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Full text of "History and development of the central heating plant at the University of Maryland, College Park Maryland / Warren D. Anderson"

HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT 
OF THE 
CENTRAL HEATING PLANT 

AT THE 

PHTVEESITY OF MARYLAND 

COLLEGE PARE 

MARYLAND 



WARREN D. ANDERSON 



PRESENTED 
AS AN 
INITIATION REQUIREMENT 
FOR THE 
BETA CHAPTER OF MARYLAND 
OF 
TAU BETA PI 



HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE CENTRAL HEATING- PLANT 

■AT THE 
UNIVERSITY OF M&BYLAND 



SUMMARY 
The first central heating plant at 
the University of Maryland was constructed 
in 1895 by Admiral John D, Ford, This original 
plant, with subsequent alterations, additions 
and repairs, was in constant service until the 
fall of 1931. In this year a modern, efficient, 
and up to date central heating plant was put 
into service, thus relegating the old plant to 
the scrap heap. The new plant with a total 
capacity of 800 B.H.P. now serves the entire 
campus with steam heat. 





1895 



1935 



_1_ 



THE HISTORY AMD DEVgLOFMEMT OF THE CENTRAL HEATING PLANT 

AT THE 

UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND 



INTRODUCTION 
The first central heating plant at the Maryland Agricul- 
tural College was constructed at a time when the school was strug- 
gling for it's very existence. 
Very little thought was given to 
the keeping of permanent records 
regarding campus developments, 
improvements, and expenditures, 
consequently, information dealing 
with the origin and development 
of the plant is very limited or 
totaly lacking. Mast of the few 
records that were made were lost 
in the fire which subsequently 
destroyed the administration 
building, thus leaving little in 
the way of actual facts on which 
to base an early history of the 
plant . 




Fig. 1. Original Plant. 
Constructed in 
1895. 



-2- 



ORIGIN AND EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF THE FIRST PLANT 



In 1695 the first central heating plant (Fig. 1.) 
constructed in the rear of the engineering building by Admiral John 
D. Ford, who later served under Admiral Dewey at Manila bay. 
ThiB plant furnished steam to the engin- 
eering building and thru a 3" low press- 
ure line to one or two other nearby 
buildings, thus making it a "central 
heating plant" in the true sense of the 
word. The original equipment probably 
consisted of the two boilers A and B 
(Fig. 6) and a few auxiliaries. These 
boilers, which are still standing, were 
made by the Crook Horner Co. of Baltimore 
They were of the fire tube type and had 
a capacity of about 100 B.H.P. at a 
boiler pressure of 90 pounds. 

In 1904, two Bullock, D.C. 
generators and two Racine steam engines 
(Fig. 3.) were installed in the plant. These generators were of 20 
K.W. capacity, operated at a speed of 375 R.P.M. and furnished all 
current used on the campus from 1904 to 1912. The Racine "Automatic 
Engines" were direct connected to the generators and were double 
acting machines developing about 30 H.P. with supply steam at 90 
pounds gage. 



- 

m 

M 


i 


L 





Fig. 2. One of the Two 
Original Crook 
Horner Boilers. 
(Fire Tube.} 



-3- 



The legislature of the state of Maryland granted "6000 
dollars for repairs to boilers" to the Maryland Agricultural College 
in 1906. Much of this sum probably was used for repairs on indi- 
vidual boilers in certain of the other buildings , thus giving us 
little knowledge of the amount spent on the central plant. In 1908 

the construction of the infirmary, 
gymnasium (Now old library} , and 
chemistry building {Now home econ- 
omics building) , put an additional 
load on the plant which supplied 
heat to these buildings through a 
5" low pressure line. It is prob- 
able that at this time a boiler 
was installed in the position C 
(Fig. 6) . This boiler was an Erie 
City, fire tube job, developing 100 
B.H.P. at 90 pounds gage. A legis- 
lative grant of 16000 dollars was 

Fig. 3. One of the Two Bull- giwn tQ ^ 8ehool ^ igiQ fm 

ock Generator Sets. Each 




of 20 K.W. Bating and 
Operating at 375 R.P.M. 
Installed in 1904. 



"deficiency in the heating plant". 

An additional 10,000 dollars was 

requested but was disallowed by the Governor. No record was made 
as to the nature of the "deficiency" although it was probably due 

to the purchase and installation of additional auxiliary boiler 

equipment. 



-3- 



The legislature of the state of Maryland granted "6000 
dollars for repairs to boilers'* to the Maryland Agricultural College 
in 1906. Much of this sum probably was used for repairs on indi- 
vidual boilers in certain of the other buildings, thus giving us 
little knowledge of the amount spent on the central plant. In 1908 

the construction of the infirmary, 
gymnasium (Now old library) , and 
chemistry building (Now home econ- 
omics building) , put an additional 
load on the plant which supplied 
heat to these buildings through a 
3" low pressure line. It is prob- 
able that at this time a boiler 
was installed in the position G 
(Fig* 6) • This boiler was an Erie 
City, fire tube job, developing 100 
B.H.P. at 90 pounds gage. A legis- 
lative grant of 16000 dollars was 
given to the school in 1910 for 
"deficiency in the heating plant". 
An additional 10,000 dollars was 

requested but was disallowed by the Governor. n record was made 
as to the nature of the "deficiency" although it was probably due 

to the purchase and installation of additional auxiliary boiler 

equipment. 




