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from any one, ha. 53*. 3, **®P D % }| "tf)l?W for "*&?) 
15 # D 'D " *• one from whom they hide the face," 
L e. from whom they turn their eyes as from some- 
thing disgusting and abominable (^$D£ is in this 
place the part, formed in the Chaldee manner, for 
"WCMp, which is found in four copies; it is here im- 
pers. as if D^ WflP! **©p T^g to?). Specially Je- 
hovah is said to hide, or veil over his face— (a) 
when he does not regard human affairs, Ps. 10: 1 1 ; 
followed by H? P8.51 :u, ^BQ& T# ">PP0 " hide 
thy face from my sins;" do not regard them, forgive 
them. — (b) when it denotes displeasure (op p. to 
B'?t* ■Wft?) Ps. 30:8; 104:29; followed by IP of pers. 
to hide the face (and turn away) from any one, 
Psa. 22:15; 27:9; 88:15; 10*13; "D^Q; ***&& 
54:8; 64:6, and so frequently; without D'?p Isaiah 
57 • *7> ^*Pfl "^ * n 2S " I «note them (the people) 
hiding my face, and being angry." 

(2) to conceal something from any one, followed 
by ?P of pers. 1 8am. 20:2; followed by ^&P 9 Ki. 

(3) to guard, to defend, Ps. 31:21; 27:5; fol- 
lowed by IP from any one, Ps.64:3. 

Hithpael "Wip? to hide oneself 1 Sam. 23:19; 
t6:l; Isa. 29:14; 45:15. 

Derived nouns, "fap9, "UJJOO, Ipp, rnjjp, and the 

pr. n. "wnp, nnp. 

T© Ch. Pael. — (1) to hide. Part pass. pi. f. 
hidden things, secrets, Dan. 2:22. 

(2) to destroy (prop, to hide, to remove cut of 
men's sight, compare ID? and TTOH), Ezr. 5:12 
Often in the Targums ; Syr. Peal id. 

*Vtp with suff. njtp._(i) a hiding; hence 
something secret, clandestine, hidden, Jud. 3:19, 
"^P^^^somesecret thing;" iSam.25:20,"*nn ipp 
<k the c o v e r t of the mountain." B*"U?9 DJT/ " bread to 
be eaten in 8 e c r e t," Prov. 9:17. With prefixes, "^PS 
secretly, privately, 1 Sam. 19:2; 2 Sam. 12:12; 
Job 13:10; 31 : 27 ; Prov. 21 : 14, and so frequently. 

(2) specially a vail, covering (Arab. 2^, Syr. 

JiJkco avail, a curtain), Job 22:14; fl 4-l5; P 8a « 
81:8, DS! 1£P? "in the covering of thunder," in 
the clouds replete with thunderings; Ps. 18: 12. 

(3) protection, defence, Ps. 27:5; 32:7; 61:5; 
91:1; 119:114; Isa. 32:2. 

FnrO f. i. q. inp No. 3, protection, Deu.32:38. 

% T^P (for njnnp "protection of Jehovah "), 
[Zithrt], pr. n. m. Ex. 6:22. 

Ayin fX an eye (compare its figure O on the Phoe- 
nician remains), the sixteenth letter of the alphabet: 
when used as a numeral, seventy. 

While Hebrew was a living language, it would 
seem that this letter, which is peculiar to the Phoe- 
nicio-Shemitic languages, and is very difficult of 
pronunciation to our organs, had, like n, a double 
pronunciation. This is the case in Arabic, and they 
distinguish it by a diacritic point ( c Ain, c Ghain). 

The one appears more gently sounded, with a gentle 
guttural breathing, like the letter K, only rather 
harder, so as to resemble the sound of & furtive a or 
e. Thus, by the Greek translators, it is sometimes ex- 
pressed by the smooth or rough breathings, sometimes 
by furtive vowels, as ffaCfy 'A/tiaAfc, *"!TO 'Efipaloc, 
WW Qerii, »'3?1 TeXfiovi, t*R elp (see Orig.on Gen. 
28:19; Montf. Hexapl. tii. p. 397). On the other 
hand, the harder Ain, which the Arabs call Ghain, 
was a haYsh sound, uttered in the bottom of the 
throat, together with a kind of whirring, so that it 
came very near to the letter r ; and this the LXX. 
generally exnress by the letter T, as HJ8 FaC a, n*jbjj 

Fofwfipa. Hence it is that several Hebrew roots com- 
prehend, properly speaking, two roots of different 
significations, one of which is written in Arabic with 

the letter c, the other with c ; as /?3{ J^ to drink 

a second time, to glean, and sty Ji to insert, to 
enter; also *W f D^, DOJ, n^, 2% In other in- 
stances the various significations of one and the same 
root are distinguished in Arabic by a two-fold pro- 
nunciation ; see TfJJ, TPJJ. 

The lighter pronunciation appears to have been 
the more frequent, as also in Arabic the letter c. is 
far more frequent than the letter c ; and for wis 

reason V is very, often interchanged with fct; or, to 
speak more accurately, V is often softened into the 
letter K (page 1) ; also, in the middle of words when 
preceded by S'hva, like n and K, it is often dropped, 
as 79$, contr. /J, T?f , contr. '3. On the other hand, 
V when more harshly pronounced was allied in sound 
— (a) to the palatal letters, as 3, D, p, see page cl, A 
cccLXXvra, A. also,">PJJ and "UD? to surround ; Vty (*v^) 
and XI WJ to bubble forth; Ch. K^jt and ««T^ 

Digitized by 


earth, 2985*, p0^ f and even — (b) to the letter 1 (by 
which several express the Arabic Ghain), as BgD and 
310 to polish. Farther, the very frequent inter- 
change of the letters Y and V should be remarked ; 
this is done in such a way that for the Hebrew Y the 
Aram cans, rejecting both the sibilant and the 6ound 
of t, retain nothing but a guttural breathing; as |KY, 

Ul Books; n«, Uf I earth; ^*, J^ wool; ^P, 
. * *^ and yj_r^ to strip. See as to the cause and 
nature of this interchange Ewald's Heb. Gram. p. 33. 

I. 3JJ m. an architectural term, thresho Ids, steps, 
by which one goes up to a porch, l Ki. 7:6; Ezek. 
41:25. Plur. D*?1J (from the sing. 3JJ), verse 26. both places, renders it well KH^pp thresholds. 
Vulg. epistyliutn, which does not suit the context; 
although (from the poverty of the Hebrew language 
in such terms) this Hebrew word may have compre- 
hended this meaning also. It is favoured by the 
etymology, from the idea of coveting (see the root 353?). 

H. 2% comm. (m. Isa. 19:1; Eccl. 11:3; f. 1 Ki. 
18:44), const. 3g, plur. D^JJ, const. *3JJ 2 Sa. 2a: 12, 
and rtf31( 2 Sa. 23:4 (from the root 3ty). 

(1) darkness, especially of a cloud. Exod. 19:9, 
}$rr 3]$ « ia the darkness of a cloud." Ps. 18:12, 
D^pn^ *iy "darknesses of clouds." Hence — 

(2) a cloud itself, Job 36: 29; 37:11,16. 

(3) a dark thicket of a wood; pi. D*3JJ Jer. 4:29. 

3p see 3^ No. I. 

—IjJ; an unused root; prob. to cover, to hide; 
compare ^ i. q. K3n f n^n, ^S~ to lie hid, II. to 
hide, c-^ls med. Ye, to lie hid. Hence 3JJ No. I. 

1-jJC fuObfi! — (l) TO LABOUR, TO WORK (or* 

bctten), to do work. (Aram. , ^y, 13P. to do, i. q. 
Heb. n^JJ; Arab, ju x to worship God, see No. 2, b; 
Conj. II. to reduce to servitude, see No. 3.) Constr. 
absol. Ex. 20:9, lh#D O^tDJ Y\#y " six days shalt thou 
labour" (opp. to J"^). Deut.5:i3; Eccl. 5:11. 
Followed by an ace. of the thing, to bestow labour on 
any thing (ttroai bearbriten), to till a field, Gen.2:5; 
3:«3; 4:2; a vineyard, Deu. 28:39; a garden, Gen. 
£115; used of artisans, lsa. 19:9, DWD H?J?" those 
who wo rk in flax." Eze. 48 : 18, ^n"n& " those 
who work (in building) the city." Withou*. the ace. 
Deu. 15: 19, " thou shalt not till (the ground) (i. e. 
thou shalt not plough) with the firstling of thy ox." 
(•) to serve, to work for another, Gen. 29:20; 
commonly followed by an ace of pers. to serve any 



one (Germ. Jfmanben bebienen), Gen. 27:40; 29:15; 
30:26; followed by / 1 Sa. 4:9; DJJ with some one, 
Gen. 29 : 25, 30 ; Lev. 25:40; and ^f? 2 Sa. 16: 19 
(used of the king's minister, comp. W? ^3?). Fol- 
lowed by two ace. Gen. 30:29, Y?H3&"^ T\H FJPTJ 
<! thou knowest how I have served thee." Spe- 
cially to serve is used — (a) of a people to a people. 
Gen. 14:4; 15:14; 35:23; Isa. 19:23. Here be- 
longs Gen. 15:13, QHk «jn. Dn^} "and they (ths 
Israelites) shall serve them (the Egyptians), and 
they (the Egyptians) shall evil intreat them." — (b) to 
serve God or idols; i.e. to worship God or idols, 
followed by an ace. Ex. 3:12; 9:1,13; Deu.4-.19; 
8:19; 30:17; followed by /Jer. 44:3; Jud. 2:13. 
Absol. used of the worship of Jehovah, Job 36:11, 
"if they obey and serve (Jehovah)." Isa. 19:23, 
"and the Egyptians shall serve (Jehovah) with the 
Assyrians ;" (see above as to the Arabic usage). — It 
is also said — (c) with two hocus to serve Jehovah 
with anything, i. e. to offer sacrifice, Exod. 10:26; 
and without the name of God, nn?D* POT 13J{ to offer 
sacrifice and bloodless oblation, Isa. 19:21, prop, to 
serve or worship (God) with offering sacrifices, etc. 

(3) ? n 3J{ causat. i. q. "l*3J/n (comp. ? letter B, 4) 
to impose labour or servitude upon any one. 
Lev. 25:39, 13Jf T mby : ta nbjffl 16 « thou shalt nc: 
im^ose upon him servile work;" verse 46; Ex 
1:14; Jer. 22:13; 25:14; 30:8. 

Nh>hal — (a) to be tilled as a field, Deu. 21:4, 
Eze. 36:9, 34. — (b) to be served, as a king by hij 
subjects, Ecc. 5:8. 

Pual — (1) i. q. Niph., Deut. 21:3; comp. 15: l> 

(2) pass, of Kal No. 3. Isa. 14:3," the hard bond- 
age 1$ *13J{ "^ which was laid upon thee." For 
15^ one would expect ,T J?J{, but see Hebr. Granun, 
§ 138, 1. b. 

Hiphil — (1) causat. of Kal No. 1, to cause to /o- 
b our, to compel to do work, followed by an ace., Ex. 
1:13; 6:5; hence to cause weariness by hard 
labour, to fatigue. Isa. 43:24,"! have not weariea 
thee with (offering) sacrifices ... 24, % ^H3Jjn ^K 
ipQIMBCIJl but thou hast wearied me with thy sins." 

(2) causat. of No. 2, to make to serve, Eze. 29:18; 
to bring (a people) into bondage, Jer. 17:^- 

(3) causat. of No. 2, b, 2Ch. 34:33. 

Hophal, "l3Jjn to be made to serve, or to worship, 
Ex. 20:5; D"nV T n k? "thou shalt not be made to 
worship them (false Gods);" 23:24; Deut. 5:9; 
hence to serve &t the persuasion, incitement of other*. 


Hence are derived the nouns which imntediatelj 
follow, i^J— nn#, and also 13SJJ. 

Digitized by 


H3X CLald to m .he, i.q. Hebr. HfTJ Dan. 3:1,15. 
*J? IJ^to wage war, Dan. 7 : 1 1. 3 %2 : to do with 
any one (according to one's will), 4:32; W? ^?, 
Ear. 6:8. 

Ithpkal, to fe wade, Ezr.4: 19; 5:8; 7:26; Don. 
3* SO* 

Derived nouns, 1315, *T«k n WP- 

^yH m. — (l) a servant, (Ancdrt), who, amongst 
the Hebrews, was commonly a slave (®tla»# tMbeiflf ner), 
Gen.l2:l6; 20:14; 39-17; Exod. 12:30,44; and 
so very frequently. Gen. 9:25, DH3J? naj£ " a ser- 
vant of servants," the lowest servant. The name of 
servant is also applied — (a) to a whole people when 
subject and tributary to another, Genesis 9:26, 27; 
27:37. — (b) to the servants of a king, i. e. his 
ministers and courtiers; e.g. nfc"® n£J? Gen. 40:20; 
41:10, 37, 38; 50:7; Exod. 5:21; 7:10; 10:7; 
&K2» niV_ 1 Sam. 16: 17 ; 18 : 22 ; 28 : 7 ; to messengers, 
2 Sam. 10:2 — 4; to military captains, Isa. 36:9; and 
to the common soldiers themselves, 2 Sam. 2: 12, 13, 
15, 30, 31 ; 3:22; 8:7; and so frequently. — (c)once 
figuratively (by zeugma) used of inanimate things, 
Gen. 47 : 19 ; compare Judith 3 : 4. The Hebrews, in 
speaking to superiors, either from modesty or else 
lowly adulation, call themselves servants, and those 
to whom they speak lords, (see flit*). Gen. 18:3, 
"pass not by thy servant," i. e. me, Gen. 19: 19; 
42:11; 44:16,21,23; 46:34; Isaiah 36:11; Dan. 
1 : 12, 13; 2:4 [Chal.]; so in prayers offered to God, 
Psalm 19:12,14; 27:9; 3U17; 69:18; 86:2,4; 
119:17; Neh. 1:6,8. Dan. 10:17, "how can the 
servant of my lord talk with my lord?" i.e. how 
can I talk with thee? T)?? thy servant is thus put 
for *?fc; so that the suffix of the first person may 
refer to it; see Gen. 44:32, " for thy servant be- 
came surety (i. e. / became surety) for the lad with 
my father." Absent persons even, whom one wishes 
to commend to the favour of a patron, are called their 
servants; as Gen. 44:27, "thy servant, my father 
said to us," Gen. 32:4, 18. 

(a) rijn* "IJ? is figuratively applied in various 
jense*. It is — (a) a worshipper of God; Neh. 
1 : 10, ^®P1 VJ?JS D '3 " they (the Israelites) are 
thy servants and thy people;" compare Chaldee 
Ezra 5:11, "we are the servants of the God 
of heaven," i.e. we worship the God of heaven; 
Dan~6:tl, " O Daniel, servant of the living God," 
L e. who worshipped the living God. In this sense 
it it used as a kind of laudatory epithet applied to 
the pious worshippers of God; e. g. to Abraham, Ps. 
105:6,42; to Joshua, Josh. 24:29; Judges 2:8; to 

dxcix lay-ay 

Job, Job 1:8; 2:3; 4«:8; to David, Ps. l8:l; 36:1; 
78:70; 89:4,21; Jer. 33:21, seqq.; Eze. 34:23; to 
Eliakim, Isa. 22:20; to Zerubbabel, Hag. 2:23; and 
in plur. njiT n^y is often applied to godly men, Ps. 
34:23; 69:37; 113:1; 134:1; 135:1,3; 136:22; 
Isa 54:17; 63:17; 65:8,9,13—15; Jer. 30:10; 
46:27. In other places it is — (b) the minister, or 
ambassddor of God, called and sent by God for ac- 
complishing some service ; Isa. 49 : 6, y ^rft*TO 7jJ3 
W V*» wy m D*j?n? ia^ "it is a light thing 
that thou shouldest be my servant (i. e. messenger, 
and as it were instrument), to raise up the tribes of 
Israel ...I will make thee to be a light for the nations," 
etc., verse 5. In this sense it is applied to the Mes- 
siah, Zee. 3: 8 ; to Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, 
whom God used as an instrument in chastising his 
people, Jerem. 25 : 9 ; 27:6; 43 : 10 ; commonly, how- 
ever, there is the added notion of a familiar servant 
chosen and beloved of God, on account of piety and 
approved fidelity, to accomplish his objects; in this 
sense it is applied to angels (in the other hemistich 
DpKpD), Job 4: 18; and to prophets, Am. 3:7; Jer. 
7:25; 25:4; 26:5; 29:19; 35:15; 44:4; Daniel 
9:6; Ezr. 9:11; specially to Moses, Deu. 34 : 5 ; Josh. 
1:1,13,15; Ps. 105:26; to Isaiah, Isa. 20:3. Some- 
times both ^notions, that of a man piously worship- 
ping God, and of a divine messenger, seem to have 
coalesced; this is the case in the passages in which 
it is used of Abraham, Moses, etc., and also espe- 
pecially, as I consider, where Israel or Jacob, i. e. the 
people of Israel, is called by this honourable and en- 
dearing name, Isaiah4i:8,9; 42:19; 44:1,2,21; 
45:4; 48:20; but still it is the godly who are espe- 
pecially to be understood, i. e. those truly called Is- 
raelites, aXrjdiyoi 'lap. Isa. 43: 10; 49:3 (on this place 
see my observation in the Germ. Trans, ed. 2), [this 
passage, whatever may be said about it, belongs to 
Christ]. And amongst these, this name belongs es- 
pecially to the prophets, Isa. 42 : 1 ; 44: 26; 49: 3, 5 ; 
52 : 13 ; 53 : 1 1. [All these passages speak of Christ.] 
That same Jacob who is called the servant of God, is 
sometimes in the other hemistich called the chosen oj 
God, Isa. 41:8; 42:1; 45:4; sometimes his ambas- 
sador and friend, Isa. 42 : 19; and even in the plur. 
ambassadors, Isa. 44:26. But in all the passages 
concerning the servant of God in the latter half of 
Isaiah (42:1 — 7; 49 :1 .— 9; 5<>:4 — 10 J 5«:i3~ 
53:12), he is represented as the intimate friend and 
ambassador of God, aided by his Spirit, who is to be 
the restorer of the tribes of Israel, and the instructoi 
of other nations. [Most of th*se passages refer to 
Christ, and to Him only.] 

Digitized by 


(3) ("servant, sc. of God"), \Ebedf\, pr.n. m. 
-<a) Jud,9:26, 28.— (b) Ezr. 8:6. 

T?9 "VX ("servant of the king," Arabic Jus 
iJLfl'H AbdulmaUch), [Ebed-melecK], pr. n. of an 
^Ethiopian in the court of Zedekiah, Jer. 38 : 7 ; 39 : 16. 

WJ 138 (perhaps =b^ lgg "worshipper of 
Mercury;" see fa?), [Abed-nego~\, Da. 1:7; 2:49; 
3:12; and fcfo? 13J? verse 29; Chald. pr. n., given 
iii Babylon to Azariah, a companion of Daniel. 

"UK Chald. i.q. Hebr. 1^ a servant; KH^K 12% 
servant, i. e. worshipper of God, Dan. 3:26; 6:«i; 
£sr. 5:11. 

13y m. (Kametz impure), work, deed; found 
once, Eccl. 9:1. 

**!?# ("servant, sc.of God," a word of a Chaldee 
form), [4 Ma], pr. n. m.— (1) 1 Ki.4:6.— (2) Neh. 
11:17; for which there is, 1 Ch. 9:16, HHjJ;. 

'*H?J? (" servant of God"), [Abdeef], pr. n. 
m. Jer. 36:26. 

•"H^ f._ (t) Ja&our, ^or*, Ex. 1 : 14; Levit. 
<5:39> ^ nnhg "labour of a servant;" Levit 
•3:7i n "P# n ? N ?9"7? " aU work in which there is 

(2) work, business, office, Num. 4:47, lbj£ 
WQ ni'm rvp% nity « to do the work of the holy 
service, and the work of the porters;" (for which 
there is, l Chron. 9: 19, nYagn nj&6o) ; I 8a . 28:21 ; 
32: 17, B&f n ngrjW nihjQ " and the work (i. e. the 
effect, the fruit) of righteousness shall be quietness," 
(compare Ch. *n r ty, KTng i. q . n^JO work, wages). 

(3) specially, rustic labour, agriculture, 1 Ch. 
27:26; Neh. 10:38. 

(4) service, Gen. 30:26; Neh. 3:5; iCh.26:30, 
W n ^J Uthe service of the king," attendance 
on him; Ps. 104:14, Dltfn rrjb$ 3^? « herb for 
the service (i.e. use) of man;" specially sacred 
service, more fully "UNO 7HK3 rnijj Nu. 4:23,35; 

njno brfit nnhg Ex. 30:16; Q^$gn jv^ nnig 1 Ch! 

9:13; and simply 1 Ch. 28:14; Ex. 35:24; used also 
of particular sacred ceremonies, Exod. 12:25, *$; 
*3:5- — n "PE "^ to serve service, Gen. 30:26. 
(5)in5^r«mtfn^,tm^/cmcn^,Nu.3 : 26, 31, 36. 

■"H?X £ household, family, servants, Gen. 
. .14; Job 1:3. 

P^3J? ("servile"), [J Won], pr.n. of a town 
inhabited by the Levites, in the territory of Asher, 
Joth. «i :3Q; 1 Ch. 6:59. The same name is found 


in twenty MSS., Josh. 19:28, instead of thecnmimn 
reading p?JJ. 

(2) [pr.n. m. Jud. 12:13,15; iCh.8:23.] 

W3J f (denom. from IJIJ), bondage, ***** 
tude, Ezr. 9:8, 9. 

*!-$ ("worshipping," sc. God, compare 1S| 
No. 5), [Obed], pr. n. m.— (1) Ruth 4: 17, 21.— (9) 
1 Ch. 11:47.— (3) 1 Ch. 2:37. — (4) * Ch. 26:7 — 
(5) 2 Ch. 33:1. 

D*W *W ("he who serves the Edomites ,, ) f 
[Obed-edom], pr. n. of a Levite, 2 Sa. 6: 10; 1 Ch. 

^?K (for nf!5J "servant of Jehovah"), [Ab- 
dt], pr.n. m.— (1) 1 Chr. 6:29.— (2) Q Chr.29:lt. 
— (3) Ezr. 10:26. 

/*H?I? (" servant of God"), [AbdieQ, pr.n. 
m. 1 Ch. 5:15. 

VViay & ^iy m . (« worshipper of Jeho- 
vah"), compare Arab. <dl\ ju^), [ObadiaK], pr.n. 
of several men, the most celebrated of whom is the 
prophet of this name, contemporary with Jeremiah 
(Obad. 1), iKi. 18:3; 1 Chr. 3:21; 7:3; 8:38; g- 
16,44; 12:9; 27:19; 2 Chr. 17:7; 34:12; Eith 
8:9; Neh. 10:6. LXX. 'A/S&ac (which is properly 

from nnps). 

*WJC — (1) to be thick, fat, Deut. 32:15; 
1 Ki. 12: 10. Compare the noun *?J(. 

(2) to be dense, compact, whence *?g, '"IJES 
density. Syr. ^x^ to be thick, dense, ^Eth. CHIP: 

to be great, to increase, Arabic v^sc. to be great, 

uH]l m . a pledge, Dea. 24:10, 11, 12; from the 

root D3£ 

^3JJ constr. H«n ^IJcorn, prop, produce, or 
offering of the land, Josh. 5: 11, 12. It has the 
passive eense of the conjugation Hiph. T21Q to offer, 
compare TO) from ^?ta to bring, and HKUJ? pro- 
duce, from «^?. (Syr. J»a^*, Chald. "K2U7 id.). 

*^32. pr. subst. passing over, transition, an 
idea which is transferred to the cause (pr. the pass- 
ing over of the cause to the effect), the price (fox 
which any thing is transferred from one owner to 
another), purpose, object (prop, the passing to a 
thing which we desire to attain). With the pre&s 
*: "WIS it becomes — 

Digitized by 





(A) a prep, signifying — (i) propter, because of 
(compare Talmud V?^? through the way of, i. e. be- 
cause of, Germ. »on wegcn, ttwjfti), Exod. 13:8; 1 Sam. 
12:28. With suff. TWS, TJP93 because of me, thee, 
etc., 1 Sa. 23:10; Gen. 12:13, 16; 18:26. 

(2) pro, for, used concerning the price for which 
any tiing becomes another's, Am. 2:6; 8:6. 

(B) Conj. — (1) because (compare A, 1), fol- 
lowed by a pret. Mic. 2:10. 

(2) that (of purpose and object, in order that), 
followed by a fut. Gen. 27:4; Exod. 9: 14; and inf. 
2 Sa. 10 : 3 ; fidly T#$ "vnp Gen. 27 : 10 ; also ^^ 
followed by an inf. 2 Sam. 14:20; 17:14 (compare 
7 conj. that.) 

(3) while (pr. in the transit sc. of time), 2 Sa. 1 2 : 2 1. 

!3Dj7fut. 03RI — (l) TO CHANGE, TO EXCHANGE 

(see Pi.); kindred is D?y to interweave. 

(2) to give a pledge for anything borrowed 
(which includes the idea of exchange). Deu. 24: 10, 
tohgLDhE? "that he may give his pledge." Also 
to borrow on die security of a pledge, Deut. 15:6, 
Bhyrj 16 nn&n " and thou shalt not borrow." 

Piel, to change, to exchange. Joel 2:7, " they 
shall not change their ways," i.e. they shall go 
right on in the same way. 

Hi phil, to I end [on security of a pledge], followed 
by ace. of pers. (to whom), Deu. 15:6; followed by 
two ace. of pers. and the thing lent, Deu. 15:8. 

Hence DtajJ and — 

1^935 m. (from the root 03?) pr. pledging of 
goods, hence load of debt which one has contracted, 
Hab. 2:6. [In Thes. the meaning taken is that of 
accumulation of pledges.] 

% 3# m. (from the root H3JJ) density, compact- 
ness, Job 15:26; 2 0^4:17,*?™? 'W " i* d* 
compact soil." Vulg. in terra argiUosa. 

% ?^ with suff>3y m. thickness, 1 Kings 7:26; 

Jer. 52:21. Root nay. 

"T3K f - Ch.— (1) work, labour, £zr. 4:24; 
>:8; 6:7', 18. 

(2) 6u*tn**s, Dan. 2:49; 3:12; compare n ?^/P 
Neh. 2:16. 

7DJ7 an unused root, Arab. J^ to strip a tree 
of leaves, Med. E and O, to be thick, robust IV. to 
be stripped of leaves. Hence the pr. n. /JLW, '?*{?. 

Y 3J7 an unused root, see f 3JP. 

*)3U7 fat. "ttfi!. — (1) to pass oveb. (Arabic 
jgrf (c pass Tver, to cross a stream; a* 10 to go away, 

to depart, to die; -■*£, ^ shore, bank of a stream 

Ufeo^i to go away, to depart. The same stock ia 
widely extended in the Indo-Germanic languages; se< 
Sansc. upari, Pers. j\, j, and jj super, supra, Gr. 
if vip, iripa, iripav, ittpaw, Lat. super, Goth, ufiir, afar t 
Germ, fiber.) Prop, to pass over a stream, the sea, 
followed by an ace. Gen. 31:21; Josh. 4: 22 ; 24: 11 ; 
Deut. 3:27; 4:21; followed by 3 Josh. 3:11; 2 Sa. 
15:23; Zee. 10:11; ipn? Num. 33 : 8. Absol. to 
pass over, sc. a stream (er fefcte uba), Josh. 2:23, 
and followed by an ace. of that to which we pass 
over, Jer. 2:10, D*!?3 V.N ^3X? "pass over (the , 
sea) unto the shores of Chittim;" Am. 6: 2; followed 
by 'K Num. 32:7; 1 Sam. 14:1, 6 (where it means 
to pass over to an opposite place). 

Specially used — (a) of the wind passing over upon 
any thing, followed by 2 Ps.103: 16. — (b) of waters, 
which, overflowing their banks, pass over, Isa. 8:8; 
54:9; Nah. 1:8; Hab. 3:10; followed by an ace. of 
the bank, Jer. 5:22; used figuratively of an army 
overflowing, Dan. 11:10,40; of the feelings of the 
soul which overflow and pour themselves out in words, 
Ps. 73:7. Compare Hithpael. — (c) used of tears, 

as overflowing (compare Arab, ^z the eye gushes 

with tears, Germ, tie Xugen Qetpen uber, jj l^ a tear). 
Part. "13^ "lk overflowing myrrh, dropping sponta- 
neously, Cant. 5:5, 13.— It is— (d) to go over to 
some one's side, followed by ?y Isa. 45:1 4. — (e) to 
violate sl\w, 2 Ki. 18:12; Esth. 3:3; Jer. 34:18; 
Dan. 9: 11. 

(2) to pass over, to pass through, a country, a 
city, etc.; followed by an ace. Jud. 11 -.29, "HK ibgj 
nfV? n$ 1J^?3 "he went through Gilead andMa- 
nasseh." * Isa. 23: 10, ^3 UfTIS *"!?¥ "pass over 
thy land like the Nile" (compare No. 1, b)\ Ps. 8:9. 
More often also followed by ? Gen. 12:6; 30:32; 
Num. 20:18; 33:8; Isa. 8:21; 10:29; 34:10; Jer. 
2:6; followed by P3 (between two things) Gen. 15: 
17; Jer. 34:19; V n l Job 15: 19. Absol. Lam. 3: 
44, " thou hast covered thyself with clouds, "£#2? 
n^2fi so that prayers do not pass through." — *)!?3 
"Q*y 2 Ki. 12:5, more fully "inD^ -Qjj '3 Gen. 23: 16, 
"money which passes with the merchants" (ganabare 
fflliinje 5 French, argent qui passe), is money such as 
merchants will take. (Whether this was stamped 
coin or not in the time of the patriarchs, this is not 
the place to investigate.) Vulg. moneta probata. 

(3) to pass by (pocubergetjn). Gen. 37: 28, "and 
there passed by Ishmaelites." Ruth 4:1. Part 

Digitized by 



D^SV Psa. 1 29 : 8, T31 *!# Psa. 80 : 1 3 ; 89 : 42 ; Job 
91 :«9, passers by. Followed by an ace. of pers. or 
pluce passed by, Gen. 32:32; Jud. 3:26; 2 Sa. 18: 
9J; Oowedby TgiKi. 9:8; 2 Ki. 4:9; Pro. 24:30; 
Jer. 18:16; 19:8; 49:17; Eze. 16:6, 8; ^H? Gen. 
18:3; M^g Ex. 34:6; MB? 2Ki.4:3i. Specially 
— (a) used of time passing by, Gen. 50:4; of the 
summer or winter, Jer. 8:20; Cant. 2:11. — (b) to 
pass by quickly, to vanish, used of a cloud, Job 
30:15; of a shadow, Ps. 144:4; of chaff, Jer. 13:24. 
— (c) to per is A Ps. 37:36; Job 34:20; Isa. 29:5; 
Esth. 9:28. np^3 "QV to perish by the weapon (of 
death), Job 33: 18; 36:12. nntP3 "Q3J to perish in 
the sepulchre [corruption], Job 33 : 28. — (d) metaph. 
is said JK?S 7^ "U!J to pass by sin, i.e. to forgive, 
Mic. 7: 18; Pro. 19:11; and without y?*B; followed 
by a dat of pers. to forgive any one, Amos 7:8; 8:2. 
—(e) Isaiah 40:27, ibjp VW? ^gb "my cause 
has passed over from my God;" i.e. he does not 
regard my cause, he overlooks it and neglects it 
(ec l&ft e* rutjig an fief) oorubergebn). Comp. Arab. \j& 
to pass by, to omit, to supersede. 

(4) to pass on, or along, to go beyond (weiter 
gffcn). Gen. 18:5, VO^g "in« " afterwards ye shall 
puss on," go farther. 2 Sa. 18 :9; Hab. 1 : 1 1 ; Est. 
4:17; hence — (a) to move on, to march, Josh. 6: 
7,8; Ps. 42:5. — (b) to pass away, to depart, Cant. 
5 .6; followed by IP Ps. 81:7, nj-jbffl WO VB3 "his 
hand departed from the basket" (for carrying bur- 
dens) ; i. e. he gave it up, he was freed from the work 
of carrying it. 1 Ki. 22:24, W9 \\ On T»f fl|>$ 
" which way did the Spirit of Jehovah depart from 
me?" — (c) to pass on to any place, to go to any 
place; followed by /JJ 2 Ki. 6:30 ; followed by an ace. 
Am. 5:5. TJ7 "1'JJO ">5J( to pass from city to city, to 
go through all the cities, 2 Chr. 30 : 10. 3KH 1?JJ to 
pass on and return, to go hither and thither, Ex. 32: 
27; Eze. 35:7; Zec.7:l4; 9:8. — (d) to enter,fo\- 
lowed by an accus. into a gate, Mic. 2:13 (opp. to 
Kyj); metaph. J"P"}35 "QJ? to enter into a covenant, 
Deu. 29: 1 1 ; compare 603 No. l, e. — (e) followed by 
*}y? to pass on before, Gen. 33:3; Ex. 17:5; aKi. 
4:31 ; Mic. 2:13. — (/) followed by *?n$ to follow 
any one, 2 Sa. 20: 13,. 

(5) Followed by /S to pass over any person or 
thing, Nu. 6:5. — (a) to overwhelm any one, used 
of overflowing waters (compare No. 1, b). Psalm 
124:4; of wine, followed by an ace. Jerem. 23:9, 
"like a man \)1 ^y. (whom) wine overwhelms," 
oppresses, (compare similar expressions under the 
words 17?, Bii 1 ); used of a multitude of sins (fol- 
lowed by an ace.), Psa. 38:5; of the anger of God, 


Ps.88:i7; compare Lam. 4:21. — (b) to rush upon 
any one, to attack, to assail him, followed by ^5 
Nah. 3:19, " whom has not thy wickedness assailed,*' 
Job 13: 13, " let what (calamity) will assail me; fl 
Micah 5:7. Used of God himself, Job 9 • 1 7 , of 1 
spirit of jealousy, Num. 5: 14. — (c) v be imposed 
on any one, Deu. 24 : 5. But Isa. 45 : 1 4, 7JJ "153? is to 
pas 8 over to another owner (speaking of riches), 
compare Eze. 48 : 14. 

Nipual, to be passed over (as a stream), Ez» 

Piel, to cause to pass over, to make to pass 
forward — (a) a bar or bolt, hence to shut up with a 
bolt; to bar, followed by \JB/. 1 Kings 6: 21, T|T1 
Ta^rr ^ 2n\ rrip-1JT£ « and he closed up with 
golden chains (as if with a bolt) before the holy ot 
holies." — (b) a female is said to let pass, to conceive 
seed, hence to become pregnant. Job 21 : 10, Mv 
"13V " his ox (i. e. cow) becomes pregnant." Chald. 
"QJJ Peal, Pael, Ethpael, id., see Bochart, Ilieroz. L 
p. 291, and Buxtorf, Lex. Chald., p. 1568; compare 
syn. n*]3? to pass by, Pa. Aph. to become preguant, 
in Targ. for rnn pr. to transmit. 

Hiphil "^W{lJ — (l) causat. of Kal No. 1, to cause to 
pass over, i.e. to transmit, to send over, to con- 
duct over any one, e. g. a people, a flock across a 
stream, with an ace of obj., 2 Sa. 19: 16; iuore often 
with two ace, of pers., and of the river, Gen. 32:24; 
Nu. 32:5; Josh. 7:7; 2 Sa. 19:16; with an ace ot 
obj. and 3 of the river, Psa. 78: 13; 136: 14. This 
word is used whether a stream be passed in boats 
(bruberfubren), 2 Sa. loc. cit. ; as by swimming, as in 
the case of a flock, or by a ford (burdifubren), Gen., 
Josh. 1.1. c. c. It is also — (a) to cause a razor to 
pass over some one, followed by /XL Nu. 8:7; Ezek. 
5:1. — (b) to cause to remove from one place to 
another Genesis 47: 21, "and he removed the 
people B^TV? (from cities) into cities," i.e. from one city 
to another, he made them exchange habitations. — (c) 
to cause an inheritance to pats to any one, followed 
by 7 Nu. 27:7, 8. — (d) to cause to pass over, i.e. to 
violate a law (compare Kal No. 1, letter e), 1 Sam. 
2 : 24. 

(2) causat. of Kal No. 2 to cause or suffer to pass 
through, e. g. a land, Deut. 2:30; to cause toper 
vade (as wild beasts in a land), Eze. 14: 15; spe- 
cially ? 7ip "P3$£ to cause to be proclaimed (in a 
land, or camp), Exod. 36:6; Ezr. 1 : 1 ; 10:7; "1*3?? 
"©to* to cause the trumpet to sound throughout; i.e. 
to blow the trumpet, Lev. 25 : 9. 

(3) causat. of Kal No. 3, to cause to pass by, 1 §a> 
16:9, 10; 20:36, " he shot an arrow Vvjjjrp so m 

Digitized by 


rrop-'-ap win 

to pass him by," i.e. beyond him. Metaph. "V?$n 
H^n to pass by sin, to remit, to forgive (compare 
Kal No. 3, letter rf), 2 Sa. 12:13; 24:10; Job7:2i. 

(4) causat. of Kal No. 4, i. q. W?D to bring, spe- 
cially to offer as a sacrifice, to consecrate, followed 
by njrv? Ex. 131:12; Ezek. 23:37; more often also 
in this phrase y®? "^?#? to offer (children) to Mo- 
loch, Lev. 18:3 1 : Jer. 32:35; compare Eze. 16:21, 
with the addition of the word &$$ 2 Ki. 23 : 10 ; Eze. 
20:31. It can scarcely be doubted that children 
thus offered to Moloch were actually burned, as is 
shewn by the following passages, Jer. 7:31; 19:5; 
Ps. 106:37; 2Chron. 28:3; compare Diod. xx. 14; 
Euseb. Prsep. iv. 16; although the Rabbins in order 
to free their ancestors from the stigma of such an 
atrocious superstition, have alleged that they were 
only made to pass through the fire as a rite of lus-* 
tration : — (see Carpzov, Apparatus Antiqu. Cod. S. p. 
487); the same opinion is found in the LXX. 2 Ki. 
16:3. The idea of offering being neglected, this 
word appears to have the signification of burning, 
in the phrase 13/95 "**?#? to cast into, the brick-kiln, 
2 Sa. 12:31. 

(5) causat. of Kal No. 4, b, to lead away, 2 Chr. 
35:23; to take away, to remove, e.g. a garment, 
Jon. 3;6; a ring, Esth. 8:2; idols, lying prophets, 
ftChron. 15:8; Zee. 13:2; to avert evil, reproach, 
Esth. 8:3; Ps. 119:37)39; E <*>- 11:10. 

Hithpael — (1) to pour oneself forth in wrath, 
i. e. pour forth wrath, to be wroth (compare Kal No. 
1, b), Ps. 78:21,59; followed by 3 Ps. 78:62; D? 
Ps. 89:39; ^y Prov. 26:17; with suff. Prov. 20:2, 
V\5JNTIP f or ft 'D « whoever pours forth wrath 

against him" (the king). (Compare Arab. .U- to 
transgress, to be proud, to burn with anger), 

(«) to be proud, vfipiZur, Prov. 14:16 (compare 

Derived nouns, "W3J|, "^#9, n"J^Jj?,and those which 
follow as far as njnjg. 

^52 m. with suff. V13J/ — (1) region on the other 
tide, situated across a stream, or the sea. fa")** "9? 
the region situated across the Arnon, Judges 1 1 : 18; 
Djn "Q5? in the region beyond the sea, Jer. 25:22; 
especially IY}!3 "91? to ripav row 'ioptiavov, the region 
of Palestine beyond Jordan, i. e. situated to the east 
of Jordan, Genesis 50: 10, 11; Deu. 1:1,5; 3:8,20, 
*5; 4=41. 4*>, 47; Joshuai:i4, 15; 2:10; 9:10; 
12:1; 13:8,32; 14:3; »7'.5; 30:8; 22:4; Judges 
5:17; lsa.8-.23; although the same expression is 
used five times, Josh. 5 : 1 ; 9:1; 12:7; 1 Ch. 26:30, 
of the region on this side Jordan, by a later usage of 


language which seems to have arisen in the Baby- 
lonish captivity ; [but observe it is so found in Joshua'] 
Similar also is the phrase ^H|B "^8 the region be- 
yond the Euphrates, Joshua 24:2, 3; 2 Sam. 10 : 16 
1 Ch. 19:16; which is used cf provinces on this side, 
i.e. west of the Euphrates, lKi. 5:4; Ezr. 8:36.: 
Neh. 2:7; (compare Ch. Ezr. 4:10, 16) ; all of which 
were written by men living to the east of the Eu- 
phrates. [?] Plur. "tflj n^y the regions beyond the 
Euphrates, Isa. 7:20. 

(2) the opposite region, a region over against, 
the opposite side, whether there be a valley or 
whatever else may be l>etween. 1 Sam. 26 : 13, 
IJjm in "lhj£} "and David went over to the other 
side," i. e. a mountain situated opposite. Hence, in 
opposition to each other, are put Hpp "Qtfnp and 
TO? TjjrRj 1 Sam. 14:4; and TO ijlfr, in$ ^ 
ib. ver. 40 ; Ex. 28:26. PI. V}JJp|p from all sides, 
Jer. 49: 32 ; On*^ ^T? on Dotn sides » Ex - 3* : l 5- 

(3) with prefixes it often becomes a prep. — (a) 
"Q$P£ — (a) to the region beyond, Deu. 30 : 1 3. — (/3) 
to the opposite region, Josh. 22: 11. — (y) towards a 
region, towards, Exod. 28:26. More fully — ($) •*} 
VJp n^K towards the region opposite one's face, i. e. 
right before one (83orn>&rtS, gerabc »or ftd) tyin), Eze. 
1 -9,**; 10:22. 'B "98 V« idem, Ex. 25:37.— (&) 
*"9Jt *• <!• ^?? '$ straight before one, Isa. 47 : 15. — 
(c) 13?£ followed by a genit. and suff. and 7 "^P — 
(a) from the other side, from beyond, after verbs 
of motion, Josh. 24:3; Zeph. 3:10. — (/3) beyond, 
*: g- D r? "W? beyond the sea, Deut. 30:13; "9#& 
^3 ^Hi? beyond the rivers of ^Ethiopia, Isa. 18:1. 

(4) pr. n. Eber — (a) the ancestor of the race of 
the Hebrews, Gen. 10: 24, 25 ; 11: I4, 15 (see my ob- 
servations on this, Gesch. d. Hebr. Sprache u. Schrift. 
p. 1 1 ) ; hence ">}8 M? Gen. 10 : 2 1 ; and poet. "^B Nu. 
24:24, i.q. D^l?y Hebrews; as to the difference be* 
tween this and Israelites, see under *"^?. — (b) Neh. 
12:20.— (c) i Ch.8:i2.— (d) 1 Ch. 8:22.— (c) 1 Ch. 

*05 Chald. i.q. Hebr. "$B No. 1, region beyond; 
hence ^lUl ^V. the region beyond the Euphrates, 
according to the Persian manner of speaking, i. e. 
the region west of the Euphrates, Ezr. 4:10, ll, 16, 
20; 5:3; 6:6,8,13; 7:21,25- 

»"n3J? f. — (1) a ferry-boat, or raft, for crossing 
a river, 2 Sam. 19:19. 

(2) 2 Sam. 15:28 a»ro, where there is the np 
niaiy desert places. 

rnjj f. [plur. const. nVl}$ also nh?« Psa. 7:7]. 
— (l) outpouring of anger (compare the not to 

Digitized by 


Flithpa.). Job40:ll,W nV)3JJ"the outpourings 
of tby anger." Hence used of wrath itself as poured 
c?<l, Isa.l4:6; 10:6; often used of the anger of God, 
and of punishment sent by God. rrag D^ the day 
of dirine wrath, Prov. 11:4; Zeph. 1 : lo, 18; comp. 
Prov. it:*3. 

(«) tf/3pcc, pride, haughtiness, Uefcermutb (see 
the root Hithpael No. a), Isa. 16:6; Jerem. 48:30; 
Ps.7: 7 . 

frtfl see jVwj. 

n3^32 (" passage," sc. of the sea), [EbronaK], 
pr. n. of a station of the Israelites, on the shore of the 
-ffilanitic gulf, Num. 33-34- 

% *Qy pi. onyjt, D^x?, f. nnjjj, p i. rtn^, Gentile 
noun, Hebrew. As to the origin of this name, it is 
derived in the Old Test, itself from the name ">J2 
(which see) [if this be the case there can be no far- 
ther question about the matter] ; it seems, however, 
to be originally an appellative, from ">3?. the land 
beyond the Euphrates ; whence *1M a stranger come 
from the other side of the Euphrates, Gen. 14:13, 
where it is well rendered by the LXX. b wtpdrnc* This 
word differs from Israelites (^"^ \?3), in that the 
latter was the patronymic derived from the ancestor 
of the people, which was used amongst the nation itself, 
and there only this was regarded as an appellative, 
applied by the Canaanites to the Hebrews, as having 
crossed the Euphrates and immigrating into Canaan; 
and it was commonly used by foreign nations (com- 
pare 0^833 and QHhviksq; Chemi, D?1VP and Aiytnrroc). 
Hence Greek and Latin writers only use the name of 
Hebrews (or Jews), (see Pausan. i. 6 ; vi. 24; x. 1 2 ; 
Tac. Hist. v. 1 ; Josephus, passim) while the writers 
of the Old Testament only call the Israelites He- 
brews when foreigners are introduced as speaking, 
Gen. 39:14, 17; 41-1*; Exod. 1:16; 2:6; 1 Sam. 
4:6,9; 13:19; 14:11; 29:3, or when the Israelites 
themselves speak of themselves to foreigners, Gen. 
40:15; Ex. 1:19; 2:753:18; 5:3; 7:l6; 9- 1> 13; 
Jon. 1:9; or when used in opposition to other na- 
tions, Gen. 43:3a; Ex. 1:15; 2:11, 13; 21:2; Deu. 
15:12 (compare Jerem. 34:9, 14); 1 Sam. 13:3, 7 
(where there is a paronomasia in *"9$ D*")^); 
14:21. As to what others have imagined, that Is- 
raelites was a sacred name, while that of Hebrews was 
for common use, it is without foundation, and is 
repugnant to the Old Test, usage. (I have made 
wore remarks on this noun in Gesch. d. Hebr. Sprache 
s.Schr. p. q — 12.) 

[(•) Ibri, pr. n. m. 1 Ch. 24:27.] 


D % a# rnay 

CH^E. ("regions beyond"), [4 ftar k *],pr.u 
Jer. 22- 20 ; fully Dnflgpg Nu. 27 : 1 2 ; Deu. 3a :4ft 
and 0*7%" *I? Num. 33:47, 48, pr.n. of a moun- 
tainous region situated beyond Jordan, opposite 
Jericho, where Mount Nebo (see to?) is a prominent 

t^DJ7 Sa-.Xeyo/x. Joel 1 : 17, used of seed which, 
by too much heat when under ground, wastes awat, 
decays, cestu vanescit, to use the term which Plinj 
has appropriated to this matter (H. N. xiv. 24) ; Germ, 
wrbummen. With this agrees Ch. W$V. prop, to rot, 
specially used of seeds perishing in the earth (see 
Buxtorf, Lex. Chald. p. 1642; Bochart, Hieroi.iL 
471). That a word signifying to rot may also be m 
wide in use as to be applied to seed, oistu vanesc&u, 
is shewn by the Gr. a-vflo/iai, Hesiod. Scut Here. 

153. Abulwalid compares Arab, ^^t i.e. ^rri 

to dry up. 

JlD^f not used in Kal, to be interwoven, in- 
tertwined, kindred to the roots &35J, H3JJ. 

Pdel, to twist, to pervert, Micah 7:3. Hence— 

rOy f. fin^ adj. interwoven, used of trees witb 
thick foliage, Eze. 6: 13; 20:28; Lev. 23:40. (Syr. 

with the letter Tet 1~£^J> id.) 

n32 plur. D*nhj( and rtnhfi subst com. (fern. 
Jud. 15:14), something interwoven, intert\cintd\ 
hence — 

(i)a rope, Jud. 15:13, 14; pL bonds, Ps. 1:3, 
Eze. 3: 25; 4:8. 

(2) a braid, wreath, of small rods woven together, 
Exod. 28:24; n:x 2 ™PVP wreathen work, Exoi 
28:14. . 

(3) a branch with thick foliage, Eze. 19:11; 


^3JP fut. 1!?!. The native power is that of 
breathing and blowing, i. q. cogn. 3HK No. l ; whence 
3}W a pipe, which is blown. This is also applied to 
the more violent affections of the mind, especially 
love between the sexes; to love, especially licen- 
tiously and voluptuously; followed by an ace. and 
78 Ezek.23:5, seq. Part. D':$J lovers, Jer. 4:3* 

(Cogn. an? cfcycnrow. Arab. «*-^c IV. to pleas* 

any one (used of a thing); Conj. I. to be glad, lc 
wonder; also, to be pleasant, agreeable.) Hence 
2^V, and the two nouns which follow. 

D % 5}2. m. pi. oleasures, delights; Eze. 33:31 

Digitized by 


IPDJJf l*t? "a pleasant song." Specially things 


which please God. (Arab. *^^ the grace or 
good pleasure of God.) Ezek. 33-31, Dn<B2 tfJJBpJ 
W&P HOn "foririth their mouth they do what is pleas- 
ing to God (opp. to), but their heart follows after gain. w 

PD3J£ or !"3$£ f. immodest love, Eze. 23: 11. 

n^ and n3j£_(iKi. 19:6; Eze. 4: 12), fern, a 
cake baked under hot cinders, such as the Orientals 
are still accustomed to make, especially when on a 
journey, or in haste ; see Rosenm. Morgenland, i. p. 
69; O'OYI n S? a cake baked on hot stones, 1 Kings 
19:6; nVvp rtHJ unleavened cakes, Exod. 12:39. 

(Arab. isX a cake made with eggs, baked in a pan). 
Root 2W which see. 

