Ohio State University
HISTOR Y OF OHIO
FROM THE GLACIAL PERIOD
TO THE PRESENT TIME
I, P. LAWYER, Jr., B, S.
' Illustrated by
F, H, LAWYER
Union Publishing Co., Publishers
press of F. J. Heer
By James P. Lawyer, Jr.
MY NIECE CLAIRE
TABLB 01^ CONTENTS
The Glacial Period 10
The Mound Builders 21
The American Indian 47
Geology of Ohio 68
Gas and Petroleum 80
The Peopling of Ohio 91
Pioneer Life in Ohio 103
Early Schools and Churches 114
Ohio in the War of 1812 122'
Internal Development of Ohio 134
Trouble with Michigan 145
Underground Railroads 148
Ohio in the Civil War 157
Farm Life in Ohio . . C^. 166
Ohio's Presidents 174
Governors of Ohio 189
Congressional Districts 192
Constitution of the State of Ohio 198
Population of Cities, etc 258
County Sketches 30
Historical Miscellanies 386
IvIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
State Capitol Frontispiece
Map Showing Glaceated Area of Ohio 12
Adena Mound 20
Spear Head 27
Serpent Mound 32
Fort Ancient 35
Little Turtle 46
Gen. George Rogers Clark 90
A Pioneer Cottage 102
An Old Home • 105
The First Methodist Meeting-House in Ohio 118
Perry's Victory 130
First Locomotive and Passenger Car run in Ohio . .. 138
Flag of the State of Ohio 144
Our Jewels 156
Ulysses S. Grant 176
Rutherford Birchard Hayes 179
James A. Garfield 182
William McKinley 185
First Capitol of Ohio 188
Map Showing Congressional Districts .... Opposite page 192
IN presenting this work to the public I have
but one object in view, and that is to instilJ
in the minds of the youth a love and patri-
otism for their own great state, and to revive
within the fleeting memories of the older gener-
ations a knowledge of events which have passed.
Little originality In this work is claimed, as
the early Buckeyes found time in their busy
lives to make ample records of all important
In writing this history reference was made
to all available histories and records of the state,
and acGiiracy, and not euphony was the single
aim of the writer
J, P. Lawyer.
THE GLACIAL PERIOD
THE history of man in the territory now
comprising the State of Ohio^ begins with
the glacial period. The physical condi-
tions of the country, at that early period of the
Avorld's history, can only be learned from the
inscriptions written by the hand of nature upon
huge tables of stone. All we know of man, in
that far-away time, all we know of his appear-
ance, manners and customs we learn from a few,
but certain sentences written in rude stone im-
plements found imbedded and undisturbed in the
To understand the history of man during that
early period of his existence, it is necessary to
inquire into the physical conditions of the terri-
tory he then occupied. The whole of the north-
ern part of the continent of North America was
covered with a great sea of ice, extending as far
south, on the Atlantic coast as New Jersey, and
reaching in the middle states almost to the junc-
tion of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, and
further west approaching a point not far distant
from the Black Hills.
THE GLACIAL PERIOD. II
The moraine marking the southern boundary
of the glaciated area in Ohio enters the state as
far south as New Lisbon, in Columbiana county,
extends almost west to Canton in Stark county,
where it bears to the southwest and passes
through Millersburgh, in Holmes county, to a
point in the southern part of Ashland county,
where it makes a short turn to the south, pass-
ing through Newark, Lancaster, Chillicothe,
West Union and crosses the Ohio river into Ken-
tucky at a point not far from Maysville.
The fields of ice that invaded Ohio were
forced into that region, by the pressure of the
great ocean of ice lying to the north of the region
of the Great Lakes. Their course can be as
readily traced by the student of geology, as the
course of a rabbit in the snow, by the hunter.
A glacier always carries with it large frag-
ments of rock, and immense quantities of sand
and gravel. If the bed rock over which it passes
as softer than the boulders carried by it, grooves
will be cut in the bed rock, some large and some
Bmall, depending on the size of the boulders,
while the sand and gravel will polish the sur-
face or leave but fine traces extending always in
the direction of the larger grooves.
The best place in the state and perhaps in
the world to observe this phenomena is on the
rocky islands near Sandusky, Ohio.
MAP SHOWING GlyACIATKD ARKA OF OHIO.
Courtesy of Ohio Archceologiml and Historical Society.
THE GLACIAL PERIOD. 1 3
On Kelly's island may be seen grooves sev-
eral inches and sometimes as much, as two feet
deep, running for several rods in the same direc-
tion. The rock is a hard limestone and is well
The soil formed by the action of moving ice
is very different from that formed by the disin-
tegration of the rock in undisturbed districts.
' Rock formed by the action of water will be found
in regular layers, and the soil formed by the
disintegratioii will consist of the same elements
as the rock itself, and is usually shallow. If
sand rock is decomposed the soil will be sandy;
if limestone rock, the soil will be a limestone
The soil of a glaciated area is very different,
being much deeper and composed of material
gathered from the various kinds of rock along
the course of the approaching glacier, ground
together, and intermixed by the action of the
moving ice fields. The soil of the glaciated area
of Ohio is composed of granite taken from the
granite beds in the region of Lake Huron; of
limestone taken from the bed of Lake Erie;
shale taken from the region south of the lake,
and sandstone in the region of its deposit, as
in Holmes county, all ground together by the
mighty force of the moving ice fields, combining
r4 HISTORY OF OHIO.
in one productive deposit a compound of the
In some places, as at St. Paris, Ohio, the soil
is over 500 feet deep.
Many boulders of granite and gneiss, some
large and some small, are found in the forma-
tions of this period; and are found on high as
well as on low ground.
At Mt. Pleasant, near Lancaster, Ohio, may
be seen an angular block of gneiss, about four
feet long and eighteen inches thick, while at
about the same place at a lower altitude, may
be seen a globular boulder of granite almost six
feet in diameter. In the same vicinity, also,
may be seen a hu^e granite boulder measuring
in its two diameters sixteen and eighteen feet.
Many boulders of a smaller size and some much
larger may be seen in the glaciated area.
Boulders ranging from the size of a goose
egg to that of a man's head are quite common
in the cornfields of Ohio. Many of these boul-
ders contain nuggets of copper. In Ohio there
are no deposits, either of granite or gneiss from
which these boulders could have been taken.
Hence we conclude they were taken from the
deposits in the region of the Great Lakes.
'^ Those containing copper were brought from the
mine regions of lakes Huron and Superior.
When the ice fields made their approach in
THE GLACIAL PERIOD. 1 5
Ohio, the hills were much higher and the valleys
much deeper than they now are. The hills, as
in the vicinity of Sandusky, were worn down,
and the deep valleys, as at St. Paris, were filled
up, which accounts for the unequal depth of the
drift soil. If the reader should have visited
southern Ohio at that early period and trav-
ersed its valleys, he would have found himself
200 feet below the present water level of its
rivers, the hills rising on either side of him,
in steep rocky cliffs, resembling very much the
walls of the Susquehanna in the mountains of
The melting of the ice at the close of the
glacial period formed large volumes of running
water in the summer seasons. The rivers rising
in the glaciated area were swollen to enormous
proportions, and carried great quantities of sand
and gravel deposited by the melting ice of the
receding glacier farther to the southward, fill-
ing up the deep valleys with the rich sediment.
Thus the hand of time was slowly but surely
moulding the habitation of our present civili-
Along the shores of rivers and streams ris-
ing north of the line of the southern terminus
of the drift, will be seen deposits of gravel. The
waters receding in the falling rivers have left
terraces of gravely constituting a sort of secon(}
l6 HISTORY OF OHIO.
bottom. From Cochostoii, Ohio, the Pennsyl-
vania Eailroad Company has been transporting,
for years, large quantities of gravel, from the
gravel terraces at that place, and using it as bal-
last in the improvement of its roadbed. The
course of streams have been diverted by large
deposits of drift, sand and gravel. The author
believes that Tuscarawas river at one time flowed
from a point east of Lafayette, in Coshocton
county over the gravel beds known as Hickory
Flats, to Plainfield in the same county; thence
following the course of Wills creek from that
point to the Muskingum river. The river at the
present time flows west and unites with the Wal-
honding at Coshocton, Ohio. Near Salena, in
Athens county, the course of the Hocking river
has been materially changed, in the same way
That which was once the valley of the Hocking
river is ^now a beautiful plain, dotted over by
the earth-works of the ancient mound builders.
Not to exceed 8,000 to 10,000 years ago, when
the ice began to recede from Ohio, man entered
its borders from the south. His rude stone im-
plements have been found in the terraces in the
river valleys, in conjunction with the remains
of the mammoth and mastodon. Those rude im-
plements resemble very closely the stone imple-
ments found in the terraces at Trenton, New
Jersey. Similar implements have been found
THE GLACIAL PERIOD. I7
in like formations in France and the British
islands. His manner of living was much like
the Esquimo of the present day. He subsisted
mainly by hunting and fishing; living in the
cliffs of the rocks, along the banks of the mighty
rivers and swollen streams. While little can be
said pf him that is not speculation instead of
history, yet it is matter of history, written by
a more truthful hand, than the hand of man,
that he lived in this early period, surrounded
by wild beasts, in the territory now comprising
the State of Ohio. The mark of human genius
is unquestiorably written on his rude imple-
ments. He had implanted in him the germ of
that genius which in later years has enabled
civilized man to pluck the lightning from the
clouds, make it his obedient servant, carrying
at his command the delicate sounds of his voice
thousands of miles, and the more intricate ope-
rations of his mind all over the civilized world,
annihilating in a measure both time and space.
THE MOUND BUILDERS
IN the ancient time there lived in the territory
now comprising the State of Ohio, a race of
people known as the Mound Builders. Their
stature was about equal to that of the average
American; they were strong and vigorous, but
lithe. While most all the remains that have been
exhumed conform in size, very nearly to that of
the ordinary human skeleton, yet some have been
found that show beyond doubt, that there were
giants in those days.
Those unearthed at Oonneaut, in Ashtabula
county, where the Presbyterian church now
stands, were the remains of people of gigantic
stature; men of heroic size; men at least one-
third larger than the average man of to-day.
Some of the skulls exhumed at that place were
large enough to admit, without diflftculty, the
head of an ordinary man, in the cavity. The
bones of the trunk and limbs were proportion-
The Mound Builder clothed himself with the
skins of wild animals, and adorned his body with
strings of pearls, earrings of copper and brace-
lets of silver.
22 HISTORY OF OHIO.
From the evidence still preserved of this early
race, we must conclude, that they were very
numerous. Settlements were effected and vil-
lages built, in almost every part of the state.
Perhaps the largest city is the one located in
Hamilton county at the present site of Cincin-
nati. In Hamilton county alone the marks of
no less than 437 mounds have been observed. A
considerable village was located about four miles
from Athens in Athens county. These villages
were strangely fortified; one of the mounds in
Athens county was built from a peculiar rock
not found in that locality at the present time.
There were used in its construction more than
a thousand perches of stone. The masonry has
since been used in the construction of a dam in
the Hocking river. Other fortified cities were
built at Newark and Marietta, while unfortified
ones were numerous in almost all of the river
valleys. Examples of the unfortified cities may
be found at Coshocton in Coshocton county, and
at Conneaut in Ashtabula county.
The building of cities, extensive earthworks
and fortifications teaches that there was united
action, as such extensive works could not have
been constructed by individual action. Some
form of government existed, as such unity of
action could not have been secured without the
aid of the law. That sentiment implanted in
. THE MOUND BUILDERS. 23
the nature of civilized man, which impels him
to seek the association of his fellowman; to se-
cure the mutual aid and protection of organized
society, was deeply rooted in the hearts of these
While we cannot give the name of a single
king or chief, or describe the rise and fall of a
single dynasty, yet we know that the science of
government was not entirely unknown to them.
Indeed, their form of government must have
reached a degree of strength far in advance of
that reached by any of the known tribes of In-
dians who roamed over the ruins of their decayed
An examination of their skulls discloses the
fact that there were two distinct races, and from,
the erection of such strong fortifications it would
be inferred that there was more than one govern-
ment. They had enemies ; there were more chiefs
than one; man sought, then, as well as now, to
subdue his fellowman. Society was divided
into castes, a necessary consequence of society
itself, it being impossible, where any degree
of liberty exists, to maintain, for any consider-
able length of time, an equality among the citi-
zens naturally unequal in strength, character
The first citizens of the realm built their
homes within the walls of the city. The frame-
24 HISTORY OF OHIO.
work of these homes was made of poles planted
in circular ditches. The tops of the poles or
saplings were fastened together at the top, form-
ing a conical shaped cavity or room. The poles
were plastered with clay, making walls six or
eight inches thick. The mansions of these prim-
itive plutocrats were from thirty to forty feet
in diameter at the floor. At the present time
such rude homes would not meet with the ap-
proval of the humblest housewife; but to the
Mound Builder, living outside the city walls,
they were the palaces of kings, the homes of
daring v/arriors and learned citizens.
The common people built their homes upon
the terraces overlooking the beautiful river val-
leys. The buildings were similar in construc-
tion to those within the walls, but were built
from shrubs and branches of trees. Clusters of
these houses were built in the vicinity of the
forts to enable the occupants, on the approach
of danger, to take refuge within the walls of the
forts. When the enemy appeared the people
fled to the nearest fort, where the family re-
mained until the warriors had beaten back the
enemy. Peace being again restored, the war-
rior, accompanied by his wife and children,
would again return to his home on the river
The cooking utensils consisted mainly of pots
THE MOUND BUILDERS. 2$
of clay moulded by the artisan and hardened
by the action of fire. The food of the Mound
Builder consisted of the flesh of wild animals
taken in the chase, together with vegetables and
Indian corn grown by them in the fertile valleys.
Agricultural pursuits were followed to a lim-
ited extent; their implements were naade from
the horns of deer and elk.
In the excavations made in the vicinity of
Cincinnati, considerable quantities of parched
corn have been found mingled with the ashes in
the ash pits. Many earthen pots have been
found in various parts of the State in connection
with the remains of the Mound Builders. These
pots were used to cook the meat brought in by
the hunter. The raccoon, groundhog, wild tur-
key, owl, bear, turtle and fish were extensively
used for food. Many bones from these animals
have been found where this rude people lived.
Some of the bones show evidence of being
burned, which would indicate that they were
roasted. Other bones found have a polished ap-
pearance, indicating that they were boiled.
From the shell of the turtle a very useful
cup was made, from which the Mound Builders
drank the sparkling water. To the twentieth
century man, such a home, one without any of
the comforts of civilized life, would seem to be
hut mockery. Yet that hovel sheltered both wife
26 HISTORY OF OHIO.
and children, and to the Mound Builder, as well
as to all other people, there was no place like
If the Mound Builders had left no history
of their handiwork except that contained in the
beautifully and perfectly formed arrowheads, so
abundant in Ohio, one would be forced to con-
clude that the hand that fashioned them with
the rude implements at his command, was in-
spired by a genius, and had acquired a degree
of skill equal to that of any modern artisan.
Some of these flint arrowheads are five inches
long, two inches wide, chipped to a point, and
so thin that the light of day shines through
them. Many have been found so regularly
formed and perfectly balanced that not a single
flaw could be detected.
But the skill of the artisan was not confined
to the making of arrowheads alone. The pot-
tery manufactured also shows marks of skill.
While the earthen vessels were usually simply
cord-marked, yet some of them were more artis-
tically ornamented. A number have been found
ornamented with small medallion figures repre-
senting the human face. One pot ornamented
Avith a small medallion head placed on the side
of the vessel, so as to face the inside of the ves-
sel was found. A half dozen or more, orna-
mented with representations of the lizard, have
^AS. '/ >^i&
SPKAR HKAD. COSHOCTON COUNTY. MII,I,S COI,r,^CTION.
Co^*^*esy of Ohio Archceological and Historical Society.
28 HISTROY OF OHIO.
been found and are still preserved. The lizard
was moulded on the side, representing it in the
act of crawling into the vessel. Quite a variety
of pots have been found. On a pair of Altar
mounds located in Hamilton county, numerous
pieces of jewelry were found. On top of the
burnt clay of one of these mounds lay about two
bushels of ornaments made from copper, stone,
shell and teeth. Fifty thousand pearls were
counted and assorted from this mass.
Nearly all of these ornaments were perfor-
ated to enable the owner to string them. Sev-
eral of the copper ornaments Avere plated with
silver hammered into sheets and folded over the
nuggets of copper. Some few were plated in the
same way with gold. In one of the burying
grounds was found, on either side of the skull
of the occupant, a copper ornament, in the shape
of the half of a spool. These had been worn by
the deceased in the ears. Silver plated bracelets
were also found, and among other relics was a
very grotesque human profile carved out of a
sheet of mica.
In other mounds have been found, in a good
state of preservation, awls made from bone, hoes
made from the antlers of the deer and elk,
hammers made from stone and edge tools made
from copper. The art of tempering copper has
THE MOUND BUILDERS. 29
VVhile they were not skilled enough in sur-
gery to set a fractured limb, yet they were skilled
enough to fill their teeth. From one of the giant
skeletons found at Conneaut a well preserved
tooth was taken, which had been filled with a
metallic substance resembling silver:
Their fortifications disclose the fact that
they had a system of measurement. The square
and circle were extensively used in the construc-
tion of their earthworks.
The fiint from which their arrowheads were
made was mined from the earth. Some of their
mines were in the South while others were in
Ohio. Very extensive mines were operated near
Newark, Ohio, and less extensive ones were lo-
cated in the flint hills east of Coshocton, Ohio.
The excavations in the vicinity of Newark, the
site of their ancient city, enable one to form
some idea of their mining industries. The cop-
per used by them was taken from the excava-
tion in the Lake Superior region. At the bot-
tom of one of these excavations was found a
huge nugget of copper which gave evidence of
having been pounded with the stone hammers
found in the pit with it. The miner hammered
the copper into thin flanges which he then broke
off. To have made those extensive excavations
in that rigid climate with such tools, must have
required a degree of patience and industry not
30 HISTORY OF OHIO.
often witnessed. The miner began his pilgrim-
age to the north with the early approach of
spring. After braving the dangers and encoun-
tering the hardships of the forest, he secured his
precious metal and returned with the approach
The bow and arrow to the Mound Builder
was pe^'haps the most useful article he possessed.
With it he felled the deer and provided meat for
his family; with it he slew his enemy, and de-
fended his country.
Between the different tribes, war was waged
with much vigor. The law of "the survival of
the fittest," was perhaps the only international
law acknowledged by them. The men devoted
much of their time to warlike pursuits. To the
Mound Builder, war was the noblest calling,
and when it was waged against his nation he
fought in her defense with a stubbornness and
fortitude that would do credit to the reserve
guard of the noblest prince.
Strong forts were built, and no less than
1,500 fortifications were, constructed in this
state. There have been built in this state of all
kinds of mounds, no less than 10,000. It would
be a gross injustice to the Mound Builder if a
description of some of these mounds was not
given. Three different characters of mounds
THE MOUND BUILDERS. 3 1
prevail. They consist of signal mounds, effigy
mounds and forts.
The signal mounds are very numerous and
are built of earth on a circular base in the form
of a cone. They are so called because they are
supposed to have been used as signal stations
to notify the populace of approaching danger.
The effigy mounds represent certain animals,
and they throw some light upon the superstitions
of their builders.
The forts are inclosures built for defense in
war. In the study of these mounds, we read the
history of their builders. The study of history
begins with the earliest monuments erected by
man. It is not n ecessary, in order that we may
read and know the history of a people, that their
records be inclosed between the lids of a book.
Those historic monuments contain volumes of
history more authentic than can be written in
words. From a careful study of the monu-
ments, forts, burial places, village sites, imple-
ments and ornaments left by them, we may form
a vivid and correct conception of what we have
been pleased to term Prehistoric Times.
There are no very interesting mounds belong-
ing to the first class so far as their method of
construction is concerned. The most interest-
ing of the second class in this state, or in the
world, is the Serpent Mound in Adams county.
THE MOUND BUILDERS. 33
A rather secluded place seems to have been
chosen for the location of this mound. It is
located on Brush creek in Adams county, about
six miles south of Sinking Springs. The place
selected is a beautiful tableland about 100 feet
above the level of the creek, and presents to the
water front a rocky, precipitous face. The head
of the serpent lies to the north, approaching the
brow of the hill. In its open mouth it holds an
object resembling an egg.
By the observer standing on the wall of this
inclosure, and looking to the southwards, the
huge serpent is seen in all its sublimity and
grandeur, winding back and forth in graceful
curves across the narrow plateau. Looking up
the gentle slopes, the observer may see four regu-
lar folds before the coil in the tail is reached.
The tail tapers gracefully to a point and is
wound in three complete coils. The body of the
serpent is about five feet high and thirty feet
wide at the neck. The egg-shaped object, held
in the open mouth, measures, in its two diam-
eters, sixty and one hundred and twenty feet re-
xspectively. The whole length of the mound from
the end of the precipice to the tip of the tail, is
one thousand three hundred feet.
The serpent entered largely into the mythol-
ogy of the ancient Mexicans, and seems to have
had about the same significance with them, that
34 HISTORY OF OHIF.
it had with the ancient Egyptians, Assyrians
They, also, enter largely into the supersti-
tions of the Hindoos and Chinese. The site of
this mound, being as it is in a secluded spot,
seems to indicate that it was a place for the
observance of sacred rites. The gently rising
tableland was aptly fitted for the assembling of
the people. Here assembled this primitive peo-
ple and with the fire of religion burning in their
souls, they observed their most sacred rites.
While their religion may not have been sup-
ported by the logic of a Paul, it was laden with
a sincerity and devotion that the churches ot
to-day might well emulate.
The observer standing on the head of the
serpent can see, in the distance, although eight
miles away to the northward, fort Hill in High-
land county, one of the best and most interest-
ing forts in the state. . It is situated on the top
of a high hill, about three miles north of Sink-
ing Springs. The hill stands out alone and is
washed, on the north and west by the east fork
of Brush creek. At the top of the hill, 500 feet
above the water level in the creek, is a level,
plateau containing thirty-five acres. This pla-
teau is enclosed by a wall of stone and earth
excavated from the top of the hill. The excava-
tion, made in the interior of the mound, is about
KMBANKMKNT CROSSKD BY FENCE, NEW FORT ANCIENT, EAST SIDE.
'rtesy of Ohio ArchcEological and Historical Society »
36 HISTORY OF OHIO.
fifty feet wide. The embankment is about six
feet high and averaging in width, at the base,
about twenty-five feet. The wall of the inclos-
ure is 8,582 feet long. There are arranged at
intervals thirty -three gateways, ranging in width
from ten to fifteen feet. At eleven of these gate-
ways the interior ditch made by the excavation
in building the walls, is filled up. A stronger
position, for the construction of a fort, could
scarcely have been chosen. This fort properly
garrisoned was almost impregnable. Near this
fort the ruins of a once populous city have been
t Fort Ancient, built on a high plateau over-
looking the valley of the Little Miami, in War-
ren county, is the most extensive prehistoric for-
tification in the world. The strongest position,
that could have been found in the state, was,
chosen for the erection of this fort. Surrounded
as it is on every side by precipitous ravines it
stands isolated, and is the Gibraltar of the
The walls follow the contour of the plateau,
forming an inclosure about one mile long and
a quarter of a mile wide, narrowing in the cen-
tral- part until the walls come within two or
three hundred feet of each other. Cross bars
were built at each end of the narrow passage, di-
viding the fort into three parts, called The Old
THE MOUND BUILDERS. J7
Fort/ New Fort and Middle Fort. The distance
around the fort is three and two-thirds miles;
inclosing about one hundred and twenty-six
acres. The average size of the wall is about
twelve feet by fifty feet, and built mainly from
earth, although stone w^as extensively used in
some places. The stone used was of limestone
formation and about two feet by three feet in
size, layed up Avithout mortar.
Within the fort were two village sites; one
in the old fort and one in the new. The one in
i:he old fort shows evidence of its having been
occupied for a considerable length of time, and
covered about forty acres of ground. The one
in the ncAV was not so large and does not show
any evidence of its being used for so long a
time. On the side of the ravine running down
from the entrance leading to the old fort into
the middle fort, are many artificial terl'aces,
from fifteen to twenty feet wide. On these ter-
races are evidences of camp sites. Hundreds of
skeletons have been found in these terraces, dif-
fering widely in method of interment and form
of skull from those found within the Avails of
the fort. At the base of the Avail of the fort at
the head of this ravine, many skeletons in a re-
markably good state of preservation, Avere ex-
humed. Many fractured skulls and bones pene-
trated with flint arroAvheads, Avhich still stuck
38 HISTORY OF OHIO.
fast, were found. The warriors were, evidently,
buried where they fell.
Two forms of skulls predominate. Those
found in the fort and in the burying ground of
the city, that was located near the fort on the
plain, were round, the width of the skull being
more than two-thirds the length; while those
found in the terrace were long, the width of the
skull being less than two-thirds of the length.
There were many other forts on the hilltops,
of scarcely less importance than those described.
One was located on Spruce Hill near Hillsboro ;
one near Glenford in Perry county; another at
North Bend outlooking all the territory about
the mouth of the Great Miami river ; and others
in different parts of the state we will not take
up space in describing. In magnitude and inge-
nuity these old forts in Ohio have no prehistoric
The earthworks of the ancients were not con-
fined entirely to the tops of hills or strong posi-
tions. The mounds located at the site of Mari-
etta, are built upon an elevated plain on the
east side of the Muskingum river, about one-half
mile from its junction with the Ohio. They con-
sist of walls or embankments of earth thrown
up in such a way as to form two hollow squares.
The inclosure lying to the north, sometimes
called the town, contains forty acres. The walls
THE MOUND BUILDERS. 39
are from six to ten feet high and from twenty-
five to thirty-five feet wide at the base. There
were three gateways or entrances in each of the
sides, and an entrance at each corner. In the
southwest corner a semicircular mound, back a
little ways from the wall, guards the opening.
From the opening at the northwest corner two
parallel walls, about two hundred feet apart,
lead down from the terrace, upon which the in-
closure is built, to the river bottom. This pas-
sage-way was made by removing the earth be-
tween the two walls and piling it up on either
side. The walls are twenty feet high on the in-
side, while on the outside they are but five feet.
Two similar walls were built from the middle
opening on the west side to the base of the ter-
race. The river, at the time those passage-ways
were built, followed along the base of the ter-
race. These passage-ways, no doubt, were built
to protect the garrison on their way to and
from the river for supplies of water. Within
the inclosure are three square table mounds
which measure about eight feet in height.
. The fort lying to the south is almost square
and built in the same way as the other, except,
there is but one gateway in each of the sides of
the inclosi^re and located about the center of the
side walls. Each of the gateways in this fort
— those in the sides and those in the corners — ^
40 HISTORY OF OHIO.
are defended by circular mounds located just
inside the entrance.
A short distance south of this fort stands the
sugar-loaf mound, rising thirty feet high. It
stands on a circular base one hundred and fif-
teen feet in diameter and is surrounded by a
ditch four feet deep and fifteen feet wide, out-
side of which is a parapet four feet high with an
opening directly in front of the center gateway
in the south wall of the smaller fort.
The earthworks at Newark, Ohio, consist of
an octagon, a square and several circular and
crescent mounds, together with several parallel
walls connecting the different inclosures. The
fort is not a strong one, being built on the level
plain between the Eaccoon and South Fork
creeks. The fort, together with the walls and
mounds, covers about four square miles of the
plain between the two streams which come to-
gether at right angles. These earthworks ex-
tend about two miles up Raccoon and South
Fork creeks, making the space covered nearly
the shape of an equilateral triangle. The
Newark race course is inside of one of the circu-
lar mounds; this mound, containing thirty
acres (being large enough to enclose a half-mile
track), has but one gateAvay. The Avail of this
enclosure is higher than the walls of the other
enclosures in that vicinity, which are usually
THE MOUND BUILDERS. 4I
lowj being about six feet high. Within the in-
closure, sometimes called the old fort, is an in-
teresting efflgy mound, called the Eagle Mound,
which represents a bird on the wing.
The Octagon and Circular mounds, lying to
the west, have been purchased and reserved by
the state. These inclosures present to the eye
as beautiful a picture as one might wish to see;
built as they are upon the level plain, so true
that the eye cannot detect a single flaw, they
inspire the beholders with awe and veneration
for their builders. The Octagon consists of
eight walls of earth forming an octagon, with
an opening at each angle. Each angle is
guarded by an embankment thrown up about
thirty feet from the interior of the opening.
Two parallel embankments about one hundred
feet apart, extend perhaps three hundred feet
to the opening in the circular mound lying to
the west, connecting the two moujids by the
passage-way. Tradition tells us that a subter-
ranean passage-way, built of stone, led from this
circular inclosure to the creek now about eighty
rods distant. The Octagonal mound encloses
fifty acres and the Circular encloses twenty acres
of land. The Circular is covered with a beauti-
A class of mounds called Altar Mounds, be-
cause of the relics found upon them, which are
42 HISTORY OR OHIO.
supposed to be sacrificial offerings, are very
numerous and peculiar to Ohio. They are built
upon the surface of the ground, the site of the
mound being first- cleared of any foreign sub-
stance and well tamped or burned. An oval ex-
cavation is made in the ground, so prepared, and
plastered with mortar made from well-kneaded
clay. A hot fire was then built in the excava-
tion and kept burning until the walls became
thoroughly hardened. The ashes Avere, in some
cases, taken out of the excavation, while in oth-
ers they were allowed to remain. These mounds
often contain relics ; some only a pipe or arrow-
head; while others, as the one at Madisonville,
contain large quantities of relics. In one of
this class of mounds was found the engraved
copper plate which gives to the Mound Builders
credit for a greater degree of skill than any
relics that have yet been found. Those plates
were stamped and cut into such intricate de-
signs and figures that it seemingly would be im-
possible for them to have been made without the
aid of steel instruments or dies, but they may
have been made, and perhaps were, with delicate
instruments made of flint. In one of these
mounds near Chillicothe, Ohio, were found two
hundred pipes; in another a copper axe weigh-
ing thirty-eight pounds was found; and others
contain charred human remains.
THE MOUND BUILDERS. 43
Many of the cone-shaped mounds contain
human remains, but only a limited number were
honored by such lasting monuments. By far
the greater portion of the population were
buried in unmarked graves. In sandy or loose
earth the graves are large and about three feet
deep, while in hard or clay ground, they are
small and very shallow, not often being over a
foot deep; in most cases the earth was thrown
back upon the remains without any other cover-
ing. Many skeletons have been found in tun-
nels built from stone slabs, the sides of the tomb
being walled for a short distance from the bot-
tom, the remains laid in a horizontal position on
the bottom, between the two walls, and covered
with stone slabs ; the grave was then filled with
earth. Near the city sites, cemeteries are found.
The mode of burial is the same as in isolated
graves, except that many graves are located near
the same place, and a systematic arrangement
of the graves prevails.
There has been much speculation concerning
the Mound Builders. It is impossible, from the
historic monuments left by them, to form a con-
clusion concerning their origin or their decline.
They had no alphabet any traces of which have
been found. They had no domestic animals, and
made but little of the useful metals. They were
not much different from many of the Indian
44 HISTORY OF OHIO.
tribes, for it was a custom, with many of the
early Indian tribes, to build mounds. The his-
torian, perhaps, would be justified in saying that
the Indians are the direct offspring of this
primitive people. Their manner of living is
practically the same, their weapons the same
and many of their implements the same. There
is much in the character of both for civilized
men to admire, while he must deplore their
surroundings. They Avere patient, as can be
learned from the fact that a vast amount of time
and labor was necessary in order to perform
some of the tasks that they accomplished; they
were content with solitude, as can be readily
seen in the fact that they built their mounds
and forts in secluded places when it was pos-
sible for them to do so; they were peaceful, as
can be seen when we consider the fact that it
must have taken many, many years of incessant
labor, with the rude tools they had, to build their
earthworks or places of abode and worship.
Courtesy of Ohio ArclicEological and Historical Society.
THE AMERICAN INDIAN
WHEN Columbus discovered America in
1492 J he supposed lie had reached the
IndiaSj and that the savages with
whom he came in contact on the shore were in-
habitants of that country, so he gave them the
name of Indians. Thus by mistake were the
primitive inhabitants of the New World named.
The family of the Huron Iroquois occupied
the territory now^ comprising the State of Ohio,
and they were divided into numerous tribes. The
origin and early history of the Indians are wrap-
ped in as much obscurity, or even more, than that
of the Mound Builders. The most reasonable
conclusion that can be reached concerning their
origin is that they are the direct offspring of the
The most potent argument that has been
advanced against the unity of the Mound Build-
ers and Indians is based upon the assumption
that the Indians knew nothing concerning the
monuments left by the Mound Builders. The
erroneous assumption is the result of imperfect
and limited knowledge of the known Indian
tribes. It is very probable that the commingling
48 HISTORY OF OHIO.
of the two races of Mound Builders, after the
decline of the more peaceful nation of the south,
and their subjugation by the warlike, and rest-
less nations of the north, that a race was pro-
duced differing somewhat from either of the
older nations. It would also be reasonable to
conclude that the method of warfare practiced
by the conquerors would be substituted in a
large degree, for the methods of the conquered.
Those in the south, usually, if not always, waged
a defensive warfare, as can be seen by their
numerous defensive works. Those in the north
waged an offensive warfare, attacking their
enemy in his fortified cities, or drawing him
from them by strategy and meeting him in the
open field, or surprising him in ambush.
The abandonment of fortified positions is
what we would expect from the offspring of
two such nations. The manners and customs
of the Indian tribes are not very different from
those of the Mound Builders. Their weapons
were the same, their houses were built in the
same way, and they smoked the same pipe.
Many of the known Indian tribes, not more than
two centuries ago, built extensive earthworks.
It was quite common for them to build a wall
of earth around the wigwams, and when closely
pressed, and flight impossible, they constructed
parapets around their camps, but when over-
THE AMERICAN INDIAN. 49
powered, if flight was possible, they sought
safety by fleeing.
There was a tradition among the Delawares,
translated and reduced to writing more than a
century ago, which, while it is far from being
conclusive as to any theory, may throw some
light upon the origin of the early Indians.
The tradition is that their tribe, in migrat-
ing from the west toward the east, came to a
great river. The country beyond the river was
occupied by a people called the AUegwi or Fal-
legwi who had many towns. They gave the
Delawares permission to pass through their ter-
ritory ; but when a part of the tribe had crossed
the river, the Allegwi attacked and routed them
with great slaughter. Enraged at this treach-
ery, the Delawares formed an alliance with the
Iroquois who had in the meantime come to the
same river farther up. The combined forces
crossed and drove back the Allegwi. For many
years warfare continued with varying results,
but gradually the combined forces gained
ground. The Allegwi built large and strong
forts which they stubbornly defended, but were
sooner or later compelled to abandon. Finally
the invaders triumphed and the native tribe fled
southward, the Delawares passed on to the sea
while the Iroquois remained west of the moun-
50 HISTORY OF OHIO.
tains. It is said that the Iroquois have a simi-
The Indian had no fixed habitation. He
might, in his pursuit of game, lose his wigwam,
but he never, became lost himself. The tribes
shifted from place to place, never staying in the
same locality any considerable length of time.
Of the tribes living in Ohio,>,>the Wyandots were
the most peaceful and most highly civilized.
The Mohawks, Shawnees and Delawares were
numerous and powerful. Senecas, Onanadagos,
Oongas, Oneidas, Ohipewas, Otawas, Tuscara-
was and Potawatamies also roamed through the
forests of Ohio.
A great injustice has been done by the his-
torian, to the American Indian. The bad traits
of his character have been carefully preserved
and given prominence on account of the cruel-
ties inflicted upon the whites by the red men.
Their virtues, and they had many, are seldom
referred to, and the Indian's environment is
never considered. The provocations of Euro-
peans should be taken into account. If the early
historian had taken as great care in recording
the provocations of the whites, and the methods
employed by the various jealous European na-
tions to incite the savage to violence and cruelty,
we would find very often that the motive lay
deeply hidden in the recesses of the mindiS of
THE AMERICAN INDIAN. 5 1
some Europeans. This extreme cruelty very
frequently originated with civilized man who
was better acquainted with barbarism than the
savage himself. When the lessons of peace were
taught him by the Moravians, he was peaceful;
when taught by the French court, that he was
being robbed of his hunting ground by the Eng-
lish settlers, and made drunk by their intoxi-
cants, he became ferocious.
The Indians, uninfluenced hj any outside
causes, were usually peaceful and hospitable.
The popular conception of the character of the
Indian is based upon a few of his traits, and
they, his most ignoble ones. Pretended histories
of frontier life, novels and romances, usually
give undue prominence to his acts of cruelty and
treachery; he is pictured as a hunter, warrior
and vagabond. But few, if any, tribes, spent
their entire time in hunting, and none of them
spent any considerable time in war. It is true,
he roamed about from place to place, but he was
a nomad, not a vagabond. He possessed the
same faculties that civilized men possess, was
influenced by the same passions, and cherished
the same hopes of a future life. His only book
was nature. And from its varied pages he ab-
sorbed its beauty and its eloquence. He pre-
ferred a wigwam to a village, and the solitude of
the forest to a wigwam. Solitary and alone, he
52 HISTORY OF OHIO.
sat upon the trunk of a fallen oak and drank
the eloquence and grandeur of nature. A child
of nature instead of art, he was ruled by pas-
sions rather than by reason. He was always
hospitable and would give to strangers the last
morsel of food he possessed. As a friend, he
was loyal and faithful; as an enemy, cruel and
treacherous. To any enemy, under his code of
morals, he owed not the slightest duty. With
the suave diplomacy of a courtier, he would de-
coy his enemy from a place of safety, and when
opportunity afforded, crush his skull with a
tomahawk or pierce his heart with an arrow.
While there were tribal wars, he very seldom
engaged in general killings. War was waged to
requite tribal and personal injuries, rather than
for conquest or avarice.
Many of the tribes that occupied the terri-
tory now comprising the state of Ohio, were the
remnants of tribes that had been expelled from
the territory east of the Alleghanies by the Euro-
pean settlers. The conduct of the whites to-
wards the Indians had much to do with the con-
duct of the Indians towards the whites. The
Quakers of Pennsylvania sought and obtained
their friendship, and the Quaker garb was a
better protection against Indian hostilities than
the strongest blockhouse. But as a rule, the
whites respected neither the rights nor th^
THE AMERICAN INDIAN. 53
friendship of the Indians. The Indian was
treated as an outlaw, and a continued warfare
was kept up along the border settlements.
Many of the whites followed Indian hunting as
a profession; and hunted him without other
cause than the sanguinary ambition to excel
their contemporaries in crime in the number of
their victims. The life of an Indian was no
more respected by the border ruflftanSj than the
life of a wolf or rattlesnake.
The Indian did not understand the proprie-
tary right of the whites to the lands of his fath-
ers. He knew nothing of land titles. The
armies of the whites had killed his chieftains
and his kinsmen, and humbled his pride. He
was no longer the master of all he surveyed.
The sound of the ax and the hum of industry
had driven the game from the forests, and was
rapidly destroying the forest itself. So the In-
dian took up his journey westward, crossed the
mountains, and sojourned for a time in the for-
ests of Ohio. But he longed for the freedom of
the forest and the land of his fathers. Could it
be expected that a chief, endowed with the mas-
ter mind of a Tecumseh or the matchless elo-
vi^ir^ce of a Logan, would sit idly by unmindful
of the further encroachments of the extermin-
ators of his race? Could it be expected that the
warrior who had been accustomed to travel hun-
54 HISTORY OF OHIO.
dreds of miles to resent an injury, would not re-
spond to the call of his chieftain, and engage in
what was to him honorable warfare in defense
of his family and his hunting grounds?
