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Full text of "Guide for discussion leaders"

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Discussion 
Lead^s 



"-A 



COPYRIGHT 1944 

BY THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 



Tlii& paniplklet is one of j tLcries niadt' iivailalile hy llie War 
De|ifitrtiiK;jit (ind<,'T ihc ftcrius- lilU' G. L Rf'arnitabir, As tlif 
general tillc iniliiritlee, G. /- Rvtiiu!tablr [junifjhlt^tt^ provide 
mnterinl wliicJi orienlation. aad efhictttion (>f1icers inny use in 
eandiirtinfr proup ^lTP<.*nftf=ifinfri nr r<iri]iiie afl part of an ofF-rlntj' 
education pro^r^m. 

The conlfint of eadi puinjjhltrt has hem approved by tlic Hiti- 
loHeaE Servi<"e B*>arrl of the Ann'riH:an Hfptnrical AfipocJaHon. 



tt AR DEPARTMENT 

WnsSiin^rinn 25, D, C, 26 Jiiiie 1944. 

EM 1^ C /x RoiindiabU-c Guide jftr Dinrnssirtn F.^*^ticr,-i is puh- 
lifihed for the information of ull eom'emrd, 
[A.G. 3W).7 (26 June 44)] 

BV UHDKK OK I HK yKCRKTARl OK WAR: 

G. C MARSHALL. 

Chief of Staff. 

OFFICIAL J 

J- A, I LIO, 

Major Ccnrrnl 

Thp Mdjniani G^'ntTfil. 

DISTRIBUTION: X 

(Acliliiioiial ropiris ^linulrl he refriiipitinitefl froiii USAFI, Madi* 

son, Wief^oii^iii, or Tienrest Over&<ia Braiuli. i 



Guide for 
Discussion Leaders 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

L VVhy discussion groupE in the Army? 1 

II. Stimulating inter'eftt. ,..,,,..... t 7 

III. Choosing aubfects i. H 

IV. IHow to l«ad dlttus»ion 13 

1 . Informal diituiiiort group, . _ . . _ , . 14 

a. Pan-*1 df«UMlan :23 

3, S[ngl8-ip«aker forum - 34 

4- DI<l|O0U* , . _ . 4. 4. 1 4 « 4 4.W ■ I ■ , - I- 4 ■ - - I L 36 

5. SKmpgilum . . ^ > ^7 

i. Debala 7? 

7. Qu«*1lqn box 39 

V. Gr«iip dltc^Bii^n in Itolot^d uhtfi r r m,. ^^ 

VI* Checlcins th« results 4 S2 

VIL Reference mci'terials 34 



GUIDE FOR DISCUSSION LEADERS 



^ "f ^ 



I. Why discussion groups in the Army? 

Ohfp ie an Antij' of citizens Iraiiied mi democratic ways. It Ib 
riiadf.- up i}i mm] ^iluraleJ nl {nihViv rs^^lioolb <iiiij univemtiea^ 
fisperi<:iice-d in liusiateea and profesBionn] life, accu^tonietl to 
r^iulin;^ ncw£pap«^rfl and maf^Azuies and to Jra^in^ ^nt Iji>i:>k6 
from public libjflrjee. TJicy li-av^ Jislenc-il lo rallio oOmrii^titatO^^S, 
attended and taken jjart in fonimST signed pcUtio»J$, m^ri joined 
caus^. Tb^y are Anieri^^n erlizen^ who ^^^ used to asking 
rpiestione and to holding opinions alionl everyihin^ th-al touches 
lli<?ir hvcp, 

Whether llieir o|)iiiii>nd »re weU roimdecj or uot^^ tliey exprt^s 
th«an freely. To llit? extent tlant thpy do not have facts from 
whicli !o draw concliigions, llicir opinioiis are intely lo be un* 
Houiid. If thej lack facts, their morale may be weakened hy 
LLiLcer Lai lily tilimit the |airp02^ei<i and proltahle regiiltfi of the com- 
bat for which they are so highly trained. 

One of the most effective ways of making it po&sihJc for men 
lo ptl at llie facia and lo prepare themr^elvert for ihe problems 
ihat await them ab -i-itiKenH after the wa.r is to ntake it poBsible 
for them to take part in informal discns^ion ^oiipe or forums. 
Such (liseussioiir! afford a chance In cherk information and to 
compare aiid leM OliJ opiljiiniS- 

This pftmjdilet tells how to ttr^^vi'ize dif^cussion groiipr^ fihd 
forums thai will serve thi* impnTrnnt educational piirpfwie, 

I 



Tli<^ objertjref* of a iliwusfti-on program in llift Army uTti 
i. To fiiriiieh infumiLiJioiii, tkol otlierivi.^« ;iVcMLljk}>le Lra troops, 
on intemtilJoiiHl, iktttionj^l, r<>iiu]jtiiijly, aji<I persoiml |tcob- 

2, To tr^m intn in <Iemocr^1k mClhc-ds of sliidying and eolv- 
ing community^ »atio»iiil, and inieniatiun^l probieme, 

5. To offer men opportunity for orderly (-iKoliautErf^ and adjuat- 
mciit of individital opinions on public jesues of contempo- 
rary inip^rtani.'*'. 

4. To Eitreii^tlien ninralc by aH^ivliiifi; men lo ret-o^iizo, ana- 
iyze^ and iindert^tanil probleiiie tbal otLt«rwisL' may trouble 
and ronfuH-t: iliem^ 

Warning? It is important thai :»ll f»ffirerp wlip ^rr piv^n or 
who aaautne respoiu^ibilily For ori^anrzin^ or for leanlin^ Army 
discussions interpret tbe tliinl nbjectivu wttli tMire. in pbni^in^ 
tliie olijc'clive ibo t^mpbasis lias hotn pJy*u'J di'labt'ralfly upmi 
indivuluai opinioni;. U h desirnl ibat offiitially eonjueted off- 
duty diftriiKSionH jillejnpl neidier lo iTidot'lrinate men willi a 
parti<udar puint of view nor lu Teail them to any type of at^tion 
flU4!b aa pa^iiing; resolutiuii?-^ iitjtialin|^ pt^lition^ or otli-t^rwise 
crystallizing a group opinion. The purpose of ilie nn^etin^ 
gbouh] be that of olTerinfr infirrni-ation and providiiifr opportunity 
for study. The leader fihonid nteel his proiip wiib ibe attitude 
of an educator, rjoi with ibal of a propagaiidiBl. 

IL Stimulating interest 

For «>nic lime discuefiicin .pjonpp nnd fonjme of one type or 
another bave be?n an active part of oJf'duty eduralion in many 
Army Ciimps and comniynds. The ?iiccc&5 and per^islt^nct^ of 
many of the^c ^roiL]i-^ Tnal^e it abviuUK Lbul llii^ i^ n kiiul of 
ai!»ivity in wbieh many Artny men are iuLGrested. Reeeareh 
studies within ibe Army have found pergonneJ to be (equally 
iniere^ted in di&eussin^ problems related tf» the war and prob- 
lems related In the home front. 



It is to be expected- howrvi?r, ihat a relatively HTual! propor- 
tion of any organization will show euBtained interest in nrgan^ 
ized di&cusflion us a phase of the off-dnly edui^otional prugram* 
For those who are intereeled^ there is no better way of strenglh- 
ening their iin Jeretanding <>r the war ami conaequently their 
morale tlian by mental exerciBe on aigjiificaul and w^i^tli-while 
questions. Their min-de, in any case, will be in<]iiinTL;£ und activ*. 
ThifikiJi^ troiibleEoni? probleniB thronf^b wiU felr^njitheii their 
^uQ^] iniiriil4?- Thai, in tuni, i^ Kkely to h&t^ome conta^ouB and 
to hftve fi ^oo-fl effef^t up<»ih the OLorale of otht^r^ who da not join 
in the dm-uBsioTi ^ronpa. 

Any military personnel may waul to join vnluiiiary -diseuas-ion: 
nffit'iirw, warrant oRirers, enliwied men, WAC |jerdonnel, or nurKi?-», 
Groups niaife np of all these clae&ea of indiTiduale have heen 
BcicceBsfully organized. The decision whelhirr tu limit attendance 
lo one or niorr nf thej<ri^ Har^Ke^ muftt be made in li^ht of local 
i;on(l]tJonri wilhin tlie t:oniniand. It ia not inipikMr^ihle af^i thctt 
civilians who work and live a\ an Amiy po*l may want to join 
in organized diftcnwaion- In ni«sl inHiaitres, it is preferable for 
llieni In have llitrir own group; Ijiit a^ain in ihis matlt^r the local 
Bttnation will rule, ^'hiilevcr drcieion is niadt: to limit attend- 
ance should bo Laken wiKb die purpose of <:r^aling favorable 
ccjodilhrtiB for freedom and informality in. dis<;n5sion. 

To organize .1 ftuccept^fid ^^is^'lfwion pr^np it id CMcnttal ^f* 
delermiiie, iir&t, tli'^ quewtionB iHal the men will w^inl to diemwa. 
The J^pt^'ial interests of the men at the time of i»rganizinrr tlie 
fir.^t ineelingB in particular nhust be taken into account. Rpohote 
and acadcfiaic topics will misfire; topics of inimcdrate con-ct^m 
to llu' m(?n will enahle ihe leader lo rearh liia objective, (See 
SecMon Til, Choosing eubjei^ts.) 

An.oflicer responsible for organizing a voJiuitary diseusfliou 
group is advjecd to do more tlian annniince that at 1930 on 
Tlmrsday tlmre will he a meeting of inlere&ted personnel to 
nrganizt* diNc:nj«fiinmi nf cum^nl and postwar isenes. The leader 
or sponsor of the p^np shoidil do ^nme spade work iirat^ The 




FIRST DO SOME SPADE WORK 



fullimaii^ (kvi^-^.-Ei wjJI }n-l|> Jiliii 'it-u-riktiiiv lfc*jw mi^ij^ l>tTf^nj^ 
are iiileresleiJ aiaiJ -wliul riiihjci'lr^ lli^^y w(hi3M Jike 1o l^ilk :i)>oiiL 

be (Tuickly g>r^-jjLLn.Ml mml iiiijijc<>^riij^|ji.-4i. Il f^lioiilU <'ont;iiT» Iwn 
ty}>eE^ nf (|iieMii>iJi^. I'lhc hrEsL will iiu|uiri; wIji^IIk^p llie luoii aire 
i]ik-n.':sl(^d ill an irjrjHirlitiaih lo ilif^L^iie^ under tnfurincil IrailcTe 
eiibjeclti having In ilfi ^villi war mttl ji-i»^lnar jirul) kiii-.^ : wtietlit^r 
they would |>n'rer In hear un e\|5erl j^^avt a short tnik on llic 
pnddeja^ In lie IVdlo-^vci] h^ qiii-siioii^: or >vheiht-r ihey wii-iihl 
prefer siniply lo hriir s^iei-iLd leiiiirers. The wi'ond type nf t\i\e^ 
tioji Vk^ill eEideiivnr lu dir^riiver iJili-rerils ni ^iterlfir r|ijestioiiti. 
Three v^ayn^ of ireuiii^ ihL-* iiiriiriniiliriti nn- .'^iij^jieslciL Oin^ i^ to 
let ihe men iimkr ;i free rlioire hy wriliiiw ihe ?4iil>jerls* ihey 
w-onid choose oii t^everjl Idiiiik tiiie>« ruMowinu j HhitenienI liko: 
■■'On t]iv Viiu^A liclin-^ urilc \ln^ ^iidfjrrr," whli-h y^tn nnidd (iki^ 
Lo disruKT^," A seroiid \\:9) iy In li^iit a du^^eii or ttK^ro .-^iibJrL-l!^ 

4 



. I 



CAMP X 
Current Affairs Forum Questiounaire 
It ie propcwed to organize a current affairs forum or dia- 
cuseion gtoup for interested personnel to meet one evening 
a week. You can assist the officer in charge to plan a pro- 
gram of th^ greatest interest to the greatest number of men 
by checking the answers to the questions below; 

L Would you like to know more about current affairs? 
yea □ no n 

2. Which of the follovring melhoda of learning aboui current affaira 
would you prefer? Chetk one. 

n Speech by an authority, followed by queadon period. 

