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Full text of "Evidence as to man's place in nature"

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Williams and Norffate's JPuhlications. 

-HAVIDSON (Dr. S.) AN mTEODUCTION TO THE OLD 

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EVIDENCE 



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AS TO 



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PLACE IN NATURE 



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EYIDENCE 




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NATURE. 



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BY 



THOMAS HENRY HUXLEY, 



PELLOW OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY. 




WILLIAMS AND NORGATE, 

14, HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN, LONDON ; 



AND 



20, SOUTH FREDEEICK STREET, EDINBURGH. 

1863. 



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Cambridge University Library, 



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ADVERTISEMENT TO THE READER. 



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The greater part of the substance of the following Essays 
Las already been published in the form of Oral Discourses, 
addressed to widely different audiences, during the past three 

years. 

Upon the subject of tlie second Essay, I delivered six 
Lectures to the Working Men in 1860, and two, to the 
memhers of the Philosophical Institution of Edinburgh in 
1862. The readiness with which my audience followed 
my arguments, on these occasions, encourages me to hope 
that I have not committed the error, into which working 
men of science so readily fall, of obscuring my meaning by 
unnecessary technicalities : while, the length of the period 
during which the subject, under its various aspects, has been 
present to my mind, may suffice to satisfy the K^eader that, 
my conclusions, be they right or be they wrong, have not 

been formed hastily or enunciated crudely. 



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T. H. H. 



London : January, 1863, 



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I. 



ON THE NATURAL HISTORY 



OF THE 



MAN-LIKE APES 



Ancient traditions, when tested by the severe processes of 
modern investigation, commonly enough fade away into mere 
dreams t but it is singular how often the dream turns out to 
have been a half-waking one, presaging a reality. Ovid 
foreshadowed the discoveries of the geologist : the Atlantis 
was an imagination, but Columbus found a western world : 
and though the quaint forms of Centaurs and Satyrs have an 
existence only in the realms of art, creatures approaching 
man more nearly than they in essential structure, and yet 
as thoroughly brutal as the goat's or horse's half of the 

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mythical compound, are now not only known, but notorious. 

I have not met 
with any notice of 
one of these Man- 
like Apes of earlier 
date than that con- 
tained in Pigafetta^s 

Description of the 
kingdom of Congo,"* 
drawn up from the 
notes of a Portuguese 
sailor, Eduardo Lo- 
pez, and published 
in 1598. The tenth 

Pig. 1.— SimisemagnatuHi delici^.— DeBiy, 1598. ^^j^g^p^^r of this work 

is entitled '^ De Animalibus quee in hac provincia reperiun- 

Eegnum Congo : hoc est Vera Descriptio Regni Africani qtjod 

TAM AB INCOLIS QUAM LUSITANIS CoNGUS APPELLATUR, per Pllilippum Piga.« 

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tur/^ and contains a brief passage to tlie effect that ^^ in the 
Songan countiy, on the banks of the Zaire^ there are multi- 
tudes of apes^ which afford great delight to the nobles by 
imitating human gestures/^ As this might apply to almost 
any kind of apes^ I should have thought little of it^ had not 
the brothers De Bry^, whose engravings illustrate the work^ 
thought fit^ in their eleventh *^ Argumentum/^ to figure two 

■J 

of these '^ Simise magnatum delicise/^ So much of the plate 
as contains these apes is faithfully copied in the woodcut 
(fig. 1), and it will be observed that they are tail-less^ long- 
armed^ and large-eared j and about the size of Chimpanzees. 
It may be that these apes are as much figments of the imagi- 
nation of the ingenious brothers as the winged, two-legged, 
crocodile-headed dragon which adorns the same plate; or^ on 
the other hand^ it may be that the artists have constructed 
their drawings from some essentially faithful description of a 
Gorilla or a Chimpanzee. And, in either case, though these 
figures are worth a passing notice, the oldest trustworthy and 
definite accounts of any animal of this kind date from the 
17th century, and are due to an En 
' The first edition of that most amusing old book, '' Purchas 
his Pilgrimage,^^ was published in 1613, and therein are to be 
found many references to the statements of one whom 
Purchas terms ^^ Andrew Battell (my neere neighbour, dwell- 
ing at Leigh in Essex) who served under Manuel Silvera 
Perera, Governor under the King of Spaine, at his city of 
Saint Paul, and with him went farre into the countrey of 
Angola j^^ and again, ^'my friend, Andrew Battle, who lived 
in the kingdom of Congo many yeares,^^ and who, ^^upon 
some quarell betwixt the Portugals (among whom he was a 

■ X 

sergeant of a band) and him, lived eight or nine moneths in 
the woodes/^ From this weather-beaten old soldier, Purchas 




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sermone donata ab August. Cassiod. Eeinio. Iconibus et imaginibns rerum 
memorabilium quasi vivis^ opera et industria Joan. Theodori et Joan. Israelis de 
Bvv, fratrnm exornata, Francofiirti, mpxcviii. 



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was amazed to hear ''of a kinde of Great Apes, if they 
might so bee termed^ of the height of a man, hut twice as 
higge in feature of their limmes^ with strength proportion- 
able, hairie all over, otherwise altogether like men and 
women in their whole bodily shape.=^ They lived on such wilde 
fruits as the trees and w^oods yielded, and in the night time 
lodged on the trees.^^ 

This extract is, however^ less detailed and clear in its state- 
ments than a passage in the third chapter of the second part 

of another work — "Purchas his Pilgrimes," published in 1625, 
by the same author— which has been often, though hardly ever 
quite rightly, cited. The chapter is entitled, '' The strange 
adventures of Andrew Battell, of Leigh in Essex, sent by the 
Portugals prison^ to Angola, who lived there and in the adioin- 
ing regions neere eighteene yeeres." And the sixth section of 
this chapter is headed — '' Of the Provinces of Bongo, Ca- 
longo, Mayombe, Manikesocke, Motimbas: of the ApeMon" 

J* 

ster Pongo, their hunting : Idolatries ; and divers other 
observations/^ 

^^ This province (Calongo) toward the east bordereth 

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upon Bongo, and toward the north upon Mayombe, which 



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^^ This province of Mayombe is all woods and groves, so 
overgrowne that a man may travaile twentie days in the 
shadow without any sunne or heat. Here is no kind of 
corne nor graine, so that the people liveth onely upon 
plantanes and roots of sundrie sorts, very good ; and nuts j 
nor any kinde of tame cattell, nor hens. 

But they have great store of elephant's fleshy which they 
greatly esteeme, and many kinds of wild beasts ; and great 
store of fish. Here is a great sandy bay, two leagues to the 
northward of Cape Negro,t which is the port of Mayombe. 
Sometimes the Portugals lade logwood in this bay. Here is 

Except this that their legges had no calves/' — [Ed. 1626.] And in a 



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marginal note, '' These great apes are called Pongo's.'* 
t PnrcJias- ?«o/!e.— Cape Negro is in 16 degrees south of the line. 

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a great river^ called Banna: in the winter it hath no barre- 
because the generall winds cause a great sea. But when the 
sunne hath his south declination^ then a boat may goe in ; for 
then it is smooth because of the raine. This river is very 
greatj and hath many ilands and people dwelling in them. 
The woods are so covered with baboones^ monkies^ apes and 
parrots^ that it will feare any man to travaile in them alone. 
Here are also two kinds of monsters^ which are 
these woods^ and very dangerous. 

" The greatest of these two monsters is called Pongo in 
their language^ and the lesser is called Engeco. This Pongo 
is in all proportion like a man ; but that he is more like a 
giant in stature than a man ; for he is very tall, and hath a 



common m 



man 

His 

His 



are without haire, and his hands also. 



the 



dunnish colour. 

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"He differeth not from a man but in his legs; for they have 
no calfe. Hee goeth alwaies upon his legs, and carrieth his 
hands clasped in the nape of his necke when he goeth upon 
the ground. They sleepe in the trees, and build shelters for 
the raine. They feed upon fruit that they find in the woods, 
and upon nuts, for they eate no kind of flesh. They cannot 
speake, and have no understanding more than a beast. The 
people of the countrie, when they travaile in the woods 
make fires where they sleepe in the night; and in 
morning when they are gone, the Pongoes will come and sit 
about the fire till it goeth out ; for they have no understand- 
ing to lay the wood together. They goe many together and 
kill many negroes that travaile in the woods. Many times 
they fall upon the elephants which come to feed where they 
be, and so beate them with their clubbed fists, and pieces of 
wood, that they will runne roaring away from them. Those 
Pongoes are never taken alive because they are so strong, 
that ten men cannot hold one of them ; but yet they take 
many of their young ones with poisoned arrowes. • 



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"The young Pongo hangetli on Ms motlier^s belly with his 
hands fast clasped about her, so that when the countrie 
people kill any of the females they take the young one, 
which hangeth fast upon his mother. 

"When they die among themselves, they cover the dead 

with great heaps of boughs and wood, which is commonly 

found in the forest." * 

It does not appear difl&cult to identify the exact region of 
which Battell speaks. Longo is doubtless the name of the 
place usually spelled Loango on our maps. Mayombe still 

lies some nineteen leagues northward from Loango, along the 
coast; and Cilongo or Kilonga, Manikesocke, and Motimbas 
are yet registered by geographers. The Cape Negro of Bat- 
tell, however, cannot be the modern Cape Negro in 16*^ S., 
since Loango itself is in 4^ S. latitude. On the other hand, 
the "great river called Banna" corresponds very well with 
the " Camma" and " Fernand Vas," of modern geographers, 
which form" a great delta on this part of the African coast. 



Now 



miles 



of the line lies the Gaboon, and a degree or so north of 

both well known to modern natu- 



Mon 



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oeen obtained. M 

Engeco, or N^schej 



jreover, at the present day, the word 

o, is applied by the natives of these 

^ 

regions to the smaller of the two great Apes which inhabit 
them ; so that there can be no rational doubt that Andrew 
Battell spoke of that which he knew of his own knowledge, 
or, at any rate, by immediate report from the natives of 

* Purclias' marginal note, p. 982 :—'' The Pongo a giant ape. He told me in 
conference with him, that one of these Pongoes tooke a negro boy of his which 
lived a moneth with them. For they hurt not those which they surprise at 
unawares, except they look on them; which he avoyded. He said then* highth 
was like a man's, but their bignesse twice as great. I saw the negro boy. What 
the other monster should be he hath forgotten to relate; and these papers came 
to my hand since his death, which, otherwise, in my often conferences, I might 
have learned. Perhaps he meaneth the Pigmy Pongo killers mentioned,'' 



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Western Africa. The "Engeco/^ however^ is that *^ other 
monster ^^ whose nature Battell '^forgot to relate/^ while the 



pame '^Pongo" — applied to the animal whose characters and 
habits are so fully and carefully described — seems to have 
died out^ at least in its primitive form and signification. 
Indeed, there is evidence that not only in BattelPs time_, but 
up to a very recent date^ it was used in a totally different 
sense from that in which he employs it. 
. For example^ the second chapter of Purchas' work^ w^hich 
^ have just quoted^ contains " A Description and Historicall 
Declaration of the Golden Kingdom of Guinea^ &c. &c. 
Translated from the Dutch^ and compared also with the 
Latin/V wherein it is stated (p. 986) that 

r 

'^ The River Gaboon lyeth about fifteen miles northward 
from Rio de Angra, and eight miles northward from Cape 
de Lope Gonsalvez (Cape Lopez), and is right under the 
Equinoctial line^ about fifteene miles from St. Thomas, and 
is a great land, well and easily to be knowne. At the mouth 
of the river there lieth a sand, three or foure fathoms deepe, 
whereon it beateth mightily with the streame which runneth 
out of the river into the sea. This river, in the mouth 

thereof, is at least four miles broad ; but when you are about 
the Hand called Pongo, it is not above two miles broad. 
» . On both sides the river there standeth many trees. 

^ . . . . • The Hand called Po7^^05 which hath a 
monstrous high hill.^^ 

The French naval officers, whose letters are appended to 
the late M. Isidore Geoff. Saint Hilaire^s excellent essay on 
the Gorilla^^ note in similar terms the width of the Gaboon, 
the trees that line its banks down to the water^s edge, and the 
strong current that sets out of it. They describe two islands 

r 

in its estuary; — one low, called Perroquet; the other high^ 
presenting three conical hills, called Coniquet ; and one of 
them, M.Franquet, expressly states that, formerly, the Chief 
of Coniquet was called Meni-Pongo^ meaning thereby Lord 

Archives du Museum, Tome X. 



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7 



of Pohgo ; 



N 



(as^ in agreement witli 



Dr. Savage^ he affirms tlie natives call themselves) term the 



N- 



It is so easy, in dealing with savages^ to misunderstand 

their applications of words to things, that one is at first in- 
clined to suspect Battell of having confounded the name of 
this region, where his *^^ greater monster ^^ still abounds, with 

of the animal itself. But he is so right about 



name 



(includ 



a 



great 



that one is loth to suspect the old traveller of error; and, on 
the other hand, we shall find that a voyager of a hundred 
years' later date speaks of the name '^ Boggoe,'^ as applied to 

Ape, by the inhabitants of quite another part 
of Africa— -Sierra Leone. 

But I must leave^this question to be settled by philologers 
and travellers; and I should hardly have dwelt so long upon 
it except for the curious part played by this word ^ Pongd^ in 
the later history of the man-like Apes. 

The generation which succeeded Battell saw the first of the 
Momo Sijvejtris. man-Mkc Apes which was 

Orangoutang. ^^^^ ^^^^ brOUght tO EuropC, Or, 

at any rate, whose visit found 
a historian. In the third 
book of Tulpius* " Observa- 

tiones Medicse/^ published 
in 1641, the 56th chapter 
or section is devoted to what 
he calls Satyrus indicus, 
"^ called by the Indians 
Orang-autang, or Man-of- 




Woods 



Morrou 



He 



gives a very good figure, 
evidently from the life, of 

Fig. 2.— The Orang of Tulpius, 1641. ^-^^ specimen of this animal, 

• ... A i;^ ;i^i«f..Yn ^' presented to Frederick 



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Henry Prince of Orange. Tulpius says it was as big as a 
child of three years old, and as stout as one of six years : and 
that its back was covered with black hair. It is plainly a 
young Chimpanzee. 

. In the meanwhile, the existence of other, Asiatic, man-like 
Apes became known, but at first in a very mythical fashion. 
Thus Bontius (1658) gives an altogether fabulous and ridi- 

culous account and figure of an animal which he calls 
"Orang-outang''; and though he says, "vidi Ego cujus 
effigiem hie exhibeo," the said effigies (see fig. 6 for Hoppius' 
copy of it) is nothing but a very hairy woman of rather 
comely aspect, and with proportions and feet wholly human. 
The judicious English anatomist, Tyson, was justified in say- 
ing of this description by Bontius, " I confess I do mistrust 
the whole representation.'' 

It is to the last mentioned writer, and his coadjutor 
Cowper, that we owe the first account of a man-like ape 

which has any pretensions to scientific accuracy and com- 
pleteness. The treatise entitled, " Orang-outang, sive 
Sylvestris; or the Anatomy of a Pygmie compared with that 
of a Monkey, an Ape, and a Man," published by the Royal 
Society in 1699, is, indeed, a work of remarkable merit, and 
has, in some respects, served as a model tp subsequent in- 



Homo 



quirers 



This 



"Pygmie," Tyson tells us, "was brought 
from Angola, in Africa; but was first taken a great deal 
higher up the country;" its hair "was of a coal-black 
colour, and strait," and " when it went as a quadruped on 
all four, 'twas awkwardly ; not placing the palm of the hand 
flat to the ground, but it walk'd upon its knuckles as I 
observed it to do when weak and had not strength enough to 
support its body."—" From the top of the head to the heel 
of the foot, in a strait line, it measured twenty-six inches." 

These characters, even without Tyson's good fio-ures 
(figs. 3 and 4) , would have been sufiicient to prove his " Pyg- 
mie" to be a young Chimpanzee. But the opportunity of 
examining the skeleton of the very animal Tyson anatomised 




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9 



having most unexpectedly presented itself to me, I am able 



testimony 




T 

Figs. 3 & 4.— The 'Pjgmie' reduced from Tyson's iigures 1 and % 1699. 

lodytes niger,^- thougli still very young. Although fully 
appreciating the resemblances between his Pygmie and Man, 
Tyson by no means overlooked the differences between the 
two, and he^concludes his memoir by summing up first, the 
points in which " the Ourang-outaag or Pygmie more re- 



Man than Apes and Monkey 



'J 



under forty- seven 



distinct heads ; and then giving, in thirty-four similar brief 
paragraphs, the respects in which '' the Ourang-outang or 

* I am indebted to Dr. Wright, of Cheltenham, whose paleontological labours 
are so well known, for bringing this interesting relic to my knowledge. Tyson's 
granddaughter, it appears, married Dr. AUardyce, a physician of repute in 
Cheltenham, and brought, as part of her dowry, the skeleton of the ' Pygmie.' 
Dr AUardyce presented it to the Cheltenham Museum, and, through the good 
oiBces of my friend Dr. Wright, the authorities of the Museum have permitted 
me to borrow, what is, perhaps, its most remarkable ornament. 



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Man and resembled more 



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After a careful survey of the literature of the subject extant 
in his time, our author arrives at the conclusion that his 

Pygmie" is identical neither with the Orangs of Tulpius and 
Bontius, nor with the Quoias Morrou of Dapper (or rather of 
Tulpius), the Barris of d'Arcos, nor with the Pongo of Battell; 
but that it is a species of ape probably identical with the 
Pygmies of the Ancients, and, says Tyson, though it " does so 
much resemble a Man in many of its parts, more than any of 
the ape kind, or any other animal in the world, that I know 
of: yet by no means do I look upon it as the product of a mia;i 
generation — 'tis a Brute-Animal sui generis, and a particular 



'/ 



yy 



\ 



The name of " Chimpanzee^' by which one of the African 
Apes is now so well known, appears to have come into use 
in the first half of the eighteenth century, but the only im- 
portant addition made, in that period, to our acquaintance 
with the man-like apes 

I 

Voyage to Guinea," by 



)f Africa is contained in "A New 
William Smith, which bears the 



744 



In describing the animals of Sierra Leone, p. 51, this 
writer says : 

I shall next describe a strange sort of animal, called by 



the white men in 



Mandrill 



called I know not, nor did I ever hear the name before 
neither can those who call them so tell, except it be for their 
near resemblance of a human creature, though nothing at all 



% ct 



Mandrill'^ seems to signify a "man-like ape," the word " Drill" or " Dril" 
having been anciently employed in England to denote an Ape or Baboon. Thus 
in the fifth edition of Blount's " Glossographia, or a Dictionary interpreting the 
hard words of whatsoever language now used in our refined English tongue 
very useful for all such as desire to understand what they read " published in 
1681, I find, "Dril-^a stone-cutter's tool wherewith he bores little holes in 
marble, &c. Also a large overgrown Ape and Baboon, so called." '^ Drill '' is 
used in the same sense in Charleton's " Onomasticon Zoicon '* 1668. The sin- 
gular etymology of the word given by BuiFon seems hardly a probable one. 



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like ail Ape. Their bodies^ wlien full grown, are as big in 
circumference as a middle*sized man's — their legs much 
shorter, and their feet larger; their arms and hands in pro- 
portion. The head is monstrously big, and the face broad 
and flat, without any other hair but the eyebrows ; the nose 
very small, the mouth wide, and the lips thin. The face, 
which is covered by a white skin, is monstrously ugly, bein 



OP 




Tig. 5.— racsimile ofWilliam Smith's figure of the *' Mandrill," 1744. 

w 

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all over wrinkled as with old age ; the teeth broad and yel- 
low ; the hands have no more hair than the facOj but the 

w 

same white skin, though all the rest of the body is covered 
with long black hair, like a bear. They never go upon all- 
fours, like apes ; but cry, when vexed or teased, just like chil- 
dren 



^' 



f 

made 



of one of these strange animals, which are called by the 



months 



even then larger than a Baboon. I gave it in charge to one 
of the slaves, who knew how to feed and nurse it, being a 
very tender sort of animal; but whenever I went off the deck 



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the sailors began to teaze it— some loved to see its tears and 
hear it cry ; others hated its snotty-nose j one who hurt it 
being checked by the negro that took care of it, told the slave 
he was very fond of his country-woman, and asked him if he 
should not Hke her for a wife ? To which the slave very 
readily replied, ' No, this no my wife ; this a white woman— 
this fit wife for you/ This unlucky wit of the negro's, I 
fancy, hastened its death, for next morning it was found dead 
under the windlass/' 

William Smith's ' Mandrill,' or ' Boggoe/ as his descrip- 
tion and figure testify, was, without doubt, a Chimpanzee. 

Linnseus knew nothing, of his own observation, of the man- 
like Apes of either Africa or Asia, but a dissertation by his 
pupil Hoppius in the "Amoenitates Academicai" (VI. 'An- 
thropomorpha ') may be regarded as embodying his 
respecting these animals. 

The dissertation is illustrated by a plate, of which the ac- 
companying woodcut, fig. 6, is a reduced copy. The figures are 

entitled (from left to right) 1. Troglodyta Boniii; 2 .^„ 

Aldrovandi ; 3. Satyrus Tulpii- 4. Pygmceus Edwardi. The 
first is a bad copy of Bontius' fictitious ' Ourang-outang,' in 
whose existence, however, Linnaeus appears to have fully 



views 



Lucifi 



believed; for in the standard edition of the 



ff 



Sjstema 



.tiMit/. 




Fig, G.—Thc Anthropomorpha of Liniicetis. 



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Naturse/' it is 
'' H. nocturnus. 



species of Homo; 



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Aldrovandus^ ^ Be Quadrupedibus digitatis viviparis/ Lib. 2, 
p. 249. (1645) entitled '^ Cercopithecus formse rarse Barbilius 
vocatus et originem a cliina ducebat/^ Hoppius is of opinion 
that this maybe one of that cat-tailed people, of whom Nicolaus 
Koping affirms that they eat a boat^s crew^ " gubernator 



Naturae 



Homo 



a third species of man. According to Temminck^ Satyrus 
Tulpii is a copy of the figure of a Chimpanzee published by 



Scot in 
indicus 



738 



It is the Satyrus 



of the " Systema Naturae/^ and is regarded by Lin- 
nseus as possibly a distinct species from Satyrus sylvestris. 
The lastj named Pygmmus Edvjardi, is copied from the figure 
of a young " Man of the Woods/^ or true Orang-Utan^ given 



Natural History/ (1758) 



Not 



Bafibn was more fortunate than his great rival. 

had he the rare opportunity of examining a young Chim- 
panzee in the living state, but he became possessed of an 
adult Asiatic man-like Ape — the first and the last adult speci- 
men of any of these animals brought to Europe for many years. 
With the valuable assistance of Daubenton, Buffon gave an 
excellent description of this creature^ which^ from its singular 

proportions^ he termed the long-ai-med Ape, or Gibbon. It 
is the modern Hylohates lar. 

Thus when, in 1766, Buffon wrote the fourteenth volume 
of his great work, he was personally familiar with the young 
of one kind of African man-like Ape, and with the adult of 
an Asiatic species — while the Orang-Utan and the Man- 
drill of Smith were known to him by report. Furthermore, 
the Abbe Prevost had translated a good deal of Purchas' 
Pilgrims into French, in his ' Histoire generale des Voyages' 
(1748), and there Buffon found a version of Andrew Battell's 
account of the Pongo and the Engeco. All these data Buffon 
attempts to weld together into harmony in his chapter en- 



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titled '' Les Orang-outangs ou le Pongo et le Jocko/' To this 
title the following note is appended : 

J ■ 

« Orang-outang nom de cet animal aux Indes orientales : Pongo nom de cet 
animal a Lowando Province de Congo. 

<^ Jocko, Enjocko, nom de cet animal a Congo que nous avons adopte. Un 
est Tarticle que nous ayons retranche." . 

3co" became meta- 
morphosed into "Jocko/' and, in the latter shape, was spread all 
over the world, in consequence of the extensive popularity of 
Buifon's works. The Abbe Prevost and BufFon between them 
however, did a good deal more disfigurement to Battell's sober 
account than ' cutting off an article.' Thus Battell's state- 
ment that the Ponsros "cannot snRnlrp> ^mrl hr,-^^ ^^ ,,^j„™ 



more 



peut parler quoiqu'il ait plus d' entendement que les autres ani- 
mauw;" and again, Purchas' affirmation, "He told me in 
conference with him,. that one of these Pongos tooke a negro 
boy of his which lived a moneth with them,'' stands in the 
French version, "un pongo lui enleva un petit negre qui 
passa un an entiQv dans la sooietd de ces animaux." 

After quoting the account of the great Pongo, Buffon justly 
remarks, that all the ^ Jockos' and ' Orangs' hitherto brought 
to Europe were young ; and he suggests that, in their adult 
condition, they might be as big as the Pongo or 'great Orang;' 
so that, provisionally, he regarded the Jockos, Orangs, and 
Pongos as all of one species. And perhaps this was as much 
as the state of knowledge at the time warranted. But how it 
came about that BufFon failed to perceive the similarity of 
Smith's ' Mandrill' to his own ' Jocko,' and confounded the 

former with so totally different a creature as the blue-faced 

Baboon^ is not so easily intelligible. 

* 

Twenty years later BufFon changed his opinion,* and ex- 
pressed his belief that the Orangs constituted a genus with two 
species,— a large one, the Pongo of Battell,and a small one, the 
Jocko : that the small one (Jocko) is the East Indian Orang j 

F 

* Histoire Naturelle, Suppl. tome 7eme, 1789. 



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15 



exceeded four feet in height in the adult condition. 



and that the young animals from Africa^ observed by himself 
and Tulpius^ are simply young Pongos. 

In the meanwhile^ the Dutch naturalist^ Vosmaer^ g^ve^ i^ 
I778j a very good account and figure of a young Orang, 
brought alive to Holland^ and his countryman, the famous 
ianatomist_, Peter Camper, published (1779) ^^ essay on the 
Orahg-Utan of similar value to that of Tyson on the Chim- 
panzee. He dissected several females and a male, all of 
which, from the state of their skeleton and their dentition^ 
he justly supposes to have been young. However, judging 
by the analogy of man, he concludes that they could not have 

Further- 
more, he is very clear as to the specific distinctness of the 
true East Indian Orang. 

'^The Orang,^^ says he, '^differs not only from the Pigmy 
of Tyson and from the Orang of Tulpius by its peculiar colour 
and its long toes, but also by its whole external foi^m. Its 
arms, its hands, and its feet are longer, while the thumbs, on 
the contrary, are much shorter, and the great toes much 
smaller in proportion.^^^ And again, ^^The true Orang, 
that is to say, that of Asia, that of Borneo, is consequently 

■f 

not the Pithecus, or tail-less Ape, which the Greeks, and 
especially Galen;, have described. It is neither the Pongo 
nor the Jocko, nor the Orang of Tulpius, nor the Pigmy of 

r 

Tyson, — it is an animal of a peculiar species, as I shall 

prove in the clearest manner by the organs of voice and the 

skeleton in the following chapters,^^ (1. c. p. 64). 

A few years later, M. Radermacher, who held a high office 
in the Government of the Dutch dominions in India, and 
was an active member of the Batavian Society of Arts and 
Sciences, published, in the second i^art of the Transactions of 
that Society,t a Description of the Island of Borneo, which 
was written between the years 1779 and 1781^ and, among 



* Camper, (Euvi*es, I., p. 56. 

t Verhandelingen van het BataYiaasch Genootschap. Tweede Deel. Derde 
Druk. 1826. 






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much other interesting matter, contains some notes upon the 
Orang. The small sort of Orang-Utan, viz. that of Vosmaer 
and of Edwards, he sajs, is found only in Borneo, and chiefly 



Mamp 



and Landak. Of these 



M 



s : — '' Here- 



he had seen some fifty during his residence in the Indies • but 
none exceeded 2i feet in length. The larger sort, often re- 
garded as chimsera, continues Radermacher, would, perhaps 
long have remained so, had it not been for the exertions of 

Palm, who, on returning from 
Landak towards Pontiana, shot one, and forwarded it to 
Batavia in spirit, for transmission to Europe. 

Palm's letter describing the capture runs thu.. 
with I send your Excellency, contrary to all expectation ^sTnce 
long ago I ofPered more than a hundred ducats to the natives 
for an Orang-Utan of four or five feet high) an Orang 
which I heard of this morning about eight o'clock. For a 
long time we did our best to take the frightful beast alive in 
the dense forest about half way to Landak. We forgot even 
to eat, so anxious were we not to let him escape ; but it was 
necessary to take care he did not revenge himself, as he kept 
continually breaking off" heavy pieces of wood and green 
branches, and dashing them at us. This game lasted till four 
o'clock in the afternoon, when we determined to shoot him ; 
in which I succeeded very well, and indeed better than I ever 
shot from a boat before; for the bullet went just into the side 
of his chest, so that he was not much damaged. We got him 
into the prow still living, and bound him 
morning he died of his wounds. 

board to see him when we arrived.'' Palm gives his height 
from the head to the heel as 49 inches. 



and next 



All Pontiana came 



Wurmb 



at this time held a post in the Dutch East India service, and 
was Secretary of the Bataviau Society, studied this animal, 
and his careful description of it, entitled " Beschrijving van 
der Groote Borneosche Orang-outang of de Oost-Indische 
Pongo," is contained in the same volume of the Batavian 



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Society's Transactions. After Von Wurmb had drawn up his 
description he states, in a letter dated Batavia^ Feb. 18^, 1781,^ 
that the specimen was sent to Europe in brandy to be placed 
in the collection of the Prince of Orange; ^^unfortunately," 
he continues^ ^^ we hear that the ship has been wrecked." 
Von Wurmb died in the course of the year 1781^ the letter 
in which this passage occurs being the last he wrote ; but in 

r 

his posthumous papers^ published in the fourth part of the 
Transactions of the Batavian Society, there is a brief descrip- 
tion, with measurements^ of a female Pongo four feet high. 

Did either of these original specimens^ on which Von 
Wurmb's descriptions are based, ever reach Europe ? It is 
commonly supposed that they did; but I doubt the fact. 
For, appended to the memoir ^^ De POurang-outang," in the 
collected edition of Camper's works, Tome I,, pp. 64-66, is a 
note by Camper himself, referring toVon WurmVs papers, and 
continuing thus :— ^^ Heretofore, this kind of ape had never 
been known in Europe. Radermacher has had the kindness 




rl 



-- : X 




(i^^jr/.£r^s^ 



Fio. 7. — The Pongo Skull, sent by Eadermacher to Camper, after Camper's 

original sketches, as reproduced by Lucse. 

to send me the skull of one of these animals, w^iich measured 
fifty-three inches, or four feet five inches, in height. 



I have 



L 

* "Briefe des Herrn v. Wurmb und des H. Baron von Wollzogen. Gotha, 



1794." 



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sent some sketches 



M. Soemmerin 



Mayence 



whicli are better calculated^ however, to give an idea of the 
form than of the real size of the parts/^ 

These sketches have been reproduced by Fischer and by 
Lucse, and bear date 1783, Soemmering having received 



them 



784. Had either of Von Wurmb 



specimens 



reached BoUand, they would hardly have been unknown at this 
time to Camper, who, however, goes on to say : — " It appears 
that since this, some more of these monsters have been cap- 
tured, for an entire skeleton, very badly set up, which had 
been sent to the Museum of the Prince of Orange, and which 
I saw only on the 27th of June, 1784, was more than four feet 
high. I examined this skeleton again on the 19th December 
1785/ after it had been excellently put to rights by the 
ingenious Onymus/^ 



)y 



It appears evident, then, that this skeleton, which is doubt- 

4;- y 

less that which has always gone by the name of Wurmb's 
Pongo, is not that of the animal described by him, though 
unquestionably similar in all essential points. 

Camper proceeds to note some of the most important features 
of this skeleton ; promises to describe it in detail by-and- 
bye; and is evidently in doubt as to the relation of this 
great ^Pongo' to his ^^ petit Orang. 