"fl3$ masc. adj. gyrating, wheeling, flying in 
circles, from the root ">3Jf, which see. It is — (a) 
epith. of the swallow, Isa. 38:14, "K2JJ D*D3 " like a 
swallow wheeling in circles" [chirping, chattering, 
twittering, is the meaning given in Thes.] (LXX. omit 
"W3J£; Syr. render, chattering swallow). — (b) poet for 
the 8 wallow itself, Jer. 8:7. Compare ">V"TC, the ety- 
mology of which is very similar. Bochart (Hieroz. 
ii. 68, seq.) regards the word "MJJ as signifying the 
crane; but his arguments have but little weight 
This meaning is principally refuted by the passage 
referred to in Isaiah, which Bochart renders " as the 
swallow, and as the crane," a sense which would have 
been expressed by "^^31 WD?. Both words being 
without the article clearly shews that the first is a 
substantive, and the second its epithet ; compare JB5 
ntep isa. 16:2; -qS> ffc? 29:5; TOfo* ?M? 30:28'. 
Compare page ccxii, B. 

' $1 m. a ring, specially an earring, Ezek. 16: 
12; Nu. 31:50. From the root — 

7?J/ i.q. 27| to roll, to revolve; Syr. Pael 
id. Comp. Arab. J^^ to hasten, to hurry. Hence 
/*$}, '}5?P, and the five nouns which follow. 

/3JJ f. «"lj>3ir adj. round, 1 Ki. 7:23, seqq. 

sill m. with »uff. *?$; pi. const '!?$, and — 

•v^X f. — (1) a calf, prop, one of the first year, 
Levit. 9:3; Mic. 6 : 6 (comp. Maimonid. de Sacrif. i. 
J 14); but it is also very often — 

(2) a bullock, steer, heifer; used of a heifer 
broken in to work, Hos. 10: 11 ; giving milk, Isa. 7: 
*l ; yoked to the plough, Jud. 14:18; of three years' 
old* Gen. 15*9- And such a heifer (prop, one of the 


thv-d year) not broken in, unaccustomed to the yoke 
(comp. Hos. 10: 1 1 ; Jer. 31:18; Plin. viii. 4, 5), was 
rightly understood by the LXX.,Vulg., Targ., in the 
words nyfcf ri}ty Isa. 15:5; Jer. 48: 34. Metaph. 
0*9? *?$ bullocks of the peoples, used for leaders of 


the peoples, Ps.68:3i ; compare "WTO. (Arab. J^c, 
Syr. (L^i, f^^* id. ^Eth. f\%C\l a calf, a whelp, 
and even an infant; see Bochart, Hieroz. i. page 273, 

(3) n f?? [EglaK], of one of the wives of 
David, 2 Sa. 3:5; 1 Ch. 3:3. 

TV$ with suff. ta^jy f. a wagon, a chariot (so 
called from rolling, wheeling), Genesis 45 : 19, seqq. ; 
specially a wagon, 1 Sa. 6:7, seqq.; anox-cart. Isa. 
28:27,28; a military car, Psalm 46: 10. (Syria© 

J&i^*, Arab. 5^ id.) 

fb$l (q. d. " vitulinus"), {Eglon], pr. n.— ( 1 ) of a 
king of Moab, Jud. 3 : 1 2. — (2) of a town in the lower 
country of the tribe of Judah, formerly a royal city 
of the Canaanites, Josh. 10:3; 12: 12; 15:39 [prob. 
now 'Ajlan, Jl^c Rob. ii. 392]. 

D<W; to be sad, to qrieve, followed by ^ on 
account of any one, Job 30 : 25. See 03$ No. 3. 

|3Jy only in Niph. according to the Ch. use, to 


»"l}3J?n |n^0 "would ye therefore shut yourselves 
up?" for n J3JJ#, compare Isa. 60:4. LXX. rara- 
9\tQ facade. According to Kimchi n313JJ is a woman 
who remains at home, and lives without a husband. 

'3jy an unused root, of nearly the same signifi- 
cation as the kindred ?2V t° ro H» to r °U oneself, tc turn 
round. Hence ^Vf (epith. of the swallow) revolv- 
ing, flying in circles. Arab.^^c to fold up, to bend 
together, e. g. the neck of a camel. V. to roll up 
together. VIII. to wrap round with a turban. From 
the idea of folding comes also the signification of 
Conj. I. to return, to escape, to his accustomed place 
(as a camel), whence Bochart (Hieroz. II. p. 80) 
supposes that the Heb. ^Vf signifies a migratory 
(bird), but the explanation already given is to be 
preferred. [In Thes. the signification assigned to 
this verb is that of to chatter, and so also the de- 

TJ? m. (from the root HTJJ to pass over, to go en* 
— (A) subst.- -(l) pr. passing, piogress, (in space^ 
then duration (of time). Hen * perpetuity qftim^ 

Digitized by 


my-iy Devi 

•ternity, i. q. tffiV. 11P?S perpetual father (of his 
country ),[?] I8a,g:5 [Christ]. T« nnn Hab.3:6, 
and "»2 *yH Gen. 49: 96; eternal mountains, those 
which are to endure continually. "T$ Psa. 9:19; 
19: 10; more fully TJJ D^ Ps. 9:6; 1$ D^tf P 8a . 
10:16; 21:5; 45:7; ■WT8 : Ps. 83:18;"!? *9^JTT8 
Tsa.45-.17; forever. 

(2) prey, «jwt7 (see the root No. 2, Ch. «"$, *T8, 
nK^ : prey, spoil), Gen. 49: 27; Zeoh.3:8; 1*0.33:93. 

(B) prep. poet. *!ffi (like £{!, 7JJ), with sufT. H^, 
VW, HV also DJ)HJ{ (the Kametz being retained 
which is unusual), Job 32:12; once Dn—tJ for DnTJJ 

(1) while so long as, cue (warrenb). 2X1.9:22, 
'?J^ W T8 " so long as the whoredoms of Jeze- 
bel (continue). " r Ki. 1 8 : 45, rft Iffl rte T? « w h i 1 e 
so and while so (it was done),"i.e. meanwhile, gradu- 
ally, little by little. Job 20:5, Wl ^ " during a 
moment." Followed by inf. Jud-3:26, Dnpn^nnng 
"while they waited." 

(2) to, even to some certain limit. It is used — 
(a) prop, of space (from the signification of passing 
on), as >Hjn inin ly even to the great river, Deut. 
1:7; H n ? even to the town of Dan, Gen. 14: 14. In 
opposition to one another are used, 1P...J9, "W1...I9 
(see ft? No. 3, let. /3), and where there are many terms, 
and a transition from one to another 1J1 . . ."1J? . . .1}? . . .ft? 
Gen.7:23; Nu.8:4; Jer.3i:40; 1 Sam. 17:52? 
In the later Hebrew there frequently occurs 7 TK 
even to, Ezr. 9:4; Esth. 4:2; hence P'vnp^ 1$ even 
to afar off, Ezr. 3: 13; 2 Chron. 26: 15 (compare "W 
#rnp Isa. 57:9); once Df$K ip even to them, 2 Ki. 
9:20. The particle 7$ and this differ properlj in 
this respect: that /N signifies nothing but motion and 
direction towards some limit. 1g on the contrary 
implies an actual arrival quite to such a limit; e. g. 
1? *fo (see fitia No. 2, c); T8 PJ} to attain unto, Job 
4;5; "V «¥? Job 11:75 IP PJJ Jud. 9:52; but this 
distinction is not always observed, as is clearly shewn 
by the phrases "lg $3fln to attend to, Job 32:12; 
38: 18 (in other places followed by fy, ^K); ng ptRH 
Num. 23: 18. njn iy£ Tg Ezr. 10: 14; '" with res 
gard to this thing." Followed by inf. even until 
(anything comes to pass), Num. 32*13; in the later 
Hebrew? Tg Ezr. 10:14; l Chron 5:9. 

ft) of time. n\$ O'l'n ly even unto this day, i.e. 
(the limit being included ; as to the distinction of the 
particles ^^ =Hg and J\, the former of which ln- 
cludes the limit, the latter excludes it, compare De 
Sacy, Gramm. Arab. I. § 830, No. 3) ; even this day, 
•ven now, Gen. 26:33; 32:33. Ijin ng until the 

morning, Jud. 6:31; 3"J^n Tg until the evening, Let 
*5'5\ poet. r# TR Ps. 104:23. Often followed bj 
adverbs of time; as nj$ng, n ?"^y, *09""lg until when 
i.e. how long? (see HJK, no, <no) nirj ig (comi. 
"IT?) ni L ^«, '"W ^ hitherto (see njn, ni, n#) 
Y? "ig, W? Tg mitt/ (there is) none (or nothing): 
see *>?, *$?. 

(c) used of degree, especially with reference to a 
greater, and also to the highest,*!^ *lg, 1Kp7 1J 
even to the highest degree, i.e. exceedingly; "1$ 

n J?"^L Unt0 ^ e (S reatest ) na8te » i- e - very fost; *5 
p?W? unto the highest degree, i. e. exceedingly (see 
7#? No. II.); "iBDp ftK Ig until there is no number- 
ing, Psalm 40 : 1 3 (compare '0 ?#*? "lg 2 Ch. 36: 16); 
DipOD^Klg until there is no place left, Isa. 5:8. 
Hence even, adeo, Num. 8:4, and, with a negative 
particle following, not even. in$ lg...fcO not even 
one, Jud. 4:16; 2 Sam. 17:22; Hag. 2: 19, jwn TJ 
«F? ^ ... n ?OT™ " even the vine and the fig-tree... 
bear no fruit;* 1 Job 25:5. Also its use is singular 
in comparisons, when it is properly, to attain even 
unto another who is distinguished in any thing (bfo 
ju bem ©rate wie), 1 Ch. 4:27, " but their family did 
not multiply rnw *}J "Ig up to the children of Jn- 
dah," i.e. like the children of Judah; Nah.T.10, 
D^^p Dn % p 13? "they are woven together, even a« 
thorns," i. e. like thorns. Compare *03 No. 2, c 

(C) Conj. — (1) while (compare B, 1), followed 
by a pret. 1 Sa. 14: 19; followed by a fut. Job 8:*i; 
part. ib. 1 :i8, compare 16, 17. £ Ig id. Cant.i:if ; 
K7 IgProv. 8:26; and *6 yfe Ig Ecc. 19:1,2,6, 
"while (there was) not," i. q. DJg2L before that; Syr. 

JJ^ Matt. 1:18, for the Gr. wpirf,. 

(2) until, so long as, used of a limit of time 
(compare letter B, 2, b), followed by a pret. Josh. 
2:22, 0*BTV? OK* Tg" until the pursuers returned;* 
Eze. 39:15; followed by a fut. Gen. 38:11; Hot. 
10: 12. More fully ife 1? until that, followed by a 
pret. Deut. 2: 14; Jud. 4:24; followed by a fut Nil 
11:20; Hos. 5:15;^ nj? Cant. 3:4; Jud. 5:7; ^TR 
id. Gen. 26:13; D« 1% Gen. 24:19; Isa. 30:17; TJ 
D«TS Gen. 28:15; Num.32:i7; Isa.6:n. The 
limit of time itself (not the interval of time up to the 
limit) is signified in these words, l Sam. i:««, TJ 
vn&im Tg|n Sp|! " until the child be weaned 
j [then] I will bring him," for, when he shall have 
I been weaned ; compare Ch. HCft Tg and the idiom of 
tne south and west of Germany, bU ©onntag reifc i(b 
i. e. on next Sunday itself. There is properly an 
ellipsis in these examples, which may be thus ex- 
plained, " until when the child be weaned lie thai 

Digitized by 



remain with me), then I will bring him.' 1 It has 
also been often observed (see Noldii Concord. Part. 
P- 5345 Glassii Philol. S. p. 38a, ed. Dathii, interpre- 
ters on Ps. 1 10: 1, and on the other hand, Fritzsche on 
Matt p. 853, seq. ; Winer's Lex. p. 695), that the par- 
ticle 18 sometimes also includes the times beyond 
the stated limit; but this is manifestly false, so far 
as this is supposed to lie in the power of this par- 
ticle from any singular usage of the Hebrew lan- 
guage. But, on the other hand, it is not less certain 
that the sacred writers have not stated the extreme 
limit in places of this kind, but have mentioned a 
nearer limit without excluding the time beyond. 
When any one setting out on a journey says to a 
friend, "Farewell till we meet again" (leberootyl bid 
auf SBieberfetm !), he is noio indeed resting on this 
nearer limit, although wishing well to his friend after 
his return as well. In the same manner are we to 
judge of the passages, Ps. 110:1 [?]; 112:8; Dan. 
1:21; Gen. 28:15; l Tun* 4: 1 3 ; compare Hengsten- 
berg, De Authentia Libri Danielis, p. 66, 67. 

(3) even to (a great) degree, i.e. even that, so 
that (compare Arab. <J^- and Horst ad Motenabbii 
Carmen, Bonnae 1823, verse 1). Isa. 47: 1, " thou 
hast said, I shall rule for ever, ^3? b% nW FUpJp to 1JJ 
even that (thou hast gone so far in insolence and 
pride, that) thou didst not lay these things to heart;" 
Job 14:6; 1 Sam. 2:5; 20:41; more fully ^8 18 
Josh. 17:14 (unless it should be read "^S '8). 

Tff Chald. i. q. Heb. 

{A) Prep. — (1) within, during (wdforenb). 18 
pn?fl p#* within thirty days, Dan. 6:8, 13. — (2) 
until, even until, used of time, e.g. 18? 18 until 
now, Ezr. 5:16; but pintf 18 until the last, is i. q. 
at last, Dan. 4:5. — (3) to, for, used of purpose and 
end. % 1 rnni-lj; to the end that, Dan. 4:14, i. q. 

«t m_:rp8 2:30. 

(B) ^118Conj. — (1) while, when rrteanwhile. 
Dan. 6:25, " they (the men cast into the den) had 
not yet reached the bottom of the den, when mean- 
while^^) the lions seized them."— (2) until 
that, Dan.4:30; 7:22. 

TJ2 m. pr. part, of the root Ity. 

(l) witness, Pro. 19:5, 9; used also of inanimate 
things, Gen. 31:44* 48; Isa. 19:20. 

(a) testimony, pr. what testifies. ?18.n3JJto 
bear witness against any one, Ex. 20:16; Deu. 5:17; 

(3) a prince, pr. commander, legislator, Isa. 55:4. 
[The common meaning, a witness, needs not to be 
deputed from in this passage] 

dcvii mjHTU 

*V see ity as yet. 


» J>; an unused root; Arabic Ac to number, 

count, compute, especially days, time ; Conj. IV. to 

determine, especially time. This verb appears to be 

secondary, and derived from the noun 18 time, Uk* 

18!, to which it is allied. 

Hence Syriac J«-J 

festival day, i. q. !#&, Arabic .\±c 

» O 

}jx. time, 

i jcc the time of the monthly courses of women, and 
Heb; niJT r and also the pr. n. hjj, HljnB, Ch. Jl». 
"1"!J? see under the root 1W Pilel. 

HTfJ/ Arab. t*Xc for )*£> i.q."»?3J— (l) to pass 
by, Job 28:8; whence 18 A, 1, and B, C, H8N0.I. 

(2) to attack in a hostile manner, whence the 

Arabic .j^c an enemy, compare the synonyms ^38 
No. 5, b, *£n, ^n. Hence 18 A, 2, booty. 

(3) causat. to make to pass over, i.e. to put on 
ornaments (Germ, fiberjtetjeri/ anjiebcn), to adorn one- 
self with any thing; followed by an ace. like t?3/. 
(Ch. id.). Job 40: 10, P«J KJ" n T», " adorn thyself 
with majesty." *18. niJJ to put on ornaments. Eze. 
23:40; Jer. 4:30; Hos. 2:15; Jer. 31:4, TMJ *189 
" thou shalt adorn thyself with thy tabrets," which, 
being put on the hands, adorned women when dancing. 

Hiphil — ("1) causat. of Kal No. 1, to remove, put 
away (as a garment), i. q. ! % 3J{p (Jon. 3:6) Prov. 

(2) causat. of Kal No. 3, followed by two ace. to 
adorn any one with any thing, Eze. 16: 11. 

The derived nouns are, 18, '18, *8 for HTj; (n^lg, 
^8), and the pr. n. fliy, $KHy, nj-JR, D^H?, *!#, 

TIP, n;i8p. 

n^J/, N^If mt . ,1«3£, K1J£ Chald. i.q. Hebr. 

(1) to pass over, or away, a kingdom, Dan. 
7:14; to be abrogated, as a law, Dan. 6:9, 13. 

(2) to go, to come, followed by 5 to any thing, 
Dan. 3: 27; followed by IP to go away, to depart, 
Dan. 4:28. 

Aphel, causat. of Peal No. 2, to take away, Daniel 
5:20; 7:26; to depose (kings), 2:21. 

•"H# ("ornament," " beauty"), [4rfa/i],pr.n. 
f. — (l) of a wife of Lamech, Gen. 4:1c. — (2) of a 
wife of Esau, Gen. 36:2, 4; compare 2(1:34. 

I. •"!*$ f. constr. ni8 : (from the root 18J) for n*^ 
(by aphaeresis) an appointed meeting, an «#» 
sembly, specially— 

Digitized by 


(1) the congregation of the Israelites, fully rnj? 
f>*n^ Ex. 12 .3; h*i&] *3? tvtr 16:1,2,9; njnj nnji 

tbe congregation of Jehovah, Num. 27:17; and car 
t&'X') 1 ' ^IV.? Lev. 4:15. LXX. ffvvaytoyt). 

(2) a private domestic meeting, a family. 
Job 16:7; 15:34; and in a bad sense, a crowd (of 
wicked men), Nu. 16:5; Ps. 22:17. 

(3) a swarm (of bees), Jud. 14:8. 

II. »"Hx f. (from the root "W) with Tzere impure, 

pi. nhy. 

(1) something that testifies, Gen. 31 :52. 

(2) testimony, Gen. 21:30. 

(3) a precept (of God), Ps. 119:22, 24, 59, 79, 
138, 146, 168. 

T^y f. only pi. D^V i. q. Arab, i j^ an appointed 

time, specially the monthly courses of women (see 

the root TV*). Isa.64:,5, D^P"1J3 "amenstruous 

* ■* . 

cloth." Ar.\b. j^ Conj. VIII. to menstruate. 

Viy&NVty ("timely"), [/ddo], pr. n.— (1) 
of a prophet and writer, 2 Ch. 12:15; 13:22. — (2) 
of the grandfather of Zechariah the prophet, Zech. 
1:1,7; Ezr. 5:1; 6:14; Neh. 12:4, 16. 

fiViy f. — (l)i. q. «TJ8No. 3, a precept (of God), 
most frequently in pi. rrt"W (edwoth) inflected in the 
Aramaean manner (like^P, pi. t)??9). P 8 - 11 9^ | 4» 
36,99; Neh. 9: 34. 

(2) law, i. q. ""HJA, especially used of the deca- 
logue, Ex. 25:21; 16:34; aKi. 11:12. nnjrn p-w. 

the ark of the law, Ex. 25:22. nnjjn 7nk the tent 
of the law, Nu. 9: 15; 17:23; 18:2 [of witnessing. 
Vers, see* Acts 7:44]. Used also of the holy rites, 
Psa. 122:4. 

(3) revelation, hence a revealed psalm,Vsai. 
60 : 1 ; 80 : 1 ; inasmuch as the authors of the Psalms 
considered them as revealed : [as of course all Scrip- 
ture is ; the Psalms are quoted with the words, " the 
Holy Ghost saith," Hebrews 3:7], (Psa. 40 : 7 ; 60 : 8 ; 
62 : 12; 81:7). Others consider it to mean a lyric 
poem, one to be sung to the lyre, as if from "1J? i. q. 

Arab, jy: lyre. 

H2 (from the root iTTJJ) in pause H^, with suff. 
T# m.— (1) age, Psa. 103:5 (Targ. old age); opp. 
to D*"Wy3; see the root No. 1 ; compare "JJ? A, 1. 

(2) ornament (see the root No. 3), Ex. 33:4, 6; 
Jer. 4:30. D*Hg Hg most splendid ornament, Eze. 
16:7. Used of the ornaments of a horse, trappings, 
Ps. 32 -9- 


[Note. Many attribute to this word the significa- 
tion of mouth,"] 

^WIV. ("ornament of God"), [Adiel], pr.n. 
m.— (i)iCh. 4:36.— (2) 1 Ch. 9:12.— (3)1 CIl 
27: «5- 

!"lH2("whom Jehovah adorned"), [-4 daiak], 
pr. ,n. m. — (1) the grandfather of king Josiah, 2 Ki 
22:1. — (2) 1 Ch. 9:12; Neh. 11:12. — (3) lCaron. 
8:21.— (4) Ezr. 10:29.— (5)Ezr. 10:39; NeLnrfr 
for which there is *nHJ? 2 Ch. 23: l. 

T"1V adj. soft, delicate, Isa. 47:8. The woidi 
are very difficult, and perbans corrupted in 2 Sam. 
23:8J3VJ?n ir"ffi WH (a'ivj)Yor which the author of 
the Chronicles, 1 Ch. 11 : 11, has given, H^ Tny WH 
^JV3n " he lifted up his spear." Vulg. renders tb«m 
ipse est quasi tenenimus ligni vermiculus. Jo. Simcais, 
percussio ejus hastd sua (fuit) in octigentos etc.; com- 
paring ±~. Conj. II. to smite with a pointed weapoo, 
see below l£V. I prefer rendering JH^ by vibration 
(baS ©d)n?ingen/ ©dnwnfen ber Eanje); from the root 
)!$} to be soft, pliant (fcfwanf ). 

(2) [A din] -pr. n. m. Ezr. 2:15; Neh. 7:20. 

MHJ? ("slender," "pliant;" Germ. f*wcaf), 
[A din a], pr. n. of one of David's captains, 1 Chroa. 

Q^nHg ("twofold ornament," ["twofold 
prey"]), [Adithaim], pr. n. of a town in the tribf 
of Judah, Josh. 15:36. 

/Ty an unused root; Arab, to be just, equitable; 
whence — 

VTV (for n$TR "justice of God"), [Adlat\> 
pr. n. m., 1 Ch. 37:29; and — 

BTTS?("«the justice of the people" for D?^8; 
according to Jo. Simonis, compounded of O^J TJ ; comp. 

2±z a hiding place; and a?V r to hide), [Adullam], 

pr. n. of a city in the plain country of Judah; for- 
merly a royal city of the Canaan ites, fortified by 
Rehoboam, Josh. 1 2 : 1 5 ; 15 : 35 ; Mic. 1 : 15 ; Neh. 
11 :30. LXX. 'OZoWafjL. Near it was D?^ "^ *• 
cave of Adullam, 1 Sam.22:i; 2 Sam. 23:13; Gent, 
noun, % ph? Gen. 38:1,12. 

J jy/ a root not used in Kal, which appears to hat» 
had the signification of softness, laxity ; Arab, ^i 

s - - 

V. to be flexible, to vacillate, ^j^ softness, laxfep 

Digitized by 


«r - 

languor, Jjia cane, or reed, a tall rod (pr. vacil- 
lating, vibrating in the air); comp. above P7?. Gr. 
A&koc, which Jo. Simonis compares, is plainly not 
connected with this stock. 

Hithpael, pr. to conduct oneself softly, i.e. to 
live sumptuously, delicately, Neh. 9:25. 

Derived nouns, rj«, TO, n ?1?» HJf, D'lTW, and 
ihe pr. n. n?]?, KJHJf. 

|TK m. — (1) delight, pleasure; Gr. ^&»'>/, Syr. 

l-l«-^ only in plur. Ps. 36:9; 2 Sa. 1 124. 

(2) [j£d«n], pr. n. of a pleasant country in Asia 
(the site of which is described Gen. 2:10 — 14), in 
which was the garden where the first created hu- 
man beings were placed, Gen. 2:8, 10; 4:16; hence 
TO"1I the garden of Eden, 2:15; 3:23,24; Joel 2:3; 
Isa. 51:3; Eze. 31 : 9, 16. The various opinions as to 
the locality of the terrestrial paradise are stated and dis- 
cussed by Rosenmliller, Bibl. Alterthumskunde, vol.i. 
p. 172, seqq. ; Schulthess,d.Paradies. Zurich, 18 16, oct. 

fT? ("pleasantness"), [Eden], pr. n. of a dis- 
trict of Mesopotamia or Assyria, 2 Ki.19: 12 ; Isaiah 
37 : 12 ; Eze. 27 : 23. It is different from rjJJ n% see 
page ax viii, A. 

H2, ^Wl contr. for njfps till now, hitherto, 
Ecc. 4:2. 3. 

|^fj? m. Chald. — (l) time; Syriac ._^, Arabic 

.J *\c id. ; from the root "1UJ Dan. 2 : 8, seq. 53:5, 
15; 7:12. 

(2) specially a year, Dan. 4:13, 20,22,29; 7:25, 
F*y 3?^ p^Jl t?n8 "during a year, (two) years, 
and the half of a year;" i.e. during three years and 
a half; comp. Josephus, Bellum Jud. i. 1. See"l#t> 
No. 2, and DnpJ No. 4. 

KJT2 ("pleasure"), [Adna], pr. n. m. Ezra 

i"l3"iy (id.\ [AdnaK\, pr.n. m. — (1) 1 Ch. 12:20 
[this is njTJ].— (2) 2 Ch. 17:14. 

H^TJ^f. pleasure, Gen. 18:12. 

!"nJT!R (Syr. "festival"), [AdadaK], pr.n. of 
a town in the southern part of the tribe of Judah, 
Josh. 15:22. 


used of lull and ample garments and curtains, and 
curtains hanging down; hence to be over and above, 
used of food, Ex. 16:23; 0I * money, Lev. 25:27; of 
men, Nu. 3:46, 48, 40. 

dcix a^-my 

Hiphil, to collect, or have what is over and 
above, Exod. 16: 18. (Arab. c-5Ac to give what is 
over and above, too much ; Conj. IV. to loosen a vail) 

I. ^*7>; not used in Kal; Arabic j»Xc to desert 
perfidiously; III. to desert. 

MAIN, 2Sa. 17.22. 

(2) to be wanting, lacking, 1 Sam. 30:19* I«. 
40:26; .59:i5- 

Piel Ti!K to suffer anything to be wanting, Ki. 

5:7- . 

[This and the following are blended in Thes. f 


to dispose, as an army in battle array, 1 Ch. 12:38. 
With the word for battle omitted, verse 33. Hence 

(2) From the Chaldee usage, to weed, Isa. 56; 

7:25 (Syriac J?«^ a plough); whence TW9 a hoe. 
Hence — 

*n# m.— (l) with suff. W"BJ a flock, Gen. 29:2, 
3, 8, and so frequently ; njn* TJg a flock of Jehovah, 
a name for the people of Israel, Jer. 13: 17. 

(2) \_Eder], pr.n. — (a) of a town in the south of 
the tribe of Judah, Josh. 15:21. — (b) m. 1 Chron. 
23:23; 24:30; compare TJg W?9 p. coccxlvii, B. 

-HJJ (« Hock"), [Ader], pr. n. m. 1 Ch. 8: 15. 

/K'TW (" flock of God"), [4dri>Z],pr.n. of a 
son-in-law of King Saul, 1 Sa. 18: 19; 2 Sa. 21 :8. 

W)]J r an unused root, Arabic ^/-*X£ to tend a 
flock. Hence is derived — 

#*# or EHJJ only plur. 0^2 lentiles, chiefly 

used as food for the poor, Gen. 25:34; 2 Sa. 17:28; 

s - - 
23:11; Eze. 4:9. (Arabic im^s. idem.) See Celsii 

HieroKii. p. 104, seqq. 

N$ [Aval 2 Ki. 17:24; see njy. 

^^ not used in Kal, i. q. spy No. 3, to wrap 


Hiphil, to cover with darkness; ren 
der ignoble, to treat with indignity; Lam. 2:1, " how 
hath the Lord in his anger covered the daughter of 
Zion with darkness;" LXX. iyvotyvotv. (Syr. Aph 

to obscure, but Pael «j^^^ metaph. to contemn, to 
ireat with indignity, c— jU Med. Ye, to disgrace.) 

Derivative, 2% No. IL a cloud (Chald. and Zab 
)^»% id.) 

Digitized by 


'3W ("stripped," "bare of leaves"), [O&aZ], 
pr. n. of a nation and country of Joktanite Arabs 
[Gen. 10:28], called in the Samaritan copy and 
l Ch. 1 : 22, 73^. The situation is wholly uncertain : 
Bochart (Phaleg, ii. 23) understands them to be the 
Avalites, on the shores of ^Ethiopia; but it seems 
that Joktanites should be sought for in Arabia it- 
self. Far less can this word be identified with Go- 
bolitis, in Idunisea, which is /3|. 

3TJf — (l) prop, to go in A circle, like the kin- 
dred roots Mn, Jjri; Arab. '^ Med. Kesra, to be 

curved, II. to bend, to curve. Hence n^J, 3W? a 
round of cake, like 1??, from "H^. 

(2) denom. from njJJ, to bake bread, or cake, 

W (perhaps contr. for JjSf, Rjty i. e. "in stature, 
long necked," "gigantic," compare PJ8), [Cty], 
pr. n. of a king of Bashan, celebrated for his great 
size. Num. 2 1 : 33 ; 32 : 33 ; Deut. 3:1. 

3Jty m. Gen. 4:21; Job 21:12; 30:31, and 3J1{ 
Ps. 150:4 (where many MSS. and printed editions 
have 3|J{), tibia, fistula, syrinx, pipe, reed, as 
rightly given by the Hebrew interpreters. Targ. 
KJM3K a pipe (Syr. |*>o^ »), Zab. |^a^t>ol ; whence 
ambubaja, i.e. tibicina, Hor.); Jerome, organon, i.e. 
a double or manifold pipe, an instrument composed 
of many pipes. In Dan. 3:5, 10, 15, the Hebrew 
translator uses it for the Chald. rrpfelp*D, which see. 
The root is 33]}, probably with the primary signifi- 
cation of breaHiing, blowing. 

mjT — (1) i. q. Arab. *A& Med. Waw, to turn 
back, to return (the verbs 1*» No. 1, and Tin, 
see Piel, are nearly connected); then to repeat, to 
do over again (compare 2*&); whence inf. absol. 
•rtj? adv. again, yet (which see). 

(2) to say again and again, to witness, to ex- 
hort, in Kal once, Lam. 2: 13 3»r»3, see Hiphil. 

Piel "IW to surround, Ps. 119:61. (Mth. O^Jf: 
to go round, t\P£: to make go round, i. e. to sur- 

Hiphil TJ?n. — (1) causat. to take as a witness, 
to call anyone to witness, Isa. 8:2; Jer. 32:10, 
•5, 44; hence to call as witness, to invoke, fol- 
lowed by 2 against anyone, Deu. 4 : 26 ; 30 : 19 ; 3 1 : 28. 

(2) i. q. Kal; hence to testify, to bear witness, 
absol. Am. 3:13; Mai. 2 : 14, followed by an ace. 
against any one, 1 Ki. 21 : 10, 13, and in a good sense 
fcr any one, i.e, to praise him, Job 29:11 (compare 
uuprvtno, Luke 4:22). Hence — (a) to obtest, i. e. 

to affirm solemnly, to affirm, calling God to wit- 
ness, followed by 9 of pers. Gen. 43:3, «3 "TJfn TJTJ 
ibKp fc*Kn "the man did solemnly affirm untc 
us;" Deut. 8:19; 32:46; iKi. 2:42; Zee. y. 6.— 
(b) to admonish solemnly, especially Jehovah a 
people, followed by an ace. of pers. Lam. 2:13; 5 Ps, 
50:7; 81:9; 2 Ki. 17:13; ?V_ Jer. 6: 10; especially 
to chastise, to chide (compare "©*), Neh.13: 15, 21. 
— (c) solemnly to enjoin on any one a precept or 
law; hence used of any law given by God (see «TJJ 

No. 3, and nng), 2 Ki. 17 : 15, Dji Ti?n w% vnrqr m 

"his precepts, which he had given them;" Neh. 
9:34; 1 Sam. 8:9. . 

Hophal IJNn to be declared, shewn, Ex. 21:29. 

Pilel "nty (which some incorrectly take as fron. 
the root "H1J) pr. to restore, to confirm, Ps. 146:9; 

Hithpalel, to set oneself up, to stand up- 
right, Ps. 20:9. LXX. avopdwdrifjuy. 

Derived nouns, 1», 7VXH, TW% rTJW [pr. n. Tift] 
and — 

Tiy, sometimes (according to the Masora twelve 

times, e.g., Gen. 8:22; Jer. 13:27, etc.), Ty prop, 
inf. absol. of the verb Tiy going over again, re- 
peating. Always an adv. 

(1) again, yet again, Gen. 4:25; 8:ei; 24:20, 
Jud. 13:8; Hos. 1:6. 

(2) again and again, repeatedly (ju nritber* 
gotten 2Raleri/ unmet ©on Wcueni/ so that an action 
hardly intermitted, is repeatedly begun anew; often 
incorrectly rendered, continually, without intermis- 
sion). Gen. 46 : 29, liy HKJ¥^» JM " and he wept 
on his neck again and again, " i. e. so that the tears 
burst out again and again. Ruth 1 : 14; Psa. 84:5. 
" blessed are those who dwell in thy house W/'?! lip 
they will praise thee again and again," (i.e. daily; 
well explained by Kimchi DUDJ1V73), Jerem. 2:9; 
Hosea 12: 1. 

(3) more, further, besides, Isa.5:4; Ecc. 3: 16; 
Jud. 20:25; Gen.7:4; 8: 10; 29:7. 

(4) as yet, yet, still. Gen. 29:7, "it is yet high 
day," Num. 11 :33; and so very frequently; also, yel 
more, still more. Prov. 9:9, " give to a wise man 
l\V D3HJ1 and he will become yet wiser;" with suff. 
*nty (Hty gee below); as yet I (am, was), Joshua 
14:11; 1 Sa. 20: 14; TOP as yet thou, Gen. 46: 30; 
«"l'W Gen. 18:22; 43:27,28; nrfW 1 Ki. 1:14, 2*; 
Dnty Ex. 4:18; once DH ifr Isa. 65 : 24. With suff. 
plur.once, Lam. 4:17 np, «T8 ?H$?R UHty <ar 
yet our eyes languish." The suffix is redundant, 
and seems to have been introduced on account of tbm 

Digitized by 


*W-yp dcxi 

rhythm, in a»ro it is written H^ty (an Aram, form 
for *3n\XM on account of the similar ending in the 
word "3739. 

With prefixes— (l) 1^3, "ft? — (a) while, while 
yet, in the time when yet (it was or is), (opp. to 
C315?). a Sa. 12:22, VI l^n ifo?" whilethechild 
ypt lived." Jer. 15:9, Dt?^ "ft? " while it is yet 
day." Psalm 104:33, ^frf " whilst yet I (live)." 
Ps. 146:2.— (b) within yet— . Gen. 40:13, ^y? 
D*£J njOt? " within yet three days." Isaiah 7:8. 
Compare 3 A, No. 3. 

(a) ^SVftfromas yet, ex quo, ever since. HWP 
ever since I was, Gen. 48 : 15. Nu. 22 : 30, "ty Yjtyp 
fl|n oVn " from the time that thou wast unto this 

Tty Ch. yet, Dan. 4: 28. 

TPy (for 11W "restoring," "setting up"), 
[Ode<T\, pr. n. — (1) of the father of Azariah the 
prophet, 2 Chron. 15: 1, 8. — (2) of another prophet, 
• Ch. 28:9. 

niJJ — (1) i.q. Arab. ^j*s. to bend, to curve, 
to twist, to distort (cogn. root HJK), gee Niph. 
Pi. Hiph. 

(2) to act perversely, to sin (compare '3H 
No. II. 2), Daniel 9:5; followed by /J? of pers. Esth. 
1 : 16. (Arab, ^^i to err, to be led astray.) 

Niphal — (1) to he distorted, to writhe, with 
pains and spasms, like a parturient woman. Isaiah 
21:3, Jjb^B Wiy.J " I wr i th e, so that I cannot hear," 
also to be bowed, to be depressed by calamities, Ps. 

38:7. . 

(2) to be perverse. Proverbs 12:8, 3]? njSA 
" (a man) perverse of heart." 1 Sam. 20:30, "1$ 
nvni^n njStt " thou son of the perverse rebellious 
(woman)," i. e. of a perverse rebellious mother. 

Piel, to pervert, to subvert, to overturn. Isaiah 
24:1, |V}D njy "he subverteth the face thereof 
(of the earth). Lam. 3:9, n$ 'Cfa*nj "he has 
subverted my ways." Compare 19 ?• 

IIiphil, to make crooked, to pervert, as to per- 
vert right, Job 33: 27; to pervert one's way, i.e. 
course of action, i. e. to act perversely, Jerem. 3:21 ; 
then by the omission of TJ? to act perversely, a Sa. 
7:14; 19:20; 24:17. 

Derived nouns, njp, ty, DW, % TO, Chald. «;#, 
and the pr. n. *?P, fljy, r\% % W% |ty. 

HJy (i. q. n^ " overturning," unless indeed it 
should be so read), 2Ki. 18:34; 19:13; ^.37:13; 
and N}£ 2 Kings 17 :24; [/va], pr. n. of a city under 
the dominion cf the Assyrians, from which colonies 


were brought to Samaria. Gent, noun, pi. D 1 ?? 2 Ki 
17:31; but see as to other nations of the same namo 
below under ^P. Some compare with this A vat h a, 
a city of Phoenicia (see Relandi Palestina, p. 232, 

•"!$? f. overturning, Eze. 21:32; see n$ PL 

W? see fill. 

flJ7 see W strength. 

JW Arab. JU Med. Waw,T0 flee for refuge, 
(kindred roots are MV, B^n), followed by ? to any 
one, Isa. 30 : 2. 

Hiphil, causat. to cause to flee, i. e. to set any 
thing in safety (Germ, feint $abc fftdjten), Ex. 9: 19, 
and without an ace. to set one's own things in safe- 
ty, Isa. 10:31 ; Jer. 4:6; 6:1. 

wJ^Jf an unused root (cogn. yty, p*K), prop, to 
impress, to immerse, to engrave. Hence BR a style. 
Arabic ili to impress, to immerse, to imprint, as 
feet into the sand ; also, to dig. II. to swallow down 
great morsels. VI. to dip one another into the water. 

A*- -* 

&yc, soft sandy ground, irrigated with water, and 
planted with trees ; comp. ^ U to dip oneself under 
water, to make water. [In Thes. the meanings given 
here to this root are spoken of very doubtfully, and 
the word BJ? is derived from the idea of hardness.] 

^St, plur. D^tt— (l) Gent, noun (prop, from HJ8, 
"those who inhabit desert places"), A vim, 
Avvites — (a) aborigines of the land of the Philis- 
tines, Deut. 2:23; Josh. 13:3. — (b) the inhabitants 
of the city Avva, see 1""WJ?. — But — (2) Coffin (the 
city) of the Avvites, is a town in the tribe of Benja- 
min, probably taking its name from the Avvites 
(No. 1, a), Josh. 18:23. 

K$? or N$J f. Chald. perversity, sin. Often 
occurring in the Targums. In the Old Test, only in 
plur. 1J1S., or (as it is in other copies, and always in 
the Targums) 1$?, Dan. 4:24. 

/*)V. m. — (I) evil, ungodly, Job 16: 11, from the 
root ty. 

(II) a child, infant, pr. suckling, i.q. hty Job 
21:11; perhaps 19: 18, from the root bty. 

T\ % )V. (" ruins"), [AvitK], pr.n. of a town on th« 
borders of Edoni, Gen. 36:35. 


_ T not used in Kal; prop, to turn aw at, to 
distort (compare ?3N, '?!?); hence to be wicked 

Digitized by 


4rab. JUMed.Wawquiesc. /o decline, turn aside, 
especially from what is just. 

Pol ?W to act wickedly, Psa. 71:4; Isa. 26: 10. 
(Syr. Aph. id.) ..... . 

Derived nouns, ty, ?% T)b)V_ t n)w No. I, and 7TP, 
No. I. 

tfnp— Tiy 

/JJZm. *tt"J, wicked, Job 18:21; 27:7; 29:17 

^3X [" once in const."], with suff. ftffi, and ^J! 
m. wickedness, depravity, iniquity, as of a judge, 
Lev. 19:15; of a merchant, Eze. 28:18. fyjj n^ to 
act wickedly, to commit iniquity, Eze. 3 : 20. LXX. 
acficca, apo/ita. 

7^J7 Or />( TO SUCKLE, TO GIVE MILK, Used 

of animals, 1 Sam. 6:7,10; Gen. 33 : 1 3. Part. r\lfr% 
those that give milk; poet, used of ewes ["and 
cows"], Ps. 78 : 7 1 ; Isa. 40 : 1 1 . (Arab. J U Med. Ye, 
to be great with young, and to give suck.) 
Derivatives, /TJ No. II., and — 

m. an infant, a child, prop, a suckling, 
Isa. 49:15; 65:20. (In Arab. JAc a boy; Syr. 

llo-* id.) 

■yJBf. i.q. ty Job 6:29, 30; 11:14; 13:7. 
npijni? the wicked, 2 Sam. 3:34, and without \3? 
abstr. for concr. n^JJ used for wicked persons, Job 
24:20; Ps. 107:^2. With n parag. nn^ig Ps. 92: 
16, and <in<Jf Job 5:16; transp. njpj (which 
see) ; pi. nVriy Ps. 58 : 3 ; 64 : 7. 

n?ty— (I.) contr. for n^y. iniquity, Isa. 61:8. 
[This passage may very well be taken with the com- 
mon meaning. So Thes.] 

(II.) burnt offering, see iyjj (from the root «"yJJ). 

77iy p l. D^ty and 7?ty (verbal of Poel of the 
form Dnin), pl. V*ftv, with suff. D?^, D.T^V, m. 
a boy, a child (bo called in my opinion from the idea 
of petulance, see ?/XJ No. 2), a poet, word, differing 
from Pjrt\ with which it is joined, Jer. 44:7; Lam. 
2:11. Used of a boy playing in the street, Jer. 6:11; 
9:20; asking bread, Lam. 4:4; led away captive, 
Lara. 1:5; carried in the bosom, Lam. 2:20; once 
used of an unborn babe, Job 3 : 16. The same 
is ?yiyp Isa. 3:12. (My opinion as to the origin and 
proper signification is given above. Others regard 
it differently. Alb. Schultens, Origg. Hebr. i. 6, com- 
pared Arab. J^ Conj. II. to soothe a weaned child 
(with tweet things), to that ?7W prop, would be a 

weaned child ; but this does not accord with the fonn v 
which is active.) 

N'/ty gleanings, see fi^jfr. 

D/W sometimes D^ m. — (A) pr. what is hidden; 
specially hidden time, long; the beginning or end 
of which is either uncertain or else not defined; 
eternity, perpetuity. It is used — (l) of time 
long past, antiquity, in the following phrases and 
examples, D?ty *& Am. 9:11; Mic. 7:14; Isa. 63 : 9 ; 
and D^P nto* Deu. 32:7, ancient times. D?typ of o ld t 
from the most ancient times,Gen.6:4; l Sa.27*.8; 
I8a.63:i6: Jer. 2: 20; 5:15; Ps. 25:6; and even of 
time before the creation of the world [i. e. eternity], 
Prov. 8:23; with a negation, no t from any time, 
never, Isa. 63:19; 64:3; elsewhere from a lone 
time ago, long, Isa. 42:14 (where it is referred tr 
the time of the captivity [?]); Isaiah 46:9; 57: 11 
Dpiy 7*3| the boundary set by the forefathers, Prov. 
22:28; 23:10; D?iy Wl£ the ancient gates, Psalm 
24:7; D?W *nt? those who died of old, Psa. 143:3; 
Lam. 3:6; 0?iy £V. meu of old, those who have been 
long dead, Eze. 26:20. Since true piety and un- 
corrupted morals are ascribed to men of old, af\V 7JJ 

Ps. 139:24; o^y njk Job 22:15; cfyw ^^ Jer. 

6:16; D^y tyaf Jerem. 18:15, is the (true) piety 
of the fathers; compare D*P^y P"JV ancient justice or 
innocence, Dan. 9: 24. [It need hardly be pointed out 
to any Christian, that this passage in Daniel can have 
no such meaning as this; it speaks of the everlasting 
righteousness to be brought in through the atonenien* 
of Christ.] It does not always denote the most re- 
mote antiquity, as is shewn by D?iy ntavi; which, 
in Isa. 58 : 1 2 ; 61:4, is used at the end of the Baby- 
lonish captivity [written prophetically long before], 
of the ruins of Jerusalem. (Jer. 25:9; 49:13, docs 
not belong here; 'y being applied there to time 

fa) It more often refers to future time, in sue-, 
a manner, that what is called the terminus ad quem, 
is always defined from the nature of the thing itself. 
When it is applied to human affairs, and specially 
— (a) to individual men, it commonly signifies all 
the days of life, as a^V "1JUJ a jierpetual slave (not 
to be discharged as long as he lives), Deu. 15:17: 
Ex. 21:6; l Sam. 27 : 12 (poetically used of a beast, 
Job 40: 28); D?W "^ f° r ever, i.e. all the days erf 
life, 1 Sa. 1:22; 20:15; 2Sa. 3:28. d?W *fa? per- 
petually (whilst they live) secure. Psalm 73:12; 
30: 13, " Jehovah my God JTjta D^y/ " I ^ F^awe 
thee for ever" (while I live); [there is no need *, 
to limit this passage]. Ps.5:i9; 3i:«; 37:*7,s3; 

Digitized by 


roty-D 1 *? 


rwip— 7^ 

*9 : 9; §••>!; 7l:l; 86:12; sometimes also a very 
long life. Ps. 21 :5, " (the king) asked life of thee, 
thou (O God) gaveat it him 1$ O^iP D*PJ T$* even 
long, veiy long;" [lit. length of days for ever and 
wer: eternal life is spoken of, not merely temporal as 
Gesenius would make it]. The word D^«P has a much 
narrower limit [?] in this passage, Isa. 35: 10, nno^ 
,De>*a 7% D?ty "perpetual gladness (shall be) upon 
their heads;" i.e. joy shall always be conspicuous 
in their countenances, they shall always be cheerful 
and joyful (compare Ps. 126:2): Isa. 51 : 1 1 ; 61 :7; 
and 32:14; the term itself of the time is marked; 
" hill and watchtower shall become caverns D?W ^M 

for a long time 15. n"3}*. 12 until the Spirit be 

poured out," etc. Elsewhere — (b) it belongs to a 
whole race (dynasty), or people, and it comprehends 
all the time until their destruction; 1 Sam. 2:30, 
"thy family shall serve me ofiV "IB while it shall 
continue;" iSa.l3:l3; 2Sa.7:l6; iCh.l7:l2; 
22:10; Psa. 18:51, "he will shew mercy to David 
and to his seed ufiV "1R." So the covenant of God 
with the Israelites is called ufl$ rP"}3 Gen. 17:7; 
Lev. 24:8; the laws given to them, D^ty Hgn, U?\V ph 
Ex. 12:14, 17; 27:21; 28:43; 30:21; Lev. 3: 17; 
6:11; the possession of the holy land D?W rtfrTO Gen. 
17:8; 48:4. — (c) the metaphysical idea of eternity, 
at least that which has no end, is more nearly ap- 
proached by the examples in which D?W is applied 
to the earth and the whole nature of things. Ecc. 
1:4, "but the earth stands, or remains &{W? for 
ever;" Ps. 104:5, " it (the earth) is not moved for 
ever;" Ps. 78:69; 'V TO}! the eternal hills, cre- 
ated many ages ago, and which shall last for ever. 
Gen. 49:26; Deut. 33:15, 'V n\D3 the eternal high 
places, Eze. 36 : 2 ; and also when used of the future 
state of man after death, e.g. afiV JW an eternal 
sleep, used of death, Jer. 51:39, 57; ib?ty IV3 his 
eternal house, i.e. the grave, Eccles. 12:5; D?ty «^ 
eternal life after resurrection, Dan. 12:2. — (d) The 
true notion of eternity is found in this word in those 
passages which speak of the immortal nature of God 
himself, who is called D?W ?N the eternal God, Gen. 
21:33; Isa. 40:28; D^yn V who liveth for ever, 
Dan. 12:7 (compare O/tyn rvn to live for ever, to be 
Immortal, like gods [rather like God himself], Gen. 
3:22; Job 7 : 16), to whom are ascribed D/ty nijhj 
everlasting arms, Deut. 33:27; and of whom it is 
said, Ps.90:*,^ r\m Djty TJp : D^J>p "from ever- 
lasting to everlasting thou art God;" 103:17; 
compare Psa. 9:8; 10:16; 29:10; 93:2. Also a 
peculiar class is formed of those places — (e) in which 
the Hebrews use the metaphysical notion of eternity 

by hyperbole, in speaking of human things, espe- 
cially in the expression of good wishes. Here belongs 
the customaiy form of salutation addressed to kings, 
D?^ 1?5>n .tflg W « let my Lord the king live for 
ever;" lKi. 1:31; Neh.2:3 (compare Dan. 2:4; 
3:9; Judith 12:4; iElian. Var. Hist., i. 32); also 
the wishes of poets for kings and royal families [these 
passages are really prophecies, not wishes; and the 
eternity spoken of, instead of being at all hyperbole, 
is the literal truth which God has vouchsafed to 
reveal], as Ps. 61 : 8, " let (the kiupr) sit on his throne 
before God for ever" (compare v^rse 7, " (let) his 
years be "ty "h to? like many generations "). Psa. 
45:7, " thy throne established by God [really " thy 
throne, O God"] 1«J vfyqt} (shall stand) for ever." 
Psalm 89:37, "his (David's) seed shall endure for 
ever." How much these expressions imply, may 
be understood from the words which immediately 
follow, " his throne (shall stand) as the sun before 
m e." Verse 38, " like the moon it shall be established 
for ever;" and, Ps.72:5, " they shall fear thee (O 
King) so long as the sun and moon endure through- 
out all generations;" ibid., 17, "his name shall be 
D?ty? for ever; so long as the sun shall his name 
flourish." That is, by the figure of hyperbole there 
is invoked for the king, and particularly for David 
and his royal posterity, an empire not less enduring 
than the universe itself. [These are prophecies, not 
hyperbolical wishes.] Also, Ps. 48:9, " God shall 
establish her (Jerusalem) for ever." Jerem. 7:7, 
" the land which I gave unto your fathers uftV ?D? 
O&toTSl;" 25:5. 

