Skip to main content

Full text of "Gesenius Hebrew Chaldee Lexicon Old Testament Scriptures.Tregelles.1857. 24 files."

See other formats


where even a copulative Vav is found at the begin- 
ning; for in these books the histories of the pre- 
ceding books are continued. [In some cases, how- 
ever (such as Ezra), it would be a question, what 
book ought to precede, whether the Hebrew or Greek 
order should be followed.] 

[In Thes. Ges. inclines to the opinion that 1 con- 
versive does not differ in origin from 1 copulative, 
only that it is more emphatic as including a note of 
time; and in Corr. he appears entirely to adopt this 
view: whether he has done so on just grounds may 
fairly be questioned, as the fact of the apocopated or 
paragogic future being used after it shpws that it has 
a land of subjunctive power. See Thes. p. 398.] 

(Jl. pr. n. of a place in Arabia. Eze. 97:19. It was 
rightly observed by Michaelis that 1 is radical and not 
copulative (Spicileg. Geog. Heb. p. 274). Nor is there 
any need that we should read HJ- But Bochart and 
Forster suppose that Dan is spoken of as trading 
to foreign lands. [" Very probably the prophet here 
speaks of the city and mart py ^sc 'Aden, in 
connection with which Edrisi enumerates these very 
wares," wrought iron, cassia,and spices, " T. i. p. 5 1 , ed. 
Jaubert The town of Aden is small, but renowned 
on account of its port, whence vessels sail to Sind, 
. India, and China. From the latter of these countries 
they bring merchandize, such as iron, Damascus sword 
blades, cardamum, cinnamon ...Indian plums ...vari- 
ous kinds of cloth woven with grass, and others rich and 
made like velvet. The text ought, therefore, probably 
to read pv or pW unless perhaps H is for p8 the V 
being dropped, and then 1 is the copula." Ges. add.] 

2H) a doubtful word, found Nu. 91:14. Some 
take it. to be the name of a place, according to Le 
Clerc i. q. 1$P Verse 18, comp. c-^Jfcj to give, i. q. 
|QJ. But Kimchi found in MSS. Sfftpg m one word, 
which would be Aram. Ethpa. of the verb t--^ 
= 2rv : Jehovah dtdit se in turbine. However, the 
whole passage is abrupt and very obscure. 

^) pi. 0*1} m. (with Kametz impure), a peg, a nail. 



a hooky only occurring Ex. 26; 97; 36; 38; used of 
the hooks by which the curtains of the holy taber- 
nacle were hung. The etymology is obscure. 
— •,- 

^T1 Arabic ,;. to carry (whence j ;, Weztr % 

pr. laden with public affairs, comp. bajulus, used by 
writers of the middle ages for a royal envoy, chargi 
d'affaires, whence the Germ. SBatlltf/ Ital. baUo\ in pass. 
to be borne down with punishment In Phcenicio- 
Shemitic idiom [and in actual Scripture truth both 
of the O. and N. T.] sin is a burden lying upon the 
wicked (Ps. 38:4; Isai. 53:11), whence also Nfc>}, 
atpiw, to take away, for, to pardon. [This is not 
the only meaning of the phrase; Christ bore mar sins 
forus by dying vicariously.] Hence — 

"1JJ m. laden with guilt Prov. 91 :8. 

KfiPl (Pers. **>. pure pr. white, see fte), [Fa- 
jezatha\ Pers. pr. n. of the youngest son of Hainan. 

*7\ i. q-^/J to bear, bring forth. Arabic 
jj.. Hence — 

m. offspring. Gen. 11 :30, and- 


T/J m. id. 9 8a. 6:93. np and the western MSS. 
have i&. 

[« H31 an unused root, i. q. ^ to be torpid, weak, 
meek." Hence — ] 

T$ [VaniaK], pr. n. of a man. Ezr. 10:36. 

VP) (perh. i.q. WJ "my addition"), [Po/>A- 
st], pr. n. m. Nu. 13: 14. 

\)ph [Fas Ant], pr.n. m. 1 Ch.6 13, apparently 
a corrupt form; for verse 18, and 1 Sa. 8:9, for the 
same there is ^\ [ u Probably this should be ^3. 
The whole passage is, n£« *jtfg hfr "to?*; sea 
Mover's Chron. p. 54." Ges. add.] 

♦fiBh (Pers j^ "beautiful woman"), Fas*- 
ti, pr.n. the wife of Xerxes. Est. 1 :9. 


Hie seventh letter of the alphabet called I?l, i. e. Syr. 

l±j) a weapon^ which this letter resembles in form 
in all the more ancient alphabets. [" As a numeral 
it denotes 7."] 

In Arabic there are two letter? which answer to 
this, which somewhat differ in pronunciation, j dh, 

When this letter corresponds to the former, it be- 
comes in Aramaean *7, when to the latter, J is re- 

tained; thus w*l3», n 31 to slaughter: >&*/, JHJ to 
sow, etc. Comp. the letter "i. 

Also J and ; are interchanged amongst themselves : 

e.g. THJ,y,£ and i«j* V kelp; D1J, »j^ and +fc 
•nd : dz; as njj -^J to slaughter; JHJ cjj seed, i to cutoff^ 

Digitized by 





T is inUa-changed — (a) with f (ta) in PSl and PSV 

to cry out; T?SJ and f/J} to exult, to shout aloud; 3HJ 

gold; com p. 3HV tawny, yellow. — (b) with D, b, as 

■*T and -flD to go away; T?JJ, D^JtJ to exult; nj|, Syr. 

Loo_25 to despise; PDK damage, from HDK, ^j\ to 

hurt [Also with 1, e. g. pl| and p)?. Thes.] 

^ot an unused root Arab. cJj to terrify, 
[" which I consider to be the same as 3DJ, any to be 
yellow or tawny, like gold." Thes.], whence perh. 3KJ. 

3$ J (with Tsere impure) m. — (i)auo(/j because 
it frightens the flock (unless the verb be a denomi- 
native). [" So called from its tawny and yellow 

colour." Thes.] Arab. ^^jj, Syr. J^)>. Gen.4p,:27; 

Isa. 11:6; 65:25; Jer. 5:6, 3"$ '3W "evening 
wolves," those which go forth to prowl at evening. 
Hab.l:8; Zeph. 3:3, comp. \vkoi rvcrepiyol, Oppian. 
Cyneget. iii. 206, wKmropoi ibid. i. 440. 

(2) \ZeeV\, pr. n. of. a Midianite prince, Jud. 
7:25; 8:3; Ps.83-.12. 

nKT this, fern, of the pronoun HT, which see. 

-13J an unused root [" onomatopoetic i. q. &PJ 
to murmur, to hum, to buzz; Germ, fummen* whence 
MJ a fly, from its buzzing; like Lat. musca, from 
/iv£*», musso (mussito); Bochart compares"] Arab, 
c^jj J to float, to hover, to move oneself about in 
the air: as applied to flying insects, compare 3?^ to 
creep on the ground, used of reptiles. The former 
may be expressed in German, in ber Euft wtmmeln 
(fdw&rmen)/ the latter auf ber (5rb« wimmeln. [" But 
this Arabic root is secondary." Thes.] 

Hence are derived 3WT f *3J. 

*T3J once, Gen. 30:20, to endow, to bestow 
a gift; rightly rendered by the LXX. hlwpTjrai. 
Vulg. dotavit. Comp. Ch., Saad., Abulw. In Arab, 
jj: has the same signification, see Jeuhari in Schult. 
Origg. Hebr. torn. i. page 49. Schultens is not to be 
followed in supposing this word to be only used by 
the Arabs of a gift of small value, and thus he has 
devised a new and abstruse explanation. This root is 
not found as such in Syriac, (see however Palmyr. 
Inscr. No. 4, line 5,) but the Zabians have the noun 

Jjo^^J gift, see Cod. Nasar. 111. p. 26. The many 
proper names derived from this word, manifest its 
more frequent use in Hebrew. 

Besides the words which follow immediately, see 

*TJJ m. a gift) dowry, ibid. 

"P! ("gift"), \Zabad\ pr.n. m.— (1) 1 Chr. 
2:36.— (2) 1 Ch. 7 : 21.— (3) ibid. 1 1 :4l.— (4) 2 Ch. 
24:26. In the parallel passage, 2KL 12:22, it it 

^21 (probably for n^?t « the gift of Jeho- 
vah"), [Zabdt], pr.n. m. — (1) Josh. 7:1, in the 
parallel passage, 1 Ch. 2:6, ^.OJ. — (2) 1 Ch. 8:19.— 
(3) 1 Ch. 27 : 27.— (4) Neh. 11:17. 

SfcTWT ("the gift of God"), [ZabdieQ, pr.r 
m. Neh. 11:14; comp. 2a)32i//X, 1 Mac. 11:17. 

i"H3T ("the gift of Jehovah"), Zebediah(Gr. 
Zifitlcuoe), pr. n. of several men, 1 Ch. 8:15, 17: 
12:7; 27:7; Ezr. 8:8; 10:20. 

V1H3T (id.) pr.n. m.— (1) lCh.26:2.— (2) 2Ch. 
17:8.— (3) 2Ch. 19:11. r ., 

3^2 J m. a fly, from the root 33J . Isa.7:i8; Ejcc.ffL 
10:1, njO >&2] "flies of death," Le. deadly, or||^ 
poisonous [" dead, not poisonous, which is not in ac- *? 
cordance with the context." Thes.] ; 3«J ^S5 the 1< 

L S - + \ 

of flies, see ?»5 No. 5, letter b. ["Arab. <_>b j f Chi 

*N2J ("given," ["a gift bestowed, so. by God"jX 
[Zabud], pr. n. m. 1 Ki. 4:5. 

TttT (id.) [Zabbud\, Ezr. 8: 14 n»ro. 

iTTQT ("given"), \Zebudah\ pr.n. f. sKi 
33:36 np, but n»nD is rn>nj. 

/^3J and /3J [root i>31], m. — (1) habitation °" 
residence, especially of God. 1 Ki.8-.13; 2Ch.6:2; 

Ps.49:i55 Isa. 63:15; Hab. 3 :n, "Hi T«J 0? «W 
"the sun (and) moon stand still in their habitation," 
i. e. retain their place in the heavens [" i. e. hide them- 
selves, do not shine"]. Compare what has been said 
under nfrjO. 

(2) \ZebuT\, pr. n. m. Jud. 9:28. 

j&QT, f^3T, }V?3T ("habitation"), Gen. 30:20, 
\Zebulun\, pr. n. — (1) of the tenth son of Jacob 
whom he had by Leah. — (2; of the tribe of Zebulun, 
whose limits are described Josh. 19:10 — 16. The 
Gentile noun is ^3? from the form l"*3J, Num. 

n^T (a root kindred to njtj, Arab, ^y j, Syr 

i**r*>, Zab. .aO» and .^^1, JEth. rWVh: Per- 
haps the same root is found in the Greek afdawm^ 

ff^kfw, Le. S4»ar). [fat. nap]. 

(1) to slauohteb ANiMAi s, Gen. 31:34; 1 8a 
28:24; lKi. 19:21; £se.39:l7* 

Digitized by 



(fl) specially to slay in sacrifice, 
k immolate, 1 Sa. l -.4; followed by f (l Ki. 8:63), 
and % 3ff (ibid, verse 62; 2 Ch. 7:4; Lev. 9:4), before 
fcL^ name of him to whom the sacrifice is offered. It 
is not used of priests slaying victims, but of private 
persons who brought sacrifices at their own charge. 

Piel n3J fut $21) to sacrifice, i. q. Kal No. 8, 1 Ki. 
m :3s a Ki. 12 '.4. It is frequently used iteratively 

of the custom of sacrificing (like the Arab. ^j«j to 

sacrifice much or frequently), 1 Ki. 3 : 2, 3 ; 11:8; Hos. 
4:14, etc. 

Derivatives, USV? and — 

H3T m . with suff. *flyt, p l. D*n}J, const, V?1 once 

(1) pr. a slaying; hence the flesh of slain animals, 
feasts, Gen. 31:54; Eze. 39:17; Pro. 17:1, ^nnn^t 
contentious feasts. 

(a) a sacrifice ["whether the act of sacrificing 

or"], an offering, a victim. Opposed both to nnjp 

4 a bloodless offering [when so contrasted], 1 Sa. 8 : 29; 

Psal. 40:7, and to ripfof a burnt offering, holocaust; 

so that n?J denotes sacrifices of which but a part were 




j J| Chald. to procure for oneself, to bu t (so Syr 
and Samar.). Dan. 2:8, T??{ W* *}?« T "thai 
ye will gain the time," i. e. ye seek delay (compart 
IPT). Hence pr. n. KJ^T. 

3{ m. Nu. 6:4, the skin of a grape, clear and 
transparent. Its root is the following word. 

J«IJ [an unused root] to be clear, transpa- 
rent, compare Samar. H? i. q. "pt to be pure, the 

s - 

Arabic '-»-j ^/a*s, i. q. JVJMDJ, Ch. H? to be clear, 

transparent. [Derivative J{.] 

*l! m. (verb. adj. from *HT, TJ) proud (properly 
swelling up, inflated), with the connected idea of 
insolence and impiety (compare ^>n No. 3, 4). Isa. 
13:11; Jer.43:2; Psal. 19:14; 119:21, 51,69, 78, 
85, 128. 

JHJ constr. tfl? (as if from the root rnjasTT), with 

consumed, such as expiatorvor eucharistic offerings, I ^f-^Hf * Sa.17-.28; Jer. 49: 16, swelling, pride; 
etc., Ex. 10:25; Lev. 17:8;" Nu. 15:5, D^f> njj a ^J 0111 ^ ^th insolenceand arrogance, haughtiness. 

eucharistic offering, Lev. 3: 1 ; 4: io, etc. It is also 
lused in speaking generally of great and solemn sacri- 
fices, and sacrificial feasts. GD^PJD njj an annual 
Sacrifice, 1 Sam. 1:21; 20:6. nne^O rn J a family 
Sacrifice, 20:29; compare 9:12, 13; 16:3. 

(3) [Ze ha A], pr. n. of a Midianite king, Jud. 8:5; 

*3J [Zabbat], pr.n.m., Ezr. 10:28; Neh-3:20 
3*nD perhaps it is erroneously written for *$t, which 
is found Ezr. 2:9; Neh. 7 : 14. 

rrrar ^ mn\. 

nyyt ("bought"), [ZebinaK], pr.n.m., Ezr. 


