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g^ill jii 

n 'Arabic Grammar 

A Compilation Of The Rules Of 'Arabic Syntax 

Translated By 

AN Abdur-Rasheed 

© 2008 Ali Abdur-Rasheed 

Published By: 

Madani E-Publications 

All Rights Reserved. No part of this document may be published without express 

written consent. 


Lesson Topic Page 

Preface A8 

1 . Definition of Nahw, the Kalimah and its Divisions ( a-oLJjI j julSJl j < j*JlJI ^i^) 9 

2. Definition of the Noun & Verb (J^ill j *J)fl u^j*S) 


3. Definition of the Particle & the Meaning of Speech (.5KJI ^I*-s <*iL>}l& j ojj>) 14 

4. The Declinable Noun & Types of I'rab (yl^l pjjil j ^yd}\) 18 

5. The Remaining Types of I'rab of Nouns (*- )fl ul>[ plpl *£&) 24 

6. Fully-Declinable & Partially-Declinable Nouns (o*«ilill _ji* j o>^-UJI) 29 

7. Remaining Causes Preventing Full-Declension OJ3J2JI £-s 1-4- *-£) 34 

-* ji J" ~ 2 

8. Nominative Nouns: The Verbal Subject & Proxy-Subject (J-tliJI I4I2 j Jxlitl :L&jjj>sJI i L-jVI) 39 


9. Nominative Nouns: The Nominative Subject and Predicate (jfiJI j liifJI) 45 

10. Nominative Nouns: (^^JJ SisHll "^ J ;>~L jjZjZAziM "2 j Lo ijj j jl _)f> j ,515" i~s[) 50 

11 . Accusative Nouns (<u JjiiJI j jikJJI JjAidl) 55 

12. Accusative Nouns: (jSUJI) 61 

13. Accusative Nouns: (<uls JjiiJI j J JyLUJI j jui Jj.iis.ll) 66 

14. Accusative Nouns: (JL>JI) 71 

15. Accusative Nouns: (jV-j-!N) 75 

16. Accusative Nouns: (^;ff,i,iill) 78 

17. Accusative Nouns: (j-Ju ^ti^liiltl V j lo _ji> j ,j-L>JI ^liJ "^ pi j 5! i- -I j 6^ 5?») 85 

The Guidance In Grammar A-5 g^_JI jta aJaAJI 

Lesson Topic Page 

18. Genitive Nouns: (*JI <JLaill j sjjj^uJI il+Jw) 91 

19. Subordinate Nouns: (cJcJ\) 96 

20. Subordinate Nouns: (oj^UL. laki.ll) 102 

21. Subordinate Nouns: (jLflltl) 106 

22. Subordinate Nouns: (jLJI likt j JIJI) 111 

23. Indeclinable Nouns: (ol>JsiJI) 115 

24. Indeclinable Nouns: (JjLaVI iUJl) 122 

25. Indeclinable Nouns: (oLfjiJI j OjJJI fL-°l j Jl*iSfl 2LjI) 129 

26. Indeclinable Nouns: (oLLSUl) 133 

27. Indeclinable Adverbs: (Jiifdl iJjj&JI) 137 

28. Remaining Indeclinable Adverbs (iijisJI ojjjk" **??) 141 

29. Conclusion: Remaining Rules of the Noun: (il«JI il*jl j .j-^iitl j i-i^iill) 146 

30. Remaining Numbers (iiiJI 5 LjI £i£) 152 

31. Masculine and Feminine (£-jl£ll j j^iitl) 156 

32. The Plurals (gjifJI) 161 

33. The Masdar (jlkJI) 168 

34. The Verbal Adjective (ifiiill iLkJI) and the Superlative Noun (J-_il£ll pi) 174 

35. The Verb (Jiill) 180 

36. The Present-Tense Verb (^jUiill) 186 

37. The Present-Tense and Words of Requital (SljU»DI oLK j i)Lhii\) 1 92 

The Guidance In Grammar A-6 g^_JI jta aJaAJI 

Lesson Topic Page 

38. The Command Verb (jJ"i\ JiJ) and Passive-Voice Verb (J_^>aJI JiiJI) 199 

39. The Passive Voice & Active Voice Verb (^liiiJI j ^jSui JiiJI) 205 

40. Defective Verbs & Verbs of Approximation feUiJI JL*iI j i^Slltl JL*iVl) 211 

41. Verbsof Surprises Verb of Praise and Blame (»UI j rUl Jl*jl j y>A*^" J*!) 217 

42. The Particle (o^JI) 222 

43. Completion of the Genitive Particles (5^JI >Jyj> lip) 228 

AA. The Remaining Genitive Particles ($*J\ tij^> i££) 234 

45. Particles Resembling the Verb (\ -JiiJL VtfKiW >lij$>) 241 

46. Particles Resembling the Verb (Y-JAAJL l^LUI <Jyji-) 246 

47. Appositive Particles ( \ -uL*l\ t-ij>0 251 

48. Appositive Particles (V-^ikiJliJj>") 255 

49. Particles of Notice (^,1-JI *Jj>0 259 

50. Extraneous Particles (oLjJI ojj*) 264 

51. The Particles of Explanation (^.-JcJ\ Uy;) 269 

52. Particles of Anticipation and Interrogation Ll^h^yi j £~3j£jl Jsy>) 273 

53. Particles of Condition (>>l)l *Jj>0 277 

54. Particle of Restriction (pjjJI <li^>) 283 

55. Tanween and its Divisions (iJLil j ^jllll) 287 

56. The Nun of Emphasis (4-ClsJI jj) 291 

Footnotes 296 

The Guidance In Grammar A-7 g^_JI jta aJaAJI 

al-Hidayah, as its name suggests, is a guide to the rules of 'Arabic syntax or sentence 
grammar. While many books of grammar contain similar topics and discussions, the 
beauty and usefulness of Hidayah lies in its organization of these topics. Beginning with 
the definition of Nahw or 'Arabic syntax, each chapter lays a foundation for another 
chapter until the reader, in the end, has been thoroughly exposed to the underlying 
fundamentals of 'Arabic syntax. 

As a book, al-Hidayah is somewhat of a mystery. Although it has been used as a text-book 
of grammar for generations, it is unclear who its author is. The index of publications in the 
Library of Alexandria by Abu Ahmad Abu 'Ali Ameen lists the author as Ibn Hayyan 
Andulusi (Muhammad Ibn Yusuf) a resident of Cairo (654-745 H). Other books, like Kashf 
az-Zanun mentions three other individuals as possible authors: az-Zubair al-Basri Ibn 
Ahmad ash-Shafi'; 'Abdul-Jaleel Ibn Fairuz Gaznavi or Ibn Dastawaih 'Abdullah Ibn Ja'far. 

al-Hidayah has been published in many forms. Islamic seminary students in Iran, Iraq and 
other places are familiar with al-Hidayah as one of the books found in Jam/ 
al-Muqaddimat, a collection of small books the majority of which are related to 'Arabic 
grammar on different levels. The version which is translated here was prepared by the 
Academy Of Islamic Sciences (^%^y\ ^JUJI ^sAsJI) of the Islamic Republic of Iran. This 

edited version departs from the tradition arrangement of al-Hidayah in favor of a text-book 
type format with the traditional topics organized into fifty-six lessons. At the end of each 
lesson, a summary, questions and exercises are provided to further engage the reader in 
the lesson's objectives. This format is easy for the reader to digest and memorize. 

Upon completion of the book, the reader will have undoubtedly developed a fundamental 
understanding of 'Arabic grammar. Supported with this guidance, the reader can begin to 
explore the branches issuing from the fundamentals outlined in this book and the opinions 
of notable scholars of 'Arabic grammar. 


May 11, 2008/5 Jamadi al-Awwal, 1429 

The Guidance In Grammar A-8 gj^JI jii oJoaJI 




In the beginning, it is required to advance a preface due to the dependence of various 
matters upon it (later). In the preface are three sections: 

SECTION ONE: Definition Of The Discipline of Nahw 

^°J> kkf j ibJ\ j ol»H i~> ^o £>yh\ pKJI >Jjj jlj^l l^ Jj^ J^jl jilt :jAlll 

.pl£JI jlsKII 

Nahw is the knowledge of the principles by which the states of the endings of words are 
known in the three parts of speech with regard to declension (ol^yi), construction (i UJI) 
and the manner of constructing one word with another. The aim of Nahw is the protection 
of the tongue from verbal mistakes in the speech of the 'Arab. Nahw's topics are: (liKJl) 
the word and (^!A^JI) speech. 

The Guidance In Grammar 9 $±J\ jii oJoaJI 

SECTION TWO: The Word and Its Types 


The word (isKJI) is an expression formulated for a singular meaning. It is limited to three 

types: the Noun (p)M), the Verb (J^AJl), and the Particle (<J°j*l\). If the word does not signify 

a meaning in itself, it is a Particle. Or it signifies a meaning in itself and its meaning is 
associated with one of the three tenses (of time), it is a Verb. Or it signifies a meaning in 
itself and its meaning is not associated with one of the three tenses, it is a Noun. 

Js Ikktl &£ jUJI ^Lw^ 4JJgU j .fLJI j 4»'j*yi ^~> o-e V^ 1 £& ^Ji fU i^ 1 

.yJOl jilt o^ - N 


The Guidance In Grammar 10 gj^JI jii oJoaJI 



Definition of the Noun and Verb JJUll j pSt\ 'uuj* 

<4JLb^l j 1(1513 JJj) :>Su iij j lit jL^VI j^u 51 iis^U j .(iU *J>j) :J^j OlI^M 
Ai^ill j ^jiill j 5^JI aJ ^J u ? J -(J>3JD :i^ ««U Oj>£ll ^ J>o J UJJJ pU) i&> 

51 (aj jL>)M) |^L8 j .tj&J jl ^iLs jl Suii ajdi Lo^^ 5^ 51 (lit jL>VI) ^IJLS j 

A noun is a word signifying a meaning in itself without an association with one of the three 
tenses, meaning the past, present (imperfect tense) and future. For example: J»j A man; 

jdi£ Knowledge. 
The signs of a noun: 

1. It is proper to give information about the noun (lit jLj.°)fl) and to give information 

by means of it (<u jL>yi), as in: p3 isj Zaid is standing. 

2. Idafah 1 (iSu»)fl) is proper (with the noun), as in: jjj pA The servant of Zaid. 

3. Entering the Definite Article {uuj&\ p) upon the noun (is proper), as in: j**Jl 777e 


4. The state of Jarr (54JI) is proper (with the noun), as in: j>j jlSJI j> In the house is a 

man. (Also appropriate for the noun is:) 

• Tanween (Si^D> as in: J>j A man; 

• The dual (Iciill), as in: j!A>j 7Vi/o /77e/7/ 

• The plural Qo*Jl), as in: jl>j /We/7/ 

The Guidance In Grammar 11 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

• An adjective (cJcJi), as in: J^> J»j A tall man; 

• A Diminutive (^*jJj\), as in: J^>j /4 //We /T73/7/ 

• The Vocative (iLllI), as in: jUj L O men! 
Each of these are among the peculiarities of the noun. 

The meaning of (lit jL>yi) is that (information is attributed to) a noun governed as a 
subject, object or Mubtada. The meaning of (<o jL>yi) is that attribution (to another word) is 
made by means of a noun, like the Khabar. 

The Definition Of The Verb JJiill 'uuj* 

j .(jjJi;! <jALi <>^) :>*; t£bdJI SLojVl i>L jjiLo IfwJb ^ ^jJL*^ jjit JJc WS :J*iJI 
j tj^aj jj) :JAj t^iLt Ujl^-ll j o_^i j ^....Lll j IS) j>>i j tilt "if 4j jL>"VI ^2j jl l^«!Ax 

. Jiill j>l> ^5 >i» ji Sli . ( j^iTl) :>*: < ,u*t£fl 

The verb is a word signifying a meaning in itself while being associated with one of the 
three tenses, as in: >^ He helped (Past Tense); >AL He Is helping (Imperfect Tense); >^i 

The signs of a verb are: 

1 . It is proper to attribute information by means of the verb but attribution is not 
made to the verb (itself), as in: -jj. j^ :j ^> AH hit me. 

2. It is proper to enter (Ji), (J>s), {^i\) and the state of ( r jL*Ji) upon the verb, as in: 
y^> li He already helped; jAkj S00/7 /7e 147// /?e//?; jJ»L J>>; /.a/e/ - /?e nv// /7e#?/ J 
>kL He did not help. 

3. It is proper for the verb to change into the Past Tense, Imperfect Tense, and 
Imperative, as in: y^> He helped (Past Tense); ^h He is helping/will help 

(Imperfect Tense); and >iii ^V&^/7e//?/(lmperative). 

The Guidance In Grammar 12 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

4. It is proper to attach conspicuous pronouns to the verb indicating the subject, as 
in: 'c^k I wrote. (Also appropriate for the verb is:) 

• (Attaching) the unvowelled Feminine 7a (il^LJl k-itiJI £lJ), as in: °c~Z She 


• (Attaching) the Nun of Emphasis (a-(t£jl 5>), ex. °jJs\ Surely (You) must 

All of these are among the peculiarities of the verb. 

.LjL; j^Ij Jio JLLo J\ £* ^jVI oLoU jit -Y 

.alii) jis j t JjuJI O^ /il -r 
. L^J-o ^>lj JiU JjLa j « jAifl oU^U ilt -i 

.jjIji ijis. fouji -i 

^ I^LsT kiJI ^t £?LJ 'III Jl> -_» 

The Guidance In Grammar 13 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

> . . * 



Definition Of The Particle o^>JI uujo 

ULlL5 op < (\J[) J ^) : i^ ' ^^ c^ J^ ' U-^ Jt J-**° 'lM 0^> t *4^ .*i*JI 
^Lfp^l j jIj^^I iLo j^Jb Lo /i j& VI LaLJLs Jut jVl5 V ^ j ^If^Jfl j *lj$3)fl 

.(SjjSUI jjl ?>^-fl CrS P>-) : ^iP <jr* (iij^JI) j (}jJa*S\)S 

j *Jl jl t (jllll ,J Juj) :>^ i^»J\^ Ja%}\£ ^y^ tyj> <~>'J&\ »& Js <J>y*k j .Jl**Vl 
Jj\Ji}\ j_« dUi ^ j 1 {LsJ\j Lju^ J* L> jl) :^J <o^W Jl < (fli)L> CJiT) :>*J * J-*i 

.^JL*5 aJuI j 12 jl £JUUI jt^jjl ^ U^r*^ ,«3U~i ,-iII 

The Particle (<JyJi) is a word not signifying a meaning in itself, rather it signifies (a 
meaning in) other than itself, like (;>?) and (^Jl). Their meaning is the beginning point and 

end point. However, they do not signify their meaning except after mentioning that which 
is understood of a beginning point and end point, like Basrah and Kufah, as you would 
say: 2jJj\ <J\ ;>aJl ;>* £>» / traveled from Basrah to Kufah. 

The signs of Particle are: 

• It is not proper to make attribution with the particle nor have attribution made to the 

particle (itself). 

• The Particle does not accept the signs of the verb or the noun. 

In the Arabic language, there are many benefits of the Particle, like the connection 
between two nouns, as in: jiltl j, isj Zaid is in the house; ok connection between a noun 

and a verb, as in: JutJL c^k I wrote with the pen; ox connection between two sentences, as 

in: Li/ti L*^ j,z\> jl If Sa'eed comes to me, I will honor him. (And there are benefits) 

other than that whose introduction will come in the third-section, if Allah, the Exalted, 

The Guidance In Grammar 14 g^-JI jia oJoaJI 

THE THIRD SECTION: The Definition Of Speech ( r *£ji uuj6) 

* .- *. 

<**sl j J-*J jl .Xij-Jl ikj> ^g.'.j j < (ciSlj ijj) :>^ t ju,.°I 5-o VI J-is^ V *!A5UI 51 j4** 
ju "$j t La^ii ^i Luo ajdl iiiill j Ju-iiJI i>jJ V il .£&*3 Duj> ^gu.j j < (jL*-i ;>!>) :>sj 
j tjxil) »U* 15 13 JjcjI J>°j> :Ll3 ( JJU- L) :^J < JjuJL j^jr^ II* :J_3 5p .L4L9 p^UJ 

Speech (p&\) is an expression comprised of (at least) two words with ascription (iL^fl) 

between one another. Ascription is defined as the connection of one word with the 
another, wherein the listener benefits (from the ascription making it) proper for him to 
remain silent, as in: juj iis Za id stood. 

It is known that speech is only achieved with either two nouns, referred to as a nominal 
sentence (It^l ikAJI). Or (achieved) with a verb and a noun, referred to as a verbal 

sentence (*ii*£Jl UuAJI), as in: 1^ -^ Sa'eed sat. Then, the ascribed word and that word 

which is ascribed to it are not found together in other than the noun and verb. It is 
required, therefore, that speech (is comprised) of the two. 

If it is said that (the rule) is broken by the Nida, as in: JJU- L O Khalid! We say: the 
Vocative Particle stands in the place of G-cil) and (i-itl) and they are verbs. Therefore, the 
rule is not broken by the Vocative. 

The Guidance In Grammar 15 $±J\ jii oJoaJI 


:»L*3I 2j!Aj ^Jl I«I^-" 4-*Ai5 
j l^U OjStiJI o-^e "&\j JLiill Mil 3* :^l .oL&JI ^ i#JI liJuU j <?y ^ -^ ulj 

.J_*j j *jT jl l -£iJ)'frA VI JJ^ V 

. Lf) JJLo j < (.Jj^JI Jul_^j °^Ij - V 

.xIlsL iUi jJj 5 L^ii" *Lsjui 0^ ^2- - i 

.Lf) JJLs j iikAII iLJl j^il -0 

The Guidance In Grammar 16 gj^JI jii oJoaJI 

rfcJliJI J^AJI ^ vJj^LJI j i£~^l j aittfl JiAJI ^>ij| -V 

-o * •» J 1 

The Guidance In Grammar 17 g-*_JI jia aJaAJI 

jjii >j^ji 


The Noun jUfiM 

The Noun (Al-lsm) is divided into two types: The Declinable (v>*i) and the Indeclinable 
(^j-s). We will mention their rules in two chapters: 



The Declinable Noun (4o*iN jU)M). In (the first chapter) is an introduction, three objectives 
and a conclusion. In the Introduction are three sections: 

f c f 

SECTION ONE: The Declinable Noun 

j ;>bUI Jilll j O^JI j^fil * J^&l *^i* LJj V j ;^i *-o LSj ^J\ ji _>* Ni^iitl pVI 
il5) ^ (life') V j y^j^ 1 f^*r! »^J (•***»-) ^ (^*^ *t) c^ CjL*-s) 'j^> <>bUJI >o°Vl 
(J^Ui-Lj &3>l cA&hj 5' ^*^> j 'O^j^l ^L^ l-^s^ j^-LrJ j ttij^Jlj aj-Lll i_>>_jJ (lift 

The Guidance In Grammar 18 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

The declinable noun is every noun constructed (in an expression) with other than itself 
and (the declinable noun) does not resemble originally indeclinable nouns, meaning the 
Particle pyJl); the past-tense verb (r^LJI JijJI) and the command verb (>^UJl yh\), such 

as (ij**0 in: JL«-i fu Sa'eed Came, not the word (JL*- 2 ) alone due to lack of (grammatical) 

construction. Nor is (II*) in: II* iis 77?/s s/ooo', due to the existence of a resemblance to a 


The (Declinable Noun) is referred to as Mutamakkin fosLiiJI) due to its acceptance of 
Tanween (^^iitl) or Nunnation. The rule of the Declinable Noun is that its ending changes 
with a change of word government (J-ol^*JI). This change may be literal (LkU), as in: isj ji^> 
Zaid came to me; Ljj cS\j I saw Zaid; j£, oj>3 / passed by Za/d. Or (the change may) be 
estimated (Uui5), as in: j£ ^L> /4 j/ew//7 came to me; J± cS\j I saw a youth; JL oj>o / 
passed by a youth. 

.dih\ j 5 LJ I j jljJI j »>i$UI j l*£j}\ j iiJjli* « v^JI f j>\ ^4^ *j U :«4*'j*7' -S 

.*> -r <c^ -y «jjj -^ 

:_^ <j>^l oyJI > ^1 5.5 v 1 ^ 1 J*- 5 J v^ 1 J V*^ 1 J M^ 1 *J J-^w ^ : J-e^l J 

Ojuo ^ jiiii j^* j 4,1^1 kui j .0^ Jj^jl* (iii>) j j-oU (fjS) Si* , cjLju. y) 

^1 ^ ii^ <? ^^ j .fjUiiJI JJLiJI j ^£diJI jUyi fy v^ 11 ^ ^ 4^ ^ ^ ^ J 

. <Jl*5 ilii gb 51 ^llll 

Declension (oM?0 is that by which the ending of declinable nouns are changed, like (the 
signs of declension): Dammah (iiJJI); Fathah (;UiItl); Kasrah (s>iSUI); Waw (jljJI); Ya (fUl), 
and Alif (uh\). Declension of the noun is of three types: Nominative (£Jj); Accusative (Z-~^>) 
and Genitive (5>). 

The Guidance In Grammar 19 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

Word government (J-«l*Jl) is that by which the nominative, accusative and genitive states 
are achieved. The place of declension (yl^l J^-s) of the noun is its last letter, as in: aJU. ]-j> 
Kh'alid read. The word (\J) is the governing word (J-°l*jl) and the word (itu.) is the 
declinable governed noun {<l>ydi\ j^uJi). Dammah is the (sign of) declension and the 
letter (i) in the word (iJU-) is the place of declension (yljxVI J^s). 

Know, that in the speech of the 'Arabs there are no declinable words other than the 
Mutamakkin Noun (jsLiiJl p?l) and the present-tense verb (fjLaiJI J*ill). (The verb's) 
ruling will come in the second section, if Allah, the Exalted, wills. 

SECTION TWO: Types of Declension of the Noun 

:oLlJI IjL^j „u^l ol _tl 

:_^>J tiLt 03^ &j£l li^j ^ Lo :sL>JJI JJLc. ja j in^xJ^l Oj^iiJI $yd}\ pu^L ~l 


Declension of the noun is of nine types: 

The First: That it is nominative (£sjJi) with Dammah; accusative (ljJji) with Fathah; and 
genitive ($*JI) with Kasrah. It is exclusive to the following: 

The Guidance In Grammar 20 g-*_JI jis aJaAJI 

a) The Fully Declinable Singular Sound Noun (kj^JJI Oj^iiti i-Jdi\). According to the 
scholars of Nahw, it is a noun which does not have a weak letter at its ending, as 
in: l^Zaid. 

b) al-Jari Majra as-Saheeh (j^JsJi U^M ^j^)- It is a noun whose last letter is Waw 
or Ya with (the preceding letter) being unvowelled (^LiJI), as in: pi A bucket;^ 
A Gazelle. 

c) The fully-declinable Broken Plural (^jJaUJi >j£jj\ ^s^Ji), as in: jl>j Men. You 
would say: jLst Lf ^>^ A lion attacked me; $y> ,-is»U A cub attacked me; i^> ^jm^ A 
Gazelle attacked me; jUj ^j*>u Some men attacked me. 

(Or you can say:) Lu cJ\j I saw a lion; "\jy> cS\j I saw a cub; Lii cJ\j I saw a 
gazelle; h^>j cJj I saw some men. (Or you can say:) j-il oj>^ I passed by a lion; 
jy>u oj>i I passed by a cub; i ^L6j^i I passed by a gazelle; ju^> oj>s I passed by 

some men. 

:>sj <r JLJI s^ijiJI ^>JL ^Aj j $>iijL j*JI j Ulaitl j .IliilU jijJI 5j£j £l -:^&l 

. ( O Lo.Ll.iL> OJ^o j < O LaJr**wa CJlj j < O L>XwL<a /<■?-'* ^>) *Jj-*-" ' ( O LaX>l»o ) 

The Second: That which is nominative (iJjJI) with Dammah, and accusative (L~kitl) and 
genitive (5*JI) with Kasrah. It is exclusive to the Feminine Sound Plural (iJLUI iijiJi ^S 11 )- 
as in: oLL^J Muslim women. You would say: 0LL2J ^ifl> So/77e Muslim women came to 
me;c>[AzJ cJj I saw some Muslim women; 0LL.1L oj>i I passed by some Muslim women. 

The Third: That which is nominative (£J5Jl) with Dammah and accusative (L-^lii) and 
genitive (5>Jl) with Fathah. It is exclusive to the Partially Declinable Nouns (o^ilill ^S), as 
in: JLi>i Ahmad. You could say: Ju>i ^u Ahmad came to me; ii>l cjIj I saw Ahmad; oj>^ 
it>L I passed by Ahmad. 

The Guidance In Grammar 21 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

) i^dj 2i*J\ 5 LjVL l^iq j t , LJL j^ll j .jjJVL UJaiJI j <jljJU £*J\ ^ # tgl^l 

The Fourth: That which is nominative (£JjJi) with Waw, accusative (LJah\) with Alif, and 
genitive (jfJI) with Ya. It is exclusive to The Six Nouns (iLui TljSii) (with the condition that 
they are) non-Diminutive (35!^ #£ «b*£*); singular; not dual or plural, and annexed to 
other than the (pronoun of the) first person singular (J&UJI X jl \J\ i^l^J). The Six Nouns 

(ilui iLJi\) are: Sj£\ Your brother; s^\ Your father;'^^ Your father-in-law; sj> Your mouth; 
'Sjs Your thing; JL> J> Wealthy. You would say: Sj£\ j>i~\* Your brother came to me;S0-\ cS\j 
I saw your brother, "iL»l oj>s I passed by your brother. Likewise, it is for the remaining 

.Jj ^iLo O^l T^iiSJI jUtfl ji Lo -r 

.^vioi^i^i^ii -t 

.I4L0 uil^ JiU JLLo Jo *-S I4L0 lijjf £^il ^(^S^l <-j\j£\ oLuJl ^ °pi" -*\ 

* * 


The Guidance In Grammar 22 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

:lfcU°l olOU ^23 j .JuJliJI JiAJI '^o fcjfctfl sL-iVl £j*2J| -> 

'~ * i° - - A , T _» 

l^o^Tj p>i-i 

0[ °M -n 

.fJicJU?. -i 

^Lt coLi -j 

.^£*JI J-sjU. JJI |jjj -j 

The Guidance In Grammar 23 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 


The Remaining Types Of Declension Of The Noun p-^VI vlr^i ^\z*J\ *2£> 

i.ui^s'o^jJi^V) :j>aoLuiTjoLin j^j^i^u*' bir isi (iifr) j cat) 

The Fifth: That which is nominative (iJjJI) with Alif and accusative (L~hll\) and genitive (54JI) 
with Ya, the letter before it being Maftuh (vowelled with Fathah). This is exclusive to the 
Dual (^liui) and that which is attached to the Dual, and these are (y6) and (ids') when they 
are annexed to a pronoun. Also attached to the Dual are the words (jLii) and (jidii). You 
would say: Uys 0V5II ^L> Tiro /7?e/7 ca/77e to me, both of them; L^is" j44*J\ cJ\j I saw two 
men, both of them; L^is" j^L^l oj>^ I passed by two men, both of them. 

j .l^Li U jj^iuJI jLJL 5^JI j Uilll j < ULi L* pJ * jljJL JJ5JI 5^ 5! -:^jLJI 
<5j-4-^ ls^V) : Jy^ .(L^jIj^I j ^A^ J (JLjI)-^ ^ o^^l j «(JtiJI jS'Iitl ^JL [ja&i 

The Sixth: That which is nominative (£j»JI) with Waw, the letter before it being Madmum 
(vowelled with Dammah) and accusative (ljJj\) and Genitive (54JI) with Ya, the letter 

before it being Maksur (vowelled with Kasrah). It is exclusive to the Masculine Sound 
Plural (fJLJi j^JLiJI £*»Ji) and its attachments, which are: Jj\ and j^-% and her sisters. You 
could say: &±£JU\ j>i\> Muslim men came to me; 5a»j bsj^ ji^> Twenty men came to me; 
jl> jjji j,i\> Wealthy people came to me. (Or you could say:) j>*J~J cjfj I saw Muslim men; 
Sl>j ^lc cjIj I saw twenty men; ^ Jj\ cJj I saw wealthy people. (Or you could say:) oj>s 
^,-Lii / passed by Muslim men; %ij '^j^u, oj>s / passed by twenty men; jl= ,J,l oj>^ / 
passed by wealthy people. 

The Guidance In Grammar 24 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

■* ~ 
. ( j^2-o Ij.o.L. !,!.^ j t jjj Lo^-t ,-jj L> ) 

Know, that the Nun of the Dual (*~lln 'oJ) is always Maksur (vowelled with Kasrah). The 
Nun of the Plural (j^Jl) is always Maftuh (vowelled with Fathah). Also, know that both of 
these Nun are dropped with annexation (iSi^fi), as in: ^ L>:it j>i\> Zaid's servants came 
to me; y^s lyLLiJ j>i\> The Muslims of Egypt came to me. 

j^aoO j .\y£&J\ j-iJi^j ^*J\ j iZj<Il5\ jJ^aL (LwJaUl j t jLLJJI jJ-iJ&j *ijJI 5j^- i 5' "♦£jL<1JI 
j '^^U j ^-ij-o cjlj j <<_r?^-C- j ^j^ <_s^V) : J^ -(<jre^) : >^ ^LUI _/Iill £Sj*JI 

The Seventh: That which is nominative (jj^Ji) by the estimation of Dammah; accusative 
(L~klii) by the estimation of Fathah; and genitive (5*Jl) by the estimation of Kasrah. It is 
exclusive with (Alif) Maqsurah, as in: ^yj and (the word) annexed to the (pronoun) Ya of 
the first-person, not the dual nor the Masculine Sound Plural, as in: ^yJ. My servant. 
You could say: ^rjJ. j ^^ j,i\> Musa and my servant came to me; ^yl j ^jJ cJj I saw 
Musa and my servant; ^il j ^jL, oj>s I passed by Musa and my servant. 

The Eighth: That which is nominative (£%JI) by the estimation of Dammah; accusative 
(Lwklil) with Fathah literally, and genitive (5*JI) by the estimation of Kasrah. It is exclusive 
to the Manqus. It is that noun ending in (the letter) Ya with the letter before it being 
Maksur (vowelled with Kasrah), as in: ^IDI The Judge. You could say: ^UJl j,i\> The 
Judge came to me/r^UIl cJj I saw the Judge; ^ujl oj>s I passed by the Judge. 

The Guidance In Grammar 25 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

^LdJI Jhi\ ^>JL l^lq j .LkH jLJL 5*JI j Uklfl j .jljJI ^j& £>$n 5^ $ -:J--l2JI 

i^iLJ Sj-iSUL is-Jttl cJjjI j jLJI i£ °cjJtV\ j «|L jljJI coiaj tiiS'L* L4-U I^j^l j <?«i>lj 

The Ninth: That which is nominative (£jjJi) by the estimation of Waw and accusative 

(l.»j»1ii) and genitive ($*Jl) with Ya literally. It is exclusive to the Masculine Sound Plural 

(jULJI jl'iiJI J44JI) annexed to the Pronoun Ya of the first person singular (jKiiJI *L), as in: 

*JUJ ^L> A^k teacher came to me. Its origin is: (j^iLLi). The Waw and the Ya are 

combined together into one letter, the first being Sakin (vowelless) and the Waw is 
converted to Ya. Contraction is made in the (two letters) Ya. The Dammah is replaced by 

Kasrah as being an appropriate (vowel) for the Ya. Then, it becomes (ySjJ). You could 

say: yl*J ji\> My teacher came tome;*A*J cJj / saw my teacher; u4*l> oj>s I passed by 
my teacher. 

•J^j j <_?fk j 'j^^ j '4*-^ <»>i£JU j^JI j ^LitiiJLi «L*jajjl j (ILLfL *JjJI -^ 

.(oUkJ)i' <;>sijL foil j C^ttl j ILJJL ffiJI -Y 

. ( ju^bi « j^jL 5^11 j Ualti j aJjL ffii -r 

.XiUI jUjSfli' <5 LJL j*JI j Oftl CwJalll j jl^L JJjJI -I 
.*5UufJLi j ^ikJL J^b j . 5 LJL j*JI j LJ&\ j OJ% jijJI - 

The Guidance In Grammar 26 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

° - 

L jyi UUsJ pJUJI /isJI ^ ;>^o j « Ikil , LJL j*JI j L^l j jljJI ^jIL JijJI -^ 


.Sljj 2J4/L Lo-j TJUJI jfliJI ^j»JI j jiuilH bjP laibj [^ -I 
.dLfi ^J JLLo ^5 U^il 5 \+\j£\ oUli £_^> jlss jL-jVI y -0 

The Guidance In Grammar 27 gj^JI jii oJoaJI 

.Lis\jJ\ LfrUJI ^ L-JjS ^Jifi 'u-jji ^>> pj**S^I <jri L^J j * a_£jjJ«JI iAJJI jjlili 

~ i * ~ „ > - 

.5l>ill ^^ ^LJ jil jife -j 

.ZSolc. (jlJuss - ^ 

.*fS JLii -i 

.coUaJI 5j-^»j- -o 

The Guidance In Grammar 28 g^_JI jta aJaAJI 


SECTION THREE: The Declinable Noun 

The Declinable Noun (Al-lsmul- Mu'rab) is of two types: 

• The Fully-Declinable Noun (J^U), is that word not possessing two of the nine 
following reasons (which obstructs full-declension), as in: L** Sa'eed. (This type of 
noun) is referred to as Mutamakkin (yLiLi). Its rule is that the three types of vowels 
along with Tanween {^JS) may be entered upon it, like your saying: L^ j>i\> Sa'eed 
came to me; Lu*^ cAj I sawSa 'eed; -u*^ oj>^ I passed by Sa 'eed. 

• The Partially-Declinable Noun {^Jj^U &£), is that word possessing two of the nine 

reasons which obstruct full-declension or (it possesses) one reason that stands in 
the place of two. Its rule is that Kasrah and Tanween are not entered upon it. In the 
genitive state (5*JI) it will be Maftuh (vowelled with Fathah), as has been mentioned. 

The Guidance In Grammar 29 g^-JI jia oJoaJI 

The nine reasons which obstruct full-declension are: (JI*Jl) Being a noun having 
undergone transformation; (Li^jJl) Being a naturally descriptive noun; (i~jtiJI) Being a 
feminine noun; (ii>sJl) Being a definite noun; (IsAAJl) Being a noun of foreign origin; (fcxM) 
Being a plural noun; (Li>JJl) Being a compound noun; (JiiJI jjj) Being a noun on the 
pattern of a verb and (jbJdjJI 5jJi j IfjVl) Being a noun possessing the extraneous Alif and 
Nun. Their details are as follows: 

jj& j .[_ 5 1*aJI ^ ^^Jl; % ^j>\ LL-^ ^11 l2Lei\ *^~e o-e Jaii-tl ^ t wJtf jj& j :Ji*JI - > 
j t^ilitl ^ 24JUUI 2-s j tJjStl ^ ^i^jJI 2-s ^i^ Jiifl 5l 4J* b-s j4^ j v>ill 

.}w>l J-*4Ji jjj f-« *-oJl?o a 

1. (Ji*Jl) Transformation. It is the changing of a word from its original pattern to 
another pattern without a change in the meaning. Transformation is of two types: 

• (|Ujl*2) Verifiable, as in: j J iis Two by two; i^ 77vee by three. They are both 
transformed verifiably from: ^l ^l and: pii "0£>. 

• {^ji^M) Estimated, as in: yJ. 'Umar; >}'j Zufar. Whereas transformation is estimated 
from: ^uand: jjljwith regard to the perspective of obstruction of full-declension. 

From that, it is known that in the first type, it may be combined with a descriptive word 
(Li^jJl) and combined with a proper name (I^Juji) in the second type. Primarily, 

transformation is not combined with a word on the pattern of a verb (J*i)l ojj)- 

The Guidance In Grammar 30 $±J\ jii oJoaJI 


2. (liJ>Jl) A Descriptive Word. Its condition is that the word is descriptive in its original 

formulation. Therefore, (the words:) iijl j i^J are partially-declinable, due to their 

origin in being descriptive although they have both became the names of snakes. 
The word jjjl in your saying: ^jl s>ii, oj>s I passed by four women, is fully-declinable 

with it being descriptive, on the pattern of a verb and lacking being originally 
descriptive. Primarily, a descriptive word is not combined with a proper name (iiJiiii). 

^ >* i '^j^*»JI IJ^ J (<ul?li j iiJd?) :_psJ 4 Lit 5_^Si 0' 4-k>^ j ; 5 l^^ *^ti^' ~V 

j^Lu Lij^Aj jo jl J^jiiLoJI (^Jj^JI 1j .(CjJ}) «J-Lo 4 0wjb "kJtj^ Oji (—^j-*^ »-«■»-£■ J-*^ 
c^>j *^l j *liL*JI J>V (li*) :_^>J t^.?.,| i_^>j *»s aij^? j_^fj ^-4-^1 ">ft ijs^j}\ 

JJrf tlLji 4J>? £iisJ (*T^i>) :>^ (ftSjJLuil j i (\J+>) 'j^> iijjJa2&S\ i_iJVL £~sl£ll j 

3. (»l£JL i-jlill) Feminine with Ta. Its condition is that it be a proper name (LU), as in: 

i*iy Talhah; iitlj Fatimah. Likewise, is the (feminine) in meaning. It is that which is 
made a proper name for a female without the sign of the feminine, like: LdJj 

Zainab. The (feminine) in meaning, if it is a three-lettered noun with an unvowelled 
middle-letter and is a non-foreign word, its full-declension is permissible with the 
existence of two reasons (obstructing full-declension), as in: li* Hind, otherwise, 
its obstruction from full-declension is required, as in: Lujj Zainab; >jlz Saqar; »L> 
Mah and j>> Jaur. 

The Guidance In Grammar 31 $±J\ jii oJoaJI 

Feminine words ending with the Shortened Alif (sjjjJLJI L»h\), as in: *Ji£ Pregnant; 

and the Elongated Alif followed by Hamzah (sSjiuJI liJVl), as in: sT^ Red-faced 

(woman), are partially-declinable because Alif stands in place of two reasons: 
femininity (i-jliJl) and its requirements. It is as if such a word has been made 

feminine twice. 9 

:j!o iulJj}\ jLs. £*o £»i£5 j .liJiiUI VI L^ 03J2JI *JU ^ _^i*J V j :li>JI -i 

.JU>I j i-Jbl^l 

4. (ii>»iJl) The Definite Noun. Only being a proper name (*4Jl*JI) is taken into 

consideration in obstructing full-declension. It is combined with (a word) other than a 
descriptive noun, as in: u*\j>\ Ibrahim; ii>i Ahmad. 

2jujS? ill*! J'S *_£ «(J>kII *-Lo CjL--I ilfr j tpL-jVl 5-a lJj^iLlJI _>JL& ei>& -V 

.2lLo i J"i *-s LsLJf °^j j 4 o>iiJI ^0 JutjliJI f L_jVl ^ JjjUI o>£ -i 

.jn^ dUi ^ Tjiiii j^>j 2j^iji ^lm\ y w -0 

.dUJJ JJLo j kJj*aUJI ^ft 5 L—°VI ^J y^LLt -kjj^ j^il ~V 
.L~*d U jlo ?aj>* j^ J^i JuajJI '^TLu Lit {^iAJI dijiJI 5^ lil -A 

T|Sj-U-sJI j sjjJilsJI ciJVL owJlltl ^ 03J2JI »Jl& C«-i jj& Lo - ^ • 

The Guidance In Grammar 32 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

'i -^ j 

• 3^2«o jJl_^j J-o Ijjs -£ 

The Guidance In Grammar 33 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 




The Completion of the Reasons Which Prevent Full-Declension 

:^j <<-^ ^-^ U^ '-^'-3 J ' ^y?.j*^ A*-) j^*-*-*' iji ^^ 6_^ 1 M>>^ j ♦***uUI -o 

.UfO Ja-ijVl uj5LlJ jlij^Lo (i?jj j ^jj) j < Jju ^J a5Sf 

5. (liAitl) A foreign word. Its condition is that it must be a proper noun (pj) in a 
Non-'Arabic foreign language and has more than three letters, as in: jUaI^i Ibrahim; ' J-^LjI 
Isma'eel. Or it is a three lettered word with the middle letter being vowelled, as in: kj 
Lamak. Therefore, r UJ is fully-declinable (even) with it being a foreign word because it is 
not a proper name, (iy i\J) are fully-declinable due to the vowelless middle consonant in 

« (^uLa-s) :>*: <5 IiU JjIj ^ii ^L* LfLsji vJ>°l iibli jl « (4>ljS «i> L— s) :>*J « jlT>w» 
^LfrL^I j £2j>JI :^>^-iJI iU-s 4515 LaJl y& j .slill L^J^lJ jls^lo (SSjIy j il3L-s5) S[ J 

OS*-- **M£i k»\\ ' o ' ' •"? "as ' ' - ° -» .°f ° 

6. (^Jl) The Plural. Its condition is that it must be the ultimate plural form (p^iAJI ^iU). 10 
It is that after the Alif of plural, there are two vowelled letters, as in: i>L^ Mosques; olji /4 

riding-animal. Or after the Alif of the plural, there are three letters with the middle letter 
being unvowelled and (the word is) unable to accept (the feminine) Ta, as in: ^l^-s. 

Surely, ibL^ and *5jl> are both fully-declinable due to their acceptance of the (feminine) 

Ta. 11 The plural also stands in the place of two reasons: being plural and its obstacle to 
being an (ultimate) plural at one time and at another time, a broken plural. Then, it is as if 
were being made plural twice. 

The Guidance In Grammar 34 $±J\ jii oJoaJI 

7. (v-SjiJl) A Compound. Its condition is that it must be a proper name without annexation 
(iii^yi) or ascription (iLu^l), as in: "sAk, Ba'labakk. 12 Surely, Jji ifc is fully-declinable due to 
annexation and Ub^i on, is (totally) indeclinable (f^—s) due to ascription. 

i^U-t) :>^ 'Ul& %Si\ {)j& 5 1 'p-" 1 l^ ^^ <S| L4^>^ J -o^JbljJI O^Ul j uLhfl -A 

5_j^j V 5' Lfl?3-l5 itjJa}\ ^ LolS" 5I j . LJlc j**J j c~j jUsI ajV Oj^iU ( jljJLi) j . (^LiLt 

8. (jbJ^ljJl 6jill Uf^O- The extraneous Alif and Nun. Their condition is that if they occur in a 
noun, then the noun must be a proper name (ftJ), as in: jl^ix 'Imran; ! \JJ. 'Uthman. The 
word 51^ is fully-declinable because it is the name of a plant not a proper name. If (the 
Alif and Nun) are in an adjective, then its condition is that its feminine (form) not be (on 
the pattern of) *5:>ui, as in: J^ii and jjJj . The word jL.1; is fully-declinable due to the 
existence of: ibloi; . 

j iC^^illl j tisAsLII j t^jIxsJI j 'jLjL ctwJL£JI jj& j tiiJLsiJI a-^j i?>i^ Lo J5" 5' fULfrl j 

« Jaii >>i c^i '*j> tei>\ ^SjJ j tdUi d_j J?> J La j . jbJuijJi jjUl j (»ihn 4»j ,jjji jUs^i 

.oj^il di^ivi lil 4 JJLaJI jjj j J I*) I :>* j 

9. (J^iJI ojj) Pattern of a verb. Its condition is that it must be (a pattern) exclusive to the 
verb, as in: -JJL <OjJ. If it is not exclusive to the verb, then, it is required that one of the 
Particles of the Present-Tense (L&jLiill o 3 >j>) be in its beginning and that the Ha is not 

entered upon it, 13 as in: xJ\ Ahmad, ,'jsLL Yashkur; LSlz Taghlib; ^} Narjis. The word *k*i 
is fully-declinable due to its acceptance of (the feminine) Ta, as in their saying: lizjq lib A 

work camel } A 

The Guidance In Grammar 35 g-*_JI jis cljIoaJI 

Know that all of that in which a proper name is conditional are: the feminine with Ta; the 
feminine in meaning; the foreign word; the compound and the noun which has the 
extraneous Alif and Nun. That which is not conditional but is combined with another 
reason only are: transformation and pattern of a verb. When you make them indefinite, 
they are fully-declinable. 

:Jjj5 <Jj>Ij yu^; ^Lt ^jULli <_siuJI ^4" <«* L»l j n-*—* !Aj **«VI jUd* JjVl -.."Jill ,J Lil 

.(j>l Juj>I j Ju&>] .13 j <3>l yJ. j j^t .13 j »^>l LsJd? j L*1L? jl>) 

As for the first group, the nouns remain without a reason (preventing full-declension). As 
for the second group, they remain with one reason. You can say: >T iUil? j i*S±> fu Talhah 

came with another Talhah; >j>~\ yj j yJ ,13 'Umar stood with another 'Umar; >j>~\ ii>i j ii>i lis 

Ahmad stood with another Ahmad. 

j iiji>L 6j>3 :>^ «>>JI 2Jl> ^ i>iSUl Sil>S r>UI aI>5 jj «uLj;1 lil ir^ V U Ji* j 

Each of that which is partially-declinable, when it is annexed (in an Idafah) or the Lam (of 
the Definite Article) has been entered upon it, Kasrah may be entered upon it in the 
genitive state, as in: yJil j *£u»t oj>s I passed by your Ahmad and by the red. 


ij^j A>lj Cu—j jl t jJLSJul OyJlJI *J-4 i«jLwjl j^o jLw^C ^5 U~*~ *- 3-* J ? 'i 9j«aJL<a — 1 

»ULo iyij j^Ij L-f-: jl < I uLs^ll ^-0 o^f^ *-rf f-*^' ^' ^* J •V J ^iLo >ii -Y 

.^jjilfl ^ j S>i£JI jJL>-jg "if j t^fu-iJI 

:<J>UI ^LJ !t.,.°JLtl oUftl 

i^tiJI-r OJjJI-Y JUI-N 

£^>JI -*\ liAiil-fl 4jj*d\-l 

obJbljJI ^1 j LijSfl -<\ JJUJI&j-A W^ J| - y 

The Guidance In Grammar 36 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

.dIJJJ Ji-« 5(J>kfl 5-0 *JUJI jJ liAiJI J?^i jj& Lo - > 

.^y%i\ *_Lo ,J ^-« J ~I J?j-i 5^ _ V 

.JUsj t*Ui 7t^?j 5 liLJ j 5^£j lil ^tujiJI <»ijj~^ jjAj Jjb - A 

5^i lil JjIjlji pil cii^T j^fu liU -\ 

.JLL«j tiui ?e~bj <pj^J*JI J_^li-o AjL wg £^ft Lo - 1 • 

. If! JJLo j *l£JiiLll L^J ir^Lib ^1 (J>iJI *Ls oL-Jl ale- 1 
riJlill J-«j>JI 5-o <J>it!l 5-o 2j.jhjJ\ -jS. j i<J$Ji}\ 5-o Lc^IlJI ; L-/VI £>*i*sj -o 

.2LsjjuJI |_yJI LJJJ os L> - > 

.5^*> 1_^[ c^iLi -T 

.LUJI ^ 5 bit cjij -V 

The Guidance In Grammar 37 gj^JI jii oJoaJI 

i * i 

4,*_J&I^I '^l-SJ <SjUjJ 4*-0\JLo I^SnJjLo '0'_r' '(jLftJU 4(_£jJ>lj (Jj&LLo idJiLw^ 4j*-feL>J> 


The Guidance In Grammar 38 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 


THE FIRST AIM: The Nominative Nouns (oUy>JI) 

♦j»l— 51 iiJU5 ^* j 

The Nominative Nouns are of eight types: 

1- Verbal Subject (jxUJi) 

2- The Object whose subject is not mentioned (iLii pJ ,J ^JJl j^iidl) 
3 & 4- The Nominal Subject (iiiiiJl) and Predicate (#iJl) 

5- The Predicate of (3D and her sisters (lpj>'i j 5! ;*>) 

6- The noun of ( u l$") and her sisters (1$jI>1 j 5ii" pi) 

7- The noun of (L.) and (V) resembling (^-J) - (j^JL pnjf.t^tl V j L>) 

8- The Predicate of (V) which is for negating the collective noun (,j~L>JI Jlij ^Jl ^) 

U tijjj j^lS i|l> *ill> il5) :>*J tAiJI ll^J j .JJtfJI aj ^ Ht4i' '!*? ii*3 p-sT J^ ji j 

. ( I ju - Vj j jlj Jul*-) tj^lj K » j ■ ^ ■ a 4j JjJuLo Li2jl ij jli UJJLLo jli jl j < (C-J&S 

The Guidance In Grammar 39 g^_JI jta aJaAJI 

FIRST TYPE: The Verbal Subject 

The verbal subject (J-tUJi) is every noun having a verb preceding it or a verb's likeness 

(by which the verb's) action is established while ascribing (the action) to the verbal 
subject, as in: jJU. -,\j Khalid stood; ij>\ isls ltl> Khalid's father is standing; bJl» JL*- jlj L> 

Sa 'eec/ oVc/ /?ctf visit Khalid. 

