HISTORY ond CONSTRUCTION of THE CAhhOLLTON VIADUCT by E. EOTELER .-■ presented 1 or Admission to the i'-ii IkIu Honorary Engineering Fraternity University of Maryland January 1927 — : -SUMMARY- :~ This oaper whi^e primarily intended to give a "History end Construction of Carroll ton Viaduct" over Owynn's Fslls at fcount Clare , Maryland, by way of in- troduction includes the inception of a railroad, a few frets concerning ita founders and early engineers, re? son for the road passing over Gvynn's palls, and other informs tion about the Baltimore and Ohio Rail- road up to the time Carrollton viaduct was completed In 1829. Actual drawings are omitted because as far rs the author has teen able to ascertain none are avail - eble , the Baltimore and Ohio having lost all of their ords in the Baltimore fire. Photos are included shoving the rock foundation, st' te of preservation of the structure, a modern loco- motive passing over it, and views in the immediate vicinity . This r is re snectfu.ll^ dedi' to the early ers of the Baltimore md Ohio Railroad, pioneers in rk which redounds to the Everl^siing honor of the s ryland, end reflects immortrl credit up- on the intelligence, perseverance and unfli of those who oritineled, perfected, and hrve ed to luccessful issue this . msl enterprise. -1- CARROLLTON VIADUCT PALTImOK K'S ECONOMIC P 051 VI pj _1826^_ Towards the end 01 the first quarter of the 19th. Century Baltimore vrs confronted Ly the Important eco- nomic protleni, how to retain its r?ik ns s prominent com.i.erci Q J. emporium of the United States. Although the growth of the country teyond the Alleghaniee had not teen rnticippted every tody felt that there were good things in store there and New York, Philadelphia, Poston and Balti- more all essayed to grasp them. New York had her Erie Canal completed in 182f;, which aim* ing the raoun- Lns in the country of the Great Lakes. Philadelphia bravsly attacked them in front; Fop tor, vrtched for a Tlnce to pass them. At that time railroads were unthought of. Canals *ere the means retire; on. Baltimore had a hope of constructing r canal looking toward the setting Bun, but the report pi General Bernard proved that a projec. in this ection w: s iaapr acticatle , except at a cosl U finitely one the means oi the city, and then the people may Le said to have sat aown, like the Israeli tee of old, ty the waters of Babylon, end wept. fthen Layfayette visited the city in 1824 and " received with gorgeous hospitality there was a general -2- that this t i ened to be the fitful flash of the lest remnant 01 Baltimore 's enterpris* , before its light ana nth were finallj extinguished. THE FOUNDERS Ov -J i.h E &O . J.. »u1 lis time, however, railroads *er< first spoken 01, Evan Thom&s ^-i : Frltiraore »as in England, where he collected many valuable frets relative to the operations he had witnessed on the short Industrial railroads in the mineral i I cts of Great r -it"^. This Important infor- mation ■ forwarded to his brother Philip E. Thomas of Bal- tin .■:•■■( s aid likewise filliPm Provn, a member of parliament, to his brother George Frown. These do cum nts having tccn compared Mr. oas and Mr. Brown were toth fully convinced that 8 Pail Road could li i n Baltimore ard West- ern *aters, and that the future con ercial gronrtn of their citj i its early con on. John H.B. Latrobe in . 1 Recollt ct- ions of 1 itimore Pnd Ohio Rail Road, describes Mr. Evan Thomas as "a man of r ctive nervous ten ent, of gre^t flu- ency in spe , of active intellect, full of rll sorts of In- formation -'it. respectca for sterling jualitiea of he° rl r nc 1 hovC, h< talked rrilroad ver he coalo find, or force a listener." Alt he seems not to hnve been e man to le?d in any undertaking he must been the ian of rll men to ur < oth i b< rs. His brother Philip v iil< lack- ing this impulsiveness was b on no : rness of could be cut Like cheese, to win a costly experience in the hard granite districts of Maryland. To these vere feu gineers of the United States Army. A mission of Engineers vere sent to England to study the