When the Indian once took the warpath, he
made use of all the resources peculiar to his
manner of living and life in the forests. The
tactics of Indian warfare forbade the offering
of battle in the open field. To have tendered
battle in the open field would have been fatal
to his army and his cause. He avoided a gen-
eral engagement as long as possible. He carried
on a sort of guerrilla warfare, lay in ambush, and
awaited the approach of the enemy, or advanced
as stealthily and cautiously as if in pursuit of
a herd of deer, upon a detached portion of the
enemy in an unguarded moment, and slaugh-
tered or routed it, and returned as stealthily as
he advanced. When overpowered by superior
forces, and flight was impossible, he rarely asked
for quarter, and never gave it. He yielded to
his fate with the courage and fortitude of a
In regard to the arts, the Indian was a bar-
barian. He clothed himself in the skins of
beasts taken in the chase. The style of his cloth-
ing in summer was a simple breech-clout, but
in winter he wore a robe made from such pelts
as he might be able to obtain, fastened together
THE AMERICAN INDIAN. 55
with thongs made from the same material, and
thrown over the shoulders. He decorated his
body with fangs of rattlesnakes, eagles' claws
and scalps of neighboring; tribes, and orna-
mented himself with pieces of copper, silver and
gold. He bedecked his head with feathers taken
from the eagle and wild turkey, and in times
of war, painted his body in all manner of glow-
ing colors, in order that he might be able, as he
thought, to frighten the enemy with his hideous
and demon-like appearance.
His weapons, until supplanted by the more
effective ones of civilized man, were the bow
and arrow and tomahawk. The bow and arrow,
in the hand of the Indian, was an effective
weapon, as he could shoot the flint-pointed, fleet-
winged arrow entirely through the body of a
deer one hundred paces away; and when the
white man was his target he directed it with a
skill and precision that seldom failed to deliver
its sanguine message. In the hand to hand con-
flict, the tomahawk was no less efficient, but
more brutal. With it the savage crushed the
skull of his unfortunate victim, and as the spirit
reluctantly fled from the body it had so long in-
spired and animated, the dread instrument which
a moment before gleamed among the leaves and
flashed in the sunlight the horrors of death, per-
56 HISTORY OF OHIO.
formed its last fiendish act, and removed the
trophy of his crime from the head of the slain.
The stature of the Indian was about that of
the ordinary European. He was lithe but not
strong; his carriage was erect and graceful.
His head was strikingly square; forehead flat;
cheek-bones prominent ; eyes deep-set and black ;
skin dark brown; hair glossy black and wavy,
resembling the mane of a horse; beard scant.
The women were slightly smaller than the men,
and in youth, the emblem of symmetry and
grace. In age, they inclined to obesity. The
expression of the Indian was sinister and grave.
A smile seldom played upon his countenance.
A noble expression was seen rarely. The coun-
tenance of the orator in his address presented
the feelings and emotions he gave vent to, in
almost as striking and intelligent a manner as
the words he used. Scholars who could not un-
derstand a single word spoken, entered into the
spirit of his addresses, drawn only by the fascin-
ating expressions of his countenance.
The language of the Indian was very imper-
fect. While his thoughts were laden with elo-
quence, and his heart throbbed with a depth of
feeling unknown to the volatile passions of other
barbaric nations, yet his power to express them
What language he had was compact and full
THE AMERICAN INDIAN. 57
of meaning. With him a single word consti-
tuted a phrase or even a sentence. Bj the use
of a limited number of words, he was enabled
to express quite a variety of actions. When he
attempted to express one abstract thought, he
could only express it indefinitely by a labored
circumlocution of Avords. He had no science
and no technical language. His language was
too barren to give expression to the finer shades
of thought^ or color to his solitary dreams.
The Indian language is divided into many
dialects, which, while they bear a common rela-
tion to each other, have no connection, either in
mode of construction or similaritj'^ of words, to
any of the known Asiatic or European lan-
guages. From Avhat is known, it would seem
that the primitive inhabitants of America are
as distinct from other races of men as the fauna
or flora of the continent.
The words were monosyllables, but several
were often joined together forming one word,
to express abstract or difficult ideas. In a la-
bored effort to express an abstract idea or a diffi-
cult concrete description for which he had no
word, his words were drawn out to an inordinate
length. In this, his language resembles that of
some nomadic tribes of northern Asia. The In-
dian had no alphabet. His writing consisted of
hieroglyphics worn in the surface of the rock, or
58 HISTORY OF OHIO.
carved in the bark of trees. The study of the
Indian language does not present to the student
the interesting field that is usually found in the
study of the language of a people. The noble
thoughts and beautiful visions of the orator and
poet are not preserved in the recesses of his lan-
guage. The language itself, having taken no
form except that of the waves of air, has van-
The Indian women were husbandmen. Un-
aided by domestic animals, they prepared fields,
planted and cultivated corn. The implements
used by them were very simple and rude. In the
autumn they gathered the corn into piles, and
during the winter they made meal by pounding
it in a rude stone mortar. If the Indian's corn
was destroyed, he subsisted on meat alone. Mili-
tary expeditions were prosecuted against the
Shawnees and Miamis for the purpose of de-
stroying their villages and cornfields. The de-
struction of both submitted him to but little in-
convenience. He could build a village in a
night. Inflamed by his passion for war, the
richest heritage left him by his ancestors, he
could subsist for months upon meat alone. The
Indian woman was a slave, a mere drudge. She
was obedient and never grumbled, and strange
to say, talked but little. If the squaw was not
agreeable, the Indian discharged her and chose
THE AMERICAN INDIAN. 59
another one. The Indian was constant, and
possessed a high degree of martial virtue. Acts
of inconstancy that go unpunished by our law,
were felonies with the Indians.
The Indian rarely engaged in any kind of
sports. Their dance was not a social gathering,
but a savage ceremony of religion and war. In
their war dances, they portrayed the cruelty and
torture of savage warfare. A chief took his
place in the center of the assembly and began
beating time. The warriors rose to their feet,
one by one, until the entire assembly were en-
gaged in the ceremony. They would throw their
bodies into hideous contortions, and added to
the barbarous effect by the hideous expressions
on their countenances. Throughout the stamp-
ing and writhing they kept up a continual
whooping. In the execution of the war dance,
the Indian did not handle the one who played
the part of the captive, with much gentility. He
was fortunate if he escaped with his life. The
religious dances were grave and melancholy.
The men and women danced around the chief
or medicine man who beat time in the center of
the circle. The young men led often in the
dance, followed by the old men of the tribe, and
they in turn by the women and children. There
was no music connected with the dance. In
fact, the Indians had no musical instruments^
6o HISTORY OF OHIO.
with the exception of a kind of a drum made
from skins of animals.
In religion the Indian was superstitious and
sincere. They held to their religious creeds and
sacred rites with unswerving faith. Their re-
ligion did not impose upon them the duty of love
and gratitude that is enjoined by the religion
of civilized people. It held out to those who
obeyed its injunctions^ as promulgated by the
perverted conscience of a savage^ a future life.
He termed his future home "The Happy Hunt-
ing Ground/' and his God was the "Great
Spirit.'' They were Deists, and never wandered
into the ways of idolatry. The six nations to
this day, meet annually on their reservations
in New York, and perform their sacred rites.
It was a custom with them, when any of the
tribe became sick to isolate the patient, where,
with a nurse whose chief business was to see
that he passed to the "Happy Hunting Ground"
with dispatch, he remained until his spirit fled.
After death, his body was brought to camp, and
a funeral, at which all the members of the tribe
were welcome, was given him. . The friends of
the deceased placed tributes of food upon the
grave to nourish the spirit on its journey. Other
useful articles were often left upon the grave,
and strange to say, the Great Spirit, or some
THE AMERICAN INDIAN. 6l
prowling Indian never failed to appropriate
The Indian was intemperate in everything he
did. His passions were so strong, and his will
so comparatively weak, that his appetite and
passions held complete control over all his ac-
tions. He was intemperate in war; intemper-
ate in peace. When in company with the kin-
dred of his tribe, rather than engage in profli-
gate conversation, he lighted his pipe, and seated
upon the floor of his wigwam, mused with the
circling rings of smoke that painted visions for
his solace. He smoked to excess, weakening his
body and enfeebling his will. His excessive use
of tobacco had much to do with his peculiar for-
mation of character.
His eloquence, the depth of his emotions, in-
tellectual superiority, sedate and unsocial de-
meanor, when uninfluenced by passions, indicate
that he is the degenerate offspring of a once
noble race. Europeans, when in company with
the Indians, quickly assimilated with his char-
acter. Whites, after remaining in Indian cap-
tivity for a time, often became so attached to the
Indian character that they refused to return to
civilization. It is an easy matter for a white
man to become an Indian, but an Indian never
becomes a white man.
62 HISTORY OF OHIO.
The introduction of intoxicants among the
Indians, offered another opportunity and pre-
sented another temptation to indulge his exces-
sive appetite. In the use of intoxicants, as in
all other things, he was intemperate. It was
impossible for him to deny himself his "whisk,''
if it were in the neighborhood. His passion for
revenge, quickened by drunkenness, made him a
fiend. When under the influence of liquor, his
passions burned with an unquenchable flame.
He became a terror to all who saw him. The
amount he drank was not measured by what he
could hold, but by what he could get. He would
finish it if it occupied the remainder of his life.
No race was ever given up so completely to
drunkenness as the American Indian.
Two great families occupied the state of
Ohio. The Huron-Iroquois occupied the terri-
tory south of the lake extending almost to the
Ohio river. The Algonquin family occupied the
western part of the state and a narrow strip of
country along the Ohio river extending to the
mouth of the Muskingum. These families were
divided into numerous tribes which at different
times formed strong confederacies. Their con-
federacies, as well as their governments, rested
only upon the common consent of the warriors
and chiefs, and were composed of a people who
hated even the appearance of authority. Th^
THE AMERICAN INDIAN. '63
confederacies grew out of what they deemed their
necessities^ and as soon as their mutual necessi-
ties ceased to require united action, their con-
The confederacy consisting of the six Iro-
quois nations, namely, the Mohawks, Oneidas,
Onondagas, Tuscarawas, Cayugas and Senecas,
was the most durable. These nations were in-
habitants of New York and Pennsylvania, but
in their retreat to the west they became sojourn-
ers in the territory now comprising thq state of
Ohio, and consequently, they are a part of the
state's history. They presented the Indian
character in its best light; were social and
kind to the whites^ although they felt keenly
, the loss of their hunting grounds.
They made treaties with the whites whom
they respected more than the whites respected
them. They also assisted the whites in making
peace with the warlike nations in the west.
The Algonquins, living to the south and west
of the Iroquois, were more powerful and more
brutal. In 1763 the Algonquin tribes formed
a confederacy for the purpose of destroying the
English traders west of the Alleghanies. The
confederacy was planned and consummated by
the sagacious chief Pontiac, and was the first
Great Northwestern Confederacy. It consisted
of the Ottawa, Potawatamie, Miami, Chippewa^
64 HISTORY OF OHIO.
Wyandots^ Delawares^ Shawnees, KickapoOj
Onantanon and Pinankasliaw tribes^ and was
able to muster an army of 8,950 warriors. The
consummate skill with which Pontiac layed and
executed his plans shows him to have been the
peer, intellectually, of the leading men of his
The second confederacy, formed under the
leadership of Brandt, Avas no less formidable.
In this confederacy the Six Nations were also
joined. This confederacy was formed during
the Revolution, and was continued, after its
close, by Little Turtle. The third confederacy
was formed by the able and venerated chief,
Tecumseh, during the war of 1812.
The Indians had learned to love the French
traders, as the Jesuit missionaries had been
among them and taught them lessons of peace.
The French made no attempts to form settle-
ments among them, or to deprive them of their
lands; they simply carried on a fur trade that
was profitable to the Indians as well as to them-
selves. The French traders intermarried with
the Indians and, in a measure, became a part of
them. The ties of kindness and the mutual in-
terests between the French trader and the In-
dian warrior, cemented a friendship that had
grown up between them. The French furnished
them arms and ammunition in exchange for th^
THE AMERICAN INDIAN. 65
rich furs from the animals of the forest. The
Indian looked with a jealous eye upon the Eng-
lish settlers which were slowly moving westward
and depriving them of their hunting grounds.
They were slow to exchange the French trader
for the English exterminator.
Pontiac saw the future of his race. Saw his
people decline, and the forests of the fathers
swept aAvay by the industry of the English. He
resolved to make an effort, worthy of as great a
chief as he was, to resist the onward march of
civilization. He determined to exterminate in
a single night all the English traders that had
been presumptuous enough to enter the country
west of the Alleghany mountains. The confed-
eracy was comsummated in secrecy. The In-
dians collected at all the northwestern forts on
that fatal night on the pretense of trading.
After massacreing all the English traders in
their villages they made a simultaneous* attack
upon the forts and were in a great measure suc-
cessful. The task undertaken by Pontiac and
his warriors w^as one which God alone could ac-
complish, and to-day civilization with her grand
and solemn tread is still marching on over the
graves of this fallen race.
GEOLOGY OF OHIO
THE surface of Ohio, though more appro-
priately discussed under the head of
geography, consists of an undulating
plain with its highest elevation (1550 feet) near
Bellefontaine, in Logan county. The south-
eastern portion of the State, though badly broken
by erosion, still contains numerous ridges which
are fragments of the old plain. The relief forms
to be seen at the present day, are the result of
valleys carved out of the original plain.
The most important feature in the topogra-
phy of Ohio, is the great watershed extending
from the northeastern corner of the state to
about the middle of the western boundary. The
state is thus divided into two unequal slopes
which are drained into the Atlantic ocean. The
northern slope^ which is much the smaller, is
drained through Lake Erie and the St. Lawrence
river, while the southern is drained through the
Ohio and Mississippi rivers. The average eleva-
tion of this watershed is little more than a thou-
sand feet, being greatly reduced by three gaps
cut by the Tusqarawas, Scioto and Maumee riv-
GEOLOGY OF OHIO. 69
The canals which formerly occupied these
gapSj have in a great measure given place to the
railways, which play such an important part in
the vast commercial interests of the state. In
each river system of the state there is one main
trough which is deepened and broadened as the
stream advances, and its tributaries form count-
less valleys which in turn are fed from smaller
streams and brooks. Most of the rivers,
throughout their entire course, flow either north
or south down one of the main slopes. Occa-
sionally a smaller river will flow for a number
of miles against the main slope, causing a
crooked and sluggish stream. Examples of
these are Wills creek, which flows into the Mus-
kingum, and Connotton creek, a tributary of the
The rock series of Ohio throughout its entire
extent, are formed of stratified deposits, with
the exception of a few granite boulders in the
glacial drift, but no igneous or metamorphic
rocks are found. The surface rocks, as well as
the base, are of oceanic formation, and no evi-
dence is found that they have ever been subjected
to excessive heat. On the other hand, they show
unmistakable evidence of being ip exactly the
same condition in which they were formed. The
countless remains of animals found in the rocks
give positive evidence that they are of marine
70 HISTORY OF OHIO.
formatioii. The water in which these rocks
were formed, was no drubt a continuation of
the Gulf of Mexico, which must have extended
as far north as the Great Lakes.
When the rocks were lifted above the sea
under which they were formed, they were left in
a horizontal position with about the same eleva-
tion. No folds, or faults, are found in the un-
derlying rocks, and no pronounced anticlines or
synclines are discernable, except the Cincinnati
anticline. The time required in the formation
of these rocks must have included countless ages,
and the few thousand years of human history
would make no noticeable change in them.
The earth^s crust, within the boundaries of
Ohio, has only been penetrated to a depth of five
thousand feet, and the quartz rock, which is
known to exist deeper, has not yet been reached.
The lowest strata that has been examined, is
the Trenton limestone. It is one of the most
important formations of the continent, and ex-
tends from the New England states to the Rocky
mountains, and from Hudson Bay to the south-
ern extremity of the Alleghany mountains. In
various regions of the state it is exposed in out-
crops, and in its decaying condition forms a fer-
tile and productive soil. The Trenton limestone
varies in color from a dark blue to a light gray-
ish-blue, and is invariably covered with about
GEOLOGY OF OHIO. 7I
three hundred feet of Utica shale. Its chemical
composition in general is:
Carbonate of lime 75 to 85%
Carbonate of magnecia 1 to 5%
Alumina and oxide of iron 2 to 8%
Insoluble residue 10 to 15%
In some localities^ as at Findlay^ it is por-
ous and forms vast reservoirs which are filled
with oil and gas.
The black shale covering the Trenton lime-
stone in northern Ohio has a uniform thickness
of about three hundred feet, and contains char-
acteristic fossils showing it to be the Utica shale
of New York. In the deep wells of central and
northern Ohio, the Utica shale is ever present,
but farther south it thins rapidly, and as it ap-
proaches the Ohio valley it is entirely replaced
by the Hudson shale.
The Berea Grit, the second element in the
Waverly group, is by far the most important
strata in the geology of Ohio. Above ground it
is very valuable, being the finest building stone
in the state, and is also the finest grindstone
material in the United States. Its greatest
value, however, is below the surface where it is
a repository for vast quantities of petroleum,
salt-water and gas. It was first discovered in
Cuyahoga county near Berea, where the largest
quarries are located at present. It ranges in
"^2 HISTORY OF OHIO.
thickness from five feet to one hundred and sev-
enty feet^ and covers an area of about fifteen
thousand square miles. In central and northern
Ohio, its grain is medium in size, while in the
southern portion of the state, its grain is very
fine. It represents an old-time shore line, being
fringed with ripple-marked edges, and in some
places worm-borrowed portions are found. It
is the most important oil rock of the Macksburgh
field, and is also the gas rock of Wellsburgh and
the Ohio valley.
The Berea Grit is covered with a black shale
from fifteen to fifty feet thick, and is named
from the rock it covers. This Berea shale is
rich in fossils and bituminous substances, and
is in itself a source of petroleum on a small
scale, and contributes an invaluable guide in
The bituminous coal deposits of Ohio cover
an area of ten thousand square miles, and rank
second in the production of coal in the United
States, being surpassed by Pennsylvania alone.
In the entire southeastern portion of the state,
coal is found at a slight depth, and outcroppings
of coal are frequent. The veins are approxi-
mately horizontal and have about the same ele-
vation. The average thickness of the coal veins
is about five feet, and but little coal is mined
from veins less than three feet. The coal veins
GEOLOGY OF OHIO. 73
are usually uubroken except by valleys, but oc-
casionally, as in the southern portion of Coshoc-
tion county, a fault is found which entirely elim-
inates the coal veins.
The coal which is now being used is taken
from the following named veins: Upper Free-
port, Lower Freeport, Upper Kittanning, Lower
Kittanning, Upper Clarion, Lower Clarion, Up-
per Mercer, Lower Mercer, Quakerton and
Sharon. All of these veins belong to the bitu-
minous divisions, and are worked from a horizon-
tal entrance at the outcrop. The Upper Kit-
tanning vein is of most importance and is known
elsewhere as the Hocking Valley coal, the Nel-
sonville coal, the Coshocton coal, etc. The Up-
per Freeport vein ranks second in value and is
mined on a large scale at Cambridge, Dell Roy,
Salineville and many other places. The Sharon
coal is the purest, and is used as a standard of
comparison for all the open burning coals of the
Alleghany fields. Both the Upper Kittanning
and the Sharon are used in their raw condition
for the manufacture of iron.
In the remaining divisions of the coal, there
are perhaps ten veins which are, in some places,
of workable thickness.
Only one of these, the Pittsburgh vein, is of
much importance. It is especially valuable in
the manufacture of gas and the production of
74 HISTORY OF OHIO.
steam. Its northern outcrop passes through
nine counties and its approximate length is
nearly two hundred miles, underlying an area
of more than three thousand square miles. It
has only been tested, however, in a small part
of the above area. Coking coals of the first
grade are not found in Ohio, and its best coals
are used for open burning.
The Ohio coal fields are also rich in iron ore
and fire clay. The quality of the iron from the
Hanging Eock district, is not surpassed by any,
and is used for the manufacture of car wheels
and machine castings. The Blackband ore vein
of Tuscarawas, and other counties, reaches a
maximum thickness of twenty feet, and is per-
haps the richest vein in the state. Other veins
are worked in different parts of the state, and
the production of iron is an important industry.
The clays of the coal region are a very valu-
able deposit from which fire bricks, sewer pipes,
paving bricks, earthenware and numerous other
articles are manufactured. Ohio stands far m
advance of any other state in the Union in the
manufacture of articles made from clays.
How was coal formed? This is a question
many have asked, and in earlier times but few
could answer. With the advancement of sci-
ence, the ansAver has come as true as the fact
that coal itself exists. The coal formation in
GEOLOGY OF OHIO. 75
Ohio was in no way different from that formed
elsewhere, and the following discussion will be
a general one.
The formation of the coal now used, began
long before man's appearance, and many mil-
lions of years elapsed during its formation.
The. earthquakes and volcanoes which so vio-
lently jar the earth at the present day, are al-
most as nothing compared with the disturbances
which took place in the remote past, when the
newly formed unstable earth was more suscept-
ible to both external and internal forces. At
the beginning of the Carboniferous Age, the
tremors incident to the upthrow of a new belt
of land, had strewn the submerged continental
slope with the fertile ruins of older lands. Over
all this breadth of bog and marsh sprang up
vegetable growth, trees and herbs, ferns and
rushes. This luxuriant vegetation was sus-
tained by the carbonic acid of the atmosphere
which was greatly in excess of the oxygen. It
made the air irrespirable and no terrestrial ani-
mal could live. But terrestrial animals were
to constitute the next step of progress. The
highest type of aquatic animals had been reached
and nature paused for the purification of the air
for the next class.
The power which had called matter and force
into existence, could have made other disposi-
/O HISTORY OF OHIO.
tion of this difficulty. The carbonic acid could
have been combined with lime and fixed in the
limestones. It could have been banished from
the earth. But carbon is precious, being the
basis of all combustion. It blazes and warms
in coal, petroleum, peat and gas. Though the
age then passing had no use for it, its preserva-
tion was necessary for the future. Man was yet
far off, but was anticipated and involved in the
plans of the world. So vegetation was chosen
to do the work and preserve the material. This
explains the presence of the coal-making trees
at the beginning of the Carboniferous Age.
Unlimited supplies of nutriment pervaded
the atmosphere. The marshes exhaled abundant
moisture, while the earth, in its comparative new-
ness, retained the warmth to stimulate the
growth. So tree-fern and herbaceous fern, sea-
weed and grasses, began work. Atom by atom,
they selected the carbon from the atmosphere
and fixed it in their tissues. Every bud, stem
and root treasured up the fuel. Generations of
plants succeeding each other fell prostrate at
last, and added their substance to the growing
bed of peat. Standing water, in which the vege-
tation grew, protected the peat from decomposi-
tion. But this vegetable kingdoiji was not to
continue longer. Some stay of the long pressed
crust of the earth, gave way under the accumu-
GEOLOGY OF OHIO. Tj
lated strain, and the ocean rolled forward,
freighted with mud and sand which was spread
over the entire vast peat-bed. Thick layers of
clay and sand shut up from the atmosphere the
expanse of peaty matter which was to consoli-
date and form coal.
The reign of the ocean was only temporary,
and but few centuries elapsed before another
change took place. Again occurred a collapse
of some stay or support of the earth's crust. The
ocean receded, leaving the sea-bottom again ex-
posed to the sunlight. Soon another scene of
verdure was spread where the waves of the ocean
had so lately tossed. The forests again resumed
their work of selecting and storing the impuri-
ties of the atmosphere, and soon some advent-
urous and hardy types of air-breathing animals
had made their appearance.
Along the shores of the ocean were exposed
headlands from which the older coal formations
protruded. Here the waves pounded up beds of
sandstone, shale and coal. The sands were de-
posited along the seashore. The finer and
lighter materials were floated away to a quiet
retreat in bays and inlets. In a later age, this
deposit of coal and clay and particles of decayed
wood, became beds of cannel coal.
The land continued to oscillate as long as
the atmosphere remained impure. Time after
78 HISTORY OF OHIO.
timej the forest resumed its work, and bed after
bed of peat was stored away beneath ocean sedi-
ments to await the end. When the work had
been accomplished, the forces which had endured
the enormous strain that had been accumulat-
ing under the prolonged contraction of the in-
terior, yielded with a collapse which shook the
entire hemisphere. Massive folds of the huge
crust uprose far above the cloud*. This was
the birth of the Appalachian mountains, and the
end of the long Paleozoic Age. Only the bases
of those folds remain to-day; but they stand as
monuments to the age whose death prepared the
world for man and civilization.
GAS AND PETROLEUM
CONTRARY to a general belief, petroleum
and natural gas are widely distributed.
The drill can scarcely descend for even a
few hundred feet in any part of Ohio without
giving evidence of the presence of one or both of
them. In the three predominant series of rock^,
viz. : sandstone, shale ^nd limestone, petroleum
is found in varying quantities. The Ohio shale
throughout, is petroliferous, and while the per-
cent is small, the aggregate is very large. Prof.
Lord, of the State Survey, found but two-tenths
of one per cent, of petroleum present in this
shale, but some was lost in the process employed.
Estimating the petroleum at two-tenths of
one per cent., the amount contained in each
square mile of the Ohio shale is three million one
hundred and twenty thousand barrels; a larger
amount than was ever obtained from any square
mile in the Pennsylvania fields. The Lower Hel-
derberg limestone contains approximately, the
same amount. While all pervious rocks con-
tain traces of petroleum, sandstones seem best
adapted for its subterranean reservoirs.
We will now give some of the scientific facts
GAS AND PETROLEUM. 8l
governing the formation and accumulation of
First. Oil is produced by a chemical change,
or a spontaneous disintegration of the substances
which formed a part of the oceanic deposits.
Second. Being composed of carbon, hydro-
gen and oxygen, it must be of organic origin,
either animal or vegetable.
Third. As it is lighter than water, it must
rise through the water which saturates all rocks.
Thus the origin of oil can in no case be at a
higher level than where the oil is deposited.
Fourth. A "surface show" of oil is unfavor-
able as it forebodes leakage; while the accumu-
lation of oil is accomplished by an impervious
strata above the reservoir, preventing the "sur-
Fifth. Petroleum is contemporaneous with
the rocks that contain it. It was formed about
the time that those rocks were deposited.
Sixth. The situation of the creeks, hills or
valleys has no bearing on the distribution of
petroleum, hundreds of feet below.
Observation and experience have established
the fact that the porous strata in which oil ac-
cumulates must h^.ve an arched or anticlinal
form. The anticline prevents the oil from
spreading indefinitely, and causes local accumu-
lations or ^^pocket^." Where no anticline oc'
82 HISTORY OF OHIO.
curs, oil frequently flows along the strata until
it reaches an outcrop where it is wasted.
It has been observed that all great oil reser-
voirs have below them — not always immediately
below — a formation of black bituminous shale.
This shale is a very soft substance containing
much vegetable matter, supposed to be the re-
mains of beds of seaweeds.
Perhaps a majority of geologists believe that
petroleum is produced from these shales by
chemical decomposition, or spontaneous disinte-
gration. By means of artificial appliances, oil
is readily obtained from them at the present
time. While experience teaches that black
shales are oil-producing, it also shows that pure
vegetable deposits are non-productive ; and while
the coal deposits are non-productive, the cannel
coal and coal shale are very productive.
Three things then, are all-important in the
production and accumulation of petroleum.
First and lowest, a petroliferous stratum, the
source of the oil. Second and above it, a porous
stratum containing an anticline, the reservoir.
Third and just above the reservoir, an impervi-
ous stratum, the cover of the reservoir.
Salt-water and gas are almost invariably as-
sociated with oil. If the drill penetrates the
highest portion of an oil reservoir, gas at first
escapes, but when it is exhausted^ oil may be
GAS AND PETROLEUM. 83
produced, and when the oil is exhausted, water
follows. If the drill enters below the surface
of the oil, the reaction of the gas forces the oil
to the surface and a ^^gusher" is the result.
When the oil is lowered to the opening the gas
escapes until the pressure is relieved. Then,
if any oil remains, it may be pumped. If
the drill enters the reservoir below the surface
of the water, the gas pressure will force the
water out, until the bottom of the oil is on 'a
level with the opening, when the oil is iu turn
forced out until its surface is below the open-
ing, when the gas finally escapes.
But two great oil fields are as yet developed
in Ohio. One being in the eastern part of the
state and the other in the northern portion. The
former is no doubt a continuation of the Penn-
sylvania fields, while the latter "^ is not contigu-
ous to any other known field.
The oil fields in and around Wood county
are, perhaps, the most marked of any in the
state. The development of this field was com-
menced in 1886 and marvellous results, in both
oil and gas, were soon obtained. In December
of 1886, the first great gusher in this field was
struck. Oil shot more than a hundred feet into
the air, and flooded the surrounding country be-
fore it could be confined. Its supply was a hun-
dred barrels per hour. The next important well
84 HISTORY OF OHIO.
was the "Eoyce Gusher" which produced two
hundred and forty barrels in fifty minutes.
Many other valuable wells were soon drilled.
Local companies, in almost every part of the
state, are prospecting for oil with various de-
grees of success. In the autumn of 1903 a local
company operating in ^he vicinity of Otsego,
Muskingum county, discovered a supply of both
oil and gas in paying quantities, though as yet,
no vast reservoir has been found in that locality.
So interse and exciting is the search for oil and
gas, that the most secluded regions will soon be
invaded and the deepest "pockets'' and pools will
be penetrated to add their might to the vast
accumulations which are continuously being
shipped to the great refineries or piped to the
cities and towns to be used in making light and
Natural gas is a complex mixture of hydro-
carbons, differing materially from artificial gas.
Gas, like oil, is formed from organic matter and
is but one stage nearer an inorganic compound.
It is principally the carbon, in another form,
which nature so zealously guards. Carbon is
retained in various forms. In coal it is a solid ;
in petroleum a liquid and in gas, it is gaseous.
The chemical composition of gas varies some in
different localities, but it is usually about 70^
carbon, the remaining 30^ being principally hy-^
GAS AND PETROLEUM. 85
drogen and oxygen. Gas is always present in
oil fields and has occasionally been found beyond
the limits of any known oil territory.
Gas, as the source of ^^burning springs/' has
been known for more than a century^ but not
until the last half century has it been put to a
practical use. During the great oil excitement
from 1860 to 1870, many of the borings for oil
reached only gas. In Knox county, in 1860, two
wells were sunk for oil ; in both, streams of salt-
water were reached, and at about six hundred
feet an immense gas reservoir was struck. The
gas ejected the drill and much salt-water with
great violence. The former of these wells was
sunk in the winter season, and the water freez-
ing on the derrick, formed a crystal tower sixty
feet high. Through this tower the water was
thrown, at intervals of about one minute, to a
height of a hundred and twenty feet. An arti-
ficial geyser, in which gas took the place of
steam, was the result. The escaping gas was
frequently ignited and the effect, especially at
night, of this fountain of fire and water, shoot-
ing up to an enormous height, through a great
transparent and illuminated tower, is said to
have been indescribably magnificent.
The development of manufacturing indus-
tries, incident to the discovery of gas, is some-
thing marvellous. It is well illustrated by the
86 ' HISTORY OF OHIO.
change produced at Findlay after the discovery
The people of Findlay saw indications of gas
for half a century without suspecting the great
reservoir underlying them. At last, through the
efforts of a German physician, Dr. Osterlen, a
stock company was organized, and drilling was
commenced. The first well was a successful one,
and when the gas gushed forth with a panting
roar, and shot a column of flame sixty feet into
the air, people were alarmed for a time.
The great Krag well at Findlay was com-
pleted January 20, 1886, by a boring of one thou-
sand one hundred and forty-four feet. The gas
was conducted forty-eight feet above the sur-
face, in a six-inch pipe, and when lighted the
flame rose twenty or thirty feet above the pipe.
With a short pipe, the flame ascended to the
height of sixty feet. The gas leaves the well
with a pressure of four hundred pounds to the
square inch. The daily capacity at first was
between fifteen and twenty million cubic feet.
The sound of escaping gas, under extraordinary
conditions, has been heard fifteen miles away,
and on a dark night the light, reflected by the
clouds, has been discerned for over fifty miles.
Prof. G. F. Wright who visited the well in
February, 1886, wrote : "Although the snow had
covered the ground to a depth of several inches,
GAS AND PETROLEUM. 87
in every direction for a distance of two hundred
yards, the heat of the flame had melted the snow,
and the grass and weeds had grown two or three
inches. The crickets also seemed to have mis-
taken the season of the year, for they were en-
livening the night with their cheerful song. The
vicinity of the well seemed also a paradise for
tramps who were lounging about in a most con-
The daily amount of heat from this single
well is said to equal the amount furnished by
the burning of a thousand bushels of soft coal.
Other wells were soon sunk, and in a short time,
forty wells were pouring forth the sum total of
one hundred million cubic feet of gas daily; an
equal amount in heating capacity to five hun-
dred thousand tons of coal.
With the fame of the Findlay gas fields, came
manufacturing establishments giving employ-
ment to hundreds of laborers. And from an un-
known village, Findlay sprang in one year, to
a city of fifteen thousand inhabitants. * The sur-
rounding farm lands were sold at enormous
prices, and one agent is reported to have sold
the same farm ten times.
GE:n. GKORGE ROGJ^RS CI.ARK.
From a likeness in Howe's Historical Collections of Ohio, Vol. I,
page 386. Original portrait in lyouisville, Ky.
Courtesy of Ohio ArchcEologicol and Historical Society,
THE PEOPLING OF OHIO
IN July, 1787, an ordinance was passed by
Congress, providing a government for the
Northwest Territory. This territory con-
sisted of the land lying north of the Ohio river,
east of the Mississippi river and west of the Alle-
ghany mountains, and was inhabited only by the
The ordinance provided that the United
States should retain the right to appoint a gov-
ernor, a secretary, and three judges for the ter-
ritory. Accordingly, in the following October,
Congress appointed General Arthur St. Clair, of
Pennsylvania, governor; Winthrop Sargent, of
Massachusetts, secretary; and Samuel H. Par-
sons, of Connecticut, James M.Varnum, of Rhode
Island, and John C. Symms, also of Rhode
Island, judges. In the following spring, when
the streams were free from ice and the roads pas-
sable, these men proceeded to the new country
to establish a permanent government.
^^FoR THE Ohio at the Muskingum^^ was
printed on the cover of a wagon bearing the van-
guard of the Ohio Company colony. They pur-
sued their way across Pennsylvania along the
92 HISTORY OF OHIO.
old Braddock road until they reached the Youg-
hiogheny river which was found still frozen.
Here a long delay was occasioned but in April
the colony again advanced down the river in
boats and canoes. After a perilous journey of
more than a week the company landed at the
mouth of the Muskingum and viewed for the first
time the site of their new homes — an unbroken
The work of clearing the land was at once
begun, and more than a hundred acres of corn
were planted. By fall, many huts had been
built and a part of the country had been sur-
veyed into town lots. The plan for the town had
been made in Massachusetts and was strictly ad-
hered to. Large parks and broad streets were
numerous and to them were given Greek and
Latin names in accordance with their classic
plan. After a heated discussion the town was
named in honor of the French queen, Marie An-
toinette, and was finally shortened to Marietta.
On July 26, 1788, by proclamation of Governor
St. Olair, the surrounding country was formed
into the ^^county'' of Washington. Its original
boundaries were as follows : Beginning on the
bank of the Ohio river, where the western bound-
ary of Pennsylvania crosses it, and running
with that line to Lake Erie; thence along the
shore of said lake to the mouth of the Ouya-
THE PEOPLING OF OHIO. 93
hoga river ; thence up the said river to the port-
age between it and the Tuscarawas branch of
the Muskingum ; thence down this branch to the
forks at the crossing place above Fort Laurens ;
thence with a line to be drawn westerly to the
portage of the branch of the Big Miami^ on
which the fort stood that was taken by the
French in 1752, until it meets the road from the
lower Shawnese town to the Sandusky; thence
south to the Scioto river ; thence down that river
to its mouthj and thence up the Ohio river to
the place of beginning. This area comprised
more than half of what is now the state of Ohio,
and is at present supporting a population of
over two millions.
Fascinating stories of this wonderful country
soQn found their way "back east/' and started
numerous parties of emigrants to the Ohio. Ow-
ing to natural obstacles, such as swamps and
mountains, the people found it most convenient
to enter this country by way of the Ohio river.
Thus, those from the New England states were
joined by those from Virginia and the Carolinas.
Soon settlements began to spring up along all
the rivers, and in the year 1796 General Moses
Cleaveland led a body of surveyors to the shore
of Lake Erie, where a town was layed out and
a settlement made bearing the GeneraPs name.
The "Girdled Eoad" was soon constructed from
94 HISTORY OF OHIO.
Pennsylvania to Cleveland and a tide of emi-
gration followed. The northern portion of the
county was settled almost exclusively by New
Englanders and Pennsylvanians.
A spirit of speculation soon took possession
of the people. The Ohio Company, owning four
millions of acres, sent an agent, Joel Barlow,
the Eevolutionary poet, to France, where he or-
ganized the Society of the Siota, to which he
sold three million acres of the land. Accord-
ing to the contract, the Ohio Company was. to
erect houses, on the land opposite the mouth of
the Great Kanawha, to accommodate at least one
Early in 1790 a band of workmen arrived
from New England, cleared a patch of ground
and erected a number of huts and blockhouses.
Meanwhile six hundred French emigrants had
landed at Alexandria, Virginia, but missed the
agent who had been sent out to meet them.
After securing guides and making a perilous
passage over the mountains, they at last reached
their settlement and named it Gallipolis. Vine-
yards were soon planted and farming on a small
scale was commenced. Soon after their arrival,
letters were published in France, supposed to
have been written by the French emigrants, de-
scribing their enchanting surroundings and pros-
perous condition. Advertising pamphlets were
THE PEOPLING OF OHIO. 95
also issued and soon other French colonists be-
gan to arrive. These colonists were all unfitted
for frontier life. Some of the men were killed
in cutting timber; others by eating poisonous
fruits; and still others by the Indians. Many,
however, survived and the French names, so
numerous in southern Ohio to-day, belong to the
direct descendants of these colonists.
Under the protection of the United States,
the peopling of this territory was so rapid that
only fifteen years had elapsed until the easter:]^
portion was ready for statehood. Accordingly,
in 1802, the inhabitants of the eastern part peti-
tioned Congress, and were granted an enabling
act, authorizing the people to frame a state con-
stitution. The constitutional convention .was
convened at Chillicothe, and their reports
showed a thriving population of forty-five thou-
sand inhabitants. The new* constitution was
duly framed and in 1803 was ratified by Con-
gress. On March 1st, 1803, the first General
Assembly of Ohio met at Chillicothe, and en-
acted a number of laws, necessary for the new
order of affairs. Eight new counties were cre-
ated, and many public improvements were com-
menced. Public roads were to be built with the
income derived from the sale of public lands,
and public schools were to be supported in a
96 HISTORY OF OHIO.
like manner; section 16 in each townsJiip being
granted to the inhabitants for school purposes.
With the admission of Ohio to the Union,
came a great increase in the tide of immigration.
The same route was followed that had been es-
tablished by the first settlers. The Virginians
and Carolinians crossed the mountains and
came up through Kentucky and Tennessee, while
those from the north came through Pennsylvania
and down the Ohio. Pittsburgh soon became a
thriving city, and was known as the gateway to
the west. Here could be found hundreds of
families with their household goods, awaiting
the completion of the boat which was to carry
them down the river, or fondly hoping for rain
which would enable them to float their completed
Ever present with these emigrants was the
Yankee peddler, with his nasal twang and his
eyes sparkling with the chance of gain. His
wonderful ingenuity soon enabled him to sell
large quantities of pit coal indigo, and wooden
nutmegs, as well as tinware, Dutch ovens and
wooden clocks, all of which, he proved, were ab-
solute necessities in the new country.
The most common means of transportation
on the Ohio, was the family boat or ark. It
consisted of a rude hut built on a flat bottom
from sixty to one hundred feet long and about
THE PEOPLING OF OHIO. 97
fifteen feet wide. From the roof projected two
or more long poles used in guiding the boat
which floated with the current. The family
lived in the hut^ and when their destination was
reached, it was transferred to the land, and the
floating home thus became a permanent one. In
some seasons more than a thousand of these
floating homes were seen to pass Marietta.
The wealthier emigrants, impatient with
these slow rafts, traveled on swift "keel" boats
propelled by oarsmen seated in the bow. These
boats had decks from six to eight feet high, and
afforded comfortable quarters inside for travel-
ers. In 1794 two of these keel-boats made regu-
lar trips from Pittsburgh to Cincinnati, in tlie
wonderfully short time of a month. These boats
were proof against the savages, as they carried
both cannon and small arms, and often went a
hundred or more miles in twenty-four hours.