The promised further investigations were never carried 
out; and so it happened that the Pongo of Von Wurmb took 
its place by the side of the Chimpanzee, Gibbon, and Orang as 
a fourth and colossal species of man-like Ape. And indeed 
nothing could look much less like the Chimpanzees or the 
Orangs, then known, than the Pongo ; for all the specimens 
of Chimpanzee and Orang which had been observed were 
small of stature, singularly human in aspect, gentle and docile ; 
while Wurmb's Pongo was a monster almost twice their size, 
of vast strength and fierceness, and very brutal in expression ; 
Its great projecting muzzle, armed with strong teeth, being 

further disfigured by the outgrowth of. the cheeks into fleshy 
lobes. 



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19 



Eventually^ in accordance with the usual marauding habits 
of the Revolutionary armies^ the ' Pongo^ skeleton was carried 
away from Holland into France^ and notices of it^ expressly 
intended to demonstrate its entire distinctness from the 

r 

Orang and its affinity with the baboons, were given^ in 1798, 
by GeofFroy St. Hilaire and Cuvier* 

Even in Cuvier's "Tableau Elementaire/^ and in the first 
edition of his great work, the " Regno Animal/^ the ' Pongo^ 
is classed as a species of Baboon. However, so early as 
1818, it appears that Cuvier saw reason to alter this opinion, 

and to adopt the view suggested several years before by 
Blumenbach,=^ and after him by Tilesius^ that the Bornean 
Pongo is simply an adult Orang. In 1824, Rudolphi de- 
monstrated, by the condition of the dentition, more fully and 
completely than had been done by his predecessors, that the 
Orangs described up to that time were all young animals, and 
that the skull and teeth of the adult would probably be such 
as those seen in the Pongo of Wurmb. In the second edition 
of the ' Regne AnimaF (1829), Cuvier infers, from the 
^ proportions of all the parts^ and ^ the arrangements of the 
foramina and sutures of the head,^ that the Pongo is the adult 
of the Orang-Utan, ^ at least of a very closely allied species/ 
and this conclusion was eventually placed beyond all doubt 
by Professor Owen's Memoir published in the ^ Zoological 

Transactions' for 1835, and by Temrainck in his ^Mono- 
graphies de Mammalogie.^ Temminck^s memoir is remark- 
able for the completeness of the evidence which it affords as 
to the modification which the form of the Orang undergoes 

according to age and sex. Tiedemann first published an 
account of the brain of the young Orang, while Sandifort, 
Miiller and Schlegel, described the muscles and the viscera 
of the adult, and gave the earliest detailed and trustworthy 
history of the habits of the great Indian Ape in a state of 

* See Blumenbach, "Abbilduiigen Naturhistorichen Gegenstande," No. 12, 
1810; and Tilesius, " Naturhistoriche Friichte der ersten Kaiserlicli-Kiissischen 
Erdumsegelung," p. 115, 1813. 

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nature; and as important additions have been made by later 
observers, we are at tbis moment better acquainted with the 
adult of the Orang-Utan, than with that of any of the other 
greater man-like Apes. 

It is certainly the Pongo of Wurmb ;* and it is as certainly 
not the Pongo of Battell, seeing that the Orang-Utan is 
entirely confined to the great Asiatic islands of Borneo and 
Sumatra. 

And while the progress of discovery thus cleared up the 
history of the Orang, it also became established that the only 



man 



species of Gibbon — Apes of smaller stature, and therefore 
attracting less attention than the Orangs, though they are 
spread over a much wider range of country, and are hence 
more accessible to observation. 



Although the geographical area inhabited by the ' Pongo' 
and ^Engeco' of Battell is so much nearer to Europe than that 
in which the Orang and Gibbon are found, our acquaintance 
with the African Apes has been of slower growth; indeed, it 
is only within the last few years that the truthful story of 
the old English adventurer has been rendered fully intelli- 
gible. It was not until 1835 that the skeleton of the adult 
Chimpanzee became known, by the publication of Professor 
Owen's above-mentioned very excellent memoir ''On the 
osteology of the Chimpanzee and Orang," in the Zoological 
Transactions — a memoir which, by the accuracy of its de- 
scriptions, the carefulness of its comparisons, and the excel- 
lence of its figures, made an epoch in the history of our 
knowledge of the bony framework, not only of the Chim- 
panzee, but of all the anthropoid Apes. 

By the investigations herein detailed, it became evident 
that the old Chimpanzee acquired a size and aspect as difi"erent 
from those of the young known to Tyson, to Buffbn, and to 

Speaking broadly and without prejudice to the question, whether there 
be more than one species of Orang. 



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Traill^ as those of the old Orang from the young Orang ; and 

the subsequent very important researches of Messrs. Savage 

and Wyman^ the American missionary and anatomist^ have 

not only confirmed this conclusion, but have added many 

new details.^ 

One of the most interesting among the many valuable 

discoveries made by Dr. Thomas Savage is the fact^ that the 

natives in the Gaboon country at the present day^ apply to 
the Chimpanzee a name — ^^Enche-eko^^— which is obviously 



identical with the ^^ Engeko " of Battell ; a discovery 
which has been confirmed by all later inquirers. BattelFs 
^^ lesser monster ^^ being thus proved to be a veritable 
existence, of course a strong presumption arose that his 
^^ greater monster/' the ^ Pongo/ would sooner or later be 
discovered. And^ indeed^ a modern traveller^ Bowdich, had, 

in 1819, found strong evidence^ among the natives^ of the 
existence of a second great Ape^ called the ^ Ingena/ " five 
feet high, and four across the shoulders/^ the builder of a 
rude house, on the outside of which it slept. 

In 1847; Dr. Savage had the good fortune to make another 
and most important addition to our knowledge of the man-like 
Apes ; for, being unexpectedly detained at the Gaboon river, 
he saw in the house of the Rev. Mr. Wilson, a missionary 
resident there, /^ a skull represented by the natives to be a 
monkey-like animal, remarkable for its size, ferocity, and 

* 

habits/^ From the contour of the skull, and the information 
derived from several intelligent natives, ^^ I was induced,^' says 
Dr. Savage, (using the term Orang in its old general sense) 
^^ to believe that it belonged to a new species of Orang. I 
expressed this opinion to Mr. Wilson, with a desire for 
further investigation ; and, if possible, to decide the point by 



* See "Observations on the external characters and habits of the Troglodytes 
niger, by Thomas N. Savage, M.D., and on its organization, by JefiriesWyman, 
M.D./' Boston Journal of Natural Histoiy, YoL IV. 1843-4; and "External 
characters, habits, and osteology of Troglodytes Gorilla," by the same authors, 
ibid. Vol. V. 1847. 





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the inspection of a specimen alive or dead." The result of 
the combined exertions of Messrs. Savage and Wilson was not 
only the obtaining of a very full account of the habits of this 
new creature, but a still more important service to science, 
the enabling the excellent American anatomist already men- 
tioned, Professor Wyman, to describe, from ample materials, 
the distinctive osteological characters of the new form. This 
animal was called by the natives of the Gaboon " Enge-ena," 
a name obviously identical with the " Ingena " of Bowdich ; 
and Dr. Savage arrived at the conviction that this last 

discovered of all the great Apes was the long-sought ' Pongo' 
of Battell. 

The justice of this conclusion, indeed, is beyond doubt 
for not only does the 'Enge-ena' agree with BattelFs ''greater 
monster" in its hollow eyes, its great stature, and its dun or 
iron-grey colour, but the only other man-like Ape which in- 
habits these latitudes— the Chimpanzee— is at once identified, 
by its smaller size, as the " lesser monster," and is excluded 
from any possibility of being the ' Pongo,' by the fact that it 
is black and not dun, to say nothing of the important cir- 
cumstance already mentioned that it still retains the name 
of ' Engeko,' or ' Enche-eko,' by whicb Battell knew it. 

In seeking for a specific name for the 'Enge-ena/ however. 
Dr. Savage wisely avoided the much misused ' Pongo' ; but 
finding in the ancient Periplus of Hanno the word "Gorilla" 
applied to certain hairy savage people, discovered by the 
Carthaginian voyager in an island on the African coast, he 

attached the specific name "Gorilla' to his new ape, whence 
arises its present well-known appellation. But Dr. Savage, 
more cautious than some of his successors, by no means 
identifies his ape with Hanno's ' wild men.^ He merely says 
that the latter were "probably one of the species of the 
Orang ;" and I quite agree with M. Brulle, that there is no 
ground for identifying the modern ' Gorilla' with that of the 
Carthaginian admiral. 

Since the memoir of Savage and Wyman was published. 





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the skeleton of the Gorilla has been investigated by Professor 
Owen and by the late Professor Duvernoy, of the Jardin des 
Plantes, the latter having further supplied a valuable account 
of the muscular system and of many of the other soft parts ; 
while African missionaries and travellers have confirmed and 
expanded the account originally given of the habits of this 
- great man-like Ape, which has had the singular fortune of 
being the first to be made known to the general world and 
the last to be scientifically investigated. 



centuries 



monsters 



told his stories about the ' greater' and the ' lesser 
to Purchas, and it has taken nearly that time to arrive at the 
clear result that there are four distinct kinds of Anthropoids 
in Eastern Asia, the Gibbons and the Orangs ; in Western 
Africa, the Chimpanzees and the Gorilla. 



man 



has 



just been detailed, have certain characters of structure and of 



distribution in common. 



number 



of teeth as man— possessing four incisors, two canines, four 
false molars, and six true molars in each jaw, or 32 teeth in 
all, in the adult condition; while the milk dentition consists 
of 20 teeth — or four incisors, two canines, and four molars in 
each jaw. They are what are called catarrhine Apes— that 
is, their nostrils have a narrow partition and look downwards ; 



furthermore 



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length of their arms in proportion to that of their legs, we 



should have this series 



Gorilla (1 1 



Orang (1| 



1), Gibbon (li 



1), 



1), Chimpanzee (IjV— 1) • I"^ ^^^> *^^ ^°^® ^™^^ 
are terminated by hands, provided with longer or shorter 
thumbs; while the great toe of the foot, always smaller than 
in Man, is far more moveable than in him and can be opposed, 
like a thumb, to the rest of the foot. None of these apes have 
4-„:i- _„j ^f +in^w. v^r^c,co^« flip p.heek-DOuches common 



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among monkeys. Finally, they are all inhabitants of the old 



world. 



The Gibbons are the smallest, slenderest, and longest- 
limbed of the man-like apes : their arms are longer in pro- 
portion to their bodies than those of any of the other man- 
like Apes, so that they can touch the ground when erect ; 
their hands are longer than their feet, and they are the only 



m 



mours 



They are variously coloured. The Orangs have arms which 
reach to the ankles in the erect position of the animal ; their 
thumbs and great toes are very short, and their feet are longer 
than their hands. They are covered with reddish-brown hair, 
and the sides of the face, in adult males, are commonly pro- 
duced into two crgscentic, flexible excrescences, like fattv tu- 

impanzees have arms which reach below the 
knees ; they have large thumbs and great toes, their hands are 
longer than their feet, and their hair is black, while the skin of 
the face is pale. The Gorilla, lastly, has arms which reach to 
the middle of the leg, large thumbs and great toes, feet longer 
than the hands, a black face, and dark-grey or dun hair. 

For the purpose which I have at present in view, it is un- 
necessary that I should enter into any further minutise 
respecting the distinctive characters of the genera and species 
into which these man-like Apes are divided by naturalists. 
Suffice it to say, that the Orangs and the Gibbons constitute 
the distinct genera, Bimia and 



Hyl 



while the Chim- 



panzees and Gorillas are by some regarded simply as distinct 
species of one genus, Troglodytes ; by others as distinct 
^ener^— Troglodytes being reserved for the Chimpanzees, 
and Gorilla for the Enge-ena or Pongo. 



Sound knowledge respecting the habits and mode of life of 
the man-like Apes has been even more difficult of attainment 
than correct information regarding their structure. 

Once in a generation, a Wallace may be found physically, 
mentally, and morally qualiiied to wander unscathed throue-h 




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the tropical wilds of A^merica and of Asia; to form magnificent 
collections as he wanders ; and withal to think out sagaciously 
the conclusions suggested by his collections : bnt^ to the ordi- 
nary explorer or collector^ the dense forests of equatorial Asia 
and Africa^ which constitute the favourite habitation of the 
Orang, the Chimpanzee^ and the Gorilla, present difficulties 

^nitude : and the man who risks his life 



ma 



malarious 



may well be excused if he shrinks from facing the dangers of 
the interior; if he contents himself with stimulating the 
industry of the better seasoned natives, and collecting and 



more 



with which they are too ready to supply him. 

In such a manner most of the earlier accounts of the habits 
of the man-like Apes originated ; and even now a good deal 
of what passes current must be admitted to have no very safe 
foundation. The best information we possess is that, based 
almost wholly on direct European testimony, respecting the 
Gibbons ; the next best evidence relates to the Orangs ; while 
our knowledge of the habits of the Chimpanzee and the 
Gorilla stands much in need of support and enlargement by 



from 



endeavouring 



notion of what we are justified in believing about these ani- 



man 



— ^ 

Gibbons and Orangs ; and to make use of the perfectly reli- 
able information respecting them as a sort of criterion of the 
probable truth or falsehood of assertions respecting the others. 
Of the Gibbons, half a dozen species are found scattered 



Sumatra 



Malacca 



dostan, on the main land of Asia. The largest attain a few 
inches above three feet in height, from the crown to the heel, 
so that they are shorter than the other man-like Apes ; while 
the slenderness of their bodies renders their mass far smaller 
in proportion even to this diminished height. 





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who lived for many years in the Eastern Archipelago, and to 



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the results of whose personal experience I shall frequently 
have occasion to refer^ states that the Gibbons are true 
mountaineers, loving the slopes and edges of the hills 




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27 

thougli they rarely ascend beyond the limit of the fig-trees. 
All day long they haunt the tops of the tall trees ; and 
though, towards evening, they descend in small troops to 
the open ground, no sooner do they spy a man than they 
dart up the hill-sides, and disappear in the darker valleys. 

r 

All observers testify to the prodigious volume of voice pos- 

sessed by these animals. Accordii 
have just cited, in one of them, the Siamang, ^'the voice is 
grave and penetrating, resembling the sounds goek^ goek, 
goek, goek, goek ha ha ha ha haaaaa, and may easily be heard 
at a distance of half a league." While the cry is being uttered, 
the great membranous bag under the throat which commu- 
nicates with the organ of voice, the so-called "laryngeal sac/' 
becomes greatly distended, diminishing again when the crea- 
ture relapses into silence. ' 

V M. Duvaucel, likewise, affirms that the cry of the Siamang 
may be heard for miles — making the woods ring again. So 
Mr. Martin* describes the cry of the agile Gibbon as " over- 
powering and deafening " in a room, and " from its strength, 
well calculated for resounding through the vast forests.^' Mr. 
Waterhouse. an accomplished musician as well as zoologist, 



(( 



more 



says, 

than that of any singer I ever heard." And yet it is to be 
recollected that this animal is not half the height of, and far 
less bulky in proportion than, a man. 

There is good testimony that various species of Gibbon 
readily take to the erect posture. Mr. George Bennett,t a 
very excellent observer, in describing the habits of a male 

Hylobates syndactylus which remained for some time in his 
possession, says ; ^' He invariably walks in the erect posture 
when on a level surface ; and then the arms either hang down, 
enabling him to assist himself with his knuckles ; or what is 
more usual, he keeps his arms uplifted in nearly an erect 
position^ with the hands pendent ready to seize a rope, and 




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climb up on the approach of danger or on the obtrusion of 
strangers. He walks rather quick in the erect posture but 
with a waddling gait, and is soon run down if, whilst pursued 
he has no opportunity of escaping by climbing. ... When 
he walks in the erect posture he turns the leg and* foot out- 
wards, which occasions him to have a waddling gait and to 
seem bow-legged." 

Dr. Burrough states of another Gibbon, the Horlack or 



H ooluk : 



'' They walk erect ; and when placed on the floor, or in an 

open field, balance themselves very prettily, by raising their 
hands over their head and slightly bending the arm at the 



from 



side to side ; and, if urged to greater speed, they let fall their 
hands to the ground, and assist themselves forward rather 
jumping than running, still keeping the body, however 
nearly erect /^ ^ 

Somewhat different evidence, however, is given bv Dr. 

Winslow Lewis : * 



cc 



Their only manner of walking was on their posterior or 
inferior extremities, the others being raised upwards to 
preserve their equilibrium, as rope-dancers are assisted by 
long poles at fairs. Their progression was not by placing one 
foot before the other, but by simultaneously using both, as in 



jumping 



MiiUe 



progress upon the ground by short series of tottering jumps 

effected only by the hind limbs, the body being held alto- 
gether upright. 

But, Mr. Martin, (1. c. p. 418) who also speaks from direct 
observation, says of the Gibbons generally : 

" Pre-eminently qualified for arboreal habits, and display- 
ing among the branches amazing activity, the Gibbons are 
not so awkward or embarrassed on a level surface as might 
be imagined. They walk erect, with a waddling or unsteady 
gait, but at a quick pace; the equilibrium of the body 



« 



Boston Journal of Natural History, Vol. I 1834. 



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requiring to be kept up^ either by touching the ground with 
the knuckles^ first on one side then on the other^ or by up- 
lifting the arms so as to poise it. As with the Chimpanzee, 
the whole of the narrow, long sole of the foot is placed upon 
the ground at once and raised at once^ without any elasticity 
of step/^ 

After this mass of concurrent and independent testimony^ 

it cannot reasonably be doubted that the Gibbons commonly 
and habitually assume the erect attitude. 

But level ground is not the place where these animals can 
display their very remarkable and peculiar locomotive powers, 

and that prodigious activity which almost tempts one to rank 
them among flyings rather than among ordinary climbing 
mammals. 

Mr. Martin (1. c. p. 430) has given so excellent and graphic 
an account of the movements of a Hylobates agilisj living in 

r 

the Zoological Gardens^ in 1840^ that I will quote it in full : 
" It is almost impossible to convey in words an idea of the 

quickness and graceful address of her movements : they may 
indeed be termed aerial^ as she seems merely to touch in her 
progress the branches among which she exhibits her evolu- 
tions. In these feats her hands and arms are the sole organs 

of locomotion; her body hanging as if supended by a rope, 
sustained by one hand (the right, for example), she launches 

herself, by an energetic movement, to a distant branch, 
which she catches with the left hand j but her hold is less 
than momentary : the impulse for the next launch is ac- 
quired : the branch then aimed at is attained by the right 
hand again, and quitted instantaneously, and so on, in 
alternate succession. In this manner spaces of twelve and 
eighteen feet are cleared, with the greatest ease and un- 
interruptedly, for hours together, without the slightest 
appearance of fatigue being manifested; and it is evident 
that, if more space could be allowed, distances very greatly 
exceeding eighteen feet would be as easily cleared ; so that 
Duvaucel's assertion that he has seen these animals launch 



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30 

themselves from one brancli to another, forty feet asunder 
startling as it is, may be well credited. Sometimes^ on 
seizing a branch in her progress, she will throw herself 
by the power of one arm only, completely round it, making 
a revolution with such rapidity as almost to deceive the eye^ 
and continue her progress with undiminished velocity. It is 
singular to observe how suddenly this Gibbon can stop, 
when the impetus given by the rapidity and distance of her 
swinging leaps would seem to require a gradual abatement of 
her movements. In the very midst of her flight a branch is 
seized, the body raised, and she is seen, as if by magic, 
quietly seated on it, grasping it with her feet. As suddenly 
she again throws herself into action. 

The following facts will convey some notion of her 
dexterity and quickness. A live bird was let loose 
her apartment ; she marked its flight, made a long swing to 
a distant branch, caught the bird with one hand in her 
passage, and attained the branch with her other hand; her 
aim, both at the bird and at the branch, being as successful 
as if one object only had engaged her attention. It mav be 
added that she instantly bit off the head of the bird, picked 
its feathers, and then threw it down without attempting 
to eat it. 

4 

" On another occasion this animal swung herself from 
a perch, across a passage at least twelve feet wide, against a 
window which it was though t would be immediately broken : 
but not so; to the surprise of all, she caught the narrow 
framework between the panes with her hand, in an instant 
attained the proper impetus, and sprang back again to the 
cage she had left— a feat requiring not only great strength, 
but the nicest precision/^ 



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The Gibbons appear to be naturally very gentle, but there 
is very good evidence that they will bite severely when irri- 



tated 



Hylobates 



one man with her long canines, that he died ; while she had 





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31 

injured others so much that, by way of precaution, these 
formidable teeth had been filed downj but, if threatened, 
she would still turn on her keeper. The Gibbons eat insects, 
but appear generally to avoid animal food. A Siamang, 
however, was seen by Mr. Bennett to seize and devour 
greedily a live lizard. They commonly drink by dipping 
their fingers in the liquid and then licking them, 
asserted that they sleep in a sitting posture. 

Duvaucel affirms that he has seen the females carry their 
young to the waterside and there wash their faces, in spite of 
resistance and cries. They are gentle and affectionate in cap- 
tivity—full of tricks and pettishness, like spoiled children, 
and yet not devoid of a certain conscience, as an anecdote, 

Bennett (1. c. p. 156), will show. It would appear 
that his Gibbon had a peculiar incHnation for disarranging 

r 

things in the cabin. Among these articles, a piece of soap 
would especially attract his notice, and for the removal of this 
he had been once or twice scolded. " One morning," says 
Mr. Bennett, " I was writing, the ape being present in the 
cabin, when casting my eyes towards him, I saw the little 
fellow taking the soap. I watched him without his perceiving 
that I did so : and he occasionally would cast a furtive glance 
towards the place where I sat. I pretended to write ; he, 
seeing me busily occupied, took the soap, and moved away 
with it in his paw. When he had walked half the length of 
the cabin, I spoke quietly, without frightening him. The in- 
stant he found I saw him, he walked back again, and deposited 
the soap nearly in the same place from whence he had taken 
it. There was certainly something more than instinct in that 
action : he evidently betrayed a consciousness of having done 

r 

wrong both by his first and last actions — -and what is reason 

■J 

if that is not an exercise of it ?" 



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The most elaborate account of the natural history of the 
Ouang-Utan extant, is that given in the " Verhandelingen 



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over de 



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Nederlandsche c 

Salomon Miiller 



Dr. Schlegel, and I shall base what I have to say upon this 



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Fig. 9.— An adult male Orang-Utan, after MUller and Schlegel. 

r 

subject almost entirely on their statements, adding, here and 
there, particulars of interest from the writings of Brooke, 
Wallace, and others. 



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four 



height^ but tlie body is very bulky, measuring two-thirds of 

the height in circumference."^ 

The Orang-Utan is found only in Sumatra and Borneo, 
and. is common in neither of these islands — in both of which 
it occurs always in low^ flat plains^ never in the mountains. It 

■J 

- loves the densest and most sombre of the forests, which ex- 

tend from the sea-shore inland_, and thus is found only in the 
eastern half of Sumatra, where alone such forests occur, 
though, occasionally, it strays over to the western side. 



On the other hand, it is generally distributed through 
Borneo, except in the mountains, or where the population is 
dense. In favourable places, the hunter may, by good for- 
tune, see three or four in a day. 

Except in the pairing time, the old males usually live by 
themselves. The old females, and the immature males, on the 
other hand, are often met with in twos and threes ; and the 
former occasionally have young with them, though the 

pregnant females usually separate themselves, and sometimes 
remain apart after they have given birth to their offspring. 
The young Orangs seem to remain unusually long under their 
mother's protection, probably in consequence of their slow 
growth. While climbing, the mother always carries her young 



X 



* The largest Orang-Utan, cited by Temminck, measured, when standing 
upright, four feet ; but he mentions having just received news of the capture of 
an Orang five feet three inches high. Schlegel and MuUer say that their largest 
old male measured, upright, 1.25 Netherlands " el ;" and from the crown to the 
end of the toes, 1.5 el ; the circumference of the body being about 1 el. The 

-I 

largest old female was 1.09 el high, when standing. The adult skeleton in the 
College of Surgeons' Museum, if set upright, would stands ft. 6-8 in. from crown 
to sole. Dr. Humphry gives 3 ft. 8 in. as the mean height of two Orangs. 
Of seventeen Orangs examined by Mr. Wallace, the largest was 4 ft, 2 in. high, 
from the heel to the crown of the head. Mr. Spencer St. John, however, in his 
" Life in the Eorests of the Far East," tells us of an Orang of '' 5 ft. 2 in., measur- 
ing fairly from the head to the heel," 15 in. across the face, and 12 in. round 
the wrist. It does not appear, however, that Mr. St. John measm*ed this Orang 
himself, 

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against her: bosom, the young holding on by his mother's 
^lair^* At what time of hfe the Orang-Utan becom^T^ble 
of propagation, and how long the females go with young, 
is unknown, but it is probable that they are not adult until 
they arrive at ten or fifteen years of age. A female which 
lived for five years at Batavia, had not attained one-third the 
height of the wild females. It is probable that, after reaching 
adult years, they go on growing, though slowly, and that they 
live to forty or fifty years. The Dyaks tell of old Orangs, 
which have not only lost all their teeth, but which find it 
so troublesome to climb, that they maintain themselves on 
windfalls and juicy herbage. 

The Orang is sluggish, exhibiting none of that marvellous 
activity characteristic of the Gibbons. Hunger alone seems 
to stir him to exertion, and when it is stilled, he relapses into 
repose. When the animal sits, it curves its back and bows its 
headj so as to look straight down on the ground ; sometimes 
it holds on with its hands by a higher branch, sometimes lets 
them hang phlegmatically down by its side— and in these posi- 
tions the Orang wiU remain, for hours together, in the same 
spot, almost without stirring, and only now and then giving 
utterance to its deep, growling voice. By day, he usually 
climbs from one tree-top to another, and only at night 
descends to the ground, and if then threatened with danger, 
he seeks refuge among the underwood. When not hunted, 
he remains a long time in the same locality, and sometimes 
stops for many days on the same tree— a firm place among its 
branches serving him for a bed. It is rare for the Orang to 
pass the night in the summit of a large tree, probably because 
it is too windy and cold there for him ; but, as soon as night 
draws on, he descends from the height and seeks out a fit bed 

T r 

r 

* See Mr. Wallace's account of an infant '* Orang-ntan," inthe" Annals of 
Natural History" for 1856. Mr. Wallace provided his interesting charge with 
aa artificial mother of buffalo-s^in, but the cheat -was too snccessftil. The 
infiiiit's entire experience led it to associate teats with hair, and feeliiio- the 
latter, it spent its existence in vain endeavours to discover the former. 



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in the lower and darker part, or in the leafy top of a small tree, 
among which he prefers Nibong Palms, Pandani, or one of 
those parasitic Orchids which give the primaeval forests of 
Borneo so characteristic and striking an appearance. But 
wherever he determines to sleep^ there he prepares himself a 
sort of nest: little bouglis and leaves are drawn together 
round the selected spot^ and bent crosswise over one another ; 
while to make the bed soft^ great leaves of Ferns, of Orchids, 



fascicularisj Nipa fi 

5 which Miiller saw. 



them. 

fresh; were situated at a height of ten to twenty-five feet 

above the ground, and had a circumference, on the average, 
of two or three feet. Some were packed many inches thick 
with Pandanus leaves ; others were remarkable only for the 
cracked twigs, which, united in a common centre, formed a 
regular platform. " The rude hut," says Sir James Brooke, 
" which they are stated to build in the trees, would be more 
properly called a seat or nest, for it has no roof or cover of 
any sort. The facility with which they form this nest is 
curious, and I had an opportunity of seeing a wounded 
female weave the branches together and seat herself, within a 

minute." 

According to the Dyaks the Orang rarely leaves his bed 
before the sun is well above the horizon and has dissipated 

He gets up about nine, and goes to bed again 
about five ; but sometimes not till late in the twilight. He 
lies sometimes on his back ; or, by way of change, turns on 
one side or the other, drawing his limbs up to his body, and 
resting his head on his hand, 
or rainy, he usually covers his body with a heap of Pandmius, 
Nipa, or Fern leaves, like those of which his bed is made, and 
he is especially careful to wrap up his head in them. It is 
this habit of covering himself up which has probably led to 
the fable that the Orang builds huts in the trees. 

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Although the Orang resides mostly amid the boughs of great 

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trees, during the daytime, lie is very rarely seen squatting on 
a thick branch, as other apes and particularly the Gibbons do. 
The Orang, on the contrary, confines himself to the slender 
leafy branches, so that he is seen right at the top of the 
trees, a mode of life which is closely related to the constitu- 
tion of his hinder limbs, and especially to that of his seat. 
For this is provided with no callosities, such as are possessed 
by many of the lower apes, and even by the Gibbons; and 
those bones of the pelvis, which are termed the ischia, and 
which form the solid framework of the surface on which the 
body rests in the sitting posture, are not expanded like those 
of the apes which possess callosities, but are more like those 

of man. 

An Orang climbs so slowly and cautiously,* as, in this act, 
to resemble a man more than an ape, taking great care of his 
feet, so that injury of them seems to affect him far more 
than it does other apes. Unlike the Gibbons, whose fore- 
arms do the greater part of the work, as they swing from 
branch to branch, the Orang never makes even the smallest 
jump. In climbing, he moves alternately one hand and one 
foot, or, after having laid fast hold with the hands, he draws 
up both feet together. In passing from one tree to another, 
he always seeks out a place where the twigs of both come 
close together, or interlace. Even when closely pursued, his 
circumspection is amazing : he shakes the branches to see if 
they will bear him, and then bending an overhanging bough 



from the tree he wishes to quit to the next.t 



makes 



On the ground the Orang always goes laboriously and 
shakily, on all fours. At starting he will run faster than a 



"They are the slowest and least active of all the monkey tribe, and their 
motions are surprisingly awkward and uncouth."-Sir James Brooke, in the 
"Proceedings of the Zoological Society," 1841. 



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Wallace 



responds with this. 






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man, though he may soon be overtaken. The very long arms 
which, when he runs, are but little bent^ raise the body of the 
Orang remarkably, so that he assumes much the posture of a 
very old man bent down by age, and making his way along 
by the help of a stick. In walking, the body is usually 
directed straight forward, unlike the other apes, which run 
more or less obliquely ; except the Gibbons, who in these, as 
in so many other respects, depart remarkably from their 

fellows. 

The Orang cannot put its feet flat on the ground, but is 

supported upon their outer edges, the heel resting more 
on the ground, while the curved toes partly rest upon the 
ground by the upper side of their first joint, the two outer- 
most toes of each foot completely resting on this surface. 
The hands are held in the opposite manner, their inner edges 
serving as the chief support. The fingers are then bent out 
in such a manner that their foremost joints, especially those 
of the two innermost fingers, rest upon the ground by their 
upper sides, while the point of the free and straight thumb 
serves as an additional fulcrum. 

The Orang never stands on its ' hind legs, and all the 
pictures, representing it as so doing, are as false as the 
assertion that it defends itself with sticks, and the like. 

The long arms are of especial use, not only in climbing, 
but in the gathering of food from boughs to which the 

animal could not trust his weight. Pigs, blossoms, and 
young leaves of various kinds, constitute the chief nutriment 
of the Orang; but strips of bamboo two or three feet long 
were found in the stomach of a male. They are not known 

to eat living animals. 

