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Full text of "Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa - Philosophy Of Natural Magic All III Volumes"

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THE 

PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL 

MAGIC 

By 

HENRY CORNELIUS AGRIPPA 

VON NETTESHEIM 

COUNSELOR TO CHARLES THE FIFTH, EMPEROR OF GERMANY, 
AND JUDGE OF THE PREROGATIVE COURT 




OFFICIAL EDITION 

A COMPLETE WORK ON 

Natural Magic, White Magic, Black Magic, Divina- 
tion, Occult Binding, Sorceries, And Their Power. 
Unctions, Love Medicines And Their Virtues. The 
Occult Virtue Of Things Which Are In Them Only 
In Their Life Time, And Such As Remain In Them 
Even After Their Death. The Occult Or Magical 
Virtue Of All Things, etc 

THE MAGIC MIRROR 

Printed Under The Editorship 
Of 

Dr. L. W. de LAURENCE. 

AUTHOR, OWNER, EDITOR AND PUBLISHER OF THE LARGEST AND ONLY 

STANDARD LINE OF OCCULT AND MAGICAL WORKS BY THE 

OLD MASTERS AND ADEPTS EXTANT TODAY 



THE de LAURENCE COMPANY 

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CHICAGO, ILL., U. S. A. 

1913 



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Copyright, 1913 

By 

de LAURENCE, SCOTT & CO. 



i'he illustrations, cover design and contents of this Vol- 
ume are protected by copyright, and must not be repro- 
duced or copied without written permission from the 
Publishers. Disregard of this warning will subject the 
offender to the penalty provided by law. 



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AGRIPPA. 

Mr. Henry Morley, an eminent English scholar, in his Life of Cornelius 
Agrippa, makes these tributary statements: 

He secured the best honors attainable in art and arms ; was acquainted 
with eight languages, being the master of six. His natural bent had 
been from early youth to a consideration of Divine Mysteries. To learn 
these and teach them to others had been at all times his chief ambition. 
He is distinguished among the learned for his cultivation of Occult 
Philosophy, upon which he has written a complete work. 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

INTRODUCTORY. 

Editor's Pbbface 15 

Early Life op Agbippa 17 

Cornelius Agbippa to the Reader 27 

Agbippa to Tbtthemius 30 

Tbithemius to Agbippa 33 

THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC. 

Chapteb I. How Magicians Collect Virtues from the 
Three-fold World, is Declared in these Three Books. . 37 

Chapteb II. What Magic Is, What are the Parts there- 
of, and How the Professors thereof must be Quali- 
fied 38 

Chapteb III. Of the Four Elements, their Qualities, 
and Mutual Mixtions 42 

Chapteb IV. Of a Three-fold Consideration of the 
Elements 44 

Chapteb V. Of the Wonderful Natures of Fire and 
Earth 45 

Chapteb VI. Of the Wonderful Natures of Water, Air 
and Winds 48 

Chapteb VII. Of the Kinds of Compounds, what Rela- 
tion they stand in to the Elements, and what Rela- 
tion there is betwixt the Elements themselves and 

the Soul, Senses and Dispositions of Men 56 

7 



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8 TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Chapter VIII. How the Elements are in the Heavens, 
in Stars, in Devils, in Angels, and, lastly, in God 
himself 58 

Chapter IX. Of the Virtues of things Natural, de- 
pending immediately upon Elements 61 

Chapter X. Of the Occult Virtues of Things 62 

Chapter XI. How Occult Virtues are Infused into 
the several kinds of Things by Ideas, through the 
Help of the Soul of the World, and Rays of the Stars ; 
and what Things abound most with this Virtue 65 

Chapter XII. How it is that Particular Virtues are 
Infused into Particular Individuals, even of the same 
Species 67 

Chapter XIII. Whence the Occult Virtues of Things 
Proceed 68 

Chapter XIV. Of the Spirit of the World, What It Is 
and how by way of medium It Unites occult Virtues 
to their Subjects 72 

Chapter XV. How we must Find Out and Examine 
the Virtues of Things by way of Similitude 74 

Chapter XVI. How the Operations of several Virtues 
Pass from one thing into another, and are Communi- 
cated one to the other 77 

Chapter XVII. How by Enmity and Friendship the 
Virtues of things are to be Tried and Found Out 78 

Chapter XVIII. Of the Inclinations of Enmities... 81 

Chapter XIX. How the Virtues of Things are to be 
Tried and Found Out, which are in them Specifically, 
or in any one Individual by way of Special Gift 85 

Chapter XX. The Natural Virtues are in Lome Things 
throughout their Whole Substance, and in other 
Things in Certain Parts and Members 86 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS 9 

Chapter XXI. Of the Virtues of Things which are in 
them only in their Life Time, and Such as Remain 
in them even After their Death. 88 

Chapter XXII. How Inferior Things are Subjected to 
Superior Bodies, and how the Bodies, Actions, and 
Dispositions of Men are Ascribed to Stars and Signs. 91 

Chapter XXIII. How we shall Know what Stars Nat- 
ural Things are Under, and what Things are Under 
the Sun, which are called Solary 95 

Chapter XXIV. What Things are Lunary, or Under 
the Power of the Moon 99 

Chapter XXV. What Things are Saturnine, or Under 
the Power of Saturn 101 

Chapter XXVI. What Things aie Under the Power 
of Jupiter, and are called Jovial ' 104 

Chapter XXVII. What Things are Under the Power 
of Mars, and are called Martial 105 

Chapter XXVIII. What Things are Under the Power 
of Venus, and are called Venereal 106 

Chapter XXIX. What Things are Under the Power 
of Mercury, and are called Mercurial 107 

Chapter XXX. That the Whole Sublunary World, 
and those Things which are in It, are Distributed to 
Planets 108 

Chapter XXXI. How Provinces and Kingdoms are 
Distributed to Planets 109 

Chapter XXXII. What Things are Under the Signs, 
the Fixed Stars, and their Images Ill 

Chapter XXXIII. The Seals and Characters of Nat- 
ural Things 114 



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10 TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Chapter XXXIV. How, by Natural Things and their 
Virtues, we may Draw Forth and Attract the Influ- 
ences and Virtues of Celestial Bodies 118 

Chapter XXXV. Of the Mixtions of Natural Things, 
one with another, and their Benefit 119 

Chapter XXXVI. Of the Union of Mixed Things, and 
the Introduction of a More Noble Form, and the 
Senses of Life 121 

Chapter XXXVII. How, by some certain Natural and 
Artificial Preparations, We May Attract certain 
Celestial and Vital Gifts 123 

Chapter XXXVIII. How We May Draw not only 
Celestial and Vital but also certain Intellectual and 
Divine Gifts from Above 125 

Chapter XXXIX. That We May, by some certain 
Matters of the World, Stir Up the Gods of the World 
and their Ministering Spirits 127 

Chapter XL. Of Bindings; what Sort they are of, and 
in what Ways they are wont to be Done 128 

Chapter XLI. Of Sorceries, and their Power 129 

Chapter XLII. Of the Wonderful Virtues of some 
Kinds of Sorceries 131 

Chapter XLIII. Of Perfumes or Suffumigations ; 
their Manner and Power 136 

Chapter XLIV. The Composition of some Fumes ap- 
propriated to the Planets 139 

Chapter XLV. Of Collyries, Unctions, Love-Medi- 
cines, and their Virtues 141 

Chapter XL VI. Of Natural Alligations and Suspen- 
sions 144 

Chapter XLVII. Of Magical Rings and their Compo- 
sitions 146 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS U 

Chapter XL VIII. Of the Virtue of Places, and what 
Places are Suitable to every Star 148 

Chapter XLIX. Of Light, Colors, Candles and Lamps, 
and to what Stars, Houses and Elements several 
Colors are Ascribed 151 

Chapter L. Of Fascination, and the Art thereof 154 

Chapter LI. Of certain Observations, Producing 
wonderful Virtues 156 

Chapter LII. Of the Countenance and Gesture, the 
Habit and the Figure of the Body, and to what Stars 
any of these do Answer; whence Physiognomy, and 
Metoposcopy, and Chiromancy, Arts of Divination, 
have their Grounds 159 

Chapter LIII. Of Divination, and the Kinds thereof .162 

Chapter LIV. Of divers certain Animals, and other 
things, which have a Signification in Auguries 165 

Chapter LV. How Auspicias are Verified by the Light 
of Natural Instinct, and of some Rules of Finding 
of It Out 173 

Chapter LVI. Of the Soothsayings of Flashes and 
Lightnings, and how Monstrous and Prodigious 
Things are to be Interpreted 178 

Chapter LVII. Of Geomancy, Hydromancy, Aero- 
mancy, and Pyromancy, Four Divinations of Ele- 
ments 181 

Chapter LVIII. Of the Reviving of the Dead, and of 
Sleeping or Hibernating (wanting victuals) Many 
Years together 183 

Chapter LIX. Of Divination by Dreams 188 

Chapter LX. Of Madness, and Divinations which are 
made when men are awake, and of the Power of a 
Melancholy Humor, by which Spirits are sometimes 
induced into Men's Bodies 189 



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12 TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Chapter LXI. Of the Forming of Men, of the Ex- 
ternal Senses, also those Inward, and the Mind ; and 
of the Three-fold Appetite of the Soul, and Passions 
of the Will 193 

Chapter LXII. Of the Passions of the Mind, 'their 
Original Source, Differences, and Kinds 197 

Chapter LXIII. How the Passions of the Mind change 
the proper Body by changing its Accidents and mov- 
ing the Spirit 199 

Chapter LXI V. How the Passions of the Mind change 
the Body by way of Imitation from some Resemblance ; 
of the Transforming and Translating of Men, and 
what Force the Imaginative Power hath, not only 
over the Body but the Soul 201 

Chapter LXV. How the Passions of the Mind can 
Work of themselves upon Another's Body 204 

Chapter LXVI. That the Passions, of the Mind are 
Helped by a Celestial Season, and how Necessary the 
Constancy of the Mind is in every Work 206 

Chapter LXVII. How the Mind of Man may be 
Joined with the Mind of the Stars, and Intelligences 
of the Celestials, and, together with them. Impress 
certain wonderful Virtues upon inferior Things 208 

Chapter LXVIII. How our Mind can Change and 
Bind inferior Things to the Ends which we Desire. .209 

Chapter LXIX. Of Speech, and the Occult Virtue of 
Words 210 

Chapter LXX. Of the Virtue of Proper Names 212 

Chapter LXXI. Of many Words joined together, as 
in Sentences and Verses; and of the Virtues and 
Astrictions of Charms 214 

Chapter LXXIL Of the wonderful Power of En- 
chantments 216 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS 13 

Chapter LXXIII. Of the Virtue of Writing, and of 
Making Imprecations, and Inscriptions 218 

Chapter LXXIV. Of the Proportion, Correspondency, 
and Reduction of Letters to the Celestial Signs and 
Planets, According to various Tongues, and a Table 
thereof 219 

BY HENRY MORLEY. 

Criticism on Agrippa's Natural Magic 224 

Agrippa and the Rosicrucians 226 

Exposition of the Cabala 234 

The Mirific Word 245 

New Table of the Cabala and Tarot (specially com- 
piled) 246 

Reuchlin the Mystic * 250 

Agrippa Expounds Reuchlin 258 

The Nobility of Woman 261 

Order of the Empyrean Heaven 275 

Symbols of the Alchemists . .282 

BY DR. L. W. de LAURENCE. 

The Eternal Principle 286 

A Message To Mystics, The Magic Mirror 288 

ILLUSTRATIONS AND ETCHINGS. 

Henry Cornelius Agrippa Frontispiece 

Title Page of 1651 Edition. 36 

Grand Solar Man 90 

Calamus 98 

Characters of Nature 116 

Divine Letters 117 

Cabalistical Table of Co-ordinate Characters 223 

Tree of the Cabala (three full-page etchings) .239, 241, 243 

The Empyrean Heaven 274 

Rosicrucian Symbol of the Spirit of Nature 277 

Symbols of the Alchemists 283 



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SUBLIME OCCULT PHILOSOPHY. 

Judicious Riadeb: This U true and sublime Occult Philosophy. To 
understand the mysterious influences of the intellectual world upon the 
celestial, and of both upon the terrestrial; and to know how to dispose 
and fit ourselves so as to be capable of receiving the superior operations of 
these worlds, whereby we may be enabled to operate wonderful things by 
a natural power — to discover the secret counsels of men, to increase 
riches, to overcome enemies, to procure the favor of men, to expel dis- 
eases, to preserve health, to prolong life, to renew youth, to foretell 
future events, to see and know things done many miles off, and such 
like as these. These things may seem incredible, yet read but the ensuing 
treatise and thou shalt see the possibility confirmed both by reason and 
example. 

—J. F., the translator of the English edition of 1661. 



14 



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PREFACE. 

Ik the last half of 1509 and the first months of 
1510, Cornelius Agrippa, known in his day as a 
Magician, gathered together all the Mystic lore he 
had obtained by the energy and ardor of youth and 
compiled it into the elaborate system of Magic, in 
three books, known as Occult Philosophy, the nrst 
book of which — Natural Magic — constitutes the pres- 
ent volume. Agrippa published his Occult Philos- 
ophy, with additional chapters, in 1533. The only 
English translation appeared in London in 1651. It 
is a thoroughly edited and revised edition of this 
latter work that we produce. Some translating has 
been done and missing parts supplied. The reader 
is assured that while we have modified some of the 
very broad English of the seventeenth century, that 
he has a thoroughly valid work. Due care has been 
taken to preserve all the quaintness of the English 
text as far as consistent with plain reading. We 
have endeavored to do full justice to our author, the 
demands of those purely mystical, and the natural 
conservatism of the antiquary and collector. In this 
we believe we have fully succeeded. 

The life of Agrippa, up to the time of writing his 
Occult Philosophy, is also given, drawn mostly from 
Henry Morley's excellent life of Cornelius Agrippa. 

That part of the volume credited to Mr. Money 
may be designated as an honest skeptic's contribution 
to Mysticism, and his chapters are produced entire, 
as justice to both him and Agrippa cannot be done 
otherwise, and they are an especially valuable part of 
Mystic literature. 

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16 PREFACE 



The table of the Cabala, newly compiled for this 
volume, will be found to possess superior features 
over all others. 

Following the above we give a chapter on the Em- 
pyrean Heaven, which will explain much that our 
author has written. It is derived mainly from an old 
occult work on "Physic." 

The Symbols of the Alchemists will be found both 
useful and instructive. The chapter on the Magic 
Mirror, which ends the work, is believed to be the 
best contribution on the subject extant. 

All the original illustrations and some new and 
selected ones will be found, as also various etchings 
of characters. That one on the Empyrean Heaven 
contains, we have cause to believe, some of the very 
hidden knowledge relating to the Lost Word. It is a 
much older plate than the work it was taken from. 

Some parts of the volume will interest those who 
love to work out hidden things. 

The editor conveys his warmest thanks to those 
friends who have encouraged him in the work — on 
the Cabala table, the illustration of the Grand Solar 
Man and the translating — outside of which he has 
not asked or received any help. This being the case 
our friends will please excuse any particular thing 
that may not sound pleasantly to the ear. 

A general index will be inserted in the third and 
concluding volume of the Occult Philosophy. 



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EARLY LIFE OF CORNELIUS AGRIPPA. 

At Cologne, on the 14th of September, 1486, there 
was born into the noble house of Nettesheim a son, 
whom his parents called in baptism Henry Cornelius 
Agrippa. Some might, at first thought, suppose that 
the last of the three was a Christian name likely to 
find especial favor with the people of Cologne, the 
site of whose town, in days of Roman sovereignty, 
Marcus Agrippa's camp suggested and the colony oi' 
Agrippina fixed. But the existence of any such pre- 
dilection is disproved by some volumes filed with the 
names of former natives of Cologne. There were as 
few Agrippas there as elsewhere, the use of the name 
being everywhere confined to a few individuals taken 
from a class that was itself not numerous. A child 
who came into the world feet-foremost was called an 
Agrippa by the Romans, and the word itself, so Aulus 
Gellius explains it, was invented to express the idea, 
being compounded of the trouble of the woman and 
the feet of the child. The Agrippas of the sixteenth 
century were usually sons of scholars, or of persons in 
the upper ranks, who had been mindful of a classic 
precedent ; and there can be little doubt that a pecu- 
liarity attendant on the very first incident in the life 
here to be told was expressed by the word used as 
appendix to an already sufficient Christian name. 

The son thus christened became a scholar and a 
subject of discussion among scholars, talking only 
Latin to the world. His family name, Von Nettes- 
heim, he never latinised, inasmuch as the best taste 
suggested that — if a Latin designation was most 
proper of a scholar — he could do, or others could do 

17 



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18 THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 

for him, nothing simpler than to set apart for literary 
purposes that half of his real style which was already 
completely Roman. Henry Cornelius Agrippa von 
Nettesheim became therefore to the world what he is 
also called in this narrative— Cornelius Agrippa. 

He is the only member of the family of Nettesheim 
concerning whom any records have been left for the 
instruction of -posterity. Nettesheim itself is a place 
of little note, distant about twenty-five miles to the 
southwest of Cologne. It lies in a valley, through 
which flows the stream from one of the small sources 
of the Eoer. The home of the Von Nettesheims, when 
they were not personally attached to the service of 
the emperor, was at Cologne. The ancestors of Cor- 
nelius Agrippa had been for generations in the serv- 
ice of the royal house of Austria ; his father had in 
this respect walked in the steps of his forefathers, 
and from a child Cornelius looked for nothing better 
than to do the same. 

It is proper to mention that among the scholars of 
Germany one, who before the time of Agrippa was 
known as the most famous of magicians, belonged to 
the same city of Cologne ; for there, in the thirteenth 
century, Albertus Magnus taught, and it is there that 
he is buried. 

Born in Cologne did not mean in 1486 what it has 
meant for many generations almost until now — born 
into the darkness of a mouldering receptacle of relics. 
Then the town was not priest-ridden, but rode its 
priests. For nearly a thousand years priestcraft and 
handicraft have battled for predominance within its 
walls. Priestcraft expelled the Jews, banished the 
weavers, and gained thoroughly the mastery at last. 
But in the time of Cornelius Agrippa handicraft was 
uppermost, and in sacred Cologne every trader and 
mechanic did his part in keeping watch on the arch- 
bishop. Europe contained then but few cities that 
were larger, busier, and richer, for the Rhine was a 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 19 

main highway of commerce, and she was enriched, 
not only by her manufacturers and merchants, but, 
at the same time also, by a large receipt of toll. 
Commerce is the most powerful antagonist to des- 
potism, and in whatever place both are brought to- 
gether one of them must die. 

Passing by the earlier times to about the year 1350 
there arose a devilish persecution of the Jews in 
many parts of Europe, and the Jews of Cologne, 
alarmed by the sufferings to which others of their 
race had been exposed, withdrew into their houses, 
with their wives and children, and burnt themselves 
in the midst of their possessions. The few who had 
flinched from this self-immolation were banished, and 
their houses and lands, together with all the land 
that had belonged to Cologne Jews, remained as 
spoils in the hands of the Cologne Christians. All 
having been converted into cash, the gains of the 
transactions were divided equally between the town 
and the archbishop. The Jews, twenty years later, 
were again allowed to reside in the place on payment 
of a tax for the protection granted them. 

In 1369 the city was again in turmoil, caused by a 
dispute concerning privileges between the authorities 
of the church and the town council. The weavers, as 
a democratic body, expressed their views very strong 
and there was fighting in the streets. The weavers 
were subdued; they fled to the churches, and were 
slain at the altars. Eighteen hundred of them, all 
who survived, were banished, suffering, of course, 
confiscation of their property, and Cologne being 
cleared of all its weavers — who had carried on no 
inconsiderable branch of manufacture — their guild 
was demolished. This event occurred twenty years 
after the town had lost, in the Jews, another im- 
portant part of its industrial population, and the 
proud city thus was passing into the first stage of its 
decay. 



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20 THE PHILOSOPHY .^u, MAGIC 



In 1388 an university was established at Cologne, 
upon the model of the University of Paris. Theology 
and scholastic philosophy were the chief studies culti- 
vated in it, and they were taught in such a way as to 
win many scholars from abroad. Eight years after- 
wards, churchmen, nobles, and traders were again 
contesting their respective claims, and blood was 
again shed in the streets. The nobles, assembled by 
night at a secret meeting, were surprised, and the 
final conquest of the trading class was in that way 
assured. A new constitution was then devised, con- 
tinuing in force during the lifetime of Cornelius 
Agrippa. 

The Von Nettesheims were likely to be on better 
terms with the archbishop than with the party who 
opposed him, and they were in the emperor's service. 
This must have influenced the early years of Agrippa. 
In these early years he displayed a rare aptitude for 
study, and, as Cologne was an university town and 
printing, discovered shortly before his birth, was car- 
ried on there in the production of Latin classics, the 
writings of ascetics, scholastics, and mystics like 
Thomas Aquinas and Albertus Magnus, it was only 
natural he should avail his eager desire for knowledge 
at these sources. He was remarkably successful in 
the study of European languages also, becoming pro- 
ficient in several. Thus his years of home training 
were passed until he arrived at the age when princes 
are considered fit to be produced at court. He then 
left Cologne and became an attendant on the Emperor 
of Germany, Maximilian the First, whom he served 
first as secretary, afterwards for seven years as a 
soldier. At the age of twenty he was employed on 
secret service b'y the German court At this time 
Spain was in a chaotic political condition. Ferdinand, 
the widower of Isabella, was excluded from the crown 
after his wife's death, that inheritance having passed 
with his daughter Joanna, as a dower, to her husband 
Philip, who was the son of Maximilian. In Septem- 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 21 

ber, 1506, Philip died, shortly before having declared 
war against France. Thus it was that Cornelius 
went to Paris, ostensibly to attend the university 
there, but in reality to keep Maximilian advised of 
the important news regarding the French. In the 
capacity of secret service, in which he was engaged 
more than once, he showed himself abundantly able 
to preserve diplomatic secrets, though concerning his 
own affairs he was open, frank, and free. Thus he is 
silent in regard to official duties at this time. In at- 
tending the university Agrippa came in contact with 
several other minds who had a love for the occult — 
mystics who found in him a natural leader to guide 
them into the realms of the unknown. With these he 
organized a secret band of Theosophists, or possibly 
Eosicrucians. Among these mystics was one more 
prominent as the friend of Agrippa, who might be 
regarded as second in leadership, an Italian by the 
name of Blasius Caesar Landulphus, who afterwards 
became noted in medicine, and also a professor in the 
University of Pavia. Among them were MM. Ger- 
main, advocate, and author of a history of Charles 
V., etc. ; Gaigny, theologian, linguist, Latin poet, and 
successively procurator, rector, and chancellor of the 
Paris University; Charles Foucard, M. de Molinflor, 
Charles de Bouelles, canon, professor of theology, 
and author of works on metaphysics and geometry, 
among which he treated of the quadrature of the cir- 
cle and the cubication of the sphere, and other un- 
usual matters ; Germain de Brie, canon, linguist, and 
writer of Greek verse; MM. Fasch, Wigand, and 
Clairchamps; and Juanetin Bascara de Gerona, a 
young Catalonian nobleman, temporarily at Paris 
while on his way to the court of Maximilian. 

Disturbances in Spain had spread to Aragon and 
Catalonia, and in the district of Tarragon the Catalo- 
nians had chased one of their local masters, the Senor 
de Gerona, the last named of the secret band above. 



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22 THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 

Agrippa and his friends devised a plan whereby 
Gerona could be restored to his estates. The capture 
of a fortification known as the Black Fort was neces- 
sary to the enterprise, and to effect this a daring 
stratagem was decided upon. As the whole province 
of Tarragon could thus be held against the rebellious 
peasantry it was believed the emperor, Maximilian, 
would sanction the enterprise in behalf of his kin, and 
Gerona went to the German court for this purpose. 
Agrippa also returned to Cologne for a season early 
in 1507. 

It was over a year afterwards when the plans of the 
conspirators were carried out. The Black Fort was 
captured, as planned, by a stratagem. After remain- 
ing there for a time, Agrippa was sent with some 
others to garrison the place of Gerona at Villarodona. 
Landulph had, meanwhile, gone to Barcelona, and it 
was deemed prudent that Gerona, the peasants of the 
whole country being now in arms, should johi him 
there. Gerona was, however, captured by the infuri- 
ated rustics, who immediately organized themselves 
in great force to storm his castle and exterminate the 
garrison there, who, in Gerona *s absence, were un- 
der the charge of Agrippa. Timely warning of the 
attack was conveyed to the garrison. To escape by 
breaking through the watches of the peasantry was 
madness, to remain was equally futile. But one way 
of escape presented itself— an old, half-ruined tower 
three miles distant, situated in one of the mountain 
wildernesses which characterize the district of Vails. 
The tower stood in a craggy, cavernous valley, where 
the broken mountains make way for a gulf containing 
stagnant waters, and jagged, inaccessible rocks hem 
it in. At the gorge by which this place is entered 
stood the tower, on a hill which was itself surrounded 
by deep bogs and pools, while it also was within a 
ring of lofty crags. There was but one way to this 
tower, except when the ground was frozen, and these 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 23 

events happened in the midsummer of 1508. The way 
among the pools was by a narrow path of stone, with 
turf walls as hedges. The site of the tower made it 
inexpugnable in summer time. It was owned by an 
abbot, who gave them permission to occupy and for- 
tify it. This they accordingly done, having a poor 
bailiff, in charge of the place, for company. 

The retreat to the tower was safely accomplished 
under cover of night. Gerona's place was sacked the 
next day by the peasants, who sought fiercely for the 
German, as they termed Agrippa. The hiding place 
of the conspirators becoming known, the flood of 
wrath poured down towards the tower, but the 
strength of the position was then felt. With a bar- 
ricade of overthrown wagons the sole path to the be- 
sieged was closed, and behind this barrier they posted 
themselves with their arquebuses, of which one only 
sufficed to daunt a crowd of men accustomed to no 
weapons except slings or bows and arrows. The 
peasantry, discovering that the tower was not to be 
stormed, settled down to lay strict siege to the place 
and thereby starve its little garrison into surrender. 

Perilous weeks were passed by the adventurers, 
but more formidable than actual conflict was the 
famine consequent on their blockade. Perrot, the 
keeper, taking counsel with himself as how to help 
his guests and rid himself of them at the same time, 
explored every cranny of the wall of rock by which 
they were surrounded. Clambering among the 
wastes, with feet accustomed to the difficulties of the 
mountain, he discovered at last a devious and rugged 
way, by which the obstacles of crag and chasm were 
avoided and the mountain top reached. Looking 
down from there he saw how, on the other side, the 
mountain rose out of a lake, known as the Black 
Lake, having an expanse of about four miles, upon 
the farther shore of which his master's abbey stood. 
He found a way to the lake through a rocky gorge, 



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24 THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 

but from there to the abbey was a long way, and, to 
men without a boat, the lake was a more impassable 
barrier than the mountain. He returned to the tower, 
where the little garrison heard the result of his ex- 
plorations. It was seen that a boat was necessary to 
effect an escape, and to procure that a letter would 
have to be sent through the ranks of the vigilant 
besiegers, whose sentries were posted at all points, 
and who allowed no one to approach the tower ; not 
even the good abbot himself, who had vainly tried 
to turn the peasants from their purpose. 

Under these circumstances the ingenuity of Agrip- 
pa was severely tested, and he. justified the credit 
he had won for subtle wit. The keeper had a son, a 
shepherd-boy, and Agrippa disfigured him with 
stains of milk-thistle and the juice of other herbs, be- 
fouled his skin and painted it with shocking spots to 
imitate the marks of leprosy, fixed his hair into a 
filthy bunch, dressed him like a beggar, and gave him 
a crooked branch for a stick, within which there was 
scooped a hollow for the letter. Upon the boy so 
disguised — a fearful picture of the outcast leper — 
the leper's bell was hung, his father seated him on an 
ox, and led him by night across the marshes by the 
ford, where he left him. Stammering, as he went, 
petitions for alms, the boy walked without difficulty 
by a very broad road made for him among the peas- 
antry, who regarded his approach with terror and 
fled from his path. The letter was safely delivered, 
the boy returning the next day with the desired an- 
swer, ringing his bell at the border of the marsh at 
dark for his father to bring him in. Agrippa and 
his companions spent the night in preparations for 
departure. Towards dawn they covered their re- 
treat by a demonstration of their usual state of 
watchfulness, fired their guns, and gave other indi- 
cations of their presence. This done, they set forth, 
in dead silence, carrying their baggage, and were 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 25 

guided by Perrot, the keeper, to the summit. There 
they lay gladly down among the stones to rest, while 
their guide descended on the other side and spread 
a preconcerted signal, a white cloth, upon a rock. 
When he returned they ate the breakfast they had 
brought with them, all sitting with their eyes towards 
the lake. At about nine o'clock two fishermen's 
barks were discerned, which hoisted a red flag, the 
good abbot's signal. Eejoicing at the sight of this, 
the escaped men fired off their guns in triumph from 
the mountain-top, a hint to the besieging peasantry 
of their departure, and, at the same time, a signal to 
the rescuers. Still following Perrot, they next de- 
scended, along ways by him discovered, through 
the rocky gorge, to the meadows that bordered the 
lake. Entering the boats, before evening they f ound 
themselves safe under the abbot's roof. The day of 
this escape was the 14th of August, 1508. They had 
been suffering siege, therefore, during almost two 
months in the mountain fastness. 

Cornelius Agrippa being safe could quit the scene, 
and done so without waiting to see how the difficulty 
would be solved between the Catalonian peasants and 
their master. It perplexed him much that he had no 
tidings of Landulph, his closest friend. ^ The abbot 
advised him to go to court again, but Agrippa replied 
that he had no mind to risk being again sent upon 
hazardous missions. After remaining several days 
in the abbey he set out, with an old man and his 
servant Stephen, for Barcelona. Antonius Xanthus, 
the companion of Agrippa, had seen much of the 
rough side of the world, was useful as a traveling 
companion, and became a member of Agrippa 's 
secret league. 

Not finding Landulph at Barcelona they traveled 
to Valentia. From there they sailed for Italy, and by 
way of the Balearic Islands and Sardinia they went 
to Naples, where, disheartened by not finding Lan- 



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26 THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 

dulph, they shipped for Leghorn, and then traveled 
to Avignon. There they learned, from a traveling 
merchant, that Landulph was at Lyons. The friends 
now corresponded, Cornelius writing December 17th 
— nearly four months after he had left the abbey in 
search of his friend, the 24th of August. We may 
imagine many of the things these friends wrote 
each other. It was the suggestion of Agrippa that 
all the members of their league be called together 
that they might be absolved of their oaths regarding 
the Spanish conspiracy and to resume, once more, 
their former pleasant relations. He also hoped that 
Landulph might be able to visit him at Avignon and 
talk their secrets over, as he was unable to leave 
for Lyons, his funds being exhausted, until after the 
lapse of a little time. 



The foregoing account, which has been condensed 
from Mr. Henry Morley's excellent Life of Cornelius 
Agrippa, is continued in that part of this volume that 
starts with the heading of * * Agrippa and the Rosicru- 
cians." Agrippa 's life now becomes so interwoven 
with mysticism that we give Morley's account in full. 
The next chapters in his life are replete with the frui- 
tion of his mystic nature, its full-blown flower being 
The Occult Philosophy, or Three Books of Magic, 
the writing of which completes his early life. 



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CORNELIUS AGRIPPA TO THE READER. 

I do not doubt but the title of our book of Occult 
Philosophy, or of Magic, may by the rarity of it 
allure many to read it, amongst which, some of a dis- 
ordered judgment and some that are perverse will 
come to hear what I can say, who, by their rash 
ignorance, may take the name of Magic in the worse 
sense and, though scarce having seen the title, cry 
out that I teach forbidden Arts, sow the seed of 
heresies, offend the pious, and scandalize excellent 
wits; that I am a sorcerer, and superstitious and 
devilish, who indeed am a Magician : to whom I an- 
swer, that a Magician doth not, amongst learned 
men, signify a sorcerer or one that is superstitious 
or devilish; but a wise man, a priest, a prophet; and 
that the Sybils were Magicianesses, and therefore 
prophesied most clearly of Christ; and that Magi- 
cians, as wise men, by the wonderful secrets of the 
world, knew Christ, the author of the world, to be 
born, and came first of all to worship him ; and that 
the name of Magic was received by philosophers, 
commended by divines, and is not unacceptable to 
the Gospel. I believe that the supercilious^ cen- 
sors will object against the Sybils, holy Magicians 
and the Gospel itself sooner than receive the name 
of Magic into favor. So conscientious are they that 
neither Apollo nor all the Muses, nor an angel from 
heaven can redeem me from their curse. "Whom 
therefore I advise that they read not our writings, 
nor understand them, nor remember them. For they 
are pernicious and full of poison ; the gate of Acheron 
is in this book; it speaks stones— let them take heed 

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28 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

that it beat not out their brains. But you that come 
without prejudice to read it, if you have so much 
discretion of prudence as bees have in gathering 
honey, read securely, and believe that you shall re- 
ceive no little profit, and much pleasure ; but if you 
shall find any things that may not please you; let 
them alone and make no use of them, for I do not ap- 
prove of them, but declare them to you. But do not 
refuse other things, for they that look into the books 
of physicians do, together with antidotes and medi- 
cines, read also of poisons. I confess that Magic 
teacheth many superfluous things, and curious prodi- 
gies for ostentation ; leave them as empty things, yet 
be not ignorant of their causes. But those things 
which are for the profit of men — for the turning away 
of evil events, for the destroying of sorceries, for the 
curing of diseases, for the exterminating of phan- 
tasms, for the preserving of life, honor, or fortune 
— may be done without offense to God or injury to 
religion, because they are, as profitable, so necessary. 
But I have admonished you that I have writ many 
things rather narratively than affirmatively ; for so 
it seemed needful that we should pass over fewer 
things, following the judgments of Platonists and 
other Gentile Philosophers when they did suggest 
an argument of writing to our purpose. Therefore 
if any error have been committed, or anything hath 
been spoken more freely, pardon my youth, for I 
wrote this being scarce a young man, that I may 
excuse myself, and say, whilst I was a child I spake 
as a child, and I understood as a child, but being be- 
come a man, I retracted those things which I did 
being a boy, and in my book of the vanity and un- 
certainty of Sciences I did, for the most part, retract 
this book. But here, haply, you may blame me again, 
saying, " Behold, thou, being a youth, didst write, 
and now, being old, hast retracted it; what, there- 
fore, hast thou set forth ?" I confess, whilst I was 



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THE PHIi, ,. iui,.... .^ 29 

very young, I set upon the writing of these books, 
but, hoping that I should set them forth with cor- 
rections, and enlargements — and for that cause I 
gave them to Trithemius, a Neapolitanian Abbot, 
formerly a Spanhemensian, a man very industrious 
after secret things. But it happened afterwards 
that, the work being intercepted, before I finished 
it, it was carried about imperfect and impolished, 
and did fly aboard in Italy, in France, in Germany, 
through many men's hands; and some men, whether 
more impatiently or imprudently I know not, would 
have put it thus imperfect to the press, with which 
mischief, I, being affected, determined to set it forth 
myself, thinking that there might be less danger if 
these books came out of my hands with some amend- 
ments than to come forth, torn and in fragments, out 
of other men's hands. Moreover, I thought it no 
crime if I should not suffer the testimony of my 
youth to perish. Also, we have added some chapters 
and inserted many things which did seem unfit to 
pass by, which the curious reader shall be able to 
understand by the inequality of the very phrase, for 
we were unwilling to begin the work anew and to 
unravel all that we had done, but to correct it and put 
some flourish upon it. Wherefore, I pray thee, cour- 
teous reader, weigh not these things according to 
the present time of setting them forth, but pardon 
my curious youth if thou find any thing in them that 
may displease thee. 

When Agrippa first wrote his Occult Philosophy he 
sent it to his friend Trithemius, an Abbot of Wurtz- 
burg, with the ensuing letter. Trithemius detained 
the messenger until he had read the manuscript and 
then answered Agrippa's letter with such sound ad- 
vice as mystics would do well to follow for all time 
to come. Trithemius is known as a mystic author 
and scholar. 



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30 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 



AGEIPPA TO TRITHEMIUS. 

To B. P. D. John Trithemius, an Abbot of Saint 
James, in the Suburbs of Herbipolis, Henry 
Cornelius Agrippa of Nettesheim Sendeth 
Greeting : 

When I was of late, most reverend father, for a 
while conversant with you in your Monastery of 
Herbipolis, we conferred together of divers things 
concerning Chemistry, Magic, and Cabala, and of 
other things, which as yet lie hid in Secret Sciences 
and Arts; and then there was one great question 
amongst the rest — Why Magic, whereas it was ac- 
counted by all ancient philosophers to be the chief est 
science, and by the ancient wise men and priests was 
always held in great veneration, came at last, after 
the beginning of the Catholic Church, to be always 
odious to and suspected by the holy Fathers, and 
then exploded by Divines, and condemned by sacred 
Canons, and, moreover, by all laws and ordinances 
forbidden? Now, the cause, as I conceive, is no 
other than this, viz.: Because, by a certain fatal 
depravation of times and men, many false philoso- 
phers crept in, and these, under the name of Magi- 
cians, heaping together, through various sorts of 
errors and factions of false religions, many cursed 
superstitions and dangerous rites, and many wicked 
sacrileges, even to the perfection of Nature ; and the 
same set forth in many wicked and unlawful books, 
to which they have by stealth prefixed the most 
honest name and title of Magic; hoping, by this 
sacred title, to gain credit to Jtheir cursed and de- 
testable fooleries. Hence it is that this name of 
Magic, formerly so honorable, is now become most 
odious to good and honest men, and accounted a 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 31 

capital crime if any one dare profess himself to be 
a Magician, either in doctrine or works, unless haply 
some certain old doting woman, dwelling in the coun- 
try, would be believed to be skillful and have a divine 
power, that she (as saith Apuleis the satirist) "can 
throw down the heaven, lift up the earth, harden 
fountains, wash away mountains, raise up ghosts, 
cast down the Gods, extinguish the stars, illuminate 
hell," or, as Virgil sings: 

She'll promise by her charms to cast great caret, 
Or ease the minds of men, and make the Stars 
For to go back, and rivers to stand still, 
And raise the nightly ghosts even at her will; 
To make the earth to groan, and trees to fall 
From the mountains 

Hence those things which Lucan relates of Thes- 
sala the Magicianess, and Homer of the omnipotency 
of Circe. Whereof many others, I confess, are as 
well of a fallacious opinion as a superstitious dili- 
gence and pernicious labor; for when they cannot 
come under a wicked art yet they presume they may 
be able to cloak themselves under that venerable title 
of Magic. 

These things being so, I wondered much and was 
not less indignant that, as yet, there had been no 
man who had either vindicated this sublime and 
sacred discipline from the charge of impiety or had 
delivered it purely and sincerely to us. What I have 
seen of our modern writers — Roger Bacon, Robert 
of York, an Englishman, Peter Apponus, Albertus 
[Magnus] the Teutonich, Arnoldas de villa Nova, 
Anselme the Parmensian. Picatrix the Spaniard, 
Cicclus Asculus of Florence, and many other writers 
of an obscure name — when they promise to treat of 
Magic do nothing but relate irrational tales and su- 
perstitions unworthy of honest men. Hence nay 
spirit was moved, and, by reason partly of admira- 
tion, and partly of indignation, I was willing to play 



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32 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

the philosopher, supposing that I should do no dis- 
commendable work — seeing I have been always from 
my youth a curious and undaunted searcher for won- 
derful effects and operations full of mysteries — if I 
should recover that ancient Magic (the discipline of 
all wise men) from the errors of impiety, purify and 
adorn it with its proper lustre, and vindicate it from 
the injuries of calumniators; which thing, though I 
long deliberated of it in my mind, I never durst un- 
dertake; but after some conference betwixt us of 
these things, at Herbipolis, your transcending knowl- 
edge and learning, and your ardent adhortation, put 
courage and boldness into me. There selecting the 
opinions of philosophers of known credit, and purg- 
ing the introduction of the wicked (who, dissem- 
blingly, and with a counterfeited knowledge, did 
teach that traditions of Magicians must be learned 
from very reprobate books of darkness or from in- 
stitutions of wonderful operations), and, removing 
all darkness, I have at last composed three com- 
pendious books of Magic, and titled them Of Occult 
Philosophy, being a title less offensive, which books I 
submit (you excelling in the knowledge of these 
things) to your correction and censure, that if I have 
wrote anything which may tend either to the con- 
tumely of Nature, offending God, or injury of re- 
ligion, you may condemn the error ; but if the scandal 
of impiety be dissolved and purged, you may defend 
the Tradition of Truth; and that you would do so 
with these books, and Magic itself, that nothing may 
be concealed which may be profitable, and nothing 
approved of which cannot but do hurt; by which 
means these three books, having passed your exami- 
nation with approbation, may at length be thought 
worthy to come forth with good success in public, 
and may not be afraid to come under the censure of 
posterity. 

farewell, and pardon these my hold v/ndertakings. 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 33 



TEITHEMIUS TO AGBIPPA. 

John Trithemius, Abbot of Saint James of Herbip- 
olis, Formerly of Spanhemia, to His Henry 
Cornelius Agrippa of Nettesheim, Health and 
Love: 

Your work, most renowned Agrippa, entitled Of 
Occult Philosophy, which you have sent by this bear- 
er to me, has been examined. With how much pleas- 
ure I received it no mortal tongue can express nor 
the pen of any write, I wondered at your more than 
vulgar learning — that you, being so young, should 
penetrate into such secrets as have been hid from 
most learned men ; and not only clearly and truly but 
also properly and elegantly set them forth. Whence 
first I give you thanks for your good will to me, and, 
if I shall ever be able, I shall return you thanks to 
the utmost of my power. Your work, which no 
learned man can sufficiently commend, I approve of. 
Now that you may proceed toward higher things, as 
you have begun, and not suffer such excellent parts 
of wit to be idle, I do, with as much earnestness as 
I can, advise, intreat and beseech you that you would 
exercise yourself in laboring after better things, and 
demonstrate the light of true wisdom to the ignorant, 
according as you yourself are divinely enlightened. 
Neither let the consideration of idle, vain fellows 
withdraw you from your purpose ; I say of them, of 
whom it is said, "The wearied ox treads hard," 
whereas no man, to the judgment of the wise, can 
be truly learned who is sworn to the rudiments of 
one only faculty. But you have been by God gifted 
with a large and sublime wit, and it is not that you 
should imitate oxen but rather birds ; neither think 
it sufficient that you study about particulars, but 



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34 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

bend your mind confidently to universals ; for by so 
much the more learned any one is thought, by how 
much fewer things he is ignorant of. Moreover, your 
wit is fully apt to all things, and to be rationally 
employed, not in a few or low things, but many and 
sublimer. Yet this one rule I advise you to observe 
— that you communicate vulgar secrets to vulgar 
friends, but higher and secret to higher and secret 
friends only : Give hay to an ox, sugar to a parrot only. 
Understand my meaning, lest you be trod under the 
oxen's feet, as oftentimes it falls out. Farewell, my 
happy friend, and if it lie in my power to serve you, 
command me, and according to your pleasure it shall 
without delay be done; also, let our friendship in- 
crease daily; write often to me, and send me some 
of your labors I earnestly pray you. Again farewell. 

From our Monastery of Peapolis, the 8th day of 
April, A. D. MDX. 



In January, 1531, Agrippa wrote from Mechlin to 
Hermann of Wied, Archbishop of Cologne, to whom 
he dedicated his Occult Philosophy. In this letter he 
says: " Behold! amongst such things as were closely 
laid up — the books Of Occult Philosophy, or of 
Magic/' "a new work of most ancient and abstruse 
learning ;" " a doctrine of antiquity, by none, I dare 
say, hitherto attempted to be restored/ 9 "I shall be 
devotedly yours if these studies of my youth shall by 
the authority of your greatness come into knowl- 
edge,' ' "seeing many things in them seemed to me, 
being older, as most profitable, so most necessary 
to be known. You have therefore the work, not only 
of my youth but of my present age," "having added 
many things." 

The etching inserted at this place is made from the 
title page of the only complete English edition of the 
Occult Philosophy of Magic heretofore published. 



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36 THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 



THREE BOOKS 

OF 

Occult Philofoptiy? 

WRITTEN BY 

Henry Cornelius Agrippa, 

NETTESHEIM, 

Counfcllerto Charles the Fifth, 
£ mp ERORof Germany: 

AND 

Iudge of the Prerogative Court. 

Tranflated out of the Latin into the 
EnglifhTongue,By^. F. 



mm 



UmUn, Printed by R.W. fot&e&ry mie> and arcto 

be fold tt d» Sigo of the three Bibles neer the 

Weft*od©f3*w/>. i**5«. 



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THE 
PHILOSOPHY OF NATUEAL MAGIC 

BY 

HENRY CORNELIUS AGRIPPA 

KNIGHT AND DOCTOR OP BOTH LAWS, COUNSELLOR TO OffiBAR'S 
SACRED MAJESTY, AND JUDGE OP THE PREROGATIVE COURT. 



CHAPTER L 

How Magicians Collect Virtues from the Three- 
fold World is Declared in these Three Books. 

Seeing there is a Three-fold World — Elementary, 
Celestial and Intellectual — and every inferior is gov- 
erned by its superior, and receiveth the influence of 
the virtues thereof, so that the very Original and 
Chief Worker of all doth by angels, the heavens, 
stars, elements, animals, plants, metals and stones 
convey from Himself the virtues of His Omnipotency 
upon us, for whose service He made and created all 
these things : Wise men conceive it no way irrational 
that it should be possible for us to ascend by the 
same degrees through each World, to the same very 
original World itself, the Maker of all things and 

37 



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38 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

First cause, from whence all things are and proceed ; 
and also to enjoy not only these virtues, which are 
already in the more excellent kind of things, but also 
besides these, to draw new virtues from above. 
Hence it is that they seek after the virtues of the 
Elementary World, through the help of physic, and 
natural philosophy in the various mixtions of natural 
things ; then of the Celestial World in the rays, and 
influences thereof, according to the rules of Astrol- 
ogers, and the doctrines of mathematicians, joining 
the Celestial virtues to the former. Moreover, they 
ratify and confirm all these with the powers of divers 
Intelligence, through the sacred ceremonies of re- 
ligions. The order and process of all these I shall 
endeavor to deliver in these three books : Whereof 
the first contains Natural Magic, the second Celestial, 
and the third Ceremonial. But I know not whether 
it be an unpardonable presumption in me, that I, a 
man of so little judgment and learning, should in my 
very youth so confidently set upon a business so 
difficult, so hard and intricate as this is. Wherefore, 
whatsoever things have here already, and shall after- 
ward be said by me, I would not have anyone assent 
to them, nor shall I myself, any further than they 
shall be approved of by the universal church and the 
congregation of the faithful. 



CHAPTEE n. 

What Magic Is, What Abb the Pabts Thebeof, and 
How the Pbofessobs Thebeof Must Be Qualified. 

Magic is a faculty of wonderful virtue, full of most 
high mysteries, containing the most profound con- 
templation of most secret things, together with the 
nature, power, quality, substance and virtues thereof, 
as also the knowledge of whole Nature, and it doth 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 39 

instruct us concerning the differing and agreement of 
things amongst themselves, whence it produceth its 
wonderful effects, by uniting the virtues of things 
through the application of them one to the other, and 
to their inferior suitable subjects, joining and knit- 
ting them together thoroughly by the powers and 
virtues of the superior Bodies. This is the most per- 
fect and chief Science, that sacred and sublimer kind 
of Philosophy, and lastly the most absolute perfec- 
tion of all most excellent Philosophy. For seeing 
that all regulative Philosophy is divided into Natural, 
Mathematical and Theological : (Natural Philosophy 
teacheth the nature of those things which are in the 
world, searching and inquiring into their causes, ef- 
fects, times, places, fashions, events, their whole and 
parts, also 

The Number and the Nature of those things, 
Called Elements — what Fire, Earth, Aire forth brings; 
From whence the Heavens their beginnings had; 
Whence Tide, whence Rainbow, in gay colors clad. 
What makes the Clouds that gathered are, and black, 
To send forth Lightnings, and a Thund'ring crack; 
What doth the Nightly Flames, and Comets make; 
What makes the Earth to swell, and then to quake; 
What is the Seed of Metals, and of Gold; 
What Virtues, Wealth, doth Nature's Coffer hold. 

All these things doth Natural Philosophy, the 
viewer of Nature, contain, teaching us, according to 
Virgil's Muse: 

Whence all things flow — 
Whence Mankind, Beast; whence Fire, whence Rain and Snow; 
Whence Earthquakes are; why the whole Ocean beats 
Over its banks and then again retreats; 
Whence strength of Herbs, whence Courage, rage of Brutes 
All kinds of Stone, of creeping Things, and Fruits. 

But Mathematical Philosophy teacheth us to know 
the quantity of natural bodies, as extended into three 
dimensions, as also to conceive of the motion and 
course of celestial bodies. 



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40 THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 



As in great haste, 
What makes the golden Stars to march so fastf 
What makes the Moon sometimes to mask her face, 
The Sun also, as if in some disgrace f 

And, as Virgil sings: 

How th' Sun doth rule with twelve Zodiac Signs, 
The Orb that's measur'd round about with Lines- 
It doth the Heavens ' Starry Way make known, 
And strange Eclipses of the Sun and Moon; 
Arcturns also, and the Stars of Bain, 
The Seven Stars likewise, and Charles, his wain; 
Why Winter Suns make tow 'rds the West so fast ; 
What makes the Nights so long ere they be past! 

All which are understood by Mathematical Philos- 
ophy. 

Hence, by the Heavens we may foreknow 
The Seasons all; times for to reap and sow, 
And when 'tis fit to launch into the deep, 
And when to war, and when in peace to sleep; 
And when to dig up trees, and them again 
To set, that they may bring forth amain. 

Now Theological Philosophy, or Divinity, teacheth 
what God is, what the Mind, what an Intelligence, 
what an Angel, what a Devil, what the Soul, what 
Eeligion, what sacred Institutions, Eites, Temples, 
Observations, and sacred Mysteries are. It instructs 
us also concerning Faith, Miracles, the virtues of 
Words and Figures, the secret operations and mys- 
teries of Seals; and, as Apuleius saith, it teacheth us 
rightly to understand and to be skilled in the Cere- 
monial Laws, the equity of Holy things and rule of 
Religions. But to recollect myself.) 

These three principal faculties* Magic compre- 
hends, unites and actuates ; deservedly, therefore, 
was it by the Ancients esteemed as the highest and 
most sacred Philosophy. It was, as we find, brought 
to light by most sage authors and most famous writ- 

* Natural, Mathematical and Theological (Spiritual) Philosophy. 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 41 

ers, # amongst which principally Zamolxis and Zo- 
roaster were so famous that many believed they were 
the inventors of this Science. Their track Abbaris 
the Hyperborean, Charmondas, Danigeron, Eudoxus, 
Hermippus followed. There were also other eminent, 
choice men, as Mercurius Tresmegistus, Porphyrins, 
Iamblicus, Plotinus, Proclus, Dardanus, Orpheus the 
Thracian, Gog the Grecian, Germa the Babylonian, 
Apollonius of Tyana. Osthanes also wrote excel- 
lently of this Art, whose books being as it were lost, 
Democritus of Abdera recovered, and set them forth 
with his own Commentaries. Besides, Pythagoras, 
Empedocles, Democritus, Plato, and many other re- 
nowned Philosophers travelled far by sea to learn 
this Art ; and being returned, published it with won- 
derful devoutness, esteeming of it as a great secret. 
Also it is well known that Pythagoras and Plato went 
to the Prophets of Memphis to learn it, and travelled 
through almost all Syria, Egypt, Judea, and the 
Schools of the Chaldeans that they might not be igno- 
rant of the most sacred Memorials and Becords of 
Magic, as also that they misrht be furnished with 
Divine things. Whosoever, therefore, is desirous to 
study in this Faculty, if he be not skilled in Natural 
Philosophy, wherein are discovered the qualities of 
things, and in which are found the occult properties 
of every Being, and if he be not skillful in the 
Mathematics, and in the Aspects, and Figures of the 
Stars, upon which depend the sublime virtue and 
property of everything; and if he be not learned in 
Theology, wherein are manifested those immaterial 
substances, which dispense and minister all things, 
he cannot be possibly able to understand the ration- 

* The author here gives a valuable list of mystic writers and teachers 
up to A. D. 1509. At this date Agrippa was a "teacher of theology" at 
Dole, France, where he "attracted great attention by his lectures; but 
having by his bitter satires on the monks drawn upon himself the hatred 
of that body, he was accused of heresy, and obliged to leave," going to 
Cologne. 



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42 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

ality of Magic. For there is no work that is done by 
mere Magic, nor any work that is merely Magical, 
that doth not comprehend these three Faculties. 



CHAPTER III. 

Of the Foub Elements, Their Qualities, and Mu- 
tual Mixtions. 

There are four Elements, and original grounds of 
all corporeal things — Fire, Earth, Water, Air— of 
which all elemented inferior bodies are compounded ; 
not by way of heaping them up together; but by 
transmutation and union; and when they are de- 
stroyed they are resolved into Elements. For there 
is none of the sensible Elements that is pure, but 
they are more or less mixed, and apt to be changed 
one into the other : Even as Earth becoming dirty, 
and being dissolved, becomes Water, and the same 
being made thick and hard, becometh Earth again ; 
but being evaporated through heat, passeth into Air, 
and that being kindled, passeth into Fire ; and this 
being extinguished, returns back again into Air ; but 
being cooled again after its burning, becomes Earth, 
or Stone, or Sulphur, and this is manifested by 
Lightning. Plato also was of that opinion, that 
Earth was wholly changeable, and that the rest of 
the Elements are changed, as into this, so into one 
another successively. But it is the opinion of the 
subtler sort of Philosophers, that Earth is not 
changed, but relented and mixed with other Ele- 
ments, which do dissolve it, and that it returns back 
into itself again.* Now, every one of the Elements 
hath two specifical qualities — the former whereof it 

•Agrippa teaches here and in the chapter following that matter, or 
substance, however much its elementary forms may change, is eternal, 
thus denying the dogma that God "created" all things "out of nothing." 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATUKAL MAGIC 43 

retains as proper to itself ; in the other, as a mean, it 
agrees with that which comes next after it. For 
Fire is hot and dry, the Earth dry and cold, the 
Water cold and moist, the Air moist and hot.* And 
so after this manner the Elements, according to two 
contrary qualities, are contrary one to the other, as 
Fire to Water, and Earth to Air. Moreover, the 
Elements are upon another account opposite one to 
the other : For some are heavy, as Earth and Water, 
and others are light, as Air and Fire. Wherefore the 
Stoics called the former passives, but the latter 
actives. And yet once again, Plato distinguished 
them after another manner, and assigns to every one 
of them three qualities, viz., to the Fire brightness, 
thinness and motion, but to the Earth darkness, 
thickness and quietness. And according to these 
qualities the Elements of Fire and Earth are con- 
trary. But the other Elements borrow their qual- 
ities from these, so that the Air receives two qual- 
ities of the Fire, thinness and motion, and one of 
the Earth, viz., darkness. In like manner Water 
receives two qualities of the Earth, darkness and 
thickness, and one of Fire, viz., motion. But Fire 
is twice more thin than Air, thrice more movable, and 
four times more bright; and the Air is twice more 
bright, thrice more thin, and four times more mov- 
able than Water. Wherefore Water is twice more 
bright than Earth, thrice more thin, and four times 
more movable, f As therefore the Fire is to the Air, 

* Tabularly stated : pbopeb mean 

QUALITY. QUALITY. 

Fire Is hot and dry. 

Earth is.... dry and cold. 
Water is.... cold and moist 

Air is moist and hot. 

As to tyese qualities — Fire is contrary to Water, and Earth to Air. 
This exposition of the "qualities" astrologers should note, for while the 
books give the same matter the "proper" and "mean" qualities are not 
given. 

t The unity of the contrasts between the four elements is here shown. 



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44 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATUKAL MAGIC 

so Air is to the Water, and Water to the Earth ; and 
again, as the Earth is to the Water, so is the Water 
to the Air, and the Air to the Fire. And this is the 
root and foundation of all bodies, natures, virtues 
and wonderful works ; and he which shall know these 
qualities of the Elements, and their mixtions, shall 
easily bring to pass such things that are wonderful, 
and astonishing, and shall be perfect in Magic. 



CHAPTER IV. 
Op a Thbee-fold Considebation of the Elements. 

There are, then, as we have said, four Elements, 
without the perfect knowledge whereof we can effect 
nothing in Magic. Now each of them is three-fold, 
that so the number of four may make up the number 
of twelve; and by passing by the number of seven 
into the number of ten, there may be a progress to the 
supreme Unity, upon which all virtue and wonderful 
operation depends. Of the first Order are the pure 
Elements, which are neither compounded nor 
changed, nor admit of mixtion, but are incorruptible, 
and not of which, but through which the virtues of 
all natural things are brought forth into act. No 
man is able to declare their virtues, because they 
can do all things upon all things. He which is igno- 
rant of these, shall never be able to bring to pass any 
wonderful matter. Of the second Order are Ele- 
ments that are compounded, changeable and inpure, 
yet such as may by art be reduced to their pure sim- 
plicity, whose virtue, when they are thus reduced 
to their simplicity, doth above all things perfect all 
occult and common operations of Nature ; and these 
are the foundation of the whole Natural Magic. Of 
the third Order are those Elements, which originally 
and of themselves are not Elements, but are twice 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 45 

compounded, various and changeable one into the 
other.* They are the infallible Mediums, and there- 
fore are called the middle nature, or Soul of the mid- 
dle nature. Very few there are that understand the 
deep mysteries thereof. In them is, by means of cer- 
tain numbers, degrees and orders, the perfection of 
every effect in anything soever, whether Natural, 
Celestial or Supercelestial ; they are full of wonders 
and mysteries, and are operative, as in Magic Nat- 
ural, so in Divine: For from these, through them, 
proceed the bindings, loosings and transmutations of 
all things, the knowing and foretelling of all things 
to come, also the driving forth of evil and the gaining 
of good spirits. Let no man, therefore, without these 
three sorts of Elements, and the knowledge thereof, 
be confident that he is able to work any thing in the 
occult Sciences of Magic and Nature. But whosoever 
shall know how to reduce those of one Order into 
those of another, impure into pure, compounded into 
simple, and shall know how to understand distinctly 
the nature, virtue and power of them in number, 
degrees and order, without dividing the substance, 
he shall easily attain to the knowledge and perfect , 
operation of all Natural things and Celestial secrets. 



CHAPTER V. 
Of the Wondebful, Natubes of Fibe and Eabth. 

Thebe are two things, saith Hermes, viz., Fire and 
Earth, which are sufficient for the operation of all 
wonderful things : the former is active, the latter pas- 
sive. Fire, as saith Dionysius, in all things, and 
through all things, comes and goes away bright ; it is 

* Such as heat, light and electricity ; astral magnetism, attraction and 
vibration ; form, number and color ; occult principles of natural law ; the 
immutable attributes of time, space and substance. 



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46 THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 

in all things bright, and at the same time occult and 
unknown. When it is by itself (no other matter com- 
ing to it, in which it should manifest its proper 
action) it is boundless and invisible, of itself suffi- 
cient for every action that is proper to it, movable, 
yielding itself after a manner to all things that come 
next to it, renewing, guarding Nature, enlightening, 
not comprehended by lights that are veiled over, 
clear, parted, leaping back, bending upwards, quick 
in motion, high, always raising motions, comprehend- 
ing another, not comprehended itself, not standing 
in need of another, secretly increasing of itself, and 
manifesting its greatness to things that receive it; 
Active, Powerful, Invisibly present in all things at 
once; it will not be affronted or opposed, but as it 
were in a way of revenge, it will reduce, on a sud- 
den, things into obedience to itself; incomprehensi- 
ble, impalpable, not lessened, most rich in all dispen- 
sations of itself. Fire, as saith Pliny, is the bound- 
less and mischievous part of the nature of things, it 
being a question whether it destroys or produceth 
most things. Fire itself is one, and penetrates 
through all things, as say the Pythagoreans, also 
spread abroad in the Heavens, and shining: but in 
the infernal place straitened, dark and tormenting; 
in the mid way it partakes of both. Fire, therefore, 
in itself is one, but in that which receives it, mani- 
fold ; and in differing subjects it is distributed in a 
different manner, as Cleanthes witnesseth in Cicero. 
That fire, then, which we use is fetched out of other 
things. It is in stones, and is fetched out by the 
stroke of the steel; it is in Earth, and makes that, 
after digging up, to smoke; it is in "Water, and heats 
springs and wells; it is in the depth of the Sea^and 
makes that, being tossed with winds, warm ; it is in 
the Air, and makes it (as we oftentimes see) to burn. 
And all animals and living things whatsoever, as 
also all vegetables, are preserved by heat ; and every- 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 47 

thing that lives, lives by reason of the inclosed heat. 
The properties of the Fire that is above, are heat, 
making all things fruitful, and light, giving life to 
all things. The properties of the infernal Fire are 
a parching heat, consuming all things, and darkness, 
making all things barren. The Celestial and bright 
Fire drives away spirits of darkness ; also this, our 
Fire made with wood, drives away the same in as 
much as it hath an analogy with and is the vehiculum 
of that Superior light; as also of him who saith, "I 
am the Light of the World," which is true Fire, the 
Father of Lights, from whom every good thing, that 
is given, comes ; sending forth the light of His Fire, 
and communicating it first to the Sun and the rest of 
the Celestial bodies, and by these, as by mediating 
instruments, conveying that light into our Fire. As, 
therefore, the spirits of darkness are stronger in the 
dark, so good spirits, which are Angels of Light, are 
augmented, not only by that light, which is Divine, 
of the Sun, and Celestial, but also by the light of our 
common Fire. Hence it was that the first and most 
wise institutors of religions and ceremonies ordained 
that prayers, singings and all manner of divine wor- 
ships whatsoever should not be performed without 
lighted candles or torches (hence, also, was that 
significant saying of Pythagoras, "Do not speak of 
God without a Light"), and they commanded that for 
the driving away of wicked spirits, Lights and Fires 
should be kindled by the corpses of the dead, and that 
they should not be removed until the expiations were 
after a holy manner performed and they buried. And 
the great Jehovah himself in the old law commanded 
that all his sacrifices should be offered with Fire, and 
that Fire should always be burning upon the altar, 
which custom the priests of the altar did always ob- 
serve and keep amongst the Eomans. 

Now the basis and foundation of all the Elements 
>* the Earth, for that is the object, subject, and re- 



r 



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48 THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 

ceptacle of all Celestial rays and influences ; in it are 
contained the seeds and seminal virtues of all things ; 
and therefore it is said to be Animal, Vegetable and 
Mineral. It being made fruitful by the other Ele- 
ments and the Heavens, it brings forth all things of 
itself. It receives the abundance of all things and is, 
as it were, the first fountain from whence all things 
spring. It is the center, foundation and mother of 
all things. Take as much of it as you please, sepa- 
rated, washed, depurated, subtilized, if you let it lie 
in the open air a little while, it will, being full and 
abounding with heavenly virtues, of itself bring forth 
plants, worms and other living things, also stones, 
and bright sparks of metals. In it are great secrets, 
if at any time it shall be purified by the help of Fire, 
and reduced unto its simplicity by a convenient wash- 
ing. It is the first matter of our creation, and the 
truest medicine that can restore and preserve us. 



CHAPTEK VI. 

Of the Wonderful Natures of "Water, Air 
and Winds. 