G Speech by an autborily, without a question period. 

Q Informal diacuesion of current affaire under trained leaders. 

3. Check below three subjects which you personally would be most 
interested to discuss or to hear discussed: 

National Affairs: Jnternational Problems: 

□ Plans for postwar employ- D Colonial policies 

ment D Lend-lease 

□ Problems of small business □ Price of lasting peace 

□ Social security □ Propaganda in wartime 
Q Universal military training 

Personal Affairs: Enemies: 

G Educational opporlunilies fur Q Germany 

ftoldiers D Japan 

D Marriai^e in wartime d What aboul the War Crim- 

\^ Effect of working wives on inale? 

postwar employment 

Allie-*: 
Q Russia 
n China 

n Britain and the British 
n France 
G Balkans 
4'. Suggest below .^uhjectri in wbii:b you are interested but which 
have not been mentioned under item No, 3: 



( Namr ) 
(Grade and Organization) 



FIGURE I. 

5 



eelefted from aTnoiig ijiternalionr^h national* community, and 
prreoiial prolileintt. After t^ach euhjtxl a blank ie |>rovi43ed, Tlie 
inatmi^lion accompanying: the Iret should t^t^h tht^l from three 
to five choices be checked, A third vay is to coTiibine ihe fwo 
li^eLh<ida ahove. Below the chei^k list the man may he aeked to 
write ATI blank hnes any enhjeet in which he n interested, but 
whit^h ha? not heen iiieliideJ in the liat. For a BuggeeH?d quea- 
tionnaiTo see Figure 1. 




Tlie leader (officer or (?nlisied man \ |>re|>arirtp the qne^^tion- 
nairc will deride- whellier lie wil] pel more i>iitheijltc infornialion 
from the nhen hy having the cj un^eti on n aires iinsi^ned. The disad- 
vnnlu^e of iiJ^iiig unsized qitesitiojiiijiire^ ir^ that au opportunity 
i* lost to eecure the name» of interested individualB. 

2, Announeem^'nl: Once the plan^ for hohljn^ a meeting are 
made, interest may he ttliimdaled or m-iintiiined by ajinounce- 
menlB iu the camp newBpaper, over the loc^I hroaih-astiufr sys- 
tem, on «]idi.^$ dnrhig^ movie showings, or at forni^tivns. Such 
annouiieenierUs ar-e useful whether they deal viilh preliminary 
meetings to determine ^roup intereslj^ orwilli information about 
the lime, place, and snhjet-t of a S|>ei^ific discussion ihat has been 
decided upon. 

3» BulleliJi koarils: An ohvione vay to ^timiilale interef^t in 
discussion j;roup5 — proposed or abeady funrlioniug — is to 
maintain well-located bullelin boards. Poster?, niapa, newspaper 
clippingft, and photographs should he effectively arranged, A 
clearly printed heading which give* the discussion subject can 
he uscA to tie the whole exhibit together. 



Aiiutlicr Ifullehii Jioanl device as ta nidkc ii litil of inlri^j^uin^ 
qit^^hojie ^vhit'li arc huiainl lo cviue ii|j ilurisij; ihv difiriist^joiu 
Arr^iigt ittf^ni immI^t soiiu? sutJi he«(-(|iiig ae '^Po ypu ever witii- 

dcT - — ?'' and plat*? j j^Id^^t heltiw like **C'>me 10 iind giel 

the aiiawer^." 

Material on bulletin bourclfl ^]ioii]i1 be repil^r])^ -t'haiiijecL 
Biall^liii hourrlg on wliij^h c^hihils arc Jiol 4.'on^tai]t]y oliihn^^^ 
arc of Jio viihie wlf^iii^iirvt^n 

Yoii ilo iiol huMV- \o (Ji&t^jirjl llie itleu of |><JHten; anil m;i|it; 
because yrui fr^ii]>oi rer]tiisili<kik |Ik?iii. Honaeinade otiee- -thtTc'e 
at least one fair :irlEKl in every nntiil — uri* oFtrji niorp iiitereet- 
pro-vokiii|x lliiiii profe^^iocinl jtroiliietions. Every uf^^re^^tiuii of 
men foJJow^ with jnterest ihe rrcutioiiK of Jts members. 

4- Moviei^; Filing lalinwii in ibc Ansiy often leave iinanftwerefl 
qiif^tiont^ in the jniiiil^ itf die umlieiire. Tlie le^^lcr <^^n c-ap^tsJize 
upon lliet^e by l>niin|r tin- iliHCUt^duin uf n ]>artioijlar i^Eie ini- 
mediulely sifaer llio t^liiiwiiif- nr u t^liinnLitin^ filui. For exjiinple, 
'The Baille dT Knfiftia" in tin- ''W]iy We Figlit" fcerieji nia\ stimu- 
late a livrJy ilisin^jo]! uii ihn |nislWLir ;»H|>ir;ilions of llie U^S.S^R. 



r-^ 




ONt GOOD ARTIST 
IN EVERY OUTPIT 



-^^^ 







Fdfl^ 



MOVIES OniN LEAVE UriAN^WERED QUESTIONS 
IN THE MINDS Of 1HE AUDIENCE . . . 

Similarly G, L Movie releaw^rt often jtroviilc |jn>vocative dip- 
nisfion rriiiJ.irriul; G> I. I\1i>vir J^elea^e No. 15 4-<>-nlniiir^ a ^^L'ticm 
iiJIi^d ''Tlir Duli'li TriLJilJou/' A^hidi mny Ij»^ "f*iid si* ^ Bl^it-ting 
potJil lor Lalkijj|^ ov^t wluit i^luMjlfl l>& ilfitu^ ^ihoiit r-oloiii^.'s in thit 

5. Exliibil:^ of liouk^ unil periiulH<al?i: LibriiTJuJiH- kno^ how 
Id ;4rranur rvlill->i|s for liic piirjiot^e of ^iji^^ostin;^ rciHlilii^ In llit' 
jneii. Shrtilitr eitlii]>il:^ reLiteil lo ii Buhjerl rlu»s«i for di^iLsbioii 
may he arrmif^^ed Uv the leader with lln^ Iielp fif a ItJiraridti aiiil 
ran l>e tsel up id eirlitr library or fler\ire i-liib- By siigt^twling 
preliniTiiury ^r:£ll1i]l^^ i'\]taliilf^ will not i>iily ^l.iimilatc in1.er<^l in 
tin :iiniiiii]irt;il Jitii^ii^r^ioii, but will also load ti> niort julornied 
di»riie.siGn on tb(^ pari of g^ronp nK'mJHThf wbo do eouie read- 
ing. The exhibil^ \UmI in whli dtM-n.s[^i(Mi pbin^ by inran^ of atl 
iirreelin^ |n>r4l<'r ar r;ml, inn br iFt^rd rrlbtT lo |jrniitfhlt- llir idejt 
of ^ronj^ diK:ii.'^ioii or it parliridiir iiifl'<'hPi^; llm' bii^* botii an- 



iiciiincc^d- Tlie aflvanlagefl of library or service eluli eKhibits of 
Jiflokg and period ir.i Is arc two. These esliihils are fleeii by ]arp« 
numbers of men when thejr niiiuU are relaxed ajid receptive. 
Second — itnd llirs h purlicnlarly irue of libraiy cxhihiu — ihey 
are seen by officers ami men wlio have sufficient mldlcclnal 
interest lo search for reading niateTials. Among ihb type of 
personnel are foiinc) ihf ijnlivi(]ijiul:4 who will most de«ire U> 
take pari in disfwsgioii. 

6. OrganiKiti^ eoniniilleeB; EtiIict before promoting a vol- 
utitstry Jiaeiisflion gro-up or very soon after llie initial publicity^ 
it nt^iy be an evcelleiDt plan imdor mtnie ri renin stances- to invite 
a half dozt'n oHieerH mtti men to form an or^iniizin" ccknlmill(H^ 
The purpose of lifivinLr t^neli li coninnltiL'o is to start tht:* ^roiip 
off with ibe estnlilisbed policy of hbtvJiip memlier^ of the ^rthup 
delemtine their own progr;im, Mori* Hiislaiiied intereril in any 
vfiluittiiry ucl]viiy is often secured If ibe parljcipanis Lave a 
share in deciding ile nielhods and specific ohjcclivcs. The sug- 
gestion for the Indnsion of I>olIi officers and cnli^icd men is 
made becaiis*; it Uma been found by experien*^ thai free dis- 
CDSsion on a common ^onnd by both ^dd^ greatly to the inler- 
CBt in the activity. OfG.L-erH wbo join witli enlisl-ed men for this 
purpose must act as fellow irnpilrerK if the full benefit of such 
a joint activity is to be ntlained. 

Nalurally care muM he e^enified in the election of men in- 
vited to form ihe cuinmittee. Il is preferable to invite thci^^e 
wliii mav have already CAprensed InlereAi in ibe prograrn. it 
■will assist the work of the committee ]f (*ome of ihem have bad 
experience on similar committees in prof<;^ional, biiHine^:^, OT 
eonnnunily life. Each one ^should ideally have two ebaracter- 
ieties. Hi? intellecliial interests sKonld be aueb tbict be T<^iili&e« 
the impf>rtQni^e f>f a -ilixenry informed on pnbJic issues and lliat 
be iiiid^rr^i^rid^^ the vaJiK" of diEcu^sjoji n^ a method of fttudy* 
HW p^r&onality ^honld be on« lliat %>ill eimhle him Ut ?^]l the 
program 1o other men willi ^hom he i? a»^J^ori<itcd. 



7i Peri^onul invilnlMiJig: LWiiHj h h po^sjhle to discover 
wJicil iriiiivldiJtiis are likely l«> have sj>CLi*ii intert-'Bt in foninis 
and dieciisBiuii groiij)g. Interesl fjiieHti^iiiridire:*. if sigjieJ, wiil 
give one clue, Cas-nal convcrsalion niiiy offer anolher. McmLera 
of audi a conimiltee as tliat [leacribeil iibovi.' &lionld be able tH> 
^ufjply niinic.3 of olher jjersojis aleo. Tlie nlli(;cr or cnl:glcd man 
wbo 18 or>;(]Tii»lng llic propriini woiiFd tlo wel3 lo jol down any 
oanies he ie iible to eeiriin; in iho ctiiinsr wf bi^ laorniiil eniitaets 
wilb i}th(^rrs. BoUi leader am] ruinmittee nieiuher^ ran .slinnilitte 
Ihteresl hi the ih(-eliiig» by i^^iiing {>rrji;onaJ iiivFljilione lo i^tteitd. 



