTepH3yeTC« KaK s^p^apujit hjih no6e>KAaroiirHH (ra^'f) b 
BOiiax (zFgapsu) (VJJL 1 3.2; VUI.36. 1 ; PX.106.3); nccnesoBaTejit npeAJiaraer 
3aMeHHTb oSmenpHHflTbiH nepeBOAflaHHoro Bbipa>KeHHfl h BMecro stoto 
nepeBO/THTb ero KaK 3aBoeBaTejib Ancy; oh npoH3BO,HHT cjiobo ormap 
"Bo^a" vi^psu "cjjopMa/ o6pa3" h b stom cjiyqae oho 03HaqaeT 

BO/iaHHCTVK) (J)OpMy HJTH 6eC(j)OpMeHHbIH XaOC, T.e. CTaHOBHTCfl 

a6cojnoTHbiM aHajioroM BaBHJioHCKoro AB.ZU; t.o. MapAyK jmjiMera 
"xajijj,eHCKHM HHjjpoio" h caM nepcona>K Apsu 3aHMCTB0Ban H3 
BeflHHecKOH MHcbojiorHH h BBejieH b anoc HapoAOB Me)KjrypeHba KaK 

*Cm.:CIVP.91. 
Cm.:OV.P.92-93. 

3 Cm.:C1YR93. 

134 



cynpyr Tiamat khk BTopoe MHO$i3biHHoe o6o3HaneHHe nepBo6biTHOH 
6e3flHbi. 

B nocrpoeHHHx y4eHoro Ha6jiiOAaerca oAHa Hero^Hocrb - Aeno 
b tom, 4to b BaBH jiohckoh KOCMoroHHHecKOH nosMe y6HHHen Ancy 
HB/iaerca 3a htih 3hkh, a MapAyK y6HBaerTOJibKO ero cynpyryTHaMaT; 
KpoMeToro, b HacroHLueeBpeMH AaHHoe MH(jx)JiorHHecKoenoBecTBOBaHMe 
AaTHpyercfl Me>K r n,y XVI h XIV bb. ao h.3. - oAHaKO sto He MO)Ker 6biTb 
nc>cTaBjTeHOByTTpekTOJKOBaTejiK)HHeHMeCT 

JT.B.r.THJiaK oTMenaer, hto KOHTaKTbi aKKaAueB h HHAoapneB 
HMejiH cbohm cneACTBHeM cymecTBOBaHHe y Asyx HapOAOB cxo>khx 
KOCMorpacj)HHecKHX npeACTaBJieHHH o ceMHHacTHOH crpyKType 
MHpo3AaHH5i; Tax, b BaBHJiOHCKOH MH(j)OJiorHn ynoMHHaiorcfl ceMb He6ec 
h ceMb aAOB h ceMb tojiob y yHHHTo>KaeMOH MapAyKOM THaMaT; h 
noAo6HO 3TOMy HHApa xapaKTepn3yerca KaK y6nHna ceMepbix (?ran 
saptdn) (X.49.8) h BMecre c Athh onHCbiBaeTca KaK OTKpbmaioinHM 
ceMHAOHiioe Mope (ff^wi saptahdhnamarnavam) (VLH.40.5)/ Mbi 
He MO>KeM CyAMTb 3HaHeHHH CeMHpHHHbK o6pa30B B MeCOnOTaMCKOH 

MHOponorHH, ho b PB ohh JiBHO Hcnojib3yiOTra w% onncaHHa ceMH nacrefi 
MMpo3AaHHH h cooTBeTCTByioiAHx hm o6onoHei< HenoBe^ecKoro cym;eciBa 
-TejiecHOCTH (#ft/^jw),BHTajTbHOCTH (spxmantankša), MeHTanbHOCTH 
(€t dyau), THOCuca (^ijvar) h TpoHCTBeHHOCTH Co3HaTejibHoro 
Hacjia>KAeHHa CymecTBOBaHHeM (^ ^m tri rocam) (cm. rnaBy I). 

JI.B.r.TnjiaK nepexoAHT k aHajiH3y ynoTpe6.raeMoro b PB cnoBa 
&žuruw yTBep>KAaeT, <tto BonpeKH o6menpMH;iTOMy nepeBOAy ero KaK 
' 'uihpokhh' ' oho npeACTaBiraeT co6oh 3aHMCTBOBaHHeH3 aKKaACKoro rabota 
h o6o3HaHaer hh>khhh MHp yMepuiHX (^fmmilokam) (X. 1 28.2); c uenbio 
noATBep>KAeHHfl Heo6xoAHMOCTH HMeHHO TaKoro noHHMaHHii yqenbiH 
yKa3biBaer, mto k BmiiHy (1. 1 54.3 h 6; II. 1 .3; IV.3.7; VE 1 00. 1 ; VHI.29.7), 

'cM.:CIV.P.94-95and96. 

Cm.: <E>paHK(t)opTr., OpaHK(t)opTrA.,yiuicon/I>K., ikoocenT. B npeuoBepitii c|ii uiocajji u i. 
/4yxoBHbie i icKam iH/ipeBHero qenoBeKa. Ilep. c aHm. T.Tojictoh. CFI6., 200 1 . C. 222-223 1 1 229; 
KomaAHycaiBopiinHe5o.Hi riq:>aTypa,apeBHeftMeconoTaMi m. nep.caKKancK.CocT. A<J>aHacbeBa 
B.K HfltHKOHOB H.M. M, 2000. C. 34-57. 
3 Cm.:CIV.P.96. 