The other two Elements, viz., Water and Air, are 
not less efficacious than the former ; neither is Nature 
wanting to work wonderful things in them. There is 
so great a necessity of Water, that without it no liv- 
ing thing can live. No herb nor plant whatsoever, 
without the moistening of Water can branch forth. 
In it is the seminary virtue of all things, especially of 
animals. The seeds also of trees and plants, although 
they are earthy, must notwithstanding of necessity be 
rotted in Wat°r before they can be fruitful ; whether 
they be imbibed with the moisture of the Earth, or 
with dew or rain or any other Water that is on pur- 
pose put to them. For Moses writes, that only Earth 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 49 

and Water bring forth a living soul. But he ascribes 
a twofold production of things to Water, viz., of 
things swimming in the Waters, and of things flying 
in the Air above the Earth. And that those produc- 
tions that are made in and upon the Earth are partly 
attributes to the very Water, the same Scripture 
testifies, where it saith that the plants and the herbs 
did not grow, because God had not caused it to rain 
upon the Earth. Such is the efficacy of this Element 
of Water that spiritual regeneration cannot be done 
without it, as Christ himself testified to Nicodemus. 
Very great, also, is the virtue of it in the religious 
worship of God, in expiations and purifications ; yea, 
the necessity of it is no less than that of Fire. Infi- 
nite are the benefits, and divers are the uses thereof, 
as being that by virtue of which all things subsist, 
are generated, nourished and increased. Thence it 
was that Thales, of Miletus, and Hesiod concluded 
that Water was the beginning of all things, and said 
it was the first of all the Elements, and the most 
potent, and that because it hath the mastery over all 
the rest. For, as Pliny saith, Waters swallow up the 
Earth, extinguish flames, ascend on high, and by the 
stretching forth of the clouds, challenge the Heaven 
for their own ; the same falling become the cause of 
all things that grow in the Earth. Very many are the. 
wonders that are done by Waters, according to the 
writings of Pliny, Solinus, and many other historians 
of the wonderful virtue whereof, Ovid also makes 
mention in these verses : 

Horn 'd Hammon 's Waters at high noon 
Are cold; hot at Sun-rise and setting Sun. 
Wood, put in bub 'ling Athemas is FirM, 
The Moon then farthest from the Sun retir'd; 
Ciconian streams congeal his guts to Stone 
That thereof drinks, and what therein is thrown 
Crathis and Sybaris (from the Mountains rol'd) 
Color the hair like Amber or pure Gold. 
Some fountains, of a more prodigious kinde, 
Not only change the body but the minde. 



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50 THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 

Who hath not heard of obscene Salmacis? 

Of th* ^Ethiopian lakef for, who of this 

But only taste, their wits no longer keep, 

Or forthwith fall into a deadly sleep. 

Who at Clitorius fountain thirst remove 

Loath Wine and, abstinent, meer Water love. 

With streams oppos'd to these Lincestus flowes— 

They reel, as drunk, who drink too much of those. 

A Lake in fair Arcadia stands, of old 

Call'd Pheneus, suspected as twofold — 

Pear and forbear to drink thereof by night — 

By night unwholesome, wholesome by day-light. 

Josephus also makes relation of the wonderful na- 
ture of a certain river betwixt Arcea and Eaphanea, 
cities of Syria, which runs with a full channel all the 
Sabbath day and then on a sudden ceaseth, as if the 
springs were stopped, and all the six days you may 
pass over it dry shod ; but again, on the seventh day 
(no man knowing the reason of it), the Waters re- 
turn again in abundance as before. Wherefore the 
inhabitants thereabout called it the Sabbath-day 
river, because of the Seventh day, which was holy to 
the Jews. The Gospel also testifies to a sheep-pool, 
into which whosoever stepped first, after the Water 
was troubled by the Angel, was made whole of what- 
soever disease he had. The same virtue and efficacy 
we read was in a spring of the Jonian Nymphs, which 
was in the territories belonging to the town of Elis, 
at a village called Heraclea, near the river Citheron : 
which whosoever stepped into, being diseased, came 
forth whole and cured of all his diseases. Pausanias 
also reports that in Lyceus, a mountain of Arcadia, 
there was a spring called Agria, to which, as often as 
the dryness of the region threatened the destruction 
of fruits, Jupiter's priest of Lyceus went, and after 
the offering of sacrifices, devoutly praying to the 
Waters of the Spring, holding a Bough of an Oak in 
his hand, put it down to the bottom of the hallowed 
Spring. Then the Waters, being troubled, Vapor 
ascending from thence into the Air was blown into 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATUKAL MAGIC 51 

clouds with which, being joined together, the whole 
Heaven was overspread; which being a little after 
dissolved into rain, watered all the country most 
wholesomely. Moreover, Ruff us, a physician of Eph- 
esus, besides many other authors, wrote strange 
things concerning the wonders of Waters, which for 
ought I know, are found in no other author. 

It remains that I speak of the Air. This is a vital 
spirit, passing through all beings, giving life and sub- 
sistence to all things, binding, moving and filling all 
things. Hence it is that the Hebrew doctors reckon 
it not amongst the Elements, but count it as a M edi- 
um or glue, joining things together, and as the re- 
sounding spirit of the World's instrument. It imme- 
diately receives into itself the influences of all 
celestial bodies and then communicates them to the 
other Elements, as also to all mixed bodies. Also it 
receives into itself, as it were a divine looking-glass, 
the species of all things, as well natural as artificial, 
as also of all manner of speeches, and retains them ; 
and carrying them with it, and entering into the bod- 
ies of men, and other animals, through their pores, 
makes an impression upon them, as well when they 
sleep as when they be awake, and affords matter for 
divers strange Dreams and Divinations. Hence they 
say it is, that a man passing by a place where a man 
was slain, or the carcass newly hid, is moved with 
fear and dread; because the Air in that place, being 
full of the dreadful species of manslaughter, doth 
being breathed in, move and trouble the spirit of the 
man with the like species, whence it is that he comes 
to be afraid. For everything that makes a sudden 
impression, astonisheth nature. Whence it is, that 
many philosophers were of opinion that Air is the 
cause of dreams, and of many other impressions of 
the mind, through the prolonging of Images, or 
similitudes, or species (which are fallen from things 
and speeches, multiplied in the very Air) until they 



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52 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

-^ 

come to the senses, and then to the phantasy, and soul 
of him that receives them, which being freed from 
cares and no way hindered, expecting to meet such 
kind of species, is informed by them. For the species 
of things, although of their own proper nature they 
are carried to the senses of men, and other animals 
in general, may notwithstanding get some impression 
from the Heaven whilst they be in the Air, by reason 
of which, together with the aptness and disposition 
of him that receives them, they may be carried to 
the sense of one rather than of another. And hence 
it is possible naturally, and far from all manner of 
superstition, no other spirit coming between, that a 
man should be able in a very little time to signify 
his mind unto another man abiding at a very long and 
unknown distance from him; although he cannot 
precisely give an estimate of the time when it is, yet 
of necessity it must be within twenty-four hours ; and 
I myself know how to do it, and have often done it.* 
The same also in time past did the Abbot Trithemius 
both know and do. Also, when certain appearances, 
not only spiritual but also natural, do flow forth from 

♦This Is conclusive evidence that telepathy or mind transference has 
been known and practiced for hundreds of years. The method of mind 
transference Is frequently carried out unawares, and may be performed 
In various ways. When two persons are in natural sympathy with each 
other it is a comparatively easy matter if they are of a nervous or sensi- 
tive temperament. Writing a letter, and then burning it, the while fixing 
the mind firmly upon the person addressed and willing that the letter be 
answered is one method. Mentally addressing a crystal vessel of water 
with the palms of the hands extended over the glass, the while picturing 
the absent person clearly in the mind's eye, and then pouring the water 
into a stream or the ocean, will carry a message to one at sea. Burying 
a stone, slate or piece of metal in the earth, at the time of the new 
moon, on which a message is inscribed, will influence those who labor in 
the earth or work in like metals, especially if Saturn or Uranus be in 
strong aspect to the earth through the sun. The air method is the best 
of all, and was that undoubtedly used by Agrlppa as he makes mention 
of the matter in this place : Go out into the open air, or to an open win- 
dow, and face the quarter wherein the person is ; or, if the quarter be un- 
known, face in turn each of the four cardinal points, and audibly call the 
name of the person with whom communication is desired, the same as 
though the party was in an adjoining room, three times, earnestly, and 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 53 



things (that is to say, by a certain kind of flowing 
forth of bodies from bodies,f and do gather strength 
in the Air), they offer and show themselves to us as 
well through light as motion, as well to the sight as to 
other senses, and sometimes work wonderful things 
upon us, as Plotinus proves and teacheth. And we 
see how by the south wind the Air is condensed into 
thin clouds, in which, as in a looking-glass, are re- 
flected representations at a great distance of castles, 
mountains, horses and men and other things which, 
when the clouds are gone, presently vanish. And 
Aristotle, in his Meteors, shows that a rainbow is 
conceived in a cloud of the Air, as in a looking-glass. 
And Albertus saith that the effigies of bodies may, by 
the strength of nature, in a moist Air be easily repre- 
sented, in the same manner as the representations of 
things are in things. And Aristotle tells of a man to 
whom it happened, by reason of the weakness of his 
sight, that the Air that was near to him became, as it 
were, a looking-glass to him, and the optic beam did 
reflect back upon himself, and could not penetrate the 
Air, so that whithersoever he went he thought he saw 
his own image, with his face towards him, go before 
him. In like manner, by the artificialness of some 
certain looking-glasses, may be produced at a dis- 
tance in the Air, beside the looking-glasses, what im- 

each time with added force. While doing this extend the arms and hands, 
as in appeal, the while clearly picturing the person's features in the mind, 
and will, determinedly and persistently, that your call and message be 
heard. Then speak, as though the person stood before you, shortly, firmly 
and decidedly. Having done this listen for a reply, which will come as 
though one were speaking to the mind without the aid of the ear. Do not 
imagine a reply as that will not help but rather hinder communication. 
Of course, in most cases, it is necessary that there should exist a sympa- 
thetic bond or tie of some kind between the parties. This art may be 
developed by practice, by lovers especially, to an astonishing degree. 
It will be found very helpful to set certain times for such development. 
With practice, after mind communication has been accomplished, spoken 
messages and other noted conditions may be dispensed with, and it will 
be merely necessary to will and think — projecting the message astrally. 
t The astral body from the material body. 



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54 THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 

ages we please ; which when ignorant men see, they 
think they see the appearances of spirits, or souls ; 
when, indeed, they are nothing else but semblances 
kin to themselves, and without life. And it is well 
known, if in a dark place where there is no light but 
by the coming in of a beam of the sun somewhere 
through a little hole, a white paper or plain looking- 
glass be set up against that light, that there may be 
seen upon them whatsoever things are done without, 
being shined upon by the sun. And there is another 
sleight or trick yet more wonderful : If any one shall 
take images artificially painted, or written letters, 
and in a clear night set them against the beams of 
the full moon, whose resemblances, being multiplied 
in the Air, and caught upward, and reflected back to- 
gether with the beams of the moon, any other man 
that is privy to the thing, at a long distance sees, 
reads and knows them in the very compass and cir- 
cle of the moon; which Art of declaring secrets is 
indeed very profitable for towns and cities that are 
besieged, being a thing which Pythagoras long since 
did often do, and which is not unknown to some in 
these days ; I will not except myself. And all these 
and many more, and greater than these, are grounded 
in the very nature of the Air, and have their reasons 
and causes declared in mathematics and optics. And 
as these resemblances are reflected back to the sight, 
so also sometimes to the hearing, as is manifest in 
the Echo. But there are more secret arts than these, 
and such whereby any one may at a very remote dis- 
tance hear and understand what another speaks or 
whispers softly. 

There are also, from the airy element, Winds ; for 
they are nothing else but Air moved and stirred up. 
Of these there are four that are principal, blowing 
from the four corners of the Heaven, viz.: Notus 
from the South, Boreas from the North, Zephyrus 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 55 

from the West, Eurus from the East,* which Pon- 
tanus comprehending in these verses, saith : 

Cold Boreas from the top of 'lympus blows, 
And from the bottom cloudy Notus flows. 
From setting Phcebus fruitful Zeph'rus flies, 
And barren Eurus from the Sun 's uprise. 

Notus is the Southern Wind, cloudy, moist, warm 
and sickly, which Hieronymus calls the butler of 
the rains. Ovid describes it thus : 

Out flies South-wind with dropping wings, who shrowds 
His fearful aspect in the pitchie clouds, 
His white Haire streams, his Beard big-swol'n with showers; 
Mists binde his Brows, rain from his Bosome powres. 

But Boreas is contrary to Notus, and is the North- 
ern Wind^ fierce and roaring, and discussing clouds ; 
makes the Air serene, and binds the Water with 
frost. Him doth Ovid thus bring in speaking of 
himself: 

Force me befits: with this thick clouds I drive; 
Toss the blew Billows, knotty Okes up-rive; 
Congeal soft snow, and beat the Earth with haile: 
When I my brethren in the Aire assaile, 
(For that's our Field) we meet with such a shock, 
That thundering Skies with our encounters rock 
And cloud-struck lightning flashes from on high, 
When through the Crannies of the Earth I flie 
And force her in her hollow Caves; I make 
The Ghosts to tremble, and the ground to quake. 

And Zephyrus, which is the Western Wind, is 
most soft, blowing from the West with a pleasant 

* Marcus Manilius, of Rome, time of Augustus, and author of the poem 
entitled "Astronomica," thus writes of the Cardinal Winds (Five Books of 
Manilius, London, 1697) : 

East, West, and North, and South, on either side, 

These Quarters lie oppos'd, the World divide: 

As many Winds from these four Quarters flie, 

And fight and rattle, thro' the empty Sky; 

Rough Boreas from the North, bears Frost and Snows, 

And from the East, the gentle Eurus blows, 

Wet Auster from the torrid South Is thrown, 

And pleasing Zephyrus cools the setting Sun. 



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56 THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 

gale; it is cold and moist, removing the effects of 
Winter, bringing forth branches and flowers. To 
this Eurus is contrary, which is the Eastern Wind, 
and is called Apeliotes; it is waterish, cloudy and 
^avenous. Of these two Ovid sings thus : 

To Persis and Sabea, Eurus flies; 
Whose gums perfume the blushing Morne's up-rise: 
Next to the Evening, and the Coast that glows 
» With setting Phoebus, flow'ry Zeph'rus blows; 

In Scythia horrid Boreas holds his rain, 
Beneath Boites, and the frozen Wain; 
The land to this oppos 'd doth Auster steep 
With fruitful show res and clouds which ever weep. 



CHAPTER VII. 

Of the Kinds of Compounds, what Relation They 
Stand in to the Elements, and what Relation 
There Is Betwixt the Elements Themselves and 
the Soul, Senses and Dispositions of Men. 

Next after the four simple Elements follow the four 
kinds of perfect Bodies compounded of them, and 
they are Stones, Metals, Plants and Animals: and 
although unto the generation of each of these all the 
Elements meet together in the composition, yet every 
one of them follows, and resembles one of the Ele- 
ments, which is most predominant. For all Stones 
are earthy for they are naturally heavy and descend, 
and so hardened with dryness that they cannot be 
melted. But Metals are waterish and may be melted, 
which naturalists confess, and chemists find to be 
true, viz., that they are generated of a viscous Water 
or waterish argent vive. Plants have such an af- 
finity with the Air, that unless they be abroad in the 
open air, they do neither bud nor increase. So also 
all Animals 

Have in their Natures a most fiery force, 
And also spring from a Celestial source. 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 57 

And Fire is so natural to them, that that being ex- 
tinguished they presently die. And, again, every 
one of those kinds is distinguished within itself by 
reason of degrees of the Elements. For amongst 
the Stones they especially are called earthy that are 
dark and more heavy ; and those waterish which are 
transparent and are compacted of water, as crystal, 
beryl and pearls in the shells of fishes ; and they are 
called airy which swim upon the water, and are 
spongeous, as the stones of a sponge, the pumice 
stone and the stone sophus;* and they are called 
fiery out of which fire is extracted, or which are 
produced of fire, as thunder-bolts, fire-stones and 
the stone asbestos. Also amongst Metals, lead and 
silver are earthy; quicksilver is waterish; copper 
and tin are airy; and gold and iron are fiery. In 
Plants also, the roots resemble the earth by reason 
of their thickness ; and the leaves water, because of 
their juice ; flowers the air, because of their subtility, 
and the seeds the fire, by reason of their multiplying 
spirit. Besides, they are called some hot, some cold, 
some moist, some dry, borrowing their names from 
the qualities of the Elements. Amongst Animals 
also, some are in comparison of others earthy, and 
dwell in the bowels of the earth, as worms and moles, 
and many other small creeping vermin; others are 
watery, as fishes ; others airy, which cannot live out 
of the air ;f others also are fiery, living in the fire, as 
salamanders, and crickets^ such as are of a fiery 
heat, as pigeons, ostriches, lions, and such as the wise 
men call beasts breathing fire. Besides, in animals 
the bones resemble the earth, flesh the air, the vital 
spirit the fire, and the humors the water. And these 
humors also partake of the Elements, for yellow 
choler is instead of fire, blood instead of air, phlegm 
instead of water, and black choler, or melancholy, 

• Probably meerschaum (sea-froth), or sepiolite, one of tbe bisilicatea. 
t Birds in general are undoubtedly here meant. 



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58 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

instead of earth. And lastly, in the Soul itself, ac- 
cording to Austin, the understanding resembles fire, 
reason the air, imagination the water, and the senses 
the earth. And these senses also are divided amongst 
themselves by reason of the Elements, for the sight 
is fiery, neither can it perceive without fire and light ; 
the hearing is airy, for a sound is made by the strik- 
ing of the air; the smell and taste resemble the 
water, without the moisture of which there is neither 
smell nor taste; and lastly, the feeling is wholly 
earthy, and taketh gross bodies for its object. The 
actions, also, and the operations of man are gov- 
erned by the Elements. The earth signifies a slow 
and firm motion ; the water signifies fearfulness and 
sluggishness, and remissness in working; air signi- 
fies cheerfulness and an amiable disposition; but 
fire a fierce, quick and angry disposition. The Ele- 
ments, therefore, are the first of all things, and all 
things, are of and according to them, and they are in 
all things, and diffuse their virtues through all things. 



CHAPTER VIIL 

How the Elements Are in the Heavens, in Stabs, 
in Devils, in Angels, and lastly in God Himself. 

It is the unanimous consent of all Platonists, that 
as in the original and exemplary World, all things 
are in all ; so also in this corporeal world, all things 
are in all ; so also the Elements are not only in these 
inferior bodies, but also in the Heavens, in Stars in 
Devils, in Angels, and lastly in God, the maker and 
original example of all things. Now in these inferior 
bodies the Elements are accompanied with much 
gross matter; but in the Heavens the Elements are 
with their natures and virtues, viz., after a celestial 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 59 

and more excellent manner than in sublunary things. 
For the firmness of the Celestial Earth is there with- 
out the grossness of water; and the agility of the 
Air without running over its bounds; the heat of 
Fire without burning, only shining and giving life 
to all things by its heat. Amongst the Stars, also, 
some are fiery, as Mars and Sol ; airy, as Jupiter and 
Venus ; watery, as Saturn and Mercury ; and earthy, 
such as inhabit the eighth Orb* and the Moon (which, 
notwithstanding, by many is accounted watery), see- 
ing, as if it were Earth, it attracts to itself the celes- 
tial waters, with which, being imbibed, it doth, by 
reason of its nearness to us, pour out and communi- 
cate to us. There are, also, amongst the Signs,t some 
fiery, some earthy, some airy, some watery; the Ele- 
ments rule them also in the Heavens, distributing 
to them these four threefold considerations of every 
Element, viz., the beginning, middle and end: So 
Aires possesseth the beginning of fire, Leo the prog- 
ress and increase, and Sagittarius the end. Taurus 
the beginning of the earth, Virgo the progress, Capri- 
corn the end. Gemini the beginning of the air, Libra 
the progress, Aquarius the end. Cancer the begin- 
ning of water, Scorpius the middle, and Pisces the 
end. Of the mixtions, therefore, of these Planets 
and Signs, together with the Elements, are all bodies 
made. Moreover, Devils also are upon this account 
distinguished the one from the other, so that some 
are called fiery, some earthy, some airy, and some 
watery. Hence, also, those four Infernal Eivers — 
fiery Phlegethon, airy Cocytus, watery Styx, earthy 
Acheron. Also in the Gospel we read of hell fire, 
and eternal fire, into which the cursed shall be com- 
manded to go; and in the Eevelation we read of a 
lake of fire, and Isaiah speaks of the damned that 

* A supposedly transparent envelope or azure sphere Inclosing the earth 
and other like spheres, within which were carried the planetary bodies, 
t The twelve "houses" or divisional parts of the Zodiac 



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60 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

the Lord will smite them with corrupt air. And in 
Job, they shall skip from the waters of the snow to 
extremity of heat ; and in the same we read, that the 
Earth is dark, and covered with the darkness of death 
and miserable darkness. Moreover, also, these Ele- 
ments are placed in the Angels in Heaven and the 
blessed Intelligences.^ There is in them a stability of 
their essence, which is an earthly virtue, in which is 
the steadfast seat of God ; also their mercy and piety 
is a watery cleansing virtue. Hence by the Psalmist 
they are called Waters, where he, speaking of the 
Heavens, saith, "Who rulest the Waters that are high- 
er than the Heavens.* Also in them their subtile 
breath is Air, and their love is shining Fire. Hence 
they are called in Scripture the Wings of the Wind ; 
and in another place the Psalmist speaks of them, 
Who makest Angels thy Spirits and thy Ministers a 
flaming fire. Also according to orders of Angels, 
some are fiery, as Seraphim, and Authorities and 
Powers; earthy, as Cherubim; watery, as Thrones 
and Archangels ; airy, as Dominions and Principali- 
ties. Do we not also read of the original maker of 
all things, that the earth shall be opened and bring 
forth a Savior? It is not spoken of the same that he 
shall be a fountain of living Water, cleansing and 
regenerating? Is not the same Spirit breathing the 
breath of life; and the same, according to Moses* 
and Paul's testimony, a consuming Fire? That Ele- 
ments, therefore, are to be found everywhere, and in 
all things after their manner, no man can deny: 
First in these inferior bodies seculent and gross, and 
in celestials more pure and clear ; but in superceles- 
tials living, and in all respects blessed. Elements, 
therefore, in the exemplary world are Ideas of things 
to be produced, in Intelligences are distributed pow- 

• See Psalm cxlviil., 4 : "Waters that be above the Heavens." Gen., 
i. f 6-9, is also noteworthy. The Watery Triplicity of the Zodiac may 
properly be termed as "Waters above the Heavens," or Celestial Waters. 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 61 

ers, in Heavens are virtues, and in inferior bodies 
gross forms. 



CHAPTEE IX. 

Op the Vibtues of Things Natural, Depending Im- 
mediately upon Elements. 

Of the natural virtues of things, some are Ele- 
mentary, as to heat, to cool, to moisten, to dry ; and 
they are called operations, or first qualities ; and the 
second act : for these qualities only do wholly change 
the whole substance, which none of the other qualities 
can do. And some are in things compounded of Ele- 
ments, and these are more than first qualities, and 
such are those that are maturating, digesting, resolv- 
ing, mollifying, hardening, restringing, absterging, 
corroding, burning, opening, evaporating, strengthen- 
ing, mitigating, conglutinating, obstructing, expell- 
ing, retaining, attracting, repercussing, stupefying, 
bestowing, lubrifying and many more. Elementary 
qualities do many things in a mixed body which they 
cannot do in the Elements themselves. And these 
operations are called secondary qualities, because 
they follow the nature and proportion of the mixtion 
of the first virtues, as largely it is treated of in 
physic books. As maturation, which is the operation 
of natural heat, according to a certain proportion in 
the substance of the matter, so induration is the 
operation of cold; so also is congelation, and so of 
the rest. And these operations sometimes act upon 
a certain member, as such which provoke water, milk, 
the flow, and they are called third qualities, which 
follow the second, as the second do the first. Accord- 
ing, therefore, to these first, second, and third qual- 
ities many diseases are both cured and caused. Many 
things also there are artificially made, which men 
much wonder at; as is Fire which burns Water, 



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62 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATUEAL MAGIC 

which they call the Greek Fire, of which Aristotle 
teacheth many compositions in his particular treatise 
of this subject. In like manner there is made a Fire 
that is extinguished with oil, and is kindled with cold 
water, when it is sprinkled upon it ; and a Fire which 
is kindled either with Eain, Wind or the Sun ; and 
there is made a Fire which is called burning Water, 
the confection whereof is well known, and it con- 
sumes nothing but itself. And also there are made 
Fires that cannot be quenched, and incombustible 
Oils and perpetual Lamps, which can be extinguished 
neither with wind, nor water, nor any other way; 
which seems utterly incredible, but that there had 
been such a most famous Lamp, which once did shine 
in the Temple of Venus, in which the stone Asbestos 
did burn, which being once fired can never be ex- 
tinguished. Also, on the contrary, Wood, or any 
other combustible matter may be so ordered, that it 
can receive no harm from the Fire; and there are 
made certain confections, with which the hands being 
anointed, we may carry red-hot iron in them, or put 
them into melted metal ; or go with our whole bodies, 
being first anointed therewith, into the Fire without 
any manner of harm ; and such like things as these 
may be done. There is also a kind of flax, which 
Pliny calls Asbestum, the Greeks call Asbeson, which 
is not consumed by Fire, of which Anaxilaus saith, 
that a tree compassed about with it may be cut down 
with insensible blows, that cannot be heard. 



CHAPTEE X. 

Of the Occult Vikttjes of Things. 

Thebb are also other virtues in things, which are 
not from any Element, as to expel poison, to drive 
away the noxious vapors of minerals, to attract iron 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATUEAL MAGIC 63 

or anything else ; and these virtues are a sequel of the 
species and form of this or that thing ; whence also 
they being a little in quantity, are of great efficacy; 
which is not granted to any Elementary quality. For 
these virtues, having much form and little matter, 
can do very much ; but an Elementary virtue, because 
it hath more materiality, requires much matter for 
its acting. And they are called Occult Qualities, 
because their causes lie hid, and man's intellect can- 
not in any way reach and find them out. Wherefore 
philosophers have attained to the greatest part of 
them by long experience, rather than by the search 
of reason : for as in the stomach the meat is digested 
by heat, which we know, so it is changed by a certain 
hidden virtue which we know not : for truly it is not 
changed by heat, because then it should rather be 
changed by the fire-side than in the stomach. So 
there are in things, besides the Elementary qualities 
which we know, other certain imbred virtues created 
by Nature, which we admire and are amazed at, being 
such as we know not, and indeed seldom or never 
have seen. As we read in Ovid of the Phoenix, one 
only bird, which renews herself: 

All Birds from others do derive their birth, 
But yet one Fowle there is in all the Earth, 
Caird by th' Assyrians Phoenix, who the wain 
Of age repairs, and sows her self again. 

And in another place — 

JEgyiptus came to see this wondrous sight; 
And this rare Bird is welcomed with delight. 

Long since Matreas brought a very great wonder- 
ment upon the Greeks and Romans concerning him- 
self. He said that he nourished and bred a beast that 
did devour itself. Hence many to this day are solic- 
itous what this beast of Matreas should be. Who 
would not wonder that fishes should be digged out of 
the Earth, of which Aristotle, Theophrastus, and 



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64 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

Polybius the historian, makes mention? And those 
things which Pausanius wrote concerning the Sing- 
ing Stones? All these are effects of Occult Virtues. 
So the ostrich concocts cold and most hard iron, and 
digests it into nourishment for his body ; whose stom- 
ach, they also report, cannot be hurt with red-hot 
iron. So that little fish, call echeneis, doth so curb 
the violence of the winds, and appease the rage of 
the sea, that, let the tempests be never so imperious 
and raging, the sails also bearing a full gale, it doth 
notwithstanding by its mere touch stay the ships and 
makes them stand still, that by no means they can be 
moved. So salamanders and crickets live in the fire ; 
although they seem sometimes to burn, yet they are 
not hurt. The like is said of a kind of bitumen, with 
which the weapons of the Amazons were said to be 
smeared over, by which means they could be spoiled 
neither with sword nor fire ; with which also the gates 
of Caspia, made of brass, are reported to be smeared 
over by Alexander the Great. We read also that 
Noah's Ark was joined together with this bitumen, 
and that it endured some thousands of years upon 
the Mountains of Armenia. There are many such 
kind of wonderful things, scarce credible, which not- 
withstanding are known by experience. Amongst 
which Antiquity makes mention of Satyrs, which 
were animals, in shape half men and half brutes, yet 
capable of speech and reason; one whereof St. 
Hierome reporteth, spake once unto holy Antonius 
the Hermit, and condemned the error of the Gentiles 
in worshiping such poor creatures as they were, and 
desired him that he would pray unto the true God 
for him ; also he affirms that there was one of these 
Satyrs shewed openly alive, and afterwards sent to 
Constantine the Emperor. 



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CHAPTEE XL 

How Occult Vibtues abb Infused into the Sevebal 
Kinds of Things by Ideas Thbough the Help of 
the Soul of the Would, and Kays of the Stabs ; 
and what Things Abound Most with this Vibtue. 

Platonists say that all inferior bodies are exempli- 
fied by the superior Ideas. Now they define an Idea 
to be a form, above bodies, souls, minds, and to be 
one, simple, pure, immutable, indivisible, incorporeal 
and eternal ; and that the nature of all Ideas in the 
first place is in very Goodness itself (i. e.), God, by 
way of cause; and that they are distinguished 
amongst themselves by some relative considerations 
only, lest whatsoever is in the world should be but 
one thing without any variety, and that they agree 
in essence, lest God should be a compound substance. 
In the second place, they place them in the very 
Intelligible Itself (i. e.), in the Soul of the World, 
differing the one from the other by absolute forms, 
so that all the Ideas in God indeed are but one form, 
but in the Soul of the World they are many. They 
are placed in the minds of all other things, whether 
they be joined to the body or separated from the 
body, by a certain participation, and now by degrees 
are distinguished more and more. They place them 
in Nature, as certain small Seed of Forms infused 
by the Ideas, and lastly they place them in matter, as 
Shadows. Hereunto may be added, that in the Soul 
of the World there be as many Seminal Forms of 
things as Ideas in the mind of God, by which forms 
she did in the Heavens above the Stars frame to her- 
self shapes also, and stamped upon all these some 
properties. On these Stars therefore, shapes and 
properties, all virtues of inferior species, as also 
their properties do depend; so that every species 
hath its Celestial Shape, or figure that is suitable to 



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66 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

it, from which also proceeds a wonderful power of 
operating, which proper gift it receives from its own 
Idea, through the Seminal Forms of the Soul of the 
World. For Ideas are not only essential causes of 
every species, but are also the causes of every virtue, 
which is in the species ; and this is that which many 
philosophers say, that the properties which are in 
the nature of things (which virtues, indeed, are the 
operations of the Ideas) are moved by certain vir- 
tues, viz., such as have a certain and sure foundation ; 
not fortuitous, nor casual, but efficacious, powerful 
and sufficient— doing nothing in vain. Now these 
Virtues do not err in their actings, but by accident, 
viz., by reason of the impurity or inequality of the 
matter: For upon this account there are found 
things of the same species more or less powerful, 
according to the purity or indisposition of the mat- 
ter ; for all Celestial Influences may be hindered by 
the indisposition and insufficiency of the matter. 
Whence it was a proverb amongst the Platonists, 
that Celestial Virtues were infused according to the 
desert or merit of the matter: Which also Virgil 
makes mention of when he sings : 

Their natures fiery are, and from above. 
And from gross bodies freed, divinely move. 

Wherefore those things in which there is less of 
the Idea of the matter (i. e.), such things which have 
a greater resemblance of things separated, have more 
powerful virtues in operation, being like to the opera- 
tion of a separated Idea. We see then that the situa- 
tion and figure of Celestials is the cause of all those 
excellent Virtues that are in inferior species.* 



* An Idea of a pure Element, whether the element be of time, space or 
matter, Is an idea that pertains exclusively to such element, correlating 
with it as perfectly as the idea is perfect. As such idea must be evolved 
in an intelligent use of such element, so ideas are essential to occult ex- 
periment. 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 67 



CHAPTEE XII. 
How It Is That Particulab Vibtues Abb Infused 

INTO PaBTICULAB INDIVIDUALS, EVEN OF THE SAME 

Species. 

Thebe are also in many individuals, or particular 
things, peculiar gifts, as wonderful as in the species 
and these also are from the figure and situation of 
Celestial Stars. For every Individual, when it be- 
gins to be under a determined Horoscope, and Celes- 
tial Constellation, contracts together with its essence 
a certain wonderful virtue both of doing and suffer- 
ing something that is remarkable, even besides that 
which it receives from its species ; and this it doth 
partly by the influence of the Heaven and partly 
through that obedientialness, of the matter of things 
to be generated, to the Soul of the World, which 
obedientialness indeed is such as that of our bodies to 
our souls. For we perceive that there is this in us, 
that according to our conceptions of things our bod- 
ies are moved, and that cheerfully, as when we are 
afraid of or fly from any thing. So, many times 
when the celestial souls conceive several things, then 
the matter is moved obediently to it. Also in Nature 
there appear divers prodigies, by reason of the 
imagination of superior motions. So also they con- 
ceive and imagine divers virtues, not only things 
natural but also sometimes things artificial, and this 
especially if the Soul of the operator be inclined 
towards the same. Whence Avicen saith, that what- 
soever things are done here, must have been before 
in the motions and conceptions of the Stars and 
Orbs. So in things various effects, inclinations and 
dispositions are occasioned not only from the mat- 
ter variously disposed, as many suppose, but from 
a various influence and diverse form ; not truly with 
a specifical difference, but peculiar and proper. 



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68 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

And the degrees of these are variously distributed 
by the first cause of all things. God himself, who 
being unchangeable, distributes to every one as he 
pleaseth, with whom, notwithstanding, second causes, 
Angelical and Celestial, co-operate, disposing of the 
corporeal matter and other things that are committed 
to them. All virtues, therefore, are infused by God, 
through the Soul of the World, yet by a particular 
power of resemblances and intelligences over-ruling 
them, and concourse of the rays, and aspects of the 
Stars in a certain peculiar harmonious consent. 



CHAPTEE Xni. 
Whence the Occult Vibtues of Things Proceed. 

It is well known to all that there is a certain virtue 
in the Loadstone by which it attracts iron, and that 
the Diamond doth by its presence take away that vir- 
tue of the Loadstone. So also, Amber and Jet, 
rubbed and warmed, draw a straw to them ; and the 
stone Asbestos, being once fired, is never or scarce 
extinguished. A Carbuncle shines in the dark; the 
stone Aetites put above the young fruit of women 
or plants strengthens them, but being put under, 
weakeneth. The Jasper stauncheth blood ; the little 
fish Echeneis stops the ships ; Ehubarb expels choler ; 
the liver of the Chameleon, burnt, raiseth showers 
and thunders. The stone Heliotrope dazzles the 
sight, and makes him that wears it to be invisible; 
the stone Lyucurius takes away delusions from be- 
fore the eyes, the perfume of the stone Lypparis 
calls forth all the beasts, the stone Synochitis brings 
up infernal ghosts, the stone Anachitis makes the 
images of the Gods appear. The Ennectis, put under 
them that dream, causeth oracles. There is an herb 
in ^Ethiopia with which, they report, ponds and 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 69 

lakes are dried up, and all things that are shut to be 
opened ; and we read of an herb, called Latace, which 
the Persian kings give to their embassadors, that 
whithersoever they shall come they shall abound with 
plenty of all things. There is also a Scythian herb 
with which, being tasted or at least held in the mouth, 
they report the Scythians will endure twelve days' 
hunger and thirst; and Apuleius saith that he was 
taught by an Oracle that there were many kinds of 
herbs and stones with which men might prolong their 
lives forever, but that it was not lawful for men 
to understand the knowledge of those things because, 
whereas they have but a short time to live, they study 
mischief with all their might and attempt all manner 
of wickedness ; if they should be sure of a very long 
time, they would not spare the Gods themselves. But 
from whence these virtues are none of all these have 
shewed who have set forth huge volumes of the 
properties of things, not Hermes, not Bochus, not 
Aaron, not Orpheus, not Theophrastus, not Thebith, 
not Zenothemis, not Zoroaster, not Evax, not Dios- 
corides, not Isaaick the Jew, not Zacharias the 
Babylonian, not Albertus, not Arnoldus ; and yet all 
these have confessed the same, that Zacharias writes 
to Mithridites, the great power and human destinies 
are couched in the virtues of Stones and Herbs. But 
to know from whence these come, a higher specula- 
tion is required. Alexander the peripatetic, not go- 
ing any further than his senses and qualities, is of 
the opinion that these proceed from Elements, and 
their qualities, which haply might be supposed to be 
true, if those were of the same species; but many 
of the operations of the Stones agree neither in 
genere nor specie. Therefore Plato and his scholars 
attribute these virtues to Ideas, the formers of 
things. But Avicen reduceth these kinds of opera- 
tions to Intelligence, Hermes to the Stars, Albertus 
to the specifical forms of things. And although these 



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70 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATUEAL MAGIC 

authors seem to thwart one the other, yet none of 
them, if they be rightly understood, goes beside the 
truth ; since all their sayings are the same in effect in 
most things. For God, in the first place, is the end 
and beginning of all Virtues ; he gives the seal of the 
Ideas to his servants, the Intelligences ; who, as faith- 
ful officers, sign all things intrusted to them with an 
Ideal Virtue ; the Heavens and Stars, as instruments, 
disposing the matter in the mean while for the re- 
ceiving of those forms which reside in Divine Maj- 
esty (as saith Plato in Timeus) and to be conveyed 
by Stars ; and the Giver of Forms distributes them 
by the Ministry of his Intelligences, which he hath 
set as Rulers and Controllers over his Works, to 
whom such a power is intrusted in things committed 
to them that so all Virtues of Stones, Herbs, Metals, 
and all other things may come from the Intelligences, 
the Governors. The Form, therefore, and Virtue of 
things comes first from the Ideas, then from the rul- 
ing and governing Intelligences, then from the as- 
pects of the Heavens disposing, and lastly from the 
tempers of the Elements disposed, answering the in- 
fluences of the Heavens, by which the Elements them- 
selves are ordered, or disposed. These kinds of oper- 
ations, therefore, are performed in these inferior 
things by express forms, and in the Heavens by dis- 
posing virtues, in Intelligences by mediating rules, 
in the Original Cause by Ideas and exemplary forms, 
all of which must of necessity agree in the execution 
of the effect and virtue of everything. 

There is, therefore, a wonderful virtue and opera- 
tion in every Herb and Stone, but greater in a Star, 
beyond which, even from the governing Intelligences 
every thing receiveth and obtains many things for 
itself, especially from the Supreme Cause, with whom 
all things do mutually and exactly correspond, agree- 
ing in an harmonious consent, as it were in hymns, 
always praising the highest Maker of all things, as 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 71 

by the three children in the fiery furnace were all 
things called upon to praise God with singings. Bless 
ye the Lord all things that grow upon the Earth, and 
all things which move in the Waters, all fowls of 
the Heavens, beasts and cattle, together with the sons 
of men. There is, therefore, no other cause of the 
necessity of effects than the connection of all things 
with the First Cause, and their correspondency with 
those Divine patterns and eternal Ideas whence 
every thing hath its determinate and particular place 
in the exemplary world, from whence it lives and 
receives its original being: And every virtue of 
herbs, stones, metals, animals, words and speeches 
and all things that are of God, is placed there. Now 
the First Cause, which is God, although he doth by 
Intelligences and the Heavens work upon these in- 
ferior things, doth sometimes (these mediums being 
laid aside, or their officiating being suspended) works 
those things immediately by himself, which works 
then are called Miracles. But whereas secondary 
causes, which Plato and others call handmaids, do 
by the command and appointment of the First Cause, 
necessarily act, and are necessitated to produce their 
effects, if God shall notwithstanding, according to 
his pleasure, so discharge and suspend them, that 
they shall wholly desist from the necessity of that 
command and appointment ; then they are called the 
greatest Miracles of God. So the fire in the Chal- 
deans 9 furnace did not burn the Children. So also 
the Sun at the command of Joshua went back from 
its course the space of a whole day; so also at the 
prayer of Hezekiah it went back ten degrees or hours. 
So when Christ was crucified the Sun was darkened, 
though at full Moon. And the reason of these opera- 
tions can be by no rational discourse, no Magic, or 
occult or profound Science whatsoever be foundout 
or understood, but are to be learned and inquired 
into by Divine Oracles only. 



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72 THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 



CHAPTER XIV. 

Of the Spirit of the World, What It Is, and How 
by Way of Medium It Unites Occult Virtues to 
Their Subjects. 

Democritus and Orpheus, and many Pythagoreans, 
having most diligently searched into the virtues of 
celestial things and natures of inferior things, said : 
That all things are full of God and not without cause. 
For there is nothing of such transcending virtues, 
which being destitute of Divine assistance, is content 
with the nature of itself. Also they called those Di- 
vine Powers which are diffused in things, Gods; which 
Zoroaster called Divine Allurements ; Synesius, Sym- 
bolical Inticements; others called them Lives, and 
some also Souls, saying that the virtues of things 
did depend upon these because it is the property of 
the Soul to be from one matter extended into divers 
things about which it operates : So is a man who ex- 
tends his intellect unto intelligible things, and his 
imagination unto imaginable things ; and this is that 
which they understood when they said, viz.: That 
the Soul of one thing went out and went into another 
thing, altering it, and hindering the operations of 
it : as the diamond hinders the operation of the load- 
stone, that it cannot attract iron. Now seeing the 
Soul is the first thing that is movable and, as they 
say, is moved of itself; but the body, or the matter, 
is of itself unable and unfit for motion, and doth 
much degenerate from the Soul, therefore they say 
there is need of a more excellent medium, viz., such 
a one that may be, as it were, no body, but, as it were, 
a 'Soul; or, as it were, no Soul, but, as it were, a body, 
viz., by which the soul may be joined to the body. 
Now they conceive such a medium to be the Spirit 
of the World, viz., that which we call the quintes- 
sence, because it is not from the four Elements, but 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 73 

a certain first thing, having its being above and be- 
sides them. There is, therefore, such a kind of spirit 
required to be, as it were the medium, whereby 
Celestial Souls are joined to gross bodies, and bestow 
upon them wonderful gifts. This Spirit is after the 
same manner in the body of the world, as ours is in 
the body of man. For as the powers of our soul are 
communicated to the members of the body by the 
spirit, so also the Virtue of the Soul of the World is 
diffused through all things by the quintessence : For 
there is nothing found in the whole world that hath 
not a spark of the virtue thereof. Yet it is more, 
nay, most of all, infused into those things which have 
received or taken in most of this Spirit. Now this 
Spirit is received or taken in by the rays of the Stars, 
so far forth as things render themselves conformable 
to them. By this Spirit, therefore, every occult prop- 
erty is conveyed into herbs, stones, metals, and ani- 
mals through the Sun, Moon, Planets, and through 
Stars higher than the Planets. 

Now this Spirit may be more advantageous to .us if 
any one knew how to separate it from the Elements ; 
or at least to use those things chiefly which do most 
abound with this Spirit. For these things, in which 
this Spirit is less drowned in a body and less checked 
by matter, do more powerfully and perfectly act, and 
also more readily generate their like ; for in it are all 
generative and seminary virtues. For which cause 
the Alchemists endeavored to separate this Spirit 
from Gold and Silver ; which being rightly separated 
and extracted, if thou shalt afterward project it upon 
any matter of the same kind (t. e.), any metal, pres- 
ently will turn it into Gold or Silver. And we know 
how to do that, and have seen it done ; but we could 
make no more Gold than the weight of that was out 
of which we extracted the Spirit^ for seeing that 
[gold] is an extense form, and not intense, it cannot 
beyond its own bounds change an imperfect body 



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74 THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 

into a perfect; which I deny not, but may be done 
by another way. 



CHAPTEE XV. 

How We Must Find Out and Examine the Vibtues 
op Things by Way of Similitude. 

It is now manifest that the occult properties in 
things are not from the nature of the Elements, but 
infused from above, hid from our senses, and scarce 
at last known by our reason, which indeed come from 
the Life and the Spirit of the World, through the 
rays of the Stars ; and can no otherwise but by ex- 
perience and conjecture be inquired into by us. 
Wherefore, he that desires to enter upon this study 
must consider that every thing moves and turns it- 
self to its like, and inclines that to itself with all its 
might, as well in property, viz., Occult Virtue, as in 
quality, viz., Elementary Virtue. Sometimes also 
in substance itself, as we see in salt, for whatsoever 
hath long stood with salt becomes salt; for every 
agent, when it hath begun to act, doth not attempt 
to make a thing inferior to itself, but, as much as 
may be, like and suitable to itself. Which also we 
manifestly see in sensible animals, in which the 
nutritive virtue doth not change the meat into an 
herb or a plant, but turns it into sensible flesh. In 
what things, therefore, there is an excess of any 
quality or property, as heat, cold, boldness, fear, 
sadness, anger, love, hatred, or any other passion 
or virtue (whether it be in them by nature or, some- 
times also, by art or chance, as boldness in a 
wanton), these things do very much move and pro- 
voke to such a quality, passion or virtue. So fire 
moves to fire, and water moves to water, and he that 
is bold moves to boldness. And it is well known 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 75 

amongst physicians that brain helps the brain, and 
kings the lungs. So also it is said that the right eye 
of a frog helps the soreness of a man's right eye, and 
the left eye thereof helps the soreness of his left 
eye, if they be hanged about his neck in a cloth of 
its natural color. The like is reported of the eyes 
of a crab. So the feet of a tortoise helps them that 
have the gout in their being applied thus — as foot 
to foot, hand to hand, right to right, left to left. 

After this manner they say that any animal that is 
barren causeth another to be barren, and of the ani- 
mal especially the generative parts. So they report 
that a female shall be barren if, betimes, drink be 
made of a certain sterile animal, or anything steeped 
therewith. If, however, we would obtain any prop- 
erty or virtue, let us seek such animals, or such 
other things whatsoever, in which such a property is 
in a more eminent manner than in any other thing, and 
in these let us take that part in which such a property 
or virtue is most vigorous ; as if at any time we would 
promote love, let us seek some animal which is most 
loving, of whichkind are pigeons, turtles, sparrows, 
swallows, wagtails, and in these take those members 
or parts in which the vital virtue is most vigorous, 
such as the heart, breast, and also like parts. Ajid it 
must be done at that time when these animals have 
this affection most intense, for then they do provoke 
and draw love. In like manner, to increase boldness, 
let us look for a lion, or a cock, and of these let us 
take the heart, eyes or forehead. And so we must 
understand that which Psellus the Platonist saith, 
viz., that dogs, crows, and cocks conduce much to 
watchfulness, also the nightingale and bat and horned 
owl, and in these the heart, head and eyes especially. 
Therefore, it is said, if any shall carry the heart of 
a crow or a bat about him, he shall not sleep till he 
cast it away from him. The same doth the head of a 
bat, dried and bound to the right arm of him that is 



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76 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

awake, for if it be put upon him when he is asleep, it 
is said that he shall not be awaked till it be taken off 
from him. After the same manner doth a frog and 
an owl make one talkative, and of these specially the 
tongue and heart. So the tongue also of a water- 
frog, laid under the head, makes a man speak in his 
sleep ; and the heart of a screech-owl, laid upon the 
left breast of a woman that is asleep, is said to make 
her utter all her secrets. The same also the heart of 
the horned owl is said to do, also the suet of a hare, 
laid upon the breast of one that is asleep. Upon the 
same account do animals that are long lived conduce 
to long life ; and whatsoever things have a power in 
themselves to renew themselves conduce to the reno- 
vation of our body and restoring of youth, which 
physicians have often professed they know to be 
true ; as is manifest of the viper and snake. And it 
is known that harts renew their old age by the eating 
of snakes. After the same manner the phoenix is re- 
newed by a fire which she makes for herself ; and the 
like virtue there is in a pelican, whose right foot be- 
ing put under warm dung, after three months there 
is of that generated a pelican. Therefore some phy- 
sicians by some certain confections made of vipers, 
and hellebore, and the flesh of some such kind of 
animals, do restore youth, and indeed do sometimes 
restore it so, as Medea restored old Pileas. It is also 
believed that the blood of a bear, if it be sucked out 
of her wound, doth increase strength of body, because 
that animal is the strongest creature. 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 77 



CHAPTER XVI. 

How the Operations of Several Virtues Pass from 
One Thing into Another, and Are Communicated 
One to the Other. 

Thou must know that so great is the power of nat- 
ural things that they not only work upon all things 
that are near them, by their virtue, bui also besides 
this, they infuse into them a like power, through 
which, by the same virtue, they also work upon other 
things, as we see in the loadstone, which stone indeed 
doth not only draw iron rings, but infuseth a virtue 
into the rings themselves, whereby they can do the 
same, which Austin and Albertus say they saw. After 
this manner it is, as they say, that a wanton, 
grounded in boldness and impudence, is like to infect 
all that are near her, by this property, whereby they 
are made like herself. So Paul saith to the Corin- 
thians, Evil communications doth corrupt good man- 
ners. Therefore they say if any one shall put on 
the inward garment of a wanton, or shall have about 
him that looking-glass which she daily looks into, he 
shall thereby become bold, confident, impudent and 
wanton. In like manner, they say, that a cloth that 
was about a corpse hath received from thence the 
property of sadness and melancholy; and that the 
halter wherewith a man was hanged hath certain 
wonderful properties. The like story tells Pliny: 
If any shall put a green lizard, made blind, together 
with iron or gold rings, into a glass vessel, putting 
under them some earth, and then shutting the ves- 
sel, and when it appears that the lizard hath re- 
ceived his sight, shall put him out of the glass, that 
those rings shall help sore eyes. The same may be 
done with rings and a weasel, whose eyes after they 
are, with any kind of prick, put out, it is certain are 
restored to sight again. "Upon the same account 



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78 THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 

rings are put for a certain time in the nest of spar- 
rows or swallows, which afterwards are used to pro- 
cure love and favor. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

How by Enmity and Friendship the Virtues op 
Things Are to Be Tried ane Found Out. 

In the next place it is requisite that we consider 
that all things have a friendliness and enmity 
amongst themselves, and every thing hath something 
that it fears and dreads, that is an enemy and de- 
structive to it ; and, on the contrary, something that 
it rejoiceth and delighteth in and is strengthened by 
So in the Elements, Fire is an enemy to Water, and 
Air to Earth, but yet they agree amongst themselves. 
And, again, in Celestial bodies, Mercury, Jupiter, the 
Sun and Moon are friends to Saturn; Mars and 
Venus enemies to him. All the planets besides Mars 
are friends to Jupiter, also all besides Venus hate 
Mars; Jupiter and Venus love the Sun, Mars, Mer- 
cury and the Moon are enemies to him. All besides 
Saturn love Venus. Jupiter, Venus and Saturn are 
friends to Mercury; the Sun, Moon and Mars his 
enemies. Jupiter, Venus and Saturn are friends to 
the Moon; Mars and Mercury her enemies. There 
is another kind of enmity amongst the stars, viz., 
when they have opposite houses, as Saturn to the 
Sun and Moon, Jupiter to Mercury, and Mars to 
Venus. And their enmity is stronger whose exalta- 
tions are opposite, as of Saturn and the Sun, of Jupi- 
ter and Mars, and of Venus and Mercury. But their 
friendship is the strongest who agree in nature, qual- 
ity, substance and power, as Mars with the Sun, as 
Venus with the Moon, and as Jupiter with Venus; 
as also their friendship whose exaltation is in the 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 79 

house of another, as that of Saturn with Venus, of 
Jupiter with the Moon, of Mars with Saturn, of the 
Sun with Mars, of Venus with Jupiter, and of the 
Moon with Venus. And of what sort the friendships 
and enmities of the superiors be, such are the inclina- 
tions of things subjected to them in those inferior. 
These dispositions, therefore, of friendship and en- 
mity are nothing else but certain inclinations of 
things of the one to another, desiring such-and-such 
a thing if it be absent, and to move towards it unless 
it be hindered ; and to acquiesce in it when it is ob- 
tained, shunning the contrary and dreading the ap- 
proach of it, and not resting in or being contented 
with it. Heraclitus,* therefore, being guided by this 
opinion, professed that all things were made by 
enmity and friendship. 

Now the inclinations of Friendship are such in all 
Vegetables and Minerals, as is that attractive virtue 
or inclination which the loadstone hath upon iron, 
and the emerald upon riches and favor, the jasper 
upon the birth of any thing, and the stone achates 
upon eloquence. In like manner there is a kind of 
bituminous clay that draws fire, and leaps into it, 
wheresoever it sees it. Even so doth the root of the 
herb aproxis draw fire from afar off. Also the same 
inclination there is betwixt the male palm-tree and 
female ; whereof, when the bough of one shall touch 
the bough of the other, they fold themselves into 
mutual embraces ; neither doth the female palm-tree 
bring forth fruit without the male. And the almond 
tree, when she is alone is less fruitful. The vines 

* Sometimes given as Heracleitus, a Greek philosopher who lived about 
500 B. C. He was known as the "weeping philosopher/' so impressed was 
he by the weaknesses of mankind. Only fragments of his philosophical 
work, "Peri Physeos" (On Nature) remain. These fragments go to show 
that Heraclitus held "fire to be the first principle of all phenomena, and 
the original substance out of which they have all been evolved." Agrippa, 
In the above, throws further light on his philosophy. The fragments of 
the teachings of Heraclitus were collected, at Berlin, in 1805, while 
Agrippa wrote some three hundred years earlier. 



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80 THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 

love the elm, and the olive-tree and myrtle love one 
the other; also the olive-tree and fig-tree. 

Now, in Birds and Animals, there is amity betwixt 
the blackbird and thrush, betwixt the crow and heron, 
betwixt peacocks and pigeons, turtles and parrots. 
When Sappho writes to Phaon: 

To Birds unlike of times joyned are wliite Doves; 
Also the Bird that's green, black Turtle loves. 

Again, the whale and the little fish, his guide, are 
friendly. Neither is this amity in Animals amongst 
themselves, but also with other things, as with Metals, 
Stones and Vegetables: So the cat delights in the 
herb catnip and rubbeth herself upon it, and there be 
mares in Cappadocia that expose themselves to the 
blast of the wind. So frog, toads, snakes, and all 
manner of creeping poisonous things, delight in the 
plant called pas-flower, of whom, as the physicians 
say, if any one eat he shall die with laughing. The 
tortoise, also, when he is hunted by the adder, eats 
origanum, and is thereby strengthened; and the 
stork, when he hath eat snakes, seeks for a remedy 
in origanum ; and the weasel, when he goes to fight 
with the basilisk, eats rue — whence we come to know 
that origanum and rue are effectual against poison. 
So in some Animals there is an imbred skill and 
medicinal art ; for when the toad is wounded with a 
bite or poison of another animal, he is wont to go 
to rue or sage and rub the place wounded, and so 
escape the danger of the poison. So men have learned 
many excellent remedies of diseases and virtues of 
things, from brutes ; so swallows have shewed us that 
sallendine is very medicinable for the sight, with 
which they cure the eyes of their young ; and the pyet, 
when she is sick puts a bay-leaf into her nest, and is 
recovered. In like manner, cranes, jackdaws, par- 
tridges, and black-birds purge their nauseous stom- 
achs with the same, with which also crows allay the 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 81 

poison of the chameleon ; and the lion, if he be fever- 
ish, is recovered by eating of an ape. The lapwing, 
being surfeited with eating of grapes, cures himself 
with southernwood ; so the harts have taught us that 
the herb ditany is very good to draw out darts ; for 
they, being wounded with an arrow, cast it out by 
eating of this herb ; the same do goats in Candy. So 
hinds, a little before they bring forth, purge them- 
selves with a certain herb called mountain osier. Also 
they that are hurt with spiders seek a remedy by 
eating of crabs. Swine also being hurt by snakes 
cure themselves by eating of them; and cows, when 
they perceive they are poisoned with a kind of 
French poison, seek for cure in the oak. Elephants, 
when they have swallowed a chameleon, help them- 
selves with the wild olive. Bears, being hurt with 
mandrakes, escape the danger by eating of ants. 
Geese, ducks, and such like watery fowls, cure them- 
selves with the herb called wall-sage. Pigeons, tur- 
tles, and hens, with the herb called pellitory of the 
wall. Cranes, with bulrushes. Leopards cure them- 
selves, being hurt, with the herb called wolf's-bane; 
boars, with ivy; hinds, with the herb called cinnara. 



CHAPTEE XVIIL 
Of the Inclinations of Enmities, 

On the contrary, there are Inclinations of Enmi- 
ties, and they are, as it were, the odium, and anger, 
indignation, and a certain kind of obstinate con- 
trariety of nature, so that any thing shuns its contrary 
and drives it away out of its presence. Such kinds 
of inclinations hath rhubarb against choler, treacle 
against poison, the sapphire stone against hot boils 
and feverish heats and diseases of the eyes ; the 
amethyst against drunkenness, the jasper against 



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82 THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 

flux of blood and offensive imaginations, the emerald 
and angus castus against lust, achates against poison, 
piony against the falling sickness, coral against the 
ebullition of black choler and pains in the stomach. 
The topaz against spiritual heats, such as are cov- 
etousness, lust, and all manner of excesses of love. 
The like inclinations is there also of ants against the 
herb origanum; and the wing of a bat and the heart 
of a lapwing, from the presence of which they fly. 
Also origanum is contrary to a certain poisonous 
fly, which cannot endure the Sun, and resists sala- 
manders, and loathes cabbage with such a deadly 
hatred that they destroy one the other. So cucum- 
bers hate oil, and will run themselves into a ring lest 
they should touch it. And it is said that the gall of 
a crow makes men afraid and drives them away from 
where it is, as also certain other things. So a dia- 
mond doth disagree with the loadstone, that being 
set by it, it will not suffer iron to be drawn to it ; and 
sheep fly from frog-parsley as from some deadly 
thing, and that, which is more wonderful, Nature 
hath pictured the sign of this death in the livers of 
sheep, in which the very figure of frog-parsley, being 
described, doth naturally appear. So goats do so 
hate garden basil as if there were nothing more 
pernicious. And again, amongst animals, mice and 
weasels do disagree ; whence it is said that mice will 
not touch cheese if the brains of a weasel be put in 
the rennet, and besides that the cheese will not be 
corrupt with age. So a lizard is so contrary to 
scorpions that it makes them afraid with its very 
sight, as also it puts them into a cold sweat; there- 
fore they are killed with the oil of lizards, which oil 
also cures the wounds made by scorpions. There is 
also an enmity betwixt scorpions and mice ; where- 
fore if a mouse be applied to a prick or wound made 
by a scorpion, it cures it, as it is reported. There 
is also an enmity betwixt scorpions and stalabors, 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 83 

asps and wasps. It is reported, also that no thing 
is so much an enemy to snakes as crabs, and that if 
swine be hurt therewith they eat them and are cured. 
The sun, also being in Cancer, serpents are tormented. 
Also scorpion and crocodile kill one the other; and 
if the bird ibis doth but touch a crocodile with one 
of his feathers, he makes him immovable. The bird 
called bustard flies away at the sight of a horse, and 
a hart runs away at the sight of a ram, as also a 
viper. An elephant trembles at the hearing of the 
grunting of a hog, so doth a lion at the sight of a 
cock; and panthers will not touch them that are 
anointed all over with the broth of a hen, especially 
if garlic hath been boiled in it. There is also enmity 
betwixt foxes and swans, bulls and jackdaws. 
Amongst birds, also, some are at perpetual strife one 
with another, as also with other animals, as jackdaws 
and owls, the kite and crows, the turtle and ring-tail, 
egepis and eagles, harts and dragons. Also amongst 
water animals there is enmity, as betwixt dolphins 
and whirlpools, mullets and pikes, lampreys and 
congers. Also the fish called pourcontrel makes the 
lobster so much afraid that the lobster seeing the 
other but near him, is struck dead. The lobster and 
conger tear one the other. The civet cat is said to 
stand so in awe of the panther that he hath no power 
to resist him or touch his skin ; and they say that if 
the skins of both of them be hanged up one against 
the other, the hairs of the panther's skin fall off. 
And Orus Apollo saith in his hieroglyphics, if any 
one be girt about with the skin of the civet cat that 
he may pass safely through the middle of his ene- 
mies and not at all be afraid. Also the lamb is very 
much afraid of the wolf and flies from him. And 
they say that if the tail or skin or head of a wolf be 
hanged upon the sheep-coate the sheep are much 
troubled and cannot eat their meat for fear. And 
Pliny makes mention of a bird, called marlin, that 



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84 THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 

breaks crows' eggs, whose young are so annoyed by 
the fox that she also will pinch and pull the fox's 
whelps, and the fox herself also; which when the 
crows see, they help the fox against her, as against 
a common enemy. The little bird called a linnet, 
living in thistles, hates asses, because they eat the 
flowers of thistles. Also there is such a bitter enmity 
betwixt the little bird called easlon and the ass that 
their blood will not mix together, and that at the 
braying of the ass both the eggs and young of the 
easlon perish. There is also such a disagreement 
betwixt the olive-tree and a wanton, that if she plant 
it, it will either be always unfruitful or altogether 
wither.* A lion fears nothing so much as fired 
torches, and will be tamed by nothing so much as by 
these ; and the wolf fears neither sword nor spear, but 
a stone — by the throwing of which, a wound being 
made, worms breed in the wolf. A horse fears a 
camel so that he cannot endure to see so much as 
his picture. An elephant, when he rageth, is quieted 
by seeing a cock. A snake is afraid of a man that is 
naked, but pursues a man that is clothed. A mad 
bull is tamed by being tied to a fig-tree. Amber 
draws all things to it besides garden basil and those 
things which are smeared with oil, betwixt which 
there is a kind of a natural antipathy. 

* This illustration of a natural antipathy said to exist between a 
wanton and an olive-tree, as well as other illustrations herein of the occult 
virtues of things, may be regarded as somewhat fanciful, but the reader 
will be able to bring to mind plenty of natural phenomena that fully prove 
the leading truths that Agrippa here seeks to convey. For instance, the 
writer knows one person of whom it may be justly claimed that every 
plant grows that he touches, while his mother, rendering the same care, 
finds it impossible to raise a plant. All women know, who have had the 
experience, that at certain times each month they cannot make pickles 
that will not spoil. The explanation of these things are found in the 
occult virtues of Nature; the inherent sympathy, amity or antipathy in 
all things to all other things, which Agrippa so admirably sets forth. 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 85 



CHAPTER XIX. 

HOW THE VlBTUES OF THINGS Are TO Be TRIED AND 

Found Out, Which Are in Them Specially, or 
in Any One Individual by Way of Special Gift. 

Moreover, thou must consider that the Virtues of 
things are in some things according to the Species, as 
boldness and courage in a lion and cock, fearfulness 
in a hare or lamb, ravenousness in a wolf, treachery 
and deceitfulness in a fox, flattery in a dog, covetous- 
ness in a crow and jackdaw, pride in a horse, anger in 
a tiger and boar, sadness and melancholy in a cat, 
lust in a sparrow, and so of the rest. For the great- 
est part of Natural Virtues doth follow the Species. 
Yet some are in things Individually ; as there be some 
men which do so wonderfully abhor the sight of a cat 
that they cannot look upon her without quaking; 
which fear, it is manifest, is not in them, as they are 
men. And Avicen tells of a man that lived in his 
time, whom all poisonous things did shun, all of them 
dying which did by chance bite him, he himself not 
being hurt; and Albertus reports that in a city of 
the Ubians he saw a wench who would catch spiders 
to eat them, and being much pleased with such a kind 
of meat, was wonderfully nourished therewith. So 
is boldness in a wanton, and fearfulness in a thief. 
And upon this account it is that philosophers say 
that any particular thing that never was sick is good 
against any manner of sickness ; therefore they say 
that a bone of a dead man, who never had a fever, 
being laid upon the patient, frees him of his quartan. 
There are also many singular virtues infused into 
particular things by Celestial bodies, as we have 
shewed before. 



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86 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 



CHAPTEE XX. 

The Natural Vibtubs Abb in Some Things Through- 
out Their Whole Substance, and in Other 
Things in Certain Parts and Members. 

Again thou must consider that the Virtues of 
things are in some things in the whole (i. e.), the 
whole substance of them, or in all their parts, as that 
little fish echeneis,* which is said to stop a ship by 
its mere touch ; this it doth not do according to any 
particular part, but according to the whole substance. 
So the civet cat hath this in its whole substance, that 
dogs, by the very touch of his shadow, hold their 
peace. So salendine is good for the sight, not ac- 
cording to any one but all its parts ; not more in the 
root than in the leaves and seeds, and so of the rest. 
But some Virtues are in things according to some 
parts of it, viz., only in the tongue, or eyes, or some 
other members and parts ; so in the eyes of a basilisk 
is a most violent power to kill men as soon as they 
see them. The like power is there in the eyes of the 



* The belief that the Echeneis, a fish of the Remora or Sucker family, 
has the power of stopping ships was formerly quite prevalent. In Good- 
win's translation of Plutarch's Morals, volume three, we find the follow- 
ing story : "Chaeremomanus, the Trallian, when we were at a very noble 
fish-dinner, pointing to a little, long, sharp-headed fish, said the echeneis 
(ship-stopper) was like that, for he had often seen it as he sailed in the 
Sicilian sea, and wondered at its strange force, for it stopped the ship 
when under full sail, until one of the seamen perceived it sticking to 
the outside of the ship, and took it off." Oppian says, describing its 
occult virtue: 

"But through the canvas bellies with the blast, 
And boistrous winds bend down the cracking mast, 
The bark stands firmly rooted on the sea 
And all unmov'd, as tower, or towering tree." 

