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Full text of "The regions of vegetation, being an analysis of the distribution of vegetable forms over the surface of the globe in connection with climate and physical agents"

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Her Majesty's ship Sulphur was the school in which I 
more particularly studied geographic botany. Precon- 
ceived views, and results drawn from the perusal of the 
writings of scientific travellers, were here practically 
tested. Her extensive voyage, and rapid transition from 
one portion of land to another, afforded rich and most 
favourable sources of comparison. With a bias towards 


the subject, it was an occupation of delight to develope 
the principles of the study, and to apply them to a result. 
Climate is the basis on which the earliest data must be 
founded, and with the liberal use of instruments, observa- 


tions on temperature and humidity were in time col- 
lected. These, with observations on the physical condi- 
tion of the surface, furnish us with many of the circum- 
stances which govern the distribution of the flora of the 
world. What I have accomplished under these heads, 
has been collected together, and forms the subject of a 
lengthened paper, which, through the liberality of the 
proprietors of the Annals of Natural History, has been 
already published. Naturally following the consideration 
of physical agents, were the subjects of original distribu- 
tion, amount, relative proportion to space, and similar de- 
tails ; but which I have not yet ventured to make public. 

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The result of these investigations was the develope- 
ment of regions of vegetation, and which had their origin 
and stability in previously established views. At the 
same time, I do not insist that these are natural, but that 
taken in their entireness, they present, in situations, cir- 
cumstances of remarkable individuality. In the mean- 
time they will be found eminently useful in studying the 
features of vegetation, and more particularly in leading 
the subject to the naturalization of plants — the great end 
and aim of geographic botany. 

My views respecting these regions have been more 
fully dwelt on in Sir W. J. Hooker's Journal of Botany 
for June 1842, and our space here does not permit me to 
enter on these at a greater length. It is enough to add 
that these regions are the result of observations matured 
during the voyage, and that with fourteen of them I have 
been practically acquainted. 

K. B. H. 




I. The Greenland region 
II. The North- West America region 

III. The Canada region 

IV. The Iroquois region 

V. The California region 

VI. The Prairie region 
VII. The Chihuahua region 

VIII. The Central America region 

IX. The Mexico Alpine region 
X. The West India region 


XI. The Oronoco region 

XII. The Andes region 

XIII. The Amazon region . 

XIV. The Paraguay region 
XV. The Chili and Peru region 

XVI, The Pampas region 
XVII. The Patagonia region 


XVIII. The Polynesia region . 
XIX. The Papua or New Guinea region 
XX. The Australia Tropic region 



XXIII. The Van Diemen's Land region 

XXIV. The New Zealand region 


















XXV. The South Africa region 
XXVI. The Mozambique region 
XXVII. The Madagascar region 



XXIX. The Canary Islands region 
XXX. The Barbary region 
XXXI. The Nile region . 

XXXII. The Asia Minor region 

XXXIII. The Arabia region 

XXXIV. The Tartary region 

XXXV. The Siberia region 

XXXVI. The Japan region 

XXXVII. The China region 
XXXVIII. The Birmah region 
XXXIX. The Malaisia region 
XL. The Hindostan region 


XLI. The Himmaleh region 











XLII. The Spain region 
XLI II. The Italy region . 
XLIV. The Danube region 

XLV. The Alps region . 
XLVI. The Central Europe region 
XLVII. The Volga region 

XLVIII. The Ocean region 




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Extent. — An important portion of the northern hemi- 
sphere is occupied by a vegetation entirely without trees, 
and covering a dreary, bleak, inhospitable surface, hardly 
capable, even in the most favoured spots, of any cultiva- 
tion. Greenland composes much of this, and the region 
further comprises that part of America to the north of a 
line commencing at Hudson's Bay in 60° N. lat., thence 
stretching to 68° at the Mackenzie river, and continued to 
Behring's Straits ; with that part of Siberia to the north 
of 65°, and Iceland, Spitzbergen, and Melville island. 
The natural course of this line is with the forest, obeying 
its sinuosities and sweeps, and will be found to enclose a 
region of some peculiarities. The northern limit of course 
only ceases with the vegetation. 

Physical Characters. — The surface is usually extremely 
rocky and rugged, destitute of soil, and maintaining its 
flora in sheltered valleys and ravines. It is now a re- 

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ceived fact, that all those plants mutually existing in the 
northern parts of Europe and America are found in this 
region ; hence it seems to have been a region of trans- 
mission, and to have been eminently active in supplying 
the northern parts of these two portions of the globe with 

many plants in common. 

Climate.— There are but two seasons, summer and 
winter, which succeed each other with surprising rapidity. 
The latter is severe and protracted, and occupies a large 
portion of the year; summer suddenly follows on its 
decline, and from the now protracted presence of the sun 
much heat is accumulated. The activity of the vegetation 
would appear to be in proportion to the duration and com- 
pleteness of its dormant condition, and is very characte- 
ristic. In Greenland, the range of the thermometer 
during the year is from 84° to— 48°, or 132 degrees. 

Flora. — Shrubs compose the larger vegetation ; they 
are not the large bushy plants known as such in tempe- 
rate and warm climates, but are of dwarf stature, and 
appear to be struggling against the elements to attain 
that state which nature has destined them to assume; 
thus some of them are only a few inches high ; still they 
are numerous, and have sometimes showy flowers with 
brilliant colours. Leguminosae, umbelliferse, caryophylleae, 
and cruciferae, have a smaller share in the vegetation than 
might be expected ; bnt ranunculacese, saxifrageae, and 
ericacese, hold a more important station, and the propor- 
tion of graminese has greatly increased. It is, how- 
ever, among cellulares that the greatest change is mani- 
fest, particularly in musci. 

Greenland has a flora of 403 species, of which 172 are 
phenogamous, and 23 1 cryptogamous. These are distributed 
among 137 genera and 45 natural families. On analysis, 
the phenogamous species are found to be in proportion 




to the genus as 2 to 1, the cryptogamus as 45 to 1 ; 
taking the whole flora, the value of the genus is 2*9, of 
the natural family 3 ; of the phenogamous genus 2, of 
the cryptogamous 4*5 ; of the phenogamous family 2*3, 
of the crytogamous 7*3. The genera have few species 
compared with Iceland ; saxifraga, draba, ranunculus 
stellaria, cerastium, epilobium, pedicularis, eriophorum, 
j uncus, carex, and salix, being the only phenogamous 
genera with more than three species. There are no 
trees; pyrus aucuparia reaches 61° as a small shrub, and 
about a dozen species are peculiar. 

Iceland, situated between 63° and 68° N. lat., has 652 
species. Of these 359 are phenogamous, and 293 crypto- 
gamous. Umbelliferse constitute 109th part, leguminosse 
81st, cruciferse 40th, composite 33rd, andgraminese 15th. 
The most numerous phenogamous genera are salix, saxi- 
fraga, ranunculus, gentiana, veronica, potamogeton, 
plantago, epilobium, rumex, polygonum, geranium, 
hieraceum, gnaphalium, orchis, carex, j uncus, agrostis, 
aira, poa, festuca. 


Melville island, in 75° N. lat., has 116 species distri- 
buted between 22 families ; or of phenogamous plants 
67, and of cryptogamous 49. A few of the species are 
not found elsewhere, and it may have a genus of its own, 
at present an unsettled point. 

Relations. — The most interesting are with the three 
upper regions of alpine vegetation, where many of its 
characteristic features reappear. 


Extent.- — The rocky mountains and Pacific Ocean on 
the east and west, and 68° N. lat., and the Columbia river 
to the north and south, enclose this region. 





Physical Characters.— The surface is irregular, consist- 
ing entirely of mountain and valley, without the least pre- 
tensions to plain ; the former composed chiefly of primi- 
tive rocks, among which granite is abundant, quartz is 
sometimes seen, and rarely, I believe, limestone. The 
soil is often rich, from the great accumulation and rapid 
decomposition of vegetable remains. 

Climate.— Being freely exposed to winds from the 
ocean, and westerly winds prevailing, the climate is con- 
siderably modified. Compared with Europe, it is far 
cooler for the latitude, and with the opposite coast with- 
out those extremes so common there. It is, however, 
much more moist than either, and the rainy days are 
very frequent. In 56° N. lat., the mean temperature has 
been ascertained to be 45°5, and the range of the year 
from 2°3 to 81°9. Only thirty-seven really clear and 
fine days were experienced, on forty-six snow fell, and on 
the rest more or less rain. This was at Sitka, or New 
Archangel. At the Columbia river in 46° jST. lat., being 
the southern limit, and with an interval from the above 
of ten degrees, the mean-temperature is 54°, the annual 
range from 18° to 92°, number of rainy days 157, the 
quantity of rain 53*6 inches, and snow is rarely seen. 

Flora.— Though the inequalities of the surface are 
great, soil is abundant, and the investing vegetation vigo- 

The constant moisture favours premature decay 
and thus the trees are early undermined, and falling from 
their ranks in the forest, cover the ground in vast num- 
bers. It is not easy to conceive how thickly the surface 
is crowded with these, unless by recalling something like 

of the coal measures. Within 
the tropics I have never seen anything equal to the scene 
of devastation the northern part of this region presents ; 
trunks of trees, of great length and clear of branches, 



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are seen on all sides strewed in tiers, and covered with a 
dense agamic vegetation. It would often seem that they 
were unable to attain a good old age, as, always exposed 
to moisture from the repeated rains, they have yielded to 
its influence immediately that period of life arrived when 
the activity of vegetation diminishes. Here everything 
is moist, the soil is completely saturated, mosses and 
lichens are in their liveliest vigour, and much of the 
surface is swampy. 

Tracing the regions from Prince William's Sound in 
6 } north latitude to the east, and then to the south, the 
whole will be found to be covered with one vast forest. 
It extends to the north as far as the boundary line, and 
to the south, through several degrees of latitude, to the 
Columbia river, where a sudden change occurs, and 
which is a very decided line of demarkation between 
this and the California region. Returning for a moment 
to Prince William's Sound, a tongue of land stretches 
from it to Oonalaskaand the other islands of the Aleutian 
chain, over which there is no forest, and the only ap- 
proach to trees is a few stunted spruces in the sheltered 
valleys. But the vegetation is very luxuriant, and to- 
wards the close of summer the roses, willows, and lupins 
form a dense mass not easy to penetrate. At this time, 
on the sides of the lower mountains, sustaining towards 
their summits irregular patches of snow, there is a rich- 
ness and quiet beauty about the flora particularly attrac- 
tive, for many of the flowers are showy, and their colours 
clear and brilliant. Here especially are mimulus luteus, 
geranium eriostemon, lupinus nootkatensis, making the 
surface quite blue with its flowers, epilobium latifolium, 
polemonium humile, and some ferns and grasses, many 
of the latter of which are in common with Europe. 
Elsewhere the forest, though dense, consists of but few 

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species ; abies has three, which, with cupressus thyoides, 
constitute all the larger trees, whilst some smaller are 
contributed by Crataegus, salix, cerasus, betula, and to the 

south diospyros. 

The undergrowth of shrubs is so extremely luxuriant, 
that it appears a chief characteristic, and, regardless of 
the shade of the forest, flourishes in great vigour. 


These shrubs are chiefly the species of vaccinium, 
ziesia, rubus, and ribes, which, though numerous in spe- 
cies, have a multitude of individuals. Towards the south, 
lonicera involucrata, inahonia glumacea, symphoria 
racemosa, gaultheria shallon are superadded, and par- 
ticularly aspidium munitum, a handsome fern, very 
social, and covering portions of the surface to the ex- 
clusion of others. Another peculiarity is, that though 
some of the genera appear through several degrees of 
latitude, they are continued by new spepies ; thus ribes, 
rubus, rosa, and lupinus, are seen everywhere in the re- 
gion, yet each species had but a small range, and is im- 
mediately succeeded by another. 

Relations. — Two plants are common which are emi- 
nently distinguished for their large foliage, and as 
members of families of a warmer climate ; panax hor- 
ridum, a fine shrub with large showy leaves, upwards of 
a foot in length, has a range of growth from 45° to 61° 
north latitude ; and dracontium camtschaticum, with a 
very different habit, spreading its broad leaves over the 
surface, on the under side of which is usually a small 
hairy helix, abounds in moist situations from 61° north 
latitude to the Columbia River, or 46°19'. Mimulus 
guttatus has a wide habitat, extending from 59° 30' north 
latitude to 37° in California. The herbaceous plants 
are of families common to these latitudes, though both 
crucifene and umbelliferee are scarce, and the genera are 




similar to the European with few exceptions. The 
southern part mixes but feebly with the California region, 
and the features are preserved singularly intact even to 

the banks of the Columbia, H 

quercus commences 

with many others, abies ceases suddenly, and pin us 
partly supplies its place, nor disappearing from the 
elevated lands till it arrives in the vicinity of Panama. 
A collection of plants from its northern part contained 
about one half common with the north of Europe, and 
a similar number with Siberia. 


Extent. — To the west the Rocky Mountains, and 
to the east the Atlantic Ocean; in the south a line 
commencing on the coast in 44° north latitude, thence 
to the margin of Lake Erie and to the Mississippi, then 
taking a north, and afterwards a north-west direction 
by the north branch of the Saskatchawan river to the 
Rocky Mountains. Its northern outline is irregular, 
being determined by the forest ; towards Hudson's Bay 
it crosses the country in 60° north latitude ; but attains 
a higher latitude to the west, till it reaches 68°, near the 
Mackenzie River. 

Physical Characters. — Much of this surface is covered 
with forest. There are no important mountain chains, 
though smaller ranges separate several large plains. These 
have generally a fruitful alluvial soil, but wild rocky 
districts are not uncommon, too dreary and inhospitable 
to support a vigorous vegetation. The primary moun- 
tains of the Iroquois region pass its southern boundary, 
and separate some plains in the vicinity of the lakes 
and the St. Lawrence, the luxuriant fertility of which, 

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and whose 

characteristics are limestone rocks, waters highly charged 
with calcareous matter, and copious deposits of gypsum 

and marl. Nova Scotia, N 

Brunswick, and the is- 

lands, form an important portion of the region. Here 
granite, clay-stone, sandstone, and limestone, constitute 
the basis on which the soil reposes. In Prince Edward's 
Island the soil is fertile, and though occasional masses of 
granite occur, scarcely a stone or pebble is to be seen ; 
sandstone is the basis of the island, and clay abounds. 
In Newfoundland the surface is more rocky, secondary 
formations prevail, with coal and various sandstones. 
Of Labrador little more is known than that it is covered 
with a vast forest, and is unusually inclement for the 


Climate.— This varies considerably, but is every- 
where severe for the latitude. Like the United States 
the extremes of temperature are intense, and with the 
anomaly that the seasons of Lower 

Canada run into 



Summer and 

greater near the sea than inland, 
winter succeed each other so rapidly, that spring and 
autumn are not distinguishable. About the close of 
October, sharp frosts commence, heavy falls of sleet and 
snow occur in November, and this state of the weather 
prevails till the middle or end of December, when it 
rapidly yields to a clear sky and a frosty atmosphere, which 
continue till nearly the end of March. A rapid change 
now takes place ; a fervid sun bursts forth, which melt- 
ing the snows and unlocking the frozen streams, vegeta- 
tion appears with magic haste, and every spot is beau- 
tiful and green with verdure. 

May to September 
inclusive, a warm and oppressive summer prevails. 

Flora.— Unlike the neighbouring Iroquois region, the 

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forest offers little variety in its trees, these being chiefly 
spruces, as abies alba, a. nigra, a. canadensis, with 

with these are several trees 

occasionally thuja occidentalis, pin us resinosa, 
larix microcarpa. Mixed 



fag us ferru- 

with deciduous leaves, but they do not extend quite so 
far north, nor so completely enter into the composition 
of the forest ; quercus ambigua, betula papyracea, b. 
lenta, b. excelsa, populus balsamifera, p. tremuloides, 
p. grandidentata ; and with limits 

southern, acer saccharinum, a. rubrum 
ginea, ulmus americana. A close compact forest is 
unfavourable to the humbler vegetation, and thus there 
is no great variety ; and in the present instance is more v 
particularly characterised by shrubs of cerasus, sambucus, 
viburnum, salix, rhodora, sedum, kalmia, ribes, rubus, 
rosa, and amelanchier. 

Relations. — Among the herbaceous plants are many 
peculiar species, but almost always of genera widely 
diffused over other parts of the continent or of Europe. 
About half-a-dozen genera only seem peculiar. Wher- 
ever, during a portion of the year, the climate possesses 
considerable warmth, there will generally be found re- 
presentatives of forms belonging more abundantly to 
warmer latitudes; here, accordingly, are met with two 
species of panax, two of aralia, and draesena borealis. 


Extent. — I have attempted, in the name of this region, 
to connect the memory of the brave Indians with the 
magnificent forests they once claimed as their own. The 
word was applied collectively to several tribes of North 
Americans, well known in their day as the Six Nations, 








and closely concerned in the early political transactions 
of this country. They were the admiration of their co- 
temporaries, but nothing now remains of them, unless 
sufficient of their history to adorn a tale. Perhaps a 
few solitary descendants may be traced out, far from the 
land of their fathers, but no more. The forests them- 
selves are disappearing under the thrift and industry of 
their greatest enemy, the white man ; the trees that 
once sheltered the Indian lodge are falling beneath 
the axe of the regenerator ; and the trackless forest, so 
often traversed by the skilful hunter and dauntless war- 
rior, is now covered with corn-fields, canals, and rail- 

The boundary of this region commences on the coast 
of the Atlantic in 44° north latitude, and proceeds, just 
skirting the southern margin of Lake Erie, onward to 
the Mississippi. It now continues along the edge of the 
forest on its western shore, approaching it more closely 
at its mouth than in its northern course ; and afterwards 
crossing Florida in 27° north latitude, with the Gulf of 


incloses an irre 


parallelogram of about 690,000 square miles. 

Physical Characters. — This surface is unequally di- 
vided by the Alleghany mountains, which slope towards 
the Atlantic and the Mississippi. The latter has also a gra- 
dual and regular ascent from the Gulf of Mexico to the 
lakes of Canada, of 1,200 feet. Both of these plains 
abound in a fruitful soil wherever the forest has been 
removed, but superior fertility and excellence belongs 



mountain system, though attaining no great elevation, 
has a length of 1,200 miles, and occupies a belt of about 
one hundred, of which two-thirds are estimated to consist 
of valleys. It traverses the region obliquely from north- 

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east to south-west, and has an average height of between 
2,000 to 3,000 feet, the highest summits never exceeding 
the latter. There are elsewhere some loftier elevations, 
Mount Washington being 6,428 feet, and the Black 
Mountain in Carolina 6,476 feet. The Alleghanies are 
divided into four distinct ridges, and are chiefly composed 
of primary stratified rocks. This stratification is very 
generally prevalent, and one of its effects is visible in 
the numerous cascades, falls, and rapids of the rivers. 
Gneiss, granite, sienite, and hornblende are frequent in 
the northern parts, and are equally the basis of the 
plains as of the mountains. Towards the south the 
granitic rocks in a great measure disappear, and are 
supplanted by an extensive limestone formation. Much 
of the surface of the plain between the mountains and 
the Atlantic is covered by sand, which in many instances 
is far more productive than might be imagined, from, it 
is supposed, a submersion to which it was formerly 
exposed. There are likewise extensive patches of marsh 
or moist meadow land, and nearer the sea occasionally 
inundated districts. 

Climate. — With so wide an extent of latitude, there 
will be much difference in the climate. Generally it 
may be called a climate of extremes, particularly in the 
northern part, where this feature is experienced in 
greatest force. The vicissitudes are great, and accom- 
plished with much rapidity ; the extreme of heat and 
cold even in a single day is immense, and it has been 
known to be 41° ; 28° is mentioned as common. After 
the hottest days, the nights may be piercingly cold. An 
American writer has summed up a detail of his climate 
by observing, that in spring it has the moisture of Britain, 
in summer the fervid heats of Africa, in June the bland 

warmth of Italy, in winter the 


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Indies, and in all seasons the variable weather of Great 
Britain. Such a combination is not likely to be favour- 
able to the human race, but under it the vegetation is 
ndoubtedly varied and luxuriant. Plants love a warm 
atmosphere, especially if combined with brilliancy of the 

and a succeeding cold season, instead of 

sun's rays ; 

proving hurtful, seems rather to prepare them to expand 
in the coming summer with unusual vigour. 



A vast impervious forest once covered the 

whole eastern part of North America. 

Towards the 
Hudson's Bav, 

reaching as far as 60° ; and stretched towards the south 
in one broad mass, bounded on one side by the Atlantic 
Ocean, and on the other by the Mississippi, the father of 

It did not quite confine itself to the east side, but 
crossing the river, continued down its west bank in a belt 
of fifty or a hundred miles broad. The only interrup- 
tions throughout its extent were occasioned by two in- 


roads of prairie, mentioned under that region. 

To the 

south it received no check till it arrived on the margins 
of the Mexican Sea. A portion of this forest comprises 
the present region. Beyond the northern boundary of 
the latter the forest consists of but few species, but to its 
south a new state of things prevails ; for many new and 
extensive genera now contribute their species, and bestow 
an unrivalled variety. One hundred and fifty distinct 
kinds of trees are known, of which eighty attain an height 
upwards of sixty feet. Of these the most peculiar to the 
region are the various carya, nyssa, liriodenclron, taxo- 

dium, robinia, and gymnocladus. 

A small part only of 

this forest has been removed ; but where this has hap- 

has been produced in the 
Its original herbaceous plants, which re- 


a material change 


■.' .. . • ■■ . . 



quired shelter and protection, have disappeared from the 
clearings, and were replaced by strangers. But if the 
forest again resumes possession of the soil the old inha- 
bitants return, to the exclusion of the intruders. The 
numerous species furnishing these trees are, with few 
exceptions, peculiar, and, including those just mentioned, 
belong to the following genera, many of them having 
several species : — Quercus, ulmus, pinus, juglans, dios- 
pyros, cupressus, acer, negundo, laurus, celtis, gleditschia, 
virgilia, magnolia, tiiia, maclura, oesculus, pavia, corylus, 
fraxinus, ostrya, juniperus, morus, rhus, rosa, euonymus, 
rhamnus, hamiltonia, hydrangea, prinos, clethra, kal- 
mia, cratoegus, comptonia, myrica, sorbus, halesia, ber- 
beris, olea, philadelphus, malus, cerasus, gordonia ; but 
many of the latter are only shrubs. 

Among herbaceous plants the most characteristic are, 
in Labiatce.j collinsonia, salvia, gardoquia, calamintha, 
hyptis, ceranthera, macbridea, monarda, cunila, scutel- 
laria, hyssopus ; Scrophularinece, seymeria, gerardia, ma- 
cranthera, herpestis, gratiola, pentstemon, orobanche, 
antirrhinum, mimulus ; Eaphorhiacece , croton, euphorbia, 
phyllanthus, jatropha, tragia ; jRanunculacece, clematis, 
thalictrum, delphinium, ranunculus ; Composites, — these 
are extremely numerous and varied ; aster and solidago 
on which Schouw has erected a region, but they are as- 
sembled with so many others that it is giving them an 
undue importance ; liatris, a characteristic group, helian- 
themurn, coreopsis, rudbeckia, eupatorium, prenanthes, 

apogon, krigia, borkhausia, stokesia, vernonia, cacalia, 

hymenopappus, erigeron, arnica, verbesina, chaptalia, 
galardia, baldwinia, elephantopus, senecio, lactuca, cni- 
cus, hieraceum ; Legurninosce, desmodium, lespedeza, in- 
digofera, stylosanthes, baptisia, astragalus, tephrosia, 
lupinus, two species with simple leaves ; trifolium is not 





common; Stellatce, houstonia, galiuru, rubia; 
niacece, phlox, polemonium; 



meconopsis; Apocynece, amsonia, anantherix, polyotus, 


ery ngiura , 


hydrocotyle, leptocaulis, daucus, tiedmannia; 
are scarce, but hesperis prevails ; ThymelecB has only one 
representative ; among Orchidacece are habenaria, coral- 
lorhiza, orchis, triphora, malaxis, cypripedium, cranachis, 



iris, phalangium, yucca, agave, canna, tradescantia, com- 
melina, amaryllis, crinum, pancratium. To complete this 
sketch must be added, podophyllum, diclytra, claytonia, 
erythronium, mikania, smilax, vitis, polygala, hyperi- 
cum, lobelia, senothera, silene, arum, nymphsea, nuphar, 
vallisneria, villarsia, sagittaria, zizania, sarracenia, dio- 
nsea, drosera, oxalis, solanum, rhexia, several species, jus- 
si*ea, mitreola, spilegia, gentiana and sabbatia, various 
beautiful kinds, eriogonum, pleea-like dionsea with 
limited habitat, warea, tiaridium, and numerous ferns. 

A strong tendency exists in the southern portions to 
display tropical characters, as is evident from some of the 
endogenic already mentioned, and is farther confined by 
tillandsia, bromelia, epiphytic orchidacese, chamserops 
palmetto, and other palms ; sapindus, passiflora, turnera, 
bignonia, croton, and pontederia. 

The monomic* families are very few, and are confined 
to podophyllace^, sarraceniaceaj, and limnanthaceae ; of 
genera 332 are monomic in 

certainly a large number to have so limited a range. 
There are two which are singularly absent, erica and 




Mexico. The forest 

trees are so numerous, that was it our opinion that vege- 


* Confined to one region. 

mmmmm ^ m ^mm tam 



tation was diffused from centres, we should almost con- 
sider this as that whence the temperate regions of the 
world had been supplied. 

Leguminosse bear among 
them a great proportion for the latitude Others are 
remarkable for the size and brilliancy of their flowers ; 
occasionally for their glossy leaves; and the autumnal 
tints of an American forest have long charmed the ima- 
ginative observer. Graminese are feebly represented, and 
to some extent their place is supplied by juncese and 
cyperaceae, which love the marshy lands. 

The rang;e of growth of some of the trees has been 


carefully observed. Q 


to the Sabine river, but not more than twenty miles from 
the sea, and ceases at 37° N. latitude. Quercus prinus, 
the chesnut oak, abounds in the Atlantic states south of 

41°; q. stellata, the post 

Maryland , Virgi 

the upper parts of Georgia and the Carolinas, preferring 
a dry gravelly soil ; q. montana, the rock chesnut oak, 
valuable in ship-building, grows in stony soils on the 

Champlain, and in the Alleghanies of 

da. Juglans nigra is common in 



a deep and fertile soil south of 43°. 





Besides sugar, it yields potash abundantly, good charcoal, 
and a valuable wood. A. nigrum, the black sugar maple, 
is found farther south, and chiefly abounds in the vicinity 
of the rivers of the west. It yields sugar freely, but is 
less generally useful than the former. Betula papyracea, 
the canoe birch, is a northern tree, not descending be- 
vond 43°. B. lenta occurs from 40° to 48°, and farther 
south on the summits of the Alleghanies. B. nigra, on 
the banks of the rivers, from 41° to Georgia. Laurus 





caroliniensis, the red bay, in swamps to the south of 37°. 


in the United States 

south of 41°. Asimina triloba, the papaw, but not to be 
confounded with carica papaya, ceases at 40°. Populus 
angulata grows only to the south of 39°. Chameerops 
palmetto stretches along the coast of the Atlantic to 35°. 
This palm grows to forty or fifty feet high, and has some 
useful qualities. The wood is in request for wharfs and 
other submersed buildings, as it is not attacked by 
worms ; it also will not splinter when struck by cannon- 
balls. Cornus florida only grows south of 43°, Nyssa 
villosa, the sour gum, south of 41°. N. biflora, the black 
gum, to 43°, and always in moist situations. Fraxinus 
acuminata abounds to the north of 41°, and its wood is so 
valuable for strength and elasticity, that it is exported. 
Ulmus americana thrives best from 42° to 46°, but is 
found generally. Its wood is inferior to the European. 
Pinus resinosa, the red pine, is not seen south of 43°. 
P. palustris, a valuable tree for its wood, its copious resin, 
and as occupying a very arid soil, commences at Norfolk, 
in 37°, and stretches along the coast for 600 miles, and 
with a breadth of 100. P. tseda, the loblolly pine, 
exclusively to the south of 38°. P. strobus chiefly be- 
tween 43° and 47° ; and the tallest kinds are used for the 
masts of vessels. Abies canadensis, the hemlock spruce, 
has the same range as the last. A. nigra, chiefly from 
44° to 53°. Its wood is preferred for spars, and spruce 

its branches. A. alba has a similar 



Thuja occidentalis, lignum vitse, or white cedar, 
grows with the spruces. Taxodium distichum, the bald 


cypress, is peculiar to swamps south of 38°. Juniperus 
virginiana, the red cedar, prevails south of 44° in dry 
exposed situations.* 


* For much of these details I am indebted to the interesting sketch of the 




Relations. — This region is so rich in variety that very 
extensive relations might be expected, but though these 
are certainly numerous, the peculiarity of its flora is very 
striking. With Europe it might be supposed to have 
many species in common; yet of 2,891 phanerogamic, 
only 385 re-appear there. The proportionate scarcity of 
umbelliferse, cruciferse, and trifolium, is somewhat re- 
markable ; and in examining the vegetation we cannot 
fail to be impressed how closely the productions of cold 
and hot regions are brought together, and consequently how 
much the intermediate temperate portion is compressed. 
This appears to be the reason why the groups just men- 
tioned are so little seen, 
some interesting points of resemblance, through hydran- 
gea, cocculus, and others ; with South Africa in amaryl- 
lideae, India in scitaminese; and with the Patagonia 
and California regions through berberis, and many other 
genera with the latter. Clusia rosea is met with in 
Carolina, and several cinchonaceee prevail through the 

With the China reg 


ion to the vicinity of the lakes. 



