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KAN V.2 PT.2 



Class B, No. 6 


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Devayajfla :— As stated in the Tai. Ar. quoted above ( p. 696 ) 
the Devayajfia was performed by offering fuel sticks into fire. 
According to the Ap. Dh. S. I. 4. 13. 1, Baud. »" Dh. S. II. 6. 4 
and Gaut. V. 8-9, the Devayajfia consisted in offering into fire 
offerings ( of food or at least a fuel stick ) with * svaha ' uttered 
after the name of the deities in the dative case. Manu also 
( III. 70 ) looks upon homa as devayajfia. The devatas to whom 
homa or devayajfia was offered are different according to different 
grhya or dharma sutras. For example, Asv. gr. ( I. 2. 2 ) says 
that ' they are the deities of the Agnihotra ( i. e. Surya or Agni, 
and Prajapati ), Soma Vanaspati, Agni and Soma, Indra and 
Agni, Heaven and earth, Dhanvantari, Indra, the Visve Devas, 
Brahman *. According to Gaut. they are Agni, Dhanvantari, 
Visve Devas, Prajapati, Agni Svistakrt. Vide Manava-grhya 
II. 12. % where the deities are different from those in Asv. gr. and 
Gaut. In later smrtis a distinction is made between homa ( or 
devayajfia ) and devapujS. Yaj. in 1. 100 speaks of the worship 
of gods immediately after tarpana and then in I. 102 includes 
homa among the five yajfias. Manu II. 176 also makes this 
distinction. Medieval writers came to look upon Vaisvadeva 
as the devayajfia, while others held that homa to gods was 
different from Vaisvadeva. Vide Haradatta U8S on Ap. Dh. 8. 
L 4. 13. 1. According to Marlci and Harlta quoted in the 
Smrtimuktaphala ( Shnika p. 383 ) devapuja is performed after 
the morning homa or after brahmayajna and tarpana IM7 in the 
noon. In medieval and modern times the anoient idea of homa 

1685. mm wng«rf<{ H »i8ra«hT ^nrsr *nmh% \ 4i. t*. *. II. 6.4; $*- 

thft I «ft. V. 8-9. The mantras become wfimr inward wt*t, «5Fwt»n*vt 
5ETT3T aod so on ; when fran is said the offering is thrown into the fire. 

1686. fotrlTOiwriort* %**r?r: %r%tr«s%*TjfJN'r. ?w»iajni'^JTi»nfTS 
n"r«t i ^«r: *ttbM& ■? mutt^isfe t i f^ ^ *^ gg igq El^'fia i vi a 

»T B«jfi* OTT H mfH T T H I ST^W on 3?TT. «. I. 4. 13. 1. / 

1687. arc %«rj3T«nT. i to sTrayfHT*i*srcfwra Srf%g[ i f^Nrc ^wi^sri imrjT- 

5^fw ^rwTfsrl M)m$iu|H»iKH, • fft i 'Ffnfcgwrqnj ( arr%9r p. 383 ). 
H.n. 89 

706 History of DharmaiMra I Ch. XIX 

receded far into the back-ground and its place was taken by an 
elaborated procedure of devapuja ( worship of images kept in the 
house ). Some space must be devoted to the origin and develop- 
ment of this phase of religious practice. 

It is extremely doubtful whether images were generally 
worshipped in the anoient Vedic times. In the Rgveda and the 
other Vedas, there is worship of Agni, the Sun, Varuna and 
various other deities; but they were worshipped in the 
abstract, as powers and manifestations of the one Divine Person 
or as separate deities or funotions behind natural phenomena or 
cosmic processes. There are no doubt passages where the 
deities of the Bgveda are spoken of as possessed of bodily 
attributes. A few verses may be cited in this connection. 
Indra is described in Bg. VIII. 17. 8 as ' tuvigrlva ' (with a 
powerful or thick neck ) and ' vapodara ' ( having big or 
capaoious belly ) and ' subahu ' ( having well-shaped arms ). 
Bg. VIIL 17. 5 speaks of the limbs and sides of Indra and prays 
Indra to taste honey with his tongue. In Bg. X. 96. 8 Indra is 
spoken as having dark green ( hari ) hair and beard and in X. 
105.7 again it is said that the hair on his chin are dark-green 
and his chin is never injured ( in battle ). ,M8 In Bg. II. 33. 5 
Budra is said to be ' rdudara ' ( whose abdomen is soft ), 
' babhru ' ( of brown colour ) and ' susipra ' ( with a fine chin or 
nose ). The V&j. S. 16. 7 speaks of Budra as having a dark-blue 
throat and red ( complexion ) and 16. 51 says he wears a skin 
( krtti ). In Bg. 1. 155. 6 Visnu is said to approach a battle 
with his huge body and as a youth ( * brhac-charlra * and 
' yuva'). In Bg. IIL 53. 6 Indra is asked to go home at once 
after drinking Somas, as he has a charming wife and delightful 
house. In Bg. X 26.7 god Pusan is said to shake his beard. In 
Bg. IV. 53.2 Savitr is said to put on a yellowish drapi ( armour ) 
and in Bg. I. 25. 13 Varuna is said to wear a golden drapi. It 
is not necessary to multiply examples. It is possible to argue 
that all these descriptions are poetic and metaphoric. But there 
are two passages of the Bgveda that cause much more difficulty 
than the above. Bg. IV. 24. 10 asks ' who will " M purchase this 

1688. gftifWt V&W** 5*ryr«ror «% i s^r vnfo fairi* » *. VIII 
17. 8; gftwsrwjftfai jhhrtcb^ »rt*ft<rr wrt&r i *r. X. 86. 8; ** i*rifr 
OT*Tf qw% fMwffl fWfcn* i sWdgCTgli * W H ST- X. 105. 7. 

1688. « ftf q^rftntaf sftorrfS ^aft: i jnp \pnM arfsnr^f ft JrM^ * 
«. IV. 24. 10 ; «% ^r wmflpct <ro awrnr ^rr»r, i «r wwnr mgsvi <n%iT 
* em* srnmu it jr. VIII. 1. 6. 

dh. XIX ] fievayajltar Origin of image worship 707 

my Indra for ten cows and might return it after he ( Indra ) has 
killed enemies ' ? Rg. VIII. 1.5 says 'O Indra! I shall not 
give thee for even a great price, not even for a hundred, a thou- 
sand or an aynta ( ten thousand ) '. It may be argued that here 
there is a reference to an image of Indra. But this is not con- 
vincing. It is equally possible to hold that these are hyperbolic 
or boastful statements of the great devotion of the worshipper to 
Indra and that there is no reference to an image of Indra. If 
we look at the Vedio cult described in theBrahraanas where sacri- 
fices of butter, cakes and boiled rioe or other grain are offered 
to several deities in the fire, or animal and soma sacrifices 
are described at great length, it is clear that the ancient sages 
hardly ever thought of the worship of idols, but of deities in the 
abstract to whom they ascribed different functions and poetically 
represented them as being endowed like human beings with 
hands and feet and other limbs. It cannot be denied that here 
and there occur a few passages that suggest images as objects of 
worship. For example, in the Tai. Br. II. 6. 17 occurs the 
passage ' may the hotr priest worship the three goddesses, that are 
golden, that are endowed with beauty ( or ornaments ) that are 
great ones' &o. It looks as if golden images of the three goddesses 
are meant."* One can say without much fear of contradiction 
that the religious practices among the higher strata of the Vedio 
Aryans did not include the worship of images in the house or 
in temples. But we have hardly any literary materials for judg- 
ing what the religious practices of the lower or ignorant masses 
of Vedic India were. In Rg. VII. 21. 5 Vasistha prays to Indra 
' may the siina-devas not overwhelm our rta ' ( religious order or 
practices); similarly in Rg. X. 99. 3 the prayer is 'may he 
( Indra ) striking ( or killing ) the sisnadevas overcome them by 
his form or power '. Scholars are sharply divided in opinion 
about the meaning of the word" 91 ' sisnadeva '. Some hold that 
it denotes people who were worshippers of the phallus ( vide 
Vedio Index, vol. II. p. 332 ). Others hold that the word is 
used in a secondary or metaphorioal sense for those who are 
immersed in sexual gratification and do not recognize anything 
else (as worthy of pursuit ). Yaska in his Nirukta (IV. 19) quotes 

1690. irhn- w&rwft: i fiNfr %*r: ffctwrttt i Hroftfofnftfh i ft. wr. 

II. 6. 17. The three devia are BhUrati, Ids and Sarasvatl. 

1691. jtt ftw^rr »fo s&t *-. n <%. VII. 21. 5 ; *&&*$$ w Pr wfarr 
^ it *r. X. 99. 3 ; 'itt f$r*r!«rr: wwjrfrii: firtf iproh «ft awtf *r: ml *t *rsr 
na » flrcw IV. 19. 

$08 History of DharmaicLstra [ Oh. XIX 

Bg. VII. 21. 5 and explains that the word means 'those who do 
not observe rules of brahmacarya (celibacy)'. The preponderance 
of authority and evidence is in favour of the seoond view. In 
Bg. VII. 104. 14( = Atharva VIII. 4. 14), the poet pleads * if I be 
addicted to falsehood, O fire, or if I call upon the gods 
in vain (then you may injure me), but (not being so) why 
are you angry with me? May those whose speech is false 
incur slaughter at your hands'. Here 'anrta-devah' is practi- 
cally the same as 'drogha-vacah' in the fourth pada. In the 
Tai. Up. 1. 11. 2 we have the words ' matrdevo bhava, pitrdevo 
bhava ', where all that is meant is that ' one should be devoted 
to the parents'. Therefore 'sisna-deva' could hardly mean 
' those who worship phallus as god*. In Bg."*' X. 87. 2 Agni 
is invoked as follows ' with thy tongue reach the muradevas, in 
thy mouth envelope the eaters of raw flesh after cutting 
them into bits' and in Bg. VII. 104. 24 Indra is called upon to 
kill male and female yatudhanas ( evil spirits or sorcerers ) and 
it is added ' may the muradevas perish bereft of their necks and 
may they not see the sun rising up from the horizon '. Yaska 
in commenting on Bg. X. 4. 4 explains 'mura' as 'mudha' 
( stupid ) 1,M . It is possible to take ' mura ' as meaning ' mortal • 
or ' perishable ' (since the root 'mr' assumes the form ' murlya' 
as in Bg. VII. 104. 15 ). From the above quotations it is clear 
that the Bgvedic poets knew of low people who practised 
witchcraft, who were muradevas ( i. e. either worshipped peri- 
shable objects or were stupid in their cult) and who were the 
enemies of the Aryans. There are also clear references to 
enemies who did not look upon Indra as God ( Bg. X. 27. 6, 
X48. 7, X.86. 1). 

Phallic emblems have been found in the ancient ruins at 
Mohenjo-daro (vide Sir John Marshall's work, vol. I. pp. 58-63 ). 
Except these finds the earliest known lifigas so far discovered do 
not go beyond the first century 6. 0. But centuries before 
Christ the worship of images had become widespread in India. 
According to Haradatta on Ap. gr. 20. 1-3, where the offerings to 

1692. wt ftr**n *5C%*!*WT »««n<ft **frft DW I W " ST. X. 87. 2 and 
swj^ VIII. 3. 2 (wnrorrendersqrlTwtrerfrra), <mf%n y^iw"fift 
imgyft wft 5T>$rnrP« » ST. X. 87. 14 (-wft? VIII. 3. 13 with alight 
variation at end ) ; ft rfhrwft qT^*f W?*5 m S g » l '<t<fo g W* « «ff- VII. 
104. 24 (m^r VIII. 4. 24). 

1693. ^si^^^ftrfti»Tr*c{|wri»tw»Tyft^(^.10. 4. 4.); ^rr« 
^* *ngr: HTufH n wi ftwi jrcwd' ef 3 ^wr i flww VI. 8. 

Oh, XIX ] Demy ajn~a~- Origin of image worship 70§ 

Isana, bis consort and bis son ' Jayanta ' ( the conqueror Skanda) 
are described, images of these three are worshipped. The Mfinava- 
grhya nH II. 15. 6 prescribes that if an image ( of wood, stone 
or metal ) were to be burnt down or to become reduced to powder 
(of itself) or falls (from its pedestal) or breaks into pieoes, or 
laughs, ormoves to anotberplace, the householder (in whose house 
it had been established ) should offer ten oblations into fire with 
certain Vedio verses. In the Baud. gr. II. 2. 13 when describing 
the ceremony of Upaniskramana ( taking the infant ohild out 
of the house for the first time ) it is said that the father after 
performing homa goes out of the house, worships the images 
outside ( the house ), feeds the br&hmanas, makes them 
pronounce benedictions and then brings back to the house the 
infant. "* s The Laugaksi grhya ( 18. 3 ) speaks of devatay atana 
( a temple ). Gaut. ( IX. 13-14 ) forbids a man from answering 
calls of nature in front of images or from stretching one's feet 
towards them and ( IX. 66 ) requires a man to circumambulate 
a temple ( devatayatana ) that he may meet on his way. The 
San. gr. IV. 12. 15 does the same and uses the same word ( 8. B. 
E. vol. 29, p. 125 ) and in II. 6. 6 mentions a deva-kula ( god's 
house ). S.p. Dh. S. ( I. 11. 30. 28 ) has a similar rule. Manu 
( II. 176 ) directs the brahmacarin to worship images, requires a 
person to oircumambulate images that he may meet with when 
on a journey ( IV. 39 ), not to cross the shadow of images 
( IV. 130 ) and ordains that witnesses be sworn in the presence 
of the images of gods and brahmanas ( VIII. 87 ). Vide also 
Manu III. 117 and IX. 285. The Visnu Dh. S. ( 23. 34, 63. 27 ) 
mentions the images of gods ( devatfirca ) and speaks of the 
worship of Bhagavat Vasudeva as an image. In Vasistha 
XL 31, Visnu Dh. S. 69. 7, 30. 15, 70 13, 91. 10 the word ' deva- 
tayatana ' or ' devayatana ' occurs. Unfortunately the dates of 
all these works are far from being certain. But no soholar will 
assign the M&nava, Baudhayana and Saiikhyayana grhyasutras 
and the dharmasutras of Qautama and Apastamba to a later 
date than the 5th or 4th oentury B. C. Panini, whom no scholar 
will place later than 300 B. O. ( though there are some who 

1694. trtrar ^tirsTT snphfi sroJtjrr wtifa f^ryr T^ar...iprrf>T«ifVT?t-« 

1695. »wWf*r«ir*7 KrmR r%f%vr"f»T"f fsrnt WPtrsrofa • «A. 

H. %. II. 2. 13. This is quoted im tb« <j*Sft | UMHIB l j . 887 wh«r« faftmfit 
is «XfUift«d as ^nrf:. 

$10 History of DharmaiSstra [ Ch. JtI3t 

place him several centuries earlier ), teaches "'• that an image 
by attending on whioh a person maintains himself and which 
is not for sale has the same name as the god whose image it is 
e. g. an image is called Siva or Skanda when the worshipper 
makes his livelihood by attending on the image of Siva or 
Skanda (and appropriating the offerings placed before the image) 
which is not for sale. Pfinlni also teaches ( IV. 3. 98 ) that 
' Vfisudevaka ' is a person who is a votary of Vasudeva and 
Patanjali expressly says that Vasudeva was not a mere ksatriya, 
but that the word is the name of God. Patafijali comments on 
the former sutra and vouchsafes the very interesting information 
that the Mauryas who were greedy of gold established or 
manufactured images, to which this rule would not apply, but it 
would apply to the images of gods that were in Pafcanjali's day 
used for puja ( worship ). According to Patanjali the images 
manufactured by the Mauryas would be called Sivaka &c. 
Patanjali, while commenting on PSnini IV. 1. 54, gives as 
examples an image with a long or high nose. The Adiparva 
70. 49, Anusasana 10. 20-21, Asvamedhika 70. 16 speak of 
devat&yatanas ( temples ) and Bhlsma 112. 11 in speaking of 
terrible portents refers to images in temples trembling and 
shedding tears. Kharavela, king of Kalinga ( latter half of 
2nd century B. O. ) is said to have re-established an image of 
Jina carried away by Nandaraja and he is described as ' sarva- 
devayatana-sankhara-kSraka ' ( one who looked after the preser- 
vation and repair of all temples ). In Eau^ilya's Arthasastra 
II. 4 ( variously assigned to different dates from 300 B. C. to 
250 A. D. ) it is stated that in the centre of the capital shrines 
of AparSjita, Apratihata, Jayanta, Vaijayanta and temples of 
Siva, Asvins, Vaisravana, LaksmI and of Madira ( wine ? ) 
should be erected. It follows from the above discussion that 
long before P&nini there had arisen professional men who made 
their livelihood by attending on images and that temples of 
deities must have existed even in the 4th or 5th century B. C. 

The question whether the worship of images and the erec- 
tion of temples spontaneously arose among the Vedio Aryans 

1696. sftfautf <*rr»* i <rr. V. 3. 99; src<m Tfg^rd i a$? * mwritr ftr*: 
w^ft fafrror jrra ■ f3r «hh"i< ■ «rvitriu<j iifiorw?: Mthftuvi: • f^rais * vnn. ' 
«m*>tanr: tfufif jsmnsms Hftsrfa ■ ifmw toI. II. p. 429 ; < $ra*iftnnp«tf 
Cfnfirw u f ■ HWT*n»f vol. II. p. 222 ( on in- IV. 1. 54) ; « *rg^*igfin*'rt 
^ > m. IV. 3. 98 ; ar«j*r *kr wflr»rrevr 1 #$"rr tnnror: 1 «?*pti«* vol. II. 

p. 914; videB. I. vol. 20 p. 80 and ■Vaifnaviim and Saivigm' by Dr. 
B. G. Bhandatkar ( 1913 ) pp. 3-4. 

Ch. XIX ] Bevayajfla-Origin of image worship 711 

or whether they derived the idea from some other race or 
sectarians has been very often discussed. There are three 
principal views, viz. (I) that the worship of images was derived 
from sudras and Dravidian tribes and absorbed in the brahma- 
nical cult ; (2) that the making of images was copied from the 
Buddhists; (3) that this practice was a natural and spontaneous 
growth. The second view is not very plausible. Images of 
Buddha were not made for a long time after his nirvava. He 
was only represented at first by symbols. If modern chrono- 
logy about Buddha's ministry is to be followed 1697 (he was 
born about 563 B. C. and died about 483 B. C. ), it is almost 
impossible to hold that images of gods originally came to be 
made in imitation of images or statues of Buddha, since, as we 
saw above, temples and images of gods had already become 
widespread throughout India in the 4th or 5th century B. 0. ,69e 
The first view is supported with arguments of some weight by 
Dr. Farquhar in J. R. A. S. for 1928 pp. 15-23. Fide also 
Dr. Charpentier in Indian Antiquary for 1927 pp. 89 ff. and 
130 ff. But I do not hold that the reasons for this view are con- 
vincing. There is no apparent reason why only about 400 B. G. 
image worship should have been copied from the sudras by the 
brahmanas. The sudra though given an inferior status had be- 
come a part of Indian Society at least a thousand years before 
400 B. C, as the Purusasukta shows. He had been serving the 
brahmanas for centuries before that date and brahmanas 
could in the times of the sutras partake of food cooked by him 
and could take sudra women in marriage. So, if the worship 
of images was a practice borrowed from the sudras, it should 
have prevailed at least a thousand years before 400 B. C. The 
fact that the devalaka brahmana (one who maintained himself 
by attending on images either for a salary or by appropriating 
what was placed before the image ) was not to be invited at a 
sraddha and had thus an inferior status ( Manu III. 152 ) is to 
be explained in a different way. The institution of worshippers 
of images had not an hoary antiquity behind it in the time of 

1697. See 'History of Buddhist thought' by Dr. E. J. Thomas (1933) 
for these dates. 

1698. Vide Mr. 0. C. Ganguly's paper 'the antiquity of the 
Buddha Image ' in Ostasiatische Zeitsohrift Noue Folge XIV, Heft 2/3, 
where he adduces rery weighty grounds for holding that the beginning 
of the cult of the worship of the image of Buddha lies somewhere 
between 150 B. C. to 50 B. C. 

712 History of DharmaiMra [ Ch. XIX 

Menu, as that of priests officiating at the srauta or grhya 
sacrifices had in his day ; besides such men must have neg- 
lected the principal duty of a brahmana ( viz. study of the 
Veda ) and so they were looked down upon. Even in the times 
of the Brahmanas the simple grhya sacrifices were being raised 
to the level of srauta rites, which were gradually becoming less 
and less frequent. The Ait. Br. (11.8) prescribes that when a 
man takes up an offering to a deity and is about to say ' vasat ' 
he should contemplate upon that deity for whom the offering is 
meant."" This would naturally lead the worshipper to invest 
the deity with anthropomorphic attributes. The Nirukta devotes 
some space ( VII. 6-7 ) to the consideration of the question of the 
form of the deities referred to in the Vedio mantras" 00 Three 
views are propounded, viz. (1) they have an anthropomorphic 
form, (2) they have no anthromorphio form, (3) they may par- 
take of both characters, i. e. the deities though really non- 
anthropomorphio may assume various forms for carrying out 
some purpose or activity. This last view contains the doctrine 
of avataras. When Vedio sacrifices became less and less preva- 
lent owing to various causes (particularly because of the 
doctrine of ahimsa, the various upasanas and the philosophy of 
the Absolute set forth in the Upaniaads ), there arose the cult of 
the worship of images. Originally, it was not so universal or 
elaborate as it became in medieval and modern times. 

The literature on the subject of image-worship is vast. The 
principal topics are: the substances from which images are 
made, the prinoipal deities of which images f were or are 
worshipped, the proportions of the various limbs in manufactur- 
ing images, the consecration of images and temples, the ritual 
of image worship. The subject of consecration of images and 
temples will be dealt with later on under the topio of Pratistha. 

In the Brhat-samhita of Varahamihira (chap. 58, where 
images of Rama, of Visnu with eight or four or two arms, of 
Baladeva, Ekanamsa, Samba, Brahma, Skanda, Siva, Girija as 
half of Siva's body, Buddha, Jina, the Sun, the Matrs, Yama, 
Varuna, Eubera are described); in the Matsyapurana chap. 

1699. n£ |w& *fas§nr ?vret wrifr m?Bft«^ i $. wr. 11. 8, quoted 
by gtarmn? on *qT«ns?r I. 3. 33. 

1700. 3raranrrc*<pf $«wihih. i gjraf^n': t^fa'tat i sr^rftwi 

*?ir?fcroc»i i s*f<f m THTphn*. *3: atf? it stj^qfauHi*^ *nrr»& wwtcttpt: 

«5P l faro VII. 6-7. 

Oh. XIX ] DewpQjarlmage w orship 713 

258-264 ; in the Agnipurftna chap. 44-53, the Visnudharmottara 
(IIL44ff. ) and other puranas, in the Manasara, the Catur- 
varga-ointSmani of Hemfidri ( Vratakhanda vol. II part 1, pp. 
76-222 ), in several agama works, in the Devatamurti-prakarana 
of sutradh&ra Mandana of the 15th century ( ed. by Upendra 
Mohan Sankhyatlrtha, Calcutta, 1936) and similar works 
elaborate rules are given on pratimalaksana ( the characteristics 
of the images of gods and goddesses ). They cannot be dealt 
with here. In modern times many works and papers, several 
of them illustrated with plates and photographs, have been pub- 
lished on this subject. ,701 

Medieval digests like the Sm. C, the Smrtimuktaphala, the 
Puja-prakasa devote considerable space to the subjeot of deva- 
puja ( image-worship ) in its various aspects, the last work 
containing 382 pages in print on this subject. A very concise 
statement of only a few topics is attempted below. 

1701. Besides the Annual Reports and Memoirs of the Archaeologi- 
cal Survey of India, the following is a modest list of such works i 

Ars Asiatica (in French ), some volumes of which suoh as vol. Ill 
( on saiva sculpture ), vol. X ( on Ajanta), vol. XV (about images at 
MathurS ) are specially useful ; Ludwig Baohhofor's ' Early Indian 
Sculpture * in two volumes ( 1929, Paris ) with 161 plates ( from 300 B. C 
to 200 A. D. ) ; Brindaban Bbattacharya's ' Indian Images ' vol. I ( 1921, 
a very useful work containing original Sanskrit texts from the Vcdas 
to the latest works and several illustrations); N. K. Bbattasali's 
' Iconography of Buddhist and Brahmanical Sculptures in the Dacca 
Museum ' ; Rai Bahadur Chanda's ' Medieval Indian Sculptures in the 
British Museum * (1936); ' Ancient India '( from the earliest times to 
the Guptas as to architecture and sculpture ) by K. de B. Codrington 
1926, with numerous plates ; A. K. Coomarswamy's ' History of Indian 
and Indonesian Art'; A. Foucher's 'Beginnings of Buddhist Art' (1917 
translated by L. A. Thomas and F. W. Thomas ) and 'L' Arte Greco- 
Buddbique du GandhSra ' (in two vols. 1905 and 1918 ); O. C. Gangoly's 
' South Indian Bronzes' ( 1915, with 95 full page illustrations and 45 
smaller plates) ; T. A. Gopinath Rao's 'Elements of Hindu Iconography ' 
( in 4 parts, containing quotations from purSnas, dilpa£3stras and other 
works and numerous illustrations ) ; GrUnwedel's ' Buddhist Art in 
India' (English translation by Agnes C. Gibson revised by JameB 
Burgess, 1901); E. B. Havell's 'Indian Sculpture and Painting' 
(London, 1908), ' the Ideals of Indian Art ' (London, 1911), * Hand-book 
of Indian Art ' ( London, 1920 ) ; H. Krishna Sastry's ' South Indian 
Images of Gods and Goddesses ' ; Nihar Ranjan Ray's ' Brahmanical 
Gods of BHrma ' ( 1932 ) ; V. A. Smith's » History of Fine Art in India ' 
(1911, with hundreds of illustrations ) ; ' MurtivijnSna ' ( in Marathi ) by 
G. H. Khare(1939,{Poona). 
B. D. 90 

714 History of Dharmaidstra I Oh. XIX 

The word ' devapQjft ' ""' occurs in the Vartika on Panini 
1. 3, 25. The digests try to show that, just as yUga ( saorifice ) 
consists in giving up materials accompanied by a mantra with 
reference to a deity that is then principally in view, so puja 
also is yUga, as therein also there is giving up ( or dedication ) 
of materials to a deity. ,m 

The next question is ; who are entitled to perform devapuja. 
Men and women of all varnas and even the untouchables were 
to worship Visnu who incarnated himself as man-lion, accord- 
ing to the Nrsimhapurana and Vrddha-Harlta ,7 °* (VI. 6 and 
256 ). All the male members of a joint undivided family are to 
perform separately samdhya, brahmayajna and agnihotra (if 
they have consecrated the srauta and grhya fires ) but devapuja 
and vaisvadeva will be only one for the whole family. im Th e 
time for devapuja is after tarpana at noon and before vaisva- 
deva ; but some place it after vaisvadeva. According to Daksa 
II. 30-31 all devakarya ( duties and ceremonies in honour of 
gods ) must be performed in the first half of the day. 

One of the peculiar tenets of Hinduism is adJukara-bheda 
( difference in rights, duties, ceremonies and worship dependent 
on difference in intellectual, emotional and spiritual equipment). 
Not every one was capable of the same discipline and regimen. 
Image worship was not absolutely necessary for everybody and 
the ancient writers never thought that when they worshipped 
an image they were simply paying homage to a material object. 
They believed that they contemplated the One Supreme Spirit in 
the form of the image or symbol before them, which helped ordi- 
nary people to concentrate their mind on the Godhead to the 
exclusion of other external and engrossing objects and pursuits. 

1702. ^i||^qyvHI'H'M<hi u l4r: I mfiwT on qi. I. 3. 25 sJMI^'il*^. Vide 
WSTSTTBT vol. I. p. 281 which shows that this *rf§97 was read somewhat 
differently by others even so early. 

1708. tjsnlNii^n g-t^wifiM ws^r^ sfrofon^ i <T|* morrarerffi- 
nforrrPfSf: **ffi£ « ^. IV. 2. 27-28, on which $r«nr distinguishes betwoen 
Trm, jfrr and qrpr as follows *i3ff&3?frii*g§-'htg *r$^*nf« WTPTs I WK ^nmt' 

TOT8 P- !• 

1704. wiBron: wt>TT fort: ftpr: ^i> i *«Ml«<< : I *qpv tf 5*«rg wm 
timniiX . < S 1 *^ ^Tg^qhfrwiftfiws^ i «RmSTt°t quoted in 
fWPWSTO p. 1, ^RWBWtt P. 33. 

1705. Vide $rwraj quoted in the mq g HH^a p. 133. 

Oh. XIX ] Devayajfta- Image worship 715 

Acoording ,7 °* to Narada, the BhSgavata-purana XL 27. 9 and 
Vrddha-Harlta ( VI. 128-129 ) Hari is to be worshipped in 
water, in fire, in the heart, in the sun, on the altar, in brahmanas 
and in images. Satatapa 1707 says 'the gods of ordinary men 
are in water, those of the knowing are in heaven, of the ignorant 
and of those of small intelligence are in wood and clay ( i. e» 
images ) and of the yogin in his own self ( or heart )'. God is 
worshipped in fire by throwing oblations, in water by throwing 
flowers, in the heart by contemplation and in the orb of the sun 
by japa. 

The materials out of which images are to be made are 
precious stones, gold, silver, copper, brass, iron, stone, wood or 
clay. One made of precious stones was the best and the most 
inferior was that made of clay. The Bhagavata-purana ( XI, 
27. 12 ) says that images are eight-fold viz. made of stone, wood 
iron, sandal-wood or similar paste, drawn ( as a picture ), made 
of sand, of precious stones and lastly mental ,70s . The Matsya- 
purana ( 258. 20-21 ) adds ' lead and bronze * to the above eight 
of the Skanda. Vide also Vrddha-Harlta VIII. 120. Among 
stones the Salagrama stone (a black stone containing fossil 
ammonite found in the GandakI river near a village called 
Salagrama ) and the stone from Dvaraka marked with a cakra 
(discus) are highly prized in the worship of Visnu. Vrddha-Harlta 
(VIII. 183-189) highly extols Salagrama-puja. It is stated by 
Vrddha-Harlta that only dvijas can worship Salagrama and not 
sudras. According to several purana passages quoted in the 
Pujaprakasa (pp. 20-21 ) even women and sQdras can perform 

1706. qphm ft^ft^fav <T^i h€ vH»i<*4dHif5nv!nTirflr% *rt$ wrajm'ht 

SH-T^ « fat^SWfoC HI. 46. 3 ; UlT^fa I W&vfr C?^ «? ?*rio3& HT5TWT5 "9 I 
"?!5^ri^5 5*: W"r«l^n gftfa: ^KH.n quoted in ^srPHfim p. 10 and ^)%g. 
( anfrtfi p. 384 ); Sfffrtrapt III. 29. 2 haa tho same worda. ' 5^ UITOnrt 
<rr 3T& ffi qgH"3w • *aft ^ ww*& Tift f^a^iijByjw *vw » i^f rfrsr VI 
128-129 ; s^fcji nv&gfcaft *r s^srcg ff? fff5r 1 ?*ftr TfrSsT^rq **s* 
ffHWltp n n HPTOff XI. 27. 9 ; vide also j^tjrtirf VIII. 91-92. 

1707. arcs i^rr ng«rn»rt r%ft ^n mfn%TH • ^ratTrss ijaWt $*mi- 
wi* fan 11 srram in smahRfsfrcr p. 382 ; 3^ fifrrnrat ;{■*> f%ft %*rr jtstV 

faorrac 1 s?f3»rrcT5<TS^rTt ^rftrrt f^f 3ft: 11 quoted in $5nsji?rr$r p. 8 (this is 
5(*Jrersn<»r 62. 5 and sjrfHp*R III. 29. 3 ) ; ?fiq-Rrr st% gsq'wri^tar fq^ 
?ft* 1 svifcr gjr»ft ftw" arto rftwwd 11 sqfSs- ( arrfftg p. 384 ). 

1708. iwarr fcwsrr $* <cnsnfr m&m asrr 1 *)riWr *t tot afar ttsrat 
h»m\ w*rr 11 artpmnTT f^jfart y»»i<ft *mfar ^ 11 1 ■h4*i*w.ji >«hr jysrtrr <^m- 
jrrwrr n to*?stto quoted in swnmr p. 11 ; &ft fwnft bt^t awn a^rr 
*r wwft 1 «T^*nrr *rPnrfr ufirHmfStar s^ar 11 wrrfTrstTT XI. 27. 12, quoted 
in ^srm. P- 116. 

716 History of DharmaiSstra [ Oh. XIX 

the worship of S&lagrSma 1TM , hut they should not touch it. 
Similarly they are not to worship lingas established in the past 
by sages &c. This worship of Salagrama is comparatively 
ancient. Samkaracarya in his commentary on the Vedantasutra 
speaks in several places of Salagrama l7 '° being worshipped 
as a symbol of Hari. Five kinds of stones were used in 
worship, viz. Bana-lingas from Narmada in Siva worship. 
Salagrama in Visnu worship, metallic stone in Durga 
worship, crystal for sun-worship and red stone in Ganesa 
worship. The Eajataranginl ( II. 131 and VII. 185 ) refers 
to the establishment of Banalihgas 1VU of Siva in Kashmir 
taken from the Narmada. About the images to be worshipped 
in the house it is stated in the Matsyapurana ( 258. 22 ) that 
they should be in size as big as a part of the thumb up to 12 
angulas and not more ; but an image to be established in a 
temple should be up to sixteen aiigulas and not more or its 
proper height should be arrived at as follows : divide the height 
of the door into eight parts ; taking seven parts divide them into 
one-third and two-thirds ; the pedestal of the image should be 
one-third and the image should be two-thirds of the seven parts 
( i. e. # of seven-eighths of the height of the door ). Vide 
Matsyapurana 258. 23-25. 

Among the gods popularly worshipped the principal ones 
are Visnu under various names and in various avataras, Siva 
in his various forms, Durga, Ganesa and the Sun. ,m The 

1709. 5rre?nTHf?ter T* v& 51** <W?rtjT ■ s*r*fts *bmr *rsr en* sf%^ 

«5PTs H TT^ quoted in ^ierg. C sm^S? P- 384); ride also Jpm. p. 11 

and wrgmw p. 78a quoting ^^m or. f^snjn^r ^^"rt sTras-mfsrarsfai i 
S^rt VIII. 190. 

1710. «j*»To?prcpnifc(3joTJToftifcT ^»srwnr g yrg o g*f% r^iwrr ?s«t ar- 

fejvn* 1WI StTcSinft f ft: i sfujr* on frq rerqfl 1.2.7; vid e also on I. 2. 14 and 
I. 3. 14. ( where he says *tot 5II5Jirtfc f^S! *n*n%er sfet crgfr. ). Vide ^g- 
**um** p- 35 ' ^rcra^ro? ^nHjrwr^ a wsjifaenr s^rr ^r^reb m*ft ' and 
p. 37 quotes a passage from the *r re<rcrgnor which allows even «jfcg rs to 
worship Devi and Lingas made of clay or sand ( tnf&^RfcS" ). 

1711. *wt* wr^ srwiwrar ^5?wifr«^fii&t i »?W^)ti^' fir«rf&&Krc* 
%u?tsii>tT3rfnn%^II. 131. 

1712. 3itf%^rHf«TOi ft«ni TTwrd niH^i T^ wyrt i fa*^ irfw: tsb 
S*rt«T. ii *hr* quoted in ^^fifo (sm%*> p. 384). Vide s^rrwrsj P- 239 **«• 
a verse is quoted which supports the diagram in tho toxt ' sjrwrl nvmk 
bCh«<m^«^1 s™ 5i^twi**ii(iiitjaT r« ^TioT^rrsrrp^^rT: *«Jiftfrr: i ^wrt fte&- 

This verse is quoted in the wrumw (p. 81a) as from the <wwm i m»i 
of *ta^. 

Oh. XIX ] 



worship of these deities ( called pa&oayatanapuja) is said to have 
been popularised by the great Samkaracarya. In modern times 
these five devatas are still worshipped, but they are differently 
arranged according as the worshipper places one or other of the 
five in the centre. The following diagram will show the five 
positions : 





Samka- GaneSa 

2 3 



Devi Surya 

5 4 

Visnu Snrya 
2 3 



Devi Ganesa 

5 4 

Sariika- GaneiSa 

2 3 



Devi Visnu 

5 4' 

y at ana 

Visnu Samka' 

'2 ra 




Surya Ganesa 
S 4 



Visnu Samka- 

2 ra 




Devi Bury a 

5 4 


In medieval and modern times Visnu has been deemed to 
have descended to earth ten times to preserve the world and its 
culture. A brief account of the development of this theory 
will not be out of place here. The ten well-known awt&ras are 
Matsya ( fish ), Kurma ( tortoise ), Varsha ( boar ), Narasirhha 
(man-lion), Vamana (dwarf), Parasurama, Rama, Krsna, Buddha 
and Kalkin. There are faint glimmerings of the theory of 
avataras and of these forms even in the earliest Vedio Literature. 
In Rg. VIII. 17. 13" IS it is said that Indra was the grandson of 
the sage Srcgavrsa. This may be interpreted as meaning that 
Indra was supposed to have descended on the earth in a 
human form. In Rg. IV. 26. 1 the sage Vamadeva exclaims 1714 
' I was Manu and I was also the Sun '. This is referred to in 
the Br. Up. I. 4. 10 and is often relied upon in support of the 
doctrine of the transmigration of souls. It may be capable of 
that interpretation, but if that is not accepted it will at least tend 
to support the proposition that the Vedic sage thought that the 

1713. «r# sift tt swt3( gp w i ^mwK Tt i mftw^w srr *w: ii 5r. VIII. 

17. 13. fo^Mi VIII. 5 oxplains ' *WRJ ffii aWffWT: JnTHTT *Tm§THI>. 
fTPPT takes wtm to mean g»r here. 

1714. 3ig wgrvr* *Stf?*mf flftfhfi 3ffoffo fo: 1 *?. IV. 26. 1 ; war «TT 
TCto 3<Kfi'd<niw re3nrf>q; 1 art ngrnpftfH 1 t nsrrewpfonmft ^r %*nrt 

•raw n$$i$ 1 *?. are. 1. 4.10; srwrprvr SF^sr* tvtitn^ t *^mna?i 1. 1.30. 

718 History of DharmaiOdra [ Ch. XIX 

Sun could be born on the earth aa a human being (i. e. there was 
an avatara of the Sun ). There is another sense in which this 
passage of the Rg and that of the Br. Up. are understood in the 
Vedantasutra I. 1. 30 viz. that Vamadeva had realized that his 
soul was non-different from the Supreme Soul, Brahma. The 
elements of the avatara of Matsya are probably suggested by 
the story of Manu who was saved from a flood by a great 
horned fish to whose horn Manu tied the rope of his ship when 
the flood rose. Vide gat. Br. I. 8. 1. 1-6 ( S. B. E. vol. 12, 
pp. 216-218 )." 15 

The tortoise avatara was probably suggested by the legend 
that Prajapati having assumed the form of a tortoise created 
living beings and that as the words Jcurma ( tortoise ) and 
kaiyapa mean the same object all creatures are said to be 
descended from ( or to belong to ) Kasyapa ( Sat. Br. VII. 5. 1. 
5, S. B. E. vol. 41, p. 390 )."" The peculiar exploit of the Boar 
incarnation, viz. raising up the earth from the bottom of the 
ocean, is alluded to in the 6at. Br. XIV. 1. 2. 11 ( S. B. E. 
vol. 44, p. 451 ) ' a boar called Emusa raised the earth up and 
he was her lord Prajapati. ,im In the $g. Visnu is said to 
have pierced Varaha ( I. 61. 7 ) and that he being incited by 
Indra brings to the worshipper a hundred buffaloes, rice cooked 
in milk, and the boar ( called ) Emusa ( VIII. 77. 10 ). The Tai. 
5.r. X 1 refers to this myth. In the Kanaka S. VIII. 2 
Prajapati is said to have become a boar and plunged in water. 
Vide also Tai. S. VII. 1. 5. 1 and Tai. Br. I. 1. 3. Some 
elements of the story of the destruction of Hiranyakasipu 
by Visnu in the man-lion form are supplied by the story of the 
slaughter of the demon Namuci by Indra at dawn with the 
foam of waters, since Indra had agreed with Namuci that ' he 
would not slay him by day or by night, with the dry or moist 

1715. h wrq vrfhjft snwm^t * w ""W artpuiig^ mv %& ito <tt$t «n%- 
S*?Tsr fmmprt flhTwidjijH i yrffTCTT . I. 8. 1. 5. Vide an interesting and 
learned article by Prof. Maodonell in J. li. A. S. 1896 pp. 165-189 on the 
mythological basis of some of tho incarnations. 

1716 - tf v*$»rf «tr > ipr| 3w ^m iremrftt: srsn w^rer qygamwrtrr i ^- 
*5*t*wnag& TOv<ft ^ fiftawiqig: *rsrf: srarii * i w<-v jfit i srartrarf. 
VII. 5. 1. 5. 

m7 ' V^* * ** ? 7 ^^ n fw s?r?sr*Tnft tn^? yfir iww gar m w 
wtoprr: <rfih srarnrfifc i smv XIV. 1. 8, 11 ; sr^jrrfSr wtrfw ^«or«r m- 
*npn i ^jftfaawnft ghranfrn « $. w. X. l. ^tnr may in the 9g. 
mean ' a boar-like oloud demon » or ' a boar '. Vide f^R V. 4. 

Ch. XIX ] DevapVjU-Ten avataras 719 

or with the palm or with the fist, or with staff or bow &o.' 
(Sat. Br. XII. 7. 3. 1-4, S. B. E. vol. 44, pp. 222-223 ). Sat. 
Br. XII. 7. 3. 4 quotes Rg. VIII. 14. 13 which narrates that 
Indra out off the head of Namuoi with the foam of waters. 1718 
In the anoient Tamil work Silappadikaram (translated by 
Prof. V. B. Diksitar ) there is a reference to the Narasimha 
avatara. The special achievement of the dwarf incarnation, 
viz. the request of the dwarf for as much spaoe as would be 
covered by his three steps, has its counter-part in the Bgveda, 
where the principal exploits of Visnu are the taking of three steps 
and making the earth steady or fast." 19 Vide Sat. Br. I. 2. 5. 1 
for the Dwarf incarnation. In the ChSndogya Up. III. 17. 6 it 
is stated that the sage Ghora Angirasa imparted a certain 
instruction to Krsna, the son of Devakl. 1 ™ This may have 
supplied some part of the legends about Krsna in thu Great 
Epio and the PurSnas. 

We saw above that according to Patanjali Vasudeva was 
not a mere ksatriya but an incarnation of God. Patanjali 
quotes a quarter of a verse which speaks of Kamsa being killed 
by Vasudeva and refers to painted shows wherein the party 
of Vasudeva were dressed in blaok and of Kamsa in red ( vide 
Mahabhasya, vol. II. p. 36 and p. 119 ). Patafljali also speaks 
of Ugrasena as a member of the Andhaka clan and Visvaksent 
as a Vrani and of Baladeva also ( Mahabhasya, vol. II. p. 257 
on Panini IV. 1. 114 ) and of Satyabhama ( vol. I. p. Ill ) and 
Akrura ( vol. II. p. 295 ). So the main story of Krsna and 
persons connected with his ministry on earth as gathered from 
the Mahabharata, the Harivamsa &c. were known to Patanjali 
and to some extent also to Panini. The Besnagara Inscription 
of Heliodorus ( E. I. vol. X. Appendix p. 63 No. 669 ) shows 
that even Greeks became devotees of Visnu. The Eran Stone 

1718. Ha^ i MW ' «gervt Transrgf^iT wrif?^ t t%*t «t snufftfir f$r* 

^m<H, I ff W%Hj | iV 'll * ' K-*H I 3TTT 3i%ST fsp*: II JJW i SRltWWT. XII. 

7. 3. 8-4 ; *r VIII. 14. 13 is surf qtfr ig%s fit* srehprcfar t i f*«arr 

1719. g^ ftB^f§<3rar$ %v\ ftf§ i^c i gu garagi <rts* h *ftS> <rf t fr*- 

*s$ T*«S»fftn M?1"T: I ^. I. 22. 17-18 ; vide also Rg. I. 154. 1-4, I. 155. 4, 
VI. 49. 13 &o ; «r ir f^wft aiiqm« fl m otnft ^r nft^rt THWRTTO i Tqw«n 

h iti<i«4 ig*?f <|ra»$ tt€t sj§j*t jt^tt: n "wr? xiftft fiwrcfa ^ra*f 

jfaftwfifcft W^: H W. VII. 99. 2-3. 

Bl*9ta !TT. III. 17. 6. Vide ' V atavism and Saiviiiin ' by Sir R. G. 
Bhandarkar p. 11 on Kiana. 

720 History of Dharmaiastra [ Oh. XIX 

Inscription ( vide Gupta Inscriptions p. 158 No. 36 ) refers to 
the Boar Incarnation. The BhagavatapurSna II. 4. 18 declares 
that even KirStas, Hunas, Andhras, Pulindas, Pukkasas, Abhlras, 
Suhmas, Yavanas, Khasas and others and oven Binners, when 
they throw themselves on the mercy of Visnu as devotees, are 
purified. It may therefore be assumed that the theory of the 
avataras of Visnu ( whether ten or less or more ) had been 
prevalent some centuries before the Christian era. 

In the Mahabharata and the RamSyana it is frequently 
stated that Qod comes down to earth often for punishing the 
wicked, for the protection of the good and the establish' 
ment of dharma. mi In the Santiparva ( 339. 103-104 ) the 
avataras are stated to be ten and they are the same as now 
acoepfced except that Haihsa is mentioned instead of Buddha 
and Krsna is called Satvata. Among the Purapas also several 
do not mention Buddha as an avatSra. The M&rkandeya ( 47. 7 ) 
speaks of Matsya, Kurma and Varaha incarnations and in 4* 
53-56 beginB with Varaha and mentions Nrsimha, Vamana and 
Mathura ( i. e. Krsna ). The Matsya ( 47. 39-45 ) speaks of 
12 avataras, some of which are different from the usual ones 
and verse 106 states that Bhrgu cursed Visnu to be born as a 
human being seven times, as he killed a woman, viz. his wife* 
The Matsya-purana ( chap. 285. 6-7 ) mentions the well-known 
ten avataras including Buddha and this passage is quoted by 
Apararka on p. 338. The Matsya-purana 47. 247 speaks of 
Buddha as the 9th ( avatara ). The Nrsirhha-purBna chap. 36. 
the Agni-purana chap. 2 to 16 and the Varaha-purana 4. 2 
enumerate the well-known ten avataras. The Vrddha-Harlta 
srarti 17 ' 8 ( X. 145-146 ) enumerates ten avataras, includes 
Hayagrlva in them (in place of Buddha) and expressly says that 
Buddha should not be worshipped. In the Ramayana (Ayodhya- 

1721. Vide HopkinB' 'Epic Mythology' 1915, pp. 209-219 and 
Indian Historical Quarterly, vol. XI. p. 121 ff. for detailed information 
on the avatSras of Vi?nu ; note the following : arcrat HMemio vriHrw- 
orror <<? i sTrAW H3 s <j r u i maima *rpr^ h <r«ro$ 272. 71 ; *tfh tfswft $ 
tftfrfrfifo hw* i tr&ft*r<>rr»rfa w^grtpnTr ^ n 3TT«?&f^wr^ 54.13; *pnr#wr 
IV. 7-8, wnf 272. 61-70, 276. 8. &c; WTHnrtsFrFS' I. 7, 3-^^x8 8.27; 

qmxftfrl WTWff: ERlSs^r ^ I 5m%^ 339. 103-104. 

1722. ***pf $# <9 mmi tmf&d <% qi*wn. i sftrnt it?'^ ^r iftf wiN;- 
j**r<kX. 145-146. 

Oh. XIX J Devapuja-Ten avatar as 721 

kSnda 109. 34) Buddha is reviled as a thief and an atheist. 1 ™ This 
passage may be an interpolation. In the Bhagavatapurana 
there are three different lists of avataras at I. 3 ( where 22 
avataras occur in which Buddha, Kalkin, Vyasa, Balarama 
and Krsna are separately enumerated ), II. 7 ( where besides 
the well-known avataras, Eapila, Dattatreya and others are 
mentioned ), and at VI. 8 Buddha and Kalkin are both 
mentioned in verse 17. m * The Krtyaratnakara ( pp. 159-160 ) 
quotes a passage from the Brahmapurana about a vrata on the 
7th of the bright half of Vaisakha where it is stated that Vi?nu 
as Buddha started the Sakyadharma and that on the 7th day of 
Vaisakha when the moon is in conjunction with the Pusya 
constellation, the image of Buddha should be bathed to the 
accompaniment of sayings of the Sakya and gifts of garments 
should be made to Sakya ascetics. The same work (pp. 247-248) 
quotes a pasBage of the Vaiahapurana on the observances of 
Buddha-dvadasI, when a golden image of Buddha was to be 
worshipped and given to a brahmana. In memoir No. 26 of the 
Archaeological Survey of India, it is stated ( p. 5 ) that in an 
inscription from South India of about the 7th oentury A. D. 
ooours a verse in a mutilated form in whioh Buddha is enume- 
rated among the ten avataras ( ...narasimhotha Vamanah Ramo 
Ramasca Krsnasca Buddhah Kalkl ca te dasa ). 1725 From the 
above discussion it follows that Buddha became in popular view 
an avatara of Visnu for the Hindus from about the 7th oentury 
A. D. Even about that time he was not universally so treated 
and orthodox writers like Kumarila ( who flourished somewhere 
about 650 to 750 A. D. ) did not admit that he was an avatara. 
In his Tantravarfcika ( p. 195 on Jaimini I. 3. 4 ) KumErilabhatfa 
says that the Sakya texts were promulgated by Buddha and 
others that had strayed from the path of the three Vedas and 

1723. *t«it fl 'tro *r jtot ft ggwrwa snf^srw ftf3r ' smwrasmr 
109. 34. 

1724. 3?*irm grins^fT *fc « wffi9ig aii; i *rm^T I. 3. 26 ; 3imft$rfft& 
sn^ i%«^: 3>fljg»f *rnr i sikhjk ftTEVJTTsr 5^r ^1 *ra£«KT. H wargnw quoted 
in m^jx. p. 159 ; • twnN-flsi ^oj g^j- ipnrr f^*$tT: i tmtsrt g wf&t nrjr- 

orrr f$^$JT. » tufta"* 4 * 9 t srbSjl ^ s^rt ^rrrt*: i g*R*rr xrm- 

fw*T *n«l IIS MW«hl im II TOygCW quoted in ^ttt. pp. 247-248. 

1725. *T?^T: $*rF TOB/«r mftitfv trrar: I tuft TPW ^sorsj g^; sr^jjir ^ 
& 5?r II «RT?3TfT IV. 2 ; the inscription in the memoir 26 (p. 5 ) contains 
the verse in this form. Vide * Vaisnavism and 6aivism ' pp. 41-42 for 
the incarnations of Vifou. 

H.». 91 

722 History of Dharmaifistra [ Ch. XIX 

that aoted contrary to the Vedas and asks I7M the question " what 
assurance is there that one, who, himself being a kqatriya, trans- 
gressed the dharma laid down for ksatriyas and betook himself 
to the profession of a religious teacher and accepted gifts, would 
impart instruction in dharma that would not lead to confusion ? 
It has been said ' one should leave at a distance a person who 
does acts contrary to the other world. How can one who 
deceives himself confer benefit on another ' " ? The Brhatsarhhita 
of Varahamihira ( 60. 19 ) states the persons who are to hold 
the office of worshipper in the temples of several deities, viz. 
the Bhagavatas for Visnu, the Magas ( sakadvlplya brahmanas ) 
in temples of the Bun, dvijas smeared with ashes in Siva temples, 
those who know the group of raStrs in the temples of the Mother 
Goddesses, brahmanas in the temples of Brahma, Buddhists in 
the temples of Buddha who was good to all and whose mind 
was full of peace, naked ascetics in the temples of Jinas ; who- 
ever is a devotee of a particular god should worship that god 
according to the procedure prescribed in his own cult. 1727 

1726. tmnnQq^H i tfr 5>fty<jjr*i*!Hii^i^^ *nrto* w^ma ^r- 

Vim4 t%wt i ff& i arramfifo p. 195. The verse ir^ter &°. «s 5nf*a<r| 1<3, 
13, the first half being somewhat different ( though the sense is the 
same). A angrr alone was entitled to accept gifts and propound dharma. 
Vide Manu X. 1. 

1727. fowjifwfT^tTfOTrNar ?rRg: ?i«rr: tnHnft«u^. ^nyrmfq' wigHuear- 

fSfffT: wftftrTT aw^r^nr? ftfTtliffW(t!Tl60.19. Vide Wilson's Vi?nnpurana 
vol. V. p. 382 where an analysis of the Bharisyapursna (last 12 chapters) 
is given. Ssmba being cursed built a temple of Siva and bronght 18 
families of Magas from Sakadvipa, with whom the Bhojas (a sub-division 
of Ysdavas ) entered into matrimonial alliances, whence the Magas oame 
to be called Bhojakas. In the Harsacarita IV BSna speaks of a Bbojaka 
astrologer called TSraka who predicts on H area's birth his greatness and 
the commentator states that ' Bhojaka ' means ' Maga '. Vide Sherring'S 
1 Hindu Tribes and Castes ' vol. I. pp. 102-103 where he describes the 
SSkadvTpi brahmanas as MSgadha brahmanas and not as Magas. For 
Sun-worship and the Magas, vide 'Vaisnavism and Samara* pp. 
151-155. Vide Weber's essay on the Magavyakti of KrscadBsa for the 
MagabrShmanas and E. I. vol. II. p. 330 ff, the Govindapura stone 
inscription of the poet QangSdhara, who was a Maga, in aaka 1059 
(1137-38 A. D. ), where it is said that the Magas were sprung from the 

( Continued on next page) 

Ch. XIX ] bevapujU-fen avataraa 7&3 

Ksemendra ( about 1066 A. D. ) in his Dasavatara-carifca and the 
Gltagovinda of Jayadeva ( about 1180-1200 A. D. ) speak of 
Buddha as an avatSra of Visnu. Therefore at least before or about 
the 10th century A. D. Buddha had come to be looked upon as an 
avatSra of Visnu throughout India. 1 ™ The total disappearance 
of Buddhism from India, the land of its birth, is a most striking 
phenomenon, which as stated by A. Schweitzer in ' Indian 
thought and its development ' ( tr. by Mrs. O. E. B. Russell, 
1935 ) p. 137, cannot be satisfactorily explained. Though 
Buddha did not accept the authority of the Vedas and of 
brahmanas, nor the existence of an individual soul nor the 
Supreme Soul, he believed in karma and punarjanma and in release 
from sar'nsara by renunciation and desirelessness. When his 
followers deified Buddha, when animal sacrifices had been almost 
stopped and his insistence on universal charity and kindliness 
and on self-restraint were universally accepted by the followers 
of the Yedic religion, Buddha came to be deemed an avatSra of 
Visnu, as the raison d'etre for a separate cult oeased and the 
decadence of morals among monks and nuns hastened the 
downfall of Buddhism, the finishing touohes being 'added by 
the Moslem invasions from about 1200 A. D. No one can affirm 
that persecution had anything to do with the disappearance of 
Buddhism from India. Though it cannot be said that there was 
no religious persecution whatever at any time in India, the 
evidenoe for persecution is very limited and such persecution if 
any as may have existed was as nothing compared to the perse- 
cution of Christians by other Christians and of Jews in all cen- 
turies and particularly in the 20th oentury by several so-called 
Christian powers. The few well-authenticated cases of large-scale 
persecutions are those of Sasahka who persecuted the Buddhists 
(vide Beal's •Records of the eastern world,' vol. I p. 212, vol. II. 
p. 42, 91, 118, 121), of Mihirakula, of a Pandya king (in the 11th 

, — — — — — — — — 

(Continued from last page) 

sun's own body, wero brought from Sakadvlpa by SSmba, the son of 
Krsna, and that the first Maga was a BhSradvffja. Vide also E. I. vol. 
IX. p. 279 the GhatiyBla Inscriptions (near Jodbpur) of PratlhSra 
Kakkaka written by Matrravi, a Maga, in eamvat 918 ( 861-62 A. D. ) 
and BhavisyapurSna, chap. 139-40 for farther details, such as growing 
beards, being called Bhojakas &o. Bbismaparva chap. 11 describes 
SSkadvipa and verse 36 speaks of the country of Manga s ( Hagas ? ). 

1728. Vide the first astapadl of the Gltagovinda HrWuffr jT& V*- 

724 History of DharmaiMra [ Ch. XIX 

century ) who persecuted the Jainas. From Asoka downwards, 
kings and the civil power always extended a generous tolerance 
to all sects ( vide Asoka's Rock Edict No. 12 ). The father of 
the great emperor Harsa was a worshipper of the Sun, while 
Harsa's elder brother Rajyavardhana was a Buddhist and 
Harsa, though himself a Saiva, speaks of his brother with 
greater reverence than of his own father ( vide the Madhuban 
copperplate inscription in E. I. vol. VII p. 155 and I p. 67 ). 
Vide Barth's 'Religions of India* pp. 133-134, Farquhar'a 
'Outlines of the Religious Literature of India' pp. 169, 175 for 
general religious tolerance in ancient India. 

Rama and Rrena were worshipped as avataras of Visnu at 
least several centuries before Christ. KalidSsa in the Raghu- 
vamsa ( XI. 22 ) and the Meghaduta indioates that he regarded 
Vamana as an avatara of Visnu as muoh as Rama was. Simi- 
larly the Varaha and Narasimha avataras are frequently spoken 
of in the Kadambarl. The Trimurti i. e. the conception of the 
triune combination of Brahma, Visnu and $iva into one God- 
head is also an ancient one. The Mahabharata ( Vanaparva ) 
gives expression to the idea that Prajapati creates the world in 
the form of Brahma, sustains it in the form of the great 
Purusa and annihilates it in the form of Rudra. Hopkins in 
his 'Epic Mythology* p. 231 holds that this is a solitary 
passage about Trimurti and is a late one and that the 
Mahabharata in general has no doctrine of Trimurti, but rather 
of the equality of Visnu and Siva. Kalidasa in his Raghuvarhsa 
(X. 16) and Kumarasambhava (II. 4)'™' breathes the same belief. 
The temples of Brahma are now very few and far between, the 
most well-known being tbat at Puskara ( Aimer). There is a 
temple of Brahma in the Idar State and another at Sadhi in the 
Padra Taluka of the Baroda State. The PadmapurSna ( Srati- 
khanda 17 ) shows that the worship of Brahma had declined at 
that time owing, it is said, to the curse of Savitri. 

Siva worship appears to be the most ancient worship that 
is still prevalent. Sir John Marshall's work on Mohenjo-daro 
( vol. I. pp. 52-53 and plate XII No. 17 ) shows a figure that is 
most probably of Siva as a great yogin surrounded by the 

<rih n wA 272. 48; «ro%q;fa a«J *r^ qh %«wtto^ i jpnnrft*rmw q«?i$*r 
5^3^ » gjTTWH* II. 4. It is noteworthy that the thiee aspect* of crea- 
tion, preservation and destruction are asoribed by KslidSsa to Brahma" 
here and not to Visnu. 

Ch. XIX ] ])evapuja-!kva worship 725 

elephant, the tiger, the rhinoceros and the buffalo ( as Siva is 
oalled Pasupati ). Vide also the Preface to vol. I. p. VI L At 
Mohenjo-daro the humped and short-horned bull is among the 
most prominent objects. Siva as half male and half female was 
worshipped long before Kalidasa (vide first verse of the Malavi- 
kagnimitra and Kumarasambhava VII. 28). Siva is often 
spoken of as Pancatunda ( with five faces ), the five aspects 
being respectively oalled Sadyojata, Vamadeva, Aghora, Tat- 
purusa and Isana ( vide Tai. Ar. X. 43-47, Visnudharmottara 
III. 48. 1 ). Though in later times the followers of Siva and 
Visnu abused each other, the Mahabharata and some of the 
Puranas exhibit a most tolerant spirit and say there is no 
difference between the two." 80 Vide Vanaparva 39. 76 and 189. 
5-6, Santi 343. 132, Matsyapurana 52. 23. The 1000 names of 
Visnu are enumerated in Anusasanaparva 149. 14-120 and the 
1000 names of Siva in Anusasana 17 and Santi 285. 74 ff. 

About the images of the sun the Matsyapurana (11. 31 and 
33 ) enjoins that in painting pictures of the sun or in temples of 
the sun the feet of the sun are not to be drawn mi or shown. 

About Ganesa a few words have already been said 
( at pp. 213-216 ). Ganesa came to be worshipped even by the 
Jainas. Vide Acara-dinakara ( composed in saihvat 1468 ) 
published in the Kharataragaooha-granthamala ( part II, 1923 ), 
where on p. 210 there is the procedure of consecrating an image 
of Ganesa even for Jainas and 'Journal of Indian History', 
vol. 18 for 1939 p. 158 for different types of Ganesa figures one 
of which has 18 arms. For a figure of Ganesa with sweetmeats 
( of about 500 A. D. ) vide ' Ancient India ' by Oodrington ( Plate 
XXXIX). The Acaradinakara says that images of Ganesa 
may have two, four, six, nine, 18 or 108 arms. The Agnipurana 
chap. 71, the Mudgalapurana and Ganesapur&na deal with 
Ganesa worship, but their dates are uncertain. The Varaha- 
purana chap. 23 narrates a fantastic story of the birth of Ganesa. 
The Ganapatyatharvaslrsa ( Anan. ed. ) identifies Ganesa with 
supreme Brahma.* The worship of the images of planets is 

1730. ftrarr fSsg g ft pr fori* fSwstfor i «r*r$ 39. 76 ; w*t Sftt *r »rt 
*{% *rawnr»rg *r m*g ■ Tmtasrt f&firwn ft 1K3;f<r*"roT u 5m%, 343. 131 ; 
<j3> f^fit 'retort *r*far w is**?ft 1 1* swfawi*rea irifa* isfaril* u nig. 66.114 . 

1731. mfirrar n^rrai^R f%ir«*r'nr«*s * • *t w^rart^wt^ %q%*»rir 

«FiWt: II WH^M"! 11. 33 ; vide SKK1& V- 570 for a similar rule quoted 
from the %*ftgTT°f «nd tnrstnr. 

* Vide a learned monograph on Ganeda by Alice Getty with a 
poetic Introduction by Prof. A. Foucher and many plates (1936, Oxford). 

726 History of Dharmaiastra [ Ch. XlX 

comparatively ancient. Yaj. I. 296-298 prescribes that the 
images for the worship of the nine grahas ( planets ) viz. the 
Sun, the Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn, Rahu 
and Ketu ( the last two are the nodal points ) should be made 
respsctively of copper, crystal, red sandal-wood, gold ( for 
both Mercury and Jupiter ), silver, iron, lead and bronze. 
Yaj. then prescribes the details of the worship of the planets 
such as the olothes to be gifted, the flowers, incenses, offer* 
ings, and the mantras ( from the Vaj. S. ), the fual-sticks, 
the food, and the fee. The Mit. on Yaj. I. 297 quotes nine 
verses from the Matsyapurana, chap. 94, concerning the details 
of the images of the nine planets. 

About SarasvatI, the goddess of learning, so early a writer 
as Dandin ( not later than 600 A. D. ) says that she was 
4 sarvasukla ' ( all white ). 

Another deity whose worship is very popular in the Deccan 
is Dattatreya. His worship cannot have originated later than 
the first centuries of the Christian era. In the Jabalopanisad, 
he is referred to as a paramaharhsa and there is an Upanisad 
named after him. Vanaparva 115, Anusasana 153, Santi 49. 36, 
say that he conferred boons on Kartavirya. Markandeyapurana 
( chap. 16-19 ) gives the story of his birth, calls him a yogin 
and asserts that he was offered wine and meat by his devotees 
( 19. 10-12 ). The Bhagavata IX 23. 23, Matsya 47. 242-246 
and other puranas also refer to him. In the Sisupalavadba of 
Magha he is spoken of as an avatara. 

The Visnudharmasutra"' 8 chap. 65 contains one of the 
earliest detailed description of devapuja ( of Vasudeva or 
Visnu). "After having well bathed and washed his hands 
and feet and performed acamana ( sipping of water ) he should 
worship Lord Vasudeva who is without beginning or end, 
before an idol or on the sacrificial ground. Having given 
animated form in his mind to Visnu with the mantra ' may the 
Asvins who possess life give thee life' (MaitrSyanl Sam. 

1732. sninr frprrff: ... ffwpfoj ( quoted above ) I srf&fti irroreft 

it yfit sfto^nf qtrr ■gisi^i jtst svqa^i&fliw* ^?n vwrs»<ff mPi'^l f?fTBT 
"*5mwnf^i sn^f%&Rf^r>^^f^^iftr^^ttST!r-as^s'rro»ti 
5t ^ airo i*tt( ^ttow^tt^ \ fronts msj^fii ^trttt,! v^shtj ^si^t *n3» 
j***!SJ^m&*ui i *j-rt 5-rwi jft wh*. > 5»<*wS\H.f^ si»uh^i ijfar ^fft , S? T 

^mt *vm* wnrt wk *rr«mr^ w-jt i Hi fVilfa ami ^nr fai^H^t " V* 

1-166. Tb*testof&.m.II.7.7f«l*3-$ji*r«rw*r%. 

Ch, XIX ] Devapuja-Procedure 727 

II. 3. 4 ) and having invited Visnu with the anuvSka ' y ufijate 
manah ' ( Rg. V. 81 ), he must worship God with a salutation 
with his knees, bands and head. With the three mantras ' apo 
hi &o. ' ( Rg. X 9. 1-3 ), he must announce the arghya ( water 
respectfully offered for washing the hands); with the four 
mantras ' hiranyavarnah * ( Tai. S. V. 6. 1. 1-2 ) the padya ( water 
for washing the feet); with ' may the waters of the plain pro- 
pitiate us ' ( Atharva 1. 6. 4 ), the ' acamanlya * ( the water for 
sipping ) ; with Rg. 1. 23. 22 the water meant for the bath ( should 
be offered); with ' in chariots, in axles, in the strength of bulls ' 
( Tai. Br. II. 7. 7 ) unguents and ornaments ; with ( Rg. III. 8. 4 
' yuv5 suvasah ) a garment ; with * endowed with flowers ' ( Tai. 
S. IV. 2.6.1) a flower; with 'thou art a slayer, slay the 
enemies ' ( Vaj. S. I. 8 ) incense ; with ' thou art lustre, thou art 
bright' (Vaj. S. XXII. 1) a lamp ; with 'dadhikravno' (Rg. IV. 39. 6) 
amadhuparka (honey mixture); with the eight mantras 'hiranya- 
garbhah'( Rg. X. 121. 1-8) an offering of eatables; a chowrie, 
a fan, a looking glass, an umbrella, a vehicle, a seat, all these 
objects he must announce and place before God ( Visnu ) 
muttering the Gayatrl at the same time. After having thus 
worshipped Him, he must mutter the Purusasukta. After that 
he who desires to obtain eternal bliss should make oblations of 
clarified butter, while reciting the verses of the same hymn 
(Rg. X. 90)." The Baud. gr. parisesasutra II. 14 describes' 73 * the 
daily worship of Mahapurusa ( i. e. Visnu ). " A man after 
bathing should cowdung a pure and even spot and draw the 
image of Visnu, should offer whole grains of rice and flowers 
to it in worship and then should invoke Visnu to come by offer- 
ing water with flowers accompanied by the three vyabrtis 
repeated separately and together: then he should utter the 
words 'this kurca (bundle) of darbhas is made for the divine 
lord, its blades are twisted by threes, it is green and gold, accept 
this'. Then he should cleanse a vessel with water to the 
accompaniment of the Gayatrl, should pass kusa grass across 

1733. srarnfr *m&SW&llWt*t "Tft^TrfWSf «<u<wt<JW I fm: gf%: §r^T 

w <ny>qnrc ra^ i aft ^ gurewnrnpiTfa .« ... arf 153*-. stt ^wn^rrtfrcrt- 

«ito %^ra w^rtRfS siwnrai&ntfitSfti ■s^Wijj^ qfflV wi 

wnsSrfa ywqgwrfo —an *} ^ r 35TO*nft-^'nfqfaj 'surra v*w. w^r^q: 
fcwrr (3«i<rw iTt+ciUMM ^ > ?iir 1 ^firRrem^s^r^T^rsTRnr^^rtiRWt* 
^snr st^tw »r»r«rti ^rernm: 1 «fHrr- grofowfl II. 14. This whole chapter is 
quoted by the sg fifa fcgm I. pp. 199-200, sjfirg. ( arrfgpii p- 386 ), yjrr- 
jwtrt pp. 140-142 ( in all with variations ). 

728 History of DharmaiMra [ Oh. SIX 

the water poured therein, should then utter the Gayatrl mantra 
over it and should then turn it towards the sun with the syllable 
'om' till he desires (or till he is tired); from that water he 
offers water for washing the feet (padya) with Rg. I. 22. 18 
(trim pads &o); then after having put aside the stale flowers 
to the accompaniment of the vyahrtis, he should offer arghya 
with the verse Rg. I. 22. 17 (idarh Visnur) and should offer 
acamaniya with the verse 'divo v5 Visno' (Tai. S. I. 2. 13. 2); 
then he bathes the deity with the three verses Rg. X. 9. 1-3 
( apo hi stha &o ), with the four verses ' hiranya-varnah * (Tai. 
S. V. 6. 1. 1-2 ), with the anuvaka beginning with ' pavamanah 
suvarjanah' (Tai. Br. 1.4. 8) and with the mantra 'brahma 
jajnanam ' ( Tai. S. IV. 2. 8. 2 ), with the VamadevI rk ( Rg. IV. 
26. 1 ), with the c yajuh-pavitra ' ( i. e. Tai. S. I. 2. 1 1 ). Then he 
satiates (the image of) the deity with water sprinkled round the 
deity keeping the right hand towards it and taking the twelve 
names (Kesava and others) with the vyahrtis; he offers a 
garment with the syllable ' om ', yajfiopavlta with the saored 
Gayatrl, acamaniya with Rg. I. 22. 17, sandalwood paste with 
the verse ' gandhadvaram ' (Tai. St. X. 1), whole grains of 
rice ( aksata ) with the verse ' IravatI ' ( Rg. VII. 99. 3 ), flowers 
with Rg. I. 22. 20 (tad Visnoh), inoense (dhupa) with the 
Gayatrl, a lamp with the mantra 'uddlpyasva' (Tai. Ar. X. 1 ) 
and cooked food is offered with the formula 'devasya tva"; then 
he should offer flowers to the image repeating the twelve names 
of Visnu, associating with each name the verses from ' trlni 
pada* to 'sumrdlka bhavantu nah* (Tai. Br. II. 4.6). Then 
they laud him with verses derived from the Rgveda, Yajurveda, 
S&maveda or Atharvaveda in praise of Visnu; then he should 
bid good bye to the Purusa (i.e. Visnu) by uttering" 5 * the 
three vyahrtis ( in such formula as ' om bhuh purusamudvas- 
ayami ) and adding ' may the Lord, the Great Person, go away 
for ( my ) well-being, for conquest and for being seen again.'* 
In case the image is immovably fixed on a pedestal &o. the 
invocation to come and the bidding of good-bye are omitted. 
The Baud. grhya-sesasQtra (II. 17) contains theprooedure of the 
worship of Mahadeva ( Siva ). It is almost on the same lines 
as the worship of Visnu set out above with the difference that 
the names of Siva such as Mahadeva, Bhava, Rudra, Tryambaka 

1734. Vide abore (note 567 ) for the twelve names of Vignu. The 
T«rnT»r will be in four formulae viz. aft ijj ^ < HWI«*llffi l aft gr: $*», ail 

Ob. XII ] Devapujdr Procedure 7S9 

are substituted and some of the mantras are different. A few 
differences will be found in the text quoted below. It is stated 
therein that when the worship is of a Knga immovably fixed 
then there is no invocation to come and no bidding of 
good-bye. BM 

In the Pujaprakasa ( pp. 97-149 ) and other digests the 
methods of devapuja. aooording to daunaka, Grhyaparisista, 
Rgvidhfina, Visnudharmottarapurana, Bhagavatapurana, the 
Narasimhapurana are set oat in detail. But for want of spaoe 
they are all passed over. It will have been noticed from the 
passages of the Visnu Dh, S, and of Baudh&yana cited above 
that devapuja contains certain items and stages in the whole 
procedure. These are called upacaraa ( ways of service ). They 
are usually stated to be sixteen. They are : Svahana, asana, 
padya, arghya, acamanlya, snana, vastra, yajfiopavlta, anu- 
lepana or gandha, puapa, dhupa, dlpa, naivedya (or upa- 
hftra), namaskara, pradaksinS and visarjana or udvftsana. 
In different works, the items differ. Some add bhusana ( orna- 
ment ) after yajfiopavlta and tambula ( or mukhav&sa ) after 
pradaksina or naivedya ( Vrddha-Harita VI. 31-32 andPGjS- 
prakfisa, p. 98 ). Therefore some speak of 18 upac&ras. ,m 
Some omit avahana, add svagata ( welcome ) after asana, 
madhuparka after acamanlya, and some have stotra ( hymn of 
praise ) and pranama ( bow ) as distinct upacaraa, while others 
hold that these latter two are one and that pradaksina is part of 
visarjana ( vide Pujaprakasa p. 98). If a person- cannot afford 
to offer vastra ( garment ) and alamkara ( ornament ), he could 

1735. aranft *m%^TWt?: ufi\i<Ji?i$f TTOKJTfnw: i f»nm g*itar- 

fcw nvT^qtrcmF^ wng *m*iwrg;i%w ffa i v\ vjf) wjft ffif «f3j*r itw- 

•rfStawv am nww*f M fwnHfi^rfir-ornr) ftsr w»htwt* , 

<kW3Tt, w#re* ^thV^i wr^ " T^-T^ •» ' »tRj<wiI<4fa *r* %*f er^- 

*rtw fsrsrfa i sift TRt *r«m^ tott s*j*w«nr *ft Ttwi j hvPI i<m. i *rir«i 
«Jtpt «w»-f*rinf3r: g^nto ^crr^ • «R*h3«i iwnjwnfr^W qqcGt • 

&rm wpgjrrftsprniiftfit iffiri wm 5v*TOfft?*rnnnfr«J ^rcrr^ i %f 

wi^wiy*ftyranw^wrnr « w*wrf&wiw«r«r r*vnr Hi«n^ «trsmm« i A ot- 

^tre^r n. 17. Thi» ooours in <*tfsFs. I. 204-205, ^jfitg;. ( srrffrw P- 392 ), 
fafPWTWI PP- 194-196 ( with variations in all ). 

1736. Vide t uflftgmi« t 62. 9-13 quoted in annrir pp. 140-141; jrftamr 
III. 81. 6-10; also*ifita»I.pp.l99,«ro.itl.I-l.p. 367, ftwummfi of 
ftunrc pp. B36-37, tfwrmwww n p. 27, snwmt* p. 71 b quoting *r*it- 
fcxnnft for the 16 st^pcs. 

S.D. 9? 

730 History qf Dharmaisatra [ Ch, XIX 

perform only ten out of these 16 upac&ras viz. from pftdya to 
naivedya ; if be cannot afford to offer even ten he may offer 
only five ( paficopaoSra-pujS ) viz. from gandha to naivedya ; if 
he has nothing he may perform with flowers alone all the 16 
upaoaras. When the image is immovably fixed on a pedestal 
there is no Svfthana and visarjana and so the items become 14 
or one may offer in their place only a handful of flowers with 
mantras. im Those who can repeat the Purusasukta fljtg. X. 90) 
should repeat one of its verses before offering eaoh of the 16 
upac&ras ( see NrsimhapurSna 62. 9-13 ). Those who cannot 
repeat that hymn and women and sudras should simply say 
' Siv&ya namah ' or ' Visnave namah * ( adoration to Siva or 
Visnu ). Vrddha-Harlta ( XI. 81 ) specially recommends the 
worship of the child Krsna to women and of Hari to widows 
( XI. 208 ). 17M After each of snana, vastra, yajnopavlta and 
naivedya, Soamana is to be offered as part of that upacSra m> 
(vide NrsimhapurSna 62. 14). The names of some of these 
upac&ras occur even in the Asv. gr. ( IV. 7. 10 and IV. 8. 1 ) in 
* relation to the br&hmanas invited at sraddha such as Ssana, 
arghya, gandha, m&lya (flowers), dhupa, dlpa and ficchadana (i.e. 
vastra ). Farquhar is not right when he says in his ' Outlines 
of the Religious literature of India ' p. 51 that the sixteen 
upacaraa ' are so distinct in character from the sacrificial cult 
as to betray alien origin-' When image-worship became general 
items offered to invited brahmanas were also offered to the 
image of gods. It was a case of extension and not of borrowing 
from an alien cult. 

A few words have to be said in connection with some of 
the 16 upac&ras. 

As regards the water to be employed in devapuja and rites 
for the Manes, the Visnu Dh. S. (66. 1) prescribes that it should 
not have been brought the night before ( but it must be drawn 

1737. Vide f*rcrrT*m<T5rt<T p. 549. In the MBndhKtS plates of Jaya- 
varman II. dated samvat 1317 ( 1250-51 A. D. ) pancopacaTapnjJ is men- 
tioned ( vide B. I. vol. IX. pp. 117, 119 ). n ftteflnffiHm i H nig .11^4 *- 

^jwrtNtrft g qUi&Tm vkm ^n i *f . x. it. p. 27. 

1738. •w)i$|«< fikVta ffitt 5^1 fatflst) n fVth'Mt "S qj,4i u n^ SJtT 
wAffa « JWt quoted by qyffHffWft P- 34. 

1739. •mTHnrt rugiwrrfl «t *nrt% ^<TPryBt M^alMgiO^<m « H i^ *)Min t 

wtrtw i ^imww p. its. 

Ch. XIX ] DevapuJOsixteen upacaras 731 

that day ). The worshipper should not sit on an asana made of 
bamboo or stone, or of unsaorificial wood or on the bare ground, 
or on a seat made of grass or green leaves, but should sit on a 
woollen blanket or silken garment or deer-skin ( Pujaprakasa, 
p. 95 ). When offering arghya, in the vessel containing the 
water to be used for that purpose all or as many as one oan 
afford out of the following eight articles are to be mixed up, viz. 
curds, whole grains of rice, ends of kusa grass, milk, durva 
grass, honey, barley grains and white mustard seeds ( Matsya- 
purana 267. 2 quoted in the Pujaprakasa p. 3d). It is further said 
that arghya is offered to the image of Visnu by means of a 
conch in which water is mixed with sandalwood paste, flowers 
and whole grains of rice. In the water for aoamana are mixed 
cardamom, cloves, uiira grass and kakkola or as many of them 
as possible. The snana ( bath ) of images is effected with five 
materials called paftcamrta ( five ambrosial things ) viz. milk, 
curds, clarified butter, honey and sugar. 1M0 The image is to be 
bathed with these five in the order stated, so that sugar coming 
last removes all effects of oiliness. After these a bath with 
pure water follows. In the pancamrtasnana the following 
Vedic verses are repeated in order ; ' fipyayasva ' (Rg. I. 91. 16), 
' dadhikravno ' ( Rg. IV. 39. 6 ), ' ghrtatn mimikse ' ( Bg. II. 
3. 11 ), ' madhu vata ' ( Ug. I. 90. 6 ), ' svaduh pavasva ' ( Rg. 
IX. 85.6). It will be noticed that each of these mantras is 
suggestive of the material with regard to which it is uttered. 
No bath with water or these things is allowed when only a 
picture or a clay image is to be worshipped. If one cannot 
afford these, one may bathe the image with water in which the 
leaves of the basil plant ( tulasl ) are mixed up, as that plant 
is deemed to be the favourite of Visnu. The water used in 
the bath of the image of a God is regarded as very sacred 
and it is used for acamana by the worshipper and members 
of his family and friends and is called tlrtha ( it is also 
sprinkled over one's head ). IW As regards the unguents to be 
offered ( anulepana or gandha ) numerous rules are laid down 

1740. «j^^^a^^WT*#**i*^*r«^*T»iwt#'frr>*- 
W»l: H gENrayrn quoted in the gsrpRRTO P- 84. 

1741. wmo i ^n%* 3i»n»w wynR»nrw rc i itffc ^ »masrt h^JM* 

f*wfn «mjin[* *fltf ftncm *re*rr*'nre » ift *** *«*rr4 tr&pnrtwfq i 
gm ft ft ft r* rfrS fi^jpwf i wrr><K t quoted in itffa. ( snfjrw p. 389 ). 

.782 History of bharmaiastra [ Ch. XlX 

(vide Pujaprakasa pp. 39-41). The Visnu"** Dh. S. (66.2) 
says that unguents should be one or more out of san dalwood, pine 
tree paste, musk, camphor, saffron, nutmeg. If ornaments are 
offered, then gold and precious stones should be real and not 
imitation ones ( Visnu Dh. S. 66. 4 ). Very detailed rules are 
laid down about flowers. The Pujaprakasa ( pp. 42-49 ) waxes 
eloquent over the merit of offering basil leaves to Vi?nu and 
using the same wood in worship generally and also when no 
flowers are available. The Visnu Dh. S. m * ( 66. 5-9 ) prescribes 
that flowers emitting an overpowering smell or having no smell 
whatever are not to be used, nor flowers of thorny plants unless 
the flowers are white and sweetly fragrant ; that even Ted flowers 
suoh as saffron flowers and those that spring in ponds or lakes 
may be employed. There are grades in the merit derived from 
offering certain flowers, e. g. the Sm. C. I, pp. 201-202 and the 
Pujaprakasa p. 51 quote many verses of the NarasirhhapurSna, 
some of which arrange vanamallika, campaka, asoka, vasantl, 
mftlatl, kunda &o. in an ascending order among flowers and 
the jatl flower is said to be the best of the flowers in the worship 
of Visnu. The same work ( p. 56 ) names durva and twentyfive 
flowers as favourites with Visnu. Vide Vrddba-Harlta VII. 
53-59 for the flowers that may be used in Visnu-puja and 
Vrddha Gautama p. 563. The flowers offered on a day are 
removed the next day by the worshipper when he is about to 
offer worship that day. Suoh flowers are called ' nirmalya ' and 
great virtue is attaohed to placing suoh flowers on one's head 
by way of homage to the deity worshipped ( vide Pujaprakasa, 
pp. 27 and 90 ). The Sm. G. ( I. p. 204 ) quotes a purana to the 
effect 'He, whose heart contemplates the form of Visnu, on 
whose lips there is ever the name of Visnu, who partakes of the 
naivedya offered to Visnu and who places on his head the water 
in which the feet of an image of Visnu are washed and the 
nirmalya of Visnu, never falls off (from heaven).' The Madana- 
parijata ( p. 303 ) quotes passages from the Visnu-dharmottara 
about the flowers, that are not to be used in worship. In Siva 
worship the following flowers and leaves are in an ascending 
grade of worth ; viz. arka flowers, karavlra flowers, bilva leaves, 
flower of drona, leaves of apamarga, flower of kusa, saml leaves, 

1742. ^»^*iu«iHqfi<i* jijjfwiitfWa^HSM 1 !*' »i qvm • mw* 
«<V 66. I. 

1749; WiimiVtn i «rr<tfVv ■ n •husSl-WR • *«tftsin<9 frjf B*n$Wi Q 
*irm i wraflr f|frt are* * qvm i ffcowfaf 66. B-«. 

Ch. XlX] beoapuja-jlawers *IS% 

blue lotus leaves, dhattura flower, saml flower, blue lotus, 
which is the best ( vide Pujaprakasa, p. 210 ). The Madana- 
parij&ta, p. 303 quotes from the Devlpurana verses whioh 
enumerate the flowers that are to be avoided in &iva worship. 
If no flowers are available, then a fruit may be offered or if no 
fruit is available then only leaves and lastly only white whole 
grains of rice or even water may be offered. m * Lamps are to 
be fed with ghee or in its absence with sesame oil. 174> Camphor 
is to be burnt before the image. There is a oeremony called 
aratrika ( waving lights round the image ) performed with 
several lights or pieces of camphor placed in a broad vessel 
whioh is held in both hands and waved round an image and 
over its head. Vide Pujaprakasa, pp. 75 and 87. For naivedya 
no food is to be offered whioh is declared unfit in the sastras for 
eating, nor the milk of a she-goat or she-buffalo though they are 
allowed for food, nor the meat of the five-nailed animals nor the 
flesh of the wild boar nor fish. The general rule is stated by the 
Ramayana as ' whatever food a man eats the same is the food to 
be offered to his deities '. me The Sm. 0. ( I. p. 203 ) quotes the 
Padmapurana to the effect that naivedya should be offered in a 
vessel of gold, silver, bronze, copper or of day or in palasa 
leaves or on lotus leaf. The naivedya is offered with the formula 
set out below. m7 Aooording to the Brahmapurana quoted by 
Apararka, pp. 153-154 and Pujaprakasa ( p. 82 ) the naivedya 
offered to Brahma, Visnu, Siva, the Sun, Devi, the Matrs, to 
goblins and evil spirits respectively is to be given to brahma- 
nas, Satvatas ( Bhagavatas ), those whose bodies are smeared 
with ashes, to Magas, to the Saktas, to women, to the poor. ms 

1744. gvnHra <K3T 5Rtf <5F5T>TT^ 3 IS^C ' TPJWCTIBW1* 5 Htt}« WHT- 

fowrir n s«rroH»A %i ffav AwgS : • quoted in the ysmrarnr p. 65. 

1746. «t «ft&5 f^Ti f$w fhrof i ft*s*nfa?i 66 - 1L *r*ra* ^rurif i * 
w?$ wf? sfsrnnVf i#ft i ■ra MMtwrn i gtiitii ft ^ i f*«g«rf«w 66. 12-14. 

174P. v^w: aWi*rafe> fffwWRT %w. h wvhnrwr"* 103. 30 and 
104. 16. ^rff^ft on ng V. 7 quotes this. 

1747. aft >iroir« **mr i aft 3irpnr wrsr i aft wnwrr wnrt • aft ^rrnrf 
WlfT » *rt tiHwin **r*r i aft «r»T»r wm i dfcr»nv srrsjsnif <rr«fW 4nnf<ilfifc 

•ft uTwnr wnrr »rgr<ft **tit i a^tuteM h thrift i awnwiM* wn'fvrfft i 

mwt i w* *r*$utifr» esftipfWrtf *»?* «w«krfti gywwnil ylkwanfff 

1748. fift*wm itbM *W& «rfa*f$jp* i fc°t* <n wtt "w *wn|'»w 
own*. » *ftt *nr«r: *n$s*ft %<fWt qftfl i qaH, i «ft*w •>* *T{r«ft tmwr%- 
Ar*mw « M B:fr n ft»u 3 "ft vwffc% foifcfcl » W"** pp. 163-164 and fsmnSTfT 
p. 81. am* reads ^itT«w»nd ^jftpTOrr^ while the {am* readi 
an»«?»"HBlf5ln iRl^^nnfor ?ir%o. mPf? is f^. 

734 History of DharmaiaWa I Oh. XDt 

One may also partake of the naivedya offered by oneself 
and the Smrtimuktaphala ( ahnika, p. 390 ) quotes Rg. 
L 154. 5 in support. After naivedya, tambUla is to be offered to 
the God worshipped. In the ancient grhya and dharma sutras no 
mention is made of tambula or mukhavasa ( materials that will 
render the breath fragrant ). Tambula was probably introduoed 
some time before or about the beginning of the Christian era in 
South India and then spread northwards. Among the srnrtis, 
Samvarta 55 quoted in the Krtyaratnakara p. 560, Laghu-HSrlta 
( Auand. 39 ), Laghu-Asvalayana ( Anand. ) 1. 160-61 and 23. 
105, Ausanasa ( Jivananda, part I. p. 509 ) refer to the chewing 
of tambula after dinner. In the Raghuvarhsa VI. 64 Kalidasa 
describes betelnut plants surrounded by betel creepers. The 
KamasfUra L 4. 16 m * states that a person after performing the 
brushing of the teeth, consulting a looking glass and partaking 
of tambula for rendering his breath fragrant should set about 
his daily business. Vide also Kamasutra III. 4. 40, IV. 1. 36, 
V. 2. 21 and 24, VI. 1. 29, VI. 2. 8 for other references. In the 
Brhat-sarhhita of Varahamihira ( 77. 35-37 ) the virtues of 
tambula and its ingredients are described. In the Kadambarl 
( para 85 ) the royal palaoe is compared to the house of a dealer 
in betel leaves ( tambulika ) in which lavall, cloves, cardamom , 
kankola are stored. The Par. M. I. part 1. p. 434 quotes four 
verses from Vasis^ha ( not found in the printed Dharmasutra ) 
about the cutting off of the two ends of tambula leaves before 
eating them. In the Vratakhanda ( of Caturvargacintamani, 
vol. IL part I, p. 242 ) Hemadri quotes Ratnakosa to the effect 
that tambula means betel leaves, betel nut and chunam ; while 
' mukhavasa ' means these together with cardamom, camphor, 
kakkola berries, pieoes of copra and matulunga. The Nityaoara- 
paddhati mo (p. 549) quotes verses showing that tambula 
comprised nine ingredients viz. betel nut, betel leaves, chunam, 
camphor, cardamom, clove, kankola, copra, the matulunga fruit. 
In modern times pieces of almond, nutmeg fruit and bark 
thereof, saffron, oateohu are taken and matulunga is 
omitted. Thus the thirteen ingredients of tambula are 

1749. ft Kiflwrv flyflMNn^f^n liOfl^MiMT: ••• JffT^f gw 3tfngv 
jram*^ wmfwirtfBfei i imnp r I- 4. 16. 

1760. yhmwm *rfw* WWnHPHfW 1 * ' Wfffrfrwgnq 29.39, quoted in 

^W!l» flwww-iffi 1' 649. 

Oh. XIX ] Devapnjn-Tnmb'Rla 735 

made up. The AstSngasamgraha" 81 of V5gbhat>a also mentions 
the several ingredients of tSmbula inoluding the essence of the 
bark of the Khadira tree ( catechu ). In modern times tambula 
is said to be of 13 gupas, either because it contains thirteen 
ingredients or because it effects thirteen good results, the last of 
whioh are set out in a subhasita quoted below. 

Pradakslna ( going round the image with the right hand 
always turned towards the image ) and namaskara constitute 
only one upacara ( item of worship ) according to many. The 
namaskara to the image is either astanga ( with eight limbs ) or 
paficanga ( with five limbs. ) The first occurs when a person 
prostrates himself on the ground in front of the image in such 
a way that the palms of his hands, his feet, his knees, his chest 
and forehead touch the ground and his mind, speech and eye 
are fixed on the image and the latter occurs when he prostrates 
himself with his hands, feet and head. 1752 There are other 
definitions of the astanga namaskara. These several parts of 
the worship of images have been judicially noticed in Ram 
brahma Chatter ji v. Kedar Nath 36 Calcutta Law Journal 478 at 
'p. 483 ( where the normal type of the continuous worship of an 
idol is described ) and Pramatha Nath Mullick v. Pradyumna 
Kumar Mullick 52 Cal. 809 at p. 815 ( P. 0. ). 

In modern times it is the practice to perform in homage to 
the sun twelve namaskaras or any multiple of twelve and 
repeat the following twelve names of the sun in the dative 
preoeded by ' om ' and followed by ' namah ' : Mitra, Ravi, 
Surya, Bhanu, Khaga, Pusan, Hiranyagarbha, Marloi, Aditya, 
Savitr, Arka and Bhaskara. There is another method of these 
namaskaras called Troakalpanamaskaras in which after ' om * 
certain mystio syllables and their combinations in twos and 

1751. a R&i q tiWu rfirere: w^or tnr«hj ■ <>inftwqp*i£w>{(fld»4$« 

wgrynn f *• 8 ( RHmqlmn ). ' nx*q§s *4R««i«n*i!j< mi *«ii«iiP*if *wnf 
(h<4Hm3 tfitft j^fSfcrfawmsna; 1 wmwrmui ftyQtwi wrwtfii^^wi rt*i$wi 

1752. qWf utjml ^ 3rig*vn5'RTT Riwrr *wn *H«r ww im 

swrt^senp $ftffi n quoted from «nw in ttf&g. (unfa; p. 389) and pnrre 
^. 88 -, n^*»rt ^xr^rt f^ror <rari^p »n»tiSU ^m » ^arp*. ^. 88 •, ^pcbi f5tt*n 

quoted iu ^t«*» I. "J. WA\ "«hioh ^q. ^. 88 reads *nwrt w^trt w. 

786 Hittory cf Dharmatottra [ Ob. XIX 

fours together with certain mantras are repeated with the 
twelve names ( vide foot-note for illustrations ), m * 

The Pujaprak&sa (pp. 166-188) mentions 32 apar&dhas 
( lapses ) whioh should be avoided while engaged in worship or 
while one is about to perform Vi^nupuja and the atonements 
for these. These 32 apar&dhas (offences) against proper etiquette 
for worship are referred to in the VarShapurana ( 130. 5 ). 

A passage from Baudh&yana about Siva worship has 
already been quoted and it has been stated that worship of the 
phallic emblem of Siva appears to have been current in the 
very ancient civilization brought to light by the finds dis- 
covered at Mohenjo-daro. Sir R. G. Bhandarkar in his ' Vai* 
snavism and Saivism' has shown how Budra is described as 
the supreme deity even in the Rg., how in the Tai. S. IV. 5. 1-11 
there are eleven anuvakas (called Budras) whioh contain a 
sublime eulogy of Budra (and also in Vfij. 8. 16) and how 
numerous Saiva sects and doctrines arose in course of time 
(p. 119 ff). Panini teaches the formation of BhavanI, SarvanI 
Budrfinl and MrdanI from the four names of Siva ( IV. 1. 59 ), 
In the sacrifice called Sfllagava in the grhya sutras Budra is 
worshipped as the supreme deity. The Asv. gr. IV. 9.17 mentions 
twelve names of Budra and adds l7M (IV. 9.27-29) that all names 
In the world, all armies, all exalted things belong to him. Patau jali 
in his Mahabhasya (vol. II. pp.387-388) on Panini V. 2. 76 speaks 
of a 'Siva-bhagavata' ( a devotee of Siva). Ved&ntasutra IL 2. 37 
is . directed, aooording to Samkara, to the refutation of the 
Pasupata seot of Saivas. In the Santiparva 284. 121-124 the 
Pasupatas are said to be opposed to the dharmas of varna and 
asrama. The Kurmapurana'(purvardha, chap. 16) speaks of the 

1753. aft |rt toot fiNr *r? « art art" Uhrnr »ra: i aft jft arrftfB^nl f%i 
|JI aft <w^f *nrt i aft ^ g#rt »w ^ ^ vfar *nr« i ait $ STftwrtr w «rrew «t 
»mr»: «mt i aft sft gfrf ft gRwrn *$i qprre TOiiffy fr m »r re > m fwnw m 
j«$ *wt i aft irt.i.Hrwrctv *wt t aft prt rff OTOTftvHT sirlhp^wd f^f yrt 
in w fihnfa**t »raj i ...awTWRrrwrt »m: i aft pt |R *£ $( \r«jOT"«f$<w. i 
CTrt«.»!WT irt iff =4 ^f *w ftwt(^s^*rniwftf »w: t &o. 

1764. *nrft* « *t *m «roftvxfft i *r*fi ft»rr»» « * H«y«n» iT ft i *m. 

Oh. XlX ] Devapujd,-siva iwrship 73f 

s&stras of the Saiva sects, of Kapalas, Nakulas ms (Lakulas?), 
Vamas, Bhairavas, Pasupatas as meant for deluding the world. 
The Varabapurana (chap.70-71) is also directed against Pasupatas. 
The Pasupata brahmanas are stated in the Kadambarl to have 
surrounded the minister Sukanasa (para 90). Siva was worship- 
ped in the form of the linga or as an image. It is believed that 
14 crores of lihgas were established by Bana, an Asura devotee of 
Siva, in various spots and these are called Bana-lingas ( Nifcya- 
carapaddhati, p. 556 ) and the Bana-lingas ( white stones ) found 
in the Narmada, the Ganges and other holy rivers are only like 
them. In the Kadambarl ( para 130 ) Bana speaks of sand lingas 
on the Acchoda lake and in another place of a linga made of 
pure mother-o'pearl. The Kurmapurana ( purvardha ohap. 26 ) 
describes the origin of Linga and its worship and the Vamana- 
purana 46 lauds the several holy places where ancient lihgas 
are established. The famous twelve Jyotir-lingas are; Omkara 
at MSndhata, Mahakala at UjjayinI (modern Ujjain), Tryambaka 
( near Nasik ), Dbrsnesvara at Elora, Naganatha ( towards the 
east of Ahmednagar ), Bhlma-Samkara ( at the souroe of the 
Bhlma river in the Sahyadri ), Kedara-natha in Garhwal, Vis- 
vesvara at Benares, Somanatha in Kathiawar, Vaidyanatha new 
Parali. Mallikarjuna on the Srlsaila, and Bamesvara in South 
India. Many of these are situated in central and western India 
near each other. 

The Pujaprakasa (p. 194) quotes Hsrlta prescribing that 
Mahesvara may be worshipped by means of the mantra of five 
syllables ( namah Sivaya ) or by the Rudra 1 " 6 Gayatrl or by 

1755. About Lakullsa, PstJupata or Kslamukha, vide ' Vuijguvism 
and £aivism ' p. 119 ff. In the VSyupurSna 23. 221-224 it is said in a 
p ropbetio strain that Siva would assume the form of Nakuli ( Lakull ? ) 
and the place where he will appear will be called the holy plaoe of Ksya- 
rohana. Vide E. I. vol. II. p. 124, vol. XII. p. 337, vol. XIV p. 265 for the 
LSkula doctrine, its ScSryas and other information. For the KSpSlikas, 
vide Bhandarkar's ' Vaisnavism and Saivism ' pp. 117,127. A grant of 
NSgavardhana, nephew of Pulaketfi ( 610-639 A. D. ), was made provi- 
ding for the worship of KSpSledvara and the maintenance of MahSvratins. 
Yama 29 quoted in Par. M. II. part 1 p. 335 prescribes tbe penance of 
Krccbra for eating at a Klpllika's bouse. The Karpftramanjarl ( about 
900 A. D. ) I. 22-24 oontains a caricature of Kaula ( i. e. Kffpllika ) 

1756. Tjrjmrsfr is frcs**r»T fSw? *nrrSpnr tfiirft i »^ T%\ tmryn^ M 
ft. sit. X. 1 and qrr39i#i$OT 17. 11. It closely resembles tbe famous 
QSyatri verse, particularly the words ' dblmabi ' and ' pracodaySt ' are 
tbe same in both. 

5. D. 93 

738 History of LharmaitiMra [ Cb. XIX 

' om ' or by the mantra ' Isanah sarva-vidyan&m ' ( Tai. Ar. 
X. 47 ), or by the Rudra mantras ( viz. Tai. S. IV. 5. 1-11 ) or by 
the mantra ' tryambakarh yajamahe ' ( Rg. VII. 59. 12 ). For a 
devotee of Siva, the wearing of a string of RudrSksa berries is 
necessary either on the hand, the arm, the neck or on the 
head. 17 " The Smrtimuktaphala ( fthnika p. 393 ) quotes verses 
from the Smrtiratna and the Ratn&vali about the merit secured 
by bathing the linga with cow's milk, curds, clarified butter, 
boney, sugarcane juice, paflcagavya, water in which camphor 
and aguru are mixed up, and other substances. The 14th day 
of the dark half of a month has been sacred to Siva from 
ancient times. B&na in the Eadambarl ( para 54 ) refers to the 
fact that queen Vil&savatl went to worship Mahakala at 
UjjayinI on the 14th. 

The worship of Durga has prevailed from ancient times.'™ 
She is worshipped under various names and aspects. In the 
Tai. Ar. X. 18 Siva is said to be tbe husband of Ambika 
or Urns. In the Kena Upanisad ( III. 25 ) Uma HaimavatI 
is mentioned as imparting to Indra tbe knowledge of the 
Great Being. The various names of Durga are Uma, ParvatI, 
Devi, Ambika, Gauri, Candl or Oandika, Kali, Kumarl, 
Lalita &c. The Mahabharata ( Vira^aparva 6 and Bhlsma 23 ) 
contains two hymns addressed to Durga in whioh she is stated 
to be VindbyavasinI and fond of blood and wine, and in 
Vanaparva 39. 4 it is stated that Uma became a kiratl 
when Siva became a kirata to test the prowess of Arjuna. In 
the Xumarasambhava Kalidaea speaks of ParvatI, Uma, Aparna 
and derives the latter two words ( I. 26 and V. 28 ). Yaj. I. 290 
speaks of Ambika as the mother of Vinfiyaka. Tbe Devl- 
mfihatmya in the Markandeyapurana ( chap. 81-93 ) is the 
principal sacred text of Durga worshippers in Northern India. 
E. I. vol. 9 p. 189 shows that about 625 A. D. Durga was 
invoked as a supreme goddess. Bana in his Kadambarl gives a 
graphic description of tbe temple of Candika and refers to offer* 
ings of blood made to her ( para 28 ), to her trident ( trisula ) 
and her slaughter of Mahis&sura. The Krtyaratnakara ( p. 351 ) 
quotes verses from the Devlpurana that the 8th of the bright 
half of a month is sacred to Devi ( and particularly of Asvina ), 

1767. f# *i^ wtx srt£ itf&r vjrsumorfij i 3wr: whjjrrm rgrrf - 
*ftgf> H WWr^Tgl quoted in ^srrno p. 194. 

1768. Vide 8. C. Muaumdar on the worship of Durgl in J. R. A. S. 
for 1006 pp. 966-362. 

Ob. XIX J DevapUja-worship of DurgS 739 

that a goat or a buffalo may be sacrificed for her.'"' These 
bloody rites are still continued in the Kali temple in Bengal 
and a few other shrines of DurgS. In Bengal the worship of 
Durga in Ssvina has been most popular. 1 ™ Raghunandana 
in his Durgareana-paddhati gives an elaborate description of 
the worship of Durga in Asvina. DurgS, is also worshipped 
as Sakti. The influence of Sakta worship has been great 
throughout India and will be briefly surveyed later on. 

In modern times devapuja differs considerably from the ritual 
of the ancient works of Visnu and BaudhSyana ; it also differs 
from province to province and caste to caste. A brief analysis 
of the devapuja practised by brahmanas in Western India is 
given below : Aoamana ; pranSy ama ; adoration to Mahaganapati 
and certain other deities; twelve names of Ganesa, hymn 
of praise to Ganesa, Gaurl, Visnu ; mention of the place and 
the time with astronomical details about the day, the 
naksatra &e. ; then the saihkalpa of performing devapuja 
with sixteen upacaras ; contemplation on Ganapati with 
Bg- II. 23. 1 ( gananam tva ) ; asanavidhi with an invocation 
to the earth ; nyasa ( mystical sanctification of the body ) of 
the sixteen verses of Bg- X. 90 on sixteen parts of the 
body ; invocation of the deities and the saored rivers in the 
water jar and offering sandalwood paste, flowers and whole 
grains of rice to the jar ; then invocation of the conch and bell 
in a similar way; sprinkling of oneself and the materials of 
worship with water accompanied by the mantra (' apavitrah 
pavitro va &o.' ) ; dhyana ( contemplation ) of Visnu, Siva, 
Ganesa, the sun's disc, Durga holding a bunch of flowers in 
one's folded hands ; then offering the sixteen upacaras enume- 
rated above to the accompaniment of the 16 verses of Bg. X. 90 
to one's favourite deity ; final benediction. 1 ™ When several 
deities are worshipped, there are two methods in which the 
upacaras may be offered. One may offer the upacaras from 
avahana to namaskara to one deity or the principal deity and 
then the s:ime upacaras to the other deity or deities one after 

1759. wHt*pjf9tt^fft a"ri?r $ w* i *rf$<farpt5tqr°rt vftfa tot 

M fisq aUT quoted in ^VICTM!* p. 357. 

1760. Vide ' DurgSpQjS ' by Pratapcbandra Ghosh ( 1871 ) for a 
detailed description of DurgSpQjg in Bengal. 

1761. The benediction is wsta ^rargn^l ftm s km ^T arg«R^3T >fi*Krt 

740 History of DharmaiMra [ Ch. XIX 

another. This method is called kandanusamaya. The other method 
occurs when avahana is done for the several deities in order, 
then asana for all, then pfidya for all and so on up to namas- 
ksra. This is called padarthanusamaya. This method is 
generally preferred. Vide the com. of Narsyana on As v. gr. I. 
24. 7, the com. on Katyayana-srauta I. 5. 9-11 for detailed 
explanations of these. 

From the early centuries of the Christian era the works on 
Tantra exercised a profound influence on the ritual of devapuja 
and several mystical postures of the hands and fingers suoh as 
the mudras and the nySsas began to occupy the minds of the 
worshippers."' 8 The Bhagavata-purana XI. 27. 7 says that 
devapuja is of three kinds viz. YaidikI, Tantrikl and misra, The 
first and the third are for the three varnas and Tantrikl for 

»rt ITR^H II *n»m XI. 27. 7 quoted in g s TPHBTW p. 115. Vide also T3r?rtTn. 
VIII. 37 and XI. 77. 



Vaiivadeva.—{ offering of cooked food to all Gods ). 

Daksa ( II. 56 ) says that in the 5th part of the day a house- 
holder has to allow distribution of food according to his ability 
to the gods, Manes, men and even insects. Vaisvadeva is to be 
offered according to Satatapa ( quoted by Medhatithi on Manu 

V. 7 and by Apararka p. 142 ) in the grhya fire if one has 
preserved it, or in the ordinary fire. If no fire is available one 
may offer it even in water or on the bare ground. Laghu- 
Vyasa II. 52 says the same. 

Some medieval works like the Smrtyarthas&ra and the 
Par. M. ( I. part 1, p. 389 ) state that vaisvadeva really com- 
prises the three daily sacrifices viz. devayajfia, bhutayajiia 
and pifcryajna. The rite is so called because in it sacrifice 
is offered to all the gods or because food is cooked therein for 
all the gods. im But in the anoient grhyasiitras the three 
yajnas are kept distinct. In the Asv. gr. Ill, 1 the five daily 
sacrifices are enumerated, but only one, the brahmayajna, is 
thereafter described in detail and we have to understand that 
Vaisvadeva has already been dealt with under homa in Asv. 
gr I. 2. 1-2 and that I. 2. 3-10 is concerned with bhutayajna or 
baliharana, out of which the 7th sutra contemplates an offering 
to'Visve-devas and sutra 10 an offering of cooked food to pitrs. 
The San. gr. II. 14 speaks of Vaisvadeva, while Gobhila gr. I. 4. 
1-15, Khadira gr. I. 5. 22-35 speak of baliharana only. Panini 

VI. 2. 39 teaches the acoent of 'ksullaka-vaisvadeva' (as a 
compound). Vaik. ,w * VI. 17 expressly says that devayajfia 
is the homa to the gods offered with cooked food meant for all the 
gods. According to Gautama (V. 9) the deities of vaisvadeva 
are Agni, Dhanvantari, Visve-devas, Prajapati and Svistakrt 
(Agni). According" 65 to Manu (III. 84-86) the deities are Agni, 

1763. tr$ ^qpja^fts l5Tr $»3%s mfit l *35*I«fcT rc p. 47; a <r> ^rjr- 
i gprjTffiynjTrcpft ft fafrw^ Wft 1 1* re$ far spur*?* srlsri^re} srri i ^»- 
v$i ^ <m«rm guir. i f^i?f afa^^r i to- «t. I. part 1 p. 389. 

1764. irirwftra §«9r^r ^*$f ?Wt ifa^: < fonw*m£ VI. 17. 

1765. In offering food one will have to Bay 3ijr«f ?*t?t. ^tvm WTfTi 
«rfnsftm*«rt WTfT,...wir> ftrefft wifT. In modern times the formula is 
mft WTCT snnr y$ i *m and to on. 

742 History of DharmaiUstra [ Ch. XX 

Soma, Agnteoma, the Via ve-devas, Dhanvantari, Kuhu, Anumati, 
Prajftpati, Dyavaprthivl, ( Agni ) Svistakrt. The Sah. gr. 
II. 14. 4 gives the names of ten deities that are slightly different 
from the list of Manu. Aooording to Far. gr. II. 9 the deities 
are Brahma, Prajapati, Grbya, Kasyapa and Anumati ; while 
the Visnu Dh. S. 67. 1-3 ( quoted in the Gr. R. p. 278 ) states 
that Vaisvadeva is to be offered to Vfisudeva, Sarhkarsana, 
Aniruddha, Purusa, Satya, Aoyuta, Agni, Soma, Mitra, Varuna, 
Indra, Indragni, Visve-devas, Praj&pati, Anumati, Dhanvantari, 
Vastospati, ( Agni ) Svistakrt. Vide Bhar. gr. III. 12, Manava 
gr. II. 12. 1-2, K&thaka gr. 54, Vaik. III. 7 for other lists 
of deities in Vaisvadeva. It is on acoount of this divergence 
that digests like the Madanaparijata ( p. 317 ) say that Vaisva- 
deva is of two kinds, viz. what is common to all smrtis like 
that of Manu and secondly what is stated in one's own 
grhyasutra. The Sm. 0. ( I. p. 212 ) 1T " says the same. 

All ancient smrtis Bay that Vaisvadeva is to be performed 
twice, once in the morning and then in the evening. Vide Asv, 
gr. I. 2. 1, Vas. Dh. S. XL 3, Manu III. 121, Visnu Dh. S. 59. 13, 
Gobhila II. 34. But in later times it came to be performed 
only once in the morning and the safnkalpa includes both in one 
statement. nn The verses ' justo dam una ' ( Rg. V. 4. 5 ) and 
•ehyagna' (Rg. I. 76. 2) are used in invoking Agni, then the 
verse * catvari srnga ' ( Rg. IV. 58. 3 ) and several ordinary 
verses describing the characteristics of Agni are employed for 
the dhy&na ( contemplation ) of Agni. From the food cooked 
for one's meal, a portion is taken out in another vessel, and 
oovered with clarified butter; it is then divided into three parts. 
Then one places one's left hand on one's heart and with the 
right hand takes up from one portion of the food morsels equal 
to a ripe myrobalan fruit, presses it with one's right thumb and 
offers it with the right band to Surya, Prajapati, Soma Vanaspati, 
Agnl-soma, Indrftgni, Dyavaprthivl, Dhanvantari, Indra, Visve 
Devas, Brahma. Then holy ashes are taken from the fire with 
the mantra ' ma nastoke ' ( Rg. 1. 114. 8 ) and ashes are applied 
to the forehead, the throat, the navel, the right and left shoulders 
and the head with certain mantras and a concluding prayer is 

1766. fo%* jjyfa WgTWlftfW TOT I wrtw quoted in jpjfiNfo I. p.212. 

1767. Th« #q?s*r in modern times is ffwhmiyfftuPTgKl Whtt frv K - 

Ch. XX ] Vcdivadeva Hi 

offered to Agni to bestow intelligence, memory, fame &o. as 
set out below."'* 

Medieval digests like tbe Mit. ( on Yaj. 1. 103 ) discuss tbe 
question whether vaisvadeva is purusartha only ( i. e. recommend- 
ed to men for effecting some beneficent oonsequence to them) or 
whether it is purusartha as well as a rite for effeoting a 
sarhskara ( unseen or spiritual result ) of the food cooked. In 
the latter case food will be pradhana ( the principal matter ) 
and vaisvadeva will be secondary ; but in the former case ( i. e. 
if it were only purusartha ) food will be secondary and Vaisva- 
deva principal. Relying ,7M on Asv. gr. I. 2. 1 some say that 
vaisvadeva is meant as a sarhskara of food and relying on Asv. 
gr. III. 1. 1 and 4 others say that it is purusartha. The Mit. 
declares that vaisvadeva is purusartha only, as Manu ( II. 28 ) 
holds that the human body is rendered fit for spiritual know- 
ledge by the daily yajfias and by other sacrifices and that if 
vaisvadeva is not purusartha alone, each time food is cooked in 
the day (on account of the sudden advent of many guests) 
vaisvadeva would have to be performed several times in the 
day ; but Manu III. 108 forbids a fresh vaisvadeva in such a 
case. Sm. 0. ( I. p. 213 ) and Par. M. ( I. 1. p. 390 ) hold the 
same view. The SmrtyarthasSra p. 46 and Laghu-AsvalSyana 
1. 116 hold the view that vaisvadeva is both for the samsk&ra 
of the householder and also of the food. mo 

There was divergence of view on other questions viz. 
whether vaisvadeva was to be performed before sraddha or after 
it and whether food for vaisvadeva was to be separately cooked 
from that meant for sraddha. Apararka p. 462 sets out the 
conflicting views on the first question and says that for vaisva- 
deva there are three options, viz. it may be performed imme- 
diately after food is ready, or it may be offered after baliharana 
or it may be performed after sraddha is finished. The Madana- 

1768. sins'T sTH^Rft v&rs ' swrnr 3^ig«Tr^ra w% • 3f«rcr»rw 3713- 
TnrtS TT»ft 1 *r^qrprf JTrgrftf? qf»>rw9 • ■*& &*3 *<»<j«iiftiit «u*w£ » wl- 
w*a smrgrfflirr firefa 1 ait ^ d wx ft vtfw ^ ft «rw ■ v$ s^p trelr w 3^ 
toW?** *rcft a *m: 1 swrft *m; 1 wffcr 1 wyt ft«ti wsa nwt ftut if% fSni 

TO1.I «ns«f «hT3nrNtf%i%^f^nn^Tt. The words aft *r ft a*^ ft 

irat occur in an"«9. vft. ^. 1. 11. 15. 

1769. aw Hnfcrm: ffcgrw *ftwr*r gy"3 ' wi- s- I. 2. 1. ; awmr: 
<T» T5rr: ' m^rar***?: 5&t 1 aw- *. III. 1. 1 and 4. 

1770. qrcre«> ^^vnpf wrf *m*dt f%*t » win«r *nw*rifo atfwrwf- 
fimttn ffw^nt p. 46 ; snprtf *rrw«its«*<r ?«»^f «ftrwfcp wwrr«?. 

1. 116. 

ill History of Dharrhaiastra t Ch. X&. 

parijata p. 320 and Brhat-Parasara p. 156 hold thai; vaisvadeva 
must be performed before srSddha. Vide SmrtimuktSphala 
( Shnika pp. 406-407 ) also; on the other hand AnusaBana-parva 
( 97. 16-18 ) directs that on sr&ddha day, pitr-tarpana comes first, 
then offering of bali, and then vaisvadeva. The Madanaparijata 
p. 318 says that the food for the vaisvadeva must be separately 
cooked from what is meant for sraddha. In the case of a joint 
family of father and sons or of several brothers, the father alone 
performs vaisvadeva or the eldest brother ; but if the father or 
eldest brother is unable to do it himself, a son or younger brother 
may offer it at his bidding ( Laghu-Asvalayana 1. 117-119 ). 

The food to be offered should be sprinkled over with ghee 
or with curds or milk but not with oil or salt. Ap. Dh. S. mi 
II. 6. 15. 12-14 prescribes that there is to be no homa of JcsSra 
and lavaya ( vide note 723 above ) and also of food that is mixed 
up with inferior food ( like kulattha &c. ) ; but if one is com- 
pelled to offer inferior food in vaisvadeva ( owing to poverty 
&c. ) he should take some hot ashes from the grhya or ordinary 
fire towards the north of the fire and offer the food in the ashes. 
The Smrtyarthasara 1778 p. 47 states that cereals like gram and 
mfisa beans are not to be used in vaisvadeva food. Even when 
a man was not going to eat on a particular day he had to offer 
vaisvadeva ( Apararka p. 145 ). If he could afford no food, be 
waB to offer fruits, roots or even water. 1773 He who has no grhya 
fire may offer vaisvadeva food into the ordinary fire with only 
the vyShrfcis and the rest may be left for crows. 

Ap. Dh. 8. ( II. 2. 3. 1 and 4 ) says that vaisvadeva food 
should be cooked by aryas ( persons of the twice-born classes ) 
that are purified ( by bathing &c. ), or sudras supervised by 
aryas may cook the food. 1 ™ Medieval writers remarked, as 
usual, that the latter rule about sudras being cooks applied only 
to another age. 1775 Ap. Dh. S. ( II. 2. 3. 10-11 ) further says 

1771. ar qarmwtsrar nvz lavmtwflQWP wfftwr?v *i*r snfWnr. 
B^f *r?»inJi«j aRH«ff*n<!T^«*qjs tturl miw i wnr. «. %. II. 6. 15. 12-14. 

1772. «Rt^* ^Difc ht* »^( ^ gjrawra* i «rr* ^ «** *rf t*j^ ft*£- 
^R*l *S?T««TCp. 47. 

1773. a»HT> ^T $T«nf«t <FW5n«T^fnf%f^: I «»gf^FT r ^r quoted by 
fSfifar. I p. 212 und wfag. ( wrfgfdf p. 398 ). 

1774. wnro Jnmr *»^r*sw#wrciT<! *g: ■ w r vlffrf a ni vr qpp: shwrafc: i 
wnr. it. %• II. 2. 3. 1 and 4. 

1775. «rcr etftw-antrrfarirwT tfwnrm ^-ffif «rtwr*jnft«nm i 

*Hr°m%g jjjffv masuffTliniTf* «* rffc *ri %sgrftW q p | '3% *** vwmp 
«*fc«. (anftvp. 399). 

Oh. XX ] Vaiimdeva 745 

that when the food is ready i.e. cooked, the cook should announce 
while standing, to the owner of the house ' it is ready ' and the 
owner should reply ' it ( food ) is auspiciously ready, it is food 
that gives supremaoy ; may it not be lost. ' If no vaisvadeva 
is performed on any day, the householder had to fast the day 
and night ( Gobhila-smrti III. 120). Daksa II. 62andYama 
condemn to hell him who takes his own meal without offering 
vaisvadeva, when he is not himself in distress or difficulty. me 

It has been stated above (p.158) that the sudra was to offer all 
the five yajflas without Vedic or Pauranic mantras, but only with 
the word 'namah' and he was to use uncooked food for vaisvadeva. 
Vide Yaj. 1. 121 and the Mit. thereon and Ahnikaprakasa, p. 401. 

Baliharaya or BhutayajHa : — Here also there is some diver- 
gence between the ancient grhya-sutras and medieval and 
modern praotice. The Siv. gr. I. 2. 3-11 deals with this. The 
deities to whom bali ( or part of the food taken out when per- 
forming vaisvadeva) is offered are: to the same deities to whom 
the devayajfia is offered as stated above, to the waters, to herbs 
and trees, to the house, to the domestic deities, to the deities of 
the ground ( on which the house is built ), to Indra and Indra's 
men, to Yama and Yama's men, to Varuna and Varuna's men, 
to Soma and Soma's men ( these are offered in the several 
quarters xm ), to Brahman and Brahman's men in the middle, 
to the Visve-devas, to all day-walking beings, to the Raksases- 
towards the north ; svadha to the pitrs ( Manes )-with these 
words he should pour out the remnant of the food to the south, 
while wearing the sacred thread suspended over the right 
shoulder. Asv. adds that if baliharaya is performed by night 
then the words 'to all night-walking beings' are used instead 
of 'to all day- walking beings'. 

Gobhila gr. I. 4. 5-15, Par. gr. II. 9 and other grhya sutras, 
JLp. Dh. S. IL 2. 3. 15-11. 2. 4. 9, Gautama V. 10-15, differ con- 
siderably from the above in several respects. But for want of 
space no reference can be made to these differences. 

In bhutayajfia, bali is to be mB offered not into fire but on 
the ground, which is to be wiped with the hand and sprinkled 

1776. ai^<rr fo$* a *?V 8^%s«rm^ ftr«T» ' w i?t »rctf xnftt *m^?m- 

«rng8ncn « ith quoted in ftftNo I. p. 213. 

1777. x*%\ *ffi TOT <"id *ftw are the presiding deities of the east, 
south, west and north respectively. 

1778. **ft»rt *rer ircv $i> *Nsrrit *3r ift^n^ww *gcr w rc«rft^- 
^m.t wtt. «*• % n. 2. 3. 15; ^rrsrjaifaoT 5f3rifarn*gs*T mr gprfcj' 
tqrwhm p. 47. 

H. P. 94 

746 History of DharmaiZstra [ Ch. XX 

with water, and then the bali is to be put down and water 
is poured on it thereafter. Vide Ap. Dh. 8. IL 2. 3. 15. The 
Ap. Dh. S. ( II. 4. 9. 5-6 ) prescribes that one should make 
all including dogs and candalas participators in the food 
cooked for vaisvadeva and adds the view of some (which 
he disapproves) that one should not give food to the un- 
deserving. 1779 Manu III. 87-93 says that after performing vais- 
vadeva one should offer balis in all directions to Indra, 
Yama, Varuna, Soma and their followers, a bali to Maruts on 
the door, to waters a bali in water, a bali to the trees in 
mortar and pestle, a bali to Sri on the top of the house, to 
Bhadrakall at the foot of the house, to Brahma and Vastospati 
in the midst of the house ; a bali may be thrown up in the sky to 
Visve Devas, to the day-walking beings ( when baliharana is 
done by day ) and to night-walking beings ( by night ) ; a bali 
should be offered to the prosperity of all on the first floor 17 " and 
all the remaining portion of the food for balis should be offered 
to the manes towards the south ; the householder should lightly 
( so that no dust will get mixed with it ) offer on the ground 
some food to dogs, to outcasts, to candalas, to those suffering 
from loathsome diseases (such as leprosy), to crows and insects. 
Yaj. I. 103 calls upon the householder to throw food to dogs, 
candalas and crows on the ground. 1781 

These directions to give food even to outcasts, dogs and 
birds were the outcome of the noble sentiment of universal 
kindliness and oharity, the idea that One Spirit pervades and 
illumines the meanest of creatures and binds all together. The 
San. gr. ( II. 14 ) ,7M winds up its vaisvadeva section with this 
fine exhortation "let him throw food to dogs, to svapaoas (eaters 

1779. tml^»w^ wm%rs 5^ri»«r^iBt^«rj i «rrefr«fi ygn%^ % i stpt. 
v. «* II. 4. 9. 5-6. 

1780. Some hold that bali is to be offered on the ground at the top 
( where the head lies ) of the bed of the house-holder and at the other 
end of the bed. TOTTCrJ in Mann III. 91 is explained by the 39*«TTCTre>t 
p. 279 as the latrine and privy at the back of the house. 

1781. ^ro ytn^rrafawFwfS **m ■ wtf ■%$ •»w5Ti*«rpit«r«ar 

1782. «9n=Vs «qrHfcrsj tpfcva? *«h[ fjyfrWfr •UH^MHvftrrlHjt * j$ 
jfhmw fih*r& 3rcr%*T ffft 1 *rt. n. II. 14. 22-26. Kg. X. 117. 6 is wfrmw 

$r*3T3T ». With the last quarter may be compared the HWrjfcn III- 13 
'8W&&W4 TWT ^ T^mrnwrnTIHl'. Vide also Manu III. 118 »»d 
Vijnu Dh. 8. 67. 43 for the same idea. 




of dog-flesh ), to birds on the ground ; let him eat nothing with- 
out having out off a portion ( to be offered as a bali ) ; let him 
not eat alone, nor before others ( relatives and guests ), since 
the mantra says 'the fool gets food in vain* ( Rg. X. 117. 6 ). ' 
The MahabhSrata ( Vanaparva II. 59 ) says that offering food to 
dogs, svapaca3 and birds on the ground is known as vaisvadeva, 
whioh is performed in the morning and evening. The same 
verse occurs at Anusasanaparva 97. 22-23. Apararka p. 145 says 
that vaisvadeva comprises all actions from the offering into 
fire oblations of food up to the throwing of food to dogs and 
the like in the morning and the evening. 

In modern times the way in which balis are offered and 
their number are set out in the diagram below. The one drawn 
is for the morning baliharana. For the evening one the only 
change necessary would be to put ' agnaye svaha ' ( No. 1 ) in 
place of ' surySya svaha ' and ' naktam-caribhyah ' for ' diva- 
caribhyah * in No. 27. The word ' svaha ' is not repeated in the 
diagram after each name' 783 for the sake of space. Manu III. 121 
prescribes that bali is offered in the evening by the wife but 
without mantras ( i. e. she is not to repeat the mantras) ' Indraya 
svaha ' &c, but only to contemplate on the several deities. 


?*3T7 WT?r 16 ff^fcft 17 






*3f°r ft$«j> ^«r: 


24 26 





<w>utt 20 <t*»rs*tot 21 

19 18 


748 Hidoty cf fiharmaiastra [ Oh. XX 

Pitryqjila :— The word oocura in Rg. X. 16. 10, but its 
exact meaning is not certain. Pitryajfia may be performed in 
either of three ways as stated above ( on p. 700 ) viz. by tarpana 
( Manu III. 70 and 283 ), or by performing baliharana in which 
remnants of bali food are to be offered to the pitrs (Manu III. 91 
and 5.SV. gr. 1, 2. 11) or by performing sraddha daily with food on 
inviting at least one brahmana for dinner ( Manu III. 82-83 ). 
Sraddhas will be dealt with later and the other two ( tarpana 
and baliharana ) have already been dealt with. In this daily 
sraddha 178 * there is no offering of plndas ( balls of rice ) and 
the several strict rules and procedure of the parvaya sraddha 
do not apply. 

1784. f*rcTrwT\£ a •i»mvf2»u , i**J" li< r srftwt i wtht. ft^wmt WH5 
£. 402 ). 



NryajM or Manusyaryajrla : (Honouring guests). — Manu 
( III. 70 ) states that this consists in honouring guests. In the 
oldest hymns of the Rgveda fire is described as a guest in the 
house of the sacrifioer. In Rg. I. 73. 1 Agni is described as 
lying in a pleasant spot and pleased like a guest (syonaslr- 
atithir-na prlnfino). Vide Rg. V. 1. 8 ,785 and 9, V. 4. 5, 
VIL 42. 4 for fire being called atithi. In $g. IV. 4. 10 it is 
said of Agni 'you become the protector, the friend, of him who 
offers you hospitality in the usual (or proper) order.' Vide 
Eg. IV. 33. 7 and Tai. S. I. 2. 10. 1 for the word atithya. Athar- 
vaveda IX 6 is an eulogy of hospitality in which the various 
stages in the reception and feeding of a guest are metaphori- 
cally represented as the various actions performed in a sacri- 
fice. im The Tai. S. V. 2. 2. 4 refers to the fact that 'when a 
guest comes, hospitality in whioh ghee abounds, is offered to 
him ' and it remarks that ' one who comes in a chariot and one 
who comes in a cart are the two most honoured among 
guests. ,OT ' The Tai. S. ( VI. 2. 1. 2 ) says ' hospitality is offered 
to all the followers acoompanied by whom a king comes'. Vide 
Ait. Br. II. 9 for almost the same words. The §&h. Br. II. 9 
remarks IT88 ' when a man offers oblations at sunrise, he indeed 
offers hospitality to a great god who has started on a journey.' 
The Tai. Br. ( II. 1. 3 ) shows that a guest was honoured by 
having a lit lamp placed before him and then food was 
served to him." 89 The Ait. Br. (25.5) says that a guest 

1785. ftift ftgrmfSf fafesffrinq « *. V. 1. 9 ' Agni ia a guest dear to 
all human groups.' xw wjm *reffir «Rf «fi *wr wii3x<4'<iSi«HiS<4taq > « *r. 
IV. 4. 10. 

1786. Vide arrr. w- *. II. 3. 7. 2 and 6-10 for comparison of 
hospitable aots with the three savams and constituent elements of 
a sacrifioe. 

1787. awrfwft «r t«ft * wfiM' i wu . ftiHufl i ... ^rtrrfiNm wmw 
wffayflHrt ninn* myta qg i vftq r whprt i &• tf. V. 2. 2. 3. and 4. The 
words «rc*nww...jjift are quoted in w). ?. <rft*rrtmpr II. 4. 20. 

1788. jtv sjf^fc sanlft iron l(W»HB;«l ^((NlftM «(?(>??* I aft. irj.'H. V. 

1789. wi> wriSFffi ^rtfa^ <rfWfi i «r. wr. II. 1. 3. 

750 History of Dharmaiastra { Ch. XXI 

should not be refused in the evening. ,790 The Sat. Br. (II. 1.4. 2. 
S. B. E. vol. 12, p. 291) remarks that 'it would be unbecoming 
for a person to take food before men who are staying with 
him as guests have eaten '. The Satapatha shows that an ox or 
a goat was oooked for a guest, either a king or a brahmana 
( III. 4. 1. 2 ). Vide also Ait. Br. 3. 4 for the offering of an ox or 
barren cow to a king or another deserving person coming as 
a guest. Yfij. 1. 109 also says that a big ox or a goat was to 
be kept apart for a guest learned in the Veda. But the Mit. 
and other ,7 *' medieval writers to whom fleBh-eating was an 
anathema and an unspeakable sin for a brahmana remark that 
an ox or a goat was to be understood as set apart for the guest 
to flatter him (with the words ' this ox is yours ') just as one 
says in humility ' all this house is yours ' and that the ox or 
goat was not meant to be given in gift or to be killed since it 
would be impossible to find an ox each time a srotriya guest 
came. The Ait Ar. I. 1. 1 remarks ' whoever is good and has 
attained eminence is a ( real ) guest, people do not treat with 
hospitality one who is undeserving. ,nn In the Tai. Up. ( 1. 11. 
2 ) one of the exhortations of the teacher to the pupil returning 
home is 'atithi-devo bhava' (honour guests). The same Upanisad 
says elsewhere ( III. 10. 1 ) " let him never turn away a stranger 
from his house, that is the rule. Therefore a man should by 
all means acquire much food, for people say ( to the guest ) 
' there is food ready for him. ' If he gives food amply, food is 
given to him amply". In the Katbopanisad 1783 (I. 7-9) it is 
said 'a brahmana entering a house as a guest is ( like ) fire. 
People offer this ( well-known ) appeasement to him. Oh, son of 
Vivasvat, offer him water ( to wash his feet ). If a brahmana 
guest stays in a man's house without food, he cuts off ( destroys) 
the hopes and expectations, ( fruits of ) the friendship ( of the 
good), the rewards of sacrifices and charitable acts, sons and 
cattle. ' Then Yama offered to bestow three boons on Naciketas 
as some penanoe for allowing Naciketas to remain without food 

1790. ircwnpfii **rewi%r»lTTV**r fft I <h mx- 25. 5 j compare *rg III. 
105 wrorrtrt sfiriSi. wpf sjrfirr •re*X3«n i . 

1791. wj *I«|R 4i9i<i<iWtf£|<jjic*i , § ifhW: *tf'«l Jffil qprtt HOtR wf&3«l 

strt «ri: flk g g«rr*ft 1 3Tt%*nra>Tsj b- 451. 

1792. ^ ♦ »rwfi> <T« itaurragSr ^ *r srftHtfrfaft n •nsti»W4iiSV.<n<4i- 
fjjtrfc i it jut. T. 1. 1. 

1793. •tnmi: h fulfil |?f ittafgiuf) {fret i tfwtrt «jtrf% 5*fPir *t *»TWfV- 
qtR*; i arahr. 1-7; sm. V. «. II* 3. 6. 3 echoes the first half. *i%* XI. 13 
quotes the first half. 

Ch. XXI ] Nryajfla or Manusya-yajfla 751 

in his house for three days. The Nirukta 17 " IV. 5 in explaining 
Jig. V. 4. 5 ( justo damuna atithirdurona ) derives the word 
4 atithi' from the root 'at' to go and also from 'tifchi ' (day ) and 
'a' meaning 'comes' (from *i' with 'abhi'). Vide Maim III. 102 
for another derivation; also Parasara L 42 and Mark. 29. 2-9. 
Manu and others say that an atithi is so called because he does 
not stay for a whole tithi ( i. e. day ) and ' an atithi is a brahmana 
who stays for one night only as a guest. ' 

The honouring of guests comes after the offering of bali 
and Baud. gr. II. 9. 1-2, Vas. XL 6, Visnupurana III. 11. 55 
ordain that after baliharana the householder should wait in 
front of the yard of his house for as much time ns would be 
required for milking a cow or for a longer time at his desire 
for receiving guests. Others make it a definite time viz. one- 
eighth of a muhiirta (vide Mirk, purana 29. 24-25 quoted in 
Sm. 0. 1., p. 217 ). I7,s The Ap. Dh. S. contains a very elaborate 
treatment of honouring guests ( II. 3. 6. 3 to II. 4. 9. 6 ). Gaut. 
V. 36, Manu III. 102-103 and Yaj. 1. 107 and 111 state that he 
is called an atithi who belonging to a different village and 
intending to stay one night only arrives in the evening, that 
one who has already been invited for dinner is not an atithi 
properly so called, that a person who belongs to the same 
village or who is a friend or fellow-student is not an atithi, 
that one has to honour guests according to one's ability, that 
guests are to be preferred according to the order of varnas and 
that among the brahmanas, the srotriya and one who has com- 
pletely mastered (at least one) recension of the Veda is to be 
preferred. Vas. Dh. S. XL 6 says that the worthiest are to be 
honoured first. Gaut. V. 39-42 and Manu III. 110-112 say 
that a ksatriya is not really an atithi to a brahmana nor 
are vaisyas nor sudras; but they add that, 17 " if a ksatriya 
comes to a brahmana's house as a guest ( i. e. as a traveller 
who has no food with him and about the time of taking food ) 
be should be treated to a meal after brahmana guests take 
their food and valsya and sudra guests should be given food 

1794. srfirf^: wvfStft tryRt w^ • w%ft fJN^g m g drffr fffr *r i 
ftvar IV. 5. 

1795. aw ^<w^tf jwifSf^ngrt^T^T^wra^ • 3rir *t3?r ^trrat • 
ft?n^ v?ft *t <PT tranft ^r^ftfat i «ft. s- II. 9. 1-3 and vtigmm III. 14 ; 
▼ide *a ill. 94 also. gs?fcrreJT »*r*rsf rc^t srmfaifoj it m&fargnq 29. 25. 

1796. wt gwqHia igrcngrTt ■ Htant a vftrortf »TT8r9r«u i 

WTR 1*$» TOTOfan*fa( ' «ft- V- 39-42. 