Fliny says: "Why should our fleets and armadas at sea make such 
turrets on the walls and forecastles, when one little fish is able to arrest 
and stay, per force, our goodly and tall ships." — Nat. Hist., VoL XI., p. 
41. Ovid writes, "there, too, is the little sucking fish, wondrous to be- 
hold, a vast obstruction to ships," and Lucan says the echeneis stops ships 
on the ocean. 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 87 

civet cat, which makes any animal that it hath 
looked upon to stand still, to be amazed, and not able 
to move itself. The like virtue is there in the eyes 
of some wolves, who, if they see a man first, make 
him amazed and so hoarse, that if he would cry out, 
he hath not the use of his voice. Of this Virgil makes 
mention when he sings: 

Maris is dumb, hath lost his voice, and whyf 
The Wolf on Moeris first hath cast his eye. 

So also there were some certain women in Scythia, 
and amongst the Ulyrians and Triballians, who as 
often as they looked angrily upon any man, were said 
to slay him. Also we read of a certain people of 
Rhodes, called Telchines, who corrupted all things 
with their sight, wherefore Jupiter drowned them. 
Therefore witches, when they would after this man- 
ner work by witchcraft, use the eyes of such kind of 
animals in their waters for the eyes, for the like ef- 
fects. In like manner do ants fly from the heart of 
a lapwing and not from the head, foot or eyes. So 
the gall of lizards, being bruised in water, is said 
to gather weasels together ; not the tail or the head 
of it. The gall of goats, put into the earth in a 
brazen vessel, gathers frogs together; and a goat's 
liver is an enemy to butterflies and all maggots. 
Dogs shun them that have the heart of a dog about 
them; and foxes will not touch those poultry that 
have eaten the liver of a fox. So divers things have 
divers virtues dispersed variously through several 
parts, as they are from above infused into them ac- 
cording to the diversity of things to be received ; as 
in a man's body the bones receive nothing but life, 
the eyes sight, and the ears hearing. And there is 
in man's body a certain little bone, which the He- 
brews call LVZ, of the bigness of a pulse that is 
husked, which is subject to no corruption, neither is 
it overcome with fire, but is always preserved un- 



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88 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

hurt, out of which, as they say, as a plant out of the 
seed, our animal bodies shall in the resurrection of 
the dead spring up. And these Virtues are not 
cleared by reason, but by experience. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

Of the Virtues of Things Which Abe in Them 
Only in Their Life Time, and Such as Remain 
in Them Even After Their Death. 

Moreover, we must know that there are some prop- 
erties in things only whilst they live, and some that 
remain after their death. So the little fish echeneis 
stops the ships, and the basilisk and catablepa kill 
with their sight when they are alive; but when they 
are dead do no such thing. So they say that in the 
colic, if a live duck be applied to the abdomen it 
takes away the pain and herself dies. Like to this is 
that which Archytas says: If you take a heart, 
newly taken out of an animal, and, whilst it is yet 
warm, hang it upon one that hath a quartan fever, 
it drives it away. So if any one swallow the heart 
of a lapwing, or a swallow, or a weasel, or a mole, 
whilst it is yet warm with natural heat it shall be 
helpful to him for remembering, understanding, and 
for foretelling. Hence is this general rule, viz.: 
That whatsoever things are taken out of animals, 
whether they be any member, the hair, nails, or such 
like, they must be taken from those animals whilst 
they be yet living; and, if it be possible, that so they 
may be alive afterwards. Whence they say, when 
you take the tongue of a frog, you must put the frog 
into the water again ; and if you take the tooth of a 
wolf, you must not kill the wolf; and so of the rest. 
So writes Democritus, if any one take out the tongue 
of a water-frog, yet living, no other part of the body 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 89 

sticking to it, and she be let go into the water again, 
and lay it upon the place where the heart beats of a 
woman, she shall answer truly whatsoever you ask 
her. Also they say, that if the eyes of a frog be be- 
fore sunrising bound to the sick party, and the frog 
be let go again, blind, into the water, they will drive 
away tertian ague ; as also that they will, being bound 
with the flesh of a nightingale in the skin of a hart, 
keep one always watchful without sleep. Also the 
ray of the fork-fish, being bound to the navel, is said 
to make a woman have an easy travail, if the ray be 
taken from the fish alive and it put into the sea again. 
So they say the right eye of a serpent, being applied, 
doth help the watering of the eyes if the serpent be 
let go alive. And there is a certain fish or great 
serpent, called Myrus, whose eye, if it be pulled out, 
and bound to the forehead of the patient, is said to 
cure the inflammation of the eyes ; and that the eye 
of the fish grows again; and that he is taken blind 
who will not let the fish go. Also the teeth of all 
serpents, being taken out whilst they are alive, and 
hanged about the patient, are said to cure the quar- 
tan. So doth the tooth of a mole, taken out whilst 
she is alive, being afterwards let go, cure the tooth- 
ache ; and dogs will not bark at those that have the 
tail of a weasel that is escaped. And Democritus re- 
lates that the tongue of a chameleon, if it be taken 
from her alive, doth conduce to a good success in 
trials, and is profitable for women that are in travail, 
if it be about the outside of the house, for you must 
take heed that it be not brought into the house, be- 
cause that would be most dangerous. 

Moreover, there be some properties that remain 
after death, and of these the Platonists say, that they 
are things in which the Idea of the matter is less 
swallowed up. In these, even after death, that which 
is immortal in them doth not cease to work wonderful 
things. So in the herbs and plants, pulled asunder 



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90 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 




GRAND SOLAR MAN. 

and dried, that Virtue is quick and operative which 
was infused at first into them by the Idea. Thence it 
is that as the eagle all her life time doth overcome 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 91 

all other birds, so also her feathers, after her death, 
destroy and consume the feathers of all other birds. 
Upon the same account doth a lion's skin destroy all 
other skins ; and the skin of the civet cat destroys the 
skin of the panther ; and the skin of a wolf corrodes 
the skin of a lamb. And some of these do not do it 
by way of a corporeal contact, but also sometimes by 
their very sound. So a drum made of the skin of a 
wolf makes a drum made of a lamb-skin not so sound. 
Also a drum made of the skin of the fish called rochet 
drives away all creeping things, at what distance 
soever the sound of it is heard ; and the strings of an 
instrument made of the intestines of a wolf, and be- 
ing strung upon a harp or lute with strings made of 
the intestines of a sheep, will make no harmony. 



CHAPTER XXn. 

How Inferior Things Are Subjected to Superior 
Bodies, and How the Bodies, the Actions, and 
Dispositions of Men Are Ascribed to Stars and 
Signs. 

It is manifest that all things inferior are subject 
to the superior, and after a manner (as saith Pro- 
clus) they are one in the other, viz., in inferiors are 
superior and in superiors are inferior: So in the 
Heaven are things terrestrial, but as in their cause, 
and in a celestial manner; and in the Earth are 
things celestial, but after a terrestrial manner, as in 
an effect. So we say that there be here certain things 
which are Solary and certain which are Lunary, in 
which the Sun and Moon make a strong impression 
of their virtues. Whence it is that these kind of 
things receive more operations and properties, like 
to those of the Stars and Signs which they are under. 
So we know that Solary things respect the heart and 



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92 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

head by reason that Leo is the house of the Sun, and 
Aries the exaltation of the Sun. So things under 
Mars are good for the head and secrets by reason 
of Aries and Scorpio. Hence they whose senses fail 
and heads ache by reason of drunkenness, find cold 
water and vinegar good to bathe the head and secrets. 
But in reference to these it is necessary to know how 
man's body is distributed to Planets and Signs. 
Know, therefore, that according to the doctrine of the 
Arabians, the Sun rules over the brain, heart, the 
thigh, the marrow, the right eye, and the spirit; also 
the tongue, the mouth, and the rest of the organs of 
the senses, as well internal as external; also the 
hands, feet, legs, nerves, and the power of imagination. 
That Mercury rules over the spleen, stomach, blad- 
der, womb, and right ear, as also the faculty of the 
common sense. That Saturn rules over the liver and 
fleshy part of the stomach. That Jupiter rules over 
the abdomen and navel, whence it is written by the 
Ancients, that the effigy of a navel was laid up in the 
temple of Jupiter Hammon. Also some attribute to 
him the ribs, breasts, bowels, blood, arms, and the 
right hand and left ear, and the powers natural. 
And some set Mars over the blood, the veins, the 
kidneys, the bag of the gall, the buttocks, the back, 
motion of the sperm, and the irascible power. Again 
they set Venus over the kidneys, the secrets, the 
womb, the seed, and concupiscible power ; as also the 
flesh, fat, belly, breast, navel, and the venereal parts 
and such as serve thereto; as also the os sacrum, 
the back-bone, and loins; as also the head, and the 
mouth, with which they give a kiss as a token of love. 
Now the Moon, although she may challenge the whole 
body, and every member thereof according to the 
variety of the Signs, yet more particularly they 
ascribe to her the brain, lungs, marrow of the back- 
bone, the stomach, the menstrual and excretory parts, 
and the left eye, as also the power of increasing. But 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATUiiAL MAGIC 93 

Hermes saith : That there are seven holes in the head 
of an animal, distributed to the seven Planets, viz. : 
The right ear to Saturn, the left to Jupiter, the right 
nostril to Mars, the left to Venus, the right eye to the 
Sun, the left to the Moon, and the mouth to Mercury. 
The several Signs, also, of the Zodiac take care of 
their members : So Aries governs the head and face ; 
Taurus, the neck; Gemini, the arms and shoulders; 
Cancer, the breast, lungs, stomach and arms; Leo, 
the heart, stomach, liver and back ; Virgo, the bowels 
and bottom of the stomach ; Libra, the kidneys, thighs 
and buttocks ; Scorpius, the secrets ; Sagittarius, the 
thighs and groins; Capricornus, the knees; Aqua- 
rius, the legs and shins; Pisces, the feet.* And as 
the triplicities of these Signs answer one the other, 
and agree in celestials, so also they agree in the 
members; which is sufficiently manifest by experi- 
ence, because with the coldness of the feet the belly 
and breast are affected, which members answer the 
same triplicity ; whence it is, if a medicine be applied 
to the one it helps the other, as by the warming of the 
feet the pain of the belly ceaseth. Remember, there- 
fore, this order, and know that things which are un- 
der any one of the Planets have a certain particular 
aspect or inclination to those members that are at- 
tributed to that planet, and especially to the Houses 
and exaltations thereof. For the rest of the digni- 
ties, as those triplicities and marks and face, are of 
little account in this. Upon this account, therefore, 
peony, balm, clove-gilly-flowers, citron-peel, sweet- 
marjoram, cinnamon, saffron, lignum aloes, frank- 
incense, amber, musk, and myrrh help the head and 
heart, by reason of the Sun and Aries and Leo. So 



* The several parts of the physical body, It will be seen, run in order 
from the head to the feet in their correspondence with the twelve Signs 
or Houses of the Zodiac, from Aries, the first house, to Pisces, the twelfth 
and last. The Zodiac, as a whole, in symbolizing all parts of a complete 
man, typifies a perfect celestial being known as the Grand Solar Man. 



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94 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

doth ribwort, the herb of Mars, help the head and 
secrets by reason of Aries and Scorpio ; and so of the 
rest.* Also all things under Saturn conduce to sad- 
ness and melancholy; those under Jupiter to mirth 
and honor ; those under Mars to boldness, contention 
and anger ; those under the Sun to glory, victory and 
courage; those under Venus to love, lust and con- 
cupiscence ; those under Mercury to eloquence ; those 
under the Moon to a common life. Also all the ac- 
tions and dispositions of men are distributed accord- 
ing to the Planets; for Saturn governs old men, 
monks, melancholy men, and hidden treasures and 
those things which are obtained with long journeys 
and difficulty; but Jupiter governs those that are 
religious, prelates, kings and dukes, and such kind of 
gains that are got lawfully ; Mars rules over barbers, 
chirurgeons, physicians, sergeants, butchers execu- 

* Notb on Punctuation : We find all semicolons used in this sentence 
in the English edition of 1651. Mr. Henry Morley, in his "Life of Cor« 
nelius Agrippa" (London, 1856), Vol. I., page 140, in a note referring to 
a quotation he makes there from the Latin edition of Agrippa of 1531, 
says : "I have preserved the punctuation in this passage to show the use 
of the colon before semicolons were invented.** The passage Mr. Mor- 
ley quotes from the Latin edition of 1531 ("De Occulta Philosophia Librl 
Tres," Antwerp, Belgium, one book only of which was published of the 
three) contains six colons, whereas the English edition of 1651 (see 
etching for title page), also used by Mr. Morley, and published complete 
one hundred and twenty years later, contains none. This indicates, ap- 
parently, the general period when semicolons were invented and came into 
use. The characters of punctuation are supposed to have been generally 
Invented and introduced near the close of the fifteenth century by Aldus 
Manutus, a noted printer and publisher of Venice. The semicolon, as 
above, originated later on, between 1531 and 1651. Further, the m-dash, 
" — ," as now used, is of comparatively modern introduction. I fail to 
find a single m-dash in the English edition of Agrippa of 1651, though 

3-m-dashes, " ,** were occasionally used before quotations from the 

poets. Eight years later, in 1659, I find the 2-m-dash used, in the second 

edition of Lilly's "Christian Astrology," page 60, thus : "His least 30." 

As this was an ordinary paragraph, of itself, it shows that they did not 
at that time use the m-dash but were evolving towards it. The truth 
regarding punctuation Is that it has slowly and steadily evolved, especially 
since the art of printing, to its present status. The object of punctua- 
tion, primarily, is to present a writer's thought clearly, concisely, and 
correctly, by pointing out his salient words, using the "marks" like an 
artist does his "hues,'* to give prominence and pith thereto. 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 95 

tioners, all that make fires, bakers, and soldiers, who 
are every where called martial men. Also do the 
other Stars signify their office, as they are described 
in the books of Astrologers. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

How We Shall Know What Stabs Natukal Things 
Are Under, and What Things Are Under the 
Sun, Which Are Called Solary. 

Now it is very hard to know what Star or Sign 
every thing is under; yet it is known through the 
imitation of their rays, or motion, or figure of the 
superiors. Also some of them are known by their 
colors and odors; also some by the effects of their 
operations, answering to some Stars. So, then, 
Solary things, or things under the power of the Sun, 
are amongst Elements, the lucid flame ; in the humors, 
the purer blood and spirit of life; amongst tastes, 
that which is quick, mixed with sweetness ; amongst 
metals, gold, by reason of its splendor, and its re- 
ceiving that from the Sun which makes it cordial; 
and amongst stones, they which resemble the rays 
of the Sun by their golden sparklings, as doth the 
glittering stone aetites, which hath power against 
the falling sickness and poisons. So also the stone 
which is called the Eye of the Sun, being of a figure 
like to the apple of the eye, from the middle whereof 
shines forth a ray; it comforts the brain and 
strengthens the sight. So the carbuncle, which shines 
by night, hath a virtue against all airy and vaporous 
poison. So the chrysolite stone, which is of a light 
green color, in which, when it is held against the 
Sun, there shines forth a golden star ; and this com- 
forts those parts that serve for breathing, and helps 
those that be asthmatical ; and if it be bored through, 



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96 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

and the hole filled with the mane of an ass, and bound 
to the left arm, it drives away idle imaginations and 
melancholy fears, and puts away foolishness. So 
the stone called iris, which is like crystal in color, 
being often found with six corners; when, under 
some roof, part of it is held against the rays of the 
Sun and the other part is held in the shadow, it 
gathers the rays of the Sun into itself, which, whilst 
it sends them forth, by way of reflection, makes a 
rainbow appear on the opposite wall. Also the stone 
heliotrope, green like the jasper or emerald, beset 
with red specks, makes a man constant, renowned 
and famous,; also it conduceth to long life ; and the 
virtue of it, indeed, is most wonderful upon the 
beams of the Sun, which it is said to turn into blood 
(i. e.), to appear of the color of blood, as if the Sun 
were eclipsed, Viz., when it is joined to the juice of 
a herb of the same name, and be put into a vessel of 
water. There is also another virtue of it more won- 
derful, and that is upon the eyes of men, whose sight 
it doth so dim and dazzle that it doth not suffer him 
that carries it to see it, and this it doth not do with- 
out the help of the herb of the same name, which also 
is called heliotrope (i. e.) 9 following the Sun. These 
virtues doth Albertus Magnus and William of Paris 
confirm in their writings. The stone hyacinth also 
hath a virtue from the Sun against poisons and 
pestiferous vapors ; it makes him that carries it to be 
safe and acceptable ; it conduceth also to riches and 
wit ; it strengthens the heart ; being held in the mouth 
it doth wonderfully cheer up the mind. Also there is 
the stone pyrophylus, of a red mixture, which Alber- 
tus Magnus saith JEsculapius makes mention of in 
one of his Epistles unto Octavius Augustus, saying 
that there is a certain poison so wonderfully cold, 
vhich preserves the heart of man (being taken out) 
from burning, so that if for any time it be put into 
the fire it is turned into a stone, and this is that 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 97 

stone which is called pyrophylus, from the fire. It 
hath a wonderful virtue against poison, and it makes 
him that carries it to be renowned and dreadful to his 
enemies. But, above all, that stone is most Solary 
which Apollonius is reported to have found, and 
which is called pantaura, which draws other stones 
to it, as the loadstone doth iron, and is most power- 
ful against all poisons. It is called by some pan- 
therus, because it is spotted like the beast called the 
panther. It is therefore also called pantochras, be- 
cause it contains all colors, and Aaron calls it 
evanthum. There are also other Solary stones, as 
the topazius, chrysopassus, the rubine, andbalagius. 
So also is auripigmentum, and things of a golden 
color and very lucid. 

Amongst plants, also, and trees, those are Solary 
which turn towards the Sun, as the marigold, and 
those which fold in their leaves when the Sun is near 
upon setting, but when it riseth unfold their leaves 
by little and little. The lote-tree also is Solary, as is 
manifest by the figure of the fruit and leaves. So is 
peony, sallendine, balm, ginger, gentian, and dittany ; 
and vervain, which is of use in prophesying and ex- 
piations, as also driving away evil-spirits. The bay- 
tree also is consecrated to Phoebus, so is the cedar, 
the palm-tree, the ash, the ivy and vine, and whatso- 
ever repel poisons and lightnings, and those things 
which never fear for the extremities of the winter. 
Solary also are mint, mastic, zedoary, saffron, 
balsam, amber, musk, yellow honey, lignum aloes, 
cloves, cinnamon, calamus, aromaticus, pepper, 
frankincense, sweet-marjoram, also libanotis, which 
Orpheus calls the sweet perfume of the Sun. 

Also amongst animals those are called Solary 
which are magnanimous, courageous, ambitious of 
victory and renown — as the lion, king of beasts ; the 
crocodile, the spotted wolf, the ram, the boar; the 
bull, king of the herd, which was by the Egyptians 



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98 THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 

at Heliopolis dedicated to the Sun, which they called 
Verites ; and an ox was consecrated to Apis in Mem- 
phis, and in Herminthus 
a bull by the name of 
Pathis. The wolf, also, 
was consecrated to Apol- 
lo and Latona. Also the 
beast called baboon is Sol- 
ary, which twelve times 
in a day (viz., every] 
hour) barks and in time 
of JEquinoctium mictu- 
rateth twelve times every 
hour; the same also it 
doth in the night, whence 
the Egyptians did en- 
grave him upon their 
fountains.* 

Also, amongst birds, 
these are Solary: The 
phoenix, being but one of 
that kind ; and the eagle, 
the queen of birds; also 
the vulture, the swan, 
and those which sing at 
the rising Sun and, as it were, call upon it to rise, 
as the cock and crow ; also the hawk, which because 
it, in the divinity of the Egyptians, is an emblem 
of the spirit and light, is by Porphyrius reckoned 
amongst the Solary birds. Moreover, all such things 
as have some resemblance of the works of the 
Sun, as worms shining in the night, and the bee- 
tle. Also, according to Appious* interpretation, such 
things whose eyes are changed according tojthe course 




CALAMUS (SWEET-FLAG). 



* Mr. Morley notes here In reference to the baboon that "Hermes Tris- 
megistus, or a writer in his name, taught that the common division of 
time was suggested to man by the habits of this sacred animal." Life of 
Henry Cornelius Agrippa, Volume I, page 132. 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 99 

of the Sun are accounted Solary; and things which 
come of them. 

And amongst fish, the sea-calf is chiefly Solary, 
who doth resist lightning; also shell-fish and the 
fish called Pulmo, both of which shine in the night ; 
and the fish called stella,* for his parching heat ; and 
the fish called strombif that follow their king; and 
margari,J which also have a king, and, being dried, 
are hardened into a stone of a golden color. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

What Things Abb Lunary, or Undeb the Poweb 
op the Moon. 

These things are Lunary, amongst the Elements, 
viz. : The earth, then the water, as well that of the 
sea as of the rivers; and all moist things, as the 
moisture of trees and animals, especially they which 
are white, as the whites of egs, fat, sweat, phlegm, 
and the superfluities of bodies. Amongst tastes, 
salt and insipid; amongst metals, silver; amongst 
stones, crystal, the silver marcasite, and all those 
stones that are white and green. Also the stone 
selenite (i. e., the Moon, Lunary), shining from a 
white body, with a yellow brightness ; imitating the 
motion of the Moon, by having in it the figure of the 
Moon, which daily increaseth or decreaseth as doth 
the Moon. Also pearls, which are generated in shells 
of fishes, and stalactites, formed from the droppings 

* Stella — a star — star-fish ; the Asterias or sea-star. One peculiarity of 
this radiate animal is that so long as it has any one of its usual five 
points remaining, it will restore any others that may have been destroyed. 

t Strombi — Strombite. A mullosk, of the genus Strombus, possessing a 
spiral shell with a broad, wing-like lip. Ordinarily known as sea-snail. 

t Margari — Margarite — Margaritace®. Pearl-fish ; the pearl oyster. 



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100 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

of water; also the beryl, or aqua-marine, greenish 
and six-sided. 

Amongst plants and trees, these are Lunary, as the 
selenotropidh, which turns towards the Moon as doth 
the heliotropion towards the Sun; and the palm-tree, 
which sends forth a bough at every rising of the new 
Moon. Hyssop, also, and rosemary, agnus castus, 
and the olive-tree, are Lunary. Also the herb 
chinosta, which increaseth and decreaseth with the 
Moon, viz., in substance and number of leaves, not 
only in sap but in virtue — which, indeed, is in some 
sort common to all plants, except onions, which last 
are under the influence of Mars, and have contrary 
properties. 

As amongst flying things the Saturnine bird called 
a quail is a great enemy of the Moon and Sun, Lu- 
nary animals are such as delight to be in man's com- 
pany, and such as do naturally excel in love or 
hatred, as all kinds of dogs. The chameleon also is 
Lunary, which always assumes a color according to 
the variety of the color of the object — as the Moon 
changeth her nature according to the variety of the 
Sign which it is found in. Lunary also are swine, 
hinds, goats, and all those animals, whatsoever, that 
observe and imitate the motion of the Moon, as the 
baboon, and the panther, which is said to have a spot 
upon her shoulder like the Moon, increasing into a 
roundness and having horns that bend inwards. Cats 
Salso are Lunary, whose eyes become greater or less 
according to the course of the Moon ; and those things 
(which are of like nature, as catamenial blood, of 
which are made wonderful and strange things by 
magicians. The civet cat, also, changing her sex 
with the Moon, being obnoxious to divers sorceries ; 
and all animals that live in water as well as on land, 
as otters, and such as prey upon fish. , Also all 
monstrous beasts, such as without any manifest seed 
are equivocally generated, as mice, which some- 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 101 

times seem to be generated of the putrefaction of 
the earth. Amongst fowl, geese, chicks, didappers, 
and all kinds of watery fowl as prey upon fish, as the 
heron, and those that are equivocally produced, as 
wasps of the carcasses of horses, bees of the putre- 
faction of cows, small flies of putrefied wine, and bee- 
tles of the flesh of asses. But most Lunary of all is 
the two-horned beetle, horned after the manner of a 
bull, which digs under cow-dung and there remains 
for the space of twenty-eight days (in which time the 
Moon measures the whole Zodiac), and in the twenty- 
ninth day, when it thinks there will be a conjunction 
of their brightness, it opens the dung and casts it into 
water, from whence then come beetles. 

Amongst fish, these are Lunary: iElurus, whose 
eyes are changed according to the course of the 
Moon, and whatsoever observes the motion of the 
Moon, as the tortoise, the echeneis, crabs, oysters, 
cockles and frogs. 



CHAPTER XXV. 

What Things Are Saturnine, or Under the Power 
or Saturn. 

Saturnine things, amongst Elements, are earth 
and also water ; amongst humors, black choler that is 
moist, as well natural as adventitious (adust choler 
excepted). Amongst tastes, sour, tart, and dead-like. 
Amongst metals, lead, and gold, by reason of its 
weight, and the golden marcasite. Amongst stones, 
the onyx, the ziazza, the camonious, the sapphire, the 
brown jasper, the chalcedon, the loadstone, and all 
dark, weighty, earthy things. Amongst, plants and 
trees, the daffodil, dragon's-wort, rue, cummin, hel- 
lebore, the tree from whence benzoin comes, man- 
drake, opium, and those things which are never sown, 



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102 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

and never bear fruit, and those which bring forth 
berries of a dark color and black fruit, as the black 
fig-tree, the pine-tree, the cypress-tree, and a cer- 
tain tree used at burials, which never springs afresh 
with berries, rough, of a bitter taste, of a strong 
smell, of a black shadow, yielding a most sharp pitch, 
bearing a most unprofitable fruit, never dies with 
age, deadly, and dedicated to Pluto. As is the herb 
pas-flower,* with which they were wont, anciently, to 



• Pas, from the Latin word "passus," meaning step, pace, or "right of 
going foremost; precedence." Thus the pas-flower means a plant bloom- 
ing ahead of other flowers. A co-ordinate word is "pascha," meaning to 
"pass over," giving the name "Passover," or the feast of Easter. "Pasch" 
comes from and means the same as "pascha," and we read of the "pasch" 
egg, stained and given to children at Easter, as also of the "pasch" 
flower of Easter. The Easter flower was also known as the Pash-flower, 
Paschal-flower, and Pasque-flower — "pash" and "pasque" meaning Easter, 
and "paschal" pertaining thereto. This indicates that the pas-flower in 
the above text is identical with the pasque-flower, of the genus Anemone, 
having large purple flowers, which usually bloom about Easter, stepping 
foremost in their order of blooming as regarding other flowers. Agrippa 
also makes mention here of the pas-flower as being an emblem of mourn- 
ing as the ancients used it to "strow the graves before they put the dead 
bodies into them." While the ancients may have held the pas-flower as 
sacred to the rites of burial, the sense of its use as the Easter flower 
would indicate that it was also used as an emblem of great joy, and 
signified a new life for the departed through a new birth or resurrection. 
A true understanding of the meaning of the feast of the Passover or 
Easter will show this : Easter-day is always the first Sunday after the 
fourteenth day of the calendar moon which comes upon or next after the 
21st of March; so that if the fourteenth day comes on a Sunday, Easter- 
day will be the Sunday after. Easter corresponds to the Passover of the 
Jews, and "most nations still give it this name under the various forms 
of pascha, pasque, paque, or pask." The feast of the Passover was in- 
stituted by the Jews "to commemorate the providential escape of the 
Hebrews, in Egypt, when Ood, smiting the first-born of the Egyptians, 
passed oveb the houses of the Israelites, which were marked with the 
blood of the paschal lamb." With the Christian church it is observed 
to commemorate the "besubbection of Christ." The Old High Germans 
celebrated the day in honor of Ostara, the goddess of light or spring, 
whence they called April (the month of or following Easter) Ostarmanoth. 
The Anglo-Saxons called the same month, Eastermonadh, from Eastre, 
their name for the same goddess, and their paschal feaBt, Eastran or 
Easter. March was named from Mars, the god of war, and was originally 
the first month of the year as it was in March that the Sun came to 
Aries, the first House of the Zodiac, emblemized by the lamb, as the ram 
was the first animal to forage for food and procreate ; and the Sun enter- 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 103 

strow the graves before they put the dead bodies into 
them ; wherefore it was lawful to make their garlands 
at feasts with all herbs and flowers besides pas- 
flowers, because it was mournful and not conducing 
to mirth. Also all creeping animals, living apart, 
and solitary, nightly, sad, contemplative, dull, cov- 
etous, fearful, melancholy, that take much pains, 
slow, that feed grossly, and such as eat their young. 
Of these kinds, therefore, are the mole, the wolf, 
the ass, the toad, the cat, the hog, the bear, the camel, 
the basilisk, the hare, the ape, the dragon, the mule, 
all serpents and creeping things, scorpions, ants, and 
such things as proceed from putrefaction in the 
earth, in water, or in the mins of houses, as mice 
and many sorts of vermin. Amongst birds, those are 
Saturnine which have long necks and harsh voices, as 

ing the first House was the vernal equinox, or the first day of spring, 
the first season of the fruitful year, and therefore March, being the advent 
month of light and fecundity, was esteemed as the first month of the 
year. The first full month of light and spring, when every fetter of 
winter was riven and spring was opened wide and fixed, was April, from 
aperlo, to open; and also from the Greek word, aphros — foam — from 
which Venus was said to have sprung, and hence this month was sacred 
to her; no doubt Ostara and Eastre were identical with her. As Easter- 
day falls the first Sunday after the fourteenth day of the calendar moon 
which comes upon or next after the 21st of March, Easter-day usually 
comes in April and dates its arrival from the aspect of the Moon to the 
arbitrary date of March 21. This is a very significant fact and is fully 
confirmed aB such when we find that the 21st of March is the usually 
precise date when the Earth, in its annual movement around the Sun, 
enters Libra, causing the Sun to apparently enter the opposite House or 
Sign of Aries, ending winter and ushering In spring, for the first day of 
spring always comes when the Sun enters Aries. Aries is the House of 
the lamb, and with the birth of spring the lamb is resurrected or brought 
to life anew, while winter Is dead, the Sun having passed over the merid- 
ian line between winter and spring. Further, the word Easter corre- 
sponds with Aries, for it springs from the word East, and Aries is the 
Eastern part of the Zodiac Therefore, March 21st is the true Eastern- 
day, but the celebration of the return of spring is fitly deferred until the 
first Sun-day after about a lunar cycle, so as to partake of the first fruits 
of the spring season. In view of the foregoing, therefore, the ancients 
used the pas-flower at the grave as an emblem of the passing over of the 
winter of old age and the resurrection of the spirit to eternal light and 
immortal youth. Used as such the pas-flower or pasque-flower typified 
joy and hope. 



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104 THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 

cranes, ostriches, and peacocks, which are dedicated 
to Saturn and Juno. Also the screech-owl, the 
horned-owl, the bat, the lapwing, the crow, the quail, 
which is the most envious bird of all. Amongst 
fishes, the eel, living apart from all other fish; the 
lamprey, the dog-fish, which devours her young ; also 
the tortoise, oysters, cockles, to which may be added 
sea-sponges and all such things as come of them. 



CHAPTEE XXVI. 

What Things Are Under the Power op Jupiter, 
and Are Called Jovial. 

Things under Jupiter, amongst Elements, are the 
air; amongst humors, blood and the Spirit of Life; 
also all things which respect the increase, nourish- 
ment, and vegetation of the life. Amongst tastes, 
such as are sweet and pleasant. Amongst metals, tin, 
silver and gold, by reason of their temperateness. 
Amongst stones, the hyacinth, beryl, sapphire, emer- 
ald, green jasper, and those of airy colors. Amongst 
plants and trees, sea-green, garden basil, bugloss, 
mace, spike, mint, mastic, elecampane, the violet, 
darnel, henbane, the poplar-tree, and those which 
are called lucky trees, as the oak, the sesculus, or 
horse-chestnut, which is like an oak but much larger ; 
the holm or holly-tree, the beech-tree, the hazel-tree, 
the service-tree, the white fig-tree, the pear-tree, the 
apple-tree, the vine, the plum-tree, the ash, the dog- 
wood tree, and the olive-tree, and also oil-tree. Also 
all manner of corn, as barley and wheat ; also raisins, 
licorice, sugar, and all such things whose sweetness 
is manifest and subtile, partaking somewhat of an 
astringent and sharp taste, as are nuts, almonds, 
pine-apples, filberts, pistachio-nuts, roots of peony, 
myrobalan, rhubarb, and manna; Orpheus adds 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 105 

storax. Amongst animals, such as have some stateli- 
ness and wisdom in them, and those which are mild, 
well trained up, and of good dispositions, as the hart 
and elephant; and those which are gentle, as sheep 
and lambs. Amongst birds, those that are of a tem- 
perate complexion, as hens, together with the yolk 
of their eggs. Also the partridge, the pheasant, the 
swallow, the cuckoo, and the stork and pelican, birds 
given to a kind of devotion, which are emblems of 
gratitude. The eagle is dedicated to Jupiter — she is 
the ensign of emperors, and an emblem of Justice 
and Clemency. Amongst fish, the dolphin, the fish 
called anchia or anchovy; and the sheath or sheat- 
fish, by reason of his devoutness. 



CHAPTEE XXVn. 

What Things Are Under the Pqweb of Mars, and 
Are Called Martial. 

These things are Martial: Amongst Elements, 
fire, together with all adust and sharp things. 
Amongst humors, choler ; also bitter tastes, tart and 
burning the tongue, and causing tears. Amongst 
metals, iron and red brass ; and all fiery, red, and sul- 
phureous things. Amongst stones, the diamond, 
loadstone, the bloodstone, the jasper, the stone 
that consists of divers kinds, and the amethyst. 
Amongst plants and trees, hellebore, garlic, euphor- 
bium, castanea, ammoniac, radish, the laurel or 
sweet-bay, wolf's-bane, scammony; and all such as 
are poisonous, by reason of too much heat, and those 
which are beset, round about with prickles, or, by 
touching the skin, burn it, prick it, or make it swell, 
as cardis, the nettle, crow-foot and such as, being 
eaten, cause tears, as onions, ascolonia, leeks, mus- 
tard-seed, and all thorny trees; and the dogwood- 



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106 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

tree, which is dedicated to Mars. And all such ani- 
mals as are warlike, ravenous, bold, and of clear 
fancy, as the horse, mule, goat, kid, wolf, leopard, 
and wild ass. Serpents, also, and dragons, full of 
displeasure and poison. Also all such as are of- 
fensive to men, as gnats, flies, and the baboon, by 
reason of his anger. All birds that are ravenous, de- 
vour flesh, and break bones, as the eagle, the falcon, 
the hawk, and the vulture; and those which are 
called the fatal birds, as the horn-owl, the screech- 
owl, castrels, and kites ; and such as are hungry and 
ravenous, and such as make a noise in their swal- 
lowing, as crows, daws, and the pie, which, above all 
the rest, is dedicated to Mars. And amongst fishes, 
the pike, the barbel, the fork-fish, the fish that hath 
horns like a ram, the sturgeon, and the glacus, all 
which are great devourers and ravenous. 



CHAPTER XXVin. 

What Things Are Under the Power of Venus, and 
Are Called Venereal. 

These things are under Venus: Amongst Ele' 
ments, air and water. Amongst humors, phlegm, 
with blood, spirit, and seed. Amongst tastes, those 
which are sweet, unctuous, and delectable. Amongst 
metals, silver, and brass, both yellow and red. 
Amongst stones, the beryl, chrysolite, emerald, sap- 
phire, green jasper, carnelian, the stone aetites, the 
lazuli stone, coral, and all of a fair, various, white, 
and green color. Amongst plants and trees, the 
vervain, violet, maiden-hair; valerian, which by the 
Arabians is called phu ! and tithymal, for its fragrant 
and sweet smell ; also thyme, the gum ladanum, am- 
ber-gris, sanders or red sandal-wood, coriander, and 
all sweet perfumes ; and delightful and sweet fruits, 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 107 

as sweet pears, figs, pomegranates, which, the poets 
say, were, in Cyprus, first sown by Venus. Also the 
Eose of Lucifer was dedicated to her ; also the Myr- 
tle-tree of Hesperus. Moreover, all luxurious, deli- 
cious animals, and of a strong love, as dogs, conies, 
odorous sheep and goats, both female and male, 
which generate sooner than any other animal; also 
the bull, for his disdain, and the calf, for his wanton- 
ness. Amongst birds, the sw&n, the wagtail, the 
swallow, the pelican, the bergander, which are very 
loving to their young. Also the crow, and the pigeon, 
which is dedicated to Venus ; and the turtle-dove, one 
whereof was commanded to be offered at the puri- 
fication, after bringing forth. The sparrow also was 
dedicated to Venus, which was commanded in the 
law to be used in the purification, after the leprosy, 
a martial disease, than which nothing was of more 
force to resist it. Also, the Egyptians called the 
Eagle by the name of Venus, because she never fails 
to answer the call of her mate. Amongst fishes, 
these are venereal : The lustful pilchard, the lecher- 
ous gilt-head, the whiting, for her love to her young, 
and the crab, fighting for his mate. 



CHAPTEE XXIX. 

What Things Abe Under the Power of Mercury, 
and Are Called Mercurial. 

Things under Mercury are these : Amongst Ele- 
ments, water, though it moves all things indistinctly. 
Amongst humors, those especially which are mixed, 
as also the animal spirit. Amongst tastes, those that 
are various, strange, and mixed. Amongst metals, 
quick-silver, tin, and the silver marcasite. Amongst 
stones, the emerald, achate or agate, red marble, and 
topaz, and those which are of divers colors and vari- 



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108 THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 

ous figures naturally; and those that are artificial, as 
glass ; and those which have a color mixed with green 
and yellow. Amongst plants and trees, the hazel, 
five-leaved grass, the herb mercury, fumitory, pim- 
pernel, marjoram, parsley, and such as have shorter 
and less leaves, being compounded of mixed natures 
and diyers colors. Animals, also, that are of quick 
sense, ingenious, strong, inconstant, and swift; and 
such as become easily acquainted with men, as dogs, 
weasels, apes, foxes, the hart and mule ; and all ani- 
mals that are of both sexes, and those which can 
change their sex, as the hare, civet cat, and such like. 
Amongst birds, those which are naturally witty, 
melodious and inconstant, as the linnet, nightingale, 
blackbird, lark, thrush, the gnat-snapper, the bird 
calandra, the parrot, the pie, the bird ibis, the bird 
porphyrio, the black beetle with one horn, and the 
sea-bird trochilus, which goes into the crocodile's 
mouth for its food. Amongst fishes, the fish called 
pour-contrel, for deceitfulness and changeableness ; 
the fork-fish for its industry, and the mullet, also, 
that shakes off the bait on the hook with his tail. 



CHAPTER XXX. 

That the Whole Stjblunaky World, and Those 
Things Which Are in It, Are Distributed to 
Planets. 

Moreover, whatsoever is found in the whole world 
is made according to the governments of the Planets, 
and accordingly receives its virtue. So in fire, the en- 
livening light thereof is under the government of 
the Sun ; th6 heat of it under Mars, in the Earth ; the 
various superficies thereof under the Moon and Mer- 
cury, and the starry heaven; the whole mass of it 
under Saturn. But in the middle Elements, air is 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 109 

under Jupiter, and water under the Moon ; but being 
mixed, are under Mercury and Venus. In like man- 
ner natural active causes observe the Sun, the matter 
the Moon, the f ruitf ulness of active causes, Jupiter ; 
the fruitfulness of the matter, Venus; the sudden 
effecting of any thing, Mars ; and Mercury, that for 
his vehemency, this for his dexterity and manifold 
virtue. But the permanent continuation of all things 
is ascribed to Saturn. Also, amongst vegetables, 
every thing that bears fruit is from Jupiter, and 
every thing that bears flowers is from Venus; all 
seed and bark is from Mercury, and all roots from 
Saturn, and all wood from Mars, and leaves from 
the Moon. Wherefore, all that bring forth fruit, 
and not flowers, are of Saturn and Jupiter ; but they 
that bring forth flowers and seed, and not fruit, are 
of Venus and Mercury; those which are brought 
forth of their own accord, without seed, are of the 
Moon and Saturn. All beauty is from Venus, all 
strength from Mars, and every planet rules and dis- 
poseth that which is like to it. Also in stones, their 
weight, clamminess and slipticness is of Saturn, their 
use and temperament of Jupiter, their hardness from 
Mars, their life from the Sun, their beauty and fair- 
ness from Venus, their occult virtue from Mercury, 
and their common use from the Moon. 



CHAPTEE XXXI. 

How Provinces and Kingdoms Akb Distributed to 

Planets. 

Moreover, the whole orb of the earth is distributed 
by kingdoms and provinces to the Planets and Signs : 
For Macedonia, Thracia, Illyria, Arriana, Gordiana, 
India, many of which countries are in the lesser Asia, 
are under Saturn with Capricornus ; but with Aquar- 



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110 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

ius under him are the Sauromatian Country, Oxiana, 
Sogdiana, Arabia, Phazania, Media and iEthipoia, 
which countries, for the most part, belong to the more 
inward Asia. Under Jupiter, with Sagittarius, are 
Tuscana, Celtica, Spaine, and happy Arabia; and 
under him, with Pisces, are Lycia, Lydia, Cilicia, 
Pamphylia, Paphlagonia, Nasamonia, and Lybia. 
Mars, with Aries, governs Britany, France, Germany, 
Bastarnia, the lower parts of Syria, Jdumea, and 
Judea ; with Scorpio, he rules Syria, Comagena, Cap- 
padocia, Metagonium, Mauritania, and Getulia. The 
Sun, with Leo, governs Italy, Apulia, Sicilia, Pheni- 
cia, Chaldea, and the Orchenians. Venus, with Tau- 
rus, governs the Isles Cyclades, the seas of little 
Asia, Cyprus, Parthia, Media, Persia; but, with 
Libra, she commands the people of the Island 
Bractia, of Caspia, of Seres, of Thebais, of Oasis, 
and of Troglodys. Mercury, with Gemini, rules Hir- 
cania, Armenia, Mantiana, Cyrenaica, Marmarica, 
and the lower Egypt; but, with Virgo, he rules 
Greece, Achaia, Creta, Babylon, Mesopotamia, Assy- 
ria, and Ela, whence they of that place are in Scrip- 
ture called Elamites. The Moon, with Cancer, gov- 
erns Bithivia, Phrygia, Colchica, Numidia, Africa, 
Carthage, and all Carchedonia. 

These we have, in this manner, gathered from Ptol- 
emy's opinion, to which, according to the writings of 
other astrologers, many more may be added. But he 
who knows how to compare these divisions of prov- 
inces according to the Divisions of the Stars, with 
the Ministry of the Ruling Intelligences, and Bless- 
ings of the Tribes of Israel, the Lots of the Apostles, 
and Typical Seals of the Sacred Scripture, shall be 
able to obtain great and prophetical oracles, concern- 
ing every region, of things to come. 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 111 



CHAPTER XXXII. 

What Things Abe Under the Signs, the Fixed 
Stars, and Their Images, 

The like consideration is to be had in all things 
concerning the Figures of the Fixed Stars : There- 
fore they will have the terrestrial ram to be under 
the rule of the celestial Aries, and the terrestrial 
bull and ox to be under the celestial Taurus. So also 
that Cancer should rule over crabs, and Leo over 
lions; Virgo over virgins, and Scorpio over scor- 
pions; Capricornus over goats, Sagittarius over 
horses, and Pisces over fishes. Also the celestial 
Ursa over bears, the Hydra over serpents, and the 
Dog Star over dogs, and so of the rest. Now, Apuleius 
distributes certain and peculiar herbs to the Signs and 
Planets, viz: To Aries, the herb sage; to Taurus, 
the vervain that grows straight ; to Gemini, the ver- 
vain that grows bending; to Cancer, comfrey; to 
Leo, sow-bread; to Virgo, calamint; to Libra, mug- 
wort; to Scorpio, scorpion-grass; to Sagittarius, 
pimpernel; to Capricornus, the dock; to Aquarius, 
dragon's wort; to Pisces, hart-wort. And to the 
Planets these, viz.: To Saturn, sengreen; to Ju- 
piter, agrimony ; to Mars, sulphur-wort ; to the Sun, 
mari-gold ; to Venus, wound-wort ; to Mercury, mul- 
lein; to the Moon, peony. But Hermes, whom Al- 
bertus follows, distributes to the Planets these, viz. : 
To Saturn, the daffodil; to Jupiter, henbane; to 
Mars, rib- wort; to the Sun, knot-grass; to Venus, 
vervain ; to Mercury, cinque-foil ; to the Moon, goose- 
foot. We also know by experience that asparagus 
is under Aries, and garden basil under Scorpio ; for 
of the shavings of ram's-horn, sowed, comes forth 
asparagus; and garden basil, rubbed betwixt two 
stones, produceth scorpions. Moreover, I will, ac- 
cording to the doctrine of Hermes, and of Thebit, 



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112 THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 

reckon up some of the more eminent Stars, whereof 
the first is called the Head of Algol, and, amongst 
stones, rules over the diamond; amongst plants, 
black hellebore and mug-wort. The second are the 
Pleiades, or Seven Stars, which, amongst stones, 
rule over crystal and the stone diodocus ; amongst 
plants, the herb diacedon, and frankincense and fen- 
nel; and amongst metals, quicksilver. The third 
is the star Aldeboran, which hath under it, amongst 
stones, the carbuncle and ruby; amongst plants, 
the milky thistle and matry-silva. The fourth is 
called the Goat Star, which rules, amongst stones, 
the sapphire ; amongst plants, horehound, mint, mug- 
wort and mandrake. The fifth is called the great 
Dog Star, which, amongst stones, rules over the 
beryl; amongst plants, savin, mug-wort and drag- 
on 's-wort; and, amongst animals, the forked tongue 
of a snake. The sixth is called the lesser Dog Star, 
and, amongst stones, rules over achate or agate; 
amongst plants, the flowers of marigold and penny- 
royal. The seventh is called the Heart of the Lyon, 
which, amongst stones, rules over the granate or 
garnet ; amongst, plants, sallendine, mug-wort and 
mastic. The eighth is the Taile of the lesser Bear, 
which, amongst stones, rules over the loadstone; 
amongst herbs, over succory or chicory, whose leaves 
and flowers turn towards the north; also mug-wort 
and the flowers of periwinkle ; and, amongst animals, 
the tooth of a wolf. The ninth is called the Wing 
of the Crow, under which, amongst stones, are such 
stones as are of the color of the black onyx stone ; 
amongst plants, the bur, quadraginus, henbane and 
comfrey; and, amongst animals, the tongue of a 
frog. The tenth is called Spica, which hath under 
it, amongst stones, the emerald; amongst plants, 
sage, trifoil, periwinkle, mug-wort and mandrake. 
The eleventh is called Alchamech, which, amongst 
stones, rules over the jasper; amongst plants, the 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 113 

plantain. The twelfth is called Elpheia; under this, 
amongst stones, is the topaz ; amongst plants, rose- 
mary, trifoil and ivy. The thirteenth is called the 
Heart of the Scorpion, under which, amongst stones, 
is the sardonius and amethyst ; amongst plants, long 
aristolochy and saffron. The fourteenth is the Fall- 
ing Vultur, under which, amongst stones, is the 
chrysolite; amongst plants, succory and fumitory. 
The fifteenth is the Taile of Capricorn, under which, 
amongst stones, is chalcedony ; amongst plants, mar- 
joram, mug-wort, and catnip, and the root of man- 
drake. 

Moreover, this we must know, that every stone 
or plant or animal, or any other thing, is not gov- 
erned by one star alone, but many of them receive 
influence, not separated, but conjoined, froni many 
stars. So amongst stones, the chalcedon is under 
Saturn and Mercury, together with the Taile of 
Scorpion, and Capricorn. The sapphire, under Ju- 
piter, Saturn and the star Alhajoth ; tutia is under 
Jupiter and the Sun and Moon ; the emerald, under 
Jupiter, Venus and Mercury and the star Spica. 
The amethyst, as saith Hermes, is under Mars, Ju- 
piter and the Heart of the Scorpion. The jasper, 
which is of divers kinds, is under Mars, Jupiter and 
the star Alchamech. The chrysolite is under the 
Sun, Venus and Mercury, as also under the star 
which is called the Falling Vultur. The topaz, under 
the Sun and the star Elpheia; the diamond, under 
Mars and the Head of Algol. In like manner, 
amongst vegetables, the herb dragon is under Sat- 
urn and the celestial Dragon; mastic and mint are 
under Jupiter and the Sun, but mastic is also under 
the Heart of the Lyon, and mint, under the Goat 
Star. Hellebore is dedicated to Mars and the Head 
of Algol ; moss and sanders to the Sun and Venus ; 
coriander to Venus and Saturn. Amongst animals, 
the sea calf is under the Sun and Jupiter; the fox 



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114 THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 

and ape, under Saturn and Mercury ; and domes- 
tical dogs under Mercury and the Moon. And thus 
we have shewed more things in these inferiors by 
their superiors.* 



CHAPTEE XXXin. 
Of the Seals and Chakactebs of Natubal Things. 

All Stars have their peculiar natures, properties, 
and conditions, the Seals and Characters whereof 
they produce, through their rays, even in these in- 
ferior things, viz., in elements, in stones, in plants, 
in animals, and their members ; whence every natural 
thing receives, from a harmonious disposition and 
from its star shining upon it, some particular Seal, 
or character, stamped upon it ; which Seal of char- 
acter is the significator of that star, or harmonious 
disposition, containing in it a peculiar Virtue, dif- 
fering from other virtues of the same matter, both 
generically, specifically, and numerically. Every 
thing, therefore, hath its character pressed upon it 
by its star for some particular effect, especially by 
that star which doth principally govern it. And 
these Characters contain and retain in them the 
peculiar Natures, Virtues, and Eoots of their Stars, 
and produce the like operations upon other things, 
on which they are reflected, and stir up and help the 
influences of their Stars, whether they be Planets, 
or fixed Stars, or Figures, or celestial Signs,f viz., 



•Agrippa's historian, Mr. Henry Morley, says: "Here ends the detail 
of the theory of Nature, upon which were based, so far as concerned 
natural things, the arts of sorcery and divination. From theory to prac- 
tice, therefore, the young student passes." — "Life of Cornelius Agrippa," 
Vol. I., p. 136. 

t The Heavens in general are mapped out into clusters and combina 
tions of stars, known as "constellations," and to each constellation the 
ancients gave a certain "figure," the name of which also named the con- 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 115 

as oft as they shall be made in a fit matter, and in 
their due and accustomed times. Which ancient 
Wise Men considering — such as labored much in the 
finding out of the occult properties of things— did 
set down in writing the Images of the Stars, their 
Figures, Seals, Marks, Characters, such as Nature 
herself did describe, by the rays of the Stars, in 
these inferior bodies — some in stones, some in 
plants, and joints and knots of boughs, and some 
in divers members of animals. For the bay-tree, 
the lote-tree, and the marigold are Solary Plants, 
and in their roots and knots, beings cut off, shew 
the Characters of the Sun. So also in the bones and 
shoulder-blades in animals; whence there arose a 
spatulary kind of divining (i. e.) by the shoulder- 
blades ; and in the stones and stony things the Char- 
acters and Images of celestial things are often 
found. But seeing that in so great a diversity of 
things there is not a traditional knowledge, only in 
a few things, which human understanding is able 
to reach: Therefore, leaving those things which 
are to be found out in plants and stones, and other 
things, as also in the members of divers animals, 
we shall limit ourselves to man's nature only, which, 
seeing it is the most complete Image of the whole 
Universe, containing in itself the whole heavenly 
harmony, will, without all doubt, abundantly afford 
us the Seals and Characters of all -the Stars and 
Celestial Influences, and those, as the more effica- 
cious, which are less differing from the celestial 
nature. But as the number of the Stars is known 
to God alone, so also their effects and Seals upon 
these inferior things, wherefore no human intellect 
is able to attain to the knowledge of them. Whence 

stellation, as Capricornus (from "caper," goat, and "cornu," horn) is 
given the figure of a goat (one horn starry) ; and this constellation, by 
being one of the twelve constellations of the Zodiac, Is further known as 
one of the twelvu "Signs." 



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116 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

very few of those things became known to us which 
the ancient philosophers and chiromancers attained 
to, partly by reason and partly by experience ; and 
there be many things yet lying hid in the treasury 
of Nature. We shall here, in this place, note some 
few Seals and Characters of the Planets, such as 
the ancient chiromancers knew of, in the hands of 
men. These doth Julian call Sacred and Divine 
Letters, seeing that by them, according to the holy 
Scripture, is the life of men writ in their hands. 
And there are in all nations of all languages always 
the same and like to them, and permanent ; to which 
were added and found out afterwards many more; 
as by the ancient, so by latter chiromancers. And 
they that would know them must have recourse to 
their volumes. It is sufficient here to shew from 






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THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 117 
HERE FOLLOW THE FIGURES OF DIVINE LETTERS: 

The Letters or Characters of Saturn. 

The Letters or Characters of Jupiter, 

The Letters or Characters of Mars. 

The Letters or Characters of the Sun. 

The Letters or Characters of Venus. 

<& j r &* as 

The Letters or Characters of Mercury. 
The Letters or Characters of the Moon. 



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118 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

whence the Characters of Nature have their original 
source, and in what things they are to be enquired 
after.* 



CHAPTEE XXXIV. 

How, by Natural Things and Their Virtues, We 
May Draw Forth and Attract the Influences 
and Virtues of Celestial Bodies. 

Now, if thou desirest to receive virtue from any 
part of the World, or from any Star, thou shalt 
(those things being used which belong to this Star) 
come under its peculiar influence, as wood is fit 
to receive flame by reason of sulphur, pitch and oil. 
Nevertheless, when thou dost do any one species 
of things, or individual, rightly apply many things 
(which are things of the same subject, scattered, 
amongst themselves, conformable to the same Idea 
and Star), presently, by this matter so opportunely 
fitted, a singular gift is infused by the Idea, by 
means of the Soul of the World. I say " oppor- 
tunely fitted," viz., under a harmony, like to the 
harmony which did infuse a certain virtue into the 
matter. For although things have some virtues, 
such as we speak of, yet those virtues do so lie hid 
that there is seldom any effect produced by them. 
But, as in a grain of mustard-seed, bruised, the 
sharpness which lay hid is stirred up; and as the 
heat of the fire doth make letters apparent to the 
sight which before could not be read, being writ 
with the juice of an onion, or with milk ; and as let- 
ters wrote upon a stone with the fat of a goat, and 
altogether unperceived, when the stone is put into 

* "Mr. Morley, on page 138 of his work, gives "successively, line under 
line, the divine letters of Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Venus, Mercury, the Sun, 
and' the Moon," which may be compared with the figures made from the 
1651 edition: 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 119 

vinegar appear and shew themselves ; and as a blow 
with a stick stirs up the madness of a dog which 
before lay asleep— so doth the Celestial Harmony- 
disclose virtues lying in the water ; stirs them up, 
strengthened them, and makes them manifest ; and 
as I may so say, produceth that into Act which be- 
fore was only in Power, when things are rightly 
exposed to it in a Celestial Season. As for example : If 
thou dost desire to attract virtue from the Sun, and 
to seek those things that are Solary, amongst vege- 
tables, plants, metals, stones, and animals, those 
things are to be used and taken chiefly which in a 
Solary order are higher. For these are more avail- 
able. So thou shalt draw a singular gift from the 
Sun, through the beams thereof, being seasonably 
received together, and through the Spirit of the 
World. 



CHAPTEE XXXV. 

Of the Mixtions of Natural Things, One With 
Another, and Their Benefit. 

It is most evident that in the inferior nature all 
the powers of superior bodies are not found com- 
prehended in any one thing, but are dispersed 
through many kinds of things amongst us ; as there 
are many Solary things, whereof every one doth not 
contain all the virtues of the Sun; but some have 
some properties from the Sun, and others other- 
some. Wherefore, it is sometimes necessary that 
there be mixtions in operations, that if a hundred 
or a thousand virtues of the Sun were dispersed 
through so many plants, animals, and the like, we 
may gather all these together, and bring them into 
one form, in which we shall see all the said virtues, 
being united, contained. Now, there is a twofold 
virtue in commixtion; one, viz., which was first 



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120 THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 

planted in its parts, and is celestial; the other is 
obtained by a certain and artificial mixtion of things, 
mixt amongst themselves, and of the mixtions of 
them according to certain proportions, snch as agree 
with the heaven, under a certain constellation. And 
this virtne descends by a certain likeness and apt- 
ness that is in things, amongst themselves, towards 
their superiors, and just as much as the following 
things do by degrees correspond with them that go 
before, where the patient is fitly applied to its supe- 
rior agent. So from a certain composition of herbs, 
vapors, and such like, made according to the prin- 
ciples of natural philosophy and astronomy, there 
results a certain common form, endowed with many 
gifts of the Stars, as, in the honey of bees, that 
which is gathered out of the juice of innumerable 
flowers and brought into one form, contains the 
virtue of all, by a kind of divine and admirable art 
of the bees. Yet this is not to be less wondered at, 
which Eudoxus Giudius reports, of an artificial kind 
of honey which a certain Nation of Giants in Lybia 
knew how to make out of flowers, and that very good 
and not far inferior to that of the bees. For every 
mixtion, which consists of many several things, is 
then most perfect when it is so firmly compacted in 
all parts that it becomes one, is every where firm 
to itself, and can hardly be dissipated — as we some- 
times see stones and divers bodies to be, by a cer- 
tain natural power, so conglutinated and united that 
they seem to be wholly one thing; as we see two 
trees, by grafting, to become one ; also oysters with 
stones, by a certain occult virtue of Nature; and 
there have been seen some animals which have been 
turned into stones, and so united with the substance 
of the stone that they seem to make one body, and 
that also homogeneous; so the tree ebony is one 
while wood and another while stone. When, there- 
fore, any one makes a mixtion of many matters 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 121 

tinder the celestial influences, then the variety of 
celestial actions on the one hand, and of natural 
powers on the other hand, being joined together, 
doth indeed cause wonderful things — by ointments, 
by collyries, by fumes, and such like — which are 
read of in the books of Chiramis, Archyta, Democ- 
ritus, and Hermes, who is named Alchorat, and 
many others. 



CHAPTER XXXVI. 

Of the Union of Mixed Things, and the Introduc- 
tion of a Mobe Noble Fobm and the Senses of 
Life. 

Moreover, we must know, that by how much the 
more noble the form of anything is, by so much the 
more prone and apt it is to receive, and powerful 
to act. Then the virtues of things do then become 
wonderful, viz., when they are put to matters that 
are mixed, and prepared in fit seasons, to make them 
alive, by procuring life for them from the Stars, as 
also a sensible Soul as a more noble form. For 
there is so great a power in prepared matters, which, 
we see, do then receive life when a perfect mixtion 
of qualities seems to break the former contrariety. 
For so much the more perfect life things receive, 
shews by how much their temper is more remote 
from contrariety. 

Now, the Heaven, as a prevalent cause, doth (from 
the beginning of every thing to be generated by the 
due concoction and perfect digestion of the matter), 
together with life, bestow celestial influences and 
wonderful gifts, according to the Capacity that is in 
that Life and sensible Soul to receive more noble 
and sublime virtues. For the Celestial Virtue doth 
otherwise lie asleep, as sulphur kept from the flame, 



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122 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

but in Living Bodies it doth always burn, as kindled 
sulphur ; and then by its vapor, like the lighted sul- 
phur, it fills all the places that are next to it. 

So certain wonderful works are wrought, such as 
are read of in the book of Nemith, which is titled 
a Book of the Laws of Pluto, because such kind of 
monstrous generations are not produced according 
to the Laws of Nature. For we know that of worms 
are generated gnats; of a horse, wasps; of a calf 
or ox, bees ; of a crab, his legs being taken off and 
, he buried in the ground, a scorpion ; of a duck, dried 
into powder and j>ut into hot water, are generated 
frogs; but if the duck be baked in a pie, and cut 
into pieces, and then put into a moist place under 
the ground, toads are generated of it. Of the herb 
garden basil, bruised betwixt two stones, are gener- 
ated scorpions; and of the hairs of a catameniel 
person, buried under compost, are bred serpents; 
and the hair of a horse's tail, put into # water, re- 
ceiveth life and is turned into a pernicious worm. 
And there is &n art wherewith, by a hen sitting upon 
eggs, may be generated a form like to a man (which 
I have seen and know how to make), which magi- 
cians say hath in it wonderful virtues ; and this they 
call the true mandrake. You must, therefore, know 
which and what kind of matters are either of Nature 
or Art, begun or perfected, or compounded of more 
things, and what celestial influences they are able 
to receive. For a congruity of natural things is 
sufficient for the receiving of influence from those 
celestial; because when nothing doth hinder the 
Celestials to send forth their lights upon Inferiors, 
they suffer no matter to be destitute of their vir- 
tue. Wherefore, as much matter as is perfect and 
pure, is not unfit to receive the celestial influence. 
For that is the binding and continuity of the matter 
to the Soul of the World, which doth so daily flow 
in upon things natural, and all things which Nature 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 123 

hath prepared, that it is impossible that a prepared 
matter should not receive life, or a more noble form. 



CHAPTER XXXVII. 

How, By Some Certain Natural and Artificial 
Preparations, We May Attract Certain Celes- 
tial and Vital Gifts. 

Platonists, together with Hermes, say, and Jar- 
chus Brachmanus and the Mecubals of the Hebrews 
confess, that all sublunary things are subject to gen- 
eration and corruption, and that also there are the 
same things in the Celestial World, but after a celes- 
tial manner, as also in the Intellectual World, but 
in a far more perfect and better fashion and man- 
ner, and in the most perfect manner of all in the 
Exemplary. And, after this course, that every in- 
ferior thing should, in its kind, answer its superior 
thing, and through this the Supreme Itself, and re- 
ceive from heaven that celestial power they call the 
quintessence, or the Spirit of the World, or the 
Middle Nature; and from the Intellectual World a 
spiritual and enlivening virtue, transcending all qual- 
ities whatsoever; and, lastly, from the Exemplary, 
or original, World, through the mediation of the 
other, according to their degree receive the original 
power of the whole perfection. Hence, every thing 
may be aptly reduced from these Inferiors to the 
Stars, from the Stars to their Intelligences, and 
from thence to the First Cause itself— from the 
series and order whereof all Magic and all Occult 
Philosophy flows: For every day some natural 
thing is drawn by art, and some divine thing is 
drawn by Nature, which, the Egyptians, seeing, 
called Nature a Magicianess (i. e.), the very Magical 



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124 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

power itself, in the attracting of like by like, and of 
suitable things by suitable. ^ 

Now, such kind of attraction, by the mutual cor- 
respondency of things amongst themselves, of supe- 
riors with inferiors, the Grecians called sympathies. 
So the earth agrees with cold water, the water with 
moist air, the air with fire, the fire with the heaven 
in water; neither is fire mixed with water, but by 
air; nor the air with the earth, \$xt by water. So 
neither is the soul united to the body, but by the 
spirit; nor the understanding to the spirit, but by 
the soul. So we see that when Nature hath framed 
the body of an infant, by this very preparative she 
presently f etcheth its spirit from the Universe. This 
spirit is its instrument to obtain of God its under- 
standing and mind in its soul and body, as in wood 
the dryness is fitted to receive oil, and the oil, being 
imbibed, is food for the fire, the fire is the vehicle 
of light. By these examples you see how by some 
certain natural and artificial^ preparations we are 
in a capacity to receive certain celestial gifts from 
above. For stones and metals have a correspond- 
ency with herbs, herbs with animals, animals with 
the heavens, the heavens with Intelligences, and they 
with divine properties and attributes and with God 
himself, after whose image and likeness all things 
are created. 

