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Full text of "History of Ohio: From the Glacial Period to the Present Time"

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of the 

Ohio State University 

Presented by 

Profe^^Bor Clifton 



I, P. LAWYER, Jr., B, S. 

' Illustrated by 


Union Publishing Co., Publishers 

Columbus^ Ohio 

press of F. J. Heer 


Copyrighted, 1904, 
By James P. Lawyer, Jr. 






Preface 7 

The Glacial Period 10 

The Mound Builders 21 

The American Indian 47 

Geology of Ohio 68 

Gas and Petroleum 80 

The Peopling of Ohio 91 

Pioneer Life in Ohio 103 

Early Schools and Churches 114 

Ohio in the War of 1812 122' 

Internal Development of Ohio 134 

Trouble with Michigan 145 

Underground Railroads 148 

Ohio in the Civil War 157 

Farm Life in Ohio . . C^. 166 

Ohio's Presidents 174 

Governors of Ohio 189 

Congressional Districts 192 

Constitution of the State of Ohio 198 

Population of Cities, etc 258 

County Sketches 30 

Historical Miscellanies 386 


State Capitol Frontispiece 

Map Showing Glaceated Area of Ohio 12 

Adena Mound 20 

Spear Head 27 

Serpent Mound 32 

Fort Ancient 35 

Little Turtle 46 

Gen. George Rogers Clark 90 

A Pioneer Cottage 102 

An Old Home • 105 

The First Methodist Meeting-House in Ohio 118 

Perry's Victory 130 

First Locomotive and Passenger Car run in Ohio . .. 138 

Flag of the State of Ohio 144 

Our Jewels 156 

Ulysses S. Grant 176 

Rutherford Birchard Hayes 179 

James A. Garfield 182 

William McKinley 185 

First Capitol of Ohio 188 

Map Showing Congressional Districts .... Opposite page 192 


IN presenting this work to the public I have 
but one object in view, and that is to instilJ 
in the minds of the youth a love and patri- 
otism for their own great state, and to revive 
within the fleeting memories of the older gener- 
ations a knowledge of events which have passed. 
Little originality In this work is claimed, as 
the early Buckeyes found time in their busy 
lives to make ample records of all important 
passing events. 

In writing this history reference was made 
to all available histories and records of the state, 
and acGiiracy, and not euphony was the single 
aim of the writer 

J, P. Lawyer. 

Chapter I 


THE history of man in the territory now 
comprising the State of Ohio^ begins with 
the glacial period. The physical condi- 
tions of the country, at that early period of the 
Avorld's history, can only be learned from the 
inscriptions written by the hand of nature upon 
huge tables of stone. All we know of man, in 
that far-away time, all we know of his appear- 
ance, manners and customs we learn from a few, 
but certain sentences written in rude stone im- 
plements found imbedded and undisturbed in the 
glacial formations. 

To understand the history of man during that 
early period of his existence, it is necessary to 
inquire into the physical conditions of the terri- 
tory he then occupied. The whole of the north- 
ern part of the continent of North America was 
covered with a great sea of ice, extending as far 
south, on the Atlantic coast as New Jersey, and 
reaching in the middle states almost to the junc- 
tion of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, and 
further west approaching a point not far distant 
from the Black Hills. 


The moraine marking the southern boundary 
of the glaciated area in Ohio enters the state as 
far south as New Lisbon, in Columbiana county, 
extends almost west to Canton in Stark county, 
where it bears to the southwest and passes 
through Millersburgh, in Holmes county, to a 
point in the southern part of Ashland county, 
where it makes a short turn to the south, pass- 
ing through Newark, Lancaster, Chillicothe, 
West Union and crosses the Ohio river into Ken- 
tucky at a point not far from Maysville. 

The fields of ice that invaded Ohio were 
forced into that region, by the pressure of the 
great ocean of ice lying to the north of the region 
of the Great Lakes. Their course can be as 
readily traced by the student of geology, as the 
course of a rabbit in the snow, by the hunter. 

A glacier always carries with it large frag- 
ments of rock, and immense quantities of sand 
and gravel. If the bed rock over which it passes 
as softer than the boulders carried by it, grooves 
will be cut in the bed rock, some large and some 
Bmall, depending on the size of the boulders, 
while the sand and gravel will polish the sur- 
face or leave but fine traces extending always in 
the direction of the larger grooves. 

The best place in the state and perhaps in 
the world to observe this phenomena is on the 
rocky islands near Sandusky, Ohio. 


Courtesy of Ohio Archceologiml and Historical Society. 



On Kelly's island may be seen grooves sev- 
eral inches and sometimes as much, as two feet 
deep, running for several rods in the same direc- 
tion. The rock is a hard limestone and is well 

The soil formed by the action of moving ice 
is very different from that formed by the disin- 
tegration of the rock in undisturbed districts. 
' Rock formed by the action of water will be found 
in regular layers, and the soil formed by the 
disintegratioii will consist of the same elements 
as the rock itself, and is usually shallow. If 
sand rock is decomposed the soil will be sandy; 
if limestone rock, the soil will be a limestone 

The soil of a glaciated area is very different, 
being much deeper and composed of material 
gathered from the various kinds of rock along 
the course of the approaching glacier, ground 
together, and intermixed by the action of the 
moving ice fields. The soil of the glaciated area 
of Ohio is composed of granite taken from the 
granite beds in the region of Lake Huron; of 
limestone taken from the bed of Lake Erie; 
shale taken from the region south of the lake, 
and sandstone in the region of its deposit, as 
in Holmes county, all ground together by the 
mighty force of the moving ice fields, combining 


in one productive deposit a compound of the 
different soils. 

In some places, as at St. Paris, Ohio, the soil 
is over 500 feet deep. 

Many boulders of granite and gneiss, some 
large and some small, are found in the forma- 
tions of this period; and are found on high as 
well as on low ground. 

At Mt. Pleasant, near Lancaster, Ohio, may 
be seen an angular block of gneiss, about four 
feet long and eighteen inches thick, while at 
about the same place at a lower altitude, may 
be seen a globular boulder of granite almost six 
feet in diameter. In the same vicinity, also, 
may be seen a hu^e granite boulder measuring 
in its two diameters sixteen and eighteen feet. 
Many boulders of a smaller size and some much 
larger may be seen in the glaciated area. 

Boulders ranging from the size of a goose 
egg to that of a man's head are quite common 
in the cornfields of Ohio. Many of these boul- 
ders contain nuggets of copper. In Ohio there 
are no deposits, either of granite or gneiss from 
which these boulders could have been taken. 
Hence we conclude they were taken from the 
deposits in the region of the Great Lakes. 
'^ Those containing copper were brought from the 
mine regions of lakes Huron and Superior. 

When the ice fields made their approach in 


Ohio, the hills were much higher and the valleys 
much deeper than they now are. The hills, as 
in the vicinity of Sandusky, were worn down, 
and the deep valleys, as at St. Paris, were filled 
up, which accounts for the unequal depth of the 
drift soil. If the reader should have visited 
southern Ohio at that early period and trav- 
ersed its valleys, he would have found himself 
200 feet below the present water level of its 
rivers, the hills rising on either side of him, 
in steep rocky cliffs, resembling very much the 
walls of the Susquehanna in the mountains of 

The melting of the ice at the close of the 
glacial period formed large volumes of running 
water in the summer seasons. The rivers rising 
in the glaciated area were swollen to enormous 
proportions, and carried great quantities of sand 
and gravel deposited by the melting ice of the 
receding glacier farther to the southward, fill- 
ing up the deep valleys with the rich sediment. 
Thus the hand of time was slowly but surely 
moulding the habitation of our present civili- 

Along the shores of rivers and streams ris- 
ing north of the line of the southern terminus 
of the drift, will be seen deposits of gravel. The 
waters receding in the falling rivers have left 
terraces of gravely constituting a sort of secon(} 


bottom. From Cochostoii, Ohio, the Pennsyl- 
vania Eailroad Company has been transporting, 
for years, large quantities of gravel, from the 
gravel terraces at that place, and using it as bal- 
last in the improvement of its roadbed. The 
course of streams have been diverted by large 
deposits of drift, sand and gravel. The author 
believes that Tuscarawas river at one time flowed 
from a point east of Lafayette, in Coshocton 
county over the gravel beds known as Hickory 
Flats, to Plainfield in the same county; thence 
following the course of Wills creek from that 
point to the Muskingum river. The river at the 
present time flows west and unites with the Wal- 
honding at Coshocton, Ohio. Near Salena, in 
Athens county, the course of the Hocking river 
has been materially changed, in the same way 
That which was once the valley of the Hocking 
river is ^now a beautiful plain, dotted over by 
the earth-works of the ancient mound builders. 
Not to exceed 8,000 to 10,000 years ago, when 
the ice began to recede from Ohio, man entered 
its borders from the south. His rude stone im- 
plements have been found in the terraces in the 
river valleys, in conjunction with the remains 
of the mammoth and mastodon. Those rude im- 
plements resemble very closely the stone imple- 
ments found in the terraces at Trenton, New 
Jersey. Similar implements have been found 


in like formations in France and the British 
islands. His manner of living was much like 
the Esquimo of the present day. He subsisted 
mainly by hunting and fishing; living in the 
cliffs of the rocks, along the banks of the mighty 
rivers and swollen streams. While little can be 
said pf him that is not speculation instead of 
history, yet it is matter of history, written by 
a more truthful hand, than the hand of man, 
that he lived in this early period, surrounded 
by wild beasts, in the territory now comprising 
the State of Ohio. The mark of human genius 
is unquestiorably written on his rude imple- 
ments. He had implanted in him the germ of 
that genius which in later years has enabled 
civilized man to pluck the lightning from the 
clouds, make it his obedient servant, carrying 
at his command the delicate sounds of his voice 
thousands of miles, and the more intricate ope- 
rations of his mind all over the civilized world, 
annihilating in a measure both time and space. 

Chapter II 







IN the ancient time there lived in the territory 
now comprising the State of Ohio, a race of 
people known as the Mound Builders. Their 
stature was about equal to that of the average 
American; they were strong and vigorous, but 
lithe. While most all the remains that have been 
exhumed conform in size, very nearly to that of 
the ordinary human skeleton, yet some have been 
found that show beyond doubt, that there were 
giants in those days. 

Those unearthed at Oonneaut, in Ashtabula 
county, where the Presbyterian church now 
stands, were the remains of people of gigantic 
stature; men of heroic size; men at least one- 
third larger than the average man of to-day. 
Some of the skulls exhumed at that place were 
large enough to admit, without diflftculty, the 
head of an ordinary man, in the cavity. The 
bones of the trunk and limbs were proportion- 
ately large. 

The Mound Builder clothed himself with the 
skins of wild animals, and adorned his body with 
strings of pearls, earrings of copper and brace- 
lets of silver. 



From the evidence still preserved of this early 
race, we must conclude, that they were very 
numerous. Settlements were effected and vil- 
lages built, in almost every part of the state. 
Perhaps the largest city is the one located in 
Hamilton county at the present site of Cincin- 
nati. In Hamilton county alone the marks of 
no less than 437 mounds have been observed. A 
considerable village was located about four miles 
from Athens in Athens county. These villages 
were strangely fortified; one of the mounds in 
Athens county was built from a peculiar rock 
not found in that locality at the present time. 
There were used in its construction more than 
a thousand perches of stone. The masonry has 
since been used in the construction of a dam in 
the Hocking river. Other fortified cities were 
built at Newark and Marietta, while unfortified 
ones were numerous in almost all of the river 
valleys. Examples of the unfortified cities may 
be found at Coshocton in Coshocton county, and 
at Conneaut in Ashtabula county. 

The building of cities, extensive earthworks 
and fortifications teaches that there was united 
action, as such extensive works could not have 
been constructed by individual action. Some 
form of government existed, as such unity of 
action could not have been secured without the 
aid of the law. That sentiment implanted in 


the nature of civilized man, which impels him 
to seek the association of his fellowman; to se- 
cure the mutual aid and protection of organized 
society, was deeply rooted in the hearts of these 
primitive people. 

While we cannot give the name of a single 
king or chief, or describe the rise and fall of a 
single dynasty, yet we know that the science of 
government was not entirely unknown to them. 
Indeed, their form of government must have 
reached a degree of strength far in advance of 
that reached by any of the known tribes of In- 
dians who roamed over the ruins of their decayed 

An examination of their skulls discloses the 
fact that there were two distinct races, and from, 
the erection of such strong fortifications it would 
be inferred that there was more than one govern- 
ment. They had enemies ; there were more chiefs 
than one; man sought, then, as well as now, to 
subdue his fellowman. Society was divided 
into castes, a necessary consequence of society 
itself, it being impossible, where any degree 
of liberty exists, to maintain, for any consider- 
able length of time, an equality among the citi- 
zens naturally unequal in strength, character 
and intellect. 

The first citizens of the realm built their 
homes within the walls of the city. The frame- 


work of these homes was made of poles planted 
in circular ditches. The tops of the poles or 
saplings were fastened together at the top, form- 
ing a conical shaped cavity or room. The poles 
were plastered with clay, making walls six or 
eight inches thick. The mansions of these prim- 
itive plutocrats were from thirty to forty feet 
in diameter at the floor. At the present time 
such rude homes would not meet with the ap- 
proval of the humblest housewife; but to the 
Mound Builder, living outside the city walls, 
they were the palaces of kings, the homes of 
daring v/arriors and learned citizens. 

The common people built their homes upon 
the terraces overlooking the beautiful river val- 
leys. The buildings were similar in construc- 
tion to those within the walls, but were built 
from shrubs and branches of trees. Clusters of 
these houses were built in the vicinity of the 
forts to enable the occupants, on the approach 
of danger, to take refuge within the walls of the 
forts. When the enemy appeared the people 
fled to the nearest fort, where the family re- 
mained until the warriors had beaten back the 
enemy. Peace being again restored, the war- 
rior, accompanied by his wife and children, 
would again return to his home on the river 

The cooking utensils consisted mainly of pots 


of clay moulded by the artisan and hardened 
by the action of fire. The food of the Mound 
Builder consisted of the flesh of wild animals 
taken in the chase, together with vegetables and 
Indian corn grown by them in the fertile valleys. 
Agricultural pursuits were followed to a lim- 
ited extent; their implements were naade from 
the horns of deer and elk. 

In the excavations made in the vicinity of 
Cincinnati, considerable quantities of parched 
corn have been found mingled with the ashes in 
the ash pits. Many earthen pots have been 
found in various parts of the State in connection 
with the remains of the Mound Builders. These 
pots were used to cook the meat brought in by 
the hunter. The raccoon, groundhog, wild tur- 
key, owl, bear, turtle and fish were extensively 
used for food. Many bones from these animals 
have been found where this rude people lived. 
Some of the bones show evidence of being 
burned, which would indicate that they were 
roasted. Other bones found have a polished ap- 
pearance, indicating that they were boiled. 

From the shell of the turtle a very useful 
cup was made, from which the Mound Builders 
drank the sparkling water. To the twentieth 
century man, such a home, one without any of 
the comforts of civilized life, would seem to be 
hut mockery. Yet that hovel sheltered both wife 


and children, and to the Mound Builder, as well 
as to all other people, there was no place like 

If the Mound Builders had left no history 
of their handiwork except that contained in the 
beautifully and perfectly formed arrowheads, so 
abundant in Ohio, one would be forced to con- 
clude that the hand that fashioned them with 
the rude implements at his command, was in- 
spired by a genius, and had acquired a degree 
of skill equal to that of any modern artisan. 
Some of these flint arrowheads are five inches 
long, two inches wide, chipped to a point, and 
so thin that the light of day shines through 
them. Many have been found so regularly 
formed and perfectly balanced that not a single 
flaw could be detected. 

But the skill of the artisan was not confined 
to the making of arrowheads alone. The pot- 
tery manufactured also shows marks of skill. 
While the earthen vessels were usually simply 
cord-marked, yet some of them were more artis- 
tically ornamented. A number have been found 
ornamented with small medallion figures repre- 
senting the human face. One pot ornamented 
Avith a small medallion head placed on the side 
of the vessel, so as to face the inside of the ves- 
sel was found. A half dozen or more, orna- 
mented with representations of the lizard, have 

^AS. '/ >^i& 


^^.^ ^^"' 







Co^*^*esy of Ohio Archceological and Historical Society. 


been found and are still preserved. The lizard 
was moulded on the side, representing it in the 
act of crawling into the vessel. Quite a variety 
of pots have been found. On a pair of Altar 
mounds located in Hamilton county, numerous 
pieces of jewelry were found. On top of the 
burnt clay of one of these mounds lay about two 
bushels of ornaments made from copper, stone, 
shell and teeth. Fifty thousand pearls were 
counted and assorted from this mass. 

Nearly all of these ornaments were perfor- 
ated to enable the owner to string them. Sev- 
eral of the copper ornaments Avere plated with 
silver hammered into sheets and folded over the 
nuggets of copper. Some few were plated in the 
same way with gold. In one of the burying 
grounds was found, on either side of the skull 
of the occupant, a copper ornament, in the shape 
of the half of a spool. These had been worn by 
the deceased in the ears. Silver plated bracelets 
were also found, and among other relics was a 
very grotesque human profile carved out of a 
sheet of mica. 

In other mounds have been found, in a good 
state of preservation, awls made from bone, hoes 
made from the antlers of the deer and elk, 
hammers made from stone and edge tools made 
from copper. The art of tempering copper has 
been lost. 


VVhile they were not skilled enough in sur- 
gery to set a fractured limb, yet they were skilled 
enough to fill their teeth. From one of the giant 
skeletons found at Conneaut a well preserved 
tooth was taken, which had been filled with a 
metallic substance resembling silver: 

Their fortifications disclose the fact that 
they had a system of measurement. The square 
and circle were extensively used in the construc- 
tion of their earthworks. 

The fiint from which their arrowheads were 
made was mined from the earth. Some of their 
mines were in the South while others were in 
Ohio. Very extensive mines were operated near 
Newark, Ohio, and less extensive ones were lo- 
cated in the flint hills east of Coshocton, Ohio. 
The excavations in the vicinity of Newark, the 
site of their ancient city, enable one to form 
some idea of their mining industries. The cop- 
per used by them was taken from the excava- 
tion in the Lake Superior region. At the bot- 
tom of one of these excavations was found a 
huge nugget of copper which gave evidence of 
having been pounded with the stone hammers 
found in the pit with it. The miner hammered 
the copper into thin flanges which he then broke 
off. To have made those extensive excavations 
in that rigid climate with such tools, must have 
required a degree of patience and industry not 


often witnessed. The miner began his pilgrim- 
age to the north with the early approach of 
spring. After braving the dangers and encoun- 
tering the hardships of the forest, he secured his 
precious metal and returned with the approach 
of winter. 

The bow and arrow to the Mound Builder 
was pe^'haps the most useful article he possessed. 
With it he felled the deer and provided meat for 
his family; with it he slew his enemy, and de- 
fended his country. 

Between the different tribes, war was waged 
with much vigor. The law of "the survival of 
the fittest," was perhaps the only international 
law acknowledged by them. The men devoted 
much of their time to warlike pursuits. To the 
Mound Builder, war was the noblest calling, 
and when it was waged against his nation he 
fought in her defense with a stubbornness and 
fortitude that would do credit to the reserve 
guard of the noblest prince. 

Strong forts were built, and no less than 
1,500 fortifications were, constructed in this 
state. There have been built in this state of all 
kinds of mounds, no less than 10,000. It would 
be a gross injustice to the Mound Builder if a 
description of some of these mounds was not 
given. Three different characters of mounds 


prevail. They consist of signal mounds, effigy 
mounds and forts. 

The signal mounds are very numerous and 
are built of earth on a circular base in the form 
of a cone. They are so called because they are 
supposed to have been used as signal stations 
to notify the populace of approaching danger. 

The effigy mounds represent certain animals, 
and they throw some light upon the superstitions 
of their builders. 

The forts are inclosures built for defense in 
war. In the study of these mounds, we read the 
history of their builders. The study of history 
begins with the earliest monuments erected by 
man. It is not n ecessary, in order that we may 
read and know the history of a people, that their 
records be inclosed between the lids of a book. 
Those historic monuments contain volumes of 
history more authentic than can be written in 
words. From a careful study of the monu- 
ments, forts, burial places, village sites, imple- 
ments and ornaments left by them, we may form 
a vivid and correct conception of what we have 
been pleased to term Prehistoric Times. 

There are no very interesting mounds belong- 
ing to the first class so far as their method of 
construction is concerned. The most interest- 
ing of the second class in this state, or in the 
world, is the Serpent Mound in Adams county. 



A rather secluded place seems to have been 
chosen for the location of this mound. It is 
located on Brush creek in Adams county, about 
six miles south of Sinking Springs. The place 
selected is a beautiful tableland about 100 feet 
above the level of the creek, and presents to the 
water front a rocky, precipitous face. The head 
of the serpent lies to the north, approaching the 
brow of the hill. In its open mouth it holds an 
object resembling an egg. 

By the observer standing on the wall of this 
inclosure, and looking to the southwards, the 
huge serpent is seen in all its sublimity and 
grandeur, winding back and forth in graceful 
curves across the narrow plateau. Looking up 
the gentle slopes, the observer may see four regu- 
lar folds before the coil in the tail is reached. 
The tail tapers gracefully to a point and is 
wound in three complete coils. The body of the 
serpent is about five feet high and thirty feet 
wide at the neck. The egg-shaped object, held 
in the open mouth, measures, in its two diam- 
eters, sixty and one hundred and twenty feet re- 
xspectively. The whole length of the mound from 
the end of the precipice to the tip of the tail, is 
one thousand three hundred feet. 

The serpent entered largely into the mythol- 
ogy of the ancient Mexicans, and seems to have 
had about the same significance with them, that 


it had with the ancient Egyptians, Assyrians 
^nd Grecians. 

They, also, enter largely into the supersti- 
tions of the Hindoos and Chinese. The site of 
this mound, being as it is in a secluded spot, 
seems to indicate that it was a place for the 
observance of sacred rites. The gently rising 
tableland was aptly fitted for the assembling of 
the people. Here assembled this primitive peo- 
ple and with the fire of religion burning in their 
souls, they observed their most sacred rites. 
While their religion may not have been sup- 
ported by the logic of a Paul, it was laden with 
a sincerity and devotion that the churches ot 
to-day might well emulate. 

The observer standing on the head of the 
serpent can see, in the distance, although eight 
miles away to the northward, fort Hill in High- 
land county, one of the best and most interest- 
ing forts in the state. . It is situated on the top 
of a high hill, about three miles north of Sink- 
ing Springs. The hill stands out alone and is 
washed, on the north and west by the east fork 
of Brush creek. At the top of the hill, 500 feet 
above the water level in the creek, is a level, 
plateau containing thirty-five acres. This pla- 
teau is enclosed by a wall of stone and earth 
excavated from the top of the hill. The excava- 
tion, made in the interior of the mound, is about 

'rtesy of Ohio ArchcEological and Historical Society » 


fifty feet wide. The embankment is about six 
feet high and averaging in width, at the base, 
about twenty-five feet. The wall of the inclos- 
ure is 8,582 feet long. There are arranged at 
intervals thirty -three gateways, ranging in width 
from ten to fifteen feet. At eleven of these gate- 
ways the interior ditch made by the excavation 
in building the walls, is filled up. A stronger 
position, for the construction of a fort, could 
scarcely have been chosen. This fort properly 
garrisoned was almost impregnable. Near this 
fort the ruins of a once populous city have been 

t Fort Ancient, built on a high plateau over- 
looking the valley of the Little Miami, in War- 
ren county, is the most extensive prehistoric for- 
tification in the world. The strongest position, 
that could have been found in the state, was, 
chosen for the erection of this fort. Surrounded 
as it is on every side by precipitous ravines it 
stands isolated, and is the Gibraltar of the 
Mound Builders. 

The walls follow the contour of the plateau, 
forming an inclosure about one mile long and 
a quarter of a mile wide, narrowing in the cen- 
tral- part until the walls come within two or 
three hundred feet of each other. Cross bars 
were built at each end of the narrow passage, di- 
viding the fort into three parts, called The Old 


Fort/ New Fort and Middle Fort. The distance 
around the fort is three and two-thirds miles; 
inclosing about one hundred and twenty-six 
acres. The average size of the wall is about 
twelve feet by fifty feet, and built mainly from 
earth, although stone w^as extensively used in 
some places. The stone used was of limestone 
formation and about two feet by three feet in 
size, layed up Avithout mortar. 

Within the fort were two village sites; one 
in the old fort and one in the new. The one in 
i:he old fort shows evidence of its having been 
occupied for a considerable length of time, and 
covered about forty acres of ground. The one 
in the ncAV was not so large and does not show 
any evidence of its being used for so long a 
time. On the side of the ravine running down 
from the entrance leading to the old fort into 
the middle fort, are many artificial terl'aces, 
from fifteen to twenty feet wide. On these ter- 
races are evidences of camp sites. Hundreds of 
skeletons have been found in these terraces, dif- 
fering widely in method of interment and form 
of skull from those found within the Avails of 
the fort. At the base of the Avail of the fort at 
the head of this ravine, many skeletons in a re- 
markably good state of preservation, Avere ex- 
humed. Many fractured skulls and bones pene- 
trated with flint arroAvheads, Avhich still stuck 


fast, were found. The warriors were, evidently, 
buried where they fell. 

Two forms of skulls predominate. Those 
found in the fort and in the burying ground of 
the city, that was located near the fort on the 
plain, were round, the width of the skull being 
more than two-thirds the length; while those 
found in the terrace were long, the width of the 
skull being less than two-thirds of the length. 

There were many other forts on the hilltops, 
of scarcely less importance than those described. 
One was located on Spruce Hill near Hillsboro ; 
one near Glenford in Perry county; another at 
North Bend outlooking all the territory about 
the mouth of the Great Miami river ; and others 
in different parts of the state we will not take 
up space in describing. In magnitude and inge- 
nuity these old forts in Ohio have no prehistoric 

The earthworks of the ancients were not con- 
fined entirely to the tops of hills or strong posi- 
tions. The mounds located at the site of Mari- 
etta, are built upon an elevated plain on the 
east side of the Muskingum river, about one-half 
mile from its junction with the Ohio. They con- 
sist of walls or embankments of earth thrown 
up in such a way as to form two hollow squares. 
The inclosure lying to the north, sometimes 
called the town, contains forty acres. The walls 


are from six to ten feet high and from twenty- 
five to thirty-five feet wide at the base. There 
were three gateways or entrances in each of the 
sides, and an entrance at each corner. In the 
southwest corner a semicircular mound, back a 
little ways from the wall, guards the opening. 
From the opening at the northwest corner two 
parallel walls, about two hundred feet apart, 
lead down from the terrace, upon which the in- 
closure is built, to the river bottom. This pas- 
sage-way was made by removing the earth be- 
tween the two walls and piling it up on either 
side. The walls are twenty feet high on the in- 
side, while on the outside they are but five feet. 
Two similar walls were built from the middle 
opening on the west side to the base of the ter- 
race. The river, at the time those passage-ways 
were built, followed along the base of the ter- 
race. These passage-ways, no doubt, were built 
to protect the garrison on their way to and 
from the river for supplies of water. Within 
the inclosure are three square table mounds 
which measure about eight feet in height. 
. The fort lying to the south is almost square 
and built in the same way as the other, except, 
there is but one gateway in each of the sides of 
the inclosi^re and located about the center of the 
side walls. Each of the gateways in this fort 
— those in the sides and those in the corners — ^ 


are defended by circular mounds located just 
inside the entrance. 

A short distance south of this fort stands the 
sugar-loaf mound, rising thirty feet high. It 
stands on a circular base one hundred and fif- 
teen feet in diameter and is surrounded by a 
ditch four feet deep and fifteen feet wide, out- 
side of which is a parapet four feet high with an 
opening directly in front of the center gateway 
in the south wall of the smaller fort. 

The earthworks at Newark, Ohio, consist of 
an octagon, a square and several circular and 
crescent mounds, together with several parallel 
walls connecting the different inclosures. The 
fort is not a strong one, being built on the level 
plain between the Eaccoon and South Fork 
creeks. The fort, together with the walls and 
mounds, covers about four square miles of the 
plain between the two streams which come to- 
gether at right angles. These earthworks ex- 
tend about two miles up Raccoon and South 
Fork creeks, making the space covered nearly 
the shape of an equilateral triangle. The 
Newark race course is inside of one of the circu- 
lar mounds; this mound, containing thirty 
acres (being large enough to enclose a half-mile 
track), has but one gateAvay. The Avail of this 
enclosure is higher than the walls of the other 
enclosures in that vicinity, which are usually 


lowj being about six feet high. Within the in- 
closure, sometimes called the old fort, is an in- 
teresting efflgy mound, called the Eagle Mound, 
which represents a bird on the wing. 

The Octagon and Circular mounds, lying to 
the west, have been purchased and reserved by 
the state. These inclosures present to the eye 
as beautiful a picture as one might wish to see; 
built as they are upon the level plain, so true 
that the eye cannot detect a single flaw, they 
inspire the beholders with awe and veneration 
for their builders. The Octagon consists of 
eight walls of earth forming an octagon, with 
an opening at each angle. Each angle is 
guarded by an embankment thrown up about 
thirty feet from the interior of the opening. 
Two parallel embankments about one hundred 
feet apart, extend perhaps three hundred feet 
to the opening in the circular mound lying to 
the west, connecting the two moujids by the 
passage-way. Tradition tells us that a subter- 
ranean passage-way, built of stone, led from this 
circular inclosure to the creek now about eighty 
rods distant. The Octagonal mound encloses 
fifty acres and the Circular encloses twenty acres 
of land. The Circular is covered with a beauti- 
ful grove. 

A class of mounds called Altar Mounds, be- 
cause of the relics found upon them, which are 


supposed to be sacrificial offerings, are very 
numerous and peculiar to Ohio. They are built 
upon the surface of the ground, the site of the 
mound being first- cleared of any foreign sub- 
stance and well tamped or burned. An oval ex- 
cavation is made in the ground, so prepared, and 
plastered with mortar made from well-kneaded 
clay. A hot fire was then built in the excava- 
tion and kept burning until the walls became 
thoroughly hardened. The ashes Avere, in some 
cases, taken out of the excavation, while in oth- 
ers they were allowed to remain. These mounds 
often contain relics ; some only a pipe or arrow- 
head; while others, as the one at Madisonville, 
contain large quantities of relics. In one of 
this class of mounds was found the engraved 
copper plate which gives to the Mound Builders 
credit for a greater degree of skill than any 
relics that have yet been found. Those plates 
were stamped and cut into such intricate de- 
signs and figures that it seemingly would be im- 
possible for them to have been made without the 
aid of steel instruments or dies, but they may 
have been made, and perhaps were, with delicate 
instruments made of flint. In one of these 
mounds near Chillicothe, Ohio, were found two 
hundred pipes; in another a copper axe weigh- 
ing thirty-eight pounds was found; and others 
contain charred human remains. 


Many of the cone-shaped mounds contain 
human remains, but only a limited number were 
honored by such lasting monuments. By far 
the greater portion of the population were 
buried in unmarked graves. In sandy or loose 
earth the graves are large and about three feet 
deep, while in hard or clay ground, they are 
small and very shallow, not often being over a 
foot deep; in most cases the earth was thrown 
back upon the remains without any other cover- 
ing. Many skeletons have been found in tun- 
nels built from stone slabs, the sides of the tomb 
being walled for a short distance from the bot- 
tom, the remains laid in a horizontal position on 
the bottom, between the two walls, and covered 
with stone slabs ; the grave was then filled with 
earth. Near the city sites, cemeteries are found. 
The mode of burial is the same as in isolated 
graves, except that many graves are located near 
the same place, and a systematic arrangement 
of the graves prevails. 

There has been much speculation concerning 
the Mound Builders. It is impossible, from the 
historic monuments left by them, to form a con- 
clusion concerning their origin or their decline. 
They had no alphabet any traces of which have 
been found. They had no domestic animals, and 
made but little of the useful metals. They were 
not much different from many of the Indian 


tribes, for it was a custom, with many of the 
early Indian tribes, to build mounds. The his- 
torian, perhaps, would be justified in saying that 
the Indians are the direct offspring of this 
primitive people. Their manner of living is 
practically the same, their weapons the same 
and many of their implements the same. There 
is much in the character of both for civilized 
men to admire, while he must deplore their 
surroundings. They Avere patient, as can be 
learned from the fact that a vast amount of time 
and labor was necessary in order to perform 
some of the tasks that they accomplished; they 
were content with solitude, as can be readily 
seen in the fact that they built their mounds 
and forts in secluded places when it was pos- 
sible for them to do so; they were peaceful, as 
can be seen when we consider the fact that it 
must have taken many, many years of incessant 
labor, with the rude tools they had, to build their 
earthworks or places of abode and worship. 

Chapter III 


Courtesy of Ohio ArclicEological and Historical Society. 



WHEN Columbus discovered America in 
1492 J he supposed lie had reached the 
IndiaSj and that the savages with 
whom he came in contact on the shore were in- 
habitants of that country, so he gave them the 
name of Indians. Thus by mistake were the 
primitive inhabitants of the New World named. 

The family of the Huron Iroquois occupied 
the territory now^ comprising the State of Ohio, 
and they were divided into numerous tribes. The 
origin and early history of the Indians are wrap- 
ped in as much obscurity, or even more, than that 
of the Mound Builders. The most reasonable 
conclusion that can be reached concerning their 
origin is that they are the direct offspring of the 
Mound Builders. 

The most potent argument that has been 
advanced against the unity of the Mound Build- 
ers and Indians is based upon the assumption 
that the Indians knew nothing concerning the 
monuments left by the Mound Builders. The 
erroneous assumption is the result of imperfect 
and limited knowledge of the known Indian 
tribes. It is very probable that the commingling 



of the two races of Mound Builders, after the 
decline of the more peaceful nation of the south, 
and their subjugation by the warlike, and rest- 
less nations of the north, that a race was pro- 
duced differing somewhat from either of the 
older nations. It would also be reasonable to 
conclude that the method of warfare practiced 
by the conquerors would be substituted in a 
large degree, for the methods of the conquered. 
Those in the south, usually, if not always, waged 
a defensive warfare, as can be seen by their 
numerous defensive works. Those in the north 
waged an offensive warfare, attacking their 
enemy in his fortified cities, or drawing him 
from them by strategy and meeting him in the 
open field, or surprising him in ambush. 

The abandonment of fortified positions is 
what we would expect from the offspring of 
two such nations. The manners and customs 
of the Indian tribes are not very different from 
those of the Mound Builders. Their weapons 
were the same, their houses were built in the 
same way, and they smoked the same pipe. 
Many of the known Indian tribes, not more than 
two centuries ago, built extensive earthworks. 
It was quite common for them to build a wall 
of earth around the wigwams, and when closely 
pressed, and flight impossible, they constructed 
parapets around their camps, but when over- 


powered, if flight was possible, they sought 
safety by fleeing. 

There was a tradition among the Delawares, 
translated and reduced to writing more than a 
century ago, which, while it is far from being 
conclusive as to any theory, may throw some 
light upon the origin of the early Indians. 

The tradition is that their tribe, in migrat- 
ing from the west toward the east, came to a 
great river. The country beyond the river was 
occupied by a people called the AUegwi or Fal- 
legwi who had many towns. They gave the 
Delawares permission to pass through their ter- 
ritory ; but when a part of the tribe had crossed 
the river, the Allegwi attacked and routed them 
with great slaughter. Enraged at this treach- 
ery, the Delawares formed an alliance with the 
Iroquois who had in the meantime come to the 
same river farther up. The combined forces 
crossed and drove back the Allegwi. For many 
years warfare continued with varying results, 
but gradually the combined forces gained 
ground. The Allegwi built large and strong 
forts which they stubbornly defended, but were 
sooner or later compelled to abandon. Finally 
the invaders triumphed and the native tribe fled 
southward, the Delawares passed on to the sea 
while the Iroquois remained west of the moun- 


tains. It is said that the Iroquois have a simi- 
lar legend. 

The Indian had no fixed habitation. He 
might, in his pursuit of game, lose his wigwam, 
but he never, became lost himself. The tribes 
shifted from place to place, never staying in the 
same locality any considerable length of time. 
Of the tribes living in Ohio,>,>the Wyandots were 
the most peaceful and most highly civilized. 
The Mohawks, Shawnees and Delawares were 
numerous and powerful. Senecas, Onanadagos, 
Oongas, Oneidas, Ohipewas, Otawas, Tuscara- 
was and Potawatamies also roamed through the 
forests of Ohio. 

A great injustice has been done by the his- 
torian, to the American Indian. The bad traits 
of his character have been carefully preserved 
and given prominence on account of the cruel- 
ties inflicted upon the whites by the red men. 
Their virtues, and they had many, are seldom 
referred to, and the Indian's environment is 
never considered. The provocations of Euro- 
peans should be taken into account. If the early 
historian had taken as great care in recording 
the provocations of the whites, and the methods 
employed by the various jealous European na- 
tions to incite the savage to violence and cruelty, 
we would find very often that the motive lay 
deeply hidden in the recesses of the mindiS of 


some Europeans. This extreme cruelty very 
frequently originated with civilized man who 
was better acquainted with barbarism than the 
savage himself. When the lessons of peace were 
taught him by the Moravians, he was peaceful; 
when taught by the French court, that he was 
being robbed of his hunting ground by the Eng- 
lish settlers, and made drunk by their intoxi- 
cants, he became ferocious. 

The Indians, uninfluenced hj any outside 
causes, were usually peaceful and hospitable. 
The popular conception of the character of the 
Indian is based upon a few of his traits, and 
they, his most ignoble ones. Pretended histories 
of frontier life, novels and romances, usually 
give undue prominence to his acts of cruelty and 
treachery; he is pictured as a hunter, warrior 
and vagabond. But few, if any, tribes, spent 
their entire time in hunting, and none of them 
spent any considerable time in war. It is true, 
he roamed about from place to place, but he was 
a nomad, not a vagabond. He possessed the 
same faculties that civilized men possess, was 
influenced by the same passions, and cherished 
the same hopes of a future life. His only book 
was nature. And from its varied pages he ab- 
sorbed its beauty and its eloquence. He pre- 
ferred a wigwam to a village, and the solitude of 
the forest to a wigwam. Solitary and alone, he 


sat upon the trunk of a fallen oak and drank 
the eloquence and grandeur of nature. A child 
of nature instead of art, he was ruled by pas- 
sions rather than by reason. He was always 
hospitable and would give to strangers the last 
morsel of food he possessed. As a friend, he 
was loyal and faithful; as an enemy, cruel and 
treacherous. To any enemy, under his code of 
morals, he owed not the slightest duty. With 
the suave diplomacy of a courtier, he would de- 
coy his enemy from a place of safety, and when 
opportunity afforded, crush his skull with a 
tomahawk or pierce his heart with an arrow. 
While there were tribal wars, he very seldom 
engaged in general killings. War was waged to 
requite tribal and personal injuries, rather than 
for conquest or avarice. 

Many of the tribes that occupied the terri- 
tory now comprising the state of Ohio, were the 
remnants of tribes that had been expelled from 
the territory east of the Alleghanies by the Euro- 
pean settlers. The conduct of the whites to- 
wards the Indians had much to do with the con- 
duct of the Indians towards the whites. The 
Quakers of Pennsylvania sought and obtained 
their friendship, and the Quaker garb was a 
better protection against Indian hostilities than 
the strongest blockhouse. But as a rule, the 
whites respected neither the rights nor th^ 


friendship of the Indians. The Indian was 
treated as an outlaw, and a continued warfare 
was kept up along the border settlements. 
Many of the whites followed Indian hunting as 
a profession; and hunted him without other 
cause than the sanguinary ambition to excel 
their contemporaries in crime in the number of 
their victims. The life of an Indian was no 
more respected by the border ruflftanSj than the 
life of a wolf or rattlesnake. 

The Indian did not understand the proprie- 
tary right of the whites to the lands of his fath- 
ers. He knew nothing of land titles. The 
armies of the whites had killed his chieftains 
and his kinsmen, and humbled his pride. He 
was no longer the master of all he surveyed. 
The sound of the ax and the hum of industry 
had driven the game from the forests, and was 
rapidly destroying the forest itself. So the In- 
dian took up his journey westward, crossed the 
mountains, and sojourned for a time in the for- 
ests of Ohio. But he longed for the freedom of 
the forest and the land of his fathers. Could it 
be expected that a chief, endowed with the mas- 
ter mind of a Tecumseh or the matchless elo- 
vi^ir^ce of a Logan, would sit idly by unmindful 
of the further encroachments of the extermin- 
ators of his race? Could it be expected that the 
warrior who had been accustomed to travel hun- 


dreds of miles to resent an injury, would not re- 
spond to the call of his chieftain, and engage in 
what was to him honorable warfare in defense 
of his family and his hunting grounds? 

When the Indian once took the warpath, he 
made use of all the resources peculiar to his 
manner of living and life in the forests. The 
tactics of Indian warfare forbade the offering 
of battle in the open field. To have tendered 
battle in the open field would have been fatal 
to his army and his cause. He avoided a gen- 
eral engagement as long as possible. He carried 
on a sort of guerrilla warfare, lay in ambush, and 
awaited the approach of the enemy, or advanced 
as stealthily and cautiously as if in pursuit of 
a herd of deer, upon a detached portion of the 
enemy in an unguarded moment, and slaugh- 
tered or routed it, and returned as stealthily as 
he advanced. When overpowered by superior 
forces, and flight was impossible, he rarely asked 
for quarter, and never gave it. He yielded to 
his fate with the courage and fortitude of a 

In regard to the arts, the Indian was a bar- 
barian. He clothed himself in the skins of 
beasts taken in the chase. The style of his cloth- 
ing in summer was a simple breech-clout, but 
in winter he wore a robe made from such pelts 
as he might be able to obtain, fastened together 


with thongs made from the same material, and 
thrown over the shoulders. He decorated his 
body with fangs of rattlesnakes, eagles' claws 
and scalps of neighboring; tribes, and orna- 
mented himself with pieces of copper, silver and 
gold. He bedecked his head with feathers taken 
from the eagle and wild turkey, and in times 
of war, painted his body in all manner of glow- 
ing colors, in order that he might be able, as he 
thought, to frighten the enemy with his hideous 
and demon-like appearance. 

His weapons, until supplanted by the more 
effective ones of civilized man, were the bow 
and arrow and tomahawk. The bow and arrow, 
in the hand of the Indian, was an effective 
weapon, as he could shoot the flint-pointed, fleet- 
winged arrow entirely through the body of a 
deer one hundred paces away; and when the 
white man was his target he directed it with a 
skill and precision that seldom failed to deliver 
its sanguine message. In the hand to hand con- 
flict, the tomahawk was no less efficient, but 
more brutal. With it the savage crushed the 
skull of his unfortunate victim, and as the spirit 
reluctantly fled from the body it had so long in- 
spired and animated, the dread instrument which 
a moment before gleamed among the leaves and 
flashed in the sunlight the horrors of death, per- 


formed its last fiendish act, and removed the 
trophy of his crime from the head of the slain. 

The stature of the Indian was about that of 
the ordinary European. He was lithe but not 
strong; his carriage was erect and graceful. 
His head was strikingly square; forehead flat; 
cheek-bones prominent ; eyes deep-set and black ; 
skin dark brown; hair glossy black and wavy, 
resembling the mane of a horse; beard scant. 
The women were slightly smaller than the men, 
and in youth, the emblem of symmetry and 
grace. In age, they inclined to obesity. The 
expression of the Indian was sinister and grave. 
A smile seldom played upon his countenance. 
A noble expression was seen rarely. The coun- 
tenance of the orator in his address presented 
the feelings and emotions he gave vent to, in 
almost as striking and intelligent a manner as 
the words he used. Scholars who could not un- 
derstand a single word spoken, entered into the 
spirit of his addresses, drawn only by the fascin- 
ating expressions of his countenance. 

The language of the Indian was very imper- 
fect. While his thoughts were laden with elo- 
quence, and his heart throbbed with a depth of 
feeling unknown to the volatile passions of other 
barbaric nations, yet his power to express them 
was limited. 

What language he had was compact and full 


of meaning. With him a single word consti- 
tuted a phrase or even a sentence. Bj the use 
of a limited number of words, he was enabled 
to express quite a variety of actions. When he 
attempted to express one abstract thought, he 
could only express it indefinitely by a labored 
circumlocution of Avords. He had no science 
and no technical language. His language was 
too barren to give expression to the finer shades 
of thought^ or color to his solitary dreams. 

The Indian language is divided into many 
dialects, which, while they bear a common rela- 
tion to each other, have no connection, either in 
mode of construction or similaritj'^ of words, to 
any of the known Asiatic or European lan- 
guages. From Avhat is known, it would seem 
that the primitive inhabitants of America are 
as distinct from other races of men as the fauna 
or flora of the continent. 

The words were monosyllables, but several 
were often joined together forming one word, 
to express abstract or difficult ideas. In a la- 
bored effort to express an abstract idea or a diffi- 
cult concrete description for which he had no 
word, his words were drawn out to an inordinate 
length. In this, his language resembles that of 
some nomadic tribes of northern Asia. The In- 
dian had no alphabet. His writing consisted of 
hieroglyphics worn in the surface of the rock, or 


carved in the bark of trees. The study of the 
Indian language does not present to the student 
the interesting field that is usually found in the 
study of the language of a people. The noble 
thoughts and beautiful visions of the orator and 
poet are not preserved in the recesses of his lan- 
guage. The language itself, having taken no 
form except that of the waves of air, has van- 

The Indian women were husbandmen. Un- 
aided by domestic animals, they prepared fields, 
planted and cultivated corn. The implements 
used by them were very simple and rude. In the 
autumn they gathered the corn into piles, and 
during the winter they made meal by pounding 
it in a rude stone mortar. If the Indian's corn 
was destroyed, he subsisted on meat alone. Mili- 
tary expeditions were prosecuted against the 
Shawnees and Miamis for the purpose of de- 
stroying their villages and cornfields. The de- 
struction of both submitted him to but little in- 
convenience. He could build a village in a 
night. Inflamed by his passion for war, the 
richest heritage left him by his ancestors, he 
could subsist for months upon meat alone. The 
Indian woman was a slave, a mere drudge. She 
was obedient and never grumbled, and strange 
to say, talked but little. If the squaw was not 
agreeable, the Indian discharged her and chose 


another one. The Indian was constant, and 
possessed a high degree of martial virtue. Acts 
of inconstancy that go unpunished by our law, 
were felonies with the Indians. 

The Indian rarely engaged in any kind of 
sports. Their dance was not a social gathering, 
but a savage ceremony of religion and war. In 
their war dances, they portrayed the cruelty and 
torture of savage warfare. A chief took his 
place in the center of the assembly and began 
beating time. The warriors rose to their feet, 
one by one, until the entire assembly were en- 
gaged in the ceremony. They would throw their 
bodies into hideous contortions, and added to 
the barbarous effect by the hideous expressions 
on their countenances. Throughout the stamp- 
ing and writhing they kept up a continual 
whooping. In the execution of the war dance, 
the Indian did not handle the one who played 
the part of the captive, with much gentility. He 
was fortunate if he escaped with his life. The 
religious dances were grave and melancholy. 
The men and women danced around the chief 
or medicine man who beat time in the center of 
the circle. The young men led often in the 
dance, followed by the old men of the tribe, and 
they in turn by the women and children. There 
was no music connected with the dance. In 
fact, the Indians had no musical instruments^ 


with the exception of a kind of a drum made 
from skins of animals. 