It is a requirement for each verb to have a nominative subject, be it apparent {*jkj), like: 
L*« ljis Sa'eed left; ok concealed (>-L«), like: L»is L*^ Sa'eed, he left? 5 If it is a transitive 
verb, it will also have an accusative object (<u jjiisJi), like: la-*- jlj ill> Khalid visited 

j « (5jjjjji >js j jijujJl j>js j *jjj >j5) tj^ JjuI j*iJi j^j < jybife LsTj^uji 51* iji 

gljujJI) :j*0 ,^11 ^j j < (;>jS jbj) :JA3 , j^ljJI J^UIJ JJUJI i2 j J>J a J J_tli)l o^ jl 

If the subject is an apparent noun (j*ik), the verb is always made singular, as in: Ju; ^ji 
Z#/tf studied; jLl£)I j>jj f777e /w^) Za/bfe studied; jjisjii ;>jS f777e,/ Za/o's studied. If the 
subject is concealed, the verb is made singular for the singular subject, as in: ;>ji jjj Za/tf 
studied; it is made dual for the dual subject, as in: l^s jL£ll /fte /wo Za/tf studied and 
made plural for the plural subject, as in: ijjji ^jjj}\ The Zaids studied. 

*£; *J 51 l-^l J-MJI &f <oUj^*JI j-o ^"Juo JuljL i>jj Lo jj& j i UlJ> L£J-o J-tliJI 5^" o! i 
;>jS) :>*J <£wjt£fl j jjC^I JU> < J-^j *J o[ j * (XLft c^l3) :>*: t JjiUJI j Jiill ^ J-^Ul 
_^u. i^uj^JI ,J ^twJuJI j ^TJLxJI j_^ dills' j 4 (ll* ijitl c«ij5) :Jyi5 cJLi 5| j < (^i* ijill 
Jl& Lollo JAaJI 515" lil li* t (£,..& .f.H *h?) :cii cJLi 5! J ' (jj-^JI CJill?) :>*J <^2*&JI 
jift dijiJli' jj-jiill £i> j .(c*sl£ ^sJJI) :JAj <J*i)l dil Ijilii 515" lil lit j iJ-tUIl 

.(Jl>5JI Cw5l3 j « JU5JI ^13) :j_4^ <^a^JI 

The Guidance In Grammar 40 g^-JI jia oJoaJI 

If the subject is a genuine feminine (^jlh*' iJj-O, and it is that whose male counterpart 
exists among animals, then the subject is always made feminine, if a separation does not 
occur between the verb and the subject, as in: il* c~sls Hind stood. If (the verb and 

subject) are not connected, (making the verb) masculine and feminine are both 
permissible, as in: 11* r jJl ^i Hind studied today. If desired, you could say: li» ^l c-sjs 

A///?^ studied today. Likewise, the masculine and feminine are permissible in the 
non-genuine feminine (*jla> ^i i-ij-0. as in: ^sJji cjJJ? 777e S£//7 rose. If you desire, you 

could say: ^JLil ^it 77?e s£//7 /ose. This is when the verb precedes the subject. Regarding 

when (the verb) is placed after (the subject), the verb is made feminine, as in: °cjA±> ^sJji 

The sun rose. The Broken Plural (^J^\ y?) is like the non-genuine feminine, you would 

say: juyi ils 777e /7?e/7 stood; JL>*JI CwSis 777e /77e/7 stood 

j i (|_j-i**£; Ls-^j-* >2jj) : _^J ' J-4UI oL> j t ^Jjj^aLs 5^" li| JjjLLsJI ^Lt J-frliJI j*j.xa5 y^ j 
:J£j « V jl ^JjjJiio bLT *T>; <U -JJI .It Co-ji iLy CJlT lil J-tUJI "JU ^ji5 jjjfj 

.(JL*« IjJU- >^ j «{_,*»« {#£*&! jil) 

tii> IAS" j (TjL> °j-«) :J13 ^-0 olj> ^ (-tj*«) :>*-> 'i^y cilS" ^u> J*^l <-*«*> j.>*-5 j 

It is required to place the verb before the object when there are two Maqsur nouns 16 and 
confusion is feared, as in: <^^£. ^jj >^i Musa helped 'Isa. It is permissible to place the 

object before the subject when an indication eliminates confusion, whether they (the 
subject and object) both be two Maqsur nouns or not, as in: < ( _ J jjq ^-ps jii Yahya ate a 

pear; ill* I j^ y^ Khalid helped Sa eed. 

It is permissible to elide the verb wherever there is an indicator (of its meaning), as in: 
JL*« Sa'eed, (which is said) in reply to he who had said: fi> °>s Who came? Likewise, the 

subject and verb may be elided together, like: ^ Yes, (which is said) in reply to he who 

had said: ijj ilsl Did Zaid stand? 

The Guidance In Grammar 41 $±J\ jii oJoaJI 

iUU pJ J Lo J^LJU :^l£j| juaJI 

j .(jujui >^j) iLiajl J^UJI c-jLj i_ s i-^j j <*-obLo JjjuuJI i-31 j Jlc-Is oi 5 ' els-*-*- 5 J^ >* i 

SECOND TYPE: The Object Whose Subject Is Not Mentioned 

It is each object whose subject is elided and the object is put in (the subject's) place. It is 
also called the Proxy-Subject (J-tiiJI Lob), as in: JL*- yJ, Sa'eed was helped. Its rule in the 

singularity of its verb and its being dual; plural; masculine and feminine is based on that 
which you are aware regarding the subject. 17 


j tU^lj^l j Jl ;js> J J^iJI j ilJlUJI j iJ-tUJI CJb j tJ-tUJI :L:Li JL-Al '&» Sls-Jydl 

.,5**-b jl ^&U? l*sl jJ j .4jJl JlLsJ j J*ifl ^u i^b ^4fi jl J-*J I*: *Jb fU« l :J-tLitl 

j . jAill Jl& LoIiLo 5 jl bjU^ jl LiJi>' LjJJ JoiUIl 51^ lil JjLjJI &J\5 L*q :J*iII Cwli 
.bjL>o i£}J jl jAill ^ ^jJslo UaJ£> Lj>o J-&UJI 515" lil j*fl£ll j £-A£H jj^ 

iLyiJI *_* j_yfj US' «iLy ol>-j lil "i[ J-&UJI ^Lt JjilsJI ijji: jykj *i :*jj^ j J-cLill i-^ 

# Jl Jl o 

. LUO L^jjtfi j JJLiJI <Jl> 

.OjlsuJI J-tUJI »LLo i-31 JyuLs :J_frLftJI Lob 

The Guidance In Grammar 42 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 


.iff aIlo ! /i ^ j_eiiii ^ijil ijus -r 

.oUJj jjls ?J_tUJJ I^JU JiiJI iUJ ^Ls -I 

. Lf) ILLol ^i *-o ij£'>& j JJuJI Cwli ijlj-« j^il ~^ 

.dJJJ JJLS ?^L5 j TJiiJI oi> j^fJ Jj£ -A 


.dJjJLs j-o *aJl2j <i|/*-£ jJu^ J-« j-iJI J»ia>| - £. 

.folUI LiJj Oil -_0 

The Guidance In Grammar 43 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

.^'liillcisl -I 
._>f>JI cXftLt -o 

.aJUul *-^j j-« oLq^Jlt.«jI 6JJ» C «■»■«■■> _ /f 

......... Oj-a - ' 


- > * * 

.dJ^Lt <ulfc J. il*5 -i 


T '.4l^i^iijlJ I^AiijS. ijj lil j^-A 

.Jj>ol^JI ^. J^L^ -V 

The Guidance In Grammar 44 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

£* dii>jAii 


THIRD & FOURTH TYPE: The Subject and the Predicate 

.2 IjcjVI >» j tjjjl*^ L4J *j*JI J-oU j < (i-i3lj jL**-) *.j£j <-y**$\ j^i.-'J j 

They are nouns devoid of any literal word government. One of them having ascription 
made to it, and it is named the Mubtada (nominal subject). The second is ascribed to (the 
subject) and it is named the Khabar (predicate), as in: lisij JL*j Sa'eed is standing. 

^ Jj>jl :>*; <^T *>jj "c^sJ^h lil lii" j ^d^JLo °j-e ¥?• *&& h^ j} v <J^ *Jp : i^ 
.dUU fiLs j i J>j jllll ^i j <&UJI |U £5* J «kL« lji> JUT U j sSfjifjj JUl 

The principle of the Mubtada is that it is definite. The principle of the Khabar is that it 
indefinite. The indefinite noun is permissible to occur as a Mubtada when it is modified 
(by an adjective), as in the Exalted's saying: tyJLi ^ yf 5-ojJ IfsJ j} "Certainly a believing 

servant is better than an idolater." 2 ^ Likewise, when it is particularized from another 
perspective (it is also permissible), for example: sly! J Jill j> J>jl Is there a man in the 

house or a woman?; AL> yf j»t Lo j There is no one better than you; JisLJI jU £33 j <S/"ea/ 

happiness embraced the family; J^j Jill _i In the house is a man; iuii i^L; Peace be upon 


The Guidance In Grammar 45 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

bis" 5| j .5-s is Aji> i£$3\ j Ij&j IS^-sJi ji>u i£j >~^i j IS^s j^i-sVl JUI 5^ o| j 

aJJI JL* J&sJ j « b^l ijT j < L4jJI ill I) :jlo J^ y^fl j fiSfi ci4 L^f Jj^°£ j^yU 

. ( LLj Jl j *JLfr 

If one of the two nouns are definite and the other is indefinite, make the definite noun the 
Mubtada and the indefinite noun the Khabar. If the two nouns are both definite, you can 
make either of the two the Mubtada and the other the Khabar, like: L4JI 1JJI Allah is our 

God; bjit iil j Adam is our father; L1J Jl j «uLt ill I <Jl? 1z*j j Muhammad (S) is our Prophet. 

i'l&>y£ jl t (ijjl il3 JJJ) :>*J '*4*^ J' ' Cf5L» »jj! jL**i) :>^ ****-! I U^> _)£*JI Oj^J ^ j 

^Uj^ .J^JJI J^iUI ^ jJVl J o^ill ^ J-oLc. jJ&Lfl $ * (32LJI) :^> j < Ji%l 1U iLJu 

. (Jill ^J jlijl JL**-) sjj^ ( jllll (J J^**-) 

Sometimes the Khabar will be a nominal sentence (24*4 ik>), as in: j^L* ^ji JL*j Sa'eed's 
father is fasting; or a verbal sentence (%** liu»), as in: ij\ il3 ijj Zaid's father stood; or a 
conditional sentence (lpe>i sk>), as in: 1j/IS ^I> 51 ju*j If Sa'eed comes to me, then I will 
honor him; ox 3.w adverbial sentence (ib^i iik»), as in: alii IfU. Khalid is in behind you; and 
jllll (J jL*j Sa'eed is in the house. The adverb (Ji^fe) is associated with a sentence with 
most scholars. The adverbial (meaning is derived from the estimated verb) 522J 7b /o 
se#/e, reside, stay, as this estimated verb is the governing agent (J-oU) in the adverb. 
Therefore, your saying: Jill j> L*j Sa'eed is in the house, estimates: Jill ,J jizjl JL**; 
5a 'eed stays in the house. 

JkLc IsJ^ jj^ j <5-5 Lo ^ (jlfJOJ" t lltfSJI ^Jl iycJ Su^iJI ik»JI -J _^>~b °^ Ju V j 

^iiJl il£b J3 j .Ho ^1 < (*jfclj5 5^^ jL^JI II2-UJI j '*ijJj iiSjVl jJjl ) :Jpw (iLy i^>j 

♦ib***' jL>L a>ljJI ijq^iJ ^5jJ 51 1^ j •(■2*** c j'^i ^ : i^ ' ^ 5^ 5| Tj-Ls-sJ) Jlc 

The Guidance In Grammar 46 g^-JI jia oJoaJI 

A pronoun is required in the informative sentence (z^j> lh>) which refers back to the 
Mubtada, like the Ha I (u ,») in that which has passed (1j/U ji\> -,1 1^ l .pL* »jii 1^-i). It is 

permissible to elide the pronoun with the existence of an indication (of its meaning) 
sentence, as in: ^^ ZiSjSfl &AS\ Milk is anAwqiyah for a dirham -+*)/* 2iyl> Jsji ikSJi Wheat 

is a Kilo for three dirham, in other words: ILo ^L^ 1 ^M 1 - At times, if the Khabar is an 
adverb {Cj°J>), the Khabar is placed before the Mubtada, as in: L*> Jill j. In the house is 
Hameed. It is permissible for a single Mubtada to have numerous Khabar, as in: j->li jL*j 
JjUjUU Sa'eed is reasoning, knowledgeable, virtuous. 

:^£J '^^aUl sb 5 * -^ ^*^j ^i~e >* J £*4 -f'-"^.' ;>4-f j-iiiill j-o ^>i Lo-^5 ?L*Jud 51 }X£\ j 
*j»j3 51 ^>^ j < (SlSj f5l3 Ji j Tlll> iAlSl) :>^ iplfb^fltl o> ^ jf < («^*-= J>U W 
£LiU>f) o!A^ (Tj^*!! i:L»f j o^jJI j^U U) :>*J ttttt lyblk Lif lLaJI db 
j fiii ^ (jLUU %b jL> U VI j <SJ& >*l£jl juftl ^ jj JlJjJI Sli < (Tj^jJI 

Know, that with some scholars of Nahw, there is another kind of Mubtada which has no 
ascription to it. It is the adjective occurring after a particle of negation, as in: JL*« y.Jj L> 
Sa'eed is not returning; (or the adjective occurs) after interrogation, as in: ltL> taist /s 
Khalid arriving? jjj 15 13 jjs /s Za/tf standing? Its condition is that this adjective gives the 
nominative state to an apparent noun following it, as in: j^jJI pL^ La 777e /wo men are not 
fasting; j^^Jl ^L*i /4/e /fte /wo /77e/7 fasting? In contrast to: j!i>3JI jLiL^i /Ire /wo fasting 

(ones) the two men? The descriptive word does not give the nominative state to an 
apparent noun following it. Otherwise, its dual would not be permissible, then (jLiU.) is 

the Khabar advanced and {$k>*J\) is the Mubtada placed after (its Khabar). 

The Guidance In Grammar 47 g^-JI jia oJoaJI 


J> 0>» > ' •* > 

Iifj V j .iikaJJI J-oljJ«JI L-fU-f. Ji-15 V j 6Jui-o ikj> L4L0 ud\s5 jL-jl :^f>JI j IJilfill 

• 01 • o ^ .. - ** • •• I . I *• c • r 

^Lt ijiJ ^-^ j-o XLAll j&}\ Ja Ju "if j (iit?>i <£&^ '^4*? <i**--l) *W j 3ji-o :^f>Jl 
Uilj »L^a**sVI j ^yllll jJc 2jt3\j lLa> laifiJI ,$jSj -J^ j «4>Ij !-^f»4 if^l ^^i. ■& i •TJLs-2-SJ'l 

.»Jl*j lybU? LjT 

. L4J ji-S j ^Jl j Infill >s y£ Cjy£ - s 
.jfLsL dUi °^ ?^>JI j tj&ill ^ J— 5VI 3* Lo -r 

.JLloj liIJi fe-bj . .AjLJI j^'MI ui> j_^J !_r^ ~~ ' 

•4|jJ JJU ?"^l a>lj liiftl ifiJI iliiJ JjS -> ♦ 

The Guidance In Grammar 48 g-*_JI jis aJaAJI 



.jU>j l*5>o jUkJI - > 

.5L#i JupjT>ifi^u-r 

.jlSjSfl Jjsx j jLJJ^ jljil j y^ *-M-°' O^ 1 _0 

.C4JI ^ CjJj jikll -*\ 


.JuJk>.... _ T 


iWvi -£. 


♦ J u A< o ^LCj*2*j^j... ....... - \ 

•L^J-^i v 

.juijb V jiS* 2L&LUI -> 

.aL-f Ji sui>' 5 >ji ^Js -r 

The Guidance In Grammar 49 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 


The Remaining Nominative Nouns oU>>JI ii 

FIFTH TYPE: The Khabarof %\ and her sisters 

.JJjJL l^liHI (J#*JI j jr Lai j ( JjJ j ^il j cjJ j Jtf j J!) ^j& j 

The sisters of are: (JjJ j j^ii j cjJ 3 $£ 3 St). They are called the Particles Bearing 
Resemblance To A Verb (J*i)L infill I lJ^I). 

-*. j, 

^> JcAi' i£; ji IL> jl bjLs ^ ^ (Jl) ^a> ii^ j .(4:13 lu*> S[) :j£5 t UJ l^> 

These particles are entered upon the Mubtada and Khabar making the Mubtada 
accusative, then it becomes a noun (governed by the particle). It makes the Khabar 
nominative, then it becomes a Khabar (governed by the particle), as in: 1513 tw l[ Surely 

Hameed is standing. The rule of the Khabar of (S[) in its being singular, a sentence or 

indefinite word is like the rule of the Khabar of the Mubtada. It is not permissible to place 
the Khabar before its noun except when it is an adverb, as in: JL**2 jilti j> SJ Surely in the 

house is Sa'eed. 

The Guidance In Grammar 50 g^-JI jia oJoaJI 

SIXTH TYPE: The Noun Of $tf And Her Sisters 

^13 Lo j Jlj Lo j rlj J t IJl£. j iLc j ',_p?l j OL j J-b j J_j^bl j !«-ii-ol j ^-^1 j jw 5 ^* j 

.'Laj\ll\ JboSH ^*-£J j iTjJ L« j j-il j *li Lo j c«UjI Lo j 

The sisters of (&) are: 

Lo j ^la Lo j Jlj Lo j r-\j j i |j_c. j SLc j tjj^l j oL j JJ? j |_^w?l j J_j-^-ol j 't^~£\ j jw») 

(r^j Lo j jj^il j ili Lo j liUjI 

Cw^aij j Lfj Ld LjjjS' ^ IJcflJI iijiS 'j^JI j Tj&lSJI Jlc J^jj instill JLoSfl sift j 
< L^L-Jl Jlc UjL»i j^Jij jiJI ,J j>>Lj j .( LjL5 3JU 5L<) :>*: * IgJ l^> ^^ j <^k)l 
:>^ a^lj) ^Jl (5lf) o-e JUiSfl ^ Jo- LbjLi.°l ^Ji5 |^Lj Li" <(JJ> LlS 5LT) :J^ 
(j>J) ^ j.(JL*-; Jlj Lo bis) :JL2J ^ t (Lo) iijl UJ dLjj j^ H j «(jL*-5 5lf Ll3) 
.^JL»5 jJLII j Li 51 <_^LtJI -t-^flJI ,J ^b JLOVI &jjs> <J »MSol ^L j ,«J}U 

These defective verbs are entered upon the Mubtada and the Khabar. They give the 
nominative state to the Mubtada in being (the verb's) noun. It gives the accusative state 
to the Khabar and it becomes a Khabar for (the defective verb), as in: Lsis i!U- -J6 Khalid 

was standing. In all verbs, it is permissible to place (the verb's) Khabar before (the verb's) 
noun, as in: oil* Ljis jis" Khalid was standing. Just as it is permissible to place the Khabar 

before the verbs themselves (ranging from) the verb (jis") to (H,), as in: L*j jis" Cwl3 Sa'eed 

was standing. That is not permissible in the verbs in whose beginning is (l*). Therefore, 

you do not say: jL*j JhL Lsls. Regarding (>J), there are differences (of opinion). The 

remaining discussion regarding these verbs will come in the second part, if God, the 
Exalted, wills. 

The Guidance In Grammar 51 g^-JI jia oJoaJI 

{'o~J)-> oI-<;m"H ( V j Lo) pi :^LUI pill 
SEVENTH TYPE: The Noun Of (l») and (it) Bearing Resemblance To fo-J) 

JJsil Jj>j V ( L:13 jjj Lo) :>*; t (^uiJ) J-uS o^-^ j jf^JI i !^f£JI iJ^t j^Jd LJ j 

.Liu. oi^Iil ( v) ^i j «$Ui j iSjuii jju ( u) j^Jg j . (kL? 

They are entered upon the Mubtada and Khabar and they govern with the same 
government as (^-J). ex.LwLs jjj l» Zaid is not standing; si* j-iJi J>j v 777e/"e /is no man 

more noble than you. (l*) is entered upon the definite noun and the indefinite while (^) is 

particular to indefinite nouns. 

^P^ij kJliJI (V) ^ :^liJI piJI 
EIGHTH TYPE: The Khabar Of (*) Used For Negating The Collective Noun 

.(f:l5 J>j V) :j£J « jl>^J)fl J^p J^ U1 ^ ^ ljJI ^ Jl i>^ ^ Jl ^ 'J^ ^ ^ j 

It indicates the denial of the Khabar, in a comprehensive manner, with regard to the 
collective genus (j-I*Jl) (signified in the word) occurring after (^), as in: isis j*j v A/o /77<9/7 /s 


.(i^mi juiSnpp = L|3i>! j jir pi - n 

.(jAilL jjf.t.iitl oj^AII ^j = L^l>! j Jl ^ -Y 

Aj^)^^ilii\ (V) j (Lo) pi -r 

. L P^JJ^LL!I (V) #£-i 

The Guidance In Grammar 52 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 


.JLt*j l^JLo JiJ JJLo j (5|) olj>l j^il j S^il TL^Ij>l j (5[) J-s-fr^> U -> 

.jjfe-Sl dUi ^Jj 5 I^I>1 j (Jl) jxi- f&> j> U -V 
.Jyb LJ jLs ?l^l Jlc l£jlj>f j (5[) ^> f^ j>fj J^ -V 

.»„■ ■* 

' 9 ^jj-jSV-^ 

rr ip^i --Xri lit s-.lii Ji> -r 

•V^J il&J j J^i Ulill lis.' -t 
.llx-i CJlkll Jlj lo -*\ 

The Guidance In Grammar 53 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 


The Guidance In Grammar 54 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 



THE SECOND AIM: The Accusative Nouns 

They are twelve types: 

I . Maful Mutlaq (jlkUl J^ikll) 2. Maf ul Bihi (^ j^iisJI) 
3. Maful Feehi fej j^Lil) 4. Maful Lahu (It j^iiJl) 
5. Maful Ma'ahu (Lu JyU-Jl) 6. Hal (JUJI ) 

7. Tamyeez G~~Itl) 8. Mustathna (^ili^JI) 

9. The Khabar of (51s") and her sisters 10. The noun of (5[) and her sisters 

II . Accusative with (V) used for negating the collective noun 
12. The Khabar of (L.) and (v) which resemble (;>J) 

oLfJ j i{ Li£5 ^jJ iiii jj& 3} -j^> < ±$& f J°^ j <&i j/!* J*^ ^-*^ jl^a^ >* j 
.(oLJl> jl tf^A> jl LJl> c~iL>) :£*; i iliUI jLJ j <4^ U> JLJI 5^o j) 1 : >~ tpj-lil 

dU^S" « ljlj> zy .L|] UlSj ol*J Ii j * ( Ljl> olii) :>*: « JJLoJI JaU jii ^ ^jSj ^ J 

Jl lJj^Jj^JI jL~-£°L> Ifjjlia-o j 'J~~ai5 jU-l (>*>)-* < LojJl9 CwjJJ ^1 t (»JlLo ^£>) UiUU 

. ( LiLjj j < lj5Li) ijAj 4^_frL>-jj jj& j t L'j^J J • ( LgjJlj) Jl (»jJLa) jj& j '^j' »-3L«iioJl 

The Guidance In Grammar 55 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

SECTION ONE: Maful-Mutlaq 

It is a Masdar in the meaning of the verb mentioned before it. It is mentioned for 
emphasis; as in: i'Lj£*5 ^^J ii)l p jj'And to Musa (AS), Allah addressed His Words 
speaking (to him). " 26 Or (the Masdar is mentioned) to clarify the type (genus) of 

something; as in: <(U» ls> JUI 5ji*J yf "And you love wealth with exceeding love. " 27 Or (it 

is mentioned) to clarify the number (of something), as in: (oLi> ji ^d> jl LJ» c~d>)l sat 
a sitting or two sittings or a number of sittings. 

Sometimes, the Maf ul Mutlaq is a word different than the verb, as in: Ljj oi«S I sat some 

sittings. Sometimes, its verb is permitted to be elided due to an indicator (conveying its 
meaning). For example, your saying to the new arrival: pis -jf. Your arrival was the best 

of arrivals. In other words: LjJIi 'cj>& You came as an arrival. Then (^i) is a Superlative 
Noun (JyjJill pi) and its Masdar-qualities are for consideration of the (word) described or 
that which is annexed to it (in Idafah), meaning (pis) or (L,jli). 

It is required, at times, (to elide the verb, that being) according to usage, as in: \JJ, 
Thanks!; (JL May Allah soothe your thirst. 28 

\jj. y2&) :}*6 <J-tUJI Jlc ij&j jj j (ljuj c*jj>\) :^6 <J-&UJI J*i ;»Jl& *h jwTj* j 

-- - J 1 ji *- 

:aJLt ILy *L2J lUj (J JtfSJ iS J * ( Juj 

Jj5l ^1 <i\j± IjJU ^j jjil liLo^ ii^l ^1 ^ (l^>) :^JLu a!& Aj\jf. 

ilwLj Ji\j*J\ j j^-tLw-; I4JJI :>p?lj-« X*jjl <J * U^j -o 

The Guidance In Grammar 56 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 


The Maful Bihi (the simple verbal object) is the noun upon which the subject's action 
occurs, as in: Lsj cj#1 I honored Zaid. At times, it may be placed before its subject, as in: 

jjj '\jj. y^> Zaid helped 'Amr. Sometimes, its verb is elided due to the existence of an 

indicator (signifying the verb's meaning). (The elision of the verb is either): 

• Permissible (\j\j>), like in the Exalted's saying (\jf) in the noble verse: 

(Ijsi IjJU ^j JjST liLof 'What is it that your Lord has revealed? They say: Good. " 29 
Meaning: \jf Jjil A/e revealed good. 

• Required (C>>j) in four situations, the first of which is according to usage and the 
remainder are according to rules: 

j_c \jffil [/\ t^%£J \j&- \j4JX>\j j tl«ij j ixo ^1 < (l«i5 j lj-o[) :^u :JjVl 

j }Ul L>j3 cjpl jl (!>\_|-- J ^*l) i -f^ L**' b-W^I j ^-^1 b-^j i <;^4^" 

. JjUll lJ1>u j^Lil LL? Lft^J j < ^4*5 bl5L« cjpl 

First: as in: LJi j f>*l Leave him and himself (alone); '{°^J \jf l_4^$ "Desist, it 

is better for you." 20 Meaning desist from (the idea of) the Trinity and unify 
God and pursue goodness for yourselves; ^ j Sui Meaning you have 

come to a people who are like family and attained a place of ease, and 
others similar to these from that which is well-known in eliding the verb. 

jl*jj| jljjj jl <4«Vl ;>o alii: j :ilJ\ cjLsVl j JLl :jJLo ^-M^ 1 : <^^' 
« jip) Jlo . jlisJI JJLoJI 3* ^4a£II ol l^ J-oUJli * (^kll ^kll) :j*u iilo 

Second: Warnings, like: JLsVl j dLsl Beware of the lion! Its origin being: iikJ: j 
xJVl ;>? Protect yourself from the lion. Or that which is warned about is 
repeated, as in: j^Jji ^kii 777e /patf, /fte road Therefore, the governing 
agent in a warning is an estimated verb, like: (jJL.LJUi, .ji>Tj .Jp). 

The Guidance In Grammar 57 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

dUi ^ jAitl dUi JajIj <6Juu ^Ju Jii ? ^Jb >>L iLoLc >^1 pi :iJlil 
Sji (i£f_i1 LIS)) :>*i tJu^l? ii-U jl >* aJl& JaLs jJ ^>u « ^o-k. pVI 

jjs j iiJJu JjiJuJI J-*iJl Sj-1Jj j (Cwo_pl) jJ& j i^jjj^o JJLaj Uj a ! x ( l-L^j) 

.3^ ^ji v ui IJ4J j . (il#i) 

Third: A noun whose governing agent is concealed, with the condition of its 
being explained by a verb mentioned after it. That verb is diverted from 
(governing) that noun by its pronoun whereas if the verb governed it or its 
appropriate (substitute), it would be accusative, as in: ',cj-J\ Lsj Zaid, I 

honored him. Za\6 is accusative due to an elided verb, it is: c*j-J\. (The 

elided verb) is explained by the verb mentioned after it, it is: li^sl. For these 

forms, there are numerous branches. 


jl 4_fcjlj Glj jl aLJjJ Lilj *kU jl£. ^o jl 4^ij ^ Jij lk> ^Ju jl^-o .jlksJI J^ilsJI 

. Li: jl bLil J-frUJI J*a aJLt *jj jusl :^u Jj.4J.sJI 
:iLy »LaJ JAaJI (Ji> jj*u : J-*^' ^J^ 

.IiwL3 ^Ijiil j __rfrb--i L_Jjl «5ublj-5 liujl ^ ^>>j ~V 

The Guidance In Grammar 58 9_s_JI jii ij|__-JI 


:2Jl£j| J4AJI J, U£ °& j JjJLLsJ) Jj. -I 


.ftuji jikii ^1*5 -r 

The Guidance In Grammar 59 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

.......... Ji**** l%i — 1 

.iii: -r 


JJjJIcJii -£. 

cuiS' -o 

.LijjLsJl........ci3j -*\ 



._pjJI Cj\z£ CjI^s -i 

. LmjjJL> OJuO - 

.ii-i?lj tLL-C: ii-bJtb ^ c..;U'. -A 

The Guidance In Grammar 60 g-*_JI jia aJaAJI 


Fourth: Those (Expressions whose) Verb Is Elided As A Requirement: 
The Munada (^SLiJI) / The Vocative 

L :^J < (i>j£kJI Ij^JI j <°^f j « Li j « LI j « L) :idl£jl JjcQl lJ>j> U^k J-^' jWl >* j 

. (dtef < jxil) ^UU p3 Jaltl ^ j .Jjllft j^jf ^1 < ( Jjl if* 

.{ IJub ^ jj^l ^j*^ -'iJ 1 -^ i4P : >^ < CklJ JjIII o_>> olsj ii j 
It is a noun summoned by one of the following Vocative Particles: 

( *l> jliinJ I *j ° ^ 1 1 J < ^ I J < Ljs j < L I 3 < L ) 

as in: Jjl ifi L <9 >1M#//9/7/Meaning: Jjl if*: j^Jl /a/77 summoning 'Abdallah. The Vocative 
Particle stands in the place of (lI^I <j-fcif). At times, the Vocative Particle is elided literally, 
as in His, the Exalted's saying: { lii °^£ °j>^\ LlIjj} " Yusuf, turn aside from this. " 33 

jpUJI jiLii 

OJlill r LiSfl Jl ^SUJI 

I) :jjfw ijjJVl j 4juJ L) :jjfw ilX&\£ «£j$JI Ls^U 'Jl& ^isJ j *ii>JI j>UJI -> 
(jLJb «1aj j « ( 4^p L) tjj^j t ju L*-w.s a I »!)L (tlaipiJ j (jjJuj *-'' •J J * t - 1 'jljjl j ' 'u'"^ 

.(sljuj L) :>sJ « L^oJt 

The Guidance In Grammar 61 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

Divisions Of The Vocative 

The Vocative is divided into the following divisions: 

1. (2jjxJ\ iydl\) The Singular Definite (noun) based upon the indicator of nominative 

state, like Dammah, as in: Juj L O Zaid!; and Alif, as in: JjlSj L O (two) Za ids!; and Waw, 

as in: 'j/jSj L O ZaidsL The Munada is made genitive by Lam al-lstighathah (for 

seeking assistance) and made accusative with the Munada's annexation of 
(Istighathah's)Alif, as in: ^J O Zaid! (Help); i\^j L O Zaid (Help)! 

t dijUJ ( ifisf) j /Ida ( i$)_j JjIii o^ ^ j^i r kiu Li^iJ 5LT y ii>Ji ^suui j 

.(sl>JI l^f L) j (J^l Uil L) :j^ 

If the Singular Definite (noun) is defined with Lam (the Definite Article), separation is 
made between the Vocative Particle (and the Munada) with (i$ii) for the masculine and 

(l^iji) for the feminine, as in: J»5Jll$| L O men!; sl>sJI l^i L O women! 24 

.(Jj|-u_t L) :^<l~hll jtiJUiJI -r 

2. al-Mudaf (first-term of an Idafah). It is accusative, as in: Jjiiii L O 'Abdallah! 

.(ki> l*JU? L *i5sl Ll^ L) Jlo iU^zIll 1^ j «*JI oUrSJl, 

3. (The word) resembling al-Mudaf (0U2J1J LLiill). It is that something is connected to it 

which its meaning cannot be complete without it, just as the Mudaf is not complete 
except with its Mudaf llaihi. Its ruling is in the accusative, like: iisi Li> L O Excellent 
in his manners! %> l*Jlt L O Ascending mountain! 

.(^ 1> %fj L) i\ji/t\ jji jlo « LJ\ ujJi\ idj j iYi jJiisJl 3^ i£lii -1 

4. The Non-Specific Indefinite (jjJJLti ^i ^£l)l)- Its ruling is also in the accusative, like 

the saying of the blind: jj^ l£ Su'j L O man! Take my hand. 

The Guidance In Grammar 62 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

1j j c JL> L :ciULo L <J Jjj5 US' 'OwJlill 5 T^> L^pLs jl <ei>-°i 2L5"^Ai ;Jl& LjIj j < alu- °)N 

Contraction Of The Munada 

The contraction of the Munada is permissible. It is an elision at its ending for lightening 
(pronunciation) with the condition that it is: 

• A proper name; 

• Uncompounded with Idafah and attribution (iLjyi); 

• More than three letters; 

• Or it is ended with the Feminine Ta 

Like you would say in (dJl* L) jl> L O Mali!; in Mansur (jjALs L) ^als L O Mansu!; in 
'Uthman {l\J2 L) ^ L O 'Usma!; in Fatimah (litU L) jj»ii L O Fatim! 

It is permitted to contract the end of a word with Dammah, or the original vowel remaining 
(is also permitted), as you would say in Harith (iji> L) jl> Lor ji> L O Har! 

1— 'j.Li.o.ll 

jl ( Lb ^L- £&IiiJI ji j < Usjl vjiidl ^ jjUisJ Ji j * JjIII oj^ ^ ( L) J! jJlcT j 
j Jjlll ^j XT>iLo (L) j ^jlLdL ^aik5 (lj)J »(»ljuj Ij j (sljuj L) JLaJ j <(lj) 


The Lamented 

Know that although (L) is one of the Vocative Particles, it is also sometimes used to 
address the lamented, (meaning) the one mourned, using (L) or (!_,), as it is said: »Ijuj L or 
aijjj, ij OZaid! The particle (lj) is particular to the lamented while (L) is shared between the 
vocative and lamented. 

The Guidance In Grammar 63 g^-JI jia oJoaJI 


.«lj i Li< Ll J t L <^l * f» :^* JjIII J^I j < Jjlfl J^u JaLs pi :^iL^JI 

:^iLiJI iUif 



jl pLbl c r -w r ^ P 5 s-^>« j^ Lit 5^ lij i-^^y *j>' <^ ^^*-> U^^*-" p*^ •'U^'-^' p-^P 

jllll 5 Uj Lo j£*-« LjjJ jl <tJ^J>i 0!^ ^Lfr ljulj < il_Ljl 

( lj) j <V jiLoJI j 5 IjlUI j$ XjLU ( L) j .( \j) jl ( L) _, ^U J^iiiJI j* j :^jiuJI 


The Guidance In Grammar 64 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

.jJ JJLS j <OjjJuJI ji'il-V 

.jU L-fl 

.^JUI Jjl jjl^ Lf L-Y 
.J 1*5 Jl*aj:-0 

The Guidance In Grammar 65 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 


The Third Section: Maf ul Feehi 

X- Jl -- 

.(^>«>i) >^.s^ ittittjL 1 Lo jj» j«j^-> 

Maf'ul Feehi: It is the noun which an action occurs upon in terms of time and place. It is 
termed adverbial. 

The Adverb of Time (jlojJl A>^) is of two types: 

1 -Unqualified (jJ4fi). It is that there is no specified term, as in: y& An age/j^- A time. 

2-Quantified (IjjsJ). It is that which has a specific term, as in: y^t A day;^i A month; 1 ^ 
A year. 

All of the Adverbs of Time are accusative based on being adverbial. They (all) signify the 
meaning of (,J). You would say: \J,i c^J I fasted for an period; yi 03SL, / traveled for a 

month, in other words, in (the span of a) period and in (the span of) a month. 

The Guidance In Grammar 66 g^-JI jia oJoaJI 

JJ& j ijJL£_o j . (tiLoLol j diaL> C~Jl>) :JJLo < LaJl Oj-^-* >* j S4f* 'iil!-J^ ol5UJI <-5)l? j 

The Adverb of Place (ji£Ji o>i), likewise is unquantified (^J) and also accusative, like: 
dLsLii j alii £xdi> I sat behind you and in front of you. (And it is also) quantified (I/^jJ). It is 
not made accusative with the estimation of (j>). Rather, it is necessary to mention (j>), 
like: j^^ji j> j jjU\ j> j Jill j> c-iL> / sat in the house and in the market and in the 

The Fourth Section: The Maful Lahu 

°J ( Lib *&j£) i^J < All ^jI^ v-iiJ j «iki j/isJI JiiJI £Jb 4>Sf pi 3* j :ij J^iliJI 

The Maful Lahu: it is a noun which, due to it, an action mentioned before it occurs. It is 
made accusative by the estimation of Li), 39 as in: L/ii lxj>b I struck him as a discipline, in 
other words for the purpose of discipline; il> ^>Jl &£ JiU£itl l*i The weak sat out from the 
war out of fear, in other words, due to fear. 

y, , ' 

J^AkJI :^?UJI p4JI 
The Fifth Section: The Maful Ma'ahu 

i'uL*J\ j iyd\ i\>) $*j » jAj jj-L*-o ^2>Lo^ (*-0 ^IUj (jIj) j& j£3tf Lo :jjLo' JjJJLJI 

. . l -Ua *_0 j ioIhJLJI *~o ^1 ( Ij U JUw J LI CJL> J 

jj o[ j .( UJJ j aJJ j Ll ci*0 >sJ .L^aUl j fijJI <u* jj^ LiLiS\ jL> j « Iki) JJUJI 5L< -,15 
tlakiJI ^ii5 likiUI jL> j <t5 iJU JJiJI 5L< 5| j i ( ljuj j ci*0 :j*w *c*-aiJI ^i*i LiLiS\ j*q 

TJcJai Lo ipuJI ft (TIjJL* j j~^J Lo) ^ 

The Maful Ma'ahu: It is that which is mentioned after (jlj) in the meaning of (j-s) With, due 
to its accompaniment of (words) governed by a verb, as in: LsLAJl j sjsJI fl> 7?7e cold and 
coat came; Lu*j j lit ci> Sa'eed and I came, in other words: i/wT/7 /Ae coa/ a^c/ w///7 
5a eed. 

The Guidance In Grammar 67 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

If the verb is concrete and apposition 39 is permissible, both the nominative and 
accusative are permitted in (the Maf'ul Ma'ahu), as in: Lsj j jjj j bj cJL> Zaid and I came. If 

apposition is not permissible, select the accusative case, as in: Lsj j ci». If the verb is 

abstract and apposition is permissible, select apposition, as in: Liu. j xj^j l> What is with 

Sa'eed and Khalid? Because the meaning is: What are you doing? 


jl bloj 5^ *T>; »J>ktl j < Uj> ^g,',j j 4 ajl5Lo jl JA«JI pj5j jLaj jLJ ^JJ jUsI Jui 

. ijJc*_« j *4f^ • t >3-S-'°4 jj^fc bl5s-5 

.^cjij u^ jLJ JJLoJI 1*3 j^Ju s-Jl :aJ 


.<LJ JjilsJI ei>fr- > 

5a_J jjlHj liLo ^^*3 JjilsJI 4*1^ j-* ^°~^ 

.2JlLoI *-S LoLujI Jit 5(J^kll jUwlb L-i5 ^i"- V 

T SjifesJI ji U j U+flll JjjkJI jjs U- i 

Tlglp (^i) o^ ^i (L^>o ^1 jl&dl (Jj^^a U-fl 


iti JjilsJI ^ jl2J liLo-V 

.aJ JJLs TajLo JjiXsJI jA Lo-A 

tuaUi j jjyi jj^ \jj» j vm jjikti ^ u^lti 2^3 i^m 

The Guidance In Grammar 68 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 



JjJli. j b(cJ>-A 
. IjJL> j c«jji-^ 

: LfL^i5 *-5 J-5j>JI j-o ^yb L-J likfcJI (jlj) j i|*sJI (jlj) ;>*i 3*- s ~v 

. ju^ui j y?ji jib v- > 

The Guidance In Grammar 69 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

tJ^jAJI j-o ^U L-J L^uLLo VjJuLo ^b-r- 

o £ 
.6j^S\J........ C-OjSl - ^ 

- 00.°^- r 

.oLJI ......c*i3j _ V 

,_il C-JI j — L 

. JLiiJu. C^3- 

.Jill ^Jl Ziyi CJLJ- \ 
.pljlAil ,J JJI ^?boo Iji5l-i 

i- .4 ^> U3S SJJI Ij^jl j stfjJI IjsF j 65UJI ly-jf j^-o 

The Guidance In Grammar 70 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

* 'i 

L.IJ1I >j^JI 


JUJI :^olDI jUIll 

<Lflj JLo^ Lsi«V) : J^-e 'Lo^C jl ^ Jj-^s-H j! J-fcUJI 5Lki jLj jjLt jis Jail :JUJI 
j) :Ji-o < LkaJ J_*i jjs JUJI ,J J-?LJI j .(,>*iilj Ijua> c^ll j iL-jli Ijl**« cJuaIjI 

„ > -» J * , ^ ' * S 

jjj jjJI 3*4! j Id oLlLo 5p ( Lsl3 isj lis < LjIj jllll ^i juj) :jio i^^i-o jl < ( Lilj Iju**; 

.1*213 *J>T Jl> 

The Hal is a word signifying the clarification of the subject or object's condition (at the 
time of an action) or (the condition of) both of them, like: Ls\j L*> j>{\> Ha meed came to 

me riding; LjU> Lu**; cJLiLsl j / faced Sa'eed as a horseman; ^£\j Lu»> c^ii / met Ha meed 

as two riders. The government in the Hal is the verb (either) literally, like: Lsij Lu*j cjIj I 

saw Sa'eed riding. Or in the meaning (of a verb), like: Lsis jllJI ^ Juj Zaid is in the house 

standing; UjIj jjj II* This Zaid is standing. It's meaning, then is: I'm informing him and I 

am indicating Zaid is in the state of standing. 

. LjLc. UJLw ^>j3 ^1 < ( LajLt LJL*) r^L^JJ Jjij US' jjLL^y J-?UJI <-^-^ -^ j 

V^i »:£y J 1 ^ 1 ji 5^ 5P .*iLo°Sll ^i cJlj Li" * ULc. io^s JUJI ji j Jjul i^So JUJI j 
Cotj) :dJ)S ^i yw^illl ^U _j lisJJU ^«lL kit « ( J>j Li'lj ^£ U) :^J <jdLt JUJI ^ji5 


At times, the governing agent (the verb) is elided due to an indicator (of its meaning), just 
as you say to the traveler: LjU Cjl. Safe and sound, in other words: Lit UL ^3 You 

return safe and sound. 

The Guidance In Grammar 71 g^-JI jia oJoaJI 

The Hal is always indefinite and the companion of the Hal (meaning the subject or object) 
is mostly definite, as you have seen in the examples. If the companion of the Hal is 
indefinite, it is required to advance the Hal before it, as in: J>j Ltf, j,%\> A man came to me 

riding, in order to avoid confusion with an adjective in the accusative state (as) in your 
saying: {j\j %ij cJ\j I 'saw a riding man. 

. \AmjJ L*£jJ \X * J*mi CJlj j it^S'j <LAJL£- j Juj <g>i U) JjJ»U <2jj^> AJLoJ> JUJI jj^SJ Jlj j 

Sometimes, the Hal is an informative sentence, as in: LSlj U'jJ. j JLsj j>{\> Zaid came to me 
while his servant was riding; Ls^i L£% |ju«-i cS\j I saw Sa eed riding his horse. 


j> j i j-oU ^ JUJJ 5i V gUJI J-oU .L^iT jf *j J^ilsJI jj J-tLiJI iiiiS ^1J lSJ :JUJI 
la^Li JUJI ji j t LjIj s^J JUJI j .ILj ij>jj JwoUJI ^jj^j ji j .^LLo' jj LkaJ jAs HI 


.afe-sl ai^i 2-s itijif ^1 tjuji ^ j-oUJi >* u-r 

.JUJI (-^L^ ^Lt JUJI ijji5 C^>o [Jla- i 
.1L^ JUJI L^J jLLsj* pU-0 

The Guidance In Grammar 72 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

: CHJ 

rJiAJI ^yLL.^ J-oLJI j JUJI u>L» j JUJI ^ii-i 

.UsU i-iiiJI Laij- > 

.cAkll jx Lblj liiill ^j>-fl 



.tybLfe QaiJ l^J JUJI J-?U 0j^ J^> && oU- N 

bji^ Hxi ifj juji j-oU o^ J*» ^ ou-r 
« ' > •* 

.21l> I4J JUJI 5j^ J^> d^!Ai oL»-V 

tJ^j>JI ^«o ( Aj L-j5 4JJ^LLo 2U a^b-r- 



ijDl oi>j-V 

Ju.».i.5 l-Lfc - 1> 

•J>j. dfl> Ji-fl 

The Guidance In Grammar 73 $±J\ jii oJoaJI 

.bjL3 Ju*u; IJl*-£. 
.LUJI Jl U^-o iJ&l sl>-A 

The Guidance In Grammar 74 gj^JI jii oJoaJI 




*J)iJ iLjjl a_i lLo Ikli jii jl pL^ jl jjj jl JiS" jl sis. jl jlji-o I*j ^Ju \£± jusl »j***ill 

^ Lo j < Lk3 (jLj^> j 4 Lu-i oU*- 5 J ' IjJ jbtf* J '^>j 5jj-*f: (Jr*-^0 : J-*-? 'fU^' ^4* 

( ljuj l^iLo ft^siJI ^Lt j « LL>^ l>\j jj3 t Li J I 

The Tamyeez is an indefinite noun mentioned after a quantity; a number; volume; weight; 
distance or other than these from that in which there is an ambiguity, (it being mentioned) 
in order to remove that ambiguity, like: 5a>j jjj-Lc jjIc With me are twenty men; \g jIj^jj j 

Two Qafeez of wheat; Ls~= jl^Ls j Two Man of oil; Ud jL^> Two sacks o f cotton; 
Ll>^ i>\j jli ; LiJi j> Lo j r/W i^/7/c/7 /s //7 //?e heaven in the size of the palm is a cloud; 
Lkjj LjiL s>d)l Jii j Based on dates is its equivalent in butter. 

