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Full text of "How Free are the Skyways"

APR 4 ,948 

EM 17 Gl ROUNDTABLB 

LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OF RICHMOND 

VIRGINIA 








Preijari?il fur 
TiiK LflJiTJiu Si'aij:?; Ahwkip Ihuim:^ 

THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

Tlii;; |inT]ifihl<'l i^- uiii' nf a --fTii>. iniiclt- rniiiLililr I}1 lli-r- ^ jir DrpjirEmr-iii iinrkr 
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Vfj!<hiiij!ion 23, 11 L.| 



CONTENTS 

Why i$ freedom of fhe air a peaceiime problem? 1 

How serious are the obstacles to freedom? 6 

Can fhe obstacles be removed? , ... IS 

Will postwar ftymg be quick and cheap? 24 

What are the "Five Freedoms" of air transport? 32 
To the discussion leader.. . 36 
For further reading _. . 40 
Other Gl Roundtable 

'""'"'^ " ^lan 





irsas 












;:S.^->.': 



r'-^'-i- 



WHY IS 
Freedom of the Air 

A PEACETIME PROBLEM? 

./Vlmost a century ago a prophetic popt foresaw '*lh« 
heavejij:; filled with commerce/' His name was Alfred Lord 
Tennyson. 

T{>dciy p;iyscngcr am! carg^i transport plumes hy the- thou- 
sands roar ihr^nigh llie skies. Il i*egins to look as thnugh 
Tennyson was^ right. J^uring" the "war these planes, went njostly 
on military errands and coiiltl cross frjeii<!ly frontiers without 
explicit and individual permrssio.i- The tjueslion reniains to 
be ansAvered^ however: Will even mure eommcrcc fil! the 
skiey of peace? 

]n their wartime service, transport planes cotild go farther 
at g;rcatcr sjiceds across inoTe arduous routes carrying heavier 
cargoes than ihey ever eould before. 

In the African jungle, planes on regular nins were almost 
as cotninon as Uons. Twenty planes an hour crossed the high 
Himalayas through fierce storms and between "the jagged 
]>ealvs of the Shangri-la country. Planes flew from New York 
to London between supper one day and lunch the next. Daily 
they rode the airways above the iceberg lanes of the North 
Atlantic. 

Those are impressive accomplisbmenJs, But is the golden 
a^e of aviation truly upon us? Or will the plane, because peace 
haa come ugixin, be a madcfit chaitied giant? 



dosing th4? skies 

For ji nunilpcr t'\ rra^^oirs iiir comnicriic did Hot COrtlC inU> slti 
tiwn bL-fort" th^i vvitn 

still hiuJ ii I'lnj^ vvii^ t^* ^f* i" iivt-rroniii]^ lln^ puiblcnif; of 
wvalhcr ai>d of mL-t-liank^ul impcrfcclion in plaiies and mutors. 

In ih^. second pface ;ni cf^Nnomit." ha/;in1 sluntl ir the way_ 
De^pin? its spec^d, air lr;tvul idways failed in the past U>anract 
cnnufJh paK,si?ngt.^rs ami fn-iglit l<> make wide-scale operatitni 
jjFofilable- The airlines f^rew as a resuU of slate subsidies. 
J^aii Anieriirm World Airwiiys (U^rllle^[y l^ati American Air- 
wayi^), Llie >jreal intern iilioiiLiI line which has ils headquarters 
ill ihc United States, f;iH ils impetus frtiiti J\»st Ufliec J>cpart- 
mcnt subsidies for carryiii^ air nialL 

In thr. third plactr a iMilitieal hazard haa pt>slpi>iied llic arrival 
tif the air afje. 

TIic fir.st hasiird faded U> ;i]\ htii a memory durinf^ iht? war 
a^ inlft^-ydltncJitiil rtyin^ Iteeanie an everyday reaUly. Jl is 
|ii>sftiMe That ennrij^h pe:iretinu- air Iraf^ie will now develop tn 
erase the second. J*nl tlie third one continues U* hMini as. the 
grcanr^t barrier thai niuM be tiroii^^hl di>wii before 'rennys<jn's 
projdiecy can come Irue. 

Doffs anybody own ikv air? 

A few yenr^i age) a ^an^ writer itjhi us: "The skies hchin;^ ti» 
everyone/' Kut lie didii'l know liis inlemalional pnliticK. 




^SN-^ 



T^onEy pl^Jies laii liour over ilii> Hump 

-2 



^-"^ ^ 



I 













As a matter of fatt, tiioh t^>tinlTy ^^^ainiS exclusive control 
or "sovcr<?i^n1y" over sky al>uvc U? lernlc>ry. Il" you CL^uid 
hang boundary markers in ihe clouds, you would find that 
the upper air is cut uj> inli> :\^ many poHlical divisions as the 
face of the e^rth itself. 

in that fact lies one of the problems of ihe luturc ol inlcr- 
national flying", livery country has been insisting on the 
right Ui deci^lc whose jilanes may ily over its territory- At the 
sane lime almost every -Lounlry h:is z\ plan for csta1^l^?^hillJ^ 
commercial airline routes through ihe air above siirnc other 
country. 

Will all nations holil li> these contradictory aims of expand^ 
in^ therr i»Avn u^e of the air while restricting" the use other 
nations can make of il ? If Ihcy di>, the result might he either 
the establishment iif even higher walls that would cut ofl 
aerial intercourse between all count rie:s or iin oiJt burst of 
confliet thai would ot>Unn air a<fvaiUat^e?? for t>n|y 3 few of the 
iiatioiis of the world. 

Can the nations r^aeh ^ common understanding that will 
free the Jiir from most nf the ])olitieal barriers? What sort of 
underfilandin^ would make possible the maximum u.^e of 
aviation knowledge and equipment develo3>ed during and 
Ijefore the war? 



What h our $iake? 

The fulurt of air cumtiierce invAlvX's; fjue^tion?^ thai profoundly 
aJleoL the lureign allairs of th*^ Uniiet! SLiles. ICich in plumes 
and uvialJon ciiginecripg still, America can look forward to 
ail cr;i oi inl.erL-nn|.i"cntai flyinj^ Ihal will pul South America, 
Europe, Afnea, Australia, and Asia jusl around the cijnier 
from lli4? forty-eighL ylaies. 

The selllenient nf internaiional a.ir prolilems can help bind 
the various Lountries iif the worl<l nuirc closely Itj-jjeilier — 
polilicLill^ '.\.^ well as comaie-rcially. Or lli^ settleiueni can keep 
the world divided. LcL lis sec how iiiternaiion;vl aviaitnn has 
prtj^resrtci! in the past and examine tlic schemes pul kirnard 
to improve its pruspcels for ihe future. 

The inteniaiional air pioneers 

The history of intcniationid cummerclal aviation fails neatly 
into two periods: (1) the pioneer era before World War II, 
and [2) ihc wartime era of great expansion. 

Jnlernatiunal aviation bcg"aii with (lie commercial conquest 
of aniode^l distance, the 200 miles between London and l^aris. 
The lint was upeiied in the summer of 1919, shortly after 
World War I gave U* aviation its first £;real inii>etus_ The 
journey Look two hours, but it yavcd ihc pas^en^^ers the 
agony of CroSSing^ the :atomaeh-tossing Straits of Dover via 
surface ship. 

From 1919 to 1939 was llie pioneering a^^t in inlcrnatinual 
flying. Airline?^ expanded \0 a k>lal of more than 300,000 
route mile^. The North Atlantic, South Atlantic, and Pacific 
oceans were spanned. Networks were laid over Europe, North 
America, South America, Europe was linked with the Far 
Ea^t and Australia. A number of routes were opened in Africa, 
no more Ihe secluded Dark Continent- 
Airmen tomjilain, however, that those advances of the 
pioneer era were but a small portion of what might have been 
done had the Jiaiions oi the world understood the great im- 

4 



porlance of the airplane. The wodd E;eemed to fear the plane 
more than appreciate k. Twa fears especially' held ihe 
commcrcml airplane on a leash during th^ international 
pioneering age_ 

The plane an aJi instriimer*t of aggression 

The sirtmget;l fear was military, the fear ihat foreign airlines 
might use their planes for aggression. This fear has made 
governments hesitant lo let planes fly into the air they control. 
\\ led the l^Vench government a few years before the war iu 
propose a hmitation on the size of planes operating inter- 
nationally. 