Extent. — After crossing the Columbia river from the 

north, an entirely altered vegetation commences. The 
dense compact forests of abies cease suddenly, and are sup- 
planted by an open country, spotted by occasional clump 
of oaks, and the river lines fringed by platanus, fraxi- 
nus, juglans, and salix. The outline of the region may 

botany of the United States, as in the American edition of Murray's Ency- 
clopaedia of Geography. 

' 1 






along them to the south, till approaching the com- 
mencing waters of the Colorado, it runs along its course 
to the gulf of California. The remaining portion is cir- 
cumscribed by the Pacific Ocean. 

Physical Characters. — In its northern part the sur- 
face is regular, and there are some well-watered fine allu- 
vial plains, without a rock or stone. Occasionally ranges 
of low mountains traverse it, chiefly of porphyry, basalt, 



materially the vegetation, but support some groves of 
pinus lambertiana and abies religiosa ; pinus rigida 
prefers the plains. The broad plains which separate them 

often overflowed in the winter, which with their 


deep rich soil renders them very fertile. To the south, 
the scenery is wild and rugged, nearly altogether moun- 


tainous, the ranges running from north to south, 
a tree is to be seen, but there is a moderate sprinkling of 
a more lowly and interesting vegetation. The prevailing 
rocks here are serpentine, gneiss, basalt, and greenstone. 
There is no soil nor fertilizing streams, water being very 


Climate. — To the north the climate is even and tem- 
perate ; the winters are mild and of short duration, and 
snow appears on the loftier hills ; and the summers have 
an agreeable warmth, with the atmosphere clear and 
transparent. In the autumn the dews are excessively 


The summers of the southern portion are 

warmer, the temperature being generally from 60° to 74°. 
The rains are soon over, but during their continuance 
deluge the country. The atmosphere is particularly 
clear, and it would also appear dry, as when signs of the 

■ - , • 




wet season were gathering in the heavens, the dew-point 
was 62°, the shade 72° ; and at the same time the sun's 
rays were 115°. 

Flora. — The finest part of this region is to the north, 
where an open country prevails, varied by patches of 
trees of noble growth. Of the oaks, two species are deci- 
duous, and two evergreen. The latter are confined to 

the neighbourhood of the sea coast between 38° and 34° 
N. latitude. The other trees are not numerous, and are 
chiefly comprised under platanus, acer, pavia, juglans, 
cornus, laurus regia, and the aromatic tetranthera cali- 
fornica. It is among: these forest trees that the 

relations with the Iroquois region is established, and it is 
one of affinity. The undergrowth consists of several 
species of rubus, ribes, lupinus, rhus, vaccinium, arbutus, 
and lonicera ; and such is the variety of some of these, 
that a new species may be met with almost every hun- 
dred miles. Vitis, scarcely expected, grows abundantly 

on the margins of some of the rivers. 



positse prevail throughout, but are in the greatest inten- 
sitv towards the centre of the region ; and in the more 
arid parts cactese and euphorbiacese are particularly nu- 
merous, with a few leguminosse. Cactese are not seen 
further north than 34° ; here also is the limit of ricinus 
communis, of course introduced, as is phoenix dacty- 


lifera, a few large trees of which may be seen about 
San Diego, but only yielding a sour fruit. 

As characteristic peculiarities of the region may be 
mentioned, its great aridity, general scarcity of trees, 
superior prevalence of cactese, composite, and euphor- 
biacese, great number of plants with lactescent juices, and 
with fragrant foliage, the frequent developement of the 
flowers and leaves at different periods, and the general 
small range of its species. The negative features consist 




*. * 




in the scarcity of ferns, mosses, and fungi, none of which 
exist in the southern part, except perhaps the latter 
during the rains. Lichens, with sickly aspects, occa- 
sionally cling to the trees or rocks. 


California, though less known, has an 

equally fine climate with the south of Europe, Chili, the 
Cape of Good Hope, or New South Wales ; and with 
these parts of the world has a general resemblance in its 
vegetation. In establishing a comparison between the 
western and eastern parts of the American continent, a 
superiority must be assigned in the forest trees to. the 
east, and in the herbaceous vegetation to the west. 


Extent.— This is a peculiar tract enclosed by the vast 

forests of North America. 

It extends from within a 

hundred miles of the west bank of the Mississippi to the 
Rocky Mountains, stretching to 54° N. latitude, and again 
only bounded on the south by the wooded country of 
the Texas and the Mexican Sea. The outline is tolerably 
regular, except that two processes cross the above river ; 
one penetrating the states of Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio ; 
and the other farther south, stretching into Alabama. 

Physical Characters. — The prairie is far from being 
a continuous extensive plain, and in this respect must 
yield to the Pampas. It consists rather of an assemblage 
of plains, often with slightly undulating surfaces, and 
frequently covered with a fruitful soil ; their level being 
occasionally broken by projecting masses of rocks or 
ranges of low hills. The subjacent structure is com- 
posed of red or grey saliferous sandstone, chiefly the 

■' . ■■-. ■ . 



former, with beds of clay. Chloride of sodium abounds 
with other salts, and are found largely in the vicinity of 
the Rocky Mountains, and in the northern part of the 

region. Gypsum likewise occurs, and gravel, sand, or 
boulders occasionally prevail. 

Climate. — The long droughts to which the prairie is 
liabl6 have been supposed to preclude the existence of 
shrubs or trees, and to be favourable to the more fuga- 

cious grasses 


sometimes fall, and during 

their continuance rivers spring up, and gliding over the 
country, nourish a lively vegetation. In the dry season 
these soon shrink to small streams, disconnected chains 
of ponds or marshes, or entirely disappear. 

Flora. — This extensive portion of country supports a 
by no means insignificant flora. Graminese is the most 
important group, and is represented by numerous festuca, 
bromus, stipa, aristida, poa, agrostis, crypsis, kseleria, 
hordeum, eriocoma, and others. Grasses flourish more 
particularly in the northern part, yielding gradually 
towards the south to various herbaceous composite, some 
cucurbitaceee, vites, scrophularineae, solanese, boraginese, 

and euphorbiacese. The peculiarities of the region are 
derived chiefly from the absence of trees, the great 
preponderance of graminese and of composite through 
the genera rudbeckia, helianthus, silphium, coreopsis, 
and other allied groups, and in the scarcity of bulbous 
plants in a situation, where, from a comparison with the 
Cape of Good Hope and other places, they might be 
supposed to exist. Cactese appear farther north in the 
prairie than in the California region, and are often ac- 
companied in both by a yucca. 

However interesting the Rocky Mountains may prove 
to the geologist, they have no flora sufficient to give them 
any individuality as a region. They are as destitute of 

1 1 .■ 

1 1 

■ ii 

< I 





arborescent vegetation as the prairie, and the interesting 
herbaceous plants found among thern are only a portion 
of this flora. If their latitude generally is considered, 
they will be found incapable of possessing any important 
alpine vegetation, and even around their bases the snow 
will lie long and perseveringly on the ground. 

Relations. — Towards the south this region becomes 
gradually blended with the California and Chihuahua 
regions : an analogy with the pampas is established 

through the numerous gramineae ; and with the northern 

regions by numerous eruciferse and umbelliferse, but those 
of the prairie are nearly all peculiar. The more interest- 
ing relation exists with the Steppes of Tartary, with 
which it has many points in common. The chief relation 
is that of affinity, the same genera being represented in 
both by different species ; | 
astragalus, thermopsis, sophora, glycyrrhiza, fritillaria, 
and diotis; and rheum is replaced by the analogous 
genus eriogonum. 

among these are artemisia, 



Extent. — This name is pronounced Chi-wah-wah, and 
though the designation may appear somewhat novel, on 
the spot it is in extensive use ; but almost equally little is 
known of the inhabitants, productions, and flora. On 
account of the barrenness of information respecting the 
latter, we can hardly more than indicate this region. 
Though an important portion of Mexico, it differs from it 
in many respects, and it is necessary to draw a strong 
line of demarcation, since the very name of Mexico is 
apt to convey to the mind of the botanist an association 
of characters certainly not pertaining to this part of the 

■- • V, 




republic. On the north it has the Prairie Region, sweep- 
ing round it even to the shores of the Gulf of Mexico, and 
meeting the Central America Region, thus completely 
separating it from the Atlantic. To the south, it ceases 
about the limit of the tropic, and on the west it has the 
Gulf of California, and the Rio Colorado. 

Physical Characters. — Bold and mountainous. 

Climate. — Cold for the latitude, and apparently liable 
to vicissitudes. 

Flora. — A thin forest occasionally covers part of the 
surface ; at other times the vegetation is lowly, and there 
are broad spots entirely without any. The general cha- 
racter is rugged and austere, the land rising rapidly to a 
moderate elevation. Hence the climate is cool for the 
latitude, and the productions those of ten or fifteen de- 
grees farther north. Steep precipices, and narrow passes 
abound, with the customary attendants of stern mountain 
scenery. Between the various ranges are fertile plains 
well adapted to agriculture, and the valleys are often 
very productive. Nitre and common salt are sometimes 
mixed copiously with the soil, depriving it of fertility. 
Compositee are numerous ; some are shrubby, but the tribe 
coreopsidese more particularly prevails. Cacteae are com- 
mon ; a few amaryllideae, some showy and interesting 
spieces of labiate, and perhaps also of scrophularinese 
and boraginese. 

Relations. — Unknown. 


Extent. — The southern portion of the republic of 
Mexico, the whole of the Federal States of Central 
America, and a portion of New Granada ; it thus extends 


i i 








from the north 


Bay of Panama, but sends a tongue to meet the Prairie 



Sea. In elevation it attains 

4,500 feet, or the commencement of the cultivation of 
wheat ; and the lowland cultivation ceases about this, 
which is inconsiderable for the latitude. Humboldt's 
warm region ceases at 600 metres, or 1,968 feet, but this is 
no limit to either the introduced or natural productions. 

Physical Characters, — That part comprising the 
Mexican States, and the Upper States of Central America, 
rises rapidly from the shores of both seas to the elevated 
and peculiar table-lands of this part of America. Near 
both shores the soil is productive, if not abundant, but on 
leaving them the surface is usually rugged, and broken 
by huge masses of granite, porphyry, serpentine, or 
bazalt. This part of the region is composed almost en- 
tirely of these primary rocks, very few of secondary for- 
mation being known to exist. More to the south, and 
near the Isthmus of Panama, the country is far more 
even, the continuity of the Andes being completely 
broken, and in the vicinity of the lakes of Leon and 
Nicaragua is so even that no perceptible inequality can be 
noticed on traversing it, and the greatest difference is no- 
where more than a few yards. Here the soil is rich and 
abundant, very productive, and capable of yielding many 

Climate. — The seasons are tropical, the rains com- 
mencing from April to June, according to the latitude, 

and lasting five months. 

During the rest of the 


a hot sun and clear sky prevail. 

Flora. — This region belongs to that variety of tropical 
vegetation where leguminosse, &c, prevail, and hence 
we infer a certain aridity of soil and atmosphere. In 
this respect it yields greatly to the Oronoco Region, and 

;.-■:■ -■ .. ■;: - ..- . 


though Schouw combines them in his anomalous region of 
Cactese and Piperaceee, I venture to separate them, after 
some practical acquaintance with both. Everywhere a 
forest exists, but it is usually a thin open forest : the trees 
are not distinguished either for stature or bulk, and there 
is a scarcity of undergrowth. In this latter respect there 


West America Region. Nor 

lanum is common 

trees great; haematoxylon campeel 

swietenia mahagoni and cedrela odorata are gregarious 


very numerous as 

individuals. Mimoseae are particularly abundant on the 
summits and sides of the hills, where there is any expo- 
sure, and the larger kinds convey a particularly airy and 
picturesque effect. Bauhinia, hymenaea, and schrankia, 
have several species. Ficus is also numerous, and from 
the manner of growth is highly distinctive ; one species 
has a strange partiality for encasing the trunk of the 
chameerops palmetto, of which instances are numerous. 


Tropical endogense are not frequent, a few scitaminese, 

and commelineae appearing only in the wet 
season ; passiflora, piper, melastoma, and ferns, are not 
common ; cactese are spread over the region, but are not 
in such vigorous existence as elsewhere, 
cana, salvia, hyptis, asclepias, viscum, loranthus, 
mikania, cordia, gerasehanthus, heliotropium, tourne- 
fortia, quassia, datura, and solanum, are most frequent in 
the vegetation. Palmse are almost comprised in 
chamserops palmetto, bactris minor, cocos nucifera, a 
licuala, and a phoenix. 



Relations. — The extensive existence of ficus 

is a 

source of resemblance with the Indian forest. Cactese 
are very generally diffused, though never in any intensity, 
and through them a general character is maintained 









with all America, subject to a warm or even temperate 
climate. It yields to the West India Region in the num- 
ber, variety, and luxuriance of its vegetation, but its closest 
connexion is here ; also to the South American tropical 
regions ; and, considering its situation, is far from being 
rich or productive. Within it, it must be remembered, is 
an alpine region, and the celebrity the flora has enjoyed 
is shared between them. On the west coast, in 19° N. 
latitude, I saw a solitary tree of metrosideros glomuli- 
fera, which conveys an interesting relation with New 




4,500 feet, 

This height is the 

between 12° and 22° north latitude, 
lower boundary of the cultivation of wheat, and on the 
elevated plains it thrives admirably, when fed by regular 
irrigation. Since latitude within the tropics has such 
a trifling influence on climate, the difference in the 
alpine range of growth of vegetation on the mountains 

and the Ecuador is surprising. In the latter, 
Quercus is not seen lower than 5,800 feet, but in Mexico 
it commences suddenly at 2,700 feet. 


Physical Characters. 


can highlands is remarkable. Instead of rising gradually to 
a lofty sierra or ridge, as in the Andes of South America, 
the ascent suddenly ceases in a broad expanded table- 
land with an elevation from 4,000 to 8,000 feet. On 
this are placed many active volcanos, and it is likewise 
diversified by ridges of low hills and numerous lakes, 
whence mountain streams take their origin. 

Climate. — The mean heat is perhaps lower than might 
be expected, and in the less elevated situations thin ice is 

•h nua 

-i :•■ 




common in the winter. At times the power of the sun's 
rays is very great. 

Flora. — The character of the vegetation varies ; much 
is covered by a thin forest of trees, stunted, and crooked 
in their growth, and struggling among rugged volcanic 
rocks; and also by large fertile plains, sustaining a 
varied and abundant flora, through which run clear 
streams, fringed with trees of very European aspect, 
and many lively plants. Still there are places extremely 
barren, and where exposure and the absence of water 
have excluded all vegetation. There is, however, no 
want of fertility, and the variety in the climate is fa- 
vourable to a multitude of fruits and vegetables. The 
tropical productions of the plains soon cease, and leave 
the region in the possession of trees, shrubs, and her- 
baceous plants, whose analogies are with temperate and 
even cold climates. Quercus has nearly twenty species, 
which grow through a great variety of elevation, and 
cease only at about 10,000 feet; one authority says 
10,400, and another 9,843 feet. This genus is widely 
distributed through the continent ; to the north we find 
it with deciduous leaves, on the east coast in 45°, and on 
the west in 47° ; it soon becomes an evergreen, and as- 
cending the mountain sides, does not cease till it has 
crossed the equator. Recalling that many of its species 
are found on the Himma-leh mountains, in Java, and 
other Indian islands, its partiality for low latitudes is 
very decided. Wheat ceases to be cultivated at the 
same elevation, and previously rye and barley are mixed 
with it. Pinus occidentalis is frequent, ranging between 
6,100 and 13,000 feet, and as far south as 12° north 
latitude. There is another species, I believe as yet cm- 
described, with long cones and longer leaves. It is found 
around Tepic in the northern part of the region? com- 

D 2 

- . ; 

*• » 




— ^- 





mencing at 3,500 feet. Other trees and shrubs are sup- 
plied by abies hirtella, cupressus thurifera, c. sabi- 

noides, taxodium distichum, taxus montana, alnus mex- 
icana, salix several species, amygdalus microphylla, 
cheirostemon platanoides, mespilus pubescens, and se- 
veral species of arbutus, arctostaphylos, vaccinium, rosa, 
and ribes. 

RELATioNS.-With temperate Europe and America 

it has many genera in common, as senecio, cnicus, draba, 
ranunculus, anemone, arenaria, stachys, pedicularis, myo- 
sotis, polemonium, galium, cornus, and caprifoliura ; but 
a firmer connexion with the latter is established through 
lupmus, ageratum, and chelone; yet nearly every species 
is peculiar. The more peculiar genera are « mirabilis, mau- 
randya, leucophyllum, hoitzia, georgina or dahlia, zinnia, 
sckhuria, ximenesia, lopezia, vauquelinia, choisya, and 


t possesse 


no pecu 

regions, the negative character of having 
natural family, and comparatively few genera ; its indi 
viduality depends on species. Through quercus 
pinus, and some of the herbaceous genera it is 


Andes region. 

Hi mm 





the extremity of Florida, south of 27° north latitude, com- 
pose this region, which, with the exception of the latter 
is the same as Schouw's. It possesses all the vigour and 
luxuriance of an island climate within the tropics, where 
moisture is ever ready in the atmosphere to feed vege- 
tation ; and the elevation of the surface, which in Cuba 




Physical Characters. 

attains nearly 9,000 feet, is also sufficient to produce a 
variety in the productions. The whole is situated be- 
tween 10° and 27° north latitude. 

These islands vary much in 
their character and geological formation. They admit 
of a twofold division; the volcanic rising; to elevated 
summits, covered with forest, abundantly supplied with 
streams of water, and very fertile, as St. Vincent, St. 
Lucie, Martinique, Dominica, and Guadaloupe ; the 
others, principally composed of limestone, are low, less 
watered, by no means so productive, and sometimes even 
sterile, such as Barbadoes, Tobago, Antigua, and Bar- 


Cuba, the most extensive island, 



covered with forest, and has a superficies of 54,000 square 
miles. A chain of mountains traverses it from east to 
west, which rises into several peaks, and sends many 
streams to the plains below. The mountain chain is 
composed of granite, syenite, gneiss, and mica slate, and 
the lower lands of secondary formations, and they are 
eminently fertile and productive. Jamaica has a super- 
ficies of 4,256 square miles, and the Blue Mountains, 
whose greatest elevation is 7,278 feet, make an agreeablo 
variety in the climate, and a healthy retreat for the invalid. 
These are chiefly composed of transition rocks, with, nearer 
the coast, red sandstone, marl, and limestone reposing on 
them. Some parts are alluvial, and generally well 
watered and fruitful. St. Domingo has an area of 
28,000 square miles, and the central mountain peaks are 
lofty, La Serrania attaining 9,000 feet, and La Sella, 7,000 
feet. Their flanks support noble forests, and are traced 
by numerous fertilizing streams. Puerto Rico contains 
240 square miles, and is equally fertile with the rest. 
Its highest part is about 4,000 feet, and it has several 
fertile valleys and plains. The Bahamas comprise a 






though the 

numerous group, composed of sandstone ; and 

soil is generally dry and rocky, they yield some good 


Climate. — The temperature is usually equable, but 

: the ranffe is therefore inconsider- 


able, and the mean at different places will vary from 73° 
to 81°. It is only on the accession of a north wind, that 
much deviation occurs, and then even ice is stated to be 
produced, but those islands most to windward are the 

greatest sufferers. 

Flora. — Originally nearly the whole of this region 
was covered with forest ; a few exceptions might only be 
found where tropical grasses occupied the surface. Now 
cultivation has removed an important portion, but ex- 
tensive woods still exist. Swietenia mahagoni abounds 
in several islands, as does also 
various species of myrtus, uvaria, laurus, and melastoma. 
The sameness these might otherwise produce is broken 
by several palmse, and especially by the arborescent ferns, 
whose peculiar beauty is highly characteristic of the 
scenery. Ferns are generally very abundant, and assume 

a tropical variety of stature and habit. The most pre- 


gfuaicum officinal 



valent and characteristic are asplen 
eyatheea arborea, c. speciosa, c. muricata, with numer- 
ous species of polypodium, pteris, aspidium, gymno- 
P-ramma, acrostichum, and adiantum. A multitude of 
twining plants festoon the vegetation, lashing it into an 
impervious mass, belonging to convolvulucese, passi- 
floreee, some leguminosse, assisted by interesting kinds 


of paullinia and aristolochia. Orchidacese are very 
abundant, particularly the extensive genus epidendrum, 
and species of oncidium, bletia, catasetum, and spiran- 

thes are also numerous. 

The claims of Florida south of 27° north latitude to 





be considered a part of this region, are established through 
tillandsia, sapindus, indigofera, chrysobalanus, rhexia, 
croton, jatropha, and several others. 

Relations. — The position of this region between the 
large continents of America insures an intimate relation 
with them, modified by its insular situation. This is, 

however, stronger with South than North America, per- 

■ .- — h , , * ,«j'i „. % _ ., .* 

haps arising from the moister atmosphere common to 
both, for there are no other circumstances which are not 


equally shared by the Central America region. With 
the South American regions it is strongly related by 
similar genera of palmse, passifloreae, orchidacese, plum- 
bagineae, cordiaceas, and arborescent and herbaceous 

is through ficus, a few orchidaceae, asplenium arboreum, 
swietenia mahagoni, pinus occidentalis, and some 
others, particularly those of the sandy shores, as hippo- 


With the central America reg 

mane mancinella. There is a singular absence of quercus \ 


in the higher lands, considering how very numerous the \ 

region within the same / 


latitude. It has all the luxuriance of other insular re- 
gions within the tropics, and is unsurpassed by them in 
the variety of its ferns and orchidaceae, as none others 
have a similar number for a given space. In the latter, 
the Pacific islands are much poorer, perhaps from the 
absence of the dense forest they appear to love. Wyd- 
leria portoriccensis and lepidium virginicum, two cruci- 
ferous plants, are found on the island, indicated by 
the specific name of the former. 



') i 


II , 





Extent. — That vast portion of South America, stretch- 
ing from the Cordillera of the Andes to the Atlantic, and 
from the Carribean Sea to the Rio Plata, presents several 


divisions characterised by certain physical features. 
From the elevated lands of the interior of the continent 
three sets of rivers take their origin, and after tra- 
versing huge basins, are at length emptied into the 
ocean in three directions, to the north, the east, and 
the south. The vegetable productions of the divisions 
have also their peculiarities, which are sufficiently dis- 
tinct to authorise a separation ; and assuming a designa- 
tion from the principal river of each, we have the Oronoco 
Region, the Amazon Region, and the Paraguay Region, 
the boundaries of which are conveniently traced along 
the ridges of those secondary mountains, at the bases of 
which their tributaries have their origin. 

The Oronoco Region occupies the northern part of 
South America, and a line running along the sierra of 
Araray, and traversing the continent to the Bay of 
Guayaquil, forms its southern limit ; whilst to the north 
it ceases at the Gulf of St. Michael, and is elsewhere 
inclosed by the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. 

Physical Characters. — S 


tains traverse the region, with their sides broken into 
steep and confined valleys. From their bases extend 
vast plains or llanos, covered either with forest or 

luxuriant grasses 

These extensive llanos are repre- 


sented in Brazil by the campos, and around Buenos 
Ayres by the pampas 

but are here in their greatest 

richness. The rivers often inundate their banks, fer- 
tilizing a soil already extremely rich, and for a time 



is a warm one. 

converting large districts into savannah. A very sandy 
soil prevails in some places, as in the neighbourhood of 
Cumana, supporting chiefly multitudes of gigantic cactese. 
Humboldt has observed that the vegetation here ap- 
peared more luxuriant wherever the limestone was 
covered by quartzy sandstone, the latter appearing fa- 
vourable to the retention of moisture. 

Climate.— Situated so near the equator, the climate 

Caraccas has an annual mean of from 
70° to 72°, which, however, is far too low for the region, 
perhaps as much as 8°. The range is stated to be from 
51° to 85°, being considerable for the latitude. The 
humidity of the atmosphere varies according to the soil 
and vegetation. On the Pacific, in the Bay of Choco, 
rain falls ten months in the year, but in the more arid 
parts rain is far from frequent or abundant. The climate 
of Guiana has been supposed to be favourable to the 
growth of certain spices, as cloves and nutmegs, which, 
from some idiosyncracy, are still produced of the best 


Flora. — Much 

covered with forest, 

particularly in the vicinity of the oceans, between which 
and the interior a broad belt intervenes. In many in- 
stances the trees are remarkable for the beauty of their 
wood, the fragrance of their secretions, and the rich and 
valuable resins they exude. In Guiana trees of this cha- 
racter are very numerous, and belong chiefly to Laurineee. 
Throughout are spread a vast number of representatives 
of the tropical arborescent families. Gramineae abound 
in the llanos, chiefly of kellingia, cenchrus, and pas- 
palum, intermixed with species of mimosa, turnera, and 
malvacese. On some of the rivers a grass, cynerium 
saccharoides, attains a height of thirty-two feet. Where 
the climate is humid, piperaceee, passiflorese, and me- 


it *; 







lastomacese, are very numerous, overshadowed by the 
singular clusia and the lofty and fecund bignonia. 
Filices are numerous as individuals, but, together with 
orchidacese, do not abound in species. Some palmse are 

peculiar, and of interest. 

Relations.— With the neighbouring regions there are 
naturally some strong affinities. Rhopala, a proteaceous 
genus, occurs ; and also a species of punica. 



Extent. — As ur alpine regions always commence at 
the line which separates the cultivation of the lowlands 
from that of the mountains, the lower boundary will be 
at 6,500 feet, and includes all above this to the confines 
of the vegetable world at 18,000 feet. It stretches to 
the northward along the magnificent mountain chains 
of New Granada, and to the south through Peru and 
Bolivia, where the line of lowland cultivation will descend 
a little. Its exact extent to the south has not been 

Physical Characters.— Among the stupendous scenery 

of the Ancles and the steep and scarped precipices and 
mountain sides, vegetation would appear unlikely to 
flourish ; yet these often afford a shelter, and also assist 
to collect a soil in the valleys and plains. Hence, from 
the barrenness of a bare surface of primitive rocks, to 
the luxuriance of fertile and warm valleys, there is every 
variety of productiveness. In the plains between pa- 
rallel ranges the soil is often deep and rich, and is equally 
suited to agriculture or the rearing of herds of cattle. 
Mountain torrents descend in fury through deep chasms, 




and the amount is no where great. 

or sometimes assuming, for a while, tranquillity, wander 
in peaceful and fertilizing streams through the plains. 

Climate.— The atmosphere of alpine regions is liable 
to violent disturbance from storms, which are both rapid 
in their approach and disappearance, and often leave 
behind much devastation among the trees of the forest. 
The temperature of any given spot is very equable, and 
ranges, for the whole region, from 65° to several degrees 

the freezing point. Rain falls throughout the 
year in frequent showers, with little regard to the seasons, 

■ To the decreased! 
pressure, greater brilliancy of the sun's rays, and di- 
minished suspended moisture, some of the peculiarities 

may be referred. 

Flora. — The least elevated portion is occupied by a 
magnificent forest, and valuable as containing numerous 
species of cinchona, which yield a medicine highly prized 
throughout the world, except in the neighbourhood of its 
production. Some tropical families ascend tenaciously to 
these elevations, as piperacese, melastomaceae, cacteae, and 
passiflorese, the latter assuming the novel habit of arbo- 
rescence ; and the numerous synantherese are particularly 
characteristic. Ficus, oreocallis, clusia, persea, and ocotea, 
are mingled with podocarpus, quercus, ilex, and salix. 
Above the forest is a large district of bushes with much 

variety in the species ; drymis and wintera from the south, 
meet ribes, rubus, and viburnum from the north, and are 
associated with various species of thibaudia, alnus, andro- 
meda, fuchsia, vaccinium, calceolaria, culcitium, duranta, 
barnardesia, escallonia, berberis, and befaria. The flora 
is agreeably diversified by some hsemanthus, alstroemeria, 
sisyrinchium, and other liliaceous plants. The grasses, 
which, in both a botanical and economical point of view, 


are so important, occupy a broad space between 13,000 







and 14,500 feet, and are contributed chiefly by jurava, 
stipa, agrostis, panicum, avena, and dactylis. Succeeding 
to the grasses are many herbaceous plants, and lastly the 
lichens, crowning, as it were, the flora of the region. 
Even this very slight sketch would be incomplete with- 
out mentioning some of the groups which flourish on the 
higher elevations and give an aspect of variety. A few 
of these are herbaceous composite, lowly umbelliferae, 
saxifrageee, cruciferse, valerianese, and caryophyllese ; with 
species of gentiana, rumex, plantago, arum, oxalis, 
dorstenia, swertia, and lobelia. The plants attaining the 
greatest elevation are two lichens, umbilicaria pustulata 
and verrucaria geographica. 