111. Choosing subjects 

ChoDFiin^ RiibJETlK for fornm.^ i>r rlih^iiii^aion ^roiipN la a rrilreaT 
pari i»r <ir^£iiiizi]i^ llie Jtelivily, No naallt^r w}i;il njt-lJiod oft^eleel- 
ing siibj4^(-tf« is jdo|)UH^ it mIhmiIiJ ree^iiJl in :i ehoiee wbieh will 
hold llnf izroup together, Tbr liMiler may have tn jniml e|je(.'i*ii^ 
fiubjrcts wbidi \iv. persuiia.lly hclieves art^ iiiipor!;iru fur the men 
to disi'UJW. He shoiibl rcmcmlii^r. Iiowcvcr, lliiil he is. projuoliiig 
a voiimtary arliviiy. Hi- ne^^dis In iind siibjt-i:!^ ijj>oii whicli he 
cnn expect to ni^ke :i ftiiei^e^T^ful i^tarl. Once the ^roup is orgstii- 
izcd, he wiJI have the opportunity of aelliii|^ g-uhjects for which 
ihe iriemher^ — if .!)p|)roarbeil 'Void" diirinj; ibe drvrlDpincnt 
period — mi^bl cx|jress lillle rnthu^i^i^ni. 

One caution Ih to be (ihnerved m cboosinp snbjtctK No snhjert 
will le:ul to a Viduidkle rlitieussioii iinle^ Uie eK^^eiilial farts are 
jtviiihd)I<; to the ^roiijiL Limit, llienj. the rboice of Ruhj-ects either 
tn thowe for ivliirh itilnqualr- rcfiTiMire miiteriiils arr at b^nrl, or 
lo ihoRe fnr whirh .^ome available e?t|)erl can supply llie fartn aL 
the meeting, Uiileni? tbi» eaiiUon in- observed, JiBciieEiOij nieeL- 
infE^ srK: IJk-t-ly lo fail in tb^ir pnrpo^K; and may end .in hickertng 
iLaI ri^artft UipfaTorably upon nionifrr h foilowf* ihiit trivial and 
}ii|s;bly pers^tidl snlijeKM thiil mi^y l^ail la a ""'gripf: a&^ion'^ ^re 
1o l>r f!liidiou5;ly avoided. 

n 



1- Aiialvsi^ iif iiitrri>l i|iM>->htifrnii^'tirf^!^: Tlikimint' iiH|n»rt:uil 
iisr of \\\c (jii<>Miii:riJitrr ili^c-ritk'tJ cMrliir. In mimi iji;^ 1 In* ^ oti> 
for ijucj^lioiijii (-lic'L'knl ar liiiitcLl [iy \]tf riiL-ti. Ii \4jll \tf iK^lpriii 
to rearrange them iu tlie ortler t)( \}ii:(vTvncr. an iiidiciitcJ by 
Ihe ijumlier of votes rei-eivei.l Ity cacli. The liMtJcr can lliurt 
gel a Tow^U nicj ot llie peiieral inlerersi of lii."^ pnmj>- Tlie 
^)>e-citie i^iibjcrlj^ Ifrcf^rrpJ isiEt liel|f liiui ilrli-nniiie whether. 
ii] thi? niiiiii^ l3u' jji^ji iin^ mlrn'^t^'fl in rurrt'iiL \^iir ttr in |m>^I- 
Var iiiii"filr*>ntf, wliHfuT lliey \>'insl I" ilifiiiM :iijl>iiTlt^ tti uiili- 
Tar'y. leilrriKilioimL ii^)iiori;il. I'oiiuinini-ly. or |H'rH»ifciil inipi^rL 

All :ki]«llV-r^l^ i>\ lli<> sitI will lit^ ]ii-l|i| III jiisii Ut n t>Vt>'^rnw\ 

eun-miithH', lit u^iii*^ llu- :iii;i]vsi.^ ii t^ tuA ut-t-<^.^2\ty Ti^^ ilu^ 
leittl^r «»r Lis r.nnmilt*'-e, if lie \\i\^ one. In i-Iioo-^u^ l:lii>#e aiih- 
jpels ufhrfi li:i\*' fhr I.Tr»jrfil nuniln'^r af vohv. Tli.- d;i1^fe from 
the qiie-^liuiiiiJiFn.' iiijiy be iiscfJ riitVuT ^k ;i jruj^Jf ^^^ rji,* run^r 
oi iiilerf'jil lliey (3i!4|)Liv- The i-lioire nf <|iiej^!ioii^ for ili^'iit;- 
F«ioii must Inkc itilo arrinini I he ;i\:iibhi1iiy iif rrlerenei' 
jii^li'ri:^ fnr f^liirly. llii' i^rii'si'^rm* rii rhr riiiiiriKiiut oi' ^iiihil^le 
expjTlfi. Mu- jqjil^ineni (if' \\tv liMih'r :ir]d lii> ('"iiimiittee, rhe 
puhijcs of tJje coniiiJ;inilin^ ofRrer. ihe- lini^Jliu'-ris iif the juth- 
Jecta r4iitfj^^eJ*le(L iinfl ^iniilsir eoii*i'lenUiniJS_ 

2. Vrn-tmnt i-mnniUwr: ll ha- iilrrinly lieni sire^^il Hi^n 
iiUeresl itijiy he t^thitiil^ileil \t\ u^'vw^ iin i>r«£.^iiiiKiiif: i-flkiJiiiiillre. 
If d evmniiiU.'r le iit^ivL ilir hesl iviiy lo j]K<kr h i-ffiTlivf i.-* Iti 
five it Hir i^jiecliic juh of jihinniii;; ihr jtro^r:iin. iljc iiiiriw 
hcrtt ran eviiininn llit^ iliiUi ^-rcurril h> ll>c Icnih-r frciin ititen-j^l 
qiH'^1 11)1111 iiire^ uTtrl 4-;ui athl tlii'ir ii>ui iileas iihoiiF. lite (irffrr- 
etu'e»^ of Jiii'ii ulru arc Jikcly In iblH-iiil ihj^ ]ii4'i'Itii<^«. Vf iht' 
coiniiiittetr i^ r;ilU'(i hs^rcifn-r i-;irK. it i';ni ;i>wisl Ui llhe |ire|KLr:i" 
tioii of the i|i9e.<-riojii];ifre, lite ruriariiillee ran -.tJ-nt rh-lrrnnin- 
what use shall he mjttle tiH t■\|^fn^: whal r'\p('rlfl riiiy he 
avaihihle: wlft-llit-r Id |i]:u> !^iii;i[1 ami ini^oriiuil jli^eiiK^i-iiiii 
^ron|»K. Liri»*'i- foniiris:. or |>,iii«'l Jisnl^^^ii^Hkt; iilieri ami i^h^n- 
the ni^f^liiigiK will hr ifflil? ^vli.'lhcr "ir);ilH meetini^^ or a eeried 

■ ^■'••-"■' . 12 . ..' '"■ .■■■■"■ 



aliuiild be ptaiiiEed. If ii Beriew \a setilr<l Ti|ion. the rEirujuillee 
can select >i lille fur !i likr ''(Ujaiii Blank roruiti^" or ^'G, L 
RovuuhdlAer 

3. PhrHMn^ ihp i|ii«>Blinii : \^^Iipij a inp'ir h;ni he^n ri&ci^^'^ 
upon, il ifi hn|i"rhint l<> |ihniM- ii ^ih ;i ilm-iirtsjiblp que^lion, 
Such a rjnejilioii wtII cItmw <Ltteiifton ?^liar|jl}' lo a major is&iie 
ciRgocialerl with tlir topir. Most Mirh (jii!i?slinns t^hoiild iink for 
ii "yes'' or a '^lo" EinKwer. For exmiiple^ aw^nme thai the 
Aiibjecl for ^tiscn^ioji i& the type of erntmiiiic :in<l poFitical 
eyatem lh«l miiy enierge in Franre after ihe war. A i(it>ical 
l>hra:ei»^ «f ihie r^ighjrrl lik<? '*"Pf>rtlwar branre" irt ri'lalively 
iininterei^liii^ iin^l rerl^tinly mJi^fih-n* iin ilisi-nt^ublt^ Ipsik:. The 
<|ueEtion. ^^^ ill ihe Fr«irh Re]>iihli<^ live a^ain Y" makef* ^ 
better pliri*"^insr H intiir^ llii> jiiarplifilin^ of fttrlG al>ont 
J^eneh Bc^knomy itM-fl politi(<^ nmuTif] ihc iifTirinulivc jtnel ne^;i- 
tiv^ positions which may be taken wilh respecl to ibt (juee- 
tion. Sometimes a Irinlcr n>jy be lempH'il to phruse his 
<|neMion !4o a«^ merely In ^nk for jnl'f>riii;b1ii>ii: "What gort of 
government for postwar Fraiiee?" Tliis lype of tfiiestjon may 
oecasionaDy appear appropriflle, biii ii is never ;ik gtrmig n 
sprin^bnarfl frnm whirli to laimrh a <lisci)(»ion as a qnestion 
thai points the iineiu' clearly. 

IV. How to lead discussion 

GniLip (li§eiii^iini ran be or^^nnKC-rl iih :i nnnil>er of (UfTereni 
wayih. Tli-e^ nielluxls ii8ef1 tn a <^]\e]i eoniniand will ilepend 
upon the local situation as jinl<;e(l by the IniHviihial who 
1ake»4 the lead h» ibe planning. In niitf nntt^ gmnll and in- 
formal discnssion ^roupta may be preferred, with Iit1?e use 
of public epeakere. In aaiother. ihc jjopnlar American fonim 
for a lar^c andiencc may hf- der*ire<l. 

St\ rommrtn rnethoilfi of discn&eion Jire rlcecribeilp ll is 
recommended thai the leader r^tinly iu puiiiriihir what h said 
ab^tfl lufprninl r|i^;nt=*t*Ttirjf Eveji if rtne of fhp mnre formal din- 

13 



CuftsioJi fiieUin^ h chosen n& siiilaMe far use iu a jipveri romnmnil^ 
ntauy of die t^ugge^iions for coinliicliDg infitniiaE fiiseuBBioufi will 
he found applicable to tlie panel, tLi<? forum, niu\ the t^ympn^^iiini 
metliod^. 

1, [nformal discussion ^roiip: Uiiclcr thou^litfiil jjkI elTec- 
live leadership inroniul <IiKniKt!iii>n is the h<^st of all methods of 
sitliiJiiing tlie objeclives oiitliiied in Section I. This is Iruc bi;- 
canse the smull iiiiil iiifornml group encoiiraj^ea parlidpatioii by 
every mOmb^r. Maximum IcuriiJu^ tif facts and exchange of 
■viKWpojntft lE^ p-9»^ibl<.\ Morale is JntiJt up in eat^h indivi Jiml 
%vho fi^elfl he ha^ had n direi.t *^liwrc in the proeeeJin-^. Furthor- 
lEiore, the beet way to learn ia hy J^iiif^. If, ihorcfore, one of 
the goals of diHcii^i^ion is- triLiuin^ in e:K|de)riit|r furu and opinioiis 
related to impoFlanl puldic. issii-cs, Jtifonaiai discussion i^riHipa 
will provide this traiiniij!; for a miirli larg4!r proporlioii of group 
members llian the? more formal mclJLods suitable when uttenJ- 
ance ia large. 