, ° * ? o 

Sometimes, it is other than a quantity, as in: L*s jl^- ^jlt M^ me sre earrings of gold; 
La* 151*. IJusj 77?/5 /s 5 ring of iron. Genitive is most often (the state in this type of 
Tamyeez), like: -lu> ^U. Ring of iron. 42 

? <■ ' t- i 

.(Ui> jl LI jl Lit Juj OllO :JA5 « Lf^-ij '^ iL^VI £^J IkAll lis j**isll JJb 15 j 

At times, the Tamyeez occurs after a sentence in order to remove the ambiguity from its 
relationship, as in: LL juj oik Za/tf was good in knowledge; Li jl (9/" as a father; i£± ji (9/"/>7 


The Guidance In Grammar 75 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 


ji iljill ^ f l^l ±, jjji y£ pi :j__d!l 

v ', ? 



. Iju^J ULx5' ^jLc Jt>l ojj>j-£ 
. L.,».fl.i ,<.'.L.ij lJjb — \ 

« y 

The Guidance In Grammar 


gji_JI jii cljIoAJI 

.2J12JI J-iAJI ^i L-U lj~si £-* 


. (jj JL»> s L> i 

j.i.thfc Ju^l C«Jlj ,-Jl _ Y 


........../wO j ' $-w.' ij-UX - t 

** ** °-** A — A 

.c^ii °j-«—- ij'jJ - ^ 


5 > J. 

,iii> -r 

. IjJI. ...... .....^J_Lt- £. 

.<>j>oCur. 6^Lsl-o 

.Lii jij--j iJKb-f 

The Guidance In Grammar 77 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 


THE EIGHTH SECTION: The Mustathna (The Exception) 

.LjLi Lo «yi LusJj Lo *jJl C^ij V i51 jJUiJ 1#!>I j (VI) J& j*jtf lit ^tr/uH 

* S , „ -» „ i« s 

.(Ijuj VI ijill ^sU) :Ji-o t^Lo ^liLiiJI j-i> 5^ Lo >* j *J~^LoM 
VI 5j^L-JJI t\>) :Ji-o «jlLo ^lii^JJI ,jJ> ^o ^Jf.?.^.tl ^jSo V Lo $& j ipafcJ-1 

The Mustathna is a word mentioned after (VI) and her sisters in order that it is known that 

whatever is ascribed to that which is before it is not ascribed to it. The Mustathna are of 
two types: 

• Conjunctive (J-^). It is that the Mustathna is the (same) genus as the Mustathna 
Minhu, as in: Lsj VI yj&\ j&S* People came to me except Zaid. 

• Disjunctive fckiLQ. It is that the Mustathna is not of the same genus (as the 
Mustathna Minhu), as in: °j^jcJ\ VI ^ljji jl» The travelers came except their 

The Guidance In Grammar 78 g^-JI jia oJoaJI 

., 'It. o * tl ,*t\ J\ 

•!j . ■ .r>.'l <_Jljj£l 

, ( |ju**i VI ijiJI £ L>) :JJLo < IjjSjlS *Lo ^lii^jJI j^So 
.(°4tt.>°l VI ^LjJI cjfj) :JJL? <fcklUJI 

^li^JJI • 

.( IjJU. •& U j JjJU- Ijifi ;>jlfl vSlkll c^T) 

I'rab of the Mustathna: 

a) The accusative (Nasb) in four situations, as follows: 

• (iliJI L>>jJJl J-^iiJl ^.l^-^Jl) The complete, positive, conjunctive Mustathna (in that there 
is no negation, prohibition nor interrogation in the speech). The Mustathna Minhu is 
mentioned, like: Lu**s VI uDl i\> People came except Sa'eed. 

• (^kiLUl >j!i°«j.\\) Disjunctive Mustathna, like: pfecj'i VI ^L^JI cjIj / saw the travelers 
except their luggage. 

• (ii* ^liii^itl Jla ilkJl ^llliitl) The Mustathna placed ahead of the Mustathna Minhu, 
as in: W\ JU.J VI ^fu L> A/o o/7e ca/77e to me except your brother. 

• (!Ai j Li _> ^iilntl) The Mustathna with (^ j Li), according to most scholars, and 
with (5j£j V j ;>J j Ijlc L. <!Ai Lo), like: LIU- }l» L> j IjJU- Li ;>jl)l v^ 1 v^" The students 
wrote the lesson except Khalid. 

.pLiVI j ZgJJuJI jJl£ c^alll jlj>-o 

a>l jL> Lo) :j£o * Ijj^JuS jllo |_ s iii^jJI j ,u>y _^l& »^f ^ [yi.fjU.ll 515" la] iUi j 
.iitju [Jj. pLiVI j j Idi^VI ^Lt (LJjUI ^lJ j>>Lp j ( jL**s VI j * Lu*« ^| 

The Guidance In Grammar 79 g^-JI jia oJoaJI 

b) Permissibility of the accusative based on equivalence and subordination. That is 
when the Mustathna is in negated speech and the Mustathna Minhu is 
mentioned, like: L*^ VI j Lu*- VI %A fu L A/o one came to me except Sa'eed. The 

accusative is permissible for the Mustathna based on (the rules of the exception) 
and subordination based on equivalence. 43 

.J-ol>JI lJL> vU7 l_ £ 
iLo ^ttf.^tl j .yo-'jj jls, ^ J, (VI) Jtfc 5^ ol U^ ^lii^JI 51^ 131 dUi j 
. ( .j.,.*.,.-;^ VI Oj^ Lo j < ljk**-i VI cJlj Lo j * Jljl^ VI ^sU Lo):J^ft2 ijjZJ** >*-£ 

,-3 *_uoJ>d I -U-C- I j j jjfs-S j Lj ( Li l> j u I j-bS j ' (J|J-bU j ' _^-£ ) Jt-»J !g.'-f-...l.o-l I JO jl j 

[^j*« j 'J^-o _jii ijJLlI ^Jg L> ) tj£u ijS*i\ Jilt (LiL>) ^ j Llj-i j <|^>-< j i^it) 

. ( j-^^ - — ^ LiL> j ■^^t-4 

c) I'rab of the Estimated Government. That is when the Mustathna is vacated in 
that it follows (VI) in negated speech and the Mustathna Minhu is not 

mentioned, as you would say: L*-; VI ji^ L> A/o o/7e c5/7?e to /77e except 

Sa'eed; Lu*- VI cjIj l> j I saw no one except Sa'eed; -u^> VI oj>s L> j /passed 

by no one except Sa'eed^ 

If the Mustathna is after (Ul> j J>s j ^ j ^), it is genitive with all (scholars) 

with regard to (J^ j ^ j ^ii) and in (lil>), with the majority, as in: 

.u^ Lii> j Xfj^i Jxh i ->~r^ ^ r-^ 11 Lsi £ V People came to me except Majeed. 

(jl) JaJJ ulil 
J>1 ^j L> Lo j tJ U> $i£.ji±j}%£. ^1 ^V) :Jyb « ( VIU ^iii^JI ol^l (^) ^L>yu 

. ( J^J^ui ^^lAj Ojj-0 Lo j 4 -LbXUi jl£. CJI J Lo j < -U^ui jJIX. 

jj j ,, LLjSu |^J ( VI) 'iklJ ol Li* < 5 LlLj^U JiilsJ JL* j <2iJ*U ^^ (^ifc) JiU j 
:LiUji LiLUS" < Jji ^ii ^1 4 bl^H illl VI I4JT L^i ^ }}} :^JU5 *\£ J,\J rJJAi JiAiij 

.(illl Vlidll V) 

The Guidance In Grammar 80 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 


The word (^i) is given the I'rab of the Mustathna with (vi), you would say: jjj %£. i>Ul j,i\> 
People came to me other than Zaid; and: jL> ^S Other than a donkey; .u*^ %£ i>j j,i\> l> j 
A/b ewe ca/77e fc> /7?e o//?e/" //7a/7 5a teeo'/ -u*-d ^i cjij L=j / saw /70 ewe other than Sa eed; 
^L oj>s Lo j /passed by no one other than Sa'eed. 

The word (^) is a topic for an adjective and it is sometimes used for exception, just as 
the word (VI) is a topic for exceptions and it is sometimes used as an adjective, as in the 
Exalted's saying: {bl^fi il)l h\ l$Ji L^j 5^ jty "If there had been in them any gods except 
Allah, they would both have certainly been in a state of disorder, " 45 meaning: aJJI ji* o/fter 
than Allah. Likewise, is your saying: iijl "i\ iitl V There is no god except Allah. 


(^iii^J) ^J £>iJI j < l$Li La ^ ^ L^l>1 ^i>l jl (VI) J& U £l>'l 3* :*U£jVI 

:^\/\ 'Js. ^:*7.Utl 6I>I 


- ■ ■ fchtoftj 

.iL; ^iiull Jlc: iliiill j^ilLsjJI-V 
.(VI) j ^;:f,Utl ol>L 4>y6 (^i) IsiT j .^ftl lit LiU 

The Guidance In Grammar 81 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

- o £ 

.jjl^t dUi ^ 5(jii) j (VI) ^ J^Ul j> Lo-V 

.^IJjJ jis 1{ LiU j ^ j Iju£)_j ^Tff.Utl 61^21 Lo- A 

.^JjJ jib TilLull -JU ^liLsJjl 61^1 j^ ^'-S 

OJliJI Ji»JI j-o ^b L*i ^;tf,^tl ol^l }*U^j <ilo ^liLaJJI j ^i£LsJJI ££.-\ 

.i*Ls VI £l> Lo-\ 
.1^5 L*5jjjLjJIsI>-Y 

.b^i ^'Vl vi oj^ Lo-r 

.l^JuLo |_£j-*i Jj^lkJI £ L> La- £ 

VI 'Ji V-fl 

The Guidance In Grammar 82 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

uJlifl J-sjjJI ^s L-LJ [^J&iJ £~b-o 

'jis.cS\j Lo-> 

h\ Lo^ifuU-v 

......... |_g^; 5jj^L»,.o.U »jj Lo-f 

IjLt ^j-^jaJI c^-i 

...... }L> LsJU z\JilS\ Cwdu?l-o 

:J-»AII j-« ^^Jj L_^ L^Llo <lL> ^Iti^i f-^~r 
.Llju; Sfl. ^e U-- > 

.J^>j 'jJs.. L*ii-Y 

.Ajjj *^I...............ojl>j- Y 

..^JuUI 2Jl>oo ^^w. ol^-t 

.%4Lo £ UJlAJI }l> cJjcisi-c 

.^-^ £ T> l«-> 

.jjilj u-jjS ol>9 Ls-Y 

.^4ii^! 4»kyi Tu-r 

.j^ii^-ol oj^ 1 -^' U»S-i 

.Lojj. ^.iLlI CJ-J-O 

The Guidance In Grammar 83 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

n .^Jjl jlj^j fU^T VI j^^u ULl^ u^-r 

lv .4^ji vi iii J^ 1JJ3 v #M 

iA 4^ J±> ill I ^5l ^-s VI 5jl; V j Jlo jiL V ijj^-A 

The Guidance In Grammar 84 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 



THE NINTH SECTION: The Khabar of (-,K) And Her Sisters 

g£ *-o lfg-j| ^Lt l^jii j>fj 5jT VI < ( LoikLo L*«; 515") :>*J < TllU.ll ^i> *^4f ii£» j 

The Khabar of (jis"), it's ruling is like the ruling of the Khabarof the Mubtada, for example: 
uikLo JL*« 51s" Sa'eed was set free, except that it is permissible to advance its Khabar 
before its noun with its being definite, in variance with the Khabar of the Mubtada, for 

example: 4o~-?jiJi >ai lul* ^> 5^ j) "And helping the believers is ever incumbent on Us. " 49 

l*3l>! j (Sj) pi :j4UJI jU4JI 
THE TENTH SECTION: The Noun of (£l) And Her Sisters 

.(^JU lJuj Jl) :j*u < l$J>o JJ6 i:.°»i\\ j* j 

The noun is ascribed (to the particle) after its being entered upon the noun, for example: 
^JL>|jJ3o! Surely Zaid is sitting. 

J^1\ JLJ j%\ (V)-j oj-kidl :>ii ^iUJI p4JI 
THE ELEVENTH SECTION: Accusative With (V) Which Negates the Collective Noun 

LUJ jl Jill Jt jj>j i5U V :^6 ilsLhJ i£j [4J5 } .IgJjpo JJu 4jJl li^JJI 3* j 

The Guidance In Grammar 85 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

The (Collective Noun) is ascribed to (v) after its entrance (upon the expression) and an 
indefinite Mudaf follows it, as in: Jill j> j>j pi H There's not a servant of any man in the 
house. Or (a noun) resembling the Mudaf, as in: ^-iSUI ,J Lsji '&_£* "i There are no twenty 
Dirham in the bag. 

Ujui VyJJ. 51^51 j t (jllll J, J^j V) :>*; <£&! JU j^iiJ SS^lS i^J (V) JJu L* 515" 5| J 

i-o ( V) jj^J .U.U> C^>o j < Jiifl j-fc ^iii Iff"*? Ltj^>^ 5^ ^) i>£ J ^ ^ jJslo i)Sy jl 

,(S>sT V j J^j l«-j V ) j Cij»wS H j Jill ^ iu>> V) :Jj£ <>~^l pttl 

If, after (^), there is an indefinite singular noun, it's ending is based on Fathah, for 
example: jilil j> j»j "jl There's not a man in the house. If it is a definite singular noun or an 
indefinite noun with separation between the noun and (i), it is nominative because it's 
government is nullified. At that time, it is required to repeat the (i) with the other noun, 
you would say: ,L*-s H j jiiil j> L*> H There's not a Hameed in the house nor a Majeed, 
and: iiyT H j J* j Lfj "i There's neither a man or woman in it. 

+ O ,» 

^1 ^ ^ j Jj^> V) Jlo 'J-^J !Aj SS>Lo »3$v UI*j j L> j idikkS\ J.^ ^Lt ("if) oj^So lil j 

.cjhU ;>b Sf °J\ (dULt V) :^ «iL$ (V) pi SjJ4 JJ j 

When (•>!) is repeated in the manner of apposition (laki.ll) and an indefinite singular word 
comes after it without separation, like: Jjl VI yi v j j>- v There's no strength and power 

except in Allah, five perspectives are permissible in it: Fathah for both; nominative for 
both; Fathah for the first and accusative for the second; Fathah for the first and 
nominative for the second and nominative for the first and Fathah for the second. 50 

At times, the noun of (v) is elided due to the existence of an indicator (of its meaning), as 
in: iLifi *i, in other words: AA£ ^b V No problem for you. 

The Guidance In Grammar 86 g^-JI jia oJoaJI 

(;>J)_, ajLSjli&ll (V) j (U) ^ :>lt ^iliJI jUaJI 
THE TWELFTH SECTION: The Khabar of (U) and (V) Both (Of Which) Resembles (>J) 

.( f^U J>j V) j ( LJL> jL*« Lo) :>sJ < L*b>3 J& .fc-' >* j 

The Khabar is ascribed (to them) after their entrance, as in: Uu JL*^ l» Sa'eed is not 
sitting, and: l^u J>j V /Vo /77a/7 is present. 

:iiJl£ll ^blj^JI ^ J-sjUI j_t jLJLb j 

.(isj 15U Lo) :_^j ,*i*J| -iju: lil-Y 

iJp j^JLJS j.^LjcJlliJgJjb.Ojl; lJUo! Lo) :_^,(Lo) I*: (*,[) oJuj 131— V 

.^Ijiu II* Lo^ :[_jJLti 

t,«-^j ,-jj jj-? j-tLLII Jjij %^?l Lp_^JuJu }la *^»j j-^j Lol j 

(The particle's accusative) government (of the Khabar) is nullified in the following 

1 ) When the Khabar occurs after (VI), as in: 1213 VI jjj L> Zaid is only standing. 

2) When the Khabar precedes (the noun), as in: Jb; pl3 l* Zaid is not standing. 

3) When (51) is added after (L>), as in: jjb IJU- l\ lo Khalid has not a resident. 

This is the language of the people of Hijaz. Their proof (of the correctness of the 
accusative Khabar) is the Exalted's saying: ijjtu Li* L>) "This is not a mortal. " 51 

The Guidance In Grammar 87 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

Regarding the Bani Tameem, they do not give government to (the Khabar) at all, as in the 
saying of a poet of the Bani Tameem: 

777e slender moon is like the full-moon, I said to it: Affiliate (with one another) 
Then, (the full-moon) replied: the killing of the lover is not forbidden upon the lover. 
With (ilj») in the nominative. 

• r_c* ', 'j ■ •*» ■ a II iUJj J 

^jS - *-s 1^1 ;Jl& lijJiS jj*q Z\ *i[ lliflll ^i> SJS i^J j :lfj\ji>\ j (5^") _/£>~f 

.(^JL> Lsj jl) : i^ < l-fcb** ^ ■fc.'i.iSH >* j :l4?l^l J (jl) pl-«-» 
4jLU jl IsLaJ s^j lg_i5 j . L^J_^3-i juu ^lJI JcLiiJI jj& j :j-JL*JI < -aiJ ^^iJI (*tf)-r 

<J J^jUI fr£. ^ib j iL^J^i 1«j jI^J.11 jjs j :(j-4I)_j ^dftHil (^) j (L>) ^f>-i 

:ajJL£JI ^blj^JI 

.(?fl) JJu^Jlyj lil-\ 

.^f*Jl >l23 131- Y 

.^L«»l L^jjJuaJ ^G ^-faaJ j-u La I j 4^LjL?%j>JI i*J &.1* j < ( Lo) JJu ( jl) 0.L3 lil-Y 1 

.iUi ^Lt JLIoj cJl 5 L$jI>>I j (j| ) J^-t jjs Lo- V 

I ■< 

The Guidance In Grammar 88 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

f . " . - * 

.H ifc; v ^j ^i v j iH ;bui v ^j 5Lji v- > 

.ol>*JI U^ aliAl Jlj U-n 

{&£).* tf&lliJl (V) j (Lo) jl (L|3l>! jjlT) jl (l^l>f iS|) ^ U-LJ Lo Jiof-o 

.c^ji ^ ljL iijJi- > 

The Guidance In Grammar 89 g^_JI jta aJaAJI 

.jlJU IJub-*\ 

.liSlj aluVl-V 
* * * ^ 

.ILjj^JI ^ <U*b. 5| - ^ 

cjiLri o^-v 

.2il3 J-*-f-f 

CJlktl^ La_i 

lift! Ls- 


i a f s f 

Jjl^l L*U bl Lo-fl 

The Guidance In Grammar 90 g^_JI jta aJaAJI 



f . - * 


r^oJI^i^jQll aakjl 

THE THIRD AIM: The Genitive Nouns 

:^ii-*3 ^Lt j_y* j oljj^^uJI i L-jSlI 

Genitive nouns are of two kinds: 

♦ ( jJjj oj>5) :£*; < IkD **JI 03*: Ji*-Ijj s i^£ *JI UmJ *«sl Ji - j* j <5*JI J>yu &£*&- ^ 

. (jji^sJI j JUJI)_. £tia*Ji\ Js ow^^l bi*&£gjuj 

1 -Genitive by means of a genitive particle (54JI ^). It is every noun having something 
attributed to it literally by means of a genitive particle, as in: ^y_ 6j>s I passed by Zaid. 
This construction is referred to in grammatic terminology as the Jar and Majrur. 

:^is-ii jjLc AJLbVI .(j^a-o ^yJ-iJ j 'J-^ L^^f 
« (j»SUI) ^Lfcij LSI <>» j « l$J>L*-<s Jl ^iL^o XL? oLblJI 5_^j ^ 51 'i/i J '^Lr*- 5 • 

•J I cjL^bl 5' ^it^-^i j 'j-a Li'-ii^*^ >JI <-i^bl 51 oLiraJl <-Aj^ AJLb^l sift sJjIi j 

The Guidance In Grammar 


gji_JI jii cljIoAJI 


2-Mudaf llaihi, as in: jjj i^u 777e servant of Zaid, because it is genitive by means of an 
estimated genitive particle. In the terminology (of grammar) it is referred to as Mudaf 
and Mudaf llaihi. It is required to remove any Tanween from the Mudaf and that which 
stands in Tanween's place, as in: jjj oUS" The book of Zaid; x^ >jk£ The two books of 
Ha meed ; y^ Lg ^J> The Muslims of Egypt. 

The Idafah is of two kinds: 

• Ma'nawiyyah (tZJJj) or related to meaning. It is that the Mudaf is not an 
adjective annexed to a word it governs. The Idafah is in the meaning of (i^JI), 
as in: jjj pJ. The servant of Zaid, or in the meaning of (°jJ), as in: iJ±> j5i» A 
ring of silver, or in the meaning of (j>), as in: JJJI \%j> The Night prayer. The 
benefit of this Idafah is the definition of the Mudaf, if it is annexed to a definite 
noun, as has passed. (The benefit) is specification (^^i), if it is annexed to 
an indefinite noun, as in: j>j pS. A servant of a man. 

• Lafziyyah (hJali) or literal. It is that the Mudaf is an adjective annexed to a 
word it governs in estimation of separation between words, as in: x^ >j,\j 

Visitor of Sa'eed. Then, it is like the Mudaf is separated from the Mudaf llaihi. 
The benefit of it is only the lessening of words. 


f - f i — - ' ° * * o > i ~ 

ii^hj L« \jjj£sj> %L> *jVI j>| 5L< 51 j «(c5tf» j ^jJi j <_?-e^-£) : (>-e <^SJ jl <*LJI 

j (f-i»l3) (^LaJI <i Jyb Li" 4 jli^LUI ^EiL kiJ lijlill ILJI c^i j 5 LJI <i TUI c^s-til 
<5-s L5" cl«-& j UL) L$£fl3 L$ii3 L> jSj-Lk* (jlj) s^>l ^ ciL< £1 j .(^Ij) ^-ol^JI ^ 

When a sound noun (k^JJI) or quasi-sound noun (^-^JiJl ^^ ip^O is annexed to the Ya 
of the first-person (J&ittl fL), it's end is given Kasrah and the Ya is made either Sakin or 
given Fathah, like: <**%£ My servant; jji My pail; ^^ My deer. 53 

The Guidance In Grammar 92 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

If there is a Ya at the end of a word while the letter before it is vowelled with Kasrah, the 
Ya (of the noun) is merged with the Ya (of the first-person) and the second Ya is given 
Fathah in order to prevent the meeting of two Sakin letters, as you would say in: ( ( _ r ^UJi) 
*^>13 My jurist, and in: Le*\J\) «-Jj My archer. 

If Waw is at the end of a noun and the letter before it is vowelled with Dammah, it is 
converted to Ya and it is given the government just as what has passed. You would say: 
yjjj, j,i\> My teachers came to me. 

\J[ <JLaJ V (ji) j ^ JJU iy?) j ( < _ f l» j ^^ j J>\ j ^j|) ilUI 5 L-/VI ^ Jj£; j 



You say regarding the Six Nouns (iiill iL-iSfl): ,J A^ father; ja My brother; ^ My 
father-in-law; jjl My thing, and yS My mouth, with some people. ( 3 i) is not annexed to 
any pronoun at all. The saying of the poet: 

sjji (j-cLlll j-o J~kaJI li ^yu Ljl 

"A/e o/7/k recognizes the possessor of virtue among men is possessed by him " 
is rare. 

<dodll oisyjl jj^ j < (si j *^> j i> j ol j jM) :cii 4jL>VI j-t * L-sVl si* CJtki ljl j 
<3y>. «uj j^JJ Lo Li! <*^JI o^> ^4^ j^ifiJI l^ *& l-i* .5L»! 2iLb"VI ^c jiij V (ji) j 

. >J\jc &\ i li 5| £J&I p-itfl ^ ^W tkU 5^JI 

When these nouns are separated from the Idafah, you'd say: jM /I brother;^] A father;^- A 
father-in-law; & A thing; li /4 mouth, and the three vowels are permitted. 54 (J) is never 
separated from the Idafah. 

Each of these has an estimation of the genitive particle in the genitive words. Regarding 
what has been mentioned regarding the genitive particles as words, then it will be 
presented to you in the third part, if Allah, the Exalted wills. 

The Guidance In Grammar 93 g^-JI jia oJoaJI 

.Jdii jl TUI j^-ii j L-»5»T y£j> J&iiJI 5 L ;^JI UL.,-4 lil *4f4 i £^*-^l jW)f I j 

^ 2UI j LgJip Lo j-j-S - j lL jljJI CwJG Lgip Lo 2j_Lko (jlj) ^^1 ^>l ^ cJli" jl j 


°r., * 

' •' - > ^ 

.JLLo x-a ^lJ 5^' S-T-" J^' ^^! <-*l*--*JI >* ^° - ^ 

.Lft Ji_o j tjuLi^l iL-31 353I— V 

.sJ-JJ aJlLoL dJi >-*bj T^jjSo <Jc£ j Tijjiivdl ZJLb^l ^j& Lo-i 

?Lp-bli Lo j TiikaJlll -iLbVI ^a Lo-0 

^pkliJI 5 L Jl uLj;f lil ^l^- 11 f-^ 1 5^ J* <£/*. liL °" V 

.dUJj jlo ^fkiiJI /L Jl LgLi Lo tjL^Ji (jlj) »j»T LJci*l lil J-sJ^ liLo-A 

The Guidance In Grammar 94 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 



oLKJI >ljl JiLil j <»— Ll* aJI jl^i LJliJI oLcliJI *!>L»l-o 

ouU Jl ^Ji> j. ^t sL>-> 

.S^>s v^C-r 

.ijijLA... pi>-r 

.^J". oL-i 

.ijU 3^~° 

•Ji>- J4^ j '^^- S4~^ 

. iJUu I J. 2jiL« _ V 

.iiL^j 5? JjJi jJU Jiyi j>-r 

.c*fti J'J^i 

'\j^i IJKb-i 


The Guidance In Grammar 95 g-*_JI jia aJaAJI 



THE CONCLUSION: The Subordinates 

\^j cu>jU iJ-sl>JI If&o 5l XJL&l L^l^l 51S" U^i >* ^Sl i^iiJI £ L~ftl # jJUl 

Know that declinable nouns, whose mention has passed, their I'rab is due to a governing 
agent entered upon them. The nominative, accusative and genitive states, then, are 
required without any other median. Sometimes, the I'rab of a noun is due to it following 
that which precedes it. It is termed the Subordinate (^liil) because it follows that which 

precedes it in I'rab. 


fu\jiHj\ j i$Jt>lj «L£> j-5 ^->^ M vlr^k Vj-*"* 0^ iS^ f^.^ 

Jktl. jLJlJk. JLsllll • oj^ULliLjI. cJ&\. 

The Subordinate, then, is every second declinable (subordinate word) having the I'rab of 
its predecessor from one perspective. The Subordinates (yjj\) are five: 

• The Adjective (cJcJ\) 

• Apposition With a Particle (o^L, £k*Jl) 

• Emphasis (i/Hil) 

• Explicative Apposition (jLJilikt) 

• Equivalent Apposition (JLJI) 

The Guidance In Grammar 96 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

(2I2JI) £JcJ\ :JjSfl p4JI 
The First Section: The Adjective 

The adjective is a subordinate word indicating a meaning in its principle (^iiJl), as in: 
jULt J>j yjfu ,4 learned man came to me. It is termed a True Adjective (y~^Jl iuilll). Or (it 
indicates a meaning) in the words attached to its principle, as in: ij\ jUU J>j ^L» /I /77a/7 
ca/?7e to me his father is learned. It is termed a Causative Adjective (^~ui cj&I). The True 
Adjective only follows its principle in four of ten matters: 

j oLyLitl ^i ^oUJI j Jjl5JI <5*JI j ^JJJ\ j jj^ll :dOlljl v l^ryi J, ^Jllfl j ^Llll j JjVl 

j ^rlill ^ >ibJI j ^lill i^l j luiill j ily^l ^ ^l£ll j JjLSJI j >iUJI ij-JfciiJI 

JUj j « jLuJU obl>oT j < jUU jM>j j ,*JU f\jf\ j ifjJU Jj>j ^~U) :>sJ <£-jt£fl 

The first, second and third (of these matters are related) to the three states of I'rab: the 
nominative, the accusative and the genitive. The fourth and fifth are related to the definite 
and indefinite. The sixth, seventh and eighth are related to the singular, dual and plural. 
The ninth and tenth are related to the masculine and feminine, as in: lJU J>j j>i\> A 

learned man came to me....idu ilyl A learned woman; jUU ^4j Two learned men.... 

jLJLc jbi^l Two learned women; fill JU .j Learned men.... cjUIc iL± Learned women; 

jUL*JI jjj Zaid the learned; jUUJi jijjjJi The two learned Zaids; 5j-LMi 5j,1jjJI The learned 

Zaids; LJU "t>j cS\j I saw a learned man. Likewise, are the remainder. 

The Guidance In Grammar 97 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

i duj&\ j £>^\ v l^l o^U ^£\ <JjVI iuu>JI ^ i^^io' £sb U3» {^fSJI cJiltl 

4 \JJ ^Jlill 2^111 »Ia! ^o L^>l^ :>so t^ilJI 

The Causative Adjective only follows its principle in the first five matters, meaning the 
three states of I'rab, definiteness and indefiniteness, as in: {[Jj\ JlkJI y>^l\ >jJ &* L>>°!^ 

"Deliver us from this town its people are oppressors. " 56 

jl 4jjJLLo «_w3^j j i(jjJLc J->j ,JftL>) 'J-l^ ij^jj^XJ Ijo jl OjJLLaJI ^jau+g&& CJLjl sJuU j 

The benefit of the adjective is specification of the modified word, if both are indefinite, 
like: itu j>j j^ A knowledgeable man came to me. It clarifies the modified word, if both 

are definite, like: J-^uji jjj j>il> Zaid, the virtuous, came to me. 

.(|^>*JI jlk;.,Lll ^o ailL ijJ\) :^6 iiJJJ 5j£j Ji j .^'o'-^b £*ijf 

At times, the adjective is used for praise and commendation, as in: {^^l ji>jJi aJui «-ij) //7 

the name of God, the Beneficent, the Merciful. 51 At times, it is used for emphasis, as 
in: 4li>b Ui:) "Ctoe blast. " 58 At times, it is used for censure, as in: *-^l jlkJLll ^ JLlL. ijJ\ I 

seek refuge in God from the accursed satan. 

j twi^jJ a j^Jaj) j -(ftjjl ^'-S jl 'fJ^LS sjjI J>>jj CjjjJZ) -jj^J (Zjjj^JI jJl«j>JLi (wL^jj 's^>jjI j 

* • < > M 

An indefinite adjective may be modified by an informative sentence, as in: 1513 \y\ j>^ oj>^ 
I passed by a man his father is standing, or: »jJl 4 13 Ms father was standing. The pronoun 
is not modified nor (are other words) modified with a pronoun. 

The Guidance In Grammar 98 g^-JI jia oJoaJI 

: it* |Jill 

: f Ljl L^ ^Ijill .ilsS Lo v lyTV Up 4^ pi :£jl£ll 

.4j jiiliJI Jlj>l jl 4JIj>I <j^*j ^L±| pT j& jijJ Lo JJb < LbJl *lkii ^liJ C^lll 
J ^(J^l j ^*>»nJI J H^j-*-^' 3 vLr^' <_?^ ^"^ j' V*^ OjJLLoJI ,j.>J.'J ZjL^S jlS* ^1 CJLJI j 

.^3_^-o LIS - lil iu>wbp j J^Sy bl^ lil Ojildl [yO^a^C CJtlil sJuli j 

• fjljiil >LJI iJLfr-Y 

The Guidance In Grammar 99 g-*_JI jia aJaAJI 


:2JliJI JiAJI J, cJcJ\ &£A 

•v^^ jj-jJJl Jiiii-v 

.Jjjj-o C-JU? ?r-ca.i.i~ V 

:J-i*JI j-o ^^L L_J L^uLLi Li*j x^b-o 


. tJ Lill ^ ^i^i JUJ&I-Y 


.jL^JI iji&i l^Ja}\-i 

.^jlll sliif d£i ^ UlkJI-fl 

:|JLii J»s^ ^i jL3?l oUJJI J»**IjI-£ 

iwO I Jj^oJ^O t j j , x» ! ,£ ( /LSj^O i <^>jJjK*0 i ■ -^ j 

The Guidance In Grammar 100 $±J\ jii oJoaJI 

.Ujii j^^JI kWU ofU-A 

The Guidance In Grammar 101 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 



THE SECOND SECTION: Apposition With Particles 

> / 

, •< 

Apposition with particles is a subordinate which has attributed to it that which is attributed 
to its principle while both are intended to have this relationship. It is also termed 'Atf 
an-Nasaq /Conjunctions. Its condition is that one of the particles of apposition is placed 
between the subordinate and its principle, as in: liu. j L*^ iis Sa'eed and Khalid stood. 

The Particles of Apposition are: ji <p .TuJl . jijJl. Their mention will come in the third section, 
if Allah, the Exalted wills. 

*i\ (jl*jl^ j bl Cmi1> ) ij*u < J..22.i.Lo j*f^^j ftJu^u C**sj J-^a.''-^ ?j*y-* jz$*^ ] l^ '■■ *b^' '^' J 
J}> SSlcl Cj>j J^aiiJI jjj^-sJI j?J^\ j^yLfr Lakfc lil j .(jJl> j ijifl Cui^) :^&j ij^sj lil 

When apposition is made upon a dependent nominative pronoun, it is required to 
emphasize it with an independent pronoun, as in: JL«- j bl c~il» Sa'eed and I sat, except 

when there is separation, as in: IJU. j i>JI c^ Khalid and I wrote today. When apposition 

is made upon a dependent genitive pronoun, it is required to repeat the genitive particle 
in the subordinate (<JjLj*]\), as in: .u^ j dL oj>^ I passed by you and by Sa'eed. 

The Guidance In Grammar 102 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

The subordinate (<lijL*J\) is in the ruling of the principle {$£* <lijL*J\), meaning when the 
first (iA£ dsj^ui\) is an adjective, informative sentence, relative clause or Hal, then the 
second (vJ^Uji) is likewise. The rule in it is that when it is permissible to place the 
subordinate in the place of the principle, the apposition is permitted, otherwise, it is not. 

;JL* UJJLo j \jj f skJ> jAs- <lijk*jJ\ 5^ lij %^> CxM*-* ^4-°M \Jy**"* 'lM v-*Ja*JI i 

.(j>8-ft }y^\ j Juj jllfl «J) '-j*6 <&&* °J <4^ ^J^kLjl .£y>JI 

Apposition upon words governed by two different governing agents is permitted when the 
the principle is genitive and advanced ahead of the nominative noun and the subordinate 
is likewise, meaning genitive, as in: fjj. yj^l\ j Juj jilti J> In the house is Zaid and (in) the 

room is 'Amr. 61 


(j-illl (-ike) ^I^j j iik*JI Oj>^ i>l ^-t^JLiLo |>*J j 4-^> -kJjib £-?b j> ^Jj^^i *-fjk«oJI 
'^jhiz. II J 5?"' S^r* *3lfcl C-*^<j j .J-^lij U^?j J.?7fl'i jl J.<?a; i j^Joj b^+f)^ V^T" J-;?'*^ 

.JmaJUI jj^aJI ^o..lH Jlc 

|Jlc IoJuU j IjJJrM *^ tJjLiLsJI 5^ lil Cr!^*-* Cr^-°M Lf^J^*- 5 <J^ cikaJI j_^ j 

. LaJl pji>«JI ^Lt LalaJ j ljj£>^ (J^kLsJI j pji>sJI 

The Guidance In Grammar 103 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

- o £ ,- ,, ° o 

.t^ikiUI Oj3> jX«1 iJLfr-Y 

.oUJJ jib TJ^slo j«i iJlc cikfc lil C^J liLo-V 

jJLs SJ^iiJI jj$£ud\ j^J^>\ Jlc cikt lil Ojkfcdl ^ **JI J^> sSUI L^j Jj£-£. 

.JtLa jl^l £-s dUi ^il ?^k o>*dl Ol^-I ,J>*JI 4^£j JjS-fl 

.JjjJLn A»o j *yaJbj s Os L> — i 

.LijJuJI [yi.. ...... i3 Jl ^? l - :; v^i - ^ 

.J^JI j bf cjij-V 

.jLkHJL j lll> j3L/-i 

..J tiXj C-wSJLhu~ 

] J^ J^J'lM ^jj*-^ 

:juJuJI J-»A1I ^ L-^L-o uilix Jy S^b-o 

..j*]........ u iUuJi oiy^ 

•l^- lt^ i>* _T 

.^Jl^... .... bl oyLu-V 

.jLaui iIL> Jio-£ 

•t^i Jiwi jrf-o 

The Guidance In Grammar 104 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

. J^lU jt*^i 4^C^" V^b W^i ^^ iijk»o-ll 0_?^ il^^* v*^ - ^ 

.jIjJI ^j-o . t . t ., .j j LI c*>^--\ 

.6j3l J II* JUblljl 'J\~i 

.juli^JI j SjLilJjl-o 
. I^i> dL>V j oil Oijl- o 


The Guidance In Grammar 105 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

* Si* it \ tl ?1 


JufliJI :£JliJI jUJpl 

>ju JJb jl 4 (Liij Juj ^sU) :>^ «juJI y-J L-J p^iisJI ,^J& ^Lt Jjj jLb ji :JL(tlJI 

Emphasis: it is a subordinate word signifying the affirmation of the principle in that which 
has been attributed to it, as in: Liib Juj ^X» Zaid came to me himself. Or it signifies the 

inclusion of a ruling upon each member of the principle, like: {'oJ&f\ j4^ *&MsJl i«-i)> "So 

//?e angels made obeisance, all of them together. " 64 

Emphasis is of two kinds: 

.13 il5 iJu} ,JjT> <J*T> *Juj Jjj J>i\) ''j^> <<U£*j JjVl Jailll f jjJ^3 jA j :jj$-t 

a) Literal (^kU): it is the repitition of the first word itself, as in: Isj jjj ^I» Zaid came 
to me Zaid; jjj ^fu ^I> Za/# ca/77e fc> /77e, came to me; juj iis .13 Za/tf s/ooc/, 
s/boc/. Repetition is permissible in particles as well, as in: 1213 Lsj %\ %\ Surely, 
surely Zaid is standing. 

b) Abstract (^jl*^): It is achieved with numerous words, as follows: 

The Guidance In Grammar 106 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

4jt ^JsJI j iLJaJI <J^-?>k pJ-4-^l J Lr^-H J r^UM ^* J (o-*J»JI j j,m111I)-\ 

tiiJ-o j < (. °i ^ ■*■ "'•' jjjjjjl J 4 u>J& L...gj J I 4 1 1 i *■ ajl jlJjjJI J iaJuJJ Jjj ^t L> ) • l LX-^ 
j 4 Lf,.-?.Jj JlL* ,J»i\>) >j9& 4t^uJiIJ j 4 (° < |.i.j.ft) j 4 Lj&Ljlc jl 1 o g : i £ I j <li*-fr) 
jl L4-li£°i j 4 Lgift) tilUS" j 4 (^.--Lftjl oljtifll j 4 LiLij jl LfrLajl jlJ^JI 

' ill i ' ' 3 ' >-0-fe Lh J L f - 

1)- foi»JI j ^JlJI): They are for the singular, the dual and plural with variation in 
form and pronoun, like: izl, Juj ^U Zaid come to me himself; jl u.j-^J.%! jLCjJI j 
L*Li5 7?7e «Vo Za/tfs (came to me) themselves; faJti 5ji£JI j 777e Z/aofe ca/77e 
to me themselves. 

Obi>JI j^sl3 j «LA>tf o^^JI pU) :>*; ,Lll> iJiHJ Li j : ( liiT j ^) - V 

2- (L^k j ys): They are for the dual in particular, as in: U'te j^U'^JI ^u 777e /nw men 
stood, both of them; LiUis" jbi>JI c^is 777e <Vo women stood both of them. 

j-3 ^a-iaJI i_i^I>L | ^1*J ^Jb j :(««iajl j <*1jI j 4*Jol j 4*^>°l j 4j5)-f 

i « LjiT l£u*JI cjpiT j i'ptk ulll ^sL- j cJtS - frLajJI cJ>iij) :J.yb <(Ji") 

5_*i3i 5ji^>1 j4^ ijil! ^js l> j t^isl gijl £iSl ^>l iiT pli^JJI cJjl£l):J>b 
c L...J-H Ot L> j 4p l».Vt £ Iftjb £ l*Jo £ L*jl> L^b jLLj^JI CJ^Lil j < jjjL^Jl jjJLlil 

3- (^i j Jdji j ££Sl j £i>i j ji"): They are for other than the dual with variation of 
the pronoun in (ji), you'd say: lis" jLl^ji c^il I purchased the orchard, all of it; 
•^ i}2}\ ji\> The people came to me, all of them; l$k ii^j^sJl cJ^xil I purchased 
the garden, all of it; _4^ fL-ltl o»I> 7?7e women came, all of them. 

The Guidance In Grammar 107 g^-JI jia ojIoaJI 

(It is found with a) variation of form in the remaining, and they are (£i>i) to the 
end (y4)' you'd say: ^ajf ^ssl «sSl ^sa-'j IK pli^dl cj>ii| / purchased the orchard, 
all of it; 'ojk^4 iJcS\ '^Jck\ l>JuJ\ 'jp y^\ j>C\> The people came to me, all of 
them; -a*j^ fui. ;l*£i" ;i*£> i$k *£u£jl cJ^iil I purchased the garden, all of it, and 

y^'^'^fjj Irfk fLuiil ofu T/7e women came, all of them. 

pjj>* _^»~^ *-^^ S-*^ (*>£*^ i g-*iUI)-J J-^loJI (pjijiJI) _^o~kJI ^irfe Oijl lil j 

When you intend to emphasize a dependent nominative pronoun with (^ill j ,>ilil), it is 
required to emphasize it with an independent nominative pronoun, you'd say: cS\ cj>3 
d-ii: You struck yourself 

^Ifl ^U ^ (^1) t$*6 < U> Lpl^iT^ ^Lul j 2 Ij>l U Lo VI (£*>! j jiu jJjj V 

.(air a^ifi c^^i) :j^5 v j (air c^fii czjl\) :j>' Li' LL: j! <6^u>! j4& 

With (ls»i j ji) only that which has components and parts is emphasized (while it being) 
correct to separate its parts perceptionally, like (^>iti) in: 'oJu>\ >J$k ijiJI j>3» The people 
came to me, each of them all together. Or that which is in the ruling (of having 
components and parts) as you would say: \^k c^Ji cj^isl I purchased the house, all of it. 

You would not say: ikUdsJl cj>-J\ I honored the guest, all of him. 

.L^Jji la^i j_^ V j (^>l) 

Know that (£31) and her sisters follow (feJ\) when it doesn't have a meaning aside from 
(^i>i). It is not permitted to advance it before (^s»i) nor permissible to mention it without 

The Guidance In Grammar 108 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 


. Usjl Oj^AJI jljo }j*-> j *<UJLJu JjSfl JilJJI jl^So >» j :^kaJ- 1 


• J^aiLo *jj _^-~k, fiJ^'b I*J V| J^*il j (j^iilL" J-^i*il f^r^ i^ 2 -" -«Ji ^ 

.dUJJ Jl* T k >*AJI j ^ULi J-^aioJI >^2-fl J^>» ( -^~'^ 

The Guidance In Grammar 109 g-*_JI jia aJaAJI 



:2Jl£JI JiAJI ^i l^tji ^ j SJtfjiJI JjUfrl g£-\ 

.low £ L> £ L> _ T 

.lie dJU-l Ji*: jU dUi: cJl-i 
■j4->la.'il oLJliLoJI OjL>-0 

.JU5>itl bf ciii-A 

d J j|^L>-^ 


oULLII ^Su-r 

.J^a jikJI -i 

.jjiJI ^Jl c^ii -o 

o^UJI ofjS-V 

^ c - - --' lUi jilu&^-Y 

The Guidance In Grammar 110 gj^JI jii oJoaJI 


JjuJI :y$5\ jUill 
THE FOURTH SECTION: Badal - Equivalent Appositive 

The Equivalent Appositive is a subordinate word which has attributed to it whatever is 
attributed to its principle while the subordinate is intended for the attribution not its 

:I*jjf JiJI iLil j 
The divisions of Equivalent Apposative are four: 

.( J>l yU ^ £ L>) :>J *£^isJIO» iUls 515" U ji j < j£j| ^0 J&l Jjs- > 

1 -Equivalence of the whole for the whole. Its meaning is part of the principle, as in: 

d>'i yL* j>^\> Salih, your brother, came to me. 

OliSUl oly) :>*: (9>ds.ll JjJlo iU3 IfjJlo 5^ Lo _^* j t JiUl ^0 ^^AJI JJu-Y 

2-Equivalence of part for the whole. Its signification is the complete signification of 
the principle, as in: *Jji oliSUI ot>s I read the book, its beginning. 

3-The Equivalence of inclusion. It is that its signification is connected with the 
principle, as in: i& jjj lAj Za/tf dressed in his clothes; i&L ^u ,_^xi /4# /wis 

knowledge, amazed me. 

The Guidance In Grammar 111 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

.(IjU> SUb cJlj j <>*> isj y^V) : i^ <M*JI -^ ^ ^ >* J ',^ 2 ^ 1 far 1 

4-Equivalence of error. It is that which is mentioned after an error, as in: $!*» isj ^t> 
Za/tf, t/a 'far came to me; [,L» hk, cS\j I saw a mule, a donkey. 

>o *i j tails' ii^?b ii-^liJL L».iL°JJy «*^JL«3 ^J^ i£*j C^>o <^r*-« °j-« &;£y o& °o[ JifJI j 

J»j ^t) J i-^l i»b-2 ji J ■■"*>< ^Ir^l ^!) ^^ *iP J^ '^^ Jl J ^V^ 11 


The Equivalent Appositive, if it is (the equivanence of an) indefinite from a definite, its 
adjective is required, as in the saying of the Exalted: ipM i^b ^lUl i*iiifo 'We would 

certainly smite his forehead, a lying sinful forehead." 67 (The adjective) is not required in 
the reverse (meaning a definite taken from an indefinite) as in His, the Exalted's saying: 
{h ±\j*> ^jiLi \>\^> <J\} "...the way to the right path, the path of Allah. " 68 Nor is it required 

for two homogeneous (meanings) with regard to definiteness and indefiniteness, as in 
His, the Exalted's saying: 4- .'&$\ i>U* '..J>.i.° iljAJI IuaI)> "/Cee/? £/s 0/7 /fte right path, the 

path of those... " 69 p^u J»j ^ l> /4 /T73/7, a servant, came to me. 

THE FIFTH SECTION: The Explicative Appositive 

aJUI JJLt jjl J13) :jpu 'p ^ ^s-Jl J^-SiI jj& j ijZjilA fc-£>jl ia^? ^jlc. jkb jLJI ■ ikfc 

The Explicative Appositive is a subordinate word, other than an adjective, clarifying its 
principle and it is the more famous of two names of something, as in: :jiUJI *JJI xj. J>\ jis 

£<LL« i^i^jiil 3^1 bjjii >4ifc»^/ Abdillah as-Sadiq said: Ameer al-Mumineen, AH (AS), informed 

The Guidance In Grammar 112 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 


:Jktl ;Lil 
j£JI ^o J**J\ Jju- Y j£JI ^ j£j| Jjc- > 

JiiiJljju-f. JL^i'iljju-r 

5 jLfll ■ aJa_& jjs Lo-Y 

:JiAJI j-o ^b Lo Jt aJ.°J> °JL£ j «JJuJ) j ^UJI Like g^.ijl-1 
.(^) jSUI ji^J>*>^i 5Lf> j^Lti Lo-\ 

.dj>l Sji-^o JJL.-Y 

The Guidance In Grammar 113 gj^JI jii oJoaJI 



^oLt jjLi-V 

.oUSUl di>f c^i-c 

t JM^d\ jj\ J13 _ *\ 

^Ji) lj,l* $ '~ ' 

ss > , * , 

.Ji - j-o ^isAj JJLfll L4J jj5o ^>^Jl^> obs-Y 

s > 
.jLj t,gJa& j_jJLt L4L0 Ji" j_p^i C*^^ C^-V 

^H-df- c*uif ^jiJI i^ iljJiJIbjjbl^- > 

.jU-15 iJ>^i sL>-0 

The Guidance In Grammar 114 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 


THE SECOND CHAPTER: Indeclinable Nouns 

Indeclinable nouns: that noun whose ending does not change with a change in 
government and that (lack of declension) occurs in the following instances: 

j < (iS!Aj < jliSj 4 Jk>l) «Ji-o j i (*JL.s b i; L * *__«Jl ) :Ji-« <£/*■«■ r-* ^y* >*■£■ f-fj Lo— I 

A-That which occurs without being compounded with other than it, like: (jJl <o > v <f); 

and like: (*i^i < jLil .i>i); and like the word (juj) before construction (with other words). 

