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TTiis pamplilet is one of n aeries maflt- availaMt- l*j' the ^iir 
Oepnrtmeiil under ihc HCriep litle G. L RimmUabU'. Ab tin- 
general tille indieutes, G. I. Rotijultuhtv puniplilcte* providt' 
material wfiicli orieiitatinn and education cidicer^ iimy iJ!^e in 
ccmdiiclTiip proup diBCiiesions or forniim as part of an oflT^hity 
eduration profiram. 

TTie ronlenl of entli paniplili't has hevn approved l*j" Uiu Hie- 
Inricfll Ser\'iee Board of the American Hiplorical Aspocialion. 

Washiiistoii 25. D, C, 26 June 1944. 

EM 1, O. I. Roundtable.' Guidf fur DiHt-urmon Lt'oiitTs in pub- 
linhed for llie information of all enni'enied. 
[A.G. 3CK).7 (26 .Inne 441] 



Chief of Staff. 


J. A, ULIO. 

Majiir Gi-nvral 

Thf Ailjiiltinr (ivtu'rni. 


{Aildilinnal ropit'j* i*lion]il l»e reqniHtioned from USAFI, Madi- 
son. Wisconflin. or nrarr-st Overt^en Braiiolij 

Guide for 
Discussion Leaders 



I. Why dfscussion groups in th« Army? i 

II. Stimulating interest , , , - 3 

III- Choosing subjects Ti 

IV. How to lead discussion 13 

1. Informal dltcuhian greup. r ...,.-..-.. ^ .. - , - 14 

a. Punvi ditcuHJan ...,,..... 23 

3, Sfnglfl-ipaokar forum . , 24 

4- Piclogui - afr 

5p Sympoiliim . - - - - - ... - 27 

6. Dsbalo 27 

7. Ou«1ian box , , - 29 

V. Group discussion in isolated uniti 30 

V(. Checking the result! 32 

VIL Reference materials 34 


Jf ^ Jf 

L Why discussion groups in the Army? 

OnrH ie an Amij" of citizens Irainetl in deiiiocFalic ways. It is 
made up ol' men eduralecl al {luhViv nA:]niah mu] iiiu\ers\tieA^ 
pxpcriciiced in Imsinees and profeBsioiial life, accii^Iomed to 
ri'udJng jiowepapcra and nu^azine^ and to drawing Gut liuoke 
from piibJic libraries. They liavc li«lent.Ml !o radio (comment alora, 
attended and lakt'n ]>art in fonims, .-ifirted petitions, and joined 
rausefi. Tliey are Aniem'aii eitizens who are need to asking 
queglions and to holding opinions ahont cvtrythinj: that touches 
their livpp, 

Whether their opinioni) are we]] foiuided or not, they exprcee 
them freely. To tlic extent that thny do not h;ive facts from 
which to draw conclneiong, their opinions are lik<?]y lo b*; nn- 
Honnd. If lliey lark facts, their morale may be weakened by 
uncertainly almiit the purposet< and proltahle results of the com- 
bat for which l]iey are so liji-hly trained. 

One of tlir most efl'cctive ways of making it possible for men 
to pet at the facts and to prc^parc tlieniselve?^ for the problemr^ 
that await them as citizenn after the war is to make it possible 
for them to take part in informal discussion groups or forums. 
Sncli discussions afford a chance lo cherk informatJon and lo 
compare and iesl onl opinionf^. 

This pamphlet tells how^ to organize discussion groups and 
fonime thai will serve lhir» impnrlmit ediicatinnal purpose. 

Tlie oLjei^tJvcFi of a f)iH;iiti&ioii |jrof;r-ani in ilit Army >ire: 

1. To fiiriiitih inforRLatioi^ not utherwi.^e uvailalile lu tro»|>}<, 
on inlcrndtioiial, ndlional, commnnily, and personal prob- 

2. To train men in democralic methods of sUidyiiig and eolv- 
inp conmmnity, nalioiial, jiiiil intenintionul probU-nm. 

3. To offer men opportunity for orderly e!«elianpe and adjust- 
ment of individual opinions on public jssui's of contempo- 
rary in»p*jriiinrr. 

4. To strengthen mnrale hy a»i:ii^ljnf; men to ret-o^nJze, ana- 
lyze, and understand proldems that othrnvise may trnuhle 
and eonfut^e them. 

Warning:! It is important th;it all nffioerw who arc "livfu or 
who as^^urne reNpoji^ihilily for ciri-anizin'' itr for leading; Army 
dis<;usdions interpret the third objective with care, in phra&in[j 
thiK objective ihe emphai^is has bi-cn ]>luecd di-libcralcly upon 
indh'idual opinions. It in di-eirrd that officially ronducled off- 
duly dj^ruhtiions alteniiil neither to JTidoetrinale men willi a 
partieidar point of view nor lu lead them to any type of action 
aueli as passing resohitions^ initiating petitions^ or otherwise 
cryslallizinf: a group opinion. The ] of the meelings 
should be that of offeriufE informalion and providinjx opportunity 
for study. The leader should meet his (iroup wilh lite attitude 
of an educator^, not wilh ihat of a propagandist, 

II. Stimulating Interest 

For pome lime discujision p;roups and forunit* of one type or 
anotlier have been an active part cif off-dnty ednralion in many 
Army i^amps and commands. The snccess and persistence of 
many of these <^roup^ make it ohvitiUK thai lliin \^ ji kind of 
arli^ity in which many Army men are interested. Research 
studies within the Army have found personnel to be equally 
inieregted in discussin-; problem* related to the war and prob- 
lems relattrd to the home front. 

It is 1o he expccled. however, thai a relatively nmalT propor- 
tion of any organization will show sustained interest in organ- 
ized diseitssion as a phase of the off-dniy edueationaJ program. 
For those who are interesled, there is no better way of strength' 
ening their understanding of the war and eonsequently rheir 
morale llian hy mental exercise on aignificaiii and worlh-while 
questions, Tlieir minds, hi any ease, will be inquiring and active. 
Thhikin^ troid^lesome problems through will nirengilien theif 
good mora]i\ That, in turn, in likely to hecome contagions and 
to have a good efTet-t upon the morale of others who do not join 
in the discussion groups. 

Any military personnel may want to join voluntary discussion : 
offirers, warrant ofHcrna, enlisted men, WAC personnel, or nun^rs. 
Groups made up of all these classes of individuals have been 
successfully organized. The decision whether lo limit attendance 
to one or more of th(»«e elasF^es must he made in light of ioeal 
condition** within tJie command. It is not inipoftr^ible aW lliat 
civilians who work and live at an Army |jc)*i| may waiit to join 
in organizt^d diseuri^'iiin. In most innlances, it is preferable for 
them to have their own group; hut again iti this matter the local 
situation will rule. Whatever decision is made to limit attend- 
ance should be taken with the purpoae of creating favorable 
eonditiotis for freedom and informality in discussion. 

To organize a snccessful diseu^J^ion group it is eseential to 
determine, hrst, the quewiionfl thai the men will want to diseuHa. 
The special interests of the men at the time of organizing the 
frrrit meetings in particular must he taken into account. Remote 
and academic topics will misfire; topics of immediate concern 
to tiie men will enahfe the leader to reach his objedive. (See 
Section III, Choosing subjcrtf*. ) 

An.oflieer respon^ble for orfi^anizing a vohuitary discussion 
group is advised to do more than annnunre lliat at 19,30 on 
Thursday there will he a meeting of interested personnel to 
organize diFic:uasionF4 of current and postwar issues. The leader 
or sponsor of the group should do i^nme Apade work firflt. The 


foUu^ini! ddi^vices will lii-lp litjii ilftt^niinii^ liu^ iiKiiiy |>i.-rr4oji<: 
are iiitere&led and wiial HLibjcrlr« lli^^y \vunlii Jikt 1u Ltik :i]>i>ijL 

I. Alt inierehl igii4-!sli4iiitiui>-r : A .--luiyl r|iiei4LioTiiiuirL- rjii 
be quiokfy j>r('p;ire4l ;iJiil iiiJiiii.'()>rni|ilii-il. Il .-^liiiulil i.'i.knt:iii» l^ii 
lypet^ of t|ne^«finll^. 'l'llc^ Jirst hill iiii|Liirr u]ii'lJif-r llii> jiicii ure 
iiiUTf^stt'tl ill ^11 oj>j>orliHjiL\ Ut (lisnt^.^^ iiiiiler iiiforinrd JfiiiltTi^ 
HiibjeolB haviiL<^ in iln ullli w^ir ntu[ j>i>^|h:ir problff^ihr^: uhetber 
ilu'V wtkiilil |jrc'f<T ti» ln'iir jui I'^ptrl jiivi' ii '^lii»rl Ijilk on th<' 
|>ri>]»leiij^ 1(1 Ue lollitneil b^ ijiir?j|irj|i<;; or kIi^lIjot \\ify ^oiiJil 
pri-'fer nimply to bear tipt^-iiil lerliircrs. The seroinl lype of ipje?*- 
tioii will enile<ivor lu ilitn'^civi-r ijili-rrr^lK in spit'i-ifir rjue^^tioiis. 
Tbree y/ay^ of jrellinji ifiis infiirniMliciii iin- j^iijififskuL Om' is lo 
let tbf men iimki:' a free Hioiiv by writiiiu ibe thiibjerlH ibey 
would cliuoRe on fle\~er:il liliiiik liiie.n I'nllowinu ;i shtleineni like: 
"On ihr bni's l]i.'lo\s urilr llir ,<iijliji^rts wbirli yon ^vonbl Hki"^ 
In i]isriir4E<^-" A -;eri»n(l \Miy i^ lo lii^t a (iu/en or rncm- ^^nbji-i-lr^ 

Curreut Affairs Forujii QuefitioDnnire 
It ia proposed to orgatdze a current affaire fotum or dia- 
cuHsion groap for interested personnel to meet one evening 
a week. Ydu can aei^iet the ofliear in charge to plan a pro- 
gram of th^ grealer^L interest to the g;reateat niunber of men 
hy checking the ouawera to the queetiona below: 

1. Would you like to know junrc abfiul currCDt aftaitB? 

yea □ no n 

2. Which of the folloving meihorfs nf leapnin^ ahout purrent nlFaii^ 
w<>LjLd yuu prEfi:r? Chert odh. 

G Speech hy an aiithoritv^» followed by qutaiion period. 

n Speech by an duihortty. »iihoui ei ciueaiiun ptinod. 

