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The Story of Frick 

Refrigerating, Air Conditioning, 

Farm and Sawmill Machinery 

Copyright 1952 by 




The largest Frick refrigera- 
ting machine ever built, 
compared with a compres- 
sor of similar capacity as 
made today. For a descrip- 
tion of the giant machine, 
see page 19- 

The Cumberland, once known as The Great Valley, is the connecting link between the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia 
and the Lebanon Valley of Pennsylvania. All told, this chain presents one of the largest, most fertile, and most beautiful 
valleys in the world. Settled originally by thrifty people, the area now maintains an unusually excellent balance between 
agriculture and industry. 

The view opposite, except for extensive forests long since converted to man's use, is much the same as that which greeted 
the boy George Frick in 1835, when his family came over the Blue Ridge to occupy their new home, four miles north of 

The Waynesboro area 
had been settled in the 
1740's by John Wal- 
lace: the stone kitchen 
of his home still stands. 
The town was laid out 
in 1797 by his son. 

Fort Stover is the only 
one in Pennsylvania 
surviving from the 
French and Indian 
Wars of 1754-63. De- 
scendents of the Stovers 
are with Frick Com- 

John Bourns, first 
cousin of the famous 
Robert Burns, built 
this log schoolhouse 
at Wallacetown be- 
fore the Revolution. 
In good repair today. 

Snow Hill Church 
and Cloisters, found- 
ed by Peter Lehman 
in 1800, outlived the 
parent group at 
Ephrata, Penna. Serv- 
ices are now held 
monthly, on Satur- 


"Th 1S little book is given you with our compliments and best wishes. You will find it both interesting and 
instructive and well worth carrying to your home, where you can examine its pages at your leisure. 

"It will cause you inconvenience if you mislay it, because sooner or later you will want to refer to its illustrations 
to see just what you require in the way ol" machinery, to lighten and cheapen the labor of your productions. 

"And when you find what you want, send to us or any one of our Branch Houses for prices, or further 
information and it will be promptly furnished. 

Yours very truly, 


—Quoted from a Frick catalogue of 1884. Some of the early bulletins, dating back into the 1870's, are of special 
interest. They were illustrated with handmade wood cuts, a number of which are here reproduced. The catalog of 
1885 included useful information similar to that in an almanac, as well as 24 sheets of blank paper! 


The farm equipment used in the 1820's, as represented by the 
cradle and the flail, had progressed but little in thousands of 


The Introductory Period 

1826 to 1852 

When George Frick was born, in 1826, wheat was 
still cut with cradles and threshed with flails, stage- 
coaches had no competition from railroads, and a 
thousand dollars would buy a healthy slave. 

Swinging a cradle, and sustained with country ham 
and whiskey, a man could cut about two acres of wheat 
a day. With a flail he could knock out eight bushels 
of grain in ten hours. The average farm had available 
one or two horses per man. 

An engineering genius, George Frick undertook to 
ease the labor of men and animals with power ma- 
chinery. He became a pioneer builder of four essential 
kinds of equipment: steam engines, grain 
threshers, sawmills, and refrigerating systems. 
His portable and traction engines were 
among the first in this country, and were fol- 
lowed by Corliss steam engines in sizes up 
to 3000 horsepower. Beginning with the hand- 
cranked "fanning mills" of the 1840's, he 
started successive improvements which led to 
the wonderful steel threshing machines and 
peanut pickers of today. Frick sawmills, intro- 
duced in 1875, are now built in quantities up 
to a thousand or more a year Frick refrigerat- 
ing, air conditioning, ice making and quick- 
freezing systems have set the standard of de- 
pendability since 1882. 

Natural ice — the first refrigerating medium — was cut 
extensively throughout the last century. The mild 
winter of 1890 stimulated artificial ice making. 


The Town of Frick, in the 
Valley of that name in 
Switzerland, was founded in 
Roman times. Henry Frick, 
eighth - generation ancestor 
of George Frick, was born 
in 1621. His grandson 
Jacob came to America in 

The early threshing machines combined a "groundhog" 
toothed cylinder with a sifting belt and a fan for win- 
nowing the grain, all mounted on a wagon frame. 

Machine Shop $? Iron Foundery. 

YTl/'OULD inform their friends and the pub- 
lie general^ that they have opened a new 
Machine shop, about one forth of a mile west of 
liidgville, Washington county, Md , and are pre- 
pared to manufacture Steam Engines from two np 
to twenty Horsepowers, with Boilers furnished on 
reasonable terms, forcing and lightning pumps oT 
the most approved patterns; turning laths, slide 
rests , virlical drills, and other machinery made to 
order All kinds of Repairing done, such as re- 
pairing old steam engines, boilers and other ma- 
chinery at the shortest notice. All kinds of turn- 
ing and boring done, puch as mill ppindles, shax- 
ting and all kinds of fitting up done on favorable 
terms. Casting of every description made to ordar 
at their Foundery Cook Stoves, ten-plate stoves, 
Stonecoal Stoves, and also patterns for all kinds of 
castings made at the shortest notice. 

£^AI1 orders to be sent to Waynesboro 1 , Frank- 
lin county, Pa., or to Ringgold, VVashingion coun- 
ty, Md. October 7 — ly. 

Hagerstoivn 'News," Ch'g. "Whijj" and "Val. 
lev Spirit" please copy 1 y. and send accounts to this 

This advertisement appeared in the Waynesboro 
"Village Record" in 1852. Other newspaper adver- 
tisements were inserted by George Frick as early as 

Thus George Fnck's work has had a direct influence on 
the betterment of farming, manufacturing, and lumbering 
his products are essential to the great food industries, nearly 
every other phase of civilized life has been benefited to 
some extent. He could hardly have chosen four fields of 
endeavor with more far-reaching usefulness. 

George Frick heard the guns at the battles of Anhetam 
and Gettysburg, saw the pony express superseded by the 
trans-continental railroad, supplied machines which helped 
open the Great West, and ushered in the era of refrigera- 
tion. When he died in 1892, Frick equipment was in use 
from Coast to Coast. The history of the Company he 
founded thus parallels the story of America. 

George was born in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, on 
the 500-acre farm purchased in 1733 by his great-great- 
grandfather from the Penns. George's grandfather, Abra- 
ham Frick, was a Captain in the Revolution. 

The Frick homestead at Quincy, Penna., was later occupied by an- 
cestors of the leading executives of three other important industries: 
the Landis Tool Co., Landis Machine Co., and the Good Lumber Co. 

4 4 > 

Invoices of the 1840's show that "horsepowers," with sweeps and gears, 
were among the first machines made by George Frick. These continued 
to be sold until the 189()'s. The largest used 12 horses. 

A sawmill of this "up-and-down" type, driven by water 
power, was operated by Abraham Frick about 1 1 5 years 
ago. Boards cut by this method were split off the log 
near the end; they can still be identified in some old 

When George was nine years old his own father, 
also named Abraham, left the home of his Swiss ances- 
tors in Lancaster County and moved to the Cumber- 
land Valley. Near his new homestead at Quincy, 
Penna., Abraham had a sawmill, of the old up-and- 
down type, driven by a water wheel. This George 
helped to operate. Another wheel pumped water from 
a well to the house and barn — an innovation in those 

At seventeen George was apprenticed to Martin 
Kendig, a millwright living at Ringgold, Md., a few 
miles south of Waynesboro. In 1848 George hrmself 
began manufacturing gram cleaners and horsepowers 
in a weaving mill at Quincy. There, two years later, 
he constructed his first steam engine; this was mounted 
on a wooden frame and delivered two horsepower. 

In December of 1849 George had married Fredenca 
Oppenlander. That same year he started the advertis- 
ing program which is still continued. In 1851 or '52 he 
built a shop on a farm near Ringgold, and in 1853 
established Frick Company. The development of the 
Company is described by decades in the pages which 

This was the era of the clipper ship, the Mexican War, and 
the California gold rush. In 1831 Michael Faraday discovered 
the principle of the electric generator, and the next year 
Samuel F. B. Morse perfected the telegraph. In 1834 a patent 
for a reaper was granted to Cyrus H. McCormick, and Jacob 
Perkins patented the compression refrigerating system illus- 
trated above. In the later '30's Samuel Colt invented the re- 
volver, John Deere introduced the steel plow, and Charles 
Goodyear vulcanized rubber. 







a? £}c-*-t &/i.*>,.-£jZ^ 

t^ £C''O t 

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Before there were any banks in the area, and even before his Company had been started, George Frick was 
cashing "checks" of this kind for his customers. Many of his early business papers have been preserved. 

4 5 % 

George Frick's shop and home near Ringgold, Md. 
His parents and a brother continued to live here 
after George moved to Waynesboro. The residence 
and shop still stand. 

This old steam engine was built by George Frick about 1856. With a cylinder 
of 6-in. bore and 13-in. stroke, it was rated at 10 horsepower, and ran at 
speeds of 75 to 90 r.p.m. The engine was first used in Mr. Frick's shop at 
Ringgold, being later moved to Quincy, where is was operated until 1886 
by a Mr. Metcalf; he stated that it outlasted two boilers. It is now in the 
Ford Museum at Dearborn, Mich. 