In religion the Indian was superstitious and 
sincere. They held to their religious creeds and 
sacred rites with unswerving faith. Their re- 
ligion did not impose upon them the duty of love 
and gratitude that is enjoined by the religion 
of civilized people. It held out to those who 
obeyed its injunctions^ as promulgated by the 
perverted conscience of a savage^ a future life. 
He termed his future home "The Happy Hunt- 
ing Ground/' and his God was the "Great 
Spirit.'' They were Deists, and never wandered 
into the ways of idolatry. The six nations to 
this day, meet annually on their reservations 
in New York, and perform their sacred rites. 
It was a custom with them, when any of the 
tribe became sick to isolate the patient, where, 
with a nurse whose chief business was to see 
that he passed to the "Happy Hunting Ground" 
with dispatch, he remained until his spirit fled. 
After death, his body was brought to camp, and 
a funeral, at which all the members of the tribe 
were welcome, was given him. . The friends of 
the deceased placed tributes of food upon the 
grave to nourish the spirit on its journey. Other 
useful articles were often left upon the grave, 
and strange to say, the Great Spirit, or some 


prowling Indian never failed to appropriate 

The Indian was intemperate in everything he 
did. His passions were so strong, and his will 
so comparatively weak, that his appetite and 
passions held complete control over all his ac- 
tions. He was intemperate in war; intemper- 
ate in peace. When in company with the kin- 
dred of his tribe, rather than engage in profli- 
gate conversation, he lighted his pipe, and seated 
upon the floor of his wigwam, mused with the 
circling rings of smoke that painted visions for 
his solace. He smoked to excess, weakening his 
body and enfeebling his will. His excessive use 
of tobacco had much to do with his peculiar for- 
mation of character. 

His eloquence, the depth of his emotions, in- 
tellectual superiority, sedate and unsocial de- 
meanor, when uninfluenced by passions, indicate 
that he is the degenerate offspring of a once 
noble race. Europeans, when in company with 
the Indians, quickly assimilated with his char- 
acter. Whites, after remaining in Indian cap- 
tivity for a time, often became so attached to the 
Indian character that they refused to return to 
civilization. It is an easy matter for a white 
man to become an Indian, but an Indian never 
becomes a white man. 


The introduction of intoxicants among the 
Indians, offered another opportunity and pre- 
sented another temptation to indulge his exces- 
sive appetite. In the use of intoxicants, as in 
all other things, he was intemperate. It was 
impossible for him to deny himself his "whisk,'' 
if it were in the neighborhood. His passion for 
revenge, quickened by drunkenness, made him a 
fiend. When under the influence of liquor, his 
passions burned with an unquenchable flame. 
He became a terror to all who saw him. The 
amount he drank was not measured by what he 
could hold, but by what he could get. He would 
finish it if it occupied the remainder of his life. 
No race was ever given up so completely to 
drunkenness as the American Indian. 

Two great families occupied the state of 
Ohio. The Huron-Iroquois occupied the terri- 
tory south of the lake extending almost to the 
Ohio river. The Algonquin family occupied the 
western part of the state and a narrow strip of 
country along the Ohio river extending to the 
mouth of the Muskingum. These families were 
divided into numerous tribes which at different 
times formed strong confederacies. Their con- 
federacies, as well as their governments, rested 
only upon the common consent of the warriors 
and chiefs, and were composed of a people who 
hated even the appearance of authority. Th^ 


confederacies grew out of what they deemed their 
necessities^ and as soon as their mutual necessi- 
ties ceased to require united action, their con- 
federacies crumbled. 

The confederacy consisting of the six Iro- 
quois nations, namely, the Mohawks, Oneidas, 
Onondagas, Tuscarawas, Cayugas and Senecas, 
was the most durable. These nations were in- 
habitants of New York and Pennsylvania, but 
in their retreat to the west they became sojourn- 
ers in the territory now comprising thq state of 
Ohio, and consequently, they are a part of the 
state's history. They presented the Indian 
character in its best light; were social and 
kind to the whites^ although they felt keenly 
, the loss of their hunting grounds. 

They made treaties with the whites whom 
they respected more than the whites respected 
them. They also assisted the whites in making 
peace with the warlike nations in the west. 

The Algonquins, living to the south and west 
of the Iroquois, were more powerful and more 
brutal. In 1763 the Algonquin tribes formed 
a confederacy for the purpose of destroying the 
English traders west of the Alleghanies. The 
confederacy was planned and consummated by 
the sagacious chief Pontiac, and was the first 
Great Northwestern Confederacy. It consisted 
of the Ottawa, Potawatamie, Miami, Chippewa^ 


Wyandots^ Delawares^ Shawnees, KickapoOj 
Onantanon and Pinankasliaw tribes^ and was 
able to muster an army of 8,950 warriors. The 
consummate skill with which Pontiac layed and 
executed his plans shows him to have been the 
peer, intellectually, of the leading men of his 

The second confederacy, formed under the 
leadership of Brandt, Avas no less formidable. 
In this confederacy the Six Nations were also 
joined. This confederacy was formed during 
the Revolution, and was continued, after its 
close, by Little Turtle. The third confederacy 
was formed by the able and venerated chief, 
Tecumseh, during the war of 1812. 

The Indians had learned to love the French 
traders, as the Jesuit missionaries had been 
among them and taught them lessons of peace. 
The French made no attempts to form settle- 
ments among them, or to deprive them of their 
lands; they simply carried on a fur trade that 
was profitable to the Indians as well as to them- 
selves. The French traders intermarried with 
the Indians and, in a measure, became a part of 
them. The ties of kindness and the mutual in- 
terests between the French trader and the In- 
dian warrior, cemented a friendship that had 
grown up between them. The French furnished 
them arms and ammunition in exchange for th^ 


rich furs from the animals of the forest. The 
Indian looked with a jealous eye upon the Eng- 
lish settlers which were slowly moving westward 
and depriving them of their hunting grounds. 
They were slow to exchange the French trader 
for the English exterminator. 

Pontiac saw the future of his race. Saw his 
people decline, and the forests of the fathers 
swept aAvay by the industry of the English. He 
resolved to make an effort, worthy of as great a 
chief as he was, to resist the onward march of 
civilization. He determined to exterminate in 
a single night all the English traders that had 
been presumptuous enough to enter the country 
west of the Alleghany mountains. The confed- 
eracy was comsummated in secrecy. The In- 
dians collected at all the northwestern forts on 
that fatal night on the pretense of trading. 
After massacreing all the English traders in 
their villages they made a simultaneous* attack 
upon the forts and were in a great measure suc- 
cessful. The task undertaken by Pontiac and 
his warriors w^as one which God alone could ac- 
complish, and to-day civilization with her grand 
and solemn tread is still marching on over the 
graves of this fallen race. 

Chapter IV 



THE surface of Ohio, though more appro- 
priately discussed under the head of 
geography, consists of an undulating 
plain with its highest elevation (1550 feet) near 
Bellefontaine, in Logan county. The south- 
eastern portion of the State, though badly broken 
by erosion, still contains numerous ridges which 
are fragments of the old plain. The relief forms 
to be seen at the present day, are the result of 
valleys carved out of the original plain. 

The most important feature in the topogra- 
phy of Ohio, is the great watershed extending 
from the northeastern corner of the state to 
about the middle of the western boundary. The 
state is thus divided into two unequal slopes 
which are drained into the Atlantic ocean. The 
northern slope^ which is much the smaller, is 
drained through Lake Erie and the St. Lawrence 
river, while the southern is drained through the 
Ohio and Mississippi rivers. The average eleva- 
tion of this watershed is little more than a thou- 
sand feet, being greatly reduced by three gaps 
cut by the Tusqarawas, Scioto and Maumee riv- 
ers, respectively. 



The canals which formerly occupied these 
gapSj have in a great measure given place to the 
railways, which play such an important part in 
the vast commercial interests of the state. In 
each river system of the state there is one main 
trough which is deepened and broadened as the 
stream advances, and its tributaries form count- 
less valleys which in turn are fed from smaller 
streams and brooks. Most of the rivers, 
throughout their entire course, flow either north 
or south down one of the main slopes. Occa- 
sionally a smaller river will flow for a number 
of miles against the main slope, causing a 
crooked and sluggish stream. Examples of 
these are Wills creek, which flows into the Mus- 
kingum, and Connotton creek, a tributary of the 

The rock series of Ohio throughout its entire 
extent, are formed of stratified deposits, with 
the exception of a few granite boulders in the 
glacial drift, but no igneous or metamorphic 
rocks are found. The surface rocks, as well as 
the base, are of oceanic formation, and no evi- 
dence is found that they have ever been subjected 
to excessive heat. On the other hand, they show 
unmistakable evidence of being ip exactly the 
same condition in which they were formed. The 
countless remains of animals found in the rocks 
give positive evidence that they are of marine 


formatioii. The water in which these rocks 
were formed, was no drubt a continuation of 
the Gulf of Mexico, which must have extended 
as far north as the Great Lakes. 

When the rocks were lifted above the sea 
under which they were formed, they were left in 
a horizontal position with about the same eleva- 
tion. No folds, or faults, are found in the un- 
derlying rocks, and no pronounced anticlines or 
synclines are discernable, except the Cincinnati 
anticline. The time required in the formation 
of these rocks must have included countless ages, 
and the few thousand years of human history 
would make no noticeable change in them. 

The earth^s crust, within the boundaries of 
Ohio, has only been penetrated to a depth of five 
thousand feet, and the quartz rock, which is 
known to exist deeper, has not yet been reached. 
The lowest strata that has been examined, is 
the Trenton limestone. It is one of the most 
important formations of the continent, and ex- 
tends from the New England states to the Rocky 
mountains, and from Hudson Bay to the south- 
ern extremity of the Alleghany mountains. In 
various regions of the state it is exposed in out- 
crops, and in its decaying condition forms a fer- 
tile and productive soil. The Trenton limestone 
varies in color from a dark blue to a light gray- 
ish-blue, and is invariably covered with about 


three hundred feet of Utica shale. Its chemical 
composition in general is: 

Carbonate of lime 75 to 85% 

Carbonate of magnecia 1 to 5% 

Alumina and oxide of iron 2 to 8% 

Insoluble residue 10 to 15% 

In some localities^ as at Findlay^ it is por- 
ous and forms vast reservoirs which are filled 
with oil and gas. 

The black shale covering the Trenton lime- 
stone in northern Ohio has a uniform thickness 
of about three hundred feet, and contains char- 
acteristic fossils showing it to be the Utica shale 
of New York. In the deep wells of central and 
northern Ohio, the Utica shale is ever present, 
but farther south it thins rapidly, and as it ap- 
proaches the Ohio valley it is entirely replaced 
by the Hudson shale. 

The Berea Grit, the second element in the 
Waverly group, is by far the most important 
strata in the geology of Ohio. Above ground it 
is very valuable, being the finest building stone 
in the state, and is also the finest grindstone 
material in the United States. Its greatest 
value, however, is below the surface where it is 
a repository for vast quantities of petroleum, 
salt-water and gas. It was first discovered in 
Cuyahoga county near Berea, where the largest 
quarries are located at present. It ranges in 


thickness from five feet to one hundred and sev- 
enty feet^ and covers an area of about fifteen 
thousand square miles. In central and northern 
Ohio, its grain is medium in size, while in the 
southern portion of the state, its grain is very 
fine. It represents an old-time shore line, being 
fringed with ripple-marked edges, and in some 
places worm-borrowed portions are found. It 
is the most important oil rock of the Macksburgh 
field, and is also the gas rock of Wellsburgh and 
the Ohio valley. 

The Berea Grit is covered with a black shale 
from fifteen to fifty feet thick, and is named 
from the rock it covers. This Berea shale is 
rich in fossils and bituminous substances, and 
is in itself a source of petroleum on a small 
scale, and contributes an invaluable guide in 
submarine geology. 

The bituminous coal deposits of Ohio cover 
an area of ten thousand square miles, and rank 
second in the production of coal in the United 
States, being surpassed by Pennsylvania alone. 
In the entire southeastern portion of the state, 
coal is found at a slight depth, and outcroppings 
of coal are frequent. The veins are approxi- 
mately horizontal and have about the same ele- 
vation. The average thickness of the coal veins 
is about five feet, and but little coal is mined 
from veins less than three feet. The coal veins 


are usually uubroken except by valleys, but oc- 
casionally, as in the southern portion of Coshoc- 
tion county, a fault is found which entirely elim- 
inates the coal veins. 

The coal which is now being used is taken 
from the following named veins: Upper Free- 
port, Lower Freeport, Upper Kittanning, Lower 
Kittanning, Upper Clarion, Lower Clarion, Up- 
per Mercer, Lower Mercer, Quakerton and 
Sharon. All of these veins belong to the bitu- 
minous divisions, and are worked from a horizon- 
tal entrance at the outcrop. The Upper Kit- 
tanning vein is of most importance and is known 
elsewhere as the Hocking Valley coal, the Nel- 
sonville coal, the Coshocton coal, etc. The Up- 
per Freeport vein ranks second in value and is 
mined on a large scale at Cambridge, Dell Roy, 
Salineville and many other places. The Sharon 
coal is the purest, and is used as a standard of 
comparison for all the open burning coals of the 
Alleghany fields. Both the Upper Kittanning 
and the Sharon are used in their raw condition 
for the manufacture of iron. 

In the remaining divisions of the coal, there 
are perhaps ten veins which are, in some places, 
of workable thickness. 

Only one of these, the Pittsburgh vein, is of 
much importance. It is especially valuable in 
the manufacture of gas and the production of 


steam. Its northern outcrop passes through 
nine counties and its approximate length is 
nearly two hundred miles, underlying an area 
of more than three thousand square miles. It 
has only been tested, however, in a small part 
of the above area. Coking coals of the first 
grade are not found in Ohio, and its best coals 
are used for open burning. 

The Ohio coal fields are also rich in iron ore 
and fire clay. The quality of the iron from the 
Hanging Eock district, is not surpassed by any, 
and is used for the manufacture of car wheels 
and machine castings. The Blackband ore vein 
of Tuscarawas, and other counties, reaches a 
maximum thickness of twenty feet, and is per- 
haps the richest vein in the state. Other veins 
are worked in different parts of the state, and 
the production of iron is an important industry. 

The clays of the coal region are a very valu- 
able deposit from which fire bricks, sewer pipes, 
paving bricks, earthenware and numerous other 
articles are manufactured. Ohio stands far m 
advance of any other state in the Union in the 
manufacture of articles made from clays. 

How was coal formed? This is a question 
many have asked, and in earlier times but few 
could answer. With the advancement of sci- 
ence, the ansAver has come as true as the fact 
that coal itself exists. The coal formation in 


Ohio was in no way different from that formed 
elsewhere, and the following discussion will be 
a general one. 

The formation of the coal now used, began 
long before man's appearance, and many mil- 
lions of years elapsed during its formation. 

The. earthquakes and volcanoes which so vio- 
lently jar the earth at the present day, are al- 
most as nothing compared with the disturbances 
which took place in the remote past, when the 
newly formed unstable earth was more suscept- 
ible to both external and internal forces. At 
the beginning of the Carboniferous Age, the 
tremors incident to the upthrow of a new belt 
of land, had strewn the submerged continental 
slope with the fertile ruins of older lands. Over 
all this breadth of bog and marsh sprang up 
vegetable growth, trees and herbs, ferns and 
rushes. This luxuriant vegetation was sus- 
tained by the carbonic acid of the atmosphere 
which was greatly in excess of the oxygen. It 
made the air irrespirable and no terrestrial ani- 
mal could live. But terrestrial animals were 
to constitute the next step of progress. The 
highest type of aquatic animals had been reached 
and nature paused for the purification of the air 
for the next class. 

The power which had called matter and force 
into existence, could have made other disposi- 


tion of this difficulty. The carbonic acid could 
have been combined with lime and fixed in the 
limestones. It could have been banished from 
the earth. But carbon is precious, being the 
basis of all combustion. It blazes and warms 
in coal, petroleum, peat and gas. Though the 
age then passing had no use for it, its preserva- 
tion was necessary for the future. Man was yet 
far off, but was anticipated and involved in the 
plans of the world. So vegetation was chosen 
to do the work and preserve the material. This 
explains the presence of the coal-making trees 
at the beginning of the Carboniferous Age. 

Unlimited supplies of nutriment pervaded 
the atmosphere. The marshes exhaled abundant 
moisture, while the earth, in its comparative new- 
ness, retained the warmth to stimulate the 
growth. So tree-fern and herbaceous fern, sea- 
weed and grasses, began work. Atom by atom, 
they selected the carbon from the atmosphere 
and fixed it in their tissues. Every bud, stem 
and root treasured up the fuel. Generations of 
plants succeeding each other fell prostrate at 
last, and added their substance to the growing 
bed of peat. Standing water, in which the vege- 
tation grew, protected the peat from decomposi- 
tion. But this vegetable kingdoiji was not to 
continue longer. Some stay of the long pressed 
crust of the earth, gave way under the accumu- 


lated strain, and the ocean rolled forward, 
freighted with mud and sand which was spread 
over the entire vast peat-bed. Thick layers of 
clay and sand shut up from the atmosphere the 
expanse of peaty matter which was to consoli- 
date and form coal. 

The reign of the ocean was only temporary, 
and but few centuries elapsed before another 
change took place. Again occurred a collapse 
of some stay or support of the earth's crust. The 
ocean receded, leaving the sea-bottom again ex- 
posed to the sunlight. Soon another scene of 
verdure was spread where the waves of the ocean 
had so lately tossed. The forests again resumed 
their work of selecting and storing the impuri- 
ties of the atmosphere, and soon some advent- 
urous and hardy types of air-breathing animals 
had made their appearance. 

Along the shores of the ocean were exposed 
headlands from which the older coal formations 
protruded. Here the waves pounded up beds of 
sandstone, shale and coal. The sands were de- 
posited along the seashore. The finer and 
lighter materials were floated away to a quiet 
retreat in bays and inlets. In a later age, this 
deposit of coal and clay and particles of decayed 
wood, became beds of cannel coal. 

The land continued to oscillate as long as 
the atmosphere remained impure. Time after 


timej the forest resumed its work, and bed after 
bed of peat was stored away beneath ocean sedi- 
ments to await the end. When the work had 
been accomplished, the forces which had endured 
the enormous strain that had been accumulat- 
ing under the prolonged contraction of the in- 
terior, yielded with a collapse which shook the 
entire hemisphere. Massive folds of the huge 
crust uprose far above the cloud*. This was 
the birth of the Appalachian mountains, and the 
end of the long Paleozoic Age. Only the bases 
of those folds remain to-day; but they stand as 
monuments to the age whose death prepared the 
world for man and civilization. 

Chapter V 



CONTRARY to a general belief, petroleum 
and natural gas are widely distributed. 
The drill can scarcely descend for even a 
few hundred feet in any part of Ohio without 
giving evidence of the presence of one or both of 
them. In the three predominant series of rock^, 
viz. : sandstone, shale ^nd limestone, petroleum 
is found in varying quantities. The Ohio shale 
throughout, is petroliferous, and while the per- 
cent is small, the aggregate is very large. Prof. 
Lord, of the State Survey, found but two-tenths 
of one per cent, of petroleum present in this 
shale, but some was lost in the process employed. 

Estimating the petroleum at two-tenths of 
one per cent., the amount contained in each 
square mile of the Ohio shale is three million one 
hundred and twenty thousand barrels; a larger 
amount than was ever obtained from any square 
mile in the Pennsylvania fields. The Lower Hel- 
derberg limestone contains approximately, the 
same amount. While all pervious rocks con- 
tain traces of petroleum, sandstones seem best 
adapted for its subterranean reservoirs. 

We will now give some of the scientific facts 



governing the formation and accumulation of 
petroleum : 

First. Oil is produced by a chemical change, 
or a spontaneous disintegration of the substances 
which formed a part of the oceanic deposits. 

Second. Being composed of carbon, hydro- 
gen and oxygen, it must be of organic origin, 
either animal or vegetable. 

Third. As it is lighter than water, it must 
rise through the water which saturates all rocks. 
Thus the origin of oil can in no case be at a 
higher level than where the oil is deposited. 

Fourth. A "surface show" of oil is unfavor- 
able as it forebodes leakage; while the accumu- 
lation of oil is accomplished by an impervious 
strata above the reservoir, preventing the "sur- 
face show." 

Fifth. Petroleum is contemporaneous with 
the rocks that contain it. It was formed about 
the time that those rocks were deposited. 

Sixth. The situation of the creeks, hills or 
valleys has no bearing on the distribution of 
petroleum, hundreds of feet below. 

Observation and experience have established 
the fact that the porous strata in which oil ac- 
cumulates must h^.ve an arched or anticlinal 
form. The anticline prevents the oil from 
spreading indefinitely, and causes local accumu- 
lations or ^^pocket^." Where no anticline oc' 


curs, oil frequently flows along the strata until 
it reaches an outcrop where it is wasted. 

It has been observed that all great oil reser- 
voirs have below them — not always immediately 
below — a formation of black bituminous shale. 
This shale is a very soft substance containing 
much vegetable matter, supposed to be the re- 
mains of beds of seaweeds. 

Perhaps a majority of geologists believe that 
petroleum is produced from these shales by 
chemical decomposition, or spontaneous disinte- 
gration. By means of artificial appliances, oil 
is readily obtained from them at the present 
time. While experience teaches that black 
shales are oil-producing, it also shows that pure 
vegetable deposits are non-productive ; and while 
the coal deposits are non-productive, the cannel 
coal and coal shale are very productive. 

Three things then, are all-important in the 
production and accumulation of petroleum. 
First and lowest, a petroliferous stratum, the 
source of the oil. Second and above it, a porous 
stratum containing an anticline, the reservoir. 
Third and just above the reservoir, an impervi- 
ous stratum, the cover of the reservoir. 

Salt-water and gas are almost invariably as- 
sociated with oil. If the drill penetrates the 
highest portion of an oil reservoir, gas at first 
escapes, but when it is exhausted^ oil may be 


produced, and when the oil is exhausted, water 
follows. If the drill enters below the surface 
of the oil, the reaction of the gas forces the oil 
to the surface and a ^^gusher" is the result. 
When the oil is lowered to the opening the gas 
escapes until the pressure is relieved. Then, 
if any oil remains, it may be pumped. If 
the drill enters the reservoir below the surface 
of the water, the gas pressure will force the 
water out, until the bottom of the oil is on 'a 
level with the opening, when the oil is iu turn 
forced out until its surface is below the open- 
ing, when the gas finally escapes. 

But two great oil fields are as yet developed 
in Ohio. One being in the eastern part of the 
state and the other in the northern portion. The 
former is no doubt a continuation of the Penn- 
sylvania fields, while the latter "^ is not contigu- 
ous to any other known field. 

The oil fields in and around Wood county 
are, perhaps, the most marked of any in the 
state. The development of this field was com- 
menced in 1886 and marvellous results, in both 
oil and gas, were soon obtained. In December 
of 1886, the first great gusher in this field was 
struck. Oil shot more than a hundred feet into 
the air, and flooded the surrounding country be- 
fore it could be confined. Its supply was a hun- 
dred barrels per hour. The next important well 


was the "Eoyce Gusher" which produced two 
hundred and forty barrels in fifty minutes. 
Many other valuable wells were soon drilled. 

Local companies, in almost every part of the 
state, are prospecting for oil with various de- 
grees of success. In the autumn of 1903 a local 
company operating in ^he vicinity of Otsego, 
Muskingum county, discovered a supply of both 
oil and gas in paying quantities, though as yet, 
no vast reservoir has been found in that locality. 
So interse and exciting is the search for oil and 
gas, that the most secluded regions will soon be 
invaded and the deepest "pockets'' and pools will 
be penetrated to add their might to the vast 
accumulations which are continuously being 
shipped to the great refineries or piped to the 
cities and towns to be used in making light and 

Natural gas is a complex mixture of hydro- 
carbons, differing materially from artificial gas. 
Gas, like oil, is formed from organic matter and 
is but one stage nearer an inorganic compound. 
It is principally the carbon, in another form, 
which nature so zealously guards. Carbon is 
retained in various forms. In coal it is a solid ; 
in petroleum a liquid and in gas, it is gaseous. 
The chemical composition of gas varies some in 
different localities, but it is usually about 70^ 
carbon, the remaining 30^ being principally hy-^ 


drogen and oxygen. Gas is always present in 
oil fields and has occasionally been found beyond 
the limits of any known oil territory. 

Gas, as the source of ^^burning springs/' has 
been known for more than a century^ but not 
until the last half century has it been put to a 
practical use. During the great oil excitement 
from 1860 to 1870, many of the borings for oil 
reached only gas. In Knox county, in 1860, two 
wells were sunk for oil ; in both, streams of salt- 
water were reached, and at about six hundred 
feet an immense gas reservoir was struck. The 
gas ejected the drill and much salt-water with 
great violence. The former of these wells was 
sunk in the winter season, and the water freez- 
ing on the derrick, formed a crystal tower sixty 
feet high. Through this tower the water was 
thrown, at intervals of about one minute, to a 
height of a hundred and twenty feet. An arti- 
ficial geyser, in which gas took the place of 
steam, was the result. The escaping gas was 
frequently ignited and the effect, especially at 
night, of this fountain of fire and water, shoot- 
ing up to an enormous height, through a great 
transparent and illuminated tower, is said to 
have been indescribably magnificent. 

The development of manufacturing indus- 
tries, incident to the discovery of gas, is some- 
thing marvellous. It is well illustrated by the 


change produced at Findlay after the discovery 
of gas. 

The people of Findlay saw indications of gas 
for half a century without suspecting the great 
reservoir underlying them. At last, through the 
efforts of a German physician, Dr. Osterlen, a 
stock company was organized, and drilling was 
commenced. The first well was a successful one, 
and when the gas gushed forth with a panting 
roar, and shot a column of flame sixty feet into 
the air, people were alarmed for a time. 

The great Krag well at Findlay was com- 
pleted January 20, 1886, by a boring of one thou- 
sand one hundred and forty-four feet. The gas 
was conducted forty-eight feet above the sur- 
face, in a six-inch pipe, and when lighted the 
flame rose twenty or thirty feet above the pipe. 
With a short pipe, the flame ascended to the 
height of sixty feet. The gas leaves the well 
with a pressure of four hundred pounds to the 
square inch. The daily capacity at first was 
between fifteen and twenty million cubic feet. 
The sound of escaping gas, under extraordinary 
conditions, has been heard fifteen miles away, 
and on a dark night the light, reflected by the 
clouds, has been discerned for over fifty miles. 

Prof. G. F. Wright who visited the well in 
February, 1886, wrote : "Although the snow had 
covered the ground to a depth of several inches, 


in every direction for a distance of two hundred 
yards, the heat of the flame had melted the snow, 
and the grass and weeds had grown two or three 
inches. The crickets also seemed to have mis- 
taken the season of the year, for they were en- 
livening the night with their cheerful song. The 
vicinity of the well seemed also a paradise for 
tramps who were lounging about in a most con- 
tented manner." 

The daily amount of heat from this single 
well is said to equal the amount furnished by 
the burning of a thousand bushels of soft coal. 
Other wells were soon sunk, and in a short time, 
forty wells were pouring forth the sum total of 
one hundred million cubic feet of gas daily; an 
equal amount in heating capacity to five hun- 
dred thousand tons of coal. 

With the fame of the Findlay gas fields, came 
manufacturing establishments giving employ- 
ment to hundreds of laborers. And from an un- 
known village, Findlay sprang in one year, to 
a city of fifteen thousand inhabitants. * The sur- 
rounding farm lands were sold at enormous 
prices, and one agent is reported to have sold 
the same farm ten times. 

Chapter VI 


From a likeness in Howe's Historical Collections of Ohio, Vol. I, 
page 386. Original portrait in lyouisville, Ky. 

Courtesy of Ohio ArchcEologicol and Historical Society, 



IN July, 1787, an ordinance was passed by 
Congress, providing a government for the 
Northwest Territory. This territory con- 
sisted of the land lying north of the Ohio river, 
east of the Mississippi river and west of the Alle- 
ghany mountains, and was inhabited only by the 

The ordinance provided that the United 
States should retain the right to appoint a gov- 
ernor, a secretary, and three judges for the ter- 
ritory. Accordingly, in the following October, 
Congress appointed General Arthur St. Clair, of 
Pennsylvania, governor; Winthrop Sargent, of 
Massachusetts, secretary; and Samuel H. Par- 
sons, of Connecticut, James M.Varnum, of Rhode 
Island, and John C. Symms, also of Rhode 
Island, judges. In the following spring, when 
the streams were free from ice and the roads pas- 
sable, these men proceeded to the new country 
to establish a permanent government. 

^^FoR THE Ohio at the Muskingum^^ was 
printed on the cover of a wagon bearing the van- 
guard of the Ohio Company colony. They pur- 
sued their way across Pennsylvania along the 



old Braddock road until they reached the Youg- 
hiogheny river which was found still frozen. 
Here a long delay was occasioned but in April 
the colony again advanced down the river in 
boats and canoes. After a perilous journey of 
more than a week the company landed at the 
mouth of the Muskingum and viewed for the first 
time the site of their new homes — an unbroken 

The work of clearing the land was at once 
begun, and more than a hundred acres of corn 
were planted. By fall, many huts had been 
built and a part of the country had been sur- 
veyed into town lots. The plan for the town had 
been made in Massachusetts and was strictly ad- 
hered to. Large parks and broad streets were 
numerous and to them were given Greek and 
Latin names in accordance with their classic 
plan. After a heated discussion the town was 
named in honor of the French queen, Marie An- 
toinette, and was finally shortened to Marietta. 
On July 26, 1788, by proclamation of Governor 
St. Olair, the surrounding country was formed 
into the ^^county'' of Washington. Its original 
boundaries were as follows : Beginning on the 
bank of the Ohio river, where the western bound- 
ary of Pennsylvania crosses it, and running 
with that line to Lake Erie; thence along the 
shore of said lake to the mouth of the Ouya- 


hoga river ; thence up the said river to the port- 
age between it and the Tuscarawas branch of 
the Muskingum ; thence down this branch to the 
forks at the crossing place above Fort Laurens ; 
thence with a line to be drawn westerly to the 
portage of the branch of the Big Miami^ on 
which the fort stood that was taken by the 
French in 1752, until it meets the road from the 
lower Shawnese town to the Sandusky; thence 
south to the Scioto river ; thence down that river 
to its mouthj and thence up the Ohio river to 
the place of beginning. This area comprised 
more than half of what is now the state of Ohio, 
and is at present supporting a population of 
over two millions. 

Fascinating stories of this wonderful country 
soQn found their way "back east/' and started 
numerous parties of emigrants to the Ohio. Ow- 
ing to natural obstacles, such as swamps and 
mountains, the people found it most convenient 
to enter this country by way of the Ohio river. 
Thus, those from the New England states were 
joined by those from Virginia and the Carolinas. 
Soon settlements began to spring up along all 
the rivers, and in the year 1796 General Moses 
Cleaveland led a body of surveyors to the shore 
of Lake Erie, where a town was layed out and 
a settlement made bearing the GeneraPs name. 
The "Girdled Eoad" was soon constructed from 


Pennsylvania to Cleveland and a tide of emi- 
gration followed. The northern portion of the 
county was settled almost exclusively by New 
Englanders and Pennsylvanians. 

A spirit of speculation soon took possession 
of the people. The Ohio Company, owning four 
millions of acres, sent an agent, Joel Barlow, 
the Eevolutionary poet, to France, where he or- 
ganized the Society of the Siota, to which he 
sold three million acres of the land. Accord- 
ing to the contract, the Ohio Company was. to 
erect houses, on the land opposite the mouth of 
the Great Kanawha, to accommodate at least one 
hundred persons. 

Early in 1790 a band of workmen arrived 
from New England, cleared a patch of ground 
and erected a number of huts and blockhouses. 
Meanwhile six hundred French emigrants had 
landed at Alexandria, Virginia, but missed the 
agent who had been sent out to meet them. 
After securing guides and making a perilous 
passage over the mountains, they at last reached 
their settlement and named it Gallipolis. Vine- 
yards were soon planted and farming on a small 
scale was commenced. Soon after their arrival, 
letters were published in France, supposed to 
have been written by the French emigrants, de- 
scribing their enchanting surroundings and pros- 
perous condition. Advertising pamphlets were 


also issued and soon other French colonists be- 
gan to arrive. These colonists were all unfitted 
for frontier life. Some of the men were killed 
in cutting timber; others by eating poisonous 
fruits; and still others by the Indians. Many, 
however, survived and the French names, so 
numerous in southern Ohio to-day, belong to the 
direct descendants of these colonists. 

Under the protection of the United States, 
the peopling of this territory was so rapid that 
only fifteen years had elapsed until the easter:]^ 
portion was ready for statehood. Accordingly, 
in 1802, the inhabitants of the eastern part peti- 
tioned Congress, and were granted an enabling 
act, authorizing the people to frame a state con- 
stitution. The constitutional convention .was 
convened at Chillicothe, and their reports 
showed a thriving population of forty-five thou- 
sand inhabitants. The new* constitution was 
duly framed and in 1803 was ratified by Con- 
gress. On March 1st, 1803, the first General 
Assembly of Ohio met at Chillicothe, and en- 
acted a number of laws, necessary for the new 
order of affairs. Eight new counties were cre- 
ated, and many public improvements were com- 
menced. Public roads were to be built with the 
income derived from the sale of public lands, 
and public schools were to be supported in a 


like manner; section 16 in each townsJiip being 
granted to the inhabitants for school purposes. 

With the admission of Ohio to the Union, 
came a great increase in the tide of immigration. 
The same route was followed that had been es- 
tablished by the first settlers. The Virginians 
and Carolinians crossed the mountains and 
came up through Kentucky and Tennessee, while 
those from the north came through Pennsylvania 
and down the Ohio. Pittsburgh soon became a 
thriving city, and was known as the gateway to 
the west. Here could be found hundreds of 
families with their household goods, awaiting 
the completion of the boat which was to carry 
them down the river, or fondly hoping for rain 
which would enable them to float their completed 

Ever present with these emigrants was the 
Yankee peddler, with his nasal twang and his 
eyes sparkling with the chance of gain. His 
wonderful ingenuity soon enabled him to sell 
large quantities of pit coal indigo, and wooden 
nutmegs, as well as tinware, Dutch ovens and 
wooden clocks, all of which, he proved, were ab- 
solute necessities in the new country. 

The most common means of transportation 
on the Ohio, was the family boat or ark. It 
consisted of a rude hut built on a flat bottom 
from sixty to one hundred feet long and about 


fifteen feet wide. From the roof projected two 
or more long poles used in guiding the boat 
which floated with the current. The family 
lived in the hut^ and when their destination was 
reached, it was transferred to the land, and the 
floating home thus became a permanent one. In 
some seasons more than a thousand of these 
floating homes were seen to pass Marietta. 

The wealthier emigrants, impatient with 
these slow rafts, traveled on swift "keel" boats 
propelled by oarsmen seated in the bow. These 
boats had decks from six to eight feet high, and 
afforded comfortable quarters inside for travel- 
ers. In 1794 two of these keel-boats made regu- 
lar trips from Pittsburgh to Cincinnati, in tlie 
wonderfully short time of a month. These boats 
were proof against the savages, as they carried 
both cannon and small arms, and often went a 
hundred or more miles in twenty-four hours. 

The boatmen Avere a wild, reckless dare-devil 
set, the terror of river towns and yet the life 
and joy of the emigrant parties. They were also 
lawless and had no fixed habitation. They often 
boasted that they were not born of woman, but 
were "half hoss and half alligator.^' Their 
career was a checkered one. Where the river 
was smooth and straight, and the weather pleas- 
ant, they had a life of ease; but often in the 
roaring rapids, drenched with chilling rains, 


they labored arduously amidst the greatest of 
perils. At night they often spent the hours 
singing and dancing. Their songs often shoAved 
the sentimental part of their rough natures. 

"It's Oh as I was walking out, 

One morning in July, 
I met a maid, who axed my trade, 

Says I, I'll tell you presently; 
Miss, I'll tell you presently." 

' The songs of the boatmen had a romantic 
counter-sound in the horns which were blown 
almost incessantly at night, especially in foggy 
Aveather, and when approaching bends in the 
river. A poet of that time refers to the boat 
horn in a poem, one stanza of which is as 
follows : 

"O ! boatman, wind that horn again. 
For never did the listening air 
Upon it's lambent bosom bear. 
So wild, so soft, so sweet a strain." 

The boatmen as well as the emigrants de- 
pended entirely upon their rifles for fresh meat 
on the way down the river. They scorned the 
shotgun, and an old adage run, "Luck's like a 
shotgun, mighty uncertain.'^ Flour was ob- 
tained from floating mills along the river. 
These mills were always found where the cur- 
rent was swift. A barge, containing the mill- 
stones, was anchored to the shore. Farther out 
in the stream a small boat was placed and be- 


tween the tAvo was a shaft bearing the water- 
wheel. From the barge end of the shaft, a belt 
extended to the burrs, and the mill was ready 
for action. 

The most dangerous portion of the journey, 
however, was in crossing the mountains. The 
roads were ungraded and bridges few and poorly 
constructed. Many declared the mountains a 
barrier almost as impassable as the grave, and 
few indeed cared to cross them the second time. 
Home ties in the east were thus completely sev- 
ered, and an urgent demand was soon made for 
better roads. The state funds were found to be 
inadequate for extensive road building, and fin- 
ally Congress was petitioned for aid. The state 
paid to the national treasury, five per cent, of 
the income derived from the sale of public lands, 
and from this income Congress, in 1806, ordered 
a highway surveyed from the headwaters of some 
Atlantic stream to the Ohio river. The route 
selected began at Cumberland, Maryland, and 
coincides to a great extent with the old Braddock 
Eoad. As the population increased it was ex- 
tended farther westward, and before the time of 
roalroads, it was the greatest commercial route 
on the western continent. 

Chapter VII 


Courtesy of Ohio ArchcBOlogical and Historical Society. 



NCE beyond the mountains, and free from 
the excitement incident to travel, the 
emigrant found abundant proof that 
he was indeed in a new country. An unbroken 
forest, the home of wild animals, serpents and 
savages, marked the view line of his horizon. To 
remove the forests, kill the wild animals, drive 
away the Indians and transform this wilderness 
into a paradise, was the task set before them. 

His first home, if such it may be called, was 
often little superior to that of the wild animals, 
and usually consisted of bark from the wild 
cucumber trees, laid across poles. This first 
home, in a very few days, gave place to the cabin 
which was usually about twenty feet square, to 
which was often added a "lean to," or shed 
kitchen. Upon the marriage of a member of the 
family, another cabin was built a few feet away 
and facing its front. The intervening space was 
covered with split boards and a double cabin 
was the result. A single log cabin could be built 
for about one hundred and fifty dollars and a 
double one for about a hundred dollars more. 

The furniture for these new homes was very 



rude and simple^ being made almost exclusively 
by unskilled mechanics, from the surrounding 
forests. The tables and chairs were made of 
split slabs, and the beds were made by placing 
forked sticks in the floor at the proper places 
and running poles in two directions to the walls. 
Bed-springs were made of clapboards. A huge 
fireplace was made of sticks or stones, and plas- 
tered with mud, and the new home was ready for 

Stock raising in Ohio was at once commenced 
on a small scale. Horses were scarce and sold 
for sixty to one hundred dollars. /Hogs, cattle 
and sheep were were more numerous. The stock 
were marked by clipping the ear, and were al- 
lowed to run at large in the forests after bells 
had been securely fastened around their necks. 
Corn and garden vegetables were the chief 
farm products, but later wheat, oats, buckwheat 
and tobacco were grown. The wild game fur- 
nished an ample supply of fresh meat. Beef 
sold at four cents a pound, and deer meat at 
three cents. Mutton was not eaten on account 
of the scarcity of wool for clothing. Sheep had 
to be penned at night to protect them from the 
wolves* Squirrels were numerous and often 
very seriously damaged the farmers' crops. 
Large hunting parties were frequently formed, 
and in Franklin county, in a single day, 19,660 



squirrels were killed in a eombined or circular 

The work of clearing the forests was slow 
and tedious. Vast quantities of the most valu- 
able timber was burned as the most convenient 
manner of disposing of it. Farm machinery 
was unknown. Metal plows were unheard of 
and wooden ones were very scarce. Grubbing 
hoes and mattocks were almost the only farm 
implements in use. The grain was harvested by 
the sickle and threshed with the flail or tramped 
out by horses or cattle. Large branches of trees 
dragged over the ground were substitutes for 
harrows and drags. In a remarkably short time 
the little "clearings" around the cabins were en- 
larged into broad and fertile fields capable of 
supporting a dense population. 

Indian outbreaks and massacres were of fre- 
quent occurrence. It was no unusual thing for 
a settler to be captured and carried away by the 
Indians while attending his crops or clearing the 
forests. Illustrative of these atrocities is the 
capture and escape of Doctor John Knight, the 
details of which are as follows: 

After the burning of Colonel Crawford, his 
brother-in-law, Knight, was painted black, and 
the next morning put in charge of an Indian 
named Tutelu, a rough looking fellow, to be 
taken to Wakatomika for execution. Early in 


the morning they started for the town which the 
Indian said was less than forty miles away. Tu- 
telu was on a horse and drove Knight before 
him. The latter pretended to be ignorant of the 
fate awaiting him^ although Simon Girty, the 
famous renegade, had told him that he was to 
be burned at the stake. Affecting as cheerful a 
countenance as possible, Knight asked the sav- 
age if they were not to live together in one wig- 
wam as brothers when they should reach the 
town. Tutelu seemed well pleased and an- 
swered "yes.'' He then asked Knight if he could 
make a wigwam, and was answered in the afflma- 
tive. Tutelu then seemed more friendly. They 
traveled, as ne:rr as Knight could judge, the first 
day about twenty-five miles. Knight was then 
informed that tliey would reach Wakatomika the 
next day a little before noon. 

In the evening a fire was built and after 
Knight Avas securely bound they lay down to 
sleep. Knight frequently tried to untie him- 
self, but the Indian was very watchful and 
scarcely closed his eyes^ so that he did not suc- 
ceed. At daybreak they got up and Tutelu un- 
tied him and began to mend the fire. As the 
mosquitoes were very troublesome, Knight 
cisked permission to build another fire behind 
the Indian. His request being granted. Knight 
took the end of a dogwood stick about eighteen 


inches long, and with a shorter one got a coal 
of fire and stepped behind the Indian. The 
stick was too short for the purpose he had in 
viewj but it was perhaps his last and only 
chance. He quickly struck the Indian over the 
head with all his force and nearly succeeded in 
killing him. He was so badly stunned that he 
fell forward with both hands in the fire. How- 
ever, he soon recovered from this position, and 
sprang to his feet and ran howling into the 
woods. Knight seized the Indian's gun, but in 
trying to shoot quickly, he put forth too much 
strength, and broke the lock. After chasing 
the Indian about in the woods Knight returned 
to the fire and made hurried arrangements for 
his homeward flight. He took the Indian's blan- 
ket, gun, powder-horn, bullet-bag, and a pair of 
new moccasins, and started in a direction a little 
north of east. 

About half an hour before sunset he came to 
Sandusky Plains where he lay down in a thicket 
until after dark. He then continued his journey 
through what is now Marion, Morrow, Richland 
and Ashland counties and on the evening of the 
twentieth day after his escape came to the mouth 
of Beaver creek at the Ohio and was then among 
friends. During this entire journey he sub- 
sisted on wild fruits and small game which were 
abundant in the forests. 


Another source of danger to the pioneer, was 
the fierce wild animals which roamed through 
the forests. Frequently while hunting, men 
would be attacked by bears or panthers, and were 
fortunate to escape unharmed, or even with their 
lives. The following experience was related by 
Captain John Minter, an early settler at Ran- 
dor. In his younger days. Captain Minter was 
a noted hunter, and he became famous, from a 
terrible bear fight in which he came very nearly 
losing his life. 

While hunting alone one day he found a very 
large bear, and shot it. The bear fell, and after 
reloading his gun, Minter went forward, suppos- 
ing the bear to be dead. He touched the bear's 
nose with the muzzle of his gun, and to his sur- 
prise, it instantly reared upon its hind legs ready 
to seize him. Minter fired again but inflicted 
only a flesh wound which only increased the 
bear's fury. As it sprang forward to grasp him, 
he struck it over the head with his gun which 
was mashed to pieces. Too late then for escape, 
he drew his hunting knife and made a plunge 
for its heart. The bear, with one stroke of its 
paw, sent the knife whirling in the air, and en- 
folding its weaponless owner in his powerful 
arms, both fell to the ground. 

A death struggle then ensued between the 
combatants. The bear tried to squeeze his vie- 


tim to death while the man was constant] j^ clxok- 
ing the bear. The woods were open and clear of 
underbrush, and in their struggles they rolled 
in every direction. 

Several times he thought the severity of the 
hugs would kill him; but by choking the bear 
he would compel it to release its hold to knock 
away his hands, when he would again recover 
his breath and get a better position. After con- 
tinuing the struggle in this manner for several 
hours, they rolled back near where his knife lay. 
Inspired by the sight of his weapon, he suc- 
ceeded, after many ineffectual efforts, in rolling 
the bear to the knife. After recovering his knife, 
he began to stab the bear which was soon bleed- 
ing profusely. Gathering all his strength in one 
last effort, Mr. Minter succeeded in piercing the 
bear's heart, but it relaxed its hold only when 
life had fled. 

Mr. Minter then attempted to rise, but was 
too much exhausted to stand. Not a particle of 
clothing was left on him, and his arms, legs and 
back were fearfully lacerated by the bear's claws. 
After resting a while, he began crawling towards 
his home, which he reached shortly after dark. 
The next morning his friends went out to the 
battleground to secure the bear, and reported the 
surface of the ground torn up over at least a 
half acre. After several weeks of suffering Mr. 


Minter recovered, but carried to his grave the 
marks of his awful conflict. 

The monotony of pioneer life was often 
broken by the howl of the wolf and the scream 
of the catamount, and many a weary traveler 
was stimulated by these ominous sounds. 

One night a young man, Harry Johnson, was 
"sparking'^ his neighbor's daughter, and had 
started home at a late hour, accompanied by his 
favorite dog. The occasional "yelp'' of a wolf 
caused him to hasten along as rapidly as pos- 
sible with hopes of reaching home before the 
wolves attacked him. The "yelps" of the thick- 
ening pack grew louder and fiercer, and soon 
their dark forms could be seen gliding through 
the forests by the roadside. Growing bolder 
with increased numbers, they at last sprang from 
the brush into the road, eager for blood. The 
dog seized the leader by the throat and was soon 
engaged in a life or death struggle. Johnson 
shot into the pack, and then' "clubbing" his gun, 
made a fierce charge on the wolves. His dog 
being wounded and almost exhausted could ren- 
der him little assistance, and for a time the 
contest seemed doubtful. The wolves fought 
fiercely ; but the young man laid about him with 
such heavy blows that soon the wolves one by 
one begun to skulk away, ileaving him a much 
depleted victor. 


With the remnant of his gun on his shoulder 
and his bleeding dog under his arm, he at length 
reached home. This warning to the courageous 
young man was of no avail, for the next Satur- 
day night found him again at his neighbor's fire- 
side and ready, if need be, to fight wolves on his 
way home. 

Chapter VIII 



THE pioneers, having in early life enjoyed 
a much higher civilization, were not sat- 
isfied to have their children grow up in 
ignorance and superstition. Accordingly, teach- 
ers and ministers Avere employed, and in due 
timfe, ignorance and superstition were put to 
flight. The first schools, however, were neither 
public nor free. The teacher was paid by the 
parents of the children he instructed. The price 
paid ranged from one to three dollars each, 
according to the age of the pupil and the length 
of the term. Spelling and the three R's, "Read- 
ing, 'riting and Arithmetic," were the only sub- 
jects taught. 

Proficiency in spelling, while no slight accom- 
plishment to-day, was at that time considered 
the highest exponent of wisdom. Little attention 
was then paid to the meaning or use of words, 
and if a pupil could spell a word correctly, that 
fact alone was sufficient. 

In 1821 a law was passed authorizing taxa- 
tion for the support of schools. This law, how- 
eter, was only permissive, and not until 1825 
was any law passed requiring taxation for school 



purposes, and for the selection of qualified in- 
structors. The schools, though constantly im- 
proving, were not on a sound basis until 1838, 
when a law was passed providing for a uniform 
system of schools, a state and county superin- 
tendent and township inspectors. Other laws 
were passed in following years, producing, as a 
result, our present efficient schools. 

After the passage of the law of 1838, the con- 
struction of school houses was commenced in 
every community, and the buildings then erected 
would be a marvel to the school children of the 
present day. 

The school houses were very similar to the 
dwelling houses and were built of hewn logs. 
The buildings were about eighteen feet wide 
and twenty-four feet long. The roofs were 
made with clapboards, and the spaces between 
the logs were filled with mud. The fioor was 
frequently earth, but later, split logs with the 
fiat side^ up were used. The seats were also 
made froin split logs which were supported by 
four small posts, two at each end. Rude desks 
werfe provided for the larger pupils only. A 
huge fireplace, in which wood was burned, was 
built in one end. No furniture or apparatus of 
any kind was to be found in the school rooms, 
and even crayon and blackboards were unknown. 