G Infcrriiial diacubbiao of current ijlTaiiB under Iroined leaders. 

3. Check below three &ubjecE£ ivltich you personolly vfould be moBt 
interested lo dis^uRE or lo hear dinniiised: 

National Afjairsj laiertiatiofial Prot^enn^ 

□ PIht& lor [joAlwar rniploy- G Colooifll policies 

mcnl G Lend-lea&c 

□ ProbloQid of amaU bu^ini-ds G Price of la^iliTig peace 
G Social fi^curity G l'ri>pagando in KQrtime 
[J Universal military iraining 

PerRonal Affairs: Enemies: 

G Educational opporlunilieA foi G Germany 

Moldiera D Japan 

D MarriflKe in i^anime n What ahoui ihc War Crim- 

G] CITcrt of workiDi; wivdd un inah? 

postwar tuiployment 

G Russia 
G China 

G Britain <iiid tlic Brilibli 
G Francn 
G Balkans 

J. Sugnest below Mibjci^ts in wbirh yoa iire inlcrpetcd but which 
have not been mentioned under iiRm No. 3: 

(Cradt- and OrBaniiationl 



pelecrcd from among iiiternationftl. national, community, and 
pergonal prohlems. After each piibjrct a blank is provided- The 
inelniciion accompan^'in^ the lift ehould at^k. thai from three 
to five cljoicee be cliecked. A lliird way la to combine ihe two 
methods ohove. Below the check list the man may be asked to 
write on blank lines any Piibject in which he is inlererted, bnt 
which ha? not been included in the list For a suggealed ques- 
tionnaire see Figure 1. 

Tlie Jeader ^officer or enlisled man) preparinp the qnestion- 
nairc will deride whelher lie i^ill ^et more authentic iitfomiul ion 
from llie men by having the questionnaires unsigned. Thif disad- 
vantage of nsing uni^i^ed questionnaires is that an opportunity 
i* lost to secure the names of interested individuals. 

2- Announoemenl : Once the plans for holding a meeting are 
made, interest may he sirmidaled or maintained by ajmounce- 
Dienls in the camp newspaper^ over tlie local broadcasting eya- 
tern, on slides during movie showings, or at formations. Such 
anuuunremeni* are useful whellier tbey deal \iith preliminary 
meetings to determine group intereeis or with information about 
the time, place, and subject of a spei/ific di&cuesion llial has been 
decided npou- 

3, Bulletin boards: An obvious way to stimulale interest in 
discussion group* — - proposed or already fnnclioning - — is to 
maintain well-located bullcliu hoards. Posters, maps, newspaper 
chppinge, and photographs shoidd he effectively arranged, A 
clearly printed beading which gives the discussion subject can 
he used to tie the whole exhibit together. 

Aiiutlicr liulleliii Iiiiard clevirc^ ]» lo iii^kf^ a li^ rif inlripiiinp 
qucslioiiB whit'h are boniitJ lo tume up ilurin^ ihc dit^rii^i^iiiii. 
Arraii^K ihem imcler stuiip f^udi hoaJiii" ap "Ho yoii ever won- 
der — ?'' and place ji nlo^aii iieluw like ^'Come Id nnd fiel 

I he anawere."^ 

Malerjiil on bulletin hoards fihuu]d be re^nlurly elmnjced, 
Biillelin boards on wbirli (■\liil>ilB are not etnistanlly Hianged 
are of no vahie whiifhiiever. 

Yon do nol have lo dittcard llie ideji of jxisien; and map8 
bc^cauEe yun eaniini retpii.^ilion ibcni- Homemade onee^- lhere*ft 
al k^ast one fair arlit^L in every cintfil — ciri^ often more intereel- 
provokiii<x Uiiiii profc^onal prodiit-tionu. Every a^^reu<ilJon of 
men foJlowti with interest llie i-reutionis of its members. 

4- Moviei^: Films ^liown in ibc Army often leave niianswered 
qnefltioTiK in the niind^ of the andienee. Tbe le<id<'r ran rapitalize 
itpun by liniint^ thi- ditH-iintiion of n ]nirticidar i^ne ini- 

mediately after ibe i^bciwin;; of a slimnlaliiifj fibn. For example, 
'niie Ballli' of Kiissia" in ibe "Wliy We Fj^il'^ series mav ^riniu- 
late a lively rlis^'usBioii on lliu |rcirtiwar ;tspiralions of the U-S.S,R. 







Similarly G, I. Movit- n■icilw^^* oflcn proviile provocalive din- 
rii>4f*ion maJi'rial: C I. Movir }{eleutie Nu. J3 roiilfliiis a i^ertioi] 
i^u11e<| "The Duh'h Tradilion." ^vhiell imty lie iiiM-'d as a slarling 
poiiil Tor lalkiii^ ovir wUai shmilc) lie 4U»nu ahout rolomee in ihc 
pni^lMiir perioil^ 

5, Exhibils of hoikki^ and peHo*lk-aIs: LibrariattH kiio^ Low 
1(1 arrmiiri^ i.-xlirl>ils for llic piirpotie uf .--n^i-t^tttiJt^ r<:d<lii||> U* iJic 
men. Siriiilar exliiiiil^ rHiiled It* n piibjtvl rliH^'n Utr ilii^c-ii.'^fioii 
may ]>e itrran^^ei] liy the leader \vith the lielji of a liJtrariaii and 
L-an be wl up in eilher library or serviie einb. By sn[j;^eslin^ 
prelinifnary recnlini:^ fxliibils will not only 8liniiiljite inli'rej^i in 
un Hjirioiiiii-ed rlii^'ii?4sion^ but will also leacj 1<> more Tiiformed 
disi^ns^ion on tb*^ pari of *troii]> meniliers wlio do aonie read- 
infi. The exhibits, lied in witfi dt.s^'Orir^iiiri plans by nnan^ of an 
arre^ling poitler or i';irj|^ ejMi he used eillier lo proinoli- ibe idea 
i>f jironp diseiL^Hion or n |rarlreiilar niee^lin|^ ibaf lias been an- 

Boonced. The a(lva»lapes of library or service elul» eshiljite of 
books and periodicalB arc Iwd. Thf'so (?xliil»tB are eeeii by larpe 
numbers of men when their minds are relaxed and rcccplive, 
Second — and this is purti<'iilarly true of library cxhibil^ — tliey 
are seen by officers and men who have finflicienl iniellcclual 
interest to seart}» for reading materials. Amon^ this type of 
personnel are fonnd tlie indivichials who will most desire to 
takt; pari in disi'iisaion. 

6. Oi^oni/inji eonimitleeB : Either before promoting a vol- 
uiitiiry dlBenssion <^roiJ|> or vfry soon after ihe initial publicity, 
it may be an excellent plan nndci" aome circnmstances to invite 
a half dozrn oflii'ers and men In form iin ori^ani^in-i conimillct^. 
The purpose of liavini; ijuvh u committee is to slart ihf f-roup 
off with tlie eslal>lisbed policy of having menilier^ of the fi^rnup 
determine their own program. More sustained intere^l in .my 
voluntary arliviiy ia often set^ured if tlie participants have a 
^are iu deciding its i»elbodB aiid specific objcH'tivos. The sug- 
gestion for the inclnsion of Imth oflic-erf; anr] i^nli^lcd men is 
made hernurte it ha.^ been found by experience that fret? die- 
cnssion on a common ■n'oniid by holh adds ^ratly to the inter- 
est ill llie activity. Oflirr^rs wiiu join witli enlisted men for thi^ 
purpose mufil at't as fclhiw inqiiirerw if the full benefit of eucb 
a joint aL-|jvity is to be atlained. 

Naturally care must he exercised in Uie selection of men in- 
vited to form the committee. It is preferable to invite 
who may have already expre.ssed inlere^pt in \]ic program, it 
will assist the work of the committee if some of iheni bave had 
experience on similar L-ommiltees in professional^ businerit;^ or 
community life. Each one sln>uhl ideally have two character- 
ietics. His intellectual interests should be stich that he realises 
tlic imporlanee nf a citi/.enry informed on public issues and that 
he understands the vahic of diecnssion as a method of study. 
Hie personality shonld be one tliat will enable him to .sell the 
program to other men with whom he is associated. 


7, Portional invitation^: UsunHj il h pnstii1>1e to flisrover 
wJk^il iriflivEtJu^ls are likely tu Idvc' i>i|ieri^il interi'Ki in foniiiis 
and djeeiissioii g:roiq>*i. Interest ipieF^tiunii'iiri:-?*. if sip^it^d, will 
give one clue. Casual conversation may offer another. Members 
of sijcli a conimiltee as tliat c1eaeri]>ei] above shnnid be able to 
sujj|jly namc^ of other persons also. The ofliecr or enlisted man 
who ia organizing the program wouhl do well lo jot down any 
namrH he is ahle lo t^ei-iire in [In^ roiirsr of ]u» normal eontarts 
willi oilier^- Bolh leader and eommittee mendiers eaii ^lininlalc 
interefit in the meetings liy iei^uin^ t^'-'''^**"^^ invitaliouB to afleud. 

