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Full text of "An introduction to the Trochilidae, or family of humming-birds"

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HUMMING-BIRDS 



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AN 




INTRODUCTION 



TO 



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THE 



TROCHILIDJl 



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OR 



FAMILY OF HUMMING-BIRDS 



BY 



JOHN GOULD, F.R.S.,&c. &c, 



LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR THE AUTHOR, 

BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET 

1861. 



[ The Author reserves to himself the right of Translation. 1 



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TO 



HER ROYAL HIGHNESS 



THE CROWN PRINCESS OF PRUSSIA, 



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PRINCESS ROYAL OF ENGLAND, 



THIS WORK, 



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ON 



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THE TEOCHILID^, 



OR 



FAMILY OF HTJMMING-BIEDS, 



IS, WITH PERMISSION, 



DEDICATED 



BY HER ROYAL HIGHNESS'S 



MOST OBEDIENT AND FAITHFUL SERVANT, 



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JOHN GOULD 



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NOTICE 



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As the Introduction to my ^^ Monograph of the Trochilidee " 

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involved much intricate and laborious investigation^ parti- 
cularly with regard to the synonymy of the various species, 
I have been induced to have it set up in octavo for the faci- 
lity of correction. From this draft, as it were, it has been 
reprinted in large type for the folio work. Believing that in 
its present form it might be interesting and useful to many 
of my scientific friends and others, I have had a limited 
number of copies printed for distribution among them. It 
must not, however, be regarded as a complete history of the 
family, but merely as an introduction to, and a revision of, 
the genera : the history of the species must be sought for in 
the folio work. At the same time it contains a considerable 
amount of information which has been acquired since the com- 
mencement of the publication, together with many additions 
to the synonymy ; these are indicated by prefixed asterisks, 
the synonyms not so distinguished being merely an abbre- 
viated reprint of those which have already appeared in the 
folio edition. As it is not to be expected that persons un- 
connected with science should be conversant with the abbre- 
viations of the names of the authors and the titles of the 



^tt 







NOTICE. 



works referred to^ a fully detailed list of these has been added 

for their information. 

In an early page I have stated that the family consisted of 
nearly 400 species ; but it will be found that 416 are enume- 
ratedj 360 of which are figured. About 400 species are con- 

^ 

tained in my own collection, and these will be at all times 
accessible to men of science for the purposes of examination 
and comparison. 



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London, 26 Charlotte Street, 

Bedford Square, W.C, 
Sept. 1, 1861. 




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PREFACE. 




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That early impressions of the mind are vividly retained, while events 
of the day flit from our memory, must have been experienced by 
every one. How vivid, then, is my recollection of the first Hum- 
ming-Bird which met my admiring gaze ! with what delight did I 
examine its tiny body and feast rny eyes on its glittering plumage ! 
This early impression, I well remember, gradually increased into an 
earnest desire to attain a more intimate acquaintance with the lovely 
group of birds to which it pertained, and was still further strengthened 
when an opportunity was afforded me of inspecting the, at that time, 
unique collection of the Trochilidce formed by the late Mr. George 
Loddiges, of Hackney. This gentleman and myself were imbued with 
a kindred spirit in the love we both entertained for this family of 
living gems. To describe the feeling which animated us with regard 
to them is impossible ; it can, in fact, only be realized by those who 
have made Natural History a study, and who pursue the investi- 
gation of its charming mysteries with ardour and delight. That 
our enthusiasm and excitement with regard to most things become 
lessened, if not deadened, by time, particularly when we have ac- 

r 

quired what we vainly consider a complete knowledge of the subject, 
is, I fear, too often the case with most of us ; not so, however, I 
believe with those who take up the study of the Family of Humming- 
Birds. Certainly I can affirm that such is not the case with my- 
self ; for the pleasure which I experience on seeing a Humming-Bird 
is as great at the present moment as when I first saw one. During 
the first twenty years of my acquaintance with these wonderful works 
of creation, my thoughts were often directed to them in the day, and 
my night dreams have not unfrequently carried me to their native 
forests in the distant country of America. ' . 

In passing through this world I have remarked that when in- 
quirers of a strong will really set themselves to attain a definite object, 
they generally accompHsh it ; and in my own case the time at length 
arrived when I was permitted to revel in the delightof seeing the Hum- 
ming-Birds in a state of nature, and to observe their habits in the 
woods and among the great flowering trees of the United States of 
America and in Canada. For some time a single Humming-Bird was 
my constant companion during days of toil by road and rail, and J 
ultimately succeeded in bringing a living pair within the confines of 



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the British Islands, and a single individual to London, where it lived 
for two days, when, from the want of proper food or the change of 

climate, it died. 

Although so enthusiastically attached to the subject, I should not 

have formed a collection of the TrocMlidcB, or attempted an account of 
their history, had not my late friend Mr. George Loddiges (whose 
many excellences are too universally known to need any comment 



) 



Prior to his 



Mr 



lamented death, whatever species I procured from my various cor- 
respondents were freely placed at his disposal; and his collection 
was then unrivalled, and the pride of the owner as well as of his 
country, so far as a private collection could he considered of national 

importance. It was not until after 
determined upon forming the collection I myself possess, which now 
far surpasses every other, both in the number of species and exam- 
ples. Ten years ago this collection was exhibited for a short time in 
the Gardens of the Zoological Society in the Regent's Park, and, I 
believe, afforded unmixed delight to the many thousands who visited 
those Gardens in the memorable year 1851. Many favourable notices 
of it appeared in the periodicals of the day ; and my friend Mr. Martin 
published a small popular work in express reference to it. During 
the period which has since elapsed I have been unceasing in my en- 
deavours to obtain every species which has been discovered by the 
enterprising travellers of this country, of Germany, of France, and of 
America. It would be invidious were I to extol the exertions of one 
more than those of another, nor could I do so without committing 
injustice ; for the travellers of all these countries have shown equal 
intrepidity in their endeavours to bring to light the hidden treasures 
of the great primaeval forests of the New World. Some of them, such 
as Azara, Spix, Bullock, De Lattre, Floresi, Dyson, Hoffmann, and 
Matthews (the discoverer of the wonderful Loddigesia mirabilis), are 
no longer among us : of those living who have paid especial attention 
to the Humming- Birds I may mention the names of Prince Maximilian 
of Wied, Waterton, Gosse, Warszewicz, Linden, Bridges, Jameson, 
Wallace, Bates, Darwin, Reeves, Hauxwell, Skinner, Bourcier, Salle, 
Salvin, Eraser, Gundlach, Bryant, Montes de Oca, &c. It is to these 
men, living and dead, that science is indebted for a knowledge of so 
many of these " gems of creation ;" and it is by their exertions that 
such collections as Mr. Loddiges' and my own have been formed. I 
regret exceedingly that I have not seen so much of this lovely group 
of birds in a state of nature as I could have wished : the traveller and 



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111 



the historian seldom go together ; and in this instance it would have 
been impossible. The constant personal attention and care necessary 
for the production of such a work as * A Monograph of the Tro- 
chihdse ' could only be given in a metropohs ; for in no other place 
could such a pubhcation be accomplished without a greatly increased 
expenditure both of time and money : it is only in capitals like 
London and Paris, that undertakings of this nature can be carried 
out successfully ; for nowhere else are the requisite talents and ma- 
terials to be obtained. 

I feel that I am greatly indebted to those who have honoured this 
work with their support for their kindness and the patience with 
which they have continued with me to its completion— the more espe- 
cially as, owing to the discovery of so many new species since its com- 
mencement, it has extended far beyond its expected hmits. I am also 
especially indebted to those persons connected with its production, by 
whose assistance I have been enabled to bring so great an under- 
taking to a satisfactory close. To my artisi 



••. •• 









Mr 



Mr 



, n ^- 



many thanks. To the projectors and pubhsher of ' Curtis's Botanical 
Magazine ' I am indebted also for many hints and for permission to 
copy parts of some of their plates of the flowering plants of those 
districts of South America which are frequented by Humming-Birds. 
In case the merits of this work should be unknown to some of my 
subscribers, it is generally acknowledged that its production reflects 
equal credit upon its Editors Sir WiUiam Jackson Hooker and Mr. 
Smith, to the artist Mr. Fitch, and to its publisher Mr. Lovell Reeve. 
Numerous attempts had been made at various times to give some- 
thing like a representation of the glittering hues with which this 
group of birds are adorned, but all had ended in disappointment ; 
and the subject seemed so fraught with difficulty that I at first 
despaired of its accomplishment. I determined, however, to make 
the trial and, after a series of lengthened, troublesome, and costly 
experiments, I have, I trust, partially, if not completely succeeded. 
Similar attempts were simultaneously carried on in America by 
W. M. L. Baily Esq., who with the utmost kindness and liberality 

explained his process to me ; and although I have not adopted it, I 
must in fairness admit that it is fully as successful as my own. 
shall always entertain a lively remembrance of the pleasant day I 
spent with this gentleman in Philadelphia. It was in his company 
that I first saw a living Humming-Bird in a garden which has become 
classic sround to all true Americans, from the pleasing associations 

B 2 



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IV 



4 

connected with its former possessor, the great and good Bartram, 
and from its having been one of the haunts of the celebrated Wilson, 
than whom no one has written more pleasingly on the species of this 
family which inhabits that part of North America, the Trochilus 
coluhris. 

It now becomes my pleasing duty to place on record the very 
valuable assistance in the production of this work with which I 
have been favoured by the Directors of Public Museums and private 
individuals. Of these the foremost on the list must be the names of 
M. Jules Bourcier, of Paris, and Thomas Reeves, Esq., of Rio de 
Janeiro. Both these gentlemen have made extensive collections of 
specimens, and have had numerous drawings prepared for the express 
purpose of publishing works on the subject, which with the utmost 
liberality have been placed at my disposal. To M. Bourcier, than 
whom no one possesses a more intimate acquaintance with this group 
of birds, I am likewise indebted for much valuable information which 
has been at all times rendered with the utmost willingness and 
promptitude. My thanks are also due to the Trustees and the 
Keepers of the Zoological Department of the British Museum ; to 
the Director of the Museum of the Jardin des Plantes at Paris; to 
Dr. Peters, Director of the Royal Zoological Museum of Berlin ; 
to George Ure Skinner, Esq., long resident in Guatemala; to that 
intrepid traveller M. Warszewicz, now Director of the Botanic Garden 
at Cracow, who, during his travels in South America, brought to hght 
more new species of Humming-Birds than any other explorer; to my 
friends Sir William Jardine, Bart. ; "W. C. L. Martin, Esq. ; T. C. 
Eyton, Esq. ; Dr. Sclater ; Alfred Newton, Esq. ; M. Edouard Ver- 
reaux, of Paris ; G. N. Lawrence, Esq., of New York ; and Dr. Baird, 
of Washington ; to Edward Wilson, Esq., to Sigismund Rucker, Esq., 
F. Taylor, Esq., of Liverpool ; William Tucker, Esq., of Trinidad ; 
and to T. F. Erskine, Esq., for the readiness with which they have 
at all times favoured me with both information and the loan of spe- 
cimens. To Miss Loddiges and her brother Mr. Conrad Loddiges, 
I am under considerable obligations for the facility of access they 
have always aiforded me to the very valuable collection formed by 
their lamented father. Nor must the name of another valuable friend 
— the late Prince Charles Lucien Bonaparte — be omitted from the 



list of those who took great interest in the present work, he having at 
all times rendered me that scientific assistance which his vast and 
varied talents so well enabled him to aiford. 

September 1, 186L 






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41 



41 












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INTRODUCTION. 



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The question has often been asked, whence the term Humming- 
Bird has been derived, why the bird is so called. I may state 
in reply that, owing to the rapid movement of the wings of most of 
the members of this group, but especially of the smaller species, a 
vibratory or humming sound is produced while the bird is in the air, 
which may be heard at the distance of several yards, and that it is 
from this circumstance that the trivial name by which these birds 
are known in England has arisen. In France they are recognized 
by the terms Oiseau-Moiiche and Colibri ; in Germany their common 



Kolib 



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Myrtle 



sucker ; by the Creoles of the Antilles and Guiana they are known by 
the names of Murmures, Bourdons, and Frou-frous. From, the Mexi- 
cans, Peruvians, and other nations of South America they have re- 
ceived various appellations, such as Ourissia, huitzitzily tzitztototU 
guanumbi, quinti or quintiut, quinde, visicilin, pigda, and courbiri; 
all terms of a metaphorical character, signifying " rays of the sun,'' 
" tresses of the day-star," '' murmuring birds," &c. 

Linnseus applied to the whole of the species known to him the 
generic appellation of Trochilus, a name given to some fabulous little 
bird by the ancients, and whence is derived the family designation of 
TROCHiLiDiE. By Brisson, a contemporary of Linnseus, the terms 
Polytmits and Mellisuga were proposed ; but with respect to some of 
the thirty-six species described by him, as well as by the older writers, 
such as Seba, Marcgrave, Willoughby ^ ^ ' ' ^ - ^ 

cult, if not impossible, to determine what they really were- 



We 



however, fairly commence our investigations with a greater chance of 
accuracy from the date when the great Swedish naturalist commenced 
his labours. By him twenty-two species were enumerated in the twelfth 
edition of his ' Systema Naturse.' In Gmehn's, or the thirteenth 
edition, the list is increased to sixty-seven. Of these I have deter- 
mined about two-thirds ; the remainder must for ever continue involved 
in mysterv, and their names be erased from our scientific works— the 
descriptions being extremely meagre, and the synonyms occasionally 
referring to figures of very different species. In some instances, even, 
the species are attributed to countries where Humming- Birds are never 
found ; while in others, such as that of the Harlequin Humming-Bird, 
the characters are taken from a plate which must have been drawn 
from imagination and not from any real specimen. These are a few 
of the difficulties which a naturahst has to encounter when access to 



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the types cannot be obtained. I think it necessary to make this 
statement as a reason for not quoting all the names given by the 
older authors. Wherever they could be v^^ith certainty determined, they 
have been quoted under the species to which they are believed to 
refer. The numerous divisions which more modern writers have 
deemed it necessary to propose will be given in the proper place, 

Latham, who added httle or nothing to the previously recorded 
notices of this group of birds, enumerated sixty-five species in his 
* Index Ornithologicus,' published in 1 790, and ninety-five in the third 
volume of his ' General History of Birds,' which appeared in 1822. 
Of these about two-thirds are real species, the remainder cannot 
be determined, as they are so indefinitely described that it is im- 
possible to ascertain whether they are species or not. 

In 1802 the ^ Oiseaux dores,' the great French work of Audebert 
and Vieillot, was given to the world. In it, besides figures of all the 
Jacamars and Promerops then known, were included seventy plates 
of Humming-Birds. These plates represent species which, though 
then rare, are now extremely common, and which, although not so 
numerous as those contained in the later work of Latham, had the 
advantage of being illustrated in a manner which was intended to 
convey some idea of their brilliancy. In most instances the species 
may be recognized; in others they are doubtful. Independently of 
the illustrations above-mentioned these authors attempted to explain 
the laws which produce the splendid colouring of certain parts of 
these beautiful birds, and have given a plate illustrative of their views 
on the subject. 

In 1823 appeared the second part of the ornithological portion of 
the ' Tableau Encyclopedique et Methodique des Trois Regnes de la 
Nature,' by Bonnaterre and Vieillot, with an enumeration of ninety- 
four species of Humming-Birds, but no additional information as 



to their habits and manners. 



M 



Mouch 



A few years later (between 1829 and 
i^ell-known works, the ' Histoire Na- 
Histoire Naturelle des Colibris.' and 



* Les Trochilidees,' — publications which added considerably to our 
previous knowledge of the group, although they enumerate no more 
than 110 species. How little progress, then, had been made towards 
an intimate acquaintance with these lovely birds between the date of 
the twelfth edition of the 'Systema Naturse' and that of the last- 
named publications, a period of more than seventy years ! 

If the illustrious Humboldt paid no very marked attention to the 
Trochilidm, he must have noticed many of the fine species lately 
brought to hght ; and it is therefore somewhat surprising that he 
should have been so remarkably silent respecting them when writing 
the ' Personal Narrative' of his travels in the new world. It is to 
him and to his associate Bonpland, however, that I consider we are 
indebted for our acquaintance with many of them ; for the perusal 
of the interesting account of their enterprising travels has doubtless 
created a desire in others to follow in their footsteps. Thus suc- 
ceeding travellers, who have not been slow to perceive how wonder- 
fully different are the productions of the great Andean ranges from 



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those of the other parts of South America have ever been active in 
forming and transmitting to Europe collections in nearly every depart- 
ment of science, and no objects have been more assiduously sought for 
than the flying gems which constantly greeted them at every turn and 
must have been alwavs before their eyes. Among the most eminent 
travellers who have" succeeded Humboldt are D'Orbigny, bchom- 
burgk, Tschudi, Castelnau, Burmeister, and others, who, with 
more recent but less known explorers, have added so largely to our 
knowledge of the Trochilidce. Both Frenchmen and Belgians have 
proceeded to South America to procure suppUes of these birds ; and 
dealers from those countries have estabhshed themselves in some ot 
the cities of that part of the world for the like purpose. From Sta. 
Fe' de Bogota alone many thousands of skins are annually sent to 
London and Paris, and sold as ornaments for the drawing-room and 
for scientific purposes. The Indians readily learn the art of skinning 
and preserving, and, as a certain amount of emolument attends the 
collecting of these objects, they often traverse great distances to pro- 
cure them ; districts more than a hundred miles on either side of Bo- 
gota are strictly searched ; and hence it is that from these places alone 
we receive not less than seventy species of this family of birds. In 
like manner the residents of many parts of Brazil employ their slaves 
in collecting, skinning, and preserving them for the European mar- 
ket ; and many thousands are annually sent from Rio de Janeiro, 
Bahia, and Pernambuco. They also supply the inmates of the con- 
verts with many of the more richly coloured species for the manu- 
facture of artificial-feather flowers. How numerous then, must these 
birds be in their native wilds, and how wonderfully must they keep 
in check the peculiar kind of insect life upon which they pnncipally 
feed ! which is, doubtless, one of the objects for which they were 
designed. After these few cursory remarks I proceed to give a 
general history of the group, the range and distribution of the species, 
and such additional information as I have acquired durmg the course 

of my labours. „ , „ • -n- i » 

■ " The first mention which is made of the Hummmg-Birds, says 

xM. Lesson, " in the narratives of the adventurers who proceeded 
to America, not with the design of studying its natural productions, 
but for the discovery of gold,- dates from 1558, and is to be found in 
' Les Singularites de la France Antarctique ' (Brazil) of Andre 
Thevet and Jean de Lery, companions of La Villegaignon, who at- 
tempted in 1555 to found a French colony there; but these super- 
ficial accounts would not have unfolded their natural history, had not 
the old naturalists who pubUshed their observations at the commence- 
ment of the seventeenth century taken care to make them better 
known ; and we find some good accounts of them m the volummous 
compilation of Nieremberg, in the collection ox fragments froni the 
great works of Hernandez or Fernandez, and m those of Piso. 
Ximenez, Acosta, Gomara, Marcgrave, Garcilasso, and Dutertre often 
mention these birds, but their remarks are so superficial that it 
would be of little use to quote them now. Towards the end of the 
same century Sir Hans Sloane, Catesby, Edwards, Brown, Father 



I 







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4 

Labat, Plumier, Louis Feuillee, and Rochefort gave tolerably com- 
plete figures and descriptions of some of tbe species ; but it was not 
until the commencement of the eighteenth century that we became 
better acquainted with their natural history/' 

It will be seen that little was really known respecting the Hum- 
ming-Birds even at the end of the career of the great Linneeus. 
From Captain Cook both Pennant and Linnseus became aware that 
a species was found as far north as Nootka Sound, while every voy- 
ager to the eastern shores of North America brought tidings of its 
representative in the Trochihis colubris. Jamaica, St. Domingo, 
and the smaller islands of the West Indies, furnished a fair quota 
in the species inhabiting those countries ; and correspondents were 
speedily estabhshed by Sloane, Brown, Edwards and Catesby in 
Hispaniola, Demerara, and Brazil. Of all these countries the Hum- 
ming-Birds and other zoological productions were then but partially, 
and only partially, known. The great primeval forests of Brazil, 
the vast palm-covered districts of the deltas of the Amazon and 
the Orinoco, the fertile flats and savannahs of Demerara, the luxu- 
riant and beautiful region of Xalapa (the country of perpetual 
spring) and other parts of Mexico, were literally untrodden ground 
by the ornithological collector. Up to this time' the vast provinces 
of the New World had only been skirted ; all within was virgin land, 
wherein even the explorer had scarcely placed a foot, and where the 
only human inhabitants were the wild children of nature — the Bota- 
cudos and other tribes of South American Indians. If the country 
glanced at in the foregoing remarks had provided the naturalists of 
the days of Linnseus with ample materials for study and investiga- 
tion, how much greater would have been their amazement and delight 
had they been acquainted with the hidden treasures of the great 
Andean ranges, which stretch along the entire country, from the 
Bocky Mountains on the north to near Cape Horn on the south. 
Along the whole line of this great backbone, as it were, of iVme- 
rica, at remarkably short intervals, occur species of this family of 
birds of the greatest beauty and interest, which are not only 'spe- 
cifically but generically distinct from each other. Whole groups 
of them, remarkable for their singularity, have become known to us 
from the inquiries and explorations of later travellers ; and abundant 
as the species may be towards the northern and southern portions 
of the great chain of mountains, they vastly increase as we approach 



the equator, 



tfi^atoi 



genera, which are not found elsewhere. Between the snowline of 
the summits of the towering volcanoes and their bases, many zones 
of temperature occur, each of which has its own especial animal and 



Vegetable life. 



The alpine region has its particular flora, accompanied 
by insects especially adapted to such situations ; and attendant upon 
these are pecuhar forms of Humming-Birds, which never descend 
to the hot valleys, and scarcely even to the cooler and more tempe- 
rate paramos. Many of the highest cones of extinct and of exist- 
ing volcanos have their own faunas and floras : even in the interior 
walls of ancient craters, wherever vegetation has gained a footing, 



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5 

F 

some species of Humming- Birds have there, and there only, been 
as yet discovered. It is the exploration of such situations that has 
led to the acquisition of so many additional species of this family 
of birds, which now reach to nearly 400 in number. 

It might be thought by some persons that 400 species of birds so 
diminutive in size, and of one family, could scarcely be distinguished 
from each other ; but any one who studies the subject, will soon 
perceive that such is not the case. Even the females, which assi- 
milate more closely to each other than the males, can be separated 
with perfect certainty ; nay, even a tail-feather will be sufficient for 
a person well versed in the subject to say to what genus and species 
the bird from which it has been taken belongs. I mention this fact 
to show that what we designate a species has really distinctive and 
constant characters ; and in the whole of my experience, with many 
thousands of Humming-Birds passing through my hands, I have 
never observed an instance of any variation which would lead me to 
suppose that it was the result of a union of two species. I write 
this without bias, one way or the other, as to the question of the 
origin of species. I am desirous of representing nature in her won- 
derful ways as she presents herself to my attention at the close of 
my work, after a period of twelve years of incessant labour, and not 
less than twenty years of interesting study. I am, of course, here 
speaking of the special object of my own studies — the Humming- 
Birds. 

It is somewhat remarkable that any persons living in the present 

enhghtened age should persist in asserting that Humming-Birds are 
found in India and Africa. Yet there are many who believe that 
such is the case. Even in a work but recently published it is stated 
that Humming-Birds and Toucans are both found in the last-men- 
tioned country ; and I was once brought into a rather stonny alter- 
cation with a gentleman who asserted that the Humming-Bird was 
found in England, and that he had seen it fly in Devonshire. Now 
the object seen in Devonshire was the insect called the Humming- 
Bird Moth, Macroglossa stellarum ; and the birds supposed to be- 
long to this family by residents and travellers in India and Africa are 
of a totally different group — the Nectariniidce or Sun-Birds. These 
latter birds have no relationship to the TrocJiilidm \ they are not 
even representatives of them in the countries alluded to ; and their 
only points of resemblance consist in their diminutive size and the 
showy character of their plumage. Let it be understood, then, once 
for all that the Humming-Birds are confined to America and its 
islands (that is, the West Indies in the Atlantic, and Chiloe and 
Juan Fernandez in the Pacific ; none have as yet been found in the 
Galapagos). The Selasphorus rufus goes as far north as Sitka. Kot- 
zebue informs us that it is found in summer as high as the sixty-first 
parallel on the Pacific coast ; while, on the antartic end of the con- 
tinent. Captain King observed the Eustephanusgaleritus flitting about 
among the Fuchsias of Tierra del Fuego in a snow-storm. Both these 
species, however, are migrants, — the northern bird retiring, as au- 
tumn approaches, to the more temperate chmate of Mexico, while the 



V . 





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other wends its way up to the warmer regions of Bolivia and Peru. 
The migration of these hirds is of course performed at directly op- 
posite periods. Both the Selasphoriis rtefus and the Trochilus colu- 
bris spend the summer in high northern latitudes ; but the former 
always proceeds along the western, and the latter along the eastern 
parts of the country : the T. colubris even extends its range as far 
as the fifty-seventh parallel, where it was observed by Sir John 
Richardson. Although these and some other species pass over vast 
extents of country, I do not believe that they are capable of long-con- 
tinued flights : that is, I question their power of crossing seas or more 
than from one island to another ; for although we know that the 
two birds above-mentioned pass over many degrees of latitude in 
their migrations, I believe that these journeys are performed in a 
series of comparatively short stages, and always by land, and that 
the whole of their movements are more or less influenced by the 
progress of the sun north or south as the case may be. 

North America, then, may be said to have two Humming-Birds 
a western and an eastern species. It is true that Audubon has men- 
tioned two others in his great work — the Lampornis 3Iango and 
Calypte Annce — and states that the former was found at Key West 
in East Florida. Since then, however, I believe no other example 

has been discovered there ; and one can scarcely understand the oc- 
currence of the bird in that part of America, since it is a native of 
countries and islands lying so much further south. 

Leaving North America, and proceeding south, we begin to meet 
with several other species, which rarely extend their range to the 
north — viz. the Calypte Annce^ C, Costce, Selasphorus platycercuSy 
Trochilus Alexandria and Calothorax Calliope. These birds are also 
migratory, but their range is much less extensive than that of the 
two species previously mentioned. As we advance in this direction, 
Humming-Birds become extremely numerous, and, as regards ge- 
nera and species, continue to increase in the more southern country 
of Guatemala, where every variety of climate is to be found. The 
forest-clad mountains of Vera Paz appear to afford a winter retreat to 
many of the northern species, as the regions contiguous to the Atlas 
range in Africa do to the numerous little warblers of this country 
and the continent of Europe. Besides these migrants, Guatemala, 
Honduras, and Costa Rica have species which are either stationary 
or merely change their quarters in accordance with the flowering- 
season of the trees on which they seek their food, moving east and 
west or vice versa according to circumstances. The countries fur- 
ther south, or those lying betwee^ Guatemala and Panama, appear 
to have a bird-fauna almost peculiar to themselves ; for it is seldom 
that the species inhabiting Costa Rica and Veragua extend their 
range to the northward, neither are they often found in the more 
southern country of New Granada. 

It is in the last-mentioned country— New Granada — that some 
of the finest of the Trochilidee are found, — its towering mountains 
having species peculiar to themselves, while its extensive paramos 
are tenanted by forms not found elsewhere. On the principal 



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ranges of the Andes, species exist which do not occur on the lower 
elevations situated more to the eastward. ThesS ranges are the 
sources of numerous rivers, some of which have a northerly course 
—such as the Atrato, Cauca, and the great Magdalena, which 
debouch into the Caribbean Sea— and the river Zuha, which 
empties itself into the Lake of Maracaybo. Some of the very finest 
species yet discovered were collected near the town of Pamplona, 
which is situated on the banks of the last-mentioned river. Ihe 
country round Antioquia, situated on the lower, and Popayan on the 
upper part of the Cauca, appear also to be very rich in natural 
productions, and particularly so in Humming-Birds. It is, howevei-, 
on the paramos which surround Bogota, and on the luxuriantly clad 
sides of the valleys through which flows the main stream of the 
Magdalena, that the greatest number of species have been discovered. ■ 
Bogota, the capital of this district, has for a long time been the 
centre whence collections have been transmitted to Europe and the 
United States. The Indians have been initiated into the modes of 
preparing these lovely objects ; and as gain and excitement have thus 
Pone hand in hand, this part of America may be said to have been 
thoroughly ransacked, and I expect that but few novelties remain to 
be discovered therein. Now as most of the productions that have 
yet reached us from Antioquia and Pamplona, two districts lying in 
about the same parallel of latitude on either side the great valley of 
the Magdalena, are quite distinct and different from those of Bogota, 
we may safely infer that, if they were as closely searched, many new , 
species would be found. The country of the Caraccas and Cumana 
have Humming-Birds which partake less of the characters of the 
mountain species, and assimilate more closely to those of the Guianas, 
and Northern Brazil. It will be seen, I think, from what I have here 
said, that the species of Humming-Birds increase in numbers as we 
proceed towards the equator; that most of them are confined to 
countries having peculiar physical characters ; and that those of New 
Granada differ considerably from the Humming-Birds of Veragua, 
Costa Rica, and Guatemala. I have observed an equally marked 
difference in the species which inhabit the high lands giving rise to 
the rivers which run eastward ; I mean the many tributaries of the 
Napo, the Caqueta or Japura, and the Amazon. 

From the eastern side of Chimborazo flow many streams which 
ultimately find their way into the Amazon ; and however numerous 
the species found in the elevated districts of New Granada may be, 
I believe that when the dense and luxuriant forests bordering these 
well-watered lands are fully investigated, the species inhabiting them 
will be found far to exceed in number those of every other district. 
Even the snowy Chimborazo may be said to be mhabited by Hum- 
ming-Birds : certain it is that the Oreotrochilus Chimborazo lives 
upon it iust below the line of perpetual congelation, some of my 



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others in an equally elevated region. Here, then, is a bird which 
encounters the cold blasts of these lofty situations with impunity. 




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8 

dwelling in a world of almost perpetual sleet, hail, and rain, and 
there teeding upon the insects which resort to the Ckuquirac/a in- 
sigms and other flowering plants peculiar to the situation. These 
truly alpine birds have always a great charm with me ; and as the 
species just mentioned is especially beautiful, it is of course a great 
favourite. Besides Chimborazo, there exist many other cones of 
but httle less elevation, such as Pichincha, Cotopaxi, and Cayambp 
which, strange to say, are reported to be frequented by species pecu- 
liar to each ; and if this be the case, how many other summits vet 
untrodden may reveal others at present unknown to us ? Now what 
1 have said with regard to the gradual increase of Hammino--Bird life 
Irom the north to the equator may be equally said of their increase 
towards the same line from the south. The species there found 
although quite different from those of the north, perform precisely 
the same functions, are subject to the same migratory movements, &c 
1 the southward of the equator, however, the species appear to 
be far less numerous. And it could not be expected but that such 
would be the case when we consider the particular character of the 

''?T^''l'w*^o ^'l ""^'^ ^^^""'^^ P'^^"' «f Pe™' the extensive pampas 
ot_ La i^lata, &c., being all unsuited to insect and therefore to Hum- 
ming- Bird hfe, and a diminution in their numbers the natural result 
But the paucity in numbers would seem to be compensated in the 
beauty of the individuals. Peru and Bolivia are the cradles of the 
splendid comet-taded species of the genus Coinetes, the Lesbi^ Di- 
phogence, the delicate birds known '"' ' 



as Thawnasturce, &c. These 
countries produce also the largest Humming- Bird yet known the Pa 
fagona gigas, which with an Oreotrochilus and a Eustephanus are 
al the species known to me from the lengthened country of Chili 
rhe httle island called Chiloe, characterized by great humidity is 
mhabited by the common Chilian species last mentioned; while the 
celebrated island of Juan Fernandez, over 300 miles from the main- 
land, IS tenanted by three kinds, of which two are so distinct from 
all others known, that they cannot for a moment be confounded with 
any of them. The three species, in fact, which people this solitary 
spot in the wide Pacific are very different from each other • and I 
niay mention that nothing like a cross or intermixture has ever been 
observed, an event that might have been expected to occur here 
if ever it does among animals living in a state of nature. Strange 
to say, these beautiful creatures are almost the only examples of bird 
life existmg on this remarkable island. The knowledge of the 
existence of these lovely flying gems gives an additiontl zest to 
the interest attached to the scene of the principal events in Defoe's 
charming tale. 

In the foregoing pages I have glanced at the species of Humming- 
Birds inhabiting the great range of mountains running north and 
sou.th through many degrees of latitude on both sides of the equator. 
Whole genera of the Trochilidse are found there, and there alone. 
In the highlands of Mexico, among others we find the peculiar 
genera Belattria Selasphorus, and Calypte. On crossing the rib- 
bon-hke strip of land called the Isthmus of Panama, we enter upon 



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none of which are found in the less-elevated countries of Brazil, the 
Guianas, or the West Indian Islands. It is true that these coun- 
tries, particularly Brazil, possess forms of Humming-Birds which are 
now and then feebly represented in the Andes ; hut these cases are 
quite exceptional. When we leave the Andes we bid adieu to the 
finest, the largest, and the most gorgeously attired species. Other 
beautiful kinds do here and there exist in Brazil, such as the Chry- 
solampis moschitits^ the Topaza pella^ and the Lophornithes ; but 
the greater number are comparatively small and inconspicuous. Of 
the members of the genus Fhaethornis, a group of Humming-Birds, 
popularly known by the name of Hermits, from their frequenting the 
darkest and most retired parts of the forest, three-fourths are natives 
of Brazil. The great forest-covered delta of the Amazon, where 
palms are numerous, seems to be particularly unfavourable to the 
Trochilidije, since from Para to Ega there are scarcely ten species of 
the family to be met with. 

In this cursory glance at the distribution of this family of birds, 
those frequenting the West Indian Islands have yet to be noticed ; 
and here not only do we find some peculiar to those islands as a whole, 

hut in each of them, with but very few exceptions, there are species 
and even genera which are not found in the Andes, the other islands, 
or the more contiguous flat parts of the South American Continent. 
Cuba has at least three, one of which is a most lovely httle bird. 
The principal island of the Bahaman group is in like manner fa- 
voured with a charming Calothorax, which Dr. Bryant tells us flies 
in great numbers round the town of Nassau ; yet the bird does not, 
I believe, inhabit any of the other islands or the mainland. 

Jamaica possesses three, which are all quite distinct, and so widely 
diff'erent from every other, that it is a perfect mystery to the na- 
turalist how they first obtained a footing there. Nothing like in- 
terbreeding between two species appears to occur in this island ; 
if such were the case, we could not hut be aware of the fact, since we 
have not only been for many years in the habit of receiving hundreds 
of birds from Jamaica, but this island has had the advantage of a 
naturahst, Mr. Gosse, who has most closely observed the birds re- 
sident tliere. St. Domingo has two species, differing from those of 
Jamaica. This law with respect to the Humming-Bivd inhabitants 
of the AVest Indian and Leeward Islands, is equally carried out in 
the necklace-like string of the Windwards ; but when we arrive at 
the island of Trinidad, the species become much more numerous 
and partake of the character of those which inhabit the mainland 
the opposite shores of Venezuela. 

It may be asked, what is our present knowledge of the existing 
species of Humming-Birds, and if there may not be others to be dis- 
covered in the great primeval forests of the western and other parts 
of the vast continent of the new world. My reply is that, in all pro- 
bability, many more than are known to us do exist, and that a very 



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10 

lengthened period must elapse before we shall acquire anythino- Uke 
a perfect knowledge of the group. Whatever I may have *done 
towards the elucidation of the subject, I must only be regarded as a 
pioneer for those who, in future ages, will render our acquaintance 
with this family of birds so much more complete than it is at the 
present time. 

The countries of South America whose productions are least known 
are Costa Eica, Veragua, Panama, the sea-bord between Carthagena 
and Guayaquil, the forests of La Paz and other parts of Bolivia, the 
whole of the eastern slopes of the Andes bordering Peru and Ecuador, 
and the western portion of Brazil. All these countries will doubtless 
furnish new kinds of Humming-Birds when the explorer shall extend 
his researches into their unknown recesses. We may feel fully con- 
vinced that such will be the case from the circumstance of single 
individuals in a youthful or imperfect state, which we cannot identify 
as belonging to any known species, occasionally occurring in the grea't 
collections sent from time to time to Europe. My own collection 
contains several examples of this kind, which will doubtless at some 
future day prove to belong to undescribed species. For more than 
twenty long years have I been sending the most earnest entreaties, 
accompanied with drawings, to my correspondents in Peru and Ecua- 
dor for additional examples of that truly wonderful bird the Loddi- 
gesia mirabilis. These entreaties have been backed by the offers of 
large sums of money to any person who would procure them ; but 
up to the present moment no second example has been obtained. 
Probably the single individual killed by Mr. Matthews in the neigh- 
bourhood of Chachapoyas was one which had accidentally strayed 
beyond the area in which the species usually dwells, and which has 
not yet been discovered. That it may be a nocturnal bird has some- 
times suggested itself to ray mind, and that this may be the reason 
why it has not since been seen. Those of my readers who are not 
acquainted with this most wonderful member of the Trochihdse will 
do well to refer to the plate, in which a correct representation of it 
is given by the masterly hand of Mr. Richter. 

The preceding remarks must, I think, have given the reader a 
general idea of the countries inhabited by the members of the 
great family of Humming-Birds ; it now becomes necessary to speak 
of their peculiar structure, and the place they appear to occupy 
in the Class Aves. By systematists they have been bandied about 
from one group to another : by some they have been associated with 
the Sun- Birds {Nectarinice) ; by others with the Cypselince, Picince, 
Sittince, CerthincB, &c. 

In Brisson's arrangement, published in 1 760, they constitute with 
the Creepers his twelfth order. By Linnaeus in 1766, and Latham 
in 1 790, they were placed in the class Piece, together with the Creep- 
ers, Hoopoes, &c. In like manner they are associated with the same 
birds in the fourteenth order of Lacepede's arrangement, pubhshed 
in 1799. In Dumeril's classification, proposed in 1806, they form 
part of his second order— Passerine Birds— and are associated with 
Kingfishers, Todies, Nuthatches, Bee-Eaters, Creepers, &c. They 



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the preceding familybeing composed of the 
^ - . ^ ■■, Latreille 



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form a distinct family of the second Order, Amhulatores, m the 
arrangement of llliger published in 1811. They also constitute a 
distinct family bv themselves of the Tenuirostral Division of the order 
Passeres in Cuvler's system of 1817. By Vieillot whose arrange- 
ment was pnWished about the same time, they form part ot the 
twenty-second family Sylvicolce, and are associated with Lreepers, 
Sun-Birds, and Honey-eaters. By Temminck, in the second edition 
of his ' Manuel d'Ornithologie,' published in 1820, they were placed 
together with the Creepers, Sun-Birds, Hoopoes, &c., m his sixtn 
Order, AnisodacUjli. In De Blainville's arrangement, which appeared 
in the years in 1815, 1821, and 1822, they form a separate family 
of the 'Saltatores, with the Kingfishers precedmg,^ and the Lrows 
following them. Vigors, in 1825, made them a distinct family ol^ his 

second Order, Insessores,— ^ ^ . 

Sun-Birds, and the succeeding one of the Promeropidce. 
in the same year placed them in the fourth family Tenmrostres ot the 
second Order or Passerine Birds, along with the Hoopoes, Promerops, 
Sun-Birds, &c. Lesson, in 1828, made them the eighth family of the 
Insessores, and associated them with the Sun-Birds, Creepers, ^c. By 
Boie they were divided in the 'Isis' for 1831 into eleven genera viz. 
Bellatrix, Calliphlox, Glaucis, Jnthraeorax, Heliactm, Hylocharis, 
Basilinna, Chrysolampis, Heliothrix, Smaragdites, and Eulampis. 
Swainson, in 1837, constituted them the third family of the lenm- 
rostres, with the Sun-Birds preceding, and the Promeropidse and Hoo- 
poes succeeding them. In Mr. G. R, Gray's 'List of the Genera 
Sf Birds,' pubUshed in 1841, and in his great work ' On the Genera 
of Birds,' completed in 1850, they form the third family of the Te- 
nuirostres. In the ' Conspectus Sy stematis Ornithologi ae of Prince 
Charles Lucien Bonaparte, given to the world a few years before his 
lamented death, they form Stirps 17 suspensi, of his second Order 
Passeres; and Tribe Volucres, with the Hoopoes and Promerops 
placed before, and the Swifts and Swallows after them In his Con- 
spectus Generum Avium' they form the eleventh family of tbe In^e*- 
sores, with the Swifts preceding them, and are succeeded by the 
Phvtotomidce or Plant-Cutters. In his " Conspectus Trochilorum, 
pubhshed in the ' Revue et Magasiri de Zoologie ' for May 1854, they 
form the seventy- second family of his Passerine Birds. In Dr. Reich- 
enbach's arrangement, in Cabanis's 'Journal fiir Ornithologie tor 
1853 thev are fancifully divided into groups of Fairies, Elfs, Gnomes, 
Sylphs, &c.; and in his ' Trochilinarum Enumeratio' he places 
■ these birds between the true Creepers on the one hand, and the 
Hoopoes on the other. By Cabanis the latest writer on the subject, 
they are placed with the Swifts and Goatsuckers, m his 3rd Order 
Rfrisinvp^ and Tribe Macrochives. _ ^ 

rXlogists of the present day consider them to be more inti- 
mately allied to the true Swifts than to any other group of birds. 
This view of the subject is supported by the fact of the Humming- 
Birds, like the Swifts, having most ample wings, vast powers of flight, 
and a bony structure very closely assimilatmg : and this alhance is 
still further exemplified in some parts of their nidification, the number 



■ 





Pigeons when considered in relation to the Gallinaceous Birds. 



i . 






12 

and colour of their eggs, &c. It is not to be expected that, with 
this subject before me for so many years, I should have been inat- 
tentive to the consideration of the place these birds should occupy 
in our attempts at a natural arrangement; and while I admit that 
they are somewhat allied to the Swifts, they are so essentially distinct 
from these and all other birds, that they might be separated into a 
distinct Order with quite as much, if not greater, propriety as the 

They 

have certain characters, dispositions, and modes of life which are not 
to be noticed in any other group of birds : their cylindrical bills, 
double-tubed tongues, enormously developed sternums, and cor- 
responding pectoral muscles, rigid primaries, the first of which is the 
longest, and their diminutive feet separate them from all others. In 
the Swifts and Fissirostral birds generally the sexes are alike in out- 
ward appearance ; in the Humming-Birds they are in nearly every 
instance totally different in their colouring : in the former the young 
assume the livery of the adult before they leave the nest, while the 
contrary is the case with the Humming-Birds. How different, too, 
is the texture of the luminous feathers with which they are clothed ; 
and vastly diversified in form as the tail is in the various genera, the 
number of feathers in the whole of them is invariably ten. In their 
disposition they are unlike birds, and approach more nearly to 
insects. Many of the species fearlessly approach almost within reach 
of the hand ; and if they eater an open window, as curiosity may 
lead them to do, they may be chased and battled with round the 
apartment until they fall exhausted ; and if then taken up by the 
hand, they almost immediately feed upon any sweet, or pump up 
any fluid, that may be offered them, without betraying either fear or 
resentment at their previous treatment. A Trochilns cohtbris, cap- 



W 



Mr. Odo Russell, and his brother Mr. Arthur Russell), immediately 

afterwards partook of some saccharine food that was presented to it, 

and in two ho&rs it pumped the fluid out of a little bottle whenever 

I offered it ; and in this way it lived with me a constant companion 

for several days, travelling in a little thin gauzy bag distended by a 

slender piece of whalebone, and suspended to a button of my coat. It 

was only necessary for me to take the little bottle from my pocket to 

induce it to thrust its spiny bill through the gauze, protrude its 

lengthened tongue down the neck of the bottle, and pump up the 

fluid until it was satiated ; it would then retire to the bottom of its 

httle home, preen its wing- and tail-feathers, and seem quite content. 

The specimens I brought alive to this country were as docile and 

fearless as a great moth or any other insect would be under similar 

treatment. The httle cage in which they hved was twelve inches 

long, by seven inches wide, and eight inches high. In this was 

placed a diminutive branch of a tree, and suspended to the side a 

glass phial which I daily supplied with saccharine matter in the 

form of sugar or honey and water, with the addition of the yelk of 

an unboiled egg. Upon this food they appeared to thrive and be 

happy during the voyage along the sea-bord of America and across 



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the Atlantic, until they arrived within the influence of the cUmate of 
Europe. Oif the western part of Ireland symptoms of drooping 
unmistakeably exhibited themselves ; but although they never fully 
raUied, I, as before stated, succeeded in bringing one of them alive to 
London, where it died on the second day after its arrival at ray house. 
The vessel in which I made the passage took a northerly course, which 
carried us over the banks of Newfoundland ; and although the cold 
was rather severe during part of the time, the only effect it appeared 
to have upon my httle pets was to induce a kind of torpidity,^ from 
which, however, they were readily aroused by placing them m the 
sunshine, or in some warm situation, such as before a fire, m the 
bosom, &c. I do assure my readers that I have seen these birds 
cold and stiff, and to all appearance dead ; and that from this state 
they were readily restored with a little attention and removal into 
light and heat, when they would "perk up," flutter their little wmgs, 
and feast away upon their usual food as if in the best state of health. 
How wonderful must be the mechanism which sets in motion and 
sustains for so lengthened a time the vibratory movements of a Hum- 
ming-Bird's wings ! To me their action appeared unlike any thing of 
the kind I had ever seen before, and strongly reminded me of a piece 
of machinery acted upon by a powerful spring. I was particularly 
struck by this pecuUarity in the flight, as it was exactly the opposite 
of what I expected. The bird does not usually ghde through the 
air with the quick darting flight of a swallow or swift, but con- 
tinues tremulously moving its wings while passing from flower to 
flower, or when taking a more distant flight over a high tree or across 
a river. When poised before any object, this action is so rapidly 
performed that it is impossible for the eye to follow each stroke and 
a hazy semicircle of indistinctness on each side of the bird is all that 
is perceptible. " The wind produced by the wmgs of these little 
birds," says Mr. Salvin, " appears to be very considerable ; for 1 
noticed that while an example of Cyanomyia cyanocephala which 
had flown into the room was hovering over a large piece of wool, 
the entire surface of the wool was violently agitated. Although 
many short intermissions of rest are taken during the day, the bird 
may be said to Hve in air— an element in which it performs every 
kind of evolution with the utmost ease, frequently rising perpendicu- 
larly flying backward, pirouetting or dancing ofl", as it were, from 
place' to place, or from one part of a tree to another, sometimes 
descending, at others ascending ; it often mounts up above the tower- 
ing trees and then shoots off like a little meteor at a right angle ; 
at other times it quietly buzzes away among the little flowers near 
the ground ; at one moment it is poised over a dimmutive weed, 
at the next it is seen at a distance of forty yards whither it has 
vanished with the quickness of thought. During the heat of the 
day the shady retreats beneath the trees are very frequently visited ; 
in the morning and evening the sunny banks, the verandahs, and 
other exposed situations are more frequently resorted to. 

The foregoing remarks are from personal observation of the habits 
of TrochUm coluhris ; and I have been informed by Mr. Salvin and 






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others that a similar action characterizes most of the species. I 
believe, however, that those members of the Trochilidse which are 
furnished with more ample wings, such as the species of the o-enera 
Afflceactis, Ramphomicron, Pterophanes, and Patagona, have a very 
different mode of flight, move their wings with diminished rapidity, 
and pass much more slowly through the air. Mr. Darwin, when 
speaking of the Patagona gigas, says, " Like others of the family, it 
moves from place to place with a rapidity which may be compared to 



Moth 



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whilst hovermg over a flower it flaps its wings with a very slow and 
powerful movement, totally different from that vibratory one, common 
to most of the species, which produces the humming noise. I never 
saw any other bird, where the force of its wings appeared (as in a 
butterfly) so powerful in proportion to the weight of its body. 
When hovering by a flower, its tail is constantly expanded and shut 
like a fan, the body being kept in a nearly vertical position. This 
action appears to steady and support the bird, between the slow 
movements of its wings." 

In the intervals of flight, I believe that they not only rest in the 
ordinary way, but even pass some time in sleep ; at least I found 
that this was the case with my Hving birds, and that from this state 
of partial torpor they were not easily aroused. In the morning and 
evening they were far more animated than at any other period of th. 
day ; and they would even perform their buzzing evolutions round 
their cage, and sip from their little bottle in the night-time, if a light 
was brought into the room. They usually sat in a moping position, 
with the bill in a line with the body, or slightly elevated," after the 
manner of the Kingfishers. I never saw them hang by their feet 
and sleep with their heads downwards— a position which I have 
been informed is sometimes assumed by Humming-Birds. 

When we have compared the wings oiCalUphlox Amethystinus with 
those o\ Patagona gigas, we have noticed the two extremes of develop- 
ment in these organs, but many intermediate forms exist, and each 
modification has doubtless an influence on the mode and power of 
flight. I cannot leave the subject of the wings without alluding to the 
extraordinary development of the shafts of the primaries in the Cam- 
pylopteri. The great dilatation of these feathers would lead one to 
suppose that they have an influence on the aerial movements of 
the birds ; but, strange to say, this remarkable feature only occurs 
m the males ; the females are entirely destitute of it. It mi^^ht 
naturally be supposed that such a modification of so important^an 
organ must be formed with an especial object. What, then, can be 
the particular use of the broad dilated shafts of these singularly and 
apparently awkwardly shaped wings ? Generally the primaries and 
secondaries are of a sombre and uniform hue, while the shoulders 
or wing-coverts, in most instances, are of the same colour as the 
other parts of the body. There are, however, a few, but a very few 
exceptions to the rule ; and I may mention the Eulampis jugularis 
and Pterophanes Temmincki as instances in point : both these birds 
have luminous wings, and must form very striking objects during 



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flight ; and, as I believe colour is seldom given without the intention 
of its being exhibited, there is doubtless something peculiar in the 
economy of these birds. The primaries and secondaries are in some 




O 9 



instances stiff and rigid, while in others they are soft and yieldin 
some are broad, others narrow ; they are always the same in number, 
and the first quill is constantly the longest, except in Polytmus 
cephalatevy where the second exceeds the first in length. 

When we turn to the bill, we find this organ to be greatly diver- 
sified in form, and that each of these variations appears to be specially 
adapted for some given purpose ; indeed, I have never seen the law of 
adaptation more beautifully exemplified than in the multiplied forms 
exhibited in the bills of the members of the various genera of this 
family of birds. A certain generic character runs through the whole 
of them ; the gape in all cases is very small, and whether the bill be 
curved or straight, the upper mandible overlaps the under one on both 
sides, and thus forms an admirable protection for the delicate double- 

If we examine the extraordinarily lengthened bill of 



tubed tongne. 



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see the extremes as regards the length of this organ ; and we are not 
less astonished at the functions they are both intended to perform. The 
bill of the J), ensifer^ which is nearly six inches long, and which 
contains a tongue capable of being protruded nearly as far beyond its 
tip, is most admirably fitted for the exploration of the lengthened 
and pendent corollas of the Britgmansice -, while the short-billed Lesbice \ 
cling to the upper portion of those flowers, pierce their bases, and 
with the dehcate feelers at the extremities of the tongue, readily 
secure the insects which there abound. I have been assured by M. 
Bourcier that this is really a practice of the bird, and that it fre- 
quently resorts to this device for the purpose of gaining its insect 
food ; but I suspect that, besides exploring the stalwart Briigmansice^ 
a more delicate flora is the object for which its bill is especially 
formed. In no part of America are so many tubular-flowered plants 
as among the Andes, and the greater number of the Humming- 
Birds found there have straight and lengthened bills, such as the 
members of the genera Helianthea^ Boiircieria^ Coeligena, etc. The 
arched bills of the Phaethornithes are admirably adapted for securing 
the insects which resort to the leaves of trees, and upon which these 
birds are said to exist. Bnt how much are we astonished, when 
we examine the bill of Eutoa^eres ! and find this organ curved down- 
wards beyond the extent of a semicircle, a form beautifully adapted 
for exploring the scale-covered stems of the larger palms. 

Let us turn to another genus of this group— Gnjpus. Here the 
bill is not only armed with a strong hook at the end of the man- 
dibles, but with a row of numerous and thickly set teeth. The G. 
ncevius is said to frequent the borders of the great forests, and to gain 
its food from among the interstices of the bark of the palm trees. 
Both this bird and the Eutoa^ereSy aswell as the PkaethornitheSyeive said 
(and, I believe, with truth) to feed principally upon spiders ; and we 
know that these are the food of the Grypus. ^ All the members of the 
genus Ramphomia^on are said to feed on insects which inhabit the 

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16 

alpine Florae; and their bill is well suited to the capture of the minute 
insects found in those elevated regions. In some instances the bill 
is perfectly wedge-shaped, as in Heliothrix ; while in others it sud- 
denly turns upwards, as in Avocettula, These forms are also adapted 
for some special purpose, of which, however, at present we are igno- 
rant. Besides these, there are others whose bills approach somewhat 
to the form of the flycatchers, as the Aithurus. This bird we know 
frequently seizes insects on the wing ; and so doubtless do many of 
the others. It will have been seen that all these forms of bill are 
well suited for the capture of insects ; and, as might be supposed, 
insects constitute the principal food of the Humming-Bird ; but that 
liquid honey, the pollen and ether saccharine parts of flowers are also 
partaken of is evident from the double tubular tongue with which 
all the species are provided. Besides this they readily and greedily 
accept this kind of food when offered to them in a state of captivitj^, 
or when the corollas of a bouquet of flowers placed in a window are 
filled with sugar to entice them to approach ; and from my own ex- 
perience I know that they have been kept in captivity for several 
months upon this kind of food. 

Connected intimately with the mode of flight is the form and 
structure of the tail, and in no group of birds is this organ more 
varied ; in some species it is four times the length of the body, in 
others it is so extremely short as to be entirely hidden by the coverts. 
As cases in point I may mention Lesbia Amaryllis and Calothorax 
micrurus. Every Humming-Bird, however, has ten tail-feathers, and 
no more. I am aware that this number is not apparent in some of 
the smaller fork-tailed species, the two centre-feathers being so ex- 



ceedingly minute as to be almost obsolete ; but if a careful exami- 
nation be made, that number will be found. I may instance 



Thaumasfura Corte^ T. enicura^ and Calothorax Fannice. 

The tail appears to be, and doubtless is, a very important organ in 
all the aerial movements of the Trochilidse; and accordingly we find 
very great variations in its form among the many difterent genera of 
which the family is composed. In Comet es and Lesbia^ the forked 
character is carried to its maximum, while its minimum is seen in Ca- 
lothoraxy Acestrura^ and the allied groups. The tails of all the mem- 
bers of the two former and many other genera are of this form ; while 
in others it is only seen in a single species of a group, all the other 
members of which have rounded, square, or cuneate tails. As a case 
in point I may cite Eupetomena hirundinacea^ among the Campy- 
lopteriy which may be regarded as the aerial type of its own particular 
group. Next to this we may notice the species with feathers termi- 
nating in spatules, such as Loddigesia, Spathura, etc. I was informed 
by the late Mr. Dyson that the flight of these birds presents a 
marked difference from that of other Humming-Birds, and that their 
appearance in the air is most singular, — the tail being not only con- 
stantly opened and shut, but the spatules always in motion, par- 
ticularly when the bird is poising over a flower ; and if this be 
really true, what an extraordinary appearance must the Loddigesia 
mirabilis present during its evolutions ! But we cannot attempt to 








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describe it ; tlie discovery of a second example,. and the peculiarity 
of its flight, must be left for future historians to make known to us. 
In some few instances, such as Juliamyia typica ^nA Campy lopte- 
rus Pampa, the tails are cuneate ; but this form is qmte exceptional 
if we exclude the Phaethornithes and Eutoxeres, in which this is the 
prevaihno; form. Besides the groups with forked or cuneate tails, 
there are others in which this organ is square or roundea, as m 
the FlorisugcB and Metallurce. The reverse of the spatulate torm 
occurs in some species, such as the members of the gennsGouldia, 
in which the tip of the outer tail-feathers terminates m thread-like 
filaments. The citation of one more will be sufficient to show how 
widely different is the form of this organ among the various genera. 
The outer feathers of the Oreotrochili are narrow, rigid, and turned 
inwards : this calliper-like form one might suppose would assist, m 
combination with the lengthened hind toe and claw, in supporting the 
bird on the sides of rocks ; and we find that this is really the case ; tor 
Mr. Fraser informs me that he has seen several of the Oreotrochdus 
Pichincha chnging, half-benumbed with cold, on a ledge ot rocks 
during one of the frequent snow-storms which occur on ir-ichincha. 
Quinarians would pronounce this to be the scansorial type among 
Humming-Birds. Now I think we may fairly infer that many of 
the other structures above alluded to are equally adapted for some 
peculiar purpose ; yet there must be exceptions to this hypothesis, 
since the structure of the caudal feathers is m many mstances totally 
different in the two sexes of the sanae species. n^^inntivP 

Nothing has yet been said respecting the legs and feet. Diminutive 
as Siey are, they will be found to be very diversified In some mst^ces 
the tarsi a;e bare, in others they are thick y clothed, as ^^ t^e ^ o- 
cnemides ; in some the toes are very dimmu ive, and are furnished with 
equally small, rounded nails; in others all the toes, particular y the 
Hnder one, are greatly developed and armed with long, ^ curved, ad 
extremely sharp, spi^e-like claws. This latter form is admirab y 
adapted for clinging to the petals of flowers-a habit common ^^ 
many members of the family, which not only settle upon, but thrust 
their spiny bills through the bell-shaped flowers. The power these 
little birds possess of clinging to the branches is very remarkable : 
thev hang on with their little feet and hooked claws hke bats, with 
such pertinacity that I was often fearful of dislocating the legs of 
my living birds when attempting to remove them from their perch 

I may mention here, although somewhat out of place, that the 
skins ohterophanes Temmincki h^-ve^ .tvong I^^Yhrmerelv'a 

Stree the %ace of w.. t.ej - ^.ej, haw.™, fo. 

insects among the »q»»-t'^ P'''f£, ;„ this family of birds which 

J ej: t SX ^S s°J Xinterejdng. 1? these Me oh- 

. , -i 1 i. i-i.^ ow^ nf Eajrles, their structural differences 

lects were magnified to the size oi -c^dj^icD, i j • 

would stand Sut in very bold rehef, and the many marked generic 
distinctions they present would be far more clearly perceptible. 






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The preceding remarks have reference to such points of structure 
as may be considered to have an influence on the well-being of the 
birds. I shall now say a few words on those parts of the plumage 

which apparently are given for the purpose of ornament only, the 

crests of Cephalepis and Orthorhynchus ; the beards o^ Ramphomicron 
and Oxypogon ; the ear-tufts of Petasophorulxxdi Heliothrix, the 
elegant appendages to the neck of the Lophornithes ; the singular 
plume-like under tail-coverts of Ilypuropiila, which in their structure 
and snowy whiteness strongly remind one of the corresponding feathers 
of the Marabou Stork, &c. 

The members of most of the genera have certain parts of their 
plumage fantastically decorated ; and in many instances most re- 
splendent in colour. My own opinion is, that this gorgeous colour- 
ing of the Humming-Birds has been given for the mere purpose of 
ornament, and for no other purpose of special adaptation in their 
mode of life — in other words, that ornament and beauty merely as 
such was the end proposed — especially when we remember that the 
plumage of Humming-Birds seems to follow a general rule in the 
subordination and contrast with which the colours are arranged. 
These extraordinary developments are nearly always confined to the 
male, and are, doubtless, bestowed upon these little gems as a gorgeous 
train is given to the Peacock, beautiful markings to the Polyplectron, 
&c. I know of no others but the two species of the genus Cephalepis 
in which a single feather is made to serve the purpose of ornament. 
In all other instances the feathers are disposed in pairs, or in equal 
number on either side of the head or body, as the case may be ; but 
in both these species the crest terminates in a single plume, which 
greatly adds to the elegance of the slender topping. How splendid 
are the spangles which deck the neck-plumes of the Lophornithes ! and 
how well do the blue ear-tufts of the Petasophorce harmonize with 
the surrounding green of the^ neck ! The genera Oxypogon and 
Ramphomicron may be cited as singular instances of ornamentation ; 
for they are both bearded and crested. Independently of these extra- 
developed portions'^of the plumage, certain parts of the body are 
gorgeously coloured; and here, again, some curious features are 
observable. In very many instances the crowns are truly resplendent, 
as in Heliodoxa-y while in Helianthea the forehead onlvis decorated 
with a star brighter than Venus, the queen of planets. 



Heliangelus 



remarkable for 



their beautiful gorgets, succeeded by a crescent of white separating it 
from the green of the under surface. Some species of the Erio- 
cnemides, beside their thickly clothed tarsi, have rich and luminous 
upper tail coverts ; while others, such as the Eriocnemis Alince, have 
the under tail-coverts unsurpassingly brilHant and beautiful. The 
members of the genus Aupastes are conspicuous for the shining, metal- 
like masks with which their faces are adorned ; while, differing from 
all these, the Aglceactines have the lower part of their backs clothed 
in armour-like feathers, the brilliancy of which must be seen to be 
understood, but which, strange to say, is only apparent when viewed 
from behind; for if looked at in the direction of the feather, none 





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of these hues are perceptible. Many more instances besides these 
might be mentioned ; but a reference to the plates on which they are 
represented, or, still better, the birds themselves, will give a more 
correct idea of these remarkable colourings than can be conveyed by 
any description. 

Before leaving the subject of extra development, I may mention 
that I often find it carried to a greater extent in some one species of a 
genus than in the others. I will give an example of what I here 
intend, by reference to what is observable in another family of birds, 
the Trogonidce. Here the extra development of the upper tail- 
coverts which occurs in members of the genus PharomacruSy com- 
mences in the P. pavonimts, increases in the P. antisiamis, and 
extends beyond the tail in P. auriceps ; but no species with upper 
tail- coverts of intermediate length between those of the last-mentioned 
species and the immensely long plumes of P. paradiseus, appears to 
exist. In like manner among the Andean Humming-Birds there is a 
tendency to a gradual increase in the length of the bill to the extent of 
two or two and a half inches ; but no species has yet been seen in which 
that organ is intermediate between that length and the extraordi- 
narily developed bill of Docimastes, which measures at least five 
inches. A similar fact is also observable with respect to the spa- 

tules in the Spathurce. 

Apart from development, I observe that in the Humming-Birds, as 
in some other groups to which I have paid particular attention, the 
species of one genus are much more numerous than those of others, 
and that, whenever this is the case, the genus usually comprises | 

many closely allied species. 

Among the most pleasing recollections of our youthful days is that of 
a birds' nest. Where is the person who has lived in the country and 
paid any attention to natural history, that does not recollect that 
of the Hedge-Sparrow (Accentor modularis) with its beautiful blue 
eggs ; or has he ever ceased to wonder at the surprising construction 
of the nest of the Bottle-Tit {Mecistura caudata) ? Their domestic 
architecture is indeed among the most interesting of the many singu- 
lar features in the economy of birds ; and how truly wonderful are 
some of the nests of the Humming-Birds! In form and size 
they vary as much as the different structures of the birds would 
lead us to expect, and a similar difference occurs in the situations 
in which they are placed. Some of these cradles are not larger than 
the half of a walnut-shell, and these coracle-shaped structures are 
among the neatest and most beautiful. The members of the genus 
Trochilus and their alhes expend the greatest ingenuity, not so 
much in their construction as in the lavish decoration of thejr outer 
walls ; with the utmost taste do these birds instinctively fasten 
thereon beautiful pieces of flat hchen, the larger pieces in the middle 
and the smaller on the part attached to the branch. I4ris a question 
among-ornithologists whether these adornments are fixed' on by a 
glutinous secretion from the bird or by the invisible webs of some of the 
smaller kinds of spiders ; myj)wn behef is, that theJatter is the means 
ei^eyed. Now and then a pretty feather is intertwined or fastened 



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to the outer side, the stem being always so placed that the feather 
stands out beyond the surface. These little cup-shaped nests are 
frequently placed on the bifurcation of the horizontal part of a branch 
near the ground^ and at other times higher up towards the summit. 
Quite the reverse of this kind of nest are those built by the Phae- 
thornithes : these latter are generally very frail structures, woven round 
and attached to the side of a drooping palm-leaf, very frequently 
overhanging water. Such a nest is figured in my plate of P. Eury- 
nome. Another of a similar form but of different materials is figured 
in the same volume in the plate illustrative of P. Eremita, with two 
young ones therein. 

Other Humming- Birds suspend their nests to the sides of rocks. 
These are hammock-shaped in form, and are most ingeniously 
attached to the face of the rock by means of spiders' webs and the 
cottony materials of which they are sometimes built. Those made 
by the Oreotrochili, are very large, and composed of wool, llama 
hair, moss, and feathers ; at the top of this great mass, of nearly 
the size of a child's head, is a little cup-shaped depression in 
which the eggs are deposited. Respecting the nest made by the Oreo- 
trochihisPichincha, my friend Professor Jameson, of Quito, writes, **0n 
the first of the present month (November 1858), I visited the snowy 
mountain of iVntisana in company with the American Minister. In 
the celebrated farm-house (about 13,500 feet above the sea) I found in 
one of the lower or ground apartments, unprovided with a door, several 
nests of Oreotrochihis Pichincha, one of which was attached to a straw 
rope suspended from the roof. I am quite certain as to the identity of 
the species, having shot one of the birds. The rest will be sent to you 
in my next parcel.'' See the figure of this nest given by Dr. Sclater 
in the 'Proceedings of the Zoological Society,' 1860, p. 80. ' 

Some of the Humming-Birds, and perhaps this very species, are 
said to suspend their great nests by the middle from the fine hanging 
root of a tree, or a tendril ; and should the nest, which is of a curved 
form and built of any coarse materials at hand, prove to be heavier 
on one side than the other, the higher side is weighted with a small 
stone or square piece of earth until an equilibrium is established and 
the eggs prevented from rolling out. If such powers so nearly ap- 
proaching to that of reason should be doubted by some of my readers^ 
I can assure them that one or more of these loaded nests are con- 
tained in the Loddigesian Collection ; and one is at this moment 
before me, an examination of which will satisfy the most sceptical of 
the truth of this statement. Occasionally the old nests are repaired 
or built over the old one, two, three or more years in succession. 
Many other instances might be given to show that the nidification 
of the Humming-Birds is as singular as are the birds themselves. I 
believe that generally the eggs are two in number, but I also think 
it likely that some of the Phaethornithes^ or rather the members of 
the genus Glaucis, occasionally lay but one ; for I have frequently 
seen only a single young bird in the nests sent to this country, and 
this single bird generally filled up the entire snace of the " " 



space 



frail 



structure, which, as I have before stated, is usually attached to the 



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leaflet of a palm. The eggs are certainly large when we consider 
the tiny size of the birds which produce them ; in shape they are 
oblong, nearly alike in form at both ends, and are probably of a 
pinkish hue before their contents are removed ; after which they 
become of an opaque white, and so closely resemble bon-bons that 
they might easily be mistaken for them. The birds are said to pro- 
duce two broods a year ; and the period of incubation generally oc- 
cupies about twelve or fourteen, or, according to Captain Lyon^ 
eighteen days. This gentleman, when giving an account of some 
Humming- Birds whose hatching and education he sedulously watched, 
as the nest was made in a little orange-bush by the side of a fre- 
quented walk in his garden at Gongo Soco, in Brazil, states that the 
nest '* was composed of the silky down of a plant, and covered with 
small flat species of yellow lichen. The first egg was laid January 
26th, the second on the 28th ; and two little creatures like bees made 
their appearance on the morning of February 14th. As the young 
increased in size, the mother built her nest higher and higher. The 
old bird sat very close during a continuance of heavy rain for several 
days and nights. The young remained blind until February 28th, 
and flew on the morning of March 7th, without previous practice, as 
strong and swiftly as the mother, taking their first dart from the nest 
to a tree about twenty yards distant/' 

Let me now mention one of the devices employed for the discovery 
of the nest of the Humming- Birds. Every observer who has written 
upon them has not failed to descant upon their boldness and pugnacity : 
not only do they attack birds of much larger size than themselves, but 
it is even asserted that they will tilt at the Eagle if he approaches 
within the precincts of the nest ; nor is man exempt from their assaults, 
of which an amusing instance will be found in the extract from Lady 
Emmeline Stuart Wortley's * Travels' given on a subsequent page. 

It is this readiness for combat which is taken advantage of to find 
the nest and eggs, and all that is necessary is to tie a string to your 
hat, and wave it round your head, when, if a female be sitting in the 
neighbourhood, the male will instantly come down upon you ; and by 
watching his return the nest may be detected. 

Many really absurd statements have been made as to the means 
by which these birds are obtained for our cabinets. It is most fre- 
quently asserted that they are shot with water or with sand. Now, so 
far as I am aware, these devices are never resorted to, but they are 
usually procured in the ordinary way, with numbers ten and eleven 
shot, those being the sizes best suited for the purpose. If smaller shot 
be used, the plumage is very frequently so cut and damaged that the 
specimen is rendered of little or no value. By far the greater number 
fall to the clay ball of the blowpipe, which the Indians, and in some 
instances even Europeans use with perfect certainty of aim. My 
friend Professor Jameson has a son who appears to be a proficient in 
this mode of obtaining Hiimming-Birds, as I know that many of the 
specimens he has sent me have been thus procured. 

In Brazil very fine nets are employed for this purpose, but how 
this engine is emploved I am unable to state ; unfortunately for me 






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many specimens of the fine species Cometes sparganurus In my pos- 
session have been obtained by means of birdlime, and this is evidently 
the way in which these birds are captured in the neighbourhood of 
Chuquisaca. 

That the Humming-Bird is not altogether denied the power of 
song we learn from the notices respecting its vocalization by various 
authors ; but as this is a point upon which I cannot speak from 
personal observation, I shall take the Uberty of quoting from those 
who have written on the subject. ^- ^ - • ^'^ ^^ 



To begin with the remarks of 



" It is not to the most beautiful birds that the voice of melody is 
given. The Mocking-Bird, the Nightingale, and the Thrush, are but 
plamly attired ; and it would appear that if Nature be lavish in one 
respect, she is parsimonious in another. On the Humming-Birds she 
has bestowed the gift of beauty — she has created them winged gems- 
she has chased their plumage with burnished metals or overspread it 
with laminae of topaz and emerald— she has strained, so to speak, at 
every variety of effect— she has revelled in an infinitude of modifi- 
cations, whether we look at the hues or the development of the 
feathering. We can scarcely, then, expect that, to such an external 
perfection, the gift of song will be also added ; and, indeed, when we 
reflect upon the structure of the tongue, of the os hyoides which 
supports its base, and of the mechanism by which it is rendered 
capable of protrusion, remembering that the os hyoides is connected 
with the larynx, we cannot in reason suppose that these birds can be 
eminent as songsters. Nevertheless it would appear that some species 
at least utter, while perched, a sort of querulous warble. 