Text-books were few. Murray's reader^ Dill- 
worth's or Webster's speller. Pike's arithmetic 
and the Columbian Orator were the usual outfit 
of the teacher, and each pupil usually had one 
or more of the above mentioned books. The 
teacher "boarded 'round" with the pupils, and 
in addition to board he received a very small 

The preacher of pioneer times preceded the 
teacher, and at first held .religious meetings in 
private dwellings. Later, when schools had 
been established, the little school house at the 
crossroads also served as a meeting house. Here 
many sensational revivals were held and many 
ludicrous sermons preached by unlearned minis- 
ters. These ministers were indeed sturdy, hon- 
est. God-fearing men, and it would be a mar- 
velous child in those days, who would not fear 
God, and yet more marvelous was he who could 
love Him, so terrible were the pen-pictures 
drawn of the Creator. 

There was little or no Church organization 
in those days; itinerant preachers roamed 
through the wilderness on horseback, preach- 
ing anywhere they could get an audience. His 
circuit was sometimes so large that he could 
only reach the same place twice each year. 
Camp meetings were held and attended by every- 


one. Churches were built later and well organ- 
ized religious denominations were soon estab- 

Little record was ever made of the first 
churches, and not until the time of Kev. Samuel 
Clawson have we many accurate accounts of the 
churches. An incident of one of Eev. Clawson's 
revivals shows both the influence of the ser- 
mons preached and the nature of the hearers. 

^^Having warned the sinners to flee from the 
wrath to come, a young man/^ says Eev. Claw- 
son, ^Svas on fire and took an exceedingly lofty 
flight, after which he had to pause to recover 
his breath. During this pause a wicked wretch 
crowed like a rooster, causing a laugh in the con- 
gregation.'^ Kev. Clawson, Avho was always 
ready for such an emergency, saw the young 
man when he crowed, and fixing his eyes upon 
him, said: ^^I was not aware that there was 
any of that breed of fowls present. I can 
scarcely imagine what has brought that foolish 
thing here. The house of God is no place for 
such fowls. The country has, at great expense, 
built a coop for such fowls, and I wonder that 
the people let the thing run at large." Then 
putting on such a look and speaking in such 
tones as made the wretch quail before him, he 
said: ^^Young man, I suppose you think you 
have done something smart and laughable, but 

Courtesy of Ohio ArchcBological and Historical Society^ 



I would not do what you have done for the 
world. You have insulted the great God to His 
face in His house and in the midst of His wor- 
ship, and it would not be wonderful to me if He 
would transform your wicked mouth into a 
chicken's bill, and rivet it fast to the staff of His 
fury, and thrash the mountains with you. Crow 
again if you dare, and it may be that a red-hot 
thunderbolt, hurled by the hand of omnipo- 
tence, may scathe your wretched soul." It is al- 
most needless to remark that the crowing ceased. 
Pioneer church music consisted of poorly 
translated psalms and badly constructed hymns. 
The latter were gradually introduced for public 
worship, and often pictured the torments re- 
served for the wicked in no uncertain language. 
Although the joys of heaven received little no- 
tice, the eternal terrors of the guilty soul were 
foretold in vigorous words. The following 
hymn was published and sung in Boston more 
than a century since, and was a favorite through- 
out the entire country : 

Then might you hear them rend and tear, 
The ak with their outcries; 
The hideous noise of their sad voice, 
Ascendeth to the skies. 

They wring their hands, their caitiff hands, 
And gnash their teeth with terror ; 
They cry, they roar, for anguish sore. 
And gnaw their tongues for horror. 


But get away, without delay, 
Christ pities not your cry; 
Depart to hell; there may you yell, 
And war eternally. 

Less wrathful and more amusing was fugue- 
singing. Many are the church walls that echoed 
to the melodious voices of both matrons and 
maids in singing such inspiring hymns as, 

''Oh! for a man; Oh! for a man; 
Oh ! for a mansion in the skies," 

and the roofs must have nearly burst open when 
the men with their high tenors and deep basses 
would reply : 

Bring down sal; bring down sal; 
Bring down salvation from on high. 

The present generation can scarcely imagine 
doctrinal beliefs that could make possible the 
acceptance of such lines and their use in relig- 
ious services. And one feels ready to endorse 
heartily the words of Hawthorne: ^^Let us 
thank God for having given us such ancestors; 
and let each succeeding generation thank Him 
not less fervently for being one step farther 
from them in the march of progress." 

Chapter IX 



WHILE the people of Ohio were engaged 
in a war against wild animals and the 
Indians, the United States declared 
war against England. This declaration was 
made in the summer of 1812, and was occasioned 
by the English insisting upon the right to search 
our vessels on the high seas, and to press into 
their navy any sailors whom they decided to be 
British subjects. The English also denied us 
the right to trade with other foreign nations. 
Although the people of Ohio were not "directly 
effected by either, "free trade," or "sailors' 
rights," they felt the insult and welcomed the 

An invasion of Canada was planned, and ac- 
cordingly. General Hull, of Revolutionary fame, 
marched with his army from Urbana, Ohio, to 
Detroit. Upon his arrival at Detroit, he found 
that his supplies of both ammunitio'n and pro- 
visions were cut off by General Brock and his 
army of Canadians and Indians. Hull deemed 
it best to surrender, and did so, leaving Ohio and 
the entire West open to invasion. This surren- 
der by General Hull was, at that time, consid- 



ered an act of cowardice and he was sentenced 
to be shot, bnt later received pardon. Time has 
shown that the excited populace, eager for war, 
were w^rong in their condemnation of their gen- 
eral, and he has since shown that he was com- 
pletely justified in doing as he did. 

After the surrender of General Hull, the 
state militia was called out, and with the Ken- 
tucky troops under command of General Harri- 
son, marched north to recapture Detroit; The 
expedition, however, proved a failure, and a 
part of his army was massacred by the Indians. 

In February, 1813, General Harrison began 
the construction of Fort Meigs on the Maumee 
river in Wood county. From this position he 
hoped to again invade Canada, but he was at- 
tacked himself by a combined force of British 
and Canadians, under command of General 
Proctor, and the Indians under command of 

Proctor planted batteries on the hills above 
the fort, while the Indians climbed trees and 
poured down an incessant fire upon the besieged 
army. The British commander then summoned 
the fort to surrender, but Harrison refused, in- 
suring General Proctor that if he got the fort it 
would be in a manner to do him more honor than 
any surrender could possibly do. 

General Harrison then ordered Colonel Dud- 


ley, with eight hundred Kentucky militia, to 
cross the river, capture the batteries, spike the 
cannon, and return with all possible haste. The 
first part of the order was quickly executed and 
soon every cannon was spiked, but being elated 
with their success, they pursued the frightened 
enemy into the woods where they were suddenly 
caught in an Indian ambuscade. A desperate 
hand to hand encounter followed in which the 
militia was defeated and captured. After the 
surrender, when all resistance had ceased, the 
Indians began to massacre with the most savage 
delight. Tecumseh sternly forbade it, and 
buried his tomahawk in the head of one of his 
chiefs who refused obedience. This action put 
an end to the massacre, but of the eight hun- 
dred men, only one hundred and fifty escaped. 

General Proctor, seeing no prospect of tak- 
ing the fort, and finding the Indians fast desert- 
ing him, raised the siege at the close of the four- 
teenth day. Later, a second attempt was made 
to capture Fort Meigs, but failing again, their 
attention was directed to Fort Sandusky, the 
present site ot Fremont. Fort Sandusky was 
defended by a weakened garrison under com- 
mand of Major Oroghan, a youth of some twenty- 
one summers. 

On the 1st of August, 1813, the British ap- 
proached the fort by water;-^nd landed their 


troops, with a five and one-half inch howitzer, a 
mile below the fort. The fort was then sum- 
moned to surrender, but Major Oroghan replied 
that they would either maintain the fort or bury 
themselves in its ruins. Again he was entreated 
to surrender in order to prevent the horrors of 
another Indian massacre. The reply was sent 
back that in case the fort should be taken, there 
would be none left to massacre, as it would not 
be given up while a man was left able to resist. 

Late in the evening the enemy opened fire 
from their six-pounders in the gunboats and 
from their howitzer on shore. Major Croghan 
replied with his six-pounder, occasionally chang- 
ing its position in order to induce a belief that 
he had a number of cannon. As the enemy con- 
centrated their fire on the northwestern angle 
of the fort, it was concluded that the works 
would be stormed from that quarter. Accord- 
ingly, during the darkness, the six-pounder was 
removed to a blockhouse from which it would 
rake that angle. The piece was loaded with a 
half charge of powder and a double charge of 
slugs and grape shot. 

Late in the evening of August 2d, when the 
smoke of the firing had completely enveloped the 
fort, the enemy made a desperate assault. When 
the assaulting column of 350 were discovered ad- 
vancing through the smoke, at a distance of 


twenty yards from the northwest angle, a heavy 
fire of musketry was opened upon them from the 
fort, throwing them into some confusion. Col- 
onel Short, who was leading the charge, rallied 
his men and with great bravery led them up 
to the brink of the ditch. After giving the order 
to cross the ditch, cut down the pickets, and 
give the Americans no quarter. Colonel Short 
sprang into the ditch followed by his soldiers. 
At that moment the masked port-hole in the 
blockhouse was opened, and the six-pounder, at 
a distance of thirty feet, poured down such a 
storm of shot and shell, that few of the assault- 
ing party made good their escape. The other 
attacking parties met with an equally destruc- 
tive musket fire, and soon the entire enemy made 
a precipituous retreat, leaving behind them, be- 
sides their dead and wounded, many arms and a 
quantity of ammunition. The loss to the garri- 
son was one killed and seven wounded, while 
the British loss was about 150 in killed and 
wounded. Colonel Short, a lieutenant and 
twenty-five privates lay dead in the ditch, and 
General Proctor with 500 regulars and 800 In- 
dians had again been completely defeated. 

Little more than a month had elapsed after 
this repulse, when the British were again de- 
feated in a naval battle on Lake Erie. Another 
young gentleman. Commodore Perry, twenty- 


eight years of age, was in command. He had 
brought his sailors, ship carpenters and supplies 
four hundred miles through the unbroken for- 
ests, and had constructed his fleet from the for- 
ests on the lake shore in the remarkably brief 
time of six months. 

Perry's fleet consisted of 2 ships, of 20 guns 
each, the Lawrence and the Niagara, and 7 
smaller vessels, one of .4 guns, one of 3, two of 
2; and three of 1, making a total of 54 guns, all 
of short range. During the construction of his 
flotilla, the British fleet often approached and 
threatened their destruction, but were prevented 
by the shallow w^ater in the harbor. Finally, the 
ships were completed and launched, the larger 
ones by the aid of scows, and Commodore Perry 
at once proceeded to the head of the lake where 
he anchored in Put-in-Bay, opposite to, and dis- 
tant 30 miles from Maiden, where the British 
fleet lay protected by the fort. 

The British fleet consisted of one ship of 19 
guns, one of 17, one of 13, one of 10, one of 3, 
and one of 1, — amounting in all to 64 guns of 
long range. The fleet was in command of Com- 
modore Barclay who had left one arm at Trafal- 
gar where he fought under the illustrious 

On September 10th, at sunrise, the British 
fleet appeared off Put-in-Bay, distant about IQ 


miles. Commodore Perry immediately got un- 
der way with a light breeze from the southwest. 
At 10 o'clock the wind changed to the south- 
east, and Perry, on board the Lawrence, hoisted 
his motto, ^^Don't give up the ship," which was 
received with repeated cheers by the crew. A 
line of battle was then formed, and the fleet bore 
up towards the enemy, who, at the same time, 
were preparing for battle. The lightness of the 
wind caused the hostile squadrons to approach 
each other very slowly, and prolong for two 
hours the solemn interval of suspense and anx- 
iety which precedes a battle. The order and 
regularity of naval discipline heightened the 
dreadful quiet of the occasion. "No noise, and 
no bustle prevailed to distract the mind, except 
at intervals the shrill pipings of the boatswain's 
whistle, or a murmuring whisper among the 
men who stood around the guns, with lighted 
matches, closely watching the movements of the 
enemy, and occasionally stealing a glance at the 
countenances of their commanders. In this 
manner the hostile fleets gradually neared e^ch 
other in awful silence. 

At 15 minutes after eleven, a bugle was 
sounded on board the enemy's foremost ship, 
the Detroit. Loud cheers burst from all the 
enemy's crews and a tremendous fire was opened 
upon the Lawrence from the long range British 


guns. The Lawrence was obliged to sustain the 
fire for 40 minutes without returning a shot, 
owing to the short range of her guns. 

Commodore Perrj, without waiting for the 
other ships^ kept on his course and at 12 o'clock 
opened fire from the Lawrence. The distance 
was still so great that his guns did little dam- 
age, while the sides of his own ship were con- 
tinually being pierced by the British guns. 11 is 
men were fast falling, and the magazine was 
greatly endangered. Commodore Perry, realiz- 
ing the perilous position in which he stood, 
made all sail, and directed the others to follow, 
intending to close with the enemy. But the tre- 
mendous fire to which he was exposed soon cut 
away every brace and stay of the Lawrence, leav- 
ing her an unmanageable wreck. The utmost or- 
der and regularity still prevailed. As fast as 
the men at the guns were wounded they were 
carried below, and others took their places. The 
dead remained where they fell until the close of 
the action. At this juncture the enemy believed 
the battle already won. 

The Lawrence was reduced to a mere wreck ; 
her deck was streaming with blood and covered 
with the mangled remains of her crew. Her 
guns were dismounted, but Commodore Perry 
and his officers helped to work the last one cap-, 
able of service. At 2 o'clock Captain Elliot was 






enabled, by an increase of wind, to bring his 
ship into close action, and Perry immediately 
determined to shift his flag on board that ship, 
leaving his own in charge of Lieutenant Yarnell. 
Taking his flag under his arm. Perry ordered a 
boat to place him on board the Niagara. Broad- 
sides were leveled at his boat, and he received 
without injury, a shower of musketry from three 
of the enemy's ships. He landed safely and 
hoisted his flag with its animating motto. Cap- 
tain Elliott was sent back to bring up the other 
schooners. At that moment the flag of the Law- 
rence was hauled down. She had sustained the 
principal force of the enemy's fire for more than 
two hours and was rendered incapable of de- 
fense. Any further show of resistance would 
have been a useless sacrifice of the remains of 
her brave and gallant crew. The enemy at the 
same time were so badly crippled that they were 
unable to take posession of her, and circum- 
stances soon enabled the bleeding crew to again 
hoist her fiag. 

Commodore Perry then gave the signal to all 
the vessels for close action. Finding the Ni- 
agara in good condition. Perry determined upon 
the desperate plan of breaking the enemy's line 
of battle. He accordingly passed the head of 
two ships and gave them a raking fire at close 
range, and after getting the entire squadron into 


action, he laid his ship alongside of the British 
Commodore. The smaller vessels closed in with 
the enemy between them and the Niagara, and 
in that position kept up a destructive fire from 
both sides until every British ship had struck 
her colors. 

The engagement lasted about three hours, and 
never was victory more decisive and complete. 
The number of prisoners taken exceeded the 
number of men on board the American squadron 
at the close of the action. Perry's loss was 27 
killed and 96 wounded, while that of the English 
must have been much greater. At the close of 
the battle Perry sent his famous dispatch, "We 
have met the enemy and they are ours: two 
ships, two brigs, one schooner and one sloop." 

After the defeat of the British on Lake Erie, 
Proctor and his Indians withdrew into Canada. 
The enemy were pursued by General Harrison 
and his army, who overtook them at the Thames 
river, Avhere a most decisive battle was fought 
and a glorious victory gained by the Americans. 
The enemy were co"mpletely routed and slaugh- 
tered in a frightful manner. Tecumseh and his 
bravest chieftains were slain, thus ending for- 
ever the Indian wars in Ohio. 

Chapter X 



WITH the close of the War of 1812, came 
a peace and quietness such as Ohio 
had never known. The war-cry of Te- 
cumseh was heard no more in the forests nor on 
the plains, and the people pursued their ways 
without molestation. 

The increasing crops and multiplying flocks 
and herds soon created a great demand for better 
roads to market. The crooked trails of the In- 
dians and the unkept roads of the first settlers 
would no longer suffice. So, while the United 
States was constructing a road west from the 
Atlantic, the Ohio people were busily engaged in 
laying out and grading roads throughout the 

In 1811, a steamboat made its appearance in 
the Ohio river and was soon followed by numer- 
ous other boats, giving to the southern portion 
of the state an unlooked-for outlet. In a like 
manner the northern portion was reached by 
boats on the great lakes, leaving the interior 
of the state without an outlet. 

But the stage-coach and freight- wagon would 



no longer suffice for the rapidly growing com- 
merce, and an increasing demand for canals 
was felt throughout the state. A petition was 
sent to the State Legislature asking for assist- 
ance in the construction of these canals. The 
state began in 1825 to build two canals; one 
from Cleveland to Portsmouth, and the other 
from Toledo to Cincinnati. When these canals 
with their branches, were completed, they gave 
the people nearly a thousand miles of navigable 
waters within their own state. 

With the construction of these canals came 
great prosperity. They were dug by the citi- 
zens of the state, and so the sixteen millions of 
dollars came back to those who had so willingly 
taxed themselves for the outlay. Great swamps 
were drained by these canals, making them the 
most fertile lands of the state. The price of 
property increased rapidly, and while the old 
towns grew into cities, new towns and villages 
rose up on the prairies and in the forest regions, 
and the camp and log hut of the rural districts 
gave place to large and beautiful dwellings of 
modern architecture. 

The Ohio people had received, from the peo- 
ple of New York, this impulse to build canals, 
and so the new York Governor, De Witt Clinton, 
was invited to join in the ceremonies incident 
to the beginning of the first canal. He came by 


steamboat to Cleveland where he took stage for 
Newark. On July 4th, 1825, in the presence of 
a great throng of Ohio citizens, and a distin- 
guished delegation from New York, Governor 
Clinton lifted a spadeful of earth on the Lick- 
ing summit. Governor Morrow of Ohio lifted 
the second spadeful, and then followed a strug- 
gle among the other distinguished gentlemen as 
to who should lift the third. Soon a wheelbar- 
ro X was filled and a happy Buckeyean wheeled it 
away and dumped it over a bank. The cere- 
monies were concluded by an eloquent address 
by Thomas Ewing. 

When the canals were completed, multitudes 
thronged the banks to see the Avater let into the 
channels. A continuous ovation accompanied 
the first fleet of three canal boats throughout its 
course. At the larger cities cannon were fired 
and great throngs of people shouted themselves 

While the value of these canals, to the state, 
can hardly be overestimated, they were to have 
but a brief existence. The enormous increase 
in the state's commerce, brought about by the 
canals, showed the careful observer that a still 
greater development of the state's resources 
could be occasioned by faster and safer trans- 

As early as 1830 and '31 steam railroads had 


been put into operation in the eastern states, 
and soon they were to be tested in Ohio. In 
1836, an interstate railway was put into opera- 
tion between Toledo and Adrian, Michigan, but 
not until 1839, was Ohio to have a chartered 
railway, all within her own boundaries. This 
road was the Mad River and Lake Erie, extend- 
ing from Sandusky to Dayton. It was opened 
to the public, as far a-s Bellevue, sixteen miles, 
in 1839, and completed to Dayton in 1844. Pro- 
gressive capitalists conceiving the vast possibili- 
ties of the railway, soon began the construction 
of numerous roads. In the course of a few 
years, a net- work of railways covered the state, 
making every part of it quickly, cheaply and 
easily accessible to every other part. 

The younger generations of the present day 
could scarcely imagine how rude and simple 
were the railroads of the earlier days. Instead 
of the well ballasted road-beds supporting the 
ponderous steel rails, the first trains were run 
on wooden rails, on which were nailed strips of 
iron. The powerful locomotives, the luxurious 
cars and the long black coal trains of sixty or 
eighty cars were unknown in those days, when 
a train consisted of a mere toy engine drawing 
two or three wooden cars little longer than a 
carriage. The speed of these, early trains was 
never more than twelve or fifteen miles an hour, 


Courtesy of Ohio Archaological and Historical Society. 



but that was a marvelous increase over the canal 
boats going about three miles an hour. 

The magnificent fleets on the rivers and lakes 
soon felt the fatal rivalry of the railroad, along 
the shores. Both travel and traffic deserted the 
steamboats, seeking the surer and swifter trans- 
portation of the railroad. The great passenger 
boats plying between Pittsburgh and Cincinnati, 
and reaching all intermediate points, soon dis- 
appeared. The fast freight boats, carrying per- 
ishable goods, in turn gave place to the coal 
barges which are so numerous at present. Thus 
the railroad forever put an end to the usefulness 
of the canals which first introduced the state to 
its present prosperity and gave to it such an 
eminent commercial position among the other 
states. Of those nine hundred miles of canals 
in the state, only a few miles are in use to-day, 
and the deserted, grass-grown ditches are 
scarcely distinguishable from the ancient ruins 
of the Mound Builders. 

But the improved commercial faculties were 
not sufficient for the Ohio people. With the ease 
and cheapness of travel, came a knowledge of 
life in the adjoining states, and a desire to bet- 
ter their own environments. The log cabin was 
no longer considered sufficient for the sturdy and 
prosperous farmer, and so a modern brick or 
frame residence took its place. Various con- 


veniences of the present time soon found their 
way to those Ohio people whose great glory and 
strength came from their varied origin. Their 
ancestors had been accustomed to the highest 
"environments of Massachusetts, Connecticut, 
New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Mary- 
land, the Carolinas and Kentucky, and they 
made Ohio what it is by a blending of all those 
characteristics into a new individual, the 

As might be expected, those various charac- 
teristics did not at all times, blend harmoniously. 
While the southern element favored a commer- 
cial development, the New England descendants 
favored a development of the intellect. So there 
was one faction favoring canals, and another one 
favoring schools. But happily all were in favor 
of anything that would advance the interests of 
the state, and the construction of the canals was 
followed by wise school legislation. While the 
canals have long lost their important place in 
the state, the schools are ever increasing, and 
are becoming more efi&cient in fitting the young 
generations for a more useful position in life. 
Although the school system of the state in 1903 
ranked very low among the other states, yet the 
product of the schools, the best criterion, gives 
it a position second to none in the Union. 


More than three-quarters of a century ago 
General Lafayette, that Frenchman whose name 
will forever brighten the pages of our National 
History, came to America to visit old comrades 
with whom he had formed a lasting friendship 
in Kevolutionary days, and to make a tour of 
the nation for which he had done so much. He, 
while on this tour, visited Cincinnati, and his 
greatest surprise and pleasure was occasioned by 
the greetings extended him by the school chil- 
dren. It gave to him proofs of a grateful life 
and general culture far beyond his most san- 
guine expectations. Upon his arrival he was 
met by six hundred pupils of the public schools, 
who strewed his way with flowers, and shouts 
of "Welcome to Lafayette," echoed and reechoed 
through the city. When he had traveled over 
the state and seen what wonderful progress the 
people had made, no wonder he should pro- 
nounce Ohio "The eighth wonder of the world." 

Much more might be said here about our arti- 
ficial water-ways, railways, churches, schools, 
colleges and universities, of which we are right- 
fully proud, but the vast amount they have done 
and are doing, in the progress of the state and 
nation in many ways, is so apparent to all that 
we need not make a further discussion of them. 

Chapter XI 


Courtesy of Ohio Archceological and Historical Society. 



IN the early spring of 1835^ serious trouble 
with the Territory of Michigan resulted 

from a disputed boundary line. The ordi- 
nance of 1787 provided that" in case the North- 
western Territory should be divided into five 
states, that the boundary between the three 
southern and two northern should be a line 
drawn east and west through the southern point 
of Lake Michigan to the territorial line in Lake 
Erie. But such a line was an impossible one, 
as it could never reach the territorial line by 
extending it east, but on the contrary, it would 
go far south of it, leaving a portion of the 
Western Keserve to its north. 

The constitution of Ohio provided that in 
case the ordinance line did not go as far north 
as the north cape of the Maumee bay, then the 
northern boundary of Ohio should be a line 
drawn from the southern part of Lake Michigan 
to the north cape of the Maumee bay. The ter- 
ritory lying between these two lines was the 
source of the trouble. 

When Michigan became a territory, she ex- 
tended her government over thi^ disputed land. 

10 m 


Ohio did likewise, and two sets of officials was 
the result, and war was inevitable. Ohio at 
once levied troops, and with Governor Lucas 
in command, marched, in the spring of 1835, to 
Port Miami, eight miles above Toledo and four 
miles above the disputed land. Meanwhile Gov- 
ernor Mason of Michigan had raised an army 
and marched them to Toledo, where they over- 
ran watermelon patches, created a great scarcity 
of fowls and carried off at least one prisoner 
of war. 

Mason's army did not long sustain its posi- 
tion. Frightful stories were circulated among 
the Michigan troops, in regard to the vast army 
of Buckeye sharp-shooters who were hastening 
with leveled guns to greet them. So great was 
the scare produced, that more than half of 
Mason's forces deserted, and the remainder of 
the army withdrew. 

At this juncture of affairs, commissioners 
arrived from Washington, D. C, and a tem- 
porary compromise was effected. At the next 
session of Congress, the matter was ably dis- 
cussed and decided in favor of Ohio. In return 
for this strip of land, averaging about eight miles 
in width, Michigan received the entire northern 
peninsula so rich in mineral resources. But the 
people of Ohio were satisfied as they had won 
the territory in dispute, including the grand old 
harbor at Toledo. 

Chapter XII 



WHILE the ordinance creating the North- 
west Territory forbid slavery within 
its boundaries, it was only by one vote 
that slavery was kept out of Ohio at the adoption 
of her first constitution. Although the negroes 
living in Ohio were not really slaves, they were 
not allowed to vote nor to testify in the courts. 
Many of the farmers living in the southern por- 
tion of the state rented slaves from their masters 
living in Virginia and Kentucky. These slaves 
were brought into Ohio and worked there, but 
were never owned on Ohio soil. But when the 
feeling against slavery became more bitter, the 
slaves were helped to escape to Canada. The 
Abolitionists were accused of coaxing and tempt- 
ing slaves to cross the Ohio river in order that 
they might be carried away to freedom. 

The method of transporting negroes North 
was known as "Underground Railroads," and 
the homes of Abolitionists in the towns and 
throughout the country, served as stations along 
that road. While these roads were not well or- 
ganized, they had a President, Levi Coffin, and 



many staunch supporters in all parts of the 

The first station on one of these underground 
railroads to Canada was the residence of Rev. 
John Rankin of Ripley. His was a solitary 
house built on the top of the hill overlooking 
Ripley and the Ohio river. Thousands of poor 
fugitives found rest and shelter in his home, and 
in the darkness of the night they were sent on in 
wagons to the next station. Among these fugu- 
tives were Eliza and George Harris, and other 
characters of "Uncle Tom's Cabin." 

The home of Mr. Rankin was frequently sur- 
rounded by slave hunters, but with the assist- 
ance of his eight sons and two daughters, he 
always managed to escape harm. On one occa- 
sion four men from Kentucky and one from Rip- 
ley, with two fierce bulldogs, came to the house 
and were met on the porch by Mrs. Rankin. 
They informed her that a store had been broken 
open in Dover, Kentucky, and that the thieves 
had been tracked to her house and they wanted 
to search the house for the goods and thieves. 
Mrs. Rankin replied that she did not harbor 
thieves nor conceal stolen property, and gave 
them permission to look through the house. As 
they started to enter the house, one of her sons 
who had heard the conversation, took down a 
rifle, cocked it, and called out, "Halt! If you 


come another step I will kill you/' and they 
halted. At that moment two of the other sons, 
who had been conveying fugitives north, arrived 
on the scene and sent word down to Ripley. 
Soon the yard was filled with friends, and the 
slave hunters were taken by the arms and led to 
the fence and told to climb, and they climbed. 

Rev. Rankin frequently preached against 
slavery, and on one occasion a mob leader en- 
tered his pulpit and drew a club over his head. 
"Stop preaching or I will burst your head open,'' 
he shouted, but Rev. Rankin went on as if noth- 
ing had happened. A powerful man in the con- 
gregation sprang forward and seized the intruder 
by the neck and jerked him from the pulpit and 
put him out. 

James G. Birney, another famous Aboli- 
tionist, had come to Ohio from the South. He 
established a newspaper called the Philan- 
thropist in Cincinnati, and attacked the slave 
cause in no doubtful manner. But the public 
sentiment was so strong in favor of slaves, that 
on July 23, 1836, a mob broke into his office 
and destroyed his type and press. Then they 
assailed the negroes in the back streets, and a 
general riot followed in which many were 
wounded. Editors and orators opposed to slav- 
ery were mobbed in almost every city, and the 
authorities of "Lane Theological Seminary" for- 


bade the students to either write or talk about 

The slave owners being highly incensed over 
the escape of their valuable slaves, appealed to 
the United States Congress, and accordingly in 
1850 the ^^Fugitive Slave Law'' was passed. 
This law provided that all runaway slaves, 
found at the North, should be arrested, and, 
without trial by jury, be returned to their mas- 
ters. Other laws were passed with reference to 
the slaves, and one of these made it a crime for 
anyone to assist the slaves in their escape. 
These laws were very unpopular in Ohio, as well 
as in the other northern states, and many, fol- 
lowing the dictates of their consciences, helped 
the slaves to escape, in violation of the nation's 

The slave owners were pleased with the na- 
tional laws favoring them, and with a United 
States warrant in the hands of a United States 
marshal they pursued the escaping slaves with 
renewed inspiration. On the other side the 
Underground Railroad business was never bet- 
ter, and while fights with the officers were fre- 
quent, many hundreds of slaves escaped. 

The feeling against slavery was again intensi- 
fied by the case of Margaret Garner in 1856. 
This unhappy victim of slavery, with her hus- 
band and four children, had escaped from Ken- 


tucky, and were concealed at the home of a free 
negro below Mill creek in Hamilton county. 
While they were making arrangements for their 
transportation north, the house was suddenly 
surrounded by slave hunters and officers with a 
posse of men. A desperate fight followed in 
which both slaves and officers were seriously 
injured, but at last the slaves were overpowered 
and dragged from the house. 

When the fight ended Margaret seized a large 
knife and killed her little daughter to prevent 
its return to slavery, and then attempted to kill 
herself but failed. Margaret, with the rest of 
the party, was taken to Cincinnati, where they 
were all tried, not for murder, but for trying to 
escape from their owners. After a trial lasting 
two weeks, they were all found guilty of seeking 
freedom, and were returned to their masters. 

In 1857 a fugitive slave named Ad. White 
was arrested by a United States marshal in 
Champaign county. White resisted and fired 
at the marshal but the bullet struck the gun- 
barrel in the hands of the marshal, and glanced 
off doing no injury. The county officials and 
the people took White's part, and the fight con- 
tinued both in and out of court for a long time. 
The county sheriff narrowly escaped death from 
a billy in the hands of a United States marshal, 
and he never fully recovered from his injuries. 


Whitens master, fearing a disastrous outcome of 
the affair, offered to take a thousand dollars for 
him. The sum was quickly raised among the 
Abolitionists, and White was again set free. 

Less fortunate was another negro known as 
Thomas Marshall, who had lived unmolested for 
a number of years at Dayton. He was caught 
in the street one day by a number of slave hun- 
ters who declared that he was an escaped slave. 
He was quickly taken before an ofiftcial where 
the charge was easily proven. One of the slave 
hunters assured Marshall that his master would 
sell him. The slave gave all his . money, fifty 
dollars, and a large ransom was soon made up 
when word was received from his master in Ken- 
tucky that he would not sell him under any con- 
dition. Marshall was then taken to Cincinnati 
where he was placed in the fourth story of a 
hotel for safe-keeping over night. As soon' as 
his guard had fallen asleep, Marshall raised the 
window and jumped to the street below. He 
was picked up in a crushed and unconscious con- 
dition, and lived but a few hours after. 

While many of the slaves were willing to 
give their lives for freedom, few of the Aboli- 
tionists were willing to go so far. One family 
of these however, John Brown and his sons, re- 
sided for a number of years in this state. Brown 
had spent his entire life in the cause of free- 


donij and thinking he had received a divine com- 
mission from Jehovah to destroy the kingdom of 
slavery, he marched with sixteen men to capture 
the United States arsenal at Harper's Ferry. 
The result of his undertaking is well known to 
the world, and the fires of slavery were thus 
made to burn with a brighter luster than ever 

Chapter XIII 


OUR jb;we;ivS. 



THE sons of Ohio were destined to become 
famous in war. Whether they received 
this martial love with their birth, or as 
a heritage from their struggles with the Indians 
and wild animals, does not appear, but that they 
possess the rarest characteristics of warriors is 
doubted by none who ever met them on the field 
of battle. Their loyalty to the nation as well as 
to their own state, has never been disputed. Not 
only in the ^War of 1812" had Ohio assisted in 
a national strife, as in 1846 she sent 5,536 of her 
sturdiest sons to the sunny climes of Mexico, 
where each was to meet and vanquish three blood- 
thirsty Spaniards, or see the nation's emblems 
trailed in the dust. Yet they never faltered. 
Their courage was not found lacking, their en- 
durance was sufficient, and victory again found 
a perch upon their banners, and with a loss of 
but 57 in killed and wounded, they again marched 
back to their native soil. 

Had it not been for the contributions Ohio 
made to the national army during the civil war, 
it would be difficult to tell just what the out- 
come of that war might have been. While it is 



a fact that other states produced generals cap- 
al^le of commanding armies, it is none the less 
a fact that Ohio gave to the nation the generals 
who led her armies to victory. The deeds of 
these Generals, Grant, Sherman, Sheridan and 
Ouster, will not be discussed here, as their fame 
is no longer circumscribed by either state or 
national boundaries, but has long since been 
received by the world as a rich heritage. 

While Ohio, at the beginning of the civil 
war, was greatly disturbed by factional strife, 
the disturbance was of short duration, and soon 
the state, with slight exceptions, gave her influ- 
ence in behalf of the nation's cause. 

It is impossible to state the exact number 
of men who entered the national army from 
Ohio during the war of the rebellion, as many 
enlisted in regiments formed in the adjoining 
states. The nation's records show that Ohio 
gave of her citizens 340,000 men, excluding squir- 
rel-hunters, re-enlistments and the militia. 

The state contributed in organized regi- 
ments — 

26 regiments of infantry for 3 months. 

43 regiments of infantry for 100 days. 

2 regiments of infantry for 6 months. 

27 regiments of infantry for 1 year. 

117 regiments of infantry for 3 years. 

13 regiments of cavalry for 3 years. 

^ regiments of artillery for 3 years, 


Twenty-six independent batteries of artillery 
and 5 independent companies of cavalry. 

Six thousand five hundred and thirtty-six 
Ohio soldiers were killed on the field of battle. 

Four thousand six hundred and seventy-four 
were mortally wounded and died in hospitals. 

Thirteen thousand three hundred and fifty- 
four died of diseases contracted in the service. 
Thus Ohio lost 84 soldiers out of every 1,000 
enlisted men. 

While the fathers, sons, brothers and hus- 
bands were away on the field of battle, the 
w^omen and infirm men left behind carried on the 
ordinary business affairs of civil life. More than 
one-half of the adult male population of Ohio 
was in the army, and more than one-half of those 
who remained were unfitted for military service, 
owing to age or other infirmities. Those who 
remained at home and made it possible for the 
army to live, deserve no less credit than those 
w^ho fought the battles and w^on the victories. 
And that young man who resisted the w^ar fever 
and remained at home, providing for the neces- 
sary wants of the household, probably made a 
greater sacrifice than his brother who, on the 
impulse of the moment, joined a regiment and 
marched to the front. 

While Ohio's sons fought in all the great 
battles of the civil war^ no battle nor important 


skirmish took place within the boundaries of the 
state^ and only once, and then to their sorrow, 
did Confederate troops invade the state. 

John Morgan of Huntsville, Alabama, was 
one of the bravest and grandest of the Confeder- 
ate raiders. He was sent north through Ten- 
nessee and Kentucky to capture Louisville, and 
had orders not to cross the Ohio river. When 
he reached the Ohio river he decided to cross 
and spread fear and destruction throughout In- 
diana and Ohio. So with 2,300 experienced cav- 
alrymen he began his famous raid through In- 
diana and Ohio. He entered Ohio a few miles 
north of Cincijinati on the 13th day of July, 
1863, and took an eastern course, through the 
counties of Clerinont, Brown, Adams, Pike, 
Jackson, Vinton, Athens, Guernsey, Gallia and 
into Meigs. 

The fear occasioned by the presence of an 
armed foe caused the people of Ohio to do many 
ridiculous things. Bridges were sometimes 
burned where the streams could be easily 
forded, and often the roads were blockaded after 
Morgan had passed. But a few days elapsed 
before the people recovered from their fright 
and then a well armed militia and national 
troops soon made it Morgan's chief aim to get 
out of Ohio again. 

The destruction caused by Morgan and his 


band was confined mainly to the plundering of 
country stores. They took what they wanted 
but used no reason or judgment^ except in the 
selection of horses. One soldier took a pair of 
skates while others took a bolt of calico apiece. 
The calico was tied to the horns of the saddles 
and then unrolled and left flapping in the wind. 
Another trooper carried for a number of days 
a bird-cage containing three canaries. 

But Morgan's raid in Ohio was destined to 
be brief. There was no rest for man or beast. 
The soldiers, often overcome from lack of sleep, 
fell from their horses and crawled to the brush 
there to sleep, and awaken as prisoners of war. 
The exhausted horses were given in exchange 
for fresh and stronger ones wherever found, and 
to avoid the unequal exchange, many of the farm- 
ers kept their horses concealed in the forests 
away from the highways. 

By the time Morgan reached Portland the 
militia had him almost surrounded, and two de- 
tachments of United States cavalry made their 
appearance, and the gunboats which had been 
watching on the river opened fire. The fight was 
l)rief , and Morgan left 700 of his men behind as 
prisoners of war, while with the remaining 1200 
he fled north and east seeking a new way out 
of Ohio and the hands of his enemies. Another 
9-ttempt to cvom the river was made by Morgan 


at Buffington Island on the 18tli of July. A 
fight ensued in which Morgan's loss was heavy 
and flight was his only salvation. Soon the 
enemy were getting so numerous that every 
avenue of escape was cut off, and on the 26th of 
July he surrendered the remainder of his little 
band near New Lisbon in Columbiana county. 

Morgan and his followers were all sent to the 
Ohio penitentiary at Columbus for safe-keeping, 
but on November 7th Morgan and six of his 
men made their escape by means of an air pas- 
sage which they reached by digging with their 
table knives. 

Having been provided with money these 
escaped prisoners of war purchased tickets for 
Cincinnati. All night long they rode on the train 
constantly fearing that they would be discov- 
ered. As the train pulled into Cincinnati they 
set some brakes, and as the train slowed up they 
dropped off and, making for the Ohio river, they 
hired a boy to row them across the river where 
they were free. 

Many amusing stories are told of the inci- 
dents connected with Morgan's raid. One boast- 
ful coward, seeing Morgan approach, ran to the 
hog-pen to hide and concealed himself behind 
a large mother hog which was suckling her 
young. When discovered by a gallant Southern 


trooper he was asked how he came to be there, 
and if they all came in the same litter. 

Another individual who was a terrible stam- 
merer had often boasted of what he would do 
in case Morgan should come. At last Morgan 
came, and he was ordered to surrender. He 
held both hands high above his head and said, 
"I-i-i s-s-s-surrendered f-f-f-five m-m-m-minutes 

In another instance a Southern sympathizer, 
known as copperheads, had been relieved of a 
number of good horses. After Morgan had left, 
he hitched up a horse to a small wagon and 
started in pursuit of Morgan. When he over- 
took the raiders he was informed that they 
could not have time to hear his complaints until 
evening when they camped. As some of the men 
had lost their horses and were very tired he was 
asked to let some of the men ride in his wagon. 
He replied that he could not ride a horse, and 
in turn was informed that he could walk. After 
walking a while he complained of his boots hurt- 
ing his feet, so Morgan ordered them removed 
and he was compelled to walk along in his stock- 
ing feet while another man wore his boots. 

At night when they camped he was taught to 
sing a southern song and was compelled to dance 
to his own music. The raiders would enliven 


the scene by shouting, "Go it, old Yank! 
Louder." At last the commanding officer or- 
dered a skinny old horse hitched to his wagon, 
and giving him three other worn /out jades he 
was allowed to depart. 

Chapter XIV 



INDIVIDUALS are products of their respec- 
tive environments; and it is little wonder 
that the early farmer in Ohio^ who from 
necessity withdrew from society, and led a soli- 
tary life, should, on account of his environment^ 
become queer and eccentric. But such is no 
longer his lot; his advancement has been most 
rapid, and to-day, in many localities he sur- 
passes his city friend in both culture and 

It needs no argument to prove that the phys- 
ical, moral and mental condition of the tiller of 
the soil in all parts of the state, is far in advance 
of that of the same class in past generations. 
In no occupation has there been greater develop- 
ment of Jabor-saving machinery. The farmer 
preparing the soil for the receipt of grain by 
the Qse of a sulky plow, must of necessity be a 
higher organism than he who scratched the 
ground's surface with a crooked stick or even a 
grubbing hoe. And the rate of development of 
the man must always be in advance of the de- 
velopment of the tools used by him, as they are 
simply an index to tfie. inner man. 



Let us notice then, some of the separate 
stages of his advancement. When we first made 
the Ohio farmer's acquaintance, we found him 
living in a mere hovel, void of all the luxuries 
of life, and most of its seeming necessities. His 
rooms, if he had more than one, were small, the 
floors, frequently made of earth, were bare, the 
walls were unadorned, the furniture scant and 
books or means of education unknown. 

To-day, his well kept modern home is a pal- 
ace compared to his former humble abode. The 
spacious rooms in his present home are as 
numerous as hi^ family may require or even 
desire. The floors are carpeted, the walls are 
covered with attractive paper and adorned by 
reproductions of grand old paintings made inex- 
pensive by new-found methods of reproduction. 
The furniture is abundant and modern; books 
are numerous, and well stored, and well trained 
minds are the result. Musical instruments are 
possessed and used, and the finest mahogany 
pianos, with a splendid selection of music, are 
often found in the homes of the Ohio farmers. 

In earlier times light was obtained from the 
burning of cloth in grease, and heat was fur- 
nished by burning large pieces of wood in huge 
open fireplaces. Behold what a transformation ! 
To-day, in many of the grander country homes, 
natural gas is used for illuminating purposes, 


and in localities where it cannot be obtained, 
artificial gas is produced for that purpose. At 
a safe distance from the house a tank is built 
where the gas is generated, and from which it 
is piped to all parts of the house. 

While many of the country homes are still 
heated by means of stoves and grates, yet the 
more modern ones have heating plants. These 
plants are built in the basement and are con- 
nected with each room, and supply the heat by 
means of hot air, hot water, or steam. 

While the old-fashioned well and spring are 
still used in many localities, in other vicinities 
the more prosperous farmers have equipped their 
homes with complete water works. A large tank 
is built at a considerable height into which the 
water is pumped from a well by means of a 
wind pump or a gasoline engine. The elevation 
of the tank gives a pressure to the water which 
is piped to all parts of the house. 

The labor-saving machinery used within the 
home has become very extensive. The sewing 
machine does the work of numerous hands, and 
the gowns made are of the latest New York, 
Paris or London styles. 

The laundry work is done by means of im- 
proved machinery which eliminates most of the 
physical labor. The dairy is run by improved 
methods. The cream is separated from the milk 


by a mechanical devicGj and churned by im- 
proved machinery. 

But outside of the home great reforms have 
been instituted in the planting and harvesting of 
crops. In the plowing of the ground is the first 
decided change. Instead of the little wooden 
plow drawn by one horse, we see in many locali- 
ties the magnificent gang-plow drawn by three 
or even six large horses. These plows turn two 
broad furrows, and five and even eight acres are 
often ploAved in a day by one man. By means 
of highly improved drags and disks, constructed 
from steel, the earth is quickly torn up and a 
mellow bed is the result. The wheat is planted 
by means of a drill which has compartments for 
both fertilizers and grass seed. 

In many sections of the country the earlier 
methods of corn planting are things of the past. 
The fields are no longer "marked out," and the 
click of the hand-planter is heard no more. The 
check-row planter has taken its place, thus doing 
away with the marking of the fields. By means 
of this new planter one man with a team can^ 
plant ten or more acres in a single day. 

But the labor-saving machinery employed in 
harvesting the crops can scarcely be equalled in 
any other occupation. The development has 
been gradual. The time-honored sickle gave 
place to the cradle; the cradle found a succes- 


sor in the self-rake machine which in turn gave 
place to the present binder. These binders are 
drawn by from two to four horses, and are so 
constructed that they cut the grain, bind it in 
bundles, and leave the sheaves in bunches ready 
for shocking. 

There has also been an extensive evolution in 
the method of threshing the grain. The sound 
of the flail, and the steady tramping of horses 
and cattle are heard no more in the barn nor 
on the platform. The bunty, a machine which 
could thresh out the grain but could not sepa- 
rate it from the chaff, has given place to the 
separator which in earlier times was put into 
action by ten or twelve horses. The horses 
have, in later years, been replaced by traction 
engines which pull the machinery along the 
roads and run it while threshing. The sheaves 
of grain are thrown into the front of the machine 
where large knives sever the bands and scatter 
the grain evenly along the cylinder. The grain 
is threshed out of the straw and separated from 
the chaff, and weighed and dropped into bags 
or wagons. 

Vast improvements are also being made in 
the machinery for harvesting corn. A machine 
has lately been completed which will cut the 
corn and shock it. After the corn has been 
harvested and dried for a few weeks, it is 


husked by a machine somewhat similar in ap- 
pearance to the thresher. The machine pulls 
the husks from the ear and elevates the corn 
into a wagouj while it also shreds the fodder 
and stores it away in the barn or stacks as the 
farmer may determine. In the spring another 
machine is brought into use to shell the corn 
which is then shipped to market. 

The vast quantities of hay consumed^ de- 
manded improvements in the machinery used in 
harvesting it. Accordingiyj, mowing machines 
have been constructed which will cut evenly at 
any desired height from six to twelve acres per 
day. If the grass is very thick on the ground 
a machine^ called a tedder, is used to thoroughly 
scatter the hay in order that it may dry evenly. 
Another machine is brought into use in raking 
the hay, which is then conveyed to the barns and 
lifted into the mows by a harpoon hung on pul- 
leys, or if stacked in the field it is frequently 
done by means of machinery. 

The prosperous Ohio farmer of to-day is a 
man of science and a gentleman of culture and 
leisure. He has learned that results are not 
produced by chance, and accordingly he puts 
system into each of his varied kinds of work. 
He buys, and carefully reads, the latest and best 
books . which treat on the various subjects of 
farming. And while in earlier times he occa- 


sionally invested in "gold bricks/ ' he has in later 
years thoroughly learned that "gold bricks" can- 
not be used in his business. JJy means of the 
telephone and the rural deli^^ery of mail, he 
keeps in touch with the outside world, and is 
familiar with current events. 

But the use of labor-saving machinery is not 
the only advancement made by :he Ohio farmer. 
He has learned that the vast industry of stock 
raising is capable of almost unlimited develop- 
ment. He has learned that the feed consumed 
by poorly bred stock, would be ample nourish- 
ment for well bred stock with a value many 
times as great. Accordingly, a great change 
gradually took place. The chuhhy, blocky 
horse has been disposed of, and in his place is 
a powerful draft horse or a beautiful fleet- 
limbed driving horse. The milk cows and beef 
cattle are no longer crrssed. The Jerseys are 
kept for the dairy, an(/ the larger, lazier breeds 
for the butcher. A li^.e improvement has taken 
place in sheep, hogs ' .nd other stock, and, as a 
consequence, to-day, the value of the live stock 
of Ohio is many times what it was but a few 
decades back. 

The isolation of the Ohio farmer is already 
a thing of the past. In his modern carriage, 
with his thoroughbred horse, he drives out in a 
style that kings wc/ild have envied but a few 
centuries since. 