"The military aspect of aviation cannot fundamentally be 
separated from the civil aspect/' ^ report of the British gfoveni- 
ment said in 1938. For the most part, civil planef^ are not^^asily 
converted to combat usts, any more than a =iup(^rlincr becomes 
a battleship Ciisily ; Conversely the nnlitary planes used in 
World War 71 have little peacetime commerciai worth. 

Nevertheless, iiiternatinnal commercial flying does give 
pilots practice in long-distanee operation that is usable ii> 
flying bombers and troop transport planes or in instructing 
others how to fly them. International flying makes possible 
the mapping of foreign areas that might later become bomb 
targets or paratroop objectives, 

lOevelopnient oE international routes and production of the 
planer needed to fly ihcm can lay the foundation for an indut*- 
try devoted to the manufacture tif large planes — civilian planc:5 
in peace, combat planes in war. Germany consistently took 
advantage of its international commercial Hying lor politico- 
military puTposes- 

Thc ecanomic Jear 

The second strangling fear was economic, growing out of the 
fact that ]ilaney have been able in the past lo attract only a 
small peicentage of the persons and freight lu motion from 
one point on liic carth^s surface to another. 



This ffiAT has Icrf ^omc. cnuntries to impose rf!?itriclions <=»n 
the regularly scheduled planes uf other imintrieii lest a few 
nations nblaiii a lion's share o\ the tntal business, An*l it has 
led some conntries iii exploit iheir ^eiij»"raphic;Ll louatiniis by 
exacting :i price — often a stiff iine^for allowing the planei^ 
of ulhcr iiaiions to lly over their icrriioTy. 

HOW SERIOUS ARE THE OBSTACLES 
TO FREEDOM? 

Wjjkm thk wili> gilESk who have spent the summer in nnrthern 
Sweden get ihc autumn urge to lly soulh, they head for the 

Mediterranean and cniss the boundaries ol a number uf coun- 
tries ivithdut any permission, from u mortal aj^ency Hkc a 
government bureau. Not sci in prewar day:^ with cummercial 
airplanes c;trrying: passengers, mails^ and freight over regularly 
scheduled routes4 

Befnri" World War II> governments made srmic proj^rcss 
through the tedious bii^i^i^^'^ of reaching individual agree- 
ments with a large number nf otht-r countries. 1>Y orading 
ofi privilege*! and by making speeial financial nrran^enicnls, 
governments gradually got for regular commercial planes 
some of — but far froni all — the freedom iif the v/ild goose. 

Kxcept through this process of special ncguiiaUnn — and 
sometimes in the process — na.lions have he-si ta ted to grant 
foreign ]jlancs the privileges of flying <wer their territory, of 
landing Ui refuel or make rei>airi, or of landing 0> discharge 
or lalce cm passengers and freight. 

These privileges have lately hecn <lividcd into five classes, 
so it may he easier to discuss the undcrlyinj^ issues in 
similar divisions, 

Frev^vm of iransil 

The first is Ihe mailer <«!" Hying across the territory of other 
nations. This is the S4i-callcd ^'righl ui innncem passage." 

6 



If two stales are sep^raicd by llic icrriiurj of a iliird stale, 
they cEiiinut cnjcjy hiuIullI dir cunimtrce unices llicir planes 
tac llj over ihc intervening territory- Countries whicli lie 
across slraiglil airline routes can tliu5 u.^e Iheir pusition for 
great j];oi>(l or ill to international aerial traiif^porlaliun. 

I he greiiiest obstacle lo ircely granted privilege's ui Innisil 
through the air of one country by the planes of another bat> 
been ihc st.ratcg>f^ eonisideriilioii- NjitK>ns do tK>l relish, the 
[ilea of permitting the j»lane^ of other na.tioiis to |ly unhii^- 
dered and unquestioned over their territory. Rivalry among 
coU»nial powers has been another barrier. Until Great Jiritain, 
France, and lielyinm reached agreement on tines Uv ihcir 
African colonies;, each stood in the others' way. And the spirit 
of competition for aerial trafiic has moved nations to bar 
transit over their territory until they were ready to cng"iLgc 
in the business ihcitiselves, 

Operatiomtl slops 

The 5ccr»nd privilege is that oi landiilg £ur nonLriiflic EJurpoacti, 
that iji, to refuel, make repairs, seek haveo from bad weather, 
and the like. This is imjiortant particularly for transoeean 
hops. On ihe^;e routes naiit>rts possessing islands that are 
essential for intercontinental llying are in the saddle. For 
instance, at the present time llights atross the North Atlatitir, 
to be i^rofnablCj must have access tu land in Newfoundbind, 
Iceland, Licrmudy, or the Azores. 

The United States^ of course^ has complete control of Pacilie 
ilying ihrouj^li pussc^iion of Hawaii, a key stati(jn on the 
middle ratitie mute, and AInska, the gateway fnmi North 
America to SibcriaL Before the war, the Unilcd Slaic!>, wilh 
an eye lo possible Jijpanese iipcralionsj dccUncd to admit 
forti|;n planes either to Hawaii or the l*hili]iinne^. Thai was 
the reason AuJ^tralia, which wanted Ihe ri^hl t(* lly a route 
via Hawaii to Canaiia, declined lo let J'an American Airways 
extend its service from New Zealand lo Australia. 



Internniioiial rivairies arnl fears slowed up the progress of 
I'^viropcan air routes to the Orient until hard ba.rgainE about 
h-AACA were struck, Italy, for instance, agreed to let Imperial 
Airways (Britain) (ly to Ivgypl by way ot an Jtalian base only 
in return for Britisli permission for an Italian line to \ly to 
Jra.q via. Palestine, a British mandate. Turkey unrelentingly 
tKised its air lu eommercial planes bound fur the Orient. 

Oceanic and land J>aies are still important even though the 
range of modern planes enables them to cross great bodies of 
water in one jump. A plane which has the privilege of crossing 
the Atlantic in two jumps, refueling at a way base, needs to 
carry Icsa g^asolinc than docs (he one-hop plane. That means 
it can carry itiovQ i>ayi]ig passengers and freight. 

Siopping to do business 

Third i*; the privilege of landing Ic discharge passengers, mailp 
or cargo taken un in the country whoj^^e nationality the aircraft 
possesses, that is, under whose flag it JHes_ 

The related privilege o( taking on passengers, mail,, or cargo 
destined for the C(juntry whose iiatkmality the plane possesses 
IS the fourth privilege. 

Jealous bargaining over privileges three and four has slowed 
di>wn the development at inlcrnational roules_ Governments 
have required thiLl their airlines be given reciprocal privileges 
in a seciHid country when the airlines n£ that country seek 
admission lo the first country. 

Sometimes country A not only has sought reciprocal privi- 
leges but has stipulated thateountry B cannot begin operations 
until country A is ready to run a competing route t^( country E. 
Fur instance, the United States had a reciprocal agreement 
with Britain respecting the crossing of the Atlantic, When 
I\in Am^hcan Airways was ready to begin llights to Britain 
before the war, however, the British wL^rc not ready to begin 
flights to the United States and 3 special permit was needed 
to let Fan American start, 

S 



The tw*.'nty Lalin-Ainiirican countries, not being- in ;i pfisi- 
lion tD engage Jn cumpetltive nperalioiifi, generally have nol 
tlemande-J reciprocity, and ainvay develupmenL has progressed 
rapidly in iheni. Neither, i*l cuurhe, do the foriy-cighl stales 
m our country demand reciprocal privileges of each olher_ 

In 1932 Anierkan lines ilew their lra.nsi><>rl planes an 
avenigc nf ^7,5CX) niiles^ -cjich, while Eiirojican lines iWw ihcirs 
an avera|j;c ul" 22J00 through the Liocketl skies uf iIillI cunli- 
nenl. In 1942 American domestic airlines averaged 464,000 
miles per plane. 