It is indeclinable in reality (its ending being) based on Sukun while inherently 
declinable. 70 

.(^-s <3j>) :i^J iO^^J>JI 

B-That which resembles an original indiclinable word in that while signifying its 
meaning it needs an indicator like the Demonstrative and Relative Nouns, as in: 3j* 

These; °^ Who. 

.(L%) ^ (b) ^^ jlo,o> i^^o jil J^'ol^Lo-^ 
C-That which is less than three-letters, like the pronoun (b) in: Li£» >tw came to us. 

The Guidance In Grammar 115 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

. (^JLt JL».i." t J ^1 j-jLt i>l ) °^ys j ( IJl*) JJLo (lJj_^JI ^L*-* J-« l5 ^-*-« |>»~^j bo - i 

D-That which embraces one of the meanings of particles, like: II* 777/5/ and numbers 
from eleven to nineteen. 

-..• >> * 

:iJl£j| f LiVl Jl ^uJI pVI 

SjLavi ru-^i-v oi>jaiji -^ 

o^ktl <>Jb-A oLL£)l-V 

The vowels of the indeclinable noun are termed Damm, Fath, Kasr and its Sukun is a 
halting. Based on that which we have mentioned, the indeclinable nouns are divided into 
the following divisions: 

1 -Pronouns 2-Demonstrative Nouns 

3-Relative Nouns 4-Verbal Nouns 

5-Nouns of Sound 6-Compounds 

7-Metonymy 8-Some particles 

oI^JlJI :JjVl \p\ 
The First Type: Pronouns 

.ipj »jlSj u-olx jl tw-J?L^-o jl jjo^o lybt J-W ^~^j ' bo *-Jl jj& *_^ ■ ^ aJI 

The pronoun: it is a noun of whatever kind coined to signify the first-person, the 
second-person or the third-person whose mention has already preceded. 

The Guidance In Grammar 116 $±J\ jii oJoaJI 

j\ t {ij±\ j-h* jS-J-i) :}*1> t Uail &J jjSjuo 3* j <ajJl ^^j £>y j_o S*5^' V£5-^ ^ ^ J 

.3L--JI j^-g ^-ojJlLsJI r^J <CUf** *JI ij-*-i (03UI) 

A point of reference is required for the third-person which it refers to and is mentioned 
before it literally, as in: ij-] y^> juL; Saleem's brother was present. Or in meaning, as in: 

i^jOh} 4»j3l >* 1*4*1^ "Act equitably, that is nearer to piety. " 71 Or (the reference is) in ruling, 

as: ji^Jl 'Jii 6>1jT j It straightened upon al-Judi. Then, the pronoun in (0314) returns (in 

reference to) the well-known ark of Noah (AS) understood from context. 

The pronoun is of two types: 

j\ t (^jjj^? JJl...CJj«i3) ;JjSu ipjjj-o Lol jJs j < s-b^j J.^.*..'.^.J a Lo jJ& j *J ?'■ ^~ 1 
j j-ft^Lc- [yL.^J j i^^lc.) :^Aj ijj^kJ jl 4 (^jj^s- [_ 5 jL.. ts l^*b) :jAj t^jJt^ 

1 -Dependent: it is that pronoun which is not used alone. It is either nominative, as 
in: fey* 'J[ cj>^), or it is accusative, as in: (;>fe~b J[...^y*), or it is genitive, as in: 

Lol j 1 ( jj& j^JI ...LI :JJLg <pjj^o Lol LaJl j-* j 4sJt>j J.o-»i'...°,J Lo jj& j :J,^a;^- Y 

2-lndependent: it is that which is used alone. Also, it is either nominative, like: 
(S* !A«^0> or accusative, like: &aI5I ^JL.^IJI). That, then, is seventy pronouns. 

:JL> Lo Ji IjiL^J 5j^j J-^iJI fj^>JI jz»^\ J 
The nominative pronoun is concealed in that which follows: 

The Guidance In Grammar 117 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

Al^Zj&h :jloijlkilII^;L2tiJI-r 

.(jib) :jio <C^UjJI ^UlJI-r 

.(>ii3 j>^) :jlo^Ull jLulAJI^LiiJI-t 

.(2JJJI) J^ikJI j J-tliJI pl-fl 

1-The third-person past-tense verb, as in: jLltl o>l iitlj j i^Lrtfl >^ y^ 'AH helped 
Islam and Fatimah invigorated women, in other words, the pronoun for (>^) is 
(ji) and for (o>?) it is (^*). 

2-First-person present-tense verb, like: $J£, «_jJdf. 

3-Second-person present-tense verb, like: jili 

4.Third-person present-tense verb (masculine and feminine), like: jJJi jJJj. 

5. Active Participle and Passive Participle (adjective). 72 

Use of the independent pronoun is not permitted unless the dependent pronoun is not 
appropriate, as in: {li& SW} "Only You do we worship;"™ bl h\ d>^ L> No one helped you 

except I. 

.♦2J4J1 j jUji ^^b 

The Pronoun of Fact and Narration 

j**^) j « J"kJI J> (jlill ^^') [^ j <^ii ^ ftfc ^b CjU. l^b j4J jf jJu-T j 
.(1*j13 CJjj L^jI j '^jLa lift ^j&) j <^jk>] Hll jjb J3^ :jLo tyjjiJI ^ ( 

Know that for pronouns there is a third-person pronoun producing after it a sentence 
explaining it. It is termed the Pronoun of Fact in the masculine pronoun and the Pronoun 
of Narration in the feminine pronoun, like: ■{!>} ill I >» ji) "5a/; A/e, /4//a/7, is one. " 74 l£* ^* 
i^Ls S/7e, /y//7o^ is pleasant. 

The Guidance In Grammar 118 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

Pronoun of Separation 

j*il ji i'*j>j<j> %*}\ 515" lil jiiidij jjLLo j^jILo ty>s **«^ ^ji j Tiiii.fl ^j j^Ju Is j 

juij j ^laJklL _^>J| sLiil ajj^J _^kj| j Jj&iiJI ^j JJaii Aj\f (!iLSaJ) \jLzu j < li^ o-e 
illl J15 j (x;U ^o JjJi >* L^o j ^IjJI yj, ju-15 5^ *f aUJI 3* 3jj**s) :j£J * UjI ju*t£tl 

At times, an independent nominative pronoun is placed between the Mubtada and 
Khabar, agreeing with the Mubtada, when the Khabar is definite or a superlative noun. It 
is termed a separator because it separates the Mubtada and the Khabar in order to 
eliminate (the possibility) of confusing the Khabar with an adjective. It also conveys 
emphasis, as in: isliJI j* y^ Sameer, he is arriving; -j>f$\ >* ju-is 5tf Qasim, he was the 

visitor; xA> ^ jjJi y£ L^ Majeed, he is more virtuous than Hamid. Allah, the Exalted, 
has said: ^L^jJl 'cS\ cJff "You were the watcher over them. " 75 

:£Jl£ll ijlj^JI ^ 4Ji j j^ljJJI lJ^Jj i&iij&q V Lo :*iuJI pVI 

.s^*i *-s ^r&y* &£■ £*3 ^-° _ ' 

.J*jVl ^*f^ ^Li Lo-i-j 

.oyf ^ o-5 Jit {Jle 6^ Lo-£ 

.cij^jl ^Lx-0 ^.0 ig^X A '{jjLhj Lo _ i 

u^l Squill .LJVl jjl J^iJI pVI 

olI^HI-I olj-^VliLji-fl 

oj^ijl <>Ju-A oLLSUI-V 

The Guidance In Grammar 119 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

-.» ~\ 

:^u.,.°»3 ^Lt $~JLi\ j .i£s >J& yule jl yi?l*_o jl jiLLo jJlc JjuJ «-^j fU ;| 'i^-^-tl 

,il>j J.S.».t,..°Ji Lo jJb j tJ.Vtifttl _^^aJ|-Y 

:SaJl£tl ijl^sJI ^ ^2J j^illl ^i>ll ^^Jjl 

Jusuji j uuji ^ui- > 

.JyLkll j J-tUJIpl-£ 

.PJJ6 iSjJ- IjJu *35 Lult dJjJ ^--^ >* j tliiltl ^--^ 
.lL? V -5> tlkj Lo Jj ^iJ jsiJl j LIlUJI ^j j^Ju 5^ : J-JxUl 3^ 

.Lfl J»Lo j *« Lo—sV I ol~~o Slt-V 

r^i>ii ^kJji ^j juiSn y ^i-n 

The Guidance In Grammar 120 g^_JI jta aJaAJI 



.tiJj>| jj& IJua— Y 

.^jL jjl 5^U oLJI-V 


* - . •* 

.SJ-JJ J*j> ^9 I4L0 L^»> Jiol j iDuaiiaJI c^JaUl _)jL~i? iix- ^ 

.ill? JjJu2i$ \jii- liL ji? °j-o- Y 
The Guidance In Grammar 121 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 



SjLtfl fL-i :j>)h\ %J3\ 
THE SECOND TYPE: Demonstrative Nouns 

:jU-s ILJ J?UJl 2uU> aj j .jjJI jLU |_ ? Lt JjtJ **bj Lo r^LiVI i-Jl 


.^JjiJl ^HiiJ {&? jjb)-i 

.^JjjJI j j?ijj| «^>Jl| ^aUl j IsJL (j^jl)-O 

The Demonstrative Noun: that which is formulated to signify something alluded to. The 
Demonstratives have five forms for six meanings: 

1-(li) For the masculine singular. 

2-(^J, j jli) For the masculine dual. 

3-CyAi j teg j li j is jiSijjijb) For the feminine singular. 

4-(^ j jb) For the feminine dual. 

j> j> j 

5-(3ji) With elongation ( 5 \|i) and shortening (^ijl) for the masculine and feminine 

The Guidance In Grammar 122 g-*_JI jia aJaAJI 

J « jLu.> ^J 1,.;.^> V>^ t>S J-^^l 6jJ - * u ; i £*«■«■> ^t-J^ ' (jJ <^ '^ < L« td) J? till a..r«.o-> 

At times ( c u) will be prefixed to its beginning, like: (3j* JI*). Sometimes, the particle of 
the second-person is connected to its ending, they are five words: (^ <.d rj < ui <d). That, 
then, is twenty-five pronouns obtained by multiplying five by five, they are: (^li jJl-eJls) 
and foibli | J JL..dbls). Likewise, are the remainder. 

..t^dJ (dLIi) j JaJjiiU ( Jli) j y^iJ ( IS) JiisjJ j 
(li) is used for the near; (jii) is used for the median and (ddi) is used for the distant. 

THE THIRD TYPE: Relative Nouns 

j-o li V j <:b^> $U? ?jfc j '^ jjl*y ?fl *L> ^ lob tj> 5_^j of yj^ V pi :Jj-J>JI 
.(^! ^13 jl jUU ijjl ^JJI ^ £ L>) Uji J_ (^4JI) :jio <J^J>dl i^j iju l^i ^U 

The Relative Noun: is a noun which is not proper that it be a complete part of a sentence 
except with a relative clause following after it. (The relative clause) is an informative 
sentence requiring in it a pronoun (JbUJI) returning (in reference) to the Relative Noun, like 

(j$\) in our saying: jUU iji] ^iJI ^;;T> A/e ca/77e /o /77e whose father is learned, or: S^l iis /Ve 

whose father stood came to me. 

:?jb li^Jj^JI 2L-/VI 

.^jiiJ (^Jl)-r 

JJ\* ^ jLJL j ^1 2JU ^ uiJVL < USlIiiJ [#£}\ j oliUI j ^JJUI j jlJill)-r 

.jj>JI j ', - JaJ )l 

./kJ!^ (^jJI j JVl)-i 

The Guidance In Grammar 123 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

gj&lijl J^ s *> ^ 2£J ^i ( j^JI) ^L«^ (jiM 

■" o t" ' f • •■* ° * ST T ti * i •' 

The Relative Nouns are: 
1-(jjJl) For the masculine. 

2-(^i)l) For the feminine. 

3-(jssh\ j jliUI j jjjJJI j jljiil) For the dual (of the masculine and feminine) with Alif in 
the nominative state and with Ya in the accusative and genitive states. 

4-('^lll j i/VI) For the masculine plural. 

5-QSui j ^3ljui j y£>UI) For the feminine plural. 

6&7-(L> j j-s) Both used for all. 

8-(asf j y). 

9-(ji) In the meaning of (^iJI) in the language of the Bani Tayy, as in the words of 
the poet; cJjJ? _ji j o^i> ji ^jju j ^1> j ^i t L> j LJI jl» 

Surely, the water is the water of my father and my grandfather 
And my well is that which I dug and that which I concealed 
In other words: cj>t j$\ j o>*> ^JJI. 

The Guidance In Grammar 124 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

10-(j6ui j iih\) In the meaning of (^iJI), and its relative clause is an Active or 
Passive Participle, as in: J^ J\ ji^i The one eating is Abu Bakr, meaning: ^jj| 
J^ J] jil He who ate is Abu Bakr; ulz j^sDI The (thing) eaten is an apple, in 
other words: rlii J|1 jjji 777af w/7/ic/7 was eate/7 is an apple. 

.ii#1 ^4JI ^1 (c-#1 ^JJI ^ 13) :JAJ i Hjilji 5LT jl JillJI Crs ^1 ^ i*~ i 

% ji ^o J^i*j p^ vj\jd *$$ t L^L> jJL* iJisi lil VI jL^J (L*f j Ljj) JI jJUT j 

.lit ji j^if °J ,4 fee c^l u^ ^! ^ 

The elision of the referencing pronoun (JbL*JI) is permitted if the pronoun is a verbal object, 
as in: c~*-J] jiJI .13 I honored he who stood, meaning: *£#1 ^JJl ^e who I honored. 

Know that (ibl j ^1) are both declinable except when the beginning of its relative-clause is 
elided, as in His, the Exalted's saying: 4^ o-i^l S J£ ^' ?4l ^4 J^ b-? S^J^ p) "777e/7 We 
nv// /7705/ certainly draw froth from every sect of them he who is most exorbitantly 
rebellious against the Beneficent God, " 80 in other words: lil -J. °^\ Whichever of them he 
is most (rebellious). 

■£i fi o£ 

Jlil* j JliJI i>kU (^3 j jli j 13) 

.dij-Ltl j jslJI ^JJ ^aitl j IdL ( 5 X|I) 

.^*JJ (csUa) j J^ii^JJ (Jli) j v^4 ( IS) J-sj^ j 
.aaJI i^L 5^ L^J j 4 sJl*j ^15 *Ls^ sj^Jj pi < J^JjJl juVI 

The Guidance In Grammar 125 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

j ^ j dijiJi ^kiJ (^jui <^ijji ^kii ^ijji) j (^i «^,uiji) j (^i)-Y 


.ajjj in* ^sf j .j^jjji ^1 45^-r 

. Lft jls j , i^IiJI Jlii\ j yjdl\ ^ij^JL ^aiAiil Jj-J^JI jusVI /SI- £ 
.I4J jLs j < Lftilt T^!£ltL l^iAiJI 2}jJ°jjJ\ i\*Ji\ ^ft Lo-o 

.2S±Aj dUi jjj !J^J>JI ^1 JU JuUJI ji Lo-A 
.djjj jloKU) j (°yO Ja&jJuLM 

SJ&JSJI ;k> 5-; j^LJI ol> j^ ^lo- > • 

.ajjj jL ! (^4jd »puj (fkii j Li#i) j^i^i j*- > \ 

The Guidance In Grammar 126 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

JH\* <dU* i'J\d <»i* < IJub :»UJ J^ ^J UliJI JL-sStL v&f-t 

AT X *- I ° i ° l *i JX y 


uJliJI oUI>JI ^i |jUI jusT £*-£ 

.fJUJ^JI -^ 

.JasJI j^i! i bl-Y 

.(J5JI Jjji ^b j Ob£JI i>-£ 

u 4<JlJj 1 yb£JI. )-o 

:J-sAII j-o ^ U-o IJjJjiJI ;L-sSfl ^jAiJl-i 

av .45j^ U lit! "^-i 

The Guidance In Grammar 127 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

.p$i LjJ Jjl ^ J&ek -i S L>-Y 

ti, * . ,-1 V 

.*4jjjjljj. j JL-tSfL ^aJliJI oiaLi-i 

.J5L-3JI ;>? JJLii cjjiil-fl 

.<CjLi.... ......Col J~ \ 

.jXi±J\ j-o iSisi jl^lJjI-V 

The Guidance In Grammar 128 gj^JI jii oJoaJI 

igi^iiJI g^dliJI >jaJI 


JU&I fui :^l5JI ^>lJI 
THE FOURTH TYPE: Verbal Nouns 

°^f (ijj 6L^*) j «^sl °J ( ljuj Jjjj) :jlo i^UI j ^Sfl j_^Uj Oj^ p-jT ji :Jiill pi 
.yj[ (ihJU) j <cj3I ^1 UtflSU) j « JJU j jjf ^1 (^>) j < Iji^ °J (° r jU) j « lib 

lP^ (j^lp) j < Jp| lP^ (Jlj^) :ji« «J^£jl cr? ^-sVl ^JLi, (Jl*S) >* j <^L3 ojj *J j 


The Verbal Noun: Every noun having the meaning of a command and past-tense verb, 
like: Lsj Jujj Slowly Zaid, in other words delay him; isj ol^ii £e away Zaid, in other words 

be distant (from me); sju, in other words: Take; *», in other words, come close and 

hurry; oiSlSLs Your place, in other words, take/acknowledge you place (among us); 'SA£ 

Upon you, meaning required (upon you). 

(jL*5 Lj) -'JAJ «^JjiiJ iiL? jl tj^^AaJI ^1*^J (jk^) : _^ tAJj^a \/x2aJt (JL*J) Ju ,3^Ju IS j 

si* 1 j .jLa> j ej^-t j * Lk'aiT iiijjiJI jLxbU LJLc jl tlUS'V l^^i&ij (pliU L) j tilwli [_ 5 i*£j 

.Zj-^LiiJ L4A c^i US I j » JbuSn j Lo— si °^-o CuuJ <b*>"^l iS^iJI 

Sometimes, the pattern (jL*i) has associated with it a definite Masdar, as in:jL>J>, in the 

meaning of (j^illl), Immorality. Or (it is found existing as) an adjective for the feminine, as 

in: jlJ l O corrupt one!, in the meaning of (ii-li); ^ISU L O Depraved One! in the meaning 

of: (iis"i). Or it is a proper name for notable females, like: jU^ .o^u <.IL5. These last three 

are not Verbal Nouns. They are only mentioned here due to the appropriateness (of their 

The Guidance In Grammar 129 $±J\ jii oJoaJI 

(ji?) <p>kJI ijliyJ (jjU?) j *vLr*M Oj^aJ (jU) JJL? t O]J Ju <_«£> *j| Ji" :pjJaJI LjJ 

.^^*JI i>b)f (^j)J' ^U^J ^ PS*^ ^>^f J' '<j^*j L?^ U-£*5 Ijk^l t*3 ^^*-! 

THE FIFTH TYPE: Nouns (Mimicking) Sounds 

The Noun of Sound: Every noun by which a sound is spoken, like: jU. <9/7a^ for the 
sound of a crow; ju. 75(7 for mimicking a knock; jt Taq\ox mimicking rocks falling upon 
one another or for the sound animals make, like: «: Nikh, for the braying of a camel. 

olijiJI :^iLUI £j*JI 
THE SIXTH TYPE: Compound Words 

iiLiJ [yL.^-lfi i>l) :JJLo <«iill j_jlt LjsjLj C*^3 U)> co^Jl 5-0 ^llfl ^JAJI jiJai 5P 

. (O^ ,jj^ j iluii^ : JL .o^iill 4^ Ol>l o?^ 1 vW i £&' lJ^ Jj^ 1 ^ 1**-^ 

The compound is every noun compounded of two words not having (a relationship of) 
attribution between them. In other words, there is no relationship of Idafah or attribution 
between them. If the second part of the compound implies the meaning of a particle, it is 
required to be constructed based on Fathah (at its end), like: >it llsj 'J[...-J*£ te'\ (the 

numbers 11-19) except 12 (>lt^ii), it is declinable like the dual. 

If (the second part of the compound) does not imply the meaning of a particle, then there 
are three scenarios in language. The most eloquent of which is to base (the ending) of 
the first word on Fath and give the I'rab of the second word the I'rab of the 
partially-declinable noun, like: AAiq Ba'labakk; c>$ ,j.u^ Ma'dikarb. 

The Guidance In Grammar 130 $±J\ jii oJoaJI 


>* <^U? 5Jj ^ J ^^-t J^j ^ j i^UI jl ^o°Vl J*i ^1*^ Jut JJb pi :Jiill pi 

.0>^ 4j ^^J p[ <OjJaJI pi 

.i|iLLjl V j £5Lbl ipJ I o 1 1 ? j jj-J (^iiK 5_« L^jj Jail :LSyLl\ 

• • = o 

.ij jis 5 jAill pi j* Lo-N 
.It JLLo ^o ij;i] TJJLiJI pi 3^Ij liLo-Y 

.tf jis sojJJi ptj* Lo-r 

.^LtjJ JLLo ^5 *ci>£jl pVI 05*- £ 

1 s 

To^iiJI ^ Ol>l ^Ltfl 4^ j jdDl jjU vl^JI ^o JjSfl *#J| ^Lsj oVUJI ^l-A 




.fcJliJI JiAJI ^5 JbJVl rU-sl ^lft-1 


.(2LIJJI LLo oL^i)-0 

The Guidance In Grammar 131 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 


The Guidance In Grammar 132 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 


The Seventh Type: Kinayat 

cj£) :JJLo <*4f* ^ujji jl < ( \j£ j %£) :jLo i*44-o ilft >Jl& Jilt CJLbj il*J\ -^j* :oLL£JI 

The Kinayat or metonymic words are words coined to signify an ambiguous number, like: 
-J Many and ljf As such; or (coined to signify) an ambiguous event, like: cjJ j cjS This and 


.(TJlLt LliS* ii") :JJLo tj^slJI |_<1& ^j-^- 5 i >*-^ ^^ u?M ^ is* 5 '^-?U^| _ ^ 
Jj^u 'jjjj*!-« pj^j>s-« jl 4 ( t C liLfl- "' I JLo °+S) ;JJLo 'j_5j^>!-« iji-o L&jJLi (jji-i Lo ;_<■* j i^jy^-~y 

*. * 

V^li J^j ^o ^) :Jy£ ( La) j& (^) ^b ii j .j*33 SLJU j < (&£! JUj jtf ) 

.(ilAfljl JL J-o ^ j 

(if) is of two types: 

1 -Interrogative, it is that a singular accusative noun comes after (ji) as its Tamyeez, 
like: Jilt l\£ °J How many books are with you? 

2-lnformative, it is that a singular genitive noun comes after (if), like: i£il;i JLo if A/cw 
/twc/7 money I have spent. Or a plural genitive (comes after it), like: iiiip ji>j if A/cw 
/77a/7/ /?7e/7 /?ai/e yew /77e/ iiili! jl. if A/ow much money have I spent. Its 
significance is abundance. At times, (^) follows both (the interrogative and 
informative), you'd say: liJU j»j ^ if How many men you have met;'<ciJc\ jl ^ if 
A/tw /77£/c/7 money I have spent. 

The Guidance In Grammar 133 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

fi" °J (CJ>^ ft 3 ^Lo j^Lo jtf °J\ (dills jtf) :jio <1LJ r UJ (jtf ) <Ja£ SjAi jj j 

Sometimes, the Tamyeez of (ji - ) is elided due to the existence of an indicator (in context), 
like: T^Ul* ^ How much is your money?, meaning: f^UL. Uija °J How many Dirham is your 
money?; Yc&i -J How many have you struck?, meaning: YcZy*> %»j °<S How many men 
ha ve you struck ? 


Know that for (si), in its two perspectives, the Tamyeez occurs (either) as an accusative 

when there is a verb following it whose pronoun is unengaged (with the Tamyeez). Then, 
if the Mumayyiz of (si) is a noun, it will be an object (of the verb), like: Ycj^\ %?j 'J How 

many men you have honored? cSh pJ.-J How many a servants have you owned. If a 

Masdar (follows), it is the Maful Mutlaq, as in: 56jj ijLj 'J How many visits have you 
visited? It is the Maful Feehi, if the Tamyeez is an adverb, as in: o>, Ljj °J How many 
days I have traveled; Yc^J L& °J How many days have you fasted? 

J>j ^ >Jj. j i6j^s J>j }&>) :j*J < ULbJ jl 5> <Jyf LgLS Lo '^S lil \jSjy> J-H5 j 

(The Tamyeez) occurs as a genitive noun when that which precedes it is a genitive 
particle or an Idafah, as in: oj>s j>j iiL j How many men have I passed by; ^'J\j£j 

YcjSj- Upon how many men have you ruled? cj>^/\^ fi" pJ. j 777e servants of how many 

a men have I honored; cU ^j -J jl> j 77?e wealth of how many men have I protected. 

°J) :}J6 ( U>£ b>j~d °J<j jU lil fj&U l££ '&J^\ ire * Lr^ °J*i. M 'M ^^ £** J 

The Guidance In Grammar 134 g^-JI jia oJoaJI 

The Mumayyaz (the quantified word) occurs as a nominative word when there is nothing 
from the two matters (previously mentioned) existing. It is a nominal-subject when its 
Tamyeez is not an adverb, as in di>l %>j °J How many men are your brothers?; J»j °J 

XLZ'J] How many men I have honored. (The Mumayyaz occurs) as a predicate (Khabar) 

when it is an adverb, as in: S$L> L^ -J How many days is your journey? <*■*>-» jA 'J How 

many months is my fast. 

i - 

:^fs-i5 ^Lt j_^ j i (p ) iLJI .|4f* £j4> J' |«4*-» ^ Ls^ J-^ * '-°- J ' ^Lj^£-" 

^ ^ tJ-^' *^ ^^ Vlr^l 

0.^uj l^i jl iJu SfjiJU Oj^ 'Sj^-^ 1 *^-t J-;-'-^ 3ft J*? si*: 5^" lil <y~oiJM 

UUa-o *^jJ«jLo Oj£^ IjJuSa-S jl i^ui *^jJ«jL« 

.p-sJ jij ^fULg /it J (fi*) pLjl ilt-r 

.duij jL Tj^is j (j^-) jiu ai> j^ jjs-r 

Syl»l ^ S^JI j ££• 1*1^1 (jtf) j&>' Lo-A 

The Guidance In Grammar 135 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 



:iJl£j| J-sJUl ^. oLUSJI £>^l-o 
.cjSjcaT^f JJ15-Y 

.Cur or j \&c&i\-i 
?c^iii Cur^r-r 

The Guidance In Grammar 136 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 


> -Sf; till vJj^l : CH?&' t-^ 1 
THE EIGHTH TYPE: Indeclinable Adverbs (1) 

.•^jb La-j Ub^5"Ju <»Lu3l |_ ? Lt ^* j 

Indeclinable Adverbs are of some types, we will mentioned them in what follows: 

JL3 ((cpu j Jji J Jl«j j Jjls) :JJLo <4jdl oUaiJI <JJj* O^ 1 ^L^7' i>* £^* ^° - ^ 

Jj) ^J ii* Jui j .Sjjjls cJir h\ j r kuj Ujio i.kji 5ir lii ii* .(olujd 

1-That adverb which is disjoined from an Idafah in that the Mudaf llaihi (its 2nd 
term) is elided, like: J^i Before; Ik, After; j> Above; cJ6 Below. The Exalted has 
said: {Ik, • r? j ( ^i- r ; $h\ *h}> "Allah's is the command before and after, " 98 in other 
words: tik j % ?«i Ji" JjS ;>? Fro/77 before everything and from after it. It is termed 

Ghayat." This is when the elision of the word was intended by the speaker, 
otherwise, it is declinable. Based on this it could be read: (±k ^ j J^i ^ >&l .Jj). 

^Jl <JLai 5' lfk>£ j ^li^l l^j^UJ oLUJL. l+*Jb c^j LJl j (£jl>)-Y 

*„- \ 

vj[*5 ajLTI JI3 j (^JU jjJ £a* ^4>l) :Jlo ,31sJUI 

The Guidance In Grammar 137 g^JI jii o-J^aJI 

2-(d^) Where, wherever. It is indeclinable only because of its resemblance to 
Ghayat due to its need of an Idafah. Its condition is that it be annexed to a 
sentence, like: ^JU Juj ki> \jA>[ S/r wherever Zaid is sitting. Allah, the Exalted said: 

'We draw //7e/7? /?ea/" f/o destruction) by degrees from whence they know not. " 1 00 

Lo"tf oLjJjtf i ur-^ r^ ^^ J^ ^' U^ ^i 

At times, it annexes a singular word, as in the saying of the poet: 

Lo*tf vU-^ « cs^ P^ L*JU> J^ ^4> U^ ^' 

/4s yew see /ro/77 where Suhail is rising, a star giving light like as meteor is luminous 
In other words, the place of Suhail. Then (iu>) is in the meaning of (5&^) here. 

. ULc. i>>!j| j^i^s l$J j ^Jjl >^ £~L> 
<l*UiJI jliAiJI j.(liUU?^Jjl lil olip!):j^ *lis- 8 )?l ikAll UjlJu *i3 $1 j>*j j 

.(Liilj jjjlti iilic^>) 

3-(lii) When. It is for the future. If it is entered upon the past-tense verb, it becomes 
present-tense (in meaning), as in His, the Exalted's words: {ih\ ^ fl> lil* "When 
there comes the help of Allah..."™ In it is the meaning of a condition (±>yl)\), 

The Guidance In Grammar 138 g^-JI jia oJoaJI 

It is permissible that a nominal sentence will occur after it, as in: ^uiJI lil 

i*JU> / will come to you when the sun is rising. The verbal sentence is preferred, 

as in: ^,,,.1,11 cj& lil ilia! / w/7/ co/77e /o yew when the sun is rising. At times, it 

occurs to signify suddenness, then, the nominal subject (Mubtada) is preferred 
(to occur after it), as in: l&\j y&l\ lili cs-J- I left, then (suddenly) a beast was 

standing (there). 

4-(il) 7?7e/7. It is for the past-tense, as in: ^.ln cjji* il ci> / came, then, the sun 
rose;i*}[±> i r xh\ il (7 came) then the sun was rising. 

.*^i j o>«-* i* j J**JI ^j-i* 'O^- 5 J' o^j 'lM fe jWl Jij>kJI 

> , > ' > ■*' , * ? ° * t 




.kljJ jL S^Urtl ^t jLls ^Ls j !oLUJI ^ L.- > 
.kJJj jL 5 l^>£ Lo j!(^>) c~* liU-Y 

.duij jlo t^Ls -yi (li>) ^Uii jjs-r 

.^UjJ Vli- ^if fOiT j TJp->SJI (lil) Juii>-i 
.JUUj ^Ui Mj T|UliJJ ( lil) ^b j^is-fl 

The Guidance In Grammar 139 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 



.jji^-oiifj u-i 

.liL ^ij oi (JUJI Jiii yj| p^i lil-fl 
•Oj^Jb V j-o jiljlfl j^iii: jjj5- \ 

^o yb£JI &kr:j bl-Y 

. Lj>tx- c«Jlj ij c-Jlj.. .... — i 

.«-i5lj iJjJI Aip\-i 

.i*JU? j\*yS-LlL.. ......iiiii>- o 

' 'M b^ ^1 *>>! il alii ^ li^-Y 

The Guidance In Grammar 140 g-*_JI jia aJaAJI 

j fl iirJlgCHUI>j^ll 


The Indeclinable Adverbs-2 

. (jjf jjs >jf j i^4>! ^Ui ^jf) :>^ *>>1JI 

5-([Ji j jM) Where. Used to signify a place in the meaning of interrogation, as in: 
^ixs jji Where are you walking? i*i5 >J1 Where are you sitting? (And also 
signifying) the meaning of a condition, as in: ^4>i ^-Ui ^j! Where you sit, I will sit; 
°J\ 'Js <J\ Where you stand, I will stand. 

:JJLo 4 LoL^i^jl j i (1*31 JuLa5 j_ ? Lo j <jjLJ jr?L*j |_ f L«) 'j^j « U?_^ j'-'OW (<_?*-*) _ *^ 

ft l ° 

6-(^Ls) When. For signifying time as a condition, as in: y>U °j»iJ >Jlz When you 
travel, I'll travel; liif l*i5 ^Ls When you sit, I'll sit. (And it signifies) interrogation, 
like: jjJJI Q\ i^is ^Ls H^?e/7 are you going to the market? 1'sJa jL <JLi When will 
your brother come ? 

*J J* °J {Vcf\ lis?) :&> Aj£ }\ i (aJl> £ l> LiiS") :j^ «^fl> r Ui^ftU (ufcT)-V 

7-(Li^) A/cw. For interrogation about the state (of something), as in: Itu. i\> '^S 
How did Khalid come? 'Or (interrogative regarding) information, as in: YcS\ u^ 
How are you? 'In other words, in what state. 

The Guidance In Grammar 141 g-*_JI jis aJaAJI 

8-(5d) When. Signifying time as an interrogation, as in: {jZi\ y^_ i$\ "When is the 
day of judgement. " 107 

^i (iiirfJI ^ Is Ijjj Cjfj U) :^J i{^)S L\j> slill Jjl ;_ ? lLw (iiJ j JJM 
^*ij j «i*£fJI ^ JI5I ^ijjj CJtkH^T }jj Jjl jf (rcJlj Lo j^Ls) :JD ^ olj> 
fi") :J13 ^ v l^ ^ ( jLojj JJ aijfj Lo) :j^ < (°^)S l\j> ^U y siill ^> 

• jLoJj Lj-^J <CCjlj Lo S_Lo *-<-oJ> jl {. Ijuj CJlj Lo sJuo 

9-(lu j JJ) Since. In the meaning of the beginning (time) period as a reply (to a 
word) like (^Ls), as in: iiiAJI ^ JJ bjj cjIj Lo I haven't seen Zaid since Friday, in 
response to he who said: TcjIj Lo ^Ls H//7e/7 did you not see (Zaid), meaning the 
beginning period your seeing him was interrupted was Friday. (It signifies) the 
meaning of (an entire) period, if it is an appropriate answer (to a word) like (jJ), 
as in: jLojj h l£stj L> / have not seen him since two days, in reply to he who had 
said: Lsj cS\j Lo sis °J How much of a period (of time) is it that you haven't seen 

Zaid?\n other words, the total period (of time) that he had not seen him within is 
two days. 

ijJilii^jjJi^jJ <<>U) OliJ JlJ j .(jJU j jit) ^ ciUi i?j!-2J j ijjJsAi) ±*j ii>>i£j 


1 0-(5U j ^JJ) //7 /fo/tf o£ In the meaning of (lit) With, as in: oUIJ JUI The money is 
before you. The difference between the two is that (lie) signifies a place and 
presence (jj~a>) is not conditional in it. That (presence) is conditional in (jjj j jjj). 
In (these words) are variations in language: (JJ <it ( IJ ^J <^ij <£jJ). 

. ( Jai ii^Tj Lo) :j*5 ij^iiJI ^LJLt (Jai)-> N 
11 -(ll) Never. For the negated past-tense, as in: Jsi'cJj Lo i have never seen. 

.L;i ji (>>' ZjJ\ V) :^J <yi*JI jJisiJ (>>')- N Y 

The Guidance In Grammar 142 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

12-(^?>t) Never. For the negated future, as in: ^>i ZjJ\ v / will never hit him, 
meaning forever. 

kiL ijj LUf -'^L^ Jj5 jj2w i«iill jjLt UjLj jL> jJoj> ^Jl <Jj_jkfl ci^l lil <ol lUI j 

Know that when adverbs are annexed to a sentence, it is permissible to construct them 
based on Fath, as in His, the Exalted's saying: i%$L<> ^-SiLUl '^h -,% Li*) "777/s /s //?e c/ay 

their truth shall benefit the truthful ones. " 108 (Also) like: .k-sjj A day when...; iiL* /4 ///7?e 

Likewise, is (^i j JjL) when used with (51 <£! < L>). You would say: jjj c>y*> L> jL cj>^ I struck 
the likeness of what Zaid struck; jjj o>^ j! ^i li>b / struck him other than that (manner) 
which Zaid struck; ij5 'M jL ^ Ls A^/ standing is similar to that (manner) you stand. 


:ILluJI tij^kJI 

( JlLo j -La) _ ^ 

The Guidance In Grammar 143 g-*_JI jia aJaAJI 


I * oi 

.fiJuJI ?-**> !JJL$j ( JlLo j JLojJ JJLo-i 

.U jib j <oiJi ^ii 5 (lit) j (5i) j I^jJ) ^ Jj^i l -° _ ° 

. j L"-w.iii J_Lo LiLo JLul «J — r 

The Guidance In Grammar 144 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

' s - ' 
.£jl ([yl <Jt9 (jl) < J-Lo «cip 4^0 

.L^fcil L^feJu. _ i 

\-° - I -V 

......... ^■OLpMldJ WO 1 

?dL>l JU -V 


*> Ajjj l^jljo..... L* — £. 

. L^jljj. L^jlsJI jj&Lil *J-0 

oU£JI j^TV-A 

^ • \i^jj\ j in >^ ru >- v 

^ ^ \{ UL->S 5131 JUliJI ^t dl;JUj)- Y 
T Ul 15^5 lis >jJu iijtj u-r 

UY .4^-odi 5jij ii ^jjJ cii - l* j}-t 

.JaJ ciiilo Uj/ CJlj L>-0 

The Guidance In Grammar 145 g-*_JI jia aJaAJI 


THE CONCLUSION: The Various Rules Of The Noun And Its Related Matters: Non 
Declinable Words and Fixed Construction. 

In (the conclusion) there are a number of sections: 

* c * 

THE FIRST SECTION: The Definite And Indefinite Noun 

The noun is of two kinds: Definite and Indefinite: 

:>L*3I iiw ^J jUwAii j < k >*-*-* * £_$■£ |_ ? Jl& J- 1 ^ JU si ^j& j iiiyLaJI-l 

olj^.^?^JI~ i 

r ^JLo^JI-£ 
Ua>I Jl oUaJJI-0 

The Guidance In Grammar 146 gj^JI jii oJoaJI 

a) Definite (ii>jJI). It is a noun signifying something specific and it is divided into six 

1- (c>\ji,.°h,i\\) Pronouns. 

2-{pkh\) Proper Names. 

3-(oL4fill) Inexplicit Nouns, meaning Demonstratives (oljlsyi) and Relative 
Nouns (oX^J>JI). 

4-( r SuL ci^iiJI) A noun defined with the Definite Article (uuj&\ pUI) 

5-(u>j^i \J\ ^jUiDl) The Mudaf (annexed) to one (of its two kinds) 

6-(Ja1il «J5*iJl) A noun defined with the Vocative Particle 

iLuliJI p « (cJl) :>*; lLJ?\J«jJ\ p i (jdu 3 bf) :>*: (( U£idl >JaiJI OjbuJI u3>ti 

♦jj*J '4^'j f-^Ji fl >^ JjVJwbJ *2 ulXJ ^V*-*- * l**~ f^tJ ~° J^ J *ji"L*jl j*^ i (j-*) *j^ 

p < ( J>5JI) :jio tf ,?AJL o**iJI p * Li_^J j (^oJI * li*) :jlo < p . ( Jjj) 

The best known of the definite nouns are pronouns of the first-person, as in:;^; j bi 

/#/7c/ Mfe Then, the second-person, as in: cS\ You. Then, the third-person, as in: -J, 

He. Then, the Proper Name, and it is that which is coined for something specific 
whereas another does not take it as a single coinage, as in: jjj Zaid. Then, the 

Inexplicit Nouns, like: ^iJI j \jj This and He who, and similar to these two. Then, the 
noun defined with Lam, like: j>jJi The man. Then, the Mudaf (annexed) to one of its 
two (types) as an Idafah related to meaning, like: ojj d>\s£ A book of Zaid. It is the 
strengthening of the Mudaf llaihi. Then, the noun defined with the Vocative 
Particle, like: Jj>j L O man! (spoken) for something specific. 

b) Indefinite (i£l!l). That which is coined for something non-specific, as in: J*j A 
man; i^} Ahorse. 

The Guidance In Grammar 147 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 


5 L£Vl iUI ^" Jl& jiJ ^bj Lo < iJuJI pi 
Numbers are that which is coined to signify the quantity of units of things. 

J Jj*lj ^ <JL*LJ| j . (i_iJl j IjLo j «Sj-l£ ^JL.Jl>Ij) IJi" Sj-^t ^1 i-^*-" pL— °l Jj^»l j 

The foundation of numbers are twelve words: one through ten, one-hundred and 
one-thousand. One and two are used according to (common) rules, meaning the 
masculine is found without the (Feminine) Ta while the feminine is with the (Feminine) Ta. 
You would say: Ji>lj J>j One man; ^7 ^A>j Two men. In women: ll>lj iiyl One woman; 

jsph j ^iiist^i^l riyo women. 

> . »- 

From three to ten is in variance to the (common) rule, meaning it is masculine with the 
(Feminine) Ta. You would say: JUj ii^i Three men.. .to jL>j»>it Ten men. 

J islj-ol ftj.i.thfc I«*-«JI j t»lj-ol ftj.'.tcfr (_£-^l j ' ^> j J, i.thfc I«-«jl ' ^>J j.iithfr Jc*l) ♦ Jj-ftJ j-^Jul Jl*j j 

. ( 'ilj^l 'i^Lt *-ij [Jl j !>l>j j-^t A.»...° t j *JI slj-ol SjJLt £>}b j 4 }L>j jJLc Xj!Aj 

After ten, you say: SUj >L& Ji>i Eleven men; %fj >lc ^iil Twelve men;"i\y£\VjL£ j&\ Eleven 
women; st>s! s>it ^iiil Twelve women; %£j >Ii ii^i Thirteen men; st>s! s>Lc 6^i Thirteen 
women... until: Sl>j >it is-is Nineteen men and si^ifs^ic: ^j Nineteen women. 

The Guidance In Grammar 148 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

After that you'd say: yjj 5jjJLc. Twenty men and siyT ojjJLt Twenty women, without any 
difference until %ij : J^i Ninety men. (You'd say:) yjj 5jjJLt j !>\j Twenty-one men and 
jf>oT 6j>Lt j U^! Twenty-one women until: ^>j 5jjLij; j iiis Ninety-nine men X\-J\ ^^Li3 j ^ 
Ninety-nine women. 


r ^JL o^iill- i 
Ui>l jyi «JU»iJI-fl 

.IsK »>^ ^1 ajj-^l j < 5 LiVl jUT Ails' |Jlc: JJJ jusl •' ilxll i-Jl 

The Guidance In Grammar 149 g-*_JI jia aJaAJI 

♦fjui* ill* I iljjl *-s L4-0 Lil Sit j i'2Sjud\ o^-t-Y 

■*■ ° ? J 1 

5 I4J jiy>sJI j JjUJI ^j 5^ ^J* J* J ^OdA^I ^ ilJieSfl Ji*iii LiiS'-A 


.SLsjisJI Jl jikiJiri>-Y 

.5*4-$ VS^ >* _ o 

o > ^ 

The Guidance In Grammar 150 g-*_JI jia aJaAJI 

.♦^U L-J JiLJLlI it~bl j SjJlLsJI j SJuLtl c^S l-o 

. LJU> >!&' Lit li.J2.Il ^- £ 

The Guidance In Grammar 151 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 


iJLfcJI * La— Si 2ii; 

The Remaining Numbers 

"*> 8 °i 

-*. •», 

j J^j LaJ I j 4slj-ol L^jLo j J^-j UjLo j tsl^»ol <_aJI j J^j *— ill j tSlj-ol AjLo j J^-j XjLo) ♦ Jj-Sj 


You would say: J>j iil* One-Hundred Men and si>o1 iiL* One-Hundred women; J>j Liii 

One-thousand men ar\6 sijjTLiil One-thousand women; J>j uil Two-thousand men and LiJi 

5i>aT Two-thousand women, without any difference between the masculine and feminine. 

When the number increases above a thousand and a hundred, it is used according to the 
rules with which you are acquainted. 

i}L>j ^jj-tx; j jl>Ij j ZjLo j t_iJI (jJ-it) : dy^ 'Olj-iiJI j j Jl& iL>^l j IdLJI ^Lt cinl »!& j 

.,>uii 4|i Jut 

The thousands precedes the hundreds and the ones precedes the tens, you would say: 

%rj 6jjJL% j I>lj j iilo j liil jjIc H////7 /77e are /, /i7 /77e/7/ Su'j ojj-Lc j jUif j pi* i^i j jUJI 2, 322 
men; yjj ljuj\ j Lui j iil* £j_j j ijtfl Lujl 4,745 men. Based on that are the (remaining) 

Know that the numbers one and two have no Mumayyiz because the word of the 
Mumayyiz is free of need in mentioning a number in one and two, as you'd say: J>j ^jit 

With me is a man and pJj Two men. Regarding the remaining numbers, then they 

require a Mumayyiz. 

The Guidance In Grammar 152 $±J\ jii oJoaJI 

.^*-o jl olio £>!Aj (j-^LiJI j ' (^jL« ^!Aj) Oj^ ' li^i* Lbjis-i-o jj^j 4*^5^ <jjuLJI Jill 

The Mumayyiz of the numbers three through ten are genitive and plural, you could say: 
jUj '12% Three men and s>ii i^i 77?Aee women, except when the Mumayyiz is the word 

one-hundred. At that time, it is genitive and singular, you'd say: iiL* i.!Ai Three-hundred, 

while the rule is: oL. i^i Three-hundred ox ^^ i^i . 

islj-ol SjJLfr ^Jo-I j ^A>j j.mS- Jtf*l) -Jj-AJ < iji-o ' ij.^t A ( ^ij. t 'J j *-£J !jl jJLfc Jtf"l jiLa~o j 

"I "I r / D « , < ,« , iJ ji, ; ■»„.., 

The Mumayyiz of 11 to 99 are accusative and singular, you'd say: Su^j >i& is! Eleven men 

and »ijjT;>lft ji>°l Eleven women; %ij bJ^, j i*-^ 99 men and siyToji-ij j £-13 99 women. 

^>*-5 J 'J^J wLo j J^j JjLo) •Jj-£> < iji-« ^jfjA^Jt t_jjj*2l f-oJ* j lo^"T;t" j k_iJI j ijLa jiLa-o j 

Aj^j j i Jj>j oVI iS^C j «?l>«l Lill j ;l>«l t-ill j «Jj-j LaJl j Jj>j <_iJl j <&ljJl LoL? j 'il>*l 

.^Lti ^Lt ^*5 j »|i>ol <JVI 

The Mumayyiz of one-hundred, one-thousand, their dual (200, 2000) and plural of a 
thousand are singular, genitive words, you'd say: Jj>j iil? 100 men and J*j Ldl» 200 men; 

j\y/\ iiLo /<%> women and siyl Lil* i>00 women; J>j oil /tftftf /77e/7 and J*j UJI .?#<%> men; 

|i>oT Liii /#<%? women and sl>^T UJI .2000 women; j>j <jYi ii!Ai 3000 /77e/7 and si^T o^T is!Ai 

3000 women, and continue the rules based upon that. 


j_« Ljb^ ^ Ju V j .,>^iVI j 4>ljJI ^ jls-itl JiiL iJuUI Jo j_& |_g.U.7.,.°J :iliil j : w^i ^ 

.ULo ^jJI j iJuJI /i ^o ilju-Vl 

^L> ^^^ «i5LJI JiH jitill 'tfS lil VI p>M^s j ly?jiLi sjiuUI Jl i&£j| ^i jiiiJI j 

.^jJii-s S^Li ( ^ ^ - > ^ )i jlsJJI « IjLjjA-s li^J 

The Guidance In Grammar 153 g^_JI jta cljIoaJI 


.ajjj jib fzJ^ fisjSfi ci& o^-v 

T(^j*-sj j *-SJ [_jJL.>lt 1>I) ilxll jisJ v'j^I >* '- 0-0 

:oUjJ c—tLi jisJ 5uS ZJliJI SIju&I cJ$1-l 
V- • <"\Y <U <U «>>^ t AUt>Yt 
:JLJl2JI J-iAJI ^i j^idl jitiU L-LJ lilt yisl-y 

.*Jl9...... .C*JjlZi\- 1 

.yiu ri>-r 

° * ° -* 

.iiiS^sJI ^-0 LU£. .oi>l-£ 

.ujL^JI 5_o IjL-i. cuiS'-o 

The Guidance In Grammar 154 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

.{jJjmS. u*JU>- 1 

j - j, s 

................. jJLt Jj*I ' Jla GwSjLS ~ V 

IHL cisl-V 

.pjULJI ^....................^aJl oJULi-o 

.Xx-Lw "tyLs. '**-** cJliLLui I ~ T 


m 4 y^ >^ ^ Mj j[^ _ ° 

The Guidance In Grammar 155 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

> if 



dJ&ij^iiJiiillill Jj^all 

> , . * . . * 

THE THIRD SECTION: The Masculine And Feminine 

.jlj^Uo ^iill j . I^jji5 jl Lkil vljlill LoM& *J L> dJJiJI j ^>« LSI j 5^1* LSI p)M 

The noun is either masculine (^IsJl) or feminine (dJjiJI). The feminine is that which has a 
feminine sign, literal or estimated. The masculine is at variance with the feminine. 