Chapter XV 



WITH but one exception, Ohio can claim, 
either by birth or by citizenship, all 
the presidents of the United States 
elected since Lincoln. Each of these presidents 
won fame and honor serving the nation in the 
war of the rebellion, thus assuring the public 
of their patriotism and loyalty. 

Ohio was yet unknown when Washington 
took his seat as the nation's first executive, and 
her settlements were few when Adams was 
elected to that same high office; but during 
the administrations of Jefferson, Madison and 
Monroe, Ohio was admitted to the Union and 
slowly started on her pioneer way. 

The East was a region of wealth and culture, 
with a vast commerce and numerous factories. 
The South was a region of wealth and leisure, 
where the slave toiled that his master might en- 
joy that "ease and luxury" which vanished with 
the kingdom of slavery. At the same time Ohio 
was an undeveloped expanse where the early 
settler was engaged in a desperate struggle for 
existence, with the wild animals and Indians, 



It was in the numerous wars with the In- 
dians that William Henry Harrison, Ohio's first 
president, won a large amount of fame. He was 
not only the first presidential candidate from 
Ohio, but the first from the West, and it was in 
answer to an eastern jeer that the log cabin 
became a leading factor in the campaign. The 
coon skin and barrel of hard cider became party 
emblems, and log cabins, built on wheels, were 
drawn by numerous horses in each procession. 
Though the Ohio people had never known of the 
wealth and luxury incident to the East, they 
knew their own strength and were not ashamed 
of their manner of living. The day that closed 
the campaign and elected Harrison to the presi- 
dency was a proud one for Ohio, advancing her 
as it did to the rank of presidential states. 

^^But the President pays dearly for the White 
House.'' The grand old man who had endured 
so many hardships on the field of battle could 
not endure the strain and worry incident to his 
exalted position. Gradually his strength began 
to fail, and in a few weeks the nation was called 
to mourn the death of their Chief Executive. 

Twenty-eight years had passed. The Whig 
party had disintegrated and the Republican 
party had come into existence. A plain man 
from one of the states of that Northwest Terri- 
tory out of which Ohio had been the fiyst to b^ 



Ohio's presidents. 177 

carvedj had written the Emancipation Procla- 
mation and laid down his martyr life. In that 
hour of doubt and uncertainty, when the hope 
in Johnson had failed, and grave issues were 
looming up on every hand, the heart of the peo- 
ple turned to that man whose victories had 
begun at Donaldson and ended at Appomattox. 

While Ohio had given Grant a birthplace, 
and while his early life had been moulded in an 
Ohio home, yet it was his appointment to West 
Point that made possible his career. What 
Grant was, the years of war had proven, and 
the years of unrest folloAving the war, when 
wounds were yet unhealed and animosities still 
unforgiven, tested him again. There may have 
been mistakes in his life; but his sincerity, his 
honesty and his unswerving loyalty were never 
doubted, and his life closed rich in the nation's 
unfailing love. 

To the presidential convention of 1876, came 
the East with a favorite son whose eloquence 
and charming manner has scarcely ever been 
surpassed. But in that convention the Repub- 
licans chose for their standard-bearer, not the 
Plumed Knight of Maine, but Rutherford B. 
Hayes, a son of Ohio, who had often honored 
his native state. He had also honored the na- 
tion on many hard-fought fields of battle and 
in the halls of Congress. Three times had he 



been chosen as the state's chief executive and 
his honor and integrity were never questioned. 

When the presidential electors chosen in 
1876 metj they failed to choose a president. A 
commission was then formed consisting of fifteen 
members, five being senators, five representa- 
tives and five judges of the Supreme Court. The 
commission, by a vote of 8 to 7, declared in 
favor of Hayes, who was inaugurated March 5, 

While the administration of President Hayes 
was unsatisfactory to the politicians, yet it was 
a wise and conservative one and met with the 
hearty approval of the general public. Among 
the first of his public acts was the withdrawal 
of the Federal troops from the South, and a 
restoration of self-government was at once made 
to the Southern states. The beginning of his 
administration was marked by distressing busi- 
ness depression, but the splendid management 
of the nation's finances, and the resumption of 
specie payments soon occasioned great commer- 
cial activity. It was during this administra- 
tion that the foundations of our present thor- 
ough, civil service reform was laid. Mr. Blaine 
said of this administration: "It is one of the 
few and rare cases in our history in which the 
President entered upon his ofl&ce with the 
country depressed and discontented, and left it 


Courtesy of Ohio ArckcBological and Hisloi^ical Society. 



prosperous and liappy; in which he found his 
party broken, divided and on the verge of de- 
feat, and left it strong, united and vigorous. 
This is the peculiar felicity of General Haj^es' 
public career." 

With the expiration of his term, ex-President 
Hayes returned to private life at Fremont, 
Ohio, and spent the remainder of his life in mak- 
ing educational reforms. 

James A. Garfield, Ohio's next gift to the 
nation, was born November 19th, 1831, at 
Orange in Cuyahoga county. The log cabin 
home of his boj^hood, in the woods of Orange, 
stands for the hardships, the privations and the 
scant advantages of the pioneer boy. His early 
life was a continuous struggle to support his 
widowed mother and four children. Garfield 
never forgot Ohio. As teacher, as member of 
the State Senate, as citizen, soldier, and as mem- 
ber of Congress, it was always his greatest pleas- 
ure to serve her. In return Ohio placed in him 
her faith and hope. The 19th Congressional 
District chose him as its representative to suc- 
ceed Ben. Wade and Joshua R. Giddings, and 
continued to re-elect him for nine successive 
terms, when he was called to a higher ofllce. 

But Garfield never hunted for office, as he 
was always the hunted one. It was his luck to 
hold at the same time three elective oflftces — 

Ohio's presidents. i8i 

member of Congress, senator-elect and presi- 
dent-elect. Thus it was that Ohio, taking the 
achievements of his past as pledges of his future, 
looked proudly forward to their fulfillment. But 
it was not to be. The nation was again called 
to mourn the death of her president. A funeral 
dirge resounded across the land and Garfield's 
name was added to that of Lincoln's on the roll 
of martyr presidents ; one the victim of sectional 
hate, the other of official greed. 

Ohio's claim on Benjamin Harrison is simi- 
lar to that on Grant, only stronger; for Harri- 
son was not only of Ohio parentage and birth, 
but here had his education been secured and his 
profession gained before he chose anather state 
by adoption. And so it was that Ohio felt a 
thrill of joy when the second Harrison was 
added to the list of her presidential sons, and 
she was proud of his wise and well-ordered ad- 
ministration of the executive office. His admin- 
istration was one of growth and development, 
and it was his pleasure to see six stars added 
to the flag when North Dakota, South Dakota, 
Washington, Montana, Idaho and Wyoming en- 
tered upon the grave duties of statehood. 

The importance of the agricultural industry 
of the country found prompt recognition at his 
hands, and a new cabinet department was the 
result. The South American republics were 





Ohio's presidents. 183. 

joined by him into a closer bond of friendship 
through the Pan-American Congress. It was 
during his administration that our navy was 
enlarged and the "white squadron" sent out to 
patrol the high seas. It was then that a battle 
ship was launched that was to play an import- 
ant part in our nation's history, for it was dur- 
ing Harrison's administration that the prow of 
the Maine first parted water, the gallant prow 
that now lies shattered and shapeless in Havana 

There is no president who has not to meet 
and decide questions both difficult and grave, 
but no president since Lincoln has been called 
upon to face issues involving the very life of 
the nation as has McKinley, Ohio's latest na- 
tional gift. A loyal son of Ohio, another of the 
broad-minded children of the Western Eeserve, 
William McKinley, through his long public 
service, was already widely known as a political 
leader before his election to the presidency. It 
was in connection with the "McKinley Tariff 
Bill" that he had become famous and "McKinley 
and Prosperity" was a phrase which adorned 
the banners flung to the breezes during his first 
candidacy. That campaign was a monetary 
one; gold and silver were the respective party 
slogans, and currency was the theme of many 
debates and flights of oratory. The maintenance 


of the public credit was demanded by the peo- 
ple, and it was steadily looked forward to upon 
his election. 

But the unexpected was to happen. An ex- 
plosion occurred which shook the country out 
of its self-absorbed calm. It was the explosion 
which sent the Maine and her gallant crew to 
a watery grave. An unlooked for war with a 
foreign nation was upon us. The president had 
to bear a burden of responsibility greater than 
any since the civil war, and he was compelled to 
consider questions fraught with grave and far- 
reaching consequences. 

Since that day history has been rapidly mak- 
ing. Hawaii has come to us, Porto Rico is under 
our flag and the Philippines have become ours. 
In all these events the man Ohio gave as 
the nation's leader has borne his full share. 
Through all this the United States has come, 
of necessity rather than choice, out of its long- 
time self-chosen seclusion and become one of the 
great world powers, to be reckoned with as such 
in all future questions affecting the world. And 
with all this McKinley's administration was one 
of commercial tranquility and industrial pros- 

Men may differ as to the problems which face 
our future, parties may divide as they always 
have divided, but Ohio could have asked no ful- 




ler indorsement of this her latest son, than the 
ballots east in the election of 1900. 

But McKinley's work was done. The nation 
had been brought through its most trying time. 
The country was in the midst of a great pros- 
perity and McKinley's name was ready for the 
roll of the nation's martyrs. The hand of the 
assassin was ready for the work, and McKinley 
passed to the world beyond. 

Chapter XVI 


Courtesy of Ohio Arcliceological and Historical Society. 


THE following is a list of Ohio's governors 
from its organization as a part of the 

Northwest Territory down to the pres- 
ent time;, 1904. 

1. Arthur St. Clair 1788-1802 

2. Charles W. Byrd 1802-3 

3. Edward TifiBn 1803-7 

4. Thomas Kirker , . , . 1807-8 

5. Samuel Huntington 1808-10 

6. Return Jonathan Meigs „ 1810-14 

7. Othniel Looker 1814 

8. Thomas Worthington .......... 1814-18 

9. Ethan Allen Brown 1818-22 

10. Allen Trimble 1822 

11. Jeremiah Morrow 1823-6 

12. Allen Trimble 1826-30 

13. Duncan McArthur 1830-32 

14. Eobert Lucas 1832-6 

15. Joseph Vance 1836-8 

16. Wilson Shannon 1838-40 

17. Thomas Corwin 1840-2 

18. Wilson Shannon 1842-44 

19. Thomas Bartley 1844 



20. Mordecai Bartley 1844-6 

21. William Bebb 1846-9 

22. Seabury Ford 1849-50 

23. Keuben Wood 1850-3 

24. William Medill 1853-6 

25. Salmon P. Chase 1856-60 

26. William Dennison 1860-2 

27. David Todd 1862-4 

28. John Brough 1864-5 

29. Charles Anderson 1865-6 

30. Jacob D. Cox 1866-8 

31. Eutherford B. Hayes 1868-72, 

32. Edward F. Noyes 1872-4 

33. William Allen 1874-6 

34. Eutherford B. Hayes 1876-7 

35. Thomas L. Young 1877-8 

36: Eichard M. Bishop 1878-80 

37. Charles Foster 1880-4 

38. George Hoadly 1884-6 

39. Joseph B. Foraker 1886-90 

40. James Campbell 1890-2 

41. William McKinley 1892-6 

42. Asa Bushnell 1896-1900 

43. George K. Nash 3900-4 

44. Myron T. Herrick 1904- 

Chapter XVII 




To amend section '2979-15 of the Revised Statutes of Ohio, to 
apportion the state of Ohio into congressional distracts 
under the twelfth census of United States. 

BE it enacted hy the General Assembly of 
the State of Ohio : 

Section 1. That section (2979-1) of 
the Kevised Statutes of Ohio be and the same 
is hereby amended to read as follows : 

Section 2. That under the twelfth census 
o^ the United States^ the state of Ohio shall be 
divided into twenty-one (21) districts for the 
election of representatives to congress, and each 
district shall choose one representative in the 
manner following, to- wit: 

First District. — That so much of the county 
of Hamilton as is now contained within the lim- 
its of the 1st, 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, 
10th, 11th, 18th, 26th, 27th and 31st wards of 
the city of Cincinnati, as they are now consti- 
tuted, and the townships of Anderson, Columbia, 
Spencer, Symmes, and Sycamore, and the North- 
west, Southeast, St. Bernard, Bond Hill, pre- 
cincts of Millcreek township shall compose the 

first district. 


Map of Ohio Showing 


AS APPORTIONED May 12, 1902 


Secretary of State. 


Second District. — The remaining portion of 
the county of Hamilton now contained within 
the limits of the 12th, 13th, 14th, 15th, 16th, 
17th, 19th, 20th, 21st, 22d, 23d, 24th, 25th, 28th, 
29th and 30th wards of the city of Cincinnati 
as they are now constituted, and the townships 
of Springfield, Colerain, Greene, Delhi, Storrs, 
Miami, Whitewater, Harrison, and Western Pre- 
cincts of Millcreek township shall compose the 
second district. 

Third District. — The counties of Preble, 
Butler and Montgomery shall constitute the 
third district. 

Fourth District. — The counties of Darke, 
Shelby, Mercer, Auglaize, and Allen shall com- 
pose the fourth district. 

Fifth District. — The counties of Williams, 
Defiance, Henry, Paulding, Putnam, and Van 
Wert shall compose the fifth district. 

Sixth District. — The counties of Greene^ 
Warren, Clinton, Highland, Brown, and Cler- 
mont shall compose the sixth district. 

Seventh District. — The counties of Miami, 
Clark, Madison, Fayette, and Pickaway shall 
compose the seventh district. 

Eighth District. — The counties of Hancock, 
Hardin, Logan, Champaign, Union, and Dela- 
ware shall compose the eighth district. 

Mnth District. — The counties of Lucas, Ot- 


tawa. Wood, and Fulton shall compose the ninth 
district. ' ' 

Tenth District. — The counties of Pike, Jack- 
son, Gallia, Lawrence, Adams, and Scioto shall 
compose the tenth district. 

Eleventh District. — The counties of Meigs, 
Athens, Vinton, Ross, Hocking, Fairfield, and 
Perry shall compose the eleventh district. 

Twelfth District. — The county of Franklin 
shall compose the twelfth district. 

Thirteenth District. — The counties of Erie, 
Sandusky, Seneca, Crawford, Wyandot, and 
Marion shall compose the thirteenth district. 

Fourteenth District. — The counties of Eo- 
rain, Huron, Ashland, Richland, Morrow, and 
Knox shall compose the fourteenth district. 

Fifteenth District. — The counties of Wash- 
ington, Morgan, Noble, Muskingum, and Guern- 
sey shall compose the fifteenth district. 

Sixteenth District. — The counties of Car- 
roll, Jefferson, Harrison, Belmont, and Monroe 
shall compose the sixteenth district. 

Seventeenth District. — The counties of 
Wayne, Holmes, Coshocton, Tuscarawas, and 
Licking shall compose the seventeenth district. 

Eighteenth District. — The counties of Stark, 
Columbiana, and Mahoning shall compose the 
eighteenth district. 

Nineteenth District. — The counties of Ash- 


tabula, Trumbull, Geauga, Portage, and Summit 
shall compose the nineteenth district. 

Twentieth District. — The counties of Lake 
and Medina and that portion of Cuyahoga 
county composed of the townships of East Cleve- 
land, Bedford, Chagrin Falls, Euclid, Independ- 
ence, Mayfield, Newburg, Orange, Solon, War- 
rensville, Brecksville, Brooklyn, Dover, Middle- 
burg, Olmstead, Parma, Kockport, Royalton, 
Strongville, Collinwood, Glenville and West 
Park, and wards 26th, 28th, 29th, 30th, 31st, 
32d, 33d, 34th, 35th, 36th, 37th, 38th, 39th, 4pth, 
41st, and 42d as constituted January 1st, 1896, 
in the city of Cleveland, shall compose the twen- 
tieth district. 

Twenty-first District. — The remaining por- 
tion of Cuyahoga county shall compose the 
twenty-first district. 

Section 3. That said original section 
(2979-1) in so far as it confiicts with this act, 
the same is hereby repealed. 

Section 4. This act shall take effect and be 
in force from and after its passage. 

' W. S. McKlNNON;, 

Speaker of the House of Representatives. 
F. B. Archer, 

President of the Senate. 
Passed May 12, 1902, 

Chapter XVIII 



WE, the people of the State of Ohio^ grate^ 
ful to Almighty God for our freedom, 
to secure its blessings and promote the 
common welfare^ do establish this Constitution. 



Section 1. All men are^ by nature, free and 
independent, and have certain inalienable rights, 
among which are those of enjoying and defend- 
ing life and liberty, acquiring, possessing and 
protecting property, and seeking and obtaining 
hppiness and safety. 

Sec. 2. All political power is inherent in the 
people. Government is instituted for their equal 
protection and benefit, and they have the right 
to alter, reform, or abolish the same, whenever 
they may deem it necessary ; and no special privi- 
leges or immunities shall ever be granted that 
may not be altered, revoked, or repealed by the 
General Assmbly. 

Section 3631-18, Revised Statutes, which 



provides that the benefits rendered by associ- 
ations organized under the act of which that sec- 
tion is a part, entitled ^^an act regulating frater- 
nal beneficiary societies, orders, and associ- 
ations/' passed April 27, 1896 (92 O. L., 360), 
shall not be liable to be appropriated in any way 
to the debts of the members or beneficiaries, con- 
fers privileges upon some of a class not enjoyed 
by others of the same class, and is invalid be- 
cause in conflict with section 2 of article 1 of 
the constitution. Williams v. Donough, 65 Ohio 
St., 499. 

Sec. 3. The people have the right to assem 
ble together, in a peaceable manner, to consult 
for their common good; to instruct their repre- 
sentatives ; and to petition the General Assembly 
for the redress of grievances. 

Sec. 4. The people have the right to bear 
arms for their defense and security; but stand- 
ing armies, in time of peace, are dangerous to 
liberty, and shall not be kept up; and the mili- 
tary shall be in strict subordination to the civil 

Sec. 5. The right of trial by jury shall be 

Sec. 6. There shall be no slavery in this 
state, nor involuntary servitude unless for the 
punishment of crime. 

Sec. 7. All men have a natural and inde- 


feasible right to worship Almighty God accord- 
ing to the dictates of their own conscience. No 
person shall be compelled to attend, erect, or 
support any place of worship, or maintain any 
form of worship against his consent; and no 
preference shall be given, by law, to any relig- 
ious society ; nor shall any interference with the 
rights of conscience be permitted. No religious 
test shall be required as a gualification for office, 
nor shall any person be incompetent to be a wit- 
ness on account of his religious belief ; but noth- 
ing herein shall be construed to dispense with 
oaths and affirmations. Religion, morality, and 
knowledge, hoAvever, being essential to good gov- 
ernment, it shall be the duty of the General As- 
sembly to pass suitable laAvs to protect every 
religious denomination in the peaceable enjoy- 
ment of its own mode of public worship, and to 
encourage schools, and the means of instruction. 

Sec. 8. The privilege of the writ of habeas 
corpus shall not be suspended, unless in cases of 
rebellion or invasion the public safety requires it. 

Sec. 9. All persons shall be liable by suf- 
ficient sureties, except for capital offenses where 
the proof is evident, or the presumption great. 
Excessive bail shall not be required; nor exces- 
sive fines imposed; nor cruel and unusual pun- 
ishment inflicted. 

Sec. 10. Except in cases of impeachment, 


and cases arising in tlie army and navy, or in 
the militia wlien in actual service in time of 
war or public danger, and in cases of petit lar- 
ceny and other inferior offenses, no person shall 
be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise 
infamous crime, unless on presentment or indict- 
ment of a grand jury. In any trial, in any 
court, the party accused shall be allowed to ap- 
pear and defend in person and ^Yith counsel; to 
demand the nature and cause of the accusation 
against him, and to have a copy thereof ; to meet 
the witnesses face to face, and to have compul- 
sory process to procure the attendance of wit- 
nesses in his behalf, and a speedy public trial 
by an impartial jury of the county or district in 
which the offense is alleged to have been com- 
mitted; nor shall any person be compelled, in 
any criminal case, to be a witness against him- 
self, or be twice put in jeopardy for the same 

Sec. 11. Every citizen may freely speak, 
write and publish his sentiments on all subjects, 
being responsible for the abuse of the right ; and 
no law shall be passed to restrain or abridge the 
liberty of speech, or of the press. In all crim- 
inal prosiecutions for libel, the truth may be 
given in evidence to the jury, and if it shall ap- 
pear to the jury that the matter charged as libel- 
ous is true, and was published with good motives, 

202 lilSTORY OF OHIO. 

and for justifiable ends, the party shall be ac- 

Sec. 12. No person shall be transported out 
of the state, for any offense committed within 
the same; and no conviction shall work corrup- 
tion of blood or forfeiture of estate. 

Sec. 13. No soldier shall, in time of peace, 
be quartered in any house, without the consent 
of the owner; nor, in time of war, except in the 
manner prescribed by law. 

Sec. 14. The right of the people to be secure 
in their persons, houses, papers, and possessions, 
against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall 
not be violated ; and no warrant shall issue but 
upon probable cause, supported by oath or affir- 
mation, particularly describing the place to be 
searched, and the person and things to be seized. 

Sec. 15. No person shall be imprisoned for 
debt in any civil action, on mesne of final process, 
unless in cases of fraud. . 

Sec. 16. All courts shall be open, and every 
person, for an injury done him in his land, goods, 
person, or reputation, shall have remedy by due 
course of law, and justice administered without 
denial or delay. 

Sec. 17. No hereditary emoluments, honors, 
or privileges, shall ever be granted or conferred 
by this state. 

Sec. 18. No power of suspending laws shall 


ever be exercised, except by the General Assem- 

Sec. 19. Private property shall ever be held 
inviolate, but subservient to the public welfare. 
When taken in time of war, or other public exi- 
gency, imperatively requiring its immediate 
seizure, or for the purpose of making or repair- 
ing roads, which shall be open to the public, 
without charge, a compensation shall be made to 
the owner, in money, and in all other cases where 
private property shall be taken for public use, 
a compensation therefor shall first be made in 
money, or first secured hj a deposit of money, 
and such compensation shall be assessed by a 
jury, without deduction for benefits to any prop- 
erty of the owner. 

Sec. 20. This enumeration of rights shall not 
be construed to impair or deny others retained 
by the people; and all powers, not herein dele- 
gated, remain with the people. 



Section 1. The legislative power of this state 
shall be vested in a General Assembly^ which 
shall consist of a Senate and House of Repre- 

Sec. 2. Senators and representatives shall 
be elected biennially by the electors of the re- 


spective counties or districts^ on the first Tues- 
day after the first Monday in November; their 
term of office shall commence on the first day 
of January next thereafter^ and continue two 
years. ( As amended October 13, 1885, 82 v. 446.) 

Sec. 3. Senators and representatives shall 
have resided in their respective counties or dis- 
tricts one year next preceding their election, un- 
less they shall have been absent on the public 
business of the United States or of this state. 

Sec. 4. No person holding office under the 
authority of the United States, or any lucrative 
office under the authority of this state, shall be 
eligible to or have a seat in the General Assem- 
bly ; but this provision shall not extend to town- 
ship officers, justices of the peace, notaries pub- 
lic, or officers of the militia. 

Sec. 5. No person hereafter convicted of an 
embezzlement of the public funds shall hold any 
office in this state ; nor shall any person holding 
public money for disbursement or otherwise, 
have a seat in the General Assembly until he 
shall have accounted for and paid such money 
into the treasury. 

Sec. 6. Each house shall be judge of the 
election returns, and qualifications of its own 
members; a majority of all the members elected 
to each house shall be a quorum to do business ; 
but a less number may adjourn from day to day, 


and compel the attendance of absent members, in 
such manner and under such penalties as shall 
be prescribed by law. 

Sec. 7. The mode of organizing the House 
of Representatives, at the commencement of 
each regular session, shall be prescribed by law. 

Sec. 8. Each house, except as otherwise pro- 
vided in this constitution, shall choose its own 
officers, may determine its own rules of proceed- 
ing, punish its members for disorderly conduct ; 
and with the concurrence of two-thirds expel a 
member, but not the second time for the same 
cause ; and shall have all other powers necessary 
to provide for its safetj^, and the undisturbed 
transaction of its business. 

Sec. 9. Each house shall keep a correct jour- 
nal of its proceedings, which shall be published. 
'At the desire of any two members, the yeas and 
nays shall be entered. upon the journal; and on 
the passage of every bill, in either house, the vote 
shall be taken by yeas and nays and entered upon 
the journal ; and no law shall be passed in either 
house without the concurrence of a majority of 
all the members elected thereto. 

Sec. 10. Any member of either house shall 
have the right to protest against any act or res- 
olution thereof; and such protest, and the rea- 
sons therefor, shall, without alteration, commit- 
ment, or delay, be entered upon the journal^ 


Sec. 11. All vacancies which may happen in 
either house shall, for the unexpired term, be 
filled by election, as shall be directed by law. 

Sec. 12. Senators and Representatives, dur- 
ing the session of the General Assembly, and in 
going to and returning from the same, shall be 
privileged from arrest in all cases except trea- 
son, felony, or breach of the peace; and for any 
speech or debate, in either house, they shall not 
be questioned elsewhere. 

Sec. 13. The proceedings of both houses shall 
be public, except in cases which, in the opinion 
of two-thirds of those present, require secrecy. 

Sec. 14. Neither house shall, without the 
consent of the other, adjourn for more than two 
days, Sundays excluded; nor to any other place 
than that in which the two houses shall be in 

Sec. 15. Bills may originate in either house ; 
but may be altered, amended, or rejected in the 

Sec. 16. Every bill shall be fully and dis- 
tinctly read on three different days, unless in 
case of urgency three-fourths of the house in 
which it shall be pending, shall dispense with 
this rule. No bill shall contain more than one 
subject, which shall be clearly expressed in its 
title, and no law shall be revived or amended 
unless the new act contain the entire act revived, 


or the section or sections amended, and the sec- 
tion or sections so amended shall be repealed. 

Sec. 17. The presiding officer of each house 
shall sign publicly, in the presence of the house 
over which he presides, while the same is in ses- 
sion, and capable of transacting business, all bills 
and joint resolutions passed by the General As- 

Sec. 18. The style of the laws of this state 
shall be, ^^Be it enacted by the General Assembly 
of the State of Ohio/^ 

Sec. 19. No Senator or Representative shall, 
during the term for which he shall have been 
elected, or for one year thereafter, be appointed 
to any civil office under this state which shall bQ 
created or the emoluments of which shall have 
been increased during the term for which he 
shall have been elected. 

Sec. 20. The General Assembly in cases not 
provided for in this constitution, shall fix the 
term of office and the compensation of all offi- 
cers; but no change therein shall affect the sal- 
ary of any officer during his existing term, un- 
less the office be abolished. 

Sec. 21. The General Assembly shall deter- 
mine, by law, before what authority, and in what 
manner, the trial of contested elections shall be 

Sec. 22. No money shall be drawn from the 


treasury except in pursuance of a specific ap- 
propriation^ made by law, and no appropriation 
shall be made for a longer period than two years. 

Sec. 23. The House of Representatives shall 
have the sole power of impeachment, but a ma- 
jority of the members elected must concur there- 
in. Impeachments shall be tried by the Senate; 
and the senators, when sitting for that purpose, 
shall be upon oath or affirmation to do justice 
according to law and evidence. No person shall 
be convicted without the concurrence of two- 
thirds of the senators. 

Sec. 24. The governor, judges and all state 
officers may be impeached for any misdemeanor 
in office; but judgment shall not extend further 
than the removal from office, and disqualifica- 
tion to hold any office, under the authority of this 
state. The party impeached, Avhether convicted 
or not, shall be liable to indictment, trial and 
judgment, according to law. 

Sec. 25. All regular sessions of the General 
Assembly shall commence on the first Monday 
of January biennially. The first session, under 
this constitution, shall commence on the first 
Monday of January, one thousand eight hundred 
and fifty-two. (See Const. 1802, Art. I. §25.) 

Sec. 26. All laws of a general nature shall 
have a uniform operation throughout the state; 
nor shall any act, except such as relates to pub- 


lie scliools^ be passed, to take effect upon the ap- 
proval of any other authority than the General 
Assembly, except as otherwise provided in this 

Sec. 27. The election and appointment of all 
officers and the filling of all vacancies not other- 
wise provided for by this constitution, or the 
constitution of the United States, shall be made 
in such manner as may be directed by law ; but 
no appointing power shall be exercised by the 
General Assembly, except as prescribed in this 
constitution, and in the election of United States 
senators; and in these cases the vote shall be 
taken "viva voce.'' 

Sec. 28. The General Assembly shall have 
no power to pass retroactive laws, or laws im- 
pairing the obligation or contracts ; but may, by 
general laws, authorize courts to carry into ef- 
fect, upon such terms as shall be just and equita- 
ble, the manifest intention of parties and officers 
by curing omissions, defects and errors in instru- 
ments and proceedings arising out of their want 
of conformity with the laws of this state. 

Sec. 29. No extra compensation shall be 

made to any officer, public agent, or contractor 

after the service shall have been rendered or the 

contract entered into; nor shall any money be 

paid on any claim, the subject matter of which 

shall not have been provided for by pre-existing 


law, unless such compensation or claim be al- 
lowed by two-thirds of the members elected to 
each branch of the General Assembly. 

Sec. 30. No new county shall contain less 
than four hundred square miles of territory, nor 
shall any county be reduced below that amount ; 
and all laws creating new counties, changing 
county lines, or removing county seats, shall, be- 
fore taking effect, be submitted to the electors 
of the several counties to be affected thereby, at 
the next general election after the passage there- 
of, and be adopted by a majority of all the elec- 
tors voting at such election, in each of the said 
counties; but any county now or hereafter con- 
taining one hundred thousand inhabitants, may 
be divided whenever a majority of the voters 
residing in each of the proposed divisions shall 
approve of the law passed for that purpose, but 
no town or city within te same shall be divided, 
nor shall either of te divisions contain less than 
twenty thousand inhabitants. 

Sec. 31. The members and officers of the 
General Assembly shall receive a fixed compen- 
sation, to be prescribed by law, and no other al- 
lowance or perquisites, either in the payment of 
postage or otherwise; and no change in their 
compensation shall take effect during their term 
of office. 

Sec. 32. The General Assembly shall grant 


no divorce, nor exercise any judicial power not 
herein expressly conferred. 



Section 1. The executive department shall 
consist of a governor, lieutenant-governor, secre- 
tary of state, auditor of state, treasurer of state, 
and an attorney-general, who shall be elected on 
the first Tuesday after the first Monday in No- 
vember, by the electors of the state, and at the 
places of voting for members of the General As- 
sembly. (As amended October 13, 1885; 82 v. 

Sec. 2. The governor, lieutenant-governor, 
secretary of state, treasurer, and attorney-gen- 
eral, shall hold their offices for two years, and 
the auditor for four years. Their terms of office 
shall commence on the second Monday of Janu- 
ary next after their election, and continue until 
their successors are elected and qualified. 

Sec. 3. The returns of every election for the 
officers named in the foregoing section shall be 
sealed up and transmitted to the seat of govern- 
ment, by the returning officers, directed to the 
president of the senate, who, during the first 
week of the session, shall open and publish them, 
and declare the result, in the presence of a ma- 


jority of the members of each house of the Gen- 
ral Assembl^^ The person having the highest 
number of votes shall be declared duly elected; 
but if any two or more shall be highest, and equal 
in votes for the same office, one of them shall be 
chosen by the joint vote of both houses. 

Sec. 4. Should there be no session of the 
General Assembly in January next after an elec- 
tion for any of the officers aforesaid, the returns 
of such election shall be made to the secretary 
of state, and the result declared by the governor, 
in such manner as may be provided by law. 

Sec. 5. The supreme executive power of this 
state shall be vested in the governor. 

Sec. 6. He may require information, in writ- 
ing, from the officers in the executive depart- 
ment, upon any subject relating to the duties of 
their respective offices, and shall see that the 
laws are faithfully executed. 

Sec. 7. He shall communicate at every ses- 
sion, by message, to the General Assembly, the 
condition of the state, and recommend such 
measures as he shall deem expedient. 

Sec. 8. He may, on extraordinary occasions, 
convene the General Assembly by proclamation, 
and shall state to both houses, when assembled, 
the purpose for which they have been convened. 

Sec. 9. In case of a disagreement between 
the two houses in respect to the time of adjourn- 


ment, he shall have power to adjourn the (jeneral 
Assembly to such time as he may think proper, 
but not beyond the regular meetings thereof. 

Sec. 10. He shall be commander-in-chief of 
the military and naval forces of the state, except 
when they shall be called into the service of the 
United States. 

Sec. 11. He shall have power, after convic- 
tion, to grant reprieves, commutations, and par- 
dons, for all crimes and offenses, except treason 
and cases of impeachment, upon such conditions 
as he may think proper; subject, however, to 
such regulations, as to the manner of applying 
pardons, as may be prescribed by law. Upon 
conviction for treason he may suspend the exe- 
cution of the sentence and report the case to the 
General Assembly, at its next meeting, when the 
General Assembly shall either pardon, commute 
the sentence, direct its execution, or grant a fur- 
ther reprieve. He shall communicate to the Gen- 
eral Assembly, at every regular session, each case 
of reprieve, commutation, or pardon, granted, 
stating the name and crime of convict, the sen- 
tence, its date, and the date of the commutation, 
pardon, or reprieve, with his Beasons therefor. 

Sec. 12. There shall be a seal of the state, 
which shall be kept by the governor, and used 
by him officially, and shall be called "The Great 
Seal of the State of Ohio.'' 


Sec. 13. All grants and commissions shall 
be issued in the name and by the authority of 
the State of Ohio, sealed with the great seal, 
signed by the governor, and countersigned by the 
secretary of state. 

Sec. 14. No member of congress, or other 
person holding office under the authority of this 
state, or of the United States, shall execute the 
office of governor, except as herein provided. 

Sec. 15. In case of the death, impeachment, 
resignation, removal, or other disability of the 
governor, the powers and duties of the office, for 
the residue of the term, or until he shall be ac- 
quitted, or the disability removed, shall devolve 
upon the lieutenant-governor. 

Sec. 16. The lieutenant-governor shall be 
president of the senate, but shall vote only when 
the senate is equally divided ; and in case of his 
absence or impeachment, or when he shall exer- 
cise the office of governor, the senate shall choose 
a president pro tempore. 

Sec. 17. If the lieutenant-governor, while 
executing the office of governor, shall be im- 
peached, displaced, resign, or die, or otherwise 
becoma incapable of performing the duties of the 
office, the president of the senate shall act as 
governor until the vacancy is filled, or the dis- 
ability removed; and if the president of the 


senate, for any of the above causes, shall be ren- 
dered incapable of performing the duties per- 
taining to the office of governor, the same shall 
devolve upon the speaker of the house of repre- 

Sec. 18. Should the office of auditor, treas- 
urer, secretary, or attorney-general, become va- 
cant, for any of the causes specified in the fif- 
teenth section of this article, the governor shall 
fill the vacancy until the disability is removed, 
or a successor elected and qualified. Every such 
vacancy shall be filled by election, at the first 
general election that occurs more than thirty 
days after it shall have happened; and the per- 
son chosen shall hold the office for the full term 
fixed in the second section of this article. 

Sec. 19. The officers mentioned in this ar- 
ticle shall, at stated times, receive for their ser- 
vices a compensation to be established by law, 
which shall neither be increased nor diminished 
during the period for which they shall have been 

Sec. 20. The officers of the executive depart- 
ment and of the public state institutions shall, 
at least five days preceding each regular session 
of the General Assembly, severally report to the 
governor, who shall transmit such reports, with 
his message, to the General Assembly. 




Section 1. The judicial power of the state 
is vested in a supreme court, circuit courts, 
courts of common pleas, courts of probate, jus- 
tices of the peace, and such other courts inferior 
to the supreme court, as the General Assembly 
may, from time to time, establish. ( As amended 
October 9, 1883 v. 382.) 

Sec. 2. The supreme court shall, until other- 
wise provided by law, consist of five judges, a 
majority of whom competent to sit shall be neces- 
sary to form a quorum or to pronounce a decis- 
ion, except as hereinafter provided. It sh^ll have 
original jurisdiction in quo warranto, man- 
damus, habeas corpus and procedendo, and such 
appellate jurisdiction as may be provided by law. 
It shall hold at least one term in each year at 
the seat of government, and . such other terms, 
there or elsewhere, as may be provided by law. 
The judges of the supreme court shall be elected 
by the electors of the state at large, for such 
term, not less than live years, as the General As- 
sembly may prescribe, and they shall be elected 
and their official term shall begin at such time 
as may be fixed by law. In case the General As- 
sembly shall increase the number of such judges. 


the first term of each of such additional judges 
shall be such, that m each year after their first 
election, an equal number of judges of the su- 
preme court shall be elected, except in elections 
to fill vacancies; and whenever the number of 
such judges shall be increased, the General As- 
sembly may authorize such court to organize di- 
visions thereof, not exceeding three, each divis- 
ion to consist of an equal number of judges; for 
the adjudication of cases, a majority of each di- 
vision shall constitute a quorum, and such an as- 
signment of the cases to each division may be 
made as such court may deem expedient, but 
whenever all the judges of either division hear- 
ing a case shall not concur as to the judgment 
to be rendered therein, or whenever a case shall 
involve the constitutionality of an act of the 
General Assembly or of an act of Congress, it 
shall be reserved to the whole court for adjudi- 
cation. The judges of the supreme court in of- 
fice when this amendment takes effect, shall con- 
tinue to hold their offices until their successors 
are elected and qualified. (As amended October 
9, 1883; 80 V. 382.) 

Sec. 3. The state shall be divided into nine 
common pleas districts, of which the county of 
Hamilton shall constitute one, of compact terri- 
tory, and bounded by county lines, and each of 
^aid districts, consisting of three or more coun- 


ties, shall be subdivided into three parts of com- 
pact territory bounded b^^ county lines, and as 
nearly equal in population as practicable; in 
each of which, one judge of the court of common 
pleas for said district, and residing therein, shall 
be elected by the electors of said subdivision. 
Courts of common pleas shall be held by one or 
more of these judges, in every county in the dis- 
trict, as often as may be provided by law; and 
more than one court, or sitting thereof, may be 
held at the same time in each district. 

Sec. 4. The jurisdiction of the courts of com- 
mon pleas, and of the judges thereof, shall be 
fixed by law. 

Sec. 5. (Eepealed October 9, 1883; 80 v. 

Sec. 6. The circuit court shall have like orig- 
inal jurisdiction with the supreme court, and 
such appellate jurisdiction as may be provided 
by law. Such courts shall be composed of such 
number of judges as may be provided by law, and 
shall be held in each county at least once in each 
year. The number of circuits, and the boundar- 
ies thereof, shall be prescribed by law. Such 
judges shall be elected in each circuit by the elec- 
tors thereof, and at such time and for such term 
as may be prescribed by law, and the same num- 
ber shall be elected in each circuit. Each judge 
shall be comj)etent to exercise his judicial pow- 


ers in any circuit. The General Assembly may 
change, from time to time, the number of bound- 
aries of the circuits. The circuit courts shall 
be the successors of the district courts, and all 
cases, judgments, records, and proceedings pend- 
ing in said district courts, in the several coun- 
ties of any district, shall be transferred to the 
circuit courts in the several counties, and be pro- 
ceeded in as though said district courts had not 
been abolished, and the district courts shall con- 
tinue in existence until the election and qualifi- 
cation of the judges of the circuit court. (As 
amended October 9, 1883 ; 80 v. 382.) 

Sec. 7. There shall be established in each 
county a probate court, which shall be a court 
of record, open at all times, and holden by one 
judge, elected by the voters of the county, who 
shall hold his office for the term of three years, 
and shall receive such compensation, payable out 
of the county treasury, or by fees, or both, as 
shall be provided by law. 

Sec. 8. The probate court shall have juris- 
diction in probate and testamentary matters, the 
appointment of administrators and guardians, 
the settlement of accounts of executors, adminis- 
trators, and guardians, and such jurisdiction in 
habeas corpus, the issuing of marriage licenses, 
and for the sale of land by executors, adminis- 
trators, and guardians, and such other jurisdic- 


tion in any county or counties as may be pro- 
vided by law. 

Sec. 9. A competent number of justices of 
the peace shall be elected, by the electors, in each 
toAvnship in the several counties. Their term 
of office shall be three years, and their powers 
and duties shall be regulated by law. 

Sec 10. All judges, other than those pro- 
vided for in this constitution, shall be elected 
by the electors of the judicial district for which 
they may be created, but not for a longer term 
of office than five years. 

Sec. 11. (Repealed October 9, 1883; 80 v. 

Sec. 12. The judges of the courts of com- 
mon pleas shall, while in office, reside in the 
district for which they are elected; and their 
term of office shall be for five j^ears. 

Sec. 13. In case the office of any judge shall 
become vacant, before the expiration of the reg- 
ular term for which he was elected, the vacancy 
shall be filled by appointment by the governor, 
until a successor is elected and qualified; and 
such successor shall be elected for the unexpired 
term, at the fir^]t annual election that occurs 
more than thirty days after the vacancy shall 
have happened. 

Sec. 14. The judges of the supreme court, 
(of the circuit court), and of the court of com- 


mon pleas, shall, at stated times, receive for their 
services such compensation as may be provided 
by law, which shall not be diminished, or in- 
creased, during their term of office; but they 
shall receive no fees or perquisites, nor hold any 
other office of profit or trust under the authority 
of this state, or the United States. All votes for 
either of them, for any elective office, except a 
judicial office, under the authority of this state, 
given by the General Assembly, or the people, 
shall be void. 

Sec. 15. The General Assembly may in- 
crease, or diminish, the number of judges of the 
supreme court, the number of the districts of the 
court of common pleas, the number of judges in 
any district, change the districts, or the subdi- 
visions thereof, or establish other courts, when- 
ever two-thirds of the members elected to each 
house shall concur therein, but no change, addi- 
tion, or diminution, shall vacate the office of 
any judge. 

Sec. 16. There shall be elected in each 
county, by the electors thereof, one clerk of the 
court of common pleas, who shall hold his office 
for the term of three years, and until his suc- 
cessor shall be elected and qualified. He shall, 
by virtue of his office, be clerk of all other courts 
of record held therein ; but the General Assembly 
may provide, by law, for the election of a clerk, 


with a like term of office, for each or any other 
of the courts of record, and may authorize the 
judge of the probate court to perform the duties 
of clerk for his court, under such regulations a& 
may be directed by law. Clerks of courts shall 
be removable for such cause and in such manner 
as shall be prescribed by law. 

Sec. 17. Judges may be removed from office, 
by concurrent resolutions of both houses of the 
General Assembly, if two-thirds of the members 
elected to each house concur therein ; but no such 
removal shall be made, except on complaint, the 
substance of which shall be entered on the jour- 
nal, nor, until the party charged shall have had 
notice thereof, and an opportunity to be heard. 

Sec. 18. The several judges of the supreme 
court, (of the circuit court), of the common pleas 
(court), and of such other courts as may be cre- 
ated, shall, respectively, have and exercise such 
powers and jurisdiction, at chambers, or other- 
wise, as may be directed by law. 

Sec. 19. The General Assembly may estab- 
lish courts of conciliation, and prescribe their 
powers and duties ; but such courts shall not ren- 
der final judgment in any case, except upon sub- 
mission, by the parties, of the matter in dispute, 
and their agreement to abide by such judgment. 

Sec. 20. The style of all process shall be 
"The State of Ohio;'' all prosecutions shall be 


carried on in the name, and by the authority 
of the State of Ohio; and all indictments shall 
conclude, "against the peace and dignity of the 
State of Ohio.'' 

Sec. 22. (21.) A commission, which shall 
consist of five members, shall be appointed by the 
governor, with the advice and consent of the Sen- 
ate, the members of which shall hold office for 
the term of three years from and after the first 
day of February, 1876, to dispose of such part 
of the business then on the dockets of the su- 
preme court as shall, by arrangement between 
said commission and said court, be transferred 
to such commission; and said commission shall 
have like jurisdiction and power in respect to 
such business as are or may be vested in said 
court ; and the members of said commission shall 
receive a like compensation for the time being 
with the judges of said court. A majority of the 
members of said commission shall be necessary 
to form a quorum or pronounce a decision, and 
its decision shall be certified, entered, and en- 
forced as the judgments of the supreme court; 
and at the expiration of the term of said com- 
mission all business undisposed of shall by it 
be certified to the supreme court, and disposed 
of as if said commission had never existed. The 
clerk and reporter of said coart shall be the clerk 
and reporter of said commission, and the com- 


mission shall have such other attendants, not 
exceeding in number those provided by law for 
said court, which attendants said commission 
may appoint and remove at its pleasure. Any 
vacancy occurring in said commission shall be 
filled by appointment of the governor, Avitli the 
advice and consent of the Senate, if the Senate 
be in session ; and if the Senate be not in session, 
by the governor; but in such last case, such ap- 
pointment shall expire at the end of the next 
session of the General Assembly. The General 
Assembly may, on application of the supreme 
court, duly entered upon the journal of the court 
and certified, provide by law, whenever two- 
thirds of each house shall concur therein, from 
time to time, for the appointment in like man- 
ner of a like commission, with like powers, juris- 
diction, and duties; provided that the term of 
any such commission shall not exceed two years, 
nor shall it be created oftener than once in ten 
years. (As adopted October 12, 1875 ; 72 v. 269.) 



Section 1. Every white male citizen of the 
United States of the age of twenty-one years, who 
shall have been a resident of the state one year 
next preceding the election, and of the county, 


township, or ward, in which he resides, such time 
as may be provided by law, shall have the quali- 
fications of an elector, and be entitled to vote at 
all elections. 

Sec. 2. All elections shall be by ballot. 

Sec. 3. Electors during their attendance at 
elections, and in going to, and returning there- 
from, shall be privileged from arrest, in all cases, 
except treason, felony and breach of the peace. 

Sec. 4. The General Assembly shall have 
power to exclude from the privilege of voting, 
or of being eligible to office, any person convict- 
ed of bribery, perjury, or other infamous crime. 

Sec. 5. No person in the military, naval, or 
marine service of the United States shall, by be- 
ing stationed in any garrison, or military, or 
naval station, within the state, be considered a 
resident of this state. 

Sec. 6. No idiot or insane person shall be 
entitled to the privileges of an elector. 



Section 1. The principal of all funds aris* 
ing from the sale or other disposition of lands 
or other property granted or entrusted to thi^ 
state for educational or religious purposes, shall 
forever be preserved inviolate and undiminished ; 


and the income arising therefrom shall be faith- 
fully applied to the specific objects of the orig- 
inal grants or appropriations. 

Sec. 2. The General Assembly shall make 
such provisions, by taxation or otherwise, as, 
with the income arising from the school trust 
fund, will secure a thorough and efficient sys- 
tem of common schools throughout the state, but 
no religious or other sect or sects shall ever have 
any exclusive right to, or control of, any part of 
the school funds of this state. 



Section 1. Institutions for the benefit of 
the insane, blind, and deaf and dumb, shall al- 
ways be fostered and supported b^^ the state ; and 
be subject to such regulations as may be pre- 
scribed by the General Assembly. 

Sec. 2. The directors of the penitentiary 
shall be appointed or elected in such manner 
as the General Assembly may direct; and the 
trustees of the benevolent and other state insti- 
tutions now elected by the General Assembly, and 
of such other state institutions as may be here- 
after created, shall be appointed by the governor, 
by and with the advice and consent of the Sen- 
ate ; and upon all nominations made by the gov- 


ernor, the question shall be taken by yeas and 
nays, and entered npon the journals of the Sen- 

Sec. 3. The governor shall have power to fill 
all vacancies that may occur in the offices afore- 
saidj until the next session of the General As- 
semblyj and until a successor to his appointee 
shall be confirmed and qualified. 



Section 1. The state may contract debts to 
supply casual deficits or failures in revenues, or 
to meet expenses not otherwise provided for ; but 
the aggregate amount of such debts, direct or 
contingent, whether contracted by virtue of one 
or more acts of the General Assembly, or at dif- 
ferent periods of time, shall never exceed seven 
hundred and fifty thousand dollars; and the 
money arising from the creation of such debts 
shall be applied to the purpose for which it was 
obtained, or to repay the debts so contracted, 
and to no other purpose whatever. 