The boatmen Avere a wild, reckless dare-devil
set, the terror of river towns and yet the life
and joy of the emigrant parties. They were also
lawless and had no fixed habitation. They often
boasted that they were not born of woman, but
were "half hoss and half alligator.^' Their
career was a checkered one. Where the river
was smooth and straight, and the weather pleas-
ant, they had a life of ease; but often in the
roaring rapids, drenched with chilling rains,
gS HISTORY OX^ OHIO.
they labored arduously amidst the greatest of
perils. At night they often spent the hours
singing and dancing. Their songs often shoAved
the sentimental part of their rough natures.
"It's Oh as I was walking out,
One morning in July,
I met a maid, who axed my trade,
Says I, I'll tell you presently;
Miss, I'll tell you presently."
' The songs of the boatmen had a romantic
counter-sound in the horns which were blown
almost incessantly at night, especially in foggy
Aveather, and when approaching bends in the
river. A poet of that time refers to the boat
horn in a poem, one stanza of which is as
"O ! boatman, wind that horn again.
For never did the listening air
Upon it's lambent bosom bear.
So wild, so soft, so sweet a strain."
The boatmen as well as the emigrants de-
pended entirely upon their rifles for fresh meat
on the way down the river. They scorned the
shotgun, and an old adage run, "Luck's like a
shotgun, mighty uncertain.'^ Flour was ob-
tained from floating mills along the river.
These mills were always found where the cur-
rent was swift. A barge, containing the mill-
stones, was anchored to the shore. Farther out
in the stream a small boat was placed and be-
THE PEOPLING OF OHIO. 99
tween the tAvo was a shaft bearing the water-
wheel. From the barge end of the shaft, a belt
extended to the burrs, and the mill was ready
The most dangerous portion of the journey,
however, was in crossing the mountains. The
roads were ungraded and bridges few and poorly
constructed. Many declared the mountains a
barrier almost as impassable as the grave, and
few indeed cared to cross them the second time.
Home ties in the east were thus completely sev-
ered, and an urgent demand was soon made for
better roads. The state funds were found to be
inadequate for extensive road building, and fin-
ally Congress was petitioned for aid. The state
paid to the national treasury, five per cent, of
the income derived from the sale of public lands,
and from this income Congress, in 1806, ordered
a highway surveyed from the headwaters of some
Atlantic stream to the Ohio river. The route
selected began at Cumberland, Maryland, and
coincides to a great extent with the old Braddock
Eoad. As the population increased it was ex-
tended farther westward, and before the time of
roalroads, it was the greatest commercial route
on the western continent.
A PIONKER COTTAGK.
Courtesy of Ohio ArchcBOlogical and Historical Society.
PIONEER LIFE IN OHIO
NCE beyond the mountains, and free from
the excitement incident to travel, the
emigrant found abundant proof that
he was indeed in a new country. An unbroken
forest, the home of wild animals, serpents and
savages, marked the view line of his horizon. To
remove the forests, kill the wild animals, drive
away the Indians and transform this wilderness
into a paradise, was the task set before them.
His first home, if such it may be called, was
often little superior to that of the wild animals,
and usually consisted of bark from the wild
cucumber trees, laid across poles. This first
home, in a very few days, gave place to the cabin
which was usually about twenty feet square, to
which was often added a "lean to," or shed
kitchen. Upon the marriage of a member of the
family, another cabin was built a few feet away
and facing its front. The intervening space was
covered with split boards and a double cabin
was the result. A single log cabin could be built
for about one hundred and fifty dollars and a
double one for about a hundred dollars more.
The furniture for these new homes was very
'104 HISTORY OF OHIO.
rude and simple^ being made almost exclusively
by unskilled mechanics, from the surrounding
forests. The tables and chairs were made of
split slabs, and the beds were made by placing
forked sticks in the floor at the proper places
and running poles in two directions to the walls.
Bed-springs were made of clapboards. A huge
fireplace was made of sticks or stones, and plas-
tered with mud, and the new home was ready for
Stock raising in Ohio was at once commenced
on a small scale. Horses were scarce and sold
for sixty to one hundred dollars. /Hogs, cattle
and sheep were were more numerous. The stock
were marked by clipping the ear, and were al-
lowed to run at large in the forests after bells
had been securely fastened around their necks.
Corn and garden vegetables were the chief
farm products, but later wheat, oats, buckwheat
and tobacco were grown. The wild game fur-
nished an ample supply of fresh meat. Beef
sold at four cents a pound, and deer meat at
three cents. Mutton was not eaten on account
of the scarcity of wool for clothing. Sheep had
to be penned at night to protect them from the
wolves* Squirrels were numerous and often
very seriously damaged the farmers' crops.
Large hunting parties were frequently formed,
and in Franklin county, in a single day, 19,660
I06 HISTORY OF OHIO.
squirrels were killed in a eombined or circular
The work of clearing the forests was slow
and tedious. Vast quantities of the most valu-
able timber was burned as the most convenient
manner of disposing of it. Farm machinery
was unknown. Metal plows were unheard of
and wooden ones were very scarce. Grubbing
hoes and mattocks were almost the only farm
implements in use. The grain was harvested by
the sickle and threshed with the flail or tramped
out by horses or cattle. Large branches of trees
dragged over the ground were substitutes for
harrows and drags. In a remarkably short time
the little "clearings" around the cabins were en-
larged into broad and fertile fields capable of
supporting a dense population.
Indian outbreaks and massacres were of fre-
quent occurrence. It was no unusual thing for
a settler to be captured and carried away by the
Indians while attending his crops or clearing the
forests. Illustrative of these atrocities is the
capture and escape of Doctor John Knight, the
details of which are as follows:
After the burning of Colonel Crawford, his
brother-in-law, Knight, was painted black, and
the next morning put in charge of an Indian
named Tutelu, a rough looking fellow, to be
taken to Wakatomika for execution. Early in
PIONEER LIFE IN OHIO. IO7
the morning they started for the town which the
Indian said was less than forty miles away. Tu-
telu was on a horse and drove Knight before
him. The latter pretended to be ignorant of the
fate awaiting him^ although Simon Girty, the
famous renegade, had told him that he was to
be burned at the stake. Affecting as cheerful a
countenance as possible, Knight asked the sav-
age if they were not to live together in one wig-
wam as brothers when they should reach the
town. Tutelu seemed well pleased and an-
swered "yes.'' He then asked Knight if he could
make a wigwam, and was answered in the afflma-
tive. Tutelu then seemed more friendly. They
traveled, as ne:rr as Knight could judge, the first
day about twenty-five miles. Knight was then
informed that tliey would reach Wakatomika the
next day a little before noon.
In the evening a fire was built and after
Knight Avas securely bound they lay down to
sleep. Knight frequently tried to untie him-
self, but the Indian was very watchful and
scarcely closed his eyes^ so that he did not suc-
ceed. At daybreak they got up and Tutelu un-
tied him and began to mend the fire. As the
mosquitoes were very troublesome, Knight
cisked permission to build another fire behind
the Indian. His request being granted. Knight
took the end of a dogwood stick about eighteen
I08 HISTORY OF OHIO.
inches long, and with a shorter one got a coal
of fire and stepped behind the Indian. The
stick was too short for the purpose he had in
viewj but it was perhaps his last and only
chance. He quickly struck the Indian over the
head with all his force and nearly succeeded in
killing him. He was so badly stunned that he
fell forward with both hands in the fire. How-
ever, he soon recovered from this position, and
sprang to his feet and ran howling into the
woods. Knight seized the Indian's gun, but in
trying to shoot quickly, he put forth too much
strength, and broke the lock. After chasing
the Indian about in the woods Knight returned
to the fire and made hurried arrangements for
his homeward flight. He took the Indian's blan-
ket, gun, powder-horn, bullet-bag, and a pair of
new moccasins, and started in a direction a little
north of east.
About half an hour before sunset he came to
Sandusky Plains where he lay down in a thicket
until after dark. He then continued his journey
through what is now Marion, Morrow, Richland
and Ashland counties and on the evening of the
twentieth day after his escape came to the mouth
of Beaver creek at the Ohio and was then among
friends. During this entire journey he sub-
sisted on wild fruits and small game which were
abundant in the forests.
PIONEER LIFE IN OHIO. IO9
Another source of danger to the pioneer, was
the fierce wild animals which roamed through
the forests. Frequently while hunting, men
would be attacked by bears or panthers, and were
fortunate to escape unharmed, or even with their
lives. The following experience was related by
Captain John Minter, an early settler at Ran-
dor. In his younger days. Captain Minter was
a noted hunter, and he became famous, from a
terrible bear fight in which he came very nearly
losing his life.
While hunting alone one day he found a very
large bear, and shot it. The bear fell, and after
reloading his gun, Minter went forward, suppos-
ing the bear to be dead. He touched the bear's
nose with the muzzle of his gun, and to his sur-
prise, it instantly reared upon its hind legs ready
to seize him. Minter fired again but inflicted
only a flesh wound which only increased the
bear's fury. As it sprang forward to grasp him,
he struck it over the head with his gun which
was mashed to pieces. Too late then for escape,
he drew his hunting knife and made a plunge
for its heart. The bear, with one stroke of its
paw, sent the knife whirling in the air, and en-
folding its weaponless owner in his powerful
arms, both fell to the ground.
A death struggle then ensued between the
combatants. The bear tried to squeeze his vie-
no HISTORY OF OHIO.
tim to death while the man was constant] j^ clxok-
ing the bear. The woods were open and clear of
underbrush, and in their struggles they rolled
in every direction.
Several times he thought the severity of the
hugs would kill him; but by choking the bear
he would compel it to release its hold to knock
away his hands, when he would again recover
his breath and get a better position. After con-
tinuing the struggle in this manner for several
hours, they rolled back near where his knife lay.
Inspired by the sight of his weapon, he suc-
ceeded, after many ineffectual efforts, in rolling
the bear to the knife. After recovering his knife,
he began to stab the bear which was soon bleed-
ing profusely. Gathering all his strength in one
last effort, Mr. Minter succeeded in piercing the
bear's heart, but it relaxed its hold only when
life had fled.
Mr. Minter then attempted to rise, but was
too much exhausted to stand. Not a particle of
clothing was left on him, and his arms, legs and
back were fearfully lacerated by the bear's claws.
After resting a while, he began crawling towards
his home, which he reached shortly after dark.
The next morning his friends went out to the
battleground to secure the bear, and reported the
surface of the ground torn up over at least a
half acre. After several weeks of suffering Mr.
PIONEER LIFE IN OHIO. Ill
Minter recovered, but carried to his grave the
marks of his awful conflict.
The monotony of pioneer life was often
broken by the howl of the wolf and the scream
of the catamount, and many a weary traveler
was stimulated by these ominous sounds.
One night a young man, Harry Johnson, was
"sparking'^ his neighbor's daughter, and had
started home at a late hour, accompanied by his
favorite dog. The occasional "yelp'' of a wolf
caused him to hasten along as rapidly as pos-
sible with hopes of reaching home before the
wolves attacked him. The "yelps" of the thick-
ening pack grew louder and fiercer, and soon
their dark forms could be seen gliding through
the forests by the roadside. Growing bolder
with increased numbers, they at last sprang from
the brush into the road, eager for blood. The
dog seized the leader by the throat and was soon
engaged in a life or death struggle. Johnson
shot into the pack, and then' "clubbing" his gun,
made a fierce charge on the wolves. His dog
being wounded and almost exhausted could ren-
der him little assistance, and for a time the
contest seemed doubtful. The wolves fought
fiercely ; but the young man laid about him with
such heavy blows that soon the wolves one by
one begun to skulk away, ileaving him a much
112 HISTORY OF OHIO.
With the remnant of his gun on his shoulder
and his bleeding dog under his arm, he at length
reached home. This warning to the courageous
young man was of no avail, for the next Satur-
day night found him again at his neighbor's fire-
side and ready, if need be, to fight wolves on his
EARLY SCHOOLS AND CHURCHES
THE pioneers, having in early life enjoyed
a much higher civilization, were not sat-
isfied to have their children grow up in
ignorance and superstition. Accordingly, teach-
ers and ministers Avere employed, and in due
timfe, ignorance and superstition were put to
flight. The first schools, however, were neither
public nor free. The teacher was paid by the
parents of the children he instructed. The price
paid ranged from one to three dollars each,
according to the age of the pupil and the length
of the term. Spelling and the three R's, "Read-
ing, 'riting and Arithmetic," were the only sub-
Proficiency in spelling, while no slight accom-
plishment to-day, was at that time considered
the highest exponent of wisdom. Little attention
was then paid to the meaning or use of words,
and if a pupil could spell a word correctly, that
fact alone was sufficient.
In 1821 a law was passed authorizing taxa-
tion for the support of schools. This law, how-
eter, was only permissive, and not until 1825
was any law passed requiring taxation for school
EARLY SCHOOLS AND CHURCHES. II5
purposes, and for the selection of qualified in-
structors. The schools, though constantly im-
proving, were not on a sound basis until 1838,
when a law was passed providing for a uniform
system of schools, a state and county superin-
tendent and township inspectors. Other laws
were passed in following years, producing, as a
result, our present efficient schools.
After the passage of the law of 1838, the con-
struction of school houses was commenced in
every community, and the buildings then erected
would be a marvel to the school children of the
The school houses were very similar to the
dwelling houses and were built of hewn logs.
The buildings were about eighteen feet wide
and twenty-four feet long. The roofs were
made with clapboards, and the spaces between
the logs were filled with mud. The fioor was
frequently earth, but later, split logs with the
fiat side^ up were used. The seats were also
made froin split logs which were supported by
four small posts, two at each end. Rude desks
werfe provided for the larger pupils only. A
huge fireplace, in which wood was burned, was
built in one end. No furniture or apparatus of
any kind was to be found in the school rooms,
and even crayon and blackboards were unknown.
Il6 HISTORY OF OHIO.
Text-books were few. Murray's reader^ Dill-
worth's or Webster's speller. Pike's arithmetic
and the Columbian Orator were the usual outfit
of the teacher, and each pupil usually had one
or more of the above mentioned books. The
teacher "boarded 'round" with the pupils, and
in addition to board he received a very small
The preacher of pioneer times preceded the
teacher, and at first held .religious meetings in
private dwellings. Later, when schools had
been established, the little school house at the
crossroads also served as a meeting house. Here
many sensational revivals were held and many
ludicrous sermons preached by unlearned minis-
ters. These ministers were indeed sturdy, hon-
est. God-fearing men, and it would be a mar-
velous child in those days, who would not fear
God, and yet more marvelous was he who could
love Him, so terrible were the pen-pictures
drawn of the Creator.
There was little or no Church organization
in those days; itinerant preachers roamed
through the wilderness on horseback, preach-
ing anywhere they could get an audience. His
circuit was sometimes so large that he could
only reach the same place twice each year.
Camp meetings were held and attended by every-
EARLY SCHOOLS AND CHURCHES. II7
one. Churches were built later and well organ-
ized religious denominations were soon estab-
Little record was ever made of the first
churches, and not until the time of Kev. Samuel
Clawson have we many accurate accounts of the
churches. An incident of one of Eev. Clawson's
revivals shows both the influence of the ser-
mons preached and the nature of the hearers.
^^Having warned the sinners to flee from the
wrath to come, a young man/^ says Eev. Claw-
son, ^Svas on fire and took an exceedingly lofty
flight, after which he had to pause to recover
his breath. During this pause a wicked wretch
crowed like a rooster, causing a laugh in the con-
gregation.'^ Kev. Clawson, Avho was always
ready for such an emergency, saw the young
man when he crowed, and fixing his eyes upon
him, said: ^^I was not aware that there was
any of that breed of fowls present. I can
scarcely imagine what has brought that foolish
thing here. The house of God is no place for
such fowls. The country has, at great expense,
built a coop for such fowls, and I wonder that
the people let the thing run at large." Then
putting on such a look and speaking in such
tones as made the wretch quail before him, he
said: ^^Young man, I suppose you think you
have done something smart and laughable, but
THE FIRST METHODIST MEETING-HOUSE IN OHiO.
Courtesy of Ohio ArchcBological and Historical Society^
EARLY SCHOOLS AND CHURCHES. II9
I would not do what you have done for the
world. You have insulted the great God to His
face in His house and in the midst of His wor-
ship, and it would not be wonderful to me if He
would transform your wicked mouth into a
chicken's bill, and rivet it fast to the staff of His
fury, and thrash the mountains with you. Crow
again if you dare, and it may be that a red-hot
thunderbolt, hurled by the hand of omnipo-
tence, may scathe your wretched soul." It is al-
most needless to remark that the crowing ceased.
Pioneer church music consisted of poorly
translated psalms and badly constructed hymns.
The latter were gradually introduced for public
worship, and often pictured the torments re-
served for the wicked in no uncertain language.
Although the joys of heaven received little no-
tice, the eternal terrors of the guilty soul were
foretold in vigorous words. The following
hymn was published and sung in Boston more
than a century since, and was a favorite through-
out the entire country :
Then might you hear them rend and tear,
The ak with their outcries;
The hideous noise of their sad voice,
Ascendeth to the skies.
They wring their hands, their caitiff hands,
And gnash their teeth with terror ;
They cry, they roar, for anguish sore.
And gnaw their tongues for horror.
120 HISTORY OF OHIO.
But get away, without delay,
Christ pities not your cry;
Depart to hell; there may you yell,
And war eternally.
Less wrathful and more amusing was fugue-
singing. Many are the church walls that echoed
to the melodious voices of both matrons and
maids in singing such inspiring hymns as,
''Oh! for a man; Oh! for a man;
Oh ! for a mansion in the skies,"
and the roofs must have nearly burst open when
the men with their high tenors and deep basses
would reply :
Bring down sal; bring down sal;
Bring down salvation from on high.
The present generation can scarcely imagine
doctrinal beliefs that could make possible the
acceptance of such lines and their use in relig-
ious services. And one feels ready to endorse
heartily the words of Hawthorne: ^^Let us
thank God for having given us such ancestors;
and let each succeeding generation thank Him
not less fervently for being one step farther
from them in the march of progress."
OHIO IN THE WAR OF 1812
WHILE the people of Ohio were engaged
in a war against wild animals and the
Indians, the United States declared
war against England. This declaration was
made in the summer of 1812, and was occasioned
by the English insisting upon the right to search
our vessels on the high seas, and to press into
their navy any sailors whom they decided to be
British subjects. The English also denied us
the right to trade with other foreign nations.
Although the people of Ohio were not "directly
effected by either, "free trade," or "sailors'
rights," they felt the insult and welcomed the
An invasion of Canada was planned, and ac-
cordingly. General Hull, of Revolutionary fame,
marched with his army from Urbana, Ohio, to
Detroit. Upon his arrival at Detroit, he found
that his supplies of both ammunitio'n and pro-
visions were cut off by General Brock and his
army of Canadians and Indians. Hull deemed
it best to surrender, and did so, leaving Ohio and
the entire West open to invasion. This surren-
der by General Hull was, at that time, consid-
OHIO IN THE WAR OF l8l2. I23
ered an act of cowardice and he was sentenced
to be shot, bnt later received pardon. Time has
shown that the excited populace, eager for war,
were w^rong in their condemnation of their gen-
eral, and he has since shown that he was com-
pletely justified in doing as he did.
After the surrender of General Hull, the
state militia was called out, and with the Ken-
tucky troops under command of General Harri-
son, marched north to recapture Detroit; The
expedition, however, proved a failure, and a
part of his army was massacred by the Indians.
In February, 1813, General Harrison began
the construction of Fort Meigs on the Maumee
river in Wood county. From this position he
hoped to again invade Canada, but he was at-
tacked himself by a combined force of British
and Canadians, under command of General
Proctor, and the Indians under command of
Proctor planted batteries on the hills above
the fort, while the Indians climbed trees and
poured down an incessant fire upon the besieged
army. The British commander then summoned
the fort to surrender, but Harrison refused, in-
suring General Proctor that if he got the fort it
would be in a manner to do him more honor than
any surrender could possibly do.
General Harrison then ordered Colonel Dud-
124 HISTORY OF OHIO.
ley, with eight hundred Kentucky militia, to
cross the river, capture the batteries, spike the
cannon, and return with all possible haste. The
first part of the order was quickly executed and
soon every cannon was spiked, but being elated
with their success, they pursued the frightened
enemy into the woods where they were suddenly
caught in an Indian ambuscade. A desperate
hand to hand encounter followed in which the
militia was defeated and captured. After the
surrender, when all resistance had ceased, the
Indians began to massacre with the most savage
delight. Tecumseh sternly forbade it, and
buried his tomahawk in the head of one of his
chiefs who refused obedience. This action put
an end to the massacre, but of the eight hun-
dred men, only one hundred and fifty escaped.
General Proctor, seeing no prospect of tak-
ing the fort, and finding the Indians fast desert-
ing him, raised the siege at the close of the four-
teenth day. Later, a second attempt was made
to capture Fort Meigs, but failing again, their
attention was directed to Fort Sandusky, the
present site ot Fremont. Fort Sandusky was
defended by a weakened garrison under com-
mand of Major Oroghan, a youth of some twenty-
On the 1st of August, 1813, the British ap-
proached the fort by water;-^nd landed their
OHIO IN THE WAR OF l8l2. I25
troops, with a five and one-half inch howitzer, a
mile below the fort. The fort was then sum-
moned to surrender, but Major Oroghan replied
that they would either maintain the fort or bury
themselves in its ruins. Again he was entreated
to surrender in order to prevent the horrors of
another Indian massacre. The reply was sent
back that in case the fort should be taken, there
would be none left to massacre, as it would not
be given up while a man was left able to resist.
Late in the evening the enemy opened fire
from their six-pounders in the gunboats and
from their howitzer on shore. Major Croghan
replied with his six-pounder, occasionally chang-
ing its position in order to induce a belief that
he had a number of cannon. As the enemy con-
centrated their fire on the northwestern angle
of the fort, it was concluded that the works
would be stormed from that quarter. Accord-
ingly, during the darkness, the six-pounder was
removed to a blockhouse from which it would
rake that angle. The piece was loaded with a
half charge of powder and a double charge of
slugs and grape shot.
Late in the evening of August 2d, when the
smoke of the firing had completely enveloped the
fort, the enemy made a desperate assault. When
the assaulting column of 350 were discovered ad-
vancing through the smoke, at a distance of
126 HISTORY OF OHIO.
twenty yards from the northwest angle, a heavy
fire of musketry was opened upon them from the
fort, throwing them into some confusion. Col-
onel Short, who was leading the charge, rallied
his men and with great bravery led them up
to the brink of the ditch. After giving the order
to cross the ditch, cut down the pickets, and
give the Americans no quarter. Colonel Short
sprang into the ditch followed by his soldiers.
At that moment the masked port-hole in the
blockhouse was opened, and the six-pounder, at
a distance of thirty feet, poured down such a
storm of shot and shell, that few of the assault-
ing party made good their escape. The other
attacking parties met with an equally destruc-
tive musket fire, and soon the entire enemy made
a precipituous retreat, leaving behind them, be-
sides their dead and wounded, many arms and a
quantity of ammunition. The loss to the garri-
son was one killed and seven wounded, while
the British loss was about 150 in killed and
wounded. Colonel Short, a lieutenant and
twenty-five privates lay dead in the ditch, and
General Proctor with 500 regulars and 800 In-
dians had again been completely defeated.
Little more than a month had elapsed after
this repulse, when the British were again de-
feated in a naval battle on Lake Erie. Another
young gentleman. Commodore Perry, twenty-
OHIO IN THE WAR OF l8l2. I27
eight years of age, was in command. He had
brought his sailors, ship carpenters and supplies
four hundred miles through the unbroken for-
ests, and had constructed his fleet from the for-
ests on the lake shore in the remarkably brief
time of six months.
Perry's fleet consisted of 2 ships, of 20 guns
each, the Lawrence and the Niagara, and 7
smaller vessels, one of .4 guns, one of 3, two of
2; and three of 1, making a total of 54 guns, all
of short range. During the construction of his
flotilla, the British fleet often approached and
threatened their destruction, but were prevented
by the shallow w^ater in the harbor. Finally, the
ships were completed and launched, the larger
ones by the aid of scows, and Commodore Perry
at once proceeded to the head of the lake where
he anchored in Put-in-Bay, opposite to, and dis-
tant 30 miles from Maiden, where the British
fleet lay protected by the fort.
The British fleet consisted of one ship of 19
guns, one of 17, one of 13, one of 10, one of 3,
and one of 1, — amounting in all to 64 guns of
long range. The fleet was in command of Com-
modore Barclay who had left one arm at Trafal-
gar where he fought under the illustrious
On September 10th, at sunrise, the British
fleet appeared off Put-in-Bay, distant about IQ
128 HISTORY OF OHIO.
miles. Commodore Perry immediately got un-
der way with a light breeze from the southwest.
At 10 o'clock the wind changed to the south-
east, and Perry, on board the Lawrence, hoisted
his motto, ^^Don't give up the ship," which was
received with repeated cheers by the crew. A
line of battle was then formed, and the fleet bore
up towards the enemy, who, at the same time,
were preparing for battle. The lightness of the
wind caused the hostile squadrons to approach
each other very slowly, and prolong for two
hours the solemn interval of suspense and anx-
iety which precedes a battle. The order and
regularity of naval discipline heightened the
dreadful quiet of the occasion. "No noise, and
no bustle prevailed to distract the mind, except
at intervals the shrill pipings of the boatswain's
whistle, or a murmuring whisper among the
men who stood around the guns, with lighted
matches, closely watching the movements of the
enemy, and occasionally stealing a glance at the
countenances of their commanders. In this
manner the hostile fleets gradually neared e^ch
other in awful silence.
At 15 minutes after eleven, a bugle was
sounded on board the enemy's foremost ship,
the Detroit. Loud cheers burst from all the
enemy's crews and a tremendous fire was opened
upon the Lawrence from the long range British
OHIO IN THE WAR OF l8l2. I29
guns. The Lawrence was obliged to sustain the
fire for 40 minutes without returning a shot,
owing to the short range of her guns.
Commodore Perrj, without waiting for the
other ships^ kept on his course and at 12 o'clock
opened fire from the Lawrence. The distance
was still so great that his guns did little dam-
age, while the sides of his own ship were con-
tinually being pierced by the British guns. 11 is
men were fast falling, and the magazine was
greatly endangered. Commodore Perry, realiz-
ing the perilous position in which he stood,
made all sail, and directed the others to follow,
intending to close with the enemy. But the tre-
mendous fire to which he was exposed soon cut
away every brace and stay of the Lawrence, leav-
ing her an unmanageable wreck. The utmost or-
der and regularity still prevailed. As fast as
the men at the guns were wounded they were
carried below, and others took their places. The
dead remained where they fell until the close of
the action. At this juncture the enemy believed
the battle already won.
The Lawrence was reduced to a mere wreck ;
her deck was streaming with blood and covered
with the mangled remains of her crew. Her
guns were dismounted, but Commodore Perry
and his officers helped to work the last one cap-,
able of service. At 2 o'clock Captain Elliot was
OHIO IN THE WAR OF l8l2. I3I
enabled, by an increase of wind, to bring his
ship into close action, and Perry immediately
determined to shift his flag on board that ship,
leaving his own in charge of Lieutenant Yarnell.
Taking his flag under his arm. Perry ordered a
boat to place him on board the Niagara. Broad-
sides were leveled at his boat, and he received
without injury, a shower of musketry from three
of the enemy's ships. He landed safely and
hoisted his flag with its animating motto. Cap-
tain Elliott was sent back to bring up the other
schooners. At that moment the flag of the Law-
rence was hauled down. She had sustained the
principal force of the enemy's fire for more than
two hours and was rendered incapable of de-
fense. Any further show of resistance would
have been a useless sacrifice of the remains of
her brave and gallant crew. The enemy at the
same time were so badly crippled that they were
unable to take posession of her, and circum-
stances soon enabled the bleeding crew to again
hoist her fiag.
Commodore Perry then gave the signal to all
the vessels for close action. Finding the Ni-
agara in good condition. Perry determined upon
the desperate plan of breaking the enemy's line
of battle. He accordingly passed the head of
two ships and gave them a raking fire at close
range, and after getting the entire squadron into
132 HISTORY OF OHIO.
action, he laid his ship alongside of the British
Commodore. The smaller vessels closed in with
the enemy between them and the Niagara, and
in that position kept up a destructive fire from
both sides until every British ship had struck
The engagement lasted about three hours, and
never was victory more decisive and complete.
The number of prisoners taken exceeded the
number of men on board the American squadron
at the close of the action. Perry's loss was 27
killed and 96 wounded, while that of the English
must have been much greater. At the close of
the battle Perry sent his famous dispatch, "We
have met the enemy and they are ours: two
ships, two brigs, one schooner and one sloop."
After the defeat of the British on Lake Erie,
Proctor and his Indians withdrew into Canada.
The enemy were pursued by General Harrison
and his army, who overtook them at the Thames
river, Avhere a most decisive battle was fought
and a glorious victory gained by the Americans.
The enemy were co"mpletely routed and slaugh-
tered in a frightful manner. Tecumseh and his
bravest chieftains were slain, thus ending for-
ever the Indian wars in Ohio.
WITH the close of the War of 1812, came
a peace and quietness such as Ohio
had never known. The war-cry of Te-
cumseh was heard no more in the forests nor on
the plains, and the people pursued their ways
The increasing crops and multiplying flocks
and herds soon created a great demand for better
roads to market. The crooked trails of the In-
dians and the unkept roads of the first settlers
would no longer suffice. So, while the United
States was constructing a road west from the
Atlantic, the Ohio people were busily engaged in
laying out and grading roads throughout the
In 1811, a steamboat made its appearance in
the Ohio river and was soon followed by numer-
ous other boats, giving to the southern portion
of the state an unlooked-for outlet. In a like
manner the northern portion was reached by
boats on the great lakes, leaving the interior
of the state without an outlet.
But the stage-coach and freight- wagon would
INTERNAL DEVELOPMENT OF OHIO. I35
no longer suffice for the rapidly growing com-
merce, and an increasing demand for canals
was felt throughout the state. A petition was
sent to the State Legislature asking for assist-
ance in the construction of these canals. The
state began in 1825 to build two canals; one
from Cleveland to Portsmouth, and the other
from Toledo to Cincinnati. When these canals
with their branches, were completed, they gave
the people nearly a thousand miles of navigable
waters within their own state.
With the construction of these canals came
great prosperity. They were dug by the citi-
zens of the state, and so the sixteen millions of
dollars came back to those who had so willingly
taxed themselves for the outlay. Great swamps
were drained by these canals, making them the
most fertile lands of the state. The price of
property increased rapidly, and while the old
towns grew into cities, new towns and villages
rose up on the prairies and in the forest regions,
and the camp and log hut of the rural districts
gave place to large and beautiful dwellings of
The Ohio people had received, from the peo-
ple of New York, this impulse to build canals,
and so the new York Governor, De Witt Clinton,
was invited to join in the ceremonies incident
to the beginning of the first canal. He came by
136 HISTORY OF OHIO.
steamboat to Cleveland where he took stage for
Newark. On July 4th, 1825, in the presence of
a great throng of Ohio citizens, and a distin-
guished delegation from New York, Governor
Clinton lifted a spadeful of earth on the Lick-
ing summit. Governor Morrow of Ohio lifted
the second spadeful, and then followed a strug-
gle among the other distinguished gentlemen as
to who should lift the third. Soon a wheelbar-
ro X was filled and a happy Buckeyean wheeled it
away and dumped it over a bank. The cere-
monies were concluded by an eloquent address
by Thomas Ewing.
When the canals were completed, multitudes
thronged the banks to see the Avater let into the
channels. A continuous ovation accompanied
the first fleet of three canal boats throughout its
course. At the larger cities cannon were fired
and great throngs of people shouted themselves
While the value of these canals, to the state,
can hardly be overestimated, they were to have
but a brief existence. The enormous increase
in the state's commerce, brought about by the
canals, showed the careful observer that a still
greater development of the state's resources
could be occasioned by faster and safer trans-
As early as 1830 and '31 steam railroads had
INTERNAL DEVELOPMENT OF OHIO. I37
been put into operation in the eastern states,
and soon they were to be tested in Ohio. In
1836, an interstate railway was put into opera-
tion between Toledo and Adrian, Michigan, but
not until 1839, was Ohio to have a chartered
railway, all within her own boundaries. This
road was the Mad River and Lake Erie, extend-
ing from Sandusky to Dayton. It was opened
to the public, as far a-s Bellevue, sixteen miles,
in 1839, and completed to Dayton in 1844. Pro-
gressive capitalists conceiving the vast possibili-
ties of the railway, soon began the construction
of numerous roads. In the course of a few
years, a net- work of railways covered the state,
making every part of it quickly, cheaply and
easily accessible to every other part.
The younger generations of the present day
could scarcely imagine how rude and simple
were the railroads of the earlier days. Instead
of the well ballasted road-beds supporting the
ponderous steel rails, the first trains were run
on wooden rails, on which were nailed strips of
iron. The powerful locomotives, the luxurious
cars and the long black coal trains of sixty or
eighty cars were unknown in those days, when
a train consisted of a mere toy engine drawing
two or three wooden cars little longer than a
carriage. The speed of these, early trains was
never more than twelve or fifteen miles an hour,
FIRST LOCOMOTIVB AND PASSENGER CAR RUN IN OHIO.
Courtesy of Ohio Archaological and Historical Society.
INTERNAL DEVELOPMENT OF OHIO. 1 39
but that was a marvelous increase over the canal
boats going about three miles an hour.
The magnificent fleets on the rivers and lakes
soon felt the fatal rivalry of the railroad, along
the shores. Both travel and traffic deserted the
steamboats, seeking the surer and swifter trans-
portation of the railroad. The great passenger
boats plying between Pittsburgh and Cincinnati,
and reaching all intermediate points, soon dis-
appeared. The fast freight boats, carrying per-
ishable goods, in turn gave place to the coal
barges which are so numerous at present. Thus
the railroad forever put an end to the usefulness
of the canals which first introduced the state to
its present prosperity and gave to it such an
eminent commercial position among the other
states. Of those nine hundred miles of canals
in the state, only a few miles are in use to-day,
and the deserted, grass-grown ditches are
scarcely distinguishable from the ancient ruins
of the Mound Builders.
But the improved commercial faculties were
not sufficient for the Ohio people. With the ease
and cheapness of travel, came a knowledge of
life in the adjoining states, and a desire to bet-
ter their own environments. The log cabin was
no longer considered sufficient for the sturdy and
prosperous farmer, and so a modern brick or
frame residence took its place. Various con-
140 HISTORY OF OHIO.
veniences of the present time soon found their
way to those Ohio people whose great glory and
strength came from their varied origin. Their
ancestors had been accustomed to the highest
"environments of Massachusetts, Connecticut,
New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Mary-
land, the Carolinas and Kentucky, and they
made Ohio what it is by a blending of all those
characteristics into a new individual, the
As might be expected, those various charac-
teristics did not at all times, blend harmoniously.
While the southern element favored a commer-
cial development, the New England descendants
favored a development of the intellect. So there
was one faction favoring canals, and another one
favoring schools. But happily all were in favor
of anything that would advance the interests of
the state, and the construction of the canals was
followed by wise school legislation. While the
canals have long lost their important place in
the state, the schools are ever increasing, and
are becoming more efi&cient in fitting the young
generations for a more useful position in life.
Although the school system of the state in 1903
ranked very low among the other states, yet the
product of the schools, the best criterion, gives
it a position second to none in the Union.
INTERNAL DEVELOPMENT OF OHIO. I4I
More than three-quarters of a century ago
General Lafayette, that Frenchman whose name
will forever brighten the pages of our National
History, came to America to visit old comrades
with whom he had formed a lasting friendship
in Kevolutionary days, and to make a tour of
the nation for which he had done so much. He,
while on this tour, visited Cincinnati, and his
greatest surprise and pleasure was occasioned by
the greetings extended him by the school chil-
dren. It gave to him proofs of a grateful life
and general culture far beyond his most san-
guine expectations. Upon his arrival he was
met by six hundred pupils of the public schools,
who strewed his way with flowers, and shouts
of "Welcome to Lafayette," echoed and reechoed
through the city. When he had traveled over
the state and seen what wonderful progress the
people had made, no wonder he should pro-
nounce Ohio "The eighth wonder of the world."
Much more might be said here about our arti-
ficial water-ways, railways, churches, schools,
colleges and universities, of which we are right-
fully proud, but the vast amount they have done
and are doing, in the progress of the state and
nation in many ways, is so apparent to all that
we need not make a further discussion of them.
FI.AG OF THE STATE OF OHIO.
Courtesy of Ohio Archceological and Historical Society.
TROUBLE WITH MICHIGAN
IN the early spring of 1835^ serious trouble
with the Territory of Michigan resulted
from a disputed boundary line. The ordi-
nance of 1787 provided that" in case the North-
western Territory should be divided into five
states, that the boundary between the three
southern and two northern should be a line
drawn east and west through the southern point
of Lake Michigan to the territorial line in Lake
Erie. But such a line was an impossible one,
as it could never reach the territorial line by
extending it east, but on the contrary, it would
go far south of it, leaving a portion of the
Western Keserve to its north.
The constitution of Ohio provided that in
case the ordinance line did not go as far north
as the north cape of the Maumee bay, then the
northern boundary of Ohio should be a line
drawn from the southern part of Lake Michigan
to the north cape of the Maumee bay. The ter-
ritory lying between these two lines was the
source of the trouble.
When Michigan became a territory, she ex-
tended her government over thi^ disputed land.
146 HISTORY OF OHIO.
Ohio did likewise, and two sets of officials was
the result, and war was inevitable. Ohio at
once levied troops, and with Governor Lucas
in command, marched, in the spring of 1835, to
Port Miami, eight miles above Toledo and four
miles above the disputed land. Meanwhile Gov-
ernor Mason of Michigan had raised an army
and marched them to Toledo, where they over-
ran watermelon patches, created a great scarcity
of fowls and carried off at least one prisoner
Mason's army did not long sustain its posi-
tion. Frightful stories were circulated among
the Michigan troops, in regard to the vast army
of Buckeye sharp-shooters who were hastening
with leveled guns to greet them. So great was
the scare produced, that more than half of
Mason's forces deserted, and the remainder of
the army withdrew.
At this juncture of affairs, commissioners
arrived from Washington, D. C, and a tem-
porary compromise was effected. At the next
session of Congress, the matter was ably dis-
cussed and decided in favor of Ohio. In return
for this strip of land, averaging about eight miles
in width, Michigan received the entire northern
peninsula so rich in mineral resources. But the
people of Ohio were satisfied as they had won
the territory in dispute, including the grand old
harbor at Toledo.
WHILE the ordinance creating the North-
west Territory forbid slavery within
its boundaries, it was only by one vote
that slavery was kept out of Ohio at the adoption
of her first constitution. Although the negroes
living in Ohio were not really slaves, they were
not allowed to vote nor to testify in the courts.
Many of the farmers living in the southern por-
tion of the state rented slaves from their masters
living in Virginia and Kentucky. These slaves
were brought into Ohio and worked there, but
were never owned on Ohio soil. But when the
feeling against slavery became more bitter, the
slaves were helped to escape to Canada. The
Abolitionists were accused of coaxing and tempt-
ing slaves to cross the Ohio river in order that
they might be carried away to freedom.
The method of transporting negroes North
was known as "Underground Railroads," and
the homes of Abolitionists in the towns and
throughout the country, served as stations along
that road. While these roads were not well or-
ganized, they had a President, Levi Coffin, and
UNDERGROUND RAILROADS. 1 49
many staunch supporters in all parts of the
The first station on one of these underground
railroads to Canada was the residence of Rev.
John Rankin of Ripley. His was a solitary
house built on the top of the hill overlooking
Ripley and the Ohio river. Thousands of poor
fugitives found rest and shelter in his home, and
in the darkness of the night they were sent on in
wagons to the next station. Among these fugu-
tives were Eliza and George Harris, and other
characters of "Uncle Tom's Cabin."
The home of Mr. Rankin was frequently sur-
rounded by slave hunters, but with the assist-
ance of his eight sons and two daughters, he
always managed to escape harm. On one occa-
sion four men from Kentucky and one from Rip-
ley, with two fierce bulldogs, came to the house
and were met on the porch by Mrs. Rankin.