" The ordinary cry of the Humming-Birds is sharp and shrill, 
generally uttered on the wing, and frequently reiterated by the males 
during their combats with each other. It is principally, says Lesson, 
in passing from one place to another, that their cry, which he likens 
to the syllables tere-tere, articulated with more or less force, is ex- 
cited. Most frequently, he says, they are completely dumb ; and 
he adds that he has passed whole hours in observing them in the 
forests of Brazil without having heard the slightest sound proceed 
from their throats," 

Mr. Gosse, in his ' Birds of Jamaica,' speaking of a species which 
he calls the Vervain Humming-Bird (the Mellisuga minima of this 
work), says, " The present is the only Humming-Bird that I am ac- 
quainted with that has a real song. Soon after sunrise, in the spring 
months, it is fond of sitting on the topmost branch of a mango or 
orange-tree, where it warbles in a very weak, but very sweet tone, a 
continuous melody for ten minutes at a time ; it has httle variety. 
The others only utter a pertinacious chirping." 

It will be expected that some remarks should now be made with 
regard to the luminous character of certain parts of the plumage 
of these charming birds— a point which has engaged the attention 
of many naturahsts and physiologists, but of which I beheve 
no very satisfactory solution has yet been attained. "A few days 
since," says Mr. Martin. " we were examinino- n TTnrr.vm*no-.Rivrl fT,„ 



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23 

gorget of which was an intense emerald-green, hut on changing the 
light (that is altering its angle of incidence) the emerald was changed 
into velvet-black. Andebert considered this changeableness to be 
due to the organization of the feathers, and to the manner in which 
the luminous rays are reflected on falling upon them ; and of this 
we think there can be little doubt, for each feather, when minutely 
inspected, exhibits myriads of little facets so disposed as to present 
so many angles to the incidence of light, which will be diversely 
reflected according to the position of the feather, and in some 
positions not reflected in any sensible degree, and thus emerald may 
become a velvet-black. 

" Lesson supposes that the brilliant hues of the plumage of the 
Humming-Birds are derived from some elements contained in the 
blood, and elaborated by the circulation— a theory we do not 
quite understand, inasmuch as colour is the result of the reflection 
of some rays and the absorption of others, caused by the arrange- 
ment of the molecules of any given body. He adds, however, that 
the texture of the plumes plays the principal part, in consequence of 
the manner in which the rays of light traverse them, or are reflected 
by the innumerable facets which a prodigious quantity of barbules or 
fibres present. All the scaly feathers, he observes, which simulate 
velvet, the emerald, or the ruby, and which we see on the head and 
throat of the Epimachi (as the Grand Promerops of New Guinea), 
the Paradise-Birds, and the Humming-Birds, resemble each other in 
the uniformity of their formation ; all are composed of cyUndrical 
barbules, bordered with other analogous regular barbules, which, in 
their turn, support other small ones, and all of them are hollowed in 
the centre with a deep furrow, so that when the hght, as Andebert 
first remarked, ghdes in a vertical direction over the scaly feathers, 
the result is that all the luminous rays are absorbed in traversing 
them, and the perception of black is produced. But it is no longer 
the same when the light is reflected from these feathers, each of 
which performs the office of a reflector ; then it is that the aspect of 
the emerald, the ruby, &c. varying with the utmost diversity under 
the incidences of the rays which strike them, is given out by the 
molecular arrangement of the barbules. It is thus that the gorget 
of many species takes all the hues of green, and then the brightest 
and most uniformly golden tints down to intense velvet-black, or, 
on the contrary, that of ruby, which darts forth pencils of light, or 
passes from reddish orange to a crimsoned red-black. 

" It is thus, we think, that the everchanging hues of the gorgets 
of the Humming-Birds from black to emerald, ruby, crimson, or 

flame colour are to be explained." . , 

In a note just received from Dr. Davy, dated Ambleside, J une 10, 
1861, that gentleman says :■—'' I have examined with the microscope 
the feathers of the Humming- Bird, Afflceactts eupripenms, you en- 
trusted to me, which is so remarkable for its rich colours as seen in 
one direction, and only one. The result is merely the following— 
viz., that those feathers in which this peculiarity is most strongly 
marked are membranous, terminating in pointed filaments, set on 



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obliquely, so that looking from the head each feather is onW „„ 
mlly seen. This resnlt, I apprehend, will help very Me to LC; 
{l^ltSHn^.'-hir'^iies'?^ e.p,anati„n^„„, ^^7? 

the snbjec, and I shonld grLly fear^oly anvftrgXnt? "" 

Barton, of Birmingham, imitated this by ruhng very fine mrallei 
lines on steel dies, and then impressing these on buttons wS 
showed very beautiful colours when exposed to sLng S Tht 
other optical principle, which I think, however, to be the most likelv 
to produce the effect in the case of feathers, is the inCn^ of S 
plates. If you know Mr. Gassiot (one of four leadinrWl Instf 
tution savants) get him to show you some of his copSa es o^^ 
which by an e ectrotj-pe process he has had very thi^n fil^ of lead 
deposited ; and I think you will see colours fully as beautifdthoS 

mtg-S' ' " " ™'^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^* -P-^« - thosroSe' Hut 

It may not be out of place now to give a few extracts from thp 
works of those authprs who have written on the t'SSJ n Jne 
ral or on some particular species A nem.al nf I^! -^ f ^i 
confirm much that I have saM and ^ ifbut L" that'tb! • • ""^ *'. 
those who have wielded the pe^ in elucTdattn of It A ""''^f I- ^^ 
and manners of these lovely Lds sS'.tZt'to^'a '^''^' 

It IS fortunate for the science of Ornitholo^v tLt «n ^o 
gifted with the power of expressing their idTaf i'^ant ani p^oXl 



Wilson, Watert- 



the Hummiriff-Bird. 

t:'t:\':h't -Srf ^'^-^^ ornTnraThS;; 

in 'r^i^r^^fi^^t::^: '^i: -^tt r^ ts 

ma.^me mzranda ^n ndm^is ; she has lolded it with all the Jifts 7f 
which she has only given other birds a share. AdHtframd tv 



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unceasingly renewed. The Humming-Bird seems to follow the sun, 
to advance, to retire with him, and to fly on the wings of the wind 
in pursuit of an eternal spring/' 

" Nature in every department of her works," says Wilson, ''seems 
to delight in variety; and the present subject is almost as singular 
for its minuteness, beauty, want of song, and manner of feeding, as 
the preceding (the Mocking-Bird) is for unrivalled escellerice of 
notes and plainness of plumage. This is one of the few birds that 
are universally beloved ; and amidst the sweet dewy serenity of a 
summer's morning, his appearance among the arbours of honey- 
suckles and beds of flowers is truly interesting. 



<( 



When morning dawns, and the blest sun again 
Lifts his red glories from the eastern main, 
Then through our woodbines, wet with glittering dews, 
The flower-fed Humming-Bird his round pursues ; 
Sips with inserted tube the honied blooms, 
And chirps his gratitude as round he roams ; 
While richest roses, though in crimson drest, 
Shrink from the splendour of his gorgeous breast. 
What heavenly tints in mingling radiance fly ! 
Each rapid movement gives a different dye ; 
Like scales of burnished gold thej dazzling show — - 
Now sink to shade, now like a furnace glow ! " 



'^ Where is the person," says Audubon, speaking of the TrocMlns 
colubrisy **who, on seeing this lovely little creature moving on hum- 
nning winglets through the air, suspended as if by magic in it, flit- 
ting from one flower to another, with motions as graceful as they are 
light and airy, pursuing its course and yielding new deUghts wherever 
it is seen — where is the person, I ask, who, on observing this glitter- 
ing fragment of the rainbow, would not pause, admire, and turn his 
mind with reverence towards the Almighty Creator, the wonders of 
whose hand we at every step discover, and of whose sublime concep- 
tions we everywhere observe the manifestations in his admirable 
system of creation ? There breathes not such a person ; so kindly 
have we all been blessed with that intuitive and noble feeling 
admiration. 

" I wish it were in my power to impart to you, kind reader, the 
pleasures which I have felt while watching the movements and viewing 
the manifestations of feelings displayed by a single pair of these most 
favourite httle creatures, when engaged in the demonstration of their 
love for each other ; — ^how the male swells his plumage and throat, 
and, dancing on the wing, whirls around the deHcate female ; how 
quickly he dives towards a flower, and returns^with a loaded bill, 
which he offers to her to whom alone he desires to be united ; how 
full of ecstacy he seems to be when his caresses are kindly received ; 
how his Uttle wings fan her as they fan the flowers, and he transfers 
to her bill the insect and the honey which he has procured with a 
view to please her ; how these attentions are received with apparent 
satisfaction ; how, soon after, the blissful compact is sealed ; how, then, 
the courage and care of the male is redoubled ; how he even dares 



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to give chase to the tyrant Flycatcher, hurries the Blue-Bird and the 
Martm to their boxes ; and how, on sounding pinions, he ioyouslv 
returns to the side of his lovely mate. Reader, all these proofs 
of the sincerity, fidelity, and courage with which the male assures 
his mate of the care he will take of her while sitting on her nest 
may be seen, have been seen, but cannot be pourtrayed or de- 
scribed. 

" Could you cast a momentary glance on the nest of the Humminc.- 
Bird and see, as I have seen, the newly hatched pair of young, httle 
larger than humble-bees, naked, blind, and so feeble as scarcely to be 
able to raise their little bill to receive food from the parents ; and 
could you see those parents full of anxiety and fear, passing and re- 
passing withm a few inches of your face, alighting on a twig not more 
than a yard from your body, waiting the result of your unwelcome 
visit m a state of the utmost despair, you could not fail to be im- 
pressed with the interest of the scene. Then how pleasing it is, on 
your leaving the spot, to see the returning hope of the parents when 
after examining the nest, they find their nestlings untouched ! These 
are^ the scenes best fitted to enable us to partake of sorrow and joy, 
and to determine every one who views them to make it his study to 
contribute to the happiness of others, and to refrain from wantonly 
or maliciously giving them pain. 

_ "A person standing in a garden by the side of a common Althi»a 
in bloom, will be surprised to hear tlie humming of their wings, and 
then see the birds themselves within a few feet of him, as he will be 
astonished at the rapidity with which the little creatures rise into the 
air, and are out of sight and hearing the next moment. 

"No bird seems to resist their attacks; but they "are sometimes 
chased by the larger kinds of humble-bees, of which they seldom take 
the least notice, as their superiority of flight is sufficient to enable 
them to leave those slow-moving insects far behmd in the short space 
of a minute. 

" If comparison might enable you to form some tolerably accurate 
idea of their peculiar mode of flight, and their appearance when on the 
wing, I should say that, were both objects of the same colour, a large 
Sphinx or moth when moving from one flower to another, and in a 
direct line, comes nearer the Humming-Bird in aspect than any other 
object with which I am acquainted." —Audubon, Ornithological Bio- 
graphy, vol. 1. p. 248, &c. For the other portions of Wilson's and 
Audubon's very interesting observations, I must refer my readers to 
my account of Trochilus colubris. 

" Though least in size," remarks Mr. Waterton, " the glitterino- 
mantle of the Humming-Bird entitles it to the first place in the hsi 
of the birds of the New World. It may truly be called the Bird of 
Paradise ; and had it existed in the Old World it would have claimed 
the title, instead of the bird which has now the honour to bear it. 
See it darting through the air almost as quick as thought ! 
it IS within a yard of your face !— in an instant it is gone'' 
flutters from flower to flower to sip the silver dew ' 



-now 



■now it 



now a topaz — now an emerald 



now all burnished gold ! 



it is now a ruby 



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27 

be arrogant to pretend to describe this winged gem of nature after 
BuiFon's elegant description of it. 

*' Cayenne and Demerara produce the same Humming-Birds . 
Perhaps you would wish to know something of their haunts. Chiefly 
in the months of July and August, the tree called Bois Immortel, 
very common in Demerara, bears abundance of red blossom, which 
stays on the tree for some weeks ; then it is that most of the species 
of Humming-Birds are very plentiful. The wild red sage {Salvia 
splendens) is also their favouiite shrub ; and they buzz like bees round 
the blossom of the Wallaba-tree ; indeed there is scarce a flower in 
the interior, or on the sea-coast, but what receives frequent visits from 
one or other of the species. 

" On entering the forests of the rising land in the interior, the blue 
and green, the smallest brown, no bigger than the humble-bee, with 
two long feathers in the tail, and the little forked-tail purple-throated 
Humming-Birds glitter before you in everchanging attitudes. 

''As you advance towards the mountains of Demerara, other 
species of Humming-Birds present themselves before you. It seems 
to be an erroneous opinion that the Humming-Bird lives entirely on 
honey-dew. Almost every flower of the tropical climate contains in- 
sects of one kind or other ; now the Humming-Bird is most busy 
about the flowers an hour or two after sun-rise, and after a shower 
of rain ; and it is just at this time that the insects come out to 
the edge of the flower in order that the sun's rays may dry the 
nocturnal dew and rain which they have received. On opening the 
stomachs of the Humming-Bird dead insects are almost always found 

there." 

"The Humming-Birds in Jamaica," says Lady Emmeline Stuart 

Wortley in her Travels, '' are lovely little creatures, and most won- 
derfully tame and fearless of the approach of man. One of these 
charming feathered jewels had built its delicate nest close to one 
of the walks of the garden belonging to the house where we were 
staying. The branch, indeed, of the beautiful little shrub in which 
this fairy nest was suspended almost intruded into the walk ; and 
every time we sauntered by there was much danger of sweeping 
against this projecting branch with its precious charge, and doing it 
some injury, as very little would have demohshed the exquisite 
fabric ; in process of time, two lovely little pear-like eggs had ap- 
peared ; and while we were there we had the great pleasure of seeing 
the minute living gems themselves appear, looking like two very 
small bees. The mother-bird allowed us to look closely at her in 
the nest, and to inspect her httle nurslings, when she was flying 
about near, withoxit appearing in the least degree disconcerted or 
alarmed. I never saw so tame or so bold a httle pet. But she did 
not allow the same liberties to be taken by everybody unchecked. 



One day, as Sir C 



was walking in the pretty path beside which 



the fragile nest was delicately suspended amid sheltering leaves, he 
paused, in order to look at its Lilliputian inhabitants. While thus 
engaged, he felt suddenly a sharp light rapping on the crown of his 
hat, which considerably surprised him. He looked round to ascer- 



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28 

tain from whence the singular and unexpected attack proceeded : but 
nothing was to be seen. Almost thinking he must have been mis- 
taken, he continued his survey ; when a much sharper and louder 
rat-tat-tat-tat-tat seemed to demand his immediate attention, and a 
httle to jeopardize the perfect integrity and preservation of the fabric 
in question. Again he looked round, far from pleased at such extra- 
ordinary impertinence ; when what should he see but the beautiful 
delicate Humming-Bird, with ruffled feathers and fiery eyes, who 
seemed by no means inclined to let him off without a further infliction 
of sharp taps and admonitory raps from her fairy beak. She looked 
like a little fury in miniature — a winged Xantippe. Those pointed 
attentions apprised him that his company was not desired or accep- 
table ; and, much amused at the excessive boldness of the dauntless 
little owner of the exquisite nest he had been contemplating. Sir 

C . moved off, anxious not to disturb or irritate further this 

valiant minute mother, who displayed such intrepidity and cool deter- 

mination. iVs to V and me, the darling little pet did not mind 

us in the least ; she allowed us to watch her to our hearts' content 
during the uninterrupted progress of all her little household and 
domestic arrangements, and rather appeared to like our society than 
not, and to have the air of saying, * Do you think I manage it well, 

eh?''' 



'^ I cannot quit the subject," says the Reverend Lansdown Guilding, 
''without speaking of the delight that was afforded me, in Jamaica, 
by seeing Humming-Birds feeding on honey in the florets of the 
great x\loe (Jgave Americana, Linn.) On the side of a hill upon 
Sutton's Estate (the property of Henry Dawkins, Esq.) were a con- 
siderable number of aloe plants, of which about a dozen were in full 
blossom. They were spread over a space of about twenty yards square. 
The spikes bearing bunches of flowers in a thyrsus, were from twelve 
to fifteen feet high ; on each spike were many hundred flowers of 
a bright yellow colour, each floret of a tubular shape and containing 
a good-sized drop of honey. Such an assemblage of floral splendour 
was in itself most magnificent and striking ; but it may be imagined 
how much the interest caused by this beautiful exhibition was in- 
creased by vast numbers of Humming-Birds, of various species flut- 
tering at the opening of the flowers, and dipping their bills first 
into one floret and then into another, — the sun, as usual, shining bright 
upon their varied and beautiful plumage. The long-tailed or Bird- 
of- Paradise Humming-Bird was particularly striking, its long feathers 
waving as it darted from one flower to another. I was so much de- 
lighted with this sight that I visited the spot again in the afternoon, 
after a very long and fatiguing day's ride, accompanied by my wife, on 
horseback, when we enjoyed the scene before us for more than half- 

an-hour." 

" The pugnacity of the Humming-Birds," remarks Mr. Gosse, '' has 
been often spoken of; two of one species can rarely suck flowers 
from the same bush without a rencontre. I once witnessed a com- 
bat between two, which was prosecuted with much pertinacity, and 
protracted to an unusual length. It was in the month of April, when 



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I was spencllna: a few days at Phoenix Park, near Savannah la Mar, 
the residence of my kind friend Aaron Deleon, Esq In the garden 
were two trees, of the kind called Malay Apple (Euffema Malac- 
censis), one of which was but a yard or two from my window. The 
genial influence of the spring rains had covered them with a profu- 
sion of beautiful blossoms, each consisting of a multitude of crimson 
stamens, with very minute petals, like bunches of crimson tassels ; 
but the leaf-buds were only beginning to open _ A Humming- Jiira 
had every day and all day long been paying his devoirs to these 
charming blossoms. On the morning to which I allude another 
came, and the manoeuvres of these two tiny creatures became very 
interesting. They chased each other through the labyrinths of twigs 
and flowers till, an opportunity occurring, the one would dart with 
seeming fury upon the other, and then, with a loud rustling of then- 
wings, they would twirl together, round and round, till they nearly 
came to the earth. It was some time before I could see, with any 
distinctness, what took place in these tussles ; their twirlmgs were so 
rai)id as to bafiie all attempts at discrimination. At length an en- 
counter took place pretty close to me, and I perceived that the beak 
of the one^^rasped the^eak of the ^ther, anTthus fastened both 
whirlecT round and round m their perpendicular descent, the pomt ot 
contact being the centre of the gyrations, till, when another second 
would have brought them both on the ground, they separated, and 
the one chased the other for about a hundred yards and then returned 
in triumph to the tree, where, perched on a lofty twig, he chirped 
monotonously and pertinaciously for some ^'"^^"l^^^f^.^l^fl 
thinking in defiance- In a few minutes, however, the banished one 
returned and began chirping no less provokmgly, which soon brought 
on another chase and another tussle. I am persuaded that these 
were hostile encounters ; for one seemed evidently afraid of the other 
fleeing when the other pursued, though his indomitable spirit would 
prompt the chirp of defiance ; and when resting after a battle, 1 
noticed that this one held his beak open, as if panting. Sometimes 
thev would suspend hostiUties to suck a few blossoms, but mutual 
proximity was sure to bring them on again, with the same resu t. 
In their tortuous and rapid evolutions the light from their ruby necks 
would occasionally flash in the sun with gem-like radiance ; and as 
they now and then hovered motionless, the broadly expanded tail, 
the outer feathers of which are crimson-purple, but when intercepting 
the sun's rays transmit orange-coloured hght, added much to their 
beauty. A little Banana Quit {Certhtolaflaveola) that waspeeping 
among the blossoms in his own quiet way seemed now ^nd then to 
look with surprise on the combatants ; but when the on« ^ad duven 
his rival to a longer distance than usual, the victor set upon the nn- 
ofFendinc. Quit, who soon yielded the pomt and retired, humbly 
enouoh^to a neighbouring tree. The war (for it was a thorough 
camp^aign, a regular succession of battles) lasted fully ^^^ ^^o^"-, and 
then I was callld away from the post of observation. Both of the 

IIumming-Birds api)eaved to be males. ^i i i ^ i 

" All the Hummine-Birds have more or less the habit, wnen in 



% 



w 



V 

I 





r 







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M- 



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f 




30 



flight, of pausing in the air and throwing the hody and tail into rapid 
and odd contortions. This is most ohservable in the Polytmus, from 
the effect that such motions have on the long feathers of the tail. That 
the objectof these quick turns is the capture of insects I am sure, having 
watched one thus engaged pretty close to me. I observed it care- 
fully, and distinctly saw the minute flies in the air which it pursued 
and caught, and heard repeatedly the snapping of the beak. My 
presence scarcely disturbed it, if at all." 

In some notes on the ' Habits of the Humming-Birds of the 



Mr. Wallace 



" The great number of species that frequent flowers, do so, I am 
convmced, for the small msects found there, and not for the nectar 
In dozens, and perhaps hundreds, of common flower-frequenting 
species which I have examined, the crop, stomach, and intestines 
have been entirely filled with minute beetles, bees, ants, and spiders, 
which abound m most flowers in South America. Very rarely, in- 
deed, have I found a trace of honey or of any liquid in the crop or 
stomach The flowers they most frequent are the various species of 
Inffa, and the papilionaceous flowers of many large forest-trees. I 
have never seen them at the Bignonias or any flowers but those which 
grow m large masses covering a whole tree or shrub ; as they visit 
perhaps a hundred flowers in a minute and never stop at a single one. 
1 he httle Lmerald Hummer I have seen in gardens and at the com- 
mon orange Asclepias, which often covers large spaces of waste ground 
m the tropics. But there are many, such as Phaethornis Eremita, 
and some larger alhed species, which I have never seen at flowers. 
Ihese inhabit the gloomy forest-shades, where they dart about among 
the fohage and I have distmctly observed them visit in rapid succes- 
sion every leaf on a branch, balancing themselves vertically in the air, 
passing their beak closely over the under surface of each leaf and thus 
capturing, no doubt, any small insects that may be upon them 
Whde doing this the two long feathers of their tail have a vibrating 
motion, serving apparently as a rudder to assist them in performing 
the dehcate operation. I have seen others searching up and dowS 
stems and dead sticks in the same manner, every now and then picking 
off something exactly as a Bush- strike, or a Tree-creeper does, with 
this exception that the Humming-Bird is constantly on the wing 
They also capture insects in the true fissirostral manner. How often 
may they be seen perched on the dead twig of a lofty tree— the same 
station that is chosen by the tyrant Flycatchers and th e Jacamars, 
and from which, like those birds, they dart off a short distance and^ 
after a few whirls and balancings, return to the identical twig they had 
left. In the evening too, just after sunset, when the Goat-suckers are 
beginning their search after insects over the rivers, I have seen Hum- 
ming-Birds come out of the forest and remain a long time on the 
^i^g> now stationary, now darting about with the greatest rapidity, 
imitating in a limited space the varied evolutions of their companions 
the Goat-suckers, and evidently for the same end and purpose. 

"Many naturalists have noticed this habit of feeding on insects, but 
have generally considered it as the exception, whereas I am inclined 



I 





^^ --x'- 



I . - ; - - 

■ ^ ' "i ' ' ■ ^ 






I 

I 



I 

» 



4 



31 

to think it is the rule. The frequenting of flowers seems to me only 
one of the many ways by which they are enabled to procure their 

insect-food/* 

" Wilson, Audubon, Mr, Gosse, and several others gifted with the 
*pen of a ready writer/ '' says Mr, Alfred Newton, '' have so fully 
described, as far as words will admit, the habits of different members 
of the family Trochilidce, that it is unnecessary to say much upon 
this score. Their appearance is so entirely unlike that of any other 
birds, that it is hopeless to attempt in any way to bring a just con- 
ception of it to the ideas of those who have not crossed the Atlantic ; 
and even the comparison so often made between them and the Sphin-. 
gidce, though doubtless in the main true, is much to the advantage 
of the latter. One is admiring the clustering stars of a scarlet 
Cordia, the snowy cornucopias of a Portlandia, or some other brilhant 
and beautiful flower, when between the blossom and one's eye sud- 
denly appears a small dark object, suspended as it were between four 
short black threads meeting each other in a cross. For an instant 
it shows in front of the flower ; an instant more, it steadies itself, and 
one perceives the space between each pair of threads occupied by a 
grey film ; again another instant, and emitting a momentary flash of 
emerald and sapphire light, it is vanishing, lessening in the distance, 
as it shoots away, to a speck that the eye cannot take note of, — and 
all this so rapidly that the word on one's lips is still unspoken, 
scarcely the thought in one's mind changed. It was a bold man or 
an ignorant one who first ventured to depict Humming-Birds flying ; 
but it cannot he denied that representations of them in that attitude 
are often of special use to the ornithologist. The peculiar action of 
one, and probably many or all other species of the family, is such, 
that at times, in flying, it makes the wings almost meet, both in 
front and behind, at each vibration. Thus when a bird chances to 
enter a room, it will generally go buzzing along the cornice : standing 
beneath where it is, one will find that the axis of the body is vertical, 
and each wing is describing a nearly perfect semicircle. As might 
be expected, the pectoral muscles are very large ; indeed the sternum 
of this bird is a good deal bigger than that of the common Chimney 



\ .1 



: - r 



(^Hirundo 



L.). But the extraordinary rapidity 



with which the vibrations are effected seems to be chiefly caused by 
these powerful muscles acting on the very short wing- bones, which 
are not half the length of the same parts in the Swallow ; and ac- 
cordingly great as this alar action is, and in spite of the contrary 
opinion entertained by Mr. Gosse (Nat. Sojourn in Jamaica, 240), 
it is yet sometimes wanting in power, owing doubtless to the dis- 
advantageous leverage thus obtained ; and the old authors must be . 
credited who speak of cobwebs catching Humming-Birds. ; 

"On the 3rd of May, 1857, a bird of this species {Eulampis 
chlorolcemus, Gould) " flew into the room where I was sitting, and, 
after fluttering for some minutes against the ceiling, came m contact 
^ith a deserted spider's web, in which it got entangled, and re- 
mained suspended and perfectly helpless for more than a minute, 
when by a violent effort it freed itself. I soon after caught it, still 

D 2 



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having fragments of the web on its head, neck, and wings ; and ^ 
feel pretty sure that had this web been inhabited and in good repair, 
instead of being deserted and dilapidated, the bird would never have 
escaped." — A. N. 

In his 'Notes on the Hamming-Birds of Guatemala,' Mr. Salvin 
says, " During the months of August and September the localities of 

the various species of Humming-Birds are usually as follows : 

Among the trees on the south-eastern side of the lake " of Dueiias 
"are Amazilia Devilleiy Thaumastura henicura (mostly females), 
Campylopterus rufus, Heliomaster longirostris , Chlorostilbon Os- 
herti (in small number), Cyano^nyia cyanoeephala, and Trochihs 
colubris. 

" On the hill-side to the south-westward of the lake are o-reat 
numbers of Campylopterus ruftis, and among the willows close to the 
water the males of Thaumastura henicura congregate. About the 

Convolvulus4rees in the llano at the foot of the volcano are found 



Eugenes f\ 
numbers), 
September) 



( 



_ " Entering the first barranco that opens out into the plain, we meet 
with Campylopterus rufus, Myiabeillia typica, Heliopcsdica melanotis, 
and a little higher up, Petasophora thalassina and Belattria viridi- 
pallens. ^ Of course, occasionally a species is found not in its place as 
here indicated ; for instance, I have seen in the first locality a single 
specimen (the only female I have met with) of Eugenes fulg ens, and 
another high in the volcano., I have also seen a single Petasophora 
thalassina out on the Uaiio. These localities must therefore be taken 
as only generally indicating the distribution of the species found 
about Duenas." — Ibis, vol. ii. p. 263. 

At the moment of printing these pages, I have received a very in- 
teresting letter from my friend the Hon. G. W. Allan, of Moss Park, 
Toronto, in which the following passage occurs respecting the Tro- 
chilus colubris : — 

"I wish you could have been with us last summer, you would have 
had an opportunity of watching your favourite Humming-Birds to 
your heart's content. I do not in the least exaggerate when I say that, 
during the time the horse-chestnuts were in flower, there were hundreds 
of these little tiny creatures about my grounds. While sitting in my li- 
brary 1 could hear their little sharp, querulous note, as the males fought 
like so many little bantam cocks with each other. On one large 
horse-chest mt tree, just at the corner of the house, they swarmed 
about the foliage like so many bees ; and as the top branches of the 
tree were close to my bed-room windows, every now and then one 
bird, more bold than the rest, would dart into the open window and 
perch upon the wardrobe or the top of the bed-post.'' 

It will be expected that, in a monograph of a group of birds which 
have attracted so much notice, some account should be given of their 
internal structure, and as our well-known bird-anatomist, T. C. Eyton, 
Esq., who has paid much attention to the subject, has given a very 
clear description of that of the largest species of the family— the 



I 



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33 



Mr 



Patagona gigas .... w.. - - 

Beagle,' I have much pleasure in transferrmg it to my pages :— _ 

"Tongue bifid, each division pointed ; hyoids very long m then- 
position resembling those in the Picid<e (Woodpeckers) ; trachea of 
uniform diameter, destitute of muscles of voice ; bronchia very long ; 
oesophagus funnel-shaped, slightly contracted on approaching the 
proventriculus, which is small and scarcely perceptible ; gizzard small, 
moderately muscular, the inner coat shghtly hardened, and hllea 
with the remains of insects ; intestine largest near the gizzard ; i 
could not perceive a vestige of caeca. Length of the oesophagus, 
including the proventriculus, 1 1 inch ; of the mtestmal canal 3^ ; 
length of the gizzard I, breadth ^ . ' -, , , ■„. 

-Sternum with the keel very deep, its edge rounded and project- 
ing anteriorly ; posterior margin rounded, and destitute of indentation 
or fissure ; the ridges to which the pectoral muscles have their attach- 
ment large and p^rominent, the horizontal portion much narrowed 
anteriorly, consequently the junctions of the coracoids are very near 

*^^" Pelvis short, very broad ; os pubis long, curved upwards at the 
extremities, projecting far downwards, and posteriorly beyond the 
termination of the caudal vertebrae ; the ischiatic foramen small and 
linear : femora placed far backwards ; coracoids short very strong, 
their extremities much diverging ; os furcatum short, slightly arched 
near the extremities of the rami, which are far apart, furmshed with 
only a small process on its approach to the sternum ; scapula flat- 
tened, long, broadest near the extremity ; humerus, radius, and_ ulna 
short the metacarpal bones longer than either ; the former furnished 
with ridges mnch elevated for the attachment of the pectoral mus- 
cles ; caudal and dorsal vertebra with the transverse processes long 
and expanded ; cranium of moderate strength, the occipital portion 
indented with two furrows, which pass over the vertex, and m which 
the hyoids lie ; orbits large, divided by a complete bony septum ; the 
lacrymal bones large, causing an expansion of the bill near tne 

"Number of cervical vertebra 10, dorsal 6, sacral 9, caudal 5; 

total 30. ,, 

" Number of true ribs 5, false 4 ; total 9. 

Dr Davy states that the blood-corpuscles of a recently killed 
Humming-Bird, examined by him in Barbadoes, " were beautifully 
definite, regular and uniform. The disk very thm, perfectly flat ; the 
nucleus shghtly raised, and the two corresponding m outlme. Ihe 

s L^z^j ri^t^ »;ss; ^^^^ 

degrees/' 

I have found it impossible to divide the Humming- Birds into 
more than two subfamilies-PAa^'^^^^'^^^^^^^f^ ^^^ Irochhn^- for 
I find no such well-marked divisions among them as will enable me 



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so to do 



series 



, neither can I arrange them m anything hke a continuous 

. .1. - ,^°,.^^?y 8^P^ ^^'^"^ ^^'■^ ^'"^ ^^^^^' that one is almost led 
to the behef that many forms have either died out or have not vet 
been discovered ; consequently I am unable to commence with anv 
one genus and arrange the remainder in accordance with 
affinity. Whenever ^ ^ 



their 



•', -~-~~. .V,.. C.XX a^^aicni reiauonship be- 

tween tvyo or more genera, they have been placed in contiguitv and 
the species which appear to be allied to each other are a?ranied in 
continuous succession. I do not consider one species more typical 

fl^J^J •*'"r'''^/^"'^P'^^ ^^" ^' ^^^"'^ t« contain a general view of 

ittr ibielo^ta^-aurgih: '-^"ri^Tt^ 1 

always be consulted. ^ V^oi^ress of the work, should 

are'SgrheT-!'^ ^^^"^^ ^'^^^^^^ "^^ -^-^ the Troeki,,. 

longShriii; tTL-s ictd '^; rr "^^ r ^^-^^^"^ 

posed of two lengthened cfhndrTcal imiL Tk '' ' ^uf^l """'- 
protrusion and bild at the tt^^:Lr^Jt:^S:L!X 
^n operculum ; wmgs lengthened, pointed, the first of whTch Ts £ 

Z£\''''-P' '"^ 'I' ^'""^ ^■^■'^^^^^' -i^«-« it i« the second pri! 
manes ten m number; tarsi and feet very diminutive- tail con 

IreS;' ''" '^'''"^- ^'^ ^"^^^^ ^^^-^-' adapted fbr'acSal IZ 



gression 



Subfamily I. PHaETHORNITHIN^. 



Icommence my hrst volume with that well-marked section of the 
family comprising the genera Gr^jpus, Eutoxeres, PhaethorJs, a„d 
their alhes The members of all these genera are remarkable fbr 
being des it^te of metallic brilliancy, and, as their trivial name of 
hermits imphes, for affecting dark and gloomy situations, xliev 
constitute, perhaps, the only group of the g1-eat family of HummiS 
Birds which frequent the interior of the forests, and there oTtafn 
heir msect food, some from the underside of the leaves of the g elt 
trees, while others assiduously explore their stems in search of^uch 
lurking insects as maybe concealed in the crevices of the blrk 
It has been sa.d that spiders constitute the food of many species' 
of this group ; and I believe that such is the case, for we find the 
bills admirably adanted fnr fhei,. r.or.H,r.o r.or.*:«.,i„„u. .. .. 



Eutoxeres 



«.^^w„ „^^« j<^(*n/^c/tff. xo inoiviauaiize oy name any particular 
country in South America in which these birds are found is un 
necessary, for they are generally distributed over its temperate and 
hotter portions ; but they are not to be met with either very far 
north or very far south of the equator; that is to say, their rantrp 
IS bounded northwardlv hv Sn„fhprn Mpv^po nnH ./.,fK.„....ji. f 



Within 



^ J . . "^^''"^ umiis, ine iiigii anu me loM' lands are alikp 

tenantedby them; but it is in the equatorial region that they are the 



> q 



K^. 



■^' - N- 






t H ^ 




^' 1 



35 



IS 





most numerous, and where all, or nearly all, the genera have repre- 

n the colouring of their plumage the sexes are generally 



A 



sentatives* I 



a L: a; a whole they form a w^l-marked division <Hst,ngu 

by their own especial peculiarities of form and style of plumage. 

Genus Grypus, Spix. 
This form, which comprises two species, ^oth^natWes of Braz^^^ 
is remarkable for the bill of the male bemg different m structure 
from that of the female. 



1. Grypus N.a;vius 



Vol. I. PI. I. 



Trochilus ncBvius, Dumont, Temm., VieiU., Drap., Burm. 



Meilisuga 



squamosuSy Licht 
jfficollisy Spix. 



Ramphodon maculatum^ Less. 

._ - — — ncBvius, Less., Jard. 

Grt/pus ncevius, Gray & Mitch., Bonap. ^ 

^Ph^thornis ncevius, Jard. Nat. Lib. Humming-Birds, vol. u. p. 152 
^Ramphodon n<evius, Reichenb, Aufz. der Col. p. 15 ; Id. froch 



Mus 



Habitat 



Vol. L PI. IL 



c 



J 

2. Grypus Spixi, GouM . * 

* Ramphodon chrysurus, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 15 ; Id. Troch 

Enum. p. 12? 
Habitat. Brazil. 

The law of adaptation is perhaps equally carried out in every one 
of the multiplied forms, not only of ornithology, but of every other 
department of nature's works, each being constructed for some 
given purpose contributing to the well-being of the animal; m some 
instances, however, particular developments are more stnl^mg and 
singular than in others. The form to which the generic name ol Hu- 
toxeres has been given is a case in point. Of this remarkable genus 
two species are known, both of which are natives of the Andes of 
Ecuador, New Granada, and Veragua. It would be most interesting 
to become acquainted with their peculiar modes of life, and to ascer- 
tain for what end their singularly curved bills were designed. Some 

persons affirm that it is for the P^^P^^^ ^^ P^.^^^S/^^.^^^^y ^S 
of the upright stems of certain trees, and others for t^^ e^^^^?*^^" 
of necXr cup-shaped flowers, such as that of the orchid which I 
hav^fieuredTn^he plate of Eutoxeres Aquila. Whatever may be the 
dLT.n Kre researdi must determine it; all that we at present know 
S^^ C; Siis for^n^^ exist, and that there is none other which 
approaches to it. In size the two species are very similar, but there 
are good and plain specific characters by which they may be distin- 
guished, and which will, I trust, be sufficiently apparent on reterence 
to the plates in which the birds are represented. 



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Genus EuToxERES, Reichenb 

r 

The oldest-known species of this form is the- 



-r 



3. EuTOXERES AqUILA . . . . 

Trochilus Aquila^ Lodd., Bourc. 
Politmus AquilUi Gray & Mitch. 



Vol. I. PL III. 



Glaucis -45'W27«, Bonap. 



^Eutoxeres 



M 



■ Myiaetina 
Habitat. ( 



The following notes respecting this 



Kl- Troch. 

. 3, note, 

s p. 249. 



Mer 



ritt will be read with interest. They 'are ext/acTed VroT fh 6th 
YorT'V 139:1 "''' '^ ''' ^^'^"™ "^ ^^^-^^ History of New 



be 



P 

r /s^TtL^T^r 7 ^ T f '"""'*' ^"""^ ^he month of Septem- 
. /ffi^A'^'if^'^ ^'''■,*^^ first time and obtained a specimen of 

I was at that time stationed 



) 



m tne mountainous district of Belen, province of Veragua, New 



Granada. 
My 



the collection of specimens of the Humming-Bird family. One 
day, while out hunting a short distance from the camp, I was startled 
by the swift approach of a small object through the close thicket 
which darted like a rifle bullet past me, with a loud hum and 



buzzing of wings. 



., ^. Y , - Indeed, it was this great noise that accompanied 
its flight that especially attracted my attention as somethine un 



'' The bird continued its flight but a short distance beyond the 
spot where I stood, when it suddenly stopped in its rapid course 
directly in front of a flower. There for a moment poising itself n 
this position. It darted upon the flower in a peculiar manner ; in 
fac , the movements which now followed were exceedingly curious. 
Instead of inserting its beak into the calyx by advancing in a direct 
line towards the flower, as customary with this class of birds, this 
one performed a curvilinear movement, at first stooping forward 
while it introduced its beak into the calyx, and then, when appa- 
rently the point of the beak had reached the desired locality in the 
flower. Its body suddenly dropped downwards, so that it seemed as 
though It was suspended from the flower by the beak. That this 
was not actually the case, the continued rapid movement of its wings 
demons:trated beyond a doubt. In this position it remained the or- 
dinary length of time, and then, by performing these movements in 
the reverse order and direction, it freed itself from the flower, and 
attervvards proceeded to the adjoining one, when the same opera- 
tion was repeated as already described. 

" The flower from which it fed is somewhat peculiar in form &c 
ihe plant belongs to the Palm species, and grows in low marshy 



K 



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37 



It 



places, on or near the margins of rivers and mountain streams, 
consists of a dozen or more straight stems, each of which terminates 
above in a broad expanded leaf that somewhat resembles the plan- 
tain. These stems all start from a cl««^P/V^^!i '"h ' frn'.^ 
ground, but they immediately separate, and slightly diverge rom 
each other. The stems with the leaf grow to the height of six to 
ten feet, more or less. From one or two of the centre stems a flo« er- 
stalk puts forth, which hangs pendent, and to this are attached 
alternately on either side the flowers, while the space between each 
corresponds with the attachment of the one on the opposite side ot 

"^The' flower resembles somewhat in form the Roman helmet 
inverted, and is attached, as it were, by the point of the crest to the 
stalk. It is a fleshy mass, and the cavity ot the calyx extends in a 
tortuous manner downwards towards the attachment of the flower 



to the stalk. 



J^ 



Vol. I. PI. IV. 



4. EUTOXERES COKDAMINEI 

Trochilus Condamini, Bourc. ^ , ^ r t j t u 

*Eutoxeres Condaminei, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 15 ; Id. 1 rocii 



1854, 



Enam. p. 12 ; Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 3, note 
^Myiaetina condamini, Bonap. Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 18. 

p. 249. 

Habitat. Eastern Ecuador. 

For the knowledge of the existence of E. Condaminei science 
is indebted to the researches of M. Bourcier, who brought specimens 
from xlrchidona. 



h ' 



Genus Glaucis, Boie. 



This genus comprises at least six species, three of which are very 
nearly allied. It will be seen, on reference to my account ot 
G hvrsutus, that when it was written I was much perplexed with 
regard to its synonymy, or ri^ther, as to whether the small red- 
coloured bird, G. mazeppa, was or was not identical with it; and 
althou«rh some years have since elapsed, 1 have not even now been 
able to^arrive at a satisfactory solution of the difficulty. Under these 
circumstances, 1 think it will be best to regard the G. ^^fPP^^^ 
distinct; and this view of the subject is supported by the fact that 
I do not find small red-coloured birds accompanying Jhe alliea 
^nppifs affinis Lawr., which is a native of Bogota. 1 thinli it 
liSrthf aTthesTbirds, when fully adult have the tail shoner 

and more rounded than during the period of ""^/^ ^ /t^ thin f« 
end of the first year of their existence. The youthful state then is 
indicated by a more cuneate form of tad, all the feathers of which 
■are pointed^nd tipped with white; and as the b.rds advance in age 
-that is, at each moult-the tail- eathers become more rounded 
and the white tipping less, until at length it is reduced to a mere 
fringe, existing in some instances on the middle leathers alone. 
The distribution of the species of the genus Glaucis extends over 



E' ' !:■ 



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38 

«ie whole of the eastern parts of Brazil, the Guianas, Trinidad, 
Tobago, Venezuela, the banks of the Amazon, New Grenada, and 

5. GlAUCIS HIRSUTA y^^| T pi y 

TrocMlus hirsutus, Gmel., Vieill., Dumont, Teram T p^iq To.h 
Phmthornus hirsutm, Jard. & Selb. '' ' 
Polytmus Brasiliensis^ Briss. 
Trochilus Brasiliensis^ Lath. 
Polytmus hirsutus, Gray & Mitch. 
Glaucis hirsutus, Boie, Bonap. 
hirsuta^ Reich. 



Z)a 






Guian. torn. iii. p. 708. 



ferrugineus. Wied 



* 



;rr-JT'^': 'T^ fcem., Less. Hist. Nat. des Col. p. 38, 
pi. 7; Id Traite dOrn. p. 289; Jard. Nat. Lib. Humming 
Birds, vol. ,1. p. 120, pi. 27 ; Burm. Th. Bras. torn, ii p 324 
hirsuta, Cab. et Hein. Mus. H«fn Tho^i ,•.•; ^ . ^' '^^^' 



Habitat. 



LAUCIS MazEPPA .... 

hucis Mazeppa, Less. Troch. | 
Humming-Birds, vol. ii. p. 130. 



Vol. L PI. VL 



p. 152. 



Mazeppa 



Polytmus mazeppa. Gray & Mitch 



Polyt 



Mazeppa 



Habitat 



Tobago. 



Mr 



Humming-Bird tribe ; it can scarcely be ^SdTo be 7 t e bu 
darting nght and left, zigzag. At tLes, when sudTeni; surprised 
feeding, uttering a sharp squeak it will dart off and disappear like a 
meteor ; at other times t will seem as if suspended for severalseconds 
by the point of the bill within three feet of a person's face, after 
which It IS sure to disappear like lightning ; in these cases it tvZ 
assumes an attitude which a stranger might construe into a medi 
tated attack upon his person. I have often been induced to strike" 
at them with my fowling-piece from their proximity 



Ho 



vol. XX. p. 372. 



W. Jardine, Bart., in Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist 



/. Glaucis affinis, Lawr. . 



* 



Vol. I. PI. VII 



Glaucis affinis, Lawr. in Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, vol. vi 



p. 261. 



Habitat. The high lands of New Granada. Specimens are fre 
quently sent from Bogota. ^" 



i 



\ 



i 



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_>--f. -: 



I '"-V^ 



i 



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I 






39 



8. Glaucis lanceolatus, Gould . 

Habitat. Para. 

9. Glaucis melanura, Gould 



Vol. I. PL vni 



Vol. I. PI. IX 



Habitat. The banks of the Rio Napo and the Rio Negro 



Vol. T. PI. X. 



Theil iii. p. 4? 



10. Glaucis DoHRKi . . • • • • • 

T 

Trochilus Dohrnih Bourc. 

4 

Glaucis Dorhnh Bonap., Reich. 
''Glaucis Dohrni, Cab.et Hein. Mus. Hein, 

Habitat Southern Brazil. 

M. Bourcier has given Ecuador as the locality where his speci- 
men was procured ; but my bird was received direct from the dis- 
trict of Espirito Santo in Brazil. 

11. Glaucis Ruckeri Vol. I. PI. XL 



Trochilus Ruckeri, Bourc. 



Mitch 



^Threnetes Buckeri, Reichenb, Aufz. der Col. p. 15; Id. Troch 

Enum. p. 12. 
'^Glaucis Ruckeri, Cab, et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 4. 

Habitat. Verai^ua. 



12- Glaucis Fraseri, Gould 



Vol. L PI. xn 



"^ Glaucis Ruckeri, Sclat. in Proc. of Zool. Soc. part 28. p. 296. 



Mr 



which both Dr, Sclater and myself considered to be identical with 
the Glaucis Ruckeri, but which, on a more minute comparison with 
specimens from Veragua, I find to be sufficiently different to entitle 
it to be regarded as distinct ; I have therefore named it after its 
discoverer, as a just tribute to one who has played a good part in 
the furtherance of science. The G. Fraseri differs from G. Ruckeri 
in being rather larger in size, in having a smaller amount of rusty 
red on the chest, and in having a decidedly grey breast ; in other 
respects the two birds are very similar. 



Mr, 



litary; gene- 
Irides hazel ; 



rally in dark and lonely places, and very restless. 

upper mandible black, lower yellow, with a black tip; legs and feet 

flesh-colour." 

Habitat. Ecuador. 

Allied to the last form are the members of the genus Threnetes ; 
these birds are not distinguished by any brdliancy of colouring, 
but two of them are very prettily marked about the throat and 

chest. 

Surinam and the adjacent countries are given as the habitat of 




V 



V ^ I 



■ij: 



I, . I 



i 






"'■■■...■. 



.^:- •:■ 








' I 



:;il 



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ir 







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40 



■ 

T. leucurus^ while the banks of the Rio Napo are known to be the 
home of the bird I have called cervinicauda \ and the sombre- 
pluniaged Antonice is a native of Cayenne and the Guianas. I 
believe that the females of all three species are clothed like the 
males. 

Genus Threnetes, Gould. 



(Qpriyr)TYiSi a mourner.) 



Generic characters. 



Male. — Bill lengthened, arched, and pointed ; winffs moderately 
long, and rounded at the tip; tail short, square, or rounded; tarsi 
partially clothed; feet very small; hi7id toe and nail short. 



13. Threnetes leucurus 



Vol. I. PI. xiir. 



^% 



Trochilus leucurus, Linn., Gmel., Lath., Less., Vieill., Dumont, 
Drap. 

Polytmus Surinamensis ^ Briss. 

leucurus, Gray & Mitch. 

Glaucis leucurus, Bonap. 

^Threnetes leucurus, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 15; Id. Troch. 
Enum. p. 12. 

Habitat. Surinam and British Guiana. 

14. Threnetes cervinicauda, Gould . . . Vol. I. PI. XIV. 

^Threnetes cervinicauda, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc. part 22. 
p. 109. 

Habitat. Province of Quijos in Ecuador. 



15. Threnetes ANTONiiE 



. . - Vol. I. PI. XV 



Muls 



/ _ — — ,^ ^ 

Polytmus Antonice, Gray & I\ 
Lampornis Antonice, Bonap. 

^ Aphantochroa Antoniae, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 15 ; Id. Troch. 
Enum. p. 12. 

Habitat. Cayenne and the Guianas. 

I now enter upon the genus Phaethornis, the members of which 
are so widely dispersed, that the remark I made on the extended 
distribution of the entire group is almost applicable to this section of 
it. In the body of this work I have figured nearly thirty species 
under this generic appellation, including therein the smaller kinds 
to which Bonaparte gave the name of Pygmornis, a term I shall 
now adopt for these little birds : but a further subdivision of the 
group I cannot for a moment entertain ; the separation of the P. Bour- 
cieri into a distinct genus, for which the term Ametrornis has been 
proposed by Dr. Reichenbach, and of the P. Gtiyi under that of Toxo- 
tenches by Dr. Cabanis, being, in my opinion, quite unnecessary. 






ri 



I 



.I'l.r 



J 



I 

i 



{ 



^ 



Ft 



41 



Genus Phaethornis, Swains. 



16. Phaethornis Eurynome 



PI 



r 

Trochilus Eurynome^ Less. 

Eurynomus^ Jard. 

Phcetornis eurynomus, Gray & Mitch., Bonap. 



p. 150. 



Ettry 



^Pha'etornis eurynome, Bonap. Consp. Gen. Av. torn. i. p. 67, Phae- 

tornis, sp. 5. , -r^ t^ • a n n 

* TrocAi/M^ weZawoiw, " Licht." Nordm. Erm. Reis. Atl p. 2. 
^PhcEtornis melanotis, Gray & Mitch. Gen. of Birds, vol. i- P- 104-, 

Phcetornis, sp. 3 ; Bonap. Consp. Gen. Av. torn. i. p. 67, Pha- 

tornis, sp. S. .«,/-,! i ^ t i ^p i 

.^Ptyonornis Eurynome, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 14 ; Id. 1 roch. 

Enura. p. 12. Ti . rrii -1 ••• r. 

^Phaethornis eurynome. Cab. et Hem. Mus. Hein. Theil ui. p. 9. 
Habitat. Brazil. 



Vol. I. PI. XVII. 



17. Phaethornis malaris. 

Phaethornis superciliosus .....•• 

^Phaethornis malaris, Gray & Mitch. Gen. of Birds, vol. i. p. lO;, 

sp. 2 ; Bonap. Consp. Gen. A v. torn. i. p. 67, sp. 2 ; Cab. et Hein. 

Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 9. 
*Colibri a longue queue de Cayenne, Buff. PI. Enl. 600, 3. 
*j5rm blanc male, VieiU. Ois. Dor. torn. up. 37, pi. 1 / • 
^Trochilus superciliosus, Id. Enc. Meth. Om. part f. p. o49, sp. 5 ; 

Less. Hist. Nat. des Col. p. 35, pi. 6 ; Id. Traite d Orn p. 288 ; 

Jard. Nat. Lib. Humming-Birds, vol. u. p. 119, pi. 26 ; Cab. 

Schomb. Reise Guian. iii. p. 708 ; Burm. Ih. Bras. ii. p. 32/;. 

* malaris, "Licht." Nordm. Erm. Reis. Atl. p. 2, 15. 

* Phaethornis superciliosus. Swains. Class, of Birds, vol. ii. p. 330 ; 

Jard Nat Lib. Humming-Birds, vol. ii. p. 150; Gray & Mitch. 

Gen.' of Birds, vol. i. p. 104, PhcBtornis, sp. 1 ; Bonap. Cons,.. 

Gen. Av. torn. i. p. 67, Phcetornis, sp. 1 ; Pelzeln, Sitz. Acad. 

Wien. 1856, p. 157, 1- , 



Habitat 



It will be seen that the above list of synonyms^ differs from 
tho et- wbh my account of this species. adopt^^ ^ -• 
the authority of Dr. Cal)anis, who considers hat I am in erroi in 
applylg the term supereiUosus to the bird I have hgured under 
XVname. and that it properly belongs to the one I have called 
PrLe,-an opinion which is probably correc as the German nati> 
ralists are doubtless better acquainted with the type specimens o 
continental writers than we can be: the synonynis of malarzs and 
superciliosus are therefore given as stated by Dr. Cabams. 



1 „; ■ ; 



■ 1 



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42 

18. Phaethqrnis consobrinus. 

^Trochilus consobrinus, " Bourc." Reichenb. Aufz, der Col. p. 17. 
^PhcBthornis Moorei, Lawr. in Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, 
vol. vi. p. ^259' 

Habitat. New Granada, Ecuador, and the banks of the Napo. 

This is the bird so commonly sent from Bogota, and which so 
closely assimilates both to the malaris {superciliosus of my work) 
and longirostris (cephalus). It ranges over the north-western parts 
of Venezuela and New Granada. I have also a specimen from 
Archidona in Ecuador. A great number of specimens from all 
these countries are now before me, and among them two named 
consobrinus by M. Bourcier himself, and one from Mr. Lawrence 
of New York, labelled P. Moorei, proving that these two names 
have been applied to the same bird. 

19. Phaethornis fraterculus, Gould . . 
Habitat. Cayenne and the neighbouring countries. 

Every ornithologist who has paid attention to the Trochilidce 
must have seen a Humming-Bird from Cayenne and the adjacent 
countries which is very similar to, but smaller than, the malaris (su- 
perciliosus of this monograph); yet, strange to say, I find no de- 
scription that will accord, with it. I have therefore given it the 
above specific appellation. It is possible that it may be the female 



Vol. L PL XVIIL 



(superciliosus) 



20. Phaethornis longirostris 
TrocJiilus longirostris^ De Latt. 



Vol. I. PI. XIX. 



cephalus^ Bourc. et Muls., Gray & Mitch. 



PhcBtornis cephalus^ Bonap. 
Ptyonornis cephaluSj Reichenb. 

^Phaethornis longirostris^ Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 9 
Habitat Central America. 



\ 



21. Phaethornis syrmatophorus, Gould . . Vol. I. PL XX. 
Habitat. Ecuador. 

" Irides hazel; upper mandible black; lower mandible red, tipped 
with black ; legs and feet dark flesh-colour. Stomach contained 
yellow insects. All insects previously examined amongst the Hum- 
ming-Birds have been black.' ~ '^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ 



Fraser in Proc. of Zool 



p. 145. 



22. Phaethornis Boliviana, Gould. 

Upper mandible black ; under mandible yellow, with a dark tip; 
above and beneath the eye a stripe of buff; chin smoky brown ; 
throat, chest, belly, and under tail-coverts dull reddish-fawn colour ; 
crown dark brown, each feather faintly striated with buff; all the 
upper surface dull reddish fawn-colour, crescented with small marks 

r 



* .. 



I ) 



I 



\ 






43 



of brown ; base of the four outer tail-feathers on each side bronzy 
green, to which succeeds a bar of black, beyond which the t.p is 
reddish buff; the two prolonged centre feathers bronze at he base, 
then brownish black, and white for the remainder^of their length. 
Total length 5 J inches, bill 1 J, wing 2|, tail 2o. 

Habitat. Bolivia. 

This bird is somewhat allied to P. syrmatopJwrm ■ but it is of much 
smaller size and has the throat and chest differently coloured, those 
parts being obscure smoky grey without the conspicuous streakmgs 
of buff; the whole under-surface also, as well as the rump, is less 
richly coloured. 

23. PHAiJTHORNIS PhILIPPI 

l_ 

Trochilus Philippii, Bourc. 

De Filippii, Boui 
Phcetornis Philippi, Gray & 
Pha'etornis philippi, Bonap. 
Orthornis defiUppi, Bonap. 



Vol. I. PI. XXI. 



Mitch 



De 



Dejilippii, Cab. et Hein.Mus.Hein.Theil iii. p. 10,note 



Habitat 




24. Phaisthornis hispidus, Gould 

?) hispidus, Gould. 
x-«tt-«./v«o „.o^c^^., ^ray& Mitch. 
Phaefornis hispidus, Bonap. 
^Ptyonornis hispida, Reichenb. Aufz. dei 
Enura. p. 12. 



Vol. I. Pl. XXII. 



Col. p. 14-; Id. Troch. 



Habitat. Bolivia. 

25. Phaethornis Oseryi 



Vol. I. PI. XXIII 



Mul 



Ametrornis Osert/i, Reichenb. 
Orthornis oseryi, Bonap. 
PhcBthornis villosus, Lawr. 

Habitat. New Granada and Eci 

26. PHAiixHORNIS ANTHOPHILUS 

Trochilus Anthophilus, Bourc 
PhcBtornis anthophilus, Gray t 
Pha'etornis anthophilus, Bonap 



,1 



Vol. I. PI. XXIV 



Mitch., Bonap. 



^Phaethornis anthophUa, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 9. 



. Habitat. New Granada. 
27. Phaethornis Bourcieri . • • 

Trochilus Bourcieri, Less. 
Phcetornis Bourcieriy Gray & Mitch. 



Vol. I. PL XXV 




!N; ,. 




-\ n^ :"' 



^^ ^r^.\'- 



^\'*: 



\'i ',- 



i_ ^ ^ 



'I 



' I 



J 



1 



4,1 

Phaetornis bourcieri, Bonap. 
^Trochilus Bourcieri^ Jard. Nat, Lib. Hummiug-Birds, vol. ii, 

p. 124. 
^Phcethornis Bourcieri^ Id. p. 150. 

^ Orthornis Bourcieri, Bonap. Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1854, p. 249. 
^ Ametrornis Bourcieri^ Reichenb. Aul'z. der Col. p. 14; Id. Troch. 

Enum. p. 12; Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 10. 

r 
F 

Habitat. Cayenne and the adjacent countries- 



28. Phaethornis Guyi 
Trochilus Guy^ Less,, Jard. 



Vol. I. PI. XXVI 



Ornismya Guy, Delatt. Echo du Monde Savant, no. 45, Juin L5, 
184S, col, 1069. 

Mitch. 



Phaetornis Guy, Bonap. 
Trochilus apicalis, Licht., Tsch. 



M 



Phaetornis apicalis^ Bonap. 



Humm 



Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 14 ; Id. Troch. Enum. p. 12. 
^Guyornis typus^ Bonap. Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1854, p. 249. 
^Toxoteuches Guyi^ Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 11. 

Habitat, Trinidad. 
29. Phaethornis EMiLiiE. 

Trochilus Eniilice, Bourc. 
'^Phcetornis Emili<B, Gray & Mitch. Gen. of Birds, vol. i. p. 104, 
PhcBtornis^ sp. 7 ; Bonap. Consp. Gen. Av. vol. i. p. 68, Phae- 
tornis^ sp. 7- 

Habitat. New Granada. 

On reference to my account of P. Guyi^ it will be seen that I 
questioned whether the Trochilus Emilice of M, Bourcier was not 
identical with that species; but having since seen a great number 
of examples of the latter from Bogota, and of the former from 
Trinidad, I find that each possesses certain characters by which 
an experienced ornithologist would be able at once to say whence 
specimens of either had been received. The Andean bird, when 
fully adult, is rather larger in size, is much darker in general ap- 
pearance, has the chin stripes less conspicuous, the apical two- 
thirds of the tail-feathers blacker, and their basal third and the 
upper tail-coverts bluish green instead of pure green. The differ- 
ences in the two birds are, in fact, precisely analogous to those which 



iffi 



Vol. I. Pi. XXVII 



30. Pha^ethornis Yaruqui 

Trochilus Yaruqui, Bourc. 
"^Phaethornis Yarugui, Reichenb- Aufz. der CoL p. 14; Id. Troch 

Enum. p. 12. 
"^Guyornis Yarugui, Bonap. Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1854, p. 249, 



I 



t ■ 



1.^ 



I 1 






I 



- * c-F 



•M 



III. . 



I 



4-5 



M 



Habitat 



a 



Upper mandible black; lower deep red with a black tip; legs 
and feet reddish."— .Praser-, Proc. of Zool. Soc. part 28, p. i^4<. 

As the last three species advance in age their tails become shorter, 
their feathers broader, and the white fringing of the lateral ones 
almost obsolete. 



Vol. I. PI. XXVIII. 



r ^ 

31. Phaethornis superciliosus. 

Phaethornis Pretrei . . • • / • • • 
"^Polytmus Cayanensis longicauduSy Briss. Orn. torn. iii. p. 686, 13, 

tab. 35. fig. 5. T u T /I 

^Trochilus superciliosus, Linn, Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 139 ; Lath, ind. 
Orn.tom.i.D.302: Wied, Beitr.tom.iv.p.ll6 ; ^^Licht. Nordm. 



Erm. Reis. Atl. p. 2, 16. 



Pretrei, Delatt. et Less. Rev. Zool. 1839, p. 20. 
brasiliensis, Cab. in Schomb. Reis. Guian. torn. in. 

*Ph(Btornis Pretrei, Gray, Gen. of Birds, vol. i. p. 104, Phcetorms, 
sp. 16, pi. 35 ; Bonap. Consp. Gen. Av. torn. i. p. 68, Phatornis, 



p. 708. 



sp. 15. 



iffinis, Natt. in Mus 
f affinis, Pelzeln, Sit 



Mus 



Habitat 



As in the case of P.malaris, the above list of synonyms is given 
on the authority of Dr. Cabanis. 



Mitch 



i 

32. Phaethornis Augusti ...-.• Vol. I. PI. XXIX. 

Trochilus Augusti, Bourc. 
T>h^fn't*7ii!i Augusta, Gray & 

augusti, Bonap. 

Phaetornis augustae, Bonap. tj t^ u 

^Phaethornis Augusti, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 14 ; Id. Iroch. 

Enum. p. 12. . 
Habitat. Venezuela. 



33. Phaethornis squalidus 
Phaethornis intermedins . 



, , . Vol. L PL XXX 



* Trochilus squalidus, "Natt." Temm. P]- C?,^- ^20. fig. 1 ; Les^^^ 
Man. d'Orn. p. 289 ; Id. Hist. Nat. des Col p. 40, pi. 8 ; Id 
Traits d'Orn. p. 289; Jard. Nat. Lib. Humming-Birds, vol. u 

p. 125. 
* [ 1 intermedius, Less. Troch. p. 65, pi. 19 ; Jard. Nat. Lib 

Humming-Birds, vol. ii. p. 123. 

leucophrysy " Licht." Nordm. Erm. Jleis. Atl. p. 2, 18. 



I 

4 



' n ■ ^ 







,1 



i ■ 



: n 



1! 



: ft 



' J 



1 ! 



t r. 






46 



"^ Phcethornis squalidus, Jard. Nat. Lib. Humming-Birds, vol. ii. 
p. 151 ; Bonap. Consp. Gen. Av. torn. i. p. 68, sp. 11 ; Burra. 



* 



Th. Bras. torn. ii. p. 325. 



, intermedins, Jard. Nat. Lib. Humming-Birds, vol. ii. 

'p. 104, sp. 8 ; 



Mitch 



V 1 



* 



Bonap. Consp. Gen. Av. torn. i. p. 67, Phaetornis, sp. 8. 



M 



sp. 4. 



* 



sp. 10. 



brasiliensis, Gray & Mitch. Gen. of Birds, vol. i. p. 104, 



^Ptyonornis intermedia^ Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 14 ; Id. Troch. 



Enum. p. 12, 



Mus 



Habitat 

We nov 




of Pygmornis* As the term implies, these birds are all extremely 
diminutive; so minute, indeed, are they, that, if subjected to the 
balance, their tiny bodies must be weighed by grains. That these 
mites of birds perform some important office in the scale of nature 
is certain, from the number both of species and individuals: they 
are very widely dispersed over every part of the great country which 
is inhabited by this extensive family of birds ; with the exception of 
one species, however (the P. Adolphi), they all fly to the southward 
of the Isthmus of Panama. How minute must be the insects taken 
by these diminutive birds, how perfect must be their vision, and how 
delicately sensitive must be their tongues ! 

The only external difference between the sexes consists in the 
Ipnger and more graduated tails of the females ; in colour they are 
as nearly alike as possible. 

34. Pygmornis Longuemareus. 
• Phaethornis Longuemareus - .; . . . Vol. I. PL XXXI. 

Trochilus Longuemareus, Less. 

PhcEiornis Longuemareus, Gray & 

Phaetornis Longuemareus^ Bonap. 

Phaethornis Longuemari^ Reich. 
'^Trochilus Longuemareus, Jard. Nat. Lib. Humming-Birds, vol. ii. 

p. 126 ; Cab. in Schomb. Reis. Guian. tom. iii. p. 709. 
^Phmthornis Longuemareus, Jard. Nat. Lib. vol. ii. p. 151.^ 
^Pygmornis Longuemarei, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 7, 



M 



the eastern part of 



note. 
Habitat. Cayenne, Guiana, Trinidad, and 
Venezuela. 

S5. Pygmornis Amaura. 

Phaethornis Amaura • , Vol. L PI. XXXIL 

Pygmornis Amaura, Bourc. 

. PhcBthornis atrimentalis, Lawr. 

"^Pygmornis amaura. Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 7, note. 

Habitat. Banks of the River Napo. 



I 



I 



1 

I 



/ 



47 



36, Pygmornis AsPASiJE, 
. Pliaethornis viridicaudata, Gould 



\ -> 



Vol. I. PI. XXXIIL 



"*" Trochilus Aspasicd, Bourc. et Muls. Ann., de la Soc. Lmn. de 

Lyon, torn. iii. 1856. 
^Phaetkornis viridicaudata ^ Gould, Proc. of Zool. Soc. 1857, p. 14- 
^Trochihis {Polytmus) pygma^us, Tschudi, Consp. p. 36 ; Id. Faun. 

Per. p. 243. 



M 



note. 
Habitat. Brazil and Peru. 

1 - - 4 

37. Pygmornis zonura, Gould, 
Phaethornis zonura, Gould . 
Habitat. Peru. 



Vol. I. PL XXXIV 



38. Pygmornis Apolphi, 
Phaethornis Adolphi, Bourc. 

Phaethornis Adolphi^ Bourc. 
Pygmornis Adolphi', Parzudaki. 



Vol. I. PI. XXXV 



Adolph 
Theil iii. p. 7j note. 



MSS." Cab. 



Mus 



Habitat 



u 



Mr 



about Yzabal, but the density of the under growth renders it ex- 
tremely difficult to obtain a shot at so small and active an object. 
The bird is by no means shy, and takes but little notice of an ob- 
server — even searching the flowers almost within arm's reach, for the 
insects and honey therein contained. In movement it is extremely 
elegant and graceful, and, flitting from flower to flower^ shows its 
beautifully formed tail conspicuously in every motion. Like all 
others of its family, it selects a small twig for its perch, giving pre- 
ference to a dead one. While at rest it trims its feathers dexter- 
ously with its bill, which every now and then it cleans by rubbing 
it fiVst on one side and then on the other of the twig on which it 

stands."-.^ /izV vol. i. p. 127. 

.:.....■■•■■■■■'- 

39. Pygmornis griseogularis, Gould. 
' Phaethornis griseogularis, Gould , . . 
* Pygmornis griseigularis, Cab. et Hein.Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p- 8. 
Z?a5to<. New Granada; and Ecuador? 

^ r " ~ 

In my description of this species I have inadvertently stated that 
it has a crescent of black across the breast, which is not the case. 

Mr. Bell of New York informs me that he has heard the " little 
Pygmornis of Panama," by which I believe the present bird is 
intended, " sing beautifully, the notes forming a soft, shrill, and 
pretty song." 

E 2 



t' 



Vol. I. PI. XXXVI. 



1^ 



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48 



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I . 



40. Pygmornis striigularis, Gould. 



Phaethornis striigularis, Gould 



Vol. 1. PI. XXXVII. 



Mus 



Habitat. New Granada. 

41. Pygmornis Idali^. 
Phaethornis obscura, Gould 



Vol. I. PI. XXXVIII. 



^Trocfdlus IdalicB^ Bourc. et Muls. Ann. de la Soc. Linn, de Lyon, 

torn. iii. 1856. 
^Ph(Ethornis obscura, Gould, Proc. of Zool. Soc. 1857, p. 14. 
^Pygmornis obscura^ Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theiliii. p. 7, note. 

3 

Habitat. Brazil. 

42. Pygmornis nigricinctus. 

r 

Phaethornis nigricinctus, Lawr. . Vol. L PI. XXXIX. fig. 1. 

Phaethornis nigricinctus^ Lawr. 
^Pygmornis nigricinctay Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein.Theil iii. p. 7, note. 

Habitat. The forests bordering the upper part of the River 

Amazon. 

43. Pygmornis Episcopus, Gould. 

Phaethornis Episcopus, Gould . 



Vol. L PL XXXIX. fig. 2 



* 



Phaethornis Episcopus^ Gould. 
^Pygmornis episcopus^ Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 7, note. 

Habitat British Guiana. 

44. Pygmornis rufiventris. 

^Brin blancjeune age, Vieill. Ois. Dor. torn. i. p. 39, pi. 19. 

^ Trochilus rujigaster, Vieill. Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. torn. vii. 



* 



p. 357; Id. Enc. Meth. Orn. part ii. p. 551. 



DavidianuSy Less, Troch. p. 50, pi. 13 ; Jard. Nat. Lib. 



Humming-Birds, vol. ii. p. 127. 



^Phcsthornis Davidianus, Jard. Nat. Lib. Humming-Birds, vol. ii. 



* 



p. 151 ; Gray & Mitch. Gen. of Birds, vol. i. p. 108, sp. 13. 



* 



sp. 12. 



rufigaster. Gray & Mitch. Gen. of Birds, vol. i. p. 108, 

pygmcBUs, Cab. in Schomb. Reis. Guian. torn. iii. p. 708. 
*Eremita Davidianus, Reicfienb. Aufz. der Col. p. 14; Id. Troch. 

Enum. p. 11. 
^Pygmornis Davidianus, Bonap. Rev, et Mag. de Zool. 1 854, p. 250. 
* — rufiventris, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 7, note. 

, ' r 

Habitut. Cayenne. 

The above list of synonyms are given on the authority of Dr. 
Cabanis : it is just possible that they may refer to the female of my 
P. Episcopus \ but I fear that this cannot at present be satisfactorily 
determined. 



i^ 



I 



■■ tl 



f 




W- 






i 



I 




f 



49 



45. Pygmornis Eremita, Gould. 
Phaethornis Eremita, Gould . » 

Trochilus Srasiliensis, Temm. 

— — r ufig aster ^ Less. 

PhcBtornis rujigastevy Gray & Mitch 
Phaethornis Eremita^ Gould. 
^Trochilus Brasiliensis, Less. 
Traited'Orn.p. 289. 