Informal diEcus»!nn groups may profilJibly be limlicd Jii size. 
<iive and tukc of question and opiiiiim between all memhcrs 
normally will not be attained in a mcetiurr of riucIi more than 
twenty or Iwcnty-five jkersona. Fifteen or sixUren i« an ideal size, 
tli9nfj;li only six or eight are needed for a lively discue&itan- fn 
order to tttlaiu a desired ei^e, it i^ oftt^n prcieti<;al to orf^^nize 
two or more groups whi('h racci at different times or phicea. At 
a lar^e Ciimp whi^re distances are ^reat it is a good idea lo hold 
several meetings at \arious localronfl which will enable pc-rsoniicl 
to attend widiout having to walk lon^ distanrcB- 

A good leader can make big ceutributiona to the fiiieecss of 
infiirmal discussion^. If be is tui:lful and friendly in personality., 
he will probably be able to draw ont the best in the men who 
make up Uie grcn^p. It is a very helpful thing in a lively discus- 
sion tu h-avc a tolerant leader wlir> accepts a participant's npinion 
as Homotbing to be considered thous^htfidly instead of jiinipiii^ 
in at once to refute a view diat disagrees with \ih own- 

u 



Th-e leafier zilicnjlil ht: *il»Jr to think cfitirkly iijid to cxpre&s. 
liiniM^ir dr-iirly ami nltti i'mnimi)^ of worcJs iinil lijn<^. TF lir luijs 
H LToo-il Aenne of liTrnior^ Ihe will be iiMe lo e^ise leiieioii from time 
In time hy jul^iii^ rt^fiiiirW. The heUcT he hkes Iifh job iinil the 
(h't'peF hi.'! ttilpref^t in JJn-; ^iilijeel utiikrr ili^rii^'^inni^ the inoro 
ftiicreesr«l \\n-r wliolc cilli^ir is likely lo he. Tli,ii of eoiirae does 
ni>t tii^stn lliiii lie fihciiihl ;Ml"oj»t flrt fiijr <>f nriifi^ii^l lirnr1Jne&&, 
hill ritlh^r iftiil hf^ shi^iild ]i:lv<.- ji ^c-miitit; frio^ndly 'jnU^rcM iii WtA 
j»roajp inif! it>i |)nihlrin=i. Siifh i% li'juler will ■waul t-o feel eoii- 
fidi-Til. ot }kiriiK<']r ill liisiHMiitj* iho |t:»rtiruljtT* (h^cii^inn let'tinifjiu- 
that 19 nsecl^ and Im ^viil want lo he as famillnr na jxtt^ihle wrtli 
ihr Kuhjw^l ihat i.^ (-Iidhj^ti fiir enidy. 

Tli^rse nijiy fii^cru very liiph qualiiiealioiiH, hnl at ir a rare i^f»ni- 
iii^inil lliiet ivifl iiul procliu'r^ in;iny incii ivhrh rjn meet iheni. 
jMorenver, it Hhi>ii|il iiiM lie fiir^<tUeri thai ^kill develoj^R hy iirue- 
lire, SonictiiDes men fan he foiuid who already ha'vehinl jjnielicc 
in ^I'mliii^i 4^riMip d].sriiK!^ii>iir!;. Qlliertf will fiinl that llieir skill 
win l-iirrc;k^4; he the diseiihisinii ^ronpsi continue. And, a:^ will Ix^ 
fihovni later, even a Icailer without expc^ricnce can do a t^ood 
job if he taken the Ironblc 1i> |>repare. earefiilly fi^r hip> niertings. 

a. Relation fif .he li-ailer to ike ^oup: The rehitTon&liip of 
z\ ili^riJrtsion Jfra-ili^r to IiIk ■^riiup dr^eiB froni tlic roJivc^nticMijI 
idea (>f mililnry icadcrfiliip. Unlike a roniniiiinlerp. a dlt^eiiseion 
leiish-r does not lead by example or attempt to inspire tionfidcnce 
in hirKsrII' nm nu e\]ifTL Hr ninr^i not Ik: at ]iro|>a^aii4list. On llie 
rontmry, he niiisl himself he an in^iuirer. lie wiTia confidence in 
Ills l(;adershj]> hy hiis iic4|iiap]i1;nn'e whh the hiiet^roniid iff the 
diseij'isifin :mi\ hy |iropo!*iT><i ;r way Ifi the iiexl step in llie th^ 
rufiti'iziit. Ht- nlot'pi not /«Ar lh(^ nest step untl eYpeitt the oilier 
inrinbers to fullow. He is in essence a good tenrlivr rallier than 
ail :ieadejnir leeliirer. 

Tht> wkillftn leader opeiii^ the di^cnsHion with a hrief Btatemeitt 
of the ejiicplion and ilie rjaliciit f;i<is ndate-il to it. This lakei* 
perhap^; five minnle^. Then he wliirls ihe diiieiispton wilh j 

15 



i\uenl\ou Xhat redir<^4-lfi Xhv: hilk. Al llii- I'lid li^^ ^iiJiimarizp? all 
m;iji>r |>oiratjt l1i:tt h;ivi^ ri-m ronKir^tTi^il. xvill^oiiL Htteniptini; 1o 

riiis ]at^X pmnl \» fmpurl^nl. Tlie le^tlter iiiti^t ;ivoic] the ti^iii|i- 
tsLliciii li> rliiirli llie^ i|ii4rij»iMic»t Willi Nunic slsileil luni^'Jiisiitii. hit: 
iini^l rrTTH^mlirr ihiit um^ iif his chief dwEies is lo leinr' cill i-nii- 
rlijr^iuir-^ Ui llir mall's hIii^iL 

Th-e t^iircettp of a *ht^i-ufi^\itii tlttpciuh upon tike lliiVM^iiirirlriLfe, 
hr«;uiHh, i.nn\ opeiiiTiiiHfidiiras- »f the taJk lluil tukts jrjjiri^^ — iii>t 

|»*^^«4*ll is w^JerleJ iis Iriirier^ il iti wita^ ^vh^.■ll<.a^T |»<jf^fiiljle tu havti 

uii iilliGer pr«_Q«TiL :il the tti^^iM jihi;. Siiii't.^ ofl'-^tiiiy eilurstliiiih is a 

htiiclion of e-i»nhi]i^n4]. n Te]nesf.^tiiiii\\v. af ihi- l.^olllln^lL(Jc>^ 

«hi>ijli] see thai ihe objwlivi.*s of ilisnisKioii ure ntiuiiitfj na i>iii-- 

lined here. 

Tlir le^nliT, cif rriiirwe, ni^ed iiol [*ie\ iJut he ehoiild never state 
his own opiiiiitii. Tfn^re arc many <«-rrtwionK when he cini <lo sii 
in a inihnncr thiit will not jeupitnli'^i.' hi^ htuii^fliit^ as rlkairiiiiiii 
ij| the ^rm^p. Jle i^xpre^isee Jiis owi] ikpinioiit* u>i llie ollicrs do 
when the opportnnil}' wct^nrs, hut he if* usuitlly more anroefrftful 
III luB leader&hij) dt« Jie ri'dii-ceM the iijimuut uf {li^cLis^^ion time 

IVlfUiy leyit^i-fi at4si<r|^ ll)^ npenin;; Hliilf'nii^Ttt »r fiiii»l ^iininiary 
nr l>ot}i of ihoni Ici iiK-iiiht'rs of llir ^nnip^Li ^Ji^viro wliii-h \tt 
parlieularly UHtrfnl when some ^nni]> Tiieinherw are rv^'ii hrller 



DOfJ'l LET EM ^f ^ /Xh GO lO iLEEP 




r6 



infftTnu^l on llu' siiUjH'l llk;iTL 1^ llu» h'udf'T. This is nn i1lnstr»- 
lioii ti( Imw ihr le:Hk'r tmii bolli ^ikhiiiliri'y Ihk jnli jukJ j;cI v^lii^ibh- 
or)ti-c;itiojinJ rt^shihtJ l>y dek>^^lii]j^ oertiiin luska ti^ othera. A-h u 
furthiT i>^Jhni|i1oH ^t one m4*(<iii]^ llie leiidc^r nii^it ask one indi- 
vi<ljj;il li> ^ivi' iIk' iTilmihirlory h1:3Ii?iiii'ii1 of TiirlH hhJ n^[]W^t 
\i Hecum] to lake iiiitiLilPS ami in;iLt:f llit i^iintiii^ry whirti clo^e^ 
iSe mceiiii^. In ibifl vasf the Irmlrr wniil^E Iw re-e-|KJiisil>le for 
lilt.- n|><:-iiiEiH^ i|ueE4|inii ami for f^EJiiliit^ tlie ^-onr^e c/ llic fliHriih- 
Hiion willk Tii?ces»!iaTy <|tii^f«lions iitifi mlerim 8Hinri»ries. 

I(. Pri>parnliiin bv lln^ l4>!]il<'r: Tin- Ij^ader miisl prepare for 
isacb nn^cliiij' ifaoroii^Iily. 'I'lii?i as fjir ninrr iiii|>(>rl:fcni llian lliat 
he ]>e Tijcile in llii- ntniliirl cif tlir arlu-al iiieeliii^. By c^refut 
preparation a l«?n"ier can fJo jmirh lowaril asfiiiririp an irirro*!- 
iiif> mrt'lin^ rvrai if lie ih not an i-x|ierimre(] eliairmart. Tiki? 
iK'ci'Pwiry pri'naralioiis ran l>r hricflj' slalerU l>ni lliey reipilrc 
linu- iiiiil th-ii-ii^lil. 

(ll The le-iiler inii^t. if pi>Kfiil>h\ leani in ailvavtc^'. the iiiler- 
chIs aniT ]a>Jii1^ eT view of ihi' iiiiJiviihjiil^ in h]^ /"roup. If lie 
ran talk jiifomtiilly witli llii'm hrJore i\iv nnfrlin^, Jir run Jeani 
thf -s-c-fieriil poiiiLl of vit-^^ vf eaili antl al the ^aiaie Ijiiie ht^lp 



PHEPABE YOVRSELF 
TJFOROUGHIY 




17 



fat'li to b-eronif iit-tjiiLiinterl with liini. Thir^ will R-iul Ut break 
^lowii any titilTTtrss wliiili niiiy he rintiirjil in ttir tir^l mrt'thi^ i>i 

(2 ) The If^iKler niiifl fiiniiliari^^i: liifn^lf with ibe Pnl>jcct for 
dist'ii^pioii In iIh> fvieni nOA-t::^^nfy f*»r intpllignil lt»a(^^rKhip. T\\\e 
drtes ncii tne^uh tlidl hf is ohli^rd to m^k*^ him^iG-lf an <^x|>erl on 
iJiiy f^nbj^*ot thiit may rf'oinf* inif> liirt ]hroi^raiM. To^ Mo -bo waiil(l 
h<^ |>rel1y -iv}»vioii>j1y iiniJo.L^iblo. But be Jinit^l knou' i-niMifili i^tout 
ihe impfsriant i»^'^ii(='>9 to nialili' laiiii In ki'i'ji lh£' trsiiri of talk on 
llir iTavL arul iihrpvin^ iiyrwun]. Liki^ !i ^iKxJ inslrijrliir lie iiiu^t 
not li«^(^itale In aflinil Isu'k. of iiiforni:jiiiiri- WIimi ;i ipicstion 
aiisejc, bijt jiurnial priMrediire iij any case is to rlirrri ii it* !*onie 
group iiiL^inln^r Asr aii*wcr_ If no one siiflirH^titly infornirtl is 
prrficiit, lie ran wiili ;i ferlin^ fiF jjorfert assi^rctin'e sijfi^iiesl a 
^ourrt: froni Mliirf? tlio tiiismii|^ farlt^ may Ih: Krt-iiret]. 

I'd) Tlie leader sJiDii}ii pn-piire un otilliiie iif llie conrBe of 
thr rli^'ur^Hion nti bt- fon-w-ft* iL lie wilK eilbrr up pari <»f bis 
ottMiiir ur fli-parali:ly^ pn^p;irr ii lisl of ijiieeliitnp vrhidi may or 
nluj^Lib] he iiskfid. }\f riHiHl not, bouever, jicnijit Jii& jirepiired 




IFT 'EM SMOKE 

ftUr KEEP THE ROOM 

VEhnitATfD 



la 



outline to Ipecomi; u »lrail jacke.t for ilic dieciiBsion- The actual 
discuBdion tan be expected to folloiv a JirtWrnt course fnini the 
one planned in aJvancc, Init an outline will as8i«t the leader in 
hi& ptr6i>na] preparation. It will also help him to dietinguiah 
helwpf^ m^jyr J^Bues, wliirh flio-uld lnr ^lcvcioped wlien they 
ariae, and minor or unreluLf^d issues, which E^hould he quickly 
paeeed over. 