Some persons credit this American advant-JLg^e to the free 
sky lanes between the states. Others attribute it lo the facts 
that Americana on the whole live on ^ higher economic level 
than Eurupeanaand that commercial flying wilhin the United 
Slates has hce» tcclinolog'ically s-uperif-r to that within Europe. 
Perhaps it is ju-i^t that distances are much greater. 

Picking up business en route 

The Jiflh and final privilege is that of carrying passengers, 
mail, and cargo between inlerm.cdiiite Ccunlries t>n a route — 
neither Country being that whOPC nali<in,aliiy the aircruft 
^osSe^^es. This i? important for intercontinental Hying, A^ 
lortg ^S []u$ privilege is restricted^ an aircraft flying outbound 
on a long route with stops in several countries must fly wiih 
a constantly growing^ number of empty seats. 

"For example/' a State Department ofificial says^ '*a plane 
from New York tc» Cairo via t,ondon, Paris, Ciencva, and 
Rome would drop off at each city the passengers biK>ked to 
that point and lake on none, thus, probably arriving at Cairo 
with perhaps two or tlirce seats occupied- Between New York 
and Bucniis Aires, for instance, only 15 percent of ihc tralTic 
is through trailic, and therefore we should be able to operate 
only about one plane a Avcck on that trade route. Such a 
restriction ^vonUl strangle the lines of every country except 
those operated for political reasons with heavy guveniment 
Subsidies/^ 

9 



The fiith privilege lends alsu Ui be restricted by the fait 
ihat moal couiilries reserve lo iheir own lines right to what 
is knuwn as L"ab<Maf;^e. This is the carrying ut passengers ur 
freight between Iwu pi«nl.s within the tcnilnry i>f <ine cuutiiry, 
As h'ng- as cab<>lage is rcservci], a iorei^n aiilinc eoniing from 
acro^ss the Atliiiitic ti> the inleriur ^£ tho United States, fu*" 
inslaiK-e, cannot i>i^k tip passenger? in New York :md t:ike 
them {)fi to Chicago, Spnie eonnlrica interpret cabotage lo 
njv*^r npera-lionri between a cuunlr^? a.nd its culonies Jn other 
continenlE, 

Pret€ar cooperniion 

Jn attempts to rc-ducc the barriers to enjoyment <>{ these ftvc 
privileges, the i^ations have snn^lil in Uie past tn make inter- 
national agreements that inuiaded many timolric-s. The most 
important pacss were made at l^aris in 1919^ — whith the United 
Slates signed but never ra-liliefl — ;ind at i lavana in 1^28 among 
the American Itepnlilics. Only the Uniled Sl:itcs and ten 
other naiio]is have ratihed ihc latier. 

The Paris and Havana conferences frsdcd In e^tiiblish any 
Lti ihc five privileges as i^n international reality, lint they did 
]jrovide a aimplihed basis by which individual nHintric^ eo-uJd 
m^kQ n\r agreements wilh Other individual t^>unt^ics_ iTiler- 
naiioral eoop-eration in Ihe air was extended as jl rciJUlt uf the 
J*aris convention. 

Sfime governments made what are known as ]><^nliTijr 
arrarfjements — by whith the lines of Iwo rnunlries J^pli^ the 
prc^fits and defiuits inmi o|)eratiT^g one route together. This 
scheme divided the economic risk- 
France and Germany had a pooling arran^^emenl for thetr 
services from Europe l<» South America, In the inirieate net- 
work of lines within b!uropc pooliTig was common. 

The prewar nutU'n 

Despite restriciiuns o}i Its freedom (jf Jlight, the airjilane forced 
lis way around the world during the pioneering era. 

10 



Pan American Airways was ihc jjionecr United Slates inler- 
imlionaJ line. U began oj^eraLiunb in 1927 with n line from 
Miami U) Hiivjina llial^ aniun^ other ibingH, exploited people's 
ihirsl lor :l ilriiik when the J'nthiLilkm Anit^iulmcnt waa in 
ruru<? in the UniteJ SiaieK. 

When war cam^ on JJeceniLer 7, 1941, tbe United States 
was t>pcr:U3ng QK.OOO route miles of inlerwtli^TUAl airways; this 
t<iiiiiiry's rouie mileage was the world's Un:ge&L Here are 
the 193K air\v:iy mileages, international ujid dom^stlc^ of ather 
leading aviation cnunlnes: 

The Soviet L^nicjn, SS.OM mite.';, almu?^t entirely for domestic 
fiighf: l''rance, 40,H53; (jermany, 32^720; United Kingdom, 
29,064; Italy. 25.583; Au&tralia, 21.7'4«: ibe KfethcrlaniLs 
16,055; Canada, 11,917: HelKiiJm. U,3^; Mexico. 10,104; 
Brazil. 9.182; Japan. 8,694; Netherlands h:a5i Indies, 7,943- 
South Afnni, 7.893; Colombia, 4,844' India. 4,122; Poland, 
3,744; Argentina, 1,581, 

Air ^ontmerce during the t'oar 

The second World War had a curious cITcct nn inicrnational 
flying. The world's air was rent in two, part of it controlled 
by the Axis, part by the Uniicd Natiims. Antiaircraft barriers 
l>ctwcen the two parts were mure furnndablc than any of the 
barriers that djscimragcd llie devcJopniejit <^i Hying between 
c<mntraes and t'uiitintnlii Liefore the war. OnSy combat plane? 
or if^Hjp-carrying planes protected by combat planc-j traveled 
from one air region to the tiTher. 

Yet in each of the two divisions of the w<irld, llie air was 
freer than it ever had been in the past. Within them planes 
coiiid move almost without hindrance from one section to 
aanther. 

This change came from urj^^'cnt necessity. The conduct of 
the war rc<]uired that men and supplies be moved ([uickly 
over long distances. To meet their military requirements the 
United Nations devcl(ii>ed one set of international routes, and 

JI 



PREWAR INTERNATIONAL 

More Ihain 't(lO,(KW airv/uy ini1e« in December 1941 




Pacific Ocean 



AEimuihul equidislnni projec^LJun rt-nt^red ui 4U° Vi^ 175-' W 



it 



AIR ROUTES 



h-nTr>_...^_ 




VOS -WCEJ5 



/- ■"! 



flL rASO 






tr. wonm 

r*fw tOUK 






0510 



FO■[^JfS 



BEIfh4l 



\-.. 



MOSCOW 



:^N 



rtOUC KOriGT| ^,^ 






■j\ 









^-OWBi^A 



/ 



tttO D£ iJMiifiO 



Lropoti^vjof 



JD>tf4r^^:^liP?<^ 



CflptiOwr 



-v^^ _ 1 1^ _- 



Aziintiilfciiil et|iiidi:slani projecBiun centercil uL 4S° M, 0" ]uti;iiiii<le 



13 



the Axis developed another set — or rather two sets, because 
the region controlled by Germany and Italy was far removed 
from the region controlled by Japan, 

Neutral airlines provided a wartime link between the air 
worlds of the United Nations and of Germany, Throughout 
the war, planes fiew with variable regularity from Stockholm 
to Aberdeen and from Stockholm to Berlin. 

Wartime mileage increases 

The war brought a marked increase in the total mileage of 
international air routes. This happened even though the 
Germans had to give up their Oriental and transatlantic lines, 
the Italians were forced to abandon their European and inter- 
continental lines, the Netherlands suspended its route to the 
Orientj and the French lines gave up their South Atlantic 
crossing and their flights to the Far East 

In their place, the British Overseas Airways Corporation 
(BOAC, successor to both Imperial Airways and British Air- 
ways) developed an extensive transatlantic service. With the 
assistance of the Belgian Sabena lines, it increased the number 
of its Africart lines while maintaining operations to India. Its 
wartime routes totaled 70,000 miles. The Dutch KLM line 
opened a network of operations in the Caribbean Sea region, 
with a United States link at Miami, The French inaugurated 
special military lines in Africa. 