^^ dcn f , &LX 



This store bill indicates the use of the old Spanish coin (legal until 
1858) called a "bit," two of which made a quarter. A 6{4 cent 
piece was locally known as a "fippenny bit"; farther south as a 
"picayune." Another invoice shows a total of S2.53V4- 

This decade witnessed the debates between Lincoln 
and Douglas, John Brown's raid, the opening of the 
Civil War, and the Battle of Antietam, near Waynes- 

Scientific developments of the '50's included the 
publication of Darwin's "Theory of Evolution," the 
opening of Drake's oil well at Titusville, Penna., 
the introduction of the Bessemer steel process, and the 
first rifled gun barrels. 

To relieve fever patients in Florida, Dr. John Gorrie in 1850 de- 
veloped a cold-air ice-making machine. Later in the 50's Prof. A. 
C. Twining of Connecticut and John Harrison of Australia patented 
machines using sulphuric ether as the refrigerant. Ice boxes now 
began to appear in homes, natural ice being generally available. 









The original Frick shop in Waynesboro stood on Broad Street between Main and Second, Lon S before the Engineering De- 

and was first occupied in 1861. It was sold to the Geiser Company in 1879 and three years partment was established, George 

later burned down. Frick drew designs on the floor, 

or on a bench, to guide his men. 

1853 to 1862 

A hundred years ago, small industries were often 
centered along the streams, where water power was 
available. In the Cumberland Valley these industries 
included flour and grist mills, tanneries, distilleries, 
woolen and paper mills, furnaces, forges, marble yards, 
and sawmills. But as the forests were cut down, the 
water ran off more rapidly and its power became less 

To meet these conditions George Frick built steam 
engines. Among his early customers were Welty's mill 
(still standing near Waynesboro), and the tanneries 
at Quincy and Thurmont. 

Among the Frick apprentices trained at Ringgold 
were John S. Spangler, George W. Eyler, Jacob Stouffer, 
and Frank Ledy. All of them later held responsible 
positions with the Company. Some lived at George 
Frick's home, and helped run his farm. 

After adding threshers to his line, George Frick 
rented a larger shop along the main road, about a mile 



north of Ringgold. Outgrowing this, he built a two- 
story shop measuring 100 by 50 feet, at Waynesboro. 
He moved into this before the outbreak of the Civil 
War. At the corner of Broad and Second Streets, ad- 
joining his shop, he built a large house in which his 
family and apprentices lived. 



^Cff~ CA&* 


-i_^t- ^■^■y.-^f-z^^ 

Geisers' Patent Self-Eegulating Grain Separator, Cleaner & Bagger. 

For full particulars and Circulars of Machine, address 

GEORGE PRICK, Manufacturer, 

Waynesboro', Franklin County, Pa. 



From 1857 to 1865 George Frick built threshers on the patents 
of Peter Geiser. This model used eight men and eight horses to 
thresh 35 bushels per hour. 


A remarkable letter, referring to the paper money issued by 
state banks. The man at Williamsport, Maryland, influenced 
by the War scare, was afraid of Pennsylvania bills. 

This photograph, among the earliest ever 
taken of Frick machinery, shows a port- 
able "farm engine" of the first model, 
belted to a small thresher. The rig was 
exhibited in the Waynesboro Center 
Square in the 1860's. 

feick & CO.. PROPS. 






Portable Saw Mills, 

and all other Machinery made to order. 

The above cut represents our Horizontal 
Engine with Improved Side ' Bed. This de- 
sign makes it strong, neaf and durable and 
upon which we have made some valuable 
improvements, especially upon the working 
parts making them durable and 'economi- 
cal. , . 

We build Horizontal Engines -with bo^ 
beds of different sizes and designs and up- 
on the most improved plan. 

We also make Upright Engines of differ- 
ent sizes and styles, and where economy it 
space is an object, they have some advan- 
tage over the Horrizoutal, al3o in the wear 
ofthe Cylinder,which is always equal in an 
Upright Engine. 

A special point of advantage in these En- 
gines is our (A. 0. Friek'sl recently iui'iinl- 
ed and patent self-adjusting BALANCED 
S LIDE VALVE, suited to all riteam Engines 
and Locomotives. It leaves the Engines as 
simple in operation as those ofthe ordina- 
ry plain slide valve class. We direct spec J 
ial attention to this superior valve, and in- 
vite correspondence. 

We give special attention to Portable 
Engines and Saw Mills ; also Agricultural 
Engines for threshing grain and. for farm 
purposes generally. Also 


of all sizes. Further information may be 
obtained from the manufacturers, 

Waynesboro', franklin Co., Pa. 
may 8-tf 

An advertisement of Frick steam 
engines which appeared in the 
Waynesboro newspaper in the early 

The Battle of Gettysburg was fought in 1863; within two years, the 
names of Lincoln and of Lee had become immortal. 

The trans- Atlantjt cable was laid in 1866. In 69 the Westinghouse 
air brake was introduced, the trans-continental railroad was completed, 
and the Suez Canal was opened. Over-expansion of the railroads con- 
tributed to the Panic of 1873. 

In 1863 four Carre ammonia-absorption refrigerating machines, made in France, were 
smuggled past the Union blockade and installed in the South. Using distilled water, 
clear ice was made with these machines for the first time. 




1Y, Waynesboro', Franklin Co. Pcnn'a. ' 

J Manufacturer of 

Stationary and Portable 


c/[ Mill (,<, &c, of all descriptions. 


ShaftiDg Pulleys, &c. 
Geiser's Patent Self-regulating 


cV Wit 

ith the latest improvements and Tri- * 
"cyf L ple (Icar llorse-l'owers. ^ 

(J) All kinds of Machioeiy made to order. I 

^ap^towfl', fa. 






This bill-head shows the machinery offered by George Frick in the 1860's. Note the various old-style type faces used by the printer. 

1863 to 1872 

The plant had hardly been moved across the Mason-Dixon 
Line when the Civil War broke out. Waynesboro lay midway 
between the crucial battles of Antietam and Gettysburg: the 
area was subjected to many raids. A letter to George Frick 
dated 1862 says a Confederate column of cavalry ten miles 
long was at Fayetteville, Penna., less than a dozen miles away. 

During the Gettysburg campaign the Confederates occupied 
Waynesboro and took all the leather belting from the Frick 
shop, which was closed for a month. 

After the War a new plant was erected across the street, 
under which a long power shaft extended. Mr. Frick's daughter 
Elizabeth was killed when accidentally caught by this shaft. 

The Geiser Mfg. Co. occupied the previous Frick shops in 
1869, and grew into one of Waynesboro's largest industries* 
From it sprang the Landis Tool Co. and the Landis Machine 
Co., these now enjoy an international trade in precision grind- 
ing and threading tools. 

In 1870 Mr. Frick formed a partnership with his second 
cousin, Christian Frick Bowman, but the latter died of typhoid 
fever in 72. That year and the next marked the lowest ebb in 
the Frick fortunes the entire family contracted the disease and 
the eldest son, Frank, also died of it. 

The "Brick Shops" were built across the street from the first Frick plant 
in Waynesboro, and were occupied from 1869 to 1881. They included 
a foundry, boiler shop, smith shop, forge shop, pattern dept., machine 
shop, etc. 

Form No. 64. 

This Eeoeipt, properly filled up by the Shipper, must ao- 
company the Freight. 




Corner of Thirteenth and Market Streets. 

49* NOTICE. Persons desiring Information respecting 
Goods snipped by this Company, to be forwarded to points 
beyond Pittsburg, will please address ill© Consignee at 
Pittsburg, instead of Shippers at Philadelphia. 

When goods for more than on* mark are comprised in ono Dray-load, sepa- 
rate receipts must be sent for each. 

Goodt intended to go through by Rail Road, beyond Pittsburg, rauirt be dearly 
and plainly marked on the packages, "Through by Rail Road.'' 

Through and Local Freight will not be received after 6 o'clock P. M. 

Local Freight must have the name of the Station at which it is to b* delivered 
plainly marked on the packages, and on this receipt. 

Through Freight, 13th & Market Sts. 
Local Freight, 15th & Market Sts. 

VE^, Philadelphia. /ZW '& 


the following articles, contents -and condition unknown, to 
be carried and delivered upon the terms and according to 
the agreement as specified on the bach of this receipt. 



Old bills of lading show that, even after the railroads 
spanned the continent, goods moving west were un- 
loaded at Pittsburgh and placed on steamboats unless 
clearly marked "Through by Rail Road." 

This portable engine, No. 325, was shipped in 1877 to Madison County, 

Va., where it drove a sawmill in the open until 1903; J. C. Clore and Son 

then placed it in their chair factory at Madison Courthouse. Here it served until 1949. After 72 years of use, the boiler and engine 

are still in running condition, and have been returned to Waynesboro: see photo above. This was the first type of engine to carry 

the "Eclipse" trade mark. 

The Cumberland Valley Rail Road reached Waynesboro in 
1878. The trains were hauled by the "Pioneer" locomotive, 
built at Boston in 1851 and now in the Franklin Institute, 



The Bell telephone was demonstrated at the Centennial 
Exposiljon in Philadelphia. In 1876 Otto also designed the 
gas engine; the next year Edison invented the phonograph, 
and shortly afterward perfected the incandescent lamp. 

In the 1870's numerous European designs of refriger- 
ating machinery were transplanted to America, including 
the Linde ammonia compressor from Germany, the Pictet 
sulphur dioxide machine from Switzerland, cold-air ma- 
chines from England, and absorption machines from France. 