short roads been established for mining purposes. Even with the test skill in the country at work, the vaguest icers >r< mailed a b may l< , elsting s scheme gested i. j the Engineers tor crossing the mountains. (T.K. P. La Trobe). A douLle track of road was to te constructed up and dov»n them, as straight as an ariowj care t taken that the upper end of one of the ti should te close to a stream, which v-ss to be used to fill water cars, vhose weight, as they decended on one track, was to drag up the passenger end burden cars on the other, the two trains be- ing connected ty e rope passing around a pulley at the sum- mit. At the toltom of the mountain the vater cars vere to be emptied; tut the engineer had forgotten to provide a way foi , them back to the top for the next trip." That there woul< ably be a want oi water for any purpose on the crest of the Alleghanies, never seems to have entered the here oi these distinguished men. The mountains vere still so far off, however, that this notion did no harm and was laid aside and he arc- of no more. REASON t'OR LOCATION. while this may s ird, no less so is the ruling which erased the line to come ir i re Mount Clare Station -fa- llow etrrds. One mi^ht veil ask no: the company made the sjj embankment vest of Mount Clare; why it built the cost- ly structure of hern granite, the Carrollton Viaduct. The son is j . trobe, the Chief Engineer. The conscr, fathers oi Lhe cit; ; so ordained in t eir utti r ignorance t the roi a to te located at an ■ levation of 66 feet above tide and t 1 e company vac too poor t ny efficient re- \ence to en ii surdity to iree wise of Co Lhrm r f fords the neeresl llel. So here r r: the 8 lei< corner stone on Lhe 4th of July, 1828. Ealtimore Lean of July 7th, moniei te commencement of I hio Rail ] t concourse of strangers." an estimate oi 50,000 spectprs :nd rt" among the vnole, vc are happy to s~y, v- witnessec. a quietness anc ^ood order seloom seen in so I .je a multi- tude." It then pays tribute to the venerable Charles Carroll of Carrollton v ho layed the coi -i. ■ nd goes on to give s description oi the "grand civic procession." In 1 i ne , f s rme rs , a nd pi t . djie r s , millers, erSj tailors, t , csrperters, stone- cutters, ps 3, tanners, hatters, ss makers, took- lii , Lers, rope-makers, shi , ters, and y civic rssoci .,s. ATTITUDE Oi- 1 TI1K PUFUC. Li ttlt aej t;it. Citizens ' ' ac -7- of 1831 , published in Hagerstown introduces one of its stories in this wise " -with s belief that the progress of the trltimore nnd Onio HpxI Road is an object of car- iosity end ir.: to very mr rs, we now proceed to lay before then, . ari Lion oi nteinec in i De Witt Clinton, Ctvl] jer, of New fc, who visited il 9 commenc t of travel thereoi to Ellieotts, (now LilicottJ City) rid a description o± Lhe most prominent structure on It, t. < Carroll ton ict, over Gwynn's Falls in Lhe vl- cinity of Bait in CAKROILTOM "1ADUCT. Tl* letter Led in Baltimore, Jane 2> i850> an<J fC _ eral interesting excerpts cone , Lhe Carrollton Tr ircact Lven. C2 s t^at "the Carrollton Viaduct does i it to its projectors, and will ri h any .trsod- ry ir. this country, or in Europe." "Moving on the travell- Lnds himself on Lhe level summit of the ground whxch overlooks I orais the ( )f Gwynn's Pells. The rosd i iproachei stream at right angles, and is crriied over it bj an immense structure oi dr< c- :"' nite, desi - ned by ( - , executed l^ J . Lloyd, ore of the most i risin end skill! 