Sec. 2. In addition to the above limited 
power, the state may contract debts to repel in- 
vasion, suppress insurrection, defend the state in 
war, or to redeem the present outstanding in- 
debtedness of the state J but the money arising 


from the contracting of such debts shall be ap- 
plied to the purpose for which it was raised, or 
to repay such debts, and to no other purpose 
whatever; and all debts incurred to redeem the 
present outstanding indebtedness of the state, 
shall be so contracted as to be payable by the 
sinking fund, hereinafter provided for, as the 
same shall accumulate. 

Sec. 3. Except the debts above specified in 
sections one and two of this article, no debt 
whatever shall hereafter be created by or on be- 
half of the state. 

Sec. 4. The credit of the state shall not, in 
any manner, be given or loaned to, or in aid of, 
any individual, association, or corporation what- 
ever ; nor shall the state ever hereafter become 
a joint owner or stockholder in any company or 
association in this state« or elsewhere, formed 
for any purpose whatever. 

Sec. 5. The state shall never assume the 
debts of any county, city, town or township, or of 
any corporation whatever, unless such debt shall 
have been created to repel invasion, suppress in- 
surrection, or defend the state in war. 

Sec. 6. The General Assembly shall never 
authorize any county, city, town, or township, by 
vote of its citizens or otherwise, to become a 
stockholder in any joint stock company, corpor- 
ation or association whatever ; or to raise mone^ 


for^ or loan its credit to^ or in aid of, any such 
company, corporation, or association. 

Sec. 7. The faith of the state being pledged 
for the payment of its public debt, in order to 
provide therefor there shall be created a sink- 
ing fund, which shall be suflflcient to pay the 
accruing interest on such debt, and annually, to 
reduce the principal thereof, by a sum not less 
than one hundred thousand dollars, increased 
yearly, and each and every year, by compound- 
ing, at the rate of six per cent per annum. The 
said sinking fund shall consist of the net annual 
income of the public works and stocks owned by 
the state, or anj^ other funds or resources that 
are, or may be, provided by law, and of such fur- 
ther sum, to be raised by taxation, as may be re- 
quired for the purposes aforesaid. 

Sec. 8. The auditor of state, secretary of 
state, and attorney-general are hereby created a 
board of commissioners, to be styled ^^The Com- 
missioners of the Sinking Fund.'' 

Sec. 9. The commissioners of the sinking 
fund shall, immediately preceding each regular 
session of the General Assembly, make an esti- 
mate of the probable amount of the fund, pro- 
vided for in the seventh section of this article, 
from all sources except from taxation, and re- 
port the same, together with all their proceed- 
ings relative to said fund and the public debt, 


to the governor^ who shall transmit the same 
with his regular message to the General Assem- 
bly; and the General Assembly shall make all 
necessary provision for raising and disbursing 
said sinking fund^ in pursuance of the provis- 
ions of this article. 

Sec. 10. It shall be the duty of the said com- 
missioners faithfully to apply said fund, to- 
gether with all moneys that may be, by the Gen- 
eral Assembly, appropriated to that object, to 
the payment of the interest, as it becomes due, 
and the redemption of the principal of the public 
debt of the state, excepting only the school and 
trust funds held by the state. 

Sec. 11. The said commissioners shall, semi- 
annually, make a full and detailed report of their 
proceedings to the governor, who shall immedi- 
ately cause the same to be published, and shall 
also communicate the same to the General As- 
sembly forthwith, if it be in session, and if not, 
then at its first session after such report shall 
be made. 

Sec. 12. So long as this state shall have pub- 
lic works which require superintendence, there 
shall be a board of public works, to consist of 
three members, who shall be elected by the peo- 
ple at the first general election after the adop- 
tion of this constitution, one for the term of one 
year, one for the term of two years, and one for 


the term of three years ; and one member of said 
board shall be elected annually thereafter, who 
shall hold his office for three years. 

Sec. 13. The powers and duties of said 
board of public works, and its several members, 
and their compensation, shall be such as are 
now, or may be, prescribed by law. 



Section 1. All white male citizens, residents 
of this state, being eighteen years of age, and 
under the age of forty-five years, shall be en- 
rolled in the militia, and perform military duty, 
in such manner, not incompatible with the con- 
stitution and laws of the United Staes, as may 
be prescribed by law. 

Sec. 2. Majors general, brigadiers general, 
colonels, lieutenant colonels, majors, captains, 
and subalterns shall be elected by the persons 
subject to military duty, in their respective dis- 

Sec. 3. The governor shall appoint the adju- 
tant-general, quartermaster-general, and such 
other staff officers as may be provided for by 
law. Majors general, brigadiers genej'al, col- 
onels, or commandants of regiments, battalions, 
or squadrons, shall, severally, appoint their staff, 


and captains shall appoint their non-commis- 
sioned officers and musicians. 

Sec. 4. The governor shall commission all 
officers of the line and staff, ranking as such; 
and shall have power to call forth the militia, 
to execute the laws of the state, to suppress in- 
surrection, and repel invasion 

Sec. 5. The General Assembly shall provide, 
by law, for the protection and safekeeping of 
the public arms. 



Section 1. The General Assembly shall pro- 
vide, by law, for the election of such county and 
township officers as may be necessary. 

Sec. 2. County officers shall be elected on 
the first Tuesday after the first Monday in No- 
vember, by the electors of each county, in such 
manner and for such term, not exceeding three 
years, as may be provided by law. (As amended 
October 13, 1885; 82 v. 446.) 

Sec. 3. No person shall be eligible to the 
office of sheriff or county treasurer for more 
than four years, in any period of six years. 

Sec. 4. Township officers shall be elected 
by the electors of each township at such time, in 
such manner, and for such term, not exceeding 
three years, as may be provided by law ; but shall 


hold their offices until their successors are 
elected and qualified. (As amended October 13, 
1885; 82 v. 449.) 

Sec. 5. No money shall be drawn from any 
county or township treasury, except by authority 
of law. 

Sec. 6. Justices of the peace, and county and 
township officers, may be removed in such man- 
ner, and for such cause, as shall be prescribed 
by law. 

Sec. 7. The commissioners of counties, the 
trustees of townships, and similar boards, shall 
have such power of local taxation for police pur- 
poses, as may be prescribed by law. 



Section 1. The apportionment of this state 
for members of the General Assembly shall be 
made every ten years, after the year one thou- 
sand eight hundred and fifty-one, in the follow- 
ing manner : The whole population of the state, 
as ascertained by the federal census, or in such 
other mode as the General Assembly may di- 
rect, shall be divided by the number "one hun- 
dred,'' and the quotient shall be the ratio of rep- 
resentation in the House of Representatives, for 
the ten years next succeeding such apportion- 


Sec. 2. Every county having a population 
equal to one-half of said ratio shall be entitled 
to one representative; every county, containing 
such ratio, and three-fourths over, shall be en- 
titled to two representatives; every county con- 
taining three times said ratio, shall be entitled to 
three representatives, and so on, requiring after 
the first two, an entire ratio for each additional 

Sec. 3. When any county shall have a frac- 
tion above the ratio, so large, that being multi- 
plied by five, the result will be equal to one or 
more ratios, additional representatives shall be 
apportioned for such ratios, among the several 
sessions of the decennial period, in the follow- 
ing manner : If ,there be only one ratio, a repre- 
sentative shall be allotted to the fifth session of 
the decennial period; if there are two ratios, a 
representative shall be allotted to the fourth and 
third sessions, respectively ; if three, to the third, 
second and first sessions, respectively ; if four, 
to the fourth, third, second, and first sessions, 

Sec. 4. Any county forming with another 
county, or counties, a representative district, 
during one decennial period, if it have acquired 
sufficient population at the next decennial 
period, shall be entitled to a separate represen- 
tation, if there shall be left, in the district from 


which it shall have been separated, a population 
sufficient for a representative; but no such 
change shall be made except at the regular de- 
cennial period for the apportionment of repre- 

Sec. 5. If, in fixing any subsequent ratio, a 
county, previously entitled to separate repre- 
sentation, shall have less than the number re- 
quired by the new ratio for a representative, 
such county shall be attached to the county ad- 
joining it, having the least number of inhabi- 
tants; and the representation of the district, so 
formed, shall be determined as herein provided. 

Sec. 6. The ratio for a senator shall forever, 
hereafter, be ascertained by dividing the whole 
population of the state by the number thirty- 

Sec. 7. The state is hereby divided into 
thirty-three senatorial districts, as follows : The 
county of Hamilton shall constitute the first sen- 
atorial district ; the counties of Butler and War- 
ren the second; Montgomery and Preble the 
third ; Clermont and Brown the fourth ; Greene, 
Clinton and Fayette the fifth; Ross and High- 
land the sixth ; Adams, Pike, Scioto and Jackson 
the seventh ; Lawrence, Gallia, Meigs and Vinton 
the eighth; Athens, Hocking and Fairfield the 
ninth ; Franklin and Pickaway the tenth ; Clark, 
Champaign and Madison the eleventh; Miami, 


Darke and Shelby the twelfth; Logan, Union, 
Marion and Hardin the thirteenth; Washington 
and Morgan the fourteenth; Muskingum and 
Perry the fifteenth; Delaware and Licking the 
sixteenth; Knox and Morrow the seventeenth; 
Coshocton and Tuscarawas the eighteenth; 
Guernsey and Monroe the nineteenth; Belmont 
and Harrison the twentieth; Carroll and Stark 
the twenty-first; Jefferson and Columbiana the 
twenty-second; Trumbull and Mahoning the 
twenty-third; Ashtabula, Lake and Geauga the 
twenty- fourth ; Cuyahoga the twenty-fifth ; Port- 
age and Summit the twenty-sixth; Medina and 
Lorain the twenty-seventh; Wayne and Holmes 
the twenty-eighth; Ashland and Richland the 
twenty-ninth; Huron, Erie, Sandusky and Ot- 
tawa the thirtieth ; Seneca, Crawford and Wyan- 
dot, the thirty-first; Mercer, Auglaize, Allen, 
Van Wert, Paulding, Defiance and Williams the 
thirty-second; and Hancock, Wood, Lucas, Ful- 
ton, Henry and Putnam the thirty-third. For 
the first decennial period, after the adoption of 
this constitution, each of said districts shall be 
entitled to one senator, except the first district, 
which shall be entitled to three senators. 

Sec. 8. The same rules shall be applied in 
apportioning the fractions of senatorial dis- 
tricts, and in annexing districts, which may 
hereafter have less than three-fourths of a sena- 


torial ratio, as are applied to representative dis- 

Sec. 9. Any county forming part of a sena- 
torial district, having acquired a population 
equal to a full senatorial ratio, shall be made a 
separate senatorial district at any regular de- 
cennial apportionment, if a full senatorial ratio 
shall be left in the district from which it shall 
be taken. 

Sec. 10. For the first ten years after the year 
one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one, the 
apportionment of representatives shall be as 
provided in the schedule, and no change shall 
ever be made in the principles of representa- 
tion as herein established, or in the senatorial 
districts, except as above provided All territory 
belonging to a county at the time of any appor- 
tionment shall, as to the right of representation 
and suffrage, remain an integral part thereof 
during the decennial period. 

Sec. 11. The governor, auditor and secre- 
tary of state, or any two of them, shall, at least 
six months prior to the October election, in the 
year one thousand eight hundred and sixty-one, 
and at each decennial period thereafter, ascer- 
tain and determine the ratio of representation, 
according to the decennial census, the number 
of representatives and senators each county or 
district shall be entitled to elect, and for what 


years, within the next ensuing ten years, and the 
governor shall cause the same to be published, 
in such manner as shall be directed by law. 


Sec. 12. For judicial purposes, the state shall 
be apportioned as follows : 

The county of Hamilton shall constitute the 
first district, which shall not be subdivided ; and 
the judges therein may hold separate courts or 
separate sittings of the same court at the same 

The counties of Butler, Preble and Darke 
shall constitute the first subdivision; Montgom- 
ery, Miami and Champaign the second; and 
Warren, Clinton, Greene and Clark the third 
subdivision of the second district ; and, together, 
shall form such district. 

The counties of Shelby, Auglaize, Allen, Har- 
din, Logan, Union and Marion shall constitute 
the first subdivision; Mercer, Van Wert, Put- 
nam, Paulding, Defiance, Williams, Henry and 
Fulton the second ; and Wood, Seneca, Hancock, 
Wyandot and Crawford the third subdivision 
of the third district; and, together, shall form 
such district. 

The counties of Lucas, Ottawa, Sandusky, 
Erie and Huron shall constitute the first sub- 
division; Lorain, Medina and Summit the sec- 


end ; and the county of Cuyahoga the third sub- 
division of the fourth district; and, together, 
shall form such district. 

The counties of Clermont, Brown and Ad- 
ams shall constitute the first subdivision ; High- 
land, Ross and Fayette, the second; and Pick- 
away, Franklin and Madison the third subdi- 
vision of the fifth district; and, together, shall 
form such district. 

The counties of Licking, Knox and Dela- 
ware shall constitute the first subdivision ; Mor- 
row, Richland and Ashland the second; and 
Wayne, Holmes and Coshocton the third subdi- 
vision of the sixth district; and, together, shall 
form such district. 

The counties of Fairfield, Perry and Hocking 
shall constitute the first subdivision; Jackson, 
Vinton, Pike, Scioto and Lawrence the second; 
and Gallia, Meigs, Athens and Washington the 
third subdivision of the seventh district; and, 
together, shall form such district. 

The counties of Muskingum and Morgan 
shall constitute the first subdivision; Guernsey, 
Belmont and Monroe the second; and Jefferson, 
Harrison and Tuscarawas the third subdivision 
of the eighth district; and, together, shall form 
such district. 

The counties of Stark, Carroll and Columbi- 
ana shall constitute the first subdivision ; Trum- 


bull^ Portage and Mahoning the second; and 
Geauga^ Lake and Ashtabula the third subdivis- 
ion of the ninth district; and, together, shall 
form such district. 

Sec. 13. The General Assembly shall attach 
any new counties that may hereafter be erected 
to such districts or subdivisions thereof as shall 
be most convenient. 



Section 1. The levying of taxes by the poll 
is grievous and oppressive; therefore, the Gen- 
eral Assembly shall never levy a poll tax for 
county or state purposes. 

Sec. 2. Laws shall be passed taxing by a 
uniform rule all moneys, credits, investments 
in bonds, stocks, joint stock companies, or other- 
wise; and also all real and personal property ac- 
cording to its true value in money ; but burying 
grounds, public school houses, houses used ex- 
clusively for public worship, institutions of 
purely public charity, public property used ex- 
clusively for public purposes, and personal prop- 
erty to an amount not exceeding in value two 
hundred dollars, for each individual may, by gen- 
eral laws, be exempted from taxation; but all 
^uch laws shall be subject to alteration or re^ 


peal; and the value of all property so exempted 
shall, from time to time, be ascertained and pub- 
lished, as may be directed by laAV. 

Sec. 3. The General Assembly shall provide 
by law for taxing the notes and bills discounted 
or purchased, moneys loaned, and all other prop- 
erty, effects or dues, of every description, with- 
out deduction, of all banks now existing, or here- 
after created, and of all bankers, so that all prop- 
erty employed in banking shall always bear a 
burden of taxation equal to that imposed on the 
property of individuals. 

Sec. 4. The General Assembly shall provide 
for raising revenue sufficient to defray the ex- 
penses of the state for each year, and also a suf- 
ficient sum to pay the interest on the state debt. 

Sec. 5. No tax shall be levied except in pur- 
suance of law; and every law imposing a tax 
shall state distinctly the object of the same, to 
which only it shall be applied. 

Sec. 6. The state shall never contract any 
debt for purposes of internal improvement. 



Section 1. The General Assembly shall pass 
no special act conferring corporate powers. 
Sec. 2. Corporations may be formed under 



general laws ; but all such laws may, from time 
to time, be altered or repealed. 

Sec. 3. Dues from corporations shall be se- 
cured, by such individual liability of the stock- 
holders, and other means, as may be prescribed 
by law; but in all cases each stockholder shall 
be liable, over and above the stock by him or her 
owned, and any amount unpaid thereon, to a fur- 
ther sum at least equal in amount to such stock. 

Sec. 4. The property of corporations now ex- 
isting or hereafter created, shall forever be sub- 
ject to taxation, the same as property of indi- 

Sec. 5. No right of way shall be appropri- 
ated to the use of any corporation until full com- 
pensation therefor be first made in money, or 
first secured by a deposit of money to the owner, 
irrespective of any benefit from any improve- 
ment proposed by such corporation, which com- 
pensation shall be ascertained by a jury of twelve 
men, in a court of record, as shall be prescribed 
by law. 

Sec. 6. The General Assembly shall provide 
for the organization of cities and incorporated 
villages, by general laws, and restrict their power 
of taxation, assessment, borrowing money, con- 
tracting debts and loaning their credit, so as to 
prevent the abuse of such power. 

Sec. 7. No act of the General Assembly;, au- 


thorizing associations with banking powers, 
shall take effect until it shall be submitted to the 
people, at the general election next succeeding 
the passage thereof, and be approved by a ma- 
jority of all the electors voting at such election. 



Section 1. The General Assembly, at its 
first session after the adoption of this constitu- 
tion, shall provide for the appointment of three 
commissioners, and prescribe their tenure of of- 
fice, compensation, and the mode of filling vacan- 
cies in said commission. 

Sec. 2. The said commissioners shall revise, 
reform, simplify, and abridge the practice, 
pleadings, forms, and proceedings of the courts 
of record of this state; and, as far as practica- 
ble and expedient, shall provide for the abolition 
of the distinct forms of action at law now in use, 
and for the administration of justice by a uni- 
form mode of proceeding without reference to 
any distinction between law and equity. 

Sec. 3. The proceedings of the commission- 
ers shall, from time to time, be reported to the 
General Assembly, and be subject to the action 
of that body. 




Section 1. Columbus shall be the seat of 
government until otherwise directed by law. 

Sec. 2. The printing of the laws, journals, 
bills, legislative documents and papers for each 
branch of the General Assembly, with the print- 
ing required for the executive and other depart- 
ments of state, shall be let on contract to the 
lowest responsible bidder, by such executive offi- 
cers, and in such manner, as shall be prescribed 
by law. 

Sec. 3. An accurate and detailed statement 
of the receipts and expenditures of the public 
money, the several amounts paid, to whom, and 
on what account, shall, from time to time, be 
published, as shall be prescribed by law. 

Sec. 4. No person shall be elected or ap- 
pointed to any office in this state unless he pos- 
sesses the qualification of an elector. 

Sec. 5. No person who shall hereafter fight 
a duel, assist in the same as second, or send, ac- 
cept, or knowingly carry a challenge therefor, 
shall hold any office in this state. 

Sec. 6. Lotteries, and the sale of lottery 
tickets, for any purpose whatever, shall forever 
be prohibited in this state. 


Sec. 7. Every person chosen or appointed to 
any office under this state, before entering upon 
the discliarge of its duties, shall take an oath or 
affirmation to support the constitution of the 
United States, and of this state, and also an oath 
of office. 

Sec. 8. There may be established, in the sec- 
retary of state's office, a bureau of statistics, 
under such regulations as may be prescribed by 

Sec. 9. No license to traffic in intoxicating 
liquors shall hereafter be granted in this state; 
but the General x\ssembly may, by law, provide 
against evils resulting therefrom. 



Section 1. Either branch of the General 
Assembly may propose amendments to this con- 
stitution ; and, if the same shall be agreed to by 
three-fifths of the members elected to each house, 
such proposed amendments shall be entered on 
the journals, with the yeas and nays, and shall 
be published in at least one newspaper In each 
county of the state, where a newspaper is pub- 
lished, for six months preceding the next elec- 
tion for senators and representatives, at which 
time the same shall be submitted to the electors 


for their approval or rejection ; and if a majority 
of the electors voting at such election shall adopt 
such amendments, the same shall become a part 
of the constitution. When more than one amend- 
ment shall be submitted at the same time, they 
shall be so submitted as to enable the electors to 
vote on each amendment separately. 

Sec. 2. Whenever two-thirds of the mem- 
bers elected to each branch of the General As- 
sembly shall think it necessary to call a conven- 
tion to revise, amend, or change this constitu- 
tion, they shall recommend to the electors to 
vote, at the next election for members to the 
General Assembly, for or against a convention; 
and if a majority of all the electors voting at 
said election shall have voted for a convention, 
the General Assembly shall, at their next ses- 
sion, provide, by law, for calling the same. The 
convention shall consist of as many members as 
the House of Kepresentatives, who shall be 
chosen in the same manner, and shall meet 
within three months after their election, for the 
purpose aforesaid. 

Sec. 3. At the general election to ,be held 
in the year one thousand eight hundred and sev- 
enty-one, and in each twentieth year thereafter, 
the question: ^^Shall there be a convention to 
revise, alter, or amend the constitution?'' shall 
be submitted to the electors of the state ; and in 


case a majority of all the electors voting at such 
election shall decide in favor of a convention, the 
General Assembly at its next session shall pro- 
vide, by law, for the election of delegates, and 
the assembling of such convention, as is provided 
in the preceding section; but no amendment of 
this constitution, agreed upon by any convention 
assembled in pursuance of this article, shall take 
effect until the game shall have been submit- 
ted to the electors of the state, and adopted by 
a majority of those voting thereon. 


Sec. 1. All laws of this state, m force on 
the first day of September, one thousand eight 
hundred and fifty-one, not inconsistent with 
this constitution, shall continue in force until 
amended or repealed. 

Sec. 2. The first election for members of the 
General Assembly, under this constitution, shall 
be held on the second Tuesday of October, one 
thousand eight hundred and fifty-one. 

Sec. 3. The first election for governor, lieu- 
tenant-governor, auditor, treasurer, and secre- 
tary of state, and attorney-general, shall be held 
on the second Tuesday of October, one thousand 
eight hundred and fifty-one. The persons holding 
said offices on the first day of September, one 
thousand eight hundred and fifty-one, shall con- 


tinue therein until the second Monday of Janu- 
ary^ one thousand eight hundred and fifty-two. 

Sec. 4. The first election for judges of the 
supreme court, courts of common pleas, and pro- 
bate courts, and clerks of the courts of common 
pleas, shall be held on the second Tuesday of Oc- 
tober, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one, 
and the official term of said judges and clerks, 
so elected, shall commence on the second Mon- 
day of February, one thousand eight hundred 
and fifty-two. Judges and clerks of the courts 
of common pleas and supreme court, in office on 
the first day of September, one thousand eight 
hundred and fifty-one, shall continue in office 
with their present powers and duties, until the 
second Monday of February, one thousand eight 
hundred and fifty-two. No suit or proceeding 
pending in any of the courts of this state shall 
be affected by the adoption of this constitution. 

Sec. 5. The register and receiver of the land 
office, directors of the penitentiary, directors of 
the benevolent institutions of the state, the state 
librarian, and all other officers, not otherwise 
provided for in this constitution, in offipe on 
the first day of September, one thousand eight 
hundred and fifty-one, shall continue in office 
until their terms expire, respectively, unless the 
General Assembly shall otherwise provide. 

Sec. 6. The superior and commercial courts 


of Oincinnati, and the superior court of Cleve- 
land, shall remain, until otherwise provided by 
law, with their present powers and jurisdiction ; 
and the judges and clerks of said courts, in office 
on the first day of September, one thousand eight 
hundred and fifty-one, shall continue in office 
until the expiration of their terms of office, re- 
spectively, or until otherwise provided by law; 
but neither of said courts shall continue after the 
second Monday of February, one thousand eight 
hundred and fifty- three; and no suits shall be 
commenced in said two first mentioned courts 
after the second Monday in February, one thou- 
sand eight hundred and fifty- two; nor in said 
mentioned courts after the second Monday in 
August, one thousand eight hundred and fifty- 
two ; and all business in either of said courts, not 
disposed of within the time limited for their con- 
tinuance as aforesaid, shall be transferred to the 
court of common pleas. 

Sec. 7. All county and township officers and 
justices of the peace, in office on the first day of 
September, one thousand eight hundred and 
fifty-one, shall continue in office until their terms 
expire, respectively. 

Sec. 8. Vacancies in office, occurring after 
the first day of September, one thousand eight 
hundred and fifty-one, shall be filled, as is now 
prescribed by law, and until officers are elected 


or appointed, and qualified under this constitu- 

Sec. 9. This constitution shall take effect on 
the first day of September, one thousand eight 
hundred and fifty-one. 

Sec. 10. All officers shall continue in office 
until their successors shall be chosen and quali- 

Sec. 11. Suits pending in the supreme court 
in bank, shall be transferred to the supreme 
court provided for in this constitution, and be 
proceeded in according to law. 

Sec. 12. The district courts shall, in their 
respective counties, be the successors of the pres- 
ent supreme court; and all suits, prosecutions, 
judgments, records and proceedings, pending 
and remaining in said supreme court, in the sev- 
eral counties of any district, shall be trans- 
ferred to the respective district courts of such 
counties, and be proceeded in as though no 
change had been made in said supreme court. 

Sec. 13. The said courts of common pleas 
shall be the successors of the present courts of 
common pleas in the several counties, except as 
to probate jurisdiction; and all suits, prosecu- 
tions, proceedings, records and judgments, pend- 
ing or being in said last mentioned courts, ex- 
cept as aforesaid, shall be transferred to the 
courts of common pleas created by this consti- 


tution, and proceeded in as though the same had 
been therein instituted. 

Sec. 14. The probate courts provided for in 
this constitution^ as to all matters within the 
jurisdiction conferred upon said courts, shall be 
the successors, in the several counties, of the 
present courts of common pleas ; and the records, 
files and papers, business and proceedings, ap- 
pertaining to said jurisdiction, shall be trans- 
ferred to said courts of probate, and be there pro- 
ceeded in according to law. 

Sec. 15. Until otherwise provided by law, 
elections for judges and clerks shall be held, and 
the poll-books returned, as is provided for gov- 
ernor, and the abstract therefrom, certified to 
the secretary of state, shall be by him opened in 
the presence of the governor, who shall declare 
the result, and issue commissions to the persons 

Sec. 16. Where two or more counties are 
joined in a senatorial, representative, or judicial 
district, the returns of elections shall be sent to 
the county having the largest population. 

Sec. 17. The foregoing constitution shall be 
submitted to the electors of the state, at an elec- 
tion to be held on the. third Tuesday of June, 
one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one, in the 
several election districts of this state. The bal- 
lots at each election shall be written or printed 


as follows: Those in favor of the constitution, 
"New constitution, Yes;'' those against the con- 
stitution, "New constitution, No." The polls at 
said election shall be opened between the hours 
of eight and ten o'clock a. m., and closed at six 
o'clock p. m., and the said election shall be con- 
ducted, and the returns thereof made and certi- 
fied to the secretary of state, as provided by law 
for annual elections of state and county officers. 
Within twenty days after such election the secre- 
tary of state shall open the*returns thereof in 
the presence of the governor, and, if it shall ap- 
pear that a majority of all the votes cast at such 
election are in favor of the constitution, the gov- 
ernor shall issue his proclamation stating that 
fact and said constitution shall be the constitu- 
tion of the State of Ohio, and not otherwise. 

Sec. 18. At the time when the votes of the 
electors shall be taken for the adoption or rejec- 
tion of this constitution, the additional section, 
in the words following, to-wit : "No license to 
traffic in intoxicating liquors shall hereafter be 
granted in this state ; but the General Assembly 
may, by law, provide against evils resulting 
therefrom," shall be separately submitted to the 
electors for adoption or rejection, in form fol- 
lowing, to-wit : A separate ballot may be given 
by every elector and deposited in a separate box. 
Upon the ballots given for said separate amend- 


ment shall be written or printed, or partly writ- 
ten and partly printed, the words : ^^License to 
sell intoxicating liquors, Yes f and npon the bal- 
lots given against said amendment, in like man- 
ner, the words: ^^License to sell intoxicating 
liquors, No.'' If, at the said election, a majority 
of all the votes given for and against said amend- 
ment shall contain the words ^^License to sell in- 
toxicating liquors. No," then the said amend- 
ment shall be a separate section of article fifteen 
of the constitution. 

Sec. 19. The apportionment for the House 
of Eepresentatives during the first decennial 
period under this constitution shall be as fol- 
lows : 

The counties of Adams, Athens, Auglaize, 
Carroll, Champaign, Clark, Clinton, Crawford, 
Darke, Delaware, Erie, Fayette, Gallia, Geauga, 
Greene, Hancock, Harrison, Hocking, Holmes, 
Lake, Lawrence, Logan, Madison, Marion, Meigs, 
Morrow, Perry, Pickaway, Pike, Preble, San- 
dusky, Scioto, Shelby and Union, shall, sever- 
ally, be entitled to one representative in each 
session of the decennial period. 

The counties of Franklin, Licking, Montgom- 
ery and Stark, sl^all each be entitled to two rep- 
resentatives in each session of the decennial 

The counties of Ashland, Coshocton, High-* 


land, Huroiij Lorain, Mahoning, Medina, Miami, 
Portage, Seneca, Summit and Warren, shall, sev- 
erally, be entitled to one representative in each 
session, and one additional representative in the 
fifth session of the decennial period. 

The counties of Ashtabula, Brown, Butler, 
Clermont, Fairfield, Guernsey, Jefferson, Knox, 
Monroe, Morgan, Eichland, Trumbull, Tusca-> 
rawas and Washington, shall, severally, be en- 
titled to one representative in each session, and 
two additional representatives, one in the third 
and one in the fourth session of the decennial 

The counties of Belmont, Columbiana, Eoss 
and Wayne, shall, severally, be entitled to one 
representaive in each session, and three addi- 
tional representatives, one in the first, one in the 
second, and one in the third session of the decen- 
nial period. 

The county of Muskingum shall be entitled 
to two representatives in each session, and one 
additional representative, one in the third, and 
one in the fourth sessions of the decennial period. 

The county of Hamilton shall be entitled to 
seven representatives in each session, and four 
additional representatives, one in the first, one 
in the second, and one in the third, and one in 
the fourth session of the decennial period. 

The following counties, until they shall have 


acquired a sufficient population to entitle them 
to elect separately, under the fourth section of 
the eleventh article, shall form districts in man- 
ner following, to Avit: The counties of Jack- 
son and Vinton, one district ; the counties of Lu- 
cas and Fulton, one district; the counties of 
Wyandot and Hardin, one district ; the counties 
of Mercer and Van Wert, one district ; the coun- 
ties of Paulding, Defiance and Willialns, one dis- 
trict ; the counties of Putnam and Henry, one dis- 
trict ; and the counties of Wood and Ottawa, one 
district ; each of which districts shall be entitled 
to one representative in every session of the de- 
cennial period. 

Done in convention, at Cincinnati, the tenth 
day of March, in the year of our Lord one thou- 
sand eight hundred and fifty-one, and of the in- 
dependence of the United States the seventy- 

William Medill^ President, 

Attest : Wm. H. Gill^ Secretary. 

Chapter XIX 





THIS Index gives the Population of all in- 
corporated places in Ohio, as reported 
in the United States Census of 1900. It 
also gives the population of many other places, 
not incorporated, as estimated by good local 
authorities. These are marked "a," meaning 










Adair (Columbiana). 

Adair (Monroe) 

Adams Mills 
































Air Line Junction. , 


Akron (c. h.) 

Akron Junction... 




Alcony al25 

Alert al2 


Alexandersville 250 

Alexandria 420 

Alexis (Lucas) 

Alexis (Monroe) 












Alfred a40 

Alger 462 

Algonquin a20 

Alice a40 




Allensville al50 

Allentown (Allen).... 100 
Allentown (Fayette) . . 123 

Alliance 8,974 

Alliance Junction 

Alma .^ a75 

Alpha a300 



Alton alOO 


Alum Creek Crossing 

Alvada alOO 

Alvordton 482 

Amanda (Butler) 

Amanda (Fairfield).. a469 


Amboy a300 

Ambrose a50 

Amelia a400 

American a25 

Amesville a200 

Amherst a2,000 

Amity a70 


Amsden al50 

Amsterdam alOO 

Anderson a40 

Andersons Ferry a25 

Andersonville alOO 

Andis r a25 

Andover 815 

Andrews alOO 


Angola a25 


Ankenytown a200 

Anna 851 

Annapolis al39 

Ansonia a676 

Anthony al5 


Antioch 212 

Antiquity a200 

Antonis a25 

Antrim a400 

Antwerp 1,206 


Apple a25 

Applecreek 387 

Applegrove a75 

Appleton alio 

Arabia al50 


Arbela a25 

Arcadia 425 

Arcanum 1,225 

-Archbold ;.... 958 

Archer a75 

Archers Fork a30 


Arena alOO 

Arion a25 

Arkoe a20 

Arlington 738 

Arlington Heights... 360 

Armadale a25 




Armstrongs Mills a50 

Arnettsville 157 

Arnheim a98 

Arnold a25 

Arthur alO 


Asbury a25 

Ash a50 

Ashbridge al50 

Ashland 4,087 

Ashley 700 


Ashtabula 12,949 

Ashtabula Station 

Ashton alO 

Ashville 654 


Athalia 346 

Athens (c. h.) 3,066 

Atherton a50 

Atlanta alOO 

Atlas al50 

Attica 674 

Attica Junction 

Atwater a300 



Atwater Center alOO 

Atwood a20 

Auburn al50 

Auglaize alO 

Augusta ■ a250 


Aultman alOO 

Aurora a750 

Aurora Station 

Austin a20 

Austinburg a400 

Austintown a200 

Ava a85 


Avery a40 


Avion . -. 

Avon (P. O.) aoOP 

Avon (Station). 

Avondale (Coshocton) al30 

Avondale (Licking) 

Avon Lake 



Axtel a75 

Ayersville a25 



Bachman ♦ alOO 

Bacon a50 

Baddow Pass 


Baileys Mills 

Bainbridge 954 

Bairdstown 298 

Baker a20 

Bakers Crossing ..... 

Bakersville aSOO 

Baldwin alO 

Ballou a20 

Baltic a400 

Baltimore 460 

Bancroft a20 

Bangorville a25 

Bangs a500 

Banner a50 

Bannock a20 


Bantam a300 

Barberton 4,354 

Barclay a200 

Bardwell a25 

Barlow al25 

Barnes a50 

Barnesburg a600 

Barnesville ....3,721 

Barnhill 811 

Barretts Mills a20 


Barrs Mills alOO 


Barryville al50 


Bartlett a300 


Bartramville a25 

Bascom a250 

Bashan a25 

Basil a400 

Batavia (c. h.) 1,029 

Batavia Junction 



Batesville 312 

Bath a75 

Batson alO 


Bayard a95 

Baybridge ..... 

Bays a75 



Beach City 364 

Beach Park 


Beallsville 554 

Beamsville alOO 

Bearcreek a30 

Beasleys Fork a25 

Beatty a50 


Beaver 262 

Beaverdam 477 

Beaverpond a25 





Becks Mills a25 

Bedford 1,486 



Bee a2o 

Beebe a20 

Beebetown a75 

Beech al50 

Beecher ..... 


Beidler 'a50 

Belden alOO 

Belfast a50 

Bell al50 

Bellaire 9,91'2 

Bellbrook 352 

Belle Center 962 

Bellefontaine (c. h.).. 6,649 

Belle Valley al50 

Belle Vernon al75 

Belleville 1,039 

Bellevue 4,101 

Bellpoint al02 

Belmont 422 

Belmore 334 

Beloit ' a260 

Belpre al,500 

Bement a300 


Bennetts Corners 

Bennington al50 

Bentley (Stark) 

Bentley (Trumbull) 

Benton ' a250 

Benton Ridge 359 

Bentonville a400 



Berea 2,510 

Bergholz aSOO 

Berkey a50 

Berkshire a50 

Berlin aloO 

Berlin Center a500 

Berlin Crossroads... a275 
Berlin Heights (P. O.) 625 

Berlin Heights (Sta.) 

Berlinville a300 

Bern al50 

Bernard a25 

Bernice a30 

Berrysville a67 


Berwick al50 





Bethany al29 

Bethel 850 

Bethesda a300 


Bettsville 492 


Beverly 712 

Bevis a25 


Bidwell a25 


Bigplain al50 

Bigprairie a200 

Bigrun a25 

Bigsprings ' alOO 

Big Walnut 

Big Walnut Siding 


Bingham a60 

Birds Run a40 

Birmingham a300 

Bishopville a50 

Bismarck a25 

Bissels a900 

Blachleyville al50 

Blackband a40 


Black Dog Siding 

Black Hand 


Blacklick a85 

Blackrun a25 

Bladen alOO 

Bladensburg a300 

Blaine a50 

Blake a50 

Blake Mills a200 

Blakeslee 239 

Blanchard a50 

Blanchester 1,788 

Blanco alO 


Blatchford a200 

Blessings a25 

Blissfield a50 

Bloom Center , alOO 

Bloomdale 740 

Bloomers a75 



Bloomfield (Jefferson) 

Bloomfield (Morrow) a60 

Bloomingburg 636 

Bloomingdale a200 

Bloomington al62 

Bloomingville a75 

Bloomswitch a200 

Bloomville 819 

Blowville a25 

Blueash a60 

Blueball alOO 

Bluebell a25 

Bluecreek al50 

Bluerock a75 


Bluff a50 

Bluffton 1,783 

Boardman alOO 

Boden a25 

. Bogart • a250 

Boggs a25 

Bogus Road... 

Bokes Creek alOO 

Bolins Mills a20 

Bolivar a675 

Bond alO 

Bondhill 1,081 

Boneta a20 



Bookwalter a450 

Booth (Lucas) 

Booth (Tuscarawas) 

Boston 200 

Bostwick aOO 


Botkins 420 

Botzum a60 


Boughtonville alOO 

Bourneville 356 

Bowerston 526 

Bowersville 370 


Bowling Green (c. h.) 5,067 

Bowlusville a200 

Bowman a75 


Boyd a?o 

Braceville a']0 


Bradford 1,254 

Bradner 1,148 

Bradrick al50 


Bradys Lake 

Bradyville alOO 

Branchhill alOO 

Brandon a300 

Brandt a241 

Brandywine a40 




Brecksville (P. O.)... a250 

Brecksville (Sta.) 

Brecon alOO 


Bremen 466 

Brice a35 

Briceton a200 

Brickner alO 

Bridgeport 3,963 

Bridges a25 


Bridgeville a50 

Bridgewater a20 

Brier Hill 


Briggsdale a25 

Brighton (Hamilton) 

Brighton (Lorain)... a50 

Brilliant 646 

Brimfield (P. O.).... al20 

Brimfield (Station) 

Brinkhaven 250 

Brinley 'a60 

Brister ! 

Bristol (Morgan) alO 

Bristol (Perry) 

Bristolville a500 

Brittain alOO 

Broadway a400 

Broadwell (Athens).. a25 

Broadwell (Hamilton) 

Brock a50 



Brokensword alOO 

Brookfield (P. O.)... a300 

Brookfield (Station) '. 

Brooklyn a5,000 




Brookton arllO 

Brookville 869 

Broughton 226 


Brownhelm a75 

Brownhelm Station.. alOO 



Brov/ns Mill a50 

Brownsville a380 

Browntown a25 

Bruno a25 

Brunswick a200 

Brush Creek 

Brush Fork Junction 

Brush Lake 

Bryan (c. h.) 3,131 



Buchanan (Monroe) 

Buchanan (Pike) a40 

Buchtel al,600 



Buckeye City 247 

Buckeye Cottage al60 

Buckeye Park 


Buckland a250 


Bucks a75 

Bucks Crossing 

Bucyrus (c. h.) 6,560 


Buenavista alGl 

Buffalo a200 

Buford al50 


Bulaville a25 

Bundysburg a300 

Bunkerhill a50 

Burbank 325 

Burbank Crossing 

Burghill a350 

Burgoon a200 

Burkettsville a250 

Burkhart a25 

Burlingham al25 

Burlington a250 

Burris . . ,', 

Burroak a25 

Burton 727 

Burton City ?B00 

Burtons (Belmont) 

Burtons (Stark) 

Burton Station. ...... a75 


Bushnell alOO 

Bushong alO 

Bushs Mill a25 

Businessburg alOO 

Butler 567 

Butler Bridge 

Butlerville al25 



Byer a200 

Byers Junction 

Byesville 1,267 

Byhalia a200 

Byington a56 




Cable a300 

Cadiz (c. h.) 1,755 

Cadiz Junction 

Cadmus a25 

Cadwallader a250 

Cairo (Allen) 

Cairo (Stark) a50 

Calais 114 

Calcutta alOO 

Caldwell (c. h.) 927 

Caledonia 682 

California a376 

Caliban a25 

Calla a50 

Calm a50 

Calumet a350 

Calvary a20 

Camba a25 

Cambridge 8,241 

Camden 905 

Cameron a200 

Camp a25 

Campbell alOO 


Campbellsport a60 



Campbellstown alOO 

Campchase a58 

Camp Dennison a292 

Camp Hag-erman 


Canaan a'250 

Canaanville t a40 

Canal Dover 5,422 

Canal Fulton 1,172 

Canal Lewisville a300 

Canal Winchester.... 662 

Canfield 672 

Canfield Junction 

Canfield Road 

Cannel Spur 

Cannelville 281 

Connonsburg a50 

Cannons Creek Jc 

Cannons- Mill a25 

Canton (c. h.) 30,667 

Captina (P. O.) alOO 

Captina (Station) 

Caraghar a30 

Carbondale al50 

Carbonhill a650 

Cardington 1 , 354 

Carey 1,816 


Carlisle 164 


Carlton a25 

Carlwick al5 


Carmel all5 

Carpenter alO 

Carrie a25 

Carrington aSOO 

Carroll .r 223 

Carrollton (c. h.).... 1,271 

Carrothers alOO 

Cars Run 


Carthage 2,559 

Carthagena alOO 

Carthon a30 

Carysville al50 


Cassella alOO 


Casstown 262 

Cassville , a25 

Castalia a500 

Castine a250 

Catawba (P. O.) 231 

Catawba (Station) 

Catawba Island aSOO 


Cavallo , 

Cavett a60 

Caywood a25 

Cebee a25 

Cecil 326 . 

Cedargrove a25 

Cedarhill a75 

Cedar Mills alOO 

Cedarpoint a25 

Cedarrun a25 

Cedar Valley (P. O.). alOO 

Cedar Valley (Sta.) 

Cedarville 1,189 

Cedron a25 

Celina (c. h.) 2,815 

Center (Lawrence) . . . a25 
Center (Montgomery) al50 

Center Belpre a25 

Centerbend a25 

Centerburg 706 

Centerfield alOO 

Center Road 

Centerton a200 

Centerview a75 

Center Village al50 

Centerville 198 

Central City 

Central College a87 

Ceylon a200 


Chaffee a40 

Chagrin Falls 1 , 586 

Chalfants a30 



Chambersburg 169 

Champion a30 

Chandlersville a250 

Chapel a200 

Chapman al50 

Chardon (c. h.) 1,360 


Charlestown (P. O.). a650 

Charlestown (Sta.).- 

Charloe .,...,....,. aSO 



Charm a50 

Chase (Athens) a50 

Chase (Hancock) 

Chasetown a25 

Chaseville alO 

Chatfield 298 

Chatham a250 

Chattanooga a80 

Chauncey a300 

Chenoweth a20 

Cherryfork a300 

Cherrygrove a60 

Cherry Valley al,000 


Cheshire a200 

Chester al46 

Chester Crossroads.. a200 

Chesterhill 480 


Chesterville 230 

Chestnutgrove a25 

Chestnut Ridge 

Cheviot al,200 

Chicago 2,348 

Chicago Junction 

Chickasaw 310 

Chili (P. O.) a75 

Chili (Station) 

Chillicothe (c. h.).... 12,976 

Chilo a219 


Chippewa Lake a200 

Chrisman a25 

Christiansburg a513 

Chuckery a26 

Churchill a200 

Churchtown alO 


Cincinnati (c. h.). .. .325,902 

Circlegreen alO 

Circleville (c. h.) 6,991 


Claiborne alOO 




Claridon a50 

Clarington 905 

Clark a300 

Clark Corners a50 

Clarks (Darke) ..,,,, , . . . . 

Clarks (Lake) 

Clarksburg 551 

Clarksfield a700 

Clarkson al65 

Clarksville . . . . .^ 465 

Clawson .' a50 

Clay ar25 

Claybank a25 

Clay Center a35 

Claylick air2 


Claysville alOO 

Clayton a400 


Clearcreek (P. O.)... al65 

Clearcreek (Station) 

Clearport a350 




Clermontville alOO 

Cleveland (c. h.) 381,768 


Cleves 1,328 

Clifford a25 

Cliffyville ».. 

Clifton 262. 

Clifton Park 

Climax a63 

Clinton (Clintv-i) 

Clinton (Huron) 186 

Clinton (Summit). . . . a400 

Clintonville a68 

Clio a25 

Clipper Mills 


Cloud a25 

Cloverdale (Putnam) 

Cloverdale (Wood) 

Cluff a75 

Clyde 2,515 

Coalburg a300 

Coaldale (P. O.) a25 

Coaldale (Station) 

Coalgate a25 

Coalgrove 1,191 

Coal Hill 

Coalrun a50 

Coalton 1,625 

Coats alO 

Cochrans , ,,, 



Cochranton al20 


Coeridge a70 


Cohoon , 


Coitsville alOO 

Colby a30 

Cold Springs 

Coldwater 627 

Colebrook alOO 


Colerain aSO 

Colfax . .' : 

College Corners 378 

College Hill 1,104 

College Hill Junction 

Collins a300 

Collinsville a200 

Collinwood 3,639 

Colton also 


Columbia Center. . . . a300 

Columbiana 1,339 

Columbia Station a75 

Columbus (c. h.) 125,560 

Columbus Grove. . . . 1,935 

Columbus Junction 

Comet a50 

Comly a25 

Commercial Point... 245 



Conant a25 

Concord a500 


Condit a300 

Conesville al30 

Congo a50 

Congress 198 

Congress Lake 


Conneaut 7 , 133 

Conneaut Harbor 



Conotton alOO 

Conover a400 

Consol a25 

Constantia al50 

Constitution alOO 

Continental 1 , 104 


Convenience a25 

Converse a26 

Convoy 690 

Conways . . . .' 

Cook a30 


Cookton a40 

Coolville 315 

Cooney a25 

Cooper ..... 

Cooperdale a26 

Coopersville a300 

Copley 243 

Copopa a50 

Cora a75 



Corinth a25 

Cork a60 





Cornersburg al25 

Corning 1 ,401 

Corsica a500 

Cortland 620 

Corwin 131 

Coshocton (c. h.) 6,473 

Cosmos a25 

Costonia a30 

Cottagehill a50 

County Line 

Cove ' a25 

Covington 1 , 791 


Cowrun aSO 


Coy a25 

Cozaddale a25 

Crabapple alO 

Crabtree a25 

Craig a25 

Cranberry ,a75 

Cranberry Prairie. . . . a50 



Craver a25 

Crawfis College 



Crawford a25 


Crayon a40 

Cream City 

Creedville a26 

Creighton a55 

Creola a25 

Crescent (Belmont; 

P. O.) 

Crescent (Belmont; 


Crescent (Hamilton) 



Crestline 3,282 

Creston -893 


Creswell alO 

Creuzet a20 

Cridersville 581 

Crimson a40 


Crookedtree a40 

Cromers a20 


Crone a25 

Crooksville 825 

Crossenville a25 


Crosstown a50 


Croton a600 


Crown City 284 

Crystal Spring a500 

Cuba al48 

Culbertson a500 

Cumberland 618 



Cup alO 

Curtice a300 

Custar 293 

Cutler . . : a50 

Cuyahoga Falls 3,186 

Cygnet 896 

Cynthiana a300 

Cypress alO 


Dague : . a75 




Daleyville a25 

Dallas a56 

Dalton 6Q6 

Dalzell a50 

Damascus a400 


Danbury aoO 


Danville 298 

Darbyville 250 

Darke a25 

Darlington (Muskin- 

Darlington (Richland) a300 


Darrowville alOO 

Darrtown a300 

Darwin a25 

Dasie a75 


Davis (Richland).... a75 

Davis (Scioto) 

Davis Road 


Dawkins Mills 

Dawn a300 

Dawson a25 

Dayton (c. h.) 85,333 

Dean (Lawrence) 

Dean (Montgomery). a200 

Dearing a25 

Deavertown (P. O.). 154 

Deavertown (Station) 

Decatur a300 


Decliff a25 

Deep Run 

Deercreek al5 

Deerfield 484 

Deersville 256 


Defiance (c. h.) 7,579 



Defiance Junction 


Deforest Junction 

Degraff ^ 1,150 

Delano (Knox) 

Delano (Ross) 


Delaware (c. h.) 7,940 

Delaware Bend 

Del Carbo 

Delhi 8-Jl) 

Delightful aGO 

DeHsle alOO 

Dell alO 

Dellroy 400 


Delphos 4,517 

Delta 1,-230 

Delvin a25 

Democracy a'2O0 

Demos al75 



Dennison 3,763 

Denson alO 

Dent a500 

Denver a50 


Derby al75 



Deshler 1,628 


Deucher . . .- 

Deunquat » a200 


Dewey (Trumbull) 

Dewey (Tuscarawas) 


Dexter a50 

Dexter City 278 

Dialton alOO 

Diamond al-jO 


Dicksonton alOO 


Diffen a25 

Digby ilO 

Dilles Bottom i50 


Dillon al77 

Dillons Falls 

Dillonvale al,200 


Dihvorth alOO 

Dino a50 


Divide a25 

Dixon al70 

Dobbston alOO 

Dodds :.... alOO 

Dodgeville alOO 


Dodson alOO 

Dodsonville a75 

Doherty alO 

Domerville a20 

Domino a25 

Don a30 


Donnellsville (P. O.) 200 

Donnellsville (Sta.) 