IFRICK S CO.WAYNESBORO.cXV? PA^^^Ie 1 !^* 4 ' 1 

The first Frick traction engine, as shown by this 
old woodcut, had a chain drive but was steered by 
horses. It was built in the late 1870's. 

Frick and Company began making their own sawmills in the middle 1870's. 
Early mills had a cast-iron "husk," or frame for the main mechanism, then also 
called a "cab." A rack ran the carriage back and forth. Picture from the 
"Scientific American." 


In 1882 Frick and Company entered the refrigerating ma- 
chinery field by building an ammonia compressor cylinder 
which was mounted on the frame of a vertical steam engine 
in Baltimore, and was driven with a horizontal engine. 

The new Frick Shops, on West Main Street in Waynesboro, as 
they appeared in 1881 A reservoir was on the top of the hill 
at left, a stable was next, then the office. 

1873 to 1882 

This was a period of momentous changes. A partner- 
ship of thirteen men, including A. O. Frick, raised 
$34,000 to see the enterprise through the panic of 1873 
and keep the industry in Waynesboro. By 1879 the 
capitalization of Frick and Company had increased to 
$125,000 and by 1884 to $900,000, which was a big 
sum in those days. 

In the mid-Seventies the Company began building its 
own portable sawmills. The Centennial Exposition in 
Philadelphia, the engineering event of 1876, gave the 
highest award in its class to a Frick farm engine, which 
carried the "Eclipse" trademark for the first time. In 
1880 a Frick engine triumphed over 25 others from 
America, England, and Europe at the great exhibition 
in Melbourne, Australia. Meanwhile, the Frick steam 
traction engine was being developed. 

In 1879 a house magazine called the "Eclipse Era" 
was introduced. Its successor, "The Frick System", will 
soon celebrate its Silver Anniversary. 

The railroads having finally reached Waynesboro, 
the Frick works were moved in 1881 to a fine new plant 
adjoining the tracks. This was so ahead of its time and 
so extensive, that the "Scientific American" soon printed 
a feature article about it. 

But still more far-reaching was the beginning, made 
in 1882, of the Company's work with refrigerating 

This veteran engine, with a bore of 11-in. and stroke of 16-in., was originally 
mounted on a portable boiler. Bought by the Toms Brook (Va.) Lime and 
Stone Co. in 1881, it survived a fire in 1942 and was in use 70 years. A 
Frick 10 by 12 engine built in 1897 operated a stone pulverizer and con- 
veyors at the same quarry until 1951. 

Thomas Camp (right) at the wheel of a Frick traction 
engine near Covington, Georgia, in 1881 The follow- 
ing year 43 Frick engines were shipped in one day to 
Mr. Camp. He was still selling Frick machinery in the 
South in the late 1920's. 


In 1883 the "Scientific American" published this drawing of Frick and 
Company's main machine shop, along with a complete article describ- 
ing the new plant, which was the marvel of its time. 

In 1885 the first electric street cars in America were 
used in Baltimore; motor cars were introduced in 
Europe; and the first submarines were built. 

Smokeless powder was developed in France in 1886. 
In '87 Daimler built a successful automobile, in '89 
Edison invented motion pictures. Meanwhile, Louis 
Pasteur was proving that germs cause disease. 

Part of the Office Force in 1888 


Sfatid li-ll to rigbt—$>. H. Brown, shipping clerk; Ezra Fnck, secretary S. H 
hart president- D. B. Mentzer, accounting department; T. J. Kennedy, collection 
department- William MiddlekaufT, purchasing agent; Edgar Penny superintendent. 
Standing— 1. H. Deardortf, sales manager, farm machinery; I-rcd A. Phelps dra ts- 
man S R. Frantz, salesman; O. L. Grove, collection department; J. H Raby, 
attorney ot collection department; M Cunningham, clerk, W. Harbaugh, draftsman; 
J. B. Lowry, bookkeeper; John Emmert. salesman; G. Waynant, clerk. 

In the third model of the traction engine a 
train of gears replaced the chain drive. The 
engine was later turned around, placing the 
shaft above the driving wheels. 

"This is the identical engine, the 'Daniel 
Boone' — competitors will never forget the 
name — that was shown throughout the circuit 
of state and principal county fairs, and took 
thirty-nine first premiums in one year (1885). 
"The reason it did not take more is because 
it could not be shown in more than one place 
at the same time. Such a stir and shaking of 
dry bones all along the line in the Traction 
Engine business was never seen before or 

— From the Frick Catalog of 188S. 


An early traction engine hauling seven portable engines and a thresher of the old "separator" type through Waynesboro's Center 
Square. Total load was 15 tons: the power of the engine amazed teamsters. Note the town pump, at which Gen. Robert E. Lee 
is said to have watered his horse in 1863: this photograph was made 20 years later. 

1883 to 1892 

This decade saw the steam traction engine open a 
great new era in power farming, despite the depression 
which began in 1884. The "vibrating" thresher was 
being offered as well as the older "separator" type: the 
engine could now both haul the thresher and operate it. 

In 1885 the partnership was dissolved and Frick 
Company was chartered as a corporation. Three years 
later George Frick retired; for 43 years he had been 
active, building the foundations of the industrial great- 
ness both of his firm and of Waynesboro. His life's 
work is exemplified by his motto: "Be sure you are 
right, then do it quickly!" 

Edgar Penney had come to Waynesboro in 1883 

to design a line of Corliss steam engines which would 
supplement the Frick stationary, portable, and traction 
engines. Frick Corliss engines were built in sizes up 
to 3000 horsepower. High-speed automatic engines 
were also developed. Frick equipment began to be used 
in many industries, including electric power plants, 
paper mills, steel mills, etc., in addition to its work on 
farms an* in the forests. 

Hundreds of thousands of posters, lithographed in full colors 
and picturing Frick sawmills, cotton gins, portable engines 
and other products, were distributed in the '80's and '90's. This 
scene, showing the vibrating type thresher with traction 
engine, has the lyrical qualities of a print by Currier and Ives. 

i 13 h 

Showing methods of filling and 
harvesting cans in an ice plant 
of the 1880's. 

Right: This Frick Corliss engine, with a bore of 
22 inches and a 4-foot stroke, was built in 1891 
and is still in daily operation at the Penn-Rillton 
Co., Irwin, Penna. Speed is 74 to 80 r.p.m. The 
belt wheel is 16 ft. in diameter: engine delivers 
450 horsepower. A Frick Corliss engine built in 
1888 is still in use at Weldon, N. C. 

The plate plants were the first to use raw water, under air agitation, to produce 
clear ice successfully: view shows 100-ton Frick plant in New Orleans in 1888, 
the first of its size in America. 

Upper right: This machine, built in 1887, 
survived a fire, and had operated 43 years 
when a second fire destroyed the Hagers- 
town (Md.) Ice Co. The Insurance company 
paid 40 per cent of machine's original value. 

Left: 121/2 " by 19" by 28" compressor built 
in 1886 and in service at Gipps Brewery, 
Peoria, 111., until 1946 — three-score years. 

Right: I3V2" by 28" compressor, driven by 
20" Corliss engine, installed in 1891 for the 
Rock Island (later Harrold) Ice Co. at Fort 
Worth, Texas. In operation 60 years. 

-A 1 A |v. 


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The first complete Frick refrigerating machine, built 
in 1883, had two ammonia cylinders of 12-in. dia. 
by 18-in. stroke, with a steam cylinder between them. 
It ran at 50 to 55 r.p.m., and developed 25 tons of 
refrigeration. As shown at left, the order can still be 
seen on Frick Company's books. 

1883 to 1892 

The success of the first two ammonia compressors 
having stimulated a demand, Edgar Penney and A. O. 
Frick in the mid-Eighties developed a line of large re- 
frigerating machines. These were driven by the new 
Frick Corliss engines, which combined remarkable de- 
pendability with steam economy and flexibility to meet 
changing loads. The design included such basic fea- 
tures as twin vertical cylinders, giving balanced opera- 
tion; single-acting pistons, for efficiency of compression 
safety cylinder heads, held down by springs instead of 
bolts, eliminating wasteful clearance; accessibility; and 
perfection of details. 

By 1886 four of the machines were running; eight 
more were shipped the next year, including a 20-in. by 
36-in. compressor delivering 150 tons of refrigeration. 
These early Frick machines not only set the standard for 
the entire refrigeration industry for the next 30 years, 
but most of their design features are m use today. 

Many of the compressors built in the Eighties and 
Nineties were m operation 40 years; others served 50 
years; some 60! 

Breweries and packing houses vied with ice-making 
plants in adapting the pioneer machines to their needs. 
Today, large cities would starve without the protection 
given to food supplies by re- 

Abram S. Kauffman started with 
Frick & Company in 1884, and was 
employed as a machinist 50 years. 
His son was also a machinist here 
from 1892 to 1925. His grandson, 
Harry G. Kauffman, Jr., started in 
1929 and is today a product de- 
signer. Many other families have 
worked at the Company for several 

Ammonia suction trap, liquid receiver, and oil separator as produced in the early 
days, before acetylene or electric welding became available. 

4 15 h 

20-ton machine with Frick Corliss 
engine at work in an ice plant in 
Mexico City, about 1891. 

This experimental plow, with one of the first "power take- 
offs," was supposed to move the shares in a loop while the 
tractor pulled the rig forward. Abe Lincoln is said to have 
proposed a similar plow. 