Relations. — Between all alpine regions there will be 
numerous analogies, but few points of identity, and also 
a certain similarity with regions of the lowlands in a pro- 

portionate latitude .1 

several sources of resemblance through ericacese, synan- 
therese, cruciferse, quercus, salix, and cheirostemon plata- 
noides. It however is deficient in the important genera 
of pinus, abies, and rosa. The flora is so rich and varied, 


that relations may easily be traced with most regions 
under a temperate climate. 





finest portion of South America. It consists of a magni- 
ficent basin intersected by a multitude of rivers, many of 
which are of considerable size. The original streams of 
the largest of these, the Amazon, have their rise in the 
Andes, and gradually uniting their waters, traverse the 
region to the Atlantic ocean. Its boundaries are the 

a V Y - • 



ridges of the mountain chains, which may be regarded as 
the margins of the basin, and cannot be traced with accu- 
racy. From east to west it extends from the Atlantic to 
the Cordilleras, on the north it has a sinuous outline on 
the summits of the Sierra de Araray and the Parime 
chain to the bay of Guayaquil ; and on the south between 
the provinces ofMinas Geraes and San Paulo, bending to 
the head waters of the Paraguay onward to the Andes in 


Physical Characters. — From the Andes, plains of 

almost boundless extent gradually incline towards the 

Atlantic. Several ranges of low mountains intersect 

them, but their comparative importance is trifling, and 

their elevation rarely exceeds 4,000, never 6,000 feet ; 

which is insufficient to produce any material change in 

the vegetation, though permitting some plants to adopt a 

selection. Balbi regards these plains as table lands, with 

an elevation from 1,030 to 1,660 feet. Granite and 
syenite form the bases of both the mountain chains and 
the lowlands, on which repose gneiss, mica slate, chlorite 
slate, quartz rock, and limestone. On these again are 
sandstone and slate clay, with alluvial deposits. True 
volcanic rocks have no existence. The soil varies ; in the 
forest it is either a rich dark vegetable mould, or a fruit- 
ful deep red loam, and both are astonishingly productive 
under cultivation. In the more open country sand enters 
largely into the soil, and when opposed to a moist as well 
as warm atmosphere, displays a varied vegetation. The 
soil in the neighbourhood of the rivers has, from their 
periodical inundations, attained the greatest fertility, and 
gives birth to an excess of luxuriance. 

Climate. — The equator traverses the region, but the 
climate partakes of that unsteady character with regard 
to humidity which is so frequent, and at the same time so 

■ if 



■ \ '. --'. 

'.-■ -.-• 

■ " ■ . 

, \. ■:■ 

" ' .■■-./-.-:'': -■ 

. , ., 


.. .-.^. ' i: 




productive of variety. Para will give us the state of the 

climate on the plains nearest the river. The atmosphere 
is hot and sultry, and the range of temperature through- 
out the year very small ; the mean is 84°, and the annual 
fall of rain from 80 to 100 inches. More to the south, 
the year is regularly distributed into the wet and dry 

At Rio Janeiro the rains occur from September 

to Marc 


electrical disturbance of the atmosphere. In the interior 
of the country rain is less abundant, and in some places 
scarce. The seasons are the reverse of those in 
neighbouring Oronoco regions. 

Flora. — In this region the American tropical families 
are in excess, and have the greatest number of represen- 


tatives. The vegetation has a twofold character, com- 
prising the forest, which extends in a broad belt along the 
<>oast from north to south, and the Sertam country, a con- 
traction of -dezertam, where grasses and shrubs prevail, and 
occasionally a few trees in sheltered valleys or ravines. 

The forest is composed of an endless number of trees, 
of which to mention some would be placing others too 

much in the background. 

These trees attain a great 

height, with straight clear stems, their foliage uniting in 
a canopy above, and leaving all beneath in perfect shade 
and quiet. This great longitudinal developement is not 
favourable to a protracted existence, as age and climate 
soon attack the trees, and their places are left vacant for 
others. Of the natural families which abound in greatest 
intensity, and are also conspicuous for their interest, are, 
palmse, assuming much variety of habit, cinchonacese, 
melastomacese, piperacese, myrtacese, marcgraaviacese, 
gesneriese, sapindacese, vochyacese, guttiferse, malpighi- 
acese, hippocrateacese, and bromeliaceae. Epiphytic 
plants festoon the trees in multitudes, but here orchi- 







dacese are not frequent, and their place is supplied by- 
species of bromelia, tillandsia, the strange pothos, and 
many ferns. The twining plants are freely supplied by 
passiflorese, leguminosae, convolvulacese, aristolochiae, 

asclepiadeae, and mikania. 

The Sertam country has its own vegetable charms, and 
though much occupied by grasses with a dull grey hairy 
surface, has large spaces covered with bushwood, and 


sometimes even trees. Many of these are attractive, and 


chiefly belong to cinchonacese, composite, apocynese, 
malpighiacese, and euphorbiacese. A few of the more 
numerous genera are declieuxia, rhexia, banisteria, gaudi- 
chaudia, croton, wedelia, kleinia, and sauvagesia. The 
trees are described by Von Martius as attaining only 
fifteen or twenty feet in height, and growing as a light 
open grove. The chief are derived from laplacia, gom- 
phia, marcgraafia, vochysia, qualia, solanum, byrsonima, 
erythroxylon, panax, and rhexia ; and amaryllidese are 

Some peculiarities may be noticed on the sides and 
summits of the different mountain chains. On Itacolumi, 
or the Child of Stone, a mountain near Villa Rica, attain- 
ing 5,710, Von Martius saw the curious arborescent 
lilies of barbacennia bicolor, b. tricolor, b. tomentosa, 
b. luzukefolia, b. ensifolia, vellosia abietina, and v. 
taxifolia. Other characterizing genera are galium, mo- 
rinda, declieuxia, oxypetalum, ditassa, lisianthus, exagum, 
phyllanthus, lavradia, gloxinia, gesneria, vitis, and terns- 


troemia. Growing on the ironstone floetz formation, and 
supposed to be distinctive of it, were, laurus erythropus, I 
bauhinia ferruginosa, abatia tomentosa, brysonima niti- 
dissima, banisteria versicolor, vanillosma firmum, lisi- 
anthus pulcherrimus, phyllanthus robustus, and mikania 
glauca. The swampy ground is distinguished by species 




f A 

. • . - ■ 

• •, 

• • •. •■-.'"• 

. "■ ' 




• J 

of hydrocotyle, drosera, andromeda, gaultheria, utricu- 
laria, sauvagesia, and eriocaulon. 

Relations. — Among the alpine plants, if so they can 
be called, are many intimately connected with the ve- 
getation of the temperate regions of Europe and North 
America, as panax, clethra, vitis, galium, and gaultheria. 
Ambrosia artemesiaefolia, a strand plant of the Iroquois 
Region, occurs on the shores of Paraiba. Walsh saw- 
patches of the European fern, aspidium filix mas, and 
also bushes of Rubus occidentalis. The same traveller 
mentions avena sterilis attaining a height of ten feet. 
For some time the existence of canna indica was sup- 
posed to confer an interesting point of identity with 
India, but it is now known to be a frequent plant within 

the tropics. 


Extent. — It embraces the space of country traversed 
by the Paraguay River and its tributary streams; its 
outline will thus extend from the coast between the 
Brazilian provinces of San Paulo and Minas Garaes, 
and, arching to the north, terminate on the limits of the 
Pampas Region, and again on the south along the course 
of the Rio Plata, and the hitherto unascertained margin 

of the same region. 

Physical Characters. — A portion of this country is 


not so completely a plain as would appear from the 
maps, as towards the Andes several spurs are sent off 
which spread into the interior. San Paulo is sufficiently 
elevated to affect considerably its productions, and the 
difference between it and Minas Geraes has struck 
several travellers. Generally the soil is rich and fertile, 






but there 

are large spaces covered with scarcely any- 

thing but sand, and yielding a poor bushy vegetation. 

Climate. — That of San Paulo corresponds to the 
whole region; the mean temperature of the year is 73°, 
and the range is small. Hoar frost is sometimes seen, 
but snow is unknown. The rains occur at tw r o periods, 
the autumnal being the heaviest. 

Flora. — The tropical features, which the Amazon 
Region possesses in such intensity, have greatly dimi- 
nished ; palmse are few ; ferns continue very numerous, 
but with a habit more suited to a drier climate. Bac- 
charis and other composite cover the sandy districts, 
and cactese are frequent. Umbelliferse, though far from 
numerous, have a greater preponderance than in neigh- 
bouring regions. The forest is open, and composed of 
fine trees ; arborescent ferns still continue, and where 
they assemble in groves exclude all other vegetation, a 
peculiarity possessed by them when growing gregariously. 
In a collection of plants made in the warmer portion of 
the region, composite were a 12th, leguminosse a 15th, 
cinchonacese and orchideae a 20th, melastomacese a 29th, 
labiate and solaneae a 40th. 

Tristan da Cunha, situated in 37° S. lat., is known 
to possess 113 indigenous plants, among which are 
several umbelliferse, which induces us to regard the island 
as a fragment of this region. 

Relations. — These are perhaps feeble with distant 
regions, whilst they are not strong with those in the 
vicinity. Araucaria brasiliensis is frequent in the forest, 
a representative of an Australian genus, though having 
a nearly allied species in Chili. 


T ' t * K ** 

- >p • ..; . 




Extent. — A peculiar and well-defined region, but still 
far from productive. It includes a narrow strip between 
the Cordilleras and the Pacific Ocean from Cape Blanco 
in 4° S. lat. to the oblique" line stretching from 36° S. 
lat. on the coast of Chili to Port St. Antonio on the 
opposite side. Both limits are well marked; at the 
northern the forest of the adjacent region commences 
suddenly, and at the southern, around Conception, rapidly 
appear those numerous genera, which establish so strong 
a relation between the Patagonia Region and the tem- 
perate latitudes of the northern hemisphere, 
doubts may arise whether the Andes of its southern 
part should not be included, and I am disposed to think 
they ought, but at present it is impossible [to trace the 
exact relations. The two islands of Juan Fernandez also 

belong here. 

Physical Characters.— The flank of the Cordilleras 

regarding the Pacific is composed chiefly of porphyritic 

rocks, but the somewhat inclined plane which slopes 

towards the ocean is formed by deposits of clay, both 

tertiary and recent, very frequently inclosing shells, and 

resting on a substratum of brown sandstone. The surface 


may be divided into the valleys and the intervening 
ridges ; the former containing some soil, and a supply 
of water near which is assembled the entire vegetation, 
whilst the spaces between are usually quite bare, or only 
support some straggling brushwood. The soil in the 

exposed places contains a large proportion of salt, both 
of nitrate of potash and chloride of sodium, which lies in 
a thin stratum one or two inches beneath the surface, 
and can be easily removed in solid thin cakes. This 



admixture renders the soil very puffy, and after being 

moistened by the heavy dews it forms a thin brittle crust. 

It also deprives it of the customary cohesion, and 

wherever the soil has collected, as on the sides of the 

hills and valleys, the foot readily sinks six or eight 


Climate. — Though much is within the tropics, it has 

few corresponding features. The temperature of the 
intertropical part is warm during the dry season, but is 
unusually cold and chilly at the opposite period ; it has 
thus a great range. Rain is a novelty almost through- 
out, and instead there are dense falling mists, called 
garuas, from May to August, which render the weather 
particularly unpleasant. In the northern part these 
cease with great suddenness, for in the Bay of Guayaquil 

the rains are very heavy, and at Tumbez, within half a 
degree, a shower is not seen for years together. To the 
south the two are gradually shaded off into each other, 
and at Valparaiso the rainy season is short and less 
regular, whilst at times there 
garuas. The absence of regular rain has been attributed 

is something like the 

to the soutl 


and it has been observed that during the season of mists 
a light breeze from the opposite quarter is not unfre- 
quent. At Valparaiso the temperature is more in accord- 
ance with its geographical position ; it is situated in 33° 
S. lat., and during June and July, the two most unfavour- 
able months, the range was from 46° to 64°, the dews ex- 
tremely heavy, but rain fell latterly. 

Flora. — Nothing that can be called forest exists, a 
few trees only being scattered sparingly about, and though 


much is within the tropic, corresponding characters are 
not strong. Cocos chilensis has a few individuals scat- 
tered about the valleys in the neighbourhood of Val- 



; ! 



. ■ ■ ■ 

. - • ■ . ' \ ; - V- ".'■"' ■;■■<:■. ■.■-"• ; 

. , * 

zi *■*■■'. vr 1 


r 9. 



paraiso, and the potato may be seen here growing wild 
on some of the hills ; a species of bambusa is not un- 
common, and a salix is frequent in the valleys. The 
chief tree is cordia decandra, but many spots are not 
deficient in cultivated fruit trees. The plants recalling 
tropical features are azara serrata, krameria cistoidea, 
coriaria ruscifolia, cassia sp., mimosa cavenia, loasa aceri- 
folia, amirola glandulosa, and croton lanceolatus. Cereus, 
opuntia, euphorbia, lobelia, calceolaria, and oxalis, are 



composite ; and amaryllidese and iridese are numerous. 
On waste ground near Lima tropseolum majus abounds, 
with sida, datura, cestrum, alternantliera, Oenothera, 
asclepias, and calceolaria. In a few favoured valleys 
the ground is quite yellow with the multitudes of flowers 
of pancratium amencaes, whose expanding flowers are 
the signal for the commencement of the revels bearing 

its name. 

Relations.— The most interesting will be with the 

California Region, with which there is much similarity 
in climate, and some in productions through ageratum, 
mimulus, castilleja, rhus, ribes, berberis, and laurus. 
The prevalence of bulbous plants in Chili confers some 
resemblance with the South Africa Region. 



Extent. — That portion of South America between the 
Andes and the mouth of the Rio Plata is composed en- 
tirely of this peculiar district. To the north it extends 
to the neighbourhood of the towns of the interior, and ap- 
proaches the river Paraguay ; its exact outline is here 
imperfectly known. To the south it terminates in an 

■■ : 



oblique line, extending from the Port of San Antonio to 
36° S. latitude on the west coast. 

Physical Characters, — A vast plain stretches on all 
sides, very slightly raised above the level of the sea, and 
only diversified in a few places by low hills. Some un- 
important rivers have their origin, and are often again 
lost in the soil. Reddish marl is mentioned as occurring, 
but is not perhaps general. To the south the soil is 
impregnated with saline matter. 

Climate. — The seasons are temperate, and their alter- 
nations produce a rapid change in the vegetation. 

Flora. — The remarks of Sir Francis Head on the 
features are appropriate. " The great plain of Pampas of 
the Cordillera is about 900 miles broad, and the part 
which I have visited, though in the same latitude, is 
divided into regions of different climate and produce. On 
leaving Buenos Ayres, the first of these regions is covered, 
for 180 miles with clover and thistles ; the second, which 
extends for 430 miles, produces long grass ; and the third 
region, which reaches the base of the Cordillera, is a grove 
of low trees and shrubs. The second and third of these 

regions have nearly the same appearance throughout the 
year ; for the trees and shrubs are evergreens ; and the 
immense plain of grass only changes its colour from green 
to brown ; but the first region varies with the four sea- 
sons of the year, in a most extraordinary manner. In 
winter, the leaves of the thistles are large and luxuriant, 
and the whole appearance of the country has the rough 
appearance of a turnip field. The clover, at this season, 
is extremely rich and strong ; and the sight of the wild 
cattle, grazing at full liberty in such pasture, is beautiful. 
In spring, the clover has vanished, the foliage of the 
thistle has extended across the ground, and the country 
still looks as if covered with a rough crop of turnips. In 


I i 



. ... .. 

/ ■• ' :■ 

' * * ' 




less than a month the change is most extraordinary ; the 
whole region becomes luxuriant with enormous thistles, 
which have suddenly shot up to a height of ten or eleven 
feet, and are in full bloom. # * # The summer is not 
over before the scene undergoes another change; the 
thistles suddenly lose their sap and verdure ; their heads 
droop, the leaves shrink and fade, the stems become 
black and dead, and they remain rattling with the breeze 
one against another, until the violence of the pampero or 
hurricane levels them with the ground, where they 
rapidly decompose and disappear ; the clover rushes up, 
and the scene is again verdant." Ranunculacese, caryo- 
phylleae, and cruciferse, make their appearance, and the 
low bushes are most probably chiefly composite. Species 
of lathyrus, polygala, anemone, oxalis, lobelia, galium, 
plantago, and teucrium, are also frequent. 

Relations.— There is a strong connexion with some of 
the European Regions through numerous genera, and 
some slight alliance with the South Africa Region. It is 
curious that an exotic thistle, cynara cardunculus, should 
have taken such entire possession of a large district, as to 
have obliterated nearly the whole of the spontaneous 
vegetation. Its luxuriance is so great, that the question 
arises, whether plants can ever find a situation more 
favourable to their existence than that in which nature 
has placed them ? The excessive developement also of 
psidium pomiferum, at Tahiti, would seem to require an 
affirmative. In general character there is some similarity 
with the Prairie Region, but the minuter features are 
different, and the latter is less fertile. 

■-■,<.-•■■■■'■■ ■'"■•■:■ 

* , 





Extent.— In the vicinity of Conception, a change 
takes place in the character of the vegetation, and in the 
climate ; trees commence, and heavy rains are exchanged 
for the peculiar climate of Chili and Peru. An imagi- 
nary line, commencing on the west coast, in 36° S. lati- 
tude, and extending obliquely to Port 
the opposite side, separates the southern extremity of the 
continent, and with the adjacent islands constitutes the 



Physical Characters 

■The Andes have now lost 

their stupendous size, and are continued as an inferior 
mountain range, of an average elevation of 3,000 feet, 
rarely or never attaining 6,000 feet, and their appearance 
is wild, bleak, and desolate. Primitive rocks abound, 


gellan are various hornblendes and slates, and the latter 
appear favourable to vegetation, for fagus antarctica 
attains on it a great size, whilst a reddish sandstone is 



number of rainy days is very great, and a thoroughly 
fine one is rather a novelty. Though the temperature is 

extremes, still the summer months are chilly. 

not in 
For the i 



the mean temperature was 40°, the range from 30 to 48°, 
and very equable through the day and night ; the fall of 
rain eight inches ; dew-point 2° or 3° below the atmo- 
sphere, the greatest being 7° or 8° ; hail frequent, with 
the temperature from 42° to 48°. About Conception the 
climate is more agreeable, the temperature warmer, and 
the rain falls at regular seasons. 



• - 

■•-:-■ : ■ 

. \ -cr 





Flora. — Irregular groups of wood cover the surface, 
wherever the climate is moderate, and there is a mitiga- 
tion of its general austerity. The chief trees are as- 
sembled about Conception, and somewhat to the south is 
the principal station of auraucaria imbricata. Among 
these are fagus obliqua, laurus lingui, laurelia aromatica, 
dry mis chilensis, quadria heterophylla. At Tierra del 
Fuego and Staten Land, fagus antarctica, an evergreen 
species, is frequent, and, assisted by others of a similar 
habit, gives a peculiar character to the scenery. Forster, 
the companion of Cook, has described with some quaint- 
ness the general features. " In the cavities and cre- 
vices of the huge piles of rocks, forming Tierra del 
Fuego and Staten Land, so very like each other, where 


a little moisture is preserved by its situation, and where 
from the continued friction of the loose pieces of rocks, 
washed and hurried down the steep sides of the rocky 
masses, a few minute particles form a kind of sand; there, 
in the stagnant water, gradually spring up a few algaceous 
plants from seeds carried thither on the feet, plumage, 
and bills of birds ; these plants form at the end of each 
season a few atoms of mould which yearly increases ; the 
birds, the sea, or the wind carries from a neighbouring 
isle, the seeds of some of the mossy plants to this little 
mould, and they vegetate in it during the proper sea- 
sons. Though these plants are not absolute mosses, they 
are, however, nearly related to them in their habit. "We 
reckon among them the ixia pumiia, a new plant which 
we call donatia, a small melanthium, a minute oxalis and 
calendula, another little dioicous plant, called by us phyl- 
lachne, together with the mniarum. These plants, or 
the greater part of them, have a peculiar growth, parti- 
cularly adapted to these regions, and fit for forming soil 
and mould on barren rocks. In proportion as they grow 

: ■ 

3 , -*.,*■ 1 -*■ i 




up, they spread into various stems and branches, which 
lie as closely together as possible; they spread new 
seeds, and at last a large spot is covered ; the lowermost 
fibres, roots, stalks, and leaves, gradually decay and push 
forth on the top new verdant leaves ; the decaying lower 
parts form a kind of peat or turf, which gradually 
changes into mould and soil. The close texture of these 
plants hinders the moisture below from evaporating, and 
thus furnishes nutriment to the vegetation above, and 
clothes at last whole hills and isles with a constant ver- 
dure. Among the pumilous plants some of a greater 
stature begin to thrive, without in the least prejudicing 
the growth of these creators of mould and soil. Among 
these plants we reckon a small arbutus, a diminutive 
myrtle, a little dandelion, a small creeping crassula, the 
common pinguicula alpina* a yellow variety of viola 
palustris, statice armeria or sea-pink, a kind of burnet, 
the ranunculus lapponicus, the holcus odoratus, the com- 
mon celery, (apium australe,) with the arabis hetero- 
phylla. Soon after we observed, in places which are still 
covered with the above-mentioned, a new rush, (juncus 
triglumis,) a fine amellus, a most beautiful scarlet che- 
lone, (C. ruelloides,) and lastly even shrubby plants, viz. 
a scarlet-flowered shrubby plant of a new genus, which 
we called embothrium coccineum, two new kinds of ber- 
berry, (berbens ilicifolia, b. mitior,) an arbutus with 
cuspidate leaves, (A. mucronata,) and lastly the tree 
bearing the winter's bark, (drymis winteri,) which, how- 
ever, in these rocky barren parts of Tierra del Fuego 
never exceeds the size of a tolerable shrub ; whereas in 
Success Bay, on a gentle sloping ground, in a rich and 
deep soil, it grows to the size of the largest timber." 
Many of Forster's new names have now become as fa- 


:■ :.-...• }• 






miliar as household words to the botanist. Mosses and 
lichens abound here, but ferns are scarce. 

The flora of the Falkland Islands is scanty, being 
composed chiefly of a few composite, gramineee, lichens, 
and musci. Bolax glebaria is found here, and veronica 
decussata as a shrub six feet high, but not fit for fire- 
wood, the deficiency of which is met by peat, which, 

Weddel says, is abundant. 

The South Shetland* have only some straggling grass 

and a lichen. 

Relations. — The relations are stronger with the tem- 
perate regions of the northern hemisphere than with 
those in its vicinity. With the former it has a number 
of o-enera in common, as, omitting those already men- 
tioned, betula, ribes, rubus, andromeda, vaccinium, auri- 
cula, cardamine, draba, lepidium, stellaria, hydrocotyle, 
anemone, drosera, galium, tussilago, salix, carex, cy- 
perus, and usnea. With adjoining regions, fuchsia, 
myrtus, drymis, baccharis, escallonia, calceolaria, and 
chelone. With the South Africa Region, notwithstand- 
ing a considerable difference in the climate, gladiolus, 
ixia, wistenia, galaxia, and crassula. 

And with New 


embothrium, ourisia, and mniarum. 
Its own peculiarities are due to the novelty of nearly the 
whole of the species, and to the genera gaimardia, astelia, 
callixene, philesia, drapetes, bsea, pernettia, oligosporus, 
nassavia, bolax, azorella, donatia, aceena, hamadryas, and 
the curious misodendrum. A relation of identity with 
European regions is established through pinguicula al- 
pina, viola palustris, statice armeria, dactylis glomerata, 

and several mosses and lichens. 

„•' . ". * . . ■': 






Extent. — The various groups of islands composing 
this region have no great superficies, but possess many 
features of peculiarity and interest. The region by no 
means includes all the group of the Pacific Ocean, but 
only those which are more particularly designated as 
Polynesia. It comprises the Sandwich Islands, the 
Society Islands, the Marquesas Islands, the Gam bier 
Islands, the Harvey Islands, the low coral islands of the 
Dangerous or Pomoutou group, and the Radack and 
Ralick chains, with a few solitary detached, but unim- 
portant islands. 

Physical Characters. — There are perhaps few spots 
where such an assemblage of agreeable external circum- 
stances is met with, and where the visitor is assailed by 
so many favourable impressions. The climate is warm 
without being oppressive, the scenery partakes of all that 
variety nature can so well assume, where mountain, 
valley, and plain exist, and have each their charms; 
and where the vegetation is varied and agreeable, with- 
out being in excess. The islands may be regarded as so 
many mountains of basalt and lava, split by numerous 
valleys, and with their bases often dilated into plains, 
stretching with various inclinations to the cliffs or coral 
reefs of the shores. The valleys are usually very steep, 
and contain the chief and richest soil, for the mountains 
often display precipices with the smoothness and regu- 
larity of artificial walls. Elsewhere are numerous pro- 
jecting masses of rocks, rendering certain parts entirely 
unfit for cultivation. Among the denser vegetation the 
soil is black from the mixture of organic matter, but on 
the plains it is frequently of a deep-red colour, and may 
be used as a coarse paint. This owes much of its exist- 


i t . 



ence to the decomposition of the lava rock, and is very 

productive when supplied with abundance of water. The 

coral islands must be excepted from the above, as they 

have a low flat circular surface, with small patches of 

vegetable mould. 

Climate.— Within the influence of the trade-winds, 

and ever fanned by their breezes, the temperature of the 


is not high for the latitude. 


is something 

greater at the Society Islands to the south of the equator, 
than at the Sandwich Islands to the north. At Ho- 
nolulu, Sandwich Islands, Mr. Rooke's Observations 
for 1838, give the mean temperature as 77° 3, fall of 
rain 21*1 inches, fine days 285, rainy 37, variable 43. 
Similar observations at the Society Islands are wanting. 
The quantity of rain in different places varies greatly ; 
and in the interior, near the highest land, the amount 
will be three or four times more than the above ; and 
places to windward will have less than others to leeward. 
From some observations, I am disposed to fix 193 feet 
of ascent as equal to one degree of the thermometer. The 
seasons at the two sides of the equator will be at different 
periods, and rains occur a little after the summer solstice. 
At the Marquesas I found some relative temperatures to 
be, under the shade of vegetation 86° 5, the soil 80°, the 
sun's rays partially obscured, 103°. 

Flora. — The vegetation is not rich but interesting ; 
indeed it may be called a poor flora. Forest cannot be 
said to exist ; and the trees crowd up the valleys and less 
perpendicular ascents, with more the character of groves. 
Irregular patches of these diversify the aspect of the 
country, the intervals being filled with smaller vegeta- 
tion. Dracaena terminalis spreads over the valleys ; and 
the troublesome grass, centrotheca lappacea, covers every 
dry spot on the ridges and sides of the hills, and even of 



the plains. The trees are not large but numerous, and 
want the great height attained in the genuine forest. 
The vegetation is otherwise peculiar, from its small and 
inconspicuous flowers, being deficient in size and richness 
of colour, the absence of fragrant properties to a great 
extent, and the leaves being mostly small, undivided, and 
of a dull shade of colour. 

I have thought that there were proofs here of plants 
degenerating towards the margins of the extent of their 
indigenous existence. Artocarpus incisa, broussonetia 
papyrifera, and aleurites triloba, grow nearly everywhere 
spontaneously. At the Society Islands they thrive vigo- 
rously, as large trees ; but on advancing eastward they 
gradually diminish in size and vigour till, in the Gambier 
group, they are hardly of any use to the natives ; and in 
Easter Island, where the two latter are found, they are 
low and useless bushes. The same circumstance may be 
noticed with the shells, cardium cardissa, terebra macu- 
lata, conus betulinus, purpura persica, and perhaps 

The Sandwich Islands have a superficies of 6,600 square 
miles. The prevailing families are, Alices, very nume- 
rous ; a large proportion of composite, cinchonacese, 
leguminos8e > malvacese, cyrtandracese, labiatse, urticese, 
euphorbiacese, piperacese, and graminese. The vegetation 
is more closely distinguished by several araliacese, goode- 
novise, lobeliacese, amarantacese, and pandanese ; whilst 
the presence of cruciferse, saxifrageae, and umbelliferse, 
invests it with further peculiarities. Till recently no palm 
beyond the cocoa-nut was supposed to exist, but a species 
of chamserops has been discovered. Orchidaceae have no 
existence. The peculiar genera are few, kadua, charpen- 
tiera, dubautia, and a few others. In Hawaii, Mouna Roa 
reaches 15,980 feet, and Mouna Koa 13,500 feet, and 


■ r 


i i i 

• .■■•■ ■.•■■ ■ .- '■' ■ 
■■ .-■' .-■■ . ■ ..■■ . • ■ •■ 






have a vegetation with alpine features. Vaccinium, 
rubus, and fragaria are found here ; and when the flora 
shall be better known, a small alpine region will most 

probably become necessary. 