Although, when taken young, the Orang-Utan soon becomes 
domesticated, and indeed seems to court human society, it is 
naturally a very wild and shy animal, though apparently slug- 
gish and melancholy. The Dyaks affirm, that when the old 
males are wounded with arrows only, they will occasionally 



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leave tlie trees and rust raging upon their enemies, whose 
sole safety lies in instant flight, as they are sure to be killed 
if caught.* 



IS rare 



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But, though possessed of immense strength, it 
for the Orang to attempt to defend itself, especially when 
attacked with fire-arms. On such occasions he endeavours 
to hide himself, or to escape along the topmost branches 
of the trees, breaking off and throwing down the boughs as 
he goes. When wounded he betakes himself to the 
attainable point of the tree, and emits a singular cry, con- 
sisting at first of high notes, which at length deepen into a 
low roar, not unlike that of a panther. While giving out the 
high notes the Orang thrusts out his lips into a funnel shape; 



Waterliouse 



/ 



y 



ceedings of the Zoological Society for 1841, says:-" On the habits of the 
Orangs, as far as I hare been able to observe them, I may remark that they are 
as dull and slothful as can well be conceived, and on no occasion, when pm-- 
suing them, did they move so fast as to preclude my keeping pace with them 
easily through a moderately clear forest ; and even when obstructions below 
(such as wading up to the neck) allowed them to get away some distance, they 
were sure to stop and allow me to come up. I never observed the shghtest 
attempt at defence, and the wood which sometimes rattled about our ears was 
broken by their weight, and not thrown, as some persons represent. If pushed 
to extremity, however, the Pappan could not be othenvise than formidable, 
and one unfortunate man, who, with a party, was trying to catch a large one 
alive, lost two of his fingers, besides being severely bitten on the face, whilst 
the animal finally beat off his pursuers and escaped." 

Mr. Wallace, on the other hand, aiBrms that he has several times observed 
them throwing down branches when pursued. " It is true he does not throw 
them at a person, but casts them down vertically ; for it is evident that a bou-^h 
cannot be thrown to any distance from the top of a lofty tree. In one case'^a 
female Mias, on a durian tree, kept up for at least ten minutes a continuous 
shower of branches and of the heavy, spined fruits, 'as large as 32-pounders 
which most effectually kept us clear of the tree she was on. She could be seen 
breakmg them off and throwing them down with every appearance of rage, 



uttering at intervals a loud pumping grunt, and evidently meaning mischief 
" On the Habits of the Orang-Utan," Annals of Nat. History. 



79 



1856. This 



statement, it will be observed, is quite in accordance with that contained in the 
letter of the Eesident Palm quoted above (p. 16). 



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but in uttering the low notes lie holds his mouth wide open, 



same 



becomes distended. 

According to the Dyaks, the only animal the Orang mea- 
sures his strength with is the crocodile, who occasionally 
seizes him on his visits to the water side. But they say that 
the Orang is more than a match for his enemy, and beats him 
to death, or rips up his throat by pulling the jaws asunder ! 



Much 



by Dr. Miiller from 



Dyak hunters; but 



a large male, four feet high, lived in captivity, under his obser- 
vation, for a month, and receives a very bad character. 

*' He was a very wild beast/^ says Miiller, "of prodigious 
strength, and false and wicked to the last degree. If any one 
approached he rose up slowly with a low growl, fixed his eyes 
in the direction in which he meant to make his attack, slowly 
passed his hand between the bars of his cage, and then extend- 



ing his long arm, gave a sudden grip — usually at the face.'^ 



He never tried to bite (though Orangs will bite one another), 
his great weapons of offence and defence being his hands. 



His intelligence was very great ; and Miiller remarks, that 



though the faculties of the Orang have been estimated too 
highly, yet Cuvier, had he seen this specimen, would not have 
considered its intelligence to be only a little higher than that 

of the dog. 

His hearing was very acute, but the sense of vision seemed 
to be less perfect. The under lip was the great organ df touch, 
and played a very important part in drinking, being thrust 
out like a trough, so as either to catch the falling rain, or to 
receive the contents of the half cocoa-nut shell full of water 
with which the Orang was supplied, and which, in drinking, he 
poured into the trough thus formed. 

In Borneo the Orang-Utan of the Malays goes by the name 
of " 3Eas" among the Dyaks, who distinguish several kinds 






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Mias Pappan, or ZimOy Mias Kassu 



Mias 



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Whether these are distinct species, however, or whether they 
are mere races, and how far any of them are identical with 
the Sumatran Orang, as Mr. Wallace thinks the Mias 
Pappan to be, are problems which are at present undecided ; 
and the variability of these great apes is so extensive, that 
the settlement of the question is a matter of great diflfi- 
culty. Of the form called " Mias Pappan 



}} 



Mr. V^ 



observes, " It is known by its large size, and by the lateral 
expansion of the face into fatty protuberances, or ridges, 
over the temporal muscles, which have been mis-termed cal- 
lositieSy as they are perfectly soft, smooth, and flexible. Five 



me 



to 4 feet 2 inches in height, from the heel to the crown of 
the head, the girth of the body from 3 feet to 3 feet 7^ inches 
and the extent of the outstretched arms from 7 feet 2 inches 

r 

to 7 feet 6 inches; the width of the face from 10 to 13i 
inches. The colour and length of the hair varied in dif- 
ferent individuals, and in different parts of the same indi- 
vidual ; some possessed a rudimentary nail on the great toe, 
others none at all ; but they otherwise present no external 
differences on which to establish even varieties of a species. 

Yet, when we examine the crania of these individuals, we 
find remarkable differences of form, proportion, and dimen- 



sion, no two being exactly alike. The slope of the profile. 



and the projection of the muzzle, together with the size of 
the cranium, offer differences as decided as those existing 
between the most strongly marked forms of the Caucasian 
and African crania in the human species. The orbits vary 
in width and height, the cranial ridge is either single or 
double, either much or little developed, and the zygomatic 
aperture varies considerably in size. This variation in the 
proportions of the crania enables us satisfactorily to explain 
the marked difference presented by the single-crested and 

* On the Orang-Utaii; or Mias of Borneo, Annals of Natural Ilistoiy, 



1856. 



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41 



double-crested skulls, which have been thought to prove the 
existence of two large species of Orang. The external sur- 
face of the skull varies considerably in size, as do also the 
zygomatic aperture and the temporal muscle; but they 
bear no necessary relation to each other, a small muscle often 
existing with a large cranial surface, and vice versa. Now, 
those skulls which have the largest and strongest jaws and 
the widest zygomatic aperture, have the muscles so large 
that they meet on the crown of the skull, and deposit the 
bony ridge which separates them, and which is the highest 
in that which has the smallest cranial surface. In those 
which combine a large surface with comparatively weak jaws, 
and small zygomatic aperture, the muscles, on each side, do 
not extend to the crown, a space of from 1 to 2 inches re- 



mainm 



are 



formed. Intermediate forms are found, in which the 



meet 



The form 



and size of the ridges are therefore independent of age, being 
sometimes more strongly developed in the less aged animal. 
Professor Temminck states that the series of skulls in the 
Ley den Museum shows the same result." 

Mr. Wallace observed two male adult Orangs (Mias Kassu 
of the Dyaks), however, so very different from any of these 
that he concludes them to be specifically distinct ; they were 
respectively 3 feet Si in. and 3 feet 9^ inches high, and pos- 
sessed no sign of the cheek excrescences, but otherwise re- 
sembled the larger kinds. The skull has no crest, but two 

apart, as in the Simla 
morio of Professor Owen. The teeth, however, are im- 
mense, equalling or surpassing those of the other species. 
The females of both these kinds, according to Mr. Wallace, 
are devoid of excrescences, and resemble the smaller males, 
but are shorter by 1^ to 3 inches, and their canine teeth are 
comparatively small, subtruncated and dilated at the base, as 
in the so-called Simia morio, which is, in all probabihty, the 
c.i.„n ^f ^ r^w.oi« r^4• i^ha comp. snecies as the smaller males. 



bony ridges^ If inches to 2 inches 







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Both males and females of tliis smaller species are distin- 

comparatively 



Mr. Wallace 



h 

large size of the middle incisors of the upper jaw. 

r 

So far as I am aware, no one has attempted to dispute the 
accuracy of the statements which I have just quoted regarding 
the habits of the two Asiatic man-hke Apes ; and if true, 
they must he admitted as evidence, that such an Ape 



May 



from 



may 



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as to be readily heard one or two miles. 

I 

3rdly, That it may be capable of great viciousness and 
iolence when irritated : and this is especially true of adult 
males. 

L 

4thly, That it may build a nest to sleep in. 

Such being well-established facts respecting the Asiatic 
Anthropoids, analogy alone might justify us in expecting the 
African species to offer similar pecuharities, separately or 
combined ; or, at any rate, would destroy the force of any 
attempted a priori argument against such direct testimony as 
might be adduced in favour of their existence. And, if the or- 
ganization of any of the African Apes could be demonstrated 
to fit it better than either of its Asiatic alHes for the erect 
position and for efficient attack, there would be still less 
reason for doubting its occasional adoption of the upright atti- 
tude or of aggressive proceedings. 

From the time of Tyson and Tulpius downwards, the 
habits of the young CniMPiiNZEE in a state of captivity 
have been abundantly reported and commented upon. But 
trustworthy evidence as to the manners and customs of 
adult anthropoids of this species, in their native woods, was 
almost wanting up to the time of the pubHcation of the 
paper by Dr. Savage, to which I have already referred; 
containing notes of the observations which he made, and of 
the information which he collected from sources which he 



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considered trustworthy, while resident at Cape Palmas, at 
the north-western limit of the Bight of Benin. 

The adult Chimpanzees, measured by Dr. Savage, nerer 
exceeded, though the males may almost attain, five feet in 



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height. 



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''When at rest^ the sitting posture is that generally 
assumed. They are sometimes seen standing and walking, 
but when thus detected, they immediately take to all fours, 
and flee from the presence of the observer. Such is their 
organization that they cannot stand erect, but lean forward. 
Hence they are seen, when standing, with the hands clasped 
over the occiput, or the lumbar region, which would seem 

necessary to balance or ease of posture. 

''The toes of the adult are strongly flexed and turned 

t ' T 

inwards, and cannot be perfectly straightened. In the 
attempt the skin gathers into thick folds on the back, shew- 
ing that the full expansion of the foot, as is necessary in 
walking, is unnatural. The natural position is on all fours, 

the body anteriorly resting upon the knuckles. These are 
greatly enlarged, with the skin protuberant and thickened 
like the sole of the foot. 

"They are expert climbers, as one would suppose from their 
organization. In their gambols they swing 
limb to a great distance, and leap with astonishing agility. 

It is not unusual to see the ' old folks ' (in the language of 
an observer) sitting under a tree regaling themselves with 
fruit and friendly chat, while their ^ children^ are leaping 



X 



from 



to 



from 



merriment. 



" As seen here, they cannot be called gregarious^ seldom 
more than five, or ten at most, being found together. It 
has been said, on good authority, that they occasionally 
assemble in large number^, in gambols. My informant 
asserts that he saw once not less than fifty so engaged; 
hooting, screaming, and drumming with sticks upon old 
logs, which is done in the latter case with equal facility 



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by the four extremities. They do not appear ever to act on 
the offensive, and seldom, if ever really, on the defensive. 
When about to be captured, they resist by throwing their 
arms about their opponent, and attempting to draw him into 
contact with their teeth." (Savage, 1. c. p. 384.) 

With respect to this last point Dr. Savage is very explicit 
in another place : 

''Biting is their principal art of defence. I have seen one 



man 



ic 



The strong development of the canine teeth in the 



adult would seem to indicate 



a carnivorous propensity ; 



but in no state save that of domestication do they manifest 
it. At first they reject flesh, but easily acquire a fondness 
for it. The canines are early developed, and evidently 
designed to act the important part of weapons of defence. 

with man almost the first effort of the 



When in contact 
animal is — to hite. 



" They avoid the abodes of men, and build their habita- 
tions in trees. Their construction is more that of nests 
than huts, as they have been erroneously termed by some 
naturalists. They generally build not far above the ground. 
Branches or twigs are bent, or partly broken, and crossed, 
and the whole supported by the body of a limb or a crotch. 
Sometimes a nest will be found near the end of a strong 
leafy branch twenty or thirty feet from the ground. One I 
have lately seen that could not be less than forty feet, 

probably it was fifty. But this is an unusual 



more 



height. 

" Their dwelling-place is not permanent, but changed in 
pursuit of food and sohtude, according to the force of 
circumstances. We more often see them in elevated places ; 
but this arises from the fact that the low grounds, being 
more favourable for the native^ rice-farms, are the oftener 
cleared, and hence are almost always wanting in suitable 
trees for their nests. . . . . It is seldom that more than 

one or two nests are seen upon the same tree, or in the 



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same neighbourliood : five have been founds but it was 



an unusual circumstance/^ 



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They are very filthy in their habits 



It is a 






tradition with the natives generally here, that they were 
once members of their own tribe: that for their depraved 
habits they were expelled from all human society, and, 
that through an obstinate indulgence of their vile pro- 
pensities, they have degenerated into their present state 
and organization. They are, however, eaten by them, 
and when cooked with the oil and pulp of the palm-nut 
considered a highly palatable morsel. 

"They exhibit a remarkable degree of intelligence in their 
habits, and, on the part of the mother, much affection for 

their young. The second female described was upon a tree 
when first discovered; with her mate and two young ones (a 
male and a female). Her first impulse was to descend with 
great rapidity, and make off into the thicket, with her mate 
and female ofi'spring. The young male remaining behind^ she 

soon returned to the rescue. She ascended and took him in 

h 

her arms, at which moment she Tvas shot, the ball passing 
through the fore-arm of the young one, on its way to the 

heart of the mother ..... 

^^ In a recent case^ the mother^ when discovered, remained 
upon the tree with her ofl^spring, watching intently the move- 
ments of the hunter. As he took aim, she motioned with 
her handj precisely in the manner of a human being, to have 
him desist and go away. "When the wound has not proved 
instantly fatal, they have been known to stop the flow of 
blood by pressing with the hand upon the part^ and when 

^ ■ 

this did not succeed, to apply leaves and grass .... When 
shot, they give a sudden screech, not unlike that of a human 
being in sudden and acute distress.^^ 

The ordinary voice of the Chimpanzee, however, is affirmed 
to be hoarse^ guttural, and not very loud, somewhat like 
'« whoo-whoo.'' (1. c. p. 365.) 

The analogy of the Chimpanzee to the Orang, in its nest- 




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building habit and in the mode of forming its nest, is exceed- 
ingly interesting ; while, on the other hand, the activity of 
this ape, and its tendency to bite, are particulars in which it 
rather resembles the Gibbons. In extent of geographical 
range, again, the Chimpanzees— which are found from Sierra 
Leone to Congo — remind one of the Gibbons, rather than 
of either of the other man-like apes; and it seems not 
unlikely that, as is the case with the Gibbons, there may be 
several species spread over the geographical area of the 



genus. 



from whom 



the preceding account of the habits of the adult Chimpanzee, 
published, fifteen years ago,* an account of the Gorilla 
which has, in its most essential points, been confirmed by 
subsequent observers, and to which so very little has really 
been added^ that in justice to Dr, Savage I give it almost 
in full. 

^^ It should be borne in mind that rny account is based 
upon the statements of the aborigines of that region (the 
Gaboon). In this connection^ it may also be proper for me 
to remark, that having been a missionary resident for several 
years^ studying, from habitual intercourse, the African mind 
and character, I felt myself prepared to discriminate and 
decide upon the probability of their statements. Besides, 
being familiar with the history and habits of its interest- 
ing congener {Troff. niger, Geoff.), I was able to separate their 

accounts of the two animals, which, having the same locality 
and a similarity of habit, are confounded in the minds of the 
mass, especially as but few — such as traders to the interior 

r 

and huntsmen — have ever seen the animal in question. 

The tribe from which our knowledge of the animal is 
derived, and whose territory forms its habitat, is the M^ongvje, 
occupying both banks of the River Gaboon, from its mouth 
to some fifty or sixty miles upward 

* Notice of the external characters and habits of Troglodytes Gorilla, 
Boston Journal of Natural History, 1847. 



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If the word ^^ Pongo^^ be of African origin^ it is probably a 
corruption of tlie word Mpongwe^ the name of the tribe on 
the banks of the Gaboon^ and hence applied to the region 




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EiG. 10.— The Gorilla, after Wolf. 



they inhabit. Their local name for the Chimpanzee is 
Enche-eko, as near as it can be Anglicized, from which the 
common term ^^ Jocko ^^ probably comes. The Mpongwe 
appellation for its new congener is Enge-ena^ prolonging 



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the sound of the first vowel, and slightly sounding the 
second. 

The habitat of the Enge-ena is the interior of lower Guinea 
whilst that of the EncM-eko is nearer the sea-board. 

Its height is about five feet; it is disproportionately broad 
across the shoulders, thickly covered with coarse black hair, 
which is said to be similar in its arrangement to that of the 
Enche-eko ; with age it becomes gray, which fact has given 
rise to the report that both animals are seen of diff'erent 
colours. 

Head. — ^The prominent features of the head are, the great 
width and elongation of the face, the depth of the molar region, 
the branches of the lower jaw being very deep and extending 
far backward, and the comparative smallness of the cranial 

r 

portion ; the eyes are very large, and said to be like those 
of the Enche-eko, a bright hazel; nose broad and flat, slightly 
elevated towards the root ; the muzzle broad, and prominent 
lips and chin, with scattered gray hairs ; the under lip highly 
mobile, and capable of great elongation when the animal is 
enragedi^ then hanging over the clnn ; skmoFTEe^ace and 
ears naked, and of a dark brown, approaching to black. 

The most remarkable feature of the head is a high ridge, 
or crest of hair, in the course of the sagittal suture, which 
meets posteriorly with a transverse ridge of the same, but less 
prominent, running round from the back of one ear to the 
other. The animal has the power of moving the scalp freely 

forward and back, and when enraged is said to contract it 
strongly over the brow, thus bringing down the hairy ridge 
and pointing the hair forward, so as to present an indescri- 
bably ferocious aspect. ' 

Neck short, thick, and hairy; chest and shoulders Yerj 
broad, said to be fully double the size of the Enche-ekos ; 
arms very long, reaching some way below the knee — the 



much 



shortest ; hands very large, the thumbs 



much 



The gait is shuflQing ; the motion of the body, which is 



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man 



it bent forward, is somewhat 

rolling, or from side to side. The arms being longer than 

the Chimpanzee, it does 
not stoop as much in 
walking ; like that ani- 



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sion by thrusting its 
arms forward, resting 



the hands 



on 



the 






Fig. 11.— Gorilla walking (after Wolff.) 



ground,, and then giving 

tlie body a half jumping 
half swinging motion 



between them. 



In 



this act it is said not to flex the fingers, as does the Chim- 
panzee, resting on its knuckles, but to extend them, making 
a fulcrum of the hand. When it assumes the walking pos- 
ture, to which it is said to be much inclined, it balances its 
huge body by flexing its arms upward. 

They live in bands, but are not so numerous as the Chim 

females generally exceed^ the other ^ex in 
number. My informants ali'agree in the assertion that but 
one adult male is seen in a band ; that when the young males 
grow up, a contest takes place for mastery, and the strongest, 
by killing and driving out the others, establishes himself as 
the head of the community." 

Dr. Savage repudiates the stories about the Gorillas 

and vanquishing elephants, and then 



panzees : 



the 




women 



carrying 

adds 

' ' Their dwellings, if they may be so called, are similar to 
those of the Chimpanzee, consisting simply of a few sticks 
and leafy branches, supported by the crotches and limbs of 
trees : they aff'ord no shelter, and are occupied only at night. 

" They are exceedingly ferocious, and always offensive in 
their habits, never running from man, as does the Chim- 
panzee. They are objects of terror to the natives, and are 
never encountered by them except on the defensive. The few 



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that have been captured were killed by elephant-hunters and 
native traders, as they came suddenly upon them while 
passing through the forests. 



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appear 



It is said that when the male is first seen he gives 
a terrificyell, that resounds far and wide through the forest 



sometliing like kh— all ! kh— ali ! prolonged and shrill. His 
enormous jaws are widely opened at each expiration, his 
under lip hangs over the chin, and the hairy ridge and scalp 
are contracted upon the brow, presecting an aspect of 
indescribable ferocity. 

"The females and young, at the first cry^ quickly dis- 

He then approaches the enemy in great fury, 
pouring out his horrid cries in quick succession. The hunter 
awaits his approach with his gun extended : if his aim is not 
sure, he permits the animal to grasp the barrel, and as he 
carries it to his mouth (which is his habit) he fires. Should 
the gun fail to go off, the barrel (that of the ordinary 
musket, which is thin) is crushed between his teeth, and the 
encounter soon proves fatal to the. hunter. 

« In the wild state, their habits are in general like those of 
the Troglodytes niger, building their nests loosely in trees, 
living on similar fruits, and changing their place of resort 
from force of circumstances. 

Dr. Savage's observations were confirmed and supple- 



}} 



Mr 



Sciences, in 1852. With 



ladelph 



remarks : 



man- like Apes, Mr 



^' This animal inhabits the range of mountains that traverse 
the interior of Guinea, from the Cameroon in the north 



to Angola in the south, and about 100 miles inland. 



and called 




the geographers Crystal Mount 



The 



limit to which this animal extends, either north or south I 
am unable to define. But that limit is doubtless some 
distance north of this river [Gaboon]. I was able to certify 



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myself of this fact in a late excursion to tlie liead-waters of 
the Mooney (Danger) River, which comes into the sea son 
sixty miles from this place. I was informed (credibly, 
think,) that they were numerous among the mountains 
in which that river rises, and far north of that. 

T 

" In the south, this^ species extends to the Congo River, 
as I am told by native traders who have visited the 
coast between the Gaboon and that river. Beyond that, 
I am not informed. This animal is only found at a distance 
from the coast in most cases, and, according to my best 
information, approaches it nowhere so nearly as on the south 

side of this river, where they have been found within 
ten miles of the sea . This, however, is only of late occur- 



rence. 



Mpon 



that formerly he was only found on the sources of the river, 
but that at present he may be found within half-a-day's walk 
of its mouth. Formerly he inhabited the mountainous 
rido-e where Bushmen alone inhabited, but now he boldly 



Mp 



This is doubtless the 



reason of the scarcity of information in years past, as the 
opportunities for receiving a knowledge of the animal have 
not been wanting ; traders having for one hundred years fre- 
quented this river, and specimens, such as have been brought 
here within a year, could not have been exhibited without 
having attracted the attention of the most stupid." 

One specimen Mr. Ford examined weighed l70lbs., 
without the thoracic, or pelvic, viscera, and measured 
four feet four inches round the chest. This writer describes 
so minutely and graphically the onslaught of the Gorilla 



moment 



the scene 



am 



comparison 



K 



"He always rises to his feet when making an attack, 
though he approaches his antagonist in a stooping posture. 

" Though he never lies in wait, yet, when he hears, sees, 
or scents a man, he immediately utters his characteristic cry, 



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prepares for an attack^ and always acts on the offensive. 
The cry he utters resembles a grunt more than a growl, and 
is similar to the cry of the Chimpanzee^ when irritated_, but 
vastly louder. It is said to be audible at a great distance. 
His preparation consists in attending the females and young 
ones, by whom he is usually accompanied, to a little distance, 
He^ however, soon returns^ with his crest erect and projecting 
forward^ his nostrils dilated^ and his under-lip thrown down ; 
at the same time uttering his characteristic yell^ designed^ it 
would seem, to terrify his antagonist. Instantly^ unless he is 
disabled by a well-directed shot^ he makes an onsets and_, 
striking his antagonist with the palm of his hands^ or seizing 
him with a grasp from which there is no escape, he dashes 



him 



^^ He is said to seize a musket, and instantly crush 

the barrel between his teeth This animaPs 

savage nature is very well shewn by the implacable despera- 
tion of a young one that was brought here. It was taken 
very young, and kept four months, and many means were 
used to tame it ; but it was incorrigible, so that it bit me an 
hour before it died/^ 

Mr. Ford discredits the house-building and elephant- 
driving stories, and says that no well-informed natives 
believe them. They are tales told to children, 

I might quote other testimony to a similar effect, but, as 




from 



MM 



the memoir 
cited. 



M 



which I have already 



Bearing in mind what is known regarding the Orang 



Mr 



do not appear to me to be justly open to criticism on a priori 
grounds. The Gibbons, as we have seen, readily assume 
the erect posture^ but the Gorilla is far better litted by its 
organization for that attitude than are the Gibbons : if the 
aryngeal pouches of the Gibbons, as is very likely, are 






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important in giving volume to a voice which can be heard for 
half a league, the Gorilla, which has similar sacs 



more 



largely developed, and whose bulk is fivefold that of a 
Gibbon, may well be audible for twice that distance. If 



the 



Orang fights with 



Chim 



may 




do either or both; nor is there anything to be said against 
either Chimpanzee or Gorilla building a nest, when it is 
proved that the Orang-Utan habitually performs that feat. 

With all this evidence, now ten to fifteen years old, before 
the world, it is not a little surprising that the assertions of a 
recent traveller, who, so far as the Gorilla is concerned, 
really does very little more than repeat, on his own authority, 
the statements of Savage and of Ford, should have met with 
so much and such bitter opposition. If subtraction be made 
of what was known before, the 



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sum 



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respecting the Gorilla, is, that, in advancing to the attack, the 
great brute beats his chest with his fists. I confess I see 

nothing very 

about, in this statement. 



improbable, or very much worth disputing 



"With respect to the other man-like Apes of Africa, M. Uu 
Chaillu tells us absolutely nothing, of his own knowledge, 
regarding the common Chimpanzee ; but he informs us of a 

bald-headed species or variety, the nscUego mhouve, which 



builds itself a shelter, and of another rare kind with h 
comparatively small face, large facial angle, and peculiar 

note, resembling " Kooloo." 

As the Orang shelters itself with a rough coverlet of 
leaves, and the common Chimpanzee, according to that 
eminently trustworthy observer Dr. Savage, makes a sound 
like "Whoo-Whoo,"— the grounds of the summary repudiation 



with which M. Du Chaillu's 
have been met is not obvious. 

Tf T Vi^vfi nlistained from 



statements on these matters 



M. r>u Chaillu's work. 



then, it is not because I discern any inherent improbability 



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in his assertions respecting the man-like Apes; nor from 
any wish to throw suspicion on his veracity j but because, 
in my opinion, so long as his narrative remains in its 
present state of unexplained and apparently inexplicable 
confusion, it has no claim to original authority respecting 
any subject whatsoever. 

It may be truth, but it is not evidence. 






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African Cannibalism in the Siocteenth Ceniur^\ 



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In turning over Pigafetta^s 
version of the narrative of 
Lopez, which I have quoted 
above, I came upon so cu- 
rious and unexpected an an- 
ticipation, by some two cen- 
turies and a half, of one of 
the most startling parts of M. 
Du Chaillu's narrative, that I 
cannot refrain from drawing 
attention to it in a note, al- 
though I must confess that 
the subject is not strictly re- 
levant to the matter in hand- 
In the fifth chapter of the 
first book of the "Descriptio,*' 

"Concerning the northern 

\ _ _ 

part of the Kingdom of Congo 
and its boundaries,*' is men- 
tioned a people whose king is 
called ' Maniloango,' and who 
live under the equator, and as 

far westward as Cape Lopezv 
This appears- to^ be the coun- 
try now inhabited by the 

Ogobai and Bakalai accord- 
ing to M. Du Chaillu.—" Be- 
yond these dwell another 
people called * Anziques,' of 
incredible ferocity, for they 
eat one another, sparing nei- 

Fig. 12.-Butcher's Shop of the ABziques, Anno 1598. ^^^^, ^.^..^^^^ ^^^ relations." 

These people are armed with small bows bound tightly romid with snake skins, 
and strung with a reed or rush. Their arrows, short and slender, but made of 
hard wood, are shot with great rapidity. They have iron axes, the handles of 
which are bound round with snake skins, and swords with scabbards of the same 
material ; for defensive armour they employ elephant hides. They cut their 
skins when yomig, so as to produce scars. " Their butchers' shops are filled with 




WH.VJ ESi_EY. 






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56 



human flesh instead of that of oxen o^ sheep. For they eat the enemies whom they 
take in battle. They fatten, slay and deyour their slaves also, unless they think 
they shall got a good price for them ; and, moreover, sometimes for weariness 
of life or desire of glory (for they think it a great thing and the sign of a gener- 
ous soul to despise life), or for love of their rulers^ offer themselves up for food," 
*^ There are indeed many cannibals, as in the Eastern Indies and in Brazil and 
elsewhere, but none such as these, since the others only eat their enemies, but 
these their own blood relations.'' 

The careful illustrators of Pigafetta have done their best to enable the reader 

L 

to realize this account of the * Anziques,' and the unexampled butcher's shop 
represented in fig. 12, is a facsimile of part of their Plate XII. 

M. Du Chaillu s account of the Fans accords most singularly with what Lopez 
here narrates of the Anziques. He speaks of their small crossbows and little 
arrows, of their axes and knives, " ingeniously sheathed in snake skins." " They 
tattoo themselves more than any other tribes I have met north of the equator." 
And all the world knows what M. Du Chaillu says of their cannibalism " Pre- 
sently we passed a woman who solved all doubt. She bore with her a piece of 
the thigh of a human body, just as we should go to market and carry thence a 
roast or steak." M. Du Chaillu's artist cannot generally be accused of any want 
of courage in embodying the statements of his author, and it is to be regretted 
that, with so good an excuse, he has not furnished us with a fitting companion 
to the sketch of the brothers De Bry, 



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II. 



ON THE 



EELATIONS OF MAN TO 



THE LOWER ANIMALS. 



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Multis videri poterit, majorem ease differentiam Simi^ et Hominis, quam diei 
et noctis ; yerum tamen hi, comparatione instituta inter summos Europe 
Heroes et Hottentottos ad Caput bon^ spei degentes, difficillime sibi per- 
suadebunt, has eosdem habere natales ; vel si yirginera nobilem aulicam, 
maxime comtam et humanissimam, conferre yellent cum homine sylyestri et 
sibi relicto, yix augurari possent, hunc et illam ejusdem esse speciei. 
Amcenitates Acad. " Anthropomorplia.^^ 

The question of questions for mankind— tlie problem which 
underlies all others, and is more deeply interesting than any 
other— is the ascertainment of the place which Man occupies 
in nature and of his relations to the universe of things. 
Whence our race has come ; what are the limits of our power 
over nature, and of nature's power over us ; to what goal 
we are tending ; are the problems which present themselves 
anew and with undiminished interest to every man born into 



the world. Most 



difficulties and 



dangers which beset the seeker after original answers to 




them 

smother the investigating spirit under the featherbed of re- 
spected and respectable tradition. But, in every age, one or 

two restless spirits, blessed with that constructive genius, 
which can only build on a secure foundation, or cursed with 
the mere spirit of scepticism, are unable to follow in the 
well-worn and comfortable track of their forefathers and con- 
temporaries, and unmindful of thorns and stumbhng-blocks, 
strike out into paths of their own. The sceptics end in the 
infidelity which asserts the problem to be insoluble, or in the 
atheism which denies the existence of any orderly progress 



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58 

and governance of things : the men of genius propound solu- 
tions which grow into systems of Theology or of Philosophy 
or veiled in musical language which suggests more than it 
asserts^ take the shape of the Poetry of an epoch. 

Each such answer to the great question, invariably as- 
serted by the followers of its propounder, if not by himself, 
to be complete and final, remains in high authority and 
esteem, it may be for one century, or it may be for twenty : 
but, as invariably, Time proves each reply to have been a 
mere approximation to the truth— tolerable chiefly on ac- 
count of the ignorance of those by whom it was accepted, 
and wholly intolerable when tested by the larger knowledge 
of their successors. 

r 

In a well-worn metaphor, a parallel is drawn between the 

r 

life of man and the metamorphosis of the caterpillar into the 
butterfly ; but the comparison may be more just as well as 
more novel, if for its former term we take the mental progress 
of the race. History shows that the human mind, fed by con- 
stant accessions of knowledge, periodically grows too large for 
its theoretical coverings, and bursts them asunder to appear in 
new habiliments, as the feeding and growing grub, at in- 
tervals, casts its too narrow skin and assumes another, itself 
but temporary. Truly the imago state of 
terribly distant, but every moult is a step gained, and of such 
there have been many. 