Dorninton (P. O.)... al25 

Dorninton (Station) 

Dorset al50 



Doughton Junction 

Douglas alO 


Dove (Pike) a50 

Dove (Cuyahoga; P. 

O.) a250 

Dover (Cuyahoga; 


Dover (Union) 

Dover Bay a75 

Dowling a300 

Downington 100 

Doylestown 1,057 



Dresden •. . . . 1,600 



Drinkle a25 

Drusilla 150 

Dry Run (Columbi- 

Dryrun (Scioto) a25 

Dublin 275 




Dudley a25 


Dukay Station 


Dull a50 

Dumontville alO 



Dunbarton a25' 

Dunbridge a350 

Duncan Falls a220 


Dundee a200 

Dungannon al50 

Dunham a25 

Dunkinsville a40 

Dunkirk '. 1,222 

Dunlap a25 

Dupont 370 


Durbin (Clark) 

Durbin (Mercer) alO 


Duvall (Noble) 

Duvall (Pickaway)... a25 


Dye alO 





Eagle City aloO 

Eagle Cliff a50 

Eagle Hill 

Eagle Mills a50 

Eagleport a80 

Eagleville a200 

Earley a25 

Earlville a25 

East Akron 

East Carmel - alOO 

East Claridon a400 

East Clayton 

East Cleveland 2,757 

East End 

East Danville 

East Fairfield al75 

East Greenville a650 

East Greenwood alO 

East Lewistown a75 

East Liberty a300 

East Liverpool 16,485 

East Monroe al50 

East Norwalk a300 

East Norwood 

Easton a300 

East Orwell a200 

East Palestine -. 2,493 

East Plymouth alOO 

East Richland alOO 

East Ringgold a200 

East Rochester a200 

East Springfield 


East Springfield (Jef- 
ferson) a212 

East Toledo 

East Townsend a200 

East Trumbull al50 

East Union a75 

East Urbana 


Eastwood a25 

Eaton (c. h.) 3,155 

Ebenezer a25 

Eber a25 


Echo (Belmont) 

Echo (Meigs) 

Eckerts Siding 


Eckmansville a300 


Edenton a250 


Edgefield alOO 

Edgerton 1,043 


Edinburg (P. O.)-... al50 

Edinburg (Station) 

Edison 347 


Edna a25 

Edon 740 

Edward a50 

Edwardsville alOO 






Eifort alO 


Elba al-20 


Eldorado 358 

Elenor a30 

Elery alOO 

Elgin 208 

Eli alio 

Elida % 440 

Elizabethtown a200 

Elk alO 

Elkton al50 

Ellerton al50 

Elliott a20 


Ellis a25 


Elliston a200 

Ellsberry alOO 

Ellsworth a200 

Ellsworth Station 

Elm alO 

Elm Center a50 

Elmgrove a25 

Elmira !... aT5 

Elmore 1,025 

Elmville '. a40 

Elmwood (Franklin). a25 

Elmwood (Pickaway) 

Elmwood Place 2,532 

Elroy a35 


Elyria (c. h.) 8,791 

Emerald (Adams) a30 

Emerald (Paulding) 

Emerson alOO 


Emery Chapel 


Emmett a60 

Empire a441 



Eno al75 

Enoch a20 

Enon (P. O.)........ 295 

Enon (Station) 

Ensee a25 

Enterprise alOO 

Epworth a30 



Erastus a90 

Erhart alOO 

Eris a25 

Erlin a20 

Ernest a25 

Esop a25 


Essex a25 


Esther ' 

Esto a25 

Ethel a30 

Etna a300 

Etna Junction 

Euclid a700 


Euphemia a250 

Eureka al92 

Evansburg alOO 

Evansport a300 

Evanston 1 , 716 


Everett (Lucas) 

Everett (Summit) a20 

Evergreen a25 


Ewington al50 


Excello .'!.*!*..*..*!.'!.' 'aSOO 


Fairfax a96 

Fairfield 312 

Fair Grounds (Butler) 

Fair Grounds (Gallia) ..... 

Fairhaven a200 

Fairhope a20 

Fairlawn a50 

Fairmount a200 

Fair Oak 

Fair Oaks 


Fairpoint alOO 

Fairport Harbor 2,073 


Fairview 291 

Fallsburg a200 

Falls Junction 




Fargo (Ashtabula) 

Fargo (Morrow) a50 


Farmdale a200 

Farmer alOO 

Farmers . Station a"200 

Farmerstown a40 

Farmersville 440 

Farmington a400 

Farnham a50 



Fawcett aoO 

Fay a'J'5 


Fayette (Fayette) 

Fayette (Fulton) 8.^6 

Fayetteville 3l^3 



Feesburg a998 

Feightner a25 

Felicity 695 

Fenton alOO 

Fernbank 310 



Fernwood a"25 

Ferry a25 

Fiat a25 

Fidelity a400 

Fields a20 

Fife a25 


Fillmore alO 

Fincastle al25 

Findlay (c. h.) 17,613 

Fireside a20 

Fisfier a25 

Fitchville a200 

F^ivemile a50 

Fivepoints 176 

Flag • a50 

Flagdale a25 

Flat a400 

Flatridge a20 

Klatrock a300 

Fleming a25 

Fletcher ' 375 

Flint alOO 

Flints Mill a50 



Flora a200 

Florence (Defiance) 

Florence (Erie; P. 

O.) a250 

Florence (Erie; Sta- 
tion) : 

Florence (Madison) 

Florida 276 

Flushing 653 


Folger a50 



Footville alOO 

Foraker a40 

Ford a250 

Forest (Hardin) 1,155 

Forest (Richland) 

Forestdale a25 

Forestville alOO 

Forgy a50 

Fort Ancient 

Fort Hill a25 

Fort Jefferson a50 

Fort Jennings 322 

Fort Recovery 1,097 

Fort Seneca (P. O.). a300 
Fort Seneca (Station) ..... 

Fort Wayne Junction 

Foss alO 

Foster a250 

Fostoria 7,730 

Foimtain al40 

Fountain Park 

Fowler (P. O.) . a500 

Fowler (Station) 

Fowlers Mill a200 

Fox a25 

Fox Lake Junction 

Frampton a200 

Frances a25 

Frank a30 

Frankfort 717 

Franklin (Coshocton) 

Franklin (Jackson) 

Franklin (Warren)... 2,724 
Franklin Furnace. . . . a75 
Franklin Square a250 



Franklin Station a200 

Frazeysburg 730 

Frederick (Knox) 

Frederick (Mahoning) alO 

Fredericksburg 511 


Fredericktown 890 

Fredonia a400 

Freeburg aTO 

Freedom a 150 

Freedom Station aloO 

Freeland a'iO 

Freeman aoO 

Freeport (Harrison). 61)0 
Freeport (Wood; see 

Prairie Depot) 815 

Freestone a26 

Fremont (c. h.) 8,439 


Friendship ; al50 

Friendsville alOO 


Frost a75 

Fruitdale a50 

Fruithall aoO 

Fryburg al50 

Fulda al60 


Fullertown aOO 

Fulton al25 

Fultonham a378 

Funk a30 


Gageville a^O 

Gahanna 276 

Galatea alOO 

Galena a350 

Galford a25 

Galigher alO 

Galion 7,282 

Gall a25 

Gallia a50 

Gallipolis (c. h.) 5,432 

Galloway al82 


Gambler 751 


Ganges 100 

Gano a25 

Garden a20 

Garden Isle 

Garfield ' a200 

Garland a55, 

Garlo a50 


Garrettsville 1 , 145 

Gasville a40 

Gates Mill a80 


Gavers a25 

Gaysport a35 

Geauga Lake a200 

Gem a25 

Geneva 2,342 

Genoa 824 

Georgesville a200 

Georgetown (c. h.). . . 1,529 


Gerald alO 

German a200 

Germano a300 

Germantown 1,703 



Getaway al80 

Gettysburg 246 

Geyer alOO 

Ghent al50 


Gibisonville a60 

Gibson a50 

Gibsonburg 1,791 

Giddings a50 



Gilboa 346 

Gillespieville a250 


Gillivan a25 

Gilmore a250 

Gingshamsburg al50 

Girard 2,630 

Given a35 

Glade a25 

Glade Run 

Gladstone a25 

Gladys a25 

Glandorf 749 

Glanntown a25 

Glasgow a42 



Glass a25 

Glass Rock 

Glenburg a25 

Glencoe a50 

Glendale ^ 1,545 

Glenebon a25 

Gleneste al50 

Glenford alOO 

Glen Jean • 

Glenkarn a75 

Glenmont 209 

Glenmoore a40 


Glenn a25 

Glenrose a50 

Glenroy a200 

Glenville 5,588 


Glenwood (Noble)... alOO 

Glenwood (Warren) 

Glouster 2,155 

Glovers ..... 

Glynnwood a200 

Gnadenhutten 547 

Goes al25 

Golden Corners a50 


Gomer . . , al20 

Goodhope a200 


Goodwin alO 

Gorjdon aSOO 

Gore a500 

Goshen (Clermont) . . a300 

Goshen (Tuscarawas) 

Gould (Ashtabula)... a50 

Gould (Jefferson) 


Grade a50 

Grafton 1,098 


Grand Rapids 549 

Grand River 332 

Grand View (Frank- 

Grandview (Washing- 
ton) a75 

Granger a50 

Grant (Clark) 

Grant (Hardin) a30 

Granville 1,425 


Grapegrove a50 

Gratiot aSOO 


Gravel Bank 

Gravel Pit (Ashtabula) . 

Gravel Pit (Clermont) 

Gravel Pit (Hamilton) 

Gravel Pit .(Ross) 



Graysville 174 

Graytown a300 

Greasyridge alO 

Greatbend a25 


Greenbrier a25 

Greenbush alOO 

Greencamp 369 

Greencastle al50 


Greenfield 3,979 

Greenford a200 

Greenhill a26 

Greenland a50 

Green Lawn 


Greensburg a700 

Greenspring 816 

Greentown a400 

Greenville (c. h.).... 5,501 

Greenwich 849 


Greersville alOO 



Grelton a250 


Gretna al5 


Griffith (Hamilton) 

Griffith (Monroe).... a50 

Griggs Corners , a25 

Grimes , 

Grisier .- a25 

Groesbeck . , a200 

Grogan . , , 

Grosvenor (P, O.) 

Grosvenor (Station) 

Grove a300 

Grove City 656 

Groveport .,,,....,, 619 



Groverhill 655 

Guernsey a30 



Gurneyville alOO 

Gustavus aSOO 

Gutman alOO 

Guysville a200 

Gypsum a50 


Hackney a25 


Haga alO 



Hagerman a254 

Hagler a25 


Halescreek alOO 


Halls Valley 

Hallsville a368 


Halo alOO 

Hamburg (Fairfield). a25 

Hamburg (Perry) 

Hamden Junction. . . . 838 


Hamersville 242 

Hametown a50 

Hamilton (Butler; c. 

h.) ,. 23,914 

Hamilton (Monroe) 

Hamler 574 

Hamlet a75 

Hamley Run 

Hammansburg al50 

Hammondsville a300 

Hampden a60 

Hancock (Hancock) 

Hancock (Perry) a25 



Haney a25 

Hanging Rock 665 


Hannibal a500 

Hanover (Butler) 

Hanover (Licking) . , , 314 

Hanoverton 399 



Hard a25 

Hardin (P. O.) al25 

Hardin (Station) 

Hardy Junction 

Harlem alOO 

Harlem Springs a230 



Harmony alO 

Harper a300 

Harpersfield alOO 

Harpers Station a25 

Harpster a200 

Harriet a25 

Harriettsville a300 

Harris (Gallia) a50 

Harris (Ross) 

Harrisburg (Franklin) 247 
Harrisburg (M o n t- 


Harrison 1,456 

Harrison Mills 

Harrisonville al,075 

Harris Station a20 

Harrisville 250 

Harrod 370 

Harshasville alOO 

Harshman a500 

Hartford (Licking) 

Hartford (Noble) 

Hartford (Trumbull). 414 

Hartland a25 


Hartsburg a250 

Hartsgrove a800 


Hartville a300 

Hartwell 1,833 


Harveysburg 435 


Haskins 44P 


Hastings a25 


Hatfield a25 

Hatton a25 

Hattonia .,,♦........ . - ♦ ^ , 



Havana a250 


Haverhill al08 

Haviland 186 

Hawk a35 



Hayden aoO 

Haydenville a*200 

Hayesville (Ashland). 332 

Hayesville (Pickaway) 

Haynes a25 


Hay ward 

Hazael a25 

Hazlewood al50 


Hebbardsville a75 

Hebron 455 


Hector al50 

Hedges a250. 



Helena a457 

Helmick • 

Hemlock 581 

Hemlock Grove a75 


Hendrysburg a300 

Henley alOO 


Hennings Mill a75 

Heno a200 

Henrietta alOO 

Henrys Crossing 

Hepburn al75 

Herdman a25 

Hereford Station 


Herring a350 

Heslop al5 

Hessville alOO 

Hewitt (Athens) 

Hewitt (Darke) 

Hewitt (Jackson) 

Hibbetts a20 


Hickory a20 


UicksviUe ..,. 2,620 

Hiett al5 

Higby a50 

Higginsport 650 

High Hill a50 

Highland (Highland) 265 
Highland (Montgom- 

Highland City 

High Water a50 


Hillgrove a300 

Hillhouse a25 

Hilliards 376 


Hillsboro (c. h.) 4,535 

Hillsdale a25 

Hillsfork a35 

Hills Station 75 

Hill Switch 

Hilton a25 

Hinckley a300 

Hines (Athens) 

nines (Richland) 

Hines Crossing 


Hinton a20 

Hiram P. 659 

Hiram (Station) 

Hiramsburg a70 


Hoadley a25 

Hoaglin a25 




Hockingport al50 

Hohman alO 

Holcomb a25 



Holgate 1,237 

Holland al25 

Hollansburg 275 

Hollister a200 


Hollowtown a50 

Holly (Columbiana) 

Holly (Tuscarawas) 

Holmesville 304 

Holt a25 

Home City..., 868 



Homer (Licking) a300 

Homer (Medina) 

Homerville al50 

Homeworth a300 



Hooker a200 

Hooksburg al5 



Hopedale 365 

Hope Furnace 

Hopewell a200 

Hopkinsville a2e5 

Horatio a70 

Horrs a75 


Horton a25 

Hoskinsville a50 

Houcktown al75 

Houston a300 

Howard a350 

Howell a25 

Howenstine a50 

Hoyts Corners 

Hoytsville 431 

Hubbard 1,230 

Huber alO 


Hudson 983 


Hue a25 


Hughes alOO 


Hull a32 

Hull Prairie al40 

Humboldt a25 

Hume a75 

Hunt a50 

Hunter (Belmont)... a70 

Hunter (Noble) 

Huntington alOO 

Huntsburg a250 

Huntsville 408 

Hurford a20 

Huron 1,708 

Huron Junction ^. 


Hustead a50 

Huston .,....,..,.,, , . . . . 


Hutchison alO 

Hyattville alOO 


Iberia a250 

Ida a25 

Idaho a200 

Her a50 


Independence a250 

Indiancamp a80 



Inghams a25 

Ingomar a50 

Inland a400 


Inverness a50 

lona a50 


Irondale 1,136 

Ironton (c. h.) 11,868 

Ironton Junction 


Irville alOO 


Irwin (Licking) 

Irwin (Union) alOO 

Island Creek al5 

Isle Saint George. ... . 


Isleta alOO 

Ithaca 113 

Ivorydale a200 



Jackson (c. h.) 4,672 

Jacksonboro 77 

Jackson Center 644 

Jacksontown a250 

Jacksonville 1 ,047 

Jacobsburg al25 


Jamestown 1,205 

Jamton a400 

Jasper (Fayette) 

Jasper (Greene) . . . , , 



Jasper (Pike) a250 

Jasper Mills 

Java a50 

Jaybird a25 


Jaysville a50 


Jefferson (c. h.) 1,319 

Jeffersonville 790 

Jelloway al50 

Jenera 237 



Jero i 

Jerome alOO 

Jeromeville . . ., 308 

Jerry City 555 

Jersey al58 

Jerusalem 245 

Jesse a40 

Jester al50 


Jewell a50 

Jewett 743 



Jobs alOO 


Johns Creek 

Johnson al50 

Johnsons (Fayette) 

Johnsons (Guernsey) 

Johnsons (Montgom- 

Johnsons (Trumbull) 

Johnsons Crossing 

Johnsonville a700 

Johnstown 638 

Johnsville a225 


Jolly a95 

Jones City 


Joppa a25 

Jordan (Miami) 

Jordan (Noble) 

Jordon , 

Joy alOO 


Judson a25 

Julia aSO 

Jumbo a30 

Jump a25 

Junction a200 

Junction City 443 

Justus a200 


Kalida 622 

Kamms a50 

Kanauga '. . . . 

Kansas a350 

Karle a50 



Keene a200 

Keifer a25 

Keith a25 


Kelleys Island 1,174 

Kelleys Mills 

Kelloggsville al50 


Kelsey a50 



Kempton a25 

Kenilworth a200 

Kennard (Athens) 

Kennard (Champaign) al50 

Kennedy a25 

Kennon a50 

Kennonsburg a75 


Kensington a250 

Kent 4,541 

Kenton (c. h.) 6,852 

Kerr (Gallia) a25 

Kerr (Monroe) 

Kessler a75 

Kettlersville 145 


Keystone a70 



Kieferville alOO 

Kilbourne : al50 


Kileville a25 

Kilgore a200 

Killbuck 370 



Kilmer a25 

Kilvert a25 

Kimball a50 

Kimbolton 245 

Kinderhook a25 


Kingman a25 

Kingsbury a25 

Kings Creek aSOO 

Kings Mills 

Kingston 735 

Kingston Center allO 

Kingsville a600 

Kingsway a20 

Kinnikinnick a70 

Kinsey a60 

Kinsman (P. O.).... a700 

Kinsman (Station) 

Kiousville a25 

Kipton a300 

Kirby 187 



Kirkersville (P. O.).. a500 

Kirkersville (Station) 

Kirkpatrick alOO 

Kirkwood (Belmont) 

Kirkwood (Shelby).. alOO 

Kirtland a250 


Kitchen a50 

Kitts Hill a25 







Knight a25 


Knowlton a50 

Knox (Paulding)) 

Knox (Vintoii) a25 

Knoxdale a25 

Knoxville a300 

Koch alOO 


Kossuth 153 

Krumroy a50 


Kunkle a450 

Kyger al25 


Labelle a35 

Lacarne a75 

Laceyville . a30 


Lafayette (Allen) 316 

Lafayette (Madison). a250 

Laferty alO 

Lagonda . ; 

La Grange (Law- 

Lagrange (Lorain) . . . 528 

Laings a30 

Lake a300 


Lakefork al50 

Lake Park 

Lakeside a300 

Lakeside Park a25 

Lakeview 553 


Lakewood 3,355 

Lamartine al50 

Lamira a35 


Lancaster (c. h.) 8,991 

Landeck a20 

Landis a20 

Lane a50 


Langsville al50 

Lanier a75 


Laporte alOO 

Larue 997 


Latchie a50 

Latham al25 

Lathrop a25 

Latimer a40 

Latrobe a30 

Lattas a50 

Lattasburg 'al50 

Latty 444 

Laura 378 

Laurel al38 


Laurelville 450 



Lawrence (Washing- 

Lawrence (Wood) 

Lawrenceville a82 

Layland a60 

Layman a25 

Layton a25 



Leavittsburg a400 

Leavittsville a39 

Lebanon (c. h.) 2,867 

Lebanon Junction 


Leelan '. .'.V.V.V.V.V.V *ai66 

Leesburg 783 

Lees Creek al50 

Lees Siding 

Leesville (Carroll)... 269 

Leesville (Crawford) 

Leesville Cross Roads 178 

Leetonia 2,744 

Leipsic 1,726 

Leipsic Junction 

i^eistville a25 


Lemert a40 

Lemon ; 

Lemoyne al5^0 

Lena , al50 

Lenox alOO 

Leo '. . .. a70 

Leon (Ashtabula) a65 

Leon (Putnam) 


Leonardsburg alOO 

Lerado alOO 

Leroy alOO 


Le Sourdsville 

Lester Station 

Letart Falls a500 

Levanna a294 

Level alOO 

Levering alOO 

Lewis (Morgan) 

Lewis (Muskingum) 

Lewisburg 560 

Lewis Center aSOO 

Lewistown a200 

Lewisville 170 

Lexington 448 

Leydas Crossing 

Liberty (Henry) 

Liberty (Montgom- 
ery) a250 

Liberty Center 606 

Liberty Corners alOO 

Licking Valley a38 



Lilly al50 

Lilly 'Chapel a200 

Lima (c. h.) 21,723 

Limaville 156 

Lime City a200 

Limerick a25 

Limestone (Harrison) 

Limestone (Ottawa). . a50 

Lincoln (Gallia) 

Lincoln (Jackson) 

Lindale a250 


Linden Heights 

Lindentree a50 

Lindenville a75 


Lindsey 614 

Link alO 


Linnville alOO 


Linton a50 

Linton Mills a90 


Lisbon (c. h.) 3,330 

Litchfield a300 

Lithopolis 358 

Little Hocking a300 

Little Mountain a50 

Little Sandusky 181 


Littleyork al50 

Liverpool a240 

Lloyd a60 

Lock a25 

Lockbourne a375 

Lockington a210 

Lockland 2,695 


Lock Seventeen 



Lockville a80 

Locust Corner a50 

Locustgrove (Adams) al50 

Locust Grove (Clark) 

Locustpoint a200 

Locustridge alOO 

Lodi 846 


Logan (Hocking; c. 

h.) 3,480 

Logan (Marion) 

Loganville a200 

Lois a25 


London (c. h.) 3,511 

Londonderry alOO 

Lonestar a50 

Long a25 

Long Bottom a250 

Long Hollow 

Longley a25 

Long Run (Jefferson) 

Longrun (Licking).;. a50 


Longstreth a50 



Lookout a25 

Lorain 16,028 

Loramie . . , 444 

Lordstown (P. O.).. a50 

Lordstown (Station) 

Lore City al50 

Lottridge a25 

Loudonville 1,581 

Louisville 1,374 

Loveland (Clermont). 1,200 
Loveland (M a h o n- 


Lovell 381 

Lovett a25 

Lowell a450 

Lowellville 1,137 

Lower Newport 

Lower Salem ■ 190 

Loyaloak a350 

Loydsville al75 

Lucas 306 

Lucas Grove 

Lucasville a300 

Lucerne alO 



Luckey a400 

Ludlow a200 

Ludlow Falls 

Ludwick a25 

Luke Chute 

Lumberton . . . ., 150 

Lunda a25 



Lybrand . .* 

Lyda a25 

Lykens alOO 

Lyme (Erie) ; 

Lyme (Huron) 

Lynchburg 907 

Lyndon al75 


Lynx a30 

Lyons a300 

Lyonsdale alO 

Lyra a25 

Lysander a25 

Lytle al50 



McArthur (c. h.).... 941 

McArthur Junction 


McCartyville alOO 


McCleary a200 

McClure 660 

McComb 1,195 

McConnellsville (c. h.) 1,825 


McCrea Park 


McCuneville alOO 

McCutchenville a300 

McDaniel a25 

McDermot a25 


McDonaldsville alOO 




McGill a20- 



McGonigle a75 

McGuffey 452 

McKay a40 

McKays a25 


McLean a25 

McLuney a69 

McQuaid a50 


McZena a30 


Macbride a25 


Macedon a86 

Macedonia Depot. . . . al50 

Mack a25 

Macksburg 448 

Maddock a25 

Madeira a500 

Madison (Jackson) 

Madison (Lake) 768 

Madison (Richland) 

Madisonburg alOO 

Madison Mills al50 

Madisonville 3,140 

Madland a25 


Magnetic Springs 194 

Magnolia 431 


Mahoning a30 

Maineville 288 

Malaby a25 

Malaga al50 

Malinta 357 

Malletcreek a250 

Malta 845 

Malvern 709 

Manara alO 

Manchester 2,003 

Mandale alOO 

Manhattan a25 

Manila a25 



Mansfield (c. h.) 17,640 

Mantua 743 

Mantua Station 

Maple a25 

Maplegrove a40 


Mapleton alOO 

Maplewood (Hamil- 

Maplewood (Shelby). alOO 

Marathon al40 

Marblechff alOO 

Marblehead 997 

Marblehead Junction 

Marchand a30 


Marcus a25 

Marcy a50 

Marengo 242 

Maria Stein a205 

Marietta (c. h.) 13,348 

Marion (c. h.) 11,862 

Marits ' a80 

Mark Cente; a250 

Markle alOO 


Marlboro a270 

Marquand a20 


Marseilles 251 

Marshall al75 

Marshallville 357 

Marshfield 'a200 


Martel a200 

Martin a300 

Martinsburg 238 

Martins Ferry 7,760 

Martinsville 338 

Marvel a25 

Marysville (c. h.).... 3,048 

Mascot . .• 

Mason 629 


Massillon 11,944 

Massillon Junction 

Masterton al50 



Matville a25 

Maud al50 

Maumee 1,856 


Maximo al85 


Maxville alOO 

May a25 














Medina (c. h.). .-• 



















Messenger Junction. . 





Miami (Hamilton) . . . 

Miami (Lucas) 

Miami City 

Miami Crossing 



Middlebass , 



Middleburg ......... 





Middleport (P. O.)... 
Middleport (Station). 




























Middletown (P. O.).. 9,215 

Middletown (Station). ., 

Middletown Junction 

Midland 338 

Midvale 491 

Midway (Defiance) 

Midway (Guernsey) 

Midway (Madison; see 

Sedalia ) 274 

Milllin 185 


Milan 653 



Milford 1,149 

Milford Center 682 



Millbury 284 

Milledgeville 201 

Miller a231 

Miller City 163 


Millersburg (c. h.)... 1,998 

Millersport a259 

Miller Station a20 

Millerstown a200 

Millersville a55 

Millfield alOO 


Millheim ' 


Millport alOO 

Millrock a20 


Millville a275 

Mililwood a400 

Milnersville al50 


Milroy a60 

Milton (Ashland) 

Milton (Mahoning).. a20 

Milton (Wood) 

Milton Center 325 

Miltonsburg 130 

Miltonville a75 




Mineral 1,220 

Mineralpoint al,200 



Mineralridge 831 

Mineral Siding 

Mineral Springs (P. 

O.) alOO 

Mineral Springs (Sta.) 

Minersville al,300 

Minerton alOO 

Minerval 1,200 

Mingo a300 

Mingo Junction 2,954 

Minster 1,465 

Mishler alOO 

Mitchaw a25 

Moats a25 


Moffitt a25 

Mogadore a400 

Mohawk Valage a75 

Mohican a40 

Moline a25 

Momeneetown a250 

Monclova alOO 

Monday a400 

Monday Cr. Jc 


Monnett a50 

Monroe (Butler) a375 

Monroe (Greene) 

Monroe (Jackson)... a25 

Monroe Center a300 


Monroe Mills a40 

Monroeville 1,211 

Monterey alOO 

Montezuma 317 

Montgomery (Hamil- 
ton) a450 

Montgomery (L i c k- 


Monticello alOO 

Montpelier 1,869 

Montra al50 

Montreal a25 

Montrose a75 

Montville a200 

Moody i alOO 

Moons : al50 


Moorefield (Clark) 

Moorefield (Harrison) a200 

Moores Fork a25 

Moores Junction 

Moorland a60 

Moran Station 

Morans Switch 


Morehead ' 

Morgan Center a50 

Morgan Run 


Morgansville a50 

Morgantown a200 

Morning Sun al40 


Morral al51 

Morris (Seneca) a40 

Morris (Washington) 

Morristown 350 

Morrisville alOO 

Morrow 869 

Mortimer al50 

Morton alO 

Moscow 475 

Moscow Mills alO 

Mosk alOO 



Mossrun a25 

Mott Town 

Moulton (Auglaize) . . al50 

Moultom (Lawrence) 

Moultrie a52 

Mound (Coshocton).. a50 

Mound (I^ ranklin) 

Mountairy 400 

Mount Blanchard.... 456 

Mount Blanco 

Mount Carmel a200 

Mount Garrick alO 

Mount Cory 312 

Mount Eaton • 232 

Mount Ephraim (P. 

O.) a200 

Mount Ephraim (Sta- 

Mount Gilead (c. h.). 1,528 

Mount Healthy 1 , 354 

Mount Heron alOO 

Mount Holly al80 

Mounthope al50 

Mount Joy a25 



Mount Liberty a200 

Mount Olive a30 

Mount Orab 561 

Mount Perry al25 

Mount Pisgah alOO 

Mount Pleasant (Clin- 

Mount Pleasant (Jef- 
ferson; P. O.) 626 

Mount Pleasant (Jef- 
ferson; Station) 

Mount Repose a50 

Mount Saint Joseph 

Mount Sterling 986 

Mount Summit 

Mount Union 

Mount Vernon (c. h.) 6,633 

Mount Victory 734 

Mountville alOO 

Mount Washmgton.. 781 

Mount Ziion 

Mowrystown al75 

Moxahala a408 


Mulberry alOO 

Mulberry Corners a200 


Mungen a250 

Munroe Falls a25 

Munson alOO 

Munson Hill 

Muntanna a25 

Murdoch a25 



Murray 1,118 

Museville a50 

Muskingum (Muskin- 

Muskingum (W a s h- 


Musselman alO 

Mutual , . 163 

Myers (Madison) 

Myers (Stark; a25 

Myersville a50 




Nancy a26 

Nankin a60 

Maomi alO 


Napoleon (c. h.) 3,639 

Nashport al50 

Nashville 766 

National Military 

Home a6,000 

National Road (iLck- 


National Road (Mont- 

Navarre 963 

Neapolis alOO 

Nebo (Defiance) a25 

Nebo (Mahoning) 

Nebraska a30 


Needful a25 

Needmore a25 


Neelysville a50 

Neffffs '. a300 

Negley a300 

Nellie a40 

Nelson al50 

Nelson Ledge 

Nelsonville 5,421 

Neowash alO 

Neptune al50 


Nettlelake a75 

Nevada 889 

Neville 265 

Nevin al70 

New Albany ,224 

New Alexander a60 

New Alexandria (P. 

O.) al22 

New Alexandria (Sta- 

New Antioch al80 

Newark (c. h.) 18,157 

New Athens 435 

New Baltimore a200 

New Bavaria al25 

New Bedford a400 

New Berlin.... a500 

New Blooxnington 
(see Agosta) '399 



New Boston a25 

New Bremen 1,318 

New Buffalo alOO 

Newburg 5,909 

New Burlinp-ton a400 

New California a50 

New Carlisle 995 

Newcastle a250 

New Chambersburg. . a78 

New Comerstown. . . . 2,659 

New Concord 675 

New Cumberland. . . . al50 

New Dover all2 

Newell Run a40 

New England alOO 


New Franklin a90 

Newgarden a200 

New Guilford a75 

New Hagerstown al50 

New Hampshire a200 

New Harmony alOO 

New Harrisburg alOO 

Newhaven a400 

New Holland 692 

Newhope (Brown)... • a200 

New Hope (Preble) 



New Jasper a60 

New Jerusalem a20 

New Knoxville 436 

New Lebanon (Mi- 
ami; see Pottsdam) 224 
New Lebanon (Mont- 
gomery) 145 

New Lexington 
(Highland; see 

Highland P. O.)... 265 
New Lexington 

(Perry; c. h.) 1,701 

New London 1,180 

New Lyme 

New Lyme Station. . . a300 

New Madison 590 

Newman a300 

Newmarket al25 

New Martinsburg. . . . a200 

New Matamoras 817 

New Middletown a200 

New Milford alOO 

New Moorefield a250 

New Moscow alOO 

New Palestine alOO 

New Paris 790 

New Petersburg a232 

New Philadelphia (c. 

h.) 6,218 

New Pittsburg a200 

New Plymouth al80 

Newport (Adams) 

Newport (Washing- 
ton) a300 

New Portage a200 

New Richland al40 

New Richmond 1,916 

New Riegel 298 

New River , . . 

New Rochester. a30 

New Rumley a200 

New Salem... 180 

New Salem Siding 

New Somerset a90 

New Springfield a300 

New Stark a90 

New Straitsville 2,302 

Newton Falls 732 


Newtonsville al60 

Newtown a552 

New Vienna 805 

Newville alOO 

New Washington 824 

New Waterford a700 

Newway a75 

New Weston a75 

New Winchester a95 

Ney 289 



Nicholsville alOO 


Niles 7,468 

Nimisila a200 



Nipgen a25 

Noble a25 

Noble Summit 

Nobleville a20 

Noggle a25 

Norman a50 




Norristown a50 

North Amherst 1 , 758 

North Auburn alOO 

North Baltimore 3,561 

Northbend 332 

North Benton al25 

North Berne a50 

North Bloomfield (P. 

O.) aSOO 

North Bloomfield 


North Bristol ^200 

North Broadway 

North Clayton 

Northcreek a50 

North Dover :. . a50 

North Eaton ,. a50 

North Fairfield a700 

North Feesburg 

Northfield a500 

North Findlay 

North Georgetown.. a240 

North Greenfield a50 

North Hamilton 

North Hampton a400 

North Industry a200 

North Jackson a400 

North Kenova alOO 

North Kingsville a350 

North Lawrence al,200 

North Lewisburg 846 

North Liberty a200 

North Lima......... a300 

North Linndale a60 

North Madison a50 

North Monroeville. . . alOO 

North Neff 

North Richmond a250 

North Ridgeville a250 

North Robinson 200 

North Royalton a200 

Northrup a25 

North Salem a50 

North Sheffield a200 

North Solon alOO 

North Springfield a80 

North Star alOO 

North Uniontown a75 

Northville a25 

North Washington. . . a265 


Northwest ; . . a25 

Northwood a25 

Norton al25 

Norwalk (c. h.) 7,074 

Norwich 253 

Norwood (suburb of 

Cincinnati) 6,480 

Nottingham 939 

Nova a200 


Nunda a50 

Nutwood a50 



Oakdale a25 

Oakfield a250 


Oak Harbor 1,631 

Oakhill 825 

Oakland (Butler) 

Oakland (Clinton) ... 

Oakland (Mercer) 

Oakland (Muskin- 

Oakley 528 

Oak Ridge 



Oakwood 302 

Obal a25 


Oberlin 4,082 

Oceola a300 



Odell alO 

Ogden a50 

Ogontz a50 

Ohio City 862 

Ohlstown a25 

Okeana a200 

Okey a25 

Okolona al50 


Oldfort alOO 

Oldham alO 

Oldtown (Greene) a25 

Oldtpwn (Hocking). . ..... 


Olena a300 

Olentangy -. 


Olive (Lawrence) 

Olive (Noble) 

Olivebranch a250 

Olive Furnace a25 

Olivegreen a25 

Olivesburg al40 


Olmsted alOO 

Olmsted Falls 330 


Omega alOO 

Oneida Mills al50 

Ontario a200 

Opera a25 

Oral a50 

Oran a40 


Orangeville a400 

Orbiston allO 

Orchard alOO 


Oregonia alll 


Orient alOO 


Orland al5 



Orrville 1,901 


Orwell al,000 

Osage a25 

Osborn 948 

Osgood 224 

Osman a25 

Osnaburg 558 

Ostrander 401 


Otsego a200 

Ottawa (c. h.) 2,322 



Ottokee alOO 

Ottoville 369 

Otway 274 

Outville alOO 

Oval City al25 

Qverpeck ..... , , a25 

Overton . . 






Oxford ... 
Oxtobys> . . 






Painesville (c. h.) . . 


Painter Creek 


Paint Valley 



Palmyra (P. O.)... 
Palmyra (Station) . 





Paradise Hill 






Park Mills 

Park Place 

Parma (P. O.) 

Parma (Station) . . . 







Patten Mills 



Pattons Run. ...... 


Paulding (c. h.) 




























Pavonia alOO 



Payne 1,336 

Paynes Corners a50 

Peachton a2b 

Pearl a50 

Pearson a25 

Peck a25 

Pedro a25 

Peebles '..... 763 

Peerless a25 

Pekin (Carroll) 

Pekin (Warren; a25 


Pemberton a300 

Pemberville 1,081 

Penfield alOO 

Peniel a25 

Peninsula 579 

Penlan a25 

Pennsville a250 


Penza a200 

Peoli alOO 

Peoria a200 


Perintown a50 

Perkins ' (Erie) 

Perkins (Mahoning). a300 

Perry a250 

Perryopolis alO 

Perrysburg 1,766 

Perrysville 513 

Perryton al50 

Peru a50 

Petersburg a500 

Pettisville' * .* .* .* .* .* '. '. .' .* ! 'aSOO 

Pfeiffer a75 

Phalanx alOO 

Phalanx Station 

Pharisburg a300 

Pherson a25 

Philadelphia Road 

Philanthropy a25 

Philo a300 

Philothea a25 

Phoenix a25 


Piccolo , — , . a50 

Pickerington 263 

Pickrelltown alOO 

Piedmont a275 

Pierce (Muskingum) 

Pierce (Stark) a300 


Pierpont a350 

Pigeeonrun a75 

Pike a25 

Pikerun a25 

Piketon 625 

Pikeville a90 

Pilcher alOO 

Pincher , 

Pinegrove a200 

Pinehill ^ 

Pine Valley 


Pioneer 603 


Pipe Creek 

Pipe Creek 


Piqua 12,172 

Piqua Junction 

Pisgah a250 

Pitchin alOO 

Pittsburg a50 

Pittsfield a50 

Plain a60 

Plain City ' 1,432 

Plainfield 225 

Plainville a200 

Plankton a75 

Piano a25 


Plantsville a50 

Platform a50 

Plattsburg al50 

Plattston alO 

Plattsville i,. al50 

Pleasantbend alOO 

Pleasant City 1,006 

Pleasant Corners a50 

Pleasantgrove a80 

Pleasanthill 557 

Pleasant Home al50 

Pleasanton all5 

Pleasantplain al50 

Pleasantridge 953 

Pleasantrun ^25 



Pleasant Valley 

Pleasant Valley Com- 

Pleasantville 501 

Plimpton a300 



Plymouth 1,154 

Poasttown al50 

Poe a30 

Point Isabel al25 

Point Pleasant al25 

Pointrock a25 

Poland .. 370 

Polk 232; 

Polkadotte a30 



Pomeroy (c. h.) 4,639 





Poplar al50 

Poplargrove a25 

Poplarridge " a25 

Portage 546 

Portage Center 

Port Clinton (c. h.).. 2,450 

Porterfield . '. 

Portersville a50 

Port Homer a20 

Port Jefferson 355 

Portland a300 

Portland Station a300 

Portsmouth (c. h.)... 17,870 

Port Union a77 

Port Washington.... 424 

Port William 200 

Postboy a25 

Potsdam 224 


Pottersburg a50 

Poulton a25 

Powder Works 

Powell a300 


Powellsville alOO 

Powhatan Point a300 

Prairie Depot a400 

Prall a25 



Pratts Fork a50 

Pravo al5 


Presque Isle 

Preston a250 

Pricetown al52 

^Pride a25 

Primrose alO 


Proctorville 523 

Progress a25 

Prohibition ........' 

Prospect 983 




Pugh alOO 

Pulaski al40 

Pulaskiviile a60 

Pulse a20 


Purity a50 

Pursell a25 

Put-in-Bay 317 


Pyrmont a200 


Quaker City 1,878 

Qualey a50 

Quarry alO 

Quincy 642 


Raab a50 

Raccoon Island 

Racine 327 

Radcliff a200 

Radnor a600 

Rado alO 

Ragersville a350 


Rainsboro a239 


Ramey , . . . 



Randolph a200 





Ransoms ..*,... 


Rappsburg , 





Ravenna (c. h.) 








Red Bank 





Red Oak 

Red River 




Reeds Mills 

Reeds Run 











Relief (Huron) 

Relief (Washington) . 



Remsons Corners 







Reservoir (Mercer).. 























Reservoir (Summit) 

Revenge a25 

Rex a25 

Rexford , , 

Reynoldsburg 339 

Reynolds (Cham- 
paign) a25 

Reynolds (Lake) 

Reynoldsburg 339 


Rialto also 


Rice a25 



Richfield a50 

Richfield Center alOO 

Richhill a200 

Richland (Richland) 

Richland (Vinton) 

Richmond (Jefferson) 373 
Richmond (Lake; see 

Grand River) 332 

Richmond Center alOO 

Richmonddale a300 

Rich Valley alO 

Richville al25 

Richwood 1,640 

Ridge al5 

Ridgeton a75 

Ridgeville alOO 

Ridgeville Corners. . . al50 

Ridgeway 447 


Riggs a50 

Rimer a50 

Rinard Mills a25 

Ringgold a50 

Ria Grande al25 

Rio Grande al26 

Riota a25 

Ripley ^ 2,248 

Ripleyville alOO 

Risingsun 606 

Risley aoO 


Rittman al50 

River Bridge 

Riverdale a25 

River Styx alOO 





Rix Mills alOO 

Roachton a20 



Robertsville a250 

Robins a400 

Rochester 167 

Rock a20 

Rockaway a25 

Rockbridge a250 

Rockcamp a200 

Rockcreek 478 

Rockcreek Station 

Rock Cut 


Rockford 1,207 

Rock House 

Rockland al50 

Rockport (P. O.).... 2,038 

Rockport (Station) 

Rock Run 


Rockwell Junction 

Rockwood alOO 

Rockfork a25 

Rockyhill a2o 

Rockyridge 414 

Rocky River 1,319 

Rodney a50 

Rogers 287 

Rokeby Lock al8 


Rollersville al20 

Rome (Ashtabula) . . . al50 

Rome (Putnam) 


Rootstown (P. O.). . . a200 

Rootstown (Station) 

Roscoe aSOO 

Rosedale (Madison). a200 
Rosedale (Montgom- 

Rosefarm a25 

Rosehill a25 

Roselms a60 

Rosemont a200 


Roseville 1,207 

Rosewood a250 

Ross a350 

Rosseau aoO 


Rossville 251 

Roundbottom alO 

Roundhead a275 

Rousculp a25 


Rowland alO 

Rowlesville al5 

Rows a250 

Roxabell alOO 

Roxanna a25 

Roxbury a25 

Royal ,. a25 

Royal Siding 

Royalton al63 


Rudolph a50 




Ruggles alOO 

Rupert a25 

Rural a90 

Ruraldale alOO 

Rush (Darke) 

Rush (Tuscarawas) 

Rushcreek alOO 

Rushmore al80 

Rush Road 

Rushrun alOO 

Rushsylvania 552 

Rushtown a25 

Rushville 257 

Russell alOO 

Russells Point 

Russellville 394 


Ruth a25 


Rutland a300 

Ryansville alOO 


Sabina 1,481 

Sago al50 

Saint Andrews 

Saint Bernard 3,384 

Saint Charles 

Saint Clair (Columbi- 
ana) al50 



Saint Clair (Musking- 


Saint Clairsville (c. 

h.) 1,210 

Saint Clairsville Jc 

Saint Henry a700 

Saint James a300 

Saint Johns a350 

Saint Joseph .- a40 

Saint Josephs 

Saint Louisville 285 

Saint Martin al60 

Saint Marys 5,359 

Saint Paris 1,222 

Saint Patricks a25 

Saint Paul al5 

Saint Peters alO 

Saint Rosa a50 

Saint Stephen a25 

Salem 7,582 

Salem Center a50 

Salesville 286 


Salineville 2,353 


Saltcreek , 

Saltillo (Holmes) a50 

Saltillo (Perry).' 

Saltpetre a50 

Salt Run 

Samantha a250 

Sample a25 

Samsonville a30 

Sandfork a25 

Sandhill a50 

Sand Hollow 

Sandrun /. alOO 

Sand Run Junction 


Sandusky 19,664 

Sandusky Junction 

Sandyville a300 


Santa Fe a25 

Sarahsville 279 

Sardinia a600 

Sardis a400 

Sargents a25 

Sater a25 

Saundersville alOO 

Savannah 290 

Savona a50 

Saxon a30 

Saybrook a350 

Sayre a40 




Schumm a25 

Science Hill 

Scio 1,214 

Scioto a200 

Scioto Furnace 

Sciotoville a986 

Scipio Siding a25 


Scotchridge a200 

Scott (Noble) 

Scott (Van \vert).... 547 

Scottown alOO 


Scotts Crossing 

Scotts Landing 

Scroggsfield (P. O.). a25 

Scroggsfield (Station) 


Scudder alO 

Seal a40 


Seaman a30 


Sebastian a25 

Sebring 387 

Sedalia 274 

Sedan a35 

Sego a25 

Sekitan a200 


Selig a.25 

Selkirk ^ 

Sells Crossing 

Selma a255 



Senecaville 623 

Sentinel a59 

Seth a25 

Sevenmile 256 

Seven Mile Siding 

Seventeen alOO 

Seville 602 

Seward a85 



Sewellsville a200 

Shackelton a25 

Shade alOO 

Shadeville a200 



Shaffffers Siding 


Shalersville a250 

Shamrock a25 

Shandon a300 


Shanesville a500 

Shannon a50 

Sharon (Hamilton) 

Sharon (Noble) a275 

Sharon Center a300 

Sharonville a713 

Sharpeye a25 

Sharpsburg a25 

Sharpsburg Junction 

Shasta alO 

Shauck a300 

Shawnee 2,966 

Shawnee Junction 

Shawtown al60 


Sheeprun a25 

Sheffield (P. O.) 

Sheffield (Station). 

Shelby 4,685 

Shelby Junction 



Shenanhoah a60 

Shepard a200 


Sheppards Ridge 


Sheridan a200 

Sherman (Ashtabula) 

Sherman (Summit). . . alOO 

Sherodsville 926 

Sherritts a20 

Sherwood 455 


Shiloh 597 


Shinrock a75 

Ship a50 

Shortcreek a250 


Shreve 1,043 

Shyville . .' a25 

Siam al50 


Sidney (c. h.) 5,688 

Signal a25 


Silvercreek (Hardin). al50 

Silver Creek (Medina) 

Siilverton al50 


Simons alOO 



Siney alO 

Sinking Springs 238 

Sioux alO 

Sippo a75 

Sitka a20 


Sixpoints a25 

Sixteen Mile Stand.. a25 
Skeels Crossroads.... a25 




Slate Mills a35 

Slater a25 




Slough a25 

Smiley al25 


Smithfield 503 

Smithroad a25 


Smithville (P. O.).... 474 

Smithville (Station) 


Smyrna al25 

Snodes a25 

Snow Fork Junction 

Snowville a25 


Socialville a75 

Sodom alO 

Solon a300 

Somerdale a300 

Samerset 1 , 124 



Somerton a250 

Somerville 300 

Sonora a200 




South Akron ". . . 