The Society Islands. These islands have a much 
smaller superficies, and a flora of only 500 species. They 
contain nearly the whole of the different species of the 
region south of the equator ; and there are very few not 
found at Tahiti, the largest of the group. The prevailing 
families of the Sandwich Islands exist equally here, the 
chief peculiarities depending on the presence of several 
cruciferse, on the comparative abundance of cinchonacese, 
euphoribacese, and urticeae, the scarcity of leguminosae, 
and through celtis discolor in possessing ulmacese. 

The Marquesas yield nothing in natural beauty to the 
other islands, and have a flora hitherto very sparingly 
examined, but apparently identical with that of the 
Society Islands, though even less abundant. The self- 
introduced plants which fringe the shores are different 
from those of the same class at the Sandwich Islands^ and 
evidently come from that part of the coast of America 
nearest at hand. Some species monopolize a large sur- 



exclusion of everything else; desmodium purpureum 
occupies the waste ground near the sea ; and centrotheca 
lappacea spreads higher upon the hills. The bread-fruit 
and cocoa-nut compose large groves. 

The Harvey Islands have a vegetation identical with 
the Society Islands. Raratonga has the reputation of 
being the most picturesque island of the Pacific. It is 
very productive ; and the paramount object of the resi- 
dents at present is to exclude the guava-bush, which at 
Tahiti has spread so widely, obliterated the grass, and much 
other of the vegetation. 




The Gambler Islands are volcanic islands set in coral 
reefs. The flora is the same as at the Society Islands. 
Metrosideros obovata has hitherto only been met with 

The Pomoutou Islands. These irregular coral islands 
are upwards of fifty in number. Their surface is com- 
posed of ragged fragments of dead coral, with a little 
vegetable mould in places ; and sometimes water is found 
a few inches beneath the surface. The flora is extremely 
limited, and, it must be inferred, in no respect original ; 
yet there are one or two plants at present not known to 
exist elsewhere. A collection of plants made by myself, 
with a few additions from other sources, gives a total 
amount of 47 species, which are referable to 40 genera, 
and 27 families. Lepidium piscidium disregards the 
heat, and appears wherever there is a little soil, and the 


parasitic cassythis filiformis mats together the bushes. 

The Radack and Ralick Chains, though closely resem- 
bling the latter, are more productive, and cultivation is 
practised. Chamisso mentions 52 species, many of which 

Islands and Guahon. 
He also observes that the southern islands have a richer 
soil and older vegetation. 

Relations. — The existence of this region, as a whole, 
is very clearly defined ; the connexions with the nearest 
regions not being very intimate. Its relations are spread 
far and wide. In the Sandwich Islands there are 
nities with New Holland through metrosideros, myopo- 
rum, exocarpus, cyathodes, and an aphyllous acacia ; with 
Europe are several jungermannia, and musci in common ; 
besides, with North America and Asia, several identical 
species. In the Society Islands the affinities are strong- 
est with New Holland through metrosideros, myoporum, 
casuarina, and dodonsea ; but they have no representative 

are indigenous at the Sandwich 



i i|i 

t ' 

i ■ 

\ I 





of epacridese, as at the Sandwich Islands. From these 
latter they are further distinguished by the presence of 
ficus and several orchidaceae. With South America and 
Asia there are some relations, but they are not striking. 
Rhizophora has no existence. 


Extent, —Several large and important islands, of 
which New Guinea is by far the most extensive, lying 
between the equator and 23° south latitude. Commenc- 
ing at the western extremity, the region includes the 
Moluccas, Papua or New Guinea, the former designa- 
tion being the most in use in the surrounding seas, the 
Admiralty Islands, New Britain, and New Ireland, the 
Solomon Islands, New Hebrides, New Caledonia, the 
Feejee Islands, Tonga archipelago, and Navigator's Is- 

Physical Characters. — The scenery is bold and 
rugged, particularly about the Solomon group, and many 
of the islands are nothing but mountains. The forest, 
which abounds everywhere, rests on rocky declivities, 
with very little soil. In Papua and the Feejee Islands, 
there are extensive level surfaces of rich soil, apparently 
the deposit of rivers. There are several active volca- 
nos, and much of the structure is in every probability 
volcanic. Conglomerate, limestone, and stratified sand- 
stone occur in Papua. The islands of the Tonga group 
are curious flat tables of limestone, forty feet and up- 
wards above the level of the sea, and with deep water 
close to their wall-like cliffs. The elevation of the 
mountains of Papua is undoubtedly not so great as has 
been supposed, and along the whole extent of its northern 




shore none are visible which at all approach the Jimit of 
perpetual snows. 

Climate. — Heat and moisture prevail, and render 
the climate a warm, and from the productions, it is 
likely, a peculiar one. An anomaly exists in the distribu- 
tion of the seasons. It is customary for the south-east 



it blows from May to October inclusive. The north- 
west monsoon prevails for the remaining months of the 
year and accompanies the rains. The reverse happens 
over the extent of this region, for though the monsoons 
are not so powerfully felt at its eastern extremity, the cli- 
mate is everywhere the same. In the south-east mon- 
soon the rains are heavy and frequent, and the deposition 
must be very considerable. 

Flora.— Approaching this region from the eastward, 
the character of the flora as distinct from the Polynesian 
is very evident; palmse become more numerous through 
chamaerops, caryota, and areca ; pandanus has many spe- 

; leguminosae, though more abundant than in the 
Polynesia Region, and composite are not frequent, a 
proof of the usually moist state of the atmosphere ; cycas 
first appears at New Ireland, and rhizophora in the 
rivers of the Feejees. However, it is a flora, with the 
exception of the Moluccas, almost unknown. 

Papua or New Guinea. — Forest covers everywhere 
this large and fine, but unhealthy, island, and presents 
a variety which perhaps makes it the most prolific of 


vegetable forms in the world. 



is ex- 

tremely varied, and the species appear to have a limited 

Here, as elsewhere, it is chiefly on the margins 


of the forest, that flowers and herbaceous plants are 
seen. The colours are generally little attractive, and 
white greatly prevails. This is partly compensated by 




1 '>! 

.. • ■ ■ 

; ■■■.:••: :•• 

'.'.'■: ; • 

r ...- • i: 


.;-• -•--.- 

■ ,-•. .- 




the frequent fragrance of the flowers, and sometimes even 
of the foliage. Leguminosse, solanese, and uinbelliferae, 
are uncommon. Trees of achras and myristica are 
numerous in the forest, and there are several species of 
each. The nutmegs are without the aroma found in 
myristica moschata. This genus extends as far to the 
east as the Feejee Islands. Ferns of every variety of 
habit are most numerous, and orchidacese abound. 

The Moluccas have a less compact forest, as open 
spaces of bushes often occur, but a great variety in its 
trees. They are remarkable, as the native country of 
the clove and nutmeg of commerce, and of other aroma- 
tic productions. 


When the southern shores of New 

Guinea are better known, there will most probably be 



land. At present the most prominent are, casuarina, 
common throughout the region, melaleuca and eucalyp- 

tus in the Moluccas, and acacia laurifolia, an aphyllous 
species, in the eastern groups. A passiflora is common in 
the Feejee and 



jators' Islands. Agathis appears 
ell as in New Zealand, and the 

resin is largely used, under the name of dammar, to give 



Extent. — The space between the northern shores of 

New Holland 

23°28' south 

latitude. The genuine characters of this region are lost, 
even within this limit, towards the west coast, where at 
Point Leveque in 123° east longitude, it meets the west 

Australian region. 

■ ■ 

-■ o 



Physical Characters, — Little is known respecting it 3 
the coast only having received a partial examination. 
The shores are generally low and sandy, often barren, 
but sometimes clothed with a rich and luxuriant vegeta- 

Climate. — Tropical in temperature, but deficient in 
the usual amount of suspended moisture. 

Flora, — The thin forest of New Holland prevails, but 
partakes more of the usual tropical characters, and in 
some places is so dense and vigorous as to be almost 
impenetrable. In the vicinity of Van Diemen's Gulf spe- 
cies of eucalyptus, corypha, pandanus, acacia, and croton, 
form a thick vegetation. The shores are closely beset by 
rhizophora, brugiera, and carallia, all genera of rhizo- 
phoreae. Palmse are not numerous, and are represented 
by corypha, seaforthia, livingstonia, and calamus. Le* 
fuminosae, as might be expected in such a climate, are 
very abundant ; also euphorbiaeeae through croton and 
phyllanthus ; and coniferae are present in podocarpus 5 
callitris, and araucaria. A. excelsa is not here a large 
tree, but occasionally covers much space. Cinehonaceae 
do not abound, and such as exist have Indian relations, 

species. Cryptogamic plants, 
epiphytic orchidaceae, and others with similar habits, and 
depending less on their roots for food than on the at- 
mosphere, are all infrequent. Loranthus, embracing as it 
does genuine parishes, is frequent on all the coasts of 
New Holland. 

Those plants so entirely characteristic of this continent, 
and which are developed so profusely in the metropolis 
of their existence, are still spread among the vegetation, 
but in reduced numbers. Proteaceae are nearly limited 
to grevillea, hakea, and persoonia ; the Australian myr- 
taceae are few ; diosmeae has only eriostemon and phe-^ 

P 2 

Bignoniaceae have a few 




r II 

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- • * - . . * 

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balium ; eucalyptus has few species and individuals, and 
diminished vigour ; casuarina is gradually disappearing. 
Relations. — Mr. Allan Cunningham has had the best 

opportunities of examining the vegetation. 

In an ex- 

pedition directed to this part of the coast he collected 
1500 species of phenogamous plants, of which 520 
had been previously described. In a comparison 
between the east and north-west coasts in the parallel 
\ of 15°, and with an intervening space of 1,800 miles, he 
( found only forty-eight species in common. He also 
gives a list of fifty-two Indian and South American plants, 
which are indigenous to Australia, (King's voyages, 
Appendix.) Umbelliferae have a few species, and there 
are some close relations with the flora of New Guinea 


Among others, myristica is not 

uncommon on the northern and north-western coast. 


Extent. — The British colony of New South Wales 
occupies a large portion of the east coast of New Holland. 
Our region is, however, more rigorously defined, and will 
comprise the east portion of the continent south of the 
tropic, and ceases to the west and south somewhere in the 
neighbourhood of the mouth of the Morumbridgee. 

Physical Characters. 

The whole continent has 

been divided into two parts, the region of terraces, and 
the region of plains, separated by the 148th meridian. 
Captain Sturt observes, that of the ridges which divide 
the latter, each presents a different rock formation, and 
also that he has noticed that the botanical and geological 
features are intimately connected. The Blue Mountains 




attain no considerable elevation, scarcely exceeding 3,000 
feet, and form a wild and sterile barrier between two 
portions of the country. The soil varies, much is ex- 
tremely arid, and some is productive on slight cultivation. 
It is probably a variety which will soon wear out, and 
large tracts are required for grazing purposes. The kind 
of trees growing are regarded as a good indication of the 
quality of the soil ; the native apple (Angophora lanceo- 
lata) selecting a good soil, and the spotted gum and 
stringy bark a bad. Rhagodia, salsola, and similar plants, 
are met with in places, and indicate a saline soil. After 
the wet season, ephemeral rivers traverse the country, and 
lose themselves either in sandy plains or chains of 
marshy ponds. At other seasons much of the surface is 

indifferently watered. 

Climate. — There is a great disposition to excess both 
in temperature and in dryness. The range of the ther- 
mometer is sometimes very great and sudden, being in 


the summer months from 36° to 106°, the mean 70°; and 
in the winter months from 27° to 98°, the mean 66.° At 


Sidney the number of rainy days is 107. There is evi- 
dently a strong adaptation of the vegetation to the climate 
and other physical agents. 

Flora. — It has been observed by many, that in the 
Australian vegetation there is a sombre dulness which en- 
tirely excludes any of those lively and agreeable impres- 
sions it elsewhere so frequently creates. The forest, 
where it abounds, is not close and compact, but so open as 
to offer no obstruction to the passenger, and intervals are 
frequently occupied by dry stunted bushes, or straggling 
grass. Mr. P. Cunningham remarks that the trees are 
nearly all evergreens, with fewer branches, and compara- 
tively fewer leaves than European trees. Many shed their 
bark, and whilst the new has the appearance of a dead 




+: - , :* ,*' j 







tree pealed, the old bark is hanging in loose shreds and 
flakes, giving the whole much the character of an assem- 
blage of dead trees. Dr. R. Brown attributes the mono- 
tonous aspect and want of lustre in the vegetation to the 
equal existence of the cutaneous glands, or stomata, on 
both surfaces of the leaf. Nor when vegetation has 
ceased does the decay of the decomposing parts impart 
the usual fertility, for Captain Sturt conceives that the 
decaying leaves and timber, instead of adding richness to 
the soil, actually preclude minor vegetation, and that 
plants seem to shun the spot where a tree has fallen and 
gone to decay. In a climate so arid, the seasons will 
assert a powerful influence over the vegetation, and as 

soon as the beneficial effects of the rains are felt, there is 
much gaiety and liveliness in the numerous curious and 
handsome flowers ; but on their disappearance the vegeta- 
tion soon becomes parched and uninteresting. The wood 
of the trees possesses to an important extent the pro- 
perty of incombustibility, which is supposed to be due 
to the presence of aluminous earth. 

The botanist must take a closer inspection, and here finds 
a novelty and pleasure the more general observer is de- 
prived of. The various species of eucalyptus, nearly a 
hundred in number, compose the chief bulk of the forest ; 
it has been estimated at four-fifths. They are frequently 
trees of enormous dimensions, except within the tropics, 
where they are also fewer. Exocarpus cupressiformis is 
the commonest tree of New Holland, without the tropics. 
Casuarina has many species, which have the local name 
of oaks. Leguminosse are very abundant, the decandrous 
papilionaceous kinds prevail, as pulteneea, gompholobium, 
a>nd dilhvynia ; and the aphyllous species of acacia are 
almost peculiar. Composite are liberally represented by 
the tribe corymbiferae, but very sparingly by the two 



intermingled with diosmeae, 

others. Orchidacese are very numerous as species, but no 
as individuals, always growing sparingly, and sometimes 
are extremely rare ; those which are epiphytic cease at 
34 u S. latitude, and are more abundant in this region than 


the tropical. Palmae extend to the same limit. Protea- 
cese, myrtacese, and epacrideae, abound in great numbers 

in peculiar genera, and | 
goodenoviae, myoporineae, stylideae, restiaceae, treman- 
dreae, polygaleae, and dilleniaceae, impress very distinc- 
tive peculiarities. Cryptogamic plants are not so abun- 
dant as usual, owing to the dryness of the climate, the 
absence of large trees in many situations, and the deci- 
duous bark. A tree-fern, dicksonia antarctica, extends 
through the region, even into Van Diemen s Land. 

Kelations. — It is not a little singular, that identical 

species of European plants appear here in greater numbers 
than in South Africa, or other intervening regions. Dr. 
Brown's experience renders his observations valuable. 
" In comparing very generally the flora of the principal 
parallel, (between 33° and 35° S. latitude) of Terra Aus- 
tralis, with that of South Africa, we find several natural 

families characteristic of the Australian vegetation, as 
proteaceae, diosmeae, restiaceae, polygaleae, and also 
butteneriaceae, if hermannia and mahernia be considered 
as part of this order, existing, and in nearly equal abun- 

dance, at 


by analogous families, as epacrideae by ericeae ; and some 
tribes, which form a considerable part of the Australian 
peculiarities, as dilleniaceae, the leafless acaciae, and 
eucalyptus, are [entirely wanting in South Africa. On 
the other hand, several of the characteristic South African 
orders and extensive genera are nearly or entirely want- 




md; thus, irideae, mesembryanthe- 
mum, pelargonium, and oxalis, so abundant at the Cape 
of Good Hope, occur very sparingly in New Holland, 

v- -\ ■ :- ; '■ \ c'v- 

_ .>- .. 

"■'■:■■ .-. • ■ 

. .'V- •'••: ■ •:' .-' 

* » 1 . 




where the South African genera aloe, stapelia, cliffor- 
tia, penaea, and brunia, do not at all exist. Very few- 
species are common to both countries, and of these, the 
only one which is at the same time peculiar to the southern 
hemisphere is osmunda barbara." # 




not fully developed on the north-west coast, which makes 
it necessary to extend the limits of this region in this 
direction. It will thus occupy the western portion of 
the continent from 123° E. long., and become mingled 
with the New South Wales Region on the south coast 
in the neighbourhood of the Morrumbidgee, the interior 

of the continent being; unknown. 

Physical Characters.— It is a feature in New Holland 
that the shores are invested by a broad belt of sandy 
soil, which gives them a very unprepossessing aspect 
to the stranger, and most of all to the settler. This is 


succeeded by grassy and thinly-wooded plains. Such 
is particularly the character of this region. At a little 
distance from the coast is a parallel, but irregular and 
broken, range of hills ; and others detached are spread 
over the country. Basaltic rocks are not unfrequent. 

but that kind of sandstone known as ironstone, chiefly 
prevails, and forms the basis of the plains. Limestone 
is also not unusual. This surface generally is indif- 


ferently supplied with streams. 

Climate. — Similar to that of New South Wales, but 
not so liable to extremes of temperature or to long 
droughts. At Perth the average temperature in Fe- 

* Flinder's Voyages, Appendix, Vol. ii., p. 588. 



bruary, at four p.m. was 84°, in August 63°, and at ten a m. 
respectively, 81° and 60°. The mean of these hours 
throughout the year are 72° 1 and 69° 5. January, 
February, and March, are the months of greatest heat 
and aridity. 

Flora. — The plants of this coast are almost entirely 
distinct from those of the east coast, but with King 


George's Sound they are strikingly identical. This pe- 
culiarity, however, is chiefly confined to species. The 
most characteristic plants are species of casuarina, 
callitris, zamia, exocarpus, xanthorrhoea, and kingia 
australis, and nutysia floribunda. Eucalyptus has few 
species, and angophora is not known. (Brown in Journal 
Geographical Society.') The northern limit of xan- 
thorrhoea is at 28° S. lat. The vegetable productions, 
then, of this region are sufficiently peculiar, for whilst 
it fully retains Australian features, its closer forms are 
its own. 

Relations. — South African ferns are more abundant 

than in any other portion of the continent, and this is 
conspicuous even in its proteaceae. An European plant, 
arenaria marina, is met with. 


Extent. — The island so called, situated between 
40° 42' and 43° 43' S. lat., and having an area of 17,192 

square miles. 

Physical Characters. — Van Diemen's Land has fewer 
of those extremes so frequent in the neighbouring continent. 
The surface is occupied by fertile plains, occasionally 
swelling into hill and dale, and sometimes raised into 
ranges of inconsiderable elevation. Ben Lomond, to the 




north-west, attains 4,200 

Mount Well 

near Hobart Town in the south, about 3.700 feet. In 
the vicinity of the rivers are large plains with good soil, 
and covered only with an herbaceous vegetation. The 
whole island is available, and rarely unfit for cultivation. 
Climate. — With our European notions of climate, this 
would be considered cold for the latitude. The seasons 
are more regular, and the distribution of heat and 
moisture more equable, than in New South Wales. The 
smaller range of temperature is attributable to its insular 

position, and the humidity to the prevalence of southerly 

Flora. — There is a freshness and variety about the 
vegetation denied to New Holland. 



many of its distinctive groups, the species are to a great 
extent limited ; its epacridece, proteacese, and myoporinese 
have even peculiar genera. Eucalyptus, though with 
fewer species, attains here its greatest developement. 
Among its trees are podocarpus asplenifolius, dacrydium 
taxifolium, exocarpus cupressiformis, carpodontos lucida, 
atherosperma moschata, zieria arborescens, tasmannia 
australis, t. fragrans, with species of gaultheria, poma- 
derris, and fagus. Cryptogamic plants are numerous, and 
some are identical with the European. Dicksonia antarc- 
tica, an arborescent fern, is met with. 

Relations. — The connexions of the vegetation are 
widely extended. With the more temperate parts of 
Europe there are many genera in common, as stellaria, 
linum, viola, clematis, anemone, ranunculus, veronica, 
drosera, geranium, polygonum, cardamine, and nastur- 
tium. With the South Africa region more particularly, 
by pelargonium, elichrysum, and oxalis ; with North 
IVmerica, by gaultheria and aster ; and with the Malaisia 
region, by podocarpus. 

-■-■ - 

' - "■■■■ , 




Extent. — Two islands situated between 34° and 48° 


S. lat., and with an area of 62,160 square miles. The 
northern is the smaller, but possesses the greatest capabi- 
lities, and is called Eaheinomauwe. The southern is 
known as T'avai Poenammoo. 

Physical Characters. — A lofty range of mountains, 
from 12,000 to 14,000 feet high, traverses both islands, 
their upper portions covered with eternal snows, and 
their lower clothed with noble forests, the trees of which 
are equally distinguished for their tall and stately growth, 
as for their great girth. The soil of the plains is plentiful 
in places, and yields a good return under cultivation. 

Climate. — Temperate, but liable to fluctuations. 

Flora. — Tropical vegetation still lingers in palms, 
arborescent ferns, and epiphytic orchidacese ; the latter 
cease at 45° S. lat. Areca sapida reaches 34° S. lat. 
There is a curious mixture of its own peculiar forms with 
others common to both near and distant regions, as is 
evident in the genera dracsena, forstera, myoporum, 
melaleuca, avicennia, weinmannia, tetragonia, dicera, 
pimelea, epacris, phormium, knightia, plagianthus, cya- 
thea, angiopteris, gleichenia, fuchsia, andromeda, oxalis, 
and mesembryanthemum. Palms, tree-ferns, and epiphy- 
tic orchidacese all occur farther south than in New 


Holland. The kaw r rie, yielding valuable masts and spars, 
is the dammara australis or agathis australis. 

Relations. — The most interesting are with the Pata- 
gonia Region through fuchsia, mniarum, drymis, acsena, 
sisymbrium, and lepidium; and with the South Africa 

Region through gnaphalium, tetragonia, and oxalis. 


i ,, 




There are also some other interesting affinities with South 
America. Agathis loranthifolia, a near ally of the kawrie, 
abounds in the Moluccas. 


Extent.— Southern Africa beyond the tropic; Cape 
L'Agulhas, the extreme point, is in 34° 55' S. L. 

Physical Characters. — " The surface of this region is 
striking and peculiar, presenting three successive mountain 
ranges, running parallel to the coast and to each other. 
The first, called Lange Kloof, is between 20 and 60 miles 
from the ocean, the breadth of the intermediate plain being 
greatest in the west. The second chain, called the 
Zwaarte Berg, or Black Mountain, rises at an interval 
nearly similar behind the first, is considerably higher and 
more rugged, and consists often of double or triple ranges. 
Behind, at the distance of 80 or 100 miles, rises the 
Nieuweldts Gebirgte, the loftiest range in Southern Africa. 
The summits, to a great extent, are covered with snow ; 
from which circumstance the eastern and most elevated 
part is called the Sneuwberg, or Snowy Mountains, whose 
highest pinnacles are not supposed to fall short of 10,000 
feet. The plain nearest the sea is fertile, well watered, 
richly clothed with grass and trees, and enjoys a mild and 
agreeable climate. The plains between the successive 
ranges are elevated, and contain a large proportion of the 


species of arid desert called karroo. The southern plain 
in particular is almost entirely composed of the great 
karroo, 300 miles in length and nearly 100 in breadth, 
covered with a hard and impenetrable soil, almost unfit for 
any vegetation. Along the foot of the Sneuwberg, however, 








there is a considerable tract, finely watered, and affording 
very rich pasturage. Beyond the mountains, the territory 


is for some space black and sterile ; but it gradually im- 
proves till it opens into the extensive pastoral plain occu- 
pied by the Boshuanas. So far as this has been explored 
to the northward, it becomes always more fertile, though to 
the west there has been observed a desert of very great 
aridity. The eastern coast also consists chiefly of a fine 
pastoral plain, occupied by the various Caffre tribes, and 
broken by some chains of mountains, the direction of which 
has been very imperfectly explored." — [Murray's Geo- 
graphy.) The most fertile soil is found in the neighbour- 
hood of the coasts, along the base of the Snowy Mountains, 
and in the vicinity of the rivers. Several rivers and 
streams traverse the country, becoming during the rains 
much swollen, and shrinking in the long and painful 
droughts to a small size, or to chains of muddy pools. 
Sandstone and granite greatly prevail in the mountain 
ranges, on which often repose clay-slate and greywache. 
* As far as is at present known, the whole of the table-land 
of Africa to the north of the Orange River is composed of 
limestone in horizontal strata, clay-slate, sandstone, and 
quartz rock, granite, greenstone, serpentine, and potstone." 
{Jameson in Murray's Geography.) In some places the 

soil is very salt. 

Climate, — Over such a diversified surface there will be 
much variety in the climate. The mean temperature and 

range are different in 

each other, and the eastern coasts are colder than the 

situations in the neighbourhood of 

western, M 

the mean of 

Cape Town 67° 3, and the extremes 96° and 45°, or fifty- 
one decrees. The mean of the coldest month is 57°, of 
the hottest 79°, least summer heat 77°, and the solar radia- 
tion is very considerable. Inland both the mean and 


-.. ■.-. 

■ ■■•■■,• . 



range are lower; at Stellenbosch the mean of one year's 
observations was 66° 3, range from 87° to 50° ; at Zwart- 
land the mean 66° 5, range from 85° to 54°. The year is 
divided into the cold or rainy season, which lasts from May 
to October, and the warm or dry season, from November 
to April. From the same we have some facts on the 
hygroscopic condition of the atmosphere obtained near 
False Bay from December to March. At sunrise the ordi- 

nary dryness was 6° or 

' 5 

the extreme from 12° to 3°. 

The maximum at noon was 26o, the greatest range within 
the day 35°, mean dryness of the morning 7°, of the noon 
14°, and further minimum dryness scarcely a fourth of the 
atmospheric capacity for moisture. 

Flora. — This portion of Africa presents a good speci- 
men of a particular variety of vegetation, where there is an 
intimate relation between the flora and external influencing 
circumstances, and a close adaptation of the organs of 
plants to the duties required of them. In many respects 
this is highly conspicuous ; the leaves are often very 
small or minutely divided, and clothed with hairs, or to- 

mentose, or lanuginose investments ; 

many species are 

provided with fleshy succulent leaves, which do not part 
readily with their juices, and serve as so many magazines 
of nourishment, whilst the very numerous bulbous plants 
are eminently adapted to a climate which, for a long season, 
is extremely arid; at this time the bulbs retain their 
vitality without requiring any nourishment, and are ready 
to assume activity on the appearance of the rains. The 
want of moisture, equally with low temperature, as seen in 
northern regions, would seem productive of a low, stunted, 
bushy vegetation, and is also characterised by the frequency 


of spinous organs, the disagreeable effects of which are 
expressed in the quaint name of wait-a-bit, given to acacia 
detinens. The colours of the flowers are usually rich and 

■ . • 




brilliant, the brightness of the solar rays, assisted by a 
clear atmosphere, having developed them in the most per- 
fect manner. Pink, yellow, and white flowers greatly pre- 
vail, with a rare mixture of those tamer colours seen in 
a luxuriant vegetation under a moist atmosphere. Though 
the flowers are not conspicuous for their fragrance, this 
is frequent in the foliage; we observe this in various 
pelargonium cultivated with us, and on the spot in species 
of diosma, compositae, and the numerous stapelia, if the 
carrion odour of the latter can be so called. 

The mention of a beautiful provision of nature must not 
be omitted, particularly as it involves a departure from a 
general rule. The capsules of several species of mesem- 
bryanthemum refuse to open except when moistened by 
the rains, lest, opening in a dry season, they should shed 
their seeds on an unprepared soil. 