Since the revival of learning, whereby the Western races 
of Europe were enabled to enter upon that progress towards 
true knowledge, which was commenced by the philosophers of 
Greece, but was almost arrested in subsequent long ages of in- 
tellectual stagnation, or, at most, gyration, the human larva has 
been feeding vigorously, and moulting in proportion. A skin 
of some dimension was cast in the 1 6th century, and another 
towards the end of the 18th, while, within the last fifty years, 
the extraordinary growth of every department of physical 
science has spread among us mental food of so nutritious and 
stimulating a character that a new ecdysis seems imminent. 



Man 



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But this is a process not unasually accompanied by many 
throes and some sickness and debility^ or, it may be, by graver 
disturbances; so that every good citizen must feel bound 
to facilitate the process, and even if he have nothing but a 
scalpel to work witlial^ to ease the cracking integument to 
the best of his ability. 

In this duty lies my excuse for the publication of these 
essays. For it will be admitted that some knowledge of 
man's position in the animate world is an indispensable pre- 
liminary to the proper understanding of his relations to the 
universe—and this again resolves itself, in the long run, into 

an inquiry into the nature and the closeness of the ties which 
connect him with those singular creatures whose history* 
has been sketched in the preceding pages. 

The importance of such an inquiry is indeed intuitively 
manifest. Brought face to face with these blurred copies of 
himself, the least thoughtful of men is conscious of a certain 
shock, due perhaps, not so much to disgust at the^ aspect of 
what looks like an insulting caricature, as to the awakening 
- of a sudden and profound mistrust of time-honoured theories 
and strongly- rooted prejudices regarding his own position in 
nature, and his relations to the under- world of life ; while that 
which remains a dim suspicion for the unthinking, becomes 
a vast argument, fraught with the deepest consequences, for 

r 

all who are acquainted with the recent progress of the anato- 



mical 



and 




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forth, in a form intelligible to those who possess no special 
acquaintance with anatomical science, the chief facts upon 
which all conclusions respecting the nature and the extent of 
the bonds which connect man with the brute world must be 
based : I shall then indicate the one immediate conclusion 
which, in my judgment, is justified by those facts, and I shall 

* It will be understood that, in the preceding Essay, I have selected for notice 
from the vast mass of papers which have been written upon the man-like Apes, 
.only those which seem to nac to be of special moment. 



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60 



finally discuss the bearing of that conclusion upon the hypo- 
theses which have been entertained respecting the Origin of 
Man. 



The facts to which I would first direct the reader's atten- 
tion^ though ignored by many of the professed instructors 
of the public mind^ are easy of demonstration and are univer- 



men 



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of science ; while their significance is 
so great^ that whoso has duly pondered over them will, I 
think^ find httle to startle him in the other revelations of 
Biology. I refer to those facts which have been made known 
by the study of Development. 

It is a truth of very wide, if not of universal, application, 
that every living creature commences its existence under a 
form different from, and simpler than, that which it eventually 
attains. 

The oak is a more complex thing than the little rudi- 

;d in the acorn; the caterpillar is 

more complex than the egg; the butterfly than the cater- 
pillar; and each of these beings, in passing from its rudi- 

its perfect condition, runs through a series of 
changes, the sum of which is called its Development. In 
the higher animals these changes are extremely complicated ; 
but, within the last half century, the labours of such men as 
Von Baer, Rathke, Reichert, Bischof, and Remak, have almost 
completely unravelled them, so that the successive stages of 

development which are exhibited by a Dog, for example, are 
now as well known to the embryologist as are the steps of 
the metamorphosis of the silk- worm moth to the school-boy. 

It will be useful to consider with attention the nature and 
the order of the stages of canine development, as 
ample of the process in the higher animals generally. 

The Dog, like all animals, save the very lowest (and further 
inquiries may not improbably remove the apparent exception), 
commences its existence as an egg : as a body which is, in 
every sense, as much an egg as that of a hen, but is devoid of 



an ex- 



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matter 



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domestic 



and 



wants the shell, which would not only be useless to an 
animal incubated within the body of its parent, but would 
cut it off from access to the source of that nutriment 
which the young creature requires, but which the minute egg 
of the mammal does not contain within itself. 

The Dog's egg is, in fact, a little spheroidal bag (Fig. 13), 
formed of a delicate transparent membrane called the vitelline 
membrane, and about ^i^ to jU^h of an inch in diameter. It 
contains a mass of viscid nutritive matter— the '^eZF— within 
which is inclosed a second much more delicate spheroidal bag, 
called the 'germinal vesicle' {a). In this, lastly, lies a more 
solid rounded body, termed the 'germinal spot' {b). 




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Fig. 13.— a. Egg of the Dog, with the vitellme memhrane burst, so as to give 

exit to the yelk, the germinal vesicle Co), and its included 

spot (&). 
B. C.D.E. r. Successive changes of the yelk indicated in the text. 

After Bischoff. 

The egg, or ' Ovum/ is originally formed within a gland, 



from 



passes 
main- 



into the living chamber fitted for its protection and 
tenance during the protracted process of gestation. Here, 



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62 



when subjected to the required conditions, this minute and 
apparently insignificant particle of living matter, becomes 
animated by a new and mysterious activity. The germinal 
vesicle and spot cease to be discernible (their precise fate 
. beijag one of the yet unsolved problems of embryologv") . but 
the yelk becomes circumferentially indented, as if 



an m- 



Next 



visible knife had been drawn round it, and thus appears 
divided into two hemispheres (Fig. 13, C). 

By the repetition of this process in various planes, these 
hemispheres become subdivided, so that four segments are 
produced (D) ; and these, in like manner, divide and subdivide 
again, until the whole yelk is converted into a mass of 
granules, each of which consists of a minute spheroid of 
yelk-substance, inclosing a> central particle, the so-called 

' nucleus' (F) . Nature, by this process, has attained much the 
same result as that at which a human artificer arrives by his 
operations in a brick field. She takes the rough plastic ma- 
terial of the yelk and breaks it up into well-shaped tolerably 
even-sized masses — handy for building up into any part of the 
living edifice. 

I 

the mass of organic bricks, or 'cells' as they are 
technically called, thus formed, acquires an orderly arrange- 
ment, becoming converted into a hollow spheroid with double 
walls. Then, upon one side of this spheroid, appears a 
thickening, and, by and bye, in the centre of the area of 
thickening, a straight shallow groove (Fig. 14, A) marks the 
central line of the edifice which is to be raised, or, in other 
words, indicates the position of the middle line of the body 
of the future dog. The substance bounding the groove on 
each side next rises up into a fold, the rudiment of the side 
wall of that long cavity, which will eventually lodge the spinal 
marrow and the brain ; and in the floor of this chamber ap^ 
pears a solid cellular cord, the so-called ' notocJiord.' One 
end of the inclosed cavity dilates to form the head (Fig. 14, B), 
the other remains narrow, and eventually becomes the tail • 
the side walls of the body are fashioned out of the downward. 



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and 



and bye, grow out little buds which, by degrees, assume the 
shape of limbs. Watching the fashioning process stage by 
stage, one is forcibly reminded of the modeller in clay. Every 
part, every organ, is at first, as it were, pinched up rudely, 



more 



and onlv, at last, receives the touches which stamp its final 



character. 



Thus, at length, the young puppy assumes such a form as 
is shewn in Fig. 14, C. In this condition it has a dispro- 




B 






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Fig. 14.— a. Earliest rudiment of the Dog. B. Rudiment further advanced, 

showing the foundations of the head, tail, and yertehral column. 
C. The very young puppy, with attached ends of the yelk-sac 
and allantois, and invested in the amnion. 

portionately large head, as dissimilar to that of a dog as the 
bud-like limbs are unlike his legs. 

The remains of the yelk, which have not yet been applied 
to the nutrition and growth of the young animal, are con- 
tained in a sac attached to the rudimentary intestine, and 
termed the yelk sac, or 'umbilical vesicle: Two membranous 
bags, intended to subserve respectively the protection and 
nutrition of the young creature, have been developed from 
the skin and from the under and hinder surface of the body ; 



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64 



the former^ the so-called * a7nnion/ is a sac filled with fluid, 
•which invests the whole body of the embryo^ and plays the 
part of a sort of water bed for it; the other^ termed the 
^ allantoisy^ grows out^ loaded with blood-vessels^ from the 
ventral region^ and eventually applying itself to the walls of 
the cavity, in which the developing organism is contained, 
enables these vessels to become the channel by which the 
stream of nutriment, required to supply the wants of the off- 
spring, is furnished to it by the parent. 

The structure which is developed by the interlacement of 
the vessels of the offspring with those of the parent, and by 
means of which the former is enabled to receive nourishment 
and to get rid of effete matters, is termed the ^ Placental 

It would be tedious, and it is unnecessary for my present 
purpose, to trace the process of development further ; suffice 
it to say, that, by a long and gradual series of changes, the 
rudiment here depicted and described, becomes a puppy, is 

born, and then, by still slower and less perceptible steps, 
passes into the adult Dog. 

There is not much apparent resemblance between a barn- 
door Fowl and the Dog who protects the farm-yard. Never- 
theless the student of development finds, not only that the 
chick commences its existence as an eggj primarily identical, 
in all essential respects, with that of the Dog, but that the 
yelk of this egg undergoes division — that the primitive groove 
arises, and that the contiguous parts of the germ are fashioned, 
by precisely similar methods, into a young chick, which, at 
one stage of its existence, is so like the nascent Dog, that 

ordinary inspection would hardly distinguish the two. 



* 

The history of the development of any other vertebrate 
animal. Lizard, Snake, Frog, or Fish, tells the same story. 

There' is always, to begin with, an egg having the same essen^ 
tial structure as that of the Dog :— the yelk of that egg always 
undergoes division, or ^segmentation^ as it is often called : the 
ultimate products of that segmentation constitute the building 




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from 



materials for the body of the young animal ; and this is built 
up round a primitive groove, iu the floor of which a notochord 
is developed. Furthermore, there is a period in which the 
young of all these animals resemble one another, not merely 
in outward form, but in all essentials of structure, so closely, 
that the diiferences between them are inconsiderable, while, in 
their subsequent course, they diverge more and more widely 

one another. And it is a general law, that, the more 
closely any animals resemble one another in adult structure, 
the longer and the more intimately do their embryos resemble 
one another : so that, for example, the embryos of a Snake 
and of a Lizard remain like one another longer than do those 
of a Snake and of a Bird ; and the embryo of a Dog and of a 
Cat remain like one another for a far longer period than do 
those of a Dog and a Bird ; or of a Dog and an Opossum ; 
or even than those of a Dog and a Monkey. 

Thus the study of development affords a clear test of close- 
ness of structural affinity, and one turns with impatience to 
inquire what results are yielded by the study of the develop- 
ment of Man. Is he something apart ? Does he originate 
in a totally different way from Dog, Bird, Frog, and Fish, 
thus justifying those who assert him to have no place in nature 
and no real affinity with the lower world of animal life ? Or 
does he originate in a similar germ, pass through the same 
slow and gradually progressive modifications^ — depend on the 
same contrivances for protection and nutrition, and finally 



mechanism 



The 



moment 



any time these thirty years. Without question, the mode of 
origin and the early stages of the development of man are 

identical with those of the animals immediately below him in 
the scale : — without a doubt, in these respects, he is far nearer 

the Apes, than the Apes are to the Dog. 

of an inch in diameter, and 

might be described in the same terms as that of the Dog, so 
that I need only refer to the figure illustrative (15 A.) of its 



The Human oviim is about j^^ 



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66 



structure. It leaves the organ in which it is formed in a simi- 
lar fashion and enters the organic chamber prepared for its 
reception in the same way^ the conditions of its development 
being in all respects the same. It has not yet been possible 
(and only by some rare chance can it ever be possible) to 
study the human ovum in so early a developmental stage as 
that of yelk division^ but there is every reason to conclude 
that the changes it undergoes are identical with those ex- 
hibited by the ova of other vertebrated animals; for the 
formative materials of which the rudimentary human body 
is composed, in the earliest conditions in which it has been 
observed, are the same as those of other animals. Some of 
these earliest stages are figured below and^as will be seen^they 
are strictly comparable to the very early states of the Dog ; 

the marvellous correspondence between the two which is kept 
np^ even for some time, as development advances, becoming 

apparent by the simple comparison of the figures with those 
on page 63. 




Fig, 15. — A. Human ovum (after KoUiker). a. germinal vesicle, b. germinal 

spot. . ; ■ 

B. A very early condition of Man, with yelk- sac, allantois and amnion 

(original). 

C. A more advanced stage (after Kolliker), compare fig. 14, C. 



Indeed^ it is very long before the body of the young human 
being can be readily discriminated from that of the young 



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puppy ; 



become 



tinguishable by the different form of their adjuncts, the yelk- 
sac and the allantois. The former, in the Dog, becomes long 
and spindle-shaped, while in Man it remains spherical : the 
latter, in the Dog, attains an extremely large size, and the 
vascular processes which are developed from it and eventually 
give rise to the formation of the placenta (taking root, as it 
were, in the parental organism, so as to draw nourishment 
therefrom, as the root of a tree extracts it from the soil) are 



Man 



are 



remains comparatively small, and its vascular rootlets 
eventually restricted to one disk-like spot. Hence, while the 
placenta of the Dog is like a girdle, that of Man has the 
cake-like form, indicated by the name of the organ. 



Man 



differs from the Dog, he resembles the ape, which, like man, 
has a spheroidal yelk-sac and a discoidal — sometimes par- 
tially lobed-placenta. 

So that it is only quite in the later stages of development ^ 



that the 



marked differences i 



much from 






the dog in its development^ as the man does. 

Startling as the last assertion may appear to be, it is de- 
monstrably true^ and it alone appears to me sufficient to 
place beyond all doubt the structural unity of man with the 
rest of the animal worlds and more particularly and closely 
with the apes. 



Thus^ identical in the physical processes by which he ori- 
nates— identical in the early stages of his formation—identical 
in the mode of his nutrition before and after birth, with the 
animals which lie immediately below him in the scale — Man, 
if his adult and perfect structure be compared with theirs, 
exhibits, as might be expected, a marvellous likeness of 
organization. He resembles them as they resemble one 
another — he differs from them as they differ from one 

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anotlier. And, tliougli these differences and resemblances 

cannot be weiglied and measured, their value may be readily 
estimated ; the scale or standard of judgment, touching that 



in. 



The numerous 



fication of animals now current among zoologists. 

A careful study of the resemblances and differences pre- 
sented by animals has, in fact^ led naturalists to arrange 
them into groups^ or assemblages, all the members of each 
group presenting a certain amount of definable resemblance, 
and the number of points of similarity being smaller as the 
group is larger and vice versa. Thus, all creatures which 
agree only in presenting the few distinctive marks of ani- 
mality form the 'Kingdom' Animalia. 
animals which agree only in possessing the special characters 
of Yertebrates form one ' Sub-kingdom' of this Kingdom. 
Then the Sub- kingdom Yertebrata is subdivided into the five 
' Classes/ Fishes, Amphibians, Eeptiles, Birds, and Mammals, 
and these into smaller groups called ^Orders;' these into 
' Eamilies' and ' Genera ;' while the last are finally broken up 
into the smallest assemblages, which are distinguished by the 

possession of constant, not-sexual, characters. These ultimate 

r 

groups are Species. 

Every year tends to bring about a greater uniformity of 
opinion throughout the zoological world as to the limits and 
characters of these groups, great and small. At present, for 
example, no one has the least doubt regarding the characters 



of the 



Mammalia 



nor does the 



question arise whether any thoroughly well-known animal 

should be placed in one class or the other. Again, there is 
a very general agreement respecting the characters and limits 
of the orders of Mammals, and as to the animals which 
are structurally necessitated to take a place in one or another 

order. 

No one doubts, for example, that the Sloth and the Ant- 
eater, the Kangaroo and the Opossum, the Tiger and the 
Badger, the Tapir and the Ehinoceros, are respectively mem- 



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bers of the same orders. These successive pairs of animals 
may^ and some do^ differ from one another immensely, in 
such matters as the proportions and structure of their limbs : 



L 



the number of their dorsal and lumbar vertebrse; the adap- 
tation of their frames to climbing, leaping, or running ; the 
number and form of their teeth : and the characters of their 
skulls and of the contained brain. But, with all these dif- 
ferences, they are so closely connected in all the more im- 
portant and fundamental characters of their organization^ and 

so distinctly separated by these same characters from other 
animals, that zoologists find it necessary to group them to- 
gether as members of one order. And if any new animal 
were discovered^ and were found to present no greater dif- 
ference from the Kangaroo and the Opossum^, for example, 
than these animals do from one another, the zoologist would 
not only be logically compelled to rank it in the samo order 
with these, but he would not think of doing otherwise. 

Bearing this obvious course of zoological reasoning in 

F 

mind, let us endeavour for a moment to disconnect our 

thinking selves from the mask of humanity ; let us imagine 
ourselves scientific Saturnians, if you will, fairly acquainted 
with such animals as now inhabit the Earth, and employed in 

n ■ 

discussing the relations they bear to a new and singular ^ erect 
and featherless biped^' which some enterprising traveller, 

overcoming the difficulties of space and gravitation, has 
brought from that distant planet for our inspection, well pre- 
served, may be, in a cask of rum. We should all, at once, 
agree upon placing him among the mammalian vertebrates ; 
and his lower jaw, his molars, and his brain, would leave 
no room for doubting the systematic position of the new 
genus among those mammals, whose young are nourished 
during gestation by means of a placenta, or what are called 
the ^ placental mammals/ 

Further, the most superficial study would at once convince 
us that, among the orders of placental mammals, neither the 



Whales nor the 



and Ant 



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eaters nor tlie carnivorous Cats^ Dogs^ and Bears, still less 



the Rodent Kats and Rabbits^ or the Insectivorous Moles and 
Hedgehogs, or the Bats^ could claim our ^Homo^ as one of 

themselves. 

There would remain then, but one order for comparison, 
that of the Apes (using that word in its broadest sense), and 
the question for discussion would narrow itself to this — is 
Man so dijfferent from any of these Apes that he must form 
an order by himself? Or does he differ less from them than 
they differ from one another, and hence mast take his place 
in the same order with them ? 

Being happily free from all real, or imaginary, personal in- 
terest in the results of the inquiry thus set afoot, we should 
proceed to weigh the arguments on one side and on the 
other, with as much judicial calmness as if the question re- 
lated to a new Opossum 



We 



without seeking either to magnify or diminish them, all the 
characters by which our new 



Mammal 



Apes; and if we found that these were of less structural 



member 



Ape order from others universally admitted to be of the 
same order, we should undoubtedly place the newly dis- 
covered tellurian genus with them. 



seem 



leave us no choice but to adopt the last mentioned course. 



It is quite* certain that the Ape which most nearly ap- 
proaches man, in the totality of its organization, is either 
the Chimpanzee or the Gorilla; and as it makes no prac- 
tical difference, for the purposes of my present argument, 

r 

which is selected for comparison , on the one hand, with Man, 
and on the other hand, with the rest of the Primates,^ I 
shall select the latter (so far as its organization is known) 



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and therefore^ in discussing cerebral characters, I shall take that of the Chim- 
panzce as my highest term among the Apes, 



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71 



as a brute now so celebrated in prose and verse^ that all must 
have beard of bim, and have formed some conception of his 



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appearance, I shall take up as many of the most important 
points of difference between man and this remarkable crea- 
turCj as the space at my disposal will allow me to discuss^ 
and the necessities of the argument demand ; and I shall in- 
quire into the value and magnitude of these differences, 
when placed side by side with those which separate the Go- 
rilla from other animals of the same order. 

In the general proportions of the body and limbs there is 
a remarkable difference between the Gorilla and Man^ which 
at once strikes the eye. The Gorilla^s brain-case is smaller, 
its trunk larger, its lower limbs shorter, its upper limbs longer 
in proportion than those of Man. 

I find that the the vertebral column of a full grown Go- 
rilla, in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons, mea- 
sures 27 inches along its anterior curvature, from the upper 
edge of the atlas, or first vertebra of the neck, to the lower 
extremity of the sacrum ; that the arm, without the hand, is 
31^ inches long; that the leg, without the foot, is 26^ inches 
long; that the hand is 9| inches long; the foot 11^- inches 
long. 

In other words, taking the length of the spinal column as 
100, the arm equals 115, the leg 96, the hand 36, and the 

foot 41. 

In the skeleton of a male Bosjesman, in the same collec- 
tion, the proportions, by the same measurement, to the spinal 
column, taken as 100, are — the arm 78, the leg 110, the hand 
26, and the foot 32. In a woman of the same race the arm 
is 83, and the leg 120, the hand and foot remaining the same. 
In a European skeleton I find the arm to be 80, the leg 117^ 
the hand 26, the foot 35. 

Thus the leg is not so different as it looks at first sight, in 
its proportions to the spine in the Gorilla and in the Man 
being very slightly shorter than the spine in the former, and 
between ^^ and ^ longer than the spine in the latter. The 



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72 

foot is longer and the hand mnch longer in the Gorilla ; but 
the great difference is caused by the arms, which are very- 
much longer than the spine in the Gorilla^ very much shorter 
than the spine in the Man. 

r 

The question now arises how are the other Apes related to 

r 

the Gorilla in these respects — taking the length of the spine, 
measured in the same way^ at 100, In an adult Chimpanzee, 
the arm is only 96, the leg 90, the hand 43, the foot 39— so 
that the hand and the leg depart more from the human pro- 
portion and the arm less^ while the foot is about the same as 

in the Gorilla. 

In the Orang, the arms are very much longer than in the 
Gorilla (122), while the legs are shorter (88) ; the foot is longer 
than the hand (52 and 48)^ and both are much longer in 

proportion to the spine. 

In the other man-like Apes again, the Gibbons, these pro- 
portions are still further altered; the length of the arms being 
to that of the spinal column as 19 to 11 ; while the legs are 
also a third longer than the spinal column, so as to be longer 
than in Man, instead of shorter. The hand is half as long as 

the spinal column, and the foot, shorter than the hand^ is 
about ~fj ths of the length of the spinal column. 

Thus Hylobates is as much longer in the arms than the 
Gorilla, as the Gorilla is longer in the arms than Man; while, 
on the other hand, it is as much longer in the legs than the 
Man, as the Man is longer in the legs than the Gorilla, so 

that it contains within itself the extremest deviations from the 
average length of both pairs of limbs (seethe Frontispiece). 

The Mandrill presents a middle condition, the arms and 
legs being nearly equal in length, and both being shorter 
than the spinal column ; while hand and foot have nearly the 
same proportions to one another and to the spine, as in Man. 

In the Spider monkey (AtelesJ the leg is longer than the 
spine^ and the arm than the leg; and, finally, in that re- 
markable Lemurine form, the Indri, fLichanotusJ the leg 

18 about as long as the spinal columiij while the arm is not 



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73 

tnore tlian l~^ of its length ; the hand having rather less and 
the foot rather more, than one third the length of the spinal 
column. 

^ 

These examples might be greatly multiplied, but they suf- 
fice to show that, in whatever proportion of its limbs the 
Gorilla differs from Man, the other Apes depart still more 
widely from the Gorilla and that, consequently, such differ- 
ences of proportion can have no ordinal value. 



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We may next consider the differences presented by the 
trunk, consisting of the vertebral column, or backbone, and 

the ribs and pelvis, or bony hip-basin, which are connected 
with it, in Man and in the Gorilla respectively. 

In Man, in consequence partly of the disposition of the 
articular surfaces of the vertebrse, and largely of the elastic 
tension of some of the fibrous bands, or ligaments, which con- 

^ 

nect these vertebrse together, the spinal column, as a whole, 
has an elegant S-like curvature, being convex forwards in the 
neck, concave in the back, convex in the loins, or lumbar 
region, and concave again in the sacral region ; an arrange- 
ment which gives much elasticity to the whole backbone, and 
diminishes the jar communicated to the spine, and through 
it to the head, by locomotion in the erect position. 

Furthermore, under ordinary circumstances, Man has seven 
vertebrse in his neck, which are called cervical; twelve succeed 
these, bearing ribs and forming the upper part of the back, 
whence they are termed dorsal ; five lie in the loins, bearing 

"V 

no distinct, or free, ribs, and are called lumbar ; five, united 
together into a great bone, excavated in front, solidly wedged 
in between the hip bones, to form the back of the pelvis, and 
known by the name of the sacrum j succeed these ; and finally, 
three or four little more or less moveable bones, so small as 
to be insignificant, constitute tlie coccyx or rudimentary tail. 
In tlie Gorilla, tlie vertebral column is similarly divided 
into cervical, dorsal, lumbar, sacral and coccygeal vertebrae, and 
tlie total number of cervical and dorsal vertebrae, taken to- 



) 



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74 



getlier, is the same as in man; but tlie development of a pair 
of ribs to the first lumbar vertebra, which is an exceptional 



Man 



and hence, as 



lumbar are distinguished from dorsal vertebrae only by the 
presence or absence of free ribs, the seventeen "dorso- 
lumbar" vertebrae of the Gorilla are divided into thirteen 
dorsal and four lumbar, while in Man they are twelve dorsal 

and five lumbar. 

Not only, however, does Man occasionally possess thirteen 
pair of ribs,* but the Gorilla sometimes has fourteen pairs, 
while an Orang-Utan skeleton in the Museum of the Royal 
College of Surgeons has twelve dorsal and five lumbar verte- 



M 



number 



bates. On the other hand, among the lower Apes, many 
possess twelve dorsal and six or seven lumbar vertebra ; the 
Douroucouli has fourteen dorsal and eight lumbar, and a 
Lemur (Stenops tardigradusj has fifteen dorsal and nine 

lumbar vertebrcC. 

The vertebral column of the Gorilla, as a whole, difi'ers 
from that of Man in the less marked character of its curves, 

especially in the slighter convexity of the lumbar region. 
Nevertheless, the curves are present, and are quite obvious in 
young skeletons of the Gorilla and Chimpanzee which have 
been prepared without removal of the hgaments. In young 
Orangs similarly preserved, on the other hand, the spinal 
column is either straight, or even concave forwards, through- 
out the lumbar region. 

Whether we take these characters then, or such minor 

ones as those which are derivable from the proportional length 
of the spines of the cervical vertebrse, and the like, there is 



lumbar vertebrce in man. 



Camper, " have I met with more than six 
Once I found thirteen ribs and four lumbar 



.vertebra;." Eallopius noted thirteen pair of ribs and only four lumbar vertebrse ; 
and Eustachius once found eleven dorsal vertebra and six lumbar vertebrae. 
CEuvres de Pierre Camper,' T. 1, p. 42. As Tyson states, his 'Pygmie' 
had thirteen pair of ribs and five lumbar vertebrae. The question of the curves 
of the spinal column in the Apes requires further investigation. 



I 





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75 



no doubt whatsoever as to the marked difference between Man 
and the Gorilla ; but there is as little^ that equally marked 
differences, of the very same order^ obtain between the Gorilla 
and the lower apes. 






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Giooon, 




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Fig. 16.— Front and side views of the bony pelvis of Man, the Gorilla and 
Gibbon: reduced from drawings made from nature, of the same absolute length, 

r 

by Mr. Waterhouse Hawkins. 



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The Pelvis, 



Man 



ingly human part of his organization ; the expanded haunch 
bones affording support for his viscera during his habitually 
erect posture, and giving space for the attachment of the 
great muscles which enable him to assume and to preserve 
that attitude. In these respects the pelvis of the Gorilla differs 
very considerably from his (Fig. 16). But ga no lower than 



r more 
Man, ( 



from 



Look at the flat, narrow haunch bones— the long and narrow 
passage— the coarse, outwardly curved, ischiatic prominences 
on which the Gibbon habitually rests, and which are coated 
by the so-called " callosities/' dense patches of skin, wholly 
absent in the Gorilla, in the Chimpanzee, and in the Orange 



Man 



Monkey 



Lemurs 



becomes 



more striking still, the pelvis acquiring an alto- 
gether quadrupedal character. 

But now let us turn to a nobler and more characteristic 
organ— that by which the human frame seems to be, and 
indeed is, so strongly distinguished from all others, 



I 



mean 



Man^s are truly immense (P 



massive 



cranium 



Man 



tions of the two are reversed. In the 

foramen, through which passes the great nervous cord con- 
necting the brain with the nerves of the body, is placed just 

behind the centre of the base of the skull, which thus be- 



comes 



Man 



it lies in the posterior third of that base. In the 
surface of the skull is comparatively smooth, and the supra- 
ciliary ridges or brow prominences usually project l 
while, in the Gorilla, vast crests are developed upon the skull. 



overlian 



penthouses. 




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77 

Sections of the skulls^ however, show that some of the ap- 
parent defects of the Gorilla s cranium arise^ in fact, not so 
much from deficiency of brain case as from excessive deve- 
lopment of the parts of the face. The cranial cavity is not 
ill- shaped^ and the forehead is not truly flattened or very re- 
treating, its really well-formed curve being simply disguised 
by the mass of bone which is built up against it (Fig. 17)- 

r 

But the roofs of the orbits rise more obliquely into the 
cranial cavity, thus diminishing the space for the lower part 
of the anterior lobes of the brain, and the absolute capacity of 



Man 



am 



aware, no human cranium belonging to an adult man has yet 
been observed with a less cubical capacity than 62 cubic 
inches, the smallest cranium observed in any race of men by 
Morton, measuring 63 cubic inches ; while, on the other 
hand, the most capacious Gorilla skull yet measured has a 
content of not more than 34^ cubic inches. Let us assume, 
for simphcity's sake, that the lowest Man^s skull has twice 

the capacity of that of the highest Gorilla. ^ 



I 




i 









* It has been affirmed that Hindoo crania sometimes contain as little as 
27 ounces of water, which would give a capacity of about 46 cubic inches. The 
minimum capacity which I have assumed above, however, is based upon the 
valuable tables published by Professor R.Wagner in his "Yorstudien zu einer 
wissenschaftlichen Morphologic und Physiologie des menschlichen Gehirns." 
As the result of the carcfal weighing of more than 900 human brains, Pro- 
fessor Wagner states that one-half weighed between 1200 and 1400 grammes, 
and that about two-ninths, consisting for the most part of male brains, exceed 
1400 grammes. The lightest brain of an adult male, with sound mental facul- 
ties, recorded by Wagner, weighed 1020 grammes. As a gramme equals 15.4 
grains, and a cubic inch of water contains 252.4 grains, this is equivalent to 
62 cubic inches of water ; so that as brain is heavier than water, we are perfectly 
safe against erring on the side of diminution in taking this as the smallest 
capacity of any adult male human brain. The only adult male brain, weighing 
as little as 970 grammes, is that of an idiot ; but the brain of an adult woman, 
against the soundness of whose faculties nothing appears, weighed as little as 
907 grammes (55.3 cubic inches of water) ; and Keid gives an adult female 
brain of still smaller capacity. The heaviest brain (1872 grammes, or about 
115 cubic inches) was, however, that of a woman ; next to it comes the brain 
of Cuvier(1861 grammes), then Byron (1807 grammes), and then an insane 




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' No doubt, this is a very striking difference, but it loses 
much of its apparent systematic value, when viewed by the 
light of certain other equally indubitable facts respecting 

cranial capacities. 

The first of these is, that, the difference in the volume of 
the cranial cavity of different races of mankind is far greater, 
absolutely, than that between the lowest Man and the highest 
Ape, while, relatively, it is about the same. For the largest 
human skull measured by Morton, contained 114 cubic inches, 
that is to say,' had very nearly double the capacity of the 
smallest; while its absolute preponderance, of 52 cubic 
inches— is far greater than that by which the lowest adult 
male human cranium surpasses the largest of the Gorillas 
^62 341 = 271). Secondly, the adult crania of Gorillas 



which have as yet been measured differ among themselves by 
nearly one-third, the maximum capacity being 34.5 cubic 
inches, the minimum 24 cubic inches; and, thirdly, after 
making all due allowance for difference of size, the cranial 
capacities of some of the lower apes fall nearly as much, 
relatively, below those of the higher Apes as the latter fall 

below Man. 

Thus, even in the important matter of cranial capacity. 

Men differ more widely from one another than they do from 
the Apes ; while the lowest Apes differ as much, in proper- 
tion, from the highest, as the latter does from Man. The last 
proposition is still better illustrated by the study of the 
modifications which other parts of the cranium undergo in 

the Simian series. 