-(l) properly in my opinion, i. q. 23^ to be 
£ucnd, to make round, whence the Talmudic 
'?!> ^?! round or globular dung, such as that of goats, 

or camels, Syr. and Arab. JL^j, iL ;. 

(2) to inhabit [to dwell with], (comp. TH No. 2). 
Gen. 30:20, 7??r. "he will inhabit (together with) 
me," i. e. he (my husband) will dwell with me ; the idea 
of conjugal intercourse being conjoined: for verbs 
of dwelling joined with an rccusative, imply dwelling 
together, see "W, |?B>. 

D» rivatives, fo?, J&3J. 

Prov.ii:2; 13:10; 21:24, *$ fnj "the haughti- 
ness of the heart;" Jer. 49:16; Obad. 3; Deut 
17: 12. As a concrete used of Babylon, as the mo* 
haughty, Jer. 50:31, 32. 

«"1 J with prefix HJ3 , HP, f . HKI, more rarely nt Ec*. 
2:2; 5-15, 18; 7:23; 9:13; i? Hosea7:i6; Psal. 
132:12 (and in this place instead of the relative), 
once nn*$? Jer. 26:6 n»ro, plur. n?K (which see). 

(1) this, a. demonstrative pronoun, hie, hoc, hoc.. 

Arabic Ij, \ ja hie, Syr. |*cn haec, J2th. H: fem. 
H: Hi^: Hence have sprung the Aramaean **?, ^ and 
-dEth. Ho which have become relatives. Correspond- 
ing to the Sanscrit sas, sa, tat. With regard to 
demonstratives generally beginning with the demon- 
strative letter d, or with the same sound sibilated, 
see above p. xc, A. [in the note after "*?¥] and tc 
these may be added the German ba. 

nj is placed either separately, or with a substantive; 
if the latter, it commonly, like an adjective, follows 
the substantive, and it has the article prefixed when- 
ever the substantive itself has ; as HJH "^l^n this word ; 
Hjn DV5 "in thi8day, w Gen.7:ii. In other placet 
HJ without the article is prefixed to a noun, and this 
takes place — (a) where the predicate of a proposition 
is contained in this pronoun, "9^B n |. u tnis (is) the 
word, Ex. 35 : 4 ; Jud. 4 : 1 4. — (b) where the pronoun if 

Digitized by 





emphatically demonstrative. Ps. 104:95,^*1}? D*n nj 
"(behold!) *his great sea." Ezr.3:i2,n?3nnj "this 
bouse.'' Jud.5:5, W nj "this Sinai." Josh. 9: 12, 
Uprfc n| "this our bread." P8.48: 15, 0* pfy nj "this 
God;" 1 Ki. 14:6 ; Isa. 93 -.13. Comp. in Gr. tovto to 
(hpiov. And this more emphatic collocation, which 
is much used in Syriac and Chald. (W?f P nj** Dan. 
4: 15), is frequent with Jthe Hebrew poets, and later 
writers ; sometimes also, like the Gr. ovroc, and Lat. 
iste, it is used in the sense of despising, and as express- 
ing contempt towards some one. Ex.39: 1, ng>D HJ 
**KH; yerse 93, comp. 10:7; 1 Sa. 10:27. Likewise 
it is vividly demonstrative, when added to interrogative 
pronouns to increase their power. Isa. 63 : 1 , K|l nj *D 
" who (is) t h i 8 coining? " Job 38:9; 49 : 3, elsewhere 
MH *D (gee WH), and more fully nj WH nj Jer. 30:91 ; 
Ps. 94: 10 (and so nj"ni? what then? nrie benn? nrie 
M? Gen. 97: 90; why then? Jud. 18:24; iKi.9i:5; 

nj HB^ id. Gen. 18:13; 25:99. Arabic \^\\). HJ 

rarely follows, as in Daniel 10:17, nj ^hg, and 
with a pronoun nj nflS thou (compare the Latin ille 
ego), bu ba, Genesis 97:91. This pronoun may be 
used as referring to that which precedes (Ecc. 6:9), 
or, as is more common, to that which follows. Gen. 
5:1, in the introductory words of the chapter, " this 
(is) the book of the genealogy of Adam." Ex. 30 : 1 3, 
5>iy n*Vrt£ . . . UFP nj "this they shall give ... a half 
shekel." Ps-7:4, ntf? Wfc^ DK "if I have done this" 
(namely, what follows) ; 49 : 5 ; Isa. 56 : 2 ; 58 : 6 ; 66 : 9. 
So the plur. n?K (which see), Greek ovroc (v. Passow 
h. v. No. a). The repetition nj ... nj this ... that, 
hie... Me, one. ..another, unus ...alter ; Job 1:16; 
I KL 92 : 90 ; HJ 7« nj one to another, Isa. 6 : 3. 

(2) HJ is more rarely, and only by poetic usage, 
put instead of the relative, like the Germ, bet for 
tocldjcr, b a mtt for w mit [like the use of tfiat in English 
instead of who or which'], (compare on the subject of 
relatives, as springing mostly from demonstratives 
under the words •'VS, ••?). Psal. 104:8, nj n\pyb$ 
D^ FHPJ " to the place which thou hast founded for 
them;" Prov. 93:22; Job 15 : 1 7 ; Ps. 78 : 54. With 
this signification it seems to be indeclinable, like "^S, 
\nd thus it stands also for the plural, Job 19: 19. 
["Once for the fern. plur. ft is found, Ps. 139:19."] 
As a mark simply of relation (like "^5* A, 9), Ps. 74 : 2, 
la W?£ nj l^*V in "Mount Zion in which thou 
Jwellest;" Isa. 25:9. 

(3) It becomes an adverb — (a) of place, here, for 
HJ? in this sc. place, Gen. 28: 17; Num. 13: 17, etc.; 
rqp^«nc«, Gen. 37:17; Ex. 11:1; nji^ njt? hence 
and henciy on either side, Num. 22:24; Josh. 8:33. 

With a demonstrative power nj nan jtefyc ba! lo! her t. t 
Cant. 2:S; 1 Ki. 19:5. — (b) of time, now. already, 
properly, at this, sc. time. Mic. 5:4, D)^ n| njnj 
"and now there shall be peace;" 1 Ki. 17:24, nj 
*WTJ "now I know." nj ftflJljust now, at present. 
Ruth 2:7; 1 Ki. 17:24. With this signification it is 
often prefixed to numerals; Gen. 27:36, DW8.B n J 
"these two times;" Gen.31 :38, n# Dnfoj nj" these 
twenty years ;" verse 41 ; 43 : 10 ; 45 : 6 ; Nu. 14: 22 ; 
Jud. 16:15; Zee. 7:3, &W H^§ n| "already so 
many years." 

(4) with prefixes — (a) n?| in this sc. place, here 
(see No. 3), Gen. 38 : 2 1 ; Ex. 24 : 14 ; tropically applied 
to time, then, Est. 2:13. — (6) nj^j n^J so and 80, 
Jud. 18:4; 2Sa..ii:25; 1 Ki. 14:5. 

«3nT an unused root, certainly the same in signi- 
fication as 3ny, to shine like gold. 

3HT constr. an? (once 3?J : Gen. 2:12), m. 

s " 7 V 

(1) gold (Arab. u^fcJ? Syr., Chald. (L^oij, an^ 
id.), Gen. 24:22,53; Ex. 3:22; 36:38, etc. When 
preceded by numerals, the weight s\$£ is understood, 
e.g. Gen. 24:22, anj rr*^ "ten (shekels) of gold." 

(2) metaph. of the golden splendour of the heavens, 
perhaps of the sun itself, Job 37:22; of the purest 
oil, brilliant like gold (Jell ttrie ©olb), Zee. 4:12. 

mm? an unused root. Arab. U; to shine, to hi 

Sis- -' 

fair, also to be proud; j*: splendour, beauty, espe- 

cially that of flowers, the flower itself; compare jb\ 

from jfc: to be bright. Syr. J <n \ to be proud; 
Ethpael, to be made splendid or beautiful. 
Derivatives, 1?, VJ and T\% 

DuJ unused in Kal. Arab. Jtj to stink, to 

become rancid (when speaking of fat). Chald. to 
stink, to be filtht. This root is used in the Za- 
bian, of water when it has a stinking smell. ??¥, 
H3J, j^j- are kindred roots. 

Piel, *o regard as stinking or filthy, thus to 
regard *cith disgust, to loathe, or to be weary of. 
Job 33:20, Dn7 *non?"he loathes it, namely bread." 
The suffix is pleonastic; comp. lehrg. §195,2. 

DH? ("loathing," ["fat." Tries.]), [Zaham^ 
pr.n. m. 2 Ch. 11:19. 

*inj unused in Kal, L q. j* , ioil to shini, tc 
be bright; comp. inf. 

Digitized by 


npiT — tit 

Hiphil "i^jn — (i) u> make to ihine. Metaph. — 
(a) to teach (letjren), construed with ace both of 
person and thing, Ex. 18:20; to warn (belefcren), con- 
strued with ace. of pers. 2 Ch. 19:10.— (b) to ad- 
monish to dissuade from anything, aKi. 6:10; 
followed by J*? (roarnen oor etroa*)/ Lev. 15:31. [But 
see -»IJ Hiphil.] Eze. 3: 18, nyenp tori© vyi ™jr£ 

"to dehort the wicked from his evil way." But 
Eze. 3: 17; 33:7, *?®9 OJ?fc 913p "thoushalt ad- 
monish them from me," by my authority; Germ. 
Don mtr, »on meinetwegen. (Syr. Pa. and Aph., Chald. 
Aph. id.) 

(2) intrans. to shine forth y to be brilliant, pro- 
perly to give forth light, Dan. 12:3. Ch."»njK id. 

Niphal, to be taught, to be admonished; also to 
take warning, to accept admonition, Ecc. 4:13; 
Eze. 33 : 4, 5, 6. Followed by IP Ecc. 12:1a. 

"HHT Ch. id. part. pass. ^«?J admonished, cau- 
tious, Ezr. 4:22. (Syr. Ethpe. to take heed, to be 
watchful about any thing.) 

*TT» m. brightness (of the sky), Eze. 8:2; Dan. 

IT m. i. q. Vf (which indeed is the reading of many 
oopies), for VHJ (from the root nn\), splendour, 
especially of flowers, whence comes the name of 
the second Hebrew month, \Zif\, from the new moon 
of May to that of June, (according to the Rabbins 
from the new moon of April to that of May), as 
though it were the month of flowers; lKi.6:i,37; 
Chald. «W V\ IT* the month of the splendour of 
flowers. In Chaldee, Syriac and Arabic, the same 

month is called, ^^, J;->), ,\j\, also from splendour. 
Compare German £cnj/ Sued. Glenz, spring; likewise 
named from splendour, brightness. 

ft see HJ. 

XI oomm. i.q. HJ and nfeft. 

(l) demonstr. pron. Ps. 12:8; Hab. 1:11, tab *? 
STY?*} " this his strength (is) for a god to him." More 
frequently also — 

(a) it is used as a relative, Ex. 15:13; Ps.Q:i6; 
142:4, and thus as a sign of relation, Isa. 43:21; 
42:24, w OKIpn tt " against whom we have sinned.* 

(In the Talmud IT not unfrequently is used for HT, 
and also in its compounded forms. The Tayitic 
Arabs are accustomed to use * J for ^ jj\ ; see Schult. 

31? (l) to FLOW, properly used of water. Psalm 
7&:to; 105:41; Isa. 48:21. It is also often used 



of the female catamenia, Lev. I5:*5t or of seminal 
emission or gonorrhoea of males, Lev. 15:2. To f lorn 
with any thing is also, by an idiom of the language, 
used of things or persons, in or from which any 
thing flows, as a woman in her menstrual flow, Lev 
15:19; a man suffering from gonorrhoea, Lev. 15:4* 
seq.; 22:4; Nu.5:2; 2 Sam. 3:29; it is especially 
thus used of affluence and abundance, with ace. of 
the thing with which anything abounds. Ex. 3:8, 
KQ1* abn njt fTK "a land flowing with(i.e. aboun- 
ding in) milk and honey. n Verse 17; 13:5; 33*-3» 
Lev. 20:24; Nu. 13:27; 14:8; 16:14. ["Notfo- 
lowed by an object, Jer.49:4, TJ&OV *l * thy valley 
flows, 1 sc. with blood." Thes.] 

(2) to flow away, to pine away, to die. Lam, 

Aram. <J^o?, 3Vf to flow, to flow away, to fr#- 

come liquid. Arab. l—Aj to pine away with hun- 
ger or sickness. See under the root 3$tt. 

3m m. a flowing, discharge,** of semen, gonor- 
rhoea benigna, Levit 15:2 — 15; of menstrual blood, 
Lev. 15:19, seq. 

^T or *PT (1)1. q. the kindred root W to boil, 
toboilover (speaking of water), onomatopoetic like 
the German jteben, the English to seethe, Greek #*, 
whence (v0oc (@ub/ TCbfub), compare the similar 
<ri£v. SeeNiph. and Hiph. No. 1. Hence to over- 
flow (speaking of boiling water). 

(2) Like the Gr. £c« and Lat. ferveo, it is trans- 
ferred to the violence or fierceness of a passionate 
mind (compare tna, Arab. \jj and Schultens, Opp. 
Min. p. 80), and thus to insolence and wickedness. 
Hence he acted insolently, proudly, or wickedly to- 
wards any one, followed by ?J? Ex. 18: 11 ;.?$ Jer 
50:29. In this signification n*l¥ is a kindred root 

In Arabic both the roots j\ \ Med. Waw and ^>, , 
Med. Te, have significations derived from boiling and 

cooking, but these are only secondary. The former 

s - 
(for J.;) is, to prepare provision for a journey, J\; 

food for a journey, from the idea of cooking, wrc 
3u(o4en jur Strife * the latter (for jjj) to increase, to 
exceed, from the idea of overflowing. [See "NT in 

Niphal, part. TJJ (from the form T\ comp. Lehrg. 
p. 411, for it is by no means necessary to suppose 
another root 11} [although to assume such a root 
could hardly be regarded as inaccurate]), $om$thiu§ 
cooked, pottage. Gen. 25:29. 