752 History qf Dharmaiatstra [ Ch. XXI 

by a brshmana householder along with his servants and thereby 
he should show his kindliness. Ap. Dh. S. II, 4. 9. 5 requires 
the householder to give food to all who oome at the end of the 
Vaisvadeva, even including cand&las, but it mentions the view 
of some that one need not give food to unworthy persons (vide 
note 1779 above ). Commentators like Haradatta explain that« 
in the oase of worthy guests, if the householder does not give 
food, though able, he incurs sin; but in the case of unworthy 
people he incurs no blemish by not giving, but if he gives 
to them also, he secures merit. Vrddha-Gautama (pp. 535-536) 
calls upon a householder to treat even a candala with consi- 
deration. Par&sara ( I. 40 ) and Satatapa went so f ar ,m as to 
say that even if a householder hates a visitor or the latter is a 
fool, the householder should give him food if he arrives at the 
time of meals. Santiparva 146. 5 says that even an enemy 
when he comes to one's house as a guest must be hospitably 
treated, as a tree does not remove its shade from one who 
approaches it to fell it. But Ap. Dh. S. II. 3. 6. 19, Manu 

IV. 213, Yaj. I. 162 are opposed to this and state that a guest 
who is at enmity with the host shall not eat his food, nor shall 
he eat the food of a host who accuses him or suspects him of a 
crime. Vrddha-HSrlta ( 8. 239-240 ) states the humane rule * if 
a traveller is a sudra or belongs to a pratiloma caste ( such as a 
candala) and comes to one's house tired and hungry, the 
householder should give him food; but if a heretic or a patita 
(one outcast for grave sins) comes in that condition, one 
should not give him cooked food, but only grain. Compare 
Manu IV. 30. Vrddha-Gautama ( chap. 6, p. 535 and chap. 12, 
p. 590, Jiv&nanda part 2 ) says the same about a candala or 
svapaka being given cooked food. Baud. gr. II. 9. 21 enjoins 
welcome to all travellers including candalas. 

The guest is to be shown honour by going out to meet him t 
by offering him water to wash his feet, by giving him a seat, 
by lighting a lamp before him, by giving food and lodging, by 
personal attendance on him, by offering him a bed and by 
accompanying him some distance when he departs. Vide Gaut. 

V. 29-34, 37, Ap. Dh. S. II. 3. 6. 7-15, Manu III. 99, 107 
and IV. 29, Daksa III. 5-8. Vanaparva 200. 22-25 and Anusasana 
2 highly extol hospitality. Anusasana 7. 6 says 'the host 

1797. ftrft *t irf% «n fr^r «n£s <rfS«ir <nr *rt ■ ^«*%* g 3*ra» wtfiM5: 
WntfHW: » TTTOT !• *0i smnar quoted im^fiNo I. p. 217 ( reads &ft m 
*TT4 IT JHt *C&t &c. ). 

Ch. XJtl J Manusya-yajfki ( honouring guests ) 753 

should give his eye, mind and agreeable speech to the 
guest, he should personally attend on him and should accompany 
him when he (the guest) departs; this sacrifice demands 
these five fees'.'™ Ap. Dh. S. (II. 2. 4. 16-21) says that if 
a brahmana that has not studied the Veda or a ksatriya or 
a vaisya cornea as a guest to a brahmana, the latter should offer 
him a seat, water and food, but need not rise to receive him, 
that if a sudra comes as a guest to a brahmana, the latter should 
ask him to do some work, then give him food, but if he has 
none, he should send his slaves to bring it from the royal 
palace (or store-house). 179 * Haradatta makes the interesting 
remark that for honouring sudra visitors the king should set 
apart in each village some paddy or other corn. Gaut. V. 33, 
Manu III. 101 ( = Vanaparva II. 54 and Udyoga 36. 34), 
Ap. Dh. S. II. 2. 4. 13-14, Yaj. 1. 107, Baud. gr. II. 9. 21-23 say 
that l,0 ° if a man has not the means to give food to all visitors 
he should at least offer them water, room and grass to lie down 
upon, and agreeable speech. If the householder is absent, his 
wife is to look after honouring guests. Gaut. ( V. 37-38 ) says 
that guests of the brahmana, ksatriya and vaisya castes should 
be respectively greeted with the words kuiala, anamaya and 
arogya and the sudra also with arogya. Vide Manu II. 127 
also and note 831 above. 

The motive of this injunction to honour guests was dear, 
viz. universal kindliness. Other motives were added by smrtis 
in order to emphasize the observance of this duty. The Sari. gr. 
II. 17. 1 says " Even if a man constantly gathers grass ( i. e. 
maintains himself by collecting the grains that fall in a field 
when the crop is taken away ) and performs agnihotra, a brah- 
mana guest who stays in his house without receiving the 
honour ( due as a guest ) takes away the ( merit ) of all his good 

1798. ■q;gjgt?fl*> ^q-t^ srrsf srsrra s^ctpi. i Jflaa^jrrefTcf w igt» >r»- 
qfiffm » 3*3$rrar 7. 6. 

1799. wi«rorj»nsTvfhrnitir?rsi3?gffnwi&R ?i t srcgr%&i ' toi»«iW& 

*1& S.i%: " *"»■• * *• ll - 2 - 4# 16 ~ 21 ' 3W ** 3^ 33T°T*fihffrrt $3rr3 
rftarf%* njrr ai* in* wm%er«jf^ i ft^r on arr*. *r. % II. 2. 4. 21. 

1800. wi& wrfawrwrrtrsf «r nwrasffftrrat* i 3*»tt% ^jfJw^r jorrf^ 
qtCTiaft «rrf«ft^TTf* w *n€in f i t ftfr«r% tfi^ i M^i^ i am- «. «;. II. 2. 4. 13-14 ; 
«r>. ?• II. 9. 22-23 aitaraftvrpraa ftvnrrat wnffs*rft ^ Wft^ptft 

5. D. 95 

754 History of DharmaiUstra [ Oh. XXl 

works". ,80 ' Manu III. 100 says the same. Ap. Dh. S. II. 3. 6. 6 
says that by honouring guests one secures heaven and freedom 
from misfortune. 1808 Vide also Ap. Dh. S. II. 3. 7. 16. One 
yerse quoted in numerous works like the Visnu Dh. 8. 67. 33, 
SSntiparva 191. 12, VisnupurSna III. 9. 15, MSrkandeya 29. 31, 
Brahmapurana 114. 36 is 'when a guest returns from the house 
of a person with his hope of getting food shattered, he (the guest) 
transfers his own sins to the householder and departs taking 
with him the householder's merit (punya)'. The Vayupurana 
,.(71. 74) and Brhat-Parasara ( Jivananda, part 2, p. 99) say that 
yogins and .siddhas (those who have attained transcendant 
powers ) wander ever this earth in various forms for the benefit 
of men; therefore one should with folded hands welcome a 
guest.- If one is not able to feed many guests, then Baud. Dh. 
S. (II. 3. 15-18) declares that one should feed him who is 
endowed with superior qualities or who is the first to arrive or 
who is a irotriya. 

'Parfisara. (I. 46-47) says that the brahmacarin and the 
ascetic are the masters of food (i. e. their claim is the first); 
if one eats without giving to these one should perform the 
penance of candrayana. When a yati comes as a guest, one 
should give water in his hand, then food and then again water. 
The food becomes as big as Meru ( mountain ) and the water as 
the sea. Laghu-Visnu ( II. 12-14 ) highly eulogises a yogin as 
a guest and Dakaa VII. 42-44 and Vrddha-HSrlta 8. 89 say 
that if a yati stays as a guest in a householder's house for a 
single night, the Matter's accumulated sins are destroyed and 
when a yati takes food at a man's house it is Visnu himself 
who is fed.' 803 

If after some guests have been fed another guest or a batoh 
of guests arrives, then the householder should have food cooked 

1801. gtJTjrijcgsiKft f2tanrf?r?ir* ^ g«nrs i *rf stfswnpt wTgroftnffcft 
Wtf^MWt.H. II. 17. 1. 

1802. «^ iprrrt $Trf%: wfsr ■ wr*. 9. *. II. 3. 6. 6 ; vide ffagwf- 
qpr 67. 32 also, wfirfiirjfcr »nrrcn- n giwftffrqtift i «■ *rwr |«sri w^ gwwwrw 
•mrfit n mk°iv 29. 31. fag? ft fSnretfor n^fa sfWhSfcrrt'i fenqfitfirawf - 
*w*rf»hl*frcl v 9#rarr&< m TRjgrror 71. 74 ; nTPr'fr fitfwfwftnSfc »n«fhrS ! • 
wtrrrowm^, & *rqrf!rt«reftor: i iwtt^t^wth »u^»iwffi iw fifar: « 

UNTTOTC E> ^9 ( JiTSnanda, part 2 ). 

1803. trfofarnfrgf^irw Sf* *f*t wu re*r&r.8. 89; afW 
v^to^t nmtimunf^ift^ i fSrfjrtfr* awi&Mnftft«ft vfet: i qv VII. 43. „ 

Oh. XXI ] Manuaya-yajfla ( honouring guests ) 755 

again, but in such a case no fresh vaisvadova and baliharana 
are necessary. Vide Manu III. 105 and 108. It has been 
already shown from the Satapatha that the householder is 
not to partake of meals before the guests, but rather after 
the guests. The Ap. Dh. S. II. 3. 7. 3 states 180 * 'he who eats 
before his guest eats. ( destroys ) food, prosperity, progeny, 
cattle and merit of his own house '. Manu III. 114 ( = Visnu 
Dh. S. 67. 39 ) allows the householder to feed newly married 
girls ( his daughters or sisters ), unmarried girls, persons 
who are ill, and pregnant women even before guests; 
while Gautama V. 23 says that these should be fed at the 
same time as the guests. Manu III. 113, 116-118, Visnu Dh. S. 
67. 38-43, Yaj. 1. 105, 108, Ap. Dh. S. II. 4. 9. 10 ,' 805 Baud- 
Dh. S. II. 3. 19 say that one should feed one's friends, relatives 
and one's servants and then the householder and his wife 
should dine, that one should not stint one's servants and 
slaves ( who are to be fed daily with food ) in order to be able to 
feed guests, that he who eats before these ( guests, relatives, 
young women of the house, servants) will have his soul 
harassed by vultures after death, that he who cooks food for 
himself only swallows merely sin and that when he eats what 
remains after offering yajfia to gods, beings, pitrs and guests, 
he really eats. Manu III. 285 ( = VanaparvaII.60) says that 
' vighasa is what is left after brahmanas and guests have 
partaken and amrta is what is left after being offered in sacrifice 
and one should always eat these.' Baud. Dh. S. (II. 3. 68 and 
21-22 ) says 1805 " all beings subsist on food, the Veda declares 

• food is life ' ; therefore food should be given, as food is the 
highest offering. One should not take food without giving it 
to others " and quotes two verses said to have been sung by 
food itself. It is on account of these sentiments that are 
ingrained even to-day in the minds of all Hindus that no Poor 
Law and no work-houses were required in India. This senti- 
ment undoubtedly leads to abuses, but what system is not 

1804. 3^ gfi srart q^ftBT^fH^ %gi m i *nH rift *r: ^sfa^'R^ri^ i wr. 
«r. *, II. 3. 7. 3. 

1805. * firenr mUi*a«i i gam rfrr tfft>n»ft ftfiai i am. *. II. 4. 9. 10, 
Band. Dh. S. II. 3. 19 ( practically the same ). 

1806. 3«fr fSntrft ^?n% srtf Jjmfnnft «fih i frw^fr srgrwwrsrw ft <rctf 

* fa i * *£* frq i ftnttt'wi staffer ■ wm«n»m«fRft sgrer mig<i?a i *ft urnqtm 
fa3%*n«r> *j?>nfa«fr!Tt <* sfj*fl*<i i #qwa y Ti3gq *u 3 jftfTO*n.*nf a?? * 
(grgtfts i A *r. ^. II. 3. 68, 21^21 ' ant mor:> occurs in it m. 83. 1 and 
' aw awwwprmg } ' in $. wr II. 8. 8. 

fr6 6 History of DharmaiMra [ Ch. XXI 

without abuses ? The Poor Law and work-houses have their 
own abuses and the general tax-payer has probably to pay 
more for relief to the poor, the destitute and unemployed in 
England than under the Indian system of feeding the poor 

Ap. Dh. S. (IL 4. 9. 2-4) says" 07 that when the guest 
departs, the host should accompany him to the place where his 
conveyance is drawn up and if he has no conveyance, then till 
the guest gives him leave to go or if the guest forgets to give 
leave, the host should turn back from the boundary. Vas. Dh. 
S. XI. 15 and Yaj. 1. 113 speak also of accompanying the guest 
till the boundary, and Apararka explains that the boundary 
may be that of the host's house site, or of his field or^ of the 
village according to the eminence of the guest. Sankha- 
Likhita 1808 prescribe that the host should accompany the guest 
till he reaohes a public garden or public hall, a prapa (place 
where water is distributed gratis ), a tank, a temple, a sacred 
(or big) tree (like the fig tree) or a river and then should go 
round the guest and say the words 'farewell till we see each 
other again.' It is in accordance with this that in the fourth 
Act of the Sakuntala Kanva's pupil reminds his teacher that 
one should accompany one's dear relative up to some reservoir 
of water. 

1807. ^Hdw^wt^ i vnr»rT33TTWNnt%!JT: i wnfbrprt €t**\ fSmsw 
an?, vi. 3, II. 4. 9. 2-4. 

1808. «h*h wrrvift ftnifcj i ammHH i nima i »i^mn«<gi^HH|>Hw»v«^ 
&*H ifqfirt gviamii«i*v M » nfrfm « H ft I Wffeft m quoted in w t. p.ttt. 



Bhojana ( taking erne's meals ) : — Daksa ( II. 56 and 68 ) states 
that in the fifth 180 ' part of the day the householder should 
make according to his capacity the gods, pitrs, men and even 
lower animals (lit. insects) participators (in food) and after 
doing that, he should himself partake of the remainder of the 
food cooked. Thus he was to take his meals during one 
hour and a half after noon. Bhojana is one of the most important 
subjects treated of in Dharmasastra works and the greatest 
importance (next to rules about marriage) attaches to the 
numerous injunctions and taboos about food. The principal 
subjects to be dealt with under this head are: how many times 
food was to be taken; the kinds of foods and drinks allowed or 
forbidden; what causes food defilement; flesh-eating and drink- 
ing wine; whose food was to be eaten; etiquette and ceremonies 
before taking food, at the time of taking it and after taking it. 

Great importance was attached to purity of food from very 
ancient times. In the Chandogya Up. ( VII. 26. 2 ) occurs this 
passage ' when there is purity of food, then the mind becomes 
pure, when the mind is pure then follows firm remembrance ( of 
the real Self), when the last is secured all knots (that bind the 
soul to the world ) are loosened. " 8I ° 

The several matters about bhojana found in the Vedic 
literature will be first briefly set out. From Rg. VI. 30. 3 it 
appears that food was taken, while sitting ('the mountains sank 

1809. <T9sfc <jirai *rf*r wnHnnt *r«n^r: i ^faf*rg«*rrort *>hrrstf iffr- 
Gprft ii #Pthpt «ra: 5T?tt H?W: ?if*p*nTfT i fqr TI. 56, 68. The first verse 
is quoted by 3wrr& P- 143. 

1810. arrcrcgrsft ww^rrer: sfsrg^r gwr ^sffc mffid»< T jp h rwfcrt far- 

HtSH I OT'tfr VII.26.2. y far Cl^l <f explains sirsrc in a far-fetched way as 
sjrfjpjj g vti ig m 3i*4 l i4l1«mPl^l 5 i &o. It is remarkable that on VedSn- 
tasOtra III. 4. 29 6amkara connects this clause with allowed and for- 
bidden foods ' ** * xHhsnwix&zl «^i%tfc3wn%->i$*rr»Twftm»t-$Tm- 
jwri^i *wffr '. On m. 1. 154 (p. 221) amife quotes a long passage from 
HSrita in which we read ' tWti-ttffaifan fa R f ftqum rTRJ ■ Wtltgff *W- 

758 History of Dharmaiaatra I Ch. XXII 

down just as men sit down to take food ' ). 'A person was to 

take food 18 " only twice a day* says the Tai. Br. I. 4. 9. and 

the Sat. Br. II. 4. 2. 6. There were certain taboos about articles 

of food even in the earliest texts. Tai. S. II. 5. 1. 1 states that 

all red exudations (resins) of trees or the juice that oozes out 

from trees when they are cut ( with an axe &c. ) should not be 

eaten, since that colour is due to the ( sharing of ) brahmana- 

murder. Similarly the milk of the cow was not to be drunk for 

ten days afteT delivery (Tai Br. II. 1. 1, III. 1. 3). The Ait.Br. 6. 9 

states that one should not eat the food of a diksita ( one initiated 

for a Vedic sacrifice) till the performance of vapahoma by him. 

Rg. 1. 187 ( vv. 1-7 ) is a hymn in praise of food. The story of 

Usasti Cakrayana in the Ohandogya Up. shows that in a dire 

calamity when no food can be had, one may eat anything, 

even the remnants of another's food and the Vedantasutra 

(HI. 4. 28-31, sarvannanumatis-ca pranatyaye tad-darsanat ) is 

based on this episode in the Chandogya. In the Ait. Ar. 

V. 3. 3 ,8W it is stated that ' one who knows this ( i. e. the 

Mahavrata) should not recite these texts before one who knows 

it not nor dine with him nor should he take delight in his 

company. ' The sages are said in the Kausltaki Br. ( 12. 3 ) to 

have told Kavasa who sat in their midst that they would not 

eat with him as he was the son of a deist. The question about 

flesh-eating and drinking spirituous liquors will be dealt with 

in detail later. 

Manu V. 4 declared that death overtakes brahmanas on 
account of four causes, viz. absence of Vedic study, giving up 
the performance of proper duties and aotions, laziness and 
blemishes attaching to the food taken. The Gr. R. p. 347 quotes 
verses to the effect ' food is the filth of men, everything is 
centred in food, the evil deeds of men resort to their food. Who- 
ever eats the food of another partakes of that man's sin. ' There- 
fore elaborate regulations are laid down about everything 
relating to food. Ap. Dh. S. I. 11. 31. 1, Vas. Dh. S. XII. 18. 
Visnu Dh. S. 68. 40, Manu II. 5 say that one should face the 
east when taking food and the Visnu Dh. S. 68. 41 and Ap. Dh. 

1811. cremf FPfannn^r &n% i ?RT<ni II. 2. 2. 6 s zwix i&raft *rg*fr- 
*r ^rjprir i ft. wt. I. 4. 9. The first is quoted by ft««IW ( on 4 *rr- 1. 114 ); 
*r ftrafcrtsM 4 situ fiw <fi« w *tot *wz nrr^ m vifj« wg t ft tfrffcfr^t <n 
H«»«iiR(5fa{il w^r snrtf «fn*m*<j<«i i ^. tf. II. 5. 1. 4 j erena - ^ an* qpsr 

lHW ff1% I W. WT. II. 1. 1. 

1812. >$ftlfa<|fo*T TOf^jta *r* gtfftr sr *prenfr *irnr, i§. sn. V. 3. 3. 

Ch. XXII ] Bhojana ( talcing meals ) 759 

S. II. 8. 19. 1-2 allow a man to face the south, except when 
the diner's mother is alive. Manu II. 52 ( = Anusasanaparva 
104. 57) states 'one facing the east eats food which tends 
to long life, one facing the south eats food which 
leads to fame, one facing the west eats ( so as to produce ) 
wealth and one faoing north partakes of truth.' This means 
that one who eats facing any one of these directions secures 
the benefit specified. The Vamanapurana and Visnupurana 
quoted in Gr. R. p. 312 disallow the south and west. One must 
take one's meals in private in a place screened from public 
view. The Sm. 0. quotes 1813 verses of Devala, Usanas and the 
Padmapurana to the effect ' one should take food in privacy, for 
one who does so is endowed with wealth and one who eats his 
meals in public becomes bereft of wealth; one should not eat in 
the sight of many ( who are themselves not eating) and many 
men should not eat before a single person who is only looking 
at them '. One may 18U eat in the company of one's sons, 
younger brothers, dependents &c. Some writers went so far 
as 18 " to recommend that 'one should take one's food alone and 
not in the company of even one's relatives or other brahmanas, 
since who oan know the secret sins a person in whose company 
one eats is guilty of ' ? The conception underlying this unchari- 
table view was stated by Brhaspati to be that ' when several 
persons sit down to dinner in a continuous row, the sins one 
of them is guilty of attach to the others in the same row'. 
Even in modern times many persons in Northern India follow 
this view and it is a well-known proverb that nine bhayyas have 
ten hearths. The place where one takes one's food should 
be freshly cowdunged and pure. Ap. Dh. S. ( I. 5. 17. 6-8 ) 
says that one should not take one's food in a boat nor 
on' a wooden platform, but may do so on a pure floor. One 
was not to eat while seated on an elephant, or horse or camel 

1813. smrre a TO safari* t* ^t *nf?r i git ft ??«*tt gro wrsnurct 
(fNefr faprr H %*ra quoted in ^i&>?° I. p. 221 ; &«j*f went 5H*rnrtt *r 
?r»n^^ i afgsrrarT 163. 47 ; sn^TT ^w^Tm «r5*t =9 tstcTpt. i srrssftgif- 

Wfewiw wt i ra«su*t%?r 68. 

1814. trr^wwrrg^g g^i^ia-3: wf i ^3*rt trN' JrfitsrcT »w«iMi a 

W^T. II WlTHm quoted in 1&. x. p. 311. 

1815. 3?t3f«'n^*'rt *iivfi«jr?{; wtbto ww^fl 1 *stf$ 3rr*ifi> rar *sw 
,9*&ti TOT* vfcr.» auf%STT«r quoted in sgfitaro I. p. 227 and to. wi. 1. 1. p. 

429. tTspnpHgTfTOrsii yptf t^rjttwc i *r^rf amA trpWTOWFfar*? nrtpr « 

fZWriit quoted in ffffa* I. p. 228. 

fr60 History of DharmaiSstra [ Ch. XXII 

or in some conveyance, or in a cemetery or in a temple or 
on a bed or chair ; nor should one eat food placed on one's 
palm ( BrahmapurSna quoted in Gr. B. p. 325 ). One should 
wash one's hands and feet before sitting down to take one's 
meal. Manu IV. 76 says ( = Anusasana 104. 61-62 and Atri 
in Jivananda, part 1, p. 9) that one should begin one's 
dinner while one's feet are wet, since that leads on to long 
life. Vyasa quoted in Sm. C. ( I. p. 221 ) prescribes that one 
should have five limbs wet at the time of taking food, viz. 
the hands, the feet and the mouth. ,816 All writers prescribe 
that one should observe silence or at least restraint of speech at 
the time of meals ( e. g. vide Baud. Dh. S. II. 7. 2, Lagbu-Harlta 
40 ). Vrddha-Manu quoted by the Sm. C. I. p. 223 wn requires 
complete silence till five morsels are taken and restraint in 
speeoh thereafter. Following the Vedic injunctions quoted 
above, Gaut. IX. 59, Baud. Dh. S. II. 7. 36, Manu II. 56, Sarh- 
varta 12 and others say that a householder should take only two 
meals every day, should not eat food in tbe intervening period 
and that if he acts up to this advice he reaps the merit of a fast. 
Gobhila-smrti ( II. 33 ) says the same and adds I818 that the 
evening meal may be taken till one prahara and a half ( i. e. 
4$ hours ) after nightfall. One was not to eat very early in the 
morning nor at midnight nor at twilight ( Manu IV. 55 and 62 
and Visnu Dh. S. 68. 48 ). Ap. Dh. S. ( II. 8. 19. 10 ) allows 
partaking of roots and fruits between two meals. Below the 
vessel or plate or leaf from which one eats, one has to draw a 
figure with water or holy ashes. According to the Brahmapurana 
( quoted in Or. R. p. 311 ) the mandalas ( figures ) for brahmanas, 
ksatriyas, vaisyas and sudras should respectively be in the form 
of a square, a triangle, a circle and a crescent ; while according 
toSankha(in Sm. 0. I., p. 221), Laghu-Satatapa 133, Atri 
( Jivananda chap. V. 1, p. 7 ) in the case of the sudra water is to 

1816. vmntf *ftsm s^fai^s^ wWmw. • ?*n <mft et«fam$$ 

<T*npfT *rar « «mr in ?£fjtar° I. p. 221 ; vide *rt»T» on »rg II. 53 quoting 
•vw ' "rani sw?t f«fc«f tig TO*!*** fc i ' 5 vide smfau* 193. 6 for <rarnrY 

1817. s»fa*?9*i«3rttov *i»*rih«nig»w*R. i tranrw w?m\»f i B pn w n w flra 
1? mj li 33pts in tq-ittae I. p. 223. 

1818. *rftftf$f«r*r3*fc Amort »Tr«rVn%srt raw* i snrra v sror&Jrfawrf: 
"FmistWTOnmr: » «fiWHr II. 33 quoted in »nr. k. p. 313, 3jn%WU. p. 462 ; $• 
v. *. II. 7. 36 i« 'awn Jrratnff ■* srnwitf ««hr * i sffrrcrtft *«tf& ft 
* WF* «P< •• ' (quoted in w t. p. 321 ) ; yide 3135mm 93. 10 j $m% 
193. 10, 281. 10 for similar words. 

Oh. XXII ] Bhojana ( taking meals ) 76t 

be sprinkled on the ground below his plate. The reasons for 
drawing a mandala are stated by these authorities to be that the 
Adityas, Vasus, Budras, Brahma and other gods partake of only 
that food which is offered after a mandala is made and that 
evil spirits and goblins carry away the flavour of the food 
when no mandala is made. The person taking his food should 
sit on a low wooden stool having four feet or on a seat made 
of wool or of the skin of a goat ( which latter is said to be 
the best by Ap. Dh. S. II. 8. 19. 1). One should not sit 
on a seat of oowdung cakes ( dried ), or of clay, or of the 'leaves 
of asvattha or palasa or arka plant or a seat made by joining 
two planks together or on a shattered one or partly burnt one or 
on one made fast with iron (nails). Vide Smrtyarthasara 
p. 69. The vessel or plate from which one is to eat is to be 
plaoed on the mandala drawn on the ground. The vessel from 
which to eat may be of gold, silver, copper, lotus or palasa 
leaves (vide Veda-Vyasa III. 67-68, Paithlnasi quoted in 
Ahnika-prakasa p. 467 ). A copper vessel is forbidden to house- 
holders who should use bell-metal (kamsya) vessel. Ap. Dh. 
S. ( II. 8. 19. 3 ) says that a copper plate with gold in the 
centre 18 " is recommended. But a bronze plate for eating from, 
tambula and a luxurious bath with oil &c, were not allowed to 
an ascetic, a brahmacarin and a widow. 18 * Harlta ( quoted by 
Sm. 0. I. p. 222 ) stated that one was not to eat in an iron or 
earthern vessel, but Ap. Dh. S. ( I. 5. 17. 9-12 ) ,M1 prescribes that 
an earthen vessel not used for cooking may be used as a plate 
for meals, but if it had been used for cooking food, then it may 
be used as a plate for food after being baked in fire, that an 
iron plate sooured with ashes is pure and even a wooden plate 
may be used provided it is thoroughly soraped from inside. Manu 
IV. 65 states that one should not eat from a broken vessel, but 
Paithlnasi remarks that there is nothing wrong in eating from 
a broken plate made of copper, silver, gold, conoh-shell, or 
stone. ,m Some smrtis forbade lotus or palasa leaves, but the 

1819. aftjmsjiTiT: grtVpr: ssjrrem i sm. v. %• II. 8. 19. 3 ; jT^tr 

explains a^g**T: as EnsrflRTt . 

1820. wff fg nw a N 3* qrtpnrrii ■* htsppjc i Traai wgrtmt * favrtr * 
ft*#m » s^ere; quoted in tqilii-g a I. p. 222. 

1821. OTpfft t^ 'tHfup* i srfW <tf?fSr^r i <tR^b &$ mm»* i 
tfifeftm f rv«nn* i shit. «*• I. 5. 17. 9-12. 

1822. WTfforaitW$Tyg*?75'T^f2«n ,l rt f^«flffi<nfflll> I ^affafa quoted 
in ^fiN» I. E- 222. 

H.D. 96 

762 History of Dharmaiastra [ Ch. XXII 

Ahnlka-prakasa p. 467 explains that this prohibition holds good 
only if the lotus plant grows on dry land ( and not in a pond 
or the like) or when the pal&sa is a young plant. Paithlnasi 
( in Sm. C. I. p. 222 ) presoribes that one who desires wealth 
should not eat on a plate made of the leaves of the vata, arka, 
asvattha, kumbhl, tinduka, kovidara and karanja trees. Vrddha- 
Harlta 8. 250-256 prescribes that the plate may be of gold, 
silver or bronze or any leaf allowed by sastras, that leaves of 
palasa and lotus are not to be used by householders but may be 
used by ascetics, forest hermits and in sraddhas and sets out 
leaves forbidden and allowed. Even now in modern times 
people prefer (particularly in oaste dinners and marriages) plan- 
tain leaves for dining or silver vessels for honoured guests and 
brahmanas at arfiddha or use plates prepared from stitched 
leaves of various trees. Before sitting down to take one's food, 
one has to perform acamana ( twice ) outside the place where 
one is to eat and has to perform acamana after taking his 
meals. This practice was most ancient, as it is attested by the 
Chandogya Up. V. 2. 2 ,8M and the Br. Up. VI. 1. 14. The rule 
is laid down by Ap. Dh. S. I. 5. 16. 9, ,8!W Manu II. 53, V. 138 
and others also. Vide Devala (quoted in the Smrtimukt&phala, 
ahnika, p. 418) for acamana outside the room for meals. When 
sitting down to eat a person must wear his saored thread in 
the upavlta form (Ap. Dh. S. I. 5. 15. 1) and must also have an 
upper garment, 1885 but should not cover his head ( Manu IV. 45 
III. 238, Ap. Dh. S. II. 2. 4. 22-23 and II. 8. 19. 12). A darvi 
(ladle or spoon) is to be employed in serving ghee, oil, cooked 
food, all condiments, salt ( i. e. these should not be served by 
the bare hand ) but pot in giving water or uncooked food ( vide 
Sm. 0. 1, p. 223 quoting several smrtis). The householder may 
wear in his hand gold or jewel (ring &c.) at the time of meals. 
Gaut. IX. 59, Vas. Dh. S. III. 69, Manu II. 5-' -55 say that 
when food is brought to be served, the person about to eat it 
should greet it, should pay honour to it, show his delight at it 
and should not find fault with it. Vas. Dh. S. ( III. 69-71 ) 

1823. ?r fftrra' f<$i H snrt wftuWifrnr fft B."l*jwwai ifl^fimrfej: 
S<W l *to i?eTgrf3r: <m?t*fS I gF qfr q V. 2. 2 ; vide S*rr*ss?t ( m - 3 - 18 ) 
and SariikaiVa bhs§y a for an explanation of tbe sypcjW and $30 passages. 

1824. «hpn»(«r^i sraeftsfa frcwtfcr fit TftgfrwrCTKTfa 1 *w. «. 
I. 5. 16. 9. 

1815. ftwrcftgnrwh ^frnWr gtfhnww. u. II. 8. 19. 12 j vide 

Haradatta for several views. 

Ch. XXII ] Bhojana ( taking meals ) 76$ 

says "he should honour food in the morning and evening by 
saying ' I like it \ by saying ' it was good for eating * in the 
case of food served in sraddhas and ' it was perfect ' as to food 
offered in abhyudayika rites 18 " (i. e. in marriage &c). Kulluka 
( on Manu IF. 54 ) and the Gr. R. ( p. 314 ) quote verses of the 
Adipurana ( Brahmapurana in Gr. R. ) to the effect that on 
seeing food one should fold one's hands and should bow to it 
saying ' may this always be ours * and that God Visnu himself 
said that whoever honours food honours him. After the 
food is served on the plate or dish, the eater should 
sprinkle water round it and say 'I sprinkle thee that 
art satya ( truth ) with rta ( right order ) * ( in the morn- 
ing ) and ' I sprinkle thee that art rta with satya ' ( in 
the evening ). 18M According to some he then offers to the right 
of the plate or dish on the ground a little of the food 
in his plate from the west towards the east to Dharmaraja 
( i. e. Yama ), Citragupta and pretas ( vide Bhavisyapurana 
quoted in Sm. C. I. p. 224 and Ahnikaprakasa p. 465 ).'"• 
Others say that these balls are offered to bhupati, bhuvanapati 
and bhUtanam poll, while in modern times they are offered 
to Citra, Citragupta, Yama, Yamaduta ( and some add a fifth 
'sarvebhyo bhutebhyah svaha). He should then sip a little water 
with the words ' thou art the seat of ambrosia ( amrtopastara- 
nam-asi ) and at the end of the meal the words used are ' thou 
art the cover of ambrosia ' ( amrtapidhanam-asi ). All this has 
been prescribed from very ancient times and has continued to 
this day. Yaj. 1. 106 calls this sipping of water aposana ( tak- 
ing in of water ) and its purpose is to make food beneficial like 
amrta ( nectar ) and to cover it as if with a garment. He then 
offers five morsels on which ghee is sprinkled to the five modes 

1826. *ror *Gt wur uprt^nrr^fJfsjsr^ i wf^ri>i% fts$ i tinnffiw ig- 
$flr>>3 i *ffrs III. 69-71. Compare ftcgtrj?^ 68. 42, Manu III. 251 and 
254 ( for *n^r and *uw ) and ip. Dh. 8. II. 2. 3. 11. 

, 1827. *nr art *?3* <rftfir»mrf8 *n<* <rftftrw» ■ *rt ewfr «rrtft«rnftfit 
aim i &• wt. II. 1. 11. 

1828. worrit smssfolft ?wt^ wf&m ' fjnro *pwnrt ijjrmt »nr* 
«wi ii $q«rm HI. 69 ; v fr s w ii &rVq w ui tr$*rsrr«r ^ "rfsT, i ^vtm Gr*%mv 
W*«r«fcj3sfaii MfasflJ^Pl quoted in *^fiNr° I. p. 224 and »n %lBm rm 
p. 465. gw r gWPH I (1. 155-156) speaks of three balis to jpj, Rnr and ijjis. 
The a fapWTCfffi (Jivananda, part 1. p. 519) refers to f%?j?rfl*f&; vide 
5T(hr ( in ^■'ftgwnuS, anfjtsr p. 421) for *n$ for snprft, gwrfit and igjrpTt 
«rffi and mrwppfar»rkjPTS?r for the three wf&s to ^jrfa &o. and to (%ir, 
fargH and ^Jjr. 

?64 History of bharma&astra I Ch. XXll 

of prSpa preoeded by the word ,x om ' and mt followed by 
' svaha '. These five pravMhutis are mentioned in the ChSndogya 
Up. V. 19-23, where prSnas are enumerated in the order prSna» 
vyana, apana, saraana and udana. The Vedantasutra III. 3. 
40-41 explains that the Chandogya passage applies only when 
one sits down to dinner and not when one goes without it- 
Medieval digests quoting Brhat-Parasara added a sixth offering 
to Brahman after the pranahutis and this is done in modern 
times. While the ahutis to prfina are being offered complete 
silence ( absence of all sound including even 'hum') is to be 
observed. Baud. Dh. S. ( II. 7. 6 ) insists on complete silence 
throughout the meal and if one speaks, one has to mutter the 
words ' Om bhur bhuvah svar-om ' and then eat further on. 
Others allow speech after pranahutis for refusing food or condi- 
ments or for dharma. Vide Sm. M., ahnika p. 423 whioh 
quotes Sandilya that ' silence is not neoessary at meals for 
householders and one should show one's solicitude for those who 
dine with one by talking to them.' Saunaka quoted by Sm. C. I., 
p. 223, Vrddha-Harlta 8. 263-265 dilate upon the different fingers 
of the hand that are to be employed in taking the five ahutis to 
the life breaths while the Bhojana-sutra says that according to 
Baudhayana all ahutis were to be offered with all the fingers- 
Harlta quoted in the Sm. G. I. p. 226 states that marjcma, offering 
bali, worship and eating should be done with the tips of fingers. 
The plate or vessel is to be throughout kept on the ground at a 
sraddha dinner and the thumb and the next two fingers of the 
left hand may be used for holding the plate or plantain leaf in 
position, but if the house is full of people and it is likely that 
dust may be raised by their feet or by their clothes, then a 
person taking his meal may raise up his plate from the ground 
with his left hand after he has taken five morsels.' 8 * The 
diner is not to allow any sound of eating to escape, he is to put 

1829. The five trtarrgfta in order are aii sriarra **!*!> srf 3WFTFT ^fft, 
aft wrwnr wst, air <nqw\n wst, wf wrnrrf w*r. In the ftusmiT 
the order is mu| | UHtW»f | q i M'<JH I: (ride srr faehnqijg l p. 470). These 
have been mentioned by Baud. Db. S. II. 7. 3, BV«n*ror<r«T I. 157, ifrfirar 
in f^iita- 1, p. 223, lrtjssnr quoted in STtTS^fsrailW P- 464. Vide wrfjrw- 
mtnjT p. 469 ' qtfr anjfih Wiror Wlfrfa '. Vide Tai. Sr. X. 32-35 for 
NlrihitawiflftTi the marrgfira and argtrifirarsmnr- 

1830. tranmf v gwrr^ wi%ih*rf% *rf* i "rnrg^yr «>f 3 *r*rfcfo* 
tnjrqm < ft*$ sjrafa 5«r«rr <g?ft «rnr *r <mik<)< • MllgM"! quoted in ^f . t. 
P« 315, •Mftvhwmi p. 463 ; ride <rn. *rr I. port 1 p. 417 quoting ffifort 
and i^tth to the same effect. 

Ch. XXII J Bhojana ( taking meals ) 765 

each morsel in bis mouth with all the fingers including the 
thumb,' 8 * 1 he is not to ware his hand. Various rules are laid 
down in the VisnupurSna ( III. 11. 83-84 ) and Brahmapurana 
( quoted in Gr. B. p. 224 ) as to the order in which various 
articles are to be eaten, viz. first sweet liquid food may be taken, 
then salted and sour, and then pungent and bitter, the last item 
should be milk and after that one should not take ourds ; a 
householder should always take food mixed with ghee. One is 
not to cut off portions of food or cakes, roots, bulbs, fruits or 
flesh with the teeth and then eat them ( Baud. Dh. S. IL 7. 10 ). 
Some smrtis presoribe that while taking each morsel one should 
say U8B ' Govinda '. At the time of eating, several postures are 
forbidden, viz. one should not stretch one's feet or place them 
on another seat ( a footstool &o.) nor should one have one's 
haunches and knees tied by a garment (Visnu Dh. S. 
68. 40) nor should one place one's hand on one's left 
foot, nor should one wear one's shoes or wooden sandals, nor 
should one come in contact with leather ( vide Sinrtimukfcaphala, 
ahnika p. 425 ). Baud. Dh. S. ( I. 1. 21 ) states that among usages 
peculiar to the south were those of eating in the company 
of one whose upanayana had not been performed or of one's 
wife or taking stale food. But Baud, disapproved of these. 
Manu IV. 43, Visnu Dh. S. 68. 46 and Vas. Dh. S. XII. 31 w * 
say that one should not eat together with one's wife and Vas> 
Dh. S. adds the reason that by so doing the child born has no 
strength as stated in the Sat. Br. X. 5. 2. 9. Kulluka and some 
other commentators on Manu IV. 43 hold that the prohibition 
relates to eating in the same dish with one's wife, while, as 
Medhatithi states, others hold that it applies also to eating with 
one's wife at the same time and place. The Sm. C. ( I. p. 227 ) 
and other digests quote a smrti verse which allows a brahmana 
to eat in the same dish with his brahmana wife and explain 
the verse as applying to a brahmana who is on a journey. The 

1831. qwifi mfi gi w i m f v%k i *r ^ st*3 5^3; 1 *firo XII. 19-20 ; 

vide sm- Vf. % II- 8. 19. 5-6 for almost tbe same words. 

1832. <«*$ ifP»& ^ ^rfftft»^TfH^ 1 urm quoted in ^tfrg, 

wifirw b- 423. 

1833. htvvt wi TTOrfrn? «rr*fv^rTF«f vm&Gr rorer$*rti fajrnrct 1 *6te 
12. 31 ; ' »nvfr<rran^n *t5 «t s^Nt «R«rra* 1 i^pnfra 8. 270. wignnn mt 
*rts*fr«nifat8- wt ^tji^t • 1 w* ^W n*n*t fa*n%* *?tfrfirort 11 sire. 5. 7-8, 
quoted in the farr. on «n. III. 200, ^jfii^« I. p. 227; f*wp and ^j. <;. 
p. 330 ascribe it to stfocig. The words of the snre*J are *q WfWm *»ft 
'UB.Hiv i flfrun i' WlWW ' X. 5. 2. 9. 

?66 History of Dharma&aslra [ Ch. XXII 

Smrtyarthas&ra (p. 69 ) says that one can eat in the same 
dish with one's wife at the time of marriage. The Mit. on 
Yaj. 1. 131 says the same. 

Various rules are laid down as to how much one is to eat. 
Two famous verses quoted by Ap. Dh. S. II. 4. 9. 13, Vas. Dh. S» 
VI. 20-21 and Baud. Dh. S. II. 7. 31-32 are ' an asoetio should 
eat eight morsels, 18 ** a forest hermit 16, a householder 32 and 
a Vedic student an unlimited number. One who has conse- 
crated the Vedio fires, a draught ox and a brahmacarin are able 
to perform their work by eating, they cannot perform work 
when they do not eat \ Wi Ap. Dh. S. II. 4. 9. 12 expressly 
direots that a householder should not stint himself as to food* 
so that he may be able to properly perform his work. Haradatta 
explains that the general rule laid down by Ap. Db. S. itself 
( II. 1. 1. 2 ) that one should take only two meals a day does 
not apply to one who has conseorated the Vedio fires. Baud. 
Dh. S. II. 7. 33-34 goes further 188 * and says that if a house- 
holder ( who is ahitUgni ) and a Vedio student practise austeri- 
ties by observing a fast they are guilty of sin, beoause they 
thereby cause oessation of agrdkotra to the life-breaths. But 
there is no sin if a fast is observed by these as a penance for 
some lapse. Sahara on Jaimini V. 1. 20 ( p. 1301 ) appears to 
favour the idea that an ahitagni may eat several 1887 times a day. 

One was to occupy the first seat in a row at a dinner only 
if specially requested to do so, but when thus seated on the first 
seat, one should not begin to eat food before others, but after 
them (Sankha quoted by Apar&rka p. 150). While several 
br&hmanas are taking their meal in a continuous row, if one 
of them takes aoamana 1888 before the others, or gives the 

1834. Vide vx. Ill- 55 for eight morsels for a forest hermit. 
1895. The SSn gr. II. 16. 5 speaks of the ox, the agnihotrin and 
brahmacBrin in the same way. 

1836. m*«ft argp«rrfr «rr iftossfta rnvkua i snomffrnranfcr Bmifrojt 
h*^ m i sc*m unrfSnmj >rr«rfa% ?j%* ftwrsm ■ *r. v. *• n. ?• 33-34. 

1837. w\ ^^: inreyjj *wrf& jrwrfapl f^rowiwTrRf w<rnir »fo|- 
wwrfHS' i iwRHw?*fifii •rni^ i stot on $•. V. 1. 20. 

1838. ijQiir^tfyitftaMi wnmr «* »?i3r% i *rftarifa ?Tsrwn* $ra«f * 
*?far^[imtrereXI. 8, quoted by smrc? p. 1169. Vide Ap. Dh. S. I. 5. 
17. 3; Gautama 17. 19. TJ*S * jot *WT fflT: «mm«r«to * I <rf>rt*rft# «WI 

11\wn <T^f%fW9 T^ftVI II 3?i^C^9. 7 J li^H^W^TftHT^ T *J?lf^lI Twvt ' 

>i*wi <B!wrr^i i itat ^rfsf) W^t m aiSwi *rw*n wrft <n*$<trcg^fr4 *t i 

fH$*W»faTT&; <r^f^hl: **ftf&r: H If • quoted by amrfc p. 476. 

Ch. XXII ] Bhcjana-etiquette at 767 

remains of bis food to the pupil or gets up, the others should 
leave eating the food in their disbes and also get up and the 
brahmana who thus prematurely gets up is called a brahmahd, 
( a murderer of a brahmana or brahmakantaka ). These rules 
are quoted in the Sm. C. ( I. p. 227 ), Or. R. p. 331, Srartimukta- 
pbala ( abnika p. 427 ). In order to avoid this awkward position 
various devices were employed. A pankti ( row of diners ) 
ceased to be a continuous line if two diners were separated 
from each other by fire, by ashes, by a pillar, a passage, or a 
door or by the ground being of a lower level. Apararka (p. 476 ) 
quotes Brhaspati that even if persons are seated in one row, but 
they are separated from each other by ( streaks of ) ashes and 
they do not touch each other, then there is no intermingling 
( i. e. persons of different castes also may sit in a row being 
separated by a streak of ashes &c. ). Ap. Dh. S. I. 5. 17. 2 says 
that one should not sit down to dinner in the same row with 
undeserving persons (by reason of birth, character or learning ). 

At p. 100 above it has been stated bow brahmanas 
following several occupations that were deemed low were not 
invited at sraddhas. Gaut. 18 * 8 * XV. 28-29, Baud. Dh. S. II. 8. 2, 
Ap. Dh. S. II. 7. 17. 21-22, Vas. Dh. S. III. 19, Visnu 83. 2-21, 
Manu III. 184-186, Sankha (in verse) 14. 1-8, Anusasanaparva 
90, 34, the V&yu ( chap. 79 and 83, Anand. ed. ) and several 
other puranas contain long lists of those brahmanas who 
sanctify the company of diners when they sit down for dinner 
( they are pankti-pavanas ) and of those who defile the company 
of diners by their presence in the row of diners (they are pankti- 

1838 a. iryfifrqmw : ttgyfii<M) 8 OTfH^ftr°rn^Rtriir»TgfirgT°T: Twrfih 
*snwi wnprrgrarfcfffrft *vk* nswernr ?ft ' ft- XV. 29 ; q^ftrirc trt«r^ 
H mfr l H>im»H : i I*?^r °n "ft. XV. 28. Some of the words are differently 
explained by the commentators. sqsHrft^i' or-fl-prir is one who chants, 
according to Haradatta, *udu tyam' (Bg. I. 50. 1. ) and ' citram' (Eg. L 
115. 1), which constitute a sSman of the TalavakSras, while the 
Chandogas bold it to be a different sffman ; MedhStithi on Manu III. 
185 says they are the sSmans called Jyesjhadohas. The NKciketa fire 
is described in Tai. Br. III. 11. 7 and 8, and Kathopanif&d 1. 1. 17-18. 
Bg. I. 91. 6-8 contain the word 'madhu' at the beginning of each. 
So one who studies these three madhu verses may be called 'tri- 
madhu*. Or possibly there is a reference to the MadhuvidyS referred 
to in Sat Br. IV. 1. 5. 18 and Br. Up. II. 5. 16. According to Haradatta 
'Trisuparna' are either the three verses Bg.X. 114. 4-6 (ekah supar- 
nah &o. ) or the three anuv&kaa of the Tai. Ar. X. 48-50 ( brahmametn 
mKra madhumetu mlm). 

768 HUAary of DharmaiUsIra [ Oh. XXII 

dusakas). A panktipavana is one who knows the six angas 
of the Veda (vide note 775 above), who has studied the JyesthasS- 
man, who has kindled the Naciketa fire, who knows the three 
madhu verses, who has studied the texts called Trisuparna, who 
maintains the five fires (vide p. 679 above), who has taken the cere- 
monial bath after finishing vedic studies, who knows the Mantras 
and the Brahmana of his Veda, who has studied dharmasastra and 
who is the son of a woman married in the brahma form. Ap. Dh. 
8. adds ' one who has performed the four medhas ' ( Asvamedha, 
Sarvamedha, Purusamedha and Pitrmedha, according to 
Haradatta). Manu says that one who understands the mean- 
ing of the Veda, one who expounds the Veda, a brahmacarin, 
one who is a liberal donor (lit. one who gives a thousand oows), 
one who has reached the age of one hundred are all pankti- 
pavanos. Sankha states that one who is devoted to Yoga, one 
who regards gold and a clod of earth as equal, an ascetic given 
to contemplation are all panktipSvanas. AnusSsana 90. 34 and 
Vayu 83. 52-55 include those who study the bhasyas, those 
who are devoted to grammar, those who study the puranas 
among pahkti-pavanas. Among those who defile company 
are one suffering from leprosy, "a bald man, one who is guilty 
of adultery, who is the son of a brahmana following the profes- 
sion of arms (Ap. Dh. S. II. 7. 17. 21); those who engage in 
sots not fit for brahmanas, those who are cunning, those who 
have deficient or excessive limbs, those who have abandoned 
Veda, the sacred fires and their parents or gurus, those who 
subsist on food given by sudras (Sankha XIV. 2-4). Vide 
Apararka pp. 453-455 for quotations on those who defile 

When there was a row of diners, all were to be served the 
same food and no difference was to be made between one man and 
another and if a difference were made a penance was prescribed as 
if he had committed brahmana murder. ,8M If while dining one 
brahmana touches another, he should give up eating or after finish- 
ing bis meal he should mutter the Gsyatrl verse 108 times ( as 
penance). In modern times generally the eyes are touohed with 
water if this happens. If a diner touched a server who had 
a vessel containing food, the server should place the vessel con- 

^1839. i^*<wg.!K<jf ft^TCri£h^3TOt^T^<rnfafci^*g«vr%A« 
iftf njrwOTwt atnft *%m I ftywmreffi IV. 63 quoted as q* in *q#g. 
(airfiftv b- 427). Vide »n^ffl 17. 57 for a similar Terse. 

Ch. XXII ] Bhojana 769 

tsinlng food on the ground, should perform aeamana, the food 
in the vessel should have water sprinkled over it and then 
it may be served. One was not to eat or drink with the left 
hand. One should drink water at the time of meals with a 
drinking bowl or vessel, one should never drink water with the 
two hands joined together ( Ysj. I. 138), but when not eating 
food one may drink water with the bare right hand. After 
finishing one's meal one is to repeat the aposana ' amrtapidha- 
nam-asi ' and drink some water, wash one's hands, sip 
water twice and may lightly brush his teeth for removing 
particles of food, then sip water again and take tambfila. 1 * 40 
Asvalayana ( in verse ) recommends 16 mouthfuls of water 
( gandusa ) for cleansing the mouth after dinner ( Ahn. Pr. 
p. 483 ). An ascetic, a Vedio student and a widow were not to 
partake of tambula. 

A person was not to eat everything in his plate ; he should 
leave some remnant lMI of food except of curds, honey, ghee, 
milk and saktu ( barley or barley flour ). What remains was to 
be given to one's wife, servant or slave ( Par. M. I. part 1, p. 
422 ). No one was to give the remnants of one's food to 
another nor to eat the remnants of another's food, except a ohild 
that might eat the remnants of the food of its parents and guru 
( vide Smrtimuktaphala, ahnika p. 431 ). Remnants of food 
were not to be given to a sudra unless he was one's dependent 
( Manu IV. 80, Ap. Dh. S. I. 11. 31. 25-26 ). Atri ( quoted in 
Sm. 0. I. p. 228 ) says that even on sipping water after dinner 
one remains impure till one's plate is removed, till the ground 
where the food was taken is cow-dunged, till after leaving his seat 
he moveB on the ground elsewhere. Vide also Ap. Dh. 8. II. 2 
4. 24. The plate of a brahmana may be removed by a brahmana 
( but not by any one else ) and the plates of the brahmanas invited 
at a sraddha repast were to be removed by the person who per- 
formed the sraddha or by his son or pupil, but not by one whose 
upanayana is not performed nor by the wife nor by any one 
else ( Laghu-Asvalayana 1. 165-166 ). 

1840. 3tp*t*7 ^ «re: wr$ , 4»«»i8?*i w^ i »TT3ft q*fldiil«r f*4?7r*wj 
t^i wfrRr quoted by ^nN° I. p. 225 ; i£*ftaTOT«r qnfnj adt< 1 im, g « T<r- 
op* • ffi&ofrr gtrar 29. 39 quoted in t^fa^a I. p. 225. 

1841. hN* a *r f*:&f $*ftwrjr: <R*tar*t ■ WW ^nRrwarrr* <«?# qftt 
H^wiq h gs re s T ; TT%:$to«*t«jiq"rar B;fi*Tg«f3:<nr:*rj"r: i vGte\ both in 
^fi»S. (wrr8ftif)p.431. 

H, D. 97 

770 History of Dharmaidatra I Oh. XXII 

Most of the above rules may more or less be exemplified 
from the descriptions of the prooedure of eating set out in Baud. 
Db. S. II 7, from the Bhojanasutra of Katyayana for the 
followers of the white Yajurveda, from HSrlta quoted in the Gr. 
E. pp. 316-17 among the ancient writers and from the Smrtya- 
rthasara pp. 68-69 among the authors of digests. It is impossi- 
ble to set out any of them here for want of space, but an extract 
from the last work is given in the Appendix. 18 " 

There were certain rules about abstaining from food in the 

case of eclipses of the sun and the moon. They are set out in 

the Sm. 0. 1, pp. 228-329, the Smrtyarthasara (p. 69 ), Matsya- 

purana chap. 67, Apar&rka pp. 151, 427-430. During the period 

of eclipse one was not to eat anything. Not only so but for 4 

praharas ( i. e. 12 hours ) and 3 praharas ( i. e. 9 hours ) before 

the aotual eclipse of the sun and the moon respectively all 

are to avoid taking food, except children, very old men and 

persons who are ill. This rule was observed up till very recent 

times by roost people. When the eclipse begins one was to 

bathe and give gifts, perform tarpana or sraddha. Then one 

was to bathe after l8 * 2 the eclipse was over and take food. If 

the sun sets while still eclipsed, one should bathe the next day 

on seeing the sun and then take, food. If the moon rose eclipsed, 

one was not to eat anything during the day next to that on which 

the moon rises eclipsed. That these rules are ancient follows from 

the fact that some of them occur even in the Visnu Dh. S. An 

eclipse of the sun is desoribed even in the Rg.V.40.5-9 and it was 

supposed to be brought about by an asura. The Asura SvarbhSnu 

is said to have pierced the sun with darkness in the Kathaka S. 

XI. 5 and the Tai. S. IL 1. 2. 2; the San. Br. 24. 3 and Tandya 

Br. ( IV. 5. 2, IV. 6. 13 ) speak of an eolipse. In the Atharva- 

veda 19. 9. 10 the Sun and Rahu are brought together. The 

Chandogya Up. VIII. 13. 1 states that the knowing self shakes 

off bis body when going to the world of Brahma like a horse 

shedding his hair or like the moon released from the mouth of 


Visnu Dh. S. ( 68. 4-5 ) prescribes that a man was not to 
eat when a cow or a brahmana met with an accident or when 
the king was in distress ( or dead ). 

1842. Vide Appendix under No. 1842. 
htf WTWT wfcifc ' ftsgr^ji 68. 1-3. 

Oh. Xltll ] Bhojanar/ood allowed and prohibited 771 

The most elaborate rules are laid down about what food 
should or should not be eaten and from whom food may or may 
not be taken. These rules occur in most of the srartis. It 
would be impossible to do justice to all of them. The following 
smrtis deal with this matter at length. Gaut. 17, Ap. Db. S. I. 
5. 16. 17-1. 6. 19 ; Vas. Dh. S. 14, Manu VI. 207-223, Yaj. I. 
167-181. The Santiparva chapters 36 and 78, the Kurmapurana 

( uttarSrdha chap. 17 ), Padma ( Sdikhanda chap. 56 ), and several 

other pur&nas deal with this topic. Among the digests the Sm. 

C. II. pp. 418-429, the Gr. R. pp. 334-395, the Madanaparijata pp. 

337-343, the SmrtimuktSphala (Shnika pp. 433-451), the 

Ahnikaprakasa pp. 488-550 contain very exhaustive treatment. 

An attempt will be made to present the rules in an orderly 


Apararka p. 241 quotes a passage from the Bhavisya- 
purana' 8 * 4 which states the various reasons for food being 
forbidden viz. jatidu§ta or svabhavadusta ( i. e. forbidden on 
account of its very nature ) such as garlic, leek, onion &o. ; 
kriyaduQta ( forbidden on account of certain actions done with 
reference to it ) such as oooked food served with the bare 
hand or seen by a patita ( outcast ), candalas, dogs &c, or 
because one in a row takes aoamana or rises before others ; 
kaladuqta ( forbidden because of the time that has elapsed or 
because of the inappropriateness of the time ) suoh as stale food 
or food eaten in eclipses or the milk of a oow before ten days 
have elapsed from delivery ; sathsargadu^ta (spoilt by foul contact) 
such as what comes in contact with a dog or wine or garlic, or 
hair or insects &o. ; sahrllekha (what causes disgUBt to the mind) 
such as f seces &c. To those may be added rasadusta ( what; 
has lost its flavour ) such as payasa or kslra on the same day ; 
partgrahadusta ( what is forbidden simply because it belongs to 
a particular individual such as patita). Apararka (p. 1157) 
says that oondemned food, partaking of which is an upapataka 
( a minor sin ), is of six kinds, viz. due to svabhava, kila, 
samparka (same as samsarga), kriya, bhava, and parigraha. 1 "* 
An example of bhSvadusfa given by Apararka is sugarcane 

1844. *rf?«rcs<tpipi. i 3m%|tf fainjtf vx&iwifftxfain i dwfwvy f t 
wrifcf^wmiH mnfc p. 241. Compare TCTrfflT XI. 122-123 *n*jt 
farrrf £ nrraftf n*ta <* i #*nf|tf * «rot *3fo*j^r*wf3r i . The following 
verses exemplify these. 

1845. vnm m ftPann* WHfww^#ri*nNi«Tn-<rftir|: «ft*t »wft i 
wrroS p. 1157. 

772 History of DhannaiBstra { Oh. XXtl 

juice whioh a man may feel to be forbidden to him because he 
believes it to be wine. According to Oaut. 17. 12 bhavadus^a 
means food offered with disrespect or which the eater comes to 
hate or becomes disgusted with. Haradatta on Gaut. 23. 23 
mentions fire of these varieties ( of Apararka p. 1157 ) except 

Before proceeding further some remarks must be made 
about flesh-eating. In the Rg. frequent reference is made to 
the cooking of the flesh of the ox for offering to gods (particular- 
ly Indra ). For example, in Rg. X. 86. 14 Indra is made to 
say ' They cook for me 15 plus twenty oxen" ; vide Rg. X. 27. 2. 
In Rg. X. 91. 14 it is stated that for Agni were sacrificed 
horses, bulls, oxen, barren cows and rams. In Rg. VIII. 43. ll 1MT 
Agni is styled ' one whose food is the ox and the barren cow. ' 
In Rg. X. 79. 6 it is suggested that the cow was cut up with a 
sword or axe. In the Rg. itself the cow is frequently called 
« aghnyS * ( vide Rg. 1. 164. 27 and 40, IV. 1. 6, V. 83. 8, VIII. 69. 
21, X. 87. 16 &c. ). The word 'aghnya' appears to mean 'one 
that does not deserve to be killed ' and the Nirukta (XI. 43 ) ,M8 
explains it in that way. It should be noted that that word 
occurs sometimes in apposition to ' dhenu * ( as in Rg. IV. 1.6, 
VIII. 69. 2 ). So it may be argued that in the times of the Rg. 
only barren oows if at all were killed for sacrifice or meat and 
oows yielding milk were held to be not fit for being killed. It 
is only in this way that one can explain the high praise 
bestowed on the cow in Rg. VI. 28. 1-8 and in Rg. VIIL 101. 
15 and 16 where the cow is described to be ' the mother of 
Rudras, the daughter of Vasus, the Bister of Adityas and the 
centre of nectar ' and the sage winds up by praying to the 
knowing man ' do not kill the cow, that is innocent and is 
Aditi herself. '"" In Rg. VIIL 101. 16. the cow is called 'devl' 

1846. Some of these words occur in wfttgipfcw 14. 28 'anf Tjfaf 

1847. irRjwswr *r«r*rRr wir wwiwfT wrgsw wrytrr: i «fana^ 
♦Dimubiv ^<»# rar wfifr 3R^ srwrnrtimf X. 91. 14; ^qmrnr vsjrernr #r*- 
fBn fcri* i *rwffo»ror^ ■■ *r Vlll 43. 11 ; n mfcuwnf »rnwm%: n *r. 
X. 79. 6. 

1848. Mwit aij*!rwrr unfit mjft ffa ix I fJwrw XI. 43. 

1849. srnrr wtf fffcrr ws-fiftiw ^ flM'ifl^i .H t l tjtyHy qm ' ww. V. 

I. 24. 25. In snv- ^. II. 10. 7 the view of some is stated that when 
cows return to the Tillage from the pasture the hymn $g. VI. 28 should 
be reoited by the owner. 

Ch. XXII 1 Bhojana-sacredness of cow 773 

( goddesB ). It appears that the cow was being raised to the 
status of divinity and there was a great revulsion of feeling 
about the cow. The great usefulness of the oow and the oz 
for agricultural purposes, in the family economy and as means 
of exchange must have powerfully contributed to making the 
cow a divinity. In the grhya sutras ( like As v. I. 24. 25 ), Eg. 
VIII. 101. 15 is prescribed as the mantra when in the Madhu- 
parka ceremony the cow is let loose by the guest. The Artharva- 
veda ( XII. 4 ) fully reoognises the cult of the holiness of the 
cow. That the cow continued to be offered in sacrifices follows 
from several Br&hmana passages e. g. Tai. Br. III. 9. 8. In the 
Sat. Br. III. 1. 2. 21 it is stated that the great sage Yajnavalkya 
was wont to eat the meat of cows and oxen provided it was 
* arhsala MM0 ( tender ? ). The Ait. Br. ( 6. 8 ) ,M1 states that the 
horse, the or, the goat and ram are sacrificial animals while 
the kimpurusa, gauramrga, gavaya, the camel and sarabha ( a 
mythical animal with eight feet ) were not sacrificial and their 
flesh should not be eaten. The Sat. Br. I. 2. 3. 9 contains a 
similar prohibition. The Sat. Br. XI. 7. 1. 3 declares that ' meat 
is the best kind of food. ' The work of Mr. L. L. Sundara Ram 
(Madras, 1927) on 'Cow Protection in India' oontains an 
exhaustive treatment of the subject from Vedic times and oites 
the attitude of other nations and religions towards cow-killing. 
The veneration for the cow has been so great that paficagavya 
prepared from the five substanoes due to the cow viz. her milk, 
ourds and ghee of her milk, her urine and dung mixed with 
water in which kusa blades had been placed was looked 
upon as ,m purification for many lapses. Yaj. III. 314 
mentions the ingredients of paficagavya. The Baud. gr. 
sesa-sutra ( II. 20 ) contains an elaborate note on the prepa- 
ration of paficagavya, the quantities of the five ingre- 
dients, the Vedio verses to be recited when preparing it. 
ParSsara XL 28-34, Devala 62-65, Laghus&t&tapa 158-162, 

1850. «w i 4»<*8<l* fo'frnq: i aj *hrr» trfsro**?: i wtHr*3inpiftrcJ 
^hprfnfa I 5WW «ri. HI. 1. 2. 21. 

1851. a H* aM F Wfr qr wtfnr T STTOTftTrfol * lg n?<fm ' $■ **• 6 - 8 - 

1852. iffrpf jftn* tf\t spQ *rf3: 551^5;^ 1 foifg vwi*v Q <rfW irpprt. 

$pnr.« TPr*Tf uw »frj* nrnsrrWfr «ft»r<r»r. 1 wwrpn&nlr <w <frt $ft. 

wn^ft ^ f fa 1 frsfiwr gwffcwra* ^t wt $?n^rn « <m$r* XI. 28-33. 
The xrctv 267. 6-6 ( q-rffarr 3«r &c. ) are almost the tame as qTTSTC XI. 
These and other verses of ParBsara ( in all eleven ) are quoted by the 
Hit. on YSj. III. 314 and by Aparlrka p. 1250. 

t74 tfiatory 0/ DharmaiSstra [ Oh. XXII 

Matsyapurana 267. 5-6 and other works contain similar rules. 
Par&sara prescribes that the urine, dung, milk, curds and ghee 
should be of cows the colours of which are respectively dark, 
white, copper-red, dark-red and brown or that all ingredients 
may be of a brown ( kapila ) cow. There is some difference 
of view about colours and also about the quantities. According 
to ParSsara urine, ghee, and water should be one part each, 
curds three parts, milk seven parts and oowdung as much as the 
thumb. Acoording to Atri. 299 dung, urine, ghee and milk 
were to be respectively 1, 2, 4 and 8 parts and curds also 8 
parts. When mixing the ingredients, urine is taken with the 
sacred GSyatrl, cowdung with ' gandhadvSram ' ( Tai. Ar. X. 1), 
milk with ' Spyayasva ' (Rg. I. 91. 16), curds with 'dadhikravno' 
( Rg. IV. 39. 6 ), ghee with ' tejosi sukram ' ( Vaj. S. 22. 1 ) and 
kusa water with ' devasyatvS* ( Ait. Br. 37. 3, Vaj. S. 22. 1 ). 
The paficagavya thus prepared is to be placed near the fire, then 
it is to be stirred to the accompaniment of ' Spo hi stha ( Rg. 
X 9. 1-3 ) and then the mantra ' ma nastoke ' ( Rg. 1. 114. 8 ) 1b 
to be repeated over it, it may be then offered into fire with green 
darbhas not less than seven to the accompaniment of ' Ir&vatl ' 
( Rg. VII. 99. 3 ), ' idam Visnur ' ( Rg. I. 22. 17 ), ' ma nastoke ' 
(Rg. X. 114. 8), and the sarhvatl verse (Rg. X. 9. 4) and then the 
remainder is to be drunk by one who prepares it with the verse 
noted below. ,8!! The vessel in which the pancagavya is to be 
prepared must be of copper or gold or of palSsa or lotus leaves 
( Par. M. II. 1 p. 434 quoting Praj&pati ). Visnu Dh. 8. 54. 7 
and Atri 300 say that a sudra drinking paficagavya and a 
brfihmana drinking aura (liquor distilled from flour) are 
equally sinful and fall in hell. But Devala 61 and ParSsara 
XL 3 and 27 allow sudras ( and women ) to take paficagavya 
but without Vedio mantras. Therefore the digests like SQdra- 
kamalskara ( p. 42 ) say that a sudra can take paficagavya only 
as a prayas-citta (penance) for a sin and not otherwise. 
Paficagavya is also called brahmakurca. Atri 301 declares that 
the dung of a oow that eats unclean things is not to be employed 
for purification. A smrti passage deolares that he In whose 
house there is not even one cow with her oalf becomes devoid 
of all mangalas (auspioious things) and darkness does not 

1853. irwrrerari Tnt $$■ fihifif % 1% *t 1 1 1 tryrf^rT *i%w$ wftaif&ft* 

tapr^ M TTOrc XI. 37. In tbe TTtnfcnw'fr the verse now repeated at the 
time of taking janoagayya ii ' <rwi...ftteRt *TPWt • «m5T* iraMIWTW 

Ch. XXII ] Bhojana-sacredness of cow 775 

leave him. A cow was said to be holy in all limbs except her 
mouth (Medhatithi on Manu V. 128 quotes * gavo medhya 
mukhad-rte ' ) and so Manu V. 124 requires food smelt or licked 
by a cow to be purified. Manu XI. 79 says that if one sacrifices 
one's life in defence of brahmanas and cows one becomes free 
from the sin of even brahmana murder. Visnu Dh. 8. 16. 18 
deolares that even an untouchable ( bahya ) went to heaven by 
giving his life in defenoe of brahmanas, oows. women and 
children. Vide Visnu Dh. S. 3. 45 also. In Gaut. IX. 13-14 the 
cow is referred to as devata. Ab early as the 2nd century A.D. we 
have the collocation of the words * go-brahmanahita* (the welfare 
of cows and brahmanas) in an inscription of Rudradaman ( E. I. 
vol. VIII. p. 44 ). Vide Gupta inscriptions p. 89 ( for ' go- 
br&hmana-purogabbyah sarvaprajabhyah ). These words also 
ocour frequently in the Ramayana ( Balakanda 26. 5, Aranya 

23. 28 ) and in the Matsyapurana 104. 16. The Kapila ( brown) 
cow was said to be the most auspicious and meant for provi- 
ding milk for agnihotra and brahmanas, and the sudra who used 
its milk was deemed to go to hell (vide Vrddha-Gautama p. 568). 

In spite of the prevalence of animal sacrifices, there are 
already in the times of the Rg. traces of the conception that a 
devout offering of praise or of a fuel-stiok or of cooked food was 
as good as a more solemn sacrifice ( Rg. VIII. 19. 5, VIII. 

24. 20) and that oblations of food made to the accompaniment of 
heart-felt hymns become like bulls, oxen and cows in sacrifice."" 
These verses are quoted by the Asv. gr. S. (1. 1. 4) and explained 
( vide p. 677 above ). The Sat. Br. XI. 6. 1. 3 ,MS adumbrates the 
later doctrine that the eater of meat is eaten in the next birth 
by the animal killed. The OhSndogya Up. III. 17 regards that 
tapas, charity, straightforwardness, ahiinsa and speaking the 
truth are the fee ( of the symbolic sacrifice ). The same Up. 
( VIII. 15. 1 ) emphasizes that the wise man who has attained 
correct knowledge does not cause any injury to bhutas except in 
the case of sacred rites and reaches the world of brahma and 
does not return to safnsara. mt It appears that the causes that 
led on to the giving up of flesh at least by some people were 

1854. wt & Mjr *T9T s^fcrr vi *mwi% i * * «ra*?jjn>T OTmft vsrr 
to H *. VI. 16. 47. 

1855. & b^Rto *t yft xwitti«3ste m^w mwnftq i ft g srfifop»T- 
wr ffit i sraru XI. 6. 1. 3. 

1866. stffanrygn»q»w i aWi:—* * i«r<cra$3r i erafrnr Vili. 15. l. 

776 History o/ DharmaiMra [ Oh. XIII 

many, the foremost being the metaphysical conception that one 
Supreme Entity pervades the whole universe, that all life was 
one, and that even the meanest insect was a manifestation of 
the divine Essence and that philosophical truths would not 
dawn upon the man who was npt restrained, free from crude 
appetites and toad not universal kindliness and sympathy. 
Another motive for the insistence onahiihsa was probably the idea 
of defilement caused by eating flesh (vide note 1810 above about 
'ahSrasuddhi'). San^ha asks people to give up flesh, wine, onions 
and garlic because the body is built up on the food eaten. ,,ST The 
notion that the eater of flesh would be devoured by the eaten in 
the next birtbJiad nothing to do with the early" stages of the 
doctrine of ahifiua, though by Manu and others that notion was 
later on exploited to emphasize its importance. Further as the 
Aryans spread over middle, east and south India animal food be- 
came unnecessary owing to the climate and the abundance of corn 
and vegetables. Though opinions may differ as to the causes, it 
cannot be gainsaid that the phenomenon of the voluntary giving 
up of meat by vast populations in the continent of India, when 
their ancestors had been meat-eaters for ages, is unique in the 
history of the. whole world. IM * We shall find that even when the 
doctrines of karma and transmigration were in full swing, the 
taking of life for food and in sacrifice was allowed by all the 
ancient dharmasutras. Even the Ved&ntasutra ( III. 1. 25 ) does 
not admit that the killing of animals in sacrifice is impure. The 
Br. Up. whioh contains a full statement of the doctrine of 
transmigration ( VI. 2 ) recommends ( VI. 4. 18 ) to the man 
who desires that a learned son be born to him the cooking of a 
mess of the flesh of a bull or ox or of other flesh with rice and 
ghee. 1,w "Not only other animals, but even the cow, was on 
certain occasions killed according to the grhya and dharma 
sutras on several occasions e. g. (1) in sr&ddhas ( Ap. Dh. S. II. 
7. 16. 25 ), (2) for a distinguished guest in Madhuparka ( Asv. 
gr. I. 24. 22-26, Vas. Dh. S. IV. 8 ), (3) in the Asfcka sr&ddha 

1857. mi«u«<nttiu5^'«flHiynfi*iwnf4r ww^qiiUHtf frffcr. i mg 

quoted by 9nr*r on ^ 23> *• 

1858. Vide Hopkins' fine tribute to the doctrine of 'dhidun' in 
' Ethics of India ' pp. 227-232. Dr. MaoKenzie ( ' Hindu Ethics ' 
p. 113) thinks, not quite rightly, that the doctrine of ahimtn was greatly 
influenced by the ideas of karma and transmigration. 

1859. era i f*d*gv) & <rf««#t f^ht: arr^w WwnrgftirfqT$r 

VI. 4. 18. 

Oh. XXII J Bhojam-flesh-eating 777 

( II. 15. 1, Baud. gr. II. 11. 51, Vaik. IV. 3 ), (4) a bull in 
the Sulagava sacrifice ( Asv. gr. IV. 9. 10 ). 

In the Dharmasutras numerous rules are given about 
the flesh of beasts and birds and about fishes. Gaut. 17. 27-31, 
Ap. Dh. 8. I. 5. 17. 35, Vas. Dh. S. 14. 39-40, Yaj. 1. 177, Visnu 
Db. S. 51. 6, Sahkha (quoted by Apararka p. 1167), Rama- 
yana ( Kiakindha 17. 39 ), Markandeya-purana ( 35. 2-4 ) 
prescribe that one should avoid the flesh of all five-nailed 
animals except mo of porcupine, hare, svauidh ( a boar or hedge- 
hog ), iguana, rhinoceros and tortoise ( some of these works omit 
the rhinooeros ). Gautama adds that one should also avoid the 
flesh of all animals with two rows of teeth in the two jaws, of 
hairy animals, of hairless animals (like snakes), of village cooks 
and hogs and of cows and bulls. Ap. Dh. 3. I. 5. 17. 29-31 
first forbids the flesh of animals with one hoof only, of oamels, 
of gavaya ( Gayal ), of the village hog, of the sarabha and of 
cows, but adds the exception that the flesh of milch cows and 
of bulls may be eaten as the Vajasaneyaka deolares the flesh of 
these to be pure. Ap. Dh. S. ( II. 2. 5. 15 ) forbids the use of 
flesh to a teacher of the Veda in the months from upQkarma to 
utsarjana. This shows that even brahmanas who alone would 
ordinarily be teachers could take meat in the other months of 
the year. Ap. Dh. S. I. 3. 11. 4 deolares that a student had not 
to observe anadhyaya if he ate stale food or uncooked flesh, 
Ap. Dh. S. II. 3. 7. 4 says that if flesh was offered to a guest, the 
merit was equal to the performance of the Dvadasaha sacrifice. 
The Mahabhasya of Fatafijali ( vol. III. p. 320 ) states that the 
precept ' a village cock or hog is not fit to be eaten leads to the 
inference that a town hog also is unfit food as meat.' Vas. 
Dh. S. XI. 34 1MI goes so far as to say that if an ascetio does 
not partake of flesh when requested to do so in a sraddha or 
in a rite for the gods he falls into hell for numberless years. 
Gradually, however, a change came over the sentiments of 
the people. Megasthenes (p. 99) and Strabo (XVI. 1. 59) 
state that the first caste of philosophers which is divided into 
two sub-divisions, viz. Braohmanes and Sarmanes ( sramanas ) 

1860. irw «rar«wi *ram w^w^r *nw ■ wmt «*ifa«t nHn *njn tfn 

TOP*: D fqriStoqrqnTO 17 * 39, *fc& 14 - 47 notes tbat there was a diffe- 
rence of opinion about the flesh of the rhinoceros and wild boar ••»jqj g 
ftamfWWTJKUft *T \ Wrf% WO. 70 is «r« <nBH«T *TWT WWWCT 9 fart 1 

1861. ffing^wa 'rfit: w$ ^ *t HlHtim^i i fuPfl h^QhiPi snw* 

T«rfn I) Tiirs XI. 34 ; compare «$. v - 36< 
H. D. 98 

778 History of DharmaiMra [ Ch. XXII 

abstained from animal food and sexual intercourse ( probably 
as brahmac&rins) and that after living in this manner for 
37 years they began to live with less restraint and began to eat 
the flesh of animals, particularly of those that did not, assist 
man in his labour. The Great Emperor Asoka declares in his 
first Book Edict how originally thousands of animals were 
killed in the royal kitchens, how he then brought down the 
number to two peacocks and one deer daily and how he had 
resolved to discontinue the slaughter of even this limited 
ntimber thereafter. Vide also the 2nd and 4th Bock Edicts. 
In the fifth pillar edict ( Delhi-Topra ) the Emperor Asoka 
notes that when he had been twenty-six years on the throne 
he declared numerous animals ( such as parrots, maims, haihsas> 
cakravakas, tortoises, porcupines, fishes &c. ) to be avadhya 
( not to be killed ). The general rule as stated 1868 by Ap. Dh.. S. 
II. 2. 3. 12 and the Ramayana ( quoted above on p. 733 ) was 
that from that food that was either oooked or got ready for the 
daily meals of a householder, koma and bali were to be made. 
Ancient works spoke of meat offerings to gods and in madhu- 
parka and sraddha. Therefore some of the smrtis like those 
of Manu and Vasistha are in two minds about the use of 
flesh. Manu ( V. 27-44 ) at first contains a permission to kill 
animals only in madhuparka, in sacrifices 18 ** and in rites for 
gods and manes and on no other ocoasion. Manu (V. 27 and 32) 
further says that no sin is incurred in flesh-eating when one's 
life is in danger ( owing to famine or disease ) and when a person 
partakes of the remnants of the flesh of an animal purchased by 
him or reared by him or flesh given by another out of what is 
prepared for offering to gods and manes. Yaj. 1. 179 is to the same 
effeot. Manu further clinches his exhortation not to eat animal 
food by ordaining that he who kills an animal except for the 
limited purposes stated above is himself killed for as many births 
as there are hair on the body of the slaughtered animal ( Visnu 
Dh. S. 51. 60 is also the same). Manu then goes on to declare 
( V. 40 and 44 = Visnu Dh. S. II. 63, 67 ) that herbs or plants, 
animals, trees ( of whioh sacrifioial posts are made ), lower 
animals, birds, that meet destruction for the sake of performing 

1862. vxtififo *nwnirwr w\m *s*w wfafatswr: i an*, tr- *. 
II. i. 8. 12. 

1863. wyriR «T *nft ■? Rfl%«nnhJfi> i snfa «r?pft fifon wi^wn fr 
**!B img V. 41. This is the same as *nftr IV. 6, Viepu Dh. S. 61. 64, 
&C6. gj. II. 16. 1 ( S«n. gT. reads *$ for n$ ), 

Ch. iill ] Bhojam-jtesh^atinQ 77$ 

sacrifices are born again in better forms ( of existence ) and. that 
himsa ( killing of or injury to sentient beings ) done according 
to the dictates of the Veda should be understood as no himsa nU 
since dharma shines forth from Veda alone. Though Vasistfia 
Dh. S. ( in 14. 39-40 ) allows the flesh of five five-nailed animals 
and of animals with one row of teeth ( except camels ) and also 
of certain birds and kinds of fish, yet in VI. 5-6 it takes up 
the same position as that of Manu viz. that Mihsa was allowed 
only in sacrifices &c. From V. 46-55 Manu takes up the 
position of total abstention from killing animals even in 
sacrifices ( they are the same as Visnu Dh. S. 51. 69-78 ). In 
one verse ( V. 48 which is the same as Vas, Dh. S. IV. 7 ) Manu 
says that no flesh can be had without killing living beings 
and killing such beings cannot lead to heaven; therefore 
one should give up flesh. Verses 53 and 56 are very important 
as they convey that the merit of him who performs a horse- 
sacrifice every year for a hundred years and of him who does 
not partake of flesh ( throughout life ) is equal and that the 
word mamsa (flesh) is derived by the wise (from 'mam' and 'sah') 
as meaning ' he whose flesh I eat to day will devour me in the 
next world or birth.' Yaj. 1. 181 is just like Manu V. 53. Manu 
winds up the whole discussion (in V. 56) by stating that natural 
appetites lead men on to eat flesh or to drink wine or to indulge 
in sexual gratification and there is no sin in indulging in 
these when they are allowed by the iastra in the case of certain 
persons and on certain occasions; but abstention In these 
matters ( even on occasions when they . are permitted by the 
sSstras) leads to great rewards. 18 " From these passages in 

1864. This position tbat injury done to animals or plants according 
to Vedlo precepts is do himsa is an anoient idea. The Mait. S. III. 9. 3 
has the words ( when a tree is to be cut off for making a, sacrificial post 
tbe adhvaryu priest places a blade of darbha on the tree at the spot 
where it is to be cut and then addresses the axe) 'Oh, axe do not injure 
this tree ; the axe is indeed ( like ) a thunderbolt ; he screens the tree 
from the thunderbolt by placing the darbha in order to effect ahims'a" 

' <wr«i& &t fttfrRft ^sft ♦ wf9fihfw?mwT wfM fowfihrp} ' &• *• 

III. 9. 3. Tbe Nir. I. 16 states that one must understand that there is 
no himsS, as the express words of the Veda convey that idea. 

,1865. *,»rt)ErvTwnt,q^sT»*w*tgsti qgfWta igjrrct ,f*ift*B nft- 
qrST n wg V. 56. This is quoted by the tpaptrfihr on p. tyfl. The. r/sti 
meaning of this is brought out by fyprfit ' ffhrrtrwrt «rtrr >W «HT "mgtfT- 
35T»r. i iRsfr 'ir $H*f *r*$ ^frwrfoftfaror: « wfl Jmirft $4 q ym i fr w gstrft a ' 
in Mfa«m i «W on Jig V. 60. 

t80 History of Dharma&Mra [ Ch. XXII 

Manu, Visnu and Vas. it is clear that when the extant works 
attributed to these authors were composed, they themselves were 
staunoh upholders of ahiihsa, but that there were two classes of 
people in their days who were not opposed to flesh-eating, one 
class holding that killing animals only for purposes for which 
the Veda expressly sanctioned himsa was not improper and 
another class that indulged in flesh-eating without restrictions. 
That in spite of tbe individual predilections of the author of the 
Manusmrti, general usage was different even in Manu's day is 
indicated by the fact that in III. 227 Manu says that in sraddha 
the performer should get ready various kinds of food including 
flesh of tempting varieties. Yaj. I. 258-260 states how flesh of 
various animals when served in sraddha to the brahmanas invited 
tends to cause satisfaction to the Manes for long periods. Brhas- 
pati quoted by Sarvajria-Narayana explained Manu V. 27 as apari- 
samkhya i. e. Manu does not enjoin flesh-eating on the four 
occasions stated, but only permits it and forbids it on other 
occasions. ,8es Centuries were required before the views pro- 
pounded by Manu became predominant. Gradually large sec- 
tions of the population of India gave up flesh-eating and even 
those who did not regard it as forbidden to them rarely partook 
of it or did so in an apologetic way. The spread of Vaianavism 
tended to wean people from flesh as required by the Bhagavata- 
purftna"" (VII. 15. 7-8) which is to the Vaisnavas what the 
Bible is to the Christians. In medieval and modern times all 
brahmanas avoid flesh ( except some brahmanas in northern and 
eastern India that hold that fish may be eaten ) ; so also do 
many vaisyas, particularly those who are Vaisnavas and even 
among sudras there are many who do not touch flesh and regard 
abstention from flesh as meritorious. From ancient times the 
ksatriyas have been meat-eaters. The Mababharata has in 
several places to say a great deal on flesh-eating. In the 
Vanaparva 50. 4 it is stated that the Pandava heroes killed with 
unpoisoned arrows deer and first offered venison to brahmanas 
and partook of it themselves. In Sabha 4. 1-2 king Yudhisthira 
on the opening of Mayasabha feasted ten thousand brahmanas 
with various delicacies inoluding the flesh of wild boars and 

1866.^ ««* w Hjr^ftw fWfrrir t% TjimnnwiTnjjT nffttavrori 
tot RwnrnprnA n^itih-^nft ftrswt Wftnrr jit fofiROVt • wtanrcrwtwi 
"rffcfoWT JWftfifor » ' fffrffWTTprq on wg V. 27 *nd 66. > 

1867. * ygifrSm t wr# * wgryftrwrfirq ■ *»*A wnrn sftriNawi «r 
•Hfihnrt n qtmrfr: t*i wf^wt w-44ft«u<iiH • vrawvw VII. 15. 7-8. 

Oh. 3tXtl] Bkojanarjteah-eating 78i 

deer. Vanaparva 208. 11-12"" offers the consoling thought ( that 
is conveyed by the Rgveda itself ) that animals killed in sacri- 
fices to the accompaniment of Vedic mantras went to heaven 
and it narrates the story of king Rantideva in whose sacrifices 
two thousand animals and cows were killed every day. Anu- 
sasana 116. 8 contains the view that there is nothing so nourish- 
ing as meat for those who are wounded or weak or worried or 
who are given up to too much sexual gratification and those 
exhausted by long travel. Anusasana 116. 16-19 allows flesh 
of animals killed by hunting to ksatriyas. There are some 
passages where the Mahabharata contains the same sentiments 
as those of Manu e. g. Anusasana 115 highly praises abstention 
from meat and a few verses of this chapter (e. g. 115. 41-45, 48) 
are very similar to Manu's ( V. 27, 51 ). S&nkha quoted by 
Apararka p. 1167 allows the flesh of buffaloes, goats, rams, ruru 
deer, ordinary deer and spotted deer. HSrlta quoted in the Gr. 
E. p. 375 mentions the flesh of goats, rams, buffaloes, deer of 
various kinds (ruru, prsata, nyanku, rksa), rhinoceros, and 
large forest boars as permissible, while Devala quoted by the 
same forbids the flesh of cows, asses, camels, horses, elephants, 
lions, tigers, bears, iarabhas, snakes, boa constrictor, rats and 
mice, cats, mongoose, village hog, dog, jackal, animals of un- 
known species, cheettas, dark-faced apes, monkeys and human 
beings. Manu V. 51 ( = Visnu Dh. S. 51. 74 ) says that he who 
gives consent to the killing of an animal ( for food ), who outs 
off the limbs, who kills the animal, who sells or purchases meat, 
who cooks it, who serves meat and the eater of meat — these are 
all guilty of killing. Yama ( quoted in Ahn. Pr. p. 533 ) says 
that the eater is the greatest sinner out of these, as, if there were 
no eaters of meat, no one would kill animals for food. 

Gaut. 17. 29 and 34-35, Ap. Dh. S. I. 5. 17. 32-34, Vas. Dh. 
S. 14. 48, Visnu Dh. S. 51. 29-31, Manu V. 11-14, Yaj. 1. 172-175 
contain long lists of birds the flesh of which was forbidden and 
of those the flesh of which was allowed. A few of these may 
be noted. All birds that subsist on raw flesh ( vultures &c. ), 
the cataka, parrot, hafnsa, all birds that dwell in a village ( such 
as pigeons), baka, birds that scratch dunghills for food are 
forbidden ; while wild cooks and peacocks were permitted. On 
Jaimini Y. 3. 26-28 Sahara quotes a Vedic text that one who has 

1868. *r$f <r$i** w«rc w*^ wnf ffc& • tfwsn fira nntar frsfl vA- 
UTOto l nrni 208. 11-12. TbiB idea is as old as %. 1. 162. 21. 

782 History of DharmaiclMra [ Ch. XXll 

constructed the fire altar (agnicit) should not eat the flesh of birds 
till tbe sacrifice be has embarked on is finished. 

About fish there is no unanimity. Ap. Dh. S. I. 5. 17. 36-37 
says ' among fish the ceta ( long-nosed crocodile ? ) is forbidden, 
so also are fish with snake-like heads, the makara, fish that 
subsist on dead flesh, fish that have strange forms ( such as 
those that have heads like men, or that look like elephants )•' 
Manu on the other hand regards fish-eating as the worst form 
of flesh-eating and forbids all fish ( V. 14-15 ), but then makes 
an exception (V. 16 ) in favour of fish called Pa^hlna and 
Rohita if used in rites for gods and Manes and fish called 
rcyiva, lion-faoed fish and fish having scales. Vide Vas. Dh. S. 
14. 41-42, Gaut. 17. 36, Yaj. 1. 177-178 also. 

About milk several rules are stated in the smrtis. Gaut* 
17. 22-26, Ap.T>h. S. 1. 5, 17. 22-24, Vas. Dh. S. 14. 34-35, Baud. 
Dh. S. 1. 5. 156-158, Manu V. 8-9, Visnu Dh. S. 51. 38-41, Yaj. I. 
170 lay down that the milk of a cow that is sandhinl, 18M the 
calf of which is dead, that gives birth to twins and that has 
not passed ten days after delivery, from whose udders milk 
oozes of itself, is forbidden. The milk of sheep and she-buffaloes 
also is not to be used until the' lapse of ten days after delivery. 
The milk of ewes, of camels and of all animals with one hoof 
is altogether forbidden. The Mit. ( on Yaj. T. 170 ) notes that 
even the ourds and other products of such milk as is forbidden 
are alBO forbidden, but Visvarupa thought that only the milk 
of a cow whose calf is dead, or who is sandhinl, or who has not 
passed ten days after delivery is forbidden and not curds and 
other products thereof. The milk of even a cow that feeds on 
impure food should not be used 1870 ( Visnu Dh. S. 51. 41 and 
Atri verse 301 ). In the VayupurSna even the milk of she 
buffaloes is forbidden. 18 " Baud. Dh. S. (L 5. 159-160) prescribes 
the penance called PrSjapatya for drinking forbidden milk of 
all animals ezoept the cow and a fast for three days for drink- 
^__ _______________ j — . 

1869. The word 'sandhinl' is explained in three ways as * a cow 
in heat ', ' that gives milk once a day ', ' a cow that yields milk on 
account of another oalf being brought to it, its own being dead '. Vide 
Mit. on Ysj. Il HOI ' ' 

1870. wart «rmV wft— *r #btf *w«rftr to i f«t **% w vrt * «fnrtr 
•» ft&T^n I »rf_r verse 301. 

1871. anr^a(<fefttf*«$ta«T<*<v<ii3i<nTtf wrt^t<nft«i?ftjif 
«WT«nrgstro78. 17. 

Oh. XXII ] Bhojana-rulea about milk 783 

ing the milk of a cow when forbidden. Apasfcamba-ararti ( in 
verse) forbids the milk of a kapilQ cow to all except to 
brahmanas and the Bhavisyapuraha says that even a brahmana 
is to use only such portion of the milk of such a cow that 
remains after employing it in rites for gods." 78 The Brahma* 
purana says ' one should not partake of curds at night even if 
one is starting on a journey, but in madhuparka it may be 
used at night. Ill-luck dwells in fried grain by day and in 
curds and barley by night and in Kovidara and Kapittha ( trees 
or fruits ) at all times * ( quoted in Gr. R. p. 370 ). Manu IV, 75 
forbids the eating after sunset of all food in which sesame 
are mixed. 

Several herbs and vegetables have been forbidden from very 
ancient times. According to Ap. Dh. S. ( I. 5. 17. 25-27 ) all 
herbs from which liquors are distilled,' kalafija ( red garlic ), 
palandu (onions), pararlka ( dark garlic ) and whatever similar 
vegetables are not used by respectable people, should not be 
eaten ; and a brahmana text prescribes that ' kyaku ' (mush- 
rooms ) are forbidden. Gaut. 17. 32-33 forbids tender leaves (of 
trees ), kyaku, lasuna and the resins of trees and the red sap 
flowing from incisions made in the barks of trees, Vas. Dh. 8. 14. 
33 forbids the eating of laiuna, palandu, kyaku, grfijana (turnip), 
slesmataka, the resins of trees and red sap ( as in Gautama ). 
Manu V. 5-6 forbids lasuna, palandu, grfijana, mushrooms 
( kavaka ) and all herbs that spring from impure soil and 
manure, red resins and red sap ( as in Gautama ) and iefu 
( slesmataka ) fruit. Yaj. 1. 171 and 176 adds iigru and pres- 
cribes the penance of candrayana for eating forbidden herbs 
and vegetables. The great difficulty is to find out the modern 
equivalents of some of the herbs and vegetables. According to 
a verse quoted in Gr. R. p. 356 from the Smrtimafijarl there are 
ten varieties of palandu of whioh grfijana im is one. Apararka 
p. 249 quotes passages from' the Brahmapurana forbidding 
various kinds of herbs and vegetables. Vide also Gr. R. pp. 
354-356 for quotations from Devala and others about herbs and 

1872. srf^r4^ r***ft *Nr: ^m *t $t: i t: ftfcsfRw tfK ^r nwf**r- 
fwy^^H jetarrrcrw quoted in tftfjNr ( ws P- 423 ) WT. I. 2. 
p. 381 j wrftc* V: f^qpfr T*3i w ftwit I gff5W fifc% ffcft; fifcfi <Fir*wr«n 
irgri « *Tft«VSTfl»T quoted in f%Gtel<> ( WT^ p. 423 ) and qf. x. p. 37p. 

1873. nfpft ^Whnrw iWrnwiT «iiw* i favw ropj** «i*a«p <w 
q*. x- P- 356 and wrQf. JJ. p. 514. 

784 History of DharmaiOstra I Ch. XXII 

vegetables tbat are forbidden. Tbe Mit. on Y&j. III. 290 quotes 
a sutra of Sumantu tbat lasuna and other vegetables are not 
forbidden to those who are ill, if they are prescribed by way of 
medicine.' 8 " About asafoetida ( hingu ) Haradatta on Oaut. 17. 
32 says ' it is doubtful whether it is a resin or is a sap flowing 
from Incisions, but even respeotable people partake of it and tbat 
camphor not being red nor a resin nor a sap may be eaten.' The 
Sm. 0. ( on sr&ddha p. 413 ) says that some smrtis forbid the use 
of hingu in sr&ddha, while tbe AdipurSna allows it and therefore 
there is an option. The Gr. R. p. 354 shows that the round alabu 
( gourd ) was forbidden. Vrddha-H&rlta VII. 113-119 mentions 
herbs, vegetables and fruits that are forbidden. Vide also the 
Smrtimuktaphala ( fthnika pp- 434-435 ) for quotations as to the 
names of several roots, fruits and vegetables that were fobid- 
den together with their South Indian names. 

Ap. Db. S. II. 8. 18. 2 forbids the use of dark grains ( like 
masa beans ) in sr&ddha. The Mah&bhaaya says ' when it is 
declared that masa beans should not be eaten, they are not to be 
eaten even when other grains of corn are mixed up with tbem ' 
(vol. I. p. 127)."" The Gr. R. p. 359 quotes the Brahmapurana ,m 
forbidding the use of certain cereals generally such as rajamasa, 
sthulamudga ( called ' methl ' in Marathi ), masura &c. Sahkha- 
Likhita im quoted in Ahn. Pr. p. 394 allows the employment in 
offering to gods of all cereals, except kodrava, canaka ( gram ), 
m&sa, masura, kulattha and uddalaka. Vrddha-Harlta VII. 
110-111 also mentions tbe corns that are forbidden. 

Gaut. 17. 14-16, Ap. Dh. S. 1. 5. 17. 17-19, Vas. Dh. S. 14. 28-29 
and 37-33, Manu V. 10, 24-25, Y&j. 1. 167 prescribe that cooked 
food which has become sour by being kept for some time or by 
being mixed with something else should not be eaten nor should 
stale ( over which the day or night has passed ) food be eaten, 
nor food cooked twice ( with interval ) except curds and butter- 
milk and except stale articles like vegetables, cakes, fried grain, 

1874. q?n»v* «rn%iTv ffrfi ftrnvrngfiffircpffi **far i vrf* ^*- 
iwrflftr »J«vR t fta: i oma in fan" on *t- HI. 290. 

1875. *n*T n »*rwnrr ftg% fa*n wfa «r gsrffr i nfnrn^ vol. 1 p. 127. 

1876. *raRm: *«H&33Tw«rf ttwth^ ■ wbj: wrswrw ys*>r: *fff«ftnr- 
*K i « < m»<lm "nw*nf5r * ^ ^Tifw <BWt%^ « WBrstm quoted in nr*. x- 
p. 859, wrfir- 1. P. 516. 

1877. srw»re*ffttr&*T yft ftwwriMfrrt *Jtar^«»r«' ; n«w«Jirawft- 
fTOTSV* iliiMhf^ i ?ifr«r*A in wnf. *. 394 and 404. 

Ch. JtXII ] Bhojana-forbidden food 78& 

porridge, pulse cakes, those boiled in oil and rioe boiled in milk 
or when mixed with honey ; and that even stale food flavoured 
with ghee or curds or the remnant of food offered to the gods 
may be eaten. Manu V. 25, Vas. Dh. S. 14. 37-38, Ap. Dh. S. I. 
5. 17. 19 and Yaj. 1. 169 say that articles of wheat and yam 
flour and products of milk though stale and unmixed with ghee 
may be eaten by all dvijatis, provided they have not turned 

The above long lists of forbidden vegetables, meat, milk 
furnish examples of food that is jatidusta or svabhavaduqfc 
The rules about not eating stale and sour food illustrate food 
that is kaladuqta. Any article of food which is mixed up with 
forbidden .things like palandu or is in contact with unclean 
substances or food in which hair or an insect is found or in which 
excreta or the limb or tail of a mouse is found, food touohed 
by a woman in her monthly course or in which a bird ( like 
the crow ) has thrust its beak or food touched by a dog or smelt 
by a oow or food from a house in mourning or from a family in 
impurity due to birth should be avoided ( vide ilp. Dh. S. I. 5. 
16. 19-20 and 24-29, Manu IV. 207-209, 212, 217, Yaj. I. 
167-168 ). If a dog or an apapatra sees food which a man is 
eating or if a person when engaged in taking his meal sees a can- 
dala, a dog, a orow or a cock or a woman in her course, he should 
leave the food and get up. Manu (111.239*240) says that a candala, 
a village hog or a village cook or a dog, a menstruating woman 
and an impotent person should not be allowed to see brahmanas 
eating, whether in rites for gods or Manes, or at times of gifta. 
Katyayana says that if a brahmana hears the voioe of a 
candala, a patita, or a woman in her oourse he should at once 
leave eating and if he eats even one morsel after hearing their 
voice he has to observe a fast for one day. 1878 The rules 
about not eating food from a house in mourning illustrate 
food that Is nimUtadusta ('.forbidden by reason of an 
oocasion or chance reason ),' the other rules about food 

1878. g-TT tt w-jrrstar "f *"*** ■ wrr. *r. *. I. 5. 16. 31 ; -f-pwmfl 
^ro-nsf «jr* Wg&%* «r ■ 5'WPfr Tft <nfar w& 3 wifcrsi^tt «JW quoted in 
*%GtH. ( «m%*r p. 428 ), wn%-ff-». p. 482 ; «ue 1,414 itltftc-<»tiiq-«-l *wr ft-jr> 
frm 1 ij-jftw Jrrcmnf -tf ifoHtht r-TfrRS « -mr<rr«r*r quoted in »--rfjrwTT. p. 482. 
-j-p-f« explains smra as '- yi T diqq t > on arpr. -». ^;. 1. 7. 21. 6 and on ■rw. 
q. <g, I. 5. 16. 31 as ' arcpmrt ur>far: *f$ it <rrif «rta$ swfc » ; on siW. 
1. 1. 3. 26 ' OTTrsfT: sjfitcjhro "RPRTjpf: i wiiMtft ft itat Tncnft ~rranvr*rfi*t 
*raft-f3f» ** '• ****& w y s ( P- 72 °) ' i R>aw»* W ifi i Pi'ift«xq1 l MM i fi > g» '. 
H.D. 99 

786* History of Dharma&astra t Oh. XXII 

forbidden because of contact with unclean things or with garlic 
&c. exemplify safiaargardusta ( forbidden because of contact ) 
and the rales about avoiding food seen by a dog &c. are 
examples of kriya-dusta (forbidden on aooount of oertain 
actions). The smrti writers were not devoid of practical 
common sense. Baud. Dh. S. IL 7. 7 says that if in a heap of 
cooked food, hair, bits of nails or skin or insects or dung of rats 
is seen, then a lump from that part where these are seen should 
be taken out and the rest should have water sprinkled over it 
and holy ashes should be scattered over it and water should be 
again sprinkled over it and brahmanas should then louldly 
deolare the food to be all right and it may be then used for 
serving. Vaik. U79 IX. 15 contains a similar direction. Par5' 
sara VI. 71-74 says that cooked food (rice) amounting in 
quantity to one drama or one adhaka, 1880 if licked by a dog or by 
a crow or smelt by a cow or an ass, should not be thrown away, 
but should be purified and then used, and that the portion spoilt 
by touch &c. should be taken away from the whole mass, the 
rest should be sprinkled over with water in which a golden 
piece has been dipped and fire should be brought in contact with 
it ( by ignited darbha ) and brahmanas should recite Yedio texts 
over it and then it may be served. Vas. Dh. S. 14. 23 and 25-26, 
Y&j. 1. 189 and 191 contain similar rules. 18B1 

Food cooked only for oneself and not for offering to gods or 
guests should not be eaten ( Gaut. 17. 19, Manu IV. 213 ). This 
is called safhskara-dusta ( forbidden on account of the absence 
of purificatory rites ) by the Smrtyarthasara p. 68. The largest 
number of injunctions are concerned with parigrahadusta ( food 
which may be good in itself but is forbidden because of its 
coming from the hands of or being owned by certain persons ). 
The following is a fairly comprehensive list of such persons 
compiled from Ap. Dh. S. 1. 6. 18. 16-33 and I. 6. 19. 1, Gaut. 15.18 
and 17. 17-18, Vas. Dh. S. 14. 2-11, Manu IV. 205-220, Y&j. 

1879. >Hthi<hi v<rvit *¥"i ffiw^sulttlHWial irsm^jnr *T^tfj iww 
f^lfa jfa TWTO: *totf frfe^Pn WtlPlMI 4^4 lit, I 'Nfft. TO IX. 15. 

1880. According to ittrtc (VI. 70) 2 n*»i8 «e equal to an tKWK »nd 
82 tow ar« equal to a ^or. Others define differently. According to 
wnfc p. 305 and frnffrainam part 1 p. 57, 2 m=ms, 2 j*&i=*g*w, 4 
jn-w, 4sre«i=ara!»r, 4 s*W5j-3fK 2 £tor=$ar and 8 jwr-qnft- 
Vide {Star* on *rr. III. 265 and 274 also. 

1881. <)q|(\u4j| ftqf^S ^T&J «J<p3j ^T < ITT*: "*Pw tftyBWl WK fanf- 
fct » «TWTf«wr^lw *Wr #wtrWfi i wflra 14. 25-26. 

Oh. XXII ] Bhojana-whose food forbidden 787 

1. 160-165, Veda-Vy&sa III. 50-54, Brahraapurana quoted by 
AparSrka pp. 1177-79 and other works :— one who baa not kept 
the sacred ( srauta and grhya ) fires, a miser ( who stints even 
his parents, ohildren, wife through greed ), one imprisoned ( or 
fettered ), a thief, an impotent person, a wrestler ( or one who 
subsists by going on the stage ), a vaina i. e. a worker in 
bamboo ( or nata according to Visvarupa ), a singer, an actor, an 
abhiiasta ( one charged with having committed a mahap&taka ), 
a usurer, a courtezan, a sangha oragaya (group or band of roguish 
brahmanas or others ), one who is initiated for a Vedic sacrifice 
(till he has not bought soma or has not offered an animal to Agni 
and Soma ; vide Ap. Dh. S. I. 6. 18. 23-26 which quote the Ait. 
Br.), a physician ( who subsists by the practice of medicine ), a 
surgeon, a fowler, a hunter ( for selling flesh ), one suffering 
from an incurable disease, one who is irascible or cruel, an un- 
chaste woman, a matta ( one intoxicated or puffed up by wealth 
and learning ), an enemy, an ugra ( one ferocious in look or 
words or a man of that caste ), patita ( an outcast ), vratya ( vide 
pp. 376-379 above ), a hypocrite ( or swindler), one who eats the 
remnants of others' food ( or of a sudra ), a woman whose 
husband is not living and who has no son, a goldsmith, a hen- 
pecked husband, one who serves as a priest to the whole village, 
a vendor of weapons, a blacksmith, a nisada, a tailor, a ivavrtti 
( one subsisting by keeping dogs, or one who does menial ser- 
vice ), a king, 188S a king's purohita, a rajaka ( a washerman or 
dyer ), an ungrateful person, one who makes his livelihood by 
killing animals, a distiller or seller of liquors, one who stays in 
the same house with his wife's paramour, one who sells the soma 
plant, a back-biter, a liar, an oil-presser, a bard, a son-in-law (as 
long as he has no son or child ), I8M a sonless man ( Mit. on Yaj. 
III. 290 quoting Likhita), one who starts a sacrifice without 
studying the Veda, a woman sacrifioer, a carpenter, one who 
makes his living by astrology, one whose duty is to ring bells 
(for reminding the king of the time or awakening him), a grama- 
kuta (a village officer, Apararka p. 239), a parivitti,a parivividana, 
the husband of a sudra woman or of a remarried widow, the 

1882. ws IV. 218, a»%^117, siBr 304, wrr. 9. 28 ( in verse ) say 
' TTsrfw !ter WT^ '■ 

1883. wu<ii 3*"ran" m^wr?WfTra^j% fair i arfsl 305 ; ' ft«\j$ snwrat 

quoted by smr% p. 239 ; 3*vr<q° 1. 175 ' srrsrofl »r* tfafrrf^ fft*tf *s^T- 
t^tj 1 1 ( without qualifications ) ; vide sjwn"»3° IS. 80 alio. 

788 History of Dharmatiistra [ Ch. XXII 

son of a punarbhu, a worker in hides, a potter, a spy, one who 
becomes an asoetio without following the rules laid down for 
that airama, a lunatio, one who has sat down at his debtor's 
house in dhanja. Manu IV. 222 presoribes a fast for three days 
if a brahmana partakes of the food of these unknowingly, but 
the kfcchra ( Pr&japatya ) for knowingly doing so. Baud. Dh. S, 
II. 3. 10 presoribes the japa of Rg. IX. 58 ( tarat sa mandl ) for 
eating the food of one from whom it should not have been 
taken. Manu XL 253 and Visnu Dh. S. 56. 6 do the same. 

The next question is whose food may be taken. Great fluc- 
tuations have occurred in the usages during the last two 
thousand years or more in this matter. Gaut. 17. 1 says ' a 
brahmana may eat at the houses of all dvijQtis ( the three higher 
varnas) who are well-known to be performing the peculiar 
duties of their var&a or airama* Gaut. 2. 41, Baud. Dh. S. I. 2. 
18-19, Ap. Dh. S. 1. 1. 3. 25 allow a brahmacSrin to beg for food 
at the houses of men of all varnas, except those who are 
apapatra and abhiiasta ( suspected of mahapatakas ). Ap. Dh. S- 
I. 6. 18. 9 first prescribes for a brahmana who has returned from 
bis teacher's house that he should not eat in the houses of the 
ksatriya and other varnas ( as a general rule ), then he gives the 
opinion of some that he may take food from members of all 
varnas except sudras, provided they abide by the rules for their 
varpa. He also notices that even sudra's food may be eaten if 
he serves a dvijati in virtue of his duty to do so. Even Veda- 
VySsa III. 56 expressly declares that all dvijatis who know 
each other's families may partake of food at each other's 
houses. 188 * Ap. Dh. S. I. 6. 19. 2-12 raises the question as to 
whose food may be eaten and names several sages who differed 
in their views. Kanva said that one may eat the food of only 
him who wishes to give ( and so requests ), Eautsa thought that 
one may eat the food of him only who is holy ( punya ) ; 
Varayayani said that one may accept from whoever is liberal 
enough to give ; Eka, Eunika, Kanva, Kutsa and Puskarasadi 
held that alms ( food ) offered by a pure man may be eaten ; 
Varsyayani said what is offered by any body without asking 
may be accepted ; according to Harlta one should not accept 
food whioh is offered after an express previous announcement 
'I shall give you such and such a kind of food. ' Apastamba's 
own view appears to have been ( I. 6. 19. 9-11 ) that one should 
accept the food of him whose conduct is religious and who 

1884. xtfn i<nTtar$i9TOn fifarrest firt^wnfro < ^"ror III. 56. 

Ch. XXII ] Bhojana-whose food may be eaten 789 

desires to offer food, that one should not accept the food even of 
a righteous man if he Bhows even the slightest unwillingness to 
give and that whatever is offered unasked may be acoepted. 
These directions are rather vague. 

In modern times a person is more lax in taking food pre- 
pared with oil or ghee or milk. He may take suoh food from 
members of oertain castes other than his own. But ordinarily 
he would not take food cooked in water from any person belong- 
ing to another caste or even sub-division of the same oaste. In 
towns and cities there is a strong tendency to considerably 
relax these restrictions. We saw above that in the times of 
Gautama and Apastamba and others a brahmana was allowed 
to take food prepared in the houses of ksatriyas, vaisyas, and 
even sudras. Gradually this latitude came to be restricted and 
most of the sutras and early smrfcis restrict the liberty to take 
food from sudra9 by Baying that only from the following among 
sudras a brahmana can take cooked food, viz. one who cultivates 
the brahmana's field on the system of paying half of the crops to 
the latter, a family friend, one's cowherd, one's barber, one 
doing personal service i. e. a dasa ( vide Gaut. 17. 6, Manu IV. 
253, Visnu Dh. S. 57. 16, Yaj. I. 166, Angiras 120-121, Veda- 
Vyasa III. 55 and Parasara XL 21 ). Manu and Yaj. add that 
any sudra who declares to a brahmana that the former is going 
to be dependent on the latter and who declares what his actions 
have been and how he will serve the brahmana is also bhojyanna 
( one whose food may be eaten ). The Mit. quotes a sutra 
which includes the potter among these ( on Yaj. I. 166 ) 
and Devala also does so. 188s It may be stated that Parasara 
(XL 22-24) gives peculiar meanings to the words dasa, napita, 
gopalaand ardhika. The general rule forbidding the food of 
sudras is stated by Vas. Dh. S. 14. 4, Manu IV. 211 and 223, 
Yaj. L 160. Angiras 121 says that he who takes cooked 
food from sudras other than the five excepted above has to 
undergo c&ndrayana penance. Atri ( 172-173 ) prescribes the 
same penance for'a dvija eating the food of a washerman, an 
aotor and a worker in bamboos and the penance of paraka for 
taking the food of or residing amongst antyajas. Vas. Dh. S. 

1885. OTwft (fsr^reft?) «rrfWt •ihrt sjwmvtt: vftas* ■ mgr^tfa 

*ffcnTTOTt <T»K* g3^Hr<T: II %VS in £?. *. p. 337 ; qxTSTC XL 22-24 are m- 

w mwttgwft «n8r°ta 3 tfwm ■ tf^RUi^ Htttw: wtfwirrg *nfttn u «fV 
«n«yfl*Y«n*Ji ^rgsrsreg <r: urn i *r «ftaicj yfif 5hft ♦rta'ft fiw tfcnrt ii *pr- 
liwrrcrgnwft ' wnjr«Nt 3 tfpfer: 1 *r wrfSw jft $«ft »fr^ft Offo? thro 11 

790 History of Dharmaiastra I Oh. XXII 

VI. 26-29, Angiras 69-70, Ap. ( verse ) 8. 9-11 severely condemn 
a brahmana partaking of food from sudras. Angiras 75, Ap. 
( verse ) VIII. 8-9 declare that a brahmana who is an agrdhotrin 
and yet does not desist from sudra food loses five viz. his self, 
his vedio lore and his three ( sacred fires ). Medhatithi on 
Mann V. 84 expressly states that the barber is touohable and 
bhojyanna ( whose food may be taken ). This shows that up to 
the 9th century A. D. the rules about taking food from even 
certain sudras had not become rigid in all provinces of India. 
Angiras 77-78. Ap. ( verse ) 8. 11-13 and Yama ( quoted in Gr. 
E. p. 334 ) declare that a brahmana may eat at a brahmana's at 
all times, at a ksatriya's only on parvans ( on full moon &c. ), at 
a vaisya's when the latter is initiated for a sacrifice, at a sudra's 
never and the food of the four varnas is respectively like nectar, 
milk, food and blood. ,8M Acoording to Manu IV. 223 a 
brahmana could take from a sudra uncooked food for a night, if 
he had no other means of subsistence. When exaotly brahmanas 
were forbidden to take food from ksatriyas or vaisy as it is difficult 
to say. In the Kalivarjya section all that is forbidden is taking 
food from the five sudras enumerated in Manu IV. 253. Gaut. 17. 1 
prescribes that fuel, water, fodder, roots, fruits, honey, protection, 
what is offered unasked, a bed, seat, shelter, conveyance, milk, 
curds, roasted grain, iafarl ( small fish ), priyangu ( millet ), a 
garland, meat of deer, vegetables must not be refused when offered 
by any one spontaneously. VaB. Dh. S. 14. 12, Manu IV. 50 are 
to the game effect. Angiras l887 quoted in Gr. R. p. 337 states 
that cow's milk, barley flour, oil, oil-cakes, cakes ( of flour ) may 
be taken from a sudra and eaten and whatever else is cooked in 
milk. Brhat-Parasara VI. says ' uncooked meat, ghee, honey 
and oils extracted from fruits, even if they are kept in a 
mlecchaa vessel, become pure the moment they are taken out of 
suoh vessel; similarly milk, curds, and ghee contained in 
vessels of abhlras are blameless and the vessels are pure as long 
as these articles are contained in them. I8,s Laghu-Satatapa 128 

1886. wrsnTTV WJT 5T$li wfifrcv g <rff3f i «r$<Jt<J T^r^wnrt gjrw * 

^S^Hamr. 8. 11-13. =3qff^ 77-78 (*reitem g^rfhr for fa ^terrvt). 

V* reads jj^ftj ^ ^r^T and w x, p. 334 explains stb^J «n«yri 'r ffr3 . 

1887. «ftx*f ^* *r**>*j %& Ru<n**hi ^ i ai^jrH. wfr^*^n*RBTFTWWT 

W* » srf$**.in sif. *. P- 3 37. 

1888. *n*nrt# i* v\& fcfra <Rw«nn: i *Sr«sr*n»»ffcraT ilfJt 

( JivSnanda, part 2 p. 210 ). 

Oh. 2tXII 1 Bhojam-food (Mowed 79i 

says that corn lying in the field or on the threshing floor, water 
drawn from wells and milk while still in the cow enclosures 
may he taken even from one whose food is forbidden. Even 
such later writers as Haradatfca stated that a brahmana may eat 
the food of the five sudras named by Manu IV. 253 in extreme 
distress only. 

Certain articles were not to be eaten at certain stages only. 
For example, a brahmacarin was not to partake of honey, meat, 
and ksara-lavana ( vide Ap. Dh. S. 1. 1. 4. 6, Manava gr. I. 1. 
12 ). But in danger of life he could eat even these ( vide 
Medhatithi on Manu V. 27 ). Similarly a forest hermit and 
an ascetic were forbidden many things ( which will be 
discussed later on ). A 5satriya was not to drink soma juice 
( vide p. 140 above ). 

There were rules about the persons who might be engaged 
to cook and serve food. As brahmanas could in very ancient 
times eat the food of all varnas including at least some sudras, 
no difficulty must have been felt. The Ap. Dh. S. ( II. 2. 3. 
1-6 ) prescribes that aryas ( i. e. the three varnas ) purified ( by a 
bath ) may prepare the food for vaisvadeva ; they should stop 
speaking, coughing or spitting with their faces turned towards 
the food that is being prepared and should touch water on touch- 
ing their hair, limbs or garment ; or sudras supervised by aryas 
may be the cooks. Ap. Dh. S. further requires that when sudras 
are cooks they should shave their hair and beard and pare their 
nails every day or on the 8th day or parva days and they must 
always bathe with thoir olothes on. Laghu-Asv. 1. 176 says that 
food should be cooked by one's wife, daughter-in-law, son, pupil, 
elderly relative, or one's acarya or by oneself. Apararka ( p. 
500 ) quotes a verse of Narayana that food must be served to a 
dvijati by a wife of the same caste ( if he bas wives of different 
castes ). 

Although numerous rules are laid down about the persons 
at whose house food may or may not be taken, the ideal placed 
before householders was that they should not as far as possible 
eat at the houses of others and should only do so if they are 
invited by a blameless person ( vide Gaut. 17. 8, Manu III. 104, 
Yaj. 1. 112 ). Manu III. 104 holds out the threat that those who 
constantly seek to subsist on the food given by others become 
after death the cattle of those who give them food. 

It is necessary to say a few words on drinking liquor 
( madyapana ). 

792 tiistory of Dharmasaatra [ Ch. XXII 

In the Bgveda a distinction is made between soma and sura 
( liquor ), the former being an intoxicating drink, but reserved 
for being offered ( as a sacred beverage ) to gods and to be drunk 
by the priests, while the latter seems to have been meant as a 
beverage for oommon men and not usually offered to gods. In 
Rg. VII. 86. 6 the sage 189 ' Vasisflia implores Varuna to 
recognize that a man does not commit sin by bis own urge or 
power, but that it is due to destiny or sura, anger, dice ( gambl- 
ing ) or heedlessness. In $g. VIII. %. 12 the sage exclaims that 
draughts of soma when quaffed by Indra create in his heart such 
tumult as those who are heavily intoxicated engage in when 
aura' is drunk. Kg. I. 116. 7 mentions among the deeds of 
Asvins this that they filled a hundred jars of sura from the hoof 
of their powerful horse which ( hoof ) was like karotara ( a 
strainer or leather-bag?). Bg. 1. 191. 10 refers to the leather-bag 
(of wine) in the house of a vintner. In belauding bhojas 
( liberal men ) Rg. X. 107. 9 says that they won the inner 
draught of sura ( from their foes ). In Rg. X. 131. I89 ° 4 and 5 
the Asvins are praised for having drunk surama ( sura mixed 
with soma) and helped Indra in his fight with the Asura 
Namuci. In the Atharvaveda IV. 34. 6 the reward for the per- 
former of sacrifices is said to be heaven in which there are lakes 
full of ghee and honey, and wherein liquor flows like water. 
In Atharvaveda 14. 1. 35-36 and 15. 9. 2-3 sura is referred to. 
The Vsj. S. 19. 7 distinguished between sura and soma ' thou art 
the powerful sura" and this is soma ; don't destroy me when thou 
enterest thy place \ In the Tai. ,8 " S. II. 5. 1 ff, the Sat. Br. 
L 6. 3 and V. 5. 4 there is a legend of Visvarupa, the son of 
Tvasfo which narrates how he had three heads, one of which 
was Boma-drinking, one wine-drinking and a third for eating 

1889. «r «r *ft q*ft «tcot aft: m s*r ^f^q**! wftrfttivr- 
VII. 86. 6 ; g*g tfhmft 3*t«% f *?tht h g*nrrac ■ *r. v III. 2. 12 ; *nxfom- 
Mw i qNW w- ?r* ynn»n%«* 5*prn ' *?■ I- 116. 7 ; q$ ftvn ^anfft jft 
W# q| i *r. I. 191. 10 ; *iten- ftr»3**a:fcf ?mi Hten iSpg^ anrar? 
smftrnr.X. 107.9. 

1890. g^ ynsHT^rc ts^rnriB^ w*r 1 faftTm gnwift w*$ vfow 
jp^n **. X. 131. 4 quotod in fc. wr. I. 4. 2; ^tj-^t rt$$mt BTfcpun tftVr jarf 
3^>*r irwr 1 ••• — <m ?n fitem gs^ftofh w*wrr: n svai IV. 34. 6. jgn 
w*ri% gf&nn- w^r itt *rr »n f|ff>: *«rr ^Bm i Rs it ft • *nr. tf. 19. 7 ; also 
&.WI. I. 4. 2and^. wi.'37.4. 

^1881. ffrroft ^ wnr: srrffrrr frsremTffTmsfrfa gTpnret 1 wpr Ufa 
tihbiwm. ih*wrt Btnrpnnmprq 1 ft. ff. it, 5. 1. 1. ; Tide grwrtrfttn 
XII. 10 for similar words. 

Oh. XXII ] Bhojanar-drinUng liquor 793 

food, how Indra cut off the heads of Visvarupa, how Tvasfa 
heing furious at the slaughter of his Bon performed a soma 
sacrifice from which he excluded Indra, how Indra, though not 
invited, consumed all the soma that was in the tub, how the 
drinking of too much soma injured Indra and how the gods 
healed him by the isti called SautramanI ( for Sutraman, ' the 
good protector', Indra). This SautramanI sacrifice was per- 
formed for a priest who drank too much soma and therefore 
either began to vomit or had severe purging. Vide Katyayana 
sr. 19. 1. 4. It was also performed by him who had an enemy (Sat. 
Br. XII. 7. 3. 4 ). In this sacrifice a brahmana had to be hired 
for drinking the dregs of sura offered in it and if one was not 
found willing to do it the dregs were to be poured on an 
ant-hill.'" 8 How sura ( liquor ) was prepared is described in the 
Sat. Br. XII. 7. 3. 5 and in Katyayana sr. 19. 1. 20-27 ( vide S. 
B. E. vol. 44, p. 223 n. 2 which summarises the com. on Katya- 
yana ). In Jaimini III. 5. 14-15 there is a discussion about the 
SautramanI sacrifice and Sahara quotes the passage of the Tai. 
Br. I. 8. 6 about hiring a brahmana for drinking the dregs of the 
sura offered in the sacrifice. The Sat. Br. contrasts soma and of 
sura by saying * soma is truth, prosperity, light and sura is 
untruth, misery, darkness ' ( V. 1. 5. 28 ). The Sat. Br. V. 5. 4. 
21 expresses dread 1B8S of mixing up the libations of soma and of 
sura together. The Kathaka Samhita XII. 12 contains the follow- 
ing interesting remark. " Therefore an elderly person or a 
youngster, the daughter-in-law and father-in-law drink liquor 
and remain babbling together ; foolishness ( or thoughtlessness ) 
is indeed sin ; therefore a brahmana does not drink sura with 
the thought ' otherwise ( if I drink it ) I may be affeoted by sin'; 
therefore this is for ksatriya ; one should say to a brahmana that 
sura, if drunk by a ksatriya, does not harm the latter." IM * This 
passage makes it dear that at the time of the Kanaka Samhita 
publio opinion had come to this stage that brahmanas had 
generally given up drinking sura. This passage read with the 

1892. m(5Pt urfbBWfaij'diuiw trtkt. i wnroft wrywr y»«s|UH«j 
qrcrt i*rf% «rtgrof t f^|a^»ft!RTrr«n»?*»^sc > 3. wt. I. 8. 6. Vide cnyppwbi 
15. 15. 1-H where the last g?r is wrsrof grrt nftafWnrrt^ >w a-irfr»rif i 

1893. srTwjfV Tsjtf^r i <jTiul<tft<u\nti4a ^Qm ^taftnrg'ftei gnyfta l 
TO gysfaft ;re*m[ graft wx&i ■ snrrewr. V. 5. 4. 21. 

1894. ffWR^nrt*? « B *f i <t Hg *stt "^gw stf <fiwr «* snwi wrctft i 
incwr § ttm* ip&t% «rrsron s*t t fron* mw wr a«^3«iT yft i enprec *fa*w 
irrgrof ^rnM gtf iitn ftTfSr i *rarar#f$!rr XII. 12. 

E. D. 100 

794 History of Dharmaiaatra [ Ch. XXII 

Tai. Br. quoted above establishes that it had become difficult to 
find a brshmana willing to drink even the remnants of sura 
left after being offered in a sacred Vedic rite like the Sautramanl. 
The above passage from the Kanaka is quoted by the Tantra- 
vartika on Jaimini 1.3. 7 (p. 210) and explained by it as 
referring to sldhu ( rum ) and liquor prepared from honey- 
Samkaracarya in his bhasya on the Vedantasutra III. 4. 31 
quotes 1895 this passage expressly from the Kathaka SarhhitS. In 
the Ait. Br. ( 37. 4 ) it is stated that when a king has undergone 
a solemn coronation ceremony the purohita places in his hand 
a vessel of sura. Asvapati, king of Kekaya, proudly declares 
in the Chandogya Up. V. 11. 5 to the learned brahmanas that 
came to him for the lore about Vaisvanara ' in my country 
there is no thief, no miser, no madyapa ( drinker of intoxicants ), 
none who has not kept the saored fires, none who is not learned. 
no man of loose character; whence can there be a woman of 
loose character in my country ? ' In Chandogya V. 10. 9 one 
who drinks sura is enumerated among the five grave sinners. 

It is somewhat strange that in some of the grhya sutras it 
is stated that in the rites on Anvas^aka day when pindas are 
offered to the male ancestors, pindas are offered to the mother, 
paternal grandmother and paternal great-grandmother and also 
liquor is offered. For example, the Asv. gr. II. 5. 5 says that * to 
the wives ( of the ancestors ) are offered sura and the scum of 
boiled rice in addition ' ( to the pindas ). 1896 The Par. gr. ( III. 3 ) 
states ' also to the female ancestors he makes pinda offerings 
and pours for them liquor and water oblations into pits. ' The 
Kathaka gr. ( 65. 7-8 ) also prescribes that in the Anvastaka 
sura was to be sprinkled with a spoon about the pindas for 
women ancestors and the pindas were to be eaten by servants 
or by nisadas or may be thrown in fire or water or brahmanas 
may eat them. It is difficult to account for this. If a conjee. 
ture may be hazarded, it is possible that women drank ( perhaps 
secretly ) liquor even when their husbands had given up the 
practice owing to the force of public opinion or that in those 
days (before the grhya sutras) intercaste marriages being 
allowed, the women ancestors might have been ksatriya or 

1895. $i*?«m*reT sififttrer: m m s u faj famfc aret wrewnrt tfUsmvt 
«I5* «*mn «nw*r: gtt «r ffi^qr jft i wtarwr on ^. % III. 4. 31. 

1896. fi««iHg«3!*$ii i f?*T wigum^ T^pft firret I «ft«T«J Btf 

<vr«i*mftnrcc • «t*w. % II. 5. 3-5 ; wsronns wmi? ^ ;^ «fi*wtaRr- 

v* ^r *>$s s^n xfo* q ram i tfr^H wsr«» 1 » «m. s» HI* 3. 

Ch. XXII ] Bhojana-drinking liquor 795 

vaisya women and bo were not unfamiliar with drinking. Manu 
XI. 95 forbids drinking to brahmanas and Kulluka notes that 
there were commentators who held that the prohibition did not 
apply to brahmana women. Whatever the reasons for the above 
directions in the grhya sutras may be, they run counter to the 
prevailing sentiments, not only of the Kanaka Sam. and the 
Brahmana texts, but also to the unanimous prescriptions of the 
dharmasutras and smrtis. 

Gaut. II. 25, ,m Ap. Dh. S. I. 5. 17. 21, Manu XI. 94 forbid 
all kinds of intoxicants to brahmanas at all stages of life. Ap. 
Dh. 8. I. 7. 21. 8, Vas. Dh. S. I. 20, Visnu Dh. S. 35. 1., Manu 
XI. 54, Yaj. III. 227 hold that drinking sura or madya is one 
of the grave sins ( mahapatakas ). In spite of this, the Baud. 
Dh. S. I. 2. 4 notes that among the five peculiar praotices of the 
brahmanas in the north was that of drinking rum and it 
condemns all the five practices. The verses of Manu ( XI, 
93-94 ) 18 ' 8 are frequently quoted in digests and commentaries 
' sura is the filthy refuse of food and sin indeed is called mala 
(filth); therefore, a brahmana, a rajanya, and a vaisya should not 
drink sura, which is of three kinds, viz. prepared from molasses ) 
from flour ( or ground grains ) and from flowers of the Madhuka 
tree ; brahmanas should not drink any one of these three. ' The 
interpretations put on these verses by Visvarupa on Yaj. 
( IIL 222 ), the Mit. on Yaj. III. 253, Apararka p. 1069 and 
others establish that the word ' sura ' primarily applies to paisti 
( liquor prepared from flour ) as Vedic usage in the Sautramaol 
saorifice and elsewhere shows, that paisti is forbidden to all 
brahmanas, ksatriyas and vaisyas, that it is the drinking of 
paisti alone that constitutes a mahapataka, that all intoxicants 
are forbidden to brahmanas but liquors other than paisti such 
as those prepared from molasses or madhuka flowers are not 
forbidden to ksatriyas and vaisyas. In the Mahabharata 
( Udyogaparva 59. 5 ) both Vasudeva and Arjuna are described 
as intoxicated by drinking the liquor prepared from honey and 

1897. «nfr $m «TfrT« I ift. II. 25 5 *$ *rar*rfl«* I sm. *t. % 1. 5. 17.21. 

1898. gn ^ HSHWi^t ircm ^ whs*^ ' nwn *iiiiukm*4i 5$w n 
?stf ft^J " ArfV "tei "% *fr«Ci ^ f^ir ftrt^n - *$tt i itoi frat *r*f «r tw^tt 
da?^. u H3 XI. 93-94. Both are quoted in snmffai pp. 209-210 ; wg 
XI. 93 i» ra*rfhr 9. 279 and ngXI. 94 is the same as ftn^22.82 and tf*$ 
117. wJ^HHHT explains JTn>^t in three ways ' Ulk4) CT*HIUf$3nt fcr%3C , 

*njjB5«5r<»r *g*n it $a t *t*tt \ 

796 History of Dharmaiastra [ Ch. XXlt 

the Tantravfirtika tries 18 ' 9 to establish that there was nothing 
wrong in this as they were ksatriyas and as Manu XI. 93-94 
and Gaut. II. 25 are to be construed as stated above viz. all 
intoxicants are forbidden to brahmanas and only paistl to 
ksatriyas and vaisyas. Intoxicants are not forbidden to sudras, 
though Vrddha-Harfta ( IX. 277-278) declares that some desire 
that good sudras should abstain from sura also and that Manu 
says that even a sudra becomes patita by falsehood, by partak- 
ing of meat and intoxicants and by stealing another's wealth 
or wife. Another rule was that brahmacSrins, of whatever 
varna, had to abstain entirely from every kind of intoxicant 
( Ap. Dh. 8. I. 1. 2. 23, Manu II. 177, Yaj. I. 33 ). Visvarupa 
on Yftj. I. 33 refers to a passage from the Caraka-sakha which 
states that when Svetaketu suffered from a skin disease ( kilfisa ), 
the AsvinB told him to take madhu ( honey or wine ) and meat 
as medicine, and when he asked how being a brahmacSrin he 
oould do so, they replied that a person must first save himself 
( from disease and death ) in all ways" 00 as a man can say ' I 
shall perform meritorious acts ' only if he lives. AparSrka quotes 
the Brahmapur&na and says that in the Kali age human sacrifice, 
Asvamedha sacrifice and intoxicating drinks were forbidden to 
the three varnas and to brahmanas in all yugas ( ages ). But 
this is opposed to history and tradition.' 901 The Mahabharata 
narrates ( Adiparva 76-77 ) the story of Sukra, his daughter 
Devay&nl and pupil Eaca and states that Sukra forbade for the 
first time brahmanas from drinking intoxicants and decla- 
red that, if any brahmana drank sura thenceforward, he 
would be guilty of the grave sin of brahmana-murder. 190 ' The 

«r ft»nmmm»q «hrfSrarrit siffto: i grr %— erf ftif? ?# i wg^TWRg wfitv- 
« y iw?^iffwff«>aH ' iFtnnffe; pp- 209-210. ?tft»rT$59. 5 is , sn#...sfrcn>Tr 

iforft?i ft«TOB on in. I. 33. 

1901. m} f*wt WTgror: i ft«n«Q q yHi«m»l $nj&inqmfl wmpfor *^J 

wtofflFT(*?t g WHT*t < <n wjJ!iH iJ iH i *rrf*?WT *ro ^ wot **$ 

Ji-nifaf*fc i surosi? p. 63. 

*1WT ^ W Wisft3«i& nfifo: WT<W* "« « wri^T* 76. 67 - H*ws««r 25 - 62- 

Ch. XXII ] Bhojanardrinking liquor 797 

Mausalaparva ( 1. 29-30 ) states that BalarSma prohibited the 
drinking of sura from the day the musala ( iron pestle ) for the 
destruction of the Yadavas was produced and directed that any 
breach of his order would be punished with impalement. The 
Santiparva ( 110. 22 ) declares that those men who always avoid 
honey and meat and intoxicants from their birth surmount all 
difficulties. Santiparva ( 34. 20 ) prescribes that, if a man 
drank liquor when in danger of life or through ignoranoe, he 
was to undergo uparayana again. Ace. to Visnu Dh. 8. 22. 
83-85 m3 intoxicants (madya) forbidden to brahmanas are of ten 
kinds viz. those prepared from madhuka flowers, from sugarcane 
juice, from fanka fruit (i. e. kapittha), from koli ( i. e. badara 
or jujube fruit ), from dates, from jack-fruit, from grape juioe, 
from honey, from maireya ( extracted from the blossoms of a 
plant ) and from cocoa-nut sap. Visnu ad ds that these ten kinds 
are not forbidden to ksatriyas and vaisyas. Fulastya quoted 
by the Mit. on Yaj. III. 253 and by Apararka p. 1075 states that 
sura ( distilled from rice flour) is different from the eleven 
kinds of madyas that he enumerates (practically the same 
as in Visnu). It may be stated that this sentiment against 
drinking is still very strong among brahmanas and drinking is 
still looked down upon by all castes, though, owing to contact 
with the West, some peop le ( even including a few brahmanas ) 
have come to regard it as a fashionable indulgence. 

Manu IX. 80 and Taj. I. 73 say that a wife who drinks 
liquor is to be abandoned (even if she be a sudra woman married 
to a brahmana ). The Mit. on Yaj. I. 73 quotes a text ( of 
Parasara X. 26 and Vas. Dh. S. 21. 15 ) that half of the body of 
him whose wife drinks sura is guilty of grave sin 1 ' 04 ( on Yaj, 
III. 256 it is asoribed to Manu ). Vas. Dh. S. ( 21. 11 ) says that 
a brahmana wife who drinks sura is not allowed by the gods 
to reach the world of her husband ( after death ) and that she 

1903. *Tn£5w*r»r arry 3?Hj wratrTTT^' ' <infr*Hflnn<ft<fe w *rrfi$w5 - 

ft«gr*r»fe?r 22. 83-84. These are quoted by smr£ V- 326 > where the 
reading is argffai »nm«ft<)S - wm*ff p. 1070 quotes these as f*%«g 
( reading & jtth wr^» ), S55*r ha* two viz. ifo and wrfts ( prepared 
from arista, a kind of berry ) in place of arj- 

1904. «mr«n& si^tapr l*f ttt? ijtf fJfor, i •rfihmliST'flw P*«rfi^ 
fWhA « *fos 21. 15 and <nr$r* 2. 26, quoted by ft«TOT as *qw»a* on *»r. 
III. 250 (trfitBttf T m etc ). 

798 History of Dharmaiastra t Ch. XXII 

wanders in this world as a leech in water or as an oyster. 1 * * 
Yaj. III. 256 says the same and adds that such a wife becomes 
in her subsequent lives a bitch, a vulture or a pig in this 
world itself. 