1 brid ts of Lhe country. I 1 is p work lor which the extent, BolJdity, bej utj , u' randeur, hrs not we believe its eqaal in the rounlry - " -e- COKSa l D .i:::: 1 DET AILS. The viaduct, i i; i^med rfter Charles Carroll of Carroll- ton, the last surviving signer of the Declaration of Inde- peii. . Le v.fs ovei ninety years :' ^en with fitt- ctreinoiues he laid .he corner store of this structure. Records of the Carrollton Viaduct during the period of construction are entirely lacking and none of the designs or worl variable. Unfortui . all papers in pence to the cesi^n, showing sses which the en- gineers pla t -. viaduct to carry, the specifications, cost, the officials letting the contract and other mat- ters of i ' Lost in the Fsltimore fire. It hs inatley established that this structure is the oldest railroad viaduct in United StaUs. The Krie has ch this sti nt of the Baltimore and Ohio, but as Mr. Ric a then, District neer of t ; ie Baltimore ana Ohio sa; B,*The^ 're ri ey're wrong." The Carr- ollton Viaduct v >mpleted in 1d£^ and *»e* over it pas- sed upon lar schedule horse-drawn cms. At thi-e txine roac, di< mtemplate th€ use of steam and before locomotives adopted rs equipment in 1835 the Trie built the i ucca Viaduct near Susquehannf and tried out loco- motives over thJ . 1 ■ .. in 1832, the Carrollton ,T iad-iet •i in use ««lj three years. r F£li ... for October 1921 quotes from t Bilf.ay Age Gazett- Lished in 1917 some inter- -9- esting construction details disclosed bj at reprirs on this old Btone Arch e which indicate the skill rnd in- 1 the triage m; sons of nearly :. "The structure is 29' . e central arch of 80 feet Lth the tfee of ! .Is 65 feet, 3 inches a- 1 ove the ted of the st . e pilrsters were placed on the side walls and extend to Pbout 4 feet above the or- Lnal elevation oJ railroad tracks, to form pets. The si ' ccs over the r re not lulled, tat track load is supported on m of longitudinal and 12 inch brick !' Us, resting in the ^rch rings. These walls are space< feet center to center transvt rsely and 5 feet longi tuainall v , ma coverca vith 12 inch Mary- lane ranite slabs, i uch in tarn hold the ballast under the tracks. It TV33 originally constructed for doutle track, rnd although the equipment it wss designed to carry, undoatt- ;, wei hed less t • track, it das remained li perfect condition under the continually incj ds, until it ir no* carrying es i»avj Loads rnd traffic ps any bridge in the country. Lrs iaouIq hi Ui ae ry in the recent prs; I Lee of r? the track at intervals, il^xng net I , tne railt up to tii. J ■- vel of the top ot the pj t vails, and placed a heavy lateral thrust upon th . h they were not cer -10- carry. This caused the spandrel walls to oaove to such en exttnt that it Lee;; -ess; r take them covin to ttie el- evation oj L top 01 . rch, and in rowe pi- o i , -ill low- . and to reset them, backing them up with concrete under the track p sufficient distance to take the thrust from the para- t walls, in handling this work, special care was taken to replace the stones in their former position, in order tp pre- b< ive the originality of the old brj ps far as possible. OKIGltvAL ?LA«S, COST. It xs thought that the original plans called for two arches of 40 feet span, but to please the owner of r mill, who vas afraid a 40 toot span would drm up the stream the bridge vas lengthened to two arches, one of 80 fe t, the other of £0 foot span. shorter span of 20 feet on the st tnd of the structure was at son.e time filled and now is not visible, it j.s estimated that the original struc- ture contained 274,875 cu. ft. oi masonry, and the cost then completed W! sbe.blj $58,0uQ. Com poring records of the date the first rails *ere laid and th« time the first train of cars crossed over Carrollton Viaduct, the period of construction was , jximately six months. The ease with which stone vgs prpcurec from the quanies of the Patapsco on the line of the i rood rid much to moderate the exoense of construction . -11- SPECIE1 CA TIONS. The oi'lj t ? Lcat.i.on that the author has teen able to tirjb re.acs: M No areent spirits p >re to or used near the »ork." Mr. Casper Wever, the Superintendent of Con- struction s - i r of l i i i-cllion Vi es in one of hj.s esrlj ts: "It is believed that I y te execittu wxthout the us adful poison, mo geously to the interest of the Company, and certainly moi foe-" My to its officers end contractors. The prom- ised good which prohibition holes out to all parties, re- quires that the measure shell be persisted ir.." REPAIRS. The initial co?t ir not only exceedingly low, but the up-keep expenses on the Carrollton Tr iadact is a most re- markable feature. After 98 