They informed her that a store had been broken
open in Dover, Kentucky, and that the thieves
had been tracked to her house and they wanted
to search the house for the goods and thieves.
Mrs. Rankin replied that she did not harbor
thieves nor conceal stolen property, and gave
them permission to look through the house. As
they started to enter the house, one of her sons
who had heard the conversation, took down a
rifle, cocked it, and called out, "Halt! If you
150 HISTORY OF OHIO.
come another step I will kill you/' and they
halted. At that moment two of the other sons,
who had been conveying fugitives north, arrived
on the scene and sent word down to Ripley.
Soon the yard was filled with friends, and the
slave hunters were taken by the arms and led to
the fence and told to climb, and they climbed.
Rev. Rankin frequently preached against
slavery, and on one occasion a mob leader en-
tered his pulpit and drew a club over his head.
"Stop preaching or I will burst your head open,''
he shouted, but Rev. Rankin went on as if noth-
ing had happened. A powerful man in the con-
gregation sprang forward and seized the intruder
by the neck and jerked him from the pulpit and
put him out.
James G. Birney, another famous Aboli-
tionist, had come to Ohio from the South. He
established a newspaper called the Philan-
thropist in Cincinnati, and attacked the slave
cause in no doubtful manner. But the public
sentiment was so strong in favor of slaves, that
on July 23, 1836, a mob broke into his office
and destroyed his type and press. Then they
assailed the negroes in the back streets, and a
general riot followed in which many were
wounded. Editors and orators opposed to slav-
ery were mobbed in almost every city, and the
authorities of "Lane Theological Seminary" for-
UNDERGROUND RAILROADS. I5I
bade the students to either write or talk about
The slave owners being highly incensed over
the escape of their valuable slaves, appealed to
the United States Congress, and accordingly in
1850 the ^^Fugitive Slave Law'' was passed.
This law provided that all runaway slaves,
found at the North, should be arrested, and,
without trial by jury, be returned to their mas-
ters. Other laws were passed with reference to
the slaves, and one of these made it a crime for
anyone to assist the slaves in their escape.
These laws were very unpopular in Ohio, as well
as in the other northern states, and many, fol-
lowing the dictates of their consciences, helped
the slaves to escape, in violation of the nation's
The slave owners were pleased with the na-
tional laws favoring them, and with a United
States warrant in the hands of a United States
marshal they pursued the escaping slaves with
renewed inspiration. On the other side the
Underground Railroad business was never bet-
ter, and while fights with the officers were fre-
quent, many hundreds of slaves escaped.
The feeling against slavery was again intensi-
fied by the case of Margaret Garner in 1856.
This unhappy victim of slavery, with her hus-
band and four children, had escaped from Ken-
152 HISTORY OF OHIO.
tucky, and were concealed at the home of a free
negro below Mill creek in Hamilton county.
While they were making arrangements for their
transportation north, the house was suddenly
surrounded by slave hunters and officers with a
posse of men. A desperate fight followed in
which both slaves and officers were seriously
injured, but at last the slaves were overpowered
and dragged from the house.
When the fight ended Margaret seized a large
knife and killed her little daughter to prevent
its return to slavery, and then attempted to kill
herself but failed. Margaret, with the rest of
the party, was taken to Cincinnati, where they
were all tried, not for murder, but for trying to
escape from their owners. After a trial lasting
two weeks, they were all found guilty of seeking
freedom, and were returned to their masters.
In 1857 a fugitive slave named Ad. White
was arrested by a United States marshal in
Champaign county. White resisted and fired
at the marshal but the bullet struck the gun-
barrel in the hands of the marshal, and glanced
off doing no injury. The county officials and
the people took White's part, and the fight con-
tinued both in and out of court for a long time.
The county sheriff narrowly escaped death from
a billy in the hands of a United States marshal,
and he never fully recovered from his injuries.
UNDERGROUND RAiLROADS, 1 53
Whitens master, fearing a disastrous outcome of
the affair, offered to take a thousand dollars for
him. The sum was quickly raised among the
Abolitionists, and White was again set free.
Less fortunate was another negro known as
Thomas Marshall, who had lived unmolested for
a number of years at Dayton. He was caught
in the street one day by a number of slave hun-
ters who declared that he was an escaped slave.
He was quickly taken before an ofiftcial where
the charge was easily proven. One of the slave
hunters assured Marshall that his master would
sell him. The slave gave all his . money, fifty
dollars, and a large ransom was soon made up
when word was received from his master in Ken-
tucky that he would not sell him under any con-
dition. Marshall was then taken to Cincinnati
where he was placed in the fourth story of a
hotel for safe-keeping over night. As soon' as
his guard had fallen asleep, Marshall raised the
window and jumped to the street below. He
was picked up in a crushed and unconscious con-
dition, and lived but a few hours after.
While many of the slaves were willing to
give their lives for freedom, few of the Aboli-
tionists were willing to go so far. One family
of these however, John Brown and his sons, re-
sided for a number of years in this state. Brown
had spent his entire life in the cause of free-
1^4 HISTORY OF OHIO.
donij and thinking he had received a divine com-
mission from Jehovah to destroy the kingdom of
slavery, he marched with sixteen men to capture
the United States arsenal at Harper's Ferry.
The result of his undertaking is well known to
the world, and the fires of slavery were thus
made to burn with a brighter luster than ever
OHIO IN THE CIVIL WAR
THE sons of Ohio were destined to become
famous in war. Whether they received
this martial love with their birth, or as
a heritage from their struggles with the Indians
and wild animals, does not appear, but that they
possess the rarest characteristics of warriors is
doubted by none who ever met them on the field
of battle. Their loyalty to the nation as well as
to their own state, has never been disputed. Not
only in the ^War of 1812" had Ohio assisted in
a national strife, as in 1846 she sent 5,536 of her
sturdiest sons to the sunny climes of Mexico,
where each was to meet and vanquish three blood-
thirsty Spaniards, or see the nation's emblems
trailed in the dust. Yet they never faltered.
Their courage was not found lacking, their en-
durance was sufficient, and victory again found
a perch upon their banners, and with a loss of
but 57 in killed and wounded, they again marched
back to their native soil.
Had it not been for the contributions Ohio
made to the national army during the civil war,
it would be difficult to tell just what the out-
come of that war might have been. While it is
158 HISTORY OF OHIO.
a fact that other states produced generals cap-
al^le of commanding armies, it is none the less
a fact that Ohio gave to the nation the generals
who led her armies to victory. The deeds of
these Generals, Grant, Sherman, Sheridan and
Ouster, will not be discussed here, as their fame
is no longer circumscribed by either state or
national boundaries, but has long since been
received by the world as a rich heritage.
While Ohio, at the beginning of the civil
war, was greatly disturbed by factional strife,
the disturbance was of short duration, and soon
the state, with slight exceptions, gave her influ-
ence in behalf of the nation's cause.
It is impossible to state the exact number
of men who entered the national army from
Ohio during the war of the rebellion, as many
enlisted in regiments formed in the adjoining
states. The nation's records show that Ohio
gave of her citizens 340,000 men, excluding squir-
rel-hunters, re-enlistments and the militia.
The state contributed in organized regi-
26 regiments of infantry for 3 months.
43 regiments of infantry for 100 days.
2 regiments of infantry for 6 months.
27 regiments of infantry for 1 year.
117 regiments of infantry for 3 years.
13 regiments of cavalry for 3 years.
^ regiments of artillery for 3 years,
OHIO IN THE CIVIL WAR. 1 59
Twenty-six independent batteries of artillery
and 5 independent companies of cavalry.
Six thousand five hundred and thirtty-six
Ohio soldiers were killed on the field of battle.
Four thousand six hundred and seventy-four
were mortally wounded and died in hospitals.
Thirteen thousand three hundred and fifty-
four died of diseases contracted in the service.
Thus Ohio lost 84 soldiers out of every 1,000
While the fathers, sons, brothers and hus-
bands were away on the field of battle, the
w^omen and infirm men left behind carried on the
ordinary business affairs of civil life. More than
one-half of the adult male population of Ohio
was in the army, and more than one-half of those
who remained were unfitted for military service,
owing to age or other infirmities. Those who
remained at home and made it possible for the
army to live, deserve no less credit than those
w^ho fought the battles and w^on the victories.
And that young man who resisted the w^ar fever
and remained at home, providing for the neces-
sary wants of the household, probably made a
greater sacrifice than his brother who, on the
impulse of the moment, joined a regiment and
marched to the front.
While Ohio's sons fought in all the great
battles of the civil war^ no battle nor important
l6o HISTORY OF OHIO.
skirmish took place within the boundaries of the
state^ and only once, and then to their sorrow,
did Confederate troops invade the state.
John Morgan of Huntsville, Alabama, was
one of the bravest and grandest of the Confeder-
ate raiders. He was sent north through Ten-
nessee and Kentucky to capture Louisville, and
had orders not to cross the Ohio river. When
he reached the Ohio river he decided to cross
and spread fear and destruction throughout In-
diana and Ohio. So with 2,300 experienced cav-
alrymen he began his famous raid through In-
diana and Ohio. He entered Ohio a few miles
north of Cincijinati on the 13th day of July,
1863, and took an eastern course, through the
counties of Clerinont, Brown, Adams, Pike,
Jackson, Vinton, Athens, Guernsey, Gallia and
The fear occasioned by the presence of an
armed foe caused the people of Ohio to do many
ridiculous things. Bridges were sometimes
burned where the streams could be easily
forded, and often the roads were blockaded after
Morgan had passed. But a few days elapsed
before the people recovered from their fright
and then a well armed militia and national
troops soon made it Morgan's chief aim to get
out of Ohio again.
The destruction caused by Morgan and his
OHIO IN THE CIVIL WAR. l6l
band was confined mainly to the plundering of
country stores. They took what they wanted
but used no reason or judgment^ except in the
selection of horses. One soldier took a pair of
skates while others took a bolt of calico apiece.
The calico was tied to the horns of the saddles
and then unrolled and left flapping in the wind.
Another trooper carried for a number of days
a bird-cage containing three canaries.
But Morgan's raid in Ohio was destined to
be brief. There was no rest for man or beast.
The soldiers, often overcome from lack of sleep,
fell from their horses and crawled to the brush
there to sleep, and awaken as prisoners of war.
The exhausted horses were given in exchange
for fresh and stronger ones wherever found, and
to avoid the unequal exchange, many of the farm-
ers kept their horses concealed in the forests
away from the highways.
By the time Morgan reached Portland the
militia had him almost surrounded, and two de-
tachments of United States cavalry made their
appearance, and the gunboats which had been
watching on the river opened fire. The fight was
l)rief , and Morgan left 700 of his men behind as
prisoners of war, while with the remaining 1200
he fled north and east seeking a new way out
of Ohio and the hands of his enemies. Another
9-ttempt to cvom the river was made by Morgan
l62 HISTORY OF OHIO.
at Buffington Island on the 18tli of July. A
fight ensued in which Morgan's loss was heavy
and flight was his only salvation. Soon the
enemy were getting so numerous that every
avenue of escape was cut off, and on the 26th of
July he surrendered the remainder of his little
band near New Lisbon in Columbiana county.
Morgan and his followers were all sent to the
Ohio penitentiary at Columbus for safe-keeping,
but on November 7th Morgan and six of his
men made their escape by means of an air pas-
sage which they reached by digging with their
Having been provided with money these
escaped prisoners of war purchased tickets for
Cincinnati. All night long they rode on the train
constantly fearing that they would be discov-
ered. As the train pulled into Cincinnati they
set some brakes, and as the train slowed up they
dropped off and, making for the Ohio river, they
hired a boy to row them across the river where
they were free.
Many amusing stories are told of the inci-
dents connected with Morgan's raid. One boast-
ful coward, seeing Morgan approach, ran to the
hog-pen to hide and concealed himself behind
a large mother hog which was suckling her
young. When discovered by a gallant Southern
OHIO IN THE CIVIL WAR. 163
trooper he was asked how he came to be there,
and if they all came in the same litter.
Another individual who was a terrible stam-
merer had often boasted of what he would do
in case Morgan should come. At last Morgan
came, and he was ordered to surrender. He
held both hands high above his head and said,
"I-i-i s-s-s-surrendered f-f-f-five m-m-m-minutes
In another instance a Southern sympathizer,
known as copperheads, had been relieved of a
number of good horses. After Morgan had left,
he hitched up a horse to a small wagon and
started in pursuit of Morgan. When he over-
took the raiders he was informed that they
could not have time to hear his complaints until
evening when they camped. As some of the men
had lost their horses and were very tired he was
asked to let some of the men ride in his wagon.
He replied that he could not ride a horse, and
in turn was informed that he could walk. After
walking a while he complained of his boots hurt-
ing his feet, so Morgan ordered them removed
and he was compelled to walk along in his stock-
ing feet while another man wore his boots.
At night when they camped he was taught to
sing a southern song and was compelled to dance
to his own music. The raiders would enliven
164 HISTORY OF OHIO.
the scene by shouting, "Go it, old Yank!
Louder." At last the commanding officer or-
dered a skinny old horse hitched to his wagon,
and giving him three other worn /out jades he
was allowed to depart.
FARM LIFE IN OHIO
INDIVIDUALS are products of their respec-
tive environments; and it is little wonder
that the early farmer in Ohio^ who from
necessity withdrew from society, and led a soli-
tary life, should, on account of his environment^
become queer and eccentric. But such is no
longer his lot; his advancement has been most
rapid, and to-day, in many localities he sur-
passes his city friend in both culture and
It needs no argument to prove that the phys-
ical, moral and mental condition of the tiller of
the soil in all parts of the state, is far in advance
of that of the same class in past generations.
In no occupation has there been greater develop-
ment of Jabor-saving machinery. The farmer
preparing the soil for the receipt of grain by
the Qse of a sulky plow, must of necessity be a
higher organism than he who scratched the
ground's surface with a crooked stick or even a
grubbing hoe. And the rate of development of
the man must always be in advance of the de-
velopment of the tools used by him, as they are
simply an index to tfie. inner man.
FARM LIFE IN OHIO. 167
Let us notice then, some of the separate
stages of his advancement. When we first made
the Ohio farmer's acquaintance, we found him
living in a mere hovel, void of all the luxuries
of life, and most of its seeming necessities. His
rooms, if he had more than one, were small, the
floors, frequently made of earth, were bare, the
walls were unadorned, the furniture scant and
books or means of education unknown.
To-day, his well kept modern home is a pal-
ace compared to his former humble abode. The
spacious rooms in his present home are as
numerous as hi^ family may require or even
desire. The floors are carpeted, the walls are
covered with attractive paper and adorned by
reproductions of grand old paintings made inex-
pensive by new-found methods of reproduction.
The furniture is abundant and modern; books
are numerous, and well stored, and well trained
minds are the result. Musical instruments are
possessed and used, and the finest mahogany
pianos, with a splendid selection of music, are
often found in the homes of the Ohio farmers.
In earlier times light was obtained from the
burning of cloth in grease, and heat was fur-
nished by burning large pieces of wood in huge
open fireplaces. Behold what a transformation !
To-day, in many of the grander country homes,
natural gas is used for illuminating purposes,
l68 HISTORY OF OHIO.
and in localities where it cannot be obtained,
artificial gas is produced for that purpose. At
a safe distance from the house a tank is built
where the gas is generated, and from which it
is piped to all parts of the house.
While many of the country homes are still
heated by means of stoves and grates, yet the
more modern ones have heating plants. These
plants are built in the basement and are con-
nected with each room, and supply the heat by
means of hot air, hot water, or steam.
While the old-fashioned well and spring are
still used in many localities, in other vicinities
the more prosperous farmers have equipped their
homes with complete water works. A large tank
is built at a considerable height into which the
water is pumped from a well by means of a
wind pump or a gasoline engine. The elevation
of the tank gives a pressure to the water which
is piped to all parts of the house.
The labor-saving machinery used within the
home has become very extensive. The sewing
machine does the work of numerous hands, and
the gowns made are of the latest New York,
Paris or London styles.
The laundry work is done by means of im-
proved machinery which eliminates most of the
physical labor. The dairy is run by improved
methods. The cream is separated from the milk
FARM LIFE IN OHIO. 169
by a mechanical devicGj and churned by im-
But outside of the home great reforms have
been instituted in the planting and harvesting of
crops. In the plowing of the ground is the first
decided change. Instead of the little wooden
plow drawn by one horse, we see in many locali-
ties the magnificent gang-plow drawn by three
or even six large horses. These plows turn two
broad furrows, and five and even eight acres are
often ploAved in a day by one man. By means
of highly improved drags and disks, constructed
from steel, the earth is quickly torn up and a
mellow bed is the result. The wheat is planted
by means of a drill which has compartments for
both fertilizers and grass seed.
In many sections of the country the earlier
methods of corn planting are things of the past.
The fields are no longer "marked out," and the
click of the hand-planter is heard no more. The
check-row planter has taken its place, thus doing
away with the marking of the fields. By means
of this new planter one man with a team can^
plant ten or more acres in a single day.
But the labor-saving machinery employed in
harvesting the crops can scarcely be equalled in
any other occupation. The development has
been gradual. The time-honored sickle gave
place to the cradle; the cradle found a succes-
170 HISTORY OF OHIO.
sor in the self-rake machine which in turn gave
place to the present binder. These binders are
drawn by from two to four horses, and are so
constructed that they cut the grain, bind it in
bundles, and leave the sheaves in bunches ready
There has also been an extensive evolution in
the method of threshing the grain. The sound
of the flail, and the steady tramping of horses
and cattle are heard no more in the barn nor
on the platform. The bunty, a machine which
could thresh out the grain but could not sepa-
rate it from the chaff, has given place to the
separator which in earlier times was put into
action by ten or twelve horses. The horses
have, in later years, been replaced by traction
engines which pull the machinery along the
roads and run it while threshing. The sheaves
of grain are thrown into the front of the machine
where large knives sever the bands and scatter
the grain evenly along the cylinder. The grain
is threshed out of the straw and separated from
the chaff, and weighed and dropped into bags
Vast improvements are also being made in
the machinery for harvesting corn. A machine
has lately been completed which will cut the
corn and shock it. After the corn has been
harvested and dried for a few weeks, it is
FARM LIFE IN OHIO. I^l
husked by a machine somewhat similar in ap-
pearance to the thresher. The machine pulls
the husks from the ear and elevates the corn
into a wagouj while it also shreds the fodder
and stores it away in the barn or stacks as the
farmer may determine. In the spring another
machine is brought into use to shell the corn
which is then shipped to market.
The vast quantities of hay consumed^ de-
manded improvements in the machinery used in
harvesting it. Accordingiyj, mowing machines
have been constructed which will cut evenly at
any desired height from six to twelve acres per
day. If the grass is very thick on the ground
a machine^ called a tedder, is used to thoroughly
scatter the hay in order that it may dry evenly.
Another machine is brought into use in raking
the hay, which is then conveyed to the barns and
lifted into the mows by a harpoon hung on pul-
leys, or if stacked in the field it is frequently
done by means of machinery.
The prosperous Ohio farmer of to-day is a
man of science and a gentleman of culture and
leisure. He has learned that results are not
produced by chance, and accordingly he puts
system into each of his varied kinds of work.
He buys, and carefully reads, the latest and best
books . which treat on the various subjects of
farming. And while in earlier times he occa-
172 HISTORY OF OHIO.
sionally invested in "gold bricks/ ' he has in later
years thoroughly learned that "gold bricks" can-
not be used in his business. JJy means of the
telephone and the rural deli^^ery of mail, he
keeps in touch with the outside world, and is
familiar with current events.
But the use of labor-saving machinery is not
the only advancement made by :he Ohio farmer.
He has learned that the vast industry of stock
raising is capable of almost unlimited develop-
ment. He has learned that the feed consumed
by poorly bred stock, would be ample nourish-
ment for well bred stock with a value many
times as great. Accordingly, a great change
gradually took place. The chuhhy, blocky
horse has been disposed of, and in his place is
a powerful draft horse or a beautiful fleet-
limbed driving horse. The milk cows and beef
cattle are no longer crrssed. The Jerseys are
kept for the dairy, an(/ the larger, lazier breeds
for the butcher. A li^.e improvement has taken
place in sheep, hogs ' .nd other stock, and, as a
consequence, to-day, the value of the live stock
of Ohio is many times what it was but a few
The isolation of the Ohio farmer is already
a thing of the past. In his modern carriage,
with his thoroughbred horse, he drives out in a
style that kings wc/ild have envied but a few
WITH but one exception, Ohio can claim,
either by birth or by citizenship, all
the presidents of the United States
elected since Lincoln. Each of these presidents
won fame and honor serving the nation in the
war of the rebellion, thus assuring the public
of their patriotism and loyalty.
Ohio was yet unknown when Washington
took his seat as the nation's first executive, and
her settlements were few when Adams was
elected to that same high office; but during
the administrations of Jefferson, Madison and
Monroe, Ohio was admitted to the Union and
slowly started on her pioneer way.
The East was a region of wealth and culture,
with a vast commerce and numerous factories.
The South was a region of wealth and leisure,
where the slave toiled that his master might en-
joy that "ease and luxury" which vanished with
the kingdom of slavery. At the same time Ohio
was an undeveloped expanse where the early
settler was engaged in a desperate struggle for
existence, with the wild animals and Indians,
OHIO^S PRESIDENTS. 175
It was in the numerous wars with the In-
dians that William Henry Harrison, Ohio's first
president, won a large amount of fame. He was
not only the first presidential candidate from
Ohio, but the first from the West, and it was in
answer to an eastern jeer that the log cabin
became a leading factor in the campaign. The
coon skin and barrel of hard cider became party
emblems, and log cabins, built on wheels, were
drawn by numerous horses in each procession.
Though the Ohio people had never known of the
wealth and luxury incident to the East, they
knew their own strength and were not ashamed
of their manner of living. The day that closed
the campaign and elected Harrison to the presi-
dency was a proud one for Ohio, advancing her
as it did to the rank of presidential states.
^^But the President pays dearly for the White
House.'' The grand old man who had endured
so many hardships on the field of battle could
not endure the strain and worry incident to his
exalted position. Gradually his strength began
to fail, and in a few weeks the nation was called
to mourn the death of their Chief Executive.
Twenty-eight years had passed. The Whig
party had disintegrated and the Republican
party had come into existence. A plain man
from one of the states of that Northwest Terri-
tory out of which Ohio had been the fiyst to b^
G^NERAI, UI.YSSKS S. GRANT
Ohio's presidents. 177
carvedj had written the Emancipation Procla-
mation and laid down his martyr life. In that
hour of doubt and uncertainty, when the hope
in Johnson had failed, and grave issues were
looming up on every hand, the heart of the peo-
ple turned to that man whose victories had
begun at Donaldson and ended at Appomattox.
While Ohio had given Grant a birthplace,
and while his early life had been moulded in an
Ohio home, yet it was his appointment to West
Point that made possible his career. What
Grant was, the years of war had proven, and
the years of unrest folloAving the war, when
wounds were yet unhealed and animosities still
unforgiven, tested him again. There may have
been mistakes in his life; but his sincerity, his
honesty and his unswerving loyalty were never
doubted, and his life closed rich in the nation's
To the presidential convention of 1876, came
the East with a favorite son whose eloquence
and charming manner has scarcely ever been
surpassed. But in that convention the Repub-
licans chose for their standard-bearer, not the
Plumed Knight of Maine, but Rutherford B.
Hayes, a son of Ohio, who had often honored
his native state. He had also honored the na-
tion on many hard-fought fields of battle and
in the halls of Congress. Three times had he
178 HISTORY OF OHIO.
been chosen as the state's chief executive and
his honor and integrity were never questioned.
When the presidential electors chosen in
1876 metj they failed to choose a president. A
commission was then formed consisting of fifteen
members, five being senators, five representa-
tives and five judges of the Supreme Court. The
commission, by a vote of 8 to 7, declared in
favor of Hayes, who was inaugurated March 5,
While the administration of President Hayes
was unsatisfactory to the politicians, yet it was
a wise and conservative one and met with the
hearty approval of the general public. Among
the first of his public acts was the withdrawal
of the Federal troops from the South, and a
restoration of self-government was at once made
to the Southern states. The beginning of his
administration was marked by distressing busi-
ness depression, but the splendid management
of the nation's finances, and the resumption of
specie payments soon occasioned great commer-
cial activity. It was during this administra-
tion that the foundations of our present thor-
ough, civil service reform was laid. Mr. Blaine
said of this administration: "It is one of the
few and rare cases in our history in which the
President entered upon his ofl&ce with the
country depressed and discontented, and left it
RUTHKRFORD BIRCHARD HAYEKS.
Courtesy of Ohio ArckcBological and Hisloi^ical Society.
l8o HISTORY OF OHIO.
prosperous and liappy; in which he found his
party broken, divided and on the verge of de-
feat, and left it strong, united and vigorous.
This is the peculiar felicity of General Haj^es'
With the expiration of his term, ex-President
Hayes returned to private life at Fremont,
Ohio, and spent the remainder of his life in mak-
ing educational reforms.
James A. Garfield, Ohio's next gift to the
nation, was born November 19th, 1831, at
Orange in Cuyahoga county. The log cabin
home of his boj^hood, in the woods of Orange,
stands for the hardships, the privations and the
scant advantages of the pioneer boy. His early
life was a continuous struggle to support his
widowed mother and four children. Garfield
never forgot Ohio. As teacher, as member of
the State Senate, as citizen, soldier, and as mem-
ber of Congress, it was always his greatest pleas-
ure to serve her. In return Ohio placed in him
her faith and hope. The 19th Congressional
District chose him as its representative to suc-
ceed Ben. Wade and Joshua R. Giddings, and
continued to re-elect him for nine successive
terms, when he was called to a higher ofllce.
But Garfield never hunted for office, as he
was always the hunted one. It was his luck to
hold at the same time three elective oflftces —
Ohio's presidents. i8i
member of Congress, senator-elect and presi-
dent-elect. Thus it was that Ohio, taking the
achievements of his past as pledges of his future,
looked proudly forward to their fulfillment. But
it was not to be. The nation was again called
to mourn the death of her president. A funeral
dirge resounded across the land and Garfield's
name was added to that of Lincoln's on the roll
of martyr presidents ; one the victim of sectional
hate, the other of official greed.
Ohio's claim on Benjamin Harrison is simi-
lar to that on Grant, only stronger; for Harri-
son was not only of Ohio parentage and birth,
but here had his education been secured and his
profession gained before he chose anather state
by adoption. And so it was that Ohio felt a
thrill of joy when the second Harrison was
added to the list of her presidential sons, and
she was proud of his wise and well-ordered ad-
ministration of the executive office. His admin-
istration was one of growth and development,
and it was his pleasure to see six stars added
to the flag when North Dakota, South Dakota,
Washington, Montana, Idaho and Wyoming en-
tered upon the grave duties of statehood.
The importance of the agricultural industry
of the country found prompt recognition at his
hands, and a new cabinet department was the
result. The South American republics were
JAMES A. GARFli^IvD.
Ohio's presidents. 183.
joined by him into a closer bond of friendship
through the Pan-American Congress. It was
during his administration that our navy was
enlarged and the "white squadron" sent out to
patrol the high seas. It was then that a battle
ship was launched that was to play an import-
ant part in our nation's history, for it was dur-
ing Harrison's administration that the prow of
the Maine first parted water, the gallant prow
that now lies shattered and shapeless in Havana
There is no president who has not to meet
and decide questions both difficult and grave,
but no president since Lincoln has been called
upon to face issues involving the very life of
the nation as has McKinley, Ohio's latest na-
tional gift. A loyal son of Ohio, another of the
broad-minded children of the Western Eeserve,
William McKinley, through his long public
service, was already widely known as a political
leader before his election to the presidency. It
was in connection with the "McKinley Tariff
Bill" that he had become famous and "McKinley
and Prosperity" was a phrase which adorned
the banners flung to the breezes during his first
candidacy. That campaign was a monetary
one; gold and silver were the respective party
slogans, and currency was the theme of many
debates and flights of oratory. The maintenance
l84 HISTORY OF OHIO.
of the public credit was demanded by the peo-
ple, and it was steadily looked forward to upon
But the unexpected was to happen. An ex-
plosion occurred which shook the country out
of its self-absorbed calm. It was the explosion
which sent the Maine and her gallant crew to
a watery grave. An unlooked for war with a
foreign nation was upon us. The president had
to bear a burden of responsibility greater than
any since the civil war, and he was compelled to
consider questions fraught with grave and far-
Since that day history has been rapidly mak-
ing. Hawaii has come to us, Porto Rico is under
our flag and the Philippines have become ours.
In all these events the man Ohio gave as
the nation's leader has borne his full share.
Through all this the United States has come,
of necessity rather than choice, out of its long-
time self-chosen seclusion and become one of the
great world powers, to be reckoned with as such
in all future questions affecting the world. And
with all this McKinley's administration was one
of commercial tranquility and industrial pros-
Men may differ as to the problems which face
our future, parties may divide as they always
have divided, but Ohio could have asked no ful-
l86 , HISTORY OF OHIO.
ler indorsement of this her latest son, than the
ballots east in the election of 1900.
But McKinley's work was done. The nation
had been brought through its most trying time.
The country was in the midst of a great pros-
perity and McKinley's name was ready for the
roll of the nation's martyrs. The hand of the
assassin was ready for the work, and McKinley
passed to the world beyond.
FIRST CAPITOI. OF OHIO, 1801-1808, CHII,I,ICOTHE. OHIO.
Courtesy of Ohio Arcliceological and Historical Society.
GOVERNORS OF OHIO
THE following is a list of Ohio's governors
from its organization as a part of the
Northwest Territory down to the pres-
ent time;, 1904.
1. Arthur St. Clair 1788-1802
2. Charles W. Byrd 1802-3
3. Edward TifiBn 1803-7
4. Thomas Kirker , . , . 1807-8
5. Samuel Huntington 1808-10
6. Return Jonathan Meigs „ 1810-14
7. Othniel Looker 1814
8. Thomas Worthington .......... 1814-18
9. Ethan Allen Brown 1818-22
10. Allen Trimble 1822
11. Jeremiah Morrow 1823-6
12. Allen Trimble 1826-30
13. Duncan McArthur 1830-32
14. Eobert Lucas 1832-6
15. Joseph Vance 1836-8
16. Wilson Shannon 1838-40
17. Thomas Corwin 1840-2
18. Wilson Shannon 1842-44
19. Thomas Bartley 1844
igO HISTORY OF OHIO.
20. Mordecai Bartley 1844-6
21. William Bebb 1846-9
22. Seabury Ford 1849-50
23. Keuben Wood 1850-3
24. William Medill 1853-6
25. Salmon P. Chase 1856-60
26. William Dennison 1860-2
27. David Todd 1862-4
28. John Brough 1864-5
29. Charles Anderson 1865-6
30. Jacob D. Cox 1866-8
31. Eutherford B. Hayes 1868-72,
32. Edward F. Noyes 1872-4
33. William Allen 1874-6
34. Eutherford B. Hayes 1876-7
35. Thomas L. Young 1877-8
36: Eichard M. Bishop 1878-80
37. Charles Foster 1880-4
38. George Hoadly 1884-6
39. Joseph B. Foraker 1886-90
40. James Campbell 1890-2
41. William McKinley 1892-6
42. Asa Bushnell 1896-1900
43. George K. Nash 3900-4
44. Myron T. Herrick 1904-
To amend section '2979-15 of the Revised Statutes of Ohio, to
apportion the state of Ohio into congressional distracts
under the twelfth census of United States.
BE it enacted hy the General Assembly of
the State of Ohio :
Section 1. That section (2979-1) of
the Kevised Statutes of Ohio be and the same
is hereby amended to read as follows :
Section 2. That under the twelfth census
o^ the United States^ the state of Ohio shall be
divided into twenty-one (21) districts for the
election of representatives to congress, and each
district shall choose one representative in the
manner following, to- wit:
First District. — That so much of the county
of Hamilton as is now contained within the lim-
its of the 1st, 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th,
10th, 11th, 18th, 26th, 27th and 31st wards of
the city of Cincinnati, as they are now consti-
tuted, and the townships of Anderson, Columbia,
Spencer, Symmes, and Sycamore, and the North-
west, Southeast, St. Bernard, Bond Hill, pre-
cincts of Millcreek township shall compose the
Map of Ohio Showing
AS APPORTIONED May 12, 1902
I,KWIS C. I,AYI.IN,
Secretary of State.
CONGRESSIONAL APPORTIONMENT. I93
Second District. — The remaining portion of
the county of Hamilton now contained within
the limits of the 12th, 13th, 14th, 15th, 16th,
17th, 19th, 20th, 21st, 22d, 23d, 24th, 25th, 28th,
29th and 30th wards of the city of Cincinnati
as they are now constituted, and the townships
of Springfield, Colerain, Greene, Delhi, Storrs,
Miami, Whitewater, Harrison, and Western Pre-
cincts of Millcreek township shall compose the
Third District. — The counties of Preble,
Butler and Montgomery shall constitute the
Fourth District. — The counties of Darke,
Shelby, Mercer, Auglaize, and Allen shall com-
pose the fourth district.
Fifth District. — The counties of Williams,
Defiance, Henry, Paulding, Putnam, and Van
Wert shall compose the fifth district.
Sixth District. — The counties of Greene^
Warren, Clinton, Highland, Brown, and Cler-
mont shall compose the sixth district.
Seventh District. — The counties of Miami,
Clark, Madison, Fayette, and Pickaway shall
compose the seventh district.
Eighth District. — The counties of Hancock,
Hardin, Logan, Champaign, Union, and Dela-
ware shall compose the eighth district.
Mnth District. — The counties of Lucas, Ot-
194 HISTORY OF OHIO.
tawa. Wood, and Fulton shall compose the ninth
district. ' '
Tenth District. — The counties of Pike, Jack-
son, Gallia, Lawrence, Adams, and Scioto shall
compose the tenth district.
Eleventh District. — The counties of Meigs,
Athens, Vinton, Ross, Hocking, Fairfield, and
Perry shall compose the eleventh district.
Twelfth District. — The county of Franklin
shall compose the twelfth district.
Thirteenth District. — The counties of Erie,
Sandusky, Seneca, Crawford, Wyandot, and
Marion shall compose the thirteenth district.
Fourteenth District. — The counties of Eo-
rain, Huron, Ashland, Richland, Morrow, and
Knox shall compose the fourteenth district.
Fifteenth District. — The counties of Wash-
ington, Morgan, Noble, Muskingum, and Guern-
sey shall compose the fifteenth district.
Sixteenth District. — The counties of Car-
roll, Jefferson, Harrison, Belmont, and Monroe
shall compose the sixteenth district.
Seventeenth District. — The counties of
Wayne, Holmes, Coshocton, Tuscarawas, and
Licking shall compose the seventeenth district.
Eighteenth District. — The counties of Stark,
Columbiana, and Mahoning shall compose the
Nineteenth District. — The counties of Ash-
CONGRESSIONAL APPORTIONMENT. I95
tabula, Trumbull, Geauga, Portage, and Summit
shall compose the nineteenth district.
Twentieth District. — The counties of Lake
and Medina and that portion of Cuyahoga
county composed of the townships of East Cleve-
land, Bedford, Chagrin Falls, Euclid, Independ-
ence, Mayfield, Newburg, Orange, Solon, War-
rensville, Brecksville, Brooklyn, Dover, Middle-
burg, Olmstead, Parma, Kockport, Royalton,
Strongville, Collinwood, Glenville and West
Park, and wards 26th, 28th, 29th, 30th, 31st,
32d, 33d, 34th, 35th, 36th, 37th, 38th, 39th, 4pth,
41st, and 42d as constituted January 1st, 1896,
in the city of Cleveland, shall compose the twen-
Twenty-first District. — The remaining por-
tion of Cuyahoga county shall compose the
Section 3. That said original section
(2979-1) in so far as it confiicts with this act,
the same is hereby repealed.
Section 4. This act shall take effect and be
in force from and after its passage.
' W. S. McKlNNON;,
Speaker of the House of Representatives.
F. B. Archer,
President of the Senate.
Passed May 12, 1902,
CONSTITUTION OF THB STATE
WE, the people of the State of Ohio^ grate^
ful to Almighty God for our freedom,
to secure its blessings and promote the
common welfare^ do establish this Constitution.
BILL OF RIGHTS.
Section 1. All men are^ by nature, free and
independent, and have certain inalienable rights,
among which are those of enjoying and defend-
ing life and liberty, acquiring, possessing and
protecting property, and seeking and obtaining
hppiness and safety.
Sec. 2. All political power is inherent in the
people. Government is instituted for their equal
protection and benefit, and they have the right
to alter, reform, or abolish the same, whenever
they may deem it necessary ; and no special privi-
leges or immunities shall ever be granted that
may not be altered, revoked, or repealed by the
Section 3631-18, Revised Statutes, which
CONSTITUTION OF OHIO. I99
provides that the benefits rendered by associ-
ations organized under the act of which that sec-
tion is a part, entitled ^^an act regulating frater-
nal beneficiary societies, orders, and associ-
ations/' passed April 27, 1896 (92 O. L., 360),
shall not be liable to be appropriated in any way
to the debts of the members or beneficiaries, con-
fers privileges upon some of a class not enjoyed
by others of the same class, and is invalid be-
cause in conflict with section 2 of article 1 of
the constitution. Williams v. Donough, 65 Ohio
Sec. 3. The people have the right to assem
ble together, in a peaceable manner, to consult
for their common good; to instruct their repre-
sentatives ; and to petition the General Assembly
for the redress of grievances.
Sec. 4. The people have the right to bear
arms for their defense and security; but stand-
ing armies, in time of peace, are dangerous to
liberty, and shall not be kept up; and the mili-
tary shall be in strict subordination to the civil
Sec. 5. The right of trial by jury shall be
Sec. 6. There shall be no slavery in this
state, nor involuntary servitude unless for the
punishment of crime.
Sec. 7. All men have a natural and inde-
200 HISTORY OF OHIO.
feasible right to worship Almighty God accord-
ing to the dictates of their own conscience. No
person shall be compelled to attend, erect, or
support any place of worship, or maintain any
form of worship against his consent; and no
preference shall be given, by law, to any relig-
ious society ; nor shall any interference with the
rights of conscience be permitted. No religious
test shall be required as a gualification for office,
nor shall any person be incompetent to be a wit-
ness on account of his religious belief ; but noth-
ing herein shall be construed to dispense with
oaths and affirmations. Religion, morality, and
knowledge, hoAvever, being essential to good gov-
ernment, it shall be the duty of the General As-
sembly to pass suitable laAvs to protect every
religious denomination in the peaceable enjoy-
ment of its own mode of public worship, and to
encourage schools, and the means of instruction.
Sec. 8. The privilege of the writ of habeas
corpus shall not be suspended, unless in cases of
rebellion or invasion the public safety requires it.
Sec. 9. All persons shall be liable by suf-
ficient sureties, except for capital offenses where
the proof is evident, or the presumption great.
Excessive bail shall not be required; nor exces-
sive fines imposed; nor cruel and unusual pun-
Sec. 10. Except in cases of impeachment,
CONSTITUTION OF OHIO. 201
and cases arising in tlie army and navy, or in
the militia wlien in actual service in time of
war or public danger, and in cases of petit lar-
ceny and other inferior offenses, no person shall
be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise
infamous crime, unless on presentment or indict-
ment of a grand jury. In any trial, in any
court, the party accused shall be allowed to ap-
pear and defend in person and ^Yith counsel; to
demand the nature and cause of the accusation
against him, and to have a copy thereof ; to meet
the witnesses face to face, and to have compul-
sory process to procure the attendance of wit-
nesses in his behalf, and a speedy public trial
by an impartial jury of the county or district in
which the offense is alleged to have been com-
mitted; nor shall any person be compelled, in
any criminal case, to be a witness against him-
self, or be twice put in jeopardy for the same
Sec. 11. Every citizen may freely speak,
write and publish his sentiments on all subjects,
being responsible for the abuse of the right ; and
no law shall be passed to restrain or abridge the
liberty of speech, or of the press. In all crim-
inal prosiecutions for libel, the truth may be
given in evidence to the jury, and if it shall ap-
pear to the jury that the matter charged as libel-
ous is true, and was published with good motives,
202 lilSTORY OF OHIO.
and for justifiable ends, the party shall be ac-
Sec. 12. No person shall be transported out
of the state, for any offense committed within
the same; and no conviction shall work corrup-
tion of blood or forfeiture of estate.