135 






CoMe(K.62.I3)HHHflpe(X.29.4) npHMeraerca 3nm:&T^mumgaya, 
noTOM_y hto Bce TpH nepcona>Ka yHacrByiOT b 6opb6e c BpHipoH 3a 
ocBo6o>KfleHHe CBeTOHOCHbix boa (arra sčKdpo devir, arro i^r apo 
dwyd) (VII. 49. 1 , 2, 3 h 4) h HMeHyiOTCH HAyiHHMH (ir gdya) 3a hhmh b 
HH)KHK)ro o6jiacrb (^imij; KpOMeToro, hctohhhk ynoMHHaer CBS3aHHyio 
c boaoh (arwt «/7yđ) ypBaiiiH (X.95.10), Hbe hmh aojdkho b CBeie 
npeano>KeHHoro JIE.r.TroiaKOM noHHMaHHH cnoBa nepeBOAHTbCJi KaK 
"oSHTaroLuaa (sh ad) b HH>KHeM MHpe (^ um)". l 

Mbl He CHHTaeM B03MO)KHbIM npHHflTb TecpMK) HHAHHCKOrO 

HCcneAOBaTejM o nepeBOAecjioBa^zraKaK "hm>khhh MHp", nocKOJibKy 
OHa HecoBMecTHMa co Bcen coBOKynHocrbio ynoMHHaHHH AaHHoro 
TepMHHaBApeBHefcMXBeAmecKHxraMHax.BqaCTHOCTH,aoAaarHOCHTCH 
npocb6bi hx aBTopoB k G-uiaM CBera (^ndeud) AaTb hm mnpoTy BMecro 
y30CTH hjih CTecHeHHM (afer 3^t arnkasa urmja HJlHa^jafee urušya 
a>?ilmi) (1.58.8 h 9), onHcaHHePix KaKpaciUHp«ioiij,Hx y30crb h co3AaiomHX 
H3 Hee mupoKoe cymecTBOBaHHe (WatfWcfli aftlra^i s^f^ 
urusyaGmmnhaso arii]xmdasmd urucaknr) (II.26.4) hjih npeBpamaiomm 
y30CTb B iiiHpoTy (s^ra^aK,^ amhocad ad uru) (V.65.4) - BeAb hct 
HHKaKoro cMbicjraB npoTHBonocraBJieHHHTecHOTbi h HH>KHero MHpa. 
Mo>kho noHSTb xapaKTepHCTHKy iHOCHca KaK iimpoKoro (3^ ururii 
morat?)) (Hanp., IH.41 .5; JH.46.4), ho Oh He mokct SbiTb higkhm - BeAb sto 
npoTHBopeHHT BceM nocrpoeHHiiM caMoro JI . ET.THJiaKa, Ana KOToporo 
PlHApa aBiraercH npaBHTejieM BbicmeH He6ecHOH nanyc(ipepbi (cm. raaBy 
IT) h no3TOMy xapaKTepH3yercH b naM#raHKe KaK HaxoAaiMHHca Bbiiue 
Bcero (r^cti^str: vicvasmdd indra uttarah) (X.86. 1 -23). TaK>Ke ne 
Moryr 6brrb hh>khhmh OAHOBpeMeHHO MeHTajibnoe He6o h cj)H3HqecKafl 
3eMJiH (sjRPjfoft ^js^tot djdvaprthivl uruvjacasd) (1.160.1-2). 

yneHbiH yrBep>KAaeT, qTo ynoMHHaeMbiii b PB TepMHH Mms 

sinivali npeACTaBJweT co6oh HCKaKČHHoe aKKaACKoe sin bubbuli hjih 

w ncHe3HOBeHHejiyHti". ^ajieeHTin,HHCKHHHccneAOBaTejTbccbuiaeTC5iHa 

ynoMHHaHHe npiiHeceHHfl noAKpenjieHHH (rh sina) BpHTpe (š\^m 

m-m*\HK*«<ijyo vrtraja sinimatrdbhan$yat) (U.30.2) h HAeHTHCJ)HU,HpyeT 

1 CM.:OV.P.90and95. 

2 Cm.:CIV.P.95. 

136 



AaHHoe noAKpenJieHMe (rarc sina) k'ak y6biBaiom,yK> hum noeAaeMyio 
Aoviohom TbMbi JiyHy. OAHaKO oh He o&bHCHfler, noneNf/ aBTopbi thmhob 
npocHT CHHHBaiiM HanpaBHTb hx k noroMCTBy (srt wf& *•■ prajdm 
dididdhi W;)(fl.32.6)HBJio>KHTb3apoAbiw(^^g^M??2 dhdx)(X. 184.2); 
npnneM H3 KOHTeKcra cneAyer, hto penb 3^ecb hact 06 ncnojib30BaHH5i 
CHMBona ^enoBenecKOH SepeMeHHOCTH ajih onncaHHa pcokachhh 
Bo>KecrBeHHOH Bojim (a#đgra) b nenoBeKe, nocKOJMO/ 3TOT3apoAfc>iw m 
AByx 30JTOTbix AomeneK Ao6biBaer TpeHneM PIcTHHa-Co3HaHHe (mmš\ 
m^q]kfem zw&a biranyayl aranl yarh nirmanthato agvind)(X. 184.3) 
(cm. maBy 1). Jl.BT.THJiaK He npHBOAHT HMKaKHXAaHHbix b ncAAep>KKy 
rHnoTe3bi o jt/hhoh npnpoAe CHHHBajin u no3TOMy Mbi He mokcm 
coraacHTbCH c hmm b stom Bonpoce. 

YHeHbiH o6pamaer BHHMaHHe Ha ynoTpe6jweMoe b hctohhhkc 
HenoHflTHoe Bbipa>KeHHe ^š^turphantfi (X. 1 06.6) - «Ko6bi ero mo>kho 
npoMHTaTb Hepe3 aKKaACKoecjiOBOcoHeraHHetur-parratu hum "cbiHBOAbi". 
OAHaKO CTMXH c 5 no 8 BbiineynoMaHyToro rHMHa ao cmx nop He 6biJiM 
nepeseAeHbi hm oahmm m3 KOMMeHTaTopoB PB h no3TOMy buboa 
MHAMHCKoro TOJiKOBaTe™ HeAaer HHHero cymecTBeHHoro ajm noHHMaHMfl 
TeKcra PB m b to >Ke BpeMfl He MO>KeT 6biTb npoBepeH b KOHTeKcre CBoero 
ynoTpe6neHHii. 