This sawmill team included plenty of men, five oxen, a con- 
veyor with wooden rollers, and a traction engine. 

Frick engines were certainly effective, though not always as strong as indicated here. 

In 1895 Diesel perfected his engine, 
and Marconi invented the wireless. 
R.F.D. mail service was begun the next 
year. Dirigible balloons were first flown 
by Santos Dumont and Zeppelin in 1898, 
the year of the Spanish-American War. 
In 1901 Queen Victoria died, and Walter 
Reed discovered how to stop yellow fe- 
ver his work made it possible for the 
Panama Canal to be built, a few years 
later, under Theodore Roosevelt 

Frick equipment won first awards at 
hundreds of fairs, expositions, and 
field trials, including many of inter- 
national importance, and is still 
widely exhibited. 

"i u trick Works at the 
The stable was still 

he Century. 

i 16 > 


As young men A. O. Frick and Ezra Frick, sons of the Founder, 
took turns in rising at 3:30 a.m. to feed the horses, fire the 
boilers, and have the teams hitched by 6 o'clock for the daily 
trip to the railroad. Both men served long apprenticeships in 
the shop and office. A. O. Frick served as president of the 
Company from 1904 to 1924: his brother from 1924 to 1942. 



1893 to 1902 

The opening of the Great West began in the 1780's, when 
the first settlers' wagons crossed the Alleghenies. Thanks to 
the invention of the steel plow and Colt's revolver, the waves 
of newcomers lived to raise more grain than they could con- 

The reaper stimulated the demand for threshers, and they 
in turn for engines. To meet this need, some three dozen manu- 
facturers, of whom Frick Company was a pioneer, built thou- 
sands of portable and traction engines. 

Another big step was the advent of the "steam plow. ' Huge 
traction engines, the largest ever built, equipped with double 
cylinders and oversized wheels, dragged gangs of plows over 
the prairies one outfit might turn twenty acres per day. 

Threshers and sawmills were likewise enlarged and improved, 
and accessories, such as self-feeders, windstackers, and top rigs, 
were developed to make them more efficient. 

The signature of the Founder 
of the Company. 

Engine arranged with flanged wheels for a logging 
railway, using wooden tracks. 

Threshing wheat with a Frick rig in 1895. Note ■ number 
of peop ! .as*. tabled for the event. 

Heavy traction engine demonstrating its plowing 
ability in "new-ground." These big rigs were usually 
worked by two men. 

4 1 7 > 

Two large 
with Corliss 
assembled in 
the "high 
shop" at 
in the 

This ammonia compressor ran at the Marshall (Missouri) 
Ice Co. from 1896 to 1949 (53 
years), then was replaced by two 7" 
by 7" Frick enclosed machines. 

View in the main Frick machine shop, about 1895. This was before the development of 
individual electric drive for machine tools. 

First Frick machine with direct- 
connected electric motor. Built in 
the early 1900's, this was a fore- 
runner of the synchronous-motor- 
driven compressor of today. The 
motor shown used direct current. 

A two-ton machine of the open 
type, seven feet high and weighing 
4300 pounds, as built about 1900. 

Probably the first group lift plant in America, installed at St. Louis in 
1897. Thirteen cans were handled at a time; crane was electrically 


This 17" by 36" machine, placed in 
La Tropical Brewery in Havana in 
1892, was one of three driven by 
powerful water wheels, with steam 
engines in reserve. That belt was five 
feet wide. Beer from the establish- 
ment refreshed American soldiers in 
the War of 1898. 

Gigantic compressor which ran for 35 years, 
and two other Frick machines with 36" stroke 
which operated nearly 50 years, at the Armour 
plant in Kansas City. 

1893 to 1902 

In 1894 the East St. Louis Ice and Cold Storage plant, 
the largest of its kind, installed a 125-ton Frick plate 
ice making system and two compressors of 36-in. stroke, 
driven by compound-condensing engines. A third 
engine of the same type drove the auxiliaries through 
a big jackshaft. 

Two years later Frick Company built for Armour 
and Co. the largest refrigerating machine in the world. 
This 30-foot giant had a bore of 27 inches and a stroke 
of 48, and with its tandem-compound engine measured 
50 feet long. 

Its high-pressure steam cylinder had a diameter of 26 
inches; its low-pressure cylinder, 50; the stroke of the 
engine was also four feet. 

The big unit was operated day and night, continuous- 
ly, for 35 years, and was in reserve service another 
5 years. Its rated capacity at 60 r.p.m. was 350 tons. 
(One ton of refrigeration is the cooling effect obtained 
by melting a ton of ice every 24 hours.) The speed 
could be increased to 70. 

In developing new lines of machines, the tendency is 

to begin with large units having slow-moving parts. 

History shows this to have been the case with tractors, 

combines, Diesel engines, ammonia compressors, and 

other equipment. 

After the heavy models have shown what can be 

done, a demand arises for smaller sizes, with lighter 

parts running at higher speeds. 

Frick Company in this decade anticipated the needs 

of hotels, restaurants, hospitals, and various industrial 

plants, for refrigerating systems of moderate capacity. 

As steam power was not always 
available, other types of drive were 
introduced. These adaptable ma- 
chines paved the way for the wide 
acceptance enjoyed by mechanical re- 
frigeration a generation later. 

shown in 
service above. 

This entire train of 15 cars (not counting the caboose) was required for shipping the world's largest refrigerating machine to Kansas City, 

in 1896. The special train made the trip in 60 hours. 


Moving a 30-ton house half a mile with a Frick traction 
engine. These machines crushed stone, built roads, 
pumped water, operated mills, and did many other 
kinds of belt and drawbar work. 

A threshing outfit posing for its picture on a road in Maryland. Horses 
hauled water for the engine from streams along the way. 

The great news of this decade was the development of 
the airplane, first flown by the Wrights in 1903. In 1905 
Albert Einstein published his Special Theory of Rela- 
tivity. By 1906 battleships of the dreadnought type had 
appeared in England; in '07 De Forest invented the 
vacuum tube; in '09 Peary discovered the North Pole, 
and Henry Ford standardized the Model T' The "Ti- 
tanic' was lost in 1912. 

Four-horsepower engine built about 40 years ago for driving the 
smallest size of Frick thresher. Shipped to Tennessee; now owned 
by W. W. Willock of Syosset, N. Y. 

A Frick traction engine, at work on the prairies, compared with an ox team and plow as used in the mid-1800's. 

Oxen did well to turn half an acre in a day. 

4 20 > 

"* Machiiierj 


Vi» I! 

\mtn> , 

nu'Mmw\m, h ?», p nil . 

Advertisement in the "Southern 
Lumberman" magazine in 1907. 

Traction engine (one of two) used for heavy hauling in Honduras, early in the century. 
While these engines are now becoming collectors' items, some are still in service. 

1903 to 1912 

Frick Company's advertisements, having been started 
in the newspapers throughout the Cumberland Valley 
in the late 1840's, have now been appearing more than 
a century. 

The Scientific American carried a Frick advertise- 
ment as early as 1872, the American Agriculturist in 
1875, the Brewers Journal in 1890, Ice and Refrigera- 
tion in 1891, Southern Power and Industry in 1906, 
Southern Lumberman in 1907, Refrigeration, and the 
Southern Lumber Journal, in 1908, the American Ex 
porter in 1913, Refrigerating Engineering in 1914, La 
Hacienda in 1917, and the Pennsylvania Farmer in 1918. 

The Frick trademark is still to be seen in nearly all 
these publications, as well as in half a hundred other 

trade journals, and in national weeklies such as Time, 
Newsweek, and Business Week. In addition, Frick 
equipment is kept before the public by means of ex- 
hibits, calendars, radio, direct mail, catalogs, engineer- 
ing articles, and various forms of educational work. 

The cumulative effect of this long-continued adver- 
tising, decade after decade, is an important factor in 
the recognition now enjoyed by Frick equipment 
throughout the world. 

Frick sawmills early earned a 
reputation for fast, accurate 
cutting and long life, plus the 
ability to show consistent 
profits. That rear teamster is 
putting on a show of his own. 
Note sleds for hauling logs, 
and spark arrestor on the stack 
of the engine. 

4 211** 

Sheet of clear ice made by the plate system. Single pieces measured up to 16 
feet long and a foot thick: they might weigh TVi tons. Two such sheets were 
frozen on opposite sides of a compartment of the tank. In the early days they 
were cut into blocks by steam-driven saws. 

Typical large distilled-water system installed for the Pittsburgh (Pa.) Ice 
Co. Note air hoist, water forecooler, and niters. 

j m| 






— 5^ 

■■'" ' 


Ice tank with accumulator and set of dehy- 
drators for drying air in the medium-pressure 

Ice made with the medium-pressure air system, 
using a tube in the corner of the can. 

Prehistoric mammoths are still edible after being 
frozen in the ice of glaciers and swamps in Siberia 
for tens of thousands of years. 

•^ - r- - 

Average-sized ice tank, using the patented F-P system and Frick group 
lift. Electric Ice M ..ufacturing Co., Richmond, Va. 

*! 22 > 

One of the first Frick air conditioning systems was 
installed in 1910 in this plant making caramel candy 
in Lancaster, Penna., where it served satisfactorily 
over 25 years. 

Frick horizontal long-stroke compressors were introduced in 1911. These 
15" by 30" duplex machines, complete with Frick steam engines, were 
installed at the Southern Ice Co., Charleston, S. C, in 1917 and 1920, 
and are still in operation. 