It is the large proportional size of the facial bones and the 
great projection of the jaws which confers upon the Gorilla's 
skull its small facial angle and brutal character. 

person (1783 grammes). The lightest adult brain recorded (720 grammes) was 
that of an idiotic female. The brains of five children, four years old, weighed 
between 1275 and 992 grammes. So that it may be safely said, that an average 
European child of four years old has a brain twice as large as that of an adult 



Gorilla; 





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But if we consider the proportional size of the facial bones 



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CHSLYS O THB.IX. 



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CYJNTOCEPHALUS. 



MKCETEiS. 



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the cerebral cavity the same length in each case, thereby displaying the varying 



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80 



from the G orilla and, in tlie same way, as Man 
the Baboons (Cynocephalus, Fig. 17) exaggerate 



muzzle 



so that its visage looks mild and human by comparison with 
theirs. The difference between the Gorilla and the Baboon 
is even greater than it appears at first sight ; for the great 



mass 



velopment of the jaws ; an essentially human character, super- 
added upon that 



almost purely forward, essentially brutal, 



same 



more 



Mycetes (Fig. l7) 



still more of the Lemurs, is situated completely in the pos- 



much further 



Man 



the Gorilla, as that of the Gorilla is further back than that of 
Man ; while, as if to render patent the futility of the attempt 
to base any broad classificatory distinction on such a character, 
the same group of Platyrhine, or American monkeys, to which 

the Mycetes belongs, contains the Chrysothrix, whose occipital 
foramen is situated far more forward than in any other ape, 
and nearly approaches the position it holds in Man. 

Again, the Orang's skull is as devoid of excessively de- 
veloped supraciliary prominences as a 
varieties exhibit great crests elsewhere (see p. 41) ; and in 
some of the Cebine apes and in the Chrysothrix, the cranium 
is as smooth and rounded as that of Man himself. 

What is true of these leading characteristics of the skull, 
holds good, as may be imagined, of all minor features ; so 
that for every constant difference between the Gorilla's skull 

proportions of the facial bones. The line I indicates the plane of the tentorium, 
•which separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum ; d^ the axis of the occipital 
outlet of the skull. The extent of cerebral ca,vity behind c^ which is a perpen- 
dicular erected on 5 at the point where the tentorium is attached posteriorly, 
indicates the degree to which the cerebrum overlaps the cerebellum— the space 
pied by which is roughly indicated by the dark shading. In comparing 
these diagrams, it must be recollected, that figures on so small a scale as these 
unply exemplify the statements in the text; the proof of which is to be found 



occu 



smi 



in the objects themselves. 






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difference of the same 



Man 



order (that is to say, consisting in excess or defect of the 
same quality) may be found between the Gorilla's skull and 
that of some other ape. So that, for the skull, no less than 
for the skeleton in general, the proposition holds good, that 
the differences between Man and the Gorilla are of smaller' 
value than those between the Gorilla and some other Apes. 

J 

In connection with the skull, I may speak of the teeth 
organs which have a peculiar classificatory value, and 

whose resemblances and differences of number, form, and 
succession, taken as a whole, are usually regarded as more 
trustworthy indicators of affinity than any others. 

is provided with two sets of teeth— milk teeth and 
permanent teeth. The former consist of four incisors, or 
cutting teeth ; two canines, or eye-teeth ; and four molars, or 
grinders, in each jaw, making twenty in all. The latter 
(Fig. 18) comprise four incisors, two canines, four small 
grinders, called premolars or false molars, and six 
grinders, or true molars in each jaw— making thirty-two in 

The internal incisors are larger than the external pair, 
in the upper jaw, smaller than the external pair, in the lower 

The crowns of the upper molars exhibit four cusps, or 
blunt-pointed elevations, and a ridge crosses the crown ob- 
liquely, from the inner, anterior, cusp to the outer, posterior 
cusp (Fig. 18 m2). The anterior lower molars have five cusps, 
three external and two internal. The premolars have two 
cusps, one internal and one external, of which the outer is 
the higher. 

In all these respects the dentition of the Gorilla may be 
described in the same terms as that of Man; but in other 
matters it exhibits many and important difFerences (Fig. 18). 

Thus the teeth of man constitute a regular and even 
series— without any break and without any marked projec- 
tion of one tooth above the level of the rest ; a peculiarity 



large 



all. 



jaw 



which. 



as 



is shared by no other 



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, mammal save one— as different a creature from man as can 

h 

well be imagined — namely, the long extinct Anoplotherium . 

*- L 

The teethi of the Gorilla, on the contrary, exhibit a break, or 

interval, termed the diastema, in both jaws : in front of the 

: ,eye-toothj or between it and the outer incisor, in the npper 






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Cfieivomys* 

Fig. 18.— Lateral views, of the same length, of the upper jaws of various 

'Primates, i, incisors ; c, canines ; pm, premolars ; w, molars. A line is drawn 

through the first molar of Man, Gorilla, Cyrwceplialus, and Cehus, and the 

■' grinding surface of the second molar is shown in each, its anterior and internal 

' angle being just above the m of m?* 






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83 



jaw; behind the eye-tooth, or between it and the front false 
molar, in the lower jaw. Into this break in the series/in 
each jaw, fits the canine of the opposite jaw; the size of th^e 
eye-tooth in the Gorilla being so great that it projects, like'L 
tusk, far beyond the general level of the other teeth, 
roots of the false molar teeth of the Gorilla, again, are more 

_ _ T J T ft ^ta j^ 



The 

■A 



Man 



H-/ 



different. The Gorilla has the crown of the hindmost grinder 
of the lower jaw more complex, and the order of eruption of 
the permanent teeth is different; the permanent canines 
making their appearance before the second and third molars 



Man 



B 



Thus, while the teeth of the Gorilla closely resemble 



Man 



7 , — X.X vxL^ general pacrern 

ot their crowns, they exhibit marked differences from those 



Man 



fangs, and order of appearance. 

But, if the teeth of the Gorilla be compared with those 
of an Ape, no further removed from it than a Cynocephalus, 
or Baboon, it will be found that differences and resemblances 



Man 



many 



which it differs from the Baboon ; while various respects in 



Man 



The mmber and the nature of the teeth remain the same in 

But the pattern 



Man 



of the Baboon's upper molars is quite different from that 
described above (Fig. 18), the canines are proportionally longer 
and more knife-like ; the anterior premolar in the lower jaw 
IS specially modified; the posterior molar of the lower jaw is 
still larger and more complex than in the Gorilla. 



from 



we meet with a change of much greater importance than any 
of these. In such a genus as Cehus, for example (Fig. IS), it 
will be found that while in some secondary points, such as the 
projection of the canines and the diastema, the resemblance 



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. 84 

to the great ape is preserved ; in otlier and most important 
respects, the dentition is extremely diflferent. Instead of 20 
teeth in the milk set, there are 24 : instead of 32 teeth in the 
permanent set, there are 36, the false molars being increased 

eight to twelve. And in form, the crowns of the molars 
are very unlike those of the Gorilla, and differ far more 
widely from the human pattern. 

The Marmosets, on the other hand, exhibit the same num- 
ber of teeth as Man and the Gorilla ; but, notwithstanding 
this, their dentition is very different, for they have four more 
false molars, like the other American monkeys — but as 
they have four fewer true molars, the total remains the 
same. And passing from the American apes to the Lemurs, 
the dentition becomes still more completely and essentially 
different from that of the Gorilla. The incisors begin to 
vary both in number and in form. The molars acquire, more 
and more, a many-pointed, insectivorous character, and in one 
Genus, the Aye-Aye (Cheiromys), the canines disappear, and 
the teeth completely simulate those of a Eodent (Fig. 18). 
Hence it is obvious that, greatly as the dentition of the 

highest Ape differs from that of 



Man 



far 



more 



om 



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Whatever part of the animal fabric— whatever series of 
muscles, whatever viscera might be selected for comparison 
the result would be the same— the lower Apes and the Gorilla 

r 

would differ more than the Gorilla and the Man. I cannot 
attempt in this place to follow out all these comparisons in 
detail, and indeed it is unnecessary I should do so. But cer- 

tain real, or supposed, structural distinctions between man and 
the apes remain, upon which so much stress has been laid, 
that they require careful consideration, in order that the 
true value may be assigned to those which are real, and the 
emptiness of those which are fictitious may be exposed. I 
refer to the characters of the hand, the foot, and the brain. 
Man has been defined as the only animal possessed of two 



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85 



hands terminating his fore limbs, and of two feet ending his 
hind limbs, while it has been said that all the apes possess 
four hands ; and he has been affirmed to differ fundamentally 
from all the apes in the characters of his brain, which alone, 
It has been strangely asserted and re- asserted, exhibits the 
structures known to anatomists as the posterior lobe, the 
posterior cornu of the lateral ventricle, and the hippocampus 



minor. 



That the former proposition should have gained general 
acceptance is not surprising — indeed, at first sight, appear- 
ances are much in its favour : but, as for the second, one can 
only admire the surpassing courage of its enunciator, seeing 
that it is an innovation which is not only opposed to generally 
and justly accepted doctrines, but which is directly negatived 
by the testimony of all original inquirers, who have specially 
investigated the matter : and that it neither has been, nor 
can be, supported by a single anatomical preparation. It 
would, in fact, be unworthy of serious refutation, except for 
the general and natural belief that deliberate and reiterated 
assertions must have some foundation. 



Before we can discuss the first point with advantage we 
must consider with some attention^ and compare together, 
the structure of the human 'hand and that of the human 
foot^ so that we may have distinct and clear ideas of what 
constitutes a hand and what a foot. 

The external form of the human hand is familiar enough to 
every one. It consists of a stout wrist followed by a broad palm, 
formed of flesh, and tendons, and skin, binding together four 
bones, and dividing into four long and flexible digits, or fingers, 
each of which bears on the back of its last joint a broad and 
flattened naiL The longest cleft between any two digits is 
rather less than half as long as the hand. From the outer 
side of the base of the palm a stout digit goes off, having only 
two joints instead of three ; so shorty that it only reaches to a 
little beyond the middle of the first joint of the finger next 




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86 



it ^' and further remarkable by its great mobility, in conse- 
riiience of wbicli it can be directed outwards, almost at a 
rigbt angle to the rest. This digit is called the ^poUex/ or 
thtimb ; and, like the others, it bears a flat nail upon the back 

joint. In consequence of the proportions and 



terminal 



,1 



mo 



otlier words^ its extremity can, with the greatest ease, be 
brought into contact with the extremities of any of the 
fingers ; a property upon which the possibility of our carrying 
into effect the conceptions of the mind so largely depends. 
* The external form of the foot differs widely from that of 

the hand; and yet, when closely compared, the two present 
soiiie singular resemblances. Thus the ankle corresponds in 
a manner with the wrist; the sole with the palm; the toes 

wilih the fingers; the great toe with the thumb. But the 
toes, or digits of the foot, are far shorter in proportion than 
the digits of the hand, and are less moveable, the want of 
mobility being most striking in the great toe — which, again, 

ik very much larger in proportion to the other toes than the 
thumb to the fingers. In considering this point, however, it 
must not be forgotten that the civilized great toe, confined 
and cramped from childhood upwards, is seen to a great disad- 
vantage, and that in uncivihzed and barefooted people it 
retains a great amount of mobility, and even some sort of 
opposability. The Chinese boatmen are said to be able to 
pull an oar; the artisans of Bengal to weave, and the Carajas 
to steal fishhooks by its help; though, after all, it must be 
recollected that the structure of its joints and the arrange- 
ment of its bones, necessarily render its prehensile action far 

less perfect than that of the thumb. 

M^But to gain a precise conception of the resemblances and 
differences of the hand and foot, and of the distinctive charac- 
ters of each, we must look below the skin, and compare the 
bony framework and its motor apparatus in each (Fig. 19). 

t The skeleton of the hand exhibits, in the region which we 
term the wrist, and which is technically called the carpus 



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87 



each 



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which are tolerably equal in size. The bones of the first row 



bone 



arr 



the rest. 



The four bones of the second row of the carpus bear the 
four long bones which support the palm of the hand. The 




ILCLTICI. 



Feet 



Fia. 1 9.— The skeleton of the Hand and Foot of Man reduced from Dr. Carter's 
drawings in Gray's ' Anatomy.' The hand is drawn to a larger scale than the 
foot. The line aam the hand indicates the boundary between the carpus and the 
metacarpus ; i h that between the latter and the proximal phalanges ; c c marks 
the ends of the distal phalanges. The line a a' in the foot indicates the boundary 
between the tarsus and metatarsus ^ V V marks that between the metatarsus and 
the proximal phalanges ; and c d bounds the ends of the distal phalanges; ca^ 
the calcaneum ; as^ the astragalus ; 5c, the scaphoid bone in the tarsus. 



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fifth bone of tlie same character is articulated in a much more 
free and moveable manner than the others^ with its carpal 
bone, and forms the base of the thumb. These are called 
metacarpal bones, and they carry the phalanges^ or bones of 
the digits, of which there are tM^o in the thnmb, and three in 
each of the fingers. 

The skeleton of the foot is very like that of the hand in 
some respects. Thus there are three phalanges in each of the 

+ 

lesser toes, and only two in the great toe, which answers to 
the thumb. There is a long bone, termed metatarsal^ 
answering to the metacarpal, for each digit; and the tarsus 
which corresponds with the carpus, presents four short poly- 
gonal bones in a row, which correspond very closely with the 
four carpal bones of the second row of the hand. In other 
respects the. foot difi'ers very widely from the hand. Thus 

the great toe is the longest digit but one; and its metatarsal 
is far less moveably articulated with the tarsus, than the 
metacarpal of the thumb with the carpus. But a far more 

important distinction lies in the fact that, instead of four 
more tarsal bones there are only three; and that these three 
are not arranged side by side, or in one row. One of them, the 
OS Calais or heel bone {ca), lies externally, and sends back the 
large projecting heel; another, the astragalus (as), rests on 
this by one face, and by another, forms, with the bones of the 
leg, the ankle joint; while a third face, directed forwards, is 
separated from the three inner tarsal bones of the row next 
the metatarsus by a bone called the scapJioid {sc). 

Thus there is a fundamental difference in the structure of 
the foot and the hand, observable when the carpus and the 

tarsus are contrasted; and there are differences of degree 
noticeable when the proportions and the mobility of the 
metacarpals and metatarsals, with their respective digits, are 
compared together. 

The same two classes of differences become obvious when 
the muscles of tlie hand are compared with those of the 
foot. 



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Three principal sets of muscles^ called " flexors," bend the 
fingers and thumbs as in clenching the fist^ and three sets, 

the extensors — extend them/ as in straightening the fingers. 
These muscles are all ^^ long muscles ;^' that is to say^ the fleshy 
part of each^ lying in and being fixed to the bones of the arm, 
isj at the other end^ continued into tendons^ or rounded cords^ 

which pass into the handj and are ultimately fixed to the 
bones which are to be moved. Thus, when the fingers are 
bent^ the fleshy parts of the flexors of the fingers^ placed in 
the arm, contract^ in virtue of their peculiar endowment as 
muscles ; and pulling the tendinous cords^ connected with 
their ends, cause them to pull down the bones of the fingers 
towards the palm. 

Not only are the principal flexors of the fingers and of the 
thumb long muscles, but they remain quite distinct from one 
another throughout their whole length. 

In the foot, there are also three principal flexor muscles of 
the digits or toes, and three principal extensors ; but one ex- 

■t 

tensor and one flexor are short muscles ; that is to say, their 
fleshy parts are not situated in the leg (which corresponds 

with the arm), but in the back and in the sole of the foot 
regions which correspond with the back and the palm of the 
hand. 

Again, the tendons of the long flexor of the toes, and of 
the long flexor of the great toe, when they reach the sole of 
the foot, do not remain distinct from one another, as the 
flexors in the palm of the hand do, but they become united 

very curious manner — while their 

I r 

united tendons receive an accessory muscle connected with 
the heel-bone. 

But perhaps the most absolutely distinctive character 

i 

about the muscles of the foot is the existence of what is 
termed the peroTKBus longus^ a long muscle fixed to the outer 
bone of the leg; and sending its tendon to the outer ankle, 
behind and below which it passes^ and then crosses the foot 

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obliquely to be attached to the base of the great toe. No 



and commingled in a 



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90 

muscle in tlie hand exactly corresponds with this^ which is 
eminently a foot muscle. 

To resume — the foot of man is distinguished from his hand 
by the following absolute anatomical differences : 

1. By the arrangement of the tarsal bones. 

2. By having a short flexor and a short extensor muscle 

of the digits. 

3. By possessing the muscle termed peronceus longus. 
And if we desire to ascertain whether the terminal division 

of a limb, in other Primates, is to be called a foot or a hand^ 
it is by the presence or absence of these characters that we 
must be guided, and not by the mere proportions and greater 
or lesser mobility of the great toe, which may vary indefi- 
nitely without any fundamental alteration in the structure 
of the foot. 



Keeping these considerations in mind, let us now turn to 

the limbs of the Gorilla. The terminal division of the fore 
limb presents no difficulty — bone for bone and muscle for 
muscle, are found to be arranged essentially as in man, or with 

such minor differences as are found as varieties in man. The 
Goriila^s hand is clumsier, heavier, and has a thumb some- 
what shorter in proportion than that of man ; but no one has 
ever doubted its being a true hand. 



At first sight, the termination of the hind limb of the Go- 

\ rilla looks very hand-like, and as it is still more so in many 

of the lower apes, it is not wonderful that the appellation 

^^ Quadrumana,^^ or four-handed creatures, adopted from the 

older anatomists* by Blumenbach, and unfortunately rendered 

* In speaking of the foot of his ''Pygmie," Tyson remarks, p.. 13 : 
" But this part in the formation and in its function too, being liker a Hand 
than a Eoot : for the distinguishing this sort of animals from others, I have 
thought whether it might not be reckoned and called rather Quadru-manus 
than Quadrupes, Le. a four-handed rather than a four-footed animal/' 

As this passage was pubhshed in 1699, M. I. G. St. Hilaire is clearly in 
error in ascribing the invention of the term " quadmmanous'^ to BufFon, though 
**bimanous" may belong to him. Tyson uses " Quadrumanus" in several 



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current by Cuvier, should have gained such wide acceptance 
as a name for the Simian group. But the most cursory ana- 
tomical investigation at once proves that the resemblance of the 
so-called "hind hand^' to a true hand, is only skin deep, and 
that, in all essential respects, the hind limb oithe Gorilla is 
as truly terminated by a foot as that of man. The tarsal 
bones, in all important circumstances of number, disposition, 
and form, resemble those of man (Fig. 20). The metatarsals 
and digits, on the other hand, are proportionally longer and 
more slender, while the great toe is not only proportionally 
shorter and weaker, but its metatarsal bone is united by a 
more moveable joint with the tarsus. At the same time, the 
foot is set more obliquely upon the leg than in man. 

As to the muscles, there is a short flexor, a short extensor, 
and a peronmus longus, while the tendons of the long flexors 
of the great toe and of the other toes are united together 
and with an accessory fleshy bundle. 

The hind limb of the Gorilla, therefore, ends in a true foot, 

with a very moveable great toe. It is a prehensile foot, 

indeed, but is in no sense a hand : it is a foot which differs 
from that of man not in any fundamental character, but 
in mere proportions, in the degree of mobility, and in the 
secondary arrangement of its parts* 

It must not be supposed, however, because I speak of these 
differences as not fundamental, that I wish to underrate 
their value. They are important enough in their way, the 
structure of the foot being in strict correlation with that 
of the rest of the organism in each case. Nor can it be 
doubted that the greater division of physiological labour in 
Man, so that the function of support is thrown wholly on the 
leg and foot, is an advance in organization of very great 
moment to him; but, after all, regarded anatomically, the 



places, as at p. 91 " Our Pygmie is no Man, yor yet the common Ape, 

but a sort of Animal between both ; and though a Biped, yet of the Qimdru- 
mamis-\Sxidi : though some Meyi too have been observed to use their Feet like 

L - ■ 

Hands, as I have seen several." 



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Gorilla are far more striking and important than the differ- 



ences. 



I have dwelt upon this point at lengthy because it is one 
regarding which much delusion prevails ; but I might have 
passed it over without detriment to my argument^ which only 
requires me to show that^ be the differences between the 
hand and foot of Man and those of the Gorilla what they 
may — the differences between those of the Gorilla^ and those 
of the lower Apes are much greater. 

It is not necessary to descend lower in the scale than the 
Orane: for conclusive evidence on this head. 




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The thumb of the Orang differs more from that of the 
Gorilla than the thumb of the Gorilla differs from that of 
Man, not only by its shortness^ but by the absence of any 

special long flexor muscle. The carpus of the Orange like 



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Tig. 20. — root of Man, Gorilla, and Oi^ang-Utan of the same absolute length, 
to show the differences in proportion of each. Letters as in Tig. 19. Reduced 
from original drawings by Mr. Waterhouse Hawkins. 



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93 



that of most lower apes^ contains nine bones, while in the 
Gorilla^ as in Man and the Chimpanzee^ there are only eight. 
The Oranges foot (Fig. 20) is still more aberrant; its very 
long toes and short tarsus, short great toe^ short and raised 
heelj great obliquity of articulation in the leg, and absence of 
a long flexor tendon to the great toe, separating it far more 

r 

widely from the foot of the Gorilla than the latter is separated 

from that of Man. 

But^ in some of the lower apes, the hand and foot diverge 
still more from those of the Gorilla, than they do in the 
Orang. The thumb ceases to be opposable in the American 

■ F 

monkeys ; is reduced to a mere rudiment covered by the 



skin in the 



Monkey 



; and is directed forwards and 
armed with a curved claw like the other digits^ in the Mar- 
mosets — so that^ in all these cases, there can be no doubt 
but that the hand is more different from that of the Gorilla 
than the Gorilla^s hand is from Man's. 

And as to the foot^ the great toe of the Marmoset is still 

more insignificant in proportion than that of the Orang — 
while in the Lemurs it is very large, and as completely thumb- 

w \ 

like and opposable as in the Gorilla — but in these animals 

the second toe is often irregularly modified, and in some 
species the two principal bones of the tarsus^ the astragalus 
and the os calcis^ are so immensely elongated as to render 

+ 

the foot^ so far^ totally unlike that of any other mammal. 

r 

So with regard to the muscles. The short flexor of the 
toes of the Gorilla differs from that of Man by the circum- 
stance that one slip of the muscle is attached, not to the heel 

bone, but to the tendons of the long flexors. The lower Apes 
depart from the Gorilla by an exaggeration of the same 
character, two^ three, or more, slips becoming fixed to the 
long flexor tendons — or by a multiplication of the slips. 
Again^ the Gorilla differs slightly from Man in ihe mode of 
interlacing of the long flexor tendons : and the lower apes 
differ from the Gorilla in exhibiting yet other, sometimes 
very complex, arrangements of the same parts^ and occa- 
sionally in the absence of the accessory fleshy bundle. 






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94 

Throughout all these modifications it must be recollected 
that the foot loses no one of its essential characters. Every 
Monkey and Lemur exhibits the characteristic arrangement 
of tarsal bones^ possesses a short flexor and short extensor 
muscle, and ^peron<2US longus. Varied as the proportions and 
appearance of the organ may be^ the terminal division of the 
hind limb remains, in plan and principle of construction, a 
foot, and never, in those respects, can be confounded with a 

hand. 

Hardly any part of the bodily frame, then, could be found 

better calculated to illustrate the truth that the structural 

\ differences between Man and the highest Ape are of less value 

\ than those between the highest and the lower Apes, than the 

I hand or the foot, and yet, perhaps, there is one organ the 

\ I study of which enforces the same conclusion in a still more 



striking 



and that is the Brain. 



But before entering upon the precise question of the 

amount of difference between the Ape's brain and that of Man, 
it is necessary that we should clearly understand what consti- 
tutes a great, and what a small difference in cerebral structure ; 

and we shall be best enabled to do this by a brief study of the 



chief modifications which the brain exhibits in the series of 

vertebrate animals. 

The brain of a fiish is very small, compared with the spinal 
cord into which it is continued, and with the nerves which 
come off from it : of the segments of which it is composed 

the olfactory lobes, the cerebral hemisphere, and the suc- 
ceeding divisions — no one predominates so much over the rest 
as to obscure or cover them ; and the so-called optic lobes are, 

frequently, the largest masses of all. In Reptiles, the mass of 
the brain, relatively to the spinal cord, increases and the cere- 
bral hemispheres begin to predominate over the other parts ; 
while in Birds this predominance is still more marked. The 
brain of the lowest Mammals, such as the duck-billed Platypus 
and the Opossums and Kangaroos, exhibits a still more 
definite advance in the same direction. The cerehral hemi- 
spheres have now so much increased in size as, more or less. 



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to hide the representatives of the optic lobes, which remain 



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from 



that of a Bird, Reptile, or Fish. A 
step higher in the scale, among the placental Mammals, the 
structure of the brain acquires a vast modification — not that 
it appears much altered externally, in a Rat or in a Rabbit, 

Marsupial— nor that the proportions of 



much 



them 



together, as what is called the ^ great commissure' or ^corpus 
callosum/ The subject requires careful re-investigation, but if 
the currently received statements are correct, the appearance 



of the 



mammals 



most 



in the whole series of vertebrated animals— it is the greatest 



Nat 



For the 



two halves of the brain being once thus knit together, the 
progress of cerebral complexity is traceable through a complete 
series of steps from the lowest Rodent, or Insectivore, to Man ; 
and that complexity consists, chiefly, in the disproportionate 
development of the cerebral hemispheres and of the cerebel- 
lum, but especially of the former, in respect to the other parts 
of the brain. 

In the lower placental mammals, the cerebral hemispheres 
leave the proper upper and posterior face of the cerebellum 
completely visible, when the brain is viewed from above, but 
in the higher forms, the hinder part of each hemisphere, sepa- 
rated only by the tentorium (p. 99) from the anterior face of 
the cerebellum, inclines backwards and downwards, and 
grows out, as the so-called ^' posterior lobe/^ so as at length 
to overlap and hide the cerebellum. In all Mammals, 
each cerebral hemisphere contains a cavity which is termed 
the ^ ventricle^ and as this ventricle is prolonged, on the one 
hand, forwards, and on the other downwards, into the sub- 
stance of the hemisphere, it is said to have two horns or 
^ cornua,^ an ^ anterior cornu,^ and a ^ descending cornu/ 

When the nosterior lobe is well develonprl fi fln'v/l r\vr^^Y^r^r^ 



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96 



tion of the ventricular cavity extends into it, and is called the 
'' posterior cornu/^ 



Mammals 



surface of the cerebral hemispheres is either smooth or evenly- 
rounded, or exhibits a very few grooves, which are technically 



termed ^ sulci/ separating ridges or ' convolutions' of the sub- 



stance of the brain; and the smaller species of all orders tend 
to a similar smoothness of brain. But, in the higher orders, 
and especially the larger members of these orders, the grooves, 
or sulci, become extremely numerous, and the intermediate 
convolutions proportionately more complicated in their mean- 
derings, until, in the Elephant^ the Porpoise, the higher Apes, 
and Man, the cerebral surface appears a perfect labyrinth of 
tortuous foldings. 

Where a posterior lobe exists and presents its customary 

r 

cavity— the posterior cornu — it commonly happens that a 
particular sulcus appears upon the inner and under surface 
of the lobe, parallel with and beneath the floor of the cornu 
which is, as it were, arched over the roof of the sulcus. It 
is as if the groove had been formed by indenting the floor of 

the posterior horn from without with a blunt instrument, so 
that the floor should rise as a convex eminence. Now this 
eminence is what has been termed the ' Hippocampus minor ;' 
the ' Hippocampus major' being a larger eminence in the 
floor of the descending cornu. What may be the functional 
importance of either of these structures we know not. 



-^i 



As if to demonstrate, by a striking example, the impossi- 
bility of erecting any cerebral barrier between man and the 

apes, Nature has provided us, in the latter animals, with an 
almost complete series of gradations from brains little higher 
than that of a Uodent, to brains little lower than that of Man. 

r 

And It is a remarkable circumstance, that though, so far as 
our present knowledge extend^, there is one true structural 
break in the series of forms of Simian brains^ this hiatus 
does not lie between Man and the man-like apes, but between 
the lower and the lowest Simians ; or, in other words, between 



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tlie old and new world apes and monkeys, and the Lemurs. 
Every Lemur wliicli lias yet been examined, in fact, has its 
cerebellum partially visible from above, and its posterior lobe, 
with the contained posterior cornu and hippocampus minor, 
more or less rudimentary. Every Marmoset, American 
monkey, old world monkey. Baboon, or Man-like ape, on the 
contrary, has its cerebellum entirely hidden, posteriorly, by the 
cerebral lobes, and possesses a large posterior cornu, with a 
well developed hippocampus minor. 

In many of these creatures, such as the Saimiri {Chrysothrix), 
the cerebral lobes overlap and extend much further behind 
the cerebellum, in proportion, than they do in man (Fig. 17) 
and it is quite certain that, in all, the cerebellum is completely 
covered behind, by well developed posterior lobes. The fact 
can be verified by every one who possesses the skull of any old 
or new world monkey. For, inasmuch as the brain in all mam- 
mals completely fills the cranial cavity, it is obvious that a cast 

of the interior of the skull will reproduce the general form of 
the brain, at any rate with such minute and, for the present 
purpose, utterly unimportant differences as may result from 
the absence of the enveloping membranes of the brain in the 
dry skull. But if such a cast be made in plaster, and com- 
pared with a similar cast of the interior of a human skull, 
it will be obvious that the cast of the cerebral chamber, re- 
presenting the cerebrum of the ape, as completely covers over 
and overlaps the cast of the cerebellar chamber, representing 
the cerebellum, as it does in the man (Fig. 21). A careless 

observer, forgetting that a soft structure like the brain loses 
its proper shape the moment it is taken out of the skull, 
may indeed mistake the uncovered condition of the cere- 
bellum of an extracted and distorted brain for the natural 
relations of the parts ; but his error must become patent 
even to himself if he try to replace the brain within the 
cranial chamber. To suppose that the cerebellum of an ape 
IS naturally uncovered behind is a miscomprehension com- 
parable only to that of one who should imagine that a man's 

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lungs always occupy but a small portion of the thoracic cavity 
because they do so when the chest is opened^ and their 
elasticity is no longer neutralized by the pressure of the air. 



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CJtimsp €^-m me e. 

Fig. 21. — Drawings of the internal casts of a Man's and of a Chimpanzee's 
skull, of the same absolute length, and placed in corresponding positions, 
A, Cerebrum ; B, Cerebellum, The former drawing is taken from a cast in the 
Museum of the Koyal College of Surgeons, the latter from the photograph of 
the cast of a Chimpanzee's skull, which illustrates the paper by Mr. Marshall 
^- On the Brain of the Chimpanzee ' in the Natural History Keview for July, 1861 . 
The sharper definition of tbe lower edge of the cast of the cerebral chamber in 
the Chimpanzee arises from the circumstance that the tentorium remained in that 
skull and not in the Man's. The cast more accurately represents the brain in 
Chimpanzee than in the Man ; and the great backward projection of the pog- 
f^vir^v ^^^^f^^ nf tiiA PPrAhrnm nf thp. fovmcr. bcYond the cerebellum, is conspicuous- 




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And the error is the less excusable^ as it must become 
apparent to every one who examines a section of the skull of 
any ape above a Lemur^ without taking the trouble to make 
a cast of it. For there is a very marked groove in every 
such skull; as in the human skull — which indicates the line 
of attachment of what is termed the tentorium — a sort of 
parchment-like shelf^ or partition^ which^ in the recent state, 
is interposed between the cerebrum and cerebellum^ and 
prevents the former from pressing upon the latter^ (see 

rigvl7)- 

This groove^ therefore^ indicates the line of separation 
between that part of the cranial cavity which contains the 
cerebrum, and that which contains the cerebellum ; and as 
the brain exactly fills the cavity of the skull, it is obvious 
that the relations of these two parts of the cranial cavity at 
once informs us of the relations of their contents. Now in 
man^ in all the old worlds and in all the new world Simiae^ 
with one exception^ when the face is directed forwards^ 
this line of attachment of the tentorium^ or impression for the 
lateral sinus, as it is technically called, is nearly horizontal^ 
and the cerebral chamber invariably overlaps or projects 
behind the cerebellar chamber. In the Howler Monkey or 
Mycetes (see Fig. 17), the line passes obliquely upwards and 
backwards^ and the cerebral overlap is almost nil ; while in 
the Lemurs^ as in the lower mammals, the line is much more 
inclined in the same direction^ and the cerebellar chamber 

* 

projects considerably beyond the cerebral. 