Jl.B.r.THJiaK cHHTaeT aKKaACKoe chobo itu "Mecau," 

npOMCXOAH)ItHMOTBeAMHCKOrOsiJi?S«"ce30H";yHeHbIMTaiOKeHaXOAMTB 

MeconoTaivicKOM nosMe 06 HiHTap m rHJibraMeuie cneAbi npeAcraBJieHHfl 
o AoOaBJKieMOM pjin coBMemeHHJi jt/hhom m cojiHeiHOH cHcreivi paccHera 
BpeivieHM 3HMHeM MecflueceBa (se-dir) b onMcaHHM nopa)KeHHoro KO)KHbiM 
3a6ojieBaHMeM h CKpbiBLueroca Ha nacTb roAa cojmpHoro repoa; 
MCCJieAOBaTejib coothocht sth AaHHbie c ynoMMHaHMeM 3a6ojieBUiero 
napmoH hjim HMeiomero noTeMHeBLHMejTy L iH (mmzapivišta) BMUJHy 
(VII. 100.6). 3 OAHaKO caivi JI.B.r.TMJiai< HnrAe ne paccMaipMBaeT 
BbiLueynoM5iHyToe 6o>KecTBO KaK chmboii Ao6aB04Horo Mecaira m He 
npHBOAHT HHKaKHX noATBep>KAaroiiiHXTaKyio HHTepnpeTauHio coo6Hi,eHMM 

*Cm.:CIV.P.96. 

2 Cm.:CIV.P.95-96. 
3 Cm.: CIV. P. 96-97. 

137 



PB: KpOMe Toro, snHTeT Rriw apivišta MO>KeT 6biTb nepeBeAeH Kai< 
"pacnpocnpaHeHHbiH JiyHaMH" m caM o6pa3 Be3#ecymero (w^višrm) He 
HMeer HaTypajiHCTHHecKOH npHpo/ibi (cm. nnaBy I). 

JI.B.r.TnjiaK HcnoJib3yeT iunpoKo pacnpocrpaHeHHtra b 
HaTvpajiHCTH^ecKOH Teopi-iH repMeneBTHKH mctoa 
nceBAOxpoHonorHHecKoro Apo6neHHH TeKcra H3yHaeMoro naMflTHHKa h 
no3TOMywMHeroBbirJT5yi^BnojTHeecTecTBeHHbiMpaccMaTpHBaT^ 
ero KaK cBHflerejibCTBO o6HTaHHfl cocraBifiTeneH PB hum hx npeflKOB b 
UHpKyMnoirapHOM hjih nojiapHOM penioHe, bto Bpeivw Kax Apyryio nacrb 
cwraTb coAep)KameH CBeserom o npe6bBaHHH HHfloapHeB b KbKHOH A3hm 
h hx KOHTaKrax c KHTejiHMH MeconoTaMHH b ropa3flO Sonee no3flHK)K) 
3noxy. Mbi He uo'Ktu npHHMTb MeTO/ja nceBfloxpoHonorHMecKoro 
flpo6jreHH5i coppp-Mmm HcroraHKa h paccMarpHBaeM ero Kai< npo/r/KT 

4)yHKUHOHHpOBaHHH HeTbipeXHaCTHOH MHCTepHaJIbHOH o6ihhhh Ha 

npoTJDKeHHH onpeAeneHHoro (orpaHHneHHoro npeflenaMH^Byx-Tpex 
noKOJieHHH) h KaqecxBeHHO oAHopoAHoro srana pa3BHTna o6meciBeHHOH 
ncHxojiorHHH no3TOMy npHAep>KHBaeMCH mhchh5i reorpacpHHecKOH 
roMoreHHOcracoAq))Kaii]HXCflBApeBHeHUJHXBeflHMecKHxrmfflax AaHHbrc. 
Ecjth BCJieA 3a III A.IxoiiieM cornacHTbca c JI.BJ.THiiaKOM b tom, hto b 
cbočm 3K30TepH4ecKOM cMbicne PB MO)KeT H3JiaraTb cwcTeMy 
penHTH03Horo noKJioHeHra MarepHajTbHbiM HBJieHHaM b norpaHMHOH 
o6nacTHHeflajTeKOOTceBepHoroIIojTHpHoroKpyra,TOTorAaoHaHeMO}KeT 

HCnOJTK30BaTb B CBOČM H3JIO>KeHHH SJieMeHTbl peJTMriI03HO-MarmeCKHX H 

MHpoB033peHHecKHX npeflcraBJieHHH ara<aACKHX HapoflOB, o6nTaBiuHX 
AaneKO K iory b 6accefee Tropa h EB(j)paTa. IIonbiTKa JI.E.r.TroiaKa 
coBMecTHTb npoH3BoziHMbie hm xpoHonorHHecKH H reorpac[)HHecKH 
pa3HOpOAHbieBMBOAbi h peKOHcrpyKUHH nocpeACTBOM yKa3aHHH Ha 
B03MO>KHOCTb coBMecTHoro npe6bmaHHH npeAKOB apneB h aracajmeB b 
o6meH apKTHMecKOH npapojiHHe ne MO>KeT b AaHHbiH momcht 6biTb 
npHHHTa no npHHHHe otc^'tctbhh Hafl&KHOH AOKa3aTejibHOH 6a3bi. 
IIo3TOMy noKa mbi He MO>KeM npMHJiTb npe£naraeMbieJIE.r.TnjraKOM 
conocraBneHHHpejiHrH03HO-MH(j)OJiorHHecKHX h KOCMorpacj)HMecKHX 
noHHTOH aKKaflCKOH h ApeBHeBeAHHecKofi KyjibTyp. 

^m^OV.P^?. 

138 



3aioiio ( iciuie. 

Pa6oTbi ih iflHHCKoroTOJiKOBaTenji PBJI.B.r.TnnaKanojiBHnHCbB 

IICpeJIOMHblM MOMCIIT/UIM CymeCTB0BaHH5l IiaTypaJlHCTM l ieCKOH 

iiapa;uii ^H>ii l cpMei[eHTHKHApeBiiei3eAM i iecKOHpcjiHrMHMMHcl)OJiorMHH 
ciajiHnp()jiyicroMoco6ororiepHOAaHCTopHii;i,ai!iiOHnapa/iHrMbi(1893- 
1904). 