Now, the first image of God is the world ; of the 
world, man ; of man, beasts ; of beasts, the zeophy- 
ton or zoophyte (i. e.), half animal and half plant; 
of the zeophyton, plants ; of plants, metals ; and of 
metals, stones. And, again, in things spiritual, the 
plant agrees with a brute in vegetation, a brute with 
a man in sense, man with an angel in understanding, 
and an angel with God in immortality. Divinity is 
annexed to the mind, the mind to the intellect, the in- 
tellect to the intention, the intention to the imagina- 
tion, the imagination to the senses, and the senses, 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 125 

at last, to things. For this is the band and continu- 
ity of Nature, that all superior virtue doth flow 
through every inferior with a long and continued 
series, dispersing its rays even to the very last 
things ; and inferiors, through their superiors, come 
to the very Supreme of all. For so inferiors are 
successively joined to their superiors, that there pro- 
ceeds an influence from their head, the First Cause, 
as a certain string stretched out to the lowermost 
things of all ; of which string, if one end be touched 
the whole doth presently shake, and such a touch 
doth sound to the other end ; and at the motion of an 
inferior the superior also is moved, to which the 
other doth answer, as strings in a lute well tuned. 



CHAPTER XXXVIII. 

How We May Draw Not Only Celestial and Vital, 
but Also Certain Intellectual and Divine Gifts 
From AlBove. 

Magicians teach that celestial gifts may, through 
inferiors being conformable to superiors, be drawn 
down by opportune influences of the heaven ; and so, 
also, by these celestial gifts, the celestial angels (as 
they are servants of the stars) may be procured and 
conveyed to us. Iamblichus, Proclus and Synesius, 
with the whole school of Platonists, confirm that not 
only celestial and vital but also certain intellectual, 
angelical and divine gifts may be received from 
above by some certain matters having a natural 
power of divinity (i. e.), which have a natural cor- 
respondency with the superiors, being rightly re- 
ceived and opportunely gathered together according 
to the rules of natural philosophy and astronomy. 
And Mercurius Trismegistus writes, that an Image, 
rightly made of certain proper things, appropriated 



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126 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

to any one certain angel will presently be animated 
by that angel. Of the same, also, Austin (St. Angus- 
tine) makes mention in his eighth book, De Civitate 
Dei (the City of God). For this is the harmony of 
the world, that things supercelestial be drawn down 
by the celestial, and the supernatural by those natu- 
ral, because there is One Operative Virtue that is 
diffused through all kinds of things ; by which vir- 
tue, indeed, as manifest things are produced out of 
occult causes, so a magician doth make use of things 
manifest to draw forth things that are occult, viz., 
through the rays of the Stars, through fumes, lights, 
sounds, and natural things which are agreeable to 
those celestial, in which, aside from their corporeal 
qualities, there is, also, a kind of reason, sense and 
harmony, and incorporeal and divine measures and 
orders. 

So we read that the ancients were wont often to 
receive some divine and wonderful thing by certain 
natural things: So the stone that is bred in the 
apple of the eye of a civet cat, held under the tongue 
of a man, is said to make him to divine or prophesy ; 
the same is selenite, the moon-stone, reported to do. 
So they say that the Images of Gods may be called 
up by the stone called anchitis ; # and that the ghosts 
of the dead may be, being called up, kept up by the 
stone synochitis. The like doth the herb aglauphotis 
do, which is also called marmorites, growing upon 
the marbles of Arabia, as saith Pliny, and the which 
magicians use. Also there is an herb called rhean- 
gelida with which magicians drinking of can proph- 
esy. Moreover, there are some herb& by which the 
dead are raised to life; whence Xanthus the his- 
torian tells that with a certain herb called balus, a 
young dragon being killed, was made alive again; 

* This was, in all probability, some mineral that resembled Dr. Dee's 
celebrated stone, which was cannel-coal, a black mineral coal sufficiently 
hard to be cut and polished and used by him as a Magic Mirror. 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 127 

also, that by the same herb a certain man of Tillnra, 
whom a dragon killed, was restored to life; and 
Juba reports, that in Arabia a certain man was by 
a certain herb restored to life. But whether or no 
any such things can be done, indeed, upon man by 
the virtue of herbs or any other natural thing, we 
shall discourse in the following chapter. Now, it 
is certain and manifest, that such things can be 
done upon other animals. So if flies, that are 
drowned, be put into warm ashes they revive. And 
bees, being drowned, do in like matter recover life 
in the juice of the herb catnip ; and eels, being dead 
for want of water, if with their whole bodies they 
be put under mud in vinegar and the blood of a vul- 
ture being put to them, will all of them, in a few 
days, recover life. They say that if the fish echeneis 
be cut into pieces and cast into the sea, the parts 
will within a little time come together and live. Also 
we know that the pelican doth restore her young to 
life, being killed, with her own blood. 



CHAPTER XXXIX. 

That We May, By Some Certain Matters of the 
World, Stir Up the Gods of the World and 
Their Ministering Spirits. 

No man is ignorant that evil spirits, by evil and 
profane arts, may be raised up as Psellus saith sor- 
cerers are wont to do, whom most detestable and 
abominable filthiness did follow and accompany, 
such as were in times past in the sacrifices of Pri- 
apus, and in the worship of the idol which was called 
Panor, to whom they did sacrifice with shameful 
nakedness. Neither to these is that unlike (if it be 
true and not a fable) which is read concerning the 
detestable heresy of old churchmen, and like to these 



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128 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

are manifest in witches and mischievous women, 
which wickednesses the foolish dotage of women is 
subject to fall into. By these, and such as these, 
evil spirits are raised. As a wicked spirit spake 
once to John of one Cynops, a sorcerer: "All the 
power," saith he, "of Satan dwells there; and he 
is entered into a confederacy with all the princi- 
palities together, and likewise we with him; and 
Cynops obeys us and we, again, obey him." Again, 
on the contrary side, no man is ignorant that super- 
celestial angels or spirits may be gained by us 
through good works, a pure mind, secret prayers, 
devout humiliation, and the like. Let no man, there- 
fore, doubt that in like manner by some certain mat- 
ters of the world, the gods of the world may be 
raised by us, or, at least, the ministering spirits, 
or servants of these gods, and, as Mercurius saith, 
the airy spirits (not supercelestial, but less higher). 
So we read that the ancient priests made statues 
and images, foretelling things to come, and infused 
into them the Spirits of the Stars, which were not 
kept there by constraint in some certain matters, 
but rejoiced in them, viz., as acknowledging such 
kinds of matter to be suitable to them, they do al- 
ways and willingly abide in them, and speak and do 
wonderful things by them; no otherwise than evil 
spirits are wont to do when they possess men's 
bodies. 



CHAPTER XL. 

Of Bindings; What Sort They Are Of, and in 
What Ways They Are Wont to Be Done. 

We have spoken concerning the virtues and won- 
derful efficacy of natural things. It remains now 
that we understand a thing of great wonderment — 
and it is a binding of men into love or hatred, sick- 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 129 

ness or health, or such like. Also the binding of 
thieves and robbers, that they cannot steal in any- 
place; the binding of merchants, that they cannot 
buy or sell in any place; the binding of an army, 
that they cannot pass over any bound; the binding 
of ships, that no winds, though never so strong, 
shall be able to carry them out of the haven. Also 
the binding of a mill, that it can by no force what- 
soever be turned round; the binding of a cistern 
or fountain, that the water cannot be drawn up out 
of them; the binding of the ground, that it cannot 
bring forth fruit ; the binding of any place, that noth- 
ing can be built upon it; the binding of fire, that 
though it be never so strong, can burn no combustible 
thing that is put to it. Also the bindings of light- 
nings and tempests, that they shall do no hurt ; the 
binding of dogs, that they cannot bark ; the binding 
of birds and wild beasts, that they shall not be able 
to fly or run away. And such like as these, which 
are scarce credible, yet often known by experience. 
Now, there are such kind of bindings as these made 
by sorceries, collyries, unguents, and love potions; 
by binding to or hanging up of things ; by rings, by 
charms, by strong imaginations and passions, by 
images and characters, by enchantments and impre- 
cations, by lights, by numbers, by, sounds, by words, 
and names, invocations, and sacrifices ; by swearing, 
conjuring, consecrations, devotions, and by divers 
superstitions, and observations, and such like. 



CHAPTER XLI. 

Or SOECEKIES, AND THEIB PoWEE. 

The force of sorceries is reported to be so great 
that they are believed to be able to subvert, con- 
sume and change all inferior things, according to 
Virgil's muse: 



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130 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 



Mceris for me these herbs in Pontus chose, 
And curious drugs, for there great plenty grows; 
I, many times, with these have Mceris spied 
Chang M to a wolfe, and in the woods to hide; 
From Sepulchres would souls departed charm. 
And Corn bear standing from another's Farm. 

Also, in another place, concerning the companions 
of Ulysses, whom 

The cruel Goddess, Circe, there invests 

With fierce aspects, and chang'd to savage beasts. 

And, a little after, 

When love from Picus, Cerce could not gaine, 
Him, with her charming- wand, and hellish bane, 
Chang'd to a bird, and spots his speckled wings 
With sundry colors 

Now, there are some kinds of these sorceries men- 
tioned by Lucan concerning that sorceress, Thessala, 
calling up ghosts, where he saith : 

Here all Nature's products unfortunate: 
Foam of mad Dogs, which waters fear and hate; 
Guts of the Lynx; Hyena's, knot imbred; 
The marrow of a Hart with Serpents fed 
Were not wanting; no, nor the sea Lamprey, 
Which stops the ships; nor yet the Dragon's eye. 

And such as Apuleius tells of concerning Pam- 
phila, that sorceress, endeavoring to procure love; 
to whom Fotis, a certain maid, brought the hairs 
of a goat (cut off from a bag or bottle made with 
the skin thereof) instead of Baeotius* (a young man) 
hair. Now she, saith Apuleius, being out of her wits 
for the young man, goeth up to the tiled roof and, 
in the upper part thereof, makes a great hole open 
to all the oriental and other aspects, and most fit 
for these her arts, and there privately worships; 
having before furnished her mournful house with 
suitable furniture, with all kinds of spices, with 
plates of iron with strange words engraven upon 
them, with parts of sterns of ships that were cast 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 131 

away and much lamented, and with divers members 
of buried carcasses cast abroad — here noses and 
fingers, there the fleshy nails of those that were 
hanged, and, in another place, the blood of them that 
were murdered, and their skulls, mangled with the 
teeth of wild beasts. Then she offers sacrifices 
(their enchanted entrails lying panting), and 
sprinkles them with divers kinds of liquors ; some- 
times with fountain water, sometimes with cow's 
milk, sometimes with mountain honey, and mead. 
Then she ties those hairs into knots, and lays them 
on the fire, with divers odors, to be burnt. Then 
presently, with an irresistible power of magic, and 
blind force of the gods, the bodies of those whose 
hairs did smoke, and crash, did assume the spirit 
of a man, and feel, and hear, and walk, and come 
whither the stink of their hair led them, and, in- 
stead of Baeotius, the young man, come skipping and 
leaping with joy and love into the house. Austin 
also reports that he heard of some women sorcer- 
esses, that were so well versed in these kind of arts, 
that, by giving cheese to men, they would presently 
turn them into working cattle and, the work being 
done, restored them into men again. 



CHAPTER XLII. 

Of the Wonderful Virtues of Some Kinds of 
Sorceries. 

Now I will shew you what some of the Sorceries 
are, that by the example of these there may be a way 
opened for the consideration of the whole subject 
of them. Of these, therefore, the first is the cata- 
menia, which, how much power it hath in sorcery, we 
will now consider; for, as they say, if it comes over 
new wine it makes it sour, and if it doth but touch 



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132 THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 

the vine, it spoils it forever ; and, by its very touch, 
it makes all plants and trees barren, and they that 
be newly set to die ; it burns up all the herbs in the 
garden and makes fruit fall off from the trees; it 
darkens the brightness of a looking-glass, dulls the 
edges of knives and razors, and dims the beauty of 
ivory. It makes iron presently rusty; it makes 
brass rust and smell very strong; it makes dogs 
mad if they do but taste of it, and if they, being 
thus mad, shall bite any one, that wound is incurable. 
It kills whole hives of bees, and drives them from the 
hives that are but touched with it. It makes linen 
black that is boiled with it; it makes mares cast 
their foal if they do but touch it, and makes asses 
barren as long as they eat of the corn that hath 
been touched with it. The ashes of catamenious 
clothes, if they be cast upon purple garments that 
are to be washed, change the color of them, and 
takes away colors from flowers. They say that it 
drives away tertian and quartan agues if it be put 
into the wool of a black ram, and tied up in a silver 
bracelet; as, also, if the soles of the patients feet 
be anointed therewith, and especially if it be done 
by the woman herself, the patient not knowing of it. 
Moreover, it cures the fits of the falling sickness; 
but most especially it cures them that are afraid of 
water, or drink after they are bitten with a mad dog, 
if only a catamenious cloth be put under the cup. 
Besides, they report, that if catamenious persons 
shall walk, being nude, about the standing corn, they 
make all cankers, worms, beetles, flies, and all hurt- 
ful things, to fall off from the corn ; but they must 
take heed that they do it before sun-rising, or else 
they will make the corn to wither. Also, they say, 
they are able to expel hail, tempests, and lightnings, 
more of which Pliny makes mention of. Know this, 
that they are a greater poison if they happen in 
the decrease of the Moon, and yet much greater if 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 133 

they happen betwixt the decrease and change of the 
Moon ; but if they happen in the eclipse of the Moon 
or the Sun, they are an incurable poison. But they 
are of the greatest force of all when they happen 
in the first early years, even in the years of vir- 
ginity, for if they do but touch the posts of the house 
there can no mischief take effect in it. Also, they 
say, that the threads of any garment touched there- 
with cannot be burnt, and if they be cast into the 
fire it will spread no further. Also, it is said, that 
the root of peony, being given with castor oil 
smeared over, using the catamenious cloth, cureth 
the falling sickness. Moreover, if the stomach of 
a hart be burnt or roasted, and to it be put a per- 
fuming made with a catamenious cloth, it will make 
cross-bows useless for the killing of any game. The 
hairs of a catamenious person, put under compost, 
breed serpents; and, if they be burnt, will drive 
away serpents with their smell. So great a poison- 
ous force is in them that they are poison to poison- 
ous creatures. 

There is, also, hippomanes, which amongst sor- 
ceries is not the least taken notice of, and it is a 
little venemous piece of flesh as big as a fig, and 
black, which is in the forehead of a colt newly 
foaled, which unless the mare herself presently eat, 
she will never after love her foal or let it suckle. 
And for this cause, they say, there is a most wonder- 
ful power in it to procure love, if it be powdered and 
drank in a cup with the blood of him that is in love. 
There is another sorcery of the same name, hippo- 
manes, a venemous humor of the mare in her mat- 
ing season, of which Virgil makes mention when he 
sings : 

Hence comes that poison which the Shepherds call 
Hippomanes, and from the Mares doth fall, 
The woeful bane which cruel stepdames use, 
And with a charme 'mongst powerful drugs infuse. 



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134 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATUBAL MAGIC 
Of this doth Juvenal, the satirist, make mention: 

Hippomanes, poysons that boyled are, and charmes 
Are given to Sons in law, with such like harmes. 

Apollonius, also, in his Argonautica, makes men- 
tion of the herb of Prometheus, which he saith grow- 
eth from corrupt blood dropping upon the earth, 
whilst the vulture was gnawing upon the liver of 
Prometheus upon the hill Caucasus. The flower of 
this herb, he saith, is like saffron, having a double 
stalk hanging out, one further than the other the 
length of a cubit ; the root under the earth, as flesh 
newly cut, sends forth a blackish juice as it were 
of a beech, with which, saith he^ if any one shall, 
after he hath performed his devotion to Proserpina, 
smear over his body, he cannot be hurt either with 
sword or fire. Also Saxo Gramaticus writes, that 
there was a certain man, called Froton, who had a 
garment which, when he had put on, was such he 
could not be hurt with the point or edge of any 
weapon. The civet cat also abounds with sorcer- 
ies, for, as Pliny reports, the posts of a door being 
touched with her blood, the arts of jugglers and sor- 
cerers are so invalid that the gods cannot be called 
up, and will by no means be persuaded to talk with 
them. Also, that they are anointed with the ashes 
of the ankle-bone of her left foot, being decocted 
with the blood of a weasel, shall become odious to 
all. The same, also, is done with the eye, being, 
decocted. Also, it is said, that the straight-gut is 
administered against the injustice and corruption 
of princes and great men in power, and for success 
of petitions, and to conduce to the ending of suits 
and controversies, if any one hath never so little 
of it about him; and that if it be hound unto the 
left arm, it is such a perfect charm that if any man 
do but look upon a woman, it will make her follow 
him presently; and that the skin of the civet cat's 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 135 

forehead doth withstand bewitchings. They say, 
also, that the blood of a basilisk, which they call 
the blood of Saturn, hath such great force in sorcery 
that it procures for him that carries it about him 
good success of his petitions from great men in 
power, and of his prayers from God, and also rem- 
edies of diseases, and grant of any privilege. They 
say, also, that a tyke, if it be pulled out of the left 
ear of a dog, and if be it is altogether black, hath 
great virtue in the prognosticating of life, for if the 
sick party shall answer him that brought it in, and 
who, standing at his feet, shall ask of him concerning 
his disease, there is certain hope of life; and that 
he shall die if he make no answer. 

They say, also, that a stone that is bit with a mad 
dog hath power to cause discord, if it be put in 
drink, and that he shall not be barked at by dogs 
that puts the tongue of a dog in his shoe under his 
great toe, especially if the herb of the same name, 
viz., hound's-tongue, be joined with it. And that a 
membrane of the secondines of a dog doth the same ; 
and that dogs will shun him that hath a dog's heart. 
And Pliny reports that there is a red toad that lives 
in briers and brambles, and is full of sorceries and 
doth wonderful things, for the little bone which is 
in his left side, being cast into cold water, makes 
it presently very hot; by which also the rage of 
dogs is restrained, and their love is procured if it 
be put in their drink ; and, if it be bound to any one, 
it stirreth up desire. On the contrary, the little bone 
which is on the right side makes hot water cold, 
and that it can never be hot again unless that be 
taken out; also it is said to cure quartans if it be 
bound to the sick in a snake's skin, as also all other 
fevers, and to restrain love and desire. And that 
the spleen and heart is an effectual remedy against 
the poisons of the said toad. Thus much Pliny 
writes. Also, it is said, that the sword with which 



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136 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

a man is slain hath wonderful power in sorceries. 
For if the snaffle of the bridle, or spars, be made of 
it, they say that with these any horse, though never 
so wild, may be tamed and gentled; and that if a 
horse should be shod with shoes made of it, he would 
be most swift and fleet, and never, though never so 
hard rode, tire. But yet they will that some certain 
characters and names should be written upon it. 
They say, also, if any man shall dip^a sword, where- 
with men were beheaded, in wine, and the sick drink 
thereof, he shall be cured of his quartan. They 
say, also, that a cup of liquor being made with the 
brains of a bear, and drank out of the skull, shall 
make him that drinks it be as fierce and as raging 
as a bear, and think himself to be changed into a 
bear, and judge all things he sees to be bears, and 
so to continue in that madness until the force of that 
draught shall be dissolved, no other distemper be- 
ing all this while perceived in him. 



CHAPTER XLni. 

Of Pebftjmes or Suffumigations; Their Manner 
and Power. 

Some suffumigations, also, or perfumings, that are 
proper to the Stars, are of great force for the op- 
portune receiving of celestial gifts under the rays 
of the Stars, in as much as they do strongly work 
upon the air and breath. For our breath is very 
much changed by such kind of vapors, if both va- 
pors be of another like. The air, also, being through 
the said vapors easily moved, or affected with the 
qualities of inferiors or those celestial, daily; and, 
quickly penetrating our breast and vitals, doth won- 
derfully reduce us to the like qualities. Wherefore, 
suffumigations are wont to be used by them that 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 137 

are about to soothsay or predict for to affect, their 
fancy or conception; which suffumigations, indeed, 
being duly appropriated to any certain deities, do 
fit us to receive divine inspiration. So they say that 
fumes made with linseed, flea-bane seed, roots of 
violets, and parsley, doth make one to foresee things 
to come and doth conduce to prophesying. Let no 
man wonder how great things suffumigations can 
do in the air, especially when he shall with Por- 
phyrius consider that by certain vapors, exhaling 
from proper suffumigations, airy spirits are pres- 
ently raised, as also thunderings and lightnings, and 
such like things. As the liver of a chameleon, being 
burnt on top of the house, doth, as is manifest, raise 
showers and lightnings. In like manner the head 
and throat of the chameleon, if they be burnt with 
oaken wood, cause storms and lightnings. There 
are also suffumigations under opportune influences 
of the Stars that make the images of spirits forth- 
with appear in the air or elsewhere. So, they say, 
that if of coriander, smallage, henbane, and hemlock, 
be made a fume, that spirits will presently come to- 
gether; hence they are called spirits herbs. Also, 
it is said, that fume made of the root of the reedy 
herb sagapen, with the juice of hemlock and hen- 
bane, and the herb tapsus barbatus, red sanders, and 
black poppy, makes spirits and strange shapes ap- 
pear; and if smallage be added to them, the fume 
chaseth away spirits from any place and destroys 
their visions. In like manner, a fume made of cala- 
mint, peony, mints, and palma christi, drives away 
all evil spirits and vain imaginations. 

Moreover, it is said, that by certain fumes certain 
animals are gathered together and also put to flight, 
as Pliny mentions concerning the stone liparis, that 
with the fume thereof all beasts are called out. So 
the bones in the upper part of the throat of a hart, 
being burnt, gather all the serpents together; but 



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138 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

the horn of the hart, being burnt, doth with its fume 
chase them all away. The same doth a fume of the 
feathers of peacocks. Also, the lungs of an ass, be- 
ing burnt, puts all poisonous things to flight; the 
fume of the burnt hoof of a horse drives away mice ; 
the same doth the hoof of a mule ; with which, also, 
if it be the hoof of the left foot, flies are driven away. 
And, they say, if a house or any place be smoked 
with the gall of a cuttle-fish, made into a confec- 
tion with red storax, roses, and lignum-aloes, or 
lignaloes, and if then there be some sea-water, or 
blood, cast into that place, the whole house will seem 
to be full of water or blood; and if some earth of 
plowed ground be cast there, the earth will seem to 
quake. Now, such kinds of vapors, we must con- 
ceive, do infect any body and infuse virtue into it, 
which doth continue long, even as any contagious 
or poisonous vapor of the pestilence, being kept for 
two years in the wall of a house infects the inhab- 
itants, and as the contagion of pestilence, or lep- 
rosy, lying hid in a garment, doth long after in- 
fect him that wears it. Therefore, were certain suf- 
fumigations used to affect images, rings, and such 
like instruments of magic and hidden treasures, and, 
as Porphyrius saith, very effectually. So, they say, 
if any one shall hide gold or silver, or any other 
precious thing, the Moon being in conjunction with 
the Sun, and shall fume the hiding place with cori- 
ander, saffron, henbane, smallage, and black poppy, 
of each alike quantity, bruised together, and tem- 
pered with the juice of hemlock, that which is so hid 
shall never be found or taken away; and that spirits 
shall continually keep it, and if any one shall en- 
deavor to take it away he shall be hurt by them and 
shall fall into a frenzy. 

And Hermes saith that there is nothing like the 
fume of spermaceti for the raising of spirits. Where- 
fore, if a fume be made of that and lignum-aloes, 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 139 

red storax, pepper-wort, musk, and saffron, all tem- 
pered together, with the blood of a lapwing, it will 
quickly gather airy spirits together, and if it be used 
about the graves of the dead, it gathers together 
spirits and the ghosts of the dead. 

So, as often as we direct any work to the Sun, we 
must make suffumigations with Solary things, and 
if to the Moon, with Lunary things, and so of the 
rest. And we must know that as there is a contra- 
riety and enmity in stars and spirits, so also in suf- 
fumigations unto the same. So there is also a con- 
trariety betwixt lignum aloes and sulphur, frank- 
incense, and quicksilver; therefore, spirits that are 
raised by the fume of lignum aloes are allayed by 
the burning of sulphur. As Proclus gives an ex- 
ample of a spirit, which was wont to appear in the 
form of a lion, but, by the setting of a cock before it, 
vanished away because there is a contrariety be- 
twixt a cock and a lion, and so the like considera- 
tion and practice is to be observed concerning such 
like things. 



CHAPTER XL1Y. 

The Composition of Some Fumes Appropriated to 
the Planets. 

We make a suffumigation for the Sun in this man- 
ner, viz., of saffron, ambergris, musk, lignum aloes, 
lignum balsam, the fruit of the laurel, cloves, myrrh, 
and frankincense; all which being bruised and 
mixt in such a proportion as may make a sweet odor, 
must be incorporated with the brain of an eagle, or 
the blood of a white cock, after the manner of pills 
or troches. 

For the Moon we make a suffumigation of the head 
of a dried frog, the eyes of a bull, the seed of white 



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140 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATUBAL MAGIC 

poppy, frankincense, and camphor; which must be 
incorporated with catamenia, or the blood of a goose. 

For Saturn, take black poppy seed, henbane, root 
of mandrake, the loadstone, and myrrh, and make 
them up with the brain of a cat or the blood of a bat. 

For Jupiter, take the seed of ash, lignum aloes, 
storax, the gum benjamin or benzoin, the lazuli stone, 
and the tops of the feathers of a peacock ; and incor- 
porate them with the blood of a stork, or a swallow, 
or the brain of a hart. 

For Mars, take euphorbium, bedellium, gum ammo- 
niac, the roots of both hellebores, the loadstones, and 
a little sulphur; and incorporate them all with the 
brain of a hart, the blood of a man and the blood of a 
black cat. 

For Venus, take musk, ambergris, lignum aloes, 
red roses and red coral, and make them up with the 
brain of sparrows and the blood of pigeons. 

For Mercury, take mastic, frankincense, cloves, 
and the herb cinque-foil, and the stone achate, and 
incorporate them all with the brain of a fox or wea- 
sel, and the blood of a magpie. 

Besides, to Saturn are appropriated for fumes all 
odoriferous roots, as pepper-wort root, etc., and the 
frankincense tree; to Jupiter, odoriferous fruits, as 
nutmegs and cloves ; to Mars, all odoriferous wood, 
as sanders, cypress, lignum balsam and lignum aloes ; 
to the Sun, all gums, frankincense, mastic, benjamin, 
storax, ladanum, ambergris and musk; to Venus, 
sweet flowers, as roses, violets, saffron, and such 
like ; to Mercury, all the peels of wood and fruit, as 
cinnamon, lignum cassia, mace, citron or lemon peel, 
and bayberries, and whatsoever seeds are odorif- 
erous ; to the Moon, the leaves of all vegetables, as 
the leaf indum, and the leaves of the myrtle and bay- 
tree. 

Know, also, that according to the opinion of the 
magicians, in every good matter, as love, good will, 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATUEAL MAGIC 141 

and the like, there must be a good fume, odoriferous 
and precious; and in every evil matter, as hatred, 
anger, misery, and the like, there must be a stinking 
fume, that is of no worth. 

The twelve Signs, also, of the Zodiac have their 
proper fumes, as Aries hath myrrh ; Taurus, pepper- 
wort ; Gemini, mastic ; Cancer, camphor ; Leo, frank- 
incense; Virgo, sanders; Libra, galbanum; Scorpio, 
opopanax; Sagittarius, lignum aloes; Capricornus, 
benjamin; Aquarius, euphorium; Pisces, red storax. 
But Hermes describes the most powerful fume to be 
that which is compounded of the Seven Aromatics, 
according to the powers of the Seven Planets — for it 
receives from Saturn, pepper- wort; from Jupiter, 
nutmeg; from Mars, lignum aloes; from the Sun, 
mastic; from Venus, saffron; from Mercury, cinna- 
mon ; and from the Moon, the myrtle. 



CHAPTER XLV. 

Of Collyries, Unctions, Love-Medicines, and Their 

Virtues. 

Moreover, collyries and unguents, conveying the 
virtues of things natural and celestial to our spirit, 
can multiply, transmute, transfigure, and transform 
it accordingly, as also transpose those virtues which 
are in them into it ; that so, it cannot act only upon 
its own body, but also upon that which is near it, and 
affect that by visible rays, charms, and by touching 
it with some like quality. For because our spirit is 
the subtile, pure, lucid, airy, and unctuous vapor of 
the blood, it is therefore fit to make collyries of the 
like vapors, which are more suitable to our spirit in 
substance, for then, by reason of their likeness, they 
do the more stir up, attract, and transform the spirit. 
The like virtues have certain ointments and other 



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142 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATUEAL MAGIC 

confections. Hence by the touch sometimes sickness, 
poisonings, and love is induced ; some things, as the 
hands or garments, being anointed. Also by kisses, 
some things being held in the month, love is induced ; 
as in Virgil we read that Venus prays Cupid 

That when glad Dido hugs him in her lap 
At royal feasts, crown M with the cheering grape, 
When she, embracing, shall sweet kisses give, 
Inspire hid flame, with deadly bane deceive, 
He would 

Now the sight, because it perceives more purely 
and clearly than the other senses, and fastening in us 
the marks of things more acutely and deeply, doth 
most of all and before others, agree with the phan- 
tastic spirit, as is apparent in dreams, when things 
seen do more often present themselves to us than 
things heard, or any thing coming under the other 
senses. Therefore, when collyries or eye-waters 
transform visual spirits, that spirit doth easily af- 
fect the imagination, which indeed being affected 
with divers species and forms, transmits the same 
by the spirit unto the outward sense of sight; by 
which occasion there is caused in it a perception of 
such species and forms in that manner, as if it were 
moved by external objects, that there seem to be seen 
terrible images and spirits and such like. So there 
are made collyries, making us forthwith to see the 
images of spirits in the air or elsewhere ; as I know 
how to make of the gall of a man, and the eyes of a 
black cat, and of some other things. The like is 
made also of the blood of a lapwing, of a bat, and a 
goat ; and, they say, if a smooth, shining piece of 
steel be smeared over with the juice of mug-wort, 
and made to fume, it will make invoked spirits to be 
seen in it. So, also, there are some suffumigations, or 
unctions, which make men speak in their sleep, to 
walk, and to do those things which are done by men 
that are awake; and sometimes to do those things 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATUBAL MAGIC 143 

which men that are awake cannot or dare not do. 
Some there are that make us to hear horrid or de- 
lectable sounds, and such like. And this is the cause 
why maniacal and melancholy men believe they see 
and hear those things without which their imagi- 
nation doth only fancy within ; hence they fear things 
not to be feared, and fall into wonderful and most 
false suspicions, and fly when none pursueth them; 
are also angry and contend, nobody being present, 
and fear where no fear is. Such like passions also 
can magical confections induce, by suffumigations, 
by collyries, by unguents, by potions, by poisons, by 
lamps and lights, by looking-glasses, by images, en- 
chantments, charms, sounds and music. Also by 
divers rites, observations, ceremonies, religions and 
superstitions; all whicE shall be handled in their 
places. And not only by these kind of arts are pas- 
sions, apparitions and images induced, but also 
things themselves, which are really changed and 
transfigured into divers forms, as the poet relates 
of Proteus, Periclimenus, Acheloas, and Merra, the 
daughter of Erisichthon. So, also, Circe changed 
the companions of Ulysses ; and of old, in the sacri- 
fices of Jupiter Lycaeus, the men that tasted of the 
inwards of the sacrifices were turned into wolves 
which, Pliny saith, befell a certain man called Demar- 
chus. The same opinion was Austin of, for, he saith, 
whilst he was in Italy, he heard of some women that 
by giving sorceries in cheese to travelers, turned 
them into working cattle, and when they had done 
such work as they would have them, turned them into 
men again ; and that this befell a certain priest called 
Prestantius. The Scriptures themselves testify that 
Pharao's sorceries turned their rods into serpents 
and water into blood, and did other such like things. 



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144 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

CHAPTER XLVI. 

Of Nattjkal Alligations and Suspensions. 

When the Soul of the World by its virtue doth 
make all things that are naturally generated or arti- 
ficially made to be fruitful, by infusing into them 
celestial properties for the working of some wonder- 
ful effects, then things themselves — not only when 
applied by suffumigations, or collyries, or ointments, 
or potions, or any other such like "way, but also when 
they, being conveniently wrapped up, are bound to or 
hanged about the neck, or in any other way applied, 
although by never so easy a contact— -do impress their 
virtue upon us. By these alligations, therefore, sus- 
pensions, wrappings up, applications, and contacts, 
the accidents of the body and mind are changed into 
sickness, health, boldness, fear, sadness, and joy, and 
the like. They render them that carry them gracious 
or terrible, acceptable or rejected, honored and be- 
loved or hateful and abominable. Now these kind of 
passions are conceived to be by the above said to be 
infused, and not otherwise, like what is manifest in 
the grafting of trees, where the vital virtue is sent 
and communicated from the trunk to the twig grafted 
into it by way of contact and alligation. So in the 
female palm-tree, when she comes near to the male 
her boughs bend to the male, and are bowed, which, 
the gardeners seeing, bind ropes from the male to 
the female, which becomes straight again, as if she 
had by this connection of the rope received the vir- 
tue of the male. In like manner we see that the 
cramp-fish, or torpedo, being touched afar off with 
a long pole, doth presently stupefy the hand of him 
that toucheth it. And if any shall touch the sea- 
hare with his hand or stick will presently run out of 
his wits. Also, if the fish called stella, or star-fish, 
as they sa;v, being fastened with the blood of a fox 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 145 

and a brass nail to a gate, evil medicines can do no 
hurt to any in such house. Also, it is said, that if 
a woman take a needle and beray it with dung, and 
then wrap it up in earth in which the carcass of a 
man was buried, and shall carry it about her in a 
cloth which was used at the funeral, that she shall 
be able to possess herself so long as she hath it 
about her. 

Now, by these examples, we see how, by certain 
alligations of certain things, as also suspensions, or 
by a simple contact, or the connection or continuation 
of any thread, we may be able to receive some virtues 
thereby. It is necessary that we know the certain 
rule of Alligation and Suspension, and the manner 
which the Art requires, viz., that they be done under 
a certain and suitable Constellation, and that they 
be done with wire, or silken threads, with hair, or 
sinews of certain animals. And things that are to be 
wrapped up must be done in the leaves of herbs, or 
the skins of animals, or fine cloths, and the like, ac- 
cording to the suitableness of things — as, if you 
would procure the Solary virtue of any thing, this 
being wrapped up in bay leaves, or the skin of a lion, 
hang it about thy neck with a golden thread, or a 
silken thread of a yellow color, whilst the Sun rules 
in the heaven — so thou shalt be endued with the 
Solary virtue of that thing. But if thou dost desire 
the virtue of any Saturnine thing, thou shalt in like 
manner take that thing whilst Saturn rules, and 
wrap it in the skin of an ass, or in a cloth used at a 
funeral (especially if you desire it for sadness), and 
with a black thread hang it about thy neck. In like 
manner we must conceive of the rest. 



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146 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

CHAPTER XLVII. 
Of Magical Rings and Theib Compositions. 

Rings, also, which were always much esteemed of 
by the ancients, when they are opportunely made, do 
in like manner impress their virtue upon us, in as 
much as they do affect the spirit of him that carries 
them with gladness or sadness, and render him court- 
eous or terrible, bold or fearful, amiable or hateful ; 
in as much as they do fortify us against sickness, 
poisons, enemies, evil spirits, and all manner of hurt- 
ful things, or, at least, will not suffer us to be kept 
under them. Now, the manner of making these kinds 
of Magical Rings is this, viz. ; When any Star as- 
cends fortunately, with the fortunate aspect or con- 
junction of the Moon, we must take a stone and herb 
that is under that Star, and make a ring of the metal 
that is suitable to this Star, and in it fasten the stone, 
putting the herb or root under it — not omitting the in- 
scriptions of images, names and characters, as also 
the proper suffumigations ; but we shall speak more 
of these in another place, where we shall treat of 
Images and Characters. 

So we read in Philostratus Jarchus that a wise 
prince of the Indies bestowed seven rings made after 
this manner (marked with the virtues and names of 
the seven planets) to Apollonius; of which he wore 
every day of the week one thereof, distinguishing 
them in their order according to the name of the 
days, as is set forth by astrologers, viz., Sunday, 
the ring marked with the virtues and inscribed with 
the name and seal of the Sun, that planet which 
ruleth over Sunday and from which the day taketh 
its name ; Monday, the ring of the virtues, seal and 
name of the Moon; Tuesday, that inscribed unto 
Mars; Wednesday, that unto Mercury; Thursday, 
that inscribed unto Jupiter ; Friday, that unto Venus, 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 147 

and Saturday, that unto the planet Saturn, seeing 
as Saturday is the last day of the week and hath cor- 
respondence with the last end of life, and is ruled 
by Saturn which carries the sickle of death; and, it 
is said, that Apollonius, by the benefit of these seven 
magical rings, lived above one hundred and thirty 
years, as also that he always retained the beauty and 
vigor of his youth. In like manner Moses, the law- 
giver and ruler of the Hebrews, being skilled in the 
Magic of the Egyptians, is said by Josephus to have 
made rings of love and oblivion. There was also, as 
saith Aristotle, amongst the Cireneans, a ring of 
Battus which could procure love and honor. We 
read also that Eudamus, a certain philosopher, made 
rings against the bites of serpents, bewitchings, and 
evil spirits. The same doth Josephus relate of Solo- 
mon. Also we read in Plato that Gygus, the king of 
Lydia, had a ring of wonderful and strange virtues, 
the seal of which, when he turned it toward the palm 
of his hand, rendered him invisible ; nobody could see 
him, but he could see all things ; and, by the oppor- 
tunity of which ring, he deceived the queen and slew 
the king, his master, and killed whomsoever he 
thought stood in his way; and in these villainies no 
one could see him; and, at length, by the benefit of 
this ring he became king of Lydia himself.* 

* Notwithstanding the many exaggerated accounts like this one of King 
Gygus, the editor desires to give his unqualified assent as to the occult 
properties of specially prepared Magical Rings. When a boy he got a 
copy of an old book entitled "The History and Poetry of Finger Sings/' 
which contains much curious information on the subject, and from that 
time to this he has by personal experiment, and much study in connec- 
tion with other occult arts that bear upon the matter, become confident 
that rings may be made that will insure many good things to their pos- 
sessors — warding off and curing diseases, guarding against evil transits 
and other dangerous influences, and those which will favorably influence 
one's station in life, and procure other ardently desired things and ends. 
The Masonic ring will gradually take on occult power if its owner yields 
intelligent assistance on every call, methodically performing his regular 
society duty, thereby infusing his ring with Masonic virtues. Of course, 
a properly prepared ring may seemingly fall of its specified object, but 



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148 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 



CHAPTEE XLVni. 

Op the Virtue of Places, and What Places Are 
Suitable to Every Star. 

There be wonderful virtues of places accompany- 
ing them, either from things there placed, or by the 
influences of the Stars, or in any other way. For, 
as Pliny relates of a cuckoo, in what place any one 
doth first hear him, if his right foot-print be marked 
about and that place dug up, there will no fleas be 
bred in that place where it is scattered. So they say 
that the dust of the track of a snake, being gathered 
up and scattered amongst bees, makes them return 
to their hives. So, also, that the dust in which a 
mule hath rolled himself, being cast upon the body, 
doth mitigate the heat of passion ; and that the dust 
wherein a hawk hath rolled herself, if it be bound 

we are inclined to believe that they are helpful, however little their 
effect may be noticed, in every case. We warn our readers against the 
numerous charlatans who sell so-called Magical Rings. Magical Rings are 
never sold as such. Whatever virtue may exist in a ring the owner 
alone confirms and binds. All that any other person can do is to prop- 
erly instruct how such a ring should be made and worn. Any so-called 
"prophet" or "oracle" that now disgraces and perverts true occult art 
will most probably lay claim to this knowledge, as will those astrologers 
and "gifted" pretenders in America who hide their crude acquirements 
and practices behind high-sounding names. I say "in America," because 
in England even eminent practitioners are prohibited by British law from 
doing work for the public and are forced, for self -protection, to serve 
under assumed names. Such a condition not prevailing in this country 
it is safe to regard those who assume titles as either charlatans or who 
act from a very superficial knowledge. There may, possibly, be honorable 
exceptions to this rule, but we doubt it. Consult yourself, therefore, 
regarding a personal occult ring, selecting the metal, stone and design 
that you are most pleased with. Then you have made a proper start, 
and, in a great many cases, need go no further; thus every plain gold 
marriage ring becomes a magical ring. As the courtship is exalted so 
will be the potency of the ring. The wife may often owe her security to the 
marriage ring and should always wear it To lose the marriage ring 
portends evil, and another one, heavier and engraven with the first names 
of the couple — like "Jack" and "Mary" — and the marriage date, should 
be procured as soon as circumstances will permit. Every ring, being a 
circle, contains occult force and symbolizes the eternal. 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 149 

to the body in a bright red cloth, cures the quartan. 
So doth the stone taken out of the nest of a swallow, 
as they say, presently relieve those that have the fall- 
ing sickness, and being bound to the party, continually 
preserves them, especially if it be rolled in the blood 
or heart of a swallow. Aid it is reported that if any 
one shall cut a vein, being fasting, and shall go over 
a place where any one lately fell with the fit of a 
falling sickness, that he shall fall into the same dis- 
ease. And Pliny reports that to fasten an iron nail 
in that place where he that fell with a fit of the fall- 
ing sickness first did pitch his head, will free him 
from his disease. So they say that an herb, grow- 
ing upon the head of any image, being gathered, and 
bound up in some part of one's garment with a red 
thread, shall presently allay the headache ; and that 
any herb gathered out of the brooks or rivers be- 
fore Sunrising, and no body seeing him that gathers 
it, shall cure the tertian if it be bound to the left 
arm, the sick party not knowing what is done. 

Amongst places that are appropriated to the Stars, 
all stinking places, and dark, underground, religious, 
and mournful places, as church-yards, tombs, and 
houses not inhabited by men ; and old, tottering, ob- 
scure, dreadful houses ; and solitary dens, caves, and 
pits ; also fish-ponds, standing pools, sewers, and such 
like, are appropriated to Saturn. Unto Jupiter are 
ascribed all privileged places, consistories of noble- 
men, tribunals, chairs, places for exercise, schools, 
and all beautiful and clean places, and those sprinkled 
with divers odors. To Mars, fiery and bloody places, 
furnaces, bakehouses, shambles, places of execution, 
and places where there have been great battles fought 
and slaughters made, and the like. To the Sun, light 
places, the serene air, kings ' palaces and princes' 
courts, pulpits, theaters, thrones, and all kingly and 
magnificent places. To Venus, pleasant fountains, 
green meadows, flourishing gardens, garnished beds, 



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150 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

stews, and, according to Orpheus, the sea, the sea- 
shore, baths, dancing places, and all places belonging 
to women. To Mercury, shops, schools, warehouses, 
exchanges for merchants, and the like. To the Moon, 
wildernesses, woods, rocks, hills, mountains, forests, 
fountains, waters, rivers, seas, seashores, ships, high- 
ways, groves, granaries for corn, and such like. On 
this account they that endeavor to procure love are 
wont to bury for a certain time the instruments of 
their art, whether they be rings, images, looking- 
glasses, or any other, or hide them in a stew house, 
so that they will contract some virtue under Venus, 
the same as those things that stand in stinking 
places become stinking, and those in an aromatical 
place become aromatic and of a sweet savor. 

The four corners of the earth also pertain to this 
matter. Hence they that are to gather a Saturnine, 
Martial, or Jovial herb must look towards the East or 
South, partly because they desire to be oriental from 
the Sun, and partly because of their principal houses, 
viz.: Aquarius, Scorpio and Sagittarius are South- 
ern Signs, so also are Capricornus and Pisces. But 
they that will gather a Venereal, Mercury or Lunary 
herb must look towards the West because they de- 
light to be western, or else they must look towards 
the North because their principal houses — viz., Tau- 
rus, Gemini, Cancer, Virgo — are Northern Signs. So 
in any Solary work we must look not only towards 
the East and South whilst plucking it, but also 
towards the Solary body and light. 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 151 



CHAPTER XLIX. 

Of Light, Colobs, Candles and Lamps, and to What 
Stabs, Houses and Elements Sevebal Colobs Abe 
Ascbibed. 

Light also is a quality that partakes much of form, 
and is a simple act, and also a representation of the 
understanding. It is first diffused from the Mind of 
God into all things; but in God the Father, the 
Father of Light, it is the first true light ; then in the 
Son a beautiful, overflowing brightness, and in the 
Holy Ghost a burning brightness, exceeding all Intelli- 
gences ; yea, as Dyonisius saith of Seraphims, in an- 
gels it is a shining intelligence diffused, an abundant 
joy beyond all bounds of reason, yet received in 
divers degrees, according to the nature of the Intelli- 
gence that receives it. Then it descends into the 
celestial bodies, where it becomes a store of life and 
an effectual propagation; even a visible splendor. 
In the fire it is a certain natural liveliness, infused in- 
to it by the heavens. And, lastly, in men, it is a clear 
course of reason, an innate knowledge of divine 
things, and the whole rational faculty; but this is 
manifold, either by reason of the disposition of the 
body or by reason of him who bestows it, who gives 
it to every one as he pleaseth. From thence it 
passeth to the fancy, yet above the senses, but only 
imaginable; and thence to the senses, especially to 
the sense of the eyes. In them light is a visible clear- 
ness; and is extended to other perspicuous bodies, 
in which it becomes a color and a shining beauty ; but 
in dark bodies it is a certain beneficial and genera- 
tive virtue, and penetrates to the very center where 
its beams, being collected into a small place, become 
a dark heat, tormenting and scorching, so that all 
things perceive the vigor of the light according to 
their capacity — and all light, joining to itself an en- 



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152 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

livening heat, and, passing through all things, doth 
convey its qualities and virtues to all things. Great 
is the power of light to mar or make enchantments. 
So a sick man, uncovered against the Sun or the 
Moon, their rays become charged with the noxious 
qualities of the sickness and, penetrating, convey 
them into the body of another, and affect that with 
a quality of the same kind. So that from the sick 
should be covered deep from the light, lest its oc- 
cult quality doth infect the well. This is the reason 
why Enchanters have a care to cover their enchant- 
ments with their shadow. So the civet cat makes all 
dogs dumb with the very touch of her shadow. 

Also, there are made, artificially, some Lights, by 
lamps, torches, candles, and such like, of some cer- 
tain thing and fluids, opportunely chosen, according 
to the rule of the Stars, and composed amongst them- 
selves according to their congruity, which, when they 
be lighted, and shine alone, are wont to produce some 
wonderful and celestial effects, which men many 
times wonder at. So Pliny reports, out of Anaxilaus, 
of a poison of mares which, being lighted in torches, 
doth monstrously represent a sight of horses J heads. 
The like may be done with flies, which being duly 
tempered with wax, and lighted, make a strange sight 
of flies ; and the skin of a serpent, lighted in a proper 
lamp, maketh serpents appear. They say that when 
grapes are in their flower, if any one shall bind a vial 
full of oil to them, and shall let it alone until they be 
ripe, and then the oil be put in a lamp and lighted, it 
makes grapes to be seen; and so with other fruits. 
If centaury be mixed with honey, and the blood of a 
lapwing, and be put in a lamp, they that stand about 
will look much larger than they are wont ; and if it 
be lit in a clear night the Stars will seem to scatter 
one from another. Such force, also, is in the ink of 
the cuttle-fish that it, being put into a lamp, makes 
blackamoors appear. It is also reported that a can- 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 153 

die, made of some Saturnine things, being lighted, if 
it be extinguished in the mouth of a man newly dead, 
will afterwards, as oft as it shines alone, bring a feel- 
ing of sadness and great fear upon them that stand 
about it. Of such like torches and lamps doth 
Hermes speak more of, also Plato and Chyrannides, 
and of the latter writers, Albertus, in a certain 
treatise of this particular thing. 

Colors, also, are a class of lights, which, being duly 
mixed with things, are wont to expose such things to 
the influence of those Stars to which the colors are 
agreeable. And we shall afterwards speak of some 
colors which are the Lights of the Planets, by which 
even the natures of Fixed Stars themselves are un- 
derstood, which also may be applied to the flames of 
lamps and candles. But in this place we shall relate 
how the colors of inferior mixed things are distrib- 
uted to divers planets. All colors as black, lucid, 
earthy, leaden, or brown, have relation to Saturn. 
Sapphire and airy colors, and those which are always 
green, clear, purple, darkish, golden, or mixed with 
silver, belong to Jupiter. Eed colors, and burning, 
fiery, flaming, violet, purple, bloody, and iron colors, 
resemble Mars. Golden, saffron, purple, and bright 
colors, resemble the Sun. But all white, fair, curious, 
green, ruddy, betwixt saffron and purple, resemble 
Venus, Mercury and the Moon. Moreover, amongst 
the Signs of the Zodiac, known as the Houses of the 
Heaven, the first and seventh hath the color white ; 
the second and twelfth, green ; the third and eleventh, 
saffron ; the fourth and the tenth, red ; the fifth and 
ninth, a honey color ; and the sixth and eighth, black. 

The Elements, also, have their colors, by which 
natural philosophers judge of the complexion and 
property of their nature. For an earthy color, 
caused of coldness and dryness, is brown, and black, 
and manifests black choler and a Saturnine nature. 
Blue, tending towards whiteness, doth denote phlegm. 



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154 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

For cold makes white ; moisture and dryness makes 
black. Keddish color shews blood; but fiery, flaming, 
burning hot, shews choler, which, by reason of its 
subtilty and aptness to mix with others, doth cause 
divers colors more ; for if it be mixed with blood, and 
blood be most predominant, it makes a florid red ; if 
choler predominate, it makes a reddish color: if 
there be an equal mixtion, it makes a sad red. But 
if adust choler be mixed with blood it makes a 
hempen color; and red, if blood predominate; and 
somewhat red if choler prevail; but if it be mixed 
with a melancholy humor it makes a black color ; but 
with melancholy and phlegm together, in an equal 
proportion, it makes a hempen color. If phlegm 
abound, a mud color; if melancholy, a bluish; but if it 
be mixed with phlegm alone, in an equal proportion, 
it makes a citron color ; if unequally, a pale or palish. 
Now, all colors are more prevalent when they be in 
silk, or in metals, or in perspicuous substances, or 
in precious stones, and in those things which resem- 
ble celestial bodies in color, especially in living 
things. 

CHAPTER L. 

Of Fascination, and the Abt Thebeof. 

Fascination is a binding, which comes from the 
spirit of the witch, through the eyes of him that is so 
bewitched, and entering to his heart. Now the in- 
strument of fascination is the spirit, viz., a certain 
pure, lucid, subtile vapor, generated of the purer 
blood by the heat of the heart. This doth always 
send forth, through the eyes, rays like to itself. 
Those rays, being sent forth, do carry with them a 
spiritual vapor, and that vapor a blood (as it appears 
in swollen and red eyes), whose rays, being sent 
forth to the eyes of him that looks upon them, carry 
the vapor of the corrupt blood together with itself; 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 155 

by the contagion of which it doth infect the eyes of 
the beholder with the like disease. So the eye, being 
opened and intent upon any one with a strong imagi- 
nation, doth dart its beams (which are the vehiculum 
of the spirit) into the eyes of him that is opposite to 
him ; which tender spirit strikes the eyes of him that 
is bewitched, being stirred up from the heart of him 
that strikes, and possesseth the breast of him that is 
stricken, wounds his heart and infects his spirit. 
Whence Apuleius saith, "Thy eyes, sliding down 
through my eyes into mine inward breast, stir up 
a most vehement burning in my marrow." Know, 
then, that men are most bewitched when, with often 
beholding, they direct the edge of their sight to the 
edge of the sight of those that bewitch them; and 
when their eyes are reciprocally intent one upon the 
other, and when rays are joined to rays and lights to 
lights, the spirit of the one is joined to the spirit of 
the other and fixeth its sparks. So are strong liga- 
tions made, and so most vehement loves are inflamed 
with only the rays of the eyes ; even with a certain 
sudden looking on, as if it were with a dart or stroke, 
penetrating the whole body, whence then the spirit 
and amorous blood, being thus wounded, are carried 
forth upon the lover and enchanter, no otherwise 
than the blood and spirit of the vengeance of him 
that is slain are upon him that slays him. Whence 
Lucretius sang concerning those amorous bewitch- 
ings: 

The body smitten is, but yet the mind 

Is wounded with the darts of Cupid blind. 

All parts do Sympathize i* th' wound, but know 

The blood appears in that which had the blow.* 



* Again, in speaking of the power of Venus, the goddess of peace, over 
Mars, the god of war, he says : 

On thy soft bosom he — 
The warlike field who sways — almighty Mars, 
Struck by triumphant Love's eternal wound, 
Reclines full frequent. With uplifted gaze 
On thee he feeds his longing, lingering eyes, 
And all his soul hangs quivering from thy lips. 



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156 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

So, great is the power of fascination, especially 
when the vapors of the eyes are subservient to the 
affection. Therefore witches nse collyries, ointments, 
alligations, and snch like, to affect and corroborate 
the spirit in this or that manner. To procure love 
they nse venereal collyries, as hippomanes, the blood 
of doves, or sparrows, and snch like. To induce fear, 
they use martial collyries, as of the eyes of wolves, 
the civet cat, and the like. To procure misery or 
sickness, they use Saturnine things, and so of the 
rest. 



CHAPTER LI. 
Of Cebtain Obsebvations, Pbodtjcing Wondebful 

VlBTUES. 

They say that certain acts and observations have 
a certain power of natural things ; that they believe 
diseases may be expelled, or brought thus and thus. 
So they say that quartanes may be driven away if 
the parings of the nails of the sick be bound to the 
neck of a live eel, in a linen cloth, and she be let go 
into the water. And Pliny saith that the parings of 
a sick man's nails of his feet and hands being mixed 
with wax, cure the quartan, tertian, and quotidian 
ague ; and if they be before Sunrising fastened to an- 
other man's gate, will cure such like diseases. In 
like manner, let all the parings of the nails be put 
into the caves of ants, and the first ant that begins 
to draw at the parings must be taken and bound to 
the neck of the sick, and by this means will the dis- 
ease be cured. They say that by wood, stricken with 
lightning, and cast behind the back with one's hands, 
any disease may be removed; and, in quartanes, a 
piece of a nail from a gibbet, wrapped up in wool, 
and hung about the neck, cures them; also, a rope 
doth the like that is taken from a gallows and hid un- 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 157 

der ground so that the Sun cannot reach it. The 
throat of him that hath a hard swelling, or im- 
posthume, being touched with the hand of him that 
died by an immature death, will be cured thereby. 
They say, also, that a woman is presently eased of 
her hard labor if any one shall put into her bed a 
stone or dart with which a boar or a bear or man 
hath been killed with one blow. The same doth a 
spear that is pulled out of the body of a man, if it 
shall not first touch the ground ; also, they say, that 
arrows, pulled out of the body of a man, if they have 
not touched the earth, taken and stealthily placed 
under any one lying down, will procure love. The 
falling sickness is cured by meat made of the flesh 
of a wild beast, slain in the same manner as a man is 
slain. A man 's eyes that are washed three times with 
the water wherein he hath washed his feet shall nev- 
er be sore or blear. It is said that some do cure 
diseases of the groin with thread taken out of a 
weaver's loom and tying into it seven or nine knots, 
the name of some widow being named at every knot. 
The spleen of cattle, extended upon painful spleens, 
cures them if he that applies it saith that he is apply- 
ing a medicine to the spleen to cure and ease it. 
After this, they say, the patient must be shut into 
a^ sleeping room, the door being sealed up with a 
ring, and some verse be repeated over nineteen times. 
The water of a green lizard cures the same disease 
if it be hanged up in a vessel before the patient's 
bed-chamber so that he may, as he passes in and 
out, touch it with his hand. And a little frog climb- 
ing up a tree, if any one shall spit in his mouth, and 
then let him escape, is said to cure the cough. It 
is a wonderful thing, but easy to experience, that 
Pliny speaks of, that if any one shall be sorry for 
any blow that he hath given another, afar off or nigh 
at hand, if he shall presently spit into the middle 
of that hand with which he gave the blow, the party 



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158 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

that was smitten shall presently be freed from pain. 
This hath been approved of in a four-footed beast 
that hath been sorely hurt. Some there are that 
aggravate the blow before they give it. In like man- 
ner, spittle carried in the hand, or to spit in the shoe 
of the right foot before it be put on, is good when any 
one passeth through a dangerous place. They say 
that wolves will not come to a field if one of them be 
taken and his blood let by little and little out of his 
legs, being unbroken, with a knife, and sprinkled 
about the outside of the field, and he himself be 
buried in that place from whence he was first drawn. 
The Methanenses, citizens of Trezenium, accounted 
it as a present remedy for preserving of vines from 
the wrong of the southern wind, having always found 
it by most certain experience, if, whilst the wind 
blows, a white cock should be pulled to pieces in the 
middle by two men, both of whom, each keeping his 
part, must walk each way around the vineyard, un- 
til both meet in the place from whence they began 
their circuit, and must in that place bury the pieces 
of the cock. Also, if any one shall hold a viper over 
a vapor with a staff, he shall prophesy, and that the 
staff wherewith a snake was beaten is good against 
female diseases. These things Pliny recites. It is 
said that in gathering roots and herbs we must draw 
three circles round about them first, with a sword, and 
then dig them up, meanwhile taking heed of any con- 
trary wind. Also they say, that if any one shall 
measure a dead man with a rope, first from the elbow 
to the biggest finger, then from the shoulder to tho 
same finger, and afterwards from the head to the 
feet, making thrice those mensurations; if any one 
afterwards shall be measured with the same rope, in 
the same manner, he shall not prosper, but be un- 
fortunate and fall into misery and sadness. Albertus 
of Chyrannis saith, that if any woman hath en- 
chanted thee to love her, take the gown she sleepeth 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 159 

in out of doors and spit through the right sleeve 
thereof, when the enchantment will be quitted. And 
Pliny saith, that to sit by women far with child, or 
when a medicine is given to any one of them, the 
fingers being joined together like the teeth of a comb, 
is a charm ; so much the more if the hands be joined 
about one or both knees. Also, to sit cross legged is 
sorcery ; therefore it was forbidden to be done in the 
counsels of princes and rulers, as a thing which hin- 
dered all acts. And, it is said, if any one shall 
stand before a man's chamber door, and call to him 
by name and the man answer, if then he fasten a 
knife or needle on the door, the edge or point being 
downward, and break it, he that be in the room shall 
be unable of his intention so long as those things 
shall be there. 



CHAPTER Ln. 

Of the Countenance and Gesture, the Habit and 

THE FlGURE OF THE BODY, AND TO WHAT STARS Any 

of These Do Answer — Whence Physiognomy, 
and metoposcopy, and chiromancy, arts of 
Divination, Have Their Grounds. 

The countenance, gesture, motion, setting and fig- 
ure of the body, being accidental to us, conduce to the 
receiving of celestial gifts and expose us to the supe- 
rior bodies, which produce certain effects in us, like 
unto the effects following the methods of gathering 
hellebore, which, if thou pullest the leaf upward when 
gathering it, draws the humors upward and causeth 
vomiting ; if downward, it causeth purging, drawing 
the humor downward. How much also the counte- 
nance and gesture of one person doth affect the sight, 
imagination and spirit of another no man is ignorant. 
So they that are parents discover those impressions 
in their children of their previous conditions, and 



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160 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

that which they did then do, form aiid imagine. So 
a mild and cheerful countenance of a prince in the 
city makes the people joyful; but if it be fierce or 
sad doth terrify them. So the gesture and counte- 
nance of any one lamenting, doth easily move to pity. 
So the shape of an amiable person doth easily ex- 
cite to friendship. Thou must know that such like 
gestures and figures as harmonies of the body, do 
expose it no otherwise to the celestials, than odors, 
and the spirit of a medicine, and internal passions, 
also, do the soul. For as medicines and passions of 
the mind are by certain dispositions of the heaven in- 
creased, so also the gesture and motions of the body 
do get an efficacy by certain influences of the heav- 
ens. For there are gestures resembling Saturn which 
are melancholy and sad, as are beating of the breast 
or striking of the head; also such as are religious, 
as the bowing of the knee, and a fixed look down- 
wards, as of one praying; also weeping, and such 
like, as are used by the austere and Saturnine man ; 
such an one as a satirist describes : 

With hang 'd down head, with eyes fixed to the ground, 
His raging words bites in, and muttering Bound 
He doth express with pouting lips. 

A cheerful and honest countenance, a worshipful 
or noble gesture or bearing, clapping of the hands as 
of one rejoicing and praising, and the bending of the 
knee with the head lifted up, as of one that is wor- 
shiping, are ascribed to Jupiter. 

A sour, fierce, cruel, angry, rough countenance and 
gesture are ascribed to Mars. 

Solary are honorable and courageous gestures and 
countenances ; also, walking abroad, a bending of the 
knee, as of one honoring a king with one knee bent. 

Those under Venus are dances, embraces, laugh- 
ters, and those of an amiable and cheerful counte- 
nance. 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 161 



Those Mercurial are inconstant, quick, variable 
and such like gestures and countenances. 

Those Lunary, or under the Moon, are such as are 
movable, poisonous, and childish and the like. 

As we have spoken above of gestures so, also, are 
the shapes of men distinct, as follows : 

Saturn bespeaks a man to be of a black and yel- 
lowish color, lean, crooked, of a rough skin, great 
veins, the body covered with hair, little eyes, of a 
frowning forehead, a thin beard, great lips, eyes in- 
tent upon the ground, of a heavy gait, striking his 
feet together as he walks, crafty, witty, a seducer 
and murderous. 

Jupiter signifies a man to be of a pale color, dark- 
ish red, a handsome body, good stature, bold, of great 
eyes (not black altogether) with large pupils, short 
nostrils not equal, great teeth before, curled hair, of 
good disposition and manners. 

Mars makes a man red, with red hair, a round face, 
yellowish eyes, of a terrible and sharp look, jocund, 
bold, proud and crafty. 

The Sun makes a man of a tawny color, betwixt 
yellow and black dashed with red, of a short stature 
yet of a handsome body, without much hair and 
curly, of yellow eyes, wise, faithful and desirous of 
praise. 

Venus signifies a man to be tending towards black- 
ness, but more white, with a mixture of red, a hand- 
some body, a fair and round face, fair hair, fair eyes, 
the blackness whereof is more intense, of good man- 
ners and honest love ; also kind, patient and jocund. 

Mercury signifies a man not much white, or black, 
of a long face, high forehead, fair eyes, not black, to 
have a straight and long nose, thin beard, long fin- 
gers, to be ingenious, a subtile inquisitor, a turncoat, 
and subject to many fortunes. 

The Moon signifies a man to be in color white, 
mixed with a little red; of a fair stature, a round 



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162 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

face, with some marks in it; eyes not fully black, 
frowning forehead, and kind, gentle and sociable. 

The Signs, also, and the faces of Signs, have their 
figures and shapes which, he that would know, must 
seek them out in books of Astrology. Lastly, upon 
these figures and gestures, both Physiognomy and 
Metoposcopy, arts of divination, do depend; also 
Chiromancy, foretelling future events, not as causes 
but as signs, through like effects, caused by the same 
cause. And although these divers kinds of divina- 
tions may seem to be done by inferior and weak 
signs, yet the judgments of them are not to be 
slighted or condemned when prognostication is made 
by them, not out of superstition but by reason of the 
harmonical correspondency of all the parts of the 
body. "Whosoever, therefore, doth the more exactly 
imitate the celestial bodies, either in nature, study, 
action, motion, gesture, countenance, passions of the 
mind, and opportunity of the season, is so much the 
more like to the heavenly bodies and can receive 
larger gifts from them. 



CHAPTER Lin. 

Of Divinations, and the Kinds Thereof. 