ATC and NATS 

Most extensive of all were the new routes operated by the 
United States, under the control of the Army and the Navy, 
The Naval Air Transport Service, created on December 12, 
1941, had a network of 80,000 miles, and the Air Transport 
Command of the Army Air Forces, organized on May 29, 1941 
as the Ferrying Command, operated more than 160^0 miles. 
ATC was the longest airline in the world. It kept pace as the 
front advanced farther into enemy territory. Within a month 
after the liberation of Paris, ATC pbncs included Paris on 

14 



thtir schedules. Soon tliey were ilying lo J^rusyeU- Within :l 
inontEi of its invasion, LeyLe became an ATC port of call. 

The speeds mainlainecl, the distances c^jvered, the trying 
tcrr;iiji L()in|uered, the foul weather (mlwitted, and the great 
variety ul" c;ng(j carried by ATC and NATS altngeiher testily 
ihat man is -winning the lechnoJogical battle iigainst the air. 

Hut the gucsti<m stiH remains whether the economic and 
political fiai^ards can Ijc overcome. ATC and NATS, as mili- 
tary lines, paid little heed to questions of financial efficiency, 

ATC ran the big^e^t hotel chain in the world. It dished 
ou£ nnore meais a dsiy than any other transport enterprise in 
history. NATS and ATC tiif^'clher carried about 45,000 pas- 
itni^Cr^ a nionlJi, Their piLuts bu^^cd the hack yard of Santa 
t-'laus and braved the rainy season Ihundershowcrs of the 

The accompanying- maps reveal some of the NATS and ATC 
nniiings. In the operations ai these wartime lines, perhapy.. 
we see the shape of the future. 

CAN THE OBSTACLES BE REMOVED? 

Does the end of the war mean the end ol the Ivvo fears that 
held back the development of international ilying before the 
war? Will the stranf^ling restrictions go? 

ff the world can answer "yes" to those questions, then the 
g^olden a^c that the puet Tennys<jn envisioned may truly dawn, 

Jf this new air age comeis about, how will it Look? 

MoFG routes planned 

f'erhaps iran&oceanic planes no longer will halt at the coastal 
fringes of coacinents as they did before the war_ They may 
start their runs as far inland as Chicago and end them as far 
inland as Moscow. 

New intercontinental links arc j^lanncd. A person will be 
able to travel directly from Nurth America to Africa, or to 
Asia by way of northern Kuropc- 



AIR TRANSPORT COMMAND 

Neimork nf 160*000 uirivdy miles in June 1945 




Pacific Ocean 



nzlululhal equidiB-lujil projeiiliitn renlcred ul 40' N^ 175^ W 



16 



ROUTES 




JOHJWNFSBWW 



Land Hemisphere 



Aalmtillinr ('i|iiiilisinTn j>r»j<4'liuii I'ditt-j-nl ul 411" N, 0'* lou^ilmlr 



If 



NAVAL AIR TRANSPORT 

Network uf 80,000 airvay nulc^i in May iV4-3 




Pacific Ocean 



Aziinulliul e<|iii<}i»=luiil projerliun reiiiercd jii 40'' N, 175'' W 



n 



SERVICE ROUTES 




Land Hemisphere 



Akiiii til lull ci|iii<lis^unl pri(jji.'rti»n reiilereil ;i| 40° N, 0" I »iif;i In de 



fli73J02"— JS — 4 



29. 



Ainiivn envision at least live lanes atrtiss Ihi? All;intiu which 
we m[iy call: {\) Uie Viknig nnilr, vi:i LaUnidur, (ireenlanJ, 
and Iceland to Scanflinaviii; {2) the Iceberg route, via Ncw- 
fuundland. Eire, and Erj^l^nd; (3) the Sun:^hine route,. vi;i 
Hermnda. the Azores, and J^ortugal ; (4) l!ic liqualorial route, 
via Bermudii, the Azores^ an<t West Africa ] and (5) the Lalini^ 
rcjTiie, via Braxrl and Wc^t Africa. 

Only the Iceberg- n>utc and the Sunshine route operated 
bcfdre the war. The Viking r(jutc and the Latino n>ute were 
added during the war. The Equatorial route iii projected. 

Ntw ways to Sipan the broad Paciiie lie ahead. Lint:*; may 
regularly run from the United States to Australia, They ^vill 
reaeh the Nelticrlands East Indies from the Fhilip|jine Islands 
and reach Japan from Guam. 

"North to the Orient'"' is the quickest way to reach Asia 
from the Unked States, allhoug"h the iiniinary map w?oul-d nut 
icad us to think so, Su mules arc planned to Batavia via 
Alaska, ihe Aleutians^ Siberians Kamchatka IVninsula, Japan, 
and the Philippines, and via Alaska, Siberia, Manchuria, and 
Singapore, or the Philippines. 

From San Francisco io liatavia l»y v^ay of Hawaii is 9,830 
miles. Ry way of the Aleutian I^^ands atid Tokyo, believe it 
or nol^ it is only 9,575 miles. 

Regularly fiperatcd 4iinvays apparently v^ill enclose the 
glcibe. The mapy of the future yhow routes from the United 
States io Calcutta by way of the l-'aeifie and routes from 
the United States to Calcutta by way of the Mediterranean Sea. 

More countries m the aittcitys 

Far more coantries will operate intcrnaliona] lines than did 
before the war. And those who oi^enited them previously 
will extend the scupe *•>( "ihcir undertaking's, 

Sweden, the Netherlands, Beljjinni, France, and ]>erhaps 
others pnipose to inaug"uraie service across the Atlantic tc> 
North America over routes^ already operated by the United 
SlateJi and Itritain. 



Nelh^rlandb and Brilish ComrriDnwcalth airlines propose tn 
link Asia wilh Ntjrth AiTicrii:a via the Fauific. The Union of 
Soiilh AIn<:;L will l>c readily available to air travelers from fhe 
United States. United Scales airlines are sc,ek]n£ approval ivt 
the opening of new routes to Latin America. New services 
will link Hurope \vilh South Amerio^v. 

Within Europe there is certain to be a rearnmgement of 
opera-tions, for the victorious jRiwers are nut inclined to per- 
mit Germany or ll^ly In start again the airlines they were 
mainlaijiing Ijeforc the war. 

In time planes may possibly fly over the North Polar region 
in joining the Old and New \V<>rlds. I^ussian airmen twice 
made this hop in 1937, Ft is 11,900 miles from New York to 
Chunjjkinjf by way of San Francisco and the l*acific. It is 
only 7,600 TiiiJes by "way of the North Pole. But the Innpj polar 
Imp may be unpmfitable, and although wartime flying across 
Greenland and over Alaska into Siberia has taught many 
lessons abont northern w^eather, the tethnological problems 
raised l^y polar aviation are far from solved. 

The Chicago ariatiowi conference 

Most of the United Nations aisfrecd in 1944 to try to g:et rid 
of the iearSi 3nd rcatrietions that had held back international 
aviation Lefore the war. They sent representatives (o a con- 
ference in Chicago arranged by the United States gnvernment. 
The pnrpose of the conference was to find a s;itisfactory way 
to settle the problems arising from divided ''oAvnership*' of 
the air. 

Om? allied cf*untry, Russia, decided at the last momerit not 
to send a delegate lo ihe conference. Before the war Russia 
was operating almost 60,000 miles of airways within its own 
vast reaches, hut it had few international links. A Swedish 
line connected Moscow with Stockholm, a Kusfiian-Cerman 
joint line connected Moscow with Berlin, a Russian line con- 
nected Moscow with Sofia, Biilgariaj and a Russian-Chinese 
line connected Siberia with northwestern China, 

22 



Act^«^ding \o Juati Trj]>[ic, the preyulcnL <jf Wiu AniLTitan 
\V<*rUI Ai^way^, iht: J\ui^L^i;iii ^ovcnimcnl in 1931^ ^t^ninU-i] hiin 
l>CJ"Jiii>iPT<>ii Ut run lui c-\|><.TLmt;nl;il Miic Irom Alaska iiiLu 
SiEicrian lernlnry, ;iUhnug!i hiy c^>ni])iuiy never weiil ahead 
with the upc'raik>n. 