Sec. 13. No soldier shall, in time of peace,
be quartered in any house, without the consent
of the owner; nor, in time of war, except in the
manner prescribed by law.
Sec. 14. The right of the people to be secure
in their persons, houses, papers, and possessions,
against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall
not be violated ; and no warrant shall issue but
upon probable cause, supported by oath or affir-
mation, particularly describing the place to be
searched, and the person and things to be seized.
Sec. 15. No person shall be imprisoned for
debt in any civil action, on mesne of final process,
unless in cases of fraud. .
Sec. 16. All courts shall be open, and every
person, for an injury done him in his land, goods,
person, or reputation, shall have remedy by due
course of law, and justice administered without
denial or delay.
Sec. 17. No hereditary emoluments, honors,
or privileges, shall ever be granted or conferred
by this state.
Sec. 18. No power of suspending laws shall
CONSTITUTION OF OHIO. 203
ever be exercised, except by the General Assem-
Sec. 19. Private property shall ever be held
inviolate, but subservient to the public welfare.
When taken in time of war, or other public exi-
gency, imperatively requiring its immediate
seizure, or for the purpose of making or repair-
ing roads, which shall be open to the public,
without charge, a compensation shall be made to
the owner, in money, and in all other cases where
private property shall be taken for public use,
a compensation therefor shall first be made in
money, or first secured hj a deposit of money,
and such compensation shall be assessed by a
jury, without deduction for benefits to any prop-
erty of the owner.
Sec. 20. This enumeration of rights shall not
be construed to impair or deny others retained
by the people; and all powers, not herein dele-
gated, remain with the people.
Section 1. The legislative power of this state
shall be vested in a General Assembly^ which
shall consist of a Senate and House of Repre-
Sec. 2. Senators and representatives shall
be elected biennially by the electors of the re-
204 HISTORY OF OHIO.
spective counties or districts^ on the first Tues-
day after the first Monday in November; their
term of office shall commence on the first day
of January next thereafter^ and continue two
years. ( As amended October 13, 1885, 82 v. 446.)
Sec. 3. Senators and representatives shall
have resided in their respective counties or dis-
tricts one year next preceding their election, un-
less they shall have been absent on the public
business of the United States or of this state.
Sec. 4. No person holding office under the
authority of the United States, or any lucrative
office under the authority of this state, shall be
eligible to or have a seat in the General Assem-
bly ; but this provision shall not extend to town-
ship officers, justices of the peace, notaries pub-
lic, or officers of the militia.
Sec. 5. No person hereafter convicted of an
embezzlement of the public funds shall hold any
office in this state ; nor shall any person holding
public money for disbursement or otherwise,
have a seat in the General Assembly until he
shall have accounted for and paid such money
into the treasury.
Sec. 6. Each house shall be judge of the
election returns, and qualifications of its own
members; a majority of all the members elected
to each house shall be a quorum to do business ;
but a less number may adjourn from day to day,
CONSTITUTION OF OHIO. 205
and compel the attendance of absent members, in
such manner and under such penalties as shall
be prescribed by law.
Sec. 7. The mode of organizing the House
of Representatives, at the commencement of
each regular session, shall be prescribed by law.
Sec. 8. Each house, except as otherwise pro-
vided in this constitution, shall choose its own
officers, may determine its own rules of proceed-
ing, punish its members for disorderly conduct ;
and with the concurrence of two-thirds expel a
member, but not the second time for the same
cause ; and shall have all other powers necessary
to provide for its safetj^, and the undisturbed
transaction of its business.
Sec. 9. Each house shall keep a correct jour-
nal of its proceedings, which shall be published.
'At the desire of any two members, the yeas and
nays shall be entered. upon the journal; and on
the passage of every bill, in either house, the vote
shall be taken by yeas and nays and entered upon
the journal ; and no law shall be passed in either
house without the concurrence of a majority of
all the members elected thereto.
Sec. 10. Any member of either house shall
have the right to protest against any act or res-
olution thereof; and such protest, and the rea-
sons therefor, shall, without alteration, commit-
ment, or delay, be entered upon the journal^
206 HISTORY OF OHIO.
Sec. 11. All vacancies which may happen in
either house shall, for the unexpired term, be
filled by election, as shall be directed by law.
Sec. 12. Senators and Representatives, dur-
ing the session of the General Assembly, and in
going to and returning from the same, shall be
privileged from arrest in all cases except trea-
son, felony, or breach of the peace; and for any
speech or debate, in either house, they shall not
be questioned elsewhere.
Sec. 13. The proceedings of both houses shall
be public, except in cases which, in the opinion
of two-thirds of those present, require secrecy.
Sec. 14. Neither house shall, without the
consent of the other, adjourn for more than two
days, Sundays excluded; nor to any other place
than that in which the two houses shall be in
Sec. 15. Bills may originate in either house ;
but may be altered, amended, or rejected in the
Sec. 16. Every bill shall be fully and dis-
tinctly read on three different days, unless in
case of urgency three-fourths of the house in
which it shall be pending, shall dispense with
this rule. No bill shall contain more than one
subject, which shall be clearly expressed in its
title, and no law shall be revived or amended
unless the new act contain the entire act revived,
CONSTITUTION OF OHIO. 207
or the section or sections amended, and the sec-
tion or sections so amended shall be repealed.
Sec. 17. The presiding officer of each house
shall sign publicly, in the presence of the house
over which he presides, while the same is in ses-
sion, and capable of transacting business, all bills
and joint resolutions passed by the General As-
Sec. 18. The style of the laws of this state
shall be, ^^Be it enacted by the General Assembly
of the State of Ohio/^
Sec. 19. No Senator or Representative shall,
during the term for which he shall have been
elected, or for one year thereafter, be appointed
to any civil office under this state which shall bQ
created or the emoluments of which shall have
been increased during the term for which he
shall have been elected.
Sec. 20. The General Assembly in cases not
provided for in this constitution, shall fix the
term of office and the compensation of all offi-
cers; but no change therein shall affect the sal-
ary of any officer during his existing term, un-
less the office be abolished.
Sec. 21. The General Assembly shall deter-
mine, by law, before what authority, and in what
manner, the trial of contested elections shall be
Sec. 22. No money shall be drawn from the
ao8 HISTORY OF OHIO.
treasury except in pursuance of a specific ap-
propriation^ made by law, and no appropriation
shall be made for a longer period than two years.
Sec. 23. The House of Representatives shall
have the sole power of impeachment, but a ma-
jority of the members elected must concur there-
in. Impeachments shall be tried by the Senate;
and the senators, when sitting for that purpose,
shall be upon oath or affirmation to do justice
according to law and evidence. No person shall
be convicted without the concurrence of two-
thirds of the senators.
Sec. 24. The governor, judges and all state
officers may be impeached for any misdemeanor
in office; but judgment shall not extend further
than the removal from office, and disqualifica-
tion to hold any office, under the authority of this
state. The party impeached, Avhether convicted
or not, shall be liable to indictment, trial and
judgment, according to law.
Sec. 25. All regular sessions of the General
Assembly shall commence on the first Monday
of January biennially. The first session, under
this constitution, shall commence on the first
Monday of January, one thousand eight hundred
and fifty-two. (See Const. 1802, Art. I. §25.)
Sec. 26. All laws of a general nature shall
have a uniform operation throughout the state;
nor shall any act, except such as relates to pub-
CONSTITQTION OF OHIO. 209
lie scliools^ be passed, to take effect upon the ap-
proval of any other authority than the General
Assembly, except as otherwise provided in this
Sec. 27. The election and appointment of all
officers and the filling of all vacancies not other-
wise provided for by this constitution, or the
constitution of the United States, shall be made
in such manner as may be directed by law ; but
no appointing power shall be exercised by the
General Assembly, except as prescribed in this
constitution, and in the election of United States
senators; and in these cases the vote shall be
taken "viva voce.''
Sec. 28. The General Assembly shall have
no power to pass retroactive laws, or laws im-
pairing the obligation or contracts ; but may, by
general laws, authorize courts to carry into ef-
fect, upon such terms as shall be just and equita-
ble, the manifest intention of parties and officers
by curing omissions, defects and errors in instru-
ments and proceedings arising out of their want
of conformity with the laws of this state.
Sec. 29. No extra compensation shall be
made to any officer, public agent, or contractor
after the service shall have been rendered or the
contract entered into; nor shall any money be
paid on any claim, the subject matter of which
shall not have been provided for by pre-existing
2iO HISTORY OF OHIO.
law, unless such compensation or claim be al-
lowed by two-thirds of the members elected to
each branch of the General Assembly.
Sec. 30. No new county shall contain less
than four hundred square miles of territory, nor
shall any county be reduced below that amount ;
and all laws creating new counties, changing
county lines, or removing county seats, shall, be-
fore taking effect, be submitted to the electors
of the several counties to be affected thereby, at
the next general election after the passage there-
of, and be adopted by a majority of all the elec-
tors voting at such election, in each of the said
counties; but any county now or hereafter con-
taining one hundred thousand inhabitants, may
be divided whenever a majority of the voters
residing in each of the proposed divisions shall
approve of the law passed for that purpose, but
no town or city within te same shall be divided,
nor shall either of te divisions contain less than
twenty thousand inhabitants.
Sec. 31. The members and officers of the
General Assembly shall receive a fixed compen-
sation, to be prescribed by law, and no other al-
lowance or perquisites, either in the payment of
postage or otherwise; and no change in their
compensation shall take effect during their term
Sec. 32. The General Assembly shall grant
CONSTITUTION OF OHIO. 211
no divorce, nor exercise any judicial power not
herein expressly conferred.
Section 1. The executive department shall
consist of a governor, lieutenant-governor, secre-
tary of state, auditor of state, treasurer of state,
and an attorney-general, who shall be elected on
the first Tuesday after the first Monday in No-
vember, by the electors of the state, and at the
places of voting for members of the General As-
sembly. (As amended October 13, 1885; 82 v.
Sec. 2. The governor, lieutenant-governor,
secretary of state, treasurer, and attorney-gen-
eral, shall hold their offices for two years, and
the auditor for four years. Their terms of office
shall commence on the second Monday of Janu-
ary next after their election, and continue until
their successors are elected and qualified.
Sec. 3. The returns of every election for the
officers named in the foregoing section shall be
sealed up and transmitted to the seat of govern-
ment, by the returning officers, directed to the
president of the senate, who, during the first
week of the session, shall open and publish them,
and declare the result, in the presence of a ma-
212 HISTORY OF OHIO.
jority of the members of each house of the Gen-
ral Assembl^^ The person having the highest
number of votes shall be declared duly elected;
but if any two or more shall be highest, and equal
in votes for the same office, one of them shall be
chosen by the joint vote of both houses.
Sec. 4. Should there be no session of the
General Assembly in January next after an elec-
tion for any of the officers aforesaid, the returns
of such election shall be made to the secretary
of state, and the result declared by the governor,
in such manner as may be provided by law.
Sec. 5. The supreme executive power of this
state shall be vested in the governor.
Sec. 6. He may require information, in writ-
ing, from the officers in the executive depart-
ment, upon any subject relating to the duties of
their respective offices, and shall see that the
laws are faithfully executed.
Sec. 7. He shall communicate at every ses-
sion, by message, to the General Assembly, the
condition of the state, and recommend such
measures as he shall deem expedient.
Sec. 8. He may, on extraordinary occasions,
convene the General Assembly by proclamation,
and shall state to both houses, when assembled,
the purpose for which they have been convened.
Sec. 9. In case of a disagreement between
the two houses in respect to the time of adjourn-
CONSTITUTION OF OHIO. 213
ment, he shall have power to adjourn the (jeneral
Assembly to such time as he may think proper,
but not beyond the regular meetings thereof.
Sec. 10. He shall be commander-in-chief of
the military and naval forces of the state, except
when they shall be called into the service of the
Sec. 11. He shall have power, after convic-
tion, to grant reprieves, commutations, and par-
dons, for all crimes and offenses, except treason
and cases of impeachment, upon such conditions
as he may think proper; subject, however, to
such regulations, as to the manner of applying
pardons, as may be prescribed by law. Upon
conviction for treason he may suspend the exe-
cution of the sentence and report the case to the
General Assembly, at its next meeting, when the
General Assembly shall either pardon, commute
the sentence, direct its execution, or grant a fur-
ther reprieve. He shall communicate to the Gen-
eral Assembly, at every regular session, each case
of reprieve, commutation, or pardon, granted,
stating the name and crime of convict, the sen-
tence, its date, and the date of the commutation,
pardon, or reprieve, with his Beasons therefor.
Sec. 12. There shall be a seal of the state,
which shall be kept by the governor, and used
by him officially, and shall be called "The Great
Seal of the State of Ohio.''
214 HISTORY OF OHIO.
Sec. 13. All grants and commissions shall
be issued in the name and by the authority of
the State of Ohio, sealed with the great seal,
signed by the governor, and countersigned by the
secretary of state.
Sec. 14. No member of congress, or other
person holding office under the authority of this
state, or of the United States, shall execute the
office of governor, except as herein provided.
Sec. 15. In case of the death, impeachment,
resignation, removal, or other disability of the
governor, the powers and duties of the office, for
the residue of the term, or until he shall be ac-
quitted, or the disability removed, shall devolve
upon the lieutenant-governor.
Sec. 16. The lieutenant-governor shall be
president of the senate, but shall vote only when
the senate is equally divided ; and in case of his
absence or impeachment, or when he shall exer-
cise the office of governor, the senate shall choose
a president pro tempore.
Sec. 17. If the lieutenant-governor, while
executing the office of governor, shall be im-
peached, displaced, resign, or die, or otherwise
becoma incapable of performing the duties of the
office, the president of the senate shall act as
governor until the vacancy is filled, or the dis-
ability removed; and if the president of the
CONSTITUTION OF OHIO. 21 5
senate, for any of the above causes, shall be ren-
dered incapable of performing the duties per-
taining to the office of governor, the same shall
devolve upon the speaker of the house of repre-
Sec. 18. Should the office of auditor, treas-
urer, secretary, or attorney-general, become va-
cant, for any of the causes specified in the fif-
teenth section of this article, the governor shall
fill the vacancy until the disability is removed,
or a successor elected and qualified. Every such
vacancy shall be filled by election, at the first
general election that occurs more than thirty
days after it shall have happened; and the per-
son chosen shall hold the office for the full term
fixed in the second section of this article.
Sec. 19. The officers mentioned in this ar-
ticle shall, at stated times, receive for their ser-
vices a compensation to be established by law,
which shall neither be increased nor diminished
during the period for which they shall have been
Sec. 20. The officers of the executive depart-
ment and of the public state institutions shall,
at least five days preceding each regular session
of the General Assembly, severally report to the
governor, who shall transmit such reports, with
his message, to the General Assembly.
2l6 HISTORY OF OHIO.
Section 1. The judicial power of the state
is vested in a supreme court, circuit courts,
courts of common pleas, courts of probate, jus-
tices of the peace, and such other courts inferior
to the supreme court, as the General Assembly
may, from time to time, establish. ( As amended
October 9, 1883 v. 382.)
Sec. 2. The supreme court shall, until other-
wise provided by law, consist of five judges, a
majority of whom competent to sit shall be neces-
sary to form a quorum or to pronounce a decis-
ion, except as hereinafter provided. It sh^ll have
original jurisdiction in quo warranto, man-
damus, habeas corpus and procedendo, and such
appellate jurisdiction as may be provided by law.
It shall hold at least one term in each year at
the seat of government, and . such other terms,
there or elsewhere, as may be provided by law.
The judges of the supreme court shall be elected
by the electors of the state at large, for such
term, not less than live years, as the General As-
sembly may prescribe, and they shall be elected
and their official term shall begin at such time
as may be fixed by law. In case the General As-
sembly shall increase the number of such judges.
CONSTITUTION OF OHIO. 217
the first term of each of such additional judges
shall be such, that m each year after their first
election, an equal number of judges of the su-
preme court shall be elected, except in elections
to fill vacancies; and whenever the number of
such judges shall be increased, the General As-
sembly may authorize such court to organize di-
visions thereof, not exceeding three, each divis-
ion to consist of an equal number of judges; for
the adjudication of cases, a majority of each di-
vision shall constitute a quorum, and such an as-
signment of the cases to each division may be
made as such court may deem expedient, but
whenever all the judges of either division hear-
ing a case shall not concur as to the judgment
to be rendered therein, or whenever a case shall
involve the constitutionality of an act of the
General Assembly or of an act of Congress, it
shall be reserved to the whole court for adjudi-
cation. The judges of the supreme court in of-
fice when this amendment takes effect, shall con-
tinue to hold their offices until their successors
are elected and qualified. (As amended October
9, 1883; 80 V. 382.)
Sec. 3. The state shall be divided into nine
common pleas districts, of which the county of
Hamilton shall constitute one, of compact terri-
tory, and bounded by county lines, and each of
^aid districts, consisting of three or more coun-
2l8 HISTORY OF OHIO.
ties, shall be subdivided into three parts of com-
pact territory bounded b^^ county lines, and as
nearly equal in population as practicable; in
each of which, one judge of the court of common
pleas for said district, and residing therein, shall
be elected by the electors of said subdivision.
Courts of common pleas shall be held by one or
more of these judges, in every county in the dis-
trict, as often as may be provided by law; and
more than one court, or sitting thereof, may be
held at the same time in each district.
Sec. 4. The jurisdiction of the courts of com-
mon pleas, and of the judges thereof, shall be
fixed by law.
Sec. 5. (Eepealed October 9, 1883; 80 v.
Sec. 6. The circuit court shall have like orig-
inal jurisdiction with the supreme court, and
such appellate jurisdiction as may be provided
by law. Such courts shall be composed of such
number of judges as may be provided by law, and
shall be held in each county at least once in each
year. The number of circuits, and the boundar-
ies thereof, shall be prescribed by law. Such
judges shall be elected in each circuit by the elec-
tors thereof, and at such time and for such term
as may be prescribed by law, and the same num-
ber shall be elected in each circuit. Each judge
shall be comj)etent to exercise his judicial pow-
CONSTITUTION OF OHIO, 219
ers in any circuit. The General Assembly may
change, from time to time, the number of bound-
aries of the circuits. The circuit courts shall
be the successors of the district courts, and all
cases, judgments, records, and proceedings pend-
ing in said district courts, in the several coun-
ties of any district, shall be transferred to the
circuit courts in the several counties, and be pro-
ceeded in as though said district courts had not
been abolished, and the district courts shall con-
tinue in existence until the election and qualifi-
cation of the judges of the circuit court. (As
amended October 9, 1883 ; 80 v. 382.)
Sec. 7. There shall be established in each
county a probate court, which shall be a court
of record, open at all times, and holden by one
judge, elected by the voters of the county, who
shall hold his office for the term of three years,
and shall receive such compensation, payable out
of the county treasury, or by fees, or both, as
shall be provided by law.
Sec. 8. The probate court shall have juris-
diction in probate and testamentary matters, the
appointment of administrators and guardians,
the settlement of accounts of executors, adminis-
trators, and guardians, and such jurisdiction in
habeas corpus, the issuing of marriage licenses,
and for the sale of land by executors, adminis-
trators, and guardians, and such other jurisdic-
220 HISTORY OF OHIO.
tion in any county or counties as may be pro-
vided by law.
Sec. 9. A competent number of justices of
the peace shall be elected, by the electors, in each
toAvnship in the several counties. Their term
of office shall be three years, and their powers
and duties shall be regulated by law.
Sec 10. All judges, other than those pro-
vided for in this constitution, shall be elected
by the electors of the judicial district for which
they may be created, but not for a longer term
of office than five years.
Sec. 11. (Repealed October 9, 1883; 80 v.
Sec. 12. The judges of the courts of com-
mon pleas shall, while in office, reside in the
district for which they are elected; and their
term of office shall be for five j^ears.
Sec. 13. In case the office of any judge shall
become vacant, before the expiration of the reg-
ular term for which he was elected, the vacancy
shall be filled by appointment by the governor,
until a successor is elected and qualified; and
such successor shall be elected for the unexpired
term, at the fir^]t annual election that occurs
more than thirty days after the vacancy shall
Sec. 14. The judges of the supreme court,
(of the circuit court), and of the court of com-
CONSTITUTION OF OHIO. 221
mon pleas, shall, at stated times, receive for their
services such compensation as may be provided
by law, which shall not be diminished, or in-
creased, during their term of office; but they
shall receive no fees or perquisites, nor hold any
other office of profit or trust under the authority
of this state, or the United States. All votes for
either of them, for any elective office, except a
judicial office, under the authority of this state,
given by the General Assembly, or the people,
shall be void.
Sec. 15. The General Assembly may in-
crease, or diminish, the number of judges of the
supreme court, the number of the districts of the
court of common pleas, the number of judges in
any district, change the districts, or the subdi-
visions thereof, or establish other courts, when-
ever two-thirds of the members elected to each
house shall concur therein, but no change, addi-
tion, or diminution, shall vacate the office of
Sec. 16. There shall be elected in each
county, by the electors thereof, one clerk of the
court of common pleas, who shall hold his office
for the term of three years, and until his suc-
cessor shall be elected and qualified. He shall,
by virtue of his office, be clerk of all other courts
of record held therein ; but the General Assembly
may provide, by law, for the election of a clerk,
^22 HISTORY OF OHIO.
with a like term of office, for each or any other
of the courts of record, and may authorize the
judge of the probate court to perform the duties
of clerk for his court, under such regulations a&
may be directed by law. Clerks of courts shall
be removable for such cause and in such manner
as shall be prescribed by law.
Sec. 17. Judges may be removed from office,
by concurrent resolutions of both houses of the
General Assembly, if two-thirds of the members
elected to each house concur therein ; but no such
removal shall be made, except on complaint, the
substance of which shall be entered on the jour-
nal, nor, until the party charged shall have had
notice thereof, and an opportunity to be heard.
Sec. 18. The several judges of the supreme
court, (of the circuit court), of the common pleas
(court), and of such other courts as may be cre-
ated, shall, respectively, have and exercise such
powers and jurisdiction, at chambers, or other-
wise, as may be directed by law.
Sec. 19. The General Assembly may estab-
lish courts of conciliation, and prescribe their
powers and duties ; but such courts shall not ren-
der final judgment in any case, except upon sub-
mission, by the parties, of the matter in dispute,
and their agreement to abide by such judgment.
Sec. 20. The style of all process shall be
"The State of Ohio;'' all prosecutions shall be
CONSTITUTION OF OHIO. 223
carried on in the name, and by the authority
of the State of Ohio; and all indictments shall
conclude, "against the peace and dignity of the
State of Ohio.''
Sec. 22. (21.) A commission, which shall
consist of five members, shall be appointed by the
governor, with the advice and consent of the Sen-
ate, the members of which shall hold office for
the term of three years from and after the first
day of February, 1876, to dispose of such part
of the business then on the dockets of the su-
preme court as shall, by arrangement between
said commission and said court, be transferred
to such commission; and said commission shall
have like jurisdiction and power in respect to
such business as are or may be vested in said
court ; and the members of said commission shall
receive a like compensation for the time being
with the judges of said court. A majority of the
members of said commission shall be necessary
to form a quorum or pronounce a decision, and
its decision shall be certified, entered, and en-
forced as the judgments of the supreme court;
and at the expiration of the term of said com-
mission all business undisposed of shall by it
be certified to the supreme court, and disposed
of as if said commission had never existed. The
clerk and reporter of said coart shall be the clerk
and reporter of said commission, and the com-
224 HISTORY OF OHIO.
mission shall have such other attendants, not
exceeding in number those provided by law for
said court, which attendants said commission
may appoint and remove at its pleasure. Any
vacancy occurring in said commission shall be
filled by appointment of the governor, Avitli the
advice and consent of the Senate, if the Senate
be in session ; and if the Senate be not in session,
by the governor; but in such last case, such ap-
pointment shall expire at the end of the next
session of the General Assembly. The General
Assembly may, on application of the supreme
court, duly entered upon the journal of the court
and certified, provide by law, whenever two-
thirds of each house shall concur therein, from
time to time, for the appointment in like man-
ner of a like commission, with like powers, juris-
diction, and duties; provided that the term of
any such commission shall not exceed two years,
nor shall it be created oftener than once in ten
years. (As adopted October 12, 1875 ; 72 v. 269.)
Section 1. Every white male citizen of the
United States of the age of twenty-one years, who
shall have been a resident of the state one year
next preceding the election, and of the county,
CONSTITUTION OF OHIO. 225
township, or ward, in which he resides, such time
as may be provided by law, shall have the quali-
fications of an elector, and be entitled to vote at
Sec. 2. All elections shall be by ballot.
Sec. 3. Electors during their attendance at
elections, and in going to, and returning there-
from, shall be privileged from arrest, in all cases,
except treason, felony and breach of the peace.
Sec. 4. The General Assembly shall have
power to exclude from the privilege of voting,
or of being eligible to office, any person convict-
ed of bribery, perjury, or other infamous crime.
Sec. 5. No person in the military, naval, or
marine service of the United States shall, by be-
ing stationed in any garrison, or military, or
naval station, within the state, be considered a
resident of this state.
Sec. 6. No idiot or insane person shall be
entitled to the privileges of an elector.
Section 1. The principal of all funds aris*
ing from the sale or other disposition of lands
or other property granted or entrusted to thi^
state for educational or religious purposes, shall
forever be preserved inviolate and undiminished ;
226 HISTORY OF OHIO.
and the income arising therefrom shall be faith-
fully applied to the specific objects of the orig-
inal grants or appropriations.
Sec. 2. The General Assembly shall make
such provisions, by taxation or otherwise, as,
with the income arising from the school trust
fund, will secure a thorough and efficient sys-
tem of common schools throughout the state, but
no religious or other sect or sects shall ever have
any exclusive right to, or control of, any part of
the school funds of this state.
Section 1. Institutions for the benefit of
the insane, blind, and deaf and dumb, shall al-
ways be fostered and supported b^^ the state ; and
be subject to such regulations as may be pre-
scribed by the General Assembly.
Sec. 2. The directors of the penitentiary
shall be appointed or elected in such manner
as the General Assembly may direct; and the
trustees of the benevolent and other state insti-
tutions now elected by the General Assembly, and
of such other state institutions as may be here-
after created, shall be appointed by the governor,
by and with the advice and consent of the Sen-
ate ; and upon all nominations made by the gov-
CONSTITUTION OF OHIO. 22^
ernor, the question shall be taken by yeas and
nays, and entered npon the journals of the Sen-
Sec. 3. The governor shall have power to fill
all vacancies that may occur in the offices afore-
saidj until the next session of the General As-
semblyj and until a successor to his appointee
shall be confirmed and qualified.
PUBLIC DEBT AND PUBLIC V^ORKS.
Section 1. The state may contract debts to
supply casual deficits or failures in revenues, or
to meet expenses not otherwise provided for ; but
the aggregate amount of such debts, direct or
contingent, whether contracted by virtue of one
or more acts of the General Assembly, or at dif-
ferent periods of time, shall never exceed seven
hundred and fifty thousand dollars; and the
money arising from the creation of such debts
shall be applied to the purpose for which it was
obtained, or to repay the debts so contracted,
and to no other purpose whatever.
Sec. 2. In addition to the above limited
power, the state may contract debts to repel in-
vasion, suppress insurrection, defend the state in
war, or to redeem the present outstanding in-
debtedness of the state J but the money arising
228 HISTORY OF OHIO.
from the contracting of such debts shall be ap-
plied to the purpose for which it was raised, or
to repay such debts, and to no other purpose
whatever; and all debts incurred to redeem the
present outstanding indebtedness of the state,
shall be so contracted as to be payable by the
sinking fund, hereinafter provided for, as the
same shall accumulate.
Sec. 3. Except the debts above specified in
sections one and two of this article, no debt
whatever shall hereafter be created by or on be-
half of the state.
Sec. 4. The credit of the state shall not, in
any manner, be given or loaned to, or in aid of,
any individual, association, or corporation what-
ever ; nor shall the state ever hereafter become
a joint owner or stockholder in any company or
association in this state« or elsewhere, formed
for any purpose whatever.
Sec. 5. The state shall never assume the
debts of any county, city, town or township, or of
any corporation whatever, unless such debt shall
have been created to repel invasion, suppress in-
surrection, or defend the state in war.
Sec. 6. The General Assembly shall never
authorize any county, city, town, or township, by
vote of its citizens or otherwise, to become a
stockholder in any joint stock company, corpor-
ation or association whatever ; or to raise mone^
CONSTITUTION OF OHIO. 22^
for^ or loan its credit to^ or in aid of, any such
company, corporation, or association.
Sec. 7. The faith of the state being pledged
for the payment of its public debt, in order to
provide therefor there shall be created a sink-
ing fund, which shall be suflflcient to pay the
accruing interest on such debt, and annually, to
reduce the principal thereof, by a sum not less
than one hundred thousand dollars, increased
yearly, and each and every year, by compound-
ing, at the rate of six per cent per annum. The
said sinking fund shall consist of the net annual
income of the public works and stocks owned by
the state, or anj^ other funds or resources that
are, or may be, provided by law, and of such fur-
ther sum, to be raised by taxation, as may be re-
quired for the purposes aforesaid.
Sec. 8. The auditor of state, secretary of
state, and attorney-general are hereby created a
board of commissioners, to be styled ^^The Com-
missioners of the Sinking Fund.''
Sec. 9. The commissioners of the sinking
fund shall, immediately preceding each regular
session of the General Assembly, make an esti-
mate of the probable amount of the fund, pro-
vided for in the seventh section of this article,
from all sources except from taxation, and re-
port the same, together with all their proceed-
ings relative to said fund and the public debt,
230 HISTORY OF OHIO.
to the governor^ who shall transmit the same
with his regular message to the General Assem-
bly; and the General Assembly shall make all
necessary provision for raising and disbursing
said sinking fund^ in pursuance of the provis-
ions of this article.
Sec. 10. It shall be the duty of the said com-
missioners faithfully to apply said fund, to-
gether with all moneys that may be, by the Gen-
eral Assembly, appropriated to that object, to
the payment of the interest, as it becomes due,
and the redemption of the principal of the public
debt of the state, excepting only the school and
trust funds held by the state.
Sec. 11. The said commissioners shall, semi-
annually, make a full and detailed report of their
proceedings to the governor, who shall immedi-
ately cause the same to be published, and shall
also communicate the same to the General As-
sembly forthwith, if it be in session, and if not,
then at its first session after such report shall
Sec. 12. So long as this state shall have pub-
lic works which require superintendence, there
shall be a board of public works, to consist of
three members, who shall be elected by the peo-
ple at the first general election after the adop-
tion of this constitution, one for the term of one
year, one for the term of two years, and one for
CONSTITUTION OF OHIO. 23 1
the term of three years ; and one member of said
board shall be elected annually thereafter, who
shall hold his office for three years.
Sec. 13. The powers and duties of said
board of public works, and its several members,
and their compensation, shall be such as are
now, or may be, prescribed by law.
Section 1. All white male citizens, residents
of this state, being eighteen years of age, and
under the age of forty-five years, shall be en-
rolled in the militia, and perform military duty,
in such manner, not incompatible with the con-
stitution and laws of the United Staes, as may
be prescribed by law.
Sec. 2. Majors general, brigadiers general,
colonels, lieutenant colonels, majors, captains,
and subalterns shall be elected by the persons
subject to military duty, in their respective dis-
Sec. 3. The governor shall appoint the adju-
tant-general, quartermaster-general, and such
other staff officers as may be provided for by
law. Majors general, brigadiers genej'al, col-
onels, or commandants of regiments, battalions,
or squadrons, shall, severally, appoint their staff,
2^2 HISTORY OF OHIO.
and captains shall appoint their non-commis-
sioned officers and musicians.
Sec. 4. The governor shall commission all
officers of the line and staff, ranking as such;
and shall have power to call forth the militia,
to execute the laws of the state, to suppress in-
surrection, and repel invasion
Sec. 5. The General Assembly shall provide,
by law, for the protection and safekeeping of
the public arms.
COUNTY AND TOWNSHIP ORGANIZATIONS.
Section 1. The General Assembly shall pro-
vide, by law, for the election of such county and
township officers as may be necessary.
Sec. 2. County officers shall be elected on
the first Tuesday after the first Monday in No-
vember, by the electors of each county, in such
manner and for such term, not exceeding three
years, as may be provided by law. (As amended
October 13, 1885; 82 v. 446.)
Sec. 3. No person shall be eligible to the
office of sheriff or county treasurer for more
than four years, in any period of six years.
Sec. 4. Township officers shall be elected
by the electors of each township at such time, in
such manner, and for such term, not exceeding
three years, as may be provided by law ; but shall
CONSTITUTION OF OHIO. 233
hold their offices until their successors are
elected and qualified. (As amended October 13,
1885; 82 v. 449.)
Sec. 5. No money shall be drawn from any
county or township treasury, except by authority
Sec. 6. Justices of the peace, and county and
township officers, may be removed in such man-
ner, and for such cause, as shall be prescribed
Sec. 7. The commissioners of counties, the
trustees of townships, and similar boards, shall
have such power of local taxation for police pur-
poses, as may be prescribed by law.
Section 1. The apportionment of this state
for members of the General Assembly shall be
made every ten years, after the year one thou-
sand eight hundred and fifty-one, in the follow-
ing manner : The whole population of the state,
as ascertained by the federal census, or in such
other mode as the General Assembly may di-
rect, shall be divided by the number "one hun-
dred,'' and the quotient shall be the ratio of rep-
resentation in the House of Representatives, for
the ten years next succeeding such apportion-
234 HISTORY OF OHIO.
Sec. 2. Every county having a population
equal to one-half of said ratio shall be entitled
to one representative; every county, containing
such ratio, and three-fourths over, shall be en-
titled to two representatives; every county con-
taining three times said ratio, shall be entitled to
three representatives, and so on, requiring after
the first two, an entire ratio for each additional
Sec. 3. When any county shall have a frac-
tion above the ratio, so large, that being multi-
plied by five, the result will be equal to one or
more ratios, additional representatives shall be
apportioned for such ratios, among the several
sessions of the decennial period, in the follow-
ing manner : If ,there be only one ratio, a repre-
sentative shall be allotted to the fifth session of
the decennial period; if there are two ratios, a
representative shall be allotted to the fourth and
third sessions, respectively ; if three, to the third,
second and first sessions, respectively ; if four,
to the fourth, third, second, and first sessions,
Sec. 4. Any county forming with another
county, or counties, a representative district,
during one decennial period, if it have acquired
sufficient population at the next decennial
period, shall be entitled to a separate represen-
tation, if there shall be left, in the district from
CONSTITUTION OF OHIO. 235
which it shall have been separated, a population
sufficient for a representative; but no such
change shall be made except at the regular de-
cennial period for the apportionment of repre-
Sec. 5. If, in fixing any subsequent ratio, a
county, previously entitled to separate repre-
sentation, shall have less than the number re-
quired by the new ratio for a representative,
such county shall be attached to the county ad-
joining it, having the least number of inhabi-
tants; and the representation of the district, so
formed, shall be determined as herein provided.
Sec. 6. The ratio for a senator shall forever,
hereafter, be ascertained by dividing the whole
population of the state by the number thirty-
Sec. 7. The state is hereby divided into
thirty-three senatorial districts, as follows : The
county of Hamilton shall constitute the first sen-
atorial district ; the counties of Butler and War-
ren the second; Montgomery and Preble the
third ; Clermont and Brown the fourth ; Greene,
Clinton and Fayette the fifth; Ross and High-
land the sixth ; Adams, Pike, Scioto and Jackson
the seventh ; Lawrence, Gallia, Meigs and Vinton
the eighth; Athens, Hocking and Fairfield the
ninth ; Franklin and Pickaway the tenth ; Clark,
Champaign and Madison the eleventh; Miami,
23b HISTORY OF OHIO.
Darke and Shelby the twelfth; Logan, Union,
Marion and Hardin the thirteenth; Washington
and Morgan the fourteenth; Muskingum and
Perry the fifteenth; Delaware and Licking the
sixteenth; Knox and Morrow the seventeenth;
Coshocton and Tuscarawas the eighteenth;
Guernsey and Monroe the nineteenth; Belmont
and Harrison the twentieth; Carroll and Stark
the twenty-first; Jefferson and Columbiana the
twenty-second; Trumbull and Mahoning the
twenty-third; Ashtabula, Lake and Geauga the
twenty- fourth ; Cuyahoga the twenty-fifth ; Port-
age and Summit the twenty-sixth; Medina and
Lorain the twenty-seventh; Wayne and Holmes
the twenty-eighth; Ashland and Richland the
twenty-ninth; Huron, Erie, Sandusky and Ot-
tawa the thirtieth ; Seneca, Crawford and Wyan-
dot, the thirty-first; Mercer, Auglaize, Allen,
Van Wert, Paulding, Defiance and Williams the
thirty-second; and Hancock, Wood, Lucas, Ful-
ton, Henry and Putnam the thirty-third. For
the first decennial period, after the adoption of
this constitution, each of said districts shall be
entitled to one senator, except the first district,
which shall be entitled to three senators.
Sec. 8. The same rules shall be applied in
apportioning the fractions of senatorial dis-
tricts, and in annexing districts, which may
hereafter have less than three-fourths of a sena-
CONSTITUTION OF OHIO. ^37
torial ratio, as are applied to representative dis-
Sec. 9. Any county forming part of a sena-
torial district, having acquired a population
equal to a full senatorial ratio, shall be made a
separate senatorial district at any regular de-
cennial apportionment, if a full senatorial ratio
shall be left in the district from which it shall
Sec. 10. For the first ten years after the year
one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one, the
apportionment of representatives shall be as
provided in the schedule, and no change shall
ever be made in the principles of representa-
tion as herein established, or in the senatorial
districts, except as above provided All territory
belonging to a county at the time of any appor-
tionment shall, as to the right of representation
and suffrage, remain an integral part thereof
during the decennial period.
Sec. 11. The governor, auditor and secre-
tary of state, or any two of them, shall, at least
six months prior to the October election, in the
year one thousand eight hundred and sixty-one,
and at each decennial period thereafter, ascer-
tain and determine the ratio of representation,
according to the decennial census, the number
of representatives and senators each county or
district shall be entitled to elect, and for what
238 HISTORY OF OHIO.
years, within the next ensuing ten years, and the
governor shall cause the same to be published,
in such manner as shall be directed by law.
Sec. 12. For judicial purposes, the state shall
be apportioned as follows :
The county of Hamilton shall constitute the
first district, which shall not be subdivided ; and
the judges therein may hold separate courts or
separate sittings of the same court at the same
The counties of Butler, Preble and Darke
shall constitute the first subdivision; Montgom-
ery, Miami and Champaign the second; and
Warren, Clinton, Greene and Clark the third
subdivision of the second district ; and, together,
shall form such district.
The counties of Shelby, Auglaize, Allen, Har-
din, Logan, Union and Marion shall constitute
the first subdivision; Mercer, Van Wert, Put-
nam, Paulding, Defiance, Williams, Henry and
Fulton the second ; and Wood, Seneca, Hancock,
Wyandot and Crawford the third subdivision
of the third district; and, together, shall form
The counties of Lucas, Ottawa, Sandusky,
Erie and Huron shall constitute the first sub-
division; Lorain, Medina and Summit the sec-
CONSTITUTION OF OHIO. 239
end ; and the county of Cuyahoga the third sub-
division of the fourth district; and, together,
shall form such district.
The counties of Clermont, Brown and Ad-
ams shall constitute the first subdivision ; High-
land, Ross and Fayette, the second; and Pick-
away, Franklin and Madison the third subdi-
vision of the fifth district; and, together, shall
form such district.
The counties of Licking, Knox and Dela-
ware shall constitute the first subdivision ; Mor-
row, Richland and Ashland the second; and
Wayne, Holmes and Coshocton the third subdi-
vision of the sixth district; and, together, shall
form such district.
The counties of Fairfield, Perry and Hocking
shall constitute the first subdivision; Jackson,
Vinton, Pike, Scioto and Lawrence the second;
and Gallia, Meigs, Athens and Washington the
third subdivision of the seventh district; and,
together, shall form such district.