(B) die world, from the Chaldee and Rabbinic 
usage, like the Gr. at&v, hence the desire or pursuit 
of worldly things (©cltjinn), more fully called 
ayawrl row icoa^iov, 1 John 2:15; alwv rov Kotrjiov 

tovtov, Eph. 2:2; and Arab. Lij the world, worldly 
things, and the love of them as destructive to the 
knowledge of divine things, Ecc. 3:11," (God) has 
made every thing beautiful in its time, D/JJjrnK Dj 

"m Dian kvd* *6 yv : $?? Dab jnj although he 

hath set the love of worldly things in their hearts, 
so that man does not understand the works of God," 
etc. D* for *3 DJ, see DJ No. 4. As to the sense, 
compare Ecc. 8:17. Another form is Dft'S. 

yjJ an unused root, to rest, to dwell (compare 
Arab. % \ convenience, rest, T to live tranquilly), 
whence fatt?* n ?^P dwelling, and — 

Hjiy f. conjugal cohabitation, Exodus 21:10. 
(Talmud, id.). — Hos. 10: ia in np then* if ntita 

Digitized by 


which the Targ. renders farrows (compare n $5), but 
the context almost requires [the pointing to be] nWjJ 

p.V i. e. $, see the root TV. 

PV Ex. 28:43; 34-7; more rarely PW 2 Ki. 7:9; 
Ps. 5 1 : 7 ; const. jty, ]W 1 Chron. 2 1 : 8, pi. absol. and 
const, nbty with suff. «\?ty : , T.?ty, more often % DiV : , 
T£^8 etc.; perversity, depravity (from the 
root HJXJ); hence — (1) a depraved action, a crime, 
a sin, Genesis 4:13; 44: 16. Job 31:11, Dvv? PX 
" a crime to be punished by the judges," comp. Job 
31:28; 19:29, n^nntoty" crimes to be punished 
by the sword." Eze. 21 :30, Y& W. " crime of end," 
i. e. which brings an end or destruction. Eze. 2 1 : 34 ; 
35:5. It is often guilt contracted by sinning, as 
nb« fig "the guilt of the fathers," Ex. 20:5; 34:7; 
nb«n jfy « the guilt of the Amorites," Gen. 15: 16. 
*nK$n jty "the guilt of my sin," Ps. 32:5; also any 
thing unjustly acquired, Hos. 12:9, " they shall 
not find in my possession Npn 1^$ |ty any thing 
unjustly acquired which (would be) sin," (tein 
Unrecht/ ba* ©unbe wire). In speaking of pardon and 
expiation of sin, the words l"yp, "V?#n, "IB?, KfeONo. 
2, c, are used ; of punishing it, the verb "1|?B is used ; of 
bearing or suffering its penalty, the verb $&} No. 2, b. 

(2) Sometimes it is the penalty of sin, Isaiah 
5:18; calam ity, m isery, Ps. 3 1 : 1 1 . [The common 
meaning does very well in this place.] 

Oi)y m. pi. depravities, perversities, Isaiah 
19:14; for D^JHy, from the root n$. Vulg. vertigo, 
which is not unsuitable. 

*1TJ/— (l)i. q. *|J3 (from which perhaps this root 
has been formed by softening the letters; compare 
PSJ. W; r^«, D3«, PK and others; see the roots WT, 
Tprtetc.),TO cover; especially withfe a thers, wings. 
Isa. 31 .5, ntelj EnBV? " as birds which cover (their 
young) with their wings Q^-VV by ¥ \\ JJP J3 so will 
Jehovah of hosts protect Jerusalem." From the idea 
of covering is *)ty prop. i. q. *)?? a wing; whence — 

(2) to fly, to fly away, to fly unto; used of birds, 
Prov. 26 : 2 ; figuratively of an army, Isaiah 11:14; 
Hab. 1:8; of ships, Isa. 60:8; an arrow, Ps. 91 :5; 
also to vanish quickly (aerfUegcn); used of a dream, 
Job 20:8; human life, Psa. 90:10. Once transit. 
like Hiph., Pro. 23:5 3»rD (Arab, c-ilt, Med. Waw, 
and Ye, to hang in the air, and hover over something 

s-i* - 

(used of a bird) ; followed by Jix, AFur flight; a se- 
condary word is u-i>lc an augur; v_iLc, liL^ au- 
gury). From the idea of covering (No. 1) it is — 



(3) to c:ver with darkness (Syr. «<*v to wraj 
round); and intrans. to be covered with darkneu 
Job 11:17, HVin 1J53S na{;n "(although now)covered 
with darkness," i. e. pressed down by calamity, 
"(soon) shalt thou be as the morning;" (unless it be 
preferred to read with three MSS. nw|yn darhau 
shall be as the morning). And — 

(4) to faint, to faint away, so that the -yes are 
involved in darkness (see *19J(, *foj and the Arab. JLi ; 

Syr. cSQl* to fail in strength ; Ethp. to faint away. 
Cognate are *|# and *B£ to fail in strength). Fut *|P3 
(fordistinctionfromny*!tofly),i Sa.i4:28; Jud.4:2l. 

Pilel *)Bty_ (1) i. q . Kal No. 2, to fly, Gen. 1 :20; 
Isa. 6:2. 

(2) to brandish, as to make to fly (a sword), 
Eze. 32 : 10. 

Hiphil, to make to fly, Prov. 23:5 np. 

Hithpalel, to fly away, i. e. to vanish, Hos. 9: 11. 

Nouns derived from signif. 1,2 are *(lV, 0*BJfe?; 
signif. 3 vyo, *}yio, nz% n&WFi. 

Wy prop, a wing (see the root No. 1); hence 
collect, birds, fowl (©eflugct), Gen. 1:21, 30; Levit 
17:13; Ps. 50: 1 1 ; and so frequently. 

C)iy Chald. i. q. Hebr.,Dan. 2:38; 7:6. 

I. f ^ to consult, i.q. Y%; only found in imp 
^ Jud. 19 : 30 ; Isa. 8 : 10. Hence YW pr. n. 



i. q. DW, *> ~, ^x to impress, to he- 

S' < 

merse oneself, e. g. the foot into sand; whence &yl 
soft ground, sandy and fruitful. Hence — 

py ("soft and sandy earth), \Uz\, far. n. And 
tis,Ausita (LXX. Abolnc, Avalrat), pr.n. of a region 
and tribe in the northern part of the Arabian desert 
(fUtJl i jj) between Palestine, Idumaea, and the Eu- 
phrates; called by Ptolemy, verse 19, Alalrai (unless 
this should be corrected to Avtnrcit), Job 1:1 (com- 
pare verse 3); Jer. 25:20; and Lam. 4:21 (a pas- 
sage which is to be understood of the Edomites living 
in Ausitis). As to the origin of the nation, different 
accounts are given in different places; see Gen. 10: 
23; 22:21; 36:28 [but Scripture cannot be self- 
contradictory]; compare Vaters Comment on the 
Pentat., vol. i. p. 152. See also the discussions respect- 
ing the site of the land of Uz in Bochart, Phaleg. ii. 
8; J. D. Michaelis in Spicileg. ii. 26; Iigen, De Johi 
Natura et Indole, p. 95:96; Rosenm. Scholui in JoK 
Prolegomm. § 5; Eichhorn, Einleit. in ids A T 
k 639. [See also Forster's Arabia.] 

Digitized by 


p^y not used in Kal. Syriac and Chald. to be 
PBESSED, straitened, i. q. Hebr. pfl¥. 

Hiphil, to press; followed by nnri (prop, to press 
down ; *ara0\//3w), Am. 8:13. 

Derived nouns, HjJXJ, rtjJJHD. 

*1UJ not used in Kal. Ath. 0*?C : to be blind. 
Arab. ,*& and .l& to be blind of an eye. 

Piel "WJJ to blind, to make blind. (Syr. ?cx^. 
In its origin perhaps TSJ is the same as "^M to cast 
dust, sand, chaff into the eye; compare Chald. "rtjf.) 
2Ki. 25:7; Jer. 39:7. Metaph. to blind a judge 
(with gifts), Ex. 23 : 8 ; Deut. 16:19. [In Thes. this 
Piel form is deduced from "fly III.] 

Derived nouns ("HP), TJR, tf">$, n^. 

^52 adj. blind, Ex. 4:11; Lev. 19:14. Metaph. 
used of men who walk in the darkness of ignorance (Isa. 
29:18; 42:18, 19; 43:8), or of misery (Ps. 146:8). 

I. "11J/ prop, to be hot, ardent (cogn. with 
1% which see); hence to be alert, watchful (in 
opposition both to sleep and to idleness). Specially — 
(1) to wake, to be awake, Cant. 5:2; Mai. 2:12, 
7)ft) "i# "one wakeful and one answering," i. e. every 
one who is alive, a proverbial phrase (like 3-1TXJ1 m ^^V T ), 
perhaps taken from the Levites keeping watch in the 
temple ( Ps. 134), one of whom watches and calls out, 
and the other answers. In the same sense the 
Arabs say, " no one crying out, and no one answer- 
ing" (Vit. Tim. i. p. 108, ed. Manger). Jerome ren- 
ders, magi8ter et discipulvs. 

(2) to awake, to arouse from sleep. Only in 
imp. Ps. 44:24, "p9t 18*9 *©$> rryiy "awake ! why 
sleepest thou, Lord?" Ps. 7:7; Isa. 51:9. 

(3) causat. to cause to awake, i. q. Hiphil, Job 
41:2, fut."Wy; np. 

NipfiAL -TV)., fut. -foE pass, of Piel and Hiphil.— 
(l) to be aroused, awaked (from sleep), Job 14:12; 
Zee. 4:1. 

(2) figuratively, to arise, as the wind, Jer. 25:32; 
a people, Jer. 6:22: Joel 4: 12; God, Zee. 2:17. As 
.0 the passage, Hab. 3:9, see Tiy No. II. 

Pilel Tito (compare Gr. opw=fy>iv^c, pret. opwpa). 
(l)to awake, to arouse from sleep, Cant. 2:7; 3:5; 
8:4 (5?); to arouse a serpent, and call forth from 
his hiding place, Job 3:8; figuratively, to excite a 
brawl, Prov. 10: 12; to rouse up one's strength (feine 
©ad)t aufbieten), Ps. 80:3. 

(«) to raise up (and brandish) a spear, 2 Sam. 
23:18: a scourge, Isa. 10:26. — But for Isa. 23 : 13, 
see under the root TH Pilel. 


Hiphil *njn (iyeipw) i. q. Piel. — (1) to arouse, tt 
awake, from' sleep, Zee. 4:1; Cant. 2:7; 3:5; 8:4; 
to incite any one to any thing, Isa. 45 : 13 ; Jer. 50: 9, 
and in the same sense to incite any one's spirit, 1 Ch. 
5 : 26 ; 2 Ch. 2 1 : 16 ; to arouse any one's ear, Isa. 50 : 4 ; 
to provoke, e.g. a crocodile, Job 41:2; to stir up 
young birds to fly, Deu. 32 : 1 1, vfrtl fy tap TJJJ t£?? 
*[UT t " as the eagle stirs up her nest (i.e. her young 
ones, to fly, ad volandum, as rightly in the Vulg.) 
hovers over her young," in the air, etc. The de- 
scription is of a female eagle exciting her young ones, 
in teaching them to fly, and afterwards guarding with 
the greatest care, lest the weak should receive harm 

(2) to watch (prop. %&a<he fatten), Psa. 35:23; 
followed by ?E to watch over any one, Job 8:6. 

Hithpalel — (1) to arouse oneself, to rise up, 
Isa. 51:17; 64 : 6 ; followed by /S against any one, Job 


(2) to rejoice, to be glad (Germ, aufgeweeft fepni 
used of one who is cheerful, glad), Job 31 129. 

Derived nouns, Chald. T? watcher, and the pr. n. 

^T T , Tt, '18, r». 

II. H^ i. q. "TJJJ and T!? to be naked, to bk 

made naked; whence the Arab. t [c, £,*- nudity, 
verenda. Hebr. D*">W9. 

Niphal, Hab. 3:9, WP_ "Wn T\^l " with naked - 
ness was thy bow made naked." 

Pilel T&V, see the root "O?. 

III. T\J7 an unused root, cogn. "fcn to dig, to 

s - 
bore; whence ,U» Hebr. *vy%Q a cavern. [In Thes. 

Piel TW is referred to this root with the idea of 
blinding by boring out the eyes.] 

"Ity Ch. chaff Dan. 2:35. Syr. jVo^ id.; Arab. 

j\*c j \s. a bit of chaff, or the li 1- e, which hurts the 

eye. Said to be so called from blinding (root "OJJ); 
but may not rather lf\V be the same as ^BJJ dust, a 
particle of dust ; whence "^ i. q. "^BJ? to throw dust 
into the eye; (©anb in bietfugen flreucn/fl&uben)? [This 
conjectural derivation is rejected in Thes.] 

'*Tiy m. — (l) the skin of a man (so called perhaps 
from nakedness, see the root No. II), Ex. 34:30, 35; 
Levit. 13:2; Job 7:5, and so frequently. D?3?> "titf 
skin of the teeth, i.e. the gums, Job 19:20 (on this 
passage see under the root B?9). As to the words 
Job 19 : 26, see under the root *)i?3. Poet, used of 
the body, the life, Job 2:4, ^n»3 "*y "skin for 
sk in;" i.e. life for life. Job 18: 13, " parts of hit 
akin;" Le, the members of his body. 

Digitized by 


(2) the hide cf animals, Gen. 3:21; pi. n'VTiy Gen. 
27:16; also used of hides artificially prepared, lea- 
ther, Lev. 4:11; 13:48. 



my (read O^), Isaiah 30:6 aw, for DnjR 


$y$ m. blindness,T>eu 28:28; Zee 12:4 See 
the root "VJJ. 

t£H,Jf fi^. Xeyty. Joel 4:11, rendered by the LXX., 
Targ., Syr., to gather together, to assemble 
selves. I prefer, to hasten, to make haste, 

i. q. the kindred roots B^H, W, and JLz HI. to hasten, 
to accelerate a work. Compare also JW. 
Derived pr. n. B*W, Wft\ 

J"^ not used in Kal; to be bent, inflected, i. q. 
the kindred verbs rOJJ, B31J. 


7:13. Metaph. to pervert right, Job 8:3; 34:12; 
compare Am. 8:5; also with an accus. of person, to 
bend or pervert the cause of way one, Lam. 3:36; 
Job 19:6; Psa. 1 19:78. '* TTl AW to pervert any 
one's way, i. e. to lead him astray, Ps. 146:9- 
Pual, part, crooked, Ecc. 1 : 15- 
HiTHPAEL, to bow oneself, Ecc. 12:3. 
Derivative, np}?. 

Jl^ a root, for. Xcyo/i. of the same origin and 
signification as Pty, pr. to hasten to, especially to 
give help; hence to succour(Germ. beifpringen), to aid. 
Arab. dAfc Conj. IV. to aid, to succour, to assist 
Const, with two accus. (like ^V? Gen. 47: 12; 1 Ki. 
18:4, 13). Isaiah50:4,^ WT™$ nw ? " to hel P 
the wearied (people) with a word," to set him up, to 
confirm him, with words. Aqu. virotrrripi<rai. Vulg. 
eustentare. Hence — 

TflJ? (for njrW, *W$ " whom Jehovah suc- 
sours"), \Uthai], pr.n.— (1) 1 Chron.9:4— (*) 
Ezr. 8:14. 

nn$ pr. Aram. inf. Piel, from the root rnjj (with 
Kametz impure), f. the bending of any one, i.e. his 
oppression, Lam. 3:59; comp. the verb, verse 36. 

W'f. n #> pi- D 'TC— (A) adj.— (l) strong, vehe- 
ment, spoken of a people, Num. 13 : 28; of a wind, 
Exod. 14:21; of the waves, Neh. 9: 11; Isa. 43:16; 
;»f anger, Gen. 49 : 7 ; Pro. 21:14. 

fa) strong, fortified, Nu. 21:24. 

(3) hatih, cruel, hard, of a king, Isa. 19:4. "W 

U*}$ hard of face, i.e. impudent, shameless, Dent 
28:50; Dan. 8:23. 

(B) subst. strength, might, Gen. 49:3. Root TTIJ 

t2pl.&'fl?f.— (1) a she-goat. (Syr. j\l; Arab. 
ji^; Phoenic. &(a, Steph.Byz. The same word is 
found in the Indo-Germanic languages, as the Sansc 
adsha, a he-goat; adshd, a she-goat; Goth, gditsa; 
Anglo-Sax. gdt; Germ, ©fie/ with a harder form, 
©em«, chamois ; Gr. aU, aiyoc ; also the Turkish gieik, 
ghieizi; comp. Grimm, Deutsche Gram. iii. 328.) 
D'W If a kid of goats, Gen. 27 : 9. D'W ^ a goat, 
i. e. the goat (fin ©tfict 3tc0rm>ie$), [an individual for 
the species], Deu. 14:4- 

(2) pi. D*ffi goats' hair, Ex. 26:7; 36: H; 1 Sa. 

# Ch. i. q. Heb. No. 1, Ezr. 6: 17. 

ty sometimes fW (Prov. 31:17,25); followed by 
Makk. -13?, with suff. ^ and MJf, 1?? and TO}, fy 
^•iy (from the root TO}) — (1) strength, might, 
power, used of God, Job l*:i6; 26:2; of men, Ps. 
29 : 1 1 ; Prov. 24:5; of beasts, Job 41 : 14 ; of a loud 
voice, Ps.68:34; of vehemence of anger, Ps. 90:11. 
ipPl} with all (one's) might, 2Sa.6:i4. Concr. 
the strong, heroes, Jud. 5:21. 

(2) firmness. TV ^P a firm, secure, fortified 
tower, Jud. 9 : 5 1 ; comp. Ps. 30 : 8. Hence trop. de- 
fence, refuge, protection. Psalm 28:8, ft nfclj 
to!? " Jehovah (is a) protection for them." Psalm 
46:2; 62:8. In a bad sense D*3B TV strength of 
countenance, i.e. impudence, Eccl. 8:1. — With the 
idea of power are joined those of majesty, splen- 
dour, glory. Hence it is — 

(3) splendour, majesty, i. q. "1^3 with which 
it is often joined, Hab. 3 : 4. Psalm 96 : 6, rqWH] * 
" splendour and majesty." Ps. 132:8, TOJ i^S 
" the ark (the seat) of thy majesty," i.e. the ark 
of the covenant, (elsewhere n}n* ifa? P"W| 2 Ch.6:4i ): 
called poat. fy alone, Ps. 78:61; compare l Samuel 
4:21, 22. 

(4) glory,praise, Ps.8:3; 29:1 ; 68:35; 99:4; 
Ex. 15:2. 2Chron. 30:21, tiTT* "instruments oi 

praise," employed in praising God. (Arab. + 
power, victory, glory.) 

N#(" strength"), [Tlzza], pr.n. m.— (i)*Sa 
6:3; for which there is, verses 6, 7, njJJ. — (2) 1 Cb 
8:7.— (3) Ezr. 2:49; Neh. 7:51. 

^I^J3? : only found in the law of the day of atone 
ment fLev. 16:8, 10, 26), respecting which 

Digitized by 


aip dcxvh 

conjectures have been made. I have no doubt that it t 
should be rendered averter, aXttUaKoc ('.!«$ for ?PIK, 
from the root ^3J, J ic to remove, to separate; comp. 
Lehrg. p. 869). By this name is I suppose to be 
understood originally some idol to be appeased by 
sacrifices (as Saturn and Mars, see vp), [no 6uch 
idea as this can be admitted by any one who indeed 
believes in the inspiration of Scripture ; God could 
never mix up idolatrous rites with his own worship] ; 
and afterwards I suppose from the names of idols 
being often applied to demons (see the book of Enoch, 
chap. 10; Spencer on the Ritual Laws of the He- 
brews, iii. diss, viii.), this name was used for that of 
an evil demon inhabiting the wilderness, who had to 
be appeased by sacrifices by this very ancient and 
Gentile rite. The name A zazel Jj ;Uc (in Golius, 
p. 317, incorrectly Jj '\x) is also used by the Arabs 
as that of an evil demon (see Reland, De Rel. Mu- 
hammed. p. 189; Meninski, h. v.). The etymology 
above proposed is that which was of old expressed 
by the LXX., although generally overlooked or else 
misunderstood. There <?Nt||7 is rendered in verse 
8, rf 'Airoirofjnratt* (i. e. ' Avorpoiraif, 'AXeZucaKy, 
Averrunco) ; verse 10, uq rrjv Airoiro^irtjy (ad aver- 
runcandum); verse 26, tlq &fctriv, compare the re- 
marks on the use of the Greek word airowofjnrdioQ 
given by Bochart in Hieroz. P.I. p. 561; Vossius 
ad Epist. Barnabas, p. 316, and Suicer. Thes. Eccl. i. 
p. 468. The fathers of the Church incorrectly un- 
derstood the word 'Anoiropiraws as applying to the 
goat, although it is clear in verse 8 that ^TKT9? and 
njrpp stand in opposition to each other. So however 
the Vulg. caper emissarius, Symm. awepxo^uyog, diro- 
XfXu/uVoc (as if it were compounded of Vf. a goat, and 
?1K to depart). Bochart himself loc. cit. understood 
it to mean the place into which the goat should be 
sent; and he thought <tK{J£ Jj«Uc was the pluralis 

fractus, from the sing. Jjlfi f J V.c> pr. separations; 
hence des ert p laces; but there are in Hebrew no 
traces of the pluralis fractus, and the place to which 
the goat should be sent is rather indicated by the word 
rnyron verses 10, a 1, and rrjljl n^¥ verse 2a « 

2TJ7 fut. afe (l) TO LOOSEN BANDS, and TO 

let 00 a beast from its bonds. (As to this use of the 
Arabic verb e-Jlc see Sypkens in Diss. Lugd. ii. p. 
930, seqq.) Thus in the difficult passage, Ex. 23:5, 
" if thou see die ass of thy enemy lying down under 
it3 burden, toy 3tyn 2)V r ft ntyp nhm beware that 
thou leave him not, but that thou loose his (the 

ass's) bonds with him." There is a play of the words 
in the double use of the verb 3fi{ which stands first 
in the common signification of forsaking, then in the 
primary one of loosing. It is applied to a servant set 
free; whence is the proverbial expression 3-1?$ "rt^J 
shut up and set free, i. e. the slave and the free man, 
or all men of every sort, Deu. 32:36; 1 Ki. 14:10; 
2t:2l; 2Ki. 9:8; 14:26. (Lud. de Dieu interprets 
this phrase, the married and the unmarried ; comp 

c-Xc an unmarried man, and^cl a married man; 

others, neutr. shut up and cast away, i.e. the precious 
and the vile, all together. But the former interpre- 
tation is preferable, and this latter cannot be received, 
because the expression always refers to men and not 
to things.) Meteph. Job 10: 1, Wfe> nnjJJK " I will 
let loose my complaint," I will let loose as it were 
the reins, I will not restrain it. Hence — 

(2) to leave a person, Gen. 2: 24; a place, Jerem. 
25:38; Eze. 8:12; also, to desert, as the wretched, 
the poor, Job 20:19; Ps. 27:10; Eze. 23:29; God, 
a people, Isa. 42:16; 49:14554:7; Ps. 9:11; 2«:a; 
71:11; and vice versd, a people, God, Judges 2:1*; 
Deu. 31 : 16; Jer. 5: 19; Eze. 24:21 ; the law of God, 
Isaiah 58:2; Ezra 9: 10; godliness, Job 6: 14, etc 
Strength, or mind, also are said to desert any one, Ps. 
38:11; 40:13. Specially — (a) to leave any one 
any where, Gen. 50 : 8 ; followed by "l!f in any one's 
hand (of one departing), ib. 39:12, 13; sometimes 
said for to commit to any one, leave in his charge 
(fibertoffen/ amxrtrauen), Gen. 39:6; sometimes for to 
leave to any one's will, 2 Ch. 12:5. And in the signi- 
fication of committing, it is construed also followed by 
^ Job 39: 1 1 ; and ?y Ps. 10: 14 (intrans.), 2)V1 VJ1J 
nD7n " the poor committeth himself to thee."— 
(b) of a person dying; to leave anything to heirs; fol- 
lowed by ? Ps. 49: 1 1. — (c) to leave anything to any 
one, so as not to take it away ; followed by { MaL 
3:19. Part. pass. fijMTJ left, deserted, applied to 
houses, which being forsaken by their inhabitants 
now lie deserted, i. (j. ruins, Isa. 6:12; 17:9, fi^TE? 
fr *ja \3?1? *3$ "IB* TDKni ehhn « like ruins in the 
woods and summits (of Palestine), which (the Ca- 
naanites) left desert (fleeing) before the Israelites ;" 
compare Isa. 17:2; Jer. 4:29. 

(3) to leave off, to cease from any thing; !bl» 
lowed by an ace. Ezek. S3: 8; followed by a gerund, 
Hos. 4: 10; to remit, cease from, wrath, Psalm 37:8; 
'B Dyo topn 2flJ to remit, i. e. to take away his favoui 
from any one, Gen. 24: 27 ; Ruth 2 : 20. 

Niphal, to be left, forsaken, Neh. 13:11; often 
used of a country which has been forsaken by it* 

Digitized by 



inhabitants and lies desert, Lev. 26 : 43 ; Isa. 7:16; 
Job 18:4; followed by ( to be left to any one, i. e. 
oommitted to him, Isa. 18:6. 

Pual 3JJJ i. q. Niph. Isa. 32 : 14. 

Derived nouns, HZMg and — 

P -WJ( only in plur. 0^3}? m. a word only used 
with regard to merchandize, having almost the same 
signification as 2"))©, traffic, commerce (from the 
root 313J to let go for a price, to commit to another, 
i.e. to sell); hence — (l) /air, market, market- 
place; Eze. 27:19, "Dan and Javan T£jV? ty«P 
Mrj3 8e t forth spun work in thy fairs." In the simi- 
lar passages, verses 12, 14, 22, with the same sense ? 
is prefixed to the wares to be sold {with silver, iron, 
etc. they set forth thy fairs)', and verse 16 ? is even 
put twice; how this is to be understood is plainly 
enough shewn by the context, but it may be very 
well doubted whether it be a correct construction. 
[Perhaps these variations of phraseology were used 
by merchants, and hence were adopted by the pro- 
phet. Thes.] 

(2) gain made by traffic, Eze. 27:27,33; com- 
pare "vip. 

pteTJJ (perhaps " altogether desolated," from 
*# and p-13) [Azbuk], pr. n. m. Neh. 3: 16. 

*^TJ ("strong in fortune"), [Azgad], pr.n.m. 
E*r.2:i2; 8:12; Neh.7:i7; 10:16. 

nTJ7 an unused root. Arab, jj: to comfort, 
whence the pr. n. VjE, " T TO, "JTSP. 

»"t$ ("strong," "fortified," as if Valentia) 
pr. n. [Gaza, AzzaK] (LXX. Ta;«), one of the 
five cities of the Philistines, Josh. 11:22; Jud. 16: 
1,21; 1 Sa.6:l.7; Jer. 25:20; Amos 1:6,7; Zeph. 
2 .*4 ; a royal city (Zech. 9 : 5), situated on the southern 
borders of Palestine (Gen. 10 : 19; 1 Ki. 5 : 4), taken by 
the Jews in the time of the Judges (Jud. 1 : 18), but 
soon after recovered again by the Philistines. It is 
frequently mentioned by the Greek writers, of whom 
Plutarch calls it the greatest city of Syria; Arrian 
calls it a great city, situated on a lofty place, and 
well fortified. It even now retains its ancient name 

(i'x). Its history is given at considerable length by 
fieland, in Palaestina, p. 788 — 800. Gent n. *flfl? 
Jud. 16:2. 

P1$ see KJ3J No. 1. 

•ty^fc — (0 r *i*8 f heaps of ruins, tee the 
root No. a. 


(2) [Azubah], pr. n. fera. — (a) of the mother << 
Jehoshaphat, 1 Ki. 22-42. — (t) of the wife of Caleb 
lCh. 2:18, 19. 

WJ£ m. strong, powerful, (used of God), Pml 
24:8; collect, strong ones, i.e. soldiers, Isaiah 

WTJ?..masc. strength, as of battle, Isa. 42:25; o( 
God, Ps. 78:4; 145:6. RootTRJ. 

"WE see TJS. 

TTJ£ fut. TJT inf. T'ttJ? — (l) TO STRENGTHEH, TO 

make strong. (Arab. *„£ fut. O). Followed by f. 
to make secure. Ecc. 7.19, *U1 D?!$ ftm Hljpnn 
"wisdom makes the wise man stronger than ten 
leaders," i. e. protects him more than ten leaden 
could. (Compare T$> No. 2, and fyo.) See also 
this active signification in the name ^JUJ. 

(2) to become strong, to be made strong. 
Jud. 3: 10, W^]l Vtj typi "and his hand becams 
stronger than Cushan," i.e. he conquered him; 
Jud. 6:2. Dan. 11 : 12, ?U>J lAl " and he shall not 
conquer." Ps. 9:20; Prov. 8:28, U\r\Fi mrg rit£l 
"when the fountains of the sea were strong" Le. 
flowed forth violently; compare D*J2 EM? Neh. 9:11; 

Isa. 43: 16. (Syr. ^L Ethpa, to boil forth). 

(3) to be strong, robust, powerful, Ps.89:U- 
to show oneself such, 68 : 29 ; 52 '.9. 

Hiphil Tin followed by D^B to strengthen one's 
countenance, i. e. to put on a shameless look, Pro. 
7:13; followed by 3 21 : 29. Compare U? No. 2, ft 
No. 2. 

The derived nouns are, T]>, ft, Wty, WT^., fto, KflJ, 
HJJJ, and those which immediately follow tpj — ^19?* 

T$(« strong"), [Azaz\, p.n. m. 1 Chr. 5 3. 

^"CjOv ( " wnom Jehovah strengthened*'), 
\_Azaziah~], pr.n. masc. — (l) 1 Chr. 27:20. — («) 
15:21.— (3) 2 Chr. 31:13. 

^(abbreviated from njRJ) \Uzz%\, pr.n. m. — 
(1) 1 Chr. 5:31; 6:36; Ezr. 7:4. — (2) 1 Chr. 7:2. 
—(3) 9:8.-(4) 7:7-— (5) Neh. 11 :22.— (6) ia- 

»9r 42. 

^^ ("power of God"), [Uzzie!], pr. n.»* 
— (l) Exod. 6:18; Nu. 3:19.— (2) iCh.4:**.— 
(3) 7:7--(4) 25:4.^(5) a Ch. a 9 :i4.-(6) Nefc 
3 : 8. Patron, of No. 1 , is — 

Digitized by 


miJMTty . dcxix 

•THJ&VlJfi? ("power of Jehovah"), pr. n. 

Uzziah, king o! Judah,from 811—759 B.C., 3 Ki. 

*5 = L3« 30, 3*» 34; Isaiah 1 : 1 ; 6: 1 ; 7 : 1 ; Hos. 1 : 1 ; 
Am. 1:1. In ft Ki. 14:31; 15:1, 6, 8, 33, 37, he is 
called also nnjj^ and *nn{g ; which I should attri- 
bute not to a two-fold name of the same king, but 
to an error of copyists (as n*TP and n*"l?y are alike), 
or to an interchange of the names as spoken by the 
common people (as being pronounced for sr). Comp. 
No. 3.— (3) 1 01.37:35.— (3) lCh. 6:9; for which 

there is in verse 31 njiflU, (4) Ezr. 10: 31. — (5) 

N3h. 11:4. LXX. •Ofia'c" 

&V18. (" strong"), [Aziza], pr. n. m. Ezra 

™9# ("strong to death"), [AtmavetK], pr. 
Q. — (1) of one of the heroes of David, 3 Sa. 33:31. 
—(3) 1 Ch. 37:35. See HlDR* n*3 p. cxvin, A. 

'l¥ r an unused toot. Arab. Jj£ to remove, to 
take away; see the cognate root •!£ No. 3. Hence 

[$K Azzan, pr.n. m. Num. 34:36.] 

JH; an unused root, perhaps i. q. \Pf to be sharp 
[in Thes. this is rejected as a root]; whence — 

nj)JJJ f. Lev. 11:13; Deut. 14:13, a species of 
eagle, so called from the acuteness of its vision (see 
Job 39:39; II. p 674), unless perhaps HJJflJ be for 
WJJ (fem. from % fJJ strong, powerful), according to 
that custom of the language which has been explained 
above, page cc, B., compare especially in this same 
root n\?#? Isa. 33: 11, for n^O. LXX. aXiaieroc 
Vulg. aquila marina. I formerly compared Arab. 

^^^ according to Gigg. and Castell, an eagle, or a 
bird like an eagle ; but in the printed Kamus (page 

1786) it stands, ^R (with Re) " a bird, either an 
eagle, or some other like it." This is an authority 
to which we must yield. 

p]>/ only in Piel PB? to loosen (the ground) 

WITH A MATTOCK, TO DIG, Isa. 5:3. (Arab. J!l£ 

id. ; whence Xf~< a spade, a mattock.) From the 
kindred signification of engraving is — 

Nj5T# f. Ch. a signet ring, Dan. 6: 18. (Syriac 
iVxni id.) 

^tyV, («.'• field dug oyer," "broken up"), 

[AzekaK], pr.n. of a town in the plain country of 
the tribe of Judah, Josh. 10:10; 15:35; 1 Sa. 17: \\ 
Neh. 11 :3o; Jer. 34:7; see Relandi Palsest. p. 803. 

"VJ? fut. "tig!, pi. ^JK to help, to aid. (Arab. 

jp, Syriac i^JS, not *J^, as given by Simonis and 
Winer, id. The primary idea lies in girding, sur- 
rounding, hence defending; comp. cogn. roots. ^$>f, 
1?n No. I, and rn$ i. q . 1$n.) Constr. absol. Isa. 
30:7; followed by an ace. of pers. Ps. 37:40; 79:9; 
109:26; 118:13; followed by^3Sa.8:5; 31:17; 
especially in the later books, 1 Chron. 18:5; 33:17; 
3Ch. 19:2; 36:13; 38:i6; Job 36:3; followed by 
D? (Germ. bet)fteben) 1 Ch. 13:31 ; followed by ^DS 
1 Ki. 1 :7, n;:hK ; nq« VWP « they aided, having fol- 
lowed the side of Adonijah." — Part. "1$ helper. Job 
9:13; used of an ally in war, 1 Ki. 20: 16. 

Niphal, to be helped,Ps. 28:7, especially by God, 
3 Chr. 36 : 15. 1 Chr. 5 : 30, DjT& : njjp « and they 
were helped against them," i. e. God gave them the 
victory. Dan. 11 '.34. Similarly in Arabic, --sjl to 
be helped (by God), i. e. to conquer. 

Hiphil, i.q. Kal. Part, (of the Aramaean form) 
pi. onjjp 3 Ch. 38:33; inf. Tjft 3 Sa. 18:3, a»na. 

Derived and compounded nouns, *1J8 — Bi^lfS, also 

^JK m. with suff. % "DT5J — (1) aid, help ; often concr. 
ahelper,aider,Ta.^:^0; 70:6; 115:9; a female 
helper, Gen. 3:18, 30. 

(3) \Ezer\, pr. n. m. — (a) 1 Ch. 4:4; for which 
there is niRJ verse 17.— (b) 1 Chr. 13:9. — ( c ) Neh. 

1R ("help"), [Eier], pr.n. m.— (1) Neh. is: 
43.— (3) 1 Ch. 7:31. 

TJR & *»t18 ("helper"), [Azur, Azzur\ pr. n. 
m.— (1) Jer. 38: 1.— (3) Eze.11 : 1. — (3) 

**TR ("help"), pr. n. Ezra— (1) the priest, and 
ypa/jLfjLarevt, who in the seventh year of Artaxerxes 
Longimanus (458 b. c.) led a colony of Jews from 
Babylon to Jerusalem, Ezr. chap. 7 — 10; Neh. chap. 
8; his pedigree is given, Ezr. 7:1 — 5. — (3) one of 
the first colony, a cotemporary of Zerubbabel, Neh- 

^1$: ("whom God helps;" Germ, ©ottfcclf), 
[Azareel], pr. n. m.— (1) 1 Ch. 13:6. — (3) 1 Ch. 
35:18.— (3)1 Ch. 37:33. — (4;Neh .1:135 13:36. 
—(5) Ezr. 10:41. 

•"HIR £— (») hel P> aid > p8lllm ««:«o; also rrjfl| 

Digitized by 


"like rnpt), Psa. 60:13; 108:13; with He parag. 

nn^p 8 . 44:27. 

(2) [Ezra], pr. n.; see ">{8 2, a. 

n*JTg f. — (1) a W ord of the later Hebiew, for the 
older "iyn a court (of the temple), 2 Ch. 4:9; 6: 13; 
from ^R{ in the signification of surrounding, i.q. TV?, 

tyH. (Often in the Targ. ; Arab. JL^c id.). 

(2) a ledge (of the altar), ttbfatj, Terrasse, Eze. 
43:14, 17, «<>. 

'1$ ("ready tohelp; w [for "11$ "the help of 
Jehovah"]), [Ezrt], pr. n. m., 1 Ch. 27:26. 

/N % *1]2 ("the help of God;" compare the Punic 
pr. name Hasdrubal ; i. e. ^JD MltV " the help of 
Baal"), [Azrief], pr.n. m. — (1) 1 Ch. 5:24. — (2) 

I Ch. 27 : 19.— (3) Jer. 36: 26. 

np$ ("whom Jehovah aids"), and ^nTg 
[-4 z a r 1 a k] , pr. name — ( 1 ) of a king of Judith ; also 
called HJflJ which see. — (2) see HJtJJ No. 3; also of 
other men. See Simonis Onomast. p. 541. 

Dp**]]X ("help against an enemy"), [Azri- 
ham\, pr. n. m. — (1) 1 Ch. 3:23.— (2) 1 Ch. 8:38; 
9:44.— (3) 1 Ch. 9:14.— (4) 2 Ch. 28:7. 

[rnR see rn$]. 
V># gee njy. 

OR m. (from the root IMP, which see). — (1) a style 
made of iron, with which letters were engraven on a 
rock, Job 19:24; Jer.i7:i. 

(2) a writer's/) «n,Jer. 8:8; Ps. 45:2. 

Nt$ Ch. (from the root W)i.q. Heb. n$? coun- 
$el, prudence. Daniel 2: 14,' ^n*$ DJ?t^ KOy 3*nn 
" he answered to Arioch prudence and under- 
standing;" i.e. replied prudently and wisely. Com- 
pare Prov. 26:16. 

npj/ — (1) to cover, to cover over. (Arab. 
IV [Syr. (••£-*]. Cognate roots are *|MJ, from which 
this seems to be formed by softening the last labial, 
and np3 as pronounced with a sibilant). Const, fol- 
lowed by ?S? (like HD3 and other verbs of covering), 
Lev. 13:45; Eze. 24:17, 22; Mic. 3:7. 

(2) to cover, to clothe oneself with any thing, 
to put on any thing, followed by an ace. Part. ngty 
?*PP clothed with a mantle, 1 Sa. 28:14; Metaph. 
Ps.'l04:2,nD^3 -na noV "clothing himself with 
light as with a garment." Ps. 1 09 : 1 9, 29 ; 71:13. 

(3) tc wrap up, roll up. Isai. 22: 17, nbjj *J!pJ? 

II rolling, he will roll thee up;" also to wrap one- 


8 elf up. Jer. 43:12, " and he (Nebuchadnezzar) 
will wrap himself in the land of Egypt, as a shep- 
herd wraps himself in his cloak," i. e. he will destroy 
the whole face of the land of Egypt; compare the 
metaphor of the heavens being rolled together, Isaiah 
34:4. In this passage of Jeremiah is found the 
origin of the signification of destroying, blotting 
out, an idea which the Syr. L&JS has as well as that 
of covering; see Castelli Lex.ed. Mich. p. 646. 

(4) to become languid, to faint, to faint away 
(from the mind and eyes being involved in darkness, 
like the synonyms *fiV Nos. 3, 4, *19V No. 3, *fe? No. 
2). I thus interpret with Alb. Schultens (in Opp. Min, 
p. 241), Cant. 1:7, "lest I be ^J9^? ** one wno 
faint 8 by the flocks of thy companions," lest I should 
wander in search of thee from flock to flock, languid 
even to fainting, through the noontide heat. Caph 
in «^pty3 may be explained, languid as one about to 
faint, »ie ot)nmdd)ttJ/ or else from that use of the prepo- 
sition 3 which has been stated above, p. cccutxix, A, 
quam langttidissima, as faint as possible. Others re- 
gard njtjV h. 1. to be one veiled, i. e. a harlot (comp. 
Genesis 38:14); others one weeping, others un- 
known, all of which are more remote from the con- 

Hiphil ^V\}i to cover, followed by two ace. Psa. 
84:7, nite ntpy^ nfa^l'Di '« moreover, the autumnal 
rain covers (it) with blessings;" and followed by 
?y of the thing to be covered, Psa. 89:46. — As to 
the forms B£3, O^ni 1 Sam. 14:32; 15:19, see the 
root B*H. 

Derivative, H^gD. 

}*t?X. m. (from the root JOJJ ), a place where 
cattle lie down, Job 21 :24, 3<>n n6p VJVl " the 
resting places of his cattle abound with milk." 
So indeed Abulwalid, Aben Ezra, and many more 
recent writers. But I prefer to take PPE for the Ch 

Kppy, Syr. !^Oaj> thigh, side (m and n being inter- 
changed, see p. ccccxuu), Ch.and Zab. KDOK with 
this sense, his sides are full of fat (3^n for Sjn). 
So LXX. cyicara ; Vulg. viscera ; Syr. sides. 

nt/*tpy # m. sneezing, Job 41 : 10, from the root 

^fptpy. m. a bat, Lev. 11:19. Isa. 2:20, comp. of 

tap, compared with the Arab. J]a£ to be dark, and 
18 flying, V being elided. 

|M>; an unused root Arab. J^ to lie do mm 
around the water (as cattle); whence (1 Lfe« wad 

Digitized by 



Jtrc. a place by the water, where cattle lie down ; 

*]%JJ filt *|foE. — (l) TO COVER, TO COVER OVER, 

i. q. ntpjf, for which this verb is often used in the 

Targums. (Arab. * , _ gl>- IV. to be on, Syr. u2l£3 
to be clothed. Cognate and synonymous roots are 
!&, W, n W) FoUowed by <> Psa. 73 : 6, n^BR 
to? DDn " a garment of violence covers them;" they 
are altogether covered over with iniquity, as with a 
garment Compare K*3<. 

(2) to be coveredy to be clothed. Followed by 
an ace. Ps. 65: 14, "^ ^PP,! D*i?9V : " fc ^ e valleys are 
covered over with corn." Absol. to hide, or cover 
over oneself. Job 23 : 9, PP* «PC il (if) he cover 
himself over (i. e. hide) in the south." Hence ntet?¥ff 

(3) to be wrapped in darkness, to languish, to 
faint (coinp. the synonyms sflyNos.3,4, HBJJ, *l?J>). 
Used of the heart or soul, Psa. 61:3; 102:1; Isa. 
57 : 1 6. Part. pass. *\mV r fainting, Lam. 2:19; weak 
(used of lanibs), Gen. 30:42. 

Niphal, i. q. Kal No. 3, Lam. 2:11. 

Hiphil, id. intrans. to languish, to be feeble, Gen. 


Hithpael, to languish, to faint, used of the soul, 
or spirit, Psalm 77:4; 107:5; 142:4; 143:4; Jon* 

Derived noun HSpfiP. 

l£j>£ (cognate to the verb ^H3 which see), to 
SURito un D, whether in a hostile manner (followed 
by /$), 1 Sa. 23:26; or for protection, followed by 
two ace. Ps. 5:13. 

Piel, "H?3? to surround with a crown, to crown, 
followed by two ace. Ps. 8:6; 65:12; 103:4 (me- 
taph.); followed by a dat. of pers. Cant. 3: 11. 

Hiphil, i.q. Piel; Isa. 23:8, HTp^n "Yv "Tyre, 
the crown i ng," i. it. distributing crowns, or diadems, 
from the royal dignity in the Phoenician colonies 
resting on the authority of the senate of Tyre. 
Hence — 

rntpy. constr. rnDg, plur. niTpK f. — (1) a crown. 
— (a) convivial, Isa. 28:1. — (b) royal, a diadem, 
i Sain. 12:30; Ps.2i:4; Cant.3:ii; Ezek.2i:3i. 
Whatever is an ornament, or dignity, to any one, is 
figuratively designated a crown; Job 19:9, "he hath 
pulled down the crown from my head;" Pro. 12:4, 
•* a virtuous woman is a crown to her husband," 
Pro. 14:24; 16:31; 17:6. 

(2) [A tar ah"\, pr. n. f. 1 Ch. 2:26. 

nntpj? ; ("crowns"), \_AtarotK], pr.n.— (l) 0- 
a town in the tribe of Gad, Num. 32:3, 34. — (9) of 
another in the tribe of Ephraim, Josh. 16:7; also 
called I'jrrrt-UPS (« crt>wns of Addar"), Josh. 16:5; 
18: 13.— (3) 3«t % JV|> ninpy ("crowns of the house 
of Joab"), a town in the tribe of Judah, 1 Ch. 2 154. 
— (4) ]p\& rtipg a town in the tribe of Gad, Num. 

u/ M>; an unused root; Arab. v*h& to sneeze, 
see n&VV: 

*X(for*!2 s i.q. 1 ?, "a heap of ruins"), with the 
art/JJH [\4t, Hat], pr.n. of a royal city of the Canaan - 
ites, situated east of Bethel, in the northern part of 
the territory of the tribe of Benjamin, Gen. 12:8; 
13:3; Josh. 7:2, seqq.; 8:1, seq.; £zr. 2:28. LXX. 
'Ayya/. Vulg. Hoi. Other forms of the same name 
which are fem. are K# Neh. 11 :3l ; Hjy 1 Chron. 7: 
28 [but this is nj2]; and HJ2 Isa. 10:28. 

*S? (for *T? : , from the root «"njf, to overturn, to de- 
stroy), pi. b^jy ni. 

(1) ruins, ruinous heaps, Mic. 1 :6; Jer. 26:18 ' 
Mic. 3:12; Ps. 79: 1 ; comp. 'J?0. 

(2) D*S Num. 33 :45, and more fully Dn^n VJ| 
verse 44; 21:11 ("the ruinous heaps of mount 
Abarim"), [Ije-abarim], a part of mount Abarim. 

(3) D^JJ [Iim], a town of the tribe of Judah, Josh. 


y$ see 3^y. 

^J?. ("void of leaves," see ^3$: ["stone"]), 
\_Ebal], pr. n. — (1) of a mountain or rock in the 
northern part of mount Ephraim, opposite mount 
Gerizim (OTJJ), Deut. 11:29; Josh. 8:30. LXX. 
r<u/3d\. Vulg.' Hebal. 

ny see ^. 

P*y (" ruin"), [Ijon], pr. n. of a fortified city b 
the tribe of Naphtali, 1 Ki. 15:20; 2 Ch. 16:4. 

rK*X f. 1 Ch. 1 :46 yro for IVffi, which see. 

U y. (or Dty Hiphil), to press upon, to rush 
violently upok any person or tiling. (Kindred 

to the roots Wty, nty. Syr. i£a^LJ to be indignant, 

to rush upon any one; \ h*^ indignaticn, wrath. 

Arab. i?li to be indignant, U <> rage, anger.) Const. 

followed by 9 1 Sa. 25: 14, D«$ Q£2 " he f le w u poa 

Digitized by 



them," i. e. stormed at them; followed by 7$ 1 Sam. 
15:10. ^g^OIBl "(wherefore) didst thou fly 
upon the spcil; M and 1 Sa. 14:32 in np (which alone 
is the true reading), ^B>n *?& Etyn °2!1 " the people 
rushed upon the spoil." As to the form in both of 
these places, I have no doubt but that &8!1 is the same 
as DJ£ 1 Sa. 25: 14, just like BTin} Job 31 .5, for fcTU-ij 
and he hastened; and 1Q! Prov. 27: 17, for inj, nnj; 
perhaps in these forms there is Dag. forte occultum 
(in the Chaldee manner). I formerly (see on Isaiah 
22 : 17) referred these forms to the root HOJJ (and this 
has been followed by Winer in his Lexicon), in the 
sense, of laying hold, and seizing, comparing the 
Arab, liac, in which however the only notion is that 
of taking f receiving. Hence — 

tD$ m. — (l) a rapacious creature (so called 
from rushing upon), Jer. 12:9; especially — 

(a) a rapacious 6irrf(<!ur<Jc),l8a.46:il; Job. 28: 
7 ; with which a warlike king is compared, Isaiah 
46:11. Collect, birds of prey, Gen. 15:115 Isa. 18: 
6; Eze.39:4- 

Dtp*J/ ("a place of ravenous creatures"), 
fEtam], pr. n. of a town in the tribe of Judah, 1 Ch. 
4:3*32; 2 Ch. 11:6; and of a rock near it, Jud. 

ff» f Cn^^seen?No.2,3.. 

017*2 m. i. q. dp? eternity, 2 Ch. 33:7. 

% y# (i.q. Chald. $y "most high"), [i7ai],pr.n. 
rf one of David's captains, 1 Ch. 1 1 : 29 ; called, 2 Sam. 

13:28, fit^y. 