Familiar fetrrs 

For thoi^e <:">ujilric& rcprtscntcc! at Chicago, the ^Ad ccotiomic 
icir wii^ ^lill I'llivc. Th^: viLri<niii ^'ountries rt'prcist-nlcd were 
all r!(^tcriTiin<?^| io overc^iTiu" Ihiy feur. Imt ditUTCTii cmmlrify 
j>r[i]»osed <liHVr(?rU iiii?Uind^ nT 4(sin/^ a^vriy with iL 

Jlic ocniuimit: ff:ir h;nl tw(» fiiccts: 

Pirst^ Jcar lh:it imt? or two countritjs mighl have so many 
niqjlanos :ind he iilAc In Imihl and u[i<'r;tle .^n many more lliat 
ihcy t'oiiKI ^'fl'i a nioiKipoly nf ihc air Iransjxjrt Ijusiiicss ahiinsl 
from the won? "k*>." 

SccuntI, even if ]>1an<:ji were (liT^iilcd up j>rully <;vL'iiIy. \hi: 
fear cKislcd that \hc fmsincss avaihiljlL- lor iiHcniahoiial and 
iiit^^n.-oiilii]cntal ;iir li ;in_sji(.^rl' — jn Itrin^^ «i[ ]ras:^cji^i:rs, freight, 
e^xj>rcsS| and niiiil — wuidd not be great cimuK"h In lill all (he 
phmcs that all ihg ^~mjntrit;3 mij^-ht witnt to |>nl inli> the air 

Ordinniy commer^i-nl plnncs IfAnp^ported pijralroops. 




Ltnd tlint therefore tlic strong^cst country might snnn drive the 
rest out (if business if there were open Cdmpetition. 

The fi\{] i:fiu^trn (or security was al^ti nutiLtabk" at the 
Chicago ci^jiferencc- The war in whose midst the delegates, 
met Wctfl marked by the use of ordinary commeTLi;il planes 
lo tranisjKirt J^aratroopCfS behind entmy linC^. Thi;^ f;ut Itft 
many uf the ^(iverjitiitniri with fl deep conviction th;ii peace- 
time and wartime aviation are inextricably mixed. 

Two gTivernmcntti so convinced were thor^c of AiistJ"ali;i at^d 
New Ze;d;ir>d- Their dek-^atiors |iH>post'd an ;ill-enil>r<'ieinjf 
iniernn-h^nial company ifiai wnuld own and openite the iiiter- 
iiatiunal :tir Kervices of the world. This |injpo^;ab unacceptable 
lo the conference, was put forward in an allenipi in cope with 
the security prnldcni. 

The supporters of this proposal said that the inlernalioiial- 
jication of aircraft wonhl render it difficult for nations !o 
fircpare to use i>eacetime planes for war iJurposes, The oppo- 
nents feared in1ernati(ti]aliza.tinn mr*rc than tlity feared attack 
i^rnm ihe air. 

Conference, disagrcentcnts 

These economic and security apprehensions are serious and 
sincere. The economic considerations inspired the suggestion 
made at the Chicago conference by the llrilish delegaliiin thai 
after the war international air transpurt should ]rc strictly 
c^nlrollcd by an international bureau whieh would have the 
authority to fijt rales^ aUoea-te traffic quotas:, and adsLgn routes 
tcj the various ct>unlne?. 

The United Stat^^ delegation, nn the other han-J, argued 
in favor of more wide-open eompetitif>nf a.t least during the 
ininiedialc postwar period^ with an. arrangement for later eon- 
sick-ratinii uf the prnhlem of dividing up the traffic justly 
aminig the iiUcrested countrieii. It proposed estaldishnient of 
an international body whose chief power would be to deal 
with questions oi standardizing equipment and olher techno- 
logical matlers- 

2S 



WILL POSTWAR FLYING BE QUICK 
AI>iD CHEAP? 

Al-MOST AI-ONK among the fillies, the United States continued 
lo construct transport pliines during the war. Therein lies 
this couniry's prime advantage in any peacetime race for 
routes and traffic. 

To indicate to the rest of the world that we do not intend 
tr» cKpIoii this advantage unfairly, the United States govern- 
ment aiinounved to the Chicago conference that when the war 
ended America would supply other countries with planes from 
its nnlitary surplus. 

louring the war ihe United Slates— ^and to a lesser degree, 
Britain — developed planes not only for wartime but for post- 
war needs. 

The planer designed for international transport after the 
war will fje far superior to ihosQ used before the war. Most 
ijf ihcin are on view aTid many made history with their daily 
runs on ATC and NATS routes- 
Most of these planes have four motors, and each motor has 
2,000 or 2,200 horsepower — the De Haviland plane that in- 
aug-uralcd. international transport in 1919, betv/een London 
and Paris, had one motor of 345 horsepower. 

Whereas the Pan American Chppcr of prewar days traveled 
165 miles a.n hour crossing the ocean, these modern planes 

WrighfM Tirsi flighi — uboiii 120 feel 



t^ 




WiiiH&|>r*U'l of Cuiiai«^lltfiiuik — 12^ feai 



are far more speedy. In the spring of 1944 a Lockheed C»n- 
fliellaiion — whose win^ span oi 123 feet is greater than the 
distance the Wright l^rothers flew in their first flight in a 
plane — flew from Biitbiak, California, to Washington, D. C^ 
2,400 miles, in 6 hours, 57 minutes, and 51 seconds, an average 
of 330 miles an hour. 

A f*;w months later another new sky giant, the Boeing 
Stratocruiser, trai>sport brother of the E-29 bomber, flew 
from Seattle to Washington in slig'htly less time — 6 hours, 
3 minutes, and 50 seconds, averaging 3S3 miles an hour. The 
best fighter plane America had on Pearl Harbor Day wasn't 
that fast. 

HFe arc betting on these 

The United States has developed both land planes and flying 
boats. Before the war the flying boat was the usual craft used 
for crossing the ocean. But today land planes regularly make 
long over -water hops. 

The outstanding flyang boat developed in the United States 
during the war is the Martin Mars, a flying warehouse that 
weighs 70 tons. It has a range of 7,500 miles-— enough to cross 
the Pacific in one hop. 

But it is the land plane to which the United States has 
devoted most attention. Before the war, the standard trans- 
port plane within the United States and in many countries 
abroad was the two-engined DC-3 made by Douglas Aircraft 
Company. 

During the war this plane's big brother went into service — 
the DC-4, or the C-54 as the Army knows it. It can carry 44 
passengers. The manufacturer is improving the model that 
the Army has been using so that it will he more efficient- 
A still bigger brother is the 50-passenger DC-6. 

The Constellation is a 60-pa5senger plane with a lower 
operating cost than the DC-6. Another four-motored trans- 
port the Army has been using is the C-87, a noncombat twin 

25 




I Jtf kl tf^t \ f.itn^ 1 i-l I ;il 14111 



of the Liberator bomber. Tlut Ui opcrriiing cost b so high 
that it will probably ncit be riown cunimeri:iiilly now that the 
war is over. 

The Mars, ihc DC-6, the Constellation, and the Strato- 
cruiser are the "big kmr" jjlanes with which the United iStates 
faces UiG future. 

Briiaitt's contenders 

Britain announced the design of scv^n new transports during 
the war, but conalriicLed only one of ihc seven, 

British energies in plane ton^stiuction were primarily 
dcvuttd to eurtiLat needs, to the ttlighty bombers like the 
Lanc3-sler and such fierce fillers 3.5 the Spitfife, Hurricane. 
and Typhoon, 

Outstanding among" the British eommcreial designs for the 
future are tliese: 

The Brabazon — 100 lon^, 250 miles an hoiir^ capacity fur 
50 passengers and two tons, of mail. 