Digitized by 


nyw— -nr 

Hiphil — (i) to cook (see Kal. No. l), to prepare 
oy cooking. Gen. loc. cit. ^3 3J3JK 1TJ] " and Jacob 
tod pottage." LXX. txlnjae hi 'Ww/3 evf/tyta. 

(«) to ac< insolently, fiercely, wickedly, es- 
pecially in speaking of those who 9in knowingly and 
purposely against the precepts of God. Deut. l : 43 ; 
17: 13; Neh. 9: 16, 29; followed by a gerund, Deut. 
18:20; followed by ?V before the person, Ex. 21 : 14, 
nD"5J? Irjn^ngi^J ^»1f; >? "if aman act fiercely 
against his neighbour, by slaying him with subtlety." 
Neh. 9:10. 

Derivatives "H, tf T I, fty 

m? Ch. id. Aphel inf. rrjjq i. q . Heb. Hiph. No. 
t, to act insolently or violently, Dan. 5:20. 

HIT an unused root. Arab, ^.j to hide, to con- 
ceal, VI L to hide oneself, to betake oneself to a cor- 
ner; in Hebrew also it probably signified to lay up, 
to preserve. 

Derivatives HJ1J and ^{D. 

TIT an unused root. — (1) pr. i. q. Ch. R? to move 
oneself about. [" Talmud. id."l Hence npnp and 
H No. 1. 

(a) From swiftness of motion it is figuratively ap- 
plied to shining or radiating (ccmp. J*¥ and the very 
similar series of significations of "H"^), hence to spout 
forth like rays or in streams (speaking of milk), and 
the noun H a full breast. [ Note, in Thes. the order 
of these meanings is reversed.] 

D % WT Gen. 14:5 \Zuzims\ pr. n. of a nation, the 
aborigines of the land of the Ammonites, inhabiting 
the borders of Palestine, perhaps the same as the 
D*§jpt (which see). LXX. tQvn i<rxypa, so also 
Syr., Onk. Syr. [" Perhaps so called from the fer- 
tility of their country."] 

HIT!? \ZohetK\, pr. n. m. iCh.4:20. No root 
from which this name can be derived is found in 
Hebrew, or in the cognate dialects. 

*\\\ or *\ JJ (with Kametz impure), only found in 
the plural rt*H f. a corner, from the root H}{. (Syr. 

)Aooj, Arab, jg J;). It is used in speaking of the 

corners of the altar, Zee. 9:15, and by metonymy, of 
the corner columns of a palace [why not of the cor- 
ner stones themselves?], Psalm 144: 12, nh|3 WQ^f 
ntatJTO literally "our daughters like corner co- 
lumns (beautifully) carved." Caryatides are to be 
understood, so often found in Egyptian architecture, 
Aqu, £c ticiybvuk. Vulg. quasi anguli. [There is 
■0 need to suppose in this passage any such allusion 

ccxli njm--m? 

to be intended ; corner stones of strength and beauty 
are simply spoken of.] 

/*IT (1) i. q. ??t to pour out, once, Isa. 46:6, 
D*3)D 3HJ D^Jl* " pouring out (i.e. lavishing) gold 

from the bag." (Arab. J\J IV. to make light of.) 

(2) to remove, to take away, compare Arab. J\j 
Med. Waw and Ye, to take away; intransitively, i.4. 
to go away, to desist, to fail. Hence n^T. 

[Hiphil 7^n for tyfj (comp. the roots rviD, TO, JO, 
^D, and Gesen. Gram. §71, note 9), to make light 
of to despise, comp. Kal. No. 1. Lam. 1:8. Thes.] 

H /?T f. taking away, putting as ide, only found 
in const. Hptt, and with suff. >r J?W, 'l^T as a prepo- 
sition besides, save, except, e. g. *?<*» besides me, 
properly I being removed, or more closely still, the 
removing of me, through the removing of me. 2 Ki. 
24 : 14 ; Isaiah 45 : 5, 2 1 , etc. Sometimes with Yod 
parag. *r^4? for n?M Deut. 1 136; 4:12. Once as a 
conjunction, for "^ Jw except that, unless that, 

|1T unused in Kal.Chald., Syr., and Sam. to koc- 


Hophal, Jer. 5:8, D^D D^D i*m,fed horses, 
i. e. fat. The np has D ^P, which, according to 
Schultens, is derived from 1£, ^ ;^ in this sense: 
ponderibus instructi (pondera i. q. testes e. g. CattilL 
lxii. 5. Stat. Silv. iii. iv. 77), bene vasatL LXX. 
tirtcoi QnXvimvtTtQ. Hence PTO. 

jtt Chald. id. 

Ithpeal, fut. n?l pass. Dan. 4: 9. 

Derivative tftlp. 

!"l3i? f. a harlot, prostitute, part. fern, from the 
root njj which see. 

Ji IT (frequently used in Syr., Chald. and Zabian), 
i. q. Gr. adw, tnv<a (compare JPJ vevw), to shake* to 
agitate (see Pilpel, and n lJJ|), in Kal intransitive 10 
be shaken, hence — 

(1) to move oneself, Est 5:9. 

(2) to tremble, to shake, Ecc. 12:3. 
Pilpel part. WWP to agitate, to trouble, Hab. 2:7 

(Aram, and Arabic id.) 

The derivatives follow, except HJJJ sweat [which in 
Thes. is referred to WJ; also Ft]. 

J^T Chald. to tremble, to fear, followed by Jt? 
Part. r?KJ or according to np TO!} Dan. 5:19; 6:27 

HJJ1T f. (from W with the Vav moveable). 

Digitized by 



(l) agitation, trouble, Jer. 15:4, ny$? D^ftnj 
fn«n nte^l? hty "I will deliver them for trouble 
to all kingdoms of the earth;" 34:9; 29:18; 34*17; 
*Chr. 29:8. The np every where [in these pas- 
sages] has the form ^81, as being of more easy 
utterance (which see). 

• 2) terror, Isa. 28:19. 

*pT an unused root. In Chaldee to borrow. 
f fence the pr. n. *[*]. ["Probably i.q. M? to flow, 
compare Arabic u-J J* to flow, to be liquid, fc_Jc)» to 
become liquid, to melt in drops," etc., Thes. " Hence 
1f>l and *IT']. 


3UT (Syr. *j, *oj to take in the hand. Arab, j ; to 

press, especially applied to the lip of a horse. The 
original idea is that of restraining, pressing in, comp. 
the kindred roots "«¥, Tiy). Fut. Jud. 6:38,'^ 1$ 
njin "and he squeezed togetlier the fleece." Job 
39: 15, 7$*$ V3 H 9 n 5Wl "and (the ostrich) forgets 
that the foot may press upon them" (her eggs), that 
is, may crush them; compare Isa. 59:5. Intrans. 
pret. M) (for which intransitive form see Lehrgeb. 
p. 40 1 ), Isa. 1 : 6, Y)\ *6 "(the wounds) are not pressed 
together," not cleaned from blood. [Query. But does 
not this simply mean not closed up in healing?] 
["Part. pass. fern. Isa. 59: 5 "TJWD1, 'and the pressed 
or broken (egg) is cleft into a viper,' i. e. a viper 
springs from the broken (egg), n— ig a more obtuse 
form for n— , compare Zee. 5:4"]. Hence "WO No. I. 

n. "W? a kindred root to "WD and "HI. 

(1) to turn aside, to depart (like Arab.,U Med. 
Waw Conj. VI. VIII), followed by \Q from some- 
3ne, Job 19: 13; Ps. 78:30; especially from God, Ps. 

58 :4 ; from the way of truth and uprightness, whence 

s *> 
Thp falsehood, ..: lie, falsehood, \\ Conj. I. to tell lies 

(compare "WJ and Arab. \&J). 

(2) to turn from the way, to lodge at any one's 
house (Arabic \\ to visit some one), hence to be a 

stranger (Arabic j\\ a visitor, stranger) ["to be 
itrange or foreign""]. 

Part a stranger, strange, especially — (1) of 
another nation, an alien by birth, Exod. 30:33 [but 
surely this passage refers to any one not the high 
priest], with which the idea of an enemy or barbarian is 
often associated (like the Lat. host is oUm erat pere- 
grints, Cic. Off. i. 1 2, and Gr. £r <i or, which also signified 


an enemy, Herod, ix. 1 1 ; on the other hand Sam. ft^ 
is properly a hater, and in a derived sense a stranger;. 
Isa. 1:7; 25:2; 29:5; Ps.54^5; Eze. 11:9; 28:10; 
30:12; Hosea7:9; 8:7; Obad. 11. V?a strange 
or foreign god, the domestic god of some other nation, 
introduced amongst the Hebrews; [May not these 
passages simply mean strange as opposed to Jehovah, 
their own God?], Ps. 44:21: 81:10; ellipt.TJ Isa. 
43:12. PLD^Deu. 32:16; Jer.3:i3;[?] 5:»9[?]- 

(2) of another family. Fern. rnj a strange 
woman (i. q. JD n## Pro. 6 : 29), especially with regard 
to unlawful intercourse with her, an adulteress, a 
harlot [this is clearly the general use of the term], 
Prov.2:l6; 5:3>20; 7:5; 22:14; 23: 33 (Syr. and 

Sam. i^, «\xt is to commit adultery, prop, to turn to 

lodge with). So D^J adulterers, profligates, Jer. 
2:25; Eze. 16:32, 0*11 D*?^ strange children, i.*» 
bastards, Hos. 5:7. 

(3) As opposed* to that which is upright, true, and 
lawful, strange is the same as unlawful, H"JT ^ strange 
fire, i. e. unlawful or profane fire, as opposed to the 
holy fire. Lev. 10: 1; Num. 3:4; 26:61, rnj rnfa|3 
profane incense; Ex. 30:9. 

(4) In opposition to one's own self, i. q. "W another^ 
Prov. 11:15; 14:10; 20:16; 27:2,13; iKi. 3:18. 

(5) Tropically ne w, unheard of, Isa. 28:21. 

[" Also i.q. Arab. \ j Med. Ye to loathe; intrans. 
to be loathsome, Job 19: 17, s W*fy HTJ TO"! * my 
spirit (as agitated, querulous) is loathsome to mj 
wife.' Hence K"3{ loathsomeness, for "TJJ."] 

Niphal i. q. Kal. No. 1, Isa. 1:4. 

Hophal part, "tytt) become strange, Ps. 69:9. 

Derivative ""Ttp No. II. — H"JJ Job 19: 17, see under 
the root "PJ [but see the added remark from Thes, 

?VflT m . once Isa. 59: 5, rtyMJ Pj53R rrvtfrn "if 
(an egg) be crushed, a viper breaks forth." If the 
vowels stand correctly, "H? is part. pass, of the verb 
"M No. I, H— being added for n— fem. gen. (like Zee. 
5:4, although in both places it seems to be a tran- 
scriptural error). It would be more suitably written 
nifan port, act., according to the form of the pret. 1*1 
Isa. 1:6. 

[NJT pr. n. Zaza, 1 Ch. 2:33.] 

nnj unused in Kal, i. q. Arabic _ ; and _ >* ; to 

remove, to displace. Aram. c^OJi W. 
Niphal to be removed, Ex. 28:28; 39:21. 

7F1T — (l) TO CREEP, TOCBAWL. Part. "Vf^ 

Digitized by 




•the creepers of the dust," i.e. serpents; Deut. 
32:24; Mie.7:i7. Hence — 

(2) to fear, to be afraid, properly to walk with 
faltering footsteps, see ^D\ Job 3a: 6, ^OJ Jg-^8 
*TK) "therefore I was afraid and feared." 

n7n} ("serpent"),[Zo/ieJe*A], pr.n.n^n*n Qp 
\ a 8tone of the serpent"), a stone near Jerusalem, 

P"!*I adj. m. (from the root *WT) boiling, over- 
flowing, spoken of water, Ps. 124:5. 

VJ Chald. m. splendour, brightness (contracted 
from VHJ, from the root nnj which see,i.q. Hebr.1t), 
Dan. 8:31; 4: 33. The plural is used of the bright 
colour of the face. Dan. 5 :6, 9, Wi ?!# *nty "his 
colour changed upon him," i. e. he became pale, 
verse 10; 7:28. Comp. the Hebr. chap. 10:8. (Syr. 

Jo^j brightness. Arab, j; and ,cj ornament.) 

T*T m. (from the root NT) — (1) any moving thing, 
tool ftd)t regt, wo« lebt unb webt. So poetically *"!$? V) 
used of the beasts of the field, Ps. 50: 11; 80:14. The 
Greek KrwdaXov, a beast, for KtvuiaXov, has been 
rightly compared with this ; as may be also jccpwrc- 
tov, Kvw\f/ from iui>(w, irpofiarov from icpofiaiyu). 

(2) ["streams of milk, milk flowing abun- 
dantly and in streams from a full breast, abun- 
dance ofmilkr Thes.] a full breast (see the root 
NT No. 9). So the original figure being preserved, 
Isa. 66: n, ?rri:q> wo ogjKJjnj vsbn B$ " that ye 
may suck and be glad (i. e. suck with pleasure) from 
her full (or abundant) breast," i.e. from her breasts 
filled with milk. The parallel is rron» Tjfcp. 

pn Thes. the order of the meanings is reversed.] 

KPT ("abundance"), [Ziza]— (1) pr. n. m. 
lCh. 4:37.— (a) aCh. 11:20. 

HPT (id.), \Zizah\ pr.n. m. 1 Ch. 23: 11, instead 
of which, verse 10, W*!* 

P*T (« motion"), \_Zia\ pr. n. m. 1 Ch. 5: 13. 

S) % ? ("borrowed," ["flowing"], from the root 
IpT), TZiph"], pr. name — (1) of a town situate in the 
tribe of Judah, Josh. 15 -.55; 2 Chron. 11:8; in the 
neighbourhood of which was a desert of the same 
name, 1 Sam. 23 : 14, 15. Hence the Gentile noun 
VI i Sam. 23: 19; 26:1. [NowcJjJ Eob.ii.191.] 
—(2) of a man, 1 Ch. 4: 16. 

rtjTT £ pL (for rtpjf, rrtp! from the root PJJ, comp. 

the similar instances collected in Lehrg. page 145, tc 
which add tf^i? for |V*P, &$ for B>}$.) burning 
darts or arrows, Isa.50:ll, i.q. D^f Prov.26:i8 

9 s 

(where many copies read D*p*?. Syr. fjXt) a weapon, 

1 ] Arabic j^J Med. Ye, to loathe. Intrans. 
to be loathsome. Job 19:17, ^f^7 n*}{ *rwi « mv 
breath is loathsome to my wife." Others, whom 
formerly I followed, take this according to the Syriao 
version, "my mind is (i.e. I am) become estranged 
from my wife." Hence N"TJ (for •"!"}{) loathing. 
|"In Thes. under "WT No. II; see above.] 