CMOMeiiTaii03iiHKHOBenHJipHrBqiiojiorMHBiiaHaneXIXBeKa 
rHnoi'e3a()TOM, i no3ao6pa3aMHynoMMHaeMbixPB6o}KeciBHAeMOiiOB 
CKpbiraioTCH nepcoHHCJMjHpoBanHbie flanenHH MaTepHaubHOH npnpoAbi, 
3ai uma b ne« Be/iymee Mecro. 3naa y>Ke (cm. BBe/ieni-ie), l ito o6teKT ee 
iiccjieAOBaHHH npeflCTaBJTKeT co6oh tckct c jxByun CMbicnoBbiMH 

ypOBHKMH, Mbl MO>KeM nOMMTbTenepb, MTO 3K3erCTbI nOCBHTHJTM ce6a 

Mcropi'iKO-KyjibTypi ioiviy h JieKCHKO-ceMaHwiecKOMy ananH3y naMSTHHKa 
m b pe3yxib rare 3Toro oTKpbuiH ero BHeu mee 3K30TepHHecKoe 3Ha4eHne. 
K cepeAHHe XIX Bei<a b HaTypajiHCTH i iecKOH uiKO/ie 6buiH 
Bbipa6oTai ibi ABe cymnocrHO OAHopoAHbie, no (jx)pManbHO pa3JiHMHbie 
reopHH noHHMaHHM 3Toro 3HaneHHH u OAHOBpeMenno noHHMaHHfl 
nporoTHna pejiHrH03HO-MH(j)OJiorHHecKHX o6pa30B h cio>KeTOB PB: b 
nepBOH b KanecrBeTaKOBoro crarm paccMarpHBaTb aTMoajoepHbieaBJieHHa 
rpo3bi h aomwi (rpo30Baa hjih MereopojiorHHecKaH TeopHJi A.KyHa h ero 
nocneAOKiTeneH), bo BropoH -t|)eHOMeHbi eaceAHCBHbDc bockoaob m 3aKaTOB 

COJIHUa H BbRbimeMbK ero rOAHHHbIM ABH>KeHMeM M3MeHeHHH npHpOAHO- 
KJlHMaTHHeCKHX yCJTOBHH (cOJiapHafl HJffl CBeTOBa« H BeceHHaa TeopMH 

M.Miojuiepa h ero ctopohhhkob). 

/J,ajTbHeHiiiHH 6yKBanHCTCKHH h KOHTeKcr/anbHbiH aHaiiH3 pAAa 
thmhob c6opHMKa (oco6eHHO H3 ero I h X MaH^an hjih »e nocBaujeHHbu 
xai<HM 6o>KecTBaM, KaK AflHTbH, BpaxMaHacnaTH, ripaA>KanaTH, 
BHuiBaKapMaH, Ban h pp), npoAeMOHcrpHpoBaji, hto b PB npHcyTCTByeT 

HeTOJTbKO CHMBOJIHHeCKHH nOJIHTeHCTHHeCKHH HaTypaKH3M, HO H 

a6cTpaKTHbie, 3THHecKne h MOHHCTUHecKHe c])Rnoco(jx;KHe yHennfl (TpyAbi 
P.Pc^a,M.MFOJinepa,JTroABHra,XoJibij^aHa,JI.OepMa[ia i n,/],OHceHa). 
CoBMecTHTb Asa 3thx pa3iiHHHbix cm bi ona BneiiiHero 

3K30TepHHeCKOrO ypOBH3 3HaHeHld naMflTHHKa OKa3ajIOCb B03MO>KHbIM 

TOJibKO nyreM hx cTaAHajibHoro pa3BeAeHH5i (M.Miojinep, B.O.MiiJinep, 

139 



^.H.0BCHHHKa-KynHK0BCKHH,3 AParo3HHa), An« Koroporo k Koimy XIX 
BO<a 6mji pa3pa6oTaH cneu,HajrbHbiH MeroA nceBAOxpoHOJTOrnHecKoro 
Apo6jieHHs Maiepnajia Ha pm nepHOAOB h noAnepnoAOB (pa6oTbi o 
npifflUHnax opraHH3auHH TeKcra h xpoHOJiornHecKOM cooTHOuueHUM ero 
MacTeH M.Mromiepa, O.IlHHKOTTa, A.BepreHa, r.Ojib,neH6epra h 
ApHOJibAa). 

OneBHAHaa HeAOCTaTOHHOCTb noAo6Horo pemeHra npo6jieMbi, 
o6Hapy>KeHHe b npou,ecce bcč Sojiee r\ny6oKoro 6yKBajiHcrcKoro u 
KOHTeKCTyajibHoro aHajmaa ue/ioro pn/ia npoTHBopenHH 11 
HeaAeKBaTHocreH HaTypanHCTMecKoro noHHMaHM ApeBHeBeaimecKOH 
pejiHTHH h MH(})OJiorHH, aTaioKenepBbiepe3yjibTaTbi npOHHKHOBeHHfl b 
330TepHHecKHH ypoBeHb cMbicjia TeKcra nopoAHJiH ABH>KeHHe b AByx 
HanpaBJieHH5DC. 