The counties of Muskingum and Morgan
shall constitute the first subdivision; Guernsey,
Belmont and Monroe the second; and Jefferson,
Harrison and Tuscarawas the third subdivision
of the eighth district; and, together, shall form
The counties of Stark, Carroll and Columbi-
ana shall constitute the first subdivision ; Trum-
240 HISTORY OF OHIO.
bull^ Portage and Mahoning the second; and
Geauga^ Lake and Ashtabula the third subdivis-
ion of the ninth district; and, together, shall
form such district.
Sec. 13. The General Assembly shall attach
any new counties that may hereafter be erected
to such districts or subdivisions thereof as shall
be most convenient.
FINANCE AND TAXATION.
Section 1. The levying of taxes by the poll
is grievous and oppressive; therefore, the Gen-
eral Assembly shall never levy a poll tax for
county or state purposes.
Sec. 2. Laws shall be passed taxing by a
uniform rule all moneys, credits, investments
in bonds, stocks, joint stock companies, or other-
wise; and also all real and personal property ac-
cording to its true value in money ; but burying
grounds, public school houses, houses used ex-
clusively for public worship, institutions of
purely public charity, public property used ex-
clusively for public purposes, and personal prop-
erty to an amount not exceeding in value two
hundred dollars, for each individual may, by gen-
eral laws, be exempted from taxation; but all
^uch laws shall be subject to alteration or re^
CONSTITUTION OF OHIO. 241
peal; and the value of all property so exempted
shall, from time to time, be ascertained and pub-
lished, as may be directed by laAV.
Sec. 3. The General Assembly shall provide
by law for taxing the notes and bills discounted
or purchased, moneys loaned, and all other prop-
erty, effects or dues, of every description, with-
out deduction, of all banks now existing, or here-
after created, and of all bankers, so that all prop-
erty employed in banking shall always bear a
burden of taxation equal to that imposed on the
property of individuals.
Sec. 4. The General Assembly shall provide
for raising revenue sufficient to defray the ex-
penses of the state for each year, and also a suf-
ficient sum to pay the interest on the state debt.
Sec. 5. No tax shall be levied except in pur-
suance of law; and every law imposing a tax
shall state distinctly the object of the same, to
which only it shall be applied.
Sec. 6. The state shall never contract any
debt for purposes of internal improvement.
Section 1. The General Assembly shall pass
no special act conferring corporate powers.
Sec. 2. Corporations may be formed under
242 HISTORY OF OHIO.
general laws ; but all such laws may, from time
to time, be altered or repealed.
Sec. 3. Dues from corporations shall be se-
cured, by such individual liability of the stock-
holders, and other means, as may be prescribed
by law; but in all cases each stockholder shall
be liable, over and above the stock by him or her
owned, and any amount unpaid thereon, to a fur-
ther sum at least equal in amount to such stock.
Sec. 4. The property of corporations now ex-
isting or hereafter created, shall forever be sub-
ject to taxation, the same as property of indi-
Sec. 5. No right of way shall be appropri-
ated to the use of any corporation until full com-
pensation therefor be first made in money, or
first secured by a deposit of money to the owner,
irrespective of any benefit from any improve-
ment proposed by such corporation, which com-
pensation shall be ascertained by a jury of twelve
men, in a court of record, as shall be prescribed
Sec. 6. The General Assembly shall provide
for the organization of cities and incorporated
villages, by general laws, and restrict their power
of taxation, assessment, borrowing money, con-
tracting debts and loaning their credit, so as to
prevent the abuse of such power.
Sec. 7. No act of the General Assembly;, au-
CONSTITUTION OF OHIO. 243
thorizing associations with banking powers,
shall take effect until it shall be submitted to the
people, at the general election next succeeding
the passage thereof, and be approved by a ma-
jority of all the electors voting at such election.
Section 1. The General Assembly, at its
first session after the adoption of this constitu-
tion, shall provide for the appointment of three
commissioners, and prescribe their tenure of of-
fice, compensation, and the mode of filling vacan-
cies in said commission.
Sec. 2. The said commissioners shall revise,
reform, simplify, and abridge the practice,
pleadings, forms, and proceedings of the courts
of record of this state; and, as far as practica-
ble and expedient, shall provide for the abolition
of the distinct forms of action at law now in use,
and for the administration of justice by a uni-
form mode of proceeding without reference to
any distinction between law and equity.
Sec. 3. The proceedings of the commission-
ers shall, from time to time, be reported to the
General Assembly, and be subject to the action
of that body.
244 HISTORY OF OHIO.
Section 1. Columbus shall be the seat of
government until otherwise directed by law.
Sec. 2. The printing of the laws, journals,
bills, legislative documents and papers for each
branch of the General Assembly, with the print-
ing required for the executive and other depart-
ments of state, shall be let on contract to the
lowest responsible bidder, by such executive offi-
cers, and in such manner, as shall be prescribed
Sec. 3. An accurate and detailed statement
of the receipts and expenditures of the public
money, the several amounts paid, to whom, and
on what account, shall, from time to time, be
published, as shall be prescribed by law.
Sec. 4. No person shall be elected or ap-
pointed to any office in this state unless he pos-
sesses the qualification of an elector.
Sec. 5. No person who shall hereafter fight
a duel, assist in the same as second, or send, ac-
cept, or knowingly carry a challenge therefor,
shall hold any office in this state.
Sec. 6. Lotteries, and the sale of lottery
tickets, for any purpose whatever, shall forever
be prohibited in this state.
CONSTITUTION OF OHIO. 245
Sec. 7. Every person chosen or appointed to
any office under this state, before entering upon
the discliarge of its duties, shall take an oath or
affirmation to support the constitution of the
United States, and of this state, and also an oath
Sec. 8. There may be established, in the sec-
retary of state's office, a bureau of statistics,
under such regulations as may be prescribed by
Sec. 9. No license to traffic in intoxicating
liquors shall hereafter be granted in this state;
but the General x\ssembly may, by law, provide
against evils resulting therefrom.
Section 1. Either branch of the General
Assembly may propose amendments to this con-
stitution ; and, if the same shall be agreed to by
three-fifths of the members elected to each house,
such proposed amendments shall be entered on
the journals, with the yeas and nays, and shall
be published in at least one newspaper In each
county of the state, where a newspaper is pub-
lished, for six months preceding the next elec-
tion for senators and representatives, at which
time the same shall be submitted to the electors
246 HISTORY OF OHIO.
for their approval or rejection ; and if a majority
of the electors voting at such election shall adopt
such amendments, the same shall become a part
of the constitution. When more than one amend-
ment shall be submitted at the same time, they
shall be so submitted as to enable the electors to
vote on each amendment separately.
Sec. 2. Whenever two-thirds of the mem-
bers elected to each branch of the General As-
sembly shall think it necessary to call a conven-
tion to revise, amend, or change this constitu-
tion, they shall recommend to the electors to
vote, at the next election for members to the
General Assembly, for or against a convention;
and if a majority of all the electors voting at
said election shall have voted for a convention,
the General Assembly shall, at their next ses-
sion, provide, by law, for calling the same. The
convention shall consist of as many members as
the House of Kepresentatives, who shall be
chosen in the same manner, and shall meet
within three months after their election, for the
Sec. 3. At the general election to ,be held
in the year one thousand eight hundred and sev-
enty-one, and in each twentieth year thereafter,
the question: ^^Shall there be a convention to
revise, alter, or amend the constitution?'' shall
be submitted to the electors of the state ; and in
CONSTITUTION OF OHIO, 247
case a majority of all the electors voting at such
election shall decide in favor of a convention, the
General Assembly at its next session shall pro-
vide, by law, for the election of delegates, and
the assembling of such convention, as is provided
in the preceding section; but no amendment of
this constitution, agreed upon by any convention
assembled in pursuance of this article, shall take
effect until the game shall have been submit-
ted to the electors of the state, and adopted by
a majority of those voting thereon.
Sec. 1. All laws of this state, m force on
the first day of September, one thousand eight
hundred and fifty-one, not inconsistent with
this constitution, shall continue in force until
amended or repealed.
Sec. 2. The first election for members of the
General Assembly, under this constitution, shall
be held on the second Tuesday of October, one
thousand eight hundred and fifty-one.
Sec. 3. The first election for governor, lieu-
tenant-governor, auditor, treasurer, and secre-
tary of state, and attorney-general, shall be held
on the second Tuesday of October, one thousand
eight hundred and fifty-one. The persons holding
said offices on the first day of September, one
thousand eight hundred and fifty-one, shall con-
248 HISTORY OF OHIO.
tinue therein until the second Monday of Janu-
ary^ one thousand eight hundred and fifty-two.
Sec. 4. The first election for judges of the
supreme court, courts of common pleas, and pro-
bate courts, and clerks of the courts of common
pleas, shall be held on the second Tuesday of Oc-
tober, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one,
and the official term of said judges and clerks,
so elected, shall commence on the second Mon-
day of February, one thousand eight hundred
and fifty-two. Judges and clerks of the courts
of common pleas and supreme court, in office on
the first day of September, one thousand eight
hundred and fifty-one, shall continue in office
with their present powers and duties, until the
second Monday of February, one thousand eight
hundred and fifty-two. No suit or proceeding
pending in any of the courts of this state shall
be affected by the adoption of this constitution.
Sec. 5. The register and receiver of the land
office, directors of the penitentiary, directors of
the benevolent institutions of the state, the state
librarian, and all other officers, not otherwise
provided for in this constitution, in offipe on
the first day of September, one thousand eight
hundred and fifty-one, shall continue in office
until their terms expire, respectively, unless the
General Assembly shall otherwise provide.
Sec. 6. The superior and commercial courts
CONSTITUTION OF OHIO. 249
of Oincinnati, and the superior court of Cleve-
land, shall remain, until otherwise provided by
law, with their present powers and jurisdiction ;
and the judges and clerks of said courts, in office
on the first day of September, one thousand eight
hundred and fifty-one, shall continue in office
until the expiration of their terms of office, re-
spectively, or until otherwise provided by law;
but neither of said courts shall continue after the
second Monday of February, one thousand eight
hundred and fifty- three; and no suits shall be
commenced in said two first mentioned courts
after the second Monday in February, one thou-
sand eight hundred and fifty- two; nor in said
mentioned courts after the second Monday in
August, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-
two ; and all business in either of said courts, not
disposed of within the time limited for their con-
tinuance as aforesaid, shall be transferred to the
court of common pleas.
Sec. 7. All county and township officers and
justices of the peace, in office on the first day of
September, one thousand eight hundred and
fifty-one, shall continue in office until their terms
Sec. 8. Vacancies in office, occurring after
the first day of September, one thousand eight
hundred and fifty-one, shall be filled, as is now
prescribed by law, and until officers are elected
250 HISTORY OF OHIO.
or appointed, and qualified under this constitu-
Sec. 9. This constitution shall take effect on
the first day of September, one thousand eight
hundred and fifty-one.
Sec. 10. All officers shall continue in office
until their successors shall be chosen and quali-
Sec. 11. Suits pending in the supreme court
in bank, shall be transferred to the supreme
court provided for in this constitution, and be
proceeded in according to law.
Sec. 12. The district courts shall, in their
respective counties, be the successors of the pres-
ent supreme court; and all suits, prosecutions,
judgments, records and proceedings, pending
and remaining in said supreme court, in the sev-
eral counties of any district, shall be trans-
ferred to the respective district courts of such
counties, and be proceeded in as though no
change had been made in said supreme court.
Sec. 13. The said courts of common pleas
shall be the successors of the present courts of
common pleas in the several counties, except as
to probate jurisdiction; and all suits, prosecu-
tions, proceedings, records and judgments, pend-
ing or being in said last mentioned courts, ex-
cept as aforesaid, shall be transferred to the
courts of common pleas created by this consti-
CONSTITUTION OF OHIO. 25 T
tution, and proceeded in as though the same had
been therein instituted.
Sec. 14. The probate courts provided for in
this constitution^ as to all matters within the
jurisdiction conferred upon said courts, shall be
the successors, in the several counties, of the
present courts of common pleas ; and the records,
files and papers, business and proceedings, ap-
pertaining to said jurisdiction, shall be trans-
ferred to said courts of probate, and be there pro-
ceeded in according to law.
Sec. 15. Until otherwise provided by law,
elections for judges and clerks shall be held, and
the poll-books returned, as is provided for gov-
ernor, and the abstract therefrom, certified to
the secretary of state, shall be by him opened in
the presence of the governor, who shall declare
the result, and issue commissions to the persons
Sec. 16. Where two or more counties are
joined in a senatorial, representative, or judicial
district, the returns of elections shall be sent to
the county having the largest population.
Sec. 17. The foregoing constitution shall be
submitted to the electors of the state, at an elec-
tion to be held on the. third Tuesday of June,
one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one, in the
several election districts of this state. The bal-
lots at each election shall be written or printed
252 HISTORY OF OHIO,
as follows: Those in favor of the constitution,
"New constitution, Yes;'' those against the con-
stitution, "New constitution, No." The polls at
said election shall be opened between the hours
of eight and ten o'clock a. m., and closed at six
o'clock p. m., and the said election shall be con-
ducted, and the returns thereof made and certi-
fied to the secretary of state, as provided by law
for annual elections of state and county officers.
Within twenty days after such election the secre-
tary of state shall open the*returns thereof in
the presence of the governor, and, if it shall ap-
pear that a majority of all the votes cast at such
election are in favor of the constitution, the gov-
ernor shall issue his proclamation stating that
fact and said constitution shall be the constitu-
tion of the State of Ohio, and not otherwise.
Sec. 18. At the time when the votes of the
electors shall be taken for the adoption or rejec-
tion of this constitution, the additional section,
in the words following, to-wit : "No license to
traffic in intoxicating liquors shall hereafter be
granted in this state ; but the General Assembly
may, by law, provide against evils resulting
therefrom," shall be separately submitted to the
electors for adoption or rejection, in form fol-
lowing, to-wit : A separate ballot may be given
by every elector and deposited in a separate box.
Upon the ballots given for said separate amend-
CONSTITUTION OF OHIO. 253
ment shall be written or printed, or partly writ-
ten and partly printed, the words : ^^License to
sell intoxicating liquors, Yes f and npon the bal-
lots given against said amendment, in like man-
ner, the words: ^^License to sell intoxicating
liquors, No.'' If, at the said election, a majority
of all the votes given for and against said amend-
ment shall contain the words ^^License to sell in-
toxicating liquors. No," then the said amend-
ment shall be a separate section of article fifteen
of the constitution.
Sec. 19. The apportionment for the House
of Eepresentatives during the first decennial
period under this constitution shall be as fol-
The counties of Adams, Athens, Auglaize,
Carroll, Champaign, Clark, Clinton, Crawford,
Darke, Delaware, Erie, Fayette, Gallia, Geauga,
Greene, Hancock, Harrison, Hocking, Holmes,
Lake, Lawrence, Logan, Madison, Marion, Meigs,
Morrow, Perry, Pickaway, Pike, Preble, San-
dusky, Scioto, Shelby and Union, shall, sever-
ally, be entitled to one representative in each
session of the decennial period.
The counties of Franklin, Licking, Montgom-
ery and Stark, sl^all each be entitled to two rep-
resentatives in each session of the decennial
The counties of Ashland, Coshocton, High-*
254 HISTORY OF OHIO.
land, Huroiij Lorain, Mahoning, Medina, Miami,
Portage, Seneca, Summit and Warren, shall, sev-
erally, be entitled to one representative in each
session, and one additional representative in the
fifth session of the decennial period.
The counties of Ashtabula, Brown, Butler,
Clermont, Fairfield, Guernsey, Jefferson, Knox,
Monroe, Morgan, Eichland, Trumbull, Tusca->
rawas and Washington, shall, severally, be en-
titled to one representative in each session, and
two additional representatives, one in the third
and one in the fourth session of the decennial
The counties of Belmont, Columbiana, Eoss
and Wayne, shall, severally, be entitled to one
representaive in each session, and three addi-
tional representatives, one in the first, one in the
second, and one in the third session of the decen-
The county of Muskingum shall be entitled
to two representatives in each session, and one
additional representative, one in the third, and
one in the fourth sessions of the decennial period.
The county of Hamilton shall be entitled to
seven representatives in each session, and four
additional representatives, one in the first, one
in the second, and one in the third, and one in
the fourth session of the decennial period.
The following counties, until they shall have
CONSTITUTION OF OHIO. 255
acquired a sufficient population to entitle them
to elect separately, under the fourth section of
the eleventh article, shall form districts in man-
ner following, to Avit: The counties of Jack-
son and Vinton, one district ; the counties of Lu-
cas and Fulton, one district; the counties of
Wyandot and Hardin, one district ; the counties
of Mercer and Van Wert, one district ; the coun-
ties of Paulding, Defiance and Willialns, one dis-
trict ; the counties of Putnam and Henry, one dis-
trict ; and the counties of Wood and Ottawa, one
district ; each of which districts shall be entitled
to one representative in every session of the de-
Done in convention, at Cincinnati, the tenth
day of March, in the year of our Lord one thou-
sand eight hundred and fifty-one, and of the in-
dependence of the United States the seventy-
William Medill^ President,
Attest : Wm. H. Gill^ Secretary.
CITIES, VIIvIvAGBS, POvSTOFFICKS AND STATIONS,
THIS Index gives the Population of all in-
corporated places in Ohio, as reported
in the United States Census of 1900. It
also gives the population of many other places,
not incorporated, as estimated by good local
authorities. These are marked "a," meaning
Air Line Junction. ,
Akron (c. h.)
POPULATION OF CITIES, VILLAGES, ETC
Allentown (Allen).... 100
Allentown (Fayette) . . 123
Alma .^ a75
Alum Creek Crossing
Amanda (Fairfield).. a469
Andersons Ferry a25
Andis r a25
-Archbold ;.... 958
Archers Fork a30
Arlington Heights... 360
Armstrongs Mills a50
Athens (c. h.) 3,066
HISTORY OF OHIO.
Atwater Center alOO
Augusta ■ a250
Avion . -.
Avon (P. O.) aoOP
Avondale (Coshocton) al30
Bachman ♦ alOO
Bakers Crossing .....
Barretts Mills a20
Barrs Mills alOO
Batavia (c. h.) 1,029
Beach City 364
Beasleys Fork a25
Becks Mills a25
POPULATION OF CITIES, VILLAGES, ETC.
Belle Center 962
Bellefontaine (c. h.).. 6,649
Belle Valley al50
Belle Vernon al75
Beloit ' a260
Benton ' a250
Benton Ridge 359
Berlin Center a500
Berlin Crossroads... a275
Berlin Heights (P. O.) 625
Berlin Heights (Sta.)
Bigsprings ' alOO
Big Walnut Siding
Birds Run a40
Black Dog Siding
Blake Mills a200
Bloom Center , alOO
HISTORY OF OHIO.
Bloomfield (Morrow) a60
. Bogart • a250
Bokes Creek alOO
Bolins Mills a20
Bowling Green (c. h.) 5,067
Brecksville (P. O.)... a250
Brighton (Lorain)... a50
Brimfield (P. O.).... al20
Bristol (Morgan) alO
Broadwell (Athens).. a25
Brookfield (P. O.)... a300
Brookfield (Station) '.
POPULATION OF CITIES, VILLAGES, ETC.
Brownhelm Station.. alOO
Brov/ns Mill a50
Brush Fork Junction
Bryan (c. h.) 3,131
Buchanan (Pike) a40
Buckeye City 247
Buckeye Cottage al60
Bucyrus (c. h.) 6,560
Burris . . ,',
Burton City ?B00
Burton Station. ...... a75
Bushs Mill a25
Cadiz (c. h.) 1,755
Cairo (Stark) a50
Caldwell (c. h.) 927
HISTORY OF OHIO,
Camp Dennison a292
Canaanville t a40
Canal Dover 5,422
Canal Fulton 1,172
Canal Lewisville a300
Canal Winchester.... 662
Cannons Creek Jc
Cannons- Mill a25
Canton (c. h.) 30,667
Captina (P. O.) alOO
Cardington 1 , 354
Carroll .r 223
Carrollton (c. h.).... 1,271
Cassville , a25
Catawba (P. O.) 231
Catawba Island aSOO
Cecil 326 .
Cedar Mills alOO
Cedar Valley (P. O.). alOO
Cedar Valley (Sta.)
Celina (c. h.) 2,815
Center (Lawrence) . . . a25
Center (Montgomery) al50
Center Belpre a25
Center Village al50
Central College a87
Chagrin Falls 1 , 586
Chardon (c. h.) 1,360
Charlestown (P. O.). a650
Charloe .,...,....,. aSO
POPULATION OF CITIES, VILLAGES, ETC.
Chase (Athens) a50
Cherry Valley al,000
Chester Crossroads.. a200
Chili (P. O.) a75
Chillicothe (c. h.).... 12,976
Chippewa Lake a200
Cincinnati (c. h.). .. .325,902
Circleville (c. h.) 6,991
Clark Corners a50
Clarks (Darke) ..,,,, , . . . .
Clarksville . . . . .^ 465
Clawson .' a50
Clay Center a35
Clearcreek (P. O.)... al65
Cleveland (c. h.) 381,768
Clinton (Huron) 186
Clinton (Summit). . . . a400
Coaldale (P. O.) a25
Cochrans , ,,,
HISTORY OF OHIO.
Colfax . .' :
College Corners 378
College Hill 1,104
College Hill Junction
Columbia Center. . . . a300
Columbia Station a75
Columbus (c. h.) 125,560
Columbus Grove. . . . 1,935
Commercial Point... 245
Conneaut 7 , 133
Continental 1 , 104
Conways . . . .'
Corning 1 ,401
Coshocton (c. h.) 6,473
Cove ' a25
Covington 1 , 791
Cranberry Prairie. . . . a50
POPULATION OF CITIES, VILLAGES, ETC.
Crown City 284
Crystal Spring a500
Cutler . . : a50
Cuyahoga Falls 3,186
Dague : . a75
Darlington (Richland) a300
Davis (Richland).... a75
Dayton (c. h.) 85,333
Dean (Montgomery). a200
Deavertown (P. O.). 154
Defiance (c. h.) 7,579
HISTO^^Y OF OHIO.
Degraff ^ 1,150
Delaware (c. h.) 7,940
Deucher . . .-
Deunquat » a200
Dexter City 278
Dilles Bottom i50
Dodds :.... alOO
Donnellsville (P. O.) 200
Dorninton (P. O.)... al25
Dove (Pike) a50
Dove (Cuyahoga; P.
Dover Bay a75
Dresden •. . . . 1,600
Dry Run (Columbi-
Dryrun (Scioto) a25
POPULATION OF CITIES, VILLAGES, ETC.
Duncan Falls a220
Dunkirk '. 1,222
Durbin (Mercer) alO
Duvall (Pickaway)... a25
Eagle City aloO
Eagle Cliff a50
Eagle Mills a50
East Carmel - alOO
East Claridon a400
East Cleveland 2,757
East Fairfield al75
East Greenville a650
East Greenwood alO
East Lewistown a75
East Liberty a300
East Liverpool 16,485
East Monroe al50
East Norwalk a300
East Orwell a200
East Palestine -. 2,493
East Plymouth alOO
East Richland alOO
East Ringgold a200
East Rochester a200
East Springfield (Jef-
East Townsend a200
East Trumbull al50
East Union a75
Eaton (c. h.) 3,155
Edinburg (P. O.)-... al50
.HISTORY OF OHIO.
Elida % 440
Elm Center a50
Elmira !... aT5
Elmville '. a40
Elmwood (Franklin). a25
Elmwood Place 2,532
Elyria (c. h.) 8,791
Emerald (Adams) a30
Enon (P. O.)........ 295
Evanston 1 , 716
Everett (Summit) a20
Excello .'!.*!*..*..*!.'!.' 'aSOO
Fair Grounds (Butler)
Fair Grounds (Gallia) .....
Fairport Harbor 2,073
POPULATION OF CITIES, VILLAGES, ETC.
Fargo (Morrow) a50
Farmers . Station a"200
Fayette (Fulton) 8.^6
Findlay (c. h.) 17,613
Flag • a50
Fletcher ' 375
Flints Mill a50
Florence (Erie; P.
Florence (Erie; Sta-
Forest (Hardin) 1,155
Fort Hill a25
Fort Jefferson a50
Fort Jennings 322
Fort Recovery 1,097
Fort Seneca (P. O.). a300
Fort Seneca (Station) .....
Fort Wayne Junction
Fowler (P. O.) . a500
Fowlers Mill a200
Fox Lake Junction
Franklin (Warren)... 2,724
Franklin Furnace. . . . a75
Franklin Square a250
HISTORY OF. OHie.
Franklin Station a200
Frederick (Mahoning) alO
Freedom a 150
Freedom Station aloO
Freeport (Harrison). 61)0
Freeport (Wood; see
Prairie Depot) 815
Fremont (c. h.) 8,439
Friendship ; al50
Gallipolis (c. h.) 5,432
Garfield ' a200
Garrettsville 1 , 145
Gates Mill a80
Geauga Lake a200
Georgetown (c. h.). . . 1,529
POPULATION OF CITIES, VILLAGES, ETC.
Glendale ^ 1,545
Glen Jean •
Glenwood (Noble)... alOO
Golden Corners a50
Gomer . . , al20
Goshen (Clermont) . . a300
Gould (Ashtabula)... a50
Grand Rapids 549
Grand River 332
Grand View (Frank-
Grant (Hardin) a30
Gravel Pit (Ashtabula) .
Gravel Pit (Clermont)
Gravel Pit (Hamilton)
Gravel Pit .(Ross)
Greenville (c. h.).... 5,501
Griffith (Monroe).... a50
Griggs Corners , a25
Grisier .- a25
Groesbeck . , a200
Grogan . , ,
Grosvenor (P, O.)
Grove City 656
Groveport .,,,....,, 619
HISTORY OF OHIO.
Hamburg (Fairfield). a25
Hamden Junction. . . . 838
Hamilton (Butler; c.
h.) ,. 23,914
Hancock (Perry) a25
Hanging Rock 665
Hanover (Licking) . , , 314
Hardin (P. O.) al25
Harlem Springs a230
Harpers Station a25
Harris (Gallia) a50
Harrisburg (Franklin) 247
Harrisburg (M o n t-
Harris Station a20
Hartford (Trumbull). 414
Hattonia .,,♦........ . - ♦ ^ ,
POPULATION OF CITIES, VILLAGES, ETC.
Hayesville (Ashland). 332
Hemlock Grove a75
Hennings Mill a75
UicksviUe ..,. 2,620
High Hill a50
Highland (Highland) 265
High Water a50
Hillsboro (c. h.) 4,535
Hills Station 75
Hiram P. 659
Home City..., 868
HISTORY OF OHIO.
Homer (Licking) a300
Hull Prairie al40
Hunter (Belmont)... a70
Huron Junction ^.
Huston .,....,..,.,, , . . . .
Ironton (c. h.) 11,868
Irwin (Union) alOO
Island Creek al5
Isle Saint George. ... .
Jackson (c. h.) 4,672
Jackson Center 644
Jacksonville 1 ,047
Jasper (Greene) . . . , ,
l^OPULATION OF CITIES, VILLAGES, ETC.
Jasper (Pike) a250
Jefferson (c. h.) 1,319
Jeromeville . . ., 308
Jerry City 555
Junction City 443
Kanauga '. . . .
Kelleys Island 1,174
Kennard (Champaign) al50
Kenton (c. h.) 6,852
Kerr (Gallia) a25
Kilbourne : al50
HISTORY OF OHIO.
Kings Creek aSOO
Kingston Center allO
Kinsman (P. O.).... a700
Kirkersville (P. O.).. a500
Kirkwood (Shelby).. alOO
Kitts Hill a25
Knox (Vintoii) a25
Laceyville . a30
Lafayette (Allen) 316
Lafayette (Madison). a250
Lagonda . ;
La Grange (Law-
Lagrange (Lorain) . . . 528
Lakeside Park a25
Lancaster (c. h.) 8,991
POPULATION OF CITIES, VILLAGES, ETC.
Lebanon (c. h.) 2,867
Leelan '. .'.V.V.V.V.V.V *ai66
Lees Creek al50
Leesville (Carroll)... 269
Leesville Cross Roads 178
Lena , al50
Leo '. . .. a70
Leon (Ashtabula) a65
Letart Falls a500
Lewis Center aSOO
Liberty Center 606
Liberty Corners alOO
Licking Valley a38
Lilly 'Chapel a200
Lima (c. h.) 21,723
Lime City a200
Limestone (Ottawa). . a50
Linton Mills a90
Lisbon (c. h.) 3,330
Little Hocking a300
Little Mountain a50
Little Sandusky 181
HISTORY OF OHIO.
Locust Corner a50
Locustgrove (Adams) al50
Locust Grove (Clark)
Logan (Hocking; c.
London (c. h.) 3,511
Long Bottom a250
Long Run (Jefferson)
Longrun (Licking).;. a50
Loramie . . , 444
Lordstown (P. O.).. a50
Lore City al50
Loveland (Clermont). 1,200
Loveland (M a h o n-
Lower Salem ■ 190
Lumberton . . . ., 150
Lybrand . .*
Lyme (Erie) ;
McArthur (c. h.).... 941
McConnellsville (c. h.) 1,825
POPULATION OF CITIES, VILLAGES, ETC.
Macedonia Depot. . . . al50
Madison (Lake) 768
Madison Mills al50
Magnetic Springs 194
Mansfield (c. h.) 17,640
Maplewood (Shelby). alOO
Maria Stein a205
Marietta (c. h.) 13,348
Marion (c. h.) 11,862
Marits ' a80
Mark Cente; a250
Martins Ferry 7,760
Marysville (c. h.).... 3,048
Mascot . .•
HISTORY OF OHIO.
Medina (c. h.). .-•
Messenger Junction. .
Miami (Hamilton) . . .
Middleport (P. O.)...
Middletown (P. O.).. 9,215
Middletown (Station). .,
Midway (Madison; see
Sedalia ) 274
Milford Center 682
Miller City 163
Millersburg (c. h.)... 1,998
Miller Station a20
Milton (Mahoning).. a20
Milton Center 325
POPULATION OF CITIES^ VILLAGES, ETC.
Mineral Springs (P.
Mineral Springs (Sta.)
Mingo Junction 2,954
Mohawk Valage a75
Monday Cr. Jc
Monroe (Butler) a375
Monroe (Jackson)... a25
Monroe Center a300
Monroe Mills a40
Montgomery (L i c k-
Moody i alOO
Moons : al50
Moorefield (Harrison) a200
Moores Fork a25
Morgan Center a50
Morning Sun al40
Morris (Seneca) a40
Moscow Mills alO
Moulton (Auglaize) . . al50
Mound (Coshocton).. a50
Mound (I^ ranklin)
Mount Blanchard.... 456
Mount Carmel a200
Mount Garrick alO
Mount Cory 312
Mount Eaton • 232
Mount Ephraim (P.
Mount Ephraim (Sta-
Mount Gilead (c. h.). 1,528
Mount Healthy 1 , 354
Mount Heron alOO
Mount Holly al80
Mount Joy a25
HISTORY OF OHIO.
Mount Liberty a200
Mount Olive a30
Mount Orab 561
Mount Perry al25
Mount Pisgah alOO
Mount Pleasant (Clin-
Mount Pleasant (Jef-
ferson; P. O.) 626
Mount Pleasant (Jef-
Mount Repose a50
Mount Saint Joseph
Mount Sterling 986
Mount Vernon (c. h.) 6,633
Mount Victory 734
Mount Washmgton.. 781
Mulberry Corners a200
Munroe Falls a25
Muskingum (W a s h-
Mutual , . 163
Myers (Stark; a25
Napoleon (c. h.) 3,639
National Road (iLck-
National Road (Mont-
Nebo (Defiance) a25
Neffffs '. a300
New Albany ,224
New Alexander a60
New Alexandria (P.
New Alexandria (Sta-
New Antioch al80
Newark (c. h.) 18,157
New Athens 435
New Baltimore a200
New Bavaria al25
New Bedford a400
New Berlin.... a500
(see Agosta) '399
POPULATION OF CITIES, VILLAGES, ETC.
New Boston a25
New Bremen 1,318
New Buffalo alOO
New Burlinp-ton a400
New California a50
New Carlisle 995
New Chambersburg. . a78
New Comerstown. . . . 2,659
New Concord 675
New Cumberland. . . . al50
New Dover all2
Newell Run a40
New England alOO
New Franklin a90
New Guilford a75
New Hagerstown al50
New Hampshire a200
New Harmony alOO
New Harrisburg alOO
New Holland 692
Newhope (Brown)... • a200
New Hope (Preble)
New Jasper a60
New Jerusalem a20
New Knoxville 436
New Lebanon (Mi-
ami; see Pottsdam) 224
New Lebanon (Mont-
Highland P. O.)... 265
(Perry; c. h.) 1,701
New London 1,180
New Lyme Station. . . a300
New Madison 590
New Martinsburg. . . . a200
New Matamoras 817
New Middletown a200
New Milford alOO
New Moorefield a250
New Moscow alOO
New Palestine alOO
New Paris 790
New Petersburg a232
New Philadelphia (c.
New Pittsburg a200
New Plymouth al80
New Portage a200
New Richland al40
New Richmond 1,916
New Riegel 298
New River , . .
New Rochester. a30
New Rumley a200
New Salem... 180
New Salem Siding
New Somerset a90
New Springfield a300
New Stark a90
New Straitsville 2,302
Newton Falls 732
New Vienna 805
New Washington 824
New Waterford a700
New Weston a75
New Winchester a95
HISTORY OF OHIO.
North Amherst 1 , 758
North Auburn alOO
North Baltimore 3,561
North Benton al25
North Berne a50
North Bloomfield (P.
North Bristol ^200
North Dover :. . a50
North Eaton ,. a50
North Fairfield a700
North Georgetown.. a240
North Greenfield a50
North Hampton a400
North Industry a200
North Jackson a400
North Kenova alOO
North Kingsville a350
North Lawrence al,200
North Lewisburg 846
North Liberty a200
North Lima......... a300
North Linndale a60
North Madison a50
North Monroeville. . . alOO
North Richmond a250
North Ridgeville a250
North Robinson 200
North Royalton a200
North Salem a50
North Sheffield a200
North Solon alOO
North Springfield a80
North Star alOO
North Uniontown a75
North Washington. . . a265
Northwest ; . . a25
Norwalk (c. h.) 7,074
Norwood (suburb of
Oak Harbor 1,631
Oakland (Clinton) ...
Ohio City 862
Oldtown (Greene) a25
Oldtpwn (Hocking). . .....
POPULATION OF CITIES^ VILLAGES^ ETC.
Olive Furnace a25
Olmsted Falls 330
Oneida Mills al50
Ottawa (c. h.) 2,322
Oval City al25
Qverpeck ..... , , a25
Overton . .
Oxtobys> . .
Painesville (c. h.) . .
Palmyra (P. O.)...
Palmyra (Station) .
Parma (P. O.)
Parma (Station) . . .
Pattons Run. ......
Paulding (c. h.)
HISTORY OF OHIO.
Paynes Corners a50
Peebles '..... 763
Pekin (Warren; a25
Perkins ' (Erie)
Perkins (Mahoning). a300
Pettisville' * .* .* .* .* .* '. '. .' .* ! 'aSOO
Piccolo , — , . a50
Pierce (Stark) a300
Plain City ' 1,432
Plattsville i,. al50
Pleasant City 1,006
Pleasant Corners a50
Pleasant Home al50
POPULATION OF CITIES, VILLAGES, ETC.
Pleasant Valley Com-
Point Isabel al25
Point Pleasant al25
Poland .. 370
Pomeroy (c. h.) 4,639
Poplarridge " a25
Port Clinton (c. h.).. 2,450
Porterfield . '.
Port Homer a20
Port Jefferson 355
Portland Station a300
Portsmouth (c. h.)... 17,870
Port Union a77
Port Washington.... 424
Port William 200
Powhatan Point a300
Prairie Depot a400
Pratts Fork a50
Quaker City 1,878
Ramey , . . .
HISTORY QF QHJQ.
Ravenna (c. h.)
Relief (Washington) .
Rexford , ,
Richfield Center alOO
Richmond (Jefferson) 373
Richmond (Lake; see
Grand River) 332
Richmond Center alOO
Rich Valley alO
Ridgeville Corners. . . al50
Rinard Mills a25
Ria Grande al25
Rio Grande al26
Ripley ^ 2,248
River Styx alOO
POPULATION OF CITIES, VILLAGES, ETC.
Rix Mills alOO
Rockport (P. O.).... 2,038
Rocky River 1,319
Rokeby Lock al8
Rome (Ashtabula) . . . al50
Rootstown (P. O.). . . a200
Rosedale (Madison). a200
Royal ,. a25
Saint Bernard 3,384
Saint Clair (Columbi-
HISTORY OF OHIO.
Saint Clair (Musking-
Saint Clairsville (c.
Saint Clairsville Jc
Saint Henry a700
Saint James a300
Saint Johns a350
Saint Joseph .- a40
Saint Louisville 285
Saint Martin al60
Saint Marys 5,359
Saint Paris 1,222
Saint Patricks a25
Saint Paul al5
Saint Peters alO
Saint Rosa a50
Saint Stephen a25
Salem Center a50
Saltillo (Holmes) a50
Sandrun /. alOO
Sand Run Junction
Santa Fe a25
Scipio Siding a25
Scott (Van \vert).... 547
Scroggsfield (P. O.). a25
Seven Mile Siding
POPULATION OF CITIES, VILLAGES, ETC.
Sharon (Noble) a275
Sharon Center a300
Sheffield (P. O.)
Sherman (Summit). . . alOO
Shyville . .' a25
Sidney (c. h.) 5,688
Silvercreek (Hardin). al50
Silver Creek (Medina)
Sinking Springs 238
Sixteen Mile Stand.. a25
Skeels Crossroads.... a25
Slate Mills a35
Smithville (P. O.).... 474
Snow Fork Junction
Samerset 1 , 124
HISTORY OF OHIO.
South Akron ". . .
South Bloomfield.... 223
South Bloomingville. alOO
South Brooklyn (sub-
urb of Cleveland).. 2,343
South Charleston 1 , 096
South Kirtland ,
South Lebanon a500
South Newbury al50
South New Lyme. . . . a300
South Olive al50
South Perry a20
South Salem 264
South Solon 319
South Thompson. . . . al50
South Warsaw a50
South Webster 445
Sparta (Morrow) 215
Spencers Station a60
Spencerville 1 ,874
Springfield (c. h.).... 38,253
Spring Mt alOO
Springville ' alOO
Stanley (see Standley) a50
■ Starkey ,
State Soldiers' Home
Station Fifteen a45
Steam Corners • a50
Steubenville (c. h.)... 14,349
POPULATION OF CITIES, VILLAGES, ETC.
Stonyridge t al50
Sugargrove (F a i r-
field) ^ 350
Sugar Grove (Mi-
Sugartree Ridge a200
Sugar Valley a25
Sulphur Springs a500
Summit (Summit).... alOO
Summit Grade Siding
Suuimit Station a20
Sunshine (P. O.).... a25
Sweetwine • a40
Sycamore Valley a20
Sylvania ". . 617
Symmes Corners alOO
HISTORY OF OHIO.
Taylors Creek a25
Temperanceville .... alOO
Terrace Park 290
The Bend alOO
Tiffin (c. h.) 10,989
Tippecanoe City 1,703
Toledo (c. h.) 131,822
Tontogany . . .* 352
Tracy ,. al30
Trail Run (Guernsey)
Trailrun (Monroe)... a25
Tremont City 279
Troy (c. h.> 5,881
Tunnel Hill (Mon-
Tunnel No. 1
Tunnel Siding (Bel-
Tunnel Siding (Perry)
Tuppers Plains alOO
Twentymile Stand.... a50
POPULATION OF CITIES^ VILLAGES^ ETC.
Tyrrell Hill 562
Union Furnace a200
Union Plains alOO
Union Station a50
Unionville Center 259
Upper Sandusky (c.
Urbana (c. h.) 6,808
Vales Mills a87
Valley Jc. (Hamilton)
Valley Jc. (Tuscara-
Vans Valley a35
Vanwert (c. h.) 6,422
Vernon Junction a60
Vienna Crossroads. . . a250
Vineyard Hill alOO
Vinton Station a200
Violet (Mercer) a25
Vorhees . , al50
HISTORY OF OHIO.