South Bantam 

South Bloomfield.... 223 
South Bloomingville. alOO 
South Brooklyn (sub- 
urb of Cleveland).. 2,343 

South Charleston 1 , 096 

South Columbus 

South Euclid 

South Fincastle 

Southington alOO 

South Kirtland , 

South Lebanon a500 

South Loudonville 

South Marion 

South Milford 

South Newark 

South Newbury al50 

South New Lyme. . . . a300 

South Olive al50 

Southpark a75 

South Perry a20 

Southpoint 281 

South Salem 264 

South Solon 319 

South Thompson. . . . al50 

South Warsaw a50 

South Webster 445 

Southworth a50 

South Zanesville 



Spanker aloO 

Spann al50 


Sparta (Morrow) 215 

Sparta (Stark) 


Special a50 


Spencer a200 

Spencers Station a60 

Spencerville 1 ,874 


Spiller a25 

Spokane a25 

Spore a50 

Sport a34 

Spout Springs 


Spratt a25 

Springboro 433 

Springdale a400 

Springer a25 

Springfield (c. h.).... 38,253 

Springhill 157 

Springlake a30 

Springmills a60 

Spring Mt alOO 

Springvalley 522 

Springville ' alOO 




Stafford a350 


Stanley (see Standley) a50 

Stanleyville a60 

Stantontown a50 

Stanwood alO 

■ Starkey , 

Starr alOO 

Startle alOO 

State Line 

Stateroad a20 

State Soldiers' Home 

Station Fifteen a45 

Staunton a200 


Steam Corners • a50 


Stedeke a25 

Steece a25 



Steelrun a25 


Stella a25 


Stephens a30 

Sterling a300 

Steuben a200 

Steubenville (c. h.)... 14,349 

Stewart a200 

Stewart Junction 

Stewartsville a25 



Stillwater al25 

Stillwater Junction 

Stillwell aSO 

Stockport 376 

Stockton a50 



Stonecreek a200 


Stone Siding 

Stoneville a40 

Stonyridge t al50 

Storms a25 

Stout a300 

Stoutsville a282 

Stovertown a75 


Strasburg 461 

Stratford a25 

Streetsboro a200 

Stringtown alOO 

Strongsville a250 

Struthers aSOO 

Stryker 1,206 

Stubbs a20 


Success a25 

Suffield al50 

Sugarcreek al50 

Sugar Creek 

Sugargrove (F a i r- 

field) ^ 350 

Sugar Grove (Mi- 

Sugarridge al50 

Sugartree a50 

Sugartree Ridge a200 

Sugar Valley a25 

Suiter a25 

Sullivan alOO 



Sulphur Springs a500 

Summerfield 511 

Summerford a500 

Summerside a25 

Summit (Jackson) 

Summit (Miami) 

Summit (Ross) 

Summit (Summit).... alOO 
Summit (Wayne) 

Summit Grade Siding 

Summithill a25 

Summit Siding 

Suuimit Station a20 

Summitville a50 

Sumner a25 

Sunbury 464 

Sundale a50 


Sunshine (P. O.).... a25 

Sunshine (Station) 




Surry ville 


Swaims Siding 

Swan al25 

Swancreek a25 


Swanders alOO 

Swanton 887 

Swartz a25 



Sweetwine • a40 

Swifts al8 



Switzer al5, 

Sybene ' 

Sycamore 853 

Sycamore Valley a20 

Sylvania ". . 617 

Symmes alOO 

Symmes Corners alOO 

Syracuse al,256 


Tabor a40 


Tadmor al70 

Tallmadge a400 

Tamah a53 

Tank Spur 

Tappan al50 

Tariff a50 

Tarlton 388 


Tawawa a200 



Taylor alOO 


Taylorsburg a25 

Taylors Creek a25 

Taylorsville 543 

Ted alOO 

Tedrow a200 

Teegarden a50 

Teemes alO 

Temperanceville .... alOO 

Temple a50 

Terrace Park 290 

Terrehaute al25 

Texas al60 

Thackery a25 


The Bend alOO 


Thivener al25 

Thomastown a350 

Thompson al75 


Thorn 374 



Thorndyke alOO 

Thorn Hill 

Thornport a50 

Thornton a25 

Thornville a405 



Three Locks 

Thurman a215 

Thurston a213 

Tiffin (c. h.) 10,989 


Tiltonsville a300 

Tinney a25 

Tippecanoe 300 

Tippecanoe City 1,703 

Tipton a40 

Tiro 293 

Tiverton a65 

Tobasco al30 


Toboso a50 

Todds alO 

Tokio a25 

Toledo (c. h.) 131,822 

Toledo Junction 

Tontogany . . .* 352 

Torch al50 

Toronto 3,526 



Townwood a25 

Tracy ,. al30 



Trail Run (Guernsey) 

Trailrun (Monroe)... a25 

Tranquility a50 


Trautman a65 

Trebeins a50 


Tremont City 279 

Trenton 387 

Triadelphia a50 


Trimble 625 


Trinway a300 

Triumph a65 

Trimbley a75 

Trotwood a200 

Trowbridge a75 

Troy (c. h.> 5,881 

Troyton a25 

Trumbull alOO 



Tubbsville alO 

Tucson a25 


Tunnel a20 

Tunnelhill (Coshoc- 
ton) a50 

Tunnel Hill (Mon- 

Tunnel No. 1 

Tunnel Siding (Bel- 

Tunnel Siding (Perry) 

Tuppers Plains alOO 


Turkeyfoot Junction 

Turkeyfoot Mine 

Tuscarawas 412 

Twentymile Stand.... a50 



Twin a25 

Twinsburg a200 

Tycoon a25 



Tyner alO 



Tyrrell Hill 562 


Uhrichsville 4,582 

Ulric ■ 


Union 1,282 

Union Furnace a200 

Union Plains alOO 

Unionport a250 

Union Station a50 

Uniontown 245 


Union Village 

Unionville a500 

Unionville Center 259 

Uniopolis a475 

Unity al08 


Updegraff a50 


Upper Sandusky (c. 

h.) 3,355 

Upshur a2()0 

Ural a25 

Urbana (c. h.) 6,808 


Utica 826 

Utley a300 

Utopia a25 


Vales Mills a87 

Valley a25 


Valleyford a25 

Valley Jc. (Hamilton) 

Valley Jc. (Tuscara- 

Valley Mills 



Vanatta al50 

Vanburen 367 

Vanceburg a25 

Vanceton a25 

Vandalia 284 

Vanderhoof a25 

Vanlue 356 

Vans Valley a35 

Vanwert (c. h.) 6,422 



Vaugnsville alOO 

Venedocia 199 

Venice al80 



Vermilion 1,184 

Vernon a300 

Vernon Junction a60 

Versailles 1,478 





Vickery a50 

Victor a25 

Victoria a25 

Vienna a800 

Vienna Crossroads. . . a250 

Vigo al25 

Villa a200 

Vincent a200 

Vine a50 

Vineyard Hill alOO 

Vinton 304 

Vinton Station a200 

Violet (Mercer) a25 

Violet (Ottawa) 


Vorhees . , al50 




Wabash a75 

Waco a250 

Wade a50 

Wadsworth 1,764 



Waggoner Ripple. . . . a25 

Wagon Works 


Wainwright (Jackson) 

Wainwright (Tuscara- 
was) alOO 

Wait a25 

Wakatomika (Cosh- 
octon) a75 

Wakatomika (M u s- 


Wakefield alOO 

Wakeman a800 

Walbridge a250 


Waldo 278 

Wales a40 

Walhonding al50 

Walkers a50 

Walkers Grove 

Walkers Mill 

Wallace Mills a40 

Waller a250 

Wallsburg a30 

Walnut a25 

Walnutcreek al50 

Walnutgrove a50 

Walnutrun a200 

Walton a75 

Wamsley alOO 



Wapakoneta 3,915 

Ward a25 

Warfel alO 

Warner alOO 

Warnock al50 

Warren (c. h.) 8,529 

Warrensburg alOO 

Warrensville alOO 

Warrenton aSOO 

Warsaw 428 

Warsaw Junction 


Washington (Guern- 
sey) 374 

Washington (J a c k- 

son) 5,751 

Washingtonville 1 , 092 


Waterford al20 

Waterloo al25 

Watertown a200 

Waterville 703 

Watheys \ 

Watkins a70 

Watson a25 

Watt alO 

Wattsville a40 

Wauseon (c. h.) 2,148 

Waverly (c. h.) 1,854 

Way a20 

Wayland alOO 

Waynesburg 613 

Waynesfield 542 


Weavers Corners. . . . a50 

Weavers Station al50 

Webb ....: 

Webb Summit a25 

Webster 204 



Welcome a75 

Weldon all 

Welker Station 


Wellersville a50 

Wellington 2,094 

Wellman a25 

Wellston 8,045 

Wellsville 6,146 

Wellsville Shop ,. 


Welshfield a200 

Wendelin al5 


Wesley a25 

West a30 

West Alexandria 740 

West Andover a500 

West Athens 

West Austintown a300 

West Baltimore a3.50 


West Beaver.,.. 

West Bedford alOO 

West Berlin alOO 

Westboro a300 

West Brookfield a678 

West Cairo 338 

West Canaan a250 



West Carlisle a300 

West Carrollton 987 

West Charleston al20 

Westchester a259 

West Clarksfield alOO 

West Dayton 

West Dover a25 

West Elkton 215 

Western Star 148 

Westerville 1,462 

West Farmington. . ., 516 

Westfield a200 

West Florence a50 

Westhope a50 

West Independence.. a200 

West Jefferson 803 

West Junction 

West Lafayette a500 

West Lancaster a200 

Westland a25 

West Lebanon al50 

West Leipsic 346 

West Liberty 1,236 

West Lodi a300 

West Loudonville 

West Manchester 384 

West Mansfield 875 

West Marietta. 

West Mecca alOO 

West Mentor a50 

West Middleburg (see 

Middleburg) 288 

West Millgrove 236 

West Milton 904 

Westminster (P. O.). a350 

Westminster (Station) 

West Newton alOO 

Weston 953 

Westpark a50 

Westpoint a25 

West Richfield a900 

West Rushville 161 

West Salem 656 

West Sonora a200 

West Toledo 

West Union (c. h.).. 1,033 

West Unity 897 

Westview : . . . a200 

Westville a300 

West Wheeling 444 

West Williamsfield. . . a930 


West Woodville a50 

Wetsel a25 

Weyers a60 

Weymouth a250 

.Wharton (Scioto) 

Wharton (Wyandot). 439 

Wheat a65 


Wheelersburg a301 

Wheeling Creek 



Whigville a75 

Whipple a75 

Whisler a50 


Whitecottage a250 

Whitefox a50 

Whitehouse 621 

Whiteoak al9 

White Sulphur a25 




Whitmore alO 


Whittlesey al50 

Wick alOO 

Wickliffe a250 

Widowville a60 

Wiggonsville a41 


Wigner a25 

Wiilberforce a25 

Wildare a25 


Wilgus a25 


Wilkesville 223 

Wilkins al50 

Willard a200 

Willettville a50 

Williamsburg 1,002 

Williams Center alOO 

Williamsfield a300 

Williamsport (P. O.)- 547 

Williamsport (Sta.) 

Williamstown a50 

Williston al25 

Willoughby 1,753 




Willow Bank 

Willowbrook a25 

Willowdell alOO 


Willowwood a30 

Wills Creek alOO 

Willshire 560 

Wilmington (c. h.)... 3,613 

Wilmot 354 


Wilson al30 

Wilson Mills al50 


Winameg a"25 

Winchester (Aaams). 796 
Winchester (Preble; 

see Gratis) 375 



Windsor (Ashtabula). a300 

Windsor (Warren) 

Windsor Mills aSO 

Wineland a40 

Winesburg a300 

Winfield al50 

Wingett Run aSO 

Wingston a40 

Winkle a25 

Winona ' al50 

Winona Furnace 

Wintergreen alOO 

Winterset a200 

Wintersville a 100 

Winton Place 1,219 


Wiseman alOO 

Wisterman a75 

Withamsville a200 


Wolf alOO 

Wolfcale a20 

Wolfcreek a20 



Wood a25 

Woodford a30 

Woodgrove a39 

Woodington a300 

Woodland (Cuya- 

Woodland (Union) 

Woodlawn . . . : 

Woodlyn a25 



Woodsdale Park 

Woodsfield (c. h".).... 1,801 

Woodside a25 

Woodstock 325 

Woodview al20 

Woodville 831 

Woodworth a50 

Woodyards a70 

Wooster (c. h.) 6,063 


Worstville a300 

Worthington 443 

Wren 242 

Wrights Siding 

Wrightsville a25 

Wyandot al50 


Wynant a300 

Wyoming 1,450 


Xenia (c. h.) 8,696 


Yale - a75 


Yankee Crossing 



Yatesville a25 

Yellowbud al75 

Yellow Creek 

Yellow Springs 1,371 

Yelrah a25 

Yelverton al85 

Yoder alO 

Yoho a25 

Yondota a50 

York alOO 

Yorkshire a200 


Yorkville a50 

Yost a25 

Youba , , 



Young a25' 

Young Hickory a50 

Youngstown (c. h.).- 44,885 

Youngsville alOO 


Zaleski 577 

Zanesfield 278 

Zanesville (c. h.) 23,538 

Zeal a25 

Zeigers Siding 

Zelda a25 

Zeno a40 

Zimmer . . . 

Zimmerman al50 


Zoar 290 

Zoar Station alOO 

Zone alO 


Zuck a50 


Ashtabula River, 

Auglaize River, 

Bad Creek, 

Banta Creek, 

Bear Creek, 

Beaver Creek, 

Beaver Creek, 

Beaver Creek, 

Beaver Creek, 

Big Creek, 

Big Darby Creek, 

Big Walnut Creek, 

Black Fork Mohican River, 

Black River, 

Blanchard River, 

Blue Creek, 

Blue Creek, 

Blues Creek, 

Blush Creek, East Fork, 

Bokes Creek, 

Branch Creek, 

Bridge Creek, 

Brush Creek, 

Brush .Creek, 

Brush Creek, 

Chagrin River, 

Clear Creek, 

Clear Fork Mohican River, 

Conneaut River, 

Crooked Creek, 

Cuyahoga River, 

Darby Creek, 

Deer Creek, 

Dog Creek, 
Eagle Creek, 
Eagle Creek, 
Eagle Creek, 
Four Mile Creek, 
Franklin Creek, 
Gahanna River, 
Grand Reservoir, 
Grand River, 
Green Creek, 
Greenville Creek, 
Harrison Creek, 
Hoaglin Creek, 
Hocking River, 
Honey Creek, 
Huron River, 
Indian Creek, 
Indian Creek, 
Lev^iston Reservoir, 
Licking Creek, 
Licking River, 
Little Miami Creek, 
Little Miami River, 
Little Muskingum River, 
Little Scioto River, 
Little Yellow Creek, 
Long Creek, 
Loramie Reservoir, 
Loramie River, 
Maddox Creek, 
Mahoning River, 
Massicks Creek, 
Maumee Bay, 



Maumee River, 

Miami River, Great, 

Miami River, Little, 

Middle Brook, 

Mill Creek, 

Mohican River, 

Mosquito River, 

Mud Creek, 

Muddy Creek, 

Muddy Fork Mohican River, 

Muskingum River, 

Nettle Lake, 

Nine Mile Creek, 

Ohio River, 

Olentangy River, 

Ottawa River, 

Otter Creek, 

Paint Creek, 

Plum Creek, 

Pond Run, 

Portage River, 

Portage River, East Branch, 

Portage River, West Branch, 

Prairie Creek, 

Raccoon Creek, 

Rock Creek, 

Rocky Fork Mohican River, 

Rocky Fork Paint Creek, 

Rocky River, 

Rush Creek, 

Saint Joseph River, 

Saint Mary's River, 

Salt Creek, 

Sandusky Bay, 

Sandusky River, 

Scioto River, 

Shaw Creek, 

Six Mile Creek, 

Six Mile Reservoir, 

South Turkey Foot Creek, 

Spring Fork Darby Creek, 

Stillwater River, 

Stonelick Creek, 

Storms Creek, 

Storms Creek, 

Sugar Creek, 

Sugar Creek, 

Sunfish Creek, 

Swan Creek, 

Symmes Creek, 

Tiffin River, 

Todds Fork Little Miami 

Toussaint Creek, 
Town Creek, 
Turtle Creek, 
Twin Creek, 
Tymochtee River, 
Vermilion River, 
Whetstone Riiver, 
White Water River. 


Akron, Bedford & Cleveland Railroad (electric), 

Akron & Cuyahoga Falls Rapid Transit Company (electric), 

Alliance & Northern Railroad, 

Ann Arbor Railroad, 

Ashland & Wooster Railway, 

Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, 

Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Railroad, 

Bellaire, Zanesville & Cincinnati Railway, 

Cincinnati & Muskingum Valley Railway, 

Cincinnati & Westwood Railway, 

Cincinnati, Georgetown & Portsmouth Railroad, 

Cincinnati, Hamilton &: Dayton Railway, 

Cincinnati, Lebanon & Northern Railway, 


Cincinnati, New Orleans & Texas Pacific Railroad (Queen 

& Crescent Route), 
Cincinnati Northern Railway, 
Cincinnati Northwestern Railway, 

Cincinnati, Portsmouth & Virginia Railroad, 

Cleveland, Akron & Columbus Railway, 

Cleveland, Berea, Elyria & Oberlin Railway (electric), 

Cleveland & Marietta Railway, 

Cleveland, Canton & Southern Railroad, 

Cleveland, Cincinnati, L^hicago & St. Louis Railway, 

Cleveland, Lorain & Wheeling Railway, 

Cleveland, Painesville & Eastern Railroad (electric), 

Cleveland, Terminal & Valley Railway, 

Columbus, Sandusky & Hocking Valley Railway, 

Columbus, Wellston & Southern Railroad, 

Dayton & Union Railroad, 

Dayton, Lebanon & Cincinnati Railroad, 

Detroit & Lima Northern Railway, 

Eastern Ohio Railroad, 

Erie Railroad, 

Findlay, Fort Wayne & Western Railway, 

Hillsboro Railroad, 

Hocking Valley Railway, 

Iron Railway, 

Lake Erie & Western Railroad (now Lake Shore & Michi- 
gan Southern Railway), 

Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway, 

Lakeside & Marblehead Railroad, 

Lorain Street Railway (electric) 

Lorain & Cleveland Railway (electric). 

Marietta, Hocking & Northern Railway, 

Michigan Central Railroad, 

Middletown & Cincinnati Railroad, 

New York, Chicago & Saint Lopis Railroad, 

Norfolk & Western Railway, 

Ohio River & Lake Erie Railroad, 

Ohio Southern Railroad, 

Pennsylvania Company, 

Pittsburg & Lake Erie Railroad, 

Pittsburg, Bessemer & Lake Erie Railroad, 

Pittsburgh & Western Railway, 

Pittsburgh, Lisbon & Western Railway, 

Salem Railroad, 

Sandusky, Milan & Norwalk Electric Railway, 

Toledo & Ohio Central Extension Railroad, 

Toledo & Ohio Central Railway, 

Toledo, Bowling Green & Fremont Railway (electric) 

Toledo, Saint Louis & Kansas City Railroad, 

Wabash Railroad, 

Wheeling & Lake Erie Railroad, 

Zanesville & Ohio River Railway. 

Chapter XX 





ADAMS county is located in the soutb-cen- 
tral portion of the state and fronts on 
the Ohio river. It was formed July 
10th, 1797, by proclamation of Governor St. 
Clair and was one of the four counties into 
which the Northwest Territory was divided. It 
was named in honor of John Adams, second 
president of the United States. The area of 
Adams county is 488 square miles, nearly all of 
which is broken and hilly; the population in 
1820 was 10,406, and in 1900 it was 26,328. It 
was settled by both Americans and foreigners, 
the former coming mainly from Virginia and 
Kentucky and the latter chiefly from North 

Farming is the chief occupation, and in ad- 
dition to the cereals, large quantities of tobacco 
are grown. The first settlement made in the 
county was Manchester in 1790. This settle- 
ment was planned by Colonel Nathaniel Massie 
in order that he could better guide and protect 
a party of surveyors. To each of the first 25 



families joining the settlement was given two 
lots and one hundred acres of land. ' 

The county seat is West Union which is situ- 
ated on a high hill about ten miles back from the 
Ohio river; its population in 1900 was 1,033. 
West Union is the only county seat in the state 
that is not reached by one or more railroads. 

Adams county was the home of the Mound 
Builders, the Indians and the earliest settlers of 
the state, but in spite of these facts it is still 
far below the general average of the other coun- 
ties of Ohio. 


Allen county is located near the western 
boundary of the state and a little north of the 
center. It was formed April 1, 1820, and was 
named in honor of Colonel Allen of the war 
of 1812. 

The western part of the county is very low 
and flat while the eastern portion is a gently 
rolling plain. Allen county has an area of 447 
square miles; its population in 1830 was 578, 
in 1900, 47,976. Its greatest wealth is in its gas 
and oil fields which are being fully developed. 
Farming is the leading industry, and while all 
the cereals are grown, corn is the leading farm 


Lima is the county seat and is located in the 
central part of the county. It is a great rail- 
road center, and the seat of numerous thriving 
factories, among which are paper mills and en- 
gine factories. Its population in 1900 was 


Ashland county is located a little northeast 
from the center of the state and was formed 
February 26, 1846. The southern portion of the 
county is hilly while the remainder is a rolling 
plain. The soil is very fertile except on the 
higher hills, where it is a sandy loam. Vast 
quantities of all the cereals are grown and fruit- 
growing is carried on successfully to a great 

Ashland county has an area of 437 square 
miles, and its population in 1850 was 22,951, and 
in 1900, 21,184, which shows a slight decrease 
in the past half century. 

Ashland, the county seat, is located in the 
center of the county, and was laid out in 1815 
and called Uniontown. The city was founded 
by William Montgomery, and its name was 
changed in honor of Henry Clay who had a 
country seat named Ashland, near Lexington, 


The people of Ashland county, like many 
other people, are very patriotic, and they have 
the honor of giving to the Union army the state's 
first volunteer in the war of the rebellion. This 
volunteer was Lorin Andrews who was a great 
scholar and educator as well as a soldier. He 
was born in 1819, and died in 1861 of typhoid 
fever while with the army in West Virginia. 


Astabula county is located in the extreme 
northeastern corner of the state, and has a small 
frontage on Lake Erie. It is among the older 
counties of the state, being established in 1807. 
The county was named from the Ashtabula river, 
an Indian name meaning Fish river. The sur- 
face is low and level along the lake, and the re- 
mainder is undulating. 

The area of Astabula county is 700 square 
miles, and the population in 1820 was 7,369, and 
in 1900, 51,448. 

Jefferson, the county seat, is located in the 
center of the county and had a population in 
1900 of 1,319. 


Athens county is located in the south-eastern 
part' of the state and has a small frontage on 


the Ohio river. It was for^med March 1, 1805, 
from Washington county. The surface, with the 
exception of the river valleys, is broken and 
hilly, but the soil is very fertile. The county is 
very rich in mineral wealth having extensive 
deposits of both iron and coal. It ranks second 
to the other counties of the state in the produc- 
tion of coal, being surpassed only by Perry 

The area of Athens county is 485 square 
miles, and the population in f 820 was 6,342, and 
in 1900, 38,730. 

Athens, the county seat, had a population in 
1900 of 3,066. The University of Athens con- 
ferred its first degree in 1815. While the at- 
tendance at the University has always been 
small, it has done a vast amount of good to the 


Auglaize county is located near the western 
border of the state and a little north of the cen- 
ter. It was organized in 1848 from portions of 
the surrounding counties. The northwestern 
part of the county is low and swampy while 
the remainder is rolling. 

The area of Auglaize county is 398 square 
miles and its population in 1850 was 11,341, and 
in 1900, 31,192. 


Wapakoneta, the county seat^ had a popu- 
lation in 1900 of 3,915. It. is located in the 
oil and gas belt, and is surrounded by a 
wealthy agricultural district. The manufacture 
of wooden articles is carried on extensively at 
Wapakoneta, and among other articles, vast 
numbers of churns are made. 


Belmont county is located in the eastern part 
of the state and fronts on the Ohio river. It 
was established by proclamation of Governor St. 
Olair, September 7, 1801, and was the ninth 
county formed in the Northwest Territory. 

The naime Belmont is of French origin and 
signifies fine mountain. The surface is rugged 
and broken yet very productive. The area is 
520 square miles and the population in 1820 was 
20,329, and in 1900, 60,875. 

St. Clairsville, the county seat, had a popu- 
lation in 1900 of 1,210. Its chief attraction is 
a magnificent court house erected at a cost of 


Brown county is located in the southwestern 
part of the state and fronts on the Ohio river. 


It was formed in 1817 and was named in honor 
of General Jacob Brown of the war of 1812. 
The surface of Brown county is mainly level, 
with the exception of the Ohio hills along the 
river. Stock raising in the northern part, and 
farming in the southern part are carried on 

The area of Brown county is 460 square 
miles, and the population in 1820 was 13,367, 
and in 1900, 28,237. 

Georgetown, the county seat, had a popula- 
tion in 1900 of 1,529. It will always be remem- 
bered as the boyhood home of U. S. Grant. 


Butler county is located in the southwestern 
part of the state and was formed from Hamil- 
ton county in 1803, and named in honor of Gen- 
eral Butler of Eevolutionary fame. 

The area of Butler county is 475 square 
miles and the population in 1820 was 21,755, 
and in 1900, 56,870. 

Hamilton, the county seat, had a popula- 
tion in 1900 of 23,914, and is a great manufac- 
turing city. Butler county is one of the richest 
counties of the state, and has often been called 
"the garden spot of the state." 



Carroll county lies near the eastern boundary 
of the state and a little north of the center. It 
was organized in 1832-33 from the surrounding 
counties. The inhabitants of Carroll county are 
mainly descendants from emigrants from Penn- 
sylvania, Virginia and Maryland. The popula- 
tion in 1840 was 18,108, and in 1900, 16,811. 
The area of Carroll county is 401 square miles 
of which the surface is broken and hilly. The 
county was named in honor of Charles Carroll 
of Carrollton, Indiana, the last survivor of the 
signers of the Declaration of Independence. 

Carrollton, the county seat, is a thriving 
little city located near the center of the county ; 
in 1900 it had a population of 1,271. 


Champaign county is located in the west- 
central portion of the state, and was formed 
March 1, 1805. The county has a varied sur- 
face consisting of plains, prairies, broken re- 
gions and hills. 

The area of Champaign county is 447 square 
miles; its population in 1820 was 8,479, and in 
1900, 26,642. 


Urbana, the county seat, is a thriving little 
city with a population in 1900 of 6,808. While 
it has some distinction in manufacturing it is 
more noted as a commercial center being located 
in a wealthy region. 

Champaign county has taken an active part 
in the political world for a number of years. 
So early as 1840 Urbana was the scene of a 
great convention. The convention was held Sep- 
tember 15 in the interest of General Harrison, 
and from one of the banners carried in the 
parade bearing the motto, "The People is Oil 
Korrect," was taken the abbreviation O. K. 
which is used so much at present. 


Clark county is also located in the west- 
central portion of the state and was named in 
honor of General George Sogers Clark so fam- 
ous in pioneer times. It was organized March 
1, 1817, from the surrounding counties. The 
first settlement made within the present county 
was on Mad river, at Ohribb's Station in the 
spring of 1796. 

Clark county is one of the most fertile of the 
state and farming is carried on in an extensive 
manner. Its area is 393 square miles and its 


population in 1820 was 9,553, and in 1900 it 
was 58,939. 

Piqua, an old Indian village, was situated on 
Mad river about five miles west of Springfield. 
It was the birthplace of the famous chief Tecum- 
seh, who aided the English in the War of 1812. 
After the battle of Lake Erie, when General 
Proctor was preparing to leave the lake region, 
Tecumseh made his last appeal to the English, 
and the eloquence of his address makes it worthy 
of reproduction in this county sketch. 

TecumseWs Speech. 

^^Father, listen to your children! You have 
them now all before you. 

^^The war before this our British father gave 
the hatchet to his red children, when our old 
chiefs were alive. They are now dead. In that 
war our father was thrown upon his back by 
the Americans and our father took them by the 
hand without our knowledge, and we are afraid 
that our father will do so again at this time. 

^^ Summer before last, when I came forward 
with my red brethren and was ready to take up 
the hatchet in favor of our British father, we 
were told not to be in a hurry, that he had not 
yet determined to fiight the Americans. 

^^Listen! when war was declared our father 
stood up and gave us the tomahawk and told 


US that he was then ready to strike the Amer- 
icans; that he wanted our assistance, and that 
we would certainly get our lands back which 
the Americans had taken from us. 

"Listen! you told us at that time to bring 
fonvard our families to this place, and we did 
so; and you promised to take care of them, 
and they should want for nothing, while the men 
would go and fight the enemy ; that we need not 
trouble ourselves about the enemy's garrisons; 
that we knew nothing about them, and that our 
father would attend to that part of the busi- 
ness. You also told your red children that you 
would take good care of your garrison here, 
which made our hearts glad. 

"Listen! when we were last in the Eapids 
it is true we gave you little assistance. It is 
hard to fight people who live like ground-hogs. 

"Father, listen! our fleet has gone out; we 
know they have fought ; we have heard the great 
guns; but we know nothing of what has hap- 
pened to our father with one arm. Our ships 
have gone one way, and we are much astonished 
to see our father tying up everything and pre- 
paring to run away the other without letting his 
red children know what his intentions are. Yo,u 
always told us to remain here and take care of 
our lands ; it made our hearts glad to hear that 
was your wish. Our great father, the king, is 


the head, and you represent him. You always 
told us you would never draw your foot off 
British ground; but now, father, we see that 
you are drawing back, and we are sorry to see 
our father doing so without seeing the enemy. 
We must compare our father's conduct to a fat 
dog, that carries his tail on its back and, when 
affrighted, drops it between its legs and runs off. 

"Father, listen! the Americans have not yet 
defeated us by land; neither are we sure that 
they have done so by water; Ave therefore wish 
to remain here and fight our enemy, should they 
make their appearance. If they defeat us, we 
will then retreat with our father. 

"At the battle of the Eapids, last war, the 
Americans certainly defeated us, and when we 
returned to our father's fort at that place the 
gates were shut against us. We were afraid 
that it would noAv be the case; but instead of 
that we noAv see our British father preparing to 
march out of his garrison. 

"Father, you have got the arms and ammuni- 
tion which our great father sent for his red 
children. If you have an idea of going away, 
give them to us, and you may go and welcome, 
for us. Our lives are in the hands of the Great 
Spirit. We are determined to defend our lands, 
and if it be his will we wish to leave our bones 
upon them." 


Tecumseh entered the battle of the Thames 
with a strong conviction that he should not sur- 
vive it. Further flight he deemed disgraceful, 
while the hope of victory in the impending action 
was feeble and distant. He, however, heroically 
resolved to achieve the latter or die in the at- 
tempt. With this determination he took his 
stand among his followers, raised the war-cry 
and boldly met the enemy. From the commence- 
ment of the attack on the Indian line his voice 
was distinctly heard by his followers, animat- 
ing to deeds worthy of the race to which they 
belonged. When that well-known voice was 
heard no longer above the din of arms, the battle 
ceased. The British troops having already sur- 
rendered, and the gallant leader of the Indians 
having fallen, they gave up the contest and fled. 
A short distance from where Tecumseh fell the 
body of his friend and brother-in-law, Wasego- 
boah, was found. They had often fought side 
by side, and now, in front of their men, bravelyj 
battling the enemy, they side by side closed their 
mortal career. 

Springfield, the county seat, is 43 miles west 
of Columbus on the old National Pike. It was 
laid out in 1803 by James Demint, and the site 
chosen was a beautiful and fertile country. Its 
population in 1900 was 38,253, and her fame 
exceeds that of other cities many times her size, 


Not only in the United States are the products 
of her factories known and used, but in Eng- 
land, Germany, France, Russia and other for- 
eign countries where grass and grain grow, and 
where the refining and wholesome influence of 
civilization call upon the genius of the inventor 
and the skill of the artisan to lighten and en- 
liven toil, may be found the finished products of 
Springfield workshops, from ideas conceived by 
the minds of Springfield's inventors. In all the 
great grain and grass growing regions of th& 
world may be seen the Springfield reapers and 
mowers gathering in the world's harvest, and in 
every civilized land may be found one or many 
of the products of her factories which are ever 
increasing in both number and size. 


Clermont county is located in the southwest- 
ern part of the state and it fronts on the Ohio 
river. It was established December 9, 1800, by 
proclamation of Governor St. Clair, and was 
named in honor of Clermont, France. The sur- 
face is generally broken, and decidedly hilly in 
the southern part. 

The area of Clermont county is 496 square 
miles and its population in 1820 was 15,820, and 
in 1900, 31,610, 


Batavia is the county seat and its population 
in 1900 was 1,020. 

Point Pleasant, a little village on the Ohio 
river about 25 miles above Cincinnati, will al- 
ways be noted as the birthplace of General U. 
S. Grant, who was born April 27, 1822, at that 


Clinton county was formed in 1810, and was 
named in honor of George Clinton who was vice 
president of the United States, and the origin- 
ator of the canal systems of New York and Ohio. 

Clinton county is located in the southwestern 
part of the state, and has an area of 384 square 
miles. The surface is mainly level and includes 
some prairie land. The s soil is very productive, 
and is well adapted to corn and grass. 

The population of Clinton county in 1820 was 
8,085, and in 1900 it was 24,202. The county 
seat is Wilmington with a population in 1900 
of 3,613. 


Columbiana county was formed March 25th, 
1803. The name is a compound one formed 
from Columbus and Ana. The southern part of 


the county is broken and hilly while the north- 
ern portion is more level. This county is located 
on the eastern border of the state somewhat 
north of the center. It is in the best agricul- 
tural region of the state and is also rich in min- 
erals. Coal, iron ore, lime and building stones 
are found in vast quantities. 

Farming, stock raising and mining are the 
leading occupations. 

The area of Columbiana county is 538 square 
miles, and the population in 1820 was 22,033, 
and in 1900, 68,590. Lisbon is the county seat, 
and had a population in 1900 of 3,330. East 
Liverpool on the Ohio river is the largest city 
in the county, and the seat of extensive factories. 
Wellsville is also an important city, and is lo- 
cated on the Ohio river at the mouth of Yellow 


Coshocton county is located in the east-cen- 
tral portion of the state, and was formed April 
1, 1811. The county was formerly inhabited by 
numerous tribes of the Delaware Indians who 
had a village where the city of Coshocton now 
stands, called Goschachgunk, from which name 
Coshocton was derived. The Indian village con- 



sisted of two rows of huts with a street between 
them. The village possessed a large council 
house in which were discussed, by the ablest In- 
dian chiefs, momentous questions affecting 
the very lives of all people living in that por- 
tion of the state. On one occasion as many as 
700 warriors met around the council fires at 

The surface of Coshocton county is varied. 
A large portion of the county consists of fertile 
alluvial plains which are bordered by the most 
worthless sandstone hills. Coshocton county is 
also rich in minerals. The Coshocton coal 
grades second to no soft coal in the state. A 
superior quality of fire clay is also found within 
the county, and natural gas is abundant. 

The area of Coshocton county is 550 square 
miles, and its population in 1880 was 26,642, 
and in 1900, 29,337. Mining, manufacturing, 
farming and stock raising are the leading occu- 
pations of the people. The county has long been 
noted for its numerous well-bred horses. 

Coshocton, the county seat, occupies the site 
of the old Indian village at the once famous 
"Forks of the Muskingum.'^ It is a beautiful 
little city with some eight or more thousand in- 
habitants. Miles of its streets are paved and 
the entire city is well lighted. It was among 
the first cities of the nation to install a public 


heating station capable of heating the entire city 
by means of circulating hot water. 

While Coshocton is the seat of various fac- 
tories, such as paper mills, potteries, glass fac- 
tories, steel works and vehicle factories, the city 
has been made famous throughout the world by 
its vast production of "Advertising novelties." 


Crawford county was established April 1, 
1820, from Indian territory ceded to the United 
States by the Indians, September 29th, 1817. 

Crawford county is located in the north-cen- 
tral part of the state; its surface is generally 
level, including, in the southern part, some beau- 
tiful prairie lands. 

The area of Crawford county is 393 square 
miles, and its population in 1830 was 4,788, and 
in 1900, 33,915. Bucyrus, the county seat, is 
located on the Sandusky river; it is a thriving 
little city with numerous factories, and had a 
population in 1900 of 6,560. 


Cuyahoga county was organized in the spring 
pf 1810; it was formerly a part of Geauga 


county. The name "Cuyahoga'' is derived from 
that river and signifies crooked. The surface is 
level or slightly rolling, and the soil is prin- 
cipally clayey loa^n. 

Cuyahoga county produces a great variety ol 
fine fruitSj as well as all Other farm products. 
Its area is 480 square miles, and its population 
in 1840 was 26,512, and in 1900, 439,120. 

Cleveland, the county seat, is the largest city 
in the state, and had a population in 1900 of 

Berea, 12 miles southwest of Cleveland, is 
the seat of the Baldwin University and the Ger- 
man Wallace College. Berea is also made fam- 
ous by the sandstone, first discovered there, 
which is known as the Berea Grit. 


Darke county is located on the western bor- 
der of the state, slightly south of the center. It 
was established in 1817 and has an area of 600 
square miles. Its population in 1820 was 3,717, 
and in 1900, 42,532. 

Darke county is mainly a beautiful prairie 
with a black fertile soil almost inexhaustible. 
A portion of the county was formerly covered 
by a dense forest, Owing to the fertility of the 


soil^ farming is the leading industry and vast 
quantities of corn, oats and wheat are produced 

Greenville, the county seat, is a grand old 
historic place of some six or eight thousand peo- 
ple. It occupies the site of Fort Greenville 
which was constructed by Wayne in December, 
1793. It has often been the scene of great In- 
dian councils of various tribes, and of numerous 
treaties between the Indians and whites. 


Defiance county was established March 4, 
1845. It is located in the extreme northwestern 
portion of the state, and was formed from the 
surrounding counties. Defiance county is lo- 
cated within the Black Swamp, and is drained 
by three rivers, the Auglaize, the Tiffin and the 
Maumee. This county was formerly a vast 
swamp covered with a dense forest, but both 
forest and swamp are fast giving way, and it is 
rapidly becoming one of the foremost agricul- 
tural counties of the state. 

The area of Defiance county is 414 square 
miles, and its population in 1840 was 2,818, and 
in 1900, 26,387. The county was named in honor 


of the historic Fort Defiance which was built at 
the junction of the Maumee and Auglaize rivers. 

Defiance, the county seat, is built on the site 
of the old fort and had in 1900 a population of 

Defiance was the home of the Wyandot and 
Shawnee Indians. There was born the famous 
chief Pontiac, and there were held many coun- 
cils of great moment. As early as the summer 
of 1794, when General Wayne invaded that re- 
gion, he found vegetables of every kind in abund- 
ance and more than a thousand acres of corn 
under cultivation. 

The Defiance of to-day is a thriving modern 
city with varied manufacturing interests, and is 
surrounded by a wealthy farm region. 


Delaware county was established February 
10, 1808, and was formerly the northern portion 
of Franklin county. The county is watered and 
drained by the Scioto river and its tributaries, 
which cross the county from north to south. The 
surface of Delaware county is level, and the soil 
is clay except in the river valleys where it is a 
fertile black loam. 

This county has an area of 452 square miles, 


and had a population in 1840 of 22,060, and in 
1900, 26,401. The county was named in honor 
of the famous Delaware Indians who once re- 
sided there and raised extensive corn crops on 
the surrounding country. 

Delaware, the county seat, is situated 24 
miles north of Columbus, and had a population 
in 1900 of 7,940. Aside from its varied manu- 
facturing interests, it is the seat of the Ohio 
Wesleyan University, long since made famous by 
its efficient work. The city is also famous for 
its numerous mineral springs having medicinal 
value ; among these are the white sulphur, black 
sulphur, magnesia, and iron. The city will fur- 
ther be remembered as the birthplace of Ruther- 
ford B. Hayes, the 19th president of the United 


In 1838 the counties of Huron and Sandusky 
were divided and Erie county was formed. It 
is located in the north-central part of the state 
and borders on Lake Erie. The surface of Erie 
county is apparently level although it is a gentle 
slope which reaches, in the southern part of the 
county, an elevation of 150 feet above the lake's 
levelo The soil is very fertile, and farming is 
one of the leading industries. In addition to 


ordinary farm products, vast quantities of fruit 
are grown. The heavy fogs and warm breezes 
from the lake protect the fruit against the late 
frosts which are so damaging farther inland. 
Apples, pears, grapes and small fruits are grown 

The area of Erie county is 260 square miles, 
and its population in 1840 was 12,457, while in 
1900 it was 37,650. The county was named in 
honor of the Erie Indians who once resided in 
the region of the lake. 

Erie county is located in that portion of the 
Western Reserve known as "the fire lands." 
This land was given by the state of Connecticut 
to the sufferers from fire occasioned by the 
British invasion of that state. Inexhaustible 
supplies of valuable limestone are found in the 
northern part of the county, and are used in the 
construction of magnificent buildings. This 
limestone is exported to all parts of the country 
where elegant buildings are being erected. 

Sandusky, the county seat, is a great com- 
mercial center and manufacturing city with a 
population in 1900 of 19,664. 

Milan, a prosperous little town 12 miles from 
Sandusky, will ever remain noted as the birth- 
place of the famous electrician Thomas Alvin 



Fairfield county is located a little southeast 
from the center of the state, and is so named on 
account of its beautiful landscape. It is among 
the older counties of the state, being established 
December 9, 1800, by proclamation of Governor 
St. Olair. The surface is badly broken in the 
southern portion of the county where the soil 
is sterile, while the northern portion is level and 

Sandstone quarries of vast proportions are 
operated in the county and the stone is sent to 
all parts of the county for building purposes. 

The area of Fairfield county is 474 square 
miles, and the population in 1820 was 16,508, 
while in 1900 it was 34,259. 

When this county was first explored by the 
white settlers it was occupied by the Wyandot 
Indians, who had a large town, called Tarhe, 
near the present city of Lancaster. 

Lancaster, the county seat, was laid out in 
1800, by Ebenezer Zane, the maker of the famous 
"Zane's Trace," which passed through that re- 
gion. The town was first called New Lancaster, 
in honor of the early settlers who came from 
Lancaster county, Pennsylvania. Lancaster is 
a modern city with numerous manufacturing in- 
dustries, and a population in 1900 of 8,991. It 


was among the first cities of the state to develop 
natural gas which is found in that locality in 
vast quantities. 

The city of Lancaster will always remain 
famous as the early home of two illustrious fami- 
lies^ the Ewings and Shermans. Their fame is 
already national and needs no further mention 


Payette county was established in the spring 
of 1810, and was formerly a part of Eoss and 
Highland counties. It is located a little south- 
west from the center of the state, and has a level 
surface and a fertile loamy soil with a subsoil 
of clay. 

Since Payette county has been ditched and 
drained it has become a most fertile and produc- 
tive farm region. The raising of fine stock has 
become a leading industry, and the fine horses 
and cattle of Payette county have become noted 
throughout the state. 

The area of Payette county is 398 square 
miles, and its population in 1860 was 15,935, 
while in 1900 it was 21,725. 

Washington Court House, the county seat, is 
a prosperous and modern city with a population 
in 1900 of 5,151. 



Franklin county was established April 30, 
1803, and was formerly a part of Ross county. 
The county was named in honor of the first great 
American, Benjamin Franklin, who died in 1790 
at the age of 84 years. 

This county has a clay soil and a level sur- 
face and is well adapted to farming. Some of 
the finest farms of the state are located in the 
river valleys in Franklin county. 

Franklin county is located near the center of 
the state and has an area of 524 square miles; 
its population in 1820 was 10,300, while in 1900 
it was 164,460. 

Columbus, the county seat and state capital, 
had a population in 1900 of 125,560, and is a 
great commercial center and the seat of the Ohio 
State University and other great institutions of 
learning. The state also has located at Colum- 
bus various institutions for the benefit of its 
unfortunate subjects; among these institutions 
is found an asylum for the insane, an institu- 
tion for the education of the deaf and dumb, an 
institution for the education of the blind, an 
institution for the feeble-minded youth, and the 
Ohio penitentiary. All these institutions, and 
others, are maintained by the state at an enor- 
mous expense. 



Pulton county is located on the northern 
boundary of the state west of Lake Erie. It was 
established February 28^ 1850, and was formerly 
a part of Lucas, Henry and Williams counties. 
Its surface is generally undulating and it is well 
watered and drained by the tributaries of the 
Maumee i^iver. 

The area of Fulton county is 402 square 
miles, and its population in 1850 was 7,780, while 
in 1900 it was 22,801. 

Wauseon, the county seat, was named from 
an Indian chief, and is a thriving little city 32 
miles west of Toledo; it had a population in 
1900 of 2,148. Fayette, near the border of Mich- 
igan, is a thriving little town of about 1,000 in- 
habitants; it is surrounded by a fertile farm- 
ing section. 


Gallia county was formerly a portion of 
Washington county, and was established April 
30, 1803. It is located in the southeastern por- 
tion of the state on the Ohio river, and was set- 
tled by the French from whom it received its 
name, Gallia, which is an ancient name mean- 
ing France. 


Most of the surface of Gallia county is badly 
broken, and the soil is a sandy loam, with the 
exception of the valleys which are of an alluvial 
formation and very fertile. 

The area of Gallia county is 441 square miles, 
and its population in 1820 was 7,098, while in 
1900 it was 27,918. 

Gallipolis, the county seat, was among the 
first settlements made in the state, being settled 
in 1791 by a colony direct from Prance. Galli- 
polis is located on the Ohio river and is a pros- 
perous little city with a population in 1900 of 


Geauga county is located in the northeastern 
portion of the state, and was formerly a portion 
of Trumbull county. Its name was derived from 
the Indian word "Sheauga," which means "rac- 

The surface of Geauga county is generally 
rolling, and the soil is fairly fertile being com- 
posed mainly of clay in many localities. Farm- 
ing and stock raising is a leading industry. 

The area of Geauga county is 400 square 
miles, and its population in 1820 was only 7,791, 
while in 1900 it was 14,744. 

C5hardon^ the county seat, is a prosperous 


little city with a population in 1900 of 1,360. 
The manufacturing of a high grade of cheese is 
a leading industry, and more than one-third of 
all the maple syrup made in the state is pro- 
duced in Geauga county. 


Greene county is located in the southwestern 
part of the state and was formed May 1, 1803; 
it was formerly a portion of Hamilton and Ross 

The surface of the western part of Greene 
county is rolling, while the eastern part is level. 
The soil is fertile and farming and stock raising 
are carried on extensively. The stone quarries 
of Greene county are among the most valuable 
in the state, producing as they do, a fine grade 
of limestone, and near Xenia, a beautiful varie- 
gated marble. 

The area of Greene county is 416 square 
miles, and the population in 1820 was 10,509, 
while in 1900 it was 31,613. 

Xenia, the county seat, is a prosperous manu- 
facturing city with a population in 1900 of 
8,696. Xenia is also the seat of the "Soldiers' 
and Sailors' Orphans' Home." Xenia will fur- 
ther be remelmbered as the home of four distin- 


guished literary gentlemen, — William D. Gal- 
lagher, Coates Kinney, William D. Howells, and 
Whitelaw Eeid. 


Guernsey county is among the older ones of 
the state and was organized in March, 1810. It 
was named in honor of the Guernsey Isles by a 
number of distinguished emigrants who had 
come from that far-off land in search of wealth 
and freedom. The area is 517 square miles, of 
which two-thirds is highlands and the remain- 
ing third fertile creek bottoms. The population 
of Guernsey county in 1820 was 9,292, and in 
1900 it was 34,425. Farming and stock raising 
are the leading industries and much fine wool 
is grown. Beef cattle, horses and swine are 
raised in vast numbers. The coal mines of 
Guernsey county are among the most important 
of the state, and the Cambridge coal is known 
throughout the land as a superior quality of soft 
coal. The coal fields of Guernsey county are 
being developed very rapidly in all localities. 
In the northern part of the county, in the vicinity 
of Bird's Bun, two new mines have recently been 
put into operation and before the close of 1904 
the third niine in that locality will be in ope- 


Cambridge is the county seat and is located 
on Wills creek in the west-central part of the 
county. Cambridge had in 1904 a population 
of 11,000 inhabitants. Manufacturing is one of 
the leading industries of the city. A tin plate 
mill, two rolling mills, and a large glass factory 
furnish employment for a large number. 