. VoL L PL XL 



Man 



torn. ii. p. 75; Id. 



i - -^ 



-^i 4 



ijigaster 

p. 83, pi. 4. .XT 

*Phcethornis rufig aster, Jard. Nat. Lib. Hu 

p. 151 ; Burm. Th. Bras. torn. ii. p. 326. 
^'PhYPtnrntR. sn.. Grav & Mitch. Gen. of Birds 



Phae 



tornis, sp. 12. 
*Erem.ita rujigaster, Reichenb. Aufz. der 

Enum. p. 11. , 

*Pygmornis rujigaster, Bonap. Rev. et Mag 
* eremita. Cab. et Hein. Mus. H 

Habitat. Northern Brazil, Bahla, the banks 

■ V r 

r 

46. Pygmornis pyoMiEA. 



VoL I. PI. XLI. 



Phaethornis pygmseus 

Trochilus pygmceus, Spix. 
Phaetornis pygmaus, Bonap. 
*Trochilus Brasiliensis, Wied, Beitr. torn. iv. p. II 

* pygmceus, Burm. Th. Bras. torn. ii. p. 32 

* Eremita pygmaeits, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 14; Id. Troch. 

* Pygmornis pygmaea, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 6. 
Habitat. South-eastern Brazil. 






Subfamily IL TROCHILlNiE. 

I commence the second volume with the 




eri^ a group 



of Humming -Birds distinguished by their great size, by the diver- 



sitv of their colouring, and by the broad dilated shafts of the first 
three primaries or quill-feathers of the males. The members of this 
group are spread over nearly the whole of the temperate regions of 
America, from Mexico to the equator, including Brazil, Guiana, 
Venezuela, and some of the West Indian Islands. 

This section of the TrocMlidcB coniprises several very distinct 
forms :-one remarkable for a deeply forked tad, for the rich blue 
colouring of the body, and for the simil^ity m4he outw^^^ appear- 
ance of the sexes; 'another for having the taTcuneate; while a 
third, comprising six or seven species, is distinguished by a very 
amp4 and rounded tail. It is for tl.e last form alone that I have 
retained the generic appellation of Campylopterus, applying that of 



^BWnl 



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mm 



lU 



tfe- 




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50 

Eupetomena to the deeply forked-tailed bird macroura, Spheno- 
proctus to the cuneate-tailed Pampa, and Phceochroa to the Cw- 
vieri and the allied Roberti^ which may be considered as aberrant, 
the broad shafts of the primaries (the principal characteristic of the 
gronp) being but slightly developed. These birds lead on to Aphan- 
tochroa. 

Genus Eupetomena, Gould. 



t ' 



(Ev, bene, et ireToiievT]^ volans.) 

■ Generic characters. * 

Male.-^Bill longer than the head, and slightly arched; wings 
moderate ; shafts of the first two or three primaries bowed, dilated 
and flattened ; tail long and deeply forked ; tarsi partially clothed ; 
y^e? rather small ; hind toe shorter than the middle toe. 
' Female.' — Similar to the male in plumage. 

47« Eupetomena macroura. 

Eupetomena hirundinacea ♦ 

r 

Trochilus macrourus, Gmel.j Licht. 



Vol. II. PI. XLIL 



K 



fi 



Mellisuga Cayanensis caudd bifurcd, Ray, Willughb., Briss. 
Ornismya hirundinacea^ Less. 
Polytmus macrouruSy Gray & Mitch. 
^Prognornis macroura^ Reichenb. Aufz. der CoL, p. 1 1 ; Id. Troch. 

Enum. p. 9, pi. 805. figs. 4873-75. 
^Eupetomena macroura^ Bonap. Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1854-, p. 254. 
^Cynanthus macrourus^ Jard. Nat. Lib. Humming-Birds, vol. ii. 



p. 149. 



Mus. 

tMae 



Habitat, 



M. Deville states that " this Humming-Bird sometimes accom- 
panies the Chrysolampis moschitus into the fields, but generally 
prefers the neighbourhood of the river-banks, where the silky tufts 
of the Ingce and the blossoms of the numerous Lianes suffice for 
its wants. It flies very rapidly, has a shrill cry, and is so fearless 
that it will settle within a few feet of the object which has alarmed 
it. It is found throughout the whole of Brazil all the year round, 
but appears to be most numerous in August, September, and 
October." 

r 

Genus Sphenoproctus, Cab. 

Of this form there are evidently two species — one inhabiting 
Mexico, and the other Guatemala. It has always been considered 
by Trochilidists that the 15th Plate of the Supplement to * Lesson's 
Histoire Naturelle des Oiseaux-mouches ' represents one or other 
of them, but that he was in error in giving the interior of La Plata 
as its habitat. I have not been able to see Lesson's type ; otherwise 
I could have ascertained to which of the two it has reference, or 
whether it is different from both. My figures were taken from 




1 



I 

1 



h . 



I 



A 






I 






) 



1 . 



51 



Guatemalan specimens, and Lesson's plate would appear to have 
been taken from an example procured in the same country ; con- 
sequently the term Pampa must be retamed for the Guatemalan 
bi?d, while for the largef and stouter Mexican birds we must use 
Lichtensteiu's name curvipennis. 



Vol. II. PI. XLIII. 



48. Sphenoproctus Pampa. 
Campylopterus Pampa, Less. . . • • • 

Ornismya Pampa, Less. 
Polytmus pampa, Gv^y &c M\ic\i. 

Campylopterus pampa, Less., Bonap., Jard. 
Pampa campyloptera,B.e\c\ien\i. 
* Campylopterus pampa, Sclat. & Salv. Ibis, vol. i. p. 127 ; Salv 

Ibis, vol. ii. p. 260. 
Habitat. Guatemala- 

49. Sphenoproctus curvipennis. 

*TrnrhilMs curvioennis, Licht. Preis-Verz. Mex. Thier. v. Deppe & 



(Sept. 1830) 



A 



Sphenoproctus pampa. Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hem. Theil lu. p. 11. 
* Campylopterus pampa, Montes de Oca in Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phi'lad. 1860, p- 551. 

Habitat. Mexico. 

This species differs from the preceding in its much larger size, 

and in the paler tint of its blue crown. t i " a,.c M 

" The people of Coantepec, nine miles from Jalapa, says M. 
Montes de Oca, « give to this species the name of Chupa-miHofan. 
danguero, or Fandango Myrtle-sucker apparently because it has a 
somewhat musical voice. It is the only Humming-Bird with vvh ch 
1 am acquainted whose notes are sufficient to recognise it by in the 
woods : though rather monotonous, they are very pleasing. It is 
occasionally found in the neighbourhood of Jalapa, but it is more 
abundant at Coantepec. It inhabits the forest in the winter season, 
and generally feeds on the flowers of the high bushes called Asa- 
saretos, which are then in full bloom, and densely covered with 
smooth emerald-green leaves, amongst which it is very difficult to 
be detected. Very few are to be seen in summer time. 



Genus Campylopterus, ^Si^m??*. 



50. Campylopterus lazulus 

Trochilus lazulus, Vieill. 



Vol. II. PI. XLIV. 



Mellisug 



•falcatus 



Campylopterus lazulus, Bonap. 
Tceniopterns lazulus, Reichenb. 



* 



pi. 36. 



falcata 



Campylopterus ktzulul, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 13. 



*1t 






Vi. 



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52 

Habitat Venezuela, the hilly parts of New Granada generally, 
and Ecuador, from which latter country I have received spe- 
cimens through Professor Jameson, collected near Barza. 



51. Campyjlopterus hemileucurus. 

Carapylopterus Delattrei •••.*.- 

Ornismya (^Campylopterusy De Lattre^ Less. 
Mellisvga De Lattre% Gray & Mitch. 
Campylopterus delattre^ Bonap. 
delattrii, Bonap. 



Vol. IL PL XLV. 



Delattrei^ Reichenb. 



^Trochilus hemileucurus^ Licht. Preis-Verz. Mex. Thier. v. Deppe 

& Schiede (Sept. 1830), no. 33. 
^Campylopterus hemileucurus^ Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. 



*. 



p. 13. 



De Lattreiy Monies de Oca in Proc. Acad. Nat. 



Sci. Philad. 1860, p. 47. 
Habitat. Mexico and Guatemala. 



Mr 



" makes it one of the most conspicuous when on the wing. It is 
common at Coban, feeding among the Salvice ; it is said also to be 
found in the Volcan de Fuego, but I have not met with it. The 
females of this species are most abundant, their ratio to the males 



being as five to two. It is not nearly so shy 




ifi 



Ibis, vol. ii. p. 260. 

[umming Bird/' says M. Montes de Oca, " is 
generally known in Mexico by the name of Chupa-mirto real 



azuL 



M 



rtle-sucker. It arrives in the vicinity of 
Jalapa, Coantepec. and Orizaba in considerable numbers during the 
months of Oetobifer and November, and is mostly found feeding 
from a plant called Masapan, between the hours of nine and one 
o'clock. During this time it is seldom seen to alight, and then only 
for a very short time in any one place, but is constantly on the 
wing, flitting from flower to flower, describing the segment of a 
circle in its flight, and sometimes almost touching the ground. For 
the remainder of the day very few are to be seen, and I think it 
probable that they visit the woods for certain kinds of mosquitoes, 
with which I have often found their stomachs well filled. 

" The pugnacity of this species is very remarkable. It 
seldom that two males meet without an aerial battle, 
commences with a sharp choleric shriek, after which, with dilated 
throats, the feathers of the whole of their bodies erected on end, 
and their tails outspread, they begin to fight with their bills and 
wings, and the least powerful soon falls to the ground or flies away. 
I have never known one of these battles last longer than about ten 
seconds; and in the specimens I have had under my notice in cages, 
their fighting has mostly ended in the splitting of the tongue of one 
of the two, which then surely dies from being unable to feed/' 



is very 
The contest 



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53 



Vol. IL PI. XLVL 



52. CAMPyLOPTERUS ENSIPENNIS 

Trochilus ensipennis^ Swains. 

Campylopterus ensipennis^ Less., Jard., Bonap.j Reichenb. 

Polytmus ensipennisy Gray & Mitch. 
/^Trochilus latipennis, Jard. Nat. Lib. Humming-Birds, vol. i. 

p. 116, pi. 34. 

"^Campylopterus latipennis^ Jard. ib. p. 153. 

*. 



ensipennisy Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 12 



Habitat 



On reference to my account of Campylopterus ViUavicencioy it 
will be seen that I was inclined to believe the C. splenderts of M. 
Lawrence to be identical with that bird; but on reconsidering the 
matter, and observing how numerous and how closely allied are the 
species of the genus Campylopterus^ I now think it probable that 



it is really distinct. The throat in C. splendens is beautiful blue, 



and the abdomen washed with green ; while in C. VillavicenciOy the 
whole of the under surface is pure grey. Both these birds have 
fine metallic-green crowns, which circumstance induced me to 
believe that they were opposite sexes of one and the same species, 
and it is possible that they may yet prove to be so ; but for the 
present I shall regard them as distinct. 

4 

53. Campylopterus sflenx>ens, Lawr. . Vol. IL PI. XLVIL 

(Upper fig.) 

r 

^Campylopterus splendens^ Lawr. in Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New 
York, vol. vi. p. 262. 
Habitat The forests between the upper waters of the Napo and 
Quito. 

54. Campylopterus Villavicencio 




Trochilus Villaviscensio, Bourc. 
Heliomaster Villaviscensio ^ Reichenb. 
Heliomastes villavisencioy Bonap. 

Habitat. Forests bordering the Rio Napo in Ecuador. 



Vol. IL PI. XLVIL 

(Lower fig.) 



55. Campylopterus LATiPENNis. 



Vol. IL PI. XLVIIL 



Trochilus campylopterus, Gmel., Valenc, Drapiez. 

cinereus^ Gmel., Lath. 
largipennisy Bodd. 



latipennis, Lath., Vieill., Swains., Jard. 



Mitch 



* 



Ornismya latipennis, Less. r> • i u 

Campylopterus latipennis, Swains., Jard., Bonap., Less., Keiehenb. 
* Campylopterus latipennis, Cab. in Schornb. Reis. Guian. torn. iii. 



* 



p. 709. 



Mu 



> 



Habitat 



In my account of C. latipennis I have stated my belief that 



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The bill is a little longer than that of C. lati- 



54; 

r 

another species of that particular form would be found to inhabit 
Ecuador, as I have in my collection a specimen received direct 
from Quito which does not accord with C. latipennis nor with the bird 
I have called C, obscurus. The tipping of the two or three outer 
tail-feathers of this Ecuadorian bird is about a quarter of an inch 
in length. Judging from the form of the shafts of the primaries, it 
appears to be a female or a young male ; and had I not seen very 
many specimens of C latipennis^ I should have supposed it to be- 
long to that species. ""' ' '" ' i. i ^ ,1.1,^^, 

pennis^ and so also are the wings; as in that species, all the under 
surface is pure grey, while the upper part of the body is uniform 
green. I believe that two specimens from the same country are in 
the Loddigesian collection. Provisionally, I propose for this bird 
the name of C ^quatorialis. 

■ 

5Q* Campylopterus ^quatorialis, Gould. 

r 

HabitaL The neighbourhood of Quito. 

57. Campylopterus obscurus, Gould 

Campylopterus obscurus^ Gould, Bonap., Reichenb. 
Polytmus obscurus^ Gray & Mitch; 



Vol. IL PL XLIX 



. Vol. ILPl. L 



Habitat. Forests bordering the Lower Amazon. 

J h 

58. Campylopterus rufus, Less 

Campylopterus rufus^ Less., Delatt., Bonap. 
, Polytmus rufus^ Gray & Mitch. 

^Platystylopterus rufus, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 11; Id. Troch. 
Enum. p. 8, pi. 788. figs. 4834-35, 

Habitat. Guatemala. 

, Mr. Salvin noticed that, during the first season of his residence in 
Guatemala, this species was so scarce at Duenasthat he was induced 
to believe it to be an inhabitant of a higher district, especially as it 
was more numerous about Atitlan. The next year it was just as 
abundant, and, instead of being one of the rarest, was one of the 
most familiar species. He adds that the flowers of the Banana 
(Musa) were much resorted to by this bird. 



59. Campylopterus hyperythrus. Cab.. 



Vol. n. PI. LL 



^Campylopterus hyperythrus, Cab. in Schomb. Reis. Guian. torn. iii. 



p. 709. 

^Platystylopterus hyperythrus, Reichenb. Autz 
K^ Id. Troch. Enum. p. 8, pi. 789. figs. 4836-38. 



der Col. p. 11 ; 



Habitat. 1 

Guiana. 



Mountai 



Mus.Hein.Theiliii. p. 13. 
the interior of British 



Genus Fh^ochroa, Gould. 

($aios, fuscus, et Xpoa, color.) 



Generic characters. 

Male. — Pill longer than the head, and slightly arched; tvings 



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large; the shafts of the first and second primaries slightly dilated ; 
tail moderately long and square, or very slightly rounded ; tarsi par- 
tially clothed^; /ee/ rather large; hind toe shorter than the middle 
toe ; clatvs short. 

60. Phjeochroa Cuvieri. 



Vol. IL PI. LII 



Vol. IL PL LIIL 



Campylopterus Cuvieri • • 

Trochilus Cuvierii^ Delatt. et Bourc. 
Polytmus Cuvieriy Gray & Mitch. 
Campylopterus Cuvieri^ Bonap., Reichenb. 
Aphantochroa Cuvieri^ Bonap., Reichenb. 
^ Aphantochroa Cuvieri^ Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hei 

Habitat. Venezuela, New Granada, Panama, ai 

•• I 

61. Ph^eochroa Roberti • . 

"^ Aphantochroa Rohertiy Salv. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1861, p. 203. 

Habitat. Vera Paz Mountains in Guatemala. 

VTe next arrive at a genus characterized by a very sombre style of 
colouring. It will be seen that I have proposed the generic appella- 
tion oi Aphantochroa for the Trochilus cirrhochloris of Vieillot. I have 
since added another species to this form under the name A, gularis. 
Up to the present moment (July 1 86 1 ) no second specimen of this bird 
has been sent to Europe : when we receive others, it may be neces- 
sary to institute a still further subdivision ; but at present I do not 
know of any genus in which the bird could be more correctly placed 
than the one to which I have assigned it. 

Genus Aphantochroa, Gould. 

("A^avros, obscurus, et xpoa^ color,) 

Generic characters. 

Male, — Bill stout, rather longer than the head, and slightly 
arched ; wings broad and moderately long ; tail square and mode- 
rately large ; tarsi clothed ; hind toe rather short. 

Sexes alike in the sombre colouring of the plumage. 

62. Aphantochroa cirrhochloris ... Vol. II. PI. LIV. 

Trochilus cirrhochloris, Vieill. 

Ornismya simplex y Less. 

Polytmus cirrhochloris, Gray & Mitch. 

Trochilus campylostylus, Licht. 

Campylopterus cirrhochloris, Bonap., Jard. 
"^ Campylopterus campylostylus, Burm. Th. Bras. ii. p. 329. 2. 
"^Aphantochroa cirrochloris, Reich. Aufz. der Col. p. 15 ; Id. Troch. 
Pnnm r. 1 9 - C.^^h pf TTeiu. Mus. Hciu. Theil iii. p. 14. 



Habitat. Brazil. 
63. Aphantochroa gularis, Gould 

' Aphantochroa ? gularis, Gould. 
Habitat. Banks of the Napo. 



Vol. IL PI. LV. 



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56 
Genus Dolerisca, Cab. 

L 

The typical species of this form is the Trochilus fallax of M. Bour- 
cier, a bird distinguished by its tawny-coloured breast, and by the 
white tippings of its outer tail-feathers- I wish it to be understood 
that I do not include in this genus the albicollis or the chiono- 
gastevy which have been inadvertently figured as pertaining to it. 
At the same time were I to state that the genus is confined to a 
single species, I believe that I should be leading ornithologists into 
error ; for I have a specimen which, I think, will prove to belong to 
a second. The example in question, although bearing all the general 
characteristics of the T. fallax^ differs in some minor details, and I 
shall therefore provisionally propose for it the specific name of 



cervma. 



64-. DOLKRISCA FALLAX. 



H4 



Leucippus fallax 
Trochilus fallax ^ Bourc. 



Vol. IL PI. LVI 



(^Lampornis "t) fulviveniris^ Gould. 
Poly tmus fallax ^ Gray & Mitch. 
Leucippus fallax^ Bonap., Reichenb. 
Doleromyia fallax^ Bonap. 
^Dolerisca fallax y Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 6. 

Habitat. Venezuela. 

r 

Q5. Dolerisca cervina, Gould. 

Habitat. Unknown. 

This new species is larger than the fallax in all its admeasure- 
ments, and has a lesser amount of white on the tips of the outer 



tail-feathers. 



fallax 



webs of the apical portion of each of the three outer feathers, while 
in the cervina the inner webs only are thus marked; these marks 
are about three-eighths of an inch long on the outer feather, a 
quarter of an inch on the next, and but a little more than an eighth 
on the third; the upper mandible in cervina is reddish brown, while 



fallax 



The habitat of the latter is well 



known to be Venezuela, but that of the former has yet to be ascer- 



tained. 

Genus Urochroa, Gould, 

*- 

(Ovpa, Cauda, et X9^'^^^ color,) 

w - 

Generic characters. 

Male. — Bill lengthened and straight, or slightly arched; wings 
moderately long and pointed; tail square; tarsi partly clothed; 
hind toe as long as the middle toe ; nails short. 

Female. — Unknown. 

Of this remarkable form only one species is at present known. 

66. Urochroa Bougueri Vol. II. PI. LVII. 

e 

Trochilus Bougueri, Bourc. 



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57 



Cceligena bouffueriy Bonap. 

Coeligena Bouguieri, Reichenb. ^ 

Urochroa bougieri, Sclat. Proc. Zool. Soc. part 28. p. 95. 

Habitat. Nanegal, in Ecuador. ^ 

Genus Sternoclyta, Gould. 

(Srepi^or, pectus, et KkvToSy insignis.) 

Generic characters. u 

Male.— Bill unusually large, rather arched, and much longer than 
the head ; wings ample ; tail moderate and rounded ; tarsi partly 
clothed ; feet moderate ; throat and breast luminous. 
Female. — Unadorned. • 

Three outer tail-feathers tipped with white in both sexes. 

67. Sternoclyta cyaneipecttjs, Gould . Vol. II. PI. LVIII. 

Trochilus {Lampornis) cganopectus, Gould. 
Sternoclyta cyanopectus^ Gould. 
Campylopterus cyanipectuSy Bonap. 
Lampornis cyanopectus, Bonap. 

Scepiopterus cyanopectus, Reichenb. ^ ^ 

^Polyimus cyanopectus, Gray & Mitch. Gen. of Birds, vol. i. p. 108. 



Polytmus, sp. 22. 



Mus 



note. ., 

- ■ 

Habitat. The province of La Guayra in Venezuela. 

We now proceed to the genera Belattria, Coeligena^ Lamprolcema, 
Eugenes, and their allies, all of which are peculiar to Central America ; 
at least, so far as is yet known, none of them have been found to the 
southward of the Isthmus ; even Veragua, so far as we are aware, i& 

not tenanted by any one of them. ^ \ 

It may be considered by some ornithologists that here the sub- 
division of genera has been carried too far ; but having once broken 
ground, and separated the old genus Trochilus yit would be inconsistent 
to place together in one genus all the members of this Central Ame- 
rican group of Humming-Birds ; for while a certain degree of unity 
pervades them, no generic character could be found which would be 
applicable to the whole. This instance will serve most efficiently to 
illustrate the great diversity of closely allied forms which occur in 
the great family of Humming-Birds. We frequently find groups, 
like the present, so diversified that nearly every species demands 
a generic title, while in such genera as Thalurania, Petasophora, and 
Aglceactis, the species, though as distmct as they well can be, possess 
characters common to all. 
I commence with the 



Genus Eugenes, Gould. 



Generic characters. 



(Evyen/s, nobilis.) 



I M 



Male.— Bill straight, longer than the head ; wings long and 



.11' 



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pointed ; tail moderate and very slightly forked ; tarsi clothed ; 
feet rather small ; hind toe about equal in length to the middle one ; 
crown and throat luminous. . 
Female, — Unadorned. 

Of this form only one species is known ; it is a native of Guate- 
mala and Southern Mexico, and is distinguished from its allies by 
the gorgeous colouring of its crown and breast. It is in the posses- 
sion of a luminous crown, and other characters, that this bird differs 
from that immediately following. 



68. Eugenes fulgens. 



Vol. II. PL LIX. 



^ * 



i 

Trochilus fulgens, Swains. 
Ornism^a Rivolii, hesB. 
Trochilus Rivoliiy Jsind. 
M ellisug a fulgens y Gray & Mitch. 
Delattria fulgens y Bonap. 
Cceligena fulgens y Bonap. 
Gceligena fulgens y Reichenb. 
^ Cceligena fulgens y^.€\Qki^\:^. Troch. Enum. p. 3, pi. 686. figs. 4513 
14. 

"^Eugenes fulgens yCdh. et Hein. Mus. Hein, Theil iii. p. 20. 
^Trochilus melanogaster, Licht. in Mus. Berlin. 
* — Rivoliy Swains. Birds of Brazil, pi. 76. 

Habitat. Mexico and Guatemala. * 



This 



Mr. Salvin, "is rare at Cohan. 



The 



species, says 

western boundary of the Llano of Duenas is the spot where I have 
found it in the greatest numbers ; indeed, with two exceptions, I 
have never met with it elsewhere. It is a most pugnacious bird. 
Many a time have I thought to secure a fine male, which I had 
perhaps been following from tree to tree, and had at last seen 
quietly perched on a leafless twig, when my deadly intention has 
been anticipated by one less so in fact, but to all appearance equally 
so in will. Another Humming-Bird rushes in, knocks the one I 
covet off his perch, and the two go fighting and screaming away at 
a pace hardly to be followed by the eye. Another time this flying 
fight is sustained in mid air, the beUigerents mounting higher and 
higher, till the one worsted in battle darts away, seeking shelter, 
followed by the victor, who never relinquishes the pursuit till the 
vanquished, by doubling and hiding, succeeds in making his escape. 
These fierce raids are not waged alone between members of the same 



species 



fulgens 



meriliiy and, animated by no high-souled generosity, scruples not to 
tilt with the little Trochilus colubris. I know of hardly any species 
that shows itself more briUiantly than this when on the wing ; yet it 
is not to the midday sun that it exhibits its splendour. "When the 
southerly wind brings clouds and driving mist between the volcanos 
of Agua and Fuego, and all is as in a November fog in England, 
except that the yellow element is wanting, then it is that Eugenes 
fulgens appears in numbers ; Amazilia Devilleiy instead of a few 
scattered birds, is to be seen in every tree, and Trochilus colubris in 



M 



1 



I 



I 




^ 



1 



59 

great abundance : such animation awakes in Humming-Bird life as 
would hardly be credited by one who had passed the same spot an 
hour or two before; and the flying to and fro, the hunimmg of 
wings, the momentary and prolonged contests, and the incessant 
battle-cries seem almost enough for a time to turn the head of a lover 
of these things. I have fifteen males from Duenas to one female. 

Ibis, vol. ii. p. 261. i r, j • 

Following the Eugenes fulgens is the softly coloured Belattria 
Clemenciae of my work, the proper name of which is Coeligem Cle- 
mencies, it being the type of the 

i 

Genus Cceligena, Less. 
69. CcKLiGENA Clemenci^, Less, 

Delattria Clemencias • » 

Ornismya ClemencicBy Less. 
Lampornis Clemencice, Less. 
Coeligena Clemencire^ Less. 
MelUsuga ClemencicBy Gray & Mitch. 
Belattria clemencicBy Bonap. 
Lampornis clemenciai Bonap. 
Coeligena ClemencicBy Reichenb. 
"^ Campy lopter us Clemencice, Jard. Nat. Lib. Humming-Birds, vol.ii. 

p. 154. 
"^TrocJiilus lucidus, Licbt. in Mus, of Berhu. 
^Codligena Clemenciee, Reichenb. Troch.Enum. p. 3, pi. 687. %. 45 1 6 ; 
Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 15. 
Habitat. Mexico, where it is far from common. 



Vol. II. PI. LX. 



The 



Genus LAMPROLiEMA, Reichenb. 



IH 



was instituted for the truly beautiful bird known as De Rham's 
Garnet. 

■ n 

1 
r 

70. Lamprol^ma Rhami Vol. II. PL LXI. 

Ornismya Bhami, Less. 
' Ornismia Bhami, Delatt. et Less. 
MelUsuga Bhami, Gray & Mitch. 
' Lampornis rhami, Bonap. 
: Delattria rhami^ Bonap.^ 
Lamprolaima Bhami, Reichenb. 
Heliodoxa Bhami, Reichenb. 
"^Trochilusfulgidus, Licht. in Mus. of Berlin. 
"^ Lamprolcema Bhami, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 30. 

Habitat. Guatemala. 
We now come to the 

Genus Delattria, Bonap. 

r 

as restricted to the D. Henrici and JD. viridipallens, hoth of which 
species are natives of Guatemala. 



m 



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60 



71. Delattria Henrici 



. . Vol, IL PL LXIL 



Ornysmia Henricay Less, et Delatt. 
Topaz a Henrica^ Gray and Mitch, 
Delattria henricay Bonap. 



henriciy Bonap. 



^Lamprolaima Henrici, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 9. 
^Heliodoxa Henrici, Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. 6, pi. 742, figs. 
4701-3. 

Habitat. Guatemala. 



72. Delattria viridipallens 



Vol. II. PL LXIII 



!t Muls 
Mitch. 



Delattria viridi-p aliens, Bonap. 
Thaumantias viridipallens , Bonap. 
Agyrtria viridipallens, Reichenb. , 

Habitat, Guatemala. 

" Occurs, in company with Petasophora thalassina, on the Volcan 
de Fuego. Seems to keep entirely to the forests of the volcano. I 
have never met with it in the plains below. This is one of the com- 
monest species at Cohan. It may readily be recognized by the 
peculiar harshness of its note." — Salvin in ' Ibis,' vol. ii. pp, 40, 263. 

Near to these are the members of the 



Genus Heliop^dica, Gould. 

("HXios-, sol, et TraiZiKos, juvenilis.) 

Generic characters. 

„ Male, — Bill straight, and rather longer than the head ; head 
round, or with the feathers not advancing on the bill ; tail slightly 
rounded, the feathers broad ; tarsi clothed ; hind toe shorter than 
the middle one ; head and breast luminous. 
Female, — Unadorned. 

This genus comprises two species, both of which are natives of 
Central America, Mexico, and Southern California ; they are some- 
what diminutive in size, and possess the white mark behind the eye 
which occurs in most of the members of the genera of this section 
of the TrochilidcB. 

Ti. Heliop^dica melanotis .... Vol. IL PL LXIV. 

Ttochilusmelanotus, Swains. 
Ornismya Arsenni, Less. 

Trochilus leucotis, Vieill. ? 

Thaumatias leucotis, Bonap. ? - 

BasiUnna leucotis, Reichenb. ? 

'^Trochilus leucocrotaphus, Shaw (Cabanis). 

^ — '• cuculliger, Licht., Preis-Verz. Mex. Thier. v. Deppe & 

Schiede (Sept. 1830), no. 29, 31. 



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*Trochilus leucotis, Jard. Nat. Lib. Humming-Birds, vol. 

p. 144. ^ . 

*Hylocharis leucotis^ Gray & Mitch. Gen. of Birds, vol. i. p. 114, 

Hylocharis, sp. 28. 
Heliopedica melanofAs, Sclat. & Salv. Ibis, vol. i. P- 130. 
*Basilinna leucotis, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil m. p. 45. 
*Trochilus lucidus, Shaw? Gen. Zool. vol.viii. p. 327. 
*MeUisuffa lucida, Steph. Cont. of Shaw, Gen. Zool. vol. xiv. P- 24/. 
*Sapphiroma lucida, Salle, Liste des Oiseaux ; Sclat. Proc. Zool. 
Soc. part xxvi. p. 297, and part xxvii, p. 386. 

Habitat. Guatemala and Mexico. 

I observe that specimens from Guatemala are much smaller than 
those from Mexico ; but as the colouring and disposition of the 
markings are precisely similar, I regard them as races only. 

M. Salle', in his ' List of the Birds of Mexico,' has assigned to one 
of them the name of lucidus of Shaw, beheving it to be an earlier 
name for this bird than melanotis or Arsenni. This list has been 
followed by Dr. Sclater in his papers on the birds received by 
M. Salle from and collected by M. Boucard in Oaxaca; but as 
Shaw's description of lucidus, as well as the country in which it is 
said to be found (Paraguay), does not accord with that of melanotis, 
that name must sink into a synonym. 

" In some of the open savannahs scattered among the oak-forests 
of the Volcan de Fuego near Calderas, this species is not uncommon ; 
I have also frequently met with it in some of the * barrancos ' of the 
same volcano. The white mark running from the eye and the deep 
coral-red of the bill show conspicuously in the living bird. It is a 
very shy species.. A single specimen was shot near Cohan, and 
another was brought to me from the mountains of S. Cruz, near San 
Gerdnimo." — Salvin in Ibis, vol. ii. p. 271. 
74. Heliopedica Xantxjsi Vol. II. PI. LXV. 

Amazilia Zantusii, Lawr. 
Heliopcedica castaneocauda, Lawr. 

Habitat. Southern California. 

If I have extolled the members of the genus Cometes as being 
among the most gorgeous birds in existence with regard to the 
colouring of their tails, in like manner I may pronounce the TopazcB, 
which now claim our notice, to be as remarkable for their lustrous 

One of these beautiful birds, the Topaza Pella, is an inhabitant 
of Cayenne and the adjacent countries ; while another, the T. Pyra, 
flies in the forests of the Upper Rio Negro. 



Genus Topaza, G. E. Gray. 



15. Topaza Pella ...••••• 
Polytmus Surinamensis longicaudus ruber, 
Trochilus pella, Linn, et Auct. 



Vol. II. PI. LXVI 



Briss. 





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Falcinellus gutture viridi, Klein. 
Cerihia Surinaraensis^ Spalowsky. 

Colibri pella, Less. 

Topaza pella. Gray & Mitch., Bonap., Reich., Cabanis. 
^Trocliilm paradisem, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 189. 
^ Lampornis pella^ Jard. Nat. Lib. Humming-Birds, vol. ii. p. 155- 

Habitat. Cayenne and the adjacent countries. 

I find that specimens from Demerara have more-richly coloured 
throat-marks than those procured in Cayenne; there is also another 
variety distinguished by the great breadth of their lengthened tail- 
feathers ; but these differences are not of specific importance. 

76. ToPAZA Pyra 



Vol. IL PI. LXVIL 



( Topaz a) 



Topaza pyra^ Gray, Bonap., Reichenb., Cabanis. 
Habitat. The Upper Rio Negro. 

It is only at a comparatively recent date that we became ac- 
quainted with the birds for which I proposed the term Oreotrochilus. 
D'Orbigny introduced to us the O. Estellce and 0. Adelce ; while in 
1846 the fine 0. Chimborazo was brought to light through the 
researches of M. Bourcier ; in 1849 the same gentleman made us 
aware of the existence of the little less beautiful O. Pichincha^ and 
I, on my own part, had the pleasure of making known the O. mela- 
nogaster and O. leucopleurus. All these birds inhabit loftier eleva- 
tions than any other genus of Humming-Birds ; for they love to 
dwell in regions just beneath the line where the melting snows and 
the warmth of the sun call forth an alpine flora and a peculiar 
character of insect life ; and I question if any other insessorial birds 
seek their food at so great an elevation as the O. Chimborazo and 
O. Pichincha. As far as our present knowledge extends, no species 
has been found to the northward of Ecuador, while to the south 
they range along the highlands of Peru and Bolivia. 

Genus Oreotrochilus, Gould. 
("Opos, mens, et rpox^Xos, trochilus ; Mountain Humming-Bird.) 

Generic characters. 

Male.— Bill longer than the head, almost cylindrical, and slightly 
incurved ; wings rather long and powerful ; tail large, the feathers 
narrow and rigid ; tarsi clothed ; feet strong ; hind toe and nail about 
the same length as the middle toe and nail ; throat luminous. 

Female. — Unadorned. 

77- Oreotrochilus Chimborazo - - . 

Trochilus Chimborazo^ Bourc. 



Vol. II. PL LXVIII. 



Oreotrochilus (7Am6ora^o, Gould, Gray & Mitch., Bonap., Reich. 
^ Orotrochilus Chimborazo^ Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 15, 
note. 

Habitat. Immediately below the snow-line round the cone of the 
volcanic mountain Chimborazo, 



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To be 



14,000 feet, say.s, "Irides hazel; bill, legs, and feet black. 
seen occasionally on the Arbor Maria, but feeds generally on a red 
thistle. It is common, and by no means shy, and has rather a pretty 
song, oft repeated, and to be heard at a considerable distance. In 
bad weather, when the wind is high, this bird is said to creep under 



(a species of Stipa) 



78. Okeotrochilus Pichincha 



Vol IL PL LXIX. 



Muls 



Oreotrochilus Jamesouh Jard. 



Pichincha^ Bonap., Reiclienb. 



Mas, Hein. Theil iii. p. 15, 

Habitat. The snow4ine of the volcanic mountains of Pichincha 
and Cotopaxi in Ecuador. 

(14,000 feet alt.), many examples. 
The Pichincha Humming-Bird^ like the Chimborazo, is found only 
close under the line of perpetual snow ; but this species, according to 
the present state of our knowledge, is more widely distributed than the 
latter, being found not only on Pichincha, but also on Antisana and 
Cotopaxi. Upon my first visit to Guagua Pichincha these birds were 
feeding entirely on the ground, hunting the little moss-covered clumps 
as fast as the snow melted. They are not uncommon in this loca- 
lity, but always met with singly.* They are very restless, but not 
shy, seldom remaining on one clump more than a second, then away 
to another, perhaps a yard distant. Sometimes they would take a 
rapid flight of 40 or 50 yards. On my second visit, the Chuquiragua 
{Chuquiraga imignis, Humb.) being in flower, they were feeding 
from it like the Quindi of Chimborazo, but still occasionally hunted 
the mossy clumps. They flit with a burr of the wings, and occasion- 
ally settle, with the feathers all ruffled, on the top of the Chuquira- 
gua or other small plant. In this respect, so far as my observations 
and those of Professor Jameson go, they diff*er from O. Chimborazo. 
"June 5. No snow on the ground, and all birds were apparently 
scarce and shyer ; these birds in particular were chasing each other, 

" —Fraser in Proc. of 



in twos and threes, like flashes of lightning." 
Zool. Soc. part xxviii. p. 79. 



79. Oreotrochilus Estell^ 



. . . . . Vol. II. PI. LXX 



Trochilus Estella, D'Orb. et LaFres. 
OrthorJiynchus Estella, D'Orb. 
Trochilus Cecilice, Less. 



Mitch 



Mus 



Habitat. 



80. Oreotrochilus leucopleurus, Gould . Vol. II. PI. LXXI. 
Oreotrochilus leucopleurus, Gould, Gray & Mitch., Bonap., Hei- 



chenb. 



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64 

^Orotrochilus leucopleurus^ Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 16. 
*" Oreotrochihis leiccopterus., Reichenb.", Cab. et Hein. ib. 
^Trochilus Milleri, Lodd. MS.; Fras. in Proc. of Zool. Soc. 
part xi. p. 114. 

Habitat. The Chilian Andes. 

"This beautiful and rare species of Humming- Bird," says Mr. 
Bridges, " is only found in the elevated valleys of the Andes, residing 
amongst storms of hail, rain, and thunder, and in places where the 



naturalist would least expect to find a species of Trochilus* It 
subsists more upon small fiies than upon the nectar of flowers. On 
examination of the crops I found them filled with flies, which they 
take before sun-down along the margin of the mountain rivulets. 
Specimens were taken at Los Ojos de Aqua, province of Aconcagua, 
at an elevation of from 6000 to 8000 feet, and I saw them at least 



1000 feet above that place. Iris brown." — Proc. Zool. Soc. part xi. 

p. 114. 

Dr. Philippi met with this bird at Hueso Parado in Northern 
Chili, at an elevation of not more than 1000 feet above the sea-level. 

81. Oreotrochilus melanogaster, Gould. Vol. 11. Pl.LXXII. 

Oreotrochihis melanogaster^ Gould, Gray & Mitch., Bonap., 
Reichenb. 

w 

Orotrochilus melanogaster^ Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. 
p. 15, note. 

r 

Habitat. The high lands of Peru ; precise locality unknown. 

82. Oreotrochixus Adel-^ 

Trochilus Adela^ D'Orb. et Lafresn. 



Vol. II. PI. LXXIII. 



Orthorhynchus Adela^ D'Orb. 



Mitch., Bonap., Reichenb. 



Mu 



Theil 



■ < 



p. 15, note 



We 



Habitat. Bolivia; the high lands around Chuquesaca being one 
of its localities. . 

I now proceed to the 

Genus Lampornis, Swains. 

This genus comprises many species, some of which inhabit the 
t Indian Islands, and others the mainland. The best-known 



Mang 



the others, as will be seen on reference to my account of that 
species. They are all distinguished by the harmonious colours of 
their ample tails, which are even more beautiful in the females than 
in the males. 

83. Lampornis Mango ....... 

Trochilus Mango^ Linn, et auct- 

violicauda^ Bodd. 



Vol. IL PI. LXXIV 



* albus^ Gmel. 
punctulatus^ Gmel. 







i 



1 



r 



I 









65 



Troehilus nitidiis^ Lath. 
Polytmus punctulatusy Briss* 
Troehilus atricapillus^ Vieill- 

fasciatus^ Shaw. 



quadricolor^ Vieill. 

■ nigricollis^ Vieill- 

Lampornis Mango, Swains., Bonap. 
Polytmus Mango, Gray & Mitch. 
Anthracothorax Mango, Reichenb. 
^Troehilus punctatusy Vieill. Ency. Meth 



550 



* 



(young) 



lazulus, Less. Traite d'Orn. p. 290. 
r Mango, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. 



Habitat 



the high lands of New Granada. 

84. Lampornis iridescens, Gould. 

This is the bird from Guayaquil which I have spoken of in my 
account of L. Mango as differing from the Mangos of the other 
parts of America. The chief differences are a rather shorter tail 
and a o^littering wash of blue and green on the throat, instead of 
that part being velvety black; there is also a greater amount of 
green on the flanks. Three specimens of this bird were killed and 
sent to me by Professor Jameson during one of his visits to the 

coast. 

Habitat. Guayaquil. 

85. Lampornis Prevostt ....*- Vol. IL PI. LXXV. 

Troehilus Prevostii, Less.^ Bourc. 
Polytmus Prevostii, Gray & Mitch. 
Lanfipornis prevosti, Bonap. 
Anthracothorax Prevostii^ Reichenb. 

Habitat. Guatemala and Honduras. 

86. Lampornis Veraguensis, Gould . . 
Lampornis Veraguensis, Gould, Bonap. 
Serieotes Veraguensis, Reichenb. 
Anthracothorax Veraguensis^ Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p* 9? ph 



Tol. IL PI. LXXVL 



.• 



793. fiof. 4848. 



Mu 



Habitat. 
M 



iiAi. xjiivAties " found this species in the outskirts of the town of 
David, feeding among the flowers of a large arborescent species- of 

Erythrina.^* 

87. Lampornis gramineus vol. IL PI 

Troehilus gramineus, Linn, et auct. 

pectoralis, Lath., VieilU Steph. 
maculatus, GmeL, Vieill. 
gularis, Gmel.? Lath.j Vieill. 



LXXVII 



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66 

TrocMlus marmoratus^ Vieill. 
Polytmus dominicus, Gray & Mitch., Bonap. 
Lampornis dominicus^ Bonap. 
Hypophania dominica, Reichenb. 
"^ Anthracothorax dominicus^ Reichenb. Troch. Enum.p. 9, pi. 792, 

figs. 484-5-46. 
^Lampornis gramineay Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 18. 

Habitat. Trinidad, Cayenne, and Guiana. 

88. Lampornis viridis Vol. II. PI. LXXVIIL 

TrocJiilus viridis^ Aud. et Vieill., Bonn., Dumont, Drapiez, Temin. 

Le Colibri cyanure, Trochilus viridis^ Less. 
^Chalyhura viridis^ Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 10. 
^Agyrtria viridis^ Reichenb. Troch. Enum, p. 7, pi. 765, figs* 

4771-72. 

Habitat. Porto Rico. 

89. Lampornis aurulkntus 

Trochilus aurulentus^ VieilL et auct. 
Polytmus aurulentus^ Vieill. 



Vol. II. PI. LXXIX. 



margaritaceus, Gray & Mitch, 



Lampornis margaritaceus^ Bonap. 

Eulampis aurulentus^ Bonap. 

Margarochrysis aurulenta^ Reichenb. 

Trochilus dominiciis^ Linn., Gmel., Lath., female? 

Polytmus dominicuSy Briss., female ? 

Habitat, St. Dominso. 



90. Lampornis virginalis, Gould 



Vol. IL PL LXXX. 



7 

4* 



Crown and all the upper surface bronzy green ; wings light pur- 
plish brown, shining greenish wax-yellow ; chest and centre of the 
abdomen black, passing into green on the flanks; upper tail-coverts 
brilliant bronzy green ; two centre tail-feathers rich bronze, the re- 
mainder fine purple; margined and tipped with bluish black ; bill 
black ; feet dark brown. 

Total length 4^ inches; bill || ; wing 2| ; tail 1| ; tarsi 

Habitat. The Island of St, Thomas. 

If I have led my friend, Alfred Newton, Esq., into an error, by 
causing him to state in the * Ibis/ vol- i. p. 375, that the Lampornis 
aurulentus is found in the Island of St. Thomas : it was quite unin- 
tentional on my part. Since we made an examination and com- 
parison of specimens of aurulentus from St. Domingo, with those, 
which we believed to be identical, from St. Thomas, I have received 
numerous other examples from the latter island, a careful considera- 
tion of which induces me to regard them as distinct ; and as such, I 
have described them under the name o? Lampornis virginalis. The 
difference between this new species and auridentits is very marked : 
it is of much smaller size, and has a shorter, more square, and 
differently coloured tail, the two centre feathers being rich bronze 



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67 



instead of purplish black ; the throat-mark is richer ; the upper tail- 
coverts are very much finer and more brilliant; and the bill is 



shorter. 

91. Lampornis porphyrurus . . 

Trochilus porphyrurus^ Shaw, Steph. 
bromicolor^ Less. 



. Vol. II. PI. LXXXI. 



Floresii^ Bourc. 



p. 8, 



Polytmusporphyrurm^ Gray &l Mitch. 
Lampornis Mango, Gosse. 

porphyrurus^ Bonap. 

■ Jtoresiy Bonap. 

Floresia porphyrura^ Reichenb. 
^ Anthrocothorax porphyrurus^ Reichenb. Troch. Enum. 

pi. 794. figs. 4849-50. 
"^ Lampornis porphyrur a, Cab, et Hein.Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 19 

Habitat. Jamaica. 

This species differs from all its allies in the female or the young 
male assimilating to the male in the colour of the tail, which is 
quite contrary to what occurs in the females of the other species; 
unlike them also, the female of this species has a different and more 
beautiful gorget than the male. This is one of the anomalies which 
cannot be explained, inasmuch as in structure, in size, and other 
characters it is a true Lampornis. 

The genus Eulampis now claims our attention. It is composed 
of four*species, the distinguishing features of which are their lumi- 
nous upper tail-coverts. These broad and glittering feathers, re- 
sembling plates of shining metal, have doubtless been designed for no 
special purpose connected with the habits of the bird, but for mere 
ornament ; but such characters, trifling though they be, are of no 
little use in enabling us to group together nearly allied species. _ It 




will be recollected that in some genera 



Htjp 



stance the under and not the upper tail-coverts are extraordinarily 

developed ; and many other instances might be cited of a similar 
development of other parts of the plumage, for which no other use- 
but that of mere ornament can be conceived. The members of this 
genus differ from most others in the perfect similarity in the colour- 
ing of the sexes. So far as I am aware, they are all confined to the 
West Indian Islands. 

w 

Genus Eulampis, £oie. 
92. Eulampis jugularis ...... Vol. IL PI. LXXXIL 

Trochilus jugularis, Linn., Gmel., Lath., 
Eulampis jugularis, Bonap., Reichenb* 
Polytmus jugularisy Gray & Mitch. 
Trochilus auratus^ Gmel., Less. 

granatinus^ Lath. 

Bancrofti, Lath. 

cyanomelasj Gmeh 




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Trochilus violaceus, Gmel. 

- auritus^ Vieill. 



Vol. IL PL LXXXIIL 



Polytmus Cayennensis violacetis^ Briss. 
Topaza violacea^ Gray & Mitch. 
Certhia prasinoptera, Lath., Sparnn. 
Cynanthus fjugularis^ Jard. 
Trochilus cyaneus^ Lath. 

venustissimus^ Gmel. 
^ Eulampis jugularis , Oab« et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 17 

HahitaL The Islands of Nevis and Martinique. 

93. EULAMPIS HOLOSERICEUS .... 

Trochilus holosericeus^ Linn, et auct. 
Polytmus mexicanuSy Briss. 
Trochilus aurigaster^ Shaw. 
Polytmus holosericeuSy Gray & Mitch. 
Eulampis holosericeus , Bonap. 
Sericotes holosericeus y Reichenb. 
^ Anthracothorax holosericeus^ Reichenb.Troch. Enum. p. 9, pi. 793 

fig. 4847. 
^Trochilus atrigaster^ "Shaw," Cabanis. 

^Eulampis holosericea^ Cab. et Hein. Mus. 
Habitat. Islands of Nevis? and Martiniqi 

94. Eulampis chloroljemus, Gould . . 

Sericotes chlorolaimus, Reichenb. 

Eulampus chlorolcemus^ Bonap. 
^ Anthrocothorax chlorolaimus, Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. 9. 
^Eulampis chlorolaema^ Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 17, 

note. 
Habitat. The Islands of St. Thomas and St. Croix. 

" This bird," says Mr. Edward Newton, speaking of the Hum- 
ming-Birds of St. Thomas and St. Croix, " breeds from the end of 



17. 



? 



Vol. II. PI. LXXXIV. 



March to the end of June. It is no easy matter to find its nest; 
for on approaching within two or three yards of where it is, the 
bird, if it is on, is sure to fly at you, and then retreating remains 
suspended a few seconds just above your head, when it darts off and 
perches on some dead twig, most likely on the very tree which holds 
its nest. It does not stay here long, but takes short flights into the 
air, returning to the same place and, when there, showing its im- 
patience by a continual flirting, or rather t^yitching of its wings. If 
you then retire, keeping your eye on the bird, it will presently dart 
straight on to its nest, leaving it, however, at the least movement 
on your part. This species is not particular as to the tree on which 
it builds, as I have found nests on the Silk-cotton, Mango, Man- 
chioneel, kvoddL^o-VediY {Lauriis persea, Linn.). They are placed 
on a horizontal branch, from half an inch to two inches thick, and 
are composed of cotton or the down of a species of Cactus, studded 
on the outside with white Lichen or shreds of bark, the whole 
structure measuring nearly two inches across, and built at the height 




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69 

of from aboutfive to fifteen feet from the ground, sometimes concealed 
by leaves, at others on an almost naked bough." — Ibis, vol. i. p. 140. 
Mr. Newton informs me that the yellow of the base of the bill and 
gape of this bird shows rather conspicuously. 

95. EULAMPIS LONGIROSTRIS, Gould. 

In its size, general plumage, and style of colouring, this bird is 
very similar to the B. chlorolcBmus ; but the much greater length 
and curvature of its bill will, I am sure, satisfy the most sceptical 
that it is quite distinct. I possess two examples of this, both of 
which are unfortunately in a very bad state of plumage.One of these 
was p 



ted to me by my valued friend Sigismund Rucker, Esq. 
the other I obtained on the continent; I could gain no information 
whatever as to its native locality. The average length of the bill in 
jE. chlorolmmus is three-quarters of an inch, while that of £'. longi- 
Tostris is nearly an inch and a quarter. 

Habitat. Unknown. 

There is scarcely a more isolated form in the family of Trochi- 
lidcB than that for which the generic name o^ Lafresnaya was pro- 
posed by Bonaparte in honour of the venerable Baron de Lafresnaye, 
and it gives me great pleasure to assist in perpetuating the name of 
a French nobleman, lately deceased, who devoted the leisure hours 
of a long life to the pleasing study of natural history. 

Strictly confined to the Andes, one of the species is quite equa- 
torial, the others fly several degrees further north. The males are 
very boldly coloured, the brilliant green of their throats and flanks 
being beautifully relieved by the velvety black of the abdomen. 
The females have none of these contrasted colours, their entire 
under surface being spangled with green on a white or a buff* ground. 
The species known are very much alike except in the colouring and 
markings of the tail, — one of them having the four outer feathers 
white tipped with purplish black, while the same feathers in another 
are buff tipped with bronzy brown, and the tail of the third is white 
tipped with greenish bronze. 

Genus Lafresnaya, Bonap. 

F 

96. Lafresnaya flavicaudata . . . Vol. II. PI. LXXXV. 

Trochilus Jlavicavdatus, Fras. 

Lafresnayi, Boiss. 

Calothorax Lafresnayi, Gray & Mitch. 
Lafresnayi jflavicaudatus, Bonap. 

flavicaudata, Reichenb., Bonap. 

^Entima Lafresnayi, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 51. 

Habitat. The high lands of New Granada. Common at Bogota 
and Popayan ; and probably in the northern parts of Ecuador. 

97. Lafresnaya Gayi . . • • • • Vol. IL PI. LXXXVL 

Trochilus Gayi, Bourc. et Muls. 
Calothorax Gayi, Gray & Mitch. 



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ifi 



/^Bntima Gayi, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein, Iheil iii. p. 51- 
HahitaL Ecuador and Peru. 

98. Lafresnaya Saul-^e. 

^Trochilus Saulm, Bourc. Rev. Zool. 1846, p. 309. 

^Calothorax Saulii^ Gray & Mitch. Gen. of Birds, vol. i. p. 110, 

Calothorax^ sp. 3- 
^Lafresnaya SaulcE^ Bonap. Consp. Gen. Av. torn. i. p. 68, Lafres- 



* 



naya^ sp. 3. 



Saul^ Reichenb- Aufz. der Col. p. 11. 



HahitaL Unknown : supposed to be Popayan. 

r 

Since writing my account of Lafresnaya Gayi I have received 
many additional examples, all of which had white tails tipped with 
purplish black ; but I possess fully adult examples of a white-tailed 
bird named Saxtl(E^ by M. Bourcier, in which the tippings are 
bronzy green. My specimens were brought by Delattre ; but from 
what locality5is unknown. The difference mentioned seems to warrant 
the belief that the bird is distinct ; and I therefore give it a place in 
this synopsis, notwithstanding the opinion to the contrary expressed 
in my account of X. Gayi* 

Those who have not closely studied the Humming-Birds have 
but little idea how diversified are their forms ; the birds next to be 
considered are unlike all the other members of the family. The 
species are short, thick-set birds, with a very peculiar style of 
plumage, have their crowns plated with metal-like feathers, and bills 
as straight and sharp as needles ; and woe to any bird, I should say, 
which gave offence to the members of this genus. 

I am exceedingly puzzled with respect to the species of this form ; 
that is, I am at a loss to determine whether they are two, three, four, 
or five in number. First, with regard to Johannce^ whose under- 
surface is black, and frontal mark violet-blue ; I have always re- 
garded this colouring as indicative of the adult, but I am in doubt 
whether the skins which frequently accompany them from Bogota, 
and which assimilate in size and form, but differ in having a green 
frontlet and a dull-green upper and under surface, are the fen:iales 
or young males of this bird, or if they be distinct. OHhe Ludovicicey 
which comes from Bogota, I have many examples, all of which are 
very uniform in size and style of colouring. From Quito I have 
another bird assimilating to the Ludovicice most closely in colouring, 
but which is about a fifth larger in all its admeasurements. Accom- 
panying the specimens from this latter locality is one without any 
frontal mark whatever; in other respects it is precisely like the rest, 
and, 1 am sure, is a fully adult bird. Is this the female of the Quitan 
birds, or a distinct species? I have never seen examples in this 
state of plumage among tlie numerous specimens sent from Bogota. 
I think I shall be right in regarding the Ecuadorian bird as distinct, 
and I therefore propose for it the name that of rectirostris. 





1 



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71 



Genus Doryfera, Gould. 

(Aopv, hasta, et ^epo), fero ; Lance-bill.) 



Generic characters. 

Male.—Bill long, basal half straighf, apical half inclined upwards 
and pointed ; wings of moderate size; tail rounded, the feathers 
broad and rigid ; tarsi partly clothed ; hind toe and nail as long as 
the middle toe and nail ; forehead luminous ; plumage adpressed. 

Female. — I believe the female is destitute of the forehead mark ; 
but this is uncertain. 

99. Doryfera Johannje ..... 

Trochilus JohanncB^ Bourc. 



Vol. II. PI. LXXXVII. 



Melli 



(^Doryfera) violifi 



Dorifera 

^ Hemistephania Johaiince^ Reichenb. A 
^Helianthea Johannce^ Reichenb. Trocl 

4675-76. 
^Doryphora Johannce, Cab.et Hein. Mu 

Habitat. New Granada. 

100. DORYJFERA LUDOVICI-SE . . . 



Vol. II. Pi. LXXXVIII 



M 



Mellisuga Ludovicim, Gray & Mitch. 

Dorifera ludovicice^ Bonap. 
"^ Hemistephania Ludovicim, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 9. 
^HeliantheaLudovieicB^ Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. 6, pi. 731. figs. 

4673-74. 
Doryphora LudovicicB, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 77- 

Habitat. New Granada. 

101. Doryfera rectirostris, Gould. 

Bill and feet black ; tarsi clothed with brown feathers ; forehead 
brilliant glittering green ; crown and back of the neck reddish bronze, 
passing into dull green on the back ; upper tail-coverts washed with 
blue; tail black, tipped with greyish-brown, largely on the external 
feathers, slightly on the middle ones; under surface olive; under 
tail-coverts grey ; wings purplish brown. 

Total length 5 inches; bill 1||; wing 2^; tail 1|. 

Habitat. Ecuador. 

J _ 

How remarkable it is that development and even beauty should 
be bestowed upon the under tail-coverts of a bird ! yet this is often 
found to be the case : the Marabou Stork may be cited as an in- 
stance in point among the larger birds, and the genera Briocnemis, 
Erythronota, &c. among the Trochilidae. In no group, however, is 
this feature so conspicuously marked as in the members of the 
succeeding genus Chahjhura ; there it is carried to its maximum and 
is rendered so much the more apparent from the striking contrast 
of the snow-white plumed under tail-coverts with the dark or black 



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72 

colouring of the tail-feathers. These birds form a very natural 
section of the Trochilidse. Venezuela, New Granada, and Panama 
may be regarded as their head quarters,— two of the species, C.Bvf- 
foni and C. cceruleogaster, being frequently sent in collections from 

Although the sexes of this genus of birds are very differently 
coloured, the females have the plumed under tail-coverts as well as 
the males. 

Genus Chalybura, Eeicltenb. 



■ * « 



102. Chalybura Buffoni. 

Hypurpptila BufFoni 

Trochilus Bvffonii, Less., Jard. 
Polytmus Buffoni, Gray &c Mitch 
Lampornis huffoni^ Bonap., Jard. 

^Chalybura Bu^ 
Mus. Hein. T 
^Agyrtria Buffonii, Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p 

figs. 4773-74. 
Habitat. Venezuela and New Granada. 

103. Chalybura urochrysea, Gould. 
Hypuroptila urochrysea, Gould 



Vol. II. PI. LXXXIX. 






pi. 766. 



. . Vol. II. PI. XC 



Hypuroptila urochrysa, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc. part xxix 

p. 198. 
Habitat. Panama. 
104. Chaltbura cjeruleogaster, Gould. 
Hypuroptila cseruleogaster, Gould .... 



Vol. II. PI. XCI 



P 



( Glaucis ? ) 



Lampornis cceruleig aster, Bonap. 
* Cyanochloris coeruleiventris, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 10. 
*Agyrtria coeruleiventris, Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. 7, pi. 77. 



liss. 4775-76. 



Mus 



Hah 



105. Chalybura? Isaur^, Gould. 
Hypu 



P 



198. 



Head, all the upper surface, wing- coverts, flanks, and abdomen 
coppery bronze, inclining to purple on the lower part of the back 
and upper tail-coverts; wings purphsh-brown ; tail very dark 
bronze, inclining to purple ; throat and breast grass-green ; under 
tail coverts white ; upper mandible black ; under mandible fleshy 
with a black tip ; tarsi yellow or flesh colour. 

Total length 4f inches ; bill l^ ; wing 2f ; 



tail 1 




tarsi 1. 



Habitat 



1 



^ 



% 



73 



The specimen from which the above description was taken, is 
somewhat immature ; it is, however, sufficiently advanced to show 
that it would have, when adult, a fine green breast ; but whether 
the green colour would extend over the abdomen, I am unable 



to say 



Bum 



and C. cceruleigastra ; but it has a shorter wing and a more rounded 
tail than either of those species, and the under tail-coverts, though 
white, are less plume-like in form. It is just possible that it may be 
necessary to separate this bird into a new genus when we see it in 
its fully adult state; but it appears at present to be most nearly 
allied to the members of the genus_ in which I have provisionally 
placed. I received this bird from 
many years ago, and I have never seen another. 

The"^ name of Isaurce was suggested to me by my late highly 

valued friend the Prince Charles Lucien Bonaparte, who wished thus 

J;o convey a compliment to Madame la Baronne de Lafresnaye, the 



M 



Mo 



Genus Ioljema, Gould. 
C'lovy viola, et \amos, gula.) 



Generic characters. 



*rv 



Male.— Bill considerably longer than the head and slightly arched ; 
wings long and curved ; primaries rigid, of moderate length, and 
forked ; tarsi clothed ; feet rather small ; hind toe shorter than the 
middle toe ; nails short and curved. 

This genus was proposed for the Trochilus Schreibersii of Lod- 
diges; and of this form Mr. G. N. Lawrence, of New York, has 
made us acquainted with a second species in his lokema frontalis. 
Both these birds inhabit the eastern slopes of the Andes of Ecuador 
and forests bordering the River Napo. 

106. lOLJEMA FRONTALIS, Lawr. • . . 

Habitat. The head-waters of the Napo. 






. Vol. II. PI. XCII 



107. lOL^MA SCHREIBERSI 



Vol. 11. PI. XCIII. 



MS 



M 



Thalurania Schreibersii, Bonap. 
lonolaima Schreibersii, Reich. 
Campylopterus Schreibersi, Bonap. 

Habitat. The forests bordering the Upper Rio Negro and the 

Napo. 
The species composing the Andean genera to which the names of 
Heliodoxa and Leadbeatera have been given are all truly beautiful 
birds. They are of large size, and have certain parts of their plu- 
mage more than usually resplendent,— so much so, indeed, that no 
bird has yet been found which equals them in this respect. From 
Venezuela and New Granada on the north to Bolivia in the south, 
the various members of these genera find a congenial habitat. 



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Genus Heliodoxa, Gould. 
("HXios, sol, et Bo^a, gloria.) 

Generic charactei's. 

Male. Bill longer than the head, straight and cylindrical ; wings 

long and pointed ; tail ample and forked; tarsi clothed ; feet small ; 
hind toe shorter than the middle one ; nails feeble ; centre of the 



Vol. II. PI. XCIV, 



throat blue, surrounded by brilliant green. 
Female, — Unadorned. 

108. Heliodoxa jacula, Gould 

Leadbeaterajacula^ Bonap., Reichenb. 
^Coeligenajacula^ Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. 4, pi. 688. fig. 4522 
^ Heliodoxa jacula^ Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein, Theil iii. p. 22. 

Habitat. New Granada. 



109. Heliodoxa Jamesoni • . - . 

Trochilus Jamesoni^ Bourc. 
Leadbeatera Jamesoni^ Bonap., Reichenb 
Coeligena Jamesoni^ Reichenb. 



. Vol. H. PL XCV 



Heliodoxa Jamesoni^ Sclat., Cab. 
Habitat. Ecuador. 



% 



Hitherto I have entertained the opinion that the Jacula and Lead- 
heateri were of the same form ; but upon further consideration I now 
believe them to be distinct; and as the former is the type of my 
genus Heliodoxa, I retain that of Leadbeatera for the other. 

Genus Leadbeatera^ Bonap. 

Of this form I possess three very distinct birds, which might be 
considered by some persons as one and the same, but in this opinion 
I cannot agree : the Otero from Bolivia, and the Leadbeateri are too 
unlike to be considered otherwise than as separate species ; while 
the third, which is from Venezuela, is allied to the Bolivian bird 
rather than to that from New Granada. 

110. Leadbeatera Otero. . 

Heliodoxa Otero 

Trochilus Otero^ Tschudi. 

Leadbeatera otero^ Bonap., Reichenb. 
^Colligena Otero, Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. 3, pi. 689. figs. 



. , Vol. H. PL XCVI 



4523-24. 
Heliodoxa i 



. Hein. Theil iii. p. 22, note. 



^Leadbeatera sogitta, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 7 

^Coeligena sagitta, Reichenb. lb. p. 23; Id. Troch. Enum. p. 4, 

pi. 689. fig. 4525, and pL 690. figs- 4527-28. 
"^Heliodoxa sagitta. Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 22. 

Habitat. Peru and Bolivia. 

111. Leadbeatera splendens, Gould. 

Centre of the crown brilliant blue, bordered on each side with jet- 



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75 



black; upper surface bronzy green; wings purplish brown; two 
centre tail-feathers bronzy, the remainder black ; under surface 
flittering: sreen ; under tail-coverts olive-grey ; bill black ; feet dark 



brown. 



Total length, 5^ inches ; bill ly^ ; wing 2^ ; tail 2^ ; tarsi i 



Habitat. Venezuela, 



This species is very nearly allied to the Leadbeatera Otero^ but it 
differs in having a straighter and shorter bill, and in the green tint 
of the under surface. 



Vol. II. PL XCVII 



Mitch 



112. Leadbeatera grata. 

Heliodoxa Leadbeateri . . . 

Trochilus Leadbeateri^ Bourc. 
Leadbeatera grata^ Bonap. 
Mellisuga Leadbeateri^ Gray & 
Heliodoxa Leadbeateri^ Sclat. 

Habitat. The hilly parts of New Granada. 

It matters not where we place the single species of the genus 
Aithurus (^Trochilus polytmus^ in the body of the work), since it 
offers no direct alliance to any one group. It is perhaps the most 
singular and most aberrant of Humming-Birds : for it departs from 
all the rest in the form of its wings, the second feather being the 
longest, while in all the others the first exceeds the rest in length ; 
how different also are its other characters ! for instance, the tail 
is not forked in the usual way, the second feather being lengthened 
into flowing plumes, which apparently tend more to add to its 
graceful appearance than to. facilitate its aerial evolutions. The 
young males do not possess this peculiarly formed tail ; and the 
females are so unlike both, that we should not have even suspected 
their alliance, had we not positive evidence of it. This very isolated 
form is a native of Jamaica, and there alone is it found. That so 
large a bird and so very marked a form should be confined to such 
a limited area is very surprising. 



Genus Aithurus, Cab. 
113. Aithurus polytmus. 

Trochilus polytmus ...•..,. 

Mellisuga Jamaicensis atricapilla^ cauda bifi 

Mellivora avis maxima, Sloane. 
Trochilus polytmus, Linn, et auct. 



,* 



Vol. II. PL XCVIII. 



Ornismya cephalatra, Less 
"^Cynanthus polytmus, Jard. Nat. Lib. Humming-Birds, vol. ii. 

p. 145. 
^Polytmus cephalatra, Bonap. Consp. Gen. A v. torn. i. p. 72, 



* 



Polytmus^ sp. 1. 



lb. sp. 2. ; Trochilus stellatus^ " Gosse," young male ? 



Maria 



p. 258, 1849; Gosse, Ilk Birds of Jamaica, pL22. 



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* Polytmus viridans, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p 11 ; Id. Troch. 



Enum. p. 9, pi. 799. figs. 4858-60 



Hein . M 



p. 50. 



Habitat. Jamaica. 



It will be seen that I have placed the stellatus of Gosse as a 
synonym of Polytmus ; at the same time it is only justice to state 
that I have never seen a second specimen in a similar state of plu- 
mage, and it may be another species. I make this remark with Mr. 
Gosse's type specimen before me, it having been kindly presented 
to me by that gentleman. 

Genus Thalurania, Gould. 
(BaWo), vireo, et ohpaviosy coelestis.) 

If all genera were as well defined as that of Thalurania^ the 
ornithologist would be far less perplexed than he frequently is with 
regard to the position of the species of which they are composed. 
All the members of this extensive group are characterized by great 
elegance of contour, the bill, wings, and tail being well propor- 
tioned, and in harmony with the size of the body ; green and blue 
are the prevailing hues of the under surface, while the crown and 
throat, and sometimes the shoulders, are ornamented with blue. 
The females are less elegant in form, and not so beautifully attired, 
all those parts which are green and blue in the males being, in every 



instance I believe, of a dull grey. 

The extent of country ranged over by the members of this group 
is very great: one, and one only, has been found to the north of 
Panama ; the remainder inhabit all the countries southward to the 
latitude of Rio de Janeiro. 



114. Thalurania glaucopis 



Vol. II. PL XCIX 



r. Max., Vieill., 
hifurca^ Briss. ? 



Ornismya glaucopis^ Less. 
PolytwMs glaucopis^ Gray & Mitch. 
Trochilus frontalis, Lath. 
Thalurania glaMCopis, Bonap., Reichenb. 
Coeligena glaucopis^ Reichenb. 
'^Cynanthus glaucopis^ Jard. Nat. Lib. Humming-Birds, vol. ii 



p. 147. 



/^ 



• • 



Mus 



p. 23. 



Habitat 



Watertoni 



Vol. II. PL C 



Trochilus Watertoni^ Lodd., Bourc. 
Polytmus Watertoniy Grey & Mitch. 
Thalurania Watertoni^ Bonap. 

— Whatertoniy Reichenb. 

Coeligena Whatertoniy Reichenb. 

Habitat. British Guiana; and Northern Brazil ? 



4 



d 







^ 




1' 



77 



116. Thalurania furcata 



Vol. II. PI. CI 



Mellisuga Jamaicensis, violaceay cauda hifurca^ Briss. 

Trochilus furcatus, GmeL, Lath,, Shaw, VieilL, Steph., Jard. 

Ornismya furcata^ Less. 

Poly tmus fur catus. Gray & Mitch. 

Thalurania furcata^ Gould, Bonap. 

furcatus^ Bonap. 

'^Cynanthus furcatus^ Jard. Nat. Lib. Humming-Birds, vol. ii. 

p. 148. 
^Thalurania Gyrinno^ Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 7. 
^Coeligena GyrinnOy Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. 3, pi. 682. figs. 

4500-1. 
"^ Thalurania furcata^ Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 24. 

* furcatay Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 7. 

^Coeligena furcata^ Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. 3, pi. 682. figs. 

4498-99. 

^TrochilusfurcatuSy Burm. Th. Bras. torn. ii. p. 335. 
Habitat Cayenne and Guiana. 

117. Thalurania furcatoidks, Gould. 

Thalurania fur catoideSi Gould, in text to T. furcata. 
Habitat. Para and the lower part of the Amazon. 

This bird is very like T.furcata^ but is of smaller size, has a much 
less-forked tail, and the breast ultraraarine-blue instead of purplish- 
blue. I have at this moment seven specimens before me, all of which 
are alike, and readily distinguishable from the Cayenne bird. 

118. Thalurania forficata, Cab. 

^ Thalurania forjicata. Cab. et Hein. in Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 24. 
Habitat. Supposed to be the neighbourhood of Para. 

Through the kindness of Dr. Peters, the Director of the Royal 
Museum of Berlin, I have had their specimen of T. forficata sent 
to me for comparison. It is certainly distinct from any of the 
species contained in the collections of this country: in size it is 



T.n 



but its bill is rather shorter, its tail 



longer, more deeply forked, and of a purplish-black colour instead 
of steely black : it differs from that bird also in having the blue 
colouring more extended down the back, approaching to that of 
Watertoni ; the green of the throat is circumscribed and truncate 
below, as in furcata ; and the crown of the head is black, but near 
the centre is a single small blue feather : I think it likely that this 
is accidental, as the bird appears to be fully adult: the under tail- 
coverts are black. 



119. Thalurania REFULGENS, Gould 



Vol. n. PL CII. 



Habitat 



refulgm 
efulgens 



G 



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rllMi 






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120. Thalurania TscHUDii, G^owic? . . . 

r 

Trochilus furcatus , Tschudi. 

Habitat. Ucayali and the eastern part of Ei 

121. Thalurania nigrofasciata, Gould. 

Trochilus {— ?) nigrofasciatus , Gould. 
Thalurania nigrofasciata, Gould, Reichenli 



Voi.iL PI. cm. 




Vol. IL PL CIV 




Polytmus nigrofasciatus, Gray & Mitch. 

Thalurania nigrofasciata, Bonap. 

Coeligena nigrofasciata, Reichenb. 

Thalurania viridipectus, Gould, Bonap., Reichenb. 