Fig. 3. One of the Two Bull- 
ock Generator Sets. Each 
of 20 K.W. Bating and 
Operating at 375 R.P.M. 
Installed in 1904. 



-4- 



LATSR DEVELOPMENTS AM) ALTERATIONS 
The construction of CalTert Hall in 1914 necessitated the 
laying of a line (Jig. 4) from the engineering building to the dormi- 
tory. ThiB line was laid in a ditch about four feet deep by four feet 
wide. In addition to the 6" high pressure steam main and Zjf return, 
(Fig. 5) the water mains were also included in the same ditch. 
Detail sketches of this line, fig. 5, show the type of equipment that 
was installed during this period. 
Silvester Hall, upon it's complet- 
ion in 1921 took steam from this 
same line thus putting an addition- 
al load on the plant and making 
further plant alterations necessary. 
The most important change made in 
1922 was the installation of one 
150 H.P., Erie City fire tube boiler, 
operating at 90 pounds gage, shown 
in Fig. 6 as boiler "D2 At this time 
the coal bunker was placed outside the plant so as to give more floor 
apace in the boiler room. The Cameron and Worthington boiler feed 
pumps (Fig. 7} were moved to the locations E and F, {Fig. 6). The feed 
HpO heater C and the vacuum pump H were moved to the locations shown. 

The completion of the present dining hall made necessary the 
installation, in 1924, of a 6" high pressure line to supplement the 
3" low pressure line which had been used for the temporary dining 
hall. At this time the 6" high pressure line to the new chemistry 
building was installed. These added loads required the installation 




Fig. 7. Cameron and Worth- 
ington Boiler Feed Pumps. 
Working Pressure 90 lb» 



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Fig. 4. 



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Fig. 6. 



-5- 



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of an additional boiler. One 150 B.H.P. Erie City fire tube boiler, 
(Fig. 8) was placed as shown (C in Fig. 6) thus using the old found- 
ations of the 100 H.P. Erie City boiler which was removed end scrapped. 

Further building developments on the campus made necessary 
the installation of 6" high pressure lines paralelliag the old 3" 
low pressure lines so that by 1927 nearly all of the old lines had 

been supplemented by new 6" lines. 

Ho major alterations or 
additions were made to the old 
plant after the boiler install- 
ation of 1924. The maximum capac- 
ity of the plant before it was 
abandoned in 1931 was between 400 
and 500 B.H.P., probably closer 
to the lower figure as the equip- 
ment was in rather a poor state 
of repair. Since neither the coal 
nor the water was measured or 
weighed there are no figures 
available which would give an 
indication of boiler or plant 




Fig. 8, Erie City 150 H.P. 

Fire Tube Boiler, Installed efficiency, 
in 1934. * 



ORIGIN OF THE PRESENT PLANT 
The intensive building program which was started by the 
University about 19S7 was the primary reason for building a new 
central heating plant. The advantages of a central plant system as 
to economy, safety, cleanliness, etc. were additional factors in 



deciding on this type of heating equipment. Some of the other 

plans proposed were, a gas producing plant with gas piping to 

the various points on the campus, and a steam plant with oil burning 

equipment instesd of coal burning furnaces. A conventional steam 

heating plant using coal as a fuel was finely decided to be the most 

satisfactory. 

In 19S9 the state legislature of Maryland granted the 
University 200,000 dollars for the new proposed central heating plant. 
H. Bgli, of Baltimore was retained as the 
consulting engineer for the project. He 
drew up the plans and specifications and 
supervised the building of the plant. 
Work was started on the plant in 1939. 
In 1931 an additional legislative grant of 
12, 650 dollars was received for completion 
of the plant, and the plant (Pig. 9) was 
put into service in the fall of 1931. 

PIAMT EQUIPMENT 
The boilers are of Babcock Wilcox 
make, and each of the two boilers installed 
is built to develop 410 B.H.P. at a pressure 
of 160 pounds gage. In this installation the 

pressure is kept around 100 pounds gage. Each boiler has a heating 
surface of 4114 square feet, and a radiation surface of 57,500 

square feet. 

Forced draft is furnished to the boilers by two complete 

turbine drivem blowers , made by the Buffalo Forge Co. The air ducts 




Fig. 9. The Present 
Plant. Completed 
in 1931, 



-7- 



from each blower comunlcate with only one firebox, tbus making it 
possible to control the draft to each furnace within narrow limits. 