III. Choosing subjects 

Clkoosini; suhjeetri for fomms or disrnssion [iron|>H is a critical 
part of organizing the activity. No matl^^r what mellkod nf select- 
ing subjeetri i.s ;iilo|)ted. it ,'<bi>iild roHnJi in a rhoioe which will 
hold ihi^ group together. The li-<ider nniy liave in mind epcH'ifie 
.^ohjeetH whieli be personally believer are important for the men 
to diseiiH.4, He fihonld remember, however, thai be is iironjoling 
a voluntary iicli^ily. He- ni"<^ds In fio'l Kid>jeel* upon which be 
can expect to make a snereWul start. Ouee the group is orgun- 
ined, be will have the o]»portunity of selling subjects for ^hiili 
ibe iiiemberj# — if apprc»ached *VohP dnring lb'' development 
period — might exjiress bllle enlbn^iasm. 

One caution irs lo be observed in rhoosing snbjeetf*. No enhject 
will lead to a valuiible disi^ussion nnlen^ ihe essential farts are 
avaibihie to the group. Limit, then, the ehoice of snhjects either 
to thoHe for ubirb aileqiiale referenee mi^rerr^iU are al band, or 
lo those for wbiefi Mime jivailalile expert ran supply ibe faels at 
the meeting. Unless tltis eantion ir^ observed, discussion meet- 
ings are likely to fail in their purpose an<f may end in bickering 
that reacts unfavorably upon mnrab'. Il follows ibat trivial and 
highly personal snliject^ thai may lead lo a ^^gripe session^ are 
lo he studiously avoided. 


I- Aiiui^si»^ (if iiilrri>[ c|ui'htiiiiMiLijrt'H: '\'\i'}-^ i-« ittu- iEiL[>iirt:iiiI 
ir^ of ihp (||jt^liimii;iir(^ flt'^irnbi-rl c.'jirliir. In rouiiliii}- llir^ voUv 
for qiicslioiid c'li''i.'ki.<l i>r li?<h'i! by lln' ruLri. ri Mil! Iir holfifiif 
to ri;arraiige them m ihe urder of prufiTcncr as iiiJicaled by 
the tmmbcr of votes ret-eived by each. Tbi' U-adcr can ibiiP 
get a roiifzh Uh'ii of tbe ^oricnil in^fri'si cif bis j;niiiji. Tbe 
H|>e<:iiie Hnbjcrls jtrofprre*! wi[[ bc!p biiii di-lcniiiiio wlifther, 
in tbe maju, ibf men arr inliTi'Sti-il iji nirn-ni war or in por^l- 
^iir iincfllioii-?. ulirlfn'r lln:'\ ^vaiil In *li*<rii^s -u!>jci'|s of iiijlj- 
lary. liili-nuilJoiiaL iiaiioo;ib i'oiiijiiojot\. or |M^rsiiii^i[ iitiport. 
All :iiialy8is of t[ii> son will \iv. bi'l|)fiil 'ilso ro ^i pro^rajii 
vi»rrimitl(H\ In U'^iiii^ (!u- LOuKsis il ik liiil io-i'ei-^:ir> for tbe 
leuder or bis rronjniltci^ if fje liai^ on»', lo rlioose llioi^e siil>- 

jects wbiiii ba\.' Hu' lari^csi o Iht i»f voin*. Tbe data from 

tlie ijnrslioioiarri.' may be ii-ed r:il[irr as :i |>nidr lo rlie run^e 
*»f inleresi lln'v (jispbiy. lin? eboirt- of *)ue^lionj^ for <bsriis- 
tfioii muM bike iolii jii-roiinl tbe ;i\:ii|;ibiblv i»f reference 
njalerral fur sMirly, ibe jin'serirr in ibe eoionnoid of hiiitalde 
exjjerls, I bo jiid^iiienl of I lie lead it and bi^- I'oimoillee, tbe 
poJieies of tbe conouaTidoi^ o^ieer, tbi- timeliness of the Mi)*- 
jectfl F<iigge!4led, and similar eons! derations. 

2. Pro^rum i-otnmillre: Il bas already been ftlressed rfiai 
inleresi may l>e struiiilated h^ ni^Oi'' an or^ani^iii;^ eonimiller. 
If <i eojnmiller h nsi.'rL tlie best uay lo nuike lY ffferlive is lo 
^ive it llie s|>i'eific job of ]danriiiii> ilu' jtm^ram. Tbe mem- 
bers ran evainine the d:i1a seeured li) lln' diidiT from Inleresi 
i||jei4licinn;iin> and ran adiT ibeir o\^ii ideas mIiooI tbe firefi-r- 
eiiee^ of Jin-ii vxlio an- likelx lo allcnd ibe )ne('lin<£S. If ibe 
eummittee is rsdlrd lo^ellnT earl>. it I'an assist i\\ ihe prejiara- 
tjoij of ibe i|neslioiinaire. The i-omniillee ran also ilt-lerniim- 
wbat use sball he made of experts: \vb<il evperlp^ ma) be 
avaihible: wheilier lo |d;io smiill iOid in fori mil di^eiissioii 
groiifts. birder formiir^. or |iane] diseiissioiis^ uheri an<l nfien- 
tbe mpeliriui4 will be held; wbelher ■finale meelinjis nr a serreb 

i^lioiild be pluiiirf*f). K a tierietf 1^ ^ei|lr<1 iipuu. the cojninitlee 
I'iiii selert ii iitlr Utr il like "<'.jmi|) Blank Korum'" or "G- I. 

3. PhraMn^ ihp i|iieMioii: Wlipu .1 lopir hfm heen decided 
upon. »l iR im|H»iianl to plirart' il hh i» diN-ij^RnhV que«tioii, 
SiTcli Ji i|Tiefllion will dri^w allenlion sliar|>ly lo a niajnr igBiie 
ci^i^ociated wiih llir topic- Mo^l rh'Ii fjiieBtionB should nfk for 
a '^es^' or a ^'no" answer Fcir exajiiple^ ;»j*Kiinie ihal ihe 
f<i]bject for di^'iJit^ioir is the type i>( et-oimiiiic nnd political 
syjileni ihrtl niiiy i?nier<ie 111 France after the war. A topical 
ldir?sin^ of this mibjcci Jikc^ "Fo*^lwar France" ie relativeJy 
iiiiinlere^tiiif- »nd cerliiitily inrlirali^r^ nn diHi-nM^ablc isxiie. The 
i]ueBtion, ^^Will ihe French Re]>iihlic- live a^ain?" niake^ a 
better phrnsinp. it iuvitt^p ihe marRbaling of facts ubont 
French eetinomy iind }toli1h^s iimurid like alTirriTHlive ^uid nef>a- 
live positions which may br lakeu *vilh respect to the ques- 
lion. Sometimes a IcaiW may he tempfeil to phraise bie 
qiieriion i^o Afi merely tn <isk for jni'oriiLHlinii: "What sort of 
government for pttslwar Francey^ This type of <|i]estion may 
occasionally appear appropriate, but it in never an strong a 
sprin^hoiirfl from which to laimch a discntwion as a question 
that points the isenr clearly. 

IV. How to lead discussion 

frrenp dir^cii^srcm ran he ori^aiiiKcd in :i iiinnlrer of diiTert'ut 
ways. Tbt^ nietJiorls ns<-(l in a ^iven command will depend 
npon the local Aitnalion as judged by ibe rndividnal wbo 
takes tbe lead in the planning- In ime niiit, small and in- 
formal discn^iun groups muy be preferred, wit}i little tise 
of pnbbc speakers. In another, the popular American fonim 
for a larjic audience may he dewired. 

Six common methods of discussion are described, Il ic^ 
recommended that the lea<ler study in particular what is said 
about informal disi'Lissi on. Even if one of the more Formal di^ 

cuasion scltinge h chosen as suitable for use iii a given ronkmanil, 
utauy of tlie ^ui^get^iiiin^ fur i-tmilnrliag inritmial discus&ione ivili 
bu found applicable to tbe panel, tlic forums and tbe symposium 

1. Informal iliec-uesion group: Uuilor Uiouglitful nm] effee- 
iTve leadi^rship infoniMl iliH'Uh'sioii is ibe b^'st of all nii^lbods of 
allaioing ibe olij<^clivcs ouliiiieil in Section I. This is Iruc bu- 
cauge ibe small and informul ^roiip encourages parlieipation by 
every member. Maxiniiim learning cif fatts aud cscliange of 
viewpoJnlH in poHnible. Morale is bttilt up in ejvh indiviibral 
who fi^Js he baft bad -a clirei-i share in ihc proceeilin|;s. Further- 
more, die; bi:sl way to learn ia by (biing. If, Uierrfore, one of 
the goals of tlir^cusFiion is training in ex|il(iring fm-ls an<] opinions 
related to important puidic issues, informal diseussion i-roups 
■will provide lhi& trainini- for a murU larger proportion of group 
members (ban ibe more formal mellioils suitable ^vben attend- 
ance ia large. 

Jnfonutd discussiim groups may profitably be limilcd hi size. 
Give and tuLc of rjiiestion and npinicin lietween all members 
normally will ncil be attained iu a meetiu"; of miicb more ihan 
twenly or twenty-five persoua. Fifteen or uixloeo ie an ideal size, 
tboii^h ouly six or cipbt are needed for a lively diseussitin. In 
order to attain a desired size, it is often praetieal to organize 
two or more [groups whieh meet at different times or places. At 
a large camp where dislanees are jj^reat it is a j^ood idea Iu hold 
several meetings at various lotrulioriH wliirli will enable personnel 
to attend without having io walk long distances. 