The feminine signs are: 

1 . (fi£)l) Ta, as in: ittij Fatimah. 

2. (SjjJJLlI oft I) Alif-Maqsurah, as in: J^» A&/M?. 

3. (sSjiuJI lilSfl) Alif-Mamdudah, as in: Jji> Hamra; JjJLs Sa/k'a. 

:>£j ij.J*J&\ J> Lffcj>j >* sjliJ .Till jji" JJS j <fl£)l ?/l £-:l£jl oU>U ^ jj& "if j 

.^ (jb) tii^l (^jl) 

None of the feminine signs are estimated except Ta. An evidence of the Ta being 
estimated is its return to the diminutive form, as in: i^J Little earth 0»jl); lyji (jii) Little 

The Guidance In Grammar 156 g-*_JI jis aJaAJI 

^jU^o j& VI j « (23b j |!>sT)i' <oU*JI c^ 5** ^'ik 5^" Lo >* j ^4> LSI kSjiJI j 
.L»1J ^ivtJjiJI Jl lusi lil J*AJI »15U°I ci^ Ji j .(^t j *Ui?) :>*; *£^LJ$xJI o^Uj 

The feminine noun is either a True Feminine (*jXj2>), it is that which has as its opposite a 

male among animals, like: ii>*°l A woman; lit A she-came/. Otherwise, it is a Figurative 

Feminine (jjU^) in variance with the True Feminine, as in: hh> Darkness; fee. A spring. 

You have become familiar with the rules of the verb, when it is attributed to a feminine 
(subject), the verb does not reference (the feminine subject). 


Iklj UaSI ^ijlo [JU JjLxJ Jjj-diwo 5jh j < U^P *-° JO^*- 3 ^L jl LaJl s^L j*Jl jUSJ :[_ 5 i£*JI 

.7t+?yh}\ ^Js IJub . I^> j L Jaj (^jjl>j) j l*ij (j!A^j) :JjSu < /«**<* j 

The dual is a noun having Alif and Ya attached to its end with the (consonant) preceding it 
vowelled with Fathah and the Nun is (vowelled) with Kasrah, in order to signify two 
members in agreement, literally and in meaning, as in: pJj Two men (nominative); ^4j 
Two men (accusative, genitive). This is in the sound noun. 

tyj^fi) :^6 i&J Jl !j i*J&h\ J, (jljJI) ^ QiU (liAfl) 5LT -jlS «^idl ^ LSI 

Regarding the Maqsur noun, if the Alif is converted from Waw in the three-lettered word, 
the Alif will return to its origin, as in: jlj^* Two staffs '(i^*). If the Alif is converted from Ya, 

in most three-lettered words, or it is not converted from anything, it will be converted to 
Ya, as in: jL>'j Two hand-mills; jL^is Two places of amusement; jLjL>" Two Bustards (a 


The Guidance In Grammar 157 $±J\ jii oJoaJI 

Regarding the Mamdud noun, if its Hamzah is original, it remains fixed, as in: jlj*3 Two 
reciters (2I33). If the Hamzah is for the feminine, it is converted to Waw, as in: jlj>s* Two 
red (things). If the Hamzah is substituted for Waw or Ya from its origin, two perspectives 
are permissible, as in: ^iLf^ijLS Two garments (t^4); jLbj 'j'j^j Two cloaks (t\s J). 

j j>t,^?>JI ^3 t^wJuJi e b ojj>o j (4^3 Ls^xi. g L>) -JjJij <AJLb^n jJLt iiiizJI jjj t»JJ> v**«-5 j 
•rjj ^ 4^'j 5 Lr" ^^ L4j^-5 < jLoj^lLo L4^V ( jLJl j jLJa>) :Jyi5 iUl> iJVl j jLjJ^' 


j ^jUJI j^ :^JL*i jJ}& ifjj-Jl JaiL JjVl j_t *Jju t^iUJI ^Jl ^ioJI iiLbl Ju,l lil j 
.^jlA-5 j LkaJ L^JL^I o^^j L_J ^iiiiiJI pL^>l i*lj5U dJi j <4 L-fcUJl IjjLkSli 23jLLll 

Elision of the Nun of the dual is required with an Idafah, you'd say: jj; LoMt ?T> 777e /wo 
servants of Zaid came. The Feminine Ta is elided in (L-a.4ll) Testicles, and (i^JSfl) Buttock, 
and (iJSfi) in particular, you'd say: jL~ai and jUi, because they are inseparable. It is as like 
they are the doubling of one thing, not pairs. 

When you desire to annex one dual to another dual, you designate the first with the 
plural, like the saying of the Exalted: { l^jji ij*£iii iijUJi j jjiui 3} "And as for the man who 

steals and the woman who steals, cut off their hands... " 117 That (rule) is due to the dislike 
of combining two duals in that which both are in agreement, literally and in meaning. 

4J!>Uj jjs Lo :j^lill j 1 {iJJ)-> 44JI jLiJ j J^jjIs j! Lkil <^~jl£)l L«}U *J Lo :iJjiJI i*5)M 

.(lift)-. 4jJI jUJ j 

jLJI J4J Lo kiaj j SjjJiLo 5jj j *L jl isjj-liwo 5jh J <-f!l $j>^ (3^1 jWj :^i-JI ;US)N 

The Guidance In Grammar 158 gj^JI jii oJoaJI 


7 ijiuJI ^lioJI «_^ SJ-4JI c~£5 |_ji-s- 

°^ij ?*^dfi ^ j*^i ^i 5^ lii (jij) j! ( 5 L) ^t Liiu iltl ^JJI 1 ^ o^-a 

.5^3 cjlu (jub'-r 

.L4-SI JLftLJftli*JI-i 

\4c^^ ^}j> %*&j\ '&>**& olJljJI j)-A 

> N A 

The Guidance In Grammar 159 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 


in t 

.fljJai- 1>Lm C**fJI J$-L 

The Guidance In Grammar 160 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

> if 




\-J> j iijjJ J> j*Jcl> $\>i\ ;>* jSS\j p^> ijj, JJL' jWJ :p>i»UJI 

.|*Xm4^3 *_Sj> jj.O.L.1..^ j ( J^>J *-«J» J*">J ''J>^> t f> i ? a '~ ' 

.11 ijiJ i^>j .jjU L*^> 0j^ ^ fi^l : J-M $4^- i •o'4^>^ t*^' l?^ i 

Plurals are nouns signifying three and more units with a change in its singular form. 
Plurals are either: 

1 -Literal (^kli), as in: Jl>j Afe/7, the plural of: J>j. 

„ > 

2-Estimated (Uji4&)> as in: dJi Ships, on the pattern of: jui Z./CV7S. Its singular is also 

(oii) but it is on the pattern of (jii), in other words, the plural in (dli) is on the 
pattern of its singular, but the Qammah and Sukun in the singular are both 
original, like (jJi) while in the plural, they are both incidental. Based upon this, 
and an example like (the word) ^jiii People, it is not a plural due to the lack of 
existence of its singular. 

The Guidance In Grammar 161 $±J\ jii oJoaJI 

.(JL>j) :>*i '?iji-« 2Lj j£*s Lo jj& j ij-i^J-^j 

The plural, then, is of two kinds: 

\-{kL^S) Sound. It is that noun which does not alter the construction of its singular, 
as in: ^j4^ Muslims. 

2-(>i£J) Broken. It is that noun which does alter the construction of its singular, as 
in: jl>j Men. 

The sound plural is of two kinds: Masculine (jUL- ^JJ) and Feminine Sound (jUL- ii>') : 
:^*J il>JiJLA 5jh j « L4J43 Lo ijLJaJi (jlj) s^L Jj»J Lo jj& j *LjLDI j£ji£JM 

1-(iJLiJI ^rliJI) Masculine Sound Plural. It is that noun having Waw, the consonant 
before it being Madmum, attached to its end (with) Nun Maftuhah, as in: 5^4^ 
Muslims. Or (it has) Ya, the letter preceding being Maksur (with) Nun Maftuhah, 

as in: '&AzJ Muslims. 

Regarding their saying: 'jji 3 ^jp j 5^1 j - J^, with Alif and Nun, they, are 

. 5 Ull ^ J^ J3U J^A UU 5j£j of-Li^tf 51-^UJI Jhi\ j^jJI ^ ijiiJ j 

IL9 v j «([#£-;) ii;>s (oijLs) :>^ .(JUS *o^) ^ j '(J>^) *£>* (>> ?) 

The Guidance In Grammar 162 gj^JI jii oJoaJI 

Conditional in the masculine sound plural, if it is a name, that it be a proper name 
for the rational male, devoid of the (Feminine) Ta. If it is an adjective, in addition 
to that which has been mentioned, it is conditional that it not be from the 
patterns: *lsS <Jl*if, as in: yJ\ Red, its feminine is: J>>. Nor (the patterns): rsb& 

<JjS, as in: ^\JLz Drunk, its feminine is: [j^sLs. Nor from (the patterns) whose 
masculine and feminine are the same, as in^j^ Patient; £p> Injured. It is 
required to elide the Nun (of the plural) with Idafah, as in:>^ iJ~J The Muslims of 
Egypt. This is in the sound noun. 

U JJtp j i^uJl oJkAii jjJaSjjj) j i (oj-^-'j j oj~^^' tjj»u ijjL oju*u (j^jJLLaJI LSI 

.(5jik-a-o) :Ji-e i(Jjl>uJI «_iJ^I ^Lt JjlJ U^lLs L^Lp 

Regarding the Manqus noun, its Ya is elided (when forming the plural), as in: 
jjjLs Judges; 'jjJ\j Shepards. The Maqsur noun elides its Alif while whatever 
precedes (the Alif) remains Maftuh in order to indicate the elided Alif, like: ^L^i 
Those selected. 

51-^JJ 11 j IL^ 5^ °b[~^j^ j '2b j dS\ ij>\> '<jr*j\ Lo Jjs j <iJLiJI oujiJI-Y 

^ 51 ^>>^ j^i^ If °^5o *J 5| i « (oLL^O :>>J <j>Jl j jlj-fL ^> JlS ^JJ 5^ 

£ a .- s= -° ~ * ? z $ * 

t-AJ^L *-»J*S-5 ^Jp lo-uSl (jO jl j 4 (J-oU^JI j (jlajl>) JjAj «c LfJI J_« \i^S^Ji LjJ-0 iJJ>>-> 

.(old*) :>sJ <i?>£ !Aj jlitl j 

2-Feminine Sound Plural. It is that noun at whose ending Alif and Ta are attached. 
Its condition is, if it is an adjective having a masculine form, that its masculine 
form is made plural with Waw and Nun, as in: 0LL1J Muslim women. If it does not 

have a masculine form, its condition is that its feminine form not be a feminine 
devoid of the (Feminine) Ta, as in: j^{> Menstruating woman; j^i> Pregnant 

woman. If it is a name, it may be made plural with Alif and Ta without any 
condition, as in: olal* Hinds. 

The Guidance In Grammar 163 $±J\ jii oJoaJI 

Regarding the Broken Plural, its forms in the three-letter noun are numerous and 
irregular, known by usage, as in: J^ji Legs; ^\jJ) Molars; ^>Ji Hearts. In the 
non-three-letter noun, (the broken plural is) on the pattern of (JJL*i), as in: j[*> 
Small rivers; JjL> Tables, the plural of: >*» and: jji>, according to the rule, as 
you were made familiar with in Tasreef. 

2l*j j JL*JI j JJLsl) :2Jl2JI £*> 2Lii5l j < LOji Li Sj-iaJI ^Lt jjikj La jjs j ( 2Jl3 £*>-> 

. ( &.u_&l j iixi j JL-tl j ^4-£l ) :jp«J < (21*31 j 

J^».i.°J j .iijj'Sfl bid Ijl& Lo jl£^JI j "bjL*}>\ ^ji U [Ju jjlkJ Lo ji j tikis' £»>-Y 

Know that the Broken Plural is also of two kinds: 

1-(j£ui ^>) Plural of Smallness. It is that which is applied to ten and less. The 
constructions of the Plural of Smallness are: *Lii <*& <ji*il .jiil as in: <jL_&i <^ii 

2-(s^JI £i>) Plural of Abundance. It is that which is applied to that which is above 

ten. Its constructions are patterns beside these four (previously mentioned). 
Each of the two are used in place of the other with an indicator, as in His, the 
Exalted's saying: {,j} *i^i ^..Jil ^^ oulkDI 3} "And the divorced women 

should keep themselves in waiting for three courses..." 120 along with the 
existence of (, \j>\). 

The Guidance In Grammar 164 $±J\ jii oJoaJI 




Ojh j *\ J' '^^a- 5 Ojh J j'j t>^ <3*J^ La jj& j :*JLiJI jijuJI ^»j>JI-i 

. Ujjji Li SjJLiJI |_ ? Lfr jikJ La JJ& j < iUJI ^>~ ^ 

.VjLjS\ ^ji Lo i^jLt jiiij La jj& j SjiSLII ^>~ V 

»- ° o " & * *■ 

.11 jJLa T^-Jlj L-l3 ii" j ^f-S^-tl >* La- ^ 
.ZLo°l ^Ji JeJj TjJLil ^ La j VfJ^til £SjjJ| J* La-Y 

.H jla j u^i >ril Tju^j ^r j t^uji jlliJi j^ji >* La-r 

The Guidance In Grammar 165 $±J\ jii oJoaJI 



o s 

:;ji£n fu-°Sn *^°i-o 

iijjj\> t«UJbli <il>j ( 4 iia "■ o (LoU <£^JJ_£-o 'l^- 1 'tr^J '(♦"*-% 
<LfcU<j i <Uij -Lo i,j^Ji (i^-jUo < JJ j < 4 AA » uo 

-'--' * LiuM 

•f*j? U-? 

.(JjJI ^Lt. iupj-Y 

.2Lij-uJI S-o cjz\>-\ 

.SljJb ' Jl jjL+i-L 

The Guidance In Grammar 166 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 


-- c 9. <a *■ fi & 

The Guidance In Grammar 167 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

). i> A V 




.( 2JLUUI j «Jl*kjftl j Jl*i5VI j JUfrl) 

The Masdar is a noun signifying action only. Verbs are derived from the Masdar, as in: 
4»>liJI Striking; >al!l Helping, for example. The Masdar's construction from three-lettered 

words is irregular and known by usage. From the non-three-lettered words, (its 
construction is) according to rules, as in: ...akiJI »ji*kjvi .JUifrl < jl*i)fl. 

:>*j <Lj^ l^ 5| ktli Ji^ ^1 *4x5 j^t j^J IaILj ^jLL' °J^ jU 51 jl^iJI j 
(CJ>^)_, vjJii-5 ( l>fc) o|i <(i>L>i CJ>^) :>^ *AJLii ^JJI JJuJJ J-JUU UlLo' V^*Io 

.(L>bU h 

If the Masdar is not the Maf'ul Mutlaq, it governs with the government of its verb, meaning 
it gives the nominative state to its subject, if it is intransitive, as in: aij ^L3 j~*J\ The 
standing of Zaid amazed me. The Masdar also gives the accusative state to its simple 
object (*j Jjiis), if it is transitive, as in: 2L4J CxU .u*^ jjs5 Sa'eed's helping of All is a virtue. 

The Guidance In Grammar 168 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

It is not permissible to advance the word governed by the Masdar before the Masdar. 
Then, you would not say: 3j u o>^ Wj <«i?M 'Amr s striking of Zaid amazed me. If the 
Maf'ul Mutlaq (is advanced), then it governs with the government of the verb preceding it, 
as in: \jj. \>yz> c^jS I struck 'Amr a strike. Therefore, (\jj) is accusative due to (cJ>b) not 
due to the Masdar (C>^). 

J^LdlpTjJ^UJIpT^i^jLJI JjsjJI 

THE SEVENTH SECTION: The Active and Passive Participles 

:J-cUJI pi 

.(IL; JiiJI £>jU °J) t £>jjJJ\ <JJuj JJLiJI aj - r U £-S JU jiJ (Jjub) J-o jiij pi 
1L^? ,jjj ^Lt s^ft j-o j (j^b j *jl3) :>*3 * ^3-c-LaJI jjj ^Lt *^j!A£JI ^ill j-o l lL ^; j 

j Ji^Lo) :>^ '^r>^l J»p bo j-Si" j i^tjUaiJI ij^ 5^~* lJ>jLhJ> *-^j JaaJI dUi j-o C-jUalJI 

r •" s c * 

The Active Participle 

(The Active Participle) is derived from (jjJb) in order to signify the one who establishes an 
action, in the meaning of the occurrence (of an action), meaning the occurrence of an 
action from (that which the Active Participle represents). The Active Participle is taken 
from the three-letter verb on the pattern of (J-tlJ), as in: *2l3 (The one) standing; ^b 

Helper. In other than the three-letter verb, its form is on the pattern of the present-tense 
verb form of that verb with Meem vowelled with Dammah in the place of the Particle of 
the Present-Tense (i*,LiiJl >jy>) and the vowel Kasrah placed upon that consonant before 
its end, as in: Ji-lo inside, entering; rJdzJ Extractor. 

1213 JLxw) :^ t IliLlH jjLfr LuiSJ j tJlJb.sVI j JbJI i_pLS ^J 515" $1 jAill J^-t J^*J j 
j^Lj I) :>^ i.L^kjyi &>* jj »(LxU fijjl Ij-^lj ijui ^~L>) :>^ « JL>JI ^i jl «(^il 
j^b J>j (jji-t) 1j*j nijJji jl * ( Ijlc. jl 5^1 J^f*- fJ2^ bo) rjjSw t^Jill <J>> jl < (TjL**5 

The Guidance In Grammar 169 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

The Active Participle governs with the government of a verb, if it has the meaning of the 
present and future tense and is supported by the Subject (UifUl), as in: ij\ isl3 L*~; 
Sa'eed's father is standing. Or (it is supported) by the (word associated with) the Hal ( ji 
ji^ji), as in: Ldx »jJl l^b JL*^ ^fb. Sa'eed came to me as a helper of his father All. Or (it is 
supported by) the Interrogative Hamzah (fi^L^l i>ti), as in: L*^ jjisl /s Sa'eed standing? 
Or (supported by) the Particle of Negation (^1 o^>), as in: Li j $l\ L*^ 12L3 L. Sa'eed is not 

standing now or tomorrow. Or (it is supported by) a noun modified (by an adjective) 
(ijj^J>Jl), as in: G±t »jjl >*b J>j jjlt IW/? /77e is a man helping his father AH. 

JJ^JJ 515" lil IJjs 4 (,j^ol i**-- >^ Juj) :>^ <£JLb)ll c~>j ^^bUI ^ii-o Jui 5^" 5P 

j\ Li jl 5^1 Cd* ij(\ j^lill JL**s) :^J 4 2^oJVI £^> *J> ^jl^a r klL 1$$jw 515" lil Lil 

If the Active Participle signifies the meaning of the past-tense, Idafah is required, as in: 
^1 x^ >*b juj Z#/tf i^as Sa'eed's helper yesterday, this is when the Active Participle is 

As for when the Active Participle is defined with Lam, then all tenses are equal, as in: 
i^-jf jl Li jl 5^1 bli \y\ >*llll JL*j Sa'eed is the helper of his father AH now or tomorrow or 

yesterday. Therefore, it governs (like a verb) in all situations. 

J^isJI pi 

. JiiJI ^Lfr £3j ^o Jl&' JjoJ ^liiltl J^Adl ^jLsriJI J^iJI 5-0 jiiJ pi 

j JyU) :_^ tl^jis jl (^jjJa-o) rjjSw < Lkil (JjijLo) jjj IjM 35^' ^^" i>? *^r^ i 
.(gytisJ j J^jJ) :>^ lj>H\ jji U £& ^jUaiJI ^-5 J-tLill p& s^ ^ j ([^^j 

jl 5^1 6jjI jjJsl* jL*«) :j*w « J-frUJI pT ^ Sj^ldl J^ljiJL J^Aiil 4*j J^-t J^ j 


The Guidance In Grammar 170 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

The Passive Participle 

(The Passive Participle) is a noun derived from the passive-voice present-tense transitive 
verb in order to signify the one upon whom an action has occurred. 

Its form is taken from the three-letter primary verb on the pattern of (Jjiis) literally, as in: 
o,>ki Struck. Or (its pattern is) estimated, as in: J^is (Words) spoken; {^y*} Aim, extent. 

From other than the three-letter verb, it is like the Active Participle (in that it is derived 
from the) present-tense verb (except) with Fathah placed on the consonant before its 
end, as in: jiJj Entrance, entered; ^liJ Extracted. 

The Passive Participle governs with the government of the passive-voice verb with the 
conditions mentioned for the Active Participle, as in: Li ji $i\ ij>\ j^Jiis L*^ Sa'eed helped 
his father now or tomorrow. 


°J 51 *j Jjili-tl y-^ j J-e 1 -^ 1 gji 4*? J-s-fr jl^sJI J-s^ j .JaiS d>l*JI ^Lt JJb pi :jJuksJI 

PjLiifl j-o jiij j to^pl "if ^jJUJI ^l^ij JJUJI lit jJL* j-s Jl& jl pi :J-&li)l pi 
< JUJI g\ jl < liifiJI Jit luscJ j iJlii.-sVI J JUJI ^ i JJuj 5lf I jl 4*i J** Ji*J j rJ kdl 
^i i^iiJ yS r lJL £»«*i J^UJI ptolS" o| j -o^J>JI J < J&tl ^y> ji y^^V 1 ?>* i 

.JLJL^I jl JUJI ;_ ? 1Uj iSj^" als-t 

4*i Ji* J^Ju j iJ^AJI JJtgJI ;>? Jjiij j .JJLiJI *aU gij j-s >JU: Jl' pi rj^ikJI pi 

.J-tUJI pi ^ LaiEilfl J?j>1JIj 

The Guidance In Grammar 171 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 


.dUJj iko°l *ji\ T^lfl j± ^o J_frLaJI pT^UJ Ui^-A 

.dJjJ jlo TJJtiJI JjU J^Utl pT J^j ^Ls-V 

5J-&UJI pi *JLbl <Lc*i J^-A 

•ftJLLo ill*! «^s < i5*OJI j*j}dtl j-? jjiij Lai^ ^il j <Jj.4J.sJI pi <J**-^ 

5 i5^iJI *£)h\ jiS ^o Jjildl pi jiij U^- > • 
.aLo ! j-s dUi' £>il TjAiJI Ji* JjiisJI pT J^J Ji- > > 

r^ LL? JjJLkJI pi j J-cUJI pi £jLLz\-\ 

.ju*^JI Jul3 cJlj- ^ 
T ^Loil^JI <sS i^J-Y 

.lijJiJI P&JI j_« r^CJ^a JUJI II*- 1 

•(J->-ol <L-W.'L*-«JI jJL<J _ 

. Ijlc ji 5^1 JL^i ip&li Lo-V 

The Guidance In Grammar 172 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

.iiLjiJLiJI -^ 


.iL«jj5... *Jul |vo ....- Y 

.£>LiJI Ji. Ifj-f 

.SlislJI JU vl^Jl-i 

55*^1 JLiJU-t-. 1 1 J-^~fl 

• ••••••••••••••••••••• p ItAAJ I \ 

jjji j. rLiJi-v 

•J>=> b-s -^ £jli Jjp vJ~° 

The Guidance In Grammar 173 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 


THE EIGHTH SECTION: The (Verbal) Adjective And The Superlative Noun 

The (Verbal) Adjective 

,c>j&\ \Jii* JJuJI *j jtl3 °^ >JU jlJ r ;^ JJi ^o jiij pi 

plpuS j uJu g j j-lj») ljj>u (p u...'JL iJjiu~ Jj.t.g.o.1 1 j J^laJI *-Jl ^Ju^a ^J^> ) iJ^~ ' I"*. 1 ■<? j 

• J-tUJI pi ^ jjS'JloJI iUifi^l J^j-lj UU2J L^LaS Ji_£ Ja*2 ^J& j 

4 Oj«Jj^JI 3 : «~b Lg-Ji oj^> jl cj^j ^L« j tjuJaJI ,J ^--^ ^J LfJji^-o L^j Cw«jj j_p« j 

.(jJl^JI ^*u> jJ^Lc * UJl> j-^> j^J-t <<JlL> ^j-*> ^li-) : J-*-« 

(The Verbal Adjective) 123 is a noun derived from an intransitive verb in order to signify the 
one who establishes an action with a meaning of permanence. Its pattern is at variance 
with the pattern of the Active and Passive Participles, it is known by usage, as in: &^ 

Good; v^w; Difficult; ^J Courageous; UuJ, Noble; jji Docile. 

The (Verbal) Adjective governs with the government of its verb, without exception, with 
the condition of the dependencies previously mentioned in the Active Participle. When 
you govern (another word) with the (Verbal Adjective) in the nominative state, there is no 
pronoun in the adjective. When you make (the governed word) accusative or genitive, 
then there is a pronoun of the modified-noun, like: *il» ^> fJJ. 'AH is good in his character; 
l&l j^> \)j. 'AH is good in character; jLkJl '^> *jj. AH is good-natured. 

The Guidance In Grammar 174 g^-JI jia oJoaJI 

The Superlative Noun 

.bjiS ^ifr |SLjj (Jj^j^JI ^Lt JJLJ J*? ^-o jiij jUs| 

JJsil j^Lc) :>^ i^J. V oJ^ CrJ ^M ls^ 0-? fy Ls^ ^ 'Q 1 ^ CJJ«if) *£Lw* j 

•Jit Jjb U j**iJI ^a!)I o-o j^jj 51 u>j Li jl bjj 5^" jl 4 ^^lll Jj. IjuIj 5^ -,U 

.( jjj j-o UjLubl j»l j 4 L>>£ fciSI j <»>*> J^jSI j < Lj-l^kiJl lil jjs) 

(The Superlative Noun) is a noun derived from a verb in order to signify a modified-noun's 
excess over other than it. Its form is (J*ii) mostly. It is only constructed from the primary 

three-letter verb (which is not related in meaning to) color nor defects, as in: ^llll JjJ! fjj. 

'AH is the most virtuous of people. 

If (the verb) is more than three letters, or it is related (in meaning) to color or defects, it is 
required to construct it from the primary three-letter (verb) that signifies exaggeration, 
intensity or abundance, first. Then, place a Masdar after it (derived) from that verb in the 
accusative as a Tamyeez, as you would say: i>\J*sJ\ lil -J. He was worst in removing, 
extracting; *vjj Jjjii stronger in redness; Lyd kjil more horribly disabled and &» L\J^\ >)k\ 
jjj more disturbed than Zaid. Its rule is that of the subject, as has passed. It (also) comes 
for the object, as in: jJJi Most solemn;'^£\ Most engaged; #it Most known. 

:^>ji zibb \Jj, IIl^T j 
.(|i>o o T jJsii isi?U) :>^ j « (j.jiii jJaif lsj) :^J 4 uUaJ 5_^j 51- ^ 

.(JjJVl JJj) :^J tj »$Ul [*«Ai 5^j if-Y 

The Guidance In Grammar 175 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

The Superlative is utilized in three manners: 

1 ) The Mudaf, as in: ^\ jjJi !y> Zaid is the most virtuous of people; sfyT J-iJ! iiUi 

Fatimah is the most virtuous of women. 

2) It is defined with Lam, as in: jjJSfi Juj Zaid is the most virtuous. 

3) The particle (•>«) is placed after it, as in: j^i ^ jjJi isj Zaid is more virtuous 

than 'Amr. 

fj 2Jj\kJ }j£j \J }S&\ j ily^l t r 5UL U5*J ajJI ^UaiJI 5^ y JjSfl ^ jj^J j 
jiiJI jjJbjJI j (.j£ll JJsil j (.Jill }U>£f jLUjJI j (j»jill J-iail JyJ) :>^ (Oj^JjJJ J-s-aiill 
J .Jill JJail j .Jill LJlJaJ jLiffl j .Jill JJadl j .Jill ^LiaJ lift j (.Jill J-kdl j (.Jill 

JJsJI ^IJub) :J^ <5*£jwl j SlyVI s-*^ Mv 5^ 5| J ♦((O^l J-^l j j»Jill oLLkJ oLdfll 

.JUj JJail 6 yj> j ^j 

In the first, the singular and masculine is permissible, if the Mudaf llaihi is defined with 
Lam, just as it permissible for the Superlative Noun to agree with the modified-noun, as 
in: j.jiJi jjJi jjj Zaid is the most virtuous of people; *$\ jjJi j >iitl ^Lkii jIjjjJI 777e /wo Za/bfe 

are the two most virtuous of people; .jifl jjJi j ._jUl JLlJj ojiyi 777e Z#/#s are the most 

virtuous of people; ^\ jjJi j r jill JiiJ il* Hind is the most virtuous of people; LLiJ jbi$JI 

.jUl jJiii j .jifl 77?e /n/o /y/ac/s are the most virtuous of people; ^\ jjJi j r jUl oLLki oljd^ll 

The Hinds is the most virtuous of people. If it is indefinite, the singular and masculine are 
required, as in: ji>j jjJi 3> j ( ^j jjJI j|ju» 777ese f/wo,! are #7e most virtuous of two men 

and these are the most virtuous of men. 

j ijjJL& \-o J-iial jljujJI j (jj^X- ^j-o J-^asI -~3' -Js^J ( Ijul l^i-Lo lijjLo Juji i»*?0 ^JuJI ,-3 j 

The Guidance In Grammar 176 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

In the second, agreement is required, as in: jjJVi Juj Zaid is the most virtuous; p^Jh\ jLgJl 
The two Zaids are the most virtuous; jjjah\ 5jJujJl The Zaids are the most virtuous. 

In the third, it is required that it is always singular and masculine, as in: Js u &, jjJi jjj 
Zaid is more virtuous than 'Amr; 3 j>£ j_? jJiii jIjlSjJI Two Zaids are more virtuous than Amr; 
jjU °^* jjJi oj^ 11 The Zaids are more virtuous than 'Amr; jjj. ^ jjJi oLiftl j jLiftl j li* 
Hind, the two Hinds and the Hinds are more virtuous than Amr. 

p"VI ,J J^j V j <jiMW dUi <J> Jii: JyjJifl pi j < J-tLiJI ^ >~^ 2&£ll A>jVl ^U j 
SUj cjlj Lo) :^J}i Jio ^i l*5>o J..,i2.llll pT ^Ixoj Jii c-jij ^JL^ 131 fy }Ul yblkJI 

. (jjj ^ <J ^J Li" j^ijl -UJL£ J> ^o k>J 

In the three manners (of usage), a pronoun is concealed in the subject and the 
Superlative governs that pronoun. Originally, the Superlative does not govern an 
apparent noun, except when it is permissible for a verb in the meaning of the Superlative 
Noun to occur in its place like their saying: jjj jjj. j>iL« jasLii ^j. j> ^>i %>$ cJj L» I have 
not seen a man with more excellent Kuhl in his eye than that in the eye of Zaid. Kuhl is the 
subject like Q^'\), when properly it is said: jjj ^sj. j, '&L*q \J J^JI ^isj. <J j£*q %£j cJ\j L« / 
have not a man with excellent Kuhl in his eyes as is excellent in the eyes of Zaid. 


.o>ilII j *gUI j£j ^Lt iLij (JLaS'VI ;J^ JJLt »jSui J^iJI j-o jiij pi iT^lAiSl iLkll 

• J-clill pi <J 1ZJaJJt5 )?Jj£-> LfUj J-S-fc J^-*5 ^ j 

lijL~e j 4 Ii^? (J t^ii. ^Jl& (Jj^j^JI sSLj j_ ? Lt JJLd Jxill j-o ji,.tJ pi :J_w^2i£ll pi 
i»jjij| Jji5 J lali tysft "if j jjL g-4} *j£*iJI *£>l2JI ^0 Vl j^jj V j <LJU (J*£l) 

jI^xa ijJq j$UJ p isllll j liJLJJI Jl& JJb Lo ij^LlI *3^SJI 5-? ^j 5' v^ **i sjj^isJI 

,j~iitl Jui IjJsLi iL^iS ajJddl JJLill 

The Guidance In Grammar 177 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

. jJlLo ! 2-8 dJi £>il TdUs i>£ U j 5 lgl*j J^t liJaJI Jii5 \Jji- T 

.JJlLoIj dJJi ?e*bj Tj^<>.^?n dg.MI J^^ij JJLo-f 
. JHftj dUi k~bj TJ-MJaALlI *-«°l iuL? ^lp ti*T~ 

.Zko°l 2-s ^ £>il ?J~j*ffil ^1 ^i J^UJI >JaJ jjS-A 



:2JliJI JiAJI ^. JyjuaJI ji-Jl j 2j?AStl iiiJI £>£j;l-i 

• bjSJZ S-a LbLu Juil Ijjb- \ 

.(5 t w^t C*x-5 LlsJLc; j ^jJ J4-* ^^ 3^ j) - ^ 

The Guidance In Grammar 178 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

iV > .. ?> ..,i . .- i > > 

.&*>] lift-Y 

. i V '- 1 ' ^ j^j*j i ^ l> — r 

.jJLoi j_«. j^l CjyiVuj-i 

..tL-Jll? »Lb*Ljj _ 

* tl *- of , * 

, ft- * , ^_in J '. i V_ -W 1 I ) — \ 

O -- 


. J^JN^i J^im U? > JwO^ttJ l — L 


The Guidance In Grammar 179 g^_JI jta aJaAJI 


THE SECOND PART: The Verb, its definition has preceded 


The verb's types are three: 
1-(^LJI) Past-Tense Verb. 
2-(£jLaJl) Present-Tense Verb. 
3-(>iVl) Command Verb. 

The Past-Tense 

(The past-tense) is a verb signifying a time prior to the time of conversation. It is fixed (at 
its ending) based upon Fathah, if there is no vowelized nominative pronoun. Otherwise, it 
is fixed based upon Sukun, as in: cj>b I struck. Or (it is fixed) based upon Dammah, if it 
were with Waw, as in: \jyjS They struck. 

The Guidance In Grammar 180 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 


:^ UaiJ Jjl ^i (j^JpI) Oj^ i>L i-j^l i-JL! J-*i 

< Lc-jUaJ sji-i ilJjJ j < J-&UJI **sl^ JIJL-VI j JL^JI l£> SJlL* Z\ Js L JJui i-j'VI *~£J Li" 

. J-C.UJI **«•? L^Lli °jf 

The Present-Tense 

(The present-tense verb), with one of the letters (jp\) literally in its beginning, resembles 
the noun in: 

1 -Agreement in their vowelled and vowelless consonants, as in: 4v^ He is striking; 
rjd^j. He is removing s. th., then it is like: ojL* The one striking; fcJd^J The one 

2-The (correctness) of entering the Lam of Emphasis (-usUll ii) in its beginning, 
you would say: '^.Jj Ijjj £l Surely Zaid is standing. Likewise, you'd say: j^UJ Ijjj l[ 
Surely Zaid is standing. 

3-Equality between them in the number of letters. 

Likewise, the verb resembles the noun in meaning in that it shares (its meaning) 
between the present and the future, like the Active Participle. Due to that it is 
named Mudari', in other words, resembling the Active Participle. 

4..s>.W-»" X> j.i.i.o J I >*aJI J i ( <1> j. hy'<) tjAJ t J L a LJ i u pjLiiiJI j L si . % >J (*jj*« J ^c.m J I ) J 

t-j^CLU j <-JjJ±j) tjjsO < fil_L£- LwtJ <Jl>j. ' uL o 

The Guidance In Grammar 181 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

(^Ul) and (J>yJ) make the present-tense particular to the future, as in: 4>^ He will strike. 
The Lam vowelled with Fathah will make it particular to the present, as in: y^ Surely he 
is striking s.o. 

The Particles of the Present-Tense are vowelled with Dammah in the four-letter verb, 
meaning in that which its past-tense has four letters, as in: r>ii, and it is vowelled with 
Fathah in that which is aside from the four-letter verb, as in: fcjdzi <4v^4 

Its I'rab, with the rule in the verb being fixed-construction (at its ending) due to its 
resemblance to the noun while the rule in the noun is I'rab (at its end). That is when the 
Nun of Emphasis is not attached nor the Nun of the feminine plural. The types of I'rab of 
the present-tense verb are three: nominative, accusative and jussive, as in: ( >AIj 51 i^L 

£jUilll JJLgJf ol^l iJL*Ji 
Categories of I'rab of the Present-Tense Verb 

:^jl 2jujl jJU fjLaitl JJLaJI d»\jd\ 
The I'rab of the present-tense verb has four perspectives: 

a ° ^ a ° s a ^ 

First: That it be nominative with Dammah, accusative with Fathah and Jussive with 
Sukun. This category is particular to the singular, sound verb other than the 
second-person feminine, as in: Lisij °J .t-isb jt <vi^. 

The Guidance In Grammar 182 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

j i^JLai ^J j *^JjLa5 CJl j i'^^kiu °*j* j i j^UjJj La) :JjiS <«>*-£ jl L*_j*^ 2LUlJ*£jl ijjlill 

Second: That it be nominative with the establishment of the Nun, accusative and jussive 
with (the Nun's) elision. This category is particular to the dual, the masculine plural and 
the second-person feminine singular, sound or otherwise, you would say: 

Third: That it be nominative with the estimation of Dammah, accusative with Fathah and 
jussive with the elision of the final consonant. This category is particular to the Naqis verb 
with Ya and with Waw, other than the dual, plural and second-person feminine, you would 

sa y : & ?i j {& ^ j i S) i i y j Ljr^ji y i 'jj*^ j ^a >*■ 

(j^LllL |[y2i?o j «»^UI Jjim Aj^-JI j 2j>iiiJI jj^-> CwADI j lLJa.fl jj-ti&j ^-JjJI Oj^-* 0' *^'j^' 
,(uj J j t^i.^j y j i^i-sj jj& ) :>*; *lil?lk£ll j ^j>JI j j.u£ltl ^ ^aJVI 

Fourth: That it be nominative with the estimation of Dammah, accusative with the 
estimation of Fathah and jussive with the elision of the final consonant. It is particular to 
the Naqis verb with Alif, other than the dual, plural and second-person feminine, as in: 

The Guidance In Grammar 183 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

i , ■> ' > 

.dLfJj jis i*iJI -Jut ^Is j ^j£l!l L^ <^WI J^ 1 ] Jti U^" Y 

.dUi Jl& lko°i ou s^UiJi jjuji ^ j^-n 

.Uihl c JLd\ ^aSLiJI JJUll uljij olOU jTil- > • 

The Guidance In Grammar 184 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 



.S JukLJI ^t Ifds Jjp °J CJJj- V 

.Lijidl Jl CJlill -^ 

.LijloJI £>Lg ^...............Jj^AIiil-Y 

.liiji^i. v-r 

.c*~±\J>. oUlill-i 

.^jiii ruil y 1>^ji LJilii-fl 

.^-ol^i oi^i v^yi jdiiJi-^ 

^ JyL£JI-V 

o of 

. u^y °cii> LJlii- i 

q**JJI j^3j j ^~SU1 fcirfu v-4^ 1 Jfefl-fl 

The Guidance In Grammar 185 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

} & 


The Present-Tense Nominative Verb 

jj» j i^iL-J jjs) ij£u <»jL>JI j c^^sLUI (Vt «Ju^>ij jjb j <££jjJLo pjj_^sjl pjLii«jl ^j J-aLol 

The government in the present-tense nominative verb is related to meaning. (The 
government related to meaning) is the verb's being free of accusative and jussive 
government, as in: ^ij -J, i( -*£ ji <jjjb -J, <^LJ ji. 

The Present-Tense Accusative Verb 

J ol lj) :>S0 «$Sl j -^ J y J 55 :^»iJI o>'Sfl i>l yj-.J2.ldl ^Laitl ^ J~oLJI j 

The government in the accusative present-tense verb is due to (the presence of) one of 
five particles: °J>\ j ^ j y j ji, as in: *JI ^>j j-jj 51 JL^t / ofes/re #7#/ /77j/ brother do good 
toward me; SJjJ\ y bi / will never strike you; &*l\ Jio! ?/ c^Jui I accepted faith in order to 
enter paradise; eU ilil jiL- 5il Consequently, Allah will forgive you. (Also due to) the 
estimation of (51) in seventeen situations condensed into seven divisions: 

The Guidance In Grammar 186 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

.1L*JI \JZ> coLsl :ji-o i ] L Jj> JJ6- \ 

•iJ^jJ Juj *U :j*w ^ (»^f) JlAj-Y 

•4^4^ iill 5LT Lo^ vjl*5 Jji ^ < ^AJI ( r V) ifc-r 

«JtflJI j iQLiJjj bjjji Lo) :>*; <«J£tl j !(?j»Jsj ,0*5 Ji) :>*; .^.L^kjiVI j 
. ( I^L> y^.^£j Lu Jjli Vl) :>^ »oJ»>iJI j '• (JUU5U V L> <J C~J) :>^ 

j ^1) :>sJ tgljJI ^4JI ^ LoJu&JI jjJVl olj> ,J dltf i*3iyi jljJI Jto-fl 

.(gj*3 j iULS y^joif) :>*j , U^ L-°l d>jii*JI 515" lil Uk*JI jlj J&-V 

1 -After (^x>), like: ai»JI J»il ^i» cuLI / submitted (in faith) until I will enter the 

2-After L~i) in the meaning of (?i), as in: Jl-4! jjj »U Zaid stood in order to pray. 

3-After (a>£AJl ^), as in His, the Exalted's saying: ff&IiiJ *&' 5^ ^f "But Allah was 
not going to chastise them. " 128 

4-After (fUJI) occurring in reply to a command (>sSfl), as in: j-.JA.-i iLst / will submit, 
then you must submit; (after) a prohibition (^l), as in: oI*£i ^^si V Z?o not be 
disobedient, you will be punished; (or after) interrogation (il<jLj)fl), as in: ilis JjS 
T>*i^ Do you know, then you will be successful?; (or after) negation (J&I), as in: 
dLiJJi bjj,j5 1* You do not visit us, then we will honor you; (or after) a statement of 
hope CJ-iin), as in: Haiti vl> ^J cJ / w/s/7 1 had money, then I would spend it (for 
good); (and after) propositions G*>Jl), as in: \^f y~~4^ Lj jjii -ii Is it not that after 
you landed with us, then you were affected by goodness. 

The Guidance In Grammar 187 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

5-After (jiyi) likewise, occurring in reply to matters preceding in the fourth section, 
as in: iLii j •Aj / will submit and you must submit... until the end of the 
examples. 129 

6-After (ji) in the meaning of (<J\), as in: JL> ^ukti ji di!» / will come to you until you 
give me my right. 

7-After {uLii\ jlj), when the appositive is an apparent noun, as in: '^6 j oUL3 j~*J\ 
Your standing and leaving surprised me. 

:^6 «5_ik*JI jlj £-s j <(ikJI J^ij $ caL4) :^6 ^ ( f V) j-s (j!) jlffel j^fj j 

. (jjl*j 5teJ) :JA3 * Uiui^T lil ^ LV) j SiillJI "if £-5 Ujlfkl Lc>o j 

It is permissible to combine (51) with (.V) in the meaning of i^J), as in: IL^J) j»ii $ cuLi / 

surrendered (to faith) so that I will enter into paradise; (and combine) with the Waw of 
Apposition (uk*)l jlj), as in: h** £t j oULs ^fM Your standing and that you are leaving 

surprises me. 

.(t^j&j; ji »>iii^ -J o^i) : ^ 'f^ 1 -^ £91^ U^M ob < ^ W^ 

Know that (-,!) occurring after (a statement of) knowledge, it is not an accusative 

governing agent for the present-tense. Rather, it is only a lightening (of the effect of 
government) from the heavy (accusative) government, as in His, the Exalted's saying: 
4i_5~b>s °SL> ^jL^ 51 -Ad} "He knows that there must be among you sick. " 130 Regarding its 
occurrence after supposition, then two perspectives are permissible: that it be made 
accusative due to (the supposition) or that it made like that which occurs after knowledge, 
as in: i^Lyi ji iy^L^ 5? \AA /suppose that I will help him. 

The Guidance In Grammar 188 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

The Present-Tense Jussive Verb 

j Lii> j ^Jl j lol j L4-S j 5[ :^b j « jljUiJI iir j «2U^lill ( V) j ^Vl iV (J) j UJ j J 

The government in the present-tense jussive verb is due to one of the following particles: 
(•J); (ni); (jh\ iV); (L*&l if) and the words of requital (siju^Ji 'j£), and they are: 

»jjXUI jl j j_yjl j ^1 j j-o j Ui~> j ^Jl j Lol j L>4-^ j j| 

as in: ^LJ -J He did not travel; ^Jq UJ A/e had not (yet) disobeyed; °q£A He must spend; 
Cjj15 if Z?o/7? Strike!; i,J>] %.J&5 l\ If you are respectful I will be respectful, until the 
examples' end. 

.ilii LoljS j SJLA3 \Jj5 L^i Jl VI dUji" ( UJ) j UiLi L^U £jU^JI Ujc (jU) Sf jJLfcTj 

j jjj iOj) :J^b V j tiilJI lilb UJ °^l * ( UJ j JJJ ij5) :]J5 t ( UJ) JJb JJUJI JsL: j_^ j 


Know that (jj) governs the present-tense as a negated past-tense verb and (UJ) is like that 

except that there is an expectation after and a continuity before it. 131 It is permissible to 
elide the verb coming after (UJ), you would say: UJ 3 ijj %x> Zaid regretted and yet, 

meaning: iJLlII iilb UJ Regret bad not yet benefitted him. You would not say: *J j isj ^j! 