C oahoh CTopoHbi, HeKoropbiesKBereTbi npeano>KHjm oncaBarboi 
ot HCKJHOHHTera>Horo npHMeHeHHH HaTypanHCTHHecKoro noAXOAa b 
TeoJiormecKOM h cHMBonmecKOM aHaiM3eAa>Ke npn HHTepnpeTauHH t.h. 
paHHHx Hacrdi PB u sto npHBeno k no$mjieHHio xpHCTHaHCKOH (MMoiuiep, 
M-Oiuinunc h A.H.BBeAeHCKHH) h HaTypajiHCTHHecKO-ncHxojioraHecKOH 

(3H.0BCHHHK0-KyjIHK0BCKHH) napaUJCM BpHTBeAOJTOrHH. B nepBOH 6buia 

npoH3BeAeHa nonbiTKa cooTHecrH HcropHoco(j)CKoeyqeHHe 6H6jieHCKOH 

H XpHCTHaHCKOH TpaAHUHH Cpa3BHTHeM ApeBHeBeAHHeCKOH peJTHrMM H 
MHtJDOnorHH KaK THnHHHOrO npHMepa B03HHKH0BeHHfl H3bmecrBa B 

pe3yjibTaTe oTKJioHeHHH ot hcthhhoh Bepbi h ee HaTypajiHCTHHecKoro, 
nojiHTeHCTHHecKoro h MarmecKoro HCKaaceHira. Bo btopoh b ocHOBy 
3K3ere3bi 6bui 3ano>KeH npHHUHn ABOHCTBeHHOH - HaxypajTHcrHHecKOH h 
ncroconorHHecKOH - npupoAti nporoTHnoB ynoMHHaeMbix b HcroHHHKe 

pejfflrH03H0-MHCJ30JT0n-lHeCKHX CKttKCTOB H o6pa30B H 3TO no3BOJwno 

royHaTb hx napajinejibHO h OAHOBpeMeHHO paccMarpHBaTb nepBbifi H3 hhx 
Kax craAHajibHO np wuecrByroiHHH BTopoMy (npn nonHOM HeBHHMaHHH 

K B03M0KH0CTH IIX OAHOBpeMeHHOTO CJ)yHKUHOHa.nbHOrO 

cocymecTBOBaHHH b KaHecTBe caKpanbHoro MMcranecKoro TeKcra). 

CaPFOH CTOpOHbI,BHyrpH CaMOH HaTypajTMCTMeCKOH UUKOJIbl 
nOHBHJIHCb paj)OpMaTOpbI, KOTOpbie BblCT/nHJIH npOTHB HCKJIKHMTejlbHOM 

rereMOHHH MereopojiormecKOH w cbctoboh KOHuerajMH b Teonon-mecKOM 
H CHMBOJIHHeCKOM anani-ne, ho b to >i<e BpeMH npoflOJDicajiH 

140 



npHAep>KHBaTbca HCKOHHoro napaAHriviajibHoro npeAcraBJieHHH o 
MaTepnaribHOM 3HaneHHH ApeBHeBeAHnecKHX 6o>KecTB h acmohob h 

CBH3aHHbK C HHMH CKMeTOB (HanpHMep, HCCJieAOBaHHM JiyHHOM KyjibTe 

b PB A.XHJine5paHAra, TpaKTOBKa paaa mmcjdob B.O.MHjrnepa). 

Jl.B.r.TMJiaK cTan eme oahhm h npn stom HanGojieeflpKHM 
npeAcraBHTeneM pajx)pMaTopcKoro HanpaBneHHa b Har/pajiMCTmecKOH 
ujKOJie. Ee napaAHrManbHbiH KpH3HC nocny>KHJi ajih Hero tojihkom k 
nepenpoBepxe h yTOHHeHHio c noMOiubio 6onee TmaTejibHoro 
6yKBanHCTCKoro, conocraBMTejibHoro h HHHrBHCTHHecKoro H3yneHHM 
TeKCTa 3ajio>KeHHbix b ocnoBy 3K3ere3bi HaTypanHCTHHecKHX 
MereopojiorHHecKHX h cojihphbk npeAcraBJieHHH. Bpe3ynbTaTe oh npHiuen 

K BbIBOAy, HTO HMH He OrpaHHHHBaeTCfl BeCb Ha6op CJ)H3HqeCKHX 

npoTOTMnoB ynoMHHaeMbix b PB penHrH03HO-MH(j)OJTorH , 4ecKHX 
nepcona^en h cio>KeroB. Tlpn pa3peiueHMH HeKoropbK repMeHeBTHqecKHX 

CHTyaUHH OHH He n03BOJUUlH HeTKO nOHflTb MaTepHaJIbHbIH CMblCJl 

coo6meHHfi thmhob, a uejibiH pHA3K3ereTH t iecKHx npo6jreM ocraBirajiM 

npOCTO 6e3 BHHMaHHfl. 

FIo3TOMy Jl.E.r.TmiaK npeAAOJKHn eme ABa BHAa npHpoAHbix 

HBJieHHH-aCTpOHOMH4eCKHe H npHpOAHO-KJIHMaTHHeCKHeapKTHHeCKHe 
-BKaHeCTBenpOTOTHnOBApeBHeBeAHMeCKOHpeJlHTHH H MH(})OJIOrHH. C HX 

noMoii^KDOHAo6iinca3HaqMTejibHbixycnexoBBpaciiJHpeHi'iHHyT04HeHHH 
HaTypanHCTH l iecKOH HHTepnpeTaijHH naMflTHHKa, OAHaKopaAHKajibHOCTb 
ero xpoHonorHHecKHX (co3AaHHePB pp 4000 r. ao h.s.) h reorpa<j)mecKHX 
(cyiuecTBOBaHHe nojiapHOH npapoAHHbi HHAoapneB) BbiBOAOB yRqwam 
6ojibiuyio nacTb ctopohhhkob pa3AeJMBiueHC5i hm napaAHrMbi ot 
npHHHTHfl ero TeopnH. ITpeAJioKeHHaH hm b KanecTBe HHcrpyMeHTa 
repMeHeBTHKH TeKcra PB TeopHH KyjibTypHoro oSMeHa M©KAy BeAmecKOH 

H aKKaACKOH HHBHHH3aUH5!MH no TOH 5Ke npH^HHe OCTaeTCfl 

MajioH3BecTHOH, xoT5i no cymecTBy tot >Ke caMHH mctoa (ho c 
H3MeHeHHbiM coAep>KaHHeM) CTajiH npHMeraTb b pnrBeAOJiorHH y>Ke c 
Havana XX Beica npn conocraBHTenbHOM H3yHeHHHApaBHAHHCKOH h 
HHAoapnficKOH KynbTyp. 