The TuJor — 32 tons, 220 miles an hour, cajjacily for 12 
passengers, pressurized cabin, for transathinlic service. 

The Avro York — four-engined (1,260 horsepower each), 2J0- 
miles an hour, 50 passengers, 3,000^n]ile range. This brother 
of the Lancaster bomber is in production and is flying the 
North Atlantic. 

Are there ioo many planes on itand now? 

An important question whose answer throws some light an 
the future of air transport is how many planes all the world's 
lines will need for ixacetlnie t.jperaliQii. 

They i^ot akmg on relatively iew before the war. United 
States domestic airlines were using only 371 transports when 
war came ar^d our intcniational lines, 82. But in 1944 one U_ S_ 
line, United, ordered 50 four-motored }>lanes (15 DC-4's and 
35 liC-O's) for Later delivery and another line. Eastern, ordered 
14 ConsteHalions. 

Sales of j^urplus American military transports to foreign 

27 



buyers began late in 1?44. A subcommutee of the Military 
Affairs Committee of the House of Rcprcycntatives has esti- 
mated that there will be a world demand for a good deal of 
the military surplus— for 100 C-54's and for from 280 lu 1,9?5 
of the Army's two-engined transports, the CA7, C'53, C-46 
(Curtiss-Wrigh t Commando), and C-93 (Budd cargo plane). 
Lord Beaverbrof»k, formerly in charge of coordinating 
British postwar civil air transport p-olicy, passed on an esti- 
mait that the world would be using sume 15,000 planes after 
the war. 

The war hss brr»ught the lise of jet-prOpulsion in COmbal 
planes, and this revolutionary principle, adding to speed, will 
Jie applied to civil planes. So will rocket starting, which 
enables pla.nes to get into the air after a relatively short run 
cm the ground and w^ith far heavier Soads than planes could 
lift without rockets. 

Hof€ many paying passengers? 

Interesting as the modern planes arc, they will be coniTnon 
sights in the skies Dvcr the Atlantic and Pacific, above the 
jungles uf Africa and the deserts of Asia only if there i.s enough 
business to keep them running, 

Planes are natural carriers into regions which neither ships 
on the sea nor trains nor automotive transport can reach from 
the outside world, fhis explains the success of airways in 
Latin America, interior Africa, and rtorthem Siberia, where 
farmers who never saw a train arc quite used to the giants 
of the sky. 

They are naturals, toOj for those passengers who have to 
make a long journey swiftlyj say from New York to Rio de 
Janeiro, New York to London, or San Francisco to the Far 
East, and who can hang the cost. And they are naturals for 
transporting cargoes of great value which take -small space, 
like diamonds, or which arc perishable, like expensive tropical 
flowers, 

29 



Planes have become coniitioii ca.rricrs of the mail. BEiwecn 
parts of the British Emiiire, atl mail wri5 carried by plane 
before the war wherever a roule existed thai made it possible. 

Wiil airplanes attract cnouj^'^h passeng^crs and enough freight 
to make intercuntinental plane travel as eomnmn as :iteani- 
ship travel? Some students of Ihe prublem think that, in 
time, they might attract more Iravelers than the sleamships- 
Ct^Lsinly they will mike future travelers of many present 
^1 ay- at- homes. 

How much must they pay? 

So far as passengers are concerned, the matter of fares will 
have a good deal to do with their desire to travel by planc- 
Several yeari? ago the L'liilcd States Marltitiie Cotniiiis_sion 
cxi>rei^sed the view that trantjatlanlic planea-would supersede 
the great luxury liners. r>ut first-elas& tickets un those liners 
Avere in a price class with prewar tickets on transoceanic planes. 

J^uring the war ATC carried priority civilian passen^tjcrs on 
important missions for twelve cents a mile. That iy about 
$3fjO frum New York to Jure. Train fares average aruunil 
three cents a mile. Late in 1945 Pan American World Airways 
dropped Its New Vork-Ture fare from $335 to $275, but then 
had to raise it aj^ain to $375. The original fare charg^ed on this 
flight in 1939 \vas$337, and Pan American has forecast a fare 
of $137 if it £:ets projected equipment and Civil Aeronautics 
Board approval of all i>cndin^ applications^ 

A number of airlines have announced low peacetime fares 
thcy hope to be able to charge if costs, traffic^ and other eon- 
E.i<Ieralionfi permit. Pan American hopes to cut its New York- 
Rio fare from $419 to a fntnre $175. TWA looks forward to a 
possible charge of $193.50 between New York and London. 
Pennsylvania-Central hope^i to carry passenf;-ers from Mew 
^'ork t(^ Paris for $186 and New York to Catculta for $490. 

Hou! much freight? 

The factor of cargo also g^ov^rus ^ir ei^onomic^. The Army's " 



C-82 cargo transport can carry a light tank. Will cargo plajit^ 
attract freight this hcavy^ in the years of peace? 

Many licavy cargoes; are not in a hurry tu i;ct from one 
place m another, aiid sleamshifs have been mriking mi^nfiy 
ior years L^eciiuKc ihcy can haul at l^>w rates, 

The toial weight of air express cjirricd hy UnStcd Stat^^ 
domestic lines in th^ twelve months oi 1939 c:inie tu 2,700,000 
ton-miles. ATC hauled 15,000,000 Lun-miles a moiUh. 

Ati: ihe prospects good or bud'/ 

We cannot predict the future. But we can make eslimalcS 
■about it, am! a number of students have looked closely into 
the pn>i>peciH for peacetitiie [jassenger travel and cargo hauling 
intercontinentally, Thia is what ihcy foresee on the conserva- 
tive asRumption that ratey remain high: 

Two hundred and fifty passengers a day may fly in each 
direction over the Atlantic between Europe atui North 
America, or slightly more than enough to fill f(}ur Constclhi- 
tiuns^. A third aii many passengers may Lt? traveling between 
North America and South America, atul a fourth aj^ many 
may travel across the Pacific. Planes filled to 65 percent of 
l^assenger capacily can operate efficiently. 

I^Vcighi tonnage by air from the United Slater to northern 
l\unipc may average 10,000 tons a year; to the Mediterranean, 
5,000 tons; to Australia, 1,500 tons; to the Far East, 4,000 
tons: to South America, 3,00(1 tuus; and to the Caribbean area, 
6,000 tons. 

Those cariijo fij^ures reprcst^nt im in-erease of ten timea the 
jircwar carririge of cargo between the United States and 
foieign destinations. 

More optimistic commentators foresee a greater traffic, bolh 
]i:Lsscnger and cargo. Assuming that fare? can l>e redcccd to 
the neighborhood of three cents j>cr mile, they estimate that 
as many as 4 Tni]!it>n Americans may travel abroad by air 
every year. 



Other observers, pessimisticaHy inclined^ envision a lesser 
Iraific than even the first figures above. 

WHAT ARE THE ''FIVE FREEDOMS" 
OF AIR TRANSPORT? 

TttE PROSPECT for oniy limited travel helps to explain the 
economic apprehensions that were expressed at the Chicago 
conference. 

In an effort to eliminate restrictions, ihis conference pro- 
l^osed tt> open the air to the traffic of all by declaring "five 
freedoms'' — or mOrt properly, five privileges. 

The privileges were set forth in two agreeitients — the 
first agreement containing privileges 1 and 2 (the Itater- 
nationat Air Services Transit Agreement) and the other agree- 
ment containing all five privileges (the International Air 
Transport Agreement). 

The agreements propose that for scheduled international air 
services each nation grant to all others, with the possible 
exception of former enemy countries, these "freedoms": 
L To fly across its territory without landing. 
2_ To land for nnntraffic purposes. 

3. To put down passcng-ers, mail, and cargo taken on in 
the territory of the country whose naiionalitj the air- 
craft possesses, 
4- To take on passengers, mail, and cargo destined for the 
territory of the country whose nationality the aircraft 
possesses. 
5. To take on passengers, mail, and cargo destined for 
the territory of another agreeing nation and to put 
down passengers, mail, and cargo coming from any such 
territory . 