(4^ The leader mnet decide in advance whether he uill tieft 
aBsisl^iL leaders, and niuEt Bee ihal tliey loo are prepared. 

(5) The lender musi dei^ide wlielher he will use euch aide to 
presi-iiting hie bai^ic facie as a Idarklio^ird^ <Oiari^ diagrams^ of 
nlliijr visual aide. He niuel have any aueh desired materialH remedy 
for use. 

<^. Conduct of lhe meelin^; In di.'&tril>ing the d«ti^ vf the 
leader much huA ialready heeii Btat^ d ^h" ihiphed about llie <^on- 
duci rf>f the nicciinf^- Mere is a Biinimary of a numbor of addi- 
[ional detaili4 whirh iJic li^ader niiiRt liav*? in mind; 

(l.( Physical enrroutidiTi^s Hlmitlil Ite att cutnfortahle iind in- 
formal as post^ibli;. Wh('llt(?r tlie proiip is seated outdoors- or in 
a library, day room, service elub, nr tent, llie memherw sliould 
arranire themselves so as to he able to see each other. Smoking 
^hinild be pcniiiltrd. If (he nn'rlin»?; is l»tld indoors^ the leader 
^lould be careful ihal the room \s properly veutilated. 

(2) The length uf ihr nifrelin<( should be rigidly limited. An 
hour 19 aboul the righl timr. It i» beller 1o chiae a nieetiifcjj; 
while ihe interest in llie subject k hi^h llian to risk boredom 
by ullowtn<; jl to ('onlinue overtime tii order to attain ^ome aim 
or eonebision preconceived by the lead<*r. Many of the best 
radio rorumi^ close in tlie very middle of lively digeu^Jons. It is 
not necessary to exhaust iho sulijeirt — and the audience. 

f3J To a iN'wIy orirjintKed ^roup the leailer should Liunoimce 
briefly the procedure to be need; ihat p<'ri?<'^ny lilies arc nnt to 
be diH^ut«-cd and thai commehte or ^juestionB Tniml hear on ihp 
Mihjerl **r be dit^oHnv^ed. 

19 




CLASSIFY TYPfS 




14 I SliiuuSiitiii^ anil ^hiflirij^ the Jif^neaitkn i^ tli^^ most im- 
porluiil |i»h tif llie^ lefh(3<?r cliiriiiir llie ^irlti^il iiit^cliiig- H«^ hlioiild 
f^tcitie ;ilinn£t eiatirE-l^ by n^kiii^ queslioiie, by briefly eitiii^ a 
Bpecific ca8e r-ullowed by ^i tjne^lion^ or by Hunijriitrizini>- HU 
ijiK'^lioiis Hbould usL for rejMtnb and Cjiiisen (wliy? U for facts 
(ivlin^t? », for i'ircuinRl!Jiir(?w tiiider wliii^li ^'ertaiii l1ain<^ may he 
Inn* (when? I , for rxpressions uf o|jiTti4"ii {wli:il do yoti ifiiiiL? i, 
am\ for cuninion |£roiiTid iipcjii wfiirli ecime a^reenieiil may be 
reacheiL The leader tiliocdii ^ivoid Tbeloriral cjurHiioii^ <tiid Any 
(|iiehiii»n so obvious lli^tl it i-;iii he aiiwwt^rrd j*lmply hy "yee" 
iir '^iio/^ These UHu^illy blork 4I Ism salon. 




KfEP ON 

THE TRACK 



Very oecawionany a qiiesiioi] re^juirinp "y*^" ***" ''»o'' f*^'' ^"i 
URgwer^ however, can be used effectivelv. A leailer for example 
will stale hriefiy i\ drfinilf? posiliim ihat can be taken wkh 
rf^H|>e(rt to an i^ue. He will then a«k a member whuni lie [luiulK 
out: ^i)o yon a^jref* wilh that r»r rloii^t ymi':'"'"' The member* 



20 




HAhlCLE THEM SKILLFL^LLY 




^^yefT (hr "no" uinli^r llic rii^lit rirciiiiislaru'+'j* will nl^irl ;i liil of 
liruli^els Qji iJir )>ijrt nf tlio^f- who ilba^ee with liiiii. :iii(l tlir 
disciiBBiufi iH <ifr ti> ix iiirw >t£in. 

Skillful IciidertL vtijll iisk tjuer^li^kiiini only wlii^n rtrc-c»i»inr>'. M^in)-' 
^ofiil i\i\rM\ttnfi will I'nine from tlic irroiip, Tliry flhimlil la- t-u- 
(loiinitieil by Irit'iiiUy coiiiiimit: "Th-il irt ^i {IoihI *5iirplititi» WIm 
ran imnwtr il?" Thi; li-^aclenwiinlly lu^eih only l<i Htarl, lo rliiiii^i^ 
tlic direction €>f ihe di^rii^sioii, lo hriifcfir tlie membere l>ark whf n 
\\my Wtilidrr loo j^ir. nml lr> hnii^f tint (lilTc^i^jil, pirinli:! of ~vh'w. 
(St l^iUb (-oiilrollni^' i\ut\ vixcowrA^YU^ [larticiifnlioit by iill 
ni<'m)>t^Ttf rt'quirt'P i]ni|tTMiii}<liTi;j; ;nid lart. Th*^ trtlknti\T mem- 
bcr fiboiihl b^ ^l}f>H'0-i| 4>ii1y hU ^bjli'C (if lb(< tirue^ :iinJ if^'ii 
&lioiild be tliankcfl for hie etitU^nionl anil reminded Uiat -t'vtsryom? 
muHt hyvi? }iiH. up]i-or]iJinly to wpt-ak. Tin; sileiii nn^JuJu^r ran Ik^ 
eni!iJiira^ed lu epL^ak if lIie? lettde-r uill sitJc hitn a direct i|iie&tir)ii 
iibikiit wliif}k lit^ IE knowiL t(> puf^iefw informalioii or lo liold an 
opinion. Thr <i]iaiiion:iiril mi-mbiT must be led In LLndt'r-<1;iiid 
iIilI! [jo-^ilimis dilTt-ri-nt frikiii lits^ ;ir<^ rv:tM>n:ib1e and that llioni^^lM- 
ful persons dit i-liaiL<ie their opinions. \^ ben the ani:c<lo1al iiiriii- 
hcr launches forth inlo liis personal experience at preul lon^llin 
he muptt be hiindled i}* tl»r lulkalivc Tiicnilier. The iin|iitti(-nt 
inenilier is lookini^ for ^i i|iiick^ i-ure-all solntioii rtnd is pcrbapt^ 
too lazy lo t3iink a probJem throiji:}i. He ncals to he iolil thai, 
rhr pmeeaa of diacnt^^'^ion eoiisit^is^ nol of ^iviii^^ but of carf^rully 
fteareliin^ for ronrhi^ions n|)on whieh each inilividnal iiMiidly 
niu«t decide for himself. 

I6j ^'bcn Uic di^eUKsion zanders too far from ihe f^libjC'Ct 

21 



pAHel l^i&cu»ion 




111' \^]irii Jl f;iuf?s fiignA ^f flap;^iii^^ il is a ^hi>iI tiling lo flnnnn:jTi7e 
the chi(-r points TtKuIr^ up Iti lliiii nt^iniont. The didrueeioii (-:iii 
then he redir^cleil by jkiiollif^r (|iK!^ian!i fronfc itn^ L'ailcr. 

(7 I AriiiotJEice thp siil>j('4'l, linu-, p)a<'e, arn3 ^poehil B|)t^uki^r 
<if any) of the next mf-eling in a Hcries. Tf ^ fiubjt'ot for the 
next Tneetin|j; liaa not heen dct^icled upon^ tnkc ihe Ja^t nihujLe 
or fwn Irt seciirt^ sii^fscstiofis fr^m llie jtrinip. Fijul uiil if the 
(rroup woiili] like to roiilimae iJi^cu^^in^ 8onie is&iie tli^it hag been 
raised, hut has not brrn a\|>lorf<l ihoroii^lil)' iluriiL^ the meel- 
in^r. Or ahV for >i ribow i»f liand^ oti two or ihree otlicr subjects 
vvbiub iii^y be intere^liii^ lo llie. members. 

2. I'atiel ilUi'Utisioii ; A pMiu-^l et^n^i^ls of a ^^ni^iEl ^mnp ^if t;i\ 
ur eifrlii |>ergond, who carry on a ^nidud an^t informal disicu^slon 
before an nndienE'e n& if Elie pnijel wen? meeting alone. Tbo 
prnceedingg of tlie punel ^liuubl Ite llu? j^uine aa tho&« de&eribed 
for informal di^ii^^^rikii; vehjiiteerin^ of faints, a»:kii]<:E qne^^lions^ 
^talin^ iijiiiiionH — all ^^^pn-j^seil M'ilb ;irniLilily, wilh rfxpet't for 
ibe eoiiLribiilioni^ of olh^'^r iiH'inhi'rs. wWlioiit spe-ei~lk inLikiii^^ ami 
without making invidious personal referenceUi. Tbis primary 
funriion ^lionld otrnpy ajrproiiimntHj Iwo-thinls of tbr iilbtiled 
lime — way forty niiniiti^s of an boiir's nu'^riiiii;. TIk^ nerondary 
function of the panel ie to annwcr quefitions frcii] the andiente, 

Tbie dieeiiFi^ion inelli-nd an puitii]>]i- f«>r lih<' when a reliilively 

22 



large audience is nnHriiKilrtl. Tlie ilkMlviinla^e of the metliod 
l^ Ihal i\ cojiiinep moel ihf \hv: Jlsciissiui] to iJie panel ilscJf. The 
Audien^^f lislfin?? anil i^ ^iveci ;i rluncr to aek qiieBtions, hut for 

PaiiH diwii5sioii.q, jf wf^Jl <.oniluc1eJ, are UEfuall)- more interest- 
ing to tile auiljcn<'c lluiii iit ihi^ sinfiksep^^uker ftiruni. Tln=ry pro- 
vide 3^iifli('ieni1y varie*J clasl* nf opiiiioii ntn} pn'sciitatioii of fatts 
lo pive Gveii llu- i|iej<'1 iiu-nili4^rs of llacj jkudit-nre ;( fcoling; of 
vkarJciNNi parlicipaliuu. 

Qiiiility uiu] iii^^k.^ of Iriid^^rj^liip in p:iiht-| flJKrii^t^ioii arc eniiiJiir 
lo ihose ilceerili-eil for iiiri>rm:il diseiissi-o-u. The WJer miiwl in 
adililion lake speeijil rare la h("Iw;| j>un<;l meinb<>re uho can 
lliluk ami ^jie^k <*ffe<'liTeJy, He niuflt al&o ho sirri; lliat they 
prei>ar*' tht^niselvea to Jiwusk ihe siibjecl. Duriu^ the iJi^L^ugtiiuri 
hy the piine] ihc li'ailer Ikis suli^taiillally ilii? s;inif? Jutjes as in 
inrtirntiil dihcussiuii f-vri^f>t llial lir -^limihJ kt'ep liiuj^el^ more in 
ihe hu<^kirroimd a» ehairiuaii of die piiiiii:], H<^ ran do so i>ecause 
earh tneniher i>f the panel is in rt'alhy an aRsisluiit to the Ifadt-T 
and i& rrspoiisihle for h-pcrHlr roiilrihulicniK lo the proceed in ji^rt. 