Coeligena viridipectus, Reichenb. 

Habitat. Upper Amazon and Rio Napo. 
122. Thalurania venusta, Gotdd .... 



m 



Vol. IL PL CV 



Thalurania) 



) puella, Gould. 



Thalurania venusta, Gould, Bonap., Reichenb. 

puella, Bonap.j Reichenb. 

^Coeligena venusta, Reichenb., Troch. Enum. p. 3, pL 683. 



figs 



4504-5. 



* 



puella, Reichenb. lb. p. 3. 



Habitat 



123. Thalurania Columbica . . . 

Ornismya Colombica, Bourc. et Muls. 
Polytmus Columbicus, Gray & Mitch. 
Thalurania Columbiana, Gould. 

colomhica, Bonap. 



. VoLIL PLCVI. 



columbica, Reichenb. 



* 



Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 24. 



Habitat 




124. Thalurania verticeps, Gould 



. Vol. II. PL CVII 



Trochilus ( Thalurania) verticeps, Gould. 
Thalurania verticeps, Gould, Bonap. 
Thalurania Lydia, Reichenb. 

jR2Ccorc?ifl5 t?€r^icem, Reichenb. , \n a ^ ^r^r^ cl 

^Chhrestes verticeps, Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. 4, pL 705. fig. 

4590. 

■x 

Habitat. Ecuador. 

— X 

125. Thalurnia Fannije. , 

Trochilus Fannyi, Bourc. et Delatt. 
Hyhcharis Fannyi, Gray & Mitch. 
* Coeligena Fanny, Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. 3, pi. 683. hgs. 



4502-3. 



q > 



rrr 



« 




m 



79 



Ma 



Mus 



Habit 



I have a specimen of this bird, collected by Warszewicz on the 
Cordillera of Quindios, which is precisely the same with the type 
specimen of the T. Fannyi of MM. Bourcier and Delattre. It 
differs from my T. verticeps in being considerably smaller and in 
having the abdomen purple-blue in lieu of cold prussian-blue. 

126. Thalurania Eriphyle .... 

Ornismya Eriphile^ Less. 
Polytmus Eriphile^ Gray & Mitch. 

Thalurania eryphila^ Bonap. 

Eryphile^ Reicheub. 

eriphile^ Bonap., Gould. 



Vol. 11. PLCVIII- 



Ornismya meriphile^ Less, in err. 



4507-8. 



Eryphile 



p. 3, pi. 582. figs. 



^ Glaucopis eriphile^ Burm, Th. Bras. torn. ii. p. 334. 



Mus 
Mus 



Habitat 



Wagleri 



Vol. IL PLCIX. 



Wagli 
Wagle 



Wagleriiy Jard. 

Hylocharis Wagleri, Gray & Mitch. 

Thalurania wagleri^ Bonap., Reichenb. 
^Trochilus hicolor^ Vieill. Ois. dor., torn. i. p. 75, pi. 36. 
^Coeligena Wagleri, Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. 3, pi. 

4576-77. 



WaglerL Cab. et Hein. Mus 



Habitat. Brazil. 



Panopl 



resemble each other in size, in structure, and in the markings of 
their tails, but are very dissimilar in the colouring of their bodies. 
They are all inhabitants of the Ecuadorian Andes, and one of them 
(JP. fiavescens) extends its range as far north as Bogota. The 



P 



glit. 



tering upper surface is wonderfully brilliant. 

Genus Panoplites, Gould. 
{navoTrXcTTjs, omnino armatus.) 

Generic characters. 

Male.— Bill strong, and a trifle longer than the head ; bod^/ stout 
and thick-set ; wings long and pointed ; tail moderately long and 
square, the feathers broad ; tarsi clothed and stout ; hind toe strong, 
and of the same length as the middle one ; nails short. 

Female.~Very similar to the male in plumage. 

g2 



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Vol. IL PL CX 



p. 75, note 



Vol. IL PL CXI 



128. Panoplites Jardinei 

Trochilus Jardini^ Bourc. 
Florisuga jardinii^ Bouap.? Reichenb. 
^Panoplites Jardinei, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. T 

Habitat Nanegal and other warm parts of Ecu 

129. Panoplites flavescens ....... 

Trochilus flavescens^ Lodd. 

Ornismia paradisea^ Boiss. 

Mellisugafiavescens, Gray & Mitch. 

Amazilius flavescens y Bonap. 

Clytolcema flavescens^ Bonap. 
^BoissonneaiiaflavescenSy Reichenb. Aufz. derCoL p. 1 1; Id. Troch, 

Enum. p. 8, pL 787. figs. 4830-31. 
^Panoplites flavescens, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 74. 
^Trochilus Lichtensteinii. Saucer, in Mus. of Berlin. 

Habitat. Ecuador and New Granada. 

130. Panoplites Matthewsi Vol. IL PL CXII 

Trochilus Matthewsi, Lodd., Bourc. 

Mellisuga Matthewsi, Gray & Mitch. 

Clytolcema matthewsi, Bonap. 
^Heliodoxa Matthewsii, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 9. 
^ Boissonneaua Matthewsii. Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. 8% pL 787 



figs. 4832-33. 



Matthewsi. Cab.et Hein. Mus 



Hi 



Somewhat allied to the Panoplitce, are the members of the 

I J 

Genus Florisuga, Sonap.y 



■ ' ■ ^^•' 



all of which are remarkable for their large fan-shaped tails, and for 
having all the feathers of this organ white. The females are less 
strikingly coloured. One of the species, P. mellivora, enjoys a most 
extensive range; for it inhabits alike the low lands of Northern Brazil, 
Cayenne, Guiana, Trinidad, Venezuela, the temperate regions of New 
Granada, and Central America; the other two are confined to more 
limited areas. The F. mellivora and F. atra are among the oldest- 
known and the commonest of the Humming-Birds, there being no 
collection of any extent without examples of them. 



131. Florisuga mellivora .... 

Trochilus mellivorus, Linn, et auct. 
Mellisuga Surinamensis torquata, Briss 

Surinamensis, Steph. 

Ornismya mellivora, Less. 
Topaza mellivora, Gray & Mitch. 
Florisuga mellivora, Bonap. 
Trochilus flmbriatus , Linn., Lath. 



Vol. IL PL CXIII 









1 



- -/. . ■ " ■ 



81 



' i 






I 



/ 



Mellisuga Cayenensis gutture ncevio^ Briss. 

Topaza Jimbriata, Gray & Mitch. 
^Lampornis mellivora, Jard. Nat. Lib. Humming Birds, vol. ii. 



p. 155, 



^Flor 



Mu 



Habitat 



132. Florisuga flabellifera, Gould 



Vol. IT. PI. CXIV. 



Trochilus ( 



T) fiabelliferus^ Gould. 



* 



Florisuga fiabelliferay Bonap 
^ Florisuga JlabelUfera^ Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 14 ; Id. Troch. 
Enum. p. 12 ; Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. p. 29, note. 
Topaza Jtabelliferay Gray & Mitch. Gen. of Birds, vol. i. p. 110. 
Topaza^ sp. 8. 

Habitat The Island of Tobago, and perhaps elsewhere. 

'' I am not able," says Mr. Kirk, " to decide as to this bird being 
a native of Tobago. It is only to be met with at certain seasons ; but 
whether it leaves the island, or retires to the interior, I am not at 



It is seldom to be found in open sunshine: 

' d 



present prepared to say. 

the mornings and evenings are its principal times for feeding, 
its evolutions then are truly pleasing, — at one instant suspended 



) 



(althou 



tree, and at the next moment at the root, with two or three zigzags 
right and left, up and down, dipping either into the river or snapping 
a fly from the surface, and then disappearing. I think it probable 
that this bird feeds more upon winged insects than most of the 
others, which may account for its being seen so early in the calm 
mornings, retiring generally into the thick wild plantain bushes as 
soon as the sun begins to spread his rays upon them, and appearing 
again in the evening when he is going down, or when his rays cease 
to act upon their spot of pleasure. A female shot on the 19th of 
April contained an egg almost perfect." — Horce ZoologiccB^ by Sir 
W. Jardine, Bt., in Ann. and Mag, Nat. Hist. vol. xx. p. 373. 

133. Florisuga atra 

Trochilus ater^ Pr. Max. 



Vol. II. PL CXV. 



- atrafus^ Licht. 
niger^ Swains 



fuscus, Vieill. 

Ornismya lugubris^ Less. 
Colibri leucopggius, Spix- 
Mellisuga ater^ Steph. 
Topaza atra, Gray & Mitch. 

Florisuga atra, Bonap. 
"^Lampornis niger, Jard. Nat. Lib. Humming Birds, vol. ii. p. 156. 
"^ Florisuga fusca, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 14 ; Id. Troch. Enum. 
p. 12 ; Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 29. 

Habitat. Eastern Brazil. 



S^-v- 



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82 



That all the Humming-Birds are not yet discovered ue may very 
reasonably conjecture, and we may ask what will be our next novelty 
in this group of birds. This remark has suggested itself upon find- 
ing next in succession the singular little Microck(sra albocoronata. 



Although America has been discovered for more than 300 years, and 
collectors have been employed for the last fifty in searching for its 
treasures of various kinds, we had no knowledge of the existence of 
this bird until 1852, when Dr. J. K. Merritt shot three examples in 
the district of Belen in New Granada. 





l^ 



Genus Microchera, Gould. 

(jjiLKpos, parvus, et xw^> vidua.) 

Generic characters. 

Maie. — Bill about the same length as the head, and straiglit ; 
wings moderate ; tail rather short and square ; tarsi clothed ; feet 
small; claws diminutive, 

134. Microchera albocoronata, Gould. . Vol. II. PI. CXVL 
Mellisuga albo-coronata^ Lawr. 

Habitat. The district of Belen in New Granada. 



A considerable hiatus here occurs, which cannot at present be 



filled up, and we come to the elegant frill-necked Coquettes, the 
Lophornitkes ; and with these I commence the third volume. 



They are among the most beautiful of the smaller members of 
the Trochilidae, and are distinguished by the possession of length- 
ened ornamental plumes springing from the sides of the neck, 
which generally have a spangle of metallic lustre at the tip; they 
are further ornamented with beautiful lengthened crests, which are 
developed to a greater extent in some species than in others: in 
those in which the neck plumes are the longest, the crests are least 
so, and vice versa. They are spread over a great part of America, 
from Mexico along the Andes to Bolivia; they also occur in Brazil, 
the Guianas, and the Island of Trinidad. 



Genus Lophornis, Less. 



135. LOPHORNIS ornatus 

TrocMlus ornatus, Gmel., Lath,, Shaw. 
Ornismya ornata^ Less. 

Mellisuga ornata^ Gray & Mitch. 
Lojphornis auratus, Bonap. 

ornatusy Bonap. 

— ^ ornatUy Less., Gray, Reichenb. 



Vol. Ill, PI. CXVIL 



Habitat. Northern Brazil, Guiana, and Trinidad. 

Mr. W. Tucker informs me that in Trinidad this species ** fre- 
quents the pastures and open places, and visits the flowers of all the 












■ rM 'iJf ^ 




i 




m 










83 

small shrubs, but is particularly fond of those of the Ipecacuanha 
plant, and that it is very pugnacious, erecting its crest, throwing out 
its whiskers, and attacking every Humming-Bird that may pass 
within its range of vision." 

136. LoPHORNis GouLDi . . , . . VoL III. PI. CXVIII. 

Ornismya Gouldii^ Less. 
Trochilus Gouldii, Jard. 
Lophornis Gouldiiy Less. 
Mellisuga Gouldi, Gray ^ Mitch, 
Lophornis gouldi^ Bonap. 
Bellatrix Gouldii, Reichenb. 

Habitat. Northern Brazil. 

137. Lophornis magnificus .... Vol. III. PI. CXIX. 

Trochilus magnificus, VieilL, Temm., Jard., Pr. Max. zu Wied* 

decorusy Licht. 



Colibri helios, Spix. 

ignifi 



' strumaria. Less. 

Lophornis strumaria. Less. 
Mellisuga magnifica, Gray & Mitch 
Lophornis magnificus, Bonap. 
Bellatrix magnifica, Reichenb. 
^Ornismya strumaria, Dev. Rev 

Habitat. South-eastern Brazil. 
Mr 



Ma 



Vol. III. PL CXX 



year in different Brazihan districts, and is so bold that the sight ot 
man creates no alarm. Its food chiefly consists of small insects, 
which it seizes on the wing, precipitating itself from the extremity 
of a dead bough, upon which it often passes entire hours in the same 
position : when it has chosen a branch it rarely proceeds far from it, 
and always returns to it. It is very common in the environs of Rio 
de Janeiro. 

138. Lophornis Regulus, Gould . . . 

Trochilus {Lophornis) regulus, Gould. 
Mellisuga regulus, Gray & Mitch. 
Lophornis regulus, Bonap. 
Habitat. Cochabamba in Bolivia. 

J 

I possess a bird of this genus from Peru, with a more truncate 
form of crest than that of L. Regulus, the fine feathers of which are 
rather largely tipped with spangles of dark green. This may pro- 
bably prove to be, and I beheve is, really distinct ; I have conse- 
quently proposed for it the specific name of lophotes. In size and 
colouring it very closely resembles the L. Regulus, with the excep- 
tional difference in the form of the crest. 

139. Lophornis lophotes, Gould. 

Habitat. Peru. 



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84 



140. LoPHORNis Delattrei, Less. . 
Habitat. New Granada. 

■ w 

141. LoPHORNis Reginje, Gould . 

Lophornis RegintBy Gould. 
Mellisuga regincBy Gray & Mitch. 
Lophornis reginmy Bonap. 
Bellatrix RegincBy Reichenb. 

Habitat. New Granada, 

Mr. Fraser. who killed ati PYflmnlp n 



. Vol. III. PL CXXI 



. Vol. Ill, PL CXXII 



that the irides of this species are black, and its mandibles reddish 
flesh-colour, with a black tip ; he adds that it was feeding from a 
large Guarumba tree. 



142. Lophornis Helena . . . 

r 

Ornismya Helencey Delatt. 
Mellisuga HelencBy Gray & Mitch. 
Lophornis helence^ Bonap. 

helena, Bonap. 



Vol. III. PL CXXIII 



HelencBy Reichenb. 



Habitat. Guatemala and Southern Mexico. 

Mr. Salvin states that this species is not uncommon in the vicinity 
of Cohan, and that its cry " is peculiarly shrill and unlike that of 
any other species I know ; hence its presence may be noticed if only 
the cry of a passing bird be heard. It feeds among the Salvice that 
so abound in the mountain-hollows about Cohan ; and it is said also 
to show a partiality for the flowers of the Tasisco when that tree is in 
full bloom, in the month of December. In the month of November 
females of this species are very rare. Of the specimens I collected 
there was only one female to seventeen males. 

" In the Indian language of Cohan, Lophor ^ ^ 

the name ' Tzunnun,' which is applied to all the small Humming" 
Birds, the additional name of ' Achshukub.' The Spanish name is 
* El Gorrion Cachudo' — the Horned Humming-Bird." — Ibis. vol. ii 
p. 268. 

Although I have placed all the species known by the trivial name of 
Coquettes in the genus Lophornis, the L. ehalybeus and i. Verreauwi 
have been separated by ^'^ ^-'^ — '-''-' - i-~^--~-^ ^ 

name oi Polemistria. 



Helence 



M 



Genus Polemistria, Cab. 

These birds, as will be seen on reference to the plates on which 
they are represented, vary considerably from all the true Lophor^ 
nithes ; the feathers of the neck-frill are very difi^erent, and the tail 
is much longer and more rounded. I shall not be surprised if an- 
other species of this peculiar form should be discovered ; for I have 
in my possession the skin of a female from Bogota, which I am inclined 
to think is the female of an unknown species. 




m 






\ 



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1 



85 



143. POLEMISTRIA CHALYBEA. 

Lophornis chalybeus ..*••• 

Trochilus chalyheuSy VieilL, Teram., Jard 

festivuSy Licht. 

Ornismya Vieillottiiy Less. 
Mellisuga chahjbea, Gray & Mitch. 
Lophornis chalybeusy Bonap. 
Ornismya Audenetiiy Less. 
Trochilus Audenetii, Jard. 
Colibri mystaWy Spix. 
Mellisuga Audenetiiy Gray & Mitch. 
Lophornis Audeneti, Bonap. 

Habitat. Brazil. 



Vol. III. PI. CXXIV 



. . Vol. IIL PL CXXV 



144. POLEMISTRIA VeRREAUXI. 

Lophornis Verreauxi .... 

Trochilus Verreauxi^ Bourc. 
Lophornis Verreauxi^ Beichenb. 
Bellatrix vei'reaucciy Bonap. 

Habitat. Peru. 

I shall now proceed to the single species of the genus Discura. 
The band which crosses the lower part of the back allies this bird to 
the Lophornithes on the one hand, and to Prymnacantha and the 
Gouldice on the other. 

Genus Discura, Bonap. 
145. Discura longicauda .... Vol. III. PI. CXXVI. 

Trochilus longicauduSy Gmel. 

Mellisuga longicauda. Gray & Mitch. 

Biscosura longicauda, Bonap. 

Biscura longicauda, Bonap., Reich enb. 

Trochilus platurus, Lath., VieilL, Drapiez, Pr. Max. zu Wied. 

Ornismya pJatura, Less. 

Mellisuga platura, Steph. 

Trochilus {Ocreatus) ligonicaudus, Gould. 

Biscosura ligonicauda, Bonap. 

Biscura platura, Reichenb. 

Habitat. Cayenne, Brazil, and Demerara. 

Gouldia, Popelairia, Gouldomyia and Prymnacantha, are all ge- 
neric terms proposed for the four species I have called by the trivial 
name of Thorn-tail. Of these Bonaparte's name of Gouldia, having 
the priority, has been adopted by me in the body of this work ; but 
as the first species G. Popelairi difFers from the others in possess- 
ing a most singular and elegant crest terminating in two hair-like 
feathers, I propose to adopt iM. Cabanis's classical name of Prymna- 
cantha for this species, and to retain Gouldia for the others. 



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86 



Genus Prymnacantha, Cab. 



146. Prymnacantha Popelatrei. 
Gouldia Popelairi ...... 

Trochilus Popelairiiy Dubus. 
Mellisuga Popelairiiy Gray & Mitch 
Gouldia popelairi, Bonap. 

Habitat. New Granada. 



. Vol. III. PL CXXVII 



Genus Gouldia, Bonap. 



147. Gouldia Langsdorffi 



Vol. HI. PL CXXVIIL 



Trochilus Langsdorffi, Vieilh, Temm., Valenc, Less. 
Ornismya Langsdorffi, Less. 
Colibri hirundinaceus, Spix. 
Mellisuga Langsdorffii, Gray & Mitch. 
Gouldia langsdorffi, Bonap. 

Habitat. Brazil ; and I have a single specimen from the Rio Napo. 

148. Gouldia Conversi ..... Vol. III. PI. CXXIX. 

Trochilus Gonversii, Bourc. 
Mellisuga Conversii, Gray & Mitch. 
Gouldia conversi, Bonap. 

Habitat. From Bogota along the Andes to Popayan; and Ecuador, 
from which latter country I have a single specimen. 



149. Gouldia L^titi^e . 

Trochilus Letitir^, Bourc. 
Gouldia Icetitice, Bonap, 

Laetitia, Reichenb. 



Vol. III. PI. CXXX. 



Habitat. Bolivia. 



Genus Trochilus, Linn. 



The members of this genus as now restricted are only two in num- 
ber — T. colubris and T. Alexandri. Both these birds are of moderate 
size and of elegant proportions. The males are decorated with richly- 
coloured gorgets, while the females are clothed in a sombre livery. 



150. Trochilus colubris, Linn. 

Trochilus colubris, Linn, et auct. 
Mellisuga Carolinensis gutture r\ 



Vol. III. PL CXXXI. 



Mitch 



^ J. ^ J — 

Ornismya colubris. Less. 

^Cynanthus co/w6m, Jard.Nat.Lib.Humming-Birds, vol.ii.p. 143. 

Habitat. The eastern part of North America in summer ; Mexico 

and Guatemala in winter, at which season it is also occasionally 

found in Cuba, and sometimes in Bermuda. 

I have observed that specimens from Guatemala are smaller 
and lighter-coloured than those obtained in North America. In 



I 






I 



-^ 






i^^:|f|:::| 



1 










87 

r 

all probability these constitute a race which does not migrate so far 
north as the United States. It is probable, also that the birds 
frequenting the latter country do not go further south than Mexico. 
"This species," say Messrs. Sclater and Salvm, "would appear to 
be abundant in the winter months in Guatemala, as numerous ex- 
amples were obtained by Mr. Skinner. It occurs at Acatenango, a 
village on the southern slope of the great Cordillera, showing that it 
chooses for its winter retreat the moderate climate afforded^ by the 
region lying between the elevations of 3000 and 4000 feet, —ibis, 
vol. i. 1859, p. 129. 



Muls. 

Vol. III. PI. cxxxn. 



TtocMIus Aleocandriy Bourc. et Muls., Cassi 

Mellisuga Alexandria Gray & Mitch. 

Archilochus Alexandria Reichenb. 

Trochilus Alexandri, Bonap. 
"^Trochilus Cassini, Bonap. MSS. 

* Suecicus, in Mus. Gotzian. Dresde 

^Selasphorus Alexandria Reich. Troch. Enum. p. 10. 



Habitat. Northern Mexico 



Found by Dr. Heer- 



mann at Sacramento city, within the Umits of the United States. 



Genus Mellisuga, Briss. 



This eenus contains but a single species, unless the very minute 
Humming-Bird in the Loddigesian Collection should prove to be 

really distmct. 



enus 



may be, must* be regarded as the very smallest of the Trochilidse. 

Both sexes are destitute of luminous colouring. 

152. Mellisuga minima ..... Vol. III. PI. CXXXIIL 

w 

Trochilus minimus, Linn, et auct. 
Polytmus minimus varieffatus. Brown. 
Trochilus minutulusy Vieill. 
Mellisuga Bominicensisy Briss. 
Trochilus Vieillotiy Shaw. 
Mellisuga Vieillotiy Steph. 
Ornismya minima. Less. 
Mellisuga humilis, Gosse. ^ 
Trochilus Catharince, Salle. 
Hylocharis nigra. Gray & Mitch. 
Mellisuga minima, Bonap. 
Trochilus niger, Gmel., Lath., &c. 
# rn.in^^u.^. Swains. Birdi 



pygmceus, Swains. Birds of Brazil, pl. 7b. 



Hab 



Generic characters. 



Genus Calypte, Gould. 

(Ka\w7rri7, operta). 



Male.— Bill longer than the head, straight, or shghtly arched ; 




ii^H 



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88 

tail rather short, the three outer feathers stiff, narrow, and slightly 
incurved ; tarsi clothed ; feet small ; hind and fore toes nearly equal 
in length ; entire head and throat luminous. 

i^i^ma^*?.— Destitute of luminous colouring. 

This is strictly a Mexican genus, all the memhers of which are 
beautifully coloured, the entire head and face of the males appear- 
ing as if covered with a mask of burnished metal. 



153. Calyptk Cost^ 



Vol. III. PI. CXXXIV 



Ornismya Costce, Bourc, Longuem. & Parz. 
Mellisuga Costce, Gray & Mitch. 
Selasjphorus Costce, Bonap. 
Atthis CostcBy Reichenb. 
Trochilus Costce, Reichenb. 

Habitat. Mexico, Southern California, and Colorado Basin. 

154. Calypte Ann^ Vol. III. PI. CXXXV. 

Ornismya Anna^ Less. 

Trochilus Anna^ Jard. 

Mellisuga Anna, Gray & Mitch. 

Selasphorus anna, Bonap. 

Calliphlox anna, Gambel. 

Atthis Anna, Reichenb. 

Trochilus icterocephahts, Nuttall. 

"^Calliphlox lamprocephalusy Licht. Cat. of Birds in Mus. of Berlin, 

p. 57. 

Habitat, The table lands of Mexico and Cahfornia. 

155. Calypte Helena .... 
Orthorhynchus Helence, Lambeye. 



. Vol. III. PI, CXXXVI 



Boothi, Gundl. 



Habitat. Cuba. 



Genus Selasphorus, Swains. 



The species of this form are characterized by the great brilhancy 
of the gorgets of the males. The females are destitute of these fine 
colours. The rounded or cuneate form of the tail in these birds at once 
separates them from the members of the last-mentioned genus. 



156. Selasphorus rufus 
Trochilus rufus, Gmel. et 



Vol. IIL PI. CXXXVII 



collarisy Lath. 
Sitkensisy Rathke. 



^ 




m 




) rufi 



Ornismya Sasin, Less. 
Trochilus {Selas 
Selasphorus ruf\ 
Mellisuga rubra. Gray & Mitch 
Selasphorus ruber, Bonap. 
Calliphlox rufa, Gambel. 



& Rich. 




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89 



ruhet 



Mus 



Habitat. Mexico. In summer it also occurs in California, and 
even as far north as Nootka Sound, and sometimes at Sitka. 

Refer to the account of this species for my remarks respecting its 
not being identical with the Trochilus ruber of Linnaeus ; and also to 



Washin 



Vol. III. PI. CXXXIX. 



Vol. III. PI. CXL. 



territory/ by Drs. Cooper and Suckley. 

157. Selasphorus scintilla, Gould. Vol- III. PI. CXXXVIII. 
Trochilus (Selasphorus) scintilla, Gould. 
Habitat. The inner sides of the volcanic mountain Chiriqui in 

Costa Rica. 

158. Selasphorxjs Floresii . . 
Trochilus Floresii, Lodd. MSS. 
Habitat. Bolanos in Central Mexico 

159. Selasphorxjs platycercus . 

Trochilus platycercuSy Swains. 

Ornismya tricolor, Less- 

— montana, Less, 

Mellisuga platycerca. Gray & Mitch. 

Selasphorus platycercus, Bonap. -^ ^ ^a 

"^Trochilus montanus, Swains. Birds of Brazil, pi. 74. 

Habitat. Guatemala, Mexico, and, according to Dr. Baird, ^'through 
Rocky Mountains to Fort Bridger, Utah." 

I have observed that specimens from Guatemala are much smaller 
than those from the table lands of Mexico. M. Boucard found this 
bird at Oaxaca in Southern Mexico, and Mr. Salvin at Dueiias in 
Guatemala. 

Genus Atthis, Beichenb. 

The type of this genus is A. Heloisce ; and I retain the term 
for this very singular and beautiful bird, which in the character of 
its plumage and the colouring of its tail differs from every other with 
which I am acquainted. The plumage is extremely soft, and easily 

disarranged. 

160. Atthis Helois^. 

Selasphorus Heloisse 



Vol. III. PI. CXLL 



Ornismya Heloisa, Less. & Delatt. 

Mellisuga Heloisa, Gray & Mitch. 

Tryphcena heloisa, Bonap. 

Habitat. Central America and Southern Mexico. 



'' Two birds were given to me,'' says Mr. Salvin, '' by Don Vicente 
Constancia, who had received them from a place called Chimachoyo, 
near Calderas, in the Volcan de Fuego ; and two other specimens I 

collection were shot in the tierra caliente north of Co- 



have 



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pi 



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90 

ban. Hence it would appear that this, Hke many other species of 

Humming-Birds, is found in very different climates." — Ibis, ii. 
p. 266. 

^ 

Numerously subdivided as the members of this family already are, 
I cannot pass over the beautiful Calliope without perceiving the ne- 
cessity for a separate distinctive appellation ; I therefore propose 
that of Stellula. 



Genus Stellula, Gould. 



Generic characters. 



(dim. of Stella.) 



Male.— Bill longer than the head, straight and pointed; wings 



feet 



first 



The starry throat-mark of this bird would appear to indicate that 
it should be associated with the members of the next genus, Calo- 
thorax ; but on an examination of the tail we find it to be short and 
truncate, and that consequently the bird is of a very different form. 

At present but one species of this form has been discovered ; and 
this ranges very far north, not only over the high lands of Mexico, 
but even enters California, as is shown by specimens having been 
sent to me from thence by Dr. Baird of Washington, and Mr. Bridges 
of Cahfornia. 



Vol. III. PL CXLII. 



161. Stellula Calliope. 

Calothorax Calliope, Gould . . . . . 

Trochilus {Calothorax) Calliope, Gould. 

Calothorax calliope. Gray & Mitch., Bonap., Reichenb. 

Habitat. The table lands of Northern Mexico and Cali 

The type of the 

Genus Calothorax, G. R. Gray, 



Mexican 



M 



pulchra, are all that are known of this peculiar form. Both these 
birds are natives of Mexico— one inhabiting the table lands/the other 
the more southern and hotter districts. Both have very singularly 
formed tails— the outer feather being shorter than the next, and the 
four central ones so abbreviated as to be almost hidden by the 
coverts. When the males display their luminous gorgets, they must 
appear truly beautiful. The females possess none of this fine colour- 
ing, but, on the contrary, are very plainly attired. 

r 

162. Calothorax cyanopogon . . . Vol. III. PI. CXLIII. 

Cynanthus Lucifer, Swains. 
Ornismya cyanopogon. Less. 
Calothorax lucifer, Gray & Mitch. 
Trochilus cyanopogon, Jard. 

- lucifer, Jard. 



1 




11 



* 



91 



•m 




Lucifer cyanopogoUy Reiclienb. 

Trochilus simplexy Less. , » , ^ 

# cyanopogon, Swains. Birds of Brazil, pi. /7. 

coruscus, Licht. Preis-Verz. Mexican. Thier. v. Deppe 



# 



& Schiede (Sept. 1830) No. 34, 35. 



Habitat 



Vol. III. PI. CXLIV. 



With 



163. Calothorax pulchra, Gould . . 

Habitat. Oaxaca in Southern Mexico. 

It has always appeared to me that the well-known Calothorax 
Mulsanti and C. Heliodori might very properly h 
distinct genus ; and this I have accordingly done, 
be associated the species to which I have given the name of C. deco- 
ratus, and, I think, the singular little C. micrurus. They are all from 
the Andes, and are among the most diminutive of the Trochihdse. 
Their structure would lead one to suspect that their wings are capable 
of very rapid motion, that organ being so small that it must be moved 
with increased rapidity to enable the bird to sustain itself when poising 
before a flower. _ . - 

Genus Acestrura, Gould. 

uKkarpa, acSs, et ovpd, Cauda. 

Generic characters. ,,•■:., , ,. , ^; 

Male.— Bill longer than the head, cylmdncal, and very slightly 

arched ; two centre tail-feathers extremely small, the two outer ones 
filamentous and shorter than the third ; wings diminutive ; tarsi 
clothed ; feet small ; gorget luminous. 
Female. — Unadorned. 

164. AcESTRURA Mulsanti. 

Calothorax Mulsanti ...... 

Ornismya MulsantiyBonrc. ^ 

Mellisuga Mulsanti, Gray & Mitch. 
Cnlnthnrax Mulsanti, Bonap. 



Vol. III. PI. CXLV. 



* 



ifer Mulsanti 



filicaudusy Licht. in Mus. Berol. 
cus Mulsanti, Cab. et Hein. Mus 



Habitat. The temperate regions of the Andes, trom iiogota to 

Quito. 
I observe that specimens from the former locality are smaller than 

those from the latter. -, -r* n • -r^ i 

Mr. Fraser found this bird at Pallatanga and Puellaro m Ecuador. 

, L 

165. ACESTRURA DECORATA, Gould, 

Calothorax decoratus, Gould . . * . 

Habitat. Uncertain, but supposed to be Antioquia, in New 



Vol. IIL PI. CXLVL 



Granada. 



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92 



166. AcESTRURA Heltodori. 
Calothorax Heliodori Vol. III. PI. CXLVII. 

Ornismya Heliodori, Bourc. 
Mellisuga Heliodori, Gray & Mitch. 
Calothorax Heliodori, Bonap. 
* Lucifer Heliodori, Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. 10 



Heliodori, Cab. et Hein. Mus 
ombilus, Reichenb. MS. 



Habitat 



167. Acestrura micrura, Gmld. 
Calothorax micrurus, Gould . . 



H 



. Vol. III. PI. CXLVIII 



The 



members of the genus Acestrura naturally lead on to the 
Calothorax Roses and C. Jourdani constituting the 

Genus Ch^tocercus, G. B. Gray. 
Both these birds have very singularly formed tails, as may be seen 
on reference to the respective plates on which they are represented. 

168. Ch^tocercus Ros^. • 



Calothorax Rosse 



. . Vol. III. PI. CXLIX 



Muls 



,'. ' 



Mellisuga rosce. Gray & ]\ 
Calothorax Rosae, Reichenb. 

- rosay Bonap. 
"^Chaetocercus Rosae, Cab, et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 60. 
Habitat. Venezuela. 

169. CHiETocERCus Jourdani. 
Calothorax Jourdani Vol. Ill, PL CL. 

Ornismya Jourdani^ Bourc. 

Jordaniy Bourc. 
Mellisuga Jourdani^ Gray & Mitch. 
Calothorax jourdani^ Bonap. 

•-^ Jourdaniy Reich. 

Callothorax jourdaniy Bonap. 
ChcBtocerms Jourdani^ Gray. 

Habitat. The Island of Trinidad, where Mr. Tucker states that it 
frequents the Savannahs, but is very rare. 

I 

The bird which I have figured under the name of Calothorax 
Fanny is the type of the 



M 



which I adopt for that beautiful bird and the C, Yarrelli, as I 



\. 



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con- 



Mif*. 



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:» I 



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ii 



93 



■i . 

I r 



sider them to be a very distinct form, and one wliich is especially 
markable for the structure of the tail. 

170- Myrtis Fannijs. 

Calothorax Fanny . * 



re- 



Vol. III. PL CLI 



Ornismya Fanny ^ Less. 
Trochilus Labrador, Bourc. 
Calothorax Fanny, Gray & Mitch 
Thaumasturafanny, Bonap. 



if^ 



Labrador, Reichenb 



« 



Myrtis Fanny, Reich. 
Habitat. Ecuador and Peru. 

Mr. Fraser found it at Cuenca in November 1857, when it was 
common about the gardens and lane hedgerows. It makes much 
more humming with its wings than the long-tailed green Leshia. 
Proc. ZooL Soc. part xxvi. p. 459. 

171. Myrtis Yarrelli. 
Calothorax YarrelH . Vol. III. PI. CLII. 

Trochilus Yarrelli, Bourc. 

Habitat. Western Peru, particularly the neighbourhood of Arica. 

How very singular and diversified in form are the Humming-Birds 
of Peru ' So varied indeed are they that almost every species demands 
a generic appellation ; the T. Gorce with its beautiful throat and length- 
ened tail is the type of the 

Genus Thaumastura, Bonap. 

Of this pecuhar form only one species is known, of which the male 
alone is decorated with fine colours, and bears the singularly con- 



Vol. III. PI. CLIII 



structed tail. 

172. Thaumastura Co R.E . 

Ornismya Cora, Less. 
Calothorax cora, Gray & Mitch. 
Trochilus Cora, Jard. 
Thaumastura cora, Bonap. 
*Ormsmya cora, Dev. Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1852, p. 21 7- 

Habitat. Peru. 

M. Deville states that this bird is found during the months of 
February, March, April, and May only, m the humid districts bor- 
dering the River Rim^ at Lima. It is seen m small troops com- 
posed of six or eight couples, which are constantly pursuing one 
another, and uttering a shght cry. It js very airy m its flight and 
rarely permits any other Humming-Bird to remain in its neighbour- 
hood, but wages a continual and terrible war with them. 

The largest species of the luminous lilac-throated Peruvian 



- _ ' 






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94 

Humming-Birds/ the Fesjpera, constitutes the 

Genus Rhodopis, Reichenb.^ 

which, as the form differs from all the others, I have no other alter- 
native, if I act with consistency, than to adopt. It has a deeply 
forked tail, the feathers of which are narrow and rigid, not soft and 
yielding as in the T. Cotce. I have never seen a second species of this 
particular form. The female, like that sex in many other allied 
genera, is destitute of hrilliant colouring. 

173. RhODOPHIS VESPERA 

Ornismya vesper^ Less. 
Trochilus vesper^ Jard. 
Calothorax vesper y Gray & Mitch. 
Thaumastura vesper y Bonap. 
Lucifer vesper y Bonap. 
Rhodopis vesperUy Reichenh. 
Calliphlox vesper a, Reichenh. 

Habitat. Peru. 



. Vol. III. PI. CLIV 



^ 



> 



^4 1 . ^ 



^ 



Not less heautiful in the colouring of their gorgets are the mem- 
bers of the 

Genus Doricha, Reiche^ib. 

The Eliza, the Guatemalan bird known as enicuray and the less- 
known Bahama species EvelyncBy are all associated by me in this 
genus ; and if the Plates on which they are respectively figured be 
referred to, it will be seen how beautiful are the throat-markings of 
the males. 



174. Doricha Eliz^. 



. . Vol. III. PI. CLV, 



Thaumastura Elizse v ..... 

Trochilus Eliza, Less. 
Myrtis Elisa, Reichenh. 
Lucifer elisa, Bonap. 
Calothorax Eliza, Gray & Mitch. 
^Thaumastura Eliza, Montes de Oca in Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Philad. 1860, p. 552. 

Habitat, Southern Mexico. 

"This,'' says M. Montes de Oca, "is one of the rarest of the 
Mexican Humming-Birds. It is small, very beautiful, and flies with 
wonderful rapidity, moving its wings with such velocity that it is 
almost impossible to see them ; and it might easily be mistaken for 
a large bee, from the buzzing sound produced by their incessant 



motion. 



Myrtl 



Mirto 

It is very shy, and differs 



in its habits and manners from all other species. It is on the wing 
very early in the morning ; and I have never seen any of the few 
specimens that have come under my observation between the hours 
of seven or eight o'clock a.m and five p.m., when they are again to 



R 



'0 



95 



■n- 



Vol. III. PI. CLVI 



Vol. III. PI. CLVIL 



be met with until dusk. When it has once been detected feeding at 
any particular spot, it is almost sure to be found there at the same 
hour for several days in succession. It feeds on the Masapan and To- 
baco flowers, preferring, I think, the latter. It is also found and 
breeds at the Barrancas de Jico (or the Precipices of Jico), about 
twenty miles from Jalapa. The nest, which is very small, round, 
flat at the bottom, and neither so deep nor so thick at the base as 
those of most Humming-Birds, is covered on the outside with moss 
from stones, and lined with tule, or cattail silky floss." 

175. DORICHA EvELYNiE. 

Thaumastura Evelynse ...... 

Trochilus Evelynce, Bourc. 
Calothorax Evelyncey Gray & Mitch. 

Evelince, Reichenb. 

Callothorax evillina, Bonap. 
Trochilus Bahamensis, Bryant. 

Habitat, Bahama Islands, 

176. DORICHA ENICURA. 

Thaumastura enicur a • 

Trochilus enicurus. Vieill., Temm., Jard. 
Ornismya heteropygia, Less. 
Trochilus Swainsonii, Less. 
Calothorax enicurus, Bonap. 

Habitat. Guatemala. 

" On no occasion," says Mr. Salvin, " were the males of this species 
observed about Duenas during the months of February and March ; 
indeed it was not until the month of May that both males and females 
were seen together, at which time the Nopal of the cochineal planta- 
tions being in full flower, great numbers of Humming-Birds, espe- 
ciallv of this species, were in the habit of feeding from the blossoms 
of that cactus. The females during the winter months are common 
enouo-h, and frequent the same places, and feed principally on the 
same trees as the Cyanomyia cyanocephala.'" — Ibis, vol.i. p. 129. 

" Occasionally, when flying, the elongated tail-feathers are stretched 
to a considerable angle."— 16«>, vol. ii. p. 40. — 

Speaking of three nests of this species Mr. Salvin says :— " One ot 
these was in a cofl'ee-tree, and had two eggs. The other was most 
curiously placed in the cup-shaped top of a fruit of the Nopal ( Cactus 
cochinellifer), the fastenings being dexterously wound round the 
clustering prickles, and thus retaining the whole structure most firmly 
in its place. This nest was remarkably shallow ; so much so that, 
if it had not contained its two eggs, I should have pronounced it far 
from complete. It may be that, bemg based on a firm foundation 
(one not nearly so liable to oscillation by the wind) the bird had 
found that a greater depth was not necessary to keep the eggs from 
fallino- out. Had she placed her nest on a slender twig, as seems to 

"^ H 2 



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96 

be usual, the case might have been different. The third nest had 
young. It was placed in the upper shoots of a Dahlia at the far- 
ther end of the court-yard. The hen seemed to have the entire duty 
of rearing the young ; for I never once saw the male near the place ; 
in fact, I never saw a male inside the court-yard. When sitting she 
would sometimes allow me to go close to her, and even hold the 
branch still when it was swaying to and fro by the wind, without 
evincing the slightest alarm. But it was only when a hot sun was 
shining that she would allow me to do this ; when it was dull or rain- 
ing four or five yards was the nearest I could approach. Frequently 
when I had disturbed her, I would sit down close at hand and wait 
for her return, and I always noticed that, after flying past once or 
twice overhead, she would bring a small piece of lichen, which, after 
she had settled herself comfortably in her nest, she would attach to 
the outside. All this was done with such a confident and fearless 
air, that she seemed to intimate, ' I left my nest purely to seek for 
this piece of hchen, and not because I was afraid of you.' When 
sitting upon her nest, the whole cavity was quite filled by her puffed- 
out feathers, the wings, with the exception of their tips, being en- 
tirely concealed by the feathers of the back. When the young were 
first hatched, they looked little, black, shapeless things, with long 
necks and hardly any beak. They soon, however, grew, and entirely 
filled the nest. I never saw the old bird sitting after the young had 
emerged from the eggs : she seemed to leave them alike in sun and 
rain. When feeding them she would stand upon the edge of the 
nest with her body very upright. The first of these young ones 
flew on October 15. It was standing on the side of the nest as I 
happened to approach, when it immediately flew off, but fell among 
the flowers below. I placed it in the nest, but a moment after it was 
off again, nothing daunted by its first failure — this second time with 
better success, for it flew over a wall close by and settled on a tree 
on the other side. In the evening I saw the old one feeding it, and 
went up to the tree ; but it started off with increased vigour to an 
orange-tree, and tried at first to rest on one of the fruit, but failing, 
found a more appropriate perch on the edge of a leaf. ^I never saw 
it afterwards. The other young one flew two days later. 

*'The seeds of the willow and bulrush are favourite materials for 
the interior structure of the nest, while lichen is freely used outside." 

■Ibis, vol. ii. p. 264. 



1 



1 



I 

■I 



Genus Tryph^na, Gould. 

(Tpv(paiva, nom. prop.) 

Generic characters. 

Male. — Bill as long as the head, and straight ; winffs very small ; 
primaries narrow ; tail deeply forked, the outer feather narrow, 
tapering at the tip and incurved i/eefsmsiil, claws short and hooked ; 
gorget richly coloured but not luminous ; tail ornamented. 

Female. — Unadorned ; tail extremely short. 



The single species of this genus stands quite alone in the great 



i . 

h 



w 



1 



97 



family of Humming-Birds. The peculiar and beautiful markings of 
its tail are most remarkable ; the colouring of the throat-mark is 
equally distinct. It must be remembered that these features are con- 
fined to the male, the female being very plainly attired and having 
a very diminutive tail. Guatemala may well be proud of this sin- 



gular bird, rich as her fauna really is . 

177. Tryph^na DupoNTi . . 

Ornismya Buponti, Less., Jard. 

Zem^s, Less. 

- ccslestis, Less. 



. Vol. in. PL CLVIIL 



MeUisuga Bujaonti, Gray & Mitch. . 

*Trochilus Buponti, Jard. Nat. Lib. Hummmg-Birds, vol. i. p. i^i- 
pi. 26. 

* Cynanthus Buponti, lb. vol.ii. p. 145. 

*Trochilus lepidus, Licht. in Mus. Berol. 

-Tilmatura lepida, Reichenb. Aufz, der Col. p. 8 ; lb. Troch. Enum. 



* 



p. 5.pL 71Lfigs. 4610, 4611. 

laumast 

p. 257. 



Ma 



Mus 



note. 
Habitat 



" San Gerdnimo, December 10. Don Vicente Constancia assures 
me that this species is found near the city of Guatemala ; otherwise 
this is the only locality I have been able to discover, as yet, where it 



occurs. 



II I ^^h 

" Following the course of the river of San Gerdnimo up its bed to 
about half a league from the village, you come upon a small patch 
of forest with here and there open spots covered with ^alvicB. Mere 
it was that this bird was shot by a boy, who told me there were 
plenty ; however on visiting the place soon after, I was not success- 
ful in obtaining more specimens, nor was I fortunate enough to see 



one. 



?j 



Salvin in Ibis, vol. ii. p. 266. 



■> 



Genus Calliphlox, 5ote. 

Perhaps the very commonest of the frill-necked Humming-Birds 
is the C. amethystina. It is more widely spread than many other spe- 
cies, since it inhabits all the countries from Brazil to Venezuela. 

In this genus I have also placed the C. Mitchelli ; but I have some 
doubt as to the propriety of so doing. The throats of the two birds, 
although beautifully coloured, are not lummous. 



178. CaLLIPHLOX AMETHYSTINA 



. Vol. HI. PI. CLIX. 



Trochilus amethystinus, Gmel., Latli., VieiU., P. Max. zu Wied 

Shaw, Jard. 
Ornismya amethystina^ Less. 

orthura, Less. ? 




m 



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98 



Wied 



Mellisuga amethystina, Steph., Gray & Mitch 
Trochilus campestris^ Pr. Max. zu ""'' 
Tryphcena amethystinus, Bonap. 

— afnethysfina^ 3ona.ip. 

Calliphlox amethystina, Reichenb. 
Amethystine Humming -Birdy Lath 
Tryphcena amethystina^ Gould. 
"^Trochilus brevicauduSy Spix, Av. Bras. torn. i. p. 79. tab. 



pi. 8. ? 



orthurm, Jard. Nat. Lib. Humming-Birds, vol. ii. p. 60. 



*Cynanthits amethystinus, lb. vol. ii. p. 143. 



Habitat 



? orthura, lb. vol. ii. p. 143. ? 



* ■ 

11 



Whether the Ornismya orthura of Lesson be a species or an old 
female of (7, amethystina requires further investigation. Wherever 
the C. amethystina is found in Brazil, Trinidad, or Demerara, the 
O. orthura is found in its company — a fact which militates against its 
being a distinct species. 

179. Calliphlox amethystoides, Less. 

Ornismya AmethystdideSy Less. 
Mellisuga Amethystoides, Gray & Mitch. 
^Trochilus amethystoides y Jard. Nat. Lib. Humming-Birds, vol. 

p. 62. 

^Cynanthus amethystoides y lb. vol. ii. p. 143. 

'^ Calliphlox amethystoides y Bonap. Consp. Gen. Av. p. 84. 

Habitat. Minas Geraes in Brazil. 

In my account of C. Amethystina I have regarded this species as 
identical with that bird ; but M. Bourcier is still of opinion that it 
is distinct; and as I find that it is of smaller size, and the tint of 
the gorget is somewhat different, I defer to his opinion. It will not, 
however, be necessary to give a separate figure of it. Specimens from 
Minas Geraes are certainly more diminutive than from elsewhere. 



f 

180. Calliphlox ? Mitchelli . 

Trochilus Mitchelliy Bourc. 
Mellisuga Mitchelliy Gray & Mitch 
Calothorax Mitchelliy Reichenb. 
Tryphcena mitchelliy Bonap. 

Habitat. Southern narts nf Npw rt 



Vol. III. pi. CLX 



Ecuador 



I have now gone through the species of Humming-Birds distin- 
guished for their diminutive size, the deHcacy of their structure, and 
for their luminous gorgets. It is true that many other groups have 
their throats similarly adorned, such as the members of the g nera 
Oreotrochilus, Heliangelus, &c. ; but these birds are all of large size 
and of very different form, and as we proceed I think it will be seen 
that they are better placed hereafter. I proceed next, then, with the 
racquet-tailed species— the SpathurcB, &c. I admit that there 



\ 



I 



f 



* 



y 



^ '1 




f, 



99 



is no direct alliance between these and the former, but it will be re- 
ijollected that I have stated that the Hummmg-Birds cannot be ar- 
ranged in anything like a series of affinities. Here, then, we com- 
mence with a very different group ; remarkable for the pecuhar 
character of the tail in most of its members. Among these 1 place 
in the foremost rank the extraordinary bird bearing the specibc name 
mirahilis. As any description, however accurate, must tail to give a 
correct idea of this singular species, I must refer ray readers to tne 
Plate, upon which it is correctly depicted. 

Genus Loddigesia, Gould. 
(LoddigeSy noixi. prop.) 

Male.— Bill straiglit and longer than the head ; wings dimimitive ; 
primaries rounded at the tip ; outer tail-feather on each side very 
much prolonged, and terminating in a large spatule- 

Female. — Unknown. 

181. Loddigesia MiRABiLTS, Gould • . 



I 



I L 



Vol. III. PL CLXL 



MS., Bourc 



Loddigesiornis mirabilis^ Bonap. 



Hab 



The racquet-tailed birds I have figured under the generic nanie of 
Spathura are spread over the temperate regions of the great Andean 
range of mountains from the northern parts of New Granada to 
Bolivia. Much confusion prevaHs with respect to the generic ap- 
pellation of these birds. The case stands thus : in 1846 I proposed 
the term Ocreatus for the rufocalig atus , and m 1850 substituted 
that of Spathura; while in 1849 Dr. Reichenbach employed that 
oi Steganurus, vi^aoh he changed in 1853 to Steganura. t« thP 
body of this work all the species are arranged under my — 
name, which I hope may be allowed to stand. 

^ w 

Genus Spathura, Gould. 



own 



.^ 



(^irddrjy spatha, et oi/pa, cauda.) 



* * - ■ 

Generic characters. . 

Male.— Bill straight and rather longer than the head ; wings mo- 
derately long and somewhat rounded ; tail deeply forked ; the outer 
tail-feather on each side terminating m a spatule ; feet small ; tarsi 
thickly clothed ; hind toe and nail shorter than the middle toe and 

nail ; throat luminous. 

i^ema^e.— Unadorned and destitute of spatules. 

182. Spathura Undkrwoodi . . , . 

Ornismya TJnderwoodi, Less. 
Trochilus TJnderwoodi, Jard. 



Vol. III. PI. CLX.II 



Trochilus ventilabrum. Lath. 



Mellisug 



7 & Mitch. 










■^h 





I 1 



H: 



' I 
I I 



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100 



^Omismya Kieneriy Less. Les Troch- p. 165, pi. 65, female. 
'^Cynanthits Underwoodiy Jard. Nat. Lib. Humming Birds, vol. ii. 



* 



p- 144. 



V 

Kieneriiy lb. p. 146. 



^Steganura spatutigeray Reich. Aufz. der Col. pp, 8 & 24 ; Id. 

Troch. Enum. p. 5. pi. 708. figs. 4598-600. 

* TJnderwoodi, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 66. 

^Steganura remigera, Reichenb. Aufz. der CoL pp. 8, 24; Id. 

Troch. Enum. p. 5, pi. 708, figs. 4601-2. 
^Steganurus remigera, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 67. 

Habitat. The neighbourhood of Bogota, on the Andes, and the 
hilly portion of eastern Venezuela. 

r I 

In his ' Trochilinarum Enumeratio' Dr. Reichenbaeh has figured 
a vyhite-booted Racquet-tail under the name oi Steganura remigeray 
which, after a careful examination of the type specimen, I have no 
doubt is identical with this species, I have therefore placed that name 
among its synonyms. 

183. Spathura MEJLANANTHERA, Javd. . Vol. HI. PL CLXIII. 

Trochilus {Spathura) melanantheray Jard. 
Steganura melananthera^ Reichenb. 
Discura melananthera^ Bonap, 

Habitat. Ecuador. 

Mr. Eraser, who procured specimens of *S'. melananthera at Pal- 
latanga and Nanegal in Ecuador, states that its feet are " white." 



. Vol. III. PI. CLXIV 



Vol. III. PI. CLXV 



184. Spathtjra Peruana, Gould . . 
Habitat. Moyobamba in Peru. 

r 

185. Spathura kufocaligata, Gould 

Trochilus (Ocreatus) ru/ocaligatus, Gould. 

AddcEy Bourc. 

Mellisuga rufocaligata^ Gray & Mitch. 

Habitat. La Paz in Bolivia. 

^ The Trochilus Addce of M. Bourcier is considered to be identical 
either with the S. Peruana or the present bird ; in all probabihty it 
was applied to the latter ; and if this should prove to be the case, the 
term Addce^ having been proposed prior to that of rufocaligata, should 
be adopted for this species. 

186. Spathura cissiura, Gonld ... Vol. III. PI. CLXVI. 

Habitat. Peru. 

r 

Perhaps the next in affinity, although not directly allied, are the 
members of the genus Lesbia, which are equally confined to the 
Andes, and fly at the same elevation as the Spathurce. Like those 
birds, they are distributed along that great chain of mountains 



■ '^1 




mimm 



4 
P- 



r' 



101 



throughout many degrees of latitude on each side of the equator. 
They may be regarded as among the most elegant of the Trochilidse. 
Their long and deeply cleft tails would seem to indicate that they 
possess very great powers of aerial progression, — a remark which 
equally applies to the members of the genera Cymnthus and Cometes. 



^ ::■!»'- 



lit 



i' \ 



. I 



fWl 




Genus Lesbia, Less. 



187- Lesbia GouLDi 



Vol. III. PI. CLXVII. 



. Vol. III. PL CLXVIII 



TrocMlus Gouldii^ Lodd. 

Ornismya sylphia^ Less. 

Mellisuga Gouldii, Gray & Mitch, 

Cynmithus gouldi, Bonap. 

Lesbia Gouldi% Reichenb. 

Agaclyta Gouldi, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 70. 

Habitat. The high lands of New Granada, particularly the neigh 
bourhood of Bogota. 

188. Lesbia gracilis, Gould, . 

TrocMlus (Lesbia) gracilis^ Gould, 
Mellisuga gracilis, Gray & Mitch. 
Cynanthus gracilis^ Bonap. 
Lesbia gracilis ^ Reichenb. 

Habitat. Ecuador. 

189. Lesbia Nuna . . 

Ornismya Nuna, Less. ? 
Habitat. Peru. 



. . . . . Vol. III. PI. CLXIX. 



Refer to my remarks respecting this bird in the letter-press accom- 



panying 



the Plate. 



190. Lesbia Amaryllis 



Vol. III. PL CLXX. 



Muls 



Cynanthus amaryllis, Bonap. 
"^TrocMlus VictoricB, Bourc. Rev. Zool. 1846, p. 315, pi. 4. 
"^Mellisuga Victoria, Gray & Mitch. Gen. of Birds, vol. i. p. 103, 

Mellisuga, sp. 54. 
"^Cynanthus Fictorice, Bonap. Consp. Gen. Av. torn. i. p. 81. 

Cynanthus, sp. 6. 
"^Lesbia Victories, Reich. Aufz. der Col. p. 8 ; Id. Troch. Enum. 



p. 5, pi. 715. figs. 4622-23 



Mus 



Habitat 



Dark or nearly black varieties not unfrequently occur among the 
Trocliilidse ; and 1 think that the bird to which M. Bourcier has 
given the name of Vktorice is merely such a variety of the L. Ama- 
ryllis. . 



^ r 



^ - ^ ' . 



.'-.'* -*.' 



.tr 



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Vol. III. PL CLXXI. 



191. Lesbia etjcharis • 

Trochilus eucharis, Bourc. 
Leshia eucharis, Reichenb. 
Cynanthns eucharis^ Bonap. 
"^Lesbia bifurcata, Reich. Troch. Enum. pi. 716. figs. 4624-25. 

Habitat, New Granada. 

i 

Considerable, and I fear inextricable, confusion exists with regard 
to the genera Lesbia and Cynanthus^ which would appear to be due 
to the various authors who have used those terms taking their cha- 
racters from defective descriptions or imperfect drawings, instead of 
actual specimens. This confusion I have endeavoured to rectify 
by applying the terms to the birds which I believe their respective 
proposers actually intended, and I do hope that, for the sake of 
science, they will be allowed so to stand for the future. 

Leaving the genus Lesbia^ then, we proceed to that of Cynanthns, 
and here we arrive at some of the most remarkable and the most 
beautiful of the Trochilidse. Strictly confined to the great Andean 
mountains and the spurs which jut out as far as eastern Venezuela, 
these blue-tailed birds enjoy a range of habitat extending from the 
lands washed by the Caribbean Sea to Peru. 

Those inhabiting the neighbourhood of Bogota appear to be 
divided into two or three local varieties or races ; for they are not, in 
my opinion, sufficiently different to warrant us in regarding them as 
species. On the other hand, the Ecuadorian bird possesses characters 
which induced me to consider it distinct, 

' The variation observable among the Bogotan birds is principally 
in the colouring of the tail — some having the whole of the feathers 
blue, while others have the eight central ones tipped with beautiful 



green 



Genus Cynanthus, Swains. 



192. Cynanthus cyanurxjs 



Vol. III. PL CLXXII. 



*' 



Trochilus cyanurns, Steph. 
Ornismya Kingiiy Less. 
^ Lesbia for ficatus, Reich. Aufz. der Col. p. 8; Id. Troch. Enum. 

p. 5, pi. 718. figs. 4628-29. 

Lesbia Gorgo^ Reich. Aufz. der Col. pp. 8, 24 ; Id. Troch. Enum. 
p. 5 ; Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 71. 

Habitat. New Granada. 

^ A somewhat smaller and more delicate bird than the Cynanthus 
cyanurus occurs in Venezuela, having the whole of the body green, 
with the exception of a patch of blue on the throat ; and the crown 
brilliant metallic green, without the supercihary stripe of black seen 
in that species: I refrain, however, for the present from character- 
izing it as distinct. 

193. Cynanthus ccelestis, GoulcL 
Habitat, Ecuador. 



\ 



4 

I 




til 



\ 



103 



This new Humming- Bird is considerably larger than the C cyanu- 
rus ; it also presents a marked difference in the colouring of the 
under surface, ^ which is uniform coppery brown, instead of green ; in 
other respects the colouring is very similar to the specimens from 
Bogota, with green and blue tails. In no instance have I seen a spe- 
cimen from Ecuador with an entirely blue tail, whereas they frequently 
occur among those sent from Bogota. 



MOCOA 



Cynanthus smaragdicaudus, Gould . . 

Trochilns Mocoa, Delatt. et Bourc. 

(Lesbia) smaragdinus, Gould. 



Vol. III. PL CLXXIII. 



Mellisuga smaragdinis. Gray & Mitch 
Cynanthus mocoa^ Bonap. 

Habitat. Peru and Bolivia. 

Specimens of this species, like those of the C. cyanurus, are found 
to differ considerably ; but as it is a bird of comparative rarity, we 
have seen too few examples to come to any positive conclusion as to 
whether these are referable to one or two species. The Mocoa may 
be regarded as the southern representative of the C. cyanurus. It 
frequents the forests of Bolivia and Peru, particularly those clothing 
the eastern slopes of the great Andean range. 

- As the LesbicB naturally led us on to the Cynanthi, so do the 
latter in their broad tail-feathers offer an alliance to the Cometce ; 
and, however much I have extolled the beauty of any of the prece- 
ding genera, it is scarcely possible to select terms sufficiently ex- 
pressive to convey an idea of the loveliness of the birds comprised in 
this latter genus. The two birds generally known under the names 
of Sappho and Phaon are par excellence the most gorgeous birds 
in existence so far as regards the colouring of their tails ; and well 
do these living meteors deserve the more general name of Comets. 

Genus Cometes, Gould. 

r 

(KofAriTriSy cometa.) 

Generic characters. 

Male.— Bill longer than the head, straight or slightly arched ; 
wings moderate ; tail long and deeply forked, the feathers broad and 
luminous ; tarsi naked ; feet small ; hind toe and nail nearly as long 
as the middle toe and nail ; throat luminous. 

Female .—Smeillev in size and nearly destitute of fine colouring. 




195. Cometes SPARGANURUS 



Vol. III. Pi. CLXXIV. 



Trochilus sparganuruSy Shaw, Steph., Jard 

chrysurus, Cuv. 

radiosus, Temm. 



Ornismya Sappho, Less. 
Cometes Sappho, Gould. 

sparganurus, Bonap. . 

Mellisuga sparganura, Gray & Mitch. 



I 



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104 

Orthorhynchus chrysurus, D'Orb. et Lafres. 
Trochilus chrysochloris^ Vieill. 
'^Cynanthus sparganuruSy Jard. Nat. Lib. Humming Birds, vol. ii. 

p. 146. 
^Trochilus (Cynanthus) chrysuriis, Tsch. Consp. p. 36, sp. 200 ; 

Id. Faun. Per. p. 244. 
^Orthorhynchus chrysurusy B'Orb. et Lafres. Syn. p. 26. 

^Sappho sparganuray Reich. Aufz. der Col. p. 9 ; Id. Troch. Enum, 

p. 5, pi. 724. figs. 4651-52. 
^Lesbia sparganuray Bonap. Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1854, p. 252. 
"^Sparganura Sappho, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 52. 



Vol. IIL PL CLXXV. 



Habitat. Bolivia. 

r \ 

196. CoMETES Phaon, Gould .... 

Mellisuga phaon. Gray & Mitch. Gen. of Birds, vol. i. p. 113, 

Mellisugay sp. 47. * 

Cometes phaon, Bonap. 
^Sappho phaony Reich. Aufz. der Col. p. 9 , Id. Troch. Enum. p. 5, 

pi. 725. figs. 4653-54. 
^Lesbia phaon, Bonap. Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1854, p. 252. 
^^Sparganurus Phaon, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein.Theiliii. p. 52, note. 



Habitat. Peru. 

197. CoMETEs? Glyceria 

Cometes Mossai, Gould. 
Lesbia glyceria, Bonap. 



Vol. III. PL CLXXVI. 



Mossai, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 52, note. 



Hab 



This is perhaps the most extraordinary bird I have had the good 
fortune to describe. I have placed it in the genus Cometes with a 
reservation; for it comprises characters which are found both in 
Lesbia and Cometes : in form it most nearly approaches the latter, 
while in its markings and in the colouring of its throat it resembles 
the former. At present only a single example has been obtained, 
and this, I am inclined to think, is not quite adult ; it may possibly 
be only a young male of a splendidly coloured but unknown species ; 
and if so, a fine bird remains in store to reward the researches of some 
future explorer. 

L 

198. Cometes? Caroli 

\ 

Trochilus Caroli, Bourc. 
Hylocharis Caroli, Gray & Mitch., Bonap. 
Calliphlox Caroli, Reichenb. 
Avocettinus carolus, Bonap. 

Habitat. Peru. 

Of this remarkable bird about four specimens have been in our 
collections for many years ; but whether they are males or females is 
unknown ; for in fact nothing has been recorded respecting these 



Vol. III. PI. CLXXVII. 



1 



h 




\ 



105 

puzzling birds . If the description accompanying my plate of the 
species be referred to, it will be seen that it has been bandied about 
from one genus to another, different authors havmg assigned it to 
TrocMlus, Hylocharis, Calliphlox, and Avocettinusl Some day, 
when the Httle-known country of Peru has been more fully investi- 
gated, we shall doubtless acquire a better knowledge of it, and be 
able to decide to which genus it really pertains : for the present let 
it remain in the one in which I have placed it. 



k'H' 



1 

Genus Pterophanes, Gould, 
(Ilrepov, ala, et ^atVw, ostendo.) 

Generic cliaracters. 

Male.— Bill cylindrical, longer than the head, and sUghtly up- 
curved ; wings very large and sickle-shaped ; tail hroad and large ; 
tarsi clothed ; feet small ; hind toe shorter than the middle one ; 
claws ]ong, slightly curved, and sharp at the point. 

Female, — Unadorned. 



199. Pterophanes Temmincki 



Vol. IIL PI. CLXXVIII. 



Ornismya Temmincki, Boiss. 



MS 



Mellis 



^Pterophanes Temmincki, Reichenb. iVufz, der Col. p. 14; Id.Troch. 



Mus 



Habitat 



The Pterophanes Temmincki must rank with the Patac/ona gig as 
among the very largest of the Humming-Birds ; the two species are 
nearly equal in size, but in their structure and the colouring of their 
plumage they are very different. The native country of the P. Tem- 
mincki is the temperate portion of the Andes, over which it ranges 
for a considerable distance from Bogota, the probable centre of its 
area. I have also seen specimens from Ecuador, where it appears to 
be scarce. This fine bird is rendered a very striking species by the 
beautiful blue colouring of its wings. 

r 

Genus Agl.^actis, Gould. 

('AyXata, splendor, et afcrts, radius Solaris.) 

Generic characters. 

Male.— Bill rather short, depressed at the base, and straight ; 
wings Ions; and powerful; primaries, particularly the outer one, 
sickle-shaped ; taU moderately large, and slightly forked when closed : 
tarsi partially clothed ; feet strong and powerful ; hind toe ^ and nail 
longer than the middle toe and nail ; breast ornamented with a tuft 
of lengthened plumes ; back luminous when viewed Irom behind. 

The birds for which I instituted the above genus have always 
greatly interested me. They are of large size, have very ample wings, 
and are distino-uished from all other Hummmg-Birds by their lumi- 



1 



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106 

nous backs, of which the rich and glittering hues are only percept- 
ible when viewed from behind, or reversely to the direction of the 
feathers ; contrary to the law which regulates the disposition of the 
colouring in all the other genera except in Cceligena^ where it is 
slightly apparent. All the species are natives of the Andes, over 
which they roam from the northern part of New Granada to Bolivia. 
The latter country is the cradle of the Aglceactis Castelnaudi and 
the richly coloured A. Pamela. These extraordinary birds, to which 
I have given the trivial name of Sunbeams, are among the most won- 
derful of the TrochiUdse. 



200. Agl^actis cupripennis 



Vol. III. PL CLXXIX, 



Trochilus cupripennis^ Bourc. et Muls. 
Mellisuga cupripennis^ Gray & Mitch. 
Aglceactis cupripennis j Bonap. 
— — -*- cupreipennis^ Bonap. 
Helianthea cupripennis ^ Reichenb. 
"^Agldiactis cupripennis^ Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 69. 

Habitat. New Granada. 

L 

r 

Professor Jameson and Mr. Eraser state that " The females of this 
species have the glittering back, but not so brilliant as in the males." 
IbiSy vol. i. p. 400. 

1. AgL^ACTIS jEaUATORTAHS. 

h 

Agldiactis cequatorialis^ Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein, Theil iii. p. 70, 



note. 
Habitat, Ecuador. 



H 



but the only difference I can perceive between this and Bogota speci- 
mens is in its larger size and longer wing ; but if this be admitted as 
a species, I must further increase the list by calling another parvula, 
of which I have two specimens shot by M. Warszewicz in Peru or 
Bolivia, for the precise locality is unknown to me, ' 

202. Aglceactis parvula, Gould. 

Habitat. Peru, or Bolivia. 

This bird has a much shorter bill, is of a deeper red on the under 
surface, more red in the tail, and altogether of much smaller size. 
Total length A\ inches ; bill \\ ; wing 3 ; tail If. 

203. Agl^actis caumatonota, Gould. 

Aglceactis caumatonotus^ Gould in Proc. Zool. Soc. part xvi. 1848, 
p. 12. 

Habitat. Peru, or Bolivia. 

F 

Described by me as above from a single specimen said to have 
been procured in Peru, which differs from the preceding iu being of 





_L.-- 



^ 



107 

smaller size and in the darker hue of the luminous portion of the 
back. 

204. Agl^actis Castelnaudi • . . VoL III- PL CLXXX. 

Trochilus Castelnaudii^ Bourc. et Muls. 

GastelnauL Gray & Mitch. 



Aglaeactis castelnaudi, Bonap. , 

Aglceactis castelneaui, Bonap. 
"^Aglaeactis Castelnaudi, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 9. 
^Helianthea Castelnaudi, Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. 6, 
figs. 4694-95. 



Mus 



Mag 



Habitat 
M 



blossoms of a species of mimoxa, the odours of which attract the small 
insects which form its food. Its cry is very piercing ; its flight very 
rapid and noisy. This species, which is quite new, was killed by 
myself in the valley of Echarate, near Cusco." 

205. Agl^actis Pamela Vol. III. PI. CLXXXI. 

Orthorhynchus Pamela, D'Orb. et Lafres. 



Hylocharis 

Aglcectis pamela, Bonap. 

Helianthea Pamela, Reic 






Mus 



p. 69 



Habitat 



Distinct from every other genus are the two species of Oxypogon. 
These bearded birds stand quite alone among the Trochihdse ; and 
although not remarkable for briUiancy of colour, their fantastic mark- 
ings, towering crests, and lengthened beards render them very con- 
spicuous objects. I shall not be surprised if other species of this 
form be discovered when the higher peaks of the great Andean range 
of mountains have been more closely examined. 

For a long time the Oxypogon Guerini was the only species known ; 
but in the year 1842 the intrepid traveller Mons. J. Linden ascended 
the high mountains of the Sierra Nevada de Merida, and was re- 
warded by the discovery of the second species, which bears his name. 



Genus Oxypogon, Gould. 
(O^vn, acutus, et Trwywr, barba.) 



Generic characters. 
Male 



/ 



both above and below ornamented with lengthened plumes, the former 
erect, the latter pendent ; winffs rather long ; tail large and forked 
when closed ; tarsi bare ; feet large and strong ; hind toe and nail 
longer than the middle toe and nail. 

Female. Smaller, and destitute of the ornamental face-plumes. 



r , 



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108 



Vol. III. PI. CLXXXII. 



206. OXYPOGON GUERINI .... 

Ormsmia Gruermii, Boiss. 
Trochilus parvh*ostriSy Fras. 
Ornismya Gueriniiy Lodd. 
Mellisuga Guerinii, Gray & Mitch. 
^Oxypogon Guerinii Reich. Aufz. der Col. p. 12; Id. Troch. Enum. 



Mus 



Hi 



207. OXYPOGON LiNDENI .... Vol. III. PI. CLXXXIII. 

Ornysmia Lindeniiy Parz. 
Mellisuga Lindeniiy Gray & Mitch. 
^Oxypogon Lindeni, Reichenh. Aufz. der Col. p, 12; Id. Troch. 
Enum. p. 10 ; Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 67, note. 

Habitat. The Sierra Nevada de Merida in New Granada. 

"This bird," says M. Linden, "inhabits the regions immediately 
beneath the line of perpetual congelation, and never at a less eleva- 
tion than 9000 feet." It might be thought that such bleak and 
inclement situations were ill-adapted for so delicate a structure as 
that of the Humming-Bird ; but there, and there only, does it dwell, 
while the equally lofty Paramos of Bogota are the native locality of 
the allied species O. Giterini. The minute insects which frequent 
the alpine flora of these districts afford abundance of food to these 
birds ; and beautifully constructed are their little bills for searching 
among the flowers in which they are found. 