CM:rypoBH.B.flpaBii^incKiie3neNieHTtiBTeKcn^paHHiKca^rafr//JT]iTqoa'i}paiiKyjTbT>pa 
apeBHen 1 1 cpeimeBeKOBon Hum n i. M., 1 987. C. 2642. 

141 



. 



Eme npn -xmm JLBJ.TmiaKaB ic^erom ApeBHeBeAHHecKHX 
raMHOB npoH30iuna peBOinouHOHHaa (ho no cmx nop Mano KOMy m 
npo4)eccHOHajibHbixTOJiKOBaTe^eH H3BecTHaa) napaAHrMa;ibHas 
TpaHC^opMauHH - eme oahh hhahhckhh HccneAOBaTejib IiI.A.rxoiu 
ony6jiHKOBan cboio Teopmo ncHKOJiormecKoro noHHMaHM PB KaK 
HcropmecKoro AOKyMeHTa MHcrepHajibHoro xapaicrepa (1914-1 920). Oh 
npeanoJKHJi KapAHHanbHO roMeHHTb coflepacamie npnMeH$ieMbix flira 
iwrepnpeTauHH naMOTHHKa mctoaob TeononnecKoro h cuMBOnmeocoro 
aHaraca h pyKOBOACTBOBaTbca npH ero HcronKOBaHHH ranoTe30H o tom , 
hto onHCbmaeMbie b hčm nepcoHaKH u co6hthh Ha niy6HHHOM 

BH>'TpeHHeM ypOBHe CMblCUa TeKCTa CHMBOnH3HpyK>T pa3AHHHbie 

3JieMeHTbi ^enoBenecKOH noKHKH h npoueccbi AyuieBHOH >kh3hh nenoBeKa 
ripoH3BeAeHHoe HaMH Bbiuie conocraBHTenbHoe royHeHHe 
B03M0)KH0creH npHMeHerow repMeHeBnwiecKMX noAXOAOB JlB.r.TraaKa 
h lUArxoiuanpH o6"bacHeHHM oAHHXHTex>Kecoo6meHHH PB noKa3bBaer, 
hto bo Bcex cjiyHajix ncHxonornnecKHH noAXOA HBJiaeTCH 6anee 
aAeKBaTHbiM, nocKOJibKy ocHOBbiBaeTca Ha 6onee umpoKOM 
KOHTeKcryajibHOM h 6oneeToqHOM neKCHKO-CHHTaKcmecKOM aHanroe. H 
3TOHeyfliffiratJBHO,nocKOJibKyHaTypajiHcrHMecKoeTOJiKOBatiHeBjno6oM 
ero BapHaHTe npeAHa3HaneHO jiHiiib ajih H3BneneHHH HanGonee 
no&epxHOCTHoro 3HaneHHa h CMbicira ApeBHeBeAHHecKi« n imhob. 



142 



Ciiiicok ncnojib30BaHHbix hctohhhkob: 

1. 3jiCKTpoimoc m/umne: Rig Veda. A phonctic trans li teration by 
J.R.Gardncr, University of Iowa. 1 998 // http: // www.PHILOSOPI lY.ru/ 
library/asiatica/indica/sruti/rgs. 

2. Piinsgui. Man;uuibi 1-IV. MaiiAajibi V-V11I. Man/raJibi IX-X. Ilep. 
TJLEnmapeiiKOBOH. M., 1989, 1995, 1 999; Param H 3 6paHHwernMHbi. 
nep.T.^.EriH3iipeHKOBOH.M. > 1972. 

3. Original Sanskrit texts on theorigin and historyofthepeopleofJndia, 

theirreiigionandinstitutions.Collecte4translatedandillustratedbyJMuir ! 
Vol. I-VLJ 858, 1860, 1861, 1863, 1870. 

4. Rig- Veda Sanhita. The sacred hymns of the brahmans translated and 
explained by F.Max Muller. Vol. 1. Hymns to theMaruts orthe storm-gods 
L., 1 869. 

5. The hymns of the Rigveda translated vvith a popular commentary by 
R.TH.Gri ffith. Third edition. Vol. I-II. Benares, 1 920 and 1 926. 

6. Hymns to Indra by the Vasishthas (RV VII. 1 9-32) translated into English 
and briefly annotated by H.D. Velankar; Hymns to Indra m Mandala VIII 
(Nos. 76-78; 80-82; 88-93; 95-1 00) byH.D.Velankar// Journal ofthe University 
ofBombay. Vol. XIII. September 1944.Part2P 16-25; Vol. XVI September 
1947.Part2P.l-18. 

7. KorAa Any ccrmopm ne6o. JlHTepar/pa ApeBHeH MeconoTaMHH. flep. 
caKKaztCK. Cocr. Adpai lacbeBaB.K. H/J,bHKOHOB H.M. M.,2000. 



143 






CnucoK Hcnojib30BaHHofi jiinepa rvpbi: 

1 . AtJBHacbeB A.H. CrcoKa u Mii(l)//OMJiojiorHHecKi ie3anHCKn. )Kypi lan, 
nocBHUKHHbiH HecneAOBaHHaM h P a3pa6oTK-e pa3Hbix BonpocoB no «3biKy, 
ni nepaTvpe u booGihc no cpaBHHTenbHOMy fl3biK03i lai inio u cnaBfli ickiim 
HapemiflM. BopoHOK(n3nee03),I864. Bun. I-II.C. 33-68. 

2. BamacapOB P.B. CBacima: cBHOpfflbiH chmboji. M, 2001 . 
3 EappovT. CaHCKpiiT/nep. canrji HJIapHHOH. M.. 1976. 

4. BoHrapa-HeBHH r.M., BpaHT0BCKHH3.A. OtCkhcjmh aoHhahh. M, 

1983. 

5. BvMeE.O. Mn(J3nqecKHH3neMeHTBpyccK0ii napoAiion cnoBecHOcra 

//0>3. 1883. Ban. V-VI.C. 1-37. 