Visvarupa ( on Yaj. I. 140 ) quotes a text that a vendor of 
liquors is to have a flagstaff at his shop to indicate that it is a 
liquor shop, that his shop was to be in the midst of the village 
and that he was not to sell sura to the antyajas except in times 
of distress ( i. e. in diseases &c. ). 1906 

Megasthenes ( p. 69 ) and Strabo ( XV. 1. 53 ) note that 
Indians did not drink wine except at sacrifices ( in the 4th 
century B. C. ). Gautama 23. 1, Maim XI. 90-91, Yaj. III. 253 
prescribe that if a person knowingly and frequently drinks 
sura i. e. pais^I, he can be purified only by death due to the 
pouring in his mouth of boiling sura or water or ghee or cow's 
urine or milk. Yaj. III. 254 prescribes another prayascitta 
( expiation ) also. Vas. Dh. S. 20. 19, Manu XL 146 and Yaj. 
III. 255 prescribe that if any one of the three varnas drinks 
sura through ignorance he becomes pure by undergoing the 
penance of Krcohra and by having his upanayana performed 
again. AparSrka ( p. 1070 ) quotes a smrti of Kumara that a 
child up to five years has to perform no penance for drinking 
any intoxicant, that after five but before upanayana the child's 
parents or other relative or friend has to undergo it viz. three 
krcchras. 1907 

Manu (VII. 47-52) enumerates in the case of kings ten 
vices springing from love of pleasure and eight vices produced 
by wrath and then states that among vices due to love of 
pleasure drinking, dice, women and hunting are the worst and 
that drinking is the most pernicious of all the vices of kings. 
Kautilya VIII. 3 agrees with this. Gaufc. XII. 38 and Yaj. II. 47 
declare that though sons and grandsons are bound to repay 
their ancestors' debt as a pious duty, they are not bound to pay 

1905. in wwft <* smft * at fn q-ffcrfaf «re*m&T m <9wr vtw 
S"nnrg g»*refa I *GtZ 21.11. The words «rr «rr8rou...*Pif3jr occur 
in the *rf pxm ( vol. II. p. 99 on in. III. 2. 8 ). 

1906. m* «* §*rh%ffr3 *nr*n vm <* *h%?r, i «t ^tFarwrft^r: etf 

*mV!T<rf$ II quoted by f?«^q- on *IT. I. 140. 

1907. Mg?«^^^rFfT^^n^^^iH^i5*?nN'5^f»«iHr»WTaw 
flat ii arrs^rw^ in 3mr$ p. 1069 ; *nrq?rs?f<Trort *rv*r «m% «ir«jT i a/tatw 
"nunnfjiS ftift: sijtf: a $*Tt quoted by sm<P& p. 1070. 

Ch. XXII] Bhojana 799 

debts incurred for liquors, gambling &c. Among the articles 
that a brahmana is forbidden to sell even when he is forced to 
take to trade as a means of livelihood is liquor ( Manu X. 89 
and Yaj. III. 37 ). 

To return to the subject of bhojana. After finishing one's 
midday meal, a person was to chew tambula or mukhavasa ( des- 
cribed above p. 734) and it appears that in ancient times persons 
smoked also certain preparations made with fragrant herbs and 
medicaments ( and not tobacco which was then unknown ). For 
example, BSna describes in the Kadambarl ( para 15 ) that king 
Sndraka after his mid-day meal took in the smoke of fragrant drugs 
and then chewed tambula" 08 In the Caraka-samhita, sutra- 
sthana chap. 5, there is a description how a reed was to be smeared 
with pastes of sandalwood, nutmeg, cardamom and several 
other drugs and spices, how it was to be eight angulas long and 
as thick as one's thumb, how it was to be dried and the reed 
removed and then the dried portion was to be smoked. Vide 
Indian Antiquary vol. 40 pp. 37-40 for detailed information. 

The Visnupurana III. 11. 94 remarks that after taking the 
mid-day meal one may do acts that would not cause exertion to 
the body. Daksa ( II. 68-69 ) says that after" 09 taking dinner 
one should sit at ease and allow the food to be digested and 
should read and listen to itihasa and puranas in the 6th and 7th 
parts of the day, and in the 8th part of the day the householder 
should look into his private worldly affairs and then perform 
the evening adoration ( sandhya ) outside the house. That the 
higher and middle classes of society attended in the afternoon 
the recitation of the Mahabharata ( the itihasa par excellence ) 
and the puranas in the 7th century follows from Bana's state- 
ment in the Kadambarl ( para 54 ) that even queen VilasavatI on 
hearing from the Mahabharata that the sonless do not reach 
heaven (which was recited in the temple of Mahakala at 
Ujjayinl) became' 110 extremely dejected and the fact that Bana 

1908. ■r fitfto 'ffTiffrei' fa ' Jig^ ? 5f ifrar^f: &o. i etn^rfr para 15. 

1909. gswTsj ma« r w nr er?w "rftrurfcr, i yrarranmi& <re*TH»wft 
T^ I ared 5*tai*rreT 3 *ft>: tfff r TO: ST: II iptr II. 68-69, quoted by aumfc 
p. 157, *si$*. I. p. 225, w. *. 386. 

1910. snr 3 ^rg^fh% w«m*^ H8i*i»wra5f»^"T iwrt snj UQitmt) *r«r 
nr* «<T»T5rariort fa® «r «Y%r mm: gvn gwnwfr *mn% *nw ?i$ s* ffit 1 
^np^ft ( tfvnn para 54). Vide anf^rf 120. 15-18 where « * *& gfof. 
*T»*ftfa » occurs. 

800 History cf Dharmaiastra [ Oh. XXII 

is said in the Harsacarita ( III ) to have listened after the midday 
meal to the recitation of the VayupurSna by the reader Sudrstf* 
Ysj. (1. 113-114) directs that the rest of the day (till evening) 
should be spent in the company of sistas (learned and respecta- 
ble people ) and of dear relatives and then having performed 
the evening prayer and offered oblations into the three sacred 
fires ( if he has kept the three Vedio fires ) or into grhya fire, the 
householder should feed guests if they oome at night, then he 
should take his evening meal surrounded by (his children) 
and servants, should not eat too much in the evening and then 
go to sleep. Daksa ( II. 70-71 ) says that after evening he should 
perform homa, then take his meal, do other household work, 
then repeat some part of his Veda and sleep for two watches 
(six hours) and he should devote some time in the first and 
last watohes of the night to reciting the Veda already learnt. 

Numerous rules are laid down in the smrtis and digests 
about sleeping, viz. as to the position of the head, what kind of- 
bed to use, where to sleep and what texts to recite and so on 
Vide Gaut. II. 13 and IX 60, Manu IV. 57, 175-176, Yaj. 1. 136, 
VisnupurSna III. 11. 107-109 for some of these rules. Among 
the earliest works to give elaborate rules is the Visnu Dh. S. 
chap. 70, which is set out here. 'One should not sleep when 
one's feet are wet with water, nor should one have his head 
towards the north and west or lower ( than the other parts of 
the body ), nor should one sleep naked nor below a beam along 
its length nor in an uncovered place nor on a bed-stead of a 
pal&sa tree nor on one made of five kinds' 911 of wood nor on one 
made of trees split by an elephant nor on one made of wood 
burnt by lightning, nor on a broken bed-stead nor on one 
which is scorched, nor on a bed of trees watered with jars, nor 
in cemeteries nor in an unoccupied houBe, nor in a temple, nor 
in the midst of rash (or mischievous) persons, nor in the midst 
of women, nor above grain, nor in a stable of cows nor on the 
bed-stead of elderly persons nor over a fire or over an idol, nor 
before washing his hands or lips after meals, nor should one 
sleep by day nor in the twilight nor on ashes, nor on an unclean 
spot, nor on a wet spot nor on the top of a mountain/ Vide 

1911. The *pfig. (nt. p. 457 ) says 'ir* ?T*aft :jfwrer5WTOW3j*5- 
W»m'. Tho^f. *. P- 397 remarks Hf* *rn$^l-<Ti!nr£jT *r»* isnrmiwa 

j(i §tJr I '. These seem to be verses in the Giti metre. 

Oh. XXII] Sleep 801 

Smrtyarthasara p. 70, Or. R. pp. 397-399, Smrtimuktftphala 
(fthnika pp. 456-458), Ahnika-prakaSa pp. 556-558 for further 
details. Some of them may he noted. One should bow to one's 
favourite deity and keep a bamboo staff near one's bed— says 
the Smrtyarthasara. The Smrtiratna says that one should not 
sleep on the same bed with a person suffering from an eye dis- 
ease or with one who is an epileptio or with one suffering from 
fever, leprosy, tuberculosis, asthma and hiccough. The Ratn&vali 
(quoted in Sm. M. fthnika p. 457) requires that one should 
place a jar full of water at the head of the bed-stead, reoite 
Vedio mantras for one's protection and mantras against poison 
and also the hymn to Night ( Rg. X. 127 ), remember the five 
ancient personages well-known as sound sleepers, 1 ' 18 viz. Agasti, 
Madhava, Mucakunda, Kapila and AstTka, salute Visnu and 
then go to sleep. Harlta (prose) quoted in Ahnikaprakasa p. 557 
oontains similar rules. Vrddha-Hftrlta (VIII. 309-310) says that 
an ascetic, a brahmaoarl, a forest hermit and a widow should 
not sleep on a cot but on the ground covered over with a deer- 
skin or a blanket or with kusas. 

In connection with the subject of going to bed at night, a 
good deal is stated in the smrtis and digests about sexual inter- 
course between husband and wife. Some of these rules ( viz. 
about the proper days for intercourse ) have already been stated 
above(pp. 204-205). Gaut. V.l-2 and IX. 28-29, Ap.Dh. S. II. 1. 1. 
16-23 lay down that a householder is to approach his wife on the 
proper days or he may do so at any time exoept on forbidden days 
or when the wife desires it; he is not to have intercourse during 
day-time or when the wife is ill, nor when she is in her courses 
nor should he embrace her during that period. Ap. Dh. S. 
II. 1. 1. 19, Vas. 191 * Dh. S. XII. 24 and Yftj. L 81 refer to the boon 
conferred on women by Indra according to a legend narrated 
in the Tai. S. II. 5. 1. When Indra killed Visvariipa, son of 
Tvastr, he incurred the sin of br&hmana murder ; all beings 
loudly condemned him as ' brahmahan ', and he went about the 
universe in searoh of sharers in his sin, of which one third was 

1912. uwm^iH i *i*i(f 4 iiyl$**l 3 fSrrmrr^ f^ttnr a 1 *fqpiiini3'$»* 
wt w*i **Wfc# « *rfifa* "flt+yw st»!«i 3«5m%*: 1 sw**<nu««(«i ft»^ 
*r*rrfi»w w^ftn^ « B4H»nP)«ft ft nrPT&sT iftmt 1 surfSrafw^* s^gp^ 
tTgrwft: 1 *sfawt gPUi*fli*» <rwt Hwsrrftrr: » *yRjj. ( wrisTS P> 457 )• 

1913. stft^OTs^rq^iTOhttftm «?t fl)'«H» < 4«i u Ui <n$h^r: w? srfircfaft 
j frjnfiWq-'fl «* ffi* 1 *Rte XII. 24. 

a. d. 101 

802 History of DharmaiOatra [ Oh. XXII 

taken by the earth (whioh secured the boon that when a pit Is 
dug it becomes filled up in a year), one-third by trees (that got 
the boon that even when pruned they would grow again and the 
exudation from trees is the part of brahmahatya that comes out 
of trees and the red resins exuded are therefore not to be eaten ) 
and one third by women, who got the boon that they would 
conceive only during their period ( of sixteen days ) after the 
recurring occurrence of menses and that they might indulge in 
intercourse till the time of delivery and in the case of whom 
the murder is manifested every month.' 914 Visnu Dh. S. chap. 69 
puts all rules together, some of which are : A householder must 
avoid sexual intercourse after having been invited at a sraddha 
or having partaken of dinner at it or after having given a 
a sraddha dinner or after performing the initiatory ceremony 
of soma sacrifice; he must not have intercourse in a temple, in 
a cemetery, in an empty house or at the root of a tree, in the 
day time'*" or at twilight, or with a woman older than himself 
or with a pregnant woman or with one who has a limb too 
much or is deficient in a limb. Vide Visnupurana III. 11. 
110-123 for similar rules on the same topic. Most of the rules 
are eugenic or based on hygiene, though a few may be held 
to be only religious or superstitious. Gaut. IX. 26, Ap. Dh. S. 
II. 1. 1. 21-23 and II. 1. 2. 1, Manu IV. 4 and V. 144 say that 
after intercourse the husband and wife should take a bath or at 
least wash, sip water and sprinkle water over the body and 
should sleep on separate beds. Other writers stated different 
views." 16 


From the times of the Tai. S. rules have been laid down 
about the duties of a rajasvala (a woman in her monthly 
illness) and about how her husband and other people are to act 

1914. h sfrfemrgirrtffcra-w^ wbt??v$ gcffcf qftt'uflafl i at am^ 
tri $"TTflST irft'prT'Snrt rVtn«? «hi*<*u ft^rrsrat: ^vraTHf^ i twi'Sffi^m^ fatx 

«rr awc^&o- ■ % tf- H. 5. 1. 4-5. 

1915. nr>r *r «& M***^f^n ^r f^t wrr *i^-m*ft wgnPTOi frenrncr htt 
j i jfri<i » ft i s uHmPhh 1. 13. 

1916. sfp# 5 nifa^frTt f*tf 3gt*ro syn* i a^ft g HfT &q f ralN 
ti y iitQ ' wt it nft«mi-Jt wm\ qwitfr wnf im i twmjfftnrr wrfi - gf%j 
WtTOTOt 5»n»l II 8^^52-53 and «m 16-17; jworibed to yjffTTTOq in 
smro* p. 105, m . k. p. 400 and to cntnwr in itffat I. p. 120. 

Ch. XXII ] Rules about Rajasvalci 803 

towards her. In the Tai. S. II. 5. 1. it is stated" 17 'One should 
not address a woman who has unolean clothes ( i. e. who is in 
her course) nor should one sit with her, one should not eat 
her food for she keeps emitting the oolour of brahmana murder; 
they say woman's food is unguent, therefore one should not 
accept unguent from her ; but anything else at will may be 
accepted*. The Tai. Br. III. 7. 1 states * Indeed half of this 
sacrifice is destroyed in the case of him whose wife beoomes un- 
touchable on the day on which the observances for a sacrifice 
commence (i. e. on the day previous to the performance); but 
the sacrificer should segregate her (in a different place or house) 
and offer the saorifice; by so doing he worships with a sacrifice 
that is entire (though the wife is absent).' 1918 The adbikarana 
in Jaimini ( III. 4. 18-19) is based on these texts; Sahara's 
bhasya quotes the passage of the Tai. S. and of the Tai. Br. and 
the conclusion established is that these rules, though occurring 
in the context of the new moon and full moon sacrifices, are 
not restricted to those sacrifices, but are to be observed by per- 
sons generally ( i. e. they are purugartha and not kratvartlia ). 
The Tai. S. II. 5. 1 contains thirteen directions about a rajasvala 
and declares what evil results follow from breaches of them. 
They are: there is to be no intercourse with her, nor in a forest 
( after she bathes ), nor when she is unwilling ( after bath ), she 
should not bathe during the three days, should not bathe with 
oil in those days, should not arrange her hair with a comb, 
should not apply collyrium to her eyes, should not brush her 
teeth, should not pare her nails, should not spin yarn, should 
not make ropes, should not drink water with a vessel made of 
palasa leaves or a vessel that is baked in fire (or is broken). 
The results of the breaches are respectively that the son ( born 
of her ) beoomes suspected or charged with grave sins, a thief, 
shy and not bold, destined to die in water, has a skin disease, 

1917. m m*s mr sw^i HWMri<m«m * ff^: ' * awfta • mvn 
smmrvs. > wginwfl «frrr <*$ ufSg^vreteur isrewrf s < »*iw«t wvt ffc«n awn* i 
3**l , aprifa T sfitatf wrn w wnt i $• tf. II.5.1.5-6. 6abara on Jaimini III. 4.19 
says that the words mw\ awnn^ SWOT* *TW fifJT art* really enjoin the 
prohibition of approaching her for intercourse and the Tantravartika 
(p. 952) offers the interesting information that among the Lstas 
'abbyanjana ' is a synonym for ' sexual intercourse' HOT fa WWHIWIT- 

1918. *«if«n«rflFi , 'J*rfir*fhi& w? stfel n«w4«u»Hi*T *r*nH errs- 
<nn trita i **$* *rifr W i &. «n. III. 7. 1. The fiwio ontrr. HI. 46 
quotes this. 

804 History of Dharmaiastra [ Oh. XXII 

has a bald head and is feeble, is squint-eyed, has dark teeth, 
has bad nails, is impotent, is unrestrained ( or commits suicide 
by hanging), becomes a lunatic, or a dwarf. The Tai. S. further 
directs that she should observe these rules for three nights, 
should drink water with her hands joined together or with a 
plate that is not baked in fire. The Br. Up. VI. 4. 13 notes that a 
married woman in her courses should drink water from a vessel of 
bronze and should not wash her olothes, a sudra male or female 
should not touoh her; on the lapse of three nights she should 
bathe and she should be made to unhusk rice. Many of the 
sutras refer to the rules contained in the Tai. S. about the rajasvalcL 
( vide Ap. gr. 8. 12, ,m Hir. gr. I. 24. 7, Bhar. gr. I. 20, Baud, 
gr. 1. 7. 22-36, Baud. Dh. S. I. 5. 139 ). Vas. Dh. S. V. 7-9 con- 
tains the story of Indra and the boon given to women and also 
the rules about rajasvala ( adding that she should sleep on the 
ground, should not sleep by day, should not eat flesh, should 
not look at the planets, should not laugh ). When Vas. Dh. 8. 
V. 8. and Visnu Dh. 8. 51. 16 forbid the eating of the food of a 
rajasvala, what is meant is ( according to the Gr. R. and other 
digests) that the food cooked for her or owned by her should not 
be eaten. Laghu-H&rlta 38 prescribes that a rajasvala may eat 
food from her own hand used as a plate ; Vrddha-Harlta ( XI. 
210-11 ) says the same and adds that if she be a widow, then 
she should not take food for three days and that one whose 
husband is living Bhould have only one meal a day. Rajasvala 
women were also not to touoh one another. Visnu Dh. S. (22. 
73-74) prescribes that if a rajasvala touches another rajasvala 
of lower varna she should observe a fast from that time till 
the fourth day when she takes the purificatory bath ; while if 
she touohes another rajasvala woman of the same varna or 
higher varna, she has to bathe and then take her food. More 
elaborate rules are laid down by Angiras 48 ( who prescribes 
paficagavya), Atri 279-283, Ap. (verse) VII. 20-22, Brhad-Yama 
IIL 64-68, Paraaara VII. 11-15. If a rajasvala is touched by 
a oandala or by any of the antyajas, or by a dog or crow, she 
has to be without food till she bathes on the 4th day ( Angiras 
47, Atri 277-279, Apastamba VII. 5-8). If a woman is suffer- 
ing from fever and becomes a rajasvala she is not to be bathed 

1919. mrr *wrcrrcro r^ir^rt « i ai»mflft4 rft ejwft&r tf«m% *rt 
HcHammfrfrufl I wpr. ?. % 8. 12. The whole of Vat. Dh. S. V. 7-$ is 
quoted in ^pr. *• PP- 406-407 and Vas. Dh. 8. V. 1 is quoted by film- on 
<n. Ill 80 and smwf p- 105. 

Oh. XXII 1 Rules about Raj asvala 805 

on the 4th day to purify her ; her purification is to be effe oted 
by another healthy woman, who touches her and then herself 
bathes with her clothes on and this is done te n or twelve times 
and eaoh time there is sipping of water ; then the woman who 
is ill has her clothes removed and new ones put on and then 
gifts are made according to ability and she becomes pure 
( Usanas quoted in Mit. on Yaj. III. 20 ). Similar verses occur in 
Ahgiras 22-23. The same prooedure is followed where a male 
who is ill is touohed by a rajasvala or for some other cause he has 
to undergo the purification of a bath, viz. a healthy male touches 
him seven or ten times and bathes after eaoh touch, at the end 
of which the sickly person is to be declared to b e free from the 
impurity ( Angiras 21, ParSsara VII. 19-20 quot ed in Mit. on 
Yaj. III. 20 ). If a rajasvala dies, then the corpse should be 
bathed with the five products of the cow ( pa ficagavya ), she 
should be covered with another garment and then should be 
oremated (a verse quoted by the Mit. on Yaj. III. 20), while 
Angiras (42) said that the oorpse should be bathed after three 
days and then it should be oremated. The Mit- on Yaj. III. 20 
notes that, if a woman who usually has monthly periods, men- 
struates within seventeen days, then she has no impurity; if on 
the 18th, she becomes clean in one day, if on the 19th in two 
days and thereafter in three days. Vide Angiras 43, Apastamba 
(verse) VII. 2, Parasara VII. 16-17. 

So far we have desoribed the daily duties of common men, 
particularly of brahtnanas. Manu VII. 145-147, 151-154, 
216-226, Yaj. L 327-333 and Kant. L 19 dilate upon the daily 
duties of the king. Kaut. divides day and night into eight 
parts eaoh and states that in the first part of the day the king 
should take measures for his protection and attend to income 
and expenditure, in the second he should look into the causes 
(or disputes) of the people of the oities and villages, in the 
third he should bathe, study or recite the Veda and take his 
meals, in the fourth he should receive revenue in gold and 
appoint (or examine) superintendents; in the fifth he should 
correspond with the council of ministers, and receive the secret 
news brought by his spies; in the sixth he may engage in what- 
ever amusements or sports he likes or in deliberation ( on state 
matters); in the seventh he should review elephants, horses, 
chariots and soldiers ; in the eighth he should oonsider with the 
help of his commander-in-chief plans of campaigns. When the 
day ends he should observe the evening prayer; in the first part 

806 History of Dharmaiastra [Ch. XXII 

of the night, he should see secret emissaries, in the second part 
of the night ho may bathe, revise his studies and take supper; in 
the third he should lie down after the burst of trumpets and 
sleep in the fourth and fifth ; in the 6th he should be awakened 
by the sound of trumpets, he should bring to his mind the 
dictates of sasfcra and the mode of oarrying them out; in the 
seventh he should deliberate and send out secret emissaries ; in 
the eighth he should receive, being aooompanied by his sacrifi- 
cial priests, Scarya and puroMta, benedictions and should see his 
physician, chief oook and astrologer and having circumambu- 
lated a cow with her oalf and a bull he should go to court. Or 
the king may divide the parts of day time and night time 
according to his capacity. Other smrtikaras differed here and 
there. KatySyana prescribed" 20 that the king should devote the 
three parts of the daytime ( divided into eight ) after the first 
part to judioial work and if he cannot personally do it, he 
should appoint a judge. Yaj. (1. 327-333) mostly follows (though 
concisely ) the routine sketohed by Kau^. The Manusmrti also 
hardly adds anything of importance to what we find in K&\i\. 
It is remarkable that in the Dasakumara-carita (ucchvasa VIII) 
the author closely following the words of Kautilya as to the 
engagements of the king during the eight parts of daytime 
and of night also puts in the mouth of the voluptuous jester 
Viharabhadra a parody of Kautilya's solemn dicta." 81 

As to the ahnika of vaisyas and sudras no special rules 
are laid down in the smrtis. They had to adjust the duties set 
out for brahmanas to their own case according to their 
circumstances. A vaisya belonged to the twice-born classes 
and he could do if he ohose almost every thing that a brahmana 
oould ( except officiating as a priest or teaching as a profession 
or receiving gifts). Vide pp. 154-164 for the disabilities and 
the few privileges of the sudra. 

1920. Vide note 1510 above. 

1921. e. g. qrffcjfct -9 *i?rr y rf&r u Hi wa afc sfonfeft ir*m$v*t 

wrmrarwhnnc *w*nr«™* ** aftaf* i gtffa wrg *rr* * ew* i...^rif 

flroifthnrra vt& «wrw%wrr%»fil i yrywrwfta VIII. 



Upakarma or Upakaram means ' opening, starting or begin- 
ning* (upakrama as the Mit. on Yaj. 1, 142 says) and Utsarjana 
orUtsarga(in Asv. gr. III. 5. 13) means 'the cessation of 
Vedio studies for a certain period in the year. * Ap. gr. VIII. 1 
and Ap. Db, S. I. 3. 11. 2 employ the word ' samapana* for 
utsarjana. In former times these two rites were performed on 
different dates and in different months, but with the decline of 
vedio studies in medieval times they came to be performed one 
after another on the same day. In several sfttras the first of 
these two is spoken of as adhySyopakarapa (as in Asv. gr. Ill- 
5. 1.) or adhyayopakarma (in Par. gr. II. 10, Vas. Dh. S. 13. 1). 
In this case adhyaya means * study of the Veda' or it may mean 
Veda itself because it is studied ( pre-eminently ). Therefore the 
rite which signalises the opening of the session for Vedio Btudy 
in the year is itself oalled upakarma."" In Gaut. 16. 1 the 
rite of upakarma is called var^ika either because it took place 
in varsa (the rainy season ) or because it took place once a year 
(from ' varsa, a year). The Asv. gr. III. 5. 19 also states that 
this rite is oalled varsika. 

The time for upakarma is variously stated in the sfitras. 
The Asv. gr. III. 5. 2-3 states 'when the herbs appear, 
when the moon is in conjunction with the constellation 
of Sravana, in the month of Sravana or on the 5th i(tithi) 
of Sravana when the moon is in the Ha sta naksatra. I he 

1922. j.wnMi^^m'i attw> ^ «^r tr^if iTravm 
*mi«r on «t*i. *• in. 5. l ; ' nTfarft stwwttt ^-Tigrnfrt wx*m\ 

■TVIhrtHTf'Tft'ifclT- 011 '"- 1 - 142 - __!_->_ _ „ TTT 

1923. sfrrtfot grgwfe mSur mrnv* i tapyt g^ftr tt i aow. g. ui. 
5.1-2; MTT.fmt^Tri^m&R «t^ «iVm*vt «t^< ggJrr^ 
^. ,. II. 10; ^r^5#«miTnrTgtrr^ • W?rfr3 *i mtfr z. mj. 
14-15; «Mi ?^TO^ ' ...wroiilw ^ng^wr qti^i^i rf i «BT^ 'tf i 
.jtf^ 111. 3. 1 and 13 ; 3WT3: W«7PTt?rem *m°7t qWwrtVt STtSTOtWT I 

,fite 13. l ; BTO»»3*nwf i wr<t"Tt irWW feftarft m xmfiTK ' «ft *. 
ill 1.1-2; m^"w*s9i<r%3miiBrBlw'n ,,, *n^ «mrfrrww i W"t- * 

II. 18. 2. 

808 History of DharmaiSstra [ Ch. XXIII 

Par. gr. XL 10 says 'when the herbs appear, when the moon is 
in conjunction with Havana on the full moon day in the month 
of Havana or on the fifth of the month of Sravana when the 
moon is in Hasta. ' Gaut. 16. 1 and Vas. Dh. S. 13. 1 require 
that it should be performed on the full moon day of SrSvana or 
Bhadrapada. The Khadira gr. (III. 2. 14-15) and Gobhila 
III. 3. 1 and 13 ordain that Upakarma should be performed on 
the full moon day of Bhadrapada or under the constellation of 
Hasta in that month or aooording to some on the full moon day 
of 3r&vana. The Baud. gr. III. 1. 2 prescribes that Upakarma 
may be done on the full moon day of Sravana or Asadha. The 
Hir. gr. (II. 18. 2, S. B. E. vol. 30 p. 241 ) says ' during the 
fortnight (at the end of whioh) the full moon of Sravana ocours, 
when the herbs have sprouted forth, the oeremony for the open- 
ing of the annual Veda study ( should be performed ) under the 
Hasta constellation or on the full moon day '. The Ap. Dh. S. 
1. 3. 9. 1 speaks only of the full moon day of Sravana as the time 
for the performance of the Upakarma rite. Manu. IV. 95 
prescribes the full moon of Sravana or Bhadrapada as the time 
for upakarma. Yaj. 1. 142 provides three times viz. on the full 
moon day of Sravana or on a day (in Sravana). when the-moon is 
in conjunction with the Sravana naksatra or on the 5th tithi of 
SrSvana if the moon is in conjunction with Hasta. The 
Kurmapurana ( UttarBrdha 14. 60-61 ) holds that Upakarma 
should be performed on the full moon day of either Sravana, 
Asadha or Bradrapada. In this rather bewildering variety 
of opinions commentators like the Mit. prescribed that one 
should follow one's grhyasutra." 8 * This means ( as stated by 
Medhatithi on Manu IV. 95 ) that the full moon of Bhadrapada 
being mentioned by Gobhila gr. and Khadira gr. Chandogas 
( students of the Samaveda ) should perform upakarma on that 
day ; but as Ap. Dh. S, speaks only of the full moon of Sravana, 
the followers of the Krana Yajurveda should perform upakarma 
only that day. When there is no rain and so no herbs appear 
in Sravana or when that day is inauspicious owing to an 
eolipse or the like, Upakarma may be performed on the full 
moon day of Bhadrapada by those whose grhya sutra allows 

1924. srsr WHUlnytti\ u i »«w#fil Hrerfn^onr* • inrri<? mwiRitt *w^ 
sift i ^jtyifijiil qiifamiH i irrrft afatfviuiuflqRieh <rrf9f ystat s fr- 

Oh. XXIII ] UpUkarma or upUkaram 809 

the option of two months or on the fifth of the bright half of 
SrSvana. But if both days of the full moon in the two months 
are inauspicious, then Upakarma should be performed on the 
full moon of Sravana. As the Baud. gr. refers to the full moon 
of AsSdha, the followers of the Black Yajurveda may perform 
upakarma on AsSdha full moon, if the full moon of SrSvana is 
not available. But the students of the Rgveda cannot do so, 
sinoe no sutra of the Rgveda speaks of Asadha as an optional 
month. Rgvedins have to prefer Sravana naksatra ( so that 
they may perform upakarma on the 14th or 15th of the bright 
half of SrSvana ) ; the followers of the Yajurveda ( Sukla ) must 
perform it on the full moon day of SrSvana when the moon is 
in Sravana naksatra, but if the moon is not so, then they have 
to prefer the full moon day. The students of the Taittirlya 
sakhS also have to follow this last course. The followers of the 
SSmaveda should prefer Hasta. Vide Sam. Fr. pp. 497-498, Sm. 
M. pp. 32-33, Nirn. pp. 114-120. Some interpreted Ysj. I. 142 
in such a way as to yield four times for upakarma, viz. the full 
moon of Sravana, the day in SrSvana on which the moon is in 
conjunction with Sravana naksatra ( this may sometimes be the 
14th tithi of the bright half ), or on the 15th of the bright half 
of SrSvana or on that day in SrSvana when the moon is in 
Hasta. Why so niuoh importance was attached to the month of 
SrSvana and to the constellation of Sravana as the season for 
starting Veda study is obscure. It is possible that that month 
was originally chosen as owing to showers of rain it is 
pleasantly cool, there is more leisure and staying inside the 
house in that month for brShmanas than in other months of the 
year and then Nature is at its best. The month of SrSvana 
being fixed upon, the best day therein would be the full moon 
( Soma in another sense being the king of brShmanas ). If any 
other day in Sravana was to be chosen then the day on which 
the moon was in Hasta would be the best, which would 
ordinarily be the 5th of the bright half ( of SrSvana ). As the 
PaurnamSsI of that month was called Sravanl owing to the 
moon's conjunction with the Sravana naksatra ( which conjunc- 
tion usually takes place on that day) the Sravana naksatra came 
to be associated with the starting of the annual session of Vedio 
studies. But that the Sravana naksatra by itself bad no direct 
connection with upakarma is clear from the fact that several 
sutras do not mention it at all. The Gobhila and Khadira gr. 
do not accept the full moon day of SrSvana ( but of Bhadrapada 
and the Hasta naksatra ) as the proper time for upakarma. 
H. d. 102 

810 History of Dharmaiastra [ Ch. XXIII 

Oldenberg in his note on Sail. gr. IV. 5. 2 ' when the herbs 
appear, under the naksatra Hasta or Sravana ' ( S. B. E. vol. 29, 
p. 112 ) remarks ' the naksatra Sravana is evidently considered 
as particularly fit for this occasion because of its name contain- 
ing an allusion to iruti '. But this conjecture has no plausibi- 
lity. Hardly any ancient writer makes the suggestion that 
Sravana and Sruti are brought together on account of the root 
' sru '. The presiding deity of Hasta is Savitr. Owing to the 
supreme importance given to the Gayatrl verse ( of which 
Savitr is the deity ) and to the faot that Veda study begins with 
the recitation of the Gayatrl, the naksatra Hasta would be 
closely connected with the starting of Veda study. As a matter 
of fact the San. gr. IV. 5. 2 mentions Hasta first and then 
Sravana ; the Hir. gr. does not name the Sravana naksatra 
at all, but names Hasta in this connection ; while the Jtsv. 
gr., Par. gr. and several others mention both Sravana and 

Upakarma is to be done in the morning. If for part of the 
day, the moon is in conjunction with Uttarasadha and then with 
Sravana that day is not to be chosen for upakarma, but the next 
day is to be chosen on which the moon is in conjunction with 
Sravana and Dhanistha. Later writers introduced further 
complications about the zodiacal sign ( raii ) in which the Sun 
would be at the time. Garga required that upakarma must be 
performed during the days when the Sun was in the sign of Leo 
by the followers of the Samaveda and by those who are to the 
north of the Narmada river. There is no upakarma in the 
intercalary month of Srftvana and Bhadrapada except for the 
followers of the Samaveda who must perform it in the inter- 
calary month. When upakarma is to be done for the first time 
after a boy's upanayana, the planets Jupiter and Venus must 
not be in the position of asta ( i. e. invisibility owing to their 
being too near the sun). 

Upakarma is to be done by brahmacarins, by householders 
and also by vanaprasthas ( forest hermits ). The teaoher does 
it in the company of his pupils whether they be brahmacSrins or 
not and performs the homa in his own grhya fire, as the Par. 
gr. IL 10 says. Karka the com. of Par. gr. states that if the 
acarya has no pupils then he has no adhikara ( right or eligibi- 
lity ) to perform the upakarma in the grhya fire, while Harihara 
says that the praotioe of performing up&karma in the ordinary 

Ch. XXIII 1 Upakarma or upakarana 8il 

domestic fire in the company of a Veda student is based on no 
authority, but is a mere usage." 85 

The procedure of upakarma is set out as follows 1 '" in the 
Asv. gr. (III. 5. 4-12 ) : 'having sacrificed the two ajyabhaga$ utr 
( portions of clarified butter), he should offer oblations of ajya to 
the following deities, viz. Savitrl, Brahma, Sraddha, MedhS, 
Prajfia, Dharana (memory), Sadasaspati, Anuraati, Chandases 
(metres) and Rsis (sages). Then he sacrifices saktu (barley 
flour ) mixed with curds to the accompaniment of the following 
mantras ; the one verse ' I praise Agni, the purohita ' ( Rg. I. 
1. 1), I,M and 'the Kusumbhaka has said it* (Rg. 1. 191. 16), 'O 
bird, when crying announce welfare to us' (Rg. 11.43.3), 
* Sung by Jamadagni ' ( Rg. III. 62. 18 ), ' In thy abode the whole 
world rests ' ( Rg. IV. 58. 11 ), ' you ( Maruts ) that deserve sacri- 
fice, come to our sacrifice ' ( Rg. V. 87. 9 ), ' whosoever whether 
ours or a stranger (Rg. VI. 75. 19), 'look towards us, look in 
various directions' (Rg. VII. 101. 25 ), ' Come here, O Agni, the 
friend of the Maruts' ( Rg. VIII. 103. 14), 'O king, the oblation 
that is cooked for thee ' ( Rg. IX. 114. 4 ), — each time two verses ; 
the one verse ' one is our intention' (Rg. X. 191. 4); the one 
verse ' we choose that blessing and boon. ' When he is about to 
study the Veda he should, while the pupils ( i. e. those who are 
to be taught the Veda ) join him ( lit. take hold of him ), sacrifice 

1925. H^sgtftrs: i b *rra*a 'OTffl^drimRcrcyT'TWi'f'Kc^r'T 3ff«n5 ■ 

<m- ^. II. 10 ; sraor t*ii|iii*A ^ wi srreore? a i ^ $^T?rt *m frti«w- 
ftkf : w? » c5«*t«*. 12. l ; f$ ^ njfBTTwriT'ni anws^sfti swwmift 
*nftiffiT f ft «lr: i fsroftr. p. 119; 3Kft wntprar ftxs: wrchrfa swrWHft 
*rrffo?rr: i *m tifo srgrertfW gwv<i avifrtf st^ ?ftifr*jiiiT awrsrri r??r«r 
*H0 p'nt • ffie:* on <m. 5- n. 10. 

1926. Vide Appendix for the text. 

1927. The HjyabhSgas have been explained at &s"v. gr, 1. 10. 13-15. 
Vide/, n. 483 above. 

1928. It will be noticed that the first and the last verses of eaoh of 
the ten mandates of the Rgvoda are repeated in making these oblations 
of barley mixed with curds. The verse ' taoobarayor-Kvrnlmahe ' is the 
last verse of the Bsskala recension of the Rgveda. Those who studied 
the Bffgkala tfskhs were to reoite this last verse instead of Rg. I. 191. 4, 
Both NSrSyana and Haradatta point this oat and the former remarks 

' frwwwrmrnwq *r«*tt*w«UTW ^**hr ^ *nm *rnrtdj*fiftre i '. The 
BKskalatlkhX contained 8 hymns more than the SskaUtakhS, 

812 History of DharmasUstra [ Ch. XXIII 

to those deities, 1 '" then offer an oblation to Agni Svistakrt and 
partake of the barley mixed with curds and then follows 
cleaning. mo Sitting down to the west of the fire on darbha 
grass, the ends of which are turned towards the east, he should 
dip darbha blades into a water pot, he ( the Scarya ) should join 
his hands in the brahmanjali mi form and then recite ( together 
with his pupils, if any ) the following : the three vyahrtis pre- 
ceded by om, these and the Savitrl verse ( $g. III. 62. 10 ) he 
should repeat thrice and then the beginning of the Rgveda 
( either one hymn or an anuvaka ). 

In the other grhya sutras there is a good deal of divergence 
as to the mantras, the deities and the materials offered as obla- 
tions. Par. gr. II. 10 says that the two ajya portions are offered 
and then oblations of ajya are to be made to the earth and fire 
if the Hgveda is to be studied, to the Airy region and to Vayu 
if the Yajurveda, to the Heaven and the Sun if the Samaveda, 
to the quarters and the moon if the Atharvaveda and oblations 
are also offered to Brahma, to the Chandases ( metres ) in all 
cases, and to Prajapati, to the gods, to the Rsis, to Sraddha, to 
Medha, to Sadasaspati, to Anumati. Then Par, gr. ( II. 10 ) 
proceeds "with the verse ' Sadaspatim ' (Vaj. S. 32. 13=Rg. 
I. 18. 6 ) the teacher three times sacrifices fried grains. All 
( pupils ) should repeat the verse after him. After each oblation 
they should each time put on the fire three pieces of udumbara 
wood that are fresh branches with leaves, anointed with ghee, 
reciting the Savitrl. And the pupils should put on samidhs in 
the manner stated above ( Par. gr. II. 4 ). With the verse ' Sam 
no bhavantu ' ( Vaj. S. 9. 16 ) they should gulp down the fried 
grains without chewing them under the teeth. With the verse 
' dadhikravno ' ( Vaj. S. 23. 32 ) they should eat ourds. What- 
ever number of pupils he wishes to obtain so many sesame 

1929. ' Those deities '■— NsrSyaua explains that these words refer 
to the deities (SSvitri and others) enumerated above and the 20 
deities of the 20 verses ( at the beginning and end of the ten mandalat 
of the IJgveda ). 

1930. ' Cleaning' (mSrjana) is explained in K&v. Sr. I. 8. 2. srttT- 
vw quotes ' iTf^rTo^«^JT*cwhrnT amtarfc wnnf'rtc » ( srw. wh 1. 8. 2 )- 
when be holds between his joined hands the kuda grass spread round the 
fire altar and has water sprinkled over himself, that is mSrjana. 

1931. * BrabmSnjali '-is denned by Mann II. 71 as tftrar ?$Tro$<f 
W ffr wjmfUSt fgro— ( i. e. joining the hands together, so that they look 
like a bud. ) 

Ch. XXIII ] Upakarma or upakarana 813 

grains should the acarya sacrifice by means of a dice board ma 
with the Savitrl or with the anuvaka ( Vaj. S. 17. 80-86 ). After 
they ( the pupils ) have eaten (the remainder) the teacher should 
pronounce the word om and then repeat the Savitri three times 
and the beginnings of the adhyayas to the students who are 
seated facing the east. All repeat " may it be ours in 
comm on ; may it bless us in common ; may this Brahman be 
powerful with us together. Indra knows that through which 
and in which no hatred may spring up among us. " 

The Ap. gr. ( VIII. 1-2 ) is very brief and states that at the 
opening and concluding rites of Vedic study that Rsi who is 
indicated as the Itsi of the Kanda ( section of the Tai. S. ) to be 
studied is the deity to whom the rite belongs and in the second 
place Sadasaspati is the deity. Sudarsanacarya explains 19Si 
these two sutras at great length. Briefly what he means is : the 
commencement ( upakarma ) of the study of the whole Veda 
(Black Yajurveda) is to be done on the full moon day of Sravana, 
tarpana is to be done for nine B-sis and nine oblations of ajya 
are to be offered to these nine, the ninth being offered with the 
verse ' sadasaspatim * ( $g. I. 18. 6 = Ap. M. P. I. 9. 8 ). But 
when a Kanda is to be begun that is another upakarma and a 
homa is to be performed in respect of it also. 

Gradually many accretions were made to the simple upa- 
karma rite given in the Asv. gr. and other grhya sutras. In 
modern times upakarma is a most elaborate matter. That of 
Bgvedins may be briefly described here : After acamana, 
pranayama and reference to time and place, a sahkalpa is made 

1932. grnmand?t%< explain 3nth«f*M*»>l as 'airfwftor v r g HT ^T 

wiforam '. 

1933. The erfa of nine B?is according to g^jfarerp? in the wnrpft- 
«ron?r would he qsmrft WCTTfSf enfant i wbt 9ii<»BsRf$ tPTirfa i arf5... 

TTphiyrVrft • iT^rrr^ren arftwsrwlvifil i *srr°f wrw* jpfrnft i w^H^ifS 

cTthttft I and the nine Shutis will be offered to these as >Mmrt< > asrogSR^ 

^(Tftiwt*rpi'— , wr?Ti3?a^ , ".?TreTift , '^«A %^*t: *ius3?fa«i: wi^ii STfifrfWr 
%a^rmr TupHifl,*' 2 * ,T * T ' *fri%«ift«fr—wren • *wftwft»t$*HT i wjpt w<ii£l 
WTfT • BfffWW ?WT5T I. MSTIufSr, *fr»r, wfir and f^?TT: are the principal 
^rr3 and the other four are subordinate; so in sffroznTrqTTO oblations 
are offered to the first four, then to the derats of the particular ksnda 
begun ( either wrnfrft or irrijrsjt or *rWr or argrt) and lastly to Sadasas- 
pati. In 3tmre°r, fra^WT^ takes the place of ftfg$3 according to 

814 History of DharmaiUstra \ Ch. XXtll 

as stated "** below, then follow worship of Ganapati, the prepa- 
ration of the altar and fire ( as described before for homa in 
general ) ; then nine Shutis of clarified butter are made to the 
nine deities Savitrl ( as in Asv. gr. above), then offerings of 
barley flour mixed with curds are made to twenty deities with 
the first IMI and last verses of each of the ten mandalas of the 
Rgveda viz. to Agni, Aptrnasurya (plural), Agni, Sakunta, 
Agni, Mitravaruna ( dual ), Agni, Apah (waters), Agni, Maruts, 
Agni, Visve Devas, Agni, Indrasoma(dual), Indra, Agnamarutah, 
PavamSnasoma, Pavamanasoma, Agni, SamjnSna. Then the 
remains of barley and curds are offered to Agni Svistakrfc. 
Then the persons engaged in upakarma should partake of 
the remains of barley mixed with curds after repeating the verse 
' dadhikrivno ' ( Rg. IV. 39. 6 ). Then acamana and marjana are 
performed, then homa of a yajnopavlta in fire, then giving of 
yajnopavlta and daksin&s to brahmapas and wearing new 
yajriopavlta oneself ( whioh consists in its abhimantrana with 
the three verses ' apo hi stha ' Rg. X 9. 1-3 and several mantras 
beginning with ' hiranyavarn&h ', Tai. S. V. 6. 1. 1-2 and Tai. 
Br. I. i. 8 ), after symbolical nyasa ( deposit ) of omkara, Agni, 
Nagas, Soma, Pitrs, Prajapati, Viyu, SQrya and Visve Devas on 
the nine tardus ( strands ) of the yajnopavlta, then japa of ten 
Gayatrl verses for each of the yajnopavitas intended to be worn, 
then presenting the yajnopavlta to the Sun with the three verses 
' udyan-nadya ' ( B>g. I. 50. 11-13 ), clapping the hands thrice, 
then repeating the mantra ' yajnopavltam paramam &c. ' 
( vide /. n. 662 above ) and then putting on the yajnopavlta, 
then acamana, casting away the old yajnopavlta in water, 
pranSyama, then repeating three verses ' prthvl tvaya &c.\ then 
repeating the words ' Vidyudasi vidya me papmanam-rtat- 
satyam-upaimi ' ( Tai. Br. III. 10. 9 ), then placing one's folded 
hands with darbha blades between on one's right knee, to repeat 

1934. srarwiCTTRt •4iifl«HWw«'i*iiun«Tt si u*4«i Tiflfi«nii*Kiilmcqi- 
«Wim •ftm*) t WlJ?wlHf^wfjW: ff fTOW*nPT W? Siftwf I . In modern <j??rafa 
there iB a similar H|f5T ( omitting ani &qai ut w t ) ' *fflr ?rptf $»^- 

1935. The method of offering these oblations is first to mention 
the sage, the deity and metre of the verse and then to state the 
purpose of its employment in the rite, then to repeat the whole verse 
preceded by om and followed by svShS and then to put the oblation on to 

fire, e.g. wfl&fi* Wffrwr JTjr*^ wnfrktrr « g iwrtfrwwqftftr^a vtft- 
«ftr» t aft stftrtfttt jftftti «rsjrc«r *Jiff?«»ai^i start wmww \ wt«t i «nnt %^ 

Ch. XXIII 1 Upakarma or upakarana 815 

and make others repeat ' om ', vyabrtis and Gayatrl thrice, then 
brahmayaj&a and then saying ' upakrfca vai vedah ' ( the study 
of the Vedas has been begun), then the Scary a finishes the rest of 
the rite such as prayasoitta, then all resolve to feed brahmanas 
and give daksina according to ability. The aoarya takes leave 
of the fire, bows to Visnu and sips water twioe. 

The grhyasutras prescribe a holiday ( anadhyaya ) after the 
performance of upakarma, though the duration varies. Par. gr. 
II. 10 prescribes that he should not Btudy the Veda for three 
days and nights and should not clip his nails or shave for that 
period and points out that some said that he should not clip 
nails or hair till the date of utsarjana ( i. e. for 5 months and a 
half). San. gr. IV. 5.17 ( =Manu IV. 119) prescribes an 
anadhyaya ( holiday ) for three nights on upakarma and utsarga. 
Gobhila gr. ( III. 3. 9 and 11 ) says that there is no study on the 
upakarma day performed on Hasta naksatra and that according 
to some teachers for three days before it and after it. The Bhar. 
gr. III. 8 enjoins that after upakarma there should be a holiday 
of three days or one day and for one month thereafter one should 
not study the Veda in the evening ( i. e. the first watch after 
sunset ). 

Utsarjana: — About the time of utsarjana also there was 
divergence of view. The Baud. gr. ( T. 5. 153 ) prescribes that it 
may be performed on the full moon day of Pausa or Magha. requires Veda study after upakarma for six 
months and so if the upakarma was performed ontbe new moon of 
Sravana the utsarjana according to it would be on the full moon 
of Magha ( vide III. 5. 20 also ). The Par. gr. II. 11 states that 
after having studied the Veda for five months and a half or for 
six months and a half they ( teacher and pupils ) should per- 
form utsarga (i. e. the rite of closing the course of Vedic study). 
These periods are only approximate, since Par. gr. II. 13 further 
on says that utsarjana should be performed in the month of 
Pausa when the moon is in the Rohinl naksatra ( i. e. about the 
eleventh of the bright half ) or in middle As^aka ( I. e. 8tb of 
the dark half of Pausa ). The Gobhila gr. III. 3. 14 says that 
utsarga is performed on the full moon of Taisa ( i. e. Pausa ), 
while the KhSdira gr. III. 2. 24 says that having studied the 
Veda for four months and a half they close the session on the 
full moon day of Pausa. The San. gr. IV. 6. 1 holds that utsar- 
jana should be performed on the first day of the bright half of 
Magha ; Yaj. I. 143 follows Par. gr. II. 12 by saying that 

816 History of DharmaiMra [ Ch. XXIII 

utsarga takes place in Pausa on the Rohinl naksatra or on the 
8th of the dark half, while Manu ( IV. 95-96 ) says that after 
studying Veda for four months and a half from upakarma, utsarga 
should take place when the moon is in the Pusya naksatra 
thereafter or on the first day of the bright half of Magha. The 
Manava gr. I. 4. 7 says that Veda study is stopped 4£ or 5 or 5£ 
months after upakarma. These several periods ( 41 months, or 
5£ months or 6| months ) and the various dates of utsarga in 
Pausa or Magha were due to the fact that upakarma may take 
place on the full moon day of Sravana or -Bhadrapada ( or even 
Asadha) or on the 5th of the bright half of Sravana or on Hasta 
in Bhadrapada or Sravana. 

The Asv. gr. III. 5. 13 extends the procedure of upakarma 
to utsarga and adds ( III. 5. 20-22 ) that offerings of boiled 
rice are made to the same deities instead of clarified 
butter, then they take a bath and perform tarpana of those very 
deities and of acaryas, rsis and pitrs(as in brahmayajna )• 
Narayana states that in utsarjana there is no eating (of 
barley"*' with curds) as there is in upakarma nor marjana. 
Par. gr. II. 12 gives the prooedure of utsarjana as follows : "They 
( teacher and pupils ) should go to the brink of water ( a river 
&c. ) and offer oblations of water ( i. e. tarpana ) to the gods, to 
the metres, to the Vedas, rsis, the ancient teaohers, the Gandha- 
rvas, the other teaohers, the year with its divisions, the Pitrs, 
acaryas, their ( deceased ) relatives. After having rapidly recited 
the Savitrl four times, they should utter loudly ' we have stopped 
( Vedio study ). ' There is anadhyaya in utsarjana for the same 
period as on upakarma and they should then continue the repeti. 
tion ( of the Veda ) as before ". The Gobhila gr. III. 3. 15 says 
about utsarjana ' they go out of the village turning their faces 
to the east or north, they should approach water that is deeper 
than their waist, should bathe therein and should offer tarpana 
to the vedas, rsis and acaryas. ' A holiday was observed on 
the day of utsarjana for a day and half ( paksinl ) or three 
days after it ( Manu IV. 97, Ysj. 1. 144 ). 

1936. erot^JTi 'P'HmtTurtk i wwrt H rwrpnftnwft ^!rr*«ftefc*r 

s. III. 5. 13-14, 20-83 ; <iWr xifynfi wmrrt <rcsg <ET«rnrerHn gtq$rc- 

* ifoj i <m. ii. II. 12. 

Ch. XXIII ] Utsarjana 817 

To give up Veda study for several months altogether was 
probably found undesirable. Therefore Manu IV. 98, Vas. Dh. 
S, 13. 6-7, Ausanasa ( p. 515 ) and others prescribe that after 
utsarjana the Vedas should be studied till the next upakarma 
during the bright fortnights of the remaining months and the 
Vedangas at one's will or in the dark fortnights. The Gobhila 
smrti III. 134 says that after Daksinayana ( sun's passage in 
the southern celestial hemisphere) for sit months one should not 
study the Upanisads andRahasyatexts. It appearsthat gradually 
the rite of utsarga in Pausa or Magha came to be discontinued. 
Astavakra 1W on Manavagrhya I. 5. 1 deplores that in his day 
hardly any one was found to celebrate utsarga on the day 
speoified by the sutrakara, that he was powerless to do anything 
or to upbraid any one but that he would only describe what the 
sastra prescribed. Similarly the Smrtyarthasara, after describing 
the procedure of utsarjana, remarks (p. 11 ) ' after studying 
the Veda for a year utsarjana may be performed on the day of 
upakarma or may not be so performed '. Gobhila-Srarti ( III. 
128-129, quoted in Sm. C. I p. 55 ) says ' when dvijas perform 
every year upakarma together with utsarjana according to the 
prescribed procedure, that results in the growth of the Vedas 
( Vedic study ). Whatever act is performed even in sport by 
brahraanas whose vedas have not grown stale, that act becomes 
successful.' Vide San. gr. IV. 5. 16 to the same effect. It is on 
account of this idea that in the sankalpa the expression ' yata- 
yamatanirasena ' ( by removing staleness ) occurs. In modern 
times utsarjana is performed on the same day as upakarma, but 
precedes the latter. These two together being generally per- 
formed in Sravana either on the full moon or on Sravana 
naksatra or on the 5th of the bright half of Sravana are 
designated by the word Sravanl. 

The modern utsarjana of Rgvedins may be briefly described 
here : after Scamana, putting on a pavitra ( a loop or ring ) of 
darbhas (on the finger called anaraika), pranayama, mentioning 
the time and place, a sankalpa ( as set out above ) is made ; then 
pafioagavya is taken in by all ; then the worship of Ganapati, then 
preparation of an altar for utsarjana homa is made, fire is invited 
with the verses 'jus^o damuna' (Rg. V. 4. 5) and 'ehyagna* (Rg. I. 

1937. tr^r 3 eri?M»*i& f $? ! a'rtwwgfirs»!ft gw^ w?r f% |pi: *tt4ra- 
Sfcrft i 5n^^n7w»m*rrm^r%: i 3TCr*rs? on jthtiot I. 6. 1 ; '...*r* 

H. D. 103 

818 History of Dharmaittatra [ Ch. XXIII 

76. 2 ), then the fire called balavardhana is established on the 
stnandila, then contemplation of fire with the verse 'catvari srnga' 
( Rg. IV. 58. 3.) and several pauravdka verses ; then two samidhs 
are placed over the fire, then oblations of clarified butter are 
offered to the' deities, Savitrl &c. .(specified in upakarma above) 
and of boiled rice to 20 deities, Agni &c. ( vide p. 814 above ), 
then the rest is offered to Agni Svistakrfc, then acamana, prana- 
yama, then brahmayajna is performed, then he should say 
' vrstir-asi vrsoa me papmanam-rtat-satyam-upagam ' ( Tai. Br. 
III. 10. 9 ); then all should say ' utsrsta vai vedah ' ( the study 
of veda has been stopped ) ; then clarified butter is offered into 
fire by way of prayaaoitta with the verses ' ayascagne * ( Ap. M. 
P. 1. 5. 18 ), * ato deva, ' ( $g. I. 22. 16 ), ' idam visnur ' ( $g. I. 
22. 17 ); then offering to Agni, Vayu, Surya, Frajapati respec- 
tively with the vyahrtis separately and together, then 
offering with the verses ' anajnatam ' ( Tai. Br. III. 7. 11 ), 
' purusa-sammito ' ( Tai. Br. III. 7. 11 ), ' yatJpakatrS ' ( Rg. X. 
2. 5 ), ' yad vo devfi ' ( Tai. Br. III. 7. 11 ); then follows sarva- 
prayascitta with om and the vyahrtis ; then mar jana ( purifica- 
tion ) with the verses ' apo asman matarah ' ( B,g. X. 17. 10 ), 
' idamapah pravahata ' ( Rg. I. 23. 22 ), ' sumitra na apa ' ( Tai. 
S. I. 4. 45. 2-3 ) ; then he should think of the Ganges and other 
holy rivers; then he should honour Agni with the four verses 
' Agne tvam no ' ( Rg. V. 24. 1-4 ) and offer the upacaras of 
sandal-wood paste, flowers &c. ; then he should take holy ashes 
from the homa fire with the mantra ' manastoke ' ( Rg. 1. 114. 8 ) 
and apply the ashes to his forehead, throat, navel, right and left 
arms and head ; then pray Agni to bestow sraddha ( faith ), 
medha ( intelligence) &c. and then wind up the utsarjana with 
the words quoted below. 198 * 

1938. «w* 3W3?*r nrn^T <«£orr •ww*. »?m&«frct «fti«t * nw i wf 



The grhyasutras speak of certain other rites performed on 
certain fixed days in the year. Most of them have ceased to be 
performed in modern times, though vestiges of some of them 
appear even now. Gautama ( VIII. 19 ) enumerates the seven 
pakayajaasarhsthas among his forty sarhskaras. Out of these 
seven pakayajfias, astaka, parvana and sraddha will bo dealt 
with under sraddha later on. The seven haviryapas and the 
seven somasarhsthas will be treated of in the note on Srauta. A 
few of the other rites are briefly described below. 

Parvava sthalipaka:—' Among the seven pakayajnasarhsthas 
mentioned by Gaut. (VIII. 19) is the parvana sthalipaka. When 
a person is married and returns to his house after marriage he 
causes the newly married bride to sacrifice a mess of cooked 
food. The wife husks the rice grains of which that sthalipaka 
is prepared. She cooks the mess, sprinkles (ijya on it, takes it 
from the fire. Then he sacrifices to the deities of the Vedic 
Darsa-Purnamasa and then to Agni Svistakrt, With the 
remnants of the cooked food he feeds a learned brahmana and 
makes the present of a bull to that brahmana. From that time 
the householder constantly sacrifices on the days of the full 
moon and of the new moon a similar mess of cooked food 
sacred to Agni. In the case of one who has not kindled the 
three Vedic fires, the sthalipaka is meant for Agni (it is Agneya). 
In the case of an householder who keeps the three Vedic fires 
the sthalipaka at Full moon is Agnlsoralya and Aindra or 
Mahendra or Aindragna on the New moon day ( Khadira gr. 
II. %. 1-3, Asv. Sr. I. 3. 8-12 ). Both the householder and his 
wife fast on the days of the full and new moon or they eat only 
once in the morning on those days ( Ap. Dh. S. II. 1. 1. 4-5, 
Asv. gj. 1. 10. 2 ). This is briefly the parvana sthalipaka. It is 
begun on the first full moon day after marriage and is conti- 
nued throughout the lives of the husband and wife. In the 
sthsllp&kas performed throughout life on the full moon and 
new moon there is no daksina ( of a bull)."* 9 Vide for details 

1939. qwm 3t«t f wm*$sfif*m*vt <r*s mth i am. $< 7, 17, 

820 History of Dharmasattra I Ch. XXI V 

Asv. gr. I. 10 and Ap. gr. 7. 1-19 ( among the sutras ) and Saih- 
ekara-kaustubha pp. 823 ff and Saihskaraprakasa pp. 904-906 
among later digests. 

Caitrl: — According to Haradatta on Gaut. VIII. 19 tbe 
caitrl rite is the same as sulagava, known as TsSnabali to the 
students of tbe Apastamba sutra (Ap. gr. 19, 13 ff.) and this rite 
called Caitrl was performed on the full moon day of tbe month 
of Caitra. In the San. gr. IV. 19 it is said that this rite takes 
place on the full moon day of Caitra and there is a brief des- 
cription of it which is rather obscure ( vide S. B. E. vol. 29, 
p. 132 ). The Vaik. IV. 8 describes it as follows : On the full 
moon day of Caitra the house is cleaned and decorated ; the 
husband and wife deck themselves in new garments ( lower and 
upper ) and with flowers etc. ; after two aghSras'" are made in 
fire and rice is oooked in a vessel for the deities, offerings are 
made of clarified butter, with the mantras ' grlsmo hemanta ' 
(Tai. S. V. 7. 2. 4 ) ' urnam me puryatam, * ' sriye jatah ' ( Rg. 
IX. 94. 4 ), ' Vaisnavam ' ( Tai. S. I. 2, 13. 3 ) and having offered 
oblations of boiled rice mixed with ghee to Madhu, 1941 Madhava, 
Sukra, Suci, Nabhas, Nabhasya, Isa, Urja.Sahas, Sahasya.Tapas, 
Tapasya, to the deities of Rtus, to herbs, to the lords of herbs, to 
Sri ( goddess of wealth ), to the lord of Sri, to Visnu ; having 
worshipped to the west of the fire the goddess Sri and the god 
Sripati whose face is turned eastwards, he announces tbe 
havis ( sacrificial food ) and having served to the recitation of 
the hymn to anna ( food ) the brahmanas with cooked caitrya 
food he should himself eat in the company of his sapindas. 

Sitayajfta ( sacrifice to ploughed land ) : — In the Gobbila gr. 
IV. 4. 27 there 1918 is a brief description of the sacrifice performed 
at the time of ploughing by one who kept the smSrta or aupasana 
fire : ' on an auspicious constellation he should cook a mess of 
sacrificial food and should offer oblations to the following 
deities, viz. Indra, Maruts, Parjanya ( rains ), Asani ( thunder- 
bolt ), Bhaga. And he should also offer ( clarified butter ) to 
Slt&, As5, Aradft, Anagha.' In Par. gr. II. 17 this rite is des- 

1940. For SghSras see note 489 above. 

1941. Madhu to Tapasya are the ancient twelve names of the 
months of the year mentioned in Tai. S. I. 4. 14. 1, Vsj. S. VII. 30. 

1942. snmft sfSTiHiiT'T: i g»^ *w% wreftrpw *mf5>4«n«rt t"Rn»^t 
iMJrermrlV. 4. 87-29, 

Ch. XXIV ] Minor Grhya and other Rites Sii 

oribed in greater detail. But for want of space it is not set out 
here. The Par. gr. in II. 13 speaks of a different rite to be 
performed at the time of taking out the plough and using it 
for ploughing. 

Sravanl or tfravanakarma and Sarpabali : — Asv. gr. II. 1. 1-15, 
Par. gr. II. 14, Gobhila gr. III. 7. 1-23, San. gr.IV. 15, Bhar. gr. 
II. 1, Ap. gr. 18. 5-12 and others describe these two rites which 
are performed on the full moon day of Sravana, whether the 
moon be in conjunction with the constellation of Sravana or not. 
Asv. gr. desoribes it as follows : m3 " Having filled a new jar 
with the flour of unbroken grains of barley he places it on a 
new sikya ( an arrangement of strings for holding pots etc. ) 
along with a spoon for making offerings ( bait ). Having got 
ready fried barley grains he smears'*" half of them with 
clarified butter. At sunset he prepares a mess of cooked food 
and a cake on one potsherd and offers oblations (of cooked food) 
with the four verses * Agni 1 lead us to wealth by a good 
path &c.' ( Rg. 1. 189. 1-4 ) verse by verse and offers with one 
band the cake prepared on one potsherd with the mantra ' to the 
constant one, the Earth demon, svaha.' The cake should have 
been completely submerged in clarified butter or its top may 
be visible ; with the verse ' Agni, do not hand us over to evil ' 
(Rg.I.189.5) he sacrifices over the entire cake the clarified butter 
in which the cake had been submerged. Reciting the verse 'may 
the steeds bring bliss to us in our invocations * ( Rg. VII. 38. 7 ) 
he sacrifices into the fire the fried grains with his joined 
hands."*' He should give the other ( not smeared with clarified 
butter) fried grains to his people (sons &c.). Out of the jar he fills 
the spoon with barley flour, goes out of the house with his face 
towards the east, pours down water on a pure spot and offers 
sacrifice with the mantra ' to the divine "" hosts of snakes, 

1043. Vide appendix for tbe text. 

1944. 'smears '-NSrSyana explains that this should be done in the 
day and what follows is to be done after sunset. 

1945. ' joined bands '-When the sacriflcer joins bis hands the 
applying of butter ( upastarana ) and the putting of butter over the 
havis are done by another person. 

1946. The words wt%*^»7: fmrr may mean ' the serpents and 
the divine hosts.' In the 6at. Br. (S. B. B. vol. 44, pp. 367-368) ' Sar- 
pavidyS and DevajanavidyS ' are leparate subjeots of study. But as 
tbe rite is for propitiating the serpents, it is better to take the words to 
mean 'serpents that are a divine host.' 

822 History of Dharmaiastra [ Oh. XXIV 

svaha ' and makes an obeisance to them with joined hands in 
the words ' the serpents that are terrestrial, 1947 that are aerial, 
that are celestial, that dwell in the several directions — to them 
I have brought this bait; to them I make ready this bali. 
Having gone round the bali with the right hand turned towards 
it, he sits down to the west of the bali ( and reoites the mantra ) 
' thou art a serpent ; thou art the lord of serpents that creep ; 
by food thou protectest men and by a cake the serpents, 
by sacrifice the gods, me who am in thee ( i. e. who seek thy 
favour and protection ) may not the serpents who also are in 
thee do any harm ; I give over the Dhruva ( spoon ) to thee.' 
Then with the words ' O firm one, I give over this one, this one 
to thee ' he gives his people ( son, unmarried daughter, wife ) 
one by one. With the words ' O firm one, I give myself over 
to thee ' he gives himself over at the end. Let no one pass 
between the sacrificer ( and the bali ) up till the rite of giving 
in charge ( paridsna ). mg ' To the divine hosts of serpents 
svaha '-with these words let him offer a bali in the evening 
and in the morning till Pratyavarohana. Some count the days 
till Pratyavarohana m9 ( from Sravana full moon ) and offer 
the same number of balis on that very day ( on which the 
sravana rite takes place )." The San. gr. IV. 15 has a similar 
ceremony called Sravanakarma ; however it practically con- 
tains nothing beyond rules about the bali to serpents and it is 
worthy of note that some of the 16 upacSras associated with 
honouring a guest and with devapvja are employed ( in it and 
in Ap. gr. &c. ) for honouring the serpents viz. offering a comb, 
unguents, flowers, thread ( vastra ), collyrium, mirror. The 
Par. gr. II. 14 is more elaborate as to sarpabcdi and the deities 
to whom the oblations of cooked food are offered are ' Visnu , 
Sravana ( naksatra ), the Full moon day of Sravana and 
the rainy season.' In Pfir. gr. also, a comb, ointment, collyrium, 
garlands are offered to the serpents. Ap. gr. 18. 5-12, Hir. gr. 
II. 16 ( S. B. E. vol. 30, pp. 237-239 ), Gobhila gr. III. 7. 1-23, 

1947. "'The serpentg that are terrestrial'. Note srcfag atfnft % 

*tv»5 1 5)ii« ^: spf fcwr: «if*vt *ra: i tt y^fi TrgtnwrJrt ^ it wrwafug • 
^*K*%j sfoft iN - : tftfwft «m: n ft. tf. IV. 2. 8. 3, srrs«R#. 16. 15, srrsr. *. 
13. 6-8 ( same verses in all in almost the lame words ). 

1948. Each son, daughter and wife are to be separately named and 
to be given in charge (of the serpent deity M»y« NBrttyaija. Dhmva 
is the lord of serpents ( Sudaraana ). 

1949. For Pratyavarohana, vide below. 

Ch. XXIV ] Minor Orhya and other Rites 823 

Bhar. gr. II. 1, Baud. gr. III. 10, Manava gr. II. 16 and others 
contain similar elaborate rules about sarpabali, the Hir. gr. 
and Ap. gr. requiring that the flowers used should be of the 
kiih&ulca tree. It appears that when the husband was absent 
the wife was to offer the bali during the four months. The 
Manava gr. II. 16. 6 adds that even the sudra wife of a brahmana 
should silently offer the bali after washing her hands. Vide 
San. gr. IV. 15. 20 also for the wife doing it silently. 

Serpent worship arose from the fears entertained about the 
deadly effects of snake- bites. The serpent cult is very ancient 
as the quotation from the Tai. S. cited above shows. Vide also 
AtharvavedaVIII.7.23 and XI. 9.16and24. In the Atharvaveda 
(VIII. 14. 14-16) the well known names of some mythical serpents 
viz. Taksaka, Dhrtarastra and Air&vata occur. The dangers 
from snakes must have intensified in the rainy season when 
serpents sought shelter in human habitations owing to vast 
areas being flooded and in search of their prey, viz. mice and 
frogs &c. Therefore the rite of offering a bali to serpents was 
performed on the full moon day of Sravana and a bali was 
offered every day to serpents for four months till the full moon 
of Margaslrsa on which day took place the Pratyavarohana 
( re-descent ) i. e. discarding the use of cots for sleeping on and 
using the ground for that purpose. Fergusson in his famous 
work 'Tree and Serpent worship* (1868) traces serpent worship 
in the nations of antiquity, such as in Egypt, Judea, Greece &c. 
In the Mahabharata nagas figure very frequently. Vide Adi. 
35 and 123. 71, Udyoga 103,9-16; Anusasana 150. 41 (where 
the names of seven nagas that support the earth such as Vasuki, 
Ananta &c. are specified ). In Anusasana 14. 55 Siva is said 
to have snakes on his body like yajflopavita. The purSnas are 
full of the stories of nagas. Serpent worship continues to this 
day particularly in South India, but now serpents are worship- 
ped on the 5th of the bright half of Sravana instead of on the 
full moon day of Sravana as in the times of the sutras. This 
day is now called NagapancamI and some account of it will be 
given later on under vratas. India possesses more varieties 
of serpents tban any single country in the world and the toll 
of life taken by snake bites is very heavy as compared with 
any other country. 

In certain medieval digests like the Samskara-kaustubha 
( p. 122 ) a rite called Nagabali is described. It is performed on 
Sinlvall (a day on which the moon is seen, but there is amav&sya 

824 History of Dharmaiastra [ Ch. XXIV 

thereafter) or full moon day or on the 5th or on the 9th when 
the moon is in Aslesa (of which serpents are the presiding 
deity). Its object is two-fold viz. to expiate the sin of 
having killed a snake or snakes and to remove the obstacle to 
progeny ( supposed to arise from the wrath of serpents killed 
by a person ). In this a figure of a serpent is made of the flour 
of rice or wheat or sesame which is then placed in a surpa 
( winnowing basket ), then it is worshipped with the 16 upacaras 
( described above ) and a bali of payasa (rice-milk) is offered 
to it; then after washing the hands and feet and sipping water a 
homa is performed with ordinary fire ( but there is no svis^akrt 
offering); an oblation of clarified butter is offered with om 
and all the three vyahrtis into the mouth of the serpent figure 
and the rest of the ajya is sprinkled on its body, the serpent is 
praised with the mantras quoted above from Tai. S. IV. 2. 8. 3 
and certain Purana verses are repeated and the figure is thrown 
into the fire ; then impurity (asauca) is observed by the saorificer 
and his wife for three days or one day; then eight brahmanas 
are invited, they are supposed to stand in the place of the burnt 
effigy and upacaras are offered to them, they are fed and gifts are 
given to them ; then a golden image of a serpent is put into 
the kalasa (water-pot ) and prayer is offered to it, and the golden 
image or its value or a cow is gifted to a brahmana. 

The Par. gr. ( II. 15 ) describes a rite called Indrayajfia on 
the full moon day of Prosthapada ( i. e. BhSdrapada ). It is 
briefly as follows : Having cooked payasa ( rice cooked in 
milk ) for Indra 1950 and cakes and having placed ( four ) cakes 
round the fire, and having offered the two ajyabhagas he offers 
the milk rice to Indra ; he offers the ajya oblations to Indra, 
IndranI ( Indra's wife ), Aja Ekapad, Ahirbudhnya and to the 
Prosthapadas ; he offers milk-rice to Indra ; after he has eaten 
( a portion of the sacrificial food ) he offers a bali to the Maruts ; 
for Sruti says ( Sat. Br. IV. 5. 2. 16 ) ' the maruts are the eaters 
of ahuta ' ; mi the bali ( to Maruts ) is offered on leaves of the 

1950. «rs£ says ' $nrjnr>itTf|nrnr prrtfj* srnt 5?wreri.' wmTgc^ 
**'HW **1#t§ >mr#H ?TJT: i cm: f^ a^e r n 1 ^ '. The f^reqjtx is to be 
performed with the remains of qivfl'- 

1 1 51, t The _w}*? |<)ll 'W I - 10has the verse gtfrffrgteg ^H istft «f§wfrft nr ( 

1g*T: f^lWUT xtrfSltft Wgrdt §tt: II ' ; vide Monu III. 74 quoted above. *t$ 
is 3*5*1 and so Maruts are called atfcTRT: . The srarrar passages are 
' «Cfli4> * %*rwt *ww: > (IV. 5. 2. 16), ' *nnfr «a y?i«sr«dsT»r«r mm ej* ^ 
V«frftw>iN«i'(IV. 3.3. 6). 

Oh. XXIV 1 Minor Qrhya and other Bites 825 

Asvattha tree, because there is a Vedic passage ( Sat. Br. IV. 3. 
3. 6 ) ' the Maruts stayed in the Asvattha tree. ' He offers the 
ball with the passage * Sukra-jyotir * ( Vaj. S. 17. 80-85 ) mantra 
by mantra and with the mantra called umukha which latter is 
to be revolved in the mind only (and not to be uttered loudly ). 
for the sruti says 'these are their names' IMB (Sat. Br. IX. 3. 
1. 26 ). He repeats the mantra ' Indram daivlr ' ( Vaj. S. 17. 86 ) ; 
then follows the feeding of a brahmana. 

The Kausika sutra ( 140 ) describes the prooedure of a 
festival in honour of Indra for kings. It is begun on the 
eighth day in the bright half of Bhadrapada or Asvina in 
which a banner is raised on Sravana naksatra. Yaj. I. 147 
declares a holiday for one day on the day on which the banner in 
honour of Indra is raised and when it is taken down. AparSrka 
( p. 190 ) quotes Garga to the effect that the banner is raised by 
the king on the 12th of the bright half of Bhadrapada when the 
moon is in conjunction either with Uttarasadha, Sravana or 
Dhanis^ha and adds that it is taken down on the Bharanl 
naksatra after the full moon day of Bhadrapada. The Krtya- 
ratnakara ( pp. 292-93 ) adds that during the days of the festival 
worship is offered to figures of Indra and his wife Saol and son 
Jayanta made from pieces of sugarcane stalks and that it is not 
raised on Saturday or Tuesday or in periods of impurity due to 
birth or mourning or in portents like an earth-quake. From 
Adiparva 63. 1-29 it appears 1 " 2 that the festival ( oalled 

1952. In V*j. S. 17. 80-85 there are names of Maruts. They are 
said (in 17. 86 ) to be the divine hosts that follow Indra. The t$mv ( IX • 
3. 1. 26) says gsvrftfifer ftnrnrrrcto HfTsvrftar sTrrfawt^ft *mv#' 
^rdimft. All the commentators of Psr. gr. say that fasfW is the mantra 

'TO*? tfrw «tto»t gft*r mfrcrtanftrsm ■* f¥5rr« s*t?r " ' which is V«j. 
S. 39. 7. But Oldenberg (in SBE vol. 29. p. 332) says in a note that the 
first part of Vsj. S. XVII. 86 is oalled « Vimukha '. 

1953. *rf% *«f fariT WW qrqr irrJrfjT: i feirfPTSilrc^r tItbtti sjfiJTiiSj" 
«ftn it irerr: *iw? J3rr5 ^ajfr iftiiftwcfr i rt% a^Tnmr »ref sfawft srcrr ii ?rat 

miff* *mrrfa *r&: fSrfirircnnl: i jt^5t« fift«R* trsirm fa **Gkt ii h«wi- 

»$nrfr <*t* tarafa «$«?r: n mfcr infKri **fh jflrrr HWTOTST: I am%T* 
63. 17-19, 21-22. rfhEW g notioes in the last verse another reading ^<fo 
WTtnrs, while the or. ed. of the «nrr*rcEr prefers g wv<ift« t WfTt 
(chap. 57.21). 

B. D. 104 

826 History of DharmaiUstra [ Ch. XXIV 

Indramaha ) was started by Uparioara Vasu. It is stated there- 
in that when that king was prevailed upon by Indra to desist 
from being a hermit in a forest and to rule over the country 
called Cedi, Indra gave him a bamboo staff as an affectionate 
gift and in honour of Indra the king planted it in the earth and 
since that time when the year ended a bamboo staff was raised 
by kings ( and also other humbler persons ) and next day it was 
decked with baskets full of fragrant substances and ornaments, 
and garlands were suspended from it. It is possible that the 
raising of a bamboo staff on the first day of Caitra every year 
in the Deooan and other places is reminiscent of this ancient 
festival in honour of Indra. The Brhatsamhita (chap. 43) describes 
the origin of the Indramaha festival and devotes over sixty 
verses to the elucidation of the method of celebrating it. Visnu 
gave to Indra a flag-staff to frighten asuras ; in verse 8 
it refers to Uparicara Vasu as the originator of the Indra 
festival, states on what auspioious conjunctions a carpenter 
and an astrologer should go to a forest and gives directions 
as to the tree to be selected ( Arjuna tree being the best ) ; 
then the tree is to be felled the next day and brought to the 
capital by the king on the eighth of the bright half of Bhradra- 
pada with a retinue of citizens, ministers and brahmanas ; the 
oity should be deoorated with fine patakas ( flags ) and toranas 
( festival arches ) ; on the 11th there was to be a vigil, the 
trunk of the tree should be pared and chiselled and it should 
be plaoed on a yantra ( a meohanioal oontrivance to raise it up ), 
homa is to be offered ; then it is to be raised up erect on the 
12th of the bright half of Bhadrapada when the moon is in 
Sravana naksatra or even without that being so ; five or seven 
wooden figures ( called sakrakumSrls ) are also to be placed 
near it ( to enhanoe the charm of the staff ) and two smaller 
staffs (one | and the other $ of the length of the principal 
staff) are also to be raised called Nanda and Upananda; 
another staff also is to be raised as Indra's mother; the 
staff was to be decked with several ornaments, baskets 
were to be hung round the staff, each one above the other 
and smaller in size, on the 4th day (from 12th tithi) 
verses in praise are to be recited and on the 5th day ( from 
the 12th i. e. on 1st of the dark half ) the staff is to be bidden 
farewell to. 

Aivayuji :— Gaut. VIII. 19 mentions AsvayujI among the 
■even Pakayajlas as included in his 40 samskaras. 

Oh. XXIV ] Minor Grhya and other Bites 827 

The Asv. gr. II. 2.^-3 describes"** the rite as follows : * on 
the full moon day of Asvayuja ( i. e. Asvina ) the AsvayujI rite 
( is performed ). Having adorned the house, having bathed and 
put on clean ( white ) garments, they should take out a mess of 
oooked food for Pasupati and should offer it with the formula 
' to Pasupati, to Siva, to Samkara, to Prsataka, Bvaha.' He 
should saorifice with his joined hands a mixture of milk and 
clarified butter with the formula ' may what is deficient in me 
be made complete ( or full ) ; may what is complete not deterio- 
rate in me. To Prsataka, svaha.' 

The San. gr. ( IV. 16 ) requires that in this rite oblations of 
clarified butter should be offered to Asvins, to the two stars of 
Asvayuj naksatra, to the full moon of Asvina; to Sarad 
( autumn ) and to Pasupati and the mixture of milk and ajya is 
offered with the hymn Rg. VI. 28 ( a gavo agman ) and that on 
that night the oalves are allowed to join their mothers. 
Par. gr. II. 16 calls this rite Prsatakah, but it prescribes the 
cooking of payasa ( milk-rice ) for Indra and offerings of that 
mixture with curds, honey and ghee are made to Indra, IndranI, 
the Asvins, to the full moon of Asvina and Sarad ( autumn ). 
The Gobhila gr. III. 8. 1 also calls this rite Prsataka and it 
adds the tying to the arms &c. of amulets made of lac together 
with all sorts of herbs for the sake of prosperity. Vide also 
Khadira gr. III. 3. 1-5, Vaik. IV. 9 for this rite. 

In most of the grhyasutras another rite called Agrayana is 
described immediately after AsvayujI. Haradatta on Gaut. 
VIII. 19 explains that in the AsvayujI rite mentioned by Gaut. 
both the AsvayujI described above from Asv. gr. and Agrayana 
are included. Agrayana is also called ' Navayajna ' in Gobhila- 
smrti ( in verse III. 103 ) and Navasasyestf in Manu IV. 27. 

1954. ar ren^ r mm a ^ '*? ■ f*t>?r'TOa%?7 ^rrwr sn%*rcm: f&nfo 
wcsftaw? f^w*r 3f g: <rg<npf f?wr sr^tnr sttrtsrut **r%f& i jPTRrewarrfi- 
ht sgyrWE i 3tf & i*rt ^ ft «<*h«<H siuwrr *n|ft i «w. s- II. 2. 1-3. 
NsrSyana explains that 'they' mean the saorifioer and hia sons and other 
male descendants ( who touch him ). The word 'ni-rttpya' means that on 
the mess of cooked food, the two operations of nirvSpa (taking out a por- 
tion from the whole with the mantra qgrnnf rn ^i fi nfmffi) and proksana 
are to be performed and that the rest of the mess is to be eaten by the 
saorifioer and his family, gnaw means ' milk mixed with clarified 
butter '. This is taken out with the truva ladle. There is an offering to 
Svisfakrt Agni of the mess and of pifStaka. quQVi B HI. 3. 3 says 
mm^wfaqi-xi Hqrww*; ride also «hf$rcreqft (in verse) III. 106. 

828 Sxstory of Dharmasastra [ Oh. XXIV 

Agrayana isti is prescribed in the Asv. srauta sutra II. 
9 and other srauta sutras for those who have consecrated 
the three vedio fires ( i e. ahitSgnis ). According to Narfi- 
yana an ahitSgni is to perform this agrayana saorifice of 
fresh corn acoording to the srauta sutra, but in case of 
difficulties he may do so in accordance with Asv. gr. II. 
2. I in the Treta fires and that one who has not conse- 
crated the three fires may offer the sacrifice in the iaia 
( i e. aupasana ) fire. This agrayana rite is required even 
by the srauta sutra as to crops of rice, barley and syamaka m * 
only and no one was to make use of fresh corn of these 
three kinds without offering this sacrifice, but there was no 
restriction as to the use of other kinds of corn or as to vege- 
tables &c. The word Agrayana is explained as mt ' that rite 
in which fresh fruits are first offered to gods ' or ' that rite in 
which fresh corn is first offered or eaten '. The deities of the 
srauta Agrayana are three, viz. IndrSgnl (or Agnlndrau), 
Visvedevas, DySvaprthivI (heaven and earth), but in the 
grhya Agrayana, Agni Svistakrt is added as the fourth ( San. 
gr. III. 8. 1, Ap. gr. 19. 7 ). Asv. gr. ( II. 2. 4-5 ) gives a very 
brief description 'united ,MT with the seasons, united with the 
manners, united with Indra and Agni, svahS; united. ..with 
Visvedevas, Bvaha; united. ..with Heaven and earth, svaha'- 
with these formulas a mess of cooked food is offered at the 
Agrayana by one who has set up the srauta fires; also by one 
who has not set up the srauta fires, (the same offerings are 
made ) in the domestio ( grhya ) fire. Ap. gr. 19. ( 6-7 ) also is 

1955. an*?. «TT. H. 9. 1 expressly says ' snuror JfgVimi<hqa.l*UH ' 
and gprcnr on <rrw>*gwr quotes -miu-Hilg^K ' Hq^if&hKW T: wwni i 
rfte*ir *r*rt i TrWHrrerreg &qn-^fiqm ?W> » '. The h m^u II. 3. 9 

has mffiglimuNl ^1«W^lv/l<JI<t I. 

1956. gqgffl on ww. ^. 19. 6 says 'tasff&nmf sres*4 ja .i »MN<«fli ft 
«J«W»I 5W *nrvi swuwi M^iUHSJUwmi^H^iflfl I > i stara on the same 

1957. *T5gjinjft: fT^«rrf»fc «agjR^ i ttf» ^t wi*T i W^^i •« *ns;- 

sroiffcarrirtft sjrarcft i &pw. s- II. 2. 4-5 ; OTTftnrtfmprop* i «r«rrsTf wreft- 

wjhr«ri^t «l<^^«l ig q u i m^U srflnfor. I WW. H- 19. 6-7. The nm is 
mfrywffi 1T(rt m fi>4 nrrcr ( WW- W. TC. II. 18. 1 ). Sudardana notes that 
gome held that unoooked grains of fresh rice were to be swallowed 
while others held that one was to partake of a portion of the boiled rioe 
cooked for sacrificing. 

Oh. XXIV ] Minor Ofhya and other Rites 

concise '(Now follows the description of) ayana for one 
who has not set up the srauta fires. Having prepared a mess 
of cooked food with fresh corn, he offers oblations to the deities 
of the ( Srauta) Agrayana with Svis^akrt ( Agni ) as the fourth, 
he fills his mouth with grains of rice, swallows them, takes 
aoamana and having rolled up a lump of rice ( from the mess of 
cooked rioe) he throws it up on to the top of the dwelling with 
the next yajus ( Ap. M. P. II. 18. 1 ).' 

This rite is also desoribed in Sail. gr. III. 8, Par. gr. III. 1, 
Gobhila gr. IIL 8. 9-24, Kh&dira gr. III. 3. 6-15, Vaik. IV. 2, 
MSnava gr. II. 3. 9-14 &c. 

There is one peculiarity in Vaik, viz. that it connects the 
Pitrs also with this rite. According to Manava gr. the Agra- 
yana is performed on a parva day in Vasanta ( spring ) with 
fresh barley that is (then) harvested and with rice in sarad 
( autumn ). 

Vaik. VI. 19 prescribes the prayasoitta of padakrcchra or 
a fast for using first fruits without performing Agrayana rite. 

In modern times some vestige of this Navayajfla ( sacrifice 
of first fruits ) still remains. The full moon day of Asvina is 
still called in the Deccan 'navyacl paurnima' and a few ears 
of growing crops are picked up, are woven with flowers and 
tastefully arranged and the whole is suspended from the 
entrance door or its lintel. 

Agrahayatfi : — This is one of the seven pakayajfias men- 
tioned by Gautama ( VIII. 19 ) among his forty samskaras. 

The full moon day of Marga&rsa is called AgrahSyanI; 
the rite m8 performed on that day is also called by the same 
name on acoount of association with it. Pratyavarohana is a rite 
performed to signalise the giving up of the use of cots and high 
couches, recommended from the full moon of Sravana for fear 
of snakes ( as in San. gr. IV. 15. 22 ). Some describe two rites 
separately, one on the full moon day of Margaslrsa and another 
called Pratyavarohana on the first night of Hemanta (vide 
Ap. gr. 19. 3-5 and 8-12 ). There is some divergence as to the time 
and the exact procedure of this rite. Some (like. Asv. gr. II. 3. 1-2) 
hold that it may be performed on the 14th day of the bright 

1958. tmnwfl wr^frft upfaitft a^rt tt fifevr wft' wntnnjnwroft- 
*S«qir i mmnfr g ufl ' ft «n w*tt tpiS'p* i h \ <hw on f^r- ^. II. 17. 1. Vide 
Tilak'g 'Orion* (1893) pp. 73-90 for a learned and penetrating dis- 
course on the word • AgrahEyanl. 

830 History of Dharmaiastra [ Ch. XXIV 

half or the full moon day of M&rgaslrsa. Others restrict it 
to the full moon day. Very elaborate descriptions are given in 
Par. gr. III. 2, Gobbila gr. III. 9. 1-23. As this rite has entirely 
gone out of vogue a brief description from the Siv. gr. alone is 
appended 1 '" here. " Having again ( after Asvayujl ) renovated 
the house with plaster ( of paint or cow-dung ) and by levelling 
( the floor ), they should offer after sunset oblations of payasa 
(milk-rice) with the mantras 'strike aside,"' O white one, 
with thy foot, with the front and baok portions of the foot these 
seven women ( daughters ) of Varuna and all ( females ) that 
belong to the tribes of the king ( of serpents ). Inside the house 
of the white one the serpent did not kill any thing, adoration 
to the white one, the son of VidSrva, svaha. ' Here no oblation 
is offered to ( Agni ) Svistakrt. While gazing fixedly at the fire 
he repeats in a low voice ' may there be no harm to us from 
the progeny 1 " 1 of Prajapati. ' He should think in his mind of 
Hemanta ( winter ) saying ' be auspicious and well-disposed 
towards us. ' To the west of the fire a well-spread layer of grass 
should be prepared ; he should sit down on it and having recited 
in a low voioe ' Be blissful, O Earth ' ( ftg. L 22. 15 ) he should 
lie down on that layer with his people ( sons &c. ) with the 
head towards the east and face turned towards the north. The 
others may lie down according as space permits or each should 
,lie down one after another, the elder one before the one next to 
him in years. Those ( of the sacrificer's sons &o. ) who know 
the mantras should murmur them (Pvg. I. 22. 15 and the mantras 
referred to in sutra 12 below ). Getting up from the layer they 
should three times recite the mantra ' from that place may the 
gods proteot us ' ( Rg. I. 22. 16 ) ; the same verse ( they should 
repeat ) a fourth time turning their faces to the south, to the 
west and the north. 1968 Having gathered together they should 

1959. Vide appendix for text. 

1960. The two mantras am "Iff tf^l srti and «r $ %ffiWf<> occur in 
amr. H. «n. II. 17. 26-27, PaT. gr. II. U ( in SravanS-karma ), Sin. gr. IV. 
18. 1, MSnavagr. II. 7. 1 (in all with variations ). 

1961. Serpent! are said to be the progeny of Kadyapa, a PrajSpati ; 
vide fftrrtrf 11. 18-19 where Kasyapa is stated to be one of the Prajs- 
patis and idiparva 16, where it is said that from Kadrfl one of the wives 
of Kasyapa the makes were born. 

1962. $g. I. 22. 16 is to be repeated thrice while facing the east 
and then each plda of that verse is to be repeated while the face ii 
turned to the south, the west and the north (the verse has only three 
pldas, being in the Gxyatrl metre). 

Oh. XXIV ] Minor Orhya and other Rites 831 

repeat in a low tone the mantras sacred to the sun and the 
SvaBtyayana 1 " 3 mantras, cook food and feed the brahmanas and 
make the latter pronounce auspioious words. " In the Pali work 
called Anguttara-nikaya there is a section called Paccoro- 
hanivagga in which the Pratyavarohana observed by brahmanas 
is described. Vide Anguttara vol. V. ( ed. by Hardy ) p. 233 
OXIX and Z. D. M. G. vol. 52 pp. 149-151. 

AgrahayanI has been described also in Khadira gr. III. 3. 
1-26, Gobhila gr. III. 9, Manava gr. II. 7. 1-5, Bhar. gr. II. 2, 
Ap. gr. 19. 3-5, Kanaka gr. 60. 1 ff„ Kausika sutra 24. 24-36 
Hir. gr. II. 17. 1 ( where Matrdatta says that AgrahayanI is 
also styled Pratyavarohana ). Baud. gr. II. 10 speaks of a rite 
called Pratyavarohana to be performed at the beginning of each 
of the six rtus ( seasons ) and the intercalary month ( if any ). 
This is a different rite. 

£ulagava or Iianabali : — This was originally an offering of 
the flesh of an ox to Siva. There was some difference of opinion 
as to the time. Asv. gr. IV. 9. 2 states that it was to be perform- 
ed in Sarad ( autumn ) or in Vasanta (spring) under the constel- 
lation of Ardra. The Baud. gr. II. 7. 1-3 Bays that every year 
it was to be performed on the full moon day of Margaslrsa or 
on the Ardra naksatra 1 "* in that month or whenever cattle 
suffer from some pest or disease. The Kathaka gr. (52. 2-3) 
declares that the Sulagava may be performed from various 
desires in sarad or vasanta and that according to some acaryas 
there is no restriction as to season. The Bhar. gr. IL 8 and Hir. 
gr. IL 8. 2 say that it may be performed in the bright half of a 
month and on an auspioious naksatra. 

Various explanations are given why this rite was called 
Salagava. Narayana"" says Sula here means one who has a 

1963. According to NsrSyana ?g. X. 158., Eg. I. 50. 1-9, 1. 115. 1, 
and X. 37. 1 are called Saur ya verges ; while wW*WTft »*• tno ve ™ •■ 
that contain the word iveuli or a benediction, viz. Bg. I. 89. 1, V. 51. 11, 
X. 63. 1. NsrSyana follows Asv. 6r. Sutra VI. 6. 18 as to Saurya hymns ; 
but it is doubtful whether he is right as to the svastyayana verses. 
Aocording to the Bjhad-devaW VIII. 77, $g. X. 178 is a svastyayana 

1964. Budra is the presiding deity of Ardra". Vide note 563 above. 

1965. ^jjftwpftfil qj5» sflrfsm'^'ftj^ l flljfiwlt • tf$fc «4HJ «fta- 
B»rr wit w qjarc*: i tkptot on an**. v. IV. 9. 1 ; q$T%vl «rh qjsrw* 

BlfrnwinftSl' lf%i • HTB^t on same. 

832 History of Dharmaiastra [ Cb. XXIV 

spit ( or pointed rod ) i. e. Siva who is called Sfllin and that this 
sacrifice is offered to Rudra Sulin with the ox as a sacrificial 
animal. Haradatta explains that here the ox is marked with 
the rod ( of Siva ). 

This rite is most elaborately described in Asv: gr. IV. 9, 
Baud. gr. II. 7, Hir. gr. II. 8-9, Bhar. gr. II, 8-10, Par. gr. III. 8. 
It appears that even in the times of the grhya sutras there were 
many who did not like the rite of ox-flesh. The Baud. gr. (II. 7. 
26-27) says ,,M that if a person cannot seoure an ox he may 
sacrifice with a goat or ram or he may cook a mess of cooked 
food for Isana and with that he does everything that is to be done 
by means of an ox. The commentator Devapala on Kathaka im 
gr. 52. 1 says that only a goat is offered and the bull is let off as 
the people are opposed to the idea of the sacrifice of an ox. 

As this rite has totally gone out of practice only a brief 
description of it from the Mfinava grhya 1 " 8 ( which is the 
briefest of all on this rite ) is given here. ' Sfllagava is to be 
performed in Sarad for ( propitiating ) Budra. In the north-east 
of the village and not near it ( it is to be performed ) at night 
and there is to be a sacrificial post, not chiselled ( into an 
octagonal Bhape as in other sacrifices ), in the midst of oxen. 
Before the ( final offering ) to Agni Svistakrt (i. e. after perform- 
ing the usual homa with boiled rice up to this point ) he should 
fill eight vessels made of leaves with blood and offer them in 
the principal quarters and the intermediate quarters with the 
eight anuvakas ( Tai. S. IV. 5. 1 ff. and Vaj. S. 16th adhyaya ) 
beginning with ' adoration to thee, O Budra, who are Manyu 
( wrath ). ' He should not bring the uncooked offerings into the 
village. He should bury into the ground the rest ( of the animal 
offered) and its skin also. Some ScSryas say that in the 
pakayajlas in which animals are sacrificed there is no saori- 
fioial post. ' 

1866. am vfii »rt * aw* Jtorwaf nrvs^i ■ fanmr weJtari? tt •rnrfJl 
a wifr n wS qrftffr *n*r wp?* i «&■ s. II- 7. 26-2 7. 

1967. aw^T*rrhnmnf *r uimv irr t «fh g^vnrf q* atorftrnn^ i 
^JTRJ on jfiOTHUr 62. 1. 

1968. Kt%i srtf^ jsubt*: • sns^Nvt n^i$ ni«^i«*i$i fitter »rft wfts- 

RrtwrAf%fwrf%B «*mr^i una* irrnirrafa i $rt *?rr faw*rft *»$ i x%- 
"niwi itwnjrrflunj: n wprew II. 5. 1-6. 

Oh. XXIV ] Minor Grhya and other Rites 833 

Vastu-pratiQtha :— ( construction and occupation of a new 
house ). 

The Asv. gr. II. 7-9, ah. gr. III. 2-4, Par. gr. III. i, 
Ap. gr. 17. 1-13, Khadira gr. IV. 2. 6-22 and other grhya works 
deal with the matter of building a new house. Asv. gr. ( II. 7 ) 
says that one who intends to build a house should first 
examine the ground, which must be non-salinous, which should 
have herbs and trees, much kusa and vlrana grass growing on 
it; that one should dig out thorny plants and plants having 
milky juice with their roots and remove them and also certain 
other plants like apamarga, tilvaka, etc. He should select a 
spot whero the waters coming together from all sides to the 
centre of it flow round the resting place having the latter on 
their right side and then are discharged off to the east without 
noise. Such a spot possesses all auspicious qualities. He should 
( Asv. gr. II. 8 ) also dig a pit knee-deep in the ground to be 
examined and then fill the pit again with the earth taken out. 
If the earth taken out fills the entire pit and some earth remains, 
then the plot is excellent for building a house on ; if all the 
earth dug out just fills the pit, it is of middle quality ; if the 
earth is not enough to fill the pit the plot is to be rejected. 
Another method is to fill the pit with water and leave it there 
through the night. If in the morning there is water in the pit 
the ground is excellent ; if it is moist only, the ground is of 
middle quality ; if it is found dry in the morning the plot is to 
be rejeoted. The three dvijatis should respectively select white, 
red and yellow ground as a site for their house. The plot should 
be square or reotangular and the owner should draw a thousand 
furrows on it. ' With a saml or udumbara branch be sprinkles 
the ground with water, going thrice round it with his right hand 
towards it and recites the Santatlya hymn. '"" He does this 
thrice pouring out water without interruption with the three 
verses ' apo hi stfia ' ( Rg. X. 9. 1-3 ). Under the divisions of 
the bamboo which rests on the chief posts he should have the 
single rooms constructed. Into the pits in which the posts are 
to stand he should have an avaka and the water plant called 
slpals put down. Having put the plant into the pit in which 
the middle post is to stand he should spread on it east-ward 
pointed and north-ward pointed kusa grass and should sprinkle 

1969. This is Kg. VII. 35. 1-15 in which all verses ( except 14 and 
15) commence with the word •dam* and also have the same word 
several times. 

H. 1). 105 

SU History of Dbarmaiastra [ Ch- XXIV 

on the kusas water into which rioe and barley have been thrown 
with the words ' to the steady one, the earth demon, svaha.' 
He should when the middle post is being erected repeat over it 
the two verses ' stand here &c.' and ' to thee the young child 
may come &o.' Over the bamboo staff when it is placed on the 
middle post he recites the hemistich ' rightly asoend the post 
&c* On four stones on which durva grass has been spread 
he should establish the water barrel with the words ' arise on 
the earth ' or with the verse ' the arangara sounds &c.' He then 
Bhould pour water into it with the verse ' hither may king 
Varuna come &c.' He then appeases it as follows : he puts 
gold into water in which rice and barley have been put and 
with that water he sprinkles it three times, going round it 
with bis right turned towards it with the Santatlya hymn. 
This he does three times pouring water without interruption 
with the three verses ' apo hi s^ha ' (Rg. X. 9. 1-3). In the middle 
of the house he should cook a mess of food, sacrifice from it 
with the four verses ' VSstospate prati * ( Jig. VII. 54, 1-3 and 
VII. 55. 1 ) verse by verse, ,m should oook food which should 
be given to the brahmanas to eat, whom he should cause to say 
' lucky is the ground.' 

The Matsyapurana ( ohap. 252-257 ) deals at length with 
Vastusastra, the construction of a house of various dimensions, 
its posts, the timber to be employed, the rites to be performed 
when laying the foundation and at later stages, the rite for 
Vastusanti ( propitiatory rite for averting evil ). 

The Matsyapurana 1 * 71 (256. 10-11) states that a vastu- 
yajfia has to be performed five times in relation to a house, viz. 
when laying down the foundation ( lit. using the measuring 
line), when fixing the first post, when raising the first door 
frame, when entering the house (grhapravesa) and when vastu- 
santi is to be performed (for averting evil or on seeing portents). 
It briefly describes Vastuyajfia as follows (chap. 256. 5-9): 
On an auspicious day and moment, the stone should be laid 
over jewels and all seeds; similarly the post is to be worshipped 
at the hands of four brahmanas ; the priest who should wear 

1970. The hymn %. VII. 54 has only three verses but four obla- 
tions are direoted. Therefore the 4th oblation is to be offered with $g. 
VII. 55. 1 which also is addressed to VXstos pati. 

1971. sjirflr rm sst'Jh* ««j^ s*t i ffirfcfHr* argq[ «tfemw fr *vt n 

856. 10-11. 

Oh. XXIV ] Minor Orhya and other Rites 835 

white garments should be master of the Veda and should be 
accompanied by the artizans, should fix the post that is washed 
with water mixed with all herbs (or herbs called sarvausadhi) 
and covered with many whole rice and decked with clothes and 
ornaments to the accompaniment of Vedic mantras and the 
tunes of auspicious musio; he should perform a homa with 
honey and clarified butter and should repeat the mantra ' vasto- 
spate prati' ( Bg- VII, 54. 1); then the owner should feed brah- 
manas with a dish of rice-milk. The Matsyapurana notes that 
the foundation should be laid in the north-east corner and the 
first post fixed in the south-east. The Matsyapurana (chap. 268) 
decribes the procedure of V&stusanti and remarks ( verses 33-35 ) 
that it should be performed when beginning the oonstruotion 
of a temple or a house or a publio park or when entering a 
town or one's house for the first time for averting all evil and 
it should also be performed every year in one's house. In that 
rite he should make the brahmanas repeat the Eaksoghna hymn 
and a hymn to Pavamana Soma ( one from Rg. IX. or IX. 1 ). 

In modern times the ceremony of entering a newly built 
house is an important one, is an extensive affair and marked by 
great Mat. A very auspicious day is required for this ceremony 
and numerous astrological considerations enter into the choosing 
of a proper day. The ceremony of an entranoe is preceded on 
the same day or on the previous day by a vastusanti (propitiatory 
rite) of which grahamakha (a rite for propitiating the planets) 
forms a part and the usual rites of worship of Ganesa and the 
like ( mentioned at pp. 213-218 ) have also to be performed. A 
few salient features are mentioned here. A mandala is drawn 
divided into 81 squares, 62 devataa are invoked to be present in 
the mandala, then a homa is offered to the nine planets with 28 
oblations of fuel sticks, sesame and ajya to each planet and 
oblations are offered to other deities, the performer and his wife 
have holy water sprinkled over their heads from auspicious 
jars, the house is surrounded thrice with thread beginning from 
the east to the accompaniment of Raksoghna ( Bg. IV. 4. 1-15 
or X. 87. 1-25) and Pavamana (Bg. IX. 1. 1-10) mantras and 
round the house water is continuously poured in a stream from 
a jar with the same two hymns. A pit is dug in the south-east 
corner of the house which is cowdunged, worshipped with flowers 
and sandalwood paste and a baked brick box containing seven 
kinds of corn, moss, flowers &c. is lowered into it and the pit is 
filled up. Then the house is entered to the accompaniment 

836 History of Dharmaiastra [ Oh. XXIV 

of music by the owner who is accompanied by his wife, sons and 
brahmanas and who holds in his folded hands an auspicious jar 
filled with water and having fresh sprouts, durva grass thereon 
and marked with sandalwood paste and flowers and covered 
with cloth. The svasti hymn (vide note 1963 above ) and the 
hymn beginning with ' kranikradat ' ($g. II. 42. 1-3) are recited 
and the auspioious jar is put down on a heap of corn. Then 
the brahmanas perform puny&haracana ( vide note 503 above ), 
they are honoured and utter ' may the house be lucky \ dinner is 
given to the brahmanas who pronounce benedictions, and the 
owner then takes his meal with his friends. im 

1972. The ^f?f is ' «<j»«?i3runj**iM u ft *w *nR* m<» iRhh i«i fat- 


DANA (Gifts) 

Manu ( I. 86 ) and others state that in the four yugas ( ages ) 
viz. Krta, TretS, Dvapara and Kali, the principal aspeots of 
religious life were respectively tapas, metaphysical knowledge, 
sacrifices, im and gifts. Manu ( III. 78 ) eulogiseB the stage of 
householder as the most worthy because all men in the other 
asramas are cherished and fed with ( Yedic ) knowledge ( as a 
teacher of Vedic students ) and with food by him. Yama speci- 
fies the characteristic features of the four asramas as follows : 
' quiescence is the dharma of ascetics, cessation from taking 
ordinary food that of forest hermits, dana (making gifts) that of 
householders and obedience ( or service ) that of brahmacarins.' 
Vide Daksa 1. 12-13 also for the peculiar outward characteristics 
of the four asramas. Therefore the subject of dana ( gifts or 
charity ) will now engage our attention. 

Gifts of various kinds and donors have been highly 
eulogised in the Rgveda. There are danastutis ( eulogies 
of gifts) in Rg. I. 125 (where the gifts made by king 
Svanaya son of Bhavayavya to Kakslv&t are praised 
and dana in general is eulogised in verses 5-7 ), 1. 126. 
1-5 ( where the same praise is continued ), V. 61 ( where 
Syavfisva praises the donors Taranta, Purumllha and Ratha- 
vlti ), VI. 47. 22-25 ( praise of the donor Prastoka Sarfijaya ), 

VII. 18. 22-25 ( praise of the gifts made by Sudas Paijavana ), 

VIII. 5. 37-39 ( praise of KasuCaidya), VIII. 6. 46-48 (praise 
of Tirindira Parasavya ), VIII. 46. 21-24 ( praise of Kanlta ), 
VIII. 68. 14-19, X. 62. 8-11 (praise of Savarni). Among the 
objects gifted the most prominent are cows. In Bg. I. 126. 3 
Kakslvafc represents 1 ' 74 that he received sixty thousand cows 

1973. iw: it^agn ifarvi sttts^vhi grft T!flfi«ig*fwftefi sren gjr» 
n 3 I. 86 = 5m$T<** 232. 28 = mmx I. 23 = ir%&m 8. 65-66. Tufaf 3 5W* 
tnftwTOPft *3lW* • ?P^ SfWmt gsgjn wsrarftoTP* » ** quoted in 
fmft ( srmo P- 6 ). 

1974. an- at vtvn- < m*ft **\ *t£i*at ^t wvH w*g: i •r&j ***** 
»inrm«n?«nm «K«W» 3»fvri^ WJTP* M 5ff. t. 126. 3. SSyana explains «r«wrft- 

838 History of Dharmaiaatra [ Ch. XXV 

from Svanaya, along with ten chariots to each of which four 
bay horses were yoked and in which young girls were seated. 
In Bg. VIII. 5. 37 reference is made"" to the gifts of ten 
thousand cows and of 100 camels by Kasu Caidya. In Rg. 
V. 30. 12 a gift of 4000 cows to Babhru by the men of king 
Rnancaya is mentioned. Horses are also often described as 
objects of gift. e. g. Eg. V. 18. 5 ( gift of 50 horses ), VII. 16. 
10, VIII. 46. 22 ( gifts of 60000 horses, 2000 camels, 1000 bay 
mares and 10000 cows ) ; VIII. 68. 17. For gifts of camels vide 
Ttg. VIII. 5. 37, VIII. 46. 22. For gifts of young damsels vide 
$g. L 126. 3, VI. 27. 8, VII. 18. 22, VIII. 19. 36, VIII. 68. 17. 
The word ' vadhu ' used in all these passages cannot mean that 
the young girls were meant to be the wives of the donees, since 
in some of them the 'vadhus' gifted are as many as 10, 20 or even 
50. 1W * So they were maid servants or female slaves. Eg. X. 117 
contains an eulogy of the gift of food, the 6th verse of which is 
the basis of the later teaching of Manu III. 118, Visnu Dh. S. 
67. 43, Bhagavad-gltft 3. 13 and is as follows : 'the foolish man im 
( who does not share with others ) obtains food to no purpose ; I 
say the truth that it is really his destruction; he does not offer 
food to Aryaman ( i. e. to the gods) nor to his friend ( or guest ); 
one who takes food alone (without giving to others) partakes 
simply of sin. ' This injunction was most assiduously followed 
at all times in India. In the Chan. Up. IV. 1-2 it is stated that 
Janasruti Pautrayana, a man of faith and very charitable, had 
erected everywhere shelters in order to feed at all times 
all people that came from all quarters. Kg. X. 107 (of 
11 verses) is an apotheosis of daksina (gift or saorificial fee 
which generally consisted of a cow or cows ), which word is 
repeated several times in almost every verse. Verses 2, 7 and 8 
are very interesting 'Those who make gifts of daksina (cows or 
fee) stand high in heaven, those who make gifts of horses stand 
in the world of the Sun, donors of gold secure immortality 
(beoome gods), those who give garments inorease the duration 
of their life. Gifts endow ( the donor) with horses, cows, the 

1975. utir f^Nr: fffjt STOBTPtf f?ww Ttf *nwiv. I sir. VIII. 5. 37 ; 
*54 «B.*H»»«<Wlil«IH*Hl5'Ili f«felftf Star I ^5T 5Tffl*t 5WI tpj! Sips^iort ?p?T 
1ft W«WT II *•• VIII. 46. 22. 

1976. anrr*fc >TWy?**f: T9BT5W siW^S^fm I wfijjt srft flwrfii: M ?ff. 
VIII. 19. 36. 

1977. Bt«fntf inf^t aw%HT: w4 spftft «nr (w trcr i *ft*rwt ssrfj) >St 
*rsr4 $rrare> Twft Sswots^ii *f. X. 117. 6. The last quarter is quoted 
by KuUQka on Manu III. 118. The verse occurs in ch «ri. II. 8. 8. 

Oh. XXV ] Dam-eulogy of 839 

moon (silver? ), gold, food which is the life of us and the know- 
ing (donor) makes gifts of his armour. Donors do not die ( they 
reach immortality in heaven ), they do not go down to a low 
goal, they are not harmed, nor do they suffer pain ; daksina 
renders unto these donors this whole world and also heaven '. 
Rg. VI. 47. 23 mentions that from Divodasa gifts of ten horses, 
ten boxes ( i. e. chariots or boxes of gold ), ten garments, in 
addition to dinners and ten lumps of gold were received. 1 ' 78 \ 

It appears that although in the Rg. gifts of horses are 
spoken of as next in importance to gifts of cows, popular 
sentiment changed very early. In the Paundarika sacrifice 
the fee was a thousand horses and in the Jyotistoma one 
cow and one horse ( Sahara on Jaimini III. 4. 28 ). The 
Tai. S. II. 3. 12. 1 says " 79 ' Varuna indeed seizes him ( i. e. he 
suffers from dropsy ) who accepts the gift of a horse and that 
one should offer to Varuna as many offerings prepared on 
four potsherds as the horses accepted.' Jaimini ( III. 4. 28-31 ) 
establishes two propositions in connection with this that the 
isti to Varuna is to be performed when the gift of a horse or 
horses is accepted in a Vedic saorifice and that the isti is to be 
performed by the donor ( and not by the acoeptor). The Kathaka 
Sam. XII. 6 also recommends that the horse should not be 
accepted as a gift, as it has two rows of teeth. In the Tai. Br. 
II. 2. 5 reference is made to the gift of gold, clothes, a cow, a 
horse, a human being, a bedstead and several other objects and 
their presiding deities are said to be Agni, Soma, Indra, Varuna, 
Prajapati &o. The Tai. S. II. 2. 6. 3 says * he who accepts 
an animal with two rows of teeth, such as a horse or a human 
being, ( thereby ) secures ( to himself ) a portion of alman (self) ; 
he should offer a mess cooked on twelve potsherds to Vaisva- 
nara.' Manu X. 89 forbids the sale of the horse and other 
animals with unoloven hoofs ; but the Pehoa inscription from 
Garibnath temple shows that brahmanas engaged in the sale 
of horses and that a tax agreed to be levied from vendors and 
purchasers was made into a permanent fund for temples 
and priests ( vide E. I. vol. I. p. 186 ). Gaut. 19. 16 men- 
tions the horse among objeots that are gifted by way of 

1978. pwwp i £ren»? ?r TOTftmarTr ' isrt ftt u <iR««rfai«ft?Kn*«T- 

fa** n w- VI. 47. 23. 

1979. woft <rr «ja qnrn% ^ts«* nftwift fmte«9T«* fffe|f!Hra( *rmt 

840 History of Dharmai3stra [ Ch. XXV 

penance for gins. The San. Br. ( 25. 14 ) says " ,0 that he who 
after promising to gift all, does not giro all, is reduced to 
falling into a deep pit or is killed. The Ait. Br. ( 30. 9 ) 
enjoins 1MI that one should not accept a gift rejected by the 
priests and if one accepts it it should be given over to 
one's enemy. 

The Sat. Br. ( II. 2. 10. 6 ) says ' there are two kinds of 
devas, the gods ( heavenly ) and the human gods viz. brahmanas 
who have studied the Veda and mastered it ; sacrifice is divided 
between these two, i. e. oblations go to the gods and the fee to 
the learned brahmanas who are the human gods. These two 
kinds of gods when gratified place him { the sacrificer ) in 
nectar ( or in the celestial world ).* mt The Tai. 8. VI. 1. 6. 3 
states that ' it is indeed tapas when " 8S a man makes a gift of 
what he owns.' We saw above ( note 11) how the Br. Up. V. 2. 3 
inculcates the three virtues of self-restraint, charity ( dam ) 
and compassion. In the Ait. Br. 39. 6 ,m it is stated that the 
king when anointed should make gifts of gold, fields and cattle. 
But it appears from the story of Visvakarman Bhauvana 
narrated in the Ait. Br. (39. 7 ) and also in the Sat. Br. ( XIII. 
7. 1. 13-15 ) that when he desired to make a gift of the earth 
to his priest Easyapa as sacrifioial fee the earth appeared and 
sang a verse ' no mortal must give me away as a gift; O 
Visvakarman Bhauvana, you desired to give me away ; I shall 
plunge into the midst of water, so that this your promise to 
Easyapa Is fruitless.' It seems however that gifts of villages 
had oome to be made very early. The Chan. Up. IV. 2. 4-5 
narrates how Janasruti desirous of learning the sarhvarga lore 

1980. <ft 9 $ * tfS qfift tr$ q^TsftRt 5^5t nforita ^nr?( si «rr rffrrtr 
fhr 5 wro *TOtf ^i»mwr W$t w WTO wr>fTtfr%: i 5rt- wr. 25. 14. 

1981. srwnpf £ wrtrrf^rf nf?fq#r*rrirswr g^r ftgr g>*r finrrf^m ■ 
vx^ $*t TnftrrfV«n? um i <hi styrrT q wtw t* ir-rft i <t wi- 30. 9 ; the 
?nw«J III. 5. 1. 25 also has the words crwftfl^-.'ElfrTrct and it adds fWr 

1982. Vide S. B. B. vol. 12, pp. 309-310 and also vol. 26, p. 341 
( where the same passage ooours ). 

1983. qwsss TO m rwiff* tf WtRGt I d. #• VI. 1. 6. 3. 

1984. ijfJn| •j|'i[|'$f^jfi(j<Pn i st ut *rff» swt <fig»?9W ft«WT*>«* s ' 

wt. 39. 7 ; in the ( stht«i XIII. 7. 1. 15 ) the words are <t»jft iffo: 
s«t* sprt i *r wt *Uk w*f 3Tn%«T t 3T»toTO wt *r%wr »ntf ffaft 

Oh. XXV ] mm 841 

from Raikva offered a thousand cows, a golden chain, a 
chariot to which mules were yoked, his own daughter ( as a 
wife) and certain villages to Raikva, which came to be 
known as Raikvaparna villages in the country of MahSvrsa, 
where Raikva lived. 

The literature on dana is of enormous extent. Apart from 
casual references in the other parvans of the MahabhSrata, the 
major portion of the Anusasana parva is devoted to the various 
aspects of dana. The Puranas, particularly Agni (chap. 208-215 
& 217 ), Matsya ( chap. 82-91 and 274-289 ) and Varaha 
( chap. 99-111 ), contain numerous verses on dana. There are 
digests specially devoted to the topic of dana, the most extensive 
and important being Hemadri's Danakhanda (of the Caturvarga- 
ointamani), DanakriyakaumudI of Govindananda, the Dana- 
mayukha of Nllakantha, the Danavakyavali of VidySpati, 
the Danasagara of Ballalasena and the Danaprakasa of Mitra- 
misra. Only a brief summary of the topics dealt with in all 
these is attempted below. 

Wbat constitutes gift ( dana ) according to the sSstra has 
been discussed from very anoient times. There is a distinction 
between yaga, homa and dana. The first is constituted by 
abandoning something that belongs to one, intending it for a 
deity and accompanying it with Vedic mantras ; homa is throw- 
ing into fire something belonging to oneself over which one 
abandons one's ownership and which (thing) is intended for a 
deity ; dana consists in the cessation of one's ownership over a 
thing and creating the ownership of another over that thing and 
this last oocurs when the other accepts the thing, which 
acceptance may be mental or vocal or physical; vide 
Sahara on Jaimini IV. 2. 28 (quoted above in note 1703), 
VII. 1. 5, IX. 4. 32 and the Mit. on Yaj. II. 27. 1985 The Mit. 
explains that physical acceptance may be effected in various 
ways such as by actually reoeiving the thing in one's hand, by 
simply touching it and quotes a smrti which illustrates this 
'one should give (and the donee may accept) a deer skin (by 
touching it ) on the hairy side, a cow by its tail, an elephant by 

1985. tnr«ar vt^r: T^^'t^rtstlvr'^'TfT^v^isTsrton t^. VII. 1. 5; 

»tt*v»it i *ftmx*r f%ft«r: i wrsmr *n%3rt 9rrft*r»rri i ...qrmfar: s^svr^mr- 
faw5PTrf?«<fts*fr?tar: i ire ^r fsfra: vnfit i ymygroniSrti gfc irt && wftoi 
sft i «frtr^<! jrihrp't ^nri i$i</« qw*rq[ t yfit..5Pf n?t s*r: <jrsJrT»fai *m iJWI «r 
*siRiK*A*niH**i«i«t *^5<r*nxg<rwi'T5r »tt^j»v»^ i fihn. on *rnp. II. 27. 

B. D, 106 

842 History of DharmaiUatra I Ch. XXV. 

its trunk, a horse by its mane, a female slave by ( touching) her 
head '. The Mit. adds that as it is impossible to accept a field 
physically (except by enjoying its fruits) its acceptance is 
effected by some enjoyment, however small, of its produce. 
The Visnudharmottara quoted in Dsnakriy&kaumudl p. 7 gives 
more examples of the method of acceptance. Vide Brhat- 
Parasara ( chap. VIII. p. 242 ) for copious illustrations of the 
way in which a gift is to be accepted according to the nature of 
the thing given. The word ' pratigraha ' has a technioal 
meaning in Dharmas&stra. Medhatithi on Manu IV. 5 says "" 
'merely taking a thing (from another) does not constitute 
pratigraha (as understood in Dharmasastra). The latter word 
is applicable only to a particular kind of acceptance viz. when 
a person accepts what is given by the donor with the idea that 
he (the donor) will derive from that act some unseen spiritual 
result ( adrsta or punya ) and when in making the gift a vedio 
mantra is repeated. When one gives alms, no mantra ( such as 
'devasya tvfi') is repeated and hence that is not the dana spoken 
of by sastra, nor does any one apply the word pratigraha to the 
acceptance of an artiole given through affection to a friend or 
a servant. ' When such a word as vidyadana ( gift of learning 
to a pupil ) is used, the word dana is employed there in a figura- 
tive sense only; otherwise the teacher will have to give a 
daksina to the pupil, whereas it is the pupil who may give a 
daksina to the teacher. When some gift is made to an image, 
the word dana in that case is also used in a seoondary sense, as 
the image cannot accept the gift. Therefore Devala defines 
dana (of the iastric kind)" 87 as 'that is described as dana 
when wealth is given according to sastrio rites so as to reach a 
receiver who is a fit recipient as defined in the sastra. What 
is given to a worthy person without an eye to any particular 
object ( to be achieved by such gift ) but solely with the idea of 
doing one's duty, that is called dharmadftna'. The Dana- 
raayukha p. 3 explains that the definition of dana given by 

1986. ^irfomra srifcro i f*f$n? m sfi«it vdttff m i ffofo iwgs- 
5^ri jffcmr* jthtj? %w*'- sfoinit """fit if»>W ^nr wrffenfhBnwmw 
*r f iftanrf»iT ffrcnrft it ^ era unftrs*qr*?ro i ftw> on »rg, IV. 5. 

1987. Wri^t^ qrc * ram<qiH ni y^ i ^r*fanrr»ri«tf?rtf wmmtf rtiv 

1ST!* II \vs quoted by sumk: p. 287, ^|H I »<jm>1*i<f i p. 2, frjnfif ( ^t»TOP»* 
p. 13 ), 4 i mnHn fe ( D. C. Mb. No. 368 of 1891-95 ) folio 2 b. The last 

reads w y*r for ironnj. <nit*«ft fnti fanmwfor jp?)wp* i «&*# *nri3[*t 

*H[»?jr«* ajwrft >' |*W quoted by fcnfit (^pr p. 14 ). 

Ch. XXV ] Dim $43 

Devala applies to the best kind of dana (called sattvika) and not 
to dana in general. If a gift is sent to a person, but it is lost 
while on its way or it is stolen and never reaches the donee, 
then there is no acceptance and so no complete dana and the 
donor cannot reap the reward of dana in suoh a case. 

There are six angas ( constituent elements ) of dana, as stated 
by Devala, ,,M viz. the donor, the donee, sraddha ( charitable 
attitude ), the subject of gift which must have been acquired by 
the donor in a proper way, a proper time and a proper place. 
The first four are clearly indioated in Manu IV. 226-227. 
These six will have to be dealt with one after another. 

One important word that deserves consideration in the sub- 
ject of dana is itfapurta. That word has a high antiquity. It 
occurs in the Rgveda and the sense seems to be 'the cumulative 
spiritual result or merit due to a man's performance of sacri- 
fices and oharitable acts '. Rg. X. 14. 8 is addressed to one 
recently "" dead ' may you join the pitrs, may you be united 
with Yama, and with your iqtapurta in the highest heaven*. 
The word, though employed in the singular ( probably as a 
samahara-dvandva compound ), oonsists of two parts, ista ( what 
is sacrificed ) and purta ( what is filled ). In the Atharvaveda 
also the word occurs •' may the istapurta of our ancestors save us 
( from our enemy ) ; I seize yonder ( man or enemy ) with divine 
wrath* ( II. 12. 4 ). Vide also Atharvaveda III. 29. 1. Some- 
times the two components are employed separately or in the 
dual when compounded. The Tai. S. V. 7. 7. 1-3 has the inter- 
esting observation mo ' when he comes by the Devayana paths, 
then make ye his istapurta manifest to him ; whatever sacrifice 
was offered, whatever was handed over, whatever was given 
and the daksina offered, may Agni present in all actions 
place all that in heaven among the gods for us.' The Tai. 
Br. II. 5. 5 says 199> ' may Isfct and purta last for endless 

1988. ^rar «rfSwftn ^ w^fr %*f ^r *nfg?i i ^»i*iwr *z (tHMiafiiutaift 
^ ftf: II %*W in ^psTWi«FVT= folio 3 a, |*n% ( ^IT p. 14 ). 

1989. «^3?«r fagfa: W *r«JT ?5i ja% ^ «^twt ■ *?• X. 14. 8 ; term- 
ing jti fqjorms ?$ • WT ^ ?r " ^"^ IL 12 - 4 - 

1990. <f^ i « i ^ww 7«Tf^?i^f?gT^f fr\sm4 i Qwfr i ... *ri%B *T*mnri* 
*5* *n «• qfaon i a^RiWfmor: 5^3 **> 3V3 1 s. w V. 7. 7. 1-3 ; gyw- 
WT# «rfihmif$ wftmipf *fa%*n»»* ^ 1 to. #• XV. 54 and XVIII. 61. 

. 1991. *i iff 5w#r*tt *nrrsrf snwnta «rft*sra*a sshtf fromta 1 it. mt, 
11.5.5 ; jnrjf8j ywraror ywwar ?iw wnjr^ft *w$k. 1 jrerjS v misciw • f*T* 

844 History of Dharmasastra t Ch. XXV 

years; having sacrificed with an offering that is ever-lasting, 
a man ascended to the highest and ever-lasting world ' and 
Tai. Br. III. 9. 14 remarks " the brahmana should sing ' you 
made gifts, you performed sacrifices, you cooked food ( for 
serving to others ).' Indeed istSpurfca belongs to a brahmana ; he 
makes him ( the king ) prosper by istSpurfca." The Vaj. S. 
XV. 54 says ' O fire, may you be awake ( or kindled ), may 
you be watchful for us ; join with istapurta ( the sacrificer ) and 
him with his is^apurta.' The Ka^hopanisad I. 1. 8 states that 
when a brahmana guest is allowed to stay in a house without 
being served with food he destroys the istapurta, the issue and 
the cattle of the householder. The Mundaka Up. I. 2. 10 
condemns those who regard istapurta as the highest and do not 
hold that there is anything higher than that and states that 
the; have to come down to this world or to a lower world again 
after enjoying the blessings of Heaven. 

Apararka (p. 290) quotes the Mahabharata for defining 
ista and purta mt ' whatever is offered in the single fire ( i. e. 
grhya fire ) and what is offered in the three srauta fires and the 
gifts made inside the vedi ( in srauta sacrifices ) are called ista; 
while dedication of deep wells, oblong large wells and tanks, 
temples, distribution of food, and maintaining publio gardens — 
these are called purta.' Apararka quotes Narada also ' Honour- 
ing a guest and performance of vaisvadeva constitute ista 
while the dedication of tanks, wells, temples, places for public 
distribution of food and gardens is called purta and also gifts 
made at the time of eclipses, or on the sun's passage in a 
zodiacal sign or on the 12th day of a month.' Hemadri ( Dana 
p. 20 ) quotes Sankba that nursing of those who are ill consti- 
tutes purta. Manu ( IV. 226-227 ) ordains ' one should always 
assiduously perform ista and purta, which when done with 
sraddha and with wealth justly acquired become inexhaustible. 
One should ever resort to danadharma ( that mode of dharma 
which consists in gifts ) which is either ista or purta, according 

1992. Rrnrroi^ i q^iriS^ f«n* itarnit *na g^ i aratffort <* Tgrsn^K- 

smr% p. 290 (vide note 370 for qpfr &o. ) ; the 2nd verse is &fk 44, whilo 
wfir 43 defines fs as at&g/r* m: arq-^rnrf ^r qrcPfft I anfitaf ta^nt 
fsr5re*rf»r3t'r& It. rai%ff 5 is the same as arfir 43. Vide £*rrf% ( ^Tr 
j. 20 ) where ijsjrf&o and 3?ftr£r4a are ascribed to $rj ; also wt 68-70 
and wfirgwr 209. 2-3 which define f* and ^ almost in the same words 
o« »f% • 

Oh. &XV ] Dana 84$ 

to one's means, after meeting a worthy person (as recipient ) and 
with a pleased attitude of mind.' 

Any one including women and sudras could make gifts. 
So much emphasis was laid on the duty to make gifts that 
Apararka quotes a verse ,SM ' two persons should be drowned in 
water after tying round their neok a large stone, viz. a rich 
man not making gifts and a poor man who is not a tapasvin 
( who undergoes austerities or who is restrained )■' It is stated 
in Atri 46, Likhita 6 and other smrfcis that im ' Ista and purta 
are dharma common to all twice-born classes ; the sudra has 
authority to perform purta dharma, but not the Vaidika dharma 
( sacrifices etc. ).' According to Devala the donor should be 
free from incurable or disgusting diseases, be religious, chari- 
tably inclined, free from vices, pure and following a blameless 
profession for livelihood. Several smrtis note that it is a 
rare sight to see a man giving away in charity wealth earned 
by him. Veda-vyasa"* 5 ( IV. 60 ) says ' amongst a hundred 
men, one may be found to be brave, among thousands a learned 
man, among hundreds of thousands an orator, but a donor may 
or may not be found.' 

A good deal has already been said above (pp. 113-114) about 
the persons fit to be donees {patra) and an unfit one. A few more 
words may be added here. Daksa III. 17-18 states 'a gift 
made to one's parents, guru, friend, to a well conducted man, 
to one who has laid the donor under obligation, to the poor, 
the helpless, those endowed with special excellence, leads 
to rewards, while gifts made to rogues, to bards, to wrestlers, 
to those who devote time to bad lores, to gamblers and 
deceitful persons, to catas, to oaranas and thieves brings no 

1993. gifcncg siSsrwri t« *rn?r Hfnwm i vnwa qia K srffcf 'smnri?*- 
u»I. it quoted by amrfe p. 189, ?mrnwra folio 2 a. This is g^fnrrl 
33. 60 ( which reads ymwrft Of^rewft)- 

1994. yfftsjff ffc^ritat *r& wmpir fwrii • wiSrenfr H**iprt # <**f «t 
3f^<& II W\% * 6 > f^T^r 6 and quoted by AparSrka p. 24 as sn^jmj's. &<m~ 
?pft «miW fitq&wiH t gf%: i sriVwmrrow? % T^wqun snaro* ii %*«* 
quoted by smra P» 288 i $*rilr ( 3T*r P- 14 )• <m*frs are said to bo 
eight suoh as Tuberoulosis etc. 

1996. ?% arr«j?r qp: *n$$ i <rftw: ■ Twi wwcifcj qm *nxh *r * 
*T!i^nrrcrlV. 60. 

846 History of DharmasSstra [ Ch. XXV 

fruit ( or merit ). ,,M Manu 4. 193-200 ( = Vienu Db. S. 93. 
7-13 ) contains a list of persons to whom gifts should not be 
made, such as a brabroana who is like a cat or hypocrite or who 
does not know the veda. Brhad-Yama III. 34-38 enumerates 
those brahmanas who are unfit to be invited at a sraddha or 
to be donees such as lepers, those who suffer from incurable 
diseases, those who officiate at sacrifices for sudras, a devalaka 
and seller of Veda (teaching it with a prior stipulation for money) 
and in IV. 55-56 says that gifts made to brahmanas that are 
addicted to bad aotions, that are covetous, devoid of Veda study 
and sandhya performance, who have swerved from the vows 
proper ( for brahmanas ), who are wicked and who are immersed 
in pleasures of sense become fruitless. Vanaparva ( 200. 5-9 ) 
enumerates 16 futile gifts such as to one who left off the order 
of saihnyasa or of wealth acquired by unjust means &c. Almost 
the same verses occur in Brhat-Parasara ( VIII. pp. 241-242 ), 
which are quoted in Par. M. I, part 1, p. 188. Vide also Vrddha- 
Gautama (III. chap. pp. 508-509) for numerous futile gifts. It 
is one's duty to give food at the end of Vaisvadeva to all (vide 
note 1779 above) and the Visnudharmottara directs that as to gifts 
of food and clothing the only consideration is whether the donor 
is hungry or in need of olothes and not caste nor qualities. I9M * 
When on seeing a needy person the donor feels pleasure and 
indicates it by a smiling faoe, when he shows honour and is 
free from a feeling of ill-will or irritation (towards the sup- 
pliant), that is said to be sraddha, according to Devala. 1997 Manu 
IV. 235 says that he who gives a gift with honour and he who 
accepts it with honour both go to heaven, but if the reverse is 
the oase they go to hell. 

Numerous rules are laid down about the things that can 
be the subject of gifts (i. e. about deya). Whatever is in this 

1996. u ra rifoftaV i fa* ifcfi& srrouTTftfa ■ tfi«nsTr«reT*TSg «pr ^ *tr* 

3$T III. 17-18, the 2nd verse being quoted by snrci$r f • 286. About the 
meaning of esfa that occurs in many grants there is no unanimity. The 
Mit. on Ysj. I. 336 ( ^rSRWT. &o. ) explains <*vtti JWIWrit f**qri*«r ^ WW- 
mv&tl- Vide E. I. toI. IX p. 284 n. 10, p. 294, XI. p. 176, XIV. p. 156 
for discussion of the meaning. 

1996a. *rwrayrersnr*3 <rnf ^ f^n^n • w«*t uftoi <mr fifrwft n***t 

«3fil I faigwffc: I ^PW^jW p. 5. 

1397. ?ig«qnifttta'iffcf«n7t q?ft wm i ««iifon i «m<a * a^r *r$rft 

^TRHt ii if*H quoted by smrfc p. 288. 

Ch. XXV ] LEna-subjects of gift 847 

world a most; desirable thing and what one prizes most in one's 
house may be given to a man endowed with good qualities by a 
donor who desires inexhaustible (merit) from it— Anusasana 
parva 59. 7.'* M According to Devala, that is a proper subject 
for a gift, which has been acquired by the donor himself without 
causing pain or loss to another or without worry or trouble to 
himself, whether it be small or valuable (or much ). ,M * It is 
not the extent of the gift that causes greater or lesser merit. 
Merit (pw&ya) of gifts depends upon the mental attitude, the 
capacity of the giver and the way in which the donor acquired 
his wealth. If a man 8000 were to give even the whole earth 
acquired by unjust means, or if he makes a gift without sraddha 
( as defined ) or to an unworthy person he would secure no 
prosperity (religious merit) thereby. On the other hand by 
making a gift of even a handful of vegetables with a heart full 
of sraddha and to a very worthy person, he may secure all 
prosperity. If one possessing a thousand makes a gift of 100 or 
one having ten makes a gift of one and another gives only 
water according to his ability, they all reap an equal reward. 

Among deya things, some are the best, some middling, some 
inferior. Food, 8001 curds, honey, protection, cow, land, gold, 
horse and elephant — gifts of these nine are said to be the best ; 
learning, house for shelter, domestic paraphernalia ( like oots ), 
medicine— -these four are said to be middling; shoes, swings, 
carts, umbrellas, vessels, seats, lamps, wood, fruits and what- 
ever is old and worn out and all other unspecified objects 
are inferior. YSj. ( I. 210-211 ) appears to have this difference 
in view when he says that a man, making a gift of land (capable 

1998. <rpffew< wfts -ram qfti y% I d^"m3 ^i irqiwviirmm « 
wgsrram* 59. 7 = wr^fcr 35. 52-53 =*^r 71 39. This is ftu^q. ^. 92. 32. 

1999. smprnwftef wf %«ir&tf T*m i **?* *t ftg^ «nft %q®nn"fo ft~ 
ifit H %f*5 quoted in amt% p. 288. 

2000. wmm/3'nl fwr nsnrt jMni? i »i<t ' n ' J*mmn t astray qjS- 
jrpnmi « "fPT strati^ wi srgr*rf&tf*j*ftn'* i ns^ "rrspgjrpr w*f*3f»mw- 
*TT?J II %TO quoted by 3mr% p. 290 ; «?wsjf%«f 5t* $nr5tf%J^$nft "* I ^VX' 
?W *T: 5l*m «?55TO!r: *f*rr: II SKT^af&fi^ 90. 96-97 ; qsst ijf ^$iS*for^ 

qf*r ^trrat 'ftsm't 1 srcf wwa jw i re ff gg*nreT f^ £ " 3^5^01 211. 1. 

2001. aw ^fSr »rg *r4 »ftTWwn«3?'RsR: 1 JfwgWTjrprrpi 3^j*nrwj- 
qTSTBT: 11 fHn ^i^iq^iTiH^ffoWwrP* 'rr i ^frfa »rw*n*ftf9 wr*44«<m»w: 1 
Tir^^fiTTrf^ yjmmi+Mii^ ** 1 ^taflfrnj*rfie{ift ^vrf ^TrfS^^ 1 1 wywrepi- 
grwrmt iPPft $fa| •fc'rcr i w«wim»;r5tBifl fl^fiwrcft ftf : 11 ^5 quoted by 
smxk pp. 289-90, %writ ( *r*° pp. 16.) 