When the gravest errors respecting points so easily settled 
as this question respecting the posterior lobes^ can be authorita- 
tively propounded^ it is no wonder that matters of observation, 
of no very complex character^ but still requiring a certain 
amount of care, should have fared worse. Any one who 
cannot see the posterior lobe in an ape's brain is not likely 
to give a very valuable opinion respecting the posterior cornu 
or the hippocampus minor. If a man cannot see a church, 
it is preposterous to take his opinion about its altar-piece or 

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jJainted window— so that I do not feel bound to enter upon 
any discussion of these points^ but content myself with assur- 
ing the reader that the posterior cornu and the hippocampus 
minor^ have now been seen — usually^ at least as well developed 
as in man, and often better — not only in the Chimpanzee, 
the Orang, and the Gibbon^ but in all the genera of the old 
world baboons and monkey s^ and in most of the new world 

forms, including the Marmosets.* 

In fact, all the abundant and trustworthy evidence (con- 
sisting of the results of careful investigations directed to the 
determination of these very questions/ by skilled anatomists) 
which we now possess, leads to the conviction that, so far 
from the posterior lobe, the posterior cornu, and the hippo- 
campus minor, being structures peculiar to and characteristic 
of man, as they have been over and over again asserted to 

be, even after the publication of the clearest demonstration 
of the reverse, it is precisely these structures which are the 
most marked cerebral characters common to man with the 
apes. They are among the m.ost distinctly Simian pecu- 
liarities which the human organism exhibits. 

As to the convolutions, the brains of the apes exhibit 



from the almost smooth 



Marmoset 



little below Man. And it is most remarkable that, as soon as 

r 

all the principal sulci appear, the pattern according to which 
they are arranged is identical with that of the corresponding 
sulci of man. The surface of the brain of a monkey exhibits 
a sort of skeleton map of man^s, and in the man-like apes 

the details become more and more filled in, until it is only in 
minor characters, such as the greater excavation of the ante- 
rior lobes, the constant presence of fissures usually absent in 
man, and the different disposition and proportions of some 
convolutions, that the Chimpanzee's or the Orang's brain can 
be structurally distinguished from Man^s. 

* See the note at the end of this essay for a succinct history of the controversy 
to which allusion is here made. 



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Fig. 22. — Drawings of the cerebral hemispheres of a Man and of a Chim- 
panzee of the same length, in order to show the relative proportions of the 
parts: the former taken from a specimen, which Mr. Flower^ Conservator of the 
Museum of the Eoyal College of Surgeons, was good enough to dissect for me ; 
the latter, from the photograph of a similarly dissected Chimpanzee's brain, given 
in Mr. Marshall's paper above referred to. a, posterior lobe ; 5, lateral ventricle ; 
c, posterior cornu; x^ the hippocampus minor. 



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102 

V 

So far as cerebral structure goes, therefore^ it is clear that 
Man differs less from the Chimpanzee or the Orang, than 
these do even from the Monkeys^ and that the difference 
between the brains of the Chimpanzee and of Man is almost 
insignificant^ -when compared with that between the Chim- 
panzee brain and that of a Lemur. 

It must not be overlooked, however^ that there is a very 
striking difference in absolute mass and weight between the 
lowest human brain and that of the highest ape —a difference 
which is all the more remarkable when we recollect that a 
full grown Gorilla is probably pretty nearly twice as heavy as 
a Bosjes man, or as many an European woman. It may be 
doubted whether a healthy human adult brain ever weighed 
less than thirty- one or -two ounces, or that the heaviest Gorilla 

brain has exceeded twenty ounces. 

This is a very noteworthy circumstance, and doubtless will 
one day help to furnish an explanation of the great gulf which 

intervenes between the lowest man and the highest ape in 
intellectual power ;^ but it has little systematic value^ for the 

r 

* I say help to furnish : for I by no means believe that it was any original 
difference of cerebral quality, or quantity, which caused that divergence between 
the human and the pithecoid stirpes, which has ended in the present enormous 
gulf between them. It is no doubt perfectly true, in a certain sense, that all 
difference of function is a result of difference of structure; or, in other words, 
of difference in the combination of the primaiy molecular forces of living sub- 
stance; and* starting from this undeniable axiom, objectors occasionally, and 
with much seeming plausibility, argue that the vast intellectual chasm between 
the Ape and Man implies a corresponding structural chasm in the organs of the 
intellectual functions ; so that, it is said, the non-discovery of such vast differ- 
ences proves, not that they are absent, but that Science is incompetent to detect 
them. A very little consideration, however, will, I think, show the fallacy of 
this reasoning. Its validity hangs upon the assumption, that intellectual power 
depends altogether on the brain — whereas the brain is only one condition out 
of many on which intellectual manifestations depend ; the others being, chiefly, 

■ r 

the organs of the senses and the motor apparatuses, especially those which are 
concerned in prehension and in the production of articulate speech. 

A man bora dumb, notwithstanding his great cerebral mass and his inheritance 
of strong intellectual instincts, would be capable of few higher intellectual 
manifestations than an Orang or a Chimpanzee, if he were confined to the society 



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simple reason tliat^ as may be concluded from wliat has 
been already said respecting cranial capacity; tlie difference 
in weight of brain betvreen the highest and the lowest men is 
far greater, both relatively and absolutely, than that between 
the loAvest man and the highest ape. The latter, as has been 
seen, is represented by, say twelve, ounces of cerebral sub- 
stance absolutely, or by 32 : 20 relatively; but as the largest 
recorded human brain weighed between 65 and 66 ounces, 
the former difference is represented by more than 33 ounces 
absolutely, or by 65 : 32 relatively. Regarded systematically 
the cerebral differences, of man and apes, are not of more than 
generic value — his Family distinction resting chiefly on his 
rlantition. his nelvis. and his lower limbs. 



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Thus, whatever system of organs be studied, the comparison 
of their modifications in the ape series leads to one and the 



same result— that the structural differences which separate 
Man from the Gorilla and the Chimpanzee are not so great 

as those which separate the Gorilla from the lower apes. 




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of dumb associates. And yet there might not he the slightest discernible dif- 
ference between his brain and that of a highly intelligent and cultivated person. 
The dumbness might be the result of a defective structure of the mouth, or of 

1 

the tongue, or a mere defective innervation of these parts; or it might result from 
congenital deafness, caused by some minute defect of the internal ear, which 
only a careful anatomist could discover. 

The argument, that because there is an immense difference between a Man s 
intelHgence and an Ape's, therefore, there must be an equally immense difference 
between their brains, appears to me to be about as well based as the reasoning 
by which one should endeavour to prove that, because there is a ''great gulf^' 

between a watch that keeps accurate time and another that will not go at all, 
there is therefore a great structural hiatus between the two watches. A hair 
in the balance-wheel, a little rust on a pinion, abend in a tooth of the escapement, 
a something so slight that only the practised eye of the watchmaker can discover 
it, may be the source of all the difference. 

And beheving, as I do, with Cuvier, that the possession of articulate speech is 
the grand distinctive character of man (whether it be. absolutely peculiar to him 
or not), I find it very easy to comprehend, that some equally inconspicuous struc- 
tural difference may have been the primary cause of the immeasurable and prac- 
tically infinite divergence of the Human from the Simian Stirps. 



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'I 

But in enunciating this important truth I must guard 
myself against a form of misunderstandings which is very pre- 
valent. I findj in fact^ that those who endeavour to teach 

+ 

what nature so clearly shows us in this matter, are liable to 
have their opinions misrepresented and their phraseology 
garbled^ until they seem to say that the structural differences 
Tjetween man and even the highest apes are small and insig- 
nificant. Let me take this opportunity then of distinctly 
asserting, on the contrary, that they are great and significant ; 
that every bone of a Gorilla bears marks by which it might 

bone of a Man ; and 
that, in the present creation, at any rate^ no intermediate 
link bridges over the gap between Homo and Troglodytes. 

It would be no less wrong than absurd to deny the exist- 
ence of this chasm; but it is at least equally wrong and 

absurd to exaggerate its magnitude, and, resting on the ad- 
mitted fact of its existence, to refuse to inquire whether it is 

r 

wide or narrow. Remember, if you will, that there is no 
existing link between Man and the Gorilla, but do not forget 
that there is a no less sharp line of demarcation, a no less 
complete absence of any transitional form, between the Gorilla 
and the Orang, or the Orangand the Gibbon. I say, not less 
sharp, though it is somewhat narrower. The structural dif- 
ferences between Man and the Man-like apes certainly justify 
our regarding him as constituting a family apart from them; 



■■*— ■ 



though, inasmuch as he diflfers less from them than they do 

from other families of the same order, there can be no justi- 
fication for placing him in a distinct order. 

And thus the sagacious foresight of the great lawgiver of 

systematic zoology, Linnseus, becomes justified, and a cen- 
tury of anatomical research brings us back to his cpnclusion, 
that man is a member of the same order (for which the Lin- 
nseari term Primates ought to be retained) as the Apes and 
Lemurs. This order is now divisible into seven families, of 

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about equal systematic value : the first, the Anthropini, 
contains Man alone; the second; the Catarhini, embraces. 



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the old world apes ; the third^ the PlatyrhinI; all new world 
apes^ except the Marmosets ; the fourth^ the Arctopithecini, 
contains the Marmosets ; the fifth, the Lemurini, the Lemurs 
from which Cheiromys should probably be excluded to 
form a sixth distinct family/ the Cheiromyini; while the 
seventh, the Galeopithecini, contains only the flying Lemur 

GaleopithecuSy — a strange form which almost touches on the 
Bats^ as the Cheiromys puts on a Rodent clothings and the 
Lemurs simulate Insectivora. 

Perhaps no order of mammals presents us with so extra- 
ordinary a series of gradations as this— leading us insensibly 
from the crown and summit of the animal creation down to 
creatures^ from which there is but a step^ as it seems, to the 
lowest, smallest, and least intelligent of the placental Mam- 
malia. It is as if nature herself had foreseen the arrogance 
of man, and with Roman severity had provided that his 
intellect, by its very triumphs, should call into prominence 
the slaves, admonishing the conqueror that he is but dust. 



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These are the chief facts, this the immediate conclusion 
from them to which I adverted in the commencement of this 
Essay. The facts, I believe, cannot be disputed; and if so, 
the conclusion appears to me to be inevitable. 

But if Man be separated by no greater structural barrier 
from the brutes than they are from one another — then it 
seems to follow that if any process of physical causation can 

be discovered by which the genera and families of ordinary 

animals have been produced, that process of causation is 
amply sufficient to account for the origin of Man. In other 
words, if it could be shown that the Marmosets, for example, 
have arisen by gradual modification of the ordinary Pla- 
tyrhini, or that both Marmosets and Platyrhini are modified 
ramifications of a primitive stock — then, there would be no 
rational ground for doubting that man might have originated, 
in the one case, by the gradual modification of a raan-like 






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106 



or, in the other case^ as a ramification of the 



same 



ape; 

primitive stock as those apes. 

At the present moment^ but one such process of physical 
causation has any evidence in its favour; or, in other words, 
there is but one hypothesis regarding the origin of species of 
animals in general which has any scientific existence— that 
propounded by Mr. Darwin. For Lamarck^ sagacious as 

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many of his views were, mingled them with so much that 

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was crude and even absurd, as to neutralize the benefit which 
his originality might have effected, had he been a more sober 
and cautious thinker; and though I have heard of the 
announcement of a formula touching '^the ordained con- 
tinuous becoming of organic forms,^^ it is obvious that it is 
the first duty of a hypothesis to be intelligible, and that a 
qna-qua-versal proposition of this kind, which may be read 
backwards, or forwards, or sideways, with exactly the same 
amount of signification, does not really exist, though it may 

seem to do so. 

At the present moment, therefore, the question of the 
relation of man to the lower animals resolves itself, in the 
end, into the larger question of the tenability or untenability 
of Mr. Darwin^s views. But here we enter upon difficult 

ground, and it behoves us to define our exact position with 

the greatest care. 

It cannot be doubted, I think, that Mr. Darwin has satis- 
factorily proved that what he terms selection, or selective 
modification, must occur, and does occur, in nature ; and he 
has also proved to superfluity that such selection is com- 
petent to produce forms as distinct, structurally, as some 

genera even are. If the animated world presented ns with 
none but structural differences, I should have no hesitation 
in saying that Mr. Darwin had demonstrated the existence 
of a true physical cause, amply competent to account for the 
origin of living species, and of man among the rest. 

But, in addition to their structural distinctions, the species 



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107 



number 



breed 



of aniinals and plants, or at least a great 

exhibit physiological characters — what are known as distinct 

species^ structurally^ being for the most part either altogether 

incompetent to breed one with another; 

the resulting mule, or hybrid^ is unable to perpetuate its race 

with another hybrid of the same kind. 

A true physical cause is^ however^ admitted to be such 
only on one condition — that it shall account for all the 
phenomena which come within the range of its operation. 
If it is inconsistent with any one phenomenon^ it must be 



rejected; 



phenom 



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far weak, so far to be suspected ; thougli it may have a per- 
fect right to claim provisional acceptance. 

Now, Mr. Darwin^s hypothesis is not, so far as I am aware, 
inconsistent with any known biological fact ; on the con- 
trary, if admitted, the facts of Development, of Comparative 
Anatomy, of Geographical Distribution, and of Palaeontology, 
become connected together, and exhibit a meaning such as 

they never possessed before ; and I, for one, am fully con- 
vinced, that if not precisely true, that hypothesis is as near 
an approximation to the truth as, for example, the Coperni- 
can hypothesis was to the true theory of the planetary 

motions. 

But^ for all this^ our acceptance of the Darwinian hypo- 
thesis must be provisional so long as one link in the chain of 
evidence is wanting; and so long as all the animals and plants 
certainly produced by selective breeding from a common stock 

r 

are fertile, and their progeny are fertile with one another, 
that link will be wanting. For, so long, selective breeding will 
not be proved to be competent to do all that is required of 
it to produce natural species. 

I have put this conclusion as strongly as possible before 

the reader, because the last position in which I wish to find 
myself is that of an advocate for Mr. Darwin's, or any other 

views— if by an advocate is meant one whose business it is 



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108 

to smooth over real difficulties, and to persuade where he 
cannot convince. 

In justice to Mr. Darwin, however, it must be admitted 
that the conditions of fertility and sterility are very ill under- 
stood, and that every day^s advance in knowledge leads us to 
regard the hiatus in his evidence as of less and less impor- 
tance, when set against the multitude of facts which harmonize 
with, or receive an explanation from, his doctrines. 
. I adopt Mr. Darwin's hypothesis, therefore, subject to the 
production of proof that physiological species may be 
produced by selective breeding ; just as a jihysical philosopher 
may accept the undulatory theory of light, subject to the 
proof of the existence of the hypothetical ether ; or as the 
chemist adopts the atomic theory, subject to the proof of the 
existence of atoms ; and for exactly the same reasons, namely, 
that it has an immense amount of prima facie probability : 
that it is the only means at present Tvithin reach of reducing 
the chaos of observed facts to order ; and lastly^ that it is 
the most powerful instrument of investigation which has 



been presented to naturalists since the invention of the 

natural system of classification, and the commencement of 
the systematic study of embryology. 

But even leaving Mr. Darwin^s views aside^ the whole 
analogy of natural operations furnishes so complete and crush- 
ing an argument against the intervention of any but what are 
termed secondary causes, in the production of all the pheno- 



mena 



Man 



the forces exerted by the latter and all other forces, I can see 

no excuse for doubting that all are co-ordinated terms of 
Nature's great progression, from the formless to the formed 
from the inorganic to the organic— from blind force to con- 
scious intellect and will. 



Science has fulfilled her function when she has ascertained 



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109 



and enunciated truth ; and were these pages addressed to 
men of science only^ I should now close this essay, knowing 
that my colleagues have learned to respect nothing but 
evidence^ and to believe that their highest duty lies in sub- 
mitting to it^ however it may jar against their incHnations. 
. But desiring, as I do, to reach the wider circle of the 
intelligent public, it would be unworthy cowardice were I to 
ignore the repugnance with which the majority of my 
readers are likely to meet the conclusions to which the most 
careful and conscientious study I have been able to give to 
this matter, has led me. 

On all sides I shall hear the cry ~^^ We are men and 
women, not a mere better sort of apes, a little longer in the 
leg^ more compact in the foot, and bigger in brain than your 
brutal Chimpanzees and Gorillas. The power of knowledge 

the conscience of good and evil — the pitiful tenderness of 
human affections, raise us out of all real fellowship with the 

brutes, however closely they may seem to approximate us/^ 

To this I can only reply that the exclamation would be 
most just and would have my own entire sympathy, if it were 
only relevant. But^ it is not I who seek to base Man's 
dignity upon his great toe, or insinuate that we are lost if an 
Ape has a hippocampus minor. On the contrary, I have 
done my best to sweep away this vanity. I have endea- 
voured to show that no absolute structural line of demar- 
cation, wider than that between the animals which imme- 

r 

diately succeed us in the scale, can be drawn between the 
animal world and ourselves ; and I may add the expression 
of my belief that the attempt to draw a psychical distinction 
is equally futile, and that even the highest faculties of feeling 
and of intellect begin to germinate in lower forms of life.* 

* It is so rare a pleasure for me to find Professor Owen's opinions in entire 
accordance with my own, that I cannot forbear from quoting a paragraph which 
appeared in his Essay "On the Characters, &c. of the Class Mammaha,"in the 
* Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London' for 1857, but is 



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At the same time, no one is more strongly convinced than 
I am of the vastness of the gulf between civilized man and 
the brutes; or is more certain that whether /rom them or not, 
he is assuredly not of them. No one is less disposed to think 
lightly of the present dignity, or despairingly of the future 
hopes, of the only consciously intelligent denizen of this world. 
We are indeed told by those who assume authority in 
these matters, that the two sets of opinions are incompatible, 
and that the belief in the unity of origin of man and brutes 
involves the brutalization and degradation of the former. 
But is this really so ? Could not a sensible child confute^ 
by obvious arguments, the shallow rhetoricians who would 
force this conclusion upon us ? Is it, indeed, true, that the 
Poet, or the Philosopher, or the Artist whose genius is the 
glory of his age, is degraded from his high estate by the 

undoubted historical probability, not to say certainty, that he 
is the direct descendant of some naked and bestial savage, 



him 



more 



the Tiger ? Or is he bound to howl and grovel on all fours 

because of the wholly unquestionable fact, that he was once 
an egg, which no ordinary power of discrimination could 
distinguish from that of a Dog? Or is the philanthropist or 
the saint to give up his endeavours to lead a noble life, because 



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unaccountably omitted in the " Eeade Lecture" delivered before the Uniyersity 
of Cambridge two years later, which is otherwise nearly a reprint of the paper 



in question. Prof, Owen writes : 

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Not being able to appreciate or conceive of the distinction between the 
psychical phenomena of a Chimpanzee and of a Boschisman or of an Aztec, with 

arresfed brain growth, as being of a nature so essentkl as to preclude a com- 
parison between them, or as being other than a difference of degree, I cannot 



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every tooth, every bone, strictly homologous — which makes the determination 
of the difference between Homo and Pithecus the anatomist's difficulty." 

Surely it is a little singular, that the ' anatomist, ' who finds it * difficult' to 
* determine the difference' between Homo and Pitliecus, should yet range them 
on anatomical grounds, in distinct sub-classes ! 



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the simplest study of man^s nature reveals^ at its foundations^ 
all the selfish passions and fierce appetites of the merest 
quadruped ? Is mother-love vile because a hen shows it^ or 
fidelity base because dogs possess it ? 






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these questions without a moment^ s hesitation. 



Healthy 



humanity, finding itself hard pressed to escape from real sin 
and degradation^ will leave the brooding over speculative 
pollution to the cynics and the ^ righteous overmuch^ who, 

disagreeing in everything else, unite in blind insensibility 
to the nobleness of the visible worlds and in inability to appro- 
ciate the grandeur of the place Man occupies therein. 

Nay morC; thoughtful men^ once escaped from the blind- 
ing influences of traditional prejudice^ will find in the lowly 
stock whence man has sprung, the best evidence of the 
splendour of his capacities ; and will discern in his long pro- 
gress through the Past, a reasonable ground of faith in his 
attainment of a nobler Future. 

They will remember that in comparing civilized man with 
the animal world^ one is as the Alpine traveller, who sees the 
mountains soaring into the sky and can hardly discern where 
the deep shadowed crags and roseate peaks end, and where 
the clouds of heaven begin. Surely the awe-struck voyager 
may be excused if, at firsts he refuses to believe the geologist^ 
who tells him that these glorious masses are, after all, the 



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hardened mud of primeval seas, or the cooled slag of sub- 
terranean furnaces— of one substance with the dullest clay, but 
raised by inward forces to that place of proud and seemingly 

inaccessible glory. 

But the geologist is right; and due reflection on his teach- 
ings, instead of diminishing our reverence and our wonder, 
adds all the force of intellectual sublimity, to the mere 
aesthetic intuition of the uninstructed beholder. 



same 



result will attend the teachings of the naturalist respecting 



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112 

that great Alps and Andes of the living world Man, ' Our 

reverence for the nobility of manhood will not be lessened 
by the knowledge, that Man is, in substance and in structure, 
one with the brutes ; for, he alone possesses the marvellous 
endowment of intelligible and rational speech, whereby, in 
the secular period of his existence, he has slowly accumulated 
and organized the experience which is almost wholly lost with 
the cessation of every individual life in other animals; so that 
now he stands raised upon it as on a mountain top, far above 
the level of his humble fellows, and transfigured from his 
grosser nature by reflecting, here and there, a ray from the 
infinite source of truth. 



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113 



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History of 



Controversy respecting tie Cerebral 



ofMc 



Up to the year 1857 aU anatomists of authority, who had occupied themselves 
with the cerebral structure of the Apes-Cuvier, Tiedemann, Sandifort, Vrolik, 
Isidore G. St. Hilaire, Schroeder van der Kolk, Gratiolet-were agreed that the 
brain of the Apes possesses a postekiok lobe. 

L 

' " r 

Tiedemaim, in 1825, figured and acknowledged in the text of his 'Icones,' 
the existence of the posxeeior coknu of the lateral ventricle in the Apes, not 
only under the title of ' Scrobiculus parvus loco cornu posterioris'-a fact Jhich 
has be^n paraded-but as ' cornu posterius ' (Icones, p. 54), a circumstance 
which has been, as sedulously, kept in the back ground. 

Cuvier (Lecons, T. iii. p. 103) says, « the anterior or lateral ventricles possess 

a digital cavity [posterior cornu] only in Man and the Apes 

presence depends on that of the posterior lobes." 

Schroeder van der Kolk and Vrolik, and Gratiolet, had also figured and 

described the posterior cornu in various Apes. As to the Hippocampus minor 
Tiedemann had erroneously asserted its absence in the Apes ; but Schroeder van 
der Kolk and Vrolik had pointed out the existence of what they considered 
a rudimentary one in the Chimpanzee, and Gratiolet had expressly affirmed its 
existence in these animals. Such was the state of our information on these 
subjects in the year 1856. 

In the year 1857, however. Professor Owen, either in ignorance of these well- 
known facts or else unjustifiably suppressing them, submitted to the Linn^au 
Society a paper " On the Characters, Principles of Division, and Primary Groups 



Its 



Mammalia 



the following passage ; 



a 



In Man, the brain presents an ascensive step in de- 



velopment, higher and more strongly marked than that by which the preceding 
sub-class was distinguished from the one below it. Not only do the cerebral 
hemispheres overlap the olfactory lobes and cerebeUum, but they extend in 
advance of the one and further back than the other. The posterior development 
is so marked, that anatomists have assigned to that part the character of a third 



lobe ; it is peculiar to the gems Homo, and equally peculiar is the posterior horn 



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114 



{>/ the lateral ventriele and the ^ hippoeampus minor ' wldch characterise the hind 
lode of each hemisphere^ — Journal of the Proceedings of the Linncean Society, 

Vol. ii, p. 19. 

As the essay in which this passage stands had no less ambitious an aim than 

the remodelling of the classification of the Mammalia, its author might be sup- 
posed to have written under a sense of peculiar responsibility, and to have tested, 
with especial care, the statements he ventured to promulgate. And even if this 
be expecting too mnch, hastiness, or want of opportunity for due deliberation, 
cannot now be pleaded in extenuation of any shortcomings ; for the propositions 
cited were repeated two years afterwards in the Eeade Lecture, delivered before 
so grave a body as the University of Cambridge, in 1859. 

When the assertions, which I have italicised in the above extract, first came 
rmder my notice, I was not a little astonished at so flat a contradiction of the 
doctrines current among well-informed anatomists ; but, not unnaturally imagin- 
ing that the deliberate statements of a responsible person must have some 
foundation in fact, I deemed it my duty to investigate the subject anew before 
the time at which it would be my business to lecture thereupon came round. The 

L 

result of my inquiries was to prove that Mr. Owen's three assertions, that " the 
third lobe, the posterior horn of the lateral ventricle, and the hippocampus 
minor," are " peculiar to the genus Eomo^' are contraiy to the plainest facts. 
I communicated this conclusion to the students of my class ; and then, having 
no desire to embark in a controversy which could not redound to the honou^of 
British science, whatever its issue, I turned to more congenial occupations. 

4 

The time speedily arrived, however, when a persistence in this reticence would 

■ J 

have involved me in an unworthy paltering with truth. 

At the meeting of the British Association at Oxford, in 1860, Professor Owen 
repeated these assertions in my presence, and, of course, I immediately gave 
them a direct and unqualified contradiction, pledging myself to justify that 

L 

unusual procedure elsewhere. I redeemed that pledge by pubUshing, in the 
January number of the Natural History Eeview for 1861, an article wherein 
the truth of the three following propositions was fully demonstrated (I, c. p. 7 1 ) : 

h 

"1. That the third lobe is neither peculiar to, nor characteristic of, man 
seeing that it exists in all the higher quadrumana. 



'? 



" 2. That the posterior cornu of the lateral ventricle is neither peculiar to, 







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115 



nor characteristic of, man, inasmuch as it also exists in the higher quadru. 



mana. 



'' 3. That the hippocampus minor is neither peculiar to, nor characteristic of, 
man, as it is found in certain of the higher quadrumana." 
Furthermore, this paper contains the following paragraph (p. 76): 
*^And lastly, Schroeder van der Kolk and Vrolik (op. cit. p. 271), though 
they particularly note that ' the lateral ventricle is distinguished from that of 
Man by the very defective proportions of the posterior cornu, wherein only a 
stripe is visible as an indication of the hippocampus minor;* yet the Figure 4, iii 
their second Plate, shows that this posterior cornu is a perfectly distinct and 
unmistakeable structure, quite as large as it often is in Man. It is the more 
remarkable that Professor Owen should have overlooked the explicit statement 
and figure of these authors, as it is quite obvious, on comparison of the figures, 
that his woodcut of the brain of a Chimpanzee (1. c. p. 19) is a reduced copy of 

F 

the second figm^e of Messrs. Schroeder van der Kolk and Vrolik*s first Plate. 

r 

**As M. Gratiolet (1. c. p. 18), however, is careful to remark, * unfortunately 
the brain which they have taken as a model was gi-eatly altered (profondement 

r 

affaisse), whence the general form of the brain is given in these plates in a 
manner which is altogether incorrect.' Indeed, it is perfectly obvious, from a 
comparison of a section of the skull of the Chimpanzee with these figures, that 
such is the case ; and it is greatly to be regretted that so inadequate a figure 
should have been taken as a typical representation of the Chimpanzee's brain." 
From this time forth, the untenabiHty of his position might have been as 
apparent to Professor Owen as it was to every one else ; but, so far from retract- 
ing the grave errors into which he had fallen, Professor Owen has persisted in and 
reiterated them ; first, in a lecture delivered before the Royal Institution on the 
19th of March, 1861, which is admitted to have been accurately reproduced in 
the 'Athenseum' for the 23rd of the same month, in a letter addressed by 
Professor Owen to that journal on the 30th of March. The 'Athenseum' 
report was accompanied by a diagram purporting to represent a Gorilla's brain, 
but in reality so extraordinary a misrepresentation, that Professor Owen sub- 
stantially, though not explicitly, withdraws it in the letter in question. In 
amending this error, however, Professor Owen fell into another of much graver 
import, as his communication concludes with the following paragraph : " Por 

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cerebellum 



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highest Apes, reference should be made to the figure of the undissected brain 
of the Chhnpanzee in my ' Eeade's Lecture on the Classification, &c. of the 
Mammaha/ p. 25, fig. 7, 8yo. 1859." 

It would not be credible, if it were not unfortunately true, that this figure, to 
which the trusting public is referred, without a word of quahficatiou, " for the 
tnie proportion in which the cerebrum covers the cerebellum in the highest 
Apes," is exactly that unacknowledged copy of Schroeder van der Kolk and 
Vrolik's figure whose utter inaccuracy had been pointed out years before by 
Gratiolet, and had been brought to Professor Owen's knowledge by myself in 
the passage of my article in the ' Natural History Review' above quoted. 

I drew public attention to this circumstance again in my reply to Professor 
Owen, published in the ^ Athengeum' for April 13th, 1861; but the exploded 
figure was reproduced once more by Professor Owen, without the slightest allu- 
sion to its inaccuracy, in the * Annals of Natural History' for June 1861 ! 

This proved too much for the patience of the original authors of the figure, 
Messrs. Schroeder van der Kolk and Vrolik, who, in a note addressed to the 

Academy of Amsterdam, of which they were members, declared themselves 

1 

to be, though decided opponents of all forms of the doctrine of progressive 
development, above all things, lovers of truth : and that, therefore, at whatever 
risk of seeming to lend support to views which they disUked, they felt it their 
duty to take the first opportunity of pubhcly repudiating Professor Owen's mis- 
use of their authority. 

In this note they frankly admitted the justice of the criticisms of M. Gratiolet, 
quoted above, and they illustrated, by new and careful figures, the posterior lobe, 
the posterior cornu, and the hippocampus minor of the Orang. Furthermore, 
having demonstrated the parts, at one of the sittings of the Academy, they 
add, " la presence des parties contestees y a ete universellement reconnue par 

les anatomistes presents a la seance. Le seul doute qui soit reste se rapporte 

au pes Hippocampi minor A Tetat frais Tindice du petit pied d'Hippo- 

campe etait plus prononce que maintenant." 

r 

Professor Owen repeated his erroneous assertions at the meeting of the British 
Association in 1861, and again, without any obvious necessity, and without 
adducing a single new fact or new argument, or being able in any way to meet 



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the crushing evidence from original dissections of numerous Apes' brains, wliich 
had in the meanwhile been brought forward by Prof. EoUeston,* F.K.S., 
Mr. Marshall,! F.R.S., Mr. Flower.J Mr. Turner§ and myself,ll revived the 
subject at the Cambridge meeting of the same body in 1862. Not content with 
the tolerably vigorous repudiation which these unprecedented proceedings met 
with in Section D, Professor Owen sanctioned the publication of a version of his 



own 



be seen by comparison of the ' Times' Report of the discussion), in the ' Medical 
Times' for October 11th, 1862. I subjoin the conclusion of my reply in the 
same journal for October 25th. ^ 

" If this were a question of opinion, or a question of interpretation of parts or 

4 

of terms,— were it even a question of observation in which the testimony of my 
own senses alone was pitted against that of another person, I should adopt a 
very different tone in discussing this matter. I should, in all humility, admit 
the likelihood of having myself en-ed in judgment, failed in knowledge, or been 
blinded by prejudice. . 