There are some other kinds of divinations, depend- 
ing upon natural causes, which are known to every 
one in his art and experience to be in divers things, 
by which physicians, husbandmen, shepherds, mari- 
ners, and others, do prognosticate out of the probable 
signs of every kind of divination. Many of these 
kinds of divination Aristotle made mention of in 
his book of Times, amongst which Auguria and 
Auspicia are the chief est, which were in former time 
in such esteem amongst the Romans that they would 
do nothing that did belong to private or public busi- 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 163 

ness without the counsel of the Augures. Cicero in 
his Book of Divinations largely declares that the 
people of Tuscia would do nothing without this art. 
Now, there are divers kinds of Auspicias, for some 
are called Pedestria (i. e.), which are taken from 
four-footed beasts; some are called Auguria, which 
are taken from birds ; some are Celestial, which are 
taken from thunderings and lightnings; some are 
called Caduca {i. e.), when any fell in the temple, or 
elsewhere ; some were sacred, which were taken from 
sacrifices; some of these were called Piacula, and 
sad Auspicia, as when a sacrifice escaped from the 
altar, or, being smitten, made a bellowing, or fell 
upon another part of his body than he should. To 
these is added Exauguration, viz., when the rod fell 
out of the hand of the Augure with which it was the 
custom to view and take notice of the Auspicium. 

Michael Scotus makes mention of twelve kinds of 
Auguries, viz., six on the right hand, the names of 
which, he saith, are Fernova, Fervetus, Confert, Em- 
ponenthem, Sonnasarnova, and Sonnasarvetus ; and 
six on the left hand, the names of which are Con- 
fernova, Confervetus, Viaram, Herrenam, Scassar- 
nova, and Scassarvetus. Expounding their names, 
he saith: 

Fernova is an augury when thou goest out of thy 
house to do any business, and in going thou see a man 
or a bird going or flying, so that either of them set 
himself before thee upon thy left hand, that is a good 
signification in reference to thy business. 

Fervetus is an augury when thou shalt go out of 
thy house to do any business, and in going thou find 
or see a bird or a man resting himself before thee on 
the left side of thee, that is an ill sign concerning 
thy business. 

Viaram is an augury when a man or e bird in his 
journey, or flying, pass before thee, coming from the 
right side of thee, and, bending toward the left, go 



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164 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

out of thy sight, that is a good sign concerning thy 
business. 

Confernova is an augury when thou dost first find 
a man or a bird going or flying, and then rest him- 
self before thee on thy right side, thou seeing of it, 
that is a good sign concerning thy business. 

Confervetus is an augury when first thou find or 
see a man or a bird bending from thy right side, it 
is an ill sign concerning thy business. 

Scimasarnova or Sonnasarnova is when a man or a 
bird comes behind thee and outgoeth thee, but before 
he comes at thee he rests, thou seeing of him on thy 
right side, it is to thee a good sign. 

Scimasarvetus or Sonnasarvetus is when thou see 
a man or bird behind thee, but before he comes to 
thee he rests in that place, thou seeing of it, is a good 
sign. 

Confert is an augury when a man or bird in jour- 
neying or flying shall pass behind thee, coming from 
the left side of thee, and, bending toward thy right, 
pass out of thy sight, and is an evil sign concerning 
thy business. 

Scassarvetus is when thou see a man or a bird 
pass by thee, and resting in a place on thy left side, 
is an evil sign to thee. 

Scassarnova is when thou see a man or a bird pass 
by thee, and resting in a place on thy right side, is an 
augury of good to thee. 

Emponenthem is when a man or a bird, coming 
from thy left side, and passing to thy right, goeth 
out of thy sight without resting, and is a good sign. 

Hartena or Herrenam is an augury that, if a man 
or a bird coming from thy right hand, shall pass 
behind thy back to thy left, and thou shall see him 
resting anywhere, this is in evil sign. 

The ancients did also prognosticate from sneez- 
ings, of which Homer in the seventeenth book of his 
poem of the Odyssey makes mention, because they 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 165 

thought that they proceeded from a sacred place, viz., 
the head, in which the intellect is vigorous and opera- 
tive. Whence, also, whatsoever speech came into 
the breast or mind of a man rising in the morning, 
unawares, is said to be some presage and an augury. 



CHAPTER LIV. 

Of Divers Certain Animals, and Other Things, 
Which Have a Signification in Auguries. 

All the Auspicia, or auspices, which first happen 
in the beginning of any enterprise are to be taken 
notice of. As, if in the beginning of thy work thou 
shalt perceive that rats have gnawn thy garments, 
desist from thy undertakings. If going forth thou 
shalt stumble at the threshhold, or if in the way thou 
shalt dash thy foot against any thing, forbear thy 
journey. If any ill omen happen in the beginning of 
thy business, put off thy undertakings, lest thy inten- 
tions be wholly frustrated, or accomplished to no pur- 
pose, but expect and wait for a fortunate hour for the 
dispatching of thy affairs with a better omen. We 
see that many animals are, by a natural power im- 
bred in them, prophetical. Doth not the cock by his 
crowing diligently tell you the hours of the night and 
morning, and, with his wings spread forth, chase 
away the lion? Many birds, with their singing and 
chattering, and flies, by their sharp pricking, fore- 
tell rain ; and dolphins, by their often leaping above 
the water, warn of tempests. It would be too long 
to relate all the passages which the Phrygians, Cili- 
cians, Arabians, Umbrians, Tuscians, and other peo- 
ples, which follow the auguries, have learned by 
birds. These they have proved by many experiments 
and examples. For in all things the Oracles of things 
to come are hid, but those are the chiefest which 



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166 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

omenal birds shall foretell. These are those vrhich 
the poets relate were turned from men into birds. 
Therefore, what the daw declares, hearken unto and 
mark, observing her setting as she sits ; and her man- 
ner of flying, whether on the right hand or left; 
whether clamorous or silent ; whether she goes before 
or follows after ; whether she waits for the approach 
of him that passeth by, or flies from him, and which 
way she goes. All these things must be diligently 
observed. Arus Apollo saith in his Hieroglyphics 
that daws that are twins signify marriage, because 
this bird brings forth two eggs, out of which male 
and female must be brought forth ; but if, which sel^ 
dom happens, two males be generated, or two fe- 
males, the males will not go with any other females, 
nor females with any other males, but will always 
live without a mate, and solitary. Therefore they 
that meet a single daw, divine thereby that they shall 
live a single life. The same also doth a black hen 
pigeon betoken, for after the death of her mate, she 
always lives single. Thou shalt, also, as carefully 
observe crows, which are as significant as daws, yea, 
and in greater matters. It was Epictetus the Stoics' 
philosopher's judgment, who was a sage author, that 
if a crow did croak over against any one, it did be- 
token some evil, either to his body, fortune, honor, 
wife, or children. Then thou shall take heed to 
swans, who foreknow the secrets of the waters, for 
their cheerfulness doth presage happy events not 
only to mariners, but aU other travelers, unless they 
be overcome by the coming over of a stronger bird, 
as of an eagle, who, by the most potent majesty of 
her sovereignty, makes null the predictions of all 
other birds if she speaks to the contrary; for she 
flies higher than all other birds, and is of more acute 
sight, and is never excluded from the secrets of 
Jupiter ; she portends advancement and victory, but 
by blood, because she drinks no water but blood. An 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 167 

eagle flying over the Locresians, fighting against the 
Crotoniensians, gave them victory ; an eagle setting 
herself unawares upon the target of Hiero, going 
forth to the first war, betokened that he should be 
king. Two eagles sitting all day upon the house at 
the birth of Alexander, of Macedonia, did portend 
to him an omen of two kingdoms, viz., Asia and 
Europe. An eagle, also, taking off the hat of Lucias 
Tarquinius Priscus, son to Demarathus the Corin- 
thian (and, by reason of some discord, being come 
into Hetraria and going to Rome) and then flying 
high with it, and afterwards putting it upon his head 
again, did portend to him the kingdom of the Ro- 
mans. Vultures signify difficulty, hardness, and 
ravenousness, which was verified in the beginning of 
the building of cities. Also they fortell the places of 
slaughter, coming seven days beforehand; and be- 
cause they have most respect to that place where 
the greatest slaughter shall be, as if they gaped after 
the greatest number of the slain, therefore the an- 
cient kings were wont to send out spies to take notice 
what place the vultures had most respect to. The 
phoenix promiseth singular good success, which being 
seen anew, Rome was built very auspiciously. The 
pelican because she hazards herself for her young, 
signifies that a man should, out of the zeal of his 
love, undergo much hardship. The painted bird 
gave the name to the city of Pictavia, and foreshowed 
the lenity of that people by its color and voice. The 
heron is an augury of hard things. The stork also 
is a bird of concord and makes concord.^ Cranes 
gives us notice of the treachery of enemies. The 
bird cacupha betokens gratitude, for she alone doth 
express love to her dam, being spent with old age. 
On the contrary, the hippopotamus, that kills his 
dam, doth betoken ingratitude for good turns, also 
injustice. The bird origis is most envious, and be- 
tokens envy. 



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168 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

Amongst the smaller birds, the pie is talkative and 
foretells guests. The bird albanellus flying by any- 
one, it from the left to the right, betokens cheerful- 
ness of entertainment ; if contrariwise, betokens the 
contrary. The screech owl is always unlucky, so also 
is the horn owl, who, because she goes to her young 
by night, unawares, as death comes unawares, is 
therefore said to foretell death; yet, sometimes, be- 
cause she is not blind in the dark of the night, doth 
betoken diligence and watchfulness, which she made 
good when she sat upon the spear of Hiero. And 
Dido, when she saw the unlucky owl, pitied iEneas, 
whence the poet sang: 

The Owl, sitting on top of the house alone, 
Sends forth her sad complaints with mournful tone. 

And in another place, 

The slothful Owl by mortals is esteemed 
A fatal omen 

The same bird sang in the capitol when the Bo- 
man affairs were low at Numantia and when Fregelia 
was pulled down for a conspiracy made against the 
Eomans. Almadel says that owls and night-ravens, 
when they turn aside to strange countries, or houses, 
betoken the death of the men of that country and 
those houses, for those birds are delighted with dead 
carcasses and perceive them beforehand. For men 
that are dying have a near affinity with dead car- 
casses. The hawk is also a foreteller of contention, 
as Naso sings : 

We hate the Hawk, because that arms amongst 
She always lives— 

Lelius, the embassador of Pompey, was slain in 
Spain, amongst the purveyors, which misfortune, a 
hawk flying over the head, is said to foretell. And 
Almadel saith that these kinds of birds fighting 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 169 

amongst themselves, signify the change of a king- 
dom; but if birds of another kind shall fight with 
them and are never seen to come together again, it 
portends a new condition and state of that country. 
Also, little birds, by their coming to or departing 
from, foreshew that a family shall be increased or 
lessened; and their flight, by how much the more 
serene it is, by so much the more laudable shall the 
change be. Whence did Melampus, the Augure, con- 
jecture at the slaughter of the Greeks by the flight of 
little birds, when he saith: "Thou see now that no 
bird takes his flight in fair weather/ ' Swallows, be- 
cause when they are dying they provide a place of 
safety for their young, do portend a great patrimony 
or legacy after the death of friends. A bat, meeting 
any one running away, signifies an evasion; for, al- 
though she have no wings, yet she flies. A sparrow 
i& a bad omen to one that runs away, for she flies 
from the hawk and makes haste to the owl, where 
she is in as great danger ; yet in love she is fortunate, 
for being stirred up with affection she seeks her con- 
sort hourly. Bees are a good omen to kings, for they 
signify an obsequious people. Flies signify impor- 
tunity and impudence because being oftentimes driv- 
en away they do continually return. Also domestic 
birds are not without some auguries, for cocks, by 
their crowing, promote hope, and the journey of him 
that is undertaking it. Moreover, Livia, the mother 
of Tiberius, when she was great with him, took a 
hen's egg and hatched it in her bosom, and at lerfgth 
came forth a cock chick with a great comb, which the 
auguries interpreted that the child that should be 
born of her should be a king. And Cicero writes that 
at Thebais, cocks, by their crowing all night, did 
presage that the Baeotians would obtain victory 
against the Lacedaemonians, and the reason is accord- 
ing to the augury's interpretations because that bird 
when he is beaten is silent, but when he himself hath 



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170 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

overcome, crows. In like manner, also, omens of 
events are taken from beasts. For the meeting of a 
weasel is ominous ; also, the meeting of a hare is an 
ill omen to a traveler, unless she be taken. A mule 
also is bad because barren. A hog is pernicious, for 
such is his nature, and therefore signifies pernicious 
men. A horse betokens quarrelings and fightings, 
whence Anchises, seeing of white horses, cries out in 
Virgil : 

With war are Horses arm'd, yea, threaten war. 

But when they are joined together in a chariot, 
because they draw with an equal yoke, they signify 
that peace is to be hoped for. An ass is an unprofit- 
able creature, yet did Marius good, who, when he 
was pronounced an enemy to his country, saw an ass 
disdaining provender that was offered to him, and 
running to the water, by which augury he, supposing 
he saw a way of safety showed to him, entreated the 
aid of his friends that they would convey him to the 
sea, which being granted, he was set into a little ship, 
and so escaped the threats of Silla the conqueror. If 
the foal of an ass meet any one going to an augury, 
he signifies labor, patience and hinderances. A wolf 
meeting any one is a good sign, the effect whereof 
was seen in Hiero of Sicilia, from whom a wolf, 
snatching away a book whilst he was at school, con- 
firmed to him the success of the kingdom, but yet 
the wolf makes him speechless whom he sees first. A 
wolf rent in pieces a watchman of P. Africanus and 
C. Fulvius at Minturn, when the Roman army was 
overcome by the fugitives in Sicilia. He signifies 
perfidious men, such as you can give no credit to, 
which was known in the progeny of Romans. For 
the faith which they long since sucked from their 
mother, the wolf, and kept to themselves from the 
beginning, as by a certain law of nature, passed over 
to their posterity. To meet a lion, seeing he is 
amongst animals the strongest and striking terror 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 171 

into all the rest, is good. But for a woman to meet 
a lioness is bad, because she hinders conception, for 
a lioness brings forth but once. To meet sheep and 
goats is good. It is read in the Ostentarian of the 
Tuscians, if this animal shall wear any unusual color, 
it portends to the emperor plenty^of all things, to- 
gether with much happiness. Whence Virgil to 
Pollio sings thus: 

But. in the meadows, Bams shall scarlet bear, 
And changing, sometimes golden fleeces wear. 

It is good also to meet oxen treading out corn, but 
better to meet them plowing, which although break- 
ing the way, hinder thy journey, yet by the favor of 
their Auspicium will recompense thee again. A dog 
in a journey is fortunate, because Cyrus, being cast 
into the woods, was nourished by a dog until he came 
to the kingdom ; which, also, the angel, companion of 
Tobit, did not scorn as a companion. The castor, be- 
cause he biteth himself sorely, so as to be seen by 
hunters, is an ill omen and portends that a man will 
injure himself. Also, amongst small animals, mice 
signify danger, for the same day that they did gnaw 
gold in the capitol, both the consuls were intercepted 
by Hannibal by way of ambush, near Tarentum. The 
locust making a stand in any place, or burning the 
place, hinders one from their wishes and is an ill 
omen ; and on the contrary the grasshopper promotes 
a journey and foretells a good event of things. The 
spider weaving a line downwards, is said to signify 
hope of money to come. Also the ants, because they 
know how to provide for themselves, and to prepare 
safe nests for themselves, portend security and 
riches, and a great army. Hence, when the ants had 
devoured a tame dragon of Tiberius Caesar, it was 
advised that he should take heed of the tumult of a 
multitude. If a snake meet thee, take heed of an 
ill-tongued enemy; for this creature hath no power 



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172 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

but in his mouth. A snake creeping into the palace 
of Tiberius, portended his fall. Two snakes were 
found in the bed of Sempronius Gracchus, wherefore 
a soothsayer told him, if he would let the male or the 
female escape, either he or his wife would shortly 
die ; and he, preferring the life of his wife, killed the 
male and let the female go, and within a few days he 
died. So a viper signifies lewd women and wicked 
children ; and an eel signifies a man displeased with 
everybody, for she lives apart from all other fishes, 
nor is ever found in the company of any. But, 
amongst all Auguries and Omens, there is none more 
effectual and potent than man himself, and none that 
doth signify the truth more clearly. Thou shalt, 
therefore, diligently note and observe the condition 
of the man that meeteth thee, his age, profession, sta- 
tion, stature, gesture, motion, exercise, complexion, 
habit, name, words, speech, and all such like things. 
For seeing there are in all other animals so many 
discoveries of presages, without all question these 
are more efficacious and clear which are infused into 
man's soul; which Tully himself testifies, saying, 
that there is a certain Auspicium naturally in men's 
souls of their eternity, for the knowing of the courses 
and causes of things. In the foundation of the city 
of Rome the head of a man was found with his whole 
face, which did presage the greatness of the empire, 
and gave the name to the Mountain of the Capitol. 
The Brutian soldiers fighting against Octavius and 
Antonius, found an ^Ethiopian in the gate of their 
castle, and though they slew him as a presage of ill 
success, yet they were unfortunate in battle, and both 
their generals, Brutus and Cassius, were slain. 

The meeting of monks is commonly accounted an 
ill omen, and so much the rather if it be early in the 
morning, because these kind of men live for the most 
by the sudden death of men, as vultures do by 
slaughters. 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 173 

CHAPTEE LV. 

How Atjspicias Abe Verified by the Light op Nat- 
ural Instinct, and of Some Rules of Finding 
It Out. 

Aupicia and Auguria, which foretell things to 
come by animals and birds, Orpheus, the divine, him- 
self, as we read, did teach and show first of all, which 
afterwards were had in great esteem with all nations. 
Now they are verified by the light of natural instinct, 
as if from this some lights of divination may descend 
upon four-footed beasts, those winged, and other 
creatures, by which they are able to presage to us of 
the events of things; which Virgil seems to be sen- 
sible of when he sings : 

Nor think I Heaven on them such knowledge states, 
Nor that their prudence is above the Fates. 

Now, this Instinct of Nature, as saith William of 
Paris, is more sublime than all human apprehension, 
and very near, and most like to prophecy. By this 
instinct there is a certain wonderful light of divina- 
tion in some animals naturally, as is manifested in 
some dogs, who know thieves by this instinct and 
men that are hid, unknown both to themselves and 
men, and find them out and apprehend them, falling 
upon them with a full mouth. By the like instinct 
vultures foresee future slaughters in battles, and 
gather together into places where they shall be, as 
if they foresaw the flesh of dead carcasses. By the 
same instinct partridges know their dam, whom they 
never saw, and leave the partridge which stole away 
her dam's eggs and sate upon them. By the same in- 
stinct, also, certain hurtful and terrible things are 
perceived, the soul being ignorant of them, whence 
terror and horror ceaseth when men think nothing 
of these things. So a thief, lying hid in a house, al- 



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174 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

though no one knows or thinks of his being there, 
strikes fear and terror and a troublesomeness of 
mind into the inhabitants of that house, although, 
haply, not of all, because the brightness of this in- 
stinct is not common to all men, yet possessed of some 
of them. So an evil person, being hid in some large 
building, is sometimes perceived to be there by some 
one that is altogether ignorant of their being there. 
It is mentioned in history that Heraiscus, a certain 
Egyptian, a man of a divine nature, could discern 
evil persons, not only by his eyes but also by their 
voice, he hearing them afar off, and thereupon did 
fall into a most grievous headache. William of Paris 
also makes mention of a certain woman in his time 
that, by the same instinct, perceived a man whom she 
loved coming two miles off. He relates, also, that in 
his time a certain stork was convicted of unchastity 
by the smell of the male, who, being judged guilty 
by a multitude of storks whom the male gathered to- 
gether, discovering to them the fault of his mate, 
was, her feathers being pulled off, torn in pieces by 
them. The same doth Varro, Aristotle and Pliny 
relate concerning horses. And Pliny makes mention 
of a certain serpent, called the asp, that did such a 
like thing, for she, coming to a certain man's table 
in Egypt, was there daily fed, and she, having 
brought forth some young, by one of which a son of 
her host was killed, after she knew of it, killed that 
young one, and would never return to that house any 
more. Now, by these examples, you see how the 
lights of presage may descend upon some animals, as 
signs, or marks of things, and are set in their gesture, 
motion, voice, flying, going, meat, color, and such like. 
For, according to the doctrine of the Platonists, 
there is a certain power put into inferior things by 
which, for the most part, they agree with the supe- 
riors; whence also the tacit consents of animals seem 
to agree with divine bodies, and their bodies and 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 175 

affections to be affected with their powers, by the 
name of which they are ascribed to the deities. We 
must consider, therefore, what animals are Saturn- 
ine, what are Jovial and what Marital, and so of 
the rest ; and, according to their properties, to draw 
forth their presages ; so those birds which resemble 
Saturn and Mars, are all of them called terrible and 
deadly, as the screech owl, the hawlet, and others 
which we have mentioned before ; also the horn owl, 
because she is a Saturnine, solitary bird, also nightly, 
and is reputed to be most unfortunately ominous, of 
which the poet saith : 

The ugly Owl, which no bird well resents, 
Foretells misfortunes and most sad events. 

But the swan is a delicious bird, under Venus, 
and dedicated to Phoebus, and is said to be most 
happy in her presages, especially in the auspices of 
mariners, for she is never drowned in water, whence 
Ovid Sings : 

Most happy is the cheerful, singing Swan 
In her presages 

There are also some birds that presage with their 
mouth and singing, as the crow, pie, and daw, whence 
Virgil: 

This did foreshow 

Oft from the hollow holm that ominous Crow. 

Now, the birds that portend future things by their 
flying are, viz., buzzards, the bone-breakers, vultures, 
eagles, cranes, swans, and the like, for they are to be 
considered in their flying, whether they fly slowly or 
swiftly ; whether to the right hand or to the left ; how 
many fly together. Upon this account, if cranes fly 
apace, they signify a tempest ; and, when slowly, fair 
weather. When two eagles fly together, they are said 
to portend evil, because two is a number of confusion. 
In like manner thou shalt enquire into the reason of 
the rest, as this is shown by number. Moreover, it 



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176 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

belongs to an artist to observe a similitude in these 
conjectures, as in Virgil, Venus, dissembling, teach- 
eth her son, JEneas, in these verses : 

All this is not for naught, 

Else me in vain my parents Augury* taught; 

Lo! twice six Swans in a glad company 

Jove's bird pursued through the etherial Sky 

In Heaven 's broad tracks ; now earth in a long train 

They seem to take, or taken, to disdain; 

As they return with sounding wings they sport, 

And Heaven surrounding in a long consort. 

Just so, I say, thy friends and fleet have gained 

The port, or with full sails the Bay obtained. 

Most wonderful is that kind of auguring of theirs, 
who hear and understand the speeches of animals, in 
which, as amongst the ancients, Melampus, Tirefias, 
Thales, and Apollonius, the Tyanean,who,as we read, 
excelled, and whom, they report, had excellent skill in 
the language of birds ; of whom Philostratus and Por- 
phyrius speak, saying, that of old, when Apollonius 
sat in company amongst his friends, seeing sparrows 
sitting upon a tree, and one sparrow coming from 
elsewhere unto him, making a great chattering and 
noise, and then flying away, all the rest following 
him, he said to his companions that that sparrow told 
the rest that an ass, being burdened with wheat, fell 
down in a hole near the city and that the wheat was 
scattered upon the ground. Many, being much moved 
with these words, went to see, and so it was, as Apol- 
lonius said, at which they much wondered. Phor- 
phyrius, the Platonist, in his third book of sacrifices, 
saith that there is certainly a swallow language, be- 
cause every voice of every animal is significative of 
some passion of its soul, as joy, sadness, or anger, or 
the like, which voices, it is not so wonderful a thing, 
could be understood by men conversant about them. 
But Democritus himself declared this art, as saith 
Pliny, by naming the birds, of whose blood mixed to- 
gether was produced a serpent, of which whosoever 
did eat should understand the voices of birds. And 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 177 

Hermes saith that if any one shall go forth to catch 
birds on a certain day of the Kalends of November, 
and shall boil the first bird that he catcheth with the 
heart of a fox, that all that shall eat of this bird shall 
understand the voices of birds and all other animals. 
Also, the Arabians say that they can understand the 
meaning of brutes who shall eat the heart and liver 
of a dragon. Proclus, also, the Platonist, believed 
and wrote that the heart of a mole conduceth to pre- 
sages. There were also divinations and auspices 
which were taken from the inwards of sacrifices, the 
inventor whereof was Tages, of whom Lucan sang : 

And if the Inwards have no credit gained, 
And if this Art by Tages was but feigned. 

The Eoman religion thought that the liver was the 
head of the inwards. Hence the soothsayers enquir- 
ing after future things in the inwards, did first look 
into the liver, in which were two heads, whereof the 
one was called the head for the city, the other for the 
enemy ; and the heads of this, or another part, being 
compared together, they then gave judgment and pro- 
nounced for victory ; as we read, in Lucan, that the 
inwards did signify the slaughter of Pompey's men 
and the victory of Caesar's, according to these verses : 

In the inwards all defects are ominous — 
One part and branch of the entrails doth increase, 
Another part is weak, and flagging lies, 
Beats, and moves with quick pulse the arteries. 

Then, the bowels being finished, they search the 
heart. Now, if there were a sacrifice found without a 
heart, or a head was wanting in the liver, these were 
deadly presages, and were called piacularia. Also, if 
a sacrifice fled from the altar, or, being smitten, made 
a lowing, or fell upon any part of his body than he 
ought to do, it was the like ominous. We read that 
when Julius Caesar on a day went forth to procession 
with his purple robe, and sitting in a golden chair 



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178 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

and sacrificing, there was twice a heart wanting. 
When C. Marius Utica was sacrificing, there was 
wanting a liver. Also when Caius, the prince, and 
M. Marcellus, C. Claudius and L. Petellius Coss, were 
offering sacrifices, that the liver was consumed sud- 
denly away and, not long after, one of them died of 
a disease, another was slain by men of Lyguria, the 
entrails foretelling so much; which was thought to 
be done by the power of the Gods, or help of the devil. 
Hence it was accounted a tlyng of great concernment 
amongst the ancients as oft as any thing unusual was 
found in the inwards, as when Sylla was sacrificing 
at Laurentum, the figure of a crown appeared in the 
head of the liver, which Posthumius, the soothsayer, 
interpreted to portend a victory with a kingdom, and 
therefore advised that Sylla should eat those entrails 
himself. The color, also, of the inwards is to be con- 
sidered. Of these Lucan made mention: 

Struck at the color Prophets were with fear, 
For with foul spots pale entrals tinged were^ 
Both black and blue, with specks of sprinkled blood 
They 



There was in times past such a venerable esteem of 
these arts that the most potent and wise men sought 
after them; yea, the senate and kings did nothing 
without the counsel of the Augures. But all these in 
these days are abolished, partly by the negligence of 
men and partly by the authority of the fathers. 



CHAPTTE LVI. 

Of the Soothsayings of Flashes and Lightnings, 
and how Monstrous and Prodigious Things are 
to be Interpreted. 

Now, the soothsayings of flashes and lightnings, 
and of wonders, and how monstrous and prodigious 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 179 

things are to be interpreted, the prophets and priests 
of Hetruscus have taught the art. For they have 
ordained sixteen regions of the heavens and have 
ascribed Gods to every one of them, besides eleven 
kinds of lightning, and nine gods which should dart 
them forth, by showing rules for understanding the 
signification of them. But as often as monstrous, 
prodigious and wondrous things happen, they do 
presage, as is most certain, some great matter. Now, 
their interpreter must be some excellent conjector of 
similitudes, as also some curious searcher, and of 
them who at that time are employed about the affairs 
of princes and provinces. For the celestials take 
such care only for princes, peoples and provinces 
that before the rest they might be prefigured and ad- 
monished by stars, by constellations and by prodi- 
gies. Now, if the same thing, or the like, hath been 
seen in former ages, we must consider that very 
thing and what happened after that, and according 
to these, to foretell the same, or the like, because the 
same signs are for the same things, and the like for 
like. So prodigies have come before the birth and 
death of many eminent men and kings, as Cicero 
makes mention of Midas, a boy, into whose mouth 
whilst he was sleeping, the ant put corns of wheat, 
which was an omen of great riches. So bees sat up- 
on the mouth of Plato when he was sleeping in the 
cradle, by which was foretold the sweetness of his 
speech. Hecuba, when she was bringing forth Paris, 
saw a burning torch, which should set on fire Troy 
and all Asia. There appeared unto the mother of 
Phalaris the image of Mercury pouring forth blood 
upon the earth, with which the whole house was 
overflowed. The mother of Dionysius dreamed she 
brought forth a satyr, which prodigious dream the 
event that followed made good. The wife of Tar- 
quinius Priscus, seeing a flame lick the head of Ser- 
vius Tullius, foretold that he should have the king- 



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180 THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 

dom. In like manner, after Troy was taken, iEneas 
disputing with Anchises, his father, concerning a 
fight, there appeared a flame licking the head of the 
crown of Ascanius and doing him no hurt. Which 
thing, seeing it did portend the kingdom to Ascanius, 
persuaded him to depart, for monstrous prodigies 
did forerun great and eminent destruction. So we 
read in Pliny that M. Attilius and 0. Portius, being 
consuls, it rained milk and blood, which did presage 
that a very great pestilence should the next year 
overspread Eome. In Lucania it rained spongeous 
iron, and in the year before Marcus Crassus was 
slain in Parthia, with which, also, all the soldiers of 
Lucania, being a very numerous army, were slain. L. 
Paulus and C. Marcellus, being consuls, it rained 
wool about the castle of Corisanum, near which place, 
a year after, T. Annius was slain by Milus. And in 
the wars of Denmark, the noise of arms and the 
sound of a trumpet was heard in the air. And Livy, 
concerning the Macedonian wars, saith, in the year 
when Annibal died it rained blood for two days. 
Concerning the second Punic war, he saith that water 
mixed with blood came down from heaven like rain 
at the time when Annibal did spoil Italy. A little 
before the destruction of Leuctra, the Lacedemonians 
heard a noise of arms in the temple of Hercules, and 
at the same time in the temple of Hercules the doors 
that were shut with bars opened themselves, and the 
arms that were hanged on the wall were found on the 
ground. The like events may be prognosticated of 
other like things, as oftentimes in times past some- 
thing hath been foretold of them. But concerning 
these, also, the judgments of the celestial influences 
must not be neglected, concerning which we shall 
more largely treat in the following chapters. 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 181 



CHAPTEE LVII. 

Of Geomancy, Hydromancy, Aeromancy, and Pyro- 
mancy, Four Divinations of Elements. 

Moreover, the Elements themselves teach us fatal 
events; whence those four famous kinds of divina- 
tions, Geomancy, Hydromancy, Aeromancy, and 
Pyromancy, have got their names, of which the sor- 
ceress in Lucan seems to boast herself when she 
saith : 

The Earth, the Aire, the Chaos, and the Skie, 
The Seas, the Fields, the Rocks, and Mountains high 
Foretell the truth 

The first, therefore, is Geomancy, which foreshows 
future things by the motions of the earth, as also the 
noise, the swelling, the trembling, the chops, the pits, 
and exhalation, and other impressions thereof, the 
art of which Almadel, the Arabian, sets forth. But 
there is another kind of Geomancy which divines by 
points written upon the earth by a certain power in 
the fall of it, which is not of present speculation, but 
of that we shall speak hereafter. 

Now Hydromancy doth perform its presages by the 
impressions of waters, their ebbing and flowing, their 
increases, and depressions, their tempests, colors and 
the like ; to which, also, are added visions which are 
made in the waters. A kind of divination found by 
the Persians, as Varro reports, was that of a boy who 
saw in the water the effigies of Mercury, which fore- 
told, in a hundred and fifty verses, all the events of 
the war of Mithridates. We read, also, that Numa 
Pompilius practiced Hydromancy, for in the water he 
called up the gods and learned of them things to 
come. Which art also Pythagoras, a long time 
after Numa, practiced. There was of old a kind of 
Hydromancy had in great esteem amongst the As- 



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182 THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 

Syrians, and it was called Lecanomancy, from a skin 
full of water, upon which they put plates of gold and 
silver and precious stones written upon with certain 
images, names and characters. To this may be re- 
ferred that art by which lead and wax, being melted 
and cast into the water, do express manifest marks of 
images of those things we desire to know. There were 
also in former years fountains that did foretell 
things to come, as the fathers' fountain at Achaia, 
and that which was called the water of Juno, in 
Epidaurus ; but of these more in the following chap- 
ter, where we shall speak of Oracles. 

Hither also may be referred the divinMion of 
fishes, of which kind there was use made by the Ly- 
cians in a certain place which was called Dina, near 
the sea ; in a wood dedicated to Apollo, was a hollow 
in the dry sand, into which he that went to consult 
of future things let down roasted meat, and presently 
that place was filled with water and a great multitude 
of fish and strange shapes, unknown to men, did ap- 
pear; by the forms of which the prophet foretold 
what should come to pass. These things doth Athe- 
neus more at large relate in the history of the Ly- 
cians. 

After the same manner, also, doth Aeromancy di- 
vine by airy impressions, by the blowing of the winds, 
by rainbows, by circles round about the moon and 
stars, by mists and clouds, and by imagination in 
clouds and visions in the air. 

So also Pyromancy divines by fiery impressions, 
and by stars with long tails, by fiery colors, by visions 
and imaginations in the fire. So the wife of Cicero 
foretold that he would be consul the next year be- 
cause, when a certain man, after the sacrifice was 
ended, would look in the ashes, there suddenly broke 
forth a flame. Of this kind are those that Pliny 
speaks of — that terrene, pale and buzzing fires pre- 
sage tempests, circles about the snuffs of candles be- 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 183 

token rain, and if the flame fly, turning and winding, 
it portends wind. Also torches, when they strike the 
fire before them and are not kindled. Also when a 
coal sticks to a pot taken off from the fire, and when 
the fire casts off the ashes and sparkles; or when 
ashes are hard grown together on the hearth, and 
when a coal is very bright. 

To these is also added Capnomancy, so called from 
smoke, because it searcheth into the flame and smoke ; 
and thin colors, sounds and motions when they are 
carried upright, or on one side, or round, which we 
read of in these verses in Statius. 

Let Piety be bound, and on the Altar laid, 

Let us implore the Gods for divine aid. 

She makes acute, red, towering flames, and bright, 

Increas'd by th' aire, the middle being white; 

And then she makes the flames without all bound 

For to wind in and out, and to run round 

Like a Serpent 

Also in the iEthnean Caves and Fields of the 
Nymphs in Apollonia, auguries were taken from 
fires and flames — joyful, if they did receive what was 
cast into them, and sad, if they did reject them. But 
of these things we shall speak of in the following 
chapters, amongst the answers of the Oracles. 



CHAPTEE LVin. 

Op the Beviving of the Dead, and of Sleeping or 
Hibernating (wanting victuals) Many Years to- 
gether. 

The Arabian philosophers agree that some men 
may elevate themselves above the powers of their 
body and above their sensitive powers; and, those 
being surmounted, they receive into themselves — by 
the perfection of the Heavens and the Celestial in- 
telligences — A Divine Vigor. Seeing, therefore, that 



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184 THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 

all the Souls of men are perpetual, and, also, that all 
the Spirits obey the perfect Souls, Magicians think 
that perfect men may, by the powers of their soul, 
repair their dying bodies (with other inferior souls, 
newly separated) and inspire them again: As a 
weasel, that is killed, is made alive again by the 
breath and cry of his dam ; and as lions make alive 
their dead whelps by breathing upon them. And be- 
cause, as they say, all like things, being applied to 
their like, are made of the same natures ; and, also, 
every patient, subject, and thing that receives into 
itself the act of any agent is endowed with the nature 
of that agent and made conatural with it. Hence 
they think that to this vivification, or making alive, 
certain herbs, and Magical confections (such as, they 
say, are made of the ashes of the Phoenix and the 
cast skin of a Snake) do much conduce; which, in- 
deed, to many may seem fabulous, and to some im- 
possible, unless it could be accounted approved by 
an historical faith. For we read of some that have 
been drowned in water, others cast into the fire or 
put upon the fire, others slain in war, and others 
otherwise tried, and all these, after a few days were 
alive again, as Pliny testifies of Aviola, a man per- 
taining to the consul, of L. Lamia, Caelinus, Tubero, 
Corfidius, Gabienus, and many others. We read that 
iEsop, the tale-maker, Tindoreus, Hercules and Pa- 
licy, the sons of Jupiter, and Thalia, being dead, were 
raised to life again; also that many were, by phy- 
sicians and magicians, raised from death again, as 
the historians relate of iEsculapius; and we have 
above mentioned, out of Juba, and Xanthus and 
Philostratus, concerning Tillo, and a certain Ara- 
bian, and Apollonius the Tyanean. Also we read 
that Glaucus, a certain man that was dead, the herb 
dragon-wort restored to life. Some say that he re- 
vived by the putting into his body a medicine made 
of honey, whence the proverb, Glaucus was raised 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 185 

from death by taking honey into his body. Apu- 
leius, also, relating the manner of these kinds of 
restoring to life, saith of Zachla, the Egyptian pro- 
phet, that the prophet, being favorable, laid a certain 
herb upon the mouth of the body of a young man, 
being dead, and another upon his breast ; then, turn- 
ing toward the East, or rising of the propitious Sun, 
he prayed silently (a great assembly of people striv- 
ing to see it), when, in the first place, the breast of 
the dead man did heave, then a beating in his veins, 
then his body filled with breath, after which the body 
rose and the young man spoke. If these accounts 
are true, the dying souls must, sometimes lying hid 
in their bodies, be oppressed with vehement extasies 
and be freed from all bodily action ; so that the life, 
sense, and motion forsake the body, and also that the 
man is not yet truly dead, but lies astonied, and dead, 
as it were, for a certain time. And this is often 
found, that in times of pestilence many that are 
carried for dead to the graves to be buried, revive 
again. The same also hath often befell women by 
reason of fits of the mother. And Babbit Moises, out 
of the book of Galen, which Patriarcha translated, 
makes mention of a man who was suffocated for six 
days, and did neither eat nor drink, and his arteries 
became hard. And it is said, in the same book, that a 
certain man, being filled with water, lost the pulse of 
his whole body, so that the heart was not perceived 
to move, and he lay like a dead man. It is also said 
that a man, by reason of a fall from a high place, or 
great noise, or long staying under the water, may 
fall into a swoon, which may continue forty-eight 
hours, and so may lay as if he were dead, his face 
being very green. Arid in the same place there is 
mention made of a man that buried a man, who 
seemed to be dead, seventy-two hours after his 
seeming decease, and so killed him because he buried 
him alive ; and there are given signs whereby it may 



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186 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

be known who are alive, although they, seem to be 
dead, and, indeed, will die, unless there be some 
means to recover them, as phlebotomy, or some other 
cure. Ajid these are such as very seldom happen. 
This is the manner by which we understand magi- 
cians and physicians do raise dead men to life, as 
they that were tried by the stinging of serpents, 
were, by the nation of the Marsi and the Psilli, re- 
stored to life. We may conceive that such kind of 
extasies may continue a long time, although a man 
be not truly dead, as it is in dormice and crocodiles 
and many other serpents, which sleep all winter, and 
are in such a dead sleep that they can scarce be 
awakened with fire. And I have often seen a dor- 
mouse dissected and continue immovable, as if she 
were dead, until she was boiled, and when put into 
boiling water the dissected members did show life. 
And, although it be hard to be believed, we read in 
some approved historians, that some men have slept 
for many years together; and, in the time of sleep 
until they awaked, there was no alteration in them 
so as to make them seem older. The same doth 
Pliny testify of a certain boy, whom, he saith, be- 
ing wearied with heat and his journey, slept fifty- 
seven years in a cave. We read, also, that Epimen- 
ides Gnosius slept fifty-seven years in a cave. Hence 
the proverb arose — to outsleep Epimenides. M. Da- 
mascenus tells that in his time a certain coijntryman 
in Germany, being wearied, slept for the space of a 
whole autumn and the winter following, under a heap 
of hay, until the summer, when the hay began to be 
eaten up; then he was found awakened as a man half 
dead and out of his wits. Ecclesiastical histories 
confirm this opinion concerning the seven sleepers, 
whom they say slept 196 years. There was in Nor- 
vegia a cave in a high sea shore, where, as Paulus 
Diaconus and Methodius, the martyr, write, seven 
men lay sleeping a long time without corruption, and 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 187 

the people that went in to disturb them were con- 
tracted or drawn together, so that after a while, be- 
ing forewarned by that punishment, they dared not 
disturb them. Xenocrates, a man of no mean repute 
amongst philosophers, was of the opinion that this 
long sleeping was appointed by God as a punishment 
for some certain sins. But Marcus Damascenus 
proves it, by many reasons, to be possible and natural, 
neither doth he think it irrational that some should, 
without meat and drink, avoiding excitements, and 
without consuming or corruption, sleep many months. 
And this may befall a man by reason of some poison- 
ous potion, or sleepy disease, or such like causes, for 
certain days, months or years, according to the in- 
tention or remission of the power of the medicine, or 
of the passions of their mind. Physicians say that 
there are some antidotes, of which they that take too 
great a potion shall be able to endure hunger a long 
time ; as Elias, in former time, being fed with a cer- 
tain food by an angel, walked and fasted in the 
strength of that meat forty days. And John Boca- 
tius makes mention of a man in his time, in Venice, 
who would every year fast four days without any 
meat ; also, a greater wonder, that there was a woman 
in lower Germany, at the same time, who took no 
food till the thirteenth year of her age, which, to 
us, may seem incredible, but that he confirmed it. 
He also tells of a miracle of our age, that his brother, 
Nicolaus Stone, an Helvetian by nation, who lived 
over twenty years in the wilderness without meat 
till he died. That also is wonderful which Theo- 
prastus mentions concerning a certain man, called 
Philinus, who used no meat or drink besides milk. 
And there are also grave authors who describe a 
certain herb of Sparta, with which, they say, the 
Scythians can endure twelve days' hunger, without 
meat or drink, if they do but taste it, or hold it in 
their mouth. 



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188 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

CHAPTEE LIX. 

Of Divination by Dbeams. 

Thebb is also a certain kind of divination by 
dreams which is confirmed by the traditions of philos- 
ophers, the authorities of divines, the examples of 
histories and by daily experience. By dreams I do 
not mean vain and idle imaginations, for they are 
useless and have no divination in them, but arise from 
the remains of watchings, and disturbance of the 
body. For, as the mind is taken up about and wearied 
with cares, it suggests itself to him that is asleep. I 
call that a true dream which is caused by the celes- 
tial influences in the phantastic spirit, mind or body, 
being all well disposed. The rule of interpreting 
these is found amongst astrologers, in that part 
which is wrote concerning questions : but yet that is 
not sufficient, because these kinds of dreams come by 
use to divers men after divers manners, and accord- 
ing to the divers qualities and dispositions of the 
phantastic spirit. Wherefore, there cannot be given 
one common rule to all for the interpretation of 
dreams. But, according to the doctrine of Synesius, 
seeing there are the same accidents to things, and 
like befalls like, so he which hath often fallen upon 
the same visible thing, hath assigned to himself the 
same opinion, passion, fortune, action, and event. As 
Aristotle saith, the memory is confirmed by sense, 
and by keeping in memory the same thing, knowledge 
is obtained; as also, by the knowledge of many ex- 
periences, by little and little, arts and sciences are 
thus obtained. After the same account you must 
conceive of dreams. Whence Synesius commands 
that every one should observe his dreams and their 
events, and such like rules, viz., to commit to memory 
all things that are seen, and accidents that befall, as 
well in sleep as in watching, and with a diligent ob- 



^ 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 189 

serration consider with himself the rules by which 
these are to be examined; for by this means shall a 
diviner be able, by little and little, to interpret his 
dreams, if so be nothing slip out of his memory. Now, 
dreams are more efficacious when the Moon overruns 
that Sign which was in the ninth number* of the na- 
tivity, or revolution of that year,f or in the ninth 
Sign from the Sign of Perfection.^ For it is a most 
true and certain divination, neither doth it proceed 
from nature or human arts, but from purified minds, 
by divine inspiration. We shall now discuss and ex- 
amine Prophesying and Oracles. 



CHAPTEE LX 

Of Madness, and Divinations which are made when 
men abe awake, and of the power of a melan- 
CHOLY Humor, by which Spirits are sometimes in- 
duced into Men's Bodies. 

It happens also, sometimes, that not only they that 
are asleep, but also they that are watchful, do, with 
a kind of instigation of mind, divine ; which divina- 
tion Aristotle calls ravishment, or a kind of madness, 
and teacheth that it proceeds from a melancholy hu- 
mor, saying in his treaties of divination: Melan- 
choly men, by reason of their earnestness, do far 
better conjecture, and quickly conceive a habit, and 
most easily receive an impression of the celestials. 
And he, in his Problems, saith that the Sibyls, and 
the Bacchides, and Niceratus the Syracusan, and 
Ammon, were, by their natural melancholy complex- 

* "Ninth Number." — The Ninth House of the Horoscope, known as the 
House of Science and Religion. 

t "Revolution."— When the Sun has attained, as to the Earth, its 
•rlginal position, or the place it occupied at the moment of birth. 

% "Sign of Perfection." — This is the First House of the Horoscope : that 
House of the "Heaven," or Zodiac, "rising" at birth ; the eastern horizon. 



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190 THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATUEAL MAGIC 

ion, prophets and poets. The cause, therefore, of 
this madness, if it be anything within the body, is 
a melancholy humor ; not that which they call black 
choler, which is so obstinate and terrible a thing, 
that the violence of it is said, by physicians and 
natural philosophers (besides madness, which it doth 
induce), to draw or entice evil spirits to seize upon 
men's bodies. Therefore, we understands melan- 
choly humor here, to be a natural and white choler, 
For this, when it is stirred up, burns, and stirs up 
a madness conducing to knowledge and divination, 
especially if it be helped by any celestial influx, es- 
pecially of Saturn, who (seeing he is cold and dry, 
as is a melancholy humor, hath his influence upon 
it) increaseth and preserveth it. Besides, seeing 
he is the author of secret contemplation, and 
estranged from all public affairs, and the highest of 
all the planets, he doth, as he withcalls his mind from 
outward business, so also make it ascend higher, and 
bestows upon men the knowledge and presages of 
future things. And this is Aristotle's meaning, in 
his book of Problems. By melancholy, saith he, some 
men are made, as it were, divine, foretelling things 
to come ; and some men are made poets. He saith, 
also, that all men that were excellent in any science, 
were, for the most part, melancholy. Democritus 
and Plato attest the same, saying that there were 
some melancholy men that had such excellent wits 
that they were thought and seemed to be more divine 
than human. So also there have been many melan- 
choly men at first rude, ignorant and untractable, as 
they say Tynnichus, Hesiod, Ion, Calcinenses, Homer, 
and Lucretius were, who on a sudden were taken 
with a madness and became poets, and prophesied 
wonderful and divine things, which they themselves 
scarce understood. Whence Plato, in Ion, saith 
that many prophets, after the violence of their mad- 
ness was abated, do not well understand what they 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 191 

wrote, yet treated accurately of each art in their 
madness ; as all artists, by reading of them, judge. 
So great also, they say, the power of melancholy is 
of, that, by its force, celestial spirits also are some- 
times drawn into men's bodies, by whose presence 
and instinct, antiquity testifies, men have been made 
drunk and spake most wonderful things. And this 
thing, they think, happens under a three-fold differ- 
ence, according to a three-fold apprehension of the 
soul, viz., imaginative, rational, and mental; they say, 
therefore, that when the mind is forced with a melan- 
choly humor, nothing moderating the power of the 
body, and, passing beyond the bounds of the mem- 
bers, is wholly carried into imagination, it doth sud- 
denly become a seat for inferior spirits, by which the 
mind oftentimes receives wonderful ways and forms 
of manual arts. So we see that any most ignorant man 
doth presently become an excellent painter, or con- 
triver of building, and to become a master in any such 
art. But when these kinds of spirits portend to us 
future things they show those things which belong to 
the disturbing of the Elements and changes of 
times, as rain, tempests, inundations, earthquakes, 
slaughter, great mortality, famine, and the like. As 
we read in Aulus Gelius that his priest, Cornelius 
Patrarus, did, at the time when Caesar and Pompey 
were to fight in Thessalia, being taken with a mad- 
ness, foretell the time, order and issue of the battle. 
But when the mind is turned wholly into reason it be- 
comes a receptacle for middle world spirits. Hence 
it obtains the knowledge and understanding of nat- 
ural and human things. So we see that a man some- 
times doth on a sudden become a philosopher, physi- 
cian, or an orator, and foretells mutations of king- 
doms, and restitutions of ages, and such things as 
belong to them, as did the Sibyl to the Komans. But 
when the mind is wholly elevated into the under- 
standing, then it becomes a receptacle of sublime 



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192 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

spirits and learns of them the secrets of divine 
things, such as the Law of God, and the Orders of 
Angels, and such things as belong to the knowledge 
of things eternal and the ascent of souls. It fore- 
sees things which are appointed by predestination, 
such as future prodigies or miracles, the prophet to 
come, and the changing of the law. So the Sibyls 
prophesied of Christ a long time before his coming. 
So Virgil, understanding that Christ was at hand 
and remembering what the Sibyl, Cumaea, had said, 
sang thus to Pollio : 



Last times are come, Cumaea 's prophesii 
Now from high heaven springs a new progenie, 
And times Great Order now again is born, 
The Maid returns, Saturnian Realms return. 

And, a little after, intimating that original sin 
shall be of no effect, he saith : 

If any prints of our old vice remain M 
By thee they're void, and fear shall leave the Land; 
He a God's life shall take, with Gods shall see 
Mixt Heroes, and himself their object be; 
Eule with paternal power th' appeased Earth 
He shall 

Then he adds, that thence the fall of the Serpent, 
and the poison of the tree of death, or of the knowl- 
edge of good and evil, shall be nulled, saying: 

The Serpent shall 

And the deceitful Herb of Venom fall. 

Yet he intimates that some sparks of original sin 
shall remain, when he saith : 

Some steps of ancient fraud shall yet be found. 

And at last with a most great hyperbole cries out 
to his child, as the offspring of God, adoring him in 
these words : 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 193 

Dear race of Gods, great stock of Jupiter, 
Behold! the World shakes on its ponderous axe, 
See earth, and heavens immense, and Ocean tracts, 
How all things at th 1 approaching Age rejoice! 
O, that my life would last so long, and voice, 
As would suffice thy actions to rehearse. 

There are also some prognostics which are in the 
middle, betwixt natural and supernatural divination, 
as in those who are near to death, and, being weak- 
ened with old age, do sometimes foresee things to 
come, because, as saith Plato, by how much the more 
men are less hindered by their sense, so much the 
more accurately they understand, and because they 
are nearer to the place whither they must go (and 
their bonds being, as it were, a little loosed, seeing 
they are no more subject to the body) easily perceive 
the light of divine revelation. 



CHAPTER LXI. 

Of the Forming op Man, op the External Senses, 
also those inward, and the mlnd; and of the 
Three-fold Appetite of the Soul, and Passions 
of the Will. 

It is the opinion of some divines that God did not 
immediately create the body of man, but by the assist- 
ance of the heavenly spirits compounded and framed 
him ; which opinion Alcinous and Plato favor, think- 
ing that God is the chief creator of the whole world, 
and of spirits, both good and bad, and therefore, im- 
mortalized them ; but that all kinds of mortal animals 
were made only at the command of God; for, if he 
should have created them, they must have been im- 
mortal. The spirits, therefore, mixing Earth, Fire, 
Air, and Water together, made of them all, put to- 
gether, one body, which they subjected to the service 
of the soul, assigning in it several provinces to each 
power thereof; to the meaner of them, mean and low 



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194 THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 

places : as to anger, the midriff ; to desire, the womb ; 
but to the more noble senses, the head — as the tower 
of the whole body — and then the manifold organs of 
speech. They divide the senses into the external and 
internal. The external are divided into five, known 
to every one, to which there are allotted five organs, 
or subjects, as it were foundations; being so ordered 
that they which are placed in the more eminent part 
of the body, have a greater degree of purity. For 
the eyes, placed in the uppermost place, are the most 
pure, and have an affinity with the nature of Fire and 
Light ; then the ears have the second order of place 
and purity, and are compared to the Air ; the nostrils 
have the third order, and have a middle nature be- 
twixt the Air and the Water. Then the organ of 
tasting, which is grosser, and most like to the nature 
of Water. Last of all the touching is diffused through 
the whole body, and is compared to the grossness of 
Earth. The more pure senses are those which per- 
ceive their objects farthest off, as seeing and hear- 
ing ; then the smelling, then the taste, which doth not 
perceive but that which is nigh. But the touch per- 
ceives both ways, for it perceives bodies nigh; and 
as sight discerns by the medium of the Air, so the 
touch perceives, by the medium of a stick or pole, 
bodies hard, soft and moist. Now the touch only is 
common to all animals. And it is most certain that 
man hath this sense, and, in this and taste, he excels 
all other animals; but in the other three, he is ex- 
celled by some animals, as by a dog, who hears, sees 
and smells more acutely than man ; and the lynx and 
eagles see more acutely than all other animals and 
man. Now the interior senses are, according toAver- 
rois, divided into four, whereof the first is called com- 
mon sense, because it doth first collect and perfect 
all the representations which are drawn in by the out- 
ward senses. The second is the imaginative power, 
whose office is, seeing it represents nothing, to retain 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 195 

those representations which are received by the 
former senses, and to present them to the third 
faculty of inward sense, which is the phantasy, or 
power of judging, whose work is also to perceive 
and judge by the representations received, what, or 
what kind of thing that is of which the representa- 
tions are; and to commit those things which are 
thus discerned and adjudged, to the memory to be 
kept. For the virtues thereof in general, are dis- 
course, dispositions, persecutions, and fights, and 
stirrings up to action, but in particular, the under- 
standing of intellectuals, virtues, the manner of dis- 
cipline, counsel, and election. This is that which 
shows us future things by dreams, whence the fancy 
is sometimes named the phantastical intellect. For 
it is the last impression of the understanding, which, 
as saith Iamblicus, is that belonging to all the powers 
of the mind, and forms all figures, resemblances of 
species, and operations, and things seen, and sends 
forth the impressions of other powers unto others. 
And those things which appear by sense, it stirs up 
into an opinion ; but those things which appear by the 
intellect, in the second place, it offers to opinion ; but 
of itself it receives images from all, and by its prop- 
erty, doth properly assign them, according to their 
assimilation ; it forms all the actions of the soul, and 
accommodates the external to the internal and im- 
presses the body with its impression. Now these 
senses have their organs in the head, for the common 
sense and imagination take up the two forward cells 
of the brain, although Aristotle placeth the organ of 
the common sense in the heart; but the cogitative 
power possesseth the highest and middle part of the 
head; and, lastly, the memory the hindmost part 
thereof. Moreover, the organs of voice and speech 
are many, as the inward muscles of the breast be- 
twixt the ribs, the breasts, the lungs, the arteries, the 
windpipe, the bowing of the tongue, and all those 



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196 THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 

parts and muscles that serve for breathing. But the 
proper organ of speech is the mouth, in which are 
framed words and speeches, the tongue, the teeth, 
the lips, the palate and the like. Above the sensible 
soul, which expresseth its powers by the organs of 
the body, the incorporeal mind possesseth the highest 
place, and it hath a double nature — the one, which 
inquireth into the causes, properties, and progress 
of those things which are contained in the Order of 
Nature, and is content in the contemplation of the 
truth, which is, therefore called the contemplative 
intellect. The other is a power of the mind which, 
discerning by consulting what things are to be done 
and what is to be shunned, is wholly taken up in 
consultation and action, and is therefore called the 
active intellect. This order of powers, therefore, 
Nature ordained in man, that by the external senses 
we might know corporeal things, and by those in- 
ternal the representations of bodies, as also things 
abstracted by the mind and intellect, which are 
neither bodies nor any thing like them. And, accord- 
ing to this three-fold order of the powers of the soul, 
there are three Appetites in the soul: The first is 
natural, and is an inclination of nature unto its end, 
as of a stone downward, which is in all stones ; an- 
other is animal, which the sense follows, and it is 
divided into that irascible and that concupiscible ; the 
third is intellectual, and is called the will, differing 
from the sensitive faculty in that the sensitive is, 
of itself, of those things which may be presented to 
the senses, desiring nothing unless in some manner 
comprehended. But the will, although it be of itself 
of all things that are possible, yet, because it is free 
by its essence, it may be also of things that are im- 
possible, as it was in the devil (desiring himself to 
be equal with God) and, therefore, is altered and 
depraved with pleasure and with continual anguish, 
whilst it assents to the inferior powers. Whence, 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 197 

from its depraved appetite, there arise four passions 
in it, with which, in like manner, the body is affected 
sometimes. Whereof the first is called oblectation, 
which is a certain quietness or assentation of the 
mind or will, because it obeys, and not willingly con- 
sents to that pleasantness which the senses hold forth ; 
which is, therefore, defined to be an inclination of the 
mind to an effeminate pleasure. The second is called 
effusion, which is a remission of, or dissolution of 
the power, viz., when beyond the oblectation, the 
whole power of the mind and intention of the present 
good is melted, and diffuseth itself to enjoy it. The 
third is vaunting and loftiness, thinking itself to have 
attained to some great good, in the enjoyment of 
which it prides itself and glorieth. The fourth and 
the last is envy, or a certain kind of pleasure or de- 
light at another man's harm, without any advantage 
to itself. It is said to be without any advantage to 
itself, because, if any one should, for his own profit, 
rejoice at another man's harm, this would be rather 
out of love to himself than out of ill will to another. 
And all these four passions, arising from a depraved 
appetite for pleasure, the grief or perplexity itself 
doth also beget very many contrary passions, as 
horror, sadness, fear, and sorrow at another's good 
without his own hurt, which we call envy, or sadness 
at another's prosperity, just as pity is a certain kind 
of sadness at another's misery. 



CHAPTEE LXn. 

Of the Passions op the Mind, their Original Source, 
Differences, and Kinds. 

The passions of the human mind are nothing else 
but certain motions or inclinations proceeding from 
the apprehension of any thing, as of good or evil, 
convenient or inconvenient. Now these kind of ap- 



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198 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

prehensions are of three sorts, viz., Sensual, Ra- 
tional, and Intellectual. According to these three are 
three sorts of passions in the soul; for when they 
follow the sensitive apprehension then they respect 
a temporary good or evil, under the notion of profit- 
able or unprofitable, or delightful or offensive, and 
are called natural or animal passions. When they 
follow the rational apprehension, and so respect 
good or bad, under the notions of virtue or vice, 
praise or disgrace, profitable or unprofitable, or hon- 
est or dishonest, they are called rational or voluntary 
passions. When they follow the intellectual appre- 
hension, and respect good or bad, under the notion 
of just or unjust, or true or false, they are called in- 
tellectual passions, or syncrisis, the faculty of choos- 
ing from comparison. Now, the subject of the pas- 
sions of the soul is the concupitive power of the soul, 
and is divided into that concupiscible and that irasci- 
ble, and both respect good and bad, but under a 
different notion. For when the concupiscible power 
respects good and evil absolutely, love or lust, or, 
on the contrary, hatred is caused. When it respects 
good, though absent, so desire is caused; or evil, 
though absent or at hand, and so is caused horror, 
flying from, or loathing; or, if it respects good, 
though present, then there is caused delight, mirth 
or pleasure; but if evil, though present, then sad- 
ness, anxiety, or grief; but the irascible power re- 
spects good or bad, under the notion of some diffi- 
culty, to obtain the one, or to avoid the other, and 
this sometimes with confidence. And so there is 
caused hope or boldness ; but when with diffidency, 
then despair and fear. But when that irascible pow- 
er riseth into revenge, and this be only about some 
evil past, as it were, of injury or hurt offered, there 
is caused anger. Aid so we find eleven passions in 
the mind, which are: love, hatred, desire, horror, 
j°y> grief, hope, despair, boldness, fear, and anger. 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 199 



CHAPTER LXIIL 

How the Passions op the Mind Change the Proper 
Body by Changing Its Accidents and Moving the 
Spirit. 

The phantasy, or imaginative power, hath a ruling 
power over the passions of the soul when they follow 
the sensual apprehension. For this doth, of its own 
power, according to the diversity of the passions, 
first of all, change the proper body with a sensible 
transmutation, by changing the accidents in the body, 
and by moving the spirit upward or downward, in- 
ward or outward, and by producing divers qualities 
in the members. So in joy, the spirits are driven 
outward; in fear, drawn back; in bashfulness, are 
moved to the brain. So in joy, the heart is dilated 
outward, by little and little; in sadness, is con- 
strained, by little and little, inward. After the 
same manner in anger or fear, but suddenly. Again 
anger, or desire of revenge, produceth heat, redness, 
a bitter taste and a looseness. Fear induceth cold, 
trembling of the heart, speechlessness and paleness. 
Sadness causeth sweat and a bluish whiteness. Pity, 
which is a kind of sadness, doth often ill affect the 
body of him that takes pity, though it seems to be 
the body of another man so affected. Also, it is 
manifest that amongst some lovers there is such a 
strong tie of love that what the one suffers the other 
suffers. Anxiety induceth dryness and blackness. 
And how great heats love stirs up in the liver and 
pulse, physicians know, divining by that kind of 
judgment the name of the one that is so beloved in 
an heroic passion. So Naustratus knew that Antio- 
chus was taken with the love of Stratonica, It is 
also manifest that such like passions, when they 
are most vehement, may cause death. And this 
is manifest to all men, that with too much joy, sad- 



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200 THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 

ness, love, hatred, men many times die, and are 
sometimes freed from a disease. And so we read 
that Sophocles, and Dionysius, the Sicilian tyrant, 
did both suddenly die at the news of a tragical vic- 
tory. So a certain woman, also, seeing her son re- 
turning from the Canensian battle, died suddenly. 
Now, what sadness can do is known to all. We know 
that dogs oftentimes die with sadness because of 
the death of their masters. Sometimes, also, by rea- 
son of these like passions, long diseases follow, and 
are sometimes cured. So, also, some men looking 
from a high place, by reason of great fear, tremble, 
are dim-sighted and weakened, and sometimes lose 
their senses. So fears and falling-sickness some- 
times follow sobbing. Sometimes wonderful effects 
are produced, as in the son of Croesus, whom his 
mother brought forth dumb, yet a vehement fear and 
ardent affection made him speak, which naturally 
he could never do. So with a sudden fall, oftentimes 
life, sense, or motion, on a sudden, leave the mem- 
bers, and presently again, are sometimes returned. 
And how much vehement anger, joined with great 
audacity, can do, Alexander the Great shows, who, 
being circumvented with a battle in India, was seen to 
send forth from himself lightning and fire; the 
father of Theodoricus is said to have sent forth out 
of his body sparks of fire, so that sparkling flames 
did leap out with a noise. And such like things 
sometimes appear in beasts, as in the horse of 
Tiberius, which was said to send forth a flame out 
of his mouth. 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 201 



CHAPTEE LXIV. 

How the Passions of the Mind Change the Body 
by Way of Imitation Fbom Some Resemblance ; of 
the Tbansfobming and Translating of Men, and 
What Force the Imaginative Power Hath, Not 
Only Over the Body But the Soul. 