ITT constr. n\T, pi. DWJ m. 

(1) an olive, olive tree, Jud. 9:9; more fully called 
]W n Tt Deu. 8 : 8. rv} R# oil of olives, Ex. 27 : 20 ; 
30 : 24; Lev. 24 : 2. DWjn in the Mount of Olives 
near Jerusalem, Zee. 14:4, regarded as holy even in 
the Old Test., 2 Sam. 15 : 30; 1 Ki. 11 : 7. [These 
passages prove nothing of the kind ; if the latter refer 
at all to the Mount of Olives, any such reverence 
would have been idolatrous.] 

(2) an olive, the fruit. fPfn Y9. the olive tree, 
Hag. 2 : 19. JVJ Til he trode the olives, Mic. 6:15. 

(3) an olive branch, an olive leaf, Zee. 4:11 ; 
compare verse 12. 

A similar word is used in all the cognate languages : 

Syriac JJ&wJ olive tree, Arab, ^^ij oil, &jrij olive, 
iEth. HJi't'l oil and olive; hence it was introduced 
into the Coptic, in which 2MOIT is an olive tree; and 
into the Spanish, in which there is azeyte, oil. 

Etymologists acknowledge themselves to be igno- 
rant of the origin of this word; which, it appears to 
me, should be sought in the root nn\ (which see), and 

^j to shine, ^j to adorn [«^,j (for J>j) to 
adorn, prop, to cause to shine, V. to be clothed, 

adorned"] ; whence ^j\ a fair or splendid form, 

[" ornament, prop, splendour ; see Castell. p. 1040"] ; 
Heb. \ Ch. V{: so that IVt prop, should be feminine, 

from the form *!, ,cj, and denote brightness. This 
might be either referred to the freshness and beauty 
of the olive tree (comp. nMtf), or, as I prefer, to the 
brightness of oil (compare "in^. oil, from "iny to be 
bright, and 3n{ Zee. 4: 12, of clear and brilliant oil). 
After the true origin of the word had been forgotten, 
the letter n was taken for a radical ; and thus J"»!l 
is of the masculine gender, and from it in Arabic a new 

Digitized by 




verb has been formed, <j^\\ to preserve in oil, II. to 
lay up oil. 

PT1 ("olive tree," Arabic ^fjj), [Zethan], 
pr. n. m. l Ch. 7:10. 

**|t and *J! f. «"I3T adj.;>ure ; used of oil, Ex. 27 : 80 ; 
of frankincense, Ex. 30 : 34; figuratively of the soul and 
morals, Job 8:6; 11:4; 33:9; Prov. 16:2; 20: 11 ; 
21:8. Boot VI- 

nDT i.q.*P{ [fut. H3PJ, to BE pure (always in 
a moral sense), Job 15:14; 25 : 4; Psa. 51:6; Mic. 

6:11. (Arab. K», Syr. Id* and JlOJ id. The Greek 
ay toe, ayvoc, and probably also the Lat. sacer, sancio, 
transp. castus, are from the same stock.) 

Piel, to make pure, to cleanse, e.g. the course of 
life, the soul, Psa. 73: 13; Prov. 20:9. Psa. 119:9, 
frnjrnK mi n3ini$3 "how shall a young man 
cleanse his way?" i. e. maintain purity of life? 

Hithpael fl$V) for n?N>T to cleanse himself, Isa. 
1 : 16. [The accent shews that this is not Niph. of 
VI SeeThes.] 

[Derivative, toj.] 

^3J Ch. f. purity, rectitude of life, Dan. 6 : 23. 
LKoot, the preceding.] 

n\Jft3T fem. once, Job 28: 17, glass or crystal. 
s - - 

(Arab. ^Tj, Syr. JA^^^J *<*.) Root W Com- 
pare J{. 

"W3T m. [only with suff. PH^t], i.q.^l a male, 
used bc^h of men and of animals, Ex. 23:17; 34 : 23 ; 
Deu. 16:16; 20:13. 

*^3! ("mindful"), \Zaccur\, pr. n. of several 
men, Nu. 13:4; iChr. 4:26; 25:2; Neh. 3:2; 10: 
13; I3:i3- 

31 ("pure," " innocent"), \Zacca\\, pr.n. m. 
•ee *3t. 

jV{ i. q. H3J (which see), to be pure, used of 
things physically [?], Lam. 4:7; used morally, Job 
* 5 : 15 5 *5 : 5- Comp. the kindred root 33J ["also nmf "]. 

Hiphil, to cleanse, to wash, Job 9:30. 

[" Niphal, see n?t Hithpael."] 

Derivatives, ^ and % rV?tt| and pr. n. *3t. 

"15? fut.^r.(Arab.^i, Syr. and Ch. i^?,"^), 
meminisse, recordari, reminisci, to remember, to re- 
collect, TO brino to mind (compare as to the 
distinction between these [Latin] words, Cic. Leg. xii. 
$5, and Doederhdn Lat. Synonyme und Etymologien, 


i. 166 [" The origin seems to lie in the idea of prick- 
ing, piercing, corny, kindred "^ ; whence "91 mcmbruic 
virile; ... the idea of memory then may come from 
that of penetrating, infixing, compare Ecc. 12:11. A 
different etymology was proposed by me in Monumm. 
Phcen. p. 1 14, viz. that as in Athen. i. l,"OD is writteu 
for TJJ memory, perhaps "?{ is primarily i. q. ^59 to 
shut up, and then to keep, to preserve ; compare "ip^ 
No. 2. But the other view is favoured by the noun 
^J." Ges. add.]). Followed by an ace. Gen. 8:1; 
l 9 '• 29, etc.; more rarely by f Ex. 32: 13; Deut. 9: 
27; Psal. 25:7; 136:23; ? Jer. 3:16; followed by 
s $ Job 7:7; 10:9; Deu. 5: 15. It signifies especially 
— (a) to remember, to be mindful, i.e. to retain in 
memory, Ps. ,9: 13; 98:3; 105:5,4s; a Ch. 24:22. 
Ex. 13:3, njn oVn m ibj "be mindful of this 
day;" 20:8. nn^n m TD| to be mindful of the 
covenant, Gen. 9: 15; Levit. 26 :4a ; Am. 1 :9. — (b) 
to bear something in mind, to account, to cdii- 
sider (bebenten). Deut. 5:1 5, "account that thou 
wast a servant in Egypt." Deu.i5:l5; 16:12; 24:18. 
Job 7:7,^0 nn ♦$ lb{ "consider that my life (is) a 
breath." Ps. 103: 14. — (c) to contemplate things 
called back to memory, i.e. recordari. Ps.ll9:55, 
JJ^Dp* n^V? WD?"I remember thy name, Lord, 
in the night." Ps. 119:52; 143^5; 63:7.— (d) to 
recollect, reminisci, avafiifiviitrk-ur, in memoriain re- 
vocare, to call back to memory. Opp. oblivisci. Gen. 
40:23, WOypfy 10^* &&npn *ip -QJ *6l. Verse 
14; 42:9; Num. 11:5; Ecc. 9:15; Job 21:6; Jer. 
44:21 (syn. a!??J! n ^?p). Often with the added idea 
of care, again to care for some one (i.q. ^E-*), Gen. 
8:l; 19:29; 30:22. — («) Followed by a dative of 
the person and an ace. of the thing, to remember 
something either for the advantage or the disadvantage 
of another, jemanbem em>a« aebenfen; for good, Neh. 
5 : 19, TSJ 7* n;to^ *&t& 7 »TJ3l " remember for 
me, O my God, all things which I have done (that 
thou mayest at some time) requite (them)." Neh. 
6:14; 13:22; for evil, 13:29. — (/) It is also re- 
ferred to future things, like reputare, and respicere, 
meminisse, in the common expressions respice Jinem 9 
memento mori. Lam. 1:9, " and she did not remem- 
ber (meditate on) the end." Isa. 47:7. Hence, to 
meditate, to think on, to attempt something, auf 
etroa* benten. Job 40 : 32, HDn^p -ty \> t n e an ben Jtampf# 
i.e. to approach, to prepare the battle. 

["(«) to make mention of a person or thing, 
Jer. 20:9."] 

Niphal — (1) to be remembered, or recalled to 
mind, which is often equivalent to to be mentioned. 
Job 24: 20, "Pj! *6*tfy "no one remembers him an j 

Digitized by 




more," he is not mentioned, he has gone into oblivion ; 
Jer. 1 1 : 19, IIP "ipf *6 \o& " his name shall no more 
he mentioned or remembered;" Eze. 3:20; Isa. 
23:16; Zee. 13:2; Est. 9:28, Dnsj? r6«n D*Bfn 
DTJfl) "those days (should be) remembered and 
kept." njn; !?« -op Psal. 109: 14, and £ V& Num. 
!0:9, to be remembered before God, to be recalled 
to his memory. Followed by 7 the memory of a 
thing to be preserved for some one's disadvantage 
(compare Kal, letter e), jemanbem $ebad)t werben/ Eze. 
18:2a; 33:16. 

(2) denom. from "Of, to be born a male, Ex. 34:19 
(Arab. ij IV. to bear a male). 
Hiphil TJin [inf. with suff. DJTJjn]— 
(1) to bring to remembrance before some one. 
Gen. 40: 14, nty"]B"7£ *Jl?n?W "bringmetoremem- | 

Ges. cor. where this reason is omitted], 2 Sa. 18:18. 
It is used of men, Gen. 1:27 ; 5:2 ; 17:10, seq.j 
34:15, seq.; and of animals also, Gen. 7:3, 9, 16; 
Ex. 12:5. Phir. D*T5| Ezr 8:4, seq. Compare "i?j 

s ~~ 9 * 

Niphal No. 2, and TtaJ. (Arab.^j, Syr. J;j3* id., 

the former is also used to signify membrum virile.) 
[For the etymology, see added remark on "£{.] 

Tp! and *V}\ (Ex. 17:14; Isa. 26: 14; Pro. 10:7 

where however other copies have Tzere, see J. H 

Michae'lis, Nott. Crit.), with suff. n?f m. 


(1) remembrance (tfnbenfen)/ Arab. <j. Exod. 

17:14, a I will blot out the memory of Amalek;' 
Deu. 25:19; 32:26; Ps.9:7; 34: 17; 109:15, etc. 

(2) a name by which any one is remembered, i.q. 

beVore'Pharaoh;" iKi. 17: 18 ; Eze. 21:28; I ^ Ex. 3:15, ^ ^?? nn D^ ^nj "this is 

orance _____,__, , 

29:16; Jer. 4:16, DW W?|H "make mention to ! 
the nations." In the titles of Psalms 38 and 70, 
'VPIty? " to bring to remembrance (oneself to 
God)," which accords with their subject matter. i 

(2) to make mention of. (Arab. Conj. IV. to make ! 
mention of, to praise) 1 Sam. 4:18; Ps. 87:4. Es- | 
peciaily to ma k e mention of with praise, to praise, j 
to celebrate, Ps.45:i8; 71:16; 77:12, e.g. rrtn? D# 
Isa. 26: 13, and D?P? Josh. 23:7; Ps. 20:8; Am. 6: 10 
(compare 0^3 ^Ji?), Isa. 48:1; 63:7. Once used 
Causatively, to cause to be remembered, or cele- 
brated, Ex. 20:24. ! 

(3) i. q. Kal, to remember, to call to one's own 
mind, Gen. 41:9; Isa. 19:17; 49:1. 

(4) 1° °ff er a memorial offering (called n 1??^), 

(5) to cause to be remembered. Part. ^?J? 
subst 1 Ki. 4:3; 2 Ki. 18:18,37; 2 Ch. 34:8; Isa. 
36:3,22, "he who caused to be remembered," , 
i.e. the recorder, historian, or superintendent of the 
annals of the kingdom, one of the ministers of the 
Hebrew kings, whose office it was to record events 
as they occurred, especially those which might relate 
to the king. A similar officer is mentioned in the 
royal court of Persia, both anciently (Herod, vi. 100; 
vii. 90; viii. 100) and in modern times (Chardin, 
Voyage, torn. iii. 327), amongst whom he is called 

Waka Nuwish [. ~y *-J«]> an( ^ a ^ so m ^ at °f ^ e 
Roman emperors Arcadius and Honorius [and after- 
wards], bearing the name of magistri memoria. 

Derivatives, the words immediately following ; and 
also HT3JK, TWJ, Tttt. 

*QJ m. a male, as being he through whom the 
memorial of parents is continued [but see Thes. and 

my name for ever, and thus ye shall name me [lit. 
this is mv memorial] through all generations;" Ps. 
30:5, tenjj TJ$ rrtn "Praise ye his holy name' 1 
["his holy memorial"], Hos. 12:6. 

(3) praise, celebration; Ps.6:6; 102:13 (Jj) 

[(4) Zacher, pr. n. of a man, 1 Ch. 8:31.] 

P"13? m. constr. fh?J pi. D* T and r\\. 

(1) memory, remembrance, Josh. 4:7; Exod. 
12:14; Ecc. 1 : 1 1 ; 2 . i6. p3f \^K memorial stones, 
the name applied to the two gems in the shoulder 
bands with which the dress of the high priest was 
adorned, Ex. 28:12; 39:7. jnst nrtjip a memorial 
offering, NU.5M5; fhaj D*b to establish a memorial, 
namely by the procreation of children, Isa. 57:8. [? n 

(2) a memorial or memento, vvofivnfia (French 
memoire). Exod. 17:14, ">Bp3 P?T JIKT ah? "write 
this amemorial (that which shall cause to be re- 
membered) in a book." JV13T IDp Mai. 3:16, and 
pi.rfoVl?fn nop Est.6:i,abook of memorials, annals, 
journals; comp. rj?l; a memorial sign, Ex. 13:9. 

(3) the celebration of any particular day (comp. 
the verb, Est. 9:28; Ex. 20:8); Lev. 23:24. 