The Guidance In Grammar 189 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

.»jL>JI j C^UDl j_fc '^JtM 6^ 'M pjUbiJI £-f)J 

.(sjliill jl j jil '(_/ ' jJ '<!>') : L?^ i tju^iJl y^ljill 1>I ^iLt Ji^i lil v^ilJ j 

jiill JJu iiSljJI j .iLiilfl j_« iii*J jjj& Ljl j <i^Lj C«...1J.lJ JlaJI Jl*j IUjIjJI ( jl) L«l j 

• *i-*JI Aaj AioljJli L^JuL>u jl jyx-> U-j <u^u L^.L«.-> jjsyj 

^o>| jl (^1 V <^o°Vl ^ < UJ <jj) :^* j < r jl^JI i>l joU J^S lil ^jLAdl JiiJI ijrfj j 

. (»jl£aJI jl j [Jl *jjl < j-o 4 UlX> < jJl i Loil < L4- 5 < jl) Jj>* j tsljUJJI s^UK 

.jjSn jji ^ilfi ia: Ujj £& jAiii ji ( UJ) j (jj) ^ 3>Lri j 

T^jLbiJI J*iJI jij ^ J-oUIl >A U- N 

.Sjui^ aJLLoI iljjj *-0 OjLiiaJI JJLflJI C-Jfij J-«lj-fr ijLfr-Y 
.sJuiJ iil^' £-° pjUbiJI yJaj ^ ( jl) JjLftj >~blj-« ^■i.'u.a.V ^il-f 

.dUif jL' T^LiiJI 2_o (jl) jLffel C^i j^Ls-i 

.dUJj jls TV ' p i ^UaUJ L^b pLjl JLi3 liSljJI ( jl) jl JjS-0 

rjjijjui&jjii (ji) ^ u-n 

. If) JJLo j < >J*JI J-0 lj_fc iJLfr- V 

.sJlJJ 2JlLo°I *-« L&ijLt ^i *-o oljUJJI oLI^ iJLfc-A 
.ktjj jls 5 L4ui j^Ul Lo j T^jLsriJI ^i*-s ^i (UJ jjj) j^*5 lilo-<\ 

.xJJ Jl^-o ^o 4|i 3&I 5 ( UJ) I*j Jiill oI» Jj^j Ji- > • 

The Guidance In Grammar 190 gj^JI jii oJoaJI 



:j$q L-J Jy*S\ j cvktll J-oU j <OjJaLd\ j iijjA-JI pjLaiJI ^Aijl-I 

- -- J* 


.j^Jb lit j ^-jlfl iji^-s Iji- I 
.jJiiSI ^ jLsjisJI ^Jl cJL>-C 

.1^ l~^ UIU. V?-> 

.^^iduLJ jl... ..-Y 

.7ts*Jsj..... jjb _ r 

•JM Jj^c^s/i-t 

5' j^U" LS^" 

dii^l ^jJ U-n 

_| jLO«^i J 1> _ V 

srr .{^ h\ jjjj\ £d\ ^o v j>-r 

^jfo^l i J^ >& ill' SlM 

The Guidance In Grammar 191 g^_JI jta aJaAJI 

f & 



, f 

* * t 

A word of requital (sijU^Ji liis"), be it a particle or a noun, is entered upon two sentences in 

order to signify that the first sentence is a cause for the second. The first is termed the 
condition and the second, the requital. 

blT li[ j (ilf/t ^p> o|) :>^ < L^i fj*JI L^i o^^ *ij*n i i^ 1 5^ 6! p 

Jp j « (ds-s^l t^/l 5[) «i^ «*rf iUJI j^ jJ (i3) ^ L-bU * lj*JI 6 IT lil i5l jJU'l j 

Then, if the condition and the requital are both present-tense verbs, the jussive state is 
required in both, as in: k*/t ^^ jl If you honor me, I will honor you. If both verbs are 
past-tense, there is no literal government in either verb, as in: cj>^ cj>^ jl //yew /75c/ 

struck, I have struck. If the requital alone is a past-tense verb, the jussive state is required 
in the condition, as in: 'dhy£ ^J^ jl //yew s//7/re /?7e, //7e/7 1 had struck you. If the condition 

alone is a past-tense verb, two perspectives are permissible in the requital, as in: jsL> jl 
aU/i ji oLf/i //yew /rac/ co/7?e to me I would honor you. 

The Guidance In Grammar 192 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

Know that when the requital is a past-tense verb without (the particle ii), Fa is not 
permissible in the requital, as in: iiii^l j~-*-J'\ l\ If you honored me, I honored you; (as 
well as) His, the Exalted's saying: 6 LJ -,{£ iiis ^ jf "And whoever enters it (Bekkah) will 
be secure."™ 5 If the requital is a present-tense verb, positive or negated with (v), two 
perspectives are permitted, as in: AJJ»M ji oLs^>i j^J^c jl //"yew honor me, I will honor 
you;l<iijJ\ yS ji dJj-bi "51 ^isiii i{ If you abuse me, I will not strike you. 

:"^>\j^ jUjji J* ciUi j iiw\ a*j L^q ^jjjS'UI ^.£.^2.1 1 ji>l ;H>>JI ^>>J jU 5J J 

.^U £_! ^>i IIS jjjj 5|^ : L^^ ^1^ (^) H W^*-° * Lr^' Oj^e 5' Oi^i 

Lo .^Ls^l 3ft £1^ 5-5 jf .'^Lo *Jj3 >*J < ( V) ^jL. UiLo LtjUaJ 2 lj*JI 5_^j 5 1 : lj^' 
.^LfllLol jJLt liS ilijJL £U 5-S^ -i^Lo ^f>^ <2iU*sl 2JU> 5j^ 5' -^4^1 

-0,, <** 

LSI j 4^A5U 'JJI 5^i p* i[ J5> :^JU5 JjlT < 1^1 LSI ^UJI Zk>' o^So £1 :Jj|-JI 

°*4jjJ| Cwojj Lj AiLi *4f^u 5| if : l_r"-*5 J^IS" i 5 Lill >~b>« l!U£i\ aJuAJI *-s (lil) ka5 j3 j 

1- t '%, * (. ( 

If the requital is not one of the two aforementioned categories, the particle Fa (flill) is 
required in the requital, and that is in four circumstances: 

First: The requital is a past-tense verb with the particle (ii), as in His, the Exalted's 
saying: 4*J U j>s ii* j^j ^ "If he steals, a brother of his did indeed before... " 136 

Second: The requital is a present-tense verb negated with (a particle) other than (v), as 
in: $iL> jJj °Jj Li ,%^\ ^i gx °jj 3} "And whoever desires a religion other than Islam, it 

shall not be accepted from him. " 137 

The Guidance In Grammar 193 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

Third: The requital is (may be) a nominal sentence (iujI ik>), as in His, the Exalted's 
saying: { i^JLui ^le ill zi^JL fu >*)» 'Whoever brings a good deed, he shall ten like it (as a 
reward). " 138 

Fourth: The requital is a creative sentence, either a command, like the His, the Exalted's 
saying: {j±jJ,^ iltl 5ji*J pis' aj js) "Say: If you love Allah, then follow me." 139 Or a 

prohibition, as in in His, the Exalted's saying: {j^i\ [J\ %iji>^ % oU-oJJ ^iisl* -,li) "777eA7 

//yew #/7c/ //?e/77 to £e believing women, do not send them back to the unbelievers. " 14 ° Or 
interrogation, as in saying: Li>^ ;>sS us^i £l If you abandon us, then who will show us 

mercy. Or a supplication, as in your saying: iltl di*-y±> U£i/I -,! If you honor us, then may 

Allah show you mercy. 

At times, (lii) occurs with a nominal sentence in the place of Fa, like His, the Exalted's 
saying: {hMh °<J» l*l }+i<d °^& Lj ill*; j4f*3 jl j« "And if an evil befalls them for what their 
hands have already wrought, lo! they are in despair. " 141 

, $ ** | m t 

iwm jufti isc cy) ji» u3i j 

.(i>^ui^ V) :^ 4 ^lll-Y 
.(dJ/S bjjji Ji) :JA5 ;il4ii,.sVI-V 

.(U> v^ Uj Jjii Vl) :>^ <>>UI-0 
The particle (51) is only estimated after the following verbs: 
1 -Command Verb, as in: °^I5 -1*5 Study, you will succeed. 
2-Prohibition, as in: \jf. ^5o 4.IS0 H Do not lie, (the outcome) is good. 
3-lnterrogation, as in: AjJS bjj,j5 J^ Do you visit us, we will honor you. 
4-Wishes, as in: eLsji-l ^jlt did / wish you were with me, I would serve you. 

The Guidance In Grammar 194 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

♦,1 :ji (^>Ji jOs3) :^Jji ijjj> op «3fe-°Vl ^i cjfj \J ^liJJ ^s JjSfl Jl iJ lil ^JLfi JT 
V il ( jLi,-^JI pLu^V ( jlltl J^I5 yS6 V) :dUji ^ujT dUjJJ t^Sl^fll dLjli" j <£*ii jjis 

All of that is when the first (the condition) is a cause for the second (the requital) as you 
have seen in the examples. The meaning of (fe*15 jJUS) is: °^15 JLiii 51 //j/cw study you will 

succeed, and likewise are the remaining examples. Due to that, saying: jllll j^Ji >& Sf Do 

/?ctf disbelieve, you will enter the hellfire, is not allowed due to the disallowance of the 
cause when it is not proper to say: jllll J^ii -jLz 1 1[ If you do not disbelieve, you will enter 

the hellfire. 


Jii) ^J jJt,Vl ILAJI j «i*Jlly Li-2 ^JjVI X J^ 51 lA^ '04^> iJ^ J>-^ SljUiJI isK 

.(>>lfUI>') ixillll j (>>itl 

.jl4>jJI iiL> j_^J < Lblo »i»j i?>ill 51^ li| ^j <* lj> jl ^>^ pjL^iJI J> i)»JI <L^ 

: J^jJI Ju- /Ufl J>i 

:^lj_« layl ^i jlaJL i lj*JI £1^31 v**^ :Sfjl 
.(V) jii Uilo UjUaJ i Ij^JI 515" 131— V 

hud &> i i>ji 5ir iii-r 

.(V) J^u Loots' jl bJj ^UiJI 5^ liljL^jJI jj^J:L:b 
.(ii) jiij L*> 2lj*JI & lil 5 Xitl J>o jj~ V :Lltb 

The Guidance In Grammar 195 gj^JI jii oJoaJI 


.dUjJ jis TUJ>i jJu Jjg liLo >JU j riljUiJI Ids' Ji^Jd U jjU-Y 

.1) JJLs ! 5 ljj*JI j J?>lll ^ ij^JI <L*J ^Lo-V 

.^JjJ jio 5 5 |j*J| >JU fi UJI J>i j^ V j^-V 

.JLLo il^l j-* 5 lj»JI jjLc: 6 UJI j>o j^fJ j^is jS'il-A 

.SjuiJ J^y LfJ jJU j 5 ljj>JI ^Lt g Ull Jjpo ^^j ij\jj> £i\-\ 

.xJla JL1*j iUi ^bj 5^1o j Tjlill ^>« ( lip £i5 Jj£- ^ • 

.fJLLS Xk-'t dUi J^il 5 (5[) jj& JLoSf I y JJu- > ^ 


* ^>5*J j'- a Ji : f-^ * Lr*-J' j byll\ Ut^ J"*^ £>^ oL*> _ ^ 

. LkU 5 IjaJI WS I4J J**5 V J^>6!A5oU-r 

.bjc*j Lojj^-o J^^Lh (j_j5\j J-ob- P!A3 oLfe _ r 

.j Ij^JI j J93JJI ^ Aj^-fl Ut^ j_^Aj J^> P!Ai oU- £. 

.j l#JI >Jj. 6 Utl J>"i IfJ jyAj V J^> 6!A5 oU-0 

.j IjjjJI Jl& 5 LaJ J>o l^i jj*q ^J d>!A5 oU-1 

.Lj>Ij Jj^-fl ^Lt e LaJI Jj>i l$-j ^j^ J-** ^^ oU-V 

.SjlLo L^J (5|) Oj^o J-*^ ^^ ola-A 

The Guidance In Grammar 196 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

J^*JI fj 4jj>j jl tousle jl tUfJ .j*JI jl>> °^ j * Jj^JI j >>itl (^ik^ £>IjI-o 



.ol>9 ol^5 51 - ^ 

ijl^sJI ^ j <dUa L^i j>^ ^ ^iJI S^lj-sJI ^ j < Jj*JI >JU' 5 IiJI J>o v>?J SjL^ °a£-£ 

: J^JI ^o ^ LL. oU>>JI U-i 1^3 ^Jl 

u '-4>^ ere f^^ lJ ^5 5ii>-r 

^ fc \*^ji 5 l^' J^ L^ rf Jt^i ^^ 5j jf- o 

UV .4UJI ^4^j l?J4^ ^ 0^ p* 0! J^-a 

Jjb ILsJLS (^) cJl J^f ^i' ^s-V 

.sjjiSo jli j&- j-o IjliiS* Lo J- A 

.U>JiJI dlj*S LiL>5!"^ 

The Guidance In Grammar 197 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

/^J\ &J %3J\ oJJ p ^s- > 
^ ^4 LfLo ^i \jifS iio p*2> lil j^- 

The Guidance In Grammar 198 gj^JI jii oJoaJI 



Ji\ jjlj 

The Command Verb 

51 iiL^, j ( r jl j jil j O^l) :>*; < v^UiJI J-c-UJI ^ JAAJI yJU> Ji£ Jii IdT :^iVl jAj 

•* - * 

i{jjj[ «^j| «»jl tji! .ujil) :>*; .^cjL^-s <J US' r >>JI Ls^U jjU *u-S ^\ J*i j 

The command verb is a word signifying the seeking of an action from the subject of the 
second person, as in: ,jl <>ti .Oj^l. Its forms (are produced) in the present-tense verb by 

eliding the Particle of the Present-Tense, then look, if that which is after the (elided) 
Particle of the Present-Tense is vowelless, Hamzah al-Wasl 150 vowelled with Dammah is 
added if its third consonant is vowelled with Dammah, as in: >JJf; and (the Hamzah is) 
vowelled with Kasrah if the third consonant is vowelled with Fathah or Kasrah, as in: «^l*l 
kjd^l <vj~s>1- If (the letter after the Particle of the Present-Tense) is vowelled, it has no 
need of the Hamzah, as in: l^U <i&. From this (category) is the form of (juivi). 

The command verb is fixed or Mabniy (at its end based) upon the signs of the jussive 
state just as is the case in the present-tense, as in: °^i < h^l < l^l ^1 < r ji <>ti »0>*l. 

The Guidance In Grammar 199 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

JjLJ Lo j Loji~k* ajjl 'o£-J 5' j • (£^ ' Vj-^) : i^ '»ijlj 2 b j < J-Jj »3*i L^bljl <J} '-■....'.jJ 

The Passive-Voice Verb 

The passive-voice verb is a verb whose subject has not been mentioned. It is a verb 
whose subject is elided and the verbal object is put in its place. It is particular to the 
transitive verb. 151 

The passive-voice verb's signs in the past-tense verb are that the first letter is vowelled 
with Dammah only and that which is before its end is vowelled with Kasrah, in those forms 
in which Hamzah al-WasI is not in their beginning, nor the extraneous Ta, as in: r>i ^OjJ. 

(And) that its beginning is vowelled with Dammah and that which is before its end 

vowelled with Kasrah in those forms in which the Extraneous Ta is in its beginning, as in: 

**> '• * *.' 

(And) that the first vowelled letter is vowelled with Dammah and that which is before its 
end is vowelled with Kasrah, in those forms in which there is Hamzah al-WasI in its 
beginning, as in:jjiii igJJJi. The Hamzah follows the Dammah, if it has not been passed 

.(Jj>Ju «C^UJ ) :^6 .IkiS j>H\ Jp Lo £cj Ifrj LsiUIl 

The Guidance In Grammar 200 g-*_JI jis aJaAJI 

The sign of the passive-voice verb in the present-tense verb is that the particle of the 
present-tense is vowelled with Dammah and that which is before its end is vowelled with 
Fathah, as in: r>lij ,u>iJ, except in the forms of: (jILlUI <J~*ii)l .juivi .iLtliiJI), and their 

associate matters. Their only sign in the present-tense is the Fathah before the end, as 

in: Ty*\\j n_~^l>sj. 

J_4fJI ^Ul ^i Liftl UM Li" (£U j JIB ) :&> i UJf oj>Vl ^UaiJI ^ ^jUI d& j 

The passive voice's sign in the Ajwaf verb 152 is that the first consonant of the past-tense is 
vowelled with Kasrah, as in: ^ <J~3. In the present-tense the middle consonant is 

converted to Alif, as in: ILi <JUJ, just as the Alif in the past-tense passive-voice verb is 

converted to Waw in the forms of (J-eiiiii .iitUiJI), as in: i&jc .JjJ, as you are familiar with 

from Tasreef. 


.JiiJI Jifc Jo; Jji LK :^l Jii 

. Ijj-1>-o s^> I JjL9 Lo j 1 ^ j ^ ■ h A A_Lo (iJ^sI-o ^J}> 

The Guidance In Grammar 201 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

, j,. , . ,-r « c .. '. . > 


.iJ Jls j J-JjJI 6>i ilj3 J^Ls /il p *^o°Vl J*j t L^J ^T °^-T 

.xli&i v>^' t 5 >&i J^ ^ Lo Ji£ ^-r 

5^5 j^Ls j ^oVl J*i ^i J^jJI \'-jJ> j^ij J^-i 
TaLli pJ J ^iJI Jiifl i Lai LLo- 

*b V j J^jJI S>i L^ljl ^i cuuJ ^!l yljftl ^ (jr^LJI J^ 1 J^M^ L?^ ^ _v 

.jJLLi xIlsL dUi ^ *ll$lj 

.ajjj &JI oU TsJulj fb ajjl ^ ^4JI ( ^»UI Jiifl J,4?aJJ j^ U^-A 

.iJ jls j 5J-Jj s>jb Jji ^ ^jj| ^Ul JiiJI J^^AsJJ ^ u»*^ 

jis TaJJU-aJI j xLtliiJI j J-^l j J^ 1 V^ CrS £jL2riJI J*iJI J^Asif <^j OtfM > 


.iJ jL j <jj>^l ^jLb-LlI Jiill ^ J^AiJI e Uj kki" ^i°l- > f 

The Guidance In Grammar 202 g-*_JI jia aJaAJI 

:lfcj J-J^JI Sjii **> U«i ^Jj j <IJl£jl JiAJI Ji jh\ juii '^1*-1 

.«|jLt Ojii dbl^ ^j^y J^tl j < IjuI ,ji^*5 dbl^ dJLiiJ J^tl»- > 

.j4J ^b'M j < J>ji Ji ;>~> o i-r 

.i^Jujjl *■*>■■■>?'< lUJrl 
.CJLJI Cuil-f 

The Guidance In Grammar 203 $±J\ jii oJoaJI 

:J^AilJ 2JliJI JUiSfl ^l-i 


The Guidance In Grammar 204 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

> V 



Passive Voice And Active Voice Verb 

:JJL .JjJLlsJI ^Jl ^liifl jji ^ JJtiJI ^ij #« Ju: jjb Lo ji j <fjkll JJ4JI- ^ 

/ * - ' \ 

.aaU JJUJI ^jij Ju- jLJ Jjildl \J\ ^1& La ji j <s ^I*idl JJUJI-Y 

The verb is divided into two divisions: 

1 -Passive Voice Verb. It is that which signifies the occurrence of an action without 
transcending to the object, like: juj -^si Sa'eed left. 

2-Active Voice Verb. It is that (verb whose action) trancends to the object in order 
to signify the occurrence of an action upon it. 

. ( ljjJJL> .UaJj j*hj) 'j^u i ^>\j JjjJ u) - \ 

tijJjjUL* i>l I^^Lt jL^alSVI a-j JjAj j « ( L*iji lji*> «A***5 iJa f °' ) •J^J '^J-*** 5- ^ 

The Guidance In Grammar 205 g^_JI jta aJaAJI 

The Active Voice Verb extends (its meaning) to (the following): 
1-One object, as in: \Jk> L*-i >^ Sa'eed helped Ja'far. 

2-Two objects, as in: Lijj \Jm> L*^ *JaJ\ Sa'eed gave Ja'far a Dirham. It is (also) 

permissible to confine (the verb's government) to one of the two objects, as in: 
Liji cJsM j ijjj cjLc.] I gave Zaid and I gave a Dirham, in variance with the form of 

3-Three objects, as in: Ll»I (^) l^U IJjJj IDl -jJ\ Allah informed his messenger that 
'Ali (AS) was Imam. From (these types of verbs) are: d>l> i-jf ^1 X&\ .^ji. 

< Ljbj^i JU jL^iVI j\j> J (cuktf) °JjJu* 2hJ\ JUiVl s jjb ^ 5J5S/I j JjSfl JjiisJI j 

Jit jL^iVI j\j> r lt ,J (colt) ?ij*,L< £jljj| *-o ^lill j ((Ijl*^s iiJI iiftl) :^ 

.(^-llll ^i> bit IJlju* cult!) :JUj Jj i ((j-llll ^i> Ijlj**- cult I) :JlHj5 ^i Lj&j^I 

The first and last of these six verbs are like the two objects of i&LA) in their permissibility 
to confine (the verb) to one of (the two objects), as in: Lj*j iifl -jJ\ Allah informed Sa'eed. 
The second and third are like the two objects of (c^u) in lack of permissibility in restricting 
(the verb) to one (of the two objects). Then, you would not say: ^-ilii -jf Lu*j coL.1 / 
informed Sa'eed is the best of men. Rather, you would say: ^-ilii -jf Ldi Lu*- iuL.i / 
informed Sa 'eed that 'Ali is the best of men. 

Vj&I JUlSfl 

Verbs Of The Heart 

ikil^i jjjb j l)\?i>y\ j\ j^JtJI J^ JL*il ^ j 
.CU>j~V i j- A <CJlj-0 <cJl>-£ (Cu-*>-f <cJH?-V iCUlfr-^ 

ciii? j <^U»U i_vjj cult) :>>J tjLgjj.4i.aJ I jjit L+Lo&j j&S\ j jjcUJI ^Lt J^Jc rjs j 

.(Lilt l_^ 

They are verbs which convey certainty or preponderance, and they are seven: 

1-(cui*) To know; 2-(cili) 7b suppose; 3-(cj^>) 7b reckon, figure; 4-(ci>) 7b believe, 
deem; 5-(cS\j) To believe, think; 6-(c^-tj) To claim, declare; 7 '-(oi>j) To find. 

The Guidance In Grammar 206 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

They are entered upon the Mubtada and Khabar making both accusative as a verbal 
object, as in: %^6 Ljj cj±£ I knew Zaid was virtuous; LJU \jj. ciii I believed 'Amr was 


There are particularities for these verbs. We will mention the most important of those 
particularities in what follows: 

.(fjujcuU) :]J5 yS « CcjLJ) v^^ U^>^ ±A 'lMj^H ^*A~ s 

ISU JLaui) :>*; tOjAs jl (SJU cJH? jLam) :>*J <Cwkip lil UJUJI j^-V 

jl * (T^ii> il Jilt jL»lJ colt) •j*" tfljk.sVI J43 cj«ij lil JjsjUI &£ jiii l$5l-f 
ij^J colt) :>*J ' 5 Ij^VI >^ J~S jl «(jllll ,J jL»u; L> cxslfr) :^J t^jllll J~i 

,^4*) : j^> «4>W elA" i>s i>^^ Cfbt** Wj*** j U^%^ 6j£j 51 jy^-f- 

1-They do not confine (the verb) to one of two of its objects, in variance with 
(cokfci), then, you would not say: IjjJ culi I knew Zaid. 

2-(The verb's) nullification (of government upon its objects) is permissible when 
the verb is an intermediate, as in: jJU cJjS jL*-s Sa'eed, I believe is learned. Or it is 

at the end, as in: ciife isLs L*j Sa'eed is standing, I believe. 

3-(The verb) is diverted from government when it occurs before interrogation, as 
in: I^Lks* if dlit L*J\ Lsii I believe Sa'eed is with you orJa'far?The meaning of 

Ta'leeq is that it does not govern literally, rather, it governs in meaning. 

4-lt is permissible that its subject and object are two dependent pronouns from one 
thing, as in: UikU jih±£ You informed me of departing; %±,\j d£lii / assumed you 

to be virtuous. 

The Guidance In Grammar 207 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

j i KCjy^aj] ) |_ r J-J \£*i'j> j ' \C~Syz) ^i^^i \C*lLc) j * iC&fl"!) [_yJUj ICJ-Lb) oj^i -^ J 

<^i£ll JL*JI °j-o i*L> o^^ ^ <^»2i Ijl>Ij "tfjilo L^pizj < (llLJJI c+2~J\) ^jJuj (cu>j) 

At times, (ciii) is found in the meaning of: c^Jl 7b suspect; (c^U) in the meaning of: cJ>i 

7o £e aware; (cAj) in the meaning of: o>^ji 7o see; (oI>j) in the meaning of: lillll cj_^i To 

acquire lost. They give the accusative state to one object only. Then, at that time, 
they are not Verbs of the Heart, like: yli$)l ol>j I found the book. 

.4j JjJ-kll Jl J-tliJI jjL*£ V JJJ :f jkll jAill 
:^JI ^1*^ >* j *j Jjiidl \J[ JjtUIl jjUij JJj :^o*£dl J*ill 

• 4>lj JjJuL fl - 1 

. Ufc.^fi ^iJI j Jj&ifl Jlc J^jg j jU^JJI jl ;^JLJI JLi3 Jl*il :oji£ll JUil 

.^Ab ,13 j J»iill j-t jU5 1j ejjiaJI JLol 

.Jki H IkU JJUJI JLo-tl fie : jJjiJI j 

>t ^U j LkH LgJLo-frl tic «L«hl j 

The Guidance In Grammar 208 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 


'''Oil •** £ 5* "* * ^ Si*'^'' 

.JLLo J\ '*j> _^>JI j laiiilL l$ls_fr ^L j to^liJI JLol jlt-o 
:U JLLo /i £-s dUi ^il T^^^ yjiifl JUif JJih j J^U ^b -,! j^ Ji-A 

.JLLo /i j-o kji '& 1 liU j J^ill ^ Vj i£fl Jl*£| jii: ^s-A 



«■" 4 f 

Li*LS 51T 131 djkaJ, '&£. j <ZJUI JiAJI ;>? jij^UI j ^iiiUI JJUJI £>iJl- 

tf *■ <■ o* 

. L ji jjjltl cjlL&I-Y 


The Guidance In Grammar 209 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

.Colo i (^) tsu aJ^jj alii jju o f-£ 


i °. * * I . *• 1/ 

.viols' Li i^Ls^i 6i>j-r 

. L*^> ;>jlH Cu^>- 

The Guidance In Grammar 210 g-*_JI jia aJaAJI 

Ill >j^JI 

> oi * 


XyUttJI JUil j l^lill JUiSfl 
Defective Verbs and Verbs Of Approximation 

J J^ J 5^) : L?^ i ' ^J-^ 3 -* V^ jh^ "$**& ] <J*& J-*:^-" jiJ*-^ ^-*-^j JL«^I :'Lhj\li\ JL*J^|-| 

'\ji> 'j&\ U^5 j IgJ LsT JjVl fi^ <^JI j IailsJI jJU J>Ja j < (£JL.^f j ^°! 

. ( Lj13 -u^s 5^) : Jj-*-^ ' U^ 

A-Defective Verbs: are verbs coined to affirm a subject's description being other than the 
description of its Masdar, (the Defective Verbs) are: klL.< Lf ^j,\ 3 faj) 5 3L* 3 jis". Defective 

Verbs are entered upon the Mubtada and the Khabar. It gives the nominative state to the 
first as its noun and it gives the accusative state to the second as its Khabar. You would 
say then: L:13 Ju} jis" Zaid was standing. 

r^LJl 2&5 Jlc (51D j 

jJJI 5^ j} 'j*l < L*jli Ul i^^bUI ^ LfULiJ l*^> o^j ^Lt Jjj jyb j ( I^3b- > 

.(&L4 Jui5^) : &c t Ukit* jl ^ LS> LU 

JlJj Ljs ^i ijliitl J^r> ^1 < (JLiaJI 5^) 'j£l ' (J-^> j C*f3) J_5^**j ;>* j <iib-Y 

.jjjJUJI L»LlL« 

The Guidance In Grammar 211 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

(jis") has three divisions: 

1 -Defective (l^sb), it is signifying the establishment of its Khabar for the subject in 
the past-tense, either continuously, as in: {Ls>> Ll£ ill I & j^ 157 "And Allah is the 
All-Knowing, Wise. " Or disjunctive, as in: tia jjj jis" Zaid was a youth. 

2-Complete (lib), it is in the meaning of establishing and achieving, as in: juill -^ 

There was the battle, meaning the battle was achieved. Here, it conveys its 
linguistic meaning. 

3-Extraneous (sJblj), It is that the meaning is not altered with its elision, like the 
saying of the poet: 

olj*JI 'Lij^Jjl jlS" J_ s i_fr l_s- s '->^ j^V (_^l <_s-^ s^r? 

The thoroughbreds of Bani Abi Bakr raise 
above the signs informing (of their status) 

Juj ^Jl) :>sJ <ol3jS?l diLj *k*JI ^LLs ^l^xiT ^Lt JJc (^^l j ^i-ol j »ijf) j 

*(«■ -» ° - 

(jL») signifies transfer, as in: Uii isj jL* Zaid became free of need. 

(^^bi j " L ^J\ j jtiji) signify the association of the meaning of the sentence with these 
times (morning, evening, early morning), as in: j/li jjj ^si Zaid entered the morning in 
remembrance, in other words, remembering in the time of morning and with the meaning 
of entering into the morning, like: {'oj*-r^> j^> 3 bj^ '&■>} "Therefore glory be to Allah when 
you enter upon the time of the evening and when you enter upon the time of the 
morning. " 158 

The Guidance In Grammar 212 $±J\ jii oJoaJI 

j} :}*6 i (jL?) [.^AiJ ^b li j 4 L^jJjj ik^JI ^l«_o jl^l ^Lt j^fJb (oL j JJ>) dUJi' j 

.<IS>sJ l|>j ji J^L jUJUI -M w 

Likewise, (6L j ji) both signify the association of the meaning of the sentence with their 
time. Sometimes, it comes in the meaning of (jL»), as in: i"\i^zJ> '^>j, ji "J2i\a iij|>f >Ij isi j) 
71/7C/ w//?e/7 a daughter is announced to one of them his face becomes black... " 159 

t^^iUI 0^> U-ojJu J ' U4r%^ ^4/*> Sk>P J_jJLfr Jjd (tilijl Lo j ^13 Lo j £^j Lo j Jlj Ls) j 

.(l^oj Jbj Jlj Lo) :j*5 

(oiiil L« <^S Lo «K3 Lo «jlj Lo) signify the establishment of the Khabar for its subject. It 
requires the particle of negation, as in: \j+J\ l£ jlj Lo Zaid is still the Ameer. 

.( LJL> 3*-oVl >b Lo ijSl) :_^>J « LglfrliJ L*^ o»ii SlL jJI c~3jp ;Jlc: 3-^ (> ^ Lo) j 

(ib Lo) signifies the time period of a matter with a period establishing its Khabar for its 
subject, as in: Uu ^Ji\ ils Lo ijil /a/77 standing as long as the Ameer is sitting. 

XSjj cSj£ Ji j « ( LJl3 isj J-4J) :jpj < LaLLo J_J j SfU jLUj> ; jr LLo ^ jJlc jii ( j-il) j 

.UL*; ^i JjVl j^JJI ^ L^ol5^l 

(^-J) signifies upon the negation of the meaning of a sentence in the present-tense. It is 

said (its negation is) without exception, as in: Lwi3 juj ;>J Zaid is not standing. You have 

become familiar with the remainder of its rules in the first division, therefore, we will not 
repeat it. 

The Guidance In Grammar 213 $±J\ jii oJoaJI 

.yLi! 2&3 ] J^if*j I4UUJ j&\ jia jjLt XJVllJ cj^J JUil :XyUiJI Jl*il-o 

B-Verbs of Approximation: are verbs coined to indicate closeness of the Khabar to its 
subject. It of three types: 

jjj jytfi) :j^ < (5i) 2-s ^jUaiJl jii s#> Jl h\ < (^ 51 i|5 Lr^ : i^ <5^ fe J-^ 1 

First: That which signifies hope, and (the verb) is: < L ^. It is not used in other than the 
past-tense due to its being a partially-inflected verb. In its government, it is like (51s - ), as in: 
fjh 51 If) '^j. Perhaps Zaid will stand, except that its Khabar is a present-tense verb with 
(51), as in: '^L jl juj ^ii Perhaps Zaid will leave. It is permissible to advance (the Khabar 
before the subject), as in: l£ £>j 51 Lr^- At times, (jl) is elided, as in: ^ ijj ^i Perhaps 

'J j < (^ hj SIS') :j*J < (of) 5ji ^jUii ^ j ( SIS') >* j t J^J^LII jjU Ji: Lo :^l£tl 

.(£>; # JJJ SIS') :& ^ >jU (-,!) J>'jfl 

Second: That which signifies attainment, it is (sis') and its Khabar is a present-tense verb 
without (jl), as in: iji jjj sis' Zaid a/most is standing. At times, (51) is entered upon its 
Khabar, as in: '^q jl Jbj sis' Zaid is about to leave. 

JJLo JL*ljI j (o>l j O^S" j Jjl> j jit) jj& j tjAifl ^ pjj-iJI j i>^l jJLt Jjls U :dJlill 
.(SIS' 5 if**) Ji-o iiLAijTj tdlijl) j.(«JL..yiSo Juj jit) :>*; 4 SIS') 

Third: That which signifies reception and initiating in the verb. They are: lit ,6/ < Jjc> < jik 
Their usage is like (sis'), as in: ...Liso jjj jik Z#/c/ was about to write...; (d-iji), its usage is 
like (sis' ji>^t). 

The Guidance In Grammar 214 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 


*. J>o, *. Pi t ..£..*. 

j -Jt\l}\ U^> j i Lfi-Jl Oj^ j JjVl £i>is ijiiJl j Jj&iJI Jut JJ*Jc JUil :i^lill JUiVl 

.SlJJ J^> ^ l$Ju*U j IfJU-s ^il j (jl^) jiLii ilt-Y 
. l$J JJLo j lao.Lt TijjLalJI JL*JI p Ijjl ^ Lo- 

.Ulo lijji ji-r 

Jj^ULLtlJIj Lo-o 
.jy>L, J#JI ol-n 

The Guidance In Grammar 215 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

.a^jikii sir- > 

.j^aiL ^jIAJI dLijl-V 
.CJLkJI J-.JJU of Lr^^ - 1 

.^5 ^yJI Oils'- V 

. Lr^5^ oi^l sir-> 
.yj >*lfikijf-i 

^^^ ' '' 

The Guidance In Grammar 216 g^_JI jta aJaAJI 



The Verb of Surprise & the Verb of Praise and Blame 

j <J^li£U !>LIj Ci*^ b!Ai Slii 5j& $1 J^lltl Jiil ilo ^uj LL* fy jL_^ ^ i 

.cijx Li - (lil Lo) JJLj J2jlj-liJ j3Lail ^ J-^j^j 

.(Ijjjijill 5^>f Lo) 

A-The Verb of Surprise is that which is coined to produce surprise. It has two forms: 

1-(li*il L>), as in: Lu*^ ^>i L* How nice Sa'eed is, in other words, whichever thing 
Sa'eed excels in. In (>^>i) there is a concealed pronoun and it is (the verb's) 

2-(«u J*ii), as in: ^ ^>i Be good to Zaid. 

It is only constructed from that which the Superlative Noun is constructed from in that it 
should be a three-letter fully-inflected verb consistent with (the meaning) of the 
superlative. In failing to find the conditions (required in the Superlative), implement the 
likes of (Is! Lo), as you are familiar with. 

The Guidance In Grammar 217 $±J\ jii oJoaJI 

Inflection is not permitted in the Verb of Surprise, nor advancing (its Makhsus before it) or 
placing (the verb at) the end, nor any separator (between the verb and its Makhsus). 
al-Mazini permitted separation with and adverb, as in: Ljj ijJI '^J\ L. How good Zaid is 

.fill j £-ui juii-o 

iijjJiLo ?^-i> Ct^*-* v*? 1 ^ ' Ij^ 2 -* ^-Lc-Ld Oj£j Jlj j 4 (-twoji J>jJI A^-t j**j) : _^*" 
j <^ L> pJu °J\ <{^ \Xm£$ :Jl*j Jjp >*; .(Lob jl «(ij*> SUj i*3) :>^ 

i ^ (^Uj) j ( li) iLli j ^Ul JJii (t->) op < ( Ju*-= ^>j U&O :>^ r < ( IJ&O-Y 

B-The Verbs of Praise and Blame 

The Verb of Praise and Blame is that which is coined to produce praise or blame. There 
are two verbs of praise: 

1-(j**j) Its subject is a noun defined with Lam, as in: JL*> J>*JI -jq What an excellent 
man Hameed is. Or it is annexed to (a noun) defined with the Definite Article, as 
in: JL»> j^l pJ. -jq What an excellent servant of a man Hameed is. At times, its 

subject is concealed. Then, it is required that it have an indefinite Tamyeez in the 
accusative state, as in: L*>~ %>j -jq What an excellent man Hameed is. Or it is 

annexed to (L>), as in in His, the Exalted's saying:^ U*J) "It (the giving of 


charity) is well," meaning: ^* L> i*j. The noun (-L^) is termed the Makhsus 
(the noun particularized) with praise. 

The Guidance In Grammar 218 g^-JI jia oJoaJI 

2-(iJ4>), as in: Lu*j ?a>j Ui>- How nice of a man Sa'eed is. The Verb of Praise is (L^); 
its subject is (Is); its Tamyeez is (%>}) and the Makhsus is (L*J). 

.{iS\j$A*> Ii|> j<jl*> Lilj II|>) :>^ 4 JL> jl 

It is permitted that a Tamyeez precedes the Makhsus or comes after it, as in: <I*^ %*j ij&j 
^Uj jL*« ijd>'. Or (permitted that) the Hal (precedes or comes after the Makhsus, as in: 
Lflj *ii» IJd> j « 3i*> Ci'lj IJd> How nice Ja'faris riding. 

UL) j ,(jJl> SUj gL j <jJl> J^JI f^i gL j .jJI> j^jJI gL) :JA5 <UL)-V 

For blame, there are also two verbs: 

l-^^Jl), as in: jjj %Zj ;>! Zaid is the wretched man, 1:J j^jJl i^u ;>L /4 wretched 
servant of man is Zaid, Juj }Uj ^-L >4 wretched man is Zaid. 

2-(a L,), as in: itu. J>^tl eL 777e evil man is Kh'alid, IJU- j^jJl i^i sL, Evil is the servant 
of the man Kh'alid, Iru- 5a»j jL /4/7 evil man is Khalid. The verb (;L) is like (>L). 


Lo) li^ j tJyjJill Jjiil ilo ^j U-o ^j V j 4V A*iJl 5 Li5V ^j J*j .vJj^ 1 J-** 

°^ Hi* * 

.(*j J-*JI j alijl 

j sLj) j <r.ulj (Li|> j sJj) :«ui*-3 j SJJI J rlsJI 5 UuV ^?j JLol :lill j risJI JLol 

The Guidance In Grammar 219 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 


.11 JJLo TrJuJL lyfjJiJxjd] jJ> Lo-V 

.lJJjL'^JJI JUil ^ Lo-> > 

°f ° - 

.1Ljj>JI J^>l Lo- ^ 

The Guidance In Grammar 220 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

.itl> SUj £ L-A 

. _i^ul '_ >! . ■ •! fl ~~ i 

t * * * .- 
.f_^MjJa}\ ft*-!) I Lf*i5. ...-T 

.A-ujJI......... -£ 

.jUx ^>j. -o 

AySi\ jllll -A 


> -v-v 

The Guidance In Grammar 221 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 


• • 



^ilfl U>- A $ SLjJI ^jyj.- V 

^j«ji ^3>- > i j^^iti i,y- \ r 

The Particle's definition has already passed. Its divisions are seventeen: 

1 -(**Jl >Jj> J ) Genitive Particles 2-(jJiJL YtfkiW ^yj) Part. Resembling A Verb 

3-(yik*Jl *Jj>' ) Appositive Particles 4-(^wiiJI ^y) Particles of Notice 

5-(JjI)I *Jj>') Vocative Particles 6-(oL>w)fi >Jj>') Particles of Reply 

The Guidance In Grammar 222 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

7-(;SLjJl J>Sj>) Extraneous Particles 8-(^.Jiil u>>) Particles of Clarification 
9-Q.LkJl <1j/j>) Particles of the Masdar ^Q-(Ja* r ^*£}\ <Jj$>) Particles of Incitement 
1 1 -(^ijiii ji-j>) Particle of Anticipation M-L^lJj\ ^jyj) Interrogative Particles 
13-(>>lll ^y) Conditional Particles 14-QojJI ci>) Particle of Impediment 
15-(dwjl£ll fb)The Feminine Ta ^-(^^iill^JThe Nun ofTanween 

17-(.usi£)l IJ) The Nun of Emphasis 

j ^ oj>s) :JjLo t *J: ,jJJI aJVI j^JI sLi_^ jl 44fi j Jjfcj JLaj")f cJubj <Jj3> :**JI (Jj^ 
.JiiJI ^iJLs -uil <j\lJ\ J, «u)l 5*4! ^JJI :°^i < (djjj Jill ^ lift) : jlo j « (o& jU bl 
We will clarify the particles in sequence, as follows: 

Genitive Particles (34JI <jj>') 

Genitive Particles are particles coined in order to connect a verb, a word resembling a 
verb or in the meaning of a verb to a noun which is adjacent to it, like: ^ c>yy> I passed 

Zaid; jj^ jL> bl I am passing Zaid. (And) like: dijif jll)l ,J II* 777/s //7 #7e house is your father, 

in other words, /7e w/70 / indicated is in the house. Then, in (this expression) is the 
meaning of a verb. 

: c? b LS Kiy> yLc. 4il«j ^ j 

' ■*' .» ********* * 

.jbjVl j* ^jJI ^>*JI J\ i{^ji\ 


The Guidance In Grammar 223 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

Genitive Particles are seventeen as follows: 
1-(o-o). It is used to signify: 

a) (ajUJI t \x£i) The beginning point. Its sign is that it is proper to compare it with the 
end point, as in: 2ijj\ \J[ s^-aJI ^ 6>- 1 traveled from Basrah to Kufah. 

b) C>~xJl!) Clarification. Its sign is that it is proper to place (j£ jiJi) in its place, as in 
His, the Exalted's saying: ^bjSfl ^ ^>*ji ljiis»5) "Therefore avoid the 
uncleanness of the idols... " 167 In other words: jb/^l 3* ^lil ^**JI 77?e uncleanness 
which is the idol. 

c) ( L p a: >*dlJ) Portioning. Its sign is that it is proper to place (j^Ju) in its place, as in: 
pjsljlJl & oi»t / /00/r /fo/77 //7e Darahim. In other words: ^Ijlil ^ai: 5o/7?e of the 

d) (ilslj) Extraneous. Its sign is that its meaning is not disturbed with the particle's 
elision, as in: j»t j-o ^u L> A/o cv?e came to me. Particles are not extraneous in 
positive speech, in variance with the Kufiyyeen. 

I^L^tlsf :^JLat5 J^ i!AJ3 (*-«) ^-«^ j <j-S US' SjUuI 5 l£p)f ^* j •*(l_^|) - ^ 

.jil>JI ^s °J i{&\jil\ \J\ {LJ\ j j^i^j 

2-dJl) It is for signifying the endpoint, as has passed, and (for signifying) the 
meaning of (^) infrequently, as in His, the Exalted's saying: 

'Wash your faces and hands as far as the elbows... " 168 

The Guidance In Grammar 224 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

j .^JJJ UM> (ill>) :JLHJ la .^^JaJ! JU J>'i5 V j (SLLill ^ ^UJI pal) :j*5 

r^tllll J3J Li! 

.iUi obj ,J ^j°I L Jl£> ^ ^.bl j^ "Sf 4JUI j 5^ 

3-(^x>) It is like (^Jl), as in: ^LAii ^!> *»jUI coj I slept yesterday until morning. (It is 
found) in the meaning of (j-s) frequently, as in: sluI! ^ ^UJl ^jj The pilgrims 
arrived even the walking. It is not entered upon a pronoun, therefore, you would 
not say: (»li>), in variance with al-Mubarrid. Regarding the saying of the poet: 

«iLj <J ^jl L d)li>' ^£j ;>bl ;Jb "if aJJI j ^i» 

A/o, #y Goo', people do not leave behind a youth (comparable) with you O Ibn Abi 
Ziy'ad. Then, it is rare. 

4-Q) (It is utilized) for adverbial meanings, as in: jlltl j> L*^ Sa'eed is in the house, 
j}L\ j> fbJl The water is in the jug. (It has) the meaning of (^Jj.) infrequently, as in 

His, the Exalted's saying: \^c\\ <qU J> \$lL£i 5} "I will certainly crucify you on 

the trunks of the palm trees... " 169 

:(j-o) j^*i^i j .**tfl jjl ^j_£ j jAill JLajy CJubj ojy :5^JI Oj^ 

.fcUJI 5 lj£#-> 


The Guidance In Grammar 225 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 


.ajii jL ?5^ji Jjy cj^j |JbU J#-r 

.l«J jls j (<J>) ^LuS 3&I-0 
W fl ^UJI Jut (<>') J>'i3 >-i 



.CJJ2JI J_jJI J^^ui L*ii-0 

The Guidance In Grammar 226 gj^JI jii oJoaJI 

.*4l&si ^> 5^UI Culj-A 
' fl-^»ll .L.-«...i T.'^~ < 

.^UsJI jLLtl. 5JI Ijj^l-V 

.isLo Ijl> jJL;-r 

. ^ , ^ fo i. ..... . La*j ^> ^T^* " i *-*_" .' I — L 


.JJJI ci^iiLo ol^i-0 

.ikJa^&JI .....L*x£JI CJLbj-A 

.X>UJI IJU cjIj-V 

pji ^ji^> >ju jy >J> ^fti ^ yjJi j>>i)i jd^ v-r 

The Guidance In Grammar 227 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

> . » 



54JI o j: j> lip 
Completion Of The Genitive Particles 

:^5j (fUI)-fl 

.(Jill cjsT) :>^ ^UoJ^U-o 

Aipry^i ;>>aJI CJjlij) :>^ :L^L^lJJ-_* 
.( IJ4j 11* c*aj) :>*J :^bUiU-j 

• (s-J^j jJwl) Ij&J /i ij.^t^ ll 

5-(fUI), It is: 

a-(jLahu), for connectivity, be it true, as in: sTj <u //? /7/s a cure. Or figurative, as in: 
ij oj>^ I passed by Sa'eed, when your passing was near to Sa'eed. 

b-(^UiJ^U), for assistance, as in: JJtJL cjii" / iwofe M7//7 the pen. 
c-(ia*£y), for make a verb transitive, as in: jl& cjjss //e/? with Zaid. 

The Guidance In Grammar 228 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

d-(iijjkf), for an adverbial meaning, as in: j^jl c-si> /sat in the mosque. 

e-(ii>LaiiJ), for accompaniment, as in: **>^ jy^lll cj>iil / purchased the horse with 
its saddle. 

f-d&mj), for requital, as in: IJL^j IIa c* I purchased this with this. 

g-(sjulj), extraneous, according to a rule for the negated Khabar, as in: j>\Ju Izj L> 

Zaid is not standing; (also) in interrogation, as in: *sUj jjj j* Is Zaid standing? It is 

according to usage in the nominative state, as in: psj: aL-i^ By your figure a 
Dirham; jlx^i Jjl [ytf") "Allah suffices as a witness. " 172 ; (according to usage) in 
the accusative state, as in: ^ \jft He surrendered it. 

.(-LTjJ JUI ji^'M JAII) ^i^La^U-i 

.xSoij ji 4^f»^J <-^jf : i_^l^ J^is" <»jblj-^ 

Lo l^ 5LT jJ IjLiT ^iJJ IjrjiT ^oSl JI3 j) :>^U5 JjiT Jjill 2-s J-Jiii lil (^) ^JU;- i 

6-(^i), it is: 

a-^La^it), for specification, as in: ±£S JLJI j ^^ J4JI The bulk is for the horse and 
the money is for Zaid. 

b-(j_»u£jJ), for explanation, as in: ^J&l &jS I struck him for the purpose of 

c-(sIjIj), extraneous, as in His, the Exalted's saying: <{%&) vJy^ "...Drawn near to 
you..." n3 In other words: hiSsj). 

The Guidance In Grammar 229 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

d-fa 'JJaJ), in the meaning of (^), when it is used with a saying, as in His, the 
Exalted's saying: 4*ji tj^ l, \jsf 51s" >t l^isT ^JIJ l^itf ^IJI jis j} "And those who 

disbelieve say concerning those who believe: If it had been a good, they would 
not have gone ahead of us therein. " 174 In it are some (other) views. 

e-QljJl '<jl*J), in the meaning of (jljJl), in an oath due to surprise, as in: J»Vl >jJ t Jj 
By God!, the date is not delayed. 

v j < r ^£ji ji^ (6j) j^j j *^ly ^ji (j^) Si ur jji^jj ^ j (6j)-v 

|_^L jisJ ^jj £>iD |4^J ^^iia-o jl « (iLil J^j 4*j) Jj*w '?j^l jj^t ^! J*"^ 

\ >o, , .. . *i,r A?, 

* (^Jji ^'/l J^j 6j) °J\ t tfdmjft ^ cjIj JjS) J13 ^ v l^> ^ {^J\ J^j 

.ojlft-5 >* j L4U1 (coil) j (J»j)J li-e (^j»^\) 5P 

7-(oj), it is for (the meaning of) lessening just as (jtf) Khabariyyah is for abundance. 