Waggoner Ripple. . . . a25
Wakatomika (M u s-
Wallace Mills a40
Warren (c. h.) 8,529
Washington (J a c k-
Washingtonville 1 , 092
Wauseon (c. h.) 2,148
Waverly (c. h.) 1,854
Weavers Corners. . . . a50
Weavers Station al50
Webb Summit a25
Wellsville Shop ,.
West Alexandria 740
West Andover a500
West Austintown a300
West Baltimore a3.50
West Bedford alOO
West Berlin alOO
West Brookfield a678
West Cairo 338
West Canaan a250
POPULATION OF CITIES, VILLAGES. ETC.
West Carlisle a300
West Carrollton 987
West Charleston al20
West Clarksfield alOO
West Dover a25
West Elkton 215
Western Star 148
West Farmington. . ., 516
West Florence a50
West Independence.. a200
West Jefferson 803
West Lafayette a500
West Lancaster a200
West Lebanon al50
West Leipsic 346
West Liberty 1,236
West Lodi a300
West Manchester 384
West Mansfield 875
West Mecca alOO
West Mentor a50
West Middleburg (see
West Millgrove 236
West Milton 904
Westminster (P. O.). a350
West Newton alOO
West Richfield a900
West Rushville 161
West Salem 656
West Sonora a200
West Union (c. h.).. 1,033
West Unity 897
Westview : . . . a200
West Wheeling 444
West Williamsfield. . . a930
West Woodville a50
Wharton (Wyandot). 439
White Sulphur a25
Williams Center alOO
Williamsport (P. O.)- 547
HISTORY OF OHIO.
Wills Creek alOO
Wilmington (c. h.)... 3,613
Wilson Mills al50
Winchester (Aaams). 796
see Gratis) 375
Windsor (Ashtabula). a300
Windsor Mills aSO
Wingett Run aSO
Winona ' al50
Wintersville a 100
Winton Place 1,219
Woodlawn . . . :
Woodsfield (c. h".).... 1,801
Wooster (c. h.) 6,063
Xenia (c. h.) 8,696
Yale - a75
Yellow Springs 1,371
Youba , ,
POPULATION OF CITIES, VILLAGES^ ETC.
Young Hickory a50
Youngstown (c. h.).- 44,885
Zanesville (c. h.) 23,538
Zimmer . . .
Zoar Station alOO
NAMES OF LAKES, RIVERS, CREEKS, ETC.
Big Darby Creek,
Big Walnut Creek,
Black Fork Mohican River,
Blush Creek, East Fork,
Clear Fork Mohican River,
Four Mile Creek,
Little Miami Creek,
Little Miami River,
Little Muskingum River,
Little Scioto River,
Little Yellow Creek,
HISTORY OF OHIO.
Miami River, Great,
Miami River, Little,
Muddy Fork Mohican River,
Nine Mile Creek,
Portage River, East Branch,
Portage River, West Branch,
Rocky Fork Mohican River,
Rocky Fork Paint Creek,
Saint Joseph River,
Saint Mary's River,
Six Mile Creek,
Six Mile Reservoir,
South Turkey Foot Creek,
Spring Fork Darby Creek,
Todds Fork Little Miami
White Water River.
RAIIvROADS OPERATING IN THE STATE OF OHIO.
Akron, Bedford & Cleveland Railroad (electric),
Akron & Cuyahoga Falls Rapid Transit Company (electric),
Alliance & Northern Railroad,
Ann Arbor Railroad,
Ashland & Wooster Railway,
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad,
Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Railroad,
Bellaire, Zanesville & Cincinnati Railway,
Cincinnati & Muskingum Valley Railway,
Cincinnati & Westwood Railway,
Cincinnati, Georgetown & Portsmouth Railroad,
Cincinnati, Hamilton &: Dayton Railway,
Cincinnati, Lebanon & Northern Railway,
RAILROADS OPERATING IN THE STATE. 303
Cincinnati, New Orleans & Texas Pacific Railroad (Queen
& Crescent Route),
Cincinnati Northern Railway,
Cincinnati Northwestern Railway,
Cincinnati, Portsmouth & Virginia Railroad,
Cleveland, Akron & Columbus Railway,
Cleveland, Berea, Elyria & Oberlin Railway (electric),
Cleveland & Marietta Railway,
Cleveland, Canton & Southern Railroad,
Cleveland, Cincinnati, L^hicago & St. Louis Railway,
Cleveland, Lorain & Wheeling Railway,
Cleveland, Painesville & Eastern Railroad (electric),
Cleveland, Terminal & Valley Railway,
Columbus, Sandusky & Hocking Valley Railway,
Columbus, Wellston & Southern Railroad,
Dayton & Union Railroad,
Dayton, Lebanon & Cincinnati Railroad,
Detroit & Lima Northern Railway,
Eastern Ohio Railroad,
Findlay, Fort Wayne & Western Railway,
Hocking Valley Railway,
Lake Erie & Western Railroad (now Lake Shore & Michi-
gan Southern Railway),
Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway,
Lakeside & Marblehead Railroad,
Lorain Street Railway (electric)
Lorain & Cleveland Railway (electric).
Marietta, Hocking & Northern Railway,
Michigan Central Railroad,
Middletown & Cincinnati Railroad,
New York, Chicago & Saint Lopis Railroad,
Norfolk & Western Railway,
Ohio River & Lake Erie Railroad,
Ohio Southern Railroad,
Pittsburg & Lake Erie Railroad,
Pittsburg, Bessemer & Lake Erie Railroad,
Pittsburgh & Western Railway,
Pittsburgh, Lisbon & Western Railway,
Sandusky, Milan & Norwalk Electric Railway,
Toledo & Ohio Central Extension Railroad,
Toledo & Ohio Central Railway,
Toledo, Bowling Green & Fremont Railway (electric)
Toledo, Saint Louis & Kansas City Railroad,
Wheeling & Lake Erie Railroad,
Zanesville & Ohio River Railway.
ADAMS county is located in the soutb-cen-
tral portion of the state and fronts on
the Ohio river. It was formed July
10th, 1797, by proclamation of Governor St.
Clair and was one of the four counties into
which the Northwest Territory was divided. It
was named in honor of John Adams, second
president of the United States. The area of
Adams county is 488 square miles, nearly all of
which is broken and hilly; the population in
1820 was 10,406, and in 1900 it was 26,328. It
was settled by both Americans and foreigners,
the former coming mainly from Virginia and
Kentucky and the latter chiefly from North
Farming is the chief occupation, and in ad-
dition to the cereals, large quantities of tobacco
are grown. The first settlement made in the
county was Manchester in 1790. This settle-
ment was planned by Colonel Nathaniel Massie
in order that he could better guide and protect
a party of surveyors. To each of the first 25
COUNTY SKETCHES. 307
families joining the settlement was given two
lots and one hundred acres of land. '
The county seat is West Union which is situ-
ated on a high hill about ten miles back from the
Ohio river; its population in 1900 was 1,033.
West Union is the only county seat in the state
that is not reached by one or more railroads.
Adams county was the home of the Mound
Builders, the Indians and the earliest settlers of
the state, but in spite of these facts it is still
far below the general average of the other coun-
ties of Ohio.
Allen county is located near the western
boundary of the state and a little north of the
center. It was formed April 1, 1820, and was
named in honor of Colonel Allen of the war
The western part of the county is very low
and flat while the eastern portion is a gently
rolling plain. Allen county has an area of 447
square miles; its population in 1830 was 578,
in 1900, 47,976. Its greatest wealth is in its gas
and oil fields which are being fully developed.
Farming is the leading industry, and while all
the cereals are grown, corn is the leading farm
308 HISTORY OF OHIO.
Lima is the county seat and is located in the
central part of the county. It is a great rail-
road center, and the seat of numerous thriving
factories, among which are paper mills and en-
gine factories. Its population in 1900 was
Ashland county is located a little northeast
from the center of the state and was formed
February 26, 1846. The southern portion of the
county is hilly while the remainder is a rolling
plain. The soil is very fertile except on the
higher hills, where it is a sandy loam. Vast
quantities of all the cereals are grown and fruit-
growing is carried on successfully to a great
Ashland county has an area of 437 square
miles, and its population in 1850 was 22,951, and
in 1900, 21,184, which shows a slight decrease
in the past half century.
Ashland, the county seat, is located in the
center of the county, and was laid out in 1815
and called Uniontown. The city was founded
by William Montgomery, and its name was
changed in honor of Henry Clay who had a
country seat named Ashland, near Lexington,
COUNTY SKETCHES. 309
The people of Ashland county, like many
other people, are very patriotic, and they have
the honor of giving to the Union army the state's
first volunteer in the war of the rebellion. This
volunteer was Lorin Andrews who was a great
scholar and educator as well as a soldier. He
was born in 1819, and died in 1861 of typhoid
fever while with the army in West Virginia.
Astabula county is located in the extreme
northeastern corner of the state, and has a small
frontage on Lake Erie. It is among the older
counties of the state, being established in 1807.
The county was named from the Ashtabula river,
an Indian name meaning Fish river. The sur-
face is low and level along the lake, and the re-
mainder is undulating.
The area of Astabula county is 700 square
miles, and the population in 1820 was 7,369, and
in 1900, 51,448.
Jefferson, the county seat, is located in the
center of the county and had a population in
1900 of 1,319.
Athens county is located in the south-eastern
part' of the state and has a small frontage on
3IO HISTORY OP OHIO.
the Ohio river. It was for^med March 1, 1805,
from Washington county. The surface, with the
exception of the river valleys, is broken and
hilly, but the soil is very fertile. The county is
very rich in mineral wealth having extensive
deposits of both iron and coal. It ranks second
to the other counties of the state in the produc-
tion of coal, being surpassed only by Perry
The area of Athens county is 485 square
miles, and the population in f 820 was 6,342, and
in 1900, 38,730.
Athens, the county seat, had a population in
1900 of 3,066. The University of Athens con-
ferred its first degree in 1815. While the at-
tendance at the University has always been
small, it has done a vast amount of good to the
Auglaize county is located near the western
border of the state and a little north of the cen-
ter. It was organized in 1848 from portions of
the surrounding counties. The northwestern
part of the county is low and swampy while
the remainder is rolling.
The area of Auglaize county is 398 square
miles and its population in 1850 was 11,341, and
in 1900, 31,192.
COUNTY SKETCHES. 3II
Wapakoneta, the county seat^ had a popu-
lation in 1900 of 3,915. It. is located in the
oil and gas belt, and is surrounded by a
wealthy agricultural district. The manufacture
of wooden articles is carried on extensively at
Wapakoneta, and among other articles, vast
numbers of churns are made.
Belmont county is located in the eastern part
of the state and fronts on the Ohio river. It
was established by proclamation of Governor St.
Olair, September 7, 1801, and was the ninth
county formed in the Northwest Territory.
The naime Belmont is of French origin and
signifies fine mountain. The surface is rugged
and broken yet very productive. The area is
520 square miles and the population in 1820 was
20,329, and in 1900, 60,875.
St. Clairsville, the county seat, had a popu-
lation in 1900 of 1,210. Its chief attraction is
a magnificent court house erected at a cost of
Brown county is located in the southwestern
part of the state and fronts on the Ohio river.
312 HISTORY OF OHIO.
It was formed in 1817 and was named in honor
of General Jacob Brown of the war of 1812.
The surface of Brown county is mainly level,
with the exception of the Ohio hills along the
river. Stock raising in the northern part, and
farming in the southern part are carried on
The area of Brown county is 460 square
miles, and the population in 1820 was 13,367,
and in 1900, 28,237.
Georgetown, the county seat, had a popula-
tion in 1900 of 1,529. It will always be remem-
bered as the boyhood home of U. S. Grant.
Butler county is located in the southwestern
part of the state and was formed from Hamil-
ton county in 1803, and named in honor of Gen-
eral Butler of Eevolutionary fame.
The area of Butler county is 475 square
miles and the population in 1820 was 21,755,
and in 1900, 56,870.
Hamilton, the county seat, had a popula-
tion in 1900 of 23,914, and is a great manufac-
turing city. Butler county is one of the richest
counties of the state, and has often been called
"the garden spot of the state."
COUNTY SKETCHES. 3I3
Carroll county lies near the eastern boundary
of the state and a little north of the center. It
was organized in 1832-33 from the surrounding
counties. The inhabitants of Carroll county are
mainly descendants from emigrants from Penn-
sylvania, Virginia and Maryland. The popula-
tion in 1840 was 18,108, and in 1900, 16,811.
The area of Carroll county is 401 square miles
of which the surface is broken and hilly. The
county was named in honor of Charles Carroll
of Carrollton, Indiana, the last survivor of the
signers of the Declaration of Independence.
Carrollton, the county seat, is a thriving
little city located near the center of the county ;
in 1900 it had a population of 1,271.
Champaign county is located in the west-
central portion of the state, and was formed
March 1, 1805. The county has a varied sur-
face consisting of plains, prairies, broken re-
gions and hills.
The area of Champaign county is 447 square
miles; its population in 1820 was 8,479, and in
314 HISTORY OF OHIO.
Urbana, the county seat, is a thriving little
city with a population in 1900 of 6,808. While
it has some distinction in manufacturing it is
more noted as a commercial center being located
in a wealthy region.
Champaign county has taken an active part
in the political world for a number of years.
So early as 1840 Urbana was the scene of a
great convention. The convention was held Sep-
tember 15 in the interest of General Harrison,
and from one of the banners carried in the
parade bearing the motto, "The People is Oil
Korrect," was taken the abbreviation O. K.
which is used so much at present.
Clark county is also located in the west-
central portion of the state and was named in
honor of General George Sogers Clark so fam-
ous in pioneer times. It was organized March
1, 1817, from the surrounding counties. The
first settlement made within the present county
was on Mad river, at Ohribb's Station in the
spring of 1796.
Clark county is one of the most fertile of the
state and farming is carried on in an extensive
manner. Its area is 393 square miles and its
COUNTY SKETCHES. 315
population in 1820 was 9,553, and in 1900 it
Piqua, an old Indian village, was situated on
Mad river about five miles west of Springfield.
It was the birthplace of the famous chief Tecum-
seh, who aided the English in the War of 1812.
After the battle of Lake Erie, when General
Proctor was preparing to leave the lake region,
Tecumseh made his last appeal to the English,
and the eloquence of his address makes it worthy
of reproduction in this county sketch.
^^Father, listen to your children! You have
them now all before you.
^^The war before this our British father gave
the hatchet to his red children, when our old
chiefs were alive. They are now dead. In that
war our father was thrown upon his back by
the Americans and our father took them by the
hand without our knowledge, and we are afraid
that our father will do so again at this time.
^^ Summer before last, when I came forward
with my red brethren and was ready to take up
the hatchet in favor of our British father, we
were told not to be in a hurry, that he had not
yet determined to fiight the Americans.
^^Listen! when war was declared our father
stood up and gave us the tomahawk and told
3l6 HIStRY OF OHIO.
US that he was then ready to strike the Amer-
icans; that he wanted our assistance, and that
we would certainly get our lands back which
the Americans had taken from us.
"Listen! you told us at that time to bring
fonvard our families to this place, and we did
so; and you promised to take care of them,
and they should want for nothing, while the men
would go and fight the enemy ; that we need not
trouble ourselves about the enemy's garrisons;
that we knew nothing about them, and that our
father would attend to that part of the busi-
ness. You also told your red children that you
would take good care of your garrison here,
which made our hearts glad.
"Listen! when we were last in the Eapids
it is true we gave you little assistance. It is
hard to fight people who live like ground-hogs.
"Father, listen! our fleet has gone out; we
know they have fought ; we have heard the great
guns; but we know nothing of what has hap-
pened to our father with one arm. Our ships
have gone one way, and we are much astonished
to see our father tying up everything and pre-
paring to run away the other without letting his
red children know what his intentions are. Yo,u
always told us to remain here and take care of
our lands ; it made our hearts glad to hear that
was your wish. Our great father, the king, is
COUNTY SKETCHES. 317
the head, and you represent him. You always
told us you would never draw your foot off
British ground; but now, father, we see that
you are drawing back, and we are sorry to see
our father doing so without seeing the enemy.
We must compare our father's conduct to a fat
dog, that carries his tail on its back and, when
affrighted, drops it between its legs and runs off.
"Father, listen! the Americans have not yet
defeated us by land; neither are we sure that
they have done so by water; Ave therefore wish
to remain here and fight our enemy, should they
make their appearance. If they defeat us, we
will then retreat with our father.
"At the battle of the Eapids, last war, the
Americans certainly defeated us, and when we
returned to our father's fort at that place the
gates were shut against us. We were afraid
that it would noAv be the case; but instead of
that we noAv see our British father preparing to
march out of his garrison.
"Father, you have got the arms and ammuni-
tion which our great father sent for his red
children. If you have an idea of going away,
give them to us, and you may go and welcome,
for us. Our lives are in the hands of the Great
Spirit. We are determined to defend our lands,
and if it be his will we wish to leave our bones
3l8 HISTORY OF OHIO.
Tecumseh entered the battle of the Thames
with a strong conviction that he should not sur-
vive it. Further flight he deemed disgraceful,
while the hope of victory in the impending action
was feeble and distant. He, however, heroically
resolved to achieve the latter or die in the at-
tempt. With this determination he took his
stand among his followers, raised the war-cry
and boldly met the enemy. From the commence-
ment of the attack on the Indian line his voice
was distinctly heard by his followers, animat-
ing to deeds worthy of the race to which they
belonged. When that well-known voice was
heard no longer above the din of arms, the battle
ceased. The British troops having already sur-
rendered, and the gallant leader of the Indians
having fallen, they gave up the contest and fled.
A short distance from where Tecumseh fell the
body of his friend and brother-in-law, Wasego-
boah, was found. They had often fought side
by side, and now, in front of their men, bravelyj
battling the enemy, they side by side closed their
Springfield, the county seat, is 43 miles west
of Columbus on the old National Pike. It was
laid out in 1803 by James Demint, and the site
chosen was a beautiful and fertile country. Its
population in 1900 was 38,253, and her fame
exceeds that of other cities many times her size,
COUNTY SKETCHE^S. SIQ
Not only in the United States are the products
of her factories known and used, but in Eng-
land, Germany, France, Russia and other for-
eign countries where grass and grain grow, and
where the refining and wholesome influence of
civilization call upon the genius of the inventor
and the skill of the artisan to lighten and en-
liven toil, may be found the finished products of
Springfield workshops, from ideas conceived by
the minds of Springfield's inventors. In all the
great grain and grass growing regions of th&
world may be seen the Springfield reapers and
mowers gathering in the world's harvest, and in
every civilized land may be found one or many
of the products of her factories which are ever
increasing in both number and size.
Clermont county is located in the southwest-
ern part of the state and it fronts on the Ohio
river. It was established December 9, 1800, by
proclamation of Governor St. Clair, and was
named in honor of Clermont, France. The sur-
face is generally broken, and decidedly hilly in
the southern part.
The area of Clermont county is 496 square
miles and its population in 1820 was 15,820, and
in 1900, 31,610,
320 HISTORY OF OHIO.
Batavia is the county seat and its population
in 1900 was 1,020.
Point Pleasant, a little village on the Ohio
river about 25 miles above Cincinnati, will al-
ways be noted as the birthplace of General U.
S. Grant, who was born April 27, 1822, at that
Clinton county was formed in 1810, and was
named in honor of George Clinton who was vice
president of the United States, and the origin-
ator of the canal systems of New York and Ohio.
Clinton county is located in the southwestern
part of the state, and has an area of 384 square
miles. The surface is mainly level and includes
some prairie land. The s soil is very productive,
and is well adapted to corn and grass.
The population of Clinton county in 1820 was
8,085, and in 1900 it was 24,202. The county
seat is Wilmington with a population in 1900
Columbiana county was formed March 25th,
1803. The name is a compound one formed
from Columbus and Ana. The southern part of
COUNTY SKETCHES. 32 1
the county is broken and hilly while the north-
ern portion is more level. This county is located
on the eastern border of the state somewhat
north of the center. It is in the best agricul-
tural region of the state and is also rich in min-
erals. Coal, iron ore, lime and building stones
are found in vast quantities.
Farming, stock raising and mining are the
The area of Columbiana county is 538 square
miles, and the population in 1820 was 22,033,
and in 1900, 68,590. Lisbon is the county seat,
and had a population in 1900 of 3,330. East
Liverpool on the Ohio river is the largest city
in the county, and the seat of extensive factories.
Wellsville is also an important city, and is lo-
cated on the Ohio river at the mouth of Yellow
Coshocton county is located in the east-cen-
tral portion of the state, and was formed April
1, 1811. The county was formerly inhabited by
numerous tribes of the Delaware Indians who
had a village where the city of Coshocton now
stands, called Goschachgunk, from which name
Coshocton was derived. The Indian village con-
^22 HISTORY OF OHIO.
sisted of two rows of huts with a street between
them. The village possessed a large council
house in which were discussed, by the ablest In-
dian chiefs, momentous questions affecting
the very lives of all people living in that por-
tion of the state. On one occasion as many as
700 warriors met around the council fires at
The surface of Coshocton county is varied.
A large portion of the county consists of fertile
alluvial plains which are bordered by the most
worthless sandstone hills. Coshocton county is
also rich in minerals. The Coshocton coal
grades second to no soft coal in the state. A
superior quality of fire clay is also found within
the county, and natural gas is abundant.
The area of Coshocton county is 550 square
miles, and its population in 1880 was 26,642,
and in 1900, 29,337. Mining, manufacturing,
farming and stock raising are the leading occu-
pations of the people. The county has long been
noted for its numerous well-bred horses.
Coshocton, the county seat, occupies the site
of the old Indian village at the once famous
"Forks of the Muskingum.'^ It is a beautiful
little city with some eight or more thousand in-
habitants. Miles of its streets are paved and
the entire city is well lighted. It was among
the first cities of the nation to install a public
COUNTY SKETCHES. 323
heating station capable of heating the entire city
by means of circulating hot water.
While Coshocton is the seat of various fac-
tories, such as paper mills, potteries, glass fac-
tories, steel works and vehicle factories, the city
has been made famous throughout the world by
its vast production of "Advertising novelties."
Crawford county was established April 1,
1820, from Indian territory ceded to the United
States by the Indians, September 29th, 1817.
Crawford county is located in the north-cen-
tral part of the state; its surface is generally
level, including, in the southern part, some beau-
tiful prairie lands.
The area of Crawford county is 393 square
miles, and its population in 1830 was 4,788, and
in 1900, 33,915. Bucyrus, the county seat, is
located on the Sandusky river; it is a thriving
little city with numerous factories, and had a
population in 1900 of 6,560.
Cuyahoga county was organized in the spring
pf 1810; it was formerly a part of Geauga
324 HISTORY OF OHIO.
county. The name "Cuyahoga'' is derived from
that river and signifies crooked. The surface is
level or slightly rolling, and the soil is prin-
cipally clayey loa^n.
Cuyahoga county produces a great variety ol
fine fruitSj as well as all Other farm products.
Its area is 480 square miles, and its population
in 1840 was 26,512, and in 1900, 439,120.
Cleveland, the county seat, is the largest city
in the state, and had a population in 1900 of
Berea, 12 miles southwest of Cleveland, is
the seat of the Baldwin University and the Ger-
man Wallace College. Berea is also made fam-
ous by the sandstone, first discovered there,
which is known as the Berea Grit.
Darke county is located on the western bor-
der of the state, slightly south of the center. It
was established in 1817 and has an area of 600
square miles. Its population in 1820 was 3,717,
and in 1900, 42,532.
Darke county is mainly a beautiful prairie
with a black fertile soil almost inexhaustible.
A portion of the county was formerly covered
by a dense forest, Owing to the fertility of the
COUNTY SKETCHES. 325
soil^ farming is the leading industry and vast
quantities of corn, oats and wheat are produced
Greenville, the county seat, is a grand old
historic place of some six or eight thousand peo-
ple. It occupies the site of Fort Greenville
which was constructed by Wayne in December,
1793. It has often been the scene of great In-
dian councils of various tribes, and of numerous
treaties between the Indians and whites.
Defiance county was established March 4,
1845. It is located in the extreme northwestern
portion of the state, and was formed from the
surrounding counties. Defiance county is lo-
cated within the Black Swamp, and is drained
by three rivers, the Auglaize, the Tiffin and the
Maumee. This county was formerly a vast
swamp covered with a dense forest, but both
forest and swamp are fast giving way, and it is
rapidly becoming one of the foremost agricul-
tural counties of the state.
The area of Defiance county is 414 square
miles, and its population in 1840 was 2,818, and
in 1900, 26,387. The county was named in honor
326 HISTORY OF OHIO.
of the historic Fort Defiance which was built at
the junction of the Maumee and Auglaize rivers.
Defiance, the county seat, is built on the site
of the old fort and had in 1900 a population of
Defiance was the home of the Wyandot and
Shawnee Indians. There was born the famous
chief Pontiac, and there were held many coun-
cils of great moment. As early as the summer
of 1794, when General Wayne invaded that re-
gion, he found vegetables of every kind in abund-
ance and more than a thousand acres of corn
The Defiance of to-day is a thriving modern
city with varied manufacturing interests, and is
surrounded by a wealthy farm region.
Delaware county was established February
10, 1808, and was formerly the northern portion
of Franklin county. The county is watered and
drained by the Scioto river and its tributaries,
which cross the county from north to south. The
surface of Delaware county is level, and the soil
is clay except in the river valleys where it is a
fertile black loam.
This county has an area of 452 square miles,
COUNTY SKETCHES. 327
and had a population in 1840 of 22,060, and in
1900, 26,401. The county was named in honor
of the famous Delaware Indians who once re-
sided there and raised extensive corn crops on
the surrounding country.
Delaware, the county seat, is situated 24
miles north of Columbus, and had a population
in 1900 of 7,940. Aside from its varied manu-
facturing interests, it is the seat of the Ohio
Wesleyan University, long since made famous by
its efficient work. The city is also famous for
its numerous mineral springs having medicinal
value ; among these are the white sulphur, black
sulphur, magnesia, and iron. The city will fur-
ther be remembered as the birthplace of Ruther-
ford B. Hayes, the 19th president of the United
In 1838 the counties of Huron and Sandusky
were divided and Erie county was formed. It
is located in the north-central part of the state
and borders on Lake Erie. The surface of Erie
county is apparently level although it is a gentle
slope which reaches, in the southern part of the
county, an elevation of 150 feet above the lake's
levelo The soil is very fertile, and farming is
one of the leading industries. In addition to
328 HISTORY OF OHIO.
ordinary farm products, vast quantities of fruit
are grown. The heavy fogs and warm breezes
from the lake protect the fruit against the late
frosts which are so damaging farther inland.
Apples, pears, grapes and small fruits are grown
The area of Erie county is 260 square miles,
and its population in 1840 was 12,457, while in
1900 it was 37,650. The county was named in
honor of the Erie Indians who once resided in
the region of the lake.
Erie county is located in that portion of the
Western Reserve known as "the fire lands."
This land was given by the state of Connecticut
to the sufferers from fire occasioned by the
British invasion of that state. Inexhaustible
supplies of valuable limestone are found in the
northern part of the county, and are used in the
construction of magnificent buildings. This
limestone is exported to all parts of the country
where elegant buildings are being erected.
Sandusky, the county seat, is a great com-
mercial center and manufacturing city with a
population in 1900 of 19,664.
Milan, a prosperous little town 12 miles from
Sandusky, will ever remain noted as the birth-
place of the famous electrician Thomas Alvin
COUNTY SKETCHES. 329
Fairfield county is located a little southeast
from the center of the state, and is so named on
account of its beautiful landscape. It is among
the older counties of the state, being established
December 9, 1800, by proclamation of Governor
St. Olair. The surface is badly broken in the
southern portion of the county where the soil
is sterile, while the northern portion is level and
Sandstone quarries of vast proportions are
operated in the county and the stone is sent to
all parts of the county for building purposes.
The area of Fairfield county is 474 square
miles, and the population in 1820 was 16,508,
while in 1900 it was 34,259.
When this county was first explored by the
white settlers it was occupied by the Wyandot
Indians, who had a large town, called Tarhe,
near the present city of Lancaster.
Lancaster, the county seat, was laid out in
1800, by Ebenezer Zane, the maker of the famous
"Zane's Trace," which passed through that re-
gion. The town was first called New Lancaster,
in honor of the early settlers who came from
Lancaster county, Pennsylvania. Lancaster is
a modern city with numerous manufacturing in-
dustries, and a population in 1900 of 8,991. It
^30 HISTORY OF OHIO.
was among the first cities of the state to develop
natural gas which is found in that locality in
The city of Lancaster will always remain
famous as the early home of two illustrious fami-
lies^ the Ewings and Shermans. Their fame is
already national and needs no further mention
Payette county was established in the spring
of 1810, and was formerly a part of Eoss and
Highland counties. It is located a little south-
west from the center of the state, and has a level
surface and a fertile loamy soil with a subsoil
Since Payette county has been ditched and
drained it has become a most fertile and produc-
tive farm region. The raising of fine stock has
become a leading industry, and the fine horses
and cattle of Payette county have become noted
throughout the state.
The area of Payette county is 398 square
miles, and its population in 1860 was 15,935,
while in 1900 it was 21,725.
Washington Court House, the county seat, is
a prosperous and modern city with a population
in 1900 of 5,151.
COUNTY SKETCHES. 33 1
Franklin county was established April 30,
1803, and was formerly a part of Ross county.
The county was named in honor of the first great
American, Benjamin Franklin, who died in 1790
at the age of 84 years.
This county has a clay soil and a level sur-
face and is well adapted to farming. Some of
the finest farms of the state are located in the
river valleys in Franklin county.
Franklin county is located near the center of
the state and has an area of 524 square miles;
its population in 1820 was 10,300, while in 1900
it was 164,460.
Columbus, the county seat and state capital,
had a population in 1900 of 125,560, and is a
great commercial center and the seat of the Ohio
State University and other great institutions of
learning. The state also has located at Colum-
bus various institutions for the benefit of its
unfortunate subjects; among these institutions
is found an asylum for the insane, an institu-
tion for the education of the deaf and dumb, an
institution for the education of the blind, an
institution for the feeble-minded youth, and the
Ohio penitentiary. All these institutions, and
others, are maintained by the state at an enor-
33^ HISTORY OF OHIO.
Pulton county is located on the northern
boundary of the state west of Lake Erie. It was
established February 28^ 1850, and was formerly
a part of Lucas, Henry and Williams counties.
Its surface is generally undulating and it is well
watered and drained by the tributaries of the
The area of Fulton county is 402 square
miles, and its population in 1850 was 7,780, while
in 1900 it was 22,801.
Wauseon, the county seat, was named from
an Indian chief, and is a thriving little city 32
miles west of Toledo; it had a population in
1900 of 2,148. Fayette, near the border of Mich-
igan, is a thriving little town of about 1,000 in-
habitants; it is surrounded by a fertile farm-
Gallia county was formerly a portion of
Washington county, and was established April
30, 1803. It is located in the southeastern por-
tion of the state on the Ohio river, and was set-
tled by the French from whom it received its
name, Gallia, which is an ancient name mean-
COUNTY SKETCHES. 333
Most of the surface of Gallia county is badly
broken, and the soil is a sandy loam, with the
exception of the valleys which are of an alluvial
formation and very fertile.
The area of Gallia county is 441 square miles,
and its population in 1820 was 7,098, while in
1900 it was 27,918.
Gallipolis, the county seat, was among the
first settlements made in the state, being settled
in 1791 by a colony direct from Prance. Galli-
polis is located on the Ohio river and is a pros-
perous little city with a population in 1900 of
Geauga county is located in the northeastern
portion of the state, and was formerly a portion
of Trumbull county. Its name was derived from
the Indian word "Sheauga," which means "rac-
The surface of Geauga county is generally
rolling, and the soil is fairly fertile being com-
posed mainly of clay in many localities. Farm-
ing and stock raising is a leading industry.
The area of Geauga county is 400 square
miles, and its population in 1820 was only 7,791,
while in 1900 it was 14,744.
C5hardon^ the county seat, is a prosperous
334 HISTORY OF OHIO.
little city with a population in 1900 of 1,360.
The manufacturing of a high grade of cheese is
a leading industry, and more than one-third of
all the maple syrup made in the state is pro-
duced in Geauga county.
Greene county is located in the southwestern
part of the state and was formed May 1, 1803;
it was formerly a portion of Hamilton and Ross
The surface of the western part of Greene
county is rolling, while the eastern part is level.
The soil is fertile and farming and stock raising
are carried on extensively. The stone quarries
of Greene county are among the most valuable
in the state, producing as they do, a fine grade
of limestone, and near Xenia, a beautiful varie-
The area of Greene county is 416 square
miles, and the population in 1820 was 10,509,
while in 1900 it was 31,613.
Xenia, the county seat, is a prosperous manu-
facturing city with a population in 1900 of
8,696. Xenia is also the seat of the "Soldiers'
and Sailors' Orphans' Home." Xenia will fur-
ther be remelmbered as the home of four distin-
COUNTY SKETCHES. 335
guished literary gentlemen, — William D. Gal-
lagher, Coates Kinney, William D. Howells, and
Guernsey county is among the older ones of
the state and was organized in March, 1810. It
was named in honor of the Guernsey Isles by a
number of distinguished emigrants who had
come from that far-off land in search of wealth
and freedom. The area is 517 square miles, of
which two-thirds is highlands and the remain-
ing third fertile creek bottoms. The population
of Guernsey county in 1820 was 9,292, and in
1900 it was 34,425. Farming and stock raising
are the leading industries and much fine wool
is grown. Beef cattle, horses and swine are
raised in vast numbers. The coal mines of
Guernsey county are among the most important
of the state, and the Cambridge coal is known
throughout the land as a superior quality of soft
coal. The coal fields of Guernsey county are
being developed very rapidly in all localities.
In the northern part of the county, in the vicinity
of Bird's Bun, two new mines have recently been
put into operation and before the close of 1904
the third niine in that locality will be in ope-
33^ HISTORY OF OHIO.
Cambridge is the county seat and is located
on Wills creek in the west-central part of the
county. Cambridge had in 1904 a population
of 11,000 inhabitants. Manufacturing is one of
the leading industries of the city. A tin plate
mill, two rolling mills, and a large glass factory
furnish employment for a large number.
Guernsey county appears to have been settled
by individuals from various regions. Virginia
sent her loyal sons to join the Guernsey men at
Wills creek. The Massachusetts Yankees with
the Pennsylvania Dutch, located in the south-
west, while Quakers from North Carolina and
Pennsylvania gathered in the southeast. A por-
tion of the northern part of the county is settled
by the Irish while two townships in the southern
part are settled by families from New Jersey,
that are direct desc^endants of the Hessians.
The descendants of General Stark, of Eevolu-
tionary fame, are residents of this county, and
the man who holds the second oar in the paint-
ing of ^Terry's Victory" was "Fighting Bill
Reed," also a Guernsey county man.
Hamilton county occupies the southwestern
corner of the state, and was established January
COUNTY SKETCHES. 337
2, 1790, being the second county formed from
the Northwest Territory. The surface of this
county is diversified; the soil of the highlands
is clay while that of the valleys is an alluvial
deposit. Farming is a leading occupation, and
vast quantities of small fruits and vegetables
The area of Hamilton county is 400 square
miles, and its population in 1820 was 31,764,
while in 1900 it was 409,479.
Cincinnati, the countty seat, is the second
largest city in the state, and had a population
in 1900 of 325,902; it is located on the Ohio
-river and is one of the greatest commercial and
manufacturing centers in the United States.
Hancock county is located a little northwest
from the center of the state, and was jaamed in
honor of John Hancock. It was established
April 1, 1820. The surface is level and the soil
remarkably fertile, making it one o£ the finest
farming regions of the state.
The area of Hancock county is 522 square
miles, and its population in 1840 was 10,099,
and in 1900, 41,993.
Findlay, the county ^eat, is a great commer*
338 HISTORY OF OHIO.
cial and manufacturing center. The gas wells
of Findlay are among tlie most famous in the
world, and the gas is used for heating and light-
ing as well as for manufacturing every known
article requiring excessive heat.
Hardin county was organized January 8,
1833, and was formerly owned by the Indians.
It is located a little northwest from the center
of the state, and has, in general, a level surface
with marked undulations in some parts. The
soil is very fertile being composed of a loam
mixed with clay and limestone. It formerly
supported dense forests which have recently been
The area of Hardin county is 425 square
miles, and its population in 1840 was only 4,583,
while in 1900 it was 31,187.
Kenton, the county seat, was named in honor
of Simon Kenton, a friend and benefactor of his
race. It is a prosperous city with a population
in 1900 of 6,852.
Harrison county is located in the east-cen-
tral portion of the state, and was formerly a
COUNTY SKETCHES. 339
part of Tuscarawas and Jefferson counties. It
was established January 1, 1814, and was named
in honor of William Henry Harrison. The sur-
face of Harrison county is badly broken mak-
ing valuable grazing tracts where large numbers
of sheep are kept.
The area of Harrison county is 405 square
mileSj and the population in 1820 was 14,345^
while in 1900 it was 20,686.
Cadiz, the county seat, is a very wealthy little
city with a population in 1900 of 1,755. — Scio,
a small town situated nine mile^ north of Cadiz,
is the seat of the famous Scio College which has
done so much for the Ohio youths. The oil fields
in the vicinity of Scio have recently been devel-
oped, and a number of producing wells are in
But Harrison county, and the hamlet of New
Eumley, will always remain noted as the birth-
place of her illustrious son. General George A.
Custer, whose life went out in his last great fight
with the Indians on the Little Big Horn river in
Henry county is located in the northwestern
part of the state and was formed from Indian
340 HISTORY OF OHIO.
lands April 1, 1820, and named in honor of the
statesman and orator, Patrick Henry.
Henry county is within the famous "Black
Swamp" region, and has a level surface and a
fertile soil. Farming is a leading occupation,
and all kinds of farm products are produced in
large quantities. Its area is 420 square miles,
and its population in 1840 was only 2,492, while
in 1900 it was 27,282.
Napoleon, the county seat, is on the Maumee
river, and had in 1900 a population of 3,639.
Girty's Point, about five miles above Napo-
leon, was for a time the residence of the notori-
ous renegade, Simon Girty.
Highland county is located in the south-
western part of the state, and was established
in May, 1805. It was formerly a portion of the
adjoining counties, and was so named on account
of the elevation of the land.
The surface of Highland county, with the
exception of the river valleys, is rolling and the
soil is varied. Its area is 527 square miles, and
its population in 1820 was only 12,308, while
in 1900 it was 30,982.
Hillsboro, the county seat, is beautifully mtu^
COUNTY SKETCHES. 34I
ated on the highlands in the center of the county.
Like Eome it "Stands on its seven hills/' and
from its elevation of 753 feet it overlooks the
beauties of the surrounding country. Hillsboro
had a population in 1900 of 4,535, and is the seat
of a number of institutions of learning, among
which are the "Highland Institute/' the "Hills-
boro Conservatory of Music/' and the "Hillsboro
Hocking county is located in the southwest-
ern part of the state and was formed from Ross,
Athens and Fairfield counties March 1, 1818.
The surface of Hocking county is hilly and
broken with the exception of the river valleys
which are level and fertile.
The area of Hocking county is 408 square
miles, and its population in 1820 was only 2,080,
while in 1900 it was 24,398.
Logan, the county seat, has developed numer-
ous manufacturing industries, and had a popu-
lation in 1900 of 3,480.
Hocking county abounds with beautiful
scenery, and almost its entire surface is under-
laid with a high grade of coal. The Hocking
Valley coal mines are among the most extensive
in the United States, and the excellent quality
342 HISTORY OF OHIO.
of the coal makes it famous throughout the
Holmes county is located a little northeast
from the center of the state and was organized
in 1825, and named in honor of Major Holmes,
a noted officer in the war of 1812.
The surface of Holmes county is badly
broken. The Killbuck river passes from north
to south through the county and has broad fer-
tile flood grounds which form a wealthy farm-
ing section. The territory comprising Holmes
county was formerly included by the counties of
Wayne, Coshocton and Tuscarawas.
The area of Holmes county is 436 square
miles, and its population in 1830 was only 9,123,
while in 1900 it Avas 18,511.
Millersburg, the county seat, is 84 miles south
of Cleveland on the C, A. & C. railroad. It
is a prosperous little city with a population in
1900 of 1,998.