848 History of Dharmaiastra [ Ch. XXV 

of yielding a crop or fruits), lamp, wood, garment, water (water- 
reservoir ), sesame, ghee, house for travellers, money for 
sotfcling a person as a married man ( or bringing about his 
marriage by finding a girl for him), gold, draught ox, is honour- 
ed in the heavenly world, while one who makes a gift of a 
house, corn ( of various kinds ), protection from danger, shoes, 
umbrella, flowers, unguents, conveyance ( ohariot &o. ), tree, 
a desired thing, a cot secures endless happiness. Gifts of three 
things are said to be superior to the gift of anything else and 
are styled 2002 atidana, viz. of cows, land and SarasvatI (vidya) 
according to Vas. Dh. S. 29. 19 and Brhaspati 18. Vas. Dh. S. 
29. 19, Manu 4. 233, Atri, 340, Yaj. I. 212 say that the gift of 
vidya is the best of all gifts such as those of water, food, cows, 
land, garments, sesame, gold and clarified butter. On the other 
hand Anusasana-parva ( 62. 2 ) and the Visnudharmottara 
( quoted by Apararka p. 369 ) say that the gift of land surpasses 
all other gifts. The Visnu Dh. S. 92. 1 says that the gift of 
protection from danger (abhayadana) is the highest. The gifts 
of certain objects were called mahadanas. These and a few other 
danas will be dealt with in some detail later on. 

Danas are divided into nitya ms ( called ajasrika by Devala), 
naimittika and kamya. Whatever is given everyday (such as 
food after Vaisvadeva &c. ) is nitya, what is given at certain 
specified times (such as on eclipses) or on account of doing 
certain acts (suoh as penance for lapses) is called naimittika. 
what is given through the desire of securing progeny, victory, 
prosperity, heaven or a wife is called kamya (as it springs from 
a desire). Dedication of a garden or of a well &c. is called 
dhruvadana (permanent gift) by Devala; while the Kurma- 
purSna adds to the well-known three a fourth division called 
vimala ( pure ) defined by it as ' what is given to those who know 
brahma for securing the grace of God with a mind full of 
devotion.' Vas. Dh. S. 29. 1-15, Visnu Dh. S. 92 and Manu 
IV. 229-232 ( which are repeated in Vrddha-Gautama, chap. XL 
p. 586) and many of the puranas are eloquent over what 

2002. sftwng Tfarpn ffi »n*t s«fr arpnft i wnr^tsf f$ fTrr*rt ftaffpr 

mftf&fj* I *f%S 29. 19 ; aifjf ^T«m% *T*tfoT gf foftqWgW Ta I a*3*nH«t 62. 2. 

2003. srortmraT*rn% *r$5>WKt! sptt. i «qi«ifa*ft<*iig4^ *nM> f^ « 

T%«n^rro?fann% ^genr, i firnr *fa<%#; jfffij tnfut ffrrafSrcm. ■■ %*ff quoted 
by arnijrp.^2 89 and fcnf% (spsio p. 16); ^«<«!fMiinl W«rffc« *#"t > 
"$ircn *rf%5%«r ^r«f ffi^rjj tfaq. ii $ «fj*m quoted by jhrffir ( trrf • p. 17 ). 

Oh. XXV ] ffina 849 

rewards a man reaps by making gifts of water, food, sesame &o. 
The Bhagavad-gltS (17.20-22) divides danas into sSttvika, 
rajasa and tamasa and defines them as follows: When a gift is 
made because one feels it one's duty to make it and at a proper 
time and place and to a worthy person who will not return it, 
it is called sSttvika; when it is made with an expectation of 
the donee doing a good turn in return or with a view to secu- 
ring some reward therefrom and is given grudgingly, it is 
rajasa ; when a gift is made at an improper time or place and to 
an unworthy person and without showing honour to the reci- 
pient and with disrespect (or contempt), it is declared to be 

Many texts emphasize a rule similar to that in the Bible 
' But when thou doest alms, let not thy left hand know what 
thy right hand doeth, that thine alms may be in seoret'-Matthew 
VI. 3-4. Yogi-Ysjfiavalkya says 80 °* that the reward of 
making gifts secretly, possessing knowledge without being 
puffed up and engaging in japa without others seeing it is infi- 
nite. Devala says 'sacrifice, gift and study lose their power and 
perish by being declared to others, by boasting about them or 
by repenting of having done them. Therefore one should not 
without good reason (such as protecting a gift&c.) proclaim 
one's meritorious act.' 

Certain things when offered voluntarily by a person with 
his own hand must be aooepted and not spurned even by one 
who does not ordinarily accept gifts. Manu IV. 247-250, Ysj. 
I. 214-215, Ap. Dh. S. I. 6. 19. 13-14, Visnu Dh. S. 57. 11 declare 
that kusas, vegetables (raw), milk, fish, fragrant substances, 
flowers, curds, clay, flesh, a bedstead, a seat, fried barley, 
water, precious stones, fuel-sticks, fruits and roots, honey, food 
offered without being asked ( except of the impotent, of prosti- 
tutes and of patita ) must not be spurned, but must be acoepted. 

Certain objects could not be donated either because one had 
no ownership over them or because the sages forbade suoh gifts. 
Jaimini ( VI. 7. 1-7 ) establishes several propositions, viz. that 
one can make a gift only of what one owns, that one cannot make 

2004. sramtft «« ^nrrft m* "* i*U<j*««t 1 *ic?jTft ^ ssHif^ «rrt <k?j- 
«9Wra»^ » " flP i q i mm quoted in w. x- p. 243 ; «S$nimi7 149 is *W*nf^ 

(!) * ^enft «<rh% wwmtc « ; fi f^nfttr <n f frmmrg^fafawt > 

a wv i awN*'***! ^ Hgthft frmft i re»rrspwgw y>$ «r %vx t ivafla^ i fog 
quoted by «T*I$T p. 290, forffc ( ?1T. p. 17 ). 

H, o. 107 

850 History cf DharmaiHstra [ Ch. XXV 

a gift of one's relatives (parents, sons and others) in the Visva- 
jit, that a sovereign cannot make a gift of the whole of hie 
kingdom, that horses cannot he gifted in that sacrifice as sruti 
forbids such a gift in that sacrifice, that a sudra who serves the 
sacrifioer merely as a duty cannot be given away and that what- 
ever is of the full ownership of a person at tbe time of giving 
the daksina can alone be gifted in the Visvajit sacrifice. 
Narada 200 ' (dattapradanika 4-5) forbids eight kinds of gifts 
viz. of what is handed over to a creditor by a debtor for delivery 
to a third person, what is borrowed for use ( such, as an ornament 
on a festive occasion ), a pledge, property jointly owned with 
others, a deposit, son and wife, one's entire property when one 
has children, what has been already promised to another man. 
Daksa III. 19-20 enumerates nine things as not proper subjects 
of gifts ( adding to NSrada's list ' a friend's wealth and gift 
through fear' and omitting 'what is already promised to another'). 
Yftj. II. 175 is of similar import. Apararka p. 779 quotes verses 
of Brhaspafci and Katyayana to the same effect. Vide above 
( pp. 507-508 ) as to a man's power over his children. 

The texts took care to set limits to a man's generosity. After 
emphasizing in very eloquent language the obligation to share 
one's possessions, however meagre, with others, Veda-Vyasa 2006 
(IV. 30-31 ) inculcates the doctrine that charity begins at home. 
Ap. Dh. S. II. 4. 9. 10-12, Baud. Dh. S. II. 3. 19 ordain that one 
should not stint one's dependents ( whom one is bound to main- 
tain), one's servants and slaves for distributing food to guests 
and others. Yaj. II. 175 prescribes that one should make gifts 
in such a way as not to cause detriment to one's family. 
Brhaspati* 007 explains this by saying that one may give away 

2005. ap>*TfH trrfesrarmft: «wrrt ft *ra( ■ ftsfo $*?rcta *r$^ 
*at**$ *rfi»- 1 3n«??**f5 fj srcrrs tjptt^st %i|sn i w%*rr*<n£«n<q , pr? is5T' i i^ 
sfiUpp* ii *mt ( q^iimf ftq? 4-5 ) ; arwiW *nf^rtf «rtw wn%rfan S55^ • 
OTif^ti ^ fa$<Tt *rfor «sp^ Hfit • wmt*«ffi h % i «nfa «w **<ih ^*F^t i *ft 
m® ft qjnwr in*i*rsn^ «ro « ^sj III 19-20. 

2006. « rarqrt% t5i§T&«JT *rar5*n% f^a i%5 n ?r% f^rn* «** §* mvnft 
<wRr ii fife «i^t 9rr^ffs?r %i>W> «re*ng«r: • Tsr'if^aiir'srPfr t^fa^u wiwgii 
irtmvifffr? immfwrs $r * *fi»r& i g *« i a<M)t t%t*: sr^t wft nrewrfa » Jinr- 

*rar« wis *^J^ f 1 3rn<mTf^tj *ft ^«n^ ^ftsinrt wfafaim: i fig: swift qrt 
«vtf *ng^nrn i nftwrt sttwrstf w^ ^wspp* h 3<|«qm^fi T IV. 16, 18, 
24, 26, 30-31 quoted by fcnrrf* (&* ) p. 33 ; vide sn^TO 209. 32-33. 

2007. yswrshn+Hii^ tr^Rift^iji i *nwT?«ri^r ft«f «r«n^ ^i5»l»TiN«ir 
*rt^ « ItfWft quoted by awn* p. 780 and fc*nft ( qr«ro p. 44 ). 

Oh. XXV ] Dana-limits of 851 

wealth that is over and above what is required for maintaining 
one's family and for clothing and that the charity of one who 
disregards this rule is something that is sweet like honey at 
first but like poison in its effect. In this Brhaspati only eohoes 
what Manu says (XI. 9-10) 'the charity of him who has wealth 
enough to make gifts to strangers, when his own people live a 
life of misery, is only a false imitation of dharma ( and not the 
true dharma), it is at first like honey but will taste like poison 
( later). Whatever a man does for his welfare in the next world 
by stinting those whom he is bound to maintain results in un- 
happiness to him while living and also after death*. The 
Anusasana parva ( 37. 2-3 ) declares that if one makes a gift 
stinting one's servants, he makes himself a sinner, even though 
one may say that one would give whatever any one begs for 
( compare Luke VI. 30 ' give to every man that asketh of thee ' ). 
Hemadri quotes 2008 Sivadharma to the effect that a man Bhould 
set apart three parts out of five from his acquisitions for him- 
self and his family and two parts for dharma, as life is 

Certain things were forbidden to be accepted as gifts. The 
gift of animals with two rows of teeth was forbidden by sruti 
( vide Sahara on Jaitnini VI. 7. 4 quoted above ). Vas. Dh. S. 
13. 55 declares that a brahmana should not acoept the gift of 
weapons, poisonous substances and spirituous liquor. Manu 
IV. 188 states that a brahmana who is not learned should not 
accept the gift of gold, land, horses, cow, food, garment, Besame, 
clarified butter ; but if he accepts he is reduced to ashes ( i. e* 
perishes ) like wood. Hemadri ( Dana p. 57 ) quotes the Brahma- 
purana that a brahmana should not accept the gifts of ewes, 
horses, precious stones, an elephant, sesame and iron, and that 
one who accepts a gift of antelope skin or sesame would not be 
born again as a male and that if a person accepts the bedstead, 
ornaments and the clothes of one who is dead he would go 
to hell. 

As to the proper times for gifts, several rules are laid down. 
Apart from the daily duty to make gifts (Yaj. I. 203 ) gifts 
had to be made on special oooasions and if so made were more 
meritorious than the gifts made daily. Laghu-Satatapa (145-153) 

2008. ^fflrac fa*Tnt ftrn-r sfm^nr itbrpt^: ■ HTTBpf g tjwfsforfHr* *ftflW 
«ras ti ftmn? quoted by $jrrf§- ( frsr. p. 4* ) and frsm^w p. 5. . 

852 Hidory of Dharmaiastra [ Oh. XXV 

says t00> that a gift must be made on the first day of each ayana 
( the sun's passage to the north or south ), at the beginning of 
Sadaslti and while an eclipse of the sun or moon is in progress 
and that the rewards of the gifts made on these occasions are 
inexhaustible. Vanaparva 200. 125 is to the same effect. A 
gift made on Amavasya imparts rewards a hundred times ( of 
the reward of making it on any ordinary day), a thousand times 
when made on the suppression of a tithi, a hundred thousand 
times when made on the equinoctial day and a gift brings 
endless rewards when made on VyatlpSta. Samvarta (208-209) 
says that gifts made on the ayana day, equinoctial day, vyatl- 
p&ta, the suppression of a tithi and on the eclipses of the sun 
and moon, on new moon day, 12th day, samkranti (sun's passage 
into a zodiacal sign) becomes inexhaustible and these tithis are 
highly commended and so also Sunday for a bath, japa, noma, 
dinner to brahmanas, fast and gifts. 2010 Satatapa ( 146) states 
that 16 ghatikas before and also after the moment when the sun 
enters a new zodiaoal sign is the holy time for gifts, while 
others give 30 ghatikas ( before and after ) for Karkataka 
(Cancer samkranti), 20 for Makara (Capricorn) and 105 for Tula 
(Balance) and Mesa (Aries). VisvarQpa on Yaj. 1.214-217 
states that the times specified as the proper ocoasions for sraddha 
are all of them the most appropriate times for making gifts. 
Vide Fraj&pati 25 and 28 and Atri 327 for similar rules. Sankha 
says that if amavasya falls on Monday, the 7th tithi on 
Sunday, 4th on Tuesday, 8th on Wednesday— these four are like 

2009. 3T*r^ fa«r^ <t^ n i d»nifta&s * ' ^it^Tm i ft ■* ^ry <ia^^ » 
tprro 200. 12S ; sprsirr^ w& <*m yqfta 5% 'rot 1 qa}ftfd*i$ %* fag^R 
uroreffit : n ggyramq 145, quoted «s ?rnrm by ami^r p- 291 - Th * sun'a 
entrance into the signs of Gemini, Virgo , Sagittarius and Pisoes is 
called «rs^m% ; vide ffmrgTC p- 2 *5 and 3iWk p. 292 quoting *ffcsr, 
ajfirnror 209. 9-10. 

2010. $Rrfn*g$r^ ?pt *nnsr g f%tqnf 1 fvj^ $ittuigff «jrfim?l <*«i^i*h, n 
gggmmw 150 quoted as nrnps by 3PTtT% p. 292; ft*TO<r p. 144 also quotes 
the first err? . When three tithis occur on the same day it is called {%w$w 
as the middle one is suppressed in the calendars ( vide aufttj? P- 292 ) ; 
srerifrf is quoted as tjt%<> by |wrr? ( ?TW p. 69 ). nnftirra ia one of the 
27 ^tirs beginning with f3 s »m and is defined as wwrforci^snrfcwrVlff- 
*W% 1 Ttpn <faiftui TStaTfl: c g^rW n ( 13T*T3 according to wuro^ p. 
426)— when the moon is in the constellations of Sravana, Asrinl, 
DhaniffhB, irdrS, Asless (first quarter ) and amSvgsyS falls on Sunday 
it-is VyatlpSta. Even BSna in the Harsacarita IV states that Harfa was 
born on a day that was free from all inauspicious conjunctions such as 

Ch. XXV ] DUm-special times for 853 

eclipses and so gifts made on these days yield infinite rewards 
( quoted by Hemadri, danakhanda p. 66 ). The Visnu Dh. S. 
chap. 89 deals with the rewards of the gifts of various articles 
made on the full moon days of the twelve months of the year. 
Anusasana chap. 61 speaks of danas on the 27 naksatras 
from krttika. 

The general rule was that gifts were not to be made at 
night. But there are several exceptions. Atri 327 states that 
a gift even at night is commended on the occasions of eclipses, 
marriages, samkrantis and the birth of a child. Devala 8011 
quoted in Par. M. I. part I, p. 194 has a similar verse and the 
Far. M. adds that only on the Cancer and Capricorn samkrantis 
are gifts allowed to be made at night. 

The above rules about the special occasions for gifts are 
amply borne out by epigraphic evidence. A few examples may 
be cited. A very large number of grants on copper and stone 
relate to gifts of lands and villages at the time of solar eclipses. 
For example, vide Tiwarkhed plate of Eastrakuta Nannaraja 
dated iake 553 (653 ? ) in E. I. vol. XI. p. 279, I. A. vol. VI, 
p. 73 ( in iake 534 i. e, 613 A. D. ), the grant of 30 nivartanas 
of land purchased for 30 gadyanakas of gold on a total eolipse 
of the sun in 754 A. D. in the time of Calukya Klrfcivarman II 
( E. I. vol. III. p. 6 ), E. I. vol. III. p. 193 ( of iake 716 ), 
E. I. vol. IX, p. 100 ( in 660 A D. ). Grants on the occasion of a 
lunar eclipse are found in J. B. B. It. A. S. vol, 20, p. 135 
( Navsari plates of Eastrakuta Mahasamanatadhipati Karkaraja 
issued in iake 738, i. e. 817 A D. ), in E. I. vol. I. p. 341 (Patna 
Inscription of the time of Yadava Singhana dated sake 1128 i. e. 
1207 A.D.), E.I. vol. 19, p. 41, E.I. vol. 20, p.'125 (in safhvat 1108). 
Grants on ayana days may be seen in I. A. vol. 12, p. 193 
(Haddala plates of the Capa Mahasamantadhipati Dharanl-varaha 
issued in sake 836), the Safijan grant of Amoghavarsa dated 
iake 793 (Uttarayana-Mahaparvani). Grants on Samkrantis are 
found in E. I. vol. VIII. p. 182 ( Dhulia plate of Karkaraja 
dated 'iake 701), E. L vol. XII. p. 142 (in 1087 A D. ), 
E. I. vol. VIII. p. 159 ( in samvat 1207 ). It may be noted 
that not only on the sun's passage in a rasi, but even on 
Jupiter's passage in a rasi ( Taurus in this oase ) a grant was 
made as seen in Lucknow Museum plate of Klrtipala ( E. I. 
vol. VII, p. 93 in safiivat 1167 i. e. 1111 AD.). A village was 

2011, Trff3?fa£wri8!rf^*risw<j'srifs i wrqwrTs;* f^f^tft *n*»n«fr3 
f It %^c7 quoted by $tnfsj ( ?T*r p. 81 ). 

854 History of Dharmaiastra [ Oh. XXV 

granted on Visuvasamkranti to a brahmana in honour of Buddha 
by Mahlpftla I, a-king of Bengal (vide E. I. vol. XIV, p. 324). 
For grants on Aksaya Trtlya (3rd of the bright half of Vaisakha) 
vide E. I. vol. 14, p. 198 ( when 32 villages were granted to 500 
brShmanas in samvat 1156) and E. I. vol. VII. p. 98 (Lar 
plates of Govindacandra of Kanoj in saihvat 1202 ). For a grant 
made on MahakartikI (the full moon day of Kartika) vide E. I. 
vol. X, p. 75 ( which is a grant to several brahmanas for ena - 
bling them to offer bait, caru, vaiivadeva, agnihotra and the five 
mahayajflas, in Ealacuri saihvat 292 i e. about 540 A. D. ). 

The places ( deka) where gifts are to be made are also speci- 
fied in the smrtis, puranas and digests. Gifts E0,B made in the 
house yield ten times as much merit (as when made elsewhere), 
a hundred times when made in a oowpen, a thousand times 
when made in sacred places ( tlrthas ) and an infinite number of 
times when made near an image (or linga) of Siva. The Skanda- 
purana' 01 * quoted by Hemadri ( dana p. 83) states that Benares, 
Kuruksefcra, Prayaga, Puskara (Aimer), the banks of the Ganges 
and of the ocean, Naimisa forest, Amara-kan^aka, Srlparvata, 
Mahakala (at Ujjayinl), Gokarna, Veda-parvata — these and 
the like are deolared to be holy places resorted to by gods and 
siddhas; all mountains, all rivers and the ocean are holy ; the 
habitations of cows, siddhas and sages are also holy; whatever 
is donated in these sacred places confers infinite reward. 

When making a gift of anything one has to pour water on 
the hand of the donee. Ap. Dh. S. II. 4. 9. 9-10 801 * states that all 
gifts are to be made with water exoept in the case of vedio 
sacrifices where they are to be made as directed by the vedic 
texts. Gautama V. 16 says the same. In the case of all gifts 
they are to be accompanied by a separate daksina. The Agni- 
purana M,s 211. 31 makes an exception in the case of gifts of 

2012. ii% sfsrsjuf ^tt 'Trs"^* Vffiiy*H'5 a, nftii5 w^m*^ f$nra , f«'ft m 

quoted in jtpth^S p. 8. 

2/13. wm°nfY $*#* jtopt: s*imf3r «* i T^rossrefa ^r^nwrwt- 

wSfiww'iSNis gorm *r*f »tcti wmrTTt ■ *n Jitii [ Qft 4 m m %?tt: yrr: usjftiSffT: i 
7g ST*/w rrgtf *'d , wiHWJfi , :3%?i I ^n^^ »ur q- by §mfsi[ Ott P. 83 ). 

2014. miuj^^/ii" ! ^nrn% i ^sirgfa ftfft • stW- T. % II. 4. 9. 
9-10 ; ^tf^rsrrsT Ptsh^ihwwj;*)^ i q^rrcfg; %* «*»% i »n- V. 16-17. 

2015. w^w^fsmf fpi a* %w qftsw i fast* eria^rvT^wtfr* gtf ?f?: h 

vipt ini t iftm nnA+o/1 Viw m*0» ^ ■»-. *. 111 \. -..Jit—I £L_ __-_l __ - JL _fi_ — 

Ch. XXV] Dana 855 

gold, silver, copper, husked rice, com, daily sraddha and daily 
devapuja ( which may be without daksina ). That daksina should 
consist pre-eminently of gold, but if gold itself is the article 
donated then the daksina may be of silver. In the case of very 
costly gifts like tulapurusa, the daksina may be one hundred or 
fifty or 25 or ten mskas or one-tenth of the price of the thing 
gifted or according to ability. 

Hemadri ( Dana pp. 96-97) and Danaraayukha (pp. 11-12 ) 
quote verses from the Visnudharmottara stating the presiding 
deities of the several articles that are donated ( such as Agni of 
gold, Prajapati of dasas, Rudra of cows &c. ) and adds that 
wherever no presiding deity is specifically named Visnu is the 
presiding deity. Those very verses are quoted as from the Kapila- 
pancaratra in the DanakriyakaumudI (p. 5). The Agnipurana 
( 209. 40-48 ) has similar verses. This notion is derived from the 
Brahmapas and Srautasutras which speak of Rudra as the pre- 
siding deity of the gifts of cows, Soma of garments, Prajapati of 
human beings and so on ( vide Tai. Br. II. 2. 5, Ap. Sr. 14. 11. 3 ). 

The general procedure of making gifts may be stated here 
once for all. The donor and the donee should have taken 
their bath and should wear two white garments each, the donor 
should wear a pavitra, perform acamana, should face the 
east, should wear the sacred thread in the upavlta form, 
be seated on a pure seat (of kusa &c- ) and seat the donee 
on a seat and make him face the north, then the donor should 
utter the name of the subject of gift, its presiding deity 
and the purpose for which he makes the gift, and say 

• I make a gift to you of such and such an article, * 
pour water on the donee's hand, and when the donee says 

* give * the donor should sprinkle water on the subject of gift 
and place it into the hand of the donee, who utters the syllable 
•om' and says 'svasti'. Then daksina is given to the donee. 
The detaile d formula is set out below.* 016 Necessary changes 

8016. The formula may be described as follows: arcr :ag^ Jtn% 

in*: wg^r?!*? wswnfTR: srgqriirsrPT sr^^'wr a^sranot arnjrorr*r ^k- 
5*rff«f 3?5^-^r 3«rRt #51?% era Qir*wft fl^st ^ ^trer. i wfrar mrm-^ 
Stfrwr wsrfrra fl%3 t a£rnrrf%° 3<»i * ttirfl*-<rr ^tt a?5*<iH*4ur: jrfSsi'l 
^WTf atgwnrsrrv wsfrsraor wnjrrpr 3«ih£ ^^^ i jut era ?f§r*>ri girm; i. 
Vide wfirgnot 209, fcqr<| (jrpwn) pp. 506-7 and qrpr%Tr^5^ PP. 14 & • 
for the procedure. The ariinj^Tor 209. 59-61 mentions the following 
pur posea for which gifts are usually made ' j^^rar^lsr^i'fttmf'B^rjont ■ 
erfHSf^i*nrr8ffm-«V«rr«Tifr»tTf5r^ i «*Twrt5n^T5 wn«5 gros^ < q^^r 

fciT^r jfrrai ^ ?f<: fin: H 

856 History qf Dkarmaiastra [ Ch. XXV 

have to be made as to the statement of the occasion, the receipt 
of the subject of gift &o. ( if it is land or a house, it cannot be 
received in the hand ; the donee simply walks round it or on it 
or enters it ). 

YSj. I. 133 prescribes that the king should daily make gifts 
to brahmanas learned in the Veda, of milch cows, gold, land, 
houses and the requisites of marriage ( i. e. maidens, expenses 
of marriage &o. ). This was nothing new that was prescribed 
by Yaj. It has been followed for ages by the kings. The 
Vanaparva 8017 186. 15 states that he who makes a gift of a 
maiden in the brahma form or of land enjoys bliss in the world 
of Indra. We find from the inscriptions of Usavadata so18 (pro- 
bably in the 1st oentury A. D.), son-in-law of Nahapana, at Karle 
and Nasik that he gave 3 lakbs of cows, 16 villages to gods and 
brahmanas, fed one lakh of brahmanas every year, got eight 
brahmanas married at his own expense at Prabhasa ( in 
Eathiawar ), built flights of steps on the river Barnasa, con- 
structed quadrangles, houses and halting places (pratiiraya) 
at Bharukaccha (modern Broach), Dasapura (in Malwa), 
Govardhana (Nasik) and Sorparaga (modern Sopara), con- 
structed wells and tanks ; kept free ferry boats over the rivers 
Ib&, Parada, Damana, Tapl, Karabena, Dahanuka ( all between 
Thanaand Surat); established meeting halls and shelters for 
gratuitous distribution of water ; conferred 32000 oocoanut trees 
in Nanangola (modern Nargol) on the assembly of brahmanas 
of the Caraka Sakha at Bamatlrtha in Sorparaga and three other 
places. He adds that be purchased from a brShmana for 
4000 karsapanas a field that originally belonged to the brahmana's 
father and made a grant of it for supplying food to the assembly 

2017. *ft wnrSprt g *ren% *i"rt ^ajRm^m <* mtft fifo i ^ifa ^i*f 
ftftrr "* t«t w «4l*hm«ifo <4t*^<*<i n ^ri$ 186. 15. 

2018. Vide B. I. vol. VII. p. 57 for Karl© Inscription No. 13 of 
Usavadsta and E. I. vol. VIII p. 78 (for Nasik No. 10) ' u g liHW srwr- 

■wl^sr •ftwww^'f 3»gpt^ «i$i ui*ih-h iB+fwly in f*J ■*!! wref g<«rff«r ww- 
Srwrt 3WHnr^%*r *««<d ?5ii% nt*^ sftafot ■* ■4d»nwn« q'n1to?'for 

<rarot ** *nfwt T*prsitfH ^OTnpnwftT 'ftoifcwrwS nhr^ y *< u ^ ii^ sftrWt ^ 
Ti»nW i < wu « fy yt inft »rm»n% ffrSreRrsTTfe^jwyws^T iftW* Brrfarj 

<wSf«rahmrT T^jHsmr^i fer«*ptT «rs wrgriw trmfsjsrw wf*»- 

vffa *§ tifrm »j$»r wfrraw?#ft ^raft 4000 *r*rt%*nrer •nretfrm'r 
^rrotrtnj ^«rr <rft »w 3ft to^pi ^rrsrftanr Prg^rro gwnrnit *ifift»f| i 

(Nasik No. 10 ). 

Oh. XXV ] DSnarfor settling brdhmaxuxs 857 

of monks coming from all quarters that dwelt in the cave 
constructed by him. This is certainly a formidable list of 
benefactions for one ruler. 

As to spending money for the marriages of brahmanas and 
settling them as householders, a few words may be said here. 
Daksa 80, » III. 32-33 says 'The merit of him, that establishes a 
brahmana who is without father or mother by performing his 
samskaras and by getting him married, is beyond reokoning' 
A man does not secure that bliss by observance of agnihotra or 
the performance of Agnistoma, which he seoures by establi- 
shing a brahmana in life'. Apararka (p. 377) quotes a long 
passage from the Kalikapurana about Naiveiika dana. Its 
purport is briefly as follows : ' The donor should choose eleven 
brahmanas of srotriya families ( devoted to the study of the 
Veda) and of good character and conduct, should build eleven 
houses for them, should get them married at his expense, should 
furnish the houses with stores of corn, with cattle and maid 
servants, beds, seats, vessels of clay and copper and other 
utensils for taking food and with garments ; and having thus 
furnished the houses, should settle the eleven brahmanas in the 
eleven houses and for their maintenance bestow upon each one 
hundred mvartanas of land or a hamlet, or half a village ; he 
should induce the brahmanas to be agnihotrins. By so doing 
he secures all the merit that is secured by the performance of 
sacrifices, vratas, various danas or pilgrimages to sacred places 
and enjoys in heaven all pleasures. A man who is unable to 
do as much as above may settle only one brahmana according to 
his means and he secures the same rewards '. In the Epigraphic 
records there are numerous instances of kings spending for the 
marriages of brahmanas. For example, the Aphsad Inscription 
of Adityasena ( vide Gupta Inscriptions No. 42, p. 203 ) speaks 
of gifts of agraharas on the marriages of one hundred brahmana 
girls to brahmanas. A copper-plate grant of the Silahara 
prince Gaudaradifcya speaks of the king having got 16 brah- 
manas married at his expense and of having created endow- 
ments of three nivartanas for each for their maintenance at the 
time of their marriages (vide J. B. B. R. A. 8. vol. 13, p. 1, 
dated 1032 iake). As the brahmanas were supposed to lead a 

2019. «rar%R?W 3 WttMite n Hll?PT» i t:Wiiii( w^W swrtraiu 
i fhr& it * ^<nffrg ft aT Trfirsft* &**fk i <r%r: srre^ im ftfa wrftiihT 
^ » ^H HI. 32-33. The Erst i» quoted by amw£ p. 378. 

H.D. 108 

858 History of Dharma&Mra [ Oh. XXV 

life of comparative poverty, plain living and high thinking 
and aa they were the inheritors, preservers and transmitters of 
the saored literature of the country, as they also engaged in 
teaohing without stipulating for any fee, the State that had in 
those days no settled educational system as in modern times 
deemed it its duty to provide the resources which would enable 
the brShmanas to carry on their self-imposed task. Yaj. II. 185 
deolares that the king should set apart in his capital a place 
for the habitation of brShmanas learned in the Veda, should 
establish them there, should provide means of maintenance for 
them and then say to them 'follow your duties' (svadharma). 
Apararka quotes (p. 792) thereon from Brhaspati several verses 
that add 'the king should bestow on the brahman as who are 
learned and kindle the sacred fires (agnihotrins) houses and 
lands under his own edicts from which no taxes in the present 
or future would be levied. The brahmanas so settled should 
perform for the citizens their religious rites whether daily or to 
be performed on occasions or kamya or for averting evil omens 
or for the sake of prosperity and should give decisions in the 
cases of doubts. They should make rules and conventions for 
the whole village or for corporations and guilds and for reli- 
gious purposes. Those rules must be observed and when there 
is trouble caused by rogues and thieves all must join to put it 
down and that object must not be left to one person.* * 080 These 
prescriptions indicate what benefit was expected of the marriages 
and settlement of learned brahmanas. Kaut. II. 1 also pres- 
cribes that lands free from taxes and fines should be settled 
upon purohttas, srotriyas &c. There is nothing peculiar to 
India or to the caste system in this. Among the numerous 
oharitable purposes mentioned in the preamble to the Statute of 
Elizabeth (43 Eliz. chap. 4) which (preamble) is even now 
applicable in England ' the marriage of poor maids ' is one. 

The gift of land has been eulogized as the most meritorious 
of all gifts from ancient times. Vas. Dh. S. 29. 16 quoteB a 
verse whioh is found also in Brhaspati 7, Visnudharmottara 
and Matsyapurana (quoted by Apararka pp. 369, 370), the 

«t* it fa?tf *ftf%*i (mrwf srrmraj rdifrti hvt « tflnorf qjjf 5^ *rf?^>$ f»»wif 
quoted by *mw p. 792. 

Ch. XXV ] Dana-of land 85$ 

Mahabh&rata ( Anusasana 62. 19) and which says ' whatever mi 
sin a man may commit when in straitened circumstances, he 
is purified therefrom by making a gift of only as much land as 
is equal to gocarma'. Apararka (pp. 368, 370) quotes many 
verses from the Visnudharmottara, the Adityapurana, the 
MatsyapurSna on the high rewards reaped by the gift of land. 
The Vanaparva mi ( 93. 78-79 ) declares ' whatever sins a king 
is guilty of in bringing the earth under his control, all those 
he gets rid of by performing sacrifices with munificent gifts ; 
by bestowing on brahmanas lands and cows in thousands, the 
king becomes free from all sins as the moon is freed from 
darkness' ( Rahu ). Anusasana 59. 5 voices the popular 
sentiment that ' gifts of gold, cows and land save even the 
wicked '. 

2021. *rfo5fa?5*a <ntf s*p?t s Rrarffw: i wf% 'ft ! *iT«nic»r qffi^ i H* 
8wnrii«(^29. 16, 3»^frraR62. 19,f?. 7, HiSwrgw 4. 164. 18. The 
mm. on 71. I. 210 quotes it as Manu's and reads the 2nd <rr^ as 'STPWtS- 
Sfrswtsft <n '• Bihaspati defines gocarma as equal to ten nivartanas and 
a nivartana is detined by him as land that is 30 rods (square) with a rod 
of ten cubits, ^srereta ^i* f%$T5»if^&T»r.i ??r errs^r ftsrrd ifta&iwTifr- 
"K3* « f?- 8. The mfrrajii on *rr. I- 210 quotes f f . us whs^t...^ ap^r* 
«fr^3 3*f r ^fw?hm I . 5inrra«T I. 17 also reads ' ^5i3Td«T &<s ». Br. 9 gives 
another definition of gocarma 'that extent of land which a thousand 
cows with their calves and a bull occupy without being compelled to 
stand doing nothing is called gocarma ' *rftj nfa»3# 3 T3 ffrg^'nnSfcpP* t 
•trsWHrorgjTPrt a$ha»f %Gt *%&l It. fXt^K XII. 49 says that that land which 
a hundred cows with one bull occupy without being closoly packed 
together is gocarma. Visnn Db. S. 5. 181 defines gocarma differently 
as ' that much land of whatevor extent the crops raised on which will 
maintain one man for a year '. Vide Apararka p. 1225 and HemSdri 
( Vratakhanda, part 1 pp. 52-53) for soveral definitions of gocarma. The 
word nivartana is very anciout. Kant. (II. chap. 20) says thai danda 
is equal to four aralnit, ten dandas are equal to one rajju and 3 raj jus are 
equal to a nivartana (so that a nivartana iB 30 dandas). The Baud. Dh. S. 
(III. 2. 2-4) speaks of a brahmana who maintains himself by cultivating 
six nivartanas of land. A field of 100 nivartanas is mentioned inNasik 
Inscription No 5 (E. I. vol. VIII p. 73 ). The word nivartana occurs 
also in a grant of tho Pallava king Sivaskandavarman (E. I. vol. I p. 
6 ). Vide E. 1. vol. XI p. 280 for a note on nivartana. 

2022. *rtr: 5^r fafaiftwi ufanwtw* ' ** *f& wwijtf^sa^iw^: it 
wrf 33. 78-79. 

860 History of D/iarmaiastra [ Ch. XXV 

As gifts of land were so highly valued, the smrtis contain 
numerous rules about them. Yaj. (I. 318-320)* 08 * prescribes the 
following rules: ' when a king makes a gift of land or bestows 
a nibandha he should execute a writing ( about the gift ) for the 
information of future good kings. He (the king) should issue a 
permanent edict bearing his signature and the date on a piece of 

2023. ^rtt igjw fasmi *t ^srr r^ 3 wre^ 1 3nnnw»nrg<Tra<m3rr«TT*T 

n\. I. 318-320. f%*rew on m. 1. 316-320 reads ^PTi^^hrjofajj andremarks 
'•m^PTOWr., u<m i N&3 3«y#.qrf% *<J...*v.& ^fr.^rit.' For the verse q(§... 
*%^vide Appendix. Nibandha is a fixed .payment to be made every year 
or month or on certain occasions to a person or temple or the like, as for 
example of so many betel leaves or bctelnuts out of each load of betel 
leaves or nuts. It is translated rather inaccurately as corrody by 
Colebrooke and others. Visvartipa on Ysj. II. 124 explains it as ' a per- 
manent endowment' (aksayanidhi) ; the Mit. explains ' qqft*r MiuflHWHl '- 
*rar *pm: WH gofcfT^hri^cr qorfft'. The Mit. explains '?T:T*#9t- 
«r*o?iH> differently as ' gni^ fffi qrw $ran^ ?TCf "%? t...*WWiaft (— «TT^ V ) 
fW»T ffwf?»int ^ twrhnpfot.'; amra» p. 579 ' ari$m irtfc s»m^w a>?rcsnifc- 
^g-!T»r^r JJWsT qfitanr «fT $«nr. '. This passage of Ysj. is cited in 
The Collector o/Thanu v. Hart 6 Bom. 546 (F. B.) at pp. 557-558 and tho 
definition of nibandha from the VyavahSramayukha in Ghdabhai v. 
Hargooan 36 Bom. 94 at p. 101. One of the versos of ffwfS is 3W&3J- 
tfTiypr Hfm^i^rSm^ i ^fg-i^rn^tciTsi g^rWsnrpraj* n (stums? p. 579). 
For examples of the grants of nibandhas,vide E.I. vol. XIV p. 295 at p. 309 
where memerous dues on articles are given to a temple by the ParamSra 
king CSmundarBja (on one bharaka of candied sugar and jaggery 
one varnaks and on loads of cotton thread dyed with manjifths one 
rupee, one cocoanut on a load of oocoanuts, one betel-nut from ono 
thousand nuts, one palika on each jar of ghee or oil ), E. I. vol. XII at 
p. 331 (Inscription at Yewur dated 1105 A. D. as to a gift of nibandha 
for the benefit of a temple of Kettava ' on sales of areca nuts an impost 
of five areca nuts on each gold piece and 25 leaves on each load of betel 
leaves ' ), E. I. vol. XI p. 26 at p. 30 the grant of one hUra of barley 
corn for each water wheel for the worship of a Jain saint in sathvat 
1167 ), E. I. vol. XI. p. 35 (grant in Sam. 1189 for two palikm of oil from 
each oil-mill payable to the shrine of a Jain saint), E.I. vol. XI. p. 37. In 
the MathurS BrShrai Inscription of the 28th year of the reign of the Saka 
king Devaputra Huvisku ( about tho beginning of the 2nd century A.D.) 
a permanent endowment was called ' akeayan Jvi ( E. I. vol. 21 p. 55 at 
p. 60). So also the same word is used in the Nslands stone Inscription 
of the time of Ya&ovarmadeva with regard to a Buddhist temple ( E. I. 
vol. 20 p. 37 at p. 89 ). Vide also E. I. vol. 15 p. 15 and E. I. vol. 17 p. 
345 at p. 348. The Gupta Inscription No. 62 (p. 261) records the gift of 
twelve golden dinHras made as an aksayanlvi (a permanent endowment) 
from the interest of which one IMtyu was to be fed every day. 

Oh. XXV ] Dana-rules about land grants 86l 

cloth or on a copper-plate marked at the top with his seal and 
write down thereon the names of his ancestors and of himself, 
the extent ( or measurements ) of what is gifted and set out the 
passages (from smrtis) that condemn the resumption of gifts'. 
Visvariipa the oldest extant commentator of Yaj. states that the 
edict or order should also bear the names or signatures of the royal 
officers such as ajna, dutaka, the name of the place where the 
king's army is encamped &c. and that the names of women 
( such as the queen mother or queen ) should be mentioned, and 
that verses stating the result of resuming gifts made by former 
kings should find place in the edict. Apararka (pp. 579-580) 
quotes long extracts from Brhaspati and Vyasa on the same 
subject. Brhaspati says that a royal edict recording a gift of 
land should be executed on a piece of cloth or on copper-plate, 
should state the place (of issue) and (the names of) the king's 
ancestors, that it should be stated to last till the sun and moon 
endure, that it was not to be resumed or taken back and was 
to be free from all future taxes and that it was to go on to the 
sons and grandsons from generation to generation (of the donee), 
it should state that heaven would be the reward of the donor and 
those that continued the gift, that the result of the resumption of 
the gift would be hell for 60,000 years to the resumer and it 
should bear the king's seal, the year, the month, the fortnight and 
day and should bear the signature of the superintendents (royal 
officers). Vyasa after stating these requisites adds that the 
edict should be addressed to brabmanas and other respectable 
people, to the king's officers, to all householders and to all 
others including medas and candalas, that it should state that 
the gift is made for securing merit for one's parents and 
one's self. 

The thousands of copper-plate grants and inscriptions on 
stone published so far show that these directions contained in 
Yaj., Br. and Vyasa have been followed to the letter from at 
least the 5th century onwards. In the earliest inscriptions verses 
about the merit of gifts and the sin of resumption do not ocour. 
For example, in Gupta Inscription No. 8 ( pp. 36 fif ) dated 88 of 
the Gupta Era ( i. e. 407-8 A. D. ) of Chandragupta II the only 
words ( in prose ) are ' whoever would cut off this charitable gift 
would be guilty of the five great sins'; similarly in the Gupta 
Inscription No. 5 (p. 32) dated Gupta era 93 the words are 
• whoever would destroy this charity now set on foot would be 
guilty of the murder of brahmanas and cows and of the five 

862 History of Dharmaidstra [ Ch. XXV 

sins that bring immediate punishment '. In the Inscriptions of 
the early Pallava king Sivaskandavarman also ( E. I. vol. I 
p. 7 ) such verses are not found. In the copper-plate grant of 
Skanda-gupfca ( dated 146 Gupta year i. e. 465-66 A. D., Gupta 
Inscriptions' 08 * No. 16, p. 68 ) there is a verse on the point, but it 
is not one of those that are found in most inscriptions. 

In the earliest records verses lauding gifts and deprecating 
their resumption are few (one or two) but in later records their 
number increases. For example, in the copperplate of Maitraka 
Vyaghrasena (E. I. vol. XI, p. 221) there are only two verses and 
in the plates of Dhruvasena dated Gupta-Valabhi sarhvat 206 and 
210 respectively there are only two and three verses ( E. I. vol. 
XL pp. 107, 111 ), while there are 16 verses in an inscription of 
Yasahkarnadeva dated in Ealaouri samvat 823 ( E. I. vol. XII 
p. 205 ) and 15 verses in the copperplate grant of Cahamana 
Ratnap&la dated in Vikrama samvat 1176 ( E. L vol. XI, pp. 
312-313 ). In most of the inscriptions containing these lauda- 
tory and imprecatory verses, they are cited as from Vy&sa or 
Manu or from smrti in general. In the Appendix ms a 
list of about forty such verses is given and in the footnotes 
it is pointed out wherever possible from what smrti or other 
source they are taken and a reference is made to some of the 
earliest inscriptions and grants where they occur. The 
references will show that these verses occur in inscriptions from 
all parts of India. Two of the most usual verses are : ' the 
earth was donated by many such kings as Sagara and others ; 
whatever king is lord of the earth at any particular time enjoys 
the reward ( merit ) of the gift of that land. The donor of land 
enjoys bliss in heaven for sixty thousand years and he who 

2024. *ft nrsiSgi^iHri fiNgf Whir g^ift uNiRrer: vr- 1 h <mns: ia- 
fH*i**ahi»r«d*nt: Hflrfalisr^w i From Gupta Inscription No. 16 at p. 71. 
In the Sanjan plates of Amoghavarsa I ( E. I. vol. 18 p. 235 at p. 251 ) 
occurs besides 6 verses tbo following prose passage ' v*f i^rRierfHtTJar- 

«vn%ft I '. Vide also E. I. XI. (of Valabhi era 206 ) p. 107 for the 
same words. 

2025. Vide Pargiter's paper in J. R. A. S. for 1912 pp. 248-255 for 
some verses relating to gifts of lands in land grants. He deals with 
only seven verses and refers only to the PurBnas and the MahBbhSrata. 
In my notes ( in the appendix ) an attempt has been made to trace 
some of them to the smrtis. It is quite possible to traoe more of these 
verses in the smrtis if a more thorough search were made than I could 
find time to make. 

Ch. XXV ] Dana-land grants 863 

destroys ( or resumes ) it or who abets the destruction dwells in 
hell for the same period.' In spite of such imprecations it 
appears that lands donated by former kings were sometimes 
confiscated by their successors. For example, in an inscription 
of IndrarSja III dated iake 836 it is stated that the king 
restored four hundred villages that had been confiscated by 
former kings ( E. I. vol. IX, p. 24 at p. 33 ' purvaprthvlpala- 
viluptani ) ; in the Talmanchi plates of Calukya Vikramaditya 
I ( dated 660 A. D. ) there is a recital that \he re-established the 
endowments of temples and brahmanas that had been lost in the 
three kingdoms' ( E. I. vol. IX. p. 100 ). The RajataranginI 
( V. 166-170 ) states that king Sarakaravarman ( in the first half 
of the 10th century ), the son of Avantivarman, deprived 
temples of all their properties for replenishing his treasury 
emptied by his vices. 80 ' 6 ParSsara ( XII. 51 ) says that the sin 
of resuming land already donated cannot be expiated even by 
performing a hundred Vajapeya sacrifices or by the gift of 
millions of cows. In the Khoh plates of Parivrajaka Maharaja 
Samksobha ( Gupta Inscriptions No. 25 p. 115 ) dated Gupta 
samvat 209 ( 028-529 A. D. ) there is a peculiar curse pronounced 
on him who would interfere with his gift ' him who would 
interfere with this gift I shall, though functioning in another 
body ( on aocount of rebirth ), consume ( burn ) with terrible 
ourses ( or imprecatory thoughts )'. Vide also Gupta Ins. No. 
23 p. 107 of G. S. 191. When a grant of a village or villages 
was made kings excepted therefrom grants already made in 
favour of shrines of gods and brahmanas. For example, in the 
Pikira Grant of Simhavarman ( E. I. VIII. p. 162 ) it is stated 
' this village is granted by us as a gift to brahmanas excepting 
the cultivated lands given as endowment to gods ' ( devabho- 
gahalavarjam ). In E. I. vol. X p. 88 ( of 697 iake ) the grant 
exoludes ' the portion already bestowed on gods and brahmanas ' 
( purvapratta-deva-brahma-daya-rahitah ). The grant of the 
village by the Candella king Paramardideva in sam. 1236 
expressly excludes five balas ( land measure ) of land granted to 
Buddha ( i. e. to a temple of Buddha then existing ). Vide E. I. 
XX. at p. 129. This shows that a Hindu king respected an 
endowment already made to a shtine of Buddha or to a 
monastery of Buddhists ( devasrl-buddha-satka-paficahalam 

** "mm 'I TTsmrf^oft V. 166 and 170. 

864 History of DharmaiMra I Ch XXV 

bahiskrtya ). Vide also I. H. Q. vol. VIII for 1932 p. 305 
( plates of Bhoja dated safit. 1079 where the expression ' deva- 
brahmana-bhuktivarjam ' occurs); E. I. vol. II p. 360 (sam- 
1162 ); E. 1. 14, p. 194 ( mm. 1150 ); E. I. vol. I, p. 85 at p. 88 
( G. S. 334 ). There are many instances where kings making 
grants of a field say that they purchased it from the owner 
and then bestowed it. For example, in E. I. vol. 17 p. 345 there 
is a grant by Kumaragupta ( G. S. 193 ) of this character and 
see p. 856 above where such a grant is referred to. Even in the 
most ancient grants what is granted is set out with great parti- 
cularity. A few examples will show this. In the Nasik Inscrip- 
tion No. 3 of Vasithlputa 8027 Siri-Pulumayi ( E. I. vol. 8 p. 65 ) 
the grant is in these words ' And to this village of Samalipada 
( S&lmalipadra ) we grant the immunity belonging to monk's 
land, making it not to be entered by royal officers, not to be 
touched ( by any of them ), not to be dug for salt, not to be 
interfered with by the district police, ( in short ) to enjoy all 
kinds of immunities '. So also the Mayidavolu plates ,088 of the 
Pallava Sivaskandavarman state ( E. I. vol. VI, p. 87 ) ' to this 
village of Viripara we grant all the immunities enjoyed by the 
brahrnadeyas. Let it be free from digging for salt, free from 
being interfered with by the district police ( or officers ), free 
from supply of bullocks in succession, free from the entrance of 
soldiers, free from supply of boiled rice, water pots, cots and 
lodgings, with these and all other immunities prescribed ( by 
rules) regarding all brahmadeyas, we have caused it to be 
exempted*. In the Gupta Inscriptions No. 55, p. 235 (the 
Chammak copperplate of Pravarasena II ) B0M there are numerous 
words about the various taxes and exaotions remitted which it 
is difficult to understand at this distance of time, but some of 

2027. <nwsr tthk «wQm<4« t»!rg?B<T%r< farcin snrrcw? wfnrw 
s rcftqreryfi wTOsrffrrtNr *H3Utmftg i K"<K <*■ i E. I. vol. VIII at p. 65. 

2028. qirtrirniH' ftffcrw *re«rar%«r Tftyf* forcpr 3?wh>rcmr«i? wrstf- 

ffnTgi^flju^m w^rR^m^ if^rn%ft i E. I. vol. VI. at p. 87. 

2029. mn i jftmmu w: ...ari^a: i snrtvnf^rt sinarrgwrt ^l afa r gP T- 

*rRf&: trftrftftt tretHHrvcCETi wwflrf|"w*'itfl<< : 5prlhrrg>r*w: wwirt «r 
%<n%f "TTVUT: qnfa: I Gupta Ins. p. 238; at p. 136 (G.S- 214) the words are 

fffn — wtann hWR«t( w^TSH=r»^'rr n3rtHM«iH«f«MM*<ir<ri?w*?{M«jHiit- 
*WT*ft— ^ftrj'wfSntr' ( here only the fines imposed npon thieves were 
exempted from the gift ), 

Oh. XIV] Dana-land grant*' 865 

which, may be stated ' it was to be free from taxes, not to be 

entered by the regular soldiers, nor by catas, it was to be 

entirely free from all obligations of forced labour, it was to 
carry with it hidden treasure and all deposits. ' 

It is often stated in the grants that lands or villages are 
granted with the eight bhogas (vide B. I. vol. VI. at p. 97, the 
Gadag Ins. of Hoysala Vlra-Ballaja in iake 1114). The eight 
bhogas are enumerated in some of the inscriptions themselves. 
In the Srlsaila plates of Virupaksa (of iahe 1388) they are 
stated to be nidhi ( treasure trove ), niksepa ( what is deposited on 
the land ), vari ( water), asman (stones, mines), aksinl ( actual 
privileges), agami (future profits), siddha (what is already 
brought under cultivation), sadhya (waste land that may in 
future be turned into cultivable land ). 80M In the times of the 
Marathas when lands or villages were granted it was usual to 
put in such words as ' jalataru-trna-kas tha-pasana-nidhi-niksepa ' 
( water, trees, grass, wood, stones, treasure-trove and deposits). 
It has been decided by the modern Indian Courts that these 
words conferred on the grantee ownership in the soil itself and 
that in the absence of these words it is possible to hold that the 
grant was only of the royal share of the revenue and not of the 
soil itself. 80 * 1 

The question whether the king is the owner of all land in 
his kingdom has been discussed from very ancient times. 
Jaimini (VI. 7. 3) states the proposition that in the Visvajit 
sacrifice ( where the sacrificer has to donate everything that 
belongs to him ) even the emperor cannot make a gift of the 
whole earth of which he may be the ruler, since the earth is 
common to all ( to the sovereign as well as to those who cultivate 

2030. fofaf^PTfrw* s?f§iu<ji«iiffi*J3T*in i fins*n*<n*ii3 <srnrro*fnT*j' 
4H9H. n B. I. vol. 15 at p. 22 ; in the Conjeevaram plates of gwr^rTPf 
( sake 1444 ), the verse runs ' f^Rf ^UM i q i u i w^'Hltq^M il MflH, I sjft'njr- 
■nfi KrgnfrmnJTwf W^tfH » '• Vide also E. I. vol. I. at p. 400 ( sake 1451, 
in Canareae ) 'f^f?r$r<r5T3imraTwf3roft sTpnfdfawRrori «rcfr«r wrstrpRnrs- 
W«W $faf<U T g B «*kS «ftgqTft ' E. I. vol. XIII p. 34 n 1 and I. A. vol. 19. 
p. 244 for the meaning's of these words. 

2031. For a grant where these words oocnr and Which was held to 
be of the soil, vide Bavji v Dadaji 1 Bom. 523 ; for a grant whioh 
was held to be of the royal share of the revenue only, vide the grant in 
Vaman v the Collator of Thana 6 Bom. H. 0. B. (A. C. J.) 191. Vide alio 
Amrit Vaman v Hari 44 Bom. 237 about the interpretation of the words 
* water, grass &o. '. 

H. D. 109 

866 History of Dharmaidstra I Ch. XXV 

it and make use of it ). Sahara 80 '* elaborates this hy adding that 
others have as much right over the earth as the emperor, that 
the emperor is entitled to a share of crops produced from the 
earth as his since he protects them ; but that all other persons 
also walk on the earth, produce crops on it, get their sustenance 
from it and so they also have rights over the earth and therefore 
there is no difference between the emperor and other persons as 
to rights over the earth. This view is relied upon by the 
Vyavahararaayukha' 088 which says ' therefore it is said in the 
6th chapter of Jaimini that the whole earth oannot be given 
away by the emperor and a province by a feudatory chief. The 
ownership in the several villages and fields on the entire earth 
or in a province belongs to the holders of the land alone, while 
kings are entitled only to collect taxes. Therefore when kings 
now make what are technically called gifts of fields, no gift of 
land ( soil ) is effected thereby, but only provision is made for 
the maintenance of the donee (from the taxes which are 
alienated by the king). Where however houses and fields are 
purchased from the holders thereof ( by the king ) he has also 
ownership ( over the fields &c. ) in those cases and he in such 
cases secures the full merit of the gift of land ( if he makes a 
gift of such fields)'. These passages embody the important 
proposition that the state is not the owner of all lands, but is 
only entitled to levy taxes from the holders of land. 

There is another view also according to which the king was 
the owner of lands and the subjects were only occupants. This 
latter view, being more convenient and paying, has been adopted 
in modern times by the British Government in its policy and 
legislation ( e. g. vide section 37 of the Bombay Land Revenue 
Code, Bombay Act V. of 1879). The Mit. on Yaj. I. 318 
states ,0M that the words of Yaj. imply that the privileges of 

2032. w qjfts yrrer* W << Tfr i 5) BHiT fr I & VI. 7. 3 ; w ijrR^fir ■ $?r: I 
^WPir«fh?hrr<T wgrr gvr»?r w %ww jrssr'TtewHni}' ■ str? i v ^frsfr wrr* 
*ttw: wirfi? *rc*ft i iri&ft «*m jit: i sw: i TPrcrr ^forr«r«T fmrWfat n$flfc«rra- 
trrwTTft i w irsr «Jjf$ifireTO • *mfaWr ?*jr?ftrar t^tt jf*r«rt w^ffwi srwr- 

2033. Vide for the text my edition of the nre g T W^W p. 91. 

2034. vfim^tiM *jfir*Tw t»wwrji> «niiwrct w trWrrofir wfSnnrj 
fihrr. on *rr. I. 318. Numerous grants were addressed to rS^trapati, 
visayapati, bhogapati &o. Vide Gupta InB. No. 24 p. 110, B. I. XI at 
p. 82 ( 1076 sain. ) and XII at p. 34 for the word ' bboga ' in the sense of 
a. district in a. kingdom '. Bhukti also has the same sense. 

Ch. XXV ] Dana-land grants 867 

making a gift of land or of a nibandha belonged only to the 
king and not to the governor of a provinoe or a district under 
the king. The Mit. on Yaj. II. 114 quotes a smrti 803 * 'land 
passes on the "happening of six circumstances viz. with the con- 
sent of one's village, of one's agnatic relations, of samantas, and 
of one's coparoeners and when accompanied with water and 
( daksina of ) gold ' and remarks that the consent of samantas 
( neighbours ) is only necessary as a safeguard against disputes 
about boundaries and that of the villagers is necessary for 
giving notice of the alienation to all. As the king is not men- 
tioned here, the king's consent does not appear to have been 
necessary for the gift of land by a private person. But it 
appears that the king's consent was sometimes sought for gifts 
by private persons and obtained e. g. in Gupta Ins. No. 31 p. 135 
Maharaja Sarvanatha ( G. S. 214 ) approves of a gift of two 
villages made to a person and his sons and grandsons in succes- 
sion for the worship of the goddess PistapurikadevI by a donee 
to whom they had been originally granted. 

On account of the great value attaohed to copper-plate 
grants as documents of title, there were great temptations to 
forge them. In the Madhuban copper-plate of Harsa ( E. I. vol, 
VII. p. 155 at p. 158 ) reference is made to a grant fabricated by 
a certain braumana named Vamarathya about a village called 
Somakundaka. Manu IX 232 prescribes death as the penalty 
for fabricators of royal charters. Vide Fleet on ' Spurious 
Indian Records' in I. A. vol. 30, p. 201. 

From Manu and other smrtikaras it appears that so far as 
lands already brought under cultivation are concerned they 
appear to hold that the ownership of the land is in the culti- 
vators and the~king is only entitled to levy taxes for the 
protection he affords. In Manu VII. 130-132 it is stated 
'the king should take a fiftieth part of cattle and gold and a 
sixth, 8th or 12th part of the orops and a sixth part of trees, 
flesh, honey, ghee, perfumes, herbs, liquids, flowers, roots and 
fruits &o.' and in X 118 Manu allows the king to raise his 
demand in times of emergency to a fourth of the produce of 
land. Manu IX 44 states that a field belongs to him who 
uproots the stems of trees and shrubs from waste or unculti- 
vated land. Manu VIII. 39 provides that in anoient treaaure- 

8035. wirrH9rn%HtH»H!rmujisi«^H «* i ifr«r«r\^i^r>w *fprf*sfit 
Stf^ift ii Urn. on *n. II. 114. 

868 History of LharmaiMra [ Ch. XXV 

trove found underneath the ground and in mines the king is 
entitled to a share because he affords protection and because he 
is lord of the earth. This militates against the view that the 
king is the owner of all lands, since, if that were so, Manu 
would have declared that the king took all the mines and 
treasure found in a cultivated field. In VIIL 243 Manu 
prescribes a fine for a oultivator not cultivating his field 
at the proper time or allowing the crops to be eaten up. But 
this would not make the king the owner, since the fine is 
imposed because the king is deprived of his share of taxes by 
the action of the cultivator. All these passages show that Manu 
held that the ownership of arable land was in the oultivator 
himself and the king was only entitled to demand a oertain share 
of the produce ( which is designated bhaga or kara as in Manu 
VII. 133). This is further supported by the conduct and praotioe 
of powerful but good kings who purchased lands from their 
holders when they wanted to donate lands already cultivated* 
It may be conceded that land that was waste or not cultivated by 
anybody was deemed to belong to the king. Manu (VII. 115-119) 
enjoins that the king should appoint a headman for a village 
and officers for ten, 20,100 and a thousand villages, that each of 
the preceding one was to report to the officer next above him 
about crimes and other matters, that the headman of a village 
was to take for his livelihood the perquisites ( such as food, fuel 
&c. ) that the king could daily demand from the villagers, and 
that the other officers were to be remunerated by grants of 
plots of land ( which when first granted must have been un- 
cultivated ). Kaut. II. 1 states that land prepared for cultiva- 
tion may be granted to cultivators who will pay a tax for life, 
that lands may be confiscated from those who do not cultivate 
them and may be given to others, that lands bestowed upon 
superintendents, accountants and similar persons as remunera- 
tion cannot be sold and mortgaged by them. For want of space 
this subject cannot be further pursued here. In modern times 
opinion has been sharply divided on the question whether the 
revenue from the land is in the nature of rent or is a tax. 
Baden Powell in 'Land Systems of British India' vol. I, 
pp. 240, 280 holds that land revenue is not rent but is a tax. In 
an elaborate judgment delivered by Sir Michael Westropp O. J. 
after exhaustively reviewing the original Sanskrit texts 
( pp. 30-39 ) and the works and reports of famous statesmen and 
writers such as Elphinstone, Munro, Mill and Wilson (pp. 39-53) 
the conclusion arrived at is stated to be that 'the proprietary 

Oh. XXV ] D&na-agrahSra and mahadanas 869 

right of the sovereign derives no warrant from the anoient 
laws or institutions of the Hindus and is not recognized by 
modern Hindu lawyers as exclusive or incompatible with in- 
dividual ownership ' ( p. 53 ). soM 

The word agrahcira has been applied to the grant of lands or 
villages to brahmanas from very anoient times. It occurs 
frequently in the MahabhSrata e. g. Vanaparva 68. 4, Aarama- 
vasiparva 2. 2, 10. 41, 13. 11, 14. 14, 25. 5. Vide E. I. vol. I, p. 88 
(grant of the Valabhi king Dhruvasena III. in G. S. 334 i. e. 
653-654 A. D.) and in the Madhuban copper-plate of Harsa 
dated in the 25th year of his reign (i. e. 631, A. D., E. I. vol. I, 
p. 73 and VII at p. 158). 

Gifts of certain kinds are called Mahadanas. Aooording 
to the Agnipurana M3T (209. 23-24) the Mahadanas were ten, 
viz. gifts of gold, horses, sesame, elephants, maids, chariots, 
land, house, a bride, and a dark-brown ( kapild, ) cow. The 
Mahadanas are, however, usually enumerated as 16 in the 
puranas (vide Matsya, chap. 274-289, Agni. chap. 210, Linga- 
purana II, chap. 28 ff). The sixteen mahadanas are: Tula- 
puruaa (weighing a person against gold or silver which is 
then distributed among brahmanas), Hiranyagarbha, Brah- 
m8nda, Kalpavrksa, Gosahasra, Kamadhenu ( or Hiranyakama- 
dhenu ), Hiranyasva, HiranyBsvaratha (or simply Asvaratha), 
Hemahastiratha (or simply Hastiratha), Pancalafigala, Dhara- 
dana(or Haimadharadana), Visvaoakra, Kalpalata (orMaha- 
kalpa- ), Saptasagara, Ratnadhenu, Mahabhutagha^a. In the 
Lingapurana (Uttarardha, chap. 28 ff) the names are somewhat 
different. The names of these Mahadanas (of some at least) 
go back to centuries preoeding the Christian Era. The word 
'Mahadanani* occurs in the Mahabharata (Asramavasi-parva 
3. 31, 13. 15). In the Hathigumpha Inscription of Kharavela (2nd 
century B. C.) Kalpavrksa appears to be mentioned (E. I. 
vol XX, p. 79 ). Bana often refers to Mahadanas in general 
and Gosahasra in particular. mt It has already been shown (on 

2036. Vide Vyakunta Bapuji v. Government of Bombay, 12. Bom. H. 
C. ( Appendix pp. 1-224 ). ^ e 

2037. ««ra:r ii «rfifc5T titt ?rcfft*rofar*n ■ sirr w «Rfawr vgwjnrr*nw 
$ a$T II wtrgnT 209. 23-24. This verse with slight variations is quoted 
by smraS p. 198 (but without the name of the work ). 

2038. ft »wra*irafiu « tigiq' < W 1 *™q ' «BTf**ft J*ra 85 (two mean- 
ings of qm); *flqHifli3*'n«»:»i?,iip«i u *iw i*mdi«m *rt&: ••• »tfi^r«t- 
ftwwnwrBrfii«T n n»n«m«u • i*«nfcr HI, 11th para. 

870 History of DharmaiSstra [ Ch. XXV 

p. 856 ) how Usavadata made extensive gifts some of which fall 
under mahadanas. The Tulapurusa is very frequently spoken of 
in the Epighraphio records. The Cambay plates of the Rasfraku^a 
king Govinda IV (dated iake 852) state that the king was 
weighed against gold ( E. L vol. VII. p. 26 ). Vide also E. I. 
vol. XI p. 112 (in Dantivarma Ins. of iake 675), E. I. vol. IX, 
p. 24 ( Rastrakuta Indraraja III weighed against gold in iake 
836), E. I. vol. XI, p. 20 at p. 23 (Hematulft of Govindacandra 
mentioned in safa. 1186 ), E. L vol. XIV, p. 197 (dated sam. 1156, 
when 32 villages were given as daksinS after the two maha- 
danas of tulapurusa and gosahasra); E. I. vol. VII, p. 17 
( refers to tulapurusa of Krsnaraya of Vijayanagara in iake 1437). 
The tuladana is mentioned in the ancient Tamil work Silappadi- 
karam (vide p. 311 of Prof. Dikshitar's translation). .In E. I. 
vol. XII, atp.lOit is stated thatking Laksamanasena of Bengal 
granted a village as daksina when he performed the MahadSna 
called Hemasvaratha. The Sanjan plates of Amoghavarsa 
(dated iake 793) speak of the Hiranyagarbha mahadana per- 
formed by Danti-durga at UjjayinI (E. I. vol. XVIII, pp. 235, 238). 
In the Srlrahgam plates of Devaraya II of Vijayanagara dated 
sake 1350 it is stated that the prince gave a dinner to one lakh 
of br&hmanas at the holy place or Pray aga ( modern Allahabad) 
and on a lunar eclipse performed the Pafica-lahgala vrata 
(J. B. B. R. A. S. vol. XIII, p. 1 at p. 3 ). 

Brief notes will now be added for setting out the procedure 
of the mahadanaB. The Matsya-purana ( chap. 274-289 ) devotes 
about 400 verses to these. Aparfirka ( pp. 313-344 ) not only 
quotes almost all these verses of the Matsya-purana, but also 
adds further details from the Bhavisyottara-purana in certain 
cases. Hemadri ( DSnakhanda pp. 166-345 ) is far more elabo- 
rate and quotes ( in addition to the Matsya ) long passages from 
the Linga, Garuda and other puranas and from works on 
Tantra and the Agamas. The Danamayukha devotes pp. 86-151 
to the 16 mahadanas. The Matsyapurana ( 274. 11-12 ) states 
that the mahadanas were performed by suoh anoient heroes 
and kings as Vasudeva, Ambarlsa, Bh&rgava, Eartavlrya 
Arjuna, Rama, Prahlada, Prthu and Bbarata. It then gives 
general directions about the construction of the pandal (mandapa) 
required in making tbese mahadanas. The mandapa may be 
of various sizes, 16 aratnis ( one aratni being equal to 21 
angulas of the donor ) or 12 or 10 cubits ( one cubit being the 
length of the arm from the tip of the middle finger to the end 

Oh. XXV ] bam-Tvlapuruija 871 

of the elbow ), should have four doors and a vedi ( raised plat- 
form ) of seven or five cubits prepared with bricks, there was 
to be an arch on the vedi for holding the balance, it should 
have nine or five kundas mi ( pits in the ground for holding 
fire ) or one kunda, two auspicious water jars were to be placed 
at each door of the pandal, the tula was to have two posts and 
a cross beam of the same wood ( such as asvattha, bilva, palasa 
&c.) and was to be decked with golden ornaments. These 
details have to be passed over here for want of space. The rest 
of the procedure about tulSpurusa is briefly as follows ( Matsya, 
ohap. 274 ) : Priests knowing the four Vedas were to be placed 
on the four sides respectively ( viz. Rgvedins to the east, 
Yajurvedins to the south, Samavedins in the west and Athar- 
vanas in the north ). Then four homas were to be offered to 
Ganesa, the planets, the lokapalas, the eight Yasus, the Adityas, 
the Maruts, to Brahma, Visnu, Siva, the sun and the herbs and 
Vedio hymns referring to these were to be recited. 

At the end of the homa, the guru invokes with flowers and 
incense the lokapalas ( lords of the worlds or quarters ) with 
pauravika mantras, viz. Indra, Agni, Yama, Nirrti, Varuna, 
Vayu, Soma, Isana, Ananta and Brahma. Then the donor should 
give golden ornaments, ear ornaments, golden chains, wrist- 
lets, rings, clothes to the priests and double ( what is given 
to each rtvik ) to the guru. Brahmanas should then recite the 
vedic hymn on santi ( propitiatary verses averting evil ). 80 * 
Then the donor again bathes and clad in white garments and 
wearing garlands of white flowers and having flowers in his 
folded hands invokes the balance that is supposed to be Govinda 
( Visnu ), and after per-ambulating the balance, he should step 

2039. There is a work called KundSrka by 6amkara, son of Nllaka- 
ntha, which in 15 stanzas succinctly gives all information about kundas. 
They are of ten kinds, circular, lotus-like, crescent-shaped, yoni, trian- 
gular, quadrangular, pentangular to octagonal. The diagonal drawn 
from north-east to south-west may be one hasta, two hastas, four, 6 or 
eight acoording as the oblations to be offered are 1000 or more up to 
10,000 or from 10,000 up to a lakb, or from a lakh up to ten lakhs ( 4 
hastas ), from ten lakhs up to a crore ( six hastas ) and any number 
beyond a crore ( 8 hastas ). This extent is necessary for preventing the 
oblations from falling outside the kunda. Kundas of different forms 
were employed according to the rites performed. Vide HemSdri 
( dsna, pp. 125-134 ) for further details. 

2040. The hymn ' sam na indrSgnl ' Kg. VII 35. 1-15, in the first 13> 
verses of whioh the words 'dam nah ' occur at the commencement, 

872 History of Dharmaid&tra I Oh. XXV 

into one pan and in the other pan brShmanas should plaoe pure 
gold. Then the earth should be invoked and thereafter the 
donor should leave the balance and give half of the gold to 
the guru and the other half to the brShmanas, pouring water on 
their hands before doing so and he may also make grants of 
villages to the guru and other priests. Then he should honour 
brShmanas, other respectable people and the poor and helpless 
with gifts. One who performs this rite stays for innumerable 
years in the world of Visnu. The same procedure was applied 
to weighing a man against silver or camphor ( AparSrka 
p. 320, HemSdri, dSnakhanda p. 214). Apart from kings who got' 
themselves weighed against gold as shown above, lesser persons 
such as ministers sometimes indulged in this mabadfina, as 
Candesvara, a minister of the MithilS kings, states with pride 
in his Vivadaratnakara ( vide H. D. vol. I, p. 370 ). 

Hiranyagarbha :— ( Matsya 275, LingapurSna II. 29 ). The 
preliminary prooedure about the pandal, the time, place, the 
materials, the punyfihavSoana, the invocation of the lords of 
quarters is the same in this and the other mahadanas as in 
tulSpurusa. The donor should then bring forward a golden 
kunda ( basin or vessel ) 72 fingers high and 48 broad and 
having the shape of a muraja ( tabor ) but looking like the 
interior surface of a golden lotus ( with eight petals ). The 
golden vessel ( it is called Hiranyagarbha ) should be placed on 
a heap of sesame. Then the golden vessel is to be addressed 
with pauravika mantras, identifying it with Hiranyagarbha EMI 
( the Creator ). He should then enter the golden vessel, sit 
facing the north, hold in his hands golden images of Brahma 
and Dharmarftja and hold his head for five breaths between his 
knees ( to simulate the position of the foetus in the mother's 
womb ). The guru then repeats on the golden vessel the 
mantras of garbhSdhSna, pumsavana and slmantonnayana (and 
mentally revolves the other procedure of these); the guru 
thereafter makes the donor rise out of the golden vessel to the 
accompaniment of auspicious music Then the remaining 
twelve samsk&ras are 80 " performed symbolically on the donor, 

2041. Bg. X. 121. 1-10 is a hymn to Hiranyagarbha and begins 
' Htranyagarbhah samaTartatSgre bbntasya jstah patir-eka Salt >. 

2042. HemSdii (dSna, pp. 230-231 ) quotes verses to the effeot that 
garbbAdSna is to be imitated by sprinkling the jniee of dUrvB in the 
right nostril of the donor, slmantonnayana by the presence of the 
fruit of udumbara ( as in that rite), annaprffsana by feeding brShmanas 
with plym (rice cooked in milk ) and eo on. 

Oh. XXV ] JXna-Mahadanas 873 

who repeats the mantra to Hiranyagarbha and says ' formerly 
I was born from my mother but only as a mortal , now being 
born of you I shall assume a divine body.' Then the donor, 
seated on a golden seat, is bathed with the mantra 'devasya tva' 
( vide above note 653a ) and he distributes the golden vessel 
among the guru and other priests. 

Brahrriawja :— (Matsya 276). In this dana, two vessels (pans) 
of gold are to be prepared resembling the two halves of a 
hemisphere (to represent the dome of heaven above and the earth 
below ). The two halves are to be made of gold weighing from 
20 palas to a thousand according to the donor's ability and their 
length and breadth should be from 12 to 100 fingers ; the pans 
should have ( golden ) figures of the eight diggajas, the vedas 
and six angas, of the eight lokapalas and of brahma in the 
middle of them, of Siva, Visnu, the sun on their top, of UmS 
and Laksral, of Vasus, Adityas and Maruts inside ; the two 
should be covered with a silk garment and placed on a heap of 
sesame ; eighteen kinds of corn should be arranged round them. 
Then in the eight quarters from the east golden images of 
Anantasayana ( Visnu lying on the snake ), Pradyumna, 
Prakrti, Samkarsana, the four vedas, Aniruddha, Agni, Vasudeva 
should be respectively arranged. Ten jara covered with cloth 
should be placed near ; gifts of ten cows with golden-tipped 
horns, with copper vessels (for milking them) and covered 
with garments should be made and gifts of sandals, umbrellas, 
seats, mirrors should be made and the golden pans ( called 
Brahmanda ) should be addressed in pauraqika verses and the 
gold should be distributed to the guru and priests ( 2 parts to the 
guru and one part to each of eight priests ). 

Kalpapadapa or Kalpavrkqa . — ( Matsya 277, Linga II. 
chap. 33 ). A golden tree is to be manufactured with several 
fruits hanging down from it and with many ornaments and 
clothes. The gold may be from three palas to a thousand 
aooording to one's means. From half of the gold the Kalpa- 
padapa is to be prepared and placed on a heap ( prastha is a 
measure of 32 palas ) of jaggery, with images of Brahma, Visnu 
and Siva and the sun and five branches and the other four 
trees, Santana, Mandara, Parijataka and Haricandana are to 
be made each from 1 of the one half of the gold taken and 
planted respectively in the east, south, west and north. Under 
the Kalpavrksa, figures (golden) of JSamadeva (the god of 
lore ) and his four wives are to be placed. Eight jars filled 

874 History of DharmaiSstra I Oh. XXV 

with water and covered with silk olotb and surrounded by 
lamps, ohowries, umbrellas are to be arranged and 18 dhanyas m< 
also; prayers are to be offered to the Kalpavrksa to ferry the 
donor over the ocean of samsara ; then the kalpavrksa is to be 
donated to the guru and the other four trees 80u to four priests. 
Apar&rka ( p. 326 ) quotes Bhavisyottara to the effect that a 
sonless man or woman should make this mahadana. 

Oosahasra :— (Matsy a 278, Linga II. 38). The donor 
should subsist for three days or one day on milk alone and then 
the preliminary procedure of invoking lokapalas, punyahava- 
oana, homa etc. should be gone through. Then fragrant 
substances should be applied to the body of a bull made to stand 
on the altar and ten cows out of 1000 should be seleoted. They 
should be covered with clothes, have their horns gold-tipped 
and the hoofs tipped with silver and these cows should be 
brought inside the pandal and honoured. A golden image of 
Nandikesvara ( Siva's bull ) having golden bells round its neck, 
covered with silken oloth, scents and flowers, with horns gold- 
tipped, should be placed in the midst of the ten cows. The 
donor should bathe in water that is medioated with the herbs 
called sarvausadhi m< and with flowers in his folded hands 
invoke the cows with mantras expressing the greatness of cows 
and address the image of Nandikesvara as Dharma and should 
bestow the golden image of Nandl on the guru with two cows 
and donate one cow each to eight priests and to other brahmanas 
five or ten cows eaoh out of the remaining. The owner shoul d 
then subsist on milk alone for one day and should be continent 
that day. The donor would dwell in the world of Siva and 
would save his pitrs and maternal grand-father and other 
maternal ancestors. 

Kamadhenu : — ( Matsya 279, Linga II. 35 ). The figures of 
a oow and a oalf should be made from very pure gold, either 
one thousand or 500 or 250 palas in weight and one without 

2043. The following verse enumerates the 18 dhanyas 'sirpTrar- 

*n^<j«iii«Odisa*<i«i«n<j*Tahiiijfl^c4««j«tfl»iRn->>: i wren^st munhrfnmflg<M«» - 
«risnry*rtfflr i Jnjjmff: n (aurW p. 323 ). mw 276. 7 speaks of ' eighteen 
dhlnyas '. 

2044. The KalpapSdapas (wish-yielding trees) are said to be fire 
' MandSra, PSrijHtaka, SantSna, Kalpavrksa and Harioandana '. ir£ft 

2045. TheiffSWRra are ten « $f Htaft *f*% £ m itew*Pfw* I V*l- 
w*W& ^ «fm*ft q$T ^pn: n » unffrmffliU quoted by aj«nr^w p. 17. 

Oh. XXV ] Dana-Mahadanas 875 

much wealth may make them from even three palas of gold. 
The skin of a black antelope should be spread over the altar, 
thereon a prastha of jaggery should be kept and on it the golden 
cow should be placed being decked with jewels, surrounded by 
eight auspicious jars, fruits, eighteen kinds of grains, chowries, 
copper vessel, lamps, an umbrella, two silken garments, bells, 
neok ornaments &c. The donor should invoke the cow with 
paurayika mantras and then make a gift of the oow and calf to 
the guru. Hemadri ( danakhanda, pp. 265-274 ) quotes passages 
from the Matsya, Agni, and Linga puranas and from the 
KSmika and other works. 

Hirayyaiva : — ( Matsya 280 ). On the altar deer skin should 
be spread and sesame placed and a golden horse is to be made 
from gold of the same weight as in Kamadhenu and the donor 
is to invoke the image of the horse ( identified with the supreme 
God ) and the image is to be donated to the guru. Hemadri 
( danakhanda p. 278 ) adds that the horse figure is to have silver 
welded on in five places, 80 * 8 viz. the four feet and the mouth. 

Hirayyaivaratha: — ( Matsya 281 ). A golden chariot should 
be made with figures of seven or four horses, four wheels, a 
golden flagstaff surmounted by a sapphire jar. There are to be 
four auspicious jars. Then this is donated along with chowries, an 
umbrella, silken garments and cows according to one's means. 

Hemahastirathai — ( Matsya 282). A golden ohariot resem- 
bling a toy-oart should be made with four wheels, having figures 
of eight lokapalas, Brahma, Siva, the Sun, with Narayana, 
LaksmI and Pusti in the middle of it, on the fag-staff there 
should be an eagle and the figure of Ganesa on the end of the 
pole, there should be four golden elephants. Then it is to be 
invoked and donated. 

PaflcalMgalaka :— (Matsya 283). Five ploughshares should 
be made of some strong wood ( teak, sandal &c. ) and five of 
gold, ten fine oxen should be deoked with gold on their horns 
and with pearls on their tails, silver on their hoofs and a gift of 
these and of land equal to one kharvata, kheta 8047 or village or 

2046. A horse that is white in five parts of the body viz. the 
four feet and the mouth is deemed as very auspicious and called 
'panoakalySnaka'. f ^ ^ 

2047. fcHtn? ( ^P^s^a p- 288 ) quotes from the Jnsp^rjnor ' #rc#- 
wrarcrt *r$w: wnrania** ' ^ninri^r>^«i*ra»TniT'j* &k « w yafo to t 3ri 
irwrt%* * vta* ii *P" gspnmrt 3«^d%«fl*di ■ wtrrolintjnfc »refft 
itphH^wt ii '. 

876 History of Dharmaiastra [ Ch. XXV 

a gift of one hundred or fifty nivartanas according to one's means 
should be made. A brahmana with his wife is to be honoured 
with golden chains, rings, silken garments, wristlets. 

Dharadana or Haimadharadana : — ( Matsya 284 ). A golden 
figure of the earth resembling Jambudvlpa is to be made with 
mountains on the borders and mount Meru in the middle, 
showing hundreds of figures and the seven oceans, made out of 
from five palas up to 1000 palas of gold according to one's 
means. Then it is to be invoked with many verses and half 
or i of it is to be donated to the guru and the rest to the other 

Viivacakra : — ( Matsya 285 ). A wheel with 16 spokes and 
8 fellies should be made of gold, which may be in weight 
from 20 palas to a thousand palas according to one's means. On 
the first nave there should be the figure of Visnu in yoga 
posture, with the conch and cakra near him and the figures of 
eight goddesses. On the second nave the sages Atri, Bhrgu, 
Vasisflia, Brahma, Kasyapa and the ten avataras of Visnu 
should be carved, on the third Gaurl and the mother-goddesses, 
on the 4th the twelve Adityas and four Vedas, on the fifth the 
five bhutas ( elements, earth &c. ) and the eleven Budras, on the 
sixth the eight lokapalas and the eight elephants of the quarters, 
on the seventh eight 2048 missiles and ( eight ) auspicious things 
and on the 8th the gods at intervals. Then the donor should 
invoke this wheel and donate it. 

Mahakalpalata : — ( Matsya 286 ). Ten kalpalatUs with figures 
of various flowers and fruits should be made of gold, they should 
have figures of Vidyadhara couples, of deities resembling 
lokapalas and the several iaklis, viz. Brahral, Anantasakti, 
Agneyl, Varunl and others and above all there should be a 
canopy. Two of the kalpalatas should be plaoed in the middle 
of a circle drawn on the altar and the other eight in the eight 
quarters on the altar. There should be ten cows and jars. Two 
should be bestowed on the guru and the remaining eight on 
eight priests. 

2048. The eight missiles are ' my^mi^nii^nUj^ l E rffi ■* ■ wftfii- 
*Wt sTwrfar &5 "m ssrwff ii«msn°r quoted in fc»m^ (^tpwv p. 331) 

and the eight mangalya things are ' ^%orwn5Iwr ^m W* TOT i 

EWh& ffrri * w* «OT*rft* <* it »nf$f«?iff fNW *TfW wygwra n 
qtrsrtin the same. 

Ch. XIV ] .Dam-MahadUnas 877 

SaptaaSgaraka :— ( Matsya 287 ). Seven vessels ( kundas ) 
with a diagonal of either 10£ aiigulas ( pradesa ) or 21 aiigulas 
should he made from gold weighing from 7 palaa to a thousand 
palas according to one's means. The seven vessels should be 
respectively filled with salt, milk, clarified butter, jaggery, 
curds, sugar, holy water. In the several kundas golden images 
of Brahma, Visnu, Siva, the Sun, Indra, LaksmI and ParvatI 
should be dipped and all jewels should be thrown in them and 
all dhanyas should be arranged round them. A homa to Varuna 
should be performed and then the donor should invoke the 
seven oceans ( symbolized by the seven kundas ) and then they 
should be donated. 

Ratnadhenu : — ( Matsya 288 ). The figure of a cow is to be 
made of precious stones. 81 padmaraga ( ruby ) stones are to 
be placed in the mouth of that figure, a hundred pusparaga stones 
in the tip of her nose, a golden tilaka on her forehead, a hundred 
pearls in the eyes, a hundred pieces of coral on the two eyebrows, 
two pieces of mother-o'pearl represent the ears, there should be 
golden horns, and the head should be of one hundred diamond 
stones, with one hundred on her neck, one hundred sapphires 
on the back, a hundred lapis lazuli on the sides, crystal on the 
belly, a hundred saugandhika stones on the waist, hoofs of gold 
and tail of pearls and other parts of the cow's body are to be 
represented in a similar manner with various precious stones 
and the tongue with sugar and dung with jaggery, urine with 
ghee and a oalf is to be made with i of what is required for the 
cow and then both are donated. 

Mahabhutaghata .':— ( Matsya 289 ). A golden jar is to be set 
with precious stones with a diagonal of from 10£ aiigulas to 
100 aiigulas. It is to be filled with milk and clarified butter 
and on it figures of Brahma, Visnu and Siva are to be drawn 
as in the case of Kalparcksa, and the figures of the earth 
raised by the great boar, of Varuna on his conveyance of 
Makara, of Agni on a ram, of Vayu (on a deer), of Ganesa on 
a rat should be kept in the jar together with the figures of 
Itgveda having a rosary, Yajurveda holding a lotus, Sfimaveda 
holding a lute, Atharvaveda holding sruc and sruva ladles and 
Puranas ( the fifth veda ) holding a rosary and water jar. The 
golden jar then should be donated. 

Most of the smrtis highly extol the gift of a cow or cows. 
Manu IV. 231 states that the donor of a oow reaohes the world 

878 History of Dkarmaiaatra [ Ch; XXV 

of the Sun. Yaj. (I. 204-205 ), Agnipurana 210. 30 presoribe that 
when making a gift of a cow, she should have the horns and 
hoofs tipped with gold and silver respectively, she should be 
aooompanied with a bell metal vessel (for milking her) and she 
should be covered with cloth, she should be mild in temper and 
the gift should be accompanied with a money payment and 
that whoever makes such a gift stays in heaven for as many 
years as there are hair on the cow's body. Vide Samvarta 
verses 71, 74-75 also. In the AnusSsana-parva l0 " ( 51. 26-34 
and chapters 77, 78 and 81 ) there are frequent eulogies of cows. 
Anusasana 57. 28-29 are just like Yaj. I. 204-205. AnusSsana 
(83. 17-18) explains that the cow is a constituent element of 
sacrifice, that the cow nourishes men ( with milk ), that their 
progeny ( the oxen ) are useful in agriculture and therefore cows 
deserve the highest praise. Apararka (p. 295-297) quotes 
numerous passages from the puranas eulogizing cows. Among 
cows kapila is the best for gift ( Anusasana 73. 42 and 77. 8 ). 
AnusSsana (77. lOff ) explains why the dark-brown cow (kapila) 
is the best. Yaj. I. 205 states that if the cow donated is kapila 
it saves ( from sin ) the donor's family up to seven generations 
(including himself ). Apararka p. 297 quotes Samvarta to the 
effect that the kapila cow is equal to ten ordinary cows. The 
Varahapurana chap. Ill deals with the gift of a kapila cow. The 
method of giving a cow is briefly as follows * 050 ( Hemadri, 
Danakhanda p. 451 ff, DSnamayukha pp. 185-186): The cow 
is made to stand facing the east together with her oalf and is 
worshipped by the donor ( after having bathed and tied his 
top-knot) who sits near the tail and the donee sits f aping 
the north. The donor holds in his hand a vessel containing 

2049. ifrPRa?^ t <mriw *r3 i%f^f%ei*3TT « $8fH *r*tf *rt gsfa 

Hrrft miv* i it} insT^S *rh «^<n<rs* fSrwr. » ■ n t m*hK*m<<ti ift Wrj Pw 

sriiHIsft i tpt> T?rev ksvx t h«tt *i?r?v err g^ n «rro ?*nfc*r wtqrt tp« 

wfR tfSrTri: n wgsrmsr 61. 26 and 33; 3?gp5inT*f 71. 33 is f^r $g gsat sri*v- 
frct WFTiorewrflTHTprfli ■* • Twfar ilprriw *r*r% dtmwus^tTsg^ **£ 
Bta^H- This is like vi. I. 206. 

2050. On© of the mantras is 'trjrcrwqfli Ti ffr m -mqu m iifrsr) i rV**w« 
<rtt %*t ifhrffrmnn »raTii'. The procedure in tho.^nm^r is 'anterrf^ 

•fr^pf giR«T yfrr •Mjjf <r«-*/ sfr^s^f wqwI it iW ^ tfjsT ^? , g^oJ»?r»i>m 

**ft ^rftatr fr«T jr^ s&v& sfwr ftsf?^ gjsiRlVMrii**n<jrv -j * <kS sjfSrwpjic? - 

5ffn T9Rn«n» «Rrr itft jtwi iJtcwH'4 «gr ffSwr sragc^^fi • 

^WHfirgrS ^i^rt ynri wncr^waBTSTr «rr*: gw^ft ptofr... yfir *rwhfit nmtfif 
ftfrt *Jt^ > ^nnrfsr pp- 185-186. |*rn^ and h i h«^ i quote gomatl verses 
from the «ot*<toi also riz. snRrrcnr 78. 23-25. 

Ob. XXV ] Dam-of cows 879 

clarified butter in whiob a piece of gold is put. The tail of the 
cow is dipped into the butter and then taken out and placed into 
the right hand of the donee with the hair turned towards the east 
and also water, sesame and kusa grass are placed in the donee's 
right hand. The donor holds in his hand a vessel full of water 
from which he sprinkles water with pauraijika mantras, gives 
daksina and then the cow starts with the donee and the donor 
follows them a few steps and repeats certain verses eulogizing 
cows. The Agnipurana (210.34) speoially recommends that 
one who is at the door of death should make the gift of a cow 
( particularly a dark one ) who would enable him to oross the 
blazing river in the world of Yama called VaitaranI ( and henoe 
the cow is also called VaitaranI ). 

Yfij. I. 206-207 ( 206 = Agnipurana 210. 33 ), Visnu Dh. S. 
88. 1-4, Vanaparva 200. 69-71, Atri 333, VarahapurSna 112 K * 1 
attaoh special importance to the gift of a cow when she is just on 
the point of giving birth to a calf ( and therefore styled ' ubha- 
yatomukhl ) and the donor is said to stay in heaven as many 
years as the hair on the body of the cow and her calf. AparSrka 
(pp. 299-301 ) quotes a long prose extract from Cyavana on the 
procedure of this gift. When the head of the calf has appeared, 
the donor should say to the worthy donee ' accept this cow for 
conferring a favour on me and not because you desire this gift ' 
and repeat Rg. IV. 19. 6. Then taking hold of the cow with the 
formula ' ka idam kasma adat ' ( Atharvaveda III. 29. 7, As v. 
Sr. 5. 13, Ap. Sr. 14. 11. 2 ), the donor takes down the calf 
and recites in a loud voice Rg. IV. 27. 1 ('garbhe nu'). Then after 
kindling fire the donor repeats mantras addressed to the gods, 
pitrs, rivers, mountains, plants, seas, serpents, herbs respectively 
viz. Rg. I 139. 11, X 16. 12, X 75. 5, IX 75. 4, III. 8. 
11, VII. 49. 1, VI. 75. 14, 1. 90. 6. Then the donor should propi- 
tiate the Earth with mantras ( addressed to the Earth ) viz. Rg. 
I. 112. 1, 1. 22. 13, 1. 185. 7, 1. 164. 41 ; the donor should offer 
84 oblations of clarified butter, feed brahmanas and receive 

2051. qnftWt ^ Tuft f$re«hi *t$F& t m^wii ufwrart «*i«toi«iu- 

200. 69-71. iff. I. 207 and qnggtm 112. 28 are almost the same ai iwri 
200. 70. 

880 History of bharmaffiatra [ Ch. XXV 

their benedictions in the terms of Rg. V. 51. 11 ('svasti no'). The 
gift of suoh a cow with the paraphernalia of gold or silver , 
fields, corn, clothes, salt and the like, sandal-wood, releases 
a man from the sins of eating or drinking forbidden food, 
brahmana murder, ineest &o. 

In imitation of the gift of the cow gifts of certain artioleswere 
made and they are also desoribed as dhenus. The Matsyapurana 
( chap. 82. 17-22 ) speaks of ten dhenus viz. of guda ( jaggery ), 
ghrta ( ghee ), tila ( sesame ), jala ( water ), kslra ( milk ), madhu 
( honey ), sarkara ( sugar ), dadhi (curds), rasa (other liquids) 
and godhenu ( cow itself ). It gives ( ohap. 82 ) a detailed des- 
cription of gudadhenu and adds that the liquid dhenus should be 
kept in jars and others should be in heaps, that the same 
procedure applies to all, and that some add suvarnadhenu, 
navanlta-dhenu (cow of butter) and ratnadhenu (cow of jewels). 
The Agnipur&na ( 210. 11-12 ) enumerates the same ten dhenus. 
In the AnusSsana-parva 71. 39-41 the three dhenus of ghrta, tila 
and jala are mentioned. The Varahapurana ( chap. 99-110 ) 
describes in detail twelve dhenus, viz. all mentioned in the 
Matsya ( except ghrta and godhenu ) and navanlta, lavana 
( salt ), karpasa ( cotton ) and dhanya ( corn ). The procedure of 
all is more or less the same. Black antelope skin four cubits 
in length is to be spread on the ground that has been cowdunged 
and has darbhas strewn on it with the neck portion to the east 
( this represents the oow ) and a smaller skin is also spread ( to 
represent the calf ). If it is guda-dhenu it is made of 2 or 4 
bhftras ,0M and the calf is made with one fourth of that for the 
cow. Various articles such as conch shells, sugarcane pieces , 
pearls, ohowries, coral &o. are placed on the skin, to represent 
the various limbs of the cow, which is worshipped with dhupa 
( incense) and lamps and invoked v/ittipauraruka mantras. Then 
the articles are donated to a brahmana. Hemadri ( Dana, p. 
401 ) notes that aooording to the Padmapurana a single jar of 
liquids and one drona of solids constitute these dhenus, while 

2052. amr§> pp. 304-5 quotes n^rr 82. 17-22 and the following 
verses. Vide AparSrka p. 303 and Agnipnr&ga 210. 17-18 from which the 
following table may be set out : five ^vonffssone qr^, 16 irprs =one gW , 
4 S*«h -one ro, 100 tss -gsT, 20 o&rs -*nt. Vide Mann VIII. 134-135, 
Yij.I. 363-364 (which lay that four or five snvarnas are equal to a <rar). 

Ob, XXV ] IMna-Dhenudam 88* 

the D&naviveka establishes that kumbha* " is equal to 1000 
palas and others hold that kumbha contains 512 palas. These 
several dhenus may be donated on eclipses, on the full moon 
days of KSrtika and M&gha, on Yugadi days or when the 7th 
Uthi of a month falls on a Sunday and that the donor should 
subsist for three days on the substance to be donated, Apararka 
pp. 303-313, Hetnadri ( Dana. ) pp. 397-466, D&namayukha pp. 
172-184 dilate upon these dhenus, but all those details are 
passed over here for want of space. 

It appears that on account of the high merit associated with 
the gift of oows, donors sometimes passed old and weak 
cows on to donees. The Kathopanisad 1. 1. 3 appears to contain 
a condemnation of such praotioes. 105 * " He who makes gifts of 
oows that simply drink water and eat grass, but yield no milk 
and do not possess strength ( to conceive and produce calves ) 
reaches those worlds called ' anandah ' (without delights)." The 
Mahabharata ( Anusasana 77. 5-6 ) echoes the very words of 
the Kathopanisad. In the Anusasana-parva 66. 53 80H it is said 
that one should not bestow on a br&hmana a cow whioh is lean 
or is without her calf, which is barren and diseased, whioh is 
wanting in a limb or is exhausted. Hemadri (Dana, pp. 448-449) 
quotes this and other passages of similar import that state that 

2053. mv, 3)Tff3T, cftT and *9fft are ancient measures of corn. 
Even Psnini mentions some of these. Vide P5n. V. 1. 33 and V. 4. 110 
(for kh&ri), V. 1. 53 (for Sdhaka). Thf A p. Dh. S. II. 8. 20. 1 mentions 
drona. There was no unanimity as to their exact extent. Apararka 
( p. 305 ), HemBdri ( Vratakhanda ) part I (p. 57), Par. M. II. parti, 
p. 141 quote versos ( the latter two say from Bhavisyapursna ) which 
give the following table: 2 <uys m jt^t^, 2 irgfas = §ot, 4 533s = nw, 
4 shews = wre^Si 4 sniffs = rfH, 16 ^fas - qnf\. ParSswa VI. 70 says 
that 2 prasthas are equal to sdhaka and 32 prasthas are equal to a drona 
and the Par. M. remarks %$t^%? $n«rcr«rw «Wum*ft«lW3[. Vide t$irr. 
on st. in. 265 and 174, ffamtfjof x i wi^i'n i j (verses 7-8). According 
to AparSrka ( p. 846 ) a kumbha is equal to 2 dronas. The PrSyascitta- 
tattva ( p. 514 ) quotes the Ealpataru to the effect that 10 dronas are 
equal to a khKrl and 20 dronas to a kumbha. 

2054. <f\wt^rt 5i»ufn fwtfhrr pfrftfapro 1 wrap srn? & ?5fcirrerr#H 
smoftt hi »^ h w£K a I. 1. 8 5 "ftshpfrt ssnwgort srssfirt i3ftPx|<jiq 1 smtl- 
•rr"rtrnrt sfW? wfHNra8WC • ?wi ?tw« Tft^rft f%H iffar «ftsH}q; 11 suktrpt 
77. 5-6. 

2055 n ^frt inuhI *r vwt tf<u(3ml tot 1 *i «rft «f <rft«n*tri H^rrjt 
mgrornr ^ 11 argsmnr 66. 58. 
a. n. ill 

882 History of DharmcMstra [ Ch. XXV 

the man who makes a gift of such a useless cow enters into the 
darkness of hell. 

The Matsyapurana ( chap. 83. 92 ) speaks of ten kinds of 
danas called parvatadanas or merudanas, viz. of dhanya ( corn ), 
lavana ( salt ), guda ( jaggery ), hema ( gold ), tila ( sesame ), 
karpasa ( cotton ), ghrta ( ghee ), ratna ( preoious stones ), rajata 
( silver ), sarkara ( sugar ). The Agnipurana (210. 6-10) enume- 
rates these ten. Apararka (pp. 344-354) quotes all the chaptera 
of the Matsya. Hemadri ( Dana, pp. 346-396 ) not only dilates 
upon these ten danas, but speaks of 12 of such danas from Saiva 
works like the Kalottara. These danas were called parvata, 
iatla or acala because the substances were heaped up like hills. 
The procedure in all of them is the same. A square platform 
inclined towards the north-east or east was to be prepared, 
smeared with cowdung and strewn with kusa grass. In the 
midst of it a heap was to be made to represent a mountain with 
smaller heaps to represent hills at the foot of the mountain. In 
the case of the mountain of dhanya, it is to be made with 1000 
or 500 or 300 drona measures of corn. Three trees of gold are 
to be planted on the middle of it and in the four directions lotus- 
like plants of pearls, gomeda and pusparaga, emeralds and 
sapphires, lapis lazuli respectively. Many more picturesque 
features such as gold and silver images of 81 gods are described 
in the Matsya. A guru and four priests are to be ohosen for 
homa and 13 ahutis are to be offered to each of the gods. In 
the gift of salt, from 1 to 16 dronas thereof are to be employed, 
in the gift of jaggery from 3 to 10 bharas, in that of gold from 
1 to 1000 palas, in that of sesame from 3 to 10 dronas, of karpasa 
from 5 to 20 bharas, of ghee from two kumbhas to 20, of ratnas 
from 200 pearls to 1000, with attendant hills of precious stones 
i of the pearls, of cotton from 20 palas to 10 thousand, of sugar 
from half a bhSra to 8 bharas. 

The smrtis, puranas and digests speak of the gifts of many 
animals such as of elephants, horses, buffaloes, of articles like 
clothes, deer-skins, umbrellas, shoes, which are all passed over 
here. But two or three of these many danas deserve notice. 
Apararka ( pp. 375-376 ) eztraots a long passage from the 
Bhavisyottara about constructing in the month of Oaitra a 
mandapa for the distribution of water to travellers in the midst 
of a city or in a waterless desert or near a temple. A brahman a 
was to be engaged for wages to distribute water and this was 
to be continued for four months or at least three fortnights, 

Oh. XXV 1 mnargifts of books 883 

Another important gift is that of manuscripts of the 
epios, dharmasSstras and puranas. Apararka (pp. 389-403) and 
Hemadri ( Dana, pp. 526-540 ) quote from the Bhavisyottara, 80 " 
Matsya and other puranas long extracts about the merit secured 
by making such gifts, the Matsya in particular also stating 
the number of verses in each of the 18 puranas. The Agnipurana 
also in speaking of the gifts of MSS. of puranas states 
the number of verses in each (chap. 273). The Bhavisya- 
purana states that books may be placed in a matha for the use of 
all people and that he who arranges for the reading of books 
in the temples of Siva, Visnu or the Sun reaps the merit of the 
gifts of cows, land and gold. E. I. vol. 18 p. 340 records a 
gift to a temple in which provision is made for the reading of 
the Mahabharata from a part of the income ( in Kerala in the 
11th century A. D. ). The Agnipurana 211. 61 eulogises also 
the gifts of the works called Siddhantas. 

In medieval and modern times gifts were and are made 
with a view to propitiate the planets. And this sentiment can 
be traced back to the days of the sutras. Gaut. 8057 XI. 15 
advises the king to perform the rites that experts in astrology 
and in portentous signs might indicate (as necessary) for 
averting evil consequences and states ( XI. 16 ) that according 
to some acaryas the welfare of the king depends upon the 
performance of such rites. The Asv. gr. (III. 12. 16) states 
that the purohita should direct the king to fight from the direc- 
tion or side on which the sun is or (if fighting at night) from 
the side on which Venus shines ( and not from a side opposite 
to them ). Yaj. (I. 295-308) deals with Grahasanti ( propitiation 
of planets ). He states that he who desires prosperity, or the 
averting of calamities, or good rains, long life and health and 
also wants to harm his enemies by magic rites should perform 
a sacrifice; that the nine planets are the Sun, the Moon, Mars, 
Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn, Rahu and Ketu ; that images 

2056. tos*$t ^3* swff nflm<j 3g; » Hmr*T wlwiaRRt wrnhpi it 

»jS I f%l«Md*f f^B^ra!' H^kf H^ WIT • T: SRITTI^ Wfflt H^T !iW*<*l^« 

<t* ii jft X i g^M i Hlffi snrefirwmft <* i tRTrt Jrr ?tttr »r«rf% ^m*r 

»rf%Whrt quoted by amr% PP- 389 and 391. 

2057. «rrf«* ^c ^wrwrafVa*i iwgwprn%^ i tr? tfrswrr gfo "fritf a 
g f fr a r re ft i »rW XI. 15-16 ; sm%T£feT««r wrcwr snrrsr^ • ww. «. 
III. 12. 16. Vide in. I. 295 - iTWT3TT»t 93. 2 and «rt. I. 302, 803 » *«v 
93. 27-28. 

884 History of LharmaiMra [ Ch. XXV 

of the planets are to be made respectively of copper, crystal, 
red sandal-wood, gold (for both Mercury and Jupiter), silver, 
iron, lead and bell-metal or they may be drawn on a piece of 
cloth in these colours or may be painted in circles on the 
ground with colours ; that flowers and clothes may be offered to 
them of the respective colours described above ; fragrant sub- 
stances, incense of guggulu should be offered to them and 
oblations of cooked food may be made to them in fire with the 
following mantras respectively, viz. &g. I. 35. 2, Vaj. S. 9. 40, 
Rg. VIII. 44. 16, Vaj. S. 15. 54, Rg. II. 23. 15, Vsj. S. 19.75, 
$g. X. 9. 4, Vaj. S. 13. 20, $g- I. 6. 3. The fuel-sticks to be 
offered to the nine planets should respectively be of the following 
trees and plants: of arka plant, palSsa, khadira, ap&marga, 
pippala, undumbara, saml, durvB and kusa grass. 108 or 28 
samidhs of each of these should be thrown into the fire, they 
being anointed with honey, clarified butter, curds and milk. 
The foods on which the brahmanas are to be regaled at dinner 
in the grahayajfla are respectively rice mixed with jaggery, rice 
cooked in milk, havisya food (i. e. the food on which the 
ascetics live), corn that ripens in sixty days cooked in milk, 
curds, and rice, rice with clarified butter, rice mixed with 
crushed sesame, flesh ( with rice ), rice of various colours. The 
fee ( daksina ) to be paid should respectively be a milch oow, 
conch, a draught ox, gold, clothes, horse ( white ), dark cow, 
iron weapon, a goat. 'The rise and fall of kings depend upon 
the (aspects of) planets and the existence and destruction of 
the world depend upon planets; therefore the planets should be 
honoured the most ' — says Yaj. I. 308. 

The Matsya-purana mB in chap. 93 contains a detailed 
procedure of grahasanti and chapter 94. (1-9) describes how 
the images of the nine planets are to be represented. Vide 
Vaik. IV. 13 and also Baud. gr. aesa-sQtra I. 16 for a 
similar treatment. In modern times the dSnas ( articles 
donated) to propitiate the nine planets are those stated in the 

2058. The mantras of the nine planets slightly differ in the 
Matsya-purana (93. 33-37) from those of Ysj. I. 300-301. Matsya 93. 
69-63 names the same daksinXs aa Ysj. and AparSrka p. 575 quotes those 
reuses. All the nine verses of Matsya 94 are quoted by the Mit. on Tlj . 
I. 297-98. Tlj. probably meant to rely only on the Vsj. 8., but 
as some of the mantras ooour in the %., references to the latter hare 
been given. 

Ch. XXV ] band $85 

Dharmasindhu 80M quoted below. The S. R. M. (pp. 123-164) 
contains a long.drawn procedure of Grahamakha, a rite to 
propitiate the planets. A Grahamakha is either nUya (on Visuva 
day, ayana day, birth naksatra), mimittika (to be performed 
on such oooasiona as upanayana ) and kamya ( for removal of 
adversity &o. ) 

Apararka (pp. 365-366 on Yaj. I, 209) quotes a long passage 
from the Nandipurana about the founding of hospitals ( arogya- 
sala ) where medioines were supplied free to patients. * Since 
the four purusarthaa ( goals of life ) viz. dharma, artha, kama 
and moksa, depend upon health, he who provides for securing 
this may be said to have made gifts of everything.' The passage 
further states that a competent physician should be appointed. 
Hemadri (dana, pp. 893-95) quotes the same passage and another 
from the Skandapurana to the same effect. 

The smrtis prescribe that when a man accepts as a gift 
what he should not aocept, he incurs sin from which he becomes 
free by giving up the thing, by reciting certain vedic mantras, 
( like the Gayatrl ) and by tapas ( prayasoitta ). Vide Manu 
XL 193 ( = Visnu Dh. S. 54. 28 ). This sin is said to be due to 
' aBat-pratigraha ' which may arise either from the caste or 
aotions of the donor ( e. g. the donor may be a oandala or patita ) 
or from the time or place ( e. g. taking a gift in Kuruksetra or 
in an eclipse ) or from the objeot given ( such as a gift of wine 
or of an ewe, of the bed-stead of a deceased person or of the cow 
called •ubhayatomukhl*). Yaj. III. 289 and Manu XI. 194 
(= Visnu Dh. S. 54. 24) prescribe for asat-pratigrdha the penance 
of staying in a cow-stable for one month subsisting on milk 
alone, observing complete celibaoy, repeating the Gayatrl 
mantra 3000 times every day. The donor, in the above oases, 
may incur no sin, but the donee does. The DanakriyakaumudI 
( pp. 84-85 ) quotes passages from several puranas condemning 
the acceptance of gifts on the Ganges and other saored rivers 
and places, and the gifts of elephants, horses, chariots, the beds 

2059. w*r irfsfrpTsJ ?t*nft ■ Hiid*whjp*ig<-*H«i!4«3n«ii*K^r*f*- 
•rfturt fa i ^fwtofi* ■* ■ w^Rmg II. part 2 p. 135. 

886 History of Dharmaiaslra [ Ch. XXV 

and seats used by the dead, black deer-skin, the cow called 
ubhayatomukhl. The Dsnaoandrika 8060 quotes the Padmapurana 
to the effect that a brahmana who is in great difficulty to main- 
tain himself may accept a gift on the banks of the Ganges and 
other sacred rivers, but should himself make a gift of the 
10th part of it and then he would incur no sin. 

We have already seen ( pp. 838-39 ) how even in the Rgveda 
various rewards are promised to those who make gifts of cows, 
horses, gold or clothes. The Tai. S.JI. 8. 4. 1 makes it a matter of 
give and take between gods and man ( dhehi me dadami te ni me 
dehi ni te dadhe ). The same sentiments and notions continued 
down to the latest ages and are re-inforced by further and very 
detailed promises of rewards for several kinds of gifts. Vas. 
Dh. S. 29. 2-27, Visnu Dh. S. 91-92, Samvarta verses 46-93 
may be read in this connection. 

A gift once completed by acceptance is irrevocable. Yaj. II. 
176 prescribes ' what is promised should be given and what has 
been donated should not be taken back '. Narada 10 ' 1 ( Datta- 
pradanika, verse 8 ) declares that the price of goods ( delivered ), 
wages, what is paid for pleasure ( derived from dancers &c. ), a 
gift made through affection, a gift made through gratitude ( for 
favours received ), money paid for a bride ( to her kinsmen ) and 
gifts for religious and spiritual purposes — these are given 
irrevocably. But a gift though promised was not complete and 
irrevocable in all cases. Gaut. V. 21 declares that a gift, 
though promised, need not be completed if the donee to whom 
it is promised is a person guilty of irreligious or improper 
conduct (such as visiting prostitutes). Manu VIII. 212 is 
similar in import. Katyayana states 2062 that if a man of his 
own free will promises a gift to a brahmana, but does not carry 
out that promise, he becomes a debtor ( to that brahmana ) in 
this world and the next. This means that a gift promised to a 
brahmana, though not completed by acceptance and delivery, 

2060. am <%ramsifpngr wigrof} tffotfsrcT: i ^g rfcmf&r ^m%* «wf> 
«fi*ra n fi% H\z»in I qrsntfS^qn p. 10 (Gaikwad Oriental Series of tr.). 

2061. i|u«iqjw inrcacsrr sftfrraRgTOiw. i sft &?* i gu!{m ^ ^t ^x^• 
fafrftfj ii tt^ (^Mfif^f 8); TtfifT g^rr <m^ jftgg Wra n ffSi i 

WSTRflrfn sfifn <4MHBI^q ftj: II f f^ft quoted in *^ff?Nro («W. 5. 193 ). 

*HKii4*n<iM f*r% fkfxb <gfreiTi?i3fr 1 ^r«rprr«ii?f?ri**ft ^ a wkt? *rt^ 11 *mq 
quoted in ^ra^ro {nn. p. 193 ), which explains *n»tf "KfyrntsFffarfatTnf: I 

2062. nftg^wreiftf gronr t ^ax^ 1 «ft. V. 21 ; tfrmx t: ufii«nt 
wfiporrr ufflirw 1 t sOTjT^rwrs nn^TRf^srnnr^ " WTnrrTT quoted by 
wrotf p. 783 and ^teNf« («r*. p. 142), 

Oh. XXV ] Lam-invalid gifts 887 

oould not be revoked and oould be enforced in a court as a debt 
and the promisor fined for breach. 

Gautama states ( V. 22 ) that the promises made by those 
who were carried away by rage or extreme joy or who were 
under a sense of dread or were ill or distressed or covetous or 
made by a minor ( under 16 ) or an extremely old man or by 
one who is a fool ( or under delusion ) or was intoxicated or 
made by a lunatic may be revoked by them and in doing so they 
inour no sin or blame. Narada 8063 (Dattapradanika, verses 9-10) 
amplifies this by stating 16 kinds of invalid gifts, viz. all 
those in Gautama ( except those due to joy and covetousnesB ) 
and also what is promised as a bribe, promises in jest, giving to 
a person mistaking him for another, gift induced by fraud or 
made by one who is not his own master, gift made to a man 
with the idea of getting something in return ( but who does not 
do so ), gift to a person who is unworthy, though he proclaimed 
himself to be worthy, and a gift for a purpose which is sinful. 
KStyayana ( quoted by Apararka p. 781 ) is just like NSrada 
and adds that if a man is in danger of life and promises the 
gift of all his wealth to whosoever may save him, he may resile 
from the promise. Apararka p. 782 quotes verses from Brhas- 
pati similar to Narada's. Manu VIII. 165 declares that a sale, 
mortgage or gift brought about by fraud, or every transaction 
in which a trick is played, may be set aside ( by the king ). 
Though a gift made by one who is ill or distressed ( arta ) is 
declared by Gautama to be revocable, Katyayana 8064 states an 
exception viz. that when a man whether in sound health or 
Buffering from a disease declares a gift for religious purposes 
and dies without completing it, then his son ( or other heir ) 
should be made to caray out that gift. This verse contains the 
germ of the idea of wills, since the mere declaration of the 
intention of a man to make a gift for religious purposes is here 

2063. ggig 4k i i?g «q'rereqftrcqg»reh*»wq vm i^^r^«mrc>ri3 i ift. 
V. 22. wfr? g *rr?Bt*Rn'*>^ r re*u 5 *i& ■ a^^MM^eiw^^ra^jra^'icr: 

2064. *w*nifa *» ^ «»foi vpforcrfg; i snr™ a ^ ^r«rea?5nt «rra- 
jNttt. ii mmvt* quoted in snxfc v 782, ciffi*« (*r*. p. 184). Vide 
BhuLtiNathv.Bam LalW Cal. 128 ( F. B. ) at p. 136 where this 
passage of Ktt. is quoted along with the Mit. and a passage from the 
UtahSnirvSna Tantra. 

888 History of DharmaiMra [ Oh. XXV 

made enforceable after his death. Apararka p. 782 conveys 
that the word ' son ' is only illustrative and that every heir 
taking the estate is liable to make good the promise of the 

In modern times a gift or beqnest for dharma without any 
qualifying expression is held to be too vague an indication of 
the donor's or testator's intention to constitute a valid gift to 
charity and is declared to be void for uncertainty. Vide 6 
Bom. 24, 14 Bom. 482, 17 Bom. 351, 23 Bom. 725, 735 (P. C). But 
this is opposed, as pointed out in 30 Mad. 340 at pp. 342-346, to 
the spirit of the ancient Hindu law. The word ' dharma ' when 
used in relation to gifts had a well-recognized meaning and not 
a vague uncertain one. It means ' ista ' and ' purta ' gifts 
according to Manu IV. 227. It appears that in 23 Bom. 725 
their Lordships of the Privy Council rested content with the 
meaning of the word given in Wilson's Dictionary, did not 
examine any original Sanskrit texts to find out the meaning of 
the word dharma used in connection with gifts and applied the 
principles laid down in such English cases as Morice v. The 
Bishop of Durham (9 Ves. 399 and 10 Ves. 522). But there is no 
reason why the charitable intention being quite clear the court 
as representing the king should not have by framing a scheme 
applied the property donated or bequeathed to one charitable 
purpose out of the several objects specified in the definition of 
purta on principles analogous to the dootrine of cy-prd$. tw 

2065. Vide Lewin's 'Law of Truth' (14th ed. of 1939) pp. 
472-474 where several oases aro cited out of which In re Pytu (1903 ) 
Ch. 83 would support the argument advanced above. 



Pratiqtha and Vtsarga (foundation of temples and dedica- 
tion of wells, tanks, parks &o. for the benefit of the public). 

The subjeot of gifts naturally leads on to the topics of 
prati$m and utaarga. We saw above (p. 157 /. n. 370) how 
the construction of temples, wells and similar religious and 
charitable foundations and institutions was included under 
pfirtadharma and how sudras were entitled to perform such 
dharma. The Mit. on Yaj. II. 114 points 80 " out that women 
(and widows) were entitled to spend on purta objeots, though 
they were not authorized to perform ista dharma ( i. e. vedio 
sacrifices &c). Modern decisions have gone so far that a Hindu 
widow whose powers of alienating for secular purposes property 
inherited from her husband are very limited has been held to 
possess greater powers of alienation if the alienation be made 
for the spiritual benefit of her deceased husband and dedications 
by her of a small fraction of the property for the continuous 
benefit of the soul of the deceased owner have been upheld. 8067 
Such works of public utility have been highly recommended 
from very ancient times. Sahara ,0 ' 8 on Jaimini I. 3. 2 refers 
to the srarti rules about charitable objects which are based 
on such iruti passages as '0 Agni, who art anoient and a king, 
thou art to the man who desires to offer a sacrifice like prapa 
(shed where water is distributed to travellers) in a desert*. In 

2066. fifr *r v?w»if?v vthTtcWTOt^ •jftormft nfmrtftraiti<H*n u i 
sumr* i fan. on *rr. II. 11*. 

2067. Vide Sardar Singh v. Kunj Behari L. B. 49 I. A. 383 p. 391 
(a gift made by a widow of a small fart of her husband's property to 
the temple of JagannStha at Pur! for bhoga i. e. food offerings to the 
deity was upheld); Tkakur Indraj Bux v. Thakur Sheo Naresh, 2Lucknow 
713 (where a temple erected and endowed by a widow for the benefit of 
her husband's soul as well as of her own by alienating about &th part 
of the entire property left by her husband was held to be valid ) . 

2068. nmmw i ffi * "ifhrarrcpr «r tmfW*ro»rnrer • sir <* fsfsn* i u»v 
flr* «m atfrfii « n«n ws^fN* Tftrj^ft <* i ?m on §. 1. 3. 2 ; y**- 

trftqpr %w*t*t fa** I "*. X. 107. 10. 

H, D. 112 

890 History of Dharmaiastra [Ch. XXVI 

Rg. X. 107. 10 a puskarinl ( a tank ) is mentioned. The Visnu 
Dh. S. (chap. 91. 1-2) states ' one who digs a well ( for the public ) 
has (the consequences of ) half his sins destroyed when the 
water has begun to flow forth ; one who dedicates a pond is 
forever happy ( free from thirst ) and attains the world of 
Varana.' Bapa in his Kadambarl ( para 44 ) 20M mentions that 
smrtis enjoined upon men the foundation (for public use) of halls, 
shelters, wells, prapas, gardens, temples, embankments, water 
wheels &c. Some sages went so far as to say that the reward of 
sacrifices is only heaven, but by purta ( consecration of temples, 
tanks and gardens) one secures release from mmsara} m This 
shows that charitable works for the use of the public or large 
sections of the publio came to be regarded as more meritorious 
than sacrifices the gifts in which benefited only brahmanas. 

From very ancient times the procedure of dedicating a well 
or tank to the public has been settled. Among the earliest is 
the one in the Sankhyayana gr. V. 2 (S. B. E. vol. 29 pp.134-135) 
whioh is as follows: Now about the censecration of ponds, wells 
and tanks. In the bright fortnight or on an auspicious tithi 
(day) having cooked a caru (boiled food) of barley in milk he 
(the donor) should saorifioe with the two verses 'tvam no 
agne* ( Rg. IV. 1. 4-5 ) and with the verses ' ava te hela ' ( Rg. I. 
24. 14), ' imam me varuna ' (Rg. 1. 25. 19), ' uduttamam Varuna * 
(Rg.1.24. 15), 'imam dhiyam' (Rg. VIII. 42.3) and with 
the words ' the domestic one, he who goes away from the house, 
the refreshing one, he who goes into the kenuel, he who dwells 
in the kennel, he who comes out of it, the greedy one, the 
destroyer of enemies ' to the different directions beginning with 
the west ( VarunI, one over which Varuna presided ) from left 
to right. In the centre he makes oblations with milk with the 
verses 'visvatas cakauruta' ( Rg. X. 81. 3), 'idam Vision* 
( B,g. L 22. 17 ); he plunges into the water with the verse * yat 
kirn cedam Varuna * ( $g. VII. 89. 5 ). *°" A cow and a pair of 

2069. %3r?t;nft , 'fa w*iTO?r«j|}<wi<iHt!tH<{''<*)<i<j*-3sr*$ii*r fttn- 

f*T3P»*TTf«Ti*lT ( srsrR'U ) ■ W^w* para 44. 

2070. fsi?ifi f%th mifi %$ $ reread i rimiv «r*rh ?$ft& T3m%- 
swii. ii gr%gi%si4 i^rs vi'mimmH. i «infS*iTsn»r quoted in »jm?»ir«Kt 
p. 10. 

2071. Even in the e. g. ?g. in VII. 49. 3 (ylsffm rSjS varuijo ySti 
madhye ) Varuna is the lord of waters and therefore it ia appropriate 
that in dedioating wells and tanks to the public Varuna should be 
invoked in several verses. 

Ch. XXVI ] Pratiqtha and Utsarga 891 

clothes are the fee for this sacrifice. Then follows the feeding 
of brahman as. 

The Asv. gr. parisista IV. 9, Par. gr. parisista, Matsya- 
purana chap. 58, Agnipurana chap. 64 contain a more extensive 
prooedure about the dedication of wells and reservoirs of 
water. That in the Par. gr. parisis^a is briefly as mt follows : 
" In the northward passage of the sun, in the bright half, on 
an auspicious day, tithi, vara ( week day ), naksatra and karana 
the donor should cook cam saored to Varuna of barley, offer the 
two ajyabhagas and sacrifioe in fire ten oblations of clarified 
butter with the mantras, Rg. IV. 1. 4, IV. 1. 5, 1. 25. 19, 1. 24. 
11, Kat. sr. 25. 1. 11 ( ye te satarh Varuna ), ayasoagne ( Kat. 
sr. 25. 1. 11 ), Rg. I. 24. 15, Rg. I. 24. 8, Vaj. S. IV. 36, Vaj. S. 
VIII. 24. 8W He then sacrifices ( ten oblations ) of the mess of 
cooked food to Agni, Soma, Varuna, Yajfia, Ugra, Bhlma, 
Satakratu ( Indra ), Vyustf ( prosperity ), Svarga ( Heaven ) and 
lastly to Agni Svistakrt ( with svaha at the end of each as in 
' agnaye svaha ' ). After partaking of the remains of the cooked 
food he should introduce aquatic animals ( like fishes and 
tortoises in the pond &c. ) and having bathed and decked a oow 
he should make the oow enter the reservoir, repeat the Purusa- 
sukta ( Bg. X. 90. 1-16 ) and donate that cow to the acarya and 
should also make presents to him of two ear-rings, clothes and 
of another oow as fee and give a dinner to brahmanas." Apararka 
( p. 413-414 ), the Nirnayasindhu and others add from the 
Bahvrca gr. parisista that when the oow enters the water, he 
Bhould repeat a mantra ' may you make this water holy : may 
the water alwayB be pure, holy and ambrosia-like ; while saving 
me ( from sin ) may you bathe in sacred water ; she crosses from 
region to region and also saves ( me and others ) '; and that the 
donor holds the end of the cow's tail, enters the water and brings 
her out in the north-east corner (of the reservoir). This prooedure 

2072. snircfr TT<ft3jTaei«nTPT^fn*wTrTt sfifHwfr «^ns»nvrpwfa- 

*T7nftwr3T»Tt'm?!f nsvrj eftgstft ?* «ft «& w «* *u wi* w* ^ t "W Tri& 3* 

unh ? <g gffcvwv **t?t *itr*«^ wnrr »hh^ 'parrw t *3»t?t wr|fi> infrfr i%nr- 
gwrctwra ) •srirfHjtii'Ji firs^TcJ^w it <mftwi 5Fwg?R twi^iw *t jprr wf- 
tafilr wrtfft Ssrfi§r<»n «rat wrsropTfapn* i «m. *. vftfite. 

2073. The ten verges are quoted in full in the DSnakriyKkaumndi 
pp. 175-176, 

892 History of Dharmaiastra I Oh. XXVI 

does not apply to the consecration of a well. In that oaae a 
cow is only made to go round the well. 

Gradually the prooedure prescribed in the puranas oame to 
have the upper hand so muoh so that AparSrka (p. 15 ) says 
that in pratistha the prooedure prescribed in the puranas has to 
be followed and no other. 207 * 

Apar&rka(pp. 409-414), Hemadri (Dana pp. 997-1029), 
DanakriySkaumudI ( pp. 160-181 ), Jalasayotsarga-tattva of 
Raghunandana, the Pratisthamayukha and Utsargamayukba of 
Nllakan^ha, Rajadharmakaustubha ( pp. 171-223 ) and several 
other works give a very comprehensive procedure of the con- 
secration of wells, ponds and tanks, based upon the grhya- 
parisistas, the puranas such as the Matsya chap. 58, the Tantras, 
PancarStra and other works. This.procedure is passed over here. 
The idea 8075 was that unless the reservoir was consecrated in the 
way prescribed its water was not holy and when consecrated it 
became holy. Pratistha generally means dedicating to the 
public with prescribed 8078 rites. Utsarga means * divesting one- 
self of ownership over a thing and dedicating it for the use of 
all.' There were four principal stages in the prooedure of 
pratistha; first the sankalpa, 8077 then the homa, then the utsarga 
( i. e. declaration that the thing has been dedicated ) and lastly 
the daksina and feeding of brahmanas. In Deosaran Bharthi v. 
Deoki Bharthi 3 Patna 842 it was said ( at p. 850 ) ' the essential 
ingredient that constitutes a gift whether of movable or of 
immovable property in the Hindu Law is the Sanknlpa and the 
Samarpava whereby the property is completely given away and 
the owner completely divests himself of the ownership in the 

2074. it* jrfifcrnrmf? miuiig^Qeh<5««wi vrxwn witt ■ ?h?r&* nrrftw- 

WWTtOR^T *rf<U<K!{*lu| Tft^TTSWT^ I BITTR? p. 15. 

2075. ^r^r *r& "rfiNr ^ii^iiiqtlntitfcflHJ $*n&uitft \\&4 f +hh«^*wUf- 

M ft i nfaw r quoted in f*> u l< u *ji» g III. ^«rW P- 334. 

2076. sri(tam*4 ^tR fathlw -jfH i*U<i *i: i <{Hf3i<Jl«iV<{r P- 166, 

2077. The H^W would be in the form 3Tttorff% ^np>nrT^S5^R9^^Tft■ 

VVtafaA wft«^ I 4l«fo<U«hW<fl P- l fi7 i the ^WT i» ma< *e in some 

Buoh words as aft awnrn^ wg*j»fbfts5*f5rarlf ^ yfawi m fi l «hi* i va i- 

fcwiRmA T*<mT^*wfow ^ditmuftn fri'gji*' 1 T?gil i 4MTSh-wi° p. 179 ; 
at the end of the rite the donor recited the verse ' trpn**f q i! mft" rr *nrt 
^rfJn*; sran i wjrWwrwft^f wre* tTryrt%n o ' quoted in vnrw&ifar* 
pp. 179 and 216. 

Ch. XXVI J PratistM and Utsarga 898 

property '. In the case of temples, the proper word to use is 
pratisthft and not utsarga. 

There is a difference in the technical meaning of dana and 
utsarga. In the former the donor gives up his ownership over 
a thing, makes another the owner of it and cannot thereafter 
use it nor has he any control over it. When a man makes an 
utsarga, he no doubt gives up his ownership, but be gives up the 
thing for the benefit of all ( as in the formula above be uses the 
word ' sarvabhutebhyah ' ) and so the opinion of most writers is 
that he oan as a member of the public make use of the thing 
dedicated by him, though there were a few authors who recom- 
mended that he should not do so. J07?a 

Reservoirs of water that are dug out by man are of four 
kinds, kupa, vapl, puskarinl and tadaga. 1078 Some of the works 
define kupa as a well that is from five to fifty cubits in length 
( if rectangular ) or in diameter ( if it is circular ). It has 
generally no flight of steps to reaoh the water. Vapl is a 
well with a flight of steps on all sides or on three or two aides 
or one side only and its mouth may be from 50 to 100 cubits ; a 
puskarinl is from 100 to 200 oubits in length or diameter and a 
tad&ga ( a tank ) is from 200 to 800 cubits. The Matsy apurana 
154. 512 states that a vapl is equal to ten kupas ( in merit ) and 
a hrada ( deep reservoir ) is equal to ten vapls ; a son is equal 
to ten hradas and a tree is equal to ten sons. Aooording 
to the Vasistba-samhita quoted by Ragbunandana a puskarinl 
is up to 400 cubits and a tadaga is five times as much. At 
certain auspicious times only the conseoration of wells and 
tanks is to take place. 8079 

Trees have been highly prized in India at all times. They 
were useful in sacrifices for making the yupa ( the post to 

2077a. 3?* &t%i i w**t srarrenrsrafcfafrr m^rs ■ wtitfi s«t: *€tann*s;- 
wrcj • w *fosw T3>f%TPTt *fiH*3«J ♦fatiiwrf *ar *f*i*fif i 3w *r* HVJt't wn- 
*ta ffrwyfaffi fr* *rr%f ^fSr^nrTf : ■ mr i m^wt^iR mnf^rei^lprtqT- 

yi»tf%Wh3ff p. 126 ; compare srOTfnrhff^m ( Ji*. part II. p. 526 ). 

2078. aw sratSPTT: I ft "9 WWIWWWW! $T*T'tis«9ifW?!WPTOnj I 

iror *r ««<<!i<.i 1, iH. i ^ftejrrwl «i<JR$ii: 44t'<&tr<raft't wrftfj j?rfJfJh<ij i 

iraronf^wfem of ^3 s ^r v >' Vide alB0 inftiwWfl p. 126. 

2079. Vide <rpn»rrcrfoft p. 132 and $*rft <*p<w» p. 1003) 
quoting ftsgmff^r. 

894 History of Dharmainitra [ Ch. XXVI 

which the sacrificial animal was tied ), for idhma ( samidhs 
whioh were thrown into fire ), for the several ladles like aruva, 
juhu etc. The Tai. Br. 1. 1. 3 speaks of seven holy trees. The 
Tai. S. III. 4. 8. 4 states that idhma ( samidhs ) should he of 
the nyagrodha, udumbara, asvattha and plaksa trees, as they 
are the abodes of Gandharvas and Apsarases. 80 ' Besides trees 
with their verdant foliage looked beautiful and the leaves of 
some of them ( such as the mango tree ) are hung up even now 
in pandals and at entrances of houses as auspicious in marriage 
and other ceremonies. Hemadri cites a passage from the 
BrahmapurSna that the twigs and leaves of the Asvattha 
( the pipal tree ), udumbara, plaksa, cuta ( mango ) and nya- 
grodha are styled pancabhanga MB1 and are auspicious in all 
rites. The pal&sa tree was held to be so sacred that one was not 
to make seats, sandals or tooth brush from it or its branches 
and twigs ( Baud. Dh. S. II. 3. 25 ). Trees gave shelter against 
heat and also yielded flowers and fruits ( for worship of gods 
andpitrs). When felled their wood was useful in building 
houses, for making implements of husbandry and for producing 
heat and warmth. In his 7th Pillar Edict (of Delhi-Topra) 
Asoka mentions the oonstruotion of wells at a distance of 8 
krosas and the planting of banyan trees and mango groves 
( 0. 1. 1, vol. I pp. 134-135 ). The Mahabhasya ( vol. I. p. 14 ) 
quotes a portion of an ancient verse which conveys that if a 
person waters and tends mango trees, his pitrs feel extremely 
pleased. 80 " Manu IV. 39 and Yaj. 1. 133 require the snStaka to 
circumambulate well-known trees (like asvattha) if he meets 
them on the way. The Kadambarl also refers to this practice 
of worshipping trees, particularly by women desiring to have 
a son. 8083 The Mahabharata ( Anusasanaparva 58. 23-32) 
highly eulogizes plant life and divides plants into six kinds 
viz. vrksa ( tree ), lata ( creepers that cling to trees ), valll 
( creepers that spread on the ground ), gulma (bushes ), tvaksara 

2080. 3*raV>i 3*rf*«iT wr«9rot st«t T?ftwft m*^ $ »r> u«rimmi otto 
% #. III. 4. 8. 4. 

2081. w«gwirf*g <wf , « i«*qinwtfqr i ' «r*»ryT ynr sfh>»T: g fa&g sftwrt ■ 

5 WrfifHTTCT * p. 47. 

2082. wnrra fawn ffcrw rfrftfcro » wmnwr vol. I. p. 14. The 
■everal benefits mentioned above are narrated in AnudS»ana-parva 68. 
28-30 and Vienu Db. S. 91. 5-8. 

para 56. 

Oh. XXVI ] Prati^tha and Vtmrga 895 

( trees whose bark is strong, while the inside is hollow, like 
bamboos ) and grass and adds that he who plants trees is saved 
( in a future existence ) by them just as sons do and that they 
should be tended like sons. 10 " The Visnu Dh.S.91.4 says the same 
thing. Hemadri (Dana pp. 1030-31) oites a long passage from 
the Padmapurana how by planting different trees and plants 
like asvattha, asoka, tamarind, pomegranate and others a man 
secures such rewards ( respectively ) as wealth, removal of 
sorrow, long life, a wife, &c. Vrddha-Gautaraa ( Jiv., part 2. 
p. 625) identifies the Asvattha tree with Sri Ersna. The 
Mahabharata ( Santi 69. 42) forbids even the felling of the 
leaves of trees like the asvattha that have a platform m * built 
for them ( oaitya ). Santiparva 184. 1-17 graphically describes 
how trees have life since they feel pain and pleasure and grow 
though cut. The Bhavisyapurana quoted in the Utsarga- 
mayukha ( p. 16 ) states ' he who plants either one asvattha or 
one picumarda or one nyagrodha or ten tamarind trees, or the 
three trees i. e. kapittha, bilva and amalaka or plants five 
mango trees would not see hell ( i. e. would not be condemned 
to hell for his sins ). 8086 The Matsyapurana ( chap. 270. 28-29 ) 
requires that to the east of the mcwfapa of a temple fruit-bear- 
ing trees should be planted, to the south trees that contain 
milky sap, to the west a reservoir of water with lotuses therein 
should be constructed and to the noith a flower garden and 
sarala and tala trees. Vas.Dh.S. 19. 11-12 prescribes that no one 
should injure (i. e. cut) trees that yield fruits and flowers exoept 
only for purposes of cultivating the land ,087 ( and for sacrificial 
purposes, as laid down in Visnu Dh. S. 51. 63 ). The Visnu 
Dh. S. V. 55. 59 prescribes that the king should award the 
highest fine, the middling fine, or a fine of 100 karsapanas or of 
one karsapana respectively against those who wrongfully out 
a tree bearing fruit or a tree that bears flowers, or who out 
creepers and shrubs or grass. 

Hemadri ( Dana. pp. 1029-1055 ) deals at length with the 
planting of trees, the dedication of a garden and the merit 

2084. ssr^ %im% ?wremr«Tf2«T wi ^ i awaeiTi w^rtt tfrvrs <Wr- 
fSwT *r?r i $pnr?«rfoiT?VT*r s*re* wfcr: *%mt ii wgsircnr 68. 30-31 ; isntta- 
ftiirfsm "naft s*r wfaf ' f^^>rffl?r 91. 4. 

2085. ^rnrt ^«t iwraft <nm <rnnnr. i frn% 69. 42. 

2086. «««wirtf ftgH^fcft wnfttj&K ^5t PWVfta* I B(»iaiHWiwrt» - 
wf >» <Twra»n<ft <*wr * t^ u *ri*«fSttT in g^pfa^a p. 16 «nd in thw*S- 
*fa«*T P- 183. 