6. Byflne E.O. Mn^KHecKHH smuem b pyccKOH naponi ion cjiobcchocth 
//03. 1885. Bbin.l.C. 31-62. 

7. BvnueE.O. Mn^mecKun aneMemB pyccK0i-i HaponuoH cnoBecHocra 
//O3.1S85.Bbin.TV-V.C.63-106. 

8. BBeneucKHH A.H. PennrH03Hoe cosmiHne asbmecTBa. Onbu 
(l)iinoco(})CKOH HcropHM ecreciBeHHbixpen hthh. T. 1 . OcHOBHbieBonpocbi 
clDimccoclrKOH ncroprni ecrecrBeHHbixpeJwrHH. Pera™ Hhahm. M., 1902 

9 BecenoBCKUH A.H. CpaBrorrenbHafl MHjJraoraa h ee N-ieroA -Zoological 
mythology,by Angelo DeGubernatis. London, Trubner. 1 872. 2 vv. // 
BeCTHHKEBponbi.Cne., 1 873. T.X.C. 637-680. 

10 BoeBOACKi#lJI.BBeAeHHeBMH(|)onorHioOAMCceH.Onecca, 1881. 

1 1 . BpHHnep H.EL, EpHHuep TLA. CraHOBJieHHerorrepai^pHOfi Teopni i b 
rtpeBHen EpeuHH h Hhahh. M., 2000. 

1 2. EypoB H.B. ApaBHAHHCKHe sneMemrbi b Tei<crax paHHHX caMXHT // 
HnTep.aTypa n Kynbiypa npeBHefi h cponHBBeKOBOH Hhamh. M., 1987. C. 

2642. 

1 3. EyceBaH.P. Ot nepeBOflHHKa//THJiaK BJ. ApicranecKaa poAHHaB 
BeAax/nep.caHrn.H.P.EyceBOH.M,2001.C.5-14. 

14 ryceBaH.P.CnaBHHdHapbH.nyrb5oroBHaioB.M.,2002. 

1 5. Exom 11I.A. CoGpaHne comhhchhh. T. V1I1: Ochobh hhahmckoh 

K-ynbT\pbi/nep.caHrn.MJl.CanraHHK.Cn6.,1998. 

16.BTH3apeHKOBaT.^.EpaMMaTHi<aBeniiHCKoroH3biKa. M., 1982. 

144 



1 7. EnreapeHKOBaTJI. BemucKm muk. M, 1 987. 

18. EnH3apeHKOBaT^.^3biKHcmnbBeaHHCKHxpHiiiH. M., 1993. 

1 9. Enn3apeHK0BaT.il. GioBa u boijh b Purane. M., 1 999 ' 

20.HillebrandtA.VedischeMythologie.ErsterBand.'somaundverwandte 
Gotter.Breslau, 1891. 

21.KapeeBH.H.KocMoroHHqecKHHMHdp//(D3. 1873.Bun.I.C. 1-10. 

22KapeeBH.H.MH{jx)JiormecKHe3TK)AbiI//03. 1873.Bbin.II.C. 1-21 

23.KapeeBH.H.MHc})ojiormecKHe3Tio^iII-III//(D3. 1873.Bbin.IIIC 22- 
46. 

24.KapeeBH.H.MHdx)JiorHHecKHe3TK)AbiIV-V//<D3 1873 Bbin IV- VC 
47-64. ' ' ' 

25.KapeeBH.H.Mi-icjx)jiorm[ecKHe3TK)/ibiVI-VII//(I)3.1873.Bbin VI C 
65-80. 

26. KapeeB H.H. Mn<bosionmeememom- Cepns2. I//03. 1 874. Bbin. I. 

27. KapeeB H.H. Pennrra ppeBmx repMaHueB noTauKry//03. 1 874. Bbin. 
VI. C. 1-6. 

28. KapeeB H.H. Ky H o m^onorm (Ueber Entvvickelungsstufen der 
MythenbildungvonA.Kuhn. Berlin. 1874)// 03. 1875. Bbin. I C 1-3 

29.KentR.G.71ieVedicpathofthegodsandtheRornanpontifex//Classical 
philology. Volume VIII. January-October, 1 91 3. Chicago, 1 913. P. 317-326 

30. Kyn T. Crpyicrypa HayHHbrxpeBOJiionHH/nep. čamu HajreroBa H 3 
//KyH T. CipyKTypa HaymbrxpeBOJTiouHH. M., 2001 . 

31 . MHjuiep B.O. Be/mncKne aiioflbi. Tlo no B o/ry Hccjie«OBa H Ha 
O.O.OopTyHa TO Ba: Samaveda-Aranyaka-Samhita. M, 1875//)KypHaji 

MHHHCTepcreaHapoflHoronpocBeiqeHHH0^ee5KMHn) 1876 ^acrb 
CLXXXV.Ota. 2. C. 279-325. 

32. Mminep B.O. OiepicH apnncKon tmfrmorm b cbjbh CApeBHennien 
Kyjn,TypoH. T.I. AcBHHbi-/j;HOCKypbi. M, 1 876. 

33. MnnjTep B.O. Pa36op BeAHHCKoro MH$a o cokojic npnneciueM ubctok 

CoMbi ; BCBH3HCKOHuenuneHpe™H3KCTa3a.fl.KyjiHKOBCKoro M 1882 
//>KA4Hn.l882.%cTbCCXXVII.C.288-3(X). aM -^ 

34. Mhpohob O.B. PasBnrae repMeHeBrmecraa npaicrHK b TOJiKOBaHnn 
caKpajibHoro reKcra. AnccepraiiM na concKaune y 4 e H OH CTeneHH 
KaHAHAaTaci5HJincocj)CKnxHayK.BopoHe>K,2002(HanpaBaxp>'KonHCM). 

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35. Monier-Williams M. A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Delhi, 1 997. 

36. MullcrM.F. Ahistoryofancient Sanskrit literature so far as lt illustrates 
the primitive religion of the brahmans. L., 1 859. 

37. Miojmep M. CpaBHHTejibHaa Mw\yonorm (Mi Oxford Essays, 1 856)/ 
llep. caHra. HM JKkBaro//JIeroriHCH pycci<0M jiHTepar/pbi u Apeei ioctm. 
VbR. H.THX0H P aB0BbiM. T. V. M„ 1 863. C. 3- 1 22. 