Huron county is located in the north-central
portion of the state, and was established in 1815.
The county was named after the Wyandot In-
COUNTY SKETCHES. 343
dian tribe called ^^Huron/' by the French. The
surface is generally level but some portions are
slightly rolling. The soil is a sandy loam mixed
with clay^ and is very fertile. Farming and
stock raising are leading occupations.
The area of Huron county is 480 square
miles, and its population in 1820 was 6,677,
while in 1900 it was 32,330.
Norwalk, the county seat, is a beautiful little
city with a population in 1900 of 7,074. It is
quite a railroad center and also has numerous
Jackson county is located in the south-cen-
tral portion of the state, and was established in
March, 1816. The surface of Jackson county
is very hilly, but as the soil is fertile, farming
is carried on quite successfully by the Welsh and
Pennsylvania farmers who settled there. Stock
raising is an important industry and large num-
bers of horses, cattle, hogs and sheep are ex-
The area of Jackson county is 392 square
miles, and its population in 1820 was only 3,842,
while in 1900 it was 34,248.
Jackson ranks among the first counties of
344 HISTORY OF OHIO.
the state in mineral wealth, having inexhaustible
supplies of coal, iron ore, fire clay and building
stone. Its coal mines are among the most ex-
tensive of the state and the county exports more
than a million tons of coal annually.
Jackson, the county seat, is a prosperous city
with vast mining interests; its population in
1900 was 4,672. The city is also engaged in
manufacturing various articles, including many
made from iron.
Jefferson county is located in the east-central
part of the state, and borders on the Ohio river.
It was named in honor of Thomas Jefferson,
and was established July 29, 1797, by proclama-
tion of Governor St. Clair. The surface of Jef-
ferson county is broken, but as it is underlaid
by an excellent quality of coal, its wealth is
enormous. The county ranks among the first
of the state in both mining and manufacturing
The area of Jefferson county is 435 square
miles, and its population in 1820 was 18,531,
while in 1900 it was 44,357.
Steubenville, the county seat, is located on
the Ohio river and is surrounded by beautiful
scenery. It has large manufacturing interests.
COUNTY SKETCHES. 345
and numerous institutions of learning. To-
ronto, on the Ohio river eight miles above Steu-
benville, is the seat of a number of tile and
Knox county is located in the central part
of the state, and was formerly a portion of Fair-
field county ; it was formed March 1, 1808. The
surface of Knox county is level or slightly un-
dulating with the exception of the northeastern
portion where hills are found. The flood lands
of the streams are broad and fertile forming a
valuable farming section.
The area of Knox county is 527 square miles,
and its population in 1820 was only 8,326, while
in 1900 it was 27,768.
Mount Vernon, the county seat, is a manu-
facturing city and railroad center ; it had a pop-
ulation in 1900 of 6,633. Gambler, five miles
east of Mount Vernon, has long been famous as
the seat of Kenyon College.
Lake county was organized March 6, 1840,
and was so named on account of its frontage on
346 HISTORY OF OHIO.
the lake. Its surface is slightly rolling and its
soil is very fertile. Lake county ranks among
the first of the fruit growing counties of the
state, and produces large quantities of apples,
pears, peaches, grapes and many kinds of small
Lake county has an area of 240 square miles,
and had a population in 1840 of 13,717; in 1900
its population was 21,680.
Painesville, the county seat, had, in 1900, a
a population of 5,024. • It is a very beautiful city
located on the Grand river near the center of
the county. Manufacturing is carried on quite
Lawrence is the most southern county of the
state and borders on the Ohio river. It was or-
ganized March 1, 1816, and named in honor ot
Captain James Lawrence, so famous in our naval
history. The surface of Lawrence county is
badly broken, but some excellent farm land is
found in the flood grounds of the creeks and
Ohio river. This county is very rich in minerals
and leads the state in the production of iron.
Ooal abounds in the western part of the county,
and an excellent quality of fire clay is abundant.
Mining and manufacturing are the leading occu-
COUNTY SKETCHES. 347
pations^ while farming is carried on to some
The area of Lawrence county is 430 square
mileSj and its population in 1820 was only 3,499,
while in 1900 it was 39,534.
Ironton, the county seat, is the center of the
Hanging Eock iron region, and is located on the
Ohio river 142 miles above Cincinnati, and 325
miles from Pittsburg. It is a great manufactur-
ing center, and had a population in 1900 of
Hanging Kock, Burlington, Millersport and
Proctorville are other important towns of the
Licking county is located near the center of
the state, and was so named from its principal
river, the Licking, called "Pataskala'' by the In-
dians. This county was organized March 1,
1808, and was formerly a portion of Fairfield.
The surface of Licking county is generally
level with the exception of the eastern portion,
which is rolling. The soil is very fertile and
the county possesses great agricultural wealth.
The eastern portion of the county is rich in both
coal and iron ore of an excellent quality.
The area of Licking county is 685 square
348 HISTORY OF OHIO.
miles, and its population in 1820 was 11,861,
while in 1900 it was 47,070.
Newark, the county seat, is 33 miles east of
Columbus, and is a prosperous manufacturing
city with a population in 1900 of 18,157.
Granville, that famous "New England" town,
will always remain famous on account of its
Logan county is located in the west-central
part of the state, and was established March 1,
1817, and named in honor of General Benjamin
Logan. The surface, though broken in some
places, is generally level or slightly rolling, and
the soil is fertile. A number of small lakes are
found in the western part of the county.
The area of Logan county is 448 square miles,
and its population in 1820 was only 3,181, while
in 1900 it was 30,420.
Bellefontaine, the county seat, is quite a
commercial center, and had a population in 1900
West Liberty, West Mansfield, Belle Centre,
Zanesfield, Huntsville, DeGraff and Quincy are
all prosperous villages of Logan county.
COUNTY SKETCHES. 349
Lorain county is in the north-central part
of the state^ and borders on Lake Erie. It was
established December 26, 1822, and was for-
merly a portion of Huron, Cuyahoga and Medina
counties. The surface of Lorain county is level
and the soil is very fertile. Farming and stock
raising are leading occupations, and the county
leads the state in the production of high grade
The area of Lorain county is 530 square
miles, and its population in 1830 was 5,696,
while in 1900 it was 54,857.
Elyria, the county seat, is 24 miles west of
Cleveland, and 7 miles south from the lake. The
scenery in the vicinity of Elyria is very beauti-
ful, and the falls near by in the Black river are
among the most noted in the state. While,
Elyria is quite a manufacturing city, it is most
noted for its residences, as many people doing
business in Cleveland find it more pleasant to
reside at Elyria.
Oberlin, the seat of the famous "Oberlin Col-
lege,'' is nine miles southwest from Elyria,
350 HISTORY OF OHIO.
Lucas county is located in the northwestern
part of the state^ and borders on both Lake Erie
and the state of Michigan. This county was
formed in June^ 1835, and was named in honor
of Eobert Lucas, a former governor of Ohio.
The surface of Lucas county is level, and the soil
sandy and very fertile. Farming and stock
raising are carried on very extensively.
The area of Lucas county is 430 square miles,
and its population in 1840 was 9,392, while in
1900 it was 153,559.
Toledo, the county seat, is on Lake Erie, and
is one of the leading commercial and manufac-
turing centers of the West ; it had a population
in 1900 of 131,822, and its harbor is the best on
Maumee City and Perrysburg are both im-
portant towns, the former once being the county
seat of Lucas countv. .
Madison county lies a little southwest from
the center of the state, and was named in honor
of James Madison, fourth president of the United
States. This county was established in March,
COUNTY SKETCHES. 35 1
1810, and ranks high among the stock raising
counties of the state. The surface of Madison
county is level, a large portion of it being prairie
land, and the soil is productive.
The area of Madison county is 465 square
miles, and its population in 1820 was only 4,799,
while in 1900 it. was 20,590.
London, the county seat, is 25 miles west of
Columbus, and had a population in 1900 of 3,511.
^^The London Live Stock Sales'' is an interest-
ing and profitable feature of the city, illl kinds
of live stock, but especially cattle, are brought
to this market from the surrounding counties
and states. This activity in stock is occasioned
by the splendid blue grass regions of the sur-
Mahoning county is located on the eastern
boundary of the state north of the center, and
the name is derived from the Indian word "Ma-
honink,'' signifying "at the lick.'' The county
was established March 1, 1846, and was formerly
a part of Trumbull and Columbiana counties.
The surface of Mahoning county is undulating,
the soil fertile, and farming is carried on ex-
tensively. Stock raising is also a leading in-
dustry, and much fine wool is grown. A large
352 HISTORY OF OHIO.
portion of the county is underlaid with an ex-
cellent quality of coal which is being mined
The area of Mahoning county is 422 square
miles, and its population in 1860 was 25,894,
while in 1900 it was 70,134.
Youngstown, the county seat, is on the Ma-
honing river, halfway between Pittsburg and
Cleveland. The manufacturing of iron has been
a leading industry for many years, and Youngs-
town ranks second in importance to few cities
in the state.
Marion county is located a little northwest
from the center of the state, and was named in
honor of Francis Marion, of Revolutionary fame.
This county was formed March 1, 1824.
The surface of Marion county, with slight
exceptions, is level, and the soil fertile. Farm-
ing and stock raising is a leading industry, and
much fine wool is grown.
The area of Marion county is 416 square
miles, and its population in 1830 was only 6,558,
while in 1900 it was 28,678.
Marion, the county seat, is about 40 miles
north of Columbus, and is a prosperous com-
piercial and manufacturing center surrounded
COUNTY SKETCHES. 353
by ^vealthy farming sections; its population in
1900 was 11,862.
Caledonia, LaKue, Prospect, New Blooming-
ton, Waldo and Green Camp, are all important,
villages of the county.
Medina county is located in the northern
part of the state, one county south from the
lake, and was organized in April, 1818; it was
formerly a portion of Portage county.
The surface of Medina county is gently roll-
ing, and includes much bottom land well adapted
to farming, while the higher portions have a
clay soil and are best suited to grazing. —
Farming and stock raising are both carried on
The area of Medina county is 420 square
miles, and its population in 1820 was only 3,090,
while in 1900 it was 21,958.
Medina, the county seat, is 28 miles south-
west of Cleveland, and had a population in 1900
Wadsworth, Seville, Liverpool and Lodi are
other important places of the county.
Chippewa Lake, on the C. L. & W. railroad,
is quite a summer resort. The lake is about two
334 HISTORY OF OHIO.
miles long and one mile wide and is a popular
resort for both Ashing and boating.
Meigs county is located in the southeastern
part of the state, and borders on the Ohio river.
It was formerly a portion of Gallia and Athens
counties, and was organized April 1, 1819, and
named in honor of Return J. Meigs, a former
governor of Ohio.
The surface of Meigs county is greatly diver-
sified, and the soil is clay, with the exception of
the western portion which is a fertile black loam.
The county is rich in coal deposits, and mining
is a leading industry.
The area of Meigs county is 415 square miles,
and its population in 1820 was 4,480, while in
1900 it was 28,620.
Pomeroy, the county ^eat, is on the Ohio
river, and has extensive mining and manufac-
turing interests; its population in 1900 was
Middleport, on the Ohio river, is also an im-
portant manufacturing center, while Syracuse,
Minersville and Racine are thriving villages.
COUNTY SKETCHES. 3SS
Mercer county is located near the center of
the western boundary of the state, and was
named in honor of Hugh Mercer, who fell in
the battle of Princeton, January 3, 1777. The
county was formerly Indian territory, and was
organized April 1, 1820.
The surface of Mercer county is level and
the soil very fertile. — A vast amount of corn
is produced as well as all other farm products.
Stock raising is also a leading industry.
The area of Mercer county is 460 square
miles, and its population in 1830 was only 1,737,
while in 1900 it was 28,021.
Celina, the county seat, is a prosperous com-
mercial and manufacturing center, surrounded
by a rich farming community, and extensive oil
and gas fields.
Fort Recovery, the scene of St. Claim's defeat,
is a prosperous village in the gas region. Men-
don, Coldwater, Mercer and St. Henry are other
important towns in Mercer county.
Miami county is located in the western part
of the state, and was formerly a part of Mont-
356 HISTORY OF OHIO.
gomery county. The name ^^Miami" is from the
Indian language and signifies "mother." Miami
county was established January 16, 1807; the
surface is slightly rolling, the soil fertile, and
farming and stock raising are carried on exten-
sively. An excellent quality of limestone is
abundant in the county.
The area of Miami county is 396 square miles,
and its population in 1820 was 8,815, while in
1900 it was 43,105.
Troy, the county seat, is a great manufactur-
ing^ center, and the Troy wagon has long since
made the little city famous throughout the cen-
tral portion of the United States. The popula-
tion of Troy in 1900 was 5,881.
Piqua, a thriving commercial and manufac-
turing center, is located eight miles above Troy.
Tippecanoe, Covington and Bradford are other
Monroe county is located in the southeastern
part of the state and fronts on the Ohio river;
it was formerly a part of Belmont, Washington
and Guernsey counties. The county was named
in honor of James Monroe, fifth president of the
United States, and was established January 29,
COUNTY SKETCHES. 357
The surface of Monroe county is rough and
hilly, and the soil sterile with the exception of
the river valleys where farming is carried on
The area of Monroe county is 468 square
miles, and its population in 1820 was only 4,645,
while in 1900 it was 27,031.
Woodsfleld, the county seat, is located near
the center of the county, and had a population
in 1900 of 1,801.
Olarington, Beallsville and Graysville are all
important towns of the county.
Montgomery county is located in the south-
western portion of the state, and was formerly
a part of Hamilton and Ross counties. It was
created May 1, 1803, and was named in honor
of General Richard Montgomery, of Revolution-
The surface of Montgomery county is mostly
level, and the soil is very fertile. Farming and
stock raising are predominant occupations, and
the agricultural wealth of the county is im-
mense. — Vast quantities of limestone are
shipped to Cincinnati to be used in the con-
struction of beautiful buildings.
3S8 HISTORY OF OHIO.
The area of Montgomery county is 480 square
miles, and its population in 1820 was only 16,-
061, while in 1900 it was 130,146.
Dayton, the county seat, is a great commer-
cial and manufacturing center; it had a popu-
lation in 1900 of 85,333. Dayton has become
famous throughout the world on account of its
noted cash register.
Morgan county is located in the southeastern
part of the state, and was organized March 1,
1818, and named in honor of General Daniel
Morgan, of Kevolutionary fame.
The surface of Morgan county is very rough
with the exception of the. broad valley of the
Muskingum river, which flows through the
county from north to south; the soil is fertile
and of limestone formation. Farming and stock
raising are leading occupations.
The area of Morgan county is 400 square
miles, and its population in 1820 was 5,299,
while in 1900 it was 17,905.
McConnelsville, the county seat, is located
on the Muskingum river, 36 miles above Mari-
etta, and had a population in 1900 of 1,825. —
Malta, on the Muskingum river, opposite Mc-
Connelsville, is a prosperous little city, and the
COUNTY SKETCHES. 359
seat of the Malta Plow Company and other
Morrow county is located near the center of
the state, and was established February 24, 1848.
The county was formerly a part of Eichland,
Knox, Marion and Delaware counties, and was
named in honor of Jeremiah Morrow, a former
governor of Ohio.
The surface of Morrow county is level with
the exception of the northeastern part which is
hilly; the soil is fertile, and farming is carried
on extensively. Large quarries of excellent
building stone are operated in this county.
The area of Morrow county is 432 square
miles, and its population in 1850 was 20,380,
while in 1900 it was only 17,897.
Mount Gilead, the county seat, is about 40
miles north of Columbus, and is a prosperous
town with a population, in 1900, of 1,528.
Cardington, five miles southwest of Mount
Gilead, is a thriving factory town, while Edison
and Marengo are important villages of Morrow
360 HISTORY OF OHIO.
Muskingum county is located in the south-
eastern part of the state, and the name "Mus-
kingum" is derived from the Indian language
and signifies in one tribe "an elk's eye/' while
in the Delaware language it signifieSj "a town
on the river side.'' This county was organized
March 1, 1804, and was formerly a part of Fair-
field and Washington counties.
The surface of Muskingum county is rough
and hilly, but the soil is generally fertile. Farm-
ing and stock raising are carried on extensively.
A large part of Muskingum county is underlaid
with an excellent quality of coal, and mining is
also a leading occupation.
The area of Muskingum county is 651 square
miles, and its population in 1820 was 17,824,
while in 1900 it was 53,185.
Zanesville, the county seat, is at the junction
of the Muskingum and Licking rivers ; it is one
of the leading commercial and manufacturing
centers of the state, and had a population, in
1900 of 23,538.
Noble county is located in the southeastern
part of the state, and was the last of the 88
COUNTY SKETCHES. 36 1
counties formed. It was organized March 11,
1851, and was named in honor of James Noble,
a noted pioneer.
The surface of Noble county is badly broken,
but the soil is fertile and of a limestone forma-
tion, and farming and stock raising are leading
industries. In addition to other farm products,
vast quantities of tobacco are grown, and the
county leads the state in the production of fine
Noble county has great mineral resources and
coal, iron ore, building stone and petroleum are
The area of Noble county is 415 square miles,
and the population in 1860 was. 20,751, while in
1900 it was only 19,460.
Caldwell, the county seat, is in the noted
Macksburg oil and gas field, and had a popula-
tion in 1900 of 927. Petroleum was discovered
near Caldwell in 1816, and was the first found
in the state.
Ottawa county is in the northern part of
the state, and borders on Lake Erie. It was
established March 6, 1840, and was formerly a
part of Sandusky, Erie and Lucas counties. The
362 HISTORY OF OHIO.
name "Ottawa" is an Indian word meaning
The surface of Ottawa county is level, the
soil fertile, and large quantities of fruit are
grown. Farming and stock raising are both im-
The area of Ottawa county is 311 square
miles, and its population in 1840 was only 2,258,
while in 1900 it was 22,213.
Port Clinton, the county seat, is 13 miles
west of Sandusky, and 30 miles east of Toledo.
It is a prosperous city with a population in 1900
The islet of Gibraltar, containing about eighlj
acres, is in Put-in-Bay, from which Perry sailed
out six miles to meet the enemy in the war
Put-in-Bay is on an island in Lake Erie, 12
miles north of Port Clinton, and is a famous
Paulding county is on the western border of
the state, north of the center. The county was
formed April 1, 1820, from Indian territory, and
named in honor of John Paulding, one of the
three militia men who captured Major Andre
during the Eevolutionary war.
COUNTY SKETCHES. 363
The surface of Paulding county is level, and
the soil is a dark fertile loam. Farming and
stock raising are important industries.
The area of Paulding county is 414 square
mileSj and its population in 1840 was only 1,035,
while in 1900 it was 27,528. The county was
formerly covered by swamps and dense forests,
but both have gradually given way to the ad-
vancement of civilization.
Paulding, the county seat, is a prosperous
little city with a population in 1900 of 2,080,
and is surrounded by a fertile farm section.
. Payne, Cecil, Charloe and Worstville are all
important villages of Paulding county.
Perry county is located in the southeastern
part of the state, and was formerly a part of
Washington, Muskingum and Fairfield counties.
This county was established March 1, 1817, and
was named in honor of Commodore Oliver H.
Perry, so famous in the war of 1812.
The surface of Perry county is rolling, and
in some parts hilly; the soil is of clay forma-
tion, and in many parts fertile. The great
wealth of the county is in its minerals, and coal
and iron ore are both mined extensively. The
364 HISTORY OF OHIO.
Middle Kittanning vein of coal, with a thickness
of from 5 to 13 feet, is found in Perry county.
The area of Perry county is 402 square miles,
and its population in 1820 was 8,459, while in
1900 it was 31,841. -
New Lexington, the county seat, had a popu-
lation in 1900 of 1,701. Somerset, the former
county seat, will always be noted as the boyhood
home of our famous General Philip Henry
Pickaway county lies a little south from the
center of the state and was formerly a part of
Ross, Fairfield and Franklin counties. This
county was formed January 12, 1810, and the
name is a misspelling of Piqua.
The surface of Pickaway county is level, and
the soil very fertile. Farming and stock raising
are leading occupations, and the county ranks
high in the production of corn.
The area of Pickaway county is 501 square
miles, and its population in 1820 was 18,143,
while in 1900 it was 27,016.
Oircleville, the county seat, is 26 miles south
of Columbus, and had a population in 1900 of
6,991. In the vicinity of Oircleville are the
famous Pickaway Plains which are said to be
COUNTY SKETCHES. 365
the most fertile plains in Ohio. They were no
doubt cultivated by the Mound Builders and In-
dians many centuries before known by the early
Pike county is in the southern part of the
state and was formerly a part of Highland, Ross,
Scioto, Adams and Jackson counties; it was
established in 1815.
The surface of Pike county is hilly and
broken with the exception of the fertile valleys
of the Scioto and its tributaries, which form a
wealthy farming section.
The area of Pike county is 436 square miles,
end its population in 1820 was 4,253, while in
1900 it was 18,172.
Waverly, the county seat, is on the west bank
of the Scioto river, and is a flourishing little city
with a population in 1900 of 1,854.
Piketon, the former county seat, had a popu-
lation in 1900 of 1,200, and is located five miles
south of Waverly on the Scioto river.
Pike county is made memorable by the fam-
ous Waverly sandstone which is obtained there.
366 HISTORY OF OHIO.
Portage county is located in the northeastern
part of the state and was formerly a part of
Trumbull county and the Western Eeserve. The
county was established June 7, 1807, and named
from the old Indian trail or portage in that
The surface of Portage county is slightly
rolling, and the soil fertile. Farming and stock
raising are carried on extensively; dairy
products are a leading export. A portion of
the county is underlaid with coal, and mining
is becoming a leading industry.
The area of Portage county is 480 square
miles, and its population in 1820 was 10,093,
while in 1900 it was 29,246.
Eavenna, the county seat, is a thriving manu-
facturing center with a population in 1900 of
4,003. This city was the former home of Jesse
Grant, father of General U. S. Grant.
Preble county is located on the western
boundary of the state, south of the center, and
was formerly a part of Montgomery and Butler
counties. This county was established March
eOUNTY SKETCHES. 367
1, 1808, and named in honor of Captain Edward
Preble, a distinguished naval commander in the
The surface of Preble county is undulating,
and the soil fertile. Farming is carried on ex-
The area of Preble county is 432 square miles,
and its population in 1820 was 10,237, while in
1900 it was 28,713. An excellent quality of lime-
stone is found within the county, and the quar-
ries in the vicinity of Eaton are quite extensive.
Eaton, the county seat, is 24 miles west of
Dayton, and had a population in 1900 of 3,155.
Artesian wells are obtained at a depth of 35 or
40 feet, and mineral springs are numerous, pro-
ducing iron, bicarbonate of sodium, potassium
Putnam county is located in the northwestern
part of the state and was formerly Indian terri-
tory. The county was formed in 1834 and
named in honor of General Israel Putnam.
The surface of Putnam county is level and
the soil very fertile. The county ranks high
among the agricultural counties of the state.
The area of Putnam county is 480 square
368 HISTORY 01^ OHIO.
miles, and its population in 1840 was 5,132, while
in 1900 it was 32,525.
Ottawa, the county seat, is becoming a pros-
perous commercial and manufacturing center,
with a population in 1909 of 2,322.
Leipsic and Columbus Grove are each pros-
perous manufacturing centers with a population
in 1900 exceeding 2,000 each.
Richland county is located in the north-cen-
tral portion of the state, and was so named on
account of its fertile soil. This county was es-
tablished March 1, 1813.
The surface of Richland county is in general
level, but some parts are slightly rolling. Farm-
ing and stock raising are carried on extensively.
The area of Richland county is 487 square
miles, and its population in 1820 was 9,186,
while in 1900 it was 44,298.
Mansfield, the county seat, is about halfway
between Cleveland and Columbus, and is a noted
commercial, manufacturing and railroad center.
Mansfield will always remain noted on account
of its being the home of the grand old statesman,
Bellville, Lexington, Plymouth, Shelby and
Shiloh are all important villages of Rictiland
Ross county is located in the southern part
of the state, and was formerly of large dimen-
sions. The county was established by a procla-
mation of Governor St. Clair August 20, 1798,
and was named in honor 91 James Koss of Alle-
The surface of Ross county is hilly with the
exception of the river valleys, which are very
fertile. Vast quantities of corn are grown in the
valleys of the Scioto and Paint creek.
The area of Ross county is 658 square miles,
and its population in 1820 was 20,610, while in
1900 it was 40,940. Ross county is famous for
the production of fine cattle which are even
superior to those of the blue-grass region of
Chillicothe, the county seat, was the first
capital of Ohio, -and is a prosperous old city with
a population in 1900 of 12,976. Chillicothe is
an Indian name given to the leading tribe of the
^7Q HISTORY OF OHIQ.
Sandusky county is located in the northern
part of the state on Lake Erie, and was formed
from Indian territory April 1, 1820.
The surface of Sandusky county is level, the
soil fertile and farming is carried on exten-
sively. The county possesses a fine quality of
limestone which is quarried extensively.
The area of Sandusky county is 418 square
miles, and its population in 1830 was only 2,851,
while in 1900 it was 34,311.
Fremont, the county seat, is about 95 miles
north of Columbus, and 83 miles southwest of
Cleveland. The city is quite a commercial and
manufacturing center with a population in 1900
of 8,439. Fremont will long be remembered as
the home of Rutherford B. Hayes, one of Ohio's
most illustrious sons.
Clyde, Woodville, Gibsonburg, Lindsey and
Townsend are other important towns in San-
Scioto county is located in the southern part
of the state on the Ohio river, and was estab-
lished May 1, 1803. The name "Scioto" is from
the Indian language, and its signification is
COUNTY SKETCHES. 371
The surface of Scioto county is badly broken
and in some localities the hills reach a height
of several hundred feet above the level of the
Ohio river. The river valleys are broad and fer-
tile, and produce enormous yields of corn. This
county is rich in minerals, and large quantities
of coal, iron ore and building stones are mined.
The area of Scioto county is 613 square miles,
and its population in 1820 was 5,750, while in
1900 it was 40,981.
Portsmouth, on the Ohio river, is the county
seat, and one of the great commercial and manu-
facturing centers of the state. The city had a
population in 1900 of 17,870.
Sciotoville and Lucasville are both important
towns in Scioto county.
Seneca county is located in the northern part
of the state and was organized April 1, 1824.
The name ^^Seneca'^ was applied to a tribe of
Indians who formerly resided within its limits.
The surface of Seneca county is level, the
soil is a fertile loam, and farming is carried on
The area of Seneca county is 544 square
372 HISTORY OP^ OHIO.
miles^ and its population in 1830 was 5,157,
while in 1900 it was 41,163.
Tiffin, the county seat, is on the Sandusky
river, and had a population in 1900 of 10,989.
The city of Tiffin is a great commercial and
manufacturing center, and the seat of numerous
institutions of learning, among which is the
Fostoria, principally within Seneca county,
is also a prosperous manufacturing and com-
mercial center, and had a population in 1900
of nearly 10,000. — Green Spring, Attica and
Bloomville are other important towns.
Shelby county is located in the western part
of the state and was formerly a part of Miami
county. This county was established in 1819,
and named in honor of General Isaac Shelby, of
The surface of Shelby county is level in the
south and undulating in the north. The soil is
of clay formation, and the bottom lands are very
fertile. Farming and stock raising are leading
The area of Shelby county is 420 square
COUNTY SKETCHES. 373
miles, and the population in 1820 was only 2,142,
while in 1900 it was 24,625.
Sidney, the county seat, is on the Miami
river, and is quite a commercial and manufac-
turing center with a population in 1900 of 5,688.
Anna and Lockington are both important
villages of Shelby county.
stark county is located in the northeastern
part of the state, and was organized in January,
1809, and named in honor of General John
Stark, of Eevolutionary fame.
The surface of Stark county is rolling and
in some places slightly hilly; the soil is of clay
formation in the north and east, while the re-
maining portion is a sandy loam. The county
ranks high in both agricultural and mineral
wealth. Coal, iron ore and limestone are exten-
The area of Stark county is 560 square miles,
and its population in 1820 was only 12,406, while
in 1900 it was 94,747.
Canton, the county seat, will long be remem-
bered as the home of William McKinley, the
nation's latest martyr. Canton is one of the
374 HISTORY OF OHIO,
greatest manufacturing centers of the state, and
had a population in 1900 of 30,667.
Massillon, eight miles west of Canton, is also
a commercial and manufacturing center, and
had a population in 1900 of 13,500.
Summit county is located in the northeastern
part of the state and was formerly a part of
Portage, Medina and Stark counties. This
county was established March 3, 1840, and was
named from a high point of land called "Portage
The surface of Summit county is broken, but
the soil is fertile, and farming and fruit growing
is carried on extensively. This county pos-
sesses vast beds of bituminous coal and mining
is a leading industry.
The area of Summit county is 391 square
miles, and its population in 1840 was 22,469,
while in 1900 it was 71,715.
Akron, the county seat, is about 30 miles
south of Cleveland, and is also a noted manu-
facturing center; it had a population in 1900
Cuyahoga Falls is four miles north of Akron,
and is quite a manufacturing center as well as
a noted summer resort.
COUNTY SKETCHES. 375
Trumbull county is located on the eastern
boundary of the state, north of the center, and
was formed in 1800.
The surface of Trumbull county is generally
level and the soil fertile. Farming and stock
raising are leading industries. The northern
part of the county is underlaid with an excel-
lent quality of coal, and mining is one of the
The area of Trumbull county is 625 square
miles, and its population in 1840 was 25,700,
while in 1900 it was 46,591.
Warren, the county seat, 52 miles southeast
of Cleveland, is a commercial center surrounded
by a fertile farming section; its population in
1900 was 8,529.
Niles, five miles southeast of Warren, is in
the heart of the mining region and possesses
some extensive factories.
Newton Falls, Girard and Mineral Ridge are
other important towns of Trumbull county.
Tuscarawas county is located in the eastern
part of the state, and was formerly a part of
376 HISTORY OF OHIO.
Muskingum county. The name "Tuscarawas"
is that of an Indian tribe and signifies in their
language, "open moiUh/^ The county was
formed February 15, 1808.
The surface of Tuscarawas county is largely
level while some portions are rolling and hilly.
The county abounds in rich deposits of fire clay,
iron ore and coal. Farming and mining are
leading industries of Tuscarawas county.
The area of this county is 539 square miles,
and its population in 1820 was only 8,328, while
in 1900 it was 53,751.
New Philadelphia, the county seat, is fast
becoming a noted commercial and manufactur-
ing center; it is surrounded by a wealthy agri-
cultural and mineral region and had a popula-
tion in 1900 of 6,213.
Canal Dover, three miles northwest of the
county seat, is also an important little city, with
a population in 1900 of 5,100.
Newcomerstown, 17 miles southwest of New
Philadelphia, on the Tuscarawas river, is one of
the leading cities of the county; it had a popu-
lation in 1900 of 2,500, and is surrounded by a
fertile farming section.
Gnadenhutten, 11 miles south of the county
seat, is memorable in history as the scene of the
Moravian massacre. The site of the massacre
is marked by a magnificent monument.
COUNTY SKETCHES. 377
Zoar, a German Communist settlement, is
located in this county, but has recently been
Dennison and Uhrichsville are both im-
portant manufacturing and railroad centers
with a population in 1900 of 3,500 and 6,000
Bolivar, Shanesville and Port Washington
are all thriving villages of Tuscarawas county.
Union county is located near the center of
the state, and was formerly a portion of Dela-
ware, Franklin, Madison and Logan counties,
and also included some Indian territory. This
county was established April 1, 1820, and has a
level surface and a clay soil.
The area of Union county is 427 square miles,
and its population in 1830 was only 3,192, while
in 1900 it was 22,342.
Marysville, the county seat, is a beautiful
little city 25 miles northwest of Columbus; it
is surrounded by a fertile farming section, and
the county is noted for its macadamized roads
which aggregate more than 500 miles. —
Springs, containing medicinal properties simi-
lar to those at Saratoga, have been opened at
378 HISTORY OF OHIO.
Milford Center, Unionville, Peoria, Arnold
and Claiborne are all important villages of
VAN WERT COUNTY.
Van Wert county is located on the western
boundary of the state, and was formed from In-
dian territory. This county was established
April 1, 1820, and named in honor of Isaac Van
Wert, one of Major Andre's captors.
The surface of Van Wert county is level
and the soil fertile, and farming is a leading
The area of Van Wert county is 405 square
miles, and its population in 1840 was only 1,577,
while in 1900 it was 30,394.
Van Wert, the county seat, is a prosperous
commercial and manufacturing center with a
population in 1900 of 6,422; it is surrounded
by a fertile farming section and is in the heart
of the great gas and oil belt of Indiana and
Vinton county is located in the southeastern
part of the state, and was formerly a part of
Gallia, Athens, Hocking, Ross and Jackson
COUNTY SKETCHES. 379
counties. This county was formed March 23,
1850, and named in honor of Samuel Finley
Vinton, a former statesman of Ohio.
The surface of Vinton county is rough and
hilly with the exception of some broad fertile
valleys. Stock raising is carried on extensively,
and large numbers of fine horses, cattle, hogs
and sheep are produced. Fruit growing is a
leading industry in the highlands. This county's
greatest wealth is in its minerals, and coal, fire-
clay and iron are all mined extensively.
The area of Vinton county is 402 square
miles, and its population in 1860 was 13,631,
while in 1900 it was 15,330.
McArthur, the county seat, is in the center
of the mining region, and had a population in
1900 of 941. Zaleski, Hamden and Wilkesville
are all important towns of Vinton county.
Warren county is located in the southwestern
part of the state, and was formerly a part of
Hamilton county. The county was established
May 1, 1803, and named in honor of General
Joseph Warren, of Revolutionary fame.
The surface of Warren county is slightly un-
dulating, and the soil in most localities is ex-
380 HISTORY OF OHIO.
ceptionally fertile. Farming and stock raising
are carried on extensively.
The area of Warren county is 428 square
miles, and its population in 1820 was 17,838,
Avhile in 1900 it was 25,584.
Lebanon, the county seat, 28 miles northeast
of Cincinnati, is the seat of the "National Nor-
mal University,'' an educational institution that
has been heartily endorsed by the public. Leba-
non is surrounded by a beautiful and fertile
farming section, and had a population in 1900
Franklin, 12 miles northwest of Lebanon, is
quite a manufacturing and commercial center,
and had a population in 1900 of 3,000.
Washington county is located in the south-
eastern part of the state, and borders on the
Ohio river. The county Avas established, by
proclamation of Governor St. Olair, July 26,
1788, and was the first one carved out of the
The surface of Washington county is undu-
lating, and in some localities quite hilly; the
soil is productive, especially in the valleys of the
Ohio and Muskingum rivers.
COUNTY SKETCHES. 38 1
The area of Washington county is 635 square
mileSj and its population in 1820 was 10,425,
while in 1900 it was 48,245.
Marietta, the county seat, and oldest city in
the state, is on the Ohio river at the mouth of
the Muskingum; it is a noted commercial cen-
ter, and had a population in 1900 of 13,348.
Beverly, Lowell, New Matamoras, Macks-
burg, Newport and Lower Newport are all im-
portant towns of Washington county.
Wayne county is located in the northeastern
part of the state, and was established, by procla-
mation of Governor St. Clair, August 15, 1796.
The surface of Wayne county is gently roll-
ing with large tracts of level land; the soil is
a fertile loam mixed with clay, making it one
of the greatest wheat producing counties of the
state. This county is rich in both coal and
building stone, and mining is a leading industry.
The area of Wayne county is 540 square
miles, and its population in 1820 was 11,933,
while in 1900 it was 37,870.
Wooster, the county seat, 52 miles south of
Cleveland, is the seat of Wooster University,
382 HISTORY OF OHIO.
and is a commercial and manufacturing center
of much significance.
Orrville, Doylestown, Shreve, Sterling, Ores-
ton, Fredericksburg, Burbank, West Salem and
Applecreek are all important villages of Wayne
Williams county is located in the extreme
northwest corner of the state, and was formed
fxOm. Indian territory. The county was estab-
lished in April, 1824, and named in honor of
David Williams, another of Major Andre's
The surface of Williams county is almost
level, the soil generally fertile, and farming and
stock raising are leading occupations.
The area of Williams county is 415 square
miles, and its population in 1830 was only 1,039,
while in 1900 it was 24,953.
Bryan, the county seat, is located in the
southern part of the county, and is a thriving
little city with a population in 1900 of 3,131.
West Unity, Pioneer, Stryker, Edgerton,
Montpelier, Edon and Alvordton are all pros-
perous towns in Williams county.
COUNTY SKETCHES. 383
Wood county is located in the northwestern
part of the state, and was formed from Indian
territory. The county was established April 1,
1820, and named in honor of Colonel Wood, a
distinguished oflflcer in the war of 1812.
The surface of Wood county is level, and the
soil is a black fertile loam. Farming and stock
raising are the leading industries. This county
is in the great oil and gas field of northwestern
The area of Wood county is 623 square miles,
and the population in 1830 was only 1,096, while
in 1900 it was 51,555.
Bowling Green, the county seat, 21 miles
south of Toledo, is in the center of the oil and
gas field and is rapidly becoming a manufactur-
ing center ; it had a population in 1900 of 5,067.
North Baltimore, Grand Eapids, Tontoganj^,
Pemberville, Weston and Haskins are all pros-
perous villages in Wood county.
Wyandot county is located a little northwest
from the center of the state, and was formed
from Crawford, Marion, Hardin and Hancock
384 HISTORY OF OHIO.
counties. This county was established Febru-
ary 3, 1845, and named in honor of the Wyandot
Indians who formerly resided there.
The surface of Wyandot county is level, and
the soil very fertile. Farming and stock rais-
ing are carried on extensively.
The area of Wyandot county is 404 square
miles, and its population in 1860 was 15,956,
while in 1.900 it Avas 21,125.
Upper Sandusky, the county seat, 60 miles
northwest of Columbus, is a prosperous commer-
cial and manufacturing center, with a popula-
tion in 1900 of 3,355.
Carey, Nevada, Sycamore, Marseilles, Kirby,
Wharton and Douglass are all important vil-
lages of Wyandot county.
OHIO lies between 38° 27^ and 41° 57'
north latitude^ and between 80° 34'
and 84° 49' west longitude.
The area of Ohio is 41^060 square mites.
The first constitutional convention met at
Ohillicothe, November 1, 1802, and on Novem-
ber 29, adopted a constitution.
The first state officials were elected Janu-
ary 11, 1803.
Several cities have been the seat of govern-
ment: Chillicothe until 1810; Zanesville, 1810-
12; Chillicothe again, 1812-16; and since 1816,
The first white man who visited the territory
now comprising the state of Ohio, was La Salle,
who explored that region in 1670.
Ohio was the fourth state admitted into the
The longest north and south line through
the state is 210 miles, and the longest east and
.vest line is 225 miles.
About 300 square miles of the area of Ohio
HISTORICAL MISCELLANIES. 387
The native trees of Ohio embrace 88 known
The 'Western Reserve'' is a tract ojf land con-
taining nearly 6,000 square miles, and extending
120 miles west from the Pennsylvania boundary
to the line between Huron and Seneca counties.
This tract was reserved and controlled by the
state of Connecticut until 1800.
In the western part of the "Eeserve'' is a
tract of land containing about 500,000 acres,
known as the ''Fire Lands." This tract was
donated by Connecticut to her citizens who had
suffered from fire occasioned by British in-
The Symmes Purchase is a tract of land con-
taining about 400,000 acres, and lying between
the Little Miami and Great Miami rivers, and
extending north to about the center of Warren
and Butler counties. This tract was purchased
October 15, 1788, by John Cleves Symmes.
On January 1, 1901, Ohio had 3,362 post-
offices, of which 235 Avere presidential (12 first-
class, 64 second class, 159 third class), and 3,127
fourth class, with 1,562 money order offices and
77 money order stations.
In 1901 there were published in Ohio 168
daily newspapers, 5 tri-weekly, 40 semi-weekly,
793 weekly, 6 bi-weekly, 14 semi-monthly, 178
HISTORY OF OHIO.
monthly, 4 bi-monthly and 10 quarterly publica-
tions, making a total of 1,218.
In 1900 Ohio had 8,691 miles of railroad.
The population of the state of Ohio has been
as follows :
United States Census, 1800
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