1903 to 1912 

The "plate" plants made ice in huge sheets, weighing 
several tons, which required about a week to freeze. 
Air was bubbled through the water to agitate it and 
make the ice clear the sheets were frozen from only 
one side. 

In the distilled-water system, the steam exhausted by 
the engine driving the compressor was condensed and 
purified, then frozen in the ice cans. No agitation was 
needed to make distilled water into clear ice. 

When electric power superseded steam, ice plants 
turned again to air agitation. The early raw-water 

two-stage truck 
delivering ice 
(packed in 
straw) in India. 

systems used low pressure air, introduced through drop 
pipes in the center of the can. Cooling and drying ap- 
paratus was used to dehydrate the air and prevent its 
freezing in the tubes. 

The next step was to place the tube in the corner of 
the can and to raise the air pressure enough to force a 
passage through the ice as it froze. This developed 
into the medium-pressure air system, which was widely 
used until 1923, when the Frick-Pendulum (F-P) air 
system came into the field. 

This made the clearest ice from city water, using low- 
pressure air without dehydrators. Within a few years 
a thousand installations of the F-P system had been 

Ice made from city water by the F-P low-pressure 
air system is the last word in quality. Frick- 
Pendulum tubes, brought out in 1923, revolution- 
ized the ice industry. 

This one man, working one shift, made 42 tons of ice every day 
for four years at the "Merchants" plant of the Polar Ice and Fuel 
Co., Indianapolis. The semi-automatic system, introduced in 1945, 
results in remarkable economies. 


Tractor de Vapor Frick 

Fuersa motriz segura para todas las apHcaciones 

dura <l«r i/umino-, desman If , ttasi .pont- ilr difelos, t*if! 

Moiov de mamii>rio ntral C*iWt ■ i i*i ■ i ■'■• <-■■■<■■■ 
ynontaOii-. I in:nj] -'him (Ii:]:-;n I era y t*4 - : 

Min.bos puntcs ftt«*t«is (Is centa:- i}»*>ran ..!>• Il..mii( la airii 
cifln tie lbs MriitieulortM gwaetH"*! 


Direcc(6tt Teteffrafii'.a KKICK Wajnpplioro, Pa. 

Mgqxims fit' V.ipof (ie TraceiSfi Pwtitiks >■ Kii-i.-. I iliterag 

Trillaitor.u. &,««pjrs*teK* 

Se neeeiitan agentes de responsabilidad. 

FRICK CO., Waynesboro, Pa., E. U. A. 

Cl.v«. »« U», ABC 4*. r 5*. edlcione*. Liebtr y W. U. Eit»bl*cid« 1SS3 

This advertisement appeared in the Spanish edition of the 
"American Exporter" magazine in 1913. 

AH farm machinery was pushed hard to provide food for our 
Armed Forces and Allies, during the First World War. Frick 
equipment did its part to win victory. 

Below: Preparing to ship a traction engine and a String of 
threshets. with a portable engine and a water wagon, from the 
Frick Factory about 1915. 

The First World War stopped the progress of 
mankind in its tracks in this decade, although dra- 
matic improvements were made in airplanes. In 1919 
Alcock and Brown flew the Atlantic. 

The War took sixty-nine Frick men to the Colors. 
Machine guns replaced cavalry — and chivalry — In 

This was the era of Woodrow Wilson. As a boy 
he shook hands with Robert E. Lee; as a man he 
tried to put Lee's high principles of honor into inter- 
national relations. 

Left: The "Rough and Tumble Engineers" overcame every dif- 
ficulty in getting their machines from place to place. This acci- 
dent at a bridge in Kentucky in 1906 did not injure the engine 
or its operator. Everybody in the neighborhood got into the 


Trainload of Frick gas tractors, bound for Nebraska, in the early 1920's. 

1913 to 1922 

The steam traction engine reached the peak of its 
perfection and usefulness about 1915. Burning either 
wood, coal, or straw, and rugged enough to travel over 
country roads, these engines were depended upon for 
all kinds of work. They laid the foundations upon 
which gas tractors later achieved their wide acceptance. 

Portable steam boilers and engines continued to be 
built for sawmill and industrial work into the 1930's, 
and are still in occasional demand for export. The 
Cornish type boiler, with a firebox in which long slabs 
could be burned, became a favorite. 

Heavy portable gas engines and a few gas tractors 
had made their appearance at the turn of the century. 
Within twenty years, the gas tractor became thoroughly 

Right after World War I, Frick Company developed 
a gas tractor that w r as as good or better than others of its 
time. Some of these machines were still running in the 

Above: a big sawmill instal- 
lation on the shore of a lake 
in France, during World 
War I. 

Left: Traction engine furnish- 
ing both power and steam 
to an Army Laundry Unit, 
somewhere in France, 1917- 


Enclosed ammonia compressor of size 5" by 
5". built in 1915; in service at Spath's 
market, Portland, Ore., over 25 years. 

^^ 1 



Three of the five Frick vertical medium-speed compressors at the world's largest 
ice cream plant — Breyer's, in Philadelphia. These machines were a transition 
between the open type and the fully enclosed designs. Installed 1922-1925, and 
still in operation. 

Left: Electric butt weld- 
ing eliminated many 
screwed and flanged 
joints in cooling coils. 
End pressure, applied 
to the white-hot metal, 
thickens the walls at 
the joint, making the 
weld stronger than the 
pipe itself. 

Right: Hundreds of 
these small enclosed 
compressors, driven by 
Frick steam engines, 
furnished dependable 
refrigeration aboard 
ships in World War I. 

This group of Foremen, Leading Men and Department Heads was photographed at a picnic in July, 1920. 

Front Row— Lee Wolfinger, Bill Arnold, Andy Grosh, Robert Hess, George Arnold, George Pilkington, Leslie Eberly, Jim Hamilton, Wilson Pilkington 
J. A. Martin, Wayne Kriner, Win, C. Zinkand, Paul Devor, A. A. Detwiler, M. E. Gordon. Second Row — Tony Marmaza, Jim Leedy, Richard Betts, 
N. O. T. Known Win. Bardenhour, Fred Shisler, Arthur Foreman, John W Brewer, Gardy Miller, Bill Diehl, Grayson Snurr, Cleveland Johnson, Luther 
Kemper, Alfred Gillis, John Heckman, J. L. McCIeary, Pete Noll. Third Row — John Emmert, Tom Cook, Edward Finney, Roy Goree, R. L. Morganthal, 
E. H. Oderman, R. G. Breidenthal, Merle Schultz, Danl. F Good, Dave Keagy, Will Harbaugh, D. N. Benedict, Clyde Strite, Mart Overman, H. H. 
Esbenshade, S. F. Workman, Altred McCarty. Fourth Row — J. C. McCIeary, Kearney Bonn, Merle Brown, N. M. Small, AI. Lonacre, Ezra Frick, Jake 
Seitz, George Kolb, Jim Baer, George Duffield, Amos Carver, John Lacump, Sam Yaukey, John Rossman, Harry Peiffer. Elmer Perviance, John Wallace, 
W. A. Shetron, F. H. Fritsch, Chauncey Blubaugh, Earl Frick. Last Row — Harvey Thompson, John McCIeary, Kenneth Werdebaugh, Andy Hess, Merle 
McFerren, W. R. Snively, Harry Geeseman, Harry Fisher, Roy KaufTman. Ray Florence, S. S. Snively, John Rowe, Alfred Davis, Victor Good. At Sign — 
Billy Hawman, Harry Funk. 

< 26 > 

Carbon-dioxide compressors (note square cylinder blocks) with 
tandem-compound steam engines, installed aboard ship in World 
War I. Such vessels had large refrigerated holds, cooled by exten- 
sive piping systems. 

When Frick Company introduced frozen fish in the Orient, in 
1919, Sales-engineer L. H. Jenks had to eat the first thawed 
sample in the raw state, to prove that it was wholesome. Jenks 
selected a small specimen. Within a few years, plants freezing 
a hundred tons daily were in operation. 

1913 to 1922 

As the open-type ammonia compressor was made in 
smaller and smaller sizes, the A-frames which supported 
the cylinders were finally combined into one piece. 
From this arrangement the enclosed compressor was 
later developed. 

First built in 1915, the new machines were available 
in a range of sizes in time to serve the pressing demands 
of camps, food and powder plants, hospitals and ships 
in World War I. 

The enclosed design retained the safety cylinder 
heads, the one-way gas travel, and the balanced vertical 
operation that were features of the large slow-speed 

machines. The enclosed-type machine, with its auto- 
matic lubrication, operated safely without constant 
watching. Its perfection opened the way for the systems 
with automatic control, which appeared in 1922-23. 
These made possible, in turn, the household electric 

Meanwhile, great improvements were being made in 
cooling coils, which were kept flooded with liquid am- 
monia to increase the heat transfer. Ammonia is a 
highly efficient refrigerant: it delivers the greatest cool- 
ing effect per dollar invested, and is still preferred on 
industrial work and many commercial installations. 


A battery of four big steam-driven compressors was installed at 
the Boston Fish Pier in 1915, and is still in service, along with 
three machines of later types. Frick equipment also refrigerates 
various fish freezers at Gloucester, Portland, Rockland, New Bed- 
ford, and on Cape Cod, as well as many in the Gulf States and 
on the Pacific Coast. 