(4) i.q. ?B>D a memorial sentence, aircty0ey/ia, 
Job 13:12. 

*T5! ("celebrated," "famous," compare <j 

fame), \Zichr%\, pr.n. of several men, Exod. 6:21 ; 
iCh.8:l9,23; 9:15; 2 Ch. 23:1; Neh. 11:9, etc. 

TpT & VtnpJ (" whom Jehovah remem- 
bers"), pr.n. \Zechariah, ZachariaK], (Greek 
Za\apia^) — 

(1) of a king of Israel, the son of Jeroboam II. ; 
killed by Shallum after a reign of six months. B C 
773, 2Ki. 15:8 — 11. 

Digitized by 


(«) of a prophet who lived after the Babylonish 
captivity, whose prophecies form a part of the canon 
•jf »Scripture. He was the son of Barachiah, the 
grandson of Iddo the prophet (comp. J3 No. l), Zee. 
I:l,7; Ezr.5:i; 6:14. 

(3) of a son of Barachiah [Jeberechiah], cotem- 
porary with Isaiah, and also as it seems a prophet, 
Isa. 8:2; comp. i6[?]. 

(4) of a prophet the son of Jehoiada, slain in the 
court of the temple, in the reign of Joash, 2 Ch. 
84 : 20, seq. 

(5) of a prophet living at Jerusalem in the reign 
of Uzziah, 2 Ch. 26:5, etc. 

L b$/} an unused root, perhaps i. q. H^ ? ]i$ to 
draw out; hence pr. n. n**^T! w Thes.] 

3/T an unused root, prob. i. q. Arab. ^ j (kin- 
dred with njp^), to draw out. Hence 37fD, napp fork. 

Hi?T terror, trembling, Psal. 12:9. Root ^?{. 
["anat \eyo/i. prop, a shaking, trembling, earthquake, 
see the root in Niphal. Hence a storm, a tempest. 
Ps.i2:9, " the wicked walk on every side, JW£ D^ 
DIN \}37 like the rising of a tempest upon the sons 
of men." Ges. add.] 

7fpT only in pi. O7M m. shoots, twigs, sprigs, 
from their trembling and quivering motion, Isa. 
18:5. Root s?\, see especially Niphal. Comp. also 

7/J answering to the German fd)flttcrn/ fd)&ttdn/ 
fd)4tten/ to shake (kindred with ??^ and the words 
there compared). 

(1) to shake, to make tremble, see Niphal. 

(2) to pour out, to shake out (hence, to lavish), 
(atrtfebuttem auSfchfitteln). Part. sjtt a squanderer, a 
prodigal, Prov. 23:21; 28:7; Deut. 21:20; Prov. 
23:20, "*?5 vp "those who squander (or, are 
prodigals as to) their own body," voluptuous pro- 
fligates. Comp. 7*T. And as we only cast out and 
throw away those things which we count worthless, 
hence — 

(3) intrans. to be abject, worthless, vile. Jer. 

15:19; Lam. l:ll. (Arab. J J id., JJ vileness, 

ibjectness of mind. Syr. ^f to be vile.) See Hiph. 
Niphal ty (comp. as to this form Lehrg. § 103, 
note 7), to.*, bhaken, to tremble. Isai. 64:2, TJ?P 
w} D^n * the mountains tremble before thy face." 
The passage, Jud. 5:5, &JJ D*}n is to be similarly 
understood, for */JJ is there used for *?h Lehrg. 1 >3, 


note 15. Well rendered by the LXX. iaaXtldvcai 
(the root ?^T agreeing in etymology with a<4Ac$. 70 • 
Xevuj), and the Ch. and Syr. express the sam« ( Arab. 

Jj! ; to shake the earth, JJ \\ an earthquake). Se* 

Hiphil (pointed according to the Chaldee form), /*?? 
causative of Kal No. 3, to despise. Lam. 1 :8. [" See 
the root ^T."] 

[Derivatives nfy, D^J.J 

jJs ?! an unused quadriliteral, i.q. W to be hoi, 
the letter ? being inserted, compare Lehrg. p. 884. 
Other etymological attempts, especially those brought 
out by Eichhorn in his edition of Simonis' Lexicon, 
resting on false significations attributed to Arabic 
words, I have examined and refuted in Ephemerid. 
Litt. Hal. 1820, No. 123. Hence — 

n$yh\& rtBjHT pi. rrt- (p 8 . 11: 6; Lam.5:io) y 
a violent heat, especially of the wind, Ps. 11:6 (the 
wind called a* 4»J \ es simum, i. e. poisonous, is to be 

understood); of famine, Lam. loc. cit. (Ezekiel5:2 f 
compare verses 12, 16, 17, Xi/ioc aWo\p, Hes. Op. 361 ; 
ignea fames, Quinctilian. Declam. xii.; Arabic Aj 
c *JI a fire of famine, Hariri), also of indignation, 
Ps. 119:53. 

]<\ an unused root. Ch. Pael to drop, i. q. *|7J. 
Hence — 

nS?T ("a dropping"), [ZilpaK], pr. n. of the 
handmaid of Leah, Gen. 29:24; 30:9. 

•TST f. (from DOt) — (1) counsel, in a bad sense, 
Proverbs 21:27; 24:9; more rarely in a good sense, 
Job 17: 11 (in which passage allusion is made to the 
derivation of the word : see what is said under the 

(2) wickedness, a wicked deed* Psal. 26:10; 
119:150. Especially used in speaking of sins of 
uncleanness, such as fornication, rape, or incest. 
Lev. 18:17, KV ? n ?f <<this would be wickedness." 
Job 31:11; Eze.i6:27; 22:9,11. 

(3) [Zimma/i], pr. n. m. iCh.6:5, 27? 2Ch. 

nST f. i. q. ni*>? No. 1. PL "ntet for ntffc/ (comp. 
Gr. § 79, note 2 [§ 88, note 1]), my counsels or pur- 
poses, Ps. 17:3. According to the accents it is cex 
tainly to be thus taken, for the word *ribt is MiLHL 

With the accent changed ir n©l is, / have purposea\ 
and the sentence runs more smoothly if rendere/L 

Digitized by 


•(that which) I purposed (my mouth) shall not 
transgress; 1 [Qu. Is not this inf. of D»J?] 

•Tito? f. [root 191], pLDV(Nah.a:3).— (l) a 
vine-branch, or twig, so called from being pruned 
(seethe root "H5J). Nu. 13:83; Isa. 17: 10. 

(2) generally a branch, or shoot Eze. 15:2; 
8: 17, " and lo, they put the branch to their nose;" 
referring to the Persian custom of worshipping the 
rising sun, holding in their led hand a bundle of 
twigs of the plant called Barsom, see Strabo, xv. p. 
733> Casaub. : rag iirpdac trotovyrat iroXvv yp6vov 
iafi&vy ftvpiKivwy Xivrw iiafiny Kari\ovTiQ. Comp. 
Hyde, De Rel. Vett Persarum, p. 350. Zendavesta ed. 
Anquetil du Perron, ii. 53d. 

DJOT an unused quadriliteral, i. q. Arab. * uj 

onomatopoetic fummen* to buzz, to murmur, to make 

a noise, to hum, whence <UUj a noisy multitude. 

Hence — 

D*©T©T masc. pi. ( a tribes making a noise"), 
[Zamzummims], prop, name of a nation of giants, 
anciently dwelling within the borders of the Ammon- 
ites, but extinct even before the time of Moses, Deu. 
t:20. Comp. D^T. 


This new definition of this ro\ t of course influences 
the synopsis of meanings, as well as it entirely super- 
sedes the following remark.] Properly to tie, to bind, 

$ - 

i. q. the kindred &P¥, and Arab. * ; to bind, to tic 
together, whence ^Uj a cord. Hence tropically — 

(l) to lie in wait, to plot, followed by ?, Ps. 37: 12 ; 
to purpose, or meditate evil, Prov. 30:3s; fol- 
lowed by a gerund, Ps. 31 : 14. Hence — (2) as a 
verb of medial signification, to meditate something, 
to propose to oneself, followed by an accusative, 
Gen. 11:6; Lam. 2:17. Proverbs 31:16, nnif nppj 
*flOi?J?! "she proposed to herself (to possess) a field, 
(she considers a field,) and she obtains it:" followed 
by a gerund, Zee. 1 :6. 

With regard to the original signification above 
proposed [but see the added note], it is sufficient to 
remark, that verbs signifying binding or weaving 
are very often applied to counsels, especially in a bad 
sense, of which examples may be seen under the root 
2^K. Allusion is made to this origin in Job 17:11, 
}p£l$ *rfe} " my purposes are broken off," that is ; 
like a cord; since the Orientals compare a counsel 
formed to something woven or wreathed. Vit. Tim. 

t. i. 

p. 90: /♦j^vl^ /»U>- *>-£> he firmly twined the 

"W?| m. Cant. 2:12, the time of the pruning of cord of his purpose. In Arabic the figurative idea 
wines (of the form "»*¥?, Pnn Lehrg. § 120, No. 5), * * 

from "*P|. Well rendered by the LXX. taipoc Ttjg 
ro/i^c. Symm. r. rife icXafovrewc. Vulg. tempuspu- 
tatkmis. Others translate it, the time of the singing of 
birds, which is contrary to the use of the verb "W?{ 
and to the analogy of the form ?'&!?. 

TOJ (Isa. 25:5), pi. rtTDJ a song. Ps. 119:54; 
2 Sa. 23:1 ; especially a hymn, a song of praise. 
Isa. 24: 16. Job 35: 10, " who giveth songs (i. e. 
joy, rejoicing) in the night" (i.e. in adversity); a 
triumphal song [of oppressors], Isa. 25:5. Root 
T£{. especially PL 

rTTfiJ (" song"), [Zemirah'], pr. n. m. 1 Ch. 

DQT pret*r03l and 'ntet, fut. Dtj pi. Wftfor 
X&V (see Gr. § 57, note 11 [§ 66, note 11]; Lehrg. p. 
372 ; for the root D£, which some propose, is alto- 
gether fictitious). [In Ges. ada. " to meditate, to 

have in mind, to purpose; Arab. ^ id. It seems 

toouine from the idea of murmuring or muttering, i.e. 
the low voice of persons talking to themselves or 
aaditoting; comp. Dipt to murmur, also rnn, njg." 

, is found in the verb ^ to purpose to himself, to 

Derivatives, n©T, HDI, HEJP and D£t« 

D9I m - a counsel or purpose in a bad sense, 
■ Ps. 140:9 

J yT unused in Kal, kindred to the root DPJ to 
1 appoint. [In Sam. Pent. Gen. 11:6, 130P wher* 
I the Heb. has «Dj;.] 

Piel 1©T id. very frequently used in Chaldee. 
Pual, plur. part. D*?pp? D*?R Ezr. 10:14; Neh. 
10 *-35> « n d ni3©{0 'V 13:31, times appointed or 
stated. Hence — 

JDT plur. D*?*?? m. time, especially a stated time 

S" s -- „ 

U; time. Syr. ^j id.), Eoc. 3:1, 

(Arabic ^ 


V?] '3? "its own time for every thing," i.e. every 
thing remains only so long, all things are frail and 
fleeting, Neh. 2:6; Est. 9:27, 31. It is a word of a 
later age used instead of the more ancient rig. [Thi* 
remark (omitted in Thes.) takes for granted what 
cannot be admitted, that Solomon did not write tbr 
book of Ecclesiastes.] 

Digitized by 



fl?J Chald. Pael, to appoint, to establish, to 

Hithpael VP!\n to agree together, properly to 
appoint for each other time and place, Dan. 2 -.9 np. 
Comp. Am. 3 : 3 Targ. The n»ro is to be read l^PPfn, 
and is Aphel, in which, however, this verb is used 
[elsewhare] neither in Syriac nor in Chaldee [?] 
but only in Samaritan ["and this reading is to be 
preferred, as being the more unusual"]. 

P} & |£J emphat. st. KJP? plur. P?0? m. Chald. 

(l j time, a set time: Dan. 2: 16, KJP? ng " at the 
same time;" 3:7,8; 4:33. HW IP? 1% "until a 
time and season;" 7:12. Used of holy times (feast 
days), Dan. 7:25. Compare 1?to No. 3. 

(2) pi. times, vices (9Bale). Dan.6:ll, nn^i pjpj 
three times (to be compared with the correspond- 

ing English expression three times. Also ^ J and 
Arab. c^5« time, pi. times, vices). 

"luT ["properly it would seem "to pluck"], 
to p rune, especially the vine, Lev. 25 : 3, 4. Hence 
H^IP snuffers. ( Arab, j ; to prune a vine, the letters 
D and l being interchanged). 

Niphal pass. Isa. 5:6. 

Piel "i#T — (1) to sing, properly (as has been well 
observed by Albert Schultens and Bishop Lowth), 
to cut off the discourse or sentence, or song; to 
express a song divided according to rhythmical num- 
bers, (compare ,^> 3 a song, properly a discourse 
divided, from ^ J to cut, to cut off. Arab. ^ ; I. and 

II. ; Syr. ;_x>j and ;j£>) ; teth. Conj. II. id.). Followed 
by a dative of the person whom the song celebrates, 
Jud.5:3; Ps.9-.12; 30:5; 47:7; and an ace. Ps. 
47:7; 66:2; 68:5,33. 

(2) to play on a musical instilment [or to sing so 
accompanied], xpaWeiv. Ps. 33:2; 71:22. 

(3) to dance (Arabic ««;), which is also done 
according to rhythmical numbers, and is connected 
with singing and music (comp. pnv and pty). Hence 
"lOJ. [It may be questioned whether TOT ever really 
meant to dance; this signification seems to be merely 
Imagined in order to connect "^J with its root.] 

Derivatives, "TOT, TO}, rnto?', Stop, rnpjp, rn©to 
and also those which immediately follow. 

"TOT [emph. N"}9J] m - Chald. music of instru- 
ments, Dan. 3:5, 7, 10, 15. 

"tip! »• Chali a singer, Ezr. 7 : 94. 



Yv m - occurs once, Dent 14:5, an animal, a 
species of deer or antelope, so named from its leaping 
(see TPJ Piel No. 3), like fa* 1 ! from PVl, p*. (Arab, 
_<: to leap as a goat.) 