0/Tr Ely mats, [j?fam],pr. n. of a province of Persia, 
In which stood the capital city, Susa(£zr. 4:9; Dan. 
8:2); perhaps in ancient writers it included the 
whole of Persia, which is called by later writers 0*1$ 
Gen. xo:22 (where the origin of the Elamites is traced 
from Shem), Gen. 14M; Isa. 11:11; 21:2; 22:6; 
Jer. 25 : 25 ; 49 : 34, seqq. ; Eze. 32 : 24. When used 
of the country, it is constr. with a fem., Isa. 21:2; 
when used for the inhabitants, with a masc., Isa. 22 : 6. 
See Cellarii Not. Orbis Antiqui. ii. p. 686; Rosen- 
mUller Bibl. Alterthumskunde i. 1, p. 500, seqq. 

[" W&fSl Ch. plur. Elamites, Ezr. 4:9."] 

DJ7 an unused root; perhaps, i.q. kindred D*K 
Chald. Pa. to frighten. Hence (as has been rightly 
observed by Abulwalid) &V. Xfyo/i. — 

0$ Isa. 11:15, 1W> DJ83 "in the terror of his 
wrath" i. e. in his terrible wrath ; or, as I prefer, " with 


his terrible wind," i . e. most vehemen t wind. Rightly 
therefore, given by the LXX. kv *vt vfian /3<aip; Vulg 
in fortitudine spiritus sui. 

PJ?— (1) i.q- Arab. ^Is Med. Ye, to flow, in- 
flow out, as water, tears; whence VS the eye, a 
fountain (unless, indeed, this noun be radical, and 
the verb secondary). 

(2) denom. from }?8 Part #8 looking askance, 

8 ~ 

envious, 1 Sam. 18:9 I'M; Arab. jU id. 

}> f. (once m. Cant. 4:9 aw ["also perhaps Ps. 
73:7; dual Zee. 3: 9."]), constr. 1*8 with sunV?*8, W8 
etc. ; dual E?3*8 (which is also used for the plur., Zee. 
3:9); constr. \5*8; once defectively *iffi l6a. 3:8; plur 
nirjJ constr. rri3*8 (only in signif. 3). 

(1) an eye (Arab., Syr., JEth., id.). P$ ^JH 
to see with (one's) eyes, Eze. 1 2 : 1 2 ; 0^*8 HB* beau- 
tiful of eyes, having beautiful eyes, Gen. 29: 17 ; lSa. 
16:12. — Zee. 9:1, Dl« pg mn^b " Jehovah's is the 
eye of man ;" i. e. he has his eye fixed upon man ; so 
the LXX., Ch., Syr., (comp. Zee. 4:10; Jer. 32:19). 
— Specially these phrases are to be noticed — (a) 
'& ^8? before the eyes of any one, before any one, 
Gen. 23:11, 18; Ex. 4:30; 7:20; 9:8; 19:11; and 
so very frequently. But altogether different from 
this is — (6) *yR? in my eyes, i.e. according to my 
judgment, as it seems to me, in my opinion, by which 
in Hebrew the sense of to seem, videri, is expressed 
by a circumlocution. Gen. 19:14, T8?pn¥PD *rn 
^JPO " and he was in their eyes as one jesting;" 
i. e. he seemed to his sons-in-law to be jesting. Gen. 
29:20. 2 Samuel 10:3, T?8? T?« ™t TTJ 1»pn 
" thinkest thou that David wished to honour thy 
father?" Hence *2*83 3to it seems good to me, i.e. it 
pleases me (see 3to, 3BJ), Wy$ JH, V?„ it displeases 
me (see 81, 81J), compare under the root "*TJ. — Dpri 
Vry? one who seems to himself to be wise, Proverbs 
3:7; 26:12; Job 32:1. — (c) 'D *Jj*gD (far) from any 
one's eyes, i.e. unknown to him, Num. 15:24. — (rf) 
D.T8 P3 between the eyes, i.e. on the foreheaa\ 
Ex. 13:9, 16; Deu.6:8; 11:18; on the front oj 
the head, Deut. 14: 1. — («) ?8 VX oty to set one's 
eye on any one, commonly used in a good sense, to 
regard any one with kindness, to look to his good ; like 
the Arabic lj ^s. \^£. «J ( (on the other hand 
78 D'?9 DHP is always taken in a bad sense), e. g. 
Genesis 44: 21, vfo T8 ntWK" I wiU look to hit 
good ; w LXX. i-rrtfjiXov^at avrov. Jer. 39 : 1 2 ; 40 : 4 ; 
Job 24: 23 ; Ezr. 5:5; [Chald.] : followed by ?£ Psalm 
33:18; 34:16; followed by f Deu. 11:12 (oompu« 
also Zee. 12:4; 1 Kings 8: 29,52); rarely used in a 

Digitized by 



bad sense of the angry countenance of Jehovah (else- 
where D^|), Am. 9:4, 8; and also verse 4 with the 
addition of the word nR"p|. Comp. in New Test. 1 Pet. 
3:1a. — (/) { W*R? njn to serve instead of eyes to 
any one, i. e. to shew him the way, whether he be 
blind, Job 29 : 15, or ignorant of the way, Nu. 10:31 . — 
(g) D!^y NJP} to lift up the eyes, see WO No. 1, letter 
d. — (k) D?W np| see n|?D. — As many passions of the 
mind, such as envy, pride, pity, desire, are manifest 
in the eyes, that which properly belongs to the per- 
sons themselves is often applied to the eyes, e. g. 
? *?*J? n 3n m y e 7 e 18 ey il against some one, i. e. I 
envy him, Deu. 15:9; compare Tob. 4:7, ^^(pdoyrj- 
<7(itw aov 6 ctyOaX/ioc* See also the remarks under 
the roots wn, n^3. nte") D*3*R proud eyes, i.e. 
pride, haughtiness, Prov. 6:17; Ps. 18:28. — Poet. 
the eye of wine is the bubbling when it sparkles as 
poured out (Germ. 9>erle), Prov. 23:31. By meton. 
it is used of a look, or glance of the eyes, Cant. 4:9, 
a»ro, VVW2 ™$? TW3^> " thou hast wounded my 
heart by one of thy eyes;" i.e. by one glance of 
thy eyes (in this one instance PR is joined to a mas- 
culine, but the *ip has nn$$). 

(4) face, i.q. B^D, so called from the eyes, as being 
a principal part of it (compare Gorm. ©efid)t, French 
visage, and Lat. oe, used for the whole face). The 
examples which are cited for this, in its proper sig- 
nification, are all either uncertain (Num. 14:14; 
Isa. 52:8: there is more weight in Ps. 6:8, although 
not even this is certain), or else misunderstood ( 1 Sa. 
16:12; Gen. 29: 17, see T5); but that this was a sig- 
nification of the word when Hebrew was a living 
language is shewn by the figurative significations 
which have arisen from it — (a) surface^ Ex. 10:5, 
fjjjn PR "surface of the earth;" verse 15; Num. 
22:5, >*• — ip)face, i.e. appearance, /orm, 'Num. 
11:7; Levit. 13:5, 55; Eze. 1:4, seq.; 10:9; Dan. 
10:6. — Connected with the primary meaning is — 

(3) a fountain, so called from its resemblance to 
an eye (compare Pers. »«* -^ eye, <uJL>- a fountain ; 

Chinese, tan, eye and fountain ; and vice vcrsd Gr. 
vnyt), fountain, corner of the eye), Gen. 16:7; 24 : 29 ; 
30:41 ; pi. f. rfo$, constr. n'WR Deu. 8:7; Ex.l5:27; 
Prov. 8:28; see as to the use of the plur.fem. with 
regard to inanimate things, Lehrg. p. 539, 540. 

Also many towns of Palestine took their names 
from fountains which were near them, viz. — 

(a) H| PR ("the fountain of the kid"), [En- 
gedt], a town in the desert of Judah, near [close 
upon] the Dead Sen, abounding in palm trees; En- 
gadda of Plin/ (H. N. v. 17), Josh. 15:62; 1 Sam. 

24:1; Eze. 47 : 1 o ; lant. 1:14; more anciently called 
norrriVVn (which see). [Now called 'Ain Jidy, 
Rob. ii. 209.] 

(b) D % HTR("the fountain of garde n3 w ),[J£ii- 
^c«ni»»], a town — (a) in the plain country of Judah, 
Josh. 15:34. — (ft) of the Levites, in the tribe of 
Issachar, Josh. 1 9 : 2 1 ; 2 1 : 29. 

(c) ifcOl PR Pa. 83 : 1 1 , and in PR (" the f o u n tain 
of habitation"), [En-dor], Josh. 17:11; iSam. 
28:7, in the tribe of Manasseh. 

(d) iTjn }^ m ("fountain of sharpness," i.e. 
swift) [En-haddah~\, a town in the tribe of Issa- 
char, Josh. 19:21. 

(e) "top TV. [En-hazor"], a town in the tribe of 
Naphtali, Josh. 19:37. 

(/) ™n PR, see thn. 

(g) OKtt? PR ("fountain of judgment"), [En- 
mishpat], i. q. KHiJ, which see, Gen. 14:7. 

(h) wm PR ("fountain of two calves," unless 
perhaps V is written for D^JK "two pools"), [En- 
eglaiin], a town on the northern shore of the Dead 

(•') &W TV. ("the fountain of the su#"), [En- 
shemesh"], a town with a stream, on the borders of 
the tribes of Judah and Benjamin, Josh. 15:7. 

(k) PR [-4 in] simply— (a) a town of the Levites 
in the tribe of Simeon, Josh. 15:32; 19:7; 21:16; 
l Ch. 4:32. — (ft) a town in northern Palestine, Nu. 

In other places fountains themselves are designated 
by proper names, as — (aa) ^p TV. ("fountain of 
the spy," or, according to the Targ. " fuller's foun- 
tain"), [En^roget], a fountain south of Jerusalem, 
on the borders of the tribes of Judah and Benjamin, 
Josh. 15:7; l8:i6;2Sa.i7:i7; iKi. 1:9; according 
to Josephus (Arch. vii. 14, § 4), in the royal gardens. 

(bb) &W TV. ( a fountain of the jackals," com- 
monly " dragon-fountain"), a fountain near Jeru- 
salem, Neh. 2:13. 

(cc) mBPrpR [En-tcppuaK], a fountain of the 
town n*an Josh. 17:7; compare verse 8. 

Denominative is £RP, which see. 

[\y. Chald. f. plur. TV?., constr. "TV. id. q. Heb. 
No. 1, Dan. 4:31; 7:8,20. No. 1, e. Ezr. 5:5. j 

\y see PR No. 2. 

&TV. ("two fountains"), Gen. 38:21, a^d— 

EJ *. (comp. as to this form of the dual Lumber, 
Gesch. der Heb. Sprache, page 49, 51 ; Lehrg. page 
536), [Enarn], pr. name of a town in the tribe td 
Judah, Josh. 15:34. 

Digitized by 



jj*2 (" having eye 3"), [Enan], pr. n. m. Nu. 1 : 
15; «: 29; comp. IJTPVC! under the word "W?. 

*TpJ/ to languish, to paint; comp. the cog- 
nate roots *\W (*£% WJ), "BC- Once found as a verb, 
Jer. 4:31. Hence — 

*Pl f. n^jy. adj. languishing, especially used of 
one who is wearied out, either with a journey or with 
toil, and at the same time suffers from thirst; see 
especially Gen. 25:29, 30; Job 22:7 (in the other 
hemist. 3JH) ; Psa. 63 : 2. Pro. 25 : 25, " cold waters 
to a languishing (i. e. thirsty) soul." Jer. 31 :25, 
" I will give drink to the thirsty." It is used also 
of cattle when wearied, Isa. 46 : l (where n$g is neutr. 
wearied, fessum, i. e. wearied beasts, i. q. n|fl{ njp); 
used of a thirsty land, Ps. 1 43 : 6 ; Isa. 32 : 2. 

•"13*2 fern, (from the root 6)ty No. 3)— (1) dark- 
ness. Amos 4:13, n V8 TV nfcfo "he makes the 
dawn darkness." With n parag. nngg Job 10:2a. 

(2) \EphaK]j pr. n. — (a) of a country and tribe 

of the Midianites; Arab, a }^ Gen. 25:4; Isa.6o:6; 
l Ch. 1 :33.— (6) m. 1 Ch. 2": 47.— (c) f. 1 Ch 2:46. 

^S^. ("wearied out," "languishing"), [E- 
phat], pr.n. m. Jer. 40:8 np, where the n»ro has 

y& m. with suff. rfVR Gen. 49: 1 *» P lur - D T3k « 
young ass, the foal of an ats, Zee. 9:9. Job 11:12, 
K"}S ">?X " a wild ass's colt." Sometimes used also 
of a full grown ass, used for riding on (Jud. 10:4; 
12:14), for carrying loads (Isa. 30:6), for plowing 

(Isa. 30:24). Compare Gen. 32:16. (Arabic Ls. 
signifies any ass, whether wild or domestic. It ap- 
pears properly to signify a wild ass, and a young ass, 
so called from its swift, ardent running; see the root 
TJ No. 1, like N"^ a wild ats, from N^ to run.) 

"1^J7 pr. i.q. "Wy to be hot, abdent (fyeif/ fyifctg 
fe^n); Arabic ,U Med. Waw, to be hot (as the day), 
and causat. (for ^V\}) to make hot, to heat (fcetjen). 
Hos. 7:4, of a baker, 'V\ TJ?P ^W 1 . " he leaves off 
heating (his oven) after the kneading until it be 
leavened." The notion of being hot is applied in 
\arious ways: — 

(l) to an ardent rapid course, or running (Arab. 
«U IV. to run swiftly, of a horse ; ^U Med. Ye, to 
ran away, breaking the reins, as a horse, compare pj^ 
No. a); whence TX a wild us, so called from its 
rapid unrestrained running. 

(2) it is applied to the heat of anger, an ardent 
attack upon the enemies (comp. j\x. Conj. I. IIL IV. 
to rush upon enemies, and ,l£ MecL Ye, to be incensed 
with jealousy). See "Nf No. 2, and "OJ an enemy. 

(3) to heat of mind, terror (compare P7? No, 3). 
See subst. TJ No. 3. 

(4) perhaps also to a great crowd of men, as placet 
which are much frequented and thronged by men are 
called hot (Schroeder, Or. Heb. page 26) ; comp. 

&- - 
Xz a crowd of men, J ,li an army. Henoe several 

(as Schro&der, loc. cit.) derive — 

*?$ [In Thes. from TWl.], f. (Josh. 10:2), plur 
once D^B Jud. 10:4 (on account of the paronomasia, 
see Tg), e lsewhere ^"BJ (from the sing. T?) — 

(1) a city, a town, said to be so called from being 
frequented by people (see the root No. 4); I wonkl 
rather take ^V as being nearly the same as 1 % p No. t, 
and the Gr. r«ix»c a place fortified with a wall. For 
this word also included camps, and also small for- 
tified places, as towers, watch-towers. What 
the extent of its signification is, may be learned from 
the following places. Num. 13:19* " and wnat *** 
cities are in which they (the people) dwell, QfflfPp} 
Dny?D^ D« whether (they dwell) in camps, or in 
fenced cities?" 2 Kings 17:9, " and they built for 
themselves high places in all the cities D'l|b 73J9C 
1>'5P Ty 111 from the tower of the watchmen unto 
the fenced city."— Jerusalem is called DW^ "VJ tke 
city of God, Psa. 46:5; 87:3; Isa. 60:14; &&Q ^t 
the holy city, Neh. 1 1 : 1 ; Isaiah 52 : 1 ; Daniel 9:14 
(t«X«c ayia, Matthew 27 : 53) ; n V n \ ^ * e (capital) 
city of Judah, 2 Chron. 25 : 28 ; also mr ttox* y f "^ 
Eze. 7:23, and TJJ Isaiah 66:6 (this Tatter in another 
context is also used of Nineveh, the enemies' metro- 
polis, Isaiah 32: 19).— Followed by a genit. of per*. 
the city of any one is his native city, or the one in 
which he dwells, Gen. 24:10, *J TJM'the city of 
Nahor," i.e. Haran, in which Nahor dwelt; 1 Sam. 
20:6, compare in New Test iroXtc Ao/3u5, i. e. Beth- 
lehem, Luke 2:4, and iroXic abr&v (of the parents of 
Jesus) Nafaper, Luke 2: 39, and also a similar idiom 
is noticed under the words H«, D?; followed by a 
genit. of another city, it is used of the circumjacent 
towns or villages (elsewhere called ^'"7 n "?), as 
|ta£>n % y) the towns and villages near Heshbon, Josh. 
13:17; THE *1? Isa. 17:2. — Sometimes also parts o* 
cities are called cities (comp. Germ. Httflabt, 9tea9atU 
and ™A«c, in Passow). Thus DUM Tg 9 Sa. I9:ff7, 
the city of waters, part of the city of Rabbah, a Ex 
10:25,^3? n'3"W. a part of Samaria, so called ftm 

Digitized by 


Tpp— yjf 


the temple of Baal, probably fortified by a separate 
wall (see above as to the etymology).— The follow- 
ing appears to be said proverbially, Eccl. 10:15, 
•* the labour of the foolish wearies him, because he 
does not know how "*V^# n ?$ to go to the city," 
i. e. he cannot find his way to the city, an expression 
taken from a rustic and ignorant traveller, who would 
err even in the most beaten way. Compare Germ, tx 
•wifl fid) nid)t ju pnbem spoken of an ignorant and 
slow-minded man. 

Proper names of towns are — (a) n^SH *VJJ ("city 
of sal t "), in the desert of Judah, near the Dead Sea, 
Josh. 15:62.— (b) BTO TJ? ("city of serpents"), 
[Ir-nahash'], the site of which is not known, l Ch. 
4: 12. -(c) W?tf TR ("city of the sun"), \_Ir- 
shemesK], in the tribe of Dan, Josh. 19:41. — (d) 
Dnpnn TJJ (« c i t y f palm-trees"), i. q. s .rrv Je- 
richo, so called from the multitude of palms growing 
there (see Plin. H. N. v. 14; Tacit. Hist. v. 6), Deut. 
34:3; Jud. 1 : 16; 2 Ch. 28: 15. As to Dinn TJ?, fiee 
under the word O'vn. 

Proper name of a man is "PR [Jr.], I Ch. 7 : 12, for 
which there is, verse 7, *TR. 

(2) heat of anger, anger, see the root No. 2, 
Hos.l 1 :9,"W?? fcrtnK fc6 "I will not come with anger;" 
perhaps also Pe. 73 : 20. 

X3) fear (see the root No. 3). Jer. 15:8, *fl^n 
nfrnjU TJf DfcnB nty. LXX. inifiptfa «V avr^y 

yy. Chald. m. (from the root Htf) a guard, a 
watcher, a name of angels in the later Hebrew, from 
their guarding the souls of men [?], Dan. 4: 10, 
14, ao. (Used also in the Syriac liturgies of arch- 
angels, as of Gabriel ; elsewhere ^^.» :* and Gr. 'Eypi'i- 
yopot of evil angels. See the Book of Enoch, i. 6. 
Suiceri Thes. Eccl. v. ey/^yopoc. Castelli Lexicon 
Syr. ed. Mich. p. 649.) 

NT^(" town," [" watchful"]), [/ra], pr.n.m. 
— (l) of a priest of David, 2 Sa. 20 : 26. — (2) of two 
of David's captains, 2 Sa. 23: 26, 38. 

TVy [Irad], pr. n. of an antediluvian patriarch, 
son of Enoch, and grandson of Cain, Gen. 4:18. 

Wfl pr. n. m. [Iru], lCh. 4: 15. 

% TK ("belonging to a city"), [/rt], see "V? 
No. 1, extr. 

Oyy ("belonging to a city"), [Irain], pr.n. 
jf a leader of the Edomites, Gen. 36:43. 

Ol% Dig, pi. DVt4i.q.0Tl— (l) adj. naked, 

(a) subst nakedness. Ezekiel 16:7, DTK l$F : 
'T$] " thou also (wast) nakedness and necessity , ; 
i. e. utterly naked and helpless (abstr. for concr 
like dbft Vhj>). Verse 22, 39; 23:29. Root D^ 

W$t the constellation of the bear, see t?3J f 

J"l$ pr. n. see *2. 

[" 33X a root unused as a verb, which appears to 
have signified agility and alacrity; hence the quadri- 
literals 13?2, ^3?X, ^?3J?."] 

ni3?J? (i. q. n-pg « mouse "), [Achbor], pr. n. m. 
— (1) Genesis 36 138. — (2) of a courtier of Josiah, 
aKi 22:12,14; Jer. 26:22; 36:12. 

# f 33K a spider, Job 8: 14; Isa.59:5 (Arabic 
C»j«.(:.g, Chaldee K£*3*3fi). It seems to be com- 
pounded of the verb Bby, Arab. \jSs. to weave (as a 

S o - 

spider), and ^.is. [3?JJ] agile, swift as if agiU 
weaver, compare German ©ptnne/ from spinning, and 
the Gr. apa-^yr) from the Phoenicio-Shemitic 3"!$ to 

>3p2 m. a mouse, especially afield mouse, 1 Sa 
8: 4, 5, 1 1 , 1 8 ; Lev. 1 1 : 29 ; but some esculent species 
of dormouse appears to be meant, Isaiah 66: 17. 

Indeed, Arab. j&s. is i. q. c ^ j \nipoypv\\ioQ, an 

animal good for food, like a rabbit, mus jaculus, Linn. 
See Bochart in Hieroz. t. i. p. 1017, who regards thia 
word as being compounded of the Chaldee ^3JJ to 
devour, and "13 a field (I being elided); I prefer from 
•?E to devour, to digest food, and "13 in the signi- 
fication of corn. [But see 33JJ.] 

)2$ (" sand made warm by the heat of the 

sun?), Arab. <&c from the root 1P3J pr. n. Accho, a ma- 
ritime city in the tribe of Asher, Jud. 1:31 (and per- 
haps Mic. 1:10; where 1D3 seems to be foriajn); called 
on thePhoenico-Grecian coins 3y, read ^2(seeMionnet, 
Descr. des Medailles, tab. si. Eckhel, Doctr. Numm. 
iii. 423 [See Ges. Monum. Phoenic. p. 269]), Greek 
"An; (Strabo, xvi. 2,§ 25); more commonly called 

Ptolemais; called in the time of the crusades <££.-, 
now St. Jean oTAcre. See Relandi Palsstina, p. 534 — 45, 

*TDJ£ ("causing sorrow,' 1 comp. Josh. 7 : 26) 
lAchor], pr. n. of a valley near Jericho, Josh. 15:7 \ 
Isa. 65: 10; Hos.s:l7. 


Digitized by 





^[3Jf an unused root, Arab. (JjCc prop, to strike, 
to smite; fiit I, to be hot (as the day), prop, to be 
struck or touched by the sun (compare »"9J No. 3, 
tnd c-jnJ ), whence pr. n. ^8. 

|5>; an unused root, prob. i. q. "PXJ (comp. Josh. 
7:1, seqq.), whence pr. n. t?#l and — 

}3J7 pr. n. (" troubling," i. q. "OJJ, as this name 
ih actually written, 1 Ch. 2 :7), [-4 chan\, an Israelite, 
who, by his sacrilege, occasioned the people to be 
smitten, Josh. 7:1; 22 : 20. 

D3J/ not used in Kal. Arab, jj^ to bind 

back, whence ^a rope which is fastened from 

the mouth of a camel to its forefoot. Hence D3J{. a 
fetter, an anklet, from which — 

Piel, denom. to adorn oneself with anklets* 
or to make a noise, or tinkling with them, a mark of 
women desirous of attracting attention, Isa. 3: 16. 

MJ£ m. an anklet (see the root) — (a) a fetter for 
a criminal. Pro. 7 : 22, " he (the young man) follows 
her (the adulteress) as an ox to the slaughter-house; 
bi% TpMrfy DD^pn and as the wicked man (i. e. 
criminal) (goes or is conveyed) in fetters to punish- 
ment." Some recent writers have incorrectly denied 
that D ?V? can te rendered as in fetters, although it 
is not necessary to assume the ellipsis of the particle 
3; see Hebr. Gramm. § 116, note; and see especially 
the examples in which the noun, after ?, must be re- 
garded as in the accusative, and designates state or 
condition in which any one is : D vp5 as in a dream, 
Isa. 29:7; £'*37 to? as in a splendid garment, J'/o 
38 : 14. Or in this passage DDJJ may be for OZV f fc*K 
" as one bound in fetters (is conveyed) to the punish- 
ment of the fool ;" i. e. of folly or crime ; Germ, text 
fin armer ©unber jur Strafe tar Stjortjett. — (b) as an 
ornament of women loving display, periscelis, ncpi- 
v+vaiov. Plur. D'D3J7 Isa. 3: 18. Compare 03?. 

nDpj£(«anklet"),[4c/i$a/i], pr.n. of a daughter 
iA Caleb, Josh. 15 : 16, 17 ; Jud. 1 : 12. 

"IjJ/ — (1) pr. i. q. Arab.^Cs to disturb or 
trouble water; figuratively — 

(2) to afflict any one, Jud. 11:35; often more 
strongly, i. q. to bring evil upon. Gen. 34:30; Josh. 
8 : 1 8 ; 7 : 25. 1 Sam. 14:29, H* v™* '?¥ "^ " ™) r 
father troubleth the land," l Ki. 18:17, 18. Prov. 
11:17, *TJ?* *nW ^ "the cruel troubleth his 
own flesh," verse 29. 

Niphau to bfi troubled, stirred up, (as grief), 

Ps- 39 : 3- Part- fern- t r0 ^oled, L e. trouble, disturb 
ance (Serrfittung), Pro. 15:6. Hence — 


H?X ("troubled"), [Ocran], pr.n. m. Num. 
1:13; 2:27. 

S^EvK m. quadril.ana^,Pb.l40:4. Itisformec 
apparently from the root «j*Xc to bend backwards, 
by the addition of the letter 3. See Lehrg. p. 865. 

ol & ^K (of the same form as 1J!, from the root 
HTJJ) — (1) prop, subst. height, hence as a concr. the 
Highest, Most High. Used of God, Hosea 11:7, '* 
*nwjp* bv. "they (the prophets) called them (the 
people) to the Most High, but no one will exalt (him ).** 
With the negative part, ty K? or /$_ N? non-summus, 
not the Most High,i. q.W*!W!> tOnon-deuSjUOtaodj 
collect, non-dii, not gods, i.e. idols, or i. q. 'Jr?3 
worth lessness, nothingness. Hos. 7 : 16, ty *0 *3*C* 
"they turn themselves to idols" or "to worth less- 

(2) Adv. — (a) on high, highly. 2 Sam. 23:1, 
'tt D&Q " (who) was raised on high." — (b)on high, 
above, ?2P from above, Gen. 2 7 : 39 ; 49 : 25 ; and 
simply, above, Ps. 50:4. Whence constr. st. 

/# pi. const, vtf, (a fom\ peculiar to poetry, like 
^TB) with raff. fy, Y& vfa. nty, «ty, D?^5, 
D^.?» poet. to7V (Ps 5: 12; Job 20:23). 

(A) a prep, of very frequent occurrence, and of 
wide extent in meaning; answering to the Gr. iwl 
(d>a) and virip, Germ, auf/ fiber/ Lat. super and in, 
on, upon, over; the various significations of this 
word may be referred to four classes. It is — 

(l) i. q. £*■«, super, auf/ upon, when anything is put 
on the upper part of another, so as to stand or lie 
upon it, or have it for its substratum — (a) used of a 
state of rest, e. g. to lie HB©n 7VL o n a bed, 2 Sa. 4 : 7 ; 
■3*P?*!?15 on the path, Jobl8:lO; non« : ^ on a coun- 
try, Amos 7: 17 (compare Isaiah 14: 1, 2), and so ?5 
DH^ on the territory of Ephraim, Isa. 7 : 2 (in Germ. 
auf bem %t\txi auf epf)ratmitifd)em ©ebiete). It is cor- 
rectly used, Psalm 15: 3, " he slandereth not ^7 ^5 
on his tongue," (for there speech really springs up); 
and in like manner T? ?S upon thy mouth, wlter* 
we should say, upon thy lips. Ex. 23: 13, JW* *& 
TpB?g « i e t n ot (the name of idols) be heard 011 thy 
lips." Ecc. 5:1; Ps. 50: 16; compare Gr. dm m ua 
l\uv. To the same usage belongs the phrase p\ 
JV3 on or in a house; the examples of which how- 
ever may be judged of separately. Isa. 32 : 13, " brier? 
and thorns grow up MfiW *#? '??2 in all '.hchousct 

Digitized by 


^ Dcxxvn 

*4 luxury," etc., that is, upon their ruins, from 
which they spring up as from the ground. Isaiah 
36:90, "we sing with stringed instruments... JV3 7J 
l\ "on the temple of Jehovah," this being built upon a 
lofty site; so in Germ., auf ber@tube, auf bcm Saaltt 
for oben in ber £tube# Pol. po izbie, on the parlour, 
from its being higher than the ground-floor. To 
the examples of letter b, and below to No. 4, we should 
perhaps refer Hos. 1 1 : 1 1 , "I will cause them to 
dwell CH'Fia 7% in their houses" and Isaiah 24:22, 
" the prisoners are gathered together into the dun- 
geon, and are shut up in the prison." Similar is 
Tcy 7y on the dusty not only used of the surface of the 
ground, but also in the grave, where the dead both 
lie upon the dust, and under it, Job 20: 1 1 ; 21 : 26; 

Specially — (a) it is used in designating clothing 
which any one wears. Gen. 37:23, " the tunic ~Wh& 
V?8 which he wo re," or "with which he was clad." 
Exod. 28 : 35 ; Deut. 7 : 25 ; l Ki. 1 1 : 30. So should 
the passage be explained Job 24: 9, 030! *}V r '8 05*8) 
"the things which are on the poor (i.e. the garments, 
clothes of the poor) do they take in pledge." Comp. 
7Z ^1 for ^ Wn« nJ>J Lam. 2: 14; 4:22, under 
the wcrd "?1 No. 2. (In the same manner in Arabic 
they use lz, see Schult. on Job 24:21; Hariri, 

Cons. ed. Sch. iv. page 46 ; also, the Gr. xcipi'dcc * T ^ 
\ep(ri, Od. xxiv. 229) —It is used — (/3) to be heavy 
upon any one, i.e. to be troublesome to him, see 133 
and Lehrg. 818. So Isa. 1:14, mb^ fy *n "they 
are as a burden upon me," i.e. they are a trouble 
to me. Opp. to 789 7pn. Hence — (y) it denotes 
duty or obligation, which rests upon any one, like 
a burden (see my remarks on Isa. 9:5). 2 Sa. 18: 

11, nnp vjj " (it was) upon me to give (my duty)." 
Prov.7:i4, fy Dn^f Tl?J « thankofferings (were) 
upon me," (I owed them, had vowed them). Gen. 34: 

12, ]&ty "V?b "tit? MP 3 "!- "lay upon me never so 
much dowry and gift," etc. 1 Ki. 4 : 7 ; Psa. 56 : 1 3 { 

Ezra 10:4; Neh. 13:13. (So the Arab. ^J51 ^L& 
•lx> J I owe a thousand denarii, and u— ill £ ^ r J 
.lijJ thou owest me a thousand denarii; De Sacy, 
Grumra. Arabe and edit. i. § 1062. — (3) ^>8 n;n, Gr. 
ifjy iir't riioc, e.g. Dp? ?8 to live on bread, Deut. 8: 
3 ; ^"JO 7g by his sword, Gen. 27 :4c Life is sup- 
ported and sustained by whatever ^8 is thus used 
with, as though it were a foundation upon which it 
rested. Comp. Isa. 38:16. Used figuratively — (c) 
of the time when anything is done (as the things done 
r »st upon time as a foundation or else go on in time 

as in a way); this usage is, however, of rare occur- 
rence. Pro. 25:11, VJPK ?Jl " i n its own time," (set 

l$k); ju fcinerSeit. (So Arab. $j^ l& in its own 

time; Gr. i* 8/xart, Od. ii. 284; inl yvxri, iir't xoXr- 
pov; Engl, upon [on] the day; Germ, auf ben Bag). 
— (£) of a rule or standard which is followed, or 
example which is imitated (since things to be mea- 
sured or to be made according to the pattern of any 
thing else are laid upon the rule or standard, man leg! 
fie auf ba« SRujter* comp. Gr. tVl Orjpoc, in the manner 
of beasts, hunc in modum; Germ, auf bie 2Crt, auf 
enajifrt/ in the English manner.) Ps. 1 10:4, ^l? 1 ! ^S 
'D " after the manner of Melchizedech." H3p ?8 
in this manner, Esth. 9 : 26. ?8 H"Jp3 KaXtladat ini 
riroc, to be called by any one's name (see tfj*)- Often 
used of the instrument after whose modulations a 
song is to be sung, Psal. 8:1; 45: 1 ; 53: 1 ; 60: 1 ; 
69:1; also used of a song the tune or measure of 
which is followed by other songs, Ps. 56 : 1 (compare 


as to a similar use of the Syr.^^ Eichhorn, Pref. 
to Jones de Poesi Asiat. p. xxxiii ; also the Russian 
po tact, nact) bem &acte). 

(6) used of motion upon or over the upper part 
of a thing or place, either downwards upon any 
thing from a higher place, fctnab/tyerabauf (etn>a$), 
or upwards from a lower place, tyinan auf (etwa«). 
Of the former kind are '8 T?P*} to cast upon any 
thing, Ps. 60: 10; to rain on the earth, Job 38:26; 
to fall on one's knees, 2 Ki. 1:13 ; '8 3fl? to inscribe 
in a book, Ex. 34:1'; T -8 ?0?, % 7 X ?8 WJ (see 7J, 
letter ee), simpl. ?8 ]W to deliver into the hands, Isa. 
29:12, and hence figuratively '8 n }¥, '8 ^l?B and 
other verbs of commanding, giving orders ; also Kta 
?8 to come upon any one (see *03); also, Gen. 16:5, 
*PJ8 *ppn " (1 t) my wrong (the wrong done to me) 
(be) upon thee;" hv. *in Eze. 13:3; ^8 310 iyn to 
pronounce good upon any one. Here also should 
the expression be referred which has been variously 
explained, "my soul pours itself vJJ upon me," i. e. 
being poured out into tears, it wholly covers me, &« 
it were, with them, (uberfdnitter, ubergieft mid) mtt 
Sltyranen), Job 30: 16; Ps. 42:5. This expression is 
followed in others which are similar to it, as nppjjfln 

vm ty Ps. 142:4; 143:4; Jon. 2:8; % nn ?8 ™?E 

Ps. 42 : 6, 7, 12 ; 43:5. (On the other hand, there is 
a pregnant construction in D'TV ^8 ^PK " P^ 08 
are turned upon me," i.e. come upon me; 1 Sam. 
4:19; Dan. 10:16). — To the latter kind belong n?JJ 
"in b% to gp up into a mountain, Isa. 40:9; 14:3, 14; 
Hljiyron 78 n ?8D to take (any one) up into a chariot 
1 Ki. 20:33; TO ^8 ?fyn to hang on a tree. Gen. 40 

Digitized by 



19; * Sam. 4: 13; and also tLe phrase 37 to H7j} to 
come up upon the heart, and to occupy it, used of 
thoughts, Jer. 3: 16; 7:31; 19:5; 3*:35- Hence— 
(a) it denotes something svper-added (compare 
Gr. /iijAoc «t! p/ty> Od. vii. 120, kir\ roio:, Germ. 
ttbcr bteff Lat. vulnus super vulnus), as to *1?J to add 
to any thing (see HP!); to -*ETO to he reckoned to 
any thing, 2 Sam. 4:2; ^3t? '2 "W rum n P° n nim » 
Jer. 4: 20, compare Eze. 7 : 26 ; Job 6:16; Jsa. 32 : 10, 
Ptjw? t>g UW " (add) days to a year," i.e. after a year 
and more; Gen. 28:9, " lie took MahaIath...W3 to 
unto his wives," besides his other wives; Gen. 
31 150. Where any thing is subjoined which might 
be a hindrance, it is — (/3) notwithstanding, and 
when followed by an inf. although, Job 10:7, to 
1flJT5 "although thou knowest." See below, B, 
No. 1. 

(2) The second class comprehends those significa- 
tions and phrases in which there is the idea of im- 
pending, being high, being suspended over any- 
thing, without, however, touching it ; Gr. imip ; Germ, 
fiber* above, over. It is used of rest in a place, e. g. 
Job 29:3, "when his light shined Vlfafa *5J over 
my head." Ps. 29 : 3, " the voice of the Lord (is heard) 
over the waters;" also after verbs of motion, Gen. 
19:23," the sun was risen H^? '% over the earth;" 
Gen. i:20; Job 31:21. Specially — (a) it is used 
of rule over men, as to **£?, to to*£, to Tj?Dn to set 
over; JV3H ?y "K?£ he who is over (the ruler of) the 
palace: (see J"P3 No. 2). — (b) It is put after verbs of 
covering, protecting (prop, to cover over any- 
thing); see i?3, HD3, "jpD, noy and Lehrg. 818; even 
though the covering or vail be not above the thing, but 
around, or before it. Ex. 27 : 21, " the curtain which 
was above the testimony," i.e. before the testimony. 
1 Sam. 25:16, uty VH npin "they were a wall 
above us," i.e. before us; thay protected us; Eze. 
13:5. After verbs which convey the idea of pro- 
tecting, and also those which imply defending or in- 
terceding, it may be rendered in Latin, by pro, for 
(compare Gr. apvvuv inrkp, Ovtiv virip); as /% Dnp3 
to light for any one, Jud. 9:17; <V "1»? id.: Dan. 
12:1; to"l$? to make atonement for any one; ^Bipn 
?y to intercede for any one, to avert penalty. Often 
—(c) it has the signification of surpassing, going 
beyond (compare Lat. super omnes, supra modum). 
Ps. 89:8, " terrible above all that are round about 
him." Job 23 : 2, VJCW to n-£3 HI " my hand (i. e. 
the hand of God punishing me) is heavier than my 
l^roaning;" EccL 1:16; Ps. 137:6; Gen. 49:26. In 
these examples the particle *?V is nearly the same as 
Vt comparative (also Gen. 48:22, "I give to thee 

one portion of land THX to above thy brethren/ 
(i.e. greater than to tby brethren); and even — (d) it 
is often besides, over and above. Ps. 16:2, % n3ta 
Tto^3; and of time, />«.yond; Lev. 15:25, "if the 
flux continue 3nTO ?$ beyond the time of her un- 
cleanness ;" Job 21:32. Figuratively — (e) it is used of 
the cause, on account of which (Gr. itirtp ov) any 
thing is done. Ps. 44:23, "for tby sake (T/V) we 
are killed;" Job 34:36; Ruth 1:19. Hence nj to 
Lam. 5:17; n«T ?y Jer. 4:28, and (see |3) on this 
account; "0^ to (pvpter rem); tAiSh ?$ (propter 
causas), on account of; HD 7tf on what account ? i. e. 
wherefore. Followed by an inf. YP*$ to because 
thou say est, Jerem. 2:35; Job 32:2. Often, there- 
fore, used of the cause (as if the foundation) both of 
joy and sorrow (see n P^, J3yi?n, "1^0); of laughing 
and weeping (see PU?, n ??); of anger (Job 19:11); 
of pity (Ps. 103 : 13) etc. ; also — (/) of the object of 
discourse (see **%% "1??, also Nu. 8:22); of swear- 
ing (Levit. 5:22); of confession (Ps. 32:5); of pro- 
phecy (1 Ki. 22:8; Isa. l:l); of strife (Gen. «6: 21), 
etc.; and — (g) of the price for which any thing is 
done (compare Latin ob decern tninas=pro decern 
minis); Job 13:14, n 9"to"at what price," prop, "on 
account of what." 

(3) The third class comprehends those examples 
in which to (after verbs of i\<t) has the sense of 
neighbourhood and contiguity; Lat ad, apud. 
Germ, an, bet)/ at, by, near; this sense however 
springs from the primary one of being high over, 
and may be reduced to that. (Compare Germ, an 
from a^a, Lat. apud, ant. apur, aj>or 9 i. e. inrtp, 
Sanscr. upari. ) So especially — (a) when a thing 
really impends over another, e. g. when one stands 
at a fountain (W? /3£), over which one really leans. 
Gen. 16:7; D!9 to by the water (as that is lower 
thanthe surface of the ground), Num. 24:6; Djn ?Jf 
by the sea, Ex. 14:2, 9; "W* *B to on the shore of 
the Nile, Isai. 19:7 (compare Gr. ewl *orapou, Lat. 
super fluvium, Li v. i. e. adfuvium, Engl, upon the 
river, Dutch Keulen op den Rhyn, Russian pomortk* 
maritime, pr. supermarinus); D?0|C to by the <*ft"»Hft 
(while they were lying down, so that a man standing 
was above them), Gen. 24:30; J^n to Prov. 23:30; 
B9^©H 7% in judgment, pr. at the judicial hoard 
(compare *uper camam, ct Ipyy), Isaiah 28:6; /P 
W2K at the manger, Job 39: 9; — (b) or when one 
inclines oneself, or leans upon any thing. Isaiah 
60: 14, " they shall bow down ^tyl TY\B$ 7? at the 
soles of thy feet." nna 7JJ at the doer (i. e, 'caning 
against it), Job 31: 9. Hence — (c) like tie Lat. 
ad latus, ad de.cteram t Germ, aof ber ®rit, auf b*t 

Digitized by 


recbttn ©rite (compare cti fc&a, ct apumpa, II. vii. 
•38; xii.240); a*, on, the side or hand, e.g. "tV ?y 
at the side (see IV), "*! /? at the hand (seeT), ?? 
^V) at his right hand, Zee. a: 1 ; \39 *% at the front, 
i. e. before (see B*}», DV v8 by the hedge (as in 
Germ, they say, u liter bem 3attne), Job 30:4; 71* 
H'JiJ near the city, Job «9:7; and even with another 
preposition following *10K W at the hinder part, i. q. 
*?£« behind, Ez. 41 : 15'; ^ ^ Ez. 40: 15. Often 
used of a multitude of people or soldiers attending on 
(standing by) a commander or king, Exod. 18:13, 14; 
Jud. 3: 19; Job 1 : 14; a: 1 (compare Gr. irapairrijvui 
and ? ?y$9 Isai. 6:2), also ?X ^Vf Exodusi4:3; ^? 
Dp«S ha. 35: 10; and Job 26:9, toy r^ TKn© " he 
spreads out around him his clouds." Job 13:27; 36 : 
30. — Kindred to this is — (d) the signification of ac- 
companying, with. Exod. 35:22, " men with (?y) 
women." Job 38 : 32 ; Am. 3:15; also used of things 
(son oe^leitenben Umfttnbcn), e. g. njj \?y with sacrifices, 
Ps. 50: 5 ; b»3J ty to the sound of the psaltery, Psalm 
92:4; "fi« W with the light (of the sun), Isa. 18:4; 
compare D^n ?y b?« to eat (flesh) with the blood. — 
Like other particles of accompanying (DJJ, J"IK), it is 
applied — (e) to the signification of holding, possess- 
ing. Ps. 7 : 1 1, D^fypy *}M " my shield (is) with 
God," i. e. God holds it. Also — (/) it is also pre- 
fixed to abstract substantives, and thus serves as a 
periphrasis for adverbs, as "S*? sV with falsehood, 
i.e. falsely, in a lying manner, Levit. 5:22; "in* ^y 
liberally, Psal. 31 :24; nJ>BJ ^y lightly, Jerem. 6: 14; 
8:11; fun ^>y with approbation (of God), Isa. 60:7, 
i. q. tf*"$ Isaiah 56:7; Jer. 6:20; compare iw l<ra, 
i. q. lauicj €wl fiiya, ixi iroXv, Arab. -Uj Jlc evi- 

(4) the fourth class includes those significations 
and examples in which ^denotes motion (especially 
when rapid), unto or towards any place, nearly 
approaching in signification to the particle ?$, for 

which ^i is always accustomed to be used in Syr. 
and Chald. This arises from the signification of 
rushing down upon any thing, see No. 1, letter b 
\ rushing being more swift and rapid when down- 
wards), and this is expressed in Greek, either by the 
particle M,ot else by Kara {down upon any thing); 
especially in compound words (1:06117/11) Lat in, ad, 
Germ, auf (ctroal) t?iiv auf (etwae) los, upon, to, 
towards. Thus TO|vy to his face (elsewhere ^ 
V)B see D^B), Job 91 131 ; to^PP *?$_ to his own place, 
Ex. 18:23; WE ^ to the right hand, Gen. 24:49; 
te"ip >y for ^2rj? 7« into his inwards, i. e. into him, 


the hand to. or towards, any thing (Isaiiili 1 1 :8 ; .««'* 
nj>cr), ^>y ^cj (also b$ ^5J) to fall away to any one; 
^y 3H3 (also ?$ 3H3) to write to any one, 2 Clron. 
30: 1 ; ^y 3? 0*ip to turn the heart to any thing (see 
DT); W njnppn to bow oneself before any one, Lev. 
26: 1 ; and so after a verb of going (a Sam. 15:20), 
of coming (ibid, verse 4), of fleeing (Isa. 10:3), °* 
drawing near, Eze. 44 : 1 3 ; of sending, Neh. 6:3; of 
being taken, Job 18:8; of telling, Job 36 -.33; Isa. 
53 : 1 ; of love (see 321} ) and desire, Cant. 7:11. Also, 
2Sa.i4:i, DW?« W ^ *5? "the heart of the 
king (inclined) to Absalom," i.e. he loved him. 
Specially it is — (a) in a hostile sense, against, upon, 
auf (etiDaS) lo«/ fiber (etn>a$) feer. Judges 16:12, 
TJJJ &$$$ ". the Philistines (are) upon thee," i. e. 
they rise against thee. Eze. 5 : 8, ^^ *Mn " behold 
I am against thee," i.e. I invade thee, attack thee 
(elsewhere Y?$ 'H), Job 16:4,9, 10; 19:1a; 21:27; 
30:12; 33:10; Isaiah 9:20; 29:3; also, hk WD to 
rise against anyone; "PJ? ^S njn to besiegu a city; 
?y 32p to surround any one (in a hostile manner); 
?y 3K*n to take counsel against any one, etc. More 
rarely — (b) in a good sense; towards, e. g. *lpn HflJ 
•y 1 Sa. 20:8. — (c) By writers of the silver age (see 
the Chald.), it is not unfrequently so put for ?K and 
f y that it is rendered in Latin by a dative. Est. 3 : 9, 
3te lfyjry ^y DK " if it seem good to the king," i. e. 
pleases him (compare Ezr. 5:17); and so also not un- 
frequently in the book of Job, as, 33:23; E* DK 
V^ T i. q. Sh # CK <-if there be to him," if he have. 
Job 22:2, tojflt J13^ '3 " if he be profitable to him- 
self;" 6:27; 19:5; 30:2; 33:27; 38:10; compare 
Eze. 27:5; Prov. 29:5. Less correctly to this class 
some have referred D?P^»? ^y towards heaven; Ex. 
9:22; njnj Sy Isa. 17:7; pO)^S ™J Mic. 4:1; and 
others of this kind, which belong to No. 1 , b, latter part. 

(B) Conj. for ^ ^y — (l) although (compare 
letter A, 1, b, ft). Job 16:17, "*n DDH *6 4* 
"although there be no violence in my hands;" 
34 : 6 ; Isaiah 53 : 9. (Arab. l& id. ; see Schult. on 
Job, Martini on Isa. loc. cit.). 

(2) because that, because, followed by a pret. 
Gen. 31:20; Ps. H9:i36;Ezr. 3:11; more fully /g 
Tftj Deut. 29:24; 2 Sam. 3:30; *? ?y Deut. 31:17; 

It is compounded with other particles— (A) /K9 
pr. as according to, mit cs angemeffen (iffy comp. ?S 
A, No.l, f; Isa. 59: 18; 63:7. By far the most 
frequent compound is — 

(B) 7BQ (Arab. Ac -<, although this is rare in 

KL 17:2:. Hence >K T n?^, nnn to stretch out ' Arabic, see 1 Ki. 13: 15, Arab. VeraA 

Digitized by 





(l) pr. from upon, from above, used of things 
which go away from the place, in or upon which they 
had been; Germ, con obm wecj/ e. g. Gen. 24:64, "she 
alighted ^9|H byo from off the camel." Gen. 48 -.17, 
" he took the hand teWl ^P from off his head," on 
which it was placed. 'B /£? B^"» K^J to behead any 
one, Gen. 40: 19. 1BD 'VQ fcO(J to read of that which 
is written upon the book, (compare ?? 30?), Jer. 36: 
11, compare Isa. 34:16; Amos 7:11. Jud. 16:20, 
"Jehovah departed ^?VP from above him," (the 
Spirit of God having rested upon him). Specially 

— (a) it is used of those who lay aside a garment, 
(see ?J2 A, No. l, a), Gen. 38:14, 19; Tsa. 20:2; a 
shoe, Josh. 5:15; who draw off a ring fi*om the finger, 
Gen. 41 :4a; compare Deu. 8:4; 29:4", whence it is 
used of the skin, Job 30:30, vXJP T^ *TW "my skin 
has become black (and falls) off from me;" verse 17. 
Figuratively, Jud. 16:19, "strength departed from 
off him," (as he had been clothed with it, see ^3?). 

— (b) it is used of those who remove something 
troubling, which had been a burden to them (see ?# 
No. 1, letter a, /3). Exod. 10:28, tyfi *fe " depart 
from me," to whom thou art troublesome and as it 
were a burden. Gen. 13:11; 25 : 6. 2 Sam. 19:10, 
"(David) fled out of the land ofe?« typ from Ab- 
salom," (to whom his father began to be a trouble). 

(a) from at, from by> from near anything 
(comp. /£ No. 3), as if de . . juxta, prope. Gen .17:22, 
44 and Jehovah went up DvH^K 7$D from by Abra- 
ham." Gen. 35:13; Nu. 16:26; hence after verbs 
of passing by, Gen. 18 : 3; removing, Job 19: 13 ; 
turning oneself away, Isa. 7:17; Jer. 2:5; Hos. 9:1. 