This 7" by 7" 
machine, in- 
stalled in a 
dairy in 
Delaware, in 
1916, was 
rebuilt 32 
years later 
and started 
on another 
long period 
of service. 

< 27 

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m ® im % m 
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Compressing 10" blocks of dry ice with the "snow machines" developed by 
Frick Company in 1929- The solid carbon dioxide is at a temperature nearly 
110 degrees below zero F. 


JL ♦ st< 

m m m ^ »« 

^ ill » ti 1 S ( > 

H # ffl 4> m m ~ 
51 ro « ® « wj 

This advertisement featuring Frick ice-making 
equipment was published in local newspapers 
by the Distributor at Bangkok, Siam. 

This period started with prosperity under 
President Coolidge and ended with the de- 
pression. Talking movies were brought out 
in 1926 in 1927 Lindbergh flew alone from 
New York to Paris. Trans-Atlantic tele- 
phone service was begun at the same time; 
r * irs later the Graf Zeppelin circum- 
he globe. In 1931 Picard pene- 
. stratosphere in a balloon. 

Right: The old Frick foundry, as it appeared 
in 1882, and the new. Visitors from Europe 
are often amazed to find the Company making 
all its own patterns and castings. 


Above: "Cornish" type boilers had a long fire-box inside; 
doors at both ends permitted burning full-length slabs. 

Right: The steel thresher became really practical when 
welding replaced bolts; this Frick machine, photographed 
in the 20's, would now have pneumatic tires. 

1923 to 1932 

The line of Frick farm machinery was extended dur- 
ing this decade to include many new items, among the 
first being tractors, combines, spreaders, balers, and 
implements. Silo fillers, pick-up cutters, and forage 
harvesters were added next, along with feed mills and 
land rollers. 

Later such machines as husker-shredders, dehydrators, 
light tractors, special plows, and combines put in their 
appearance. The Frick portable baler was introduced; 
automatic balers and self-propelled combines have since 
been made available to an active market. 

These and later additions, including peanut pickers, 
have provided Frick customers with one of the best 
rounded lines of power farming and sawmill machinery 
ever offered. 

In the 1920's Frick Company erected a great new 
foundry, together with new pattern and wood shops 
of the most modern type, and set up departments for 
tool making, automatic lathe work, crank-shafts, con 
necting-rods, etc. 

Thresher with baler having automatic feeder for handling the 

Frick sawmill, 

with 30-hp. 

portable gas 

engine, cutting 

pine logs 

near Zeigler, 


i 29 > 


W e . » ice 
C V^>ee*» 

T»« e 

c' e ' 


m e 
vt ee- ,\^* e 

e» et 

ee* 6 

ct« al 





i»8 ?">>«* 

When this decade opened, the 
usual range of refrigerating tem- 
peratures was between zero and 
45 deg. F. Air conditioning and 
low-temperature work soon wid- 
ened this range tremendously, as 
indicated by this "thermometer." 

Air conditioned printing-press room of Edward Stern and Co., Philadelphia, 
equipped in 1932. Chas. S. Leopold, consulting engineer. 

The 118-ft. tuna fisher "Southern Cross," 
though reported lost with all hands, survived 
a terrific hurricane and landed a $13,000 cargo 
after a 2000-mile trip, thanks to the Frick sys- 
tem which preserved the ice in her holds. 

Sharp and Dohme, makers of 

pharmaceuticals at Philadelphia, 

use Frick ammonia refrigeration 

for conditioning air, freezing ice, 

condensing alcohol, cooling drinking water, 

hardening waxes, making insulin, storing 

serums, and research work. This installation, 

made in 1931, has four compressors under 

automatic control. 

People in the Picture on Opposite Page. 

Front Row, Left to Right — W. H Aubrey, T. L. Parish, R. T. Snively, J. A. Martin, 
L. I. Stemm, C. O. Voigt, M. W Garland, R. Van Sisk, A. H. Baer. Second Row— 
J. G. Miller, S. F. Workman, C. V. Grant, F. L. Sadler, H. E. Moore, A. O. Frick, 
D. B. Snively, D. N. Benedict, Ezra Frick, A. H. Hutchison, O. C. Arc-ns, R. H, Tait, 
Sr. G. A. Wagner. First Row, Standing — Jesse Barker, P. A. Smith, L. H. Jenks, Jr., 
J. A. Mikesell, J. T. Murphy, W. O. Kline, M. B. Weinberg, F H. Fritsch, Henry J. 
Mollenberg, A. D. Elsberry, L. Z. Wolfinger. A. N. Chandler, L. H. Maxwell. Second 
Row, Standing — Terry Mitchell, J. S. Small W. F. Losch, James Henderson, H. B. 
Pennington, Theo. Heutteman, G. H. Palmer, C. C. Smith, Jules Bernd, A. T. Feaster. 
Last Row, Standing — J. V. Turner, A. S. Workman, F. J. Easton, C. L. Whitaker, 
Tom Carroway, T. C. McKee, W. W. Morgan, W. R. Snively, H. B. Drillott, R. Hendry, 
D. M. Wertz, L. N. Udell, A. E. Edwards, N. M. Small. Rear Row, In Archway- 
's.. H. Tait, Jr., R. H. Oiler, J. L. McCleary, A. B. Hoppe, W B. Campbell. 

< 30 > 

■* '■'•' l,; ' : '>>? + 

, ■ '• 'llltilli'l'E 1: 

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HUH '.--tic tm 


Seventeen tons of air conditioning for 
the Coffee Shops were included in the 
complete Frick refrigerating system 
installed in the Thomas Jefferson 
Hotel at Birmingham in 1929. 

The Celanese Corp. of America uses over 10,000 tons of refrigeration in its great 
plant near Cumberland, Md. The Frick horizontal Type J compressors in the 
background, driven by 500-hp. motors, have been in service nearly 25 years. Each 
pair of vertical 4-cylinder machines has a motor of 1250 hp. (One new compressor 
not shown.) Air conditioning load of 4000 tons is carried in summer with as little 
as 0.70 hp. per ton! 

1923 to 1932 

When this decade opened, 2ero degrees Fahrenheit 
was called a "freezer" temperature, and represented the 
lower limit of general refrigeration practice; 45 degrees 
marked about the upper limit. 

Quick-freezing systems and low-temperature indus- 
trial processes now began to extend the refrigeration 
range downward, while air conditioning and special 
work pushed it upward. About the same time auto- 
matic controls became practical. 

As a result, the usefulness of refrigerating equipment 
increased enormously. Charles F. Kettering of General 
Motors predicted that the progress of civilization, hav- 
ing previously depended on the use of heat, would in 

the future be measured by the intelligent application of 

Frick Company built some of the first successful 
large-scale machinery in America for making dry ice; 
installed low-temperature test equipment at the Bureau 
of Standards in Washington, perfected the float- valve 
control system; and continued its pioneering work in air 
conditioning. The heavy slow-speed horizontal com- 
pressors were superseded by the Type J machines, which 
were adapted to direct synchronous-motor drive. Ver- 
tical enclosed-type carbon-dioxide machines were devel- 
oped, but after a few years were replaced by the new 
Freon-12 compressors. 

Home Office Executives, Branch Managers, and Distributors handling Frick refrigerating equipment appear in this photograph 

taken at Waynesboro in July, 1924. (See names on page 30.) 


This typical air conditioning system for industrial purposes, built in the early 
1930's, used Frick ammonia refrigeration with excellent results. 

Cold brine in these pipes froze a silt wall 
170 ft. long and 43 ft. deep, to stop a dan- 
gerous mud slide when Grand Coulee Dam 
was built. 


This decade witnessed the National Recovery Act (NRA), 
the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, Mussolini's attack on 
Ethiopia, the rise of Hitler in Germany, and the outbreak of 
World War II. On Dec. 7, 1941, the Japs attacked Pearl 
Harbor and the U.S. entered the fight. 

"Heavy hydrogen' was isolated at Columbia University in 
1933, and sulfanilamide was introduced in '35. In 1940 the 
possibility of splitting the atom was demonstrated. 

The Royal Hawaiian, at Waikiki Beach, known to thousands 
of travelers and Service men as "the world's most beautiful 
hotel," uses Frick refrigeration for food service, making ice, 
air conditioning, etc. 

Model of a dual-pressure ice plant, in which the water and liquid 
ammonia are precooled at high suction pressure, with about 
10 per cent extra efficiency. 

These improved cooling coils, called type VW from 
their shape, are welded into standard sizes: they offer 
many advantages, including short gas travel, ample air 
circulation, automatic defrosting when desired, prompt 
shipment from stock, etc. 


Frick steel peanut pickers, introduced in 1938, are still going 
strong. Cleaner, faster, and more durable, they enjoy a natural 

"No name in American agri- 
cultural implements stands higher 
or has survived longer than that 

of Frick." 

F. Hal Higgins in the 
Pennsylvania Farmer, Jan. 13, 1940 

One of the finest tributes ever paid to Frick Company is this state- 
ment by a well known historical writer, published in the Penn- 
sylvania Farmer magazine in words that would do justice to 
Winston Churchill. 

1933 to 1942 

The first peanut picker was invented years ago by 
a colored man; he stretched chicken wire over the open 
end of a barrel, lowered the nuts through the meshes, 
and jerked away the vines. The same principal has 
been used ever since. 