What do they tn^an? 

Freedoms 3, 4^ and 5 are essentially commercial privileges that 
cncourag^c economic enterprise in the air. Freedoms 1 and 2 



attack the political hazards that help keep the skies from 
ujtcning wic3c. 

The ready reception which the delegates to the conference 
g-ave 1o the first privilege indicated that the mililary fear is 
subsiding. With the first freedoiii in [orce, any plane on a 
rcgfularly scheduled run can cross any nalion's territory on 
desig-tiat^d routts without other preliminary agreement- 

The second freedom means that, with certain liniitalinns, 
the bases controlled by one country are open tv the planes of 
any other agreeing country, Thus the United Stales can no 
longer close !he J-'acific by denying- foreij^n lines the use of 
Hawaii if the other nation involved has accepted the second 
freedom with respeet to Amerii:an pLanes desiringf to land 
in its territories. Anrf Britain can no longer deny the use 
of Newfoundland or l^erninda to the lines of other nations 
accepting^ the second freedom. 

The third, fourth, and fifth freedoms, insofar as they are now 
in force, make it economically useful to send planes from one 
C(juntry to another since they can thus pick up, carry, and 
discharge passenj^crs and cargo en njute bolh ways. 

Without Ihe fifth freedom a plane going, say, from New 
York lo Calcutta would be unable along- the way to pick up 
new passengers when others not making the whole trip got 
otf. Under prewar conditions this was not always possible — 
with the result that it was tiot profitable to opcraie long 
international routes without the help of heavy ^governmental 
subsidies. 

Results of the Chicago conference 

A- A. Berle, Jr., chief of the American delegation to the 
Chicago air conference, said that the meeting advanced inter- 
national a.viatioEi by two decades. That it made very con- 
siderable forward strides is undeniable. Probably the most 
miportant 15 the Provisional International Civil Aviation 
Organization which has been operating at Montreal sitice 



August 1945. This was provided for in an inlcnm agreement 
reached a( Chicago and is nUciiHcd to be replaced by n pcrma- 
netit setup that will, ^imon^ other things, be a clearinghouse 
ior iiUera^atioTial civ^il avjatinn matters- 

JViention shouhl alno be itiatlc of the tcchnit;d aj^rccinenls 
reached at Chie^^o covcrinj^ a doxen operational and rii^vda- 
tory fiiatler^s — fruin uniform rules ui ihe air and Irailic tontn>l 
to Htensing, registration, and customs j>roccdurc^. 

JivculualJy the system of international a^roeuiCnti^ W'.'rkcd 
out a.t Chi<:iii^o should eLiminate need for the old rountry-to- 
C'^urtLry negolialions Ihal prceeded every previnuK extension 
of international Rying, But to ea^e the path in the mean- 
time for arran^enientit covering point- lo-puinf Inlernalionril 
(ransp-ort, the ci inference rernninicnifcd a yt:iiidard form (if 
rif^reemenl. This i^ inlen^ied for the uric nf countries making 
hilat^ral^Hjne ci>untry with another — arrangements wilhin the 
terms of the third and fourth freedoms. From the CJikajjo 
c(jnfcrcnce to December 31, 1945, the United States reached 
such agreements with Spain, Sweden, Dcmiiarl^, Iceland, ILirc, 
CanEida, Swit^eHand, Norway, and Portugal. 

The Chicago conference marks a long step forward iti man's 
cautious prog^ress toward full use of the airplane. To the 
(jueslion of who own^ the air, il gave the same finswer a^ the 
Paris I'onference of 1919: Each state "owns" the air above 
its lerriiory for an infTnite dt5;ianee into space. 

But if we ask, "How free is the air?" and then examine 
the iwO'frecdotnfi and five-freedoms a^rccmcTUt;, we can say, 
'*Much freer than it «i;ed to be.-' By Decemher .SI, 194.S forty- 
six nations had signed the two-freedoms doctiment ;ind it was 
in force wilh respect to 25 of them. The iivc-trcednnis agree- 
ment had been signed for 28 nations and was in force for 12, 

h.*ineis that r^^maiu 

The dispute whether there shouhS be strict iiiternati()nai 
tjaffic tjuota control in time of peace still goes on. The 



problem turns on these four rjuestioiis: 

Will there be enoug"h tralfic for all the international airlines? 

Even if there is iiol^ should not iniernational aviaiinn be 
governed by the jirinciplc of regulated compention ? 

But would ihis compeliuon tend in time to give a monopoly 
ti! business In the operator who started with belter facilities 
than his competitors? 

And would such an iLdvantag^c, especially in what will be the 
richest field of international air transport — across the Atlantic 
between Europe and North America— lead to jealo^^5ie^4 that 
would injure international cooperation in shipping, R'lccom- 
municationSn and the like? 



95 



TO THE DISCUSSION LEADER 



Cooperation against tlangcrj not compctiliDn for prestige 
and eciniumic advantage, guided United Nations air transport 
p<>licy during the war. luoTiomic and pulitital obstacles wltc 
brushed aaide. Amazing technical progress "was the result, and 
ihousardb "f men in ihe f^erviccii ul&erved it ^i firsth-Tnd. 

"I'he poi^twar use of the skyways is an<ilh-er ma:tter. Critical 
questi^ins mus-l lie answered. In these ^juestinns lie the major 
issues fur ytiur discussion: 

How far will economic and political nbstarles hinder peace- 
time international airlines?" 

H<iW can these obstacles be re^noved or minimised? 

Has something^ already been done to eliminate some of them? 

Can large planes he operated safely enough and cheaply 
enough lo compete succesaEtilly with stearti-sbip travel? 

Should international aviation be governed by the principle 
of Open competition?' 

If you raise these issues and add s^m? of iho^^e suggested 
below, unfFcr "Qucstiotis for Discussion/' you will have miieh 
more material than you can cover in one meeting. Your task 
is to select perhaps the first three issues or the last two as 
paints to discuss at one meeting. Or you might plan two or 
three meetings if your group wishes to talk out completely 
the subject of iniernationai air trans^mrt. 

The test of this pamphlet does not contain the answers to 
the questions that have been raised. It does, however, explain 
what the economic and political obstacles arc ; it describes the 
proposals made at the Chiicago conference lo ntinirrtij^e the 
obbtaclcsii and it summiriKea concisely the ktioww facts about 
the kinds <ii planes which will he tiscd in intercontinental 
flying and about estimated costs of operating such p?anc-^. So 
yow have the raw material iur discussioa. For the present at 
least, each man will have lo work out the answers for himsclf_ 

36 



Aids to discussion 

Use the maps. If you put rougli copies of tlicni up on the 
wall, you will fird Lheni <»f invaluable assistance whether you 
conduct a forum or an informal discussion. 

List tlie important problems you wish to keep before yowr 
group all through the? meetings, T^wo liyty are suggested. They 
luay be written on a Ma onboard or a iar^e sheet of paper- 
It is suggested that one chart contain the three "hazards'* — - 
mentioned on page 2. The otKer could list the five privileges 
or so-called ''five fr^eduniii" found on page 32. 

The techniques of organizing and conducting' discussions 
and forums arc described in EM 1, C! Roundtable : Guide for 
Dtxcusshtt Leaders, which e\'ery kader should have. Leaders 
who are especially interested in conducting roundtable dis- 
cussion or forum programs over radio stations or sound 
systems of the Armed Forces Radio Service should also read 
EM 90, C] Rudh Roujull^ble. 

Make copies -of this- pamphlet available for advance reading 
in some central place — library, dayroOnl, St^rv'lce cl\lb. Of other 
accessible spot. Inform£<l members m your ^roup will improve 
the quality of your meeting. 

Questions for (liacussion 

The fJuc!^tions that follow are intended to help you organize 
your discussion. Jf you have better ideas, don't hesitate 
to use them. 

i 

Which do you think arc the greatest obstacles to full com- 
mercial ur^e of postwar sUyways — the technological, economic, 
or political obstacles? 