**7?I f. singing, or music. — (a) vocal, Ps. 81 : 3; 
98 : 5. — (b) instrumental. Amos. 5:23. Meton. rnpi 
KJ^C 1 song of the land, i. e. its most praised fruits or 
productions, Gen. 43 : 1 1 . Compare Greek ao&ifioc> 
celebrated in songs, i. q. celebrated. 

)P? masc. ("celebrated in song," aolhtpo^, 
"celebrated"), [Zimrx], pr.n. — (l)ofakingof 
Israel, who slew Elah and succeeded him, B. C. 930. 
lKi. 16:9, 10; 2X1.9:31. Gr.ZapPpL — (2Wthe 
capt.oftheSimeonite8,Nu.25: 14. — (3) 1 Chr. 2:6. 
— (4) 1 Chr. 8:36; 9:42. — (5) it seems also to be 
a patronymic from HPT for *?!?!• J er * a 5 : *5« 

Hr- 0^-)» \_Zimran\, pr.n. of a son of Abraham, 
and Keturah, and of an Arabian nation sprung from 
him, Gen. 25:2; 1 Ch. 1:32. Perhaps Zabram, a 
regal city according to Ptolemy between Mecca and 
Medinah is to be compared with this. Compare *T*p! 
No. 5. 

rnOT f. i. q. rnoj song, meton. the object of song, 
or praise. W rnPH *fl? r r ehovah is my strength 
and my song," Ps. 118:14, Isa. 12:2. 

|! m. pi. D*}f species. As to its origin see under 
the root PJ. Ps. 144:13,1^ 1JP of every kind. 
2 Ch. 16 : 14. (Chald. and Syr. id.) 

]\ Chald. id. Dan. 3:5, 7, 10, 15. 

JpT PL HUM, constr. T\\2)l THETAiLof animals 

(Arab. ^^ j and <u3 j, Syr. jbuo* id. The verb 
t^^J j to follow after, is secondary). Ex. 4:4; Jud. 
15:4; Job 40: 17. Metaphorically, extremity, the 
end of any thing. DH1KH ntatf *}# "two ends of 
fire-brands," Isa. 7 : 4. Also something vile, or con- 
t e mp tib le, especially as opposed to B>*h Deu. 28:13, 
"Jehovah will make thee the head and not the tail ;" 
verse 44. Isa. 9 : 1 3 ; 19 : 1 5. (In the same sense the 
Arabs oppose ^^ Jj. ^J^\ nose and tail, see my 
commentary on Isaiah 9:13.) Hence the denomi- 
native verb — 

Piel 3|T properly to hurt, or cut off the tail, 
hence figuratively to smite, or rout the rear of a 
host (Arab. v^O J, Greek ohpa, obpayla). Deu&&£: 
18; Josh. 10:19. Denominative verbs derived from 
the names of members of the body often have tin 

Digitized by 



tease in the Phuenicio-Shemitic languages of hurting 
or cutting uff those members. See Lehrg.p. 257, and 
Ewald's Iiebr. Gram. p. 200. 

MjT fut. n^P. apoc. IH — (l) TO COMMIT FORNI- 
CATION. (Arab. J; cowit, to commit fornication; 

Syr. \j) id.; ^Eth. H<**(D:> although Nun is retained 

in H^^ 1 : semen coitus.) Attributed properly and 
chiefly to a woman; whether married (when it may 
be rendered, to commit adultery) or unmarried, Gen. 
36:24; "Lev. 19 : 29; Hos. 3:3; and it is construed 
with an accusative following of the fornicator or 
adulterer, Jer. 3:1; Eze. 16:28; Isa. 23:17 (unless 
fit* in this place h with); also followed by ? (to com- 
mit fornication w*th), Eze. 16:17; '$ Eze. 16 : 26, 28 ; 
very often followed by *!)DN, prop, to go a whoring 
after, to follow a paramour, Eze. 16 : 34 ; Levit. 
17:7; 20:5, 6; Deu. 31 : 16, etc. On the other hand, 
19 is put before the husband from whom the adulteress 
r^eparte in committing whoredom, against whom she 
transgresses, Ps. 73 : 27 ; 'TftX'Q Hos. 1:2; nrwo Hos. 
&: 12, and nnn Eze. 23 : 5 (comp. Num. 5: 19, 29); 
789 Hos. 9:1, and ?2 Jud. 19:2 (where, however, the 
reading is doubtful); Eze. 16:15 (she committed 
adultery with a husband ; i. e. whilst she had a hus- 
band, she thus transgressed against him). Part. •"$? 
a harlot, whore, prostitute, Gen. 38:15; Deut 
«3 : 19, and more fully H31T HBW Lev. 21:7; Josh. 2 : 1 ; 
Jud. 1 1 : 1 ; nor are those to be listened to, who, in 
some passages, for instance in that cited from Joshua, 
understand a hostess, a keeper of a house of entertain- 
ment, from flt to feed. This word is rarely used of a 
male paramour, as Nu. 25: 1, followed by ?N (comp. 

s - 
for j\\ a whoremonger). 

(2) It is very often used figuratively — (a) of 
idolatry, [to go a whoring after strange gods,] (the 
prophets shadowing forth the relation in which God 
stood to the people of Israel by the marriage union, 
see Hos. 1:2; Eze. 16: 33; so that the people wor- 
shipping strange gods is compared to an adulterous 
woman). For the prepositions which follow, see 
above, No. 1. A very common expression is «"1JI 
D^Tn^ w§ '"?$$ to go a whoring after strange gods, 
Lev.17.7; 20:5,6; Deut.3i:i6; Jud.2:i7; also, 
V\P$ nnn© n 5t to go a whoring, departing from one's 
own God, see above. The expression also is used 
DtyO *XW n 5I to go a whoring after (i. e. imitating) 
the gentiles, Eze. 23:30.— (b) of superstitions con- 
nected with idolatry: ntaVtn *3QR njj to go a whoring 
after (following) necromancers. T-evit. 20:6. — (e) of 

Arab. \j 

ccxlix POT— |B» 

the commerce of gentile nations amongst themselvesv 
Spoken of Tyre, Isa. 23 : 17, " she committed forni- 
cation with all the peoples of the earth;" compart 

Poal njtt pass. Eze. 16:34. 

Hiphil HJjn fut. apoc. tit — (1) to seduce to for- 
nication, Ex. 34:16; to cause to commit forni- 
cation, Lev. 19:29. 

(a) intrans. like Kal, properly to commit forni- 
cation, Hos. 4:10, 18; 5:3. 

Derivatives, DW, IWJ, n«W. 

HuJ (perhaps, " a marsh," " a marshy place," 
comp. n3{ Hiph. ["stinking"]), [ZanoaK], pr.n. 
of two towns in the tribe of Judah, Josh. 15:34, 56; 
Neh. 3: 13; 11 -.30; 1 Ch. 4:18. [Prob. now Zanffa, 
^yljRob.ii. 343.] 

D*3UT m . pi. (from T\)\ with the addition of a for- 
mative 3, like T¥i? from rriflj, J}fl£ f rom pon, see 
Lehrg. page 508). 

(i) whoredoms, adulteries, Gen. 38:24. Hos. 
1:2, DW nfrn DWJ n#K "a whorish wife and 
bastard children." Hos. 2:6; 4:12; 5:4. Hos.2:4, 
n*^*? 'T?^? "^?P1 "and let her remove her adul- 
teries (i.c.vultus protervus; compare llor. Carin. 
i. 19, 7. 8) from her face" (comp. Eze 6:9). 

(2) Used figuratively — (a) of idolatry, ?. Ki. 9 
22. — (b) of commerce with foreign nations, Nah.. 
3:4; compare the verb, Isa. 23 : 17. 

' rVl3T f. plur. D^nOJ (from riJT), fornications, 
whoredoms, always used figuratively — (a) of the 
worship of idols, Jer. 3:2, 9; Eze. 23:27; 43 -7» 9 
Hos. 4:11. — (b) of any want of fidelity to God, e g 
that of a complaining and seditious people, Nu. 14 : ;J3- 

RUPT, see Hiphil. (So the Arab, ^j \ f l^^. Kin- 
dred roots are 10V, DHJ, j^j turbid or muddy 

water; and in Greek, ray yog and rayyti, rancidity, 
royyoc, rancid ; also, aiK\6g, causing loathing, 


(2) Metaph. to be abominable. Hos. 8:5, njj 
]V"W?y "n!??8 a Samaria, thy calf is an abominable 
thing." Also transitively, to loathe, to spit out, to 
reject (comp. DHJ). Hos. 8:3, 3te bvrjp. TOT "Israel 
has rejected that which is good;" often used of 
Jehovah rejecting a people, Ps. 43 : 2, *?JJTO HD? "why 
hast thou cast me off?" Ps. 44^o> 24; 60:3,12; 
74:1; 77:8; 89:39. Followed by \Q to thrust awag 
from any thing. Lam. 3:17, T&J Ovf*? HJJ91 « ihev 

Digitized by 



hart thrust me away from jxmce," thou halt de- 
prived me of peace, or welfare. 

Hiphil — (1) like Kal No. l, pr. to emit a stench. 
Jul. 19:6, nhrg WJfla "the rivers shall stink," 
i. e. they fail and become shallow. LXX. UXti^vaiv 
oi iroTafiol. Vulg. deficient flumina. (The form ^n^J«n 
fe scarcely Hebrew, and it seems to have sprung from 
the coalition of two readings, *rv?jn and W}\$, the 
latter being a Chaldaism.) 

(2) i.q. Kal No. 2, to reject, to cast away, 1 Ch. 
28:9; followed by 19 2 Ch. 11:14; causat. [to ren- 
der stinking, i.e. to pollute, or] to profane, 2 Ch. 


Derivative, OUJ pr. n. 

J J J an unused root, prob. i. q. Arab. ^ (kindred 
to the Hebrew PP), to form, to put into shape; 

whence i^ form, appearance, j^ rule, mode. Hence 
Heb. II kind, species (the origin of which has hitherto 
been unknown to etymologists) ; although this word 
afterwards, its origin being neglected, was inflected 

according to the analogy of verbs rp. 

p*? unused in Kal. Syr. <XU| to shoot an arrow, 

especially to a great distance. Talmud, to leap, to 

leap forth ; and so with the letters transposed, Arab. 

?y. The original idea is that of binding together, 

comp. Arab. (Jjj to bind beneath, Syr. Jxuj a cord, 
with which a load is bound together. Used especially 
of animals which, when they prepare to take a leap, 
draw their feet together in order to spring with greater 
force (comp. Y^jij); fid) jufammenjietyn jum ©prungc/ 
(id) fortfd)neUcn 5 also used of shooting an arrow. [" Com- 
pare O'i??."] 

Piel, to leap forth very violently, spoken of a 
lion, Deut. 33:22. ["LXX. co-^^crac, in other 
MSS. tKKTiliitni. Kimchi 3?V] 

Hence D^i?? for D*i?}? • arrows, also T\\^\ for rrtpf 
[and DW*J. 

HJJI f sweat, the effect of violent motion (from 
the root ¥•")?, whence the Tzere is impure). [In Thes. 
derived from Vt'], Gen. 3: 19; elsewhere there is also 

J5J. (Talmud. nj^T sweat, Til} to sweat, Syr. JJk^O? 

sweat, whence a new verb JL^* to sweat.) 

•^)KI f. formed by transposition of letters from 
V$\\ (Hk3 *W for n &) trouble ["prop, shaking, 
agitatit *, L e. oppression, maltreatment"~\,Dea. 
t8:25; Eae. 23:46 n»ro, and Jer. 15:4; 24:9; 29: 
18; 34: it np. 

HVI (" di»> arbed"), [Zaavan], pr. n. m. Got 
36:27; 1 Ch. 1:42. 

yVl m. [" properly adj."], (from the root TSJ), 4 
little, Job 36:2, like fiiicpdv: a word which imitates 
the Chaldee. 

">T# Ch. Ji'Mte, Dan. 7:8, L q. Heb. TJTC, see Ow 
root iyj. 


i.q. *B?1 to be extinguished, occurs once 

Niphal, Job 17:1, where three MSS. [" of Ken- 
nicott, and nine of De Rossi' 1 ] have the usual form 

OPT fiit. DfcT! Nu. 23:8, and DS£ Proverbs 24 : 24 
(Arab. +s.\ Conj. V. to foam at the mouth, speaking 

of a camel, to speak angrily. Of the same origin is 
the German ©dxaum/ fdtfurmn/ the English to scum, 
to skim, the French ecume, comp. also *V2\), hence — 

(1) TO BE VERY ANGRY WITH ANY ONE, often with 

the added idea of punishment; to pour out angei 
upon any one, followed by an accusative, Mai. 1 :4 
Zee. 1 : 12, njjps; ■**$ nw ^ " the cities of Judali 
which have borne thy anger n (lit. "which thou hast 
been angry with"). Isaiah 66: 14; followed by ?S 
Dan. 1 1 : 30. Part, nirp DW{ Prov. 22:14. 

(2) to curse, with an accusative, Num. 23:7, 8; 
Prov. 24:24; Mic. 6:10. 

Niphal, as though it had been the passive of Hiph 
to be made angry, to be enraged, to be provoked to 
anger. Proverbs 25:23, D*9VP t-*}$ " an enraged 
countenance," i.e. one that is morose. Vu\g. Jades 
tristis (comp. ^J). Hence — 

OJH m. — (1) [" properly foam, so used perhaps 
Isaiah 30:27; hence fierceness?] anger or indigna- 
tion, especially the wrath of God as shown in the 
infliction of punishment; punishment sent from God 
(opyfi), [" always in this sense, except Hos. 7 : 16"*]* 
Isa. 10:5,25; 26:20; 30:27; Dan.8:ig. DJTt DV? 
in the day of (divine) indignation. Ezekiel22:94. 
Daniel 11 :36, CJft n^3 iy " until the punishment 
sent from God be completed ;"* comp. Dan. 8: 19. 

(2) rage, insolence. Hosea7:i6, Djte7 DMP 
" because of the insolence of their tongue.* 

*]*] fut. A. — (1) to be angry, followed by /t 
Prov. 19 : 3, 0? 2 Chron. 26:19. (The original idea it 
either that of foaming, the same as &V\, compare the 
words of which the syllable sap is the common stock, 


see npj; or else that of burning, compare Syr. va^J 
Ethpe. to be burned, and the quadriliteral *wfl.) 