( 3 ) ? '89 nearly i. q. sV_ (comp. ? nnnp i. q. nnpl), 
above, Neh. ia:37; upon anything, Gen. 1:7; Eze. 
1:25; over anything Jon. 4:6; 2 Chron. 13:4; Neh. 

12:31; near, by, 2 Ch. 26:19. (Aram. r >o > ^JS 
id. Matt. 2:9.) Also, without ? (like J"inriD for 
\ nnnp) above, Neh. 3:28. Eccl. 5:7, ^ffl maj *? 
l!Q& nnJ"forone high (powerful), who is above 
the high, watcheth him ;" i. e. there is above the most 
powerful, one more powerful, who takes care of him. 
Psal. 108:5; and with an ace. Esth. 3:1; near, by, 
Jer. 36:91. 

Tg Chald. with suff. vrtj, M&, pn^K i. q. Heb. 

(1) upon (auf), Dan. 2:10, 29, 46, 48, 49; 3: 12, 

(a) i. q. Hebr. No. 2, inrip; specially in the sig- 
nification of surpassing, Dan. 3 19; figuratively, fo r, 
on account of, used of cause; whence HJ^ 7g there- 
fore, Ezr. 4: 15. 

I' 3) often i. q. ?$ to some person or thing, after 

verbs of entering, Dan. 9 :«4; returning, Dan. 4:31; 
sending, Ezr. 4:11, 17, 18; writing, 4:7 [but this if 
Heb.]; i. q. / the mark of the dative, Dan. 6: 1$, 
" sleep fled % nvj to him" (i. e. h is sleep) ; hence ?E 3D 
Ezr. 5:17, and 'X ^2$ Dan. 4:24, to rem gcod *o 
some one, i. e. to please him. 

/$ more rarely /M, with suff. r^ m. a yo he, a 

curved piece of wood fastened to the pole or beam, 

laid upon the neck of beasts for drawing, Nu. 19:8; 

Deut. 21:3. Mostly used figuratively of servitude, 

. 1 Sam. 6:7; 1 Ki. 12:11; Isaiah 9:3; of calamity, 

Lam. 3:27. Arab. J£ id., from the root ??JJ, Ji 
No. II, 2. 

«?V. Ch. Mowed by 1«? over, Dan. 6:3. 

N*9X? ("yoke"), [Ulla'], pr.n.m. 1 01.7:39. 

L 2 /J; an unused root, i. q. ^. Jr to be strong. 
Hence the pr. n. fufyt '3K" (see under 3K).] 

3 /J; an unused root, i.q. 132^ to stammer ; whence — 
3j?X m. adj. stammering, Isa. 32:4. (Arabic 
^ic barbarian.) 

H/^ fut. ^8!.— (1) to go up. (Arsb. lc to be 
high, lifted up, also to go up. In the Indo-Germanic 
languages to the same family belongs the Latin root, 
alo (aufjietm); whence alesco (roadtfen), altus, a I tare, 
and, with the breathing at the beginning of the word 
hardened, cello ; whence celsus, excello, collis. As to 
the German roots, see Fulda, Germ. Wurzelworter, 
§ ccx. 2.) Constr. followed by sV. of place to which 
one ascends, Isa. 14: 14; '$ Ex. 24:13, 15, 18; 34:4; 
j> Isa. 22:1; 3 Ps. 24:3; Cant. 7:9; followed by an 
ace. Gen. 49:4, T?« *3?r*9 $7% '? "because thou 
wentestup thy father's couch ; w Prov. 21:23; Nu. 
13:17; Jud. 9:48. It is very often used in speak- 
ing of those who go from a lower region towards a 
higher; for instance, of those who go to Jud&a from 
Egypt, Gen. 13: l ; 44:24; Ex. 1 : 10; from the king- 
dom of the ten tribes, Isa. 7: 1,6; 1 Ki. 12:27,28: 
15:17; Acts 15:2; from Assyria, Isa. 36:1, 10; from 
Babylonia, Ezr. a:i; Neh. 7:6; from all countries 
(Zee. 14:16, 17); also of those who go up to the 
sanctuary, Ex. 34:24; 1 Sa. 1:3; 10:3 (sanctuaries 
having anciently been built on high places, like mo- 
nasteries, of which those who go thither are Laid in 

Syriac, to go up («fi\rr), compare under the word 
n ?3 No. 3, 4), who go to the city (cities having, is 

Digitized by 


pSy— rf?y 


like manner, been built on mountains), l Sa. 9 : 1 1 ; 
Jud.P:8; 90:18,31; Hos.8:9; wftf > g° int0 & e 
desert (which seems, like the sea, to rise before those 
who look at it), Job 6: 18; Matt. 4:1; who go to a 
prince or judges (from their commonly residing in 
citadels), Num. 16:12, 14; Jud. 4:5; 20:3; Ruth 
4:1; Deut. 17:8. 

Inanimate things are also said to go up, as smoke, 
Gen. 19:28 (and even any thing which being burned 
turns to smoke, Jud. 20:40; Jerem. 48: 15); vapour, 
Genesis 2: 6; the morning, Gen. 19: 15; 32:25,27; 
anger (which is often compared to smoke), Ps. 18:9; 
78:21, 31 ; 2 Sa. 1 1 :20; also, a way which goes up- 
wards, Jud. 20:31; a tract of rising ground, Josh. 
16: 1 ; 18:12; a lot which comes up out of the urn, 
Lev. 16:9, 10; Josh. 18:11; a plant which sprouts 
forth and grows, Gen. 40:10; 41:22; Deu. 29:22; 
(poet, used of men, Gen. 49:9); whence the part. 
"flV Job 36 : 33 (a plant) sprouting forth ; compare 

Like other verbs of going, flowing (see TV, v?) ; 
poet, it is construed with an ace. of the thing, which 
goes up in great plenty, as though it all were changed 
into it; Proverbs 24:31, D*}Wlpi? fo n^ n$7) " be- 
hold! it all (the field) went up thorns," i. q. becomes 
thorns, like a house when burned turns to smoke, 
k»- 34:13; 5:6; Am.8:8; 9:5. 

(2) Metaph. to increase, to become strong (as a 
battle), 1 Ki. 22:35; wealth, Deut. 28:43; followed 
by /£, to overcome, Pro. 31 :29. As to the phrase 

3? W '*vJJ see 'X p. Dcxavui, A. 

(3) A garment when put on is said to go up (see 
'fi No. l,a, a), Lev. 19:19; a razor when used for 
the head, Jud. 16: 17; a bandage, when applied to a 
wound (see ro*T^); also things which are taken up, 
carried away (compare Hiph. No. 3), Job 5 -.26; 36: 
20; also things which come up into an account 
(compare Hiph. No. 3), 1 Ch. 27 : 24. 

Niphal (pass, of Hiph.). — (1) to be made to go up, 
L e. to be brought up, Ezr. 1:11. 

(a) to be made to depart, to be driven away, Jer. 
37:11; Nu.16.24,27; 2 Sa. 2:27. 

(3) to be elevated, exalted (used of God), Psalm 
47:10; 97^9- 

Hiphil np^n (rarely np^HHab. 1:15) — (1) to cause 
(any one, or any thing) to go up, e.g. on a roof, Josh. 
2:6; out of a pit, Gen. 37:28; to lead up, to take 
up, iSa. 2:19; 8:8; 2 Sa. 2:3; 6:15; 2 Ki. 17:36; 
nVljrn"l$ n?3jn he put lamps on the candlestick, Ex. 
t5:37« Constr. followed by an ace., once followed 
by ^ Eze. 26:3. Specially to put a sacrifice on the 

altar, to offer, Isa.57:6; Tftfy rtffln to offer a burnt 
offering, Lev. 14:20; Job 1 :5. 

(2) to take up, Ps. 102:25. 

(3) to bring up into an account, 1 Ki. 9:21. 

(4) to spread over, to overlay with. 1 KL 
10: 17, ™? U«F^S n&.anj DOO n$6p "and he 
overlaid one shield with three minae of gold,"" i.t 
he used it in gilding one shield. 

Hophal ntyp (for rby$) to be led up, Nah. 2:8; 
to be offered (as a sacrifice), Judges 6: 28; to be 
brought into an account, 2 Ch. 20:34. 

Hithpael, to lift up oneself, Jer. 51:3. 

Derived nouns, W, % nfo n% % ^, frfo, fe», 
tyo, njap, rfytp, nJ>J{n,and the pr. names nftjfyj, *>? 
Chald. n)» j# 

"7% constr. n^, with suff. ^JJ (P 8 . 1:3); plur. 
constr. vK Neh. 8:15; m. a leaf, Gen. 3:7; 8:11; 
collect, leaves, Ps. 1:3; Isa. 1 : 30; from the root '"y]J 
in the sense of growing and sprouting forth. 

^yV. Chald. pretext, cause, Dan. 6: 5, 6. (Aram. 

and Arab. Jk^^, <flx id. In Arabic it is also used 

of any thing, which is made the pretext of neglect- 
ing another, see the root ??V No. I, Kal.) 

"$ more rarely H^ty f. — (1) what is laid on 
the altar, what is offered on the altar (see the 
root, Hiphil No. 1); specially i. q. 'Y? a burnt of- 
fering, a sacrifice of which the whole was burned, 
Gen. 22:3,6; Lev. 1:4, seq. 

(2) ascent, steps, Eze. 40:26.' 

Sometimes ~?V is contracted from *tyl iniquity, 
which see. 

. ""V*. emphat. WjvX Ch. a burnt offering, pi. 
P> : Ezr.6: 9 . 

,*"T?K .f- — (1) with the letters transposed, i. q. 
■"yJS (which, in Hos. loc. cit., is found in many copies). 
— (l) iniquity, Hos. 10:9. (Compare iEth. 0A©2 

(2) [Alvah, AliaK], pr. n. of an Edomite tribe, 
Gen. 36:40; 1 Ch. 1 :5i np, where a»rQ has njfg. 

DW8 (denom. from nfo npjjy of the form 
D^T, Dv*n?), in. pi. youth, juvenile age, Psa. 89: 
46; Job 33:25; poet, used of juvenile strength. Job 
20: 1 1, VO^g IN^D vnto« "(although) his bones are 
full of juvenile strength," as well rendered by the 
LXX., Chald., Syriac (others take it as hidden sins^. 
Used of the youthful period of a people, Isa. 54:4. 

H7K (" unrighteous M [" i. q. u lAc thick, 

Digitized by 


heavy"]), [A Ivan], pr. n. of an Edomite, Gen. 36: 
?3, which is written ]vg 1 Ch. 1 :4c 

Hp^/fi f. &xal Xiyofi. Pro. 30: 15, pr. a leech, as 
rightly rendered by the LXX., Vulg., Gr. Venet. 

(Arab. ailx» Syr. ff^v id. from the root (J^e. and 
jdx to adhere) ; hence used as a female monster or 
spectre, an insatiable sucker of blood, such as JUil, 
&J&\ in the Arabian superstitions, especially in the 
Thousand and One Nights, or like the Varapyre of 
our fables. [Such profane follies must not be looked 
on as illustrations or explanations of the inspired 
Scripture; as if the Holy Ghost could sanction such 

vanities.] So sjjjl in the Ramus is rendered by 

the very word J*^, which Bochart (Hieroz. ii. 801) 
and Alb. Schult. on Prov. loc. cit. have incorrectly 
interpreted fate. See also my remarks on the super- 
stitions of the Hebrews and other Orientals with 
regard to spectres, in Comment, on Isa. 34: 14. 

WJJ r i. q. D?JJ aud f ?3J to exult, to bejoice, 
(originally, I believe, used of a sound of joy, like 
d\a\a;u/, 13*3, not of leaping, dancing, like the syn. 
/*!), 2 Sa. 1 :20; Ps. 68:5 ; followed by ?, concern- 
ing anything, Psalm 149 : 5; Hab. 3: 18. It is also 
applied to inanimate things, Ps. 96: 1 2. It is some- 
times used in a bad sense, of insolent, haughty men, 
Ps. 94:3; Isa. 23:12; compare 5:.14. 

Derived noun, TvH, and — 

r?y m. exulting, rejoicing, Isa. 5:14. 

O /J? an unused root; Arab. AaLc to be thick, 

dense, with the letters transposed jLi. to be dark ; 
whence — 

ntpT^f. thick darkness, Gen. 15: 17; Eze. 12:6, 
7, 12. 

V* ("going up,* perhaps "height;" from the 
root ^9?), pr. n. Eli, a high priest; the predecessor 
of Samuel [as judge in Israel], l Sam. 1:3, seqq.; 
LXX. Vulg. 'HXi, Heli. 

/Sf. m. a pestle, Prov. 27:22; from the root njJJ 
to be lifted up (compare No. 3). It may also be sus- 
pected that the signification is taken from the root 

//}/; Arabic Jx Conj. II. to strike with repeated 
blows ; but it is not necessary to resort to this. 

<> adj. only in f. JV?? higher, upper, Josh. 15: 
19; Jud. 1 : 15: from the root H/V; of the form ?9i?. 

dcxxxii rbhy-npfyf 

*?$? Chald. most high, supreme. n«!w *t(rjl 
Dan. 3:26,32; 5:18,21; and simply niCJ Dan. 
4:14,21; 7:25; used of the only and most high 
God. In a'ro always Kvtf; according to the Syriao 

form l»X^. 

n T 7R and |3K see H}^ and l&. 

fi;?y f. — (1) an upper chamber, a loft on the 
roof of a house; iticepyov, ©6Uer# (Srtet. (Arable 

Lie, iLLe.) Jud. 3:23, 25; 1 Ki. 17:19,23; 2 KL 


1 o. Poet, used of heaven, Ps. 1 04 : 3, 1 3. 
(2) a ladder, ascent by steps, by which oim 
went up to the temple, 2 Chron. 9:4. 

P yR m. njity f. adj.— (1) high, higher (opp. to 
fan*), Gen. 40*: 17. nity? n^n the higher pool 
(i.e. situated in a higher place), 2 Ki. 18: 17; Eze. 
42:5. Used once of something set in an elevated 
place, and made an example of punishment to men, 
such as is called in Greek Trapahuy pari £e<rdai. 1 Ki. 
9:8, l V h "JK n J* n »*l Vulg. et domus hoc erit in 

(2) Supreme,Most Hi g h, used of God, as ftvP ^ 
Gen. 1 4 : 1 8 ; )ty njpr; Psa. 7 : 1 8 ; f\ty &&* Psalm 
57 : 3 ; and simply ]\"?V f Ps. 9 : 3 ; 21:8. (The Phoe- 
nicians and Carthaginians used the same word io 
speaking of their gods, viz. 'Ekiovv, i. q. ttyioroc, Philc 
Bybl. in Euseb. Praep. Evang. i. IO ; and Alonim 
valonuth (nw^jn DW^y) the gods and goddesses, pr. 
those who are above, both male and female. Plant 
Pcen. v. 1, l; also pr. n. Abdalonimus, i. e. Tjfl 
D'JV^y the servant, i. e. worshipper of the gods.) 

|V/J£ Ch. id., only in plur. (majest.) H^? used 
of the supreme God, Dan. 7:22, 25. [But may not 
this pi. adj. be equivalent to v^nrra in the New Test.? 
highest places."] 

Vy]l m. exulting, joyful, Isa. 94:8; sometimes 
(like the verb, which see), used in a bad sense, exu It- 
ing % insolently, Isa. 22:2; Zeph. 2:15; Isa. 13:3, 
Wi «rfa[ [but the second word really is *0W|: ren- 
dered in Thes. "those who rejoice in my splen 
dour"], Zeph. 3:11. 

'&. m. aw. \ty6fi. Ps. 12:7; workshop, from 
the root ty No. I, 3. 

•V* (P- (from the root ty I, 3), Ps. 14:1 ; 66:5 
plur. ni^py f. a deed, work — (1) used of the ex- 
cellent deeds cf God, Ps. 9:12; 77:13. 

(9) of the deeds of men, especially in a bad 1 

Digitized by 


Dent. 22:14, 17 (comp. 7fy I, a). Zephaniah 3:7, 
C^ntyR 'i Wfl^n " they perverted all their 
doings," they acted perversely, wickedly ; Ps. 14: 1 ; 
141:4; Ezek. 14:2s. 




f. i. q. the preceding No. 1, a deed (of 
God), Jer. 39:19. 

rW* 1 ^ f. (from the root f?J}), exultation, re- 
joicing, Hab. 3: 14. 

H % ?y f. Chald. the higher part of a house, i. q. 
Heb. n£g. Dan. 6: 11. 

I. 7/Jfi.q. Arab. Js pr. to drink again, after 
a foiTn»ir draught (for which they use the verb J^} ), 
in order to quench thirst fully. Conj. II. to drink 
again and again, to drink deep. But this primary 
notion is variously applied, for instance, to a second 
blow, by which one already wounded is killed; to an 
after- milking, by which the milk is altogether drawn 
away ; to a gleaning, and going over boughs, so as 
to collect all that may be left from the former harvest, 
etc., see Jauhari and Firuzabadi, in Alb. Schult. 
Origg. Hebr. i. c. 6, who treats on this root at con- 
siderable length. In Hebrew it is — 

(1) to glean, to make a gleaning, like Jlc Conj. 
II.; seePo.No. l,andH^>. 

(2) to quench thirst, figuratively applied to 
gratifying lust (see Hithpa. Jud. 19:25); more often 
to gratify one's desire (ben SRutb tttylen) in vexing 
any one, petulantly making- sport of him, hence to be 
petulant (muttroiHig fepn^^^typ, ^>ft a petulant 
(boy), abstr. ^1$. 

(3) to perform (a work), to accomplish (ehpal 
Bollbringen/ Dollfuforen), see ?y& hence to do a 
deed, seePo. No. 3, and the nouns fy^B, ^?. 

Poel — (1) to glean, Lev. 19: 10; followed by an 
ace. of the field, Deu. 24:21. Figuratively applied 
to a people utterly destroyed, Jer. 6 : 9. 

(«) to be petulant. Part, ^typ a petulant (boy), 
Isa. 3: 12, i. q. ??M, fyv which see. 

(3) to vex, to ill treat any one, followed by ? of 
pers. Lam. 1:22; 2:20, nb wjf® *p? *« whom hast 
thuu thus vexed?" Lam. 3:51, V$h nffW TO 
" my eye vexes me," i. e. pains me (from weeping). 
Pass. Lam. 1 : 12, " like unto my sorrow v 7?to TC^ 
which has been brought upon me." Job 16: 15, 
V"£ "^9 \$fr "I have ill-treated my head in 
the dust," i. e. I have made it dirty, altogether covered 
with dust. 

Hithfael ??Rnn — (l) pr. tosatisfy thirst 9 xmd 

oflust, followed oy 3 on any one, Judges 19:25; U 
satisfy the mind in vexing any one, and making 
sport of him (well rendered by the LXX. c'fiirat£w, 
Vulg.illudo), iSa.3l:4; lCh. 10:4; Num. 22:29; 
Jer. 38: 19. 

(2) to put forth all one's power, to expend 
it in destroying any one, followed by 9 Exod. 10: 2; 

Hithpokl, to complete, to do a deed. Ps. 141 :4. 

Derived nouns, TfiV , tyv, J*8>, TOt, n ?&, TO 
V&Q, W>£?, Chald. njy. 

II. 7/J/ an unused root. Arab. Ji — (1) to put 
in, to thrust in, and intrans. to enter, like the Ch. 

7?H. — (2) to bind on, to bind fast, whence ^V Jir 
a yoke (like the Lat. jugum a jvngendo, Gr. ( vyov 
from £evyvvu>). 

77H Chald. i.q. Hebr. No. II.— (1) to enter (Syr. 
id.). Specially used of any one who enters, and is 
admitted to the private audience of a king, Dan 2* 
16, 24. Pret. W Dan. loc. cit. ; fem. HpJJ ; , pro n^>£ 
5:10. Part. plur. rfe 4=4; 5:8 a»na, Vm 

(2) to set (used of the sun [the subst. 7JJO]), Dun. 
6:15. Comp. Hebr. K13. 

Aphel, to bring in any one, followed by ? of pers., 
pret. 7K?n (the letter 3 being inserted) Dan. 2 : 25 ; 6 : 1 9 : 
Imp. fyj} 2:24; inf. n^jn 5:7; and rbtyD 4:3. 

HoPHAL/Sn to be introduced, 5:13, 15. 

Derived noun, /?£. 

J"V) y^y const. T\\7fi plur. fem. gleanings, Jerem. 
40:9; Obad. 1:5; Isa.i7:6; Jud.8:2; from the root 
m 1, 1. 

I. ui/% to hide, to conceal. In Kal only 
occurring in part. pass. 0*9(8 hidden (sins), Ps. 90:8. 

Niphal D/^J to be hidden, to lie hid, Nah. 3:11; 
followed by 19 of person from whom any thing is 
hid. Lev. 5:2; and TOQ 4 • 1 3 ; Num. 5:13. Part. 
D*P?W secret men, crafty, Ps. 26:4. 

HiPHiLD7gn — (1) to hide, followed by 19 from 
any one, 2 Kings 4:27. Specially — (a) DTO. D ^JP 
followed by 19 to hide the eyes, i. e. to turn them 
away from any one, implying neglect, Eze. 22:26 : 
and refusing aid, Isa.l:i5; compare Prov. 28:27; 
sometimes connivance, Lev. 20:4; 1 Sam. 12:3 al- 
lowed by ?). Without D.TO Psa. lo: 1.— (b) D^JJfJ 
JJ'H to hide the ear* not to choose to hear, Lam. 3 156. 

(2) to hide, to cover over with words, i.e. to 
chide, to rebuke (opp. to throw light on, i.e. to praise \ 
Job 42: 3. 

Digitized by 


Hithpael, to hide one 1 8 $elf Job 6: 16; used 
yl rivers, J^D?KJV \oty " in which the snow h i d e t h 
itself," i. e. the snow water in the spring (?? here 
having the signification of approach, see No. l, h, a). 
Followed by \Q to turn oneself away from any 
thing, to withdraw from it; Deut. 22:1, 3,4. Psa. 
55:2, % fl|W9 ^Knn-^>« "hide not thyself from my 
supplication ; " Isa. 58:7. 

Derived nouns, oftV, &b% nD^Jffil [also ^9^2, see 
note on that word]. 

II. U/J7 or U/J7 an unused root, Arab. U-t 

pubes fuit et coeundi cupidus, used both of persons 

when young, and of animals; Syriac fi^^L) id. 
Hence &V and HD^ [but see note], D^g 

D7JJ ernph. KD^J Ch. m. i.q. Hebr. tfyv remote 
time (eternity), used of time future, Dan. 3:33; 
4:31; 7:27, and of the past, Ezr. 4:15; whence, 
Dan. 2:20, KD^pT]p ; KD^yjO "from eternity and 
unto eternity." 

D7JJ m. a youth, a young man of the age of 
puberty, 1 Sam. 17:56; 20:22 (for which, verse 21, 

there is "IW); Arab. JU,^Juc from the root D?J( 
No. II. ' ~ 

*r ?R f. of the preceding, a girl of marriageable 
age, like the Arab. <u!c, ( Jui ; Syr. )Ayi«^a ; 

Ch. MFID^ i. q. iT^JQ, and Gr. wane (by which word 
the Hebrew np^j is' rendered by the LXX. Ps. 68 : 26 ; 
and Aqu., Symra., Theod., Isa. 7:14), Gen. 24:43; 
Ex. 2:8; Prov.30:i9. PL nto)g Ps.68-.26; Cant. 
1:3; 6:8, Used of a youthful spouse recently 
married, Isa. 7:14 (compare n>in3 Joel 1 : 8). [See 
note at the end of the art.] The notion of unspotted 
virginity is not that which this word conveys, for 
which the proper word is np*n? (see Cant. 6:8, and 
Prov. loc. cit; so that in Isa. loc. cit. the LXX. have 
incorrectly rendered it napdivog); neither does it 
convey the idea of the unmarried state, as has of late 
been maintained by Hengstenberg, (Christol. des A. 
T. ii. 69), but of the nubile state and puberty. See 
Comment, on Isa. loc. cit. — niP/J? ?JJ in the manner 
of virgins, nad) 3ungfrauen SBeife (see ?X No. 1, a, f), 
i. e. with the virgin voice, sharp, Germ, soprano, opp. 
to the lower voice of men, 1 Ch. 15 : 20 (see a3 to this 
passage under the root nyj Nofi Piel); Ps. 46:1. 
Forkel (Gesch. der Musik, i. p. 142) understood it to 
mean virgin measures (compare Germ. 3ungfraumetS), 
but this does n:c suit the context, in 1 Ch. loc. cit. 

dcxxxiv fyt-thg 

[Note. The object in view in let king to undeiminc 

the opinion which would assign the signification of 
virgin to this word, is clearly to raise a discrepancy 
between Isa. 7:14, and Matt. 1:23: nothing which has 
been state \ does, however, really give us any ground 
for assigning another meaning. The ancient versions, 
which gave a different rendering, did so for party par- 
poses, while the LXX., who could have no such mo- 
tive, render it virgin in the very passage where it must 
to their minds have occasioned a difficulty. Alma in 
the Punic language signified virgin, as Gesenius rightly 
states in Thes., on the authority of Jerome, The ab- 
solute authority of the New Test, is, however, quite 
sufficient to settle the question to a Christian.] 

pD?E ("hidden"), [A lmon\, pr. n.— (1) ufa 
town in the tribe of Benjamin, Josh. 21:18, called 
in 1 Ch. 6: 45 n^g. But— (a) n^pritaJja Nu. 
33:46, is a station of the Israelites in the desert of 

n^O/Jf a word 2ic \tyop. but of uncertain autho- 
rity. — (1) Ps. 9:1, seems to be the same as rtpTJj 7J 
Ps. 46 : 1 (see under the word n 9?8)> with the virgin 
voice, (unless it should be so read). 

(2) Ps. 48: 15, where the context requires it to be 
understood i. q. 0?ty eternity, for ever, LXX. tic 
roue ai&vac, Vulg. in sascula (as if they had pro- 
nounced it rriDpty). Many copies, both MSS. and 
printed, have, Wlrtj (better niD"7E), unto death, 
and this might be preferred, [rejected in Thes. as not 
suiting the context]. As to this use of the particle 
•2, compare Isa. 10:25; Ps. 19:7. 

% u?V.. Ch. Gentile noun, from tfyi (which see), 
an Elamite, pi. K$V. Elamites, Ezr. 4:9. 

nO?K ("covering"), [Alemeth], pr.n. m- 
(1) 1 Ch. 7:8.— (2) 1 Ch. 8:36; q:4«. 

W&B. see f^fyt 

D7J/ i- q- &Jand P5J to rejoice, to be me bit, 
Job 20:18. 

Niphal, Job 39: 13, n P?$ B^JTW " the wing of 
the ostriches exults;" i.e. moves itself briskly; 
comp. II. ii. 462, &ya\\6fievai trrtpvyttrvi. 

Hithpael, to rejoice, Pro. 7:18. 

Me*, a root of very doubtful authority, which oat 
been regarded as the same as Vj? to swallow down, 
to suck in; and hence has been derived fat. PSd 
W/>2! they will suck in, Job 39:30. But I stuped 
the true reading may be Tshsh being changed in* 

Digitized by 



y, a letter of the same form only larger), i. e. titflu 
(r r wiy) they sip up eagerly, pret. Pilel (a form 
frequently used to indicate rapid motion). 

V7t. Chald. f. i. q. Heb. fi)f a rib, pi. H??? Dan. 
7:5. Bertholdt here incorrectly understands the 
word to mean canine teeth, tusks. 

yPJJ not used in Kal; pr. to cover, to wrap 

LP. (Arab. uJli, Gr. KaXvarw. Comp. C|ty No. 1.) 

Pual — (1) to be covered, Cant. 5: 14. 

(a) to languish, to faint (pr. to be covered with 
darkness, see synn. nD]^ ^BJf), Isa. 51 :20. 

Hithpael — (1) to vail oneself, Gen. 38: 14. 

(a) i. q. Pual No. a, to fa in t, to languish with 
heat, Jon. 4:8; with thirst, Am. 8:13. 

r?S( m » (verbal of Pual with n— parag.), lan- 
guishing, lamenting, £20.31:15. [In Thes. this 
is said to be for n 9r?» an( * it is referred to the Pret 
Pual of the root] 

Y/il fut. l^K, i.q. T^J and B?V r to exult, to 

REJOICE, TO BE JOYFUL, Pro. 11:10; 28:12. PJJ 

rrin*3 to rejoice in Jehovah, Psa. 5: 12; 9:3; 1 Sam. 
2:1. Followed by / to exult over any one, Psal. 
«5 : 2. Used figuratively of inanimate things, 1 Ch. 

Derivative, rVIV^g. 

p />; a root not used as a verb. Arab. <jA«c, Jjkz 
to adhere ; hence HjJvJJ a leech, which see. ' 

DJ7 (with conjunctive accents) and DJJ (with dis- 
tinctives, or with the art.) with suff. *©X, comm. (but 
rarely f. Ex. 5:16; Jud. 18:7), a people, so called 
from their being collected together, see the root DOJJ 

No. 1 (Arab. Jule the common people). It is very 
often used of Israel, as being the people of God, D? 
rtw Exod. 15:13; Deut. 38:36; rtlg OJ? the holy 
people, Deu. 7:6; H?p3 Dg the people peculiarly be- 
longing to God, Deut. 4:20, etc.; and in opposition 
to D^J (see *U); but the pi. D^2 Isa. 8:9; Psal. 33: 
10, and ryj? *#8 Deut a8:io, etc., is used of all 
peoples. Specially it is used — 

(1) of single races or tribes, e.g. fl/^J D 2 «^ u ^- 5 : 
18; pi. often of the tribes of Israel (comp. the fo'ipoi 
of the Athenians), Gen. 49:10; Deut 3a :8; 33:3, 
19; Isa.3:i3; H08.lO-.14; Ps.47:a, 10; and even 
used of the race or family of any one, especially in 
the plural 'Q *£X the kindred, relatives of any one, 
i. q. 'B V9f (see B»K No. 1, h) Lev. ai : 1, 4; 19: 16. 
**¥S'9W5$i to be gathered to one's people, i. q. 

DCXXXV py— D^y 

elsewhere is called, to be gathered to one's fathers 
(see *)9ti Niphal). (Hence has arisen its use in the 

singular of single relatives; whence Arab. ^ an 

uncle, and the pr. n. '&&% kinsman of God, B3?Y$t to 
whom God is kinsman.) Poet, used of any peculiar 
race of men, as VJP DJJ the afflicted people, Ps.l8:a8; 
comp. p^¥ ^J just men, Gen. 30:4. 

(2) Opp. to princes, leaders, or the king; it de- 
notes the citizens, the common people (compare 
\u6q opp. to leaders, II. ii. 365; xiii. 108; xxiv. 28), 
1 Kings 12: 16; 3 Kings ll: 17; 33:31; Eze. 7:87; 
soldiers, Jud. 5:3; hence, followed by a genit the 
companions, or servants of a leader or lord; i. q. 
Yf)$ (see V*X No. 1, h); feme fccute. Cant. 6: 13, 
3 % 1? % ®2 nia?"ip "the chariot of the companions 
of the prince;" trie SBagen bed ffirftlid)en werolgeS: (V 
being, I consider, in this place not a suffix, but 
paragogic, and a mark of the constr. state). Eccl. 
4:16; also usjd of the servants of a private master, 
1 Ki. 19:21 ; 3 Ki. 4:41. Elsewhere — 

(3) when an individual speaks, my people is the 
people to which I belong; Isaiah 53:8 [?J; Ruth 
l : 16; whence *&¥ *J? the sons of my people; i.e. my 
countrymen, Gen. 23:11; poet *©¥ n$ id. (see T\2 
No. 5), Lam. 2:11; 3:14; 4'3,6> With 
is used — 

(4) also of the whole human race, i. q. B"]Nn 
Isa. 40:7; 42:5; 44:7; and to this may also be 
referred the words spoken in bitter irony, Job 12:2, 
D^ DFl£ *? D ?P? "surely ye are the whole human 
race, and with you wisdom will die," (tyr fopb alU 
SBelt, unb fcabt alter SBelt SBeiefceit). 

(5) Poet, used of a troop, herd of animals, Prov. 
30:25,26; Ps. 74:14; compare ^J No. 2; also Gr. 


Plur. D*$2 constr. *W (more rarely in the Aramaean 
manner D*9?K constr. *PP2 Neh. 9:22, 24; Jud. 
5:14); peoples, nations; also the tribes of Israel; 
see above No. 1, the kindred, relatives of any one; 
see above No. 2. 

D2 Chald. id. Plur. P9p», emph. *£?>» Dan. 3:4, 

7> 3i; 5:19; 6 -*6; 7- l 4- Syriac i>CL*; plur. 


Dy prop, conjunction, communion; from the 
root D93J; always used as a particle. It ig — 
(A) adv. together, moreover, at the same time 

Gr. ovv, fura; Arab. U.«. 1 Sam. 17:4a, " he wai 
ruddy nipp n&* Dy and at the same time (ttȤ 

Digitized by 


tabrt)) of a handsome countenance," 1 Sam. 16: 12. It 
w far more frequently — 

(B) prep, with suff. 'By (for which also H©y is 
used; see 1??); 1®3? in pause and fern. T©J?, toy, 
I3©y, DJ^y, D 9? a^ D ?^? (Syr- P-^i Arab, transp. 

(1) u?i*A, cum (which is of the same origin; see 
under the root DP?); prop, used of fellowship and 
companionship. Gen. 13: 1, to? Ov] " and Lot with 
him;" Gen. 18: 16; 1 Sam. 9:24. Hence — (a) used 
of aid. Gen. 21 :22, T?? DVifyj "God is with thee," 
i. e. aids thee, Gen. 26:3, 28; 1 Sam. 14:45; hence 
after verba of aiding; as "iflj (Germ, bepftetyi), 1 Ch. 
12:21; P{nnn (which see), etc. f 

(£) Of fellowship in action, as Dy P?n to share 
101* a any one, Pro. 29:24; to inherit with any one, 
Gen. 21 : 10; to make a covenant with any one (see 
Tip); Dy ^yi (see TJ1), to converse urtf A any one; 
hence Dy "Q^ the word which I speak tptiA any one, 
Job 15:11; 2Chron. 1:9; Dy 3?^ to lie u?t*A any 
one, Gen. 19:32, seq.; 30: 15. If used of those who 
are acting in mutual hostility, it is — 

(c) with for against, as Dy Dn?J to fight, to 
wage war with any one; Dy P3g? to struggle with, 
Dy an to strive with, also Psalm 55: 19, **n D 1 ?!? '? 
n©y *' for they come with many (they have many 
allies in battle) against me." Ps. 94: 16, *' who will 
aid me DT5? Dy (in fighting) with the wicked." 
Job9:i4; 10:17; 16:21; 17:3. 

(d) With verbs of doing; to do with any one 
(well or ill), to treat him (well or ill), as .QJJ 310 nfe^f, 

oy ton nby j 08 h. 2:1a; Psal. 119:65; Dy a^n to 

do good to any one, Genesis 32:10; Dy nyj to act 
friendly with any one, Ps. 50 : 18; also Dy D'Dfl Ps. 
18:24; Dy D^ (see that word); Dy \0\ Ps. 78:37. 
— From the notion of association springs that of — 

(e) a common lot. Gen. 18:23, "wilt thou de- 
stroy the righteous with the wicked?" i.e. like the 
wicked. Gen. 18:25; Job 3:14,15; 21:8; Psalm 
73:5. Ecc. 2:16, " the wise man dies with the 
fool," equally with the fool, the lot of both is the 
same, they are treated alike. Hence — 

(J) It is used of any equality or similitude; Job 
40:15, "behold the hippopotamus which I have 
created 19? equally with thee," as well as I have 
created thee; Job 9: 26; Ps. 120:4, "(the tongue is 
false)... Dnprrj £n| Dy like coals of broom" [Retem], 
L e. it pierces and burns like coals. It is used with 
verbs of likeness, Dy ?B>PJI to be compared with any 
thing, i. e. to be like a thing, Ps. 143:7. 

(g) It i* used of equalitv as to time; Psalm 72 : 5, 



Cfe# Dy l«n» « they shall fear thee wilh the son,' 
i. e. as long as the sun shall be; compare DM1.3:33, 
and the expression of Ovid, Amor. i. 15, 16, cum $ok 
et luna semper Aratus erit. 

(2) at, by, near, used of nearness and vicinity. 
"t$4l C3y at, or by the fountain, Gen. 25: 1 1 ; DJf DR 
near Shechem, Gen. 35:4; njrr Dy by Jehovah (Le. 
at his sanctuary), 1 Sam. 2 : 2 1 ; MP OR at the face of 
any one', Job 1:12. Hence it is said, to dwell by 
(or with) any one, i. e. in his house or family, Gen. 
27:44; in the same people, Gen. 23:4; to serve b$ 
(or with) one, i. e. to be his servant, Gen. 29: 25, 30. 
By any one, specially is used — (a) for, in anyone's 
house, chez quelqu'un, see the examples already 
cited, and also Gen. 24:25, " there is plenty of straw 
and fodder Mp9 m by (or with) us," i. e. in our house. 
In the later Hebrew it is more fully said, 'B fl*3 Qt 
1 Ch. 13:14. — (b) in any one's body, Job 6:4, "the 
darts of the Almighty (are) '198;" LXX. «V tj *r 
fiari pov. More often — (c) in any one's mind, Job 
27:11,105^ 16 Ttf Dy t£s« Iwill not conceal what 
are with the Almighty," i. e. what his thoughts are, 
what his mind is; Job 9:35, *1$R *?S$ ?? *6 "not 
so (am) I with myself," i.e. ray mind is not such 
within me, sc. that I should fear; Nu. 14:24; hence 
used of counsel, which any one takes, Job 10:13, 
TJ©y mft *3 'FBTV " I know that such things have 
been in thy mind," that thou purposes t such things; 
Job 23:14; used of that which we know, are ac- 
quainted with, Ps. 50: 11, " the beasts of the field 
(are) with me," or in my mind, i. e. I know them 
all, (in the other hemistich *W!J); Job 15:9; used 
of the opinion of any one (compare apud me multva 

valet hcsc opinio, Arab, j j^j with me, i. e. in mj 

opinion), e. g. ?$ Dy Ply to be righteous in the judg- 
ment of God, Job 9:2; 25:4. The Hebrews expre* 
this more fully (but only, however, the later writers \ 
^ Dy, >3 T jp Dy, like the Gr. fura fpt*ir t Lat. apud 
animum (to maintain, to propose), Ecc. 1:16, Wfl 
«£oy"I gpoke with my heart;" Deut. 8:5; Psa. 
77:7; 2 Ch. 1:11; used of purpose, 1 Ch.2«:7, 
28:2; 2 Ch. 6:7, 8; 24:4; 29:10; of that which w 
know, Josh. 14:7; 1 Ki. 10:2; *Ch.9:i. — (rf) *> 
(or with) men is often used for amongst them, if 
their midst, like the Gr. pt& iraipvv, per arfyam, 
Lat. apud exercitum, for in exercUu (compare Gemv 
mit/ which is of the same stock as SDtitte and the Gr 
pira), Isa. 38:11, ^r *2& DR "amongst the in 
habitants of the world;" 2 Sam. 13:23, CJ^JC C| 
"amongst the Ephraimites." — (e) Metaph it a 
notwithstanding, in spite of (compare } 

Digitized by 


*!fip— DJJ 

?•, No. 3, Arab. ^ De Sacj, Gram. Arabei. § 1094, 

ed. a) nj OS* in spite of this, nevertheless, Neli. 

Ir. many of its significations DJ agrees with fi$ 
(No. II), which Ewald would therefore derive from 
this word, Hebr. Gramra. page 608 (n©% contr. riV., 
changed into n$) ; but the different origin and pri- 
mary signification have been already shewn above. 

With the prefix 19, DJR? (Arab, jc^ ^) used of 
those that go from any person or thing by, with, or 
near whom they were. Specially — (a) from the 
'vicinity of any one, after a verb of going away, de- 
parting, Gen. 13:14; 26:16; sending away, Deut. 
15: 12, etc. najon Dyo from the altar, Ex. 21 : 14; 
Deu. 23:16; Jud.9:37; Job 28:4.— (b) from any 
one's house, de chez quelqu'un (compare DJ? No. 2, 
letter b). nirj9 DJJD out of Pharaoh's house, Exod. 
8:8,25,26; 9:33; 10:6,18.— (c) out of the power 
o/any one {from any one), after verbs of receiving, 
2 Sa. 3: 15; asking, Ex. 22 : 13 ; buying, 2 Sam. 24: 
21 ; often used of God, from whom as the author and 
cause anything springs. Psalm 121:2, "my help 
cometh AW D?D from Jehovah." Isa. 8:18," (we) 
are signs and wonders in Israel njnj Dyp from Je- 
novah," so appointed and destined by him for this. 
Isa.7:ii; 29:6; 1 Ki. 2:33; 2 Ch. 10:15, (Arabic 
jj*< ,-< from the command, will of any one.) — (d) 
from the mind of any one. i Sa. 16: 14, " the Spirit 
went away ^«^ DyD from the mind of Saul." 
Hence used of a judgment which proceeds from any 
one. Job 34:33, "doth (God) retribute ^V9 ac- 
cording to thy mind?" 2 Sa. 3:28; used of purpose, 
Gen. 41:32; lSa. 20:33. — («) from among (comp. 
DJJ No. 2, letter d). VntJ D?0 Ruth 4:10.— Similar 
to this is n«p page xciv, A. 

DJ? Ch. i.q. Heb. with, by, near, osed of fellow- 
ship, Dan. 2:18, 43; 6:22; 7:13, 21, "a (form) like 
the Son of man came WJQ# MJK^DS with the clouds 
of heaven;" compare yara woifo iiripoio, Od. ii. 148. 
Used of time during which anything is done (comp. 
Heb. No. 1, letter g): *$$ DJ? Germ, beg 9ladjt, Dan. 
7:2. "HJ TJ D ? with all generations, i.e. so long as 
generations of men shall be, Dan. 3:33; 4:31. 

I. "TEJJ fut ■*£— (1) to stand. (Arab. X*c 
Conj. I. II. IV. transit, to set firmly, to sustain, to 
prep.) Used of men, Gen. 24:30, 31 ; 41 : 17; and 
of inanimate things, Deu. 31:15; Josh. 3:16; 11:13. 
Followed by prepositions — (a) followed by s iff to 
stand before a king, i.e. to serve, to minister to 
him, Gvn. 41:46; Deut. 1:38; lKi. 1:28; 10:8; 


Dan. 1 :5 (comp ^n ^\1? Ity Dan. 1:4); *$? 1 
I) to minister to Jehovah, used of prophets, 1 Ki. 172*1 
18:15; Jer. 1.^:19; priests, Deu. 10:8; Jud. 20:28; 
comp. Ps. 134: 1. But Lev. 18:23, *?.P? *H?JJ is used 
of coition. — (b) followed by w — (a) to be set over 
anyone, Num. 7:2. — (/3) to confide in anything 
(Syr. ^ p6s>), Eze. 33:26. — (y) to stand by any 
one, to defend him (comp. ?2»No. 2, b), Dan. 12: 1 ; 
Est. 8:11; 9:16 (comp. /> Wp). 

(2) to stand, for to stand firm, to remain, to 
endure (opp. to fall, to perish), flctjcn bUiben, beftetm. 
Psa. 33:11, " the decree of Jehovah standeth (foi 
ever)." Psa. 1 02 : 27, " the heavens shall perish, thou- 
remainest;" Exod. 18:23; Am.2-.15; H 08.10:9; 
Est. 3:4. npryea TO? to stand firm in battle; Eze. 
13:5 Followed by % 3f? to stand firm before any 
one, to resist him, Ps. 76:8; 130:3; 147:17; Nah. 
1:6; more rarely followed by ^.93 Josh. 21 :44; 
23:9; 1J3 Eccl. 4:12; IP Dan. 11:8; simply, Dan. 
11 : 15, 25; followed by 3 to persist, to persevere, 
in any thing, Isaiah 47 : 1 2 ; Eccl. 8:3; 2 Ki. 23 : 3. 
Once followed by an ace. Eze. 17 : 14, " to keep the 
covenant (and) to stand to it (3??$)." Hence to 
remain in the same place, Ex. 9:28; or state, used 
both of persons and things, Lev. 13:5,37; Jer. 32 : 14 ; 
48:11; Dan. 10:17; 11:6; specially to remain 
amongst the living, Ex. 21: 21. 

(3) to stand still, to stop, (jtiUfteftn), as opp. to 
go on one's way, to proceed. 1 Sam. 20:38, " make 
haste "ibfifl ?8 do not stop." Used of the sun stand- 
ing still in his course, Joshua 10:13; of the sea 
becoming tranquil, Jon. 1 : 15; compare 2 Ki. 4 : 6. 
Followed by 19 to desist from any thing, to leave 
off Gen. 29:35, rVTO? ibgg] " she ceased from 
bearing children;" 30:9. 

(4) to stand up, arise (aufjletyi), i. q. Wp, but only 
found in the latter books, Dan. 12:1, 13; often used 
of anew prince, Dan. 8: 23; 11:2,3,20; Ecc.4:l5; 
of war springing up, 1 Chr. 20:4; followed by ?8 to 
rise up against any one, Dan. 8:25; 11:14; 1 Ch. 
21 : 1 ; compare Lev. 19: 16. 

(5) pass, to be constituted, set, appointed. 
Ezr. 10:14, tiHjp Kp*T9JC "let our rulers be ap- 
pointed," let us appoint our rulers, Dan. 11:31. 

Hiphil "l*P?jl — (i) causat. of Kal No. 1, to cause 
to stand, to set, Psa. 31:95 Lev. 14:11; used figu- 
ratively, to constitute, to decree, 2 Chron. 30:5; 
followed by V to destine (to promise) to any one, 
33:8; followed by'B to impose (a law) on any 011^ 
Neh. 10: 33; also to constitute, to set in an offioi 
or function, 1 Ki. 18:32; 1 Ch. 15: 16. 

(a) Causat of Ka? No. 9, to cause to stand firm, of 

Digitized by 


SkW#-T£P ncxxxvm 

endure, i.e. to establish, to preserve, 1X1.15:4; 
« Ch. 9:8; Prov. 29:4; to confirm, i. q. D.5? 2 Ch. 
35:2; Dan. 11:14, "to confirm the vision," i.e. 
by the event. 

(3) i. q. Kal No. 3, intrans. to stand still, fl Ch. 

(4) to raise, to set up, as statues, a Ch. 33: 19; a 
house, Ezr. a:68; 9;9; also, to arouse, to stir up, 
Neh. 6:7; Dan. 11:11, 13. 

Hophal, to be set,placed,Lev. 16:10; to remain, 
1 Ki. 22:35. 
Derived nouns, T#, nnp^, "HBP, TOpo, T^.' 

II. !••?>; &*■• X«yo/i. of uncertain authority; Eze. 
^9:7. Q yrV?"7? D«J? ^l^JJIH which clearly stands for 
131 HTJppni. " and thou hast made all their loins to 
8 h ak e ;" compare Ps. 69 : 24. But it appears to me 
uncertain whether the letters are transposed by a 
certain usage of the language, or whether through some 
error in this place only. This form however seems 
to be one of those which are reckoned among the in- 
numerable licenses, or barbarisms [rather peculiari- 
ties of dialect] of the prophet Ezekiel. 

*Tfiy prep. i. q. 0?, only found with the suffix of 
the first pers. *"!©? i. q. *8JJ with me, Gen. 21:23; 
3*:5' by me, Gen. 29:19, 27; see other examples 
under DP. This word is not at all connected with 
the root "l&JJ to stand, but it rather belongs to an un- 
used root "lDy=*U)J to tie, to bind together, answer- 

ing to the Arabic x*£. Compare BOJJ. 

*TDy m. — (1) a place where one stands, a plat- 
form, 2 Chron. 34:31. 

(2) a place, Dan. 8: 17, 18. 

•"H?2 f. a place where any one stops, lodging, 
Mic. l:li. 

Mulj/ an unused root, having the signification of 
association and fellowship, i. q. Bpl} No. i. Deriva- 
tive n*9JJ. ' 

•"M3J( f. — (1) prop, subst. conjunction, commu- 
nion (from the root DPI} No. i). It is only found in 
const, state ri£5f (once Ecc. 5:15); elsewhere ™?JJP; 
with suff. *™?${/, once ntejjp Ezek. 45:7; prep. i. q. 
Dy. — (a) at, by, near, Exod. 25:27; 28:27. — (b) 
against,Eze.$:8. — (c) over against, 1 Ch. 26:16. 
— (d) equally with, even as (i.q. DV No.i,«), 1 Ch. 
24:31; 26:12; Ecc. 7:14; whence Ecc. 5:15, riT3J^3 
u altogether in the same way, as" (compare "Wv^ 
Job 27 • 3). With two prefixes n^?D near, 1 Kings 

in the tribe ol 

(2) [UmmaK], pr. n. of a town 

Asher; only found Josh. 19:30. 

h - 

"WBJc m. — (1) a column, a pillar (Arab. <Syv>, 

jLx), Jud. 16:25, 26; 1 Ki. 7:9, seq. i#n "W3J 

the pillar'of cloud, Exod. 33:9, 10; and tTKH *W2J 
the pillar of fire, Ex. 13:22. Used of the pillars of 
heaven (very high mountains), Job 26 : 1 1 ; of tbe 
earth, ibid. 9:6. 

(2) a platform, scaffold, 2 Ki. 11:14; 23:3. 

P®2 (i. q. W7|, as is stated, Gen. 19:38, that is, 
son of my relative, or kindred, i. e. born from in- 
cest ; from the noun 0$ which see No. 1 ; with the 
addition of the syllable \\ like fto"]2 from DTiJ; 1^*1 
from &th) Amnion, pr. n. of a man; the son of Lot 
by his younger daughter, Gen. 19:30, seqq.; hence 
of the nation of Ammoni tes, who were descended 
from him ; who inhabited the land beyond Jordan 
between the rivers Jabbok and Arnon, 1 Sara. 11:11; 
more frequently called ft©? % 3? Num. 21:24; ^ VLl 
2:37; 3^6. Eze. 25:2—5 JteTTS is used for Hi 
pBj; ^ as in Lat. inBruttios, Samnites profectm 
est, i. e. into their territories. See Relandi Palastinx 
p. 103 ; and my article in Ersch and G ruber's Encvci 
voc. Ammon, iii. 371. Gent. n. is ^©S, fern. n$tSJ 
1 Ki. ll:l; Neh. 13:23; plur. nVjtej? 1 Ki. 11:1. 