2 

Since freedom of the seas moa.ns that ships of every nation 
can sail l!n.^ oceans without asking permission of any other 
tiation, does free and unrestricted use of tlie air mean the same 
principle applied to the air? 

J7 



3 

I( ii^itions have feared thiit the regularly scheduled com- 
mercial planes of tJllicr countries mi^'-ht h^ used [or cunceitled 
military purposes, why havt they left noncommercial inter- 
national flying altm>3t unregulated? 

4 
Will it ever he wholly impossible to use civil planes for mili- 
tary purposes iind vice versa? What are tht advantages a 
nation is supposed to gain from having a large and active 
aviation program? Arelhey peacetime or wartime advantages? 
How important is the '^prestig;*!" accruing tt> a nation because 
it has a Ear-flung syRtcm uf air routes? 

S 
If there were iu be free and open competition in inter- 
national air transport, is it likely that one nation might soon 
drive the rest out of business? Would such a development 
threaten world peace? 

6 

Should each country allow only one liii&, a "chosen insiru- 
ni<:nt," to enter the field of international co-nipctition? Should 
this be a private company, a government monopoly, or a joint 
operation of domestic lines, or what? If drastic competition 
between lines of several nations for, say, the North Atlantic 
passenger traffic means profits for none, should a pooling or 
price-fixing' arrangement be permitted? Should international 
air rates be regulated? By whom? Are most nations or only 
a few likely to try to develop large-scale international airlines? 
Why do you think so? 

7 
Since ocean steamers can freely pick up and ^lischargc pas- 
sengers and freight in any port of any country, except for 
coastwise triiffio (cabotage), why has a diffcrcjit ru!e teen 
applied to plat^es? 

3& 



8 

Will passenger travel by intercontinentcbl plane be as com- 
mon ^g steamship traveli' How can costs be reduced? Can 
planes compete with ships in carrying' freight? Will increased 
trade and travel between countries make theni closer friends 
or give rise to more frictions? 

9 

Which of the transport planes developed (or immediate post- 
Tvar use do you think wiH be successful from a business 
standpoint? Will Hying boats be more practical than land 
planes on long- overwater hops? Do you believe the prophecy 
that within ten years after the war the majority of commercial 
planes will be jet-propelled ? Is the Beaverbrook estimate that 
the world will need 15,000 planes after thewar sound? If true, 
what nations do you think will operate them? 

10 

Do you think the Chicag-o conference produced important 
results? What are the most recent de-velopmetits on inter- 
national aviation ag"reements? 

II 

Should Germany, Ttaiy, and Japan be sllowcd to engage 
agaiti in civU aviation? In international commercial air 
transport? 



39 



FOR FURTHER READING 



These books are suggested for suppieinetitary reading if you 
have access to them of wish to purchase them from the pub- 
lishers. They are not approved nor officially supplied by the 
War Department. They have been seiected because they give 
additional information and represent <lilTerc3il points of view. 
CivjL AvLATiOM AXD PeaCE, By J. Packer Van Zandt. Pub- 
Ushed by Erookingj? Institution, 722 Jackson Place, N. W., 
Washington 6, D. C. (1944). $1.00. 
New Woi^f,o no^izoNs: GKocBAriiv for the Air Age. By 
Chester H. Lawrence. Published l>y Ducll, Sloan and 
Fearce, ZJ'O Madison Ave, New York 16, N. Y, (l942j, 
$2.73. 
Inti-rnatfonal Aip Tkamspokt and National Policy. By 
Oliver J, Lissilzyn. Published by CounciL on Foreign Re- 
lations, 45 E. 65th St., New York, K Y, (1942). $5.00. 
Wings atteb War; Tm: Pkosphcts or Postwar Aviation, 
By S_ Paul Johnston, Published by Duell, Sloan and Pearce 
(1944). $2.00. 
I.^TERNATLONAL AiR TRANSPORT. Py Sir Harry Osborne Mance. 
Published by Oxford University Press, 114 Fifth Ave_, New 
York 11, N. Y. (1944). $1,00. 
Emtire of tjie Ant, By Matthew Jouephaon. Published by 
Harcourt, Brace and Co., 383 Madison Ave., New York 17/ 
N. Y. (1944)_ $3.00. 
iNTEJtNATtONAL CoNTROL OF AviATioN, Ily Kenneth W. Cole- 
j^ove. Published by World Peace Foundation, 40 Mt. Ver- 
non St.. Boston 8, Mass. (1930). $2.50, 



« 



OTHER Gl ROUNDTABLE SUBJECTS 



lNTh<>MltTitK^ C(>PlMii <tJ each new f / JiouitUahlc p<tmplilet are autom^tici^lly 

iasijcj Uj inffttmaiion-edueailon aflicerB in ili& Uniied Stales and uvers^a area^, 
Addiiifkttfll cojtics are auihonsfrd on rhe basU of anc c^^y Thf each 2B mililnry 
j3eT^nnii«l, F:imfihl{>lJ4 may he r£!f]uJsi[loiiJ!i] frfim thfi United Stali^s Amied 
Forces InsCiliili"^ Madison ^^ Wiyfun-^in^ nr fmm lh« n*;areKl USAFl OversL'a 
Branch. IMX ElM nnmlier^ lillH, and quaiility. N<!w sulijecu ivill bci ariaourced 
as publis-hed. 67 Roundtabfe sub-jects now available: 

EM 1* Giude for Discrs^iiun Leaders 

E\f 2, What Is PiKOPACAiNnA? 

EM H>, Wjtat Sitall Be D-one rtnoiix Gehhany afteh tije Wab? 

EM 11, WiiAT Shall Be Do^Pve w^rij the Waii CLiiMjnAi^? 

EM ]2. Can We Pheve^t Futuhe Wacis? 

EM 13, HtJ-w ^halj, Li^p^d-I^a^^ Acf^r>''rfr'T5 l^E 5eTTLED? 

FM Tl, U Tnc Gnmi NF-K"noTi Prn.icv A Sl'CCES^? 

EM 15, WlTAT SlFAl-L 1?E Do-NE A30UT Ja?'AN APTETI ViCtORV? 

EM 20, WifAT SU£ Alaska To Offeii Postwar Pio-meehs? 

EM 22, Will Tijere Be "Whkk fan All? 

EM 2i, Why Q.-oj-s? What Ahf. Titev? How Do Tuet Wobk? 

EM 2i, What Lies Aiirah for tfie Phtlippinei^? 

EM 27> What Is the Fiittjbe op Teievtskin? 

EM 30, Can Wab MAnmACES Re Maue Tn Wobk?* 

EM 3L, Do You Wapjt Ynun WjFt To WimK after the War? 

EM 3-2, Shall 1 BLiii.ti a Holisk amti^k the War? 

EM ,^3, What Will Yciijb Town Be Like? 

EM .>!, Si^ALL, T Go Ba[:k to Shhool? 

EM JS. Shall 1 Take Up P'arminc^ 

EM 36. Does h Fay To Bobrow;' 

EM 37, Will Tiixke Be a Ps.ame l^ Evfbt Caiiace? 

EM 40, Will die FuEriCii Repi.ibuc Live AcArn? 

EM H, Dull RniTiSH Ally 

EM 42, Oiift Chinese Ally 

EM 43, The. Ualkans — Mamy Peoplk!!, Many J^koelems 

EM 44, Ai;sTiirtu\^ Our Neichboh "^'Down Ivndlb" 

EM 45, What Futuhe fob tije Lland.s of tije i'ACiFif.? 

EM 4&, Ouii Russian Ally 

EM ';0, CI IlAi^io Jl^:>L.'^fi^/lilE 



-'t'M di^tfibuiiDii in the United 5ij.i?s onlv- 



^ U. 5, GOVEPtJAAEMT PSIhJrihJG OFFrCF. l^iA — d^sioa 



r-ai salt hy ik? SuperiniEaiJFat df Documchla^ U. £, G^ffB-U^ht PfiV.iaE Oltift 
T^aiHnfllrm J^, D. C - Pri» 15 »du 



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