years or continous Bervice un- der he ic, tie up-keep h r negli ible. ':.... . -i :t. Tooay , .. .i'_ viaauct looks as strong as it origins llj v r.s, the 1 the Balti - do n L- . s to come. The structure seems neither to b« • bj the elements r,or the Increas- ing subjected. The accompanying views show its s ilendid state oi ©reservation. It is not Mew of the vast capacity of his viaduct, nor is it likely that in the most imaginative -12- mood he coulc .fvc visualized the iuodern locomotives shown in the accompaning vieus passing over it. The design of bridges et that time was not the eixact Bc.tnce which it is toe d In t esign of his fefifdge he hrd no precedents or rules to follow, Latrobe says, th< en ineers were severely criticized r assuming t _ ey lad purse of the goverja nd cen- sures them lor "extravagance M in using stone arches instead' 01 i. structures. p] ias been, ful- ly deiiioiistra tc u . L there was i verdant treshness stout raxlru things in t ose days is t in the i ccount of the re- ception afforded Mr. %insns, the inventor of the "Winans frict. leel." Before b vast h or v , in the Ex ;e, Charles Carroll over ninety years of age, who waa the great n on all . t oceassions in T ore, cd in 8 li ,1< car in one of the upper rooms, the cars being drrwn by 9 ridicously small wi 1 it attached to a small vei^rht hung t y a stri a pu ly and dropping nto the .1 below, Arounc him wei th< rominent men al- timore, 11 ich pleased ps children vith a ixv toy. Eq -:usint is the race of the locomotive ch was to pass over tht Can-oil ton Viaduct against the stage ch. Et rsz - d to have a race irom the Relay House to toount Clare, The start being made, awaj went hors< -ne, the snort of one and the puff of the -13- other keeping time and tun°. At the first the horse had the Lest ,i Lt, ior his steam would pplied to the great- est advai ■ gt on the instant, whJfJCth* Tod lad to wait until tne rotation blowei to work. The horse ii .0 have teen s quarter of s mile en the safety vrlve of the engine lifted and the issuin or showed an excess of steam, "he t lover vhist- led, the Bteam bleu off, the pace increased, the pai t-rs shouted, th< Lni ained on the horse, soon it lapped him the race was neck and neck, tne engine passec the horse and up vent a mighty shout of victory. But the joy vrs of e ort duration. band driving I e blower slipped, the safety valve 1 to scream, rnd the engine for want of breath \<--^n to whe zc and . In vain Cooper tried to ur^e hi. s locomot. r ■ nc although he did get it to take its secona wind, th< v. on. rhaps the J. oil maj life in tne iret that while the horse drank chewet .'it 3.1.0,- . ich contraptions as these was Carrollton Viaduct I, yet loday it still carries the nerviest locomo- tives. During the Civil War the structure was in serious c r of being dest.oyed, tut it came through unharmed, and 1 judging from its present cone it., on mill c ntinue to serve indefinitely . Carrollton Viaduct, the first reat structure on the -14- first railropc in the world is s proud monument to the gen- ius of its builder, James Lloyd and all those engineers who with bu unflagging purpose, through years of gloom, sacrifice, labor, and patient effort brou ht to accomplishment the sub- lime conception. Baltimore and Ohio I' t October. 1()21 Co rrolMetoViadud Baltimore «*<* Ohio Railroad 1829 The Cover Picture-The Carrollton Viaduct Built for the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in 1829 Photograph h lies, through the courtesy of D. A. Williams, Assistant to] The Citizens' and Farmers' Almanac of 1831, published in Hagerstown, Md\, introduces one of its stories in this wise! " — w jth a belief that the progress of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad is an object of curiosity and interest to very many of our readers, we now proceed to Say before them a description of the same as contained in a letter from De Witt Clinton, Esq., Civil Engineer, of New York, who visited it shortly after the commencement of travel thereon from Baltimore to Ellicotts, and an Engraved View and description