Digitized by 


[" The primary signification is either to breathe, 
to snuff up, (Sam. 3vM id. comp. Ch. K^I a strong 
wind,) or else, to burn?] 

(2) to be sad, to fret, to be morose (as to the con- 
nection of ideas see under the root 3¥ty). Part D'pgt 
sad, Gen. 40:6, i. q. D*jn verse 7; Dan. 1 : 10 (of the 
eduntenance, as haying become thin and sad-looking 
through long fasting. Well rendered by Theod. *ro- 
fywro'c, comp. Matt. 6 : 1 6), Hence — 

*pft m. adj. angry, enraged. lKi. 20:43; 1*1:4, 

and — 

^1 with suff. tajl m. anger, rage, 2 Ch. 16:10; 
28:9; figuratively used of the raging of the sea, 
Jonah 1:15. 

pJW fut. PP|! imp. WT inf. pin i. q. P8? (which 
latter word is peculiar to the more ancient books of 

the Old Test, while on the other hand pp?, «gl^| is 
more common in Chaldee [and Syriac]. In Arabic 
both occur, the same as in Hebrew, ( ix^ and • ^;, 
also ,Icj), to cry out, to exclaim, especially for 
sorrow, as complaining and imploring aid. /K is pre- 
fixed to the person implored, Ps. 22:6; 142:2; Hos. 
7:14; h 1 Ch.5:20; intheacc. Jud.l2:2; Neh.o,:28. 
7J? is prefixed to the cause of complaint, Jer. 30: 15; 
^ Isa. 15:5; Jer. 48:31; Mp?9 l Sa. 8:18; it also 
stands in the accusative, as in Hab. 1:2, where both 
constructions are combined, Dijn *pj$ pXft£ " (how 
long) shall I cry unto thee concerning violence?" 
comp. Job 19:7. 

Niphal, the passive of Hiph. No. 3, to be called 
together, Jud.i8:22, 23; hence to assemble selves, 
lSa. 14:20; Jud.6:34,35. 

Hiphil. — (1) i.q. Kal, to cry but, but properly 
to occasion a cry, Job 35:9; to proclaim; used 
absol. Jon. 3:7. 

(2) to call, to call upon, followed by an accu- 
sative, Zee. 6: 8. 

(3) With reference to many it signifies, to call 
together, to assemble, 28a. 20:4, 5> Jud.4:io, 13. 

[The derivatives follow.] 

pSfT Ch. to cry out, Dan. 6:21. 

pSH m. an outcry, Isa. 30: 19. [By many taken 
as the inf. of the verb: so also Gesen. in Thes.] The 
word more commonly used is — 

^|?VJ £ °* outcry, especially that which is the 
expression of sorrow, or the cry for aid. Isa. 15:5; 
65:19; Neh.5:6; 9:9; Jer. 18:22; 20:16; 50:46. 
It is sometimes followed by a genitive objectively, 


as Genesis 18 

;20, D^p nHft "the cry concerning 

lyj an unused root. Aram. ;_*j,Tttl to belittle, 
i. q. Heb. U??. Comp. under Pfjf. Hence "Hrt Heb. 
and Ch., -WJP. 

nDT an unused root (whence HpJ pitch), which I 
suppose to have had the signification of flowing or pour- 
ing, and hence to have been applied to fluid or fusible 
materials, as is the case with many words springing 
from the stock sap, sp as KJltp, n^f, D&b, ^JL»» Arabic 

4_iJk, to flow, to become liquid, and uJ j. to become 
liquid, to melt into drops; in western languages, 
mriw, spuo, spuma, sapa, sapo; fpepen/ ©peid)d# 0aft# 
etc. [In the Thes. HpJ is referred to tjtt as its root, 
hence this supposed root is altogether omitted.] 

'9> an unused root Arab. • J j to diffuse a 
sweet smell, as a garden. Hence — 

|H$T ("sweet smell"), [Ziphron], pr.n. of a 
town in the north of Palestine; once Nu. 34:9. 

nfft f pitch, Ex. 2:3; Isa. 34:9. Arab, ^^jj, 

9 <* 
Aram. }k&), KADI; but also Kp.t, from the root n$}, 

which see. [In the Thesaurus this word is referred 

to epT (like n$J from 8ttp), as having the idea of 

liquefaction or dropping.] In Arabic T\ servile passes 

into a radical letter; see ?£$. 

I. pi or p], only in the plur. D'gf (for D*P?f, from 
P3{ to shoot an arrow), arrows, especially as ignited, 
Pro. 26: 18. Also found in the form Fhp% which see. 

H. p! or pj, only in the pi. W®\, fetters, chains, 
from, the root PBJ No. 1. Psal. 149:8; Isa. 45:14; 
Nah. 3: 10; Job 36:8. (Ch. PPt id., also in the Tal- 
mud D'Pl). See D^IS. [In Thes. this word is de- 
rived from the root P3{ in the sense of binding,'] 

]PJ comm. (Isa.l5:2;, the bearded 

s — 
chin of a man, Lev. 13:29,30; 19:27. (Arab. Jj 

chin; fj_n« beard or chin.) Hence — 

}pT fut. 15?; to be old, to become old, to grow 
old (properly to have the chin hanging down, from 

151, like ^3 an old man with a chin hanging down, 

decrepid ; in which perhaps may be found the origin 
of the Latin senex, senectus, which others have ab- 
surdly taken as used for seminex). This word, hoi* 

Digitized by 





ever, in used not merely of decrepit, but also of 
rigor.usoldage,Gen.i8:i2,i3; 19:31; 24:1; 27:1; 
I Sa 2:22, etc. [But is not decrepitude implied in 
all these passages?] For the difference between IPJ 
and its synonyms R?J, 35?, B*£* see those words. 

Hiphil, intrans. to be old, to become old (as if to 
contract old age, comp. P*?J!0 [" in Heb. Gr. § 52. 2, 
note"]), Pro. 22:6; also of plants, Job 14:8; just as 
Pliny applies senesco to trees. 

}j?J constr. IE? Gen. 24:2, pi. D^BT, \3j?f m. an old 
man ["either put as an adj. with a subst., as &?'?$. 
^Bfr? ' the old man your father,' Gen. 43: 27, or alone 
as a subst., as Gen. 19:4, etc. 1 ' Thes.], Gen. 18:11; 
19:4; 25:8; followed by 19 older than some one. 
Job 32: 4, D*p£ U$Q n©jj-D*JM ** "for they were 
older than he'; w DP.V9, "n?n, ?«n?*. ^W the elders 
of Israel, of the city, of Egypt, i. e. the chief men, 
rulers, magistrates, without reference to the idea of 
age; Ex.3:i6; 4:29; Deu.i9-.12; 21:3,4,6; 22:15, 

S c - 

17, 18. (The use is similar of the Arab, ^u-i sheikh, 

an old man, hence the captain of a tribe; and in the 
languages sprung from the Latin, Ital. Signor, French 
Seigneur, Spanish Senor, Engl. Sir, all of which are 
from the Latin Senior; as Germ, ©raf, is properly 
i. q. gram, Ivatoo, grey-headed. In no language, how- 
ever, does this reverence for old age appear more 
habitual and familiar, than in the Chinese; in which 
the ministers of a king, even though young, are called 
great king father, i. e. a man of very high eminence ; 
and men of the same rank address each other " 
my elder brother P) Metaph. used of an old nation, 
become weak, Isa. 47:6. Plur. f. rfogf Zee. 8:4. 

|pT m. old age, Gen. 48:10. 

nDp? f. old age, Gen. 24:36; Psal. 71:9, 18. 
Metaph. of a nation, Isa. 46:4; comp. Isa. 47:6. 

D^pf m. pi. id., Gen. 21:2, 7 ; 44:20. % ?^TI| 
a son born in old age, Gen. 37:3. (As to denomina- 
tives of this form, see Lehrg. § 122, No. 13.) 

)\?\ to raise, figuratively to comfort the af- 
flicted, Ps. 145: 14; 146:8. (Syr. isioj id.) 

*)p? Ch. to raise up, to hang, e. g. a criminal on 
ft stake set up. (Syr. .ao j to crucify.) Ezr. 6:11. 
'Note. " Vi?f applies in this passage to the man, not 
to the wood."] 

p[2!— (1) to tie fast, to bind (Chald. Pi?f id.), 
whence &$} and D*i??8 bonds. [This meaning in 
Thes. is wholly excluded.] 

(2) to squeeze tbrough a strainer, to stra i % 
hence to refine — (a) wine (see Pual, comp. Arab. 

s: wine newly pressed out). — (b) metals, Job 26:1. 
With this signification agree oxijrcoc, aatcoc, sackcloth, 
a strainer; aaxKiv, traKKtim, aaKKtfa ; Lat. saccus, 
saccare; Hebr. pb; and the same stock is found in 
f?$en# \ti$tti t feigern/ ftdorn/ properly used of metals. 

(3) to pour, to pour out, in a general sense, like 
the French couUr, and the Latin colore, Job 36:27* 

Piel P5? to refine, to purify gold, Mai. 3:3. 
Pual, to be refined, used of wine, Isa. 25:6; of 
metal, 1 Ch. 28:18; 29:4; Ps. 12:7. 

Hence D'p? No. II. [In Thes. derived from P?T.] 

"ft a stranger, an enemy; see the root "to? No. IL 

"W m. border, edge, wreathed work, crown 
around a table, or the ark of the covenant, Ex. 25 : 1 1, 

9 x 

24,25; 37:2,11,26. Syr. )±j) neckchain, collar. 
Root 75 No. I. 

N^J f. for «TTJ once Nu. 11 :20, loathing. Vulg. 

nausea, from the root Tf, J J which see. 

3 J J unused in Kal, i. q. Syr. cC**j to make 
narrow. [In Thes. many meanings which have 
been proposed for this root, are discussed ; that re- 
garded by Gesenius as most probable, is to perish, 
to be dissipated. In Corr. Gesenius compares Ch. 
Ithpeal to pour out, to flow off, or away; whence 
ate^J gutter; and by transpos. ^Vp; Arab, c-*;.* 
channel.] It once occurs in — 

Pual, used of rivers, to"}tj XT?? at the time when 
they become narrow ["what time they flow off, they 
fail, i. e. when the waters flow off, the streams dry 
up"], Job 6 .-17. Rightly compared with Arabic 

S -o 

t^ - %r< a narrow channel. 

7£Srft (probably for [" ^?nf 'scattered to Ba- 
bylon, 1 or for "] htf »nf "born at Babylon"), 
pr. n. Zerubbabel (LXX. ZopofiafteX), a descendant 
of David, who brought back the first colony of the 
Jews to their own land, after the Babylonish cap- 
tivity, Ezr. 2 : 2 ; 3 : 2 ; Hag. 1:1. 

1 1} an unused root Chald. to prune trees; to 
clear them of leaves and branches. TJJ the Aixuriant 
growth of trees. Whence — 

"HI \Zered, Zared], pr. n. of a valley (Num. 
21:12), and of the river flowing in it; eastward of 
Jordan, on the confines of Moa 1 (Dc it. 2:13, 14)1 

Digitized by 


mi-mr ccun 

Targ. Jonath. brook of willows, compare D^TBp /M 
ha. 15:7. 

n"lj fut.rnr #J apoc. "»£ — (1) to scatter, to 
disperse (Arab. ^ , J to disperse e. g. dust by the 
wind, II to winnow. Syr. and Cbald. J**, K"J1« Kin- 
dred verbs, all of which have the sense of scattering, 

JHJ, PTJ, TH No. II, also HTJ, Arab. \ , j to sow. In 
the Indo-Germanic languages corresponding words 
are Sanscr. m, to scatter, siro, and with the addition 
of p or t to the sibilant, Sanscr. «*rt, to spread out, 
tropin, ftrcuen, sterna ; aweiput, spargo, Goth, sprcihan, 
Germ, fpriifccn/ @preu [English to strew]). Ex. 32 : 30 ; 
Nu. 17:2; Isa. 30:2a. Especially — 

(2) to winnow, Isa. 30 -.24; Jer.4:ll; Ruth. 3: 2, 
D*jjp»? rjrnK rn* wrrnjn« behold he winnows his 
barn floor of barley." Figuratively applied to the 
dispersion of enemies. Jer. 15:7 ; Isa. 41 : 16; Eze. 

(3) to spread out generally, whence n*JJ a span. 
Niphal to be scattered, Eze. 6:8; 36:19. 
Piel HIT. — ( 1) to spread abroad, Pro. 15:7, hence 

to scatter, to disperse, e.g. nations, Levit. 26:33; 
Eze.5:lO; 6:5; 12:15; 30:26; Pro. 20:8, "a king 
...scatters away all evil with his look." 

(2) to winnow, Pro. 20:26; and hence to winnow 
out, to shake out, and thus to examine thoroughly. 
Ps. 139:3, rni *JBT) *rn«"thou hast searched me 
in my walking and in my lying down." Jerome 
eventilastu LXX. Lli-xyiaaaq. (The figurative signi- 
fication is found in the Arabic ^jjj to know.) 

Pual, to be scattered, Job 18:15; to be spread 
out, Pro. 1:17 As to the form nil Isa. 30 : 24, which 
some place hero, it is the participle of Kal used 
impersonally, and fTjV Ps. 58 : 4, is from the root "tt?. 

Derivatives, XTTT, fnjD, D*1jp. 

KHT f m (rarely masc. Isa. 17:5; 51:5; Dan. 11: 
15, 22, especially in the signification No. 9. Com p. 
Gehrg. p. 470), m. pi. C % r and rfl-. 