A good leader can make big L-oulrihutions to tbe HiireerM* of 
mriirniul di^cnssion. If be is tactful and friendl)' in personality, 
be will probably be able to draw out tbe best in the men who 
make up tlie groop. It is a very bclpful thing in a lively diacuB- 
sioTi to have a tolerant leader who accepts a jiarlicipajkt^a opinion 
as something to be considered tlumgbtfully iiiHtead of jmnping 
in at once to refute a view that disagrees with his own- 


The leader shnuliT be ahlc Xo think <]uick1y and to espresB 
him^lf rk'^rly jjimI ^^itti ernnnmy nf >vor<U .mil lime. Tf he Iihjs 
ji good ^en^e of Itiiiiior, he will be alth- li> eaee lerieion from time 
1o lime l>y joking rt-niiirkK. The hcllrr be liket* bis job Jiinl llie 
ilerper his inler^vt in Jl»c' ^nbjeel umk-r ili^ms^ion, the mure 
Micressfnl the whole allair ie likely to he. Thai of course does 
not nieau lli;il lie sliriiihl iiiJopl an air of arlifu'ial Jirarlinesfs 
hnl rjither ibat ho shoiihl have a gi-nuiiic friendly iiitere^l in biH 
«irnijp iii)d lis |>rnhlrni!*. Siieb :t Icarler will w^iTil to frrl I'oii- 
lidenl of liirtiM-lf in handlini; the |iartii:iibir d]^eii8^i(iii tecbiiiciLu: 
ibat 19 iiMvl, and be xtilj want to he ae familinr nn pos&ihic with 
the siihjecl ihiil Ik i-l»nnen for ^Eiidy. 

Tbe8c may ^^eeni very lii^h ijiKilifiealioiiH, hnt it is s rare com- 
mand that will tit)} produce many men who run nieel. them. 
Morenver^ il Hbi>ijld not he fnrpirien ib^H. r^kill deve]o|>r4 hy prae- 
tiee, Somettnkea men eati he fonnd who already have bail jiraelirc 
ill h-adin<r irronp ilij^enbibiion^. Dibf-rJii will lind that their gkill 
will iiirrea^e a^ ibe di^'UF^Kioii tl^onpt? continue. And, us will be 
8hown laler, even a leader williont experienre eaii do a <:ood 
jub if he takea the trouble to prepare carefully for his meetings. 

a. Relation of ihe It^ailer Ut the ^oiip: The reiaHonj^liip of 

a di'^ruK'^ioti leadiT to bis irrciup differt^ from the eonventinnal 
idpa of military iea<lerfibip. Unlike a mmniander, a disi-ussion 
lender does not lead by example or altempl to insj>rre eonlidence 
in bimMi'll as an i'\piT|. He ninsl not \ii: a pro]>a^amlisf-. On tbe 
contrary, he mnsi bimnelf be iui imniirer. He wins eonlidejiee in 
bin lr4idiT>^bip hy bis ai^ijoainlaikre wilb tbe hai^k^ronncl nf the 
dit^-n>!siMn and hy j^roposin^ a way lo liie ne\l step in ibe dis- 
eUKHiiin, He does not fitke tbe next step and ex]>eel tbe other 
members to follow. He ik in etwence a <rood trarber ralher than 
an aearlemie leeUirer. 

Tbe skillful leader opens tbe iliseuBsion with a brief elatemenl 
or tbe qne^'^liori ;nid the r^:iJieiit fsicls related 1o il^ This takes 
j^erbaps five mninli'^. Tben he starls ihe disrnssion wilb a 


piiiiilfrd (|iu*titioii. He|)fl the (ttsriitt^ioii alivr, if it faltrrK. hy 
hiininiiiriKiii*^ |iointi4 iiijiti' or i-nMirs cmisijlrri'il iUirl by iu'^kiii*' :i 
<|i]estioii thai reilireria tht- t:ilk. Ai iIh- L-rid hf ^LiminnrtKrA all 
major pointR ihal have hp*-n fonftiilrred, willioiit aTtemjiling to 

riiig Ja^l pi>irtl \e ijnporlaiil. Tlie li.Milfr iiiu^t avotd lliu loiiij}- 
talion to c)im-h ihtr i|i^riJ»vion wilh mhiif slaied i-unrhiKiun. He 
iiiiij^il ri'nu^nilirr lli:it oiit' of his chief dutJeB te \o lenvr- all ■'mi- 
i'}|iF*ioris In llic indiviilLKit. 

Th(? Biureths of a diBcuasinii i]e|ieiiils iipnn the tlioiifrltlfiFhiL'Sfi, 
bri;u<UI>. iiTiil njn*Timiinli''hn"i^f; i»|' lh<- lalk llial liik<i^ jihiri' — imt 
i]|i()ii SLK'li tjii^ihle TfSiillH jkS n^iirlLi.'fiiiiiH n'urlit^il. If ait eiili>^tod 
perecmi h srU^vicA »a \v\tt\fr^ rl \& witte whciieviT pu^eihle to have 
aji (iflioer prer^ejil al iIk- nifcliri;:. Sincr i>ff'ihjr\ riliir:Lliriii is a 
fmx'liim of citmiiiaiK], n rejircst^nlalivt; uf Lhi- coiikfiinuitt^r 
tihonhl tuee thai ihe objeHivi'fl iif ilifrci'iifwion ure iitlained a8 ont- 
lim'fl here. 

Till' feadiT, *jf foiirf^i.", iired iiol i'eL^I iliiit he sIioliU never etnte 
hij^ uvtu opiniojK There wre many oi-eHflionE^ whfn he irnn dfi »n 
ill a iiiajiiKT tlial wiH moI jeof^j^rJi'^i' his sl^iiitliiL^ atn chairman 
ol" tlie u;ronj>. lie rxprtfii^os hie owji opinions iis ihe ollierj^ do 
when the opportnniiy ot'ciirfi, IjuI he is ii»^iiu]]y more rtnroeftflful 
in hia leader^hi|i he reduces the amount of dijitciissron time 
wliieh he personally nses. 

Many leaders ussi^i ihe o|>eiiin^ slalemi^ril or final *<iimmHry 
or hotli of them tci int-inhi-rs of ihe ^nM]|>- -a di-vire uhirli is 
partieidarly ueeftil when siome ■;n»n]» mt-inbers are even belter 


informed cm iIk- ^iiltjei-t lliaii \» ihv lea<k-r. Thix is i\n illu^trd- 
lion of ]iu\v ihe leu<Ier run bolli eiiiiiilify liU jn]t and get valuuLI? 
I'diic^itioiiaJ riL'8ii}|p hy <]el(.'|^;iliii^ lertiiiii liisk^ lu olfiers, At^ a 
FurlhiT <'\j»i»|il<\ i\\ one nirelin^ On.- Iradrr mi^lil ask one indi- 
vidual to f^vc tlie inlrodiH'irtry ^l^lemi'iii of fyrls <»nd rcqaeel 
ii ^rond to hjke niitiiilps i^u^^ iiijikr iht' t^iimijiiiry whiidi clo^eti 
ihe mcclinp. In lhi>i rase the Irsulrr wonhl be respontiible for 
ihc opening ifiiet^liiin and for frijiibo^ tlie course of tlic ditM^uti- 
8io>k with neeeesary (|notil)oim and interim rinnkmaries. 

Ii. Pn-|>uralion by ibe Feni]<*r: Tin- leader mupl prepare for 
eacli nn-Ttiiij; ihoroni^liK. 'I'liis is fiir niorf^ ini|n>rlun| llian ibal. 
he he fai^ile in ibe eondm-t of ihr aeliial meeting. By oarefnl 
preparalion a lender cjiii d<i nnu-h loward rtJwnrinp an inlercsi- 
iii*" mi-t'linj' r\('^n if he iK not an c'x|ierieijred rbiiirniart, Thr 
necessary |irc[>Jkra1ioii[i ijni l»e brii'Hy titalerl, bnl ibey reqnirr 
time atnl thon^hi, 

{ 1 1 The leader tiiusI, if por^fiibh'- 1e:im in advance tlie inler- 
e8lri and poinle of view of the hiilividual^ hi bis f^roiip. If he 
ran talk informally wilb ihrm lirfcm' ihr niertiii[^, Im ran leiim 
the iieneral poinl of view uf eaeli and at the t^ame lime hel]t 



cin'li In lifi-onit ai?i]iijiinterl with liini. This will lend to break 
rfowM any BtifTrii'^^' wliicli niuy he naliiral in the firM mt^eiin^ of 
thr f-roiip. 

{2 ^ The leader niiiPl fiiniili:»riKC himself with the subject for 
di&cii6Hion 1(1 the extent nei.-e»sary for intellifzent li'ader.^hip- Tlu6 
does nol meiin that he in ohlij^ed to nijiki' himself an expert on 
iiny MihjiTt lh;it may eoine inio lii^ proiirani. To do eo wi>ii]d 
be preity oliviously in]|ii)iiwihle. But he innnl know rnoii<^h itboat 
ihe impnrliint it^snc-j^ 1o I'MJihle him lo Lei'p llii' train nf talk on 
the- Lrark and mnvin^ furward. l.ikf a f^ooil ini^lnirlnr he nitist 
nol hesitate to aibnit lark of iiifomialion. When a (|ncEtion 
arises, bin ni»rmal |>rnrediiTe in any eii^ie is lo rlin'rl it to Mime 
j;roiip niL-nkher tor answer. Jf no one linllirit^ntly informed is 
present, be ean ^v^lh a feidin^ of perferl atwiiranee j^iifigest a 
source fniin whicli llie nii^^'iiii^ faets may be i^ei'iired. 