Initiating speech is required (for this particle) and it is only entered upon an 
indefinite word, as in: XLiS Hjj oj Few men I have met; Or (entered upon) an 

ambiguous, singular, masculine, Mumayyaz (which is) indefinite and accusative, 

as in: %ij Zj Few of them are a man; jA>j Zj Few of them are two men; slyT Zj 

Few of them are a woman; ^t>il Zj Few of them are two women. With the 
Kufiyyeen, agreement is required, as in: jsp\^/\ l#j j »^ii>j Lfe- 

At times, (ilisUl l.) is attached to (oj) and it nullifies its government. It is entered 
upon a sentence, as in: jjj ils L3j Perhaps Zaid stood; pti jjj 145 Perhaps Zaid is 

The Guidance In Grammar 230 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 






*. . ■". > , 

S^&L jlsJ jjj ijJiJ *&J j«i jl i}£JJ\ jJlc: VI J>jg V j <JJi&y (oj) J^*i^j j 
.jLLsAII |_ ? Lfr Jjp-llJ 2j>JL? L^JuiAj j tJ-sjJI ^ l$i£ij ialiUI (L>) L$JUJi5 15 j ilijJaLa 

The Guidance In Grammar 231 g-i-JI jta aJaAJI 


.iLit dUi jJj 1iU\ alp ^is-r 

.|JLLi J^ aJjJ jls 5 (6j) j^I5 Lo jjU- 
.|ljj jflLst dJi' ^ij 5*k£JI dJb i>£ La j TUsAfl Jut (6j) J^15 |^Ls-V 

:J-sjAJI j-« ^ U-J L$iJL«-s ^ j <<J#*JI ,>Ii-l 

.IU>j 4J1L J>jJ' ^-^J - ^ 

. ■L.t.i.'Li CJL>J _ t 


The Guidance In Grammar 232 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 


Ijfc La Vj-tf-£. 

WA .^..y ?j^ ^J\ J& 5Ufj^-r 


The Guidance In Grammar 233 g^_JI jta aJaAJI 



The Remaining Genitive Particles 

:^llll JjiT <f ^JI Jjl ^ L^ lj&3 J}\ jljJI ^ j « ( 6j) jlj-A 

8-Waw of (4»j), it is the Waw which initiates the beginning of speech, like the saying 
of the poet: 

k«s*ll VI j Jajlo^JI VI ir^'U* i>^ J-^5 i 

Few/ c///es /rai/e /70 inmates in them Except the gazelle, except the white camel 

i (Jj) JL2J yS t Jt »M\ \jj. J^Jc v j .jjbLkJi ^vl lii^j ^* j <r iiJl (jlj)-^ 

s S f 

.(j-ySJLII j t aJJI j) :JLaj 

9-(jlj) of the Oath. It is particular to the apparent noun and is not entered upon a 
pronoun. Therefore, you would not say: (i)j). You could say: Jji j (7 swear) by 
Allah; Lr ^lii j (I swear) by the sun. 

:j4!P j (^jJli) :JUJ !Ai ^J>j (Jjl) JjLttUJI Jill L^J ^ j , pill I Ub)-> • 

a ' „ - „ 

10-(fb) of the Oath. It is particular to the Glorious name (Jjl) alone. Then, you 
would not say: ^^Jli Their saying: ;l*£JI 6>> (I swear) by the Lord of the Ka'bah, it 
is rare. 

The Guidance In Grammar 234 g^-JI jia oJoaJI 

.(cjL j *,>l>5Jb j «*iJL) rj*3 <>.^tl jyfeliiJI >JU J>JSr-* j«*-siJI (*L)-> N 

11 -(fL) of the Oath. It is entered upon the apparent noun and pronoun, as in: Jjl (I 
swear) by Allah; >i>^L (I swear) by the Most Beneficent, eL (I swear) by you. 

^i (ji) ^b ur a or j£# Jjij j . j^u i&j Jji j) :_^ <z*Uiji j s^svi ^ r kii 

.(JiUJ Ljj Jl Jjl j) :^> «juill Ifc oL>^JI iij-s'VI XUAJI 

^ V aJUIj .JiU JJj U jJJI j) :>^ <l$iU (V) jl (U) J>i C^o ZiiL5 cjtf $l j 

v j! <4<-^je j*^ *i^ *IJi5)> v ij^* ^}^ tViJ&\ i&jl J&\ ^y> ^^4 j* j ♦Cij 

Jl O « _« 

^ jUJJI iaJjp jl < (aJJI j J a It juj) :^J <<uLt Jju Lo »1e5 5J ^.^iil Zj\j> oJcSJ i3 j 

.(JiU Jjlj hj) :>sJ «ylj*JI J < 5 j> 

For the oath, a reply or requital is necessary. It is a sentence which is sworn upon. If it 
is positive, it is required to enter Lam upon it in the nominal and verbal sentence, as 
in: JiU ir-j Jjl j (I swear) by Allah Zaid is just; ^liitt Jjl j (I swear) by Allah I will certainly 

do as such, just as (5l) is produced in the nominal sentence in reply to an oath, as in: j 

jiUJ T_xjJ 5| *iii (I swear) by Allah surely Zaid is just. 

If the oath is negative, it is required to enter (l.) or (i) upon it, as in: JiU jjj L> ±UI j (I 

swear) by Allah, Zaid is not just; 10 iji "i All j (I swear) by Allah, Zaid is not standing. At 

times, the particle of negation is elided due to the existence of an indicator (of 
negation), as in His, the Exalted's saying: ^jj,^ >Jl5 ijzk JJ15^ "By Allah, you will not 

cease to remember Yiisuf... " 179 In other words: i ills V. 

At times, the reply to the oath is elided, if that which it indicates upon precedes it, as 
in: jUI j J*U isj Zaid is just, By Allah. Or the oath is median between a part, meaning 

the reply, as in: JjU JJI j jjj Za/tf, By Allah, is just. 

The Guidance In Grammar 235 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

. (j-jUi j-c j^i-iii cu-sj) -*>^ iSjjUAi ^* j « (5_&) - > t 

12-(^i), it is for transversing, as in: ^jUl ^ j4-UI iu^; I shot the arrow from the bow. 
1 3-(;_jU), it is for elevation, as in: ^kUI _Jii isj Zaid is upon the roof. 

Sometimes, (Jii j _^) are both nouns. That is when (_^) is entered upon either of them. 
Then, (j^) is in the meaning of a (particular) side, like: ^^ °^£ _^ c~il> / sat on his 
right-side. (>Jj) is in the meaning of above, like: ^-jl\ <Jj. '&> cip I descended from the 

.$iy£ a\LS i^} :j__JL»5 J^" <s0jlj j * (xr^S - Isj) :>SJ <^JL£Jd _yb j (ol£JI)-> i 

L*£jl lJjJ*^I CjLwslj^ CUAj L^LaJI ijJD _^fr ' l jSsJ>-^2J 

14-(«Jl£JI), it is for comparison, as \x\: 3 jj6 Isj Za/ic/ /s //ite >4/77/: (It is also) 
extraneous, like in His, the Exalted's saying: {t^ dlJ ^Jf "Nothing tike a 
likeness of Him. " 180 At times, it is a noun, like the saying of the poet: 

They laugh like the coldness of the wolf under the winds of smelling noses 

4l°ij io) 5Lj«i ^ jjs ui i^jLJi j> jLojji g ijcrtf u» j alio' j Lo-n-u 

<J ^l t(LLojj ILo j < b^ JJ JCJlj Lo) :>sJ 4j ^?L>JI ,J y&Jbti j .(*-->j Juo 

The Guidance In Grammar 236 g^-JI _ni oJoaJI 

15-16-(iU j jj), they are for the beginning period of time in the past, just as you 
would say in Sha'ban: ^>j JJ iisfj L> I have not seen him since Rajab. (It is also for 
the) adverbial meaning in the present, as in: bji JJ iifj L> I haven't seen him 
since our (this) month; Llojj lu ... since our day. 

\x£. J JJj ^> ijall ^rU) :>*: t5 Li^)U^b j (^> j Ijl& j Lil>)-> \-S A-\ V 

. \ jS Lei Lu L> j j iS f- 

1 7-1 8-1 9-(!Ai j ijLfr j ui>), is for exception, as in: jjj y£ ijUl ^ I> The people came 
except Zaid; jjj. \±£ ...except 'Amr;£\A uu ...except Shakir. 


.(6j) <^ju, r ^JI Jjl ^ J^*i^i j (6j) jlj 

.(Jjl) ibUJI J2IL Ual*J rJb j < |< .,'>ly JuALmJ j ,.,.-;i.ll Ulj) 

•j~Jhl\ j y&LkJI *-J)n j_yJL& J>JG ^jb j (j^JUJ J-iAiu j ♦■^.ill UL) 
.(^0) l^alici^S lil ouL>JI ^LLw j i?jjL>Ji! J^I^J (^c) 
.(^0) U^Lt J^5 lil (&j) ^iii j* s 5U^l! Ji£l^ (JU) 

.115 lj j < jL^-Lzij J^.».f.,.°J («JI5UI) 

.^LJI ^i jLojJIJ^ j!iui^i (iu j °jj) 

., tdiJ)y J^iisJ ( ^> j Lie j LiU) 

The Guidance In Grammar 237 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 


•JUUj dUi «-Jj 5 L--JLtl lb) ^ai^i j^-Y 1 

.ajJjjisH^uL) j^jj Lo j^-l 

.jfe-it dJi ^Jj Tj^ill 2Ja> Jl^ pUI J^jg ^-A 

.dUJJ JLs ?^Lo j ?*-oUI JjI>> ^-^ J-*~A 
•4|i Ji£ ill* oUb H^t) ^LL5 ji L,-<\ 

.jffe^t aji ^ t^^-^T (jju j ^t) -,j4: iA°'- ^ > 
.iUi Ju; Siio-I ou h iu j jj) j^i^J ^^u J#- > r 

. L4J jibs S ( Ijlcj Lil>) JjJLi^i 5 ^i g#- N £ 

The Guidance In Grammar 238 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 



.dd>£ft Jjii-r 

.11* jis^iiUk Jjl-l 

.SlkLJI Jui ^U£JI-A 

' s • > * ' 

* * , J 

♦ 4***£ IjLt p^lktl CJlj- > 


.SjlJ-o J^> ^ 5 LJI j 5 till j jljJL p--31 _ ^ 

The Guidance In Grammar 239 g^_JI jta aJaAJI 

.^«jj JJ ^£sij U- £ 

.^BLiJI IjLt i^J ^aJlLsI-o 

The Guidance In Grammar 240 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

j^ijjlJl fl >^LUI>j^l 


Particles Resembling a Verb 

\ *«. ■*. 

\ >„, . , ... . *i^ ii 

.(juj il3 1*51) :Jyi5 <JUjVI jjLt Jj-JG 4iL> i <J-"*-il o-^- U-^is <£il£JI (L>) IgJUJa J3 j 

.uirjj jj xLsjui ^ju >ii3 v sjj-i^ji (Si) j! jjusT j 

Particles resembling a verb are particles entered upon a nominal sentence, they make 
the noun accusative and the Khabar nominative, as you are aware. They are six particles: 

(jjd <^ <^Sls\Sh $i). 

At times, (ill£)l L.) is attached to the particle. At that time, it is entered upon verbs, you 
would say: Juj iis lJi Only Zaid stood. 

Know that (£1) with Kasrah does not alter the meaning of the sentence, rather, it 
emphasizes it. 

ijfc L_J (5[) $*£ L^q dLtii j i i^Iill *£> ,J t^iiJI j **s)M £-« i>^£LJI (£!) j 

.(f:l3 lJuj Jl) :>^ i^\ t Lsl ^5 51T 131- > 

•4»>aj l$2l Jy^ :^JL«5 JjiS' « JjiJI JJu-V 

.(jLpfJ iJl ^4JI fl>) : >^ 'Jj-^>JI J&-V 
.(^UJ Lsj Jl) :>*; *pUI U> ^ citf lil-i 

The Guidance In Grammar 241 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

Know that (D) with Fathah, with the noun and Khabar, are in the ruling of the singular. Due 
to that, it is required to give Kasrah to (5l) in that which follows: 

1 -When it is in the beginning of speech, as in: 1:13 Luj %\ Surely Zaid is standing. 

/■» ^ $* 9 

2-After a saying, like His, the Exalted's saying: {vjt l&[ Jj&f "He says: Surely she is 
a cow..."™ 5 

3-After the Relative Noun, as in: 1&JJ, jjI ^JJI jl» He who came to me is certainly a 

4-When Lam is in its Khabar, as in: j^UJ Ijjj %\ Surely Zaid is standing. 


.(^13 id! cjb/) :^J < ^^ cj»ij lil-Y 

.(J-^li d21 jL^il ^^tf) :_^ t 4j| UUsJ CJoj iii-r 
.(ISU csXST <jJ-k) : j^> ' I lif-o c**ij lil-i 

Fathah on the Hamzah of (5[) is required in that which follows: 

1-When (the particle) occurs as a subject, 186 as in: jUU Luj £i ^^iL. # was conveyed 
to me that Zaid is a scholar. 

2-When it occurs as an object, as in: 1:13 d:l iu*/ I disliked that you are standing. 

3-When it occurs a Mudaf llaihi, as in: J_^u> idl jl^il j~*J\ The fame that you are 
virtuous surprised me. 

The Guidance In Grammar 242 g-*_JI jis aJaAJI 

4-When it occurs as the Mubtada, as in: isls CslST ^jIc IW/7 /7?e // /s that you are 

5-When it occurs as a genitive, as in: is is Ijjj 5' b-5 ^~>^ / h^s surprised in thatZaid 
is standing. 

6-After (jJ), as in: iu^ bait ol:i jJ Had you surely been with us, I would have 
served you. 

7-After (VjJ), as in: 'di&Ji yz>\> iii vp Had he not been present, I would have surely 
informed you. 

'\x+&i S|) :^J iJailfl j J^aJI jL^-L <owJsIfl j ^L jfjjjjJLsJI (Jl) ^1 "jit Okill j_^ j 

.(lytf> j]jiU» Jj^L* 

Apposition to the noun of (oj) with Kasrah is permissible with the nominative and 

accusative states with consideration of the place (of I'rab of the word in apposition) and 
the word (itself), as in: iyU> j *Liuf 3 p,L* Iju*- l\ Surely Sa'eed is fasting and J a' far. 187 

(Jj«J j^jJ jc^J j5^" jO 1 j5P : c^ j'ii- jAJJL^li i JI oj^JI 

.J-sjlII jx lfa£ii tiJLSUI ( Lo) L^sJg Jlj j 
'.*~±s>\jj> aJLijI ^ jl sJ^J& jJo S-*^ J 

.jjill jjb-Y 

.U^'^pUlcilf lil-i 

The Guidance In Grammar 243 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

.%sXi CJej lil-^ 
.*ij*JJ> °CJ3j lil-Y 

.ajJI liUaJ CuOj lil-f 

.\ShJ cjoj lil-i 

.(jJ) J&-A 

.(^) JJu-V 

.Jilill j JaJI jL^L U2&\ j JJ5JI (Jl) fifjjU UkJI ^i j>^ i 

. IgJ JJL« j (5|) Sj^jS j-iS" >~blj-« ilt-i 
.iiLoL dUi bw^jJ (jl) Sj£i kiij ^iLo j^il-C 

The Guidance In Grammar 244 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 



.jib jjyi 51- ^ 


& '2 -- -- 

,6jjJL5s-« L^i (50 »3*-* jj&J J**^ '—'^ oLas-^ 
.I>^iLo lg_j (50 »>*i 0_^ J-*^ ^^ pLs-Y 

:^b L. o^i-jr 

"\iJi j 5 >Ji '& ]j^_ 'III SI l^diT j>-Y 

^\4v^ '^ l -^ 1 J^ ^j^ to i^-v 

The Guidance In Grammar 245 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 



JaaJL jjf.Utl Oj£*JI 2I& 
The Remaining Particles Resembling A Verb 

At times, (5|) vowelled with Kasrah is found lightened. At that time, the Lam in its Khabar is 
required (in order to make a) distinction between (the lightened jl) and (-LiliJI il), as in His, 
the Exalted's saying,: {'^4'^ id 9£ ji j) "(Your Lord) will most certainly pay back to all 
(their deeds in full). " 192 It is permissible, at that time, to nullify (its government), as in His, 

,. 35 / 

the Exalted's saying :{'jj^J LJll jL^> Lit ^ jl j) "And all of them shall surely be brought 
before Us. " 193 

Mostly, it is entered upon the verb (abrogating a meaning established before it), as in His, 
the Exalted's saying: {'jJ^\ jJ *ki j-« ci^ ij j) "Though before this you were certainly of 

those who did not know. " 194 And: ^^i^ 1 o-°J ^& jj j) v4/7£/ We know you to be certainly of 

the liars."™ 5 

The Guidance In Grammar 246 g^-JI jia oJoaJI 

<4^>s ° r iio o^^i 5! j^^ : Ju5 jjir 4 hui ji < (151) ^1 < (j^u jjj 5! <^&) : >^ 

.l»$f> 2UuAJ| j (51) jUl jy.'.aN j^M^ 

Likewise, is (50 vowelled with Fathah. It is required that it govern the estimated Pronoun 
of Fact (jiltl >j^>). It is entered upon a sentence, be it nominative, as in: pu isj 51 ^jjL It 
has reached me that Zaid is a scholar, in other words (iS\). Or (it may be entered upon) a 
verbal sentence, as in His, the Exalted's words: {^y* °A^t 'oJ~^ I) <^f "He knows that 
there must be among you sick... " 196 Then, the concealed pronoun is the noun of (jl) and 
the sentence is its Khabar. 

. ( ±Ji\S ljuj 5| ) L*ji4^ j < U^ <J^I fi-&\ °^^ Lw| 

* t * «' 

(jli") is for resemblance, as in: JLjI Ljj $£ Zaid is like a lion. It is said that it is compounded 
from Kaf (of resemblance) and (5[) with Kasrah. It only becomes vowelled with Fathah due 
to the precedence of the Kaf upon it. Its estimation is: xh\k Ijuj 5| Surely Zaid is like a lion. 

At times, it is lightened and nullified from government, like: JLsi Juj §6 Zaid is like a lion. 
^LJ j Ju^l il3) :>*: < jljJI L|JL5 j^u j .(>bU L^i^s ^jJ j JL*> OLt j ,*!> LUU- ££i! 

. i UJLLC; Ju^£ cA^ i "*"**■' i r JI5i ) *-r*" 'Lr*^ U&tj j t \ JlcLs I-Uo^* 

(^jJ) is for rectification. It is placed between two (types of) speech dissimilar in words and 
meaning, as in: ?I> IjJU. ^$il JL*j ^I> L> Sa'eed did not come to me but Hameed came; 
yz>\> liji^-s ^jj j JL* oU Hameed disappeared but Mahmud is present. Waw is 
permissible with it, as in: ItXi Lu*> ^jJ j xsJ\ ils Ahmad stood but Hameed is sitting. 

(When) it is lightened, then, it is nullified in government, as in: blit JL»> ^jJ j Ju>i LJii 
Ahmad left but Hameed is with us. 

The Guidance In Grammar 247 g^_JI jta aJaAJI 

.\Jjd\ \Jiii (-JUL ^JJ LUl» cjJ):}^> <JJ\} cjJ j 

(cjlJ) is for distant hope, as in: Jjl j-oji IjJU. cJ / wish Khalid would believe in Allah, in the 
meaning of: jjuii / wish. 

. (iSl3 jjj JjU) :>^ t L$j j*JI li j 
j pUI L^i oJuj ( JjO I^LjI ajsiJI iU j (^ J S^ J Si i c^' j 5^) : ^ <i*ft l^ i 

(JjJ) is for reasonable hope, as in the saying of the poet: 

I love the righteous while I'm not from them 
Perhaps Allah will bless me with righteousness 

Rarely, the state of Jarr (is produced) by it, as in: isls jj JjU Perhaps Zaid is standing. In 
(JjJ) there are many variations in language: (jjJ t ffi <£! t%£ <J^). With Mubarrid, its origin is: 
(J_t) and the Lam is extraneous in it. The remainder are branches (of these forms). 

UJLJI lt.U> jjA: j tjuillll (5|) 'cr£ 5 U~?. &¥ f^l ^^ l^ j»j^ sjj-iiLsJI (5|) Cuu> lil 

ii^j^l iLsJUl ;Jl& i~-*> J>Jc j <jlLo jli ^ <J LgJL-tl L**l 1>Jju1\ (^l) ci*> lil j 

.iiUill « 

J&\ ^y> jl (j3) jl (o^) jl (^1) J>i Cc>j iiUfll UULII i>j£UI (51) cJ>5 lil j 

The Guidance In Grammar 248 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

.dUJj jls VLiAill JJu (S|) iUUI j^j JjS-Y 

.jluj 4!i ^Jj ^ ° r i juiSfi Jui akui (51 ) j^jG l-r 



:J^JI j-o ^L L^ L^Lco ^ j . JJLiJL it«±ii»l vJj^JI #- 

.j^l5 lj~*U 5!" 


.y*j &j} ^ju I!*- 


.Jul IjiSj jtf- 


nA .46jilAJ ^ji cJ L :Jl3f 


.(w-JuJ JL-jU /Ww J i)- u JJ-' jlaJU" 


The Guidance In Grammar 249 g^_JI jta aJaAJI 


.iH6J» l$-J (5|) (Sj^ J"*> ^^ OU"^ 

\4 U J?& Ijji jjili p4*-° cJS - ^^iff Lf- N 
4jjL*J CJL> i^li" ^JjJJ ks-i5 IjJ^j 5[ j^-i 

N ^^ 

The Guidance In Grammar 250 g^_JI jta aJaAJI 


Appositive Particles-1 

,°^jj j tjj j 4 V J td J »lil j tjl j 4[_^X> j 4 p j t i LaJI j 4JljJI :&jJLt ^LkiJI »Jjj> 
The appositive particles are ten: ^jJ.Jj.^i t »1 .ill * j? <;J[> .p.suJl.jijJl. 

»l j ^j^-JI (J LolLo JLfc^ 51^ t\yi i (J^**" J -^ L " £ V) : J^" < LaiLo *-oJ>JJ (jlj)J 

Then, (jiyi) is for combining, without exception, as in: JL*» j L*-d fi> Sa'eed and Hameed 
came. It being the same that Sa'eed preceded in coming or Hameed. 

.XL4J % Colli JLx*; 5^ lil (-^-^ J^** 2 f^) : >~ <*U-° y*> S-^jAi UUll) j 

(ilaJi) signifies sequence without delay, as in: L^i i»*^ iis Sa'eed stood, then Hameed, 
when Sa'eed had preceded (Hameed) without delay. 

(p) signifies sequence with delay, as in: Ifu. p jjj jis Zaid entered, then Khalid, when Zaid 
preceded in entering and between them there was a delay. 

j>. -*. 

O^So 51 J*ji£j j .(p) JI4J fc J5I l«il«J 51 VI 34«JI j ywj^ill ^ (p) JJU (<>') j 
jl 4 ULJVl ^ ,>liJI 6L.) :^J f <Jjkkd\ »ji JLa3 ^* j .^It iJjkkdl <J Sl>li L^i^kLo 

.(sLLUI >JL> £-UJI »ai) :>*J 44JU-b 

(^!>) is like (p) in sequence and delay except that its delay is less than (p). It is conditional 

that its appositive is entered into (word to which apposition is made). It conveys a 
strengthening of the apposition, as in: i\Ji\ >j£ ;>ll!l 6L> People die, even prophets. Or (it 

conveys its weakness, as in: sllsJI ;J->- ^uil ^jj The pilgrims arrived, even the walking. 

The Guidance In Grammar 251 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

LSI ( Lil) j ,(»f>sTjf b4y oj>s) :j^ ,44a«j V £&-&! ^ pUJI o^ (if j LSI j jl) j 

p j&3 o! i>~ j < ( y Lil J jfejj Lil &JI) :^j ^>1 ( Lil) L^ fj& lil Ok* J>y> 0j& 

. ( yjLC ^J jl CjL< Lil isj) :j^ « (jl) «jU ( Lil) 

(il .lil <ji) signify the establishment of a ruling for one of two matters not in itself, as in: 
»!>•! J J>^ oj> /passed by a man or a woman. (lil) is only an appositive particle when it is 
preceded by another (lil), as in: i°i lil j rjj lil 5jl«JI Numbers are either even or either odd. 
It is permissible to precede (Lil) over (jl), as in: yjiSL ^J jl LjIS" lil jjj Zaid is either a writer 
or he is not a writer. 


t --_fl^C °J l 

.°^£±t j <J_> j « V j til j i Lil j t[_j^> j ti5 j 1 2 lil I j tjl j tjljJI :^* ..iLiJI (Jjjj> 

.Uki^&Alj (jljJI) 

.iifi 5L uw^ill £-s ^a^JJ UliJI) 

.5JLJJ ^o (-^j^iJJ (p) 

^i p^ij (jj j tUi j tjl) j .jii Ljii^j jf % W\ i *-^i <^ (p) fe (|^) i 

. jLo iiJI sb jl olill ^jjJI ^ (^ j t Jj t "if til) ^ Lu*JI ^sLs j 

The Guidance In Grammar 252 g^-JI jii aJaAJI 


.ajjj jis T(jljJI) Jiiiw |^is-Y 

.SlJJ aJlLoI *^ <jJJi V^il ?(p) 'tfj j Igl^ oj^JI Lo j ^t_jLL*JI ^ (^i>) JLii liLo-i 

.Lft jlsTuikiJI^i (' r iiLII«ji) JLis liU-fl 
IdiLc. Cjyf- ( LSI) lj^> iJji-'y 

. jJl*- j . i .t..» jJL»i _ i 

x ' r 4hJ* ^l j Um ^! J^ 1 *m^ L? |M 

.diL-t Jl v^ii if jf y>\J jf LSI-V 


The Guidance In Grammar 253 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 


i^UJI ojiiJl cjij-^ 

.CJJSi cs^-t ^^l - ' 

.j>b. 5~i" ^ikjJ J^JI IJKb-t 

' i '- o * ? £ st ? -;: , ^ ' ° f ■? I A 

.liU-Jj * * wfl ' i j < IjJLi..........OwJ\-> jl........JL.«.^ U~ 

.;>jjj cif CJLU 1-v 

vj*"' r*^' CrS *^* j^" Ls^ J' ^dr* p^-*-S 5^ ir^f - ^ 

.jiiiiJI LSI j IjUill LSI 3^1-0 

The Guidance In Grammar 254 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 



Y-cik*JI <3j$> 

Appositive Particles-2 

:^fs-li \JJ- (pi) 

< U j ? « La-^i o^il lJU JjLUI j « jJ>o°Vl i>l ^>~£; 5_& Lgj JLsJ Lo ^ j :*LJLo- > 

.%j\ Ljbj^i o_^i jU*j ^f L^ J^UJI f,U (LSI j jf) o^Uu 

(^1) is of two types: 

1 -Conjunctive (aLJJ): It is that which is inquired about (by means of the particle) in 

distinguishing one of two matters while the inquirer is knowledgeable of the 
establishment of one of the two in an ambiguous manner, in variance to (lil j jl). 

Then, the questioner (utilizing these) two originally does not know of the 
establishment of one of them. 

Conditional in its usage are three matters: 

.(?jL*> °J Jilt 3L*ji) :j^> <s>*i LgLi >i5 51 tJjVl 

(pf) JLfc dUj^i pi Sj^JI I*j 515" 5| ^fil t »3iftl Ik, LJ SbLJ l*j& Lo 'jjL 5I r^lill 
pi L^ cjIj!) :JUJ ^ (TJiU lii pf iJU- plif) :_^J <dUj£i J»*S jlT jl j <>' \J 


j t^Jtifl j_t iL^ALJ'il jj^ LoJl j « JJLiJI I^JJ LlL>sJ ^j^»o^l jjil o^J3 'b^-t 5' : *^4LjI 

pi diu $ia>i) :j^ liii t (v) ji (^) 5ji <:*^l ^' } ^ ^ ^ ^ J ^ 

.(V) ji (p^) aJl^^i (lil j jj)j JiJ lil Li! < L*.A»f ^^^ fcl^si (TjLTU. 

The Guidance In Grammar 255 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

First: That Hamzah occurs before it, as in: L*>- if cJIlt JL*J Is Sa'eed with you or 

Second: That which follows it is similar to that which follows Hamzah, meaning if a 
noun follows Hamzah, then likewise following (^1) is a noun, as has passed. If it was a 

verb (following the particle) it is likewise, as in: TjiU 1*5 if Iju- iist Did Khalid stand or 

Adil sit? It is not said: Iju«-s if Lu*« cjIj! Did you see Sa'eed or Majeed? 206 

Third: That the establishment of one of two matters is realized with the questioner 
(who) is only asking regarding distinguishing (one of these two matters). Due to that, it 
is required that the reply to (it) distinguishes (one of the two matters), unlike LsSj or 

(1). When it is said: jJU- if dlic $I*»f Is Ja'far with you or Khalid? Then, the reply is to 

distinguish one them. Regarding when asked with (LSI j ji), then, the reply is LsS) or 


j] Li'dUi j *(?»L4 ^ il JjSf l$jl) :>*: i»3ifll ^-s (Jj) ',Jj*i CiJ^t ;>* J &*]a2U-V 
tsL-i Lpl ^ cUJLJI J-ia> iS i^kiJI J^^-i j_ ? Jlc (JjV Ifjj) «cJi3 j <.^*j °j-? l^_£ Coij 
J3) *UU >l JIjJ olli^l j *JjSfl jL>Vl ^ >t^tl i^ j (SL4 ^ J) :ci& 

.(7oL4 r-*l 

^1 is*! dJILfrl) :>*; t r Ugj-v-,.,^ I ^ j « 5-5 Li* ^Jl ^ VI kkSiiil (vf) j^*i^i V j 

2-Disjunctive (l*kit*): (When combined) with Hamzah, it is in the meaning of (Jj), as 

in: 4L4 ^a if jjSf Lpi Certainly it's camels or is it sheep? That is as if you saw an image 

from afar and said: JjS? Lpl Certainly it's a camel, in a manner of certainty. Then, you 

became doubtful that it could be sheep, then you say: SL4 ^ if Or is it sheep?You 

intend to disclaim the first information and initiate another question anew, (the new 
question's) meaning being: SL4 ^*f jj Rather, is it sheep? 

&• $% L^i Lo ^ ( V) oLS .L^l* pj^Sfl i>V ^sUjI o^ij Cj^jJ jJjjV) J-J&si j 

The Guidance In Grammar 256 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

(°j£il j jj . v) are utilized to establish a ruling being distinguished for one of two matters, ("i) 
negates for the second that which is required for the first, as in: L^s v L*j j>{\> Sa'eed 
came to me, not Majeed. (Jj) signifies abandonment of the first, as in: tjLkj, Jj ii>i ^U 
Ahmad came to me, rather Mahmud. Its meaning is: IjLkJi fl> Jj Rather, Mahmud came. 
(^jj) is for rectification, as in: 'J^-JjM- °&1 j jL*j .13 Sa'eed stood but Khalid did not stand. 

li.ala.ij I l3j^> lip 

.j^uji ^jj uki ^Sn a>i o^ ^jL 5i-r 

.j.l^s'VI J ^siJl J> VI liklUJI (J) J^*iiJ V j 
. LiiJ o*>&l 4>Sf JUll o^ (^il j « Ji * V) j^*i^i j (° r l) ^j j L4J4: &iJI U j Ta^ikll (^l)j jlsJ , ^i J$j ^-> 

. Iff jls j oUi £>£l 1 ( -.1) JLA-jsT i»j>i ^* Lo- Y 
.2lLoL alii «*bj Ta_i iLc*j liLo j 7(d) J* lit i^ilAiJI _y& La-V 

T(UI j jf)_, J4J lil iljAjl ji Lo-£ 

.JLUj dUi £~bj TlikiUJI (if) ?jfc U>-0 

.IfJ jls j dUi °^ Tlik&JI (if) JjsJ&sj g -yi ^V-A 

.dLtjJjioH^^^) j^iii 5 ^i^V-V 

.dLti jJU VLLo pU 5 ( V) J^t ji Lo- A 

The Guidance In Grammar 257 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 





.fouS LliTcJ-iiM 

. Jujuw ...... Ju^j^ ^L> _ T 

.v TjiLJji jjs-r 

o f ° a 

.^j^Jui hy^i. V °p»-L 

- ,- : ;m ^ - * \ • ' a 

. jj^a" x JlU> (_^Ij sJjs-0 

.^buji v c^ojiJi r /i-r 

The Guidance In Grammar 258 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 


Particles of Notice 

< VI « Lol ) :^j!A5 ^j& j 4*S^AJI j-o i ^ aijij !AU n^Lklll *~ii! CJLbj <»ijj^ : ^-^l ^j>- 


The Particles of Notice are particles coined to give notice to the one spoken to in order 
that he should not miss something of the (sentence's) ruling. They are three: (U..VI .Lol). 

jU Jjl 0> J! ^ :JU5 Jji ^J <cotf l^sl iSlUJI Jui VI (Lol j Vl) J^jc V j 

.(o^y V \J\ jijii5 V VI) :j^ <1|U? jl < 45 JJ 4iktl 

(^i <i*i) are only entered upon a sentence, be it a nominal sentence, as in His, the 
Exalted's saying: {^jJdhJ\ ^J Jji o> 5i l\} "A/cw surely the party of Allah they are the 
successful ones. " 211 Or, be it a verbal sentence, as in: Jjdi V vi You should not do it; H ui 
OjJjj Do not strike. 

:^Lc: J>jg (U) j 

. (p'Vjjb j IJl») :^*j * ijjdl\ j 
(u) is entered upon: 

• A sentence, as in: 1:13 jjj La Zaid is standing. 

• A singular word, as in: 11* This; 3> These. 

The Guidance In Grammar 259 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

Jjjjl o j: jaii 

Vocative Particles 

.c-j^U Ljs j (^1) j (^>j£idl Sj^JI) Y-N 

..u*JJ Lj&j(Lj»jLI) i-V 

.l$Jl£>l 05-s Is j JaJjiill j -u*fH j v>j^M ^ i ( L;) — 
The Vocative Particles are five: L . us » U »^j .ia^iidl sj*^JI. 
1-2: Hamzah vowelled with Fathah (L-^iiJI »>jJI) and (jl) for the near. 
3-4: (us « Li) They are both for the remote. 
5: (L) It is for the near, the remote and median. Its rules have already passed. 

Particles of Reply 

The Particles of Reply are six: (5| '^ <J>I * jl «^b <**i). 

? " ? - *" 

.UiLo jl 51^ lifi-o 'JjUv .^ jjj&i (lij) Lil 

Regarding (v«j), then, it is for affirming previous speech, be it positive or negated. 

.f 13 13 ^1 (>jb cii t JJj jdb jj) :JUB ur U* bjsJ jl 

(Ju) is particular to replies to negation, the same whether it is with interrogation, as in His, 

the Exalted's saying: {<Jj \J\3 %&# c^J'\} "Am I not your Lord, they said: yes, " 212 or it is 
devoid of interrogation as it is said: [Jb cii «ojj %h J Zaid did not stand, I said: yes, in other 
words: ils Ji A/e had stood. 

The Guidance In Grammar 260 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

(jiir 51* J*) ki j-j iii ur tr ^ui g-s vi j^i^j v j .(j^) ^^ >~>\j> o> (y) j 

.(Jjljjl) :jj5 

(jl) is a Particle of Reply in the meaning of L*S). It is only used with an oath, as when it is 
said to you: 5lii" jLT Jj£ /s it as such?You would say: Jjl j ^1 tes, £y Goo'/ 

(5| ijif <J*f), in others words, I affirm you in this information. 

.(5J <^i> *J>l <ls| 'L?^ 'p*^ : *^ v^e7' ^Ji* 

. LjJ J<^-o j ' CJuisJ (— j«-o j^V jjj j < a_,_ J L ' J I Ojj^- i-Lc - i 

.dUjJ jls TCLol t V?) J>'jg J^AJI y Ju£- T 

.2J£-lt dUi ^ij 5XUAJI Ju- pi i^kJI Ji£ ( U) J^jg JjS-r 

.|jlJJ 2JlLoI <J L^j ib TjjjQl *Jjj> y* Lo-£ 

!j-^*JL SJi^UJI ^jb Lo j TyuyLfL jj£n£}\ Jjlll tJ,j» ^* Lo-0 

.aj JiLo ^J^^ioJI j vv^il j "^*fJI a-j djlJjjl 5 IjlLII o^> jjs Lo-*\ 

The Guidance In Grammar 261 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 


. Lgiij J^iiiJI j Jtijilfl j J^Aiil j v>j^J^ ZJazldJl oj^JL jb- V 

.iiu 5 IjLAUi Col j Ji- > 

nr, .«jb T^ifft ois^ alii o-JM 

- c 1 " • - * * 

The Guidance In Grammar 262 g-*_JI jia aJaAJI 

!a^jj *$j Jl5 <-JcJ J-oLc t)-\ 
ns 4 '- - %l °l*i -^ *-,J '*!• ' '*•- 'Jk-V 

•Xl^j j (i! lP j^ o* 1 wj ^ w j jf r 

C 1* ■" 

The Guidance In Grammar 263 gj^JI jii oJoaJI 


Extraneous Particles 

j 5| ) :l*fu; SJuljJI Oj3> j .Lgil^j J_yifcsJI ^iili V £4^ >!^JI <J sJulj Oj^^LII ^jiaAj *Jb IS 

Some of the Extraneous Particles occur in speech whereas the meaning is not altered by 
its elision. The Extraneous Particles are seven: (pui <fui .^.V <L> <5i ,51). 

.(cijJI j^iol Lo J^5) :^6 i23jXhjiJ\ (10 fc-s-Y 
. (CwiL> CmiL> 5| UJ) :JA5 « ( UJ) j-s-r 
(-,1) is extraneous: 
1-With (Lo) of Negation, as in: jils isj jl Lo Zaid is not standing. 
2-With (Lo) Masdariyyah, as in: cijJI Jis £1 L> j^ Pray whenever entering the time. 
3-With (UJ), as in: c-ii> c-ii> 51 UJ When you sat, I sat. 

:(5D ilji J 

.(CwSJ COJ jJ^I 5^1 J) : >^ <(jJ) J (*-*aII Uj) i>^ _ ^ 

The Guidance In Grammar 264 g^JI jii aJaAJI 

■ (ji) is extraneous: 

1-With (ni), as in His, the Exalted's saying: 4jr~-" '^> $ ^f "So when a bearer of 
good news came... " 216 

2-Between the (J\J\) of the Oath and (>)), as in: iui c~d °J ji aJJI j £j/ Goo', //yew 
ste/?^ I stand. 

:(L>) iljij* 

.4*111 ^-5 isj> j LJ^ : JLg J}i >sJ <5»JI oj^ ji«j Iaj-Y 

(u) is extraneous: 

1-With (J£l»>2JI j| i^°i <jl «ijlo (i°l) as you would say: cu_J cu_J lo'l Whenever you 
fasted, /fasted. 

2-After some of the Genitive Particles (34JI oj>'), as in His, the Exalted's saying: 

4ih\ j^ ii>j lJ} "Thus it is due to mercy from Allah" 217 

:%& (^) iijij. 

(V) is extraneous infrequently: 

1-With (jijji) and negation, as in: l^j, 11 j L*> fu L> Hameed did not come nor 

2-Following (ZjUaJ\ Lo), as in His, the Exalted's saying: fy&yi] i[ IJuiz "i'\ dULs l,} 

"What hindered you so that you did not make obeisance when I commanded 
you..." 2 ' 8 

The Guidance In Grammar 265 g^-JI jia oJoaJI 

3-Before oaths, as in His, the Exalted's saying: 4lsIjJji ( _ r iI)L i-il 1 3 ^LaJI ^ i-it v)» 

"A/a>; / swear by the day of resurrection; Nay I swear by the self-accusing 
soul... " 219 It is in the meaning of: i-JI I swear. 

.UjL«: ^S 5^JI ojy ^i Ujh >j& US (ikll j 2XJI j 5-?) lif j 

Regarding (i5Ul .fyi <;>*), their mention has preceded in the Genitive Particles, therefore 
we will not repeat it. 

£jjJLa*JI Oj^JI 

Particles Resembling the Masdar 

j^iL; ciU. j) :JU5 J^ i^JiiJI ZJl^JlJ jVjVli .(jf j 5! j Lo) :$&5 bjl.kJ\ oj^JI 

:^lill JjiT j < l^ ^f ,4c^j L, >jSf I 

.dLsLi colt ^1 « (1:13 ddl c4*) :>sj t^-'V ^^ (S?) J 

Particles resembling the Masdar are three: (St «jl .L«). The first two are for verbal 

sentences, as in His, the Exalted's saying: i{c~>j Lj ^»jVI ,^JLi: cil^ j} "The earth became 

strait to you not withstanding its spaciousness. " 220 In other words, with its spaciousness. 
And the saying of the poet: 

M3/7 enjoys the passing of the nights While their passing for him is a loss 

;TUI ^ < Lo ,51 «5|) :liw ^* j JLJLs ^ii^ V r ^JI ^ cii^ lil ^J| ^ :tf$|jj| ^y 


a ' „ <■. 

.(51 ijl * Lo) :*ttb a5,1^sJI Oj^JI 

The Guidance In Grammar 266 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 


.iiloi kti jJj Hoi) 3lj3^-Y 

.JUL- al^l -^s (oj) iSLj Sjl^ ^il-r 

.|i^ JiAjd^jJ Ji-sHLo) ilj^oj^UI jl j-s-t 

.dLTJj jls Tjl4,l^JI (of j L.) ^^5 ^-V 
.Ljj jis j dUi ^ij SV pf JUiVL (of) ^^i Ji-A 



.lIU- ^ j jL^i jiL* L«-V 

.03JL- oyLi of LoJ— 

j j ' j * 
u5l cjpl jJ of *UI j-^ 

The Guidance In Grammar 267 g-*_JI jia aJaAJI 

.115(3 (5[) Lg-J o^i J^> ^!A5-> 

.ij;Jui2-0 ( Lo j jl j jl ) L\*3 jj^O J»»> £>^ OL«s- £ 

.jJLJ d$ colt- ^ 
.^JsJuU l^i^i 0? :^ JL3-Y 

.5*1* d!l cJlj-i 

".4*i^t Lo ^Lt jjjx^-V 
.Lu>jiJji j LLL-s ^jj j ^ LiUol Li- i 

.diio^lc^f jJjl ill j-fi 

.^*4*i Cwoi Lo LufrS 4JJLC CJ5 jf-" 

vrrif .. * „* .' 


The Guidance In Grammar 268 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 


The Two Particles of Explanation 

° * ' .ai '- 

(5D J .£>i!l Jjbl ^~a5 :cJu dblS" i%£}\ J^l ^1 i-.^l Zj>SJI JLsl jf ^JU5 JjiT (jl)J 
jd i\ (of sLiii) :JUL5 ^i «4jU*Ui L # »UJ5b }} vJ\j6 &^ < Jjill [_ 5 i**j JJo ^ j^Jj lJi 

Then, (jl) is like His, the Exalted's saying: 2^}\ J-»! ^t 4^' *d^' J' 1 -^ i } t "And inquire in the 
town which..., " 226 meaning, the people of the town. Like your having said: 2u>iJI J_&? ^J* 
#'s explanation is the people of the town. (it) only explains with it a verb in the meaning of 
a saying, as in His, the Exalted's saying: {u*)J\ L it »ujsl. j) Tlflo' We called out him 

saying: O Ibrahim!" 227 Therefore, it is not said: it J Lis We said to him that..., when it is the 
word of the saying not the meaning. 

Particles of Incitement 

5U) :jj*j t^UI JuS cl>5 l\ $~J£ j fji j < (jits 5U) :JAj .^LstiJI Ju cJ^S lil J-«JI 
j .5-5 Li" jAill jjU ?fl J>Ja V j .6La Lo jL^°C ?fl U~b^ 5ji^ ^ J4^ j < ( '4; £**$ 

. Iju^i Oj^iaJ }l* ^1 < l-t^-i !^J» Loj5 ^aj J^J JjJLi US' i Jj«j jLw?Li <2_w<I L*Jl*j *3j 51 

(J^> j jJuasJI Ji>> j >>iil A^ JJ^ 1 0^' J 'cs^ 1 ^j> J>& ^Jj^ 'M>° U-*^ J 

The Guidance In Grammar 269 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

The Particle of Incitement are four: (L>>j .VjK^t <Su). They require initiating speech. Its 

meaning is to incite an action when entered upon the present-tense, as in: jit: Su VfcK/te 

/70/ eating? (It has the meaning of) censure and rebuke when entered upon the 
past-tense, as in: Lsj 'cJ,-j\ Sii You did not honor Zaid? At that time, it is not incitement 

except in consideration of that which has passed. It is only entered upon a verb, as has 
passed. If a noun occurs after it, then, it is with the concealment of a verb, just as you 
would say to he who helped a people: Lu*^ Su Why not Sa'eed? Meaning in other words: 

c>°j^> Su Why didn't you help Sa'eed? 

All of them are compounds. Its second part is a Particle of Negation and its first part is a 
Conditional Particle, a Particle Resembling a Masdaror Particle of Interrogation. 

, t 

*Jj. tj) :^6 t \J/i\ ilsJUl ^>iJ ^Lifl ZLsJUl \A^\ jJ, j <>T Jxi L41 ( l*jJ j ^jJ) j 

jjui ko-jT Li^ji ^>^k> Ji ^u^u iu.j> j (>* diifi 

(Lo^f j VjJ) both have another meaning. It is the obstruction of the second sentence due to 
the existence of the first sentence, as in: yU 'SI4} fl£ Hji Had there been no 'Ali, surely 
'Umar would have been destroyed. 


*\, -*. ■» , 

Jd V iu^ j sj}i\ sj>£ hj[h\ UUJI i>>j f Lsifjj* j <>T ^^ ( U3J j VjJ)J j .JiiJI 

. Ijul ii^jl ^jVI 2JuJUI 5^ 51 

The Guidance In Grammar 270 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 


-- £&$ t < -- -* o c 

.dUJJ JJLo ?pjLaiJI ^Lfr cJlsO lil ^^wiaAifl >Jj>? J J _LLo Lo-f 

.JLl^j tiJUi «~bj T*— sV I ^Lt jaj^jJI dfj- Ji-15 Jj»-o 

tjuI c-^il Eu-r 

The Guidance In Grammar 271 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 


Aly 5 °J\)-> b\J»& c^W oU>-^ 

.«s\jUL j^j>sV jj>\ 'Jj. jil 51 vjj»-r 

.JlIc. J_£ liJj>l pijijjj ^U-i 

The Guidance In Grammar 272 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

i *v *■ 

• * 


The Particle of Anticipation and the Two Particles of Interrogation 

uSj 15) :^6 iJUJI [Jl ^ip\ <^»^' iW <j^ J* 1 ^ ^j* >* J : ^ £^' ^J* 

^ 5f ^LaJ ^Ul ijb IJ4J j .Lajl yuj^ 1 ^j> koU dUi' J>Sf j * Ii* Jji ^j * (^Sfl 

pl3 li TJJj fl3 JjS) :J13 °^ v l> ^ ]J& .JiUJJ Uj> 5LT Ijl xitllJ *^*i IS j .VU 


The Particle of Anticipation (Ii): it is a particle entered upon the past-tense verb in order to 

make it closer (in time) to the present, as in: ^Ji\ l^j is The Ameer just rode, meaning just 

before this. Due to that, it is termed the Particle of Approximation also. For this, the 
past-tense is required to be suitable to occur in the present-tense. At times, it comes for 
the meaning of emphasis, when it is a reply to an inquirer. Therefore, you would say in 
reply to he who said: jjj iis j^ Did Zaid stand? 'isj jls ii Zaid already stood. 

* *, 

j .(jlflJ 13 il>*JI 5| J tjJ^aJ 13 Ojl£JI 5|) \J*w 'JtP^I ■ Jl ^^ <pjLaiJI ^Lt (IS) JJvji j 

.(cJL^l *JJI j Ii) :j*w i^iJL JaIII ^jj Igli; JjJjl j>>u j 
:j£.\ll\ Jji j*5 <^iJI i>>j lit Ujl*3 J*iJI l3j^J j 

.cJlj Ii 5li- j -J 

The Guidance In Grammar 273 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

(li) is entered upon the present-tense verb, then, it signifies lessening, as in: 

Surely the liar sometimes is truthful, surely the generous is sometimes slacking. 