Near the members of the genus Oxypogon are the various species 
of Ramphomicrony another bearded group, but difi^ering in the total 
absence of any lengthened plumes on the crown, and in the structure 
and colour of the pendent chin feathers. It will only be necessary 
to glance at the plates on which these species are depicted to per- 
ceive that, though they bear a general resemblance to the OxypogonSy 
they are generically distinct from them. Their short and feeble bills 
indicate that they feed on a similar kind of insect food ; and we 
know that such flowers as those of Sida and other plants with open 
corollas are frequently visited for the insects which abound therein. 

It is said that the members of this genus fly with great rapidity, 
and that like flashes of light they are constantly dashing about the hill- 
sides from one flower to another. It must be extremely interesting 
to watch the aerial movements of these comparatively large birds 
am.ong the lofty regions they frequent, and where the air is so pure 
and rarified. In all the hilly countries, from the Caribbean Sea 
southward to Bolivia, are the members of this genus to be obtained ; 
in the neighborhood of Bogota one of them is very common : this 
bird (the R. heteropogon) extends its range from thence to about the 
latitude of Popayan, while the little microrhyncha is equally abundant 
in New Granada and Ecuador. At Quito, or around those towering 
mountains immediately under the equator, we find the Stanleyi 
and Herranii while Bolivia gives us the Fulcani e^ud the ruficeps. 




a 




109 



Genus Ramphomicron, Bonap. 



208. Ramphomicron heteropogon 

Ornismya heteropogon^ Boiss, 
Trochilus coruscusy Fras. 
Mellisuga heteropogon^ Gray & Mite 
'Ramphomicron heteropogon^ Bonap. 



Vol. III. PL CLXXXIV. 



Mag 



1854, 



# 

* 



P 



252. 



Chalcostigma heteropogon, Reichenb. Aufz.der Col. p. 12. 
Ramphomicron heteropogon, Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. 10 ; 



Cab. 



Habitat 



Vol. III. PL CLXXXV 



I possess two very marked varieties or races of this bird, one being 
much smaller than the other : the large race, I believe, is from Pam- 
plona, and the smaller from the neighbourhood of Bogota. 

209. Ramphomicron Stanleyi . . 

Trochilus Stanleyi, Bourc. et Muls. tj m i 

^Chalcostigma Stanleyi, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 12 ; Id. Troch 

Enum. p. 10. 

Habitat. Ecuador. 

210. Ramphomicron Vulcani, Gould Vol. III. PI. CLXXXVI 

''I' Chalcostigma Vulcani, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. pi. 12. 
* Ramphomicron Vulcani, Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. "^ 



10. 



Habitat. Bolivia. 

211. Ramphomicron Herrani . 

Trochilus Herrani, De Latt. & B 



Vol. III. PL CLXXXVII 



Calothorax 



He 



Enum. p. 10. 



Mag 



Habitat 



212. Ramphomicron rxjficeps,GomZ*^. VoLIILPLCLXXXVIII. 



Trochilus ( 
Mellisuga ruji 



ijicep 



Enum. p. 10. 



^ujiceps 
'ujiceps^ 

ificeps. 



Habitat, Bolivia. 



r 

213. RaMPHOMICKON MICRORHYNCHUS. Vol. HI. PI. CLXXXIX 

Ornismya microrhyncha, Boiss. 
Trochilus brachyrhynchus, Fras. 



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Mellisuga microrhyncha^ Gray & Mitch. 

Ramphomicron microrTiyncha^ Bonap. 
"^ Rhamphomicron microrhynchuniy Keichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 12 ; 

Id.Troch. Enum. p. 10, pi. 718. figs. 4915-18. 
^ Rhamphomicriis microrhynchus, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil hi. 

p. 70. 
^Trochilus euanthes^ Licht. in Mus. of Berlin. 

Habitat, The Andes from the equator to seven degrees north. 

I must how ask those who take an interest in the various forms 
of this family of birds to turn to my plate of JJrosticte Benjamini, 
and examine the little bird figured thereon with a beautiful gorget 
of green and purple. This species is rendered very singular by the 
two tufts of white feathers which spring from behind the eve, and 
still more so by the white tipping of the four central tail-feathers. 
Ornithologists will view this character with astonishment, and in- 
wardly ask. Is this particular mark given for a special purpose in 
connexion with the economy of the bird, or for the mere purpose 
of ornament ? Th^ ornament and variety is the sole object, I have 
myself but little doubTT" Of this recently acquired form, the single 
species to which I have assigned the generic name of JJrosticte is all 
that is known. Like so many others that have preceded it, this is 
an Andean species, its native country being Ecuador. 



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Genus Urosticte, Gould. 



( Oupa 



) 



at 



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Generic characters. 
Male — 



—BillmMch. longer than the, head, and straight ; head round, 
the feathers not advancing on the bill ; wings moderately long and 
rather pointed ; tail slightly forked ; tarsi clothed ; hind toe shorter 
than the middle toe : throat luminous. 
i^^w««?e.— Unadorned. 

214. Urosticte Benjamini ..... 

Trochilus Benjaminiy Bourc. 

^Urosticta Benjamini, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 13. 
^Basilinna Benjamini, Reich. Troch. Enum. p. 11. 
^Urosticte benjaminus, Bonap. Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1854, p. 253 
Habitat. Ecuador. 



Vol. III. PL CXC 




I 



have 



characterized by certain pecuHarities, and that one feature is more 
prominent than the others in each of the different forms ; in some 
the back, and back only, is lit up with luminous colours ; in others, 
the throat is the only part thus adorned; in another (the Ptero'- 

The group which stands 







next on my list of genera and species have their share of ornament 
disposed on their broad and ample tails. In nearly every species this 



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• 111 

organ is illumined with brilliantly shining colours— some blue, others 
purple, and others, again, bronze ; in some these ghttermg hues appear 
on both the upper and under surface, while in others it is either con- 
fined to or is most brilliant on the latter. These colours, I am sure, 
the bird has the power of displaying to the greatest advantage, in 
order to render himself as attractive as may be when desirous of 
T.1p«sin0- tbft fPTTiftle, perhaps, likrEEe' Peacock, for the purpose of his 

These varied beauties serve to increase our admira- 

At least such is the feeling they create in 



own vain glory. 

tion of nature's works. 

my own breast. 



Genus Metallura, Gould. 
(MiraXXov, metallum, et ovpa, cauda.) 

Generic characters. 

Male.— Bill straight and of moderate length ; wings moderate ; 
tail rather large and rounded ; tarsi bare ; feet rather large ; hind 
toe and nail as long or longer than the middle toe and nail; 



Female. — Much 



rfc 



species destitute of the luminous throat-mark. 

All the members of this genus are tenants of the Andes, and by 
far the greater portion of them of Bolivia and Peru ; one species, 
however (the M. tyrianthina), ranges over the whole of the tempe- 
rate portions of New Granada. I now proceed to arrange the species 
according to their affinities, commencing with the largest and most 
gorgeously coloured. 

21.5. Metallura cupreicauda, Gould , 



Vol. III. PI. CXCI. 



( 



? 



) 



Mellisuga cupreo-cauda. Gray & Mitch 



Metallura 



cupreicauday Reichenb. 



Aglceactis cupreicauda^ Bonap. 

"^TrocMlus {Lamporms) opaca, "Liicn 

210 ; Id. Faun. Peru. p. 248, 13. 

^Metallura opaca. Cab, et Hein. Mus 

Habitat. Bolivia. 

"Museum E 



38, 



^i"'' 



la the third part of his * 
placed the specific name of opaca to this species as having the 
priority ; if this should prove to be correct, my name of cupreicauda 
must sink into a synonym. 

216. Metalltjra ^NEiCAUDA, Gould . . Vol. III. PU CXCII. 

Trochilus ( — — ?) ijeneocauda, Gould. 
Mellisuga ceneocauda, Gray & Mitch. 



Metallura 



ceneicauda, Reichenb. 



Aglceactis ceneicauda, Bonap. 



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Habitat. Bolivia. 

7. Metallxjra Williami 

TrocJiilus WilliamL Bourc. 



Vol. III. PL CXCIII. 



Mitch 



Metallura Williami 



william, Bonap. 
I WilliajnL Cab, 



note. 



Hein. Theil iii. p. 68, 



Habitat. Popayan. 

218. Metallura Primolii, Bonap. . 

Metallura pro7nolinay Bourc, Reichenb. 

primolinuSy Bonap. 

Urolampra primolina^ Cab. 

Habitat. Peru. 

219. Metallura TYRiANTHiNA . . 

Trochilus tyrianthinuSy Lodd. 
Ornismya Allardi, Bourc. 
Paulince, Boiss. 



Vol. III. PI. CXCIV 



Vol. III. PI. CXCV 



Trochilus Allardi, Jard. 

Mellisuga tyrianthinus^ Gi'^y & Mitch. 

Metallura tyrianthina^ Reich enb. 

tyrianthinuSy Bonap. 

^Urolampra tyrianthina. Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 68. 

Habitat. New Granada. 

In my account of Metallura tyrianthinay T have given that bird 
a very wide range of habitat, extending from the Gulf of Darien to 
Ecuador j but having since had ample opportunities for examining 
numerous specimens from every locahty, I find that the birds from 
Eucador are so much larger than those from Bogota that I cannot do 
otherwise than regard them as distinct. In examples from the two 
localities mentioned, there is a difference of more than half an inch 
in the length of their wings, and fully an eighth in the length of 
their bills ; I observe also that the small birds from Bogota are 
much more richly coloured than the larger ones from Ecuador ; the 
throat is of a more beautiful green, the abdomen much darker, and 
the reddish-purple of the tail more resplendent ; beheving the 
Ecuadorian bird to be distinct, I have no alternative but to give it a 
name, and I therefore propose for it that of Quitensis : 

220. Metallura Quitensis, Gould. 
Habitat. Ecuador. 

221. Metallura smaragdinicollis . Vol. III. PI. CXCVI 

Orthorhynchus smaragdinicollis^ D'Orb. et Lafres. 
Mellisuga smaragdinicollis^ Gray & Mitch. 



II 








I 



I 



113 



Metallura smaragdinicoUis, Bonap., Reichenb. rpu -i — 

^Urolampra smaragdinicollis, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Iheil in. 

p. 68, note. 
Habitat. Peru and Bolivia. 

Varied as have been the subjects hitherto referred to m the 
present volume, and beautiful as is the colouring of many ot me 
species, the next genus is composed of birds which cannot boast ot 
any brilliancy of colouring ; on the contrary, they are clothed m 
very sombre attire, and have nothing to recommend them to our 
notice but chaste and delicate hues ; still in my opinion they are not 



the less interesting. 



Genus Adelomyia, Bonap. 



222. Adelomyia inornata, Gould. 



VoL HI. PI. CXCVII. 



Mellisug 



( 



) 



Ramphomicron inornatuSy Bonap. 
Adelomyia inornata^ Bonap. 
Metallura inornata, Reichenb. 
"^Adelisca inornata. Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil in. p. 72, note. 



Habitat. Bolivia. 
223. Adelomyia melanogenys 

Trochilus melanogenys, Fras. 

Sabince, Bourc. et Muls. 

Mellisuga Sabine, Gray & Mitch 



Vol. III. PL CXCVIII. 



Mitch 



Ramphomicron sabinae, Bonap. 



melanogenys, Bonap. 

Adelomyia sabina, Bonap. 
Metallura Sabinae, Reich. 
"^Adelisca melanogenys, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 72. 

Habitat. New Granada, Ecuador, and Peru. 

Precisely the same kind of difference occurs between examples of 
this form from Venezuela and Ecuador that has been described as 
occurring with regard to the Metallura tyrianthina andM. Quitensis. 
The Adelomyia of Ecuador and Peru is very considerably larger than 
the A. melanogenys from Venezuela ; it has more buff at the base of 
the tail-feathers, and a much more conspicuously spotted throat and 
breast ; for this Ecuadorian bird I therefore propose the name of 

maculata : 

224. Adelomyia maculata, Gould . . Vol. HI. PL CXCIX. 

Habitat. Ecuador. 

Avocettula and Avocettinus are the generic terms applied to the 
two species rendered remarkable by the points of the mandibles being 
curved upwards in the shape of a hook : this extraordinary deviation 



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114 

from the usual structure is doubtless designed for some especial pur- 
pose ; but what that may be, is at present unknown to us. 

In placing these two species near to each other I do not mean to 
convey an idea that they are very nearly aUied. One is an inhabitant 
of the Andes, the other of Guiana and the neighbouring countries. 
Nothing whatever is known respecting these singular birds. 



Genus Avocettinus, Bonap. 



Vol. III. PI. CC. 



225. Avocettinus eurypterxjs . - • • 

Trochilus eurypterus, Lodd. 

Polytmus eurypterUy Gray & Mitch. 

Trochilus Georgince^ Bourc. 

Polytmus Georgince, Gray & Mitch. 
Delattria georgina, Bonap. 

Avocettinus eurypterus^ l^onsip. 
Avocettula eurypteray Reichenb. 

GeorginaCy Reichenb, 

^Opisthoprora eurypteray Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theiliii. p. I^y 
note. 

J^ahitat. The high lands of New Granada. 



Genus Avocettula, Reichenh. 



226. Avocettula recurvirostris . 

Trochilus recurvirostrisy Swains. 
Mellisugal recurvirostriSy Steph. 
Ornismya recurvirostriSy Less. 

i avocettUy Less. 

Campylopterus recurvirostriSy Swains. 
Hylocharis recurvirostris. Gray & Mi< 
Avocettinus recurvirostris, Bonap. 

lessoniy Bonap. 

Avocettula recurvirostriSy Bonap., Reich. 



Vol. III. PI. CCI. 



^Trochilus avocettay Jard. Nat. Lib. Humming Birds, vol. i. p. 'JS, 

- recurvirostriSy Jard. Nat- Lib. Humming Birds, vol. ii. 



pi. 2. 



p. 80. 
^Hylocharis avocettay Gray & Mitch. Gen. of Birds, vol. i. p. 114, 

HylochariSy sp. 12. 
^ Streblorhawphus recurvirostris. Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theiliii. 

p. 76. 

Habitat. The Guianas. 



* Genus Anthocephala, Cab. 

This generic term has been proposed by Dr. Cabanis for the bird 
I have figured under the name of Adelomyia floricepSy which is at 
present the only species of the form known ; for, although I have 
ventured to place with it my Adelotnyia ? castaneiventrisy I am 



■ i 



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■JEl- 



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r 



115 



unable to say, from the imperfect materials at my command, whether 
it really belongs to the present or to some other genus. 

227. Anthocephala floriceps. 



Adelomyia floriceps, Gould 
TrocMlus ( 



Vol. III. PI. ecu. 



1,) floriceps y Gould. 

Adelomyia floriceps, Bonap. 
Metallura floriceps^ Reichenb. 
^Anthocephala floriceps. Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 72, 

note. 
Habitat. Columbia. 



228. Anthocephala ? castaneiventris. 

Adelomyia ? castaneiventris, Gould . . , 

TrocMlus ( ?) castaneoventris, Gould 

Metallura castaneiventris, Reichenb. 

Habitat. Chiriqui. 



Vol. III. PI. CCIII 



The fourth vohirae commences with a species which plays no 
inconsiderable part as an article of trade; for it is the one, par 
excellence, of which thousands are annually sent to Europe for the 
purpose of contributing to the decorations of the drawing-rooms of 
the wealthy, for the manufacture of artificial flowers, &c. ; and well 
suited is it for such purposes, its rich ruby and topaz-like colouring 
rendering it one of the most conspicuous and beautiful objects 



imaginable. 



(better 
d) 



by its 



range, being found'all over the eastern parts of Brazil, Cayenne, 
Guiana, Venezuela, the high lands of Bogota and Trinidad. 

The females of this form difiFer very widely from the males in the 
colouring of their plumage ; and the young males undergo so many 
changes between youth and maturity, that they must have puzzled 
the most astute of ornithological investigators. 



Genus ChrysolampiSj BoiL 



229. Chrysolampis moschitus . 
Trochilus moschitus, Linn, et auct. 



Vol. IV. PL CCIV 



Mellisuga Brasiliensis, gutture topazino, Briss. 
Ornismya moschita. Less. 
Chrysolampis moschitus^ Boie, Bonap. 
Mellisuga moschita, Steph., Gray & Mitch. 
Chrysolampis mosquitus, Bonap., Reichenb. 

Trochilus pegasus, Gmel. 

gujanensis, Gmel., Lath. 

carbunculus, Gmel., Lath. 

elatus, Gmel. 



Mellisuga Cayanensis, ventre griseo, Briss. 
Chrysolampis carbunculus, Reichenb. 
Trochilus hypophcEUS, Shaw. 



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Chrysolampis moschita^ Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 2i. 
^Chrysolampis Reichenbachi^ C^b,ei Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii.p. 21. 

Habitat Guiana, Cayenne, Brazil, Venezuela, the Andes of New 
Granada, and the islands of Trinidad and Tobago. 

Dr. Cabanis is of opinion that the bird from New Granada 
is distinct from that obtained in the other localities; but I must re- 
ceive more decided evidence that such is the case than I at present 
possess, before I can admit that there is any difference between the 
Andean and Brazilian examples ; for the present, therefore, I place 
his name of C Reichenbachi as a synonym of C moschitusy which 
I believe to be the only species yet known of the genus. 

'^ This pretty little species," says Mr. Kirk, "arrives in Tobago 
at the end of January or about the Ist of February. It begins to 
build about the 10th, lays two pure white eggs, and sits fourteen 
days. It feeds on ants as well as flowers, I detected 115 small 
insects in the stomach of one I dissected. One of these birds 
having attached its nest to the trunk of a logwood tree close to a 
window of my residence, I had an opportunity of observing its 
manners during incubation, and I can assert that, although I con- 
fined the young by means of some coarse wire cloth, through 
which the parent could feed them, for upwards of three weeks after 
they were ready to leave the nest, and although she evinced the 
greatest distress by her chirping note when flying around me, often 
within three feet, I never but twice, from the laying until the period 
I mention, saw a male near the nest; and whether they pair seems 
to be disputed, as on both these occasions he was hotly pursued by 
the female to a considerable distance with all the bickering violence 
so peculiar to the tribe." — Horce Zoologiece^ by Sir W. Jardine, 
Bart.j in Ann. and Mag, Nat, Hist. vol. xx. p. 373. 

r 

In proceeding next to the genus Or thor Ay nchus, composed of 
birds ornamented with glittering green and blue crests, I do not 
insist that they have any direct affinity with the last, nor are they 
intimately allied to the members of the succeeding one : a more 
isolated form, in fact, is not to be found among the Trochilidee. 
Only two species have been recorded by previous writers, but spe- 
cimens of a third are contained both in the Loddigesian and my own 
collections ; I allude to the bird here described under the name of 
Orthorhynchus ornatus. 

All the members of the 

Genus Orthorhynchus, Cuv.y 

are confined to the West India Islands, but our present knowledge 
of them does not admit of my stating positively the extent of the 
range of each species ; this is a point which requires further in- 
vestigation. The females differ from the males in being destitute 
of the glittering crown. 



ii30. Orthorhynchus cristatus 

Trochilus cristatus^ Linn, et auct. 



. . Vol. IV. PI. CCV 



9-J^ 



-■^-- -^ 



117 



Mellisuya crisiata, Briss., Gray & Mitch, 
Orthorhynchus cristatus, Bonap., Reichenb. 
Or7iismya cristata^ Less. 
Trochilus pileatus, Lath. 
■ puniceus, GmeU 



Mus 



p. 61 



Habitat 



The Rev. Lansdown Guilding states that this species " sometimes 
deviates from its usual habits. In general it is remarkably wild, 
and soon disturbed- I once, however, saw a pair of this species 
almost domesticated, in the house of a gentleman whose kindness 
and humanity had brought round him many a lizard and winged 
pet. They built for many years on the chain of the lamp suspended 
over the dinner-table ; and here they educated several broods, in a 
room occupied hourly by the family. I have been seated with a 
large party at the table when the parent bird has entered, and, 
passing along the faces of the visitors, displaying his glorious crest, 
has ascended to the young without alarm or molestation." — Lovdons 
Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. v. p. 570. 

231. Orthorhynchus ORNATUs, Gould . 



Vol. IV. PL CCVL 



*r Oiseaumouche huppe. Less. Hist. Nat. des Ois.-mou. p. 113, 
pis. 31, 32? 
Habitat. One of the Windward Islands; but which of them, is 
unknown. 

Basal two-thirds of the crest green, the apical third blue; upper 
surface deep grass green ; throat dark smoky grey, becoming much 
darker on the abdomen ; flanks glossed with green ; wings and tail 

purplish black ; bill black. 

Total length 3-| inches; bill,^; vving 1|; tail \\. 

This species bears a general resemblance to the O. cristatvs, but 
differs from that bird in being of a somewhat smaller size, and in 
having the basal two-thirds of the crest glittering green and the tip 
only blue ; the crest is also longer and more elegant in form than that 
of C. cristatus or C.exilis. With the latter it never can be confounded, 
while the former rnay always be distinguished from it by the trun- 
cate form of the green portion of its crest. It is just possible that 
the birds represented on the 31st and 32nd plates of Lesson's ' His- 
toire Naturelle des Oiseaux-mouches' may have reference to this 

bird. 

232. Orthorhynchus exilis . . . 

Trochilus exilisy Gmel., Lath., VieilL 
Mellisuga exilis, Gray & Mitch. 
Trochilus cristatellus, Lath., VieiU. 



Vol. IV. PL CCVIL 



Orthorhynchus chlorolophus, Bonap. 

: exilisy Reichenb., Bonap, Cabanis. 



Ha 



Croix. 



A 



1' 



. k 



M 



ip 






i 



t 



^'k:y: 



'^.-':---- 



■■ I 






- I 




If! 




't- 






F 



• I 
I \ 



118 



*^ After a careful examination of skins procured from St. Croix 



and St. Thomas," says Mr , „ , ,,,^,,, ,^ ,,,^ 

above-named species, though one of a male presents a slightly dif- 
ferent appearance from the ordinary type, in having a narrow blue 
edging to the otherwise golden-green crest, and thus exhibiting an 
affinity to the closely-allied Blue-crest (O. cristatus) from St. Vin- 
cent and Barbadoes. The present bird has, we believe, hitherto 
been known only from Martinique and Nevis. 

" I shot a female of this species at Southgate Farm on the north 
shore of the eastern end of the Island of St. Croix, where much of 
the land, bemg out of cultivation, is chiefly covered with Casha 



Hum 



Manchioneel 



I have been 



iore probably of this species, has been seen in other localities ; but 
It must be very uncommon. Of its habits I know nothing."— i&j> 
vol. 1. p. 141. o > 

The Brazilian genus Cephalepis comprises two species, with 
lengthened ornamental crests terminating in a single plume, on 
which account they stand alone not only in their own family, but, 
so far as I am aware, among birds generally. The females are 
entirely devoid of this conspicuous character. I think it very pro- 
bable that additional species of this form will be discovered when 
the natural productions of the interior of Brazil become better 



known. 



Genus Cephalepis, BoiL 



233. Cephalepis Delalandi 



Vol. IV. PL CCVIII 



Trochilus Delalandi, Vieill., Temm,, Valenc, Less. &c. 
Ornismya Delalandi^ Less. 
Trochilus versicolor <, Vieill - 
Mellisuga Delalandi^ Gray & Mitch. 
Cephalepis lalandiiy Bonap. 

"^ Cephalepis Delalandii. Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 12. 
* Orthorhynchus Delalandii, Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. 9. 
"^ Cephalolepis Delalandi, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 61. 
Habitat. Southern Brazil. 

234. Cephalepis Loddigesi, Gould . . . 

Trochilus Loddigesii, Gould, Less., Jard. 

opisthocomus y Licht. 

Cephalepis loddigesi, Bonap. 

Mellisuga Loddigesii, Gray & Mitch. 
^Cephalepis Loddiggesii, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 12. 
^Orthorhynchus Loddiggesii, Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p, 9. 



Vol. IV. PL CCIX. 



Mus 



note. 
Habitat. Minas Geraes a 

Near to Cephalepis is the 



1 






J. ^ ^ r 



~^i> -ri L -^-^ r,-, 



'1 ^[mL.-^ — f 



r. h.-^7_ J-^ 



=^7^ 



IV_W^'^J-_- _-_ 



i 



:! 



\ 



119 



Genus Klais, Reichenb., 
of which but one species is known. This singular bird, which 
has no ornamental crest, and but little fine colouring to recommend 
it to our notice, is a native of Venezuela and the hilly parts of 
New Granada. The females of this form are much less highly 
coloured than the males. 



235. Klais Guimeti ... .... Vol. IV. PI. CCX. 

Trochilus GuimetU Bourc et Muls. 
Hylocharis Guimeti^ Gray & Mitch. 
Klais Guimeti^ Reichenb. 
Myiabeillia guimeti^ Bonap. 
"^Basilinna Guimeti, Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. 12; Cab. et Hein. 

Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p- 45. 
^ My iahellia guimeti, Sclat. in Proc. Zool. Soc- part xxv. p. 17. 
^Mellisuga Merrittii, Lawr. Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist, in New York, 

vol. vii. April 9, 1860. 
Habitat. Venezuela and the Andes of New Granada. 

''In the district of El Mineral" in New Granada, says Dr. Mer- 
ritt, " there has been a slight attempt at cultivation of the soil and 
planting of fruit trees. The Orange, the Guama, and Guayava 
trees are the most numerous, particularly the last named, which is 
very prolific, bearing nearly throughout the year fruit in all its 
stages from the blossom to maturity. Consequently the Guayava 
tree is the favourite resort of the Humming Bird. I often watched 
these little creatures feeding and quarrelling around a tree near the 
door of my palm-leaf hut, and soon my attention was attracted to 
one much smaller than the rest, whose pugnacity and indomitable 
* pluck' greatly amused me. Upon closer examination of this di- 
minutive feathered warrior my interest increased, as I soon became 
convinced that it was new to me. I frequently afterwards saw nu- 
merous specimens of it, and almost invariably encountered them 
feeding from the blossoms of the Guayava, and I therefore conclude 
they are quite local in their habitat." 



Genus Myiabeillia, Bonap. 



This is a very distinct generic form, 
tains but a single species, 
Mexico and Guatemala. The 
green gorget, a feature which 

236. Myiabeillia typica . 



Like that of Klais^ it con- 

a delicately formed bird inhabiting 

male is decorated with a brilliant 



. . Vol. IV. PL CCXI 



Trochilus Abeillei, Delatt. et Less. 

Mellistiga Abeillei, Gray & Mitch. 

Ramphomicron abeilleii, Bonap. 

Myiabeillia typica^ Bonap. 
^Baucis Abeillei, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 13. 
^Abeillia typica, Bonap. Consp. Gen. Av. torn. i. p. 79, Rampho- 
micron, sp. 4. 






J > 



^ 



I ( 



:| 



■ 



'.4 



I. 
I 






'I 



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cflf" 



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f 






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II 



I' 



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p. 72 



A 



120 

*Basilmna Abdllii, Reichenb. Troch. Euura. p. H. 
*Baucis Abeillei, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iil. 

Habitat. Mexico and Guatemala. 

^' Volcan de Fuego and Coban. The barrancos of the volcano 
are the only localities I am aware of, near Duenas, where this spe- 
cies is found. Here, however, it is a common bird. It is usually 
to be seen feeding about upon the brushwood, seeking the flowers, 
&c. It is a restless species, but shows little symptoms of fear. My 
skins from the Volcano are one female and three males. The pro- 
portions at Coban are very diiferent. Here it is common, being 
found in all the mountain-hollows feeding among the SalvicB. The 
ratio of the sexes is as twenty males to one female,"— .S'afom in Ibis, 
vol. 11. p. 262. 

I must now direct the notice of my readers to some of the most 
chaste and elegant species yet discovered of this or any other family 



Heliactin. Helioth 



^c/iistes, and Petasophora. 

Genus Heliactin, Boie. 

The single species of this genus stands alone for the resplendent 
and richly coloured tufts of feathers which spring from above and 
behind the eye. 



237. Heliactin cornuta 



Vol. IV. PI. CCXII. 



cornutusy Pr. Max. 

dilophus, Vieill. 

bilophus^ Temm. 
Ornismya chrysolopha^ Less. 
Mellisuga bilopha^ Steph. 
Heliactin cornuta, Bonap. 
Mellisuga cornuta, Grav & M 



Heliactinia cornuta, Reichenb. 
^Heliactinus cornutus, Burm. Th. Bras. tom. ii. p. 356. 
^Trochilus bilobus, Licht. in Mus. of Berlin. 
""Heliactin cornuta, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii 

Habitat. Brazil, particularly the district of Minas Ge 



Heliothr 



has a longer and more ample tail than her mate,— in which respect 
the form offers an affinity to the members of the succeeding genus. 



Genus Heliothrix, BoiL 

This, like the last, is a very well-marked form, of which two 
species are natives of Central America and New Granada, one of 
tlie regions of the upper Rio Negro, and two of the rich country of 
I>razil, They are all distinguished by being decorated with beautiful 
blue tufts on the sides of the neck, relieved by glittering j^reen 
cheeks and snowy breasts. In addition to this fine display of 



\ 



X. 



iL 



I 



i 

I. 



— J 



Ur: 




lltfl.tfc 



'III' 
■I'^l 



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\ 



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121 



colours, two of them have rich blue crowns; there is yet another 
character common, I believe, to the whole-that of the tai of he 
females being much larger and more lengthened than that of the 
males ; the young males, too, have this organ much more prolonged 
than in the adult males; they have all peculiarly sharp wedge- 
shaped bills, lengthened wings, and small feet. Judgmg from the^se 
points in their structure, I believe these birds to be endowed with the 
power of more rapid flight than any other members of the tamily. 



238. Heliothrix auritus 



Vol. IV. PI. CCXIII. 




TrocMlus auritus, Gmel., Lath., Vieill., Swains. 

MelHsuga Cayenensis major, B ' 

Ornismya aurita, Less. 

Heliothrix auritus, Boie, Gray & Mitch., Bonap. 

aurita. Gray. 

Ornismya nigrotis. Less. 
Heliothrix nigrotis. Gray & Mitch., Bonap. 
*Trochilus leucocrotaphus, Vieill. Nouv. Diet, d Hist. Nat. tom. vu. 



Meth 



'^Heliothrix 



Mus 



Habitat. Northen 
and Venezuela. 



239. Heliothrix auriculatus .... Vol. IV. PI. CCXIV 

Trochilus auriculatus^ Licht. 
Ornismya Pouchettii, Less. 
Heliothrioc auriculatus, Gray & Mitch. 



Heliothrix 



poucheti, Bonap- 



Mus 



* 



1 aurita, Jun., Burm. Th. Bras. tom. ii. p. 336 



Habitat 



240. Heliothrix phainol^ma, Gould 

* Heliothrix phcBUoleuca, Hartl. Wieg. Ar 

phcenolmma. Cab. et Hein. M 



Vol. IV. PI. CCXV. 

xxii. 2. p. 23. 

Hein. Theil iii. p. 28, 



note. 
Habitat 



24<1. Heliothrix Barroti. 

Heliothrix purpureiceps, Gould . 
Heliothrix purpureiceps, Gould in 



Vol. IV. PI. CCXVI. 



p. 87. 



Barroti, Salvin in Ibis, vol. iii. p. 410. 



Trochilus Barroti, Bourc. 
Heliothrix Barroti, Gray & Mitch 



Heliothrix 




Mus 



t': 



, 1 



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V :'w *, -' 



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^" 



122 

^Ornismya Gabriel^ Delatt. Echo du Monde Savant, No. 4*5, Juin 
15, 1843, col. 1070. 

Habitat. Guatemala, Costa Rica, and the forests of New Granada 
bordering the Pacific coast, as far south as Ecuador ; Esme- 
raldas (Praser). 

242. Heliothrix violifrons, Gould. 

Heliothrix Barroti . 

Habitat. Carthagena, or Veragua. 



Vol. IV. PL CCXVII. 



On receiving this bird from M. Warszevvicz, I considered it to be 
referable to the Heliothrix Barroti, and accordingly figured and 
described it under that name. Subsequently I received another 
bird with a differently coloured crown, which, believing it to be 
new, I described and figured as H. purpureiceps^ but I now find 
that the latter is the true H. Barroti, and that the former is a new 

I therefore 



bird; 

H. violifrons. 



propose for it the distinctive appellation of 



Between the genera Heliothrix and Petasophora appears to be 
the proper situation for my genus Schistes; for to the former it 
is nearly allied in its wedge-shaped bill, and to the latter in the 
colouring of the tail. The three species known are all inhabitants 
of the Andes of New Granada and Ecuador. I have often thought 
that the white gular mark in Schistes albigularis is characteristic of 
immaturity ; but this is by no means certain. 

Genus Schistes, Gould. 

(liX^^^^ findo.) 
Generic characters. 

Male. — Bill longer than the head, straight, wedge-shaped at the 

tip ; winffs moderately long and slightly rounded ; tail rounded, the 

feathers broad ; tarsi partially clothed ; feet small ; hind toe and nail 

shorter than the middle toe and nail. 

243. Schistes Geoffroyi Vol. IV. PI. CCXVIII. 

Trochilus Geoffroyi, Bourc. et Muls. 

Petasophora? Geoffroyi^ Gould. 

Polytmus Geoffroyi, Gray & Mitch. 

Colibri Geoffroyi, Bonap. 
"^ Schistes Geoffroyi, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p, 13. 
"^Petasophora Geoffroyi, Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p, 11. 
"^ Schistes Geoffroyi, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 27. 



Habitat. The Andes of New Granada. 
244. Schistes personatus, Gould 



Vol. IV. PI. CCXIX 



yffroyii 



Hab 



Mr 



He 



marks, " I should have taken this to be the male of S. albogularis 
but for the colour of the feet and shape of the tail. Bill and feet 
black. Stomach contained insects," 







x-i^^Ij- ^-i-^£U ri -i^iii ^>^-ji**^ -^ .-_ r^ T. -T^JI "i^T 



■T^ 



F --m z -^^K Ari~«- ^n ^u 









1 



123 



24a. SCHISTES ALBIGULARIS, Gould 



Vol. IV. PI. CCXX. 



*ScJiistes alhigularis, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 13. 
^Petasophora albigularis, lb. Troch. Enum. p. 11. 
*Schistes albigularis, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii 

Habitat. The western side of Pichincha, in Ecuador, 
tion of 6000 feet. 



Mr 



who procured this bird at Pallatanga, says 



" Bill 



black ; feet dark flesh-colour ; gizzard contained insects ; found in 



the underwood." 

The members of the next genus, Augastes, have perhaps no direct 
alliance with the preceding ; but as they are characterized by masked 
faces, and have huffy marks on the sides of the chest, they are as well 

placed here as elsewhere. 

Both the A. scutatus and A. LumacJiellus are very beautiful 
species, and have had the trivial name of Vizor-bearers applied to 
them, from the very pecuhar manner in which their entire faces are 
covered with shining metallic feathers, giving the birds the appear- 
ance of being masked ; the under surface of their tails is also lumi- 

i^^iio ;« TOViii^Vi vpcnppt thpv nresent a similaritv to the Metallurce. 



Grenus Augastes, Gould. 
(Avya^w, illucesco, de avy^, splendor.) 

Male. — Bill straight, longer than the head, and inclining to a 
wedge-shape at the tip ; head round, the feathers not advancing 
upon the bill; wings rather long ; tail moderately long and square. 



/ 



/ 



Female. — Destitute of luminous colouring. 

246, AXJGASTES SCUTATUS 

Trochilus superhus^ Vieill. 

scutatus, Natt., Temm., Jard. 



Vol. IV. PI. CCXXI. 



Ornismya Nattereriiy Less. 

Hylocharis superba, Gray & Mitch, 
^Trochilus venustus, Licht. in Mus. of Berlin. 
^Augastes superbus, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 13 ; Troch. Enum. 
p. 11 ; Bonap. Bev. et Mag. de Zool. 1854, p. 253. 

Habitat, Ecuador. 

247v AUGASTES LUMACHELLUS . . . Vol. IV. PI. CCXXII. 

Ornismya lumacJiella, Less. 

Trochilus Lumachellus, Bourc. 

Hylocharis Lumachellus, Gray & Mitch. 

*Lamprurus Lumachellus, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 12. 

^Ramphomicron Lumachellus, Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. 10. 

.,. . -f , , „ -o !}.„ .^ iv/r„^^ jg 2ool. 1854, 



* 



Aug astes lumachellus, Bonap. Rev. et Ma 



Mus 



Hi 



Ifl 

■4 



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I 



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rj 



:irii 



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124 



One of those genera which give but little trouble to the ornitho- 



logist is the 



Genus Petasophora, G. M. Gray, 



all the species having characters in common, while each has its own 
peculiar distinction either in colour or markings. The sexes are 
alike in colour, but the females are always much smaller than the 
males. This is strictly an Andean group, most of the species being 
found in those elevated regions from Mexico in the north to Bolivia 
in the south; one species, the P. serrirostris ^ inhabits Brazil, 



r 

248. Petasophora serrirostris 



Vol. IV. PL CCXXIII. 



Trochilus serrirostris, Vieill. 
'-janthinotuSy Natt. 



Max 



Ornismya petasophora, Less. 
Grypusl Vieilloti, Steph. 
Colibri crispus, Spix. 

Petasophora serrirostris , Gray, Gould, Bonap. 
Polytmus serrirostris, Gray & Mitch. 
^Trochilus {Lophomis^ petasophorus ^ Tschudi, Consp. p. 37* 

No. 205. 



# 



Mus 



^Petasophora chalcotis, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 13 ; Id. Troch. 






Enum. p. 11. 



serrirostris^ Id. ib. p. 13. 

crispa, Burm. Th. Bras. torn. ii. p. 335. 



Mus 



Petasophora Gouldi, Bonap. (p 
ing Bahia). 

Habitat. Brazil, from Minas G 



249. Petasophora Anais 

Ramphodon Anais, Less. 

Polytmus Anais, Grav & 
Colibri anais, Bonap. 



Vol. IV. PI. CCXXIV. 



Mitch 



Trochilus thalassinus, Jard. 

Anais, Jard. 



Mag 



M 



iii. p. 26. 



^Praxilla Anais, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 13. 
Habitat New Granada and Venezuela. 

250. Petasophora iolata, Gould . . Vol. IV. PI. CCXXV. 

Polytmus iolatus. Gray & Mitch. 
Colibri jolata, Bonap. 
^} Trochilus {Coeligena) Anais, Tschudi, Consp. p. 36, No. 201 ; 

Id. Faun. Peru. p. 244, No. 4- 
^Praxilla iolata, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 13. 
^Petasophora iolata, Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. 11. 



-^ 



f 




#h 



.11 



-•- J 



^, 



1 




f 




125 



rhodotis " Gould," Saucerotte in Mus. Heinean. 
iolata, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 26. 



I Habitat, 



251. Petasophora coruscans, Gould . Vol. IV. PI. CCXXVI 

Trochilus {Petasophora) coruscans, Gould. 
Petasophora coruscans^ Gould. 
Polytmus coruscans, Gray & Mitch. 
Colihri coruscans, Bonap. 

Habitat. Unknown. 

I have never seen a second example 
departs from the ordinary species, and 
P, Delphince. 

252. Petasophora thalassina 

Trochilus thalassinus, Swains. 
Polytmus thalassinus, Gray & Mitch. 
Colibri thalassinus, Bonap, 
^Trochilus Anais, Swains. Birds of Brazil, pi. 75. 



of this singular bird, which 
assimilates somewhat to the 



. Vol. IV. Pi. CCXXVII. 



* Ornismija Anais, Less. Supp. des Ois.-mou. pi. 32. 
*Ramvhodon Anais, Less. Troch. p. 148, pi. 56 ? 

* Trochilus Anais, Jard. Nat. Lib. Humming Birds, vol. u. p. 2? 
*Cynantkusthalassinus, J &rd.\h.i,. 1 4^8. 

*Colibris thalassina, Sclat. in Proc. of Zool. Soc. part, xxiv p. 287. 
^Petasophora thalassina, Bonap. Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 185^. 



M 



Troch. Enum. p. 11- 



*Praxilla thalassina, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 13. 



Habitat. Mexico 



The barrancos of the Volcan de Fuego are favourite resorts of 
this species. A specimen obtained at Duenas on the 15th ot Sep- 
tember was the only one I saw out on the llano, as the bird is 



usually found in the dense forest. 

253. Petasophora cyanotis 



Sahin m Ibis, vol. ii. p. 260. 

Vol. IV. PI. CCXXVIII. 



Trochilus cyanotus, Bourc. 

Petasophora cyanotus^ Gould. 

Polytmus cyanotus, Gray & Mitch. 

Colibri cyanotis, Bonap- 
^Ornismya Anais, Less. Troch. p. 151, pi. 57? 
^Praxilla cyanotis, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 13. 
^Petasophora cyanotus, Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. 1 1. 
* cyanotis, Bonap. Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1854, p- ^51 



Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 26. 



Habitat 



^-7 



254. Petasophoua Delphin^ 



Vol. IV. PI. CCXXIX. 



n 



Mitch 



K 



It 



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lir 



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I 



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I y 



t 
I 



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hi 



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i 



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126 



Colihri delphince^ Bonap. 
^Telesiella DelphincR^ Rei 
^Petasovhora D 



* 



delphina, Bonap. Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1854, p. 251 - 
"^Telesilla Delphinte, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 27. 

Habitat. The Guianas, Trinidad, Venezuela, Guatemala, New 
Granada, and Ecuador. 

<' This Humming- Bird seems to have been quite unknown at 
Coban previously to the collection of my specimens. The first was 
shot by my collector, Cipriano Prado, among some Salvice^ in one 
of the mountain hollows near Coban. Salvia being in flower in 
November, their blossoms are sought after by nearly every species 
of Humming-Bird near Coban, and this among the rest. It is rare 
even at Coban ; and though much sought for by the Indian boys 
in consequence of my offers of reward, but few specimens were 
obtained. 

" Three males to one female appears to be about the proportion 

of the sexes.' — 



Salvin in Ibis^ vol. ii. p. 261. 



There is no one genus among the Trochilidse that has more 
sadly puzzled me, and doubtless other ornithologists, than that 
containing the two species known under the specific names of 
virescens and viridissimus {Chrysobronchus virescens and C. viridi- 



) 



agreeing as to the place 



they should fill in the family. Dr. Cabanis, in his ' Museum Hei- 
neanum,' is of opinion that the generic name of Polytmus, proposed 
by Brisson in 1760, is the one under which they should be retained ; 
although I concur in this opinion, I cannot agree with him in 
placing them near to the genus Glaucis\ and I may be open to 
criticism in ranging them here, but I really cannot find a better 
situation for them. I have stated that there are two species of this 
form, but I have some reason to believe there is a third, as I have a 
small specimen collected by M. Warszewicz on the River Magdalena, 
which may prove to be distinct ; but until I have further evidence 
that such is the case, I decline to characterize it; independently of 
its smaller size, it has much more white on the tail than any other 



I have seen. 



Genus Polytmus, Briss, 



The P. virescens and P, viridissirmis are the only species yet 
characterized of this genus. They are distinguished by the golden 
hues of their throats. A great similarity exists between the sexes ; 
but the young of P. virescens have reddish-brown breasts, and are 
altogether different in colour from the adults, 

255- Polytmus virescens. 



Chrysobronchus virescens 



Vol. IV. PL CCXXX. 



Trochilus Thaumatias, Linn., Lath., Vieill. 
■ viridescenSy Linn. 



virescens, Dumont, Licht,, Vieill., Pr. Max. 
chrysobronchus^ Shaw^ Steph. 



^ J 







- A 



^-- J ■ h 



11 




f 



127 



^ 



Trochilus viridis^ Vieill. 
Ornismya viridis, Less, 
Trochilus chlor oleucuruSy Sauc. 
Polytmus chrysobronchus^ Gray & 
Chrysobronchus virescens^ Bonap. 
Leucippus chrysobronchus i Reicheiib. 



Mi 



Mus 



* * * 

111 



p. 5 



Habitat, Trinidad; Venezuela; and New Granada ? 

w 

256. Polytmus viridissimus. 

Chrysobronchus viridicaudus . - . Vol. IV. PI. CCXXXI. 

Trochilus viridissimus^ Aud, et Vieill. 

Trochilus Theresicv^ Da Silva. 
^Ornismya viridis, Less. Les Troch. p. 96, pi. 33. 
* Trochilus virescens, Wied, Beitr. iv. p. 107. 
^Amazilia viridissima, Bonap. Gen. Av. torn. i. p. 77, Amazilia, 

sp. 4. 
^Smaragditis viridissima, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 7- 
^Chrysobronchus viridissimuSy Bonap. Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1854, 

p. 252. 
^Chlorestes viridissimus, Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. 4, pi. 695. 

figs. 4547-48. 
^Thaumatias viridissimus, Burm. Th. Bras. torn. ii. p. 344. 

^Thaumatias chrysurus, Burm. ib. p. 345. 

^Trochilus viridicaudus^ Sauc. MSS. 

^Trochilus prasinus, Licht. in Mus. of Berlin. 

^Polytmus TheresicB, Cab.et Hein.Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 5. 

Habitat. The banks of the Amazon, from Para to the confines of 
Peru. I have also received specimens from Demerara. 

I have before stated that it would be impossible to arrange the 
Humming-Birds on the score of affinity ; and I repeat that the vari- 
ous genera are so widely different, and so many connecting forms are 
wanting, that it is quite out of the question to attempt their arrange- 
ment on this ground. It is of little importance, then, where we place 
the bird known under the name of Patagona gigas and distinguished 
from all others by its great size, its ample wings, its sombre colour- 
ing, and by the similarity in the plumage of the two sexes. At 
present the single species which has been characterized, and which 
ranges from Ecuador to the southern parts of Chili, where it is a 
migrant, is all that is known of this form ; but I observe that the 
Chilian and Ecuadorian specimens differ considerably in size, the 
latter being the largest. 

r 

Genus Patagona, 6?. R. Gray. 



257. Patagona gigas . . 

Trochilus gigas, Vieill., Jard. 
Ornismya tristis, Less. 



Vol. IV. PI. CCXXXII 



ib 

^'1 It' I E 



If* 




ill;' 




t 



H 




'H 



I 



K 2 



- . ■ i. 



128 



I - 



^ii 



Id 




^ 



■■■■-■* 



Cynanthus tristisy Less. 

Ornismya gigantetty D'Orb. et Lafres. 

Patagona gigasy Gray, Bonap., Reichenb. 

Hylocharis gigas^ Gray. 
"^Eypermetra gig as, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Tl 
^Trochihis ffigas. Bridges, Proc. of ZooL Soc. 



iii- p. 81. 
part xi. p. 114 ; 



Darwin, Zool. of Beagle, part iii. Birds, p. 111. 
Habitat. Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia^ and Chile. 

** The American Aloe (Agave Americana) is the only plant this 
bird is ever seen feeding upon in Ecuador." — Jameson and Fraser 
in Ibisy vol. i. p. 400. 



'' This species," says Mr. Darwin, " is common in Central Chile. 
It is a large bird for the delicate family to which it belongs. At 
Valparaiso, i»j the year 1834, 1 saw several of these birds in the mid- 
dle of August, and I was informed they had only lately arrived from 
the parched deserts of the north. Towards the middle of Septem- 
ber (the vernal equinox) their numbers were greatly increased. 
They breed in Central Chile, and replace, as I have before said, the 
foregoing species " {Eustephanus galeritus)^ " which migrates south- 
ward for the same purpose. The nest is deep in proportion to its 

width— externally three inches and a half deep, internal depth a 
little under one inch and three quarters, width within one inch and 
two-tenths; mouth slightly contracted. Externally it is formed of 
fine fibrous grass woven together, and attached by one side, and bot- 
tom, to some thin upright twigs ; internally it is thickly lined with 
a felt, formed of the pappus of some composite flower. When on 
the wing, the appearance of this bird is singular. Like others of the 
genus, it moves from place to place with a rapidity which may be 
compared to that of Syrphus among Diptera, ixxvd. Sphinx among 
Moths ; but whilst hovering over a flower, it flaps its wings with a 
very slow and po^Yerful movement, totally different from that vibra- 
tory one, common to most of the species, which produces the hum- 
ming noise. I never saw any other bird, where the force of its 
wings appeared (as in a butterfly) so powerful in proportion to the 
weight of its body. When hovering by a flower, its tail is con- 
stantly expanded and shut like a fan, the body being kept in a nearly 
vertical position. This action appears to steady and support the 
bird, between the slow movements of its wings. Although flying 
from flower to flower in search of food, its stomach generally con- 
tained abundant 




of insects, which I suspect are much more 
the object of its search than honey is. The note of this species, 
like that of nearly the whole family, is extremely shrill."— J)o:r?/;m, 

Zoology of the Beagle^ part iii. Birds, p. 111- 

"The Troch. gigas is found in all the central provinces of 
Chile: it is seen about Valparaiso during the spring and summer 



months, feeding on the flowers of Pourretia coarctata and Lobelia 
polyphylla in preference to others. It generally builds its nest near 
a little rivulet, frequently on a solitary twig or branch over the water ; 
the nest is beautifully constructed, and is composed of moss and the 



_-^- ■■ 









129 



down of a species of Gnaphalium. . Eggs white; iris dark brown. 
Catches ^les."— Bridges in Proc. Zool. Soc. pt. vi. p. 114. 

The forms to which we now proceed are mostly of large size have 
straight lengthened bills, and are very gorgeously coloured. Ihese 
straight and prolonged bills are in unison with the flora with which 
they are associated, particularly such deep tubular flowers as those ot 
the genera Brugmansia, Lepageria, Nematanthus, Tacsoma, Alstrce- 

meria, Bipladenia, he. ^„ ■, . ^ ^.^ r 

The first genus is that of Docimastes. Of this remarkable torm, 
the single sp'ecies known stands alone among Humming-Birds for the 
great length of its bill. Nature here appears to have carried the de- 
velopment of this organ to its maximum ; and how wonderfully is it 
adapted for exploring the lengthened tubular flowers from which the 
bird obtains its insect food ! 

Genus Docimastes, Gould, 



(Aorcijuct^w, explore.) 



Generic characters. 



Male.— Bill of extraordinary length, exceeding that of the head 
and body, and inclining upwards ; wings long and pointed ; tail 
moderately long and forked ; tarsi short and partially clothed ; feet 



/ 



sides of the chest luminous. 
Feiuale. — Unadorned. 

258. Docimastes ensifertjs 

Ornismya eyisifera, Boiss. 

Trochilus BerbianuSy Fras. 

Mellisuga ensifera. Gray & Mitch. 
^Docimastes Berbyanus, Licht. in Mus. Berhn. 
^ - ensifera, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein 

Habitat. Columbia and Ecuador. 



^ 



Vol. IV. PI. CCXXXIII. 



r^ 



1 



Theil iii. p. 77. 



Specimens from the neighbourhood of Bogota diff"er from those 



Quito 



these as mere races of one and the same species, tor i can see no 
characters on which a specific distinction could be founded. 

,r 

The next species is interesting for its great size, the eleganee of 
its proportions, and the beauty and harmony of its colours. Ihis 
new and extraordinary bird I have named Bugenia Imperatrix m 
honour of the Empress of the French. 



Genus Eugenia, Gould. 
{Eugenia, nom. propr.) 



Generic characters. 



Male —Bill straight or slightly inclining upwards, longer than 
the head ; wings long ; primaries rigid ; tail long and forked, the 



jiii . , 





I 




i 




1 1/ 



J 






' y '■ 



t.>L^ 



— f 



•'I 



I h 



I ' 
I 



'P 



'' Mi 



1 1 



■ ■ ^ 



vi 



■l\ 



*; 



■ ■ ^ 






1 \. 



130 



/' 



y^^^i? small ; 
Unadorned. 

Vol. IV. PI. CCXXXIV. 



259- Eugenia Imperatrix . .. • 

Habitat. Ecuador. 

" Professor Jameson*s specimens of this fine bird were obtained in 
the neighbourhood of Auca, on the road to Nanegal, at about 6000 
or 7000 feet elevation. They were feeding on the Alstroemerice, 
Daturce not being found in that locality." — Jameson and Fraser in 
Ibisy vol. i. p. 400. 

The members of the genus Heliantheay distinguished by their star- 
like frontlets and luminous under surfaces, appear to range next to 
the preceding. Three of them (namely, H. typica^ H, Bonaparteiy 
and H. Eos) are quite typical ; while the H. Lutetice and H. violifera 
differ somewhat in their colouring, the lower part of the body of 
the two latter species not being luminous, while they assimilate in all 
other respects. Dr. Reichenbach's separation of the H. typica and 
H. Bonapartei into a separate genus (Hypochrysia) cannot, in my 

opinion, for a moment be admitted. 

Genus Helianthea, Gould. 



y 



("HXios, sol, et avdosy flos.) 



Generic characters, 
Male. — Bill long, straight and cylindrical ; wings moderately long 
and powerful ; tail of medium size and slightly forked when closed ; 



Female. 



forehead and under surfc 



feet 



Destitute of luminous colouring. 



The members of this genus frequent the Andes for at least eight 
degrees on each side of the equator. 



Vol. IV. PI. CCXXXV. 



260. Helianthea TYPICA . . . • 

Ornismya helianthea^ Less. 
Mellisuga helianthea. Gray & Mitch. 
Helianthea typica, Bonap., Cabanis. 
^Trochilus porphyrog aster, Licht. in Mus. of Berlin. 

Habitat. New Granada. Is exceedingly common in the neigh- 
bourhood of Bogota. A large race occurs near Pamplona. 

261. Helianthea Bonapartei . . Vol. IV. PL CCXXXVI. 

Ornismya Bonapartei, Boiss., Bourc. 

Trochilas aurigaster, Lodd. 
Mellisuga Bonapartei, Gray & Mitch. 
Helianthea Bonapartii, Bonap., Cabanis. 
^Hypochrysa Bonaparti, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 9 ; Id. Troch. 



* 



Enum. p. 6, pi. 739. figs. 4683-84. 
Trochilus chrysogaster, Licht. in Mus. Berlin. 

Habitat. New Granada. Examples frequently occur in collections 
from Bogota. 







131 



1 




262. Helianthea Eos, Gould 

MelUsuga eos, Gray & Mitch 
Helianthea eos, Bonap. 
Hypochrysia eoSy Reichenb. 

Habitat. Paramos da los Con 

263. Helianthea Luteti^ 



Vol. IV. PI. CCXXXVII 



near Merida in Columbia. 
. Vol. IV. PI. CCXXXVII! 



Trochilus Lutetiee, Delatt. et Bourc. 
MelUsuga lutetics, Gray & Mitch. ^ 
Helianthea lutetiee, Bonap., Cabanis. 

Habitat. Popayan and Ecuador. Professor Jameson and 
Fraser state that " This bird is found in the valleys of Lloa and 

_ . ^-s. *. «« ^-TT • 1 • 'J/\/\ 



M 



Q 



Ibis, vol. i. p. 400. 



264. Helianthea violieera, Gould Vol. IV. PI. CCXXXIX. 

Trochilus violi/er, Gould, 
MelUsuga violifera. Gray & Mitch. 
Helianthea violiferay Bonap. 



m 



Habitat. " In provinz Chulimani au Cordilera'' in Bolivia {War 



szewicz) . 



Genus Heliotrypha, Gould. 



) 



4 

Generic characters. 



Male.— Bill straight and of the same length as the head; wings^ 
rather long; tail long and forked; ^am partially 



forehead 



/' 



throat luminous. 



i^ma?e.— Destitute of luminous colouring on the throat. 

The members of this genus, two in number, differ from those ot 
Heliangelus in the absence of any band of white on the chest and m 
ha\'ing a lengthened and deeply forked tail. 

265. Heliotrypha Parzudaki .... Vol. IV. PI. CCXL. 

Ornismya Parzudaki, De Longuem. et Parz. 
MelUsuga Parzudaki, Gray & Mitch. 
Heliangelus parzudaki, Bonap. 
Heliotrypha parzudakii, Bonap. 
Trochilus exortis, Fras. 
Parzudakia dispar, Reichenh. 

Ramphomicron dispar, Reich. Troch. Enum. p. 10. 
Trochilus lasiopygus, Licht. in Mus. Berlin. 
'HeliotryphonParzudakiiy Cah. etHem. Mus 

Habitat. New Granada ; and Ecuador, whe 
Heliotrypha viola, 




'■■ 4 



ill 



~Hi 





ii 



n I'll 



i !■«'* 



r 

■1^ 




^^ 





■ ^- ^J 






ii|i 



I ' , 



% 



n 



I I 
I 



■j:h* 



>.i 



111 






1 




132 

^Par^udakia violas Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 12. 
^ Ramphomicron viola. Id. Troch. Enum. p. 10. 
^Heliotryphon viola. Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 74 

Habitat. Ecuador. 



Genus Heliangelus, Gould, 
("HXios, sol, et ayyekosy angelus.) 

Generic characters. 

Male. — Bill straight, about the same length as the head, and 
cylindrical; wings somewhat powerful; tail rather round in form 
and of medium size ; feet moderately strong : hind toe and nail the 
same length as the middle toe and nail ; gorget luminous, bounded 
below by a crescent of white. 

Female. — Destitute of luminous colouring. 

This is perhaps a better-defined genus than any other of those into 
which the Andean groups of Humming-Birds have been divided. Its 
characteristics are a moderately long bill surmounted by a band of 
lustrous colour on the forehead, and a deep luminous gorget sepa- 
rated from the general colour of the body by a semicircular band of 
white. Like the Helianthece and Heliotrypheje the species of this 
form range along the Andes on both sides of the equator. 

Dr. Reichenbach, in my opinion, went far out of his way when he 
separated these birds into three genera — TrochiluSy Anactoria, and 
Biotima. Had he carefully studied the group from actual speci- 
mens, he would have seen that this was unnecessary. . 



267. Heliangelus Clarissa . 



Vol. IV. PI. CCXLII, 



Ornismia Clarisse, De Longuem, 

Mellisuga Clarissce, Gray & Mitch. 

Heliangelus Clarisse and Clarissa, Bonap. 

Anaetoria Clarissa, Reichenb. 

^Trochihts Clarissa, Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. 10. 
"^Heliangelus Clarissce, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 75. 
^Anaetoria Libussa, Reichenb. xlufz. der Col. p. 12 ; Id. Troch. 



Enum. p. 10. 



Granada 



from Bogota. 



268. Heliangelus strophianus, Gould Vol. IV. PL CCXLIII. 

Trochilus strophianus, Gould. 
Mellisuga strophiana. Gray & Mitch. 
Heliangelus strophianus, Bonap. 
Anaetoria Strophiana, Reichenb. 
/^Trochilus Strophiana, Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. 10. 

Habitat. Ecuador. 



269. Heliangelus Spencei 

Trochilus Spencei, Bourc. 



. . Vol. IV. PI. CCXLIV 



-^ 



" J 




133 



Mellisnga Spencei, Gray & Mitch. 
Heliangelus Spencei, Bonap. 
Biotima Spencei, Reichenb. 
^TrocMlus Spencei, Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. 10. 

Habitat. The ranges of Sierra Nevada de Merida ii 



270- Heliangelus amethysticollis 



Vol. IV. PI. CCXLV 



'r 



OrthorhyncJius amethysticollisy D'Orb. et Lafres. 
Mellisuga amethysticollis, Gray & Mitch. 
Trochilus amethysticoUis, Tschudi.^ 
Lampornis amethysticollis^ Tschudi. 
Heliangelus amethysticollisy Bonap., Cabanis. 
Anactoria amethysticollis, Reichenb. 
^Trochilus amethysticollis, Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. 10. 



Habitat. Peru. 



Mayors 



. Vol. IV. PI. CCXLVI 



Mellisuga MavorSy Gray & Mitch 
Heliangelus mavors, Bonap. 
Trochilus Mavors, Reichenb. 
'Trochilus Mavors, Reichenb. Tro( 



Enum. p. 10. 



Habitat. The Paramos of Portachuela and Zumbador in New 
Granada. 

That almost terraincognita, so far at least as its zoological produc- 
tions are concerned, the Andes of La Paz, has given us, through the 
researches of M. Warszewicz, one of the most distinct as Avell as one ot 
the most heautiful forms yet discovered among the 1 rochihdse. Ihis 
remarkable bird is the type of my genus Biphlogcma, to which 1 have 
since added a second species under the name of B. Aurora, with a 
mark of reservation in case it may prove to be the female of D. Ins ; 
for the present, however, I regard it as distinct. 

L 

J 

Genus Diphlog^na, Gould. 



"n. 



(2i-, duplex, et (pXoyaivos, flammeus.) 

Generic Characters. , , . , 

Male.— Bill straight and longer than the head ; wing very long 
and pointed ; tail lengthened and deeply forked ; tarsi short and 
partially clothed ; feet small ; hind toe short ; nails moderately long 
and straight ; crown decorated with several luminous colours. 
Female. — Unknown. 

. . . Vol. IV. PI. CCXLVII. 



272. DiPHLOG^NA Iris, Gould 
Helianthea Iris, Gould, Bonap. 



Habitat 



The 



M. Warszewicz 



bamba au Cordilera Solaio, 9000 feet. 




r 



>Htii 



■ -:-i- : 



^ "_ ' 



' ^ 




I 



■;*■ i - 



134- 



273. DiPHLOGiENA Aurora, Gould 

^Hypochrysia 



Vol. IV. PL CCXLVIII 



Warszewizii^ 

* Coeligena Warszewiczii 
fig. 4526. 

Habitat. Peru: locality 



pi. 690 



Warszewiczi 



give place to that of Diphlogcena Auroray unless his name was pro- 
posed prior to the 12th of April, 1853, when I read my paper on this 
and other new species before the meeting of the Zoological Society of 
London, as reported in the 'Athenaeum* of the 16th of the same 
month. 



The form which appears to me to range next in point of aflSnity is 
thsit of Clyt oleoma. The two members of this genus, unlike their 
predecessors, which are from the Andes, are natives of the low coun- 
tries, — one, the C. rubinea, being found in Brazil, and, so far as we 
yet know, confined to the most eastern parts of that country ; the 
other, the beautiful C aurescens^ is an inhabitant of the forests of 
the upper part of the Rivers Madeira and Negro. 

Genus Clytol^ma, Gould. 

(KXvros, Celebris, et Xai/ios, guttur.) 

Generic characters. 

Male. — Bill straight and rather longer than the head ; wings 
moderately long and pointed ; tail rather short, and very slightly, tarsi 
partially clothed ; feet strong ; hind toe and nail shorter than the 
fore toes and nails ; crown and gorget luminous. 

Female. — Destitute of any fine colour. 

274. Clytol^ma rubinea .... 
Mellisuoa Brasiliensis, autture rubro. Br 



Vol. IV. PI. CCXLIX. 



Trochilus rubineus, Gmel., Lath., VieilL, Cab. 

Ornismya rubinea. Less, 

Mellisuga rubinea. Gray & Mitch. 

Heliomaster rubineus, Bonap. 

Trochilus obscurus, Gmel., Lath. (Cabanis). 



*- 



tficaudat 



p. 370, tom. xxiii. p. 429. 
^Cynanthus rubi?ieus, Jard. Nat. Lib. Humming Birds, vol. ii. 

p. 146. 
^Heliodoxa rubinea, Reich. Troch. Enum. p. 9, pi. 744. fig. 470-69. 

^Calothorax rubinea, Burm. Th. Bras. ii. p. 340. 

» 

Habitat. The eastern portions of Brazil; common at Rio de 
Janeiro. 

275. Clytol^ma? aurescens, Gould . , Vol. IV. PI. CCL. 
Trochilus (Lampornis) aurescens, Gould. 






\ 



* ^ 



( 



^ 



itaM^ 



^^i-p 



135 



Polytmus aureseens, Gray & Mitch. 

La?nporms aurescens, Bonap. 

Margarochrysis aurescenSy Reicnenb. 

Campylopterus aurescenSy Bonap. 

Habitat. The forests bordering the Rivers Madeira, Upper Amazon, 
and Negro. 

By some Trochilidists it may be thought that this species should 
form the type of a distinct genus ; but after a careful comparison 1 
behave that I have placed it in its right situation _; at the same time 
I admit that there is some little doubt on the subject. 



I next proceed to a group of birds of considerable size, with 
lengthened straight bills, and the plumage and markings of vvhich 
render them very conspicuous— the prevaihng colours being black 
and white, relieved by blue and other tints on the crown ; they have 
small and very deUcate feet, the colours of which are either rosy or 
white. I consider them to constitute a very distinct section ot the 
Trochilidse, and I have much pleasure in adopting for them the 
generic appellation of Bourcieria proposed by the late Prmce Charles 
Bonaparte. All the known species are from the Andes, over which 
they are spread from the southern part of Peru to the northern part 



of New Granada. 



Genus Bourcieria, Bonap 



As a typical example of the form, I commence witb 



Mitch 



276. Bourcieria torquata 

Ornismya torquata, Boiss^ 
Mellisuga torquata^ Gray & 
Bourcieria torquata, Bonap., Reichenb. 
"^ Homophania torquata, Cab. et Hein. Mus 

Habitat. Columbia. 



Vol. IV. PI. CCLI. 



Common in the temperate regions round 



Bogota. 



r 

277. Bourcieria fulgidigula, Gould 



. Vol. IV. PI. CCLII. 



Homophania fulgidigula. Cab. et Hein. Mu 



9, 



note. 



Hab 



Ecuador. 



278. Bourcieria insectivora. 
*Trochilus {Lampornis) inseetivorus, Tschudi, Consp. p. 38, No. 
211 ; Id. Faun. Per. p. 248, t. 28. f. 1. 
I observe that M. Cabanis has placed the T. inseetivorus of 
Tschudi among the synonyms of B. torquata ■ but, having had 
Tschudi's tvpe specimen sent to me from Neuchatel, i am not satis- 
fied as to its identity with that species. The specimen referred to 
seems to me to be the young of some bird of which we have not yet 
seen the adult. I therefore retain the name in my hst ; but of course 





^l.. 



li 




■ ..'^^-: ■:. 






^ ■ r 



^f 







136 



. Y 



1^-^:1 ll 



I 



do not figure it. It appears to me to offer an alliance to the 

B. Conradi, 



Habitat. Peru. 

r 

279. BOURCIERIA CONRADI . 



Vol. IV. PI. CCLIII 



Trochilus Conradit, Bourc. 
Mellisuga Conradiiy Gray & Mitch. 
Conradinia Conradi^ Reichenb. 

r 

Bourcieria Conradi^ Bonap., Reichenb. 
"^Helianthea Conradiy Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theiliii. p. 80, note. 

Habitat. Pamplona in New Granada. 
280. Bourcieria Inca, Gould .... Vol. IV. PI. CCLIV. 

, -I 

Bourcieria Tnca^ Gould, Bonap., Reichenb. 
^Homophania Incay Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 79. 

Habitat. Province of Coroieo in Bolivia ; 6000 or 8000 feet (JFar- 



szewicz) ^ 



Genus Lampropygia, Reichenb. 



The members of this genus (all figured in the work under the 
generic appellation of Cceliffena) bear a general resemblance to the 
last as regards their size and the lengthened and straight form of 
tbeir bills ; but their style of colouring is very different, and, however 
much some naturalists may dissent from the idea of colour being re- 
garded as a generic character, I do think that it is of no little im- 
portance in this group of birds ; for I find that every distinct section 
or genus is distinguished by some peculiar style of plumage and 
colouring common to all the species of which it is composed, and not 
found in the others. Thus the members of the present genus all 
bear a plumage of a rather dull or sombre character with the excep- 
tion of the lower part of the back, where it is luminous ; but, as is the 
case with the Aglceactines^ this luminous colouring is only to be seen 
when viewed from behind. All the known species are found among 
the Andes, both on the northern and southern sides of the equator. 



Vol. IV. PL CCLV. 



281. Lampropygia coaLiGENA. 

Coeligena typica . * • 

Ornismya cceligena^ Less. 
Mellisuga coeligena^ Gray & Mitch. 
Coeligena typica^ Bonap. 
^Lampornis cceligena, Jard. Nat. Lib. Humming-Birds, vol. ii. p. 

^Coeligena fgpica, Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. 3, pi. 686. fig. 4515. 
^ Lamproj^ggia cceligena^ Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 78. 

Habitat, New Granada. 

In my account of this species, which is common in the neighbour- 
hood of Bogota, I stated that the Bolivian birds which appeared to 
be identical with it are much larger in size and darker in colour, and 







I 



iJ^J. 









-^ 



I 




,■+ 



137 

that I thought it prohable that they would prove to be distinct and 
undescribed ; I still entertain the same opinion. I therefore take this 
opportunity of assigning to this southern representative a specific ap- 
pellation, but do not consider it necessary to give a tigure ot it. 

282. Lampropygia Boltviana, Gould. 
This bird bears a general resemblance to the L. cceligena, but differs 

in being of a much darker colour on the head and neck, and m having 
the taif dark oHve-brown washed with bronze in Heu of light bronzy^ 
brown • the lower part of the back also is more richly coloured, the 
crescentic markings of green showing still greater lustre when viewed 

from behind. , ./^. • i 

Total length 5| inches ; bill 1^ ; wing 3| ; tail 2^ ; tarsi i- 
Habitat. Bolivia. 

283. Lampropygia purpurea. 
Cceligena purpurea, Gould ..... Vol. IV. PI. CCLVI. 

*Coeligena , Bonap. Consp. Gen. Av. torn. i. p. 7'S, Cceligena, 

sp. 2. 
* Cceligena purpurea, Reich. Troch. Enum. p. 3, pl. 753. figs. 4727, 

4798 

"^ Lampropygia purpurea^ Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 71, 
note. 
Habitat, Popayan. 

4 

284. Lampropygia Prunkllei. 

Cceligena Prunelli 

Trochilns Prunelliy Bourc. 
Mellimga Prunellei, Gray & Mitch. 
Homophania Prunellii, lleichenb. 

Bourcieria prunelli, Boimip. ^.c-n £ 

"^Bourcieria Prunelli, Reiclienb. Troch. Enum. p. 7, ph /5U. hgs. 

4721 4722. 
^Homophania Prunelliy Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 79. 



Vol. IV. PI. CCLVIL 



Habitat. 
Bogota. 



Common in collections from 



Wi 



Wilsoni 
Wilsoni 



^ 



Vol. IV. PI. CCLVIII 



Mellisuga Wilsoni, Gray & Mitch 



Hi 



^ Wil 

gia Wilsoni 
Ecuador. 



M 



this species at an elevation of 10,000 feet, and in Nono, which Hes at 
about 9000 feet. The bird belongs strictly to the warmer countries, 



138 



L . 



:i 





, r 





''t^m. 



'■m^' 



'mm* 





^ 



such as Nanegal> wliich is only about 4000 feet in altitude." 
Jameson and Fraser in Ibisy vol. i. p. 400. 

A group rather than a genus next claims our attention; for two or 
three very well-marked divisions occur among the birds I have 



Heliomast 



Unlike the last, 



which are confined within certain limits, these birds are widely spread, 
some of them over Mexico and Central Am^erica, and others over 
Venezuela, and even further south than the latitude of Rio de Janeiro 
in Brazil. 