When the r^iihjecl is thruwii open lu llit^ liiiutit-, it i« the lcader''B 
job to ret-ogui^fie upprnpriate qiu^J^lioT>3 and to rejei:t those not 
hiearing on \\ig siihjeet or iiivolviii^ persriuahtii:^^ Some queu- 
tionf^ he hijy unswt^r hini^i^lf^ hnt usually Jie ^Ikould rerpeiit the 

qufj&tioii and call up<tiL : t>f the puiu:J Iw answer it. By pre- 

hminary ^irm^uiieenienl the leader may al.sf» tt-l] the midii^nt-c 
iJiat they m^iy dm^t^t qiu^tionf^ at parlii^ular juembei^ of tlic 
panel if they eh(»->sr. In iiny 4^aFe, during the questioti period 
llie Jeader need^ in rn^iiilain ^jirirt reiilriiL Qti mi^Ti}' OCCi^^onB 
thii^ iriay hr the to-u^het^t |jar1 of his Q^ignmenl lo carry o-fT 
efiidently and wiah ^eoil liiTmor. 

While il iy eiistuniitry lo runfine UTidienee qiieslionf* to a spc- 
r.ii'w. period^ ^onie k^iideiv perniil i|-iFeF«tioTiK frooi the Huor ill any 
lime. Unloft* very ean-fnlly liinilod hy the le^ider^ tliis prai'lice 
may interfrie with cflTeelive ditJt'Ui^ioii hy the pjinel- 

Arran^iiaii ihe punel properly will lend effct-liveuetifl lo lliis 

23 



SINGLE-:SPEAKEt 




form of -fliJiciisftion. Tlie iiirmlxTs hIi-i>»iIi1 fare ihr 8i>c]ience. One 
pu8»ih[o iiTTiaiii^ciiujit i> allii^irak^iJ t>ji pagi^ 22. [l ie iTii|ji>rliitit 
that (^»ch |}anf^l nhtriiilter ii^tjiisl Sii^ rliiiir so ih^hl lir; i-iiii see every 
ulhrr member wHIiotii eHnrl. Tlir rliiiimi^ni will also lind thai 
llie best plm-ej4 fnr liih reH(iii--»1 spciiker^ are :tl ihe extreme eii-tln 
of the tiible- He ^liniihl kee.p the more reticent iaienil>er£ elose 
to him Mt \hi\t hp- can rt:iiflil)^ druw tlieni i»ul witli ilirf;ct qiice- 
tiotiH. it llie (|uieler u-iieB Bit on tlte friJi^eti of the paneJi, th-e 
morf: vpliible nie-rnhftrB -afe -ijuitf^ |ak*'l)' !*> fnoiiopnlize the 
■diK:iiwi<>iiT 

3. 8in^)e-!«peiiker rnriim: 'VWis j% a ^itoA lyp"' 'if jirescnlalioii 
wlirn »ii inilivHliioI wIh» ih jiji ''^expert*' atkcl .n strong puhlie 
fipeaker can he secureii for the meeting. If a series of such 
foriimr^ are lo be |)l>iriiiefl. il will he nece&w-ary in al\ probahilily 
to euTl Lrpitn u ililTereut speaker for eaeh orcaetoii. LSonietinieR it 
may be ]>OBeihlr lo imale siicJk speakers from nearby imivereiti-cs 
or profew^icniiil and cilher local at^sorialiojis. Often rompetenl 
Bpecialiete may Ije friiinrl anaong ihe oflieerp antl men of the 

ooiY]j||ji|]r|. 

The 5iii^li'-[^ji(:!aker f<»ru»j huS ih*; diHridvantiitr^ of i>r<;&^nt]ng 
for -conBidcTalioii oniv ^ne ]>oint of view — that of the apeaker- 
An oe4*iiMon;i] ^peaki-r may Iry to ■I'^xplEiin v^ariime poBitione thai 
may ht? lakvn *in ibe h^ttih of ihe known fiu-t^ which he nntlifiE^. 
It in nevertheleeii diAirnh for hipi. In spite of the momt {^unfti-i^-n- 

24 



tioiie^ effnrU In iivoi-i] nlre^^ln^ lii-n i>wri i>-i>iiil iif vifrw Tiii»re than 
(ilhere. rr Gill' EiiHliriire or aiiy eizjjhJL' fnichoia ^f il hiJln ta 
agrOe ^ilJi hini^ what folluws ihc Bpcf^ch ie apt Lo l><^ a. battle of 
wits. Such sk ]>alL)e may uy tite pkill and g^od liuoior of both 
the speaker and the leader-chairman^ 

A s(^G(ind dij^dv-Einta^e of t\H\ Bm^ie-epeakv^T foriini is tliat the 
meeling iR basert on a leiitiirc. Men hear go many of these that 
(Hily the heet of thmn i^irt Gcro^. TIHr Ie not to eay that ihe 
Kin^le-^ix^jtv^^r F^hruni is- :i pixir niethuiL Willi iFic riirht tJ.|9e;iker 
:ind inider a L-4>ttr|petL'ttl i-h^iirni^n, it f^all hi', lii^hly Ktinkiilall9i|r l-n 
ihe lh]iikin<r of itn'-. 4iiih4.'i]rr. 

The i'liJirtimi^ of tlie leader nr niuilemior of a feiriini ron^^iNl 
tif the following: 

(ll To jNTcpare hiniself hi :idia.ri<'e on tlif j^iihjecl, 

(21 To iiifoniL ihe audience iibont fonini proccdnre — how 
long thr rtiM^aker will talk, wlien the aiidienre may ask i|u€6lions, 
wlml IvinJs of questions will lie rei:o[:^iizeiI by the nkoderalor, 
and how lon^ the r|[ir6tioii prnod will last. (An nddxcas of 
twi^nty Lii- lliirl.y miiiuti^s anil u ijueatioii perin-d of about twenty 
niinutc^s are re connn ended.) 

(3? To introiliire the tcpenker^ explaining why hv has been, 
invited tci ^|irjhk :ijic| .^htiiji^ rhv ^(o^^tlnn wliicli he will di^^U^. 
(ll lA m\ti*r{iiui to tell the iUidieni^^- uhal |:toint of view tA-wavd 
the ifnt^^tion iii n^jtri'^eiilr'^d by the ^iic^ker.) 

(4S T(j 4L>!Him^ ^iwmI ijn(*?4|ii>niia<r fnni) ihe Hii^r- (Three fir 
four hnllviJualf may ]tv. jilantL-d witli tij>ecilje- 'joei^tinn^ in tlie 
anili4Mii'e. Or t^i^iu-^d. wrillon i|urstioiis may hv ^oJicitod hk ad- 
vain^e. The ftrai sn^tfjirKlioii jitj* naiiirully into the qnej^linn pe- 
riod^ the iierond ja likc^ly lo make the forum ont-and-flried^ 
choiij^h it is &ojneti£iies ut^efnl. t 

(31 Tu reco^rnize (jucsEioncr^ in |)arliamentary fashion and 
lo reHtule Atiilahle <|uesllonK for ihe Kpeakc^r (Ai-^eptahle ([ueB- 
tiond aek for aJ(liFion:il farl^^ for an elaboration ur pxplanation 
of eonie s.|iil4'TtK-nl alrp^rly niadi^ or for an ex|>refi*iioii of 
i»pmii>n- 1 

25 



(61 To train the auilieitc^ to nliok to tlie point and lo be 
tolcrunt of Mpiriiiiim 4:onlrLtry to llieir av^n. 

Two lypea of and.i«^nL'G mcmJi-Krtf arc likely lo rt^ifuirc special 
Landling by the moderator. Tlic man who triea to make a speecli 
in die guise of a quefition may he stopped by a request to xe- 
phrase hJB queeiiort bdofly. The man wlio merely paiaphra«ce 
what thp speaker ha^ already said (or the sake <>f h^^sring hktn- 
6e!f talk ^houl^l he inlf^mipled with a rem^tk lh-4\ hi$ ^tutement 
liiia beetL o-i>vered l>y the speaker. Iii ^efierat the itiodcr:itoT 'will 
liavc lo hcJp the :mdieii«^ undertilmid. iu part hy reoo-gjtiizing 
relevant (fue-ationi^ mid prjiisiiig ufkut^ually |food otiea. 

4. Dialo|;iie: Tlie dialogue in a kind of inrortnal lecture- 
forum* lis procedure is J'imilar to thai of ihe forum cxn^pl that 
the leader or jnonlf^rator a<;tB a» an int<:rhKjjtor- Hk prepar4rn 
^a carefully ae does the chief speaker. To tihirt the ditrCiisBion he 
^skA tile expert a direct qiieRtii>n. When he liui* received n r<:ply, 
he may give fioirtt knl(^q7r<:tfltion or r^mm^^hl of hi* 0*vn and 
follow with another qhie^lioii. TIuJn he guides the spe^iker from 
leauti la ifl(<u<? until tlie rtuhj^^'t hus hceri as fully presented ^e 
the timr allows. AiidtPiiee qiice-tioning »f either member of the 
dialog I e follows. 

Benauge th<? nioderatnr Iifi^ the opportunity of ^indinfr the 
expert aud het-auwe hi* mnv ntrcpft a position that diffj-r*; from the 
Jatier*e, the Ji^lofiiie ueed not havt' tliir din-adv^nta^e of present' 
ing only one poim of view. In ihe hands of a skillful intcr- 



DIAlOGua 




26 



locnior il liosseftBeB for a lar^t^ iiiulie-nce advantages stmilar to 
those of n puiiel discuBttiuii- 

5, Symposiiini; This iii Blill iiiiotlx-r lype of foruiik. By j»ro. 
viding Iwo or three sppakere, each charged wijli tlie duly of 
presenUn^ a tlifferenl point of view, ilie eympoeiiim consciously 
attempts to direcl ^ludience Altontion lo yanoiii^ approachea to- 
ward tlir problem under c:oiiKidctralior. In ihia it leaves less to 
<:hance tlian does llie iaifornial di^u.^ion or thv panel disc^u^inn. 
It j§ to be preferred to ihe sin pie -speaker foritin unless the ^iii^le 
pxptrt can make d brilliant prt^senialion. Naturally its tiurr^^ss 
will al8i> depend upon the iroinpelem-e of I he symposium 
members- 

A paE:^Bible dif^advanla^i^e of the symposium is inhereni in divid- 
ing ihtr lertur<^ time bel.v^een Iwo or three individuals, iVo one 
of them can give anything hiil a trnrsory treatjnent of his phiie^e 
of the subject. Thii» ihe e^ympot^Jiim may lose jn depth while 
it ^iliti& in Wmpreheneiven^'Bi*. This l<^nd<^lfcry U* l«ck delail^^ 
t)%a1n)&n1 nifliy bf b^latkc^e-d hy spr^jidiii^ the syuiposium oy&r 
several nkeetin^^^ all dealing; with ihe same general enhj^cL 

Participation by the audit^ncc ib iie-ually mOTe liniHed in ihe 
^ympoj^iiim ihan it is it* the fiingle-ftpealter forum or ihalngtie, 
luit llu' ^f^neral techn[i|iie^ i. e., the dnlies of the nioderalor, tlie 
speakers, and th(? audience, arc ihe same as in the siiigle-pipeakpr 
forum- 

6. Dehat4^; Uuleas debate ift lifted lo Mimnlale a d is^llIi^Bion 



DEBAFE 




27 



ihiit f*ill">vp* th<" lormd! fij»eecKe6, 11 will noi h^ a nmAtnii^iive 
acuvily f*>r llie e4lut.!i1ioiirtl pro{2;rani. Dcliale, however, is ^Urac!' 
live 10 Ani-ericdns for two FcaBoii&- Most of ne Jiave JiBtuned to 
Rebates anil n^any of us have taken part in them at school or 
■college: so Uie eetliiig 13 familiar- TIil- compelilive feature of 
debate appeals lo Anusrioan uuilierioeH. But the eombalive alnioH- 
phere of ilehale ^teniee the basic prhiciplcB of cliBciiesiou. Theae 
imply an impartJa) examination of the facte cinrl an ultrmpt to 
reach a Bohitiou acceptable from a number of viewpoints- K 
debute ie uJKt^d, the only way lo uieet this <liJemma is to tlirow 
t}ie subjeet open for dlscus&ion by the aiidicnc4^ wilh the debaters 
jietin^f ns the experts. ■ 

There are other dieaflvanta^eH to the debate form. Debate 
implies tlial there are only two eiries — aflimialivc and ncgalivc — 
to the (jnestioiij. while numerous public ii^rtue^fl are many-sided, 
riirlliemiore* all members of each team must support one &ide 
or the oUjer of lli-e proposition re^ardlce^^ of whether they agree 
fully with il. To tbie ^xlent debate is f^^rt^^^d. artifioial, a*id 
rpgitl. 