I J f The leadrr }^hoiild prepare an outline of tlie eonrse of 

thp dij«'usnion us be fanititep it. He will, either as part of biS 

onlline or H^[*arale|y. pri'pare n lisJ of ipjestions wbieb may or 
Hlioidil be asked. He must mil, however, jiemiil bis prepared 





outline lo become u iilraii jackel for llic di«(?iit^iori. The actim) 
diflcuesion ran Ijc expelled to follow a {liffcrcnt courj^e from ihe 
one planned in advan(:f^ but an oullLiie u'ill a^i^I the leader in 
hh peraonal preparation, ll will aleo help him to dietin^uish 
between major ieeues, whieh flionld be developed ^ben tliey 
arise, and minor or unrelated issues, which sbould he quickly 
pas^d over. 

(41 The leader most decide hi advance whether he will use 
assistant leaders, and must see ihut tliey too are prepared, 

(5j The leader musl dei^idr whether he will use such aids to 
prceentinj^ his basic facts as a Idarklioard, charts, diagrams, or 
otliRt visual aids. He must have any such desired materialH ri:ady 
for use, 

G. Conduct of the mei'tin^: Jn drHrribin^ the dutie-s of tliB 
leader much has already been slated or implied about the eon- 
dnri of the nierlinpp. Ik^re is a siunniary of a number of addi- 
honal detads which the leader must have m mind: 

(1 1 Physical surroundin^rg Hliould l>e as comfortable and in- 
formal as possible. Wbclher Ibe f^roup is seated outdoors or in 
a library, day room, service rlob, ar lent, the membcrw should 
arran<ie themselves so as to he able to see each other. Smoking 
should be permitted. If ihe meeting is held iinloors. the leader 
should he careful that the room is properly ventilated. 

(2) The Icnglh of the meelin^ should be rigidly lin*ited. An 
hour is about the ri^bt lime, h h beiler to close a meeting 
while the interest in ibe subject is bi^b than to rit^k boredom 
by allowing it to continue overtime in order to attain some aim 
or conclusion preconceived by the leader. Many nf the best 
radio forums elosi- in tlie very middle of lively discus-sions. It is 
not necessary to exlian.''t the subject — and the audience, 

{3) To a newly orgaiii/ed ^roup the leader should annoimce 
briefly tlie procedure to be used; that personalities are not to 
be discussed and that comments or questions must bear on the 
snhjeet or be disallowed. 



^4) 5^ti mill ill iiig itiul gfiidin^ ihe (li^cd^icm ir^ tin' inopi im- 
|ii)rl>iJJl j**i* (if llie le^icler clurin*; ihe iirliijil iii(^cl-iiJ<;. Ht' hlinulil 
f£ij»de almost entirely' by agkiii^ iguetiljons^ by briefly citing a 
spprihc cartp fckjlowed by n qiirMion^ or by sumiiuiri/inii. Hii* 
ijiicMioiiJ!; nbould a^k for rfai^onft anti caiiflefl (wliy?U for (acln 
(wbal?), for circumHtaiK-eH umler ^liicli certain lliin^ may he 
Inu' ^wben^ i , for e\|ire«iioiiw of o|iiTtii»Ti (wlial ilo yoti lliiiik? I, 
unci for uumnmn gnmnij iipcin hfiicb ntfine uf^reeiiienl may be 

reaohpfl. The lo-adef ^liouKl uvoid rhelorit'^il qnrrJlionhJ and ^ny 

cjiie^lioji so obviOH8 llial il lan br answered t^imply hy "yes" 
or ^"no/" Tbese usually block di^i'iinBiou. 


Very orraHionally ^ quepiio" reijuiring "y^'' ^^ "no"^ for an 
ijnewer, bowever, cnn be aeed effectively. A leader for example 
will filalt" brii^Ry n dofinile position ibnl can be taken wilb 
rei^pect lu an isaue. He will tben ask a member wboni be piiinlK 
ont: "Do yoii u^ec wilb ihat or don't yon?" Tbe member's 



"yes" or "no" unilfr llic rij^hl rirciiinslanrt'js will nlarl a lul fif 
|>ro1retf oji iJir ]Kirl itf tho'^i.- w\ut ilina^re^ (villi kiiiii, :jjii1 l\u* 
dietiu&sioii it* off to a iii^w Ntari. 

^killrnl Iciiderti uill a^k ijueKliiiiiK i>n|y wlit^n iir'^rR^nry. Many 
ilotn\ qiirKlicini? will lojiie from llie i-rtiiJiJ- Thi-y nlumlil Ik: cii- 
c'inirii^eil by rripiully roinnimi: "Thai iH a piottil iiuestion. Who 
can jmtiwer ilii'" The leader usually iieerln only lo ^iJtrU lo eliuii^ie 
the (lirei'iion of ihe ilipniJ^sion, lo hrit»fj ihe memberfi hat-k when 
ihey Wfiiiilcr Ino I'ar. au*} lo hniii£ mil ilijTiTpnL poinlti of view. 
i3t Biillt eonlrollNi|f aiirl i-nonura^hii; participaliotk by iill 
iiiemherj= requires Hnilerslanilioj; autl Infl, The talkitlive mem- 
ber bIiouIiI ho alhiueil imly his ehdre of ibe Time, jind llieii 
^lioiild be thanked fnr bi^ Elalemeot iknil reminileil that everyone 
mue*t huViT Win np|torMiinly to speiik. The ^ilenl member eao he 
eneonratieil lu Bpeak if ibe lotkder wiM ai^k him a direct r|iied1ioii 
ahikiJt which he is known tci por^i^enfl infornialioii or lo bold ni\ 
opinion. Tile iipinionuled memhiT must be led lo mider^laml 
ibat positions iltfTerent I'rom liis are reaM>nubh^ and ihat ihou^lt^ 
fill per^onH do ehani^e their o]>itiioiiB, \^ hen the anerilolal mem- 
ber lamiehes forth inio hJH personal experienn^ al jireal len^lli, 
he must be bandied a? the lalkalive member. The impatient 
memlter 1b lookin<^ for a ijuiek^ lure-all soliilioii and h pi'rliaps 
too lazy to think a problem throiJ<:h. lie needs to he (old thai 
the proeofts of dij^eiiH.sJon eon^isis, nol of giving, but of carefully 
nearebinu; for eonebi^rons npon which eaeh individual iiJ^nally 
nini4l decide for hiniBclf. 

(6 J When tbe iliBcnr^ion wanders too far from ibe subject 



or wJn*n il fjives signs o{ llajipinp;, it is n ^ond llnnj: lo rqummarize 
ihc chii:f points niiiilp up lo tliiU nionitni. TJie <^ia^u^!aioiI tan 
then be redirected by another qiir^lioii From llie Ii^arlt'r. 

(7) Annonnce rln^ nii]>jcti, lim.', plufe, and s|ieL-r:il speuki^r 
(if uny) of llie nr\l nn-elin^ in a scries. If si subjei;! for llie 
next nieetinfi^ has not heen deciJeil upon, take the last minute 
or two to si^ciirc siii^^e^tioiis from l}ie i^roiip. P^ind mil if the 
^roup would like to coiitinne <[iHCU8sinp some issue that has been 
raised, bnt has rot been explored llionmjrhly duriiiji the meet- 
in^^ Or iir^L for ;l r<how of hands on two or ihree other snltjeetti 
uhii'h may be interesting to the members. 

2, Panel dtsrussjoa : A panel i-onsists of a snrall f^roujj uf six 
or ei^ht persons, who carry on a ^nided and infonnal discussion 
before an audience as if llie jKiiii'l wen' meelirij- alone. Thr 
procet^diiigg. of llie panel shonhl he the same as those described 
for informal drscussron: vofunleerini; of facts, askini; qneslious, 
statin" opiniouH — all exprcj^sed wilh ;;enialily, wilh respeel for 
the eoniributions of oilier nu-'oihers^ wiLliniil Kj>eerh niakin^. and 
without making invidious personal references. This primary 
ftinetion should occupy approximately two-thirds of the allotted 
lime — say forty minutes of an hour's meelin*;. The secoI^dary 
fimetion of the panrd lh to answer i|neslions from the audience. 

This discuH^ion method is suitable for iihc when h relnlively 


largi' aiidiciite \» imluijiiito*!. The iliwudvanlage of die method 
iH d»at il <^ojitinL'8 mohl of ilic Jt!^L-ii£^iuii In d»e panfl ilsclf. Tlie 
audieace Uitten^ qikI is piven .1 clianci' to agk qucstious, bul for 
ihe moel part in puKi^ivr nnd retopdvc, 

Pam'l dieoussioiKs, if well mndnctcJ, uni ii^u^lly more interesi' 
ing \i> tlir nuilicncc ihan i^ l}if .'iini-lr-spojiki^r fcitiini. Tln-y pro- 
vide suiririeiiily vcirii^d riash of opinion iinil present a lion of facia 
lo pive even llii- ipiicl oit-mliers of llu? iiiidienre a feeling of 
viciiriuii^ parlicipntitjii. 

Quiilily und Ih^Uh of Irjtdersliip in punel disc-iission are eimiliir 
lo iJiose deRcrilied for informed dif^m^aion. The li'ader miisl in 
addition laki^ sjieeiid eure to nelecl panri members who can 
lliink and sjicuk <^ffrrtively. He mutit uIho lie tt-vrc that they 
pre|>are themselves to diKiiiss Uie snbjecL Dnrinf; the discns^iun 
by ihe [Kinel Uic lejiJer Ikus snJ>Filai]ii:illy die t^.imi; duties a» in 
infornknl disenssion except ihal he fthonld keep hinie^elf more in 
ihe bueki^ronnd as ehairnmn of llir panel. He can do so beeause 
each member of iFir panel is in reality an aSHiHlunl to llit^ h'ader 
and JB responsible for Hjierilie c-oniribniiiniB lo the proeeedhi^A. 
Wlien the t^nhjecl is thrown open to die bon^, it is the lcader''s 
job to recognize appropriate ipieslioni^ and to reject ihoBe not 
bearing on Uie snljjeel or involving persona litii v. Some queb- 
tiont^ he may unswer himself, bnl usually he ^houhl repeal ibe 
question and call upon ciiii: of tho panel lo answer it. By pre- 
liminary annonneement ihe leader may alno lell the audience 
thai they may din'el queslione at parlieular nienibera of ihe 
panel if they ehoosc. In any ease, durini; ihe question period 
ihe leader needs In maintain sirii-l enntrol. On many Dceasions 
this inay bt? ihe loii<'hest part of his assi^inmenl to earry off 
efiieiently ajid wilb ^ood liimior. 