The very numerous species which constitute the flora of 
South Africa belong, to a considerable extent, to genera 

which are peculiar ; and even when it shares its natural 
families with other regions, its genera are rarely extended 
to them; as in proteaceae, leguminosse, irideae, compositae, 
rosacese, and cruciferae. It is only in particular situations 
that forest exists, giving shelter to numerous savage buffa- 
loes. The largest trees are ilex crocea, curtisia faginea, 
cunonia capensis, taxus elongata, laurus teterrima, olea ca- 
pensis, tarchonanthus camphoratus, t. arboreus, brabejum 
stellatum, acacia vera, ekebergia capensis, and various pro- 
teaceae, gardenia, and royena. We will glance hastily over 
the prevailing families and their more peculiar genera. 
Proteacece abounds in protea, serrularia, leucospermum, 
lorocephalus, spatalla, mimetes, and nivenia; Legumi- 
uosce has liparia, lebeckia, aspalathus, borbonia, les- 
sertia, psoralia, podalyria, and schotia; Ericaceae, the 
very numerous and interesting group of erica, and the far 

!til I 








in ixia, gladiolus, tritonia, 

smaller genus blasria; Diosmece prevail extensively in 
diosma, agathosma, adenandra, and baryosma; Ascle- 
piadece, the numerous and strange stapelia, with huernia 
and gomphocarpus ; Crassulacece, a family with some kin- 
dred habits, is represented in crassula, rochea, leptas, and 
cotyledon ; Ficoidece^ by the various mesembryanthemum, 
with tetragonia and hymenogyne ; Polygalece^ in polygala, 
muraltia, and mundia; Composite prevail extensively, and 
many are characterized by that peculiar texture of the 
flower belonging to everlastings. Most of the following 
genera are peculiar : chrysocoma, arctotis, othonna, osteo- 
spermum, tarchonanthus, sphnegyne, erichrysum, cacalia, 
pteronia, berckleya, and gazania; Orchidacece cannot be 
supposed to be abundant ; disa and satyrium find conve- 
nient localities on the Table Mountain, and some of them 
are scarce; Iridece abound 
watsonia, hesperantha, sparaxis, babiana, and trichonema; 
AmaryllidecB equally so in hsemanthus, strumaria, bruns- 
vigia, nerine, cyrtanthus, and gethyllis. There are yet 
several important genera requiring notice : euphorbia has 
a group of species which simulate the habit of cacteae, and 
supply their place ; aloe has a great variety of species, and 
others are frequent, in oxalis, phyllica, restio, struthiola, 
cliffortia, roella, hypoxis, eucomis, massonia, lachenalia, 
and streletzia. Heliophila, a cruciferous genus, is monomic. 
Lobelia, cestrum, lyceum, chironia, and others prevail. 
Two families also claim to be regarded as monomic,— bru- 
niacese and penseacese. Climbing plants are uncommon, as 
are also cryptogamic. Some ferns are found on the sides of 

Table Mountain, the particular flora of which has 
other evidences of a moister atmosphere. The mass of the 
vegetation is to a great extent confined to the colony, and 
several of its more peculiar groups, ericaceae, proteacese, 
dios'meae, and restiaceee, do not appear on the arid karroo, 


• . . ■■■ 




which is occupied by gregarious species of lyceum, acacia, 
euphorbia, and mesembryanthemum. Some have a very 
limited range, and the species of stapelia abound more 
particularly on the arid sands of the west coast. 

Relations. — The various relations of a region so com- 
plete as that of South Africa must be extremely interesting ; 
and it seems probable that so rich a vegetation, with a liberal 
hand, gives more representatives to other regions than it 
receives from them. Passing over a more extensive view 
of its relations, we will confine our notice to groups having 
their chief existence elsewhere. A few of the genera of 
Europe, North America, and Siberia, have species here ; 
the presence also of salix, bryonia, and viola, recalls a dif- ^U 
ferent latitude and climate. In common with the north- 
eastern portion of Africa, it has acacia vera, cucumis colo- 


land in metrosideros 



Several introduced 

plants are becoming diffused, as solanum nigrum, sonchus 
oleraceus, and polygonum persicaria. 




Extent. — That portion of the east coast of Africa be- 
tween 10° N. lat. and the south tropic in 23° 28' has been 
so little visited, that nothing is known of its vegetation, ex- 
cept that it is clothed with rich forests, and has a climate 

in all respects tropical. 

Physical Characters.— Spacious plains abound near 
the coast, traversed bv considerable rivers, and liable to 

partial submersion. 

Climate.— Tropical, moist, and frequently unhealthy, 

but well suited to the growth of the nutmeg, cinnamon, 



\ i 


1 1 ',i 

l Pi 






and similar productions of a tropical climate in its 


Flora. — Further than that it abounds in luxuriant forest, 
and supplies us with Columba-root and a few other articles 
of commerce, little is known concerning it, and the native 
rulers are too jealous of foreigners to permit any examina- 
tion of the interior of the county. 

Relations. — It differs so entirely from the regions to 
the north and south, that the propriety of its separation 
from them seems undoubted. 


Extent. — The large and fruitful island of Madagascar, 
situated between 12° and 26° S. lat, and the far smaller 
islands of Bourbon, Mauritius, and the Sechelles. 

Physical Characters. — In Madagascar, extensive fer- 
tile plains extend from the shores towards a lofty range of 
mountains in the interior. The soil is represented as rich 
and highly productive, and extensive marshy districts are 
occupied as rice-fields. 

Climate. — Tropical, moist, and in some parts of Mada- 
gascar extremely fatal to human beings. 

Flora, — Just enough of the productions of Madagascar 
are known to assure us they are peculiar, and to stimulate 
research. The vegetation is luxuriant, and varied with 
the usual aspect of the tropics. The natural family of 
chlenacese is confined to it ; areanthes and other orchidacese 
abound. Tanghinia veneniflua, yielding a most energetic 
poison, and hydrogeton fenestralis, remarkable for the 
structure of its leaves, are both natives. Several species of 
the small family of homalinese are found in the islands, and 
also the myrtaceous genus jossinia. 






The Mauritius has rather an extensive and tolerably- 
well-known flora, and with a fair proportion of peculiar 


Danais and chasalia are confined to it. 

Bourbon closely resembles the Mauritius. 
The Scchelles are chiefly remarkable for a double- 
fruited variety of cocos nucifera, which is produced on three 

of the islands. 

Relations. — From its position, Madagascar would seem 

to belong to Africa, but such observations as have been in- 
stituted on its flora and that of the neighbouring coast, 
point out decidedly stronger affinities withjfndia. Ed- 

wardsia is common both to New Zealand and the Mau- 





Extent. — A considerable tract of country, inhabited by 
many populous nations, situated between the Great Sa- 
hara or central desert of Africa and the Atlantic Ocean, 
and Cape Blanco, in 20° 55. N. lat., and 23° 28, S. lat, or 

the south tropic. 

Physical Characters. — In the neighbourhood of the 

coast the surface is composed chiefly of level plains, broken 
occasionally by ranges of low hills, and with chains of lofty 
mountains in the background, of primitive formation. Much 
of the soil is alluvial, and surprisingly productive ; and the 
banks of the numerous rivers are low, and during a part of 
the year extensively overflowed by the rising of the waters. 
At the mouth of some of the rivers are large salt-water 
marshes, covered by mangrove and other congenial plants. 
But salt, so abundant in other parts of Africa, is here in 
the interior so scarce as to be greatly prized. 

G 2 



■ -*:■• ■ 

- v 




Climate. — Tropical, and generally moist; but in the 
vicinity of the desert partaking of its aridity. 

Flora, — Over this extensive surface there is little 
variety in the vegetation ; the same forms are continually 
repeated, and there is a scarcity of some of those elsewhere 
so abundant in the tropics. Palmse have few species ; 
elais guineensis, phoenix spinosa, raphia vinifera, and the 
cocoa-nut, are the chief. Musacese, scitaminese, piperaceae, 
are scarce. Yet there is a denseness and luxuriance in the 

hardly surpassed in any other part of the 
world. The forest is extensive and magnificent, the trees 
attaining a large size; and on the banks of the rivers 
which have been navigated some have been seen of enor- 
mous dimensions. Cinchonaceae, leguminosae, and mal- 
vaceae abound; ficus, cassia, acacia, and euphorbia have 
many species. Some of the more conspicuous belong to 
bombax, adansonia, sterculia, cadaba, parkia, hoflandia, 
melhania, pentadesma, crataeva, capparis, grewia, ptero- 
carpus, psychotria, bignonia, avicennia, anona, and panda- 
nus candelabrum. 

The Cape de Verd Islands have, perhaps, a less varied 
and vigorous vegetation than the coast. 

St. Helena, situated in 16° S. lat., has the character of a 
very poor flora, but of which the members are nearly alto- 
gether peculiar. Of 61 species, two or three only have 


been noticed elsewhere. Ferns, grasses, compositae, and 
the cocoa-nut and date-palm, are met with, but the climate 



ungenial, and the sugar-cane scarcely thrives. 

peak of Diana is elevated 2,692 feet. 

Ascension Island is situated in 7° S. lat. The Green 
Mountain attains 2,818 feet. Some of the caves are ver- 


dant with ferns. Grasses are in proportion numerous, and 
portulacca oleracea, euphorbia origanoides, asclepias curas- 
savica, convolvulus arenarius, and carex pedunculata, over- 
run the plains. 




Relations. — Between thp tropical portions of Asia, 
Africa, and America, many of the natural families are 
shared in common ; thus we see combretacese, meliacese, 
ochnacese, sapindacese, terebintaceae, anonaceae, sapoteae, 
and potaliacese, all essentially tropical groups, freely repre- 
sented in each. Frequently the genera are in common, 
but beyond this the relations are feeble. Still some exten- 
sive families are only sparingly represented, as passiflorese, 
melastomacese, myrtaceae, and loranthaceae. It is probable 
that when the vegetation of the base and flanks of the 
Cameroon Mountains shall be known, they will require a 
separate consideration. Their supposed elevation is 13,000 


Extent. — These islands are in the same parallel at the 
Great Sahara, being situated off that part of the African 
coast where that desert meets the ocean, and are thus situ- 
ated, in a geographical position, between the Barbary Re- 
gion and the West Africa Region. In addition to the 
islands more properly known as the Canaries, the region 
includes the fertile island of Madeira, with the almost 
desert Porto Santo and the Dezertos, and the Azores. 

Physical Characters. — The islands of these groups may 
be regarded as so many mountains rising above the ocean to 
considerable elevations. Teneriffe attains 12,176 feet, and 
the highest part of Madeira, 6,233 feet. Their plains and 
valleys abound in a fertile soil, the productiveness of which 
is further insured by its volcanic origin, insular position, 
copious supply of moisture, and warm atmosphere. In 
some parts lava prevails so completely as to exclude vege- 

1 i * 


i ''' 

I' £1 

; t ■ 

ft ,v 

* . .N V 




tation, and those islands with an aspect towards the coast 
of Africa are materially affected by its arid breezes* 

Climate. — The temperature is warm and even, but 
some parts are subject to considerable depression from 
sudden gusts, which sweep the cold air from the summits. 
The mean of Funchal, Madeira, is 65°, number of rainy 
days 73, and fall of rain 31 inches. At Santa Cruz, Te- 
neriffe, the mean is 7l°. The temperature given for the 
alpine regions of vegetation are calculated ; those used by 
Spix and Von Martius are assumed from the calculations 
of Howard ; we therefore pass them over till we possess 
strictly observed data. 

Flora. — This must be regarded as an alpine region, and 
the different portions of its flora have been described by 
Humboldt, Von Buck, Von Martius, and Kuhl. There is, 
however, some discrepancy between their statements ; for 
not only are the alpine regions of Teneriffe made to differ 
from those of Madeira, but also from the rest of the 
Canaries. In attempting to reduce them to mutual con- 
sistency we shall follow out the views we have previously 
expressed on this subject.* 

Teneriffe has been ably examined by Humboldt, and his 
regions are nearly natural. 

1. The Region of Lowland Cultivation extends to 1 ,800 
feet. It is distinguished by the presence of a few tropical 
forms; dracsena draco, phoenix dactylifera, chamasrops hu- 
milis, musa paradisaica, m. sapientum, arborescent euphor- 
bias, and some species of mesembryanthemum from Africa, 
meet species of cactus from America. 

2. The Region of 

Woods extends to 7,200 feet. 

These woods are lofty and extensive, and comprise laurus 
indica, 1. foetens, 1. nobilis, rhamnus glandulosa, erica 


London Journal of Botany for March, 1842. 



arborea, erica texo, quercus canariensis. Ferns are nume- 
rous. A convenient subdivision may be established, since 
the pines occupy only the upper part of this region for the 
breadth of 25,000 feet; thus constituting — 1, the sub- 
region of laurels to 5,400 feet ; 2, the sub-region of pines to 

7,200 feet. 

3. The Region of Shrubs. — Spartium nubigenum 
abounds, and not much else, for the surface is chiefly vol- 

canic ashes. 

4. The Region of Grasses. — Scrophularia glabrata, viola 

cheiranthifolia, and the cruciferous plants, cheiranthus 
longifolius, c. frutescens, c. scoparius, erysimum bicorne, 
crambe strigosa, c. laevigata, are met with. 

5. The Region of Cryptogamic Plants. — It contains only 
urceolaria and other lichens. 

Madeira, as the name implies, was formerly covered with 
woods, but the early cultivation of the sugar-cane, and sub- 
sequently of the vine, and still more recently the adoption 
of grazing, has produced a total change in the original fea- 
tures of the vegetation. 



'he Region of Lowland Cultivation extends to 2,000 
The agave, plantain, date, pomegranate, and fig all 

thrive well. Of sixty species found here, 36 are common 
to the north of Europe, 17 to southern Europe and northern 
Africa, and 7 peculiar to the Canary Region. Among them 
is scarcely a genus with more than one species. 




trees are not numerous ; castanea vesca, pinus canariensis, 
laurus faetens, 1. indica, clethra arborea. In thirty-two 
species, eight only are European, the remainder being pe- 
culiar. Here, therefore, the flora is more characteristic, 
and introduced plants have not attained this elevation. 

3. The Region of Shrubs extends to the loftiest part of 
the island. Spartium scoparium, cytisus divaricatus, erica 

; ! 



. I r 




scoparia, and vaccinium padifolium, abound. Grasses, be- 
longing to cynosurus, aira, and agrostis, begin to appear on 
the higher stations. 

In Madeira succulent plants are frequent ; the trees have 
coriaceous leaves, and the northern families of amentacese, 
saxifragese, and caryophylleee, are uncommon, as are the 
tropical families of euphorbiacese and malvacese. Of com- 
posite, the tribe of corymbiferse is scarce, but cichoracese 

The Azores are situated something to the north of the 
other islands. Like them they are volcanic, with bold 
scenery, scarped rocks, deep ravines, and a general elevation 
of the surface from 2,000 to 5,000 feet. The indigenous 
flora is scanty, but the climate is good, and highly suited to 
the growth of tropical and such other fruits as have been 
introduced. From their supposed comparatively recent 
origin, the early history and subsequent diffusion of vegeta- 
tion might be satisfactorilv studied here. 

Relations. — In such a region a considerable change 
must have been produced by the extinction of native plants? 
and the introduction of others. Its affinities are more 


copious with Europe than south Africa. The species of 
cactus are regarded as instances of migration from America, 
and dracsena draco is supposed to have come originally from 
India. Of 62 plants collected at Teneriffe in Kotzebue's 
first voyage, 30 were peculiar to our region, 30 common 
with Europe, and 2 with Africa. Von Buch mentions 533 
species as belonging to the Canaries, of which he considers 
162 as introduced. 

- ■ ■ 

!: '' > 



i 1 : 




The northern part of Africa, embracing the 

tain its greatest peculiarities. 

states of Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli, is separated 
by the Great Sahara from the rest of the continent, and to 
the west is beaten by the waves of the Atlantic, whilst to 
the east it extends nearly to the delta of the Nile. The 
Atlas range of mountains forms an important portion of this 
region ; and, when better known, will most probably con- 
There are also some other 
mountains of considerable elevation. 

Physical Characters. — With much dry and barren 
land, there are also extensive districts of great fertility. 
The soil is generally sandy, but productive when supplied 
freely with moisture; and the neighbourhood of the Atlas 
mountains is indicated as possessing much that is rich and 
fertile. From the elevated lands numerous streams descend 
to the plains ; those towards the north finding an outlet 
in the Mediterranean Sea, whilst those falling to the south 
are chiefly lost in the thirsty sands of the desert. The 
highest ascertained part of the Atlas range is 11,400 feet, 
is in the vicinity of Morocco, and clothed with perpetual 
snow. Salt marshes and lakes, and saline soils, are all of 

frequent occurrence. 

Climate, — The heat is great, but not so oppressive as in 
Egypt or Arabia, in the same latitude. At Algiers the 
mean of the year is 70°, of the summer 80°2, and of the 

winter 61 °4. 

autumn, after the rains. It is then that a crowd of herba- 
ceous plants hasten to spread abroad their beauty, retiring 
rapidly as the moisture disappears ; leaving a bushy vegeta- 
tion to struggle with the parching atmosphere of the dry 


Vegetation is in its greatest vigiour in 


\ "M** 




Flora. — Only a partial examination has been made, and 
our chief acquaintance with the vegetation is due to M. 
Defontaines. It is owing to this that a very powerful con- 
nexion has been traced with the vegetable productions on 
the northern shores of the Mediterranean. When our 
knowledge of the interior is more complete, a greater pro- 
portion of peculiar forms will undoubtedly be discovered ; 
at least such is a fair inference from what is observed else- 
where. Upwards of 2,000 species are known, and it has 
been remarked that, though a great number are peculiar, 
they belong to genera shared with Europe. In 344 woody 
kinds, about a hundred are peculiar. Those groups of 
plants which prefer a dry warm atmosphere, such as legu- 
minosse, malvacese, labiatae, solaneae, caryophyllese, and 
certain composite, prevail. Among characterising genera 
may be mentioned rhus, zizyphus, vitex, viburnum, dios- 
pyros, pistacia, celtis, tamarix, juniperus, thuja, olea, adonis, 
verbascum, smilax, cercis, cistus, nerium, and agave. 
Pinus halepensis grows in large forests, and other species 
are frequent ; I 

dactylifera. On the Atlas range are many quercus, and 
fagus, alnus, salix, with many herbaceous genera common 
to Europe. 

Relations. — We separate this from the Nile region, on 
account of its alpine vegetation ; and from the European 
regions, though undoubtedly some affinities are great, since 
the same combination of alpine and lowland vegetation 
does not occur in any of them. The alpine features more 
closely coincide with the Pyrenees, whilst those of the plains 
recall Italy and the south-east of Europe. 


a large surface is occupied by phoenix 






Extent.— The whole portion of country traversed by 
the Nile and its tributary branches. Towards its source 
the elevation of the surface compensates for the lower lati- 
tude, producing a milder climate and corresponding vege- 
tation. It thus embraces a broad belt of country between 
the Red Sea and the Great Sahara, by which its isolation 
from other botanical regions is rendered nearly complete. 

Physical Characters. — There is much diversity in the 
surface. The valley of Lower Egypt presents an uniform 
plain, almost without a hill, and subject to the periodical 
inundations of the Nile. Gradually a chain of bare and 
rugged mountains converge towards the river, leaving the 
intervening valley with only the breadth of a few miles. 
Upper Egypt assumes a bolder character ; the banks of the 
Nile become rocky, and the inundations far less general. 
In Nubia, for this reason, the river is sometimes unap- 
proachable, and a laboured irrigation is practised. Abys- 
sinia is traversed by piles of mountain masses of extreme 
barrenness, and with intervening valleys, whose rich and 
productive soil is some compensation for their sterility. 
There is here a general elevation of the surface, and some 
of the mountains attain a great height. Egypt has been 
justly considered a granary with almost an unfailing supply; 
a productiveness which is dependent more on the overflow- 
ings of the Nile, than on any inherent richness of its some- 
what sandy soil. 


Few regions wo 


supply us with 

more interesting sources of the adaptation of the vegetation 
to the climate, if we were furnished with the necessary 
information. The temperature is warm; that of Lower 
Egypt particularly so, the mean summer heat of Cairo 



j i 

* * 



being 92°. Rain is scarce; the dews, however, are heavy. 
Rain is more frequent about the Delta, and in the vicinity 
of the coast, than elsewhere. Thunder and lightning are 
even more uncommon than rain. The seasons are not very 
strongly marked, and run imperceptibly and rapidly into 
each other. Summer commences in June, and lasts till 
September. Autumn succeeds. The cold season begins 
in December, and lasts two months ; and in February 
spring makes its appearance. Harvest succeeds in seven 
or eight weeks to the sowing ; and the trees lose their 
leaves in the cold seasons, and are rapidly replaced by new. 
The inundations of the Nile, to which Egypt owes its vast 
fertility, are due to the autumnal rains of Abyssinia. 
Their effects are visible in the first week of July, when the 

reached half its augmentation in August, and its greatest 

in the latter days of September. For two weeks it con- 
tinues stationary, till on the 10 th of November it has fallen 
one-half, and afterwards continues to decrease till the 16th 
of May, when it has reached its lowest. 

— For three months the vjegetation of Egypt is 

river begins to swell; and, continuing to increase, 


bathed in the overflowing waters of the Nile. 

As these 

subside a rapid vegetation ensues, the period of fructifica- 
tion is hastened and has passed away, and during the 
remainder of the year a parching aridity prevails. The 
superior luxuriance belonging to the former would be 
greatly misplaced in the latter ; and, regarding the charac- 
ter of the vegetation, that particular variety has been dis- 
pensed to it which is congenial to the dry seasons, and will 
survive the inundation. It is not be expected that the 
flora will be numerous ; and the aspect of the country is 
uniform and tame, being only relieved by some accidental 
trees of mimosa, zizyphus, phoenix dactylifera, and cucifera 
thebaica. Abyssinia is more fruitful, and contains many 




spots of rich variety, and patches of fine forest. In accord- 
ance with these views, succulent plants are common ; the 
leaves are those suited to a dry atmosphere, and spinous 
organs are much developed. It has been deemed singular 
that fungi should be entirely wanting in a soil for a certain 
period saturated with moisture, and apparently suited to 
their ephemeral existence. In some barren spots, beyond 
the reach of the inundation, certain plants have established 
themselves, and drag on a starved and stunted existence. 
The valley of Lower Egypt is not likely to present a very 
perfect specimen of an indigenous flora, having been under 
the closest cultivation for many ages ; and it is probable 
that its alluvial soil has been the gradual deposit of the 
Nile, and that it has received its vegetation from Abyssinia 
and elsewhere. We shall, therefore, direct our attention 
chiefly to the former. 

Some insight into the flora of Abyssinia has been ob- 
tained, particularly by Salt and Caillaud, who made collec- 
tions. Many of its species are found to be peculiar, and 
to bear a larger proportion to the entire vegetation. 


Leguminosee are very abundant through acacia : 

mimosa, pterolobium, erythrina, alhagi, desmanthus, and 
bauhinia. Other conspicuous genera are euphorbia, avi- 
cennia, juniperus, tamarix, zygophyllum, fagonia, polym- 
nia, oerua, brucea, balsamodendron, cordia, and pistacia. 
Coflfea arabica is indigenous, and fresnella fontanesii forms 
thick groves on some of the hills. Graminese are nume- 
rous, and several kinds of holcus, sorghum, poa, and 
andropogon, are cultivated. In those frequent situations, 
where neutral salts are mixed with the soil, are salsola, 
salicornia, traganum, and calligonum. The bed of the 
Nile is often closely set with sedges and flags. Papyrus 
antiquorum is equally found here and in the lakes of Abys- 
sinia. Nelumbium speciosum has disappeared ; yet still 






the rivers of India and China are enlivened by its fine red 
flowers. The white-flowered nymphaea lotus abounds ; and 
n. caerulea is sometimes seen. Arum colocasia is cultivated 
for food. 

The vast sea of land of the Great Sahara is an effectual 
barrier to the extension of the flora of this region, in the 
direction over which it prevails. It consists of a low flat 
plain, with the surface covered with white and grey quartz, 
and becoming more shingly towards the east, or in the 
direction of the prevailing wind. It is towards its eastern 
part that the oases chiefly exist, affording a grateful rest- 
ing-place to the traveller, occupied by a rather numerous 
population, and having a lively vegetation. The dreari- 
ness of the surrounding waste is here replaced by groves 
of date-palm. Acacia vera and other species shade the 
gushing streams, and tufts of grasses vary the surface. 

Relations . — Many 
the Mediterranean 

and some 


sinia. The most interesting relation, however, is with the 
South Africa Region through several species of mesembry- 
anthemum, pelargonium abyssinicum, protea abyssinica, 
hagenia abyssinica, brunia ciliata, albuca abyssinica, and 
geissorhiza abyssinica. Adansonia digitata of the west 
coast re-appears, and the trunk is applied to entombing the 
dead. A tropical character is displayed in some of the 
genera enumerated, and in musa ensete. Rosa abyssinica 
occurs in the valleys of that country. 


Extent. — Let us suppose ourselves stationed at the 
head of the Persian Gulf, and then project lines to the 



west and north in the direction of the latitude and longi- 
tude- These, with the Caspian Sea, the range of Caucasus, 
the Black Sea, and the Mediterranean, will enclose an in- 
teresting portion of country, watered by the Euphrates and 
other considerable rivers, and comprising Syria, Palestine, 
the rich provinces of Turkey in Asia, Bagdad, and a portion 
of Persia. 

Physical Characters. — The aspect and general features 
are variable. In some places it would be difficult to exceed 
the dreary barrenness and unproductive nature of the sur- 
face, resisting with complete success any invasion from 


vegetation. There are, however, others, and they are 
numerous, where the verdure and fertility are of the most 
agreeable kind. In Asia Minor, between the ranges of hills, 
are often beautiful and extensive plains in full cultivation, 
and dotted by the villages of the inhabitants ; the groups of 
cypress and the singular burying-grounds pointing out 
those of the Turks, whilst cultivation and its attendants indi- 
cate those of the more thrifty Albanians. These plains are 
always well watered by streams originating in the surround- 
ing mountains, and their benefits are greatly extended by 
irrigation, which from the aridity of the soil seems indis- 

Climate.— This is generally regarded as warm, but 
some parts, as Bagdad, are distinguished for their great 
heat, and the northern winds produce a rapid and impor- 
tant depression of temperature. The summer months are 
generally warm and very dry, and the atmosphere is serene 
and transparent. Rain is even scarce in some places. 


The vegetation of Asia Minor is eminently 

adapted to delight the traveller. He is not buried in a 
vast dark forest, where the view is most circumscribed, and 
without objects to engage attention. Forest trees are 
grouped together in the valleys and mountain sides, whilst 





Among the smaller 

occasional open spaces are in the undisturbed possession of 
piles of rocks, or more profitably occupied in agriculture. 
Sometimes a waving line of brighter green points out the 
course of a river or mountain stream. The foliage is gene- 
rally distinguished for its evergreen character, the dark 
sombre shade of its colour, and the leathery consistence of 
the leaves. The trees most prominent are quercus infec- 
toria, platanus orientalis, pistacia terebinthus, p. lentiscus, 
and other species of these genera, pinus halepensis, abies 
orientalis, cupressus sempervirens, juniperus sabina, cera- 
tonia siliqua, juglans regia, liquidambar imberbe, and others 
of acer, celtis, fraxinus, and celsia. 
vegetation, labiatae are numerous, and have their chief 
station here. The nearly allied family scrophularineae is 
also freely represented, and cucurbitacese and asphodeleae 
are conspicuous for their numbers. In some parts are ex- 
tensive tracts producing a great multitude of individuals of 
tamarix, acacia, glycirrhiza, and hedysarum alhagi. And 
in others of even a less favourable character are met with 
chenopodium, ruta, rumex, artemisia, centaurea, amaran- 
tus, cucumis, lyceum, solanum, mesembryanthemum, and 
asclepias syriaca ; which last, though a pretty plant, has 
an extensive range, and is every where a weed. The vege- 
tation of Mount Caucasus is particularly rich and fasci- 
nating, but it has a very European character. 

Relations. — I regard this region as separable from the 
Danube Region, with which it has much in common, in the 

different aspects of the vegetation, and in the partial ces- 
sation, sometimes nearly complete, of several genera as 
populus, spiraea, Crataegus, campanula, rhamnus, viola, &c., 
and of the group of umbelliferae. With the China Region 


it has many interesting relations, and prunus armenaica, 
which is represented as covering the sides of Caucasus, is 
again seen in China ; and with North America there are 

, - . \ * 



several through sesculus, juglans, and liquidambar. Ulmus 
campestris is supposed to have been introduced to Pales- 
tine by the Crusaders. 



Extent. — The Arabian peninsula, and separated from 
the adjoining region by a line extending due west from the 
head of the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean sea. 

Physical Characters. — Arabia is little else than an 
extensive desert clothed with straggling thorny shrubs, and 
having some spots of redeeming fertility. Rocky cheerless 
mountains traverse it, occasionally sheltering within them 
small fertile valleys, called Wadis. About Yemen, the 
country is superior, and vegetation has some luxuriance, 
and is remarkable for its fragrant qualities. 

Climate. — An excessive clearness and transparency pre- 
vail in the atmosphere from the scarcity of moisture. The 
skies are almost always cloudless ; from June to September 
showers occasionally fall, but chiefly about Yemen or Arabia 
Felix. Hot winds, coming from Africa, sometimes sweep 

its western shores. 