of the most prominent Structure occurring on it, viz. : THE CARROLLTON VIADUCT over Gywnn's Falls in the vicinity of Balti- more." The letter is dated in Baltimore, June id, 1830, and we quote from it interesting excerpts concerning the Carrollton Viaduct, vil.: "The Carrollton and Patapsco viaducts do much credit to their projectors, and will rank with any masonry in this country, or in Europe." • • • » "Moving onward, the traveller finds himself on the level summit of the ground which overlooks and forms the eastern bank of Gwynn's Falls, The Road approaches the stream at right angles, and is carried over it by an immense structure of dressed in granite, designed by CASPER W. WEAVER, Esq., and executed by JAMES LLOYD, Esq., one of the most enterprising and skillful bridge architects of the country, called in honor of the illustrious individual who laid the First Stone, THE CARROLLTON VIADUCT, a work for which the extent, solidity, beauty, and even grandeur, has not, we believe, its equal in this country." r A. is ■*• .-. Wood cut of Carrollton Viaduct appearing in [he Citwna' anil Former*' Aimcnat. of 1B31. Note the "horse cars" on the track Lack of space prevents reprinting of more of this interesting letter, so we conclude with the following information concerning the viaduct furnished to the Railway Age Gazette in 1017 by S. C. Tanner, now superintendent of shops at Martins burg: Repairs recently made on the old stone Arch Bridge disclose some interesting construction details that indicated the skill and ingenuity of the bridge masons of nearly a century ago. The structure is 207 feet long, with a central arch with an 80 foot span, and with the base of the rails 65 feet, 6 inches above the bed of the stream. Large pilasters were placed on the side walls and extend to about 4 feet above the original elevation of the railroad tracks, to form parapets. The spandrel spaces over the arches are not filled, but the track load is supported on a system of longitudinal and transverse 12 inch brick walls, resting in the arch rings. These walls are spaced 3 feet center to center, transversely, and 5 feet longi- tudinally, and are covered with 12 inch granite slabs, which, in turn, hold the ballast under the tracks. It was originally constructed for double track, and although the equipment it was designed to carry, undoubtedly weighed less than the present day automobile truck, it has remained in perfect condition under the continually increasing loads, until it is now carrying as heavy loads and traffic as any bridge in the country. No repairs would have been neces- sary in the recent past had not the common practice of raising the track at intervals, when applying new ballast, brought the rails up to the level of the top of the parapet walls, and placed a heavy lateral thrust upon them, which they were not designed to carry. This caused the spandrel walls to move to such an extent that it became necessary to take them down to the elevation of the top of the arch, and in some places, still lower, and to reset them, backing them up with concrete under the track a sufficient distance to take the thrust from the parapet walls. In handling this work, special care was taken to replace the stones in their former position, in order to preserve the originality of the old bridge as far as possible. The structure was in serious danger of destruction during the Civil War, but by careful guarding it came through unharmed, and judging from its present condition, it will continue to serve indefinitely. I <//9/V£S LLOYD FIRST LOCOMOTIVE, BALTIMORE & OHIO RAILROAD, /om T~SHsrr>£ /9£/. /SJO &&////? p /Cfec-t?*/ oyer &^o . i -: -BIBLIOGRAPHY- :- 1. The Baltimore and Ohio Magazine - October 1921. 2. Personal Recollections of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad --John H.B. Latrote. 3. The Economic History of the Baltimore ana Ohio ivailroDd, 1827-1653.- The Johns Hopkins Press. 4. A Bibliography of the Baltimore ano Ohi J--1827-1879, John ft . Lee . 5. A History and Description of the Baltimore and Ohio -- William Prescott Smith.