Guernsey county appears to have been settled 
by individuals from various regions. Virginia 
sent her loyal sons to join the Guernsey men at 
Wills creek. The Massachusetts Yankees with 
the Pennsylvania Dutch, located in the south- 
west, while Quakers from North Carolina and 
Pennsylvania gathered in the southeast. A por- 
tion of the northern part of the county is settled 
by the Irish while two townships in the southern 
part are settled by families from New Jersey, 
that are direct desc^endants of the Hessians. 
The descendants of General Stark, of Eevolu- 
tionary fame, are residents of this county, and 
the man who holds the second oar in the paint- 
ing of ^Terry's Victory" was "Fighting Bill 
Reed," also a Guernsey county man. 


Hamilton county occupies the southwestern 
corner of the state, and was established January 


2, 1790, being the second county formed from 
the Northwest Territory. The surface of this 
county is diversified; the soil of the highlands 
is clay while that of the valleys is an alluvial 
deposit. Farming is a leading occupation, and 
vast quantities of small fruits and vegetables 
are grown. 

The area of Hamilton county is 400 square 
miles, and its population in 1820 was 31,764, 
while in 1900 it was 409,479. 

Cincinnati, the countty seat, is the second 
largest city in the state, and had a population 
in 1900 of 325,902; it is located on the Ohio 
-river and is one of the greatest commercial and 
manufacturing centers in the United States. 


Hancock county is located a little northwest 
from the center of the state, and was jaamed in 
honor of John Hancock. It was established 
April 1, 1820. The surface is level and the soil 
remarkably fertile, making it one o£ the finest 
farming regions of the state. 

The area of Hancock county is 522 square 
miles, and its population in 1840 was 10,099, 
and in 1900, 41,993. 

Findlay, the county ^eat, is a great commer* 



cial and manufacturing center. The gas wells 
of Findlay are among tlie most famous in the 
world, and the gas is used for heating and light- 
ing as well as for manufacturing every known 
article requiring excessive heat. 


Hardin county was organized January 8, 
1833, and was formerly owned by the Indians. 
It is located a little northwest from the center 
of the state, and has, in general, a level surface 
with marked undulations in some parts. The 
soil is very fertile being composed of a loam 
mixed with clay and limestone. It formerly 
supported dense forests which have recently been 

The area of Hardin county is 425 square 
miles, and its population in 1840 was only 4,583, 
while in 1900 it was 31,187. 

Kenton, the county seat, was named in honor 
of Simon Kenton, a friend and benefactor of his 
race. It is a prosperous city with a population 
in 1900 of 6,852. 


Harrison county is located in the east-cen- 
tral portion of the state, and was formerly a 


part of Tuscarawas and Jefferson counties. It 
was established January 1, 1814, and was named 
in honor of William Henry Harrison. The sur- 
face of Harrison county is badly broken mak- 
ing valuable grazing tracts where large numbers 
of sheep are kept. 

The area of Harrison county is 405 square 
mileSj and the population in 1820 was 14,345^ 
while in 1900 it was 20,686. 

Cadiz, the county seat, is a very wealthy little 
city with a population in 1900 of 1,755. — Scio, 
a small town situated nine mile^ north of Cadiz, 
is the seat of the famous Scio College which has 
done so much for the Ohio youths. The oil fields 
in the vicinity of Scio have recently been devel- 
oped, and a number of producing wells are in 

But Harrison county, and the hamlet of New 
Eumley, will always remain noted as the birth- 
place of her illustrious son. General George A. 
Custer, whose life went out in his last great fight 
with the Indians on the Little Big Horn river in 


Henry county is located in the northwestern 
part of the state and was formed from Indian 


lands April 1, 1820, and named in honor of the 
statesman and orator, Patrick Henry. 

Henry county is within the famous "Black 
Swamp" region, and has a level surface and a 
fertile soil. Farming is a leading occupation, 
and all kinds of farm products are produced in 
large quantities. Its area is 420 square miles, 
and its population in 1840 was only 2,492, while 
in 1900 it was 27,282. 

Napoleon, the county seat, is on the Maumee 
river, and had in 1900 a population of 3,639. 

Girty's Point, about five miles above Napo- 
leon, was for a time the residence of the notori- 
ous renegade, Simon Girty. 


Highland county is located in the south- 
western part of the state, and was established 
in May, 1805. It was formerly a portion of the 
adjoining counties, and was so named on account 
of the elevation of the land. 

The surface of Highland county, with the 
exception of the river valleys, is rolling and the 
soil is varied. Its area is 527 square miles, and 
its population in 1820 was only 12,308, while 
in 1900 it was 30,982. 

Hillsboro, the county seat, is beautifully mtu^ 


ated on the highlands in the center of the county. 
Like Eome it "Stands on its seven hills/' and 
from its elevation of 753 feet it overlooks the 
beauties of the surrounding country. Hillsboro 
had a population in 1900 of 4,535, and is the seat 
of a number of institutions of learning, among 
which are the "Highland Institute/' the "Hills- 
boro Conservatory of Music/' and the "Hillsboro 


Hocking county is located in the southwest- 
ern part of the state and was formed from Ross, 
Athens and Fairfield counties March 1, 1818. 
The surface of Hocking county is hilly and 
broken with the exception of the river valleys 
which are level and fertile. 

The area of Hocking county is 408 square 
miles, and its population in 1820 was only 2,080, 
while in 1900 it was 24,398. 

Logan, the county seat, has developed numer- 
ous manufacturing industries, and had a popu- 
lation in 1900 of 3,480. 

Hocking county abounds with beautiful 
scenery, and almost its entire surface is under- 
laid with a high grade of coal. The Hocking 
Valley coal mines are among the most extensive 
in the United States, and the excellent quality 


of the coal makes it famous throughout the 


Holmes county is located a little northeast 
from the center of the state and was organized 
in 1825, and named in honor of Major Holmes, 
a noted officer in the war of 1812. 

The surface of Holmes county is badly 
broken. The Killbuck river passes from north 
to south through the county and has broad fer- 
tile flood grounds which form a wealthy farm- 
ing section. The territory comprising Holmes 
county was formerly included by the counties of 
Wayne, Coshocton and Tuscarawas. 

The area of Holmes county is 436 square 
miles, and its population in 1830 was only 9,123, 
while in 1900 it Avas 18,511. 

Millersburg, the county seat, is 84 miles south 
of Cleveland on the C, A. & C. railroad. It 
is a prosperous little city with a population in 
1900 of 1,998. 


Huron county is located in the north-central 
portion of the state, and was established in 1815. 
The county was named after the Wyandot In- 


dian tribe called ^^Huron/' by the French. The 
surface is generally level but some portions are 
slightly rolling. The soil is a sandy loam mixed 
with clay^ and is very fertile. Farming and 
stock raising are leading occupations. 

The area of Huron county is 480 square 
miles, and its population in 1820 was 6,677, 
while in 1900 it was 32,330. 

Norwalk, the county seat, is a beautiful little 
city with a population in 1900 of 7,074. It is 
quite a railroad center and also has numerous 
manufacturing interests. 


Jackson county is located in the south-cen- 
tral portion of the state, and was established in 
March, 1816. The surface of Jackson county 
is very hilly, but as the soil is fertile, farming 
is carried on quite successfully by the Welsh and 
Pennsylvania farmers who settled there. Stock 
raising is an important industry and large num- 
bers of horses, cattle, hogs and sheep are ex- 

The area of Jackson county is 392 square 
miles, and its population in 1820 was only 3,842, 
while in 1900 it was 34,248. 

Jackson ranks among the first counties of 


the state in mineral wealth, having inexhaustible 
supplies of coal, iron ore, fire clay and building 
stone. Its coal mines are among the most ex- 
tensive of the state and the county exports more 
than a million tons of coal annually. 

Jackson, the county seat, is a prosperous city 
with vast mining interests; its population in 
1900 was 4,672. The city is also engaged in 
manufacturing various articles, including many 
made from iron. 


Jefferson county is located in the east-central 
part of the state, and borders on the Ohio river. 
It was named in honor of Thomas Jefferson, 
and was established July 29, 1797, by proclama- 
tion of Governor St. Clair. The surface of Jef- 
ferson county is broken, but as it is underlaid 
by an excellent quality of coal, its wealth is 
enormous. The county ranks among the first 
of the state in both mining and manufacturing 

The area of Jefferson county is 435 square 
miles, and its population in 1820 was 18,531, 
while in 1900 it was 44,357. 

Steubenville, the county seat, is located on 
the Ohio river and is surrounded by beautiful 
scenery. It has large manufacturing interests. 


and numerous institutions of learning. To- 
ronto, on the Ohio river eight miles above Steu- 
benville, is the seat of a number of tile and 
pottery works. 


Knox county is located in the central part 
of the state, and was formerly a portion of Fair- 
field county ; it was formed March 1, 1808. The 
surface of Knox county is level or slightly un- 
dulating with the exception of the northeastern 
portion where hills are found. The flood lands 
of the streams are broad and fertile forming a 
valuable farming section. 

The area of Knox county is 527 square miles, 
and its population in 1820 was only 8,326, while 
in 1900 it was 27,768. 

Mount Vernon, the county seat, is a manu- 
facturing city and railroad center ; it had a pop- 
ulation in 1900 of 6,633. Gambler, five miles 
east of Mount Vernon, has long been famous as 
the seat of Kenyon College. 


Lake county was organized March 6, 1840, 
and was so named on account of its frontage on 


the lake. Its surface is slightly rolling and its 
soil is very fertile. Lake county ranks among 
the first of the fruit growing counties of the 
state, and produces large quantities of apples, 
pears, peaches, grapes and many kinds of small 

Lake county has an area of 240 square miles, 
and had a population in 1840 of 13,717; in 1900 
its population was 21,680. 

Painesville, the county seat, had, in 1900, a 
a population of 5,024. • It is a very beautiful city 
located on the Grand river near the center of 
the county. Manufacturing is carried on quite 


Lawrence is the most southern county of the 
state and borders on the Ohio river. It was or- 
ganized March 1, 1816, and named in honor ot 
Captain James Lawrence, so famous in our naval 
history. The surface of Lawrence county is 
badly broken, but some excellent farm land is 
found in the flood grounds of the creeks and 
Ohio river. This county is very rich in minerals 
and leads the state in the production of iron. 
Ooal abounds in the western part of the county, 
and an excellent quality of fire clay is abundant. 
Mining and manufacturing are the leading occu- 


pations^ while farming is carried on to some 

The area of Lawrence county is 430 square 
mileSj and its population in 1820 was only 3,499, 
while in 1900 it was 39,534. 

Ironton, the county seat, is the center of the 
Hanging Eock iron region, and is located on the 
Ohio river 142 miles above Cincinnati, and 325 
miles from Pittsburg. It is a great manufactur- 
ing center, and had a population in 1900 of 

Hanging Kock, Burlington, Millersport and 
Proctorville are other important towns of the 


Licking county is located near the center of 
the state, and was so named from its principal 
river, the Licking, called "Pataskala'' by the In- 
dians. This county was organized March 1, 
1808, and was formerly a portion of Fairfield. 

The surface of Licking county is generally 
level with the exception of the eastern portion, 
which is rolling. The soil is very fertile and 
the county possesses great agricultural wealth. 
The eastern portion of the county is rich in both 
coal and iron ore of an excellent quality. 

The area of Licking county is 685 square 


miles, and its population in 1820 was 11,861, 
while in 1900 it was 47,070. 

Newark, the county seat, is 33 miles east of 
Columbus, and is a prosperous manufacturing 
city with a population in 1900 of 18,157. 

Granville, that famous "New England" town, 
will always remain famous on account of its 
educational facilities. 


Logan county is located in the west-central 
part of the state, and was established March 1, 
1817, and named in honor of General Benjamin 
Logan. The surface, though broken in some 
places, is generally level or slightly rolling, and 
the soil is fertile. A number of small lakes are 
found in the western part of the county. 

The area of Logan county is 448 square miles, 
and its population in 1820 was only 3,181, while 
in 1900 it was 30,420. 

Bellefontaine, the county seat, is quite a 
commercial center, and had a population in 1900 
of 6,649. 

West Liberty, West Mansfield, Belle Centre, 
Zanesfield, Huntsville, DeGraff and Quincy are 
all prosperous villages of Logan county. 



Lorain county is in the north-central part 
of the state^ and borders on Lake Erie. It was 
established December 26, 1822, and was for- 
merly a portion of Huron, Cuyahoga and Medina 
counties. The surface of Lorain county is level 
and the soil is very fertile. Farming and stock 
raising are leading occupations, and the county 
leads the state in the production of high grade 

The area of Lorain county is 530 square 
miles, and its population in 1830 was 5,696, 
while in 1900 it was 54,857. 

Elyria, the county seat, is 24 miles west of 
Cleveland, and 7 miles south from the lake. The 
scenery in the vicinity of Elyria is very beauti- 
ful, and the falls near by in the Black river are 
among the most noted in the state. While, 
Elyria is quite a manufacturing city, it is most 
noted for its residences, as many people doing 
business in Cleveland find it more pleasant to 
reside at Elyria. 

Oberlin, the seat of the famous "Oberlin Col- 
lege,'' is nine miles southwest from Elyria, 



Lucas county is located in the northwestern 
part of the state^ and borders on both Lake Erie 
and the state of Michigan. This county was 
formed in June^ 1835, and was named in honor 
of Eobert Lucas, a former governor of Ohio. 
The surface of Lucas county is level, and the soil 
sandy and very fertile. Farming and stock 
raising are carried on very extensively. 

The area of Lucas county is 430 square miles, 
and its population in 1840 was 9,392, while in 
1900 it was 153,559. 

Toledo, the county seat, is on Lake Erie, and 
is one of the leading commercial and manufac- 
turing centers of the West ; it had a population 
in 1900 of 131,822, and its harbor is the best on 
Lake Erie. 

Maumee City and Perrysburg are both im- 
portant towns, the former once being the county 
seat of Lucas countv. . 


Madison county lies a little southwest from 
the center of the state, and was named in honor 
of James Madison, fourth president of the United 
States. This county was established in March, 


1810, and ranks high among the stock raising 
counties of the state. The surface of Madison 
county is level, a large portion of it being prairie 
land, and the soil is productive. 

The area of Madison county is 465 square 
miles, and its population in 1820 was only 4,799, 
while in 1900 it. was 20,590. 

London, the county seat, is 25 miles west of 
Columbus, and had a population in 1900 of 3,511. 
^^The London Live Stock Sales'' is an interest- 
ing and profitable feature of the city, illl kinds 
of live stock, but especially cattle, are brought 
to this market from the surrounding counties 
and states. This activity in stock is occasioned 
by the splendid blue grass regions of the sur- 
rounding country. 


Mahoning county is located on the eastern 
boundary of the state north of the center, and 
the name is derived from the Indian word "Ma- 
honink,'' signifying "at the lick.'' The county 
was established March 1, 1846, and was formerly 
a part of Trumbull and Columbiana counties. 
The surface of Mahoning county is undulating, 
the soil fertile, and farming is carried on ex- 
tensively. Stock raising is also a leading in- 
dustry, and much fine wool is grown. A large 


portion of the county is underlaid with an ex- 
cellent quality of coal which is being mined 

The area of Mahoning county is 422 square 
miles, and its population in 1860 was 25,894, 
while in 1900 it was 70,134. 

Youngstown, the county seat, is on the Ma- 
honing river, halfway between Pittsburg and 
Cleveland. The manufacturing of iron has been 
a leading industry for many years, and Youngs- 
town ranks second in importance to few cities 
in the state. 


Marion county is located a little northwest 
from the center of the state, and was named in 
honor of Francis Marion, of Revolutionary fame. 
This county was formed March 1, 1824. 

The surface of Marion county, with slight 
exceptions, is level, and the soil fertile. Farm- 
ing and stock raising is a leading industry, and 
much fine wool is grown. 

The area of Marion county is 416 square 
miles, and its population in 1830 was only 6,558, 
while in 1900 it was 28,678. 

Marion, the county seat, is about 40 miles 
north of Columbus, and is a prosperous com- 
piercial and manufacturing center surrounded 


by ^vealthy farming sections; its population in 
1900 was 11,862. 

Caledonia, LaKue, Prospect, New Blooming- 
ton, Waldo and Green Camp, are all important, 
villages of the county. 


Medina county is located in the northern 
part of the state, one county south from the 
lake, and was organized in April, 1818; it was 
formerly a portion of Portage county. 

The surface of Medina county is gently roll- 
ing, and includes much bottom land well adapted 
to farming, while the higher portions have a 
clay soil and are best suited to grazing. — 
Farming and stock raising are both carried on 

The area of Medina county is 420 square 
miles, and its population in 1820 was only 3,090, 
while in 1900 it was 21,958. 

Medina, the county seat, is 28 miles south- 
west of Cleveland, and had a population in 1900 
of 2,232. 

Wadsworth, Seville, Liverpool and Lodi are 
other important places of the county. 

Chippewa Lake, on the C. L. & W. railroad, 
is quite a summer resort. The lake is about two 



miles long and one mile wide and is a popular 
resort for both Ashing and boating. 


Meigs county is located in the southeastern 
part of the state, and borders on the Ohio river. 
It was formerly a portion of Gallia and Athens 
counties, and was organized April 1, 1819, and 
named in honor of Return J. Meigs, a former 
governor of Ohio. 

The surface of Meigs county is greatly diver- 
sified, and the soil is clay, with the exception of 
the western portion which is a fertile black loam. 
The county is rich in coal deposits, and mining 
is a leading industry. 

The area of Meigs county is 415 square miles, 
and its population in 1820 was 4,480, while in 
1900 it was 28,620. 

Pomeroy, the county ^eat, is on the Ohio 
river, and has extensive mining and manufac- 
turing interests; its population in 1900 was 

Middleport, on the Ohio river, is also an im- 
portant manufacturing center, while Syracuse, 
Minersville and Racine are thriving villages. 



Mercer county is located near the center of 
the western boundary of the state, and was 
named in honor of Hugh Mercer, who fell in 
the battle of Princeton, January 3, 1777. The 
county was formerly Indian territory, and was 
organized April 1, 1820. 

The surface of Mercer county is level and 
the soil very fertile. — A vast amount of corn 
is produced as well as all other farm products. 
Stock raising is also a leading industry. 

The area of Mercer county is 460 square 
miles, and its population in 1830 was only 1,737, 
while in 1900 it was 28,021. 

Celina, the county seat, is a prosperous com- 
mercial and manufacturing center, surrounded 
by a rich farming community, and extensive oil 
and gas fields. 

Fort Recovery, the scene of St. Claim's defeat, 
is a prosperous village in the gas region. Men- 
don, Coldwater, Mercer and St. Henry are other 
important towns in Mercer county. 


Miami county is located in the western part 
of the state, and was formerly a part of Mont- 


gomery county. The name ^^Miami" is from the 
Indian language and signifies "mother." Miami 
county was established January 16, 1807; the 
surface is slightly rolling, the soil fertile, and 
farming and stock raising are carried on exten- 
sively. An excellent quality of limestone is 
abundant in the county. 

The area of Miami county is 396 square miles, 
and its population in 1820 was 8,815, while in 
1900 it was 43,105. 

Troy, the county seat, is a great manufactur- 
ing^ center, and the Troy wagon has long since 
made the little city famous throughout the cen- 
tral portion of the United States. The popula- 
tion of Troy in 1900 was 5,881. 

Piqua, a thriving commercial and manufac- 
turing center, is located eight miles above Troy. 
Tippecanoe, Covington and Bradford are other 
important villages. 


Monroe county is located in the southeastern 
part of the state and fronts on the Ohio river; 
it was formerly a part of Belmont, Washington 
and Guernsey counties. The county was named 
in honor of James Monroe, fifth president of the 
United States, and was established January 29, 


The surface of Monroe county is rough and 
hilly, and the soil sterile with the exception of 
the river valleys where farming is carried on 

The area of Monroe county is 468 square 
miles, and its population in 1820 was only 4,645, 
while in 1900 it was 27,031. 

Woodsfleld, the county seat, is located near 
the center of the county, and had a population 
in 1900 of 1,801. 

Olarington, Beallsville and Graysville are all 
important towns of the county. 


Montgomery county is located in the south- 
western portion of the state, and was formerly 
a part of Hamilton and Ross counties. It was 
created May 1, 1803, and was named in honor 
of General Richard Montgomery, of Revolution- 
ary fame. 

The surface of Montgomery county is mostly 
level, and the soil is very fertile. Farming and 
stock raising are predominant occupations, and 
the agricultural wealth of the county is im- 
mense. — Vast quantities of limestone are 
shipped to Cincinnati to be used in the con- 
struction of beautiful buildings. 


The area of Montgomery county is 480 square 
miles, and its population in 1820 was only 16,- 
061, while in 1900 it was 130,146. 

Dayton, the county seat, is a great commer- 
cial and manufacturing center; it had a popu- 
lation in 1900 of 85,333. Dayton has become 
famous throughout the world on account of its 
noted cash register. 


Morgan county is located in the southeastern 
part of the state, and was organized March 1, 
1818, and named in honor of General Daniel 
Morgan, of Kevolutionary fame. 

The surface of Morgan county is very rough 
with the exception of the. broad valley of the 
Muskingum river, which flows through the 
county from north to south; the soil is fertile 
and of limestone formation. Farming and stock 
raising are leading occupations. 

The area of Morgan county is 400 square 
miles, and its population in 1820 was 5,299, 
while in 1900 it was 17,905. 

McConnelsville, the county seat, is located 
on the Muskingum river, 36 miles above Mari- 
etta, and had a population in 1900 of 1,825. — 
Malta, on the Muskingum river, opposite Mc- 
Connelsville, is a prosperous little city, and the 


seat of the Malta Plow Company and other 


Morrow county is located near the center of 
the state, and was established February 24, 1848. 
The county was formerly a part of Eichland, 
Knox, Marion and Delaware counties, and was 
named in honor of Jeremiah Morrow, a former 
governor of Ohio. 

The surface of Morrow county is level with 
the exception of the northeastern part which is 
hilly; the soil is fertile, and farming is carried 
on extensively. Large quarries of excellent 
building stone are operated in this county. 

The area of Morrow county is 432 square 
miles, and its population in 1850 was 20,380, 
while in 1900 it was only 17,897. 

Mount Gilead, the county seat, is about 40 
miles north of Columbus, and is a prosperous 
town with a population, in 1900, of 1,528. 

Cardington, five miles southwest of Mount 
Gilead, is a thriving factory town, while Edison 
and Marengo are important villages of Morrow 



Muskingum county is located in the south- 
eastern part of the state, and the name "Mus- 
kingum" is derived from the Indian language 
and signifies in one tribe "an elk's eye/' while 
in the Delaware language it signifieSj "a town 
on the river side.'' This county was organized 
March 1, 1804, and was formerly a part of Fair- 
field and Washington counties. 

The surface of Muskingum county is rough 
and hilly, but the soil is generally fertile. Farm- 
ing and stock raising are carried on extensively. 
A large part of Muskingum county is underlaid 
with an excellent quality of coal, and mining is 
also a leading occupation. 

The area of Muskingum county is 651 square 
miles, and its population in 1820 was 17,824, 
while in 1900 it was 53,185. 

Zanesville, the county seat, is at the junction 
of the Muskingum and Licking rivers ; it is one 
of the leading commercial and manufacturing 
centers of the state, and had a population, in 
1900 of 23,538. 


Noble county is located in the southeastern 
part of the state, and was the last of the 88 


counties formed. It was organized March 11, 
1851, and was named in honor of James Noble, 
a noted pioneer. 

The surface of Noble county is badly broken, 
but the soil is fertile and of a limestone forma- 
tion, and farming and stock raising are leading 
industries. In addition to other farm products, 
vast quantities of tobacco are grown, and the 
county leads the state in the production of fine 

Noble county has great mineral resources and 
coal, iron ore, building stone and petroleum are 

The area of Noble county is 415 square miles, 
and the population in 1860 was. 20,751, while in 
1900 it was only 19,460. 

Caldwell, the county seat, is in the noted 
Macksburg oil and gas field, and had a popula- 
tion in 1900 of 927. Petroleum was discovered 
near Caldwell in 1816, and was the first found 
in the state. 


Ottawa county is in the northern part of 
the state, and borders on Lake Erie. It was 
established March 6, 1840, and was formerly a 
part of Sandusky, Erie and Lucas counties. The 


name "Ottawa" is an Indian word meaning 

The surface of Ottawa county is level, the 
soil fertile, and large quantities of fruit are 
grown. Farming and stock raising are both im- 
portant industries. 

The area of Ottawa county is 311 square 
miles, and its population in 1840 was only 2,258, 
while in 1900 it was 22,213. 

Port Clinton, the county seat, is 13 miles 
west of Sandusky, and 30 miles east of Toledo. 
It is a prosperous city with a population in 1900 
of 2,450. 

The islet of Gibraltar, containing about eighlj 
acres, is in Put-in-Bay, from which Perry sailed 
out six miles to meet the enemy in the war 
of 1812. 

Put-in-Bay is on an island in Lake Erie, 12 
miles north of Port Clinton, and is a famous 
summer resort. 


Paulding county is on the western border of 
the state, north of the center. The county was 
formed April 1, 1820, from Indian territory, and 
named in honor of John Paulding, one of the 
three militia men who captured Major Andre 
during the Eevolutionary war. 


The surface of Paulding county is level, and 
the soil is a dark fertile loam. Farming and 
stock raising are important industries. 

The area of Paulding county is 414 square 
mileSj and its population in 1840 was only 1,035, 
while in 1900 it was 27,528. The county was 
formerly covered by swamps and dense forests, 
but both have gradually given way to the ad- 
vancement of civilization. 

Paulding, the county seat, is a prosperous 
little city with a population in 1900 of 2,080, 
and is surrounded by a fertile farm section. 
. Payne, Cecil, Charloe and Worstville are all 
important villages of Paulding county. 


Perry county is located in the southeastern 
part of the state, and was formerly a part of 
Washington, Muskingum and Fairfield counties. 
This county was established March 1, 1817, and 
was named in honor of Commodore Oliver H. 
Perry, so famous in the war of 1812. 

The surface of Perry county is rolling, and 
in some parts hilly; the soil is of clay forma- 
tion, and in many parts fertile. The great 
wealth of the county is in its minerals, and coal 
and iron ore are both mined extensively. The 


Middle Kittanning vein of coal, with a thickness 
of from 5 to 13 feet, is found in Perry county. 

The area of Perry county is 402 square miles, 
and its population in 1820 was 8,459, while in 
1900 it was 31,841. - 

New Lexington, the county seat, had a popu- 
lation in 1900 of 1,701. Somerset, the former 
county seat, will always be noted as the boyhood 
home of our famous General Philip Henry 


Pickaway county lies a little south from the 
center of the state and was formerly a part of 
Ross, Fairfield and Franklin counties. This 
county was formed January 12, 1810, and the 
name is a misspelling of Piqua. 

The surface of Pickaway county is level, and 
the soil very fertile. Farming and stock raising 
are leading occupations, and the county ranks 
high in the production of corn. 

The area of Pickaway county is 501 square 
miles, and its population in 1820 was 18,143, 
while in 1900 it was 27,016. 

Oircleville, the county seat, is 26 miles south 
of Columbus, and had a population in 1900 of 
6,991. In the vicinity of Oircleville are the 
famous Pickaway Plains which are said to be 


the most fertile plains in Ohio. They were no 
doubt cultivated by the Mound Builders and In- 
dians many centuries before known by the early 


Pike county is in the southern part of the 
state and was formerly a part of Highland, Ross, 
Scioto, Adams and Jackson counties; it was 
established in 1815. 

The surface of Pike county is hilly and 
broken with the exception of the fertile valleys 
of the Scioto and its tributaries, which form a 
wealthy farming section. 

The area of Pike county is 436 square miles, 
end its population in 1820 was 4,253, while in 
1900 it was 18,172. 

Waverly, the county seat, is on the west bank 
of the Scioto river, and is a flourishing little city 
with a population in 1900 of 1,854. 

Piketon, the former county seat, had a popu- 
lation in 1900 of 1,200, and is located five miles 
south of Waverly on the Scioto river. 

Pike county is made memorable by the fam- 
ous Waverly sandstone which is obtained there. 



Portage county is located in the northeastern 
part of the state and was formerly a part of 
Trumbull county and the Western Eeserve. The 
county was established June 7, 1807, and named 
from the old Indian trail or portage in that 

The surface of Portage county is slightly 
rolling, and the soil fertile. Farming and stock 
raising are carried on extensively; dairy 
products are a leading export. A portion of 
the county is underlaid with coal, and mining 
is becoming a leading industry. 

The area of Portage county is 480 square 
miles, and its population in 1820 was 10,093, 
while in 1900 it was 29,246. 

Eavenna, the county seat, is a thriving manu- 
facturing center with a population in 1900 of 
4,003. This city was the former home of Jesse 
Grant, father of General U. S. Grant. 


Preble county is located on the western 
boundary of the state, south of the center, and 
was formerly a part of Montgomery and Butler 
counties. This county was established March 


1, 1808, and named in honor of Captain Edward 
Preble, a distinguished naval commander in the 
Revolutionary war. 

The surface of Preble county is undulating, 
and the soil fertile. Farming is carried on ex- 

The area of Preble county is 432 square miles, 
and its population in 1820 was 10,237, while in 
1900 it was 28,713. An excellent quality of lime- 
stone is found within the county, and the quar- 
ries in the vicinity of Eaton are quite extensive. 

Eaton, the county seat, is 24 miles west of 
Dayton, and had a population in 1900 of 3,155. 
Artesian wells are obtained at a depth of 35 or 
40 feet, and mineral springs are numerous, pro- 
ducing iron, bicarbonate of sodium, potassium 
and lithium. 


Putnam county is located in the northwestern 
part of the state and was formerly Indian terri- 
tory. The county was formed in 1834 and 
named in honor of General Israel Putnam. 

The surface of Putnam county is level and 
the soil very fertile. The county ranks high 
among the agricultural counties of the state. 

The area of Putnam county is 480 square 

368 HISTORY 01^ OHIO. 

miles, and its population in 1840 was 5,132, while 
in 1900 it was 32,525. 

Ottawa, the county seat, is becoming a pros- 
perous commercial and manufacturing center, 
with a population in 1909 of 2,322. 

Leipsic and Columbus Grove are each pros- 
perous manufacturing centers with a population 
in 1900 exceeding 2,000 each. 


Richland county is located in the north-cen- 
tral portion of the state, and was so named on 
account of its fertile soil. This county was es- 
tablished March 1, 1813. 

The surface of Richland county is in general 
level, but some parts are slightly rolling. Farm- 
ing and stock raising are carried on extensively. 

The area of Richland county is 487 square 
miles, and its population in 1820 was 9,186, 
while in 1900 it was 44,298. 

Mansfield, the county seat, is about halfway 
between Cleveland and Columbus, and is a noted 
commercial, manufacturing and railroad center. 
Mansfield will always remain noted on account 
of its being the home of the grand old statesman, 
John Sherman. 

Bellville, Lexington, Plymouth, Shelby and 

Shiloh are all important villages of Rictiland 


Ross county is located in the southern part 
of the state, and was formerly of large dimen- 
sions. The county was established by a procla- 
mation of Governor St. Clair August 20, 1798, 
and was named in honor 91 James Koss of Alle- 
gheny, Pa. 

The surface of Ross county is hilly with the 
exception of the river valleys, which are very 
fertile. Vast quantities of corn are grown in the 
valleys of the Scioto and Paint creek. 

The area of Ross county is 658 square miles, 
and its population in 1820 was 20,610, while in 
1900 it was 40,940. Ross county is famous for 
the production of fine cattle which are even 
superior to those of the blue-grass region of 

Chillicothe, the county seat, was the first 
capital of Ohio, -and is a prosperous old city with 
a population in 1900 of 12,976. Chillicothe is 
an Indian name given to the leading tribe of the 




Sandusky county is located in the northern 
part of the state on Lake Erie, and was formed 
from Indian territory April 1, 1820. 

The surface of Sandusky county is level, the 
soil fertile and farming is carried on exten- 
sively. The county possesses a fine quality of 
limestone which is quarried extensively. 

The area of Sandusky county is 418 square 
miles, and its population in 1830 was only 2,851, 
while in 1900 it was 34,311. 

Fremont, the county seat, is about 95 miles 
north of Columbus, and 83 miles southwest of 
Cleveland. The city is quite a commercial and 
manufacturing center with a population in 1900 
of 8,439. Fremont will long be remembered as 
the home of Rutherford B. Hayes, one of Ohio's 
most illustrious sons. 

Clyde, Woodville, Gibsonburg, Lindsey and 
Townsend are other important towns in San- 
dusky county. 


Scioto county is located in the southern part 
of the state on the Ohio river, and was estab- 
lished May 1, 1803. The name "Scioto" is from 
the Indian language, and its signification is 


The surface of Scioto county is badly broken 
and in some localities the hills reach a height 
of several hundred feet above the level of the 
Ohio river. The river valleys are broad and fer- 
tile, and produce enormous yields of corn. This 
county is rich in minerals, and large quantities 
of coal, iron ore and building stones are mined. 

The area of Scioto county is 613 square miles, 
and its population in 1820 was 5,750, while in 
1900 it was 40,981. 

Portsmouth, on the Ohio river, is the county 
seat, and one of the great commercial and manu- 
facturing centers of the state. The city had a 
population in 1900 of 17,870. 

Sciotoville and Lucasville are both important 
towns in Scioto county. 


Seneca county is located in the northern part 
of the state and was organized April 1, 1824. 
The name ^^Seneca'^ was applied to a tribe of 
Indians who formerly resided within its limits. 

The surface of Seneca county is level, the 
soil is a fertile loam, and farming is carried on 

The area of Seneca county is 544 square 


miles^ and its population in 1830 was 5,157, 
while in 1900 it was 41,163. 

Tiffin, the county seat, is on the Sandusky 
river, and had a population in 1900 of 10,989. 
The city of Tiffin is a great commercial and 
manufacturing center, and the seat of numerous 
institutions of learning, among which is the 
Heidelberg College. 

Fostoria, principally within Seneca county, 
is also a prosperous manufacturing and com- 
mercial center, and had a population in 1900 
of nearly 10,000. — Green Spring, Attica and 
Bloomville are other important towns. 


Shelby county is located in the western part 
of the state and was formerly a part of Miami 
county. This county was established in 1819, 
and named in honor of General Isaac Shelby, of 
Eevolutionary fame. 

The surface of Shelby county is level in the 
south and undulating in the north. The soil is 
of clay formation, and the bottom lands are very 
fertile. Farming and stock raising are leading 

The area of Shelby county is 420 square 


miles, and the population in 1820 was only 2,142, 
while in 1900 it was 24,625. 

Sidney, the county seat, is on the Miami 
river, and is quite a commercial and manufac- 
turing center with a population in 1900 of 5,688. 

Anna and Lockington are both important 
villages of Shelby county. 


stark county is located in the northeastern 
part of the state, and was organized in January, 
1809, and named in honor of General John 
Stark, of Eevolutionary fame. 

The surface of Stark county is rolling and 
in some places slightly hilly; the soil is of clay 
formation in the north and east, while the re- 
maining portion is a sandy loam. The county 
ranks high in both agricultural and mineral 
wealth. Coal, iron ore and limestone are exten- 
sively mined. 

The area of Stark county is 560 square miles, 
and its population in 1820 was only 12,406, while 
in 1900 it was 94,747. 

Canton, the county seat, will long be remem- 
bered as the home of William McKinley, the 
nation's latest martyr. Canton is one of the 


greatest manufacturing centers of the state, and 
had a population in 1900 of 30,667. 

Massillon, eight miles west of Canton, is also 
a commercial and manufacturing center, and 
had a population in 1900 of 13,500. 


Summit county is located in the northeastern 
part of the state and was formerly a part of 
Portage, Medina and Stark counties. This 
county was established March 3, 1840, and was 
named from a high point of land called "Portage 

The surface of Summit county is broken, but 
the soil is fertile, and farming and fruit growing 
is carried on extensively. This county pos- 
sesses vast beds of bituminous coal and mining 
is a leading industry. 

The area of Summit county is 391 square 
miles, and its population in 1840 was 22,469, 
while in 1900 it was 71,715. 

Akron, the county seat, is about 30 miles 
south of Cleveland, and is also a noted manu- 
facturing center; it had a population in 1900 
of 42,728. 

Cuyahoga Falls is four miles north of Akron, 
and is quite a manufacturing center as well as 
a noted summer resort. 



Trumbull county is located on the eastern 
boundary of the state, north of the center, and 
was formed in 1800. 

The surface of Trumbull county is generally 
level and the soil fertile. Farming and stock 
raising are leading industries. The northern 
part of the county is underlaid with an excel- 
lent quality of coal, and mining is one of the 
leading industries. 

The area of Trumbull county is 625 square 
miles, and its population in 1840 was 25,700, 
while in 1900 it was 46,591. 

Warren, the county seat, 52 miles southeast 
of Cleveland, is a commercial center surrounded 
by a fertile farming section; its population in 
1900 was 8,529. 

Niles, five miles southeast of Warren, is in 
the heart of the mining region and possesses 
some extensive factories. 

Newton Falls, Girard and Mineral Ridge are 
other important towns of Trumbull county. 


Tuscarawas county is located in the eastern 
part of the state, and was formerly a part of 


Muskingum county. The name "Tuscarawas" 
is that of an Indian tribe and signifies in their 
language, "open moiUh/^ The county was 
formed February 15, 1808. 

The surface of Tuscarawas county is largely 
level while some portions are rolling and hilly. 
The county abounds in rich deposits of fire clay, 
iron ore and coal. Farming and mining are 
leading industries of Tuscarawas county. 

The area of this county is 539 square miles, 
and its population in 1820 was only 8,328, while 
in 1900 it was 53,751. 

New Philadelphia, the county seat, is fast 
becoming a noted commercial and manufactur- 
ing center; it is surrounded by a wealthy agri- 
cultural and mineral region and had a popula- 
tion in 1900 of 6,213. 

Canal Dover, three miles northwest of the 
county seat, is also an important little city, with 
a population in 1900 of 5,100. 

Newcomerstown, 17 miles southwest of New 
Philadelphia, on the Tuscarawas river, is one of 
the leading cities of the county; it had a popu- 
lation in 1900 of 2,500, and is surrounded by a 
fertile farming section. 

Gnadenhutten, 11 miles south of the county 
seat, is memorable in history as the scene of the 
Moravian massacre. The site of the massacre 
is marked by a magnificent monument. 


Zoar, a German Communist settlement, is 
located in this county, but has recently been 

Dennison and Uhrichsville are both im- 
portant manufacturing and railroad centers 
with a population in 1900 of 3,500 and 6,000 

Bolivar, Shanesville and Port Washington 
are all thriving villages of Tuscarawas county. 


Union county is located near the center of 
the state, and was formerly a portion of Dela- 
ware, Franklin, Madison and Logan counties, 
and also included some Indian territory. This 
county was established April 1, 1820, and has a 
level surface and a clay soil. 

The area of Union county is 427 square miles, 
and its population in 1830 was only 3,192, while 
in 1900 it was 22,342. 

Marysville, the county seat, is a beautiful 
little city 25 miles northwest of Columbus; it 
is surrounded by a fertile farming section, and 
the county is noted for its macadamized roads 
which aggregate more than 500 miles. — 
Springs, containing medicinal properties simi- 
lar to those at Saratoga, have been opened at 


Milford Center, Unionville, Peoria, Arnold 
and Claiborne are all important villages of 
Union county. 


Van Wert county is located on the western 
boundary of the state, and was formed from In- 
dian territory. This county was established 
April 1, 1820, and named in honor of Isaac Van 
Wert, one of Major Andre's captors. 

The surface of Van Wert county is level 
and the soil fertile, and farming is a leading 

The area of Van Wert county is 405 square 
miles, and its population in 1840 was only 1,577, 
while in 1900 it was 30,394. 

Van Wert, the county seat, is a prosperous 
commercial and manufacturing center with a 
population in 1900 of 6,422; it is surrounded 
by a fertile farming section and is in the heart 
of the great gas and oil belt of Indiana and 


Vinton county is located in the southeastern 
part of the state, and was formerly a part of 
Gallia, Athens, Hocking, Ross and Jackson 


counties. This county was formed March 23, 
1850, and named in honor of Samuel Finley 
Vinton, a former statesman of Ohio. 

The surface of Vinton county is rough and 
hilly with the exception of some broad fertile 
valleys. Stock raising is carried on extensively, 
and large numbers of fine horses, cattle, hogs 
and sheep are produced. Fruit growing is a 
leading industry in the highlands. This county's 
greatest wealth is in its minerals, and coal, fire- 
clay and iron are all mined extensively. 

The area of Vinton county is 402 square 
miles, and its population in 1860 was 13,631, 
while in 1900 it was 15,330. 

McArthur, the county seat, is in the center 
of the mining region, and had a population in 
1900 of 941. Zaleski, Hamden and Wilkesville 
are all important towns of Vinton county. 


Warren county is located in the southwestern 
part of the state, and was formerly a part of 
Hamilton county. The county was established 
May 1, 1803, and named in honor of General 
Joseph Warren, of Revolutionary fame. 

The surface of Warren county is slightly un- 
dulating, and the soil in most localities is ex- 


ceptionally fertile. Farming and stock raising 
are carried on extensively. 

The area of Warren county is 428 square 
miles, and its population in 1820 was 17,838, 
Avhile in 1900 it was 25,584. 

Lebanon, the county seat, 28 miles northeast 
of Cincinnati, is the seat of the "National Nor- 
mal University,'' an educational institution that 
has been heartily endorsed by the public. Leba- 
non is surrounded by a beautiful and fertile 
farming section, and had a population in 1900 
of 2,867. 

Franklin, 12 miles northwest of Lebanon, is 
quite a manufacturing and commercial center, 
and had a population in 1900 of 3,000. 


Washington county is located in the south- 
eastern part of the state, and borders on the 
Ohio river. The county Avas established, by 
proclamation of Governor St. Olair, July 26, 
1788, and was the first one carved out of the 
Northwest Territory. 

The surface of Washington county is undu- 
lating, and in some localities quite hilly; the 
soil is productive, especially in the valleys of the 
Ohio and Muskingum rivers. 


The area of Washington county is 635 square 
mileSj and its population in 1820 was 10,425, 
while in 1900 it was 48,245. 

Marietta, the county seat, and oldest city in 
the state, is on the Ohio river at the mouth of 
the Muskingum; it is a noted commercial cen- 
ter, and had a population in 1900 of 13,348. 

Beverly, Lowell, New Matamoras, Macks- 
burg, Newport and Lower Newport are all im- 
portant towns of Washington county. 


Wayne county is located in the northeastern 
part of the state, and was established, by procla- 
mation of Governor St. Clair, August 15, 1796. 

The surface of Wayne county is gently roll- 
ing with large tracts of level land; the soil is 
a fertile loam mixed with clay, making it one 
of the greatest wheat producing counties of the 
state. This county is rich in both coal and 
building stone, and mining is a leading industry. 

The area of Wayne county is 540 square 
miles, and its population in 1820 was 11,933, 
while in 1900 it was 37,870. 

Wooster, the county seat, 52 miles south of 
Cleveland, is the seat of Wooster University, 


and is a commercial and manufacturing center 
of much significance. 

Orrville, Doylestown, Shreve, Sterling, Ores- 
ton, Fredericksburg, Burbank, West Salem and 
Applecreek are all important villages of Wayne 


Williams county is located in the extreme 
northwest corner of the state, and was formed 
fxOm. Indian territory. The county was estab- 
lished in April, 1824, and named in honor of 
David Williams, another of Major Andre's 

The surface of Williams county is almost 
level, the soil generally fertile, and farming and 
stock raising are leading occupations. 

The area of Williams county is 415 square 
miles, and its population in 1830 was only 1,039, 
while in 1900 it was 24,953. 

Bryan, the county seat, is located in the 
southern part of the county, and is a thriving 
little city with a population in 1900 of 3,131. 

West Unity, Pioneer, Stryker, Edgerton, 
Montpelier, Edon and Alvordton are all pros- 
perous towns in Williams county. 



Wood county is located in the northwestern 
part of the state, and was formed from Indian 
territory. The county was established April 1, 
1820, and named in honor of Colonel Wood, a 
distinguished oflflcer in the war of 1812. 

The surface of Wood county is level, and the 
soil is a black fertile loam. Farming and stock 
raising are the leading industries. This county 
is in the great oil and gas field of northwestern 

The area of Wood county is 623 square miles, 
and the population in 1830 was only 1,096, while 
in 1900 it was 51,555. 

Bowling Green, the county seat, 21 miles 
south of Toledo, is in the center of the oil and 
gas field and is rapidly becoming a manufactur- 
ing center ; it had a population in 1900 of 5,067. 

North Baltimore, Grand Eapids, Tontoganj^, 
Pemberville, Weston and Haskins are all pros- 
perous villages in Wood county. 


Wyandot county is located a little northwest 
from the center of the state, and was formed 
from Crawford, Marion, Hardin and Hancock 


counties. This county was established Febru- 
ary 3, 1845, and named in honor of the Wyandot 
Indians who formerly resided there. 

The surface of Wyandot county is level, and 
the soil very fertile. Farming and stock rais- 
ing are carried on extensively. 

The area of Wyandot county is 404 square 
miles, and its population in 1860 was 15,956, 
while in 1.900 it Avas 21,125. 

Upper Sandusky, the county seat, 60 miles 
northwest of Columbus, is a prosperous commer- 
cial and manufacturing center, with a popula- 
tion in 1900 of 3,355. 

Carey, Nevada, Sycamore, Marseilles, Kirby, 
Wharton and Douglass are all important vil- 
lages of Wyandot county. 

Chapter XXI 




OHIO lies between 38° 27^ and 41° 57' 
north latitude^ and between 80° 34' 
and 84° 49' west longitude. 

The area of Ohio is 41^060 square mites. 

The first constitutional convention met at 
Ohillicothe, November 1, 1802, and on Novem- 
ber 29, adopted a constitution. 

The first state officials were elected Janu- 
ary 11, 1803. 

Several cities have been the seat of govern- 
ment: Chillicothe until 1810; Zanesville, 1810- 
12; Chillicothe again, 1812-16; and since 1816, 

The first white man who visited the territory 
now comprising the state of Ohio, was La Salle, 
who explored that region in 1670. 

Ohio was the fourth state admitted into the 

The longest north and south line through 
the state is 210 miles, and the longest east and 
.vest line is 225 miles. 

About 300 square miles of the area of Ohio 


The native trees of Ohio embrace 88 known 

The 'Western Reserve'' is a tract ojf land con- 
taining nearly 6,000 square miles, and extending 
120 miles west from the Pennsylvania boundary 
to the line between Huron and Seneca counties. 
This tract was reserved and controlled by the 
state of Connecticut until 1800. 

In the western part of the "Eeserve'' is a 
tract of land containing about 500,000 acres, 
known as the ''Fire Lands." This tract was 
donated by Connecticut to her citizens who had 
suffered from fire occasioned by British in- 

The Symmes Purchase is a tract of land con- 
taining about 400,000 acres, and lying between 
the Little Miami and Great Miami rivers, and 
extending north to about the center of Warren 
and Butler counties. This tract was purchased 
October 15, 1788, by John Cleves Symmes. 

On January 1, 1901, Ohio had 3,362 post- 
offices, of which 235 Avere presidential (12 first- 
class, 64 second class, 159 third class), and 3,127 
fourth class, with 1,562 money order offices and 
77 money order stations. 

In 1901 there were published in Ohio 168 
daily newspapers, 5 tri-weekly, 40 semi-weekly, 
793 weekly, 6 bi-weekly, 14 semi-monthly, 178 



monthly, 4 bi-monthly and 10 quarterly publica- 
tions, making a total of 1,218. 

In 1900 Ohio had 8,691 miles of railroad. 

The population of the state of Ohio has been 
as follows : 

United States Census, 1800 


1810 230,760 

1820 581,295 

1830 937,903 

1840 1,519,467 

1850........ 1,980,329 

1860 2,339,511 

1870 2,665,260 

1880 3,198,062 

1890 3,672,316 

1900 4,157,545 

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