Tlte aubjec-t (at deliiiU-^ ntust be j^ phrased that ont: side will 
catt^^oTically ifpbold if |Uie AlHrmative ) ^ mid i\\v. other will 
oppoHc it (ibe NeLralive^- Normally each team will hnve two or 
three members. The debate be^in.^ with the lirst speaker for 
the AflBxjiiatJve. The main speeelics ithemate from Affrrmative 
tn Negative imtil the lant Kj>eakor for the Ne^^ative lias fiuihlied- 
Jn preparing tlieir main speeches iht' team members divide be- 
tween lliem tbt^ siatemenis uf fan wn\ i^sue» wliirli they wi«li 
to make. After the main speeches llie rebuttal speeebei* be"iui. 
Tlic iirst <»f lliese :s made by a speaker for llir JSejcativc followed 
by an Ailirnialive rebnltnl, uiid en on. Tti llie rebuttal r«peeehe?4 
each member tries to di&prove or raiee objeclioiis to points made 
by the oppi^.^ing leum. For lliis purpose each &ide has made notes 
of arguments or lads advanred by llieir o]iponents. 

[ii debating: il ia customary for speeially appointed jiidf^ea or 
IIm' lUidieiu'e lo \4}te ^^jUiit on ibr n<i^ritjH ipf llitt ijurHli^vii or on 



ftA 



llie -effecli veneris uf the fjr<^e-w»l!itioHe, Then -0% erytody gjops home^ 
liiiviit|r vif^wei.l ;i purely jK'itdvmic (.■^Jtcrcise, To iii^kc debaii'* 
m^fiil in lilt Army i^diii'aliouaJ prugrnni a (jiieeliou period l^y 
ihe audience shoulr] repliR^e llie voiiiig. Tlie ([uesBioiiingL slioiild 
be contrnllt'd by ihe rb.iLnnati uf the deh^le^ uMtiu ilie metbnrlB 
4ilreik<ly referr<?d lo in llii* paiuplilcl. 

ir the dehnle is 1*> be at all i-ffe*rive, the rkbiiler^ luuel be 
4:onfcpeleii] speaker!^ muel be able tn ihiiiL c|iiick^ly ou llieir 
fe-el^ aiid iiiusi be ae-c|nn]ii1ccl with ibe rDrniDlitiefi iif the debate 
meljhod- They nuiM rilbrr be exj>»:rls in the siibjecl or make 
iheniaelveet such ]ty .->ludy- Each leum iiiirs-l dii ii ^ochI deal of 
joint preparation of speeches and i^tudy of »r|ntmciitP thai may 
l>t^ advanecJ fay their opponents. 

In conrlu^ioii ii may be waid ibat lli^ debate in in j^encral not 
well adapted Ut ihe allainnkent uf the ohjeeti¥e& t^j\en in Sec- 
tiwii r. Thr; ppiril vf distwefioij in ibe Army U iiilrnde-d to be 
one in which tlu- ebief purpo-scH ure t^ekiiifi iiin^rniiilion und 
<;jtplor]ng a variety o-f opinions^. Sime atky deliJiite aL-lion like 
tlii- i^asftJii^ vi r<=^>?vluhone ie not <lci^irud on tli*^ pari *>f m^u, 
piarti^v.Ti advofi:dcy of u ^iveii upirduii — ati inlef^ral pjtri of dehal^ 
— does no\ easily fit ihe Arjiiy proj^mni. 

7. Qiii'&iioii box: Till- ijuf^lloit bo\ may be used a? an :iid to 
!:|]]nu]ale iiii aiulienee wbjirli it in fenred may not vuFnnleer 
ipue&tion^ froui the Heior. Il ran be used with any <kf ihe /orma 
41-1' diticiii^riion al1ende<l by a i|net;lioi] period. 

The ineeJianie^ of Mie tjuf'^iiun t>u\ are tiinipU'. All ibat \a 
jjetietisary it* a ntrate^teaJly loeated and svfrll-adverlij^ed l>ov. lit 
it interested per^oii^ may pla^^e i]ii(?.-«|i(iiiK ht udviuiri^ «>f ibe meet- 
in;;. If thf^ i|Ue>^lione are to be wriMeJi uiil aud c.'oJleei<^d duriiiji 
LL meeting. LIilt aLulieiice sbonid be Efiip}>Jied with s^Jit^e i>i pajjer 
4jr sntal] eardt^, RniMif^b pemilt:^ ='hi>uld be on hand tu be)}f juen 
who ilu not ejirrr one. 

riie L|uealion bu.v iri a dev'ree wbrrh naay aaaiM ibe leader h^ 
eontrol iJie L|ne^lii>iiiii^ very n^illy, lieeaiuse he trau trtdeet ft't 

29 



answer in adviitice only those (|iie.BlionR lie fleeiiin RuilabTe, The 
Jiftadvanta^e nf tin?* use is lli;il il re^luir^ {iiiilir^ncc parlii-^ipaliiin 
a^lnionl Ln Jiothiii^, with au atleiidant Jrop in iiiterer^L II is 
recomiii ended only for use at large nieclii^^s wlien for some 
reason il is iltHiralile In limU lli»^ rmii^tz of (jueslions or wlieii it 
in believed lli»t efioiilnncoua fjueatioTia may not come from i|ie 
audieiicG. 

Another uee for the ijue^lion htu iB lu rollt^cl idf^^hs for future 
dE8i:upaions. 

V. Group discussion in isolated units 

Conimnndinj:^ officers and orieiitatioji nflicer^ of 5mn)l tinit.s in 
ifiulateil Ifrrulifirit^ will finil ^rrMjp i1i^riatH?^]iins {\ v^liiahli' orif-iluly 
activity that strongly ji|)|iealn to llieir laiore iitlcllit^eihl men. 
Under certain ci>ii(]iliiJiit^« t'ffcctive gfovp dibii:iifl&i*>iij3 i^aii iiv: 




^A 



or[:;tiiiiM4"<l even in llir iit'Miii:(' laf rcfenjiri^ niiilerijilt*- *llir mam 

1. Prcfienre willnii \\m- i<»iiiJir;in»l itT i»ne nr more nLilJ\j^1uiiJt' 
(pnTmil>i> eiilit^lt.'d |>mionjn-J I who v/i]\ iHfike t^miL-t^el iil 

innl <^lli^'^ T'"^)! I'f i-\|i(-ruMJ*e i" ^lircelin-; (liK^iisflirfvjih: w1u» will 

2. Kviflr-iii'e lliiil ii iiumlxT of iyim> In llic romiUiiinl wuiilil 
like lo dis^nisjA rnrn-aU iiiTiiirh \hm\ jtiolvJr'sne^ ihiti iinrrrTii Mta^jTL 
Tlijs rviJriirf niny rniisiM of e^it^liii^ ^'tniil rtrrtf^ifinr^"" i»f <l<nfl>l- 
fii) viiliie U" mimrle.. ii(f4rn3i;iil_v i-\jirrKsi'il th'^tn't^ i'i wlhirh 
kiao'^Ji'ii;:^' hut* rotiie i.i» re^|i(ints'ilrlr offii-iTF^ or it^r^J-rujulJ-i'-jj 
aMiWriilrly ^irllicred l>y iiiliirjii»l ■jiifirliojiinni'i'. 

3. riew?ii(-p of Riiine men wIhisc ('(Iu*::ilSon mhI tnlcrrwli^ cin^ 
mich lb:il lliey H';<n 1"' nhcil hk r\jH'rU In j^ivi- dlsriisstnn ^iitiip 
JHeiiiliors h<-jrk(^rinj]itl f^iclj* <i^n sulhjiTlh wklili il ih defied lo 

li> J>^<>1n1etl iiiiilH where Ik>oV«. |jfiiiij>liVts i""' ]niio(lie!ils Tor 
rf-CiTeiin- HT4- J-H'kili[i hnl wliere ihe ^lIn■l■^ L^fnsrijliiil i-nndilioiiei 
lif>!ifcn l]"<" fciJlowiiif^ ]Brureilnri. is rei aniiliH^tk^liMl to n-ITH-iirs whn 
ilesjri^ lo or^iirilKe. iJiM-iisfiioii primps: 

FIRST— Del IT mine llie wnljierlj* lln- men iire iflrenily Kilkii)^ 
Jilxml or uoiiJal like lo ilkrns8. iih wrll its llif^ii: ^I'lnoT^il inleri^l 
ill (liMi«fi[*i-cm,. To iK"eoni|tlisli iJiis tmik-i' iiisi- i>f juur jH-rr^uiia] 
knowleciiie ol jJie TiieiiV tnli-rcj^l^^ llie kmtwlrifjie |HitfHtsse<l Jty 
oilier oHieerK <»r niHieomniitkBioDed oJIieers, nr mi iiiiiiTn\u\ 
(|iii-^fioniniire. 

SE(^0N1>— SeiiriTl) ihe eomniitnil for |>oFfiibl(^ ili^ni^»i(pn 
Ica^lerf* ainon^ eirli.-^liil pei^nnnel. Tn aecwinplish tliis* <ltfliv 
upon your own or olJierfs" iief|ii!ijiil!i]je<' >vj13i ijuliviiliift)*" w 
yiwwr iiiiSli n*iJ Bi^itr^'l) llie lilf of S|»]i|ieT's (^li»:i|ffj4iMi*>n Cilr^^^ 



THIRD— Gfluviiss the oomniflnd for "experts** who will suh- 
^litule for referenc*; materialfi. Tit jn^<-onipliah ihie, bepin by 
notinfT ilie ran^e of eubjecte the ^roiip may wit^h to lalk abouL 
Frc>]ii there, pruc-eed ilirough every possible persoiifiL contact 
to find men whu have special knowledjie of Uieee siibjctrte, but 
tlo not neglect to iearch the file of Qnaliiieation Carde. These 
cards cuiitain a ma&a d hiforniation ;]bout nieir^ riviliaih trains 
ing and special interests- Finally^ interview selected men to 
find out whether they have the background knowledge you 
need for yuur purpose^ 

FOUBTH — Your final step consiste of selentiiig a subject 
and an expert for a first mccling* of finding convenient physi- 
cal arrangements for tl»e rieednp, and of pnblEci^m^ ihe new 
Hctivhy in Buch a way as to reach all pereoDncI who may want 
to attend. 