While it in eustomary lo eonline ondienee questions lo a spc- 
i^ifir period* some leaders permit qirr^lionr^ from the Huor at any 
lime. Unlof^ very earefnily limited hy die leader, this prarllee 
may interfere with clfeelive diiicHi^ion by the panel- 
Arranging ihe panel properly will lend effecliveness lo ibin 



form of diecii^ion. Tlie iiii^nihtTH kIioiiItI fare ilir audience. One 
potiRible arranffcnu-iit is illii^lriileii on page 22. I| is important 
thcil fiwU |>iiiic-T nkfiiifier ikdjnsi lii^ rbair so ihal lir ran i^ee every 
other meniher willionl eH'iirl- VUr t'li^iirman will hIao (nid that 
ihe best plai'CH for hi^ remliesl tipoakera nre at tlie extreme end^ 
of lh*T liible. He t^honlil keep the more relirenl memhere close 
to him Fio thai he ean rij^adily draw rhem mil with ilirrct qncs- 
tionr^. if ihe ijtiieter uiiee STt on the fringeti of the pjiiel^ the 
niorp volnble nirmhpre are <piitP likely lo mnnopnlize the 

3. Single^F^peaker fitriim : ThiM is a {^itod typi: of prreenlatjoii 
when an imHvidtial who \» an ^^expert^ and a slroiig public 
speaker vai\ h** secured for the meelhi^, !f a series of such 
forumfi are lo be planned, il ^*ill be iieueasary in all probability 
to eaf] npon a differenl speaker for each oceasion. Sometimes il 
may he poseibln lo invite pnc]> i^peakers from nearby nniversifies 
or |jrofex8ional anci either local assoHalionH. Often eompetenl 
Bpeeiahstfl may he found among the officers and men of the 

The siii^jc-hpeaker fiirum bus ihe disadvantatii; of pr<teentinp 
for contsideralion only one point of view — thai of the speaker, 
Aji occatJiiHial npfaker may Iry lo explain varions poBiti^mfl tllol 
may be taken on the basis of the known facts which he outlines. 
It is neverthtles8 difEirnIt for hinu in HpriP of ihe snoft conseien> 


lioiiF^ elTiiru 1i> iivoul sire^ping Iiik own [»i>iiil itf view more tliaTi 
cklhent. If \\\e iiiMlirnre or any ^izahle rractiuii uf il fciiln to 
ai^oe wllU him, whal follows llic epitecli ie tipl. lo be a battle of 
wiU, Such a liiiiile may try ilie ekill auJ good humor of both 
tlie speaker and the leader-chaiiTnan, 

A second disadvantage of ibc si ngle-spe alter fonini is lliat the 
meeting h based on a lei^lure. Men bear ho many of tbese ibat 
only the best of ihcni i^ot across. Tliis is not to say that the 
xin^le-r^pciiker fiirurii in it poor metliuiL With ihc Hirht speaker 
jiiiil mider a tompetenl (-hairmiin, il ran bt? ]ki{!;hly t^limiilalinjf In 
ibe lliinkin^ of ihc uiidieiire. 

The fuiirlrons of tlie leader nr modemior of ci foriini eon^ipt 
of the following: 

(1) To prepare himself in advance on the auhjet^t- 

(2) To inform ihe audience about forum prorednre — how 
long the speaker will talk, when ibc audii-nre may ask cjue^ilJons, 

wlial kiiida of que^lionE will be rei'ot^'tiized by the moderator, 
and hotv lon^ the ipicstion period wilJ last^ (An address of 
rwi'iity ti> lliirly minutet^ and a i|nestion period of about twenty 
minuter are reconmiendcd. ) 

{3) To introduce (be speaker^ explaining; wliy he lias becR 
invited to speak and sljitioi^ the i|iiestioi] whieli he will dis^'UHS, 
(It is important to tell the uudienee what point of view toward 
(he ipieslion h repro^enled by the s|jeaker.) 

(4l To asrtiire i-ood ipicslionio^ fnm» the Huor. (Three or 
four individuals may be planted with specific ipiestionjH in the 
audience. Or npu'ci. wrillen (fiicrJiions may be sohcitcd in ad- 
vance. The firsi sii4^i|;eslion fits naturally inio the (piesticio pe- 
riod; tlie seeond i^ likely lo make the forum en t-and- dried, 
though it is Mmielimes useful, f 

(-11 To rccoj^ize c|neEtioncrs in parliamentary fashion and 
lo restate fliiilable qnestinnn for ibe speaker. (Aecet>taide <tnes- 
tionti aBk for additional farlH^ for an elaboratton or explanation 
of some HialemenI already made, or for an expression of 
opinion J 


(6| To Irain ihe audience |o i^Uck lo tlie point and lo be 
tolerant of opiiiiuiiH <:otklrLtry to iheir own. 

Two types of audieiii't? nifmlHTv ure jikidy lo n^qinrc flpecial 
handling by the nioderaior. The man who tries to make a (Speech 
in die guise of a question may he stopped by a request to re- 
phrase his question briefly. The man who merely paraphrases 
whal the speaker has already said for the sake of hearing him- 
self talk should be inlcmipled with a remark thai his statement 
has been covered by tlie speaker. Tn general the moderator will 
bavc lo help ibe audience imderMlaud its part by reoo^iizing 
relevant questions and praising ufkusually good ones. 

4. Dialoffue: Tbe dialogue is a kind of iufunnal 1ec:ture- 
ftirum. Its procedure is nmilar to that of tlie fonnn cxcepi ibat 
the leader or moderator acts as an interlch'ulnr. He prcparcH 
as carefully as does the chief speaker. To slart the discussion he 
asks the expert a direct question, Wlien he hai* received a reply, 
he may give some interpretaliori cir rommeiil of Iijm own and 
follow willi another question. Tims be guides the speaker from 
issue to issiie until tbe siibjet't has been as fiiHy pret^ented as 
the time allows. Audience questioning of either member of the 
dialogue follows. 

Because the moderator bas the njtportimity of gnidinR the 
expert and because he may j<lress a position ihat difFerw frcjm the 
latter'e, tbe dialogue need not have the disadvantage of present- 
ing only one point of view. In ihe handt^ of a skillful inter- 


locator it poEBe^ae^ fur a Urf/t: audience advantages Bmiilar to 
those of a panel digeuefliun. 

5- S^inpoBiiim: Thia is aiill uuother lype of forum. By pro- 
viding Iwo or ihree epeakere, each charged with the duly of 
presenting a diiFereut puint of view, the sympoeiuni coTificiou^ly 
attempts to direct audience attention to varioui^ approaches to- 
ward the prohleui under tronHdcTulion. lu ihifl it leaves less to 
ch-ince than doea the infornml dit^ iir^iiiu or the panel diseuesinii. 
It is to he preferred to the single-speaker forum unless the siufi^le 
expert can make a hrillianl prcj^'nlnliou. Naturally its siirress 
will also depend ufion tlie uompeience of the symposium 
ni embers. 

A por^sible dir^advanlage of the symposium is inherent in divid- 
ing the lecture lime helween li*o or three individuals. iVo one 
of them can give anything hut a cursory treatment of his pha^ie 
of the subject. Thus ihe symposium may lose in depth while 
it gains in eompreheni^ivencss. This tendency to lack detailed 
treatment may be balanced by spreading the symposium over 
several meeting:!;, all dealing with the same general snhjecl. 

Participation by the audience is usually more limited in the 
symposium ihan it is in the single-speaker forum or dialogue, 
}iu1 ihe general techntque, i. e.^ the duties of the moderator, the 
speakers, and the audience, are the same as in tlie single-speaker 
forum - 

6. Debate; UnlesH debate is used to stimulale a disi'U?*ftion 



that fciJlowB the lurma] dpeechee, ii will nnl be a con^triirlive 
activity for the educulionnl program. Deliale, liowever, ie attrac- 
tive to AniericanB for two rcaHous. Mot^t of ub have JiBtcncd to 
debates and many of li^ liave taken part in them at echool or 
college: so tlie Betting is familiar. The compelilive feature of 
debate appeals to American amliences. Bui tbe combative atmos- 
pbere of deliali^ itt^niefl the baaie principles of discussion. ThtJ^c 
imply an impartial examination of tbe facte aud an attempt to 
reacb a solution acccplablt from a number of viewpoinls. If 
debate ie used, llie imly way to meet tbis dilemma ie to tbrow 
the subject opeu for discussion by tlie audience wilh tlic debatert^ 
acting as tbe experts. 

