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Full text of "History Of The Theory Of Numbers - I"

268                          HlSTOBY OF THE THEORY OF NUMBERS.                  [CHAP. IX
by n! if and only if divisible by lip*"1"*, where ft is the exponent of the power of p dividing (n  1)!.
G. Bauer43 proved that the multinomial coefficient (n+nl+n2+ . . .)l -7- {nlttjj . . . } is an integer, and is even if two or more n's are equal.
E. Landau44 generalized most of the preceding results. For integers aH) ha, each ^ 0, and positive integers %, set
Then / is an integer if and only if
t
for all real values of the % for which 0^ a?/S !   A new example is
S u& S V
tl         i-l
2w+n) ! (m+2n) I "
P. A. MacMahon45 treated the problem to find all a's for which
/n+2\g 2  /   "
/n+l\gi/ V  1   M
is an integer for all values of n\ in particular, to find those "ground forms'1 from which %11 the forms may be generated by multiplication. For w = 2, the ground forms have (ax, a2) = (1, 0) or (1, 1). For m = 3, the additional ground forms are (1, 1, 1), (1, 2, 1), (1, 3, 1). For m = 4, there are 3 new ground forms; for m = 5, 13 new.
J. W. L. Glaisher46 noted that, if Bp(x) is Bernoulli's function, i. e., the polynomial expression in x for lp~1-|-2p~1+ . . . + (x l)p~l [Bernoulli150* of Ch. V],
x(x+l)...(x+p-l)/p=Bp(x)-x (mod p).
He gave (ibid., 33, 1901, 29) related congruences involving the left member and Bp_i(x).
Glaisher47 noted that, if r is not divisible by the odd prime p, and
Z(r+0(2r+I)...{(p-l)r+I}/ps-frA] +*}    (mod p),
where [^/p]r denotes the least positive root of px==t (mod r).   The residues mod p3 of the same product (r-H) . . . are found to be complicated.
E. Maillet48 gave a group of order tl(q\Y contained in the symmetric group on tq letters, whence follows Weill's25 result.
^Sitzungsber. Ak. Wiss. Miinchen (Math.), 24, 1894, 346-8.
"Nouv. Ann. Math., (3), 19, 1900, 344-362, 576; (4), 1, 1901, 282; Archiv Math. Phys., (3), 1,
1901, 138.   Correction, Landau." Trans. Cambr. Phil. Soc., 18, 1900, 12-34. <8Proc. London Math. Soc., 32, 1900, 172.
47A/T0a00r,^^T.  AAo+V.       Qrt    1 Q/VL.1     71-Q9