At times, it comes for realization, as in His, the Exalted's saying: {&%*&] i£lJ il«j ii^ 7l//a/7 

knows indeed those among you who hinder others..."™ A separator with an oath is 
permissible between (li) and a verb, as in: cl^i Jji j Ji £y Goo', yew did good. 

Sometimes, due to an indicator, the verb following (Ji) is elided, as in the saying of the 
poet: ji •}£ j LJU-^ Jj5 L2J Luli'j $ ^ j/>£)l lii 

77?e time of travel approached except that our mounts 
Had not started our journey and it was as though it had already ceased. 

The Two Particles of Interrogation 

j ?1SU Isjf) :^ t^UfJI j l±»Ji\ jjisAJI Jl& 0^^ j 'f^ 1 j^ L4J j ^ ( JjS j aj^JI) 

.JiiJI ^ r ui^i iji^l jiil aUiJI Jl^ L&Jo j .(! jjj il3 Ji 

j Ijjj u^iiji j YcJ\j IjJjl) :_^J < l^i (Ji) JL*^°T jyfj V j-blj-s ^ »j^JI jjUi&j ii j 

? lft' ^ (Ji) j^id V j ,(5tf °^il «5^ ^s ji) i(SJL*> ^1 Jilt $1^1 j ?J>! ji 


(ji j »>p) Both initiate speech and both are entered upon nominal and verbal sentences, 
as in: TisLS Juji Is Zaid standing? TljJ its Ji Did Zaid stand? Mostly, they entered upon 
verbal sentences due to the excess of interrogation about actions. 

At times, Hamzah is used in situations wherein it is not allowed to use (Jjs), as in: cJ\j Usj! 
Did you see Zaid? idj-] -J. j Luj <1>J£\\ Did you strike Zaid while he is your brother? *)jJ\ 
jLj* i! oilLc. Is Ja'far with you or Ha meed? 5 IT °>sil < jis" <ys jl CV" w/70 i^as, then who was? 
(Ji) is not used in these situations. 232 

The Guidance In Grammar 274 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 


-Liia (pjLaiJI J_jJLc J->Ju j .JUJI J_jJI *^y^ -*ti4p '<_s~^^' 1_?^ d^"-^ r*-*-P ^Jr 1 * (^ 

* a -- ■* 

.juuj 4li ^ij Tj^IIjj (Ji) jui^J jjb-r 

.JU*j alJi ^ ^jUriJI JU cj£s lil ( Ji) ^JU Lo-t 

.dUjJ jls ?J*a*£JI 1^14-S ( Ji) j-o aliisJ JjS-fl 
•4|i jjU ^fLLo pi* SJAAJI j (Ji) ^ JJaDl jj^ JjS-A 

.ajjjjioUji) j& jJuJi cjl> j>^ j^-v 

UJi) 5ji lfei$>P JUiij^^l ijl^l^? L*-<\ 

The Guidance In Grammar 275 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 



.JjjI e*iS ji- ^ 

Tjllll ^ JL^i Ji-Y 

TjJLtl -Jc^J JjS-V 

J^UaJI Cwol3 15- Y 
rreioL->VI VI jL«>VUI> Aifc-L 

The Guidance In Grammar 


gji_JI jii cljIoAJI 

-» . 


Conditional Particles 

t ^jdk^ |Jlc; I4L0 a>lj Ji" Ji-jj j <»!ASLll jJLs LfJ j (lit j jJ j 5|) :2 ^ ^>^' ^jy 

Conditional Particles are three: (Ui j jJ j jl). For these are (the requirement) of initializing 

speech. Each one is entered upon two sentences, be they two nominal or two verbal 
sentences or two differing sentences. 

.(o&^l ^jjji jJ) :j*J t^UiJI jjlfi cJ^S 5! 

. (dlio^U ^lj cJl 5[ ) : ^ t \jjjk j! <5-s Ui" IkiD jAiJI l^Jjb >>Ifl Ji_,y j 

cjLLt 5! oLsT) :JIE !AS (toi c^i jl) Ji« < l$J J^^idl ^Sfl ^ VI (5P Jiiiai V j 
^ c.*f^j iijlill 2JL5AII ^J: jJlc Ji5 (jJ) j .(^oJLlI cjJd? lil d-jT) JL2J LJI j * (^JLtl 

4 bliJj iDl VI I4JT L4J 515" jJ^ : JU5 JjiT Jj'VI UsJUl 

(jl) is for the future although entered upon the past-tense verb, as in: aif/f ^jjjjs ij //j/ew 
visit me, I will honor you. (>)) is for the past-tense although entered upon the 
present-tense verb, as in: ili^l j^/j; jJ Had you visited me, I would have honored you. 

Conditional Particles require a verb, be it a literal or estimated (verb), as has passed, as 
in: dlif/tl ^j>\j cS\ -,1 //yew are /77/ visitor, then I will honor you. 

The Guidance In Grammar 277 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

(jl) is only used in doubtful matters like: cjS cui jl If you stand, I'll stand. Therefore, it is 
not said: ^sJLil cjSj? jl oLjT I'll come to you If the sun rises. It can only be said: cjJJ? 1*1 AJt 
^■sJLii / 147// co/7?e to you when the sun rises. (>i) signifies the negation of the second 
sentence by reason of the negation of the first sentence, as in His, the Exalted's saying: 
{bJuJd il)l VI l$JT L^j jtf >i^ "If there had been in them any gods except Allah, they would 

both have certainly been in a state of disorder. " 237 

d>3*: 44U Ji*ls ,jJJI jAill 5_^5o 5 1 v^ ^>^ LsM f»J^ i f^&ll JJ^ 1 <_?^ p^ 1 yi 'M i 
^li jj y ill j) :j*5 t( ^iLs jl <(aio°/Sl ^5? y Jill j) :>sJ < LkaJ L*L >>ifl 
IfJ L^>j iUJJi ilzyZll % lj> V <*-iiU Uj> -kaJJI <J iijlifl 4JlSj*JI Oj^ 4^^ J ' C^rf*^ 

. (fel All j ^li y) :>so ij^ilj $f jL> j * (d&ft JlJI 

When an oath occurs in the beginning of speech and precedes the condition, it is 
required that the verb which the conditional particle is entered upon is a literal past-tense 
verb, as in: oli^V ( ^hp\ jl Jjl j £j/ God, if you come to me I will honor you. Or a 

(past-tense verb) in meaning, as in: 'dL-JdH j$z jl JJI j /?j/ Got/, had you come to me, I 

certainly would separate from you. At that time, the second sentence in the expression is 
a reply to the oath nor the requital of the condition. Due to that, whatever is required in 
the requital is required in the reply to the oath from the Lam and similar matters as you 
have seen in the two examples. 

When the oath occurs in the middle of speech, it is permissible to consider that the reply 
with Lam is for the oath, as in: 'Szxfi Jji j { j^ jl If you come to me, by God I will come to 

you. It is also permissible to nullify (the requirement of Lam), as in: 'SA jJ}5 jl. 

Ill j 2&JI J* IjLu- ^aJI lit jL*ui j «|i <>lt!l ) :>sJ .SliAi ^a U J.,,^.11 (Ul) j 

(Ui) is for the details of that which was mentioned in general, as in: 

The Guidance In Grammar 278 g^-JI jia oJoaJI 

jlill ^a \jl£ ^JJI ^1 J ^*^l <_s4* Ijlxui ^jJJI Ul JLx*; j *L|i j-»uJI 

People are wretched and Sa eed is either of those who ascend, then he is in paradise. 
Regarding those who are wretched, then they are in the hell-fire. 



fj U j « ( jikLS jJ> Uf) ^ ^L= jj#JI j jUJI j JjUJI 3^S (^LiJ JJ> 
JjSf I *#JI ^j j ^lifl jJ^JI jjl fUJI cJla: , l#JI ( 5 Ii) «JU£ >>ill j>'i U-U 

1 f 

y£ Ul) :^« 5 UJI JJu U^Ul** ^1 j <>5 US' \lhJ & JiifyS UfL* 5LT 5J ^jAJI dUi p 

J&jill Ju- (2JUAII pjs) ^ J_,U ( jikLS) J « (jikU JJ> IttAfl 

Required in the reply of (lit) are: 
2-That the first sentence is a reason for the second sentence. 

3-That the verb is elided, provided that the condition requires a verb, so that it can 
be a notice that the intent in the sentence is the ruling of the noun occurring after 
it, as in: jikisi ju] lit Regarding Zaid, he is departing. Its estimation is: 

ji^U ju> S !yi ^-5 ^ 14* Whatever thing it may be, then Zaid is departing. 

Then the verb (°jiS) was elided as well as the Genitive Particle (jUJI) and the word it 
governs (jj^»oJl) until what remains is: jikli Jj> lit. For whatever condition it is not 
appropriate to enter the Fa of the requital, the Fa is transferred to the second part 
and the first part is placed between (lit) and (/UJI) being substituted for the elided 

The Guidance In Grammar 279 g^-JI jia oJoaJI 

Then, that requital is the Mubtada, if, as has passed, it is appropriate for the Mubtada. 
Otherwise, its governing agent is that which is after the Fa, as in: jlkL» igi liiAH s,ji Hi 

Regard Friday, then Zaid is departing. 


jl tfj&&}\ 

^Lt ci>5 5| J '<_r^LJ4 L?^ J 'Lrb'^l s^' V~-^ JHs^' lUAtl s lii3l ;Jl& Ji5 (jJ) j 
1LAJI ^ jL> »!A£JI J2.,.:j .J lu<iil ^3j lil j . U>jj*j j »}UI j-o +.,.-J?.tl <_jl_y> ^ Cc*J L> juJuJI 

JJUJUI j-o Igjubj-o °^j j J?>iJI iJj_$> ilt- \ 

.ajjj jl*- 5>>iii 4>y L^k j^ju- Js\ j^aji y^l ^ Lo-y 

The Guidance In Grammar 280 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

.>>lfl Jlc ils5 j </*£j| Jjl ^ jUill £3j lil >>ifl ^3^ ^Lt J^Ju ^iJI JiiJI yj ^j-0 

.jflLo'L oUi £~bj ?V jd >>lfl ^l^> Jl& r kll J>o L^>J JjS j 

.£j jls 7 ( III) JiAisJ jjm *Jy-v 
T(LSl) 1& 5 l>JI j&i ji Lo- > • 



.L^JI aiik/5 ill j cJ+ °o[-i 
ir \{ bliiJ iill VI I4JT L^i 5^ jJ^- c 

.^LJi ^ Liyi 1^ 5,3 f^J -^ jJ 51-v 

The Guidance In Grammar 281 gj^JI jii oJoaJI 

V: b L. y^1-£ 



^ILo iuLii Lo 5j->Li^ *jj p-fc^S ^ ^jJJI Lolif-0 

The Guidance In Grammar 


gji_JI jii cljIoAJI 



Particle of Limitation and The Sakin Feminine Ta 

"51 °J <0S <p5uf Jj^ : JU5 JjiT ,4j j& Lit 4^ij j jj&idl >>jJ ^j < W) ^S*JI ^ 

5 -■ 2 3. ^ 

Ju lift JJiil V :^l W) :Jjii5 ( Ijjj 4^1) dU J-J lil Li" * UjjI >Vl lis £ ^ J3 j 

^JLs j^ L^^J (Jl) '^1*^ LJ Li> *J& J*3 j .^ojJI ^ ^ ^1 W)J l^UJ 

The Particle of Restriction (^i") is coined for censure of the speaker and his determent 

regarding that which he had spoken, like His, the Exalted's saying: 4^*^1*1 J>jf "My Lord 

has disgraced me, Nay!" 244 In other words: Do not speak of this because it is not as 
such. This is in the Khabar. 

Sometimes, it comes after a command also, as when it is said: Ijjj 4^1 Strike Zaid. Then, 
you say: (Sli"), meaning: / will not do this ever. It comes in the meaning of truth, as in His, 
the Exalted's saying: {^jAsc lJ>s yk\ "Nay, you shall soon know. " 245 At that time, it is a 
indeclinable noun due to its resemblance to (y£) which is the Particle of Limitation. It is 
said that it is a particle also in the meaning of (3l) due to its being used for the realization 
of the meaning of the sentence. 

The Guidance In Grammar 283 g^-JI jia oJoaJI 

«-jj^j >~blj-s ci^ j ( jJL* cJil) :>*J (JJLaJI *jJI Ju--1 Lo <^Jl3 |_ ? Lt JjtJ ^~bLJI J^b 03^ 

Cw5l3 Ji) :_^J <yiiJL dy dy lil ^SUJI $ <^&L UL/* L*j Ujl*: ^L« L^aJ 131 j 


lf^>> ,jV < (»l>sJI oLoj) iC^j :,J JLHj !Ai * IgJ^SsJl Jj>V <JJ>> Lo Sj C-o-jj "if U^"^ j 
J^JU j ^LlsJJI La 15) :JUJ ^S ^li^isi oJijiJI £*■> j j&IiJI ^> j *~JI 2L«^-fr ^l*Jl Lil j 

^* Js </Ifl JJ jLJyi ^b kiJ ^L^ ^ ^ o^VI ^ji^ i -LiJI ;>d j oj^I 

.c^jliJI 5 IiT j^Lill Jl>j Ju- SJb oLoU 

The Sakin Feminine Ta 

It is a particle attached to the past-tense verb in order to indicate the feminine of that 
which has been ascribed to the verb, as in: 11* clsi Hind ate. You are familiar with the 

circumstances requiring its attachment. 

When the Ta meets a Sakin letter after it, it is required to vowel (the Ta) with Kasrah, 
because the Sakin letter when it is vowelled, it is vowelled with Kasrah, as in: p^i\ c^is is 
The prayer is ready. 

Its vowelization does not require the return of that which was elided due to its being 
Sakin. Therefore, it is not said in the verb (c~sj,) st>Jl oL>j. It is because its vowel is 

non-essential (used) for the purpose of repelling the meeting of two Sakin letters. The 
saying: bL.j gbi>ii, is weak. 

Regarding the attachment of the sign of the dual, the masculine plural and feminine 
plural, then it is (also) weak. Therefore, it is not said: fLJJi -^d <Sj,i£JI ijJis « jLjjJI Lois. With 

the estimation of attachment, then there are no pronouns so as not to require 
concealment (of the pronoun) before mention (of the pronoun). 246 Rather, they are signs 
indicating the states of the subject, like the Feminine Ta. 

The Guidance In Grammar 284 g^-JI jia oJoaJI 


* # -O j, ■» „ 

* % - ft' ' aa 

.dUJJ JJLs ?oJ^ bo ij Co-jh £^bJI 5 b 2^3> 5[ J^ - ^ 
riiJLiil JiAJI ^i (5lT) ^U-s °^-i 

The Guidance In Grammar 285 gji-JI jii oJ^aJI 

:jiJL)l J^ t ' Ji> ^ 2LITLSJI &Jh\ fy 'w&\ jufti dl-o 

Jil *^Jbi <jL> »*13 fjjo i lii 

Tc ^iIoT 4,1^1 cJuH 

The Guidance In Grammar 286 gj^JI jii oJoaJI 


Tanween And Its Divisions 

Tanween is a vowelless Nun following the vowel at the end of a word. It is not attached to 
a verb. It is of four divisions: 

First: (^sUlil ^ii) it is that which signifies that the noun is capable of I'rab, in the meaning 
that is is fully-declinable and accepting the vowels of I'rab, as in: jjj Zaid. 

.L> [jjLl °cS^S\ :J\ (^j) -.j&i i"t£j> i*sVI £1 ^Lt JJb L> jj& j <_$Jn3I t/Jlill 

Second: Cj-£1£ji) it is that which signifies that the noun is indefinite, as in: ±j, in other 
words: Be silent with a silence of whatever type. 255 

. I ii - 51^ i| A-cl— jl ( iLifrl—) j < IJi" 5^ il >jj j « liS" 

Third: (^»>*Jl) it is that which is a replacement for the Mudaf llaihi, as in: .ViL> >4 ///77e w/7eA7/ 
ii^; /4 c/ay i^/7eA7. In other words: lii" 51^ i'l ^» /4 //>77e w/7eA7 /f i^as as si/c/7; Iji" jis" i'l y^t A 
day when it was as such; lii^L An hour when, in other words: \X fr\£ i'l i*L, /4/7 /7cw/" w/7e/7 
// was as such. 

The Guidance In Grammar 287 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

Fourth: (IbLa^Jl) it is the Tanween which is attached to the Feminine Sound Plural, as in: 
oLLiJ Muslim women, due to its compensation for the Nun of the Masculine Plural in: 
'&Azu» Muslim men. These four types are particular to the noun. 

<Jl^aJ°l j OLJVI J>Xj J^j JJJI >* J <|4>^' hi^ J* J Cj^-VO-J t/fli^u V ^*waL> IwJ dJUjb j 

ClJ lit c+J\ o| J[y j LLjJI j JiU pjlll Js! 

ISl^t jl olU Is! L tfbl jyl Ji ^giL Jjii 

Here, there is a fifth division which is not particular to the noun. It is Tanween 
ar-Tarannum (J52JI ^ii). It is that which is attached to the end of verses of poetry and 

unequal (rythyms), as in the saying of the poet: 

ClJ lit c+J °o[ jj j LLuJI j Ji> fjJJI ^f 

And like his saying: 

rfl %L^t' jliili Let L LTbl ^1 ji ^L jji 

& is; ^ £ L>) :JAi (( JU Jl UUaJ (^T)_, U^J>o' 5^ li| f^JI Cr5 O^ 1 ^^? & J 

At times, Tanween is elided from proper names when they are modified by (^l) annexed 
to the name, as in: 3j x± & ijj j,]X> Zaid Ibn 'Amrcame to me. 

The Guidance In Grammar 288 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

.iLLaiJI ^jjii-i 

♦ Zj^LtJI OljJj-JJI ^ JJtflJI j j*-^7 C^T J^ -3 *(^JH' u^J^ Lg^*^J U"^^" C>^>^ ^^-^ J 

.JuLlI ^o ^jjilJI OJl^u |_ ? ^-o _ V 

' o # * o 

.dlJJJ JJLo T^jjJI ^Jjii JJ& La- 

The Guidance In Grammar 289 cpJI jta aJaAJI 

.Cli*JI j JiUjiJjl Jb(-0 

' > l» -*?l - n 

.(Jj-^Jl S-5 -L.jt-i.iii gl> _ V 

o — 

.j> I jjj j - w j j jJj.T.w.g ^jj L> _ T 

.^Ajjbij J4-5jj ^f? iU-UI ca&i jf-r 

The Guidance In Grammar 290 g^_JI jia aJaAJI 



The Nun of Emphasis 

Oji .^Ul 4^iiJ ( Ji) , Ijl Ot -u* & 131 ^UriJI j ^Sfl j^UJ cjl^J Sji :^litl ^ 


The Nun of Emphasis is a Nun coined for the emphasis of a command or present-tense 
verb when there is (the meaning of) of seeking as opposed to (ii) for the emphasis of the 

past-tense. The Nun of Emphasis is of two types: 
1-(zL&C) Lightened. The Nun is Sakin. 

2-(aLa5) Heavy. The Nun is Mushaddad or doubled. 

:^6 AjjjJUj h\ j <{ S &JS\ i%±&\ <.%?£\) :j*w iliJl L^i °J^ jU 5| *>>&s *M^' j 
^ ^ifl j ^1 j r Ui^l j ^1 j >S?I Jut ^jg -,! j^ j .(SLuirf oLi^f) 

c^iii ^i J^j ^ .^kuj LjLs jiiii oii" 4^1" J^ ji~j Cj^j j^iii >ju oJji J^ ii j 

The Guidance In Grammar 291 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

The Heavy Nun is vowelled with Fathah, if Alif does not occur before (the Nun), as in: 
jJs\ <%&] <S~^i- Otherwise, (if Alif does precede the Nun), it is vowelled with Kasrah, as 
in: 5M^' 'S^isl. It is permissible to enter both (lightened and heavy) upon the command 
verb, verb of prohibition, interrogation, verbs of hope and exhibition due to the meaning of 
seeking found in each of them, as in: 

(S^sl) -Write (command verb) 

(fe&s -i) -Don't write (Prohibition) 

(j^So Jjs) -Have you written?^ Interrogation) 

Qyd^5 cJ) -I hope you have written (Hope) 

(j~s£5 yj) -Have you not written? (Exhibition) 

At times, the Nun is entered upon oaths as a requirement in order to emphasize the 
nature of the action as being sought by the speaker. Therefore, the end of the oath is not 
left without the meaning of emphasis, just as its beginning is not devoid (of emphasis with 
Lam), as in: ui" 'JjJN Jji j By God, I will not do as such. 

.ojLjoJI ^>JI (j|j) Jl& ji^J (J^l) :>?u f Jlii\ ^>JI <J IgLS Lo Lg-\ 

.2jjjJuJ\ jLJI Jo- JJoJ (J^ist) :j*u «3^1*JJI £%iJI j^IjJI ^5 L^ip Lo >ii"-Y 

.LiljLt L_i kiaJI-V 

It is required that the vowel before the Nun is as follows: 

1-Dammah is that which is before the Nun in the masculine plural, as in: £^is1, in 
order to signify the Waw of the plural which is elided. 

2-Kasrah is that which is before the Nun in the second-person feminine singular, 
as in: jj£\, in order to signify the Va which is elided. 

3-Fathah in all (forms besides those having) Dammah and Kasrah. 

The Guidance In Grammar 292 g^-JI jia oJoaJI 

Ji IS! j .^LkiJl ^-filSf >*$* jJ j < JT.UJI ^j>JI ^r^Sf «pa:l J iSjAS < i>kJI ^ ^illl III 

*-Sj*JI ^J liJVl pJuj j <(5lu£s1 <5lisi) :^6 *uS\ IjJLd L> JjAi dJj-Lfl ^>JI j ^iilll! J-£uJI j_y j tj^kaJI j_p ••-'^jj 4^ p I"**?' 5M*L^4 4^^' 0^ J-P i^-JJ-o-fl 

Regarding the Fathah in the singular, then it is because if it were vowelled with Dammah, 
it could be confused with the masculine plural. If it were vowelled with Kasrah, it could be 
confused with the second-person feminine singular. Regarding the dual and feminine 
plural, it is because that which is before the Nun is Alif, as in: ^c^] .jList. The Alif is 

added in the feminine plural before the Nun of Emphasis due to the dislike of combining 
three (letters of) Nun: the Nun of the pronoun (of the subject) and the Heavy Nun of 

j ($,!> _^l& jjLc) j^IS'UJI jllill ijk* ZIS'L* LajiJl j[ j «^5"L« ILJ> ^5si di J~^l ^JLt J£J 

The Lightened Nun of Emphasis is never entered upon the dual nor the feminine plural 
because if the vowel of the Nun does not remain on its origin, the lightened form cannot 
become Sakin. If it remains Sakin, then it is requires the meeting of two Sakin letters 
(without its limits) and it is not good. 


,^>*JI j ^^JuUl j j»l$JLj)n j ^^Hl j jXH\ ^Lt L4J>>i i>fw i 

The Guidance In Grammar 293 g^-JI jia aJaAJI 

* >< 

l^lp Lo ~iSy> 5j£i 51 v^ j •J-M-'l S-J^ .uSU ^Lfr 2JVI1J «M,gtl 2JUj> jjlt -UTlUl ,5jj J>JG j 


.SU»I dijiJI fc8*JI j jLuiltl Jtt iLjAJl J-£t£ll Ojh J*^ ^ j 

.JLloj alii 7t^?j S.uTliJI ^jj ^»J^ JUsSfl ^L-T 

£ > > ° •* 

The Guidance In Grammar 294 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

Oji Jii U U^U ^ y~UI & J ^}JlX ^4 J> jLjJJI j^liJI o_* ^^' J^ 1 ^"V 


Yc \4^L^i jjufi 4JJ15 3}- \ 

t0A ii)L i*Ls5 1 °g Aiklii ;v alfi'dj hi -,^-r 

The Guidance In Grammar 295 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 


1. An Idafah is a type 'Arabic phrase construction comprised of two parts, the first-term is known as the Mudaf 
(tiLaill) and the second-term is known as the Mudaf llaihi (aJI <Jla»,tl). Generally, these phrases signify 
possession although other meanings are also associated with it. 

2. Surah Tauheed, 112:1-2. 

3. Surah Nur, 24:35. 

4. Surah al-Hajj 22:38. 

5. Surah al-Muminun, 23:1-2. 

6. Surah al-Fatir, 35:1. 

7. Surah al-'Ankabut, 29:45. 

8. The sisters of (jj^Lc.) are the numbers thirty through ninety (by tens). They are called 'Uqud (sJj<J\). 

9. Meaning that the word itself is feminine in meaning and also possesses an indicator of femininity. The first word 
(;Jif>) is feminine in meaning as pregnancy can only be attributed to a female while it also possesses the 

Alif-Maqsurah, a feminine indicator. Likewise, (tlji>) is feminine in meaning when attributed to a woman with a 
rose-colored face while it also possesses the Alif-Mamdudah, another feminine indicator. 

10. Ultimate Plurals (pjiwJI J^iiU) are plurals formed both broken and sound plurals. Although their patterns are 

not formed according to rules, many are characterized by the Alif of the plural, as seen in the following patterns: 
(J-tlji <J-tlji 'J-^.li-i < J-cLLs) which is generally followed by one or two vowelled letters. While in other patterns, 

the Alif added in the beginning, as in: (J-*lii < J_tUI). 

11. The word ii3L^> is the plural of ji~*>', meaning a sharpener for swords. The word Sjjly is the plural of jlj^, 
meaning chess (kSjiJjl). The origin were J3L_*>' and ^jjly, respectively. 

The Guidance In Grammar 296 gj^JI jii oJoaJI 

12. The name Ba'labakk is comprised of two words: ^kj Ba'l, the name of an idol of the people of the Prophet llyas 
(AS) as mentioned in Surah as-Saffat 37:125. The second word is db Bakk, is the care-taker of the idol. 

13. The author uses the Ha (ity') and Ta (illll) in the same meaning, referring to the Feminine "Fa, as in: LijJU. 
When reading the word without construction or when pausing, it would be read as: i-yls. 

14. Ya'malah is a well-bred female camel used for work. 

15. The apparent verbal subject (^M) follows the verb in the sentence, as in: !_*_; LJi. The subject is concealed 
(>~aJ) when the place of the verbal subject in unoccupied following the verb, as in: L«*i JL*-i. In this sentence, 
the first word (jL*^;) should not be taken as the verb's subject (J-fcliJI). It is the Mubtada or the nominal subject 
and the verb (L~ii) along with its concealed subject (ji) is a sentence occupying the place of the Khabar. 

16. Meaning two nouns both of which possess the Alif-Maqsurah (SjjJiisJI <-ift\) at its end. 

17. Meaning that the removed subject is key to forming the verb, as in: *»j>ji£ 'jJiks Their agreements were broken, 

whose original could be: 'SijAs- jJdzi i Lill The women broke their agreements. The former is the passive-voice 
form of the verb and the latter is the active-voice form of the verb. 

18. Surah al-Baqarah, 2:183. 

19. Surah al-Nasr, 110:1. 

20. Surah al-A'raf, 7:204. 

21. Surah al-Baqarah, 2:221. 

22. The reasons in the other examples for advancing an indefinite noun first are: 1) i\y*\ J jIjJI Ja Jj>jI for the 

purpose of specifying (^a_^iill) the indefinite word; 2) dlLo \_£> I>i Lo j due to negation occurring in the 
sentence; 3) IJjUJI i£ j*ji because the indefinite word has an estimated adjective which modifies it (iJi£ ^ji); 4) 
J>j jlltl Ji, because the Khabar is a quasi-sentence composed of a genitive particle or adverb and the word 

which it governs, the indefinite word is required to be advanced; 5) dbifc i%^ as it is allowed for an indefinite 
noun to be advanced in supplications or Du'a. 

23. SurahAli'lmran,3:19. 

The Guidance In Grammar 297 gj^JI jii oJoaJI 

24 Nahj al-Balaghah, sermon 27. 

25. Surah Fusalat, 41:46. 

26. Surah an-Nisa 4:164. 

27. Surah al-Fajr 89:20. 

28. In other words, I^SLidUjSLil and Li; aJJI i^UU- 

29. Surah an-Nahl 16:30. 

30. Surah an-Nisa 4:171. 

31 . Surah al-Muzammil 73:4. 

32. Surah al-Fajr: 89:20. 

33. Surah Yusuf 19:29. 

34. Technically, the words (J\) and put) are the Vocative Particles and the (L») at their end is the Particle of Notice 
(i~ss}\ ^y>) whose purpose is to arouse the listener for that which follows. 

35. Surah as-Saffat 37:102. 

36. Surah al-Fajr 89:27-28. 

37. Surah al-Anbiya 21:69. 

38. This L"i) is known as Lam at-Ta'leel (J_Li£ll ilf). It gives a verb the accusative state and signifies the reason that 
an action mentioned before occurred, as \n:hfi ii>b I struck in order to discipline him. 

39. Apposition is the government of one word over another by means of a Particle of Apposition (>_ik«JI <Jyt), such 

as: (o < j), for example: \jU- i ljuj cJlj I saw Zaid and 'Amr, wherein Zaid is the verbal object (*j I) and 'Amr 

is the Maf ul Ma'ahu (jJU JjiisJI). In other words, these are not two verbal objects (*j JjilsJI) in one sentence. It is 

understood that Zaid and 'Amr were seen together. If they were not seen together, it would more proper to say: 
i^jti ljuj cJlj I saw Zaid, then 'Amr, wherein the Particle of Apposition (<J) signifies a sequence of events. 

40. Surah al-Muzammil 73:20. 

41 . Surah al-Maidah 5:55. 

The Guidance In Grammar 298 g^-JI jia oJoaJI 

42. Here, the genitive word is the second-term of an Idafah wherein there is the estimation of the genitive particle 
(j^), in other words: x>j» °^° p[> A ring of iron. In this case, the second-term of the Idafah defines the genus 
(lyl>) of the first-term. 

43. Meaning that the accusative state is based on the rules of the Mustathna. The nominative state, however, is 
based on the Mustathna Minhu being subordinate to the Mustathna in apposition. In the relationship of 
apposition, the subordinate follows its principle in its grammatical state, as in: Lj^j ^fl I>1 i\> Lc. Therefore, the 

subordinate (Ij-j), the Mustathna Minhu is also nominative following its principle (!>!), the Mustathna. This is 

the significance of the term (t Li)fl) in the text. Regarding the term (ilU-JI), it is one of the types of subordinate 

apposition (jJjitl). It means that the subordinate is equivalent to its principle, at least in part since Sa'eed is a 

part of those described as no one, meaning people. Refer to lesson 24. 

44. Estimated is the vacated Mustathna Minhu, as in: .u^ H\ 4>"L oj>j U j ;Ll-«~; V] U>i cJlj U ;!_«_; "ill 1^1 jfw L>. 

45. Surah al-Anbiya 21 :22. 

46. Surah al-Hadeed 57:27. 

47. Surahal-A'raf7:169. 

48. Surah ash-Shu'ara 26:88-89. 

49. Surah ar-Rum 30:47. 

50. The five perspectives are: 

1 ) Fathah for both based on the negation of the collective noun with (^). As singular nouns, the endings of both 
are fixed with Fathah, as in: JJL h\ sji V j j^- 1 

2) Nominative for both based on negation resembling (>J), however, its Khabar (L>»'>s). an accusative word is 
elided, as in: JJL ^1 b^>>J 3J3 ~i j bj>>s J> 1 There is no strength existing or power existing except with Allah. 

3) Fathah for the first based on negating a collective (J>>' "i), as in (1 ). The accusative for the second is due to 

making apposition to the collective noun by means of the particle (j). Since the collective noun (Jj>) stands in 
the place of an accusative word, the word (jjp) also becomes accusative by means of this apposition. 

4) Fathah for the first based on negating the collective noun, as in (3). The nominative for the second is due to 

negation similar to (^ji), as in (2). 

The Guidance In Grammar 299 g^-JI jia oJoaJI 

5) The nominative for the first is based on negation similar to (^4)) and the Fathah for the second is based on 
the negating of the collective noun. This is the opposite of (4). 

51. Surah Yusuf 12:31. 

52. Surah ash-Shura 42:17. 

53. Surah al-'Ankabut 29:45. 

54. In reality, the grammatical states are indicated by letters in this class of words as opposed to the common signs 
of I'rab, like vowels. The letter Waw indicates the nominative state (JL yl <J <yLi >yj- <J-\ ij))\ Alif indicates the 

accusative state (JL IS . Li < Li , U> < l>! • U) and Ya indicates the genitive state ( JL. ^i <,><_?-* '^> 'i/j '<^0- 

55. Surah al-Baqarah 2:124. 

56. Surah an-Nisa 4:75. 

57. Surah al-Fatihah 1:1. 

58. Surah al-Haqqah 69:13. 

59. Surah al-Qasas 28:21. 

60. Surah an-Naml 27:26. 

61. Understanding that the sentence was originally: iy>JJ\ jt *i£j| yj. j jliJI j> *i£j) ij. However, since the verb 
(521JI) is estimated, the sentence becomes: iy>JJ\ J> yU j jllil ^ Juj. As a rule, when a genitive particle is found in 
the Khabar, it is required to place the Khabar ahead of the Mubtada, as in: yj. 1?ZJJ\ J> j l"j jlIJI ^5. The particle 
(j) between these sentences allows apposition of differing types: First, apposition is made upon the word (jllll) 
by the word fc^AII) which follows it in its genitive state thus eliminating the need to repeat the genitive particle 
(^). The word {jyJ) follows the word (Ijj) in apposition as well. The governing agent in (Ijj) is (!islj£jVI), meaning 

that as the Mubtada it is nominative because it initiates the expression in its original formulation. Likewise, (syU) 
is nominative as well due to apposition with the same particle (j). This was the view of the Kufan grammarian 
al-Farrai. However, the Basri grammarian Seebawaih rejected this construction. 

The Guidance In Grammar 300 gj^JI jii oJoaJI 

62. Surah al-Baqarah 2:35. 

63. Surah az-Zukhruf 43:70. 

64. Surah al-Hijr 15:30. 

65. Surah ash-Shu'ara 26:170. 

66. Surah al-Baqarah 2:31. 

67. Surah al-'Alaq 96:15-16. 

68. Surah ash-Shura 42:52-53. 

69. Surah al-Fatihah 1:6-7. 

70. In reality, without any form of sentence construction or syntax, these words have no reason to have declension 
since declension is an indicator of the government of words within an expression. On the other hand, since 
these words are capable of declension inherently, whenever they are found in a sentence, the will become 

71. Surah al-Maidah 5:8. 

72. Meaning that a pronoun is concealed in the forms of the Active Participle (J-cLs), the Passive Participle (j^iLs) 
and other patterns not mentioned. 

73. Surah al-Fatihah 1:5. 

74. Surah at-Tauheed 112:1. 

75. Surah al-Maidah 5:117. 

76. Surah al-Fatihah 1:5. 

77. Surah az-Zumar 39:7. 

78. Surah an-Naml 27:42. 

79. Surah at-Tauheed 112:1. 

80. Surah Maryam 19:69. 

81. Surah ar-Ra'd 13:3. 

The Guidance In Grammar 301 $±J\ jii oJoaJI 

82. Surah an-Naml 27:40. 

83. Surah Ali'lmran 3:44. 

84. Surah al-Baqarah 2:2. 

85. Surah an-Nur 24:30. 

86. Fussilat 41:44. 

87. Surah al-Kafirun 109:2. 

88. Surah al-Muminun 23:1-2. 

89. Surah Yusuf 12:32. 

90. Surah al-Muminun 23:83. 

91 . Surah al-Baqarah 2:245. 

92. Surah al-Haqqah 69:19. 

93. Surah al-Muminun 23:36. 

94. Surah al-lsra 17:23. 

95. Surah al-Maidah 5:105. 

96. Surah al-Baqarah 2:249. 

97. Surah ad-Dukhan 44:25. 

98. Surah ar-Rum 30:4. 

99. The meaning of Ghayat (oLUJI) literally means objective or intent. Here it refers to the Mudaf llaihi which is 
elided intentionally, as in the verse. In this case, the adverbs are indeclinable based on Dammah at its end. If 
there is no elided Mudaf llaihi intended, these adverbs are fully-declinable, as in the second example following in 
the text, also: IjJL j ~k3 cJL> / came before and after. 

100. Surah al-A'raf 7:182. 

101. Surah an-Nasr 110:1. 

The Guidance In Grammar 302 gj^JI jii oJoaJI 

102. Surah al-A'raf 7:27. 

103. Surah al-Jumu'ah 62:11. 

104. Surah al-An'am 6:124. 

105. Surah at-Taubah 9:40. 

106. Surah Ali'lmran 3:164. 

107. Surah azh-Zhariyat 51:12. 

108. Surah al-Maidah 5:119, based on one of its recitations. 

109. Surah an-Nasr 110:1. 

110. Surah Ali'lmran 3:37. 

111. Surah al-A'raf 7: 187. 

112. Surah Ali'lmran 3:44. 

113. Surah Ibrahim 14:40. 

114. Surah al-lsra 17:9. 

115. Surah an-Nur 24:2. 

116. Surah Yusuf 12:4. 

117. Surah al-Maidah 5:38. 

118. Surah al-Baqarah 2:233. 

119. Surah ar-Rahman 55:50. 

120. Surah al-Baqarah 2:228. 

121. Surah al-Hujarat 49:14. 

122. Surah al-Fath 48:29. 

The Guidance In Grammar 303 gj^JI jii oJoaJI 

123. The term Verbal Noun is used here for brevity while the proper name of this noun is: J-tlill *jL ijiiitl ilJa3\An 

Adjective Resembling The Active Participle. Like the Active Participle, this adjective retains a verbal quality 
resultant from its direct derivation from a verb. However, unlike the Active Participle, the qualities signified by this 
adjective are considered permanent or intrinsic. 

124. Surah al-Ahzab 33:6. 

125. Surah al-A'raf 7:151. 
126 Surah al-Baqarah 2:191. 

127. Surah al-lsra 17:9. 

128. Surah al-Anfal 8:33. 

129. This Waw is also known as: iiaiJI jljJI. 

130. Surah al-Muzammil 73:20. 

131. Meaning that the particle (ii) is negation of the past , as in: \jj. ij Oj-L' °A Zaid did not hit Amr. However, 

when (Lit) is used, the negation is continuous up to the present, as in: \jj. juj Cij^u HI Zaid has not (yet) hit 

Amr, meaning that there remains the expectation that this action could happen although it has not happened 
until the time of speaking. This is the continuity referred to in the text. 

132. Surah al-Baqarah 2:212. 

133. Surah al-Fatir 35:43. 

134. Surah an-Nahl 16:90. 

135. Surah Ali'lmran 3:97. 

136. Surah Yusuf 12:77. 

137. Surah Ali'lmran 3:85. 

138. Surah al-An'am 6:160. 

139. Surah Ali'lmran 3:31. 

The Guidance In Grammar 304 gj^JI jii oJoaJI 

140. Surah al-Mumtahannah 60:10. 

141. Surah ar-Rum 30:36. 

142. Surah al-Maidah 5:95. 

143. Surah al-Jinn 72:2. 

144. Surah Yunus 10:72. 

145. Surah at-Taubah 9:6. 

146. Surah al-An'am 6:17. 

147. Surah Ali'lmran 3:31. 

148. Surah Ibrahim 14:34. 

149. Surah an-Nisa 4:86. 

150. Hamzah al-WasI is that Hamzah symbolized with the following sign (I) and is found in the beginning of verbs 
whose vowel may be elided to facilitate connection between two words as in: o>iiL;l j|. In nouns, the Hamzah 

al-WasI itself may be elided all together when part of the Definite article, as in: -UjJJ. As in verbs, the vowel is 
elided on the Hamzah in order to facilitate connection between words, as in: sl>il Sj- 

151. The passive-voice verb is derived from the active-voice transitive verb (^liitll ijlAJI Jiitl). The verb's subject 

is elided and the verb's object occupies the place of the subject assuming the subject's nominative state as well, 
as in: \ju. jjj Csyi> Zaid struck ;4/w(active-voice) >> £+£OjJ> 'Amr was struck (passive-voice). 

152. The Ajwaf verb (oj>Vl Jill I) is the verb whose middle consonant is originally a weak letter, either Waw or Ya, 
asin: Jl3(Jii);^L {g). 

153. Surah al-Bayyinah 98:5. 

154. Surah al-Qiyamah 75:13. 

155. Surah al-An'am 6:78. 

156. Surah an-Naml 27:44. 

157. Surah an-Nisa 4:17. 

The Guidance In Grammar 305 gj^JI jii oJoaJI 

158. Surah ar-Rum 30:17. 

159. Surah an-Nahl 16:58. 

160. Surah al-A'raf 7:22. 

161. Surah al-Baqarah 2:216. 

162. Surah al-Baqarah 2:271. 

163. Surah Sad 38:30. 

164. Surah al-Kahf 18:29. 

165. ibid, 18:31. 

166. Surah Ali'lmran 3:173. 

167. Surah al-Hajj 22:30. 

168. Surah al-Maidah 5:6. 

169. Surah Ta Ha 20:71. 

170. Surah an-Nahl 16:66. 

171. Surah ar-Ra'd 13:17. 

172. Surah al-Fath 48:28. 

173.Surahan-Naml 27:72. 
174.Surahal-Ahqaf 46:11. 

175. Surah an-Nisa 4:6. 

176. Surah al-Fatihah 1:1. 

177. Surah al-Mumin 40:16 

178. Surah al-lsra 17:1. 

The Guidance In Grammar 


gji_JI jii cljIoAJI 

179. Surah Yusuf 12:85. 

180. Surah ash-Shura 43:11. 

181. Surah ash-Shams 91:1. 

182. Surah at-Teen 95:1. 

183. Surah ad-Duha 93:1-2. 

184. Surah al-Muminun 23:22. 

185. Surah al-Baqarah 2:71 . 

186. Meaning that the subject could be a Masdar interpreted from (5|) and the words it governs in the nominative 
state, as in: lJU ij ^ j.Jii It is reaching me (that) Za id is a scholar. Or, likewise, the object could be a Masdar 
interpreted from (£l) and the words its governs. 

187. Meaning that if you consider the place (JjS-s) of the noun of ($l), it is accusative. However, if you consider the 
word, it is originally nominative as the Mubtada. 

188. Surah Maryam 19:30. 

189. Surah Ali'lmran 3:19. 

190. Surah al-Anfal 8:24. 

191 . Surah al-Ahzab 33:63. 

192. Surah Hud 11:111, according to one of its recitations. 

193. Surah Ya Seen 36:32. 

194. Surah Yusuf 12:3. 

195. Surah ash-Shu'ara 26:186. 

196. Surah al-Muzzamil 73:20. 

197. Surah Yusuf 12:3. 

198. Surah Ya Seen 36:26. 

The Guidance In Grammar 307 gj^JI jii oJoaJI 

199. Surah an-Nisa 4:73. 

200. Surah 'Abasa 80:3. 

201. Surah al-Munafiqun 63:4. 

202. Surah al-Maidah 5:95. 

203. Surah al-lnsan 76:3. 

204. Surah an-Naml 27:64. 

205. Surah al-Baqarah 2:184. 

206. It is more appropriate to use the particle (jl) in this question, as in: l-u»«o jl Iju*j; cJljl Did you see Sa'eed or 

Majeed?, as the questioner would likely ask this question when not knowing which person was seen. The 
particle (il), however, is used to distinguish between two matters, one of which the questioner knows is 
established. However, the reply to this question could be: UJI>1 ji °J I didn't see either one of the two. This reply, 
then, does not distinguish one of two matters. 

207. Surah al-Baqarah 2:57. 

208. Surah al-Furqan 25:44. 

209. Surah an-Nazi'at 79:27. 

210. Surah al-Muminun 23:70. 

211. Surah al-Mujadalah 58:22. 

212. Surah al-A'raf 7:172. 

213. Surah az-Zumar 39:36. 

214. Surah al-Mulk 67:8-9. 

215. Surah Yunus 10:53. 

216. Surah Yusuf 12:96. 

217. Surah Ali'lmran 3:159. 

218. Surah al-A'raf 7:12. 

The Guidance In Grammar 308 gj^JI jii oJoaJI 

219. Surah al-Qiyamah 75:1-2. 

220. Surah at-Taubah 9:25. 

221. Surah al-Qiyamah 75:1. 

222. Surah al-Maidah 5:117. 

223. Ibid, 5:96. 

224. Surah at-Taubah 9:128. 

225. Surah al-Maidah 5:117. 

226. Surah Yusuf 12:82. 

227. Surah as-Saffat 37:104. 

228. Surah an-Nur 24:22. 

229. Surah al-Munafiqun 63:10. 

230. Surah al-Muminun 23:27. 

231. Surah al-Ahzab 33:18. 

232. For the following reason, Hamzah is either preferred over (JjS) or (Ji) is not allowed: 

(ScJIj Jujl) Hamzah is preferred to accompany a noun ; (Idji-) -J> j Ijuj 4v^') Hamzah is used in the meaning of 
rebuke and censure ; (Tji_»> °,\ J-ux ^i*>l); Hamzah is used with (il^Iill ,1) ; {{JS j^il 5^ o-° i 1 ) Hamzah is used 
with the particle of apposition (iliil). 

233. Surah ash-Shams 91 :9. 

234. Surah al-A'raf 7:44. 

235. Surah ar-Rahman 55:60. 

236. Surah al-lnshirah 94:1. 

237. Surah al-Anbiya 21:22. 

238. ibid. 

The Guidance In Grammar 309 g-*_JI jta aJaAJI 

239. Surah al-Anfal 8:38. 

240. Surah al-Waqi'ah 56:65. 

241. Surah Fatir 35:14. 

242. Surah al-Baqarah 2:26. 

243. Surah Ali'lmran 3:7. 

244. Surah al-Fajr 89:1 6-1 7. 

245. Surah at-Takathur 102:4. 

246. Meaning that the pronoun precedes what it refers to, as in; jIjJjJI UI5 , wherein the pronoun concealed in the 
verb (UJ) precedes that which it refers to (jljJpl), due to this, it is considered a weak construction. 

247. Surah ash-Shu'ara 26:62. 

248. Surah al-Qiyamah 75:11-12. 

249. Surah al-lnfitar 82:9. 

250. Surah al-'Alaq 96:6. 

251. Surah al-Mutafifeen 83:7. 

252. Surah al-Muminun 23:100. 

253. Surah al-Hujarat 49:14. 

254. Surah an-Naml 27:32. 

255. What is intended here by the term Nakirah or indefinite are some indeclinable words, like the Verbal Noun 
p) and proper names ending in (aJj). That which has Tanween, in these type of words are indefinite while that 
which is without Tanween is definite, as in the name Seebawaih in the following: ^>l ajJ~-j i *i>~* oj>> / 

passed by Seebawaih and another Seebawaih. The first instance is definite without Tanween and the second is 
indefinite with Tanween. 

The Guidance In Grammar 310 gj^JI jii oJoaJI 

256. In these verses of poetry, the word iM) is a command verb in the feminine singular form from the root (J5GI). 

The intent here in (ijill Jls!) is to abandon or leave blame or reproach. The word (JiU) is a Munada Murakhkham 

(ii-jJ UiLJ) whose origin is (iiiU L), who is the one blaming. It's meaning is: Leave blaming me, O 'Azhil and 

rebuke. And say: if I do what's correct, then you are afflicted. The point is that the Tanween Tarannum is entered 
upon both a noun (ULuJI) and a verb (Cu>l). Likewise, in the second verse, Tanween is entered upon two verbs 


257. Surah al-Qiyamah 75:13. 

258. Surah Hud 11:17. 

259. Surah al-Haqqah 69:16. 

260. Surah al-Mumtahannah 60:10. 

261 . Surah al-Anbiya 21 :57. 

262. Surah Maryam 19:26. 

263. Surah al-A'raf 7:200. 

264. Surah al-'Ankabut 29:11. 

The Guidance In Grammar 311 gj^JI jii oJoaJI