There are other ditiadv ant ages to the debate form. Debate 
implies tlial lliere are only two sides — aElimialive and negative — 
to tlie question^ while uumeroiie public ii*»iiefl are many-eided. 
rurtliermorc, all members of each team muat su|jport one side 
or tlie otiier of the proposition regardless of whether they agree 
fully with iL To this extent debatt is forced, artificial- and 

Tbe Hubjeet for delmte muat be so pbraaed that one aide will 
categorically uphold it (the Affirmalive ) . and ihe other will 
opjio^e it (ibe Nci'altvt ) . Normally euc-b leuiii will have two or 
three members. Tbe debate hepiiK* with the first speaker for 
ihe Affirmative. The main speeches allemale from Affirmative 
to Negative until the last ^jieuker for the Negative has fiui^bed- 
In preparing tlieir main speechee the team members divide be- 
tween ihem Xhr rtiatenieius of faei luid issuer* wbirli they wish 
lo make. After the main speeches the rehullal epeeehc.^ begin. 
The first of these is made by a speaker for tbe Negative followed 
by an Aflirniiilive rebuttal, and ^o on. Tn the rebultiil F^peeeboH 
each member tries to disprove or raiee ubjeclions lo points made 
by the oppi>.4Jng team. For this purpose each side has made notes 
of arguments or fact^ advanced by their ojiponenls. 

[ii debating it is customary for specially appointed judges or 
tlie audience tn vote either nn tbi' merits of tbe qnetiliun or nn 


tlie itffeclivejiet^th of the fireefT-^iilutiuni?, Then everybofly ^oe» home, 
having vieweil a purely iK'itdemit- (exercise. To inuke ilebaiea 
useful in ihe Arm)' educcilioiiiiJ prtifirrum a ijueslioii period hy 
the nudieiK-e should replace llie voiiii^. The (]ije?lioMiii^ (should 
be controlled hy ihe eh^irnmti of ihe del>iile. nt^hi^r ihe meihofiB 
already referred to in ihi? pi»ni]>hlet. 

If the dehale is to be al ull effective, the debaler^ uiuel be 
compeleul Fipenker>i<, must he able ta ihijik c|iiu'kly on their 
feel^ and niu&l be aei:|uainted with llie formalities of the dehale 
meUtod- They niusi either he e\pi^rlt! in the suhjeet or make 
ibeniselves sueh by .^^luily^ Eacb leant miisl d<i u "uml ijejil of 
joint preparation of speeehea and study of nrfaimcnls that may 
he advaneerl by their opponenls. 

In conohisioM it n»ay he ^riid ll»at ibe debaie in in general nut 
well adapted to the attaiinnent i>f the objective^ ^iveii in Sec- 
tion I. The spirit of discussion in the Army i*- inlcnded to be 
uue in wbicli the chief purpoM^h are seekirif^ iufurmation and 
exploring a variety of opinions. Since any definite action like 
the passing of rcHolulions is not dcsiri?rl on the |)ar1 of men, 
purtis'^n advocacy of a ^iven opinion — an iniei^ral pan of debate 
— doee not easily fit the Army proj-ram. 

7. Qiie&liuM liux; Thf question ho\ may be used as an aid to 
stimulate an iiiidicm'e >vbii-1i il \t^ feared nuiy not vuhmleer 
i|uestions from the Moor. Il can be usi-d with any of llie forms 
j>f diseui^iun allended by a {|ueslioii period. 

The mei'lniitic.^ of the ijiiesMon ho\ are simple. All llial is 
necessary is a Hlratc^icaily lociilcd juiJ \* ell-ad verliscd box. In 
it inlcrcsled persons may place ijueuiioni:* in advauee of tbc meet- 
in^. If the (|nc>tions are to be wriltei* out and colh'cled durin|i 
a meeting, ihe audience slionld be supplied with sItpH oi paper 
or small cards, Knouf>)i pencils should be on hand to h<dp juen 
who du not carry one. 

The ipieslioii bo\ is :i device which may assist llie leader lo 
control the iiueslionin^ \i'ry ri|>idly, hec^iiL:^^ he can select U't 


aii&wcr in advance only those qneslioTiH lie deeitiw suitable. The 
ilif-ail van tape of thin line is ihul il reiliuTS unilit^nce p;irlieipalion 
ulniosl 111 nothiii^^ with au attendant droji iu inlerot^l. li is 
recommended only for nse al lar^e mectinjie when for Mime 
reason it i^ deniraMe In limit ihr rani-r of ijuestione or wlien it 
is believed that spontaneous (jueations may not cume from the 

Another use for the ijuesliini liox is to roJIecl ideas for future 

V. Group discussion in isolated units 

Commanding ofTieers and orierilatiun oflioers of gmall luiits in 
ii!iulated loi'iilions will find ^roup ilismeflinns ii vuhiahle off-di^ly 
activity that slron^ly ii|i|)ealn to l}ieir more inlelh^ent men. 
Under certain conditions, effective group djt^uesiotis <^an he 


411 Jill jliittib^ iiri' lhc."*:c: 

1, Prepenr<^ wilhiii thr i-mniiMnrl i-f «'in- i»r more imliviiluiilii 
(im'frriililv i-tilii^li-i] ittTf^onJii] t wlifi >vil1 ikifike hnii-f'^Mul 
[^nuij* li'fidiTK — nif'ii of iii1rlFir:vnr<: w\t*\ li;iv<^ f|(iitlilii's nf 
lijiilcrslni* iiml iK'lirvc- m Uir |n>wsi|»ililiefr nf I'n-c |]isc'iitHAifiii. 

Pi>p<hili[v llki'ri' ;irr funtH'r li-iirhcrK, Jjiwyt-rh. |itihlii- epi-Jikrrs- 
;irii| (ilbiT jnc'ii i"f i'\ji('n*'iii<' i" Tlirc'rliii^; <liKtiissjfnif; wlii» will 

2. Kvirli-niT lltjil a mmrlxT of >m-n in llic ntiiiik);iii<l woiiJil 
like 111 (lisr-iis,-- i-iirn-iit :iir:i)i'h !»iiil |tni]»li'mH \\iM rinircrii llM-ni- 
Tliis <'vi*|riiri' niiiy riiiiM>^l <>f e\ihhii[; '''Inill M's-icnis^' (»f ili»iilil- 
III) viilin" \u mor^rlc^ iikri>rm:illy *-xj.r<'.N«i*l dchircp itt whirh 
kiinu'li'ii^i- liJk^ 1-1 in II- li> rc^tKiiiMlilr nffiriTh. or itirorrii:ilii>ii 
<k-lihfr;i1r]y ;£;il]»C'r<-(] Iry iiilnfiiutl (jiU'r^lNtjiiJiiirr. 

.1, Prew^MCi" of RrtlWf mni wliOBi' ("diHiilii^n fiini inlert^^iln arc- 
Hn<-|> lli:il IIm'V ''iiM 1"' iiM'il iiK f-\]K'rls !(■ f;ivi- ilisiiiMsicii «rini|» 
mi'mlH-r,'" l>iirk;iroiiml fiii-lrt im siiJkjctlr^ wliirU il ih ili'^ireii lo 

Lj iK(>lnti-(] miils wln-n' IiooVk }':ii»ii»lilrl^, jnul |H'rii«lir:ils for 
rH't^miri' arr |iirkiii|; Imt \\lii^rf iLi- llirri- i-t!hc-ii|j;il vouililiojiK 
hold,, ihf ftdlduiiii^ iiroiTihin- is rcrniinni'mleTl !<■ i»IIii:<'rh who 
ileBire lo or^niiiKc iliM^irvion ^ronjis: 

FIRST— Del iTlMiin' llii- siil^jerlK l|n- ini-n iiri- iiln^iidy liilkiTif^ 
iilto^it tit wfiiiFil lik*' l(» di^nisk. ,iji well »fi ihi^ir fjciHrnf iiiIitckI 
iij ilisi-iissinn^ To jii-roiiijili!><li llti^ nj^iki' ifKr of yoiir |ic'rr:oiKil 
kiiowlc'd[;f of ihv iin^nV inlrn?K|i% llii- koownloifp' |ior^i-Kt;i^i} by 
oFlii-r iiilic'iTs or noiii-oiikiiiisi^ioiir-t] i>fli< ith;. or ;kii infiiniKil 

SECOND— Soarrh ihc romni^kul for jjoPftiMc- ili^iiesinn 
leailerh among tnili^iv d poreoijnrl. To .ir<-(kkik|>1i>^h tbif draw 
ik|>on y*>"i' "Wii or ollirr-^"" iir'|n:iinl:iikrt' willi ijnlividTiiiTp liv 
your kiiiil, ^iiktl e(?ar<'h llic ijlc of SoMin'ri (Jiiiilifir^ilion t«nK 


THIRD— Ganvaaa the t'omniiind for "experts*' wba will sub- 
Htitule for reference malerials. To ai'iioniplish ihie, be^n by 
ijotiiif; ihe range of eubjccte tbe ^roiip may whh to lulk abouL 
Troiu tbere, proceed llirougli every posaible personal eontaet 
to fiod men wbo bave Bpeeial knowIedg;e of ibeec eiibjccte, but 
do nol neglect to searcb ibe filir of QiiulrHoation Carda. These 
cards contain a niaas of inforniation about nien^fi ei\'ilian train- 
ing and ftpecbil interests. Finally, interview seiected men to 
find out wbetber tbcy have tbe backgronml knowledge you 
need for your purpose. 

FOURTH — Your final step consifltH of selecting a subject 
and an expert for a first nictating, of finding; convenient pliysi- 
val arrangements for ibe meeting, and of publicizing ibe new 
iietivity in sucb a way as to reacb aU personnel wbo may want 
to attend. 

BUT REMEMBER— Your program wiR nand or fall on the 
quality of the leadership and tbe availability of either experts 
or adequate reference materials. CoiiJ^lmrtive diHeu^ion^i mnsi 
have basic liackground information, Tbey muat also he con- 
ducted in accordance with relatively simple, common eenae^ 
and we 1 1 -recognized principles which have been described in 
this manual. 

VL Checking the results 

There are several melhodtf of estimuting whether ibe diseus- 
i*ion program is getting rcsulls. From those that are listed hcrf 
il is suggested tbal each leader ^elei-I such us appear 1o ofl^er 
him a practicable combination for checking tbe results of bis 
own program. 

li Attendance: The regularity with wbirh particular indi- 
viduals attend thi- lueetings and the growth in attendance are 
iiHlication»« of success. 