Flora. — Arabia, famed for its spices, derives its repu- 
tation more probably from being a country of transit, than 
as their source. Still it has contributed its share, and even 
the general character of the shrubs is aromatic. Moving 
eastward, we meet in this region several new forms, re- 
minding us strongly of Asiatic vegetation. Where forest 
exists, numerous species of ficus enter largely into it, 
mingled with sterculia platinifolia, tomex glabra, grewia, 
populifera, balsamodendron gileadense, b. opobalsamum, 
b. kataf, b. kafal, maerua uniflora, m. racemosa, cynan- 







chum arboreum, celastrus edulis, c. parviflora, keura odori- 
fera, and pandanus odoratissimus. Little woods of arbo- 



rescent euphorbia occur. Cryptogamic plants, 
and cyperacese, are all scarce. Some of the bulbous plants 
of South Africa make their appearance, eucurbitacese are 
not uncommon, and succulent plants are also frequent. 
Coffea arabica is regarded as not indigenous, and the testi- 
mony of the Arabians themselves refers its origin to Abys- 


sinia. Acacia arabica is native, and some active medicines 
are produced, as senna, aloes, myrrh, and olibanum. 

Socotra is a mountainous island, consisting of granite, 
of indifferent fertility, nearly bare of trees, and distinguished 
for its aloes, dates, and dragon's blood. 

Relations. — Its tropical forms are chiefly from India, 
but the most interesting affinities are with the South Africa 
Region through aloe, stapelia, mesembryanthemum, and 
hsemanthus. Several species are shared in common with 
the Nile Region. 


Extent. — A 

broad irregular 

space, of peculiar aspect 

and fluctuating fertility, occupies the centre of Asia be- 
tween the Altai and Himma-leh chains of mountains, in- 
cluding the states of Tartary, Thibet, and portions of 

Persia and Cabul. 

Physical Characters. — Situated as it is between stu- 
pendous mountain chains, the greater part of the surface 
presents a considerable, but varying elevation, and is 
further diversified by being traversed by others of inferior 
grandeur. Aridity chiefly prevails, much of the soil being 
very sandy ; large portions are sometimes so salt as not 
to yield the slightest vegetation, and the wind is said to 



drive it on the bushes and cover them as with a hoar frost. 
Partial fertility is imparted by the streams, and more par- 
ticularly by the rivulets occasioned by the rains. 

Climate. — Extremes characterize the seasons; the 
summers are burning and arid, and the winters severe and 


Flora. — Wh 

shelter and some moisture, 

trees from the Asia Minor Region are met with, as pistacia 
lentiscus, p. terebinthus, pinus pinea, morus nigra, olea 
europea, and some oaks. Species of artemisia spread in 
crowds, impregnating the atmosphere with their peculiar 
aroma, and giving a bluish green tint to the steppes. 
Other characteristic species are spartium junceum, s. spi- 
nosum, statice tartarica, calligonum polygonoides, and 
others of selinum, centaurea, tamarix, salvia, verberis, 
ruta, lyceum, solanum, capparis, asclepias, astragalus, 
hedysarum, spiraea, rumex, and lithospermum. The fruits 
are those of warm temperate latitudes, and millet, barley, 
sorghum, amarantus, and paspalum are cultivated. 

Relations. — The flora is poor, and so indifferently 
known, that this portion of its history remains in obscurity. 
The proportion of spinous plants is unusually great. 


Extent. — A continuous barrier, enclosing the va9t 
steppes of Siberia, is formed by the Ural and Altai rrioun- 
tains, which forms its western and southern borders, and 
terminates at the sea of Okotsk in 55° north latitude. 
The steppes of Ischin, a portion of Tartary, is thus in- 
closed, and the region is limited to the north by the extent 
of the growth of trees somewhere about 65° north latitude. 

H 2 

. •>'.'•■'■' • :•-■ 



The whole of the Altai range is comprehended, and con- 
stitutes an important portion. 


Physical Characters. — The surface within the moun- 
tain ranges presents an extensive level plain, traversed by 
numerous large rivers with a general course to the Arctic 
Ocean, and therefore with an inclination towards the 
north The aspect and nature of the surface varies ; to- 
wards the north it is dreary and usually frozen ; more to 
the south there are extensive districts of rich dark soil, 
and in the vicinity of the rivers are fine alluvial tracts. 
Small lakes and marshy patches abound, with their peculiar 
vegetation, and saline substances are occasionally largely 
mixed with the soil. The highest parts of the Altai range 
do not attain any considerable height. 

Climate. — Siberia is not so bleak and inhospitable as 
has been generally represented, though, compared with 
similar parallels in Europe, or even in Amerca, it must 
still be called inclement. Over much the soil is frozen 
even to June, but where the inhabitants can be drawn 
from the chase of the fur animals to the less exciting pur- 
suits of agriculture, large and profitable crops of the 
northern cerealia are produced. The variety and beauty, 
with the occasional richness of the vegetation, is an un- 
questionable proof that the climate is not always severe. 


The clothing of vegetation 

which invests the 

surface,, varies in different situations. In some are thick 
forests, in others extensive marshes ; large tracts are some- 
times covered with saline plants, or lastly, a luxuriant and 
pleasing vegetation prevails. The tor est chiefly follows 
the direction of the rivers, and the pine prevails. 
Among the herbaceous vegetation, perennials are by far 
the most abundant, and though numerous species are iden- 
tieal with European, a great many are peculiar, and some 
still new to science. Nowhere, perhaps, do herbaceous 



plants so truly luxuriate as in these latitudes, where they 
are in unrestricted possession of the rich soil. Their 
short existence through the summer months is compensated 
by a vigorous growth and obtrusive beauty. The pre- 
dominating families are ranunculacese, crueiferae, umbelli- 
ferae, leguminosae, saxifrageae, and caryophyllese. As the 
seasons advance, labiatse, scrophularineae, and boraginese, 
contribute important members ; whilst liliacese and iridese 

are conspicuous among 

the spring vegetation. 

The indi- 

viduality of the flora depends almost entirely on species, 
for the genera are extremely similar to those of Europe, 
and though the features of the vegetation are different, a 
catalogue would appear to show a close resembance. A 
few may be mentioned as to some extent distinctive, and 
which have usually several species ; astragalus, hedysarum, 
caragana, pedicularis, pceonia, zygophyllum, phlomis, 
ephedra, and robinia. Ceratocarpus arenaria and diotis 
ceratoides are represented as covering large tracts ; whilst 
the saline plants belong chiefly to polycnemum, atriplex, 
chenopodium, frankenia, tamarix, nitraria, and salicornia. 
Pallas and Ledebour are almost our only authorities for 

Siberian vegetation. The latter has examined somewhat 

closely the flora of the Altai Mountains between 47° and 
54° north latitude, and 73° and 87° east longitude. The 
influence of aspect was found to be important in favour of 
the south ; from various observations, the limit of per- 
petual snow seems as high as 7,350 feet ; in some places 
corn grew at 4,400 feet, and here also was the limit of habi- 
tations. At 4,900 feet the vegetation most resembles that of 
Europe. The highest limit of trees is 7,200 feet; pinus cem- 
bra, with a south aspect, attains 7,200 feet, and with a north 
aspect, 5,800 feet. Betula alba reaches 5,850 feet, and pinus 
siberica and abies communis grow together to the height of 
5,800 feet, where they both cease. Ledebour mentions two 








peculiarities in the vegetation; the nearly total absence of 
hard- wooded trees, such as those furnished by quercus, fagus, 

aeer, tilia, carpinus, aud fraxinus; and that many of the fami- 

lies which have numerons species are represented by few 


genera; thus, saussurea, serratula, and artemisia incompo- 
sitae, zygophyllum in rutacese, and astragalus, oxytropis, 
and phaca in leguminosae monopolize the far greater part 
of the species in their respective families. 

Relations.— When we reflect how much the continuity 
of the land has diffused the animal and vegetable produc- 
tions of the northern part of Europe, Asia, and America, 
Vthe Siberia Region must be allowed to have retained its 
entireness with great success. At the southern limits of 
the Altai range such a change occurs in the climate and 
physical characters as to be incompatible with a vegetation 

like that of Siberia. 

Towards Bering's Straits, though the 

interval is small, the difference between the two coasts is 
as marked as can be expected between neighbouring re- 
gions. Kamtschatka has received no important accessions 
from America, though the flora of the latter is represented 
in rhododendron, robinia, erigeron, claytonia, and trillium. 
This distinction is less evident on its west side, where the 
plants of Europe and Siberia intermingle. Through rheum 
and pceonia it claims an alliance with the more southern 
floral regions of Asia. 


Extent. — Balbi, in his Geographie, has indicated a 
Sinico-Japanese Region, but the lofty volcanic mountains, 
insular position, and rough climate of Japan, would seem 
to point to a peculiar vegetation, and one with predominat- 
ing alpine features. The foundation of this region con- 




sists of Niphon and Jesso, with the other islands known 
collectively as Japan. It also includes the long island of 
Saghalien, and a portion of the main of peculiar aspect 
and nearly covered with forest, situated between 55° north 
latitude and the river Hoang-ho in China. The penin- 
sula of Correa is thus embraced, and the northern part of 
China, in which is situated the capital Peking, but a tract 
of country of great aridity and barrenness. 

Physical Characters. — The aspect of the Japanese 
Islands is bold and rugged, and the mountains are ele- 
vated far above the line of perpetual snow. The cori- 
nental portion, except to the south, is traversed by moun- 
tain chains. 

Climate. — Severe for the latitude and prone to ex- 
tremes. At Nangasaki, in 32° 45 north latitude, observa- 
tions give the mean temperature as 68°, and the range in 
the year from upwards of a hundred degrees to below the 

freezing point. 

Flora. — It is but indifferently known ; the mass of the 
vegetation is temperate, but singularly mixed with tropical 
forms. Raphis flabelliformis and cycas revoiuta mingle 
with species of acer, quercus, thuja, pinus, and juniperus. 
Thunberg collected near Naugasaki 755 phsenogamous 
plants, which certainly bespeaks a flora rich in forms. Its 
bizarre character will be visible in pinus, abies, larix, tilia, 
salix, citrus, bumbusa, ficus, olea, mespilus, cydonia, 
primus, salisburia, podocarpus, clerodendron, nerium, 
laurus, diospyros, paullinia, vitex, melia, broussonetia, 
camellia, illicium, and hydrangea. Like the China Region, 
the vegetation in connexion with the climate well deserves 
attentive study. 

Relations. — In many respects they are close with 
China, and also abundant with Siberia through pinus 
cembra, the birch, the larch, and the willow, &c* The 


* i . 

.-• ■. 




affinities with the North American Regions are much 
stronger than happen in the China Region, through sam- 
bucus, aesculus, pavia, magnolia, vitis, bignonia, juglans, 
and rhododendron. 


Extent.— A large portion of the east of Asia, comprising 
the vast empire of China, Correa, Japan, and the islands border- 
ingthe coast, presents a remarkable vegetation, influenced by 
some peculiarities of climate, and having many interesting 
relations with other and sometimes distant regions, from all 
which its isolation is complete. I regard it as conveniently 
divided into two regions ; the China Region, and the Japan 

copious relations with 

Region; the former entertaining 
India, and the latter with Siberia. The China Region, the 
object of our present attention, does not embrace the 
whole of that empire, but that portion of it situated between 
the Hoang-ho, or great river, and the Gulf of Tonquin. 
Its western boundary is within a line stretching from the 
Gulf of Tonquin to the Himma-leh Mountains, and, continu- 
ing along the chain which separates Thibet from China, 


ceases at the Tartary Region. To the east it is bounded by 
the Pacific Ocean, but includes the islands of Formosa* 
Loo-Choo, and Hainan. 

Physical Characters. — No country in the world pre- 
sents such a forbidding aspect as China. The land on the 
southern shores is generally bold, and seems to be so swept 
by the periodical winds that vegetation will not thrive. A 
little fern and coarse grass alone resist them, with occasion- 



ally a few stunted bushes. In other places the shores are 
low, and flooded by the sea. Where, however, there are 




long period, to 

sheltered valleys vegetation prospers, and is more distin- 
uished for its variety than luxuriance. 
The interior of the country, on the lowest estimate, 
supports a population of 230 to the square mile, the chief 
part of which has for ages been engaged in the great na- 
tional pursuit of agriculture, and cannot have failed, in this 

have materially altered the face of the 
country, and to have driven the native flora to the moun- 
tains, and other places not favourable to cultivation. To 
this may also be attributed the scarcity of forest, but it must at 
the same time be remembered that this latitude elsewhere is 
not remarkable for this kind of vegetation. Particulars of 
the interior of China have been collected by the English 
and Dutch embassies, and in the writings of the Jesuit 
missionaries. The country is traversed by several moun- 
tain chains of no great elevation, pursuing various direc- 
tions, and impressing a picturesque and even romantic as- 
pect on much of the scenery. This is aided too by the 
scattered growth of trees, which are spread in open irregu- 
lar clumps, and by the methodical and extreme cultivation 
of the plains. The prevailing mineral structures are 
granite, often traversed by veins of quartz or supporting 
blocks of it, coarse limestone, clay- slate, and sandstones. 
Bazaltic trap occurs in the island of Hong-kong. It was 
very generally observed that the rocks were in a state of 
rapid disintegration. The soil has an universal character 
throughout China, consisting of a loam of a red or ferrugi- 
nous colour, sometimes clayey, and capable of being formed 

into bricks, which become blue after burning. 

The soil 

itself is sufficiently productive, and is diligently assisted by 
a persevering upturning and division of the lumps, the 

plentiful application of manure, and the most laboured irri- 
gation. The mountains are rocky and barren, scattered 
with trees of quercus glauca or other species, laurus 

i i 



camphora, or stillingia sebifera. The range separating the 
province of Canton is extensively wooded with pinus mas- 
soniana and p. lanceolata. Many bushes of melastoma, 
myrtus, rhus, camellia, eugenia, and chloranthus, abound in 
similar situations. 

Climate. — Meteorolo 


ducted at Canton through a series of years, which give 
some satisfactory mean results. June, July, and August, 
are the summer months, as with us, and the heat is intense. 
In December, January, and February, the weather is 
equally bleak and cold. The mean temperature is 70° 4', 
and the range from '29« to 94°, or sixty-five degrees, It is in 
all respects a climate of extremes, for both the annual and 
diurnal range is great, and its peculiarities will be placed in 
the strongest light by a comparison with that of Calcutta, San 
Bias in Mexico, or other places in a nearly similar latitude. 
The influence of the sun's rays in the cold season is great- 
est, according to my observations, at one p. m., when their 
radiating power is 43° above the shade. The hygrometric 
state of the atmosphere does not appear so much influenced 
by the seasons as usual. Rain falls in all the months, but 
by far the greatest quantity in the summer. The mean of 
sixteen years observations is 70*6 inches. The amount 
varies greatly in different years, and also in different 
months. Thus ninety inches have been known, and in 
1840 there only fell sixty-one inches. The range 
hygrometer is probably below the average, for in the dry 
season I never obtained a greater depression than 6°, and 
even then the dews were very heavy. 

Flora. — The vegetation comprises great variety in 
species, and attractive kinds are more than usually abun- 
dant. It has been observed that, in relation to the space, 
forest is not frequent, but this is met by a great variety of low 
shrubby plants, the preponderance of which is character- 

of the 

; ■ 



istic. Generally their foliage is evergreen, and with the 
customary rich deep green shades. Aromatic qualities also 
prevail among them. The flowers, though not of large 
size, are very frequently of rich deep colours, having a very 
showy appearance, and when they fade are succeeded by 
berries nearly as attractive from their varied colours as the 
flowers. The number of different kinds of berries yielded 
by the shrubs is really astonishing. One of the most strik- 
ing features of the region is the mixed character of the 
vegetation, and it would perhaps be impossible to find it 
carried to a similar extent elsewhere. The violet is seen 
blooming under the shelter of the melastoma, the bamboo 
and the pine grow together on the hills, and the potato and 
sugar-cane are cultivated in the same field. A great num- 
ber of natural families are represented, some of which are 
more prominent than others. Aurantiacese is particularly 
abundant; three species of orange are indigenous, and 
there are many varieties, and the fruit is always fine. The 
climate is undoubtedly eminently favourable to this group. 
Camellieae is nearly limited here, and has several impor- 
tant species. Rhamnese, connaraceae, nepentheae, legumi- 
nosae, composite, rnyrtaceae, sterculiacese, cinchonaceae, 
and conifers, all deserve mention. There are some which 
appear unusually scarce, as tropical endogenae, orchidaceae, 
amygdaleae, and the cryptogamic families generally, particu- 

larly fungi. 

The arborescent vegetation is chiefly supplied by quer- 
cus, of which there are most probably many species. 
Pinus, also, with several species, one of which descends to 
22° N. lat, thuja, cunninghamia, podocarpus, juniperus, 
acer, morus, sterculia, melia, ficus, magnolia, laurus, and 
bambusa. The shrubs are considerably more numerous : 
ilex, olea, rhododendron, rhus, rubus, azalea, rosa, spiraea, 
camellia, gardenia, canthium, itea, myrtus, eugenia, vibur- 



I - 



*■ * ■ * i 

■ •■' - 

..-.'• ••• • -■ 

...... ■ 


■ ■ . - •••• 



i • -■ ■ — ■, 

■- ■ . 

4 .• •;■• - 

••• : : 

• ■ " ; .--- ."-- . .- .: I 

1 ^ a '■ 1 



num, photinia, raphiolepis, prinos, triphasia, murraya, gly- 
cosrnis, pittosporum, melastoma, bauhinia, chloranthus, 

olea, jasminum, diospyros, and hibiscus. Amonsr the 
plants of a more fugitive existence are malva tricuspidata, 
kalanchoe spathulata, clematis hedysarifolia, drosera 
loureirii, sida rhombifolia, indigofera hirsuta, crotalaria 
retusa, c. vachellii, abrus preeatorius, mesembryanthemum 
cordifolium, torilis japonica, paratropia cantoniensis, with 
species of hypericum, polygonum, chenopodium, salvia, 
chrysanthemum, aster, gnaphalium, and grangea. Cyanus 
nelumbo and trapa bicornis are plentiful on the canals and 
quiet waters. Viscum ovalifolium is found in the neiffh- 
bourhood of Canton ; and another parasite, cassythis fili- 
formis, festoons the shrubs with its sickly branchlets. The 
geographical range of the latter is extensive, stretching as 
it does from the Cape of Good Hope in 18°, E. long., to 
China, the Indian islands, and across the Pacific Ocean to 
140 , W. long., or nearly two*thirds round the globe. 

In a statistical view, the number of species in the flora 
appears to be small in proportion to the leading groups re- 
presented, as they stand in about the following numerical 
relations: families 5 3 genera 13, species 16, giving some- 
thing more than three species to each family. 

Some of the cultivated or more remarkable plants are 
worthy of notice, and the tea shrub is naturally the most 
prominent The numerous varieties known in commerce 
are equally produceable from the two species, thea bohea 
and t. viridis, the difference depending on soil, culture, the 
age of the leaf, and the manufacture, It is a hand 



the sides of the hills and a poor soil Green tea is chiefly 
produced in Kiang-nan, between 29° and 31° N. lat. ; black 
tea in Fohkien, between 27° and 28° N. lat. The favourite 
soil is a decomposed granite mixed with feltspar, and which 




is used in the manufacture of the elegant porcelain in which 
the infusion is drank. One portion of the world, as the 
English and others, pronounce it tea ; the other portion, as 
the Portuguese and Spaniards, cha, Both words are 
Chinese, but the former is the dialect of Amoy, and the 
latter of Canton. The range of the indigenous shrub is 
perhaps as far as 45° N. lat. The sugar-cane is cultivated 
to 30° N. lat. ; but its productiveness is probably not great. 
The banana is abundant about Canton, but the fruit re- 
quires to be protected by a covering of the dry leaves— a 
practice I never observed elsewhere. It is far from attaining 
perfection, the saccharine qualities seeming to form after 
the fruit has been gathered, and when it is becoming almost 
rotten. Rice is most extensively cultivated throughout the 
empire, and is really the staff of life. The seeds of stil- 
linda sebifera are surrounded by a substance resembling, 

and having the same use as, tallow. 

Ligustrum lucidum 

yields from its berries a wax. A branch of olea fragrans is 
the reward of literary attainments, Camellia oleifera and 
other species contain oil in their seeds, which is easily ex- 
pressed, and is sold at Canton under the name of tea oil, for 

all common purposes 





some time supposed to produce the rice paper of China ; 
the proper plant, however, is still a desideratum. This 
plant is also a native of China, as well as India, where it 
is called shola, and has its uses. The fruits more particu- 
larly Chinese are the loquat, litchi, longan, flat peach, man- 
darin orange, red lime, and fingered shaddock. 

Relations.— The entireness of its flora may be sought 
in the peculiarity of the vegetation when compared with 
the latitude, and in the sources of resemblance it has with 
distant regions, as with the Iroquois Region through mag- 
nolia, juglans, prinos, and ilex ; with the California Region 
in general aspect and habit, and in the prevalence of rham- 


K ♦ 



neae; and with several distant regions through pinus, 
quereus, acer, rhus, rhododendron, azalea, myrtus, lonicera, 
rubus, &c Few of these plants connecting it elsewhere 
are shared with neighbouring regions, if we make some ex- 
ception in favour of Japan : but of its more tropical species 
many occur equally in the various parts of India and the 
Malay islands. Through paliurus, diospyros, olea, and 
tamarix, we are reminded of Asia Minor. Species of 
euphorbia partially replace the cactese of the New World. 


Extent. — At present we separate this region rather be- 
cause it has not the features of the neighbouring regions, 
than from any known peculiar characters of its own, since 
so little is known concerning it. It embraces a large por- 
tion of country extending south from the Himma-leh 
mountains, between the Ganges on one side, and the Gulf 
of Tonquin on the other, with the exception of the Malacca 
peninsula, which belongs to the Malaisia Region ; including 
thus the kingdoms of Birmah, Siam, and Cochin China. 

Physical Characters. — The interior is little known. 
The country would appear productive, and is watered by 
several large rivers. 

Climate. — Tropical, but apparently without those ex- 
tremes of temperature so frequent in the China Region. 

Flora. — Botanists have hitherto made very slight in- 
roads. Loureiro has given us a fragment of the vegetation 
of Cochin China. Aurantiacese seem to be nearly as fre- 
quent as in the China Region, and there are several of the 
most tropical plants in common, but a nearly complete ab- 
sence of those of more temperate latitudes, which so abound 



there. In Assam the tea plant has been found in abundance, 
and the leaves have been since manufactured and exported 

Some of the species of Blume's Flora Javse 

to England. 


Relations. — Unknown. 


Extent. — The numerous islands of the Indian Ocean, of 
which Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Celebes, the Phillipines, 
Flores, and Timor, are the most extensive. The Moluccas 
are not included, as they belong to the New Guinea 
Region ; the peninsula of Malacca, however, forms an im- 
portant part of this region. 

Physical Characters,— Bold scenery and lofty moun- 
tains are especially characteristic of these islands, and ex- 
tensive traces of volcanic action are in many places appa- 
rent. They are generally distinguished for their rich soil 
and fertility, the latter due to a moist atmosphere, frequent 
heavy rains, and the constant influence of a hot sun. 
Though some of the mountains are extremely lofty, they 


rarely attain the elevation of perpetual snows. 


region, ana pro- 

Climate. — The equator traverses the 
duces a difference in the distribution of the seasons in the 
islands somewhat removed from it. Those to the north 
have their wet seasons from May to September or October, 
being nearly the same as our summer. To the south, the 
rains commence in October and cease about April. At 
the equator, the distinction of these seasons is less decided, 
the different parts of the year being very similar. The 
range of temperature is very small in the year or during 
the day. The thermometer generally stands at 86° to 90°. 

u i 


:. ■.:■ 

. - v 





The rains are very heavy, and the air is usually laden with 

Flora, — With few exceptions, the whole of the islands 
are covered with forest, which is particularly exposed to 
that rapid growth and decay consequent on a humid and 
warm atmosphere. It is rich in species, and distinguished 
as the source of some of those remarkable for their aromatic 
or luscious qualities, and which might be easily diffused 

In many respects they are the 

throughout the 


same as those of the Indian regions, with such differences 
as depend on climate. Leguminosae, malvacese, and some 
others, are therefore not proportionately numerous. 

Java is a rich and fruitful island. Its forests are filled 
with cinchonaceae, which abound here in astonishing num- 
bers, and which would seem to be the spot of greatest inten- 

sity of the family. 

Hydrocereae, having only 



species, is confined to the island. The curious rafflesia and 
the famous antiaris toxicaria are indigenous. On the ele- 
vated lands of the interior quercus and other genera of a 
temperate climate are encountered. 

Sumatra and Malacca, like Java, are covered with 
forests, supporting or sheltering a luxuriant vegetation, 
among which orchidacese, ferns, and climbers, are very 
numerous ; and the dead wood is often invested with lichens 
of gloomy colours. 

Celebes has an estimated superficies of 70,000 square 
miles. The forest vegetation is thinner than elsewhere, 


and the surface often very rocky. The neighbouring island 
of Borneo, however, has the usual vast compact forest, in 
which the dryobalanops camphora is conspicuous, and where 
at present it is confined. 

Timor is distinguished for its sandalwood forests, but 
santalum is probably diffused over all the islands. 

The PhillipineS) though nominally belonging for so long 




a time to the Spaniards, are really in possession of the 
natives, and sealed against Europeans ; they are, therefore, 
little known. Some of the tropical plants of the China 
Region are found here, and the seasons are directly the re- 
verse of those in the southern islands. From these and 


some other reasons, they may, perhaps, deserve to be con- 
sidered as a distinct region. 

Relations. — In the circumstances of the climate, and in 
some of the more prominent productions, there is a clear 
resemblance with some parts of the Oronoco Region. In 
the superior prevalence of cinchonacese in both, this is par- 
ticularly manifest. With the Indian Regions there is much 
in common, atd tectona grandis and other trees abound in 
the forest of Java, though dipterocarpeae belongs chiefly to 
the islands. 


Extent. — Vast research has been already devoted to the 
immense flora of intertropical Asia, but the results rather 
make us acquainted with detached portions, than convey a 
general view of the whole. Thus there are extensive dis- 
tricts hitherto unexamined, and of which we consequently 
know nothing. A difficulty, therefore, exists, amounting 
in some cases to an impossibility, of defining its regional 
vegetation. However, there are important points of dif- 
ference between the portion known as Hindostan and that 
comprehending Birmah and Cochin-China, and for the pre- 
sent we will regard the Ganges as an arbitrary line of dis- 
tinction. To the north are the Himma-leh Mountains, 
and to the west the region probably crosses the Indus to 
the Solyman range. 

Physical Characters. — Great diversity of character is 


! :i 



visible over this extensive surface. In the neighbourhood 
of the rivers, particularly that of the Ganges, the surface is 
an extensive alluvial plain, where a hillock would be a 
a novelty. In other parts, a number of secondary moun- 
tain chains traverse the country, and give rise to many 
rivers and streams which carry fertility through their 
course. These elevations are often extremely bold and 
rocky, and are sufficiently great to affect the vegetation 
and climate. On the whole the soil is fruitful, and in some 
places eminently productive ; in others there are occasional 
sandy or rocky districts. 

Climate. — The seasons are tropical, with perhaps a 
greater range of temperature than is customary for the lati- 
tude. At Calcutta the mean heat is 79o 4, and the tempe- 
rature sometimes falls to 63°; at Madras the mean is 84° 4, 
and at Bombay 81° 9. The quantity of rain has been esti- 
mated at Calcutta to be 81 inches annually, and at Bombay 
82 inches. In the Nhilgerries, where the elevation in- 
fluences the climate, the mean of the year at Serloo, elevated 
3,500 feet, is 70° ; at Jackanary, 5,000 feet, 60° ; and at 
Ootacamund, 8,500 feet, 56° 6. At the latter, the average 
fall of rain is about 64 inches. 

Flora. — The magnificent vegetation of this region pre- 
sents all that is rich and beautiful, and such as can be 
expected within the tropics. The extensive forests con- 
tain a great variety of trees, often of surpassing magnitude ; 
and frequently the number of individuals is very great, as 
in the saul forests which skirt the base of the Himma-leh 
Mountains, and sometimes in the assemblage of palms in 
situations suited to their growth. We have only room to 
state, that the mass of the vegetation is derived from the 

following natural families : araliaceae, nelumbonese, 


parideae, flacourtianese, anonaceae, myristiceae, dilleniacese, 
laurineae, menispermea?, sterculiacese and dombeyacese, 



sections of sterculiaceae, moringeae, elaeocarpeae, salicariae, 
myrtaceae, combretaeeae, santalaceae, olacineae, leguminosae, 
urticeae, artocarpeae, euphorbiaceae, celastrinege, rhamneae, 
sapindaceae, vites, meliaceae, cedreleae, aurantiaceae, conna* 
raceae, amyrideae, burseraceae, anacardiaceae, ochnaceae, 
balsamineae, bignoniaceae, piperaceae, cucurbitaceae, cin- 
chonaceae, loranthaceas, loganiaeeae, asclepiadeae, myrsineae, 
eyrtandraceae, begoniaceae, cycadeae, commelineae, scitami- 
neae, smilaceae, pandaneae, and aroideae. — (Greville.) 
Many of these families, however, are more copiously re- 
presented elsewhere, and some are but rarely seen. The 
families strictly confined to India are few, as memecyleae, 

alangieae, aquilarineas, stilagineae, and some of these even 
may be disputed. 