Coal is delivered to the plant in trucks, dumped over 
a grating {2^"X4") into the bucket of the skip hoist. The skip 
hoist (Fig 11) then elevates the bucket 
automatically by means of a Cutler- 
Hammer magnetic switch board and 
dumps the coal into the coal bunker, 
(Fig. 12.) The coal feeds by gravity 
from the bunker down into the weigh 
larry. Here the coal is weighed end 
then dumped into the stoker hoppers. 
The Taylor stokers are multiple 
retort, underfeed machines driven by 
individual Troy stoker engines, type 
VTO, size 4t" X 5" f (Fig. 13.). Both 
the stokers and blowers are controlled 
by a Mason regulator. This type of regulator is actuated by variations 
in boiler pressure of only a few pounds, thus giving us very close 
control. Also, the Mason regulator, (Fig. 14) makes it possible to 
run the plant with a smaller crew and conequent saving in maintenance. 

Since the condensate from the radiators of the system is 
not returned to the boiler, fresh water from the mains is constantly 
entering the plant, thus requiring the use of a preheater to warm 
the feed water. From the preheater the water goes thru the flow 
meter which is of the Cochrane V notch type. This meter has a record- 
ing dial which shows the water consumption curve drawn n a "tin* 6 




Fig, 10. Whiton Turbines 
and Buffalo Forge Co. 
Blowers . 



scale. The water which has been heated from about 40 to 110 degrees F. 



-8- 



f 




Fig. 11. Beaumont Skip 
Hoist, Cutler-Hamner 
Control . 





Fig. 12. Coal Banker 
Capacity - 100 T. 




Fig, 14. Mason Press- 
ure Regulator. 



Fig. 13, Troy Stoker Engine. 
Type VTO, Size, 4£" X 5". 



-9- 



now goes to the feed water heater where it is heated to about 180 

degrees F. Leaving the heater the water 

enters the toiler feed pump (Fig* 15) and 

is discharged at a pressure of about 140 

pounds gage. The discharge side of the 

feed pump is tapped and connected to a Copes 

automatic pressure control which varies the 

speed of the pump to suit the load. 

Figure 16 shows the instrument panel 
for the draft gauges and CO meter. The 
draft gauges give the amount of vacuum, 
about .2" above the grate and the pressure, 
about 3" water, below the grate. The CO 
meter, made by the Brown Instrument Co. of 
Philadelphia, shows the percentage of C0 g in the flue gas at all times 
and records same on a time chart. 

The ash handling equipment consists of the shaker mechan- 
ism shown in Fig* 17 and the ash car, ash track, and ash tunnel. 
The picture of the shaker mechanism was taken from the ash pit looking 
upwards. Figure 18 shows the ash track and tunnel. 




Fig. 15. Boiler Feed 
Pump. 



PLANT EFFICIENCY 
There is no meter or gage in the plant to measure the total 
amount of steam generated over a giwen period, the only steam meter 
in the plant being used solely for measuring the amount of steam 
which is sold to the dairy. However the data obtained by measuring 
the amount of water used and the amount of coal burned enables us 
to obtain a rough idea of the plant efficiency. The following data 



-10- 



..Jl. ,. 




Fig. 16. Brown C0„ Meter, 
and Draft Gages. 




Fig. 18. Ash Tunnel. 




Fig. 17. Grate Shaker As Viewed From Ash Pit. 






-11- 



obtained from the Office of the Superintendent of Grounds gives the 
monthly average of pounds of water used per pound of coal from 
July 1932 to June 1933, 



Month. 


lb. water/lb. coal. 


July 


11.5 


August 


IS. 9 


Sept. 


12.0 


Oct. 


10.2 


Not. 


9.9 


Dec. 


10,0 


Jan. 


9.6 


Feb. 


9.7 


Mar. 


10.0 


April 


10,4 


May 


11.2 


June 


12.1 



1 1 

A brief Inspection of the above data aparently shows a 
higher water rate of evaporation during the summer months when the 
plant is operating at only a fraction of full capacity, than during 
the winter months when the plant is operating at nearly full capacity. 
However, during the summer months one of the other of the two boilers 
is Idle nearly all the time. During this idle period large quantities 
of warm water are used to flush and clean the boiler, thus giving 
an erroneous evaporation rate. The true evaporation rate is probab- 
ly that given for the mid winter months such as November, December 
or January, This would give us a water rate of evaporation of 
about 9.8 pounds of steam per pound of coal, which is considered 
very good for this size and type of plant. 



-12- 



( 




View of Roof Trass Construction 
as Seen From Position on 
Feed Water Heater Platform. 




Interior View of 
Fire Box. 



-13- 



BTHT.TOGRAHg 



Personal interviews with the following; 
Officers of adminiatrat ion at the University of Maryland , 
T. H. Taliaferro H. L. Crisp 

Maude F. McKenney 

Officers of instruction at the University of h&ryland, 
J. N. G. Neshit 
Harry Gwinner 
Others, 

Miss Johnson, Office of Supt. of Buildings. 
Mr Keeney, Chief Engineer of Central Heating Plant. 
H. B. Hoshall, Mechanical Engineering Dept. 
George W. Fogg, Librarian. 

Search of Files of Blueprints in General Service Office . 
Search of Early Files in Financial Secretary's Office.