D1DJ/ (" burden") Amos, pr. name of a prophet 
Am. l:l; 7:8, seqq.; 8:2. 

pOJ? ("deep"), [Amok'], pr. n. masc., Nehem. 

?X*Sy ("one of the family of God," i.e. semni 
or worshipper of God; comp. D^ No. 1), [Ammiet], 
pr. n. m. — (l)Num. 13:12. — (2) 2 Sam. 9:4, 5; 17: 
27. — (3) 1 Chron. 26:5.— -(4) 1 Ch. 3:5; for which 
there is, 2 Sam. 11:3, 0JJ7& 

TWtpR (" one of the people of Judah," 
citizen of Judah> for *wn* nsg) t [Ammihud], pr. n. 
m.— (1) 2 Sam. 13:37 *">P- — (2)Num. 1:10; 2:18; 
1 Ch. 7:26. — (3) Num. 34:20. — (4) ibid, verse il 
— (5) 1 Ch. 9:4. 

13rSK ("kindred of the bountiful girer, 
i. e. of Jehovah ; comp. /$P?8, "W"*!^), [A mm izabaQ 
pr. n. m., 1 Ch. 27 : 6. 

"flTOJ? (" one of the f a m i 1 y ," i. e. relative " of the 
nobles"), pr. n. masc, 2 8a. 13:37 a»na; for "WW 

313^ ("kindred of the prince") pr.D.«.- 

Digitized by 


(l) Ex. 6:23; Num. 1:7; Ruth 4:19; 1 Ch. 2:10. 
—(a) 1 Ch. 15:10, 11— (3) 1 Ch. 6:7. 

p % 02 Ch. adj. deep, figuratively hidden, not to 
be searched out, Dan. 3:22. 

*^Q)J m. a sheaf, i. q. "^V [*' a bundle of corn 
before it is bound into a sheaf*], Am. 2: 13; Micah 
4:12; Zee. 12:6; from the root "»»3J No. 1. 

*W^Sff (" servant of the Almighty," comp. 
SpW), [Ammishaddat], pr. n. m. Numbers 1:12; 

WV$ (from the root nDJJ^Dpy No. 1) m. (Levit. 
i 9:17 )_(i) fellowship. Zech. 13 -.7, WDJJ ^4 
" the man of my fellowship," i. e. my fellow, com- 

(2) abstr. for concr. i. q. 81 6 vXnoiov (ber 9t&d)jte/ 
SRitmenfcb), a neighbour, Lev. 5:21 ; 18:20; with a 
masc. verb, Lev. 19: 15. 

?*AJ? fut. ?b]?! to labour, especially with toil 
and weariness, to toil, Prov. 16:26; Ps. 127:1. Fol- 
lowed by 3 to labour upon anv thing, Jonah 4: 10; 
Ecc.2:ai.— Ecc. 1:3, ^>KT ^ST^W "of all the 
toil with which he toils." Ecc. 2:20; 5-17. (Arab. 

J^c to labour, to make). Hence — 

/£J7 m. (oncef. Ecc. 10:15)— (1) heavy, wea- 
risome labour, Ecc. 1:3; 2:11; used figuratively 

(2) the produce of labour,Ys.\oS'AA\ Ecc. 2 -.19. 

(3) weariness, trouble, vexation, Gr. Ka/zaroc, 
novo?, Genesis 41:51; Deu.26:7; Job3:lO; 16:2, 
$W *9n?9 "troublesome comforters." Isa. 53:11, 
te*W ^925 "of the sorrow (or anguish) of his 
soul." It is rendered by some, sin, wickedness 
(i. q. JJK), Nu. 23:21 ; Isa. 10: 1 ; but the signification 
of vexation is not unsuitable in both places. 

(4) [Anal], pr.n. m. 1 Ch. 7:35. 

/ti% m. verbal adj. — (1) labouring, especially 
with weariness and exhaustion, often used with per- 
sonal pronouns for the finite verb, Ecc. 2:22; 4:8; 
9:9; hence an artizan, Jud. 5:26. 

(2) sorrowful, wretched, Job 3:20; 20:22., 

P?P? pr. n. — (i) Amalek, the Amalekites, a 
very ancient people (Gen. 14:7; Numb. 24:20), in- 
habiting the regions south of Palestine, between Edom 
and Egypt (compare Ex. 17:8— 16; Numb. 13 : 29; 
l Sam. 15:7), also dwelling on the east of the Dead 
Sea and Mount Seir (Num. 24:20; Jud. 3:13; 6:3, 
33V. they je*»m also to have settled here and there 



in the middle of Canaan, whence the Mount of thi 
Amalekites in the tribe of Ephraim, Judges 12:15; 
compare Judges 5: 14. — In the Arabian genealogies 

s ^ a 

fJ^AS-y /*-J^ * s mentioned amongst the aboriginal 

Arabians. See Relandi Palostina, p. 78—82; J. D. 
Michae*lis, Spicileg. Geogr. Hebr. Ext. torn. i. p. 170 
— 477; ejusd. Supplemm. p. 1927; Vater, Comment 
ttber den Pen tat. vol.i. p. 140; and my remarks in 
Ersch and Gruber's Encycl. iii. 301, under the word 
Amalek. — Gent, noun *i?7*r8, with the art. collect 
Gen. 14:7; Jud. 12:15. 

(2) a grandson of Esau, and the founder of an 
Arabian tribe, Gen. 36:16; compare verse 12 and 
Vater, loc. cit 

D?3^ — (l) prop. TO GATHER TOGETHER, TO 

collect, to join together, whence 0]) a people, 

DH with, by, HEJJ conjunction. (Arab. +&. is to be 

in common, but this root is very widely extended 
both in the Phcenicio-Shemitic, and the Indo-Ger- 
manic languages. In the former, compare DD) tc 
collect, whence C|, ™?&, W3 to cumulate, and re- 
taining the guttural, D££, HDJJ, Dn kinsman, father- 
in-law ; amongst the latter, compare Latin cum, con, 
cumulus, cwnctus (from cungo =jungo), Gr. koivoc 
(kvvSc), ydfior, and with the palatal letter either 
softened into an aspirate, or changed into a sibilant, 
Sanscr. sam, Persic *j&, Gr. fyza, 6/ioci tyov (with an 

added third radical d and /, fynXoc, BfialoQ, comp. 
Hebr. TO8, Lat. simul), avv, \vv6c, Mcesogoth. soma, 
soman, Anglo-Sax. samo, with French ensemble, Dan. 
son, Germ, fammt/ jufammen/ fammetn; comp. also 
as to the Slavonic languages, Dorn lib. die Verwandt- 
schaft des Persischen und Gr. Lat. Sprachstammea, 

p. 183.) 

(2) to shut, to close, hence to hide, to conceal. 
Used figuratively, for to surpass, Ezek. 31:8; and 
intrans. to be h idden. Eze. 28 : 3, ^D»S «? &T\y>t 

"no secret is hid from thee." (Arab, ^i to be 

hidden, covered with clouds, used of the sky. Syr. 

p\ Ethpe. to be covered, as the sky.) 

Hophal, DJNn to become dim (used of the bright- 
ness of gold), Lam. 4:1. 

D'0$?, and Chaldee }*## peoples, nation 
see &8. 

7*j03QR("God with us"),[Jmmantt«ri,ai 
bolic and prophetical name of a «on of " 

Digitized by 


prophet [this w utterly false, it is the name of the 
eon who should be born of the Virgin, and it de- 
signates Him as being truly u God over all blessed 
for ever "1, Isa. 7 : 14 ; 8:8. 

DDJ/ (once fc^?3J Neh.4:n), fut.Db3C.T0 take 
up, to lift, e. g. a stone, Zee. 12:3; to carry, to 
bear, Isa. 46:3; specially to lift up a load and gut 
it on a beast. Constr.absol., Isa. 46: 1 ; followed by 
'8 of the beast (but without the accusative). Gen. 
44: I3i **Q"^S &* diOgSL " each one lifted up (his 
load) on his ass;" Neh. 13:15. Figuratively, Psa. 
68:20, vh Dbj£"if they lay (a burden) upon us." 

Hifhil 0V3J/n to lay (a burden) upon any one, 
followed by ?V_ 1 Ki. 12 : 1 1 ; 2 Ch. 10:11. 

•^ T PPJc : ( " whom Jehovah carries in his 
^osom," compare Isa. 46:3) \AmasiaK\, pr. n. m. 
2 Ch. 17.16. 

TJ#?R ("eternal people"), [Amad], pr.n. of 
a town in the tribe of Asher, Josh. 19:26. 

pwv to be deep, metaph. to be unsearchable, 
Ps. 92 : 6; compare Greek fiaOtyputr, fiadoc ... awfUag 

mi yyu)fT£u>g Qtov, Rom. 1 1 : 33. 

(Arab. JU^> more 
rarely with the letters transposed ,jX«i Aram. juo^ f 
iEth. 0^+: id.) 

Hiphil, to make deep, to deepen, often followed 
by a finite verb. Isa. 7:11, n ?{fr P9&D "deepen, 
ask," i. e. ask that a miracle may be performed from 
the deep ; and followed by a gerund, in such a manner 
that it almost becomes an adverb, Jerem. 49:8, 30, 
nj$ V*9gJ " make deep your habitations," dwell 
in thedepths of the earth. Hos. 9 : 9. Isa. 29: 15, 
TW?!? D*j?98»n « those who hide deeply." Things 
are also called deep which extend to a great length 
before the eye of the beholder, like the Gr. fiadvc 
roiroc, a long extended region, fiadeia avKr), II. v. 142; 
just as we call the space from the front to the back 
of a house, the depth (tie Siefe be* #aufeg), comp. PO?. 
Isa. 30 : 33, npyjo 3'IJTl p>nyp v a he hath made the 
burning pile long and broad;" and metaph. *P*PJHJ 
HTD " they have gone far aside," fie entfemen fid) roett, 
Isa. 31:6: Hos. 5:2. 

Derived nouns, PPJ£...p£ty, and also P*9g, D % j?!?8]D, 
pr. n. ptojf. 

p5J( adj. dee/?, only found in pi. const. HSt? *poy 
(men) deep of lip, i. e. using a baibarous or foreign 
language, which cannot be understood, Isa. 33:19; 

p9R f. njMJJJ a<y.— (l) d««j> f Lev. 13:3, seqq. 

DCXL *lfij^tty 

(2) metaph. what cannot be sought out> Pttln 
64:7; Ecc-7:24. 

p£R with suff. S PPV a valley, a low tract of land 
of wide extent (/3a0wc roxoc, see the root Hiphil), fit 
for corn land (Job 39:10; Psal. 65:14; Cant «: 1), 
and suited for battle fields (Job 39:21). In ptor. 
D*P9P appears to be once used for the inhabitants 
of valleys, l Ch. 1 2 : 15, " they put to flight DWJJ"^? 
all the inhabitants of the valleys;" but perhaps it 
should be read D^JffiT/^ "all the Anakim,"justa»in 
Jer. 47 : 5, for DiJP? nn«f*, I have not any hesitation 
in reading Oi?J? : JV"}K£> " (Ascalon) the remains of 
the Anakim ;" comp. verse 4, and for illustration of 
the matter, Josh. 11 :2l. — It differs in its use from 
the words of similar signification, «TJ?p2l, % J, 7n3, each 
of which is applied to certain particular valleys or 
plains. This word is als* used in the name of the 
following valleys: — 

(a) r6«n ppjj (« the valley of the terebinth"), 
near Bethlehem, 1 Sa. 17:*, 19; «i:io. 

(b) njT}? peg (" the valley of blessing"), near 
Engedi. 2 Ch. 20:26. 

(c) W? p»g ("the king's valley"), not far hm 
the Dead Sea, Gen. 14:17; 2 Sa. 18:18. 

(rf)»«9-| pog ("the valley of Rephaim"), 
southwest of Jerusalem, towards the land of the 
Philistines, Josh. 15:8; 18:16; 2Sa.5:i8,2«; Isa. 

(e) DTP p»g, see D^b. But TW P?g Josh. 18: 
2 1, is the name of a town in the tribe of Benjamin. 

Other valleys take their names from neighbouring 
towns (see 'WfJT.) or from men (see O^B^rP). 

pOJ? m. depth, Pro. 25:3. 

iyJ7 not used in Kal. — (1) prop, to bihb 
closely together (see Piel,*iB& No. 1, andTOJJ). 
Arabic _4x to press, to squeeze, to bind together 
closely (Castell.) [This meaning is expressly rejected 
in Thes. as not really belonging to the Arabic verb: 
to heap up is given as the primary sense of the He 

brew word] ; whence ,**£ bundles. — From the idea 
of binding arises — 

(2) that of to subdue (as in Samaritan), to maht 
a servant, see Ilithpael, and — 

(3) to serve, colere (Arab.^c coluU, Med. Damma 

Piel, to bind sheaves together, Ps. 129:7; #* 
Kal No. 1. 

Hithpael, pr. to act as master; followed by? tc 
treat any one as a servant, or slave, Deu. 21:14; *4 : 7 

Derived nouns, "VjV, H"J0J{, n^, YpjJ anc — 

Digitized by 



"l^plur.t^lDg.— (x) i. q. "M?y a sheaf, Levit. 

s <*- 
23:10, seq.; Job 24: 10. (Arabic , 4^ a bundle). 

(2) c measure of dry things, containing the tenth 
part of an Ephah, Ex. 16:22, 33; especially 36, not 
to be confounded with the measure TOn, which con- 
tained ten Ephahs. 

"VV t Chald. wool, i. q. Heb. ">?V Dan. 7:9. 

H'TDJJ Gomorrha (LXX. Tupofipa), pr.n. (per- 

s- - 

haps i. q. i ,Uj; "culture," "habitation" ["prob. 

depression"]), one of the four cities in the valley of 
Siddim, which were sunk in the Dead Sea, which is 
commonly mentioned together with Sodom, Genesis 
10:19; 13:10. 

*T9# (i.q. nj-ipjj prob. "servant of Jehovah;" 
compare the root No. 3 ["perhaps * young learner 

of Jehovah'; comp. the Arab, ^c unskilful"]), 
[Owirt], pr.n. — (1) of a king of Israel (929 — 18, 
E.c); the founder of Samaria, 1 Kings 16: 16, seq.; 
2 Ki. 8:26; Mic. 6: 16; LXX/A/ifyi.— (2) 1 Chron. 
7:8.— (3) 1 01.9:4.— (4) i Ch. 27:18. 

&W ("kindred of the Most High," i.e. of 
God), [Amrani], pr. n. m. — (1) the father of Moses, 
Ex. 6: 18, 20; Nu. 3:19; whence the patron. 'V'tyl 
Nu.3:27; 1 Ch. 26:23.— (2) E*r. 10:34. 

. luyJ7 i. q. to carry, to beab, Nehem. 4:11. 

KPDJJ ("burden"), [Amasa], pr.n.m.— (1) 
«Sa. 17:25; 19:14; 1 Chron. 2:17. — (2) 2 Chron. 

s^Tp™ ("burdensome"), [Amaaax], pr.n. m. 
— (1)1 Ch. 6: 10, 20.— (2) 1 Ch.i5:24.— (3) 2 Ch. 

*P#£J? [Amashai], pr. n. m. Neh. 1 1 : 13; but 1 
suspect that this is an incorrect reading, sprung from 
the two forms *&Dy and *DDJJ; see E3*pf*§p and 

^AJ; an unused root; Chald. to bind together, 
to fasten together, whence may be derived 33? a 
cluster, as if a bundle of grapes, and pr. n. MJJ. 

33J7 (perhaps " a place abounding in grapes"), 
\Anab\ Josh. 11:21, and 3}J? Josh. 15:50, pr. n. of 
a town in the mountains of Judah ; [still called 'Anab 
c^Lc, Rob. ii. 195]. 

2JJ pi. D^JJJ, constr. «3|R (Dag. forte eunhoo j, 

Lev. 25:5, m. a cluster of grapes. Gen. 40:1), 

11; Deut. 32:32, etc. (Syr. )JL^JJ* id., Arab. 

s - 
v_ .-.r collect, clusters. Perhaps also to the samt 

stock belongs &/iirc\oc, and even 0/1 fa£.) 


used in Kal. (Arab, ^ui to allure, to entice, used 

of the amorous gestures of women, in their looks 
walk, etc.) 

Pual, part. fern, to be soft and delicate, Jer.6: 2. 

Hithpael — (i)i. q. Pual, Deut. 28:56, compare 

(2) to delight oneself, to be glad in any thing, 
followed by /? Job 22:26; 27:10; Ps. 37:11; fol- 
lowed by 19 Isa. 66: 1 1. 

(3) Hence used in a bad sense, to deride any one, 
followed by /8 Isa. 57:4. 

Derived nouns, JUgF) and — 

MJJ. f. H|$ adj. delicate, soft, Deut. 28:54. ofy 
Isa. 47:1. 

3JJ m. delights, delicate life, Isaiah 13:22; 

i«Uv to bind, occurring twice as a verb, Job 
31:36; Prov.6:2l; whence also the subst. rtSTJJD. 

Kindred words are jjx at, by, and the Hebr. 1*31?. 

I. n^|J7 — (1) prop, to 8IN0, i. q. Arab. <^£ 
Conj. II. IV. (this signification, although unfrequent, 
seems, however, to be primary, see Piel; compare 
Lat. cano, Pers. ^jjL-L to sing, to call, to read; 
Sansc. gat), Ex. 15:21 ; followed by / to praise with 
song, 1 Sam. 21:12; 29:5; Ps. 147:7; hence to cry 
out (compare Lat. actor canit, cantat, i. q. declainat, 
fd>rcit taut), used of the shout of soldiers in battle, 
Ex. 32 : 18; Jer. 51 : 14; of jackals in the deserts, 
Isa. 13:22 (compare cantus galli, galliciniwn). It is 
applied to any one who pronounces any thing so- 
lemnly and with a loud voice (compare Lat. con- 
tare, cantor, used of any one who often says, incul- 
cates, or affirms any thing, Ter. Plaut. ; Cic. Orat 
i- 55) 1 hence — (a) used of God uttering an oracle, 
1 Sam. 9:17,*^ n)n*}" Jehovah declared to him H 
(Samuel); Gen. 41:16, " God announces welfare 
to Pharaoh;" compare Deut. 20: 11. Used it a fo- 
rensic sense — (6) of a judge giving sentence, Exod. 
23:2; and — (c) of a witness giving evidence, so- 
lemnly affirming any thing; hence to testify, with 

Digitized by 





in ace. of the thing, Deut. 19: 16; followed by ? of 
him for whom (Gen. 30:33; 1 Sa. 12:3) or against 
whom (Num. 35:30; Deut. 19:18; 2Sam.l:i6) 
testimony is given. More fully 3 "HJ HJJJ Ex. 20: 16. 
Hence — 

(2) to lift up the voice, to begin to speak (Syr. 

j n> ) : especially in the later [?] Hebrew, Job 3 : 2, IJCl 
•MDK'I atojt "and Job began to speak, and said;" 
Cant. 2:10; Isa. 14:10; Zee. l: 10; 3:4; 4:11,12. 
Followed by an ace. of pers. to speak to any one, 
Zee. 1:11. Far more frequently — 

(3) to answer, to reply. Constr.— (a) with an 
ace. of pers. Job 1:7; Gen. 23:14; Cant. 5:6, like 
the Gr. itfiei fiopai nva. — (b) with an ace. of the 
thing which, or to which one answers, Proy. 18:23; 
.Too 40:2. In like manner, Job 33: 13, *0 iniT7| 
n JSl " he does not answer as to any of his things," 
i. e. he renders no account. And so — (c) with two 
ace. of pers. and thing, 1 Sam. 20: 10; Mic. 6:5; Jer. 
2 3 : 37; J° D 9 : 3- To answer to any one is used — 
(aa) in a bad sense, of those who contradict a 
master when commanding or blaming, who excuse 
themselves and contend with him (fid) wrantworten), 
Job 9:14, 15, 32; 16:3 (compare Arab. <-J\y>- 

reply, also excuse); or who refute some one, Job 
32:12. — (bb) in a good sense, of those who answer 
the prayers of any one, who hear and answer & pe- 

and therefore it is often retained in Piel (Lehrg. 
p. 242), and in Arabic it is expressed by a harder 
letter (^^i to sing). 

Niphal — (1) tabs answered, i.e.toberefutea\ 
Job 11:2; to be heard and answered, Job 19:7; 
Prov. 21:13. 

(2) i.q. Kal to answer, followed by 7 Eze. 14:4* 7- 

Piel, i.q. Kal No. i, to sing, Ex. 32:18 (where 
Piel in the signification of singing is distinguished 
from Kal). Ps. 88 : 1 ; Isa. 27 : 2. 

Hjphil, to answer, i. q. Kal No. 3, bb, followed by 
an ace. and ? of the thing; to hear and answer any 
one in any thing, to bestow the thing upon him, Ecc. 


Derived nouns, see Kal No. 4. 

II. M jj/ (for yy, a verb v, compare the deriva- 
tives, W* 1 ^??)— (0 TO BESTOW LABOUR UPON ANT 


lowed by ? Ecc. 1:13; 3: 10. (Syr. u^ Jjj*, Arab. 
ijLz followed by c-^ id.), specially, as it appears, to 
till the ground, to bring the earth into' culti- 
vation, whence njgj?, W]XP, a furrow. 

(2) to be afflicted, depressed, oppressed, Ps. 
Il6:l0; 119:67; Zee. 10:2. Isa. 31:4, i6DjterjD« 
n ?J!! " and (who) will not be depressed at their 
multitude," he will not lose his courage. Isa. 25 : 5, 

titioner; and thus it is often used of God hearing j n $! °'V n J? ^*?F " the son g of the tyrants shall be 

and answering men, l Sam. 14:39; Psa. 3:5; 4:2. 
There is a pregnant construction, Ps. 22:22, \?"5£P 
*3JV3JJ DW "answer (and deliver) me from the 
horns of the Remim ;" hence — (cc) with an ace. of 
pers. and 3 of the thing, to answer any one in any 
thing, i.e. to be bountiful to him, to bestow the 
thing, Ps. 65:6; and with an ace. of the thing, Ecc. 
10:19, ?3H"n$ it3J£ HP? b " money answers with 
all things " (imparts all), gerodtjrt allc*/ compare Hos. 

(4) to signify, to imply any thing by one's words 

(enuaS fagen looltem beabficfrtigen), i.q. Arab. ^^c. 
Henn* n J8P, WP, IP! something proposed, a counsel, 
purpose, then used as a prep. 

In the former [German] cd itions of this book, I sought 
with many etymologists to xefer the various significa- 
tions of this root to that of answering, as has since 
been done by Winer (p. 732, 733) ; deriving the notion 
of singing from that of answering and singing alter- 
nately; in such matters every one must follow his 
uwn judgment. I have adopted this new arrange- 
ment especially for this reason, that the primary sig- 
nification is commonly more forcible and important, 

brought low." (Arab. Lc to be depressed, low). 

Niphal— (1) to be afflicted, Ps. 119: 107. Isa. 
53:7, njpjiwm " and he was afflicted." 

( 2 ) reflect, to submit oneself to any one, followed 
by \3?9 Ex. 10:3 (where for nfaprft there is n"l3$>; 

Piel — (1) to oppress, to depress, to afflict, 
Gen. 16:6; 15:13; 31:50; Exodus22:2i. Psalm 
102:24, *n"3 TJ1? n |P "(Jehovah) depressed (con- 
sumed) my strength in the way." Psalm 88: 8, s^ 
C 1 ?? Tl^fi? " thou hast oppressed (i. e. inundated ^ 
(me) with all thy waves." 

(2) HB>N njy comp*essit feminam, generally by 
force, Gen. 34:2; Deut. 22:24, 29; Judges 19:24; 

(3) ^Q^ n|3? to afflict the soul, i. e to fast, Lev. 
16:31; 23:27,32; Nu.29-.7- 

Pual, to be oppressed, or afflicted, Ps.l 19:71; 
Isa. 53 : 4. Inf. iri3JJ his oppression or sorrow, Psah* 

Hiphil, i.q. Pi. No. 1, 1 Kings 8:35; 2 Ch. 6:tC 
But Ecc. 5:19 belongs to H)JJ No. I; which see. 

Hithpael. — (1) to submit oneself, Gen. 16:9, 
especially to God, Dan. 10: it. 

Digitized by 




(9) i. q. Kal, to be afflicted, l Ki. 2 : 26. 

Derived nouns, Vfc n M& n V«, n «& % ff, *JR, C», 
n?RO, n*ap, and the pr. n. njK, % ngK, njg, rinjB, 

L nj^, N^ Chald.— (1) to ftegsn <o speafc; like 
the Hebr. No. 2, Daniel 2:20; 3:9,19,24,26,28; 
4: 16, 27; followed by ? of pers. 2:47. 

(2) to answer, Daniel 2;7, 10; 3:14, 16; 5:7; 

H. H32 Chald. to be afflicted. Part. njjf; plur. 
C3( the afflicted, Dan. 4: 24. 

H3J? ("answering), [ilnaA], pr. n. m. — (1) of 
a son of Seir, and of the Edomite race sprang from 
him, Gen. 36:20, 29. — (2) of a son of Zibeon, and 
grandson of Seir, Gen. 36:2, 14, 24 (verses 2, 14 
An a his called the daughter of Zibeon in the common 
text; but we should read son (15), with the Sam. and 
LXX., as is shewn by verse 24. [This change is 
not necessary; we have only to take ri$ in both 
its occurrences as in apposition with Aholibamah, the 
daughter of Anah, the grand-daughter of Zibeon. See 
De Rossi]). 

' 1JJ7 plur. D^JB (for which there is often in np 

D'!jy. Tfrom *J?)i c 01181 - W- ( from tne root n # No - 
II. t 2).— (1) afflicted, miserable. Psalm 9:13; 
10:12,17; 22:27; 34:3; 147 : *5 1 49-4; commonly 
with the added notion of a lowly, pious, and modest 
mind, which prefers to bear injuries rather than re- 
turn them; compare amongst other places, Ps. 25:9; 
37:n; 69:33. 
(«) meek, gentle, Nu. 12:3 (a f na). 

3^8 ("bound together," from the root 33?), 
[.4 nu ft], pr. n. m. 1 Ch. 4:8. 

rttJJ? prop. f. of the word 1JJJ (neutr. and abstr.). 
— (l) a lowly mind, modesty, Pro. 15:33; 18:12; 
22:4; Zeph. 2:3. 

(2) When applied to God, gentltness, clemency, 
Paa. 18:36. 

i"fy32 f. i. q. the preceding No. 2; Psa. 45:5 (used 
of the king [the Messiah]). 

ptiy i. q. pJJJ s No. 2, Josh. 21:11. 

Wflfc fern, affliction. Ps. 22 : 25, »« «.% « the 
affliction of the afflicted." Others following the 
LXX., Vulg., Chald., render it the cry of the afflicted 
(comp. \VW in the other member), but njJJ is never 
osed of the outcry and lamentation of the wretched. 
See the root No 1. 

WJ? see 18. 

'# f. *:«£ plur. DVaj, »jq adj.— (1) afflicted, 
wretched, poor, often with the added idea of piety, 
Exodus 22:24; Deut. 24:12; Psa. 10:2,9; 14:6; 

(2) meek, mild, comp. 1J? No. 2, Zee. 9:9. 

Plur. D\'3g is often in np, where n»ro has D^Jlj 
Ps. 9:19; Isa.32:7. 

^ in pause % #J, with suff. \*JS} affliction, misery, 
Gen. 16:11; 31:42; 41:52. *# \}J the wretched, 
Prov. 31:5. *JJJ Dn^ the bread of affliction, Deut 

^(fopnjJJD "depressed"), [Unntj. pr.n.m 
1 Ch. 15:18, 20; Neh. 12:9. 

■"C^X. ("whom Jehovah has answered n \ 
[Anatoli], pr.n. Neh. 8:4; 10:23. 

V$Nu. 12:3 np, for 1#. 

D^y (contr. for »?# "fountains"), [im'm], 
pr. n. of a town in the tribe of Judah, Josh. 15:50. 

UTS m. business, employment (comp. n}tyNo.II.) 
— (i)Eccl.2:26; 1:13, IT) £JR "evil business," 
that is, such as is of little profit. 

(2) a thing, affair, (like the Chald.). Ecc. 4: 8. 
JH JJjy " an evil th ing." Ecc. 5 : 2, JJ}R 31 " much 
of an affair," multiplicity of business; Germ, mel 
SBkfenS (in the other member, Dn^ 3*1 otel SReben*). 
5:13, JH Hty? " by (some) adverse thing," an evil 
occurrence. 2 : 23, fa)?ty DJ23 " vexation is his a f f a i r," 
his lot; 8:16. 

^|JUv an unused root. Arabic, to be deep and 
difficult to cross, used of sand, see ^IJttp. 

WX (" two fountains," compare D % ?ty, and as to 
dual ending in Or see Lehrg. p. 536) [Anem], pr.n. 
of a town in the tribe of Issuchar, 1 Ch. 6:58; for 
which there is in the parallel places, Josh. 19:21; 
21 :29 D*MT8 ( tne fountain of the garden). 

D^Ojy. Gen. 10:13 [A nam im], pr. n. of an Egyp- 
tian people, which cannot be exactly pointed out, see 
Bochart, Phaleg iv. 30; Mich. Spicil. i. p. 160. 

K$33?: [AnammelecK], pr. n. of the idol of the 
Sepharvites ; it occurs once, 2 Ki. 17 : 31 . The word 

appears to be blended of U)V = ^ an image, a 

statue, and i£D a king; or, as was supposed by Hyde 

(De Rel. Vett. Persarum, p. 131), from 


Digitized by 


■fflp-pJJ DCXLIV 

md w$ ; Hence, the flock of stars, i. e. the constel- 
lation Cepheus, which is called by the Orientals 
siJI v_ S \S the stars of the flock, and ^jj\. ^xl 1\ 

the shepherd and flock. The former part of this 
word is found also in the name 'Evepeaffap (Tob. 

J J>{ not used in Kal, prop, to cover, like the 
kindred verbs B|, ?33 ; whence \}V r a cloud. 

Piel (denom. from 1$) to g a t h e r c lo uds, Gen . 9 : 1 4. 

Poel \)\V, fut. \$V) (Lev. 19:26), part. «ta?, once 
f. 7\:p (for njlteP, although also it may be Kal), to 
act covertly; hence to use hidden arts, i.e. magic, 
to practise sorcery (compare the roots IM/, EH?, 
and Syr. --»jj*| mysteries; hence magical arts), Deu. 
18:10,14; 2Ki.2l:6; Isa.2:6; 57:3; Mic. 5:11. 
Many of the ancients understood by it a particular 
kind of divination. LXX. ic\rihovi(opai. Vulg. ob- 
servant somnia, elsewhere augurans, divinans. Syr. 
fascinating with the eyes (as if ]))V were from PJJ) ; but 
it seenis rather to be a general name. 

I5J? constr. state 136 m. — (1) a cloud (as cover- 
ing and veiling over the heaven), compare *U^ a 
cloud, from the root ( < *s. to cover, to veil over, and 


i 1 lie a cloud, from the root jLc. to cover. (Arab. 

£ili£, pi- jolis-) -A- vei 7 large army is compared to 
a cloud, Eze. 30:18; 38:9; a morning cloud is 
used as an image of something transient, Hos. 6:4 
(compare Job 7:9). 

(2) [Anan], pr. n. m. Neh. 10:27. 

])V. Ch. a cloud t pi. const, st. \3?P. Dan. 7: 13. 

nj}$| f. collect, clouds (©en>M), Job 3:5. Well 
rendered by Theod. ovwe^ia. As to the use of the 
feminine form in collectives, see Heb. Gram. § 105, 2. 

'))V t (apoc. for n;?38.), \Anani], pr.n. m. 1 Chr. 

T3?2 (" whom* or "what Jehovah covers," 
i.e. guards), [Ananiah], pr. n. — (l) m. Neh. 3:23; 
Gr. 'Ai'aWcic* 

(2) of a town in the tribe of Benjamin, Neh. 1 1 : 32. 

M iV, an unused root, which perhaps belonged to 
the idea of covering, like the cognate roots *\W (*£%), 
*C^. Hence — 

*)3X a branch, Ezek. 17:8, 23, with suff. D3B?y. 
36:8, as if from ths form IJV [which is given as an 
art. in Thes.j. 

^SChald. id. Dan. 4: 18. 

*PJJ m.full of branches, Eae. 19:10. 


(From the idea of choking, or strangling, which is 
that of the kindred roots pNf f Pi*}, which see. Arab. 

j^x IV. to ornament a dog \iith a collar, ^tx 
neck, Germ. Partem Upper-Germ, bie TCnfe.) Once 
used figuratively, Ps.73:6, njg) tonj?Dg « pride sur- 
rounds them like a neck chain," i.e. clothes their 
neck; a stiff neck being used poetically as the seat 
of pride. 

Hiphil P^fl prob. to lay on the neck (to be car- 
ried), Deut. 15:14, used of a slave set at liberty: 
11} ^Xtf? \b p^gn pvffip « thou shalt lay upon him 
of thy flock," etc. LXX., Vulg. dabis viaticum. Others 
apply to the word the signification of giving, so that 
it would properly be to adorn with a collar; hence 
with gifts. As to what I formerly compared, on 
the authority of Castell and Giggeius, " ^j^z followed 

by ^Lt to shew oneself easy, gentle," it rests on a 

mistake of Giggeius in rendering the words of the 
Ramus (ii. p. 1318, edit. Calcutt.). 

pjy, m. — (l) a collar, neckchain, necklace, 
Cant. 4:9; pi. 0*7 and T\\ Pro. 1:9; Jud. 8:26. 

(2) i. q. Arab, j^c length of neck and stature 

(compare ( j±z\ long-necked); hence p3J? *3?, PJJNJ % 2| 
Nu. 13:33; P$n *7y* ibid, verses 22, 28; also E^PJE 
Deut. 1 :iS8; 2:10, 11, 21, and Q*PJP. *3? Deut. 9:2. 
The Anakxm (prop, men with long necks, of high sta- 
ture), pr. n. of a Canaanite nation, famous on account 
of their height, who inhabited Hebron previous to 
the Hebrews taking possession of the land (Josh. 1 1 : 
21); they were almost utterly extirpated by them, 
but a few remained in the cities of the Philistines 
(compare the interpreters and critics on Jer. 47 : 5). 

13? (i.q. TH ay>',p?), [Aner], pr.n.— -(l) of a 
Canaanite, Gen. 14:13,24. — (2) of a Levitical town 
in the tribe of Manasseh, called elsewhere ^3gjp (un- 
less we should here read "]&), 1 Ch. 6:55. 

^^M r fut. B0J£ TO FINE, TO IMPOSE A FINE, 1* 

amerce. (Found besides only in the Kabbink dia- 
lect. The primary idea appears to be that of impo- 
sing, laying upon; compare cogn. DDJJ, BTpSJ). Con 
strued followed by f Pro. 17 : 26 ; followed by two ace 
to amerce any one in a sum of money, Deu. 28 : 9 
2 Ch. 36:3 (used of sums of money exacted in war)^ 

Digitized by 


in wfne, Amos 2:8. Impera. Prov. 21 : i l, V^J^J 
''when they (the judges) amerce the scoffer." 

Xiphal, to be fined, Ex. 21 :2ft; gener. to be pu- 
t.ished, Pro. 22:3; 2>:12. 

[Hence the following words] — 

t/j" m. — (]) fine, amercement, money ex- 
acted from any one, 2 Ki. 23:33; Pro. 19: 19. 

»?jj£ m. Chald./ine, amercement, Ezr. 7:26. 

fifS?.(" answer to prayer," from the root H}^ f 
the form H3|) from the root HJJ) [^ n a t A], pr. n. m. 
Jud. 3:31; 5:6. 

n #, n $? see 0?. 

~'Jv". ("answers to prayers," the servile 
letter n being retained, see Lehrg. p. 528), [Ana- 
thotK], pr. n. — (1) of a Levitical town in the tribe 
of Benjamin, where Jeremiah the prophet was bom, 
Joeh. 21:18; Isa. 10:30; Jer. 1 : 1 [now called Andta, 
l}Lc. Rob. ii. 109] ; Gent. n. *flhjBJ 2 Sa. 23 : 27. — 
(«) m.— (a) 1 Ch. 7:8.— (b) Neh. 10:20. 

^J0J^?J? ("prayers answered by Jehovah"), 
[AntothijaK], pr. n. m. 1 Ch. 8:24. 

D*PJ? masc. must, new wine, Joel 1:5; 4:18; 
Am. 9:13; from the root — 

DPJ^to tkead down, Mal.3:2i. (Ch. *$g id.). 

~W a fictitious root, where some derive VtyV) Isa. 
15-5; see Analyt. Ind. 

*»9>C an unused root. Syr. JLa^ to flourish. Uc 
to grow luxuriantly, as a plant, whence *pg Hebrew 
and Chaldee. 

n £K see n^J. 

^ m. pi. D*«B£ (comp.Lehrg.p. 575) foliage 
7f trees, Ps. 104: 12 ; from the root HD^. 

*tt£ Chald. id., Dan. 4:9, 11,18. (Syriac JLaoL* 
branch, top of a tree, jL^Oj* foliage). 

^5>j not used in Kal, prop, to swell up, to 
be tumid, whence 7Bty tumulus, a hillock. Arabic 

JjLc to suffer from a tumour or hernia. [Perhaps 

we may comp. Arab. Jii to neglect any thing, to 
he remiss. II. to cover over. In this sense we might 
hike the passage in Hab. to be remiss, to draw back, 
LXX. vvoariLXnrai. Vulg. qui mcredulus eat. Aquila, 


vui^tXtuofiirov (see also Heb. 10:28). This Arabic 
root also gives a suitable sense in Nu. 14:44.] 

Pual, to be tumid, metaph. to be proud, haughty 
Hab. 2:4. 

Hiphil, to act tvmidly, i. e. proudly, arrogantly. 
Nu. 14:44, ™ n ^$ ^?P " but they acted arro- 
gantly (i. e. neglecting the monition of God) in 
going up." In Deuter. 1:43, 'the same is expressed 
rnnn &gp\ nmi. Hence — 

/Sy m. — (1) a hill, an acclivity, Isa. 32: 14; 
Mic.4:8; with the art. ^Vn {.OpheQ, pr.n. of a 
hill to the east of mount Zion, which was surrounded 
and fortified by a separate wall, 2 Kings 5 : 24 [this 
refers to some other place], 2 Ch. 27 : 3 ; 33 : 14; Neh. 
3:27; 11:21; compare Jos. Bell. Jud., vi. 6, § 3. 

(2) a tumour, plur. n^Dy (read B^B^.) Deut. 
28:27; l Sam. 5: 6. seqq. n»ro, used of tumours on 

the anus. (Arab. ^JjLc tumor in ano virorum, vel in 
pudendis mulierum, see Schroederi Origg. Hebr., cap. 
iv. p. 54, 55. H. Alb. Schultens ad Meidanii Prov., 
p. 23). In np there is instead D^np, which see. 

]9>C an unused root. Arab, and Syr. to become 
mouldy, whence — 

*)$V r [Op A fit], Gent, n., found once, Josh. 18:24; 
where ^p^n pM) is a town of the tribe of Benjamin. 

D*3S?5# or rather dual. D^Sy^J? only found in 
const *#y?8 eye lid 8, so called from their volatile 
motion (bie glattembcn), from the root W Pilp. *|J?PV 
(compare Heb. Gramm. § 54, No. 4). Job 16:16; 
Ps. 132 :4. Poet. TH? ^pv eyelids of the dawn, 
used of the rays of the rising sun, Job 3:9; 41 : ia 
Compare 'Apipac fi\i<papor, Soph. Antig. 103, 104. 
The Arabian poets compare the sun to an eye (in 
Kamus ^-jJI amongst other things is explained 
l$cU-*J ^^-4*111 the sun or its beam), and they 

ascribe to it eyebrows ..v+jft-]! ^_^-L^, see Schult 
on Job, p. 61. 

"1DJ7 not used in Kal, Arab. I. Is. to be whitish, 

reddish, like sand, or a gazelle, hp dust, earth. IL 
jkz (cogn. to "ID? to cover), to be rough, hairy. 

Piel (denom. from ^), to dust, to throw dust 
at (befUiubcn), 2 Sa. 16:13. 

"1SJ? m.—(i) dust, dry earth (trodene Grto), 
Gen. 2:7; 26:15; Josh.7:6; Job 2:12; also used 
of clay or loam, of which walls are made, Leviticus 
14:42,45; of a heap of rubbish (e*ott), Habak 

Digitized by 



l:lo; very rarely of fine dust, such as is blown 
by the wind, i. q. P?« Psalm 1 8 : 43- "W ??—(<*) 
in the earth, in the world, Job 19:25; 39 :1 4; 4*: 
95 ; also upon the ground, Job 22:24; Isaiah 47 : 1 ; 
— (b) in the grave, Job 20: 11; 21:26; for which 
there is also said 1B& Job 7 : 21. "^ TJ to go down 
to the dust, i. e. into the grave, Psalm 22 : 30 ; 30 : 10. 
"IB^S 3M5> to return to dust, Genesis 3: 19; Psalm 
104:29. "IS&O ID? dust and ashes, a proverbial 
phrase to express the lowness and fragility of human 
nature, Gen. 18:27; Ps - 1 °3 : *4- It i« ^ed of mul- 
titude, Num. 23: 10, 3*P?2 isy : " the dust of Jacob," 
i. e. Jacob, who is as numerous as the dust of earth, 
compare ^H. ipj{ 73K to eat dust, used of the ser- 
pent, Gen. 3 : 1 4 ; compare Isaiah 65 : 25 ; but figura- 
tively used, Lam. 3 : 29, " to put the mouth in the 
dust," i.e. to be silent and wait the aid of God.— 
Plur. nhpg clods of earth. Prov. 8:26, nVl^y Vth 
hlft " the first of the c 1 od s of the world." Job 28 : 6, 
3HJ rhTEtfl lumps of gold in mines. 

1BJj[ (1. q. ±1 "calf," "young animal"), 

fEpher], pr. n. m. — (1) of a son of Midian, Genesis 
2 5:4 ._(a) iCh.4:i7— (3) iCh.5:24- 

"1§V m. fawn, the young of a deer, goat, gazelle, 
Cant. 2:9, 17; 4:5; 7:4; 8:H. (Arab.^£ and 
*j> the young of the wild goat). 

mSy (« fawn"), [Ophrah], pr. n.— (l) of a 
town in the tribe of Benjamin, Josh. 18 : 23 ; l Sam. 
13:17; fully Mic.i: 10, rn?J& rV3(«the fawn's 
house"). — (2) of a town of the Manassites, Jud. 
6:ll; 8:27; 9:5— (3) pr.n. m. lCh. 4:14. 

jVISy ("of, or belonging to, a calf"), \_Ephron\, 
pr. n. — (l) of a town on the borders of the tribe of 
Benjamin, 2 Ch. 13:19. wnere there is n P HTS?.— 
(2) of a mountain on the borders of the tribes of 
Judah and Benjamin, Josh. 15:9. — (3) of a Hittite, 
Gen. 23:8; 25:9. 

pfij; (two calves), see 1^9? No. 1. 

T\*)J3$ fern, lead, so called from its whitish colour 
(compare 3HJ, CjD?), Ex. 15:10. H^Vn 13« leaden 
weight, Zee. 5 : 8. 

YV. plur. D*¥X, const. ^V? m.— (1) a tree (Arabic 

\ mU c a staiF, a bone; compare the Gr. o£o*;, a branch, 
and Z9710V (Sansc. astht), Lat. hasta. For wood there 

tt commonly used in Arabic the cognate form jtc. 


Hebr. YV. follows the analogy of the verb H^ to U 
hard, firm. Chald. with the letters softened, has S? 
wood). D^nn yv. tree of life (see*n), Gen. 2:9. Often 
collect, trees. ^B YV. fruitbsaring trees, Gen. 1 : 11. 
(2) wood, specially of a wooden post, stake, gib- 
bet, Gen.40:i9;Deu.21:aa; Josh. 10:26; used of a 
wooden idol, Jer. 2 : 27. PL t3 % ^ wood, sticks, log* 
for fuel, Gen. 22 13, 9; Lev. 1 -.7 ; 4'- 12 ; used of ma- 
terials for building, Ex. *5:*°> * ' Ki ' 6:2 3: 3^ » 3*- 
Compare H¥g No. 1. 

ZIX^— (i)to labour, to form, to fashion. 
see PielNo. 1. (The original idea is perhaps that of 
cutting, whether wood or •tones, compare 3OT, 3pn. 
There are in the cognate languages secondary sig- 
nifications, as Arabic c— ^ t0 *» "HPT-) Hen< * 
3SJJ and.3#? a carved image, 3$J an earthen vessel. 

(2) to toil with pain, to suffer, to be grieved 
(see 3VJJ, 3$, Jl^ f jta^fR); used also of the mind, 
and in Kal trans, to put in pain, to afflict, 1 Ki. 
1:6; 1 Ch.4-.10; Isa. 54:6. 

Niphal, to be pained— (a) in body, followed by 
3 (with any thing), Ecc.l0:9.— (b) in mind, to be af- 
flicted, grieved, Gen. 45:5; 1 Sam. 20:3; followed 
by *?« (1 Sa. 20:34), and ?X (2 Sa. 19:3). 

Piel— (1) to form (comp. Kal No. l), Job 10:8. 

(2) to put to grief, to afflict (comp. Kal No. a), 
Isa. 63:10; Ps.56:6. 

HiraiL— (l) i.q. Kal No. 1, to labour; hence 
probably to serve (an idol), to worship (like the 
synonym. 13$), Jer. 44:19, a VVW? a to worship 
her" (the queen of heaven). Vulg. ad coUndum earn. 
Others, to make her, i.e. her image(comp. Kal N0.1). 

(a) i.q.PielNo.2,to^n'et;«, provoke (God) 
to anger, Ps. 78:40. 

Hithpael — (1) to grieve (oneself), Gen. 6:6. 

(2) to become an^ry, Gen. 34: 7. See Hi ph. No. a. 

Derived nouns, 3$t- n ?W» and n^HP. 

2¥V : Chald. part. pass. 3^ : grieved, afflicted. 
Dan. 6:21. 

3#J only in plur. D*3¥?, constr. % 9»J images of 
ido/s,iSa.3i:9; aSaftiai; Hos. 4: *7 (s** the 
root No. l). 

3¥J? m. workman, servant Plur. with snff. 
0^3 W (Dag. f. euphon.), Isa, 58:3. [In Then, re- 
ferred to the next art., No. a.] 

3$? and 3 $£ m -— (0 m earthen vessel^ Jer. 
22:28, seeKal No. 1. 

(2) heavy and toilsome labour, Prov. 10:S€. 
PL D*?y?. labours, i. e. things done with toil, Pr jc 

Digitized, by 




5:10, D 1 ?^ DHJ « bread obtained by toilsome 
labour;" Ps. 1*7:9. 

(3) patty 8ucn *s of parturient women, Gen. 3:16; 
also grief of mind % anger, Prov. 15:1, 3}3} "l?**! 
"a word pronounced with anger," a bitter, sharp 

3^ m. — (l) the image of an idol, i. q. 3)0? Isa. 
48:5; Ps. 139:24, 3#f I?} M worship of idols." 
(9) sorrow, 1 Ch. 4:9; Isa. 14:3. 

P3SJ? con8tr. lto$?, m. — (1) hard and toilsome 
labour, Gen. 3: 17;. 5:99. 

(9) j»at», frouM*, Gen. 3: 16, l£ty Ttfa^Jf « thy 
pain and thy conception;" Hendiadys for the pain 
of thy conception. 

rQ&S. f. constr. n J38 (as if from n JW), pi. constr. 

nnyy.,' with suff. *nta^, onta^?. 

(1) a;i irfo/, Ps. 16:4. 

(2) pain — (a) of body, Job 9:28. — (b) of mind, 
P8.147 : 3» °ptaw &^P9 " he binds up their pains," 
the wounds of their minds; Prov. 10:10; with the 
addition of 3? Prov. 15:13. 

'<»>; an unused root. Arab. «Xa£ to cut with 
an axe. Hence "*¥#?. 

TTS't — (1) T0 make firm; hence to shut, spe- 
cially the eyes, Prov. 16:30. Arab. Lie IV. id. 
^Eth. 08©: to shut a door. 

(2) i. q. Arab. \^& to be hard, firm (of a hard 
neck, contumacious), Conj. VIII. to grow hard; com- 

pare Ltc staff, Hebr. XV. wood, and n$JJ bone, jVyjJ 

HXJJ m. Lev. 3:9, the back bone (according to 
Onk., Arab. Erp.), or, as is preferred by Bochart, in 

Hieroz. i. p. 497, as ooccygis, Arab. r ». !1 r T either of 

which would be so called from hardness and firm- 

# - 

ness, see the root. Arab. Lac is the thigh bone, 
pi. the bones of the wings of birds. 

I. »"tt$ f. of the noun ft? collect, wood, i. q. D*?8, 
used of materials [for building], Jer. 6:6; of odori- 
ferous woods (^5J nvg), Prov. 27:9. 

II. HYg constr. ri¥J( (from the root Y% to counsel, 
for n?}?:), f. 

(1) counsel — (a) which any one gives or re- 
ceives, 2 Sam. 16:20; 1 Ki. 1 : 12; Ps. 1 19:24, Vl# 
% n*8 "my counsellors." Used of prediction^, Isa. 
44:26, compare 41 :98 (root No, 4). 


ounsel which any one forms, Isa. 19: 3; H>& 
•1¥K ntPJJ to execute a plan or counsel, Isa. 
30: 1. Especially used of the counsel or purpose of 
God, Job 38:2; Isa. 14:26; 46:11, ™K &"« "man 
of my counsel," whom I use as an instrument to 
execute my purpose. 

