Full text of "History Of The Theory Of Numbers - I"

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```HIRTOBY OF THE THEOKY OF NUMBERS.            [CHAP, vm
-oved that, if p is a prime, there are exactly
0 (mod p) not having as roots k given distinct num-
-l)fc.   For n = fc, ^(n, &) is the number i£(n) of
*th no root.   The number with exactly i roots is
*V(i— r) distinct matrices (3) of rank i such
. a1; . . . not divisible by p.
\$d a function <£>(/) of a polynomial f(x) such
e coefficients of f(x) are increased by integral
-•et/fc^CaO, i= 1, . . ., p*, denote the polynomials
act modulo p and have unity as the coefficient
2 */«(*)  -S
* takes those values 1, 2, . . ., pn for which f(*\x)=Q (mod p) does ve as a root one of the given incongruent numbers ab . . ., as; while, *« ~ue outer sums on the right, i, if, . . . range over the combinations of 1, . . . , s without repetitions.
Zsigmondy38 had earlier given the preceding formula for the case in which oi,. . ., aa denote 0, 1,. . ., p — l. Then taking <£(/) = !, we get the number of congruences of degree n with no root (Zsigmondy36). Taking \$y) =f} we see that the sum of the congruences of degree n with no root is =0 (mod p), aside from specified exceptions. Taking <£(/)= a/, where co is a pth root of unity, and n^p, we see that the system /^(z) takes each of the values 1, . . ., p — l (mod p) equally often.
Zsigmondy39 proved his36'37 earlier formulas, obtained for an integral value of x the number of complete sets of residues modulo p into which fall the values of the/(^(x) not having prescribed roots, and investigated the system Bn of the least positive residues modulo p of the left members of all congruences of degree n having no root. In particular, he found how often the system Bn contains each residue, or non-residue, of a <?th power. He investigated (pp. 19-36) the number of polynomials in x which take k prescribed residues modulo p for k given values of x.
"Sitzungsber. Ak. Wis9. Wien (Math.), 103, Ila, 1894, 135-144. "Monatshefte Math. Pkys., 7, 1896, 192-3. "Jahresbericht d. Deutschen Math. Verein., 4, 1894-5, 109-111. "Monatshefte Math. Phys., 8, 1897, 1-42.```