The foresaid passions sometimes alter the body by- 
reason of the virtue which the likeness of the thing 
hath to change it, which power the vehement imagi- 
nation moves, as in setting the teeth on edge at the 
sight or hearing of something, or because we see, or 
imagine, another to eat sharp or sour things. So he, 
which sees another gape, gapes also ; and some, when 
they hear any one name sour things, their tongues 
waxeth tart. Also, the seeing of any filthy thing 
causeth nauseousness. Many, at the sight of a man's 
blood, fall into a swoon. Some, when they see bitter 
meat given to any, perceive a bitter spittle in their 
mouth. And William of Paris saith that he saw a 
man, that at the sight of a medicine, was affected as 
much as he pleased ; when, as neither the substance of 
the medicine, nor the odor, nor the taste of it came to 
him, but only a kind of resemblance was apprehended 
by him. Upon this account, some that are in a dream 
think they burn and are in a fire, and are fearfully 
tormented, as if they did truly burn, when, as the 
substance of the fire is not near them, but only a 
resemblance apprehended by their imagination. And 
sometimes men's bodies are transformed, and trans- 
figured, and also transported; and this oft times 
when they are in a dream, and sometimes when they 
are awake. So Cyprus, after he was chosen king of 
Italy, did very much wonder at and meditate upon 
the fight and victory of bulls, and in the thought 
thereof did sleep a whole night, and in the morning 



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202 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

he was found horned, no otherwise than by the vege- 
tative power, being stirred up by a vehement imagi- 
nation, elevating cornific humors into his head and 
producing horns. For a vehement cogitation, whilst 
it vehemently moves the species, pictures out the 
figure of the thing thought on, which they represent 
in their blood, and the blood impresseth the figure 
on the members that are nourished by it; as upon 
those of the same body, so upon those of another s. 
So the imagination of a woman with child impresseth 
the mark of the thing longed for upon her infant, and 
the imagination of a man, bit with a mad dog, im- 
presseth upon his body the image of dogs. So men 
may grow gray on a sudden. And some, by the 
dream of one night, have grown up from boys into 
perfect men. Hereto, also, may be referred those 
many scars of King Dagobertus, and marks of Fran- 
ciscus, which they received — the one, whilst he was 
afraid of correction, and the other, whilst he did 
wonderfully meditate upon the wounds of Christ. 
So, many are transported from place to place, pass- 
ing over rivers, fires and unpassable places, viz., 
when the species of any vehement desire, or fear, 
or boldness, are impresed upon their spirits, and, 
being mixed with vapors, do move the organ of the 
touch in their original, together with phantasy, which 
is the original of local motion. Whence they stir up the 
members and organs of motion to motion, and are 
moved, without any mistake, unto the imagined place, 
not out of sight, but from the interior phantasy. So 
great a power is there of the soul upon the body, 
that whichever way the soul imagines and dreams 
that it goes, thither doth it lead the body. We read 
many other examples by which the power of the soul 
upon the body is wonderfully explained, as like that 
which Avicen describes of a certain man, who, when 
he pleased, could affect his body with the palsy. They 
report of Gallus Vibius that he did fall into madness, 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 203 

not casually, but on purpose, for, whilst he did 
imitate madmen, he assimilated their madness to 
himself and became mad indeed. And Austin makes 
mention of some men who could move their ears at 
their pleasure, and some that could move the crown 
of their head to their forehead and could draw it back 
again when they pleased, and of another that could 
sweat at his pleasure. And it is well known that 
some can weep at their pleasure, and pour forth 
abundance of tears; and there are some that can 
bring up what they have swallowed, when they 
please, as out of a bag, by degrees. And we see that 
in these days there are many who can so imitate and 
express the voices of birds, cattle, dogs, and some 
men, that they can scarce at all be discerned. Also 
Pliny relates, by divers examples, that women have 
been turned into men. Pontanus testifieth that in his 
time, a certain woman called Caietava, and another 
one called Aemilia, who, many years after they were 
married, were changed into men. Now, how much 
imagination can affect the soul no man is ignorant, 
for it is nearer to the substance of the soul than the 
sense is, and therefore acts more upon the soul than 
the sense doth. So women, by certain strong imagi- 
nations, dreams, and suggestions, brought in by cer- 
tain magical arts, do often bind themselves into a 
strong affection for any one. So they say that 
Medea, by a dream, was filled with love for Jason. 
So the soul sometimes is, by a vehement imagination 
or speculation, altogether abstracted from the body, 
as Celsus relates of a certain presbyter, who, as often 
as he pleased, could make himself senseless and lay 
like a dead man, so that when any one pricked or 
burnt him he felt no pain, but lay without any mo- 
tion or breathing; yet he could, as he said, hear men's 
voices, as it were, afar off, if they cried out aloud. 



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204 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 



CHAPTER LXV. 

How the Passions op the Mind can Wobk op Them- 
selves Upon Another's Body. 

The passions of the soul which follow the phan- 
tasy when they are most vehement, cannot only 
change their own body, but also can transcend so as 
to work upon another body ; so that some wonderful 
impressions are thence produced in elements and 
extrinsical things, and they can thus take away or 
bring some disease of the mind or body. For the 
passions of the soul are the chiefest cause of the 
temperament of its proper body. So the soul, being 
strongly elevated, and inflamed with a strong imagi- 
nation, sends forth health or sickness, not only in its 
proper body, but also in other bodies. So Avicen is 
of the opinion that a camel may fall by the imagina- 
tion of any one. So he who is bitten with a mad dog 
presently falls into a madness, and there appear 
in his body the shapes of dogs. So the longing of a 
woman with child doth act upon another's body 
when it signs the infant in the womb with the mark 
of the thing she longs for. So many monstrous gen- 
erations proceed from monstrous imaginations of 
women with child, as Marcus Damascenus reports 
that at Petra Saneta, a town situated upon the ter- 
ritories of Pisa, there was a wench presented to 
Charles, king of Bohemia, who was rough and hairy 
all over her body, like a wild beast, whom her mother, 
affected with a religious kind of horror by the picture 
of John the Baptist (which was in the chamber she 
occupied), afterwards brought her forth after this 
fashion. And this, we see, is not only in men, but 
also is done among brute creatures. So we read that 
Jacob, the patriarch, with his speckled rods set in 
the watering places, did discolor the sheep of Laban. 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 205 

So the imaginative powers of peacocks, and other 
birds, whilst they be mating, impress a color upon 
their wings. Whence we produce white peacocks, 
by hanging white clothes round the places where they 
mate. Now, by the above examples, it appears how 
the affection of the phantasy, when it vehemently in- 
tends itself, doth not only affect its own proper body, 
but also anothers. So also the desire of witches 
to hurt doth bewitch men most perniciously with 
steadfast looks. To these things Avicen, Aristotle, 
Algazel, and Gallen assent. For it is manifest that 
a body may most easily be affected with the vapor 
of another's diseased body, which we plainly see in 
the plague and leprosy. Again, in the vapor of the 
eyes there is so great a power that they can bewitch 
and infect any that are near them, as the cockatrice 
or basilisk which kill men with their looks. And 
certain women in Scythia, amongst the Ulyrians and 
Triballi, killed whomsoever they looked angry upon. 
Therefore, let no man wonder that the body and soul 
of one may, in like manner, be affected with the mind 
of another, seeing the mind is far more powerful, 
strong, fervent, and more prevalent in its motion 
than the vapors exhaling out of bodies ; neither are 
there wanting mediums by which it should work, 
neither is another's body less subject to another's 
mind than to another's body. Upon this account, 
they say that a man, by his affection and habit only, 
may act upon another. Therefore, philosophers ad- 
vise that the society of evil and mischievous men 
must be shunned, for their soul, being full of noxious 
rays, infects them that are near with a hurtful con- 
tagion. On the contrary, they advise that the society 
of good and fortunate men be endeavored after, be- 
cause by their nearness they do us much good. For 
as the smell of musk doth penetrate, so something 
of either bad or good is derived from anything bad 
or good by those that are nigh to them ; which may 



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206 THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 

continue a long time. Now, if the foresaid passions 
have so great a power in the phantasy, they have 
certainly a greater power in the reason, in as much 
as the reason is more excellent than the phantasy; 
and, lastly, they have much greater power in the 
mind; for this, when it is fixed upon God for any 
good with its whole intention, doth oftentimes affect 
another's body, as well as its own, with some divine 
gift. By this means we read that many miracles 
were done by Apollonius, Pythagoras, Empedocles, 
Philolaus, and many prophets and holy men of our 
religion, which things we shall now consider. 



CHAPTEE LXVI. 

That the Passions of the Mind Abb Helped by a 
Celestial Season, and How Necessaby the Con- 
stancy of the Mind Is in Eveby Wobk. 

The passions of the mind are much helped, and are 
helpful, and become most powerful by virtue of the 
Heavens, as they agree with the Heaven, either by 
any natural agreement or by voluntary election. For, 
as saith Ptolemy, he which chooseth that which is the 
better seems to differ nothing from him who hath 
this by nature. It conduceth, therefore, very much 
for the receiving of the benefit of the Heavens, in 
any work, if we shall, by the Heaven, make ourselves 
suitable to it in our thoughts, affections, imagina- 
tions, deliberations, elections, contemplations, and 
the like. For such like passions do vehemently stir 
up our spirit to the likeness of the Heavens and ex- 
pose us and ours straightway to the Superior Signifi- 
cators of such like passions ; and, also, by reason of 
their dignity and nearness to the Superiors do much 
more partake of the Celestials than any other ma- 
terial things. For our mind can, through imagina- 
tion or by reason of a kind of imitation, be so con- 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 207 

formed to any Star as suddenly to be filled with the 
virtues of that Star, as if it were a proper receptacle 
of the influence thereof. Now, the contemplating 
mind, as it withdraws itself from all sense, imagina- 
tion, nature, and deliberation, and calls itself back 
to things separated, unless it exposeth itself to Saturn, 
is not of present consideration or enquiry. For our 
mind doth effect divers things by faith (which is a 
firm adhesion, a fixed intention, and a vehement ap- 
plication of the worker, or receiver) to him that co- 
operates in any thing, and gives power to the work 
which we intend to do. So that there is made, as 
it were, in us, the image of the virtue to be received, 
and the thing to be done in us, or by us. We must, 
therefore, in every work and application of things, 
affect vehemently, imagine, hope, and believe strong- 
ly, for that will be a great help. And it is verified 
amongst physicians, that a strong belief, and an un- 
doubted hope and love towards the physician and 
medicine, conduce much to health ; yea, more, some- 
times, than the medicine itself. For the same that 
the efficacy and virtue of the medicine works, the 
same doth the strong imagination of the physician 
work, being able to change the qualities in the body 
of the sick, especially when the patient placeth much 
confidence in the physician, by that means disposing 
himself for the receiving of the virtue of the physi- 
cian and physic. Therefore, he that works in Magic 
must be of a constant belief, be credulous, and not at 
all doubtful of obtaining the effect. For, as a firm 
and strong belief doth work wonderful things, al- 
though it be in false works, so distrust and doubting 
doth dissipate and break the virtue of the mind of 
the worker, which is the medium between both ex- 
tremes; whence it happens that he is frustrated of 
the desired influence of the superiors, which could 
not be joined and united to our labors without a firm 
and solid virtue of our mind. 



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208 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 



CHAPTER LXVn. 

How the Mind of Man May Be Joined With the 
Mind of the Stabs, and Intelligences of the 
Celestials, and, Together With Them, Impress 
Certain Wonderful Virtues Upon Inferior 
Things. 

The philosophers, especially the Arabians, say 
that man's mind, when it is most intent upon any 
work, through its passion and effects, is joined with 
the mind of the stars and intelligences; and, being 
so joined, is the cause of some wonderful virtue be- 
ing infused into our works and things; and this, be- 
cause there is in the mind an apprehension and power 
of all things, so all things have a natural obedience 
to it, and of necessity an efficacy ; and more to that 
which desires them with a strong desire. And ac- 
cording to this is verified the art of characters, im- 
ages, enchantments, and some speeches, and many 
other wonderful experiments as to everything which 
the mind affects. By this means, whatsoever the 
mind of him that is in vehement love, affects, hath 
an efficacy to cause love; and whatsoever the mind 
of him that strongly hates, dictates, hath an efficacy 
to hurt and destroy. The like is in other things, 
which the mind affects with a strong desire. For 
all those things which the mind acts and dictates 
by characters, figures, words, speeches, gestures, and 
the like, help the appetite of the soul and acquire 
certain wonderful virtues; as from the soul of the 
operator, in that hour when such a like appetite doth 
invade it, so from the opportunity and celestial in- 
fluence, moving the mind in that manner. For our 
mind, when it is carried uppn the great excess of 
any passion or virtue, oftentimes presently takes of 
itself a strong, better and more convenient hour or 
opportunity, which Thomas Aquinas, in his third 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 209 

book against the Gentiles, confesseth. So many won- 
derful virtues both cause and follow certain admir- 
able operations by great affections in those things 
which the soul doth dictate in that hour to them. 
But know that such things confer nothing, or very 
little, to the author of them, and to him which is in- 
clined to them, as if he were the author of them. 
And this is the manner by which their efficacy is 
found out. And it is a general rule in them, that 
every mind that is more excellent in its love and 
affection makes such like things more fit for itself, 
becoming efficacious to that which it desires. Every 
one, therefore, that is willing to work in Magic must 
know the virtue, measure, order, and degree of his 
own soul, in relation to the Power of the Universe. 



CHAPTER LXVTEI. 

How Oub Mind Can Change and Bind Inferiob 
Things to the Ends Which We Desibe. 

There is also a certain virtue in the minds of men 
of changing, attracting, hindering, and binding to 
that which they desire; and all things obey them 
when they are carried into a great excess of any pas- 
sion or virtue, so as to exceed those things which 
they bind. For the superior binds that which is in- 
ferior, and converts it to itself; and the inferior is, 
by the same reason, converted to the superior, or is 
otherwise affected, and wrought upon. By this rea- 
son, things that receive a superior degree of any 
star, bind, or attract, or hinder things which have 
an inferior, according as they agree or disagree 
amongst themselves. Whence a lion is afraid of a 
cock, because the presence of the Solary virtue is 
more agreeable to a cock than to a lion. So a load- 
stone draws iron, because, in its order, it hath a 
superior degree of the Celestial Bear. 



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210 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

So the diamond hinders the loadstone, because, in 
the order of Mars, it is superior to it. In like man- 
ner any man, when he is opportunely exposed to the 
celestial influences (as by the affections of his mind 
and due applications of natural things), if he become 
stronger in a Solary virtue, he binds and draws the 
inferior into admiration and obedience — in the order 
of the Moon, to servitude or infirmities ; in a Saturn- 
ine order, to quietness or sadness; in the order of 
Jupiter, to worship; in the order of Mars, to fear 
and discord; in a Venus order, to love and joy; in a 
Mercurial order, to persuasion and obsequiousness, 
and the like. The ground of such a kind of binding 
is the very vehement and boundless affection of the 
soul with the concourse of the celestial order. But 
the dissolutions or hinderances of such a like bind- 
ing are made by a contrary effect, and that more 
excellent or strong ; for as the greater excess of the 
mind binds, so, also, it looseth and hindereth. And, 
lastly, when the mind feareth Venus, it opposes 
Saturn ; when Saturn or Mars, it opposes Venus or 
Jupiter; for astrologers say that these are most at 
enmity, and contrary the one to the other (i. e.) y 
causing contrary effects in these inferior bodies. For 
in the Heavens, where there is nothing wanting, and 
where all things are governed with love, there can 
in no wise be hatred or enmity. 



CHAPTEE LXIX. 

Of Speech, and the Occult Vibtue of Wokds. 

It being shown that there is a great power in the 
affections of the soul, you must know, moreover, that 
there is no less virtue in words and the names of 
things, and greatest of all in speeches and motions ; 
by which we chiefly differ from the brutes, and are 
called rational ; not from reason, which is taken for 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 211 



that part of the soul which contains the affections 
(which Galen saith is also common to brutes, al- 
though in a less degree), but we are called rational 
from that reason which is, according to the voice, 
understood in words and speech, which is called 
Declarative Beason; by which part we do chiefly 
excel all other animals. For logos, in Greek, signifies 
reason, speech, and a word. Now, a word is two- 
fold, viz., internal and uttered. An internal word 
is a conception of the mind and motion of the soul, 
which is made without a voice ; as in dreams we seem 
to speak and dispute with ourselves, and whilst we 
are awake, we run over a whole speech silently. But 
an uttered word hath a certain act in the voice, and 
properties of locution, and is brought forth with 
the breath of a man, with opening of his mouth and 
with the speech of his tongue ; in which nature hath 
coupled the corporeal voice and speech to the mind 
and understanding, making that a declarer and in- 
terpreter of the conception of our intellect to the 
hearers; and of this we now speak. Words, there- 
fore, are the fittest medium betwixt the speaker and 
the hearer, carrying with them not only the concep- 
tion of the mind, but also the virtue of the speaker, 
with a certain efficacy, unto the hearers; and this 
oftentimes with so great a power, that often they 
change not only the hearers but also other bodies and 
things that have no life. Now those words are of 
greater efficacy than others which represent greater 
things — as intellectual, celestial, and supernatural ; 
as more expressly, so more mysteriously. Also those 
that come from a more worthy tongue, or from any 
of a more holy order; for these (as it were certain 
signs and representations) receive a power of celes- 
tial and supercelestial things, as from the virtue of 
things explained, of which they are the vehicle, and 
from a power put into them by the virtue of the 
speaker. 



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212 THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 

CHAPTER LXX. 

Op the Vibtue op Pboper Names. 

That the proper names of things are very neces- 
sary in Magical Operations, almost all men testify. 
For the natural power of things proceeds, first, from 
the objects to the senses, and then from these to the 
imagination, and from this to the mind, in which it 
is first conceived, and then is expressed by voices 
and words. The Platonists, therefore, say that in 
this very voice, or word, or name framed, with its 
articles, that the power of the thing, as it were some 
kind of life, lies under the form of the signification. 
First conceived in the mind, as it were through cer- 
tain seeds of things, then by voices or words, as a 
birth brought forth; and lastly, kept in writings. 
Hence magicians say, that the proper names of 
things are certain rays of things, everywhere present 
at all times, keeping the power of things, as the es- 
sence of the thing signified, rules, and is discerned 
in them and know the things by them, as by proper 
and living images. For, as the great operator doth 
provide divers species and particular things by the 
influence of the Heavens, and by the elements, to- 
gether with the virtues of planets, so, according to 
the properties of the influences, proper names re- 
sult to things and are put upon them by him who 
numbers the multitude of the stars, calling them all 
by their names; of which names Christ in another 
place speaks, saying, "Your names are written in 
Heaven.' ' Adam, therefore, that gave the first 
names to things, knowing the influences of the Heav- 
ens and properties of all things^gave them all names 
according to their natures, as it is written in Genesis, 
where God brought all things that he had created 
before Adam, that he should name them ; and as he 
named any thing, so the name of it was ; which names, 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 213 

indeed, contain in them wonderful powers of the 
things signified. Every voice, therefore, that is sig- 
nificative, first of all signifies by the influence of the 
celestial harmony; secondly, by the imposition of 
man, although oftentimes otherwise by this than 
by that. But when both significations meet in any 
voice or name, which are put upon them by the said 
harmony, or men, then that name is with a double 
virtue, viz., natural and arbitrary, made most effica- 
cious to act as often as it shall be uttered in due 
place and time, and seriously, with an intention ex- 
ercised upon the matter rightly disposed, and that 
can naturally be acted upon by it. So we read in Phi- 
lostratus, that when a maid at Eome died the same 
day she was married, and was presented to Apol- 
lonius, he accurately inquired into her name, which 
being known, he pronounced some occult thing, by 
which she revived. It was an observation amongst 
the Eomans, in their holy rites, that when they did 
besiege any city, they did diligently enquire into the 
proper and true name of it, and the name of that 
God under whose protection it was; which being 
known, they did then with some verse call forth the 
Gods that were the protectors of that city, and did 
curse the inhabitants of that city, so at length, their 
Gods being absent, did overcome them, as Virgil 
sings : 

That kept this Realm, our Gods 

Their Altars have forsook, and blest abodes. 

Now the verse with which the Gods were called out 
and the enemies were cursed, when the city was 
assaulted round about, let him that would know find 
it out in Livy and Marcrobius ; but also many of these 
Serenus Samonicus, in his book of secret things, 
makes mention of. 



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214 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 



CHAPTER LXXI. 

Op Many Words Joined Together, as in Sentences 
and Verses; and of the Virtues and Astrictions 
op Charms. 

Besides the virtues of words and names, there is 
also a greater virtue found in sentences, from the 
truth contained in them, which hath a very great 
power of impressing, changing, binding, and estab- 
lishing, so that being used it doth shine the more, and 
being resisted is more confirmed and consolidated; 
which virtue is not in simple words, but in sentences, 
by which anything is affirmed or denied; of which 
sort are verses, enchantments, imprecations, depreca- 
tions, orations, invocations, obtestations, adjurations, 
conjurations, and such like. Therefore, in compos- 
ing verses and orations for attracting the virtue of 
any star or deity, you must diligently consider what 
virtue any star contains, as, also, what effects and 
operations, and to infer them in verses, by praising, 
extolling, amplifying, and setting forth those things 
which such a kind of star is wont to cause by way 
of its influence, and by vilifying and dispraising 
those things which it is wont to destroy and hinder, 
and by supplicating and begging for that which we 
desire to get, and by condemning and detesting that 
which we would have destroyed and hindered; and 
after the same manner to make an elegant oration, 
and duly distinct, by articles, with competent num- 
bers and proportions. Moreover, magicians com- 
mand that we call upon and pray by the names of 
the same star, or name to them to whom such a 
verse belongs, by their wonderful things, or miracles, 
by their courses and ways in their sphere, by their 
light, by the dignity of their kingdom, by the beauty 
and brightness that is in it, by their strong and pow- 
erful virtues, and by such like things as these. As 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 215 

Psyche, in Apuleius, prays to Ceres, saying, "I be- 
seech thee by thy fruitful right hand, I intreat thee 
by the joyful ceremonies of harvests, by the quiet 
silence of thy chests, by the winged chariots of dra- 
gons, thy servants, by the furrows of the Sicilian 
earth, the devouring wagon, the clammy earth, by 
the place of going down into cellars at the light 
nuptials of Proserpina, and returns at the light in- 
ventions of her daughter, and other things which 
are concealed in her temple in the city of Eleusis, 
in Attica." Besides, with the divers sorts of the 
names of the stars, they command us to call upon 
them by the names of the Intelligences ruling over 
the stars themselves, of which we shall speak more at 
large in their proper place. They that desire further 
examples of these, let them search into the hymns 
of Orpheus, than which nothing is more efficacious 
in Natural Magic, if they, together with their cir- 
cumstances, which wise men know, be used according 
to a due harmony with all attention. But to return 
to our purpose. Such like verses, being aptly and 
duly made, according to the Rule of the Stars, and 
being full of signification and meaning, and oppor- 
tunely pronounced with vehement affection (as ac- 
cording to the number and the proportion of their 
articles, so according to the form resulting from the 
articles) and, by the violence of imagination, do 
confer a very great power in the enchanter, and 
sometimes transfers it upon the thing enchanted, 
to bind and direct it to the same purpose for which 
the affections and speeches of the enchanter are in- 
tended. Now, the instrument of enchanters is a most 
pure, harmonical spirit — warm, breathing, living, 
bringing with it motion, affection, and signification ; 
composed of its parts, endued with sense, and con- 
ceived by reason. By the quality, therefore, of this 
spirit, and by the celestial similitude, thereof (be- 
sides those things which have already been spoken 



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216 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

of) verses, also, from the opportunity of time, re- 
ceive from above most excellent virtues ; and, indeed, 
are more sublime and efficacious than spirits, and 
vapors exhaling out of the vegetable life, such as 
herbs, roots, gums, aromatical things, and fumes and 
such like. And, therefore, magicians enchanting 
things, are wont to blow and breathe upon them the 
words of the verse, or to breathe in the virtue with 
the spirit, that so the whole virtue of the soul be 
directed to the thing enchanted, being disposed for 
the receiving of said virtue. And here it is to be 
noted that every oration, writing and words, as they 
induce accustomed motions by their accustomed num- 
bers, proportions, and form, so (besides their usual 
order) being pronounced, or wrote backwards, move 
unto unusual effects. 



CHAPTEE LXXn. 

Of the Wonderful Powee of Enchantments. 

They say that the power of enchantments and 
verses is so great, that it is believed they are able to 
subvert almost all Nature. Apuleius saith that with 
a magical whispering, swift rivers are turned back, 
the slow sea is bound, the winds are breathed out 
with one accord, the Sun is stopped, the Moon is 
clarified, the Stars are pulled out, the day is kept 
back, the night is prolonged; and of these things 
Lucan writes : 

The courses of all things did cease, the night 
Prolonged was, 'twas long before 'twas light; 
Astonied was the headlong World — all this 
Was by the hearing of a verse. 

And a little before : 

Thessalian verse did into his heart so flow, 
That it did make a greater heat of love. 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 217 



And elsewhere: 

No dregs of poison being by him drunk; 
His wits decay 'd enchanted 

Also Virgil, in Damon, 

Charms can command the Moon down from the Skie; 
Circe's Charms chang'd Ulysses' company. 
A cold snake, being charm 'd, burst—- — 

And Ovid, in his untitled book, saith: 

With charms doth with 'ring Ceres dye, 

Dried are the fountains all, 
Acorns from Okes, enchanted Grapes, 

And apples from trees fall. 

If these things were not true, there would not be 
such strict penal statutes made against them that 
should enchant fruit. And Tibullus saith of a cer- 
tain enchantress: 

Her with Charms drawing Stars from Heaven, I, 
And turning the course of rivers, did espy; 
She parts the earth, and Ghosts from Sepulchres 
Draws up, and fetcheth bones away from th' fires, 
And at her pleasure scatters clouds i' th' Air, 
And makes it Snow in Summer hot and fair. 

Of all which that enchantress seems to boast her- 
self in Ovid, when she saith: 

At will, I make swift streams retire 
To their fountains, whilst their Banks admire; 
Sea toss and smooth; clear Clouds with Clouds deform, 
With Spells and Charms I break the Viper's jaw, 
Cleave solid Rocks, Oakes from their seizures draw, 
Whole Woods remove, the lofty Mountains shake, 
Earth for to groan, and Ghosts from graves awake, 
And thee, O Moon, I draw 

Moreover, all poets sing, and philosophers do not 
deny, that by verses many wonderful things may be 
done, as corn to be removed, lightnings to be com- 
manded, diseases to be cured, and the like. For Cato, 



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218 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

himself, in country affairs, used some enchantments 
against the diseases of beasts, which as yet are ex- 
tant in his writings. Also Josephus testifies that 
Solomon was skilled in those kinds of enchantments. 
Also Celsus Africanus reports, according to the Egyp- 
tian doctrine, that man's body, according to the num- 
ber of the faces of the Zodiac Signs, was taken care 
of by so many, viz., thirty-six spirits, whereof each 
undertake and defend their proper part, whose names 
they call with a peculiar voice, which, being called 
upon, restore to health with their enchantments, the 
diseased parts of the body. 



CHAPTEE LXXIII. 

Or the Virtue of Writing, and of Making Impreca- 
tions, and Inscriptions. 

The use of words and speech is to express the in- 
wards of the mind, and from thence to draw forth 
the secrets of the thoughts, and do declare the will of 
the speaker. Now, writing is the last expression of 
the mind, and is the number of speech and voice, as, 
also, the collection, state, end, continuing, and iter- 
ation, making a habit, which is not perfected with the 
act of one's voice. And whatsoever is in the mind, 
in voice, in word, in operation, and in speech, the 
whole and all of this is in writing also. And as noth- 
ing which is conceived in the mind is not expressed 
by voice, so nothing which is expressed is not also 
written. And, therefore, magicians command that in 
every work there be imprecations and inscriptions 
made, by which the operator may, express his affec- 
tion ; that if he gather an herb, or a stone, he declare 
for what use he doth it ; if he make a picture, he say 
and write to what end he maketh it, with impreca- 
tions and inscriptions. Albertus, also, in his book, 
called the Speculum, doth not disallow this, without 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 219 

which all our works would never be brought into 
effect, seeing a disposition does not cause an effect, 
but the act of the disposition. We find, also, that the 
same kind of precepts was in use amongst the an- 
cients, as Virgil testifies when he sings: 

I walk around 
First with these Threads — in number which three are — 
'Bout th' Altars, thrice I shall thy Image bear. 

And a little after : 

Knots, Amaryllis, tie! of Colors three, 

Then say, "These bonds I knit for Venus be." 

And in the same place: 

As with one fire this clay doth harder prove, 
The wax more soft; so, Daphnis, with our love. 



CHAPTER LXXIV. 

Of the Proportion, Correspondency, and Eeduction 
of Letters to the Celestial Signs and Planets, 
According to Various Tongues, and a Table 
Thereof. 

God gave to man a mind and speech, which (as 
saith Mercurius Trismegistus) are thought to be a 
gift of the same virtue, power, and immortality. The 
omnipotent God hath by his providence divided the 
speech of men into divers languages, which languages 
have, according to their diversity, received divers and 
proper characters of writing, consisting in their cer- 
tain order, number, and figure, not so disposed and 
formed by hap or chance, nor by the weak judgment 
of man, but from above, whereby they agree with the 
celestial and divine bodies and virtues. But before 
all notes of languages, the writing of the Hebrews 
is, of all, the most sacred in the figures of characters, 
points of vowels, and tops of accents ; or consisting 
in matter, form, and spirit. 



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220 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

The position of the Stars being first made in the 
seat of God, which is Heaven, after the figure of 
them (as the masters of the Hebrews testify) are 
most fully formed the letters of the Celestial Mys- 
teries, as by their figure, form, and signification, so 
by the numbers signified by them, and also by the 
various harmonies of their conjunction. Whence 
the more curious Mecubals of the Hebrews do un- 
dertake — by the figure of their letters, the forms of 
characters, and their signature, simpleness or com- 
position, separation, crookedness or directness, de- 
fect, abounding, greatness or littleness, crowning, 
opening or shutting, order, transmutation, joining 
together, revolution of letters, and of points, and 
tops, by the supputation of numbers, and by the let- 
ters of things signified — to explain all things ; how 
they proceed from the first cause, and are again to 
be reduced into the same. Moreover, they divide the 
letters of the Hebrew alphabet, viz., into twelve sim- 
ple, seven double, and three mothers, which, they 
say, signify as characters of things — the Twelve 
Signs, Seven Planets, and Three Elements, viz., Fire, 
Water, and Earth ; for they account Air no element, 
but as the glue and spirit of the elements. To these, 
also, they appoint points and tops. As, therefore, 
by the aspects of planets and signs, together with 
the Elements (the working spirit and truth), all 
things have been and are brought forth. So, by these 
characters of letters and points, signifying those 
things that are brought forth, the names of all things 
are appointed, as certain Signs and vehicles of things 
explained, carrying with them everywhere their es- 
sence and virtues. The profound meanings and 
Signs are inherent in those characters, and figures 
of them, as also numbers, place, order, and revolu- 
tion ; so that Origenes, therefore, thought that those 
names, when translated into another idiom, do not 
retain their proper virtue. For only the original 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 221 

names, which are rightly imposed, because they sig- 
nify naturally and have a natural activity. It is not 
so with them which signify at pleasure, which have no 
activity as they are signifying, as they are but cer- 
tain natural things in themselves. Now, if there be 
any language whose words have a natural significa- 
tion, it is manifest that this is the Hebrew ; the order 
of which he that shall profoundly and radically ob- 
serve, and shall know to resolve proportionably the 
letters thereof, shall have a rule exactly to find out 
any idiom. There are, therefore, two and twenty 
letters, which are the foundation of the world, and 
of creatures that are, and are named in it, and every 
saying and every creature are of them, and by their 
revolutions receive their name, being, and virtue. 

He, therefore, that will find them out, must by each 
joining together of the letters so long examine them, 
until the voice of God is manifest, and the framing of 
the most sacred letters be opened and discovered ; for 
hence voices and words have efficacy in magical 
works, because that in which Nature first exerciseth 
magical efficacy is the voice of God. But these are 
of more deep speculation than to be handled in this 
book. To return to the division of the letters: of 
these, amongst the Hebrews, are three mothers, viz., 
\ 1. Nl seven double, viz., fi, -), £, 3, n, J, a The 

other twelve, viz., ffl, p, % tf, D> 3> D> ?> C0> IT T» Pl» 

are simple. The rule is the same amongst the Chal- 
deans, and, by the imitation of those above, also the 
letters of other tongues are distributed to the Signs, 
Planets, and Elements, after their order. For the 
vowels in the Greek tongue answer to the Seven 
Planets, and the others are attributed to the Twelve 
Signs of the Zodiac, the Four Elements, and the 
Spirit of the World. Amongst the Latins there is 
the same signification of them. For the five vowels 
A. E, I, O, U, and J and V, consonants, are ascribed 



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222 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

to the Seven Planets, and the consonants, B, C, D, 
F, G, L, M, N, P, E, S, T, are answerable to the 
Twelve Signs. The rest, viz., K, Q, X, Z, make the 
Elements. H the aspiration, represents the Spirit of 
the World. Y, because it is a Greek, and not a Latin 
character, and serving only to Greek words, follows 
the nature of its idiom. 

But this you must not be ignorant of, that it is 
observed by all wise men, that the Hebrew letters are 
the most efficacious of all, because they have the 
greatest similitude with celestials and the world, and 
that the letters of the other tongues have not so great 
an efficacy because they are more distant from them. 
Now the disposition of these the following table will 
explain. Also all the letters have double numbers 
of their order, viz., extended, which simply express 
of what number the letters are, according to their 
order ; and collected, which re-collect with themselves 
the numbers of all the preceding letters. Also they 
have integral numbers, which result from the names 
of letters, according to their various manners of num- 
bering. The virtues of which numbers, he that shall 
know, shall be able in every tongue to draw forth 
wonderful mysteries by their letters, as also to tell 
what things have been past, and foretell things to 
come. There are also other mysterious joinings of 
letters with numbers, but we shall abundantly dis- 
course of all these in the following books. Where- 
fore we will now put an end to this first book. 



The table above referred to, on the following page, 
is from the English edition of 1651. The reader will 
also find a table of the Cabala elsewhere in this 
volume. At this place we insert Mr. Henry Morley's 
appropriate criticism on Agrippa's book of Natural 
Magic. 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 223 



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HENEY MOKLEY'S CRITICISM. 

Little disguised by Hebrew admixture, and little 
pervated by the speculations of the Platonists of 
Alexandria, Philo the Jew, Plotinus, and Iamblichus, 
whom the young student quotes most frequently, we 
have again the Attic Moses, Plato, speaking through 
a young and strong heart to the world. Very great 
was the influence of Plato in this period of waken- 
ing to thought. Nothing was known by experience 
of Nature, for little had been learnt since the time 
when Plato, theorising upon Nature, owned it to be 
impossible to arrive at any certain result in our 
speculations upon the creation of the visible universe 
and its authors; "wherefore," he said, "even if we 
should only advance reasons not less probable than 
those of others, you should still be content." In 
this spirit alone Cornelius Agrippa taught his age : 
"There are these marvels well accredited; there is 
this cumbrous and disjointed mass of earthly, sensi- 
ble experience, which there is no way of explaining 
left to me but one. I accept the marvels, foolish as 
they seem ; they are as well accredited as things more 
obviously true. With God all things are possible. 
In God all things consist. I will adopt Plato's be- 
lief, that the world is animated by a moving soul, and 
from the soul of the world I will look up to its 
Creator. I cannot rest content with a confused mass 
of evidence ; I will animate with my own soul, and a 
faith in its divine origin, the world about me. I 
will adopt the glorious belief of Plato, that we sit 
here as in a cavern with our faces held from looking 
to the cavern's mouth, down which a light is stream- 
ing and pours in a flood over our heads, broken 

224 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATUEAL MAGIC 225 

by shadows of things moving in the world above. 
We see the shadows on the wall, hear echoes, and 
believe in all as the one known truth of substance and 
of voice, although these are but the images of the 
superiors. I also will endeavor to climb up out of 
the cave into the land flooded with sunlight. I con- 
nect all that we see here with Plato's doctrine of 
superior ideas, I subdue matter to spirit, I will see 
true knowledge in apparent foolishness, and connect 
the meanest clod with its divine Creator. I will seek 
to draw down influences, and to fill my soul with a 
new strength imparted by the virtue of ideas stream- 
ing from above. The superior manifest in the in- 
ferior is the law of Nature manifested in the thing 
created. My soul is not sufficient for itself; beyond 
it and above it lie eternal laws, subtle, not having 
substance or form, yet the cause of form and sub- 
stance. I cannot hope to know them otherwise than 
as ideas ; to unborn generations they will be revealed, 
perhaps; to me they are ideas, celestial influences, 
working intelligences. I believe in them, and I de- 
sire to lay open my soul to their more perfect appre- 
hension. They are not God, though God created 
them ; they are not man, though they have by divine 
ordainment formed him. The more I dwell upon 
their qualities, the more I long for the divine, the 
more shall I be blessed by the reception of their rays. 
The more intensely I yearn heavenward, the more 
shall I bring down heaven to dwell in my soul." 

So we may hear, if we will, the spirit of the young 
inquirer pleading to us from across the centuries, 
and if our own minds ever yearned for an escape 
from the delusions of the grosser sense and the re- 
striction set by crowds on free inquiry, there is no 
true heart that will not say: "You labored well, 
my brother." 



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AGEIPPA AND THE ROSICRUCIANS. 

The secrets to be talked over between Cornelius 
and his friend related to that study of the mysteries 
of knowledge in which the Theosophists assisted one 
another. Secret societies, chiefly composed of curi- 
ous and learned youths, had by this time become 
numerous, and numerous especially among the Ger- 
mans. Not only the search after the philosopher's 
stone, which was then worthy to be prosecuted by 
enlightened persons, but also the new realms of 
thought laid open by the first glance at Greek litera- 
ture, and by the still more recent introduction of a 
study of the Hebrew language, occupied the minds of 
these associated scholars. Such studies often carried 
those who followed them within the borders of for- 
bidden ground, and therefore secrecy was a condition 
necessary to their freedom of inquiry. Towards the 
close of the sixteenth century such associations (the 
foundation of which had been a desire to keep 
thought out fetters) were developed into the form 
of brotherhoods of Rosicrucians : Physician, Theoso- 
phist, Chemist, and now, by the mercy of God, Rosi- 
crucian, became then the style in which a brother 
gloried. The brotherhoods of Rosicrucians are still 
commonly remembered, but in the social history of 
Europe they are less to be considered than those 
first confederations of Theosophists, which nursed 
indeed mystical errors gathered from the Greeks 
and Jews, but out of whose theories there was devel- 
oped much of a pure spiritualism that entered into 
strife with what was outwardly corrupt and sensual 
in the body of the Roman Church, and thus prepared 
the way for the more vital attacks of the Reformers. 

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THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 227 

When first Greek studies were revived, the monks 
commonly regarded them as essentially adverse to 
Roman interests, and the very language seemed to 
them infected with the plague of heresy. In the 
Netherlands it became almost a proverb with them 
that to be known for a grammarian was to be reputed 
heretic. Not seldom, indeed, in later times, has John 
Reuchlin, who, for his Greek and Hebrew scholar- 
ship was called, after the manner of his day, the 
Phcenix of Germans, and who was the object of an 
ardent hero worship to men like Cornelius Agrippa, 
been called also the Father of the Reformation. Cer- 
tainly Luther, Erasmus, and Melancthon had in- 
struction from him ; by him it was that Schwartzerd 
had been taught to call himself Melancthon; and 
many will remember how, after his death, Erasmus, 
in a pleasant dialogue, raised his old friend to the 
rank of saint, and prayed to him, "Oh, holy soul, be 
favorable to the languages ; be favorable to those that 
love honorers of the languages ; be propitious to the 
sacred tongues." But Reuchlin — for the taste of 
smoke in it, Reuchlin quasi Reeki, his name was 
turned into the Greek form, Capnio, — Reuchlin, or 
Capnio, never passed as a reformer beyond detesta- 
tion of the vices of the priesthood. Like Cornelius, 
who begun his life before the public as a scholar by 
an act of homage to his genius, Reuchlin loved liberty 
and independence, cherished the idol of free con- 
science, but never fairly trusted himself to its guid- 
ance. To the last an instinct of obedience to the 
church governed his actions, and the spiritual gold 
he could extract from Plato, Aristotle, or the wonder- 
ful Cabala of the Jews, was in but small proportion 
to the dross fetched up with it from the same an- 
cient mines. 

A contemporary notion of the Reformation, not 
without some rude significance in this respect, is 
«aid to have been obtruded upon Charles V. by a 



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228 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

small body of unknown actors, who appeared before 
him in 1530, when he was in Germany. He had been 
dining with his brother Ferdinand, and did not re- 
fuse their offer to produce a comedy in dumb show. 
One dressed as a scholar, labelled Capnio, brought 
before the emperor a bundle of sticks — some crooked 
and some straight — laid them down in the highway, 
and departed. Then entered another, who professed 
to represent • Erasmus, looked at the sticks, shook 
his head, made various attempts to straighten the 
crooked ones, and finding that he could not do so, 
shook his head over them again, put them down 
where he had found them, and departed. Then came 
an actor, labelled Luther, with a torch, who set all 
that was crooked in the bundle blazing. When he 
was gone entered one dressed as an emperor, who 
tried in vain to put the fire out with his sword. Last 
came Pope Leo X., to whom, grieving dismally over 
the spectacle before him, there were two pails 
brought; one contained oil, the other water. His 
holiness, to quell the fire, poured over it the bucket- 
ful of oil, and while the flame attracted all eyes by 
the power, beyond mastery, with which it shot up 
towards heaven, the actors made their escape un- 
detected. 

Now, it was over the crooked sticks of Capnio, and 
many other matters difficult of comprehension, that 
Cornelius and his confederates were bent in curious 
and anxious study. "The bearer of the letters," 
said Landulph, in excusing himself on the plea of 
illness, from a winter journey to a friend at Avignon 
— "the bearer of these letters is a German, native 
of Nuremberg, but dwelling at Lyons ; and he is a 
curious inquirer after hidden mysteries, a free man 
restrained by no fetters, who, impelled by I know not 
what rumor concerning you, desires to sound your 
depths.' ' That the man himself might be sounded, 
as one likely to have knowledge of some important 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATUEAL MAGIC 229 

things, and that if it seemed fit, he should be made a 
member of their brotherhood, was the rest of the 
recommendation of this person by Landulph to his 
friend Agrippa. 

At Lyons were assembled many members of his 
league, awaiting the arrival of the young soldier- 
philosopher. His early taste for an inquiry into mys- 
teries had caused him to take all possible advantage, 
as a scholar, of each change of place and each exten- 
sion of acquaintance among learned men who were 
possessors of rare books. He had searched every ac- 
cessible volume that might help him in 'the prosecution 
of the studies that had then a fascination, not for 
him only, but for not a few of the acutest minds in 
Christendom. At that time there was, in the modern 
sense, no natural science; the naturalists of ancient 
Greece and Rome being the sole authorities in whom 
the learned could put trust. Of the miraculous prop- 
erties of plants and animals, and parts of animals, 
even at the close of the sixteenth century, careful 
and sober men placed as accepted knowledge many 
extravagant ideas on record. At the beginning of 
the century, when a belief in the influences of the 
stars, in the interferences of demons, and in the moist 
wonderful properties of bodies, was the rule among 
learned and unlearned — Luther himself not excluded 
from the number — an attempt to collect and group, 
if it might be, according to some system, the most 
recondite secrets of what passed for the divine or- 
dering of Nature, was in no man's opinion foolish, 
though in the opinion of the greater number crim- 
inal. Belief in the mysteries of magic, not want of 
belief, caused men to regard with enmity and dread 
researches into secrets that might give to those by 
whom they were discovered subtle and superhuman 
power, through possessing which they would acquire 
an influence, horrible to suspect, over their fellow- 
creatures. Detaching their search into the mysteries 



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230 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

of the universe from all fear of this kind, the mem- 
bers of such secret societies as that to which Cor- 
nelius belonged gathered whatever fruit they could 
from the forbidden tree, and obtained mutual benefit 
by frank exchange of information. Cornelius had 
already, by incessant search, collected notes for a 
complete treatise upon magic, and of these not a few 
were obtained from Beuchlin's Hebrew-Christian 
way of using the Cabala. 

From Avignon, after a short stay, Cornelius Agrip- 
pa went to Lyons, and remaining there some weeks, 
compared progress with his friends, and no doubt 
also formally divested himself of any further re- 
sponsibility connected with the Spanish enterprise. 
Towards the end of this year, a friend at Cologne, 
Theodoric, Bishop of Cyrene, wrote, expressing ad- 
miration of him, as of one among so many thousand 
Germans who at sundry times and places had dis- 
played in equal degree power to labor vigorously as 
a man at arms as well as man of letters. Who does 
not know, the bishop asks, how few of many thou- 
sands have done that? He envies those who can 
thus earn the wreath of Mars without losing the 
favor of Minerva, and calls the youth "in arms a 
man, in scholarship a teacher." To escape the sol- 
dier^ life of bondage seems to be now the ambition 
of the scholar. With the world before him, in the 
twenty-third year of his age, well born, distinguished 
among all who knew him for the rare extent of his 
attainments, Cornelius, attended by his servant, Ste- 
phen, quitted his friends at Lyons, and rode to Au- 
thun, where he was received in the abbey of a liberal 
and hospitable man, physician, theologian, and 
knight by turns, M. Champier, who, having been 
born at Saint Saphorin-le-Chateau, near Lyons, was 
called Symphorianus Champier, or Campegius, and 
who, not content with his own noble ancestry, as- 
signed himself, by right of the Campegius, to the 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 231 

family of the Campegi of Bologna, and assumed its 
arms. He studied at Paris Litera humaniora, at 
Montpellier medicine, and practiced at Lyons. He 
lived to obtain great fame, deserving title, and los- 
ing after his death all. It was not until five years 
after this visit from Cornelius Agrippa that Sym- 
phorianus, acting as body physician to the Duke ot 
Lorraine, was knighted on the battle-field of Mari- 
gnano. Among his writings, those which most testify 
his sympathy with the inquiries of Cornelius, are a 
book on the Miracles of Scripture, a Life of Arnold 
of Villeneuve, and a French version of Sibylline 
oracles. This Champier then sympathized with the 
enthusiasm of the young theosophist, and under his 
roof the first venture of Cornelius before the world 
of letters seems to have been planned. In the last 
week of May, we find that he has sent Stephen to 
fetch DeBrie from Dole, has summoned Antonius 
Xanthus from Niverne, and wishes, in association 
with Symphorianus, to arrange a meeting with Lan- 
dulph, at any convenient place and time. He has 
something in hand concerning which he wishes to 
take counsel with hi3 comrades. A few days after- 
wards he and Landulph are at Dole together; and 
while Cornelius has left Dole for a short time to go 
to Chalon (sur Saone), his friend sends word to 
him that he has engaged on his behalf the interest of 
the Archbishop of Besancon (Antony I., probably 
not an old man, since he was alive thirty years after- 
wards), who desires greatly to see him, and boasts 
that he can give information of some things un- 
known perhaps even to him. The archbishop is im- 
patient to see the person who has stored up from 
rare books, even those written in Greek and Hebrew, 
so great a number of the secrets of the universe. 
Landulph, to content him, antedates the time ap- 
pointed for his friend's return, and while reporting 
this, adds that there are many at Dole loud in the 



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232 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

praise of Cornelius, and none louder than himself. The 
influence of his associates is evidently at work on 
his behalf among the magnates of the town and uni- 
versity of Dole, and learned men in the adjoining 
towns of Burgundy, for it is at Dole that he has re- 
solved to make his first public appearance as a 
scholar, by expounding in a series of orations Beuch- 
lin's book on the Mirific Word, At Chalon, however, 
Cornelius fell sick of a summer pestilence, from 
which he was recovering on the eighth of July. As 
soon as health permitted he returned to Dole, where 
there was prepared for him a cordial reception. 

Dole is a pretty little town, and at that time pos- 
sessed the university which was removed in after 
years to Besancon. Its canton was called, for its 
beauty and fertility, the Val d 'Amour ; and when Be- 
sancon was independent of the lords of Burgundy, 
Dole was their capital. A pleasant miniature capitol, 
with not four thousand inhabitants, a parliament, a 
university, a church of Notre Dame whereof the 
tower could be seen from distant fields, a princely 
residence — Dole la Joyeuse they called it until thirty 
years before Cornelius Agrippa declaimed his ora- 
tions there ; but after it had been, in 1479, captured 
and despoiled by a French army, it was called Dole 
la Dolente. 

Mistress of Dole and Burgundy was Maximilian's 
daughter, Margaret of Austria, who, in this year of 
Agrippa 's life, was twenty-nine years old. She was 
already twice a widow. When affianced twice — once 
vainly to France, a second time to Spain, and likely 
to perish in a tempest before reaching her appointed 
husband — she had wit to write a clever epitaph upon 
herself. Her Spanish husband died almost after the 
first embrace, and she had since, after four years of 
wedded happiness, lost her true husband, Philibert of 
Savoy. She was twenty-four years old when that 
happened, and resolved to make an end of marrying. 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 233 

In 1506, after the death of Archduke Philip, her fa- 
ther Maximilian being guardian of his grandson 
Charles the Fifth, made Margaret his governor over 
the Netherlands, and appointed her to rule also over 
Burgundy and the Charolois. Thus she came to be, 
in the year 1509, mistress at Dole. A clever, lively 
woman, opposed strongly to France, and always 
mindful of the interests of that house of Austria, 
to which the family of young Agrippa was attached, 
Margaret was well known for her patronage of let- 
ters and her bounty towards learned men. It would 
be, therefore, a pleasant transfer of his loyalty, 
Agrippa, thought, from Maximilian to Margaret, if 
he could thereby get rid of what he regarded as camp 
slavery under the one, and earn the favor of the other 
in the academic grove. To earn Margaret's good- 
will and help upon the royal road to fortune was one 
main object of Cornelius when he announced at Dole 
that he proposed to expound Eeuchlin's book, on 
the Mirific Word, in orations, to which, inasmuch as 
they were to be delivered in honor of the most serene 
Princess Margaret, the whole public would have gra- 
tuitous admission. 

Poor youth! he could not possibly have made a 
more genuine and honest effort, or one less proper to 
be used by evil men for the damnation of his charac- 
ter. Margaret was the princess to whom of all others 
he was able to pay unaffected homage, and Reuchlin, 
then the boast of Germans, was the scholar of whom 
before every other, he, a German youth, might choose 
to hold discourse to the Burgundians. Of Eeuchlin, 
.ZEgidius, chief of the Austin Friars, wrote, that he 
"had blessed him and all mortals by his works." 
Philip Beroaldus, the younger, wrote to him: "Pope 
Leo X. has read your Pythagorean book, as he reads 
all good books, greedily; then it was read by the 
Cardinal de' Medici, and I am expecting next to have 
my turn." This book, which had been read by the 



s 



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234 THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 

Pope himself with eager pleasure, was a wonder of 
the day, and was in the most perfect unison with 
the whole tone of Agrippa 's mind; he really under- 
stood it deeply, it was most dear to him as a theoso- 
phist, and he was not to be blamed if he felt, also 
that of all books in the world there was none of which 
the exposition would so fully serve his purpose of 
displaying the extent and depth of his own store of 
knowledge. 



EXPOSITION OF THE CABALA. 

Mainly upon what was said and written by Corne- 
lius Agrippa in this twenty-third year of his age has 
been founded the defamation by which, when he 
lived, his spirit was tormented and the hope of his 
existence miserably frustrated — by which, now that 
he is dead, his character comes down to us defiled. 
This victim, at least, has not escaped the vengeance 
of the monks, and his crime was that he studied 
vigorously in his salad days those curiosities of 
learning into which, at the same time, popes, bishops, 
and philosophers, mature of years, inquired with 
equal faith and almost equal relish, but less energy 
or courage. For a clear understanding of the ground, 
and of the perils of the ground, now taken by Corne- 
lius Agrippa, little more is necessary than a clear 
notion of what was signified by Reuchlin's book on 
the Mirific Word ; but what has to be said of Reuch- 
lin and his book, as well as of other matters that 
will hereafter concern the fortunes of Cornelius, re- 
quires some previous attention to a subject pretty 
well forgotten in these days by a people rich in other 
knowledge ; we must recall, in fact, some of the main 
points of the Cabala. 

This account of the Cabala is derived from Ger- 
man sources, among which the chief are Brackets 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 235 

Historia Philosophce and the Kabbala Denudata, a 
collection of old cabalistical writings arranged and 
explained by Christian Knorr von Rosenroth. The 
traditions, or Cabala, of the Jews, are contained in 
sundry books, written by Hebrew Rabbis, and con- 
sist of a strange mixture of fable and philosophy 
varying on a good many points, but all adhering with 
sufficient accuracy to one scheme of doctrine. They 
claim high and remote origin. Some say that the 
first Cabala were received by Adam from the angel 
Raziel, who gave him, either while he yet remained 
in Paradise, or else at the time of his expulsion, to 
console and help him, a book full of divine wisdom. 
In this book were the secrets of Nature, and by 
knowledge of them Adam entered into conversation 
with the Sun and Moon, knew how to summon good 
and evil spirits, to interpret dreams, foretell events, 
to heal, and to destroy. This book, handed down from 
father to son, came into Solomon's possession, and 
by its aid Solomon became master of many potent 
secrets. A cabalistic volume, called the Book of 
Raziel, was, in the middle ages, sometimes to be seen 
among the Jews. 

Another account said that the first cabalistical book 
was the Sepher Jezirah, written by Abraham; but 
the most prevalent opinion was, that when the writ- 
ten law was given on Mount Sinai to Moses, the 
Cabala, or mysterious interpretation of it, was taught 
to him also. Then Moses, # it was said, when he de- 
scended from the mountain, entered Aaron's tent, 
and taught him also the secret powers of the written 
word; and Aaron, having been instructed, placed 
himself at the right hand of Moses, and stood by 
while his sons, Eleazar and Ithamar, who had been 
called into the tent, received the same instruction. 
On the right and left of Moses and Aaron then sat 
Ithamar and Eleazar, when the seventy elders of the 
Sanhedrim were called in and taught the hidden 



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236 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

knowledge. The elders finally were seated, that they 
might be present when all those among the common 
people who desired to learn came to be told those mys- 
teries ; thus the elect of the common people heard but 
once what the Sanhedrim heard twice, the sons of 
Aaron three times, and Aaron four times repeated 
of the secrets that had been made known to Moses by 
the voice of the Most High. 

Of this mystical interpretation of the Scripture no 
person set down any account in writing, unless it was 
Esdras ; but some Jews doubt whether he did. Israel- 
ites kept the knowledge of the doctrine by a pure tra- 
dition ; but about fifty years after the destruction of 
Jerusalem, Akiba, a great rabbi, wrote the chief part 
of it in that book, Sepher- Jezireh, or the Book of the 
Creation, which was foolishly ascribed by a few to 
Abraham. A disciple of the Rabbi Akiba was Rabbi 
Simeon ben Jochai, who wrote more of the tradition 
in a book called Zoar. 

The truth probably is, that the literature of cabal- 
ism, which is full of suggestion derived from the Neo- 
platonics of Alexandria, began with the Jews of 
Alexandria under the first Ptolemys. In the book of 
Simeon ben Schetach it went to Palestine, where it at 
first was little heeded; but after the destruction of 
Jerusalem it gained importance, and then Rabbis 
Akiba and Simeon ben Jochai extended it. It is in- 
disputable that Aristotle had been studied by the 
writer of the Sepher-Jezireh, the oldest known book 
of the Cabalists. The Cabala went afterwards with 
other learning to Spain, and that part of it at least 
which deals with Hebrew anagrams cannot be traced 
to a time earlier than the eleventh century. Many 
rabbis — Abraham ben David, Saudia, Moses Botril, 
Moses bar Nachman, Eliezer of Garmiza, and others 
— have written Hebrew books for the purpose of in- 
terpreting the system of the Cabala ; but it was, per- 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 237 

haps, not before the eighth century that it had come 
to receive very general attention from the Jews. 

The Cabala consisted of two portions, the symbol- 
ical and the real; the symbolical Cabala being the 
means by which the doctrines of the real Cabala were 
elicited. 

In the Hebrew text of the Scriptures, it was said, 
there is not only an evident, but there is also a latent 
meaning; and in its latent meaning are contained the 
mysteries of God and of the universe. It need scarce- 
ly be said that a belief in secret wisdom has for ages 
been inherent in the Oriental mind, and in the Scrip- 
tures, it was reasoned by the later Jews, all wisdom 
must be, of necessity, contained. Of divine author- 
ship, they cannot be like ordinary works of men. 
But if they were taken only in the natural sense, 
might it not be said that many human works contain 
marvels not less surprising and morality as pure. No, 
it was said, as we have entertained angels, and re- 
garded them as men, so we may entertain the words 
of the Most High, if we regard only their apparent 
sense and not their spiritual mystery. And so it was 
that through a blind excess of reverence the inspired 
writings were put to superstitious use. 

The modes of examining their letters, words, and 
sentences, for hidden meaning, in which wholly con- 
sisted the symbolical Cabala, were three, and these 
were called Gemantria, Notaricon, Themura. 

Gemantria was arithmetical when it consisted in 
applying to the Hebrew letters of a word the sense 
they bore as numbers, letters being used also for fig- 
ures in the Hebrew as in the Greek. Then the letters 
in a word being taken as numbers and added up, it 
was considered that another word, of which the let- 
ters added up came to an equal sum, might fairly be 
substituted by the arithmetical gemantria. Figura- 
tive gemantria deduced mysterious interpretations 



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238 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

from the shapes of letters used in sacred writing. 
Thus, in Numbers x., 35, Beth means the reversal of 
enemies. This kind of interpretation was known also 
by the name of Zurah. Architectonic gemantria con- 
structed words from the numbers given by Scripture 
when describing the maasurements of buildings, as 
the ark, or temple. 

By Notaricon more words were developed from the 
letters of a word, as if it had consisted of so many 
abbreviations, or else first and last letters of words, 
or the first letters of successive words, were detached 
from their places and put side by side. By Themura, 
any word might be made to yield a mystery out of its 
anagram; these sacred anagrams were known as 
Zeruph. By the same branch of the symbolical Ca- 
bala three systems were furnished, in accordance with 
which words might be transformed by the substitu- 
tion of one letter for another. The first of the sys- 
tems, Albam, arranged the letters of the alphabet 
in two rows, one below another; the second, Athbath, 
gave another couple of rows; the third, Athbach, 
arranged them by pairs in three rows — all the pairs 
in the first row being the numerical value ten, in 
the second row a hundred, in the third a thousand ; 
any one of these forms might be consulted, and any 
letter in a word exchanged for another standing 
either in Albam, Athbath, or Athbach, immediately 
above it or below it, or on the right hand of it or the 
left. 

This was the symbolical Cabala, and the business 
of it was to extract, by any of the means allowed, the 
hidden meaning of the Scriptures. The real Cabala 
was the doctrine in this way elicited. It was theo- 
retical, explaining divine qualities, the ten sephi- 
Troth, the fourfold cabalistical worlds, the thirty-two 
footprints of wisdom, the fifty doors to prudence, 
Adam Kadmon, &c.; or it was practical, explaining 
how to use such knowledge for the calling of spirits, 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 239 

the extinguishing of fires, the banishing of disease, 
and so forth. 
The theoretical Cabala contained, it was said by 



CftOWN 




CELESTIAL 



GREATNESS 
FIRST TO FOURTH SEPHIROTH. 



Christian students, many references to the Messiah. 
Its main points were : 1 — The Tree ; 2 — The Chariot 
of Ezekiel; 3— The Work of Creation; 4— The An- 



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240 THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 

cient of Days mentioned in Daniel. It concerns us 
most to understand the Tree. The Chariot of Eze- 
kiel, or Maasseh Mercabah, was a description of 
prefigurements concerning ceremonial and judicial 
law. The doctrine of Creation, in the book Levi- 
schith, was a dissertation upon physics. The An- 
cient of Days treated of God and the Messiah in a 
way so mystical that cabalists generally declined to 
ascribe any meaning at all to the direct sense of the 
words employed. Of these things we need say no 
more, but of the Cabalistical Tree it will be requisite 
to speak in more detail. 

It was an arrangement of the ten sephiroth. The 
word Sephiroth is derived by some rabbis from a 
word meaning to count, because they are a counting 
of the divine excellence. Otherwise it is considered 
an adaptation of the Greek word Sphere, because it 
represents the spheres of the universe which are suc- 
cessive emanations from the Deity. 

In the beginning was Or Haensoph, the eternal 
light, from whose brightness there descended a ray 
through the first-born of God, Adam Kadmon, and 
presently, departing from its straight course, ran in 
a circle, and so formed the first of the sephiroth, 
which was called Kethei, or the crown, because su- 
perior to all the rest. Having formed this circle, the 
ray resumed its straight course till it again ran in 
a circle to produce the second of the ten sephiroth, 
Chochma, wisdom, because wisdom is the source of 
all. The same ray of divine light passed on, losing 
gradually, as it became more distant from its holy 
source, some of its power, and formed presently, in 
like manner, the third of the sephiroth, called Binah, 
or understanding, because understanding is the chan- 
nel through which wisdom flows to things below — 
the origin of human knowledge. The fourth of the 
sephiroth is called Gedolah or Chesed, greatness or 
goodness, because God, as being great and good, 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 241 



TIPHEROTH 



CELESTIAL 




FOUNDATION 
FOURTH TO NINTH SEPHIROTH* 



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242 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

created all things. The fifth is Geburah, strength, 
because it is by strength that He maintains them, 
and because strength is the only source of justice in 
the world. The sixth of the sephiroth, Thpereth, 
beauty or grace, unites the qualities of the preced- 
ing. The four last of the sephiroth are successively 
named Nezach, victory ; Hod, honor ; Jesod, or Scha- 
lom, the foundation or peace; and finally, Malcuth, 
the kingdom. Each of the ten has also a divine name, 
and their divine names, written in the same order, 
are Ejeh, Jah, Jehovah (pronounced Elohim), Eloah, 
Elohim, Jehovah (pronounced as usual), Lord Sa- 
baoth, Jehovah Zebaoth, Elchai (the living God), 
Adonai (the Lord). By these circles our world is 
surrounded, and, weakened in its passage through 
them, but able to bring down with it powers that are 
the character of each, divine light reaches us. These 
sephiroth, arranged in a peculiar manner, form the 
Tree of the Cabalists; they are also sometimes ar- 
ranged in the form of a man, Adam Kadmon, accord- 
ing to the idea of the Neoplatonics that the figure of 
the world was that of a man's body. In accordance 
with another view derived from the same school, 
things in this world were supposed to be gross images 
of things above. Matter was said by the cabalists to 
have been formed by the withdrawal of the divine 
ray, by the emanation of which from the first source 
it was produced. Everything created was created by 
an emanation from the source of all, and that which 
being most distant contains least of the divine es- 
sence is capable of gradual purification ; so that even 
the evil spirits will in course of time become holy 
and pure, and be assimilated to the brightest of the 
emanations from Or Haensoph. God, it was said, is 
all in all ; everything is part of the divine essence, 
with a growing, or perceptive, or reflective power, 
one or all, and by that which has one all may be ac- 
quired. A stone may become a plant; a plant, a 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 243 



JESOO 



ASTRAL 




SUNS 



rouno/rioN 



* 



i 



MALCHUTH 



FIRE(Oxjgen) 

THE WORLD OF DARKNESS- 
THE ABODE OF EVIL. 

10 



MAN THE SYNTHESIS | 



EARTH (Carbon) 



KINGDOM UNEOUIUBRATED 
NINTH AND TENTH SEPHTROTH. 

beast; a beast, a man; a ipan, an angel; an angel, a 
creator. 
This kind of belief, which was derived also from 



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244 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATUBAL MAGIC 

the Alexandrian Platonists led to that spiritual ca- 
balism by which such Christians as Reuchlin and 
Agrippa profited. It connected them by a strong 
link with the divine essence, and they, feeling per- 
haps more distinctly than their neighbors that 
they were partakers of the divine nature, and 
might, by a striving after purity of soul and 
body win their way to a state of spiritual hap- 
piness and power, cut themselves off from all 
communion with the sensuality that had become the 
scandal of the Church of Rome, and keenly perceived, 
as they expressed strongly, their sense of the de- 
graded habits of the priests. It was in this way that 
the Christian Cabalists assisted in the labors of the 
Reformation. 

Little more has to be said about their theory, and 
that relates to the four Cabalistical Worlds. These 
were placed in the four spaces between the upper 
sephiroth. Between the first and second was placed 
Aziluth, the outflowing, which contained the purest 
beings, the producers of the rest. Between the sec- 
ond and third sephiroth was the world Briah, or the 
thrones, containing spirits less pure, but still not ma- 
terial. They were classed into wheels, lightnings, 
lions, burning spirits, angels, children of God, cheru- 
bim. Their prince was called Metatron. The world 
in the next interspace, called Jezireh, angels, ap- 
proached more nearly to a material form; and the 
fourth, Asiah, was made wholly material. From 
this point density increases till our world is reached. 
Asiah is the abode of the Klippoth, or material 
spirits striving against God. They travel through 
the air, their bodies are of dense air, incorruptible, 
and they have power to work in the material world. 
With Catoriel, Adam Belial, Esau, Aganiel, Usiel, 
Ogiel, Thomiel, Theumiel, for captains, they fight 
in two armies under their chiefs Zamiel and Lilith. 
Their enemies are the angels, who contend against 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 245 

them with two armies, led by Metatron and Sandal- 
phon. Lilith is the begetter of the powers striving 
against light. 