(3) counsel, as the faculty of forming plans, i.e. 
prudence, wisdom, especially that of God, Isaiah 
11:2; Pro.8:i4; 21:30; Jer. 32:19, nvjm VlJ "of 
great wisdom;" 1 Ch. 12:19, nygjl *« having taken 
counsel," having consulted. Plur. rrtvg once with 
suff. TC)^ Isa. 47: 13, counsel, Deu. 32:28; cares, 
Ps. 13:3- 

D^m. (from the root DVJJ). — (l) strong, ro- 
bust, powerful, used of a people, Gen. 18:18; Nu. 
14:12; Deu. 4:38; of kings, Psalm 135:1 o. Plur. 
Dnyivy. the strong, the mighty, i. e. heroes, Prov. 
18:18; Isa. 53:12; once the powerful members 
(of a lion}, i.e. claws, teeth; Ps. 10:10, VD*¥JS ^ 
D^KSpn " the wretched fall into his claws ;" but others 
understand the whelps of the lion. 

(2) numerous, Joel 1 :6; Ps. 35:18. 

133 p^j; (« the back bone of a man"), 
\Ezion-geber\, pr. n. of a maritime city in Idumaea, 
situated on the ^Elanitic gulf of the Ked Sea, not 
far from Elath (see Jy 1 **); whence Solomon's fleet 
sailed to Ophir. Called by the Greeks Berenice; 
see Jos. Antt. viii. 6, § 4. In the time of the Arab 



zzi Nu. 33:35; Deu. 2:8; 1Ki.9-.26; 

22:49; Burckhardt's Travels in Syria, Germ. ed. 
p. 831. 

7SJ/ a root not used in Kal. (Arab. JJa£ to be 
at leisure, Conj. II., to leave, to neglect. The primary 
idea appears to be that of laxity and languor; com- 
pare tyj, Vin, Jk^). 

Niphal, to be slothful, Jud. 18:9. 

/$V r verbal adj. slothful, Prov. 6:6,9; 13:4; 

n^# f. Prov. 19:15, and TKTfy Prov. 31:27, 
slothfulness. Dual BwVK double, i. e. very great 
slothfulness, Ecc. 10: 18. 

D-Mf — (l) prop. TO BIND, TO BIND FAST, TO TIE 

up; as the eyes, Isa. 33: 15; see Piel. (Arabic ^s. 
IV., to tie up a skin bottle; and more commonly 

s_~r* to tie. It is kindred to the verbs BDy, *: 

(TO?), also DP«, Dnn, DPP). 

From the idea of tyrtig 

Digitized by 


pnfrpj?— oxy 


rnxp- okjj 

(*) intrans. once Med.E. *»,#; (Ps. 38:20), to fo 
strong, powerful, Gen. 26: 16; to become strong, 

Exod. 1:7,20; Dan. 8:8,24; 11:23 (Arabic Ja& 

to be great, of great importance; Jac greatness; 

+,&£. great). 

(3) to 6e strong in number, to be numerous, 
Ps. 38:20; 40:6, 13 (see CWfljf). 

Piel, D'SV — (1) i.q. Kal No. i,Isa. 29:10. 

(2) denom. from D$J to break or to <7?jaM7 bones, 
Jer. 50 : 1 7. Compare D?.i 

Hiphil, to make strong, Ps. 105:24. 

Derivatives [D^] D$}-nto$8 and rfDVgri. 

DXy f. — (1) bone; so called from its firmness and 
strength; see the root No. 2. Arab. Jis, Gen. 2:23; 
Ex. 12:46; Num, 9:12, etc. Plur. D'OVy. constr. 
Vpl Ps. 6:3; 31:11; 32:3; more often also ntevg 
Ps. 51:10; Prov. 14:30; often used of the bones of 
i.he dead (compare HIT, nte?), Exod. 13:19; Josh. 
24:32; 2 Samuel 21:12 — 14; 2 Kings 23:14, 

(2) body, bodily form, Lam. 4:7. 

(3) Followed by a genit.; it is used instead of the 
pronoun itself (compare syn. D"J3 No. 3, and Arab. 
^c eye, himself) ; but only used of things, e. g. D$J3 

njn ri»n in that very day, Gen. 7:13; I7:«3i *& 
Exod. 24:10, DJOj^n D$D "as the heaven itself." 
Job 21 :23, ten D$tt " in his uprightness itself." 

(4) [Ei em, A zero], pr. n. of a town in the tribe 
of Simeon, Josh. 15:29; 19:3; 1 Ch. 4:29. 

Off m.— (1) strength, Dent. 8:17; Job 30:21. 
<a) body, i. q. D$> No. 2, Ps. 139: 15. 

^Off r {.— (1) strength, h&. 40:29; 47:9. 
(a) multitude,Nah. 3:9. 

POXy ("robust"), [Azmon\,yT.n. of a town 
on the southern boundary of Palestine, Nu. 34:4, 5; 
Josh. 15:4. 

niCSJ? f. strengths, bulwarks, used figuratively 
of arguments, with which disputants defend them- 
selves, an image taken from a battle, Isaiah 41:21 
(compare Job 13:12). Talmud. D»mK to dispute, 

to contend with words; Arab. <u*ac defence, guard. 

I •£>; an unused root, prob. of similar power to 
OVJJ, nyjj to be hard, firm. Hence — 

P?y &r. Atyd/i. 2 Samuel 23:8; prob. a spear % 

i> <~ «• 
~* a branch; see as to this passage 

compare Arab, 
under the word Hy. 

"13D£ fut. i^T. and -ftR— (1) to shut. (The 
primary idea is that of surrounding, enclosing; see 
the kindred roots ">¥?, 1^, 1JK, and those which are 
there compared. Arab. ^£- is, to prohibit, to refuse, 
r ii to hold back, to restrain, like the Heb. No. 8); 
e. g. to shut up heaven (so that it may not rain }, 
Deu. 11:17; 2 Chron. 7:13; a woman, (so as not to 
bear,) Gen. 16:2; 20:18 (where it is construed with 
"IP.?, see No. 3); conip. Isai. 66:9; also to shut up 
in prison, 2 Kings 17:4; Jer. 33:1; 36:5; 39 :l 5» 
Followed by % )&? 1 Ch. 12:1, TOjr»p "H^ "shut 
up from the face of Saul," so that he might not *ee 
the face of Saul, or, " shut up at home for fear of 
Saul" (compare ^s. IV. to keep oneself at home), 

(2) to hold back, to detain any one any where, 

1 Kings 18:44; Jud. 13:16; followed by f aKingi 
14:26; followed by 3 Job 12:15, DJM lVK "he 
will withhold the waters." Job 4: 2, P?P? ^"to 
restrain words." Job 29:9. There is a peculiar 
phrase only used in the later Hebrew, rp l^ to re- 
strain strength, to be strong, Dan. 10:8, 16; 11:6; 

2 Chron. 13:20; followed by / to have ability to do 
anything, to be able, 1 Ch. 29:14; 2 Ch. 2:5522:9; 
and even without nb s Ch. 20:37 ; 14:10. 

(3) to restrain by rule, to rule, followed by $ 
iSa.9:l7. See")*?. 

Niphal — (1) to be shut up (used of heaven), 
iKi.8:35; 2Ch.6:26. 

(2) to be restrained, hindered, Nu. 17:13, 15? 
2 Sa. 24:21, 25; Ps. 106:30. 

(3) to be gathered together (from the idea of 
restraining, compelling, see ^IVJ?), especially to a 
festival ('"™»)- l Samuel 21:8, n}n* *»> ■>$». « ga- 
thered [Engl. Ver. detained] before Jehovah." 

Hence are derived the three following nouns, also 

"fl$ m. dominion, rule, Judges 18:7, ^r* 
" (no one) holding rule, w none of the great ones, 
rulers of the people. [In Thes. the signification 
given is riches."] 

"Iff m. — (1) shutting up, restraint Prov. 
30: 16, orn ivy " the shutting upof (the)wmnb, 1 
for a barren woman. 

(2) oppression, vexation, Psa. 107:39; Isaiah 

i"l"S&and more often HTJfJ^ fem. an a*senbt$ 

Digitized by 




pn^py— oj# 

(see the root Niph. No. 3), Jerem. 9:1; especially an 
assembly of people for the keeping of festivals, 
ra v^yvpec, Joel 1:14; 9 Ki. 10:20; Am. 5:21; Isa. 
1:13; specially such as were convened on the seventh 
day of the passover, and the eighth of the feast of 
tabernacles, i. q. Bhf> K*TpO Levit. 23 : 36. Compare 
Nu. 29:35; Deu. 16:8; «Ch.7:9; Neh. 8:18; and 
Arab. £c*s*- an assembly, more fully ic^H **> the 

day of the assembly, used for Friday, as being the 
Mahommedan festival day. The signification of 
gathering together, or assembly (which had 
already been adopted by Simonis, Arc. Formarum, 
p. 180), is more largely defended as belonging to this 
word, in my larger Lex. p. 885, against Iken (Dissert. 
Philol. Theol., page 49 — 54), and J. D. Michaelis in 
Supplemm. h. v., who make the primary ider, to be 
that of restraint from work. RosenmUllei assents to 
my opinion (who, in his first and second edition, 
followed Iken), on Lev. 23:36, ed. 3; so also Winer. 

3pJ£ fut. 3fa£ — (l) i. q. ej^Ls TO BE BEHIND, 

to come from behind, hence 30? heel. (So it is 
commonly taken ; but it is worth while for etymologists 
to inquire, whether the primary idea be not that of 
being elevated, like a mound, arched vault, heap, so 
that i* may be kindred to the roots 33j, 23£. Hence 

* — 
3ft? JU&£ an ascent, and -i# heel, so called from the 

form ; from the heel may be taken the other ideas of 
hindmost, last, etc.). 

(2) denom. from 38? to take hold of any one's 
heel Hos. 12:4, mrn« 107 Rft* " in the womb 
he took his brother by the heel," compare 3I3J? TTIK 
Gen. 25:26. Especially to throw any one down, to 
trip one up. Hence — 

(3) to supplant, to circumvent, to defraud, 
Gen. 97:36; Jer. 9:3. 

Piel, to hold back, to retard, Job 37: 4. 
Derivatives, 33J— nnj#, and the pr. n. 3t>J£, H$S£, 

3j2J? constr. 3|?5, plur. constr. *3P? (in some printed 
copies % 33P. with Dag. euphon.) m. 

(1) t1ieheel—(a) of men, Gen.3:i5; Psa.56:75 
Job 18:9; Jer. 13:22; Cant. 1:8. — (6) of horses, 
the hoof, Gen.49:i7; Jud.5:22. 

(2) metaph. the extreme rear of an army, Josh. 
8:13; Gen. 49: 19. 

(3) plur.rtaj^ prints ^of the heel or foot), Psa. 
77:20; 89:52 (compare Cant 1:8* 

(4; verbal adj. of the root No. 3, a Her in wait, 

3pX m. — (i) a hill, acclivity, iq. Arab. £jL& 
jEth. <\ <f*f|: Isa. 40:4. (A hill is said to be so 
called from its retarding and keeping back those who 
go up, but see the remarks on the root No. 1). 

(2) adj. fraudulent, deceitful, Jer. 17:9* 

(3) adj. denom. from 38} No. 3. Hos. 6:8, n$f>J{ 
0*59 "trodden (trampled) in blood," Le. full of 
bloody footprints. 

3J38 m.— (1) the end, the latter part of any- 

thing (Arab. s_^£c); also as an adv. tin to the end, 

continually, Ps. 119:33, 112. 

(2) wages, reward, as if the end, the result of 
labour; compare Xonrdlfia, reward, from Xoltrdoq, last. 
Ps. 19:12; Pro. 22:4. And so 3g3T^8 Psal. 40:16; 
70:4; and 31J8 Isa* 5:23, in reward of, i.e. on ac- 
count of; and as a conj. because that, because, 
Num. 14:24; Deu.7:i2; fully "^ 3jJ8 Gen. 96:5, 
and *? 3iJ? Am. 4:12. 

n3jpj^ (3 without Dagesh, for n^, comp. n^p), 
{.fraud, wiles, 2Ki. 10:19. 

*Tpi^ faU^Sl, Arabic J^ to bimd, Gen. 22:9. 
(Kindred roots are 13$, IJ^, which see). Hence— 

TR pl- D ^^:i *&)- striated, banded, pr. marked 
with stripes (tfeftretft), compare "^n No. 3, Gen. 30- 
35, seq.; 31:8, seqq. 

J"fpJ£ an unused root, see ngj{5. 

Hpy f. oppression, Ps. 55:4, from the root pty. 

3*j3R(" insidious," Lq. 3}^!), [-4Wti6],.pr.n. 
m. — (1) lCh. 3:24. 

(2) lCh.9:l7; Ezr.2:49; Neh. 7:45; 8:7; 11: 
19; 12:25.— (3) Ezr. 2:45. 


|3J; not used in Kal; to twist, to wrest, to 

pervert (compare as to the primary stock, kl,gl, 

page CLxn, B). « r 

Pual, part, perverted, Hab. 1:4. (Syr. ^a^ 

to pervert, Arab. J*c to bind together.) Hence — 


P?P? *$. tortuous, crooked. Judges 5: 6, 
rff?ih&. rtrnK "crooked ways," i. e. devious, and 
unfrequented ; and without the subst. ntt^S! PsaL 
125:5, id. 

pji?(?S[ adj. (from an unused subst. n^BR, and 
with the adj. termination fl), tortuous, an epith. of 
the serpent, Isa. 27 : 1. 

Digitized by 



]pJJ an unused root; perhaps i.q. 'KJ, and Aram 
DBB to twist 7 to wrest; whence — 



[A Jean], pr. n. m. Gen. 36 : 27, for which there 
is ]t>Sl Nu. 33:31; Deu. 10:6; 1 Ch. 1:42. 

"1pJ7 — (1) to root out, to pluck up (a plant), 
Ecc. 3:2. (Syr. and Ch. id. The primary syllable 
is T; compare the kindred roots "Hp, *>i?J; also "W3, 
rna, -QK.) Hence— 

(2) i. q. Arab. Ju to fe barren, prop, to have the 
testicles extirpated ; compare the remarks on D"]p. 

Niphal, to be overthrown (as a city), Zeph. 2:4. 

Piel, to hamstring or hough a horse, by which 
the animal is rendered useless and unfit for work, 
Josh. 11:6,9; 2Sara.8:4; 1 Ch. 18:4; a bull, Gen. 
49:6. LXX. YtvpoKowiiv. It was anciently the prac- 
tice of victors (and still is the case), thus to treat 
the horses taken in battle, when they cannot carry 
them away with them ; Germ, be m ^pferbc bte #efien 

abbaucn. (Arab. Ju id.) 

"WJ7. Ch. to root up: — Ithpeal pass. Dan. 7:8. 

1$ m - n "KEf JVJiJK f. barren, used both of the 
male and female (as to the origin, see the root No. 
2), Gen. 11:30; 25:21; 29:31; Deitf.7:i4. (Syr 
and Arab, id.) 

"Ij3j£ m. — (1) prop, a root (Arab, yu, Ch. 

hence a shoot (see BHfc*), metaph. used of a man of 

a foreign race, who had settled in the Holy Land, 

Lev. 25:47- 

(*)'[Eker~\, pr. n. m. 1 Ch. 2:27. 

"lj?R constr. "TfiR m. Chald. stocky trunk, Dan. 
4:12, 20. 

^TjpK pl« D *?*?8 m. — (1) a scorpion, Eze. 2:6. 
(Arab. ^^JLs. id. To this corresponds the Greek 
fTKoptnng, the breathing being changed into sibilant; 
compare 70? wJXtoc.) It appears to be blended from 
TpSJ, ju: to wound, and 3ESJ the heel. See also m "2VP 

(2) a kind of scourge, furnished with sharp 
points, 1 Ki. 12: 11, 14; 2 Ch. 10:11, 14. SoinLat. 
scorpio, according to Isidore (Origg. v. 27), is virga 
nodtxi et aculeata. 

jMp^ (" eradication," compare Zeph. 2:4), 
[Ekron], pr. n, of one of the five principal cities of 
tl:e Philistines, situated in the northern part of the 

land of the Philistines, first assigned to the tribe of 
Judah (Josh. 15 : 45), afterwards to the Danites (Josh 
19:43)> Josh.i3:3; 15:11; 19:43; Jud. 1:18; 1 Sa, 
5 : 10; 2 Ki. 1 : 2. LXX. 'AKcapitv, 'Atop** [Per- 
haps now called 'Akir, iU, Rob. iii. 22]. Genu 
noun, *J1$ Josh. 13:3; i Sa.5:io. 

tL^r2J7 to twist, to pervert. Arab, t^r*^ 
and i^r- id. Metaph. to pervert any one, in a 
forensic sense, is i. q. to pervert or wrest his cause, 
Job 9:20, " (although) I were upright ^PBCl (God) 
would pervert my cause" (in the other hemistich 
*JJPt?T would declare me guilty). 

Piel id. to pervert, Mic. 3:9. To pervert ones 
ways is i. q. to act perversely, Isa. 59:8; Pro. 10:9. 

Niphal, pass, to be perverse. Part B??71 &&& 
whose way 8 are perverse, Prov. 28: 18. 

Derivatives, &$2> ™tf$, W#B8p. 

B^ adj. m. — (1) perverse. E||? 33? a per- 
verse heart, Ps. 101:4, and vice versa 337TTJS? a 
man perverse of mind, Prov. 11:20; 17: 20. Cf32 
VflDp perverse in lips, i. e. a man of fraudulent 
speech, Prov. 19: 1. Absol. deceitful, false, Deu. 
32:5; Ps. 18:27; Prov. 8:8. 

(2) [Ikkesh~\, pr. n. m. 2 Sam. 23:26. Hence — 

f. with the addition of tt perverseness 
of mouth, i. e. fraudulent, deceitful speech, Pro. 4: 24; 
6:12, compare 19:1. 

•S( m. — (1) i. q. TV. a city, which see (hence pL 
DnjJ). in sing, "fl? Num. 21 : 15; Deut. 2 :9, and 
fully 3tODnj( (city of Moab), Num. 21 : 28 ; Isa. 15: 1, 
pr. n. of the metropolis of Moab, situated on the 
southern shore of Arnon, Gr. 'Apeox-oXtc (which those 
who did not know the true origin, rendered city of 
Mars); Abulfeda l— >U and LJ\, now called Babku 
See Relandi Palaestina, p. 577 ; Burckhardt's Beise 
nach Syrien, p. 640. 

(2) an enemy, see the root "VJ No. 2, 1 Sa. .0: 16. 
Plur. Ps.9:7; 139:20. 

TJJ Ch. i. q. Heb. No. 2, Dan. 4: 16. 

U? ("watcher"), [Er\, pr.n.— (1) of a son of 
Judah, Gen. 38:3; 46:12. — (2) 1 Ch. 4:21. 

*• ^1%—(i) pr. to mix, like the Ch. and Syr. 
(kindred to 3"1« to interweave), see liithp., also fe 
weave, whence 318 No. I, woof. 

(2) to exchange articles of traffic, hence to traf* 
fie, to barter, Eze. 27 : 9, 27 ; whence 2"]Ep. 

(3) to become surety for any one, followed by a* 

Digitized by 


3Tp DCLl 

ace. of pen. (pr. to interchange with him, to suc- 
ceed in his place); e.g. — (a) to be surety for the 
life of another, Gen. 43:9; 44:32. Job 17:3, W3J 
19? " be surety for me with thee," i. e. in the cause 
whicli I have with thee. Isaiah 38:14, W# "be 
su re ty for me (0 Lord)," i. e. take me under thy pro- 
tection. Ps. 1 19: Ida. — (b) to be surety, to be liable 
for another's debt, Proverbs 11:15; 20:16; 27:13; 
followed by ^ Prov. 6:1; and \?^> Prov.i7:i8. (Syr. 

-"N n, id.; Arab. c— >Lc a vessel). 

Derivatives, na'Jg, n3T£n. 

(4) to pledge, to give in pledge, followed by an 
ace. of the thing. (Arab, t— >.c Conj. II., IV., to 
give a pledge). Neh. 5:3. Metaph. \sf? rig 3TJJ to 
pledge one's life, i.e. to expose it to most imminent 
danger, Jer. 30:91. But this may also be rendered, 
to be surety for his life; compare No. 3. 

Derivative, fl^TR. 

(5) Med. E and fat. A, in trans, to be sweet, plea- 
sant (perhaps well mixed, compare No. 1), followed 
by ? of pera., e. g. sleep, Prov. 3 : 24, sacrifices, gifts, 
Jer. 6:20; followed by 7j? Ps.i04:34. Eze. 16:37, 
Dtrfaj WSJ T*i " whom thou hast pleased." Com- 
pare adj. 3^JJ sweet. 

(6) From the notion of sweetness is perhaps de- 
rived the signification of sucking (comp. Y ¥*?, ^'V©), 
whence 3*^ a dog-fly, from its sucking the blood of 
men and animals; compare Arab. c-^x. which in 

the Kamus (page 125, line 11) is explained j£\ to 

Hithpael — (1) to mingle oneself, followed by?, 
in any thing, Pro. 14: 10. 

(«) to intermingle with any one in fellowship 
(fid) mil jemanbem einlaffen), specially to be familiar with, 
followed by 9 Ps. 1 06 : 35 ; followed by ? Prov. 20:19; 
followed by D? Prov. 24:21 ; to enter into marriage, 
followed by 9 Ezra 9:2; to enter into combat, fol- 
lowed by H« with any one, Isa. 36:8; 2 Ki. 18:23. 

For the derived nouns see under the several sig- 

n. J. Jj7 to set, as the sun (Syr. and JEth. 
04R: *<*. Arab. <-^-s *> depart far away, to wan- 
der). Hence, to draw towards evening, Jud. 19:9. 
Metaph. I3aiah24:li, nnip^>3 nrrjy " all joy has 

Hiphil, to do at evening. Inf. a^gn doing (so) 
at evening ; adv. at evening (compare Bj?f«? in the 
Horning), 1 Sa. 17:16. 

Derivatives, ^ No. II, Tg No. I, 3^ No. II 

m - y*)% l q. 3Tf?, ;Eth. (transp.) 004: *> bi 
arid, sterile, dry. Hence n T TK., and pr.n. 3^ 

IV. D"U7 i. q. Arab, c-^c to be whitish, whiten- 

ing, whence <— >yLc whitish, a man with white eye* 

lashes, c-^x whiteness of the eyelashes, silver, also 
willow. Hence Heb. 3"$ willow, so called from its 
whitish leaves. [In Thes. this is joined with No. II.] 

3jJ7 Ch. to mix, to mingle. Pael, Dan. 2:43 
Ithpael, pass. ibid. 

y^Si sweet, pleasant, Prov. 20:17; Cant. 2:14. 
See the verb No. I. 5. 

3nj/ m., a species of fly, gad-fly, very troublesome 
to persons; so called from sucking (blood); see the 
root No. I. 6; Ex. 8:17, seqq.; Ps. 78:45; 105:31. 
LXX Kvvoftvia, dog-fly, which is described by Philo, 
who supposes its name to be from its boldness, De 
Vita Mosis, t. ii. p. 101, ed. Mangeii. Almost all the 
Hebrew interpreters understand it to be a collect ion 
of noxious beasts, as if a miscellaneous swarm (from 
D"iy in the signification of mixing); and so Aqu. 
irappvia ; Jerome, omne genus muscarum; Luth. allerlen 
Uncjejiefer $ but 3^ must denote some particular crea- 
ture, as is all but manifest from the passage, Exod. 
8 : 25, 27. Oedmann (Verm. Sammlungen IX p. 150) 
understands blatta oriaUaUs; called in Dutch and 
German JCalertocte $ but which is a creature that rather 
devours things than stings men; contrary to the ex- 
press words of Exod. 8:17. 

3^JJ f., 2 Chron. 9: 14; and 2^ Isa. 21:13; Jer. 

s — — 
25 : 24 ; Eze. 27:21; pr. name A rabia (t-j-c) ; so 

called from its aridity and sterility (see the root No. 
III). Gent, noun is ^"JS an Arabian, Isa. 13:20; 
Jer.3:2; also ^"J? Neh. 2:19; plur. D % ?TS A rabians, 
2Chron.2l:l6; 22:1; and DW?"ffi 2 Chron. 17:11; 
always used of Nomadic tribes, Isa., Jer. loc. cit. Also 
the name Arabia is not used to designate that large 
peninsula which geographers call by this name, but 
a tract of country of no very large extent, to the 
east and south of Palestine, as far as the Red Sea. 
So Eusebius says of the Midianites, jcetrat iireKiiya 
r»7c *Apa/3i'ac *pbc varov iv ipfifiy rStv Eapariivwv rj/c 
IpvOpac OaXaatraQ ktr AraroXac. Of no wider extent 
is Arabia in the New. Test. (Gal. 1:17; 4:25). 5e$ 
my remarks on Isa. 21:13. 

3^8— (I) woof, Levit. 13:48—59. See the r.A 
No. I. 1. 

Digitized by 


(II) coll. strangers, aliens; from the root 3"3( 


No. II.; compare u-j-c to wander; y_ ~ t f a wan- 
derer, Ex. 12:38; Neh. 13:3. With the art. it is 
written 3Tgn ; see 3$ No. I. 2. 

i^J/ — (I) — (i)evening(m.a.ndfem., 1 Sam. 20:5) 
from the root 2*% No. IL 3^3 Gen. 19:1; 29:23 
3^n«i>Gen. 8:11; 24:11; 3$ (ace.) Exod. 16:6 
poet. 3^ Psalm 59 : 7»»5; 9°:6; Gen. 49:27, a* 
evening. Plur. rrt3*$ Jerem. 5:6. Dual. D?3-]g the 
two evenings ; only in the phrase DJIHJjn P3 between 
the two evenings, Ex. 16:12; 30:8; used as mark- 
ing the space of time during which the paschal lamb 
was 8lain,Ex. 12:6; Lev.23:5; Num.9:3; and the 
evening sacrifice was offered, Ex. 29:39, 41 ; Num. 
28:4; i. e. according to the opinion of the Karaites 
and Samaritans (which is favoured by the words of 
Deut. 16:6), the time between sunset and deep twi- 
light The Pharisees, however (see Joseph. Bellum 
Jud. vi. 9, § 3), and the Rabbinists considered the 
time when the sun began to descend to be called the 

first evening (Arab. ^^ little evening; l JJwn .t when 
it begins to draw towards evening; Gr. hi\ri vpuiia); 
and the second evening to be the real sunset (Gr. 
hiXrf 6\f/ia). See Bochart, Hieroz., 1 1, p. 559. Com- 
pare, as to the double morning, Pococke ad Carm. 
Tograi, p. 71 ; and Hebr. pr. n. DHD^. 

(2) i. q. 31? No. II, foreigners, strangers ; 
hence 3*J^n *3/D foreign kings, who made alliance 
with the Israelites, 1 Ki. 10:15; and so also else- 
where of auxiliary forces, Jer. 25:20; 50:37; 
Eze. 30:5. 

(II) only in pi. 0*3*$, const/?"]? m. willow (Arab. 

*■— >.i), so called from its whitish leaves, see the root 
No. IV. Isa. 44 : 4 ; Job 40 : 22 ; Ps. 1 37 : 2 (where the 
Salix Babylonica, Linn, is to be understood, with its 
pendulous foliage, a symbol of grief and mourning; 
Germ. JXraucmmbe, weeping willow). Isa. 15:7, 
D^Tjn ^03 " the brook of willows" (comp. Job 40: 
22) in Moab, i. e. either Lm^^\ ^$o\% on the borders 
of the provinces of Karrak (i. e. ancient Moab) and 
Jebal (i. e. Idumsea), see Burckhardt's Travels, 
page 674 ; or else the brook TTJ (which see), near 
the town of Karrak, where Burckhardt, loc. cit. page 
643, mentions a fountain of willows, uJLai** ^+s- 

s - + 

IIP pi. D*yjfc m.— (1) a raven. (Arab. l-Aj* 

a raven, a crow; compare the Lat corpus. No loot 

it U be sought in the Phoenicio-Shemitic languages 

[" thus called from its black colour"], but to thfe 
answers the Sanscr. kdrawa. The letters b and u 
are shewn not to belong to the root by the Gr. apoi 
and apparently Lat. comix.) Gen. 8:7; Isa. 34: 11 ; 
Psalm 147 : 9. It is sometimes of wider extent, sod 
comprehends kindred species of birds, specially tk 
crow s, see Lev. 11:15; Deu. 14:14. 

(2) [0r«6], pr. n. of a prince of the Afidianites, 
Jud. 7:25; 8:3; Psal. 83:12; from whom a certain 
rock beyond Jordan took its name, Jud. 7:25; In. 

PQ'iy f, an arid, sterile region, a desert (see 
the root No. IV), Job 24:5; Isa. 33:9; 35: 1; 51:3; 
Jer. 50:12 ; 51:43. With the art., HfJ^n is that 
low region into which the valley of the Jordan 
(.**!!) runs near Jericho, and which extends as far 
as the iElanitic gulf, Deut. 1:1 ; 2:8; Josh. 12:1; 
2 Sam. 4:7 ; 2 Ki. 25:4; in which are the Dead Sea 
(hence called nzngn DJ the sea of the desert, Deut 
4:49; Josh. 3:16; 12:3; 2 Ki. 14: 25) and the brook 
Kedron, or n 3^n ?n$ the stream of the desert, Am. 
6:14; comp. 2 Ki. 14:25, also folT nU"K the plaini 
of Jericho, Josh. 5: 10; 2 Ki. 25:5; and 3*0D Jin's, 
see 3Kto. 

(2) pr. n. of a town in the tribe of Benjamin, fullj 
called niTTjn n*» ; see T)% letter kL 

ri3*iy fem. — (1) surety, security, Prov. 17:18 
(see nt% 3). 

(2) a pledge (see 3T5J No. I, 4). 1 Sam. 17: 18, 
nj3fl Dna-jjrnW " and bring a pledge from them." 

P3*$ m. a pledge, Gen. 38:17, 18, 20 (see 3^ 

S -u- S * — 

No. I, 4). Arab. ^Ij -c, lotfj* *d. Hence afipafivr, 
arrhabo, a word peculiar to traders, which the Greek* 
and Romans seem to have borrowed from the Phoe- 
nicians, the originators of traffic. 

S T% '111 an Arabian, see *% 

TO^E [Arbathite], Gent n. of the word nyj| 
No. 3, which see; 2 Sa. 23:31. 

3^ fut ryi — (1) to ascend, i. q. Arabic 
^, jEthiop. 0C1: see rung. 

(2) followed by 'H and /$ to desire anything, af 
if bu Bf». Kb}. (Arab. Conj. II. to be bent", or intent 
upon anything). Ps. 42 : 2 ; Joel 1 : 20. The opinion 
of the Hebrew writers is that the word J"W properly 
expresses the cry of the deer, which is applied alsc 
to domestic animals, Joel loc. cit. (the Syriac alss 
renders it in both places 1^^)» bo* this if not xm 

Digitized by 


firmed by the use of the cognate languages ; although 
we may compare it with Gr. onomatop. £pvw, tty>vyi/. 
But see the derivative '"^IP. More is said on this 
subject by Bochart, Hieroz. part i. page 883. 

1 jJv an unused root; Arab. *^£ Conj. H. to flee 
(comp. the kindred ^H); Syr. Ethp. to be untamed. 
Hence "rtT^, Ch. TJg wild ass. 

"HV : [Arad], pr.n.— (1) (for Tjl, H'3), a town 
of the Canaanites, in the southern part of Palestine, 
Nu. «l : 1 ; 33 :40 ; Josh. 1 a : 14 [situated apparently 
at Tel 'Arad jLc Jj Rob. ii. 473].— (2) m. 1 Chr. 

TT^ m. Ch. i. q. "tiH? wild ass, Dan. 5:21. 

n JJk to be naked; not used in Kal. Arabic 

j^ id. The primary idea appears to be that of 

plucking out (compare «"nX) plants, hairs, etc.; 
hence to bare, bald, devoid of plants and trees ; com- 
pare n 3*?9, "V9- Kindred roots are DTSJ and perhaps 

P;el n"#, fat. conv. T5W1 — (1) to make naked, to 
uncover, e.g. pudenda, Isa. 3: 17, a shield (on which 
there had been a covering), Isai. 22:6; Zeph. 2: 14, 
•^18 n J7&" ne uncovers the cedar work," makes 
the walls naked by removing the cedar wainscotting. 

(2) to lay naked (the foundation of a house), i. e. 
to overthrow a house, Psal. 137:7. Inf. niTJJ Hab. 
3:13. (Compare «vJ, nj| Ezek. 13:14; Mic 1:6.) 
Hence — 

(3) to empty a vessel, to pour it out (in doing 
which its bottom is laid bare), Gen. 24:20; 2 Chr. 
24: 1 1. Ps. 141 :8, 'Vfyl "<HJ ?K " pour not out my 
soul," i. e. pour not out my blood. Compare Hiph. 
No. 2. 

Hiphil — (1) to make naked, to uncover, e. g. 
pudenda, Lev. 20 : 1 8, 1 9. 

(2) to pour out. I8aiah53:i2, te*M r.Jjpp iTJJTJ 
" he hath poured out his soul unto death," he de- 

livered himself to death. (Arab. ^ W ft j JLj! to pour 

out, L e. to give up one's life or soul; Syr. J_* 

crt*gu, Gr. icapafiaWetrOai, whence parabolanus). 

Nwhal, pass, of Hiph. No. 2, to be poured out, Isa. 

Hjthpael — (1) to make oneself naked, to un- 
cover oneself, Lam. 4:21. 

(9) to pouroneselfout,tospreadoneself(med 
of a wide spreading tree), Ps. 37 : 35. 

TjflT?— yip 

Derived nouns, n^ nrgj, T\fQ "\P5, rqjJD, "^]» 
and pr. n. JT?2£9. 

H^9 plur. rt"DtJ f mf Isaiah 1: :7; a naked or bare 
place; i. e. destitute of trees (see "Q?P, n< 3JTO); here 
used of the grassy places on the banks of the Nile. 

n^n$[f. Cant. 5: 13; 6:2; Eze. 17:7, 10; areola, 
bed of a garden or vineyard, raised up in the middle 
(er^tcs (gartrnbceb 23lumenberg $ from the root J*3f). 
So the old interpreters. Others understand it to be 
a ladder, trelli^ibv training plants against. Com- 

pare Arab. 


a ladder ; but the former explana- 

tion is preferable. 

TV"ty m. the wild ass, Job 39:5. Chald. TJJ( id.; 
in the Targg. for the Hebr. «"}§. Koot 111}. 

HVnj£ f. (from the root n l?)~ (l) nakedness, 
Hos. 2:11; metaph. r?M n 3T? the nakedness of 
the land; i. e. a part of the land unfortified, easy of 

access; Arabic i ,*e (rc«x°t iyvpy&Ovi, Horn. II. xii. 
399)» Gen. 42:9^13. 

(2) pudenda; especially when naked, Gen. 9:22, 
23; 1 Sam. 20:30. V3N n]"]]7 the nakedness of one's 
father; i.e. the nakedness of one's father's wife, Lev. 
20: 11 ; compare Lev. 18:8, 16. 

(3) shame, filthiness. "9"? nrjg anything un- 
clean (excrement), Deu. 23: 15, (any defect ibund in 
a woman) Deut. 24: 1 ; also ignominy, dishonour. 
Isa. 20:4, DHVP ni"$ " the dishonour of Egypt." 

*yn$ Chald., emptying; hence loss (of the king), 
Ezr. 4: 14. See the Hebrew root Piel No. 3. 

Di"^, Dh# plur. D*9m(, f. HDiy, adj. naked, Job 
1:21. But naked is also used for — (a) ragged, 
badly clad, Job 22:6; 24:7, 10; Isa. 58:7; comp. 
Gr. yv/iKdc, James 2:15; and as to the Lat. nudus 
Seneca, De Benef., 5: 13; Arabic f +***-< stripped, 
ill-clad. — (b) used of one who, having taker, off his 
mantle, goes only clad in his tunic (nj'rqj), 1 Sam. 
19:24; Isa. 20 : 2. Compare John ft 1 : 7 ; Virg. Georg. 
I. 229, and the note of J. H. Voss. Aurel. Vict. cap. 
17. Root DH{ No. 1. 1. 

DVtym.— (i)cro/ty,Gen.3:l; Job 5:1a; 15:5. 
(2) in a good sense, prudent, cautious, Prov. 
12 : 16, 23; from the root D13J No. 1. 2. 

Di"TJ7 see DTy. 

TBVTg and IShll (from the root TH; like }fify 
from the root %J; Jfc from the root J;) 

Digitized by 



(1) proban. i. q. I^J? prop, naked; hence needy, 
outcast, Jer. 48:6 (compare Jer. 17:6). LXX. ovoq 

Ayptoc pty); Vulgate myrica (compare Arab.^j^c 
juniper, £>ad)1wtber). 

(2) [Aroer\ pr. n. — (a) of a town on the northern 
bank of the river Arnon,Deut. 2:36; 3:1a; 4:48; 
Josh. ia:9; 13:16; which belonged to Moab, Jer. 
48 : 19 ; another form is "foTJR Jud. 1 1 : 26. Its ruins 
still bear the ancient name (j U^) ; see Burckhardt's 

Travels in Syria, p. 633. Different from this is — 
(6) another further north, over against Rabbath Am- 
nion (Josh. 13:25), situated on the river of Gad; i. e. 
an arm of Jabbok, 2 Sam. 24:5; built by the Gadites, 
Num. 32:34; Isa. 17:2 (see my observations on the 
passage). — (c) a town of the tribe of Judah, 1 Sam. 
30:28. Gent. n. 'TO! 1 Ch. 11 :44- 

Y^ty, in other copies ^"^ something horrid, 
horror (from the root P? No. I). Job 30:6, ^13 
O^n? "in the horror of the valleys," i.e. in the 
horrid valleys. 

% TK (forHJTg "guarding," i.e. "worshipping 
Jehovah"), [Ert], pr.n. of a son of Gadi, Gen. 
46: 16. [Patron, id., Nu. 96:16.] 

T$ i-1- n V& f * nak e dne88 > want Eze - l6: 7i 
nnjfl big n«\ " and thou (wast) naked and want," 
LeVin want. *Hab. 3:9,^0 ^SJ "shall be made 
naked with nakedness." 

!"©*■$ only in plur. T\S- Num. 15:20,21; Neh. 
10:38; Ezek. 44:30; coarse meal, polenta (®tUt, 
©rufte) com p. Talmud »piy polenta made from barley, 

pearl barley. Syriac JlLoo id. [see Thes.], also a 
drink made of it. Root DTJ( which see. LXX., 
Vulg., Num., (pupapa, pulmentum. Neh., Eze. oItoq, 

D^iy.masc. pL clouds, heaven (from the root 
■fil{ to drop down), Isa. 5:30; Syr. and Vulg. caUgo. 
Compare the quadrilitt. 'PTR. 

yiS, (with Kametz impure for rVl) adj. and 
subst. pr. terrifying, causing fear; hence — (1) 
very powerful, used of God, Jerem. 20: 11; of 
powerful nations, Isa. 25 : 3. 

(2) in a bad sense, violent, fierce, Psa. 37:35; 
Isa. 13:11; 25:3; J° b 15:20; 27:13. Eze. 28:7, 
CTU *yy r "violent nations;" 30:11; 31:12; 

^TTJ^plur. D^TUJ adj. solitary, desolate,hence 

void of offspring, Gen. 15:2; Levi t. 20:20,11 
Jer. 22:30; from the root "V3J No. 2. 


row, to put in order, Germ, rciljen/ rid*en# Gr. 
Taatret, rcirrw (kindred to TS? to stretch out m i 
straight line, to extend, and in the Indo-Germanic 
languages, SKetbe (S«cigc # Slicgc), return/ intens. wden. 
rego (not for reago, as some suppose), re^ula, rectus, 
also rigeo, (larr fepn, rigor, gerabe fcinie), e.g. tc 
arrange wood upon an altar, Gen. 22:9; Lev. 1:7; 
loaves upon the holy table, 24:8 (compare T^Q 
No. 2); also to lay out, to set in order (juridjten), a 
table for a meal, Prov. 9 : 2 ; Isa.«l:5; 65: 11; an 
altar, Nu. 23:4, the holy candlestick, Exod. 27:21; 
Levit. 24:3,4; arms for a battle, Jer. 46:3. Spe- 
cially it is used — (a) *$$*? T3? to put the battle in 
array, Jud. 20:20, 22; followed by HK and nffj?? 
against any one, 1 Sa. 17:2; Gen. 14:8. Part. ^ 
npn^D 1 Chr. 12:33,35; and npr?? W : Joel! 1:5, 
set in array for battle. Without the word "90^ **•« 
Jud. 20:30, 33; lSam.4:2; 17:21; followed ty,?, 
nxyfy against any one, 2 Sa. 10:9, 10; 10: 17; Jer. 
50:9, 14. Part. VV set in array (for battle), Jer. 
6:23; 50:42. Job 6:4,^3121 for ^ *3TE "they 
set (the battle) in array against me;"Job38:5- 
— (£) DyO i]TJJ to arrange words, to utter them, fol- 
lowed by ?K against any one, Job 32 : i t 4; also with- 
out D*k>. Job 37 : 19, ^n-\»9 t$tt K> " we cannot 
setinorderby reason of darkness," i.e ignorance. 
Followed by ? to direct words to any one Isa. 44.7; 
and ellipt. Psal. 5:4, ^"T^ "HJ* " m tne mornin & I 
will direct (my words) to thee." — (c) D9fP "ft 
to set in order a cause in a court of Justice, Job 
13:18; 23:4; compare Ps. 50:21. 

(2) Followed by / to place together (jufammfw 
jtetlen nut etroa«), to compare (©erdletdjen). Isa. 40:1^ 
i^D"jyri n^DYnp " what likeness will ye compare 
unto him?" Psa. 89:7 ; 40:6, T^« TV S HJ " there 
is nothing to be compared with thee." Job «S: 
1 7, 19 (in each of these places HJ— is the dative for 

(3) to estimate (i. e. to compare the value of any 
thing with money); especially to value (comp.^C'v). 
Job 36: 19, *V$V V%2. " will he value (i.e. regard) 
thy riches?" 

Hiphil, i. q. Kal No. 3, to estimate, Levit 27: 8 
seq.; 2 Ki. 23:35. 

Derivatives, TJSff« n ?3S??> ^^Pi **& — 

^yi m. with sutT. T#— (1) row, pile, rf tlx 
shewbread, Ex. 40:23. 

(2) preparation, a putting in order, speciaJj 

Digitized by 



of clothes, arms. Jud. 17:10, D^J3 TQg " an equip- 
ment of garments" (tfueruftung mit iUetbern), i.e. every- 
thing belonging to clothing. Well rendered in the 
Vatic. LXX. erroty t/iartW, for <rro\i) is the word 
appropriated to this idea (compare Lat. stola); Alex. 
(tvyoQ Ipariutv, whence Vulg. vestem duplicem (which 
is sought to be defended by Lud. De Dieu, on the 
passage). Used of the armature (as if garment) of 
the crocodile, Job 41 : 4. 

(3) estimation, assessment, taxation. ^"BJ? 
according to thy estimation, Lev. 5:15, 18, 25; 27: 
12, infen IjH?? " according to thy estimation," the 
priest's, I mean, for so we must take the phrase. 
Verse «, njn^ niB^3 ^|?-$3 " according to thy (the 
priest's) estimation men (are offered) to God. n 
(Compare on this passage De Wette, and Dettinger, 
in Theol. Studien und Kritiken, 1831, page 303; 
1832, page 395, 396.) Hence used of the price at 
which anything is estimated. Job 28: 13. Ps. 55: 14, 
% 3T?$ &\)$ : n^K " thou a man, whom I reckon equal 
with myself." 

PL n&TJJ pr. n. (hill) of foreskins, near Gilgal, Josh 


-(1) to be uncircumcised, see the adj. 
7HJ. Arab. AA id. 

(2) denom. from ""7TJJ, to regard as uncircum- 
cised, i.e. profane, impure, Lev. 19:23. 

Niphal, to be seen to be uncircumcised, Hab. 2: 
16 (used of a drunken man who shamefully uncovers 
his nakedness). 

•Ut m- const. VjJ Ezek. 44:9, and ^D? t Ex. 6:12, 
adj. uncircumcised. Gen. 17:14; Ex. 12:48; often 
used opprobriously of the Gentiles, as the Philistines, 
1 Sam. 17:26, 36; 14:6; 31 :4. Metaph. used ?1P. 
CrrjB^ uncircumcised of lips, i. e. slow of speech 
P7P9 "**R Onk.), stammering, one whose lips are 
closed as it were with the foreskin, and are there- 
fore too long and thick to utter speech with facility. 
Ex. 6:12, 30. Similarly Jer. 6: 10, DJffl nty "their 
ear is closed with a foreskin;" and /^n CDJl?^ 
their uncircumcised heart, into which divine precepts 
cannot penetrate, Lev. 96:41 ; Eze. 44:9. 

*vTSv £ — (0 foreskin, aKpofivtrria. (Arabic 
Zyl.) 1 Sa. 18:25. 2 Sa. 3: 14, njnjjn -t^ m em- 
brum prseputiatum, Genesis 17:11, 24 ; Levit. 12:3. 
Metaph. 3?"ri7TS{ the foreskin of the heart, see above, 
Deu. 10:16; Jer. 4:4 (compare Kor. Sur. ii. 82 ; iv. 

(«) foreskin of a tree, i.e. the fruit of the first 
three years, which according to the law was accounted 
unclean, Levit. 19:23. Compare the root No. 2. — 

I. D")]} (l) L q *j£. TO MAKE NAKED, [" TC 

be naked"], to uncover, whence DUJ, DV^J which 
see. Intrans. ^x to be impudent, spiteful (mani- 
festing one's malevolent mind). 

(2) to be crafty. (Syr. Ethpe. id. \^»i^, *W% 
crafty, spiteful.) Once found in Kal, 1 Sa. 23:22. 

Hiphil— (1) to make crafty, Ps. 83:4,^0 XGTSL 
" they make their counsel crafty," they take crafty 

(2) to act craftily, 1 Sam. 23:22, and, in a good 
sense, to act prudently, Prov. 15:5; 19: 25. 

Derivatives Dnj, 0% np-JJJ [DnjJ, DTg, OMFjn?]. 

II. D jJ7 not used in Kal, cognate to the verba, 
on$, Din, D*n, on, DDl, to be high. (Syr. Pa. to 
heap up; Arab. »x. to be heaped up. Saad. Ex. 

15:8; icx a heap of grain on the threshing floor.) 
Niphal, to be heaped up, Ex. 15:8. 
Derivatives, nOTg, ]to"JR. 

DTJ naked; see DhjJ. 

0*3^ m. craftiness, Job 5 : 13, from the root 
DT5J No. I. 

n2y$ f. id.— (1) craftiness, guile, Ex. 91: 14. 
(2) prudence, Prov. 1:4; 8:5. 

nO^y.' f. (with Tzere impure), pi. nli, once DV 
Jer. 50:26, a heap, e. g. of ruins, Neh. 3:34; of 
corn, Cant. 7 : 3 ; of sheaves, Ruth 3:7; from the roct 

try No. II. 

P0"^2 m. a plane tree (so called from its height, 
see DTV No. II.), Gen. 30:37; Eze. 31:8. See Celsii 
Hierobot. t. i. p. 5 13. 

ITS? (as if Vigilantius, i. q. "$?, with the addition of 
the adj. termination), [Eran], pr. n. m. Nu. 26:36. 
Patron. 7JB ibid. 

D jj/ r an unused root,i.q.D13/o break to pieces, 
to pound, especially into largish pieces; whence the 
Talmud DH| f ntor*| pounded beans, bean-meal 
(®rie*/ ©rfifce). See the derived noun HDTJJ. 

^T$ Jud. 1 1 : 26; see T#Tg No. 2, a. 

^$TK adj. prop, naked; hence poor, helpless, 
from the root "Y3J, which see; compare 1 W k No.l t 
Paa. 102:18; Jer. 17:6. 

Digitized by 



*tt and <!$?% «* "*H 

I. HTJ^ i.q. *Bn*ro dbop down (tropfctv to drop; 
compare *&*, *&J, the last syllable of which is iden- 
tical), Deut. 33:28; metaph. used of speech, Deut. 


Derivative, DVT2. 

II. *1T1£— (0 originally, as I suppose, to pluck, 
to seize, to pull; Germ, raufen, a sense which is 
found in the primary syllable *P, 3"\ compare K$l, 
nn, and, with a palatal or guttural letter added at 

the beginning, «fi|, TO *mj. Hence uJ/ the mane 

of a horse (so called from # its being pulled), ^J^c to 
pull out the forelock of a horse, and Hebr. *[~p neck, 
prob. so called from mane. (In the Indo-Germanic 
languages with this agree, rapio, carpo, raffen* roufen. 
The signification of mane and top are found in the 
Gr. Xrtyoc>niane; hence, neck, back, Kopvfi'i, *:opv/i/3oc, 

Kopvfifin, top.) 

(a)denom.from*r$Jto break the neck of an animal, 
Ex.l3:i3; 34^°; Deu. 21:4,6; Isa.66.3. Figura- 
tively, to overthrow, to destroy altars, Hos. lO:2. 

*C$J m. the neck of an animal, Lev. 5:8 (Arabic 
^i^ mane), of a man, Job 16: 12, and so frequently. 
Observe the phrases— (a) Tjjf ICO to give the neck, 
Le. to turn back, 2 Chron. 29:6; and ?X m *\'p ™B to 
tarn the back to any one, i. e. to turn oneself away 
from any one, Jer. 2 : 27 ; 3» :33— W ^ n J? J<* h - 
7:l«,and *$ IP? Josh.7:8, to turn the back, i.e. 

to flee, Syriac lL ilia J, and Pers. ^>\j u^-Ij. 
Here belongs Ex. 23:27, *QV T&* ?«***"*¥ TOJ 
" I have made for thee the back of all thy enemies," 
I haw. made them turn their backs, I have put them 
to flight. Psal. 18:41.— (c) *T$J *&> hard of neck, 
i e. obstinate, see n^jj, compare the Lat. tantis cer- 
vicibus est, Cic. Verr. iii. 95. 