" But no one pretends now, that the controversy is one of terms or of opinions. 

r 

Novel and devoid of authority as some of Professor Owen's proposed definitions 
may have been, they might be accepted without changing the great features of 
the case. Hence, though special investigations into these matters have been 
undertaken during the last two years by Dr. Allen Thomson, by Dr. EoUeston, 
by Mr. Marshall, and by Mr. Flower, all, as you are aware, anatomists of repute 
in this country, and by Professors Schroeder Van der Kolk, and Vrolik (whom 



own 



nent, all these able and conscientious observers have with one accord testified to 
the accuracy of my statements, and to the utter baselessness of the assertions of 



-I 

* On the Affinities of the Brain of the Orang. Nat. Hist. Review, April 
1861. , ' 

t On the Brain of a young Chimpanzee. Ibid. July, 1861. 

X On the Posterior lobes of the Cerebrum of the Quadrumana. Philoso- 
phical Transactions, 1862. 

- § On the anatomical Relations of the Surfaces of the Tentorium to the Cere- 

^ 

brum and Cerebellum in Man and the lower Mammals. Proceedings of the Royal 
Society of Edinburgh, March, 1862, 

II On the Brain of Ateles. Proceedings of Zoological Society, 1861. 






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Wai 



Professor Owen. Even the venerable Eudolpl: 

accuse of progressionist proclivities, has raised his voice on the same side; while 

not a single anatomist, great or small, has supported Professor Owen. 

" Now, I do not mean to suggest that scientific differences should be settled 
by universal suf&age, but I do conceive that solid proofs must be met by some- 

\ m 

thing more than empty and unsupported assertions. Yet during the two years 
through which this preposterous controversy has dragged its weary length, 
Professor Owen has not ventured to bring forward a single preparation in sup- 

4 

port of his often-repeated assertions. 

" The case stands thus, therefore :— Not only are the statements made by me 
in consonance with the doctrines of the best older authorities, and with those of 
all recent investigators, but I am quite ready to demonstrate them on the first 
monkey that comes to hand ; while Professor Owen's assertions are not only in 

r 

diametrical opposition to both old and new authorities, but he has not produced, 
and, I will add, cannot produce, a single preparation which justifies them." 

I now leave this subject, for the present.— For the credit of my calling I 
should be glad to be, hereafter, for ever silent upon it. But, unfortunately, this 
is a matter upon which, after all that has occurred, no mistake or confusion of 
terms is possible — and in affirming that the posterior lobe, the posterior comu, 

and the hippocampus minor exist in certain Apes, I am stating either that which 
is true; or that Avhich I must know to be false. The question has thus become 
one of personal veracity. Por myself, I will accept no other issue than this, 
grave as it is, to the present controversy. 



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ON SOME FOSSIL REMAmS OP MAN 



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I HAVE endeavoured to show, in the preceding Essay, that 
the Anthropini, or Man Family, form a very well defined 
group of the Primates, between which and the immediately 
following Family, the Catarhini, there is, in the existing 
world, the same entire absence of any transitional form or 
connecting link, as between the Catarhini and Platyrhini. 

It is a commonly received doctrine, however, that the 
structural intervals between the various existing modifica- 
tions of organic beings may be diminished, or even obliter- 
ated, if we take into account the long and varied succession of 

animals and plants which have preceded these now living and 
which are known to us only by their fossilized remains. How 
far this doctrine is well based, how far, on the other hand, 
as our knowledge at present stands, it is an overstatement of 
the real facts of the case, and an exaggeration of the 
elusions fairly deducible from them, are points of grave im- 
portance, but into the discussion of which I do not, at present, 
propose to enter. It is enough that such a view of the rela- 
tions of extinct to living beings has been propounded, to lead 
us to inquire, with anxiety, how far the recent discoveries of 
human remains in a fossil state bear out, or oppose, that view. 

I shall confine myself, in discussing this question, to those 
fragmentary Human skulls from the caves of Ei 
valley of the Meuse, in Belgium, and of the Neanderthal 
near Diisseldorf, the geological relations of which have been 
examined with so much care by Sir Charles Lyell ; upon 
whose high authority I shall take it for granted, that the 

W r 

Engis skull belonged to a contemporary of the Mammoth 
{Blephas primigenius) and of the woolly Rhinoceros {Rhino- 



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120 







dated; and that the Neanderthal skull is of great^ though 
uncertain, antiquity. Whatever be the geological age of the 
latter skull, I conceive it is quite safe (on the ordinary princi- 
ples of paleontological reasoning) to assume that the former 
takes us to, at least, the further side of the vague biological 
limit, which separates the pTesent geological epoch from that 
which immediately preceded it. And' there can be no 
doubt that the physical geography of Europe has changed 
wonderfully, since the bones of Men and Mammoths, Hysenas 
and Rhinoceroses were washed pell-mell into the cave of 
Engis. 




n 



Fig. 23. 



•The skull from the cave of Engls— viewed from the right side. One 
half the size of nature, a glabella, b occipital protuberance, (a to b 
glabello-occipital line), c auditory foramen. 



The sknll from the cave of Engis was originally disco- 
vered by Professor Schmerling, and was described by him, 




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time^ in his valuable work, 
fossiles decouverts dans les 



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disinterred at the same 

es sur les ossemens 

eavernes de la Province de 



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from 



following paragraphs are extracted, the precise expressions 
of the author being, as far as possible, preserved. 

" In the first place, I must remark that these human 
remains, which are in my possession, are characterized, like 
the thousands of bones which I have lately been disinterr- 
ing, by the extent of the decomposition which they have under- 
gone, which is precisely the same as that of the extinct 
species : all, with a few exceptions, are broken ; some few are 
rounded, as is frequently found to be the case in fossil re- 
mains of other species. The fractures are vertical or ob- 
lique ; none of them are eroded ; their colour does not differ 
from that of other fossil bones, and varies 
yellow to blackish. All are lighter than recent bones, with 
the exception of those which have a calcareous incrustation, 
and the cavities of which are filled with such matter. 

The cranium which I have caused to be figured, Plate I, 
figs. 1, 2, is that of an old person. The sutures are begin- 
ning to be effaced : all the facial bones are wanting, and of 
the temporal bones only a fragment of that of the right 
side is preserved. 

The face and the base of the cranium had been detached 
before the skull was deposited in the cave, for we were 
unable to find those parts, though the whole cavern was 
regularly searched. The cranium was met with at a depth 

of a metre and a half [five feet nearly] hidden under an 
osseous breccia, composed of the remains of small animals, 
and containing one rhinoceros tusk, with several teeth of 
horses and of ruminants. This breccia, which has been 



spoken of above, 



1) was a metre [3 J feet about] wide 



and rose to the height of a metre and a half above the floor 
of the cavern, to the walls of which it adhered strongly. 
The earth which contained this human skull exhibited no 




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trace of disturbance : teeth of rhiuoceroSj horse^ hysena^ and 
bear^ surrounded it on all sides. 

The famous Blumenbach* has directed attention to the 
diflFerences presented by the form and the dimensions of 
human crania of different races. This important work 
would have assisted us greatly^ if the face^ a part essential 
for the determination of race^ with more or less accuracy, 
had not been wanting in our fossil cranium. 

We are convinced that even if the skull had been com- 
plete, it would not have been possible to pronounce, with 
certainty, upon a single specimen ; for individual variations 
are so numerous in the crania of one and the same race, that 
one cannot^ without laying oneself open to large chances of 
error, draw any inference from a single fragment of a cra- 
nium to the general form of the head to which it belonged. 

Nevertheless, in order to neglect no point respecting the 
form of this fossil skull, we may observe that, from the first, 
the elongated and narrow form of the forehead attracted our 

attention. 

In fact, the slight elevation of the frontal, its narrowness, 
and the form of the orbit, approximate it more nearly to 
the cranium of an Ethiopian than to that of an European : 
the elongated form and the produced occiput are also cha- 
racters which we believe to be observable in our fossil cra- 
nium ; but to remove all doubt npon that subject I have 
caused the contours of the cranium of an European and of 

an Ethiopian to be drawn and the foreheads represented. 
Plate 11^ figs. 1 & 2j and, in the same plate, figs. 3 & 4^ 
will render the differences easily distinguishable; and 



\ 



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be more 



Qg and weari 
At whatever 



may 



the man from whence this fossil skull proceeded, we may ex- 
press an opinion without exposing ourselves to a fruitless 

* Decas CoUectionis suse craniorum divcrsarura gentium illustrata. Gottingsc, 
1790—1820. 








1 




\ 



123 



controversy. Each may adopt the hypothesis which seems to 
him most probable : for my own part, I hold it to be demon- 
strated that this cranium has belonged to a person of limited 
intellectual faculties, and we conclude thence that it be- 



man 



which is borne out by contrasting the capacity of the frontal 
with that of the occipital region. 

Another cranium of a young individual was discovered in 
the floor of the cavern beside the tooth of an elephant ; the 
skull was entire when found, but the moment it was lifted 
it fell into pieces, which I have not, as yet, been able to put 
together again. But I have represented the bones of the 
upper jaw, Plate I, fig. 5. The state of the alveoli and the 
teeth, shows that the molars had not yet pierced the gum. 
Detached milk molars and some fragments of a human skull, 
proceed from this same place. The figure 3, represents a 
human superior incisor tooth, the size of which is truly 



remarkable.* 



bone 



molar teeth of which are worn down to the roots. 
I possess two vertebrae, a first and last dorsal. 
A clavicle of the left side (see Plate IIT, fig. 1) ; although 

it belonged to a young individual, this bone shows that he 
must have been of great stature.f 

Two fragments of the radius, badly preserved, do not in- 
dicate that the height of the man, to whom they belonged, 
exceeded five feet and a half. 

As to the remains of the upper extremities, those which 

are in my possession, consist merely of a fragment of an 
ulna and of a radius (Plate III, fig. 5 and 6) . 



me 



In a subsequent passage, Schmerling remarks upon the occuiTence of an 
incisor tooth ' of enormous size ' from the caverns of Engihoul. The tooth 
figured is somewhat long, but its dimensions do not appear to me to be other- 
wise remarkable. 

^ t The figure of this clavicle me^isures 5 inches from end to end in a straight 
line— so that the bone is rather a small than a hiro-c one. 



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124 

tained in the breccia, of whicli we have spoken ; it was found 
in the lower part above the cranium : • add to this some 
metacarpal bones^ found at very different distances, half-a- 
dozen metatarsals, three phalanges of the hand, and one of 
the foot. 

This is a brief enumeration of the remains of human bones 
collected in the cavern of Engis, which has preserved for us 

the remains of three individuals^ surrounded by those of the 
Elephant, of the Rhinoceros, and of Carnivora of species 
unknown in the present creation/^ 



From the cave of Engihoul^ opposite that of Engis^ on 
the right bank of the Meuse^ Schmerling obtained the re- 
mains of three other individuals of Man, among which were 
only two fragments of parietal bones^ but many bones of 
the extremities. In one case^ a broken fragment of an ulna 
was soldered to a like fragment of a radius by stalagmite^ 
a condition frequently observed among the bones of the Cave 
Bear {Ursus spel(jeus), found in the Belgian caverns. 

It was in the cavern of Engis that Professor Schmerling 

found^ iiicrusted with stalagmite and joined to a stone^ the 
pointed bone implement, which he has figured in fig. 7 of 
his Plate XXXVI^ and worked flints were found by him 
in all those Belgian caves^ which contained an abundance 

of fossil bones. 

A short letter from M. Geoffrey St. Hilaire^ published in 

the Comptes Rendus of the Academy of Sciences of Paris, 
for July 2nd, 1838, speaks of a visit (and apparently a very 

* 

hasty one) paid to the collection of Professor ^ Schermidt' 

(wliicli is presumably a misprint for Sctmerling) at Liege. 
The writer briefly criticises the drawings which illustrate 
Schmerling^s work, and affirms that the "human cranium 
is a little longer than it is represented" in Schmerling's 
figure. The only other remark worth quoting is this : 
" The aspect of the human bones difl'ers little from that of 
the cave bones^ -w ith which w^e are familiar,, and of which 



1 



t 







i 



125 

there is a considerable collection in the same place. With 
respect to their special forms, compared with those of the 
varieties of recent human crania, few certain conclusions 
can be put forward ; for much greater differences exist be- 
tween the different specimens of well-characterized varieties, 
than between the fossil cranium of Liege and that of one of 
those varieties selected as a term of comparison/' 

Geoffrey St. Hilaire's remarks are, it will be observed, 
little but an echo of the philosophic doubts of the describer and 
discoverer of the remains. As to the critique upon Schmer- 
ling's figures, I find that the side view given by the latter 
is really about ^%ths of an inch shorter than the original, 
and that the front view is diminished to about the same extent. 
Otherwise the representation is not, in any way, inaccurate, 

but corresponds very well with the cast which is in my posses- 
sion. 

A piece of the occipital bone, which Schmerling seems to 
have missed, has since been fitted on to the rest of the 
cranium by an accomplished anatomist. Dr. Spring of Liege, 
under whose direction an excellent plaster cast was made for 
Sir Charles Lyell. It is upon and from a duplicate of that 
cast that my own observations and the accompanying figures, 
the outlines of which are copied from very accurate Camera 
lucida drawings, by my friend Mr. Busk, reduced to one- 
half of the natural size, are made. 

As Professor SchmerHng observes, the base of the skull 
is destroyed, and the facial bones are entirely absent ; but the 
roof of the cranium, consisting of the frontal, parietal, and 
the greater part of the occipital bones, as far as the middle 
of the occipital foramen, is entire or nearly so. The left 
temporal bone is wanting. Of the right temporal, the parts 
in the immediate neighbourhood of the auditory foramen, 
the mastoid process, and a considerable portion of the squa- 
mous element of the temporal are well preserved (Fig. 23.). 

The lines of fracture which remain between the coadjusted 
pieces of the skull, and are faithfully displayed in Schmer- 



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Fia. 24.— The Eiigis skull viewed from aboyc [A) and in front (5.) 



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ling's figure, are readily traceable in the cast. The sutures 
are also discernible, but the complex disposition of their serra- 
tions, shown ill the figure, is not obvious in the cast. Though 
the ridges which give attachment to muscles are not exces- 
sively prominent, they are well marked, and taken together 
with the apparently well developed frontal sinuses, and the 
condition of the sutures, leave no doubt on my mind that the 
skull is that of an adult, if not middle-aged man. 



"I 



7.7 



Its ex- 



treme breadth, which corresponds very nearly with the in- 
terval between the parietal protuberances, is not more than 
5.4 inches. The proportion of the length to the breadth is 
therefore very nearly as 100 to 70. If a line be drawn from 
the point at which the brow curves in towards the root of the 
nose, and which is called the ' glabella ' {a), (fig. 23), to #he 
occipital protuberance {b), and the distance to the highest 
point of the arch of the skull be measured perpendicularly 
from this line, it will be found to be 4.75 inches. Viewed 
from above, fig. 24 A, the forehead presents 



an evenly 
rounded curve, and passes into the contour of the sides 

and back of the skull, which describes a tolerably reo^ular 
elliptical curve. 

The front view (fig. 24 B) shows that the roof of the skull 
was very regularly and elegantly arched in the transverse 
direction, and that the transverse diam eter was a little less 
below the parietal protuberances, than above them. The 
forehead cannot be called narrow in relation to the rest of 
the skull, nor can it be called a retreating forehead ; on the 
contrary, the antero-posterior contour of the skull is well 
arched, so that the distance along that contour, from the 
nasal depression to the occipital protuberance, measures about 
13.75 inches. The transverse arc of the skull, measured 
from one auditory foramen to the other, across the middle 
of the sagittal suture, is about 13 inches. The sagittal 
suture itself is 5.5 inches long. 



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of a fig. 23) are well^ but not excessively, developed^ and are 
separated by a median depression. Their principal eleva- 



tbem 



large frontal sinuses. 

If a line joining the glabella and tbe occipital protube- 
rance (a, b^ fig. 23) be made horizontal} no part of the occi- 



more 



posterior extremity of that line^ and the upper edge of the 
auditory foramen (c) is almost in contact with a line drawn 
parallel with this upon the outer surface of the skull. 

A transverse line drawn from one auditory foramen to the 
other traverses^ as usual^ the forepart of the occipital fora- 
men. The capacity of the interior of this fragmentary skull 
has not been ascertained. 



The history of the Human remains from the cavern in the 
Neanderthal may best be given in the words of their original 
describer. Dr. Schaafi'hausen,^ as translated by Mr. Busk. 

^' In the early part of the year 1857^ a human skeleton 
was discovered in a limestone cave in the Neanderthal^ near 

r 

Hochdal, between Diisseldorf and Elberfeld. Of this^ how- 
ever, I was unable to procure more than a plaster cast of the 

cranium, taken at Elberfeld, from which I drew up an ac- 
count of its remarkable conformation, which was, in the first 
instance, read on tlie 4tli of February, 1857, at the meeting 
of the Lower Rhine Medical and Natural History Society, 



t 



whom science is 



indebted for the preservation of these bones, which were not 
at first regarded as human, and into whose possession they 

afterwards came, brought the 



cranium 



from Elberfeld to 
Bonn and entrusted it to me for more accurate anatomical 

On the Ckania or the most Ancient Eaces or Man,, By Professor D. 
Schaaffhausen, of Bonn. (From MGUer's Archiv., 1858, pp. 453.) With 
Eemarks and original Figures, taken from a Cast of the Neanderthal Cranium. 
By George Busk, F.E.S., &c. Natural History Keview, April, 1861. 

f Verhandl. d. Naturhist. Vereins der preuss. Eheinlande und Westphalens., 

xiv. Bonn, 1857. 




,1 



I 







examination. At the General Meeting of the Natur 



1857 



Westphalia 



account of the locality, and of the circumstances under 
which the discovery was made. He was of opinion that the 
bones might be regarded as fossil ; and in coming to this 
conclusion, he laid especial stress upon the existence of den- 
dritic deposits, with which their surface was covered, and 
which were first noticed upon them by Professor Mayer. 
To this communication I appended a brief report on the 
results of my anatomical examination of the bones. The 
conclusions at which I arrived were.:— 1st. That the extra- 
ordinary form of the skull was due to a natural conforma- 
tion hitherto not known to exist, even in the most barbarous 
races. 2nd. That these remarkable human 
longed to a period antecedent to the time of the Celts and 
Germans, and were in all probability derived from one of 
the wild races of North-western Europe, spoken of by Latin 
writers ; and which were encountered as autochthones bv the 
German immigrants. And Srdly. That it was beyond doubt 
that these human relics were traceable to a period at which 
the latest animals of the diluvium still existed ; but that no 
proof of this assumption, nor consequently of their so-termed 
fossil condition, was afforded by the circumstances under 
which the bones were discovered. 

As Dr. Fahlrott has not yet published his description of 



remains be- 



from one of his letters. 



them 
A small cave or grotto, high 



enough to admit a man, and about 15 feet deep from the 
entrance, which is 7 or 8 feet wide, exists in the southern 
wall of the gorge of the Neanderthal, as it is termed, at a 
distance of about 100 feet from the Diissel, and about 60 
feet above the bottom of the valley. In its earlier and un- 
injured condition, this cavern opened upon a narrow plateau 
lying in front of it, and from which the rocky wall descended 



* 



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130 



almost perpendicularly into the river. It could be reached, 
though with difficulty^ from above. The uneven floor was 
covered to a thickness of 4 or 5 feet with a deposit of mud^ 
sparingly intermixed with rounded fragments of chert. In 
the removing of this deposit, the bones were discovered. 
The skull was first noticed, placed nearest to the entrance of 

I 

the cavern; and further in^ the other bones, lying in the 
same horizontal plane. Of this I was assured^ in the most 

^ 

positive terms, by two labourers who were employed to clear 
out the grotto, and who were questioned by me on the spot. 
At first no idea was entertained of the bones being human; 

1 

and it was not till several weeks after their discovery that 
they were recognised as such by me, and placed in security. 

r 

Butj as the importance of the discovery was not at the time 
perceived, the labourers were very careless in the collecting, 
and secured chiefly only the larger bones ; and to this cir- 
cumstance it may be attributed that fragments merely of the 
probably perfect skeleton came into my possession. 

^^ My anatomical examination of these bones afforded the 
following results : 

The cranium is of unusual size, and of a long-elliptical 
form. A most remarkable peculiarity is at once obvious in 
the extraordinary development of the frontal sinuses, owing 
to which the superciliary ridges, which coalesce completely 
in the middle, are rendered so prominent, that the frontal 
bone exhibits a considerable hollow or depression above, or 
rather behind them, whilst a deep depression is also formed 
in the situation of the root of the nose. The forehead is 

narrow and low, though the middle and hinder portions of 

+ 

the cranial arch are well developed. Unfortunately, the 
fragment of the skull that has been preserved consists only of 
the portion situated above the roof of the orbits and the 
superior occipital ridges, which are greatly developed, and 
almost conjoined so as to form a horizontal eminence. It 
includes almost the whole of the frontal bone, both parietals, 
a small part of the squamous and the upper-third of the 



i - 



^ 







131 



occipital. The recently fractured surfaces show that the 
skull was broken at the time of its disinterment. The 



876 



7 



cubic 



centimetres. In making this estimation, the water is sup- 
posed to Stan dona level with the orbital plate of the frontal. 



mar 



with the deepest notch in the squamous 
parietal, and with the superior semicircular ridges of the 
occipital. Estimated in dried millet-seed, the contents 
equalled 31 ounces, Prussian Apothecaries' weight. The 
• semicircular line indicating the upper boundary of the 
attachment of the temporal muscle, though not very strongly 
marked, ascends nevertheless to more than half the height of 
the parietal bone. On the right superciliary ridge is observ- 
able an oblique furrow or depression, indicative of an injury 
received during life.* The coronal and sagittal sutures are 
on the exterior nearly closed, and ou the inside so com- 

-. ■ 

pletely ossified as to have left no traces whatever, whilst the 
lambdoidal remains quite open. The depressions for the 
Paccliionian glands are deep and numerous j and there is an 

unusually deep vascular groove immediately behind the 
coronal suture, which, as it terminates in a foramen, no 
doubt transmitted a vena emissaria. The course of the 
frontal suture is indicated externally by a slight ridge ; and 
where it joins the coronal, this ridge rises into a small protu- 
berance. The course of the sagittal suture is grooved, and 
above the angle of the occipital bone the parietals 
depressed. 

J- 

mm.f 

The length of the skull from the 
nasal process of the frontal 
over the vertex to the superior 
semicircular lines of the occi- 
pital measures 303 (^^00) = 12-0". • 

* This, Mr. Busk has pointed out, is probably the notch for the frontal nerve. 
t The numbers in brackets are those which I should assign to the different 
measures, as taken fi'om the plaster cast.— G. B. 

K 2 



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Circumference over tlie orbital 
ridges and the superior semi- 
circular lines of the occipital . 590 (590) -= 23-37" or 23" 

Width of the frontal from the 
middle of the temporal line 
on one side to the same point 
on the opposite 104 (114) = 4-1" — 4'5". 

Length of the frontal from the 
nasal process to the coronal 
suture 133 (125)- 5-25"— 5", 

Extreme width of the frontal si- 
nuses 25 (23)= 10" -0'9". 

Vertical height above a line join- 
ing the deepest notches in the 
squamous border of the pa- 
rietals ........ 70 = 275". 

Width of hinder part of skull 
from one parietal protuberance 
to the other 138 (150)= 5-4" — 5'9". 

Distance from the npper angle 
of the occipital to the superior 
semicircular lines . . . • 51 (60)= 1-9" —2-4". 

Thickness of the bone at the pa- 
rietal protuberance .... 8. 
at the angle of the occipital 9. 

at the superior semicircular 

line of the occipital .... 10 = 0*3". 

Besides the cranium^ the following bones have been se- 

cured : — 

1. Both thigh-bones, perfect. These^ like the skull^ and 

all the other boneS; are characterized by their unusual thick- 
ness^ and the great development of all the elevations and 
depressions for the attachment of muscles. In the Anato- 
mical Museum at Bonn, under the designation of «^ Giant's- 
bones/' are some recent thigh-boaes^ with whicb in thick- 

I 



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133 

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ness the foregoing pretty nearly correspond, although they 
are shorter. 

Giant's bones. Fossil bones. 

_ • mm. mm. 

i^ength 542 = 21-4" ... 438--17-4". 

Diameter of head of femur. 54= 2'14" ... 53= 2-0". 

,, of lov/er articular 

end, from one condyle to 

the other 89= 3-5'' ... 87= 3*4^ 

Diameter of femur in the '^ 

■t 

middle ...... 33= 1-2" ... 30= 1-1". 

2. A perfect right humerus, whose size shows that it be- 
longs to the thigh-bones. 

r 

mm. 

Length ........ 312 = 12-3''. 

Thickness in the middle ... 26 = 10". 
Diameter of head . • . . . 49= 1-9". 

Also a perfect right radius of corresponding dimensions, 
and the upper-third of a right ulna corresponding to the 
humerus and radius. 

3. A left humerus, of which the upper-third is wanting, 
and which is so much slenderer than the right as apparently 
to belong to a distinct individual; a left ulna, which, though 
complete, is pathologically deformed, the coronoid process 
being so much enlarged by bony growth, that flexure of the 
elbow beyond a right angle must have been impossible ; the 
anterior fossa of the humerus for the reception of the coro- 
noid process being also filled up with a similar bony growth. 

At the same time, the olecranon is curved strongly down- 
wards. As the bone presents no sign of rachitic degene- 
ration, it may be supposed that an injury sustained during 
life was the cause of the anchylosis. When the left ulna is 
compared with the right radius, it might at first sight be 
concluded that the bones respectively belonged to different 
individuals, the ulna being more than half an inch too short 
for articulation with a corresponding radius. But it is clear 



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134 



that this shortenings as well as the attenuation of the left 
humerus^ are both consequent upon the pathological con- 
dition above described. 

4. A left ilium^ almost perfect^ and belonging to the femur; 
a fragment of the right scapula ; the anterior extremity of a 

w - -. > - 

rib of the right side ; and the same part of a rib of the left 
side; the hinder part of a rib of the right side; and^ lastly^ 

4 

two hinder portions and one middle portion of ribs,*which_, 
from their unusually rounded shape, and abrupt curvature, 
more resemble the ribs of a carnivorous animal than those 



of a man. 



Meyer 



I defer, will not venture to declare them to be ribs of any 
animal; and it only remains to suppose that this abnormal 
condition has arisen from an unusually powerful development 

of the thoracic muscles. 

The bones adhere strongly to the tongue, although, as 

1 

proved by the use of hydrochloric acid, the greater part of 
the cartilage is still retained in them, which appears, however, 
to have undergone that transformation into gelatine which 
has been observed by v. Bibra in fossil bones. The surface 
of all the bones is in many spots covered with minute black 
specks, which, more especially under a lens, are seen to be 
formed of very delicate dendrites. These deposits, which were 
first observed on the bones by Dr. Mayer, are most distinct 
on the inner surface of the cranial bones. They consist of a 
ferruginous compound, and, from their black colour, may be 
supposed to contain manganese. Similar dendritic formations 
^Iso occur, not unfrequently, on laminated rocks, and are 
usually found in minute fissures and cracks. At the meeting 

of the Lower Rhine Society at Bonn, on the 1st April, 1857, 
Prof. Mayer stated that he had noticed in the museum of 
Poppelsdorf similar dendritic crystallizations on several fossil 
boiies of animals, and particularly on those of Ursiis spelmus^ 
but still more abundantly and beautifully displayed on the 
fossil bones and teeth of Equus adamiticus^ Elephas primige- 
nius. &c., from the caves of Bolve and Sundwig. Faint 






li 







J "- ■ 



- : >-. 







135 

indications of similar dendrites were visible in a Roman skull 
from Siegburg ; wbilst other ancient skulls^ which had lain for 
centuries in the earthy presented no trace of them.* I am 
indebted to H. v. Meyer for the following remarks on this, 
subject : 

^' The incipient formation of dendritic deposits^ which were 
formerly regarded as a sign of a truly fossil condition^ is in- 
teresting. It has even been supposed that in diluvial deposits 
the presence of dendrites might be regarded as affording a 
certain mai;k of distinction between bones mixed with the 
diluvium at a somewhat later period and the true diluvial 
relics^ to which alone it was supposed that these deposits were 
confined. But 1 have long been convinced that neither can 
the absence of dendrites be regarded as indicative of recent 
age, nor their presence as sufficient to establish the great 
antiquity of the objects upon which they occur. I have my- 
self noticed upon paper, which could scarcely be more than a 
year old^ dendritic deposits, which could not be distinguished 
from those on fossil bones. Thus I possess a dog's skull from 
the Roman colony of the neighbouring Heddersheim, Castrum 
Hadrianurriy which is in no way distinguishable from the fossil 
bones from the Frankish caves ; it presents the same colour, 
and adheres to the tongue just as they do; so that this 

* 

character also^ which^ at a former meetinj? of German natu- 



ralists at Bonn, gave rise to amusing scenes between Buckland 
and Schmerling, is no longer of any value. In disputed cases, 
therefore, the condition of the bone can scarcely afford the 
means for determining with certainty whether it be fossil, 
that is to say, whether it belong to geological antiquity or to 
the historical period/^ 

As we cannot now look upon the primitive world as repre- 
senting a wholly different condition of things, from which no 
transition exists to the organic life of the present time, the 
designation of fossil^ as applied to a bone^ has no longer the 
sense it conveyed in the time of Cuvier. Sufficient grounds exist 

* Verb, des Naturhist. Vereinsin Bonn, xiv. 1857. 



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for tlie assumption that man coexisted witli the animals found 
in the diluvium ; and many a barbarous race may, before all 
historical time^ have disappeared, together with the animals 
of the ancient world^ whilst the races whose organization is 

improved have continued the genus. The bones which form 
the subject of this paper present characters which^ although 
not decisive as regards a geological epoch^ are^ nevertheless^ 
such as indicate a very high antiquity. It may also be re- 
marked that, common as is the occurrence of diluvial animal 
bones in the muddy deposits of caverns, such remains have 
not hitherto been met with in the caves of the Neanderthal ; 
and that the bones, which were covered by a deposit of 
mud not more than four or five feet thickj and without any 

r 

protective covering of stalagmite^ have retained the greatest 
part of their organic substance. 