Frick Engineers now undertook to build a welded 
steel peanut picker that would be an improvement over 
the current wooden machines. The new design included 
a powerful dust exhaust fan; a large slow-moving cylin- 
der with spring teeth, permanently sealed bearings of 
roller, ball or rubber construction, an adjustable air 
cleaner; and rubber tires. Combined with high capacity 

and long life, these advantages soon made Frick pickers 
the favorite. 

Frick threshers were meanwhile being applied very 
successfully in the rice fields. They have enjoyed a 
world-wide market for rice threshing, as well as for 
handling wheat, oats, barley, clover, lespedeza, and 
other seeds, to this day. 

Auxiliaries such as wedge-sawing machines and steel 
trimmers now further increased the profits to be made 
with Frick sawmills. 

By this time pneumatic tires had been applied to many 
kinds of farm machinery, greatly increasing both effi- 
ciency and durability. 

In the 1930's Frick steel threshers were adapted to handling rice, and are now used for this purpose throughout the globe 
This machine is at work in the flat Louisiana rice fields: note large sacks of grain. 


Of the Frick unit air conditioners introduced in 1938, practi- 
cally all are still in operation. Now built in several sizes. 

Booster compressor, intercooler, and 
second-stage machine for producing low 
temperatures with economy. This system 
was developed by Frick engineers against 
bitter opposition, but is now universally 

The Philtower and Philcade Buildings 
in Tulsa were air conditioned with 1000 
tons of Frick ammonia refrigeration in 
1939. Operating costs are extremely low. 

Quick-freezing tunnel, 120 ft. long, hardening 180 pint pack- 
ages of ice cream a minute; temperature, 50 to 55 deg. F. below 
zero. Hershey Creamery Co., Harrisburg, Penna. 

Approximately half the artificial ice skating rinks on the 
Continent, including this one at Hershey, Penna., have 
Frick equipment. We furnish rinks with or without cement 

Two of the eight Frick ammonia compressors producing 4900 
tons of refrigeration for air conditioning a Midwest war plant. 
The compressors are driven in pairs by steam engines of 
1200 hp. 

<f 34|* 

Six-story cold storage building, refrigerating machine room with ice-making system, and poultry packing plant near Broadway, Va. 
This big COMMUNITY REFRIGERATION CENTER, which includes a quick-freezing tunnel, lockers, fruit storages, etc., is typical 
of many throughout the country supplying similar varied services. Frick Company fostered the development of these CENTERS 
and is proud of their rapid growth and usefulness. 

1933 to 1942 

After beer came back, many breweries were modern- 
ized, and die trend to improve their facilities spread to 
various other industries, including the ice business. The 
remarkable savings thus made continue to serve as 
proof of what modern engineering can accomplish. A 
large ice and cold storage plant in Nashville reduced its 
costs by $20,000 a year. 

The first I -man, 1 -shift ice plant was built at New- 
port, Penna., in 1934. The line of Frick Freon-12 com- 
pressors and accessory equipment was now developed, 
as was the booster system for maintaining low tempera- 
tures with economy. This last was a boon to the quick- 
frozen foods industry, as were the new Freon machines 
to air conditioning. Frick low-pressure refrigerating 
units and heavier machines have since been purchased 
by the tens of thousands. Frick unit air conditioners, in- 
troduced in 1938, continue to be favorites wherever de- 
pendability is a factor. 

During this era the ice-skating rinks also came into 
their own. Half of all those erected on this Continent 
included Frick equipment. They made possible the big 
ice shows, which are said to have eclipsed all the regu- 
lar stage theatres in tickets sold annually. 

During the first year of World War 
frigerating machines and sawmills 
were considered unnecessary to the 
defense effort, and the Frick Shops 
were filled with work on other military 
and naval equipment. The succeeding 
years witnessed a race to make up for 
the time lost! 

Automatic refrigerating systems operate 
most dependably when equipped with 
Frick electric control valves. 

Pratt and Whitney, famous builders of aircraft engines and preci- 
sion tools, use Frick air conditioning for holding temperatures 
within one degree F., the year 'round, in two test rooms at West 
Hartford, Conn. — said to be the most accurately controlled spaces 
of their size in existence. Cooled with Frick ammonia refrigeration. 

The "outstanding building of the decade" was 
that of the Bankers Life Co. at Des Moines. 
Costing $1,500,000, it included advanced methods 
of traffic control, space saving, communication, 
fire protection, and air conditioning. Three large 
Frick compressors, handling Freon-12, furnished 
630 tons of refrigeration — and are of course still 
doing it. 

35 > 

Jack Dempsey's Restaurant, opposite Madison Square Gar- 
den in New York City, was air conditioned with Frick 
equipment in 1935. Frick refrigeration was installed for 
food service and for cooling a display window. 

One of the first homes to be equipped with "reversed 
refrigeration," for heating in winter and cooling in sum- 
mer, was this country place near Alexandria, Va. (1935). 
Heat-pump systems are now widely used for industrial 
process work as well as for air conditioning. 

The great air conditioned storage of the California Walnut 
Growers' Assoc, at Vernon, measures 600 by 175 by 22 ft. 
high. The immense space is held between 36 and 40 deg. F. 
by two Frick 9 by 9 ammonia compressors, installed in 1936. 
A relative humidity of 65 per cent is maintained. 

The water in the swimming pool at Tarboro, N. C, scene of many 
championship meets, is held at correct temperatures with a Frick 
ammonia system. 

World War II dominated the first half of this period, 
which also saw radar, penicillin, television, atom bombs, 
supersonic flight, and 2 "30-mile rockets introduced. Frick 
equipment played an even more essentia] part in winning 
this global conflict than it had in World War I. 

Several trawlers of the "Forty-Fathom" Fleet carry % more 
fish and Vs less ice because equipped with Frick refrigera- 
tion. Huge quantities of ice are used in the fishing industry: 
the Commonwealth Ice and Cold Storage Co., at Boston, 
produces over 500 tons daily with Frick machinery. 

i 36> 

This sawmill, kept humming by a pair of engines, cut as much 
lumber as two mills, operated by separate crews, had formerly 

The peanut combine, introduced in recent years, saves labor in 
areas where the nuts can be harvested in windrows. 

1943 to 1952 

During the manpower shortage of the Second World 
War, it was discovered that portable sawmills could 
practically double their output if driven by engines of 
twice the power formerly used. The demand for Frick 
sawmills increased so rapidly that a large new shop, 
devoted entirely to making this equipment, was built at 
Waynesboro soon after the War ended. This turns out 
more than a thousand Frick portable sawmills in a typi- 
cal year. 

More and more engines were meanwhile being ap- 
plied rr, farm machinery in general, making the equip- 
ment more independent of the tractor. While this 
trend continued, the usefulness of tractors was being 
extended through the application of hydraulic power, 
electric starting and lighting equipment, more durable 
construction, and greater comfort for the driver. 

The Frick peanut combine, into which was built 15 
years' experience with peanut pickers, was tested in 1951 
and placed in production in 1952. The No. 1 sawmill, 
largest in the Frick line, was improved to permit 
handling the heaviest logs with ease. Another develop- 
ment was a better machine for sawing wooden wedges. 

Names of the Men in the Picture Below: 
Front Row, Left to Right — Norman Hawbaker, Luther Hawbaker, 
W. C. Browning, G. J. Rupert, G J. Longerbeam, D. N. Benedict, 
F. O. Rebok, S. M. Oberholtzer, R. F. Mack, H. C. J. Bechtold, J. H. 
Stoner, C. E. Lokey, Harold Armstrong, R. S. Murphy, R. H. Fitz, 
H. B. McDonald, S. V. Anderson, James North, F. H. Fredenburg. 
Second Row — L. Stottlemyer, E. Stottlemyer, John Parmer, R. S. 
Kauffman, T. J. Dunn, Jr.. O. D. Good, F. B. Arnold, Hamilton 
Linthicum, Max Brandt, C. H. Bowden, L. P. Bash, W. R. Mowry 
E. S. Warfield, W. S. Hartzell, S. M. Staller, R. H. Sample, W. R. 
Armstrong. G. N. Round, G. J. Toth, K E. Day, Jr., W. W. Burpee, 
W. R. Nixon, E. R. Kauffman. Third Row— W. R. Roth, R. C. 
Woodcock, K. H. Nyberg, E. A. Price, F. D. Markley, Walter Hunt, 
C. E. Newhard, Harry Moat, A. J. Funk, A. E. Roschli, W G. 
Weagly, W. L. Fibben, W. H. Aubrey, A. R. Wolfe, M G. Toms, 
A. S. Gonder, G. E. Hess, R. M. Rinehart, W. L. Brown, W. T. 
Young, G. F. Musgrove, D. Ruckman, W P. Berkey, R. McCarty, 
H. B. MacDonald, J. H. Kehrer, A. Strausbaugh. 



Frick Executives, Branch Managers, Salesmen, Suppliers, and Dealers at the 
Pennsylvania Farm Show, Harrisburg, in January, 1952. 

< 37 > 

The All-weather Laboratory of the U.S. Army at Fort 
Belvoir, Va., was the first of many large test chambers fur- 
nished to Bendix Radio, Lycoming Motors, RCA Victor, 
the U.S. Air Force, and others. 

Cold storages can now preserve the full weight and freshness 
of foods by maintaining high humidity, even with temperatures 
of 32 degrees, thanks to a patented Frick system. 

Large amounts of Frick refrigeration are used for various purposes 
at the Oak Ridge, Tenn., plant of the Atomic Energy Commission. 