The members of this section of the Trochilidse are of rather large 
size, haA^e long straight bills, lengthened wings, and a structure 
admirably adapted for aerial progression. The males are mostly 
clothed with fine colours on the crown and throat. 

The species of the 

Genus Heliomaster, Bonap., 

r 

w 

as now restricted, are at least five or six in number, and four of 
them are inhabitants of Central America or countries north of the 
Isthmus of Panama. Their short, nearly square tails, the outer 
feathers of which, together with their under tail-coverts, are spotted 
with white, render them very conspicuous. 

286. Heliomaster longirostris . . . Vol. IV. PI. CCLIX. 

Trochilus longirostrisy Vieill. 

snperbuSy Shaw, Lath., Temm., Jard. 

Ornismya superba^ Less. 
Long-billed Hmnming-Birdy Lath. 

Mellisuga longirostrisy Gray & Mitch. 

Heliomaster longirostris, Bonap., Reich,, Cabanis. 

^Selasphorus longirostris, Reichenb., Troch. Enum. p. 11. 

Habitat. Trinidad. 

287. Heliomaster Stuarts, Lawr. 

r 

"^Heliomaster longirostris, Sclat. in Proc. of Zool. Soc. part xxv. 



* 



p. 16. 



Stuartce, Lawr. Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist, in New York, 



April 9, 1860. 




Habitat. New Granada ; the neighbourhood of Bogota. 

Mr. G. N. Lawrence, of New York, considers the bird from 
Bogota to be distinct from the Heliomaster longirostris of Trinidad, 
and has assigned to it the distinctive appellation of Stuartce^ in 
honour of a most estimable lady, the wife of R, L. Stuart, Esq., 

of New York. 

For my own part, I have always regarded the Bogota and Tri- 
nidad birds as one and the same ; but Mr. Lawrence has ever 
maintained that they are distinct ; and on the day when these re- 
marks were written I received from him a copy of the first part 
of his paper entitled *' Catalogue of a Collection of Birds made in 



^ 



i 



I 



^ - . .' 






139 



New Granada, by James McLennan, Esq., of New York," in which, 
referring to his Heliomaster Stuartee, he says :— " Since describing 
this species, I have had an opportunity of examining seven other 
specimens from Bogota. I find the bills of these to be quite as long 
as those of H. longirostris ; but they are much stouter, and the 
base of the bill is very broad and bare of feathers, whereas in longz- 
rostris the bill is comparatively narrow at the base, and the feathers 
extend quite forward on the bill. These difeerences were constant 

in an equal number of each species/' 

Whether the birds are really distinct or mere local varieties, time 
and the acquisition of a larger number of specimens must determine. 
I have in my own collection two specimens of another bird of this 
form, which bear a very general resemblance both in size and mark- 
Higs ; but the crown, instead of being bluish green, is positive blue. 
So decided is this colour, that I have no hesitation in saying that, if 
so slight a difference is allowed to separate the Bogotan and Trini- 
dadian birds, these also must be regarded as belonging to a distinct 
species, and the term >S'c/«^en, which has been proposed by Dr. Caba- 
nis, be used for them. I have two very fine males of this bird in fully 
adult plumage, killed by M. Warszewicz in Costa Rica; but in what 
particular locality, is unknown to me. Besides the Costa-Rican bird. 



Montes 



Mexico^ 
This beautiful 



bird also bears a general resemblance in colour and markings to 
those immediately preceding, but is distinguished from all of them 
by its delicate light-green metaUic crown. For this new species I 
propose the name of pallidiceps. 

If this little section be found to be composed of four distinct 



birds, the species will stand thus : 



K 



H. Stuartce of Bogota ; 



H. Sclc 
Mexico 



and H. pallidiceps of Guatemala and 



1* 



288. Heliomaster Sclateri, Cahanis. 

'"^Heliomaster Sclateri, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 54, 
March 30, 1860. 

1 

Habitat. Costa Rica. 

289. Heliomaster pallidiceps, Gould. 



H. 



girostris ; chin black ; gorget purphsh red, separated from the ear- 
cpverts by a distinct mark of white ; upper surface bronzy green ; 
two centre tail-feathers wholly green, the next on each side green 
tipped with black ; the three outer feathers green at the base, then 
black, and a spot of pure white at the tip, the white spot becoming 
less from the outer one, until on the third it is a mere speck ; wings 



chest and centre of the abdomen grey; flanks 



purphsh brown ; cnesi anu ceuuc ui tuc au^ux^x^xx gx^j , . 

bronzy green ; under tail-coverts pale green, tipped with white. 

Total length 3| inches ; bill. If ; wing 2f ; tail 1^ ; tarsi \, 

Habitat. Mexico and Guatemala. 



■P 



n 



V 
\ 



iM 




51 



mm 



^ 



Y^ m 



--■' . _- ^ 



rr" 
' li; 




I 



ih 



1 




w. 




7\ 

•I I 



ri 






iif 






"'f 






i 



Vol. IV. PL CCLX. 



140 

" The white sides and the white spot on the back show very con- 
spicuously as this bird rests on its perch." — Salvin in Ibis, vol. ii. 
p. 264. 

290. Heliomaster Constanti . . . 
Ornismya Constantly De;latt. 
Habitat. Guatemala, and Costa Rica. 

L 

291. Heliomaster Leocadi^. 
Heliomaster pinicola, Gould .... Vol. IV. PL CCLXI 

Trochilus LeocadicBy Bourc. Ann. des Sci. Nat. de Lyon, torn, iv 

1852. 

Habitat. Mexico. 



Genus Lepidolarynx, Reich. 

This form, of which the single species known has received the 
above generic appellation, differs in many particulars from the pre- 
ceding : the bill is less elongated and not so straight, while the tail 
is decidedly forked ; independently of which, the gular mark is very 
different, the entire throat being luminous, while in all the species of 
Heliomaster the chin is black. 

292. Lepidolarynx mesoleucus. 

Heliomaster mesoleucus Vol. IV. PL CCLXII. 

Trochilus mesoleucus, Temm. 



■■ — longirostris, Natt. 

' squamosuSy Temm. 

mystacinuSy Vieill. 

Ornismya Temminckiiy Less. 

mesoleuca. Less. 



Mellisuga mesoleuca, Steph. 
squamosa^ Steph. 



melanoleuca, Gray & Mitch. 



* 



Heliomaster mesoleucus, Bonap. 
^Lepidolarynx mesoleucus, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 13. 
^Selasphorus (Lepidolarynx) mesoleucus, Reichenb. Troch. Enum. 
p. 11. 

Ornithomyia mesoleuca, Bonap. in Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1854, 
p. 251. 

^Heliomaster squamosus. Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 53. 
^Calothorax mesoleucus, Burm. Th. Bras. ii. p. 339, 1. 
^Trochilus mystacinus, Vieill. MSS. 

Habitat. Brazil. 

Genus Calliperidia, Reich. 

The Calliperidia Angelce offers a still further departure from the 
true Heliomasters ; for it has even a shorter bill than the last, while 
its tail is much more deeply forked. It is by far the finest species 
yet discovered. Its entire body is clothed in glittering colours, and 




1 



#1 



^ 
J 



\ 



* 



■(. 



\ 



1 

+ 



'..-'- 




■ .^ - ^ _-■ 




♦• 



f[ H 



Ul 

the bird itself must b'e seen and examined to obtain an idea of its 
beauty. The female, on the other hand, has the under surface of 
the body smoky grey, differing in this respect from all the others. 

293. Calliperidta Angel,^. 



Heliomaster Angelse 



. . Vol. IV. PI. CCLXIII 



Ornismya Angelce^ Less. 

Heliomaster angel(e, Bonap. 
^Calliperidta Angelas^ Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 12. 
^Calliphlox Angelae, Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. 10. 
^Ornithomyia angela, Bonap. Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1854, p. 

L 

Habitat. Buenos Ayres and Tucuman. 



251 



A single specimen of a Humming-Bird, somewhat allied to the last 



M.Warszew 

Chiriqui. It possesses so many remarkable characters that I was 
obliged, without a moment's hesitation, to assign to it a new generic 
appellation, that of Oreopyra. Unfortunately the specimen was so 
much injured by shot that I had much difficulty in giving a correct 
{l^lineation of it. 

Genus Oreopyra, Gould, 
("Opos, mons, et Trvp, ignis.). 

Generic characters. 

Male.— Bill longer than the head, straight, or very slightly arched ; 
wings long and rigid ; tail moderately long and forked ; tarsi 
clothed ; feet rather small ; gorget snow-white. 

294. Oreopyra leucaspis, Gould . . Vol. IV. PI. CCLXIV. 

Habitat. Volcano of Chiriqui, 9000 to 10,000 it^t{Warszewicz,) 

So different are the three birds found on the island of Juan Fer- 
nandez, that it would not involve a great stretch of impropriety to 
assign to each of them a sep^irate generic appellation ; I shall, how- 
ever, retain them all under the name of Eustephanus. On an exa- 
mination of the plates of the three species it will be seen how re- 



295. EUSTEPHANTJS GALERITUS 



Mol 



. Vol. IV. Ph CCLXV 

Sonn., Vieill. 



Mellisuga 



Ornismya sephandidesy Less, et Gam. 
Trochilus sephandides, Jard. 



L 



4 
1 



X 

! 



markably they diifer in size, colour, and markings. I consider it a ( 
very singular fact connected with the family of Humming-Birds, that 
three species should be found on an island so distant from the main- 
land, and that two of them should be confined to this isolated spot, ^ 
surrounded as it is by the wide waters of the Pacific Ocean. 

Genus Eustephantjs, Reichenb. 



|L^l 



, I 



' \ 



■<■ - : 






-:< V ■ 






a' 





& 



imm' 



^ 












'a*Mi 




Mit 



r 

t .. 



I 



142 



Trochilus forjicatnsy Gould. 

JlammifronSy Lyell. 

Mellisuga galerita. Gray & Mitch. 

Sephandides galerita^ Bonap. 
^Sephanoides Kingi, Gray, List of Gen. of Birds, p. 19. 
"^Eustephanus galeritus, Beichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 14 ; Id. Troch. 
Enum. p. 1 1 ; Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 76. 

Hahitat. Chili and Juan Fernandez. 
' Found about Valparaiso in abundance in the months of August, 



September, and October." 



of 



XI. 



P 



115. 



Vol. IV. PI. CCLXVI. 



296. EusTEPHANUs Stokesi , . . , 

Trochilus Stokesi^ King, Less., Jard. 
Mellisuga Stokesi^ Gray & Mitch. 
Sephandides stokesi^ Bonap. 
^Thaumaste StoJcesii, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 14 ; Id. Troch 

Enum. p. 12. 
^EustepJianus Stokesi, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii, p. 75. 

Habitat, Juan Fernandez. 

297. EusTEPHANUS Fernandensis • 

Trochilus Fernandensis, King. 
Ornismya cinnamomea, Gerv. 

i Robinson, Less. 

Mellisuga Fernandensis, Gray & Mitch, 
Sephandides fernandensis, Bonap. 
^Eustephanus Fernandensis, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 14; Id 
Troch. Enum. p. 1 1 ; Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 76 

Habitat. Juan Fernandez. 



Voh IV. PI. CCLXVII 



The 



Genus Ph^ol^ma, Reichenb., 



is composed of two Andean species, distinguished by their sombre 
colouring ; for although both have a luminous gular patch, and one 
of them a ghttering mark on the centre of the crown, the brilliancy 
of these markings is not so great as usual, and their tails are coloured 
unlike those of any other group, 

298. Ph^ol^ma RUBiNo'iDES . . . Vol. IV. PI. CCLXVIII. 

Trochilus rubindides^ Bourc. et Muls. 
Mellisuga rubindides, Bonap. 
Heliomaster rubindides, Bonap. 
Clytolcema rubindides, Bonap. 
Phaiolaima rubindides, Reichenb. 
^Heliodoxa rubindides, Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. 6, pi. 743. 
figs. 4704-5. 

Habitat, New Granada. Frequently sent to Europe from Bogota. 










*iiM 



--^— 






'! 



143 



299. PHiEOL^MA jEquatorialis, Gould Vol. IV. PL CCLXIX 

Phceol(^ma rubindides^ Sclat. 

(Bquatorialisy Gould, Sclat. 



Habitat. Ecuador. 

Genus Eriocnemis, Reichenb. 

The conspicuous tufts of feathers with which the legs of the 
Eriocnemides are clothed is a feature both novel and peculiar; and 
as it is not to be found in any other group of birds, they are thereby 
rendered especially singular. In some these powder-puff-like deco- 
rations are white, in others brown and white, and in one jet black. 
All the species are confined to that portion of the Andes which is 
bounded on the north by New Granada, and on the south by 
Bolivia. 

■ L 

It is not to be supposed that the minor distinctive characters which 
exist among the many species of this group should have passed un- 
noticed by ornithologists; on the contrary, they have attracted the 
notice of more than one writer, and the birds which were all for- 
merly included in the genus Erio^ 
the subgeneric titles of Engyet 

Derby 



Threptriay Phemonoe, A line^ 
a tolerable division for the 
genus first established by me in 1847, under the name of Eriopus. I 
shall now give my own views on the subject, and point out those 
which I consider to be natural divisions. The first, then, is the well- 
known E.cunreiventris^ with which I associate the E. Isaacsoni^ the 



E. Luciani and the E, 

r 

in colour. The next d 



Mosquera. In all these the sexes are alike 
vision comprises E. vestita and E. nigrivestis^ 
as thev both have a brilliant patch of feathers on the throat and 
the lower part of the back and the upper tail-coverts, exceedingly 
luminous ; and their females are somewhat different and less brilliant 



in colour. 



E. Godini and E 



section ; but we really know so little respecting these species, that 
nothing can be said with certainty as to their females. The black- 
puffed E. Derbianus stands alone, and a rare and very beautiful 
bird it is. The E. Alince is distinguished from all the rest by the 
glittering green of its face and under surface ; it is by far the smallest 
species of the genus, while it has the largest puffs; and the female, 
although bearing; a general resemblance to the male, is far less 
brilliant. The members of the next section are very sombre in 
their colouring, as will be seen on reference to the plates on which 
they are represented : they are E. squamata^ E. lugens^ and E. 
Aurelice. Ornithologists may please themselves about adopting 
generic terms for these minute divisions ; but, for myself, I have 
kept them all under that of Eriocnemis^ and still feel inclined to 
do so. They all possess the important character of the puff leg, 
and they are remarkably alike as to the amount of this peculiar 
ornamentation. 

300. Eriocnemis cupreiventris 



Trochilus cupreiventris , Eras. 



Vol. IV. Pis. CCLXX., CCLXXI 



l2 



^■1. 



'\ ;- 



MM* 






a' 






I 
I 




I 



i * 



^! 



H^H^i 




in 



■■.[ 



■,t 



144 



2 



maniculata^ Less.? 



Hylocharis cupreoventrisy Gray & M 



Eriopus cupreiventris^ lionap. 

Eriopus simplex^ Gould. 

Eriocnemis simplex, Gould, Bonap., Reichenb. 
^Phemonoe cupriventris^ Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 9. 
^Eriocnemis cupriventriSy Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. 6, pi. 729, 

figs. 4668-69. 
* Eriocnemis cuvreiventriss Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 73. 



Habitat. The Andes in New Granada. 



E 



Eriocnemis simplex is 
Such varieties do now 



aqd then occur with other species of the family ; the cause I can- 
hot attempt to explain, 

301. ERIOc^rEMIS Isaacsoni .... Vol. IV. PL CCLXXII. 

Ornysmia Isaacsoni^ Parz. 
Hylocharis Isaacsoni^ Gray & Mitch. 
Eriocnemys isaacsoni^ Bonap. 
Phemono^i Isaacsoni^ Reichenb. 
^Eriocnemis Isaacsoni, Reichenb. Troch. Enuni. p. 6, pi. 761. 

fig. 4700. 
Habitat. New Granada. 

I have never seen any other than the type specinien of this species, 
which is now in the Derby Museum at Liverpool. 

302- Eriocnemis Luciani • . . , Vol. IV. PI, CCLXXIII. 

Trochilus Luciani, Bourc. 

Hylocharis Luciani, Gray & Mitch. 

Eriopus lucianiy Bonap. 

T. {Eriopus^ Lvciani^ Jard. 
"^Phemonoe Luciani, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 9. 
^Eriocnemis Luciani, Reicheqb. Troch: Enum. p, 6, pi. 730. 
figs. 4671-72. 

Habitat. Ecuador; western side of Pichincha at an elevation of 



*^ 



Vol. IV. PI. CCLXXIV 



10,000 to 12,000 feet {Jameson). 

303. Eriocnemis Mosquera .... 

Trochilus Mosquera, Bourc. et Delatt. 

Hylocharis mosquera, Gray & Mitch. 

Eriopus mosquera, Bonap. 
"^Threptria Mosquera, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 9. 
"^Eriocnemis Mosquera^ Reichenb. Troch, Enum. p- 6, pi. 728. 

figs. 4664-65. 

Habitat. The neighbourhood of Pasto in New Granada {De- 
lattre). 




i: 



,■11; 



■'I 







« 



145 



304. ErIOCNEMIS VESTITA 



Vol- IV. PI. CCLXXV, 



Ornismya vestita, Longuem., Delatt. et Bourc. 

Trochilus uropygialis^ Fras. 

Ornismya glomata, Less. 

Hyloeharis veslita, Gray & Mitch. 

Eriopus vestita, Bonap. 

Eriocnemis vestita, Reichenb. 

Eriocnemys vestitus^ Bonap. 



\ 



I : > , z 



Mus 



p. 73. 



Habitat. 1 
Bogota. 



Commonly sent from 



i305. Eriocnemis nigrivestts . 

Trochilus nigrivestts^ Bourc. 
Eriocnemys nigrivestisy Bonap. 
Eriocnemis nigrivestis^ Reichenb. 



Vol. IV. PL CCLXXVI 




iimm 




\mm 



X' 



MSS 



Habitat. 



) (^Boiirciery. 

Vol. IV. PI. GCLXXVII 



It 



306. Eriocnemis Godini • . . . 

Trochilus Godini, Bourc. 
Eriocnemys godiniy Bonap. 
Eriocnemis Godini, Reichenb. 

Habitat. Ecuador. 

307. Eriocnemis D'Orbignyi . . 

Trochilus U Orbignyi, Bourc. 
Phemonoe UOrbignyi, Reichenb. 
Eriocnemis U Orbignyi, Reichenb. 
Eriocnemys orbignyi, Bonap. 

Habitat. Peru or Bolivia. 

308. Eriocnejviis Derbiana .... 

Trochilus Derbyi, Delatt. et Bourc. 
Eriopus Derbyi, Gould. 

— derbyi, Bonap. 

Eriocnemys derbyanus, Bonap. 
Treptria Derhi^i, Reichenb. 
*Eriocnemis Derbyi, Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. 6, pi. 7^». BeS- 

4666-67 and pi. 741. figs. 4698-99. 
TJabitaf. Volcano of Purace in N,ew Granada (JDelattre). 

Vol. IV. PI. CCLXXX. 



Vol. IV. PI. CCLXXIX 



*"^* 



A 



309. Eriocnemis Alin^ . . . 

Ornismyia Aline, Bourc. 
Ornismya Alince, Bourc. 
Hyloeharis Aline, Gray & Mitch 
Eriopus aline, Bonap. 
Engyete Aline, Reichenb. 
Eriocnemys alina, Bonap. 



• 



I 



? r. I 




!i| 





r^. 



■ 



m 







146. 

' ^Trochilus dasypus^ Licht. in Mus. of Berlin. 
^Eriocnemis Alinae, Cab. et Heiu. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 73 

Habitat The hilly parts of New Granada. 

310. Eriocnemis squamata, Gould . 
Habitat Ecuador. 

311. Eriocnemis lugens, Goz^/rf . . 



Vol. IV. PI. CCLXXXI 



. . Vol. IV. PI. CCLXXXIL 

Eriopus lugens^ Gould. 

Eriocnemys lugens^ Bonap. 
^Threptria lugens^ Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 9* 
^Erioc7iemis lugens^ Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. 6, pi. 740. figs. 
4695-96. 

Habitats Ecuador ; western side of Pichincha {Jameson). 

It is just possible that this may prove to be the female of ^. squa- 
mata\ for I have received many specimens from Professor Jameson 
with wholly white puffs, which is the characteristic of the E. higens ; 
while from another locality one has been sent with partly white and 
partly red puffs : independently of the difference in the colouring of 
the puffs, the latter birds are larger than the former. 



Vol. IV. PI. CCLXXXIII. 



312. Eriocnemis AuRELi-ae • . . 

Trochilus Aurelice^ Bourc. 
Hylocharis Aurelice^ Gray & Mitch. 
Eriopus aurelicCy Bonap. 
Eriocnemys aurelice, Bonap. 
Eriocnemis Aurelice^ Reichenb. 

Habitat. New Granada and Ecuador. 

Specimens from the Napo differ considerably from those received 
from Bogota, — a deep coppery hue pervading both the upper and 
under surface, whereas those parts are green in the Bogotan birds. 
I have seen specimens which I consider may be females or young 
of this species with wholly white puffs. 




^ 




■r 



H 



I , 



s 



4 



i 



Proceeding from Mexico, southwards, througt the high lands of 
the temperate regions of Guatemala, Costa Rica, and Veragua, we 
there find several species of the well-defined genus Cyanomyia 
which do not pass the Isthmus of Panama, while others occur in New 
Granada, Ecuador, and Peru. I have not yet seen any species of 
this form from Brazil or from any of the eastern portions of the 
South American continent. They are all very lovely birds, the 
colours with which they are adorned being blue, glittering green, 
and white, to which the red bills of one or two of them offer a 
pleasing contrast. The females, although generally resembling the 
males, are inferior to them in size and colouring. With these birds 
1 commence the fifth volume. 




^ 






147 



Genus Cyanomyia, Bonap 



313. CyANOMYIA QUADRICOLOR . . Vol. V. PL CCLXXXIV. 

Trochilus quadricolor^ VieilL 

Polytmus quadricolor^ Gray & Mitch. 

Cyanomyia quadricolor^ Bonap. 

Uranomitra quadricolor^ Reichenb. 

Ornismya cyanocephala^ Less. Supp. des Ols.-mou. p. 1325 pi- 17. 
* Trochilus verticahs, Licht. Preis- Verz. Mexican. Thier. ges. v. 

Deppe & Schiede (Sept. 1830), Nos. 27, 28. 
"^Cyanomyia verticalis, Bonap. Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1854^, p. 254^* 
^Agyrtria quadricolor, Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. 7, pi. 761. figs. 



* 



4758-59. 



M 



Habitat 



314. Cyanomyia violiceps, Gould 



Vol. V. PI. CCLXXXV. 



"^ Uranomitra violiceps^ Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 41, 
note. 
Habitat. Western Mexico. 

315. Cya]!^omyia cyanocephAla . * Vol. V. Pi. CCLXXXvL 

^Ornismya cyanodephala, Less. Supp. des Ois.-mou. p. 134, pi- 18* 
^Polytmus vertimlis, Gray & Mitch. Gen. of Birds, vol. i. p. 109. 

Polytmus^ sp. 86. 
*? Uranomitra cyanocephala, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 10. 
^ Cyanomyia cyanocephala, Bonap. Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1854, 



Montes 



p. 80. 



^Agyrtria Faustine, Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. 7, pi. 760. figs. 



4756-57. 



*Agyrtna cyanocepJiala, Reichenb. ib. p. 7, pi- 760* figs. 4754-55. 



Mus 



Hi 



Southern Mexico. 



M. Montes 



known by the name of Chupa-mirto comun de pecke hlanco, or Coni- 
mnn \¥hUp.hrpasf.pd Mvrfcle-sucker. It is found very abundantly 



all 



- Wh 

and at all seasons of the year in the vicinity of Jalapa, Coatepec 
Orizaba, and many other places in Mexico, where it remains al 
the year round, and I have often found its nest in the months ot 

April and May. _ 

" This pretty little bird is very familiar and unsuspicious, will allow 
of a near approach in the woods, and is a constant visitor of the 
gardens of the towns and cities. Like the fine Campylopterus 
Delattrei, it frequents the magapan flowers, around which it may 

be seen at all hours of the day. 

"The nest of this species, like those of nearly all the Humming. 
Birds of this part of Mexico (Jalapa), is lined with the tull silky 
jloss; and is most ingeniously covered on the outside with moss 



,( 



I , 




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./-.'■'■. 









1l'' 




i1 



148 





I V 




' 1 1 



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from the rocks. The eggs are generally two in number, but upon 
one occasion I found three in a nest." 

In my account of this species, I have stated that it was found in 



Guatemala as well as Mexico ; and although th 
believe the latter countrv to be its true habitat. 



Guatemalan differ 



from Mexican specimens in the colouring of the tail-feathers ; in the 
latter they are olive-green, in the former rich bronzy-green. Under 



these circumstances I cannot regard them as identical, I must there- 
fore give the Guatemalan bird a distinctive appellation : 

316. Cyanomyia Guatemalensis, Gould. 

Cyanomyia cyanocephala, Salvin in Ibis, vol. ii. p. 39. 
Habitat. Guatemala. 

" About Duenas," says Mr. Salvin, '^ this is an abundant species. 
It frequents the shrubby forest, feeding principally among the 
flowers of a tree which abounds there. This tree, which grows to 
a height of about 20 or 30 feet, bears clusters of white flowers, and 
has its branches and stem covered with spines, which sting when 
touched. Its bark also, when bruised, emits a milky fluid, which 
blisters the skin if any be allowed to remain upon it. The bird, 
when taking its food from this tree, places itself in front of a bunch 
of the flowers, and hovers opposite, at a distance of about two or 
three inches. On perceiving the object of its search, it darts in, 
and seizing whatever that may be, insect or honey, returns to its 
position in front of the cluster. So it passes on from blossom to 
blossom, and in like manner from cluster to cluster, until the whole 
tree is thoroughly ransacked. Humming-Birds do not remain long 
on the wing at once, but rest, frequently choosing for that purpose 
a small dead or leafless twig at the top or just within the branches 
of the tree. While in this position they take the opportunity of 
trimming their feathers and cleaning their bill, all the time keeping 
up an incessant jerking of their wings and tail. When this opera- 
tion has been performed, they peer about for fresh flowers at which 
to dart. The cry of the present species is somewhat represented by 
the word ' chirik ' uttered frequently and with great rapidity. 
This cry seems common to all the family ; and it is only from an 
intimate acquaintance that one can trace a diff'erence between the 
species. When they are flying from one place to another, or pur- 
suing each other, this cry is especially used, and in the latter case 
it is uttered with great vehemence. The humming sound from 
which these birds take their trivial name is something like that 
produced by a large beetle ; but very little practice will soon so 
accustom the ear that it seldom mistakes the unseen presence of a 
Humming-Bird for anything else." — IbiSy vol. i. p. 127. 

** Last year, in a cypress tree near the house at Duenas, a pair of 
birds built their nest. This year I found a branch of the 



th 

same tree similarly tenanted, the new nest being only a few yards 
from the site of the old one. To obtain it, I was obliged to cut 
away the branch ; and though, in falling, the nest was quite thrown 
on its side, the eggs, much to my surprise, did not fall out ; this I 




^ 






A 



4 ■ 



^■" 




_3 " ? 



JIM. _ 



fit. 




■'\ 



149 

afterwards found was owing to the lip of the nest turning inwards. 
Another pair commenced buikling near the house ; and the male 
bird frequently came while 1 was preparing skins in the corridor, 
and took pieces of cotton almost from my hand. In the afternoon 
of August 14. my friend Mr. Wyld observing it makmg a descent 
upon some small object in his room, shut the window and called me. 
The intruder, who was wearied from fluttering against the wmdow, 
suffered itself to be caught. In a very few moments its agitation 
ceased, and it seemed to be taking advantage of its comfortable 



place in my hand to rest from its fatigues, making no attempt to 
escape. Before letting it go I procured a piece of sugar, and, after 
dipping it in water, put it to the tip of its bill. Almost immediately 
its long tongue was employed in sucking up the liquid. On libe- 
rating it, it tlew to a tree close at hand, and seemed to take no 
further notice of ils late captivity."— /S'aZ«;m in Ibis, vol. ii. p. 39. 



317. C-SANOMYIA FRANCIiK . 



VoL V. PI. CCLXXXVII 



F 



Uranomitra Franc^cB, Reichenb. 
Cyanomyia francice, Bonap., Sclat. 

Poly tmus Fr amice, Gra.^ & Mitch. w i t i a 

*Agyrtria Francice, Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. 7, pi. 761. hgs 

4760-61. ' 



poleucus, Licht. in Mus. of 
Francice, Cab. et Hein. M 



Theil iii. p. 41 



Habitat. New Granada. 



318. Cyanomyia cyanicollis, Gould Vol. V. PL CCLXXXVIII. 



( 



p 



) 



Uranomitra cyanicollis, Reichenb. 

Cyanomyia cyanicollis, Bonap. 
^Agyrtria cyanicollis, Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. 7. 
^Uranomitra cyanicollis. Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 41, 



note. 



/ 



Habitat. Peru. 



.1 



Nearly allied to Cyanomyia is the 



Genus Hemistilbon, Gould. 
('H/xt-, semi, et ariXfiiov, micans.) 



Generic characters. 



Male —Bill longer than the head and straight ; wings moderately 
lonsr and considerably curved; tail rather short and truncate; tarsi 
clothed ; feet rather small ; hind toe shorter than the middle toe ; 

mils short and curved. 

Although I have placed this genus next to Cyanomyia, I consider 
that it has some relationship to the AmaziUce. 



I 



■ W 



' L 
I 



>T 




1 




I 



\>l\ 



1'VI 



^^ 






M >' 



150 



319. Hemistilbon OcAi, Gould. 
Amazilia Ocai, Gould . . . 



Vol. V. PL CCLXXXIX. 



^Pt/rrkophaena Ocai, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil. iii, p. 36 



note. 
Habitat. Mexico- 



Oca at Xalapa. 

In this genus I provisionally place the 



M 



, ^ Trochilus Norrisiy of 

which a single specimen exists in the Loddigesian collection, but 
unfortunately is so situated that I could not subject it to so careful 
an examination as I could have desired. 

320- Hemistilbon Norrisi. 



^Polyt 



Norrisi 




Polytmus, sp. 71. 



. of Birds, vol. i* p. 108 ; 



Norrisii 



Enum. p, 8. 



Norrisi, Bonap. Rev. et Mag 
ena Norrisi. Cab. et Hein. Mi 



note. 



Habitat. Bolanos in Central Mexico. 

At present only one species is known of the 

Genus Leucippus, Bonap, ; 



but I am inclined to believe that other birds of this form exist; in- 
deed I have all but positive evidence that such is the case/in a 
specimen killed by M. Warszewicz in Peru, which for the present I 
decline describing, as it may possibly be only a female of some un- 
known species, the male of which will be differently coloured. 

321. LEuciPPtrs chionogaster 

Trochilus leucogaster, Tschudi. 
Lampornis chionogaster^ Tschudi. 
Polytmus chionogaster. Gray & Mitch. 
Leucippus turneri, Bonap. 
Thaumatias leucogaster, Bonap. 
Trochilus Tumeric Bourc. 



Vol. V. PL CCXC. 



Polytm 



( 



r^ 



) 



Thaumantias chionogaster, Bonap. 
Leucippus Turner i, Reichenb. 



Habitat 



Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 31 



Th 



s 



disco v^ered. 



Genus LEueocHLORis, Reichenb. 
is another form of which a single species only has yet been 




f ■ 




'! 




"* '"- 



1 ■ 



') 







'^ 



151 



322. Leucochloris albicollis 



Vol, V. PI. CCXCI. 



TrocMlus albicollis, VieilL, Temm., Less., Jard. 

Ornismya albicollis, Less. 

Lampornis albicollis, Less. 

Basilinna albicollis, Less. 

Colibri albigularis, Spix. 

Polytmus albicollis. Gray & Mitch. 

Thaumatias albicollis, Bonap. 
Thaumantias albicollis, Bonap. 

Leucochloris albicollis, Reichenb. 
*7VocMMSi^M?^«ns, Wied, Beit. iv. p. 72. o 1 ►ts^ 

^Leucippus albicollis, Reichenb. Tfoch. Enutii. p. 8, pi. 7bZ. 



figs. 48 18-1 9. 



M 



*Thaumatias albicollis, Burm. Th. Bras. torn. ii.^. 342. 
jyaftite^. Brazil ; and Tucuman, accordii ' "^ " - 

This is a verv pretty species, distinguished by its green and white 
plumage. The sexes are alike in external appearance. 

The genus Thaumatias, as proposed by Bonaparte and adopted 
by me, comprises many species respecting -hich much confusion 
exists especially with regard to the names applied to them by the 
oSer author isome confusion, also, occurs with respect to the species 
I have called Thaumatias Linnm, which I fe^ar cannot be satis ac- 
torilv un avelled. If it should be decided that it is not the bird 
BonLarte intended, I trust it will be allowed to stand as the 
^^T^ultiT Lin^ci, Gould, nee Bonap." The other synonyms 
may or may not be applicable to it, bat they are given on the au- 
Tority of M. Bourcier of Paris. This is another of those instances 
whi h unfortunately occur too frequently for the advantage of 
Tdence- I mean the impossibility of determining the species in- 
tended in the curt descriptions left us by Gmelin and others of Toban 
or Tobagensis, Ourissia, cum multis alus. 

Genus Thaumatias, Bonap. 
The species of this form are natives of Brazil the banks of the 
Rivers Amazon and Napo, the Guianas, the Island of Ir.nidad 
Venezuela, New Granada, and Central America The sexes of 
each species are alike in colour. If any difference be observable it 
is in the outer tail-feathers of the female being faintly tipped with 

olive-grey. 

I, Vol V. PI. CCXCIL 

S23. Thaumatias CANDiDUS . . . • • voi. 

Trochilus candidus, Bourc. et Muls. 
Polytmus candidus. Gray & Mitch. 
Thaumcdias candidus, Bonap. - ... 

^Ai^Tria Candida, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil in. p. 33, note. 

Habitat. Guatemala and Southern Mexico. 
Mr Salvin states that this species is " common on the Atlantic 
coast-region, about Yzabal, and thence one day s ride into the 



m^\\ 




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L n 



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k 



!• 





152 

interior. Very abundant about Coban. Many species of Humming- 
Birds in Guatemala extend through a great range of temperature, 
the same species being frequently found both in the coast regions 
and also in the more elevated districts." Mr. Taylor saw very few 
examples of this bird in Honduras. 

324. Thaumatias chionopectus, Gould Vol. V. PI. CCXCIlI. 
*Agyrtrianiveipectus, Cab. et Hein.Mus.Hein. Theil iii. p.33, note. 

Habitat. Trinidad, Cayenne, and Guiana. 

325. Thaumatias leucogaster . . . 

Trochilus leucogaster, Gmel., Lath., Vieill. 
Mellisuga cayanensis, ventre albo, Briss. 
Agyrtria leucogastra^ Reichenb. 
Thaumantias leucogaster, Bonap. 
Ornismya albirostris. Less. 



Vol. V. PI. CCXCIV 



'^Cyvmnthus leucogaster, Jard. Nat. Lib. Humming Birds, vol. ii 
p. 149. 

''Trochilns mellisugus, Burm. Th. Bras. torn. ii.p. 343. 
^Agyrtria leucogastra, Cab. et Hein, 
^Trochilus Cleopatra, Gould, MS. 



M 



Habitat 



326. Thaumatias viridiceps, Gould . . Vol. V. PL CCXCV 



Habitat 



Mi 



Vol. V. PL CCXCVI. 



Milleri 
Milleri 



Milleri 



Milleri 



Milleri 



Habitat, 1 
Bogota. 



lin. in Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 33, note. 
Common in the neighbourhood of 



328. Thaumatias nitidifrons, Gould Vol. V. PL CCXCVII 
Habitat. Unknown : supposed to be Venezuela. 

329. Thaumatias c^ruleiceps, Gould. 

L J 

Thaumatias cceruleiceps, Gould in Proc. Zool. Soc. part xxviii. 



p. 307. 

Habitat, 



Received from Bogota. 



330. Thaumatias brevirostris . 

Ornismya brevirostris^ Less. 
Basilinna brevirostris, Less. 
Polytmus brevirostris, Gray & Mitch 
Thaumatias brevirostris^ Bonap. 
Thaumantias brevirostris^ Bonap. 



Vol. V. PL CCXCVIII 





i 1 



\ 



w^ 



I 






153 



Agyrtria hrevirostr is , Re\chenh . „ • a.i q o^t 

*Trochilus versicolor, " Licht," Nord. Erm. Reis. Atl. pp. 3, 27, 



t. l.f. 1-3. 
Hylocharis versicolor, Gray & Mitch 



vol. i. 



P 



Hylocharis 



Consp. Gen. Av. torn. i. 



p. 74<; Hylocharis, »p. \f. ,, Tmnli 

*Agyrtria versicolor, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 10; Id. irocn. 



Mag 



Enurn. p. 7, pi. 759. figs. 4.750-51. 
*Thaumantias versicolor, Bouap. Re^ 

*Agyrtria breviroslris. Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 34. 

L 



Habitat 



331. Thaumatias AFFiNis, Gould 



Vol. V. PI. CCXCIX. 



# 



Habitat. 
Minas 



Vol. V. PL CCC 



332. Thaumatias chionurus, Gould 

Trochilus (Thaumatiasl) chionura, GomU. 
*Leucippus chionurus, neichQxxh. Aijfz. der Col. p. 11; !«• 
Troch. Enum. p. 8, pi. 780. figs. 4813-15. 

. -w ' _ T> T>«« ^f A/I. 



Mas 



p. 255. 



Mus 



Habitat 



.333. Thaumatias albiventris 

Trochilm tephrocephalus, Vieill. 
Ornismya tephrocephalus, Less. 



Vol. V. PI. CCCI. 



- alhiventrisy Less. 



Mitch 



Coeligena tephrocephala, Reich. 

Agyrtria alhiventris, Reich. 

Thaumatias alhiventris, Bonap. 

Thaumantias albiventris, 'Sfona.p. " 

*Trochilus alhiventris, Jard.Nat.Lib. Humm. Birds, vol. n. p. 141- 
* Agyrtria alhiventris, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil ui. p. 32. 

Habitat, Brazil, the neighbourhood of Sta. Catharina (^owmer). 

This, the largest species of the genus, has the centre of the ab- 
domen and the under tail-coverts white. 

^ 

334. Thaumatias Linn^i, Bonap. . . . Vol. V. PI. CCCII. 

Thaumantias linnm, Bonap. 
Trochilus Tobaci, Gniel. 

Tobagensis^ Lath. 

maculatus, Aud. et VieilL? 
__ To^ago^ Shaw ? 

Ornismya viridissima, Less. 



■■■:! 
it 



E-i^-^C7~ 



r_ ^ ri ^^ 



■-. V 



L ■ 4 



. ,\ -/■-" ' •_■ 



I 




r" 



M 




■^ ^■^ 



154 
^Trochilus viridissimus, Jard, Nat. Lib. Humming Birds, vol ii. 



* 
* 



p. 149. 



M 



Saucerottia viridipectus, Reichenb. Autz. der Col. p. 7. 
^Agyrtria Thaumantias, Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. 7? pi- 756. 

tigs. 4738-39. 
^Chlorestes viridipectus^ Reich. Troch. Enum, p, 4, pi, 702. figs. 

4573-75. 
^Hylocharis lactea^ fern., Reich. Troch. Enum. p. 8, pi. 772. \ 

4792. 

*Cbe%e?^ailfa?/^e^\fem. (I!!), Reichenb. in Mus. of Berlin (Cabanis) 



M 



Habitat. Northern Brazil, ( 
Trinidad, and Venezuela. 



This bird is much smaller than the last, has less white on the ab- 
domen, and the under tail-coverts tinged with grey. 

I think it likely that pi. 62 of Lesson's ^ Histoire Naturelle des 
Oiseaux-moiiches ' has refereiace to this species, and the text to the 
T. albiventris. 

335. Thaumatias fluviatius, Gould, 

HahitaL Banks of the River Napo. 

In size this bird rather exceeds the last, and has a more than pro- 



portionately longer bill ; the breast is glittering deep or grass green 
stead of golden green, and there is a narrow irregular streak of 



greyish white on the abdomen ; but the great difference which di- 



stinguishes it from theTl Linncei and the rest is the colouring of the 
under tail-coverts, the centres of which are dark brown margined 
with greyish white; the tail-feathers are short and of a nearly uni- 
form dull black. 

Total length 4 inches, bill 2j\, wing 1, tail 1^. 

336. Thaumatias apicalis, Gould. 

Habitat. New Granada. 

About the same size as the last, v^ith an equally lengthened bill; 
the upper surface golden green; the centre of the abdomen and 
under tail-coverts pure white; the four outer tail-feathers steel- 
black margined with pure white at the tip. 

Total length 3^ inches, bill 1, wing 2-g-, tail \\, 

337. Thaumatias maculicaudus, Gould. 

h r 

Habitat. British Guiana. 



This is a very little species with a long thin bill; its breast is 



green as in the others ; the centre of its abdomen white ; the under 
tail-coverts white, except in the centre, where they are dark brown ; 
but the great difference is in the tail, which is exceedingly pretty, 
the two centre feathers being bronzy green, except at the extreme 
tip, which is greenish black, the next on each sid^ bronze for half 
their length, tlien black ; the three outer ones on each side bronzy 









155 

green at their base, then broadly zoned with black, next to which 
they are green, and lastly white. 

Total length 3^ inches, bill |, wing 2, tail 11. 

A specimen of this bird was brought from Guiana by Sir Robert 
Schomburgk ; and in all probability the species is an inhabitant of 

the interior. , v, a e 

The five preceding species are all very nearly alike, and form a 

minor section ; they are confined to a comparatively limited area. 
The remaining members of the genus are more widely distributed, 
one of them inhabiting Guatemala and Costa Rica, and two or three 
Veragua, while the others frequent Venezuela, Trinidad, the Guianas, 
and Brazil ; but as each of the species has its proper habitat indi- 
cated, it will be unnecessary to say more on the subject here. The 
females are very similar to the males in colour, except in the case of 
the rare species I have called T. chionurus, where the two sexes 
differ considerably, as may be seen on reference to the plate in which 
they are represented. 

The group of Humming-Birds to which I next direct attention 



Hylocharis 



Euph 



tween the Amazilice and the little green species forming the genus 
Chlorostilhon. These birds are the least understood of the Trochi- 
lidse, and are certainly the most difficult and perplexing to discrimi- 
nate'of the entire family. 1 will, however, do my best to unravel 
the confusion with which they are surrounded, and to place both the 
genera and species in as clear a light as my experience enables me. 
To do this effectively it will be necessary to replace some of the 
species in the genera from which they have been separated, and to 
propose a further subdivision of the remainder. In so doing it must 
not be understood that I am desirous of increasing the number of 
genera ; I merely wish to indicate by a distinctive appellation the 
sections into which the birds appear to be naturally divided. To 
particularize the provinces of South America over which the mem- 
bers of the various genera are distributed would be useless ; for their 
dispersion may be said to be general, as they are found from Mexico 
to Bolivia on the western coast, and from Brazil to Venezuela on the 
eastern ; few of the species, however, go very far either north or south, 
and still fewer are found in the West India Islands. The members 
of the genus Amazilia, as restricted, are all of somewhat large size, 
and are easily recognized, each of them having well-marked charac- 
ters. There is but little difference in the outward appearance of the 
sexes. The equatorial regions of the Andes are their head-quarters ; 
and it is there that we find the A. pristina, the A. atticola, the A. 
Dumerilh and the A. leucophcBU. These four species, I consider, 
form a very natural section. 

Genus Amazilia, Reichenh. 



338. Amazilia pristina . 
Orthorhynchus Amazili, Less 



. . Vol. V. PI. CCCIII 



. I 



III 



■ I 



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I f 
I 



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-IV- 



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13V ] 



156 
Ornismya Amazili, Less. 

Polytmus Amazili^ Gray & Mitch. 

Trochilus {Lampornis) Amazilia, Tschudi. 

Amazilius latirostrisy Bonap. 

Amazilia latirostris^ Reich. 
^Phaethornis Amaziliy Jard. Nat. Lib. Humming Birds, vol. ii. 

p. 152. 
^ Pyrrhophaena Amazilia, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 35. 

Habitat. The neighbourhood of Lima in Peru. 



339. Amazilia altipola, Gould . 

Habitat. The high lands of Centn 
uncertain. 

340. Amazilia Dujv^erili , , . 

Ornismya Dumerilii, Less. 
Trochilus amazicula, Sauc. 
Amazilia Amazilicida^ Reich. 
Polytmus Dumerilii, Gray Si Mitch 
Amazilia Dumerilii. Reich. 
Amazilius dumerili, Bonap. 
^ PyrrJiophaena Dumerilis Cab. et '. 



Vol. V. PI. CCCIV. 



. Vol V. PI, CCCV 



i 



Mus. H^in. Theil iii 



p. 36, note. 

Habitat. Ecuador, on the coast in the neighbourhood of Guaya- 
quil, and on the Isle of Puna. Found also at Babahoyo by 

Mr. Fraser. who states that the. bill is red with a hlnfk tin. 





I ' 



34-1. Amazilia LEucopHiEA, Reichenb. . . Vol. V. PI. CCCVL 

Amazilia leucophoea, Reichenb. 
% Pyrrhophaena leucophaea^ Cab. et Plein. Mus.Hein. Theil iii. p. 35. 

Habitat. Southern Peru. Collected in the vicinity of the Volcano 
of Arequipa by M. Warszewicz. 

I retain Dr. Cabanis's generic term Pyrrhophcena for the ten 
succeeding species : 



34*2. PYRRHOPHiENA CINNAMOMEA. 



Amazilia corallirostris . 



Vol. V. PL CCCVII. 



Muls 



M 



Amazilius corallirostris, Bonap. 
Amazilia corallirostris^ Reich. 
^Ornismya cinnamomea^ Less. Rev. Zool. 1842, p. 175. 



15, 1843, col. 1069. 



Monde 



M 



Habitat. 



Mr 



4 
I 



-! 



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I I I , 




^ 





I 



. 157 

the hot sea-boril only, and does not extend its vertical range to a 
o-reater elevation than 2000 feet. In such regions on the Pacific 
coast it is very abundant, and is, in fact, the commonest of the 
family— in some parts almost swarming. In every village numbers 
may be seen flitting about the blossoms of the orange and hrae trees. 
Its horizontal range appears to be extensive, and may be said to 
include the whole of the southern portion of Guatemala, trom the 
confines of Chiapas to the State of San Salvador, and probably also 
embraces the Balsam Coast of that republic, as Captam Taylor 
obtained examples on Tigr6 Island in the Bay of Fonseca. '—Ibis, 

vol. i. p. 130. ^ \ ^ r, c A 

" It is common about San Geronimo ; but seems not to be found 
in the colder and more elevated portions of the republic, neither 
occurring at Duenas nor Coban. A nest with two young and the 
hen bird was brought to me Dec. 6th ; the young were half-grown, 
and would have flown in about ten days. My specimens show that, 
as far as the feathers are concerned, the sexes are alike. A difference, 

however, exists in the bill, .. . 

the brilliant colour from which the species takes its name, in the 

upper mandible. In the young bird the upper mandible is black." 

/6i5, vol. ii. pp. 268, 269. . 

Mr. Taylor, speaking of the birds observed by him m the Republic 
of Honduras, &c., says, « This Humming-Bird is the only one I ob- 
served in any numbers, and that only in certain localities. 1 here 
were ^ome in Tigr6 Island, and I saw them here and there on our 
march across the country. I found them most abundant near 
Comayagua, 1900 feet above the sea. They were very plentiful on 
the plain near the town, and not far from the Campo Santo, where 
the ground was tolerably open and the cactus grew abundantly. 
There I observed hundreds hovering about the flowers of the 
cactus"— Ibis, vol. ii. p. 115. 

343. Pyrrhophjena Yucatanensis 
Amazilia Yucatanensis .... 
Trochilus Yucafanensis, Cabot. 
Habitat Yucatan. 



that of the male having much more of 



Vol. V. PI. CCCVIII 



Vol. V. PI. CCCIX. 



S44. PyRRHOPHiENA CERVINIVENTRIS, Gould* 

Amazilia cerviniventris, Gould • . • • 
^ Pyrrhophaena cerviniventris , Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. 
p. 36, note. 
ffahitaL Mexico. In the neighbourhood of Cordova, according 
to M. Salle. 



345. Pyrrhoph^na castaneiventris. 
Amazilia castaneiventris, Gould . . 
Amazilius castaneiventris, Gould. 
Habitat. New Granada. 



. Vol. V. PI. CCCX 



M 



I I 



|i 



I- 






-*- J -■"-■-l".s ' 

- t V 







r 



'■^^ 



f 



m 



I ' 



>(-*l 



•m 



158 



. . Vol. V. PI. ccc;xi 



346. Pyrrhoph^na Riefferi. 

Auiazilia Riefferi ....... 

TrocMlus Riefferi^ Bourc. 

AmazUius riefferi^ lionap., Selat. 

Amazilia Hiefferi^ Reich., Sclat., Salv. 

Polytmns Riefferi^ Gray & Mitch. 

Trochilus Dubusii, Bourc. 

Amazilia Dubusii, Reich. 
. Amazilius duhusi, Bonap., Sclat. 

Trochilus fuscicaudatns^ Fras. 

Hylocharis fuscicaudatus^ Gray & Mitch. 
^Ornismya amazili^ Delatt. Echo, du Monde Savant, No. 45, 

Juin 15,1843, col. 1069. 
^Trochilus arsinoides^ Sauc. in Mus. of Berlin. 
^ Pyrrhophaena Riefferi, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 
* — Dubusi, Cab. et Hein- lb- p. 36. 

* ' suavisy Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 

note. 



36- 



36, 



Habitat Southern Mexico, Guatemala, and along the Andes to 
Ecuador. 

Nearly thirty specimens are now before me from these various 
countries, among them M- Bourcier's type specimen of Dubusi, 
also specimens collected by Warszewicz in Costa Rica ; and I see 
nothing to induce a belief that there is any specific difference 



between those found in Mexico, Guayaquil in Ecuador, or in any 

of the intermediate countries. I admit that diff<erences occur both 



in size and in the fringing of the outer tail-feathers: generally 
speaking, they are darker in the Costa Rican and New Granadiau 
specimens; but I have some quite as bronzy from those countries as 
the generality of specimens found in Honduras and Guatemala. 
These latter are the birds to which the term Dubusi has been ap- 
plied. 



. Vol. V. PI CCCXU. 



J ^ 



347. Pyrrhoph^na beryllina. 

Amazilia beryllina . * . . ^ * s, 

Trochilus beryllinusy Licht. 
Ornismya Arsinoe, Less. 
Cynanthus Arsinoe, Jard. 
Polytmus Arsinoe, Gray & Mitch. 
Amazilius arsinoe, Bonap. 
Amazilia Arsinoe, Reich. 
Pyrrhophaena beryllina, Cab. et Hein. 

Habitat. Southern Mexico. M. Botta found it at Orizaba, and 
M. Salle at Cordova. 

348. Pyrrhophjena Devillei. 

Amazilia Devillei ........ Vol. V. PI. CCCXIII. 

Trochilus Devilleiy Bourc, Gray & Mitch. 





II 



ft 



^1 




L^ 




iM 



159 




Amazilia Devillei, Reich. 
Amazilius devillei, Bonap. 



Maria 



Hylocharis 



Mm 



Ma 



Mariae 



695. fig 




4549. 



Mariae 



Amazilia Dumerili, Salv. Ibis, vol. ii. p. 270. 



Habitat 



Speaking of this species, which by some inadvertence he has 
called Dumerili instead of Devillei, Mr. Salvin says, « During the 
months of July, August, and September, one of its most favourite 
resorts was the western boundary of the Llaiio of Duenas, which, 
starting from the village and bounded to the eastward by the river 
Guacalate, extends, sweeping by the Volcan de Fuego, almost to the 
Hacienda of Capertillo, its southern extremity. Dispersed all over 
this plain is found, in groves, patches, and isolated trees, a Iree 
Convolvulus, bearing a white flower, and attaining an average 
height of about 25 or 30 feet. During the above months this 
elegant species might be seen in almost every tree, some feeduig 
among the flowers, some settled quietly on a dead branch, uttering 
their low, plaintive, hardly to be called musical, yet certainly 
cheerino- song, others less peacefully occupied in a war ot expulsion, 
drivin-T^out by vehement cries and more effectual blows the tenant 
of a t?ee, which in its turn wreaks vengeance on some weaker or 



unexpectant antagonist. 



?> 



Ibisj vol. ii. p. 270. 



Vol. V. PI. CCCXIV. 



349. PyRRHOPHiENA VIRIDIGASTER. 

Amazilia viridigaster • . . . • • • 

Trochilus viridigaster, Bourc. 

Hylocharis viridigaster, Bonap., Gray & Mitch. 

Saiicerottia viridiventris, Reichenb. 

^ viridigastra, Bonap., Sclat. 

^Chlorestes viridiventris, Reichenb. Trocli. Enum. p. 4, pi. 699. 

figs. 4564-65. .. , ., tt . n-, m ••• ^ qq 



^Hemithyla 

Habitat. I 
Bogota. 

350. PyRRHOPHiENA lODURA. 



Granada. Common in the neighbourhood of 



Mus 



^Saucernttia iodura, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 8. 

* Chlorestes iodurus, Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. 4, pi. 698. figs. 

*Hemithylaca iodura, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 39. 

* Trochilus Aglaice, Bourc. Ann. Soc. Sci. Phys. et Nat. Lyon, 



1846, p. 329? Id. Rev. Zool. 1846, p. 318? 



M 2 



1. 



!«t. . 



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I 



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I I 



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If 



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]60 



"^Polytmus AglaicB, Gray & Mitch. Gen. of Birds, vol. i. p. 109, 
Polytmus, sp. 73? 

^Amazilius aglaice, Bonap. Consp. Gen. Av. torn. i. p. 71, Ama- 
zilius^ sp. 11? 

^Saucerottia Aglaiae^ Reichonb. Aufz. der Col. p. 8? 




• « • 



38, 



Chlorestes Aglaiae, Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. 4 ? 

^Hemithylaca Aglaiae, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil in p 
note? ' ^ 

Habitat. New Granada? 

The specimen named iodura in the Museum of M. Heine at 
Halberstadt is different from the bird so called in the Museum at 
^M^^r"' 1- '^^^ former has a glittering crown and light-lilac shining 
tail-leathers ; while the latter has a dull-coloured crown, and the tail 
so nearly resembling that of P. viridigaster, that I have no doubt of 
Its bemg a young bird, or a female of that species. On the other 
hand, I think M. Heine's bird is a distipet species, and I have there- 




iodura 



, . Vol. V. PL CCCXV. 



F 

351. Pyrbhoph^na cyanura. 
Amazilia cyanura, Gould . , . , 
*IIemithylaca cyanura, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. p. 38, note, 
Habitat. Pacific side of Nicaragua ; Realjo ? 

The Prythronotce are nearly allied to the Pyrrh^^.. _. _„ ,„ 

that genus, the sexes are alike in their colouring. The species are 
much more circumscribed in their habitat, being almost confined to 
Venezuela and the countries immediately adjoining. 

The oldest-known species, which I have called antiqua, appears 
to be subject to much variation in its colour and markings ; but, as 
I stated in my account of that species, I have questioned the pro- 
priety of their separation until we are better acquainted with them. 



As in 



Genus Eryti^rpnqta, Gould. 

('Epvdpv^^ ruber, et ywrps, dorsum.) 

Generic characters. 

Male, — Bill longer than tl^e head, nearly straight or very 
curved; wings moderately long; tail rather short and 
forked ; tarsi clothed ; hind-toe rather shorter than the middle^one"'; 
claws short; throat and chest lively green. 

Female. Similar in colour. 



slightly 



352. Erythronota antiqua 

w 

Ornismya erythronotos^ Less. 

erythronotus^ Less. 



Vol. V. PL CCCXVI 



Polytmus erythronotus. Gray & Mitch. 
Saucerottia erythronota, Bonap., Reich, 
Trochilus eryihronotus^ Jard. 



* ^. 



r^/ 



■ \' 



.: J^' 



I, 

T 
1 1 1 



I i 






161 



p. U8. 



rythronotus 
erythronotus. 



figs. 4562-63. 
*Hem.ithylaca erythronota, Cah. et Hein. Mus. Hem. Theil ui. p. 37. 

Habitat. Trinidad, Tobago, and Venezuela. 

The birds from Tobago are very much larger than those from 
Trinidad ; and some of the specimens from Venezuela have the under 
tail-coverts wholly chestnut ; I should have considered this indica- 
tive of another species, had I not found a similar variation in speci- 
mens from Trinidad. 



353. Erythronota Felicia 

Ornismya Felicics, Less. 
Saucerottia Feliciae., Reich* 

fell 



Vol. V. PI. CCCXVII. 



Chlorestes Feliciae, Reichenb. 
Hemithylaca Feliciae, Cab. et 
Trochilus Emile. 

Habitat. Venezuela. 

Felicice 



stinct from O.antigua, and as such I have kept it; at the same 
time it is extremely difficult to distinguish one from the other. In 
size they are as near alike as possible ; but the former has a bluer tail, 
and the back and upper surface destitute of the fiery red colouring 
observable in many specimens, but not in all, of the O. antiqua ; the 
under tail-coverts, too, are frequently stained with violet. 



Emile 



M. Emile 
The bird 



was killed by him during his visit to South America. 

354. Erythronota Edwardi . . . Vol. V. PI. CCCXVIII. 

Trochilus Edward, Delatt. et Bout^c, 
Polytmus Edwardsii^ Gray & Mitch. 
Amazilius edward^ Bonap. 
Thaumantias edward, Bonap. 
Saucerottia Edwardsii^ Reich. 

"^ Chlorestes Edwardsiiy Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. 4, pi. 698. 
figs. 4558-60. 



-■^ 



^Hemithylaca Edwardi, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 37, 

note. 

r 

Habitat. Panama, Costa Rica, and Veragua. 



M 



1 have specimens or mis uiru Kuieu uy xtii. a^hu^co »««. -.^^viu^ub 

an elevation of from 8000 to 10,000 feet, according to the label 

attached. 

355. Erythronota niveiventris, Gould Vol. V. Pi. CCCXIX. 



Trochilus ( 



?) niveoventer, Gould. 





^- 1" 



IN 



4i 
I , 



di— ^sr : . :: . t L ' .^ ' ^^ 




' r 




' ^. 




162 

Thaumantias niveiventer, Bonap. 
Saucerottia niveiventer, Reich. 
^Chlorestes niveiventris, Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. 4, pi. 700- 

figs. 4566-67. 
^Hemithylaca niveiventris^ Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. 

p. 37. 

i 

Habitat. Panama and Veragua. 

856. Erythronota elegans, Gould . . Vol. V. PI. CCCXX. 
Erythronota elegans^ Gould, Proc. of Zool. Soc, pt. xxviii. p. 307. 
Habitat. Unknown. 

This is a very elegant species, and quite distinct from every other 
kno^vn Humming-Bird. In its glittering light-green crown, throat, 
and chest it looks like a Chlorostilbon ; but the form of its tail and 
some other characters ally it to the Erythronotm^ with which I have 
provisionally placed it. 





«• 



r 



I P 



«i 




■ y 




■^ . 



ifew 



The next natural section is that of Saucerottia^ of which I am 
acquainted with three species distinguished from the Erythronotce 
by their larger size, stouter bills, and by their more uniform dark- 
green colouring. All are confined to a comparatively limited area 
namely, Costa Rica, Veragua, Panama, and the northern parts of 
New Granada. 

Genus Saucerottia, Bonap. 



357. Saucerottia typica, Bonap. 
Erythronota Saucerottei 

, r 

Trochilus Saucerottii^ Bourc. et Delatt. 
Polytmus Saucerottii^ Gray & Mitch. 
Saucerottia typica^ Bonap. 
Chlorestes typicus^ Reichenb. 
Hemithylaca Saucerottei^ Cab. et Hein. 

i 

Habitat. New Granada. 

358. Saucerottia SoPHiiE. 

Erythronota Sophise ....... 



Vol. V. PI. CCCXXI 



Vol. V. PI. CCCXXII 



Trochilus Sophice^ Bourc. 



fc \^ . 



Polytmus Sophia^y Gray & Mitch. 



Amazilius sophiw^ Bonap. 
Saucerottia Sophiae^ Reich. 

sophim^ Sclat. 

Sophia^ Bonap. 



-t * 



r t 



Chlorestes Sophiae^ Reich. 

Trochilus ( ?) caligatus^ Gould. 

Hemithylaca Sophiae^ Cab. et Hein. 

Hoffmanni^ Cab. et Hein 



p. 



Habitat. Costa Rica, Veragua, and New Granada. 



Ir 



1^ •:-:■. 



J^ 






# 



163 



359. Saucerottia Warszewiczi. 
*Hmdthylaca Warszewiczi, Cab. et Hein. Mus 



p. 38. 



Hab 



Magdalen a 



As the S. Sophice differs from the S. typtca in the "cher Wue 
colouring of its upper and under taii-coyerts and ad so does th s 
species differ from the S. SopMce in having the tad ^nd is cover s 
both above and beneath of a still richer and more v.olet blue. It is 
al.o of smaller size ; and the green of its under surface is different 
from that of both, being purer and deeper. The examples in m^ 



M.W 



M 




Magdalena. 

has given the specific name of 
cvanifrons requires separation from the last three species as much 
or more than they do from their predecessors the ErythronotcB. 
M. Cabanis's generic name of Hemithylaca having been applied to 
this group as a whole, subsequently to those of SamerotHa and 
Erythror^ta, 1 must either place his name in the rank of a synonym 
or adopt it for the present species, the only one of this particular 

form. /^ r. 

Genus Hemithylaca, L>ao. 

^ - 

360. Hemithylaca cvanifrons. 

Saucerottia cyanlfrons Vol. V. H. CCCXXIII. 

Trochilus cyanifrons, Bourc. 
Polytmm cyanifrons, Gray & Mitch. 
Thabirania cyanifrons, Bonap. 
Saucerottia cyanifrons, Bonap., Reichenb. 

Chlorestes cyanifrons, Reichenb. „ • t^u -i - „ an 

* Remithylaca cyanifrons. Cab. et Hem. Mus. Hein. Thed in. p. 39. 

Habitat. New Granada. 

Somewhat allied to the genera Hemithylaca and Erythronota is 
the isolated form constituting my genus Eupherusa. The single 
species known is a native of Central America. Contrary to what 
occurs among the Erythronotce, the sexes differ very considerably in 
their plumage ; a fact of which I was not aware when my plate of the 
species was executed. 






Genus Eupherusa, Gould. 
(Eu, bene, feliciter ; et fepovaa, gestans.) 



tr. 



Male 



Bill nearly straight and longer than the head ; wiy 

- - . ' - 1 ^ ^ -imain : hind toe vsithev 



feet 



shorter than the middle toe. 
i^mafe.— Unadorned. 

361. Eupherusa eximia 

Trochilus eximius, Delatt. 



. , . Vol. V. PI. CCCXXIV 



I 






'. I 



A 






H \ 



T 



I I 



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f ^ 



- 1'^ 



i 



I 



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m 









.. HI' 
4W 




BB 



B4 



164 

Saucerottia eximia, Reich,, Bonap. 
^Amazilia eximia, Reichenb, Troch. Enum. p. 8, pi. 776. fig, 4802. 

Habitat Guatemala and Honduras? 

Mr. Salvin states that " This is one of the commonest Hummino-. 
Birds of Coban, being found everywhere near the city. The ratto 
of the males to the females is as ten to four.*' — Ibisy vol. ii. p. 271. 

The following is a correct description of the female of this 
species : — 

Throat and all the under surface grey; sides of the neck and 
upper surface green ; primaries purplish brown ; secondaries deep 
buff j forming epaulets as in the male, but of lesser size 



The 



Genus Chrysuronia, Bonap., 



IS composed of six species, with pretty, golden tails. The females 
of most of them are strikingly different ; for, although they all have 
the tail similarly coloured, they are destitute of brilliancy on any 
part of the body. All are inhabitants of the Andes in New Granada 
Ecuador, and Peru, with the exception of the C. Micice, which in- 
habits countries to the northward of Panama. 



362. 



CE 



Vol. V. PI. CCCXXV, 



Ornismya Oenone, Less., Delatt. 
Polytmus CEnone, Gray & Mitch. 
Chrysuronia cenone, Bonap., Sclat. 

Oenone, Reichenb. 

*Cynanthus Oenone, Jard. Nat. Lib. HummingBirds, vol. ii. p I49 



M 



Habitat 



I find no difference between the birds from Venezuela and those 
from the neighbourhood of Bogota, except that the latter have rather 
longer bills, and the tail-feathers lighter and inclined to green. 



363. Chrysuronia Josephin^e 



VoU V. PL CCCXXVI. 



Mul 



Trochilus Josephince, Gray & Mitch, 
Chrysuronia Josephinae, Reichenb., Bonap 



M 



note. 
Habitat 



Hein. Theil iii. p. 42, 



Mr 



I have two specimens of a bird of this form in my collection, one 
of which, procured in Paris, is labelled " O. neera, Less. ;" they 
differ from every other species I possess. They are much larger 
than C. Josepliince, and their tails are rich fiery bronze ; their crowns 
greenish blue ; all the under surface golden green ; the under tail- 
coverts fiery bronze like the tail ; and the blue of the crown extends 





I 



'n 







* > 



» t 



crown IS 



165 

r 

further down the neck. I therefore retain the name of neera for this 
bird. I have still another bird allied to Josephine, with a longer 
wing, a shorter tail, and a somewhat shorter bill ; the colour of the 

' violet or purplish-blue instead of greenish-blue, and the tail, 
instead of being rich fiery bronze, is light greenish bronze. I can- 
not do otherwise than provisionally name this bird, and I therefore 
propose to call it C. ccBruhicapilla. 

S64-. Chrysuronia neera. 

Ornysmia neera, Less., Delatt. et Less. Rev. Zool. 1839, p. 18. 

Habitat. Unknown. 

■ 

S65. ChrVsuronia c-3eruleicapilla, Gould. 



Vol. V. PU GCCXXVIL 



Habitat. Unknown. 

r 

366. Chrysuronia Humboldti . . 

Trochilus Sumboldti, Bourc. et Muls. 
Chrysuronia Humholdti, Reichenb,, Bonap. 
^Chrysurisca Humboldti, Cab.et Hfein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 42, 



note. 



Hab 



raldas in Ecuador. 



Miva in the province of Esme- 



367. Chrysuronia Elicije . . . • Vol. V. PI. CCCXXVIII 

r 

Trochilus ElicuB^ Bourc. et Muls. 
Polytmus lElicicB, Gray & Mitch. 
Chrysuronia elicia, Bonap. 

. Eliciae, Reichenb., Bonap. 

^Chrysurisca Eliciae, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii» p. 4*2. 

r 

Habitat. Guatemala, Costa Rica, and Veragua. 



Vol. V* PI. CCCXXIX. 



) 



368. Chrysuronia chrysiIrA 

Ornisniya chrysura. Less. 
Chrysuronia chrysura, Bonap., Reichenb. 
Polylmus chrysurd^ Gray & Mitch. 
^Phaethornis't chrysurus^ Jard. Nat. Lib. Huniming Birds, vol. ii. 



p. 152. 



Mus 



note. 



--y 



Hah 



1 ^ 



I 

I 



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I 



'k 



, 4 



■| 



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h' 



Rich and conspicuous blue is the prevailing tint in the genera 

which may be considered as 



Hyloch 



truly 



Brazilian, since most of the species are natives of that country, 
ahuost the only exception being the E. Grayiy which is found in the 
Andes, There is scarcely any section of the Trochilidse less under- 
stood or more difficult to discriminate than the next six or eight 

species. 



■ 4 



-r' 



. 





J 66 



- S'v. 




ii 



■l 





ffl 







•^ 






Genus Eucephala, Reichenb. 



369. Eucephala Grayi Vol. V. PI. CCCXXX. 

Trochilus Grayi^ Delatt. et Bourc. 
Hylocharis Grayii^ Gray & Mitch., Bonap. 
Eucephala Grayi^ Reich enb. 
Sapphironia grayi^ Bonap. 

"^Eucephala Grayi^ Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 43. 
Habitat Said to be Popayan in New Granada. 
This is the largest species of the genus, and a very rare bird. 

370. Eucephala sMARAGDO-ciERULEA, Gould. 

Vol. V. PI. CCCXXXL 
Augasma smaragdineum, Gould. 

Habitat. Brazil, from Rio de Janeiro towards the interior. 

371. Eucephala CHLOROCEPHALA. . 

Hylocharis chlorocephala^ Bourc. 

'■ • chlorocephalus^ Bonap. 

Agyrtria chlorocepha la , Reichenb. 
Lepidopyga chlorocephala. Cab. et Hein. 

Habitat. The environs of Guaranda in Ecui 
Bourcier. 

372. Eucephala c^ruleo-lavata, Gould. 



Vol. V. PI. CCCXXXII 



to M 



Vol. V. Pi. CCCXXXIII. 

Habitat South-eastern Brazil. 

373. Eucephala scapulata, Gould, 
Habitat. Supposed to be Cayenne. 

Crown of the head, back of the neck, and lower part of the back 
very deep dull green; throat and chest glittering greenish blue, 
imperceptibly passing into the dull brownish black of the abdomen'; 
under tail-coverts brown, with a wash of dull blue in the centre of 
each feather; a mark of blue on each side at the insertion of 
the wing, forming an indistinct band across the back; upper tail- 
coverts bronzy green; tail steely black, rather short for the size of 
the bird, and slightly forked ; wings deep purplish brown ; tarsi 
clothed with intermingled greyish-white and brown feathers; upper 

mandible black; basal half of the under mandible fleshy, the apical 
half black. > 

Total length 3f inches, bill |, wing 2^^ tail If. 



In the size of its body, it 




Eucephala 



lavata, but it differs from that and every other known species of 
this family of birds. 

I have only seen a single example of this species. 

374. Eucephala hypocyanea, Gould Vol. V. PI. CCCXXXIV. 

Habitat. Unknown, nrnhablv T^r^yJI 





* 



1 



- I 



t 




\rr-\ 



,-fi -a^^^i 



rH^u^ n^ r>^ 






il 



i 



167 



375. EUCEPHALA C^RULEA • • < 

Trochilus c^ruleus^ Vieill. 
Ornismya Audeberti, Less., Bourc. 



Vol. V. PI. cccxxxv. 



Hylocharis 



cceruleus, Bonap. 



Thaumatias caeruleus, Bonap. 
Chlorestes coerulea, Reichenb. 



Mus 



W 



* Cynanthus ? ciBruleus, Jard. Nat. Lib. Humming Birds, vol. ii. 

p. 14<7. 

* Hylocharis Audeherti, Burm. Th. Bras. torn. u. p. 349. 

Habitat. Eastern and Northern Brazil (Charaicuros, Hauxwell), 
the Guianas, Venezuela, Trinidad, and Tobago. 