(1) an arm, Isa. 17:5; 40:11 ; especially the fore 

nrm, as in Lat. brachium tear tlo^y (differing from 

R$? lacertus), Job 26:2; in animals the fore leg, 

shoulder, fipax lu>v > Nu - **: l 9'> ^eut. 18:3. (Arabic 

8 " • 9 f 

\ .j>, Aram. KJJT^, |L^*J an arm, also a cubit, from 

the root JHl No. 1). iT*DJ ]fn] a stretched Hit arm, a 
gesture of threatening applied to a people ready for 
battle ["ascribed to God"], Exod.6:6; Deu.4:34; 
E»e. «o: 33, 34; similarly ^ Jp{ Job 38 : 15. 
(t) Figuratively— (a) strength, might, power, 

2Ch. 32:8, 1^3 fity "human power." Ps. 44:4, 
Job 40:9, VT ^rtl? "the strength of his hands;" 
Gen. 49: 24. Hence military force, an army, Dan. 
11:15,22,31. — (b) violence, Job 35:9. JH"»t &* 
"a violent man;" Job 22:8. Here the phrase 
belongs to break the arm of any one, for to destroy his 
power, or violence, 1 Sam. 2:31; Job 22 : 9 ; 38 : 15 ; 

Ps.l6:i5; 37:17 (comp. Arab. *J*is l^o) ,— ( c ) 
strength imparted to another in aiding him, hence 
help, a id. Ps. 83:9; Isa. 33 : 2 (like the Arab. j*ic 

Pers. ,;l> an arm, also aid; Syr. JL^m iJ* son of arm, 
i.e. helper; see farther on the place referred to in 
Isaiah), hence a helper, a companion, Isa. 9; 19 
(comp. Jer. 9: 19, where for this word is found JD). 
LXX. Cod. Alex. bfaXfoQ. &">!$ is the same word 
with Aleph prosthetic. 

XFHT m . (verbal of Piel, from the root JHJ of the 
form i*an) that which is sown, Levit 11:37; P^- 
Wl^l things sown, garden herbs, Isa. 61:11. 

*)T"]l m « quadriL formed from the root *HJ a violent 

shower, Ps. 72:6. Syr. I &&,* l a shower. Talmud. 
K*DT *D*n? sprinklings of water, drops. 

' [\l tied together,girded,from "nt (which see), 
the first radical being inserted in the last syllable, as 
in the word IT?!, onoe Pro. 30:31, D^JHO Tpj "girt 
in the loins," by which a war horse is meant, as 
ornamented about the loins with girths and buckles 
(such ornaments are very frequent in the sculptures 
at Persepolis), compare Bochart, Hieroz. t.i.p. 102. 
Schultens. ad h. 1. Job. Simonis understands it of a 
Zebra, or the wild ass of Abyssinia, as if so called 
from its skin being striped as if girded. Some of the 
Hebrew interpreters understand it to mean a grey- 
hound ["others understand a wrestler, see Talm. 
Hieros. Taanith, fol. 57 ; Maurer ad h. 1. "]. 

1» i{ fut. rnj^ — (1) to rise, used of the sun, Gen. 
32:32; Ex. 22:2; 2 Sa. 23:4; Ps. 104:22, etc.; also 
applied to light, Isa. 58 : 10; to the glory of God, 60: 
1,2; Deut. 33:2. (It properly means to scatter 
rays, comp. the kindred words rnj f "HJ. This root 
is variously changed in the cognate languages ; hence 
in Arabic and ^Ethiopio s*i UJ^+o m Aramamc 

(2) It is figuratively applied — (a) to leprosy break- 
ing out in the skin, — (b) in the derivatives also to a 
foetus breaking forth from the womb (see n !J and 

Digitized by 



Gen. 38:30), and — (c) to a plant springing up, i.q. 
mj, see rrij$. 

Derivatives, ni}K, nTtO,pr.n.njrnj*, and the words 
immediately following. 

HIT suff. ^rni m . — (1) a rising of light, Isa. 

ccliv jnr-rni 

9:9, HJRTf *6 YT& "a land not sown." — (rf) wM 
ace. both of the seed and the field. Lev. 19: 19, T]£ 
DJS&? injn *6 " thou shalt not sow thy field wi'Ji 
divers kinds." Deut. 99 : 9 ; Isa, 30 : 2 3 ; Jud. 9 : 4^ 
To scatter seed is also said of a plant which bears 
seed, Gen. 1:29; comp. 12. Metaphorically, to sow 

/ \ r*y 1. 0T n / \ /• * justice, Pro. 11:18; and on the contrary, wickedness, 

(2) [Zerah, Zarah], pr. n. — (a) of a son of "L ' . ,. ' T , Q . 1 \ „ ' 
v ^ L f . _J' C > ' _ _ 1 Pro. 29:8; mischief, Job 4 : 8 ; the wind, Hos. 8:7, 

Judah, by Tamar his daughter-in-law, Gen. 38 : 30 ; 
Nu. 26 : 20. — (b) of a son of Reuel, Gen. 36: 13, 17. 
— (c) m. Num. 26:13, in other places called m ^). — 
(d) 1 Ch. 6:6,26. — (e) [" A king or leader of the 
Ethiopians, who invaded Judah in the reign of Asa"], 
2Ch. 14:8. Gr. Zapa. 

TH! [Zar kites], patron, from rnj No. 2, a., Nu, 
26:13,20. SeeTnjK 

TH^J ("whom Jehovah caused to rise," see 
rnr No. 2, b), \ZerahiaK\, pr. n. m. — (1) 1 Chr. 
5:32; 6:36; Ezr. 7:4, for which njrnp occurs, 1 Ch. 
7:3.— (2) Ezr. 8:4. 

["D^T i.q. DTJ (see Thes.) a violent shower, 
inundation, bursting of a cloud. Isa. 1 :7, n^BTO? 
D^?l " as the desolation of an inundation,* 1 or over- 
whelming rain. See in partic. 3. — Root D!J. W ] 


which see; followed by an ace. to inundate, to over- 
whelm, to bear away, Ps. 90:5. 

Poel, to pour out, with ace. Ps. 77: 18. Hence — 

DHT a shower, storm of rain, storm, Isa. 4:6; 
25 :4; 28 : 2, "H? D 3J " a shower with hail-storm." 
Tp D^T a violent storm, which throws down walls, 
Isa. 25:4. 

HO*"]? fern, se minis fluxus, used in speaking of 
stallions, Eze. 23 : 20. 

)/ l\ filt. XHT! — (l) TO SCATTER, TO DISPERSE, 

Zee. 10:9. See the kindred roots commencing with 
the syllable It under the root rnj. From the kindred 
signification of expanding, is derived JTHt an arm, like 
HlJ a span, from *T}\. A secondary root, and derived 
from S*n{, c\,j is found in Arab, c.i to attack 

violently, to seize, IV. to take in the arms. 

(9) Especially, to scatter seed, to sow (Arabic 

^;, Syr. **J, Mih. HCQ: id.). Constr.— (a) absol. 

Job 31 :8; Isa. 37:30. — (b) with an ace. of the seed 
•own 'e.g. D^H JHt to sow wheat), Jer. 12:13; Hag. 
1:6; Lev. 26:16; Ecc. 11:6.— (c) with ace. of the 
field sown, Gen 47:*3; Ex. 93:10; Lev. 95:3. Jer. 

that is, by good or evil actions to provide rewards or 
punishments answering to the figure of the harvest; 
comp. Gal. 6:7, 8. [The New Testament use of lan- 
guage, apart from its context, must not be pressed too 
far to illustrate Old Test, expressions ; how a God 
could be just, and yet the justifier, w had not then been 
manifested.] A little differently, Hos. 10: 12, D^? WH 
lljn *pp nyp njy}V? "sow for yourselves according 
to righteousness, reap according to the mercy (of 
God)." Ps. 97 : 1 1 , P*^ Tm ^K " light (i. e. happi- 
ness) shed abroad (is prepared) for the righteous," 
To sow a nation, i. q. to multiply, to increase, Hos. 2: 
«5» Jer. 31:27. 

(3) to sow, i.q. to plant, with two ace. Isa. 17:10. 

Niphal — (1) to be scattered, Eze. 36:9. 

(9) to be sown* Lev. 11:37. Figuratively, Nab. 
1 : 14, " there shall be sown no more of thy name, 11 
i. e. thy name shall be no more perpetuated. 

(3) to be sown, spoken of a woman, i.e. to be made 
fruitful, to conceive, Nu. 5 : 28. 

Pual pass, of Kal No. 2, Isa. 40:24. 

Hiphil — (1) to bear seed, as a plant. Gen. i:il y 
XT1J WWQ 35?$! comp. verse 29, where there is in the 
same context, JH| Jn.t. 

(9) to conceive seed, speaking of a woman; to be 
made fruitful, Lev. 12:2; comp. Niphal, No. 3. 

Derivatives, besides those which immediately fol- 
low, frif (#-»$), art, V}!!, rjn?. 

yi! const, id.; once JHJ Nu. 11:7, with suff, T& 
pi. with suff. Dyyj! (1 Sa. 8: 15). 

(1) prop, sow ing; hence seedtime, the time oj 
sowing, i.e. winter, Gen. 8:22; Lev. 26:5; also, a 
planting, Isa. 17: 11 (compare the root No. 3). 

(2) seed, that which is scattered, whether of 
plants, trees, or grain, Gen. 1 : 1 1, 12, 29 ; 47 : 23 ; 
Lev. 26:16; Deu. 22:9; Ecc. 11:6; hence that which 
springs from seed sown, harvest, fit Id of grain, 
1 Sa. 8:15; the produce of fields, Job.39:l2; Isa. 


(3) semen virile, Lev. 15:16, seq.; 18: 21; 19:9c 
(comp. the verb, Niphal, No. 3 ; Hiphil, No. 2) ; henoe 
— (a)offspring,progeny,descendants,Gen.s 15] 
13:16; 15:5, 13; 17:7,10; 21:13, etc.; also of ow 

Digitized by 





ton (when an only one, the passage therefore, Gen. 3 : 
15, is not to be thus explained, as is done by polemical 
theologians), Gen. 4:95. iSa.t:il, DV^ lHJ"male 
offspring." [The remark upon Gen. 3:15 is in- 
tended apparently to contradict its application to the 
Lord Jesus Christ and his redemption, as if he could 
not be the seed of the woman ; in reply it will here 
suffice to remark, that in the very passage cited, im- 
mediately after Gen. 4: 95, it is clear that JHJ is used 
of one son, namely, Seth, when he was not an only 
one, because Cain was yet alive; and further, this 
aeed of the woman was to bruise the head of the 
tempter, " thy head," which can in no sense apply to 
any but Christ individually, who became incarnate, 
" that by means of death he might destroy him that 
had the power of death, that is the devil."] *pnt JHJ 
the offspring of thy offspring, i. e. thy descendants, Isa. 
59:91.— (b) stock, race, family; ?K"*». JHJ Psa. 
19 : 94. ^n jnj, njTOgn 'T the royal race, 9 Ki. 
11:1; 1 Ki. 1 1 : 14.— (c) a race of men, as rj> JHJ 
Isa- 6:13; ': % 3 n ? DJ Isa. 65: 93; and in an evil 
sense, DT!?? JHJ. Isa. 1 14; "^ JHJ Isa. 57:4; comp. 
Hebr. nrr)Bl, Gr. ycW^m, Matt 3:17; Germ, f&vut, 
French race. 

["(4) a planting, what is planted, Isa. 17:11. 
Also, a sprout, a shoot, Eze. 17:5. See the root in 
Kal No. 3."] 

jn} Dan. 9:43. 

DTI? & % 3jnj m. pi. vegetables, herbs, vege- 
table food, such as is eaten in a half fast; opposed to 
flesh and more delicate food, Dan. 1 : 19, 16 (Ch. and 

Talmud. Syr. jLiQ^i) id.). 

" jj an unused root. Arab. t-J;i to flow, used 
of water or tears. Comp. OTJ. Hence the quadri- 
literal *1TJ!. 

p"lj to scatter (a kindred root to rnj, jnj)— 
(a) dry things, such as dust, Job 9 : 19 ; 9 Ch. 34:4; 
cinders, Exod. 9 : 8, 10; live coals, Eze. 10 : 9. — (b) 
more often liquid things (to sprinkle, fprcngcn), such as 
water, Nu. 19:13; blood, Ex. 94:6; 99:16,90; Lev. 
* 25, ** 5 3 '■ a, and often besides. Followed by *?% to 

sprinkle upon, Exod. loc. cit. Intrans. Hos. 7:9, C| 
^ n S"3t n ?^ "grey hairs also are scattered upon 
him." Compare the Lat. spargere, in the same sense, 

Prop. iii. 4, 94, and Arab. \.j to scatter, Med. E. ta» 
be grey on the front of the head (prop, to be sprinkled 
over with grey hairs, to begin to be grey). 

Pual, pass. Nu. 19: 13, 20. 

[Hence P3P?.] 

L • J] an unused root, i. q. Arab. % \ to bind 
together, as with buckles, to buckle; a kindred root 
to -WT No. I, also -n?, -vi*. Hence the nouns U, 
"ITJI In Chaldee there occurs Hf to bind, originating 
in the quadril. HHt. 

H. » jT prop, to scatter; like the Arab, .j: 
kindred roots JTJJ, jnj, pij. Hence — 

Poel "rtt to sneeze, in doing which the particles 
of mucus are scattered from the nostrils, 9 Ki. 4:35. 
Comp. Ch. TTJ sneezing; see Schult. ad Job. 41 : ic 

Bhj ("gold," from the Persian ^ gold, with tie 
termination ^i), [ZeresK], pr. n. of the wife of 
Hainan, Est. 6:13. ( — - 

J"nT f. a span, Exod. 98:16; 39:9; 1 Sam. 17:4.4 

(Aram, tfj, IU J, *OT}I id.), from the root ni{ to spread [ 
out; whence Tt(for rqi). f.rqj, like rng from **$,[ 
n$$ from nDJ. ["Also according to the Rabbins ^^ m " 
is the little finger, for TVJ$,and hence they derive the^ 
meaning of a sp an, as being terminated by the little ^* 
finger." Ges. add.] 

N<n J an unused root, perh. i. q. Aram. KrVJssKJ^J 
to germinate, whence— 

NWT [Zattu], pr.n. m. Ezr. 9:8; 10:97; Neb, 

DHT (perhaps i.q. DJJVW "olive"), [Z«*Aa»], 
pr.n. m. 1 Ch. 93:8; 96:99. 

THI (perhaps i. q. "H# " star"), [Zethar], pr.n. 
of a eunuch of Xerxes, Est. 1 : 10. 


Cheth n'D, the eighth letter of the alphabet, a? a 
numeral denoting eight. The shape of this letter in 
the Phoenician monuments, and the Hebrew coins, is 

fdB (whence the Greek H), and its name pro- 

bably signifies a hedge, or fence, from the root iU*, 

•lXw to surround, to gird, T\ and O being interchansjjj. 
The name corresponds to that of the iEthiopic !ettei 

Digitized by