2087. amwm«iwmm« ffofflgi' ftfrwffwS 'faiwrmnrfilrg 19.U«U 

896 History of Dharmatestra { Ch. XXVI 

acquired by making gifts of various trees. The procedure of 
dedicating a garden is prescribed in San. gr. V. 3. Asv. gr. 
parisista IV. 10, the Matsyapurana 59, Agnipurana 70 and in 
many other works. It is modelled on the dedication of wells 
and tanks. The Matsyapurana expressly states that the 
procedure of the consecration of a tank is extended to the con- 
secration of everything, such as a prUsUda ( a large house or 
hall for public use), a garden &c, the only difference being that 
the mantras are different. 8089 The procedure in San. gr.*°" 
(V. 3) is: Having established the sacred fire in that garden 
and having cooked a mess of food, the donor should sacrifice 
with the words ( Visnave svaha, Indragnibhyam svaha, Visva- 
karmane svaha ) and with verses $g. III. 8. 6 ff. ( yan vo naro ), 
verse by verse. Then he reoites over the garden the verse Rg. 
III. 8. 11 ' vanaspate satavalso vi roha.' The fee for the sacri- 
fice is gold. 

Devata-pratistha — ( Conseoration of an image in a temple ). 

Though the dharmasutras speak as shown above of images 
and temples, it strikes one as somewhat strange that none of 
the prinoipal grhya and dharma-sutras contains any procedure 
of oonseorating an image in a temple, while in the puranas and 
some of the digests muoh space is devoted to the topic of devata- 
pratistha. The Matsyapurana in chap. 264 and the Agnipurana 
in chap. 60 and 66 deal with devatapratistha in general. There 
are special chapters in the puranas on the consecration of the 
image of Visnu or of Siva or the Linga. It would be impossible 
to deal in any detail with all this matter. The worship of god 
can be done in two ways, viz. without any outward symbol 
and with a symbol. The first is achieved by a prayer and 
offering oblations into fire ; the second by means of images. 
But even image worshippers are quite conscious that god is 
pure consciousness ( cit ), is one without a second, is without 
parts and without a physical body, and that the various images 

2088. »t*fc* 5*1% srarnwjvwT^ i $<r*nftg: flprfs sr«rr s«*>ft<% "* « 

68. 50-62. «rnprwt fafifr wf BwltiH'^jJiJj i «m«iffifti<H*Hwnw ama?*^* i 
*?q 59. 3. 

2089. irap(msfJng<Rnfflm wwftrraj wfawi R««i^ wi*4i«***rt 
ww ft , 're*fT wi^fil w*fr *it ffit Jffpi sSf^ignwl www *<h£)«wj 
fkv% »j^«n ** i srt. ^j. V. 8. 

Ch. XXVI ] PraU^thcL-consecraUng an image 897 

in which he is thought as in-dwelling are so imagined for the 
benefit of worshippers.* * 

The worship of god through the medium of images is 
again two-fold, viz. done in one's house and in a public temple. 
The latter is, according to many works, the best and the 
oompletest, since it allows of the celebration of festivals and 
the performance of the varied items or modes of worship 
( upacara ). Private worship of idols in one's house has already 
been dealt with above ( pp. 726-736 ) under Devapuja. Now the 
worship of images in temples remains to be dealt with. The esta- 
blishment of images in temples is again of two kinds viz. calarcs 
( where the image can be lifted up, moved to another place ) and 
sthirarca ( where the image is fixed on a pedestal or is not meant 
to be lifted up or moved ). The consecration of these two differs 
in certain details. 

Here numerous matters have to be considered. The principal 
matters to be attended to according to the Matsyapurana 
(264-66) are : the auspicious time for the consecration of an image, 
the erection of a mandapa to the east or north of the temple, 
the ereotion of a vedi therein, erection of four toranas ( arched 
gates ) for the mandapa, placing two auspicious jars at each of 
four gates filled with scented water and herbs and covered with 
mango leaves and white cloth, raising of banners all round the 
manfapa, worship of lokapalas ( guardian deities of quarters ), 
erecting another mandapa for bathing the image in, bringing the 
image and honouring the artizans, drawing lines on the image 
or linga with a golden needle to represent the lustre of eyes, the 
selection of a qualified sthapaka or acarya and of from eight 
to 32 other priests ( called murtipa ) ; taking the image or linga 
to the manfapa meant for bathing the image, bathing the image 
to the accompaniment of music with paficagavya mixture, with 
mrttika ( loose earth ), with holy ashes and water ; rendering it 
pure by repeating four mantras ( viz. samudrajyesthah, fipo 
divyah, yfisam rajs and apo hi s^ba, which are respectively Rg. 
VII. 49. 1-3 and X. 9. 1 ); offering worship after the bath to 
the image with sandalwood paste and covering it with a 
garment ( with the verse ' abhi vastrS ' Jig. IX. 97. 50 ), placing 
the image in a standing position with the mantra ' uttistha ' 
( Rg. I. 40. 1 ) ; placing the image in a chariot with the verses 

2090. n%|i , mjwTQtfi<H<< Pr«*wW$i€h%T: • TMWhMl $r«n$ wgroft 
W«Wfrr U quoted in the %*Jjfasrim of <C3**?st ( p. 50 ). 

H. D. 113 

898 History of Dharmaiastra [ Oh. XXVI 

' a muraja ' and ' rathe tistfian • ( $ g , VI. 47. 31 and VI. 75. 6 ) 
and entering it in the mandapa with the verse 'a krsnena* ( Rg. 
L 35. 2 ) ; placing the image on a bed on which kusa grass 
and flowers are strewn with the face { of the image ) towards 
the east ; plaoing a water jar ( called nidrakalasa ) having gold 
in it and a piece of cloth at the mouth towards the head of the 
image with the mantras ' apo devlr ' ( Tai. 8. VII. 3. 13. 1 ) and 
' apo asmftn ' ( Rg. X 17. 10 ) ; plaoing under the head of the 
image silken pillows, sprinkling honey and clarified butter, 
and worshipping with mustard with the verse ' fipyayasva ' 
( Rg. I. 91. 16 or IX. 31. 4 ) and ' ya te rudra ' ( Tai. S. IV. 5. 1. 
1 ) ; offering worship with sandalwood paste and flowers and 
tying a band ( pratisara ) on the right hand ( of the image ) with 
' b&rhaspatya ' mantra ; placing a parasol, chowrie, mirror, 
jewels, auspicious herbs, household utensils, fine vessels and 
seats by the side of the image with the verse ' abhi tva ' (Rg. 
VII. 32. 22 ) ; honouring the image with the presentation of 
various foods and condiments with the verse ' tryambakam 
yajamahe ' ( Rg. VII. 59. 12 ) ; placing four priests and four 
door-keepers in the four directions viz. a priest knowing Rgveda 
in the east and so on and each of the four priests is to repeat 
from his own Veda several hymns and verses e. g. the Rgvedin 
priest should recite Srlsukta (Rg. 1. 165), Pavamana hymn (from 
Rg. IX. 1 ), 6antikadhyaya ( Rg. X. 16 ), then a hymn to Indra. 
Then the acarya is to perform homa towards the head of the 
image with SSntika mantras and offer into the fire 1000 samidha 
( fuel sticks ) each of palasa, udumbara, asvattha, apamarga and 
saml trees and then touoh the feet of the god ; preparing nine 
kundas each one oubit square and offering into them one 
thousand satnidhs each time on touching the navel, the chest 
and the head of the image ; remembering the eight forms 
(mflrti) of god viz. the earth, fire, the sacrifice, the sun, 
the water, wind, moon and akaia and offering homa to 
these with vaidika mantras ; plaoing auspicious jars near eaoh 
kunda; bathing the image at every watch and offering 
incense, food ( naivedya ), sandalwood paste ; offering ball to 
all beings, and dinner to brahmanas and persons of other 
castes at one's desire ; celebrating a festival at night with 
dances, song and music; this may go on from one day to 
■even days (it is called adhivasana); then the temple building 
is to be sprinkled over; finding out a place for the image either 
to the north or slightly to the north-east in the temple ; a stone 
in the form of a tortoise is to be placed on the temple floor ; 

Oh. XXV I ] PraU§tK3,-conaecrating cm image 8$d 

preparing a pindiks and bathing it with paficagavya with 
mantras; then raising the image with the mantra 'uttistfia' 
( Rg. I. 40. 1 ), bringing it in the inmost chamber of the temple 
and placing it on the ptyha (pedestal), offering it arghya water, 
padya water, madhuparka; then the nyasa (depositing) of eight 
kinds of jewels viz. diamond, pearl, lapis luzuli, oonoh, crystal, 
pusparaga, indranlla and nlla in the eight directions from the 
east, also of eight kinds of grains viz. wheat, barley, sesamei 
mudga, nlvara, syamaka, mustard and rioe and also eight 
fragrant things such as white and red sandal-wood, agaru, 
uslra &o. Nyasa of all these is to be made after repeating om 
and the pauraajika mantras ( with ' namo natnah ' at end ) of the 
eight guardians (lokapalas) viz. Indra, Agni, Yama, Nirrti, 
Varuna, Vayu, Soma, Isana and also of Brahma ( 9th ) and 
Ananta (10th); raising the image and fixing it in the scooped 
up portion of the pedestal with the mantra ' dhruvfi dyaur ' 
(Rg. X. 173. 4); plaoing one's hand on the head of the image 
and contemplating on the well-known form of the deity that is 
established, whether Visnu, Siva, Brahma, the Sun; repeating 
appropriate mantras (viz. those of Rudra, Visnu, Brahma, the 
Sun in the case of the respective gods whose image is establi- 
shed); establishing deities near the prinoipal image of the 
god's dependants (such as Nandl in the case of Siva); invoca- 
tion ( avShana ) of the prinoipal deity with its attendants with 
pauraijiha mantras; bathing the image with curds, milk, clarified 
butter.honey and sugar and then with water in which flowers and 
scents are mixed up; repeating the following mantras again and 
again viz. 'yaj-jagrato duram-upaiti' ( Vftj. S. 34. 1), 'tato virad- 
ajayata' (Vaj. S. 31. 5 ), ' sahasraslrsft ' (Rg. X. 90. 1), ' yenedam 
bhutam ' ( Vaj. S. 34. 4 ), * na tv&vSm ' ( Rg. VII. 32. 23 ) ; touch- 
ing four times with water the feet, the waist and head ( of the 
image); giving gifts of olothes, ornaments &o. to the aoarya 
and to the poor, the blind and the distressed and to others 
that may be gathered to see; filling with sand any aperture in 
any direction in which the image appears to be unstable and 
performing propitiatory rites for the guardian of that quarter 
and making gifts suitable to each lokap&la; oelebrating a 
festival for three, five or seven days. 

The general procedure of consecrating an image has been 
given above at some length from the MatsyapurSna in order to 
convey some idea how in the first centuries of the Christian 
era the consecration of images was done. It will be noticed 

$66 History of DharmaiMra fOh.iXVl 

that mostly vedio mantras were employed though a few pau- 
ratjika mantras also ooour. In medieval digests like the Deva- 
prafcisthatattva other elements were added from Tantra works. 
Speoial attention may be drawn to the faot that in the above 
procedure the word pranapratistha does not ooour in the Matsya. 
Baghunandana ( in Devapratisthfitattva ) quotes Devlpurana to 
the effeot that pranapratistha is done after touching the oheeks 
of the image with the right band and that without this vivifica- 
tion a mere image does not attain to the position of a deity 
worthy of worship. In the Devapratistfiatattva, the Nirnaya- 
sindhu, the Rajadharma-kaustubha and other works the prana- 
pratistha is based on the 23rd chapter ( patala ) of the Sarada- 
tilaka ( verses 72-76 ). The mantra is given below. "•' 

The DevapratisthStattva ( p. 505 ) quotes the Hayaalrsapafi- 
oar&tra to the effect that generally a brahmana should officiate 
at the consecration of an image of Visnu, but a ksatriya can 
officiate for a vaisya or a sudra yajamana and a vaisya may do 
for a sudra yajamana, but a sudra cannot officiate. 

In the Matsyapurana, the Agnipurana, the Nrsirhhapur&na, 
the Nirnayasindhu and many other works there are descriptions 
of the oonsecration of the images of Vasudeva, of a linga and 
other deities, which are all passed over here for want of space. 
In these works following Tantrio praotioes three kinds of nyasas 
viz. Matrkanyasa, Tattvanyasa and MantranySsa are referred to. 
The Matrkanyasa consists in repeating the letters of the alphabet 
from a ( inoluding ' am * and ' ah ' ) to 1 ( in the form of akaraya 

2091. 3??!T inorafttawgw w^rfanyi^jii wt: sjpTgtwprri^ 0^^ 
ftrewnrqp sTrorreTT ^rm 1 srt #* wf sn%: wroifarprt ftiStfta 1 
%* *Sfr 3^5 1 s5*r art jft aS w v t j? * tf <r # ?«■: %**r suni v* "wis ' 

sft srt iff aft frw: %**t zftw w f?«nr: 1 ai* art jft *h: ^rv *nf- 

iSjprrion wr art jflf #m ^r mw«?s:»fhrt3nrjrmniorT fffnrw 

^ 5$* $fci firsts **nfcfa 1 nnTS^fi^jrf *wr sjifcr. 1 && urorr: «rftB*s 
wr& JKorrs sjfa >ar 1 src^ ^rewnsfr^ *?iWra ^r m^fa 1 fo»3<m>»g ill ^tvk 
p. 849. There are slight variations in other works. The verses of the 
j Tropfi ra w r «« <TRit|prs3r w%«rF?ft f%f^R?rT 1 Twit mi *renTT*enr «frw 
^*jrt3H^« w^ *H«nr: wnp^sswretf «r%^ mptr yfa*%?wn% sitt- 
wit» <n^ •• war 3ft 1 ? y? f$unwdisti**<M$ «rfo 1 ^ffyrfrswrfft vramr* 
awra: 11 wrsreiorct srmr totpt stf f^H. ' i«tar»wftr<iiT& snT*»»9r»nfr- 
ffcr« u nwmmMj $ <n sn^fn^ sn?Wr^ 1 snffts vrtotrr snor*nR?t *nRftftj n 

tTTCfiftftTi 23.72-76. The ^n ni ^ s iHTH p. 506 quotes these and the explana- 
tions of vnWTS the com. of the g mqiflrf gi and reads the qnr as art |ff JBT 

* t H * ii tf *t tan 3*3" &o. 

Ch. XXVI 1 PraUstha and titmrga 90i 

namah svaha ) and offering an oblation in fire. The Tattva- 
nyasa consists in repeating ' Atmatattv&ya namah, svaha ' and 
the same formula as to Atmattvadhipati, Kriyasakti, Sivatattva 
(or Visnutattva ), Sivatattvadhipafci, Icchasakti, Vidyatattva, 
Vidyatattvadhipati, Adharasakti. The Mantranyasa is aa 
follows : taking a mantra of oertain letters for a god ( e. g. one 
of 12 letters as in ' om namo bhagavate Vasudevaya ' ) one has to 
repeat each letter in the formula ' om omkaraya namah svaha '. 

The Dharmasindhu III ( purvardha ) sets forth a brief 
procedure of the consecration of images in which only one 
priest is required ( vide pp. 333-34 ). In modern times also the 
procedure of dovatapratistha contains numerous elements and 
is extremely long. 

The Vaikhanasa Smartasutra ( IV. 10-11 ) contains perhaps 
the earliest extant detailed description of the consecration of the 
image of Visnu. But it appears to have been mainly concerned 
with an image installed in private houses or with the worship 
of an image by one individual. It is briefly as follows : m * 
After the daily homa comes the daily worship of Visnu, which 
( worship ) comprehends in itself the worship of all gods. A 
brahmana passage ( Ait. Br. I. 1 ) says ' Agni is indeed the 
nethermost ( or the lowest ) among gods and Visnu the highest; 
between these two stand all the other deities '. Therefore hav- 
ing established in one's house the highest god Visnu the house- 
holder worships him at the end of the evening and morning 
homa. He should make an image of Visnu in length not more 
than six fingers; he should perform its consecration in the 
bright half ( of a month ) on an auspioious naksatra. Three 
days before he should prepare the space ( kunda ) of the grhya 
fire and perform the several rites of proksana, drawing lines as 
desoribed ( in Vaik. I. 9 ). Then he is to perform homa up to 
agharas ( as described above pp. 210-11 ). Then he performs the 
sacrifices to the limbs in the words * to the teeth, svaha : to 
the jaws, svahl ', and other oblations with the six mantras 
beginning with * ato deva ' (Rg. 1. 22. 16-21 ). Then he performs 
while repeating audibly the hymn to Purusa ( Rg. X. 90. 1-16 ) 
the opening of the eyes ( of the god Visnu ) with a golden 
needle. Having spread in a river or a pond or in a vessel filled 
with water cloth and kusa grass with the mantras beginning 
' ye te satam ' ( mentioned in Vaik. III. 17 ) he lays down ( the 

2092. Vide Appendix for the text. 

9bt History o/ Dharmaiastra [ Oh. XXVI 

image of ) the god on these with the head turned to the east and 
leaves the image there. On the second day after he bathes, he 
offers at night the ftgh&ra in the usual way ; he brings eight 
jars, fills them successively with paQcagavya, ghee, ourds, 
milk, water mixed with whole rice, water with fruits, water 
with kusa grass, water with jewels (pearls &o, ); worships 
the god, bathes the image with the ( contents of ) the ( eight ) 
jars successively with the following mantras : ' vasoh pavitram* 
(Vaj. S. I. 31 ), * agna Syahi', * ise tvorje tva,' ' sam no devlr,' MM 
'catvari srhga* (Rg. IV. 58. 3 ), 'somo dhenum' (Rg. I. 91. 26 ), 
•catvari vak' ( Rg. 1. 164. 45 ), 'idam visnur ' ( Rg. 1. 22. 17 ) ; 
he further bathes the image with perfumed waters to the 
accompaniment of the mantras ' apo ' ( Rg. X 9. 1 ), ' hiranya- 
varn&h ' ( Tai. S. V. 6. 1. 1 ) and the pavamana section. He then 
makes to the north of the fire a vedi ( altar ) with rice, plaoes a 
seat on it, spreads cloth on it, places the god thereon and 
having deoked ( the image ) with clothes &o. worships the 
image. He has the benediction pronounced (by the brahmanas), 
he touches the pratisara ( a band or ribbon ) with the svasti 
hymn* 09 * and ties it ( on the right hand of the image ) with the 
mantra ' svastida visaspatir ' ( Rg. X. 152. 2 ). He then lays 
the god down as before. After filling with purified clear water 
a jar that is not dark-coloured, he places it by the ( right ) side 
of the image, touches it with the syllable ' om ' and throws into 
it a bunch of kusa grass, whole rice, a piece of gold and a jewel 
(pearl ). Having meditated on the god who is really without 
parts as residing in his own heart and also in the clear water, 
as golden in splendour, as having red face, eyes, hands and 
feet, as wearing the irlvatsa mark and a yellow garment, as 
having ( in his hands ) the conoh and the disc, as of benign 
oountenanoe and as possessed of all parts ( i. e. oomplete ) he 
should bow before him. Having sprinkled water round the fire 
and having lauded the work of the hotr, he invokes the god by 
name in the southern pranidhi vessel in the words ' om bhuh 
purusam ' ( avahayftmi ) and performs invocations in the same 
way with vyfthrtis separately and together and of N&r&yana, 

2093. Ise tvorje tva", agna SyShi, sam no devlr-are the beginnings 
of the three Vedas, Yajurveda (Sukla and Krsna), Sffmaveda and 
Atharvaveda. In the Sannaklv a recension of the Atharvaveda the first 
Terse is ' Ye trisaptBh ' and 'dam no devlr ' is Atharva I. 6. 1. 

2094. The*r%s*m is wfa *r fifeftmi. &c ?g. V. 51. 11-15, in 
each verse of which the first word is tvatti. 

Oh. XXVI ] Prati^Ka and Utsarga 903 

Visnu, Purusa, Satya, Aoyuta, Aniruddha, 6ri, Mahl. Having 
poured out the rice (for the sacrificial offering ) he sacrifices 
four times with ghee and with a hymn to Visnu, with the 
Purusasukta ( Rg. X 90 ), with the mantras beginning with 
* ato devah ' ( Rg. I. 22. 16-21 ) and with the mantra ' medinl 
devl' ; he should then offer the mess of boiled rice sprinkled over 
with clarified butter after invoking the god's names (Kesava and 
11 others mentioned in Vaik. III. 13). On the following morning 
he bathes, placing the god in the standing position after uttering 
'om'; carries the image with the jar while muttering the 
sSkuna hymn ( Rg. II. 42. 1-3 and II. 43. 1-3 ) in the north- 
western direction into his house or in a temple or in the 
agnihotra-shed ; placing down on the pedestal meant for the 
image jewels and gold he instals the image of Visnu saying ' I 
install Visnu ' while repeating a hymn to Visnu and the hymn 
to Purusa ( Rg. X. 90 ). He makes a nyUsa on the head, on the 
navel, on the feet and the chest of the image of the syllables 
svah, bhuvah and bhuh and om ; fixing his mind on the god 
with the mantra ' idam Visnur * ( Rg. L 22. 17 ) and taking with 
a bunch of kusa grass the clear water that has been already 
poured in the jar and that has already the iakti ( power personi- 
fied ) in it, he makes ( the water ) flow on the head of the image 
and performs the invocation with the words ' I invoke Visnu \ 
Having propitiated by worship as laid down in the sastric rules 
he presents the sacrificial food ( to the image ). 

In Vaik. IV. 12 the daily worship of Visnu is set out. 

The practice of attaching dancing girls to temples is of 
respectable antiquity. The origin of this practice appears to be 
analogous to the institution of Vestal virgins in Rome. The 
Rajatarangipl ( IV. 269 ) speaks of two dancing girls attached 
to a temple ( devagrhasrifce nartakyau ) who danced and sang 
at a place as it was the custom of their family, though the 
temple itself was buried underground. In the Vaghli (Ehandesh 
District) stone Inscription dated sake 991 (1069-70 A. D.) 
there is a grant of Govindaraja making provision for dancing 
and singing by damsels 10 " ( vilSsinl ). In the Inscription of the 
Cfihamana king Jojaladeva dated saihvat 1147 ( 1090-91 A. D. ) 
the courtezans of all temples are said to have been ordered to 
come in their best dress and celebrate a festival with music 
( E. I. vol. XI. 26 and 27 ) and the king records an imprecation 

2095. <rre*f «for*fvrtf flaift i PUmfa«H ( B. I. rot. II p. 2J7 ). 

904 History of DharmaiMra [ Oh. XXVI 

against all who might stop that praotioe. The Ittagi ( 20 miles 
east of Gadag) inscription dated 1112 A. D. records ( E. I. 
vol. XIII. p. 58 ) that a brahmana named Mahadeva donated 
houses for the retinue of dancing girls and other attendants of 
the gods at Iftagi. This praotioe of devadasis ( minor girls 
dedicated to the service of temples ) or. bhUvins ( whioh term is 
known in the southern parts of the Ratnagiri district ) was held 
by the modern Indian Courts to be immoral and whoever disposes 
of any person under the age of 18 years ( or obtains possession 
of any person ) with intent that such person shall at any age 
be employed or used for the purpose of prostitution or illicit 
intercourse with any person or with knowledge that the person 
is likely to be employed or used for any suoh purpose at any 
age is liable to be prosecuted under Sec 372 and 373 of the 
Indian Penal Code ( as amended by Act 18 of 1924 ). mt In 
Bombay there is the Bombay Devadasis Protection Act 
( Bombay Act X of 1934 ) which declares the performance of 
ceremonies for dedicating an unmarried woman to an idol or 
temple illegal and renders the dedicator or abettor thereof 
liable to punishment ( one year's imprisonment or fine or both ). 

Punah-pratistha : — ( Re-conseoration of images in temples ). 
The BrahmapurSna quoted by the Devapratis^hatattva and the 
Nirnayasindhu says ' when an image is broken into two or is 
reduced to particles, is burnt, is removed from its pedestal, is 
insulted, has censed to be worshipped, is touched by beasts like 
donkeys or falls on impure ground or is worshipped with mantras 
of other deities or is rendered impure by the touch of outcasts 
and the like — in these ten contingencies, god oeases to indwell 
therein.' When an image is polluted by ( contact with ) the 
blood of a brahmana or by the touch of a corpse or the touch of 
a patita it should be re-oonsecrated. If an Image is broken in 
parts or reduced to particles it should be removed according to 
iSstric rules and another should be installed in its place. When 

2096. Vide Queen Empreu v Tippa, 16 Bom. 737 ; Reg. v. Jaili 
Bhavin 6 Bom. H. C. Ii. 60 ( Crown Cases ) for convictions for dedica- 
tion of minor girls to temple-servioe and marrying them to an idol i 
also 1 Mad. 164, 15 Mid. 41 and 75. The Marathi word ' bhnvin ' is 
derived from bhSvini ( a woman having bhSva ) and bhsva in the 
language of Sanskrit rhetoric means ' love of god ' ( ratir-devSdi-visayS 
bhuva iti proktab ' KavyaprakSsa IV. 35 ). Vide Enthoven's ' Tri- 
bes and castes of Bombay ' vol. I. pp. 145-147 for information about 

Oh. XXVI 1 Punab-pratistha 905 

an image is broken or stolen a fast should be observed. If 
images of metal suoh as of copper are touched by thieves or 
candalas they should be purified in the same way in whioh 
polluted vessels of those metals are purified and then they should 
be re-consecrated. If an image properly consecrated has had no 
worship performed without pre-meditation (i.e. owing toforgetful- 
ness or neglect ) for one night or a month or two months or the 
image is touohed by a sQdra or a woman in her monthly illness, 
then the image should have water adhivasa ( placing in water ) 
performed on it and it should be bathed with water from a 
jar, then with paflcagavya, then it should be bathed with pure 
water from jars to the accompaniment of the hymn to Purusa 
( Bg. X. 90 ) repeated 8000 times, 800 times or 28 times, worship 
should be offered with sandal-wood paste and flowers, naivedya 
(food) of rice cooked with jaggery should be offered. This is the 
way in whioh the re-consecration is effected. 

Jiryoddhara ( rehabilitating old or dilapidated temples &c). 
This subject is closely connected with the preceding topio and is 
dealt with in the Agnipurana, chap. 67 and 103 ( about lingas); 
the Nirnayasindhu ( III. purvardha p. 353 ), the Dharmasindhu 
( III. piirvardha p. 335 ) give an extensive procedure following 
the Agnipurana. This is done when the image in a temple or a 
linga is burnt, or reduoed to particles or is removed to another 
plaoe. The Agnipurana ( 103. 4 ) says that if an image or 
linga is carried off by the strong current of a river, it may be 
re-consecrated elsewhere aocording to the rites prescribed in the 
s&stra. According to the Agnipurana * 097 ( 103. 21 ) a linga that 
is reputed to have been established by the asuras ( like Banfi- 
sura ) or famous sages or by gods or by those who were expert 
in Tantra should not be removed to another place, whether it be 
worn out or broken, even after the performance of prescribed 
rites. The Agnipurana prescribes (chap. 67. 3-6) that an image 
of wood when extremely worn out may be burnt, one of stone 
may be thrown into water, one made of metal or of a jewel 
( pearl &c. ) should be thrown into very deep water or the sea 
after carrying it covered with cloth in a cart to the accompani- 
ment of musio and on the same day another of the same dimen- 
sions and substance should be installed after the purification of 
the image is effected. When the daily worship of an image 

2097. srft^* 5W%°r « 4m fSn< > *n% i mriwranft tfw»*r i*r>s#«T 

<WTW^ « srwjtro 103. 4 »nd 21. 
H. D. 114 

906 History of Dharmaiastra [Oh. XXVI 

had been stopped of set purpose or when it is touched by sudras 
and the like, purification can be effected only by re-consecra- 
tion. Ee-oonsecration oan be done even in intercalary months 
or when Venus is too near the sun to be visible. When a temple 
or a well or a tank is breached or when a garden embankment 
or a publio hall is injured, one should offer four oblations of 
clarified butter with the four verses ' idam Visnur ' ( Eg. I. 
22.17 ), *ma nastoke* (Eg. 1. 114. 8), * Visnoh karmSni' ( Eg. I. 
22. 19 ), ' padosya ' ( Eg. X 90. 3), and then a dinner may be 
given to brahmanas. 

The procedure of jirytoddhara is given at length in the 
Nirnayasindhu, the Dharmasindhu and other works. Vrddba- 
H&rlta IX 409-415 also deals with re-consecration. Sankha- 
Likhita quoted in the VivSda-ratnSkara and other works say that> 
when an image, a garden, a well, a bridge (over a moat or river), 
a flagstaff, a dam, a reservoir of water are breached, they should 
be repaired ( or raised ), re-consecrated and the person guilty of 
breach should be fined 800 panas. 8088 When worship was 
stopped, some authors prescribed re-consecration, while others 
prescribed only proksana as laid down in the Devapratistha- 
tattva ( p. 512 ) or Dharmasindhu ( III purvardha p. 334 ). 

The Kiradu ( Jodhpur ) Inscription of the time of king 
Bhlmadeva of Anahillapataka records that in plaoe of an image 
broken by Turuskas ( Moslems ) a new one was installed in 
aaihvat 1235 ( 1178-79 A. D. ) by the wife of Tejahpala, a sub- 
ordinate officer of the feudatory Cahamana Maharajaputra 
Madanabrahma ( vide E. I. vol. XX, Appendix p. 56 No. 381 ). 

Mathapratistha . — ( the founding of a monastery or a college 
for teachers and pupils. ) 

The founding of mathas appears to have been not very 
anoient. The Baud. Dh. S. ( III. 1. 16 ) in speaking of a 
householder who is an agnihotrin remarks ' after departing from 
his house he (the householder) stops at the extremity of the 
village, builds there a hut (ku{l), or a cottage hall (matha) 
and enters it'. Here matha does not appear to have any 
technical sense. In the lexicon of Amara a matha is defined 
as ' a plaoe where pupils ( and their teacher ) reside '. A temple 

«iftl. V- 364. The fi»tifirf^g explains H5«T# UlSt*TT nffifall i 5«T: 

writer ars^ni «pnT q"«*}Hj»h i ( III, yiW p. 352. ) 

Ch. XXVI ] Temples and Mathas 90? 

and a matha were both established from the same religious 
motive or sentiment, but they served different purposes. A 
temple was built principally for the purpose of prayer and 
worship. It also often provided for religious instruction, for 
the recitation of the Mahabharata, the Ramayana and the 
puranas, for kirtans to the accompaniment of music. But these 
latter were only secondary purposes. In the case of the mathas 
they were primarily intended for the instruction of pupils or 
the laity by some great teacher in the tenets of a sect or in 
the doctrines of some philosophy or in some branch of learning 
such as grammar, mlmarhsa, astronomy and the like. In many 
cases shrines or temples are associated with or affiliated to the 
mathas, but the worship of a particular deity is not the primary 
object of mathas. Mathas among the followers of the Vedio 
religion probably owed their origin to the example of Buddhist 
monasteries ( vih&ras ) ,0 ". The foundation of mathas received 
a great fillip after the times of the oelebrated Advaita teacher, 
the great Sankaracarya, whom tradition credits with having 
established for the propagation of his system of Vedanta four 
mathas at Srngerl, Purl ( Qovardhanamatha ), Dvaraka ( SaradS- 
matha) and Badarl ( Jyotirmatha ). Vide E. C. vol. VI Sg. 
No. 11 ( an inscription dated 1652 A. D. ) where reference is 
made to a grant in Sriigapura, the dharmapltha established by 
Sankaracarya, to the famous matha at Srngerl for the worship 
of Mallikarjuna, Vidya-sankara-svamI and Saradamba. Other 
aoaryas like Ramanuja and Madhva established their own 
mathas and the number of mathas is now legion. Originally a 
matha started by a sannyasin like the great Sankaracarya 
must have had no property, as ascetics were prohibited by the 
sastras from possessing property, except suoh articles of 
personal use as clothes, sandals, religious books on paim leaf 
or paper &c. Besides sannyasins were required not to stay 
long in one place. So people built shelters for them, in order 
to acoommodate them when they visited their town or village 
and these were probably originally called matha, which in 
its narrow sense means a place where an ascetio resides. 
In its wider sense it means an institution where a teacher 
presides and instructs several disciples in religious and ana- 
logous tenets, practices and dogmas. But gradually the zeal 
and devotion of the disciples and followers of the great 

2099. Vide Gullavagga VI. 2 and 15 ( S. B. E. vol. XX. pp. 160-169 
and p. 209) for vihUrat and their condition. 

308 History of Dharmaiastra I Oh. XXVI 

teachers endowed the mathas with considerable moveable 
and immoveable properties. The origin of mathas (spoken 
of as madams in South India ) has been lucidly set forth as 
follows in Sammantha Pandora v. Sellappa Chetti 2 Mad. 175 
at p. 179 ' a preoeptor of religious dootrine gathers around 
him a number of disciples whom he initiates into the parti* 
cular mysteries of the order and instructs in its religious 
tenets. Such of these disciples as intend to become religious 
teaohers renounce their connection with their family and 
all olaims to the family wealth and as it were affiliate 
themselves to the spiritual teacher whose sohool they have 
entered. Pious persons endow the schools with property which 
is vested in the preceptor for the time beiitg and a home for the 
school is created and a ma^am constituted. The property 
of the ma^tam does not descend to the disciples or elders in 
common; the preoeptor, the head of the institution, selects 
from among the affiliated disciples him whom he deems the 
most competent and in his own life-time instals the disciple so 
settled as his successor, not uncommonly with some ceremonies. 
After the death of the preceptor the disciple so chosen is ins- 
talled in the gaddi and takes by succession the property whioh 
has been held by his predecessor. The property is in fact 
attaohed to the office and passes by inheritance to no one who 
does not fill that office. It is in a certain sense trust property ; 
it is devoted to the maintenance of the establishment, but the 
superior has a large domain over it, and is not accountable 
for its management nor for the expenditure of the income, 
provided he does not apply it to any purpose other than 
what may fairly be regarded as in furtherance of the object 
of the institution. Aoting for the whole institution he may 
contract debts for purposes connected with his mattam and 
debts so contracted might be reoovered from the mattam 
property and would devolve as a liability on his successor to the 
extent of the assets received by him*. Vide also Oiyana Sambandha 
Pandar Sanmdhi v. Kandasami Tambiran 10 Mad.375, pp.384-389» 
Vidyapurna Tirtha Swam* v. Vidyanidhi Tirtha Swami 27 Mad. 
435 at pp. 438-439, 451, 453-55, Kailasam Pillai v. Nataraja, 
33 Mad. 265 (F. B. ) at pp. 267,273-277 for further remarks 
on the origin, growth and objects of mathas.* 100 

2100. Vide BBjatarafigi^I VI. 87-88 where the king is sa id to have 
donated to the head of a majha (ma$hSdhipati) where pupils were taught 
almost all his wealth. 

Cb, XXVI 1 temples and Mathas $09" 

The head of a matha is called svSml, mathapati or matha- 
dhipati or mahanta (usually written as mohunt in the Law 
Reports ). The head of the matha is usually appointed accord- 
ing to the custom and practice of each matha, generally in one 
of three ways, viz. (1) the head for the time selects from among 
his disciples a fit one to sucoeed him, (2) the disciples elect one 
from among themselves to sucoeed on the demise of the head, 
(3) the ruling power or the original founder or his heirs appoint 
the head when there is a vaoanoy. 

That temples and mathas have throughout the oenturies 
been supplementary to each other, both ministering to the reli- 
gious and spiritual wants of the people can be shown by a few 
examples. It has been seen how Bana ( in the seventh century) 
refers to the recitation of the Mahabharata in the temple of 
Mahakala at Ujjayinl. The Rajataranginl ( V. 29 ) states how 
king Avantivarman of Kashmir appointed one Ramata Upa- 
dhyaya to the post of expounder (vyakhyatrpadaka) of grammar 
in a temple ( about 900 A. D. ). The Agnipurana" 01 enjoins that 
in a temple of Siva or Visnu or the Sun if any one reads a book 
he may thereby acquire ( the merit of ) the imparting of all 
knowledge. Some mathas on the other hand provided for 
instruction not only in spiritual knowledge but also in secular 
knowledge. In the Patna Inscription of the time of the Y&dava 
king Singhana, we read that Cangadeva, the court astronomer 
and astrologer, established in sake 1128 ( 1207 A. D. ) a matha 
for the study of the SiddhSnta-siromani ( an astronomical 
work ) of BhSskaracarya, the grandfather of Cangadeva ( E. I. 
vol. I. p. 338 ), the matha being endowed with lands and other 
sources of income by two feudatories of Singhana. Vide also 
E. 0. vol. VI. Sg. No. 11 referred to above ( p. 907 ) where in 
endowing the matha at Srngerl provision was made for the 
worship of Mallikarjuna and Saradamba. 

A passage quoted in the Danaoandrika from the Skanda- 
pur&na states that a matha should be provided with cots and 
seats, should be tfa<*tohed with grass and provided with platforms 
and should be donated to brahmanas or asoetics at some auspi- 
cious time ; by so doing a man secures all his desires and if he 
has no worldly desires he seoures release ( from samscira ). im 

2101. fSrera^ ft«OT$ ^'fo.T*'!- «r«T ■ «^p*sif. «• wm&g tf *r^w 
*r: n wRr^rm 211. 57. 

2102. %*n to *PT?**r w« nnwdit«m • jphrewfi j ri <fc» «rf%«inf^t wft- 

mWtgHTq » WiHWI quoted in ^r^firro p. 152. 

910 History of Dharmaiastra { Oh. XXVI 

The word matba was sometimes used in the sense of a 
dharmasalS, a place provided for the temporary residence of 
travellers from distant parts. For example, the Rajatarahginl 
VI. 300 states that queen Didda oonstruoted ( about 972 A. D. ) 
a matha for the residence of the people from Madhyadesa, 
Lata and SaurSs^ra. 

Throughout India for many centuries there have been well- 
endowed temples and mathas. But how the rulers or the ancient 
and medieval courts of justice regulated the administration of 
these institutions or their funds or how they prevented or stop- 
ped maladministration or misappropriation is not dealt with 
exhaustively anywhere. 

In Oirijanund Datta Jha v. Sailajanund Daita Jha 23 Cal. 
645 it is observed as follows ( at p. 653 ) ' notwithstanding the 
existence of numerous richly endowed Hindu shrines all over 
India from the earliest times, the Hindu Law strictly so called 
is, as Sir T. Strange complains (see his Hindu Law, Ed. of 1839, 
vol.1, p. 32) meagre in its provisions relating to religious 
endowments, a fact which may perhaps be accounted for on the 
supposition that the high reputation for piety and purity of 
character justly enjoyed for the most part by the priestly classes 
of ancient India who had the management of the shrines was 
deemed a sufficient safeguard against breach of duty, so bb to 
render detailed rules of law to regulate their oonduot unneces- 
sary '. In the following some of the meagre material that can 
be gathered from DharmasSstra works and analogous writings 
is set out. Manu ( XI. 26 ) first appeals to the religious senti- 
ments of people by declaring that the wioked man who from 
greed seizes the property of gods or of brahraanas feeds in 
another world on the leavings of the food of vultures. Sahara 
remarks (on Jaimini 2102 IX. 1.9) that when it is said that a village 
or field belongs to a god, that is not a literal expression but 
used only in a seoondary sense. That is said to be owned by a 
person which one can use as one likes ; a field or a village can- 
not be used by a deity ; but the attendants on the god ( or 
temple ) are maintained out of what is donated to a temple or 
god. From this it follows that all those rules that apply to a gift 
to a human being do not apply to a property dedicated to an 

2103. %mrnrV ^shjfara jm^iwhih, ' '•it T?rf*ftw Wnft%H*ftl htot 
wft tfihfafit %<nrTf[fot| «hvwh 1 $wt on $. IX. 1. 9. 

Ch. XXVI J Administration of temple property 911 

idol. Medh&tithi 8, °* (onManu XI. 26 and II. 189) points 
out that images cannot be said to be owners in the 
literal sense, but only in a secondary or ideal sense, since 
the idol in a shrine cannot use the property at its will nor 
can it safeguard it and ownership consists in being able to 
use the thing owned as one desires and in being able to preserve 
it. In modern times courts in India have laid down that an 
idol is a juridical person capable of holding property, though 
from the vary nature of the oase the possession and management 
of the property rests with a manager or a trustee. A matha is 
in the same position as an idol. The rights of the idol or 
of the ma^ha can be safeguarded and vindicated in a court 
of law only by the manager or trustee of the temple 
or by the head ( called mohunt ) of the matha. 8 ' 05 Vide 
Bhupati Nath v. Ram Lai 37 Cal. 128 ( F. B. ) at pp. 145-153 
where Mr. Justice Mukerji examines at length passages of 
Sahara, Medhatithi, the D&yabhaga and its commentators to 
explain what is meant by a gift to an idol according to the 
notions of the Hindu writers. Manu and other smrtikaras 
lay down that it is part of the king's duty to prosecute and 
fine persons interfering with or destroying the property of 
temples. Yaj. II. 228 prescribes a fine of 40, 80 or 160 panas 
respectively for cutting off the twigs, principal branches of 
trees or the entire trees themselves that grow on built up 
platforms or in cemeteries or on boundaries or in holy places 
or near temples. Yaj. ( II. 240 and 295 ) prescribes the highest 
ammercement for fabricating a false edict or for tampering 
with royal edicts by inserting more or less than what is inten- 
ded to be granted by the king. The Mit. on Yaj. II. 186 says 
that the king should sedulously safeguard all rules made 
about the pastures for cows ( in a village ) or about the preser- 
vation of tanks and temples. Manu IX. 280 requires the king 
to pronounce the death sentence on those who break into a royal 
storehouse or an armoury or a temple and prescribes that the 
breaker of an image shall repair the whole damage and also pay 
a fine of five hundred panas. Kau$. III. 9 prescribes punishment 

2104. sn% %^rntt wwrrfirmr^r g^T«faw*rj[h»r «t*tuT irwn ■ Sin. 
on *g II. 189 ; %*T3rireT *PTri%TWTj3 <J^^tt^a «$*** gswi W*nf5- 
^wwv%^Twr«K«^T^i'Tft%«wtT^r7T«isfi^3 , 8i&i H'g qRM r twq i mwiw t 
p*ri* i <e* * ^ nrfra™"* ' **n° on "a XI - 26 - 

2105. Vide Protunno Kumari v Oolab Chand L. R. 2. I. A. 145 »t 
p. 152 ; Pramatha Nath r Pradyumna L. R. 52 I. A. 245, 251-52. 

912 Hittory of DharmaiMra [ Ch. XXVI 

for encroachment on temples. From the Kautfllya ,,M we 
know that kings appointed an officer called ' devatadhyakaa ' 
( Superintendent of temples ) and that when the king's treasury 
became empty it was part of the duty of that officer to bring 
together all the wealth of the temples in the forts and other 
parts of the country and the king could in an emergency use 
that wealth (and probably used to return it later when financial 
stringency ceased). Among matters called praklrnaka (mis- 
cellaneous ) of which the king was to take oognisanoe suo motu 
without anybody's complaint, Narada inoludes ( in verse 3 ) 
'abstraction of gifts* and 'gifts of villages and towns to 
brahraanas * (verse 2). According to the Sm. 0. among the topics 
called chalas* m were two viz. the destruction of a reservoir 
of drinking water and of a temple. Katy ayana states that mere 
wrongful possession for any length of time of women, of state 
property and of temple property would not confer ownership on 
anybody. These texts indioated that the Government of the 
day protected temple properties, tanks, wells and the like that 
were dedicated to the publio and exercised powers of superin- 
tendence and correction in matters affeoting them. Yaj. IL 
191 says that those who look after the business of guilds etc. 
in which many are interested should be students of the Veda, 
men of rectitude and free from greed. They are styled karya- 
cintaka by him. Brhaspati ,,M quoted by Apararka says 
( p. 796 ) that these karyacintakas ( committee ) should oonsist of 
two, three or five persons and that if there be disagreement 
between the larger bodies and the committee the king should 
decide that dispute and should bring round to the proper path 
whoever might be in the wrong. It appears that from very 
ancient times ( 3rd or 2nd oentury B. 0. ) the committee in 
charge of religious foundations was called gos$hl and the 

*106. mrfomnrrifr tf : wnnrvro • ^rhp*! qa fa iffiumi i SN aqw- 
Rfla*<({iuim*i»iM^5STRR-go^»ipT-ftm^r wrronmr: i *&&<& III. 9; fan- 

2107. bot^ "vmpita tr^rfr <s<f&«r«n i w <r ftm ft qfl fttrpymrftf - 
«1$it « <rn**yr mv^t mifinRwf-*: i flrcww ffcrreft ^r tot >*rara?»r 
«» n ffcjnr? quoted in the *gfiHr. ( «r*. p. 27 ). 

2108. # **j. nar <n wrun w^ff^i%: i msfa «nr* fcrt irm&fa- 
TTT^fat « fswft quoted by smtfc p. 796 ; g^ s mt ffjjjrprt ft*Tnft ***- 
«r<t ' *V i^rrtthfnn wm^f wt<t^ rr « smtfcr p. 794. 

Cb. XXVI ] Administration 0/ temples 913 

members gosthika" *. In some inscriptions the superintendent 
of s temple is called sthcLnapati (vide Srlrangam plates of Deva- 
r&ya II dated sake 1356 in E. I. vol. 18, p. 138). In the Sirpur 
Stone Inscription of MahSsivagupta ( about 8th or 9th century 
A. D. ) of Mahakosala provision is made for a portion of the 
property granted being heritable by the sons and grandsons 
of the donees only if they were worthy, kept up agnihotrai 
studied the six angas and had olean mouths and did not 
engage in service and further that if the heir did not possess 
these qualities or died without leaving a son &c, then 
another person, a relative with the requisite qualifications, 
oould be made the reoipient of that share, and he was to 
be elderly and learned and was to be chosen by mutual agree- 
ment and the king's express order was not to be necessary 
for his selection. " 10 Paithlnasi quoted by Apararka p. 746 
ordains that the king should not deprive temples and corpo- 
rations of their properties. A record from Malabar of the 
11th century A D. gives the details of temple administration 
in Kerala, that was in the hands of Yogam ( corporation ) 
wielding independent power (B. L vol. 18 p. 340). The 
Feshwa's Government at Poona often interfered when disputes 
arose about properties dedicated to shrines and tombs of saints 
between the managers of the temples or among the heirs of the 
saint to whom lands had been originally donated. For example, 
the Peshwa made an award in 1744 A. D. about the principal 
religious and charitable institution in the Decoan, viz. the 
Cninchvad Samsthan, whereby he set apart one half of all pro- 
perties bestowed on the shrine at that place for purely religious 
and oharitable purposes and distributed the other half between 
the manager and his kinsmen who were all descendants of the 
original founder, Shri Moraya Gosavi ( vide Chintaman v. Lhondo 

2109. Vide E. I. vol. II. p. 87 ( votive inscription from Sanchi ) at 
p. 92 where mention is made of Bodha-gof hi ( Bauddba go§thI ) ; E. I. 
vol. I. p. 184 at p. 188 (for gosthika), E. I. VIII p. 219 ( Abu inscription 
No. 2 dated 1230 A. D.) which gives the names of the committee of 
management who and whose descendants were to manage the founda- 
tion ( anr*^ qrfpnw &«HHi«i»'h'i8*i*t wranw Ttn i <pnfj*rtrenw<iY- 

*rr«rT *» mrfNm tnfa«nw HWBwfa *NH^mmf^& wf* wvonV fwVJtprW w). 

2110. Vide wp4 <c*gw<iiw«j sfnftnftwt qwf^nh i wrt*.M iti n m faftsro- 
tfc*$t ii T?a wtfftWi wrft wts^fr ftrow i «nft# ****?>*?! y r f w iauum 
ffeir: i h ^Jrw* tfwwft hP&p* ^'fri^i: i Tfirfcr "* wtamm n^qt »» w^r- 
im n E. I. vol. XI. p. 190 verses 30-32. 

H. D. 115 

$14 History of DharmaiSstra [ Ch. XXVI 

15 Bom. 612 at p. 615 ). A similar award was made by the 
Feshwa in 1777-78 A. D. about the Brahmanal Samsthan in the 
Satara Distriot ( vide Annaji v. Narayana 21 Bom. 536 ). This 
privilege of ancient rulers to redress grievances and correct 
abuses in the management of religious and charitable endow- 
ments devolved upon the British Government as laid down by 
the Privy Council in Rajah Muthu Ramlinga v. Perianayagunt 
Pillai, L. R II. A. 209 at p. 232 'It is evident.. .that the British 
Qovernment, by virtue of its sovereign power, asserted as the 
former rulers of the country had done, the right to visit endow- 
ments of this kind and to prevent and redress abuses in their 
management '. The Indian Central and Provincial Legislatures 
have placed on the Statute book many Acts regulating religious 
and oharitable endowments. A list of the most important of 
these enactments is given below.* 111 

Property dedioated to a god is called ' devottara * ( the word 
being written as debutter in the Law Reports, particularly from 
Bengal). Vide Sham Charon Nandi v. Abhiram (?os«;amt,33Cal.511 
at p. 523. A good deal of litigation comes up to the courts about 
the rights and liabilities of the trustees and the sevakas ( called 
Shebait in Bengal ), about their mismanagement of the temple 
properties and their removal and so forth. 

Among impartible things Manu ( IX. 219 ) included yoga- 
ksema. The Mit. on Yaj. II. 118-119 shows that several mean- 
ings were attached to that expression by various writers, but that 
relying upon a verse of Laugaksi it prefers the meaning of isfa 
and purta. Therefore the Mit. 1112 declares that gifts dedicated 
by a person to the public by expending ancestral wealth such 

2111. Tbe Religious Endowments Act ( XX of 1863 ) as amended 
by Aot XXI of 1925; The Charitable Endowments Act (VI of 1890); 
Religious Societies Act ( I of 1880 ) ; Indian Civil Procedure Code, 
Sections 92-93 ( Act V of 1908); Indian Limitation Aot, Section 10 
( Aot IX of 1908 ) ; Charitable and Religious Trusts Act ( Act XIV of 
1920 ) ; Madras Hindu Religious Endowments Act ( Madras Aot II of 
1927, applying to temples and maths also); Tirupati and Tirumalai 
Devastbanams Aot (Madras Act XIX of 1933); The Bombay Public 
Trusts Registration Act ( Bombay Aot XXV of 1935 ). 

2112. ^ij*j 5tjt ^ TftirsJmT. i q>nnfrmwtu« i mh i ttfi wiHwaffi l - 
jjf «r4 wfrit i dj»rtf ^gwptft ftyrwrf%Thnf3wircq f^rwig, i *ronr siir/fo i 
ffcm» on *|. II. 118-119. 

Ch. XXVI ] Administration of temple properties 015 

as tanks, gardens, and temples could not be partitioned by the 
sons and grandsons. In modern times also the same is the rule. 
Besides properties dedicated to temples and other religious and 
charitable purposes are generally inalienable, according to 
legislative enactments and judioial decisions, ,m except where 
an alienation is absolutely neoessary for the upkeep of the 
religious worship or for the benefit and preservation of the 

A question arises whether, when a work of public utility is 
dedicated, the founder possesses any control over the thing 
dedicated and if so to what extent. The Vlramitrodaya ( on 
Vyavahara*" 1 ) furnishea an answer to this question. The follow- 
ing is the gist of its argument keeping as close to the original 
as possible. When a man throws an oblation into fire, his owner- 
ship over the oblation comes to an end; but the oblation 
belongs to nobody. No human being has accepted it. Yet 
the sacrificer can prevent any one who wants to desecrate the 
offering by bringing it into contact with something impure from 
doing so and can see to it that the offering is reduced to ashes in 
the fire undisturbed. Similarly when a tank or a garden is 
dedicated to the public, the ownership of the founder in the thing 
is gone, but there is no other individual owner and no new 
ownership arises in any single person ; yet the founder can 
prevent a third person making himself owner of the thing 
dedicated to the public and it cannot be argued that the founder 
cannot interfere for protecting the thing and that there is no 
blame if he does not safeguard the assumption of ownership 
by a third person. The practice of respectable, people viz. the 
exercise of the right of preservation in the case of both ( i. e. in 
the oase of what is offered into the fire and what is dedicated 
to the public ) is based on this consideration. The sSstric injunc- 
tion about utsarga does not merely contemplate the divesting 

2113. Vide for example Bombay Act II of 1863 (Summary Settle- 
ment Act, sec. 8). Tide Ptoiomio Kumari v. Golab Chand L.R. 2 I. A. 245. 

2114. f%a srra^r ^riteftPi flm fo wwrflff utwmiStaaiwrr* ^tto- 
nprir}f^^fiBn-7rT?9PKHSTrtnT: *?ftyi^i ! (f2r<m<in?sft<r?*wf *w?t«th*t i tot 
j*r *f*fa 'Twmar^rofa w^rwCT?r%Rrwt«r»^rS*^wT«rnitf 3* ' w«n 
H i umwwufrMM i qffi n *n*{*n*m i it{Hrft*xwtf%'fa'- ' fJrenrrcregiTT * «rf?<rt- 
gircsrarwjragi <r* 1 1 ^ wnnr*f<T n wvr t^'T*3T'nnwwn*prrf'srr5fT qr^ «r 
svn%ffi wnr. i irwjftw^'Nr ftfirsrw^ftTOwrir, ' ^h*<m5<. ««••«« «jt iwtisti- 
*r*rf*nr*! i ^kfaVhrr, ***** ( portion on ft*r«T edited by G. 8. Sarkar 
obap. I sec 60 and JiT. ed. p. 544 ). 

9l6 History of bharmaiastra [ Oh. XXVI 

of one's ownership and dedication to the public, but also that 
the thing dedioated be enjoyed by the public without inter- 
ference or encroaohment, just as in noma also one does not 
merely desire to throw an oblation into fire (and rest content with 
that) but one desires to see that the oblation is reduced to ashes 
and is not rendered impure. This shows that the founder of 
a temple or the builder of a tank or garden would always 
retain a power to preserve the thing dedioated. 

Questions as to whether a new image can be substituted 
by the trustee or the shebait of a temple or whether he can 
remove the image to another place do come before the courts. 
Vide Kali Kanta Chatterji v. Surendra 41 0. L. J. 128 ; Pra. 
matha Natha v. Pradyumna Kumar 30 0. W. N. 25 ( P. 0.) where 
the P. 0. laid down ( p. 33 ) that family idols are not merely 
movable chattels and that their destruction, degradation and 
injury are not within the power of the founder or other custo- 
dian for the time being ; vide Hart Baghunath v. Anant Bhikaji 
44 Bom. 466, where it was held that the manager of a public 
temple has no right to remove the image from the old temple 
and instal it in another new building, especially when the 
removal is objected to by a majority of the worshippers. 


VANAPRASTHA ( forest hermit ) 

Vaikhanasa appears to have been the ancient name for 
Vanaprastha. In the AnukramanI one hundred Vaikhanasas 
are said to have been the seers of Rg. IX. 66 and a Vamra 
Vaikhanasa is the seer of Rg. X. 99. The Tai. A. I. 23 connects 
the word Vaikhanasa with the nakhas of Prajapati ( ye nakhas 
te vaikhanasah ). 8IIS It appears that in ancient times there was 
some work called Vaikhanasa sastra which treated of the rules 
for forest hermits. Gaut. III. 2 uses the word Vaikhanasa for 
this asrama. Baud. Dh. S. II. 6. 19 defines a vanaprastha 21 " as 
one who follows the practices laid down in Vaikhanasa-sastra. 
Vrddha-Gautama ( chap. VIII, p. 564 ) appears to suggest that 
Vaikhanasas and Pancaratrikas were two schools of Vaisnavas, 
the former calling Visnu by the appellations of Purusa, Acyuta 
and Aniruddha, while the Panoaratrikas spoke of Visnu as 
having the four murtis or vyuhas viz. Vasudeva, Sankarsana, 
Pradyumna and Aniruddha. 21 ,T The Par. M. vol. I, part 2, p. 139 
after quoting Vas. Dh. S. 9. 11 ( sramanakenagnimadhaya ) 
remarks that Sramanaka is Vaikhanasa-sufcra that propounds 
the duties of tapasvins. K&lidSsa in the SSkuntala speaks of 
the life led by the oharming Sakuntala in Kanva's hermitage 
as vaikhanasa vrata mt ( I. 27 ). Manu VI. 21 describes the 
Vanaprastha as abiding by the views ( mata ) of Vaikhanasa 
and MedhStihi explains that Vaikhanasa is a sastra in which 
the duties of the forest hermit are expounded. The Maha- 

2115. ifr TO8rT# 3<SM*Tr: 1 5f *T«JTOt WTcST^frTT: I n • WT. !• 23. 

2116. «pto«t)t fapwgmpttnwmro i «ft. ?. % n. 6. 19. 

2117. ipr* >•; rat «r»w«3* <* gfafifc i arf^r ^r *rt *Tg$sr«wft!r'T 
anm it writ iki f%3rr«n3r *rt ttsr "nwcrfifarc: ■ *ns%# "9 xi$mt «y } " i wi i fi 
*T i «W»T ii i hm' T ^rjpjyjf ifwfr « W»nV»T VIII. p. 564. These and other 
verges »re quoted as from srr«^n>wr«F by <m. WT. I. part 1 p. 366. 
wwrir^tiira in his $% mnmimfa 8 (Vijianagram Series) p. 453 tells 
us that, according to the for^ffjTTO, the PsnoarStra school is not Yaidika. 

2118. W«rd faw«nn wsrmTiTr^ «rr<n<ctffa *qm RwWfawpr. i 
sn^ws I. 27. 

9i8 History o/ DharmaiUstra [ Oh. XXVII 

bhSrata 811 * (Santi 20. 6 and 26.6) states that the view of the 
Vaikh&nasas is that it is better to have no desire for amassing 
wealth than to hanker after wealth. SarikarScSrya on Vedanta- 
sutra III. 4. 20 speaks of the third aarama as vaikhanasa and 
as indicated by the word tapas used in Chan. Up, II. 23. 1. 

The word vanaprastha is according to the Mit. the same 
as vanaprastha, which means ' one who stays in a forest in a 
pre-eminent way ' ( by observing a striot code of life ). Kslra- 
svSrol derives it differently.'" 

The time for becoming a forest hermit arises in two ways. 
Aooording to the Jabalopanisad quoted above (p. 421) a man may 
become a vanaprastha immediately after the period of student- 
hood or after passing some years as an householder. Manu 
(VI. 2) indioates the age by saying ' when a householder sees his 
skin wrinkled and his hair growing white and sees the sons of his 
sons he may betake himself to the forest '. The commentators 
were divided in their opinions, some holding that all three con- 
ditions ( wrinkles, grey hair and seeing son 's sons ) must be 
fulfilled before one oould beoome a forest hermit, others held 
that only one of them need be fulfilled and others again said 
that these conditions are only indicative of the age viz. that a 
man must be old or over 50. Kulluka on Manu III. 50 quotes 
a smrti ' a man may resort to a forest after 50 '. 

Gaut. III. 25-34, S.p. Dh. S. II. 9. 21. 18—11. 9. 23. 2, Baud. 
Dh. S. III. 3, Vas. Dh. S. IX, Manu VI. 1-32, Yaj. III. 45-55, 
Visnu Dh. S. 95, Vaik. X. 5, Sankha-smrti VI. 1-7 ( in verse ), 
Santiparva 245. 1-14 and AnusSsana 142, Asvamedhika-parva 
46. 9-16, Laghu-Visnu III, KurmapurSna ( uttarSrdha chap. 27 ) 
contain numerous rules about forest hermits. The prinoipal 
points are stated below with a few references : 

(1) One may go to a forest with one's wife or one may 
leave her in oharge of one's sons ( Manu VI. 3, Yaj. III. 45 ). 
The wife may accompany if she desires. Medhatithi notes that 
some explained that if the wife was young he may place her in 
oharge of the sons and that an old wife may accompany her 

2119. 94SHHMI WT^Nr «t«rft «Wtf VOT I f%K %l»ifcfli«(W l KI^(ri TtT" 

*rcft ii *niW 20. c-7. 

2120. *U rorafar fJr«i^*r «a fihrfil ^nfh% *mmt: *»t«i*it m wtthw 
HWrt q*bl i ftffTe on vr. HI. 45. sftmnft on wnftQ however aays ' irfif- 

Oh. XXVII ] VUnoprastho 919 

(2) He takes with him to the forest his three Vedio fires 
and his grhya fire 81 " together with such sacrificial utensils as 
the ladles called true, sruva. Ordinarily the wife's oo-opera- 
tion is required in offering sacrifices, but when the wife is given 
in charge of the sons, her co-operation then is supposed to be 
dispensed with or it may be held that she has consented to all 
acts by agreeing to stay with the sons. On repairing to the 
forest he should perform the srauta sacrifices of new moon and 
full moon, the agrayaya isti, the calurmasyas, Turayana and Dak- 
sayana ( Manu VI. 4. 9-10, Yaj. III. 45 ). The sacrificial food 
was to be prepared from corn like nivara growing in the forest. 
It appears that acoording to some writers the forest hermit was 
to give up his srauta and grhya fires and kindle a new fire in 
accordance with rules laid down in the sramanaka ,,M ( i. e. the 
Vaikhanasa sutra) and offer sacrifices therein. Vide Gaut. 
III. 26, Ap. Dh. S. II. 9. 21. 20 and Vas. Dh. S. IX. 10. 2in 

2121. If he has followed the ardhsdhUna mode, then he has sepa- 
rate srauta and grhya fires ; but if he has followed the ' aarvSdhSna 
mode, then he has only srauta fires, which alone he takes with him. 
When a man consecrates the three srauta fires he may do so with half 
of his smSrta tire and keep the other half of the smarts fire. This is 
ardhsdhSna. If he does not keep the emSrto fire separate it is sarva"- 
dhana. Vide Ip. Sr. V. 4. 12-16, V. 7. 8 and Nirnayasindhu ( III 
pUrvHrdba, p. 370 ). If he has no srauta fires then he takes only the 
grhya fire. One who has no wife living can also become a forest 
hermit. Vide Mit. on Ysj. III. 45. DsksByana is a modification of the 
DarsapHrnamffsa sacrifice ( Ap. Sr. III. 17. 4 and 11, Adv. Sr. II. 14. 73. 
and com. on Est. Sr. I. 2. 11 ) and Turffyana if an istyayana according 
to £s>. Sr. II. 14. 4-6 and a sattra according to Ap. XXIII. 14. 1. 

2122. MedhStithi on Manu VI. 9 states that the SrSmanaka fire is 
to be kindled by him only whose wife is dead or who becomes a forest 
hermit immediately after the close of the period of student-hood. 

2123. *nror^n&»mirnr ■ »tt. III. 26 j *n*^lr*irjpnqnrri%HTnr 

f^rnr. I drills IX. 10. st^t on ift. explains ' *n*<Jttf hw thawtf »iiwh '• 
These words occur also in Baud. Dh. S. II. 6.20. thrrfffft explains that he 
is to swallow holy ashes in order to deposit fires in bis self, while 
NSrSyana explains that he is to do so by repeating the mantra ' Ys te 
agne yajniyB ' ( Tai. S. III. 4. 10. 5 ). The Baud. Dh. S. II. 10. 30-31 
refers to this ' vmi *: wwtfttS wraT*Tin**umt<prtr i «rr & »jr ^f^rrr ?rq: 
Rt? firW&iflB «mf*tsri% t >• The Vaik. IX. 1-5 details how a person on 
entering the order of vaikbSnasas is to establish the ArBmanaka fire. 
At first it deals with the establishment of srSmanka fire by one whose 
wife accompanies bim and then by one whose wife does not accom- 
pany him and winds up »jr«rw ««f: STWnKTtwirtTnj: I Wl^flfil'vnwi^Hfir 
*r *rmonBfff?vnr ftw*i: ■ aroWfrera ftspr^ift <fW j»*t w»r fa*wi 

920 History cf Eharmaiastra [ Oh. XXVII 

Ultimately he is to leave the keeping of fires by depositing the 
sacred fires in his own self aocording to the rules prescribed 
( in Vaikbanasa sutra ). Vide Manu VI. 25, Yaj. III. 45. 

(3) He has to give up all food that he used to partake of 
when he was in his village and also all household parapher- 
nalia ( cows, horses, beds &c. ) and subsist on flowers, fruits, 
roots and vegetables growing in the forest on land or in water or 
on corn fit for sages such as nlv&ra and syamaka ( Manu VI. 5 
and 13, Gaut. III. 26 and 28 ). But he has to avoid partaking 
of honey, flesh, mushrooms growing on the ground, and the 
vegetables called Bhustrna, Sigruka, the Slesmataka fruit, 
though these are forest produce ( Manu VI. 14 ). Gautama 
allowed him as a last resort to partake of the flesh of animals 
killed by carnivorous beasts. Yaj. III. 54-55, Manu VI. 27-28 
allow him to beg for alms at the dwellings of other hermits or 
allow him to go to a village and bring by begging silently 
eight morsels of food. He can use salt prepared by himself 
only ( Manu VI. 12 ). 

(4) He has to perform the five daily sacrifices to gods, 
sages, Manes, men ( guests ) and to bhutas with food fit for 
ascetics or with fruits, roots and vegetables and give alms 
thereout ( Manu VI. 5 and 7, Gaut. III. 29-30, Yaj. III. 46 ). 

(5) He has to bathe thrice in the day, in the morning, 
at noon and in the evening ( Manu VI. 22 and 24, Yaj. III. 48, 
Vas. IX 9 ) ; while Manu VI. 6 appears to prescribe a bath 
twice a day only in the morning and in the evening. So there 
was an option. 

(6) He was to wear a deer-skin or a tattered garment ( i.e. 
one of bark or kusa grass or the like ) and allow his hair and 
nails to grow. Vide Manu VI 6, Gaut. III. 34, Vas. IX. 11. 

(7) He should be devoted to the study of the Veda and 
reoite it inaudibly ( Sp. Dh. S. II 9. 22. 9, Manu VI. 8, Yfij. 
III. 48 ). 

(8) He should live a life of complete continence, should 
be self-restrained, friendly (to all), collected in mind, ever 
liberal but never a recipient and be compassionate towards all 
beings ( Manu VI. 8, Yaj. III. 45 and 48 ). In view of Yaj. 
III. 45, Vas. IX 5 and Manu VI. 26, Kulluka seems sm to be 

2124. *r*ro«ft w*p«nfl mftt *r»vnr»ft ai^ i u. ill. 45 ; gpnffct: • 
<n3g IX. 5. 

Oh. XXVII ] VUmprastha-duties of 921 

wrong in holding that if a forest hermit takes his wife with him 
he may cohabit with her at the prescribed times. 

(9) He is not to use corn growing on ploughed land in 
the forest even if the owner negleots to garner it nor is he to 
eat fruits and roots growing in villages ( Manu VI. 16 and 
Yaj. III. 46 ). 

(10) He may cook wild com or he may eat only what 
becomes naturally ripe ( like fruits ) or he may pound between 
stones the grain to be used by him, or may employ his teeth 
only as mortar and he is not to employ ghee in bis cooking 
or religious rites but only the oil of wild fruits ( Manu VI. 17 
and Yaj. III. 49 ). 

(11) He is to eat only onoe either in the day in the 
4th part ( of the day divided into eight ) or at night or he may 
take food every alternate day or once after two or three days 
( Visnu Dh. S. 95. 5-6, Manu VI. 19 ). He may also follow 
the method of the penance of Candrayana ( stated in Manu 
XI. 216) or he may subsist on wild fruits, roots and flowers 
only ( Manu VI. 20-21, Yaj. III. 50 ) or may eat only once 
at the end of a fortnight ( according to one's ability ). He may 
reduce gradually the" quantity of food he takes, ultimately 
subsisting on water alone or on wind ( Ap. Dh. S. II. 9. 23. 2, 
Manu VI. 31 ). Vide Visnu Dh. S. 95. 7-12 also. 

(12) He may accumulate food materials only for a day 
or a month or a year ( but never for more than a year ) and 
should throw away his stored food material every year in the 
month of Asvina ( Manu VI. 15, Yaj. III. 47, Ap. Dh. S. II. 
9. 22. 24 )."" 

(13) He should practise severe austerities by standing 
in the midst of five fires ( 4 fires in the four directions and 
the blazing sun overhead ), by standing in the open in the rains, 
by wearing wet garments in winter (Manu VI. 23-34, Yaj. 
III. 52, Visnu Dh. S. 95. 2-4 ) and thus habituate his body to 
privations and mortifications. 

(14) He should gradually give up residing in a house, 
but should stay under a tree and subsist only on fruits and 
roots"' 6 (Manu VI. 25, Vas. IX. 11, Yaj. III. 54, Ap. Dh. S. 
II. 9. 21.20). 

2125. ** *re* m& sn" m a^i^ ?«m i &n- «r. * II. 9. 22. 24. 

2126. fsnifjprafcr* 3ptf i^wjt *n%*^fs<n ! &*ftfcw: i «r#s IX. 11. 

H. D. 116 

922 History of DharmaiOstra I Oh. XXVII 

(15) At night he should sleep on the bare ground, should 
pass the day either sitting or moving about or in the practice 
of Yoga and should make no effort to enjoy the things that give 
pleasures ( Manu VI. 22 and 26, Yaj. III. 51 ). 

(16) He should study the various texts of the Upanisads 
for the purity of his body, for the inorease of his knowledge 
and ultimately for realising brahma ( Manu VI. 29-30). 

(17) If the forest hermit suffers from some incurable 
disease and cannot properly perform his duties or feels death 
to be near, he should start on the great journey (Mahapra- 
sthana) turning his faoe towards the north-east, subsisting on 
water and air only, till the body falls to rise no more ( Manu 
VI. 31, Yaj. III. 55). The Mit. and Apararka (p. 945) on 
Yftj. III. 55 quote a smrti ' a forest hermit may resort to the 
distant journey or may enter water or fire or may throw him- 
self from a precipioe *. ,m 

The Baud. Dh. S. III. 3 gives an intricate classification of 
vanaprasthas. They are either pacamanakaa ( who take cooked or 
ripe food) or apocamanakos ( who do not oook their food ). Each 
of these two classes is again sub-divided into five. The five 
pacamanakaa are sarv&ranyakas, vaitusikas, those who subsist 
on fruits, roots and bulbous roots, those who subsist . on fruits 
only, those who subsist on vegetables only. Sarvaranyakas are 
of two kinds, viz. indravasiktaa ( who bring creepers, shrubs and 
cook them, offer agnihotra therewith and offer it to guests and 
eat the rest ) and reto-vasiktas ( who bring the flesh of animals 
killed by tigers, wolves or hawks and cook it and offer to 
Agni &o. ). The apacamanakas are five viz. unmajjakas ( who 
do not employ implements of iron or stone for holding food ), 
pratfttaiinah ( who eat food from their hands, without using 
any vessel ), mukhenadayinah ( who eat food with their mouth, 
without using their hands, as beasts do ), toyaharas (who subsist 
on water only ), myubhaksah ( who observe total fast ). These 
are according to Baud, the ten dikqaa of Vaikhanasas. Manu 
also ( VI. 29 ) calls the rules to be observed by forest hermits 

Brhat-ParSsara ( chap. XL p. 290 ) speaks of four divisions 
of vftnaprasthas viz. VaikhSnasa, Udumbara, Valakhilya and 

2127. «nraf*ft ixvnrf -ntf* ! *^^ i^pum* *nxfiKfcr, i idt mvm. • 
fifcno on *r. III. 55 ( the printed text of fjfcrt* reads tftnrcpt while aw- 
Hlfc reads fiiw i HH, ), 

Ch.XXVIIj Vamprastha 92$ 

VanevasI; while Vaikh. VIII. V says that the vanaprasthas are 
either sapalnlka ( who stay with their wife ) or apatnlka and the 
first are of four varieties viz. Audumbara, Vairifioa, Valakhilya 
and Phenapa. The Ramayana ( Aranya, chap. 10. 2-6 ) speaks 
of forest hermits under various designations suoh as the 
Valakhilyas, Asmakut^as &o. 

Any person of the three higher varnas oould beoome a 
vanaprastha, but a sudra could not do so. Manu VI. 1 when 
starting the topic of vanaprasthas employs the word ' dvija '. 
In the Santiparva 21. 15 it is stated that a ksatriya after trans- 
ferring the kingdom to his son should subsist in a forest on 
wild food and follow the sravana soriptures."' 8 In the Asva- 
medhika-parva 35. 43 it is expressly stated that the order of 
vanaprasthas is meant for the three dujdtisV" The Mahabharata 
cites many examples of royal personages becoming vanapras- 
thas. Yayati after crowning his youngest and most dutiful son 
Puru as a king is said to have become a forest hermit (Adiparva 
86. 1 ) where he practised various austerities ( Adi. 86. 12-17 ) 
and ultimately ended his life by fasting ( Adi. 75. 58 ). In the 
Asramavasi-parva ( ohap. 19 ) the blind king Dhrtarastra is said 
to have become a forest hermit with his wife Gandharl who put 
on bark garments and deer-skin. The Par. M. ( I. part 2, p. 139 ) 
relying on Manu VI. 2, Yama and other sages states its view that 
men of the three varnas could become forest hermits. Women 
also could repair to the forest. The Mausala parva-(7. 74) states 
that when Krsna left the mortal body, Satyabhama and other 
queens of Krsna entered the forest having resolved to undergo 
severe austerities. The Adiparva ( 128. 12-13 ) narrates that 
on the death of Pandu, SatyavatI with her two daughters-in-law 
repaired to a forest for austerities and died (here. Vide also 
Sanfci 147. 10 ( for Mahaprasthana ) and Asramavasiparva. 37. 
27-28. Acoording to Vaik. VIII. 1 and Vamanapurana 14. 
117-118 a brahmana oould pass through all four asramas, a 
ksatriya through three ( he could not be a sannyasin ), a vaisya 

2128. s*fr*srffcr*fta ** *»3* *#fl • ftfr«n «n*3tfo $irfw*W 
frfhpft it sm^prf 21. 15. «nrr seejna to be a variant for trow or «rpr°TO. 
Vide note 2123 above. 

2129. *m«rc»t firarnfrrt y vw r giifrj qft i *r«(<n?ta *ofto «rnh*4 irnhft- 
*rit h w^rf&rarrl 35. 43; hwtrtt trWir ^rt %*>m *mn i *«f Jjftftq; 
v^iro^ ^sf»Uj*nt n *nW 7. 74 ; -*w«t(&««ii *T3*«mft farfor* t wit- 
*rr*it «j*k*i»& »ro wwi *" »%**» anw 37. 27-28 ; wnjnnwwTwmrcj 
*f>Tpnww^V ^tw v** i Wwrcwri VIII. l. 

924 History of DharmaiMra [ Oh. XXVII 

through two (brahmacarya and garbastbya) and a sadra could 
resort to only one viz. the householder's mode of life. Vide the 
Btory of Sambuka referred to above (p. 119 ). 

The question whether ending one's life by starting on the 
Great Journey or by falling from a precipice is sinful exercised 
the minds of many writers on dharmasastra. The Dharmasastra 
writers generally condemn suicide or an attempt to commit 
suioide as a great sin. Par&sara ( IV. 1-2 ) states that if a man 
or woman hangB himself or herself through extreme pride or 
extreme rage or through affliction or fear he or she falls into 
hell for sixty thousand years."* Manu V. 89 says that no water 
is to be offered for the benefit of the souls of those who kill them- 
selves. The Adiparva ( 179. 20 ) declares that one who commits 
suicide does not reach blissful worlds. Vas. Dh. S. ( 23. 14-16 ) 
ordains " whoever kills himself becomes abhiiasta ( guilty of 
mortal sin) and his sapincjm have to perform no death rites 
for him ; a man becomes a killer of the self when he destroys 
himself by wood ( i. e. by fire ), water, clods and stones 
( i. e. by striking his head against a stone ), weapon, poison, or 
ropes ( i. e. by hanging ). They also quote a verse ' that dvija 
who through affection performs the last rites of a man who 
commits suicide must undergo the penance of Candrayana with 
Tapta-krcohra ". Vas. Dh. S. 23. 18 prescribes a prayascitta for 
merely resolving to kill oneself ( even when no attempt is 
made ). Yama ( 20-21 ) prescribes that when a person tries to 
do away with himself by suoh methods as hanging, if he dies, 
his body should be smeared with impure things and if he lives 
he should be fined two hundred pavas; his friends and sons 
should eaoh be fined one paw and then they should undergo the 
penance laid down in the sastra.* 1 * 1 

In spite of this general attitude, exceptions were made in 
the smrtis, the epics and puranas. When a man was guilty of 
brahmana murder, he was allowed to meet death at the hands of 
archers in a battle who knew that the sinner wanted to be killed 
in that way as a penance or the sinner may throw himself head 

2130. atfafltwi^fintftiro^fTjrT if^ *r *nrfij > sfwfrwift spnwrr «rft- 

ftxm IV. 1-2. 

8131. *rrmr* *mr*«rea Tw*ri^ftvn»&: t ^nts?t»ir*j SrtjnfT afruft flrtw 
fft » quMiwumSftnffi «r%* trprtr ^mr, i snrfinf mrs f jfowwu ft- 
%pr, n w 20-21. 

Oh. XXVII ] Vanaprastha-auicide 0/ 925 

downwards in fire (Manu "XI. 73, Yaj. III. 248 ). Similarly the 
drinker of spirituous liquor expiated his sin by taking boiling 
wine, water, ghee, cow's milk or urine and dying thereby 
( Manu XI. 90-91, Yaj. III. 253, Gaut. 23. 1, Vas. Dh. 8. 20. 22 ). 
Vide also Vas. Dh. 8. 13. 14, Gaut. 23. 1, Ap. Dh. 8. 1. 9. 25. 1-3 
and 6 for similar deadly penanoes for incest and for drinking 
liquor and for theft. The Ap.Dh.S. (1.10.28. 15-17) quotes Harlta 
who condemns such penances involving death.*'" At extremely 
holy places like Prayaga, the SarasvatI and Benares persons were 
allowed to kill themselves by drowning with the desire of 
securing release from samsara. The Salyaparva (39. 33-34) 
states ' whoever abandons his body at Prthudaka on the northern 
bank of the SarasvatI after repeating Vedic prayers would not 
be troubled by death thereafter '."** The Anusasanaparva ( 25. 
62-64 ) says that if a man knowing the Vedanta and under- 
standing the ephemeral nature of life abandons life in the holy 
Himalayas by fasting, he would reach the world of brahma. 
Vide also Vanaparva 85. 83 ( about suicides at Prayaga ). The 
Matsya-purana (186. 34-35) eulogises the peak of Amarakan^aka 
by stating ' whoever dies at Amarakan^aka by fire, poison, water 
or by fasting enjoys the pleasures ( described in verses 28-33 ). 
He who throws himself down (from the peaks of Amarakan^aka ) 
never returns ( to samsara ).' m * 

There are historioal examples of this practice supplied by 
Epigraphy. The Khairha plates of Yasahkaroadeva ( dated 
Kalacuri saihvat 823 i. e. 1073 A. D. ) narrate that king Gangeya 
obtained release along with his one hundred wives at the 
famous banyan tree of Prayaga ( E. I. vol. XII. p. 205 at p. 
211)."" King Dhangadeva of the Ohandella dynasty is said 
to have lived for more than 100 years and to have abandoned 
his body at Prayaga while contemplating on Rudra ( E. I. vol. 
I. p. 140 ). The Calukya king Sotnesvara after performing yoga 

2132. fgTOWTPft 5 5<W SJ** Ml5vfi*t<M Wli^cflfa^feeJIWI'lH.l f»hw* 
I. 10. 28. 15-17. 

f^n. « gnwprj 39- 33 -34 

2134. rtf ifrft v£*re*r *ft i*rsffro«>sft i smV R t *& *rfa w«rr ^ wm\- 
?rfe » wfrvfa-aCT nfim nwqiwft wi i <wt 5*w *rca wrtft »rofor i 
«?W 186. 34-35. 

2135. *ifr mrnwg q j sw Wnr ^wft wrS *ribr tfWn>rts* sfaf* • E. I. ▼»>• 
XII. 205 at p. 211. 

026 History of DharmaiMra [ Oh. XXVII 

rites drowned himself in the Tuhgabhadra in 1068 A. D. ( E. 0. 
vol. II. Sk. 136). The Raghuvaihia VIII. 94 poetically describes 
how Aja in his old age when his health was shattered by disease 
resorted to fasting and drowned himself at the confluence of the 
holy rivers, the Ganges and the Sarayu, and immediately 
attained the position of a denizen of Heaven. 

Apart from suicide for purposes of penance or at holy places 
the smrtis allowed, as said above, a forest hermit to start on the 
great journey to meet death and also allowed in certain circum- 
stances death by entering fire, or by drowning or by fasting 
or by throwing oneself from a preoipice even for those who 
were not hermits. Gautama ( 14. 11 ) prescribes that no mour- 
ning need be observed for those who wilfully meet death by 
fasting, or by outting themselves off with a weapon, or by fire, 
or poison or water or by hanging or by falling from a preoipice. 
But Atri ( 218-219 ) states some exceptions viz. 'if one who is 
very old ( beyond 70 ), one who cannot observe the rules of 
bodily purification ( owing to extreme weakness &o. ), one who 
is so ill that no medical help can be given, kills himself by 
throwing himself from a precipioe or into fire or water or by 
fasting, mourning should be observed for him for three days and 
srSddha may be performed for him. 8IW Apararka ( p. 536 ) 
quotes texts of Brahmagarbha, Vivasvat and Gargya about an 
householder 'he who suffering from serious illness cannot live, 
or who is very old, who has no desire left for the pleasures of 
any of the senses and who has carried out his tasks may bring 
about his death at his pleasure by resorting to mahaprasth&na, 
by entering fire or water or by falling from a precipioe. By so 
doing he incurs no sin and his death is far better than tapas, 
and one should not desire to live vainly ( without being able to 
perform the duties laid down by the sSstra). ,,,T AparSrka 
( p. 877 ) and Par. M. ( I. part 2, p. 228 ) quote several verses 
from Adipurana about dying by fasting, by entering fire or 
deep water cr by falling from a precipice, or by gorng on mahs- 

2136. fl^r; ty|mttyfl$H: JR«JHS«l in ft «| $>?&><(: I «!OTl*f TOrihPQ! V*w*- 
*WfPn*5fHi ii mpT M<iw«iW xfttn niWdi^ ' jnnT 53* tt ^3«t wnr- 
*rr^ 11 stfit 218-219 qooted by fctrfirfa on hq V. 89, Gm» on Tir. III. 6, 
smr% p. 90S (as from Aigiras), cm. «!• I. part 2 p. 228 (ai from 5TT?mr<f). 

2137. ir*n ^t «4i«i4: 1 *?t sfrfai *t vraWWft n?f»«ji»^MM l i'i1n: 1 w 1 '*^*- 
Bfrrqrxt s^rtqv |«»ri& m fttiwi. 1 trififiprftrffreq hh yawta: 1 wrrftw- 
^ott ift«T *vH anWift^H » ntrr «m*rfift wftimf$¥VTO 1 wiTO«rm»PTtf 
»wnm«^W*rtt 1 igmnr* 4hr i*rr »NiN sfiffar. * quoted by armlr p. 536. 

Oh. XXVII ] Vanaprastharauicide 927 

prasthana in the Himalayas or by abandoning life from the 
branch of the va^a tree at PraySga, the verses declaring that 
not only does such a man not incur sin but he attains the 
worlds of bliss. In the Raraayana ( Aranya, chap. 9 ) Sara- 
bhanga is said to have entered fire. We find that the Mrccha- 
katfka ( I. 4 ) speaks of king Sudraka as having entered fire. 
In the Gupta Inscriptions No. 42, the great Emperor Kumara- 
gupta is said to have entered the fire of dried cowdung cakes. 
The editor remarks that there is necessarily no reference to the 
fact that the emperor voluntarily embraced death by fire. But 
it appears that there is no great propriety in the description 
if all that is meant is that the Emperor's dorpse was burnt 
with 'karlsa*. 

Some put forward a Vedio passage ' one who desires heaven 
should not (seek to) die before the appointed span of life is at 
an end (of itself)' as opposed to the permission for suicide 
given by the smrtis. MedhStithi on Manu VI. 32 ,IM quotes 
this Vedio text and explains it away by saying that if iruU 
intended to lay down an absolute prohibition against suioide 
in every case, it would have simply said ' one who desires 
heaven should not ( seek to ) die '. The Vaj. S. ( 40. 3 ) contains 
a verse saying ' whoever destroy their self reach after death 
Asura worlds that are shrouded in blinding darkness', which 
really refers to persons ignorant of the correct knowledge of the 
Self. But this has been interpreted by many as referring to 
those guilty of suioide (atmahan). Vide Uttararamacarita IV, 
after verse 3 ut% and Br. Up. IV. 4. 11 for a verse similar to 
that in the Vaj. S. The Rajatarangiol (VI. 1411 ) refers to 
officers appointed by the king to superintend prSyopaveia 
( resolving on death by fasting ). 

Among Jains a similar rule prevailed. The Ratnakaranda- 
sravakacara ( chap. 5 ) of Samantabhadra ( about 2nd century 
A. D. ) dilates on Sallekhana, which consists in abandoning the 
body for the accumulation of merit in calamities, famines, 

2138. «ns <* srcwrj * i itrgr: wurtr frmfrft «i*<Rr» gat vm wm 
vfirtnnf: i ?*?& i srrm ft?ir^E'TTr3s , H«W'fif^«Ti *t fafifr uHirati ^m 
5>ljfcrt «r sRrfatra: ■ t* fl ww* *f S*rg«r W& ' tnwWfr irtfitffr »«ot 
« WWt*Wgir « WRttft tocftfa I ^m. on *3 VI 32. Vide $%* on srg VI. 31 
for an explanation of the same Vedic quotation. 

2139. swrmT^jrr «rs?rr «rm ft wrwreNvs *fiH*vfor»& v anuraifita f?*- 
Wf<nY »t»tj»* I g smmqR ff IV after verse 3. 

928 History of DharmaiUatra [ Ch. XXVII 

extreme old age and incurable disease. m0 The Kalandrl 
(Sirohi State) Inscription reoords the suicide of a Jain con- 
gregation by fasting in sarhvat 1389 ( E. I. vol. XX., appendix 
p. 98 No. 691). 

From the aooount of the death of Kalanos the Indian 
gymnosophist at 73 given by Megasthenes (Mo Orindle p. 106) 
we can gather that the practice of religious suicide prevailed 
long before the 4th century B. 0. Strabo ( XV. 1. 4 ) states that 
with the ambassadors that came to Augustus Csesar from India 
also arrived an Indian gymnosophist who committed himself 
to the flames like Kalanos who exhibited the same -spectacle 
before Alexander. 

In the times of the puranas the method of starting on maha- 
prasthana and suicide by entering fire or falling from a preci- 
pice came to be forbidden and was included in Kalivarjya."" 

It will be noticed that some of the duties and regulations 
prescribed for vanaprasthas are practically the same as those 
for sannyasins. For example, the rules laid down in Manu 
VI. 25-29 for forest hermits are almost the same as those for 
parivrajakaa™ ( Manu VI. 38, 43, 44). The Ap. Dh, S. employs 
the same words twice in delineating the characteristics of both 
( II. 9. 21. 10 and 20). The order of hermits gradually leads on 
to or rather passes over into that of sannyasins. Both have to 
observe celibacy and restraint of senses, both have to regulate 
the intake and quality of food, both have to contemplate on the 
passages of the Upaniaads and strive for the knowledge of 
Brahman. There were no doubt some differences. The vSna- 
prastha oould be aooompanied by his wife at least in the begin- 
ning, a sannyasin oould not be so. A vanaprastha had to keep 
fires, perform the daily and other yajfias at least in the begin- 
ning, the sannyasin gave up his fires. The vanaprastha had to 
concentrate upon tapas, upon inuring himself to privations, 
severe austerities, and self-mortification, while the sannyasin 

2140. gtr«Jf |tf5r£ 3TTfo vnrqt w fassnfarft i trohr ergmYwwTf : m&- 
UTOWPlV. « twnmwt wrWfUm chap. 5. I owe this quotation to the kind 
nona of Prof. Upadhye of Kolhapur. 

2141. w3TOTOTw«nr* irfow nvr wwi • tjtr *rafa <frf&g»fr y ai/lw i gA aft- 
fat: « ffKm^hr^TT ) nfih chap. 24. 16 ; vide also ^jnteo 1. P- 12. 

2142. OTTflftftftoT: WwmHlw) 5T^: TOWTT TT fflTWWTlft tt^R— I 

•mr. u. %. II. 9. 21. 10 and again t P Eii iUP&B ; trr i sm. V. 

% II. 9. 21 . 20 ( about qnraw ). 

Ch. XXVII ] Vanaprastha and Sannyasa 929 

was concerned principally with samyama (restraint or quies- 
cence of senses) and contemplation of the highest Reality, as 
stated by SamkarScSrya on Vedantasutra III. 4. 20."** Owing 
to the great similarity and virtual fusion of the two asramas 
the stage of vanaprastha came to be gradually ignored and people 
passed from the householder's life directly to the life of 
sannyasa. Govindasv&ml on Baud. Dh. S. III. 3. 14-17 remarks 
that the acarya (Baudhayana) should be asked why he describes 
the two orders 'of vanaprastha and sannySsa as distinct. 11 ** In 
oourse of time no one probably beoame a vanaprastha and 
therefore having recourse to the stage of vanaprastha came to 
be forbidden in the Eali age.' 1 " 

2143. flimrarawwrr vj^uwift «hiv&*in9Hwnr, irrtsropr srw f& f»fr- 
«n?3 w f i?4<» » <w i f3g gHft d* iroarit^Tftg" "* ' *[** on ^P*^* HI. 4 - 2 °. 

2144. <rr«rawt*W&*! fijHOTro*«w j^wi^t tout: i irtft*4«i«ft on 

W*. H. *. III. 3. 14-17. 

2145. wfcny t inn wit wprawwrorwr i 'Wf^ wfot *rfSjspk 

o «iTHHJ*t t ftu tt m mntfW ) si<W 24. 14 ; ' ^wfct QnferRrafaFPtnvnnnr: » 
tggrfaw p. *, Terse 17. 

H. D. 117 



Sannyasa. — ( the order of ascetics ). That the Chan. Up. 
was well aware of the three asramas of student-hood, house- 
holder and forest hermit has been shown above ( p. 420 ). 
It is somewhat doubtful whether the Chan. Up. regarded 
sannyasa as the fourth and the last stage in a man's life when 
ideally planned. It merely states that ' one that holds fast by 
the realization of brahman attains immortality'. But it 
appears that a stage of the abandonment of worldly riches, a 
life of begging and contemplation of the Absolute and its reali- 
zation had been known to the earliest Upanisads like the 
Brhadaranyaka. Whether it was the fourth stage or whether it 
could be reached even in the stage of brahmaoarya or of a 
house-holder is left in doubt so far as the older Upanisads 
are concerned. The Jabalopanisad (4) has been quoted above 
( p. 421 ) to show that it gave an option either to regard sannyasa 
as the 4th stage in a man's life or to resort to it immediately 
after any of the first two airamas. 

In the Br. Up. (II. 4. 1 ) we see that Yajfiavalkya 8ue when 
about to become aparivrajaka (a wandering ascetic) tells his wife 
Maitreyl that he was going to leave home and that he wanted 
to divide whatever wealth he had between her and her co-wife 
Katyayanl. This shows that a parivrajaka had even then to 
leave home and wife and to give up all belongings. The same 
Upanisad in another place ( III. 5. 1 ) states ' those who realize 
Atman give up the hankering after progeny, possessions 
and heavenly worlds and praotise the beggar's mode of life ; 
therefore the brfihmana, having completely mastered (and so risen 
beyond ) mere learning, should seek to be like a ohild ( i. e. 
should not make a parade of his latent capacities or know- 
ledge ) and having completed ( gone beyond ) knowledge and 

2146. *Nfrftfi> jtawr *rnjr****r vmiwn aftsg Hw i twrwi^fo r *«r 
%sw*n miwmmu ps: «t»w » fltq 1 t*. ?j. II. 4. 1 ; qtt ) irmwrrt ftf^rcr 

wtpwr. 3*t°tttw fw^orpTTW «?w>«iuii<iw »gwTTnx finance? -^Pa I 

WOTf wurrs mfSintf ftfiir <*if»N froi^n ■ *wt if "nPw? v fftfwra sft- 
T*W *r ^W * WWr wrirm i r*. T. III. 5. 1. Vide VedBntasHtra 
III. 4. 47-49 and 50 for a discussion of this Ust passage. 

6h. XXVIII J SatmyZsa dji 

bdlya ( child-like behaviour ) he should attain to the position of 
a muni, and having risen beyond the stage of a muni or non- 
mum, should become a real brahmana ( one who has realized 
brahman ). Vide also Br. Up. IV. 4. 22 for similar words and 
sentiments. The Jabalopanisad (5) m7 declares that the ascetic 
( parivrat ) wears discoloured ( not white ) garments, has a 
tonsured head, has no possessions, is pure, hates ( or injures ) no 
one, begs for alms and thereby tends to attain non-difference 
from brahmafk In the Paramaharhsa, the Brahma, the Narada- 
parivrajaka, and the Sannyasa Upanisads numerous rules 
are laid down about sannyasa. But the antiquity and the 
authenticity of these Upanisads is extremely doubtful and 
therefore passing them over attention will be confined to the 
dharmasutras and other ancient smrtis. 

Gaut. III. 10-24, S.p. Dh. S. II. 9. 21. 7-20, Baud. Dh. S. II. 
6. 21-27 and II. 10, Vas. Dh. S. X.Manu VI. 33-86, Yaj. III. 
56-66, Vaik. IX. 9, Visnu Dh. S. 96, Santiparva chap. 246 and 279, 
Adiparva chap. 119. 7-21 and Asvamedhika 46. 18-46, Sankha- 
smrti (VII. in verse), Daksa VII. 28-38, KurmapurSna 
( Uttarardha, ohap. 23 ), Agnipurana 161 and many other smrtis 
and puranas dilate upon the characteristics and duties of ascetics 
( yatidharma ). Some of the most salient features are set out 
below with a few references. 

(1) In order to qualify himself for sannyasa, a person 
had to perform a sacrifice to Prajapati in whioh whatever he had 
he distributed to priests and the poor and the helpless ( Manu 
VI. 38, Yaj. III. 56, Visnu Dh. S. 96. 1, Sankha VII. 1 ). m8 
TheYatidharmasangraha( p. 13 ) prescribes that the PrajSpatyesti 
should be performed by him who had kept the three vedio fires and 
the isti to Agni should be performed by others who kept only 
the grhya fire. The Jabalopanisad 4 adds that the sacrifice 
should be for Agni (and not for Prajapati as some hold ). The 

2147. am trfftrnr. foprarm s^sta 1 *^ • gPn^rtfr *ta°ft wsrvrpr *ro- 

lfW& I ai H l tf^ l» m, 5, quoted by Bj^r^rf in his vm on **. t. III. 5. 1 
as tfruti. 

2148. vtfmft sspjrft fa glwft g* ffrts • tf»i*»*»nlBr?Y mrv^t *&• 
'S&n II gfftvgrm 58. 36. *${$%. ( *orr»W ) P. 173 quotes it as of «irm 
and reads ^garf*, and taxi for fiftt. M<m$S p. 951 quotes this from ^ffcc 
gnnr but reads gJJHTPT au<* fjlrt , ^vnrrm* 5^V< u Hf^[* *T VtT mmfY- 

srtft * mm*ft srwswt ^Hi*y»uuiifi?wiwf *«mw«i«iq«r ^fii *a*n"- 

wf «rffiror«w • r3m° °n *tt. nI ' 56-57. 

93* History of Dharmaiastra [ Ch. XXVIH 

Nrsimhapurana ( 60. 2-4 ) requires that before entering upon 
this order one should perform eight sr&ddhas. The Nrsimba- 
purSna 58. 36 allows every one who is a vedio student to 
beoome an ascetic if his tongue, bis sexual emotions, bis appe- 
tite for food and his speech are pure ( i. e. under strict control )• 
The eight sraddhas are daiva (to Vasus, Budras, Adit y as), area 
( to the ten sages viz. Marlci and others), divya (to Hiranya- 
garbba and Vairaja ), manusya ( to Sanaka, Sanandana and five 
others), bhautika (to five bhutas, prtbvl &c. ),# paitrka (to 
Kavyavad fire, Soma, Aryaman, pitrs called Agnisvatta &o. ), 
matrsr&ddha ( to ten matrs such as Gaurl, Padma ), atmasraddha 
( to Paramatman ). Vide Yati-dh. p. 9 and Sm. M. p. 177. Manu 
is oaref ul to point out ( VI. 35-37 ) that a man should fix his 
mind on moksa after studying the Veda, procreating sons, 
performing sacrifices i. e. after discharging his debts to the 
sages, the pitrs and gods. Baud. Db. S. II. 10. 3-6 and 
Vaik. IX. 6 state that an householder who has no children or 
whose wife is dead or who has established his children in the 
path of dharma or who is over 70 may become an ascetic. 
Kautilya ( II. 1 ) prescribes that if a person embraces the order 
of asoetics without making proper provision for his wife and 
sons be shall be punished with the first ammeroement. "" He 
has to deposit his fires in himself and leave home (Manu 

(2) After leaving home, wife, children and possessions, 
be should dwell outside the villages, should be homeless and 
stay under a tree or in an un-inhabited bouse wherever he may 
be when the sun sets and should always wander from place to 
place ; but be may remain in one place only in the rainy sea- 
son"* (Manu VI. 41, 43-44, Vas. Dh. S. X 12-15, Sankba 
VII. 6 ). Sankha ( quoted by the Mit. on Yftj. III. 58 ) allows 
him to stay in one place only for two months in the rains, while 
Kanva says that be may stay one night in a village and five in 
a town ( except in the rains ). When he follows the rule of 
staying four or two months in one place, he should do so from 
the full moon of Asfidha or an ascetic may always stay on the 
banks of the Ganges. 

*149. STfUTOwfiinr mranr: *$: «iwy : ftp* «» snn^pw: i mtitar 
II. 1. 

J160. »f%wt «rarf3 *$s i irramf f* s& qprnri* n\ twn$ *t t sw*t- 
ftwt i *fir& x. 12-13, is ; q »« i nnDfaB : CTwnwrrtfyi sfo • ?tj vn. 6 ; 

the wordi <mu3m1 sf* t occur in wrf 12. 11 also. 

Oh. XXVIII j SamySaa 9$3 

(3) He should always wander alone without a com- 
panion*, as by so doing he will be free from attachments and the 
pangs of separation. Daksa (VII. 34-38 ) emphasizes this"* 1 
point very well ' the real ascetic always stays alone ; if two 
stay together, they form a pair; if three stay together they are 
like a village and if more (than three stay together) then it 
becomes like a town. An ascetic should not form a pair or a 
village or a town ; by so doing he swerves from his dharma, 
sinoe ( if two or more stay together ) they begin to exchange 
news about the ruling prince, about the alms obtained and by 
olose oontaot sentiments of affection, jealousy or wickedness 
arise between them. Bad ascetios engage in many activities 
viz. expounding (testa) for seouring money or honour and also 
gathering pupils round them. There are only four proper 
actions for an ascetic and no fifth viz. contemplation, purity, 
begging, always staying alone'. Narada says 'there are sir 
acts which ascetios must do as if ordered by the king under the 
threat of a penalty viz. begging, japa, contemplation, bath 
( thrice daily ), purity and worship of Siva or Visnu ( quoted in 
Yati-dh. p. 62 and Sm. M. p. 188). m, » 

(4) He should be celibate, should always be devoted to 
contemplation and spiritual knowledge and should be un- 
attached to all objects of sense and pleasure ( Manu VI. 41 and 
49,GautIII. 11). 

(5) He should move about avoiding all trouble or injury 
to creatures, should make all creatures safe with him, should 
bear with indifference all disrespect, should entertain no anger 
towards him who is furious with him, should utter benedictions 
over him also who runs him down, should never utter an untruth 
( Manu VI. 40, 47-48, Yaj. III. 61, Gaut. III. 23 ). 

(6) He should neither kindle srauta fires nor grhya fire 
nor even ordinary fire for cooking food and should subsist on 

2151. <m\ ftgpfurwrca fffc f>«,f^si«f w* ' **f »rm* wwwnw a** a 
»ropcnr^ n *nrt ft t *fi^"t vtxt *t Pf«j*f jrer • w»*f v«g *?<■■: •wn*?l«*«ni& <rfih « 
•rrarvraf B?re5i*Tt f»*«T«mrt ntm*? ' *p^tj^p'?»Tim$ tfft**prW T&prt ii fjtoj-sit- 
fifftrtf a «rtsTn*f r?r«^#nTfr: i <ri -<n^ -* «**• thwt: 5*<rfi*«nT. n -jut* STr* 
«wi t^vt firerfonwrjftgffT ■ f>wt*rwTft irirfa <m*t sftamrt n ^r VII. 34-38 
quoted by wm£ P- 952 and Parr, on vr. III. 58. 

2161. a urnrnpnt i f»ftrf»*i awt *nn^ wrt sinfr *a*rjnhi^ » jjifwrtfil n#- 
mft^fHrt i<r^«¥^ u quoted in *rfitarf«hnr p. 62, as shnftrVi in tfftrg. 
p. 188. 

934 History of DkarmaiUstra I Oh. XXVIII 

food obtained by begging ( Manu VI. 38 and 43, Ap. Dh. S. I. 
9- 21. 10, Adiparva 91. 12 ). 

(7) He may enter a village for begging food only onoe 
a day, he should nob ordinarily stay in a village at night 
(exoept in the rains) but if he stays at all he should do so only 
for one night ( Gaut. III. 13 and 20, Manu VI. 43, 55 ). 

(8) He should beg alms from seven houses without 

selecting them beforehand ( Vas. Dh. S. X 7, Sankha VII. 3i 

Adi. 119. 12 * five or ten houses * ). Baud. Dh. S. ( II. 10. 57-58 ) 

prescribes that he should visit for alms the houses of brahmana 

householders of the Sallna and Yayavara types and should only 

wait for as much time as would be required for milking a cow. 

Baud. Dh. S. II. 10. 69 quotes the view of others that an ascetic 

may take alms from persons of all varnas or food from only 

one among dvijatis ; Vas. X. 24 also says that he should beg 

of brahmanas only. The Vayupurana 1. 18. 17 prescribes that 

ascetics should not eat food belonging to one man ( but should 

eat food collected from several houses ), or flesh or honey 

should not accept Smasraddha ( i. e. sraddha with uncooked 

food ), should not use salt directly or by itself ( i. e. they may 

eat vegetables in cooking which salt has been used ). According 

to Usanas ( quoted in Sea. M. p. 200 and Yati-dh. pp. 74-75 ) 

food obtained by begging is of five kinds viz. madhukara 

( collecting food from any three, five or seven houses at random 

just as bees collect honey from any flowers), prakpratfita 

(when a request is made by devotees to take food at their 

houses even before the ascetic gets up from his bed ), ayacita 

( when invitation to take food at his house is given by a man 

before the ascetio starts on his begging round ), tatkalika ( the 

food that is announced by a brahmana the moment the ascetio 

approaches ), upapanm ( cooked food brought to the matha by 

devoted disciples or other people ). Vas. Dh. S. X. 31 says that 

a brahmana ascetio should avoid food at sudra houses and 

Apararka p. 963 explains this as implying that in the 

absence of brahmana houses an ascetio may beg for food from 

ksatriyas and vaisyas. In later times begging alms from 

persons of all castes was forbidden, being included among 

kalivarjya actions ( ' yafces tu sarva-varnesu na bhiksacaranam 

kalau ' ). Vide Sm. M. p. 201. It was stated by Parasara and 

Kratu that no fault attaches to an ascetio if he being very 

old or very ill took food from a single person on a certain day 

or for several days or begged for food at the house of his song, 

Oh. XXVIII ] SannyHUa 935 

friends, teacher or brothers or wife ( vide Sm. M. p. 201, Yati- 
dh. p. 75 ). According to Parasara I. 51 and the Sutasamhita 
( Jfiftna-yoga-khanda 4. 15-16) the first olaim on the food 
cooked in the house is that of an ascetic and a brahmaearin 
and one has to perform the Candrayana penance for taking 
one's meals without giving alms to them. In giving food to 
an asoetio first water is poured on his hand, then food is given 
and then again water is poured on his hand ( Parasara I. 53 
quoted by Haradatta on Gaut. V. 16 ). Vide Ap. Dh. S. II. 1. 4. 
10 and Yaj. 1. 107. 

(9) He should go out for begging when the smoke from 
kitchens has ceased to rise and when the noise of pestles has 
died down and the live ooals ( in the kitohen ) have been 
extinguished and the plates used for the dining ( by the house- 
holders ) have been kept aside i. e. he should beg food in the 
evening(ManuVI.56,Yaj.III.59,Vas.X.8,Sankha VII. 8). He 
should not take as alms honey or flesh ( Vas. X. 24). He should 
not endeavour to secure alms by the practice of predicting, 
interpreting portents and omens or by the praotioe of descri- 
bing the consequences indicated by them, nor by astrology 
nor by expounding the principles of a lore nor by casuistry 
( or disoussion ) nor should he approaoh a house that is already 
besieged by hermits, brahmanas, birds and dogs, beggars or 
others ( Manu VI. 50-51 ). 

(10) He should not eat food to satiety, but should eat 
only as much as is necessary to keep body and soul together 
and should not feel delight when he gets substantial alms nor 
feel dejected when he gets little or nothing ( Manu VI. 57 and 
59, Vas. X 21,22 and 25, Yaj. III. 59 ). There is a famous 
verse ' an ascetic should take only eight morsels of food, a 
forest hermit 16, a householder 32 and a vedio student an unli- 
mited number ' ( Ap. Dh. S. II. 4. 9. 13, Baud. Dh. S. II. 10. 68 ). 

(11) He should hoard nothing and he should own or 
possess nothing except his tattered garments, his water jar, 
begging bowl ( Manu VI. 43-44, Gaut. IIL 10, Vas. X. 6 ). 
Devala quoted by the Mit. on Yftj. III. 58 deolares that the 
asoetic should possess only a water-jar, a pavitra ( oloth for 
straining water ), pfidukfts, an Ssana and a kantha ( wallet for 
protection from extreme cold). The Mahabharata states that 
wearing ochre-coloured garments, shaving the head, and keeping 
a water jar and three staffs— these are only outward signs meant 

936 History of Dharmaiaatra [ Oh. XXVIII 

to secure food and do not lead to moksa" 511 ' (dialogue of Janaka 
and Sulabba). The Mahsbhasya ( vol. I. p. 365 ) also deolares 
that a man is known to be a parivrajaka on seeing his three 
staff's. The Vayupurana I. 8 ( quoted by Apararka pp. 949-950 ) 
lays down what he should possess. He should take a staff 
of bamboo the outward surface of which is intact, which is 
not formidable and which has the parvenu ( the parts between 
the joints ) of equal length, whioh is surrounded by a rope of 
cow's tail hair four angulas in length and has three knots and 
which he holds in his right hand ; he should have a sikya 
( loop on whioh to carry his jar or other things ) made of kusa 
or ootton or hemp threads or strings and of the form of a lotus 
and six mustfs ( fists ) in length ; he should also have a water 
jar and a patra ( vessel or bowl for begging ); he may have a 
seat ( Ssana ) of wood square or round in size for sitting on or 
for washing his feet ; he should have a loin-cloth to cover his 
private parts and a kantha ( patched garment or wallet ) for 
protection against cold and he may have two padukas (sandals). 
He should have only these and should not accumulate any- 
thing else. 

(12) He should wear garments only for covering his pri- 
vate parts and may wear such garments as were worn by others 
and are used by him after washing ( Gaut. IIL 17-18 ), while 
Ap. Dh. S. ( IL 9. 21. 11-12 ) states that he should wear clothes 
thrown away by others and that some say that he may be 
naked. Vas. ( X. 9-11 ) says that he should cover his body with 
a pieoe of cloth ( satf ) or with deer skin or with grass cut down 
for cows. Baud. Dh. S. II. 6. 24 requires that his garments 
should be ochre-coloured ( quoted by Apararka p. 962 ). 

(13) The begging bowl and the plate from whioh the 
ascetic eats should be made of clay or wood or of a gourd, or of 
bamboo whioh should be without holes and he should not use 
metal vessels ; and these vessels are to be cleaned, with water 
and scoured with cow's hair ( Manu VI. 53-54, Yaj. III. 60 and 
Laghu-Visnu IV. 29-30 ). 

(14) He should pare his nails, cut all his hair and beard 
( Manu VI. 52, Vas. Dh. S. X. 6 ) ; but Gaut. III. 21 appears to 

2161 b. ninnwmfl sfav flrftrofr «b»t^sh ■ f&yrewfonft «r 
»fhm^fir W *rfirt II quoted from the HjrvrTOt in the 3qi*fl»wmnR« g p. 639 
on %qrw*?c III. 4. 18 ; fi|f*E«WR * tjt ufarrsrar yfa i Hfimwr vol. I. 
j. 365 (on «n. II. 1.1). 

Ch. XXVIII J SannyUsa 937 

allow him an option viz. be may tonsure the whole head or keep 
only a top-knot. 

(15) He. should sleep on raised ground (sthandiia), 
should feel no oonoern if he suffers from an illness, he should 
neither welcome death nor should he feel joy for continuing to 
live, but he should patiently wait till the time of death, as a 
servant waits till the time he is hired expires ( Manu 
VI. 43 and 46 ). 

(16) He should generally observe silence except when 
he repeats the Vedio texts learnt by him ( Manu VI. 43, Gaut. 
III. 16, Baud. Dh. S. II. 10. 79, Ap. Db. S. II. 9. 31. 10 ) .»" 

(17) He should be tridaydi ( carrying three staffs ) 
according to Yaj. III. 58, while Manu VI. 52 simply says he 
should be dandi ( i. e. carrying a staff). The word danda is used 
in two senses, a staff of bamboo or restraint. Baud. Dh. S. II. 
10. 53 gives an option that he may be ekadaridi or a tridandl 
and also says that he should not cause harm to oreatures by 
speech, actions and mind (II. 6. 25). Manu XII. 10, which is the 
same as Daksa (VII. 30), declares that that man is called tridandl 
who has restraint over his speech, mind and body. Daksa 
makes certain apt remarks ' Even gods who pre eminently 
possess the sattmguya are carried away by pleasures of sense ; 
what of men ? Therefore he who has given up his taste for 
pleasures should resort to danda ; others oannot do it as they 
will be carried away by pleasures. An ascetic is not called 
tridandl by carrying bamboo staffs; he is triJavdi who has the 
spiritual danda in him. Many people make their livelihood 
under the guise of ( carrying ) three dandas ' ( VII. 27-31, quoted 
by Apararka p. 953 ). Restraint of speech requires, that he 
should observe silenoe, restraint of aotion that he should cause 
Injury to no creature and restraint of mind that he should 
engage in pranayama and other yogio practices. Daksa him- 
self says ( I. 12-13 ) that the three staffs are the special out- 
ward sign of a yati as the girdle, deer-skin and staff are the out- 
ward signs of the vedic student or long nails and beard are 
indicia of the forest hermit. Laghu-Visnu IV. 12 says he may 
be ekadandl or tridandl. The Jlvanamuktiviveka (p. 154) 

2152. anrftrnsftrm *Tnr$pnV*"it uf^t i TOwnr T*to(pn*r*ft *W nrSr 
smuflr sf9?5wrrr^s<T5w>«i ■ «w. v * II. 9- 21 10 ; the words wmnr 
TOi are quoted by Samkara in hia bhatya on Bf. U j. III. 5. 1. 

H. D. 118 

938 History of DharmaiSatra [ Ch. XXVIII 

quotes verses to the effect ' he who wields the staff of the know- 
ledge of Reality is called ekadandi, while he"who~merely holds 
a stick in his hand without knowledge and eats everything ( or 
has all sorts of desires ) reaches terrible hells '• 

(18) He should recite the vedic texts referring to yajfias 
or gods or texts of a metaphysical character found in the 
VedSnta ( suoh as ' satyam jMnam-anantam brahraa ' in Tai. 
Up. 2. 1 ). Vide Manu VI. 83. 

(19) He should walk after ascertaining with his eye that 
the ground he treads is pure, should drink water after passing it 
through a piece of cloth ( in order to prevent ants &o. being 
taken in by him ), he should utter words purified by truth and 
should do what his conscience ( inner voice ) decides to be right 
or proper (Manu VI. 46, Sankha VII. 7, Visnu Dh. S. 96. 14-17). 

(20) In order to generate the feeling of vairagya ( desire- 
lessness ) and to curb his senses he should make his mind dwell 
upon the body as liable to disease and old age and as packed 
full of impurities ; and should revolve in his mind the transitory 
nature of all mundane things, the trouble one has to undergo in 
body and mind from conception to death, the incessant round of 
births and deaths (Manu VI. 76-77, Y&j. III. 63-64, Visnu 
Dh. S. 96. 25-42 ). 

(21) Truthfulness, not depriving another of his posses- 
sions or his due, absenoe of wrath ( even against one who 
harms), humility, purity ( of body and food &c. ), discrimina- 
tion, steadiness of mind ( in sorrow ), quiescence ( or restraint ) 
of mind, restraint of senses, knowledge ( of the self ), these are 
the dharma of all varnas ( or these constitute the essence of 
dharma ). And these have to be acquired most of all by the 
ascetic, since the outward signs, viz. the scanty clothing, the 
water jar &c. are not the real means of discharging the real 
duties of sannySsa, as anyone oan possess these outward signs. 
Vide Manu VI. 66, 92-94, Yfij. III. 65-66, Vas. X. 30, Baud. Dh. 
S. II. 10 55-56, Santi. 111. 13-14, Vftyupurana vol. I. 8. 176-178 
(ten characteristics, five called vratas and fire upavratas ). 

(22) He should endeavour (o purify his mind by prSua- 
yama and other practices of yoga and thereby enable himself 
gradually to realize the Absolute and secure final release 
( Manu VI. 70-75, 81, Yfij. III. 62, 64 ). 

In many works ascetios are divided into four classes. 
The Mahabharata ( Anusftsana 141. 89) says that ascetics are 

Ch. JtXVIlI ) tiannycisins-kinda of 9$9 

of four sorts, kutfoaka, bahudaka, haihsa and paramaharhsa, 
each later one being superior to each preceding one. 8 "** Vaik. 
VIII. 9, Laghu-Visnu IV. 14-23, Sufcasarhhita (Manayogakhanda 
chap. 6), Bhiksukopanisad, Prajapati (quoted by Apsrarka p. 952) 
define these four. They do not all agree. The kutlcaka, as the 
name itself implies, is one who resorts to sannyasa in his own 
house or in a but erected by his sons, begs food of his sons and 
relatives, wears the top-knot, the sacred thread, has the three staffs, 
carries a water-jar and steys in the same hut. The description 
of these four contained in Vaik., 8lw being probably among the 
oldest available, is set out here. The kutfcakas stay in the 
hermitages of sages like Gautama, Bharadvaja, Yajnavalkya 
and Harlta, take eight morsels of food every day, know the 
essence of the path of Yoga and hanker only after moksa (release). 
The bahudakas have three staffs, the water-jar and wear garments 
dyed with ochre, beg for food at seven houses of sage-like 
brahmanas or other well-conduoted men but avoid taking flesh, 
salt and stale food. The harhsas stay not more than one night 
in a village and not more than five nights in a town for alms or 
subsist on cow's urine or dung, or fast for a month or always 
perform the candrayana penance. Pitamaha quoted in Sm. M. 
( varnasrama p. 184 ) states that the hariisas carry only one 
danda, enter a village only for alms and otherwise stay under a 
tree or in a cave or on a river bank. 

The Paramahamsas always stay under a tree or in an unin- 
habited house or in a burial place and either wear a garment or 
are naked; they are beyond the pairs of dharma and adharma, 
truth and falsehood, purity and impurity. They treat all alike, 
they regard all as the Self, to them a clod of earth or gold is the 
same and they beg alms from persons of all varnas. The des- 
cription in the Bhiksukopanisad is almost in the same words 

2152. a <«gf5w fas*^ fft^f^E^I • f«Ts <TWf«PW *fi 7: <wr?ff 
T'SWt H « a»im«m 141. 89 quoted by smrfc P- 95 and «p|?5 on »rg 
VI. 86. 3Tffrs*r»t 161- 18 and Laghu-Visnn 4. 11 are the same. 

2153. ar* 5*wwt ifW*rrcgi ^mmit - »< iri ^g '» , ift , rnrn^ w^. areto- 

VWiwNi^w ^rw?> • twr «nw in* »btw *»ft Tgrer3 THmw yul « «rwmi 

<ntwfcn *rm ifa)$ qj«rr«ri* ***n*> *r wtfam wrmr wr f%«i*^rt »n i* ftrt 
wf*mT«mi& |wpnBi <rri| fan ' ***»"« swiwroi Mwslmwnt swfj 
wwf y*ftr iw«m«?r VIII. 9. 

940 History of Dharmaiastra [ Ch. JtXVIli 

and also contains the words of the J&bftlopanisad as to Parama- 
hathsas. It appears that long before the Ap. Dh. S. ( II. 9. 21. 
13-17 ) i. e. at least five or six centuries before Christ there 
were people who thought that an ascetic was beyond all vidhi 
( injunctions to do a thing ) and nisedha ( prohibition ), that he 
was above the ordinary rules about truthfulness or falsehood, 
that he should not care for pleasure or pain or for the study of 
the Vedas, or for this world or the next, he should simply seek 
to realize the Self, that when he realizes the Self all his sins, if 
any, would be liquidated thereby. Ap. combats these ideas by 
saying that such sentiments were opposed to the s&stras laying 
down rules about ascetics, that by realizing the Self, he cannot 
be free from the effects of what he does or the consequences of 
having a body. The sentiments which Ap. controverts arose 
from such passages as the one 11 ' 4 in the -Br. Up. IV. 4. 23 'This 
is the eternal greatness of the man who realizes brahma that by 
the actions he does, he does not add to it or detract from it. 
Therefore one should only know the real nature of that great- 
ness ; he on knowing brahma is not affeoted by an evil action. ' 
In the Kausltaki Br. Up. III. 1 it is staled 81 " 'whoever 
realizes One ( the Supreme Spirit ), his worlds ( i. e. his position ) 
are not destroyed by any action of his, not even if he kills 
his parents, not even by theft nor by the murder of a learned 
brabmaoa. ' These words are not to be taken literally, they 
are merely a boastful utterance ( a praudhiv&da ), they are 
really laudatory statements emphasizing the supreme value of 
the realization of brahman. Similarly the Chan. Up. IV. 14. 3 
says ' just as water does not stick to a lotus-leaf, so sinful 
actions do not cling to him who knows this '. In the same 
Upanisad ( V. 2. 1 ) we read ' to him who knows this, nothing 
becomes unfit as food. ' The Upaniaads, however, generally 
lay great stress on moral virtues and emphasize that a high 
moral life is absolutely necessary for the seeker after spiritual 
truth. Vide Br. Up. IV. 4. 23, Chan. Up. III. 14. 1, Ka^ha Up. 

2154. qfT f?mft jti%*tt mw*m * *$r qpfarr stt qpTmn i trefcr vtrtiq- 
fW fin^WT T f&crir W&TT <mr$pr it ffw I If . ». IV. 4. 23, quoted in ^. w. 
^. H. 6. 36 and II. 10. 7-9. 

2155. y tft »rt fia rT tft T w rrw %«f *r «nfaf wfal rffrift ? wifrTfrr * ftqrifo 
iwl^ *r w»«r*inrT i «KWV.<jr<r. III.1, vvi jwwctj i wptt * fignmr ywtNffifl 
«rrt «K*? «r ft55«m *m i m. 3T. IV. 14. 3; wj «r«pfftf* fifcvrrc* »r*tffin 
w. t<t. V^ 2. l; * >* ffiwNwitiwrw rylfoft qfta ^ g iH Hft i frtorrf9wi*i^«r 
tfikwifftffriTrHww wwrgfjw t ■ wfwuq on thfrm^r II. 3. 48. 

Ch. XXVlII 1 8annv3mns-knda of 941 

I. 2. 23, 1. 3. 8-9 and 12. The position of the VedsntasStra ( in 
III. 4.27-31 ) is thai; the seeker after eternal truth must be 
endowed with restraint of senses and quiescence of mind and he 
cannot aot just as he pleases ( SabdascStoSkamakare ) and spurn 
all rules of morality. Sarhkaracarya on Vedanta-stltra II. 3. 48 
and other places makes this position perfectly clear. Visva- 
rupa on Yaj. III. 66 states that even ascetios of the parama- 
harhsa type are not allowed ( by Yaj. and other sages ) to behave 
as they please. Tbe Par. M. ( I. part 2, pp. 172-176 ) says that 
the paramabarhsa should have only one danda and argues that 
paramahamsas are of two kinds viz. vidvat ( those who have 
already realized brahman ) and vividisu ( those who are eager 
seekers after realization ) and relies on Br. Up. III. 5. 1 for the 
former and Br. Up. IV. 4. 22 and Jabalopanisad for the latter. 
YajQavalkya is an example of vidvatsannyasa, which leads to 
jivanmukti ( i. e. release even when the body still persists ), 
while the latter ( vividisS-sannyasa ) leads to release after the 
body is no more ( i. e. videha-mukti ). Vide JIvan-muktivi- 
veka p. 4 ff. 

The Jabalopanisad 8156 (6) describes the state of parama- 
hamsas at great length. Tbey are sages like Sarhvartaka, Aru- 
ni, Svetaketu, Durvasas, Rbhu, Nidagha, Jadabharata, 
Dattatreya, Eaivataka ; they do not exhibit any visible signs 
of their order or any visible rules of conduct ; though they are 
really not mad they behave like one mad ; they go out for alms 
only for keeping body and soul together ; they are unaffected 
by acquisition or absence ( of alms ), they have no house but 
wander about and stay in a temple or on a heap of grass, on an 
ant-hill, or at the foot of a tree or on a river bank or in a cave, 
they have attachment for nothing, they are centred in 
contemplation of the One Spirit. According to Sutasihhita 

2156. tr* mnj« i «rw tjq<5*i«fa , #ff%3f*rcr-swiiR<jiM*i3»iw3rwi!)«r- 

frmtfl^tn'i s'THEf&fT antrai^m 3T3«mT 3»h^*?ww; monfare- 

»i[3 *re htini i & ftgwr ^rar^ 3wrcjr*T*fh «-wt 'jyn ^f* i«mt|<HH- 

yHjwy rfteyfr^a 1 w^W^s a«fi3foRr*rwT? ; it fawt g^pwrnrrott— 

The story of #W«B who wns a great Yogin and wandered about naked is 
found in an^f&wrl chap. 6 and ^»rakara on V. S. III. 4. 37 also refers 

to that story. The words inr TWtffT «rm \*wr>pr»r: are quoted 

bywnmon S. tn. H. H and tmn? 3wm*fW**»t are almost like 

wftrs X. 18-19. 

942 History of DharmaiMra [ Ch. XXVIII 

( II. 6. 3-10 ) it is only harhsa and paramaharhaa that give up 
sikha and the sacred thread. 

The Sannyasopanisad (13) adds two more varieties to the 
four enumerated above viz. ' turlyatlta ' and ' avadhuta ' and 
defines them as follows : ' turly&tlta ' (one who is beyond tbe 
4th stage viz. of paramahamsa ) eats only fruits in the way 
cows take food ( i. e. he does not hold them in his bands ), if he 
takes cooked food then only from three houses, he wears no 
cloth, his body only continues to live ( but he is not conscious 
of that fact ), he deals with his body as if it were dead. The 
avadhuta is beyond all restrictions, he takes food from all 
varnas except those who are charged with mortal sins or are 
patita ( outcasts ) and eats like an ajagara ( a boa constrictor ) 
i. e. lying down and opening only his mouth without any effort 
and is solely absorbed in the contemplation of tbe real 
nature of the Spirit. Medhatithi ,,,T ( on Manu VI. 33 ) is quite 
emphatio that sannyasa does not consist in defying all tbe 
rules of sastra, but in giving up the sentiment of egoism and of 
possessiveness and that it is not true to say that for the sannyfi- 
sin all rules ( even of morality ) are non-existent. 

One important question on whioh opinion was sharply 
divided is whether sannyasa was allowed to all the three varnas 
or only to brahmanas. Those who held that it was allowed 
only to brahmanas argued as follows : In the Br. 8IM Up. IV. 4. 
22 we find the words ' this Self brahmanas seek to know by the 
study of the Veda ' ; similarly Br. Up. III. 5. 1 states ' after 
knowing this Self, brahmanas give up tbe hankering after 
progeny, wealth and heavenly worlds and practise begging ' 
and Mundaka I. 2. 12 ' closely examining the worlds that are 
the rewards of actions, a brahmana should oome to be disgusted 
&o.'. Here, the word ' brahmana ' being used, iruti indioates 
that brahmanas alone oan be sannyasins. Manu ( VI. 38 ) 

2157. wwg^fcr ^tfa'^ rfoft r^iftrmnmmf^ft ^«r foft^ g wmffo rat 

ftw> on *ra VI. 32. 

2158. wafr »yg<r«frT wn|r(»rr ffr ftffofa t f(. t. IV. 4.22; qtf ^ 

irmrnrtf ftffwr wrfprr »3«nvr*r ftvr^3 <*tt*«r < i*. t. III. 5. 1 ; 

Ttfer vhviH. *rii>nn**, nrvm ffiyfHumrcm g m $?r*r i grofrr. 1. 2. 12. 
*i*t on if. v. HI- 5- 1 «ay» ' *i&i<MHi«*ifa*rc) »gnrr* wft w i y i m i um • 

and on IV. 5. 15 ( at end ) says ' fdwfilm i «Tf irr*afr*«f5h i «T ft wrVr 
fanrh «i i R«u«infflm3 <: fo r ■ irer ' w»fofwWfrft ftft: ' ' farm** wr^nrf: ' 

Cb. XXVIII ] Sannyasa and Kqatriyas 943 

begins his description of the 4th stage with the words ' a 
brahmana should leave his house and go into the world as a 
wanderer ' and winds up the chapter ( VI. 97 ) by saying ' I 
have declared this fourfold procedure in relation to brfihmanas '. 
Laghu-Visnu V. 13 emphatically states that the ascetic order is 
meant only for brahmanas and the other three asramas are 
meant for all dvijas. Those who assert that all the regenerate 
classes can resort to sannyasa hold that the word ' brahmana ' 
in the upanisads is used only as illustrative ( upalakqana ) and 
not in an exclusive sense and that a Sutrakara ( KatySyana ) 
expressly says 81W ' the three varnas after studying the Veda 
can pass through four asramas '. The Jabalopanisad (4) ordains 
' whether a man has fulfilled his vratas or not, whether he has 
performed samavartana ( the ceremonial bath after studying 
Veda ) or not, whether his fires ( Vedio ) have ceased or not he 
should resort to the wandering ascetic's life the very day on which 
he feels disgust with mundane affairs '. 816 ° It thus allows even a 
brahmacarl to become an ascetic ; a ksatriya and vaisya could 
be a brahmacarl. Yaj. III. 32 states that sannyasa is a means 
of purification ( of the mind ) in the case of twice-born olasses. 
Besides the only oondition precedent mentioned by the Jaba- 
lopanisad for resorting to pravrajy a ( ascetic life ) is vairagya 
and whoever feels the latter is authorized to betake himself to 
that stage. Yaj. III. 61 while laying down the observances of 
ascetics employs the word ' dvijah * and not ' br&hmanah '. The 
Kurma-purana also says (Uttarardha 28. 2 ) that a dvija should 
become an ascetic. 

Both these opposing views are supported by the most 
famous authors. The firBt view that only brahmanas can be 
sannyasins is affirmed by the great Sarhkaracarya in his bhasya 
on Br. Up. III. 5. 1 and IV. 5. 15, It is most interesting and also 
very refreshing that Suresvara 8UI in bis Vartika on Sarhkara's 

2169. ^prmt *orfat Sfwfifr "mm* wiwrm f r% s?j*rrc*55r«Trer ffcarrfa- 
« H**<l rf *)tiHH l g t l film, on TT. !• 56-67. The ^hv« I. p. 65 states that 
the q^renr >s wietrwr. 

2160. g*rnren m am m *«mwi urswRNft *t«wm%*ft m *t*^* frrs*- 
'wqf^i' ^rar^m i artmBt*. *■ 

2161. wmorraft Wirt «wr tf«jraq*f«u^' WTIrop■'h■ *Mih fft *n«"f 
ftrnr^ n f*. a\ «rrra*iffa' p- 758, v. 1651 ; «<iiuiwft»l«|ui tfwrw: qpir «mi 
^tTOW°nS fn; wuronrwot ir?r « wmfitonf^dft $rn* %q*gfcrfr 1 5m- 

s*s iw firm fT «gwran^fS 1 s^wrtfn*? on f jr. g-. »mv ( III. 5. 1 ) ; on 
the verse l am o Tn? , i smtff'lft remarks Sn«vri>Nl<J<i«K«ii wrfa'JT'faT wnjnr- 
m i »R , iTi«J*mj.' 

941 History of Dharmaiastra [ Ch. XXVIII 

bhasya on Br. Up. III. 5. 1 first explains the views of bis guru, 
then enters the lists against bis great master and combats bis 
views witb cogent arguments. Most of tbe medieval writers 
and works suoh as Medhatitbi on Manu ( VI. 97 ), the Mit., the 
Madanaparijafca ( pp. 365-373 ), the SmrfcimuktSphala ( Varna- 
srama p. 176 ) uphold the view that only brShmanas oan resort 
to the 4th asrama, while a few works like the Smrtioandrika 
( I. p. 65 ) support tbe second view. The position of Visva- 
rupa >UB ( on Yaj. III. 61 ) that only brahmanas oan resort to 
sannyasa causes great perplexity. Suresvara and Visvarupa 
are generally regarded as identical (vide H. D. vol. I. 
pp. 261-263 and Journal of the Andhra Historical Society for 
1931, vol. V, p. 187 ). But Suresvara holds the view that the 
word brahraana in tbe relevant texts is only illustrative. 
Therefore it follows that either Suresvara changes his views 
or that Suresvara and Visvarupa are not identical. Ananda- 
giri in his commentary on Suresvara's Vartika ( p. 759 ) cites 
passages from the Mahabharata ( Adi. 119) to establish that 
ksatriyas could resort to sannyasa. ,IM Santiparva (63. 
16-21 ) allows sannyasa to kings when their life is about to 
end. But the general words of Santi 62. 2 appear to be in confliot 
with this.'" 4 Kalidasa states that Raghu became a yati when 
he grew old, installed his son on the throne and stayed in a 
cottage outside the capital and draws a very poetio and striking 
picture of the contrast between the old king turned ascetic and 
tbe prince become king ( Baghu-vamsa VIII. 14 and 16 ). 

So far as the smrti texts and the medieval works are con- 
cerned a sudra could not become a sannyasin. The Santiparva 
( 63. 11-14 ) is quite dear that a sudra cannot be a bhiksu. It 
also ( 18. 32 )*"* informs us that in its day many ( probably 

2162. fffgnrft WTgrtro Snifv *}*vwfa%wig( i ft«TO<i on *rr. 111. 61. 

2163. wri^rif 119. 6-9, 12, 26 (or. ed. 110. 6-9 and 12, 24) nfa** 

«nre«m% **«t H «wt *tj $ i w^rf^nrftqrctf i iA<wRn» *»re<Kft i ix*§9 

5i^i»»«»R««ii*«rt«iHif*i«i< i <rtgfr <H««t-«yw: ^vfnT^rrarv» i WPUiPftiHt 
jt rTWH^ftTrftTs * * ijrt*nf fiwf«? jwft'^TOTfrQS': • f^n?fVfSrwW!i^T 

ftff*ff* fawrfimrt i <pctttc? ntv^tg gjcjrft m <«■ «rr ■ sw«r^ tt §mv 

■ywr*$m»«rft h 12 trtoiarw ^ «f* f*w*rw*W?r«r*rn i «f?nr«r w¥ mmu 

TfBi Jiarai'at wnj n 25. atmv^ptft ( P- 759 ) quotes throe o! these. 

2164. wifr"r*v a wnwnm r ftfom ar»?r i nftmm&eifa *r"r «rror- 
«*w u ?mf»W 62. 2. 

2155. qTbnrifcr jnrrS 5°»t» nrwpn i wff t i firm wjf%5: <rrSkfVn*aT 
^wrftw^ ii srrfaflrf 18. 32. 

Ch. XXVIII ] SannySsa and Madras 945 

inoludlng sQdras) assumed the outward signs of the 4th asrama, 
got their heads tonsured and moved about in oohre-ooloured 
garments ( k&s&ya ) for securing alms and gifts. But there are 
clear indications that sudras did assume even in the times of 
anoient smrtis the ascetic's garb and mode of life. The Visnu 
Dh. S. V. 115 and Yaj. II. 241 ( as read by Visvarupa ) prescribe 
the fine of one hundred paws for one who gave a dinner to sudra 
ascetics in rites for gods and the manes. When the Asrama- 
vSsika-parva 26. 33 states that Vidura was buried as an ascetic, 
the commentator Nllakantha remarks that this indicates that 
even sudras can follow the mode of the ascetic life. 81 "* 

It appears that even women oould in rare cases adopt the 
ascetic's life in ancient brahmanio times. The Mit. on Yaj. 

III. 58 quotes a sutra of Baud. ( sfcrlnam caike ) to the effect that 
according to some ficaryas even women could adopt the ascetic 
mode of life. Patanjali in his Mahabhasya (vol. II. p. 100) 
speaks of a woman ascetic ( parivrajika ) named Sankara. Yama 
quoted in the Sm. 0. ( on vyavahara p. 254 ) declares ' neither in 
the Vedaa nor in the dharmasastras is pravrajya enjoined for 
women ; ( procreation and care of ) progeny from a male of the 
same varna as herself is her proper dltarma, this is the establish- 
ed rule.* 8,6S The Sra. 0. gives in a far-fetched way absence of 
sexual intercourse as the meaning of pravrajya hero. Atri (136- 
137 ) lays down that six actions by women and sudras lead to 
sinfulness viz. japa, tapas ( austerities ), pravrajya ( asoetic's 
life), pilgrimages, endeavour to secure miraculous power by 
repeating spells, sole devotion to the worship of a goddess. 8 " 7 
In the drama called Malavikagnimitra Kalidasa describes the 
Pandita KausikI as wearing the garb of an ascetic (in I. 14). 
It must be said that the general trend of Hinduism is against 
women adopting the homeless or ascetic life. The Jatakas (e. g. 

IV. 392) rarely speak of candalas as adopting the homeless 

2165. a Wi *ft *ptw f*^"mtrf?f wsreni < w&^tWI* iir wf w <r*nr«: « 
ofor: *rram*rerr ith *rRr«'i»?«reT «mn ■ *rfihi&narnfaft ^«r str*?: Ttsr « 
3»rsra*tiifc«T 26. 32-33; g£«Jtift gnffifiTR ^rRtawfeftft ttffan. ■ sfh59><»s. 

2166. w ^hH> flm» «jft st 5Tt£ *t wrr «r ft«fhnt i narr f| n^rtt 

?w> wis *r*orfftffi vitorrn wn warvfifcT*?: • *flif*. (*<ro*rc 

p. 254 ). 

2167. anr<<rt JuvrrRir wtaajrwrrp* *«r i awwMwfi&rnrr uBnvr «mnvr- 
nq, i %«wrn«m ■%* «fisij^MiaHiR ^ i wf% 136-137. 

