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Full text of "History Of The Theory Of Numbers - I"

276                        HlSTOBY OP THE THEOEY OF NUMBEES.                [CHAP. IX
He stated empirically that N is the number of reduced forms ay2+byz+csf, 4ac-~&2=p for b odd, ac &2=p for b even, where b<a, b<c.
C. F. Arndt115 proved in two ways that the product of all integers relatively prune to M~pn or 2pn, and not exceeding (M 1)/2, is ===! (mod M), when p is a prime 4fc+3, the sign being + or  according as the number of residues >M/2 of M is even or odd.   Again, (l-3-5-7...(p-2)}2==fcl (modp),
the sign being + or  according as the prune p is of the form 4n+3 or 4n+l.   In the first case, 1- 3 ... (p 2)=  1 (mod p).
L. Kronecker116 obtained, for Dirichlet's113 exponent ?#, the result m^v (mod 2), where y is the number of positive integers of the form q*l+lr2 in the set p 22, p 42, p  62, . . ., and q is a prime not dividing r. Liou-ville (p. 267) gave m=&-f v* (mod 2), when p = 8&+3 and v" is the number of positive integers of the form #4H"V2 in the set p 42, p 82, p  122, 
J. Liouville117 gave the result m=<r+r (mod 2), for the case p = 8&+3, where r is the number of positive integers of the form 2g4*4"1 r2 (q a prune not dividing r) in the set p  I2, p  32, p 52, . . ., and cr is the number of equal or distinct prunes 40+1 dividing 6, where p = a2+262 (uniquely).
A. Korkine118 stated that, it [x] is the greatest integer ^x,
 Q      (P-3)/4p     - -i
(modp).
J. Franel119 proved the last result by use of Legendre's symbol and
.                  (mod2)-
M. Lerch120 obtauied Jacobi's114 result.
H. S. Vandiver1200 proved Dirichlet's113 result and that
(p-l)/2[-7-2-|
=   2   K-y-i LPJ
(mod 2).
R. D. Carmichael121 noted that (4) holds if and only if p is a prime.
E. Malo122 considered the residue ^r of 1-2.. .(p 1)/2 modulo p, where p is a prime 4ra+l, and 0<r<p/2. Thus r2s= 1. The numbers 2, 3,..., (p 1)/2, with r excluded, may be paired so that the product of the two of a pair is s==*=l (mod p). If this sign is minus for k pairs, 1-2.. .(p-l)/25=(-l)V (mod p).
*J. Ouspensky gave a rule to find the sign in (5).
OTHER CONGRUENCES INVOLVING FACTORIALS.
V. Bouniakowsky129 noted that (p-l)!=PP', PP'=0 (mod p) according as p=4&=Fl. For, if p is a primitive root of p, we may set P = pp2
"BArchiv Math. Phys., 2, 1842, 32, 34-35.    120Amer. Math. Monthly, 11, 1904, 51-6.
^Jour. de Math., (2), 5, I860, 127.             Ibid., 12, 1905, 106-8.
Ibid., 128.                                               J22L;mterm6diaire des math., 13, 1906, 131-2
118L'interm6diaire dea math., 1, 1894, 95.      123Bull. Soc. Phys. Math. Kasan, (2), 21.
Ibid., 2, 1895, 35-37.                               12M6m. Ac. Sc. St. Ptesbourg, (6), 1, 1831, 564.
i20Prag Sitzungsber. (Math.), 1898, No. 2.