# Full text of "History Of The Theory Of Numbers - I"

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```108                   HISTORY OF THE THEOBY OF NUMBEKS.              [CHAP.IV
If k is the least index for which /iftf^Xfc, M*—^ (mod p) for h<k} then A1""1 — ! is divisible by p*, but not by pl+k.
A. Palmstrom and A. Pollak15 proved that, if p is a prime and n, m are the exponents to which a belongs modulo py p2, respectively, then anp— 1 is divisible by p2, so that w is a multiple of n and a divisor of np, whence m=n or pn. Thus according as a?~~l is or is not =1 (mod p2), m=n or m=np.
Worms de Romilly150 noted that, if w is a primitive root of p2, the incon-gruent roots of x*~lz=l (mod p2) are co;p(j = l, . . ., p-~l).
J. W. L. Glaisher16 proved that if r is a positive integer <p, p a prime,
where gn is the sum of the nth powers of
1                  r-1    ,1         2                 r-1
'f r+[(r~l)cr]; 2r+cr'' ' "'
(r being the least positive residue modulo r of —p.   If /*>• is the least positive solution of ar/jii^i (mod r), viz., pjJLi+i=Q, then
gi^+^+ f m . +^=L+ J^+ J^+ mmt+ ^-i  |    0i   + Set Mr = 0, fjLi+3r =Mi-   Then
-
2,=0 (mod p). Sylvester's corrected results are proved.   From (l+l)p,
For r'=r+kp, let>/ be the positive root of pju/+^=0 (mod r').   Then
r">-i = l+felp+KV-Wp
It is shown that, for some integer t,
k   k2 2^--j5
(mod ^+3)<
k                               k   k2         2k      k2
- = *p,         ^-02s-2^--j5+2«s-^l--s (mod p),
Glaisher,17 using the same notations, gave
r-^l+p(^+|+;..+fcl) (modp').
"L'interm^diaire des math., 8, 1901, 122, 205-6 (7, 1900, 357).
1Bfljm, 214-5.
16Quar. Jour. Math,, 32, 1901, 1-27, 240-251.
"Messenger Math,, 30, 1900-1, 78.```