The nature of man's soul, said Cabalists, is three- 
fold — vegetative, perceptive, intellectual — each em- 
bracing each. It emanates from the upper sephiroth, 
is composed of the pure elements — for the four ele- 
ments, either in their pure and spiritual ^ or their 
gross form, enter into all things — is expansive, sepa- 
rates after death, so that the parts return each to its 
own place, but reunite to praise God on the sabbaths 
and new moons. With each soul are sent into the 
world a guardian and an accusing angel. 



THE MIRIFIC WORD. 

Now, as the creative light runs round each upper 
world before coming to ours, it comes to us charged 
with supernal influence, and such an idea lies at the 
foundation of cabalistical magic. By what secret to 
have power over this line of communication with 
superior worlds it is for practical cabalism to dis- 
cover. 

The secret consisted chiefly in the use of names. 
God, it was said, gave to all things their names ; He 
could have given no name that was not mystically fit ; 
every such name, therefore, is a word containing di- 
vine power, and especially affecting that thing, per- 



Notb: Mr. Morley's excellent summary of the Kabbala Denudata may 
be regarded as fully authentic although he writes from the standpoint of 
an unbeliever. The Tree of the Cabala (divided into three plates to 
facilitate comparison), by Dr. Pancoast, gives the more modern rendition 
of the Cabala. We introduce, on the two following pages, a newly 
arranged table of the Cabala (Hebrew letters) renderings in English 
letters, symbols, tarot emblems, etc. This table is the plainest in its 
terms of all others. Following the table the Cabala is continued under 
the title of "The Mirific Word." 



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246 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 



A NEWLY ARRANGED TABLE 


NUMERICAL 
ORDER 


HEBREW LETTERS. 
FORM. NAM*. 


CORRESPONDING . 
ENGLISH. 


NUMERICAL. 
VALUE. 


1 


K 


Aleph 


A 


1 


2 


3 


Beth 


B, BH, BY 


2 


8 


i 


Gimel 


G, GH 


8 


4 


1 


Daleth 


D, DH 


4 


5 


n 


He 


H 


5 


6 


i 


Vau 


V, W 


6 


7 


T 


Zayin 


Z 


7 


8 


n 


Cbeth 


CH, KH, HH, H 8 








Teth 


T 


9 


10 


n 


Yodh 


Y, I, J 


10 


11 


D 


Caph 


C, CH, K, KH 


20 


12 


.*? 


Lamed 


L 


80 


18 


D 


Mem 


M 


40 


14 


2 


Nun 


N 


50 


15 





Samech 


S 


60 


16 


V 


Ayin 


O.GHff 


70 


17 


D 


Phe 


P, PH 


80 


18 


2t 


Tsadhe 


TS, TZ 


90 


19 


P 


Koph 


K,Q 


100 


20 


•) 


Resh 


B, BH 


200 





tf 


Shin 


8, SH 


800 


21 


n 


Tau 


T, TH 


400 



Five Hebrew Letters, Caph, Mem, Nun, Phe, and 

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THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 247 



OF THE TAROT AND CABALA. 


SYMBOLS. 


TAHOT MEANINGS. 


CLASSES. 


Bull 


The Magician 


Mother 


House 


High Priestess 


Double 


Erect Serpent 


The Empress 


Double 


Door or Hinge 


The Emperor 


Double 


Window, Virginity 


The Hierophant 


Single 


Nail, Hook 


The Rovers 


Single 


Weapon 


The War Chariot 


Single 


Pence 


Justice 


Single 


Scrotum 


The Hermit 


Single 


Male Organs 


Wheel of Fate 


Single 


Hollow of Hand, Cube 


t Strength 


Double 


Ox-goad, Whip 


The Suspended Man 


Single 


Water 


Death 


Mother 


Fish 


Temperance 


Single 


Pillar, Egg 


The Demon 


Single 


Eye 


Lightning-struck tower Single 


Mouth 


The Star 


Double 


Fishhook, Dart 


The Moon 


Single 


Back Scull 


The Sun 


Single 


Head, Sphere, Circle 


Judgment 


Double 


Tooth 


The Zany 


Mother 


Cross 


The Universe 


Double 



Tsadhe, denote 500, 600, 700, 800, and 900, when final. 



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248 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATUBAL MAGIC 

son, or spirit to which it belongs. The Scripture 
tells us that there are names written in heaven ; why, 
it was said, should they be written there, if they be 
useless. Through the knowledge of such divine 
names, it is affirmed, Moses overcame the sorcerers 
of Egypt, Elias brought fire from heaven, Daniel 
closed the mouths of lions. But of all names by 
which wonders can be wrought, the Mirific Word of 
Words (here we come to the main thought of Reuch- 
lin's book, and to the central topic of the oratory of 
Cornelius) was the concealed name of God — the 
Schem-hammaphoraseh. Whoever knows the true 
pronunciation of the name Jehovah — the name from 
which all other divine names in the world spring as 
the branches from a tree, the name that binds to- 
gether the sephiroth — whoever has that in his mouth 
has the world in his mouth. When it is spoken angels 
are stirred by the wave of sound. It rules all crea- 
tures, works all miracles, it commands all the in- 
ferior names of deity which are borne by the several 
angels that in heaven govern the respective nations 
of the earth. The Jews had a tradition that when 
David was on the point of fighting with Goliath, 
Jaschbi, the giant's brother, tossed him up into the 
air, and held a spear below, that he might fall upon 
it. But Abishai, when he saw that, pronounced the 
holy name, and David remained in the air till Ja- 
schbi 's spear no longer threatened him. They said, 
also, that the Mirific name was among the secrets 
contained in the Holy of Holies, and that when any 
person having entered that shrine of the temple 
learnt the word of power, he was roared at as he 
came out by two brazen lions, or bayed by brazen 
dogs, until through terror he lost recollection of it. 
Some Jews accounted also by a fable of this nature 
for our Savior's miracles. They said that, having 
been admitted within the Holy of Holies, and having 
learnt the sacred mystery, he wrote it down upon a 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 249 

tablet, cut open his thigh, and having put the tablet 
in the wound, closed the flesh over it by uttering the 
name of wonder. As he passed out the roaring lions 
caused the secret to pass from his mind, but after- 
wards he had only to cut out the tablet from his 
thigh, and, as the beginning of miracles, heal in- 
stantly the wound in his own flesh by pronouncing 
the Mirific Word. Such Jewish details were, of 
course, rejected by the Christians, who accepted the 
essential principles of the Cabala. 

As the name of all power was the hidden name of 
God, so there were also names of power great, though 
limited, belonging to the angels and the evil spirits. 
To discover the names of the spirits, by applying to 
the Hebrew text of Scripture the symbolical Cabala, 
was to acquire some of the power they possessed. 
Thus, it being said of the Sodomites that they were 
struck with blindness, the Hebrew word for blindness 
was translated into Chaldee, and the Chaldee word 
by one of the symbolical processes was made to yield 
the name of a bad angel, Schabriri, which, being writ- 
ten down, was employed as a charm to cure oph- 
thalmia. A common mode of conjuration with these 
names of power was by the use of amulets, pieces of 
paper or parchment on which, for certain purposes, 
certain names were written. At his first entrance 
into the world such an amulet, with the names 
"Senoi Sansenoi, Semongeloph," upon it was slipped 
round the neck of the new-born child, so that the in- 
fant scarcely saw the light before it was collared by 
the genius of superstition. 

Another mode of conjuration consisted in the use, 
not of names, but of the Psalms of David. Whole 
volumes were written upon this use of the Psalms. 
The first of them, written on doeskin, was supposed 
to help the birth of children; others could, it was 
thought, be so written as to make those who carried 
them invisible; others secured favors from princes; 



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250 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

others extinguished fires. The transcription of a 
psalm for any such purpose was no trifling work, be- 
cause, apart from the necessary care in the formation 
of letters, some having a mystical reason for being 
larger than others, it was necessary for the copyist, 
as soon as he had written down one line, to plunge 
into a bath. Moreover, that the charm might be the 
work of a pure man, before beginning every new line 
of his manuscript, it was thought necessary that he 
should repeat the plunge. 



EEUCHLIN THE MYSTIC. 

Such were the mysteries of the Hebrew Cabala, 
strangely blending a not unrefined philosophy with 
basest superstition. It remains for us to form some 
just opinion of the charm they had for many Chris- 
tian scholars in the first years of the sixteenth cen- 
tury. Reuchlin, or Capnio, was of such scholars the 
leader and the type ; as such, indeed, he was accepted 
by the young Cornelius Agrippa. He was the great- 
est Hebrew scholar of his day, and had become so 
by his own natural bent. Born at Pfortzheim, of the 
poorest parents, two and thirty years before Agrip- 
pa came into the world, taught Latin at the town 
school, and winning in his youth a ducal patron by 
his tunable voice as chorister in the court chapel at 
Baden, by his quick wit, and his serene, lively, ami- 
able temper, he never afterwards lacked powerful 
assistance. 

The life of Reuchlin is the story of the origin of 
Greek and Hebrew studies among learned Euro- 
peans. He was sent with the Margrave's son, after- 
wards Bishop of Utrecht, to Paris. The fall of Con- 
stantinople, in 1453, had caused fugitive Greeks to 
betake themselves to many European cities, where 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATUBAL MAGIC 251 

they sometimes gave instruction in their language. 
Eenchlin, at Paris, learned Greek from a Spartan, 
who gave him instruction also in caligraphy and made 
him so clever a workman with his pen, that he could 
eke out his means and buy books with money earned 
as a Greek copyist. He studied Aristotle with the 
Spartan. Old John Wessel, of Groningen, a disciple 
of Thomas a Kempis, taught him Hebrew, and in- 
vited him to a direct study of the Bible. At the age 
of twenty he was engaged by publishers to write a 
Latin dictionary, which he called Breviloquus. At 
the age of twenty he taught Greek publicly, laying 
his main stress on a study of the grammar; the good 
sense he spoke emptied the benches of the sophisters 
around him, and produced complaints from old- 
fashioned professors. It was then urged that all the 
views disclosed in Greek books were essentially op- 
posed to the spirit and belief of Kome. The monks 
had no commerce with the language; and when they 
came to a Greek quotation in a book that they were 
copying, were used to inscribe the formula "Graeca 
sunt, non leguntur." Keuchlin maintained his ground, 
at twenty-five wrote a Greek grammar, lectured at 
Poictiers, and was made licentiate of civil law. His 
notion of law studies was expressed in a formula 
that has been applied in other terms to other things : 
In his first year the young lawyer knows how to de- 
cide all causes, in the second begins to be uncertain, 
in the third acknowledges that he knows nothing, 
and then first begins to learn. In the last of these 
stages of progress the licentiate of Poictiers repaired 
to Tubingen, and practiced as an advocate with such 
success that he made money and married. At Tu- 
bingen, Eeuchlin won the confidence of Eberhard of 
the Beard, became his private secretary and one of 
his privy-councillors, and went with him to Eome in 
1482, his age then being eight and twenty. At Kome 
he distinguished himself as an orator before the 



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252 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

Pope, and was considered to speak Latin wonderfully 
well for a German. After his return to Germany, 
John Reuchlin remained with Eberhard in Stutt- 
gard, became assessor of the Supreme Court at the 
age of thirty, and a year afterwards was elected 
proctor for the body of the Dominicans throughout 
all Germany, which unpaid office he held for nearly 
thirty years. At the age of thirty-one he received 
at Tubingen his doctorate, and in the year following, 
that is to say, in the year of Cornelius Agrippa's 
birth, he was sent with two others to Frankfort, 
Cologne, and Aix-la-Chapelle, on the occasion of the 
coronation of Maximilian as Roman emperor. Then 
it was that Maximilian first became acquainted with 
him. Reuchlin had then a house at Stuttgard, and 
was known as a great cultivator of the learned lan- 
guages, while he was also high in the favor of his own 
prince, and in constant request as a practitioner of 
law. In 1490 he was sent to Rome on another mis- 
sion, and on his way through Florence enjoyed per- 
sonal intercourse with Giovanni Pico di Mirandola, 
the scholar who, although a determined antagonist 
to the astrologers, was a great friend to cabalism and 
the introducer of the cabalistic mysteries into the 
favor of Italian scholars. By him Reuchlin was fur- 
ther stimulated to the love of Hebrew lore. When, 
two years afterwards, Reuchlin was at Linz on state 
business with the Emperor Frederic III., it was 
something, indeed, that the base-born scholar was 
raised to the dignity of court palatine, but it was 
more to Reuchlin that the court physician was a 
learned Jew, Jehiel Loans, who perfected his in- 
timacy with the Hebrew. His aim then was, above 
all things, first to study the original text of the Old 
Testament, and secondly to read the writings of the 
Cabalists. The emperor, whose life was then about 
to close (he died while Reuchlin was at Linz), saw 
here another way of gratifying the agreeable and 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 253 

kindly scholar, for he not only made Reuchlin a 
count palatine (his arms were a golden altar, from 
which smoke arose, with the inscription "Ara 
Capnionis"), but he also presented to him a very 
ancient Hebrew Bible, written carefully on parch- 
ment, a treasure then worth three hundred gold 
crowns, which is to be seen still in the library 
of the Grand Duke of Carlsruhe, where it is re- 
garded as the oldest of its kind in Europe. With 
the knowledge imparted by Jehiel Loans, and the 
actual text in which all mysteries lay hidden, Reuch- 
lin went home enriched as much as he had been en- 
nobled. Hebrew writing was at that time very rare, 
and was to be met with chiefly in the hands of Jews. 
At Hebrew Reuchlin labored, collecting Hebrew 
books and works expounding the Cabala, whenever 
possible ; and eventually he gave life in Germany, as 
Giovanni Pico di Mirandola was giving life in Italy, 
to the cabalistical philosophy, the great impulse to 
this German revival being the publication of the 
book on the Miriflc Word. It first appeared at Basle, 
in the year 1495, the author's age then being forty- 
one. It was not published at Tubingen till 1514. The 
book was regarded as a miracle of heavenly wisdom. 
Philip Beroaldus told of the Pope's enjoyment, and 
wrote word also to its author that he had caused not 
only men of letters, but even statesmen and warriors, 
to betake themselves to studying the mysteries of the 
Cabala. 

The death of Reuchlin '& patron, Eberhard the 
elder, soon after his elevation to the rank of duke 
in 1495, was followed by a period of misrule in the 
little state. One of the first acts of Eberhard the 
younger was to release his favorite, a dissolute 
priest, named Holzinger, from the prison in which 
he had been kept by the good counsel of Reuchlin ; 
and for the further discomfiture of the scholar this 
man was appointed chancellor over the university of 



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254 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

Tubingen. Eeuchlin of course resigned. He had 
been long wanted at Heidelberg, and went there to 
be cherished by a new patron in the Elector Palatine. 
He showed, as usual, his lively energy by the estab- 
lishment of a Greek chair, which the monks pro- 
nounced upon the spot to be a heresy ; and by venting 
his wrath against Holzinger in a Latin comedy, de- 
nouncing dissolute priests, which he called Sergius, 
or the Head of the Head. It was written to be acted 
by the students. A Latin comedy was then a rare 
thing in the land ; and the news that John Eeuchlin 
had written one was noised abroad. Prudent friends 
counseled him to beware of such unscrupulous and 
powerful enemies as he would make if he attacked 
abuses of the priesthood; he submitted to advice, 
and as he was notoriously answerable for a comedy, 
and gossip must be satisfied, he suddenly composed 
a substitute for that first written. When, therefore, 
the day of the performance came, it was found that 
the Greek professor had composed a comedy against 
abuses in his own profession ; it was a castigation of 
dishonest advocates. Scenica Progymnastica the 
piece was called. 

After two years of misrule Eberhard the younger 
took its consequences; he was then deposed, and 
Holzinger, the monk, sent back to prison. "When 
the bricks are doubled, Moses comes,' ' said Eeuch- 
lin, and returned to his old post at Tubingen. Hither- 
to his life of study had not been unprofitable, nor, 
much benefit as he received through patronage, was 
it a life wanting independence. "Whatever/ ' he 
says, "I spent in learning, I acquired by teaching." 

An anecdote of this good-humored scholar may be 
here interpolated, which displays his character in 
half a dozen points of view. He was detained once 
in an inn when it was raining very heavily, and of 
course had his book with him. The rain had driven 
into the co mm on room a large number of country 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 255 

people, who were making a great noise. To quiet 
them Eeuchlin called for a piece of chalk, and drew 
with it a circle on the table before which he sat. 
Within the circle he then drew a cross, and also 
within it, on the right side of the cross, he placed 
with great solemnity a cup of water, on the left he 
stuck a knife upright. Then placing a book— doubt- 
less a Hebrew one — within the mysterious circle, he 
began to read, and the rustics who had gathered 
round him, with their mouths agape, patiently waited 
for the consequence of all this conjuration. The re- 
sult was that Eeuchlin finished comfortably the chap- 
ter he was reading without being distressed even by 
a whisper of disturbance. 

In the year 1502 Eeuchlin was elected to the post 
of general judge of alliance under the terms of the 
Suabian league. His office was to adjudicate in all 
matters of dispute among confederates and vassals, 
concerning the interests of the emperor as Archduke 
of Austria, the electors and princes. There was a 
second judge for prelates, counts, and nobles, a third 
for imperial cities. This post he held during eleven 
years ; he was holding it, therefore, at the time when 
the young Cornelius Agrippa undertook to comment 
publicly at Dole upon his book concerning the Miri- 
fic Word, Eeuchlin then being fifty-five years old, and 
at the summit of his fame, high, also, in the good 
esteem of Maximilian. Three years before this date, 
notwithstanding the great mass of legal business en- 
tailed on him by his judicial office, Eeuchlin had, to 
the great help of all students, published a volume of 
the Eudiments of Hebrew, which included both a 
grammar and a dictionary. This book, he wrote, 
1 'cost me the greatest trouble, and a large part of my 
fortune. ' ' Cornelius no doubt had learnt his Hebrew 
by the help of it, and was already deep in studies 
which a few years afterwards brought the monks 
of Cologne into array against Eeuchlin himself, their 



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256 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

hostility somewhat embittered by an inkling of the 
Latin comedy that was not to be quite suppressed. 
Cornelius, however, was the first to feel the power of 
such enemies. By the Epistolae Obscurorum Viro- 
rum the monks were destined to come off much 
worsted from their battle against Eeuchlin and the 
scholars who defended his fair name. Of their for- 
tune in the battle fought against Cornelius Agrippa 
it is one part of this history to tell. 

Eeuchlin wrote at a later period (1517) a book up- 
on the cabalistic art. If it is written God created 
heaven and earth, he interpreted that to mean spirit 
and matter, the spirit consisting of the angels and 
ministers by whom the ways of man are influenced. 
Magic, he said, dealt with evil spirits, but the true 
Cabala only with the good. He believed in astrology ; 
and so, indeed, did Luther and Melancthon; Gio- 
vanni Pico di Mirandola at Florence, while adopting 
the Cabala, was very singular in his hostility to a 
belief in influences of the stars. His own faith in 
cabalism Eeuchlin enforced thus : God, out of love 
to his people, has revealed the hidden mysteries to 
some of them, and these could find in the dead let- 
ters the living spirit. For Scripture consists of 
single letters, visible signs, which stand in a certain 
connection with the angels, as celestial and spiritual 
emanations from God. By the pronunciation of the 
one, the others also are affected; but with a true 
Cabalist, who penetrates the whole connection of the 
earthly with the heavenly, these signs, rightly placed 
in connection with each other, are a way of putting 
him into immediate union with the spirits, who 
through that are bound to satisfy his wishes. 

In his book called Capnio, or the Mirific Word, ex- 
pounded at Dole by Cornelius Agrippa, Eeuchlin 
placed the Christian system in the center of old 
heathen philosophies, considering many of the doc- 
trines of Pythagoras and Plato as having been taken 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 257 

from, not introduced into, the wisdom of the Caba- 
lists. The argument is stated in the form of dia- 
logue, which is immediately preceded by a summary 
of its intention that may very well suffice here 
for a summary of its contents: "Receive, then, 
in this book the argument on the Mirific Word of 
three philosophers, whom I have feigned to be hold- 
ing such dispute among themselves as the contro- 
versies proper to their sects would occasion, as to 
the best elucidation of the hidden properties of sacred 
names. Out of which, great as they are in num- 
ber and importance, occasion will at last be the 
more easily afforded for selecting one name that 
is above all names supremely mirific and beatific. 
And this you may know the whole matter in 
brief. Sidonius, at first ascribed to the school 
of Epicurus, but found afterwards, nullius jurare 
in verba magistri, an unfettered philosopher, travels 
about to satisfy his thirst for knowledge, and 
after many experiences enters Suabia, where he 
meets in the town of Pfortzheim" (Reuchlin's birth- 
place) "two philosophers — Baruch, a Jew, and 
Capnio" (Reuchlin himself), "a Christian, with 
whom he disserts upon many systems, and presently 
upon the knowledge itself of divine and human 
things, upon opinion, faith, miracles, the powers of 
words and figures, secret operations, and the myster- 
ies of seals. In this way question arises concerning 
the sacred names and consecrated characters of all 
nations which have anything excellent in their philos- 
ophy, or not unworthy in their ceremonies; an 
enumeration of symbols is made by each speaker 
zealously on behalf of the rites cherished in his sect, 
until at last Capnio, in the third book, collects out of 
all that is holy one name, Jehosua, in which is gath- 
ered up the virtue and power of all sacred things, 
and which is eternally, supremely blessed.' ' 



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258 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 



AGBIPPA EXPOUNDS EEUCHLIN. 

Here was a vast theme for the oratory of a youth 
of twenty-three, and it was one also that enabled him 
to display the whole range of his learning. The 
newly recovered treasures of Greek literature; the 
study of Plato, that had lately been revived by Mar- 
silius Ficinus in Italy; the study of Aristotle, urged 
and helped in France by Faber Stapulensis (d'Eta- 
ples), appeared to bring the fullest confirmation of 
the principles of the Cabala to men ignorant, as all 
were then, of the Greek source of more than half the 
later mysticism of the Hebrews, which attributed to 
itself an origin so ancient. That he had acquired so 
early in his life Hebrew and Greek lore, that he was 
deeply read in studies which were admired from afar 
only by so many scholars of his day, and, thus pre- 
pared, that he discussed mysteries about which men 
in all ages feel instinctive curiosity, and men in that 
age reasoned eagerly, would alone account suffi- 
ciently for the attention paid to the young German 
by the university of Dole. Moreover, while fulfilling 
his own private purpose, he appeared also to the 
loyalty of the Burgundians, by delivering his ora- 
tions to all comers gratuitously, for the honor of the 
Princess Margaret, their ruler, and opening them 
with her panegyric. The young orator being also 
remarkable for an effective manner of delivery, the 
grave and learned men who came to his prelections 
honored him by diligent attendance. The exposition 
was made from the pulpit of the gymnasium, before 
the parliament and magistracy of Dole, the profes- 
sors and the readers of the university. Simon Ver- 
net, vice-chancellor of the university, dean of the 
church, and doctor in each faculty, was not once ab- 
sent. The worthy vice-chancellor, or dean, appears, 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 259 

indeed, to have taken an especial interest in the fame 
of their visitor. He had himself a taste for public 
declamation, and to a friend who was urging on 
Cornelius that he should seek durable fame rather 
by written than by spoken words, expressed a con- 
trary desire on his behalf. He preferred orator to 
author. When Cornelius had complied with the re- 
quest of another friend, who wished to translate into 
the vernacular his panegyric upon Margaret, prais- 
ing his oratory for the perfect fitness of each word 
employed in it, and its complete freedom from ver- 
biage, and desiring that through a translation the 
illustrious princess might be informed how famously 
Cornelius had spoken in her honor, and so be the 
more disposed to reward him with her favor, the 
translation came back with a note, saying that the 
vice-chancellor had been its censor and corrector. 
Vernet was diligent, in fact, on the young scholar's 
behalf, and his interests were seconded by the Arch- 
bishop of Besancon. Not a syllable was whispered 
about heresy. The friend who urged Cornelius, in 
spite of the dean's contrary counsel, to become an 
author, gave a familiar example from his own ex- 
perience of the vanity of spoken words. He had de- 
claimed publicly from memory, and without one 
hitch, upwards of two thousand two hundred verses 
of his own composition, yet, because they were not 
printed, earned only a temporary local fame. Of 
the value of the written word evidence very soon 
afterwards was enclosed to Cornelius by that other 
friend who had translated his oration. Zealous to 
do £ood service, he had caused a copy of the pane- 
gyric to proceed, by way of Lyons, on the road to 
royal notice, and delighted the aspirant after pat- 
ronage by enclosing to him flatteries from John 
Perreal, a royal chamberlain, probably the same 
learned Frenchman who became known twenty or 



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260 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

more years later as Johannis Perellus, translated 
into Latin Gaza on the Attic Months, and wrote a 
book about the Epacts of the Moon. 

To the youth flushed with triumph as a scholar 
there came also reminders of the military life he was 
so ready to forsake. A correspondent sent him 
news of a defeat of the Venetians by the French, 
near Agnadello, the first fruits of the discreditable 
league of Cambray. The French, it will be remem- 
bered, won this victory while Maximilian, their new 
ally, was still perplexed by the dissatisfaction of his 
subjects evidenced during the late diet at Worms. 
Agrippa's friend wished to have in return for his 
news any knowledge that his relation to the emperor 
might give him of intentions that might be disclosed 
at an approaching diet. His real intentions were to 
break a pledge by marching against the Venetians ; 
his fate, to retire ere long, defeated, from before the 
walls of Padua. He was renewing with his enemy, 
the King of France, the treaty of Cambray, and send- 
ing a messenger to Spire to burn the book in which 
he had recorded all the injuries and insults suffered 
by his family, or empire, at the hands of France. 
Cornelius cared little for France or Padua ; his hopes 
as a scholar were with Margaret at Ghent, though 
she, too, being another member of the league, could 
have employed him as a soldier. Other hopes, as a 
man, he was directing towards a younger and a fair- 
er mistress. He desired not only to prosper but to 
marry. 

The little university of Dole favored the young 
man heartily. His prelections had excited great at- 
tention, and procured for him the admiration of the 
neighborhood. From the university they won for 
him at once the degree of doctor of divinity, together 
with a stipend. 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATUEAL MAGIC 261 

THE NOBILITY OF WOMAN. 

Angling for private patronage was in the six- 
teenth century correlative to the habit not very un- 
common in these days of using baits to catch the 
public favor. Men who once lived by the help of 
princes now owe their support to the whole people, 
and the pains bestowed upon the cultivation of the 
good- will of the people in these days are neither less 
nor more to be reprehended than the pains taken 
by scholars of past time to procure a safe means of 
subsistence through the good-will of a prince. It 
may be said, with a fair approximation to the truth, 
that as much as a man may do now, with the intention 
of deserving popularity, and not discredit himself 
in his own eyes or those of the great number of his 
neighbors, he might have done with as little discredit 
in the sixteenth century with the design of earning 
favor from the great. We have seen how, in the 
case of Eeuchlin, a poor chorister was fostered at 
first by small princes of Germany, afterwards even 
by the emperor, and enabled to develop into a great 
Hebrew scholar, when one patron died having an- 
other ready to befriend him, and enjoying dignity 
and wealth with a complete sense of independence. 
That age was, in fact, as far removed as this is from 
the transition period, during which the patronage 
of letters by the great, extinct as a necessity, sur- 
vived as a tradition, and the system that had once 
been vigorous and noble became imbecile and base. 

Nobody at Dole was ignorant that the design of 
Cornelius Agrippa was to earn the patronage oi 
Margaret, a liberal encourager of learning. Nobody 
2onsidered it dishonorable to seek this by showing that 
it was deserved. The prevalent feeling was so far 
removed from any such impression, that from many 
quarters the young man was urged to magnify his 
claim on Margaret's attention by devoting not only 



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262 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

the orations, but also some piece of writing to her 
honor. Even the cordial vice-chancellor, desirous 
to advance the interests of the young orator, set 
aside his predilection for the spoken word, and was 
among the foremost in admonishing Cornelius to 
write. Not slow to profit by advice that ran the 
same course with his inclinations, the new doctor of 
divinity set himself to display his powers as a the- 
ologian in the true manner of the day, and with 
theological acuteness to combine a courtier's tact, 
by dedicating to the most conspicuous example of 
his argument a treatise on the Nobility and Pre- 
excellence of the Female Sex. As I have hinted, too, 
there was a private example of it known to his own 
heart. 

Angling for patronage shown from another point 
of view ! — mean arts used by mean spirits to compel 
the favor of the rich and base. But to secure the 
favor of the rich and noble the arts used were not to 
be accounted mean. 

Now let us trace in a brief summary the argument 
for the Nobility of the Female Sex and the Superior- 
ity of Woman over Man, written at Dole, in the year 
1509, by a doctor of divinity, aged twenty-three. He 
sets out with the declaration that when man was 
created male and female, difference was made in the 
flesh, not in the soul. He quotes Scripture to show 
that after the corruption of our bodies difference of 
sex will disappear, and that we shall all be like 
angels in the resurrection. As to the soul, then, man 
and woman are alike; but as to everything else the 
woman is the better part of the creation. 

In the first place, woman being made better than 
man, received the better name. Man was called 
Adam, which means Earth ; woman Eva, which is by 
interpretation Life. By as much as life excels earth 
woman therefore excels man. And this, it is urged, 
must not be thought trivial reasoning, because the 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 263 

maker of those creatures knew what they were before 
he named them, and was One who could not err in 
properly describing each. We know, and the Eoman 
laws testify, that ancient names were always conso- 
nant with the things they represented, and names 
have been held always to be of great moment by 
theologians and jurisconsults. It is written thus of 
Nabal: "As his name is, so is he; Nabal is his name, 
and folly is with him." (1 Samuel, xxv., 25.) Saint 
Paul, also, in his Epistle to the Hebrews, speaks of 
his Lord and Master, as "made so much better than 
the angels, as he hath obtained a more excellent name 
than they. * ' (Heb., i., 4. ) The reader 's memory will 
at once supply the next passage of Scripture quoted, 
I do not like to cite it. Agrippa then dilates, as well 
he may, on the immense importance of words, ac- 
cording to the practice of all jurists, he tells how 
Cyprian argued againstthe Jews that Adam's name 
was derived from the initials of the Greek words 
meaning east, west, north, and south, because his 
flesh was made out of the earth, though that deriva- 
tion was at variance with Moses, who put only three 
letters in the Hebrew name. For this, however, 
adds Agrippa, Cyprian was not to blame, since, like 
many saints and expounders of the sacred text, he 
had not learnt the Hebrew language. 

Upon the word Eva it is further maintained that 
it suggests comparison with the mystic symbols of 
the Cabalists, the name of the woman having affinity 
with the ineffable Tetragrammaton, the most sacred 
name of the Divinity ; while that of the man differed 
entirely from it. All these considerations, however, 
Agrippa consents to pass over, as matters read by 
few and understood by fewer. The pre-eminence of 
the woman can be proved out of her constitution, her 
gifts, and her merits. 

The nature of woman is discussed, however, from 
the theologian's point of view. Things were created 



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264 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

in the order of their rank. First, indeed, incorrupti- 
ble soul, then incorruptible matter, but afterwards, 
out of that matter, more or less corruptible things, 
beginning with the meanest. First minerals, then 
herbs, and shrubs, and trees, then zoophytes, then 
brutes in their order, reptiles first, afterwards fishes, 
birds, quadrupeds. Lastly, two human beings, but 
of these first the male, and finally the female, in 
which the heavens and the earth and their whole 
adornment were perfected. The divine rest fol- 
lowed, because the work was consummated, nothing 
greater was conceived ; the woman was thus left the 
most perfect and the noblest of the creatures upon 
earth, as a queen placed in the court that had been 
previously prepared for her. Sightly, therefore, do 
all beings round about her pay to this queen homage 
of reverence and love. 

The difference between the woman and the man is 
yet more strongly marked, says the deeply read theo- 
logian, because the man was made like the brutes in 
open land outside the gates of paradise, and made 
wholly of clay, but the woman was made afterwards 
in paradise itself; she was the one paradisaical crea- 
tion. Presently there follow Scripture arguments to 
show that the place of their birth was a sign to men 
of honor or dishonor. The woman, too, was not made 
of clay, but from an influx of celestial matter ; since 
there went into her composition nothing terrestrial 
except only one of Adam's ribs, and that was not 
gross clay, but clay that had been already purified 
and kindled with the breath of life. 

The theological demonstrations Cornelius next 
confirms by the evidence of some natural facts 
equally cogent and trustworthy, which were held in 
that day by many wise men to be equally true. It 
is because she is made of purer matter that a woman, 
from whatever height she may look down, never 
turns giddy, and her eyes never have mist before 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 265 

them like the eyes of men. Moreover, if a woman 
and man tumble together into water, far away from 
all external help, the woman floats long upon the 
surface, but the man soon sinks to the bottom. Is 
there not also the divine light shining through the 
body of the woman, by which she is made often to 
seem a miracle of beauty! Then follows a clever 
inventory of all a woman's charms of person, writ- 
ten with due reserve, which might be here trans- 
lated, if the English language had the terseness of 
the Latin. In short, woman is the sum of all earth's 
beauty, and it proved that her beauty has sometimes 
inspired even angels and demons with a desperate and 
fatal love. Then follows a chain of Scripture texts 
honoring female beauty, which all lead up to the 
twenty thousand virgins, solemnly celebrated by the 
church, and the admiration of the beauty of the Vir- 
gin Mary by the Sun and Moon. 

Texts follow that must be omitted, and then the 
argument takes anatomical grounds of the most in- 
genious character, and shows how every difference 
of structure between the man and the woman gives to 
woman the advantage due to her superior delicacy. 
Even after death nature respects her inherent mod- 
esty, for a drowned woman floats on her face, and a 
drowned man upon his back. The noblest part of a 
human being is the head ; but the man's head is liable 
to baldness, woman is never seen bald. The man's 
face is often made so filthy by a most odious beard, 
and so covered with sordid hairs, that it is scarcely 
to be distinguished from the face of a wild beast ; in 
woman, on the other hand, the face always remains 
pure and decent. For this reason women were, by 
the laws of the twelve tables, forbidden to rub their 
cheeks lest hair should grow and obscure their blush- 
ing modesty. But the most evident proof of the 
innate purity of the female sex is, that a woman 
having once washed is clean, and if she wash in 



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266 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

second water will not soil it; but that a man is 
never clean, though he should wash in ten successive 
waters, he will cloud and infect them all. 

Some other marvellous peculiarities I must omit, 
and pass to Agrippa's appreciation of the woman's 
predominance in the possession of the gift of speech, 
the most excellent of human faculties, which Hermes 
Trismegistus thought equal to immortality in value, 
and Hesiod pronounced the best of human treasures. 
Man, too, receives this gift from woman, from his 
mother or his nurse ; and it is a gift bestowed upon 
woman herself with such liberality that the world has 
scarcely seen a woman who was mute. Is it not fit 
that women should excel men in that faculty, wherein 
ipen themselves chiefly excel the brutes t 

The argument again becomes an edifice of Scrip- 
ture text, and it is well to show the nature of it, 
though we may shrink from the misuse of sacred 
words, because it is well thoroughly to understand 
h< w Scripture was habitually used by professed theo- 
lc ?ians in the sixteenth century, and from this light 
e ample to derive a grave lesson, perhaps, that may 
I •, even to the people of the nineteenth century, not 
v holly useless. 

Solomon's texts on the surpassing excellence of a 
good woman of course are cited, and a cabalistic hint 
is given of the efficacy of the letter H, which Abram 
took away from his wife Sarah, and put into the mid- 
dle of his own name, after he had been blessed 
through her. Benediction has come always by 
woman, law by man. We have all sinned in Adam, 
not in Eve; original sin we inherit only from the 
father of our race. The fruit of the tree of knowl- 
edge was forbidden to man only, before woman was 
made ; woman received no injunction, she was created 
free. She was not blamed, therefore, for eating, but 
for causing sin in her husband by giving him to eat ; 
and she did that not of her own will, but because the 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 2&7 

devil tempted her. He chose her as the object of 
temptation, as St. Bernard says, because he saw 
with envy that she was the most perfect of creatures. 
She erred in ignorance because she was deceived; 
the man sinned knowingly. Therefore our Lord 
made atonement in the figure of the sex that had 
sinned, and also for more complete humiliation came 
in the form of a man, not that of a woman, which is 
nobler and sublimer. He humbled himself as man, 
but overcame as a descendant of the woman; for 
the seed of the woman, it was said, not the seed of 
man, should bruise the serpent's head. He would 
not, therefore, be born of a man ; woman alone was 
judged worthy to be the earthly parent of the Deity. 
Risen again, he appeared first to woman. Men for- 
sook him, women never. No persecution, heresy, or 
error in the Church ever began with the female sex. 
They were men who betrayed, sold, bought, accused, 
condemned, mocked, crucified the Lord. Peter de- 
nied him, his disciples left him. Women were at the 
foot of the cross, women were at the sepulchre. Even 
Pilate's wife, who was a heathen, made more effort 
to save Jesus than any mail among believers. Fin- 
ally, do not almost all theologians assert that the 
Church is maintained by the Virgin Mary? 

Aristotle may say that of all animals the males are 
stronger and wiser than the females, but St. Paul 
writes that weak things have been chosen to confound 
the strong. Adam was sublimely endowed, but 
woman humbled him; Samson was strong, but 
woman made him captive ; Lot was chaste, but woman 
seduced him; David was religious, but woman dis- 
turbed his piety; Solomon was wise, but woman de- 
ceived him; Job was patient, and was robbed by the 
devil of fortune and family; ulcerated, grieved, op- 
pressed, nothing provoked him to anger till a woman 
did it, therein proving herself stronger than the 
devil. Peter was fervent in faith, but woman forced 



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268 THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 

him to deny his lord. Somebody may remark that 
all these illustrations tend to woman's shame; not to 
her glory. Woman, however, may reply to man as 
Innocent III. wrote to some cardinal, "If one of us 
is to be confounded, I prefer that it be you." Civil 
law allows a woman to consult her own gain to an- 
other's hurt; and does not Scripture itself often 
extol and bless the evil deeds of the woman more 
than the good deeds of the man? Is not Eachel 
praised who deceived her father? Rebecca, because 
she obtained fraudulently Jacob's benediction? Is 
not the deceit of Rahab imputed to her as justice? 
Was not Jael blessed among women for a treacherous 
and cruel deed? What could be more iniquitous than 
the counsel of Judith? what more cruel than her 
wiles? what worse than her perfidy? Yet for this 
she is blessed, lauded, and extolled in Scripture, and 
the woman's iniquity is reputed better than the good- 
ness of the man. Was not Cain's a good work when 
he offered his best fruits in sacrifice and was re- 
proved for it? Did not Esau well when he hunted 
to get venison for his old father, and in the meantime 
was defrauded of his birthright, and incurred the 
divine hate? Other examples are adduced, and ro- 
bust scholars, ingenious theologians, are defied to 
find an equal amount of evidence in support of the 
contrary thesis, that the iniquity of the man is bet- 
ter than the goodness of the woman. Such a thesis, 
says Agrippa, could not be defended. 

From this point to the end Agrippa 's treatise con- 
sists of a mass of illustrations from profane and 
Scripture history, classified roughly. Some are from 
natural history. The queen of all birds, he says, is 
the eagle, always of the female sex, for no male 
eagles have been found. The phoenix is a female 
always. On the other hand, the most pestilent of 
serpents, called the basilisk, exists only as a male; 
it is impossible for it to hatch a female. 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 269 

All evil things b$gan with men, and few or none 
with woman. We die in the seed of Adam and live 
in the seed of Eve. The beginning of envy, the first 
homicide, the first parricide, the first despair of di- 
vine mercy was with man ; Lamech was the first biga- 
mist, Noah was the first drunkard, Nimrod the first 
tyrant, and so forth. Men were the first to league 
themselves with demons and discover profane hearts. 
Men have been incontinent, and had, in innumerable 
instances, to each man many wives at once; but 
women have been continent, each content with a sin- 
gle husband, except only Bathsheba. Many women 
are then cited as illustrations of their sex in this re- 
spect, or for their filial piety, including Abigail, Lu- 
cretia, Cato's wife, and the mother of the Gracchi, 
the vestal Claudia, Iphigenia. If any one opposes 
to such women the wives of Zoilus, Samson, Jason, 
Deiphobus, and Agamemnon, it may be answered that 
these have been unjustly accused, that no good man 
ever had a bad wife. Only bad husbands get bad 
wives, or if they get a good one, are sometimes able 
to corrupt her excellence. If women made the laws, 
and wrote the histories and tragedies, could they not 
justly crowd them with testimony to the wickedness 
of men? Our prisons are full of men, and slain men 
cumber the earth everywhere, but women are the 
beginners of all liberal arts, of virtue and beneficence. 
Therefore the arts and virtues commonly have fem- 
inine names. Even the corners of the world receive 
their names from women — the nymph Asia ; Europe, 
the daughter of Agenior; Lybia, the daughter of 
Epaphus, who is called also Aphrica. 

Illustrations follow of the pre-eminence of woman 
in good gifts, and it is urged that Abraham, who by 
his faith was accounted just, was placed in subjec- 
tion to Sarah his wife, and was told, "In all that 
3arah hath said unto thee, harken unto her voire." 
(Gen., xxi., 12.) 



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270 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

There follows a host of other illustrations of the 
excellence of women, drawn from all sources ; among 
others, illustrations of her eminence in learning. 
"And," adds Agrippa, "were not women now forbid- 
den to be literary, we should at this day have most 
celebrated women, whose wit would surpass that of 
men. What is to be said upon this head, what even 
by nature women seem to be born easily superior to 
practiced students in all faculties? Do not the gram- 
marians entitle themselves masters of right speak- 
ing f Yet we learn this far better from our nurses 
and our mothers than from the grammarians. For 
that reason Plato and Quintilian so solicitously 
urged a careful choice of children's nurses, that the 
children's language might be formed on the best 
model. Are not the poets in the invention of their 
whims and fables, the dialecticians in their conten- 
tious garrulity, surpassed by women? Was ever 
orator so good or so successful, that a courtesan 
could not excel his powers of persuasion? What 
arithmetician by false calculation would know how 
to cheat a woman in the payment of a debt! What 
musician equals her in song and in amenity of voice? 
Are not philosophers, mathematicians, and astrol- 
ogers often inferior to country women in their divina- 
tions and predictions, and does not the old nurse 
very often beat the doctor?" Socrates himself, the 
wisest of men, did not disdain to receive knowledge 
from Aspasia, nor did Apollo the theologian despise 
the teaching of Priscilla. 

Then follows a fresh string of illustrations by 
which we are brought to a contemplation of the neces- 
sity of women for the perpetuation of any state, and 
the cessation of the human race that may be conse- 
quent on her withdrawal. Through more examples 
we are brought then to consider the honor and pre- 
cedence accorded by law and usage to the female sex. 
Man makes way for woman on the public road, and 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 271 

yields to her in society the highest places. Purple 
and fine linen, gold and jewels are conceded as the fit 
adornments of her noble person, and from the sump- 
tuary laws of the later emperors women were ex- 
cepted. Illustrations follow of the dignity and priv- 
ileges of the wife, and of the immunities accorded 
to her by the law. Eeference is made to ancient 
writers, who tell how, among the Getulians, the 
Bactrians, and others, men were the softer sex, and 
sat at home while women labored in the fields, built 
houses, transacted business, rode abroad, and went 
out to do battle. Among the Cantabrians men 
brought dowries to their wives, brothers were given 
in marriage by their sisters, and the daughters of a 
household were the heirs. Among the Scythians, 
Thracians, and Gauls, women possessed their rights, 
but among us, said Agrippa, "the tyranny of men 
prevailing over divine right and the laws^ of nature, 
slays by law the liberty of woman, abolishes it by 
use and custom, extinguishes it by education. For 
the woman, as soon as she is born, is from her earli- 
est years detained at home in idleness, and as if 
destitute of capacity for higher occupations, is per- 
mitted to conceive of nothing beyond needle and 
thread. Then when she has attained years of puberty 
she is delivered over to the jealous empire of a man, 
or shut up for ever in a shop of vestals. The law 
also forbids her to fill public offices. No prudence 
entitles her to plead in open court.' ' A list follows 
of the chief disabilities of women, "who are treated 
by the men as conquered by the conquerors, not by 
any divine necessity, for any reason, but according 
to custom, education, fortune, and the tyrant's op- 
portunity. 1 ' 

A few leading objections are then answered. Eve 
was indeed made subject to man after the fall, but 
that curse was removed when man was saved. Paul 
says that "wives are to be subject to their husbands, 



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272 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

and women to be silent in the church," but he spoke 
of temporal church discipline, and did not utter a 
divine law, since "in Christ there is neither male 
nor female, but a new creature." We are again re- 
minded of the text subjecting Abraham to Sarah, 
and the treatise closes then with a short recapitula- 
tion of its heads. "We have shown, 1 ' Agrippa says, 
"the pre-eminence of the female sex by its name, 
its order and place of creation, the material of which 
it was created, and the dignity that was given to 
woman over man by God, then by religion, by nature, 
by human laws, by various authority, by reason, and 
have demonstrated all this by promiscuous examples. 
Yet we have not said so many things but that we 
have left more still to be said, because I came to the 
writings of this not moved by ambition, or for the 
sake of bringing myself praise, but for the sake of 
duty and truth, lest, like a sacrilegious person, I 
might seem, if I were silent, by an impious tacitur- 
nity (and as it were a burying of my talent) to refuse 
the praises due to so devout a sex. So that if any one 
more curious than I am should discover any argu- 
ment which he thinks requisite to be added to this 
work, let him expect to have his position not con- 
tested by me, but attested, in as far as he is able to 
carry on this good work of mine with his own genius 
and learning. And that this work itself may not be- 
come too large a volume, here let it end." 

Such was the treatise written by Cornelius at Dole 
for the more perfect propitiation of the Princess Mar- 
garet. Many years elasped before it was printed and 
presented to the princess; doubtless, however, the 
youth read the manuscript to his betrothed very soon 
after it was written. Towards the close of the year 
a friend in Cologne wrote to Agrippa of the im- 
patience of his parents for their son's return, but at 
the close of November another friend in Cologne, 
Theodoric, Bishop of Cyrene, asking as an especial 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 273 

favor for his views upon judicial astrology so hotly 
opposed by Pico di Mirandola, says that his expres- 
sion on the subject had appeared to him ambiguous 
when they conversed together. Probably he had then 
been offering to the embrace of his parents not a son 
only, but a son and daughter, for it is said to have 
been in the year 1509, when all was honor for him in 
the present, all hope in the future, that Cornelius 
von Nettesheim married Jane Louisa Tyssie, of 
Geneva, a maiden equal to him in rank, remarkable 
for beauty, and yet more remarkable for her aspira- 
tions and her worth. She entered with her whole 
soul into the spirit of her husband's life, rejoiced 
in his ambition, and knew how to hold high con- 
verse with his friends. The marriage was in every 
respect a happy one ; there was a world of gentleness 
and loving kindness in Agrippa's heart. We shall 
have revelation of it as the narrative proceeds. The 
tenderness of his nature mingles strangely, sadly, 
with his restlessness, his self-reliance, and his pride, 

So, full of hope and happiness, at the age of twen- 
ty-three, he took to wife a maiden who could love 
him for his kindliness, and reverence him for his 
power. He was no needy adventurer, but the son 
of a noble house, who was beginning, as it seemed, 
the achievement of the highest honors. He was sur- 
rounded by admirers, already a doctor of divinity, 
hereafter to attain he knew not what. Fostered by 
Maximilian's daughter, what might not his intellect 
achieve f 

Poor youth, even in that year of hope the blight 
was already settling on his life ! While he was writ- 
ing praise of womanhood at Dole to win the smiles 
of Margaret, Catilinet, a Franciscan friar, who had 
been at the adjacent town of Gray when Reuchlin 
was expounded, mediated cruel vengeance on the 
down-chinned scholar. At Ghent, as preacher before 
the Regent of the Netherlands and all her court, 



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274 THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 



Catilinet was to deliver in the Easter following the 
Quadragesimal Discourses. Against the impious 
Cabalist he was preparing to arouse the wrath of 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 275 

Margaret during those same days which were spent 
by the young student in pleasant effort to deserve 
her kindness. 
Now it was that Agrippa wrote his book on Magic. 



OEDEE OF THE EMPTEEAN HEAVEN. 

There is a God, all-powerful, all-intelligent and 
supremely perfect ; eternal and infinite ; omnipotent 
and omniscient ; who endures from eternity to eter- 
nity, and is present from infinity to infinity. 

But though, from the nature and perfections of 
the Deity, he is invisibly present in all places and 
nothing happens without his knowledge and permis- 
sion; yet it is expressly revealed in Scripture, and 
admitted by all wise and intelligent authors, that he 
is visibly present with the angels and spirits, and 
blessed souls of the departed, in those mansions of 
bliss called Heaven. There he is pleased to afford 
a nearer and more immediate view of himself, and 
a more sensible manifestation of his glory, and a 
more adequate perception of his attributes, than 
can be seen or felt in any other parts of the universe ; 
which place, for the sake of pre-eminent distinction, 
and as being the seat and center, from whence all 
things flow and have their beginning, life, light, pow- 
er, and motion, is called the interior or Empyrean 
Heaven. 

The position and order of this interior heaven, or 
center of the Divinity, has been variously described, 
and its locality somewhat disputed among the 
learned ; but all agree as to the certainty of its exist- 
ence. Hermes Trismegistus defines heaven to be an 
intellectual sphere, whose center is everywhere, and 
circumference nowhere, but by this he meant no 



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276 THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 

more than to affirm, what we have done above, that 
God is everywhere, and at all times, from infinity to 
infinity, that is to say, without limitation, bounds, or 
circumference. Plato speaks of this internal heaven 
in terms which bear so strict a resemblance with the 
books of Eevelation, and in so elevated and magnifi- 
cent a style, that it is apparent the heathen philoso- 
phers, notwithstanding their worshiping demi or 
false gods, possessed an unshaken confidence in one 
omnipotent, supreme, overruling power, whose 
throne was the center of all things, and the abode 
of angels and blessed spirits. 

To describe this interior heaven, in terms adequate 
to its magnificence and glory, is utterly impossible. 
The utmost we can do is to collect, from inspired 
writers, and from the words of Eevelation, assisted 
by occult philosophy, and a due knowledge of the 
celestial spheres, that order and position of it, which 
reason and the divine lights we have, bring nearest 
to the truth. That God must be strictly and literally 
the center from whence all ideas of the Divine Mind 
flow, as rays in every direction, through all spheres 
and through all bodies, cannot admit of a doubt. 
That the inner circumference of this center is sur- 
rounded, filled or formed, by arrangements of the 
three hierarchies of angels, is also consonant to rea- 
son and Scripture, and forms what may be termed 
the entrance or inner gate of the empyrean heaven, 
through which no spirit can pass without their knowl- 
edge and permission, and within which we must sup- 
pose the vast expanse or mansions of the Godhead, 
and glory of the Trinity, to be. This is strictly con- 
formable to the idea of all the prophets and evangel- 
ical writers. From this primary circle, or gate of 
heav,en, Lucifer, the grand Apostate, as Milton finely 
describes it, was hurled into the bottomless abyss; 
whose office, as one of the highest orders of angels, 
having placed him near the eternal throne, he became 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 277 

competitor for dominion and power with God him- 
self. 

The circles next surrounding the hierarchies, are 




composed of the ministering angels and spirits and 
messengers of the Deity. In positions answering to 
the ideas of the holy Trinity, and intersecting all 



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278 THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 

orders of angels, are seated, in fullness of glory and 
splendor, those superior angels, or intelligent spirits, 
who answer to the divine attributes of God, and are 
the pure essences or stream through which the will 
or fiat of the Godhead is communicated to the angels 
and spirits, and instantaneously conducted to the 
Anima Mundi. Bound the whole, as an atmosphere 
round a planet, the Anima Mundi, or universal Spirit 
of Nature, is placed; which, receiving the impres- 
sions or ideas of the Divine Mind, conducts them 
onward, to the remotest parts of the universe; to 
infinity itself; to, and upon, and through, all bodies, 
and to all God's works. This Anima Mundi is there- 
fore what we understand of Nature, of Providence, 
of the presence of God, and the fountain or seat of 
all second causes, being, as it were, the Eye of God, 
or medium between God and all created things. Next 
to the Anima Mundi, is that vast region or expanse, 
called the ethereal heaven, or firmament, wherein the 
fixed stars, planets, and comets, are disposed; and 
wherein the celestial bodies, and the comets, move 
freely in all directions, and towards all parts of the 
heavens. 

To illustrate what has been stated above a plate is 
here inserted of the Interior Heaven, with the differ- 
ent orders of the Spirits and Essences of the Divine 
Mind, distinguished by their proper names and char- 
acters, in the original Hebrew and Iberian text, as 
pointed out in the manuscripts of ancient and 
learned philosophers. This plate shows in what man- 
ner the rays or beams of Divine Providence pass 
from the center or seat of the Godhead, through all 
the different orders of angels and spirits, to the 
Anima Mundi, and from thence to all the celestial 
bodies planets, and stars ; to our earth, and to the 
remotest parts of infinite space, constituting what is 
termed celestial influx, or that faculty in nature by 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 279 

which the quality and temperature of one body is 
communicated to another. 

Theologists have divided angels into different 
ranks or classes, which they term Hierarchies, a 
word signifying to rule in holy things. Ancient 
authors give nine orders of these celestial spirits — 
Cherubim, Seraphim, Thrones, Dominions, Princi- 
palities, Powers, Virtues, Angels, and Archangels — 
and these they class into Three Hierarchies, appoint- 
ing them their respective offices in the performance 
of the word and will of God. 

The rabbis and cabalistical writers have defined 
one rank of angels — or the Intelligences — as superior 
to all the foregoing nine orders of spirits, and which 
answer to and are contained in the ten distinguish- 
ing names of God, and are the pure essences of the 
Supreme Spirit, or the Divine Diffusion through 
which the mirific Word and Will are communicated 
to the angels and blessed spirits, and through which 
providence extends to the care and protection of 
Nature. 

The first of these divine essences is Jehovah, and 
is peculiarly attributed to God the Father, being the 
pure and simple essence of the Supreme Divinity, 
flowing through Hajoth Hakados, to the angel Met- 
ratton, and to the ministering spirit Reschith Haga- 
lalim, who guides the Primum Mobile, and bestows 
the gift of being upon all things. To this spirit is 
allotted the office of bringing the souls of the faith- 
ful departed into heaven ; and by him God spake to 
Moses. 

The second is Jah, and is attributed to the Person 
of the Messiah, whose power and influence descend 
through the angel Masleh into the sphere of the celes- 
tial Zodiac. This is the Spirit of Nature, the Soul of 
the World, or the Omnific Word which actuated the 
chaos and divided the ilnwrought matters into three 



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280 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

portions : Of the first and most essential part was 
the Spiritual World composed; of the second was 
made the visible heavens or the Celestial World; 
and of the third part was formed the Terrestrial 
World, out of which was drawn the elemental quint- 
essence, or first matter of all things, which pro- 
duced the four elements of Fire, Water, Air, and 
Earth, and all the creatures which inhabit them, by 
the agency of a particular spirit called Eaziel, who 
was the ruler of Adam. 

The third is Ehjeh, and is attributed to the Holy 
Spirit, whose divine light is received by the angel 
Sabbathi, and communicated from him through the 
sphere of Saturn. This is the principium genera- 
tionis, the beginning of the ways of God, or the mani- 
festations of the Father and the Son's light in the 
supernatural generation. And from hence flow down 
all living souls, entering the inanimate body, and 
giving form to unsettled matter. 

The fourth is El, through the light of whom flows 
grace, goodness, mercy, piety, and munificence, to 
the angel Zadkiel, and, thence, passing through the 
sphere of Jupiter, fashioneth the images of all bod- 
ies, bestowing clemency, benevolence, and justice on 
all. 

The fifth is Elohi, the upholder of the sword, and 
left hand of God, whose influence penetrates the 
angel Geburah, and thence descends through the 
sphere of Mars, giving fortitude in war and affliction. 

The sixth is Tsebaoth, who bestoweth his mighty 
power through the angel Raphael into the sphere of 
the Sun, giving motion, heat, and brightness to it, 
and thence producing metals. 

The seventh is Elion, who rules the angel Michael, 
and descends through the sphere of Mercury, giving 
benignity, motion, intelligence, and eloquence. 

The eighth is Adonai, whose influence is received 
by the angel Haniel, and communicated through the 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 281 

sphere of Venus, giving zeal, fervency, and righteous- 
ness of heart, and producing vegetables. 

The ninth is Shaddai, whose influence is conveyed 
by cherubim to the angel Gabriel, and falls into the 
sphere of the Moon, causing increase and decrease of 
all things, like unto the tides of the sea, and govern- 
ing the genii and natural protectors of man. 

The tenth is Elohim, who extends his beneficence to 
the angel Jesodoth, into the sphere of the Earth, and 
dispenseth knowledge, understanding, and wisdom. 

The three first of these ten names — Jehovah, Jah, 
and Ehjeh — express the essence of God, and are 
proper names ; but the other seven are only expres- 
sive of his attributes. The only true name of God, 
according to the cabala, is the name of four letters 
— the Tetragrammaton — Yod-he-vau-he* 

In the exterior circle of the celestial heaven, occu- 
pied by the fixed stars, the Anima Mundi hath her 
particular forms, answering to the ideas of the Di- 
vine Mind; and this situation approaching nearest 
to the Empyrean Heaven, the seat of God, receives 
the spiritual powers and influences which imme- 
diately proceed from him. Hence they are diffused 
through the spheres of the planets and heavenly 
bodies, and communicated to the inmost center of the 
Earth by means of natural law, or the Spirit of the 
World, that rules the terrestrial world. 

While many ancient authors have contended on 
the definition and meaning of the word Nature, yet 
they all in reality mean one and the same thing, only 
giving different explanations of the same ideas ; and 
if their arguments are closely pursued and compared 
with each other, they will all tend to show that the 
Anima Mundi and the Soul of the Universe is what 
they mean by Nature. 



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282 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 



SYMBOLS OF THE ALCHEMISTS. 

This volume would be incomplete without the sym- 
bols of the Alchemists, as they naturally pertain to 
Natural Magic, and occasionally prove of great value. 
The London Pharmaceutical Journal, an excellent 
authority, gives the symbols we here introduce. 

Nowadays chemists write their formulas and work 
out their processes by means of symbols, and the 
alchemists used also signs and hieroglyphics to rep- 
resent the then known elements, metals, and other 
substances in common use. 

The so-called elements — Fire, "Water, Air, Earth — 
were represented by special symbols, here repre- 
sented. The metals were supposed to be influenced 
by the planets to a certain degree, and were repre- 
sented by the corresponding signs of the Zodiac. 
Various other articles also had their symbols, which 
served as a means of shorthand at a period when 
caligraphy was little known or employed. Gold, for 
instance, was associated with the Sun because of its 
brightness and perfection, for it was always held to 
be the noblest of metals. The symbol applied to it 
embodies these qualities. Silver resembles the Moon 
in lustre, and the origin of the crescent needs no ex- 
planation. Iron was dedicated to Mars, being the 
metal from which implements of war were made, 
Mars being the god of war, probably owing to the 
blood-red color of the planet. Saturn was the slow- 
est of the planets, and lead, being the dullest and 
most despised of metals, was therefore accorded to 
Saturn. Quicksilver was, of course, most appro- 
priate to Mercury, the messenger of the gods. 

Dr. Pereira derives all these symbols from gold 
and the Greek cross, taken to represent acrimony the 
supposititious substance, which, combined with gold, 
produced other metals. Copper, for instance, has the 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 283 

sign of gold on top, and that of acrimony under- 
neath. Quicksilver derived its symbol from that of 
silver on the top, because of its color, that of acri- 
mony beneath, and gold between, because gold was 
supposed to lurk in all metals. Iron was supposed to 
contain acrimony of a different nature from that of 
the other metals, being represented in this symbol 
by the barbed spearhead. Fire and Water being 
antagonistic are represented by the same symbol, 
one being inverted. Air, which was supposed to be 
a modification of fire, has a modified fire symbol, 
whilst the fourth hypothetical element has for its 
symbol that of air inverted. These are based on 
Aristotle's doctrine, which taught that the four ele- 
ments had each two qualities, one of which was com- 
mon to some other elements. 



SYMBOLS OF THE ALCHEMISTS AND 
THEIR SIGNIFICATIONS. 

Fire. Air. Water. Water. Earth. 



Lead. Tin. Iron. Gold. Copper. Mercury. Silver. 

D* J0MC 

Antimony. Arsenic. Aqua Vttae. Borax. To Purify. 

Cinnabar. Caput Mortuum. An OIL Saltpeter. Magnet. 



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284 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 

SYMBOLS OF THE ALCHEMISTS, CONTINUED. 

Sal Ammo* A Cov- To To 

niac Sulphur. Tartar, ered Pot Sublime. Precipitate. 

Roman Symbol To To Aqua 

Spirits of Wine. for Denarius. Digest. Distill. Fortis. 

♦W DC^t? 

Aqua Regalia. Brick. To Calcine. Camphire. Ashes. Ccrusse. 

Lime* Quicklime* Cinnabar. Wax. Hartshorn. 

OG * 655 * CC 



A Crucible. Oil. 

■ * » Crystal a Gum. *— 



i^EQ g*gr.S + 

Sublimated Preciptated 
Steel Filings. Litharge. To Lute. Mercury- Mercury. Nitre. 

<fZ ^ &- ^ 

Realgar. Sal Ammo- 

Sand. Soap. Sal Alkali. niac 



Salt TaUow. Vinegar. Verdigris. Vitriol Urine. Day Nigh 

e8X*e <B<!IJJt 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 2S5 

ft** * ft ft ft *** 

* * * * * 

* * * * * 

* * * * * * * 

* ft * 

ft ft ft ft 

ft ft ft « ft 

ft ft * 

ft ft * 

ft ft ft 

* ft * * 



A MESSAGE FROM THE STARS. 

I stood at eventime. The never-ending plain 
All empty looked and void. Yet, as I gazed again 
An army bivouacked. Unnumbered points of light 
Bespoke a force Supreme — invincible for Right. 



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286 THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC 




THE ETERNAL PRINCIPLE. 
By Db. L. W. de Laurence. 

The struggle between light and darkness, between 
good and evil, is as old as the world, and yet there 
is no principle of evil; whatever degrades is evil, 
whatever elevates is good. 

Evil or so-called sin is simply 
undeveloped good. Good and evil 
are the light and shadow of the 
one eternal principle of life, and 
each is necessary for the exist- 
ence of the other. 

The struggle between light and 
shadow is life, and there can be 
no life without a struggle. 

Matter transmits force, but does not originate 
force. It is for a time the receptacle of power, but 
not the power. All essence of power belongs to 
Spirit. All pure force is invisible. 

Matter and Spirit may be one to the Absolute and 
Infinite Being, but that one is Spirit. In human 
speech, matter is only the name of an effect whose 
cause is wrapped in mystery. 

It remains for the human to penetrate the veil 
and solve the mystery. And the solution of this 
problem of mind and matter discovers man unto him- 



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THE PHILOSOPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC 287 

self, and binds him in loving union forever with the 
Infinite "I am," the Spirit of all. 

Absence of feeling and of suffering only shows 
that the process of death has begun, or that the 
animal has taken full possession. Pain is not an 
element to be most dreaded; for, as gold is refined 
by fire, the Soul is refined by pain, and only through 
the death of suffering does the human Soul rise 
into eternal life. 

If selfishness and the animal instinct have full 
sway, the Soul shrivels toward decay, while all its 
noble powers are congealed, its sensibilities be- 
numbed, its vision blinded, its intellect dimmed, and 
from the once clear mirror the reflection of a noble 
Soul shines no more where the innermost temple 
might have been radiant with truth and virtue. 

DEATH — Is death more to be feared because it 
is an enigma the mysteries of which western dull 
minds, because obscured by theology, cannot fathom, 
or their weak fancy cannot comprehend? 

The human Soul is the anchorage or place of 
ideas. The Astral body or star magno is the mirror 
that reflects and records them, human thoughts being 
simply the clothing of these ideas. The spirit is 
the self-acting energy that produces the Idea. 



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288 MESSAGE TO ALL MYSTICS 



A MESSAGE TO ALL MYSTICS. 
THE HINDU MAGIC MIRROR. 

BY DR. L. W. DE LAURENCE. 

Copyright, 1910, by de Laurence, Scott & Co., Publishing 
Department. 