2. Altilurles: A rerord can he kept of any change in the alti- 
tudes of group members with re&pect to eiieh points as: 

a. Tolerance of opposing opinion. 

b> Willingness lo ask ijueslions anrl expre^r^ upinions- 

c. Skill iu asking pertinent and important qucatione. 

d. Willingness to listen. 

e. Avoidance of personalities in remarks, 

f. Friendly interest in other group members. 

g. Desire to t^ontinne llie disenesion after the nieeting- 

3. Reading habits: Increased use of hooka and magazines in 
the library before and after the discussion may be taken as a 
sign of stirred interest, if the library provides pertinent malerial- 

4> Group participation: Tt is poHsiblf to appoint someone to 
keep track of the proportion of available time taken up by the 
group members as distinguished from speaker or leader. The 
higher this proportion is^ tlie more sueceseful is the meeting. Ail 
increase in the number of individuals participating from meet- 
ing to meeting i» a healthy E^giK 

5. Germane discuaBion: If the niinitles show that tlie thread 

of diseussion kept close to the iitinounced subject^ the discuj-sion 
may he considered lo have heen well led. This is no! lo say, 
however, that very effective discussioiiB may not develop from an 
important side issue of tlie planned subject. 

6. Interest at close of discussion: If the group or audience 
has evidently not had enough when the leader clows the nn-ft- 
Jng, the meeting is an obvious auccesa. 

7. Posl-dUeussion interest questionnaires: It is possible to 
develop a hricf questionnaire to measure the t^uiccss of discus- 
sion meetings. The cpiestionnaire i<houId fit local needs. It can 
contain such quesLions as: 


H- Wa» the labeling (subject) iniereaiinB? 
□ very □modi^rfltely □ not at all. 

b. Will you rome aBoiji? O Yes □ No. 

r. Dill ihe Itader (apeakcrt lalk 

G liKt long G juBl long enough G ^oo liltli.-? 

cl. Hid yoo take part in ihe rlii^rut^tTiDn? G ^*'-'' D No. 

t. Suf;|!;e?t llt'lo^^' what you wnuld cnnsidfr an inifre>itiiip> Kabjert for 
n rDMiing nii-cling: 

VIL Reference materials 

A aeries of reference pamphlets for the use of diBcuBeion 
leaders is published by the Wnr Depaiiment as numbered Edu- 
cation Manuals in the eame formal aa ihifl o;uide. Each of Uieae 
pamphlelB, except the present one^ includea factual material 
about some question tliat may be of inleresE to personnel in tbe 
Army. Eaeh eontains specific supgeelions to the leader as to how 
lo handle the issue in a discussion meeting. The aubject of each 
pamphlet has been chosen after an analysis of research studies 
made of ihe interests of Army personnel. The manuscript for 
eaeb pamphlet is written in popular style and is prepared by 
an authority on the suhjeet for the Historical Service Board of 
the American Historical Aseoeiatinn, The general title for tbe 
eeries is G- /> Roundtahle. New volumes of tbe series are to 
be published at frequent intervals. Orientation and education 
officers will receive a sample distribution of each as it comes out, 
together with inatructions for requisitioning additional copies 
that may be desired. 

Reference materials published by the ^ ar Department are 
refitricted to those thai eomply with Title V of Public Law 277. 


(See W, D. Biilletm No. 5, 1944 and W. D, Circiilar No, 128, 
1944.) Before materials piililished. by any private or publie 
agency including those Imed below are ut*ed. for off-duty dis- 
cussion, commciiiiling ofliirets should fiatiafy themaelveB that ihe 
materials comply with A,G.O. ktter [A.G. 014.35 (28 Apr 44) 
WD-MB-M] dated 27 April 1944, eubject: Restrictiona in new 
^'Federal Voting Law'^ on dissemination to members of the 
amied forces of pohtical argument or political propaganda. 

Magazines are a rieh aouree of reference material for diBcus- 
sion. Because they are eommonly available, among llie mora 
useful fox this purpose are The Readers' Digest, ^ieifsweek. 
Time, Lifcy and Fortune. The licet four are included in the Unit 
Sets of Magazines distributed to oversea commands. 

Reference pamphlets that will be useful to discussion leaders 
are distributed by a large number of publishers. They can 
readily be secured for gronps wilhin tbe continental United 
States- Some o( the publishing organizatiune are given in the 
list below. The list is annotated with information about the 
character of pamphlets pnt out by each distributor, prices, and 
addresses from which pamphlets con be purchased out of library 
funds or other funds available to the leader- 

List of Publishers 

American Council* Institute of Pacific Relations, 129 Eaet 52nd 
Strectj New York, N« V., pubHahce two aeries of pamphlets* one 
independently and the other in cooperation with the Webster 
Publishing Company. Subjects have to do with the Pacific Area, 
Typical are Meet the Anzacs; Asia's Captive Colonies; China — 
-America's Ally; Our Far Eastern Record; Mftdern Japan; Land 
fij the Simif^ts. List prices vary from 5 to 50 cents. On orders 
of over 25 copies discounts vary from 20 to 40 per cent depend- 
ing upon the individual pamphlet and the number ordered, 

Commiesion to Study the Organization of Peace, 8 West 40lh 


Strcei, Npw ^ nrk, N. \ ., piililishes nialeriHlK cm postwar prob- 
lems, PiiRiphlrU Tiiiiard Grpan*r fra'tiom^ is an eveelleiit sliidy 
^ijiU«; In :i Viirtely of poelwur problems. List price 15 ccjils. 

Foreign Policy Aeeociation. 22 Eaat 3Rili Street, New York, 
N, Y., piJkli^hefl Headline Books ami Fnrrjfin Policy Reports^ 
Subjcc^td ileal willi foreign nntion,^ ami tlirir Rociah economic, 
and poliliral prnhlemf*. Typical Ht^atllint' Bnohs: America's 
ttattli'lront-s: RiiKsia at War-^ Thv Stntfi^ff j**r World Ordt^r: 
Look al Latin Amerii'a: Aim'riran Fori'ifiit Pidicvi East and 
West of Sitfz^ Fiin'ign Ptdiry Ht'porrs on eurrenl inteniiitional 
problems tire ptibbsbed <in ibe Isl iiml J5lh of eiub nmnlb. 
Prices ^botli beries I 25 cents per eopy. DiisriHinls of 20 per cent 
on in to 99 oopieti anfl of 40 per cent on 100 to 409. Special 
dieeounls oit nrniBLiitlly )ar<£e ordere. 

National Planning Association, 800 21et Street, N. W., Woah- 
ington, D. (L, pnblisbeti ntateriak on |>ostwar prnblem^ in a 
series called Planninf^ Patnphlt^rs. Typical enbjecis; Relief for 
EuTop*': Outlook for Dortit^stii' Air Transpitrt: OntUrok for thf 
Railroad Indnstrv: When Dejnifhiiizatitm Day Comfs: Post War 
Inditslriafizafion oj China, List price 25 cenle. Dtsconnts of 10 
per cent on 10 to 50 copies, 15 per cent on SO to 100, and 20 per 
cent on 100 or more, 

Oxforil Universily Press, 114 Fiflb Aveiine. New York, N. Y» 
pirblishes ^erii-s called America in a II orfd at If'nr. Tyjiical sub- 
jeota: An Atlas of the IKSS^R.: Htidio in Ifartinie: France and 
tkr ffar; Womi'n in flip War Production' German Geopolitics. 
List price 10 cents. Dieconnls vary from 10 to 40 per cent. 

Pnblic Affairs Commitlce, 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York- 
N. Y., pnblislies panifditets on world and national affairs. Typ- 
ical r*iibjecls: Safeguarding Oar Civil Liberties; Rebuilding 
Europe — After Victory: Freedom from Want; The Airplane and 
Tomorrow's Worlds List price 10 cents. Discount of 20 per ceni 
on orders for over 25 and under 100 copiee; 25 per cent on 
quantities over 100; special disconnte on orders over 500, 

Twentieth Centnry Fund. 330 West 42nd Street. New York, 


fS. Y,^ publialies u ueeful study und r]iHi:iiHj4iun ni^inual L'ullril 
U^arfini*' Fficts and Post Ff «r ProbU'ms, wliirli cuiitains a hihliofi;- 
ra]i)iy of ovur 200 titlca. List price 50 fle»t3. 

H. W. Wilson Contpany, 950 University Aveuue. New York, 
N, Y., piiblialies a series of books called The Referfncc Shclj^ 
These books are coTlerliojin of ftpeecliee, artirlpw, and other 
(iri^ital dociimenlH bearing upon auch subjects as Plana jor a 
Ptfsr (Fnr if'iirtd. Irnicpendti'nrf' for India^ If'/if^e Slahitizatiim 
and Inflaiii/n, and Federal Ri^gidaiitm nj Labor Unions. Lint 
price SLS!) j»er eopy^ DijjU'oiinl 10 per c'eut. 


Discussion Leadership Bibliography 


PublJtihed by ihe Woman's Press, dOO l^xinglon Avenue, New 

York, N. Y. 09121. 

Published by McGraw-Hill Bouk Company, Inc., .^30 West 

42nd Street, New York, IN. Y. (1943). 

Fanfilcr. Published by ihe Amerieaii A^eocialion for Aduli 

EduratioTi, 525 Wi^sl 12nil» Smel, New York, N. Y. (1934). 

DISCUSSION METHODS. By Garland and Pliillips. Vcdume 
12. No. 2 of The Hvfinncc Shrif. published l»y H. W, Wilson 
Company, 950 Univerj^ily Avpnue, New York, N. Y. (1940). 

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