Specimens from all these localities are so much alike that it is 
impossible to consider them otherwise than as one and the same spe- 
cies • but 1 may remark that those from Venezuela have the blue 
mark on the chin much less apparent than those from Cayenne, 
Trinidad, and Eastern Brazil. My Chamicuros specimen also has 
this colour but faintly indicated, and the tail somewhat larger. 

376. EuCEPHALA CYANOGENYS. 

* Trochilus cyanoge?iys, Wied, Beitr. iv. p. 10; Jard. Nat. Lib. 
Humming Birds, vol. ii. p. 89 ; Burm. Their. Bras. tom. ii. 



p. 350. 
rnismyc 

pi. 26. 



Wied\ 



* Cynanthus cyanogenys, Jard. Nat. Lib. Humming Birds, vol. ii. 



p. 148. 



*Hylocharis cyanogenys, Gray, Gen. of Birds, vol. i. p. 115, Hylo- 
charis, sp. 40. . ~- (^ 
^Saucerottia cyanogenys, Bonap. Gen. Av. tom. i. p. 77, ^auce- 

rottia, sp. 3. rr dc e 

* Hylocharis wiedi, Bonap. Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1854, p. 255. 

* Chlorestes cyanogenys, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 7 ; Id. Troch. 



Mus. He 

HiUuui. ^' T, jji. w^-. "&"• '.^^^ "1 J 

Theil iii. p. 46. 

HabitaL Brazil. 

The single example of this bird procured by Prince Maximilian 
of Wied is the only one that has been seen. It is very closely allied 
to, but smaller than, E. cmrulea. 

Genus Panterpe, Cab. 
This generic name has been proposed by M. Cabanis for the beau- 
tiful new bird discovered by Dr. Hoffmann in Costa Rica, of which 
I believe only a single example was obtained. Nothing is known 



with regard to the colouring of the sexes. 

377. Panterpe insignis, Cah, . 
Habitat. Costa Rica. 



Vol. V. PI. CCCXXXVI. 



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168 

I 

The member or membePs, as the case may be, of the 

m 

Genus Juliamyia, Bonap., 

stand quite alone and apart from all the other small Humming-Birds, 
and bear the same relationship to the EucephalcR that the Upheno- 
proctus Pampa does to the CampylopterL Some of the specimens of 
this form have brilliantly glittering crowns ; in others this part of the 
head is dull-coloured; while the plumage of the body is alike in all. 
These differences have sadly perplexed me for many years • but 
after a very careful and minute examination of a great number of 
examples from various localities, I believe I shall be right in regard^ 
mg the brilliantly coronetted bird as distinct from its dull-crowned 
ally, and m adopting the name of Feliciana of Lesson, believing that 
his description has reference to it. 

378. JULIAMYIA TYPICA 

Ornismyia Julie, Bourc. 

Ornismya JulicBy Bourc. 

Sylocharis Jalice^ Gray & Mitch. 

Damophila Julia, Reichenb. 

Juliamyia typica^ Bonap. 
^^oeligena juliae, Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p* 3, pi 681 fiirs 

4494-95, and pi. 763. fig- 4767. 
"^Damophila Juliae, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 40. 

SabitaL New Granada. 



Vol. V. PL CCCXXXVIL 



379. Juliamyia Feliciana. 

* Ornismya Feliciana, Less. Rev. 
^Hylocharis Feliciana, Gray & M 
Hylocharis, sp. 27. 

^ 

Habitat. Ecuador. 



i.p. 114, 



Mr. Fraser states that at Babahoyo this species is "tiot very 
common, and only found in the deep bush, where it feeds on the 
tops of good-sized trees," and that ih Esmeraldas it Was " taken 
catching flies among the Cacao plantations. In October common 
everywhere; in December rare." " Irides hazel ; upper mandible 
black; lower red, with black tip."— Proc. o/ Zool. Soc. 1860, pp. 
283, 296. ^^ 



Mexican 
knowledge extends, only two species. 



Although their tails are 



somewhat short, they are composed of broad and ample feathers, all 
of which are tipped with grey : in this respect they remind us of 
the Chlorolampis Caniveti and its allies. 



Generic characters. 



Genus Circe, Gould. 
(Iv/pKjj, Circe.) 



M 



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slightly curved and 




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169 



tapering towards the tip ; wings rather long ; primaries rigid ; tail 
rather short, and slightly forked, the feathers broad ; tarsi clothed ; 



feet 

Female 



— Very dull in colour. 



The six middle tail-feathers of both species are edged with brown, 
as in Caniveti. 



1 

S80. Circe latirostris . 

1 

Trochilus latirostris^ Swains. 



Vol. V. PI. CCCXXXVIII. 





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Circe^ Bourc. 

Sopphironia circe^ Bonap. 

Trochilus Schimperi^ Saucer. MS. 

^Ornismya Lessoni^ Delatt. Rev* Zi — , 

^Trochilus lazulus^ Licht. in Mus- of Berlin. 

4 



(female) 



^Cyanophaia lazula^ Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 10. 
Hylocharis lazula, Reichenb. Troch. Enum, p. 8, 



4783-84. 



* 



Douhledayi^ Cab. et Hein. M 



70. figs 
L p. 44. 



Habitat. Tiie table-lands of Mexico. 

My late friend Dr. Saucerotte gave me the type-specimen of his 
Trochilu^ Schimperi with the name attached, by which means I am 
^ble to state that it is identical with the present bird, and not with 
the Trochilus lazulus of Vieillot as supposed by Pr, Reichenbach 
(see his Aufz. der Col. p. 21). 

381. Circe DouBLEDAYi . . * , , Vol. V. PI. CCCXXXIX. 

Trochilus Dovbledayi^ Bourc. 
Thxiumatias doubledayiy Bonap. 
Cyanophaia Doubledayiy Reichenb, 
Hylocharis Doubledayiy Gray & Mitch. 
Sopphironia doubledayiy Bonap- 
Trochilus Lereboulleti^ Sauc. MS. 

Habitat. Mexico ; locality Chimantla, according to Dr, Saucerotte. 



Genus Ph^optila, Gould, 



.« 



($cuos, obscurus, et TrriXor, pluma,) 



Generic characters. 

Male. — Bill longer than the head, fleshy at the base, and slightly 
arched ; wings of medium length ; tail the same, and slightly forked ; 
feet rather stout ; hind toe and nail shorter than the middle toe and 

nail. 

r 

382. Ph^optila sordida, Gould . . . 

Cyanomyia ? sordida, Gould. 

sordida-, Sclat. 



Vol. V. PI. CCCXL. 



Uranomitra sordida, Cab. et Hein 
Habitat Oaxaca in Mexico. 



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170 

There is a specimen in the Loddigesian collection which appears 
to be distinct from this bird; without figuring I will give a descrip- 
tion, and propose for it the name of Phceoptila zonura. 

383. Ph^eoptila zonura, Gould. 

Habitat. Bolanos in Mexico. 

This bird, which is rather smaller and more delicately formed than 
JP. obscura, has all the upper surface dull bronzy green; a stripe of 



greyish white over each eye; ear-coverts dusky; 



wings purplish 
the remainder 



brown ; two centre tail-feathers bronzy green ; 
bronzy green, crossed near the extremity with a broad band of 
blackish brovvn, beyond which the tips are greyish brown ; all the 
under surface grey. 

The single species of the 

Genus Damophila, Eeichenb.^ 

stands quite alone, no second member of the form having yet been 
discovered. Its native country is the Andes of New Granada and 
Ecuador, from both of which localities specimens are now before 



me. 



Mr 



the specimens commonly sent in collections from Bogota, in having 
the centre of the throat greyish brown instead of black, and the two 
centre tail-feathers reddish purple instead of bronzy green; they must 
not, however, I think, be regarded as other than local varieties. Mr. 
Fraser's specimens appear not to be fully adult. 

384- Damophila amabilis, Gould . . . Vol. V. PI. CCCXLI. 



Troehilus ( 



?) amabilis, Gould. 
Damophila amabilis^ Reichenb. 
Jidiamyia amabilis, Bonap. 
^Coeligena amabilis, Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. 3, pL 681- figs. 

4496-97. 
^Damophila amabilis, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii- p. 40. 

Habitat. New Granada and Ecuador. 

I am not quite certain that we are acquainted with the true female 
of this bird, but I believe my representation of that sex to be cor- 
rect; if so, the sexes are very dissimilar in colouring, and in this 
respect are closely allied to the Eucephalce. . 

1 ^ ■ 

Boie, one of the most philosophical of modern ornithologists, pro- 
posed the generic term of Hylocharis for the Troehilus sapphirimis 
of Gmelin ; and I have much pleasure in adopting this name, as well 
as several others proposed by him. The 

Genus Hylocharis, Boie, 

is composed of three species, all of which are natives of Brazil, to 
which country they are mainly confined. They are all very pretty, 

if not showy, species; and one of them is among the oldest-known 



^1 i/ i ' ^-^ 

members of the entire family, as will be seen on reference to the 









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171 

synonyms ; brilliant blue is the prevailing colour of the males, while 
the opposite sex is but plainly attired. 

S85. Hylocharis sapphirina .... Vol V. Ph CCCXLII. 

Trochilus sapphirinus, Gmel., Lath-, Shaw, Jard. 
Ornismya sapphirina^ Less. 
Hylocharis sapphirina^ Gray & Mitch. 
. sapphirinus^^owd^^ 

Trochilus fulvifrons.'L^th. ,^. , ^ . •• r:nn . 

^Trochilus sapphirinus, VieiU. Ency. Meth. Orn. part ii. p. 570 , 

Licht. DoubL p. 14- 

* . latirostris, Wied, Beit. iv. p. 64. 

^Cynanthus sapphirinus, Jard. Nat. Lib. Humming Birds, vol. ii. 

\ _ - M . 



* 



p. 147. 

Hylochar 
Sapphire 
p. 256. 



Ma 



^Hylocharis sapphirina, Reichenk Troch. Enum. p. 7, pi. 769. 
figs, 4780-82 ; Burm. Th. Bras. torn. ii. p. 346 ; Cab. et Hein. 
Mus. Hein. Theil iii, p. 43. 

Habitat. Brazil. 

This species arrives in the neighbourhood of Rio de Janeiro in 
July, and departs again in November. I have also seen specimens 
from Bahia, Para, and other parts on the Lower Amazon. 



386. Hylocharis lactea . 

Ornismya sapphirina. Less. 

lactea, Less. 

Hylocharis lactea, Gray & M 
Cyanochloris lactea, Reich. 
Sapphironia lactea, Bonap. 
"^Trochilus sapphirinus, Wied 

* . — 



Vol. V. PI. CCCXLIII. 



lazuUnus, Licht. in Mus. of Berlin. 



Hylocharis 



Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 43, note ; 



Reich. Troch. Enum. p. 8, pi. 773. figs. 4788-91. 



Vol. V. PI. CCCXLIV. 



Habitat. Eastern and Northern Brazil. 

387. Hylocharis cyanea . . . . • 

Trochilus cyaneus, VieiU., Jard. 

Ornismya cyanea. Less. 

Hylocharis cyanea, Gray & Mitch. 

Thaumatias cyaneus, Bonap. 
=^ Trochilus azureus, Licht. DoubL p. 14. tj t- u 

^Hylocharis cyanea, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 10; Id. Iroch. 
Enum. p. 7, pi. 768. figs. 4777-79; Cab. et Hem. Mus. Hein. 

Theil iii. p. 44. 
^Ornismya bicolor. Less. Hist.Nat.des Ois.-mou. p.l61, pl.49, 50.^? 

Id. Traite d'Orn. p. 280 ? f Id. Les Troch. p. 58, pi. 16 ? ? 
Habitat. Eastern Brazil ftom Rio Janeiro to Bahia, where it is 
stationary. 



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172 



Hylocha 



Genus Sapphironia, Sonap. ; 

for although one of them has a glittering green breast, I consider it 
to be more nearly allied to that form than to the Chhrostilbontes 
and their allies. They are very elegant in form, and I believe that 
the females of both species differ very considerably from the males. 
I consider this genus to be a very natural one ; yet, strange to say, 
one of the species (^S. cieruleigularis) has a blue breast, while the 
other is wholly green. 

Both are natives of the Andes— one in Central America, the other 
in New Granada. 

388. Sapphironia Goudoti , . . , Vol. V. PI. CCCXLV. 

F 

Trochilus Goudoti^ Rourc. 
Smicerottia goudoti^ Bonap, 
Polytmus Goudoti, Gray & Mitch. 
Chalyhura Goudoti, Reichenb. 
Hylocharis goudoti, Bonap., Sclat. 
^Agyrtria Goudoti, Reichenb. Thoch.Enum. p. 7, pi. 763- figs. 



4^765-66. 



Mus 



- J 

note. 
Habitat* New Granada. 



389. Sapphironia CjEruleigularis, Gould. 



Vol. V. PL CCCXLVI 



r 

Trochilus ( — ?) cceruleogularis, Gould. 
jDuchassaigniy Bourq. 



Thalurania Codina. Bourc. 
Cyanochloris ccRruleigularis, Reichenb. 
Sapphironia cceruleigularis, Bonap. 

Hylocharis {V) cceruleigularis, Sclat. 
"^Agyrtria cceruleigularis ^ Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. 7? pi. 764. 
figs. 4768-69. 

^Trochilus cyanomelas^ Licht. in Mus. of Berlin. 

^Cyanophaia caertdescensy ''Lodd.," Reichenb. in Mus. Heinean. 

^Hylocharis caerulescens, Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. 8, pi. 770 

fig. 4785. 
^Lepidopyga caeruleigularisy Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii 

p. 40. 

Habitat. Costa Rica and Panama. 




m 




^ 



Vil 



I now proceed to the genus 

Sporadinus, Bonap.y 

the members of which are confined to the West India Islands. They 
are very elegant in form, and are of somewhat large size when com- 
pared with those which precede and follow them. They have deeply- 
forked tails, and the under surfaces of the males are brilliantly co- 
loured; the females, on the other hand, are very sombrely attired. 



«! 



I I- 












\ 



173 



390. Sporadinus elegans 



Vol. V. PI. CCCXLVII 



Trochilus elegans^ Aud. et VieiU. 

Ornismya Swainsonn, Less. 

Hylocharis elegans^ Gray & Miteh; 

Lampornis elegans^ Bonap. 

Riccordia elegans^ Reichenb. 

Sporadinus elegansy BonsiTp. 
"^Trochilus Swainsoni, Jard. Nat. Lib. Hamiii. Birds, vol. u.p. 88 
"^Chlorestes elegans, Reichenb. Troch. En urn. p. 4, pi. 704. f. 4587 
"^ Sporadinus elegans, Cab. et Hein. Mas. Hein. Theil iii. p. 25. 

Habitat. The Island of St. Domingo. 

J 

391- Sporadinus Ricordi . i . . 

Orthorhynchus Ricordi, De la Sag. 
Ornismya Parzudhakiy Less. 
Sporadinus ricordi, Bonap. 
Hylocharis Ricordi, Gray & Mitch. 
Trochilus ricordi, Gerv., Bonap. 



Vol. V. PI. CCCXLVni 



Riccordia Raimondi, Reichenb. 
Chlorestes riccordi, GundL 
Chlorestes Raimondii, Reichenb 

4584-86. 



>och. Enum. p. 4^ pi. 704. figs. 

r g 

Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 25, note 



«' 



VoKV. PLCCCXLIX 



Habitat The Island of Cuba 

392. Sporadinus? Maug^i 

Mellisuga Surinamensis pectore C(Bruleo, Briss. 
Trochilus Maugceus, Vieill. 
Ornismya Maugceus, Less. 
Trochilus Ourissia, auct. ? 

Habitat. Porto Rico. 

This bird diflfers somewhat in form from the two preceding spe- 
cies, and it may be found necessary to institute a separate genus for 
its reception. It is a very rare bird, and the two specimens, male 
and female, in the collection at the Jardin des Plantes at Paris are 
the only ones I have ever seen. 

The little glittering-green Humnaing-Birds forming the genera 
Chlordampis, ChloristUbon , and Panychhra, are very widely spread 
over the temperate and warmer parts of the South American con- 
tinent, being found along the whole course of the great Andean 
rano-e, from Mexico on the north to Bolivia on the south ; they also 
inhabit Brazil, Cayenne, the Guianas, Trinidad, and Venezuela, 
The sexes differ very considerably in colour in nearly every species, 
the males being clothed in a metallic covering, while that of the 
females is soft in texture and sombre in hue. 



members 



Ckih 



as restricted bv me, are distinguished for their deeply forked tail^, 

^ N 



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most of the feathers of which are singularly tipped with dull grey. 
They range over a great part of Mexico, Guatemala, Costa Rica, 
Veragua, ^nd Panama, where they apparently terminate, as I have 
never received examples from any part southward of the isthmus. 
The finest species of the genus is the (7. auriceps^ a bird of very 
elegant form, and having a deeply forked tail ; most nearly allied to 
this is the C. Caniveti: both these birds are from Mexico- Follow- 
ing these is the little bird I have named C. Osherti^ after Mr. Osbert 
Salvin ; a fourth, from Costa Rica, has been described by Dr. Caba- 
nis as C. Salvini^ after the same gentleman. Very considerable dif- 
ference occurs in the sexes, but more in colour than in form ; for the 
females have the tail forked like that of the males, but to a much 
less extent. 






Vol. V. PL CCCL. 



393. Chlorolampis auriceps- 

Chlorostilbon auriceps, Gould ** * • 

Trochilus ( — ?) auriceps, Gould. 

^Sporadinus auriceps^ Bonap. Rev. et Mag, de Zool. 1854, 
p. 255. 

^Trochilus modestus, Licht. in Mus. of Berlin ? 

^ Chlorolampis auriceps^ Cab. et Hein, Mus, Hein. p. 48, note. 

Habitat, Mexico: locality unknown. 



•r . 



Vol. V. PI. CCCLI 



394. Chlorolampis Caniveti. 

I 

Chlorostilbon Caniveti . . . . . , . 

Ormismya Canivetiiy Less. 
Thaumatias oanivetiy Bonap. 
Riccordia Caniveti^ Reichenb. 
Sporadinus caniveti^ Bonap. 
Hylocharis Caniveti^ Gray & Mitch. 
Chlorostilbon Caniveti^ Sclat. & Salv. 
^Chlorestis Caniveti^ Troch. Enum. p. 4, pi. 703- figs. 4581-83. 

^Chlorolampis Caniveti, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. p. 47, 
note. 

Habitat. Southern Mexico and Guatemala? 



395. Chlorolampis Osberti, Gould. 
Chlorostilbon Osberti, Gould . . 



J rf '^ 



Vol. V. PL CCCLII 



Habitat. The neighbourhood of Duenas in Guatemala 



396. Chlorlampis Salvini, Cab. 



Mus 



Habitat. Costa Rica 



The C. Salvini is nearly allied to C. Osberti and to C. Caniveti, 
but I believe it to be distinct from both. The freshly moulted adult 
males have their four central tail-feathers tipped with bronzy-green ; 
but this colour appears to fade upon exposure to light, leaving the 
tail nearly black. I believe this bird is also found at Panama. 



II 





175 

Genus Chlorostilbon, Gould. 
{XXwpbs, viridis, et ariXf^^, corasco.) 

Under this generic appellation, for a form of which I always in- 
tended the C prasinus to be the type, I have figured the who e of 
the little green Humming-Birds ; but i now see the neces^'fy ot 
subdividing them ; I shall therefore restrict the term to the toilow- 



ing species — angusmpermis, Haeherluvi., ^ ,iy,.^^,^^,., ^^. ~^_~'- -^ 
sinus, Atala, brevicandatus, Napensis, Peruanus^ Daphne, <iVia 
chrysog aster, and adopt Dr. Cabanis's genus Panychlora ior ALicicB, 



T^. 


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Vol. V. PL CCCLIII. 



euchloris, Poortmanni, and stenura. 

397. Chlorostilbon angustipennis 

Trochilus angustipennis^ Fras. 
Hylocharis angustipennis, Gray & Mitch, 

Habitat. Panama and New Granada. 

398. Chlorostilbon Haeberlini. 

* Chlorolampis chrysogaster, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Tlieil iji. 

p. 47. 

* Trochilus Haeberlinii, Licht. in Mus. of Berlin. 

"^Chlorestes Haeberlinii, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 7 ; Id. iroch. 
Enum. p. 4, pi. 703. fig. 4578-80. 



Haeberlini, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil iii. 



p. 48, note. 
Habitats Cart 



Haeberli 



and I find it to be a very elegantly formed bird, nearly allied to, 
but quite distinct from, C. angustipennis. It differs in having the 
glitterino- green of the under surface washed with blue, a shorter 
wing, and a still more deeply forked tail, the feathers of which are 
steely-green, and not so dark as in that species. It is said to be 
from Carthagena. 

399. Chlorostilbon Phaethon . . . 

Trochilus Phaethon, Bourc. 

PhcBton^ Gray & Mitch. 



VoL V. PL CCCLIV. 



,f 



Chlorestes Phaethon^ Reich. 
Hylocharis phaeton^ Bonap. 

similis^ Bonap. 



Chlorolampis Phaethon^ Cab. et Hein. 
Trochihis /lavifronSy Gould. 

metallicuSy Gould- 

Trochilus similis, Bourc? 

Habitat. Bolivia, Southern Brazil, and La Plata. 

Since writing my account of this species, in which I expressed my 
belief that the Ornismyia aureiventris o? D'Orbigny and Lafresnaye 
was identical with it, I have carefully re-examined my specimens from 
the above-named countries, together with an example collected by 

n2 



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176 

Mr. Bridges, and I am now inclined to believe the O. aureiventris to 
be distinct ; but as it merely differs in being of smaller size in all its 
admeasurements, it will not be necessary for me to figure it. 

L 

J 

400. Chi.orostii.bon aureiventris. 

Ornismyia aureiventris^ D'Orb. et Lafresn- 

Hylocharis aureiventris, Bonap., Rev. et Mag. de Zool, 1854, 



P 



255. 



Habitat. Bolivia and Peru. 

401. ChLOROSTILBON PRASINUS 



Vol. V. PL CCCLV. 



Mul 



p. 271. 

^ HylocJiaris 
p. 255. 



Bonap. Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1854, 



^Chlorestes Pucherani, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col p. 7 ; Id. Troch. 

Enum. p. 4, pi. 755. fig. 4736. 
^Trochilus nitidissimus, Licht. in Mus. of Berlin. 
^ Hylocharis prasina^ Burm. Th. Bras. torn. ii. p. 350. 
^Chlorestes nitidissimus^ Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 7 ; Id. Troch* 



Enum. p. 4, pi. 693. figs. 4538-39. 



Muni 
n. M 



p. 47. 



Muls. in Mus. of Paris. 
I Mus. of Berlin (young) 



In my account of this species I stated that, owing to its being 
impossible to determine to what bird Lesson had given the name of 
prasinusy I should apply it to the one generally known by that 
term among collectors — the bird so common in the neighbourhood of 

Rio de Janeiro, Minas Geraes, &c. From Dr. Cabanis we learn 
that it has been named Trochilus nitidissimus by Lichtenstein in 
the Museum of Berlin, and Trochilus lamprus^ Natt. in the Museum 
of Munich; but had either of these names been published to the 
world before Dr. Cabanis included it in his * Museum Heineanum' 
under the name of Chlorostilbon nitidissimus ? If not, and pra^ 
sinus be rejected, that term must certainly give place to M. Bour- 
cier's previously published one of Pucherani^ which I find, from the 
type specimen now before me, was given to a young male of this 
species. Refer to my account of this species, and of C Atala. 

402. Chlorostilbon igneus, Gould. 

Habitat Supposed to be the neighbourhood of Para. 

Crown of the head glittering orange ; back of the neck and upper 
surface fiery orange, becoming more intense on the wing-coverts ; 
throat and chest glittering bluish green, gradually passing into the 
fiery orange of the flanks and abdomen ; under tail-coverts green, 
tinged with orange; wings purplish brown; tail purplish black ; bill 
ileshy red at the base, gradually passing into the black of the tip. 



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177 



This bird is about the same size as C.prasinus, but differs from 
that species in the fiery colouring above described, and in the tail 
being purplish- instead of steel-black. _ 

This is the bird mentioned in my account of C. prasmus as 
having been sent to me by Mr. Reeves, of Rio de Janeiro. It is one 
of the most beautiful species of the family. 

403. Chlorostilbon Atala .... Vol. V. PI. CCCLVI. 

Ornismya Atala^ Less. ? 

prasina^ Less.? 

Hylocharis atala, Gray & Mitch. 
SauceroUia Atala, Reichenb., Bonup, 
Trochilus Mellisugus, Linn. 
^Chlorestes Atala, Reiehenbach, Trochil. Enum. p. 4, pi. 700. 

fig. 4568- 

r 
J 

Habitat. The Island of Trinidad and Venezuela. 

I find that Venezuelan specimens differ a little from those ot| 
Trinidad, the green of the upper and under surface being more 
golden ; still I have no doubt of their being identical. 

r 

404. Chlorostilbon Daphne. 
Trochilus Daphne ^ Bource. 

Habitat. Peru. 

I consider this to be a distinct species : it is very nearly allied to 
the Cayenne bird C. Atala of this work; but it has a more square 

crre*^" ^^ thp p.hpst st.ronfflv tinsred with blue. I have 

M. Bourcier's ty{ 
del Sacramento.' 



\ 



tail, with the green of the chest strongly tinged with blue. 



405- Chlorostilbon Peruanus, Gould. 

L 

Habitat. Peru. 

Bill black ; crown, throat, and all the under surface glittering 
orange-green; upper surface bronzy green; wings brown; tail 

purplish black. 

Total length 3^ inches, bill |, wing 1|, tail \\. 

This, one of the black-billed species, has even a more rounded 
tail than C. Daphne^ from which it differs in its larger size and 
in having a longer bill, and especially in the glittering orange- 
green colouring of its breast, which in C. Daphne is blue. The 
C. chrysogaster has a somewhat forked steely-black tail; in other 
respects the two birds are very similar. 

406. Chlorostilbon Napensis, Gould. 
Habitat. The banks of the River Napo. 



This species is very similar to, but smaller than C. Daphne, has 
a still shorter tail, and the blue of the breast not so extended, or 
confined to the throat. 



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178 

407. Chlorostilbon brevicaudatus, Gotild. 

Habitat Cayenne. 

This bird is very similar to the C. Atala of Trinidad, has the 
same glittering green-coloured breast, but has a short and more 
truncate-formed tail, more so than C. Daphne or C. Napensis. 

408. Chlorostilbon chrysogaster. 

+ 

r 

* Trochilus chrysogaster, Bourc. Ann. Soc. Sci. Phys. et Nat. Lvon, 
1843, p. 40; Id. Rev. Zool. 1843, p. 101. 

* Hylocharis chrysogaster, Gray & Mitch. Gen.of Birds, vol. i. p. 115, 
Hylocharis, sp. 43; Bonap. Consp, Gen. Av. torn. i. p. 74, Hylo- 
charis, sp. 2. 

*Chlorestes chrysogaster, Reichenb. Aufz.der Col. p. 7; Id. Troch. 



4540-4 



fi 



Mus. Monac. (Cabanis) 



« * * 

in. 



^ Chlorolawpis chrysogastra, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil 

p. 47. 
"^Chlorostilbon melanorhynchus, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc. part 



^ 



xxviii. p. 308 ? 



Mus 



Mr 



at Pallatanga," in Proc. Zool. Soc. part xxvii. p. 145 ; Id. *' List 

of Birds coll. by Mr. Fraser at Puellaro," in Proc. Zool. Soc. 
part xxviii. p. 94. 



Hab 



In my description of C. angustipennis I stated that I considered the 



fM 



but I have since more closely investigated the matter, and I now 
believe that this opinion was an erroneous one. I also believe that 
the <7. chrysogaster and my C. melanorhynchus dive one and the same 
bird ; for I find little or no difference in the specimens from Panama, 
New Granada, and Ecuador. I further think it likely that the C\ sma- 



MM 



M 



referable to it. 



IS also 



h 

409. Chlorostilbon assimilis, Lawr. 



Chlorostilbon assimilis, Lawr. Ann. of Lye. of Nat. Hist, in New 
York, 1 860, p. 292. 

Habitat. Panama. 

The following is Mr. Lawrence's description of his C. assimilis 
and his remarks on the species^ 
bronze or dull golden-green ; tail dark steel-blue; wings brownish 
purple; under plumage brilliant green, golden on the abdomen, 
and on the throat of a bluish green; under tail-coverts grass- 
green; a small white spot on the pleura; tibial feathers brown; bill 
and feet black, 

"Length 3 inches, wing 1||, tail 1 ^^^ bill ^. 




\ 



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I 



179 



A 



) 




)rhynchus:^ Gould (chry- 
uniform in colour with 



the back, not brilliant. The latter species is also more golden 
on the abdomen, and has the tail less forked, ^ith the feathers 



narrower." 



410. Chlorostilbon NiTENs, Zaw^r. 

•. ChloTostilbon nitens, Lawr. Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, 
April 22, 1861. 

"Habitat. Venezuela. 

"Front and crown golden yellowish-green, very brilliant; back and 
wing-coverts shining bronzed green, lower part of back and upper 
tail-coverts shining grass-green ; under plumage brilliant green, ot 
a bluish shade on the throat, and golden on the fbdomen • tail steel- 
blue and forked ; wings brownish-purple ; tarsi clothed with blackjsh 
feathers ; under tail-coverts bright grass-green ; upper mandible 
black, the under yellowish for two-thirds its length, with the end 

black ; feet black. i i -ii 9 

" Length 3 inches, wing If, tail 1^, biUy^. _ , -i,. „, 



*hrysogaster 



crown. 



>» 



Among the smallest of the Trochilidae are the members of the 
form to which Dr. Cabanis has given the name of Panychlora. They 
are all inhabitants of New Granada and Venezuela, and are known 
bv the specific names o^ Alicice, euchloris, Poortmanm, and stenura. 
Thev are distinguished by their dull-green colouring, the extreme 
shortness of the& tails, and by the great difference in the colouring 
of the sexes, „ ; . 

Genus Panychlora, Cab. 

■ The members of this genus form a very natural section among the 
little green Humming-Birds, very perceptible to those who have paid 
attention to this group of birds. 

_ 
■ 



Vol. V. PI. CCCLVIL 



411. Panychloka Alicia. 

Chlorostilbon Alicise 

F 

Trochilus Alice, Bourc. 
' Smaragdites Alice, Reichenb. 

Chlorostilbon alice, Bona^. '. ^ a ' \ ■ nnd. 

*Chlorestes Aliciae, Reichenb. Troch. Enum. p. 4, pi- ^^*- 

figs. 4732-33. . 

* Trochilus crypturus, Licht. in Mus. of Berlin. 
^Panychlora Aliciae, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein p. 50, note 
*lll_— aurata. Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. The, 1.1. p. 50. 
^SmaraqdUes maculicollis, Reichenb. Autzder Col. p. 7. 
^clloZes maculicollis, Id. ibid. P- 24 ; Id. Troch Enum. p 4, 
' pl.694- figs-4^545-46 ; Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. Theil 111. p. 49, 
note. 

Habitut. Venezuela and New Granada, 



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41 2, Panychlora euchloris. 

i 

Smaragdiiis euchloris, Reichenb. Aufz. der Col. p. 7. 
Chlorestes euchloris, Reichenb. ibid. p. 23 ; M. Troch. Enum. p.4., 



pi. 694<. fig. 4544. 
Habitat 



Muse 



In 



size it is rather larger than Alicim, the tail is more forked, and the 
two outer feathers more pointed ; all the feathers have a purplish 
hue, as seen in Poortmanni, and the glittering feathers of the body 
are of a dull golden purplish green, as in that species. 

413. Panychlora stenura. Cab. 

^Pawychlora stenura,Cah. et Hein. Mus. Hein.Theil iii. p. 56, note. 
"^ Lhlorostilbon acuttcaudus, Gould in Proc. Zool. Soc. nart xxviii 



p. .S08. 

Habitat. Merida 



This species is fully equal in size to the last, has a more length 
ened bill, and the outer tail-feathers are much more pointed. 

r 

414. Panychlora PooRTMANNi. 



Chlorostilbon Poortmanni ..... 

Ormsmya Poortmani, Bourc, 

Hylocharis PooHmanni, Gray & Mitch., B( 

Chlorestes Poortmanni^ Reichenb. 

Chlorostilbon poortmani^ Bonap. 
^Ornismya Esmeralda, Less, in Mus. Heine 
^Smaragditis Esmeralda^ Reich. Auz. der C 
"^Chlorostilbon Esmeralda, Reichenb, Troch 
figs. 4542-43. 

^Panychlora Poortmanniy Cab. et Hein, Mus 
Habitat. New Granada. 



Vol. V, PI. CCCLVHL 



_ 



J 1 



I shall close this account of the little green Humming-Birds with a 
description of the extraordinary species sent to me by Mr. Reeves of 
Rio de Janeiro, and vyhich I have described in the ' Proceedings of 
the Zoological Society ' as Calliphlox ? iridescens. Its iridescent 
green colouring would indicate that it belongs to this section ; while 
us comparatively small wings and short tail ally it to Calliphlox - 
but as It IS not strictly referable to either genus, I propose for it a 
separate distinctive appellation, and provisionally placed here the 

Genus Smaragdochrysis, Gould, 
{^ixapaylos, smaragdus, et xp^aos, aurum.) 

Generic characters. 

Male. 
^w 11 • ~. ^"' '^'"*" """" "^ciu, cjnaiguL ana sienaer; wmos 

small primaries narrow and rigid ; tail of moderate size and deeply 
forked ; tarst clothed ;>< small ; hind-toe and nail nearly as long 
as the middle-toe and nail. j «*»» iung 



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415. SmakAgdochrysis iridescens, Gould Vol. V. PL CCCLIX. 

Calliphlox? iridescens, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc. part xxvui. 
p. 310. 

Habitat. The virgin forests of the interior of Brazil. 



Genus Phlogophilus, Gould. 
($\o^ [^Xoyos], nomenJlorcB^ et ^eXos, amicus.) 

Generic characters. 

Male.—Bill straight; wings ample and rather rounded; tarsi 
long for a Humming-Bird, and bare; tail rather large and rounded ; 
himl toe and nail shorter than the middle toe and nail. 

The specimen from which the above characters were taken differs 
from every other known Humming-Bird in its more lengthened tarsi, 
and in the colouring of its rounded tail. The bird, which is imma- 
ture, was received from the borders of the River Napo. 

416. Phlogophilus hemileucurus, Gould Vol. V. PI. CCCLX. 
Phlogophilus hemileucurus^ Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc. part xxviii. 



p. 310. 
Habitat. 



M 



1 



I do not wish it to be understood that this is its proper situation, 
cannot imagine what the adult will be like, and consequently cannot 
tell to which genus of the family it is allied ; but 1 believe, to 
Adelomyia. 



rB-^ 



Note. — In the body of the work, Columbia has been given as the 
habitat of many of the species ; but in this Introduction, Venezuela, 
New Granada, and Ecuador have been substituted, as the case re- 
quired, for that more general term, A difference of opinion exists 
as to the correct spelling of New Granada, — some considering that it 
should be Grenada, and others Granada ; the latter has been adopted 
in this Introduction, while in the body of the folio work it is usually, 
if not always, spelt Grenada. 

The Index to the specific names of Humming-Birds comprises 
every term of this kind with which I am acquainted, 
are some which are not elsewhere mentioned in this Introduction ; 
these are the specific appellations occurring in the works of the 
older and a few of the more modern authors, which I have found it 
quite impossible to ascertain to what birds they have been applied. 
It is but fair to state that the Urolampra chloropogon of Cabanis 
and Heine, and the Chlorestes iolaimus of Reichenbach, appear 
from the descriptions and figures to be good species; but, as I have 
not seen the typical examples, I am unable to speak positively 



Among them 



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182 



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respecting them ; I shall, however, keep the subject of the Hum-^ 
ming-Birds constantly before irie, and, when desirable, place my 
remarks upon these, and any novelties that may occur, before the 
scientific world, .. 

At page ir I have stated that the Humming-Birds, like the Swifts, 
have ample wings and vast powers of flight. As this may appear 
contradictory to the remarks made on the wing-powers of Selas- 
phorus ruber and Trochilus Colubris at p, 6, it will be as well to state, 
what I meant to convey is that their ample wings and bony structure 
is admirably adapted for sustaining them in the air for a considerable 
time, rather than for enabling them to take long flights from one 
country to another. 



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EXPLANATION OF THE ABBREVIATIONS, 



ANr> 



WOEKS 






Alhim—Albin, Natural History of Birds. 

Aud. Birds of Am.— Audtcbon, Birds of America. 

And. Orn. Bio.—Audubon, Ornithological Biography. 

Aud. Syn. Birds of Am.— Audubon, Synopsis of the Birds of America. 

Aud. et Yieilh—Audebert et Vieillot, Oiseaux dores, ou a reflets metalliques. 

Azara Voj. dans TAmer. Mer. Sonn. eAit.—Azara, Voyage dans PAmeriqtte 

meridionak, Sonnini's edition. ^ ■ ' 

Banc. Hist, of Guiana.— J5racr()/if, Natural History of Gtciana. 
Bo(ja. Boddaert, Table de Planches enluminees d'Histoire Naturelle de M. 

I/Aubenton. 

Boie, in Oken's Isis. .7^7. 

Boiss. Mag. de Zool.—Boissoneau, in Magastn de Zoologie. 

Boiss. Eev. Zool. — Boissoneau, in Bevue Zoologiqim. 

Bonap Consp. Gen. A<— Bonaparte, Conspectus Genertm Avium. 

Bonap! Consp. Trocli. in Eev. et Mag. de Zooh— Bonaparte, Conspectus Trochi- 

lorum, in Bevue et Magasin de Zoologie, 
Bonap. Eev. et Mag. de Zoo\.— Bonaparte, in Revue et Magasin de Zoologie. 
Bonap. Syn. Birds of U. ^t^ies.— Bonaparte, Synopsis of the Birds of the United 

States. 7 7- 

Bonn, et Y\Q\\\.—Bonnaterre and Vieillot, in Tableau EncyclopMie Methodique, 

Part HI. Ornithologie.. 

BoTOwsk.—Borows&i, Vogel. ^^ . / 7 7" 

Bourc. Ann. de la Soc. d' Agr. Hist. Nat. etc. de hjon.—Bourczer, tn Annales de 

la Societe d^ Agricidture, Histoire Naturelle, etc. de Lyon. 

Bourc. Ann. Sci. Pliys. et Nat. de Lyon. — Bourcier, in Annales des Sciences Phy- 
siques et Naturelles de Lyon. 

Bourc. Compt. Eend. de I'Acad. des Sci, — Bourcier, in Comptes Rendus de VA- 

cademie des Sciences. 

Bourc. in Proc. Zool. Soc. — Bourcier, in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society 

of London. 
Bourc. Eev. Zoo\.— Bourcier, in Bevue Zoologique. 
Bourc. et Muls. — Bourcier et Mulsant^^ in Revue Zoologique. 
Bourc. et Muls. Ann. de la Soc. Sci. de Jjjow.— Bourcier and Mulsant, in 

Annales des Sciences Physiques et Naturelles de Ijyon. 
Bourc et Muls. Ann. de TAcad. Sci. Bell. Lett, et Arts de Js^ovi.—Boimler, %n 

Annales de V Academic des Sciences, Belles-Lettres et Arts de Lyon. 
Bourc. et Muls. Ann. de la Soc. Linn, de Ijyon.—Bourcier and Mulsant, in 

Annales de la Soci6t6 Linn6enne de Lyon. 
Brandt Icon. Av. Eoss. — Brandt, Bescriptiones et Icones Animcdium Rossi- 

corum, etc. 
Bridges, Proc. of Zool. Soc— Bridges, in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society 

■ ' of London, 



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184 

Briss. Orn. — Brisson, Ornithologie,, 

Brown. Nat. Hist, of 3mx.~Browne, The Civil and Natural History of Jamaica. 
Bryant, List of Birds seen at the Bahamas. 

Buif. Hist. Nat. des Ois. — Buffon, Histoire Naturelle des Oiseaux. 
Buff. Sonn. edit—Sonnim^s edit, ofBuffon's Histoire Naturelle des Oiseausc, 
Buff. PL Enl. — BufforCs Blanches Enluminees. 

Burm. Th. Bras. — Burmeister, Systematische Uebersicht der Thiere Brasilieois. 
Cab. and Cab. et Hein. — Br, Cabanis and Ferdinand Heine, Museum Heine- 

anum. 

Cab. or Cabanis in Eich. Schomb, Eeisen in Brit. Qumn.— Cabanis, in Schom- 

burgJc's Eeisen in Britisch Guiana. 

Cabot in Proc. of Boston Soc. of Nat. Hist.— Caiozf, in the Proceedings of the 

Boston Society of Natural History. 

Cassin, 111. Birds of California.— Cassm, Elustrations of the Birds of California. 

Cut. Eegn. Anim. — Cuvier, Bhgne Animal, 

Darwin, Zool. of Beagle.— jDarwm, The Zoology of the Voyaae of H M. S 

Beagle, Part HI, Birds, by John Gould. 

Da Silva, Maia Minerva Brasiliensis. 

Delatt. Echo du Monde SeLYant—Belattre, in L'Echo du Monde Savant. 

Delatt. in Eev. Zool. — Belattre, in Eevue Zoologique, 

Delatt. et Bourc. Eev. Zool.—Belattre and Bourcier, in Bevue Zoologique. 

Delatt. et Less. Eev. Zool. — Belattre and Lesson, in Bevue Zoologique. ' 

De Longuem. Eev. Zool. — Be Longuemare, in Bevue Zoologique. 

Dev. Eev. et Mag. de Zoo\,~Beville, in Bevue et Magasin de Zoologie. 

D'Orb. Voy. dans TAmer. Merid. Oi^.—B' Orbigny , Voyage dans PAmerigue 

Meridionale: Oiseaux. 

D'Orb. et Lafres. Syn. — B'Orbigny et Lafresnaye, Synopsis Avium: 

Drapiez, Diet. Class. d'Hist. ISat.—Brapie^, in Le Bictionnaire Classique d' His- 
toire Naturelle. 

Dubus, Esquisses Orn. — Bubus, Esquisses Ornithologiques. 

Dumont, Diet. Sci. 'Sn^,~Bumont de St, Croia:, in Le Bictionnaire des Sciences 

Naturelles, 

Edwards, Birds, or Nat. Hist. ofBirA.^.— Edwards, Natural History of uncommon 

Birds, 

Edw. G-lean. or Glean, of Nat. Wi^t.— Edwards, Gleanings of Natural History 
Ferm. Surinam. — Fermin, Histoire Naturelle de Surinam. 

Fras. in Proc. Zool. &oc.— Eraser, in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of 

London. ■ ^ ^^ 

Gambel, Notes on Californian Birds. 

Gambel, in Proc. of Acad. Sci. Phil^idi.— Gambel, in the Proceedings of the Aca- 
demy of Sciences of Philadelphia, 
Gerv. Mag. de Zoo\.—Gervais, in Le Magasin de Zoologie. 
Gmel. Linn. Syst. ISo^t.—Gmelin's edition ofLinnmus's Systema Nature. 
Gosse, Birds of Jamaica. 

Gosse, 111. Birds of 3wca.—Gosse, Elustrations of the Birds of Jamaica. 

Gould, in Ann. and Mag. Nat. 'Ki^t— Gould, in the Annals and Magazine of 

Natural History, 

Gould, in Jard. Contr. iJo Ovn,— Gould, in Jardine's' Contributions to Ornitho- 
logy, 

Gould, Proc. Zool. ^oq.— Gould, in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of 

London. ' ^ ^ 

Gould, in Eep. Brit. Assoc— Gould, in the Beport of the British Association. 
Gould, Zool. of Beagle.— G^o?^Z^, in Zoology of the Voyage of H. M. S Beaqle 

Part in. Birds. 

Gray, Cat. of Gen. and Sub-gen. of Birds in Brit. M.w,~G, B. Gray, Cata- 
logue of the Genera and Sub-genera of Birds contained in the British 

Museum. 

Gray, List of Gen. of Birds.— G^. R. Gray, List of the Genera of Birds. 
brray and Mitch.— G^r a?/ and Mitchell, The Genera of Birds. 

b-undl. m Cab. Journ. fur Orn.— G^w?2^/ac^, in Cabanis' s Journal filr Ornitho- 

wgie. 





I 



II 



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185 



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Maff< 



Jardine, in the Annals and 



Hill, Ann. and Mag. Nat. IList— Hill, in the Anna, 

History, 
Jard. or Jardine in the Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist.- 

Magazine of I^atural History, 
Jard. Cont. to Ovn,—Jardine, Contributions to Ornithology. ^ 

Jard. Nat. Lib. Humm. ^ivd.^.— Jardine, Naturalist's Library, Humming^ Birds. 
King in Proc. of Comm. of Sci. and Corr. of ZooL 8oc.—King,m the Proceed- 
ings of the Committee of Science and Corresponde'iice of the Zoological 

Society of London, 
Elein At. or Aves.— Xfem, Historim Avium Prodromus. 
Lath. Gen. Hist— Latham, General History of Birds, 
Lath. Gen. Syn. — Latham, General Synopsis of Birds. 
Lath Ind. Orn. — Latham, Lidex Ornithologicus. 
Lawr. in Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New Yovk,— Lawrence, in Annals of the Lyceimi 

of Natural History in New York. 
Lembeye, Aves de I'lsle de Cuba, 
Lery, Voyage au Bresil. 

Less. Ann. Sci. 'Sd^t,— Lesson, in Annales des Sciences Naturelks. 
Less. Co\,— Lesson, Histoire Naturelle des Colibris, 
Less. Echo du Monde Savant.— iesso^, in VEcho du Monde Savant 
Less. Hist. Nat. des Col,— Lesson, Histoire Naturelle des Cohhris. 
Less. Hist. Nat. des Oi^.-T^ov.,— Lesson, Histoire Naturelle des Oiseaux-mouches. 
Less. 111. Zool.— Lesson, Illustrations de Zoohgie, ^ n \n, , i s 

Less. Ind. Gen. et Syn. des Ois. du Gen. Trochilus.— iessow, Index Gtn^ral et 

Synoptique des Oiseaux du Genre Trochilus, 
Less, Les. Troch. — Lesson, Les Trochilidees, 

Less. Man. d^Ovn.— Lesson, Manuel d' Ornithohgie, ^ ^. rr- ^ ■ i.r 

Less. Ois. -mou. Velins.— iesso^'s unpublished additions to Ms Histoire JSa- 

turelle des Oiseaux-Tmuches. 
Less. Rev. Zool.— Lesson, in Revue Zoologique. ^^ ^ . «rj-w • i,r ^ 

Less. Supp. Hist. Nat. des Oi^.-mqvi,— Lesson, Sujppleimnt a VHistoire Natu- 



Oiseaux 



■Lesson. 



Less. Tab. des Bsp. des Ois.-mou.- 

Jjess.Tr&ite di'Om.^Lesson, Traits d'OrnitMogie. 

-Lesson, in Le Voyage de la Coqmlle. 
Less, et Delatt. EeT." Zool.— Lesson and Be Lattre, in Bevue Zoologique. 
Less, et Gam. Voy. de la Cocy— Lesson and Garnot, in Le Voyage de la Co- 

Licht. Carof Birds in Mus. of Ber]in.—Lichie7isiein, Catalogue of the Birds in 



Less. Voy. de la Coq. 



1 t 

Atlas zu ErmanrCs Eeise um die 



the Museum of Berlin. 
Licht. Ermann. Verz. von Thier. und Pflanz.- 

Welt, 
Licht. in Mus. Berlin. — Lichtenstein^ in the Berlin Museum, 
Licht in Mus Berol. — lAchtenstein, in the Berlin Museum, 
Licht Preis-Verz. Mexican. Thier. v. Deppe und ^chiQdiG.—Lichtenstein, Preis- 

Verzeichniss der Thiere und Vogel, welche von Deppe und Schiede m 

Mexico gesawmelt warden sind. 
Licht. Nordm. Brm. Eeis. AtL— ^;^te zu Ermann' s Beise um die Welt, 
JAd\t,'YQxz.diQvDo\M,—Lichtenstein, Verzeichniss der Bubletten des zoologischen 

Museums der Konigl, TJniversitdt zu Berlin, 
Linn. Syst. ISsbt—Linncsus's Systema Natures. 

Lodd. — Loddiges. -r yy - ^t -n 

Lodd in Proc! of Comm. of Sci. and Corr. of Zool. Boc— Loddiges, m the Pro^ 

ceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoolo^ 

gical Society of London. 
Lodd. -m^^—Loddiges' Manuscripts. ^ ^ _ . 
Longuem. Rev. Zool.— Longuemare, in Berne Zoologique. ^ _ 

LonI et Parz Rev. Zool,— Longuemare and Parzudaki, in Bevue Zoologique, 
Martin— JT C L. Martin, A General History of Humming-Birds. 
Mol. Hist, of Chm,— Molina, History of Chili, . 



I I 







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1 
1 



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186 

Montes de Oca in Proc. Acad. Sci. Philad. — Monies de Oca, in the Proceedings 

of the Academy of Sciences of Philadelphia, 
Mas. C?}ivh>. ^-MuseiiQii Carlsonianum. 
Mus. Grotzian. Dresden. — The Gbtzian Museum, Dresden, 
Natt. in Mus. Vindob. — batterer, in the Vienna Museum^ 
Nutt. Man, Orn. — I^iittall^ Manual of Ornithology, 
Parz. Eev. Zool. — Parzudaki, in Bevue Zoologigue. 
Parzudaki, List of the Trochilidte. 
Pelzeln, Sitz. Acad. Wien. — Pelzeln, in Sitzimgsberichte der Kaiserlichen Aka^ 

demie der Wissenschaften, 
Penn. Arct. Zool. — Pennant, Arctic Zoology, 
Prince Max. — Prince Maximilian zu Wied, Beitrdge zur Naturgeschichte von 

Brasilien, 
Pr. Max. Trav. — Prince Maximilian^s Travels, 
Prinz Maximilian von Wied, Eeise nach Brasilien. 
Kaii. — Bay, in Willughby's Ornithologia, 

Eamon de la Sagra, Hist, de Cuba. — Bamon de la Sagra, History of Cuba, 
Eeich. At. Syst. ]!^at. — BeichenbacKs Avium Systema Naturm. 
Eeich. and Eeiclienb. Aufz. der Col. — Beichenbach, Aufzdhhtng der Colibris oder 

Trochilideen, ^-c, in Cabanis' s Journal fur Ornithologie, 
Eeichenb. in Mus. Heinean. — Beichenbach, in Heine's Museum, 
Eeichenb. Troch. Enum.- — Beichenbach, Trochilinarum Enumeration 
Sagra, Voy. de Cub. — Bamon de la Sagra, Historia fisica, politica y natural de 

la Islwde Cuba, 

Salle, Liste des Oiseaux. . 

Salle, Eev. Zool. — Salle, in Bevue Zoologique. 

Salv. in Ibis. — Salvin, in The Ibis, - 

Salv. in Proc. Zool. Soc. — Salvin, in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of 

London, 

Salv. and Sclat. in Procw Zool. Soc—Scdvin and Sclater, in the Proceedings of 

the Zoological Society of London, ^ 
Saucerotte in Mus. Heinean. — Saucerotte, in Heine' $ Museum. 
Sauc. or Saucer. MSS. — Saucerotte, MSS. 

Sehnaidt, VogeL 

Schomb. Hist, of Earbadoes. 

Sclat. Proc. Zool. Soc— 

London. 

Sclat. and Salv. in Ibis. — Sclater and Salvin, in The Ibis, 

Shaw, Gen. Zool. — Shaw's General Zoology. 

Shaw, Mus. Lev. or Leverianum, — Shaw, Museitm Leveriantcm, 

Shaw, Nat. Misc. — Shaw, Naturalists' Miscellany, 

Siebold in Mus. Monac. — Siebold, in the Munich Museum-, 

Sloane, Jam. — Sir Hans Shane, History of Jamaica. 

Sonn. (Euvres de Buff. — (Euvres de Buffon, edition par Sonnini, 

Spalowsk. VogeL — Spalowsky, VogeL 

Spix, Av. Sp, ]N"ov. Bras. 1 o • ^ • • • r^- t. ■^. 

Spix Av Bras \ opix, Avium species novm in Ittnereper Brasitiam. 

Steph, Cont. Shaw's Gen. Zool. — Stephens's Continuation of Shaw's General 

Zoology. 

Swains, in Ann. Phil. — Swainson, in the Annals of Philosophy. 
Swains. Birds of Brazil. — Swainson, Birds of Brazil, 

Swains. Class, of Birds. — Swainson, Classification of Birds, inLccrdner's Cabinet 

Cyclopmdia. 

Swains, in Phil. Mag. — Swai?ison, in the Philosophical Magazine. 

Swains. Syn. Birds of Mexico, in Phil. Mag. — Swainson' s Synopsis of the Birds of 

Mexico, in the Philosophical Magazine. 
Swains. Zool. 111. — Swainson, Zoological Illustrations, 
Swains. Zool. Journ. — Swainson, in the Zoological Journal, 
Swains, and Eich. Faun. Bor.-Am. — Swainson and Bichardson, Fauna Boreali- 

Americana, vol, ii. Birds, 
Thevet, les Singularities de la France Antarctique. 



—Sir Bichard Schombiirgk, History of Barbadoes. 
Sclater, in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of 



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187 





Temin. Man. d'Orn. 2nde edit. — TemmincJc's Mantcel d^ Ornithologie^ second 

edition, 
Temm. in Mus. Leyden. — Temminck, in the Ley den Museum, 
Temm. PL Col— temminck, Flanches Coloriees d'Oiseaux. 
Tschudi, Consp. Av. — Tschudi, Conspecttcs Avium, 
Tschudi, Faun. Per. — Tschudi, Fauna Feruana. 
Turt. edit. — Turton^ s edition of Linnmus^s 8y sterna Naturm, 
Valenc. Diet. Sci. Nat. — Valenciennes, in Le Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles, 
Verr. MS. — Verreaux's Manuscripts, 

Vieill. Diet. Sci. Nat. — Vieillot, in Le Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles. 
VieilL Ency. Meth. Orn, — Vieillot, Tableau Encyclo'pedie Methodique, Part ILL 

Ornithologie, 
Vieill. G-al. des Ois. — Vieillot, Galerie des Oiseaux. 
Vieill. Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. — Vieillot, in Le Nouveau Dictionnaire d'Histoire 

Naturelle. 
Vieill. Ois. de TAm. Sept. — Vieillot, Oiseaux de PAmSrique Septentrionale . 
VieilL Ois. chant, des Ain6r. — Vieillot^ Histoire Naturelle des Oiseaux chanteurs 

de la zone torride, 
VieilL Ois. dor. — Vieillot, Oiseaux dores ou a reflets metalliques. 
Vieill et Bonn. — Bonnaterre and Vieillot, in Tableau Encyclopedic Method/ique, 

Fart TIL Ornithologie. 
Vig. in Zool. Journ. — Vigors, in the Zoological Journal, 
Voj. de la Venus. — Voyage de la Venus, 
WillugLby. — Willughhy, Ornithologia, 
Wils. Am. Orn. — Wilson, American Ornithology, 
Zool. of Beagle. — The Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S, Beagle, Fart ILL Birds, 

by John Gould, 



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GENERIC AND SPECIFIC NAMES ADOPTED. 



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Gtypus nsevius . 

Spixi .. . 
Eut^xeres Aquila 

Condammei 

p 

Glaucis liirsuta . 

Mazeppa . 

affinis . 

lanceolata . 

melanura . 

Dolirnl . . 

Ruckeri . 

■ Praseri - . 

Threnetes leucurus 

cervinicauda 

Antonise • 



ynome 



Phaethornis Eur 

malaris • . 

: consobrinus 

— — fraterculus 
longlrostris 
syrmatophorus 
Boliviana . 
Philippi . 
hispidua , 
Oseryi . * 
anthophilus 
Bottrcieri . 

Guyi * . 
Emilice . . 



Yaruqui . 

superciliosus 

August! . 

squalidus . 

Pygmornis Longuemareus 

Amaura . 

Aspasise .• 

zonura • . 



Page 
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. 44 

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. 45 

. 45 

. 46 

. 46 
. 47 

. 47 



■1 



- 1 



Pygmornis Adolplu 

, griseogularis • 

• striigularis • 

•. Idaliee . . » 

■ nigricinctus . 

- Episcopus 

- rufiventris , , 
Eremita . . 



pygmsea 



Eupetomena macrovira 
Sphenoproctus Panipa 



— curvipennis . . 
Campylop torus lazulus 
h^mileucurus • 



s 



ensipennis , , 
plendens . • 
— — - Villavicencio • 

latipennis . . 

^quatorialis , 

obscurus . . 

rufus , • f 

hyperythrus . 

Phseochroa Cuvieri 
Koberti . . 



Apliantochroa cirrhocliloris 

— -^ gularis . • ,► ip 
Dolerisca faU^x • ,. • 



cervma 



Urochroa Bo.ugueri . 
Sternoclyta cyaneipectus 

Eugenes fulgens 



CoeHgena Clemenciae 
Lamprolsema Kbami 

Delattria Henrici .. 



viridip alleys 



Heliopi^dica melanotis 
Xantusi • , , 



*_ 



Pagd 
47 

, 47 

. 48 

, 48 

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. 5.6 

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. 60 

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. 61 






r ■ It- 



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Topaza Pella • 
Pyra . . 

Oreotrochilus Chimborazo 

• Pichincha . 

Estellse 



leucopleurus 
melan ogaster 

Adelse . • 

Lampornis Mango 
irideseens . 



Prevosti . 
Veraguensis 

gramineus, 
viridis . . 

aundentus 

virginalis . 

porphynmis 

Eulampis jugularis 
■ holosericeus 
chlorolsemus 



longirostris 

Lafresnaya flavicaudata 
Gayi , , 

Saulse . » 

Doryfera Joliannse 

Ludovicise . 



rectirostris 



Chalybura Bxifroni 

uroclirysea 

ceeruleogaster 
? Isaurse . 

lolsema frontalis 

• Schreibersi 

Heliodoxa jactda 

Jamesoni * 

Leadbeatera Otero 



splendens 
grata * 



Aithurus Polytmus 
Thalnrania glaucopis 
Watertoni . 



farcata . , 

furcatoides 
forficata , 

refulgens . 
Tschudii * 

nigrofasciata 
venusta « 

Columbica 
verticeps . 
Pannise 
Eriphyle . 
-- — - ? Wagleri * 
Panoplites Jardinei 
flavescens . 
Mathewsi 
Plorisuga mellivora 

flabellifera 
atra ► . . 



190 



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Page 

Microchera albocoronata. ... 82 

Lophornis ornatus 82 

Gouldi 83 

magnificus 83 

Eegulus 83 

lophotes 83 

Delattrei 84 

Eeginse 84 

Helense 84 

Polemistria chalybea ..... 85 

Verreansi .85 

Discura longicauda 85 

Prymnacantha Popelairei , . . 86 

Gouldia Langsdorffi 86 

Conversi 86 

Lsetitise 86 

TrocMus Colubris .86 

Alexandri 87 

Mellisuga minima ...... 87 

Calypte CostaB ....... 88 

AnnsD 88 

88 

Selasphorus rufus ....,* 88 

scintilla .....*. 89 

Ploresii ..•*... 89 

platycercus » 1 . ... 89 

Atthis Heloisse 89 

Stellula Calliope 90 

Calothorax cyanopogon .... 90 

ptdclira .91 

Acestrura Mulsanti 91 

decorata * 91 

Heliodori 92 

micrura 92 

Chsetocercus Eosse ...... 92 

Jourdani . 92 

Myrtis Pannise 93 

Tarrelli 93 

Thaumastura Corse 93 

Ehodopis vespera 94 

Doricha Elizse . 94 

Evelynse ....<. ^ 95 

•- — enicura ........ 95 

Ti'yplisena Duponti * .... 97 

Calliphlox amethystina .... 97 

ametliystoides . - , 4 < 98 

? Mitchelli 98 

Loddigesia mirabilis .... ^ 99 
Spatbura TJnderwoodi .... 99 

melanantbera 100 

r- Peruana ....... 100 

rufocaligata ...... 100 

cissiura lOO 

Lesbia Goiddi . 101 

■- gracilis 101 

Nuna ........ 101 

' Amaryllis 101 

eucbaris 102 

Cynantbus cyanuriis . . . v . 102 



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Cynanthus boelestis 
Mocoa .■ .' 



Cometes spargantirus 
Phaoii . ' ■ 



? Glyceria 
? Car6li 



Pterbphanes Temmincki 
Aglseactis dupripennis 

iEqu^torialis . . 

paKifla . . ■ . 
caumatonota .' ♦ 



Castelnaudi 
PEiinela / .' 



Oxy pogbn Guerini . 
■ Lincleni ' ; *' 

Rampliomicron heteropogon 
Stknleyi' ." .■ 

^"Vulcani' .' ,' 



ruficeps ; * 
mlcroi'hynclitis 

TJrosticte BeBJamini • 
Metallura cupreicauda 
•seneibauda. . * 



Williami * * 
Primolii ; , 
tyrianthina . 
Quitensis . £ 
smaragdinicoUis 



Adelomyia inornata 

melaiiogcnys * i 

maculata . . ; 

Ayocettinus eurypterus 
Avocettula recurvirostris 
Anthocepliala floricejDS 

? castaneiventris . 

Chrysolampis moschitus 
Orthorhynchua cristatus 

■ ornatus < ; i> 

• exilis . * » • 

Cephalepis Delalandi . 

■ Loddigesi ; ; * 

Klais Guimeti . . * 

Myiabeillia typica . * 

Heliactin cornuta ; * 

Heliothrix auritus . *■ 

auriculatus . . 



phaiiioleema 
Barroti ; 

violifrons ; 

Schistes Geoffroyi 
personatus 

albigularis 



Augastes scutatus . . 

Lumachellus . . 

Petasopliora serrirostris 
Anais • • • • 



iolata 



coruscans 



i 



M > 

191 



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124 

125 I 



Petasophora thalassina 



I-* 



\ 



cyanotus 
Delphinge 



Polvtinus tirescens 

viridissimus . 

Patagona gigas * . 

Docimastes ensiferus 

Eugenia Imperatrix 

Helianthea typica . 

Bonapartei . 

Eos . .• . : 






Lutetise 
violifera 



1 T 



i 



Heliotrypha Parzudaki 

viola ■ * . . , 

Heliangelus Clarissfie .• 
■ strophianus i- ; 
Spencei . *■ . 
amethysticollis ; 
Mavors . • • 
Diplilogsena Iris s 
— — Aiirora i e 
Clytolsema rubinea. 
' ••• ' ? aurescens i 
Bburcieria torquata 
fulgidigula i m 
insectivora • * 
Conradi i 6 « 
Inca € t i 4 
Lampropygia coeligena 
■ Boliviana * « « 



* 

J- 

* 

* 

i 



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purpurea 

Prunellei 
Wilsoni 



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Heliomaster lougirostris . * 
Stuartse 4 * s • & 



Sclateri 



4*4* 

t i « » 

pallidieeps * • , 
Constanti * « * * 
Leocadiee . . . * 



s 



Lepidolarynx mesoleucus 

Calliperidia Angelse . . 

Oreo23yra leucaspis * ♦ 

Eustephanus galeritus 
Stokesi i « I « 

Eernandensis < 
Pha3ol£ema rubiiioides. 

^quatorialis t « 
Eriociiemis cupreiventris 

Isaacsoni « # 

Luciani- » # 









« 



« 



Mosquera 
vestita » 

nigrivestis 
Godini , 



D'Orbignyi 
Derbiana , 

Alinse . « 

squamata . 



t 



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i' * 



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■• • • • ■ 



192 





mm 



fJIWi-^ 





Page 
Erlocnemis lugen9 - . . . . 14G 

Atirelise 146 

Cyanomyia quadricoloV .... 147 

violiceps . . • . . • . 147 
cyanoeephala . • • • . .147 
G-uatemalensis ,..*.. 148 
Francise . . .... . 149 

cyanicollis . ^ . . . . . 149 

Heinistilbon Ocai . ' . . . . . 150 



N orris i , 



150 
150 
151 



Leucippus chionogaster .... 

Leucochloris albicollis . . . . 

Thaumatias candidus 151 

chionopectus . ... . . 152 

leucogaster ...... 152 

yiridiceps . . . ... . 152 

MiUeri. . . \ ' . ' . . . 152 
nitidifrons . • ... . 152 

ceeruleiceps . . . . . .152 

brevirostris • .. • • • • 1^2 

affinis . . . . • » • .153 

chionurus . . . . ... 153 

albiventria 153 

Linnsei . . . . . . . . 153 

fluviatilis . . . ' . . . . 154 

• apicalis. . , . • • . .154 
- niaculicaudus . ... . 154 



Amazilia pristina , . ... . 155 

alticola. . . . . ... 156 

• • Dumerili . . . . . . . 156 

■ leucopliaja . . . . . . . 156 

Pyrrliophsena cinnamomea . . . 156 

; Yucatanensis ..... 157 

• : cerviniventris 157 

castaneiventris 157 

Eiefferi , , , . . . ' • 158 

• beiyllina ....... 158 

': DoviUei , , 158 

- viridiojaster . . . . . . 159 

iodura 159 

* 

... . . . . 160 



cyanura 



Erythronota antiqua 160 

Felicise 161 

161 

161 



4. 



Edvvardi . 
iiiveiventris 



p ■ V - — 

elegans , , . . . . - . 162 

Saucerottia typica ...... 162 

Sophi^G. . , . .... 162 

• Warszewiczi . • . . . . 163 

. ... 163 



Ilemithylaca cyanifrons 

.Eupherusa eximia , . 

Chrysuronia (Eqcne . 

Jpsephiuse . t 



-■h 



163 
164 
164 



Page 
Chrysuronia Ncera .**... 165 

caeruleicapilla . . ; . . 165 

Humboldti . . . • . . 165 

Elicise 165 

"clirysura ." .' . . . • . 165 

Eucephala G-rayi .*.■.... 166 

smaragdo-cserulea . . • . 166 

chlorocephala • • . . • 166 
cseruleo-lavata • . . • « 166 
scapulata ... • . • . 166 
bypocyanea ...... 166 

ceerulea .... • • • 167 



cyanogenys 167 

Panterpe insignis . . . • • . 168 
Juliamyia typica' •..»•• 168 

Feliciana ... • » . » 168 

Circe latirostris 169 

Doubledayi .' ; . . . .169 



Damophila amabilis . 
Hylocharis sapphirina 
lactea . . * i 



Phseoptila sordida 169 

■ zonura ........ 170 

• . 170 

. . 171 
. .171 

^ cyanea . . . .... . 171 

Sapphiroma Goudoti • . . . . 172 

■ cEcruleigularis 172 

Sporadinus elegans ..... 173 

Eicordi .:..... 173 

-PMaugii . ...... 173 

Clilorolampis auriceps .... 174 

Caniveti . 174 

Osberti . 174 

Salvini . .' 174 

Chlorostilbon angustipennis . . 175 

Ha^berlini ...... 175 

Phaethon . . . . . . .175 

aureiventris 176 

. . 176 
. . 176 

Atala 177 

Daphne . . . . . . .177 

Per nanus . • . » . . .177 
Napensis ....... 177 

brevicaudatus . • . . . 178 
chrysogaster . . . . • . 178 

assimilis 178 

nitens ........ 179 

Panychlora Aliclce . . • • • 179 
euchlorls •.••••• 179 

- steniira ...»•.• 180 

- Poortmanni 180 

. . 181 



prasmus 

igneus . 



Smaragdochrysis iridescens . 
Pldogophilus hemileucurus . 



181 



t 



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& 



INDEX OP GENEHIO NAMES ADOPTED, 



I . 



i] 



I 



Acestrura • 
Adelomyia . 
Agl^actis . 
Aithurus 
Amazilia 

Anthocepliala 
Aphantochroa 
Atthis . . 
Augastes 
Avocettinus 
Avocettula . 
Bourcieria . 
Calliperidia 
Calliphlox • 
Calothorax . 

Calypte . . 
Campylopterus 
Cephalepis . 
Chsetocercus 
Chalybura . 
Chlorolampis 

Chlorostilbon 
Chrysolampis 
Chiysuronia 
Circe . . . 
Clytolcema • 

Coeligena 
Cometes 
Cyanomyia 
Cynanthus . 
Damophila . 
Delattria 
Piphlogsena 
Discura . . 
PociiTiastes 
Polerisca .. 
Doricha . . 
Doryfera ^ • 
Eriocnemis 
Erythronota 

Eucephala . 



Page 

. 91 
. 113 
. 105 
. V5 
. 155 
. 114 
. 55 
. 89 
. 123 
. 114 
. 114 
. 135 
. 140 
. 97 

. 90 
. 87 
. 51 
. 118 
. 92 
. 72 
. 173 
. 175 
. 115 
. 164 
. 168 
. 134 
. 59 
. 103 

, 147 
. 102 

. 170 

. 59 

. 133 

. 85 
. 129 
. 56 
. 94 

. 71 

. 143 
. 160 

. 166 



Eugenes 
Eugenia . . 
Eulampis . 
rmSptonrieria 




Euplienisa . 
Eustephanus 
Eutoxeres . 
Elorisuga . 
Glaucis . . 
Goiilclia . , 
Grypus . . 
Heliactin 
Ileliangelus 
Helianthea . 
Heliocloxa . 
Heliomaster 
Heliopeedica 
Heliothrix . 
Heliotrypha 
Ilemistilbon 
Hemitliylaca 

Hylocharis . 
loleema , . 
Juliamyia . 
Klais . . . 
Lafresnaya . 
Lampornis . 
Lamprolasma 
Lainpropygia 
Leadbeatera 
Lepidolarynx 
Lesbia . 
Leucippus , 
Leucochloris 
Loddigesia . 
Lopbornis . 
Mellisviga . 
Metallura . 
Microcbera 
Myiabeillia . 
Mvrtis . . 



'age 


■ 


Page 


57 


Orcopyra . . . 


. 141 


129 


Oreotroebilus . . 


. 62 


67 


Ortborbynchus . 


. 116 


50 


Oxypogon . . 


. 107 

J -_ 


163 


Panopbtes . . • 


. 79 

■ ■ 


141 


Panterpo . . . 


. 167 

i _. 


36 


Panycblora . . < 


, . 179 

J , 


80 


Patagona . . . 


, . 127 


37 


Petasopbora . . 


. 124 


86 


Pbseochroa . . . 


. 54 


35 


Phseoleeina . . . 


, . 142 


120 


Pbseoptila . . . 


. . 169 


132 


Pbaetbornis . . 


, . 41 


130 


Pblogopbilus • . 


, . 181 


74 


Polemistria • . 


, . 84 


138 


Polytmns . . . 


. . 126 


60 


Prymnacantba 


. . 86 


120 


Pterox^banes . , 


, . 105 


131 


Pygmornis . . . 


, . 46 


149 


Pyrrbopba^na . . 