A sincere and true message to all faithful Brother Mystics and 
those who may wish to join this Occult Organization which exists 
here and in the Astral or unseen world. 

Given under and by the direction of the great Occult Organiza- 
tion and Brotherhood of Magic for the never ending advancement 
of human souls through Dr. L. W. de Laurence, whose supreme 
desire is to educate capable and sincere brothers and sisters to act 
in concert with our Brotherhood of unseen Mystics and teach them 
the work that they must do preparatory thereto. 

I, Dr. L. W. de Laurence, do hereby state, truly, and positively, 
that I know that the existence of a powerful Occult Organization 
and Brotherhood of Mystics, both here and in the great unseen 
world, to be an incontestable truth; and, furthermore, that I 
KNOW that the Science and Art of Magic as operated by these 
Mystics is worthy of faithful investigation. 

Furthermore, be it known to all the world, and especially so 
unto him or her into whose hands this message may come, not by 
reason of their own solicitation, or by advertisement, but by their 
own Astral influence and Occult magnetism, that the hereinafter 
simple message to Brother Mystics and those who desire to rid 
themselves of the bonds and shackles of gross ignorance, theology, 
superstition and materialism, regarding the famous "Magic Mir- 
ror," that wonderful Astral Instrument so long used by leading 
Mystics, Adepts, and Occult workers for communication and prepar- 
atory development for communication between the two worlds, will 
help all who heed. 

This message hereinafter written I have given verbatim as it 
has come to me, under the direction of the great Brotherhood of 
Mystics from the unseen Astral world. 



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MESSAGE TO ALL MYSTICS 289 



Every soul will rest at some mile-post in life 
Those never ending, unnumbered, unknown points 
All void, vacant, and dark. 
Yet, be still, for as it looks once more 

A multitude assembled; 

Unnumberable Astral souls reveal a force Supreme, 

Invincible for human advancement, 

The annulment of man-made law; 

The concert uplifting and educating of humanity. 
Listen, Oh ye capable brothers, for out of darkness 
Comes this Mystic Message. 



THE MESSAGE. 

Part One. 

TO THOSE MYSTICS STILL IN EARTH LIFE, THE ASTRAL 
BROTHERHOOD OP MAGIC, AN OCCULT ORGANIZA- 
TION, SENDS GOOD WILL, LIGHT AND GREETINGS. 

UNTIL YOU, BBOTHEB AND SISTEB "KNOW THYSELF" 
AND TEE POSSIBILITIES OF "THYSELF," BY AND 
TH BOUGH THE UNDEBSTANDINO OF "SELF," AND ABE 
ABLE TO kindle the Astral fire within, there is labor for us to 
perform in assisting you in your preparatory work thereto. 

The shackles and chains of centuries, of cycles of ages, of antiquity, 
are riven at length by their own corroding and heart-eating rust 
(materialism). 

Let ye, oh brother and sister listen most attentively, for no 
shackle or bond that comes of theology, darkness or superstition, 
or gross ignorance, can ever endure the full light of inner truth 
nor the full dawn of the day. 

To carry this work onward to its and your own full success 
we must have true, faithful, sincere and capable brothers on the 
Earth Plane who have common sense (sense that is not common), 
and who will act in full concert with us for the uplifting and 
Occult Education of humanity. 

No city code, or man-made law, can overthrow, annul or set aside 
the laws of God (SELF, NATURE). 

The progressive Mystic who has received his or her Occult Edu- 
cation will always act unselfishly, for they have by their educa- 
tion become Nature's (GOD'S) own legitimate and true instru- 
ment in human advancement. 

They have steadfastly met and overthrown error, superstition, 
theology, ignorance, and arrogance in high and so-called holy 

S laces, and have thus denied the so-called Divine right of Kings, 
[misters and Priests, and those who would scoff at spiritism. 
They have without hesitation uprooted and overthrown the rule 



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290 MESSAGE TO ALL MYSTICS 



of despot and tyrant, have led true brothers and sisters with the 
potent weapon of mental thought and Astral force, to triumph over 
superstition and ignorance, and will finally be the means of end- 
ing the reign of the beasts of materialism and selfishness who can 
exist only for a time, and times, and half time. 

Before the truths of our Brotherhood and Occult Organization 
the bonds and shackles of fettered humanity are destined to melt 
as snow beneath the Sun of Aries. 

Do not be so foolish as to ask whether you are a Mystic or 
whether you can develop sufficiently to become identified with 
this great Occult Organization and ultimately communicate di- 
rectly and personally with the unseen Brotherhood. 

Each and every sensible and true soul possesses within itself 
these possibilities which are simply the attributes of Divine Soul 
Powers. Of course you may suppress and crucify them, or permit 
them to lie dormant, but only to your own loss and sorrow; or 
you can allow them to thrive and bloom, like the lotus blossoms 
on the river Nile, to a beauty and power that will allow you to out- 
step those who have devoted themselves to more inferior studies 
and pursuits. 

Are you superstitious? Are you orthodox? Are you stingy? 
Are you selfish? Are you a doubting Tom? Ask yourself these 
questions. 

These are the deep, treacherous, underlying false conditions you 
must combat and overcome. Can you lay aside these selfish or su- 
perstitious instincts and work for the good and uplifting of all 
worthy Brothers and Sisters instead of the aggrandizement of self? 
If you can, then you are welcome to our Astral Organization and 
great Occult Brotherhood. 

If such you are, then we stretch out to you a helping hand over 
the infinite spaces, from the dim, forgotten centuries, and recog- 
nize you as a true brother or sister and comrade. You may rest 
assured, and the future will prove the truth of this statement, 
that the reign of truth and absolute justice and absolute unselfish- 
ness ultimately will come to every planet. To such culmination 
the progress of earth life is marked with every vicissitude that 
change and man-made laws may imply. 

When such a condition has been brought about the planetary 
forces that previously indicated so much sorrow and suffering are 
discovered to be essential to perfect social organization. 

'Tis thus the condition of adversity is turned into the force 
of perpetuity; the disappointments of failures and obstruction 
and slow decay are turned into a condition of sure, safe advance- 
ment. 

Infinite force and infinite intelligence are infinitely good. If 
what you read here stirs the soul and smoldering forces within 
you it is the responding cry of your true spiritual self— your true 
Ego — the Astral self, recognizing and responding to the desires 
and vibrations of the eternal SELF. 

It rests entirely with you whether this warning and recogni- 
tion bears fruit or not. 



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MESSAGE TO ALL MYSTICS , 291 



If you decide to act, ponder and consider well our advice. "BE 
SILENT." "Be ye wise as serpents but harmless as doves." 
A seed before it sprouts lies concealed, secret and silent in the 
dark earth. 

It is in this condition that it finds its real and only opportunity 
for growth and development. 

Antagonistic elements can only sweep over it while it lies 
. concealed; its work, growth and development goes silently on. 
Such must be your self-development. So must your Astral and 
Soul Forces develop while silently hid in yourself. 

Neither money nor position will buy true knowledge, nor can 
they destroy true knowledge. 

Astral Powers, and Soul Forces, cannot be measured with 
money. Your Magical powers and great Astral possibilities must 
spring to life within yourself. Jesus, the greatest Master that 
ever lived, said: "Seek ye the Kingdom of God within you." 
We admonish you likewise. 

See well to it that you heed. You may be so orthodox as to 
think that you should not heed and investigate, believing that the 
esoteric should not be investigated, or that your development 
should not be accelerated. 

There is no subject, be it esoteric or exoteric, that is too sacred 
for true investigation, and it is the peculiar province of the True 
Mystic to desire to reason on all hidden and Astral forces with 
the utmost care. 

The health of body, the energy and confidence that an ardor for 
truth and power inspires, mark his progress. No doubters, no 
laggard, no dotard, charlatan, no miser, no selfish one may ever 
hope to succeed, or ever overtake the fleeting feet of true Oc- 
cultism and esoteric truths. 

The true Master, Adept or Mystic must possess a will and in- 
telligence that develops and brightens with attrition. 

No scoffer, no obstacle, should daunt him, no condition should 
bar him, nothing should hinder or discourage him in his Astral 
development and search after truth. 

He must acquire secret Knowledge and Mystic powers as a 
miser does his wealth to hold— his soul his strong-box; but, unlike 
the miser, he can give of his store and yet retain his all. 

Steadfastness and purity of purpose and self are a necessary 
requisite while traveling the rugged path of Occultism and Mystic 
development. 

We cannot enter into diseased or sensual conditions. 

We may and desire to set those Astral forces in operation that 
will assuage deep-seated sorrow and physical suffering, but we 
cannot be expected to bring sweet music out of inharmonious 
notes. 

To attempt to do so would of course be foolish and result in 
deep injury to ourselves. So we say, BE PURE, save your vital 
forces and preserve them long into old age. 

The true Mystic and real Master ne*er dissipates his physical 
or sex forces. The dissolute, sensual man does. The unspent 



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292 MESSAGE TO ALL MYSTICS 



and preserved sex and germinal forces surrounds you with a beau- 
tiful purple aura, which envelops you always greatly to your 
honor as well as being conducive to your development. 

This beautiful aura and strength-giving element is dissipated 
and destroyed by sensual acts and animal instincts. When this 
purple Astral Aura is preserved and its supply constantly in- 
creased from day to day by pure acts and thoughts you will 
possess the means necessary for your development and the prac- 
tice of true Occultism and Magic. 

Heed thee, then, that your Aura remains purple, unimpaired 
and preserved. For this reason children are many times clair- 
voyant and possess Spirit and Astral Sight when their parents 
do not. 

CONDITION ESSENTIAL FOB SPIRIT CO-ORDINATION AND 
COMMUNICATION. 

It now becomes our province to direct and indicate the way 
and manner best suited for communication with the unseen world. 

Try and fulfill all the requirements that we have indicated in 
the fore part of this communication and those which hereinafter 
follow, especially those relating to the preparation and use of 
the MAGIC MIRROR. 

However, should you fail, do not be discouraged or cast down. 
—BE FAITHFUL. Faithfulness and application are all that will 
ever accelerate your development. 

Persevere. To him or her who is faithful much help and assist- 
ance will be given. At some future time, should you decide to 
become a brother or sister of this Occult Organization, you will 
know our meaning of the above; for we assure you we know full 
well how to handle this problem that has vexed so many who in- 
sist in developing in their own foolish way. 

However, after you start, should no apparent results be ob- 
tained, keep on, be faithful, persevere, if necessary, for many 
years, yea, a lifetime. 

Results and your capacity for work and perseverance will in- 
dicate the degree of your development and advancement as a 
true brother and faithful Mystic, while the cardinal principles of 
true Co-ordination will promote and signify the progress of your 
development and communication. 

Of course, if you really wish to identify yourself with our 
Occult Organization and enter into such a relationship with us 
that you can communicate, you must place yourself, of your own 
free will and accord, in harmony and accord with those vibratory 
Astral forces which Co-ordinate with our own. 

To obtain this class of vibratory forces you should read, then 
carefully re-read, this message many times until you thoroughly 
understand its real esoteric meaning. 

Next most carefully decide and fix in your mind just the kind 
of an ideal life you think a true Mystic should live. Examine 
yourself as you would a peck of wheat, seeking both the inferior 
and superior grains or qualities. 



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MESSAGE TO ALL MYSTICS 293 



Take heed of each inferior quality and virtue you possess. 
Then, like a true man or woman, decide to live what you be- 
lieve to be the true ideal Mystical life. 

After you do this see to it that you live the ideal life and; 
you will bless the day and hour that this message came unsolicited 
by you. 

Until you so live the ideal life, do not expect to co-ordinate 
with us. Should you decide upon an ideal Mystical life many 
questions will come to you. 

Anticipating this there follows here the answer to all im- 
portant ones. First — Good, pure, unselfish thoughts are absolutely 
essential and demanded. Remember, you seek to identify your- 
self with the greatest and really only true Occult Organization 
in the world. 

A pure mind keeps away all vain fancies and mental delusions. 
Seek and you will find. 

Aspire and you will be inspired. Perform any good deed you 
can; do not defer a good deed nor a laudable ambition. 

The proper time to do anything is when ambition inspires you 
to do it. Then your energy is sustained by a free and natural 
ardor and desire, and you are assisted by a clear conception, un- 
clouded by procrastination, which acts most effectively for success. 

By living a pure mental and physical condition, and rounding 
out your existence by constantly keeping before you the ideal 
life of the advanced Mystic, you should rapidly advance to a 
degree of spiritual light and Astral coordination where we may 
be able to establish intelligent communication with you. 

But remember, it all depends upon your faithfulness and ca- 
pacity to persevere until you have advanced to a point where 
you can place yourself in a sphere of vibratory Astral forces 
that will admit of perfect coordination. 

WHEN TO USE A MAGIC MIRROR. 

Now if you have begun to live the ideal life and have arisen to 
a degree where we can cooperate with you through your Aura, 
you are now in a state where you can seek coordination, communi- 
cation and relationship with us through a Magic Mirror. 

Every wise Mystic constructs his own Opaque Magic Mirror, 
not because it could not be made for him, but because, if he 
constructs it himself, it will be more certain to serve the occult 
purpose for which it was made. 

It will also more fully co-equal with his own cloisteral and, 
monastic personality. 

A Magic Mirror made under these circumstances, with an in- 
tense desire in the Disciple to succeed, will not be a means of 
preventing sodality and exclusive association between himself and 
the Astral world, as would one constructed by another, impreg- 
nated and perverted with their selfish corporeal magnetism and 
depressed lustreless Aura, which always serves as a bar to your 
complete coalesce and association with those in spirit life. 

If you wish to succeed, disassociate yourself with any individual 



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294 MESSAGE TO ALL MYSTICS 



whose sole object and pursuit is financial gain, or who is of a mer- 
cenary nature. 

If you make it a rule in life to disassociate yourself with any 
person who has a parsimonious, stingy nature and who is always 
curmudgeonly in his dealings, you wSl be better off. 

Stay entirely away from those of a churlish, penurious dis- 
position, as they will surround you with a muddy, mottled Auia 
or magnetism which will hold you back like a heavy fog or dis- 
mal vapor. 

For this reason, unless you are careful, it is best to always 
live a sequestered and monastic life as far as your business and 
earthly pursuits will allow. 

Far better that you remain un trammeled than to have to do with 
the close-handed and niggardly. Never get intimate or confi- 
dential with them or their kind. — Have no dealings with them, 
as they are surrounded with an Aura that means death to your 
hopes. 

Shun them as you would an abominable, odious, damnable thing, 
for if you could see them in their true light, as the Mystic can, 
you would shrink and recoil from them as you would from some- 
thing that was loathsome andV nauseating — accursed. 

Now, should you be interested enough to follow further, and 
it is purely your own affair whether you do or not, you are going 
to be told that if you were in a position to see clearly, that is 
to say, if your spiritual or Astral sight was developed, you would 
be able to observe many things which are low and unbecoming 
in those around you. 

SPIBIT SIGHT AT WILL. 

If you doubt this, it's because it is concealed from you owing 
to the fact that you only possess the physical sight. These things 
can only be observed by those who have Spirit Sight at will. 

Does not your so-called Christian Bible, the toy and the mystery 
which the material minister and priest exhort over like a clod- 
pate of a jack-a-dandy, tell you to "develop the inner or spiritual 
sight"? 

Common sense should indicate that it is your plain duty to 
possess Astral or Spirit Sight, which the ancients called the 
inner or spiritual sight. 

If you wish to own a real, genuine Opaque Magic Mirror and 
be able to make it exactly as it was made by famous ancient 
Mystics so that it will possess Occult Virtue and become infused 
with Astral Auras, then proceed as hereinafter instructed, in this 
message, by this prerogative court and Brotherhood of Mystics. 

Foremost, procure unto thyself the following materials from 
Messrs. de Laurence, Scott & Co., with which to make your own 
Opaqae Magic Mirror. 

One Convexo-Concave superior transparent glass* which has a 
perfect and complete sphericity of form on the properly indi- 
cated side; manufactured by a certain secret process and formed 
by infusing silicious matter with fixed alkalies; but so con- 



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MESSAGE TO ALL MYSTICS 295 



structed that it possesses none of the qualities of the lens, so 
that rays of Astral light passing through it are not made to 
change their direction or to magnify or diminish objects at a cer- 
tain distance, as does the crystalline humour of the human eye. 

In other words, this exclusive Convexo-Concave superior trans- 
parent glass must be so made by a special process that it has no 
mitigating, assuasive or lenitive qualities whatsoever. 

Its exact size must be SA x 7f> inches. 

Next obtain a sufficient amount of a secret bituminiferous sub- 
stance like that used by the ancient mystics and old philosophers 
for this very purpose. 

Also one small brush; very fine. The entire cost of the above 
materials, securely packed and sent in a special mailing case to 
any post office address in the world, should not exceed the amount 
of $3.00. 

The materials referred to above were positively, previous to 
this communication, not obtainable anywhere in the world ar- 
ranged ready for instant use. 

Next obtain a box with a lid on to hold your mirror. Next 
procure one yard of new cloth. These are special materials from 
which you can make a genuine superior Opaque Magic Mirror. 

The material for making a Superior Magic Mirror, that is, 
the Convexo-Concave transparent non-magnifying superior glass, 
5&x7% inches, and the secret bituminiferous substance to be 
used for coating your Magic Mirror, and the fine brush also to be 
used to apply the coating, you must obtain as told above, of 
Messrs. de Laurence, Scott & Co. 

The box for holding the Magic Mirror, the yard of cloth and 
the pint of turpentine which you will also need, you of course 
can easily obtain yourself at a nominal cost from the stores where 
you reside. 

These Convexo-Ooncave superior glasses for making the Magic 
Mirrors are prepared especially for this purpose and are only 
sold by Messrs. de Laurence, Scott & Co., who are the biggest 
and only official dealers in these materials as well as standard 
Occult, Spiritual and Magical books and Temple Incense in the 
world. 

They are also official and direct importers, maintaining per- 
manent offices and connections in India and the Orient for the im- 
porting of such materials as Temple Incense and costly essences 
which are used by the Priests and Mystics in the Orient and 
Hindu Occult Chambers. 

*These particular superior transparent glasses, from which a 
Magic Mirror can be made, can not be obtained of anyone in the 
world outside of Messrs. de Laurence, Scott & Co., notwithstanding 
that after the publication and circulation of this Message others 
may offer them for sale. 

So, unless you know that your dealer obtains them from this 
firm direct, you have no assurance they are genuine. Unless they 
are genuine and made after the special process as above, they 
will fail to serve the purpose for which you have obtained them. 



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296 MESSAGE TO ALL MYSTICS 



To prevent this, obtain materials direct from this firm, or tell 
your dealer to do so. To prevent the sale of spurious materials 
for the making of genuine Opaque Magic Mirrors by unscrupu- 
lous dealers who will be anxious to supply you after the pub- 
lication and circulation of this message, you should write Messrs. 
de Laurence, Scott & Co., direct and they will advise you by 
return mail whether your dealer is obtaining his materials from 
them or not, or whether he is imposing upon you. 

They also sell, at a small cost, an excellent sphere or Crystal, 
which no Mystic or Adept ever thinks of being without. See pages 
308-309. 

A Mystic or real Adept would be in no better shape to carry on 
Occult or Mystical work without his Rock Crystal or " Hindu 
Beryl," or an imported " Astral Sphere,' ' than would a man who 
tried to write with no ink in his pen. Messrs. de Laurence, Scott 
& Co. have on exhibition in their offices a genuine Rock Crystal 
or Hindu Beryl — imported Astral Sphere — value of which is 
$150.00, the same being the personal property of Dr. L. W. de 
Laurence, who has repeatedly refused $500 cash for it. 

Students and Mystics as well as others owe much to this 
progressive firm, whose business has increased so rapidly that they 
have been compelled to move in larger quarters, and there is a 
possibility that they may be compelled to erect their own building 
as their business is increasing daily. 

Thi/i firm imports from the Orient and Europe and in turn ex- 
ports books and other goods to every country in the world. Dr. 
L. W. de Laurence's name is as well known in South Africa, Gold 
Coast Africa, India and British West Indies as it is in Europe and 
the Urj'ited States. After a careful canvass and checking up of sales 
it was found that there was not a city nor town in the United 
States but what sheltered one or more sudents who had pur- 
chased and studied this famous man's books. 

Another thing students have this firm to thank for is their 
bold manner of stopping dealers in charging exorbitant prices 
for official books and materials necessary to carry on Occult work. 

A case in point is their recent publication of a fine edition of 
that famous book sold in London entitled, "The Mysteries of 
Magic,' ' by Eliphas Levi. Importers and London dealers sold 
this book at $3.75, prepaid, cheaply gotten up; de Laurence, Scott 
& Co obtained a copy, set their typesetters, their platemakera, 
their printers and binders to work, and published a modern edi- 
tion of this excellent work on Occultism and Magic, bound it in 
red silk and stamped it in pure gold and sold it all over the 
world for $2,00, prepaid, thereby saving sincere students $1.75 on 
this one book. 

Still another case: "India's Hood Unveiled,' ' "Spirit Sight 
At Will," written by a native of South India, was being sold from 
India at a high price, published in paper covers. 

Today de Laurence, Scott & Co. have their own exclusive edi- 
tion of this work on the market for $2.00, prepaid, finely bound. 

Dr. L. W. de Laurence has given to the world, with the sole 
object of forming "The Congress of the Ancient Divine Mental 



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MESSAGE TO ALL MYSTICS 297 



& Christian Masters/' to date, five grand "Text Books," namely: 
First, "The Imminence of God" — "Know Thyself"; Second, 
"God the Bible Truth and Christian Theology"; Third, "Zoroaster, 
the Great Persian"; Fourth, "A Question of Miracles"; Fifth, 
"Superstition in All Ages." 

These works are having an unprecedented sale and edition after 
edition is rolling from the presses. 

When these works get well into circulation they will be 
the foundation and credentials for the greatest Congress and 
Brotherhood ever known. 

However, not wishing to digress too far from the subject mat- 
ter in our message to you, we will return, but then it's well for 
you to know these things, which are true, for no man in the world 
today can produce the results that Dr. do Laurence has. He has 
written and published and put into circulation a larger number of 
standard Occult works than any man who has ever lived before in 
the world, and it is unlikely that any one man ever will equal 
this great master in this respect. 

"The Great Book of Magical Art," Hindu Magic and East 
India Occultism, a large volume weighing six pounds, was issued 
ten years ago by him. All admit that this work is the only re- 
liable and standard work on this subject in print. The first edi- 
tion, owing to the great cost of publishing, were sold for $12.00 
per copy. Dealers in rare books bought this work through their 
puppets and resold it for $25.00, $50.00 and $150.00 a copy. 

Dr. de Laurence immediately stopped its publication for three 
years, being greatly displeased at this. 

Messrs. de Laurence, Scott & Co. now sell this celebrated vol- 
ume, bound in full cloth, for $6.75, prepaid. 

This of course killed the rare-book dealers' little game. It is 
needless to say that any work which has sold day in and day out 
for ten years and is still enjoying a large sale is a Standard 
work. 



HOW TO CONSTRUCT AND USE A MAGIC MIRROR. 
Part Two. 

MESSAGE PART TWO: The turpentine, which you are to 
obtain where you live, you are to use to thoroughly clean your 
brush and convexo concave glass with. The bituminiferous sub- 
stance, with which you are to coat the Magic Mirror so as to 
make it opaque, you will receive from Messrs. de Laurence, Scott 
& Co., ready mixed, and will not need diluting unless it should be 
too thick; in this event, mix a little turpentine into it. 

The brush MUST be new, as must be all the materials used 
in the construction of your opaque Magic Mirror. 

The box, which you are to obtain where you reside, may be 
of wood, but new. The cloth, which you are to obtain where you 
reside, should be of purple or blue, and of goods very agreeable 
to your touch and sight. If you cannot obtain blue or purple, 



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298 MESSAGE TO ALL MYSTICS 



get green or white, but under no circumstances use red. Wrap 
your Magic Mirror in the cloth when not in use and keep it in 
the box. 

With all materials ready you are to pass into a room by your- 
self when all conditions are agreeable, and proceed as herein- 
after instructed. With a piece of new cloth (a small piece will do) 
clean the concave glass of dust after dipping the cloth in tur- 
pentine. This will cause the bituminiferous substance to ad- 
here to the glass when you apply it. Dip your brush also into the 
turpentine, wipe it off, then proceed to paint or coat the convex 
Bide of the glass with the bituminiferous substance. 

The outside of the glass is the convex side and is the side to 
coat. Don't coat the concave or inside. Start coating at one end 
of glass and proceed slowly until you reach the other end. Apply 
the bituminiferous substance smoothly and as evenly as possibly, 
not resting for any other purpose until you have entirely finished 
your work. You must not go back over the glass, as any imper- 
fection or streak in the coating can be remedied by the next 
coat you are to apply on another day. You are to apply three 
coats, as above, which will be necessary to make this specially 
prepared convexo-concave superior transparent glass Opaque, on 
three different days. 

HOW TO MAGNETIZE A MAGIC MIRROR. 

After you have prepared the convexo-concave glass as above, 
allow it to dry while you are washing your hands, etc. Next 
proceed to infuse into it the particular individual virtues of your 
own aura and magnetism. This is accomplished as follows: Pass 
the right hand, palm down, in a circular motion over the Mirror 
after each coating — your hand being about two inches above it. 
Repeat with the left hand. Then operate as above, with both 
hands at once. You should, however, make any kind of a motion 
over the glass that you feel impressed to make. Do all this with 
confidence, as it certainly pertains to your own individuality. 
You should make no fancy motions for effect, but should keep 
your mind solemnly on your task. Let your movements be de- 
liberate and regular. See to it that the palms pass close to both 
sides of the glass. At times allow the hands to stop near both 
ends of the glass. It is not the movements of your hands, of 
course, that infuses and magnetizes the bituminiferous substance. 
It is your aura, which you have projected and transmitted into it. 
This bituminiferous substance is of such a nature that it readily 
absorbs your vital Aura and magnetism. It is the only sub- 
stance known that will do this so well, and the secret of its pre- 
paration is known only to Dr. L. W. de Laurence, who has re- 
ceived it direct from the unseen Mystics. Some may scoff at 
this, however — be that as it may — it is true, nevertheless, and you 
should not be influenced by any sort of sophistry. 

Be sure that you give this bituminiferous substance ample time 
to take on and absorb your Astral Aura so that it becomes thor- 
oughly infused and well impregnated with it while you are in a 



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MESSAGE TO ALL MYSTICS 299 



perfectly quiet mental state of deep meditation, all the while 
keeping before you the ideal Mystic life you have decided upon 
living. 

After you feel that you have about exhausted your Aura and 
that it has been absorbed by the substance on the Mirror you 
should stop. Before and during the process of making your Magic 
Mirror let yourself be prompted only by high aspirations and 
pure desires. Drive out all worry and thought of self and earthly 
desires by meditating on your work and the purpose for which 
you have made your Mirror. Bead and re-read this message 
before you begin this work. After you have prepared the Magic 
Mirror then lay it upon a piece of heavy paper or cardboard, the 
coated side up; place it in the box to dry, some place where it will 
not be disturbed and the atmosphere is of an even temperature, 
or nearly so. 

Allow the cardboard to remain under the glass until you have 
on three different days recoated and re-infused or magnetized it. 
You now have a Magic Mirror whose opaqueness will be perfect, 
and it will be ready for use three days after you apply the last 
coat. These are the only complete instructions ever given out to 
the world in print for this work, and it is given without thought 
or desire for pay — it being our desire and request that it be given 
free to all who are far enough advanced to appreciate their great 
value. 

The entire cost of printing and mailing this information to 
you will be paid personally by Dr. L. W. de Laurence. The 
amount is not a small one, as you know when you consider that 
we have directed it to be mailed to 25,000 people, and as you are 
one of these, we trust that you will realize that our only object 
is to show you that we have recognized you as a brother-sister 
and comrade. 

After you have finished the first, second and last coating, clean 

your brush with turpentine and put it aside for future use. Also 

cork up your bituminiferous substance tightly, as it is a rare 

and very expensive preparation. 

• • • » » » » 

Once started, keep steadily on living your ideal Mystical life, 
as near as your conditions and family, if you be married, affairs 
will allow. Examine yourself at the end of each day and resolve 
to do better the next. Try and avoid lapses. Live a life that 
each hour, each week, each month and each year makes you bet- 
ter morally and stronger physically. Help those who are worthy 
and need assistance. 

This kind of a life will surely bring you health, peace of soul, 
and the inspiration to do good will become stronger, as will your 
desire for truth and goodness. If you do this you will really feel 
yourself getting stronger and better. You will feel your Astral 
and spiritual self unfolding. As you perfect yourself and succeed 
in Astral attainments so will you attract to yourself by your Aura 
higher and purer forces and aspirations. With these there will 
come to you, and be added unto you, Astral and Mystical powers 
that will well repay you for your efforts — the power that will 



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300 MESSAGE TO ALL MYSTICS 



make you a power and a Mystic. Remember, Brother and Sister, 
that each should give acording to his or her ability and will re- 
ceive according to his or her capacity. 

This development, this inspiration, this Astral unfoldment, this 
progress, these powers — all these — and more — must come from 
within — for, remember, "The Kingdom of God Is Within You." 
Without this unfoldment of your Astral self all the spirits and 
Astral Powers in the Universe might be ready to help you and 
obey your invocation, but no results would follow their ministra- 
tions. You must unfold. Astral Powers, Astral Sight, and, Spirit 
Sight Must unfold from within you. 

You can blindly follow the childish instructions and methods of 
the so-called professors and mediums and surface writers and 
so-called authors until you are sore tired, heartbroken and dis- 
couraged, and you will never even be able to receive intelligently 
an Astral or mental impression from the unseen World, let alone 
being able to co-ordinate and enter into intelligent communica- 
tion. 

With a heart destitute of selfishness, with your soul on fire for 
humanity, and a mind desiring and aspiring for help and truth, 
always desiring to engage in good Occult works — all these the 
fruits of a good life — you will need and shall have our help and 
companionship. 

Once your Magic Mirror has been constructed strictly according 
to our direction in this message it will be necessary of course 
for you to give us an opportunity to materialize and also com- 
municate with you. 

This can only be accomplished by your conforming to certain 
conditions as hereinafter indicated. 

The first essential is regular sittings or periods of meditation, 
when you must get mentally and physically quiet, so as to com- 
pletely bring about a condition of receptivity to external psychic 
and astral forces. You should go into silent and secret meditation 
at certain specified times and observe that you attend well this 
duty, always endeavoring to bring about a state of introspection. 

You will observe we have advised that these sittings be secret. 
This of course is for your own welfare and protection. Keep it 
from the curious and we do here admonish you in this beginning 
to be secret, and neither teach nor manifest to anyone this work, 
or place, or time, nor your desire, or will, except it be to a true 
companion, brother Mystic or Master of this work, who likewise 
should be faithful, discreet, silent, and dignified by nature, edu- 
cation and conduct. 

Never are you to expose or reveal them to unworthy or un- 
scrupulous persons; but reveal them only to faithful, discreet and 
chosen friends, for your association with a prating companion, 
whose misbelief, doubting, questioning, and, lastly, unworthiness, 
hinders and disturbs the effect and result of every Magical and 
Occult operation, consequently, and, in consideration of what has 
been said in the forepart of this message, about the undesirable 
astral Auras some people carry around with them, you should not 
teek the companionship of those who are unworthy. 



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MESSAGE TO ALL MYSTICS 301 



Set a given time for your meditation period and development 
in the use of your Magic Mirror. Arrange these sittings at a con- 
venient hour, then allow nothing to interfere except sickness or 
something beyond your power to prevent. 

You should also procure unto yourself an Incense Burner of 
good ventilation and some Imported TEMPLE INCENSE and 
burn the same as directed on pages 310, 311, 312, 313. 

Burn a small amount of this compound at every sitting with a 
Magic Mirror or a Crystal. One imported package will do for 
fifty or more sittings. This " Soul- Vision ' ' and " Astral-Light, ' ' 
inducing subtle, fragrant compound, should always be burned in 
a special Incense Burner procurable of Messrs. de Laurence, Scott 
& Co. 

Once you begin these sittings, be regular; do not disappoint us 
unless you wish to disappoint yourself. 

Four times a week is often enough. Once a week will do if 
you cannot sit oftener. Sit from forty-five minutes to an hour, 
or an hour and a half, always commencing at the same time of 
day or night 

Have a quiet, neat room, where you can be alone. Be composed, 
be patient, and, above all, be faithful — believe there is more in 
life than the demoralized material world around you on the earth 
plane. 

Have the room dark so you will not be able to see the Magic 
Mirror, though you are all the time gazing into it. Sit quiet and 
hold the Magic Mirror in both hands by placing them against the 
ends. 

Just as soon as you start this you will be visited by members 
of our Occult Organization and Brotherhood from spirit life, and 
all necessary data regarding your desires and personality secured. 

Your condition, capacity, ability, surroundings, vibratory forces, 
Astral Auras, time of sitting, and all necessary information care- 
fully noted. 

A report is then made and all data about you will be recorded. 
To successfully establish intelligent communication with you we 
must then proceed to find some brother or sister in the spirit 
world whose vibration, forces and Astral Aura will coordinate with 
you, and who will volunteer to be a companion to you so as to 
establish communication with you at given intervals. 

Of course it may at times seem long before we succeed in se- 
curing the right companion for you. 

However, if you are faithful, patient and regular you may 
rest assured the Brotherhood is interested in you and will not 
see you sit in vain. 

Many, many, times you will be visited by those of us who 
would like to talk with you but cannot owing to some peculiar 
Astral or physical condition. Of course, we note these adverse 
conditions and set about overcoming them and to help bring you, 
into direct communication with us. 

Once a brother is found whose vibratory forces coordinate with 
your own and he volunteers to become your companion results 



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302 MESSAGE TO ALL MYSTICS 



come quickly, and will be instantly noted on your OPAQUE CON- 
VEXO-CONCAVE MAGIC MIRROR. 

First, you will see all around the room bright lights like little 
stars snapping into life; while across the Black Opaque face of 
your Magic Mirror will pass an emulsive luminous film, which will 
be phosphorescent — without heat — of a white, cloudy appearance. 
This is the usual manifestation of the presence of Astral forces. 

After the luminous film has passed away a little star may be 
seen to pass across the firmament of the MAGIC MIRROR. This 
is the first indication of real advancement and success upon your 
part 

However, you should keep quiet at this your initial phenomena, 
eliminating all quixotic thoughts from your mind. 

Bo not be too anxious for results or the advancement of your 
development. If you heed this advice you will act as have all 
ci-devant Mystics, and all others who are wise, quo ad hoc. 

Once Astral phenomena and psychic results come you may be 
assured that we are around you; that we have a true gauge on 
you; and if you persevere, your ideas will undergo a complete 
transfiguration as far as Mysticism and true pneumatology is 
concerned. 

In short, the veil of Osiris, if your efforts are not mediocre, will 
be raised before your admiring gaze. 

Once you have learned from us, by this message, how to make 
a real, genuine Opaque Convexo-Concave Magic Mirror and other 
details which we have given here regarding Astral Vision and 
Magnetic Aura, it is our request that you interest any worthy 
brother or sister in this work and make them a Magic Mirror 
should they desire you to do so. 

As the subject is of vital and universal interest to humanity, 
it may be hoped you will avoid all selfishness, as hereinbefore men- 
tioned, and obtain as many brothers and sisters as you can. 

They can either have you make them a Magic Mirror or send 
for materials to make one and thereby become a member of our 
Brotherhood of Mystics. 

It becames your plain duty to do this, especially should they 
be influenced or inclined to apply to you by their Astral influence 
and not as the direct result of printed matter or advertisement. 

In constructing an Opaque Convexo-Concave Magic Mirror for 
another who wishes to become a Mystic, take just as much care 
with it as if it were your own and deliver it to him or her, 
as the case may be, no matter if you have become greatly at- 
tached to it yourself. Your charge should not exceed $5.00, or 
less if you feel disposed. 

Admonish the one who receives it never to let anyone else 
handle it. Try to become a trained psychic, seer and Mystic by 
studying and using the Opaque Magic Mirror and studying offi- 
cial and standard works that treat on this subject. 

An excellent book for assisting you in the use of a Mirror and 
Crystal is The Mystic Test Book of "The Hindu Occult Cham- 
bers,' ' Hindu and Egyptian Crystal Gazing, together with the 
Wonders of the Magic Mirror. This work teaches the original and 



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MESSAGE TO ALL MYSTICS 303 



true science of Hindu Seership and ' ' Spirit-and-Astral-Sight-at- 
Will, ' ' as it was taught by the old Masters and mystics. See Order 
No. 12; Catalogue Page No. 36. If you would then know the initia- 
tions and disciples of the Mystic Brotherhood and understand the 
inner psychic and Astral nature of yourself and the spiritual basis 
of human Auras we beckon you, true brother and sister, to join our 
Mystic Brotherhood and no longer remain in ignorance regarding 
your Astral or Sidereal self. 

You will then understand every system of Astral personality 
and be able to determine the primary fund and nature of Astral and 
psychic forces, and their nature, and their results, and their apti- 
tudes in dominating industrial life and personal destiny. 

It is not our purpose to here consider elaborately the nature 
and substance which compose, and the laws which govern, the 
Astral personality of humanity, or why the nature and destiny of 
a person is, and can be specifically influenced in one direction 
more than another by them. 

This may seem strange. However, if you will consider for a 
moment the great contention of Occult and Astral Forces that 
are struggling for supremacy in the psychic or Astral regions 
around and in you, and into which you were born, and which were 
born into you, and the fact that, even from a physical viewpoint, 
the volume, direction and effect of these Astral forces and Auras 
are forever varying; surging; overcoming; and again equalizing 
each other with your every change of thought and varying mental 
attitude and divers physical condition*, it should be easily under- 
stood and realized that they may and really do influence mental- 
ity destiny and results. 

It would certainly cause a sensation in all social, domestic and 
commercial life, and would undoubtedly change a tentative art 
as medicine into an exact science, if the nature and laws that 
underlie Astral and Occult forces were universally understood. 

It does not disprove our claims, as contained herein, nor place 
them subject to ridicule, because many are not initiated into their 
use or nature; else must many arts and sciences suffer the same 
results. 

All Sages, Seers, and Mystics, and members of all Standard 
and proficient Occult organizations know by experience that Astral 
and psychic Auras and forces do influence and control the psy- 
chical and physical nature of men, women and children, and, in 
short, all active life. 

The Astral and psychic sight and the intuitions of all Ancient 
and Modern Mystics is perfect. 

Eesults are as a rule more regular in Occultism than those said 
to be obtained from the unmeasured phases of religion; ethics; 
morality and some other branches of so-called human knowledge 
and physical or material sciences. 

People are fast giving up orthodoxy and religion and the more 
advanced of mankind are working out the solutions regarding 
the Astral or inner self. 

Indisputable facts manifesting the Astral and mental forces are 



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304 MESSAGE TO ALL MYSTICS 



attested to by great and fearless Mystics and men of research 
all over the world. 

The near future will be devoted to the solution of man's inner 
or Astral self. People are beginning to greatly desire Astral 
vision and to understand the silent, ever-pulsating forces of the 
unseen world. 

Interesting, valuable and wonderful revelations are being se- 
cured by many today. 

Dr. L. W. de Laurence, who we have honored as being the 
medium and instrument through which this message is given to 
humanity, is well trained for Astral sight and Psychic vision, and 
to this great and fearless Mystic and Seer and his wonderful pub- 
lications we desire to call your special attention in this message. 

He has written, published, and even given to his fellow broth- 
ers and sisters and his disciples the very information they needed 
to become a Mystic and Seer. 

A supplemental and full record of the life of this great man 
and Mystic is now being written daily in the unseen world by an 
eyewitness, and will be given to the world after his death through 
the mediumship of a certain brother Mystic who has no personal 
knowledge of Dr. de Laurence, his early manhood, his travels 
in Oriental countries, his steadfastness, his trials, his initiations 
while a chela (disciple) into the greatest Occult organization 
existing today. 

Dr. de Laurence has a mission to perform in Europe, America, 
West Indies, Africa, etc.; his mission is teaching "THE IM- 
MANENCE OF GOD" in contest with Orthodoxy and the so- 
called Christian church, as well as true Occultism and Magic. 

Dr. de Laurence is a man well advanced in life, although strong 
and capable as a man of twenty-five. 

His intention is to live one hundred and fifty years, so as to 
give to the world such information and help as it may need re- 
garding man's Astral, Mental and Psychic forces. 

Many Mystics and advanced students have developed Astral 
and Spiritual consciousness by studying his works. 

The alchemy of life, Telepathy and Intuition, Dream and Trance 
states, wider states of mental plane and consciousness of Astral 
Vision, Inherent Vibrant Astral force, higher Auras, Stages of 
Clairvoyance, Psychic Vibrations, which control the emotional 
and mental nature of men and women and children, and inter- 
penetrate the physical body for health or disease, are fully and 
most intelligently treated by him. The very fact that his books 
have been simultaneously accepted as Standard and official by 
all the leading Spiritualists and Occult students has convinced 
us, as well as his record as a successful Mystic and Seer, that he 
was the proper one for us to select as our Medium to give this 
message to you. Again, he has more correspondents than any other 
teacher, besides being in the best position to circulate it properly. 

Regarding the personal character and ability of Dr. de Laurence 
as an author, compiler and publisher, we, as well as his thou- 
sands of students and all who know him personally, have the ut- 
most respect. However, there are some who will seek to belittle 



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MESSAGE TO ALL MYSTICS 305 



him, for they belong to a class of mental deformities who are 
attempting to build up their own interests by speaking ill of 
others. Dr. de Laurence is known to be a man who will not utter 
an ill word about any one, and those who have made themselves 
conspicuous in complaining about his radical methods of cutting 
book prices and other business methods simply have shown that 
they possess a low grade of mentality, desiring to rise by pulling 
down a good man. 



THE IMMANENCE OF GOD, KNOW THYSELF. 

The publication of "The Immanence of God, Know Thyself," 
"God, the Bible, Truth and Christian Theology' ' and "Zoroaster, 
the Great Persian ' ' have come like a boom among church officials, 
ministers and priests. These works have shocked Theology and 
Orthodoxy to its very foundation. Books that will follow in time 
will do even more. So mental underlings, and the "pocket 
edition" kind of an individual can sneer because that is their 
breed, and they must do it or their soul will corrode — the min- 
isters and priests may shrug their shoulders and show their 
sneering natures by ignoring, but they cannot gainsay the truth 
of these books. 

Our work and teaching will go out to the intelligent world in 
spite of all the critics and underlings. We care not for creed, 
color or clime, and this message will be read in Africa, India 
and America, as well as in Judea and Galilee, Japan and China. 

We have sincere brothers and sisters in all climes. All are 
WELCOME to test their psychic qualities, or investigate the 
dynamic and psychic world, so that they may thereby obtain a 
better, fuller and clearer conception of the possibilities, faculties, 
nature and qualities of their inner or Astral self and the world 
of vibratory forces around them. 

You need not ask if whether or no you are a Mystic. Every 
soul contains within itself the attributes of divinity. They may 
be repressed and crucified to th*e loss of the soul, or they may be 
made to bloom, like the lotus, to a beauty and power that may 
set the more inferior limitations of existence at any length. 

Are you selfish f This is the question you should ask yourself. 
This is the deep, underlying condition we must combat. Can 
you lay this selfish instinct aside to work for the good of all in 
place of the aggrandizement of selff If so, then we welcome 
you to our Brotherhood. We reach out to you a hand over the 
infinite spaces, from the dim, forgotten centuries, and recognize 
you as brother and comrade. 

Before the truth of our Brotherhood the bonds and shackles of 
mankind are destined to melt as snow beneath the Sun of Aries. 



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306 THE HINDO MAGIC MIRROR 

THE HINDU MAGIC MIRROR. 

OBDEB NO. 135. CATALOGUE PAGE NO. 140. 
For many ages people have sought some medium, instrument, 
or means by which they might penetrate through, or lift the veil 
which hangs between the world we inhabit and that vast spiritual 
realm where causes reside and principles exist. To that end, 
recourse has been had to various so-called marvelous methods; 

taught by fake spiritualists, 
would-be mediums, and silk 
hat professors, all of which in 
the end have proved unsatis- 
factory. No person can reach 
the interior sight, develop or 
read in the Astral Light by 
such methods. 

To all who have failed so 
far there is a surer, better and 
safer way, and that is self- 
development, by means en- 
tirely within the reach of 
every one, and which are 
within their will and control; 
and which require but the elements of Time, Patience and con- 
stant practice to ensure very good results; if not complete success 
in soul-sight. 

The best way is for the student to use some form of the spirit- 
glass or Magic Mirror. 

Full particulars regarding the construction, magnetizing and 
use of the Magic Mirror is contained in "A Message to All Mys- 
tics," also read article concerning Soul Sight and Magic Mirrors, 
which will be found in our Great Catalogue. All those desir- 
ing special instructions on various points regarding the making, 
use and care of the Magic Mirror should read the above articles 
by Dr. de Laurence very closely, then there will be no need for 
further inquiry. 

HOW TO OBTAIN THE MATBBXAX. FOB MAKING A MAGIC 
MIBBOB. 

If you wish to own a real, genuine Opaque Magic Mirror and 
be able to make it exactly as it was made by famous ancient 



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THE HINDO MAGIC MIRROR 307 

Mystics so that it will possess Occult Virtue and become infused 
with Astral Auras, then proceed as hereinafter instructed. 

Foremost, procure unto thyself the following materials from 
de Laurence, Scott & Co., with which to make your own Opaque 
Magic Mirror: 

One Convexo-Concave superior transparent glass which has a 
perfect and complete sphericity of form on the properly indicated 
side; manufactured by a certain secret process and formed by 
infusing silicious matter with fixed alkalies; but so constructed 
that it possesses none of the qualities of the lens, so that rays 
of Astral Light passing through it are not made to change their 
direction or to magnify or diminish objects at a certain distance, 
as does the crystalline humour of the human eye. 

In other words, this exclusive Convexo-Concave superior trans- 
parent glass must be made by a special process that it has no 
mitigating, assuasive or lenitive qualities whatsoever. 

Its exact size must be 5 12-16x7 12-16 inches. 

Next obtain a sufficient amount of a secret bituminiferous sub- 
stance like that used by the ancient mystics and old philosophers 
for this very purpose. 

Also one small brush; very fine. 

Messrs. de Laurence, Scott & Co. will, upon order, supply the 
materials hereinbefore mentioned, consisting of one specially made 
Convexo-Concave superior transparent glass, 5 12-16x7 12-16 inches, 
a sufficient amount of a secret bituminiferous substance to give 
the glass three coats and make it Opaque; also a brush to apply 
the substance on the glass. 

Order No. 136— The above materials will be sent in a mailing 
case, securely packed, together with "THE FAMOUS MESSAGES 
TO ALL MYSTICS," which gives full directions for making a 
Magic Mirror. Price, f&50. Foreign, 12s, 10d. 

"MAGIC MIRROR," SPECIAL HEAVY XX. 

OBDEB NO. 136. CATALOGUE PAGE 140. 

Same material as described above, except that the superior 
transparent glass is XX heavy, and the more desirable, espe- 
cially for professional business. 

Order No. 186— Price with one fine Sable Brush and a sufficient 
amount of bituminiferous substance to make same perfectly opaque, 
93.50, prepaid. Foreign, 16s 5d. 



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308 GAZING CRYSTALS 



GAZING CRYSTALS. 

FINE CRYSTALS FOR CRYSTAL GAZING, CLAIR- 
VOYANCE AND SEER-SHIP. 

"SPraT-AND-ASTRAL-SIGHT-AT-WILL" GAINED BY 
CRYSTAL GAZING. 

The real Rock Crystal or ''Hindu Beryl" is very expensive, 
quite a small one costing $50.00; but you can get an excellent 
CRYSTAL or imported sphere for much less money. We sell the 
only genuine Gazing Crystal on the market today. 

By the aid of one of these 
fine perfect Gazing Crystals 
you may acquire the gift of 
Clairvoyance and Mediumship 
and thereby become ac- 
quainted by exalted vision 
with many of the mysterious 
Phenomena of Spirit Life and 
the Astral Plane. 

The Hindu can, by the use 
of the Crystal or the aid of 
the Magic Mirror, tell one's life from the cradle to the grave; 
he can, and does, by the use and aid of these mediums, indicate 
medicine for disease, and perform many marvelous and mysterious 
things; the very same being both good and evil. 

Many there are who have personally tested the Hindu and 
found that he possesses wonderful Astral and Esoteric Powers, 
gained only by the constant use of his Crystal and the aid of his 
Magic Mirror, which is his constant companion and helpmate. 

All Sages, Seers, and Mystics, and members of all Standard and 
proficient Occult organizations know by experience that those 
powerful Astral Auras and forces which influence and control the 
physical nature of men, women and children, and, in short, all 
active life can be seen by the aid of The Gazing Crystal. 
Continued on Next Page. 



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GAZING CRYSTALS 309 



GAZING CRYSTALS. 

THE ROCK CRYSTAL, HINDU BERYL, OR ASTRAL 

SPHERE. 

The Astral and psychic sight and the intuitions of all Ancient 
and Modern MyBtics are perfected only toy the continuous use of 
either the Crystal or, Magic Mirror, or tooth. 

A Mystic or real Adept would be in no better shape to carry on 
Occult or Mystical work without his 
Bock Crystal or " Hindu Beryl,' ' 01 
an imported "Astral Sphere, " thai 
would a man who tried to write witl 
no ink on his pen. Messrs. de 
Laurence, Scott & Co. have on ex 
hibition in their offices a genuine 
Rock Crystal or Hindu Beryl- — im- 
ported Astral Sphere — value oi 
which is $500.00, the same being the 
personal property of Dr. de Lau- 
rence, who has repeatedly refused 
$1,000.00 cash for it. 

In Boom No. 2 of the north gal- 
lery second floor of the Chicago Art 
Institute, is where the famous col- 
lection of Gazing Crystals, which 
are the finest in this country, are 
to be found amid surroundings 
weird, peaceful and impressive 
enough to satisfy the most ardent 
seeker of the past or future. 

This collection is noted among 
crystal collectors for its perfect 
specimens. It was presented to the 

Art Institute by the former president of the First National Bank 
of Chicago, Samuel M. Nickerson and his wife. 

The amount that Mr. and Mrs. Nickerson spent while travel- 
ing in gathering this splendid collection was about $500,000. 

DESCBIPTION AND PRICES OF GAZING CRYSTALS. 

Order No. 127— One 2-inch clear Crystal, $2.50, prepaid; Fo» 
eign, 10s 6d. 

Order No. 128— One 2V 2 -inch clear, Tory line, Crystal, $3.00 j 
Foreign, 12s 6d. 

Order No. 120— One SVa-tach clear, extra fine, Crystal, $6.00; 
Foreign, £1 10d. 



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310 ANCIENT TEMPLE INCENSE 



Imported Temple Incense, Magic Mirrors, and Crystals. 
Manuscripts and Secret Accessories used in the Occult 
Chambers and Temples of India, Africa, Japan and 
China for Invocations, Oracles and Talismanic Opera- 
tions. 

THE * LAURENCE COMPANY, CHICAGO, ILL, U. S. A. 



TEMPLE INCENSE. 

Ceremonial Incense for Use with Conjurations, Ceremonies and 
Suffumigations for Invocations of Spirits; Receiving of Oracles 
in Dreams, Conjurations, Exorcisms, Benedictions, Talismanic 
Operations, Consecrations of the Bond of Spirits, and Their 
Adjurations and Casting Out. 

Bo jou wish to obtain some real, genuine Oriental TEMPLE 
INCENSEf 

Temple Incense is one of those enchantingly exquisite suffmnes 
whose odor is not only most pleasing but its spiritual generation 



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ANCIENT TEMPLE INCENSE 311 



of power and binding of spirits is most secure, of which all who 
have used it have had ample proof. 

At all times, and in all places, this TEMPLE INCENSE gives 
forth a subtle, powerful and beautifully fragrant odor stronger 
and more agreeable than any incense, or invoking powder you have 
ever used or seen. 

This sweet-smelling, Mystical, "Soul- Vision" and "Spirit- 
Sight" inducing subtle ceremonial compound is to be used exclu* 
sively by sincere and earnest investigators, and those who wish 
to carry on weird, ' ' Out-of -the-body ' ' experiences. 

Little need be said here about the Virtue and Efficacy of 
Oriental perfumes and fumigations, as all familiar with the work 
know that they are very powerful and requisite for the success 
and perfection of all various operations and communication with 
the unseen world. 

Hundreds of thousands of years ago 
the ancients and masters all well knew 
the full meaning of what has been writ- 
ten here regarding the occult virtue 
which is inherent in TEMPLE IN- 
CENSE and subtle Oriental compounds, 
as they well knew by what power they 
are so efficacious. 

These ancients also well knew the 
power and meaning of Confections, 
Candles, Lights, Lamps, Infernal Im- 
precations, etc., etc. 

The writer, however, regrets to state 
that there are very, very few indeed 
of those of today who have made a sin- 
cere study of the deeper phases of Oc- 
cultism so that they could get a proper interpretation of the 
deeper and powerful work. 

The reason why many never learn or advance in development 
and Spirit-Sight is obvious. 

They insist on buying every cheap, new, little publication 
issued. Every so-called new thought gun fired by some crank 
attracts them. They will insist upon following modern so-called 
authors and teachers of which there is a multitude today, instead 
of confining themselves to some of the works of the older writers, 
such as Agrippa and Eliphas Levi, author of "The Mysteries of 
Magic," also ." Transcendental Magic, Its Doctrine and Ritual." 

Yes, all students and investigators should be careful how they 
send for weak books written by surface writers. Stick to the old 
authors and masters, such as Dr. L. W. de Laurence and those 
mentioned herein. 

Those who have ordered and studied such books as "The Book 
of Death" and "The Great Book of Magical Art, Hindu Magic 
and East India Occultism," by Dr. L. W. de Laurence, and his 
other books have advanced from the very start. Don 't think you 
tan ever become a Master unless you study under a master. 

Some people think they can develop simply by reading some 



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312 ANCIENT TEMPLE INCENSE 



Oecult or Spiritual novel written by some fly-by-the-gate would-be 
author, who has had a 'airy dream and put it in book form. 

Let cheap books alone. Pay a fair, honest price and deal with 
those who handle only those publications written by standard 
authors of reputation, and you will have less cause to complain 
about your advancement. 

The same holds good about incense and all compounds used by 
the student to bring about development, "Spirit-Sight," "Soul- 
Vision," and such "Out-of-the-Body" experiences as Propelling 
the Astral Body, etc., etc. 

Insist on getting the best and feel certain beyond a reasonable 
doubt that you are getting the genuine imported article which has 
been prepared in the Orient and India and that it really will serve 
the very purpose for which you wish it. 

Unless you do this you will be disappointed, as you should be, 
for it's clearly your own fault if you buy of unreliable dealers 
or purchase unknown and untried goods. 

Tt's true, of course, that the Eastern masters hold the secret of 
making this Mystical Ceremonial Temple Incense. 

Temple Incense is looked upon by advanced students as being 
"The Occult Key Which Unlocks the Mysteries of Spirit Life and 
Helps One to Acquire the Gift of Clairvoyance and Soul Vision.' ' 

For the benefit of those interested and who wish to test this 
imported mystical "Soul-Vision," "Spirit-Sight" inducing subtle 
compound of Oriental manufacture, we will state that it is used 
as follows: 

First, it must be used in a Special Incense Burner which can be 
obtained from Messrs. de Laurence, Scott & Co. Use about one- 
quarter teaspoonful at a "Sitting," put the TEMPLE INCENSE 
in the burner, light it with a match by allowing the flame to die 
out. 

Then allow the compound to smoulder. Place the Incense Burner 
upon a table or stand which has been covered with a white cloth 
of any material. 

Next seat yourself about two feet away and gaze into and look 
through the ascending spirals of smoke which will arise from the 
fumigation you have made. 

Use a dark or darkened room, or, if you have a light, it must 
be very subdued; keep the mind perfectly passive, as directed by 
Dr. L. W. de Laurence in his lessons in "The Mystic Test Book 
of the Hindu Occult Chambers, ' ' entertain all the while a reverent 
ppirit of mind and soul. Observe that conditions conform strictly 
to directions given here and in the book just referred to, as they 
are very essential. 

Do not touch the compound with your fingers or handle it With 
your bare hands. Always keep the package securely closed and 
open it only when you wish to use some. 

We shall print on the next page a testimonial given by a good 
soul who once used a mystical Hindu compound to produce a 
fumigation similar to that described herein. 



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ANCIENT TEMPLE INCENSE 313 



TESTIMONIAL. 

I hasten to send you a description of the remarkable phenomena 
produced by the mystical Hindu Powder or "Soul-Vision" induc- 
ing subtle compound known as Temple Incense which I have been 
using in an Incense Burner to make a fumigation while sitting with 
an Opaque Magic Mirror. The first vision was that of a Hindu, as 
real as if materialized and of advanced spirituality. 

After this glorious phenomena had passed, there appeared a radi- 
ant being robed in pale blue, studded over with glittering stars and 
Astral Lights. 

This celestial remained about fifteen minutes. Thus ended my first 
sitting, at least I had thought it ended, but no, for throughout the 
night following the sitting I was traveling consciously upon the spirit 
plane and conversing with spirit friends and brothers of the Mystic 
organisation of the unseen world. 



It is said by those who profess to know that many ages ago, 
even prior to the erection of King Solomon's Temple, that the 
subtle and invoking powers of sweet and fragrant incense, powders 
and rare, costly essences was largely used and known. 

It is true, as all who have visited the Orient will attest, that 
TEMPLE INCENSE is used and burned on all occasions where 
invocations, Astral or tl Spirit-Sight ' ' are desired or required. 

TEMPLE INCENSE is unlike anything sold in this country, and 
each package is sealed and securely tied. A piece of Oriental 
money will be sent with each package. It is a custom that this 
coin must accompany each and every package out of the Orient, and 
it is sent by us direct to the purchaser. 

If you wish yourself lulled into a " soul-vision ' ' inducing state 
where you can witness any induced Astral phenomena or experi- 
ence those weird "out-of-the body" sensations so much loved by 
the oriental, you certainly could do no better than try a package, 
especially if you are using a Magic Mirror or Crystal. 

This is not a substitute, such as is sold in every city and country 
drug shop. It is genuine TEMPLE INCENSE, the same fragrant 
aromatic compound and essential production used ages and ages 
ago. It really and truly diffuses an agreeable, dreamy fragrance, 
most pleasing to the senses and inducing to soul-vision and spirit- 
sight. 

Used abroad, in courts and palaces of high-caste titled Oriental 
people, also by the priests in the Lamarsaries and Hindu Occult 
Chambers. 

One package should do for one hundred or more sittings, so you 
see it is very inexpensive to use, costing only two and one-half 
cents per sitting to use this Imported TEMPLE INCENSE. 

Our Imported Ancient Temple Incense is highly recommended 
for use among spiritualists, those holding circles, Public Mediums 
and those who do a professional business. Imported in sealed 
original Oriental Packages. 

Order No. 130— Price per package, With one durable Incense 
Burner of good ventilation, same as shown on these pages, and 
one Oriental Coin, $2.50, Prepaid; Foreign, 12s 5<L 



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314 INVOCATION CANDLES 

WAXEN INVOCATION CANDLES. 

OBDEB NO. 131. CATALOGUE PAGE NO. 138. 

Special Waxen Invocation Candles are used by many with splen- 
did results for invocation of spirits; receiving of Oracles, Adjura- 
tions, and casting out of Evil Spirits and undesirable influences. 
Order No. 131 — Price, $2.00 per dozen; Foreign, 12s 5d. 

HYPNOTIC INVOCATION CANDLES. 

OBDEB NO. 132. CATALOGUE PAGE NO. 138. 

The Hindu Hypnotist is simply a Soul who, 
by being faithful, has succeeded in gaining, be- 
cause he uses a special Kind of a Hypnotic In- 
vocation Candle, strong spirits as his frienda 
He knows only too well what they can do when 
invoked with Waxen Candles, or Ancient Tem- 
ple Incense. He knows only too well the terri- 
ble meaning of the words Hypnotism and Spirit- 
ism. He knows again that his Spirit friends 
will work for him and help him in his Occult 
and Hypnotic feats. Consequently, he becomes 
both wise and faithful, talks little and thinks 
much. He is more often found in quiet con- 
templation, or communication with Spirit 
friends and advisers than he is with those around 
him on the Earth Plane. If you care to in- 
crease your Hypnotic (Spirit) Powers and in- 
fluence another, procure unto yourself some 
Special Waxen candles (for no Occult work can 
be done without Fire), and for a short space 
of time, before you are ready to Hypnotize any- 
body go to a room where you will be alone and 
light four of the candles and let them burn, sit 
quietly with your eyes closed and withhold your 
mind as much as possible from everything about 
you. The essential difference between the Amer- 
ican and East Indian Hypnotist is this: Before the western operator 
attempts to Hypnotize, he is generally found telling his friends What 
a great Hypnotist he has become. Before the Hindu attempts any 
hypnotic feats he is always found in seclusion, quietly burning his 
Waxen Candles or Ancient Temple Incense to conjure spirits to 
help him. 

Br. de Laurence's Secret Method. 

Full instruction for using these Special Waxen Candles is given 
in Br. de Laurence's Secret Hindu Method of Hypnotizing. This 



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INVOCATION CANDLES 315 

Secret Method is sent free with one dozen of these Special Waxen 
Invocation Candles. 

Order No. 132. Price for one dozen Hypnotic Invocation Candles, 
with Dr. de Laurence's Secret Method, $2.00; Foreign, 12s 6d. 

LUCIFUGE CANDLESTICKS. 

OEDEE NO. 133. CATALOGUE PAGE NO. 139. 

Lucifuge Candle sticks are of special make, being 
constructed to hold the Special Waxen Candles listed 
under Orders Nos. 131 and 132. 

Price for Four Individual Lucifuge Candlesticks 
$3.00; Foreign, 15s. 



*^r 




GOETHIC CANDLESTICKS. 

OBDEB NO. 134. CATALOGUE PAGE NO. 139. 

Goethic Candlesticks are of Extra Quality Quad- 
ruple Silver Plate and of Sanctum Design, being con- 
structed for using our Special Waxen Invocation and 
Hypnotic Invocation Candles. These fine Candlesticks 
are used for Magical Bituals, Ceremonial Invocations, 
etc. 

Order No. 133. Price for Four Individual Goethic 
Candlesticks, $8.00; Foreign, £1 15s 10d. 

DB. BE LAUBENOE'S BOOKS SOLD IN EVEBT COUNTBT 
IN THE WOBLD. 

There are more of Dr. de Laurence's Volumes and Self-educa- 
tional Books on Spiritism, Hypnotism, and Occultism sold in New 
York, Chicago, Boston, San Francisco, Havana, Cuba; Mexico; 
London, England; Bocae Del Toro, Bepublic of Panama; Colon in 
the Canal Zone, Bepublic of Panama; Trinidad, Jamaica; Black 
Biver and Kingston, British West Indies; Durban, Cape Town, 
Johannesburg and Natal, Transvaal, South Africa; Port Limon 
and Cuba Creek, Costa Blca, Central America; Belize, British 
Honduras, Central America; Christ Church, New Zealand; George- 
town, British Guiana; Honolulu, H. I.; Buenos Ayres, Argentine 
Bepublic; Curacao, Dutch West Indies; Bombay, Calcutta, Delhi 
and Benares, India; Melbourne and Sydney, Australia; Port Said, 
Egypt; Glasgow, Scotland; Dublin and Oastlebar, Ireland; Berlin, 
Germany, and Madrid, Spain, than all other authors, teachers and 
writers on these subjects combined. — The Publishers. 

NOTICE.— All communications, or letters, hereafter addressed 
to Dr. L. W. de Laurence in reference to matters connected with 
the use of Crystals or Magic Mirrors, or regarding subjects treated 
in his books, must be directed to him in person at Chicago, I1L, 
U. 8. A., care of The de Laurence Co., and positively must be 
accompanied with a stamp for return postage and fee of $1.00. 
Foreign, 4s, 5d. 



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3 blOS 02b 371 257 




STANFORD UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES 

CECIL H. GREEN LIBRARY 

STANFORD, CALIFORNIA 94305-6004 

(415) 723-1493 

All books may be recalled after 7 days 

DATE DUE 8 



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