Ceylon is estimated to contain 24,660 square miles, and 
its highest point attains 8,280 feet. The climate varies 
much in temperature and fall of rain in different parts. 
At Colombo the annual range is from 76° to 87°, and the 
fall of rain from 75 to 80 inches. The vegetation is similar 
to the continental, and the elevation of surface is friendly 
to the existence of a somewhat altered vegetation, mixed 
with a few genera of temperate latitudes. 

Relations.— There is so much similarity in the con- 
trolling influences within the tropics of the different conti- 
nents, that we are not surprised to find them approaching 
each other in the general characters of their vegetation. 
This is not only visible in the more bulky tropical families, 
as combretaceae, melastomaceae, piperaceae, cinchonaceae, 
and celastrinese; but in the inconsiderable groups of peda- 
lineae, olacineae, ochnaceae, samydeae, hippocrateaceae, and 
homalineae. In some instances, where the relations are less 
intimate, a compensation seems attempted, as in the pre- 
sence of cyrtandraceaj for the gesnereae of intertropical 
America. Whilst America presents some affinities with 

!! ; 






New Holland, they are rarer in Asia, a circumstance per- 
haps due to geographical position. Several genera are 
shared with the China Region, the most remarkable being 
nepenthes. Cyrtandra is numerously represented in the 
Sandwich Islands. 


Extent. — This is probably the most interesting alpine 
region in the world, as some allowances are necessary for 
the charm with which Humboldt has invested the Andes. 
The novelty of his researches ensured an early and lasting 
impression on the minds of scientific men, and the wide re- 
putation which ensued has so overshadowed the subject 
elsewhere, that all other mountain chains have been re- 
duced to almost a secondary importance. The names of a 
few Englishmen have recently become associated with the 
examination of the natural features and productions of the 
Himma-leh Mountains, and the obscurity in which they 
were long buried has been considerably removed. This 
gigantic mass of mountains traverses a great portion of 
Asia from east to west in a somewhat devious line between 
25o 20' and 31° N. lat, and 75° and 95° E. long. In accord- 
ance with our views of the extent of an alpine flora, this 
region commences at the spot where the lowland cultivation 
ceases, and which, in different aspects and situations, varies, 
to an important extent, between 3,200 and 4,400 feet. 
Above this are the four permanent belts of an alpine flora. 
Von Buch is disposed to think there is room for another 
region towards the limit of vegetation, but I do not deem 
it advisable to distinguish further in the alpine regions. 

Physical Characters. — The Himma-leh Mountains 




are not a solitary chain, but are composed of many heaped 
against each other, of varied outline and elevation, and 
containing within them numerous defiles, valleys, plains, 
and every other disposition of surface liable to occur, arc 
materially influencing the climate and vegetable produe 
tions. In many of these situations is collected a rich soil 
and all the appliances of great fertility. Their geological 
structure presents numerous rocks ; approaching the chain 
from the south, sandstone first appears, distinctly stratified 
and containing strata of lignite; to these succeed various 
kinds of slaty rocks, imbedding quartz, limestone, and horn- 
blende ; lastly, gneiss appears in vast quantities, traversed 
by veins of granite, and imbedding garnets, schorl, hyacinth, 
and native gold. Animal remains occur in considerable 
quantities in some places, consisting of marine shells, fish? 
and the bones of animals. The breadth of the region 
varies between 250 and 350 miles, but the extent of surface 
geographically furnishes no correct estimate of the real 
superficies. The snow -line fluctuates according to the cir- 
cumstances of the locality, but may be generally stated at 
from 14,000 to 16,000 feet, and is always higher on the 
northern flanks. Among the loftiest peaks are Javaher, at- 
taining 25,800 feet ; Dhawalagiri, 28,500 feet; and Chu... 
mularee, 29,000 feet ; but 


Climate. — Whilst the region possesses the evenness of 

temperature, brilliancy of atmosphere, and other attendants 
of alpine situations, the climate is greatly affected by aspect, 
and the mean heat, range, and distribution of moisture dif- 
fer on its northern and southern flanks. 

Flora. — Nature has enriched this magnificent range of 
mountains with a varied and abundant vegetation. It is 
singular, that some of the genera that do not usually pro- 
duce trees, have species here which attain a considerable 

vegetation has ceased long 




bulk, asjuniperus,salix,ligustrum,rubus,and rhododendron. 
Though the range of its alpine regions varies considerably 
with aspect, the very brief notice we must here take of them 
will be found generally correct. 

1. The Region of Lowland Cultivation extends to 3,200 
or 4,400 feet. This correctly does not belong to the Himma- 
leh Region, but to that embracing the plains of Hindostan. 
Tropical productions prevail, as scitamineae, epiphytic 
orchidacese, numerous tropical forest trees, the sugar-cane, 
pine-apple, mango, banana, and bamboo. 



vegetation is dense and luxuriant ; the more conspicuous 
genera are laurus, quercus, pinus, ilex, magnolia, gordonia, 
prunus, pyrus, fraxinus, michelia, podocarpus, morus, 
ulmus, berberis. and populus. 



Many of the genera of the last region enter this, but when 
of arborescent habit they universally become stunted and 
dwarf; salix, vaccinium, betula, juniperus, taxus, cupressus, 
stunted species of quercus and pinus, viburnum, lonicera, 
rhododendron, rubus, ribes, rosa, and ulex. Among her- 
baceous plants are potentilla, fragaria, gentiana, viola, saxi- 
fraga, salvia, dracocephalum, plectranthus, ranunculus, 
polyanthus, primula, antennaria, ageratum, sida, and gera- 



extends to 14,600 feet. It 

abounds in natural pasture land. 



of perpetual snow. Lichens and mosses prevail of identical 

and also to a great extent, species, with the high 


latitudes of Europe. 

Relations,— As we increase the height above the plains, 
the affinities with the neighbouring regions become less 
distinct, and others are established with distant latitudes 




and other mountain ranges. They soon become very inti- 
mate with the Alps and Pyrenees, and even with the Altai 
and Andes. Genera common to both are represented by 
similar species, and sometimes one tree or shrub seems to 
occupy the place of another; thus, abies dumosa replaces 
the pinus pumila of Europe. There are a few species 
identical with Europe, as hedera helix, rosa canina, r, 
spinosissima, and salix babylonica. (Levant.) American 
affinities are recognized in magnolia, juglans, careya, age- 
ratum, photinia, and osmorhiza. 


Extent. — Spain and Portugal, with so much of the 
mountain chains and southern side of the Pyrenees as is 
devoted to the cultivation of the plains ; and the islands of 
Minorca, Majorca, and Loicja. 

Physical Characters. — The European peninsula is 
traversed in all directions by numerous mountain ranges, 


often of the most forbidding sterility. Nor are the features 
of the intervening plains frequently much improved by any 
important accession to the vegetation. The most promising 
verdure will usually be found collected in the valleys, or 
alons the courses of rivers and streams, and in some of the 
most fertile lower plains. The different provinces present 
some variety in this respect 

Climate. — The summers are warm, and the winters 
mild. Some parts are generally dry and severe throughout 
the year ; but the northern parts, with a milder climate, are 
liable to much rain and heavy weather. 

Flora. — The vegetation everywhere is characterized by 
the evergreen oaks ; the habit, mode of growth, and foliage 
of which are peculiar. These consist of several species, 





some of which are at present imperfectly defined. Among 
them quercus suber is distinguished as composing large 
woods ; and q. ilex and q. tanzin are abundant. Entire 
woods of these trees are frequent in Aragon, Catalonia, 
the Castilles, Estremadura, Andalusia, Valencia, and Mur- 
cia. Quercus valentina of Cavanailles is seen in the eastern 
part of Valencia and other parts of the south. Q. australis 
of Link, a fine species, is associated with q. suber near 
Gibraltar. Q. fastigiata is found on the flanks of the 
Pyrenees. Of the deciduous kinds q. rubur is very abun- 
dant in the northern provinces, not existing in the central. 
Sometimes q. pubescens accompanies it. Q. coccifera 
prefers the south, where it abounds extensively, and ex- 
tends as far north as the centre of Spain. Q. segilops is 
met with in the Sierra Morena. 

Captain Cook, in his Sketches in Spain, regards the 
vegetation as conveniently distributed into three divisions. 
The Jlrst division comprehends Galicia, Asturias, the 
Basque provinces, Upper Navarre, and the maritime parts 
of Old Castile. It is distinguished for the humidity of the 
atmosphere, equable temperature, its pastures, verdure, 
and luxuriant vegetation. It produces little or no oil, wine 
of an inferior quality, but much valuable timber. Quercus 
robur, q. ilex, menziesia daboeci, pteris aquilina, ulex 
stricta, u. europea, are chiefly characteristic. The second 
division includes the Castiles, Estremadura, Aragon, part 
of Catalonia, and the upper portions of Valencia, Murcia, 
and Andalusia. The climate is remarkable for its dryness. 
In some parts the olive is abundant; and Aragon is 

famous for its 



forests. Quercus ilex, q. 

tauzin, q. prasina, and numerous cistus and helianthemum 
prevail. The third division occupies the shores of the 
Mediterranean, the western coast of Andalusia, and the 
valley of the Guadelquivir, as far as Cordova. The sum- 




mers are hot and dry, and the winters mild. Syngenesious 
plants are abundant, as are also cistineae and irideae; and 
the sugar-cane, cotton, rice, sweet potato, lemon, orange, 


fig, and pomegranate, may be all seen. 

It will be instructive to trace the vegetation south from 



diterranean. In Asturias we are surrounded by quercus 
robur, castanea vesca, corylus avellana. The range of 
mountains may now be crossed, some parts of which about 
Puerto de Pajares attain from 8,000 to 9,000 feet. On the 
mountain sides here are fagus sylvatica and quercus prasina. 
About Valladolid is pinus pinea. The upper ranges of 
the Guadarrama are clothed with pinus sylvestris, and 
beneath it, at a somewhat less elevation, is quercus tauzin. 

Here, too, according to Captain 
boundary of the ash. After pas 

Cook, is the southern 



pensis is seen mingled with p. pinaster; the former grows 
exclusively on the shore of the Mediterranean, and its 
northern European limit is 40° 20'. N. lat. at Sacedon. 
On the Sierra de Cuenca pinus sylvestris occurs for the 
last time, having hitherto tenaciously clothed every moun- 
tain summit, and p. maritima, and p. halepensis conduct 
us to Valencia. 

Reseda is frequent, though it does not embrace the 
favourite of our gardens, which is a native of Egypt. 
Narcissus and similar plants are abundant in the spring 
vegetation, and among a multitude of others there are a 
few genera particularly deserving of mention as conspicuous 
in the flora; helianthemum, cistus, erica, teucrium, lavan- 


dula, ulex, spartium, ononis, rosmarinus, cerinthe, anchusa, 
echium, passerina, nepeta, delphinium, &c. 

Of several families which have for a long time been re- 
garded as densely clustered about the shores of the Me- 
diterranean, cistinese is found in the greatest intensity in 


* j 


<■ 2 •■■:.., m ■ m*mM:m&:m;x ;■■■ 

■ \ . 






the Spain Region; labiatse in the Asia Minor Region; 
caryophylleae in the Danube Region, but are nearly equally 
numerous in Asia Minor, proportionately few in Spain, and 
many species are indigenous to the north of Europe and 


Boraginese are perhaps most numerous in the 

Danube Region, though very abundant in Asia Minor; 
less so more to the westward, but increase in the Canary 
Islands. And oleacese are most prevalent in the Italy 
Region, though fraxinus has most of its species in North 

The Balearic Islands have a few peculiar plants. To 
Minorca are ascribed buxus balearica, arum crinitum, 
caprifolium implexum, ligusticum balearicum, rubia angus- 
tifolia ; and to Majorca rubia lucida. 

Relations.— Several tropical plants have migrated to 
this region, and imparted distinct features, such as cha- 
maerops humilis, phoenix dactylifera, agave amerieana, 
opuntia vulgaris, and other cactese. Its most decided pe- 
culiarity, as an European region, is derived from the 
presence of many African species. Both these features 
are more strongly impressed in the south, and the scanty 

Gibraltar is characterized by genista 

vegetation about 

unifolia, spartium junceum, teucrium valentinum, phlomis 
fruticosa, chamserops humilis, and opuntia vulgaris. A 
collection of phsenogamous plants made by Von Martius 
at Algesiras contained 143 species belonging to the south 
of Europe, 60 to temperate Europe, and 17 to Africa ; 
and of the whole number 58 were indigenous to Great 
Britain. A very interesting relation with the South Africa 
Region is displayed through erica, which has here several 
distinct species ; and indeed the prevalence of the genus 
in a portion of Europe is remarkable when we reflect what 
a broad barrier intervenes, how truly a cape genus it is, 
and how very sparingly it is diffused elsewhere, even 



when the climate and circumstances seem favourable, the 
whole of the two Americas not offering a single species. 
More relations with the same region may be traced through 
passerina and others. 


Extent. — Italy, to the south of the Alps, that portion 
of France south of the Cevennes, and Sicily, Malta, Corsica, 
and Sardinia. 

Physical Characters. — Those who have entered Italy 
from the north by way of the Alps, have been always im- 
pressed by the sudden change and interesting character of 
the vegetation. The north of Italy is eminently fruitful, 
and in the Milanese the soil, aided by irrigation, yields 
four crops of grass in the year. This is the country of 
the Parmesan cheese. Prolonged irrigation destroys the 
grass, and a rotation of crops is conducted. The sluices 
are shut, and the soil subjected to courses of hemp, 
leguminous plants, oats, wheat, and maize, for five years. 
After this, grasses accumulate, and are assisted by irrigation, 
usually for fifteen years. The territory about Genoa is 
rocky and unproductive, and much of the south is in the 
same condition, and some parts almost too unhealthy to 
cultivate. In Sicily, the lava fields are planted with cactus, 
which after thirty years become fitted for cultivation. 

Climate. — Generally the seasons are warm and even, 
and the temperature rarely below 32°, but in some places, 
as at Naples, they are liable to extremes. At Rome the 
mean temperature is 59° 5, of winter 45° 8, of summer 75° 2 ; 
at Toulon the mean is 62°, of winter 48° 4, of summer 
74° 8, and at Hieres, in the neighbourhood, the orange ceases 

' ■: ■ „- p 





to grow ; at Palermo, in Sicily, the annual mean is 65°, 

and the range, in twenty years observations, from 105° to 34°, 

or seventy-one degrees ; the number of rainy days is only 65, 

and the fall of rain 21 # 1 inches; the cotton plant, banana, 

and sugar-cane all repay cultivation. The amount of rain 

and rainy days varies somewhat ; in Provence the number 

of rainy days is only 67, in Florence 103, fall of rain 3 16 ; 

in Rome, rainy days 117, fall of rain 39 inches, but at 

Tolluezzo in Fruili, and at Carfagnano in the Apennines, 

the amount is said to be respectively 82 and 92 inches. 

More rain falls to the west than to the east of the Apen- 

Flora. -As an European region, it is distinguished by 
the open character of its vegetation, the dry juiceless ever- 
green foliage, absence of real forest, and the mixture of 
tropical and sub-tropical forms. The olive, myrtle, fig, 
vine, and pomegranate, abound everywhere. Several of its 
grasses are peculiar, and some attain 
arundo donax. In a climate like that of Italy, there will be 
a very considerable difference in the vegetation of the sea- 
sons, and the warm rains of spring are especially favour- 
able to the presence of asphodelese and similar plants; 
ornithogalum, muscari, erythronium, ixia, bulbocodium, 
anemone, adonis, clematis, ranunculus, fedia, lotus, medi- 
cago, bellis, chrysanthemum, are now numerous; the more 
permanent vegetation is derived from certain species of 
quercus and pinus, acer, pseudo -platanus, diospyros lotus, 
paliurus australis, morus nigra, celtis australis, capparis 
spinosa, acanthus mollis, plumbago europea, erythrina 
corallodendron, smilax aspera, cassia italica, phyllyrea, 
hibiscus, erica, cistus, buxus, pistacia, ornus, numerous 
boragineae, labiatse, scrophularinese, solanese, and mal- 

a large size 



Sicily has a flora extremely similar to Italy, and with 



very few peculiarities. In the introduced plants there is 
a greater resemblance to the tropics. 

Malta, from its situation, may be supposed to have more 
African plants than Sicily. Its total flora is about 200 
species, nearly the whole of which it is likely have migrated 

here. Spix and Von Martius collected 150 kinds, of 
which 56 were common with Germany, 90 with the south of 
Europe, and only 4 with the neighbouring coast of Africa. 
It may have a few plants of its own, as fungus melitensis, 
yucca tenuifolia, and ricinus armatus. 

Corsica offers a few peculiar plants, and the summits of 
the hills are covered with pinus laricio. 

Sardinia has supplied us with common parsley, petro 
selinum sativum, but it is not limited to the island. 

Relations. — In many respects this is a parallel region 
with the Spain Region, for tropical features show themselves 
in both, but in the latter are more mixed with African. 
Labiatse, though numerous in both, are more abundant here. 
In the habit of the vegetation it corresponds in many respects 
with the Asia Minor, California, South Africa, and New 
South Wales Regions. The Cape of Good Hope genera of 
iridese, gladiolus, moraea, trichonema, have each represen- 
tatives here. Putoria calabrica, a cinchonaceous plant, is 
met with in the south. 



Extent. — That portion of Europe to the South of the 
Carpathians, and between the Adriatic andBlack Seas, and 
consisting of Hungary, the Turkish provinces in Europe, 
and Greece, much of which is fertilized by the Danube and 
its tributaries. The southern extreme of Greece is in many 
rpftnppts vpvv similar to Asia Minor. 




Physical Characters.— No part of Europe is superior 
in the capabilities of the soil, yet none has been rendered 
so little available. From some of the productions it would 
appear more favourable than any other portion of this 
quarter of the world, for the growth of several of the plants 
of warm latitudes. The far greater part is still covered by 
forest, and there are vast marshes where rice is extensively 

Climate. — The summers are warm, and the winters 

not usually severe, but the temperature is liable to vicisi- 


Flora. — The forest, which abounds over much of thi 
region, is composed of a little variety in its trees; in 
Hungary, species of prunus enter largely into it, sometimes 
with multitudes of fraxinus rotundifolia ; whole forests of 
cherries and apricots are seen in Wallachia, and the 
elevated lands sustain large numbers of firs, oaks, pines, 
and beeches; daphne cretica and spartium parviflorum 
characterize the shores of Gallipoli ; the plum is everywhere 
cultivated in the greatest abundance, and is the source of a 
brandy called raky ; rhus cotinus abounds in Sclavonia and 
the neighbouring provinces ; and in the southern and south- 
eastern states are large groves of the olive. 

Isatis tinctoria, or woad, exists in Hungary, and other 
species are indigenous; Valeriana celtica, or spikenard, seems 
to prefer a certain elevation ; daphne, nerium, clematis, 
capparis, arbutus, amygdalus, populus, acer, asparagus, 
orobanche, antirrhinum, astragalus, pyrus, Crataegus, spiraea, 
gypsophila, thalictrum, helleborus, artemisia, chrysocoma, 
cnicus, carlina, kitaibelia, bubon, seseli, are all character- 
istic. Quercus racemosa is confined to the south, and the 
melon and the vine are largely cultivated in Hungary. 

Relations. — In Spain the vegetation partakes of 
African features, and in this region of that of Central and 



Western Asia. If it here wants the picturesque beauty of 
Italy, it is also without the dry sapless aspect of its trees ; 
and the smiling circumscribed character of the vegetation 
is compensated by luxuriance and vigour. Those plants 
which like shelter, as certain ranunculaceae and ferns, are 
more abundant, and for a similar reason crucifese are pro- 
portionately numerous. Mesembryanthemum has two or 
three species in Greece. 


Extent. — The elevated sides of the mountain chains in 
the south of Europe, above the line of lowland cultivation, 


to their summits, or the limits of the vegetation. The 
principal are the Pyrenees, the different portions of the 
Alps, the Carpathians, the Apennines, and Mount 


Physical Characters. — It comprises an extent of rug- 
ged and bare mountains, but often sheltering within them 
rich moist valleys, and small verdant plains. Primitive 
rocks chiefly prevail, and sometimes with such steep 
scarped sides as to preclude the assemblage of soil and 
vegetation. In Mount iEtna, and in some parts of the 
Alps, there are large fields of lava, which, after a certain 
period, become clothed with plants. 

Climate. — This will vary from temperate to frigid, ac- 
cording to the elevation ; it is also liable to fluctuations, 
and to be disturbed by brisk winds and storms. The 
mean temperature of St. Gothard at 6,390 feet is 30° 4. 
On St. Bernard the fall of rain is 63 inches, which seems 
great for the latitude, since the mean of twenty places in 
the lower valleys of the Alps is 56* 5 inches. The mean 
temperature of iEtna, at the base, is 64°. 

.- '-'••;. 





■ ■" 

Flora. — The vegetable productions of higher latitudes 
gradually appear as the elevation is increased. At first 
are seen thick forests of their trees, till by degrees they 
become dwarf and stunted, and are then succeeded 


shrubs; after these come certain herbaceous plants, with a 
large proportion of grasses, large spaces covered with 
lichens, and lastly perpetual snows. The flowers of this 
region are often distinguished for the pureness and 
brilliancy of their colours. The characteristic plants are 
chiefly derived from gentiana, campanula, phyteuma, cher- 
leria, androsace, primula, aretia, soldanella, ramonda, 
helleborus, aconitum, saxifraga, poeonia, cytisus, and rho- 

The Pyrenees are situated between 42° and 43° N. lati- 
tude, and some of the highest peaks attain from ten to 
twelve thousand feet. The lower portions of both the 
north and south sides are covered with forests. The oaks 
on the north side, as quercus robur, q. tauzin, q. pubescens, 

q. fastigiata, but no evergreen species, 

these being con 

fined to the southern flanks, and the genus ceases at 3,260 


Pines now prevail, pinus sylvestris being found on 

soon after close in the vegetation among 

both sides, at its upper limits being mixed with p. unci- 
nata, which soon after appears alone and closes in the trees 
at 7,800 feet. Rhododendron ferrugineum now grows in 
the valleys in vast quantities, with some northern shrubs. 
Some herbaceous species of cold climates with lichens 

the perpetual 

snows, which commence at 8,950 feet. Abies communis 
and larix europea, have no existence here. The ever- 
green oaks cease at the village of Andorra. Several 
of the alpine parts of the Spain Region belong here, 
as the Sierra Nevada in Granada, Sierra de Estrella 
in Portugal, Sierra de Cuenca, heights of the Guadarrama, 
and others. 

* - 

: - " ^ - ~ 



The Alps stretch across the south of Europe between 
44° and 48° N. latitude, and present many greatly elevated 
peaks and ranges; Mont Blanc, the loftiest, attaining 
15,730 feet. Their physical history and flora are scarcely 
of inferior interest to the Himma-leh mountains, but are far 
too extensive to be detailed here. The lowland cultivation 
ceases at about 2,000 feet, and is succeeded by forests of 
oak, chesnut, and pines, to 3,900 feet. Betula alba, rho- 
dodendron, and stunted spruce, reach 7,800 feet, salix her- 
bacea extending something higher. The line of perpetual 

There are also some 

congelation is about 8,760 feet. 

The Carpathian Mountains are si 
Europe, between 45° and 50° N. lat. 
lofty peaks within this range, detached from the general 
chain. Mount Lomnitz attains 8,436 
height is something below this. The lowland cultivation 
ceases at 1,500 feet. The region of woods succeeds to 
4,600 feet, the lower part being chiefly occupied by the 
oak, birch, and particularly the fir. Next is the region 
of shrubs, and here also are a few stunted trees of pinus 
mughus, extending to 5,600 feet. And to these succeed 
a number of low alpine plants to 6,500 feet, or the summits 


of the mountains. When the elevation is greater, the sur- 
face is occupied by lichens to 8,000 feet, constituting the 
region of cryptogamic plants. 

Mount Mtna is situated in 37° 43° N. lat., and has an 
elevation of 11,360 feet. Observers differ as to the lines 
of vegetation. The lowland cultivation of the vine and 
maize ceases at from 2,200 to 3,300 feet. The orange, 
lemon, and lime attain 1,900 feet, date 1,600, gossypium 
herbaceum 1,000, morus nigra 2,500, fig 2,200. The 
plants characteristic of the lava beds are andropogon hirtus, 
a. distachyos, lagurus ovatus, rumex scutatus, Valeriana 
rubra, plumbago europea, thymus nepeta, satureja greca, 




ranunculus bullatus, capparis rupestris, scrophularia tri- 
color, heliotropium bocconi, mandragora autumnalis, senecio 
chrysanthemifolius, daphne gnidium, spartium infestum, 
s olanum sodomeeum, ricinus africanus, smilax aspera, eu- 
phorbia, linaria, &c. The region of woods extends to 
6,500, the oak and chestnut ceasing at 4,350 feet, and 
pinus sylvestris at the limit of the region. The region of 
shrubs ceases at 8,125 feet, and contains bushes of juni- 
perus, berberis, betula, and fagus. The region of grasses 

ceases at 9,750 feet, and of cryptogamic plants at 10,000 


Relations. — Rhododendron, and some few others, carry 
our associations to the alpine regions of Asia and Ame- 

in China, and to some northern 
latitudes. Sempervivum abounds in species in the Ca- 


to lesser heights 

naries, yet on iEtna not a trace of it exists, but is replaced 
by sedum, which is equally numerous, but has no existence 
in the Canaries. 


Extent.— That portion of the centre of Europe to the 
north of the southern chain of mountains is distinguished 
for a certain individuality in its vegetation, and the exten- 
sive cultivation of wheat. The southern limit is bounded 
by the Alps and the Carpathians to the Caspian Sea, and 
the Pyrenees and the Cevennes, thus excluding a portion 
of the south of France. To the north it includes Den- 
mark, and a part of the south extremes of Sweden and 
Norway, and is separated from the Volga Region by a 
line commencing in the Baltic on the coast in 55° N. lat, 
and traversing the southern provinces of Russia to the sea 
of Azof. Its northern limit is in the vicinity of the 

- * I * J 



boundary of acer, pseudo-platanus, moras nigra, populus 
alba, p. nigra, pyrus mains, the vine and the chestnut ; and 
the region generally may be regarded as that portion of 
Europe where wheat is most advantageously cultivated for 
food, to the north soon yielding to rye, and to the south 
to Indian corn and rice. Wheat is stated to be most pro- 
fitably cultivated between 35° and 50° N. lat., and to cease 
entirely at 60° or 62°. The British islands complete the 


Physical Characters.-— According to Balbi, the surface 

of Europe presents several remarkable geographical fea- 


tures. Its centre consists of an extensive plain of con- 
siderable productiveness, and to the north in Russia it 
rises to a broad table-land of about 1,150 feet of elevation. 
Another important table-land occupies the centre of Spain? 
having an elevation of 2,300 feet, that of the Jura Alps 
attains from 1,750 to 3,850 feet, and another in Piedmont 
from 600 to 2,000 feet. But a far greater diversity is im- 
parted by the several mountain chains of the Pyrenees, the 
Alps, the Carpathians, the Apennines, and the Dofrines, 
which considerably modify the climate and the character 
of the vegetation. Besides there are several valleys which 
serve to guide certain rivers to the ocean, and which are 
pre-eminent both for their beauty and fertility. Of these 
the most distinguished are the valleys of the Lower Danube, 

the Rhine, the Drave, and the Po. Formerly, by far the 
greater portion of the surface was covered with forest, 
much of which has been gradually removed by cultivation, 
but very extensive tracts in Russia and Poland are still in 
this state, and throughout Europe generally a good deal of 
forest still remains. On the whole, the soil is good and 
fruitful, but there are spots consisting of little else than 
rocks, or where the occasional invasion of the sea renders 
it unserviceable, or where bog, morass, or heath exists, to 

K 2 



the exclusion of cultivation, as in the countries south of the 






Climate.— Malte-Brun and Balbi assign to Europe 
three well-defined climates ; the Atlantic distinguished for 
its even temperature, and its moisture ; the climate of the 
north-west of Europe being one of extremes of temperature : 
and the climate of the south, which, with its higher tempe- 
rature, holds a middle station between the two others. 
Aware, however, that this division very imperfectly 
pressed all the important features, a further seven-fold one 
was proposed. Europe is so situated, between extensive 
seas on one side and a large mass of land and range of 
mountains on the other, that it cannot fail to be greatly 
governed by their influence over climate, and to offer some 
variety. Compared with other climates of a similar latitude, 
it will be found to be mild, less exposed to vicissitudes, and 
that vegetation attains a higher northern station. Betw 
the west and east portions there are certain differences. 
The mean heat may be nearly the same through the same 
parallel, but the distribution in the seasons will be different. 
On the west side, the climate being equable, the range 
throughout the year is not great, and the mean of the 
summer and winter months will not be in excess ; the 
atmosphere is also moister, and the number of rainy days 
greater. On the east side, however, the mean of these two 
seasons is prone to extremes, and to take respectively 
higher and lower stations. Whatever 
the mean heat of the year will be in favour of the eastern 
portions. The result of this on vegetation is, that plants 
which prefer a climate free from extremes, and that move 
with the mean temperature 
station on the eastern side, as is visible in some of the 
plants of Norway and Sweden, the apple for instance ; and 
those which revel in a hot summer, and are indifferent to 


occur in 

will take a higher northern 



the extremes of winter, will be found occupying a limit 
gradually extending towards the north-east. 