, . 156 


163 


Kampbomicron 


. . 109 


171 


Ebodopis . • 


. . 94 


73 


Sapx^bironia 


. . 172 


168 


Saucerottia . . 


. . 162 


119 


Scbistes . . . 


. . 122 


69 


Selaspborus 


. . 88 


64 


Smaragdochrysis 


. . 180 


59 


Spatbura . - 


. . 99 


136 


Spbenoproctiis 


. . 50 

■ 


74 


Sporadinus • 


. . 172 


140 


Stellula . . . 


. . 90 


101 


Sternoclyta 


. . 57 


150 


Tbalurania • . 


. . 76 


150 


Thaumastura . 


. . 93 


99 


Tbaumatias 


. . 151 


82 


Tbrenetes . . 

4 


. . 40 


87 


Topaza . • . 


. . 61 


111 


Trocbilus . . 


. . 86 


82 


Trypbeena . . 


. . 96 


119 


U rocbroa . . 


. . 56 


92 


Urosticte . . 


. . 110 



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INDEX 



OF 



SPECIFIC NAMES 



■^ 



OF 



HUMMING-BIRDS. 



.1 



4 - . 

[The following is an alphabetical arrangement of all the specific names with 
which I am acquainted ; those appearing in my own work, (and to which 
the numbers refer,) and otjiers which I have not been able to determine to 
what species they have been applied. Some of the latter have been assigned 
to manufactured specimens, and the descriptions of the others arei frequently 
so curt and vague that they cannot be identified.] 



} 



I 



^ 



» 



Abeillei . • 
abnormis, Natt. 
acuticaudus 
Addas . . 
Adela • . 
Adelse . . 
Adolphi . 
jeneicauda 
feneicaudus 
teneocauda 
vEquatorialis 



affinis 



Aglaige . . 

albicoUis - 

albigularis 



albirostris . 
^.Ibiventris 
albocoronata 



p,lbu8 . 
Alexandri 

Alice . 

Alicise .' 




PAGE 

Myiabeillia typica ..... .^ •. 119 

Not identified. 

Panychlora stenura . ... . • ,180 

Spathura rufocaligata •...•., 100 

Oreotrochilus Adelse ...».., 64 
Pygmornis Adolphi .....,, 47 

Metallura seneicaud^ , . , , ; , .111 

Aglasaetis .^quatorialis ...... 106 

Campylopterus ^quatorialis .... 54 

Phseolaima -^quatorialis ... . . , 143 
Thaumatias afiinis 163 

Glaucis affinis 38 

Phaethornis superciliosus ...... 45 

Pyrrhophsena iodura ........ 159 

Leucochloris albicoUis 151 

Leucocliloris albicoUis . . . . . .151 

Schistes albigularis - . , .\ , . , 123 
Thaumatias leucogaster . , ., . . .162 
Thaumatias albiventris . .. . . , , 163 

Microchera albocoronata 82 

Lampornis Mango ...... i , 64 

TrocMlus Alexandri 87 

Panjchlora Alicise .•.•.,,, I79 



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Alina . 

Alince • 

Aline . . 

AUardi 

alticola 

amabilis 

Amaryllis 

amaura 

amazicula 

Amazili 



Amazilia . 
amazilicula 
amethysticoUis 
amethystina . 
amethystinus ' 
amethystoides 
Anais • . 



Angela 
Angelai' . 
angustipennis 
Anna . • 



Annee , . 
anthophila 
anthopliilus 
antiqua ♦ 
Antoniae . 
apicalis • 



Aquila 

Arseunii 

Arsinoe 

arsinoides 

Aspasise 

assimilis 

Atala . 



Atalse . . 
ater . .. ^ 
atra , . 
atratus 
atricapiUus 
atrigaster ., 

atrimentalis 
Audebertii 

Audenetii . 
Augusta - 
AugustjB . 

August! . . 

aurantias, Gmel 
aurata , ,. 
auratus. ^ 



aureiventris 
AurdijG « 
aureoviridis 
aureecens / 
aureus, Lichtt 




M •« 



196 

PAGE 

Eriocnemis Alinx * . . 145 

Metallura tyriantliina 112 

Amazilia alticola 156 

Damophila amabilis 170 

Lesbia Amaryllis 101 

Pygmornis amaura 46 

Amazilia Dumerili 156 

Amazilia pristina 155 

Pyrrhophsena Eiefferi . . . . . .158 

Amazilia pristina 156 

Amazilia Dumerili 156 

Heliangelus amethysticoUis .... 133 

Calliphlox amethystina 97 

Calliphlox amethystoides ..... 98 

Petasophora Anais 124 

Petasophora cyanotis 125 

Petasophora iolata 124 

Petasophora thalassina 125 

Calliperidia Angel^e . ^ 141 

Chlorostilbon angustipennis . • * .175 

Calypte Annse • 88 

Phaethornis anthophilus • .... 43 

Erythronota antiqua 160 

Threnetes Antoniie 40 

Phaethornis Guyi 44 

Thauraatias apicalis 154 

Eutoxeres Aquila 36 

Heliopsedica melanotis^ ....... 60 

Pyrrhoph^ena beryllina 1 58 

Pyrrhopha;na Eiefferi ,.,.,..,. 158 

Pygmornis Aspasi^ , . , . . . . 47 
Chlorostilbon assimilis . . . , , .178 
Chlorostilbon Atala ....... 177 

Chlorostilbon chrysogaster 178 

Chlorostilbon Atala , . . '. . . .177 

Elorisuga atra ......... 81 

Lampornis Mango ........ 65 

Eulampis holosericeus . . . . . . 68 

Pygmornis Amaura . . . , •. •, • 46 
Eucephala cai'Tulea . . . . . . . .167 

Polemistria ehalybea .... . . . 85 

Phaethornis Augusti . . , . . . . 45 

■■' ^ ^ 

Not determined. 

• * , . . 

Panychlora Alicias ........ 179 

Eulampis jugularis . ^ ^ . . . . 67 

Lophornis ornatus ... .^ .... 82 

Chlorostilbon aureiventris • . . . . 176 

Eriocnemis Aureliai , ^ ^ . . . . 146 

Lampornis viridis. 

Clytoliema ? aurescens . . . ^ • . 134 
ClytoUejna rubinea?. 





X 



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II 



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P*i-' 



»*ir^*- ^4i .:*! 



.-.^ -_ 





197 



■^ 



f 



* 



^ 




aunceps . 
auriculata 
auriculatus 
aurigaster 



aurita 



ri 



auritus 



Aurora . . 
aurulenfa .* . 
aurulentus . 
Avocetta • . 
Azaraj, VieilL 
azureus . • 
Bahamensis . 
Bancrofti . . 
Barroti » • 



Benjamini 
Benj aminus 
beryllina . 
beryllinus 
bicolor. . 



bifurcata . . 
bilobus . . 
bilopha . • 
bilophus . . 
bipartitus, Lath 
Boliviana . . 



bombilus . , 
Bonapartei * 

Boothi . . » 

Bougueri . . 

Bourcieri . . 
brachyrhyncliUB 

Brasilianus . 

Brasiliensis . 



brevicaudatus 

brevicaudus • 

brewostris . 

bromicolor r 

Buffoni * ^ 

cserulea . • 
c£Eruleicapilla 

ca?ruleiceps * 

ca^ruleigaster 

c^ruleigulavis 

cteruleiventris 



ciEruleogaster 
CEeruleogularis 
ca3ruleo-]avata 
cserulescens * 
cscruleus . • 
caligatus . . 
Calliope * % 



ik 



PAGE 
,174 

. 121 



Chlorolampis auriceps 
Heliotlarix auriculatus 

Eulampis holosericeus .,..*.. . 68 
IlelianSiea Bonapartei . . • • • " ^^^ 
Heliothrix auritus . . ..... • 121 

Heliothrix auriculatus - -^ . - . 121 

Eulampis jugularis 
Heliothrix auritus . . 
Diphloga^na Aurora . 

[■ Lampornis aurulentus ..'... • 66 

. Avocettula recurvirostris . . . • .. .114 

. Not determined. . ^ 

. Hylocharis cyaneus 171 

. Doriclia Evelynse . . ..... . . .95 

. Eulampis jugularis . ..... . . 67 

. Heliothrix Barroti . . ., .121 



68 
121 
134 







Heliothrix violifrons 
Urosticte Benjamini 



110 



Y Pyrrhophfena beryllina . * . . ., . . 1 58 



Hylocharis cyaneus . ., .. .. .. . • 171 

Thalurania ? Wagleri . . . .79 

Leabia eucharis • 102 



Heliactin cornuta 



120 



56 

43 

109 



Cynanthus cyanurus ?. . . 

Lampropygia Boliviana . - ., . * .137 
Phaethornis Boliviana ...... 42 

, Acestrura Heliodori 92 

. Helianthea Bonapartei 130 

, Calypte Helenee ........ 88 

. Urochroa Bougueri - . 

. Phaethornis Bourcieri ..,...- 
, Kamphomicron microrhynchus . . . 

. Glaucis hirsuta 38 

. Pygmornis Eremita 49 

. Phaethornis squalidus *,,... 46 
. Phaethornis superciliosus ...... 45 

. Grlaucis hirsuta . ..*..... 38 

. Chlorostilbon brevicaudatus, • . . .178 

. Calliphlox amethystina 98 

. Thaumatias brevirostris ; . . . . .152 

* Lampornis porphyrurus ^ . . . - . 67 

* Chaljbura BufFoni . ^ ^ ...... 72 

. Eucephala ca^rulea . . * . . . .167 

. Chrysuronia ca;ruleicapilla . » . . .165 
. Thaumatias cseruleiceps . , . . . .152 

. Chalybura cseruleogaster .,,... 72 

* Sapphironia ca^ruleigularis . . . . .172 

I Chalybura casruleogaster ; . . ; . . 72 

* Sapphironia cairuleigularis •^ * . i. . 172 

* Eucephala cseruleo-lavata . . . . .166 

. Sapphironia c£eruleigularis , . a • . 172 

. Eucephala caerulea . . . . . . . .167 

. Saucerottia Sophias * . . . • , . 162 

* gtellula Calliope . •. ,. ,. ,. .. ♦ . 90 



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198 



PAGE 



. . -Calliphlos amethystina ... . , , . . . 98 

. . Splienoproctus Pampa 51 

. . Campy] opterus latipennis ... * . 53 

. . Aphantocliroa cirrliochloris 55 

> Thaumatias candidus . . , . . , ,151 



campestris . . 

campyloptera . 

cahipylopterus . 

campylosfcylus . 

Candida , . , 

candidus . . . 

CaniYeti . . . . T Chlorolampis Caniveti » 174 

Capensis, Gmel. . . Not determined. 
carbunculus . . 

Carolus ! ! ! ! j Cometes? Caroli 104 

Cassini ... 
castaneirentris . 



Chrysolampis moschitus 115. 



castaneocauda . 

castaneoventris . 
Castelnaudi . . 
Oastelnaui . , 
Castelneaui . . 
Oatharini© . . 

caudacutug, Vieill. 

caumatonota . . 

caumatdnotua . ' 
Cecilise ,. , , , , . 

cephalatra 



Trocliilus Alexandri 37 

. Anthocepliala ? castaneiventris . . . .115 

. Pliyrrhophaina castaneiventris . . . ! 157 

. Heliopaidica Xantusi ........' 61 

. Anthocepliala? castaneiventris! ', \ '.115 

I Agl^actis Castelnaudi 107 

. Mellisuga minima . ; 37 

. Not determined. 

j- Aglaiactis caumatonota . . .' . . .106 

. Oreotrochilus Estella^ ........ G3 

Aithurus polytmus ............. 75 



cervma 
cervinicauda .. 
cerviniventris 



cephalus . .... . Phaethornis longirostris 42 

. . . Dolerisca cervina .56 

.. ... Threnetes cervinicauda ...... 40 

- • . Pyi^rhopLaina cerviniventris .... 157 

chalcotis Petasophora serrirostris 124 

* ' ' ■ [• Polemistria chalybea ....■.,, 85 

. . Oreotrochilus Chimborazo . . . 



chalybeus . . 

Chimborazo . 
chionogaster . 

chionopectus . , 

chionuxa . . , 

chionurus . , 

chlorocepliala , 

chlorocephalus , 

chlorolaema , . 

chlorolasmus . . 

chlorolaimus . , 

chloroleucurus . 

chlorolophus . . 

ehloropogon . . 

chrysobronchus . 

chrysochloris . 

chrysogaster . . 



chrysogastra , 

chrysolopha . 
chrysura . . 
chrysurus . ." 



ciliatus, Lath. MS. . 
cinereicoUis, Fieill. , 

cinereus „ ^ .. . 



. Leucippus chionogaster 159 

. Thaumatias chionopectus • . ! .' .' 162 

I Thaumatias chionurus ...... 153 

L Eucephala chlorocepliala .166 

I Eulampis chlorolaimus 68 

, Polytmus virescens 127 

. Orthorhynchus exilis II7 

r Urolampra ehloropogon, Cab, et Hein, 
\ Not seen. 

. Polytmus virescens 126 

. Cometes sparganurus . , , . ^ . . 104 

. Chlorostilbon chrysogaster 178 

, Chlorostilbon Haeberlini ♦, ... 175 

. Helianthea Bonapartei 130 

. Chlorostilbon chrysogaster 178 

. Heliactin cornuta ........ 120 

I Chrysuronia clnysura ....... 165 

. G-rypusSpixi 35 

. Cometes sparganurus ....... 103 

. Polytmus viridissimus 127 

p Not determined. 
» Not determined. 

.. Campylopterus latipennis # , # , . 53 



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cmnamomea 

Oirce . , 

cirrhocliloris 

cirrocliloris 
cissiura . 

Clarissa . 

Clarissas . 

Clarisse . 

ClemenciiB 

CleopatraJ 

coelestis 



coeligena . 
coelina . 

coeruleirentris 
coUaris 
colubris , 
Colombica 

Columbiana 
Coluinbicus 

concinna, Steph 

Condaminei 

Condamini 

Conradi . 
consobrinus 

Conftantii 

Conversii . 
conurus, 8teph, 

Cora . . 
Corse . . 

corallirostris 

Corinna, Less, 

cornuta . 

cornutus . 

cortiscans . 

coruscus . 



^ 



Costse . . 
crispa . , 
crispus • 
cristata •. 
cristatellus 
cristatus • 
cr jptunis . 
cucuUiger 
cupreieauda 
cupreicaudus 
cupreiventris 
cupreocauda . 
cupreoventris 
cupricauda , 
cupripennis . 
cupriventris . 
curvipennis . 
Cuvieri . . 
cyanea * . 
cyaneipectus • 
cyanipectus , 
cyanopectus . 

cyaneus • . 




199 

PAGE 

,- Eusteplianus Fernandensis ... , , 142 
. Pyrrhophgena cinnamomea 156 

• Circe latirostris ......... 169 

I- Aphantochroa cirrhochloris . . • . . 55 
Spathura cissiura ........ 100 

Heliangelug Clarissee .132 

. Coeligena Clemencise . , , . i . . 59 

. Thaumatias leucogaster ,...., 152 

, Cynanthus coelestis . .102 

, Trypli£ena Duponti . , , , . . .97 

. Lampropygia coeligena ..,.*. 136 

, Sapphironia c^eruleigularis . , , . , 172 

. Chalybura c^eruleogaster . , . , * . 72 

. Selasphorus rufus . , 88 

. Trocliilus colubris ........ 86 

> Thalurania Columbica ...... 78 

. Mellisugus, " Linn." Beiehenhach.- 

Butoxeres Condaminei ..;,,, 37 

f Bourcieria Conradi ,,*.... 136 
I Phaethornis consobrinus , ^ . . . 42 
. Heliomaster Constanti . * . . ^ . 140 

. Grouldia Conrersi . .86 

. IS'ot determined. 

Thaumastura Corse . 1 . . . , , 93 

Pyrrhophasna cinnamomea . -. • . .166 
Heliomaster longirostris. 

■ w 

Heliactin cornuta ..'..',... 120 

■ ^ ■ 

Petasopliora coruscans .*.,.. 125 
Eamphomicron heteropogon .... 109 

Calothorax cyanopogon ...... 91 

Calypte Costee ...**. ^ ,, 88 

Petasophora serrirostris . . .... 124 

L I 

. Orthorhynchus cristatus -..,., 117 

. Orthorhynchus exilis . . .. . . , .117 

. Orthorhynchus cristatus 116 

. Panychlora Alieias ....... 179 

. Heliopadica melanotis .*,*.. 60 

Metallura cupreieauda . . . . . .111 

. Eriocnemis cupreiyentris , . . , .143 

. Metallura cupreieauda . , , . . .111 

. Eriocnemis cupreiventris -. . . . . 144 

, Metallura cupreieauda . , . , , .111 

. Agla^actis cupripennis 106 

. Eriocnemis cupreiventris . . , . .144 

♦ Sphenoproctus curvipennis 51 

. Phseoehroa Cuvieri ....... 55 

. Hylocharis cyanea >, >. .. ,, . -, . I71 

I Sternoclyta cyaneipectus ..... 57 
. Eulampisjugularis *,..,.. 68 

i 







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cyaneus . 

cyanic oUi 3 
cyanifrons 
cyanocephala 



, GmcL 

cyanocollis 
cyanogenys 
cyanomelas 

^ ^ • • 

cyanopectus 
cyanopogon 
cyanopterus 
cyanopygos 
cyanptis . 
cyanotus • 
cyanura . 
cyaniirus . 

. , Gmel 

cyanus, Vieill 
Daphne • 
dasypus . 
Dayidianus 
decorata . 
decoratus . 
decorus . 

De Filippi 
Delalandi 

Delattre . 
Delattrei : 

n MM 

Delphina . 

Delphinse 

Derbianus 



Derbyanus 

Derbyi , 

Devillei . 
dichrous, Licht 
diloplius .. 
dispar , . 
Dohrni . 
Dominica 
Doraiuicensis 
Dominicus 



"* 



D^Orbignyi 
Doubledayi 

Dubusi ^ 
Duchassaigni 
Dumerili . 



Duponti 
Edwardi 
elatus ^ 
elegans 



• 










200 

PAGB 

Hylocharis cyanea ....... . . . 171 

Cyanomyia cyanicoUis . . , ... 149 
Heinithylaca cyanifrons . . .... .163 

Cyanomyia cyanocephala 147 

Cyanomyia Guatemalensis 148 

Cyanomyia quadricolor . , ... . 147 

Not determined. 

Cyanomyia cyanicollis ., . . . . . 149 

Eucephala cyanogenys .... .. . .167 

Eulampis jugularis . . .... . . 67 

Sapphironia ca^ruleigularis . ., . . .172 
Sternoclyta cyaneipectus . . .^ . . 5 

Calothorax cyanopogon 90 

Pterophanes Temmincki . . . . . 105 
Eriocnemis cupreivcntris, Rcichcnh, 

Petasophora cyanotis ...... 125 

Pyrrhophicna cyanura ] 60 

Cynanthus cyanurus , 102 

Not determined. 
Not determined, 

Chlorostilbon Daphne ...... 177 

Eriocnemis Alin^ 146 

Pygmornis rufiventris ...... 48 

Acestrnra decorata ...;;,• 91 

r 

r 

Lophornis magnificus • • , • . .* 83 

Phaethornis Philippi 43 

Cephalepis Delalandi . ^ - . . . .118 

Campylopterus hemileucurus . ; ; * 52 

Lophornis Delattrei ...... . 84 

Petasophora Delphinte *. 125 

Docimastes ensiferus .,.,... 129 
Eriocnemis Derbiana .,....,, 145 

Docimastes ensiferus ....... 129 

Eriocnemis Derbianus ...... 145 

Eriocnemis Derbiana ....... 146 

Pyrrhophaina Devillei . .. ,. .. . . 168 

Chrysuronia chrysura, Seichenb. 

Heliactin cornuta ........ 120 

Heliotrypha Parzudaki ^ . . . . . 131 

Glaucis Dohrni . .,...-.,. . .39 
Lampornis gramineus .. ,. ^. . . . 66 

Mellisuga minima ..,,_..... 87 

Lampornis aurulentus 66 

Glaucis hirsuta ... ^. ^ .... 38 

Lampornis gramineus .;..... 66 

Eriocnemis D'Orbignyi . , . . . . 145 

Circe Doubledayi ... . . - . , .169 

Circe latirostris . . ... ... - . . 169 

Pyrrhophsena Eiefferi . ,. .- . - .158 
Sapphironia cairuleogularis . . . . . 172 

Amazilia Dumerili . ... . . - .156 

Pyrrhoph^ena Devillei . ..... . .159 

Tryphasna Duponti ....... 97 

Erythronota Edwardi . 161 

Chrysolampis moschitus^. . . . . ,115 
Sporadinus elegans ... . _. • * . 173 

Erythrgnotetr elegang , ,, ,. . . . . 162 



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201 



EHcia 1 ciirvsuronia Eliclas 

Elicife.' .■ .' . . J "^ 

Elisa . . . . . I Doricha EliziE . . 

Elizae J 

Emile . . . . * ♦ Erythronota FeliciiG 

Emilias . .... "' 



165 



. . . ... 94 

^ ; . ; ... . 161 

Phaethornis Emiliae .....•••" 



enicura 
enicunis 
ensifera ^ 
ensiferus ^ 



^ 9 • •s J 



Doricha enicura 



95 



\ Docimastes ensiferus . .;*..• 129 



^ ~ ^L 



Fy 



Campylopterus ensipennis 

Helianthea Eos , . .. . 



ensipenms . . . * . 

Eos •...*»• . -n • 

Episcopus .... Pygmorms Episcopus 
Eremita Pygmorms Eremita 



Eriphyle . . . -. 
Eryphila . . \ . 
Eryphile ... * 

erythronota . . . 
erythronotos • . 
erythronotus . , 
erythrorhyncha, Bp, 
Esmeralda .- . . 
Estella . . . . 
Estell^e . . ^ * 
euantlies 



Thalurania Eriphyle 



53 

131 
48 
49 

79 



160 



I Erythronota antic[ua . . . . ♦ • • 

. Not a species. . . , , 

. Panychlora Poortmanni ...••• loU 




Oreotrochilus Estellas 



. Eamphomicron microrhynchus 

eucharis . . • . . Lesbia eucharis . . ► . . • 

Panychlora euchloris . . - . « 




Phaethornis Eurynomo ...... 41 



\ Avocettinus eurypterus 



euchloris . .- . . 
Eurynome . . . 
Eurynomus , . . 
euryptera , . . 
eurypterus . '. . 
Evelina; .... 
Evellina .... 

Evelyns . , . . ^ 

excisus ..... Thalurania Eriphyle . 

/ , , . . Orthorhynchus exilis . 

' ^ ' ' I Eupherusa eximia . . 
[ . . . . Heliotrypha Parzudald 



63 

110 
102 
180 



114 



■4 






Doricha Evelynas . . . . ■ . . • ? 95 



^9 



exilis 




i 

117 
163 
131 
51 



56 




eximia . * *^ - . 

eximius . r * . 

exortis .... 

falcata .11.. 

falcatus .... 

fallax ..... 

Eanniai .... 

Eannyi * » . * ^ 

Eanny ...... Myrtis Fannite . ► ♦ - - 

fasciatus Lampornis Mango . . . 

, Shaw .... Not determined. 

Faustine ..... Cyanomyia cyanocephala 

Felicia .... \ Erytln-onot^ Felicise . . 
Felicia} .... J 

Feliciana Juliamyia Feliciana . ,^ 

Fernandensis . . . Eustephanus Fernandensis . . - . - A^^ 
ferrugineus .... Glaucis hirsuta ........ ^ - ^^ 

festivus Polemistria chalybea - - - ... oo 

filicaudus ..... Acestrura Mulsanti 

fimbriata . . . . \ j^iorisuga mellivora . '. . .... 80 

fimHrialus ... J ... 

flabellifera . . . I pioriguga flabellifera . \ '. \ • . . 81 

flabelliferus ... J , •,■;'■* i^o 

flammifrons .... Eustephanus galentus • . . ,. . . 14J 

flavescens-. . . . - Panoplites flavescens . ......... ^^ 



Campylopterus lazulus ....»• 
Dolerisca fallax . . . .-..• • • 
Thalurania Eanniai * . ; ". 1 . • 7o 

"... 93 
. . . . • 65 

. : : • . 147 

. . : . . 161 

: : . . 168 



91 









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PAGE 



flaTicaudata ...Itj* «•■,. 

flavicaudatus . . ' J -^^f^esi^aya flavicaudata ...... 69 

flarifrons . .... Chlorostilbon Phaethon . . ... . 175 

-- — , Ch7iel .' .; .* .'Not determined. 
Floi 



'esii 



I 

floricep 



s 



. . • . , Lampornis porpliyrurus ..... ^ 67 

* • • •■ . Selasphorus Floresii . . , , • . . 89 

• ... . Anthocephala floriceps ... 115 

fluviatihs. : : : .■ Thaumatiasfluviatms, .... 1 . 154 

foreipatus ^ . . * . Eupetomena macroura ...... 60 

forlicata ...'.' . Thalurania forJScata ....... 77 

forfioatus *-.'... 



IVancis9 . 
Fraseri 
fraterculus 
frontalis . 

fulgens 
fulgidigula 



76 

58 

135 

69 

71 

60 



Eustephanus galeritus . . . . _ . 142 
Cynanthns cyamiTus . . . ., .. . .102 
Cyanomyia Eranciaj ....... . 149 

Grlaucis Fraseri * .^ * . 39 

Phaethornis fraterculus 42 

lolsema frontalis ^ ....'.''! 73 
Thalurania glaucopis . 
Eugenes fulgens . * 
Bourcieria fulgidigula 

fulgidus Lamprolsema Ehami ^y 

fulyifrons. .... Hylocharis sapphirina ....'. I71 

fulviventris .. .. . \ Dolerisca fallax . 

fulvus, 6hnel . . . Not determined. 

furcata' ; .' . , - Thalurania furcata ^ ....... w 

furcatoides . . . , Thalurania furcatoides , 77 

furcatus . . * . . Thalurania furcata * » ! 77 

***••* Thalurania Tschudii ....... 78 

furcifer, Shaw . ■. . Not determined. 

fusca .* .' .'.'.. Florisuga atra gl 

fuscicaudatus^ . . . Pyrrhophaina Riefferi ,...,",' 158 
fuscus ..'.';.'. Florisuga atra ..*♦•.,., 81 

G-abriel Heliothrix Earroti . ..»..!* 122 

Galathea Chlorostilbon prasinus ...... 1 76 

f aleritus ! ! ! ! ) Eustephanus galeritus ...... Ml 

Gayi Lafresnaya Gayi gg 

Geoffroyi . .... Schistes personatus ^ 222 

...... Schistes Geoffroyi ........ 122 

Georgina . . 

Georgin^e 
Gibsoni, Fras, 

gigantea - ... 1 -n 4. 

gigas I Patagona gigas 




Avocettinus eurypterus II4 

L 
J 

A manufactured specimen. 



128 



Thalurania glaucopis 76 

Not determined. 



glaucopis . 

glaucopoides, D' Orb. '. 

et Lafres, 

glomata Eriocnemis vestita 145 

Glyceria * . . . . Cometes? Glyceria , 104 

Godini ..... Eriocnemis Godini ...-,... 145 

Gorgo .....; Cynanthus cyanurus ....... 102 



Goudoti 

Gouldi 



Sapphironia Goudoti . 
Lesbia Gouldi . . . 



172 
101 



gracilis » . 

graminea . . 

gramineus . 

Granadensis . 

granatinus ', 

grata . .. -. 

Grayi ^ . , 




*# 



*• 



Lophornis Gouldi . 83 

Petasophora serrirostris . . . . ^ .124 
Lesbia gracilis ....,,,.. 101 

Lampornis gramineus *..*., 65 

Phaiola:!ma rubinoides. 

Eulampis jugularis ...... . . 67 

Leadbeatera grata , 75 

Eucephala Grayi .......,, 166 



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griseigularis 
griseogularis 

Guatemalensis 
Guerini . 
Guimeti . 
Gujanensis 
guiaris 

gutturalis . 
Guy . . 
Guyi . , 
Gyriniio . 
Haeberlinii 
haimatorhyncha 
Helena 
Helenas , 

Helianthea 
Heliodori 
liellos . .. 

Heloisa . . 

hemileucurus 

Henrica . 
Henrici . 
Herrani .' 

heteropogon 
heteropygia 
hirsuta , 
liirsutus . 
liiruiidinacea . 
liirundinaceus 
hispida 
liispidus . 
HofFmanni 

liolosericea 

holosericeus 

Humboldti 

liumilis 
hyperytlirus 
hypocyanea 
hypoleucus 

hypophasus 
icterocephalus 
Idali^ . , 

igneus . . 

Imperatris 
Inca . . 
inornata . 
inornatus . 

insectiTora ■ 
insectiyorus 
insignis . 
intermedia 
intermedins 

iodura . . 

iodurus . 

^ iolata . . 

iolatus . . 



Bp 






203 

PAGE 

L ■ L 

Pygmornis griseogularis . ... . . 47 

, Cyanomyia Guatemalensis . . . . . 148 

. Oxypogon Guerini . . • . . * .108 

. Klais Guimeti .119 

. Chrysolampis moschitus . . . . . .115 

. Aphantocliroa guiaris . . ... * * 55 

» Lampornis gramineus .65 

Lampornis Mango ?. 

Phaetliornis Guyi " . . . 44 

Thalurania furcata .77 

. Chlorostilbon Haeberlini ... . .175 

i Not a species. 

. Lopbornis Helense . ... - . • • 84 

. Calypte HelenfB ...,..•. 88 

. Lopliornis Helense « . . .... 84 

. Helianthea typica , , . . ... * 130 

. Acestrura Heliodori . ...... • . 92 

. Lopliornis magnificus .... ..... 83 

Attliis Heloisa^ . . . . ' . . ' . ' . .89 

.. Campylopterus hemileucurus ... . 52 
. Piilogophilus hemileucurus. . . . • 181 

Delattria Henrici . . .' . .' .' . . 60 

Eramphomicron Herrani 109 

. Eamphomicron heteropogon .... 109 
• Doricha enicura ..*•..•* 95 

Glaucis hirsuta ......... 38 

Eupetomena macroura ...... 50 

Gouldia Langsdorffi •*....• 86 

Phaethornis hispidus ....... 43 

h ^ ■ 

Sauccrottia Sophias 162 

Eulampis holosericeus ...... 68 

r + 

. Chrysuronia Humboldti ...... 165 

-• MelKsuga minima ........ 87 

. Campylopterus hyperythrus , ... 54 
. Eucephala hypocyanea ...... 166 

. Leucippus cliionogaster . . .,.• • • 150 
. Cyanomyia Francif:s ..*...• 149 

. Chrysolampis moschitua . . '. . . .115 
. Calypte Annse . 88 

. Pygmornis Idaliae 48 

. Chlorostilbon igneus 176 

. Eugenia Imperatrix ^ . 130 

* Bourcieria Inca 136 

Adelomyia inornata ... . . .^.113 

_ J ■ 

I Bourcieria inseetivora .....* 135 

. Panterpe insignis 168 

Phaethornis squalidus . ... . . 45 

■ r 

r 

I Pyrrhophsena iodura ....... l59 

[ Petasophora iolata .124 





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iridescens 



Iris . . . 

Isaacsoni . 
Isaurfe, . 
jacula . . 
Jamesoni . 



jantliinotus 
Jardinei . 
Jardini • 
Johaunse • 
jolata .. • 
Josephine 
Jourdaui . 
jugularis • 
Julia •. • 
Juliee .. . 
Julie ... 
Kienerii * 
Kingii . . 



^- 



Labrador 

lactea . 



LiBtitia 
Lsetitiiie 
Lafresnayi 
Lalandi . 



lamprocephalus 
lamprogeneias 
lamprus . 
lanceolatus 
Langsdorffi 
largipennis 
lasiopygus 
latipennis . 



latirostris 



lazula . 



lazulinus 
lazulus 



Leadbeateri 
Leocadia; , 



lepida . . 
lepidus " ■ 
LerebouUeti 
Lessoni 



leucasj)i3' . 
leucocrotaph 



leucogaster 



U3 



"^% 



204 

PAGB 

Lampornis iridescens ....... 65 

Smaragdochrysis iridescens . . . . . 181 

Diphlogsena Iris 133 

Eriocnemis Isaacsoni . 144 

Chalybura ? Isaurte 72 

Heliodoia jacula 74 

Heliodoxa Jamesoni 74 

Oreotrochilus Pichincha .63 

Petasophora serrirostris ...«•. 124 

Panoplites Jardinei 80 

Doryfera Johannae ....... 71 

Petasophora iolata . ... ... . ,124 

Chrysuronia Josephinse ..,,., 164 

Chsetocerus Jourdani 92 

Eulampis jugularis ....... 67 



I Juliamyia typica , « 168 

, gpathura Underwoodi •.,... 
. Cynanthus cyanurus . . . , • . . 
.' EUstephanus galeritus . .~ . • . ^ 

. Myrtis Fanny . 

. Hylocbaris lactea . , 

. Thaumatias Linnsei .•.•♦•• 



100 

102 

141 

93 

171 

154 



I 



Gouldia LaititiiB . . .' . . ; . . 86 



Bonap, 



Lafresnaya flavicaudata . . 
Cephalepis Delalandi , . . 
Calypte Annte .,*,."■ 
Lampornis Prevosti, Beichenb, 
Chlorostilbon prasinus . . 
Glaucis lanceolatus # * . 



Gouldia Langsdorffi . . 
Campyloptcrus latipennis 
Heliotrypha Parzudaki , 
Campyloptcrus latipennis 
Campylopterus ensipennis 
Amazilia pristina . , . 
Hylocbaris sapphirina . 
Circe latirostris . . . • 



Circe Doubledayi 
Circe latirostris , 



Hylocbaris lactea . . 
Campylopterus lazulus 
Circe Doubledayi . . 
Circe latirostris . . . 



Lampornis Mango . . 
Leadbeatera grata . . 
Heliomaster Leocadi^ 



I Trypbsena Duponti . . 

, Circe Doubledayi , • . 

. Avocettula recurvirostris . 

. Cyanomyia cyanocephala 

. Circe latirostris . . . . 



Oreopyra leucaspis 
Heliopajdica melanotis 
Heliothrix auritus . . 



Leucippus chionogaster 
Thaumatias leucogaster 



69 
118 

88 

176 
39 
86 
53 

131 
53 
53 

156 

171 

169 

169 

109 

171 
51 

171 

169 

65 

75 

140 

97 

169 
114 

147 
169 
141 
60 
121 
150 
152 



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leucogastra . 
leucopheea 
leucoj)lirys . 

leucopleurus . 
leucopterus . 

leucopygius . 
leucotis , . 

leucurus . . 
Libussa . . 
Lichtensteinii 
ligonicauda . 
ligonicaudus 
Lindeni . . 
Linnaii . . 
Loddigesii 
longicauda . 
longicaudus . 
longirostris , 



Longuemarei 
Longuemareus 
Longuemari . 
lophotes . . 
Luciani . , 
lucida . , < 
lucidus . . 



Lucifer . , 

LudoYicise 

lugens . : . 

lugubris . . 

Lumacliella . 
Lumachellus 

Lutetise . . 

Lydia . . . 

macroura . . 

macroiirus , 

macriara . , 

maculata . . 



maculatum 
maculatus 



maculicaudus 
maculicoUis . 
magnifica . . 
magnificus . 
m alaris , . 

Malvina . , 
Mango . . 



maniculata . 
maniculatum 
margaritaceus 
Maria . . . 
Marise , , , 



marmoratus . 



205 

PAGE 

Thaumatias leucogaster . . , ... .152 
Amazilia leucophsea , . . . . , .156 
Phaethornis squalidus .,.,.. 45 
Oreotrochilus leucopleurus ..... 63 
Oreotroehilus leucopleurus ..... 64 
Florisuga atra ■.,.*,.,. 81 

Heliop^edica melanotis .60 

Tlirenetes leucurus 40 

Heliangelus Clarissse , .... . . 132 

Panoplites flavescens 80 

Discura longicauda ..,.,.. 85 

Oxypogon Lindeni 108 

. Thaumatias Linn^ei . . , , . . .153 
. Cephalepis Loddigesi 118 

l Discura longicauda 85 

. Eulampis longirostris . 69 

. Heliomaster longirostris . ..... 138 

, Heliomaster Stuartae ....... 138 

* Heliomaster mesoleucus 140 

Pliaethornis longirostris ...... 42 



Pygmornis Longuemareus 46 

Lophornis lophotes * 83 

Eriocnemis Luciani , .144 




> Heliopsedica melanotis ...... 61 

, Coeligena Clemeneias . ... , . . 59 

. Calothorax cyanopogon 90 

. Doryfera Ludoviciee ....... 71 

, Eriocnemis lugens ....... ,146 

. Florisuga atra 81 

I Augastes Lumachellus . . .' . , .123 

. Helianthea Lutetige . ,, . . , .131 
Thalurania verticeps .78 

Eupetomena macroura , 50 

Adelomyia maculata .,,;.., 113 
Thaumatias Linnsei . . , . ". . .154 
Grypus neevius ......'.,, 35 

Lampornis gramineus • . . . • , 65 

Thaumatias Linnsei 153 

Thaumatias maculicaudus 164 

Panychlora Alicise . .179 

Lophornis magnificus 83 

Phaethornis malaris 41 

Not seen. 

Lampornis Mango . . . . . . . . 64 

Lampornis porphyrurus 67 

Eriocnemis cupreiyentris 144 

Grypus nserius 35 

Lampornis aurulentus . . , . . , 66 

Pyrrhophsena Devillei . . . . ... 159 

Aithurus polytmus , , . . , . . , 75 
■ Lampornis gramineus .....-, . 66 



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Matthews! 
Maug£ei . . 
Maug^eus . . 
Maugeana 
Maugeanus • 
M augei . ., 
Mavors . . 
maxillosus 
maximus, Vieill 
Maynensis 
Mazeppa . . 
melananthera 
melanogaster 



melanogenys 
melanolophus, 
melanorhynclius 
melanotis . 

r 

melanotis . 
melanotus 
me^anura . 
mellisugus 



Vieill 



melliyora 
mellivoras 

Meriphile 

Merrittii ., 

mesoleuca 

mesoleucus 

metallicus 

Mexicanus 

microrhyncha 

microrhyncliuTQ 

microrliynchus 

micrura , . 

micrurus . . 

Milleri . .. 



minima , . 

minimus . . 
minuUus, Vieill 

mirabilis . ,. 

Mitchelli . . 

Mocoa.. .. . 

modestns '. . 

montana . . 
montanus 

Moorei . . 

moschita . , 
moschitus 
Mosquera 
mosquitus 

Mossai . . 

Mulsanti . . 



n 



multicolor, 

mystacinus 

mystax . 

naevia . 

nsevius 

Napensis 

Nattereri 



Gmel. 




206 

PAGE 

. Panoplites Mathewsi 80 

I Sporadinus ? Mauga^i 173 

i Sporadinus ? Maugcei. 

J ■ . > 

. Thaumatias Linnsei . , , . . . .154 

■ Heliangelus Mavors ,,.._... 133 

. Phaethornis malaris ? 

. Not determ'ined. 

. Leadbeatera Otero, Beichenb 74 

. Glaucis Mazeppa ...,.••. .38 

. Spatliura melanantliera ...... 100 

. Oreotrochilus melanogaster ..... 64 

. Eugenes fulgens 58 

. Adelomyia melanogenys 113 

. Not determined. . 

; Chlorostilbon cbrysogaster 178 

. Phaethornis Eurynome 41 

Heliop^edica melanotis ..:;.. 60 

. Glaucis melanura ........ 39 

. Chlorostilbon Atala ....... 177 

. Thaumatias leucogaster , 152 

Florisuga mellivora ....... 80 

Thalurania Eriphyle - . 79 

Klais Guimeti 119 

Lepidolarynx mesoleucus . . . . .140 

J L 

. Chlorostilbon Phaethon ...... 175 

. Eulampis holosericeus 68 

\ Kamphomicron microrhynchus . . .109 

Acestrura micrura 92 

, Oreotrochilus leucopleurus . ... . 64 
, Thaumatias Milleri , . . , . . .152 

V Mellisuga minima . , / 87 

. Not determined. 

. Loddigesia mirabilis . . ..... . . 99 

. Calliphlox ? Mitchelli . ."..... 98 

. Cynanthus Mocoa . , . . . . , .103 

. Chlorolampis auriceps 174 

I Selasphorus platycercus ...... 89 

. . Phaethornis consobrinus 42 

> Chrysolampis moschitus .*/.'. . .115 

. , Eriocnemis Mosquera 144 

. Chrysolampis moschitus . . . . . .115 

. . Cometes? Glyceria .... . . . . 104 

. Acestrura Mulsanti ,.,,.,. 91 
. Not detei'mined. 

, Lepidolarynx mesoleucus 140 

. Polemistria chalybea ..,.,. . . . 85 

Grypus nsevius .......... 35 

Chlorostilbon Napensis 177 

Augastes scutatus 123 






'I 



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> J 



■*'^T>ii.;;^ 



f 



I 






^^ 



207 







Neera 

niger 



nigra . . 
iiigricincta 

nigricinctus 
nigvicollis 
nie;rirostris, Eeichenb, . 



iiigrivestis 

nigrofasciata 
nigrofasciatus 
ni grotis . 
nitens . . 
Biticlifrons 
nitidissimus 

nitidus 

niveipectus 

niveiventer 

niyeiventris 

niveoventer 

!N"omsi 

Niiaa . . 

■j 

obacura . 
obscurus . 



, Gmel. 

Ocai . . 

ochropygos, 

CEnone 



Natt 



opaca . . 
opistliocomus 

Orbignyi . 

ornata , . 

ornatus . 



*-r. 



orthura 
orthurus . 
Osberti 
O seryi 
Otero . , 
Ourissia . 
pallidiceps 
Pamela 
Pamel^e . 
Pampa 



paradisea . 
paradiseus 

, GmeL 

paryirostris 
parvula . 
Parziidaki 
Parzudhaki 
Paulinse . 
pavoninus 
pectoralis 
Pegasus . 
Pella . . 



personatus 
Peruana . 
Peruanus . 



Chrysuronia Neera 
Florisu-ga atra 



Mellisuga minima 
Mellisuga minima 



I Pygi^ 



ornis nigricinctus 



PAGE 
, 165 

, 81 

. 87 
. 87 

. 48 



Lampornis Mango . . ....•• • ^^ 

Not determined. ' ■ 

Eriocnemis nigrivestis . . . . ■ • • l"*^ 



I Thalurania nigrofasciata . . . . . .78 

Heliothrix auritus • '^^^ 

Chlorostilbon nitens . . . . . • ' jro 

Thaumatias nitidifrons . . . . . '. 1^2 

Chlorostilbon prasinus . . . . • • 176 

Lampornis Mango }^ 

Thaumatias chionopectus j^^ 

Erythronota niyeiventris . .-.*.. . 16^ ■ 
ErytWonota niyeiventris ... • • • j^j 
Erythronota niyeiventris . . . • ra 

Hemistilbon Norrisi . - 1^^ 

Lesbia Nuna 101 

Pygmornis Idaliae . . . * . • v • • ^ 
Campylopterus obscurus 54 



Clytol 






ma 



rubinea . . . . . • . . . 1^ 



150 



Not determined. 

Hemistilbon Ocai . . . . . • • • 

Phaethornis Pretrei, Eeichenb, 

Chrysuronia CEnone . • . . • • • 164 

Metallura cupreicauda ... . . * ^\\ 

Cephalepis Loddigesi , . .... . 118 

Eriocnemis D' Orbignyi ...... 14o 

Lophornis ornatus . . . . . , • • • 



82 



117 
97 




Orthorhynclms ornatus ...... 

Calliphlox amethystina .... . . 

Calliphlox amethystina ... . - * ^ 

Clilorolampis Osberti . . . ... .174 

Phaethornis Oseryi . ....... 4^ 

Leadbeatera Otero • -74 

Sporadiniis? Maug^i . ...... .17-3 

Heliomaster pallidiceps . . . ■ ■ . l^J 

Aglaiactis Pamela . . . . . • • • 107 

Sphenoproctus curvipennis . . . . . ^j 

Sphenoproctus Pampa ^1 

Panoplites flavescens ^^ 

Topaza Pella ....■•••;• ^-^ 

Not determined. ' ^ ^o 

Osypogon G-uerini . . ■ . ■ • • • * |^ 

Agi-geactis parvula . . . ■ . • * * ' i qi 

Heliotrypha Parzudaki . - - ■ ' ' Vil 
Sporadinus Eiccordi . ... • • 'kit 

Metallura tyrianthina ^-^^ 

Phaethornis, Beichenh. - 

Lampornis gramineus . ■*. . - • 

Cln'ysolampis moschitus 

Topaza Pella 

Schistes personatus ....... 1^2 

Spathura Peruana . . . . . ■ . . , 100 

Chlorostilbon Peruanus 177 

p2 



65 

115 

61 



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Petasophora . 
Petasophorus 
plia3nol£eina 
phaenolsema 
phsenoleuca 
Phaethon . 
Phaeton . 
Phaon , . 
Philippi . 

Phaibe, Less, et 

Pichincha 
piieatus . 
pinicola . 
platura 
platurus . 
platycerca 
platycercus 
polytmus . 
Poortmani 
Popelairii 

porphyrogaster 
porphyrura 

porphyrurus 
Poucheti . 

w 

Pouchettii 
prasina . 

prasinoptera 
prasinus . 



Pretrei 

Prevosti . 
Primolii . 
Primolina 
Primolinus 
pristina . 
Prunellei . 
Prunelli , 
puber . . 
Pucherani 
puella . . 

pulchra . 

punctatus 

punctulatus 
puniceus . 

purpuratus, 
purpurea . 

purpureiceps 
pygmtea . 
pygm^us . 



Pyra . . 

quadricolor 



Quitensis . 
radiosus . 
Raimondi 
ri^ctirostris 



GmeL 



208 



. PAGE 

\ Petasophora serrirostris 124 

* 

Heliothris ph^notema . , . . . . 121 



Chlorostilbon Phaethon 



175 



» - H 

Cometes Phaon 104 

Phaethornis Philippi .... 43 

JDelatL Not determined. 

. Oreotrochilus Pichincha 63 

. Orthorhynehus cristatus I17 

. Heliomaster Leocadiee 140 

I Discura longicauda 85 

Selasphorus platycercus .;.... 89 

Aithurus polytmus ...... 75 

Panychlora Poortmanni ..,.'!! 180 
Prymnacantha Popelairei . \ . .' ." 86 
HeHanthea typica 130 

Lampornis porphyrurus ...... 67 

Heliothrix auriculatus , . . . , .121 

Chlorostilbon Atalse 177 

Clalorostilbon prasinus : 176 

Eulampis jugularis 68 

Chlorostilbon chrysogaster 178 

Chlorostilbon prasinus . ... . . 176 

Polytmus viridissimus . . . . , . 127 

Phaethornis supercihosus 45 

Lampornis Preyosti \ . . . . . ,65 

L 

Metallura Primolii . ... . . .112 

Amazilia pristina , 1 55 

I Lampropygia Prunellei 137 

. Chlorostilbon chrysogaster . , , . .178 

. Chlorostilbon prasinus ...... 176 

. Thalurania venusta 78 

. Calothorax pulchra ....... 91 

l- Lampornis Mango 64 

. Orthorhynchus cristatus . , . . .117 
. Not determined. 

. Lampropygia purpurea I37 

Hehothrix Barroti 12 1 

■ B 

Pygmornis pygmsea 49 

Pygmornis Aspasia? 47 

Mellisuga minima 87 

Pygmornis rujiventris 48 

Topaza Pyra . . ! 62 

Cyanomyia quadricolor ] 47 

Lampornis Mango , . . . , . . %^ 
Metallura Quitensis , . . . , . .112 

Cometes sparganurus .103 

Sporadinus Eicordi ... ... . .173 

Doryfera rectirostris 71 



ij 



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^ ^»>irf- ^* s^ : ^p^s .4 



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!recurvirostris 

refulgens 

Rcginse 



regis . 

Regulus 

Reichenbachi 

remigera 

Ehami 

rhodotis 

Eicordi 

Eielferi 

Eivoli 

Bivolii 

Eoberti 

Robinson 

Rosa . 

Rosse . 

ruber . 

rubinea 

rubineus 

rubinoides 



rubra . 
Ruckeri 



rufa 

ruflcaudatus 
ruficauduSj 
ruficeps . 
ruficollis . 
rufigaster 



Vieill 



rufiventris 
rufocaligata 
rufocaligatus 
rufus . . 



rutila . . 

Sabina , . 

Sabinge 

sagitta 

Salvini 

sapphirina 



sappliirinus 



Sappho . 
Sasin . . 

Saucerottei 
Saul . . 

Saulse . . 
Saulii . . 



scapulata . 
Scbimperi 
Sclireibersii 
scintilla . 
Sclateri . 



scutatus . 

sephanoides 

serrirostris 

similis 



209 

PAGE 

Avocettula recurvirostris 114 

Thalurania refulgens . 77 

Lophornis Reginse 84 

Calliperidia Angelse, Beichenb, 

Lophornis Regulus ....... 83 

Chrysolampis moschitus 116 

Spathura TJnderwoodi ... . . . 100 

Lamprolsema Rhami 59 

Petasophora iolata 125 

Sporadinus Ricordi . . ; . , . .173 
Pyrrhophsena Riefferi ... . . .158 

Eugenes fulgens ........ 58 

Phasochroa Roberti . . . ' . , . .55 
Eustephanus Fernandensis . . . , .142 

r 

Chsetocercus Rosae , ... . , . 92 

Selasphorus rufus . . ... . , ,88 

Olytolgema rubinea . . . , . . , 134 

Pha3ola!ina -^quatorialis . ... .143 

Phseolaama rubinoides 142 

Selasphorus rufus ' . ' . 88 

Glaueis Ruckeri . ... . . . . 39 

Glaucis Fraseri , . , 39 

Selasphorus rufus 88 

Clytolsema rubinea . . ... . . 1 34 

Not determined. 

Ramphomicron ruficeps . , . . . , 109 

Grypus na^vius 35 

Pygmornis Eremita . , . ... . 49 

Pygmornis rufiventris 48 

Pygmornis rufiventris ...... 48 

Spathura rufocaligata, ,.,,., 100 

Campy lop terus rufus 54 

Selasphorus rufus 88 

Pyrrhophi:ena cinnamoniea . , . , .156 

Adelomyia melanogenys . . . . , .113 

Leadbeatera Otero . ; , 74 

Chlorolampis Salvini . . . , , . , 174 
Hylocharis lactea . . , ... , .171 
Hylocharis sapphirina . , . . . .171 
Hylocharis lactea .....,,. 171 

Hylocharis sapphirina 171 

Cometes sparganurus . 103 

Selasphorus rufus . , '88 

Saucerottia typica ........ 162 

Lafresnaya Saula3 . 70 

* 

Eucephala scapulata ....... 166 

Circe latirostris . . .169 

lolaima Schreibersi 73 

Selasphorus scintilla . ....'. . 89 
Heliomaster Sclateri . . . . , . .139 

Augastes scutatus . 123 

Eustephanus galeritus . ... . , 141 
Petasophorus serrirostris . . ', , , 124 
Chlorostilbon Phaethon . , ... . 175 



I 



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41 




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i 



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= F ! 



rn 




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1 



simplex 



Sitkensis .... 
smaragdicaudiis 
smaragdina . . . 
smaragdineum . . 
smaragdinicoUis 
smaragdinis . . . 
smaragdinus . . 
smaragdo-cserulea . . 
smaragdo-sapphiri- 1 
nus, Shaw ... J 

SophifB 
sordid a . 




sparganura 
sparganurus 
spatuligera ' 
Spencei , 
Spixi . 
splendens 



splendidus 

squalida 

squalidus 

squamata 

squamosa 

squamosus 



Vieill 



Stanleyi 

stellatus 

stenura 
Stokesi 

striatus, Gmel 
striigularis 
strophiana 
strophianus 
strumaria . 
Stuarte . 
suavis . . 
Suecicus . 
superba . 



superbus 



supei'cilioBus 



Surinamensis 



Swainsoni 



Sylphia . 
syrmatophorus 

Temmincki 



TendaU . 
tephrocephala 



1 
J 



210 

PAGE 

Aphantochroa cirrhoch-oris 65 

Calothorax cyanopogon 91 

Eriocnemis cupreiyentris , . . . . 144 
Selasphorus rufus ........ 

Cynanthus Mecca 103 

Chlorostilbon chrysogaster ; .... 1 78 
Eucepliala smaragdo-eairulea .... 166 
Metalluva smaragdinicoUis 112 

Cynanthus Mocoa . .103 

Eucepbala smaragdo-c^rulea . . . .166 

Hylocharis cyanea, BeicJienb. 

Saucerottia Sophise 162 

Pli£coptila sordida . . , 169 

+ 

4. 

Cometes sparganurus . . . ... . .103 

Sr)atliura Underwoodi . . . . . . ICO 

Heliangelus Spencei . .'.■.',. . 132 

Grypus Spixi .35 

Campylop ter us splendens ..... 53 

CamjDylopterus Villavicencio .... 63 

Leadbeatera splendens ...... 74 

Not determined. 

Pliaetliornis squalidus . . . . . . 46 

Phaethornis squalidus .... . . 45 

Eriocnemis squamata . 146 

Lepidolarynx mesoleucus . . . . . 140 

Grypus na^vius . . . .... . . 35 

Lepidolarynx mesoleucus . . . . . 140 

Eamphomicron Stanleyi 109 

Aithurus polytmus . . . . . . . 75 

Panychlora stenura ....... 180 

Eustephanus Stokesi . . . . . . . 142 

Not determined. 

Pygmornis striigularis . ' . . ' . . ' . 4S 

^ _ 

Heliangelus strophianus . . . .. . .132 

Lophornis magnificus . . ' . .'.'.. 83 
Heliomaster Stuartai . . . ... . 138 

Pyrrhophixna Eiefferi ... . . . 1 58 

Trochilus Alexandri 87 

Augastes scutatus 123 

Heliomaster longirostris ..... 1-38 

Augastes scutatus . . ... . . .123 

Heliomaster longirostris . ' . . . " . . 138 
Phaethornis superciliosus . . . . . 45 

Phaethornis malaris ....... 41 

Phaethornis Pretrei . . ' 45 

Glaucis hirsuta 38 

Elorisuga mellivora .80 

Threnetes leucurus . . . . . . . 40 

TopazaPella 62 

Sporadinus elegans , 173 

Doricha enicm'a ........ 95 

Lesbia Gouidi . . . .' 101 

Phaethornis syrmatophorus .... 42 

Lepidolarynx mesoleucus 140 

Pterophanes Temmincki 105 

Calothorax, Reichenh. 

Thaumatias albiventris 153 



. TJ 



i I 

-, P 



I 



211 



4 

i 



t 



teplirocephalus 
thalassina 
thalassinus . 



PAGE 
153 

125 



125 



ThalW Gould,'" Beich. 
Thaumantias . . . 



Thaumatias albiventris . , . . . 

Petasophora thalassina 

Petasophora Anais ^ 124 

Petasophora thalassina 

Unknown to me. 

Polytmus yirescens .....•• ^^-^ 

Thaumatias Linnaii . . . . . • • 1^^ 
Thaumatias albiventris ...... 



153 
127 



Not determined. 



135 



Thaumatias . _ . 

Theresiee Chrysobronchus viridicaudus 

Polytmus viridissimus . . .... 127 

Tobaci • • • • 1 ' .. x* • l^'^ 

Tobagensis . - . ^ Thaumatias Lmnsdi i^)^ 

Tobago . . 
Tomineo, GmeL 

torquata Bourcieria torquata . . 

torquatus, Shaw . . Not determined, 
tricolopha .... Prymnacantha Popelairei 

tricolor Selasphorus platycercus . 

tristis ...... Patagona gigas . -- ■- 

Tschudii Thalurania Tschudii . , 

Turneri Leucippus chionogaster . . ,. . . .150 

typica . ..... Lampropygia coeligena - ... . . l^b 

Helianthea typica . . 

Saucerottia typica . . 

Juliamyia typica . , 

Myiabeillia typica . 

typicua ..... Saucerottia typica . 

typus Phaethornis Q-uyi 

tyrianthina 



89 
127 

78 



130 
162 

168 

119 

162 

44 



tyrianthinus . 
Underwoodi . 
urochrysa. .' 

uroclirysia . 
uropygialis . 

varius, GmeL 
ve^.ililabrum . 

venusta 
venustissimus 



Metallura tyrianthina 112 

Spathura Underwoodi 99 

I Chalybura urochrysia . ' 72 

. Eriocnemis vestita . 145 

. Not determined. ... 

. Spathxira Underwoodi 99 

, Thalurania venusta . 78 

68 



Eulampis jugularis 



. . . ... 123 

. .... . 65 

Polemistria Verreausi 85 

Cephalepis Delalandi . . , . . . .118 
Thaumatias brevirostris .153 

verticalis Cyanomyia cyanocephala . , . . . .147 

Cyanomyia quadricolor , 147 



venustus ..... Augastes scutatus . . 
Veraguensis .... Lampornis Veraguensis 

Verreauxi . . . . 
versicolor .... 



94 

145 



verticeps Thalurania verticeps 

vesper 1 jj^odopis vespera . , 

vespera .... J 

vestinigra Eriocnemis nigrivestis ^ 

vestita Eriocnemis cupreiventris 144 

Eriocnemis vestita . .145 

vestitus Eriocnemis vestita 145 

Victorias Lesbia Amaryllis 101 

Vieilloti Polemistria chalybea ....... 85 

Mellisuga minima 87 

Vieillotii . , . . . Petasophora serrirostris . ^ 124 

Villaviscensio . . . Campylopterus Villavicencio . . . , 63 

villosus Phaethornis Oseryi 43 

viola ...... Heliotrypha viola 131 

violacea ..... | Eulampis j ugularis 68 



^ 



X 



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t 



I) 



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fhi 



violicauda 

violiceps 

violifer 

violifera 

violifrons 



virescens 



virginalis 
viridans . 
viridescens 
viridicaudata 
viridicaudus 



viridiceps . 

viridigaster 

viridigastra 

viridipallens 

viridipectus 



viridis 



riridissima 



viridissimus 



viridiventris 
Vulcani , 
vulgaris . 
Wagleri . 
Warszewiczii 



Watertoni 
Wiedi . . 
Williami , 
Wilsoni . 
Xantusi . 
Yarrelli . 
Yarugui . 
Yaruqui . 
Yucatanensis 
Zantusi 



zonura 




212 

PAGE 

Lampornis Mango 64 

Cyanomyia violiceps I47 

Helianthea violifera .. ,. . , ,131 

Heliothrix violifrons 122 

Doryfera Johannse , 71 

Poly tmus viridissimus 127 

Polytmus virescens • 126 

Lampornis virginalis .... . . . 66 

Aithvirus polytmus 76 

Polytmus virescens . -. 126 

Pygmornis Aspasiae .47 

Polytmus viridissimus ...... 127 

Thaumatias viridiceps 152 

Pyrrhophsena viridigaster 159 

Delattria viridipallens 60 

Thalurania nigrofasciata 78 

Thaumatias Linn^ei .... . , .154 

Polytmus virescens ..... . . 126 

Polytmus viridissimus . . .... 127 

Lampornis viridis 66 

Thaumatias Linnsei . . ..... 153 

Polytmus viridissimus ...... 127 

Thaumatias Linncei 154 

Chlorostilbon prasinus • . -. . . .176 
Pyrrhophsena viridigaster ..... 159 

Eamphomicron Vulcani 109 

Leucochloris albicollis 151 

Thalurania ? Wagleri . 79 

Diphlogsena Axirora . . ... . . 134 

Saucerottia Warszewiczi 163 

Thalurania Watertoni 76 

Eucephala cyanogenys .167 

Metallura Williami 112 

Lampropygia Wilsoni 137 

Heliopascfica Xantusi . . . . . , . 61 
Myrtis Yarrelli 93 

Phaethornis Yaruqui 44 

Pyrrhophsena Yucatanensis 157 

Heliopsedica Xantusi .,,.•.. 61 

Trypha^na Duponti ■ 97 

Phaeoptila zonura 170 

Pygmornis zonura , ■ 47 

^ 



Cambrid«?e University library. 

On permen^nt d^poHt from 

tha Botany School 



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PROSPECTUS 



> k 



OF THE WORKS 



ON 



ORNITHOLOGY, 



AND ON 



THE 



MAMMALIA. OF 



AUSTilALIA, 



BY 



JOHN GOULD, P.U.S., ETC. 



I 



^ 



I 



1 



r 



- t 



I 



All tlie Author's works are in Imperial Folio, forming a regular 
series. They are — 

I A CENTURY OF BIRDS FROM THE HIMALAYA MOUI^ 



TAINS. 



80 Plates, witli 



1 Vol. Imperial Folio, containing 

- • --^ ■ - ' London 18o^. 



descriptive letter-press. Price £14 14s. 

This work of wliich no copies remain, was commenced in Jaimaiy 
isk anTcompletld Tn August 1832. It contains fi^aues and descriptions 
of 100 Birds rSO Plates which were at that time either new or very im- 
perfectly known. . 

TI THE BIRDS OF EUROPE. 5 Vols. Imperial Folio com- 
■ prising 449 Plates, with descriptive letter-press, Introduction, 
&c. Price £76 8s. London 1837. 

The whole of the copies of this work have heen disposed of; and when 
anfonrSiemfs oZed for sale on the demise «f ^Subsmher, or to 
other causes it realizes considerahly more than its original cost. Ihus m 
?he years abound copy was soldfor £120, and an unboimd one reakzed 

£104. 



III. 



RAMPHASTIDtE 



OF TOUCANS. 1 Yol. Imperial Folio, containing Fifty-two 
Plates, with descriptive letter-press, &c. 



Price £12 12s. 



London 1854. 



An edition of this work was published in 1834 at the pnce oi J ^^ -- 
the extensive researches carried on during the ^^/^y^^'J^ytyfS.e^^^^^ 
the Great Andean Ranges of South A^nenca havmg led to t^e^^^^o^^^ 
of many additional and^eautiful species ^elo^g^^^ ^^t^^™^^ 
oTOup of Birds, a revision of the work not only ^^J^f ^"^^.".^^^^^^^ 
pntirelv new edition was deemed imperative This edition, compjismg 
eve?^^^^^^ spS with the whole of the Plates redrawn, and with an 
iSSn cLtaiAing much valuable -fo^^^-j/^-jf ^^«^ ^- 
thentic sources, was published m 1854 at the price of £12 12s. 

The historv of this South American group is very pecuhar; and their 
manners and actions are as remarkable as their aspect ; m some respect^ 
remiding us of the Hornbills of India and Africa, while m others they 
are imlike those of any other group. 



\W 



'- ^v -- 




I-L 

i 



214 



l! L 



I 



p, I 



I 



I 



IV. A MONOGRAPH OF THE TROGONID^, OR FAMILY 

OF TROGONS, I Yol. Imperial Folio, containing Thirty-six 
PlateSj with descriptive letter-press. Price <£8. London 1838. 

This.workj like the Monograph of the Toucans^ comprises the history 
and figures of all the species of the group known up to the date of pub- 
lication. The memhers of the Trogonidse are remarkable for a gorgeous 
stvle of colouring^ for their recluse habits, and for the union of insect 
diet with such aliments as fruits and berries, in accordance with which 
the beak is modified ; they are divided between the warmer latitudes of 
-America^ India, and the adjacent islands, with the exception of one 
species^ which is peculiar to Africa. 

The same reasons Avhich induced the Author to publish a new edition 
of the Monograph of the Ramphastidae, have also rendered another edi- 
tion of this Monograph desirable ; and accordingly one is now in prepa- 
ration, comprising all the new species and information acquired respectmg 
this family of birds during the last twenty j^ears. It will be completed in 
four PartS; price £3 Ss, each^ the first of which is now ready for delivery. 

Y. THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 7 Yolumes, Imperial Folio, 
containing Figures of 600 species, M^th descriptive letter-press 
and a large amount of Introductory matter. Price ^115. 
London 1848. 

This work was originally published in Thirty-six Parts, each contain- 
ing Seventeen Plates with descriptive letter-press, at the price of Three 
Guineas each Part, Avith the exception of the Thirty-sixth^ the price of 
which, in consequence of the large amount of introductory matter, is 

£4 125. 

The Birds of Australia, comprised in seven handsome folio volumes, is 

considered by the Author as the most important and original work which 
he has yet published. It contains the Ornithology of one vast portion of 
the gloioe, and that portion of no small importance in whatever point of 
view it be considered. Impressed with the necessity of rendering this 
tribnte to science- Worthy of acceptation, the Author left England for 
Australia in May 1838 ; and after remaining there for two years in order 
to study the habits and manners of the birds and quadrupeds, he returned 
with a ^reat amount of novel, strange, and interesting facts. The habits 
of the Bower-birds, the Mound-makers (Tale ff alia, Leipoa, Sic), and of 
the Lyre-bird, when made known, were deemed especially marvellous ; 
but every statement has been subsequently confirmed to the letter. To 
dilate upon the peculiarities of the Fauna and Flora of Australia is not the 
Author's present aim. Suffice it to say, he has endeavoured to the utmost 
to do justice in this work to its Ornithology ; and so well have his labours 
been received, that very few copies of this great work remain on his hands 
for disposal, and ere long, like the ^^ Birds of Em^ope," they will be at a 

premium. 

As the at present unexplored portions of Australia become more and 
more known, additional species of birds will doubtless be discovered, ren- 
dering a Supplement to the*work necessary, in order to keep the subject 
complete ; and this will be issued in Parts as a sufficient number of novel- 
ties come to hand : thus, a portion of the new and interesting species lately 
brought home by the naturalist and officers of several of H.M. surveying 
ships, and some derived from other sources, have appeared under the title 
of "Birds of Australia," Supplement, Parts I., IL, III., price £3 3^. each ; 
and any other novelties that may arrive will in like manner be published, 
and when a sufficient number of parts to form a volume have been issued, 
£i. Title-naare and every other reauisite will be sunnlied, ^ * 




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YI. A MONOGRAPH OF THE ODONTOPHOEm^, OR PAR- 
TRIDGES OF AMERICA. 1 Vol. Imperial Folio, containing 
Thirty-two Plates, with descriptive letter-press. Price .£8 8s. 
London 1850. 

r 

The interest wliicli attaches to this work is threefold. First^ it displays^ 
even to the most unpractised eye, the broad distinction which subsists 
between the Partridges of America and those of Europe ; secondly, the 
species are all remarkable for the elegance of their forms and for the chaste 
beauty of their colouring ; and thirdly, at no distant date these Birds will 
doubtless be regarded in America as our Pai'tridges in Europe are, as 
jame, and perhaps preserved by law — their flesh being as delicate for the 
table as that of our ordinary bird, from which, however, they differ con- 
siderably in the structure of the beak; and in their habits and economy. 

YII. THE BIEDS OF ASIA. 

To no portion of the globe does there attach so much interest as to that 
vast extent of the Old World which we designate Asia. It is there that 
all the productions of nature essential to the well-being of man occur in 
the greatest abundance. The most important of our domestic quadrupeds, 
the most valuable and interesting of our domestic Gallinaceous birds, were 
first reclaimed in Asia. That the Zoology, then, of such a country should 
have called forth the notice and study of able minds cannot be surprising ; 
and yet it is remarkable that no one has attempted a work comprehending 
a general history of its Ornithology. This hiatus in Ornithological 
literature the Author proposes to fill up by publishing a work on "The 
Birds of Asia," precisely similar in every respect to his former works on 
"The Birds of Europe" and "The Birds of Australia." Its size and 
manner of execution will be the same ; and it will be published in Parts, 
price Three Guineas each. 

Of this work thirteen Parts are published ; and for the present it will 
appear at the rate of not more than one or two Parts a year. 

V 

VIII. A MONOGEAPH OF THE TEOCHILID^, OE HUM- 
MING-BIEDS. 

Having from an early period devoted himself to the study of these 
beautiful birds, and having acquired a most valuable and extensive collec- 
tion of §i group essentially peculiar to America and its adjacent islands, 
the Author determined upon publishing^ a Monograph of a family unequalled 
for the goi'geous and ever-changing brilliancy of their hues, the variety of 
their form, the singularity of their habits, and the extent of their territorial 
distribution. Anxious to render his representations of these lovely objects 
as faithful as possible, the Author instituted a series of experiments upon 
a new mode of colouring, which has been so far successful, that the birds 



are as closely imitated as art can hope to see accomplished ; he has also 
endeavoured, as far as possible, to associate them with the plants of its 
own region, thereby adding an additional charm to a work which he 
trusts will be equally acceptable to the artist and the lover of natm^e, 
and which has been so successful that it bids fair to be the most popular 
of his productions. 

This Monograph is now complete in 25 Parts, forming five volumes 
in which 360 species are figured : 24 of these parts contain Fifteen Plates 
each, with descriptive letter-press, and the 25th Title-pages, Introduction 
&c. The price of each part is £3 35. The copies remaining unsubscribed 
for may be had complete, or for the convenience of future subscribers at 
the rate of 5 Parts a year, commencing with January 1862^ in which case 



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-J X ^ - - 



F^ -1-^ 



216 



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tliey will be required to complete tlieir copies, as an equal number of 
all the Parts have been printed, and the drawings effaced from the stones ; 
this work, therefore, like its predecessors, will shortly become scarce. 

IX ICONES AVIUM, or Figures and Descriptions of new and 
* interesting Species of Birds from various Parts of the World, 
• forming a Supplement to the Author's other Works. 

The obiect of this Work is explained in the Title : it will be issuedas 
novelties of interest occm-, in Imperial Folio Parts containmg ten species 
with descriptive letter-press, price £1 15s. each. Two Parts have been 
published, one in 1837, the other m 1838. 

X. THE MAMMALS OF AUSTEALIA. 

The Author's visit to Australia having enabled him to procme much 
valuable information respecting the habits and economy, and many new 
species, of the singular and interesting Mammalia of that country, he has 
determined upon publishing a work on the subject. With respect to the 
importance of such a work no doubt can exist ; and as the Author is 
deeply impressed with this idea, so will he endeavour to render at equal 

to its associate publication on the Ornithology of tl^^^T'S,' '^3^ 

In its execution this work will be .precisely similar to the |'Birds^ and 

wiU be completed in Thirteen or Fourteen Parts, each contaimng lilteen 

Plates, price £3 3s. each. -, ■ i ■, -i 

Twelve parts have been published, and have been so high y approved 
of, that by many they are regarded as more mterestmg than the ±5ircls 
The Thirteenth Part is now in preparation, and the work is consequently 
•approaching its close. 

^' 

J ^ 
J 

The Author begs to add that, when possible, he will be happy to 
perfect any sets at present incomplete, upon the possessors commu- 
T,ic«tin£? to him at the following address their wish on the subject. 



I - 



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LONDON: PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR AT 26 CHAKLOTTE 

STREET, BEDFORD SQUARE, W.C. 



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September 1, 1861 



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