H. D. 119 

946 History of DharmaiMra [ Ch. XXVIII 

When "the question is asked whether sfldras or women could 
resort to sannyfisa there is likely to be some confusion. The 
word ' sannyasa ' conveys two ideas : abandonment of all actions 
( kamya karma ) that spring from the desire to seoure some 
object or other and secondly, following a oertain mode of life 
( asrama ) the outward signs of whioh are carrying a staff and 
the like and the entrance into which is preceded by the utterande 
of the praisa. The Jlvan-muktiviveka" 18 (p. 3) states thafc 
moksa ( amrtatva ) depends upon tyaga ( abandonment ) as stated 
in the Kaivalyopanisad (2) ' not by aotions, nor by progeny nor 
by wealth, but by tyaga some attained mok§a ' ( release )• 
For such abandonment even women and sodras are eligible! 
the best example of a woman giving up everything being 
that of Maitreyl, the wife of Yajfiavalkya, who plainly 
told the sage ( Br. Up. IV. 5. 3-4 ), ' what have I to do with 
that which will not make me immortal ( will not release me 
from samara ) ? ' The Bhagavad-glta ( 18. 2 ) also deolares 
that sannySsa means the giving up of actions springing from 
desires (to seoure oertain objects). The Jlvan-muktiviveka 
further states that by resorting to the asrama of sannySsa 
the mother and the wife of a sannyasin are supposed not to be 
born again as women ( but they may be born as men ). So 
women and sQdras may abandon all actions, though they 
could not adopt the peculiar ascetio mode of life with its out- 
ward symbols. According to Srlkara's bhfisya on Ved&ntasutra 
I. 3. 34 the order of sannySsa, the peouliar rules of which are 
reoommended by Vedio texts, is only for the three vainas, while 
mere nySsa ( abandonment of worldly pleasures and desires ) 
can be resorted to by women, sudras and mixed castes. 11 " 

Some espoused the view that sannyUsa was meant only for 
the blind, the cripple and the impotent, that is, for persons who 
possessed no eligibility ( adhikara ) for the performance of 

2168. snf m ^Wfcj: H«rw: fifttTt i | M»Hi<nn*wi*«J*Hlf^wrareeri» 
wv*un<i»$u»'JwoTr«rnHHW(«Jft i jsiwr s*n> *rnrr >rc»fV ^ nqirrtrctt i «ir- 
f*f&: otftaw STPft 1 %Hw*rrws i t*rrr*ar m%frfnp «pr^ *r ipforr *r v^m «r^i 
m*&fo; wy r wwnrg i i wfi! w tvrtt ftmlmf t Mih^ i <rfl « mfi>ifflqy ( Adyar 
ed. 1935 ) p. 3. q jpSort *gt is $Mfr<r t Mfa«H 2. 

fnlwn i f?iwr5^sp?fg^ qovwrviTOiwiq ' whrawrra f^ss* «rrow 
y^^w r « l*^"^^^" *»vrcf fitf^ W% ' ww rrarwnryfa ftrarrqyt- 
f^Sf* i WJHfamrfoRJW ffWlwljfatiUHH I quoted by vftaft in WV on 
^frtrqw in. 4. 22 ( nrwtrntra ). 

Oh, XXVIII ] SarmycUsa-whether only for such as the cripple 94$ 

Vedio rites. 6amkaracarya in his bhasya on V. S. III. 4. 20 
refutes the view that the passage of the Jabalopanisad (4) cited 
above relates to those who are not eligible for performing 
Vedio rites and establishes that that passage has in view 
the general prescription that there is a stage of life called 
parivrajya ( pannyasa ) meant for all that seek release from 
eamsara. Suresvara in his Vartika on Samkara's Br. Up. bhasya 
( p. 1908 v. 1144 ) also refutes the view. 1170 Medhatithi on 
Manu VL 36 rejects this view ( of some ) by saying that the 
blind or oripple cannot follow the rules and practices ( such as 
not staying in one village for more than one night ) just as 
they cannot perform Vedio rites and hence it could not have 
been intended by the smrfci writers that sannyasa was only for 
the blind and the oripple, nor can the impotent take to sannyasa 
as no upanayana is performed in their case. The Mit. on Yaj. 
III. 56 follows Medhatithi. The Sm. Mu. ( p. 173 ) and Yati-dh- 
( pp. 5-6 ) quote verses to the effeot that * the son of an apostate 
from sannyasa, one having bad nails or blaok teeth, one emaciated 
by phthisis, one devoid of a limb-these do not deserve to resort to 
sannyasa. Similarly those who are guilty of mortal sins or are 
suspected of them or are vratyas, those who have left the path of 
truth, purity, sacrifices, vratas, tapas, charity, study of the Veda 
and homa should not be allowed to take up the ascetic life '. 

One of the principal rules for a yati was that he was to 
leave wife and home and never to think of sexual matters or to 
revert to the life of a house-holder. Atri 8,T1 ( VIII. 16 and 
18 ) deolares ' I see no penance ( expiation ) for that twice-born 
man, who, after having resorted to the duties of a celibate 
( sannyasin ), falls off from that stage ; he is neither a dvija 
nor a sudra, his ohildren become candalas called Vidura '. 
Samkara on V.S. ( IIL 4. 42 ) explains that these words are only 
intended to emphasize the great effort required to remain celi- 
bate as a sannyisin and that expiations are as a matter of fact 
prescribed for &>bhiksu having sexual intercourse. Daksa VII. 
33 requires the king to brand on the forehead with the mark of 

2170. <K i"i «s u d iRi'«M *re &r S^w»frme > i <nfbn^4 t ajwmraaN- 

««W« I If . 3 1 . *nwTTlft^ P- 3908 verse 1144. 

2171. aireit ^f%* v& *m wft fiNi • sFTwt n <mifo ^* frrim 

*nm*T » ^ ^ jrarfawrowi *n 3rt ^hra*wlih i f%ftr *n* *i««ihi 

amr* m« *tonrt » stf* VIlI. 16 »nd 18. The first is quoted by *^ on 

^rap in. 4- «• 

948 History of Dharmaiaslra [ Ch. XXVIII 

dog's foot and banish from the kingdom a person who after 
becoming a sannyasin does not abide by its rules ( of celibacy 
&c. ). It has been seen above that a man who falls away from 
the order of sannyasins became a slave of the king for life ( p. 
185 ). Atri requires a sannyasin not to stay even for a day in 
the place where live his father and mother, brother and sister, 
wife or son or daughter-in-law, his agnates or cognates or 
friends, or his daughter or her sons ( Sm. Mu. p. 206 ). 

Originally these injunctions about oomplete restraint and 
abandonment of sexual life and total lack of property were 
faithfully followed by ascetics. The great acarya Saihkara was 
a celibate all his life, but he is said to have established four 
mathas&B stated above(p. 907) for the propagation of his doctrines 
and philosophy at Srhgapura (modern Srngerl) and other plaoes. 
Pious devotees bestowed considerable donations on these mathas. 
In course of time these mathas went on increasing and huge 
properties came to be under the control of the pontiffs of these 
several mathas. There arose ten orders of advaita sannyasins 
alone tm viz. tlrtha, asrama, vana, aranya, giri, parvata, 
sagara, sarasvatl, bharatl and purl. These ten orders are said 
to be the pupils in succession of the four disciples of Saihkara 
i. e. the first two of Padmapada, the next two of Hastamalaka, 
the next three of Trotaka ( or Totaka) and the last three of Sures - 
vara. The several mathas at Srngerl, KftficI, Kumbbakonam, 
Kudalgi, Sahkesvara, Sivagahga have been quarrelling among 
themselves as to their jurisdictions* 178 and their rights 
to claim monetary payments from the people and to exercise 
spiritual authority in matters of expiations, excommunication 
&o. To support the olaims of the various mathas pedigrees of 

2172. ^TTst M ?rra^ 3sjiMi»*n«d: <T*»* i aiit tpt srao"f qwt *H«fH- 
frc; ii shu whuw i i ""jRfw^Wnncr: i srwft nrefr ^ jfr nm vfct?r • *fi<rraj- 

Wf T i 'JfrqSTt'^ grawf: %«*r w^j; qVr(^ i quoted in ^t%g. (Wwa) 
p. 182 and *rfsr*l. 3. p. 103. Vide Wilson's ' Beligious Sects of the 
Hindus' in Works vol. I. (1861) p. 202, Dr. Farquhar's 'Outlines of the 
Beligious Literature of India ' (1920) p. 174 for the dasnamia (the 
ten appellations of advaita orders). 

2173. Vide B»jvade, Khand* 21 (in Marathi) letter No. 190 at 
p. 240, dated iahe 1763 where the claim is made by the Karavlra majha 
that its jurisdiction extends from the river Malspahari towards the 
north and that the fir&gerl matha has no jurisdiction in that area. 

Ch. XXVIII ] Sannyasa-mathaa and their disputes 949 

teachers 8m and pupils appear to have been fabricated, no two 
of which agree in toto and in some of them Suresvara is said to 
have lived for 700 or 800 years. The disciples of Ramanuja 
and Madhva also have many mathas of their own. Vallabha- 
carya ( one of the great acaryas that interpreted the Vedanta- 
siitras ) and his disciples do not accept the order of sannyasa. 
Aocoiding to them in the Kali age sannyasa is forbidden for 
the seeker as it leads on to regret and worry tm " ( if its rules 
are to be strictly^observed) and that the parityaga (abandonment) 
that is the essenoe of sannyasa does not consist in resorting to 
the 4th asrama but in behaving in the way in which bhaktas 
( devotees) like Uddhava acted ( vide Bhagavata III. 4 ). Most 
of these mathas have large endowments or incomes which are 
spent in pomp and show (e. g. keeping golden images and 
paraphernalia ). Very few of the heads are really learned even 
in ancient Sanskrit Literature in all its branches, they are 
impervious to modern tendencies and requirements, are obscu- 
rantists and generally oppose all ideas of reform. Only a very 
few mathas are presided over by persons "who have been celibate 
throughout their lives. Most of them originally were house- 
holders and then took to sannyasa. Besides the succession to 
the gadi is often a hole and corner affair. When the incumbent 
is about to die the influential and intriguing persons round him 
catch hold of some aspiring householder, make him a disoiple of 
the dying sannyasin and afterwards he is installed as the pontiff. 

2174. Wilson's ' Religious Sects of the Hindus' vol. 1, p. 201 (for 
29 BcBryas of 8rigeri from Govinda, the teacher of Sarhkara, to the 
present day ; J. B. B. B. A. S. vol. X. pp. 373-74 for 56 occupants of the 
Srigeri gndi from 6arhkara ; and ' Shankaracharya and his school ' 
( 1923 ) by the late Mr. M. B. Bodas, which last (in Marathi ) is a very 
valuable work, containing lists of pontifical succession of five mathas 
(pp. 91-103) and also the Ma$h5rany5setu (in Sanskrit) mentioning 
the several mafchas, their traditions, mottoes &c. 

2174 a. Tgmwf in his ^umP m f y, (published by M.T. Telivala in 
1918 with eight commentaries ) states ' sra: *5OT *T w»VTO: •wrrnTPT 
wiwrm i <mfaR* »rtsrTft wwnju* * «"*&* » 16 '> ^flrjwrcin^or Tfftvnn 
fWNmrni <m writ wAQfo * i^P^ *&'■ " 21 '• ****** in hi » oom - 

( called ftwir ) on verse 16 remarks that bhaktat ( those who follow the 
path of bhakti, devotion to Krsna ) should resort to renunciation (pari- 
tyVga) in the way which Lord Krsna ordered his great devotee 
Uddhava to follow ( vide Bhagavata III. 4. 20-21 ) and not by way of 
sannyasa taught by those who follow the path of knowledg e ' Wn ffr- 
ftfVrefrvrcrw *safr &fT%i5raiw fis<*fMi*KT ^mwwww. wWHit ** 

950 History of DkarmaiMra [ Ch. XtYIll 

He retains his attachment to his former family and uses a good 
deal of the income for his relatives and friends. Real reform of 
the mathas oannot oome unless great improvements are made in 
selecting a suocessor. There must be several disciples, the 
selection must not be made on the incumbent's death-bed, 
representative bodies must have a voice in the selection. The 
heads of ascetic mathas have often oome to the courts on ques- 
tions about dignity, jurisdiction and properties. For example, 
in 3 Moore's Indian Appeals p. 198 the Srngerl Pontiff claimed 
a declaration that he alone was entitled to proceed on the publio 
road in a palanquin crosswise and for an injunction restraining 
the Swami of the Lingayats from doing so ; in Madhusudan 
Parvat y. Shree Madhav Teertha, 33 Bom. 278, the SarhkaraoSrya 
of the Sftrada ma^ha at Dwarka sued for a declaration that tbe 
defendant was not entitled to tbe title and dignities of a 
Samkaracarya and that he was not entitled to call for or receive 
any offerings from people at Ahmedabad or other places in 
Gujarat either in bis assumed capacity of a Samkaraoarya or as 
a Samkaracarya of the Jyotir-matha ( this olaim was also 
rejeoted on the grounds that the suit was not of a civil nature 
and that the offerings were voluntary ). 

In Vidua Shankara v. Vidya Narsimha, 51 Bom. 442 
( P. 0. ) the Privy Council had to deal with a pretty tangle of 
claims between four persons, the plaintiff and the defendant 
each claiming to be the lawful Samkaraoarya of Sankeshwar and 
Karvir matha and both having selected a disciple to succeed 
them. -These illustrations indicate how the world-renouncing 
ideal of oonduot set forth by the great Samkaracarya is honoured 
in modern times by those who swear by his name. They should 
lay to heart the words of the Jlvanmuktiviveka and the quota- 
tion in it from Medhatithi ( pp. 158-159 ) "" viz. * if an ascetio 
seoures a matha as a fixed plaoe of residenoe and thereon a 
sentiment of ownership arises in him bis mind will be disturbed 
when loss or expansion of the matha takes plaoe ; therefore an 
ascetio should not possess a matha nor should he have vessels 
of gold or silver for his use nor should he gather pupils round 

2175. tqfQr puHnw ig tff%**^ ^mr^r^nff qftwnwwfr *fir jrtffcnn- 

wiWm*W WWa i «njt w£t *f iftmftffwwroT «iquUi-*ni^l 

ftwwnHiQ , n*i u iNta*ift «t irfpnq; t ftu f flfiftfl i smnt nwrito* * 

*hro ftr«rthnrt » f^wrarft ptrarft q&fawnnC i **» mgrigmgntf 

"ww *t TntOTft ii Rt««?i«il «t 5 «nr^<"<Tw flhr: tfj«^nrft m 3ft*^ir%fW*r 
jj. 168-159. 

Oh. XXVIII J Sannyasa 951 

himself for securing service from them or in order that they 
may honour him, spread his fame, or bring money to him, but 
he may gather disciples only for removing their ignoranoe. * 

In J. R. A. S. for 1925 pp. 479-486 Dr. J. N. Farquhar 
contributes a very learned article on the organization of the 
sannyasins of the Vedanta. Therein he shows how Moslem 
armed fakirs molested and even killed Hindu ascetios, how 
Madhusudana SarasvatI approached the Emperor AJcbar, how 
failing to get complete redress he initiated ksatriyas and 
vaisyas into seven out of the ten orders of sannyasins and 
armed them, how these sannyasins fought against the moslem 
fakirs and also among themselves, how even non-brahmin 
women are initiated into the girt and puri orders and how in 
Northern India the pure monastic orders are those of tlrtha, 
asrama and sarasvatl. This innovation later on led to serious 
consequences. The sannyasins and fakirs infested the province 
of Bengal and their inoursions and depredations caused great 
alarm in the first days of tha British rule ( latter half of the 
18th century tm ). This shows how the rule of ahimsa" enjoined 
upon asoetios became perverted. Various estimates have been 
made about the number of persons in India professing to lead 
the ascetic life. They could easily have been 10 per oent of the 
population, particularly in Northern India. They generally 
led very indolent, parasitic and dissolute lives. There are 
however, reasons to believe that in recent times the number of 
go-called sannyasins is being substantially reduoed owing to 
several causes. There have been swarms of monks and nuns 
in Christian countries also. Before the suppression of the 
monasteries by Henry VIII in England about 400 years ago, the 
number of monks, nuns and persons dependent on them was 
enormously large. Vide ' English monks ' by Geoffrey Basker- 
ville, p. 285, ( f. n. 2 ) where the figures of monks and nuns 
in England, France and Spain at various periods are given. 

Aooording to both anoient and modern Hindu Law, when a 
man beoame a sannyasin, he became cut off from his family and 
lost all his rights to property, partition and inheritance in 
that family. Vas. Dh. S. 17. 52 lays down that those who resort 
to another asrama ( i. e. vanaprastha or sannyasa ) are excluded 

2176. Vide ' Sannyasi and Fakir raidera in Bengal ' by Bai Saheb 
Jamini Mohan Ghosh ( 1930 ) for a detailed and interesting account. 

' 952 History of DharmaiZstra [ Ch. XXVIII 

from their share (in the family property). 8177 This result, 
however, does not follow hy merely wearing the garments of a 
sannyasin, but in order that this result may follow a person 
must have performed the necessary ceremonies for entering the 
order of sannyasins. On the other hand whatever belongs to a 
sannyasin such as his clothes, his sandals, his books would not 
devolve on his blood relations as heirs but will go to his 
spiritual heir ( viz. his pupil ). Vide Y&j. II. 137 and the Mit. 
thereon. These rules, however, do not apply to a sudra turning 
an ascetic. He does not become severed from his family by 
entering the order of asoetioism, unless a usage to that effect is 
established. Vide Somasundaram v. Vaithilinga, 40 Mad. 846 
( at p. 869 ), Harishchandra v. Atir Muhmud, 40 Gal. 545. 

The most serious inroad, however, on the ideal of sannyasa 
was made when people professing to be ascetics were allowed 
to have wives or concubines. The VayupurSna ( quoted in the 
Yati-dharmasangraha p. 108 ) invokes dire consequenoes on him 
who after becoming a sannyasin has sexual intercourse, viz. he 
beoomes a worm in ordure for 60,000 years, passes through the 
lives of a rat, a vulture, a dog, a donkey, a pig, a tree without 
flowers and fruit, a goblin and then he is born as a candala. 
The Rajataranginl ( III. 12 ) records*' 7 ' that when the queen of 
Meghavahana built a monastery she established in a portion of 
it ascetics who followed the rules of conduct laid down for 
their order and in the other portion asoetics, who were condemn- 
able because of their acting like householders, together with 
their wives, sons, cattle and wealth. In the Presidenoy of 
Bombay several oases have come before the courts about the 
rights of succession to Gharbhari Gosavis 817 ' ( i. e. ascetios who 
have a house and family ). Vide Oomin Rarribharti v. Mahant 
Surajbharti, 5 Bom. 682 ( where it was held that a Gosavi who 
succeeded as a disoiple to a mohunt did not forfeit his rights 
by subsequent marriage ), Balgir v. Dhondgir, 5 Bom. L. B. 114, 
Oitabai v. Shivbakas, 5 Bom. L. R. 318, Hirabharthi v. Bai Javer, 
30 Bom. L. R. 1555. 

2177. a w'mwutWPWm n I *fos 17. 52, quoted by the Mit. on ijr. 

II. 137 ; fa *rrt * wi wl irfW wttmRu i m i gwrrfifrrprt >* t MAfifond - 
«mc II TO*i*hr VII. 259. 

2178. sfSt^pmt f^OT'TTtTw^rrlJrrervr i *?»f Tifonmrw a n fty r ng - 
ftnrs ii TT3mrf§«jfV III. 12. 

2179. Vide Steele's ' Law and customs of Hindu castes, ' Appendix 
B on pp. 444-416 ' Qhatbaree Qoiavies ' by Mr. Warden. 

Ch. XXVIII 1 BannyUaa 953 

In the Gupta Inscriptions we have several records of a line of 
kings who were the feudatories of the imperial Guptas and who 
bear the appellation 'nrpati-parivrajaka' (kingly ascetics). Fleet 
thinks ( p. 95 n. 1 ) that the word means no more than what is 
oonveyed by suoh words as ' rajarsi ', but this is unconvincing. 
Their gotra was Bharadvaja and the founder is said to have 
been an incarnation of Eapila ( p. 115 ). It is likely that the 
founder, after being a king, ultimately became a sannyasin 
and his descendants ( in the fashion poetically described by 
Kalidasa ) also became ascetics after adorning the throne for 
some time. Hence they probably came to be called nrpati-pari- 
vrajakas. It is interesting to note that Vyasa quoted in Sm. M. 
( p. 176 ) and Yati-dh. (pp 2-3) forbade sannyasa in the Kali age , 
though he made an exception to this extent that as long as the 
division of society into varnas existed and as long as the Veda 
was studied so long sannyasa could be resorted to in the Kali 
age. ,,8 ° Nagesa in his VratyatSprayagcitta-nirnaya (p. 46 ) 
makes the curious statement that according to the Sannyasa- 
paddhati of Vyasa a wise brahmana should not resort to 
sannyasa when 4400 years of the Kali age will have expired 
(ie. after 1299 A. D.). 8181 This diotum was probably due 
not only to the difficulties of observing to the letter the oode of 
life sketched for sannyasins, but also to the fact that about 
1299, the whole of India was being harassed by Moslem inva- 
ders and adventurers who made the helpless sannyasins the 
first target for their fanatio zeal and persecution. The Nirnaya- 
sindhu ( III, purvardha, end ) quotes the above verse of Vyasa 
and remarks that this prohibition of sannyasa is meant to 
apply to sannyasa with three dandas. 

The Baud. Dh. S. II. 10. 11-30, the Baud. gr. sesastltra IV. 
16, the Vaik. IX. 6-8 contain the procedure of becoming a 
sannyasin. That of the Baud. Dh. S. being probably the most 

2180. nrrw I WwrrS'T Tf 155*4 «*7T# T!^^*H ' %<ft«l 5?ftwf% Wttt <T« 

ft^3r^[ ii ffo i «t«im qi gHig h m i *TT*a4fam«rfs<§r iwt^t n*$it i ffrtrr- 

pp. 2-3. 

2181. ■^wpfry*nwrr° > « fwr<r«yjwrrff ^r i wft^i ifawriSet enrr %w»R- 
irt 1 1 &im*t T wefr'Tt wm$* ft ati wa i ■ «»«irw;Bft of «ror quoted in 
«n»rsr's wi^nmrr«rfaRn^f«r p. 46 ; also in f*mhfir*g III. yfinS end. 

h. d. ISO 

954 History of Dharmaiastra [ Ch. XXVIII 

ancient among extant works 1b briefly set out below :* 188 
After haying out the hair on the head, the beard, the hair on the 
body, the nails, he makes ready three sticks, a loop of strings, 
(a pieoe of oloth as) a water strainer, a jar and a bowl. 
Having taken these he should go to the end of his village, or 
to the extremity of the boundary of his village, or the fire- 
hall ; he should partake of clarified butter, milk and curds 
( mixed together ) and should fast or drink water. Then he should 
reoite the vyahrtis separately preceded by ' om ' and followed 
by the words ' I enter the Savitrl ' and by one pada of the 
sacred G&yatrl and then all together. 1181 Before sunset, he 
heaps fuel on the garhapatya fire ( if he has maintained Vedic 
fires ), brings the anvahSryapacana ( daksin&gni ) to the spot, 
takes the flaming ahavanlya fire out of the garhapatya, 
melts clarified butter on the garhapatya, cleanses it (with 
blades of kusa), takes four portions of the butter in the spoon 
called 'sruc' and offers in the ahavanlya fire on which fuel-sticks 
have been heaped a full oblation ( i. e. whole spoonful ) four 
times saying 'om sv&ha*. This is called BrahmanvadhSna 
( putting fuel-sticks on fire for securing knowledge of brahman ). 
Then in the evening after agnihotra has been offered, he strews 
grass to the north of the garhapatya fire, plaoes on the grass 
sacrifloial vessels in pairs with the upper parts turned downwards, 
spreads darbha grass to the south of the ahavanlya fire on the 
seat meant for the brahma priest, covers it with blaok antelope 
skin and remains awake the whole of that night. Then he rises 
at the time ( muhurta ) sacred to Brahma and offers agnihotra 
in the early morning at the proper time. Then after covering 
the part of the altar called prs^hyft and bringing water he 
prepares an offering for Agni Vaisvanara cooked on twelve pot- 
sherds. That well-known is^i will be the last he will perform. 
Afterwards, he throws in the ahavanlya fire those sacrificial 
vessels wbioh are not made of stone or earth. And throwing the 
two aranis (the wooden logs by the friction of which fire was 

2182. The central ideas of the ceremony are the renunciation of 
all worldly ties, contempt of the world and all earthly riobes, a life of 
alums! and contemplation on and realization of the Absolute Brahman. 
The summary is close to the original, only omitting a few quotations, a 
few repetitions and some matters that have already been dealt with. 

2183. He will say • sfr ^t *rrft*f Jlfifarft a wRa^' ^i «x g*s 
miWr vftmft mT wft i wf w» m »jrtfc firvt *mj and 

lastly aft ^jff » «*t mfaff sftwrfw «K«r *H . Vide wr. tj. ^. 

II. 13. 14-17. This is called wtftwurfa . 

Ch. XXVlII J Sannyasa-procedure of 9!>5 

produced for vedio rites ) into the garhapatya fire with the words 
' may you two be of one mind with us ' he ( mentally ) 
deposits the three fires in himself. Repeating the mantra ' yft 
te agne yajfiiya tanur ' ( Tai. 8. III. 4. 10. 5 ) he inhales the 
smell of the smoke of eaoh of the three fires thrice. Then 
standing within the sacrificial enclosure he says thrice in a low 
voice and thrice aloud the words * om bhuh, bhuvab svah. I 
have entered the order of sannyasa ( lit. I have abandoned ), I 
hare entered the order of sannyasa, I hare entered the order of 
sannyasa '. Lastly he pours out as much water as will fill his 
joined hands saying * I promise that no injury will proceed 
from me to any creature '. He must henceforward restrain his 
speeoh. He holds his staff saying ' thou art my friend, proteot 
me*. He takes the iikya (loop of strings) with the words 
' yadasya pare rajasah * ( Tai. S. IV. 2. 5. 2 ) ; he takes the oloth 
for straining water with the text ' yena devah pavitrena ' ( Tai. 
Br. 1. 4.8 and Nirukta V.6); he takes the water jar reoiting 'yena 
deva jyotisordhvam* (Tai. S. V. 7. 2. 2); he takes the bowl 
after reoiting the seven vyahrtis. Taking with him the 
staffs, the loop of strings, the cloth as a water strainer, the 
water-pot and the bowl he goes to a place where water can 
be had, bathes, sips water and sprinkles himself ( performs 
marjana ) with the SurabhimatI 8,M verse ( dadhi-kravno, Bg. 
IV. 39. 6 ), with Ablinga verses, VarunI verses, Hiranyavarna 
verses (Tai. S. V. 6. 1. 1 = Atharvaveda I. 33. 1-4) and Pava- 
manl verses ( Bg. IX. 1 &e. ). While still in the water he 
performs sixteen pranayamas after ( mentally going over ) the 
Aghamarsana verses (Bg. X. 190. 1-3), comes out of the water on 
the bank, wrings his garments, puts on another pure ( washed ) 
garment, sips water, takes the oloth for straining water with 
the words ' om bhur bhuvab. svah ' and performs tarparux to the 
seven "" vyahrtis. He then fills his joined hands with water 
and performs tarpam to the Manes just in the same way as he 
did to the gods, then he worships the sun with the two verses 
* udu tyam * ( Bg. 1. 50. 1 ) and ' citram * ( Bg. L 115. 1 ). He 
then offers tarpam to the Atman ( self ) with ' the syllable om is 
brahma; this light (the sun) that diffuses warmth is indeed 

2184. Vide note 755 for SurabhimatI, Ablings and VBruni veraes. 
The Tai. Br. III. 9. 7 calls Sg. IV. 39. 6 SurabhimatI. 

2185. The trfa will be in the form ar} ^trfvrft and go on for gv>i 
TO. TTi. swj, wn, «w* Tbii is tjwfo The f^prJor will be »rlf %i 
*W, »ft **« WIT »nd »o on. 

956 History qf Dharmaiaatra [ Ch. XXVllt 

brabma; this which gives warmth is indeed the Veda; this 
indeed that sheds warmth is the ( proper ) objeot of knowledge ' ; 
then he worships the Atman with the words ' the Self is 
brahman, it is light '. Let him repeat the Gayatrl verse one 
thousand times or an unlimited number of times. Repeating 
' om bhfirbhuvah svah ' he takes up the water strainer ( cloth ) 
and fetohes water. Let him not thereafter perform Hcamana 
with water that has not been drawn up ( from a well ), which 
has not been strained 8188 and which has not been completely 
cleansed. Let him not wear thereafter whitegarments. He 
may carry one staff or three. He hag to keep the following 
vows : ahimsa ( abstaining from injury to any creature ), truth- 
fulness, not depriving others of any property of theirs, 
continence, and liberality. There are five minor vratas ( vows ) 
viz. absence of anger, waiting upon the guru, avoidance of care- 
lessness ( or rashness ), cleanliness, purity in food. Then follow 
rules as to begging for alms ( some of them are at pp. 933-934 
above ). When he returns from begging, he places the alms 
in a pure spot, washes his hands and feet and announces ( the 
alms ) first to the sun with the verses ' udu tyam * ( Bg. 1. 50. 1 ) 
and 'citram ' ( Rg. I. 115.1); he also announces the alms to 
brahman with the text ' brahma jajnanam ' ( Tai. S. IV. 2. 8. 2 
= Atharvaveda IV. 1. 1 ). It is declared ( in Vedio texts ) that 
after the brahmadhana the sacred fires are contained in the 
sacrifioer himself ; his prana, apana, vyana, udana and samana 
represent the five fires garhapatya, anvahfiryapacana (daksi- 
nagni ), ahavanlya, sabhya and avasathya. These five fires 
indeed abide in the Atman ; he, therefore, offers ( the oblations ) 
in the Atman only. This sacrifice offered in the soul, whioh is 
centred in and based on the Atman, leads the soul to bliss. 
Giving compassionately portions of the alms to oreatures and 
sprinkling the remainder with water, he should partake of it as 
if it were some medicine. After he has eaten and taken 
Soamana he worships the sun with the JyotismatI tm verse 
viz. ' ud vayam ' ( Rg. I. 50. 10 ) after inaudibly muttering the 

2186. Vide Manu VI. 46 for straining water. ' Liberality '—the 
ascetic has ex hypotheti no property, but his tyVga may consist in imparting 
knowledge and giving his mss. or books to the needy. 

2187. Rg. I. 50. 10 is Ttpf JPTOrft wlfisuvju r v*r<n I. It oontains 
the word j^ftfjh and is therefore styled T^Tftronft. Bflhler is inaccurate 
in holding the verse ' udvayam' as different from JyotismatI (vide 
8. B. B. vol. 14 p. 261). The words an»j) smwfh uttj are also snrftf 
19. 60. 1. 

Ch. XXVIII ] Sannyam-procedure of 937 

two texts ' vfiii me Ssan ' ( Tai. S. V. 5. 9. 2 ) and ' nasoh pranah " 
(Tai. Ar. X. 72). Let him eat food given without asking, 
regarding which nothing has been settled beforehand and 
which comes to him by chance and so much only as is neces- 
sary to support life. 

Now they quote the following rules for the case where the 
teachers explain the Upanisad ' standing ( in the day ), keeping 
silence, sitting (at night) in the posture" 87 " of crossed legs, 
bathing thrice a day, he shall subsist entirely on rice grains, 
oil-cake, food from barley, sour milk and milk '. It is declared 
in Vedic texts ' on that occasion he shall keep strict silence and 
converse as much as is neoessary with the teachers deeply 
versed in the three vedas, with ascetics or other learned persons 
in the several Ssramas, after pressing the teeth together, all the 
while contemplating on what he hears, but not in such a way 
as would cause a breach of his vow. He may keep only one of 
the rules out of the three viz. standing (in the day), rigid silence 
and sitting with crossed legs ( at night ) and not all together. 
Eight things do not cause him who is intent on vows as above to 
break his own vow viz. water, roots, clarified butter, milk, sacri- 
ficial food, the wish of a brahmana, an order of his guru, and 
medicine. Let him mutter the mantras in the evening and 
morning that are repeated in the Agnihotra. He should perform 
his evening sandhya adoration with mantras addressed to Varu- 
na B,M and in the morning with those addressed to Mitra ( Rg. 
III. 59). It is declared in the Veda ' limited in number are the 
rk verses, the sUmans and the yajus formulae, but there is no limit 
to this that is brahma.' In this way (i. e. repeating om ) the ascetio 
may give up the rest of the Veda, but should stand firm by the 
root of the Veda (viz. om). The Veda is the tree and its root 
is pranava (om). He should meditate on 'om'. Prajapati 
has declared that pranava leads on to union with brahman. 
Let him cleanse the vessel of brahman with seven vyShrtis. 8 ' 8 ' 

2187 a. ^fam* is defined as ' xph mq*ft*fftH R«iwlft 3 tffora* i 
ratf^rorfrtN VfcWTWgsnpm ».' wn%*W in *3*?t 13 « 62 refers to this 
posture in ^fr- 

2188. The VSruni verses meant here are the three verses vfttffa 
occurring in Tai. 8. III. 4. 11. 6 and the Maitrl verses are the three 
verses {Jraprr ■*$»&*«*, flhft *«"**> * W fa* in Tai. 8. III. 4. 11. 5. 

2189. srjmnr* may mean the bowl for alms or the body of the 
ascetio. Thii shows that besides 'om ' he should also frequently recite 
the seven vyShrtis. 

958 History of DharmaiOstra t Ob. XXVITt 

Among medieval works the Smrtyarthasara (pp. 96-97), 
the Sm. M. (pp. 177-182), the Yati-dh. (pp. 10-22), the 
Nirnaya-sindhu (III. Uttarardha pp. 628-632), the Dharma- 
sindhu give various detailed prooedures. Many of the medie- 
val works and manuals (paddhatis) on sanny&sa frequently 
refer to a work called Brahmanandl, which I have not been 
able to secure. The prooedure in the Dharmasindhu contains 
the following elements. Sannyasa is to be resorted to in the 
northward passage of the sun and for a man who is about to 
die even in the southward passage. He should find out a 
teacher possessed of the virtues of quiescence and note for three 
months the duties of ascetics in his company, should purify 
himself with japa of the saored Gayatrl, Rudra mantras and 
by Kusmanda homa (for which see Tai. Ar. II. 7 ). He should 
then make a sankalpa ,,M after reciting the place and time on 
a rikta tithi and should perform the prayascitta of catuhkrcchra 
by giving a cow or money for each as stated above (pp. 199-200). 
Then be should begin to perform on the 11th or 12th day 16 
sraddhas of himself and sapindlkarana. Then he is to perform 
eight sraddhas ( vide above p. 932 ) and tarpaya as a subordinate 
part ( anga ) of these eight sraddhas. On the day these eight 
sraddhas are performed or on the next day he should shave off 
the whole head after keeping six hairs out of his top-knot, pare 
his nails, then take his bath, then he is to donate to brfih- 
manas and his sons all his wealth except his wearing apparel 
and the materials for homa. The garments he is to wear should 
be dyed with red ohalk ; he should secure a bamboo staff as 
high as his head &o. and as thick as his finger and brought by 
a brahmana; that staff should be sprinkled over with water 
from a conch to the accompaniment of ' om ', the puruga hymn 
( Bg. X 90) and such names (of Visnu) as Kesava. He should 
also keep ready a water jar, a strip for his loins and a garment 
to cover his body and a wallet and padukas (sandals). He 
should declare his resolve (sankalpa) to become a parama- 
harhsa and perform the worship of Ganesa, punyahavSoana, 
worship of mother goddesses and Nandl-sraddha. He should 
then perform japa by saying ' namah ' to Brahma ( in the 
dative), Visnu, Eudra, Surya, Soma, Atman, Antaratman, 
Paramatman and also repeat the first padaa of eaoh of the four 

8190. Vide p. 267aboTe for ftwfoft. Thefr^F<lwill be n* vft 
tf*vniHihmr3 ^rat^^iwnfc surfa* >n%v# «ww*Tiv i ft<R«hT*««K*rtrm- 
fwwrfW v*ffTOr*<nvifyTto*v **t fW*n> f rso^r^ ■ 

Ch. XXVIII ] Sannyasa-procedure of 959 

Vedas. He should then eat three handfuls of barley flour with 
'ora' and touch his navel. He should then sip thrice olarified 
butter or water mixed with milk and curds repeating the 
mantras ' trivrd-asi \ * pravrd-asi ', 'vivrd-asi' (all three in 
Vaj. S. 15. 9 ) and then drink water with the mantra ' may the 
waters purify ' (Tai. Ar. 10. 23), then perform aoamana and 
declare his resolve to fast. Then comes Savitrlpravesa ( as in 
Baud, above); then he should kindle his grhya fire or if he 
has no grhya fire then he should bring domestio fire with the 
mantra 'prsfa divi' (Rg.VII. 5. 27) and kindle it with the 
three mantras 'tat savituh', 'tain savituh' and ' visvani deva ' 
(Sg. III. 62. 10, Vaj. S- 17. 74, Rg. V. 82.5). Then comes 
brahmanvadhana before sunset (see above p. 954). He Bhould 
thereafter perform evening sandhya adoration, homa and 
vaisvadeva and keep awake the whole night near the fire. Then 
the next morning after the daily homa and Vaisvadeva he 
should offer a mess of cooked food to Agni or Vaisvanara and 
perform the homa to prSna and others, the purusasukta homa 
and Viraja homa. The Viraja homa is a lengthy performance 
and the prinoipal elements in it are : the offering of 40 oblations 
of each out of the three viz. fuel-stioks, boiled rice and clarified 
butter after repeating certain formulae such as ' may my five 
pranas be purified, may I be light ( illumination ) free from 
rajas ( the prinoiple of activity or obstruction ) and from evil, 
svaha ; this is for the prana and the rest, it is not mine.' In this 
way oblations are offered to five senses, the mind, buddhi, seed, 
thought and sankalpa, to the constituents of the body, to the 
several limbs of the body ( head, hands and feet &o. ), to purusa 
and others, to the five elements, to the five gunas of the elements, 
to the five kosas (sheaths) and several others. Then an oblation 
of ajya is made to Prajapati. Then he should recite the Purusa 
hymn ( Rg. X. 90 ) and the first sentenoes of the four Vedas, 
offer oblations to Agni Svistakrt, distribute gifts to students 
and others, he should burn his wooden utensils in his grhya 
fire if he has kept one and donate the metal vessels to his guru, 
then he should deposit the fire in himself by reciting ' ayam te 
yonih ' ( Rg. III. 29. 10 ) and ' ya te agne yajfiiya ' ( Tai. S. III. 
4. 10. 5 ) thrice and should face and take in the blaze and 
warmth of his grhya fire, should take a black antelope skin and 
leave his house. He should give blessings to his sons and other 
near relatives and bid good-bye to them with the words ' to me 
belongs no one nor do I belong to any one.' Then he should go to 
a reservoir of water, take in his folded hands water and offer it 

960 History of DharmaiSstra [ Ch. XXVIII 

to all gods with the hymn Rg. X. 103 (1-13). He should declare 
a resolve to resort to sannyasa for the realization of brahman 
and offer three handfuls of water in the reservoir. He should 
then discharge water into the reservoir from his joined hands 
saying ' I have given up the hankering for sons, wealth, worlds 
and for everything) may there bo safety to all creatures from 
me, svaha.' Then he should again declare that he has abandoned 
everything, all pleasures, all sentiments of anger &c, all joys 
of flowers, scents, dancing and music, all duties of varna and 
Ssramas &c. ; he should also declare ' I shall not cause any 
injury to any creature in thought, word or by the body ; may 
all oreatures have no fear of me.' He should think of the sun 
and other gods as witnesses to this declaration and standing 
in navel-deep water should again perform the Savitrlpravesa 
and offer water in declaring ' I have risen beyond the desire for 
sons, worlds and wealth and shall practise begging.' 

After this comes the utterance of the praiqa ( the oall or 
direction ). In a low, moderate and loud voice the entrant 
should declare ' om, bhuh I have given up everything, om 

bhuvah, I have , om svah, I have , om bhur bhuvah 

svah, I have given up everything ' and should disoharge water 
in the reservoir of water with the words ' may there be no injury 
to all creatures from me, Bvaha.' He should pluck out the top- 
knot, take out his sacred thread and hold them in his hand and 
offer them in water with water with the words 'water is indeed all 
deities, I sacrifice ( the top-knot and sacred thread ) to all gods, 
svaha' and then he should send up a prayer to Vasudeva. Then 
he should remove his wearing apparel and walk five steps 
with his face to the north. Then the acarya should bow to the 
entrant and should hand over to the latter a piece of loin cloth 
and upper garment and a staff. The entrant should wear them 
and hold the staff with appropriate mantras and also a water 
jar and an asana ( a seat ). He should then hold a fuel-stick 
in his hand, bow to his guru, sit down in the eagle posture and 
make a request to the guru in the words 'Oh teaoher, who are like 
the Lord of the Universe to me, save me who am scorched by 
the fire of sarhsara and who am bitten by Death ; I have thrown 
myself on your mercy' and also repeat the verse ' yo brahmanam ' 
( Svetasvatara Up. VI. 18 quoted in note 856 above )."" Having 

8191. The verse *ft wvrt...%s!& ?TC<nw$ ifd » ( «fcrr«wrere. VI. 18 ) 
is very appropriate to the occasion. 

Cb. XXVIII ] Saihnyam-procedure of 961 

waited upon the guru with these words and placing his right knee 
on the ground, he should clasp the feet of his guru and should 
say ' teaob, Sir, brahma to me.' The guru should contemplate 
on bis soul as brahman, should recite over a conch full of water 
the sacred syllable ' om * twelve times, should pour the water 
from the oonch on bis disciple, should reoite the propitiatory 
verse * sam no mitrah ' ( Rg. I. 90. 9 ), then lay his hand on the 
head of the disciple, should recite the Purusa hymn (Rg. X. 90), 
should place his hand on the heart of the disciple and mutter 
the mantra 8 " 8 'I place thy heart in disciplined obedience to 
me,' the guru should then mutter in the right ear of the disciple 
the syllable ' om ' and should enlighten him about the signi- 
ficance of 'om' and of paftclkarana; 8 " 8 he should then impart to 
the disciple one of the four great Yedanta sentences ( mahavakya ) 
'prajMnam brahma' ( Ait. Up. III. 3 ), ' ay am-atma brahma' 
( Br. Up. II. 5. 19 ), * tat tvam-asi ' ( Chan. Up. VI. 8. 7 ), ' aham 
brahmSsmi ' ( Br. Up. I. 4. 10) in acaordance with the tradition 
of his school and enlighten him about the meaning thereof. 
Then he should give to the disciple a name ending in tlrtha, 
asrama &o. according to the tradition of his order. Then the 
guru may bring about what is called paryankasauoa and give 
to the disciple the yogapatta. 

The paryanka-sauca ( purification by being seated on a stool 
&c. ) may be briefly described. On an auspicious day a house- 
holder seats the ascetic in front of him on a wooden stool or 
seat, places five heaps of earth to his left and also to his right 
and also pure water on both sides. Then the householder 
simultaneously washes the two knees of the ascetic with water 
and earth from the first heap of earth on the left. Then he 
should wash his own left hand with earth and water taken 
from the half of the first heap on the right and with the remain- 

2192. wr ird i^* il qurift im fawngf^tf fr si*3 ■ *ra *renrtnnft arw 
I**rftfr fiflww nmfcft » This occurs in an««r. ^. I. 21. 7 and int. *• II. 2 
in ¥T*PPf where the teacher addresses the boy in these words. The 
same words are addressed in the marriage rites by the bridegroom to the 
bride, as e.g. in Psr. gr. I. 8 (where JrerrqfiHs substituted for fs^qfl). 

2193. <raffor>T is a VedSnta doctrine analogous to ftsjt»5OT ( which 
occurs in the ChSn. Up. VI. 3 and 4 and V. 8. III. 4. 20 ). Vide the 
fr g ff t rcm ' or Jt and the work Cftllei1 'WfarcoT by BamkaraoSrya(in 
Benares Sanskrit series ). 


962 History of Dharmaidstra [ Ch. XXVIII 

ing half of the first heap on the right he should wash both his 
hands seven times with the same water. With the seoond heap 
on the left he should wash simultaneously the two thighs 
( janghS ) of the ascetic four times and with one half of the 
second heap on the right he should wash his own left hand 
seven times and with the other half of the second heap ( on the 
light ) he should wash both bis hands four times. The ankle, the 
upper part of the foot and the lower park ( sole ) of the foot of 
the ascetio are respectively washed with the third, fourth and 
fifth heap on the left and his own left hand and both hands are 
washed a certain varying number of times with 3rd, 4th, 5th 
heaps on the right. 

The yogapafta ( lit. the cloth of yoga, union with Spirit ) 
is given in the following way : After the ascetic has under- 
gone paryankasauoa, he should cleanse his waist, wear a 
string round his waist and his loin cloth and cover his 
waist with a piece of oloth. He should then sit with his 
guru's permission on a high seat and should propound some 
VedSnka topio in the presenoe of the persons assembled. The 
asoetic guru should sprinkle on the head of his ascetio disciple 
water from a conch to the accompaniment of the Furusa hymn 
( Rg. X 90 ), should honour him by offering clothes, sandalwood 
paste, flowers, incense, lamp and naivedya. He ( the guru ) 
should hold a piece of oloth over the head of the disoiple, reoite 
along with the other yatis the chapter called Visvarupa ( 11th 
chapter of the Bhagavadglta ) from the 15th verse to the 33rd 
verse. He should then give the name already determined upon 
to the disciple and say to him ' Henceforward you may admit to 
sarhnySsa one who is eligible for it, initiate him and give him the 
yogapa^ta.' Then the disciple bows to the yatis older than 
himself. Then the guru gives to the disoiple a waist-thread 
and a staff marked with five rmtdras and should offer his own 
salutation to the disoiple .aocording to the tradition of his 
order. Other ascetics and house-holders also should bow to 
the disciple, who should only repeat the word ' NarSyaoa,' 
should leave the high seat and seat his guru thereon, should 
bow to the guru according to the rules of the order and to the 
other ascetics. * IH 

8194. Vide Dharmasindhu III ( uttarttdha ), Yati-db. pp. 102-103 
for yogapatfa. 

Oh. £XVIlt J Samnyasa-for the dying 963 

The Jabalopanisad (5) sm allows samnyasa to those even 
who are suffering from disease and are about to die, all 
that is required being that they should deolare in words and 
resolve in their mind to enter the order of samnyasa. No exten- 
sive ceremonial is required. Angiras and Sumantu quoted in 
Sm. M. ( pp. 174 and 182 ) state ' when a man is shattered by 
old age or harassed by his enemies or is suffering from ( an 
incurable) disease he may resort to samnyasa by merely 
uttering the praisa ( vide above p. 960 ) and no further rites 
would be absolutely necessary. He should recite thrice in 
the morning, at noon and in the evening, ' I have given up 
everything (or entered upon saihnyasa)' and further say 
* I forswear whatever aotion I may have done through ignorance, 
indolence or carelessness ; I shall cause no harm to creatures 
with my hands or feet, with my speech, body or mind ; may all 
creatures have no fear from me.' The Dharmasindhu ( III, 
uttar&rdha ) says that in this samnySsa for those at the door of 
death the absolutely essential elements are the resolve ( sarii- 
kalpa ), the uttering of the praisa and the giving of the promise 
of non-injury and the rest of the rites may or may not be 
performed according to circumstances. Even now suoh a 
saihnyasa ( called aturasarimyasa ) is sometimes resorted to by 
religious-minded men in extremis, the only essentials gone 
through being saAikalpa (declaration of resolve), ksaura (tonsure 
of the head ), savitrlpravesa ( desoribed above at p. 954 ) and 
praisoooara ( utterance of praisa ). 

One question on whioh controversies have raged from 
very ancient times is whether an ascetio should give up his top- 
knot and sacred thread also. The Jabalopanisad tlH (5) states 

2195. TOrstt s*n*HTm *rert #«rSrac i annrafafi ^ 5 ; a nqrm t <* 
tfwm* «! f*fa*f* <* fifriT i Wr* ffgsrn? #*rnt «pt tr^c » dmwtaflffi 
w < H Kw fr g fas iwrac i *ft**nfta ftrfhKiOTf g>THjpTf«r|FB$ u ^fl$rf3rsT*w4> 

?«Tt^»nr^^oTnc i i^Tt wort fSftfwttf (farwrrj?) fiwtwr ^t i wffc* srftnrt 
ft«t sjrflhr: tf*3 fSr*f^r: ll 5*»*3 quoted in itffe. p. 174; vide vfite. #. p. 8 
for s similar quotation from Angiras. The <m. wr. I. 2. p. 149 quotes 
the verse sHratirt ^ #"rT^ as from nvnntV. 

2196. 3wfrwfir»«prer*rr3rc?»tfg*grr3wT vim*** «<j s jw«fttft «wt 
■rrtror f8t i w fhrrsr qmngyy : i fejijtjw eiiisflmfltf v wrwr i arr ^twrfrPi^; 

5 ; ire mndMH t fayi «ffff°>(| f?^^ ir»J irariW ftwt ««jfi«nfti *i 

f?W(rs; V} wfafts "rftwwwiswrfa'^ihr, i 3rwrwhrfa. 6. This is referred 
to in fr qwwitfm wnftra p- 641. 

964 History of Dharmaiastra [ Ch. XXVIlt 

that Atri asked Yajfiavalkya how a man who did not wear a 
yajfiopavlfca (when he became an ascetic) could still be a brah- 
mana and that the great sage replied that in the case of the 
ascetic the Self was his yajfiopavlfca and the same Upanisad (6) 
states that the paramabarhsa is to abandon in water the three 
dandas, the water-jar, the sikya, the begging bowl, the water- 
strainer, the topknot and yajfiopavlta and should be a seeker 
after the Self. In the Arunika Up. (i) it is said "" that he 
should discharge his yajfiopavlfca on the earth or in water and 
that he should give up his sikha and the saored thread. Samkara 
in his bh&sya on Br. Up. III. 5. 1 sets out at some length the 
arguments and the authorities on both sides and ultimately 
gives it as his own view that the sacred thread and iikhU 
should be given up by the ascetic. Visvarfipa on Yaj. III. 66 
also discusses this matter and propounds the same view. On 
the other hand Vrddha-Harlta 81 ' 8 VIII. 57 declares 'if an 
ascetic gives up the acts peculiar to brahnianas, viz. keeping a 
topknot and wearing a saored thread, he becomes a candala 
while alive and is born a dog after death. ' The Jlvanmukti- 
viveka ( p. 6 ff. ) and Far. M. I. part 2, p. 164 ff. discuss this 
point and arrive at the same conclusion as Samkara. The Mit. 
on Yaj. III. 58 gives an option. In modern times samnyasins 
give up these two. 

Some speoial rules are laid down about the ahvika ( daily 
rites ) of ascetics."" They have to perform sauca, brushing the 
teeth, bath," just as house-holders have to do. Manu V. 137 
( a Vas. Dh. S. VI. 19, Visnu Dh. S. 60. 26, Sankha 16. 23-24 ) 
says that forest hermits and ascetics have respectively to per- 
form three and four times as much sauoa ( bodily purification ) 
as house-holders. As to food, it has already been seen (p. 935) that 
they are to eat only once and only eight morsels. Ascetics have 
to worship Purusottama ( i. e. Vasudeva with his four forms ), 
Vyfisa ( with his four pupils, Sumantu, Jaimini, Vaisampayana, 
Paila ), the Bhasyak&ra Samkara ( with his four pupils ) and so 
on. Certain rules are laid down for an asoetio as regards 

8197. ntfron* na t wftw g*twriy*P'WTtf effort *r*ta*ti «rnf w- 

wr$ «du « j <sr ftgifrr, • wit wfnarrft wt mmvi *t 3"»t$W 

qtuvug ft {^1*^5 1 siHif3i*VjR«M, 1-8. 

1198. Rna i <m>fft « n t wtPKt? <rffogn?q; ' * affoita *mn&\ w ffft- 
{*m**H lawrfor VIII. 57. 

2199. Vide Yati-dh. p. 95 for details of the daily worship by 

Ch. XXVIII ] Saihnyasa-rules of conduct on 965 

giving and receiving honour or salutation. An ascetic should 
bow to gods and to older ascetics who aot according to the rules 
of their order, but should not offer namaskara to an house-holder 
even if the latter be well-conduoted. If another person bows to 
an ascetic, the latter should not pronounce any benediction but 
should only utter the word 8800 ' Nar&yana. ' When an ascetic 
( even one who has taken sariinySsa on his death-bed) dies, he is 
to be buried and not cremated. No mourning is to be observed 
for a yati when he dies ( Atri 97 ) and no sraddhas are 
to be offered on his death except the parvana on the 11th day 
after death ( vide Apar&rka p. 538 ). If an asoetio hears of the 
death of his son or any other relative, he does not become impure 
and has not to bathe but on hearing of bis mother's or father's 
death he has to bathe, though he observes no mourning 1800 * 

According to the theory of DharmasSstra, the king is not 
only the head of the oivil administration and the fountain of 
justice, but he is also the final controlling authority in preserv- 
ing religious and spiritual institutions, he is to see that people 
follow the dharma, to punish them for breaches of the religious 
and spiritual codes and to see to the administration to them of 
appropriate penances. In short, he is also the Defender of the 
Faith. Vide Gaut. XL 9-11, Visnu Dh. S. III. 2-3, Narada 
( praklrnaka ) verses 5-7, Yaj. I. 337 and 359, Atri 17-20, Manu 
VII. 13. But he regulated spiritual and religious matters not 
by his arbitrary authority but on the advice of his purohita and 
ministers and after taking the opinion of the assemblies 
(pariqad) of learned men. Whenever difficult questions arose 
about the validity of anything from the religious point of view 
or about penances for lapses, or about exoommunicating or 
outoasting a man the opinion of the assembly of learned men 
was sought. Therefore, detailed rules are laid down in the 
Dharmasutras and smrtis about the constitution. of pariqads. In 
modern times, the British Government being neutral in matters 
religious or ecclesiastical, the ascetic hoads of the various ma^has 
have been in the* habit of assuming to themselves jurisdiction 

2200. wufanwnffo top* $*t*j sTarfcrft: i sn*Tnmffc«t f«fcf%^ nswr- 

f>i3r% n «T%, both quoted in *jfihj. p. 206. 

2200 a. Vide dmwm ' ffi o f »Mt T^t* ( extracted from hii work 
called jwrofrcf**, 1>- 0- No. 119 of 1882-83 ) folio 51 o ' it wmptf- 

966 History of DharmaiSstra t Ch. XXVIII 

over persons professing to follow their dogmas in ecclesiastical 
matters suoh as prescribing penances for lapses, settling disputes 
between castes, and deciding upon questions of outoasting. A 
few words must be said about the parisad* and about the claims 
of the Samkarficaryas ( the modern heads of ma^has ) to regulate 
religious matters affecting their followers. 

Among the oldest texts on this point is the one contained 
in the Tai. Up. 1. 11. viz. the exhortation of the teacher on the 
eve of the student's departure at the close of his studies." 01 ' If 
you have hereafter a doubt about any rite or about a oourse of 
conduct, you should behave in the way in which the brahmanas 
of -your place, who are thoughtful, intent (upon doing their duties), 
aot spontaneously ( without being urged by any one ), are not 
hard-hearted and have an eye only to dharma ( and not to Kama 
or arlha ) will behave. The same holds good about your conduct 
towards persons charged (generally falsely) with sins or lapses'. 

The words ' sabha ' ( $g. X. 34. 6 ) and * samiti ' (Rg. X. 97.6) 
occur even in the Rgveda but their exact significance is doubt- 
ful and the former word at least seems to bear the sense of 
' gambling hall ' in some passages. In the Upantaads, however, 
the words samiti and parisad assume a more definite sense, 
meaning ' an assembly of learned men in a particular locality '. 
The Chan. Up. V. 3.1 states that Sretaketu Aruneya uo ' repaired 
to the assembly (samiti) of the Paries las (where Pravahana 
Jaivali put him five questions of a metaphysical and esoteric 
nature ). The Br. Up. VI. 2. 1 when narrating the same episode 
employs the word * parisad '. These passages establish that in 
the times of the Upanisads there were assemblies of learned 
men where intricate questions were discussed. Gaut. 28. 46 
prescribes just as the Tai. Up. 1. 11 does that in matters about 
which there is no certain rule ( or there is doubt ) one should 
do what is commended by respectable persons not less than ten 
in number, who are clever in discussion and are above covetous- 
ness. M0! The Ap. Dh. S. I. 3. 11. 34 deolares that holidays other 

2201. nit *rre; if «hdftflri»<w i *r i*faf%fiw«T *r wnr. i ^ a* wiir«ro 
***{$*: 1 5wr srrgflm i otssjt «nf wnrrt *gt i to ft «r* <rafa; iwr «rsr *TO; • 
wrrw rwnfr i i * iw *w*n-- irj wr*rr: i 9. ot. 1. 11. smrnsRrri^ may 

mean ' about those matters on whioh there are positive Vedio texts '. 

2202. «fcrs)!a*fvita: <r«rrwrflrt w i ftftflsmi * w snrwoft JUfeww : i wr. 
wt. V. 3. 1 j ^ra%g£ •nvtars trarrewrt «rft*^*Trannw i f j. »<r. VI. 2. l. 

2203. arsnsjrril flintt f?\im.flGi<{4«<h >wrt «irr4n i •n* 28. 46 j wfaj- 
wtq*i «rft**5 > *n«r. «. * I. 8. 11. 84. 

Cb. XXVIII ] SafonyUsina and parisad 967 

than those Btated by him may be observed as settled by parisads. 
The Baud. Dh. S. II. 1. 41-45 prescribes " the relatives of a 
brahmao&rl who is guilty of sexual intercourse should empty 
a water pot in the parisad and the offender should confess ' I, 
so and so by name, am guilty of such and such a misdeed ' 
and that after the erring person has performed penance and 
when he has touched water, milk, ghee, honey and salt, 
the brahmanas should ask him ' have you performed the 
penance ? ' The other shall then reply ' yes ' ; then they shall 
admit him who has performed penance to all sacrificial rites 
making no difference between him and others."" 04 This clearly 
establishes that at least five centuries before the Christian era 
it was the privilege of the assembly of the learned brahmanas 
to administer penance to a sinner and then restore him to all 
rights of interdining and other social intercourse. Vas. Db. 
S. 1. 16 declares ' there is no doubt that whatever persons who 
have studied dharmasastra and the three Vedas expound as 
purifying themselves and others is the proper dharma.' Ap. Db. 
S. 1. 1. 1. 2 declares that the conventions of those that know 
dharma are the authoritative standard ( of conduct for ordinary 
men). When the smrtis declare that Veda, smrfci and the usages 
of sisjas are the three sources of dharma (e. g. Vas. Dh. S. I. 4-5) 
they oonvey that sisjas can and should determine from time to 
time what is religious conduct. When Brhaspati enjoins that 
doubts about dharma should not be settled by blindly following 
the letter of sastras, but that logic and reasoning should be 
employed, he strikes the true note of the spirit of the ancient 
sages." 04 * Vide also Manu XII. 106 and Gaut. XI. 23-34 for 
the importance of tarka in settling matters of dharma. Manu 
XII. 108 states ' if one were to ask how one should act in 
matters of dharma on whioh no express rule is declared in this 
work, the reply is that in such cases what is declared to be 
a proper rule of conduct by respectable ( sista ) brahmanas 
would undoubtedly be the dharma.' Yaj. III. 300 requires that 
a person guilty of a Bin or lapse should declare it to an assem- 
bly of learned brahmanas and undergo such vraia ( penance and 

2204. sram ?rnsw: nrfaryvntf f«**i«igwi<*s.ftHhjji fffr ' *ffcnrt 

w*»fMr 5$ » «fc *• * IL !• 4 *~ 46 - 

2204 a. fc*& ?rw*nf5TW *f wfaft ft Piwr* i sRirtfHt flwft q ^^frftrt 

'WT^ • iwrfif quoted in flrfNf. ( ***** P- 14. ) 

968 History of DharmaiOdra [ Oh. XXVIII 

observances ) as is approved of by the parisad. Samkar&o&rya in 
his bbssya on Br. Up. IV. 3. 2 makes the very significant M0 * 
remark " it is therefore that in coming to a deoision on a subtle 
point of dharma, it is desirable to have a parisad working and 
a specially distinguished person is wanted ( to give the lead ) 
as stated in the rule ' a parisad should consist of not less than 
ten persons or of three or of one ( specially distinguished )'." 
These several authorities establish that for over 1500 years 
before the great Samkar&c&rya the parisad of learned brahmanas 
was the acknowledged authority for settling doubtful points of 
dharma and administering penanoes on lapses from proper 
conduct, and that Samkar&c&rya himself acknowledged this pri- 
vilege of the parisad. 

The next question is : what is the number of persons 
required to constitute a parisad for deoiding on doubtful points 
of dharma and what their qualifications should be. According 
to Gaut. 28. 46-47 a parisad should consist of at least ten M0 * 
persons viz. four, each of whom has mastered one Veda, three 
members who are respectively a ( perpetual ) student, a 
house-holder and a samnySsin and three more eaoh of whom has 
studied distinct dharmasastras. Vas. Dh. S. III. 20, Baud. 1. 1. 8, 
Par&sara VIII. 27 and Angiras declare that four persons each 
of whom has mastered one of the four Vedas, one who knows 
the MlmamsS, one who has studied the six subsidiary lores of 
the Veda, one who has studied dharmasastra and three persons 
who are a house-holder, a forest hermit and a samnyasin 
constitute a parisad of ten. Manu XII. Ill defines the ten as con- 
sisting of three masters of each of the three Vedas (excluding the 
Atharvaveda), one who has studied Logic, a student of MImamsa, 
a student of Nirukta, a master of dharmasastras and three 
members in eaoh of the first three asramas. Brbaspati 8807 
quoted in Far. M. II. 1 p. 218 deolares that a parisad may be 
constituted by seven or five persons sitting together who 
have studied the Vedas, their six subsidiary lores and 
dharmasastra and that such a parisad resembles a solemn 

2205. anr (f* fj tpf<U£+n3uft <Tf?«m**/l1IC ymjft I Ji4<fft£)<l«4li)* | 4{l ^W 
<TO "Tftwj W«ft fot *fi* I 5lt«tHT«V on ff. TT- IV. 3. 2. 

2206. Mintfi} ffo?ft v 9ryR>j{iSm<j*: i atnwwiwft mm: "nf^rt 
fnrm ■ *firs III. 20=4V. v. %. 1. 1. 8=sirn*rc VIII. 27 -wrf^ quoted by 
•mrfr p. 22, where he sets out the definitions of these given by Angiras. 

2207. tfoB^tytfrp t mt «rar wrffl «t » v«ft q ft «t fan *gt w ^rgf $ft 
W*IT * |TOW quoted by «m. «n. 11. 1. V- 21 8. * 

6b. XXVHI ] Safhnyasins and parisad 969 

sacrifice. Vide also Angiras quoted by AparSrka p. 23 for 
seven or five men as 'constituting a parisad. Vas. Dh. S. III. 7, 
Yaj. 1.9, ManuXII.112, state tbat at least 
four or three men should constitute a parisad, but they should be 
students of each of the four Vedas, should be agnihotrins and 
should have also studied dharmasastra. If even three cannot 
be found then even a single man can declare the dharma in case 
of doubt (Qaut. 28.48), but he must possess special qualifications. 
Gaut. 28. 48, Manu XII. 113 ( = Atri 143 ) require that he 
must be the best of brahmanas, a sis$a and a deep student of 
the Veda. Yaj. I. 9, Parasara VIII.' 13, Angiras 2 * 08 say that a 
single person who is the best among ascetics possessing know- 
ledge of the Self may form a parisad and declare what the pro- 
per rule is on a point of doubt. Though the texts permit in 
extreme cases a single man to declare dharma in case of doubt 
they give emphatic warning that this should not be done as far 
as possible. Baud. Dh. S. L 1. 13 observes** 09 'the way of dharma 
is very subtle and difficult to follow and it has many entrances 
( i. e. it appears different in different circumstances ) ; therefore 
a person though knowing much should not undertake single- 
banded to propound the proper course of conduct in case of 
doubt. ' The texts also emphasize that doubtful points of dharma 
are not to be decided by the votes of ignorant people, even if 
they muster in thousands. Manu XII. 114-115 ( =Baud. Dh. S. 
1. 1. 17 and 12=Vas. Dh. S. III. 5-6=Parasara VIII. 6 and 15) 
state ' Even if thousands of brahmanas who have observed no 
vrata and who have studied no Vedio mantras and who make 
their living merely by virtue of their caste come together they 
do not constitute & parisad. When suoh foolish persons deluded 
by ignorance and ignorant of dharma declare ( a penance for a 
sin) the sin is multiplied a hundred-fold and reaches the 
propounders. ' 

The Mit. on Yaj. III. 300 remarks that the number mention- 
ed as constituting a pariqad is not material, that all that is meant 
is that for lesser sins a small number of learned men oan 

2208. aforwrnffffaw t fiNnrt *n>nnfa«rr3 1 frjfafty wm i mfoftft «rft* 

TOT^t ' "W5TT VIII. 18 ; ^nfhrt fl?Vi!MHf 3TMpJiflM$<l«IT. ' fSitfenN wntwf- 
*fc*ftfa <rft*5Tfc| ti W%W, quoted by wnr% p. 23and trn- Wf.H. part I. p.217. 
The ;pw?WrPtT% III. 2. 10 itates tbat those alone who have performed 
■irovrata are eligible for being taught brahmavidyS. 

2209. iggiw r tflfor wn yca«n «n%« t eremw ^ £%^ ogjtaift 
ta% u $• «• So I. !• I 3 " HWHW 143. H ( whioh transpose! the halves ) 
-tlfHIwM. 111. 

H, ©. 1M 

070 itiatory of bharma&Mra [ Ch. XXvilt 

declare the penance, but in the case of serious sins, the number 
of persons who constitute the parisad should be large. Devala 8810 
quoted in the Mit. on Y&j. III. 300 says that when the sin is 
not grave, brfthmanas may declare tbe penance without reference 
to the king ( and restore the sinner to his privileges ) but when 
the sin is grave, then the king and brahmanas must carefully 
examine the matter and then declare the penance. Farasara 
(VIII. 28-29) ordains 88 " ' brahmanas should declare penance 
for sins with the king's oonsent, that they Bhould not declare 
the expiation of sins by penance of their own motion and that 
if the king deoides to give prayasoitta without reference to 
brahmanas, the sin becomes increased a hundred-fold. ' It is 
the duty of the parisad to declare an appropriate penance when 
a man comes to it, declares his lapse and seeks to be freed from 
the taint and if the parisad knowing what the appropriate 
penanoe is refuses to administer it, they inour the same Bin as 
that committed by the man who approaches them. 8818 Paraeara 
VIII. 2 prescribes that one should on being convinced of his 
having committed a sin at once repair to the assembly of 
learned men, should prostrate himself on tbe ground before 
them and request them to administer prayascitta ( expiation ). 
The Mit. on Taj. III. 300 quotes Parasara that the sinner should 
announce his sin after offering the present of a cow or a bull or 
the like to the parisad. 

It will be shown immediately below that these rules of tbe 
smrtis were observed to the letter by Hindu kings and learned 
brahmanas in medieval times. When the successors of Sarhkara- 
carya began to interest themselves in the work done by the 
parisads for oenturies before the advent of the first Scarya cannot 
be ascertained. A large part of Northern India was under Moslem 
rule for about 500 years from about 1200 A. D. and a portion 
of the Deocan and a part of South India also were under Moslem 
rule for about three hundred years. Numerous documents have 
been published by the late Mr. Vishvanath K. Raj wade (a scholar 

2210. *r* 3 jtoojx wjTpnflH GrupfiN i tott <* wnrotnta *W5 * 
rtrftrcpt H ^nj quoted in fort, on *rr. III. 300. 

2211. KT*tr su g nS T^rerr wrffcr* fifaf$ffat i ^mri* * «fc* wft*r 
wfa»%ft* ii *itw u ik«i«iRt*"T *t3n *S "jf^fofit t hot? wnrar mr wn* 
wtgmrf a II UTOIT VIII. 28-29. 

2212. •rtirfat witffli u ii*rt JTrrfiWrrPr ^ (S^rn i >mwt *f Wirl% ^ 
*rrfa *matg 3s n 3rr%<r* quoted by the fi>m. on *rr III. 300 ; «rotf Ttfflti i 
Tri 1 ftvin'ltMP/i ^wt Stj sw m. i ffif i ifwrTTTWrrf^tT^ i HfTOIWTT" 
fynfok «K?en* i fiferr. on m. Ill 300. 

Oh. XXVIII ] Satitnyasins and pariqad 971 

who made unique contributions to the eluoidation of Maratha 
History, Marathi Philology and Marathi Literature ) and his 
friends. From these it appears that during the time of the 
Maratha domination learned br&hmanas of holy places like 
Paithan, Nasik and Karad were consulted in religious matters 
by the king or his minister, that the holders of the ' gUdi* of 
Samkar&c&rya at Sankesvara and Earavlra and other seats 
were also rarely consulted in these matters and that it is only 
after the advent of the British rule that* 81 * the Samkaraoaryas 
have begun to claim almost exolusive jurisdiction in ecclesiastic 
matters and in restoring men to their castes or excommunicat- 
ing them for lapses. It will be seen from passages quoted 
below that both the learned brahmanas at holy places like 
Karad and the Samkaraoaryas claim the exclusive right in these 
matters by reason of immemorial usage. 

In several works it is said that the pariqad must be consti- 
tuted by sisfas ( vide Gaut. 28. 46 ). Sisfc is variously defined 
bysomeemrti works. The Baud. 88 " Dh. S. ( I. 1. 5-6) says 
' Sisfas are those who are free from envy and pride, who keep 
only as much oorn as is measured by kumbhl ( vide p. Ill /. n. 
235 ), who are free from greed and from hypocrisy, arrogance, 
oovetousness, delusions and anger. Those are Biswas who have 
studied the Veda acoording to the prescribed method, together 
with its appendages ( viz. Itihasa and Puranas ), who know how 
to draw inferences fiom that and who tend to make people 
realize the teaohing of the Veda.' The MahabhSsya defines 
Biswas in almost the same words as Baud. Dh. S. 1. 1. 5. Vas. Dh. 
S. 1. 6 defines sis^a as one whose mind is free from desires. 

2213. Vide Rajwade's Ehanda 21 published by the Bhsrata-itihasa- 
BftthsJhodhaka Maijdalo at Poona, letter No. 205 at pp. 256-58 dated hake 
1778 ( 1856 A. D.) for the claim of the 6amkarBcSrya of Karavlra * natt- 
firarrft ^ft *rr^T *far* itst famr Sr»f wit g^ ^t *r wfa«n «cj*Wl« 

On the other hand letter No. 227 in the same volume at p. 276 dated 
iake 1778 addressed to the assembly of br&hmanas at Easegaon by the 
assembly of KarabBfa ( Karad in Satara Distriot ) asserts ' jftin^vr 
wrvrr. "tout? sinrf^f s^tpst srffo>nc s^rt^rt jvmx w^r &c. ' 

2214. fJrBTj «g ft«nww< t fats^m: s*»ft<Tr«n we^air q-wq^ata- 

«rw»j%ir«ft H «ft. 9. g, t- 1. 6. 6. This last is Manu XII. 109 and Vas, 
VI. 43 ( with slight variations ). iite: gtmMHiw i I *f&B I. 6. Compare 
TOwit vol. III. p. 174 ' s?rfl»T«ipffa*T# % wrarTT: gnftwrn sratgtn 

972 History of DharmaiSatra [ Oh. XXVIII 

The Matsyapurana ,8U 145. 34-36 and Vayu, vol. I. 59. 33-35 

derive the word sista and restrict it to Manu.the saven sages and 
other similar great sages, who in eaoh soon ( Manvantara or 
yuga ) settle the rules of conduct for succeeding ages. 

It is well-known that Shivaji, the great founder of the 
Maratha Empire, established a counoil of eight ministers, viz. 
Mukhya Pradhana, Amatya, Saoira, Mantrl, Senapati, Pandita- 
rao, Nyfiyadhlsa and Sumanta. 'The jurisdiction of the 
Panditarao extended over im all religious matters, he was to 
examine and decide disputes about dharma and adharma, he 
was to honour sistas ( respectable people ) on behalf of the 
king, was to make his signature expressing his approval of the 
writings ( decisions ) about acara, vyavahara and prayasoitfcas 
( made by learned brahmanas ). He was to superintend and 
oarry into immediate execution gifts, propitiatory rites (for the 
king).' This shows that even in matters of prayascitta 
( penance for lapses and sins ) the final control rested with the 
Panditarao, who used to send doubtful matters to learned 
brahmanas at holy places like Wai, Nasik, Earad for their 
opinions and accept them. There are letters which show that 
the Panditarao convened meetings of learned brahmanas and 
with their approval deolared prayascitta in the case of a 
brahmana who had been forcibly converted by Mahomedans 
and who was thereafter restored to caste. 

That sometimes the Pontiff of the Sankesvara matha was 
consulted even in disputes about rights to lands and villages 
follows from a decision contained in Rao Bahadur Vad's work 
pp. 203-210 ( of 1730 A. D. ). Here a dispute arose between 6rl- 
karacarya (to whom a village had been donated by king Rajarama) 
and his agnates, who, taking advantage of the fact that the gift- 
deed was made in the name of five persons including Srlkara- 
carya, put forward their claims to that village. This dispute 
was referred to the Sv&ml of Sankesvara and Karavira who 
deoided on the authority of Vijnanesvara, the Vyavaharama- 
yukha and the Danakamalakara that though the document was 

2215. ft^rfafNi faBpmg; fSrtrcr«t mil ■ «wr*eft«r v firer ys ntefor 
wfawnr: i *?g: *nnfw* rfi*$!MH*ii*<ji: i flgitfa T «rarfi w* f?nrRt tf«w 
*&i i h ftfesrfSsrt u*$ w»ar& * i^ g*K »mv 145. 34-86. 

2216. Vide ' Sanads and Letters ' in Marathi selected by Rao 
Bahadur Vad ( 1913 ) p. 123 « irflwrw *rfcff wl WTT^BTT, tr* «TO* <rnr«i 
ftrerwr <srnft. f?i«t% H^fn mrr*. jmwtt, «nr?tt, irrvRnr T§f Tfcftas *<rt3r*r 
tf*ra f%jr aj^. ^m*ry , smfa, snrerf WMrraff nxnft. » 

Oh. XXVIII ] SafiinyMna and pari$ad 973 

executed in the name of fire persons, the gift of the village 
with water, kusa and gold was made to Srlkar&o&rya alone and 
that therefore he alone was the true owner. 

There are cases where the head of the Karavlra matha issued 
an order ( in sake 1644 i. e. 1722 A. D. ) asking people to dine 
with a brahmana whose wife had illicit connection with a gosavi 
and who had performed the neoessary prayascitta. ,817 

On the other hand in numerous instances the assembly of 
learned brahmanas was approached either by the Panditarao or by 
the interested parties themselves to declare the proper penance 
and restore the guilty party to his caste. m * Numerous docu- 
ments and letters showing the part played by the family of Qijre 
at Karad ( in the Satara District) in the matter of giviug deci- 
sions on questions of dharma-sastra hare been published by 
the late Mr. V. X. Rajvade. One Gangadhara Banganatha 
Kulkarni of Harsul M,8 » was foroibly converted by the 
Moslems ; then the Maratha king Sambhaji ordered his minister 
the Panditarao to restore him to his caste after giving him appro- 
priate prSyascitta and the Fanditarao called a meeting of 
learned brahmanas, looked into works like the Mitaksara and 
with the approval of the brahmanas administered prayascitta to 
him and sent him on a pilgrimage. There is a similar case in 
which the Panditarao under orders from the king writes to the 

2217. Vide *nw-?ra^ra , "tf5fi*raT-»teo5', ftTfrhm&cSiTsr p. 130 '^rftpr 
Ha ft*r srwrs ^ftfWr »fi3r g>dic P r Tf'afr «f< nr^fr wtnrt stSrcy ^rhn^r *rni as 
%c5t. wstcrj* wrcr $fk *r*ni ^Rtttc to sjpfu? i^rrcfr tfiHifft*^ «t& 

2218. Vido mtwri<% Tfaftwrtflf *ror«f, «sro* si firawefar «m<ft 
pp. 84-360 ( efisyre-Prsr^ *wrr% *>T«r? sra> im % >»« ). 

2218 o. Vido Hiw-yRrfm-^Tttrai-^a: fjfcfprtf&OTf^r pp. 130-131 
' forrar. t«rwpi jos^fi sw% m%& TW wfiHt^r "^c5T?5fnf iraf3«n ?rrcr ihr 
g^w ^mrtg gyn% ig<n$g jta* nnrf*r« ^trttk snsn f%rfr. *rt srft 
3ff*^r rereft g » ^«rw u < r w§ nfoft fftr^r i^g^ffo? ■rrsrort't #ror3f fftmsj- 
^if% fan** <nsr»T jmrfsjTr'fa'rhr ss^sr *i«rret t»nn*i vm *m &i'<u&*w wfnrT 
^TTdra' M i af^rf T- > This order was issued by Moresliwar Panditarao in 
iahi 1608 ( 1686 A. D. ). Vide for Netaji Palkar's conversion and 
reconversion firontffa inr«pr*r<r> w* W ( published by SatkSryottejaka 
SabbS at Dbulia ) document No. 282 ( at p. 289 ) dated sake 1612 

( 1690 A. D. ) « wrfrraHi* *sro« bNt wtt & wta swsr* gro^w ir $& 

f^«wnjronft*rT5rfcfr% TOffi i > aad fiu*i<fl*tM*Hi«a*i»:> w»«* publi- 
shed in 1980 by the SblvaoharitrakBrySlaya at Poona, entry No. 1863 of 
24th July 1676 A. D. 

974 History of DharmaiMra [ Ch. XXVIII 

learned br&hmanas of Karad about the pr&yascitta to be admi- 
nistered to one Khandu Jadhav *"• who had been foroibly made 
by the Moslems to eat their food and in wbioh he informs the 
br&hmanas that a fee of two rupees should be taken from the 
man. It may be noted in passing that Raje Netaji Palkar who 
was one of the great commanders under Shivaji, the founder of 
the Maratha Empire, was made a moslem by the Mogul 
Emperor Aurangzeb and was subsequently taken baok into the 
Hindu fold hy Shivaji. In another document ,,M the learned 
br&hmanas of Foona, 46 in number, write to the br&hmanas of 
Karavlra about one Narasimha Bhafta Toro of Paithan who 
had engaged as a prieBt in a Vedio sacrifice in which he had 
offered the effigy of an animal made of flour, who had therefore 
been made outcast and who was subsequently restored to the 
oaste after undergoing penance. 

The above brief account will show that for hundreds of 
years even before the first Samkarac&rya flourished it was the 
privilege of the assembly of learned br&hmanas to decide doubt- 
ful points of religious conduct and presoribe penanoes for 
lapses, that the same privilege continued undisturbed till the 
advent of the British rule, that rarely the heads of the matfias, 
by virtue of their eminent position, their supposed detaohment 
from and renunciation of worldy affairs and their reputation as 
ascetics, were asked to deoide (following Yaj. I. 9 ) doubtful 
points of religious and theological importance, that it is only 
during the last few decades that such heads began to claim 
ezolusive jurisdiction in suoh matters. 

It is desirable in the interest of the solidarity of the several 
Hindu castes and the rapid growth of progressive and advanced 
views that matters of practices, penances and restoration to 
oaste should be in the hands of the bodies of learned men or the 
caste itself than in the hands of a single ascetio styling himself 
Samkar&c&rya, who often happens to know nothing of dharma- 
s&stra and only puts his seal of approval on what interested 
persons that are round him say. 

2219. Vide vrrca fflrajH-sNtowr-irra, g tfhrcflttraf ^ p. 94 'snjnv* 
natsft ^rtw^tw urerrcirww WHW«aia^g vi stir tswronw wrtwrer 
THWfiT. *ftar*«r$T$f wrsrr fceft <fcft a> smj arrow wrarofi wwwpff aftroft 
«r*w wrcfr snr *rrrw£ nrrer Trawr *ntfj wsrrifHr Srsrm wrarftof marrow 
w»»5 smw <nzrftor snt. vmgjr ?iw wro &t wra rownr «mrRrw f&r- wrrar 
inpn* ^3tst jrsjt <nror sjtc"t. Rjsw w bitot" J «r»rwrrt. yf ftjrre: .' 

2220. Vide the Marathi Quarterly journal called < *ftiro*r ' for fake 
1867 toI. IV ( for April 1935 ). 

Oh. JCXVlII ] Sarknyasa-aspects of flt5 

After this review of the stage of samnyasa we see that 
asceticism presents several aspects viz. fasting or at least 
reducing the intake of food, abstention from meat and drink 
and pleasures of sense, total absence of sexual gratification and 
suppression of the sexual emotion, vow of silence, sleeping on - 
bare ground, nakedness or making use of minimum clothing, 
contempt for the world and its riohes. The Hindu Scriptures 
however do not enjoin self-infliction of pain or flagellation that 
was indulged in by monks in the early centuries of Christianity. 
Asoeticism in the several forms indioated above is a feature 
common to all religions. It is the fashion to assert that 
Indians" 81 have the highest regard for asoeticism and that the 
men whose memories they cherish as ideals of human oonduct 
are ascetics. This statement is only partially true. Christ also 
taught abandonment of worldly ties and the spurning of riches 
as the best for entering the Kingdom of Heaven ( vide 
Matthew 19. 21, Luke 14. 26 and 33, St. John 2. 15-16 ). It is 
only during the last three or four hundred years that Western 
peoples have given up much of what was thought for centuries 
to be the main teaching of Christ and regard successful men of 
action or politicians or men of martial exploits as their ideals 
and heroes. In India also martial glory has often raised men 
to the position of heroes or avataras, but only when they 
delivered their countrymen from the tyranny and persecution 
of evil men or foreigners. Parasur&ma, Efima and Krsna are 
avataras beoause they fought against tyranny and barbarity and 
not because they brought as large a slice of the earth under 
their domination as possible for purposes of exploitation or 
vainglory. Martial exploits for self-aggrandisement or for 
domination for domination's sake have never evoked great 
enthusiasm in India. Shivaji, the great hero of the Marathas, 
was paid almost divine honours even during his life-time not for 
his martial exploits, but for his having freed the Marathas and 
other peoples from Moslem tyranny, persecution, religious 
intolerance and fanaticism. 

2221, Vide ' Mystics, ascetics and saints of India ' ( 1903 ) by J. 0. 
Oman p. 271 • it ia the asoetio profession that time out of mind has been 
a pre-eminent dignity in the eyes of the Indian people, ' 




A deep study of Vedio sacrifices is quite essential for the 
proper understanding of the Vedic Literature, for arriving at 
approximately oorreot statements about the chronology, the 
development and the stratification of the different portions of 
that Literature and for the influence that that Literature exerted 
on the four varnas and the casto-system, on the splitting up of 
the brahmanas themselves among several sub-castes !M8 and on 
the institution' of gotras and pravaras. Early European soholars 
generally paid scant attention to the deep study of the Vedio 
sacrifices and endeavoured to understand the meaning of the 
Vedas principally by reference to grammar, oomparative 
philology and the comparison of several passages containing 
the same word or words. Max MQller put forward a tentative 
soheme of ohronology based mostly on subjective considera- 
tions and prompted by the great prejudice felt by European 
scholars generally against admitting any great antiquity for 
the Vedas. Therefore the endeavour of most European soholars 
has been to show that the mantras could not have been composed 
before 1400 B. 0. It is beyond the scope of this work to enter 
into any discussion about the dates of the various seotions of the 
Vedio Literature. It must be here said, however, that I do not 
subscribe to the view that 1400 B. O. is the uppermost limit of 
the original composition of the Vedio hymns. The hymns may 
have been composed for aught we know several thousand years 

* In this chapter a few special abbreviation! have been employed 
as follows: ip. - Ipastamba-drautasntra (ed. by Dr. Qarbe), Zav.»> 
SBvalByana-s'rautB antra (in the Biblibtheca Indiea series ), Band, a 
BaudhSyana-9rautasntra(ed. by Dr. Caland), Jai.cs the PQrvamTmEmsa' 
sntra of Jaimini with Sahara's bhBsya (in the SnandSirama series ) 
Kst.»K5tyKyana-9rautasntra (ed. by Dr. Weber), Sat. or 8atyB?a4ha« 
SatyBfldha-sranta-stttra (in the XnandBs'rama series), 6sn-85nkhyB« 
yana-sraota-stltra (ed. by Hillebrandt in the B. I. series ). 

2222. Some of the brBbmaoa sub-castes such as .the. Kfovas, 
MaitrtyasTyas, Carakas and JsbSlas owe their origin to their ancestors 
having studled,p&rtioular Vedio SBkkBi, 

Ch. XXIX ] irauta ( Vedic) Sacrifices 9t7 

before tbat date. Most of the Vedic Samhitas that we now 
have are arranged (except the Rgveda to some extent) definitely 
for the various aspects of the cult of the sacrifice and indicate a 
state of things when different priests were required for the 
sacrifices, who used mantras from the collections they had 

For a thorough understanding of Vedic sacrifices, the 
several Veda Samhitas, the Brahmanas and the Srauta sutras 
must be carefully studied. Among works in English that are 
very helpful must be mentioned, Haug's translation ( with 
notes ) of the Aitareya B.-ahmana, Prof. Eggeling's translation 
of the Satapatha Brahmana with notes (3.B. E. vol. XII, XXVI, 
XLI, XL1II, XLIV ), Prof. Keith's ' Religion and Philosophy 
of the Veda and Upanisads \ translation of the Blaok Yajurveda 
( 2 voL in Harvard Oriental Series ) and of the Rgveda 
Brahmanas ( one volume in the same series ), Kunte's ' Vicis- 
situdes of Aryan civilization in India.' ( 1880 ) particularly 
pp. 167-232. Besides these Weber and Hillebrandt have written 
in German scholarly works on Vedic sacrifices; Caland and 
Henry published a very learned, exhaustive and methodical 
work in French on the Agnia^oma (1906). In this connection 
the late Dr. S. V. Ketkar's labours and researches embodied in 
his Marathi Encyclopaedia ( vol. 2 and 5 ) are worthy of special 
consideration, since they furnish a much-needed corrective to 
the somewhat one-sided views of most European scholars that 
have written on Vedic Literature, though one is bound to differ 
from him in several matters. nii The following pages are 
based principally on the original texts, though here and there 
the works of modern scholars have been availed of. 

In his Purvamlmamsasutra, Jaimini submits thousands of 
texts to the principles of mlmarhsa elaborated by him and 
arrives at definite conclusions on matters affecting the details 
of various sacrifices. An attempt has been made in these 
chapters on srauta to include many of his conclusions, a task, 
which so far as I know, has not been essayed by any modern 
writer on dharma or srauta up till now. 

2223. Prof. Dumont's 'L'Agnihotra' (1939) came into my hands 
when these pages were passing through the press. Hillebrandt's 'Das 
Altindisohe Neu-und Vollmondsopfer' (Jena, 1879) and 'Ritual- 
Jiitteratur Vedisohe Opf er und Zauber' (1897, in the Encyclopedia o£ 
Indo-Aryan Philology and Antiquities) deserredly enjoy a high 
reputation among works on tfrauta saorifioes. 
8. P. 113 

97$ Aistory of bharmatMta \ Oh. XXIX 

The fundamental conceptions of Yajfla ( sacrifice ) go back 
to Indo-European 8M * antiquities though the traces are rather 
faint. But it is quite clear that the cult of the sacrifice had 
been much developed in the Indo-Iranian period. There is a 
very striking resemblance between the Vedic Agnistoma and 
the Homa ceremony of the Parsis ( vide Haug's Ait. Br. vol. I, 
Introduction p. 59 ff ). There are numerous words indicative 
of the cult of the sacrifice both in the Vedio language and in 
the ancient Parsi religious books. For example, words like 
atharvan, Shuti, uktha, barhis, mantra, yajna, soma, savana, 
stoma, hotr do also occur in the ancient Parsi religious 
scriptures." 2 ' Though Vedic sacrifices are now very rarely 
performed ( except a few simple ones like the Darsa-purnamasa 
and the Caturmssyas ), they were in great vogue several 
centuries before the Christian era. Centuries after the advent 
and spread of Buddhism we learn from inscriptions and literary 
traditions that kings often performed the ancient solemn Vedio 
sacrifices and gloried in having done so. In the Harivarhsa 
(III. 2. 39-40), in the Malavikagnimitra ( Act V, which speaks 
of Rajasuya), in the Sunga Inscription from AyodhyS ( E. I. 
vol. XX. p. 54 ) Senapati Pusyamitra is said to have performed 
the Asvamedha (or Rajasuya). In the Hathigumpha Inscription 
( E. I. vol. XX. at p. 79 ) king Kharavela is extolled as having 
performed the Rajasuya. In the Bilsad stone Inscription of 
Kumaragupta dated in the Gupta year 96 ( i. e. 415-6 A. D. ) it 
is stated that his great ancestor Samudragupta performed the 
Asvamedha that had gone out of vogue for a long time 
( cirotsannasvamedhahartuh, in Gupta Inscriptions at p. 43 ). 
In the Pardi plates (of Cedi saih. 207 i. e. 456-7 A. D.) the Trai- 
kutaka king Dahrasena is described as the performer of 
Asvamedha ( E. I. vol. X. p. 53 ). The Plkira grant of Sirhha- 
varman ( E. I. vol. VIII. p. 162 ) describes the Pallayas as the 
performers of many Asvamedhas and another Pallava grant 
(in E. I vol. I p. 2 at p. 5 ) refers to the performance of 
Agnistoma, Vajapeya and Asvamedha. The Chammak plate of 
the Vsk&taka king Pravarasena II ( Gupta Inscriptions No. 55 

2E24. Vide Prof. A. B. Keith's 'Religion and Philosophy of the 
Veda and Upanisads ' (1925), vol. II pp. 626-26 on ' the Indo-European 
Fire-cult' and pp. 267-312 of vol. I for 'the nature of the Vedio 
sacrifice ' ; ' L ' Agnistoma ' by Oaland and Henry, p. 469 ff. 

2226. Vide Hltlebrandt's « Bitual-Litteratur Vediiche Opfer and 
Barter' (1897) p. tl for a long list of snoh words. 

Ch. XXIX ] faauta ( Vedic ) Sacrifices 879 

p. 236) speaks of Pravarasena I as the performer of many 
drauta sacrifices. 88 " 

The original worship of fire may have been individualistic 
as well as communal or tribal. The daily agnihotra was an 
individual affair; but as even simple istis like darsapurnamasa 
required four priests, and Soma sacrifices required 16 priests 
and costly preparations, these sacrifices partook more or less of 
a public or at least congregational character. It appears that 
as most brahmanas were poor and could not carry on even the 
daily agnihotra, which pinned them down practically to one 
place and did not allow them to move out of the village for 
securing their livelihood, even agnihotra must have been 
comparatively rare in early times. Such Vedic sentences as 
' one who has begot a son or sons and whose hair is still blaok 
should consecrate the Vedic fires ' (quoted by Sahara on Jaimini 
I. 3. 3 and cited on p. 350 above) establish that agnyfidhana was 
advised for brahmanas when they had reached middle age ( and 
not before ). The daily agnihotra required the maintenance of 
at least two cows, besides thousands of cow-dung cakes and 
fuel-sticks. For the maintenance of agnihotra and the perfor- 
mance of darsapurnamasa (in which four priests were employed) 
and the Caturmasyas ( where five priests were required ) the 
house-holder was required to be well-to-do. And the Soma 
sacrifices could be performed only by kings, nobles and the rich 
and by those who could collect large subscriptions. We find 
that kings while making grants often expressed that the object 
of the grants was to enable the brahmana donees to offer ball, 
and cam and to perform agnihotra. For example, in the Sarsavni 
plates of Buddhar&ja dated in Kataccuii sam. 361 i. e. 609-10 
A. D. the grant is made for bait, caru and agnihotra and in the 
Damodarpur plates (dated 413-14 and 447-48 A.D.) the grants are 
made for agnihotra and for the performance of the five daily 
yajnas." 87 During the centuries of Moslem domination no help 
from royalty could be expected and so the institution of Vedic 
sacrifices languished. In the last hundred years or so, solemn 

2226. wilrHt^rHWw^»^35vf5Tra^TO^^fwi^T9wrsr«ff^^»^«r«rf- 
Bf»Ti I . Theao very words occur in the DuJia plates, B. I. Vol. III. 
p. 258 at p. 260. 

2227. Vide B. I. vol. VI p. 294 at p. 298 ' srfimt^rrfrstenrV 
f%vYwq<JTf«k ' ( in Sarasvni platos ) ; E. I. vol. XV. p. 113 ' sriftsfcir- 
«nft»rpr ' ( p. 130 ), ' <r«JT?r | isr ! T*&rpr ' ( p. 133 ), «r^ ry tf^W « ww Ty- 
g«m<roreyH^ftor«r'TVfrTV ' ( P- 143 ) of the Damodarpur plates. 

980 History of DharmaiMra [ Oh. XXIX 

Vedio saorifioes have been performed only rarely. But, since 
many of the grhya ceremonies as set forth in the grhya sutras 
closely imitate the procedure of the Vedio fire cult and Vedio 
sacrifices formed the first and foremost manifestation of the 
sentiments of faith and worship in India, a work dealing with 
DharmasSstra cannot be said to have dealt with its subject 
completely and adequately if the treatment of Vedio sacrifices 
were left out altogether, the following bare outline is presented 
here, the more so as sacrifices were the first dharmas according 
to Rg. X. 90. 16. 

The Srauta-sutras contain a very detailed, meticulously 
accurate and vivid description of the several sacrifices that 
were performed in ancient times. These works were manuals 
compiled for the practical purpose of giving directions to those 
who engaged in such sacrifices. They are based on ancient 
Brahmana texts, which they quote at every step, many 
individual sutras being couched in the very language of the 
Brahmanas, and on aotual practice and only bring together what 
was in vogue. The object of the following pages is not to 
present a thorough and detailed treatment of Vedio sacrifices, 
but only to indioate what the cult of the Vedio sacrifice was 
like and to furnish a brief description of some prominent sacri- 
fices. The treatment is mainly based on the Srautasufcras of 
As v., Ap., Kat., Baud., Satyasadha with occasional references 
to the Sarhhitas and Brahmanas. The several divergences 
among the sutras, the paddhatis and modern practice are not 
generally dwelt upon for the sake of saving space. One very 
useful work is a compilation called ' Srautapadarthanirvacana,' 
by Nageshwar Shastri published in the Benares Sanskrit series, 
though one of its drawbacks is that it gives no references 
to any texts. The MlmSmsa-vidyalay a at Poona has prepared 
sets of all the utensils required in saorifioes and has published 
an album containing piotures of utensils and maps of various 
altars required in Vedio sacrifices. The C&turmasyas, the 
Pasubandha, the Jyotisfama have been described in some detail, 
the darsapurnamasa has been dealt with in extenso, and other 
saorifioes have been only briefly touched upon in this work. 

We find that even in the remotest ages when the hymns of 
the Bgveda Samhita were composed and compiled, the main 
features of the sacrificial system had been evolved. That there 
were three fires appears clear from Bg. II. 36. 4 ( where Agni 
is asked to sit down in three places ), 1 15. 4, V. 11. 2 ('men 

Oh XXIX ] irauta Sacnflces-in the Bgveda 981 

kindle Agni in three places ' ). The Gftrhapatya fire Is express- 
ly named in Rg. L 15. 12. The three savanaa ( i. e. pressings of 
Soma in the morning, mid-day and evening) are mentioned in 
Rg. III. 28. 1 ( pratah-sava ), III. 28. 4 ( madhyandina savana ), 
III. 28. 5 ( Irtlya savana ), III. 52. 5-6 and in IV. 12. 1 ( where 
it is said that the sacrifice gives food to Agni three times on all 
days ), IV. 33. 11. It may be affirmed that the Bteteen priests 8888 
required in Soma sacrifices were probably well-known to the 
composers of the Rgveda hymns ; Rg. 1. 162. 5 mentions hotr, 
adhvaryu, agnimindha (agnit or agnldhra), grSvagrftbha 
( gravastut ), sarhsta ( prasastr or maitravaruna ), suvipra 
(brahma?); Rg. II. 1. 2 refers to hotr., potr., nesfr, agnit, 
prasastr ( maitravaruna ), adhvaryu, brahma ; Rg. II. 36 speaks 
of hotr, potr (v. 2 ), agnldhra ( v. 4 ), brahmana ( brahmanac- 
charhsin ) and prasastr ( v. 6 ). In Rg. II. 43. 2 we have udgffla. 
In Rg. III. 10. 4, IX 10. 7, X. 35. 10, X. 61. 1 seven hotrs are 
referred to and in Rg. II. 5. 2 the potr priest is spoken of as 
the 8th. The word ' purohita ' occurs very frequently ( Rg. 1. 1. 

I, I. 44. 10 and 12, III. 2. 8, IX. 66. 20, X 98. 7 ). The Rgveda 
names Atiratra ( VII. 103. 7 ), Trikadruka ( II. 22. 1, VIII. 13. 
18, VIII. 92. 21, X 14. 16 ). The yiipa ( the post to which the 
sacrificial animal was tied ) and its top called casala are 

2228. The sixteen priests ( rtvij ) are : ffar Jr^ra^oirS'trrfi^ vm- 
*3gti7& jrf^iTEsimt Ssi'&n wgrr ^TSiun^wsfin: "ftaiijRTr swffert ufitenf 
-gargrinr g-ft I 3U*?. *TT. IV. 1. 6, aipi. «?f. X. 1. 9. Of these hotr, adhvaryu, 
brahma* and udgStt are the four principal ones and the three that 
follow each of them in the above enumeration are their assistants. 
The functions of the four principal priests aro referred to in Ijtg. X.71.11. 
In r}g. 11.43.1 wo have the singer of SSmans. In Agnihotra only adhvaryu 
is required, in the Agnysdheya, DardaparnamSsa and other iftis four 
priests are required viz. adhvaryu, agnldhra, hotr and brahman ; in the 
Csturm&syas five are required viz., the four (of dardapHrnamSsa ) and 
the pratipasthstr ; in the animal sacrifices a sixth is addod viz., the 
maitrBvaruna. In Soma sacrifices all sixteen aro required. In the 
oUturraKsya called sakamedha the agnldhra is addressed as brahmaputra 
( vide Asv. Sr. II. 18. 18) and this may explain ?g. II. 43. 2 (cited on 
p. 27 above) where the word « brahmaputra ' occurs). Vide Tai. Br. 

II. 3. 6 and Baud. II. 3 for these provisions about the number of priests 
required. Some added a 17th priest called aadasya and Baud. II. 3 gavo 
him three assistants also, though the Sat. Br. X. 4. 2. 19 forbids the 
employment of a 17th priest. There aro other persons required in a 
sacrifice, such as the Samitr, tho oamasSdhvaryus, but they are not 
called rtvij. Vido Ap. XXII. 1. 3-6 for the Trikadruka called Jyotir, 
Gauh and Ayah. 

982 History of Dharmaiastra [ Oh. XXIX 

mentioned in Rg. 1. 162. 6. Rg. III. 8 is full of the praise of 
the yupa. The person who killed the animal sacrificed ( the 
samitr ) is mentioned in Rg. 162. 10 and V. 43. 4. The Gharma 
(the pot of boiled milk required in the Pravargya rite or 
perhaps the Dadhigharma in the mSdhyandina savana) is 
mentioned in Rg. III. 53. 14, V. 30. 15, V. 43. 7. It was 
believed that the animal offered in a sacrifice went to heaven. 8 "* 
Fire for sacrifice was produced by attrition from two ararus 
( vide Rg. III. 29, 1-3, V. 9. 3, VI. 48. 5 ). The darvl ( Rg. V. 
6. 9 ), sruo ( Rg. IV. 12. 1, VI. 11. 5 ), juhu ( Rg. X. 21. 3 ) are 
mentioned in the Rg. Numerous verses in praise of gifts occur 
in the Rg, which have been pointed out above ( pp. 837-839 ). 
In Rg. III. 53. 3 there is a clear reference to the call or permis- 
sion sought by the hotr ( Shava ) and the response of the 
adhvaryu (pratigara). tm Rg. X. 114. 5 speaks of the twelve 
grahas ( cups) of Soma. In Rg. I. 28. 1-2 reference is made to 
the broad-bottomed stone (gravan) used for beating Soma 
stalks, the mortar in which Soma is pounded and the adhisavana 
( pressing ) board. In Rg. I. 20. 6, L 110. 3, I. 161. 1 and 
VIII. 82. 7 the wooden vessel called ' camasa ' used for drinking 
Soma is spoken of. The word ' avabhrtha ' ( concluding bath 
in a Soma sacrifice ) occurs in Rg. VIII. 93. 23. In Rg. X. 51. 
8-9 the words prayaja and anuyaja occur. The ten iprl 
hymns of the Rgveda indicate that at the time of their composi- 
tion the animal sacrifice had already some of the principal 
features that are seen in the srauta sutras. 

Some of the general rules applicable in all srauta rites 
may be stated once for all. Vide 5iv. sr. 1. 1. 8-22. Unless 
otherwise expressly stated, the sacrificer should always face 
the north, should sit down cross-legged, and the sacrificial mate- 
rials (like kusa grass &o.) should have their ends pointed to- 
wards the east. The sacred thread should be worn in all rites 
in the upavita form, except where the nivlta or praoInSvIta form 
is expressly ordained; wherever a limb (anga) is mentioned or 
no particular limb is mentioned, it is the right limb (handt 
foot, finger) that is meant; wherever the word ' dadati'(he 

2229. fl^lT WM «T ft«fl§ %$ tffa ffvfJrt B?n% i *ft & i«t 
STtft arsansq-iwilT^V ift Ktwm « m. I. 162. 21. Vide also Rg. 1. 163. 13. 
The Tai. Br. III. 7. 7 has the first half of Eg. I. 162. 21 and reads the 
2nd half as ' *T3t *rfar s^ffl *trfr ytg^PRW WT ^*: tfBtaT fafla ' 

2230. In the morning savana the hotr geeks permission in the 
words sffan^re, and the adhvaryu responds with ' $m$l $$tH <• 

Gh. iXIJt ] tirauta Sacrifices* General ttules $8$ 

gives ) is used the yajamana ( the sacrificer ) is the agent of 
tbe action. Eat. sr. I. 10. 12 states that the yajamana is the 
actual performer in the case of gifts or repeating texts where 
the word ' vScayati * oocurs in the sufcras or in anva-rambhana, 
or in choosing a boon, in the case of observances ( such as 
truthfulness ), and in the case of measures ( i. e. when it is said 
that a thing should be of the height of a man, it is the sacri- 
ficer'a height that is meant ). When any rite is prescribed 
without expressly stating the performer, it is the hotr who does 
it and in the case of praya&cittas wherever the words ' juhoti ' 
and ' japati ' occur the brahmfi priest is the agent to do those 
latter acts. When the first pada of a rk is mentioned for being 
employed in any rite the whole verse is intended to be recited ; 
when the first words of a hymn are mentioned for being 
employed in a rite, but the words quoted in the sutra do not 
amount to a pada, the whole hymn is to be repeated in that 
rite ; wherever more than the first pada of a verse is mentioned, 
it is intended that three verses are to be recited ( that verse and 
the two following ). Japa, amantrana, abhimantrana, apyayana, 
upasthana and mantras that indicate the rite that is being 
performed are to be recited in a low voice ( uparhsu ). A special 
rule ( apavada or visesavidhi ) is stronger than a general rule 
( prasanga ). 

Other general propositions are : Yaga ( sacrifice ) is con- 
stituted by dravya ( material ), devata ( deity ) and tyaga and 
yaga means abandonment of dravya intending it for a deity ; 
homa means the offering of dravya in fire intending it for a 
deity. Yajatis ( sacrificial rites ) for which no express reward 
is declared E8SI by the texts are the anga ( subordinate part ) of 
the principal yaga. Mantras are of four categories viz. rk, 
yajus, sSman and nigada ; !83a rks are metrical ; a yajus has 
no restriction as to metre, but it is a complete sentenoe ( Kat. 
sr. I. 3. 2); a saman is sung; nigadas are praisas i. e. words 
addressed to another calling upon the latter to do a certain 
thing e. g. ' proksanlr-asadaya, sruoah sammrddhi * ( Kat. Sr. 

2281. «i3 H <m«j | f wdawtMf <i I *xm- *ft. I- 2. 4; vide ^ffifa IV. 
4. 84 for a similar into. 

2232. The division into tk, yajus, and sSman was made evon be- 
fore the JJk-samhita" was composed. For ik, vide Bg. X. 71. 11 and 
X. 90. 9, for yajus Bg. V. 62. 5 and X. 90. 9, for sSman %. VIII. 
95. 7 and I. 164. 25 (the two famous chants called Bathantara and 
Glyatra ate named). The word ' nivid ' ooours in 9g. I. 96. 2. 

§64 History of DharmaiMra [ Ch. XXlit 

II. 6. 34 ). They are yajus, but they ore distinguished from 
ordinary yajus formulae by the fact that nigadas are uttered 
loudly, while ordinarily a yajus is recited in a low voice. 
Jaimini in II. 1. 38-45 brings out this distinction between 
ordinary yajus and nigada. Vide Jaimini II. 1. 35-37 for the 
definitions of rk, saman and yajus. Verses from the Rg. and 
Samaveda are recited loudly, all yajus are muttered in a low 
voice except asruta ( i. e. pissage3 like ' asrSvaya ' ), pratyS- 
eruta ( the response ' astu arausat ' ), pravara-mantra ( sgnir 
devo hotft &o,, set out in note 1139 above ), sarhvada ( requests 
and permissions as in ' brahman, shall I sprinkle with water ' 
and ' yes, do sprinkle ' ), sam-praisa ( summons to do something 
as ' proksanlr-asadaya ). Loudness is of three kinds, high- 
pitched, middle-pitched and low-pitched. The Samidhenl verses 
are to be recited in a middle pitch, all mantras in the rites from 
anvadhana upto ajyabhaga in Jyotistoma and pratah-eavana 
are to be recited in a low pitch, while in all rites in darsapur- 
namSsa the mantras are to be recited in a low pitch from ajya- 
bhaga to svistakrt. The rest of the mantras in daraapurna- 
masa after svistakrt and in Trtlya Savana are to be recited 
in high pitch. Mantras that are being recited at the time 
of doing anything ( and produce the idea ' I sball do it * ) 
are to be recited first and then the act is to be begun ( e. g. 
cutting is to be done immediately on reciting ' ise tva * ). Vide 
Jaimini XII. 3. 25. An act is to be begun to be performed the 
moment the reciting of a mantra accompanying it is finished 
( Kat. I. 3. 5-7 ). Utkara is the spot where the dust of the Vedi 
is swept up and prariita is water kept in a vessel to the north 
of the ahavanlya after repeating a mantra over it. Tbe saorifi- 
cial ground where the fires are maintained is called vihara 
( Sahara on Jaimini XII. 2, 1 says ' vihara iti garhapatyadira- 
gnietretocyate viharanat ' ). The way for going to or coming 
from the vihara is between the pranlta ( water ) and utkara in 
the case of istfs ( i. e. to the east of utkara and to the west of 
pranlta ) and between the utkara and the catv&la pit in other 
cases (Ap. sr.I. 1. 4-6, Kat. sr. 1.3.42-43). This path for 
going to the vihara is called tlrtha. The catv&la is a pit which 
is required only in soma and animal sacrifices. Many sacrificial 
utensils are required out of whioh the sruva ( which may be 
called the dipping spoon ) is made of khadira wood and is one 
aratni in length and has a mouth (or bowl) that is rounded and is 
as wide as the front joint of the thumb. The sruc (offering ladle) 
Is one oubit in length, has a bowl at one end of the shape and 

Oh. XXIX ] irauta Sacrifices- General Rules 9&Sr 

size of the palm, that has a spout resembling a swan's bill in t 
shape. Sruoisof three kinds: juhu (ladle) made of palasa/ 
upabhrt of asvattha and the dhruvft is made of vikankata 
wood and all other sacrificial utensils are made of vikankata» 
but those that are not directly oonneofced with noma are made 
of varana tree ; the sword called sphya is made of khadira 
( Eat. L 3. 31-39 ). The principal yajilapatraa ( or yajfiftyudhas 
as they are often called ) are given in the note below. 52 * 8 

All sarhskaras ( like adhi&rayana, paryagnikarana, heating 
a saorifioial utensil) are to be done (except when expressly stated 

2233. The Tai. B. I. 6. 8. 2-3 saya '*j> t <r?r *njng*nft Sir sWrer 
v^it *H5<T& wptvi »<4iwift •qTiil'ch i Rr* D fr <g 3$ "* •5«°ntf3pt ^ st^rt ^rtjjifti ^ 
g*Tg ^ Bl^a i Mrf l ^rmf^ ^ <ftHl fll ji* rTf5 ' '• V' de a ^o Sat. Br. I. 1. l. 22 
for these ten and Est. II. 9. 8. Jaimini III. 1. 11 says that the 
passage about the ten yajfiSEyudhas is a mere anuvSda and not a vidhi 
and henoe all are not to be employed in all actions, but only where 
each is suitable or is prescribed by a special text. Vide also Jai. 
IV. 1. 7-10. The adhvaryu or yajamKna places the pStras in twos at a 
time. The kapSlas (potsherds ) whatever their number form one pStra ; 
they are pieces broken from a jar. The pairs are : sphya (the wooden 
sword) and kapsla, then the durpa (made of split bamboo or of nada 
grass or of reed ) and agnibotra-havanl and so on. The com. on Est. 
II. 3. 8 says that whatever pstras may be required in the several 
rites are to be got ready and he enumerates many such pStras. 
The juho, upabhrt and dhruvS symbolically represent respectively 
the right arm, the left arm and the trunk of yajfia. Vide Sat. Br. 
I. 3. 2. 2. The number of kapSlas varies according to the rite that is 
performed and the antra of the performer. Besides the ten princi- 
pal ones enumerated above there are others that are required viz. 

K^wft, Mitfl»*umnf , aran fora nr. Vide oom. on KSt. I. 3. 36 for the 
names and sizes of all these and other utensils and for directions on 
the materials of which they are to be made. When the person who 
has maintained the sacred fires dies he is cremated with his Vedio fires 
and till wooden sacrificial vessels ' 3m3mfitwfitf»Ttsi' , B T^rrri*? ' 
quoted by Babara on Jaimini XI. 3. 34. Vide Sat. Br. XII. 3. 5. 2. This 
is what is called q ftqfl l g s^ of the utensils. This means that the uten- 
sils are placed on the several limbs of his corpse (e. g. the juhn in the 
right hand) and his body and they are burnt together. That is the 
final disposal of the yajfiapStras. Jaimini (XI. 3. 43-44 ) declares that 
though the yajfiapStras are set oat in the 'sruti' texts when speaking 
about paurnamSsi ifti, still they are to be made ready at agnyKdbeya 
and are to be kept throughout since that date till the sacrifice!** death 
and that their cremation with the sacrifioer's body is their final disposal 

B. 0,114 

986 History of Dharmaiaslra f Ch. XXlX 

to the contrary) by the gSrhapatya fire, but the cooking of a havis 
may be done on either g&rhapatya or ahavanlya according to one's 
sutra. When the material is not specified, homa is performed with 
clarified butter and all homas are done in the ahavanlya when 
there is no express text and the juhu ladle is to be employed in 
offering homa ( Kfit 1. 8. 44-45 ). Those parts that are to be done 
with Rg. mantras are to be done by the hotr priest ( unless there 
be a special direction or reason to the contrary ), the adhvaryu 
does what is to be done with Yajurveda, the udgatr with Saraa- 
veda and the brahma priests with all the three Vedas m * ( vide 
Ait. Br. 25. 8 ). Brahmanas alone are to be priests ( Jai. XII. 
4. 42-47 ). The sacrificer's wife is seated south-west of the 
garhapatya fire and her face is turned towards the north-east 
( Zat. II. 7. 1 ). At the beginning of an istf or other rite five 
operations ( called bhusamskara ) are to be performed on the 
mound (khara) of the ahavanlya and also on that of the 
daksina fire viz. parisamuhana ( sweeping round with wet hand) 
thrice from the east to the north, smearing thrice with cowdung 
( gomaya-upalepana ), drawing with the wooden sword ( sphya ) 
three lines from south to north but towards the east ( i. e. the 
last is to be in the east ) or from east to west but towards the 
north, to remove the dust from those lines with the thumb and 
the ring finger, and sprinkling thrice with water (abhyuksana). 

Agnyadheya Em 
Gaut. ( VIII. 20-21 ) enumerates seven haviryajfias and 
seven somasafiisthas. Agnyadheya is the first of the seven 
haviryajflas. Agnyfidheya is the same as agnyadhana. It is an 
isti, which word means ' a sacrifice performed by a saorifioer 
and his wife.with the help of four priests ' ( vide above note 
2228 ). The details of a model ls\\ are given later on under 
darsapurnamasa. Agnyadheya occupies two days, the first day 
called upavasatha being taken up by preliminary matters and 
the 2nd with performance of the main rites. There are two 
times for the performance of agnyadheya. It may be done on 
one of the seven naksatras, viz., Krttika, BohinI, Mrgaslrea, 
Purva Phalgunl, Ufctara PbalgunI, Visakha, Uttara Bbadrapada. 
An. adds other naksatras viz. Hasta, CitrS and states the several 

2234. nqtgjgmqi ; i TjV&i far> q g q w r V *n*?rfW «nwi 
vft ftirr wfa i wr fc* **rt* fem fft i **rr ffcr*rffr «jrt^ ■ <t wr. 85. 8, 

2235. For the treatment of agnyadheya vide Tai. Br. 1. 1. 2-10, L 2. 1, 
6at. Br. It. 1 and 2; *•▼. It. 1. 9 ft, In. V. 1-22, Ktt. IV. 7-10, Baud, 
II. 6-21. 

Ch. XXIX J faaufa Sacrifices-Agnya'dheya 987 

appropriate naksatras whan the saorificer desires oertain results 
( V. 3. 3-14 ). Acoording to Sat. Br. II. 1. 2. 17 and JLp. V. 3. 13 
a kaatriya should consecrate sacred fires on the Citra naksatra. 
Or agnyadheya may be done on a parva day in spring by a 
brahmana, in summer, in the rainy season and autumn respec- 
tively by a ksatriya, a vaisya and an upakrusfa ( for the latter 
vide p. 74 above ). But even when choosing the season, one 
must have regard to the seven naksatras speoified above. Ap. 
states that the setting up of the fires may take place on Full 
moon or New moon day and that hemanta or iarad is the proper 
season for a vaisya, the rainy season for a rathakara ( carpenter ) 
or all the varnas may first consecrate the fires in iiiira ( Ap. 
V. 3. 17-20 ). Vide Jai. II. 3-4 about the meaning of the Vedio 
passage ' a brahmana should set up fires in spring ' ( Tai. Br. 
1. 1. 2 ). The Sat. Br. ( IIL 1. 2. 19 ) appears to condemn the 
setting up of fires by relianoe on naksatras and recommends 
( XL 1. 1. 7 ) that agnyadhana should be performed on the New 
moon of Vaisakha on which there is Rohinl naksatra. In case 
of difficulty one may perform agnyadheya in any season and if 
one has resolved upon performing a soma saorifioe one need not 
stop to consider the season or naksatra. The man who wants 
to perform agnyadheya must not be too young nor too old ( vide 
p. 979 above ). 

Agnyadheya means the placing of burning ooals for the 
generation of the garhapatya and other fires at a particular 
time and place by a particular person to the accompaniment 
of certain mantras. 223 * Agnyadheya comprehends the several 
acts from the bringing of the arartis ( two wooden logs ) to the 
offering of purnahufci. When this last takes place the person 
who engages in the rites attains the position of an ahitagni 
(one who has consecrated the sacred Vedio fires ). Agnyadhana 
is meant for all sacrificial rites and not merely for enabling a 
man to perform darsapurnamasesti ( Jai. III. 6. 14-15, XI. 3. 2). 
The aacrifioer should bring home through the adhvaryu priest 
two aranis from an asvattha tree that grows inside a saml tree 
with the mantra ' yo asvatthah saml-garbhah * ( Asv. II. 1. 17 ), 
The branch to be cut must be one on the east or north side of 
the tree and its foliage must be turned towards the east or north. 
When the branch falls on the ground the portion of it that 

2236. «mnnT on stt**- *ft. H. *• 9- explains ' f*f$ie?tn& ftftre^fr 

988 History of DharmaiOttra [ Oh. XXIX 

touohes the ground should be used for making the lower arani. 
Two aranis ( logs of the branoh ) should be out off, planed and 
formed into rectangular pieoes and they should be allowed to 
become dry. In the lower arani there is a spot called devayoni 
( the place of origin of the god i. e. fire ) which is 8 and 12 angu- 
las from the two ends of the lower arani ( of 24 angulas ) where 
by means of a drill inserted in the upper arani fire is produced 
by attrition. Acoording to Baud, each arani is 16 angulas long, 
twelve in breadth and 4 in height, while according to Kat. 
( as quoted in com. on Ap. ) it is 24 angulas long. Acoording to 
Ap. (V. 1. 3) the asvattha may not be growing inside a saml tree. 
The two aranis are invoked ( abhiraantrana ) with the formula 
' asvatthad...dhehi ayur-yajamane ' ( Tai. Br. I. 2. 1. ) and the 
adhvaryu brings together on the altar ( vedi ) seven items that 
are earthy and seven items that are of wood or five of eaoh or 
8 earthy items ( if those of wood are seven ). The eight earthy 
items are : sand, saltish earth, the earth from a hole infested by 
mice, the earth from an ant-hill, the olay ( suda ) from the 
bottom of a reservior of water that never dries up, earth that is 
struck by wild boars, pebbles, gold ( Ap. V. 1. 4 ff . ) with 
mantras appropriate 8887 to eaoh. The seven wooden items are : 
( parts of ) asvattha, udumbara, parna ( palasa ), saml, vikan. 
kafci, a tree struok by lightning ( or by wind or cold ) and a 
lotus-leaf. Baud. II. 12 enumerates these somewhat differently. 
The sacrificer prepares a raised place for worship (devayajana)" 88 

2237. In Tai. Br. I. 2. 1 occur moat of the mantras referred to by 
Ap. under agnySdheya. 

2238. Several rules are laid down about the oboosing of the place 
of worship (devayajana) in Sat. Br. III. 1. 1, Ait. Br. I. 8, DrBhyS- 
yaua 8r. 1. 1. 14-19 &o. It should be the highest place and in its 
vicinity there should be no spot whioh is on a higher level than it, it 
should be even and firm and incline towards the east or north, being 
a little higher in the south. It should have many plants growing on 
it and in front of it there should be water (a well &o.) or a large tree 
or a public road. The t^at. Br. III. 1. 1. 6 emphasizes that if one 
secures learned and skilful priests it does not matter what kind of 
sacrificial ground one selects. The Ait. Br. I. 3 requires that the 
dlksita is to walk about and sit usually in the devayajana, and he must 
not leave it at all at sunrise, sunset and when priests are engaged in 
ukavana (saying '0 sraVaya'). Vide Sffyana on Tai. S. I. 2. 1 for 
yajnasBlB and com. on Kst. VII. 1. 19-24 for the same. The yajfla- 
e"SlB is oalled ' dlksitavimita ' in the Ait. Br. I. 3 and it is the same as 
prSclnavamsa-Ssll. Isfis are performed in the pritoInavamda-s'RlB, but 
the Uttaravedi required in animal, soma and some other sacrifices is 
outside it. Furthor rules are given under Agnistoma. 

Oh. XXIX ] foauta Sacrificea-AgnyMheya 

sloping towards the east with the mantra ' uddhanyamSnam- 
asya ' ( Tai. Br. I. 2. 1 ), sprinkles it with water to the accom- 
paniment of the mantra ' sam no devlr * ( R,g. X. 9. 4=Tai. Br. 
I. 2. 1 ), and constructs a shed having the end of the principal 
bamhoo or ridge turned northwards or eastwards. Beneath the 
middle of the ridge of the hut towards one end is the place 
( ayatana ) meant for the garhapatya fire ; the place of the 
fihavanlya fire is to the east of the garhapatya at a distance of 
eight prakramas'"* for a brahmana, eleven and twelve for a 
ksatriya and vaisya respectively or all may have it 24 steps 
( pada ) or at a distanoe found by the eye to approximate to 
the distances stated ( without actual measurement ). The place 
for the daksinagni is near the garhapatya to the south-east after 
a third of the distance between the garhapatya and ahavanlya. 
There are to be separate sheds for the ahavanlya fire and the 
garhapatya in elaborate sacrifices but for the ordinary sacrifices 
like darsapQrnamSsa one shed only is usually constructed which 
houses all the three fires. It is laid down that only Vedic rites 
are to be performed with the three fires, and that they were not 
to be used for ordinary cooking or for secular purposes ( vide 
Jaimini XII. 2. 1-7 ). The sabhya fire, is to be established in 
front of the ahavanlya in the gambling hall and the avasathya 
fire is in a shed ( for guests ) to the east of the sabhya. 3240 

The sacrificer gets the hair on the head and face shaved, 
pares his nails and then bathes ; the wife also does the same 
except shaving the hair on the head. The husband and wife 
are to establish fires after wearing two silken garments each, 
which are to be given up to the adhvaryu at the time of distri- 
buting daksina ( after the rite of agnyadheya is finished ). The 
aaorificer should perform the safhkalpa (words indicating resolve) 
of performing agnyadheya and choose his priests (rtvig-varana) 

2239. According to the com. on 5p. V. 4. 3 aprakrama is equal to 
two or three jx><fo», a pada being 15 angulas (Baud.) or 12 afigulas (Kst.). 
But the com. on Kst. VIII. 3. 14 says that a pada is equal to two 
prakramas. The gBrbapatya was also called prSjahita (vido Jaimini 
XII. 1.13) and the DaksinSgni was called anvShffryapacana, bccauso 
on it was cooked the boiled rice with which pinda-pitryajfia was 
performed on the new moon. Vide Manu III. 123, Tai. Br. I. 1. 10 and 
' %f%F»rrw rra*rrf I$ <TBtr%' quoted by ?j** on ^. XII. 2. 3. 

2240. The com. on ip. V. 17. 1 notioes divergent views about 
sabhya and Kvasathyo fires, some holding that these were not to be 
established at all, others holding that they are optional, while Ap. 
makes them obligatory. 

990 History of Dharmaiaatra [ Ch. XXIX 

by touohing their hands with appropriate mantras and offer 
them madhuparka ( vide Ap. X 1. 13-14 for the mantras 
' agnir-me hots &c). In the afternoon or when the sun is over 
the trees the adhvaryu should fetch a portion of fire from the 
aupasana ( grhya fire ) and kindle a fire called brahmaudanika 
( one prepared for brahmaudana ) "*' to the west of the place 
for the garhapatya or he may take up the whole of the aupasana 
fire ( of the yajamSna ) or he may generate fire by attrition. He 
should prepare a sthandila ( an altar of sand &c.) and should 
draw thereon three lines from west to east and three lines from 
south to north and should sprinkle water on the sthandila and 
then he should bring burning coals from the aupasana fire 
and place them on the lines so drawn. If he takes up the 
whole of the aupasana fire, then he should take on two leaves 
of udumbara a oake of barley flour and another of rioe and 
should throw on the place of the brahmaudanika fire the barley 
cake to the west and the rioe cake to the east and then establish 
tbe fire thereon. The adhvaryu puts apart at night to the 
west of the brahmaudanika fire on the red bide of a bull having 
the neck part to the east and the hair outside or on a bamboo 
utensil four dishfuls of rice 2242 grains after repeating the mantra 
' devasya' and with the words ' I set apart what is pleasing to 
prfina that is brahman,' which are repeated four times ( with 
prana, apana, vyana and lastly with brahman only ) or he may 
do so silently. He cooks the grains ( of rice or barley ) in four 
vessels filled with water, he does not cleanse the rice grains 
with his hand after pouring them into the water, nor does he 
drain off the water while cooking ; some cook the grains in 
milk. From the cooked food ( the brahmaudana ) he takes 
some in a spoon ( darvl ) and offers it into (the brahmaudanika) 
fire with the mantra ' pra vedhase kavaye ' ( Rg. V. 15. 1 = 
Tai. Br. I. 2. 1 ). He should say ' this is for Brahman ; not 
mine.' Having put the cooked food separately into four dishes 
and pouring plenty of ghee over it, the saorifioer draws the 
plates over the ground towards the priests without letting them 
go and brings them near the four priests who are descendants 
of illustrious sages. The remaining portion of the brahmaudana 

2241. The reason why w^TfT is so called is given by Ssyana on 
Tai. Br. I. 1. 9 'wartf %<tst%^i irHnJ nr flw i Hurfa sTt >* insr«rr§ «* 

2242. Tbe putting apart of grains from a large reoeptaole on to 
a smaller reoeptaole for use in saorifice later on is called nirvajxt. 

Ch. XXlX ] Brauta Sacrifices- Agnyadheya §9i 

is drawn out of the pots, the rest of the clarified butter is poured 
over it and three samidhs of a citriya m * asvattha that are wet 
( not dry ), that are a span in length and have on them their 
leaves and fruits are dipped therein and turned about therein 
with a mantra and then they are put on the fire to the accom- 
paniment of three gayatrls ( addressed to Agni ) for brahmanas, 
three Tristubhs for ksatriyas and three Jagatls for vaisyas ( the 
verses are set out in Ap. V. 6. 3 ). 

When the samidhs are offered into fire he ( sacrifioer ) gives 
three heifers to the adhvaryu and a similar number to each of the 
brahmanas who eat the brahmaudana. This brahmaudana along 
with the gifts of heifers and offering of samidhs may be performed 
daily for one year before the date of agnyadhana. These samidhs 
must be offered by everyone intending to set up the three 
sacred fires 12 days, three days, two days or a day before 
the day of agnyadheya. He (saorifioer) has to keep certain 
observances viz. he does not partake of flesh, does not cohabit* 
others do not take away fire from his house ; he subsists ( for 
three days ) only on milk or on boiled rice, he has to speak the 
truth and to avoid sleeping on a cot. If for some reason the 
sacrifioer is unable to perform agnyadheya in a year (or 12 days 
&c.) from the time he offered brahmaudana he should again 
cook brahmaudana, offer the samidhs and then should perform 
agnyadhana when he can do so. 2844 On the night previous to 
the day of agnyadhana the adhvaryu (according to Bharadvaja, 
all the priests) keeps certain observances viz. he does not eat 
flesh nor does he approach his wife. 

On that night a goat having dark spots on its skin is tied 
towards the north of the place for the garhapatya fire with a 
mantra *praj&' agne &c. \ The yajamfina observes avow of 
silence on that night and people keep him awake that night by 
playing upon a lute and a flute ( but there is an option viz. he 
may not keep awake nor observe silence). The sacrificer 
remains awake the whole of that night placing pieces of wood 
on the brahmaudanika fire with the verse ' salkair-agnim &c. * 
( but if he does not keep awake he heaps on the fire logs of wood 

2243. The Tai. Br. ( 1. 1. 9- ) employs the words * citriyESYattba- 
syBdadhRti ' and Ssyo?a explains ' «»*nnrpTh' l 9rwf*r»r85 jra-nft i 
<rTOt in*T%f*rjfT*3TW$r'm *rf»Hr wRpurts i. » 

2244. The Tai. Br.. 1.1.9 says *W»fo*t crsjft' »» HTJ^St irifror! 

History of bharmaiUstra I 6h. JCXIJt 

at one time and then goes to sleep ).' m At day-break the 
adhvaryu heats the two aranis against that fire with two verses 
' jatavedo bhuvanasya &o. ' and ' ayam te yonir-rtviyah ' ( both 
in Tai Br. I. 2.1). Then the brahmaudanika fire is extin- 
guished, the two aranis are invoked with the verse 'agnl 
raksSmsi ' and the yajamSna keeps waiting for the aranis that 
are brought with the verse 'mahl vispatnL' The adhvaryu 
hands over the aranis to the sacrifioer with the verse ' dohyS ca 
te', who receives them with a verse and immediately invokes 
them with two verses. Both (adhvaryu and yajamSna) repeat 
in a low voice the formula 'mayi grhnSmyagre &c. '. The 
adhvaryu arranges the place for the gSrhapatya with the verse 
'apeta vita* and sprinkles it with water with ' sam no devlr. ' 
He does the same for the places ( Syatanas ) of the daksina fire 
( to the south-east ) and of Shavanlya, sabhya and Svasathya 
fires. Even since ancient times there have been agnihotrins 
who did not set up the sabhya and Svasathya fires. Half of the 
sand ( that has already been brought among the sambharaa ) is 
divided into two parts, one ( i. e. \ of the whole heap ) being 
scattered over the plaoe of the garhapatya and the other ( } ) 
over the place of the daksinagni. The other half of the sand 
heap is divided into three parts each of which is soattered in 
the places of the other three, Shavanlya, sabhya and Svasathya 
( but if no sabhya nor Svasathya is to be kept then the half is 
entirely scattered over the Shavanlya place ). In the same way 
the other earthy materials are placed over the places of the fires 
with appropriate mantras. After he places the lime stones or 
pebbles on the various places he brings to his mind his enemy. 
Then he spreads the various materials on the fire places and after 
mixing together the materials of wood to the accompaniment of 
two mantras he scatters them just as he soattered the sand 
(after dividing them as stated above). He oasts to the 
north over the materials a piece of gold on the place of 
the gSrhapatya 824 * and invokes it with a mantra and 
assigns at a distance a pieoe of silver for his enemy or throws 
it into water if he has no enemy. The same process ( of 
casting a golden piece ) is followed as to the places of the other 
fires. He removes the ashes of the brShmaudanika fire (that 

8245. Tai. Br. I. 1. 9 has ' gi g fog f *rftmi?rft«fk ■ trfa « *r»g « Wtpft 
ftv^r, l . Most of the mantras requited here occur in Tai. Br. I. 2. 1. 

2246, Though gold is among the earthy materials, it was not dealt 
With white the other earthy things were being divided. 

Ch. XXIX ] foauta Sacriflces-Agnyiidheya 993 

has been extinguished as stated already) and in its place 
deposits the two aranis from which he produoes fire by drilling. 
When the first we of the sun spread in the sky ( i. e. before the 
sun's diso is seen, but the eastern horizon is lit up by rays ) he 
planes the upper arani on the lower one to the accompaniment 
of the ' dasa-hotr'"* 7 formulae. While generation of fire by 
attrition is proceeding a white or red horse from whose eyes no 
water drops ( i. e. who is not blear-eyed ) and whose knee is 
dark ( or any horse with full testicles ) is kept present and a 
soman of Sakti Sankrti is sung ; when smoke rises a saman of 
Gathina Kausika is sung and also the verse ' aranyor-nihito ' 
( Rg. III. 29. 2 ). 

He ( the adhvaryu ) invokes the fire with the mantra ' upa- 
varoha jatavedah ' ( Tai. Br. II. 5. 8 ) the moment it is produced. 
Then the adhvaryu makes the sacrificer recite the catur-hotf 
(mantras)" 48 and invokes the fire when kindled with the 
mantra ' ajannagnih '. When the fire is produced the yajamana 
bestows on the adhvaryu the most desirable fee ( i. e. a oow ), 
which he accepts with a mantra. After the fire is produced, the 
yajamana breathes over it with the formula ' prajapatistva ' 
(Tai. S. IV. 2. 9.1). The adhvaryu holds over the fire his 
folded hands turned downwards with a verse, makes it blaze forth 
by means of fuel-sticks with the words ' samradasi ' ( Tai. S. 
IV. 3. 6. 2 ), holds it in his folded hands turned upwards, Bits 
down on a seat and while the Rathantara and YajSayajfiiya 
samans are being chanted, he establishes the garhapatya fire on 
the sambhSras ( the earthy and wooden materials scattered as 
above ) by repeating certain mantras according as the saorifioer 

2247. The dada hotKrah are the ten sentenoeg occurring in Tai. 5. 
III. 1. viz. arf f%f%: *jij ■ RrrnrTSTT. i *r»tf%: ■ wnfttf <rf|j i %at aifo i 
RsjMflHijr: i YrorttgftT i ht ttstrt • iron* ?fs: i trratwjfj i . Vide Ait. 
Br. 24. 6 for the ten in a different order. It should be noted that here 
ten things connected with the human body are identified with ten things 
connected with homa. 

2248. The eatur-hotrt are the mantras in Tai. A. III. 1-5 commen- 
cing with « oittih sruk '. Vide also Tai. Br. III. 12. 5 and note 904 
The Ait. Br. 24. 4 fays • %*rnrt *| iprerrfht SBf" ttw TOgtffanft '• The 
dadahotj mantras in the preceding note are only a portion of the catur 
hotr ( vide SKyana on Tai. Br. III. 12. 5 ). In the Tai. Br. I. 1. 8 it is 
said v«iwiTi(iin<l «n$r*v smflTTi^ • ww^rafJiTpra d^Owu^ i ••• 

B. D. 125 

994 History of Dharmaittstia [ Oh. XXIX 

has a certain gotra "*' ( or pravara ) and the first vy&hrti ( i. e. 
bhtth ) or the first two vyabrtis ( bhQh, bhuvah ), the first two 
Sarparajnl formulae and the first of the Ghannasiras texts. The 
formula for establishing the g&rhapatya according to the gotra 
is stated in note 2249. When establishing the gSrhapatya on the 
sambhSraa the adhvaryu further repeats certain mantras ( given 
in Ap. 6r. V.12. 2 ) and then the yajamSna invokes the fires with 
the mantra ' sugsrhapatyo ' ( Tai. Br. 1. 2. 1 ) a nd the adhvaryu 
makes the yajamana repeat the Gharmasiras formulae. The 
adhvaryu strews darbhas round the gS-hapatya ( i. e. he does 
paristarana ). 

The prooedure for establishing the ahavanlya is to be so 
arranged that the fire is aotually established when half of the 
sun's diso rises above the eastern horizon. The adhvaryu lights 
fuel-sticks on the garnapatya for being carried forward and 
he takes in a vessel the sand on whioh fire would be supported 
to the accompaniment of four verses. Then while carrying the 
fire, he raises a little the kindled bundle of fuel-sticks and 
holds the fire on the sand. Then the adhvaryu makes the yaja- 
mSna repeat in the right ear of the horse the Agnitanu formulse 
( set out in Ap. Sr. V. 13. 7 ), holds the fire for some time and 
then lays it down in the place for the ahavanlya. 