These circumstances might be adduced against the proba- 
bility of a geological antiquity. Nor should we be justified 
in regarding the cranial conformation as perhaps representing 
the most savage prinaitive type of the human race, since 
crania exist among living savages, which, though not exhibit- 
ing such a remarkable conformation of the forehead, which 
gives the skull somewhat the aspect of that of the large apes, 
still in other respects^ as for instance in the greater depth of 
the temporal fossse^ the crest-like, prominent temporal ridges^ 
and a generally less capacious cranial cavity^ exhibit an equally 
low stage of development. There is no reason for supposing 
that the deep frontal hollow is due to any artificial flattening, 
such as is practised in various modes by barbarous nations in 

The skull is quite symmetrical, 
and shows no indication of counter-pressure at the occiput, 



World 



whilst, according to Morton^in the Hat-heads of the Columbia, 
the frontal and parietal bones are always unsymmetrital. Its 
conformation exhibits the sparing development of the anterior 
part of the head which has been so often observed in very 
ancient crania^ and affords one of the most striking proofs of 
the influence of culture and civilization on the form of the 
human skull/^ 



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' In a subsequent passage^ Dr. Schaaffhausen remarks : 

** There is no reason whatever for regarding the unusual 
development of the frontal sinuses in the remarkable skull 
from the Neanderthal as an individual or pathological de- 
formity 3 it is unquestionably a typical race-character^ and 
is physiologically connected with the uncommon thickness 
of the other bones of the skeleton, which exceeds by about 
one-half the usual proportions. This expansion of the frontal 
sinuses, which are appendages of the air-passages, also indi- 
cates an unusual force and power of endurance in the move- 
ments of the body, as may be concluded from the size of all the 
ridges and processes for the attachment of the muscles or 
bones/ That this conclusion may be drawn from the exist- 
ence of large frontal sinuses, and a prominence of the lower 
frontal region, is confirmed in many ways by other observa- 
tions. By the same characters, according to Pallas, the wild 
horse is distinguished from the domesticated, and, according 
to Cuvier^ the fossil cave-bear from every recent species of bear, 
whilst^ according to Eoulin, the pig, which has become wild 
in America, and regained a resemblance to the wild boar, is 

thus distinguished from the same animal in the domesticated 
state, as is the chamois from the goat ; and, lastly, the bull- 
dog, which is characterised by its large bones and strongly- 
developed muscles from every other kind of dog. The esti- 
mation of the facial angle, the determination of which, 
according to Professor Owen, is also difficult in the great 
apes, owing to the very prominent supra-orbital ridges, in 
the present case is rendered still more difficult from the 
absence both of the auditory opening and of the nasal spine. / 
But if the proper horizontal position of the skull be taken''^ 



from the remaining portions of the orbital plates, and the 



ascending line made to touch the surface of the frontal bone 
behind the prominent supra-orbital ridges, the facial angle 
is not found to exceed 56"*.^ Unfortunately, no portions 

* Estimating tlie facial angle in the way suggested, on the cast I should place 
it at 64** to 67*^.-0. B, 




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138 



of the facial bones^ whose conformation is so decisive as 
regards the form and expression of the head^ have been 
preserved. The cranial capacity^ compared with the un- 
common strength of the corporeal framCj would seem to 
indicate a small cerebral development. The skull^ as it is^ 
holds about 31 ounces of millet-seed; and as^ from the pro- 
portionate size of the wanting bones^ the whole cranial cavity 
should have about 6 ounces more added^ the contents^ were 
it perfect^ may be taken at 37 ounces. Tiedemann assigns^ 
as the cranial contents in the Negro^ 40, 38, and 35 ounces. 
The cranium holds rather more than 36 ounces of water 

r _ ■ 

which corresponds to a capacity of 1033*24 cubic centimetres. 
Buschke estimates the cranial contents of a Negress at 1127 
cubic centimetres; of an old Negro at 1146 cubic centi- 
metres. The capacity of the Malay skulls^ estimated by 
water, equalled 36, 33 ounces, whilst in the diminutive Hin- 
doos it falls to as little as 27 ounces.^^ 

After comparing the Neanderthal cranium with many 
others, ancient and modern. Professor Schaaffhausen con- 

/ I 

eludes thus : 



" But the human bones and cranium from 



Nean 



derthal exceed all the rest in those peculiarities of confor- 
mation which lead to the conclusion of their belonging to 
a barbarous and gavage race. Whether the cavern in which 
they were found, unaccompanied with any trace of human 
art, were the place of their interment, or whether, like the 
bones of extinct animals elsewhere, they had been washed 
into it, they may 



still be regarded 



as the most ancient 



memorial of the early inhabitants of Europe. 



y^ 



"Mr. Busk, the translator of Dr. 



SchaaflPhausen^s paper, 



has enabled us to form a very vivid conception of the de- 
graded character of the Neanderthal skull, by placing side 
by side with its outline, that of the skull of a Chimpanzee,, 
drawn to the same absolute size. 











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Fig. 25. — The skull from the Neanderthal cavern. A. side, B. fronts and 
C. top view. One half the natural size. The outlines from camera lucida 
drawings, one half the natural size, by Mr. Busk : the details from the cast and 
from Dr. Fuhli'ott's photographs, a glabella; & occipital protuberance; ^ lamb- 
doidal suture. 



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140 

Some time after the publication of the translation of Pro- 
fessor Schaaifhausen's Memoir^ I was led to study the cast 
of the Neanderthal cranium with more attention than I had 
previously bestowed upon it, in consequence of wishing to 
supply Sir Charles Lyell with a diagram, exhibiting the 
special peculiarities of this skuU^ as compared with other hu- 
man skulls. In order to do this it was necessary to identify, 
with precision, those points in the skulls compared which 
corresponded anatomically. Of these points, the glabella was 
obvious enough; but when I had distinguished another, 
defined by the occipital protuberance and superior semi- 
circular line, and had placed the outline of the Neanderthal 
skull against that of the Engis skull, in such a position that . 
the glabella and occipital protuberance of both were inter- 
sected by the same straight line, the difference was so vast 



^> 



and the flattening 



Neanderthal 



so prodigious 



*■, r- 



(compare Figs. 23 and 25 A), that I at first imagined I must 
have fallen into some error. And I was the more inclined 
to suspect this, as, in ordinary human skulls, the occipital 
protuberance and superior semicircular curved line on the 
exterior of the occiput correspond pretty closely with the 
^ lateral sinuses ^ and the line of attachment of the tento- 
rium internally. But on the tentorium rests^ as I have said 
in the preceding Essay, the posterior lobe of the brain ; and 
hence, the occipital protuberance, and the curved line in ques- 
tion, indicate^ approximately, the lower limits of that lobe. 
"Was it possible for a human being to have the brain thus flat- 
tened and depressed ; or, on the other hand, had the mus- 
cular ridges shifted their position ? In order to solve these 
doubts, and to decide the question whether the great supra- 
ciliary projections did, or did not, arise from the develop- 
ment of the frontal sinuses, I requested Sir Charles Lyell 
to be so good as to obtain for me from Dr. Euhlrott, the 
possessor of the skull, answers to certain queries, and if 
possible a cast, or at any rate drawings, or photographs, of 
the interior of the skull. 



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Fig. 26. — Drawings from Dr. Euhlrott's photographs of parts of the interior of 
the Neanderthal cranium. A. view of the tinder and inner surface of the frontal 
region, showing the inferior apertures of the frontal sinuses {a), B. corresponding 
view of the occipital region of the skull, showing the impressions of the lateral 

sinuses («a). 



Dr, Fulilrott replied, with a courtesy and readiness for 
•which I am infinitely indebted to him^ to my inquiries^ and 

_ ^ 

furthermore sent three excellent photographs. One of these 
gives a side view of the skull^ and from it Fig. 25 A. has been 
shaded. The second (Fig, 26 A.) exhibits the wide openings 
of the frontal sinuses upon the inferior surface of the frontal 
part of the skull, into which, Dr. Fuhlrott writes, ^^a probe 

L 

may be introduced to the depth of an inch,^^ and demon- 
strates the great extension of the thickened supraciliary ridges 
beyond the cerebral cavity. The third, lastly, (Fig. 26 B.) ex- 



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hibits the edge and the interior of the posterior^ or occipital, 
part of the skull^ and shows very clearly the two depressions 
for the lateral sinuses^ sweeping inwards towards the middle 
line of the roof of the skull^ to form the longitudinal sinus. 
It was clear, therefore, that I had not erred in my interpre- 
tation, and that the posterior lobe of the brain of the 
Neanderthal man must have been as much flattened as I sus- 
pected it to be. 

In truth, the Neanderthal cranium has most extraordinary 
characters. It has an extreme length of 8 inches^ while its 
breadth is only 5 '75 inches, or^ in other words^ its length is to 
its breadth as 100 : 72. It is exceedingly depressed, measuring 
only about 3 "4 inches from the glabello-occipital line to the 
vertex. The longitudinal arc, measured in the same way as 
in the Engis skull, is 12 inches ; the transverse arc cannot be 

exactly ascertained, in consequence of the absence of the 
temporal bones, but was probably about the same,and certainly 
exceeded lOf inches. The horizontal circumference is 23 
inches. But this great circumference arises largely from the 
vast development of the supraciliary ridges, though the 
perimeter of the brain case itself is not small. The large 
supraciliary ridges give the forehead a far more retreating 
appearance than its internal contour would bear out. 

To an anatomical eye the posterior part of the skull is even 
more striking than the anterior. The occipital protuberance 
occupies the extreme posterior end of the skull, when the 
glabello-occipital line is made horizontal, and so far from any 
part of the occipital region extending beyond it, this region 

of the skull slopes obliquely upward and forward, so that the 
lambdoidal suture is situated well upon the npper surface of 
the cranium. At the same time, notwithstanding the great 
length of the skull, the sagittal suture is remarkably short 
(4^ inches), and the squamosal suture is very straight. 

In reply to my questions Dr.Fuhlrott writes that the occipital 
bone ^^ is in a state of perfect preservation as far as the upper 
semicircular line, which is a very strong ridge, linear at its 



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143 



extremities^ but enlarging towards the middle, where it forms 
two ridges (bourrelets)^ miited by a linear continuation^ which 
is slightly depressed in the middle/^ 

^^Below the left ridge the bone exhibits an obliquely inclined 
surface, six lines (French) long, and twelve lines wide/^ 



This last must be the surface, the contour of which is shown 
in Fig. 25 a, below b. It is particularly interesting, as it sug- 
gests that, notwithstanding the flattened condition of the 

occiput, the posterior cerebral lobes must have projected con- 
siderably beyond the cerebellum, and as it constitutes one 
among several points of similarity between the Neanderthal 
cranium and certain Australian skulls. 



Such are the two best known forms of human cranium, 
which have been found in what may be fairly termed a fossil 
state. Can either be shown to fill up or diminish, to any 
appreciable extent, the structural interval which exists between 
Man and the man-like apes ? Or, on the other hand, does 
neither depart more widely from the average structure of the 
human cranium, than normally formed skulls of men are 

known to do at the present day? 

It is impossible to form any opinion on these questions, 

r _ 

without some preliminary acquaintance with the range of 
variation exhibited by human structure in general — a subject 
which has been but imperfectly studied^ while even of what is 
known, my limits will necessarily allow me to give only a 
very imperfect sketch. 

The student of anatomy is perfectly well aware that there 

is not a single organ of the human body the structure of 
which does not vary, to a greater or less extent, in different 
individuals, The skeleton varies in the proportions, and even 
to a certain extent in the connexions, of its constituent 
bones. The muscles which move the bones vary largely in 
their attachments. The varieties in the mode of distribution 
of the arteries are carefully classified, on account of the 
practical importance of a knowledge of their shiftings to the 



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144 



surgeon. The cliaracters of the brain vary immensely, nothing 
being less constant than the form and size of the cerebral 
hemispheres, and the richness of the convolutions upon their 
surface^ while the most changeable structures of all in the 
human brain^ are exactly those on which the unwise attempt 
has been made to base the distinctive characters of humanity, 
viz. the posterior cornu of the lateral ventricle, the hippo- 
campus minor^ and the degree of projection of the posterior 
lobe beyond the cerebellum. Finally, as all the world know^s, 
the hair and skin of human beings may present the most ex- 
traordinary diversities in colour and in texture. 

So far as our present knowledge goes, the majority of the 
structural varieties to which allusion is here made, are indivi- 

F I 

dual. The ape-like arrangement of certain muscles which is 
occasionally met with^ in the white races of mankind, is not 

known to be more common among Ne 
nor because the brain of the Hottentot Venus was found to 
be smoother, to have its convolutions more symmetrically 
disposed, and to be, so far, more ape-like than that of ordinary 
Europeansj are we justified in concluding a like condition 
of the brain to prevail universally among the lower races of 
mankind, however probable that conclusion may be. 

We sere, in fact, sadly wanting in information respecting the 
disposition of the soft and destructible organs of every Race 
of Mankind but our own ; and even of the skeleton, our Mu- 
seums are lamentably deficient in every part but the era- 

r 

nium. Skulls enough there are^ and since the time when Blu- 
menbach and Camper first called attention to the marked and 
singular differences which they exhibit^ skull collecting 

and skull measuring has been a zealously pursued branch 
of Natural History, and the results obtained have been 
arranged and classified by various writers^, among whom the 
late active and able Retzius must always be the first named. 
Human skulls have been found to differ from one another. 

See an excellent Essay by Mr. Churcli on the Myology of the Orang, 
in the Natural History Review, for 1861. 



V 






145 



not merely in their absolute size and in the absolute capacity 
of the brain case, but in the proportions which the diameters 
of the latter bear to one another; in the relative size of the 
bones of the face (and more particularly of the jaws and 
teeth) as compared with those of the skull : in the degree to 




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Fig. 27.— Side and front views of the round and orthognatlious skull of a Cal 
muck after Von Baer. One-third the natural size. 



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146 



course 



which the upper jaw (which is of 
lower) is thrown backwards and downwards under the fore- 
part of the brain case^ or forwards and upwards in front of 
and beyond it. They differ further in the relations of the 
transverse diameter of the face, taken through the cheek 
bones, to the transverse diameter of the skull ; in the more 
rounded or more gable-like form of the roof of the skull, 
and in the degree to which the hinder part of the skull is 
flattened or projects beyond the ridge^ into and below 
which, the muscles of the neck are inserted. 

In some skulls .the brain case may be said to be *" round/ 
the extreme length not exceeding the extreme breadth by a 
greater proportion than 100 to 80, while the difference may be 
much less.* Men possessing such skulls were termed byRetzius 
' br achy cephalic/ and the skull of a Calmuck, of which a front 
and side view (reduced outline copies of which are given in 
figure 27) are depicted by Yon Baer in his excellent " Crania 
selecta," affords a very admirable example of that kind of skull. 



Ne 



Mr 



gated form, and may be termed ' ohlong' In this skull the 



more 



^1 



fall below even this proportion. People having such skulls 
were called by Eetzius ^ dolichocephalic.^ 

The most cursory glance at the side views of these two skulls 
will suffice to prove that they differ, in another respect^ to a 
very striking extent. The profile of the face of the Calmuck 
is almost vertical, the facial bones being thrown downwards 
and under the fore part of the skull. The profile of the face 



Ne 



the 



front part of the jaws projecting far forward beyond the level 
of the fore part of the skull. In the former case the skull is 
said to be ^ orthognathous^ or straight -jawed; in the latter^ 

* In no normal human skull does the breadth of the brain -case exceed its 
length. 



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it is called ' prognathous y' a term which has been rendered. 



more 



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methods have been 



ism 



of any given skull ; most of these methods 



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Fia 28.— Oblong and prognathous skull of a Negro ; side and front views. 
One-third of the natural size. 

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148 



modifications of that devised by Peter Camper, in order to 
attain what he called the ' facial angle.' 

But a little consideration will show that any ' facial angle ' 
that has been devised, can be competent to express the 
structural modifications involved in prognathism and orthog- 
nathism, only in a rough and general sort of way. Eor the 
lines, the intersection of which forms the facial angle, are 
drawn through points of the skull, the position of each of 
which is modified by a number of circumstances, so that the 
angle obtained is a complex resultant of all these circum- 
stances, and is not the expression of any one definite organic 

relation of the parts of the skull. 

I have arrived at the conviction that no comparison of 
crania is worth very much, that is not founded upon the estab- 



measure 



Nor 



ments, in all cases, must be referred, 
very difiicult matter to decide what that base line should be. 
The parts of the skull, like those of the rest of the animal 
framework, are developed in succession : the base of the skull is 
formed before its sides and roof ; it is converted into cartilage 
earlier and more completely than the sides and roof : and the 
cartilaginous base ossifies, and becomes soldered into one piece 
long before the roof. I conceive then that the base of the skull 



may 



moveabl 



The same truth is exemplified by the study of the modifi- 
cations which the skull undergoes in ascending 



in ascending from the 

lower animals up to man. 

In such a mammal as a Beaver (Fig. 29)^ a line {a. b.) 

drawn through the bones, termed basioccipital, basisphenoid^ 
and presphenoid, is very long in proportion to the extreme 
length of the cavity which contains the cerebral hemispheres 
{q.h.). The plane of the occipital foramen {b. c.) forms a 
slightly acute angle with this 'basicranial axis,' while the 
plane of the tentorium [i, T.) is inclined at rather more than 
90° to the ' basicranial axis' ; and so is the plane of the perfo- 



J 



149 



rated plate {a. d.), by wliich the filaments of the olfactory- 
nerve leave the skull. Again^ a line drawn through the axis of 
the face^ between the bones called ethmoid and vomer— the 



^mmr. 



Jjeinun 




I 



Fio. 29. —Longitudinal and vertical sections of the skulls of a Beaver (Castor 
Canadensis), a Lemur (L. Catta), and a Baboon { Cynocephalns Papio)^ ah^ 
the basicranial axis; b c. the occipital plane; i T, the tentorial plane; a d, the 
olfactory plane; f e, the basifacial axis; e b a, occipital angle; Ti «, tentorial 
angle; dah^ olfactory angle ; efb, cranio-facial angle; gh, extreme length of the 
cavity which lodges the cerebral hemispheres or ^ cerebral length/ The length 
of the basicranial axis as to this length, or, in other words, the proportional length 
of the line ^ ^ to that o^ ah taken as 100, in the three skulls, is as follows: — Bea- 
ver 70 to 100; Lemur 119 to 100 ; Baboon 144 to 100. In an adult male Gorilla 
the cerebral length is as 170 to the basicranial axis taken as 100, in the Negro 
(fig. 30) as 236 to 100. In the Constantinople skull (fig. 30) as 266 to 100. 
The cranial difference between the highest Ape's skull and the lowest Man's is 
therefore very strikingly brought out by these measurements. 

In the diagram of the Baboon's skull the dotted hues d^d^, &c. give the angles 
of the Lemur's and Beaver's skull, as laid down upon the basicranial axis of the 
Baboon, The line a b has the same length in each dia2:ram. 






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exceedingly obtuse angle, 



where, when produced^ it cuts the ^ basicranial axis/ 

If the angle made by the line b. c. with a, 6., be called the 
^ occipital angle/ and the angle made by the line a. d. with a. 6. 
be termed the ^olfactory angle ^ and that made by f. T. with a. 5. 



the 



mammal 



am 



tiouj are nearly right angles, varying between 80° and 110°. 
The angle e. /. h.^ or that made by the cranial with the 
facial axis, and which may be termed the ^ cranio-facial 

junting, in the case of the 

Beaver, to at least 150°. 

But if a series of sections of mammalian skulls, intermediate 
between a Rodent and a Man (Kg. 29), be examined, it will 
be found that in the higher crania the basi- cranial axis 
becomes shorter relatively to the cerebral length ; that the 
' olfactorv angle ^ and ^ occipital angle^ become more obtuse ; 
and that the ^cranio-facial angle,' becomes more acute by 
the bending down, as it were, of the facial axis upon the 
cranial axis. At the same time, the roof of the cranium be- 
comes more and more arched, to allow of the increasing 
height of the cerebral hemispheres, which is eminently 
characteristic of man, as well as of that backward extension, 
beyond the cerebellum, which reaches its maximum in the 
South American Monkeys. So that, at last, in the human 
skull (Fig, 30), the cerebral length is between twice and 
thrice as great as the length of the basicranial axis ; the 
olfactory plane is 20° or 30° on the under side of that axis; 

the occipital angle, instead of being less than 90°, is as much 
as 150° or 160°; the cranio-facial angle may be 90° or less, 

and the vertical height of the skull may have a large proper- 
tion to its length. 

It will be obvious, from an inspection of the diagrams, 
that the basicranial axis is, in the ascending series of Mam- 
malia, a relatively fixed line, on which the bones of the 
sides and roof of the cranial cavity, and of the face, may be 
said to revolve downwards and forwards or backwards, accord- 



I 



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151 



ing to tlieir position. The arc described by any one bone or 
plane^ bowever, is not by any means always in proportion to 
the arc described by another. 

Now comes the important question^ can we discern^ between 
the lowest and the highest forms of the human 



cranium 



anything answering, in however slight a degree, to this revo- 
lution of the side and roof bones of the skull upon the basi- 
cranial axis observed upon so great a scale in the mammalian 

L 

series? Numerous observations lead me to believe that we 
must answer this question in the aflBrmative. 



1 
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Tig. 30. — Sections of orthognathous (light contour) and prognathous (dark 
contour) skulls, one-third of the natural size, a 5, Basicranial axis ; hc^ h' c\ 
plane of the occipital foramen ; d d\ hinder end of the palatine bone ; e e\ front 
end of the upper jaw ; TT\ insertion of the tentorium. 



'. .- ;'" 





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152 



The diagrams in figure 30 are reduced from very care- 
fully made diagrams of sections of four skulls^ tvro round 
and orthognathous, two long and prognatlious^, taken longi- 
tudinally and vertically, througb. the middle. The sectional 
diagrams have then been superimposed, in such a manner, 
that the basal axes of the skulls coincide by their anterior 

endSj and in their direction. The deviations of the rest of 

the contours (which represent the interior of the skulls only) 

show the differences of the skulls from one another, when 
these axes are regarded as relatively fixed lines. 

The dark contours are those of an Australian and of a 
Negro skull : the light contours are those of a Tartar skull, 
in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons ; and of a 
well developed round skull from a cemetery in Constanti- 
nople, of uncertain race^ in my own possession. 

It appears, at once, from these views, that the prognathous 
skulls, so far as their jaws are concerned, do really dijffer 
from the orthognathous in much the same way as, though 
to a far less degree than, the skulls of the low^er mammals 
differ from those of Man. Furthermore, the plane of the 
occipital foramen [b c) forms a somewhat smaller angle with 

the axis in these particular prognathous skulls than in the 

orthognathous ; and the like may be slightly true of the 

perforated plate of the ethmoid — though this point is not so 

clear. But it is singular to remark that, in another respect, 

the prognathous skulls are less ape-like than the orthogna- 

thous, the cerebral cavity projecting decidedly more beyond 
the anterior end of the axis in the prognathous, than in the 
orthognathous, skulls. 

It will be observed that these diagrams reveal an im- 
mense range of variation in the capacity and relative pro- 
portion to the cranial axis, of the different regions of the 
cavity which contains the brain, in the different skulls. Nor 
is the difference in the extent to which the cerebral overlaps 
the cerebellar cavity less singular. A round skull (Fig. 30, 
Const.) may have a greater posterior cerebral projection than 
a long one (Fig. 30. Negro). 



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Until human crania have been largely worked out in a 
manner similar to that here suggested — until it shall be an 
opprobrium to an ethnological collection to possess a single 
skull which is not bisected longitudinally — until the angles 
and measurements here mentioned^ together with a number 
of others of which I cannot speak in this place, are deter- 
minedj and tabulated with reference to the basicranial axis 

L 

as unity^ for large numbers of skulls of the different races 
of Mankindj I do not think we shall have any very safe basis 
for that ethnological craniology which aspires to give the 
anatomical characters of the crania of the different Eaces of 
Mankind. 

At present, I believe that the general outlines of what 
may be safely said upon that subject may be summed up 
in a very few words. Draw a line on a globe from the Gold 
Coast in Western Africa to the steppes of Tartary. At 
the southern and western end of that line there live 
the most dolichocephalic^ prognathous^ curly-hairedj dark- 
skinned of men — the true Negroes. At the northern and 
eastern end of the same line there live the most brachy- 
cephalic^ orthognathous, straight-haired^ yellow-skinned of 
men — -the Tartars and Calmucks. The two ends of this imagi- 
nary line are indeed^ so to speak^ ethnological antipodes. 
A line drawn at right angles^ or nearly so, to this polar line 
through Europe and Southern Asia to Hindostan, would 
gives us a sort of equator^ around which round-headed^ oval- 
headed, and oblong-headed, prognathous and orthognathous, 
fair and dark races — but none possessing the excessively 
marked characters of Calmuck or Negro — group themselves. 

It is worthy of notice that the regions of the antipodal 
races are antipodal in climate^ the greatest contrast the 
world affords^ perhaps, being that between the damp, hot. 



steaming. 



West 



and the arid, elevated steppes and plateaux of Central Asia, 
bitterly cold in winter, and as far from the sea as any part of 
the world can be. v--i / U. 



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From Central Asia eastward to the Pacific Islands and 
subcontinents on the one hand, and to America on the other, 
brachycephaly and orthognathism gradually diminish^ and 
are replaced by dolichocephaly and prognathism^ less^ 
however, on the American Continent (throughout the 
whole length of which a rounded type of skull prevails largely, 
but not exclusively)* than in the Pacific region, where, at 
length, on the Australian Continent and in the adjacent is- 
lands, the oblong skull, the projecting jaws, and the dark skin 
reappear ; with so much departure, in other respects, from the 
Negro type, that ethnologists assign to these people the special 
title of ^Negritoes/ 

The Australian skull is remarkable for its narrowness and 

■ J 

for the thickness of its walls, especially in the region of the 
supraciliary ridge, which is frequently, though not by any 
means invariably, solid throughout, the frontal sinuses re- 
maining undeveloped. The nasal depression, again, is 
extremely sudden, so that the brows overhang and give the 
countenance a particularly lowering, threatening expression. 
The occipital region of the skull, also, not unfrequently be- 
comes less prominent; so that it not only fails to project 
beyond a line drawn perpendicular to the hinder extremity 
of the glabello-occipital line, but even, in some cases, begins 
to shelve away from it, forwards, almost immediately. In 
consequence of this circumstance, the parts of the occipital 
bone which lie above and below the tuberosity make a much 
more acute angle with one another than is usual, whereby 
the hinder part of the base of the skull appears obliquely 
truncated. Many Australian skulls have a considerable 

height, quite equal to that of the average of any other race but 
there are others in which the cranial roof becomes remarkably 
depressed, the skull, at the same time, elongating so much 

r 

that, probably, its capacity is not diminished. The majority 

* See Dr. D. Wilson's valuable paper " On the supposed preyalence of one 
Cranial Type throughout the American aborigines/' — Canadian Journal, Vol. 
II. 1857. 



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of skulls possessing these cliaracters, which I have seen, are 
from the neighbourhood of Port Adelaide in South Australia^ 
and have been used by the natives as water vessels ; to which 
end the face has been knocked away, and a string passed 
through the vacuity and the occipital foramen, so that the 
skull was suspended by the greater part of its basis. 




Fig. 31. — An Australian skull from Western Port, in the Museum 
Koyal College of Surgeons, with the contour of the Neanderthal skull 
reduced to one-third the natural size. 



of the 
Both 



f 



Figure 3 1 represents the contour of a skull of this kind from 
Western Port, with the jaw atta^jhed^ and of the Neander- 
thal skuU^ both reduced to one third of the size of nature, A 
small additional amount of flattening and lengthenings with 
a corresponding increase of the supraciliary ridge^ would con- 
vert the Australian brain case into a form identical with that 

of the aberrant fossil. 



And now, to return to the fossil skulls^ and to the rank 
which they occupy among^ or beyond^ these existing varieties of 
cranial conformation. In the first place^ I must remark, that, 
as Professor Schmerling well observed {suprhy p , 122) in com- 
menting upon the Engis skull, the formation of a safe judgment 
upon the question is greatly hindered by the absence of the jaws 




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from both the crania, so that there is no means of deciding, with 
certainty^ whether they were more or less prognathous than the 
lower existing races of mankind. And yet, as we have seen^ it 
is more in this respect than any other^ that human skulls vary^ 
towards and froin, the brutal type-*— the brain case of an average 
dolichocephalic European differing far less from that of a 
NegrO;, for example^ than his jaws do. In the absence of the 
jaws, then, any judgment on the relations of the fossil skulls 
to recent Kaces must be accepted with a certain reservation. 
But taking the evidence as it stands^ and turning first to 
the Engis skull, I confess I can find no character in the 
remains of that cranium which, if it were a recent skull, 
would give any trustworthy clue as to the Eace to which it 
might appertain. Its contours and measurements agree very 
well with those of some Australian skulls which I have ex- 
amined — and especially has it a tendency towards that 
occipital flattening, to the great extent of which^ in some 
Australian skulls, I have alluded. But all Australian skulls 
do not present this flattening^ and the supraciliary ridge of 
the Engis skull is quite unlike that of the typical Austra- 
lians. 

On the other hand, its measurements agree equally well 

with those of some European skulls. And assuredly^ there 

is no mark of degradation about any part of its structure. 

It is^ in fact, a fair average human skull, which might have 

belonged to a philosopher, or might have contained the 

thoughtless brains of a savage. 

The case of the Neanderthal skull is very different. Under 
whatever aspect we view this cranium^ whether we regard its 

vertical depression, the enormous thickness of its supraciliary 
idges, its sloping occiput, or its long and straight squamosal 
suture, we meet with ape-like characters, stamping it as the 
most pithecoid of human crania yet discovered. But Professor 
Schaaffhausen states fsupra^ p. 13 V, that the cranium, in its 
present condition, holds 1033.24 cubic centimetres of water, 
or about 63 cubic inches, and as the entire skull could hardly 



1 











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-^7 



157 



have held less than an additional 12 cubic inches, its capa- 
city may be estimated at about 75 cubic inches, which is the 
average capacity given by Morton for Polynesian and Hot- 
tentot skulls. 

So large a mass of brain as this, would alone suggest that 
the pithecoid tendencies, indicated by this skull, did not 
extend deep into the organization; and this conclusion is 
borne out by the dimensions of the other bones of the skele- 
ton given by Professor Schaaffhausen, which show that the 
absolute height and relative proportions of the limbs^ were 
quite those of an European of middle stature. The bones 
are indeed stouter^ but this and the great development of the 
cular ridges noted by Dr. Schaaffhausen, are characters 
to be expected in savages. The Patagonians, exposed with- 
out shelter or protection to a climate possibly not very 
dissimilar from that of Europe at the time during which the 
Neanderthal man lived^ are remarkable for the stoutness of 
their limb bones. 



mu 



Neanderthal 



iiate between Men 
the existence of a 



and Apes. At most^ they demonstrate 
Man whose skull may be said to revert somewhat towards the 
pithecoid type— just as a Carrier, or a Pouter, or a Tumbler, 
may sometimes put on the plumage of its primitive stock, 
the Columba livia. And indeed, though truly the most 
pithecoid of known human skulls, the Neanderthal cranium 
is by no means so isolated as it appears to be at first, but 
forms, in reality, the extreme term of a series leading gradu- 
ally from it to the highest and best developed of human 
crania. On the one hancl;» it is closely approached by the 
flattened Australian skulls, of which I have spoken, from 
which other Australian forms lead us gradually up to skulls 
having very much the type of the Engis cranium. And, on 
the other hand, it is even more closely affined to the skulls 
of certain ancient people who inhabited Denmark during the 
^ stone period/ and were probably either cdnteniporaneous 





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with, or later than, the makers of the ^refuse heaps/ or 
*^Kjokkenmoddings ^ of that country. 



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Fig. 32. — Ancient Danish skull from a tumulus at Borreby; one-third of the 
natural size. From a camera lucida drawing by Mr. Busk. 





The correspondence between the longitudinal contour of 
the Neanderthal skull and that of some of those skulls from 
the tumuli at Borreby, very accurate drawings of which have 
been made by Mr. Busk, is very close. The occiput is quite 
as retreating, the supraciliary ridges are nearly as prominent, 
and the skull is as low. Furthermore, the Borreby skull 





159 



Neanderthal 



Australian skulls do, by the much more rapid retrocession 
of the forehead. On the other hand, the Borreby skulls are 
all somewhat broader, in proportion to their length, than the 
Neanderthal skull, while some attain that proportion of 
breadth to length (80 : 100) which constitutes brachycephaly. 



Man 



me 



nearer 



modification 



which he has, probably, become what he is. And considering 
what is now known of the most ancient Races of men j seeing 
that they fashioned flint axes and flint knives and bone- 
skewers, of much the same pattern as those fabricated by the 
lowest savages at the present day, and that we have every 
reason to believe the habits and modes of living of such people 
to have remained the same from the time of the Mammoth 
and the tichorhine Rhinoceros till now, I do not know that 
this result is other than might be expected. 

Where, then, must we look for primseval Man? Was 
the oldest Homo sapiens pliocene or miocene, or yet more 
ancient ? In still older strata do the fossilized bones of an 

r 

Ape more anthropoid, or a Man more pithecoid, than any 
yet known await the researches of some unborn paleon- 
tologist ? 

will show. But, in the meanwhile^ if any form of 



Time 



progressive 



liberal 






made of the antiquity of Man 



that has yet 



THE END. 





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