38. Miojuiep M. JleKUHH no nayKe o H3biKC, HHiai n ibie b KopoiicBCKOM 
BpnTaHCKOMHHCTHTyTeBanpene,MaeHHioHel861r./nep.cai-irji.Cn6., 

1865. 

39. Mrojuiep M. Hobmh pm htchhh b BeriHKo6pHTaHCKOM KopojreBCKOM 
HHCTHiyreB 1863r./nep.caHrji.Bbin.I.BopoHOK, 1868. 

40. Mrojuiep M. HoBbifi pjwHTeHHHBBenHKo6pnraHCKOM KoponeBCKOM 
Hncn-mTeB 1863r./nep.caHrji.Bbin.II.BopoHe>K, 1870. 

41 . Miiller M.F. Biographies of words and the Home of the Aryas. New 
Delhi. 1985. 

42. Ham, r. rpenecKaa MMcbonor™ h noaraKa/IIep. c aHra. H.n rpHHuepa. 
M.,2002. 

43.0BCHHHKO-KynHKOBCKHH/J,.H.OnbITH3yqeHH5IBaKXHHeCKHXKyjlbTOB 

HnaoeBponeHCKOH jipeBHOCTHB CB33H cpojTbio3Kcra3a HapaHHHx cryneHax 
paBBHTH« o6inecTBeHHOCTH. ^.1. KynbTob>KecTBa''Soma ,, B ApeBHefi Hhamm 
B3noxy Bea Qn,ecca, 1883. 

44. 0BcsMiK0-KyjTi4K0BCKHH/J,.H. KHcropHH KyjTbra orHH y HHAycoB b 3noxy 
BeA. I. TpHpa3HOBHflHOCTH cBHineHHoro oran: Grhapati, Viopati, Vaicvanara. 
II. 3nHTerbi cBHiueHHoro oim O^ecca, 1 887. 

45. OBcaHHKO-KyjMKOBCKHH Jj;.H.BeA™cKPie3TioAbi//}KMHn. 1891. R. 
CCLXXIV.OrA.2.C.l-17. 

46. OraSeHHH B.JI. CTpyicrypa MMrhoJion-iHecKi« tckctob "PHTBeAbi". 
(BeAifflCKaHKOCMoroHHfl). M., 1968. 

47. rLiOTHHKOBB. 3aMerKn o cpaBHHTenbHOH MH(jx)JiorHH MaKcaMrounepa 
//03. 1879. Bbin. II. C. 1-27. 

48. IIjioTffl-iKOB B. 3aMeiKH o cpaBHHTenbHOH MH(jx)jrorHM MaKca Miojuiepa 
//03. 1879. Bbm. VI. C. 27-54. 

49. Saiiaveda-Ai^yaka-SanThiaHccneAOBaHHeO.O.OopryHaTOBa. M, 

1875. 

50. CeMeHerao A. A. HHTepnpeTaurai pem-irn o3hoh CHcreMbi MHAoapneB 

146 



ApeBHeBe/iMecKoro uepmm (anoxa cocraBJieHna PHTBeaacaivKMTbi) // 
YqeHbie 3anncKn Komiefl>Ka "Homoc' 1 (aanee Y3KH). Bbin. I. BopoHe>K, 

1999. C. 57-68. 
51.&MeHeHKoAA.OnpHpoflej^BHeBeflfflecKHx'')KpeuoB , '(noiiaHHLiM 

caMxmPHreeziBi,Ha^KypBe^iHAixapBaBeflbi)//y3KH.Bbm.n.B^ 

2000. C. 114-133. 

52. CeMeHeHKO A.A. npnpoae ApeBHeBezmHecKoro p<m>KH (no AamaiM 
caMXHTPHrBeflbi, CaMaBe^bi n Hajj)KypBeflbi) //Y3KH. Bbm. IH. BopoHeac, 

2001. C. 2643. 

53. CeMeHeHKO AA. O npnpozie ApeBHeBe/mHecKoro 6paxMaHa (no 
flaHHbMPHreeflaraMXHTbi)//y3KH. Bbm. IV.BopoHOK, 2002. 

54. CeMeHeHKO A.A. OcHOBHbie noaxom.i k repMeHeBTHKe TeKCTa 
PHTBeflacaMXHTbi // BecrHHK HayHHoM ceccHH OHI1CH BH/ . Bbm. IV. 
BopoHe>K, 2002. C. 62-63. 

55. Sri Aurobindo. The Secret of the Veda. Pondicherry, 1993. 

56. Tilak B.G. The Orion or Researches into the antiquity of the Vedas. 
Bombay,1893. 

57. Tilak S.L. Collected works. Volume B. TheOrion. The ArcticHomein the 
Vedas. Vedic chronology and Other Essays. Poona. 1975. 

58. TniiaK BJ. ApKTHHecKasi po^ma b Beaax / Efep. c aHra. H.PTyceBOH. 

M.,2001. 

59. TonopoB B.H. CpaBHHTejibHbin KOMMeHTapHH k ojmoMy MOTHBy 
jlpeBHeHHmfflCKOH MHtbojiornH - Hnapa-MypaBeH // /JpeBHaa Hhjjhh. 
HcropHKO-KyjibTypHbiecB5i3H. M., 1982. C. 327-341. 

60. OpaHK(j)opT T., OpaHKtbopT T.A., Yhjicoh /i*., Jko6ceH T. B 
npeflflBepHH cbnjiocochHH. ,HyxoBHbie HCKaHHH^peBHero nenoBeKa. Ilep. c 
aHTJi. TTojicTOH. CTI6. , 200 1 . 

61 . IlInpoKOBa H.C. KyjibTypa KenbTOB n Hop^mecKaa TpaAfflJHa 
aHnHHOCTH. CI16., 2000. 



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PHrBeaacaMXHTbi Jl.B.r.THjiaica c. 1 1 

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HHTepnpeTau,iiHPHrBe/iacaMXMTbiJT.B.r.THJiaKa c. 79 

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