2249. When the sacrificer is a Bhargava the formula is ^rirorr W 
%*TTt a%*n^mwn% ^Pmvnpnrnj. If he is an 5ngirasa or any brShmana 
who is not a BhSrgava or Sigirasa the formulas are respectively 9Ti^rqrt 
FTT &o. and anf^nrrsTt ?*i. In the case of a king, a kfatriya, a vaidya 
or a rathakffra saorifioer the formulae respectively are tcotct w fV$T 

irsprt r*T ^rrat &c. Vide ft. wr. 1. 1. 4. for the mantras Tjprt wn &c. The 
trfcr# formulas are yfrgfft ff Wfimi*ai<» t *rfe?*T T<reft I sptrt^irsnrflWI- 
«Trrr?« I &c. in 8. tf. I. 5. 3 and in I. 5. 4 it is stated m\ % sfrWtot- 

*v»a w i# «ffff , ffiTt *iif«l<fi *r*?rmf^jq 9wf$pn3tft*TO9WVffr<pH'fil 

&o. srtrwrs says (III. 4) ' ijm^Hiff *HWt «tftnfrT:.' The formulas 
called gharmaiirnmsi are set out in 5p. dr. V. 12. 1 and SatySsadha 
III. 4. They oocur in If. srr. 1. 1. 7 and are : «r& Rlnwq^wR ri # i^r: Tu- 
fty <m i Df^wtaw wrrrv to ii tuts irr^rTtrffit tf firr: Tgp^Sj*^ i 
wfirir ifYwTT jrttt firji <m h srisarajw^WT jj^r^THiih w far; TsjBrgssc • 
t4J qht gaf t^Ji ubtt jt^: gw ^vnrrf'sr^ itar & <fn%f9 dw wT^sraTrfi' 

srgrirr »• Out of these vf: tt*8 is repeated when establishing 

Trfanr, tots STFT <r^r, when establishing SRa .i gn'u'^H (* ffsjroir# ) and 

wforsj wgrorf when establishing srrfnflnr, Vide §. art. I. 1. 8 for 

this. The GSrhapatya mound is circular, that of the Jhavanrya is 
square and that of the DaksinSgni is semi-oiroular. All three are about 
one square aratni in area. 

Ch. XXIX ] Crania Saerifices-Agnyadheya 995 

The Agnldhra priest then brings domestic fire or produces 
fire by attrition, sits down with his knees raised up, and establi- 
shes the daksinagni, while the Yajnayajniya s&man is being 
chanted and follows the procedure of repeating formulae 
according to the gotra ( as above ) and repeats the 2nd vy&hrti 
( bhuvah ), the three Sarparajnl formulae and the 2nd Gharma- 

siras(viz. the verse ' vatah paca'). After repeating 

several other formulae ( as in Ap. Sr. V. 13. 8 ) he sets down 
daksina fire on the sambharas. 

The fire brought for establishing 88 *° daksina fire may be 
fetched from the house of a brahmana, a ksatriya, a vaisya or a 
sudra who is extremely prosperous like an asura ( if the sacri- 
ficer desires prosperity ), but he should thereafter never eat 
at that man's house ; or ( according to Baud. Sr. II. 17 ) it may 
be brought from the garhapatya fire or according to Asv. from 
the house of a vaisya or of any rich man or it may be produced 
by attrition. 

When the ahavanlya fire is being taken ( in a vessel ) from 
the garhapatya the Vamadevya is chanted and they proceed to- 
wards the east preceded by the horse, 2351 repeating three mantras. 
To the south of the vihara the brahma priest makes a ohariot 
or a chariot wheel move up till three revolutions of the wheel 
take place ( six times for an enemy ). A third part of the 
distanoe ( between the garhapatya and the place for ahavanlya ) 
the fire is carried at the height of the knee, the 2nd third at the 
height of the navel, the last third at the height of the mouth. 
No one is to come between the sun and the fire. He takes the 
fire with both his hands stretched to the right. In the middle 
of the distanoe the yajamana gives a gift to the priest. In 
the middle of the distance the adhvaryu puts down a pieoe of 
gold and then crosses over it with the mantra ' nakosi.' The 
adhvaryu makes the horse that faoes the east go over the earn- 
bharas to their north with its right hoof placed in such a way 
that the live ooals of the fire when established would fall on the 
foot-print made by the horse and making the horse turn to its 
right he again makes the horse go over the sambharas with 
a formula ' yadakrandah ' ( Kg. 1. 163. 1 ). The horse is held 

*25o. wft «rr « n£'<«u^i t 'qm i < fa^m q M i ft ' "ft- «*■ n. 17; Tw*fs<mt 

flftwn nr^rwTfWffwW wwsi^ ' w*- *ft- I. 2. l. 

2251. Vide Tai. Br. I. 1. 7 for the mantra sr*wa?»ffcf ( which la 
mentioned in ip. V. 14. 5 ) and the words *rcitS«W»T mfiramfkt. 

996 History of DharmctiMra [ Ch. tXlX 

facing tbe west to the east of the plaoe for the ahavanly a. The 
horse must be young and according to Paihgy&yani Brahmana a 
young bull may do (if a horse is not available). According to the 
Bahvrca Brahmana the (ahavanlya) fire should be established on 
the footmark of an animal called Kamandalu or of a goat (accord- 
ing to Vftjasaneyaka). Then the saorificer mutters auspicious 
formula?*"* and sends to his enemy ( a curse ) with the formula 
' go to him, O fire, with thy terrible forms. ' Having invoked 
the fire with the verse ' Yad-idam divah * ( Tai. Br. I. 2. 1 ) he 
turning his face to the west and standing to the east establishes 
the ahavanlya fire. Tbe ahavanlya is laid down upon the 
sambharas when the Brhat Saman, the Syaita, Varavantlya and 
Yajnayajniya are being chanted, and the procedure of repeating 
consecrating mantras according to gotra is being followed, when 
all the vy&hrtis, all the Sarpa-rajml mantras, the tbird Gharma- 
siras formula and certain other verses are recited. 9 " 3 The sacrificer 
invokes the ahavanlya when it is being established with the 
formula ' anase &c. ' ( which ocours in Tai. Br. 1. 1. 7 ) and he 
follows the priest ( whether adhvaryu or Sgnldhra ) in repeating 
the various vyahrtis, the SarparajII verses and the Gharmasiras 
formulae. The fire when established should be propitiated with 
clarified butter and plants ( i. e. fuel-sticks ) after repeating 
certain formula? (set out in 2Lp. V. 16. 4). The samans are sung 
by the brahma priest in Agnyadheya ( and there is no udgafcr 
priest ). ,,M 

The aabhya and avasathya fires are established with domestic 
fire or fire produced by attrition or with fire taken from the 

Tai. Br. I. 1. 7 has the words vsmtf: f?WT sraft and the 
verses *r & &o. ( set out in Ap. V. 15. 2 ). 

2853. The verses 'abhi tvB sUra' (%. VII. 82. 22), 'kayS naii- 
citra' (Rg. IV. 81. 1), « > tv5ra-iddhi bavBmahe* (Rg. VI. 46. 1), 4 asvam 
na tv5 VBr&vantam' (Rg. I. 27. 1), 'abhi pra vab surBdhasem ' 
(Rg. VIII. 49. 1), 'yajfiSyajriB vo* (9g. VI. 48. 1) are respectively 
the sgmans called IUthantara, VSmadevya, Brhat, VSravautlya, Syaita 
and YajfiByajfiiya. All these verses occur in the SBmaveda (vide 
vol. III. p. 83, 87, 330, vol.1, p. 120, 483 and 147 respectively, B.I. series). 
Vide Tai. S. V. 5. 8. 1-2, Ait. Br. 19. 6 for the names of these and other 
iUmane. Jai. (III. 3. 9) declares that, though sSman verses are as a 
rule to be chanted loudly, in BdbSna they are to be uttered inaudibly 
( upBrhsu ), since Bdhffna is to be done with yajurveda procedure. 

2254. Jaimini in Purva-mimffrhsSstltra (X. 8. 9-11) discusses the 
question whether the brahmS priest must chant these gBnas or whether 
there ia an option. Vide Tai. Br 1. 1. 8. 

Oh. XXIX ] Srauta Sacrificm-Agnyadheya 997 

ahavanlya, aooording to the mode of establishment dependent 
on the gotra as stated above. He puts on each fire three samidhs 
of the asvattha tree with three versea ( Rg. IX. 66. 19, 21, 20 ) 
and three samidhs of saml smeared with ghee after repeating 
certain mantras ( $g. IV. 58. 1-3 ). Or these samidhs may be 
offered in the ahavanlya ( if sabhya and avasathya are not 
kept up ). 

Then he offers a purn&huti, MW the eaorifioer gives gifts, 
mutters certain auspicious formulae, waits in worship upon the 
five ( or three ) fires. Then if the yajamana is a ksatriya dice 
play takes place. The gifts given to all the four priests are 
cloth, a cow and bull, and a new chariot, while a goat, purna- 
patra and a pillow of several coloured threads are given to the 
agnldhra, a horse to brahmS, a bull to adhvaryu, and a dhenu 
to the hotr. There are larger gifts specified aooording to the 
saorificer's ability. 

K8t. ( IV. 10. 16 ) ordains that after establishing the Vedic 
fires the yajamana should observe complete celibacy for 12 
nights, 6 nights or at least three nights, should sleep near the 
fires on the ground ( and not on a cot ), should offer homa of 
milk to the fires. Baud. II. 20 prescribes further observances for 
twelve days. 

PunarUdkeya : When within a year after a man sets up 
the Vedio fires he suffers from severe illness ( such as dropsy ) 
or suffers loss of wealth or his son dies or his near relatives are 
harassed or made captive by his enemies or he beoomes cripple 
in a limb, or if he is desirous of prosperity or fame he again 
sets up the fires. The procedure is essentially the same as for 
agnyadheya with a few differences e. g. fires are fed with kusa 

2255. The com. on KSt. IV. 10. 5 explains j;onn WZ1 stiffs 
Soffit'. The procedure ordinarily applying to all Shutis of clarified 
butter iis The adhvaryu puts butter into the butter-pot, which is 
placed en the gSrhapatya fire to melt. Having wiped the eruva (dipp- 
ing spoon) and juha (offering spoon) with darbha grass and having 
taken the butter pot off the fire he dips two darbha blades used as 
strainers (pavitra ) into the heated butter and fills the juhu with the 
sruva. Then he takes a mmidh, walks over to the north side of the 
ahavanlya, strews darbha grass round it and puts the samidh on that 
fire. Then he sits down with bent right knee, pours the butter in the 
juh3 on to the fire with the word svShs and the sacrificer utters the 
formula 'agnaya idam na mama '. This holds good in agnySdheya and 
agnihotra, bat in many other rites the principal (pradhBna) offerings 
are offered while the priest is standing. 

§98 History of DharmaiMra I Oh. XXIX 

grass and not with wood nor with fuel-sticks, the two ajyabha- 
gas are for agni alone ( while in the model sacrifice they are 
for Agni and Soma ), the punaradheya is performed in the rainy 
season and at mid-day. Other differences and details are 
passed over. UH Jai. ( VI. 4. 26-27 ) states that punaradheya is 
a prSyascitta only if both the fires ( g&rhapatya and Shavanlya ) 
have been extinguished or discontinued and ( in X 3. 30-33 ) 
that when punaradheya is resorted to for some desired object, the 
fees that are prescribed in agny&dhana are not the fees to be 
given, but other daksina is given. 


According to Gau. VIII. 20 there are seven forms of 
haviryajnas of which agnihotra is the second. From the 
evening of the day of agnyadheya the house-holder has to 
perform agnihotra" 57 ( burnt offering of cow's milk &o. ) twice 
daily in the evening and morning to the end of his life 
or till he becomes a samnySsin, or as the Sat. Br. ( XII. 4. 1. 1 ) 
says 'Those who offer agnihotra indeed enter upon a long 
sacrificial session ; agnihotra indeed is a sattra that ends with 
old age or death, since he becomes free from it only by old age 
or death.' Satyfis&dha prescribes ( III. 1 ) that from the time 
of setting up the three srauta fires, agnihotra and darsapurna- 
m&sa are obligatory on all members of the twice-born classes 
and he holds that the nisSda and rathakara also are bound to 
perform them, though other sutrak&ras are opposed to this. Vide 
pp. 45-47 above. Jai. ( VI. 3. 1-7 and 8-10 ) holds that agni- 
hotra being obligatory, it may be undertaken even by him who 
is not able to perform every detail of it in its entirety, but that 
a kSmya rite should be undertaken only by him who is able to 
carry out every detail. Vide also Jai. II, 4, 1-7 where ' yavaj- 
jlvam-agnihotram juhoti ' is explained as laying down a 

2256. Vide Tai. S. I. 5. 1-4, Tai. Br. I. 3. 1, Sat. Br. II. 2. 8, Asr . 
II. 8. 4-14, Ap. V. 26-29, K5t. IV. 11, Baud. III. 1-3 for details. 

2257. The word agnihotra is derired in the Tai. Br. II. 1. 2 as tho 
rite in which homa is offered to Agni and SSyana says snnf jjHr ejtarts- 

twrr fftwfw. Vide Jai. I. 4. 4 ( which establishes that in sriShfH gffffiit 
**<faiPft the word ' agnihotra ' is the name of a rite ). The Sat. Br. 
XII. 4. 1. 1 says « ^fanf r «tr «rw ar<rvfa ^sRr*H gw?W sreratf *nf 
TfRrfH 5rwt *r«r frrrcupqwqft ^ra*r *i '■ *rprwra ( HI. I ) says 
' «mn^ftrW qi jgfo>nfl *r fihnft i ftqrqr«ra^ <m nwnpffifHi ffafowf i 

Ch. XXIX | &auta Sacrifices- Agnihotra 999 

characteristic required of the performer. The several sotras 
present differing details and mantras. 2258 According to one 
view all the three fires are permanently maintained by the 
house-holder "" ( Kat. IV. 13. 5 ) ; according to others only the 
garhapatya is permanently kept ( Ap. VI. 2. 13) and the daksi- 
nagni is permanently kept only if it was set up by attrition at 
the time when the house-holder performed agnyadheya. The 
house-holder calls upon the adhvaryu to bring the ahavanlya 
from the garhapatya in the evening and also in the morning ; this 
is so only if the yajamana engages an adhvaryu in the daily 
agnihotra, but if the yajamana does the daily agnihotra himself 
this call is unnecessary. As to the daksinagni in the daily 
agnihotra, Asv. ( II. 2. 1 ) mentions several alternatives viz., it 
may be brought from the house of a vaisya or from the 
house of any rich man or it may be produced by attrition or 
it may be kindled into flames if it is kept permanently. He 
should take burning coals from the kindled garhapatya in 
a vessel and carry them to the place of the ahavanlya 
with the mantra ' devam tva devebhyah sriya uddharami ' and 
should repeat when carrying the burning coals towards the east 
the mantra ' raise me up from sin that I knowingly or unknow- 
ingly may have committed ; save me from all the sin that 
I may have committed in the day ' ( this in the evening agni- 
hotra, in the morning agnihotra it being said ' sin that I 
committed at night ' ). Vide Asv. II. 2. 3 and 6, Ap. VI. 1. 7, 
Baud. III. 4. He should face the sun and place the burning 
coals in the ahavanlya mound with the mantra ( amrtahutim 
&o, in Asv. II. 2. 4, Ap. VI. 1. 8, Baud. III. 4 ). In the morning 
agnihotra also he should face the sun and do other things 
stated above. According to Eat. ( IV. 13. 2 ) the evening agni- 
hotra is to ba commenced before the sun sets and the morning 
one before the sun rises. Asv. says that the homa is performed 

2258. Vide Sat Br. II. 2. 4 ff, Tai. Br. II. 1. 1-11, Ait. Br. 25. 1-7, 
Ap. 6, K5t. 4. 12-15, Adv. II. 2-5, Baud. III. 4-9, Sat. III. 7. 

2259. Those called gatairl perpetually maintain the three fires 
( Kat. IV. 13. 5 and ip. VI. 2. 12). They are a thoroughly learned 
brshmana, a victorious ksatriya king and a vaisya who is the leading 
man of his village, 'irfffima tffopr: Wft *n*fo t*iftx§ Hwf$HP B«*T«j; 
wnjr«P V$(*\ ftanft trar »Vft JTRoniRfa » Tsrfir in com. on K5t. IV. 13. 
The word ' gatadri ' oocurs in Tai. S. II. 5. 4. 4'and Bat. Br. I. 3. 5. 12. 
' ^ § irerfSrf •. g«*ec irrnoft TT3T»<rHW *fr*^ ^tn > ft. tf . II. 5. 4. 4. »w*ft 
is to be explained as '«nf srrar wftltifr, »rsrr *Mfofit «n' com. on i 
IV. 13. 5. 

1000 History of Dharmaiastra [ Oh. XXIX 

after the sun sets. There have been two views on this point 
from very anoient times viz. whether agnihotra is to be performed 
before sunrise or after sunrise. Vide Ait Br. 24. 4-6 and 
Kausltaki Br. II. 9. Ap. ( VI. 4. 7-9 ) mentions four views as to 
both evening or morning time for agnihotra viz. it should be the 
sa/hdhi of day and night for both or it may be when the first 
star is seen or in the first watoh of the night or in the 2nd ( for 
evening agnihotra) and at dawn, or when a part of the disc of 
the sun just appears on the horizon or after the sun comes up. 
The householder performs agnihotra after finishing his aafhdhya 
adoration. There is a difference of opinion, some holding that 
the homa in the grhya fire should precede the agnihotra in the 
Vedic fires, while others hold that it should come after the 
Vedic agnihotra."' The house-holder after performing sarhdhya 
follows either of two modes ( Est. IV. 13. 12 and IV 15. 2, Ap. 
VI. 5. 3, according to his sakha ), goes towards the ahavanlya 
through the space between the plaoes of the garhapatya and 
daksinSgni or by a route to the south of these two fire places 
and having gone round the ahavanlya sits down to the south 
in his usual place ( or orosses from the western side of the 
ahavanlya and sits down to its south ) and the wife also sits 
in her place ( Kftt. IV. 13. 13, Ap. VI. 5. 1-2 ). The householder 
then sips water (performs acamcmd) with the words ' vidyudasi 
vidya me pSpmanam-rtat satyam-upaimi mayi sraddha' ( Ap. 
VI. 5. 3 ). The wife also sips water. 58 " Then both husband and 
wife should observe silence till the agnihotra (morning or 
evening ) is gone through. A man who has no wife can perform 
the daily agnihotra (vide Ait. Br. 32. 8). The adhvaryu performs 
parisamuhana ( wiping with the wet hand from the north-east to 
the north) thrioe for the three fires. He strews round the 

2260. thRrrwgq vnm\ ^«G)s."|4nT*<wi« wriwr i trywsc i *W imftith 
am <wnf$ | JfiN , t ,u ' ! ' s^pfi'rt 5<jnrf«iiwnaf%^nf5^T ftj« n ifir • com. on 
$nr?r. «ft> IV. 13. 12 and cited as mg i q 's in the ^»y^*r quoted 
in an^mtwp. 52. 

2261. The paddhati in the com. on Est. IV. 13 remarks T<pto?rf- 
«ri%faH? «rt«n" j%»rfa w sfttftft tfujrprs i ira flTgawc. This shows how 
gradually the wife lost all importance in Vedio rites and came to be a 
mere silent spectator of all the weary details that had to be gone 
through by the sacrifioer and the priest. Jaimini VI. 1. 17-21 stated 
generally that the husband and wife co-operated in performing yajna, 
butjm Vl. 1. 24 be qualifies the general statement by saying that the 
wife cannot do all the aotions which are to be done by the sacrifioer, but 
only-those which she is expressly asked to do In the texts. 

Oh. XXIX ] &rauta Sacrifices- Agnihotra 1001 

Shavanlya fire darbha grass ( performs paristarana ) in such a 
way that the darbhas to the east and west have their ends turned 
to the north and. of those to the north and south turned to the east 
and the strewing proceeds from the east, then to the south, then 
to the west and then to the north. In the same way he strews 
darbha grass round the gSrhapatya and then round the daksin- 
Sgni. Taking water in his right hand, he sprinkles it round the 
shavanlya first, beginning from the northeast and ending in 
the north. Then he walks towards the west pouring a conti- 
nuous stream of water from the Shavanlya up to the garhapatya. 
He then sprinkles ( performs paryuksana ) the garhapatya from 
left to right and then the dakainagni. Or one may sprinkle water 
( and this is the usual order now in the Deccan ) round the 
gSrhapatya first and then round daksi^agni and then pour a 
stream of water from the garhapatya to the east up to the 
Shavanlya ( Asv. II. 2. 14 ). Asv. ( II. 2. 11-13 ) says that the 
mantra in paryuksana is " rtasatyfibhyam tvS paryuksami ' and 
each fire is sprinkled thrice, water being taken freshly at each 
time and the mantra being repeated eaoh time and that sprinkling 
may first be done round the daksipagni, then round gSrhapatya 
and then ahavanlya. Vide Est. IV. 13. 16-18, 5.p. VL 5. 4. 

The homa is performed with cow's milk for him who 
performs agnihotra as a sacred duty and not for any particular 
reward in view, but one who desires to secure a village or 
plenty of food, or strength or brilliance may employ respective- 
ly yavSgu ( gruel ), cooked rice, ourds or clarified butter ( Asv. 
II. 3. 1-2 ). Then an order is issued to the person engaged to 
milk the agnihotra cow" 61 that stands to the south of the sacri- 
ficial ground with her face to the east or north and that has a 
male calf. At the time of milking the oalf is to the south of 
the cow, and first sucks milk and then the oalf is removed and 
the milking is done. The person to milk the cow should not be 
a sudra ( K&t. IV. 14. 1 ), but Ap. ( VI. 3. 11-14 ) allows even a 
sudra to milk the cow, while Baud, ( III. 4 ) says that he must 
be a brShmana. Rules are laid down about the udders from 
whioh milk is to be drawn and about persons for whom it is to 
be drawn ( Sat. III. 7 based on Tai. Br. II. 1. 8 ). The milking 
is not to be begun by pressing the udders, but by making the 

2262. Tai. Br. II. 1. 6 identifies the oow with agnihotra and 
II. 1.7 states that the cow's milk in its various stages belongs to various 
deities sinoe the time it is in the udder (when it is Raudra) till after 
it is offered (when it is dear to Indra). 

H.D. 186 

1002 History of DharmaiUstra [ Oh. XXIX 

calf suok them first ( na stanan sammrsati ' Ap. VI. 4. 2 based 
on Tai. Br. II. 1. 8 ). Milking is to be begun the moment the 
sun sets ( Ap. YI. 4. 5 ). The vessel in which the milk is to be 
held is of earthenware manufactured by an Srya ( i. e. one who 
belongs to the three regenerate classes ), but without using a 
wheel and the vessel must have a wide mouth and straight sides 
and not slanting ones ( K&t. IV. 14. 1, Ap. VI. 3. 7 ). It is called 
agnihotrasthall (Ap. VI. 3. 15). The adhvaryu takes from the 
garhapatya fire some burning ooals for boiling the milk and 
keeps them to the north of the garhapatya in a separate spot. 
Then he goes near the cow, holds the vessel in whioh the 
oow has been milked, brings it towards the east of the 
ahavanlya, sits to the west of the garhapatya and heats the 
vessel on the burning coals mentioned above. He takes a 
darbha blade ( other than one of those that are strewn round the 
garhapatya ), kindles it and holding it over the milk illumi- 
nates the milk with its light. He then takes water in a sruva 
and sprinkles one drop or some drops into the boiling milk 
( Asv. II. 3. 3 and 5 ). He should then again hold a burning 
blade ( the Bame blade used before ) over the hot milk and light 
it up. He does this thrice and then casts away the blade to the 
north. "" There was a difference of view whether the milk to 
be offered should be brought to the boiling point or should only 
be simply hot ( vide Sat. Br. II. 3. 1. 14-16 and com. on Kat. 
IV. 14. 5 ). Then the pot of milk is slowly lifted with three 
mantras and drawn down to the north from the burning coals 
(Asv. IL3. 8, Tai. Br. II. 1. 3 'vartma karoti'). Then the 
burning ooals on whioh the milk was boiled or heated are 
thrown back in the garhapatya fire. Then a sruva and sruc 
both made of vikankata wood are cleaned with the hand ( to 
remove dust ) and are heated on the garhapatya ( or ahavanlya 
according to Ap. VI. 7. 1 ). He then again heats the sruc and 
sruva on the garhapatya, asks the yajam&na ' shall I take out 
milk from the pot" 6 * with the sruva)' and the yajamSna 

2263. The Tai. Br. II. 1. 3 says *tfr*T4jrem fawnftsnin} I *tm*. 
Wtift I ... srtWlwrft l ... fih <pF8hfritfih _ T«fWfaOTHPrfih . The 
sprinkling of water from the sruva on the milk is called pratiseka 
(Ip. VI. 6. 3-4). This is referred to in Tai. Br. II. 1. 3. The sruo 
with whioh agnlhotra is offered is oailed agnibotra-havanl, whiob is 
made of yikaikafa wood, is as long as one's arm or aratni (ip. VI. 3. 6 
and com. thereon). 

2264. £p. VI. 7. 1 states that words addressed by the adhvaryu differ 
ao oording to the time ' fttwwfopptftWgTOl irfcf* qypnfawfWNts^fr 

Oh. XXIX ] lhauta Sacrifices-Agnihotra 1003 

replies standing * Yes, do take out '. Then the adhvaryu holds 
in his right hand the sruva ladle and in his left hand the 
agnihotra-hava?! with its mouth turned upwards, pours out into 
the agnihotra-havanl milk from the milk pot (already heated) 
with the Bruva four times nti and keeps the sruva in the milk 
pot. In Ap. VI. 7. 7-8 and Asv. II. 3. 13-14 it is said that the 
adhvaryu knowing the mind of the householder should draw 
the fullest ladle for the most favourite son of the saorifloer or 
if the latter desires that the eldest son should be most pro- 
sperous and the later ones less and less, then the first ladle is 
filled to the fullest; on the other hand if he wishes the 
youngest to be prosperous then the last ladle drawing is the 
fullest. Then the adhvaryu carrying a samidh of palasa wood 
a span in length over the rod of the sruo (inserting his 
finger between the two), holds the two together over the garha- 
patya very near its flames, carries the sruc towards the 
ahavanlya holding it as high as his nose ; when in the midst 
of the distance between the garhapatya and the ahavanlya, 
he brings the sruc down ( to the level of his navel ) and then 
again raising it up as high as his mouth, ho reaches the ahava- 
nlya and places the sruc and samidh on darbha blades ( on the 
kurca, says Baud. III. 5 ) to the west of the ahavanlya. He 
himself Bits to the northwest of the ahavanlya faoing the east, 
bends his knees, holds the sruo in his left hand and with the 
right hand offers the samidh mt in the midst of the ahavanlya 
fire with the mantra ' rajatam tvagnijyotisam * (according to Asv. 
II. 3. 15 ). Then he sips water with the mantra ' vidyud-asi 
vidya me papmanam-rtat-satyam-upaimi ' (Ap. VI. 9. 3, Asv. 

II. 7. 16). When the samidh has caught fire and is burning 
brightly, he offers the first oblation (of milk) on the samidh 
about two finger-breadths from its root with the mantra ' om 
bhiir-bhuvah-svarom, agnirjyotir jyotiragnih svaha' ( Vaj. S. 

III. 9 ). Aocording to Kat. he may optionally repeat the mantra 

2265. Milk is poured five times for those who are oalled pa£oB- 
vattins such as householders whose gotra is Jamadagni ( £p. VI. 8. 2 ). 
According to BaudhSyana (pravarSdhyBya 5) Vatsas, Bidas and Xra|i- 
senas are paficSvattins. Ap. sets out the fire mantras repeated at each 
of the fire times when milk is poured with the sruva. 

2266. The mantras differ aooording to the antra. Aocording to 
Jp. VI. 9. 3 one samidh or two or three may be offered and he prescribes 
different mantras for the three. The Tai. Br. II. 1. 8 upholds the 
offering of only one samidh. 

1004 History of DharmatMra [ Oh- XXIX 

• sajur devena ' ( Vaj. S. Ill 10). According to Ap. (VI. 10. 8)"" 
in the evening agnihotra the mantra is ' agnirjyotir ' &o ; while 
in the morning agnihotra it is 'suryo jyotir-jyotih. suryah 
svfthft* (Vsj. S. Ill 9 ). Then he places the sruc on the kusa 
blades and looks at the garhapatya with the thought ' bestow 
on me cattle*. Then be again takes up the sruc, makes a 
second offering (of milk) whioh is larger in measure than the 
first one, but this is offered silently, while he contemplates 
upon PrajSpati in his mind"' 8 . This second offering is made 
to the east or north of the first in such a way that the two 
will not oome in contact. He keeps more milk in the sruo than 
what is taken up in making the second offering. He then raises 
the sruo twice (thrice according to Ap. VI. 11. 3 ) in such 
a way that the flames of the fire turn north-wards and places 
the sruc on the kurca. He scours with his hand turned down- 
wards the spout of the ladle and then rubs his hand to which 
some drops of the milk stick on the north side of the kurca 
( the points of the kusas that are towards the north ) with 
the words ' salutation to the gods ' ( Kat. IV. 14. 20 ) or ' to you 
for securing oattle'. Ap. ( VI. 10. 10 ) says that he scours in 
the evening the sruc ( in order to remove what sticks to it ) 
from the end of the handle down to the bowl with the man- 
tra ' ise tva ' ( Tai. S. I. 1. 1. 1. ) and in the morning from 
the bowl to the end of the ladle with the mantra ' urje tv5 ' 
( Tai. S. 1. 1. 1. 1 ). Then while the palm is turned upwards, 
and while he wears his sacred thread in the prSdnavIta mode 
he places his fingers to the south of the roots of the kusa blades 
on the ground silently or with the mantra ' svadha pitrbhyah. * 
( Kat. IV. 14. 21 and Asv. II. 3. 21 ) or * svadha pitrbhyah pitrin 
jinva ( Ap. VI. 11. 4 ). Then he sips water ( but with the sacred 
thread in the upavlta form ) with his face turned to the east. 
Then he walks to the plaoe of the garhapatya, takes a fuel-stick 
( samidh ) in his hand while standing. He then sits down to the 
northwest of the garhapatya with his face turned towards the 

2267. The Tai. Br. II. 1. 2. says awr^ flef g*n5r s^rfa sutts i. 
According to the Tai. Br. II. 1. 9 the mantras are ' sti iigqTffr nrffftng: 
wtift wr* atffl ». *vf 5TJh%vn%-. *$i wrtft top i >. ip. VI. 10. 8 has 

the same wordi. Zp. VI. 10. 9 ( alternatively ) and 6at. III. 7. preecribe 
a joint mantra for a joint deity 'wiir ^fiMTfih ^f wt%ft m vsfHffit- 
"fffttffh Wlfcft TOTt '. 

2268. Vide &. #. II. 5. 11. 5 'jrOTwrTOT wm* g*fil', Sat. Br. I. 
3.6. 10, Tai. Br. II. 1. 2. arc* II. 3. 19 says JfirpTfif *nwr WTTNT, 
3*$ tffojlsriw. 

Oh. XXIX ] faauta Sacriftces-Agnihotra 1005 

east, bends his knee, offers the sattridh in the garhapatya fire, 
then drawing out in the sruva milk from the pot offers it into 
the fire with a mantra ( ta asya sudadohasah ' Rg. VIII. 69. 3, 

according to Asv. II, 3. 26, or ' iha pustim pustfpatir pustf- 

pataye svShft \ acoording to Kat. IV. 14. 23). He offers a second 
oblation of milk by the sruva silently acoording to Kat. ( IV. 
14. 24 ) or with the words ' bhurbhuvah svah suprajah prajabhih 
sy&m suvlro vlraih suposah posaih ' and with at least any three 
verses addressed to Agni and with the verses ' agna ayumsi 
pavase * $g. IX. 66. 19-21 ( according to As v. II. 3. 27-29 ). 
Then he offers one oblation of milk with the sruva ladle into the 
daksinagni with the words ' annadayanna-pataye svSha ' and a 
second one silently. He then touches water, turns northwards 
and with one of his fingers ( with the ring finger ' anamika ' 
according to Kat. IV. 14. 26 ) he takes out what remains in the 
sruc and lioks it noiselessly without allowing it to come in 
contact with his teeth. He then sips water and lioks it a 
second time and then sips water. He then takes into another 
vessel or on his own palm all remnants ( of milk &o. ) in the 
sruo and licks the contents of the vessel or his palm once with 
his tongue. According to Ap. ( VI. 11. 5 and VI. 12. 2 ) and 
Baud. III. 6 he holds the sruo in such a way that its rod is 
turned east or north, and licks mi the sruo itself twice, fills it 
with water, pours down to the west the water ( from the ladle ) 
with the mantra ' propitiate those who partake of leavings', 
sips water, and wipes the agnihotrahavanl with darbha blades. 
Then he washes his hand, performs acamana twice, goes near 
the ahavanlya, sits down, fills the sruo with water and spills 
the water from the ladle to the north of the ahavanlya with the 
words ' devSn jinva; ' he repeats the same process again and 
wearing the sacred thread in the praclnavlta form and turning 
to the south he pours water to the south of the ahavanlya for the 
pitrs with the words ' pitFn jinva '. He then repeats the same 
prooess as for gods and sprinkles water upwards in the north-east 
a third time with the words * sapta-raln jinva '. He fills the 
sruo a fourth time, removes the darbhas from the place ( kuroa- 
sthana)where they were placed to the west of the ahavanlya, 

The lioking of the agnihotrahavanl is one of the actions 
forbidden in the Kali age '«iiit#sitn<"jr«J &** sftsnftlTfs' quoted in 
Sin. 0. I. p. 12;' vide com. on Sat. HI. 7 ' snupy fopyyfl «n W9T ftTWT- 
*rfo ffc«* f*r#if? ' where it is said ' 3r* *S«prfJnriw*1«inj qs& tSpwfi > W g- 
TW*Tfff$ sffiK^sprcft 9#tfrtTIT TTT'TOH I » 

1006 History of Dharma&astra (Ch. XXIX 

pours down water on that place thrice, so as to end the stream 
in the east or north. He then heats the sruo and sruva on the 
ahavanlya fire together and keeps them on the antarvedi or 
hands them over to an attendant. He then offers three 
samidhs to each of the three fires in the order in which he 
performed paryuksana ( i. e. in the order ahavanlya, garhapatya, 
daksinagui, or garhapatya, daksin&gni, ahavanlya ). After this 
the house-holder engages in waiting upon agni with vdtsapra 
prayers or in a brief worship by repeating only ' bhurbhuvah 
svah &c.' ( Vaj. III. 37 ) ; then he pays silent homage to the 
ahavanlya and sits near it for a moment; then he sleeps or 
sits near the garhapatya ; then he performs paryuksana for all 
the fires, then the householder breaks silence and performs 
aoamana and then when he goes out be contemplates in mind 
the daksipagni. The wife also performs acamana ( at the end ) 

According to Kat. ( IV. 12. 1-2 ) the upasthana ( worship or 
homage ) of the fires in the evening after oblations are offered 
in agnihotra with the Vatsapra mantras ( Vaj. S. III. 11. 36 
and Sat. Br. II. 3. 4. 9-41 ) is optional and the householder may 
simply repeat one verse ( Vaj, S. III. 37 and 6at. Br. II. 4. 1. 
1-2 ). Ap. ( VI. 16. 4 and 6 ) prescribes as upasthana the six 
verses ' upaprayanto * ( Tai. S, I. 5. 5 ) and several others, which 
are passed over for want of space. There were several views 
about upasthana, some holding that upasthana was to be per- 
formed only in the evening and not in the morning, others 
holding that it was to be performed at both times but only with 
the Vatsapra mantras ( Rg. X. 45 ) or with the Gosukta ( 9g. 
VI. 28 ) or Asvasukta ( Rg. I. 163 ). Vide Ap. VI. 19. 4-9 to 
VI. 23. 

Ap. ( VI. 15. 10-13 ) has certain interesting rules about agni- 
hotra in the case of ksatriyas. At first he says a ksatriya 
should permanently maintain the ahavanlya fire, but he does 
not perform the daily agnihotra. He should however send food 
from his house to a brahmana at the time when the agnihotra 
homa is ordinarily performed, whereby he secures the perfor- 
mance of agnihotra, but the adhvaryu should make the rajanya 
reoite the mantras of the worship of fire ( agnyupasthana noted 
above ). A rajanya however who has performed somay&ga and 
always speaks the truth may perform agnihotra daily. As v. 
( II. 1. 3-5 ) says that a ksatriya ( and a vaisya ) may perform 
agnihotra on the New Moon and Full Moon days, that on other 

Oh. XXIX 1 &rauta Sacrifices- Agnihotra 1007 

days he should send cooked food to a brShmana who is devoted 
to his duties and that a ksatriya or vaisya who always abides 
by truth ( in thought and word ) and has offered a soma sacri- 
fice may engage in daily agnihotra. It is probable that these 
rules were made to allow more time to ksatriyas and vaisyas 
for their chief occupations. Acoording to Ap. VI. 15. 14-16, 
Asv. IL 4. 2-4 and others the householder Bhould every day 
personally perform the agnihotra, but if he oannot do that, he 
must do it personally at least on parva days and on other days 
a priest, a pupil or a son may perform his agnihotra for him. 

The procedure in the morning agnihotra is the same as the 
evening agnihotra except in a few details e. g. the paryuksana 
mantra in the morning is different in Aav. II. 4. 25 ' satyartft- 
bhy&m tvS paryuksami ', while in the evening it is * rtasatya- 
bhyam tva &o. ' ( Aav. II. 2. 11 ), the samidh is offered into fire 
in the morning with the mantra ' harinlm tva suryajyotisam- 
aharis'lak&m-upadadhe sv&ha ' ( while in the evening the 
mantra is 'rajatam tvagnijyotisam ratrim-istakam-upadadhe 
sv&ha ' Asv. II. 4. 25 and II. 3. 15 ); the mantra in offering an 
oblation of milk in the fire in the morning is ' bhurbhuvah- 
svarom, suryo jyotir jyotih suryah svaha', while in the 
evening the word ' agnih ' is substituted for * suryah ' ( Asv. 
II. 4. 25 and II. 3. 16 ). Vide Kit. IV. 15 for further details. 

The sutras set out rules about what the householder is to do 
when he leaves his homa for one night or for a longer period. 
Vide Sat. Br. II. 4. 1. 3-14, Asv. II. 5, Ap, VL 24-27, Est. 
IV. 12. 13-24. According to Asv. the important rules are : he 
kindles the fires into flames, sips water (aoamana) and performs 
the worship of the ahavanlya, garhapatya and dakainSgni by 
going near them and repeating respectively the three mantras 
' samsya pasun me pahi \ ' narya prajSm me p&hi ' and ' atharva 
pitum me pahi ' (all three in V&j. S. III. 37). Then while stand- 
ing near the daksinagni he should look at the other two with the 

mantra' imSn me mitr&varunau groan gopayatam punar- 

ftyanSt' (Kanaka S. VII. 3., Mai. S. I. 5. 14, with variations ). 
He then traces the same way back and comes to the ahavanlya 
and offers worship to it with the mantra ' mama nama ' 
( Tai. S. I. 5. 10. 1, quoted in note 553 above). He should then 
start on his journey without looking baok at his fires and 
should mutter the hymn ' ma pranama.' When he reaches a 
place from whioh the roof of his fire-house is not visible he may 
break silence. On reaching the road leading from his house to 

1008 History of DharmaiOstra [ Ch. XXIX 

bis destination he should recite ' sada sugah ' ( Rg. III. 54. 21 ). 
When he returns from his journey to his village, he should 
repeat ' api pantham ' ( Rg. VI. 51. 16 ). He should then observe 
silence, take fuel-stioks in his hand and on learning that his 
fires have been kindled into flames ( by his son or pupil ) he 
should look at the ahavanlya with two verses ( set out in 
-5.SV. II. 5. 9 ). Then placing tbe samidhs he does homage to 
the ahavanlya with the verse ' mama nama tava oa ' ( Tai. S. 
I. 5. 10. 1 ) and then he places samidhs on the ahavanlya, 
garhapatya and daksinfigni with one mantra each ( which are 
Vaj. S. III. 28-30 ). 

These rules apply when the house-holder alone goes on a 
journey leaving the wife at home. When the house-holder is 
away alone it is his duty to perform all actions at the time of 
agnihotra and darSapurnamasa ( such as sipping water ) which 
he can perform without his fires and to go mentally 8no through 
the whole procedure and to observe all vratas (such as subsisting 
on roots and fruits when required ). Vide Ap. IV. 16. 18, 
Est. IV. 12. 16 and com. thereon. When he goes on a journey 
alone he should entrust his fires to his wife and should appoint 
a priest to perform the necessary rites ( vide note 1634 above ). 
When the house-holder starts on a journey accompanied by his 
wife he should take bis fires with him. If both husband and 
wife go on a journey without taking their fires with them, then 
a priest cannot offer the agnihotra homa in their absence and 
on return the house-holder has to again set up the fires ( has to 
perform pumradhana ). mi 

2270. 'amn %&fm *& jron&crmfhrsr: i 3nri*n gfa: *A < mre i M*Hg - 
^ i «trRfcroif$ ll - 167 ; "*«*. ftg Kgfofwft *n<sm* sroft i «n. IV. 16. 18. 

2271. amntf a ?«trVV ... n^fim^f^ it fatrnfif *r*n*?«faft*n5H^«7 
•nwfit i yfrrarretwfr im jitrvrmma'A h «ftfawgfi > III. 1-2, quoted by 
$<rwrawrc p. 101 and wi^t on ww. *ft. VI. 27. 6. For the first verse, 
see n. 1636 above. 

plan showing 
" darSapurnamasa-vihara " 

(as seen at the Mlmamsa Vidyalaya, Poena ) 





Mrfta -*r*i 



ABODE indicates trsmpr wart 



snw£ „ 



wjn ii 


. ii 

• -f>I ii 



wnfor n 

si = JJuRill 




The DarsapQrnamasa sacrifice is the pattern or arohetype(.pra- 
krti) of all other is^is (which are called vikrtis or modifications). 
The srauta sutras therefore describe first the Darsapur^am&sa at 
length, though in the order of time agny&dh&na comes first. 
Mv. II. 1. 1 says that all istfs, sacrifices in whioh an animal is 
offered and those in which soma is offered are explained by the 
PaurnamSsa is^i. According to Ap. III. 14. 11-13 a person, 
after he sets up the three fires, has to perform the Darsapurna- 
mUsa throughout his life ( till he becomes a samny&sin) or for 
thirty years ( after whioh he may stop ) or till he becomes very 
old ( and unable to perform the rite ). ms 

The word ' am&v&syS * literally means ' the day when ( the 
sun and the moon ) dwell or are together. ' It is that tit hi (day) 
on which both the sun and the moon are the nearest to eaoh 
other, while paurnamasl is ' the tithi on whioh the sun and the 
moon are at the greatest distanoe from eaoh "other. ' Purnam&sa 
means ' that moment when the moon is full. ' Daria has the 
same sense as amSv&syS. Darsa is taken to mean ' the day on 
which the moon is seen only by the sun and by no one else. ' 
Darsa ( m ) and purnamasa ( m ) secondarily mean the rites that 
are performed on the amSvasya and the paurnamasl respec- 
tively." 7 * An istf means a sacrifice in whioh the saorificer 
employs four priests. 

8272. Vide Tai. S. I. 1. 1-13, I. 6-7, II. 6-6, &t. Br. I. (S. B. B. 
vol. 12 pp. 1-273), Mr. I. 1. 4-1. 13. 10, £p. I-IV, Kat. II-IV. 6, 
Band. I. 

2273. '^reaflr* tt» f yfn i«i«vt V*m' quoted by Sahara on Jai. X. 8. 
36. Vide Sat. Br. XI. 1. 2. 13 (S. B. E. vol. 44, p. 5) for 30 years, invqt 
^rrotfrt tSw i firsra *r wlPi • afiuif. *r ftr$nn i srw. III. 14. 11-13. 

2274. Vide fopna'V on wtwt» (1.1. 'ti^fi *t') "ifrRrat i * s ir<tft 
ftsrotfj «vr>w«rh *rr mI^kA vi ifwt #f3ro<f : *m«mr«rr i ... «wr jjnf 

HWnpft ' «nTT^T?Tff | wrr^ ' («nMfa 3- 1. 122) yf^ <tt(^i^<hi«ii(<) *J 

«1 1**1 Kit I '!. ■> 

H. D. 187 

1010 History of DharmaiOatra [ Oh. XXX 

A sketch of the darsapurnam&sa isti is given below princi- 
pally based upon the srautasutras of SatySsadha and Asvalayana. 

One who has performed agnyadheya should begin the 
performance of darsapurnam&sa on the first Full Moon day after 
it. The istf on the Full -moon day may occupy two days, but 
all the actions to be performed in it can be compressed into one 
day."™ If extended over two days it is performed on the full 
moon day and the pratipad ( the first day of the dark half that 
follows the Full Moon day ), the former being called upavaaatha 
day" 7 ' and the latter yajaniya day. On the upavasatha day 
aghyanvadhana ( offering fuel.stioks into fire) and paristarana 
are performed in the case of the purnamSsa rite and on the 
yajaniya day the rest is performed. If it is the first purnam&sa 
isti or the first darsa isti, then the sacrificer has to perform the 
Anvarambhanlya istf, whioh is briefly described in the note 
below. ,m 

On the morning of the full moon day the saorificer, after 
the performance of bis daily agnihotra, sitting on a seat of 
darbhas to the west of the gSrhapatya, holding kusa grass in his 
hand and performing prSnayama and accompanied by his wife, 
makes a samkalpa ( resolve ) as noted below." 78 Then he says 
to the four priests viz., adhvaryu, brahmft, hotr and ftgnldhra 

2275. Vide com. on K«t. II. 1. 16-17 ' ftfomt ^ yn w iTl * 

wsjfMl witobw nn*<i*fm 1 trw ^ n£)u.r<i4t<iitMir || <i*ji'u*'<iQ.M*ii4~ 

2276. The Sat. Br. 1. 1. 7 derives the word by saying that as all the 
gods betake themselves to the saorifloer's house and abide by him ( from 
' vaa ' with ' npa * ) it Is called upavasatha. Com. on £p. I. 14. 16 says 
1 ^t vreriTsiiftarfA ft«j«fif5isl wnr row ' ; 'is^iprt %*mwt <oJHita*fft 
wren w ymm«ims*ti^n<n(iimH«wnimHQ»iRfJl fcm • ' com. on wrraro 
I. 3. p. 99. 

2277. At first two oblations are offered to Barasvatl with two man* 
tras from Tai. S. III. 6. 1. 1. and the anvBrambhanlyS follows. In this a 
cake cooked on eleven potsherds is offered to Agni and Visnu, a earn 
to Barasvatl, a cake on twelve potsherds to Sarasvat and a cake on eight 
potsherds to Agni Bhagin. Jaimini ( IX. 1. 34-36 ) establishes that the 
anvKrambhanlyK is not repeated every time, but is performed only once. 
Vide Tai. 8. III. 6. 1, Aiv. II. 8, ip. V. 23. 4-9, Baud. II. 21 for 
further details. 

2278. The *i*m is efrrfftereftotf iffalfWI »rqft ; on amKvHsyK he 
employs the word a^ftnrr for ^afaittjy . 

6h. XX3tj Jtoria-Puryamfoa iOli 

* I choose thee, so and so by name, as my adhvaryu, as my 
brahma, as my hot? and as my agnldhra. " The adhvaryu takes 
fire from the g&rhapatya, carries it to the ahavanlya mound and 
also to the daksinftgni mound and plaoes a fuel-stiok with its 
end to the east on the ahavanlya with the verse ' mam&gne 
varco ,,,M ( Rg. X. 128. 1, Tai. S. IV. 7. 14. 1 ). The adhvaryu 
and saorifioer perform japa by muttering three verses"* ( from 
Tai. Br. III. 7. 4 set out in Sat. I. 2. p. 71 ). While he is between 
the two fires ( ahavanlya and garhapatya ) he mutters standing 
a verse ' antar5gni...manlsaya ' ( Tai. Br. III. 7. 4 ). Then he 
offers a samidh into the garhapatya fire with Rg. X. 128. 2 (=Tai. 
S. IV. 7. 14. 1, ' mama deva vihave * ). The adhvaryu and saori- 
fioer mutter two verses ' iha praja &c. ' and ' iha pasavo ' ( Tai. 
Br. III. 7. 4, Sat. I. 2. p. 71 ). The adhvaryu then places a 
samidh on the daksioa fire with ' mayi deva ' ( Rg. X. 128. 3, 
Tai. S. IV. 3. 14. 1). Then the two mutter a verse 'ayam pitrnam" 
(Tai. Br. III. 7. 4). Those who maintained sabhya and avasathya 
fires offered samidhs to them with mantras" 81 ( from Tai. Br. 
III. 7. 4 ). 

If the saorifioer is one who has already performed a soma 
sacrifice then he has to go through the ceremony called ' sakha- 
harana '. Such a saorifioer had to offer sanmyya ( which is 

2279. A mantra is ordinarily to be recited after saying ' oni '. But 
this is not the rule in srauta rites and so this has not been stated in the 
text everywhere. The fuol-stick may be offered either by the saorifioer 
or by the adhvaryu ( KSt. II. 1. 2). 

2280. The first verse is ariS OTrft art $1 wvH$ aTgwrrftyfi «?r*l# • 
sm%rt svtf&Tt s'frftvw* 4r V$mr Tjwt %«nn«r: n This is repeated if the 
pHraamSsa if$i extends over two days, but if performed in one day he 
has to say srci tnjrrT f °r *«fl f*TV. The third verse is fJTTijS <T«r»^ff ^ 
jrf3*rsni4*R tRottO T*' • «ffr$«rsrn%5- imrmra <frfart gftfapM «t? • 
On the darseefi he repeats Knmwf fftj for qWfmff (rft: in the above. 

2281. There is a great divergence of view as to the mantras, the 
order of the fires and the number of samidhs. Est. (II. 1. 8-4) prescribes 
the offering of two samidhs in each fire (one with a mantra and the 
other silently). The hymn 9g. X. 128 or Tai. & IV. 3. la is called 
' Vihavya '. In the %. it has nine verses, in the Tai. S. it has tea. 
Some held that three verses of this hymn should be repeated for eaoh fire 
( Ap. I. 1. 5). The order of fires was, according to some, first gSrhapatya, 
then daksinlgni, then Bhavanlya (K«t. II. 1. 6). Some said that only 
the vytikrtiB were to be uttered when offering fuel-sticks (Ap. 1. 1. 7, 
Eat. IL 1. 6). Another view was that fuel-sticks were to be offered 

1012 History of DharmaiOalra [Oh. XXX 

prepared by adding to fresh heated milk the sour milk or curds 
of the preoeding night's milking ). S,M According to the Tai. S. 
II. 5. 4. 1 sannayya was offered only by a somay&jl. Sann&yya 
was offered to Indra or Mahendra ( Sat. Br. I. 6. 4. 21 and Est. 
IV. 2. 1 0). The Tai. S. II. 5. 4. 4 says that only one who is gata&ri 
( explained above in note 2259 ) can offer sannayya to Mahendra, 
while Sat. ( I. 4 p. 103 ) says that for a year or two after soma- 
ySga the sannayya should be offered to Indra and then to 
Mahendra. In the full moon istf the deities to whom purodasa 
( oake ) is offered are Agni and Agnlsoma and in it ajya is 
offered to PrajSpati silently between the two purodasas. In the 
new moon isji the deities of purodasa are Agni and Indragni 
and sannayya is offered by a somayajl to Indra or Mahendra 
instead of the purodasa to Indragni ( Asv. I. 3. 9-12 ). 

Now ikkhaharaw ( whioh applies only to him who has 
performed soma-yaga and only in darsestf ) will be described. 
The adhvaryu fetches a fresh branch of the palasa or saml 
tree, whioh ( branch ) is taken from the eastern, northern or 
north-east side of the tree, whioh has many leaves and whioh 
has not a dried up end. Vide Jai. IV. 2. 7 about the text ' he 
brings a branch turned to the east ' &o. He outs it off with 
the words ' iae tva ' ( Tai. S. 1. 1. 1. 1 ), then touches water, 
makes it straight or wipes it down with ' iirje tv& ' ( Tai. S. I. 
1. 1. 1 ), brings it towards the sacrifioial ground with a verse 
* imam priclm * ( Tai. Br. III. 7. 4 set out in Ap. 1. 2. 1, Sat. I. 2, 
p. 76 ). With that branch he drives away ( or separates ) from 
their mothers six calves with the mantra ' vayavas ethopfiyavas 
sfcha ' ( Tai. S. 1. 1. 1. 1 ). The adhvaryu makes the oows ( of the 
sacrificer) start for the pasture with "the mantra 'devovah 
savita vah stena Isata magha-samsah ' ( Tai. 
S. I. 1. 1), invokes them, when they have started, with a 
mantra 'suddha apah suprapftne pibantth' (Bg. VI. 28. 7, 
Tat Br. II. 8. 8 set out in Sat. I. 2. p. 79 ). Then be returns to 

the house of the saorifioer with ' dhruva asmin bahvlh' 

( Tai* S. L 1. 1 ) and keeps the branch in a well-known plaoe (bo 
that it might not fall or be lost ) on the sacred fire ground or on 
a wooden frame near the fires with ' protect the oattle of the 
saorifioer ' (Tai. S. 1. 1.1). Jai. ( III. 6. 28-29 ) states that 
stkhsharana 1b meant for both evening and morning milking. 

■ I ■ I H m > Wl l PI H ^W ■— I UN I I — —— — ■—■ II III III ■ ill ■■ ■■ Ill— !!.■■»■ ■— » 

M88. Tide Bang's tr. of Ait. Br. p. 443 for the preparation of 

Oh. XXX ] Daria-Purvamdsa 1013 

The saorifioei im crosses by the west of the ahavanlya to its 
south and performs Scamana ( sipping water ). Then he con* 
templates on the sea and pays homage to the deities viz. Agni, 
Vftyu, Aditya'and Vratapati in the manner set out below." 8 * 

BarhirUharam (bringing in the bundles of saored kusa 
grass for use). There are various stages in this operation, 
eaoh stage having its own mantra. The mantras are short 
prose formulae whioh occur in the Tai. S. I. 1. 2. They are 
not set out in detail here. The various stages are: he 
( adhvaryu) takes up a sickle or the rib of a horse or ox kept 
to the north of the g&rhapatya with the famous mantra 

' devasya tvft savitub prasave adade' (I take thee at the 

impulse of God savitr &o. ). He pays homage to the g&rha- 
patya with a mantra. The sickle (but not the rib) is heated 
on the garhapatya fire. He then goes to the east or north of 
the sacrificial ground ( vih&ra ) for some distance, finds out a 
spot where the desired grass grows, leaves aside one clump of 
darbhas from those growing there and marks as many clumps 
of darbha as he feels would be enough for his purpose, leaves 
one clump or one or two blades with the words, ' I leave you 
aside as the portion of beasts', touohes those darbhas that he 
intends to cut with 'this is for the gods', holds them by his 
olosed fingers (of the left hand), rubs them upwards with his 
right hand, brings the siokle in close oontaot with them, 
repeats a mantra over the grass and cuts off as much as ean be 
held in his olosed fingers the nails of whioh touoh eaoh other. 
This first handful of blades that are out is oalled prastara. 
Then he further outs an uneven number of handfuls of darbhas 
( 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 ), M8S repeating the same processes and mantras 
for eaoh handful, touches the stumps from whioh blades are 
out off with the mantra ' God Barhis 1 may you grow into a 
hundred shoots' and touohes the region of his heart with 'may 

8183. In the case of one who has not performed somayBga and 
who therefore offers no sffnnByya the actions from cutting off a twig 
to its being laid down are not done, but the first important matter that 
is began in hit case is fetohing barhii (kusa grass). Vide Band. 1. 1 

8284. aijf Brcrrfr «m *tffrvti$ woferf «r»ft tmwwc i wnft ww& art ••• 
■jwwh, I wrfitw «irr% ••• www* • w*r«rt awqif ••• ir*«wtrat • • Vide lai. S. 
1. 6. 10. 8 for the first and Tai. Br. III. 7. 4 for all. 

OT8S. ip. 1. 4. 3 and Band. I. t speak of an meres number of 
mufti$, while Sat. 1. 8, p. 84 says they may be even or uneven fn number. 

16U History cf bharmailtstra l Ch. JCJCJt 

we grow into thousand branches'. He touohes water and 
passes round a handful of darbhas a oord (sulba) from left to 
right, then puts thereon another handful of darbhas and passes 
a oord round it. In this way three or five handfuls are sur- 
rounded by a oord, which has its end stretched on the ground 
towards the east or north. Then heaps of blades are added on 
and over the last heap the prastara is placed. The whole is 
then firmly bound with the cord and a knot is made. He takes 
hold of the bundle thus tied, raises it up, plaoes it on his head, 
returns with it by the way he went, keeps it inside the vedi 
on some grass ( and not on the bare ground ) near the spot 
where the middle paridhi would be. He pronounces over tbe 
barhis thus placed a mantra and keeps the barhis near the 
gSrhapaty a on a mat or the like. He also cuts off silently and 
brings along with barhis other darbhas called paribhojaniya and 
dried up kusa grass also (ulaparfiji). MM 

Idhmaharaya (bringing the wood-sticks). Twenty-one 
wood-sticks of palftsa or khadira are required, out of which 15 
are meant for throwing into the fire at the time of repeating 
the sftmidhenl verses, three are paridhis, U8T two samidhs are 
to be used at the two agharas and the 21st is the stick for 
anuyajas. A oord is made of darbhas and spread on the ground 
with its end to the north, the idhraa 1b heaped on it with a 
mantra (Ap. I, 6. 1, Sat. 1. 1, p. 89). The bundle is tied with 
the oord and a knot is made and the idhma is laid alongside 
of the barhis. The pieces of wood that are thrown off when 
cutting the idhma are called idhmapravraicana. A bunch of 
darbhas called veda is made of the size of the knee of a calf by 
doubling and tying the darbhas with a cord and outting the 

2286. The paribhojaniya darbhas are meant for making seats for 
the priests, the sacrifioei and his wife. Vide Hang's tr. of Ait. Br. 
p. 79 for a note on "barbis, paribhojanlya and veda. £p. I. 6. 4 states 
that while making the veda bnnob the mantra ' tvayS vedim viridnh ' 
(Tai. Br. III. 7. 4) is recited. 

8287. qftft means an enoircling stick of wood * «t%Tt <rRlft tfhpfc 
mft fntfw «rifcrqn ' com. on Bat. I. 2, p. 88. They are of some sacrifloial 
tree snch as pallta, kKramarya, khadira, udumbara Ac. They may be 
nndried or dried bnt mnst hare the bark on. The middle one is the 
thiokest, that to the south is the longest, that to the north is the thinnest 
and shortest. Vide 2p. I. 5. 7-10 and Kit. II. 8. 1 for paridhis. Tbe 
paridhis are about three spans or one bahu long, while samidhs are 
two spans ( prttesa, distanoe between the thumb and index finger when 
both are stretched away from each other). 

Ob. XXX ] JDaria-PurvamcLaa 1015 

darbhas about one span above the tying cord and a mantra Is 
repeated over it ( 4 vedosi * &o. in Sat. I. 2. p. 80). This veda 
is employed in sweeping the vedi with a mantra. It is given 
to the wife wben she has to repeat a mantra in any action 
( compare Asv. 1. 11. 1 ). The out portions of darbhas of whioh 
veda is formed are called veda-parivdsana. These two, idhma- 
pravrasoana and veda-pariv&sana, are placed together. He 
takes up a branoh, outs off its leaves (but not all) inside the 
vedi, so chisels one end of it as to make of it a shovel. This 
is called upavesa" 81 . He recites a mantra over it (upavesosi... 
bhavftsi nah, Ap. 1. 6. 7, Sat. I. 3. p. 91 ). In the Full moon 
sacrifice the upavesa is made silently. He places on the 
upavesa a triple (made of three darbhas) band of darbhas in 
such a way that the roots and end portions of both are in contact 
but they are not tied together into a knot over it. The saorificer 
invokes this triple band called pavitra with a mantra 'trivrt 
palsse &o. • ( Tat Br. III. 7. 4, ip. L 6. 10, Sat. I. 3. p. 92 ). 

After this in the afternoon the pinda-pitryajfia is perfor- 
med in the darses^i, but not in the puruamasa istf. Pinda- 
pitryajfia is separately described below. 

If the sacrificer has celebrated the soma sacrifice at some 
time then he has to perform aayam-doha. When the house- 
holder has offered the evening agnihotra, he spreads darbhas to 
the north of the garhapatya, washes the sannayya utensils (that 
are the same as are required for sayarn-doha ) in twos and lays 
them on the darbhas with their mouths turned downwards. 
The utensils are stated in the note below." 8 * He then makes 

2288. wynDqmrg gTgffri fr ffi» fliTWramfr i com. on ip. I. 6. 7. It is 
■ one span long. Com. on wrm- II. 4. 26 says ' gqfrffc f ITl^fiTtrw g fWr- 
YftmreTC'* It is of palKsa and one end of it is made to resemble a 

1189. atiftgfrnrftgqngq^ eHwmft s wft wMf ffrfiw a jfrmnrern t 
■jmrw WT fanwrSr. • HWIWW I. 3. p. 93- These are eight. Vide ip. I. 
11. 6 for these. For agni-hotrahavanl and upavesa vide notes 2X63 
and 2288 above. UlchU is the same as the kumbhl of ip. Ukha is an 
earthen vessel or pan. AbhidhVnlit a rope for tying the cow (or the 
ealf -according to com. on ip.). The two nidancu are ropes for tying the 
hind feet of the cow near her hoofs and knees. Dohana it the pot in 
whioh the cow is milked. There is a wooden or metal lid to cover the 
dohana. SSkhSpavitra is made from the branch out of which the upavesa 
was prepared and ooniists in the top of that branch whioh is tied round 
wUh three darbhas like a braid ( according to f»r. P, N. ). 

1016 Hittoru (f JDharmaiQstra I Ch. Ill 

two pavitras (strainers, purifiers) of two darbbas tbat are 
alike in appearance and colour, a span in length, the tips of 
which are not out, but which are out from their stems with a 
knife or siokle by having a blade of grass or wood placed over 
them ( but not with the nails ) with a mantra ' pavitre stho * 
( Tai. Br. III. 7. 4 ) and are invoked with a mantra ( pr&n&p&nau 
&o. ). The adhvaryu wipes them with water upwards ( from 
the bottom ) with the mantra ' you two are holy by the mind of 
Visnu '. Jai. III. 8. 32 ( and also Sahara thereon ) says that the 
two pavitras and the vidhrfcis ( described later on ) are not taken 
from the cut barhis, but from the kusa grass called pari- 
bhojanlya. The adhvaryu loudly announces ' purify the cow, 
the ropes and all the utensils \ m0 The adhvaryu places the two 
pavitras inside the agnihotra-havanl, pours water therein, puri- 
fies the water by moving the pavitras eastward and then baok- 
wards and raising them up thrioe with their tips to the north by 
repeating the mantra in the gayatrl metre ' devo vah savitot- 
punStu ' ( Tai. S. 1. 1. 5. 1 ) onoe," 9 ' there being a rest at the end 
of each pftda ( and twice silently ). He invokes the water with 
' apo devlr-agrepuv«...( Tai. 1. 1. 5. 1, Vaj. S. 1.12-13 ), then turns 
the mouths of the vessels upwards and sprinkles them thrice 
with the water ( leaving no water in the agnihotrahavanl ) and 
with ' may you purify for this divine rite, for the worship of 
gods ' ( Tai. S. I. 1. 3. 1 ). He keeps the two pavitras in a well- 
known plaoe. He waits for the cows coming from the pasture 
with a mantra 'eta acaranti' (Tai. Br. III. 7. 4)." M The 
adhvaryu takes the upavesa with ' thou art dhrsti, impart brahma' 
( Tai. S. 1. 1. 7. 1 ), takes out with the upavesa burning coals 
from the g&rhapatya to its north. He places the ukha on those 
coals and kindles burning coals round it with ' may you become 
hot with the tapaa of Bhrgus and Angirases ' ( Tai. S. L 1. 7. 2 ). 
Then he issues a direction to the milker of the cow " announce 

8290. Most of the mantras in the sSyamdoba are taken from the 
Tai. 8. 1. 1. 3 and 5, 7 and Tai. Br. III. 7. 4 and they are not specified 
in eaoh oaae. Some mantras are sautra. Each action is accompanied 
by a mantra which directly or indirectly refers to it. As the Ait. Br. I. 
4 says i^fit *rqrw trf^t TS^W^jJ ^5 Wt nhwiU'4$rf0tas.<nfti 1 

2291. According to Sp. 1.11.9 the three pndat of the mantra accom- 
pany eaoh act of utpavana. vJWaHgqim mt q ftWT*Vrqwfa p> STtVWWVPr. 1 
^TifJraiT CWPN vfiHfr ^rftafl?3^f% flwjjPT^nwi, 1 com. on Sat. I. 9. jj. 94. 

2292. From £p. 1. 11. 10 it appears that the mantra ' etl Scaranti ' 
isjreoited by the sacrifices . 

Oh. XXX ] Dariapurwrndsa-sayaihdoha 1017 

to me when the oalf joins the oow ". He places the iakhQpavitra 
with its tip to the east ( to the north in the morning milking ) 
in the ukha with a mantra, touches-the ukha and restrains his 
speeoh"' 3 holding the iakhapavitra. The person who is to milk 
the cow takes the abhidhanl ( the rope ) with ' adityai rasnasi ' 
( Tai. S. 1. 1. 2. 2 ) and the two nidSna ropes silently and makes 
the oalf join the cow with ' thou art Pusan \ The adhvaryu 
issues a direotion that no one is to pass between the oow that is 
being suoked by the calf and the sacrificial ground ( vihara ) 
and all obey it. The adhvaryu invokes the cow with a mantra 
and the milker Bits down near the cow to milk her with a 
mantra. 8594 The householder repeats a mantra when the cow is 
being milked and another when he hears the sound of the 
streams of milk falling into the vessel. The milker brings the 
milk to the adhvaryu, who asks him ' whom did you milk, 
declare to us, ( this is ) an offering to Indra, it is vigour '. The 
milker refers to the oow by her name ( suoh as Gangs ) and adds 
' in whom milk has been placed for gods and men '. The 
adhvaryu replies ' she ( the cow named ) is the life of all '. 
The adhvaryu places the pavitra in the kumbhl ( or ukha ) and 
pours therein the milk across the pavitra with a mantra. The 
adhvaryu gets two more cows milked in the same manner ( i. e. 
with the same mantras &c. ) except the directions ( such as no 
one should come &o. ). The only difference is that the names 
of the cows will be different ( such as Yamuna ) and that the 
2nd and 3rd oows are referred to by him respectively as ' visva- 
vyacSh ' and ' visvakarmft ' instead of ' visvSyub ' ( in his prati- 
vaoana ). After three cows are milked he loudly utters thrioe 
' milk much for Indra, may the offering (havya) increase for the 
gods, for the calves, for men ; be ready for milking again '. If 
there are more cows ( generally six are referred to ) they also 
are got milked with the same mantras as for the first cow or 
silently and the adhvaryu does not hold his tongue, nor does he 

2293. The oom. on Ap. 1. 12. 5 explains that \ vBgyamana (holding 
one's tongue ) means * not uttering any word except a mantra '. * ns^rt- 

^mjwhqvI wr^pr^ vf^ i»ret "f re^i^ft f&ynt ' com. 

2294. The cow is to be made to yield milk by the suoking of the 
oalf and not by manipulating the udders with the hand. ' mfat % 
ffcrS JRnr: mvrt ' com. on Sat. I. 3. p. 96. The &. wt. II. 1. 8 ( «r«Jsj;. 
tjft ) forbids manipulation of the udders with fingers to induce the 
flow of milk. Ap. 1. 12. 15 says that there is an option as to whether a 
dndra oaa be the milker in this sacrifice. 

«. D. 128 

1018 History of DharmaiMra [ Oh. XXX 

touch the kumbhl while the other oows are being milked. Jai. 
(XL 1. 47-53) conoludes that the passage of Tai. Br. about milk- 
ing the other three oows is a mere anuvada and not a vidhi 
and Sahara quotes passages of the sruti that on that night no 
agnihotra is offered with milk and the ohildren in the house 
do not get any milk ( as all milk is used up for the sannayya ), 
When all are milked, if any drops have fallen about ( on the 
ground &o. ) he repeats a mantra ( Tai. S. 1. 1. 3. 1 ) and invokes 
the pot in whioh sannayya is to be prepared with a mantra. He 
washes the inside of the milking vessel with water and then 
pours that water into the pot (in whioh sannayya is to be 
prepared ). He heats the milk and pours over it ( i. e. does 
abfugharaija ) clarified butter silently. He draws the heated pot 
from the burning ooals in suoh a way as to make a line on the 
ground and places it to the east, north or north-east with a 
mantra. When the bottom of the heated vessel cools, he adds 
ourds to it in order to coagulate the fresh milk with ' I add 
soma ( i. e. curds) to thee in order to turn thee into curds for 
Indra ' ( Tai. S. 1. 1. 3 )."" He adds to the vessel what remains 
stioking to the pot or sruo after agnihotra was offered with 
a mantra or silently. He pours water in the vessel that is 
meant as a lid or cover and places that cover or lid on the pot 
of heated milk. If the covering be of earthenware he throws 
thereon grass or a twig. He takes out the sakhapavitra with 
a mantra (if apalasa branoh was used ) or silently ( if one of 
saml was used) and keeps it in a secure place. He keeps the 
sSnnSyya in the gfirhapatya side of the vihara on a iikya or 
some such contrivance with '0 Visnu, guard the offering*. 

He brings another branch with whioh or with darbhas he 
separates the oalves for the morning milking (on theprinoipal 
day ). The same procedure as for sayafhdoha is followed in the 

2295. There were several views here about adding cards. One, 
two or three oows are milked on the day previous to the upavasatha day 
(i.e. on the 14th) and that milk is used to aoidify the fresh heated milk 
of the evening of the upavasatha day. Another method was to milk the 
oow or oows on the 12th, then to add the ourds of that to the milk of 
the 13th day and add all the ourds of those two days to the milk of the 
14th day i. e. milking and adding of curds was to go on continuously 
from the 12th, 13th and 14th or from 13th or from 14th. Videlp. 1. 13. 12 
and Sat. I. 3, p. 99. If no ourds be available he adds either rioe or 
pieces of falsa* bark or wild or village badara fruit or ptltTka plant 
(the pratinidhi of soma) to the milk to make it sour. Vide Ap. 1. 14. 1, 
Bat. I. 9. p. 100. 

01b. XXX ] Dariapuroamasa l6l9 

morning milking (of the principal day). There are a few 
differences as to mantras, as to not adding ooagulating sub- 
stance, which are passed over. 

After the sayafhdoha (evening milking) the adhvaryu 
directs ( agnldhra or some other priest or himself ) ' strew kusa 
grass round the fires, first round ahavanlya, then garhapatya, 
then daksinSgni ' or the order may be first garhapatya, then 
daksinagni and lastly ahavanlya. The darbhas strewn on the 
south and north have tips turned to the east. The saorificer 
mutters a mantra when kusas are being strewn. 

Having done so much he observes the amavasya as an 
upavasatha. Thus on the amavasya day he performs agnyan- 
vadhana ( offering fuel-stioks into fires ), separating the calves 
with the branch, sayamdoha, bringing barhis and idhma, pre- 
paring the veda and vedi and observing some vows. But two 
of these viz. separating calves from their mothers and sayam- 
doha are performed only by him who has already performed a 
soma sacrifice. In the case of the purnamasa is^i if spread 
over two days, on the Full moon day only agnyanvadhana and 
strewing kusas round the fires are gone through and on the 
next day are performed the bringing of barhis and idhma and 
making of veda and all the other rites. If the istf is to be 
performed in one day only, then kusa grass is strewn round 
the fires after the making of the veda bunch. 

About eannayya Sat. states some divergent views. The 
Kapeyas held that even one who has not performed soma-yaga 
may offer sannayya and the deity in his case will be Indra 
and after he offers Soma, the deity for sSnnayya will be 
Mahendra. According to Sahara on Jai. X, 8. 44 the GopS- 
yanas held that one who has not performed a soma sacrifice may 
offer sannayya. According to Sat. himself, for a year or two after 
Somayaga the deity will be Indra and then Mahendra if the 
saorificer so desires. Persons of the Aurva and Gautama gotras 
and those who are gatairl ( vide note 2259 ) may if they like 
offer sannayya to Mahendra even before performing Somay&ga. 
Compare Ap. I. 14. 8-11 and vide Jai. X. 8. 35-4,6 ( about the 
two purodasas and sannayya). 

On the principal day (i. e. the first day of the dark half 
in the case of purnamasa) the saorificer offers his daily agnihotra 
before Bunrise and begins after sunrise the performance of the 
purnamasa isj) (and in the case of the darses^i before sunrise). 

1020 History of Dharmainslra [ Oh. XXt. 

He washes his hands with water with the mantra " May I 
he able to carry out this rite meant for you two and for gods " 
( Tai. S. 1. 1. 4. 1 ). From the place of the garhapatya fire to 
the ahavanlya he spreads a line of dry kusa grass continuously 
with their tips to the east (without leaving any space uncovered) 
with the mantra 'thou art the continuity of the sacrifice, I 
spread thee for the continuity of sacrifice, thee for the conti- 
nuity of the saorifice ' (Tai. Br. III. 2.4) and then spreads another 
line of kusas to the south and another to the north of this 
first line silently. To the south of the ahavanlya, seats of 
kusa grass are made ready for the brahma priest and the saori- 
fioer, that of the brahma being to the east of the seat of 
the sacrificer and directly to the south of the ahavanlya and 
of the sacrificer to the south of the south corner of the east 
side of the vedi. To the north of garhapatya kusas are strewn 
with their tips to the east or north and on them the sacrificial 
implements ( yajlapatras ) are placed in twos after being 
washed with water and with their mouths turned down, viz., 
the sphya and kapalas &c. (vide above note 2233 for the ten ). 
This is called patrasadana (placing the utensils near). 19 " 

Then follows brahmavarava. 

The saorifioer sitting on a seat with his faoe to the north 
then chooses his brahma priest who faces the east near the 
utkara with the formula MW '01 Lord of the earth 1 Lord of 
the worlds ! Lord of great being ( Heaven ? ) ! I choose thee as 
brahma' (Tai. Br. III. 7. 6). The brahma priest when so 
chosen mutters a long formula ( which is given in Ap. III. 18. 4 
from the Tai. Br. III. 7. 6 and part of which is translated 
here ) ' I am the Lord of the earth, Lord of the worlds, 
lord of the great being. Being impelled by god Savitr 
I shall perform the duties of a priest. God Savitr 1 Here 
they choose thee ( who art ) Lord of speech, as the divine 

Betides the above the following are also placed t— gj 

*ro«m5? *i JT^r <* »nRt * ns<» i3 "nwiftr aFwhcfo tr^f *fcrm i A I. 4 ; 
Tide also CTTOTY I. 4 which adds $ct, explained as irpnr* yyWTWfr 

2297. The choosing of brahmS takes place on the north of the 
tedi near the utkara, and then the brahmS priest comes to the south 
of the Bhavanlya either from the east side or the west side of the 
Ihavantya according to one's 6skhE ; vide (KBt. II. 1. 21 and com.). 

db. 2tXX ] Dariapur-Qamctsa-Brahmavarava idzi 

brahma priest; I proclaim this to mind, mind proolaims to 
Gayatri ...the Visve Devas to Brhaspati, Brhaspati to Brahma, 
BrahmS is bhuh, bhuvah, surah. Brhaspati is the priest of the 
Gods, I am the brahma priest of human beings'. Then he 
loudly says ' O Brhaspati, protect the sacrifice '(ibid.) and cross- 
ing the altar by the west of the ahavanlya towards the south of 
the ahavanlya, stands to the south of his seat with his face to the 
north, takes a kusa blade from the blades on the seat prepared for 
him, oasts it to the south-west (the direction of Nir-rfci, ill-luck) 
with the words * avaunt," 98 Daidhiaavya ( son of a re-married 
widow ? ), get up from this place, occupy the seat of another, 
who is more ignorant than me ' ( Tai. S. III. 2. 4. 4. ), touches 
water and sits down on his seat with face to the east with a 
mantra and then faces the ahavanlya with a mantra ' Here do 

I, impelled by God Savitr, sit on the seat of Vasu (or prosperity) 
lower in level ( than the ahavanlya mound ), I oocupy the seat 
of Brhaspati, this I deolare to Agni, to Vayu, to the Sun, to the 
Earth ' ( vide Ap. 111.18. 4, Eat. II. 1. 24 ). The brahma is required 
to be the most learned in Vedio lore' ( brahmistha, as Ap. III. 
18. 1 says ) and he is to observe silence while mantras are being 
repeated and superintends all actions. His permission is asked 
by the adhvaryu at the time of doing most of the aots, suoh as 
leading forward the pranlta water, sprinkling the bundle of 
fuel-stioks and kusa grass. There are four priests in darsa- 
purnamasa ( vide note 2228 ). The saorificer also crosses by the 
west side of the ahavanlya to its south, throws away silently a 
blade of kusa from his seat and then sits down on the seat 
prepared for him, with his face to the east. The adhvaryu takes 
two darbhas of equal thiokness, the tops of which are not out off 
and makes them a span in length by outting off their roots 
( without using his nails ). am 

The adhvaryu, sitting to the west ( or north ) of the garha- 
patya fire, takes a oamasa (a rather flat vessel or pan) In which 
water is to be carried forward with ' to thee for Daksa ' ( Ap. L 
17. 1 ) and washes it thrice with water once with mantra and 
twioe silently. The mantra is ' thou art made of plants, may 

2298. w$ | flw«<frq«fa 8T»reT *nr3 ^ft ^Tsyrcrreint vft wygynft - 
•jfr i wirmpntiw fiwrfit fowi* fron *»* »ta v ftp* frit • wn. 

II. 1. 22-23. 

2299. The two darbha blades are called pavitra ( neuter noun ) 
tad the process desoribed here ia called pavitrakarana and has been 
deaoribed above. 

1622 History cf DharmaiMra [ Ch. XXX 

you be washed for gods, may you shine for the gods, may you 
be pure for gods' ( Ap. 1. 16. 3 ). He keeps the two pavitras in 
the oamasa and pours water in the camasa with ' who takes 
you, let him take you, for whom shall I take you, I take you 
for him, you for prosperity ' ( £p. I. 16. 3 ) and at the same 
time contemplates on the Earth with 'I take you with this ' 
(not uttered). He fills the vessel so as to leave some space at the 
top and purifies the water by the process called utpavana (describ- 
ed above in note 2291 ). He then invokes them with ' may the 
divine waters, that are the first purifiers and the leaders carry 
this sacrifice to the front, may they place the lord of the 
sacrifice in front, Indra ohose you in his fight with Vrtra, you 
chose him in the fight with Vrtra, you are sprinkled ' ( Tai. S. I. 
1. 5. 1 ). The adhvaryu then asks the permission of the brahmS 
priest in the words 'Brahman! shall I carry forward the water* 
and issues a direction ' saorificer, observe silence '. The brahma 
priest mutters a mantra ' Lead forward the sacrifice, sustain 
these deities, may the saorificer be on the baok of heaven. Place 
this saorifice and the sacrifioer in the world where the seven sages 
and other men of holy deeds dwell* and loudly says 'yes, do carry 
the water forward '. The adhvaryu then repeats the verse ' who 
oarries you forward ? Let him oarry you forward, I carry for- 
ward the divine waters; may they sit round our sacrifice, 
conveying to the sacrifioer thousandfold prosperity, the waters 
that delight in drink, having a shining (or oily) appearance'. 
He holds the water in a vessel which is covered by the sphya 
that has its tip to the east and that is held level with his nose 
and oarries it forward without allowing even a drop to fall 
down. When the water is being carried the saorificer invokes 
it with a mantra.'* 00 The adhvaryu places the water vessel 
( pranltSpatra ) on darbha grass to the north of the ahavanly a 
with the mantra ' you are sanctified by brahma ( prayers ) ; who 
employs you ? Let him employ for ( securing ) all desires, for 
the worship of gods ( &p. IV. 4. 4 ) ' and then covers the vessel 
with kusas. All these acts constitute praxtitapramyana. While 
the water is being placed near the fihavanlya the sacrifioer 
invokes it with the immediately preoeding mantra and passes 
his eye over the whole of the sacrificial ground. No one is to 
pass between the fihavanlya and the pranlts water (E&t. II. 3. 4). 

1300. The mantr* i* ^«y ««7 <n$ vf; ^ tfta W* * ** <T ^V <j«T $•&■ 
•Wtft jprai fttnft ^t ft f<W g<pf wrr^sfwr ^ ^tftnuir tfftarnm wfa* 
Ttf TOr rorroftt I It ocours in wmr. IV. 4. 4. 

Ch. XXX ] J)ariapuryam53a-PraQUa waters 1023 

The principal purpose of the pranlta waters is that they are 
used for making the ground grains into a dough for purodasa 
and their final disposal is to be poured into the red! ( Jai. IV. 2. 
11-15 ). The adhvaryu comes back by the same way that he 
went, plaoes down the sphya among the yajfiapatras and touohes 
the sacrificial utensils with his hand wearing a pavitra with the 
mantra 'may the divine groups enter into the sacrificial 
utensils '. 

Then follows nirv3pa tm ( taking out handfuls of grains or 
a portion of other sacrificial material ). The adhvaryu takes In 
his hand the ladle called agnihotra-havanl with ' thou art made 
of a tree for daksa ' ( strength ). Then he holds it in his 
left hand and takes the winnowing basket ( surpa ) in his 
right hand with 'to thee for the all-pervading (yajfia)'. 
Then he heats it ( ladle ) on the garhapatya fire with 
' the raksaa ( evil spirit ) is burnt, the enemies are burnt '. 
He then touohes water." 08 The adhvaryu asks the permis- 
sion of the saorificer in the words ' sacrificer ! shall I 
take out saorifioial material' and the saorificer replies 'yes, 
do take out'. The adhvaryu then utters the words 'I go 
towards the wide space' and approaches a cart or wooden 
frame (sakata ) standing to the west of the ahavanlya or garha- 
patya containing either rice or barley grains ( in the husk ), 
which has the shafts turned to the east or north, which has the 
yoke joined to it and is covered with mats. While touching 
the right side of the yoke he mutters ' thou art dhur ( destruc- 
tive fire), injure the destructive (enemy), destroy him who 
seeks to destroy us and whom we seek to destroy '. He touohes 
the left shaft and mutters the mantra ' thou art of the gods 
( i. e. belongest to them ), thou art the purest ( or the most 
generous), the fullest, the dearest, the best carrier, the best 
summoner of the gods'. He plaoes (firmly touohes with) his 
right foot on the left wheel (of the sakata) with 'Visnu tra- 
versed thee '. He mounts the cart with his left foot with ' thou 
art an unbent receptacle of horn, mayst thou be strong and not 

2801. The mantras required here occur in Tai. S. 1. 1. 4 and VSj. 8. 
I. 7 ff and bo are not indicated in eaoh place. ' $tot&\t ;«rar?>i foafrtt ' 
com. on ip. 1. 17. 10. 

2302. Whenever any mantra referring to evil spirits and the like 
is uttered, one has to touch water thereafter before doing anything 
else. Vide ' tftf najtl H I WW rft wtf°fafr Hf^flW ffaTTrwr^ "8JT?J*4WfJ^ ' 
WW- 1. W. 14, 

1024 History of DharmaiHstra I Oh. XXX 

break (or bend)'. He makes an opening by removing the mats 
covering the sakata and looks'at the corn to be used for making 
the purodasa and at the mats while repeating twioe the 
mantra ' I look at thee with the eye of Mitra, do not be 
afraid, do not tremble, I shall not injure thee'. He touohes 
the corn (to be used for purodasa) with 'may you sustain 
strength', then touches his own heart with 'put milk in me' 
and touches water. Then he throws aside a blade of grass or 
clod of earth with ' warded off is the evil spirit', touohes water 
and repeats the Dasahotr mantras. s803 He places the two pavi- 
tras in the winnowing basket (silently), takes one handful 
of the grain (from the oart) with 'may the five fingers 
give yon for protection, and not to the enemy' ( Maitra- 
yanlya S. LI. 5), puts (empties) the handful in the sruo 
( agnihotrahavanl ) and puts in the winnowing basket ( on 
which the two pavtiras have been kept ) four handf uls of grain 
by means of the agnihotra-havan!, three with the mantra 
( repeated thrice ) ' at the command of god Savitr, with the arms 
of Asvins, with the hand of Pusan I take out thee that art 
dear to Agni ' "°* and the fourth silently. Jai. ( IX. 1. 36-37 ) 
concludes that this mantra is the same even in all modifications 
of the darsapurnamSsa and Sahara explains ' savituh prasave ' 
as meaning ' urged by the yajamfina ' ( or when the sun rises ), 
' asvins ' as meaning the saorificer and his wife ( as they make 
a gift of the horse in agnyadheya ) and pusan as meaning 
' yajamfina ' himself ( who supports all ). In Jai. XL 4. 44-45 
it is stated that the mantra for nirvfipa ' devasya tva ', the 
mantra for cutting off barhis ( barhirdevasadanam dami ) are 
to be repeated and not to be uttered only once. In Jai. V. 2. 4-5 
it is established that all the samskfiras are to be performed on 
all the grains after four handfuls are taken and not on eaoh 
handful as it is taken out. The saorificer invokes with a 
mantra while the adhvaryu is making the mrvapa ' I call here 
Agni, the hotr and the gods that are well disposed to sacrifice ; 
may the gods, pleased in mind, come and may they partake 
of this my offering.' Having finished the taking out of grains in 

2303. The ' dasabotr ' mantras are ' ftr%: %<# firtWtrj ' &o. quoted 
in note 2247 ahove. 

2304. If the purodssa ia meant for Agni and Soma ( jointly ) as in 
pnrnamssa, the words ' agnlsomBbhySm jusfam ' will be substituted for 
' agnaye juejam' and the names of other deities in the cases of other 
purodasas. Vide Kit. IL 8. 21, in. 1. 18. 1, Jaimlni IX. 1. 88-39. 

Ob, XXX ] DariapuryamSsa 1025 

four handfuls, ( the adhvaryu ) throws on them some more grains 
with his hand. If no cart is available, he keeps an earthen 
vessel on the sphya placed on the altar with its tip to the north 
or east and takes out the grains from that vessel ( this is the 
modern praotioe ) and then removes the wooden sword from 
underneath it. The same procedure is followed in the case of 
purodasas for other deities. The adhvaryu touohes the grains 
taken out with 'this of the gods' and touches the rest (remaining 
in the saka^a or vessel ) with ' this is ours together ( with the 
gods ).' He invokes the grains taken out with ' I take ( or 
invoke ) thee for increase and not for malevolence.' He moves 
out of the mats covering the cart (or from near the vessel) taking 
with him the surpa with ' thee I release from the fetters of 
Varuna ' ( compare MaitrayanI S. I. 1. 5 ). He looks at the 
sacrificial ground, the fires, the utensils, the priests with ' may 
I see heaven ' and at the ahavanlya with ' the light of Vaisva- 
nara ( Agni ).' He gets down from the cart with ' may the posts 
( or mansions ) of Heaven and Earth, stand firm ' ( if corn is 
taken from a vessel he only mutters these words ). He invokes 
the grains that have fallen down ( when four handfuls were 
taken out ) with ' to Heaven and Earth, svfiha ' and goes near 
the garhapatya with ' follow wide space ( or sky ).* He puts down 
the surpa ( containing the corn taken out ) near the garhapatya 
to its west ( or near that fire on which in that particular rite 
he has to hake the cake ) with ' I make you sit on the lap of 
Aditi ' Mos and consigns it to the protection of that deity ( for 
whioh the cake is meant ) with ' fire I proteot the sacrifioial 
material." 80 ' The adhvaryu pours water in the (agnihotrahavanl) 
ladle to which the awns of the rice or barley grains stiok and 
purifies it thrice with the two pavitras ( blades of kusa ) held in 
the hands and with the mantra ' may god Savifcr &o.' ( vide 
p. 1024 above ) and invokes it with 'may the divine waters * &o. 
Then the adhvaryu seeks the permission of the brahma priest 
with ' Brahman I shall I sprinkle ' ( with holy water the 
sacrificial material). The brahma priest mutters ' sprinkle the 
sacrifice, sustain these deities &c.' and loudly says ' Yes, do 
sprinkle.' The adhvaryu then sprinkles water thrice, once 
with the mantra 'at the command of Savitr I sprinkle 

2305. Aditi in this passage means the earth, aooording to the Tai. 
Br. III. 2. 4. 

2306. If the cuko is meant for Agni and Soma then the mantra 
would be wrfWtnl ?*4 *s>m»*. 

H. D. 129 

1026 History of Dharmaitistra [ Ch. XXX 

thee that Me dear to Agni ' (or Agni and Soma or other deity as 
the case may be) and twice silently. One should so sprinkle 
that drops of water may not fall on the fire. He then upturns 
the sacrifioial utensils ( i. e. instead of their mouths being 
down, their mouths are now upturned) and sprinkles them 
thrice with water with ' may you become pure for divine rite, 
for worship of gods *. ,m The rest of the water taken for 
sprinkling is placed to the east of the gfirhapatya (in a sruc). 
It is stated by Jaimini ( IX. 1. 2-3 ) that the proksana of the 
mortar and pestle or the mill-stones has an unseen spiritual 
result (apurva). 

The adhvaryu sits to the west of the gfirhapatya, takes 
hold of the black antelope skin lying on the altar with ' thou 
art the whirl of the wind ' and shakes it thrice on the utkara 
holding it in such a way that the neok portion is up and the 
hairy portion inside (towards himself) with ' destroyed is the 
evil spirit, destroyed are the enemies'. To the west of the 
utkara he spreads the antelope sm skin with its neck portion 
westwards ( Sat. Br. 1. 1. 4. 5 ) and its hairy portion upwards 
with " thou art the skin of Aditi \ The portion Mo » of the skin 
near the anus ( of the animal ) is twisted below the hairless part 
and both parts are held together with 'may the earth know 
thee '. While still touohing the skin he places the mortar on 
it with 'thou art the adhisavana (the utensil for pressing or 
beating the grains) made of a tree, may the skin of Aditi know 

2307. The com. on Est. II. 3. 40 q i fircQjefffi tr-. <TOTri <v sft«r<4 V* 
Hit sftopnn •ritwwrraftvTs ' 

2308. The black antelope skin bas been throughout the agei a 
symbol of holiness and vedio culture. It it therefore that SrySvarta 
was defined, as shown abore (p. 13 \ as that territory where the black 
antelope wanders naturally. Vide Sat. Br. 1. 1. 4. 1-2, where yajfia is 
said to have escaped from the gods and wandered about as a black 
antelope and the white, black and yellow hairs of the antelope are said 
to represent respectively ?g, Soman and Yajus. On account of its 
holiness, the antelope skin is employed for husking and bruising the 
grains ( from which the cake is to be made ). 

2309. ^S^ nrt ffoft ^RTfif gwuw t ft sgt Hy qtfTOmqft i «mmmr I. 5 ; 

vm. I. 19. 5 has gmrcT. ... ftrft. The com. on both give slightly different 
interpretations. »t*j$ ejjfiu^sf mmi-di'Hmwiwfl'ffi «raflWni*«Tjr$5}5» 
fff fttttfilfl l wittRwi: 1 com. on Xp. The tail portion is twisted under 
the skin so as to make one portion a little higher than the rest and so 
as to make the mortar or mill-stone placed on the skin to incline in 
one direction. 

Ch. XXX ] Dar&apurnamasa 1027 

thee*. Holding the mortar (ulukhala) by the left hand he 
pours into its mouth the saorifioial materials (unhusked grains 
of rioe or barley ) thrioe with 'thou art the body of Fire, M1 ° 
thou art a prompter of speech, I take thee for the enjoyment of 
the gods' and a fourth time silently. He takes the pestle with 
' thou art a stone (hard like a stone), though produced from a 
tree ; mayst thou so strike this sacrificial material for the gods 
that it will be enjoyable to them I ' and beats the grains in the 
mortar thrice with ' may I strike the evil spirit, the enemy of 
heaven, away I ' ( the mantra is recited only once according to 
Jai. XI- 4. 42 ). After striking thrioe the adhvaryu utters a 
summons to haviskrt, with ' come, O Haviskrt ' ( repeated 
thrice)**". When the grains begin to be husked the adhvaryu 
utters a call to Agnldhra * strike loudly '. The agnldhra 
takes kutaru ( asman, a stone ) with ' thou art a stone, thou 
art one that makest a hymn of praise (or glory)' and he 
strikes therewith the large mill-stone ( drsad) that is placed on 
the altar ( twioe, once with mantra and once silently ) and the 
smaller one ( upala ) once with ' proclaim food ( to the gods ), 
proclaim strength ; may you ( all saorifioial utensils ) proclaim 
that ( the food ) is full of excellent flavour ; may we conquer 
the hordes ( of enemies ) by this noise '. The agnldhra may 

2310. As fire blazes forth when oblations are thrown on it, the 
grains ( from which a cake is to be prepared ) are said to be the body of 
fire. One can speak loudly only if one is well-fed and so the grains are 
said to be prompters of speeoh. 

2311. The praisa ( summons ) is f ft*G%3ft ?ft*frt3f% e^«^3it. 
The figure 3 is used to show that the preceding letter is pluta (of 
three moras ). Haviskrt literally means ' one who separates the grains 
from the husks.' According to Tai. Br. III. 2. 5 the summons is addressed 
to many divine haviskrts ' jftasj^ffarr? 1 <T* ifaPrt fft«SW: UTRITTfir 
fMHrfirf^WTf^^^TS'' In the case of the brShmana saorificer the call 
for the person who separates is e^wp^ftt for a ksatriya saorificer 
fftwffHTilft *or» vaisya rfoyTTJp r and for the sudra fftsrorwrr. 
Or the first call may be employed for all. Vide Satapatba J. 1. 4. 12, Ap. 
I. 19. 9-10, Sat. I. 5. Acoording to some st^bsj^ is irsf"*. The oom. 
on Ap. explains that ' sudra ' here stands for fiPTT a jWritt ffftosj^ means 
' the person who prepares the ha vis ' as also the formula used to call 
him. OntheVedio text ' g flstfrflft fann«« t n< rft ' Jai mini concludes 
that this sentence contains an injunction to summon thrioe the wife or 
other separator of grains (III. 2. 6-9). Jai. (XII. 2. 11) establishes 
that there is no haviskrt oall in savanlya purodgs'as. Aocording to Sat. 
Br. 1. 1. 4. 13 the wife formerly rose to the haviskrt oall but in Its time 
either the wife or the Kgnldhia priest rose. 

1028 History of J)harmaiastra ( Ch. XXX 

strike silently with the yoke-pin ( samya ) instead of using a 
stone ( £p. I. 20. 4 ). He repeats this thrice ( i. e. striking with 
a stone or yoke-pin is done nine times in all ). After this the 
saorificer's wife or some one else (suoh as the agnldhra) 
threshes the grains in the mortar ( Kat. II. 4. 14 ). Jai. ( XI. 1. 
27 ) states that the beating has a seen purpose ( viz. removal of 
husk) and so it is to be continued as long as required for effect- 
ing that purpose. Jai. ( IV. 2. 26 ) further lays down that the 
Vedio sentence ' vrlbln-avahawi ' is a restrictive injunction 
( niyamavidhi ) in that, when unhusking can be effected either 
by using the mortar and pestle or by some other method ( such 
by using the nails ) it restricts one to the former method. The 
adhvaryu then holds the winnowing basket near the mouth of 
the mortar to its east or north with the words ' thou art grown 
by rain ' nn ( as it is made of bamboo ) and touches the beaten 
grains (to be used, for purodftaa ) with 'you are grown by 
rain '. He then puts with his hand tbe beaten grains into the 
winnowing basket with 'may (the surpa) know thee* (the 
grains as its own ). Holding the surpa over the utkara he thrice 
winnows the grains and frees them from the husk ( which falls 
ontheutfeara) with 'thrown away is the evil spirit, thrown 
away are the enemies' ( i. e. the huBks are meant to be the portion 
of evil spirits ). He makes the husks stioking to the surpa fall 
on the utkara with ' blown away are the enemies \ He puts the 
husks from the place of the utkara over the ( middle ) potsherd 
( on whioh the cake is to be baked ) and places them (the husks) 
underneath the black antelope skin in its north-west corner 
with ' thou art the portion of evil spirits '. He does not look at 
these husks. He presses down with his hand the spot where 
the husks are kept with ' pressed down is the evil spirit'. He 
touohes water, sprinkles the potsherd ( on which the husks were) 
with water and keeps the potsherd in its place. He separates 
tbe husked and unhusked grains with * may the wind separate 
you.' He then pours out the grains of rioe from the surpa in the 
pot with the words ' may the god Savitr with his golden hands 
( rays ) aocept you '. He then takes them and pours them in 
the mortar and issues a direction (praisa) to the saorificer's 

2312. The word f% is employed in all these mantras for attaining 
prosperity. Vide Tai. Br. III. 2. 5 « *tfor f *r sforsnr: i <ri*jT vfap 
HSJit.' Jaimini IV. 1. 26 ha« a discussion on the placing of husks or 
the potsherd on whioh the purodssa is to be baked. 

Oh. XXX ] DariaptrnamUsa 10&9 

wife to make the rice ftee from the thin coating of husk." 1 * 
The wife or some one else or a dasi ( a maid-servant ) does the 
threshing several times, then she hands over the pestle to the 
agnldhra who beats with the pestle the grains and then the 
wife does the final beating with ' may you become pure for the 
gods, shine for the gods, purify for the gods'. Tiie adhvaryu 
puts the kanas ( little particles of rice grains ) separated from 
the polished grains of rioe in a vessel, cleanses the polished 
grains that are in the surpa with water. That portion which 
remains after the grains are beaten thrioe is made to flow 
towards the utkara with the water ( collected in another vessel ) 
that is used in washing the polished grains with ' this is 
the portion of evil spirits. May the waters carry it forward 
from this place, svfiha ', the water being also poured inside 
the vedi. Then he repeats the whole procedure about the 
blaok antelope skin from its being taken up to its being 
spread already described. Then the adhvaryu places the 
yoke-pin ( samya ) with its head ( kumba, thiok part ) to the 
north on the antelope skin with 'thou art the support of the 
heavenly world'; he establishes Mw the larger mill-stone 
( drsad ) with its faoe to the east on the samya in such a way 
as to cover the samya with its western half with 'thou art 
intelligence (though) made of a stone; may the support of 
heaven know thee ' ; then he places the smaller mill-stone on 
the larger one with ' thou art intelligence ( though ) a ohild of 
the mountain; may the drsad know thee'. The adhvaryu then 
bends and looks at the polished grains that are in the surpa 
with 'you are honeyed rays*. He spreads the polished grains 
on the larger mill-stone thrice with ' at the command of god 

Savitr hands of Pusan ' ( vide p. 1034 for the omitted words). 

I spread you, you are corn, satiate the gods ' and once silently • 
He draws the smaller mill-stone over the grains to the east 
with 'to thee for prfina ,,m , to the west with 'to thee for apana', 

2313. Tbo 9t is ' famKBWt ' (-&J?- 1. 20. 11 and WcVWS- 1- 5 ). <j«#- 
TO»f a*5&*'i: sffonrt fWrTWTT. t com. on ffttrrarv I. 5. This is to be 
done thrice, once by the wife, then by the Sgnidhra, and then again by 
the wife. If the wife is not available, then the third is done by the 
adhvaryu himself. The mantra ia recited only once. Vide '^t^tt 

g>f Srq i 3«H i m<f i q ' wr 1. 20. 13 and com. ' wfanmrprrofra^gw^rftsTr 
ftf^5Trtff*rii{rr«rt*nTi^ <* «wn TwuTsftlt^ ' 

2314. The skin :s the earth. He holds with bis left band the skin, 
the yoke-pin, the larger mill-stone successively as he proceeds. 

2315. vmw ( 3 «gHnTCarfrrcn i*ri$ JnTrorwiTTj ' wrrn oa ^. tf. 
1. 1. 6 • smrrT wrrsTPrnr **t nn*n*t wt. ' 

1030 History of Dharmaisstra [ Ch. XXX 

and holds it firmly in the middle of the lower mill-stone with 
'to thee for vySna'. Ultimately he grinds towards the east 
with 'I hold this (smaller mill-stone) for the life (of the sacri- 
ficer) in a long and continuous series im of actions (here grind- 
ing)'. Thereafter he continuously grinds the grains at his 
pleasure. He throws the ground grains from the larger mill-stone 
with the smaller mill-stone on to the antelope skin with ' May 
God Savitr with his golden hands (rays) accept you' and bends 
down to look at the ground grains with ' I look at you with 
an unimpaired eye.' He then issues a direotion to the wife 
' grind ( or pound ) without scattering ( the grains away from 
the larger mill-stone or from the antelope skin ) and make them 
into fine flour.' Either the wife grinds or a maid-servant (dasl) 
may do so ( Ap. I. 21. 8-9 ) ; and then keeps aside the well- 
ground flour in a well-known place. The adhvaryu heats on the 
garhapatya water called madanti sm brought from the pranlta 
water. The offerings (of oooked vegetable food) are cooked 
either on the garhapatya or on the ahavanlya fire. 

The adhvaryu, after sitting to the west of the garhapatya, 
takes the upavesa with ' thou art dhrstf ( bold one ), give 
brahma (holy food ?).' He separates two burning coals from 
the western portion of the garhapatya fire with the upavesa and 
keeps them on the eastern side of the garhapatya mound itself. 
He oasts outside one of the two coals to the north-west of the 
garhapatya with ' O Fire i Dash aside the fire that eats ( cooks ) 
raw food ( not cooked in accordance with sastra ) ; and forbid 
tbat fire that eats flesh ( cooks ordinary meat food ).' He then 
touches water, places the remaining coal on that spot on the 
west ( of the garhapatya mound where he has to place the 
potsherds) with 'bring that fire that worships the gods.' He then 
places the middle one ,SI8 ( of the eight potsherds ) thereon with 
' thou art firm, make the earth firm, strengthen life, progeny 
and surround the sacrifioer with his kinsmen.' He lays a 

2316. Or sn%m may refer to the skin (vide Uvafa on Vsj. S. I. 80 
where this mantra occurs ). 

2317. According to ip. I. 28. 24 the kaptias are first arranged 
( kapSlopadhSna ) and then the madanti water is heated, while 
Say tBsadba ( I. 6-6 ) reverses these processes. 

2318. Aooording to VaikhSnasa the southern of the two burning 
•oals Is cast aside. Vide oom. on SatyBsidha I. 6. p. 133. Aooording 
to Xp. I. 22. 2 the coal that is not cast away is placed to the sooth on 
the gBrhapatya mound and thereon the first potsherd is laid. 

Ch. XXX ] DariapUrwmUsa-kapalopadhdna 


burning coal on that potsherd with * burnt is the evil spirit, 
burnt are the enemies.' The potsherds, whether eight, eleven 
or more or less, are arranged on the garhapatya mound. To the 
east of the central one he places a kapala with ' thou art the 
supporter, make the aerial spaoe firm, strengthen prfina and 
apana, surround the saorificer with bis kinsmen.' Then a third 
is placed to the east of the 2nd with ' thou art dharuna ( suppor- 
ter ), support heaven, the eye, the ear and surround &o.' He 
places the 4th kapala to the south-east with ' thou art dharma 
( supporter ), support the directions, the home, progeny, surround 
&o.' ; he places the fifth to the south-west with ' thou art the 
strength ( or host ) of maruts ' ; he places the 6th in the north- 
west with ' thou art a restrainer, support the directions, wealth, 
prosperity, surround &o.' ; he places the 7th to the north-east 
with ' I place thee that art uninjured from all the directions for 
the reconciliation (or love) of all kinsmen'; and lastly the 
remaining one to the north with 'thou art cit M " (intelligence).' 

2319. The arrangement of eight potsherds according to Sat. I. 6 is 
shown in the diagram. The arrangement according to Xp. I. 22-23 and 
Est. II. 4. 27-34 somewhat differs. The com. on Est. II. 4. 37 explains 
how eleven potsherds are to be arranged and how less or more are to be 
arranged. Eggeling summarises tho com. in S. 6. E. vol. 12 p. 34n. 
Vide Tai. 8. 1. 1. 7 for srr«n§ &o. 

/ (»> 


wfw ' 





C) / 

\ TjssrfffS 
\ (0 


1032 History of Dharmaiastra [ Ch. XXX 

In modem times- many agnihotrins do not generally employ 
eight or eleven potsherds but employ one earthen brick ( that 
would have the shape of the kapalas when placed together ), on 
which lines are scratched to indioate the number of kapalas. 
Then taking coals from the garhapatya he spreads the coals on 
the potsherds ( whether 8, 11 or more or less ) with the veda 
bunch repeating for each potsherd ' may you be heated by the 
tapas of Bbrgus and Angirases.' 

The adhvaryu heats the pStrl ( the purodasa p&trl, according 
to Eat. II. 6. 49 ) that is washed with water on the fire on which 
the cake is to be baked and when it is heated and slightly 
cooled he places the pavitras on it and pours on to it across the 
pavitras the flour (of ground and bruised grains) from the 
black antelope skin with the yajus mantra ,ii0 ' devasya tva ... 
agnaye jus^am samvapami ' thrioe and once silently. While 
pouring the ground grains he restrains his speech and gives 
up the restraint only when he spreads holy ashes over the 
purodasa ( vide below ). He purifies the flour by moving for- 
wards and backwards and raising up the two pavitras ( darbha 
blades ) the tips of which are turned northwards thrioe ( i. e. he 
performs utpavana ) once with the mantra ' haryos-tva varfi- 
bhySm-ut-punfimi ' or with the mantra ' devo vab. ' ( vide note 
2291 above). He takes in the sruva ladle water from the 
pranlta water, and supporting it on the veda bunch pours that 
water on the flour with a mantra ' waters have joined with 
waters &c.' ( Tai. S. 1. 1. 8. 1 ) and also pours thereon the hot 
water from the madanti vessel with the mantra 3W ' you are 
generated from waters ' and mixes the flour through and 
through on all sides with the water from left to right with 
' may you be well mixed up with water * ( Tai. S. I. 1. 8. 1 ). 
He stirs and mixes the flour and water with the meksaw lm 
with ' I mix thee together for generation ', and makes a ball ( of 
the flour ) with ' thou art the head of the sacrifice '. He then 

2920. Appropriate changes will have to be made according to the 
deity for whom the cake is meant ( i. e. either aijnf or stsfrfrnHrt &o. ). ' 
Vide Ap. I. 24. 1 and vvt $ < rqftWfr tfwft in Tai. Br. III. 2. 8. 

2321. Flour becomes well mixed up when it is wetted with hot 
water. ' You are Ac'— these words are oddressed to the flour. Vide 
Haug's translation of Ait. Br. p. 3 n. 3 as to how the cake is baked. 

2322. The meksana is a rod of asuattba wood one aratni long 
having at one end a square board four angulas in length ( to be used 
like a mixing spoon ). 

Oh. XXX ] DariapUrrfamasa-purotfSia 1033 

divides the hall into two parts with ' may you ( two ) become 
separate according to the respective shares ( of the deities ) '. He 
makes two balls of equal size from the dough and touches the 
two separately - with ' this for Agni ' and ' this for Agni and 
Soma.'' 3 ' 8 From the group of potsherds to the south he removes 
the burning coals with the veda bunch with ' Here do I remove 
the face from the approaching ( or attacking ) army ' and then 
removes the coals also from the group of potsherds that are to 
the north. Taking the ball of flour that is to be placed on the 
southern potsherds with ' thou art the head of the sacrifice ' he 
bakes the ball with ' thou art heat and bestower of all life ' and 
similarly bakes the other ball on the northern group of 
potsherds in the same way.**" He makes the cake assume the 
shape of a tortoise, but its back should be neither too high nor 
too low like an apupa and the cake should be as large as the 
hoof of a horse.' 8 " He spreads the cake so that it covers all 
the potsherds with ' may thou spread wide " ( i. e. have progeny 
&c. ). He puts water in the vessel ( with the water from which 
the flour was mixed up ) and sweeps the surface of the cake 
from left to right with his wet hand in such a way that the 
cake will have a skin-like continuous surfaoe with ' mayst thou 
take on a skin '. He passes a burning firebrand thrice round 
each cake with ' vanished is the evil spirit, vanished are the 
enemies '. He applies over the cakes the flames of burning 
darbhas with ' may the god Savitr bake thee in the kindled 
(fire) called naka '. He applies heat by passing round the cakes 
burning fire-brands with ' may fire not burn thy body 1 Fire, 
protect the offering '. He spreads over the cake ashes in which 
there are also burning coals with 'mayst thou be connected with 
prayer '. The adhvaryu issues a direction ( to the agnldhra ) 
' bake the cakes without burning them ' and here he gives up the 
restraint of speeoh ( that was imposed as stated above ). 

He heats with a burning firebrand the water used for 
wiping the fingers and for scouring the vessels and draws with 
the sphya to the west of the ahavanlya (or garhapatya) three lines 

2323. In yofar£f% the two balls are for Agni and AgnJ-Somau and 
in darsa for Agni and IndrSgnl. 

2324. An. (I. 24. 6-7) says that the first ball is baked on all the 
eight potsherds for Agni and then tbe other ball ii baked. 

2325. w gyM*mm fr ft t T |> g?rK*THt ijfo'r* nfSsjft «<tRt i stir. I. 25. 4, 
WWI. I. 6. p. 141. *tr*Tft wfifttpfcaf': *jfa<l¥.Mi«filVf<*filM««|M l M- 
fasvrt »rrcs*ft wtfiMta fw«ii ' oom. on *m. 

H. D. 130 

1034 History of DkarmatGslra [ Oh. XXX 

( on the vedi ) running from south to north ( or optionally from 
west to east, according to Ap. I. 25. 14 ) ; he pours that water 
on each of the three lines thrioe in such a way that the water 
let fall on one line does not become mixed with that poured on 
the next line and that in pouring water he proceeds from east to 
west with ' to Ekata, svaha ! to Dvita, svaha 1 to Trita, svaha I ' 
(Tai. 8. 1. 1.8. 1)«» 

To the west of the aha vanly a he constructs a vedi, which 
is in length as muoh as the height of the sacrificer or which is 
as long as required for one's purpose and which has curved 
sides. 3m The sacrificer repeats a verse ' I make a mansion for 
him &o. ' ( Tai. Br. III. 7. 6 ) and touches the spot where the 
vedi is to be made. The adhvaryu sweeps the Bpot of the vedi 
with the veda bunch once with the mantra ' they knew the vedi 
by means of the veda bunch &o. ' ( Tai. Br. III. 3. 9 ) and twice 
silently before the dust and weeds are removed. 83 ' 8 The yaja- 
mana invokes the vedi when it is being swept by repeating 
certain verses viz. ' you, a young lady, with four tufts of hair 
&o.' (Tai. Br. III. 7. 6). The adhvaryu takes the sphya 

2326. The story of Ekata, Dvita and Trita who are called Rpya 
ocours in Tai. Br. III. 2. 8. In tho $g. we frequently come across 
Trita, a devotee of Indra, who is there sometimes called Aptya. Vide 
?g. I. 105. 9, VIII. 12. 16, VIII. 47. 13. Trita is said to be the seer 
of $g. IX. 102 and X. 1-7. 

2327. According to the oom. on Sat. I. 6, p. 145 the vedi should be 
4 aratnis or 96 angulas in length. According to Est. II. 6. 2-10 the 
vedi should be 4 aratnis on the west side and 3 on tho oast, three finger 
breadths deep, should slope towards the east or north, should be con- 
tracted in the middle, the corners of its eastern side (called amsas 
shoulders) should envelope the Bhavanlya mound and all the herbs 
growing thereon and the roots should be uprooted. The vedi is deemed 
to have the shape of a young woman with broad hips (the two oorners 
of the west side are called ironi ) and a slender waist and verses are 
repeated which describe it in terms of a well-decked young lady. 
• sTOrrtftfrnfr "wmnfWr *nft ^tretrrr *mfa ' sm. II. 3. 2. in the figure 

here the vedi is away from the garhapatya. This is so for those who 
follow the sntra of Apastambe. For those who follow SatyHsSdha the 
vedi begins muoh nearer to the garhapatya than is seen in the figure 
here and the daksinagni is also nearer the gSrhapatya. 

^l«18fplgai««|$\ W*T«rg$rf& I stutt. I. 6. pp. 145-14P, aw. II. 1. 3-4. 
Thecom. on wxq. II. 1. 4 says «mprgftft «£*,, irfrtfisffcfo* irtfrmwrf 
<*wf*rg;t. It is called ^wpr^s because the stalk of darbha is cut after 
reoiting a yajns formula. 

Ch. XXX ] iktriapurvamasa-vedi 1036 

( wooden sword ) along with two darbbas witb ' I take you at 

tbe impulse of Savitr witb tbe bands of Ptisan ', invokes 

it witb ' thou art the arm of Indra ', oleanses upwards the tip of 
the sphya with a darbha with ' thou art wind with a thousand 
tips ( or edges ) and a hundred sharp brilliances ' and plaoes a 
darbha with its tip to the north or east on the eastern portion of 
the vedi at a spot which is 32 angulas from the eastern side of 
the vedi ( i. e. £ of the length of the vedi ) with ' thou art armour 
for the earth.' 1 *" He strikes the darbha with the sphya saying 
' O Earth, meant as the plaoe for worshipping gods, may I not 
injure the root of thy herb '. He moves aside with the sphya 
the dust together with the cut blade of darbha with ' struck 
aside is the demon Araru from the earth '. He removes the 
dust and the blade witb the sphya outside the vedi towards the 
utkara ,8J0 with 'go to the cowpen, the place of the cows.' 
While this is being done the sacrificer recites by way of invo- 
cation ' O gods 1 I cut off with the bolt of Indra the head of 
him who hates me &c. ' ( Tai. Br. III. 7. 6 ). The adhvaryu 
looks at the vedi with ' may Heaven rain on thee ' and at the 
sacrificer with ' may rain shower on thee '. The Sgnldhra 
sits down witb the palms of his hands turned upwards to 
the north of the vedi and outside it on a spot at the 
distance of two padaa ( footsteps ) from the north side of the 
vedi with ' salutation to heaven and to the earth. ' The 
adhvaryu spreads near the fignldhra the dust together with 
the out blade of grass at the distance of one prakrama 
to the north of the vedi from a spot which is 32 angulas ( or 
i of the vedi) from the eastern side of the vedi WI witb 
' God Savitr ! bind witb a hundred fetters in the most distant 
region him who hates us and him whom we hate ; do not free 
them from the fetters'. The agnldhra covers with both his 

' 2329. Vide Tai. 8. II. 6. 4, Tai. Br. III. 2. 9, Sat. Br. I. 2. 5. 7-20 
for details about the construction of the vedi. According to Sat. (II. 6, 
p. 152 ) following Vedio texts, the vedi is prepared on tbe PaurnamSsT 
day in the PurnamSsa iffi and on the previous day in the daraesti. 
Jaimini V. 1. 29 explains the consequences of this on the order in which 
the various actions are performed. 

2330. The TW5T is called tftetrfT, as ift means speech and as the 
ffgnldhra sits near the utkara and makes the pratyffsrffvana formula 
w^t vrtac * rom near '*• 

2331. This defines tbe position of the utkara. tnrpr %* trftofts- 
'frori Ji<*arQdtfl'H$sj 3 , 8jrHpi%4<rfW^' *f ^Wff"tfi h jws*« i anr. II. 1. 6-7. 
^f&wffi wfan «T»1 q l ttfiftiawrc i i com. on Sat. I. 6. p. 148. 

1036 History cf DharmaiMra I Cfa. XXX 

hands*" 8 joined together the plaoe of the utkara with 'the 
restless one is held down' and remains bo. The adhvaryu 
strikes the vedi with the sphya a second time and a third time 
and the same procedure is followed by him and by the ftgnl- 
dhra as at the first striking except that one mantra is different 
foreaoh priest at each of the two strikings. The adhvaryu 
strikes with the sphya a fourth time but silently and all 
actions of the first striking are repeated but without mantras. 
The adhvaryu removes all the remnants of the darbhas from 
the vedi, the yajamana recites the invocatory verse ' I cut off 
the head ' &o. and the fignldbra covers a fourth time with his 
hands with ' may Araru not spring upwards to thy heaven '. 
The adhvaryu then draws with the sphya on the vedi a line 
from the south oorner of the west side of the vedi towards the 
east up to the southern shoulder ( on the east side of the vedi ) 
with" 1 ' ' may the Vasus enfold you with the Gayatrl metre *. 
He draws a line on the western side of the vedi towards the 
north with 'may the Rudras enfold thee with the Tristyibh 
metre ' and draws a line from the northern corner of the west 
side towards the east with ' may the Adityas enfold thee with 
the JagatI metre*. While this is being done the yajamana 
mutters a verse '0 Brhaspati, envelope the vedi &c.\ He 
makes the shoulders of the vedi raised up and envelope the 
ahavanlya mound and the two corners on the western side 
turned towards the garhapatya and the vedi is contracted in 
the middle. The adhvaryu issues a direction MM (to himself 

2332. The action of covering with the hands symbolizes the conse- 
quence desired viz., that the enemy is confined to the spot to which he 
is consigned and cannot escape therefrom. Vide Tai. Br. HI. 2. 9 for 

2333. <rffcrcpJT means ' drawing lines with the sphya round the vedi 
in order to indicate the extent of the vedi.' ' qftm ri ffi qft tnmrr<?TOW 
ftlHHWlfail frilt Sf»}ftf& $rnpn»} Mftufift ' com> on KSt. n. 6. 25. The 
enveloping with lines may be done np to the middle of the vedi or up 
to the shoulders ( the corners of the east side of the vedi ) or np to the 
Xhavanlya mound. jfcifvjri ( or-<rRirrf ) and gqwRus , or-qftirw «e 
technical expressions, the first refers to the aotions done from enve- 
loping with the mantra to Vasus up to the Agnldhra digging the vedi 

and levelling it. • ^ vftnrftfTW •JWoi: tfjrr fh"PHTtr«rV 1 W&iV 

<y«Ki! iwi^fW T^wrJf grorritfynA vr*?j sA^M^mnnaift^iH wi «rft- 
iTftf asrfw, i ' com. on Est. II. 6. 25. fffoftgrt ] is somewhat like the first 
rough plan and Twrfurnf conveys the idea of final completion. 

2334. Really this is a mere mantra iorjapa. 

Ch. XXX ] bar&apuryamasa-vedi 1037 

or to the Sgnldhra or to the attendants if any) *0 men! make 
this vedi and make it occupied by the Vasus, Rudras, Adityas 
&c.' (Kanaka Sam. I. 9). The agnldhra digs up with the 
sphya the upper layer of dust with ' Araru has been struok off 
from the earth, bring here him who worships the gods' and 
oarries the dust so dug towards the utkara. When this is 
being done the Bacrificer recites two texts. The agnldhra digs 
the ground from west to east for making the vedi with 'at the 
prompting of God Savitr, the worshippers do their work'. 
Whatever roots remain in the ground he removes with the 
sphya, and all dust that remains he removes to the utkara. 
The adhvaryu addresses the brahma priest ' O brahman I shall 
I undertake the further enfolding of the vedi '. The brahma 
priest mutters a mantra 'O Brhaspati, enfold the vedi &o.' 
and loudly replies, 'Yes (om), do enfold*. He enfolds the 
vedi from the south, west, and north respectively ,m with 
'thou art rta (right), thou art the abode of rta, thou art the 
glory of rta*. The yajamana mutters while this is being done 
a verse * O Brhaspati I enfold the vedi' ( same as the one recited 
by the brahmS above ). The adhvaryu says ' thou art dhs 
( support of the havia ), thou art svadha ( the source of pindas 
offered to Manes ), thou art the wide earth, thou art rich ' and 
makes the surface of the vedi level by means of the sphya from 
east to west. The yajamana invokes the vedi with a mantra 
' Having beoome the earth, it nourished greatness &o. ' (Tai. 
Br. III. 7. 6). The adhvaryu addresses a mantra mt (Tai. S. 

I. 1. 9 ) to the vedi ' O virapsin 1 Before the cruel ( Araru ) 
creeps out &o. ', holds the sphya in a slanting position in a 
spot which is beyond § of the length of the vedi from its 
western side and issues a direotion mr ' obtain or set down the 

2335. The words mraffc, qwrcnpmfft , sjnfsffafa are addressed to the 
vedi. They are from Tai. S. 1. 1. 9. 

2386. Aooording to BByana, fttfc^rac is irregular for ftvj^rfa addres- 
sed to the vedi and means ' having priests.' 

2337. The ifo is 3taufl<uH4<)wi<if34M44l4 4 4 J* 1 J^T tty% Tfff 
tfiWP^nWWir I. Vide Tai. Br. III. 2. 9 and Sat. I. 6. p. 153. 
According to Sat. this is addressed to himself by the adhvaryu who 
does all these actions in order. Aooording to Est. II. 6. 36-37 the 
direotion is addressed to Sgnldhra and according to the com. on Ap. 

II, 3. 11 there is an option. Even if the yajamKna has two or more 
wives the direction is still <r«ff 3*fr, *' nce tne rul * 1S tnat there is no 

( Continued on next page ) 

1038 History of Lharmaiastra [ Oh. XXX 

water for sprinkling, put down the idhma (fuel-sticks) and 
barhis ( kusa grass ), clean the sruva and the sruc ladles, gird 
up the wife (of the sacrifioer), and come out with clarified butter.' 
Then the agnldhra ( or adhvaryu ) plaoes two pavitras inside 
the agnihotrahavanl (sruo), pours water into it, draws the 
spbya In a slanting position ( from the spot where it had been 
held fixed ) a short distance to the north thereby causing a 
furrowed line on the vedi, holds the sphya in the left hand 
inside the vedi and the agnihotrahavanl in the right hand, drops 
a little water from the agnihotrahavanl on to the furrowed 
line made by the sphya and places the agnihotrahavanl ( con- 
taining the water) on the spot where the sphya had been 
originally held fixed slantingly with ' abode of rta.' The 
adhvaryu brings to his mind him whom the yajamSna hates. 
When the proksanl waters are being placed the yajamftna 
mutters a mantra. The adhvaryu throws the sphya in such a 
way that it falls on the utkara with ' thou art produced from 
a tree, thou hast a hundred points, thou art the death of the 
enemy.' Then seizing the sphya with his fist by the bulging 
part thereof he draws it towards the east from the utkara. He 
washes his hands on the utkara and also the sphya with water 
but does not touch with his bare hand the point of the sphya 
( i. e. he cleans the other parts of the sphya with his hand by 
pouring the water thereon and cleans the point by only pouring 
water thereon ). To the north of the Shavanlya he places with 
both hands the idhma and barhis, the latter to the north of the 
former. The sphya is placed near the pranlts waters to their 
west (Kai. II. 6. 43). 

With the ends of the blades out off in making the veda 
bunch he ( the agnldhra or adhvaryu himself ) wipes the sruva 
and the three ladles viz. juhu, upabhrt and dhruva ), invokes 
them with ' you are not sharpened ( and yet ) you destroy our 
enemies.' He takes up the sruva and the sruo ladles with 
' Agni summons you, who are filled with butter, for the worship 

( Continued from latt page ) 

aha in the model sacrifice. Vide Jaimini IX. 3. 20. The next sBtra 
extends the same rule to vikrti sacrifices also. In XII. 1. 29 Jai- 
mini establishes that at the time of dlkss in a Soma sacrifice the wife is 
girt up with the yoktra, a fresh girding up is hence not neoessary in the 
priyanlyff and other isfis that are constituent elements in somaySga. 
Jaimini 1. 4; 11 explains that the word proksanl is used here in its 
etymological sense. 

Cb. XXX ] Dariapurvamam-ladles 1039 

of the gods,' heats them on the ahavanlya or garhapatya with 
burnt is the evil spirit, burnt are the enemies, I heat you with 
the very dazzling light of Agni.' He cleans the sruva, the bowl 
by rubbing its inside several times and its outside on all sides 
onoe with the tips tm ( of the vedaparivasanani) and its rod with 
the roots (of the portions of the cut blades) with 'May I not brush 
the place of cows I I clean thee that art strong ( or possessed of 
food) and that subduest enemies ' (Tai. S. 1. 1. 10. 1). He cleans 
the juhu ladle, the bowl by rubbing its inside several times 
from west to east with the tips ( of the cut portions ), its outside 
from east to west with the middle portions and its rod with the 
roots with ' may I not brush out speech and life-breatb, I 
clean thee &o." He cleans the upabbrt, the inside from east to 
west ( as for sruva ), the outside from west to east with 
the middle portions and the rod with the roots with ' may I not 
rub out the eye and the ear, I clean thee &o.' He cleans the 
dhruva ladle as he did the sruva, with the difference that 
the mantra is ' may I not rub out progeny and home &o.' He 
does not allow a cleaned vessel to come in oontaot with one 
that is not cleaned, but if they are brought in oontaot he again 
heats the vessel (already cleaned) and cleans it again. He takes 
up the vessel called prasitraharana, ,83 " heats it on the fire ( but 
without mantras ) and cleans it, the bowl with the tips ( of cut 
blades ) on all sides from the outside to the inside and the rod 
with the roots * with may I not brush out food, progeny and 
prosperity, I clean thee that art strong and subduest enemies '. 
According to Ap. II. 4. 10 and com. on Sat. I. 7 p. 158 the sruo 
ladles and the prasitraharana are laid on darbhas in front of 
the utkara or to its west on the north side of the vedi. He 
sprinkles with water the cut portions of the veda bunch with 

2338. The portions out off in making the veda bunch (called 
vedaparivffsanXni) have three parts, anr ( tips ), wr and jjjy. The 
first and last are employed jn cleaning the g*. The mantra in Tai. 
B. I. X. 10 is iftj nr fw&r *rfM wt *rwmt ?hnfS*, «rr* m* <5ra» wH 

jwrt «rrflr *rr fo^tf *tfipflr wr HTfraT^f tfrrfSr. »fts m** tfwTi&r is 

uttered when cleaning *jt, wr^ irtf T falhr iif^'H wt ^WTHrflf tl«if«i 
for ^f , «*jgt «fi* at f*r&t *rfMf wt flftR'Wifi #nf§* wit h ot^, rert iftffl 

*n fwtfifr wrf3rif ffrnffa with w*r. • nfhft«»n<]K"f «nwtp»'fl?¥r«fctf > 

<ffihm*«nirTfa t «rr^foc * com. on Sat. I. 7 p. 158. 

2339. Prtditra is a portion of the fori* left over after offering into 
the fire, that is to be given to the brahmB priest and prSditraharana is 
the vessel that holds it and that is made of khadira wood, is shaped like 
a cow's ear, is one span long and has a rod four asgulas in length. 

1040 History of DharmaiMra [ Oh. XXX 

which the vessels were oleaned and offers them into that fire mo 
(gSrhapatya or Shavanlya ) on which the vessels were heated 
with ' this artistic thing ( the darbba that springs from water ) 
spread down from heaven, it resorts to the spaces of the earth ; 
we destroy our enemy with it that has a thousand shoots, 
svShs! * (Tai.Br. III. 3. 2). 

Then comes patnisarhnahana ( girding up of the sacrifioer's 
wife ). 

The agnldhra takes up the veda bunch, the ayasthali, mi 
yoklra, and the two darbha blades used as pavitra. The wife ( of 
the sacrificer ), while sitting to the south-west of the gSrhapatya 
with knee raised up or standing is girt up by the agnldhra ( by 
the adhvaryu, according to com. on A.p. II. 5. 6 ) with the yoktra 
(cord of munja grass) with the mantra, ' I hoping for a favour- 
ably disposed mind, progeny, good luck, beautiful body and 
observing the vratas of Agni, gird up myself for meritorious 
actions' (Tai. S. L 1. 10. 1 ). In modern practice the wife girds 
up her waist with the yoktra herself. He does not gird her up 
over the garment worn round the waist but inside it ( Ap. II. 5. 5 
says there is an option). The yoktra has a loop at one end in 
whioh the other end is inserted and the cord is passed round the 
waist of the wife twice, a knot like that of the top-knot (sikhS of 
a man) is made to the north of the navel with ' may PQsan tie 
a knot for you' and it is drawn to the south of the navel from 
left to right. She waits upon (does adoration to) the gSrha- 
patya by standing and saying 'O fire, Lord of the house, oall 
me near*. Standing to the west of the gSrhapatya she pays 

2340. Acoording to Est. II. 6. 50 the cut blades used in scouring 
the vessels are thrown on the utkara. Ap. II. 5. 1 gives an option. 

2341. The Kjyasthffli is a pot in which clarified butter is taken with 
a mantra after the pavitra blades are placed therein and from which the 
■mo ladles are filled. The yoktra is a triple ( having three strands ) oord 
of munja grass with which the waist of the sacrifioer's wife is girt with a 
mantra by the agnldhra at the direction of the adhvaryu in sacrificial 
rites. The wife is made fit for participation in the sacrifice by being 
girt up. Vide Tai. Br. III. 3. 3 • 9tT?rmT«n *W*Wt»rtTni i mrr*t<brt «ip«Sf 
fwr arrfffn «*nlvw i snrajBRrr ••• wi^nr i «m£ <rfi*»^ B iH? *t q » rct i £«r?«it 
WTgWnH * '• According to some ( Ap. II. 6. 3 ) the mantra • isssBnB ' is 
recited by the wife. The words in Sat. 1. 7 p. 160 are ' jrroft writffovf 
irffcl $wr'. ftwdi nfHrj means f$rar«ft: Tftor: ( com. on Ap. II. 6.6) i.e. a 
knot that can be unloosened by untwisting. Girding her up represents 
making her undergo a vrata for the sacrifice, aa stated by the Tai. Br. 
quoted above. 

Oh. XXX ] Daria-Pfiryamasa 1041 

adoration to the wives of the gods"" with 'May you 
wives of the gods summon me near you' and she looks 
at the same spot ( west of gSrhapatya and not east ) with ' O 
wife, O wife ( of the god ) ! this is thy world, salutation to 
thee, do not injure me*. She sits facing the north at a 
place which is south-west of the gSrhapatya with ' May I 
have no widowed state just as Indranl has none. 8848 May I have 
good sons like Aditi I O garhapatya endowed with all means, 
I sit down near thee for good progeny ' ( Tai. Br. III. 7. 5 ). 
On sitting down Bhe mutters ( japati ,M * ) * fire I we, who have 
virtuous hushands and who have good progeny, who are not 
treated with oontempt, have sat down near thee, that destroyest 
enemies and that cannot be destroyed ( Tai. S. I. 1. 10. 1-2 ) ; 
may my sons be destroyers of enemies and my daughter be 
ruling ( a queen ); I also am victorious ( over my co-wives ) and 
my glory with my husband is highest ( Rg. X 159. 3 ). ' The 
agnldhra opens the mouth of the big jar ( covered with a 
piece of cloth or the like ) in which ghee has been stored with 
' may Pusan open thy mouth ' and takes from it into another 
vessel ghee that should be a little more than what would be 
required in the rite, heats it on the daksioa fire with ' Visou 
traversed this * ( Rg. I. 22. 17 ). He takes up from the spot 
where all utensils have been placed the ajyasthall (pot for 
clarified butter ) with ' thou art Aditi, whose pavitra is not cut 
off' and pours into that pot in which two pavitras are placed 
plenty of clarified butter '**' ' thou art the milk of the great 
ones (the cows), the fluid of herbs, I take out from thee that art 
inexhaustible a portion for the worship of gods ( this is the nir« 
vSpa of clarified butter ). He melts the butter in the ajyasthall 
on the burning coals of the southern portion of the gSrhapatya 

2342. The region of the wives of the goda is to the west of the 

1343. In Sg. X. 86. 11 ( and Tai. S. I. 7. 13. 1 ) we read yyymftnq 

2344. The oom. on Sat. I. 7. p. 161 significantly remarks that the 
mantras to be repeated by the wife should be learnt by her from her 
father or husband before agnyVdhVna ' tp^ sp^r sirerTr»S[5 Rip Tf3*T 

2845. The oom. on Xp. II. 6. 1 notices that in the absence of ghee 
made from oow's milk, ghee made from the milk of a she-buffalo or a 
■he-goat may be used as a snbititnte or even sesame oil. Bat the 
mantra is the same (there is no Bfto of the words referring to cows that 
occur in the mantra ). 
H. P. 181 

1042 History of DkarmaiMra [ Oh. XXX 

fire with ' to thee for sap *, takes it down ( from the coals ) with 
• to thee for strength ', holds it oyer the veda bunob and bands 
both the pot and the veda bunoh to the wife. She first closes 
her eyes and then holding her breath (opens her eyes and) looks 
down on the clarified butter with 'thou art the milk of cows ; the 
fluid of herbs, I look on thee for seouring good progeny with 
an invincible eye ' ( Tai. S. I. 1. 10. 3 ). The Sgnldhra places 
the ajyasthall on the northern portion of the garhapatya fire 
and melts it with 'thou art light'; he takes it from the fire 
with 'to thee for light* and carries it to the south of the 
ahavanlya with ' follow after light '. He melts it on that fire 
with 'may Agni not remove thy light'. He takes up the pot 
and returns by the way be went and places it with a mantra 
'thou art the tongue of Agni' (Tai S. I. 1. 10. 3 ) to the north 
of the prokganl waters on the line drawn with the sphya. 

The adhvaryu and the yajamana both close their eyes, 
holding their breath, (open their eyes and) look down upon the 

clarified butter with 'thou art ajya, thou art truth may I 

partake of thee ' ( a long mantra from Tai. S. I. 6. 1. 1-2 ). 
The adhvaryu purifies (performs utpavana of) the ajya thrice 
with two pavitras m * the points of which are held towards the 
north by continuously carrying them backwards and forwards 
with 'thou art bright, thou art the flame, thou art light' ( Tai. 
S. I. 1. 10. 3 ). He performs utpavana of the proksanl water 
with ' devo vab savitotpunStu &o.' ( Tai. 8. 1. 1. 10. 3 ). The 
adhvaryu fills with the sruva ladle that has no trace of any- 
thing sticking to it and that is held in the right hand clarified 
butter inside the vedi, while holding the sruc together 
with the veda bunch in the left hand. The juhu ladle is 
so held that its bowl is alongside of the hollow of the ajya- 
sthall, that of the upabhrt is near the middle of the ajyasthall 
and the dhruva is on the ground. In the juhu and dhruva 
four ladlings are made with sruva while in the upabhrt eight 
are made'** 7 , but the upabhrt contains the smallest portion 
of ajya, the juhu contains a good deal and the dhruva contains 

2346. The com. on Sat. I. 7. p. 165 explains how toil particular 
utpavana ii done ' snii<HWJl <rftrsl <T«4i4{l<lHlt*? Trurpf •ftwrr 5*» <WTf- 
g | | i W I »fiv «IWT smhffcjTTft* a<ny qifr I '. The ?gvedins move the 
pavitras from the west to the east only. 

2347. There are various views about the number of times Ijya is 
poured with the trtwa into the three ladles ( sruo ). Vide Ap. II. 7. 4-6, 
Sat. 1. 7 pp. 165-167. The general rule is stated above. 