BUT REMEMBER— Your program will stand or fall «m the 
quality of the leadership aihd the avaJlabiltly of either experts 
or adequate reference niaienat^. Constructive discii^iojis muat 
have basic l>ackgrmind ijifornaatiou. Tliey must also l>e con- 
ducted in accordance with relatively simple^ common sense, 
and well-recoj;nizied principles which have been described in 
thifl inannal, 

VI. Checking the results 

Tliere are several melliodn of t'Kiimalinfz whether llie diai-UB- 
K-ion program is fzettiu|i rcBiills, From fliikRie that are listed hert^ 
it i» su^^egted tlial eaeli leailer Helect Nuch as appear to oiTer 
him a practicable combination for checkini: the results of litE 

own program. 

1. A1le1lda^cl^: The regiiTarily witli which partteular indi- 
viduals :itlf.'n(1 ihi- iiieetin^n ^md tli-e growth in atti^ndaiice arc 
indicatioutt of Hucceee. 

32 



2. Attituiles: A rerord ^aii h^ kept uf any cliange in the alti- 
tudee t>f group mCmbere with r^&pecl to sucli points as: 
a. Tol^f^nce of 4p|jii»ing Opiaion^ 
V Williii^ees to ask questions fkn<) «;v:pri^i^ <:>pjni<»n$- 
e. Skill in asking pertinent and important quc^ations. 
d, Willin^eBg to Listen. 
€. Avoi^anoe of pBr&analities iri remarks-, 
f- Friendly interest in ath(!r ^roup members, 
g. Desire in ijonlinne llie ili^ictii^ftian after th« meetiiLg^ 

3i ReadiJij;^ habits; Incre-aaed uHe -o-f book^ 4ind niagasinee in 
the library before and after the diecueEion m-ay h^ taken as a 
rign of airred imtteet, if the library provides pertmeni niateri^lr 

4. Group parttcjpatLoni h ie poeeible to appoint someone to 
keep track of the proportion of available time taken up by the 
group nieinbftrp as difitinguished from speaker or leader. The 
higher thih proportion je, the more aucceBsful ig the meetings An 
increase in the number of indiviJuale parti^'lpatin^ from nit'et- 
ing to m^^ting i^ ii healthy &i^U. 

5. Germane disciiseiun; If the minmet^ «liow ll^ul the thread 
of di&cLi§Bion k-epi clor^e to the un»ouiiced subject^ ihe dUru^^ion 
may be eoii**idered to have been well led. This is not to say, 
however, ihat very effective di&euHsioujii may not develop from an 
important side issue of the planned subject. 

6. Inler^fst at elose of diseussion ; IF the <rr4>up or aridienee 
has evidently ni>l bad enouf^h when the leader eloPes the mit**l* 
Jng, the meeting ii^ an obvioudi fiiii>ces8- 

7. Post-cli^H^Hssion inlere&t quefitionnaireg: It If possible tu 
develop a brief <]iieslJonnaire to mea&ure the tiurce^^ of diE?eii&- 

ftion meetings. The c|U^*tiou(iaire should fit local meed^T It ean 
contain eucb questions 3L5.t 



^ 



B^ 


Wa^ ihe meeting (bubjci,-!) inic^rpsiing? 
□ very nmoderflLfcly □ noi ai all. 




b. 


Will you i^ome aealn? □ Yes D Ho. 




r. 


Did ihe leader C^pcoker) talk 

G too tong G ju:^t long, enough G too littltf? 




d. 


Did yon take pari in ihe ^^is^IJ5^-^■ort ?" |^ Yr.- Q No. 




1". 


Suggc^i liclow vhai ¥«u would 4!oitaidtr an imrretitine bnbject for 













VII. Reference materials 

A aeri^ of referen<^e pamphlets for ih-e use of di&cnBBian 
Icailers is publi&lied by the W»r DepHrlment as iLumbered Edu- 
catiim Manuals in the eame format aa thia ^uide. Each of llie^ 
pamphiels, except the present one, includes factual material 
about gome quesiion that may he of interest to personnel in the 
Army. Each c-ontaina specific suggestions to the leadeir as to how 
to handle tlie issue in a discu8«ion meeting. The suhject of each 
pamphlet h^B been cho&cn after an analysis of research studies 
made of the iiitereat& of Army personnel. Tlie manuscript for 
ciitAt paniphlc-t is written in popular style and is prepared hy 
an authority ou th& anljjeet for ihi^ Historical Sfiirict Bo4ird of 
the Amf:rie(in Hiati>n(ial AAHX^iuticiii. The general title for the 
et:jifcs is C- '- Rfyundrable. New volumes of the scries are to 
he published at frequf^nt intervnla Orientation and cduealion 
officers vlR receive a sample diEtribntion of each a& it comes out, 
together vith instruetions for requisitioning additional copies 
that may be desired. 

Reference ntaterials published by the ^ ar Department are 
restricted lo those that comply with Title \ of Public Law 277. 

34 



(See W. D, Bulletin No. 5, 1944 and W. D. Circular No, 128, 
1944.) Before materials published by any private or public 
agency including those listed below are used for off-duty dis- 
cussion, commanding officers should satisfy themselves that the 
materials comply with A.G.O. letter [A.G. 014.35 (28 Apr 44) 
WD-MB-M] dated 27 April 1944, subject: Restrictions in new 
"Federal Voting Law" on dissemination to members of the 
armed forces of polilical argument or political propaganda. 

Magazines are a rich soiirce of reference material for discus- 
sion. Because they are commonly available, among the more 
useful for this purpose are The Readers' Digest, Netvsweek, 
Time, Life, and Fortune. The first four are included in the Unit 
Sets of Magazines distributed to oversea commands. 

Reference pamphlets that will be useful to discussion leaders 
are distributed by a large number of publishers. They can 
readily be secured for groups within the continental United 
States. Some of the publishing organizations are given in the 
list below. The list is annotated with information about the 
character of pamphlets put out by each distributor, prices, and 
addresses from which pamphlets can be purchased out of library 
funds or other funds available to the leader. 



List of Publishers 



American Coimcil, Institute of Pacific Relations, 129 East 52nd 
Street, New York, N, Y-, publishes two series of pamphlets, one 
independently and the other in cooperation with the Webster 
Publishing Company- Subjects have to do with the Pacific Area. 
Typical are Meet the Anzacs; Asians Captive Colonies; China — 
America's Ally; Our Far Eastern Record; Modern Japan; Land 
of the Soviets. List prices vary from 5 to 50 cents. On orders 
of over 25 copies discounts vary from 20 to 40 per cent depend- 
ing upon the individual pamphlet and the number ordered. 

Commission to Study the Organization of Peace, 8 West 40th 

35 



It^ms, T*iiin\t\i\vi^ Tnit^artt Grcat<'r Froodom^ ih :iii excellent study 
guiilt? lo a v^TJely of postwar prublcnis. IjIbI price 15 crnt& 

ForelgD Polii^y A^ociation, 22 East 3Rrti Slreet, New York^ 
N, Y*, pijiliahea Headline Books and Fnrvi-^a Policy RcparLt. 
Subjftntfl (Jeal wjth foreign nations and tlirir 5ocia], economic* 
and poliJisfll pri>tilt"ms. Typiral Hcojllini' fii»^hs: America's 
BanU'trtrnrs: Russia ni ll''«r: Thr Strii^^lr f*>r ^Vorld Ordi^r: 
Look at Latin Antcrim: ATni'rifan Foreign P'flicy: East and 
tf^^St ftj Si«*5^ Fun'ign Ridiry Kiportfi *jn nirf^nt intern Htiottdl 
ptAbl&ril^ ntc ptiblmlie<J nn the let lUiil ISth of e^ch manth. 
Priteii -(botli tieri^^sJ 2.S ot^HlB per copy. Ditffinintfri of 20 jicr rent 
on 10 to W i-opji-t^ inifl of Mi [i*;v i^ent on KM) to 499. Special 
(fiecouniB on nTtiJBLi»I]y lartre airderE. 

National Flannm|£ A&&ocialion, 80(1 Slet Slreel, N. W.. W^aeh- 
inptoni, D. C. ptihlislu's mbitorluls on poftlwjr problems in a 
aeries exiled Piannin^ Fainjdticrs. Typical @nbjecl»: Rcltrf for 
Eiiropr: Otithiok jar Domestic Air Transp<frt : OirtUrok for the 
Railrttofi huhisfry: JFht^n Df^mohilizariun Da\ Comrs: Post War 
fndti3lriali2:ation of China^ Li-st price 25 cenls,. (Ji^scounte of 10 
per cent on 10 lo 50 copies, 15 per rent on 50 1o 100, arid 20 per 
cent on 100 or more. 

OsfonI UiiiverftiJy Precw^ 114 Fifib A-veiiue, New York, N. Y., 
pii:bliflliet^ eerirfi called America in a World <ii W^ar. Typical t'-nb- 
jeolai An. Alias of the i'.S-S.fi-; Rttdio in IVattim*^: Ftitnce and 
ihi^ (F^tr; Wmnt^n in f/jo War Pnuiuvnatti German CeopftHti^s^ 
List ptiee 10 tei^tfl. DiEcoiinta v^-ary from 10 to 40 p-er oent. 

Pnblie Affaire Commitlc^c, .SO Rftekcfeller Ptiiza, New York, 
iN. \^^ pnbli.^hf"^ p^ni]kblcti^ on world and ii»tion:il nffaire. Typ- 
ii^a! i^ubjeets-: Safeguarding Our Civil Libi^rties: Rebuilding 
Europe — After Victory; Freedom from Want: The Airplane and 
Tornorrow*s fP'orld^ Li^t price 10 centP-. Diecount of 20 per cent 
on orders for over 2!^ -mrl under 100 copies: 2-i [>cr cent on 
quantities over 100: gpcciul diwonnte on orders over 500. 

Twentielb Centnry Fund. .^,10 Mesl 42nd Street, New York, 

36 



N. Y-, |iulilielie(> iA useful Btuily and ilititiu^i-on ni^inuitT i^alU^I 
t^arfinw. Fneis and Post War FrobU'ms, ^vtiicli coutuiiif :i ]>ihHog- 
rapli}" of over 200 titles. List [»ricc 50 <]eiits. 

H. W, Wilson Company, 950 Univereily Avenue, New York» 
N. Y., publislies a sericB of books called The Reference Shclj^ 
Th^sse bookfi are colleclions of iipceche^ artirles, and other 
<fri^jj^i«E dociiinenf^ Leariiig upon hilcIj siibjectB as Plans for a 
Ptfst M^«r JVitrtd. frutcpcndencc for Intlia^ J^^aj^c Slabiliza.tion 
uml Inflalioa. And Federal Hi'^ilafiim of l^ahor VaronA, Liflt 
prii:e Sl-2i3 per cupy. Dija^wiiit W per cent. 



37 



Discussion Leadership Bibliography 

IIO"W" TO I-EAD CROUP DISCUSSION. By LcRoy E. Bowman. 

Published by the Wompu'e Press, 600 Lexinglon Avenue, New 

York, N. Y. (1942). 
DISCUSSION r PRINCIPLES AND TYPES. By A- Craip Bainl 

Published by McC^raw-Hill Book Company, Inc., ^^0 West 

42ncl SmeU Nf?w York, N. Y. (1943), 
DISCUSSION METHODS FOR ADULT GROUPS. By Th*inia^ 

Fflnt^lcr. Piiblif^het] ity \he AiiacrkMii Ast)*>ci«ii*in f"J" Adult 

Ed|ir;iiif>Ti, 52.S W^^sl 12nil» SfrcTU Ntw York, N. Y- (1934). 

DISCUSSION METHODS, By Garfaud and Phillips. Y-dume 
12, N». 2 «r Thi' H^'i^Ti'^rr Skrff. piiblifihrd by H. W, Wileoi. 
Company, 950 Univcraily Avcnur, New York, iN. \. (1940». 







3S 




BF TACTFUL ANO nUENOLY . . . 

BE Sj^JCERE AN& KNOW VOUR ^TIJFF.