Frick-freezing tunnels handle ANY and ALL foods with 
dependability and dispatch. They can be arranged with 
conveyors or push trucks, or both, as shown in this cut- 
away drawing. 

fl v^ Cold Gai to ftmmonia Compressor 

S J 

From- r ' I ,J|| I —1 1 1 'I " 

Same Refrigerating Machine Heats Juite am 
Condenses Water Vapor Driven Oli 

Thirteen Frick compressors, totaling 3180 horsepower, evaporate orange juice with hot ammonia gas, condense the moisture, then 
quick-freeze and store the product at the Lake Wales plant of the Florida Citrus Canners Cooperative. Diagram at left shows heat- 
pump cycle used. Several other large plants for concentrating citrus juices are similarly Frick-equipped. 

Six of eight Frick 17 S A" by 12" booster compressors, each with 
four cylinders, at Seabrook Farms, Bridgeton, N. J. — world's 
largest quick-freezing plant. 

The time required for forming "cold" synthetic rubber in the 
3750-gallon reactors has been cut in half by a cooling system 
recently perfected by Frick Engineers. 

1943 to 1952 

The activities of the Company in the last ten years 
have been stupendous. More than 430 complete ice 
plants were furnished to the Army, and several 
thousand refrigerating systems were supplied to the 
Navy, during the War. Pioneer work of tremendous 
importance was done on test laboratories, which were 
supplied with push-button controls to maintain any 
temperature, humidity, air motion and air pressure de- 

In succeeding years the Company played a leading 
part throughout the nation in building quick-freezing 
systems for the frozen food industry; developed the 
high-humidity type of cold storage, which prevents de- 

structive drying-out of fruits and vegetables, improved 
the one-man ice plant to include capacities of 100 tons 
a day; made some gigantic installations of refrigerating 
machines as heat pumps; extended the line of Frick 
"ECLIPSE" compressors to include a 9-cylinder ma- 
chine, also adapting these multi-cylinder compressors 
to booster service, and continued serving an ever- 
widening list of overseas customers. 

Improvements of the greatest value to the country 
have recently been made in cooling the reactors in which 
"cold" synthetic rubber is formed; the capacity of these 
reactors has been doubled! 

The Brisbane plant of the Queensland (Australia) Meat Indus- 
try Board, handling over 1,000,000 animals a year, increased its 
freezer output 26 per cent with three large booster compressors 
— typical of the important work being done overseas with 
Frick equipment. 

Two 9-cylinder "ECLIPSE" compressors form one of six systems 
which air condition a big industrial plant in Cincinnati. 


Visitors are always welcome at 
the Frick Plant, which covers 
30 acres in Waynesboro, Penna. 

The 125 apartments in Washington's Lencshire House are air 
conditioned with Frick "ECLIPSE" compressors. 

Frick equipment serves the $21,000,000 Shamrock at Hous- 
ton, among other prominent hotels throughout the world. 

Temperatures down te> 100 degrees below zero are held in this test room of 
Goodyear Aircraft, at Akron, Ohio. Booster compressors used in the 3-stage 
system are of the 9-cyi. "ECLIPSE" type shown at left — photographed in an ice 
cream plant in Detroit. 

40 > 

Below: This high-humidity storage 
keeps fruits and vegetables in the 
freshest condition, without loss of 
weight, by a patented Frick System. 

The American Stores, Penn Fruit, 
Ralph's, Weingartens, Bettendorf's, and 
many other leading markets use Frick 
refrigeration and air conditioning. 

Frick Company Today 

In surveying the firm's present position, and looking 
toward its future, based on the hundred years of progress 
just reviewed, certain fundamental factors invite attention: 

The major work of Frick Company is still concerned 
with the great food industries, including farming, process- 
ing, storing, transporting, and retailing. As the population 
increases (it has doubled in the last half century) this 
market is always expanding. 

At the same time the Company has far-reaching activi- 
ties in air conditioning, chemical work, general manufac- 
turing, lumbering, export, and many other fields. In fact, 
there is hardly a business today which is not affected, 
directly or indirectly, by the use of Frick equipment! 

The Company offers a combination of services — engi- 
neering, sales, manufacturing, and installation — of the 
highest order. Its world-wide organization has weathered 
all manner of wars and depressions its unequalled expe- 
rience saves customers from costly experiments, and is 
available in solving your particular problems. 

Frick engineering services, from layouts to test runs, are 
complete. Below is Detroit Dam, in Oregon, where the water, 
cement, sand, and even the rock used in making concrete are 
all precooled to below 50 deg. F. 

Chemical plants make innumerable products with the aid of 
Frick equipment. The Mississippi Chemical Co., at Yazoo City, 
produces ammonia for agricultural purposes. 



Plants making candy, chewing gum, paper, medicines, machinery, rayon, and 
hundreds of other products find Frick refrigeration and air conditioning vital aids. 

The dairy industries 
use vast amounts of 
refrigeration, often at 
low temperatures. 

Unit air conditioners meet the needs 
of restaurants, clubs, hotels, stores, 
offices, factories, etc. 

Millions of tons of ice are 
used annually in refrigera- 
tors, display cases, railroad 
cars, trucks, fishing boats, 

Right: A cylinder liner, 
shrunk with dry ice, is 
fitted into a high-pressure 
cylinder in the Frick 

Hospitals use Frick 
equipment for air con- 
ditioning, food service, 
making ice, holding se- 
rums, quick freezing, 
cooling drinking water, 
etc. Below is the U.S. 
Naval Hospital at Be- 
thesda, Md. 

Frick valves have high-angle 
seats, among other advan- 
tages, and handle many high- 
pressure liquids and gases. 


The Baxter Laboratories, at Morton Grove, 111., 
make essential blood transfusion sets and intrave- 
nous solutions with the aid of Frick air conditioning. 

The fabulous Broadmoor Hotel, at Colorado Springs, has used Frick 
equipment for 35 years — for cooling refrigerators, making ice, quick- 
freezing foods, and operating a year 'round ice skating rink, in the 
building at upper left. 

Frick Company's customers include hundreds of 
thousands of the most successful farmers and business 
concerns in existence. Its products are indispensable to 
these owners in earning steady profits. The slogan that 
"The users of Frick equipment make money," gives the 
key to the firm's continued growth. 

These factors, added up, mean that Frick Company 
meets a tremendous variety of needs. As was proved 
in the World Wars, the Company manufactures or can 
furnish practically anything required in the way of re- 
frigerating, air conditioning, ice making, and quick- 
freezing equipment, as well as power farming and saw- 
mill machinery. 

Its many friendships, its reputation for dependability, 
and its excellent facilities thus combine to make the 
Company's opportunities for usefulness, today and to- 
morrow, almost unlimited. Your inquiry will be wel- 
comed, and will be given careful attention. 

This 6-ft. Frick-freezing tunnel at Lancaster, Penna., 
has both a conveyor belt and rows of push trucks, 
handles ANY and ALL foods. 

The "President" liners are among the many classes of ships — battle- 
wagons, destroyers, yachts, tugs, tankers, freighters, fishermen, sub- 
marines, and dredges — that like the dependability of Frick equipment. 

Adequate refrigeration and air conditioning are as neces- 
sary in first-class restaurants as linen and silver. Frick 
Freon and ammonia systems meet all requirements. 


Waynesboro has excellent highway and airline connections; transcontinental 
busses serve the town; main-line trains stop at Harrisburg and Martinsburg. 


Branch Offices and Sales Representatives handling Frick refrigerating and air con- 
ditioning machinery are in principal cities throughout the country. Distributors 
for medium-sized and smaller equipment are in scores of surrounding centers. 

Frick Sawmill at work. 

Frick Steel Peanut Picker 

< 44 }*- 

Frick Farm Machinery Branches pro- 
vide warehouse and service facilities 
at the points shown on this map. 
They are assisted by numerous dealers. 

NEW ORL 1 """" ' ' 


Map of the Eastern United Florida 
States, showing plane con- 
nections to Hagerstown 
Airport, 10 miles by car 
from Waynesboro. 

AAA — All-American Airways, 
which have three or more 
flights daily, connecting all 
points with Hagerstown. 

Flying time to Hagerstown, Md. 

Buffalo . 
New York . 
Norfolk . 


New Orleans 

Hours Minutes 




















Standard Freon Unit 

< 45 > 

Large 4-Cylinder Compressor 

Accessible-Hermetic Unit 



Thanks are extended to the many friends who have assisted in preparing 
this history. Generous cooperation was given by Elmer Ritzman, Enola, 
Penna., and G. A. Frick, editor of the Frick Magazine, as well as by the pub- 
lishers of other journals in various fields. Reference was made frequently to the 
historical writings of J. H. Stoner. Valuable pictures of early farm scenes 
were supplied by Bert S. Gittins of Milwaukee, acting for the Farm Equip- 
ment Institute of Chicago. Drawings of early refrigerating systems were 
furnished by the National Association of Ice Industries, at Washington. 
The photograph of the Cumberland Valley was supplied by Geo. F. John- 
son, Pennsylvania Agricultural Extension Service, State College, Penna. 
Other illustrations were made available by the U.S. Navy, The American 
Ice Co., the Weber Showcase and Fixture Co., and by many Frick distribu- 
tors, suppliers, and customers. 

Printed in U.S.A. by the Kyle Printing Co. 

< 46 h