In the Central Europe Region, the circumstances of the 
climate are less strongly marked. The mean varies from 
48° to 54°, and the usual annual range from 28° to 83°. 
The atmosphere is often much loaded with moisture, and 
the rainy days are nearly half the total to the year, though 
the quantity of rain which falls does not exceed from 22 
to 30 inches. The mean hydrometric state of the atmo- 
sphere is four or six degrees below the mean temperature. 
In a climate so clouded, the power of the sun's rays over 
vegetation must be supposed to fall far short of their effects 
in lower and more brilliant latitudes. 

Flora. — The indigenous productions are those of a tem- 
perate latitude. The climate holding a middle station, the 
plants of the south wander here, and those of the north do 
not find it ungenial ; it has thus a large proportion of 
species for the extent of surface, and the more important 
groups of plants are freely represented. The region wilt 
therefore display, with a number of species, also a number 


of genera and families, the proportions of the latter to the 
former bring greater than usual. In the forest trees, how- 
ever, the number of species as compared with other regions 
is singularly small, and genera extensively represented else- 
where have here often only solitary species. Nearly all 
have deciduous leaves, and though grasses have not an im- 
portant numerical relation to the flora, they flourish in great 
luxuriance. These trees often manifest a partiality to par- 
ticular soils, and in the forest, which clothes a larger por- 
tion of Poland, the oak, yew, ash, poplar, chestnut, and 
willow, are found on the clayey soil, whilst the pine and the 
fir occupy exclusively the sandy soil. Inconspicuous 
flowers prevail greatly, as might be expected where amen- 
taceous and coniferous plants are so numerous, but in other 




■-■■'•■ ••■ 

' * 




regions it is not unusual to have an intermixture of attrac- 
tive flowers even in the trees, such as is not seen here. 
The details of the region may be sought for in ranuncu- 
lacese, cruciferse, caryophyllese, geraniaceae, saxifragese, 
leguminosae, particularly the section vicieae, rosaceae, stel- 
latae, compositae, boragineae, ericaceae, gentianeae, labiatae, 
scrophularineae, polygoneae, chenopodese, the families of 
amentaceae, orchidaceae, junceae, cyperaceae, gramineae, and 
a large proportion of the cryptogamic families. 

Umbelliferae have a 

slight preponderance over other 

regions, as will be seen in their distribution. The total 
number of species is 1,009, but the duplicate habitats are 
here included, In the Central Europe Region there are 
represented 172 species; Danube Region, 161 ; Italy Re- 

nor Region, 90; Spain Region, 82; 


152; Asia M 

Barbary Region, 69; South Africa Region, 63; Iroquois 
Region, 6 1 ; Volga Region, 53 ; Siberia Region, 50 ; Chili 
and Peru Region, 45 ; New South Wales^Region, 29 ; Pa- 
raguay Region, 19; Patagonia Region, 10; other regions, 
216. They are here found to exist in far greater numbers 
in the northern hemisphere, and particularly in Europe* 
In the latter they are most densely assembled in the cen- 
tral, southern, and south-eastern portions, whence we may 
infer their partiality for a warm temperate climate, for 
warm summers and extremes in the seasons rather than the 
reverse, and lastly, for an atmosphere tolerably supplied 
with moisture. A few species cling to Western Europe 
along the shores of the Atlantic, and are not found in the 
eastern countries. Some have a partiality for elevated 
stations in the Pyrenees, Alps, Andes, and 



and the Asia Minor Region derives its species in 
great part from Caucasus. 

France is chiefly included in this region ; it has an area 
of 200,925 square miles, and 5,966 species; or, in the pro- 
portion of one species to about 34 square miles. 




The British Isles are estimated to contain 110,181 

square miles, and their total vegetation, omitting algae and 
fungi, is composed of 2,393 species, or one to every 46 
square miles. These are distributed among 939 genera and 
112 families. The value of the genus, or its average pro- 
portion of species, is 37 ; of the family, or its proportion 
of genera, is 57 ; of the exogenous genus, 2*8 ; of the same 
family, 47; of the endogenous genus, 2-8; of the same 
family, 67; of the cryptogamic genus, 8*5: of the same 
family, 13. The flora has little to distinguish it from the 

continent of Europe. 

Ireland has 682 exogense, 211 endogense, and 41 ferns. 
Some plants are found there not indigenous to Great 


Britain, but generally occurring to the south of Europe ; 
as, arbutus unedo, menziesia polifolia, papaver nudicaule, 
sedum palustre, arenaria ciliata, saxifraga umbrosa, pin- 
guicula grandiflora, trichomanes brevisetum, hookeria 
laetevirens, and h. splanchnoides. The two last are quite 


Relations. — Besides the close relations to neighbour- 
in^ regions, some interesting affinities exist with the dis- 
taut Patagonia and Van Diemen's Land Regions. Com- 
pared with its American parallel, the Iroquois Region, 


it fails greatly in variety, and particularly in the forest 


Extent. — Russia, to the west of the Ural Mountains, 
and to the north of a line commencing at the fifty-fifth 
degree of latitude on the Baltic, and extending to the Sea 
of Azof; with the whole of Norway and Sweden, with 

: ■ - 




the exception of a small portion of their southern ex- 

Physical Characters. — Russia consists chiefly of an 
extensive plain of inconsiderable elevation, and dotted with 
numerous lakes and marshes, and Norway and Sweden are 
intersected by lofty mountains. 

Climate. — To the eastward the climate is one of ex- 
tremes, the summers being hot and the winters long and 


On some days the temperature is higher than 


is usual many degrees to the south. The western 
tries have a more even climate, but still a rigorous one. 


The extensive and often magnificent forest, 

which covers nearly the whole of this region, is composed 
chiefly of pinus sylvestris, mingled with abies picea, and 
a. communis ; and pinus cembra is met with towards the 
tTral Mountains. Though the species of pine are fewer 
here than in the south, the trees are of far finer growth • 
a circumstance that occurs also with the eucalyptus in 

Van Diemen's Land, where, though there are fewer spe- 

cies, the trees 

tow much larger. 



orest, a dense undergrowth flourishes, of species of vac- 
cinium, andromeda, empetrum, rubus, salix, betula, and 
arctostaphylos. Conifers^ amentaceae, saxifrages, cruci- 
ferae, and ranunculaceae, are particularly prominent, and 
some members of umbelliferae, caryophylleae, and bora- 
gineae, are mixed with the vegetation, but are rapidly 

disappearing. An English 

botanist visiting this region 


will find most of the northern plants of his own island, but 
will perhaps be more surprised to see what an altered 
character a vegetation of similar species assumes here • 
for he will find many plants very common, which 
rare at home, and others before regarded as common weeds 
are here prized. Senecio jocobaea, so frequent a nuisance 
in our. meadows, is in Norway an object of diligent search. 
Several important plants have their northern limits in 



60°, tilia 

this region. Quercus robur ceases at 61°, fras 
sior 60°, fagus sylvatica 60°, prunus cerasus 57 c 
intermedia 63°, abies communis 67°, populus alba and p. 
nigra 56°, pinus sylvestris 70° ; the ash, alder, aspen, and 
juniper, in Norway, reach the arctic circle, or 67°, but cease 

near the Urals at 60°. 

Alpine vegetation can scarcely be supposed to exist in a 
region which possesses so many of its characters, and any 
attempts to give it prominence will be attended with very 
feeble results. In Lapland, between 66° and 68°, accord- 
ing to the statements of Wahlenberg, the Region of Trees 
attains 1,800 feet ; the Region of Shrubs succeeds to 2,500 
feet, and is closed in by lichens and perpetual snow at 3,300 
feet. In Finmark, according to Von Buch, at 70°, pinus 
sylvestris grows to 730 feet ; betula, larix, and vaccinium, 
to 3, 1 00 feet ; then cryptogamic vegetation and perpetual 

snow at 3,300 feet. 

Relations.— The parallel regions in America are filled 

with forests of noble trees of abies instead of pinus, mixed 
with cupressus thyoides, and occasionally a pine, Crataegus, 
or fraxinus ; besides this there is much similarity in the 


Extent. The shores and shoal waters of the ocean 

through all latitudes, from high-water mark to a depth 
at present uncertain, but which most probably is incon- 

Physical Characters.— The medium in which marine 

plants live may, in several ways, affect the functions of 
those which select it for their habitation. The influence 


of the atmosphere is nearly excluded ; and light, even at 



small depths, is greatly obstructed. The saline constituents 
must be regarded as essential to their well being, though I 
have seen a fucus and a potamogeton growing together in 
water of a very slight degree of saltness. In many cases 

they evidently display a selection 

as to their place of 

attachment, and usually prefer mud or soft rocks to harder 
substances. They appear particularly scarce in coral 
islands, perhaps because the coral animal feeds on them. 

Climate. — The seasons and temperature have a decided 
influence. In the summer months this flora is in great 
vigour, and when a season occurs eminently favourable to 
vegetation, it is proportionately affected. From their 
geographical distribution it may be inferred that these 
plants are sensible of small variations in the habitual tem- 

tropics those living in shoal waters 



are surrounded by a temperature varying from 74° to 86°. 
At greater depths the temperature gradually and evenly 
descends. A decrease, however, does not always happen. 
In 25° N. lat, when the air was 67° and the surface of the 
sea 69°, the temperature at 35 feet was 73°. The tem- 
perature at the surface will generally be found to fluctuate 
about the mean of the latitude, but is liable to be disturbed 
by currents, as is the case with the gulf stream, which so 
modifies and warms the climate of the Bermudas. In 
high latitudes the surface may be sometimes below the 
mean temperature, and an increase occur for certain 
depths, but this will rarely exceed 42° or 44°. 

Flora. — Notwithstanding the uniformity of the ocean, 
the facilities of diffusion, and simple organization of the 
vegetable beings which inhabit it, they will be found often 
remarkably circumscribed in their limits of growth. The 
same laws prevail as on the land, that there shall be every- 
where variety, and that under similar circumstances 
widely separated localities there shall be close relations. 





Looking over, then, this extensive region, the different 
deep inlets, gulfs, and seas, will each be found to have 
their own peculiar kinds, and sometimes in such numbers 
as almost to justify their exaltation into separate regions- 
It is said that the species found in the Red Sea are almost 
entirely different from those of the coast of Syria, though 
separated by so small a portion of land. In our own 
rhodomenia cristata and odonthalia dentata are confined to 
the northern shores; and fucus tuberculatus, laurencia 
tenuissima, rhodomenia jubata, rhodomela pinastroides, 
irideea ensiformis, and others, to the southern. 

The flora of this region is entirely derived from the na- 
tural family of algae, but does not comprehend all its 
species, since many prefer fresh waters. Lamouroux has 
calculated that the total number of species may reach 
5,000, or even 6,000. Fucus and laminaria exist in enor- 
mous beds in the high latitudes of both hemispheres. Se- 
veral species of sargassum replace the former within the 
tropics, where they are often densely crowded on the sur- 
face, and generally in an active state of vegetation. Tam- 
nophera, caulerpa, gelidium, amansia, and dictyoteee 
chiefly tropical. Codium tomentosum is found in nearly all 
seas throughout the world. Macrocystis belongs to the 
southern hemisphere from the equator to 45° S. lat , and 
durviliea and lessonia are likewise limited to this part of 


the world. Thaumasia ovalis, a remarkable plant, is found 
only at Ceylon. Cystoseira has several species on our own 
coasts, and others abound in the northern hemisphere, but 
a peculiar group is met with in New Holland, where, Gre- 
ville remarks, it is as peculiar as the aphyllous acaciae are 

on the land. 

Relations.— Between the terrestrial and marine vegeta- 
tion the link is perfect and complete. Of the latter, the 
mass unquestionably find the waters of the ocean essential 






to their existence. Some, however, of closely allied organ- 
ization prefer fresh or sweet waters ; and there are a few 
which live indifferently in both. With lichens, hepaticse, 
and fungi, they have much structural resemblance, and like 
them prefer cold climates, where they all flourish in greater 
numbers and luxuriance. Moisture also is necessary to 
the existence of them all, and the selection of certain 
lichens and fungi of old walls may be due to the saline sub- 
stances to be found there, and which the marine plants re- 
ceive from the ocean. 


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DURING THE YEARS 1836-1842. 



F. R. A. S, F.G.S., &c, 



Voyages of Discovery and Survey have long been amongst the most pleasant 

and instructive reading with which the press has furnished us since Raleigh and 
Drake pursued their adventurous career to the attractive shores of the New 


But the great advances which have been made in 

circumnavigating the globe. ........ 

nautical science, and the increased facilities for acquiring exact and comprehen- 
sive information which modern navigators possess, render their labours far more 
valuable and often much more interesting than those of their predecessors. The 
voyages of Her Majesty's Ship Sulphur cannot, therefore, fail of being regarded 
with considerable interest by every class of readers, but particularly by such as 
are desirous of ascertaining from the best sources the progress the country is 
making in geographical knowledge. To place the claim of this vessel and the 
intelligent officers and crew under the author's command properly before the 

public, it is necessary that they should be put in possession of some slight idea 

of her goings to and fro. 

The Sulphur was commissioned in September, 1835, by Captain Beechey, and 
accompanied by her consort, the Starling, Lieutenant-Commander Kellett, 
quitted England in the following December. He invalided at Valparaiso, and 
was succeeded by Acting Commander Kellett, who was again superseded by 



author who took the command at Panama, in February, _ 

and retained it till the con- 


crosssed the Isthmus of Darien for that purpose, 
elusion of her protracted voyage. After some little delay in completing certain 
necessary operations, the Sulphur proceeded northerly, touching at Realejo and 
Libertad in Central America, and reached San Bias in June, whence she sailed 

for the Sandwich Islands, which she reached the following month. 

30' N., was their next destination. 


Point Eiou and Port Mulgrave were chosen as base stations for determining the 


Cook and Vancouver. The ship then proceeded to Sitka, or New Archangel, in 



'■- .**-•..-■ . 




Norfolk Sound where the officers received very courteous treatment from Captain 
Koupreanoft, the Russian governor. She next visited Friendlv Cove, in Nootka 
bound, and thence sailed to San Francisco, when the examination of the River 
Sacramento, 156 miles from her 

anchorage, occupied them in open boats for 

, - T „ ■ , . «sively visited Monterey, San Bias, Acapulco, 

and Libertad, on her way to Realeio. where the author, for the recovery 

thirty-one days. 


of his health, undertook a land-survey of the principal mountains over-looking 
his future ground in the Gulf of Papagayo, and fixed the principal features 
ot the Lake of Managua to its first fall into that of Nicaragua at Tepfitapa. After 
surveying the Gulf of Papagayo and Port Culebra, the Sulphur quitted Central 
America, touched at, and fixed the Cocos, and reached Callao in June, 1838 for 
the purpose of refit, and the completion of stores and provisions. Having ex- 
amined the coast between Cerro Azul and Callao (about sixty miles), she left 
Callao m August, calling at Paita and Guayaquil, and returned to Panama in 
the tollowmg October. 

Here may be said to have ended her first cruize ; but between October and 
March a survey was made of the Gulfs of Fonseca and Nicoya, Pueblo Nueva, 

^L Bai * H ° nd *,' ?**: r hl t ^ e shi P m °™d northerly, repeating her cruize of 
1837. She was detained at the Columbia River till September; Bodega, the Russian 
position near San Francisco was then surveyed, and subsequently San Francisco, 
Monterey, Santa Barbara, San Pedro, San Juan, San Diego, San Quentin, San 




her. Having shipped supplies for fourteen months from a transport which had 
been sent to meet her, she commenced her homeward voyage in January. 1840 • 
the author landed on the islands of Socorro and Clarion, and secured thei^ 


Maria, Nuh 


performed of boring for the volcanic foundation on which these coral islands are 
suspected to stand. She then visited Tahiti, Huaheine, Raratonga, Vavao (Tonga 
Group; Nukulau (Feejees), Tanna (New Hebrides), Port Carteret (New Ire- 
land), Britannia Island, New Guinea, coasting that island to Arimoa and as far as 
Jobie, where she remained to rate and survey, then to Amsterdam, Pigeon Island 
(Dampier s Straits), Bouro, and Amboina, moving thence to Macassar, Great So- 
lombo, and Pulo Kumpal, off the Borneo coast, and reached Sincapore in October 
of the same year. 

m Orders here awaited her to proceed instantly to China, where she was de- 
tained, and took an active part in the warlike operations against the Chinese till 


nearly the close of the year 1841, when she sailed for England. After leaving 

touching at Malacca, Penang, Achen, (Sumatra,) Point de Galle 
(Ceylon), Seychelles, Madagascar, Cape of Good Hope, St. Helena, and Ascen- 
sion, she at last returned to Spithead. 

It will readily be acknowledged, from a perusal of the foregoing statement, 
that such an immense field of observation has seldom been presented to the reader • 

and for so large a portion of it— Central America— it can scarcely be equalled in 
attraction. \ ~ 








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Twenty Monthly Parts, price 2s. 6d. each, the First of which is now ready. 












Sufficient grounds for offering to the Public at the present time this new edition of 
the Holy Scriptures will be found, it is hoped, in the work itself, when compared with 
the religious wants of the community. 

The paramount sanction of the Church impressed upon that most noble monument 
of human learning and piety, the authorized version of the Bible, precludes the use of 
any other translation as the basis of Commentary, even could any other be found which 
might justly compete with it. The first two columns, therefore, of this edition will pre- 
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recently appeared. In the fourth column, corresponding to the first, the chronology of 
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The third column will contain the authorized version carefully revised, embo- 
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phrase, to no greater extent, however, than is absolutely necessary to elucidate the text. 



in no case whatever will he depart from the authorized translation merely to gratify 
fastidious criticism in matters of secondary importance (the occasional substitution of 
the readings in the margin for those in the text cannot be so considered), and never, 
except when more recent investigations have proved the inadequacy of the rendering, 
and where corruptions existing in the Hebrew text from which the translation was 
made, but detected by later researches, make such a departure indispensable in order 
to reconcile contradictions, or to rectify manifest errors. Additions from the Samaritan 
Pentateuch, from the Septuagint, or from any other version, will appear in a smaller 
Roman character. A parade of authorities, even were it possible to assign them cor- 
rectly, which is rarely the case, will be carefully avoided : for the scholar they are unne- 
cessary, and for the general reader superfluous. 

■ . 




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Including the period of her Residence at the Court of Queen Charlotte. 


*£%$££?* wiU take its pIace fa the ltaies beside ^i P c 

excellent supplement."- 2W eU S Llfe ' to whlch xt forms an 

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anecdote and delectable 
will be perused with in- 

the celebrated persons who composed the circle. 

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" Miss Barney's Diary, sparkling with wit, teeming with lively 

£S? lp V an< n f ? ° f "T d a 1 nd discreefc views of Pe^ons and thing! 
terest by all classes of readers."— Post. b ' 

m^ch m ° St P ° Har " ad SUCCeSSf °' P uWM <»> «*»' >«" appeared for many years.". 








Author of " Shakspeare and his Friends," &c. 



In small 8vo. 


Hitherto no attempt has been made to place before the public histories of those princes 
of the different dynasties that have possessed the sovereignty of England, who stood next in 
succession to the crown, and bore the time-honoured title of Prince of Wales. It is true that 
some of these distinguished personages succeeded to the throne, and have, as kings, attracted 
the attention of historians : these writers, however, cannot, whilst tracing the course of 
events, find time to touch, except very slightly, upon the most pleasing portion of regal bio- 
graphy. The minor details, exhibiting the early development of character, are left for the 
antiquary who has industry to search for them among the MS. labours of our most pains- 
taking chroniclers. Several of these documents have from time to time been brought from 
their obscurity and carefully printed ; but still there is a large mass of historical material in 
the different public and private libraries in this kingdom, unknown to the general reader, 
that would assist in completing a series of portraits, which independently of the extraordi- 
nary interest that peculiarly belongs to them, possess other national recommendations in 
being inseparably connected with such glorious achievements, romantic adventures, and 
picturesque incidents, as are to be found in no other part of our annals. 

The life of Edward the Black Prince opens to us the brightest chapter in the chivalry 
of England, which is continued with almost equal attraction in the no less adventurous career 
of Henry of Monmouth ; — tragedies more touching than the best representations of the 
stage, may be seen ill the histories of Edward of Caernarvon, Eichard of Bordeaux, and 
the ill-fated princes of the houses of York and Lancaster ;— the adventures of the Stuart 
princes, throw the inventions of the imagination into the shade ; and those of the House of 
Brunswick, if less marvellous, convey equally characteristic pictures of the times to which 
they belong. There are other members of this noble gallery, who, having won the love of 
all classes of the community by their superior virtues and intelligence, were in early man- 
hood snatched away by death from the throne for which they seem so admirably qualified. 
Of their histories, so little is generally known that their names have almost been forgotten; 
nevertheless, Prince Arthur, eldest son of Henry VII., Prince Henry, eldest son of 
James I., and Prince Frederic, father of George III., have left materials for biography, 
which cannot fail of being read with the deepest interest. It is therefore confidently ex- 
pected that " The Lives of the Princes of Wales," will prove one of the most entertain- 
ing, as it must be one of the most truly national works ever published ; and no effort will be 
spared to make it as acceptable to the historical scholar, as to the general reader. 

The first volume, containing an Introduction, and the Lives of Edward of Caernarvon, 
afterwards King Edward II., Edward of Windsor, afterwards King Edward III.; and Ed- 
ward of Woodstock, commonly called the Black Prince, will be published immediately. 


* r * ■■ 





Now in course of publication in Twelve Monthly Shilling Parts, with Illustrations by 


EARTS I. and II. are now ready. 










, o ---- -- ---- uuu . Ubl ui una wuia., ciuu are connaent 

that the clever authoress of 'Michael Armstrong' will not fail in ably delineating the 
enormities of the New Poor Law. The pleasing form in which this work appears, is 
such as we have no doubt will ensure its complete success, and carry along with it the 
feelings and affections of her readers."— Exeter Gazette. 

• a. 7 h - 6 V meS haS long been thlinderin g away against the New Poor Law ; and the 
indefatigable Mrs.Trollope has now opened a fire against the same measure, the evils of 

S 1 J?,, dete ™ ined to exhibit in a tale, to be published in twelve monthly parts. 
Mrs. 1 rollope on this occasion has invested her subject with all the interest of a ro- 


Uublin Evening Post. 

" This commencing number is of good augury. The chief denizens of a country 
village in one of those favoured districts in which factories are unknown, are intro- 

Nor is there a 

duced to the reader in a humorous, off-hand vein that takes at once. nw „ WIcre a 
lack of the pathos with which * A Tale of the New Poor Law' ought to be enforced 
We cordially commend the fortunes of Jessie Phillips to the reader."— John Bull 

of the village of 

In this first part of Mrs. Trollope's new story, the leading families u . lllc vlua ^ 01 
Ueepbrook are very graphically described ; the examination of a poor widow before 
the board of Guardians is given with a great degree of vividness and force that can 

have been derived only from the life, 
sustained interest. 

eous cause/ 


Every thing promises well for a powerful and 
lo the author we cordially exclaim, ' God speed you in the ri°ht- 

Courl Journal. ° 

" *i r - S : T J ol l°V e ^ aS a g air L wielded her vigorous pen in defence of the helpless and 
e afflicted ; her 'Factory Boy' laid bare the cruelties practised in factories ; she is now 

• i % ill! "• • * w««^*^^ v r ^v,tio^u luiatiujiw y one is now 

with the same laudable spirit, exercising her gigantic talents in the same holy cause, the 
object of the present publication being to lay before the world the hardships inflicted 
by the New Poor Law. Independent, however, of the main object in view, the work 
promises to be one of a general interest, and will, if we may judge from the first part, 

!nbjec?^ TmH mn id t0 ° therS beSldeS th ° Se m ° re imi " ediatel y ^^rested in the 

















2 yols. small 8vo. 

It was 



indeed, to foreign tourists in general, the grand and peculiar attractions which 
The Danube had in store for their admiration. His " Steam Voyage" down 
that river has been diffused all over the continent, not only in the English, 
but also in the French and German languages ; and has induced great num- 
bers of persons to visit sceneswhich had been previously almost unknown tothem. 
In this author's new work, he discloses to us the beauties of the river Moselle, 
which although familiar as to its name on account of the exquisite vines pro- 
duced upon its banks, has hitherto lain as much concealed from British tourists 
especially, as the Danube itself had been, previously to his exposition of its 
wonders. And the reasons are obvious. In the first place it is entirely out of 
the highway (the Rhine) of the vast majority of our summer emigrants, whose 
object it generally is, to visit the Baths of Germany, or to proceed by Switzer- 
land into Italy. Although actually passing by the mouth of the Moselle,^ they 
never deviate into that river, which would cause delay, and must be visited 

entirely for its own sake. 







by means of the common passage-boats of the country, small, inconvenient, 
wretchedly managed, and by no means free from danger in windy weather, 
nor were the inns on either bank at all calculated to invite the stranger. 

But the steamer has effectually redressed these evils. The voyage from Cob- 
lentz to Treves may be easily made in one day. It may be asserted without 
fear of contradiction, that the beauty of the scenery on the banks of the 

ls without rivalry in Europe. The visiter who chooses to linger on 
those banks, and to penetrate into the country beyond them, will find ample and 
delightful occupation for weeks — amidst its innumerable sylvan and most ro- 
mantic mountain charms. Ausonius, one of the later Latin poets has written an 
excellent poem in praise of The Moselle ; it has figured much in several of 
the ancient, and most of the modern wars ; its scenes of delicious repose invited 
many religious orders in the primeval ages of Christianity to erect churches and 
monasteries upon the hills that crown its banks ; — the same attractions induced 
great numbers of the Crusaders upon their return from Palestine to fix their 
chateaus near those holy places — so much so, that eight or ten leagues of the 
margins of this river have for ages preserved the title of the " Vale of do- 
nor is there any country where the memory of Bacchus is more 
honoured than on the banks of The Moselle. — Besides his minute descriptions 
of the Moselle, Mr. Quin presents us with an amusing excursion up^T'HE Seine, 
and sketches off in a few pages the principal beauties of The Rhine and The 
Neckar. Altogether his work will be found to be the production of no common 
traveller, and full of novelty, even in these days of perpetual locomotion. 

. ■ - v *yO\ 











Author of « Brambletye House," &c. 3 vols 




By Mrs. GORE. 
Authoress of " Mothers and Daughters,'' 






3 vols. 





Late of Worcester College, Oxford. 

Author of " Peter Priggins," " The Parish 

Clerk," &c. 3 vols. 


Author of « Paul Pry," " Little Pedlington," 

&c. 3 vols. 

VIII. 1 


By the Author of " Tremaine," « De Vere," 

&c. 4 vols. 



By the Author of" Life in India." 3 vols. 


An Historic al Romance of the Court of 

By Mrs. HOELAND. 3 vols. 

M A S A N I E L L O : 


Edited by the Author of "Brambletye 

House," &c. 3 vols. 



By the Authoress of "The History of a 

Elirt." 3 vols. 

^ XIII. 


By the Authoress of" 1 emptation,"&c. 3 vols. 





A V A 


By M. H. BARKER, Esq. (The Old Sailor), 

Author of " ( Tough Yarns," &c. 



By the Authoress of " The only Daughter." 
Edited by f j Author of " The Subaltern," 

&c. 3 vols. 


3 vols. 





By Mrs. THOMSON. 3 toIs. 





Edited by the Author of "Brambletye 

House," &c. 3 vols. 



m. *i i \ . ■ • UUMFLETE ^ IN TWENTY VOLUMES. 

Elegantly bound in sixteen, with Portraits of the Authors, and other Blustrations, price 

n -..r ,„ 4 '- 16s., orany one work separately for 6s. 

Contents :-Mr Ward's Tremaine-Mr. Hook's Gurney Married, and Savins an dPoina«. 
first second, and third series, containing ten stories - Sir E. L. Bulwer's Pdham PiSwned' 
S^t?'!Y e ^7? aP Tr Mar T tS Erank Mildmay-Mr. James's SJheS^fcXS 


Awmt, w c** + ? rC i erS ^ Ceived ^ by eyer y Books eUer throughout the Kingdom. 

Agents for Scotland, Messrs. Beee & Brabfete, Edinburgh ; for IreCd, Mr. John 

Cumming, Publin. 











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