PlETjSJ (" mane," " forelock," or according to 
Sim.i.q. nipy/* hind"), [Orpali], pr.n. f. Ruth 


?£")£ m. quadrilitt. darkness 0/ clouds, thick 
clouds, Ex. 20:21; Deut.4:li; iKi.8:i2; Psalm 

18:10. Syr. |Lskj» id., ^g^-^l) to make dark. 
Blended apparently from the triliterals *PUJ a cloud, 
and ^D« to be dark. To this corresponds the Greek 
9p+r6c, obscure, dark, opQvn, darkness, especially of 
die night 

rTJ7 fut. HP — (l) TO TEBB1FT, TO CAUSE TE* 

rob or trembling. (Arab. jsjZ Conj. VOL to 

s +- 

tremble (as the skin), ^y. a trembling spear. 
Gr. perhaps apa(n*>). Isaiah 2: 19, 21 ; Ps. 10: 18; 
Job 1 3 : 25. Isai. 47 : 12, *fw T*K u perhaps thou 
wilt terrify," sc. thy enemies, wilt put them in 
fear. Arab. ^ _c is to resist, which comes from 
the same idea. (The ancient interpreters expressed, 
thou mayest become more strong, wilt strengthen 

(2) intrans. to tremble, to fear, Deu. 1:29; fol- 
lowed by \3PP at any one, Deu. 7:21; 20:3; 31:6; 
followed by an ace. Job 31 :34- 

Niphal, part. fJJ£ terrible, dreadful, i.q.KTJb 

Hiphil — (1) causat. to put in fear, Isa.8:i3* 

(2) to fear, followed by an ace. Isa. 8 : 12; sg-.ty 

Derivatives, nrjj£>, p% rBJ. 

p"lj/ to flee [" to gnaw"]. (Syr. and Aiab 

zf and ^j. id. Kindred is rjri.) Job 30:3, &T* 

njV " they flee into the desert." But Vulg. rods- 

• r 

bant in solitudine, compare Arab, j^c, Syr. vD^> 
to gnaw. And this signification of gnawing is more 
suitable to the words of Job 30: 17, P33P* *&*gnjf 
" those that gnaw me (i.e. pains) are not quwi." 
where others interpret, u my arteries (the pulsation* 

of the arteries) are not quiet;" compare ^ a vein, 

an artery. [In Thes. to gnaw, is given as the 
meaning of this verb in both its occurrences.] 

*PlK Gent, n., an Arkite, inhabitant of Area, or 

Arce (Gr/Apici?; Arab, fi^, U^), a town of Ph«- 

nicia; more fully called Area Csesarea, the ruins of 
which still remain to the north of Tripoli, and m 
called Tel Arka, Genesis 10:17. See Burckhardt'i 
Travels in Syria, p. 272, Germ. Trans., and my re- 
marks on the history of the city, given in the notes, 
p. 5«o. 

^TJ? i.q. "W No. II., and ^J?— (1) to make oik- 
self naked, to be naked. In Kal found once imp^ 
with n parag. 'TjJj make thyself naked, fcaiik 

(2) to be helpless, void of aid; whence T^R, 

Pokl "nW to make naked or bar* sc the 1 

Digitized by 


lion of a house: i. e. to overthrow it from the 
foundation,}**. 83:13. 

Pilpel "HDP and Hithpalpel T8T8W Jer. 51 :58» 
to be made naked; i. e. utterly overthrown. Comp. 
n-JK Ps. 137:7; Hab. 3:13. 

Derivatives, see Kal No. 2. 

^Jj( an unused root; Arab, ^f- to erect a 

house or tent. II* to cover with a roof, to arch; 

s *-- 
whence «•£ .c roof, vault, throne with a canopy (com- 
pare K?3). Hence — 

VT$l f. (Cant. 1:16), plur. TtorjtL a bed, couch 
(prop, covered with a hanging curtain, £immelbett 5 
see Cant. loc. cit.), Deut. 3 : 1 1 ; Psalm 6:7; 41:4; 
132:3 (Syr. and Chald. id. A secondary meaning, 
and derived from that of bed-fellow, is the Arab. 

'wtjC- consort; see 

^"HJ; an unused root. See pr. n. *?#$£. 

jC J7 a root not used as a verb. Arab, u ^c 
3. IV., to produce herbs and provender (said of the 

2&$ with suff. D-fS plur. constr. T\)2fV. (with 
Dag. euphon.) Pro. 27:25; green herb, full grown 
and in seed (in which it differs from NJJ^); herbs 
for the food of man, Gen. l:ll, 12; 2:5; 3:18; Ex. 

IO: 12, 15; Ps. 104: 14 (Arab. u ^ id. From the 
same stock are, perhaps, herba, ipcpfiq, r and s being 

2&H eraphat. «3^? Chald. id., Dan. 4:2a, 29, 30. 
I. nt#J/ fut. nbj£ apoc. &£, kWl — (1) prop, to 


? Exod. 5:9; Neh. 4: 15; to work upon any thing; 
Ex. 31:4, *l£?3* 3??? rtibg "to work in gold and 
silver;" German in ©olb unb ©Uber arbeiten, verse 5 , 
2 Chron. 2:13. Hence — 

(2) to make, to produce by labour (compare 
Germ, madjen/ with the Gr. p6yog, pfyOoe and fifjxog, 
pnx av hi machina). Specially — (a) i. q. to manu- 
facture, to fabricate (pcrferttgen), e.g. a ship, Gen. 
8:6; an altar, Gen. 13:4; bricks, Exod. 5:16; gar- 
ments, Gen. 3:21 ; idols, Deut. 4: 16 ; arms, 1 Sam. 
8:12; (to erect) a booth, Gen. 33:17. n?K?P *\fy 
doers of work, i. e. workmen, 2 Ki. 1 2 : 1 2 ; 22 : 5, 9 ; 
Neh. 11 : 12, and frequently. — (b) used of God, i. q. 
to produce, to create, as heaven, earth, Gen. 1:7, 
I0;ff:«;3:l;6:i;6:6i ^.96:5; 104:19. Hence 

dclvii nnMsrvr 

nfety subst. creator, with suff. fcty my creator, Job 
35:10; *n#y his creator, Job 4: 17; Isa. 17:7; 27: 
1 1 ; Hos. 8:14. nte^W T)bV r to produce, i. e. to work 
miracles, Psal. 78:4, 12; 98:1. — (c) to make any 
thing, i.e. to produce it from oneself, is an expres- 
sion used of living creatures; e. g. to make milk, 
i.e. to produce it (used of a cow), Isa. 7:22; to make 
fat on the loins, said of a man growing fat, Job 15: 
27 (comp. corpus facere, Justin.; Ital./ur corpo; Gr. 
fuyaXrjf iTtiyovvioa diaOm, Od. xvii. 225 ; rpfyac 
ycrrpp, sobolem facere, i. e. pi-ocreare, Plin.); and in 
I like manner trees are said to make fruit (compare 
voulv Kapirov, Lat. cmdem facere, Colum. cinen ©tengel 
trciben), Gen. 1:11,12; branches, Job 14:9; Ezek. 
17:8; grain, to make flour* Hos. 8:7; a field, to 
make grain, Gen. 41:47; Hab. 3:17; Isa. 5:2, 10. 
The same notion is often expressed in Hebrew by the 
conjugation Hiphil, see Heb. Gram. edit. x. page 113. 
— Those are said to make anything — (d) who acquire 
it by labour, as in Lat. pecuniam facere, Greek noteJy 
fiiov to make a living, e. g. riches, Gen. 31:1; Deu. 
8:17, 18; Jerem. 17:11; slaves, Gen. 1 2 : 5. Isaiah 
19 :1 °> "W ^ "those who make wages," 
i. e. hired servants. It is — (e) to prepare, to make 
ready, as food (German (Sficn mocben); Genesis 
18:7,8; Jud, 13:15; 2 Sam. 12:4; a meal, Genesis 
21:8; also to train and comb (not to shave) the 
beard (Lai. facere barbam, Lamprid., French, faire la 
barbe), 2 Sa. 19:25; to cut and adorn the. nails, Deu. 
21:12. Used of God as pre-arranging future events, 
Isa. 37:26. — (/) to make or prepare a victim to 
be offered to God, hence to offer. Exod. 29: 36^ 
n'^/H nK^nn IB "thou shalt offer a bullock for 
sin;" verse 38, 39, 41. Levit.9:7; 15:15; 16:9: 
Jud.6:i9; 1 Ki. 18:23; Hosea2:io, ^83^ WV T 2nj 
"gold (which) they offered to Baal; " 201.24:7. 
Without the accusative of the sacrifice HJiTp nfeTjJ ig 
to sacrifice to Jehovah, Exod. 10:25. Compare 
2Ki. 17:32, Dnb D^fety Vnn " and they sacrificed 
for them." (Comp. Gr. Upa tpfitiv, Upa pifaty, and 
without the ace. fe£eiv 0t$, II. ii. 400 ; viii. 250; Od. 
xiv. 151). — (g) to make, i.e. to keep a festival day, 
as the sabbath, the passover, Ex. 12:48; Num. 9: 
10, 14; Deu. 5:15; also to pass, spend time (noitlv 
ypovov, Act. 15:33), Ecc. 6: 12. Hence without the 
word denoting time; to spend time any where, for 
to abide, to stay. Ruth 2: 19; XWJ} H3K "where 
hast thou made?" i.e. stayed; 1 Ki. 20:40; Job 
23:9; and with the addition of an adverb 21B nj^ 
to spend life well, eh vpfirrtiv (German gut madjen), 
Ecc. 3:12. — (h) to appoint any one to an office, 
to constitute any one, 1 Ki 12:31. 1 Sam. 12:** 

Digitized by 


M Jehovah rijtoTlK nfe^JJ T^g who constituted 
Moses." Followed by ^ of a thing to which any one 
is appointed, Jer. 37:15. — (1) n 9Cr9 n v*? to wage 
war with (Gr. voXtfiov nou'urtiai tivi, French, faire 
la guerre). Gen. 14:2; Deut. «o: 18 ; Josh. 11:18; 
and ? Ofr^ nb]J to give or grant peace to any one 
(ilprivrii' woiBivBai tiki), Isa. 27:5 (where Schnurrer's 
view is apparently to be preferred ; see my Comment.). 
It is said — (k) to do the laws, commandments, or 
will of God, Levit. yO:22; Deut. 15:5; Psa. 103: 
20, 21-; also to do (to practise) right, justice, Genesis 
18:19,25; Ps. 9:16; Isa. 58:2; virtue, Nu. 24: 18; 
kindness (followed by DJ{ and H*?), Genesis 24 : 1 2 ; 
40:14; and on the contrary, injustice, Isa. 53:9; 
iniquity, Gen. 34 : 7 (Job 42 : 8) ; Psa. 37:1. Some- 
times — (/) it is em phut, to effect, to complete, to 
execute anything; hence n^J n^JJ to execute counsel, 
Isa. 30: l (cornp. Ecc. 8 : 1 1 ; and D*"H? n f*? to execute, 
i. e. to perform vows, Judges 1 1 : 39). Dan. 8 : 24, 
^fyf] T/Vrn " and he will prosper and effect (what 
is proposed);" 11 -.7, 17, 28, 30; more often used of 
God, Ps. 22:32; 37:5; 52:11- Ecc. 2:^2, "(and of 
mirth I said nffy 7\) HD what doth it effect?" i.e. 
profit? Also not unfrequently — (m) to make, to do 
is so used, that it gives the simple idea of a verb of 
action, which lias to be defined from the context, or 
from what has preceded. Gen. 6:29; ^3? nS fe>g»! 
% n^£ tofc ™¥ T$ " and Noah did all that God had 
commanded him." Gen. 2 1 : 26, " I do not know who 
did this." Ps. 115:3, "he doth whatever he will." 
Isa. 46:4, *&?$ 'JIJ1 W5>3} «J8 "I have done (i.e. I 
have borne) and I will bear;" (compare the Attic 
use of the Gr. iroulv, see Passow, h. v. No. 2,/). It 
is sometimes pleonastically prefixed to another verb, 
by which weight is added to the discourse. Gen. 
31:26, " why hast thou done (this) and deceived 
me?" (Mark 11:5, ri -kou~it* Xworrcc). Gen. 41 :34, 
W.I nj;i& n*£>J£ "let Pharaoh do this (let him follow 
my counsel) and appoint," etc.; 1 Ki. 8:32. As to 
it* use in an immodest sense, see Piel. 

When the material is indicated, of which any 
thing is made, two accusatives are generally used 
(compare IOJ No. 3, and D*k>), Ex. 30:25, infc JV^p. 
B^Jp nnpp |DB* "and thou shalt make them (sc.the 
spices, out of those spices) an holy anointing oil ;" 
Isa. 46:6; Hos. 2: 10; 8:4; and even with what may 
seem more peculiar, with the accusative of the ma- 
terial put last (compare ^33, W Lehrg. 813), Ex. 
38:3, npnj nb$/ X^yhy "he made all the vessels of 
brass;" Ex. 25:39; 30:25; 3^H; 37 - 2 4- El«e- 
vhere tlie thing made out of any material is some- 
timei put last, with ? prefixed, Isa. 44:17, ton«p 

dclviii Htfy-rfefy 

nfe^J 7^7 "of the remainder he makes an idol;* 
Gen.l2:2, ^1| *l§ *&$ " I will make thee a great 
people;" Ex. 32:10; so also in Ex. 27 : 3, V73 7J7 
n^n? n^gn "thou shalt make all the vessels of 
brass;" verse 19. 

Followed by ? of perg. it is to do any thing with 
or to any one, whether good, Ex. 13:8; Deut. 1 1 :5 ; 
or evil, Gen. 27 '.45; Ex. 14:11: but absol. it is taken 
in a bad sense (jcm. ettvai tyuti), for to injure, Gen. 
22:12; 19:8; Ps. 56:5. Here belongs the phrase, 
«ppr nbl DVlfypV nfe>J£ nb " so let God do to me, 
and so let him add if," etc. 1 Sa. 3:17; 2 Sa. 3:35. 
More rarely with two ace. Jer. 33 :9 ; Isa. 42 : 16 (Gr. 
KaKa iroitiv nva and Tin), and followed by ? of pers. 
Job 35:6 (compare Isa. 5:4). 

Niphal nfejy pass, to be made, Lev. 7:24. Used 
impers. njftji to it is not done, it is not customary 
or usual, Gen. 29:26; it ought not to be done, Gen. 
34:7, compare 20:9. With an ace. of object, Isa. 
26: 18, H? "JPH ^ rt W " the land is not made 
deliverances," is not delivered. Followed by ? of per*. 
Exod. 2:4," that he might know ft ri^TTp what 
would be done to him," i. e. what would happen. 
Specially pass, of No. 2, letter e, Neh. 5: 18; g, 2 Ki. 
23:23; 1, Lev. 18:30; Est. 9:1. 

Piel, to work, or to press immodestly the breasts 
of a woman, i. q. ^RD Eze. 23:3, 8, and in Kal verse 
21. Ch. % P8 id. So Gr. voieiv, and Lat. facer e, 
perficere, conficere muliei % em, as a euphemism for 
sexual intercourse, see Fesselii Advers. Sacra, lib. iL 
cap. 23. 

Pual, to be made (created), Ps. 139: 15. 

Derivatives, nk*JB?» and the pr. names njS?M, ^St, 

V&(!, W?, njpjp, ^nbp ; , btjtfc ™H 

II. ntf/J^ an unused root, to be covered with 

hair 8, hairy. Arabic £z\ hairy, l*^ hairiness. 
Hence pr. n. 1^8. 

/NPlB^ ("whom God created." i.e. consti- 
tuted, appointed), [Asahef], pr.n. m. — (1) 2 Sam 
2:18; 23 : 24 ; 1 Ch. 27 :7 ; and, with the words se- 
parated, 1 Ch. 2 : 16. — ( 2 ) 2 Ch. 17:8; 31 : 13. — 
(3) Ezr. 10: 15. As to the letter n quiescing in the 
middle of a word, see Lehrg. p. 48. 

)&% pr.n. (i.e. " h ai r y," "rough," Gen. 25: «5>, 
Esau, the son of Isaac, the twin brother of Jacob, 
called also D*W, which is, however, more used with 
regard to his posterity than of the man himself. On 
the other hand, W? \3? Deu. 2 .4, seq. ; IB? n*3 O'lad 
18, and *TJ Jerem 49:8, 10; Obad. 6, iurd </ As 

Digitized by 


uty— Cliffy 

Esauites, i. e. the Edomites, iather as a poetical 
expression, tyf. ">0 the mount of Esau, i. e. of the 
Edomites, Obad. 8, 9, 19. 

""M?J? m. a ten, a decade — (a) of days (like 
P3B* a hebdomad, a week), Gen. 24:55; also used of 
the last day of a decade, i. e. the tenth day (of the 
month), Ex. 12:3; Lev. 16: 99 (compare Gr. forac, 
ivredc, rtrpac, used of the tenth, ninth, or fourth day 
of a month, and the -<Eth. OU>C \ a ^^\ .' °f the 
tenth, fifth day, etc., see Lud. Gramm. p 100). — (b) 
of strings, chords; hence a decachord, Ps. 92:4; 
fully (by apppsit.) itefy ?JJ the decachord nablium, 
Ps.33:2; 144:9. 

^$VV : ("created by God"), [Asiel], pr. n. 
m. 1 01.4:35. 

■^ t tS ("whom Jehovah created," i. e. con- 
stituted), [Asahiah, Asaiak], pr. n. m. — (1) *Ki. 
92:12,14; 2Chr. 34:20. — (2) lChr. 4:36. — (3) 
tCh. 6:15; 15:6, 11.— (4) 1 Ch.9:5. 

*y&V : ordinal adj. (from ^), tenth, Gen. 8:5; 
Num. 7:66, and often. Fem. njrbjj Isa. 6:13, and 
n*TPR a tenth sc. part, Ex. 16:36; Lev. 5: 11. 

p^KJ? not used in Kal; Ch. and Talmud. PPR to 
havetodo with anything, to strive with it (mit 
)tm. ob. rtroa* ju tijun Ijaben). 

Hithpael, to strive. Gen. 26:20; hence — 

p^K (" strife"), [EseK], pr. n. of a well near 
Gerar, ibid. 

")&J{ f. & n "3^2, nnfc^ m. ten [" Arabic 

JLs. f. i JLc m. Syr. ; **> f. ); **v m. JEthiop. 
ft^UJC: etc - Etymologists are mostly agreed that 
this word is formed from the idea of the conjunction 
of the ten fingers." See Thes. p. 1078]; always with 
a pi. noun, Exod. 27:12; Josh. 22:14; 2 Sa. 19:44 
(in DH^ rrXTJJ 1 Samuel 17:17 there is an ellipsis of 
rrtl93). Used for a round number, Gen. 31 :7; Job 
19:3. Plur. rrt"feT5 tens, decades, Ex. 18:21; Deut. 

Derived nouns are, 'tfPJJ, T^pJ, jVljpp, TJPJrtp, denom. 
verb "fe^. Other forms of the cardinal number itself 
are — 

TB^ m. & rP!9>lJ C id., only used in numbers 
compounded with ten, as "yJJ "ipt* m. eleven ; n ??T¥ 
"fe'V m - fourteen ; "^ T5^ sixteen, m. ; also eleventh, 
fourteenth, sixteenth ; f 3m. H*Tfe^ nri$ eleven ; TVJfll K^ 
sixteen, also eleventh, sixteenth. 

PL D^^y/fronr the ring. nfyQ — (l) twenty, of 

dclix Bty-wj 

both genders, with a sing, and pL noun, Gen. 31 . 38, 
Lev. 27: 5. 

(2) twentieth, Nu. 10:11 ; 1 Ki. 15:9; 16: 10. 

Tfcflt Ch. f. & rne>J? m . ten, Daniel7:7, 20, 24. 
PL rift twenty, Dan. 6:2. 

"Py fut. "tap (denom. from "*^), followed by an 
ace. to decimate (jetjnten), i. e. to take the tenth pari 
of produce, to tithe, 1 Sa. 8: 15, 17. 

Piel, to give the tenth part (wrjcfciiten). Neh. 
10:38, " and the tenth of our land (we give)' to the 
Levites, D^T^yon CM^n Drfl for these Levites (on the 
other hand) have to pay tithes." Followed by ace. 
of the thing tithed, Deu. 14:22; and a dative of the 
receiver, Gen. 28:22. 

Hiphil like Piel, to give tithes, Deut 26: 12; 
Neh. 10:39. 

^ifJJ see^. 

rnftj see -ty. 

l»W pi. Wfrifll m. a tenth part, a measure of 
dry things, especially of corn and flour, Levit 14:10; 
*3'' l 3i*7i according to the LXX. Num. 15:4, the 
tenth part of an ephah, i. q. 19 Jf. Thom. de Ne- 
vada (in Nomencl. Syr.) considers \ «o; ™> to be 
the tenth part of a seah (^^P). 

I. Bj? m . a moth, Job4:i9; 13:28; 27:18. 
Arab. £^. Root Blftj. 

II. £> a very bright northern constellation, TJrm 
Major, which we, in common with the Greeks and 
Romans, call the wain. Job 9:9; comp. Niebuhr's 
Descr. of Arabia, p. 1 14. It appears to be the same 
as &$ f. Job 38:32, where her sons (C % J?) are the 
three stars in the tail of the bear. &TJ does not pro- 
perly signify a bear, but by aphseresis it stands for 

vy), Arab. **; i. e. a bier (from the root ±mj to 
bear), which is the name of this constellation in 
Arabic. They also call the three stars in the tail 
ijZju ci? 1 ^ i. e. daughters of the bier. See Bochart, 
in Hieroz. ii. p. 114. — Alb. Schultens, on Job loc. 
cit., considers Heb. W% to be the same as the Arab. 

* - 

s m 

tu,)s. nightly watcher, from the root /^lc and .^ 

to go about by night; and this constellation he sup 
posed to be so called lx cause of its never setting; 
but the former explanation is preferable. Compart 
Michaelis, Suppl. p. 1907; Lach in Eiclihoni't Bibl 
der bibL Litteratur, vii. p. 397. 

Digitized by 


j51G/J£ m.anopprtsjor, Jer. 22 .3, i.q. P0 21:12. 

D % p^B^J? m. pi. oppressions, injuries, Ecc. 4:1; 
Am. 3:9; Job 35:9; from the root P?ty. 

mB^'m. eidy fabricated, wrought, Eze. 27:19; 
from the root fl^ty [bright is the signification pro- 
posed in Thes.]. 

HIEty [Ashvath], pr. n.m. 1 Ch. 7:33. 

TW, m. (from the root l?V r ), rich, Prov. 10: 15; 
14:20; 18:11, and frequently. — (a) in a good sense, 
honourable, noble, Ecc. 10:6; but — (b) in a bad 
sense, haughty, impious, inasmuch as riches are 
the fountain of pride, and pride is used in Hebrew as 
equivalent to impiety, Isa. 53:9, compare Job 27 .-19, 
and verse 13. See also Dvp'in (under the word /?n 
No. 3), 1J5J and *JJf, and interpreters on Isa. 2:7; 53: 
.; Matt. 19:23. 

jt^Jf fut. t&tyj to smoke. (Arab. ^^ id. In 
the Indo-Germanic languages, to this appear to cor- 
respond, Sansc. dtman, mind (prop, breath, spirit); 
Gr. aTftoc, vapour, smoke, arpt], ar/i/c; Goth, athma, 
spirit; Germ. 2CtJ)em> for vapour SBrobem.) Ex.19: 18. 
Metaph. used of the anger of God, Deu. 29: 19; Ps. 
74:1; 80:5. 

\PV T m. adj. smoking, Ex. 20: 18. 

]Vty m. constr. [Rty also] fifty (as if from Hfty).— 
(1) smoke, Gen. 15:17; Job 41:12. Poet, used of 
the anger of God, Ps. 18:9, 1SK? JBty rbv x "smoke 
went up in his nostrils," an image taken from horses 
or lions, which, when excited with anger, breathe 
strongly through their nostrils, Isa. 65 : 5. Used of 
«t cloud of dust, Isa. 14:31 ; compare fumantes puher$ 
compos, Virg. JE.11. xi. 909. 

(2) [A shaii], pr. n. of a town; see i^ty 113. 

p*K>C fut. P" : J£, Arab. J^c. — (1) to oppress, 


or violently, e.g. the needy, helpless, Pro. 14: 31; 
22: 16; 28:3; Ecc. 4: 1 ; a king his subjects, 1 Sam. 
12:3,4; a victor, the vanquished, Isa. 52:4; Jer. 
50:33; Psa. 105:14; H0S.5MJ; God, a man, Jcb 
10:3. Metaph. Prov. 28:17, B*$J?t31? P«ty CHX 
"a man oppressed with life blood" (which he has 
shed), i. e. bowed down under this guilt as a burden. 
(2) to defraud, any one, to extort from him by 
.fraud and violence, with an ace. of pers. Lev. 19: 13; 
Deut. 24:14; aud of the thing, Mai. 3:5, Xfc Tajfr 
T?S? " who extort the wage* of the hireling." — 


Both constructions (Nos. 1 and 2) are found togelna 
in Mic. 2:2, ^JV3* "OJ *p?ty " they oppress a raac 
and wrest away his house," i. e. act both with fraud 
and violence, compare tyj. 

(3) to be proud, insolent, metaph. of a river 
overflowing its banks, Job 40 : 23 (compare syn. 

Pual, part. n i?B^? (virgin) violated forcibly, me- 
taph. of a captured city, Isa. 23: 12. 

Derivatives, rtpptyp, piety, CTipirjJ, p#P, nj^fy 
pr. n. Pgty. 

prV. (" oppression"), [Eshek"],Tpr. n. m. found 
once, 1 Ch. 8 : 39. 

p&y m. — (1) violence, injury, Isa. 59:13: 
especially oppression of the poor, as shewn in 
defrauding, extortion, spoliation, Eccl. 5:7; Eze> 
22:7, 12. 

(2) something taken away by force, or fraud. 
Lev. 5:23; Ps. 62: 11; unjust g a in, Ecc. 7:7. 

(3) anguish, i. q. nij!?ty Isa. 54: 14. 

nprJJ f em - oppression, which any one suffers; 
hence anguish, distress. Isa. 38: 1 4, *r n R?ty (***<! 
dshkal-li, notwithstanding the Metheg, as in D J 1 ??, 
*?TOf*, see Lehrg. p. 43) " I am in anguish." 

""'tKJJ fut. "^tyj prop, to be straight (kiudrcd to 
the verbs %"?, "T3, "^J), hence to prosper, to bk 
happy, specially to be rich, Job 15:29; Hos. 12:9. 

Aram. ^DK, fiL* id. 

Piel, to build up, pr. to erect, from the primary 
meaning of the root. So once, 1 Ki. 22:49 ^ n3 » 
n^K Tfity Of^lnj "Jehoshaphat built ships;" np 
nfeTJ and so 2 Ch. 20:36, 37. A learned writer, who 
has treated of this passage in Jen. Lit. Zeit. 1830, iv. 

p. 380, compares for the same sense, " Arab. JLc to 
put together, to join together, or as I prefer, to com- 
pare, to put together;" but I know of no authority 
for this meaning. 

HiPHiL — (l) to enrich, Gen. 14:23; 1 Sam. 2:7; 
17 : 25, etc. Metaph. Ps. 65 : 10, naxtyfl ^31 " thou 
greatly enrichestit"(the earth), thou endowestifc 
and adornest it with most beautiful gifts. 

(2) in trans, to become rich (prop, to make riches, 
see Gramm.,§ 52:2 note), Psa. 49:17; Prov. 10:4. 
Followed by an ace. of the thing with which ooe if 
enriched, Dan. 11:2. 

Hithpael, to feign oneself rick, Pro. ij:T 

Derivatives, ^*fty and — 

Digitized by 




riches 1 Sam. 17:^5; *Ki.3:ii, 13; 

and often. 

\V\£/P r i. q. npjl to fall awat — (a) used of 
elothes falling to pieces from use, and from being 

moth-eaten (see fcfy, ix a moth, whence d^c to 
gnaw as a moth). — (b) used of the face, as having 

become lean through sickness or care (einfallen* wr* 

* - 

fallen), Ps. 6:8; 31 : 10, 11. Arab. ^J^ to fall away, 
to become lean. 

J1#JJ_(i) to shine. Jerem.5:28,*n^ r «p£ 
" they are fat (and) shine;" as the skin shines with 

(2) to make shining, to fabricate, to form. 
Comp. P^n. See the derivatives rrtBfy n^JJ. From 
the idea of forming — 

(3) it is applied to the mind which forms any thing 
in thought. 

Hithpael, to recall to mind, recogito (as well 
given by the Vulg.), followed by ? Jon. 1:6. See 
the Chald., and the derived nouns, \\*WV r , T\*fi$l. 

HEfy rWJJ. Chald. to think, to p u rpo 3 e, followed 
by a gerund, Dan. 6:4. See the Hebr. H^f No. 3. 

JlB^ f. — (1) something fabricated, workman- 
ship, Cant. 5: IV, from the root T\%V r No. 2. It ap- 
pears to have become fern, from the letter n having 
been misunderstood in this place (Lehrg. 474). 

(2) thought, opinion. Plur.Job 12:5, J"fo#S^ 
% }S£* " as to the opinions of him who is in prosperity," 
i. q. \3 % ?.?- Several MSS. apparently, and some printed 
editions read rwfljfgy (sing, of the form HOpD), but 
I find no other trace of this form even in the Aram, 

(3) Of the same word plur. const apparently is (if 
the form be regarded) *?}BT2, which when joined with 
the numeral ten ("&? s f&V. m. and ^ipl *Q#R f.) de- 
notes eleven, also eleventh, Deut. 1:3; Jer. 39:9; 
Exek. 26:1. Jo. Simonis thus explains this, u more 
thoughts than ten, i.e. & number to be conceived in 
thought, or in the mind, while the preceding numbers 
have been counted on the fingers ; M this is marvel- 
lously improbable, although no better reason can be 

JltohtBTJ f. pi. thoughts, counsels, Ps. 146:4. 

Jin^Bty f [Ashtoreth'], Greek 'Aaraprri, As- 
tarts, pr. n. of a female idol, worshipped by the 
Pkoenician* (2 Kings 23: 1 3) ; sometimes also by the 
Hebrews (l Ki. 11:5, 33; 1 Sa. 7:3); and the Phi- 

ry- piety 

listines (1 Sam. 31 : 10), with great honour, togethei 
with Baal (Jud.2-.13: lO:6; 1 Sam. 7:4; 12:10; 
compare the pr. n. of Phoenician men, as Abdastartus, 
=n"jhp2 135J, also mnw DDK Inscr. Cit. 2, Asta- 
rimus, etc.) 

I have no doubt that the name itself, the origin of 
which was long a matter of inquiry, is the same as 
the Syriac LoiJ^rc^, JJJkxo) (from the Pers. 2^~>), 
andpr. n. "WDK star; specially the planet Venus, 
the goddess of love and fortune, for this latter reason 
called also HTK^and *?9i which see. I have given more 
account of this idol in Comment, on Isa. iii. p. 2:17, 
and more fully in Gruber's Univ. Encycl. vol. xxi. p. 98, 
99. There is also a passage of Sanchoniathon con- 
taining the mythos concerning Astarte (ap. Eusebium 
de Prcep. Evang. i. 10), in which the reason of the 
horned statues of Astarte (see plur. No. 3) is shewn: 
" \\(rraprri tie J peyiarri, icai Ztvc Arffiapovg, ical " A2w- 
%oq (Tin) fiaaiXevg Oeuv ifiaaiXevov 7% x**P a €) Rpovov 
yvwfjijl' *H 2c 'Am&prn iiriOqict ry l$ia xe<f>a\rj /Saai- 
Xet'ac Trapaffrjfiov nfaXrjv ravpov Trtpiyoarovaa 3e tv)v 
oiKovfjitvTjv, tvptv aepoirery iurripa, hv kul itviXopivq 
iv Tvpf TJj ityia vfjoy a<piepwot." " T^k 3c 'Aaraprnp 
Qqivikeg rijv ' AQpohirnr tlvai Xiyovai" 

Plur. nilfi0£ — (1) Astartes, i.e. statues of As- 
tarte (comp. D7??, ni"y?W : , 'Ef>/icu), Jud. 2:13; 10:6; 
iSa.7.3, 4; 12:10; 31:10. 

(2) ]K*nru?lf? Deu.7:i3; 28:4, 18, 51, the loves 
of the flocks, i.e. the offspring procreated, the in- 
crease, progeny of the flock; [inThes. " Weeding 

(3) pr. n. of a city of Bashan, Deu. 1:4; Josh. 13 : 
12; more fully called D?3"£ nhFKPg (" the horned 
Astartes"), [Ashtaroth-karnaim], Gen. 14:5, 
and ^T^^Tt? which see, so called doubtless from a 
temple and statues of Astarte. Gent, noun ^n"Jlp^2 
1 Ch. 11:44. 

HJ2 followed by Makk. njf with suff. *fl?, pi. D*TO 
and rftity (contr. from JVJJJ, from the masc. *ty, root 
n*$, compare H? for rn?), fem. (Josh. 11:6; Jer. 51 : 
33 ; but masc. Cant. 2:12; from the true derivation 
of the word having often been overlooked even by the 
ancients, Lehrg. 474) time. Specially — (a) a fit, or 
proper time, an opportunity, like jcacpoc* Ecc.10: 
17," O happy land, whose princes W3N* n#3 take food 
at the proper time." HJ? K7 before the (proper) time, 
prematurely, Job 22 : 16. With suff. ^5$ in its time, 
Prov. i&:23; Ecc. 3:11; ^3 Isaiah 60:22. — (b) a 
certain time, as haying a limit, opposed to eternity. 

Ecci. 3: t, 17, y $D ^9? ^ " to ever y tn ' m g tnere *■ * 

time," 1 it lasts but for a time, nothing is perpetual! 

Digitized by 


tfM9 DCLxn 

compare Ecc. 8 :6. —(c) a longer time, ace. ng long, 
Hoa. 13:13; Arabic UUj id.— (d) a happy time, 
happiness, Pa. 81 : 16. More often in a bad sense — 
[e) an unhappy time, calamity, as in Lat. tempora; 

compare E3V No. 1, letter b; Arabic ^w?j, Syriac 

fjjli time both happy and fatal. Isa. 13:22; Jer. 
17:7; Eze. 30:3; Ecc. 9: 11, 12. 

With prefixes— (a) n$3 (for n»n?), i. e. at this 
time, now, Jud. 13:23; 21:22; Job 39:18 (see? 
letter B, 3). 3$ nn?D n]£ at the time of the even- 
ing sacrifice, Dan. 9:21; Hjn n?3 with the reviving 
time [i. e. coming year], see V3 No. 3; "«nD n$? to- 
morrow at this time (of the day), (see "MTO), Ex. 9: 
18; 1 Sam. 9:16; lKi. 19:2; 20:6; 2 Ki. 7:1, 18; 
10 : 6 (others incorrectly take it as, about the time 
of to-morrow, i. e. to-morrow, as if it had been HJ?.9 

(6) n3T7D? at every time, every season, Ps. 10:5; 
34:2 ; 62:9; Mnn nj?3 at this time, Deu. l :9. 

(c) 3*3^ n}^ at the time of evening, at evening, 
Gen. 8:11; also in ace. n? at (this) time, jur 3eit, i. e. 
now, i. q. nnjj, Eze. 27 :34- LXX. vvv. Vulg. nunc. 

Plur. D^Fl? and nfa]?— (a) times. Esth. 1:13, 
DW ¥? and 1 Chron. 12:32, D^ *V1 TV those 
who know the times, astrologers. — (b) the vicissi- 
tudes of things, events, Ps. 31:16; 1 Ch. 29:30; 
Job 24:1.— (c) Neh. 9:28, niai D*Fltf many times, 

repeatedly; compare Aram, ^ij time; plur. vices; 
English, times. 
Denom. nfltf, 'PI?. 

}*Vp ri# ("time of the judge," ["perhaps more 
properly, < people of the iudge' "]),[Ittah-kazin'], 
with n local, 'P HFIJ? pr. n. of a town in the tribe of 
Zebulun, Josh. 19:13. 

J?2 see nrui. 

"TJ!\I£ Arab, to be ready, prompt; not used in 

Kal; Arab, jclc 

Piel, to make ready, Prov. 24:27. 

Hithpael. to be ready, destined to be any thing; 
followed by ? Job 15:28. 

Derivatives, TH]}, "nmg. 

HJ1J7 an unused root; whence njnj[. 

nRJJ adv. (from HR time, with He Paragog.), in 
pause nny (Milel) Gen. 32:5 (like nn$, nnx); prop. 
in a time (jur 3<tt); hence — 

< l) at this time, now, already; opp. both to 
pftrhus and future tune, Josh. 14:112 Hos. 2:18; 

Isa. 48:7. tfy\V TP. nripp from this time and until 
eternity, Isa. 9:6. nnyiR until now, until this day, 
Gen. 32:5; 46:34. n t nj ^ now ** Ais Te 7 ^^ 
(see H| No. 3). Sometimes the idea of time is -ost, 
and (like the Gr. vvv, vvv) — (a) it is used as a word 
of incitement, age, come on ; especially when followed 
by an imperative, Gen. 31 -.13; Isa. 30:8; Mic-4:14 
(n?n nny 1 Ki. 1:18; 2 Ki. 18:21); and so with an 
interrogative sentence, Isa. 36:5, "In whom no* 
wilt thou confide?" verse 10, "but have I now (nflflj 
come up without Jehovah V" — (b) it describes a pre- 
sent state, thus, things being so, Gen. 26:29; iSa. 
27:1; whence nnJH and so, Gen. 11:6; 20:7; 27:8; 
45:8; Ps. 2:10; in an adversative sense, but now, 
Neh. 5: 5. 

(2) in a short time, presently, Job 6:3; 7:21: 
8:6; Isa. 43:19; Mic. 7:10; 1 Ki. 12:«6. 

"OF® m. he-goat (perhaps ready and prompt for 
fighting ; comp. jclc a horse ready for the course), Geo. 
31 : 10, 12, and frequently. Arab. ju^& id. Used of 
the leader of a flock, Jer. 5 1 : 40 ; metapb. of a leader 
of the people, Isa. 14:9; Zee. 10:3 (compare ktiUc, 
II. iii. 196). 

^njj i. q. Tny T Isaiah 10:13 [9]; Esther 8:13 

7$ (perhaps i.q. *W "opportune"), [Attat^ 
pr. n. m.— (1) 1 Ch. 2:35,36.— (a) 1 Ch. 12:11.- 
(3) 2 Ch. 11:20. 

% Ff$ (from 

ng) opportune, at hand, Levit 

TJ$ m. adj. — (1) prompt, readv, prepared 
(Syriac and Arabic id.); followed by f Esth. 3:14; 
8:13; Job 15:24. 

(a) exercised, skilful (Germ, frttig); followed 
by an infin. Job 3:8. Compare jcx Conj. V., to be 
very skilful in an art; see Schult on the passage. 

Plur.nVvny.— (a)the things which are ready fot 
any one; i. e. impending, destined, Deu. 32:35.— (*) 
things which one has acquired, i.e. wealth; ri 
vTcapxovra, Isa. 10:13- 

TPJ![ Chald., ready, prepared, Dan. 3:15. 

n £fi (perhaps Lq. n^), [4*AaiaA],pr.n,m., 
Neh. 11:4 

pTty m. adj. shining (pr. genteel, worthy d 
a well-born and noble person), used of clothes \m 
23 : 18. See the root PDV No. 4. 

Digitized by 


p7?H adj.— (l) taken away, from the mother's 
breast, as if nanumitted, Isa. 28:9. See p WJ No. 1 , 3. 

(2) ancient, 1 Ch. 4:22; see the root No. 2. 

pT® Ch. old, ancient, Dan. 7:9, 13,22. 

"ljr\J/ an unused root, Arab. Cjzs. to turn aside 
to lodge; whence — 

T?K ("lodging-place"), [Athach'], pr. n. of 
a town in the tribe of Judah, 1 Sa. 30:30. 

/ J"\I^ an unused root, Arab, b^ to handle vio- 
lently; whence — 

v£8 (for n T ^niJ), [A thlat], pr. n. m. Ezr. 10: 28. 

H^n}? : (" whom Jehovah has afflicted"), [A- 
thaliah], pr.n. — (l) m.— (a) t Chr. 8:26. - (b) 
Ezr. 8:7. — (2) f. of a queen of the tribe of Judah, 
38o — 77, n. c. 2 Kings 1 1 : 1 ; in some places ^vH? 
2Ki. 8:26; 11:2. 

0J7\]|/ a root air. \syop., which seems to have 
been of the same or a similar meaning, as VQR (cogn. 
Dp*?). Hence — 

Niphal, Isai. 9: 18, H? D W " the earth is con " 
8umed, w or " 1 a i d w a s t e." Kimchi and Aben Ezra, 
the earth is darkened; comp. Arab, ^lc to be dark- 
ened; LXX. avyiciicavrat, Ch. nahq burnedup[thia 

is the meaning given in Thes.] ; compare Arab. ^e. 
a great and almost suffocating heat. 

|£y/ (kindred to the verb ?nj{) an unused root, 

Arab. 2^ to handle violently, ^cJ. a lion. Hence — 

% 3ny (for n;3riy "Hon of Jehovah"), [Oikni], 
pr. n. m. 1 Ch. 26:7. 

Stnnj; ("lion of God"), [Othniel], pr. n. of 
a judge of Israel, Joshua 15:17; Judges 1:13; 3 : 9 > 
1 Ch . 4 : 1 3. Gr. roton iyX, Judith 6:15. 

p£\!£ futPWJ — (l) TO BE REMOVED, TRANS- 
FERRED (Arab. ( j^s. to hasten, IV. to propel quick- 
ly). Job 14:18; 18:4. SeePTONo. 1. 

(a) to be stricken with age, to become old, Job 
ti'7; Psal. 6:8, " my countenance becomes old." 

(Arab. £u to be ancient, old.) Compare P*TO No. 
9. — From the idea of removing, taking away, comes 
that oV— 

(3) to be manumitted, set free (comp. Isa. 28:9; 

-- - s s^ 

Arab. .Elc &*• !• ifi { & manumitted, free; ^px. 

dclxiii m ty-r\y 

freedom); whence in Hebrew PHJJ is applied in a 
bad sense to license and impudence.-— On the other 
hand — 

(4) it is used in a good sense, the idea of freedom 
being applied to the external appearance worthy of 


an honourable and noble man. Arab. ?^e a noble 

s - 
countenance, beauty, brightness, <L~£ noble, gene- 

also, having a clear and delicate skin (like 
^xt to be well, to have a clear and delicate 



skin. Heb. P^JJ, PD? shining, handsome. 

Hiphil — (1) causat. of Kal No. 1, to remove 
away, to take away, Job 9:5; specially a tent, to 
break up a camp, Gen. 12:8; 26:22. 

(2) to transfer, to transcribe from one book to 
another; hence i. q. to collect Prov. 25: 1. LXX. 
lltypa^ayro. Vulg. transtulentnt. (Talmud, to write 
out, to transfer.) 

(3) to take away. Job 32: 15, D7P DH9 WJtyr, 
"they took words away from them;" impers. for, 
words were taken away from them, they could say 

Derived nouns, pr$, pity, p*nj£, pW. 

pl$t m - adj- bold, impudent (see the root No. 3). 
pnjj "t^T t° 8peak licentiously, i. e. impudently, wick- 
edly, Ps. 31 : 19; 75:6; 94:4; lSa. 2:3. 

t^VSl m. adj. shining, handsome (prop, genteel, 
le, see the root No. 4). Pro. 8: 18, pity tfn Vulg. 
opes superba. [Is not enduring the true meaning?] 

L^j/ fut."^— (1) i.q."K?i? to burn in- 
cense to a god (Syr. ;_-a^ to smoke with perfume, 
|; a> incense; Arab.^s to breathe odours). Hence 
XV No. 1. 

(2) to pray as a suppliant, to pray to a god (the 
prayers of the godly being compared to incense , 
comp. \ivi\putivvov n/c *p<>(rtvxfci Tob. 12: 12; Acts 
10:4); to supplicate, to intreat, followed by f and 
$K Gen. 25:21; Ex. 8:26; 10: 18; Job 33:26. 

Niphal, to let oneself be supplicated by any 
one (followed by a flat), to hear and answer, Gen. 
25:21, rrjrr $ "^.1 " and Jehovah heard and 
answered him;" 2 Sam. 21:14; Isa. 19:22. Inf. 
absol. "nflJJ} 1 Ch. 5 : 20. 

Hiphil, i. q. Kal, Ex. 8:25; 10: 17. Followed by 
? and Ty? to be intreatedfor any one, Ex 8. 5, 24. 

Derivative, "1$}. 

H. 1JTU! i. q- Chald. TW| (Hebrew T^) TC H 
abundant; not used in KaL ' 

Digitized by 


Niphal id. Prwr. «7:6j "abundant (i.e. many, 
frequent) are the kisses of an enemy ." Opp. to, " faith- 
ful are the wounds of a friend." 

Hiphil, to multiply, to accumulate, Eze. 35: 13, 
0.?^?! *7% Off"?!??™ "you have multiplied against 
me words,* 1 sc. impudent, impious words. Compare 
to| No. «. 

Derivatives, ^^ng and pr. n. ^p^. 

*ti$ m. — (l) incense, odoriferous smoke, 


Eze. 8 : 1 1 , as rightly rendered by the LXX., Vulg. 
Ch., Syr. Others render it a multitude, comparing 
the root No. II. 

(2) a wors h ipper of God, Zeph. 3: 10. 

"1T5J ("plenty," "abundance"), [Ether] 
pr. n. of a town in the tribe of Simeon, Josh. 15:4ft * 

^*» J ??. £ riches, abundance, Jer. 33:6. See the 
root No. II. 

^ S th e seventeenth letter of the Hebrew alphabet, 
used as a numeral for eighty. The name of this 
letter probably signified a mouth, i. q. Hg. As to 
its pronunciation, see Lehrg. pp. 20, 21, where there 
is a refutation of the opinion of those who hold that 
D, when dageshed, was not pronounced p by the 
Hebrews. It is interchanged principally with the 
other labials, 1 and D, which see. 

KB i. q. nb (which see), adv. here, Job 38: 11. 

iTN S • a root not used in Kal, which had, I have 
no doubt, the signification, to blow, like the kindred 
"PIS n T? » also Kte, ^B, n*B, all of which are onoma- 
topoetic, and imitate the sound of blowing. Hence 
fur. Xcyo/i. — 

Hiphil, Deut. 32:26, DH^pK " I will blow them 

away/ 1 i. e. scatter them as with the wind. LXX. &a- 

mrcpw avrovg, I formerly compared Arab, \\j, which 

has the signification of splitting, cleaving, i. q. - U« 

and ( jj^ i ; but I rely more on the internal nature and 
mutual relationship of roots, than on the Arabic 
usage, however suitable. 

[Hence the following word; also in Thes. np and 
its derivatives.] 

*"^S constr. HK9 f. — (1) a quarter of the hea- 
ven (prop, wind, so called from its blowing, compare 
in Targg. pnn yg-jK four winds, for Hebr. n?3")K 
jnKH rnD^5 Eze. 7:2, compare 37:9; 42:20. DJ" n, S? 
the west quarter, Josh. 18:14; pB¥ Hg^ the north 
quarter, Ex. 26:18, 20. Hence — 

(2) side,region, Jer. 48:45, 3NJD n«p u region 
of Moab." Dual const, state 3«to *D$$ " both sides 
of Moab," Num. 24: 17, compare B?D?"5, D!TJ. 

(3) a corner, as of a field. Lev. 19:9; of a bed, 
Am. 3:18. !5f»! ^$9 the corner or extremity of the 

beard, the hairs upon the cheeks and before tht 
ears, JBactenbart, whiskers, as the Jewish doctors 
rightly explain, Levit. 19:27; 21 15. It was prohi- 
bited to shave them ; and the Arabian nations shaving 
them (like the Egyptians), are called in reproach, 
*"Hte 'IP^i* (men) with the whiskers cut off, Jerem. 
9:25: 25:23; 49:32. 

D^S an unused root, 
full, to swallow down. 

-(1) to have the mouth 

(Arab. *U to have the 

mouth full of food; JEth. 'ftCA^J to have in the 
mouth a morsel, lump, <£ J\{& I morsel, lump; irtpi- 
arofiiov f It is one of the roots ending in m which 
express sounds uttered with the mouth shut. Cog- 
nate is ^5 to understand, prop, to be imbued with.) 

Hence CMS (for D-1KB) mouth. 
- %■- 
(2) Arab. : to be fat (of the same stock appears 

to be the Sanscr. ptna, fat, iri^cXi/c, irt/u\i/ 9 opimus, 
pmguis). Hence n. HD^. 

I. iKS not used in Kal, to be beautiful, 
ornamented, prop, apparently used of the rosinesa 
and heat of the face (see "HT**?, ■>*")£, compare 

Arab. ,U Med. Waw, to boil up, to be hoc, 

J, J glowing heat); hence to be proud (which, in 

Arabic, is expressed by a hardened guttural, .^j 
to glory, to boast). 

Pjel "K?B — ( l ) to ador n, e. g. the sanctuary, Is*. 60 : 
7, 13; the people of God, Isa<55:5; to bestow aid 
upon the poor, Ps. 1 49 : 4 (compare ornare btnefidis). 

(2) denom. from rnttb to examine tlie boughs* 
in order to glean them, Deu. 24 : 20. 

Hithpael — (1) to be adorned, honoured, at m 
people by Jehovah, Isa. 60:21; 61:3; to g I or (ft 

Digitized by