Oh. XXX ] Dcaria-PurvamUsa 1043 

the largest quantity. When the juhu is being filled the mantras 
are four 'sukram tva... grhnami paficanam tvS...dhattraya 
grhnSmi ' ( Tai. S. 1. 1. 10. 3 and I. 6. 1. 2-3 ); in the case of 
the upabhrt the mantras are eight 'paficanam tvartttnfim... 
suvlryaya tva.. .grhnami '; in the case of the dhruva the 

mantras are ' suprajastvaya tva grhnami devatabhyo 

grhnami* (Tai. 8. 1. 6. 1. 3 ). The yajamana also invokes with 
the same mantras when the ladling is going on. The adhvaryu 
removes the ajyasthall together with the veda and sruva from 
the vedi, keeps the ajya in some place other than the utkara, 
invokes the proksanl waters with 'the divine waters (apo devlr 
&C Tai. 8. I. 1. 5. 1 ) and seeks the permission of the brahma 
priest with ' brahman, shall I sprinkle.' When the brahma says 
'yes' he sprinkles thrice the idhma (fire-wood brought, vide 
p.1014 above), the veda bunch and the vedi, each with a separate 
mantra ( from Tai. 8. 1. 1. 11. 1 ). He places the whole bundle 
of barhis with the knot to the east inside the vedi with a (aautra) 
mantra ' we had recourse to barhis &o. ' and sprinkles the tips, 
the middle portions and the roots of the barhis respectively with 
' to thee for heaven ', * to thee for the aerial region ', ' to thee for 
the earth. * While the sprinkling proceeds the yajamana repeats 
a verse ' may the waters and herbs be well disposed to the 
yajamana &o. ' ( Ap. IV. 6. 1 ). He dips the tips of the barhis 
in the water contained in the agnihotra-havanl and then the 
roots also. He sprinkles over the knot of the barhis from east 
to west water from the sruc over which he places his hand ( so 
that water oozes over it from his finger tips ) with ' to you for 
nourishment * ( Tai. S. VII. 1. 11 ). He pours down the remain- 
ing proksanl water from the southern oorner ( sroni ) of the 
west side of the vedi to its north corner with ' svadha to the 
pitrs, mayst thou be strength for the barhisad pitrs, may you 
( the particles of water ) go to the earth with strength * and the 
yajamana says ' this is for the Barhisad pitrs. ' 

Now comes barhirastarava (strewing the vedi with kusa 
grass). He loosens the knot of the bundle of barhis with 
'may Pusan loosen thy knot'. He takes in his hand the pras- 
tara bunoh drawing it towards the east slowly from the bundle 
of barhis (as if towards the ahayanlya) with 'thou art the 
orest(sttlpa) of visnu i e. yajfia (Tai. S. I. 1.11). With' I 
implant prana and apftna in the yajamana' he places the two 
pavitra blades (used in utpavana above) on the prastara, 
hands it over to the brahma priest, who passes it on to the 

1044 History of DharmaiUstra I Oh. XXX 

yajamana who holds it in his hand. He strews darbha M * T * 
grass on the vedi and places the cord that tied the barhis 
thereon with 'God Barhis 1 I strew thee that art soft like 
wool, as a good seat for the gods'. The darbhas are spread in 
three or fire series (or divisions) beginning from the west side 
of the vedi towards the east (or the reverse according to some) in 
such a way that the tips of one set that is already spread oover 
the roots of the next and the grass is so thiokly strewn that the 
ground below cannot be easily seen. When the kusa grass is 
being strewn the yajamSna recites a mantra 'O barhis, that are 

soft like wool, being spread place me in heaven &o. ' 

( Tai. Br. III. 7.6), when the vedi is covered with the middle 
division of the barhis he reoites the mantra 'this young lady 
with four tufts of hair &c* (Tai. Br. III. 7. 6 ) and when the 
vedi is completely covered he recites a long passage 'May you 

be auspicious to me increase food, strength, spiritual 

lustre, martial brilliance, prosperity, progeny, cattle for me 
Ac^Tai. Br. III. 7.6)/ 

He takes out two blades (to be used later) for the anflyajas 
and keeps them separately to the east, feeds the ahavanlya with 
fire-wood, takes back the prastara from the hand of the yaja- 
mftna, and while holding the prastara himself places the three 
encircling f uel-stioks (paridhi) round the ahavanlya fire. The 
middle paridhi is placed on darbhas to the west of the 
ahavanlya with the tip towards the north with 8 * 4 * 'thou art 
gandharva &o.\ While the middle paridhi is being placed the 
yajamSna reoites a mantra ( Tai. Br. IIL 7. 6 ). The other two 
paridhis are laid to the south and north of the ahavanlya place 
with their tips to the east, the southern one extending a little 
beyond the ahavanlya place and touching the middle paridhi 
and the northern one also touohes the middle paridhi. The 
yajamana repeats two long passages when the southern and 
northern paridhis are being laid (portions of which are identioal 

2347 a. According to the Tai. Br. III. 3. 6 barhis represent b human 
beings and the vedi represents the earth. ' *f$« «^om% ■ sjsrr $ wftt I 
jPrfV^H JTUT IT* tfW i rf ftg w qft I '. In Tai. Br. III. 3.6 we hare 
TO«rr»ft «c TOTO which Jai. I. 4. 23 gays is a mere arthavfda. 

2348. The mantra for the middle paridhi is ip«*fft ftaratrffo- 
WnftaHf laiflwiti iftntffa tfra?rt, that for the southern paridhi -is rv^FT 
*Tfti$r tfSror) ^«l»W«J ... iffatt, that for the northern one is fihTWffs ft 
W«TO! rfbret sfovpfcrr ... fflra«. These ooour in Tai. 8. 1. 1. 11 and 
V«j. S.II.8. 

Oh. XXX ] Daria-Purvamasa 1045 

with that repeated by the yajamana for the middle paridhi). 
The adhvaryu invokes the ahavanlya 'may the sun guard you 
against all injuries whatever' ( Tai. 8. 1. 1. 11 ). He plaoes ( in 
the midst of the ahavanlya fire) two samidhs with their ends 
turned upwards on whioh the ftgh&ras (will be offered later on), 
one to the south with the mantra ' Fire, the wise one, may we 
kindle thee 6W (vltihotram tva kave &o. Rg. V. 26. 3 or Tai. 
8. 1. 1. 11 ) and the other to the north of it silently. From the 
midst of the barhis he takes two darbhas of equal length, that 
have no blade hhooting from inside of them ; these are called 
vidhrti and are laid down on the barhis strewn on the vedi in the 
middle portion of the latter with their tips turned northwards 
with 'you two are the regulators of people*. When the 
vidhrtis are being laid down the yajamana repeats a long 

passage ' I out off my enemies with the vidhrtis may you 

support life, progeny and cattle in me' ( Tai. Br. III. 7. 6 \ 
The adhvaryu keeps the prastara bunoh on these two vidhrtis 
with 'sit in this abode of Vasus, Rudras and Adityas ' (Tai. S. 
1. 1. 11) and the yajamana repeats a mantra 'this prastara is 
the support of both Prayajas and Anuyajas &o. ' ( Tai. Br. III. 
7. 6 ). The adhvaryu plaoes the juhu on the prastara in suoh a 
way that its rod will be alongside of the roots of the prastara 
bunoh with a mantra.' 1 * 8 The upabhrt is plaoed to the north 
of the juhQ in suoh a way that its root is very muoh to the 
west of the root of the juhu and it is underneath the vidhrtis, 
and the dhruva is plaoed to the north of the upabhrt over the 
vidhrtis and its root is very muoh to the west of that of the 
upabhrt The three should not be so plaoed as to touoh each 
other. The yajamana repeats three passages (all from Tai. 
Br. Ill 7. 6 ) addressed to the three ladles when they are being 
placed. The adhvaryu lays down the sruva to the south of the 
juhu (or to the north of the dhruva but a little behind its bowl) 
with ' thou art a bull possessed of strength, I seat thee in the 
extent of vasa^kara '. He places the ftjyasthall also in suoh a 
spot as space would permit. The yajamana repeats a mantra 
for sruva and another for SjyasthSlI (Tai. Br. III. 7. 6). The 
adhvaryu invokes the ladles (srucs) with 'these sat in the 
world of good deeds ; Visnu I proteot them, proteot the sacrifice 

2849. The same mantra ie repeated for all three, only the name of 
tbe particular iruo being inserted ' gjg"^ ^mft *T**T ft^W *fT**T flfc 

«Tfft #* I wtf* isro - ft* ' H*n3 TTPfl tfr* I Vide Tai. 

8. 1. 1. 11 and compare Vsj. S. II. 6. 

1046 History of DharmaiMra [ Oh. XXX 

and the lord of sacrifice and me who bring sacrifice' (Tat. 
8. I. 1. 11, Vaj. S. II. 6). He invokes the clarified butter 
with ' you are all-pervading, belong to Visnu and are the 
abodes of FrajSpati'. He takes in his hand the ajyasthsll 
together with the sruva and the veda bunch, removes with 
the veda bunoh the burning coals from the southern, purodasa 
with ' Here do I remove the mouth from the attacking army * 
and then removes them also from the northern purodasa. He 
invokes the purodasa with ' O Sun, O Light, shine forth for 
great vigour. ' He spreads a little clarified butter in the puro- 
dasapatrl for each of the two oakes with ' I make a happy seat 
for you, I arrange for a seat full of pleasure with a stream of 
butter ' ( Tai. Br. III. 7. 5 ) and drops olarified butter over ( i. e. 
performs abhigharana ) the southern purodasa which is intended 
for Agni with ' May Agni whose source is ghee increase ( or be 
pleased ), may he accept the offerings, anoint the holes, anoint 
the skin ; I sprinkle thee that art good looking, that art dear to 
Agni and that securest wealth with the lustre of cattle ( i. e. 
ghee ) for Agni ' ( Tai. Br. III. 7. 5 ) and drops butter silently 
on the northern purod&sa. If the second offering be s&nnayya 
( instead of a purodasa ) he drops olarified butter over the boiled 
milk with a mantra ' May that self of yours that has entered 
cattle... go to the gods and secure heaven for me who am a 
sacrificer ' ( Tai. Br. III. 7. 5 ). He removes the purodasa into 
the p&trl ( vessel ) from the potsherds without allowing it to 
break up into pieces and without making it roll about with 'this 
baked ( purodasa ) that is moist and has broad prominences, 
that is the proteotor of the world, that is the generator of 

• thoughts ( or prayers ) comes out for a bath * ( Tai. Br. III. 7. 5 ). 
He brushes away the ashes ( sticking on the back of the puro- 
dasa ) with the veda bunoh and lays it down in the purodasa- 
pStrl on the butter that has already been sprinkled over it with 

* Sit on that, be firmly placed in neotar, O offering, that art the 
essence of rice grains,*" with a favourable mind ' ( Tai. Br. 
III. 7. 5 ). He sprinkles clarified butter over it a second time 
and keeps it aside with ' mayst thou be strong. ' 

He sprinkles clarified butter over each of the potsherds ( on 
whioh the purodasa was baked ), counts them and keeps them 
aside with ' may not prosperity in the form of food and the 
flavour of earth pass away ' ( Tai Br. HL 7. 5 ). He anoints 

2350. Xp. II. 11. 2 says that if the purodsda is made of barley floor 
he does not repeat the mantra ai the word ' rice ' ooouri there in. 

Cfa. XXX 1 Earia-PUrvamSsa 1047 

both the purodasas with butter with 'may god Savitr anoint 
thee with honey * ( the mantra is repeated twice ), the upper part 
being anointed by the sruva ladle with plenty of ghee in such 
a way that there are no mere drops of ghee on it as there are 
specks on the baok of the tortoise ( but the ghee is well spread 
over the whole surface ) and that the lower skin of the purodasa 
is anointed with ghee by the right hand. He lays down the two 
purodasas to the west of the srucs, that for Agni being to the 
south and the other being to the north with ' may you occupy 
this loved -seat by your lovable lustre. ' If sannayya is to be 
offered, he brings together (makes them touch each other) in the 
middle of the vedi the two jars of it and then keeps them 
separate, the one containing the boiled milk on the southern 
oorner of the west side of the vedi and that containing curds on 
the northern corner thereof. When the sannayya is being thus 
placed the yajamana repeats a verse ' yasta atma ' &o. ' ( Tai. 
Br. III. 7. 5 ) and repeats a mantra ( from Tai. Br. III. 7. 6 ) 
invoking the purodasa for Agni, that for Agnlsoma ( or Indra 
and Agni ), the hot milk, the curds ( the sannayya in cases 
where it is offered ). 

The adhvaryu lays down the veda bunoh in front of the 
dhruva ladle with ' this veda sought the earth that was con- 
cealed &o. * ( Tai. Br. III. 7. 6 ), strews darbhas round the 
corners of the vedi, 8m and prepares the seat for the hotr 
which is to the north of the northern ' sroni ' of the vedi 
and the darbhas spread on the seat have their points turned 
eastwards or northwards. The adhvaryu invites the hotr in the 
words ' O Hotr t come*. The hotr priest sits down to the north- 
east of the ahavanlya with face to the east, performs acamana 
with the sacred cord in the upavlta form, enters the sacrificial 
ground (vihara) by the way called tirtha (vide p. 984 above). 
He enters with his right foot first, plants his heel alongside of 
the northern sroni and steps upon the barhia ( spread on the 
vedi) with his toes, spreads out the fingers of both hands which 
he joins together and holds them on a level with his heart, looks 
straight at the horizon ( and neither upwards nor downwards) 
and stands faoing the east. This is always the position of the 
limbs of the body in the case of the hotr unless there be any 
express direction to the contrary. The adhvaryu takes a 
aamidh from the idhma and issues a direction to the hotr ' reoite 

2351. On foWPqftgfo ? the com « on S 5- IL 11, 10 8a y* ' ^t "ifoft- 

1048 History of MarmaiMra [ Oh. XXX 

for Agni that is being kindled*. The hot? reoites ' salutation to 
the expounder, salutation to the supervisor, salutation to him 
who reports, who will repeat (or respond to) this? He will 
repeat this. May the six broad (or great) ones, viz. heaven and 
earth, day and night, waters and plants save me from sin. 
Speech has stood firm ( and so has ) yajfia. I shall deal with 
( t e. recite ) the metres well. I resort to myself so and so ( here 
the hotr utters his name in the objective oase ). In the past 
and in future, as to things born and to be born I have recourse 
to(Agni) who is apavya(?). Bring me the non-cessation of 
epeech'. So saying he contraots his fingers towards himself 
and then extends them as before by saying 'O fire! make the 
oattle take delight in me'. ( Then he should proceed ) ' Heaven 
and earth are my armour. Fire is my armour, the Sun is my 
armour and may the intermediate quarters be my armour ! O 
gods I I shall to-day reflect over that highest part of speech, 
whereby we may vanquish the asuras ; five people, who 
deserve sacrifices and food accept my offering."" Having 
finished this japa, the hotr sets about repeating the Samidhenl 
verses. 8 *** The yajaraSna repeats the daia-hotr mantras before 
the samidhenls ( vide note 2247 for dasahotrs). First he utters 
the syllable 'Mm' thrice (or once) and the mystic words , bhur 
bhuvah svarom* are muttered inaudibly by him. ,m Then 
eome the s&midhenl verses. The samidhenl verses are (vide 
iav. I. 2. 7) eleven viz. Bg. III. 27. 1, VI. 16. 10-12, III. 27. 
13-15, L 12. 1, IIL 27. 4, V. 28. 5-6. But fifteen samidhenl 
verses are to be repeated in Darsa-purnamasa and the number 
fifteen of the verses is obtained by repeating each of the first 
( pra vo vftjft, Bg. HI. 27. 1 ) and the last verse ( ft juhota 

2352. The passages srn: sw*^ «rw &&[% g**** constitute the 

entire jopo which the hotr mutters, the last clause being Bg. X. 63. 4. 
ThiB last is explained in Nirukta III. 8. The words «m: «*** &o., are a 
$autra passage ( abv. 1. 2. 1 ) and have a parallel in 6sn. 1. 4 ' »ratarq 
Tnrit *wfr w s^nif^ »m 3<if8/«ji«jiji<.6vi9) &c. ' 

2853. The verses are called SSmidhenl because they are repeated 
when Agni is being kindled or fed with fuel, wjh qfSwnw i ^w, trrft. 
&wr:— com. on Afiv. I. 2. 3. Vide gat. Br. I. 3. 5. 1 v*$ g *T TOqujR 1 - 

means 0#vrmvnft and is derived from &(%%, 

2354. Aooording to asv. I. 2. 3-4 the repetition of 'him' thrice 
and of ' bbUrbhuvahsvarom » are teohnioally called atfSrftwTC- Vide 
Tal. B. II. 5. 7-8, Tai. Br. III. 5.: 2, Sat. Br. I. 3. 6-L 4. 1. Bat. Bt- 
I. 4. 1. 8 states that the word « him * is uttered inaudibly. 

Ch. XXX ] DartapUrvamcl8a-Snmidhmi8 1040 

Bg. V. 28. 6 ) thrice. They are all to be repeated in the same 
pitoh m * (not minding udatta, anudatta or svarita accents) 
i. e. ekairuti. Jaimini IX. 1. 33 states that whatever rk is the 
first or last ( whether ' pra vo vaja ' &o. or any other ) is to be 
repeated thrice (i. e. repetition three times is an attribute 
due to the plaoe of a verse and it is not an attribute 
of any particular verse ). The syllable ' om ' is to be added at 
the end of each verse and the adhvaryu sitting down near 
the ahavanlya throws into the ahavanlya fire a samidh the 
moment ' om ' is uttered by the hotr at the end of a verse. The 
saorificer then utters at each samidh 'agnaya idamnamama'. 
In this way when eleven samidhs have been offered, all the 
remaining samidhs (except one kept aside for the anuyUjas) 
are offered into the fire the moment the last verse but one 
( viz. samiddho agna, Rg. V. 28. 5 ) or the last verse ( a juhota, 
Rg. V. 23. 6) is recited. Asv. ( I. 2. 8-22) gives detailed rules 
about how these samidhenl verses are to be recited. The note 
below would illustrate the method of their recital. MM The 
hotr repeats the nigada 'Ofire, you are great, you are brah- 
mana (the impulse to prayers), you are Bharata ( the sustainer)' 
in such a way as to join it with the last ' om ' repeated after 
the last samidhenl verse and then makes a stop. Then the 

2355. Adv. I. 2. 9 defines ' TyrngTrgffi^ TOt TO tff^ratf faftfSTn; > 
and the com. explains ' T?raT R w H i flP forgnfiT ^ sptwtt arrfurftw- 

2356. The verses are repeated as follows : j? sft qrsrr «ni 

y«nT f3 sj *t snn e«i*ff3 n tft ^tstt g*jprt3jT?i wrarni? «f?^ 

w% *fiNr3*er m ^fro^t3 « * : g^p?T3ift^ft *raf&ftii*r& 

I<Tif3 fsfim: $s5lft3 f«rof ^T fjfr3»lf& grcf B9TWlf3 flfihiimpft ... 

••• *fl*r?13 Kn^f^ *«a«13»rr g*fcrr r«mnnft3irrgwhiT ii5«i13- 

irrgstai •.«• ••« irf»f)3iT^ wrTsrftr Ac. ' Om ' being added at the end of 
qwrgt it is to be recited as Q^^T, and thon it is to be conti- 
nuously joined on to the next verse viz. the same verse repeated twice 
again, the 3rd gwnft 3»T, being joined to the verse aijr strcnft «fa^ %. 
VI. 16. 10. As (f wt follows *fiNr3ir. it is to be pronounced like «rf|rr>3^ 
tf WT and ^3* followed by **n$t makes that ^ be pronounced like a 
nasal |. The hotr is not to stop (avasSna ) or take breath at the end of 
verses but at the end of the half verses. At the end of the last ' om ' 
of the last verse the nigada ztd myt wfir «rrgror »mn is to be joined on to 
it and then the hot? stops at the word ' BhUrata '. The Tai. Br. III. 5. 3 
has wfr h^i wfit wnroi *nrif i snft ara^r i iftff* wfN^t &c 
H. d. 132 

1050 HUtory cf DharmaiMra I Oh. XXX 

hotr invokes the names of the pravars sages 81 " of the saorifioer 
as many as he may have ( 1, 2, 3 or 5 ), the most remote one 
being first uttered, then the more remote and so on. In the 
oase of a ksatriya or a vaisya saorifioer, the invocation is made 
of the pravara sages of the purohita of the saorifioer or of 
the names 'Manava, Ails, Paururavasa* or of ' Manava' 
for all in case of doubt ( Asr. I. 3. 3-5 ). He then proceeds 
' (Agni) that was kindled by the Gods and by Manu, that 
was sung by the sages, whom wise men gladdened, that was 
praised by the sages, that was aroused by prayers, that is offered 
ghee, the bringer ( or leader ) of sacrifices, the charioteer of sacri- 
fices, the unobstructed hotr, the swift carrier of offerings'. 
He takes breath here and proceeds ' thou art the mouth and 
the vessel of the gods, the juhu of the gods, a camasa ( cup ) 
with whioh the gods drink; O fire! as the spokes are centered 
In the felly, so tbou encompassest the gods, bring the gods 
to this sacrificer '. tm Then he calls upon Agni to bring 
the several deities, viz. Agni, Soma, Agni, Prajapati, Agnl- 
somau, the ghee-drinking gods and adds * bring Agni for 
the holra (the function or office of hotr), bring thy own 
greatness, O Jatavedas (fire), bring and sacrifice with a 

2357. Vide notes 1139-1140 about reoiting the names of the 
pravara sages. For example, if the gotra of the sacrificer is l-SBndilya 
the hotr repeats §Sndila, Asita, Devala ; if it be Vatsa, he repeats 
BhSrgava, CySvana, SpnavSna, Aurva, Jsmadagnya. Agni is here 
invoked to help the sacrificer as the summoner of the gods on this 
occasion, as he did help the illustrious ancestors of the sacrificer. Vide 
Haug's tr. of Ait. Br. pp. 479-480 ( note ) and S. B. B. vol. 18 p. 115 
(note) for pravara. It should be remembered that this pravara repetition 
is part of the nigada. He takes breath at the end of the pravara words. 
Then follow the words %>^fj ... q ffijwwn r, (isv. I. 3. 6 ). Here he again 
takes breath. Then come fourteen words STTWT9T — «rRijcT% Then the 
words arr^f %ifz ... to form the mmnHiM'iq 1 . 

2358. The Mr. it. I. 3. 6 contains the whole formula ' ^r) triStr^ 
w(%cjV fcrrgptf^tft wft*iwt srgrHfifaft "jnnjii: spfWjTPTt vIHmhiuiihqjiT 

wtgfortfi jf ottts* '• This passage from i^3rt to iraff r WTO and the one in 

the next note occur in 6sn. I. 4-5. The words arrcrnt <43 I HHm 

are called srfe>rf% and constitute the words of a nivid. Vide 6at. Br. 

I. 4. 2. 5-16 for the words ij^r? trawraw and tne * r Met 


Ch. XXX ] Dariapurvamasa-Pramramantra 1051 

good offering '. This part of the formula is given below. 1 '" 
These are the deities in this invocation in purnaroasa but in 
the darsestf, ' Indragnl are to be substituted in place of 
Agnlaoma for him who does not offer sSnnayya and Indra or 
Mahendra for him who offers sannayya and Prajapati is 

Having thus invoked the deities ( i. e. the whole of the 
invocation up to this is done standing ), the hot? sits down with 
knees raised up, removes the kusa ( on the vedi ) to its north 
and measures the space of a span on the vedi with ' Aditi is his 

mother, do not cut him off from the air, with yajna, with 

vasa^kara as the thunderbolt I kill him who hates us and whom 
we hate ' ( Asv. I. 3. 22 ). The yajamana repeats a verse ' fire in 
whom offerings have been thrown is kindled &c. ' ( Ka^haka 
Sam. IV. 14 ), when the fire flames up with the fuel-sticks that 
are offered and another mantra 'Gods and pitrs, whatever I may 
be I sacrifice &o.' (Tai. Br. III. 7. 5) is repeated. He fans after the 
deities are summoned as above the ahavanlya fire thrioe with the 
veda bunch. He while sitting takes clarified butter from the dhru- 
va ladle with the sruva, holds it on the veda, passing the sruva 
over the north-west corner (of the ahavanlya) where the two pari- 
dhia meet he pours,**' while revolving in his mind the mantra 
'to Prajapati Manu, svaha', a continuous, long and straight stream 

2359. 3ifJrHjr 3?n*f wtaJmif atfjnrmr T3rprfS»TH«r* ajfiVfrrmHi 

Vide Mv. I. 3. 6-14 and 22 ( and com. on I. 3. 6 ) and gat. Br. The an* in anr? is to be drawn to three moras (i.e. it is 
j* ) and this is indioated by the figure 3. Vide ' ifflrfor^l'T j r. qW l V 
ffpmrr?: ' 7T. VIII. 2. 91. The god Prajapati is mentioned inaudibly. 
The SjyapKs are the devatSs of prayBjas and anuySjas. Vide Bat. Br. 

I. 4. 2. 17. The words w$r mfcwrwm are for calling Syisf akrt. In 

the Taj. 8. II. 6. 9. 4. and Tai. Br. III. 5. 3 the last part of the formula 
is slightly different ' art ^mr ifafr* BV^rr ■* tst arni^: ' 

2360. This pouring of sjya is called Ughnra. There are two 
Vgharcu, the one described here being the first. In the first Prajapati is 
the devats, in the 2nd Indra. In the first 5jya is poured from north- 
west to south-east and in the 2nd from the south-west to north-east. 
Both are done by the adhvaryu. Jaimini I. 4. 4 establishes that the 
word ' SghXra ' is the name of a rite ( karmanlmadheya ) and not a 
gunavidhi. Vide also Jaimini II. 2. 13-16 on the passages snrnETr^rorfJr, 
*IHWmw«j ft, sj TgHWTWtH *<>• In XI - l - 64-67 Jal - establishes after a 
lengthy discussion that the KghSras are performed only onoe in the 
dantapflrnamssa and are not repeated at each of the prinoipal offerings. 

1052 History of Dharmaiastt'a [ Ch. XXX 

of clarified butter on the fire bursting into flames in tbe ahava- 
nlya place towards the south-east and makes all the fuel-sticks 
( already thrown over the fire ) come in contaot with ( the butter 
so poured ). The yajamSna says ' this is for Prajapati ' and 
invokes the butter poured as Sghara with ' thou art the mind of 
Frajapati, enter into me with mind. ' Taking Sjya from the 
ajyasfchall in the sruva he strengthens ( or increases or adds to ) 
the dhruva with ' let the dhruva be strengthened with ghee &o. ' 
( Tai. S. I. 6. 5. 1 ). He then issues a direction to the agnldhra 
' Agnldhra, clean thrice each of the paridhis and the fire.' The 
agnldhra holds the tying cords of the idhma on the sphya and 
silently cleans ( or wipes ) the paridhis with them in the order 
in which they were placed ( round the fire ) from their roots to 
the tips i. e. he cleans the middle one first, moving with his 
right towards the paridhi from the north with his face towards 
the east; then he cleans the southern one by going to the south 
in front of the Shavanlya ; then he oleans the northern paridhi 
by going from behind ( the west of ) the Shavanlya towards the 
north ; then he returns by the way he went to his usual place 
and wipes the fire thrice, once with the mantra, * O fire, that 

securest strength (or food) I I wipe thee that eatest food for 

the sake of food * ( Tai. Br. III. 7. 6 ) and twice silently. When 
about to make the Sghara he folds his hands in adoration to the 
gods with his fingers to the east in front ( i. e. to the east of ) 
tho juhu and upabbrt with 83 " O fire 1 thou art the world, spread 
in all directions ; O sacrificer ( Agni ), adoration to thee ' ( Tai. 
8. 1. 1. 12. 1). He folds his hands towards the south in adora- 
tion with ' to the pitrs, svadha. ' He then touches water and 
takes up the juhu in the right hand with ' juhu 1 come, Agni 
summons thee for .the worship of the gods' and takes the upabhrt 
in the left hand with 'O upabbrt ! come, god Savitr calls thee 
for the worship of gods ' ( Tai. S. 1. 1. 12. 1 ). He places the 
upabhrt on juhu with ' O well-controlling ones, may you two 
abound in ghee to-day for me, may you be well oovered and 
well surrounded ' ( compare Vaj. S. II. 7 ). He takes the juhu 
from under the upabhrt to the east completely and holds it on 
the upabhrt in suoh a way that their bowls are placed on each 
other and when be is about to throw the ajya into fire he merely 
holds the upabhrt in his left and holding the juhu in his right 

2361. Though the mantra is addressed to Agni alone, as Agni 
comprehends in himself all gods, it may be said to be meant for all 
' gods. 

Oh. XXX] thriapUrwmasa-Agkira 1053 

makes the offering with it. 11 " He crosses over to the south of 
the ahavanlya with the right foot but without treading upon 
the prastara and after repeating the mantra 'O Agni and Visnu ! 
May I not step down on you 1 May you become apart from me! 
May you not cause trouble ( or heat ) to me ; may you, who are 
the makers of worlds, make a plaoe ( or world ) for me * ( Tai. S. 
I. 1. 12 and Tai. Br. III. 3. 7 ). He stands to the south of the 
ahavanlya with ' thou art the seat of Visnu; from here lndra 
performed his exploits * ( Tai. S. 1. 1. 12 ). He places his right 
foot inside the vedi and makes the toes of the left foot touch 
the heel of the right. Then inserting the juhu by the point 
where the southern paridbi joins the middle one ( i. e. from the 
south-west) he, while standing, pours from it towards the 
north-east ( as in the first ) a continuous stream of ajya with 
' having well begun, the sacrifice of the sacrificer, which is to 
rise ( i. e. to bring prosperity ), which is uninjured and which is 
offered to lndra, touohes heaven ; svSha ' ( Tai. 8. I. 1. 12 ) and 
makes the ghee come in contact with all the fuel-sticks (idhma) 
thrown into the fire. The yajamSna says 'this is for lndra.' The 
adhvaryu, after making this offering (the 2nd ftghSra), lets out his 
breath which he had held up at the time of making the offering. 
After pouring ajya over the fire he raises up the juhu over the 
ahavanlya with ' ( fire ) is kindled pre-eminently. ' He crosses 
over to the north separating the juhu and upabhrt with 'save 
me, O fire, from evil (or sin) and establish me in good deeds' 
( Tai. S. 1. 1. 12 ). With the ijya in the juhu he smears the 
dhruva tbrioe, once with ' ghee is anointed by fire, sacri- 
fioial offering is anointed by sacrificial offering, the aerial 
regions are anointed by fire- flame' and twice silently. He 
takes ajya from the dhruva ladle with the sruva and sprin- 
kles it over 886 * the (ajya in the) juhu with 'suvlrfiya 
svaha ' and sprinkles ajya from the juhu over that in the 
dhruva with ' saorifice is spread continuously by sacrifice '. 

2362. I p. ( II. 13. 5-6 ) and Sat. ( II. 1. pp. 181-182) say that this is 
the mode of holding the two ladles in all Shutis (he also hold* the two 
on a level with his navel ). 

2363. Anointing (Bamahjana) is done by sprinkling a drop, but 
pratyabhighSrana requires that Sjya should be poured in a stream how- 
ever slight. 'W3* f**|*n«rn$fa<ir JTwfvnnTot ffiftmmwUfrfi $%*t- 
>rr|rw Wfh ' com. on Sat. II. 1. p. 185. 

i054 History of Dharmainstra [ Ch. XX X 

After keeping the two ladles (juhu and dhruva) in their 
proper places, he (the adhvaryu ) sets about choosing (invoking ) 
the pravara. The adhvaryu brings in contactjwith ( twines 
round ) the sphya the tying cords of the idhma and one 
blade from the the kusas strewn on the vedi and stands to 
the north of the vedi (or near the utkara) for reoiting the 
pravara mantra. He faces the south (tbe east according to 
com. on Eat. III. 2. 3 ). The agnldhra stands to the west of the 
adhvaryu faoing the south near the utkara. The adhvaryu 
then inaudibly utters a formula ' who will become the adhva- 
ryu here? He will become the adhvaryu here. Yajna(willbe 
adhvaryu) of yajfia, I stand in the abode of Visnu. May 
speech perform the function of a priest, may mind do so, I 
resort to speech. Bhuh bhuvah suvah I ' ( Ap. II. 15. 1 and Sat. 
II. 1. p. 186 ). The agnldhra after touching the binding cords 
of idhma, the sphya and the kusa blade also inaudibly repeats a 
similar mantra 'who will become the agnldhra here &o. ' ( Ap. 
II. 15. 2 ). The adhvaryu addresses the brahma priest ' 
brahman 1 shall I call on (the agnldhra) to listen to the pra- 
vara?' The brahmS priest first repeats inaudibly 'O lord of 
speeohl make (him) listen to this speech, make the sacrifice be 
heard among gods, and me among men ( Ap. III. 19. 3 ) ; sustain 
these deities in heaven &c. ' and then loudly says ' yes, do 
make him listen ( om3asrS3vaya ). The adhvaryu says 3iu ' &3 
sravaya' ( make to listen) and the agnldhra holding the sphya 
oovered with the binding cord responds with ' astu srau3saV 
( lit. yes, let him hear). The adhvaryu then utters ' May Agni, 
the divine hotr, the wise one, the discriminating one, saorifice 
for the gods, like Manu, like Bharata, like that one, like that 
one. Let him bring (tbe gods) to the accompaniment of holy 
prayer. The brahmanas are the proteotors of this saorifice. 

2364. The call of tbe adhvaryu in the form ' drSvaya ' ( f or s 6s- 
vaya) is technically called ' ssrSvana ' or ' Irfruta ', while tbe response 
of the Ignldhra in the form ' astu 4rau3saj; ' is oalled ' pratyKdrSrana ' or 
' pratytfruta '. Vide Sat. Br. I. 5. 2. 6-7 where, to explain these two 
words, a legend is narrated of tbe sacrifice fleeing from the gods. The 
formula uttered by the adhvaryu is either an3*ri3**i or sft3*rr3'nT accord- 
ing to Sat. II. 1. p. 186 and according to Ap. II. 15. 3 it is also simply 
«n3*tr or wf3*rf3*V. Vide P5n. VIIT. 2. 91-9* for the pluta. Tbe atrtfrtl 
responds with w*$ t&hv^. 

Oh. XXX ] DariapUrifamaaa-holrvararta 1055 

This (so and so by name) is the human hotr*. ,m While the 
adhvaryu is engaged in the fisravana call the hotr should follow 
him with an .invocation 'make the sacrifice heard among gods, 
and make me heard among men for fame, glory and spiritual 
eminence ' (As v. I. 3. 23). When the adhvaryu chooses the 
hotr (in the words 'so and so is the human hotr') the hotr 
should repeat 'God Savitrl they here choose thee that art 
fire for the office of hotr together with thy father Vaisvanara. 
May Heav.en and Earth protect me. Agni is the (divine) hotr. 
I am the human hotr ' (Asv, I. 3. 23). He gets up with a mantra 
' udayusS &c.' (Tai. S. I. 2. 8. 1 ) and on getting up recites 'O 
adhvaryu 1 sixty plus ninety ohains are spread near (or inside) 
Agni, the hotr. They bind the ignorant, (but) the wise one 
goes beyond ( overcomes) them ' ( Asv. 1. 3. 24 ). Having approa- 
ched the adhvaryu with ' I, a hotr priest, follow the path of rta ' 
( Asv. I. 3. 25 ) the hotr should touch the adhvaryu on the 
latter's shoulder with his right hand that hangs by his side 
and the agnldhra also with his left with ' we touch Indra as the 
purohita in this rite of choosing the hotr, whereby the gods 
reached the'highesfc Heaven and the Angirases also did so ' 
( Asv. I. 3. 27 ). He should wipe ( purify ) his face thrice with 
the blades used in binding the idhma, once with ' thou art a 

2365. The adhvaryu mutters the name of the hotr but the word 
' mBnufah ' is loudly uttered and the first vowel in it is made pluta. The 
Sat. Br. I. 5. 1. 5-13 sets out the pravara-mantra and explains it: 

siTJjJf^ %"ft star ^NHi^rfffsrfSj'i^fNKWsi^irtWtt ' *wr5W ifftd i 

sn^s^* ct^tsj f%^i?^r JTarfarT *ft *$ snvf%f3 1 tmrrarrcfa *vfift ' 

TRaT^^f^ srfuffa i *r &i$vipfvsn% i srgrmnp ^ ^^ wrgrrr we? 4iji*«j 

«m%r<: i wwt mmt '• wwrrra ( II. l. p. 187 ) says ' sr&^r vxavq- 

gr^g^f^fei V^m*vn*f>i *T? ix*! ^hhhiih '• Ap. II. 16. 5 is almost the 
same. After W<RWg[ the names of the pravara sages are taken ; for 
example, if the yajamSna is of Kaudika gotra then he utters gi^o^ 
3iHH i juiHct ftarft*^. Vide notes 1139 and 1140 above for the two 
modes of taking the pravara names, one with affix s^ (where the first sage 
mentioned is tie most remote, the next comes after him in time) 
and the other mode by taddbita formation where the latest among the 
pravara sages is mentioned first as in 3«4idsj|tw4 u l<Mf?ftrft Jai. 
( VI. 1. 43 ) asserts that one who has not three pravara sages is not 
eligible for performing danJapflrnamSsa. Ap. II. 16. 12 and XXIV. 10. 18 
and Sat. II. 1. p. 188 give rules about the pravara names of royal sacri- 
fioers and of those who have two gotras and state that some held that 
' Manuvat ' is the pravara for all. Vide notes 1152-53. For the 

smnvw 'anfirsjtf «TTftm*> ' vide Ap. II. 16. 5 and 11, Sat. II. 1. 

pp. 187-188. 

1056 History of Dharmaiastra [Oh. XXX 

cleaner ( or purifier ), purify me together with my progeny and 
cattle/ and twice silently. After touching water he should, 
standing to the west of the seat and with face to the east, 
address the seat of hotr (Asv. I. 3. 30) with 'away, 
O daidhisavya &o. ' ( vide above p. 1021 ). He should take a 
blade of kusa from the hotr's seat with the thumb and the finger 
next to the smallest and oast it away to the south-west with 
* the demon that keeps off wealth is oast aside. ' With ( As v. 
I. 3. 31 ) ' here do I like a horse sit down in the seat of vasu ' 
(wealth) he should sit down, the right leg being placed on the 
left one. He Bits down with ' God barhis, may I sit down on 
thee that occupiest a good seat* (Asv. I, 4. 7). With the cap 
of his knee he touches the barhis (spread on his seat) with 'O 
Hotr! May you pre-eminently occupy the barhis' (Asv. 1. 4. 8). 
Then he mutters (performs japa of) oertain texts viz: 'bhu- 

pataye namah chandamsi prapadye' (Asv. I. 4. 9), Rg. 

X. 158. 1, I. 27. 13, X. 52. 1, X. 53. 2 and 4. When the japa is 
finished and the fuel-sticks ( idhma ) thrown on to the fire are 
blazing he should make the adhvaryu hand over to him the two 
srucs with this prose formula (nigada) 'may Agni, the hotr, 
know (undertake) the duty of hotr, that gives protection. O 
saorificer! The deity is well disposed to you in that you have 
ohosen Agni as the hotr*. He should finish the nigada (Asv. 

I. 4. 11) 'Hold the adhvaryu's sruc that abounds in ghee, 
that is devoted to the gods and is possessed of all boons ; let us 
praise the gods that deserve praise, let us bow to them that 
deserve adoration and offer saorifice to the gods that deserve it ' 
(Asv. I. 4. 11). 

The adhvaryu, when the hotr sits down, throws down on 
the vedi the blade of grass (that was brought in contact with 
the sphya). MM The yajamana says ' O gods and ptyrs, O pitrs 
and gods &c.\ The yajamana should repeat the Caturhotr 
mantras before the prayajas are offered ( vide note 2248 ). 

The adhvaryu takes the juhu and upabbrt, crosses from 
behind the paridhis to the south of the vedi with the right foot 
first and facing the north-east offers the five prayaja oblations 
of clarified butter beginning to the west of the place. where the 
two streams of the agharas meet and ending in the east (Ap. 

II. 17. 1 ) or he offers the five offerings In the four principal 
quarters from the east to the north respectively and the last in 
the middle of the ahavanlya (Sat. II. 2. p. 199). The prooedure 

8366. ..Vide ip. H. 16. 6 and 11, Sat. II. 1. pp. 187-188. 

Oh. XXX ] Dariapurriamclsa-Pray^jas 1057 

ofprayljaa is as follows .-— Mw First he says '&3sra3vaya\ 
the Sgnldhra standing near the utkara facing the south and 
holding the sphya makes the response ' astu srau3sat '. Then 
the adhvaryu' gives a direotion to the hotr with reference to the 
first prayaja 'Samidho yaja' (recite the yajya verse for the 
deity Samidhah ). The hotr recites "Whoever we are, we 
sacrifice to the deity samidhah ; may the samidhs, O fire, par- 
take of the Sjya. Vau3saV'. When the sound vaaa^ is heard 
the adhvaryu offers ajya from the juhu towards the eastern and 
the most blazing part of the ahavanlya fire. He may either 
occupy the same position or proceed eastwards as he offers each 
offering. Jai. III. I. 19-20 deals with this question viz. that he 
may offer the prayajas 83 ' 8 by proceeding eastwards. After each 
2367. ih ht. III. 6. 4 has 3»ffr?f*rT ^wf&tfcf ^wilfhnc ' vft «WT, « 

iffritTZ, I m«WIW tr ffWH I Tsrm *r /ij > qH i. Vide also Sat. Br. I. 5. 2. 1-3. 
*rr«». I. 4. 10 has wf^sfcrr ^wfryN Sg srrfaw his * "rsnrr*! %*<tt vV wfaft- 
yiWWTV jfcnnrim yfir srfcj. This mantra is called yrnynr *. The hotr 

recites the words Mfinrfrr *ft siffrl loudly, then stops to take breath 

and recites inandibly BJfarCTlW:- From srfjrgfal to trf^prp^is one f^TTf. 
The 5nw« explains ' H3«vt § fgs^T: fttTO mmx %^I TT^nns ' I> 5. 2. 3. 

1368. The prayajas (fore-offerings) are five in DardapttrnamBsa 
and are oblations of Sjya introductory to the prinoipal offerings and 
anuyjljai ( that are only three in Dar£apOrnamasa ) are offered subse- 
quent to the principal offerings. The prayaja offerings are addressed 
to five viz. , trftv: , trqturai ( or toot ), ?3- ( or ?55: ), *ftt, wnmtTO 
( or wnnmi i ). Jai. ( V. 1. 4-7 ) enjoins that prayBjas must be offered 
in the order of the text viz. first to Samidhah and ao on, and II. 2. 2 
declares that with eaoh repetition of the word ' yajati ( used five times ) 
there ia a separate unseen result (adrsta or apOrva ). The three deities 
of the anuyKjas are srffs, snrrem, wfi* f^TOEt*. The word is written either 
as W3*rnr ( 9g. X. 61. 8-9 ) or sierra ( Ap. II. 9- 8 and elsewhere ). 
According to Ait. Br. 7. 3 WTTTg t HT : means f%»sr^WT:. In the 
Nirukta VIII. 22 there is a discussion as to the devatSs of 
prayBjas and anuySjas and after mentioning several views YBska 
states his own opinion that they are 'Bgneya' i. e. they are the 
different forms {Tana) of Agni. Jaimini (IX. 2. 59-60 ) holds that the 
words 'Samidhah', 'TanflnapSt* &o. are really the names of a rite, that 
they do not convey that Samidhs, TanBnapBt and others are deities and 
that the mantras repeated by the hotr oonvey the devatB, whioh is Agni. 
The oom. on Sat. II. 1. p. 198 has a long note on this and accepts Jai- 
mini's position. In Tai. S, II. 6. 1 five prayBjas of danSapHrnamBsa are 
mentioned and they are brought in relation to the five seasons. The five 
constituent formulas connected with each of the five prayBjas are well^ 
brought out in Tai. 8. 1. 6. 11 ' wwr^ft wa*W*a Wtaftfa *TB*«r*' 
Wfir gwirt » ^wnnr yRt i «w< gwft ^rt^nrt "W 3 ^wf»jt jwnnfafawrr- 
*ror v ** «hc «ft *$* ***& * iwrfcrt ■ '• 

H. D. 133 

1058 History of DharmaiSstra I Oh. XXX 

vasatk&ra the hotr repeats ' speech is energy. He ( vasatkftra ) 
is indeed energy. May prfina and apana be in me ' ( Asv. I» 
5. 17 ). The yajamfina says when the first prayaja is offered 
' this is for the Samidhs. I gratify Vasanta among the seasons, 
May he (Vasanta) being gratified gratify me'. The same 
procedure is followed as to the remaining four prayajas 
viz. there is first asrfivana, then pratyfisrfivana by the fignldhra, 
praisa to hotr, reoital of the yajya by the hotr with vasat- 
kfiraatend, offering of fijya into fire by the adhvaryu, the 
ty&ga by the yajamSna and connecting the five prayajas with the 
five rtus ( seasons ) in order from Vasanta ( hemanta and sisira 
being taken as one). The seoond prayaja offering is meant for 
Tanunapat, but those who belong to the Vasistha, Sunaka, Atri. 
Vadhryasva and Rajanya ( Visvamitra ? ) gotras substitute Narfi- 
samsa for Tanunapftt (Sail. 1. 7. 3 is slightly different). The whole 
procedure is briefly indioated in Sanskrit in the note below."" 
The first three praySja offerings are made with the fijya in the 
juhu, but as to the 4th (to Barhis ) he pours half of the fijya 
contained in the upabhrt into the juhu and then makes the 
offering. Wherever there are more prayajas than 5 (e. g. 
in Varuna-praghasa there are nine, in Pasubandha ten ) the 
4th, 7th and 10th are offered in this way ( vide Sat. IE. 2. p. 199 
and KSt. III. 2. 22-23). Vide Jai. IV. 1. 40 and 41-45. 
These mantras ( in the note ) ocour in Tai. Br. III. 5. 5 where 
' viyantu ' is substituted for ' vyantu ' (as is usual with the 
Taittirlyas ). The words ' ye3 yajfimahe ' used at the beginning 
of each yajya are called ' figuh ' ; but there are no such words 
in the anuyajas ( Asv. I. 5. 4 ). Vasa^kfira is uttered at the end 
of all yfijyfis and in anuyfijas also. The yajya is pronounced 
very loudly and with great distinctness as to the ' ye ' of 
'ye yajfimahe' and the last syllable of the yajya is made 
pluta. In Asv. I. 5. 9. 9-14 there are other rules not set 
out here. The pronouncing of vasat was a very solemn and 

2369. The bot| says ' fr8 ip > rw3 wfor: wftvt anr WTFT «j*h3^3- 

t*i (*»r«r. *ft. l. 5. 15) i yffc mnr: i *hri i jnffcr: *rr srrsft wf^ urorow *ffi 

iftonji ' chrr i *J3<mui$ arqptrnr H^m^ii 3?pvw S^3 ^3«r^ 1 sfif fspfrf » 1 
wvs Tf$rB5*wif%wr«*tr3f*ifanr: 1 irrefofl' sur sii3<n<j Sfwfif 8«n*t (mi- *n. 
1. 5. 21-22 ) 1 ifgmPT: 1 vsv ^ iftim^^sTte 1 *ferr 1 ^Stopt^ ja f sit «w 
srTJVEV nj*^3 *)3^ 1 jft gnfa: 1 In the case of the 6th prayaja, the hotr 
■aya ' 5t3<iatm$ wiVlffi WTfT WW WTTrfir WW narntfif WOT *nWw 
hhi ^*t •nwrr at*nwi «nr wrurw «v»53^3^' (armr. 1.6.24); here 
snmrft i8 uttered inandibly. 

Ch. XXX ] Dariapurvamaaa- Vaqatkara 1059 

mystic matter and even in modern times the word is uttered 
very loudly and forcibly. The Ait. Br. XI. 6 says that 'the 
vasa^kara is a thunderbolt ; when a man utters vasa^kSra he 
should think of his enemy ; thereby he plants the thunderbolt 
on him, ' Asv. L 5. 18 states that vasatkara was to be uttered 
only by day and not by night. There are three tones ( mandra 
madbyama and uttama ). Up to the prayajas and after samyu. 
vaka the mandra tone is employed. After prayftjas up to svis^akrt 
the tone is to be madhyama. Thereafter up to sarhyuvaka it is to 
be high. Vide Asv. I. 5. 25-28 and Asv. I. 5. 4-8 for these and 
several other rules. Asv. II. 15. 12 states that the ftgub. ( the 
words ye3 yajamahe ), the om ( at the end of an anuvakya ) and 
the vasa^kSra are pronounced in a high tone everywhere. 

The adhvaryu after the five prayfija offerings comes back 
and pours some ajya mo ( left in the juhu after the praySja offer- 
ings ) over the several offerings ( haviihsi), first over the dhruva, 
then over the purodasas, the boiled milk, the curds in the order 
in which they are sacrificed later on. Lastly be pours a little 
ajya over the upabhrt. He lays down the ladles (sruo). He holds 
them in his hands from the time when he offers the ajyabhagas 
up till the offering to Agni Sviatakrt. He puts into the juhu 
four ladlings of ajya with the sruva with ' may the dhruva be 
strengthened with ghee in each sacrifice for those who serve the 
gods &c. ' ( Tai. S. I. 6. 5. 1 ) and anoints the blades of the 
prastara with a drop of ajya. 

Now follow Ajydbhaga». iVlx The adhvaryu issues a direction 
to the hotr ' recite the anuvakyft ( invitatory ) verse for Agni. ' 

The hotr repeats Rg. VI. 16. 34 ( Agnir-vrtrani ahutah ) with 

om added at the end. Then there is Ssravana by adhvaryu and 
pratyasravana by agnldhra, then the praisa of adhvaryu to the 
hotr to repeat the yajya for Agni. The hotr repeats the y&jya 
" may Agni who is favourable ( or pleased ), partake of the 
5jya' preceded by ' ye3 yajamahe' and followed by *vau3 sat.' 

2370. The com. on Sat. II. 2. p. 200 says that this action is the 
urcfaffrmiS (in the language of mimSmsakas ) of the wmrfrq and is not 
meant as wfSpmar. hut the oom. on Kat. III. 3. 9. says that this is <qftt~ 
WPKTK and not sjfiW^rtR^. 

2371. JjyabhHgaa are two and they are the names of two actions 
( karmanSmadbeya ). OTrwnftft «P?tt *j*faY»?TJT5tpi. I wpri «npft *m- 
iWtpfW*icom.onSat.II.2. p. 201. Tai. 8 II. 6. 2.1 and Sat. Br. 
1. 6. 3. 38 say ' ^jpft *T ^ VVVf *nri3V*THrt '. The praisa is *|r*S- 
553ft '. Vide note 483 above. 

1060 History qf Dharmaiastra I Ch. XXX 

On bearing ' vausat ' the adhvaryu offers ajya in the northern 
and most blazing part of the ahavanlya. The yajamftna recites 
' Agni has his eye ( everywhere ). May I become possessed of 
sight by worship offered to him. ' The same procedure is follow- 
ed as to the second fijyabhfiga to Soma which is offered in the 
southern and most blazing part of the ahavanlya fire. In pQrna- 
mSsa the two ajyabhagas are called V&rtraghna and in the 
darsesti they are called ' Vrdhanvantau * ( Asv. I. 5. 32 and 35 ). 
Vide Jai. III. 1. 23. The adhvaryu is on the north side of the vedi 
when he takes up portions of ajya in the juhu and issues the 
direction to recite the anuvakyci from there. Then he crosseB to 
the south of the ahavanlya, performs asravana and issues the 
praisa for the recital of the yajya after the Sgnldhra responds 
with ' astu srau3saV The whole prooedure is briefly set out in 
the note below. ,m 

PuronuvakyS and Yajya are required in ajyabhagas, in avapa, 
in Svistakrt and in Patnlsamy ajas, but in prayajas and anuyajas 
there are only yajy8s ( vide Sat. II. 2. p. 189). The puronuvakya 
is recited by the priest while sitting, while the yajya is recited 
standing and the reoitation of these is only a samskara and 
not a principal act ( vide Jai X. 4. 39-41 ). Four ladlings with 
sruva are made in the juhu for all sacrificers in ajyabhagas and 
other homas, but in the case of sacrificers whose gotra is 
Jamadagnya five (pancavatta) ladlings are made in the juhu 
( Ap. II. 18. 2, Sat. II. 2 pp. 190-191 ) and one whose gotra is not 
Jamadagnya may have five ladlings after taking the permission 
of a Jamadagnya. The puronuvakyas for the ajyabhagas in 
darsestf are Eg. VIII 44. 12 (for Agni) and Pvg. I. 91. 11 (for 

2372. sfcir i wfsrfcrPr ^t^t^ wig eftfjj ( yft 3^. gftgwrar ) 1 

«w& wwnwr wnft&or jjmwriWt ariw ^ft ifowGt 1 ?hn 1 ^37T3nw?t?f grnoft 
ariikisw ^3 ^3^ ( fwrfrjfoiT ) 1 ^^5% anftfitwfi* ( 3n*wffa ) a^rif 
ww^ft^ • star wgimnT^ 1 «nffei: «n»«rm*d 1 ym ( wsr. *ft. 

1. 5. 17 ) I 4I5WR: SjfitsjJJwfosrtTf^ %T751TT ^SJWISJ; I^WH I Sl«w£: 

twiwt gfafjrf M ^m Hi»rr«mjw3f| gift h'3«t^ i sjhrr 1 p» wfaifo 

wnt3ni(*r. 1. 91.5, tfta^ <aftg*i**n-) 1 snanf: snwm *fr»*r»h% 

tf^crfft 1 fhrr 1 ^3v^j«i *fW gwn #w arrsT^T TfNt *s3 jfcjqr^r 1 ( kir^t 
vr**r ) » WW& w**&»«rffifefl#? sn**«fft ^iSroiny gflfifj? 1 &o. Vide liv. 
!• 5. *l ' wfofo ll S t aTfrfjffit 3jfareT Miimug«.WHH &o., ' and Tai. Br. 
III. 5. 6 for these s*g*OTT9 and irrarrs. aijprr^rt is <*'»o called gftg*r*vr 
' 5* f$ <mitpRTf«9£fflftB *t ms*ift ffi* «gwmr ' «ft. T- fSr. am. II. 18. 3 
n»es the word sftgjwn ' ammgwn arawjfifit ytgWWt tfSpnrfa '. 

Oh. XXX ) Dariapurrfamasa 1061 

The adhvaryu having gone across (towards the purodasas 
that are made ready) sprinkles clarified butter on the sruo (juhu) 
with ' apyfiyat&ra dhruva &o.' ( vide p. 1059 above ), touches the 
several sacrificial offerings with 'do not be afraid, do not tremble, 
may I not injure thee ; may not thy lustre leave thee ; carry 
across this sacrifioer who brings offerings, rain on the earth, in 
order I shall offer the cut portions; I make an adoration to you, do 
not injure me ' ( Tai. Br. III. 7. 5 ). mi With his thumb and two 
fingers (viz. the middle and anSmika, but using only the fleshy 
parts and not the nails) he cuts off a portion from the middle of 
the purodasa ( oake) meant for Agni and from its front half. 
Sat. II. 2. p. 191 and 5p. II. 18. 9 say that the avadana (portion 
out or severed) is as much as the front joint of the thumb 
( as a general rule ) but that the svistakrt offering is larger than 
the ordinary offering for other deities* 374 &o. For the Jama- 
dagnyas a third portion is cut off from the hind part of the 
purodasa. Portions from ajya and sannayya are taken out with 
the sruva and of cooked food (cam) with the mekaana. The por- 
tion cut from the middle is placed in the eastern part of the 
bowl of the sruo and the second portion in the western part of 
the bowl. He sprinkles clarified butter with the sruva ( in 
which ajya is taken from the ajyasthall ) on the cut portions and 
on the purodasa from which they were cut 8278 with ' when cutt- 
ing portions from thee I acted against thee, I anoint that again 
with ajya, may that grow again in thee' ( Tai. Br. III. 7. 5 ). 
Everytime he offers a fourfold (caturavatta) portion he smears a 
drop of ajya on the blades of the prastara, 

Then follows the principal saorifice. The adhvaryu issues 
a direction to the hotr ' recite an anuvakyS for Agni '. Hotr 
recites (as anuvakya) $g. VIII. 44. 16 followed by * om * ( as 

2373. m *> flf tfftWT »• «r fittfr: ■ ^. *T. III. 7. 5, quoted in Ap. II. 
19. 9, Sat. II. 2. p. 194 and Baud. 1. 16. 

2374. M OTwfa nrrf fr $qai?qqqinrft *rei% i ywiujmnf&r w^iit% i 

$wjr*v» <rrftv$<nft *frfttJ$%«r: tert* tot «rs«tarPnrfft ' htvww 
II. 2. p. 191. 

2375. The sprinkling of butter on the sruo ( upastarana ), the 
placing in the sruo of the two portions cut off from the purodgsa and 
the sprinkling of buttor over the cut portions ( abhighBrana ) constitute 
four items and so are called ' caturavatta.' When three portions are 
cut off from the purodSsa or other offering for Jsmadagnyas then there 
are ( with upastarana and abhighSrana ) Are items ( pafiegvatta ). 
Vide Sat. Br. I. 6. 1. 21 for the four with their technical names. 

1062 History qf Dharmatastra I Oh. XXX 

agnirmurdha...jinvato3m ). Then there is asravapa and pratya- 
sravana. Then the adhvaryu issues his direction to the 
hotr to reoite the yajya which is $g. X. 8. 6 ( ye3 yajama- 
hesgnim bhuvo havyavaho3m vau3sat ). Then the adhva- 
ryu throws the oblation ( ahuti ) of purodasa portions on 
to the fire. The method of this is** 7 * that he drops a part 
of the ajya from the sruo first ( that was sprinkled in 
it at opastarana and abhigharana ), then the two purod&sa 
portions are thrown and lastly he allows the remaining 
ajya from the bill-like mouth of the sruo to flow over the 
purodasa offerings as if covering them but without disturbing 
them. The principal ahutis are introduced at the point of 
the confluence of the two aghSras and each one is offered 
in the ahavanlya to the east ( or north-east ) of the preceding 
one but in oontaot with the latter. The yajamana makes the 
tydga 'this is for Agni' with 'may I have food to eat on account 
of this worship of Agni.' After this offering of purodasa to 
Agni, there is an upamsuyaja ( a silent sacrifioe ) with clarified 
butter offered to PrajSpati or to Agnlsomau or Visnu. When 
offered to Prajapati the anuvakya and yajya are Rg. X. 121. 10 
and Tai. Br. IL 8. l ,m ( taveme loka &c.) and when offered to 
Agnlsomau they are Rg. I. 93. 2 and 6. According to Ap. 1. 19. 12 
and Jai. X. 8. 51-61 it is offered only on Paurnamasl. In this, 
the reference to the deity is always inaudible, but even here the 
asruta, the pratyasruta, and two directions for reciting anuvakya 
and yajya and the vasa^kara are uttered loudly. The sacri- 
ficer says in this upamsuyaja ' thou art a destroyer ; may I be 
uninjured and may I subdue evil.' The offering is made of the 
ajya in the dhruva ( Jai. X. 8. 47-48 ) and the devata is either 
Prajapati or Agni or Visnu ( Jai. X. 8. 49-50 ) and the offering 
is caturavatta ( Jai. X 8. 33-34 ). The second purodasa is 
offered to Agni and Soma on purnamasa in the same way, the 
anuvakya and yajya being respectively Rg. I. 93. 9 and 5 and 
to Indragnl in darsestf, the anuvakya and yajya being Rg. 
VIL 94. 7 and VII. 93. 4. This is the case when the sacrificer 

2376. «ftapri%*wflui.-¥fltii*iTfffaf Sffc'n^ ffWTs^x«r g*tanrimi»w- 

11. 2. p. 195. Vide Ap. II. 19. 7-9. 

2377. In sum^jijiiuft, toto^ w w% ... vftom. i («BWwrr-*T' X. 

12. i. io with w^it will be rSWtac). mmffi «nr, ^«mm «rarri3 «** 
Btai... **<ita>* (w. m. II. 8. 1) the name PrajSpati ia everywhere ottered 
inaudibly. Vide Sat. II. 2 pp. 202-203. 

Ch. XXX ] JhriapurvamSsa-puro^Sia 1063 

does not offer sannayya to Indra or Mahendra. When the 
sacrificer offers sannayya to Indra the anuvakya and ySjyS are 
respectively fcg. L 8. 1 and X. 180. 1 and when it is offered to 
Mahendra they are respectively Rg. VIII. 6. 1 and X. 50. V m 
In the case of sannayya he takes two portions of the boiled 
milk and two of curds ( or three of curd 8 for paficftvattins ) and 
there is upastarana in the sruc only once and abhigh&rana 
also once. 

After the prinoipal offerings comes the offering to Agni 
Svi?takrt. ,m He sprinkles a little ajya in the sruo, cuts off 
one portion from each of the several remnants of the havis from 
their northern halves in the order in which the several sacrifi- 
cial ingredients are offered to the deities ( twice in the case of 
pafio&vfittins ), sprinkles over these cut portions olarified butter 
twice, but does not sprinkle ajya on the remnants of havis and 
offers them in a spot in the north-east of the fire but not so 
as to come in oontact with the other ahutis already offered 
(viz. Sjyabhagas and purodasa). In this also there is the direction 
to repeat anuvakya, recital of anuvakya, asravana, pratyasravana, 
direction for yajya, the yajya itself and vasa^kara. The anu- 
vakya for Sviatakrt offering is Rg. X. 2. 1 and the yftjya is 
long and is set out below. 8880 The whole of it is to be recited 
without taking breath or he may take breath after reciting 
half of JRg, VI. 15. 14. The yajamfina says 'this is for Agni 
Svis^akrt and not mine. May I attain to stability and long life 
by the worship offered to Agni Svistakrt. May Agni protect 

2378. Vide Aiv. I. 6. 1 for the anuvBkySg and ySjySs of the princi- 
pal offerings. &5n. I. 8 states them somewhat differently. 

2379. According to Baud. I. 17 he cuts off ( for Svistakit ) portions 
as follows : H^i; TifSrore'T gfteT$tHtawri^**ri9 *$% tnwuwfegMwr 

SftaTCTC T ff^spNT «»«RW» . Vide Jai. IV. 1. 28-32. 

2380. £sv. (I. 6. 8-6) gives the rules about the yajya" for Agnj 
SriaJsJirt ( vide also 6an. I. 9. ) : ^ TSireSsrf f $ « ia i« H<MBi S>xih fart «tht 
"TTT^ sltWPT PfaT YNVrnprtvift fifa! WU"I*JH TaTWth f5lT *ll«|W|<lli*ft- 

*ta*fh fori vthiwt'th |«rrHrawrmr fan *mrn*? isr^frffg: farr mmrft 
ww *rft*rr«wnr 8 wn fc^vt fv: yftg *fr stwtt srnr^r g*at wfacft ^«r... 
ft *WTrt *ta«nr, i • Vido &. srr. III. 6. 7 for this. *rmr- ss is pronounced for 
V in the above, spsnr&t is repeated inaudibly. Vide isV. I. 3. 13-16. 
wfr*!ir«.«TOis%. VI. 15. 14. If the g-qt^rnr is offered to Agnl- 
somau or Visnu then srcfafonffc or ftwft: is uttered in place of TOPritt . 
When the 2nd purodasa is offered to IndrSgni on AmSvSsyB then 
substitute yjyrmth for sufWrw^ftj and if sBnnSyya is offered then 7*3f.*r 
or *$*^rr. 

1064 History of DkarmaiSatra I Ch. XXX 

me from bad sacrifice (or a curse); may Savitr save me from 
him who speaks evil of me. May I vanquish him who, whether 
far or near, is my enemy 1* (Tai. S. 1. 6. 2. 4). Jai. VI. 4. 3 
lays down that if after portions are cut for Svistakrt as 
directed they are destroyed accidentally, there is no fresh 
cutting for Svis^akrt again. 

The adhvaryu comes back to the north of the vedi from the 
spot where he offered to Svistakrt, fills the juhu with water and 
pours it round the paridhis ( or their places ) beginning from 
the middle one and proceeding from left to right with ' I offer 
this offering into VaisvSnara, it is a spring with a hundred or 
a thousand streams. May he support in this that is being filled, 
my father, grandfather and great-grandfather* ( Tai. A. VI. 6 ) 
and then touches water. The sacrifioer makes the ty&ga with 
'this is for (my) father &c.' and then touches water. The 
adhvaryu lays down the two srucs in their proper plaoes. Then 
he tears the surface ( or top ) of the purodasa meant for Agni 
from west to east, inserts his thumb and the anftmika ( ring- 
finger ) and takes out from inside the cake a portion which is 
as much as a barley grain or the pippala " 81 berry with ' let 
this be cut off, somewhat bigger than a barley grain or than 
the wound made by an arrow. May we not injure this holy 
and well-offered havis of the sacrifice * ( Tat Br. III. 7. 5 ). He 
takes off a portion from the other purodasa also in the same 
way but without piercing the top. These portions are called 
prftsitra. The brahroa priest looks at the prSsitra when it 1b 
being taken out with ' I look at thee with the eye of Mitra • 
( Asv. 1. 13. 1 ). The adhvaryu sprinkles clarified butter on 
the vessel called prasitraharana (that in which prftsitra is 
carried ), keeps the prftsitra in it and sprinkles ajya over it 
( does abhigharava ), takes it to the east of the ahavanlya by 
the space between the brahma and yajamana on one hand and 
the ahavanlya on the other and then lays it down to the west 

2381. rmvi ffiwreynr* rr m i gumm fi • trnvne II. 8. p. 205. The 
com. explains 'pippala' as the berry of aaVattha, while the com. on 
Ap. III. 1.2 explains ' ftmgaul H flRn*umPl«nS > '. According to tome 
a portion is taken only from the Agneya purodasa ( vide Sat. II. 3, 
p. 206 ). jm%ff, wiTTs wi iriM Qr^s^Bi s ** <rnr* ■ com. on Sat. II. 3. 
p. 206. Vide note 2839. Ktt. (I. 8. 40-41) says that it is like a 
mirror in shape (that is like an elongated circle) or like a camasa (i. e. 
reotangular in shape ). In modern times only the rod is yery small, 
otherwise sn#TOw is just like grg in shape. 

Oh. XXX ] Dariapurvamaaa-I^l 1065 

of the ahavanlya ( to the west of the pranlta waters, according 
to Baud. I. 17 ). The adhvaryu then sprinkles ajya in the 
i$ap3tra, he cuts off the first portion of ida from the southern 
half of the purodasa meant for Agni with ' from the southern 
half I out off (ida) seen by Manu, from whose foot ghee 
oozes, that is moved by Mitra and Varuna, that has a faoe 
in one direction only (in the south), without mixing it 
with others' rtM ( Tai. Br. III. 7. 5 ). From the eastern half 
of the same purodasa he cuts off a thin but long slice whioh 
is the portion of the yajam&na ( acoording to Baud. 1. 18 it is 
three or four angulas long ) and which is anointed ( or smeared ) 
with ajya and placed near the dhruva ( or to the east of the 
dhruva) in some vessel on the barhis. Then he outs off a 
part from the portion of the cake that is between its southern 
and eastern parts. In the same way ( i. e. repeating the 
verse ' seen by Manu' &c. ) he cuts off a portion as ida from 
the northern purodasa and other things offered ( such as- 
the boiled milk and ourds ). He then sprinkles ajya over the 
out portions and removes them towards the east on the vedi. 
He orosses to the south in front of the hotr, sits behind the hotr 
with his faoe to the east and anoints the front two joints of the 
fore-finger of the hotr with ajya from the sruva, firat the front 
joint and then the one next to it The hotr wipes with the palm 
of the hand turned towards his chest the uppermost joint of the 
finger on the upper lip and the next joint on his lower lip with 
' I partake of thee that art sacrificed by the lord of speech for 
food, for prana ' and * I partake of thee that are offered by the 
lord of the mind for strength, for apana ' respectively ( Asv. I. 
7. 1-2 ; compare Sat. Br. 1. 8. 1. 14-15 ). He touches water. The 
adhvaryu turns from right to left, comes back to the place 
whence he went, sits dow n to the east of the hotr with his face 

2382. The word ' ids ' is the appellation of a devatK and secondarily 
at-plie* to sacrificial materials and alio to a rite. • jar %<nrt x*tonv- 
,£ft ¥r ,. com. on Sat. II. 3, p. 207. Ap. III. 1. 1 employs.dSand 
pTsitra in the sense of rites. The idspttra is made of .svattha wood, 
ha. a bowl fouraigulaswide.ndi.a.long.sth<,footofthe.acnfioer 
and has a rod four angulas long. According to Ap. III. 1.7 and Baud 
I. 18, the first portion of id* is cut off from the purodrt. to the south 

of'the deluge, of *.. and of Id* « his daughter «■»*{* £ 
18 1 Io Sat. I. 8. 1. 7 and 8 we read 'WCWfl <T* WiW* «m 


1066 History qf Dharmaiastra [ Ob. XXX 

turned westwards, offers the ids to the hotr and the saorifioer 
recites a long mantra ( Tai. S. I. 6. 3. 1-2, ' Surupa-varsa-varna 
eblmSn...devan-apyetu ' ) and looks at the ids when it is being 
taken to the hotr. The hotr accepts the ida (i, e. the vessel of 
ida ) in his joined hands, places the ida in his left hand, keeps 
his right hand near the Ida to its west with the fingers turned 
northwards and makes the adhvaryu out off from the ida itself 
a portion called avcLntare^H into the right hand in the following 
manner. The adhvaryu spreads drops of Sjya on the right hand 
of the hotr with the sruva in which are poured the remnants of 
the Sjya in the idSp&tra, then the adhvaryu takes a portion 
from the idSpStra and drops it on to the right hand and the hotr 
himself cuts a seoond portion from the middle of the ids with the 
space between his thumb and the fore-finger; then the adhvaryu 
sprinkles over the ids in the right hand of the hotr sjya as 
above. ,m The hotr grasps the two portions with the thumb of 
his right hand, draws in the fingers of the right hand, but (keep* 
ing the thumb outside ) does not close them into a fist, takes 
into his right hand the ids placed in his left. He ( the hotr ) 
raises the ids on a level with his mouth or nose and invokes it. 

The idopahvSnam or ijopa— ( invocation of the ids ) is 
described at length by Asv. I. 7. 7. sm By this invocation it is 
supposed that the deity Ids beoomes favourable to the sacrificer. 
It is a nigada, but a large part of it is said inaudibly ( up to 
' vrsjir hvayatSm ' ) and the rest loudly. The sentences run in 
pairs e. g. ' Ida has been invoked with the Heaven, with the 
great Aditya ; may ids together with Heaven and the great 
Aditya oall us near'. In the portion that is loudly uttered, there 
are three pauses, viz. after 'idopahuta,' after 'manusy ah' and after 
' devl devaputre'. The adhvaryu, the Sgnldhra and the saorifioer 
touch the idSpStra with their hands "" and remain so till the 

2383. qrfSjo* tf gt vnrrfasTTT mfmArctnnG t ' fon f tra gg ni& i wt aft" 
wwwt ftm^iwaftnnrot i &i»*Ti»rorevfit i wvm* II. 3. p. 209 ; com. «nft 

unWWH , Compare Adv. I. 7. 3-5. Both portions may be out by the 
hotj: or only one. The two portions in the right hand of the hotr are 
called avSntaredB 

2384. Vide Appendix for the text. This invocation differs consi- 
derably from the one contained in Sat. Br. I. 8. 1. 19ff, Tai. Br. III. 5. 8. 

2385. According to com. on Sat. II. 3. p. 210 the brahml priest 
does not join in touching the idffpStra. This is also the praotice in 
modern times of those who follow Sat. Aooording to Baud. 1. 18 and 
Est. Ill, 4. 12 the brahml does join. 

dh. XXX ] Dariaputyamtisa-IitopavhSm i067 

end of the invocation. When the invocation goes on inaudibly 

the yajamSna mutters (japati) '0 Ida! come (Ap. IV- 

10. 4)' and when it is loudly uttered he mutters 'thou 
art cit &c.' ( Ap. IV. 10. 4, where they are oalled Manusyagavl 
mantras ) and utters loudly ' May you breathe into all beings, 
may all beings breathe on account of you &c.' and several 
other mantras ( Ap. IV. 10. 4 and 7 ). He looks at the hotr and 
thinks of Vayu in his mind ' VSyu ! Ida is thy mother * ( Ap. 
IV. 10. 5); when the words 'this yajamaua has been oalled* 
are uttered, he mutters ' May I, so invited, be endowed with 
cattle*. When the invocation of ida is finished, he repeats 
' may Indra put in ub vigour &c.\ When the words ' the divine 
adhvaryus ' are uttered, the adhvaryu mutters ' May I be 
endowed with cattle.' 

When the invocation of Ida is finished the adhvaryu passes 
round the ahavanlya towards its east and takes the prasitra to 
the brahma priest and hands it over to him. Asv. I. 13. 2 des- 
cribes in detail what thereon the brahma does. He looks at the 
prasitra when it is being brought with ' I look at thee with the 
eye of Mitra. ' He receives the prasitra in his joined hands 

with ' I acoept thee at the impulse of god Savitr, with the 

hands of Pusan. ' He lays down the vessel containing prasitra 
to the west of the ahavanlya inside the vedi on kusa grass, with 
its rod to the east, ' I place thee in the navel of the earth, in the 
lap of Aditi. ' He takes the prasitra with the thumb and the 
ring-finger and eats without masticating it with the teeth with 
'I eat thee with the mouth of Agni, with the mouth of Brhaspati.' 
Then he performs acamana and again drinks water with ' I 
sprinkle truth over thee; may the deities that dwell inside 
waters avert ( the evil in ) this. Do not injure my eye, my ear, 
my life.' He should touch his navel with ' I hold thee in the 
belly of Indra. ' Then he washes the vessel in whioh prasitra 
was oontained, fills it with water, pours- water thrice from it 
holding the vessel and the palm of the hand towards 
one's chest. 

The hotr eats the avantareda m * after the brahma eats the 
prasitra with a mantra ' O Ida I favour this our portion &o. ' All 
the four priests together with the saorifioer as the fifth then 

2386. ' OTf <mr*3?*t Jrrafrrrf^ nrt srrw m ffinj t frrnrfcfr Turrit- 
»?^ffr^ ar^r »fr ttw *tw *t> qrr«T*ii$ HflnnrffarJ i (Hrfarr'n wtontu wWkn 
«*S<Wrt WW^rt fitrwTl ' W«r. I. 7. 8 ; compare Ap. III. 2. 10-11, and 
Tai. Br. III. 7. 5. 

1068 History cf bharmatostra [ Ch. &XX 

partake of the ids with a mantra ' thou art ids, thou art agree- 
able, thou art the bringer of happiness, place us in abundance 
of wealth and good progeny. I eat thee for the lustre of the face, 
for the fragrance of the mouth. * After eating ida they observe 
silence till they perform marjana. They perform marjana ,m 
inside the vedi near the prostata bunch with ' May mind resort 
to light. May all gods regale themselves here ' ( Tai. S. 

The adhvaryu divides the purodssa baked for Agni into four 
parts ( and no other purodasa nor sannayya ) by piercing its 
surfaoe and keeps it on the 6ar/ws(kugas strewn on the vedi), the 
last part being made the biggest of all four. Vide Jai. IIL1.26-27. 
The yajamana recites a mantra ' bradhna pinvasva &o. ' ( Tai. 
Br. III. 7. 5) and directs the four parts of that purodasa separately 
as portions of the priests by saying ' this is for brahma, this for 
hotr, this for adhvaryu, this for agnldhra ' beginning in order 
from the south-east. The adhvaryu points out the portion of 
the yajamana ( vide p. 1065 above ). When that is done, the 
adhvaryu makes the biggest of the four parts which is meant 
for the agnldhra ' sadavatta ' (out sixfold). 888 ' The agnldhra eats 
his portion with ' thou art the portion of heaven, thou art the 
agnldhra of fire, thou art the samitra of fire, I eat thee with the 
mouth of fire, salutation to thee 1 Do not injure me. ' The 
adhvaryu brings the portions of brahma and yajamana 
where they are sitting in separate vessels with the veda bunch. 
The portions of the hotr and adhvaryu are brought by the 
adhvaryu in other vessels. The adhvaryu, hotr and brahma eat 
their portions respectively with ' thou art the portion of the 
aerial region,' 'thou art of the earth,' 'thou of heaven.' ,M * 

2387. Marjana means 'sprinkling water on the head after a mantra 
is reoited ' ( wri* snrrct ftrci% uTyuwQn • com. on Sat II. 3, p. 210). See 
however note 755 above and as>. 1. 8. 2. 

2388. According to Ap. III. 3.6-7 'stdavatta* is effected in either of 
two ways; first u pasta ran a in some vessel (on the hand of the Sgoldhra, 
according to com. ), then placing on it one part oat of two in which the 
largest portion meant for Sgnldhra is cut, then abhigbJrana, then again 
upastaraoa, plaoing the second part and the abhigbSrana; or first 
upastarana twice, then the two part* of the largest portion and then two 
abbigbSranas. Sat. II. 3, p. 211 mentions only the first method. 

2389. It will hare been noticed from the preceding that the four 
priests have each a share in the cake for Agni and tbat they also share 
with the yajamfna the ids. The hotr has further the avKntaredS and 
the brahms partakes of the prSsitra besides. 

Ob. XXX ] iiariapuryamasa-anvSharya 106d 

The conclusion of Jaimini ( III. 4. 48-50 ) is that these portions 
are not meant as the fee paid to the priests ( parikraya ), but 
the four parts are meant to be eaten by them. 

Plenty of rice is cooked on the daksina fire. This is called 
anvUharya. The adhvaryu sprinkles ajya over**" it ( i. e. 
performs abhighirana ) and takes it from the daksina fire to 
the north of it. He issues a direction to the yajamana * offer 
( the boiled rice ) to the priests that sit to the south ' and when 
the sacrificer says ' come to the south ' the priests do as 
requested ( i. e. come to the south ). The yajamana issues a 
direction to the four priests ' this boiled rice is yours, take it 
acoording to your shares \ The rice is divided into four partB 
and the priests accept their respective portions with ' I accept 

thee at the impulse of God Savitr with the hands of 

Pusan; may king Varuna take you. Who gave to whom? 

Desire ( Kama) has given to Kama Kama, this is thy 

fee. May Anglrasa with upturned palm accept it ' ( the whole 
formula occurs in Ap. XIV. 11. 2). :M1 The priests come back to 
the north (and then brahmS comes to his usual seat). The 
adhvaryu keeps aside the remnants of the several offerings 
(suoh as the agnlsomlya cake or sannayya ) and of the boiled 
rice outside the vedi to its north. 

He throws into the ahavanlya the two blades that are 
now kindled at the fire and had been kept aside (vide 
p. 1040 above ). The adhvaryu says to the brahmS priest ' O 
brahman t we shall start or commence' (Tai. S. II. 6. 9. 1 ). 
The brahmS priest first mutters ' Brhaspati is Brahma, he sat in 
the seat of Brahma; Brhaspati! you proteoted the sacrifice; 
protect the sacrifice and me' ( Asv. 1. 13. 6 ) and loudly gives 
permission ' yes, do start * ( 03m pratis^ha ). The adhvaryu 
directs the Sgnldhra 'O agnlfc, take the tamidh (that is left ) and 
wipe Ihe paridhis and fire, each once '. The agnldhra takes the 
samidh and offers it into fire with the mantra ' O fire, this is 

2390. «gHMf^rt swrrgrtfqfir^gwryr> <rirer»rflrw'rf»rftirp? *u»air- 
«rnrr{*ft * smrnmr U 3 - p- 212 - vid * *P- m - 3 - 12 ~ 14 - The daksina 
fire is called w— j g Kim n. 

2391. * f$ mm »TfT5 &c. This is called jsnrqrft and ocenrs in 
many connections (snob as marriage, adoption of a son ). Vide Atharva- 
teda III. 29. 7, Tai. Br. II. 2. 5 (where it is explained), Tai. Xr. III. 10. 

1070 History of MarmaiMra I Oh. XXX 

thy samidh; * w may you increase and be strengthened by it. 
May the lord of the sacrifice ( the yajamana ) increase and be 
strengthened ; svaha ' ( Sat. II. 4. p. 212 ). The yajamana says 
as usual ' agnaya idam ' and repeats ' fire, this is thy samidh 
&c. ' (Ap. III. 4. 6) and implores Agni to vanquish and 
destroy his enemies ( the lengthy formula is in Ap. IV. 11. 5 ). 
He ( the Sgnldhra ) without moving about wipes the paridhis 
as before with the tying cords of idhma ( but without holding 
the sphya ), the middle one from south to north and the other 
two from west to east, and wipes the fire also from west to east 
with ' fire, that securest food &c. ' ( Ap. III. 4. 7 gives the 
whole ). He sprinkles water over the tying cords ( with which 
wiping was done ) and throws them into the ahavanlya with 
' do not injure our cattle, ( you ) who are Rudra, the lord of 
beings &c.' (Sat. II. 3. p. 213 )• The yajamana makes the 
tyaga ' this is for Budra, the lord of beings, who moves among 
rows (of Maruts)'. 

The yajamana touohes water and mutters a mantra ( which 
is in Ap. IV. 11. 6 ' vedirbarhih &c. ). The yajamana also 
performs japa of the Saptahotr ,m formulas before the anuyijas 
are offered. The adhvaryu takes into the juhfi the ftjya from 
the upabhrt (leaving some in the latter), crosses over to 
the south with the juhu and sets about offering the three 
anuyajas. First there is the asravana ( 03sra3vaya ), then 
praty asravana (astu srauSsaO by Sgnldhra who always holds 
the sphya when saying this. Then the adhvaryu issues a 
direction to the hotr ' recite the yajyS for the devas.' When the 
hotr reoites the y&jyft and utters vau3sat the adhvaryu standing 
in one place offers the first ajya offering on the samidh ( offered 
for anuyajas as stated on 1069 above ) to its east, the 2nd and 
3rd to the west on the samidh itself ( but all three are offered to 

2392. It is interesting to see that according to Kit. III. 5. 2-3 the 
mantra 'this is thy samidh ' (VSj. 8. II. 14) is recited by the hotr and if 
he be ignorant then by the yajainSna. This shows that even then priesta 
ignorant of the work expected of them or at least ignorant of the 
formulas they had to recite for a yajamKna had sometimes to be 
engaged. The Sat. Br. I. 8.2.4 also refers to this tr*rf%fl'ta H fhlT 

8393. The saptabotr formulas are : flfrtfttfirr i y wnifr u j : • «reg- 
trorarf anfnr, i m^rm vqsmr i oti vwrvffri«w *wrrf»frrd i »nrre^ 
Tf^nat i «f. wt. III. 5. The four priests, the Sgnldhra, prastott and prati- 
horti are often called the seven hotis. 

Cb. XXX ] DariapunnamMsa-Anuyajas 1071 

the east of the meeting point of the two agh&ras ). The third 
and last offering of fijya is begun on the west but carried east 
in a continuous stream so as to become mixed up with the first two. 
In eaoh case the yajamana repeats the formula of tyaga. The 
yajyas and ty&ga are given below in the note."'* The adhvaryu 
then comes back to the north, lays the two ladles ( sruc ) in 
their proper places and he and the yajamana mutter the two 
formulas (Tai. S. I. 6. 4. 2 oalled vftjavatl). The adhvaryu 
takes up in his right hand with palm upwards the juhu and 
prastara ( prastara being placed over the palm and juhu over the 

prastara) with 'vajasya grabhlt* (Tai. S. I. 6. 4. 2) and 

holds down ( so as to bring it in contact with barhis ) with 
palm turned downwards in the left hand the upabhrt ladle (which 

launder the palm) with ' athasapatnan akah ' ( ibid ). He 

again takes up the juhu with 'udgrabham oa' (ibid) and presses 
down the upabhrt with ' nigrabham ca.' At this time the juhu 
held in the right hand is far apart from the upabhrt held in the 
left. Then he moves with the right hand having palm turned 
upward towards the east on the vedi itself the juhu with 
' brahma deva avlvrdhan ' ( the gods inoreased holy prayer ) and 
with the left hand having palm downwards he leaves outside 
the vedi the upabhrt with ' athasapatnan. ..vyasyatam' {ibid. 
'Indra and Agni burled away my enemies' &o.). Then he touches 
water, sprinkles water over the upabhrt, takes it up and anoints 
with the butter remaining in the juhu the three paridhis, 
the middle one with 'to thee for Vagus,' the southern one 
with ' to thee for Rudras ' and the northern one with ' to thee 
for Adityas.' The yajamana recites in eaoh oase ' this is for 
Vasus,' ' this is for Rudras,' ' this is for Adityas ' followed in 

2394. There are three anuysjas. The first praisa is %*u* tut and the 
two others are simply tm. The three ySjySs are. ^ tffogs^ Mptaf? 

$5.3 iff3^ i %*» «msftfr to* *5ifcrw H 3 ^ 3 ** ' ^fcsflh fo teff nwftT T 
*ror: wf5: «nffm i <i s fl jhrr ^ B u T g w iarr^wfr *n*frTPT <ny i ni < ft y ir 5W 
wnwnrwt *r*nrf? efrsrt ^r»mt f^ft ^5 fsifcwf R<w>iir ftauifevft 
wtfrrw *i$t*t% »W3 wfosr* 1 *r*. I. 8. 7. Vide &. wr. III. 5. 9 for 
these. The Traraiw says ' «f3 f$ ^"Ttr *fi&, w>3f^ %rr«r «rcnitarrqr, 
at{3 j^ VVTB^T fwwv* * Q d & dds with each formula of tyBga respectively 

' wfKistf %«nr5^r*i rnm*$m* , ' ' »r<nhrwnj from wgpm. ^mm., ' 
' f*>nreiM ^qT ^ ig sHimfr r m%st t^r ' 1 &. tf. I. 6. 4. 1. Vide Xp, 
IV. 12. 1. 

1072 History of Dharmaiastra I Oh. XXX 

each case with a prayer noted below."" After keeping the 
Juhu in some spot on the vedi other than where the prastara 
is, the adhvaryu, having mixed the prastara with the two 
vidbrtis ( vide above p. 1045 ) with ' may heaven and earth be 
of the same mind; may Mitra and Varuna help you with 
rain' he leaves the vidhrtis on the barbie and smears the 
prastara ( with the remnants of ajya ) in the three ladles (sruc), 
the points in juhu with ' licking the one that is smeared ' 
( Tai. S. 1. 1. 13. 1 ), middle portions In upabhrfc with ' viyantu 
vayah ' ( ibid ) and the roots in dhruva with ' prajam yonim ' !,,, 
( ibid ). He does the anointing a seoond time ( with the same 
mantras ). He anoints a third time in the reverse order viz. the 
roots first In dhruva, the middle portions in upabhrt and the 
tops last in juhu ( the mantras being the same for each ladle ). 
The yajamana repeats, while the prastara is being anointed, 
a mantra ' may kusa be anointed with ghee ' ( Ap. IV. 12. 3 ). 
Taking out a blade from the prastara so anointed with ' to thee 
for long life ', he plaoes it in a known place ( for use later on ). 
When the blade is taken away from the prastara the yajamana 
reoites a mantra ( apipred yajfio...yajamanam visantu ). 

The adhvaryu takes the prastara ( and also the iakha i. e. 
twig used at the time of milking cows when sann&yya is to be 
offered ), introduces the prastara ( together with the twig ) at the 
corner In the north where the middle and northern paridhis 
meet and says ' a3sravaya." When the agnldhra responds with 
' astu srautaaV he issues a direction to the hotr ' the divine 
botrs are desired ( or requested); you being human and directed 
to utter the words of success recite hymns for the god called 
suktavaka.' The hotr begins the recitation of suktavaka m7 

2395. TnnTPTt— *B*vrfaj * «w i tnp^n^ T^wrfirifcpr. i <nrr- 

»$*i»<ijfli(<Hr>Pi i »iif$ , eqi*^«i»<($NiftlM»<H i «n«r. IV. 12. 3. 

2396. Ap. III. 6. 1. states the mantras somewhat differently. 

2397. The word stlktavgka has two meanings viz. the deity Agni 
and also the formula repeated by the hotr. Vide Ap. III. 6. 5-6 for the 
two meanings ' ym i m iq ^rt w3$' in sutra 5 and wi*«r*rt*f *C«nn% in 6. 
ast. 1.9. contains snktavska and rules about its recitation. ' ^irwrof 
TiiUfrwwT Kforfl Wi VrniffrfT f«HHTS5t 'com.- on Ap. III. 6. 6. Vide 
Tai. 8. II. 6. 9. Bff, ft. W|. III. 5. 10 for f$ imrffttt &o. and Sat. 
Br. I. 8. 3. 1-19 and I. 9. 1. 1-23 for a disquisition on sBktaTlka. 

Oh. XXX ] DariapurmmciaarSuktavSka 1078 

which is given below." 1 " The contents of the suktavaka may 
be briefly indicated. He begins 'O heaven and earth, this 
blissful event has taken place ; we have so flourished as to 
pronounce the good words ( viz. ' fire has aocepted this havis 
&o.') and our adoration (to the gods); O fire, you should 
declare good words, eo that we may feel elevated ; thou art the 
declarer of good words.' Then numerous words follow that 
state the various attributes of heaven and earth. Then it is 
declared that Agni and other deities ( named ) have accepted 
the offering and made it flourish. Then the sacrificer is named 
and it is said that he hopes for various blessings such as long 
life, worthy sons. The whole is concluded with ' we men belong 
to Agni. May we have ( the fruits of ) sacrifice and wealth. 
May both heaven and earth save us from sin ( or evil ). May 
the most desirable thing come here. Here is adoration to 
the gods.' After the suktavaka the adhvaryu throws upon 
the fihavanlya the prastara (and the sakha, ia case of sannayya ) 
with ' may waters and plants be strengthened ; you are the 

2398. y^ qwgfit'JT m r n^ i«f qftwrensa tro 1<n»iqm i »H qfrl ' wmi l rt 

sjyft 3*4*31^ am^ wir*t y*»t«tjft swr^jft ■ tfspow fnvun ?i^ «nfr- 
S*t 3^?*ift <nwft wRrrm ^ wfa^Tart Vir*tafti% i wi*m$ s^^wnf t- 

I^ir f^\ 3rrTi"U¥" i *ftn rt fP> If* ' wfinx^ *t% ^w i ngnrftri 

?4 Tffr g*«Tgnw r *njt5vnTTS5J i wifltffrmw^ ffi < g «rawM i |& ar *rrt 
swiwtoffKrre. • %*t sn^w sri3«ragBr» : ?nriTi*i»a' *r*?t wi^shri i w%?Wnf 

»JV* yw « awiiiu^ffarnjt i?*ywr«JT«rrsmnsv "iar»nwrsm*'jft I artgn- 

w$t cusirpwrsmft m^fivwrsn^r «gnH***vmro ssrwtt jjpureTTHro vft 
sji>«RTnr»n s A"f «nTT° Tk*£ fov&x* ts^h B^%vi5inJr irsjwt? Hjwnr, treftw 
%rr trapert n^isr^^ ^*tfr «rjt TTHSTRigrr: i y£ ^ f%>5t >wt w i w> irr«rr- 
ffMt ^^rwmi^r »rfir*TW#t *** &*** ' W- l - 9 - Compare d. mx. III. 6.10 
and SSn. I. 14 for almost tbe surae words and Tai. 8. II. 6 9. 5-7 for 
explanation. The words underlined are uttered in audibly ; vide Adv. 1.3.14. 
The deities mentioned in note 2381 may be substituted for PrajSpati ; 
and Indra or Mahendra also may be added (where sSnnByya is offered). 
When the cake is offered to IndrKgol, one may add an invocation as to 
them. Two names ( viz. the ordinary name and the secret name derived 
from the naksntra of birth) were to be deolared after irsrinwt. If tbe 
trapa* happened to be the teacher of the hotr, tbe names should be 
uttered inaudibly. The botr paused and took breath at srfir, srpr., arwv- 
ipft, ftra;, Nfil ( wherever it occurs ), snpHTTHi saw, WT^rt. Vide Jai. 
III. 2. 11-15 for the proposition that sfflctavaka is really a mantra 
accompanying the throwing of prastara; and Jai. (III. 2. 16-19) 
establishes that the saktavSka on pttrgamSsa is slightly different from 
tbe one on daria. 
H.D. 135 

1074 History of Dharmaiaatra [ Ch. XXX 

drops of Maruts ; go to heaven and send tbence rain to us ' 
( Tai. S. 1. 1. 13. 1 )."»» Jaimini makes it clear ( VI. 4. 43-47 ) 
that sakha is not a subordinate complement of the prastara but 
the real meaning of the text ' he throws the prastara with the 
sakha ' is to indicate the time when the sakha is to be thrown 
into fire. Jaimini ( IV. 2. 10-13 ) states that the throwing of 
the sakha into fire is pratipattikarma ( i. e. that is the final 
disposal of the sakhS ). When throwing the prastara he does 
not bend his hand but holds it rather straight and hanging 
downwards and the tips of the prastara are not put beyond 
the fire nor are they turned upwards, nor are the tips allowed 
to be first scorched. He raises it up, brings it slowly down 
and rolls it on the hearth of the ahavanlya ( making the 
upper portion come down and vice versa ). The adhvaryu, when 
the hotr says ' this sacrificer seeks ( hopes for ) blessings ' 
directs the agnldhra to oonsign the prastara to fire. The 
agnldhra thrice raises with his joined hands the prastara 
into the ahavanlya fire. The sacrificer makes the tyaga to the 
several deities mentioned in the suktavaka ( agnaya idam, 
somfiyedam &o.) and adds (Tai. S. 1. 6. 4. 1 ) ' may I win victory 
following the victory of Agni ' ( then of Soma and so on for 
the other deities )." 00 When the hotr mentions the name of the 
sacrificer the latter recites 'these blessings have come here ' 
( Tai. 8. L 6. 4. 2 and ip. IV. 12. 5 ). The adhvaryu directs 
the agnldhra to throw into fire on the prastara the blade of 
kusa taken from the prastara and kept aside ( as described 
above p. 1072 ) and the agnldhra " 01 does so with ' Good speed 
to the tanus, svaha*. The yajamfina mutters 'this for the 
Tanus ' and proceeds ' This pillar spread down from heaven and 
was raised over the earth. With it that has a thousand shoots we 
worry our enemy etc.' (Tai. Br. III. 7. 6 and Ap. IV. 12. 8). The 
adhvaryu points out thrioe with his forefinger the blade thrown 
into fire with 'this, this' and touches his nose and eyes with 
' Agnil thou art the protector of life, protect my life, thou art 
the protector of eyes ' ( Tai. 8. 1. 1. 13. 2 ). Then the adhvaryu 
touches the earth inside the vedi with 'thou art stable'( ibid ). 

2399. According to £p. III. 6. 7 when this mantra is repeated 
there is no ivBbH uttered after it. But others differ. 

8400. wfr«tsfrftaq?iN&ft wriStf igtwrcrifctrn i ww. IV. IE. 4. 
Vide $. IX. 1. 4-5. 

1401. According to com. on Ap. III. 7. 4-6 it is the adhvaryu who 
puttjnto fire the blade of .the prastara. 

Oh. XXX ] Dariapuryamasa-&aihyuv5ka 107& 

The agnldhra then addresses the adhvaryu ' talk with me '. 
The adhvaryu asks ' has ( the prastara ) been consigned to 
flames ' ? The agnldhra replies ' it has gone to the fire '. Than 
after asravana and pratyasr&vana the adhvaryu touching the 
middle enclosing stick ( paridbi ) issues a direction to the hotr 
' Good speed to the divine hotrs ( here the paridhis ) and bliss 
to human hotrs. Recite for iam-yoh'. H0 * Then the hotr recites 
the verse ' we long for that sam-ydh, for ( the ) path to sacrifice 
and to the lord of sacrifice. May divine bliss be ours 1 May 
there be bliss for human beings. May the means ( of bliss ) 
ascend upwards 1 All health to the two-footed and the four- 
footed that are ours * ( i. e. to men and cattle ). ,4M When the 
Sarhyuvaka is repeated the yajamana mutters ' may I attain 
stability by yajna, sarhyoh (health and wealth) by the worship 
of Visnu* ( Tai. S. I. 6. 4. 3 ). The adhvaryu then throws into 
the fire the middle paridhi with 'O God Agni, that paridhi 
which you laid down svfiha' (Tai. S. 1. 1. 13. 2). 

The adhvaryu then pushes on to the burning coals of the 
ahavanlya the other two paridhis together ( the southern and 
northern ones ) with ' the food of sacrifice has come together.' 
He thrusts the tip of the northern paridbi underneath the middle 
one in the burning coals and keeps the tip of the southern over 
the middle one. When the paridhis are being thrown on the 
fire the yajamana mutters ' I loosen thy girdle &o." ( Tai. S. 
I. 6. 4. 3 ). After the paridhis aTe thrown the adhvaryu invokes 
them 'may you spread ( i. e. prolong the life of ) the sacrificer*. 

The adhvaryu then lays on the bowl of the juhu the 
upabhrt and lets flow from the two ladles the remnants of 
butter into fire with ' O Visve Devas 1 You have for your share 
the remnants ( samsrava ) of 8jya,...svah5 ' (Tai. 8. 1. 1. 13. 2). M0 * 

2402. The words are amr3snfrra;F»rW3'inT. ■ wriwrrnrrH: ■ wwnrqftfa- 
•PTTOT WT $*TT B?Tf*V8 <FtlWTT3^™r: tfvfaf3yh% *ft«7nJ I *TWT«ni;II.4 
p. 218. 

2403. For the formula • t reWnyfrffS ' ( Tai - 8 - H. 6. 10. 2 ) vide 
note 1684 above. As tbe most prominent words in it are sjifti this 
formula is called sjgvrss ( lit. utterance of s*amyu ). It occurs in Tai. 
Br. Id. 5.11. These words gave rise to the name of a sage sjrf vnfcn* 
whose legend Is narrated in the Sat. Br. I. 9. 24-25, Tai. 8. II 6. 10. 
Vide S. B. E. vol. 12 p. 264 n. 1. 

2404. Vide Sat. Br. I. 8. 3. 23-27 for the offering of tbe remnants 
of Kjya to the Visve Devas. Tbis homa of remnants is an anga of the 
paridbihoma. Vide com. on Ap. III. 7. 14. 

107<S history of Dharmaiastra [ Oh. XlX 

The yajamana makes the tyaga with ' this is for Vagus, Rudras 
Adityas who are sharers in the sarhsrfiva ( remnants of fijya ),' 
then utters a benediotory formula invoking blessings ( vide 
Ap. IV. 12. 10 and Tai. S. I. 6. 4. 4 ) and touches the veda bunch 
lying inside the vedi. 

The priests partake of the remnants of fijya and wash the 
ajya sticking to the ladles.* 401 

The adhvaryu takes up the juhu and upabhrt, the hotr takes 
the veda bunch and the Sgnldhra takes the pot of fijya (ajya- 
sthall) together with the sruva. Being about to perform the 
patnlsarhyfijas ,40 ' the adhvaryu passes to the south of the 
garhapatya fire ( from its east side ) and the other two priests 
( hotr and agnldhra ) pass to its north. The adhvaryu places 
the two ladles on the sphya with ' I place you in the abode of 
Agni whose house is indestruotible ; may you who are happy 
place me in happiness for the sake of happiness; may you who 
are the foremost (or leaders) protect me. when I am in front' 
( Tai. S. 1. 1. 13. 2-3 ). They sit to the west of the garhapatya 
and set about the offerings of Patnlsamyfijas with the two ladles 
in the dhvfina tone. They three sit to the west of the garha- 
patya with knees raised up, the adhvaryu being seated to the 
south, the agnldhra to the north and the hotr between the two. 
The hotr hands over the veda bunch to the adhvaryu who takes 
it with ' 1 have stood up following the immortals with long 
life &c.' ( Tai. S. I. 2. 8. 1 ), stands up and sits down to the 
west of the garhapatya. When the wife ( of the sacrifice* ) 
holds the veda bunch and touohes the adhvaryu with a blade of 
darbha, the adhvaryu takes into the juhu four ladlings of fijya 
with sruva ( from the pot of ajya ). Then the procedure for 
each of the four offerings resembles the prayaja offerings, viz. 

2405. The ladles are tbe sruva, the juhtl and upabhrt and not the 
dhruvB ( coin, on Sat. II. 4. p. 220). 

2406. PatnisamyKja literally means offering made to tbe wires 
(of tbe gods ) along with (some other deities), 'irufrfifc *nri*T3*T*?f J? 
<Twfhf*nrrt » com. on 8at. II. 5 p. 223. These are four offerings of Bjya 
made in snooession to Soma, Tvasfr, Devapatnls ( wives of gods ) and 
Agni Grhapati. Vide Sat. Br. I. 9. 2 for a treatment of patnlsarhySjas. 
Kit. ( III. 1. 2-4 ) shows that there were several views as to tbe path by 
wbioh tbe adhvaryu went to the south, vwt •* explained us st« *wt»«W«PTtt 
fv®m6*t* wftnrrwt i «i«mrw i»m ft"H B m »;n «r i «n qrrtB' i com. on 
Ap. III. 8. 8. All formulas must be uttered here in these tones except 
some words to be specified later on. 

Ch. XXt. ] DariapUrmmUaarPatnlsd^iyajaa 10?fr 

the adhvaryu issues a direction to the hotr to recite sn anu- 
vakya ( invitatory prayer ) for Soma ( then for Tvast? and so 
on ), tben the hotr reoites the anuvakya, then there is asruta 
and pratyasruta, followed by adhvaryu directing the hotr to 
recite the ySjya for Soma (orTva?tr or others as the case may 
be), and when the hotr utters ' vai3?at* the adhvaryu pours 
the ajya oblation from the juhu into the garhapatya ( in this 
rite ). The offering to Soma is made in the northern part of the 
garhapatya, that to Tvastr in the southern part and for the rest 
between these two. The offering to the wives of the gods may 
be made in an enclosed space ( i. e. by placing a screen to the 
east of the garhapatya ) so as to shut the garhapatya from view 
on the eastern side. "° 7 Additional offerings were allowed to 
be made to Raka, Sinlvall and Kuhu by those who desired sons, 
cattle or prosperity respectively either before or after the 
offering to the wives of the gods. The procedure is briefly 
indicated in the note below." 08 

The yajamana makes a tyaga ( of the offering ) with ' this 
for Soma ' ( or for Tvastr and so on ) and adds a separate for- 
mula in each case invoking separate blessings of vigour, cattle, 
progeny and stability (vide Ap. IV. 13. 1 and Tai. S. 1. 6. 4. 3-4). 
The adhvaryu offers in the garhapatya with the sruva an 

2407. MTSTsfom: nftffri* ^W?*twRl^ wt ■ wtv. III. 9. 3 and the 
com. says ' *i«n5**fr«ft *r fVf^t s«' <rinlra srerri*^ mfa* ynitfj .' In 
modern times a wooden frame is placed to the east of the gSrliapatya as a 
screen. The reason why the glibapatya is screened from view is stated 
in the Sat. Br. I. 9. 2. 12 to be " for, up to the time of the Samisfnyujus 
the deities continue waiting, thinking 'this be must offer to us'; he 
thereby conceals this offering from tbem ; and accordingly Yajfia- 
vatkya says ' whenever females ( human ) eat hero they do so apart 
from men '." 

2408. wv*g: «frTprrgw3ft fft $wrr& i star i ancrmwr ••• tfjpitfn i 

( t&t sfloTT'm, *r. I. 91- 16 ) i snwrnr Jtnrwnftfr sm£ : wtf *r$Gt tfV 
«rfit i star i tr3*r3n*t wW H fr «Prtf3 ...ftwrrS wl3er* ( tot, W. I. 91. 18 ) i. 

The srgrisjirr and vwn for w* «re f C HZWmH kn&t 

( jr. I. 13. 10 ) and n*JHS3*TTW I f«mt («ff HI. 4 9), for $*TJ«fts are 

aj^iwt "rfft ?r*J *ronr » n< ^ *w irwo ^wft afwVmn 

( *r. V. 46. 7-8 ), for wfff wft »re wiwrfiri Tf int ... ^rwr (*r. VI. 15 13) 

and fursrrsrip- •WlG' ( V. V. 4. 2 ). Vido wt*. I. 10. 5. The 5^5- 

•WiT *nd irr^n in the case of *r*T, Rtwmrsft are respectively 
»jr. II. 82. 4-5, II. 32. 6-7 and those for 55 are stated in «T«sr- I. 10 8 
(the entire verses aro given in this case). They occur in Tai. 8. 
III. 3. 11. 5 and Atharvaveda VII. 47. 1 and 2 (with slight variations). 

1078 History of DharmaiOatra [ Oh. XXX 

oblation of ftjya with 140 ' 'may the wife unite with her husband... 
svShS ' ( Tai. Br. III. 7. 5 quoted on p. 556 n. 1291 ). The 
sacriflcer's wife touches the adhvaryu ( with a blade of darbha) 
when he makes the last offering. The yajamSna makes the 
tySga ' this is for the undeoaying Great Soul, the light 
in Heaven. ' 

The adhvaryu then smears the two front joints of the hotr's 
finger as before, first the hind joint and then the front joint. 
He breathes over it and touches water. The adhvaryu drops 
into the palm of the right hand of the hotr four drops of ftjya as 
ids , *'° and six in that of the Sgnldhra. The hotr inaudibly 
invokes both ( viz. his own ids and Sgnldhra's, the hand of the 
latter being held underneath the former's ) in the same words 
as before (vide Appendix under note 2384). When the words 'this 
yajamSna has been summoned ' are uttered, the wife mutters 
' being summoned may I surpass in the possession u " of cattle,' 
and the adhvaryu also performs japa as above. When the 
ids is being invoked the adhvaryu, the Sgnldhra and the 
wife ( with a darbha blade ) touch the hotr. The yajamSna 
invokes Sjya ids with ' may ids cover us with gbrta &o.' ( Ap. 
IV. 13. 4 ). At the end of the invocation of ids the hotr eats 
the ids ( drops of Sjya ) and the Sgnldhra eats his with ' father 
Heaven has been invoked, may the fire summon me from Sgnl- 
dhra for my life, lustre &c* ( Tai. Br. III. 7. 6 ). He silently 
performs mSrjana after partaking of ids. The patnlsamyajas 
end with the invocation of ids or they may be finished after 
reciting SarhyuvSka (Sat. II. 5, p. 225; Asv. I. 10.9; Est. 
III. 7. 13 ). 

The adhvaryu sitting to the west of the daksioa fire places 
on it the chips cut from the idbma ( idhma-pravraicana, vide 
above p. 1014 ) and offers two oblations called phallkarana 
and pist&lepa. *"* Having thrown into the Sjya ladled into 

2409. This homa made with a verse beginning with 'sam patnl * 
is called rfqytfrv in Sat. II. 6. p. 223 and Ap. Ill 9. 10. 

2410. This it the 2nd ids and oonsists only of Sjya. 

2411. According to Sat. II. 5. p. 224 in the idopahvlna there is a 
modification viz. ^nf w») «r3nrr»rt f or ^trfrtW *nmr»r* and so in the 2nd 
ids the wife performs japa ; while ( as the com. of Sat. notes ) the 
followers of 9g. retained OTfifrd- vapTPT: in the 2nd ids alto and to the 
yajamSna engages in the japa. 

8412. faa$»r*$*fr tfo ftv&tnfta «*rr « mflm«n1w i com. on 
•mr. in. 9. 12. 

Ch. XXX ] DariapUryamQaa-Phalikaravahoma 1079 

the juhO four times with the sruva the smallest grains ( that 
were produced when rice grains were husked and pounded for 
making purodasas), the adhvaryu offers them into the daksina 
fire with ' O fire, that hast unhurt life and not cool body, guard 
me against the sky (lightning) ... make our food free from 
poison ... svabft ' ( Tai. S. 1. 1. 13. 3 ). When this homa is made 
the yajamana rubs (wipes) his mouth with 'sv&b& to thee, that 
art Sarasvatl YasobhaglnS ' ( who loves laudation) and makes 
the tyfiga with 'this is for Agni who has long life and not cool 
body' and wipes his face with 'svaha to thee, that art Sarasvatl 
Vesabhaglna' wi (who loves residing together, Ap. III. 10. 2). 
The adhvaryu takes again four ladlings of ajya with the sruva 
into the juhu and pours therein the remnants of ground grains 
which still stick to the several utensils and offers them into the 
daksina fire with ' whatever stuck to the mortar, pestle and the 
winnowing basket... ! Svaha*(Tai. Br. IIL 7. 6 and Ap. III. 
10. 1 ). The yajamana says 'this is for the All-Gods'. 

The hotr hands over the veda bunch to the sacrificer's wife 
and makes her repeat aloud 'thou art veda.. .may I secure pro- 
geny. To thee for Kama '(As v. I. 11. 1) and the sacrificer 
recites, when the veda bunch is being given to the wife ' thou art 

Veda may I secure gifts' ( Tai. S. 1. 6. 6. 4 ) and when the 

veda is placed on her lap by the wife '"* she repeats ' may veda 
give &o.' ( Tai. S. 1. 6. 6. 4 ). The wife thrusts it with ' drive out 
the enemy, the hater' ( Ap. III. 10. 4 ). The wife touches her 
navel with the top of the veda bunch if she desires progeny. 

The hotr unties the yoktra (the girdle) of the wife with ' I 
release thee from the fetter of Varuna &o.' (Rg. X. 85. 24). M " 
The wife lays aside the yoktra and the adhvaryu makes her 
reoite 'here do I unloosen the fetters of Varuna &c.' (Tai. S. L 1. 
10. 2). The hotr winds round the yoktra twofold, placeB it to 
the west of the garhapatya fire with its loop and end to the east, 
keeps over it the blades of the veda with their points to the north 

2413. The meaning of Yasobbaglna* and VesabhaglnS in Sat. II. 6. 
p. 230 it obscure. In VSj. S. II. 20 iRftM^F^ is explained by ntf tir aa 

<sfNw» sww vtim to m vmt *rf»t»ft nam. In mzm*. V. 4 tmvtft is 
oalled fcjnrnta't- 

2414. According to Jp. (III. 10. 3-4) tbe bott throws the veda 
thrice on tbe lap of the wife who returns it back tbree times. 

2415. inj BTTWnTTTTTX faS°t TnjJTTjf fWT^WftHiq*^lH,«IHlfa ^f- 
gwrft ajftf* I ws;. 1. 11. 4 ; the com. says vtom ipwftn «rnwt I T WUtjW 

1080 History qf DharmaiMra [ Ch. XXX 

and lays down a purnapatra ,4 " ( a vessel filled with water) to 
the east of the blades but touching them. The hotr touobes 
that vessel and makes the wife who touohes it repeat a mantra 
' thou art full &c* ( Tai S. I. 6. 5. 1 ). The hor sprinkl es water 
from the purnapatra in all direotions and makes the wife, who 
also sprinkles water from it in all directions, repeat ' Let the 
god b and the priests purify (or wipe) in the eastern direction 
&o.'(Tai.S. I. 6. 5. 1-2, quoted in As v. I. 11. 7). The hotr 
places into the joined hands of the saorificer's wife with the 
palm upwards the yoktra, and places his left hand with palm 
turned upwards on the wife's folded hands (but in modern 
practice the hotr does not hold bis hand over the wife's ) and 
pours down the water from the purnapatra on the hands ( bis 
and the wife's) and makes her repeat ' May I not throw away 
progeny &o.' (Asv. I. 11. 8). The hotr holds by his right hand 
the tops of the blades of the veda bunch ( the binding cord of 
which has already been unloosened), proceeds from the garha- 
patya to the ahavanlya, repeats Rg. X. 53. 6 ( tantum tanvan &c.) 
and without shaking them, strews continuously some of them 
from the garhapatya to the ahavanlya. The rest of the blades 
the hotr lays down and, standing to the north-east of the 
ahavanlya, takes ajya from the pot of ajya ( ajyasth&ll ) in the 
sruva and offers with svaha at the end of the mantras oblations 
of ajya, which are called ' sarvapr&y ascitta ' (expiation for all 
lapses ). The mantras are given below.' 417 Having made the 
oblations the hotr pays homage with the ' sarhsthajapa (lit. the 
prayer muttered on completion) 14 ' 8 and goes out of the sacrifi- 
cial ground by the way called tlrtha (vide above p. 984). 

Theadhvaryu pours from a vessel full of water (pUryapfitra) 
water into the joined hands of the wife in which the yoktra is 

2416. yifriw is explained by com. on Sat. II. 5 p. 229 as t^3>»t %$ 
xnwK 1 • The mantra is • yiffffo ^«i it n«m CV^n^T SyS & ITt *?m B*ft 
H*T« tf$*fft H$ ft Vn «firfir«i% «T ft sjrsr- 1 ' ft tf. I 6. 6. 1. quoted in 
Wff. I- H. 6- 

2417. The mantrai are ' awrcntrsHPf f**5l*fta 3ft ^^ *tt*t ' 

( srw 1. 11. 13 and *rnn. II. 6. p. 232 ). wft ft*r wttffc WW ( *r. 

1. 28. 16 ), ftf fog «Tt5* WTfT (*T- I. 22. 17 ), ^t WI*T, $*» **lfT, 

Wt WlfTt i£8*r: <Wt WTJT' The oblation* are in all seven. The mantras 

of *rwtrnrrilW differ a great deal in the different surras, wnwtl it 

ftwtf W!*T is OTJWrtf. V. 4. 

2418. aft * ft ww ft mjrrir * ft »m«» 1 «r% *s* ircft «r ot *j$rsftft* 
B*ft ft «TO jfit <Nm • *rt»sj. I- 11- 15. This is called (,'wnw because it 
Is the last of the acts the hot; does in this rite. 

Oh. XXX ] Daria-PUrmmnsa 1081 

held. When the wife lets down the water on the ground she 
mutters ' May I be united with long life, progeny &o.' ( Tai. S. I. 
1. 10. 2 ). After pouring the water she wipes her faoe with her 
wet right hand and goes out as she desires.' 419 When the hotr 
strews the blades of the veda, the saorifioer repeats ' through you 
they knew the vedi &o.' ( Tai. Br. III. 7. 4 ). 

The adhvaryu comes back by the way he went, repeats 
' may the dhruva be strengthened &c.' ( Tai. S. I. 6. 5. 1 ) and 
offers two ahutis of ajya to SarasvatI with the juho into the 
ahavanlya with 'to thee, who are SarasvatI, called Yasobhaglna, 
svaha ' and with ' to thee SarasvatI called Vesabhaglna, . svana.' 
The yajamana makes the tyaga in similar words. The adhvaryu 
again takes ajya in the juhQ and offers an ahuti to Indra with 
' Indropanasya kehamanaso vesan kuru sumanasah sajafcan ' 
( Sat. II. 5. p. 230, Ap. III. 10. 2 ) 842 ° and the yajamana says 
' this is for Indra &c.' The adhvaryu offers an oblation of ajya 
with sruva on the purnamasa isti with ' we offer worship to pur- 
namasa the foremost &c. svaha* (Tai. Br. III. 7. 5 quoted by 
Sat. II. 5 p. 230 ) and a similar oblation on darsesfi with 
4 AmSvasya is fortunate and full of happiness &o. svaha.' The 
yajamana makes tyaga. These are called parvayxihoma and 
according to some they are optionally performed before the 
offering to Svistakrt. Jaimini ( IX. 2. 51-56 ) establishes that 
these two homas are not performed in other istfs that are the 
modifications ( vikrti ) of darsapurnamasa and in IX. 2. 57-58 
establishes that both are not performed on purnam&sesfi and 
darsesti, but the first homa ( in which there is an oblation to 
purnamasa ) is alone performed on purnamases^i and the other 
on darsestf. The adhvaryu takes ajya six times with the mantra 
' SpySyatSm dhruva &o.' ( Tai. S. I. 6. 5. 1 ) and offers six homas 
called Naris^ha homas with six mantras S4il ( with svaha at the 

2419. Ap. III. 10. 9 says that tbe wife goes out saying ' May 1 be 
endowed with prosperity, cattle, progeny, domestic happiness '. The 
com. on Sat. II. 5. p. 229 explains the words vsrS T*wfi> as wr$r<^ i$r»if 
WTO *TR# m«fttffc«n$s «nd quotes Ap. III. 10. 9. 

2420. The meaning of the first part of this mantra is obicure and 
the text appears to be oorrupt. It occurs also in VarBha Sr. I. 9. 7. 13. 

2421. The six N5risj,ha mantras occur in Sat. II. 6. p. 231, Ap. 
II. 20. 6 and II. 21. 1. The first four are from Tai. Br. III. 7. 5, the 6th 
from Tai. Br. III. 7. 11 and the first portion of the 6th from Tai. 
8. 1. 3. 10. 1. Aooording to com. on Ap. II. 21. 1, these homas are offer- 
ed with tbe juhO. 

H. D. 136 

1082 History of Dharmaiastra [ Ch. XXX 

end of each ) and the yajamfina repeats the tyaga six times 
' to Narisflias Agni and Vayu,' ' to Naristhas Indra and Vayu 
(twice),' 'to Naristhas Soma and Maruts,' 'to Naristfia 
Brahman,' ' tp Niria^ha Paramatman.' 

The adhvaryu recites ' apyayatam dhruva' (Tai. S. I. 6. 5.1), 
takes ajya thirty-eight times and offers with the juhtt oblations 
called sarvaprayascittas to thirty-eight deities in the ahavanlya 
with a mantra for each, WM and there is an appropriate tyaga 
in each caBe. 

The adhvaryu repeats the mantra ' apyayatam &c* ( Tai. 
S. I. 6. 5. 1 ), increases the dhruva ( with ajya ), stands erect 
inside the vedi and offers with the dhruva three homaB called 
Bamistaycuiis HU in the ahavanlya with ' ye path-finding gods 1 
after finding the path, return by it. Lord of the mind I 
place this our sacrifice among the gods, in speech, in the wind ' 
( Tai. S. 1. 1. 13. 3 ). When the word svaha is repeated the 
second time he throws the barhis into the fire. The yajamana 
says ' this is for the path-finding gods, for Yajfia — for Para- 
matman ' and utters the invocation ' agne adabdhayo * ( Tai. S.,) and after the barhis is thrown the verse ' divah 
khIlo'(Tai. Br. III. 7. 6). The yajaraBna then eats his own 
share of the sacrificial food with ' let the lord of sacrifice be 
united with prayer &o.' ( Tai. 8. 1. 3. 8. 1 ). 

But if it is the sSnnayya, he takes in the boiled milk with 
'May this havis, a giver of progeny, be for my welfare &o.' 
( Tai. Br. II. 6. 3 ) and curds with ' dadhikravno * ( Hg. IV. 39.6). 
Ap. IV. 14. 2 notes that a yajamana who is not a brahmana 
should not eat sannayya. The adhvaryu strews the vedi with 

2422. These 38 mantras ( gome of them of single words like i$te- 
bhyah svshs, bhuh svlhK) are set out in Sat. II. 6 pp. 232-234. Ap. 
( III. 11-12 ) contains most of them, but in a different order. 

2423. ' Samirtayajus ' would literally mean 'a Yajus formula indi- 
cative of the completion of the sacrifice or of sacrificing together for 
many deities \ It now means ' an oblation \ The mantra is ^«rr irrB;- 
faft mi ftwr «ngf*r?» wswrcr jtr hi %i ij^w *rfr trifT «rrfa wcr wrir *ro i 
Tai. 8. 1. 1. 13. 3. There is a difference of view about the Saraisfayajus. 
Aocording to Ap. III. 13. 2 (and com. ), Band. I. 21, Kit. III. 8. 4 the 
oblation is only one (made at the end of the whole mantra), though 
the word svKhS ocours thrioe (twice in the mantra itself and onoe 
repeated at the end of the mantra ). Aooording to Sat. II. 6 pp. 234-285 
the oblations are three. Vide V«j. 8. II. 21 for the mantra (slightly 
different ) and-Sat. Br. 1. 9. 2. 26-28 for its explanation. 

Cb. XXX ] Dariarmrvam3$a 1083 

the darbhas spread on the seat of the hofcr with ' strew over the 
vedi &c* ( Tai. Br. III. 7. 5 ). He oarries the prantta waters 
from the eastern side with 'to you for prosperity' and pours 
them down inside the vedi with 'may he who joined you toge- 
ther separate you'. The adhvaryu pours on those pranlta 
waters a continuous stream of water for the yajamana who 
holds it in his joined, hands and mutters 'thou art true, be true 

to me do not perish for me' ( sadasi ksestfi&h ' Tai. S. I. 

6.5.1), throws up water in different directions with 'may 
gods and priests cleanse with water in the east &o. ' 
( Asv. I. 11. 6-7), pours the rest inside the vedi with 'I dis- 
charge you to the ocean, that is your origin' ( Ap. IV. 14. 4) 
and wipes bis face with his wet right hand with ' SarasvatI ! 
that honey which you have in waters &c. ' ( Tai. Br. II. 5. 8 
quoted in Ap. IV. 14.4). 

The adhvaryu then takes up the upavesa and conceals it 
inside the dust of the utkara ( vide Ap. III. 13. 6 ) and if it is 
desired to practise magic against one's enemy, then he throws the 
upavesa on the utkara after taking the enemy's name ( Ap. III. 
14. 1, Sat. II. 6. p. 237 ). Vide Tai. Br. III. 3. 11 for the upavesa 
and the mantras. The adhvaryu takes leave of the Yajfia with 
' Let him who yokes you discharge you ' ( Tai. S. I. 5. 10. 3 
quoted in Sat. IL 6. p. 237 ) and passes his eye over the whole 
sacrificial ground.* 48 * Then he discharges the kapalas with ' the 
kapalas that were in the cauldron ' ( Tai. S. I. 5. 10. 3-4 quoted 
in Sat. II. 6. p. 237 ), counts them and keeps them aside. Then 
the adhvaryu goes out. The brahma also places a fuel- stick on 
fire with ' the fire has been worshipped &o.' ( Ap. III. 13. 1 
and Sat. IL 8. p. 261 ) and then leaves by the way he came. 

The yajamana gets up from his seat and takes what are 
called ' the strides of Visnu * ( visnukrama ). Uii These are four 
taken from the south corner ( sroni ) on the south side of the 
vedi. He starts towards the east putting the right foot always 
first, never allows the left foot to come in front, does not go 
beyond the Shavanlya place and each succeeding step covers 

2424. According to com. on Sat. casting the eye over the vihSra 
constitutes the discharge ( vimoka ) of the yajfia. 

2425. This aot is called Visnu-krama because the four mantras 
repeated in it all begin with ' vienoh kramosi ' and because the 
yajamKna aotually takes four steps in it. ftstyvm »rrn *%f*mrftftT«T> 
<J?i»**<m wtf&t fc^ftlfcT Wiwft i com on wro. IV. 14. 6. 

1084 History of Dharmatllstra [ Ch. XXX 

more ground than each preceding one. He first reoites 
four mantras ' thou art the stride of Visnu &o. ' ( Tai. 
S. I. 6. 5. 2 ) when taking the strides. Then he mutters a long 
prayer to the Sun ' O Light of Mitra rising to-day &c.' ( Tai. 
Br. III. 7. 6 and Tai. S. I. 6. 6. 1, quoted in Ap. IV. 15. 1 and I. 
16. 1 ). He contemplates the destruction of his enemy with the 
words ' Here do I exclude from a share my enemy the evil-doer 
&o." He revolves round himself from left to right with ' I turn 
the turning of Indra' ( Tai. S. I. 6. 6. 2 ) and goes round the 
ahavanlya with ' Let me have auspioious riches and may evil 
riches remain away from me ' ( Ap. IV. 15.4). He bends over the 
ahavanlya with ' thou art light ' (Tai. S. 1. 1. 10. 3), pays homage 
to it with ' May I be united with my children and may my 
ohildren be united with me &c.' ( Tai. S. I. 6. 6. 2, Ap. IV. 
15. 4). He puts the fire into flames ' O fire, being kindled, 
shine for me &o.' ( Tai. S. I. 6. 6. 2, Ap. IV. 16. 5 ). He 
prays to the ahavanlya with ' The sacrifice is endowed with 
riches, may I be endowed with riches &c* ( Tai. S. 1. 6. 6. 2, Ap. 
IV. 15. 5. ). He prays to the daksina fire ' fire, oook food 
pleasantly eaten for our progeny ' ( Ap. IV. 16. 5 ). He prays 
to the garhapatya fire with the two verses to Agni Pavamana 
(Bg. IX 66. 19-20, Tai. S. 1. 6. 6. 2), and with * O Agni Grhapatil 
I am a good house-holder &c.' (Tai. S. 1. 6. 6. 3). If he has no son 
he prays 1 *'* 'I pray for that blessing full of spiritual lustre for 
my son ( to be ) ' and if he has a son he prays ' I pray for my 
son so and so that blessing &c.' ( Tai. S. I. 6. 6. 3 ). He sits 
between the two fires inside the vedi with ' to thee (unborn 
or born son as the case may be) who art light &o.' (Ap. IV. 
16. 6 ). He places on his lap the blades of the veda ( that had 
been unloosened ) and sitting inside the vedi mutters the Ati- 
moksa mantras ' May Agni guard me against those gods that 
strike the sacrifice &o. ' ( Tai. S. III. 5. 4. 1-2 indicated in Ap. 
IV. 14. 10 ). 

He then comes to his seat, looks at the whole sacrifice 
with ' who yokes thee? Let him free thee* ( Tai. S. I. 6. 6. 3 )• 
He then discharges himself from vrata with '0 fire, lord of 
vratas, I observed vrata &o.' ( Tai. S. I. 6. 6. 3, Tai. A. IV. 41, 

2416. aw i ftuHwift <rer* svrftwflfrr&wBrnrs*: i trRrRnTwrerrd %n- 

qWTT *«Df8*Hlftl*)fS 9TRTg*S I <TI*Mi4iqMI4l|*) WSfVf <jJ71^F f^W'I'J' ST'JfffWUm^fS' 
( «njsjWi)i vide com. on Ap. IV. 16. 3. Here nf, <p$ and tffas are the 
names of the song. Vide Tai. 8. I. 6. 6. 3 ' ffWH®q*K? l% fl*r% Cp fHftwrt f t 

Ob. XXX ] Itoriapuryamasa 1085 

Vaj. S. II. 28 ). He then mutters the mantra which speaks of 
the re-performanoe of yajfia ' Yajfia hath become, it has come 

into being let him make us overlords, may we be lords of 

wealth ' ( Tai. S. I. 6. 6, 4 ). He then gets up and mutters a 
text after going out with his face to the east ' fire, the sacri- 
fice is endowed with cows May this sacrifice be rich in 

food in halls' ( Tai. S. I. 6. 6. 4 ) and a further prayer ( given 

in Ap. IV. 16. 15 ). MW Then after saying ' thou art rain a 

bow to you ' he touohes water. Then the sacrificer issues a 
direction 'the brahmanas have to be satiated ' (with dinner &c). 

Lastly the yajam&na offers final prayers by repeating 
Eg. 1. 189. 1, VII. 4. 1, VII. 10. 3, I. 189. 3, 1. 189. 2, III. 6. 1 
and winds up with ' salutation to thee once, twice, thrice, four 
times, five times, ten times, a hundred times. May there be 
salutation to thee up to a thousand times. Do not injure, may 
we be free from debts in this world, in the next world, in the 
third world; may we, free from debts, dwell in all the paths, 
those that are Devayana (lead to the gods) and those that lead 
to the pitrs.' According to Tai. S. II. 5. 3. 1 and Ap. III. 15. 1-5 
there is an additional purodasa offered to Indra Vaimrdha. 
Jai. ( IV. 3. 32-35 ) declares that this purodasa is offered only 
on the Full Moon day sacrifice and not in the New Moon sacri" 
fice. Vide Jai. X. 8. 17-19 for seventeen samidhenl verses in 
the Vaimrdha istf. 

There are differences in the procedure of darses^i as com- 
pared with that of the purnamasestf which have been noted in 
the above at the respective places. There are several modi- 
fications of the darsapurnamasa such as the Daksayana yajfia, 
the Vaimrdha, Sakamprastblya, which are omitted here for 
want of space. Jaimini (II. 3. 5-11 ) establishes that the Dak. 
sayana, Sftkamprasthlya and Samkrama yajfias are modifica- 
tions of darsapurnamasa. 

It is so called beoause balls of rioe are offered to the pitrs" 58 
in this rite. According to Jaimini IV. 4. 19-21 Pindapitryajfia 

2427. VH $f "* * TT =3 W WT3«J * *ti ^ *5nfWt it *rf**r!rc*t& 

ftlfyw ^TfTtfft i ffft^ w*i^SJTW5f*f w*f& i WIT- IV. 16. 16-16. Vide 
i wn- HI. 10. 9 for iferffr &°. 

2428. wsrrcrcvnrt v?**ar*3»w t <T5V% *rq*: fqsfffifnjf y^ i ww. 
I. 7. 1-2. ftpf* explains ' ftt»i: ftyirt VJ: ' ; W*l%* on *rrmr* says 
' fa»t« f*»*jp}* wffoft fayft ^>«ft VW fta: W fVtf^J^s'— II. 7. p. 245. 

1086 History of Dharmaiastra [ Ch. XXX 

is an independent rite and not a mere subordinate part of the 
darsa sacrifice. On the other hand several writers held that 
it was a subordinate part ( anga) of darsa e. g. Est. IV. 1, 30 
appears to be of that opinion and the paddhati on it notes that 
all bhasyakaras like Karka stick to that opinion. 8 *'* The 
pindapifcryaj3a is briefly described below. For details, vide 
Sat.' Br. II. 4. 2, Tai. Br. I. 3. 10, II. 6. 16, Asv. II. 6-7, 
fi.p. I. 7-10, Kat. IV. 1. 1-30, Sat. II. 7, Baud. III. 10-11. It is 
performed on amavasya day when the moon oannot be seen and 
its distance from the sun is the least, in the last third part of 
the day or when only the rays of the sun are visible on the tops 
of trees. mD The caru ( boiled rice ) is cooked on the daksinSgni 
and the oblation is offered in the same. In this and other ways 
a contrast is brought out between rites for gods and for Manes. 
He kindles a blade on the daksina fire and carries it to 
the south-east of that fire with the mantra ' ye rupani &c.' ( Vaj. 
S. II. 30 ). uU All actions are to be done facing the south-east 
unless otherwise specified. The darbha grass (to be employed in 
this rite) is severed at one stroke and is brought with or without 
its roots ( Ap. 1. 7. 3-4 ). Strewing round the daksinagni darbha 
grass (paristarayia) with their ends turned to the south in the case 
of those that are plaoed to the north or south he spreads 
darbhas to the north. He places to the north-east or to the 
north-west of the daksinagni singly the yajfiapatras required in 
this rite on darbha grass viz. carusthall, surpa, sphya, mortar 
and pestle, sruva, dhruva, antelope-skin, fuel-sticks cut off at 
one stroke, meksana, kamandalu, and whatever else may be 
necessary. The adhvaryu going to the south of the sakata ( the 
wooden frame on whioh the paddy is stored and which is to the 
west of the fire ) fills the carusthall ( vessel for cooking rice ) 
that is placed on the surpa with paddy to the brim and removes 
the grains ( that rise above the brim ) on to the surpa ( whioh 
overflowing grains are returned to the sakata ). The mortar is 
then plaoed on the blaok antelope-skin and the wife with her 
face to the south-east beats with the pestle the paddy grains 

2429. fagrsn wngwmp^ ^riq ■ 3. IV. 4. 19 ; &f *r *r»n*r«nTr- 

riH l wits i. IV. 1. 30 (q>ffft ' f)v«f};jtt$ft qvfyftfw Wfifarr: wW WWHT: i 
^n% *fa|nrt' ). Vide f »Wn»gWt qm I. 6-6 on the varying views. 

2430. shrift ^ %*r»rt »rc<ri5*pft wawrTmsty t f^r°int i wmv 
II. 4. 2. 8 } snmir f^g raa^tuM^ i ^ ^Sr ^ i m^K i K i bsthtt. IV. 1. 1 ; aw- 
trjrsftwrgff *r ifo r flflvjiM *xfa i «mr. I. 7. 2, S»t. II. 7. p. 248. 

2431. 2tfv. II. 6. ?, Ap. I. 8. 7 set out the whole verge ^ »qnG |. 

Oh. XXX ] Pirrfapitryajfla 1087 

taken out in the oarusthfill and removes the husks by means of 
the winnowing basket. Without trying to separate the husked 
grains from the unhusked ones the grains are washed onoe and 
cooked on the daksina fire ( in such a way that the grains of 
rice are not entirely soft ). He should draw with the sphya a 
line between the gSrhapatya and daksina fires or to the south- 
east of the latter with the words ' the asuras and evil-spirits that 
oooupy the vedi are scattered away * ( Vsj. S. II. 29 quoted in 
Sat. II. 7. p. 249 and Ip. L 7. 13 ). He should then sprinkle 
that line ( as the vedi for this rite ) with water, spread round 
it the darbha grass ( cut off with one stroke ), take clarified 
butter in the dhruva spoon, place it to the south of the 
daksin&gni, sprinkle on the mess of cooked rice clarified 
butter from the dhruva. He places to the south of the 
daksinagni, collyrium, unguents, a mat and a pillow. 
Wearing the sacred thread in the pr&olnavlta form ( accord- 
ing to Ap. I. 8. 3 and Sat. II. 7. p. 248 the adhvaryu wears 
it in the upavlta form) he offers on the fire the idhma 
(t e. fifteen fuel-sticks), takes a portion of the boiled rice 
with the mekqava, pours olarified butter over it, cuts off 
two portions of the rice on it, again sprinkles olarified butter 
over un the portions and the rice from which they are taken, 
offers into the daksina fire one ahuti ( oblation ) with the words 
' Somaya pitrmate svadha namah ', then again sprinkles clari- 
fied butter on the portion cut off and offers it with the words 
' Agnaye kavyavahanaya svadha namah '. He MM then throws 
the meksana on to the fire. Then on the line made with the sphya 
he sprinkles water thrice UH with the mantras 'Sundhantam 
pitarah, sundhantam pitfimahah, sundhantam prapifcamah&h ' 
( may the fathers, grand-fathers and great-grand-fathers wash 
themselves pure ). He offers three balls of rice on that line one 
after another with the hand turned sideways ( i. e. the pinda is 
let off on the line from the part of the palm between the thumb 

2432. In the case of this offering there is strwr, then fgx^IT, 
srBftttTT ( and Jinrfifcrrcar) as in the case of oblations to gods. 

2433. Ap. I. 8. 3-4 and Sat. II. 7. p. 248 (following Tai. Br. 
I. 3. 10) speak of three Bhutis ' tfrmr faf<nerrT w«u *ms ', ' «j«i«nf)*wr 
f^5»n| *TOt «mt ', snrv th«qimnm *WT «m: '. Sat. adds fere$tt after ajr«r- 
<mr*rr«r and states that the third Ihuti consists of the boiled grains of rioe 
stioking to the meksana. For the first and third ride Vsj. 8. II. 29. 

2434. Ap I. 8. notes that all actions from this onwards are done 
by the house-holder himself who wears bis sacred thread in the 
pracinsvita form. 

1088 Htatoru of DharmaiZstra I Oh. XXX 

and the index finger ) with appropriate mantras,